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O R A K 





rbr tlje Y E A R^ M,DCC,LXXXIII. 

w n Mii u . , 






» • •" •• 

• ••• • /• ,•• 

• ••• * • "•• 

• • *• • • 


TH E wide diifbfioa of Science and Literature among^^ 
all the clafles of fociety, gives birth to an endlefs muU* 
ciplicity of performances, which engage ther curioiity, and 
illullrate the efforts of men in their advances to refinement 
and perfefiioB. 

To exhibit aiaithfiil report of every new Publication^ is 
an undertaking of very extenfivc utility. It affi>rds the 
means of inftrudion to the ftudious, and it amufes the idle. 
It blends knowledge and relaxation ; and ought to hold out 
and afcertain ^tlie progreilive Improvements, as well as the 
reigning follies of mankind. It is therefore, a matter of 
furprize, that two pobfications only of the critical kind 
ihould have been able to cftabliA themfelves in England. 
That ftnothen&ould ftart for the public approbation cannot 
juftly be a fubjcft of wonder, in the prefent enlarged con- 
dition of our literature. To cenfure eftabUflied performances 
might, indeed, lead*to a fufpicion of envy, ^nd would cer- 
tainly be ungenerous ; but to contend with them in merit 
ought to be underftood as cxpreflive Of ^ commendable coii- 
rage, and of a difpofition to excel. 

The woA which we announce, while it has in view the 
general purpofes of fciencj; sqJI $tfra*tur«*,.Ma^'cpntfmonr with 
the two literary Journals tnac'^lilt niaintain-imbHr'i'aijortance, 
k not to be entirely confined toilwii*. It-is-, therefore, pro* 
per to detail with precifion, the *o6jcfl»* which we mean to 
purfue, and to cultivate. ' ;- * ' ; /'- \^ \* 

I. It is propofed, that 'the* kkfcL'fs^^ review fhal! 
contain an account of every book and pamphlet which IhaH 
appear in England, Scotland, Ireland, and America. 

II. It is propofed to give occafional accounts of literature 
in France, Italy, Germany, and Spain. 

III. As there is a ncceflary connexion between eminent 
^en and their writings, this work will frequently compre- 
hend original memoirs of celebrated authors. And in this 
department %n extreme care will be exerted to attain the 

A <2 • IV, The 


IV. The arts, from which polilhed nations derive fo 
much advantage an4 fplendour will emplpy^ at the fai^e 
time, the attention of the avfthors. The performances of 
great mafters will drtiw in a particular manner theifr curi- 
,ofit]r, when they ferve to enlighten our hiftory, to adorn 
^iUuftrious events, 4n4 to lignalize honourable and gallant 

V. As there is a reciprocal aAion of government on lite- 
rature, and of literature on government, it is likewiiie in-* 
tended to dtlineatf monthly the pidure of the political 
ftate of Europe ; and, at the termination of every year to 
fumifh a fuccinft but oon^prchenfive furvey of the more im- 
portant revolutions which ihail liave taken place during the 
courfc of it. 

Such are the ohjjcfts which have attrafted the attentfon 
of the authors, who have engaged in the English re^ 
VIEW ; audi in the profecution of them, they arc fincere-' 
ly difpofed to confult the bell purpofes of learning and 
patriotifra. Unconfcious of any improper bias upon their 
minds, they feel themfelves animated to cxercifc that can-t 
dour ^4 impartiality, which are fo often proteilcd, and fq 
feldom praftUed. Free and independent of any influence, 
they will endeavour to deliver their opinions with the re- 
Ipoa which they owe to the public, and vfxth that exaft fi- 
delity» aivi fhofe :fqrapH)c9]s*:9^tmuions to juflicc which 
ought i^^^i^jl.toJdifljinguiitAiieir labours. They have 
no partimtles aa4 f ^^^(^f^^H^ gratify ; are not impelled by 
any motive^ o^.fsCiEiiM).r<^* the happieft recompenfe for 
which they w«(^*f^t)ip gjjailolofhhciF fellow citizens. 




For JANUARY, 1783, 

AaT. L ^ CrammMT of (bf Bcn^id Langtiagf. By Nathtaifil 
Brailey Halhed. Printed at Hoc^ly, in Ikogal, in the yc9€ 
1778. Small 4to. i L is* Boards. Sold by flmfley, Londoa. 

OUR fetdementa in the feaft form dcfcrvcdly one of the 
grtateft objefts of national concern. Populous and' 
rich, onr chief attention fhould be fixed on making them 
happy »nd fecure ; to efiabltlh an empire over the minds a« 
well as over the country of the nadves ; and to leave them 
"not a Wflh for a chimge of govembrs, or of goftmment* 

Our prefent fubjed does not lead ix% to the confideratioa 
of what the Britilh Legiflature or the Eaft India Company 
have already done, or may hereafter do> towards the pre<* 
Vcntion, or the redrefs, ot grievances in Hindoftan. JBut 
one obfervationy without preftimption, we may Wfeture to 
liazard : without in eafy and general intercourie with the 
tiatives, through the medinm of language, no fyftem of re- 
gulation, which the wifdom of man may frame, can pro* 
mife any folid, rational, or permanent eftabliihment of au- 
^oritv and power. No defcription of people will ever 
ehearfolly fubmit to rol^rs tliey do not underlbnd : an4 
diftnxft and inconvenience muft ever attend the dangerovr 
and onfatisfadory intermediation of interpreters. 

The languages of India, however, have hitherto been to* 
tally difregarded by the Parliament and the Minifters of Bri^ 
tain ; and they have been nearly as much negle^ed by tht 
Eaft India Diref^ton. It is to the literary zeal^ therefore;' 
of a fi?w private men that we arc indebted for the progrefs> 
whicb^ within thefe few vears^ has been made i|i this 
branch of leamix^^ Mr. Jones led the way ; and, by his 
I Pdrjmn Grammar^ his Poefi^s Jffiatkas Cof^mfnimif aa4 
* #d^ pub^cations of eniditioB ud tlcgaacf , saiM • fyiait 
JR.zr. Vd. I. Jaii- 1783- A3 mi 

6 HalhcdV Grammar of the Bengal Language, 

of lludy and cqquiry into the hnguages of Afia. Mr. Rich* 
ardfon followed with fcveral works of ingenuity ind rc- 
fearch^ particularly that fingular monument of induflry aiid 
pcrfcvcrancc, the D't^lonary of the Perfian^ Arabick^ and 
^uglijh languagcf. Vocabularies and grammars have been 
publilhed of the mixed arid much corrupted jargon of Hin- 
dodan, commonly called the Mcors. And now the if^geni- 
ous Mr. Halhed (to whom the pablic has already oeen 
much indebted for his tranflation of that intcrcfting pic- 
ture of Hindoo jurifprtidencc and manners, the Ocntoo 
Code of Laws) has favoured us with a Grammar of the na- 
tive and peculiar diale£l of Bengal. 

This dialed, Mr. Halhe4 informs us, is derived from 
the Shanfcrit, the great ^rigiiial lar^uage of Hindoftan : 
it bears to tt a relation nearly analogous to the relation 
which the Italian, the SpanHh, and other modern European 
tongues, bear to the Latm ; and, in Bengal is almoil tlK 
fole language in ufe among the Hindoos of every tribe and 
Occupation. To give any adequate idea of the genius and 
conftru£tion of -this diaieft, \vould go much beyond the 
bounds and the plan of a Review. It would at the fame 
time be extremely unfatisfaftory without the afliftance of 
the Bengal types, which are not to be procured in Europe ; 
and it would after all be very unimportant to geneial read^ 
ers. For fnch inftruftion, therefore, the curious muft ap- 
ply to the work itfelf ; whilft we (hall confine our obferva- 
tiensrto ftriftures on the hiftory and the ufefulnefs of a lan^ 
guage of verv high antiquity, fpokcn by millions of induf- 
trious Britim fubjedts, and of great importance, in various 
lights, H wards the proper management of the commercial, 
military, and revenue departments in Bengal. 

* The grand fource' fays Mr. Halhed, ' of Indian literature, the 
Parent of almoft every dialed from the Perfian.Giilph to the China 
Seas, IS the Shanfcrit ; a language of the mod venerable and un- 
fathomable antiquity; which, although at prefent fluu up in the li- 
braries of Qramins, and appropriated folely td the records of their 
Religion, appears to hare been current over moft of the Oriental 
World; and traces of its original extent may IHIT be difcovercd in 
almoftevery diilridl of Alia* I have been ailoniflied to find the 
fimilitude of Shanicrit words with thoCe of Perlian and Arabic, and 
even of Latin and Greek : and rhefe not in technical and mcta* 
phorica) terms, which the mutation of refined arts and improved 
manners might have occafionally introduced ; but in the main 

tduttd-work of language, in mpnofyllables, in the names of num- 
rt, and the appellations of fuch thines as would be firfl difcrimi* 
tiated on the immediate dawn of civilization. The rcfcmblance 
which may be obferved in the charadcrs upon the medals and fig- 

a of various diflriifh of Afia, the light which thev reciprocally 
% Upon ea?ch other, and the general analogy which they all bear 
^u ' to 

Halhcd'i Gramffiar of the Bengal LaHg^agi. y 

to the fame ^rand Prototype, afford another ample &ld for curioGry. 
The coins of AfTam, Napaul, Caflimeere and many other kingdoms 
are all (lamped with .Shanfcrit letters, and mofthr contain allufiona 
to the old Shanfcric Mythology : the fan>e conformity I have ob- 
fenred on the impreffions of fcab from Bootan. and Tibet. A col" 
lateral inference may likewife be deduced from the peculiar arrange- 
ment of the Shanfci-it alphabet, (b very di^reat from .that of any 
otiKr Quarter of the world. This extraordinary mode of combina- 
tion flill exiftft>in the grcateft part of the £au, from' the Indus to 
Pegu, in dialers now apparently unconned^d, and in characters 
aimpleatly diffimilar; but is a ix)rcible argument that they are all 
derived from the ^me fource. Another channel of fpeculatiou pre- 
ients itfelf in the names of perfons and places, of titles and digni- 
ties, which are open to general notice, and in which, to the far- 
theil limits of Ana, may be found manifell traces of the Shanfcrit* 
The meagre remnants of Coptic anttquities afford no fcopc for com- 
panion between that idiom aMjthis primitive tongue : but there flill 
rails ibfiicient grounds for conje^ure that Egypt has but a difput- 
Mc claim to its long^boai^ed originality in language^ in policy, and 
in itligioo. • In fupport of tbis opinion I ihall mention only one 
circuinftaDce. The Raja of KLiibenagur, who is by much the moil 
learned and able antiquary which Bengal has produced within this 
century, b^ very lately affirmed, that he has in his own [>oircfl]on 
Sbanfcrit books which give an account of a Communication formerly 
fubfiiUng between India and Egypt; wherein the Egyptians are 
conilantly defcribed as difciples^ not as inftruc^ors ; and as feeking 
that liberal education and thofe fciefices in Hindc^ao, which none 
of their own countrymen had fufficient knowledge to impart. The 
few paflages which are extant in the antient Greek authors refpe^t- 
iog the Bracmaiis at the Tame time that they receive a freih light 
from this relation, very itrongly corroborate its authenticity. 

*' Excluiive of the Shanfcrit, there are three different dialedts 
-applied (though not with equal currency) in the kingdom of Ben- 
^d : viz. the Perfian^ the Hindoihmic and the proper Bibgaleie : 
each of which has its own peculiar department in the bufinefs of the 
country, and confequently neither of them can be univerially a- 
^l^tevi to the exdufiion of the others. 

' The Pef-fiffii entered Berfgal with the Mo^ul conquerors, ^d 
being the language of the court naturally gained a footing in the 
law and i& t^ie revenues ; it has alfo forVome centuries been the 
common medium of negotiation between the ieveral ilates of Hin* 
doibm, and from thence became an almoft indifponiable qualifica- 
tion for thoie who were to manage the extenfive affairs of the £aft« 
-India Company: fo that the accurate and elegant grammar conv* 
pofd by Mr. Jones doth equal honour to the cauTeof leamingy 
and fervice to his countrymen in Afia, Thft language is ilill ufed 
byall the Mogul officers of govecnmtnt, in their feveral dtnart* 
■menti of accounts and correfpondeace ; as being the dialed ^ the 
Ibnncr ruling power, of which the Engliih have in fomc dqpee 
taken the pkce, and whof? fjr^m they have not vet laid aSde. 
•From hence ariies one capital impediment to the uniformity of po* 
lidcal^rmnffements in ^ngal ; for while Ae fummary of all paUk 

A 4 kufinefi 

i t{i[htii*3 Crammar of (bf Bengal Language* 

btiiincfs is kept in one tdioniy the dttnil it invariably confined to aw 
other, as 1 fliall prefently dcmon((rate. 

* The Hindoltanic, or Indian language^ appears to have been 
generally fpoken for niany ages through all proper Hindoikn. h 
IS indubitably derived from the Slianfcnt, wiih which it has cxa^v 
the fame connexiofli as the modern dialers of Ff ance ^nd Italy with 
pure Latin. For while the fimie (bunds arc ahnoft conftantty ap- 
plied in both languages to represent the fame ideas, the infiexanK 
by which they arc aflfe^^ed afid the mode« of grjrmmatical regh»en 
are widely diflerentt The Shanlcrit has a dual nomber both to 
verbs and nouns, the Hindoflanic to neither. Verbs in ^anfcrk 
hare the fame form for both the mafcoUnc and feminine genders f 
Hindoibnic verbs are ditHnguidied bv different terminations for the 
different fexes, like thofe of the Arabic. Thefc are their capitai 
outlines of diflirriilartty ; but in the original appropriation of par- 
ticular words to particular fenfc»> in the idionmrrc turns of expref- 
fion and complexion of fpeech wc timy obfcrve ihe ftrongcft family 

* *rhe Chara^rs alfo peculiar to the HhidoAanic arc exadJy the 
fime with thofe of the Shanfcrit, bin 4€ a ruder fliapc : yet Hill ej?- 
hibitinga moreaccarate refetnbla nee than b footd in many of the 
Greek letters t>pon infcriptiom of di<fe(*ent £ras. 

* This primitive Ifindoftanic tdngue has by no means prcfcrvcdf 
Iti purity, or its univerfaliiy to the prcfcnt age r for the moderfe 
Inhabitants of India yxcf altn«i^ as much in language as in Re- 
ligion. It 19 well known in what an t^lHnsie and inviolable ob- 
linirity the TenttM conceal m well the Myfteries of their Faiths 
as tbc BookMn which they ftte contained : and under what'fevcne^ 

' prphibitions theit moil approsred Legi^Hators -have eonfincd the 
fiudy of the Shanfetit to theif «fm principal tribes wily. An «ai^ 
planation of h to pcrfons not «]uali^d f^^r tlua fcicncc by their 
rank, fubjecSted both the teacher and the pupil to very tTen)pendt>as 
penalties ; but to fully Its purity b^ impartifng the inghteil knuw' 
Icdee of it to ih^ngeffe was ever ciHiiioiiily avmed as tlw moft inrx^ 
ipiWtt crime. Th^ Pundit wh6 Tmpantid a thtall portion of his 
language to me, hw by no- means ftfbapMl tht cenfure o<f his couii* 
trymen : and while he readily df^layed the principhrs df his gra«* 
mar, ht ha^ ihvai^ably refund to devekipe a tingle article of his re- 
ligion. Thtia \ve may fiif^M^ that Ifrben 4>he Mahometan Invaders' 
Hr^t^fettled in India, and frdm the nedeflky «f having foi^eiiwdivm 
of eommuntcatton with their nc^v fiibjet^, applied thcmfelves t« 
tfieftttdy of th^Htndoihinic^a4e^> the impenetrable refer^'e of the 
fentoos w-oold cfoVkly render its «b<hHifer Shanicrit terms^ uninteK 
ligiblfc ; ftt^ the Fdrei^li«rs, tinpra^tifcd i*i lh«> idiom, woiild frc- 
ji|t<Mtly recur to tMv b^tn noti^ etprdfions. New adventurers 
«otittnually arriving kq^ AID a cenibibt wfiuK of 'CMOtic words, aod 
^e heterogefKjoos hiaf^ gvam^irlly tncrtafed its ftoek, as coaqneft or 

8t]^icyesttendedth«beiindames>ii' ktdrculatioii. B«t thefo altcfft- 
6ns alMled ^tki^^ Only. IThe-^mmaiicai prbcifd^ of the orl- 
^al Tiindo^iiie^ an« thft aficlH^t ^Scvmis ctf oonj«i|[ati#n and 
mieifon f^tnfl^fitd th6 fante ; and ^Ckilft die ^Imicivt fuMnn- 
'lfte5%eTt ^cltited(«V «Jt41lftiie«dy th« verbs maintaSiMd botli tMr 


Hadbed'x Gramtiutr cf th$ ^J^fng^l LaMguagep ' ^ 

iedezioiis aod tfacir ftgirof o. Tbty dill fubfift in their prifttne 
&ite; and-at prefent thofe perloBt are thoti^ht to fpeak this coitv 
pomid idioni with the roofi ckgsocCf who mix with pare Isdiaii 
▼erbt the grcateft ottmber of Perhan and Arabic nomis. Such o£ 
the Hindoos as haiFe beeo conne^d irith the tmiftxlfmm courts^ or 
adoBittrd to any oliccs nndcr that ^rernincot hare |i;eiieniily com- 
piimented their maSrrf by a compliunee with thtit literary iiiiK>tft- 
«oes. But the Braroios and all other wMt-cducnted Jemobs, whofe 
ambitioQ has not oyerpowercd their phiiciplcs» (HU adhere with ft 
certain conlcietitious tenacity to their pruneral tongue, and haft 
many OBtient books written in its nurefl ityle; among which were 
probably the cekbraced Fables of rilpay (now not to be found.) 
They coAts&ne to apply it to the purpofet of commerce in 9uiiM» 
.Ouzarat and other places on the wcilerd ooaft ; and their correfponi- 
dencecircubtct throu^^ aU Hindolhin, quite to the interior pans of 
Bengftl ; -where Several bankers of this religioi^ who have at dif- 
lerent*timct emigrated from the higher countries, carrv on a tcrw 
cxtenfive tnrffic. The Charaders in which it as written, thodgk 
all deriTod from the Shaoicrit, deviflte as mach from their o rig ii tii l 
exemplar, as our nmnisig^MBd and Italian difinr from roinid«£uid« 
It ife €M that there are feven diferent forts of Indiaii hands all 
comprized onder the general tenn Naagmee^ whicll may be imer- 
pteted ^^^'^ ; and the elegant Shan^rit is %lrd J>me6 Nmaggtst 
or the ffriit'jig of the Immtruds y which may not improbably be « 
refinement from the more fimpie and tmpolxflied Naogoree of the 
earlier ages. The woid Taagoree is lometmet aied to figntfy a knle 
or inaccurate chara£ler of *the Naagoree, bnc 1 never coald diicow 
tbat any predfediftindtion was im^ied by it« The Baogai letters, 
iwch as ^sdi^kMfA in theibUowiog ibeets, are <atiothep brsmch of the 
£nne ^ock^ Ids beautiful than the refined Shanfcrkr but reienibhai^ 
k no leis thanilK Naagoree. They are uM. in 4S^ ^ ^^^^ ** in 
Bengal, and may be probably one of the rooft antient modes di 
ivntijig in the world. The Beagakie Bramins hove all their Shan- , 
iierit books copied is this national alphabet, and tranfpofc isto it aH 
«he J^tuik Kaag0ri€ manuicripts for their own perufa) . 

* The dsale^k cdled by us the J^h^s is that mised fpecies tpf 
fiitiAoftamc, which I ha^ above defcHbed to owe its exiilance to 
^kc Mahometan OonqueAs. In this idiom feverai el^^t poems 
and tales hare been compofed by learned Perfian and Mogul au« 
tiMRa, avri-ire iHll extant in the Hbraries of tbeotrious. Thdfe 
«realwajs written in the Parfian hand, wfakh is by no caeats cal* 
<cwiated lor cxpreffing the found either of the Hindofiamc vowela or 
•iMifiil conAmams. The Mahonietaiis of the lower rank have a itar 
4iookj am Relsgiout fubjeds in this language, and in the Naagoree 
charasfteia^ ivmh arealib ided by (ome A tbem in their petty ac- 
vounti. En ^l ytau a on their amtai in In&^ reduced to a necef- 
filty imefcourfe with Mahometan innraacs, or Sepoys, babttually 
«anire tern cfaem this idiom in that impetfe^ and confined ^aie 
-dfsdnoh as cbe eatdacffeact of tha menial condition of thtsr Jaiftnic- 
fmnn yetains curious iyflem of ibdy hadi piodaoadjnorathao one 
^mmmapt to a <hfamiiiar and Vposfcuiary* llie jaiipMi howoter, fvdt 
aia ia ja, |Kwaaft witerly' tHiiAtcili|;iUa 'to tbd i sB^iii unfl paifimts 


Id . Italhed'i Gramkutr of the Bsngal Language* 

both in Hiodoflan aod Bengal, nor is ufed any where, but in large 
town? frequented by Mahometans and llrangers* On this dialect an 
ingenious. Miffionary long iince publifhed a laborious treatifc in 
Latin. He is the earlie(l and may be deemed the only writer oir the 
fubjc(5l ; for the latter compoiitions do not deserve a name* 

' What the pure HindoOanic is to upper India, the h;)guage 
which I hare here endeavoured to explain is to Bengal, intimately 
related to the Shanfcrit b6th in exprcfiionsi conHrudion aqd cha* 
ra^r. It is the folc channel of perfonal and epiilolary commu-; 
nication among the Hindoos of every occupation and tribe« Alt 
their bufinefs is tranfa^ed, and all their accounts are kept in it ; and 
as their fyilem of education is in general very confined, there are 
few among them who can write or read any other idiom: the un- 
educated, or eight parts in ten of the whole nation, are necefi'arily 
confined to the ufage of their mother tongue. 

* The Board of Commerce at Calcutta, and the {everal Chiefs 
of the fubordinate Fadories cannot properly cdndiK^ the India 
Company's mercantile correfpondcncc and negotiations, without 
the intermediate agency of Bengal Interpreters: for the whole 
.fyflem of the Inveftment, in every milage of its preparation al)d 
provifion, is managed in the language of the country ; in which all 
the accounts of the Aurungs^ (or manufacturing towns) thofe of 
the Company's Export Warehonfe, all propofals and j^rers from 
agents, merchants, contractors, weavers, winders, bleachers, &Cb 
are conflantly prefcnted ; and into which all orders to Gomailahs, 

- Aiuneens and other officers for the purchaie and procuration of 
goods mud be tranflated. 

* Importaot » this language mud confeouently appear to the 
Commercial line, its adoption would be no leis beneficial to the 
Revenue department. For although the Contracts, Leafes and 
other obligations, executed between Government and its immediate 
dependants and tenants, .continue to be drawn out in the.Perfian 
dialect, yet the under Leafes and engagements, which thefe in their 
turn grant to the peafants and cultivators of the ground, and all 
thofe copyhold tenures called Pettahs arfe coniiantly written in Ben- 
galefe. And it may even be doubted whether ihore than one third 
of all Jentoo Zemindars, Fafmers and other LeiTees of the flate can 
read a fingle word of their own accounts and repreCentations, as de- 
livered in their Moonihee's Perfian tranilation. 

* The internal policy of the kingdoms demands an equal (hare 
joi attention ; and the many impofittons to whidi the poorer clafs of 

pe<mle are e^rpofed, in a countiy Aill fluctuating between the relics 
of former defpotic dominion, and the liberal fpirit.of its preient le<- 
giilature, have long cried out for a remedy. This has lately been 
propoTed in the appointment of gentlemen of mature experience la 
the manners and cufloJft of the natives to the. feverahdivifiona and 
difbiCls of Bengal, to aCt as juflidary arbitrators betweea the head 
farmer and his under tenants: with whom Che indigent villager 
might find imntediate and cfiedual redrefs from theexadions of a» 
imperious Landlord or grafping Collo^lor, freed from^ tbe necefTajy 
delays of an ordinary court of juffice,/and.the expence and itraoii- 
Tcniencc of- a regular ftui^ iSncb a nit^ure, by hoMiagjouttocack 


Halhcd*j Grammar %f the Bengal Language. i\ 

iiiduihioas individual a near profped of propertv in his earnings and his pofleffionsj promifes, in the moft efiedual manner, to 
enfure ibbility to our conqucds and popularity to our adminillra- 
lion; and will probably fet open the Bntifh territories as an afylum 
for the difcouraged huibandroan, the negledted arttil, and opprcfTcd 
labourer from ever/ quarter of Hindoilan* But this important 
coromiflion will be more immediately, and more exreufively bene- 
ficial, in proportion as it is conferred on thofe only whom a compe* 
tent knowledge of the Bengalefe has previouQy qualified for a per- 
fonal inveiligation of every unwarrantable exadtion, and fcruciuy 
into every complicated account. 

* ^dd to this, that there is not one office under the Kazim or 
^logul adniiniil ration, nor one provincial or fubordinate court of 
jiiftice in the kingdom where an interpreter for this language is 
not judged as ncceflkry and as conOantly employed as for the Per* 
fian : and if any public notices are to be difperfcd through the coun* 
try, or affixed in the.great towii9, they are alwaj^s attended with a 
Bengal trandation. In fliort, if vigour, impartiality and difpatch 
be required to the operations of government, to the diflribution of 
juAice, to the coUe^ions of chr revenues, and to the tranfadions of 
commerce, xhty are are only to be fecured by a proper attention to 
that dialed uied by the body of the people i efpecially as it is much 
better calculated both for public and private aiffairs by its plainscfs, 

. its precifion and rcgulantv of cooilrudion, than the flowery (cn- 
tcnces and modulated periods of the Perfian. 

* Another fingular advantage which it pofleflei, is its aptitud^^ 
for the bufinefs of the compting-houfe. For the Bengal doctrine of 
numbers, both in the forms of the figures and in their application, 
nearly approaches to the fyflem adc^ted in Europe;- from which 
DoCfaing can more efilentially differ than the Perfian mode of cypher* 
ing, both in arrangement and application : fo that thofe who 
would be acquainted with the latter, have a new arithmetic as well 
as a new language to acquire ; and if they have any concerns tranf* 
a6kd through this medium, they mud undergo the fubiequent 
trouble of reducing their Perfian accounts to the European form j 
whereas thofe of the Bengal accoinptant require notVmg more that) 
an accurate copyiH,* 

Mr. Halhed afterwards remarks, 

* That a grammar of the pure Bengal dialed^ cannot be exped^ed 
to convey a thorough idea of the modelii jargon of the kingdom. 
Tlie many political revolutions it has fuftamed, have greatly impair- 
ed the fimplicity of its language ; and a^ong communication wi^ 
men of dtinrent religions, countries, and manners, has rendered fo* 
rei^ words in fome degree familiar to.a Bengal ear. .The Mahome* 
taos have for the moft part introduced fuch terms a$ relate to the 
fimdtons of thetr own Religion, or the exerdle of their own laws 
and goTernment ; the Portuguefe have fppplkd them with appelia* 
tioos of fome European arts and inventions : ai^d In the environs of 
each foreign colony the idiom of the nativ^ Bengalefe is tindured 
tvitb that of the ftran^ers who have fettled there. 

' Vfon the fame principle, iince the influence of theBritiibnatiott 
hts faperfeded that of its "former conquerors^ many terms of A'itii& 


J 2 Halhed'j Grammar of tie Bengal LangUagi. 

derivation have been naturAlifed into the Bengal v(icabular}% Fof 
as the laws, the revenues and the commerce are gradually falling 
into new hands and* are condui'^ed by a new fyllem, new denomina- 
tions wiH neceflarily arife to the cxclufion of the old. The force of 
this obfervation may particularly be proved from thofe places in 
which the greateft part of the India Company ^5 invedment is provid- 
ed ; where a great number of the tcnns relating to trade arc directly 
borrowed from thc/Englifli. So in all the country Courtsof Ju(Kce 
the words Deercey Jppcaly Warranty Summ '«..-, aiid many others 
urc conftantly applied and underftood by the whole bocfy of the 
/ people. ' ^ 

* The following work prcfcnts the Bengal language merely as dc* 
rived from its parent the Shan fcrit. In the courle of my defign I 
have avoided. With fonie care, the AdmilHon of fuch words as' are 
not natives of the country, knd for that reafon have feiedod aU my 
Inftances from the moft authentic and antient compodtions. But I 
would advife every pcrfon who is defirous to diftinguifh himfelf as 
^n accurate tranflator to pay fomc attention both 10 the Pcrtian and 
Hindoftanic diale<5ls ; fince in the occurrences 6f modern buiincfs, 
as managed by the prefcnt illiterate generation, he will find all his 
Ictterp, irprc/cntations and accounts interfperied with a variety of 
borrowed ph razes or unatrthoriied expretTions/ 

The work now before us (the firft perhaps ever printed 
in Hindoftan) has many circnmftances of novelty, as well 
as of utility to recommend it to public attention. One gen- 
tleman ptefents us with the elemeius of a language hither- 
to dltregavdod^ and almoft unknot n in Europe* Another 
gentleman employs the extraordinary efFbrts of a fii^ular and 
perfevering genius in the fabrication of types of a very novel 
and difficult conrftruftion : whilft wc find a Governor Ge- 
neral, (unlike every defcription of public men in Britain) 
amidft all the bufy Icenes of war and ftatc afiairs, cultivat- 

iiig the arts of peace ; advifing, foliciting, animating men 
Of ability to undertake, to perlcverc, and to accomplilh 
purfuits to laudable in themfelves, and fo ftrongly pointed 

Of ability 

purfuits \i 

to aflifl and extend the India Company's ^oft e^ita'al iute- 

refts in Bengal. ^ 

• The public curiofify* foys our Author, • muft be firongly ca- 
cited by the beautiful chara(5^ers which are difplayed in the IblloW' 
lug work : and akhough my axrempt may be deemed incomplete or 
unworthy of notice, the book itfelf will always bear an intriuQc 
Value^ from its containkig as extraordinary an inilance of mechanic 
abilities at has perhaps ever appeared* That the Betiga) locfer' is 
very didlcult to be itdkaied in i^eei will readily be fiUowed by tvtry 
peribn who iliall 4»amine che jo^ricactes of Che ftrokes, the uaeaUfli 
length aiid fi^^e of thechara^rsi and the variety of theif pofitieois 
4na combinations: It was no eafy t^ to procure a wrkeif accuraie 
enough to prepare a^ alph»bec of a (ii^ar md pipportioaaie body 
Uw:i»iigkMHsi, and with ikftt fymniieirkalexa£U»e&«^iiich ttAcceflary 
tf^9hP r^i'ularky 4txt B^v^m of a iMat. 


Hftlhed'j Grammar $/ the Bengal Language. ij 

^ The advice and even foljckiition of the Governor General ppc* 
vailed upon Mr. \V*^ilklns, a genrkinan who has been foinc years 
in the India Company's civil fcrvice in Bengal, to undertake a (tt 
of Bengvl tvpes* He did,- and his i'uccei^ has exceeded every t%^ 
pe<^atton. In a country lb remote from all connexion with Euro- 
pean artifts, he has been obliged to charj^e himfelf with all the varir 
ous occupations of the Metallurgift, the Engraver, the Founder, 
aeid the Printer. To the merit of invention he was compelled to 
add the appllcatioa of perfonal labour. With ^ rapidity unknown 
in Europe, he furmountcd all the obilacles which necedarily clog 
the firft rudiments of a difficult art, as well as the diladvantages of 
li)litary experiment ; and has thus fingly on the firft effort exhibited 
his workin a llatc of perfection, which in every part of the world 
lias appeared to require the united improvements of different projec- 
tors, and the gradual polilh of fucccinve ages. 

* The gentlemen at the head of* Indian affairs do not want to be 
told of the variout impofic^one aiKl forgeries with which Bengal ac 
prefent abounds, in Pottahs, (or Leafes) in Bonds and other writ- 
ten fecurities of property ; in Rowan^hs and Duftiwks, in Order* 
and Notices of government iUiied in the country languages ; as weU 
as in all the tranfa^SUons of commerce : and alfo in the Procefibs^ 
Warrants and De^rrccs of the fupremc and inferior Courts of Judica- 
ture ; all of which afford ample fcopc for the exertion of Mr. Wil» 
kins's ingenuity. 

* His uiccefe in this branch has enabled Great Britain to introduce 
id! the more folid advantages of European literature among a people 
whom fhe has already refcued from Atf atk llavcry : to promote the 
circulatioii of w«altb^ by giving new vigour and difoatch to bufi^ 
nels, and to forward the progreft oi civil foctety by ucalitating tho 
meaac of iotertotirft. 

* Even the credit of the nation is intercfied in marking the pro^ 
^refs of her conqucfis by a liberal eoramunicatioA of Arts and 
Sciences, rather than by the'effuiioti of bk)od: and policy requires 
that her new fubje^^ (hould as well feel the benefits, as the neceility, 
of fubmiflion.* 

Upon the whote, Mr. Halhed appears to have ftudied hia 
fubjeft with attention. He has arranged his rules with pcr- 
fpictiity. He has made many jn4icioiis remarks in his occafi- 
onal comparHbn of the formation of the Shanfcrit and Ben* 
gal dialefts with the Arabick and the Perfian, as well as with 
the Greek and Latin , tongues ; and he has illuftrated the 
whole f after the manner of Mr.-Jones in his Perfian Gram^ 
mar, and of Mr. Richardfon in his Arabick Grammar) 
with authorities from the pureft of the Bengal writers; 
There have been times when the labours of a Jones, a 
Richardfon, atul a Halhed, would, as wtll on account of 
their political utility, as of their literary merit, have engag- 
ed the notice of men in power. But this is not the age. 
Thegenius of a if aftin^gs does not ihine in the councils of 
gt. James's or Lead^nhall-ftreet. The confcioufncfs of 


14 Cciilia^ a NofcK 

having laboured to promote the interefts of Britain in Ben- 
gal may of courfe prove Mr^ Halhed's fole reward. 

— ■ ■ ^ ^ ^ 

Art. IL Cecilia^ or Memoirs 6f an Hcirefs. By the Author of 
Evelina. i2(bo. 5 Vols. ijs. bound. T. Payne & Son." 17B2. 

WE are happy, amidft the mafs of at bell unmeaning 
produftions of this kind, which are every day ob- 
truded on the public, when we meet fometimes with a work 
that repays us for our many hours of langour and difguft. 
This, it is true, happens but leldom ; for good novels amongft 
the bad, ** apparent rari nanus in gurgite vajlo :^* but, like all 
uncommon Dleffings, it hence acquires a higlier relifh, and 
more powerfully correfts that acidity, which we are often 
told, is contracted by a conftant application to the critical 

At an early period, indeed, the Authorefs of Cecilia ap- 
peared in the literary world, with a refpcftability far above 
what could have been expefted from her years : and in the 

Srefent performance (he vigoror^ily fupjports the reputation 
ic htid acquired. By telling a plain and umple ftory, without 
one epifode, without ** out-ftepbing the modefty of nature,*' 
file has contrived to intereft the Keader through nve volumes. 
No event takes place but what might have happened to any 
one; no character appears (Mifg Beverly and Albany ex- 
cepted) that every day s experience docs not difcoyer a fimi- 
lar. And yet, with fo much ikill are thefe common mate- 
rials compounded, that the attention is arretted, the mind 
as it were fafcinated, and the feeling heart melted by the 
artful though natural tale. The perplexities and embaraff- 
ments which, for a time, retard, and at laft bring on the ca- 
taitrophe, fpring in a manner fo unforced, from the temper 
and difpofitions of the pcrfons, or from the fituations in 
which they are placed, as to produce that full effeft, that 
plenitude of fatisfa£tioai which invariably Attends a faithful 
rpprefentation of natur^. When we confider the age and 
fex of the writer, her knowledge of the world i^ truly afto- 
nifliing : for to her own obfervation fhe appears to be folely 
indebted for the charafters of the novel. AH of them feem . 
fairly purchafed at the great woric-fhop of life, and not tlic ' 
iecond-hand, vamped-up Ihreds and patches of the Men- 
mouth-ftreet of modern romance. She has brought forward 
a great variety, painted with a forcible expreffion, admirably 
contraftcd, and difcriminated with delicacy and preCifionT, 
while there is a keeping iu the whole which fhews tlie maf* 
icr's band. 


CedUa; a Novel. i/ 

That charafteriftic unchangeabknds which all the perfons 
fopport from their firft appearance to the conclniion of thtt 
fiory, afibids a pleafure which is Icldotn to be met with in -. 
worts of this kijid. No miraculous variety of difpofition 
takes place, which nature forbids, and every day's experi- 
ence contradifts : — ** fervatur ad imunC^ fecms to be the de- 
vice of the feir writer, to which (he. has moft fcnipuloufly 
adhered. Old Delville preferves to the laft all the unbend- 
ing ftatelinefs of the Spaniard, and all the family pride of a 
Cambrian or Caledonian. Monckton is throughout de-» 
figning, artful, and perfcvering. HarfeJ affords mn admira- 
ble rcprcfentatictn of thofe who i'acrifice their honour, probity, 
and confcience to unbounded diffipation ; and finifli by fui- 
cidc, vvhat is very improperly termed a life of pleafure. In 
Mrs. Harrel, a numerous clafs of females may behold their 
own likenefs. With a mind weak and unfurnifhcd,^ inca- 
pable of fricndfhip, or any good impreffion, with an eternal 
craving for amufement from without^ becaufe Ihe feels no- 
thing but vacuity and folitudc within, (he mixes in every folly 
of falhiona^e life becaufe (he is a burthen to herfelf : and af- 
ter all her misfortunes, we leave her ready to beein again her 
courfe of futility. Bclfield, with talents capable of every 
thing, andpofefled of the raoft eftimable qualities, is renr 
<lered unhappy, and in fome meafure ridiculous by his 
prLdc, and the unfteadinefs of his temper. And, though at 
laft, we are given to hopje that a change will take place, 
yet, fo fully has he eftablifhed his chara£ter with us, that 
fhould we again meet him, we are fatisfied he would be in- 
variably the fame. 

The fubordinatc pcrfons are by no means unneccflary, 
or unmeaning figures,- to fill up' the back ground of the 
piece : they contrive to intcrcft us cither by themfelves, or 
as they help ro bring on the cataftrophe : and in all of tbeni 
an uniform confiftency of charafter is preferved. 

After what we have already faid, it would be impertinent 
to inform the Public that tlie Hero and Heroine of the piece 
have not been negleftcd by tlie Author : every attention has . 
been fuccefsfully paid to them that their merits demand. 

One omiilion we think the amiable Writer has been 
guilty of, by neglefting to give a minute delineation of the 
features and figure of her aftors. If we are not miftaken, 
to have an idea of the features, air, and figure, as well as 
to be acquainted with the fcntiments of thofe whofe ftory 
we perufe is a defire in which we are by no means Angular. 
This defire, we imagine, demands with more propriety t# 
be gratified by the jioyelift than the hiftorian. In hiftory, 
it is the great chain of events, rather than the aftors which 


i6 "Vo^mXionthe Studv of Jntiquities, 

occapies jind intcrefts the mind : and inftruAion moi^ thau 
amulement is the obiefl of pdrfuit. The imaginary fcenea 

J)roduccd,by the novel writer operate in a different manner : 
ituations every where occur in which we ourfelves may b« 
placed^ and pertbns are exhibited, whofe prototypes we may 
often meet with in life. Every thing comes more Itome 
CO the heart, bccaufe at every ftep we feel a poflibiIity» 
pften a probability^ of being concerned in fimilar traniac* 
tions. Nothing is henceforth indifferent to us^ and we feel 
Vn(atj£fied if the perfom a» well as the chara&ers in the 
ftory be nq|t minutely poortrayed^ 

The moft celebrated Authors in this line, from the im* 
mortal Cervantes downwards, feem to have been fully per- 
fuaded of this general deiire, and to fatisfy it have employed 
uncommon pains. The renowned Knight of La Mancha» 
with bis faceti6us Squire, Gil Bias, Uncle Toby, Sophia 
Weflcrn, Tom Jones, Jofeph Andrews, Parfon Adams« 
with his cpntraft Trullibir, Commodore Trunnion, Lieu- 
tenant Bowling, and honeft Pipes, are figures perfectly 
familiar to us, and by their being thu^ our intimate ac- 
quaintances^ we become infinitely iQore interefted in all their 

We IhaU conclude what we have to fay on this excellent 
Novel with jutt hinting, tjliat had the Egglefton family been 
reprefented as more worthy of their good fortune, or had a 
flaw in the Dej^n's will enaoied Mifs Beverley to enter^gain 
into poffcffion of her eftate, perhaps the conclufioii would 
have kft a more pleafihg impreffion on the mind. Cecilia, 
however, as (he is, will be found a moft agreeable and in* 
ibruAive compauioB, and is fuch we with pleafure rqcomr 
miend her to the public, 

• ^ ' ' ' " """ ' ■ ■ . f ■ ■ I . - ■ . 

Art, IlL A Treatlfe on the Study of j^ntlquities^ ai th$ Commctttfffy 
to Hijforical Lfarnimr^ Sketching out a general Line of Rcfearch ; 
Alfo Marking and EjcpUining fome of the Defiderata. With an 
Appendix. No. I. On the Elcmeqts of Speech. No. IL On 
t^c Origin of written LangURge, Pi^^urc, Hieroglyphic, and E- 
kinent^ry Writing. No. III. On the Ships of the Antients^ 
No; IV. Oq the Chariots of the Antients. By T. Pownall, 
8ro. ^s. JBoard$. Dodfley, 

THIS treatife is fufficicntjy important to attraft curi<>7 
(ity and attention. The Author comniences his 
li^ork with an eulogiura upon the Society of Antiijuajries ; 
and it is, doubtlefs, to be confidcred as an ufeful inftitution, 
He then controverts the vifionary toils of the injudicious 
•nguirer into antiquity; and while he dcmooKrates the 


^owmlVL on the Stmdy of Antiquities, 17 

infignificanqr of fyftems eredcd Without experience, he ex- 
pofcs the folly of collefting fragments ana relics without 
any purpofe or defign. He conceives that the Antiquary 
has * two concurrent lines of ftudy, that of hiftory, pro- 
perly fo called, both of nature alKl man 5 and that experimental 
milory of the estcocliiig and advancing powers of man, as they arc 
elicited by the rarying and encreafing wants of his bein^*/ He 
thinks, * that there is, as it were, a goUHcn chain defcendmg from 
Heaven, by which all things ane linked together in a general 
fyitem ; and that man has powers to trace back the links of this 
chain up to th< primary prmciples of this fyllem ; and that the 
fiudy of antiquities iliould be purihed in this fpirit of philofdphy, 
and the knowledge acquired thereby applied as tht commtHtary of 


Proceeding upon this plan, Mr. PownalJ enters upon an 
analyfis of the powers ot enunciation and the elements of 
fpeecb, and upon an application of them to ancient hifto* 
i^r. He endeavours to ihow, that a philofophic etyraolo- 
gift, by tracing back the deviations 5n different dialeAs of 
the fame language, and the variations of different languages 
maj illuftrate effeAually the hiftory of man, by afcertain- 
ing tribes, ilhiftf ating . obfcure events, and by unfolding 
cuftoms and policv. From abftra£t reafonings he proceeds 
fo examples; ana after attending in this view to the lanr 
gjuage of ancient Greece, he tonfiders the language of an* 
cient Europe in general. 

From the efforts and inventions of men as they advance 
in civility and refinement, the Author (ketches out with 
great ingenuity the lights which an intelligent and pene- 
trating antiquary might throw upon human affairs. And 
from the broken fragments of antiquity there, no doubt 
migltt, in time be collefted the form and proportions of a 
complete figure. Truth might even be illuftrated from fa- 
bles. One difcovery might lead to another. A feries of 
philoibphic inveftigations concerning the progrefs of na- 
tions, from the Sylvan ftate to the aera of polifhed life, 
while it would contribute to difpel the darknefs which 
obfcutes the earlier hiftory of every nation, would Advance 
the kjiowledge . of every art and every fcience. This, he 
defcribes'as the great bufinefs of the cultivated antiquary ; 
whoie refearches are chiefly commendable while he a£ts* as 
the interpreter of hiftoric learning. 

"Without the aid of Antiquarian labour, without regard 
* to the communities and growing dates of the ancient world, we may,* 
according to our author, ^ read and learn a great deal, but (hall know 
verj little ; we (hall continue reading about a creature that we do nQt 

* Introd* p» iv. f Ibid. 

Rj£v» VpU L Jap. -if^y B uii- 

fS Powoall •» the Study ^ Jntiftiuefi^ 

ukKl^rfknd the nature of coniHtutionof ; wciliall nc'tthcrconcelirc Ae 
fpringe, the fneans« nor the ends of its adioas ; we (hall neither iee 
the puqx>rt of the wars, nor the rcaCbns of the fbdral 
may make, nor the grounds on which ir flood by means of them* 
VVc may travel in hiftory for ages through many rcvjions, but it 
will be always as in a thick f{>g. VVc may fee in luccduve llc|)s «iie 
l^roups of thofe iigures and facb only which are immediately local 
and temporary ; but the enfimble of the piece will be hid from u& 

• and unintelligible. We muil here, have rccourfc to the fearhed An- 
tiqiKiry; 4he light of his difcotxrics muftdi^l the cloud; wheii it 
docs fa, the profpc^ will open upoii ihcmirurs cy^ in all its extent, 
in true perfpedtive, and cloarhed in all its ^uuing? colours. The 
ohjc<5tn and figures in the piece will be feen in their proper bearings 
and proportions; a fyihrm as pfrvading the whole will be feen ib 
the ociign ; the connexion between caufes and e(fe(5b will be feen in 

• the execution ; and hiftaty may tbui hec^ie fxperinicnttdkiwwletige^ 

While wc approve the liberal ideas of the Author con- 
,cerning the ftudy of antiquities, wc cannot bot allow, 
tliat he diiicovers the ability of reducii^ to pta£tice the rules 
which he Js folicitous to eftablifh. When he dives ititb 
ancient tinves he difplays the true foirit of a philofopWcal 
antiquary; and he has certainly thrown a great deal of 
new information upon Roman, Grecian^ aiid Egyptian 
flory. It b by the applkation of antiquarian refearch to 
particular and intricate topics c^ hiftory, that he elucidates 
die real obje^ of a ftudy, which has been degraded hj 
the unmeaning induftry of men, who were bufy to coUeft 
what they could not comprehend, and who gaped with a- 
mazemcnt over tlie vvifdom of a^es of which they Itncw 

But that our Readers may have a fpecimen before tliein, 
from which to iud^e for thccafclves df Mr. PbwnalHs me- 
rit, we (hall exhibit an extra£i from what he has obferved 
. concerning the Books of Mofes. 

* If the Antiquary, as fome c^tc Dirines have dooc» 
was thus to conlider the Antidiluvian hhlory, which the books «^ 
Mofes give, as an Apologite exhihtting the general tmiH of nafnfvi 
ami hummn e^enh, ck^J/eei wider mytbhc , reprefentathm^ tnilead of- ti4l- 
hni^tt^i an hijlorknatr^titfe of fa*^icmiar e^cntsy pkk^bd tn the a0 
tual periods of «their exitknce^ and arranged in the real iieries oi'mt&s 
time ; he would obviate all theie objei^ton* whkh srife ta the Wf^ 
toric part, and might Aiow, tha^ taken in that view, it gives » 
much i#iore accurate accoant of nature, of man^ aad of the divinr 
difpenfations ; and in every point conies -up mare fully and com* 

' preheniively to the purpofe fur which tt feems to have been writtu^ 
than under any idea of recording pavticulars as a bi(^ory«> 

* This i>urpofe is^ in a kind of preface to a code of laws hf 
Which the ihihtution of a ^theocracy i% efhibliflied,. to give filcK* * 

"^geh^ral account oJF the otigiii of dilhgs and of man ; of his d<i 
viationt from ^ «fld pf hit hi4ng by ^rkxiB corruptions ; atid m 


?DWlftaU «« tbt Stuify cf Jntifnkie$. 1 9 

Us ('ali from iDnooence to fuch a 'ft^te of fia ftnd puAiAlnicikt, m 
ftquires^die oi&rlngof facrifitet of fxpi^ioa of hi^ guiky and of 
ieprecation of his punifliQnenc ; perpetiully repeat^ uotU fomp 
ooegeaeral fuQ and iufiicient expiation Cbould be iiiially made ^n^ 
accepocd ; alfo of oflferings ibr tke ranfoia of foob, and of aton&> 
acnt for crimes. This iuikitution made various regulations in tbf: 
animal ceconomy, ool ' ib m«K:h from anv foundation whi(fh they 
had in narure,. as bein^ conftant outward pledges of inward obe- 
dience to, and faith in« the divine re^inen% One branch prescrib- 
ed iiegulations and diftini^ions reipe^tmg food, d^rivi;ig from po&> 
^Te io&itntion and con(iiiuttd. pother branch of thefe laiv^ 
meant t» give operation to, and to maintains that exclufive prin- 
ciple of generation* by which this race, cho&n for fpeci«U ends of 
praridence, were to be kept ieparate from the race of man in com- 
mon. A thin! branch contained the eilabli(hment of a fyHtem of 
iacrifices fui^ to this theoiog^ $ and of ceremonies attendant on 
tins parttcukr &ite of the individual and communit}'. . 

* This book commences with an account of the origin of thipgs* 
which rightly underitoodt is the moft trucly and, ftri^ly philolo- 
phic accoimt which ever has been given^ or is %t prefcjnt any where 
eztHttC. The prefent enlighteued ibte of philotophy am neither 
r^rofaate nor alter ainr thing in it» It does only confirm it. 

^ When this book ipeaks of the origin of the world, it doe^ Hgt 
go beyond the bounds of human knowledge into metaphy ticks $ it 
does not attempt to de(cribe that tid of the Creator 4vliich fupppfts 
titt hififing 4/^ Netting itttpBthg, which is jnonicnfe in terms, and 
contmdi^s.what it predicates ; iiut in the ppreft light of wifdom, 
«todiQ4hemoftrQ(fined.ientimemsof fubliiuity, sprites, Cop said» 
JLBT IT BE} AttD 13 WAB. This coviprehenave ei^rclfion pomn^u- 
lucates, wtthoot prefuniing at^fined ierms, t^e indefined prie-ex- 
iflenee of the svps£AM. FIRST CAUSE^ when ^»«//^r did not exii^; 
and al& the conmiencement of the exiftcnce of matter by the will, 
ao^ at the comm^d of this first cause a^itigJly ibatwlL 

' This account of a - vifible world docs not prefumc to afcend 
above what is feeh. It takes up the account of the origin of things 
.at^hat ibte, to which philofophic analvfis can, in its higheHran^ 
attain. Itdivides its account into the four clafles of exmence, the 
origm of the planetary and terredrial fyftem ; the origin of animal 
.lilb; and the origin of man. This is fuppoicd to proceed .by fiyc 
iSftad periods, called metaphorically Dates (for thev cannot #^ff^/^ 
h9 defcnbed as fuch before the ftate of things «xifted, which 4ividca 
tkflfe into night and d^). Thefe periods on the whole are ^ftmgedi 
rafher to fuit the ciaifes of trreation, than the order of time ; yt,t 
undfer each dais they follow |ke order of the procefi of oatum^ an 
w^m may be called the order of time. 

* Aa light or heat is vifibly the firft material inftruciiciptjsl <guie 
<*a^ fuppoit of the ;ftate and being of the fy&emt th9 crekipoof 
It^ is.reprcfeated as the £ktk procefi. God faid^ iM,th€f€ it, Ht^t^ 
mm df htftm om iigk. This-isthey^ J^mtUd. 

* Experience of esiiting £iS9, the philofophic itirefiigation of 
thMewersof nature, and the operation of thoie poweii oa ,auiccer. 
tooa^betoproAre, that the globe in its original ftate was a moift 

B a l«mp 

50 Powhall «« the Study cf AndquUiti. 

tump oS mud, a chaos in which the tcrredrial rkmcnti were d\ it 
an mdifcretc mafs of confu fed matter. The IVIoOiic occouoc of thit 
earth being brought into iu prefcnt fyfVcm of being conimcncet 
from this fiate : The earth svas without form, and the Spicit mi 
God moved upon the face of the watn-s^ and dire«Sled the ei&^of 
light or heat to operate upon k. l*he firCl eflcdf or proceGs uf t thtff 
operation, which is reprcfented as the ficond period of creation, i* 
th« feparating'of the txhanfi^ve * li<]uid, the un^xing the elaitic 
fhiid, the air (thrcaule and food of all life), from the water* 
which ftill covered the face of the whole earth \ and God faid^ itt 
there he expanfion In the midfi 3/ the 'ivaters^ and let it divide tfje *ictf- 
ten from the waters; here comes in concirrrent in the order of tin«, 
and the procefs of natures the firft procefs of the thjrd clais, th^ 
is, the produ^on of aquatn- animal life ; And the waters brought 
forth abundantly. That this globe was once in this i^aie, an unlnjer- 
fal habitation for aquatic life ^ appears from the iHUvifible traces and 
confequences of this Hate* The fticlls, the flcelctoas, and other 
^uvise of aninials, of aquatic life, arc found iif> ever^ part of the 
globe iu the deepeli vallies,. and on the top of the higheH moun- 
tains, even in the bowels of the earth. That they Ibould be fo 
found everywhere; and more efpecialty on the tops of mountains, 
is fo far from extraordinary, that it is a natural conconritant cir- 
cum (lance of this flate* 

* That the principles of regeiatVve Hfc exiilcd before the earth 
was reduced to that form which made it a propcr.nidus for the vege- 
tables themfelves coming info life, is dirc/ily faid f , and that the 
fame cafe took place with refpc^ to anunal life, may fairly be c^- 
duced from the whole tenor of the account; namely, that, tihc 
ptafKck /2w// of their corporal mechanifm wa» in like manner pre- 
pai^d before it was raifed like man out of the duft of the earth. 

^ That the conflant operation and unceaftng ^^t^ of light mod 
&eat produces a continually encreaiing exhalation and exiiccatioD of 
^his globe, fo that the tcrreflrial parts of this globe perpetually s<^ 
liipon the aqueous, has been proved by the greatelt philofophers ; 
I need not mention Sir Ifaac Newton at the head of thcfe. That 
fttternal inflammations and explofions in the bowel» tA the eanh artt 
and have been at all times, for myriads of ages back, condantly 
nlaking alterations and inequalities on the fitrfacc of it, is equally 
fruc and fa6l, fccn in the effcifl. Thefc fecondary cau^ opcradng 
hiihtimentally as the a^ of theCreator^ would form this third fo- 
Hoddi the Oeneiit, and throw the earth into fuch form, that ^Kfac 
waters WQuld be gathered together into one place ^ and tlje dry landmrnmU 
appear. The moment that the dry laT)d was' thus become a nidiu 
vit the vegetable life ; The plants and every herb of the field 
the fond of whofe exigence had been before prepared and- mm 
Would now vegetate, and the earth would of courfe bring fSrtfa 
grafs and herb yielding feed, and the fruit-tree, and every tree <il 
?hc field, which is reprefented as the third period. Under this- ~ 

* X«ic|uidum Coelum. Ovid, 
f Genefis, chap* ii. Vr 5.. % Genefis, chap. ii» ver. j^ 

PovQfill OH the SiuJy of AaUquUie$. a« 

itf the globe, the fccond and third procefs of the third claf% would 
in the c©urfc of nature and the order of time, come into concurrent 
<fe^; that is, the fowU that fvvim on the rivsrs, lakes, and feas; 
that fly in the air, and live on the face of the earth ; every living 
thing after its khA^ cattle, and creeping thing, and the heart of the 
«aah, trould he brought forth to a life prepared for them, from a 
aidui which the Creator had animated. This is reprefented as the 
fifth ptricd. 

* The giving fyftem to the fccond claCs of God's workcomci 
forward In this ap^lo^ue^ not as a narrative in the order of tim^ but 
as t\it fourth period according to the general clafling of the parts of 
•reation. lliis jperiod does not fecm to reprefent the cieation of 
the planetary fyftcm, bat as defcribinj the cffe^ of the rotation 
of the earth round its axis, by which day ^nd night were divided, 
bv which, the greater li«^ht ruled the day, and thclefTcriight ruled the 
nighr; by which the lights in the firmamen-. becatae figns to days, 
months, and years, and the variety ai feafons, and by which they 
$vere produced. 

* When the whole fyftcm, thfis far perfcrted, was prepared for 
man, God formtd man of thf dnfl of tf^grimvd^ and hrea'hed into his 
gtoflrils the hrtath of life^ by which hc became a living f^^u/y after God^s 
0^\m ima^^e. This is the Jtrt/> a^rd iaj period of the creation. 
J^ frveiuh Period n thut in which God is faid to hare reded from his 
work, ^nd which oeriod he is reprefented as baving^/^/'r<;/!'rf blcfled 
|iod /an<^ified» The account of the fand^ifying thc*fcvcnth day a? 
to fabbath, cannot be meant as a narrative of faif^, which infpired 
truth relates as hiftttry^ bcca.ufc it is coutradii^ed by a different faA 
in a different * rcafon given from the fame authority, fbt^ God's 
fandifying the fabbath, or fcventh day f . It is an application of 
the apojogue in this part, as it is made to apply in every other part, 
to the theocratic iiiilitution of the Ifracliccs. 

- * Wh^jotbcfe da)-S'are underflood to. be periods^ andnotdays^ as 
jIlKy 5UTC vulgarly coykceivcd and tranilateil; when underftood to be 
xtaScd rather according to the p.irts of the general fyftcm, xhan 
placed hiflorically in the order of time; the Antiquary will find 
thii Mofaic account o^f the Gencfis of the world confirmed by the 
hi^ stnd phaenomciia )vhich eiift 'in every part of the fyftcm of the 
varth and heavens. Nor is this truly phiiofophic account involved 
jik any fuch childifl), fiily, ignorant notion as the giving fo fliort a 
4)>ace of time to the ezi fierce of this globe« as it mull be confinect^ 
to, if it Uf erally 4iegan not more than i .week before that period 
llifcuiCiK our apcQugts^or hiftory of ivaa commence. The author of 
th^ book nevf r «)e;U2t9 .^nd docs not here or dfewhe/e give any fuch 
idea: The ipiri; of wifdom and truth which dvrc^ed this account 

* In this daV| thou (halt dd no work ; that thy man fervant, &c. 
• amy reil as well as thou. Remember that thou waft a fervant in 

dbe famd of £gypt» aad that the Lord thy God brought thee out 
Attke; /^tfTf^cCh^ Lord commanded thtc t» keep tht) Sabbachr 

f Dcut. chap. V, T, i4» 

B 3 • V 

it FdWnait on the Stuiy cf jtnltijtiiiitu 

rt riaifcd aWe tU fuch vulgar cmphilofqphic fttiff". iTiW canhj and 
tirts r3rilem of the heavens, may have cxilV^d and been goln^ bn^ in 
the procefi of the opdratkmf and laws oi nature (caYkd here the 
a^ of creatioll) for myriads of ages, which the M<^tit accotmts 
divided into fix t>eri6ds. To this account the internal fini^tare of 
the earth itfelf bears incontrovertible evidence* I do ilrangely anf* 
take all rdifoning, and all fcale of ideas, if this reference to th« 
ftate of this earth, and of this iyftem fo explained, is nut the bclk 
comnientary to the MofaicOenefit: and if the fublime idea of it 
-tvill not be the more elevated, and the divine philoftiphic truth-of it 
the more demonf^rably confirmed thereby/ 

In the prtfent performance the general view of the 
Anthor is to explairj the importance of inveftigations into 
Sintiquity, not only by rcafonings, but by examples. He 
takes an opportunity, however, to inform his Reader that 
he has carried his inquiries into topics more exteniive and 
Aiore ufeful. He has inveftigated the great revolution which 
t&ok place upon the overthrow of the Roman Empire ; and 
he has entered minutely into the hiftory and manners of 
tfhe Barbarians who accomplifhed it. What is a far more 
curious fpeculation, he has turned his curioiitv to tlie efta* 
blilhment of the new fyftcm of occupancy, polity, and ro* 
vemment, which then appeared in the world. This led 
him to form his opinions concerning ^t feudal JlaU of pro- 
perty in land, and of the miritarjjlate of fervicc in the perfon, 
as a fundamental rule of the new imperium. Advancing ia 
this immenfe field, he meditated coiKcming the various ju* 
rifdiAion5, laws, cuftoms, and rights, which diftinguiih^ 
the political cecojuomy of the Middle A^es. Having fatis*- 
fied httnfelf wi^h comprehending and ucetching a general 
pifture of iht face of Europe, under the dbmititofi or ett*- 
pire of fiefs, he enquired into the road which the antiqua- 
ry of each country ourht to take in developing its antiqul*- 
ties ; and he hittifelf applied the advantages of his re- 
fearches and difcovcries to England, under the Romans, 
the Danes, the Saxpns, and the Normans. 

Nor is this all. The ingenious Author > has likewife in- 
formed his Reader that he has inveltigated the antiquities 
of abftra£t fcience ; and bat ventured to unfold the cocn^ 

, mercial, miecbanicai, and ag;ricultutiAl arts^ in fo fss as they 

" ^re nccefl[ary aAd bmamcntal to tWm. 

The volume which is aow bclar# os^ he confiders as the 
firft part of the undertaking in which he has engac^d j iirul 
the topics which we have juft enunierated, form its (ecood 
and tliird .parts. Tbefe we cannot 'b\it account as hjghfy 
intereftiftg( and we heUe^i that the ptcfent age is inthr 
prepared to attend to (peculations of tliis kind. We womM* 


Hijicay (f Lord 2^<^tFs Mminifiratitm. 23 

iherefofe, euDciyy recomiQend it 10 the Author, not td 
U'ithliol^ them from the public* 

Upon the whole, it \^ our duty to bellow great praife on 
Ums Writer* His legming is deep ; bis induftry is perle- 
Tcrif^; and be has talents for difcovery apd invention* 
hm while he plunges into the labyrinth 0/ ancient time^, 
it would be improper to iay, that his fteps are always iirn^ 
and Aire, that he never treads upon treacherous ground, 
and that his reafon keeps a ^nftant guard upon his fancy. 
Where much, however, is performed, it is irkfome to in- 
•fill upon faults ; and it .is fufficiem for us to obfcrve, that 
his chief defcft has not a reference to his matter, but to 
his manner and ftyle. In the former he is ftifF and auk-^ 
ward : in the latter he fomctimes wants pcrfpicujty, and he 
never exhibits refinement or elcgancri. 

AaT. IV, AHe^rf lU Hlftory §f Great Britain during the JJ' 
• mi7tijirati9n4ff Lm-d N^rfh^ to the Second Selfibn of xhc Fifteenth 
Parliament. ' In two Parts. With Statements of the Public Ex- 
penditure in that Period* 8vo. 5s. Boards. Wilkie. 

THE hiftoriaa of his own times, although better ac^ 
qoainted with particular faAs and circumllances, than 
thofc that <:ome after him, cannot, however, take fo juft, 
fo interefting, and important a view of the fcene which 
forms the general fubjcft of his defcription and narration. 
Human events and afiions are beft illuftrated by other 
events and aflions which are brought forth in the courfe 
of time. This is the fun which illuminates the conduct of 
tuitions and men, on all (ides ; which difplays the caufes 
iiid confcquences of public meafure* ; the motives that gave 
them birth ; and their various efFefts upon various objects. 
Not only are records brought to light, which bad been 
buried in the clofets of individuals, and the archive^ of 
kin^doms^ Time elucidates the tranfaftions of nations, 
and the conduft of cbmmandprs and flatefmen, by furnilh- 
ing matter for a yaft Tariety of comparifons. It is by com- 
t)3Tifbn onlv t!iat knowledge of any kind is acquired : and 
it'is the nople and wide field of comparifon, which yields 


♦ His wafon for withhvlding them difcovers bis modefly, but in 
»»ir opioipn it is not of the /inalleft force. They arc^ * deferred,* 
6ys he, * as my Bookfelkr doubts whether a work written on fub- 
*jcfl$ of diis nature, by a pcrfon'of no literary charaAer, will be- 

• come an article of falc fufficient to pay the coft of publilbing, 

* aftbough as I never take money from a BookfcUer, the copy 

^ cofts him nothing.* Introd. p. axvii. / 

B 4 thofe / 

14 Hiflory of Lord Ncrti^^ Admimjhrtt^on. 

thofe flowers which ad(H^ and give un£ti<m to the compofit 
tions of the interefting and fublime hiftorian. 

It is true, that a genius like the Abbe Raynal may tread 
hardy according to the phrafe of Mr. Hume, on the heelf 
of time, and convey, notwithftanding, botli entertainment 
and infirudion to his Reader. The vigour of fuch an 
imagination fuggefts an infinite variety of analogies^ and 
the ardour of a daring and inventive genius is always dif* 
pofed, and fometimes enabled, from the paft to anticipate the 
future, and to open inftrudive views into fucceeding ages. 
But, to give a charm and novelty to fafts with which 
every one is acquainted, is a very difficult matter. This is 
a taik, to which few are equal, and which men of high 
genius fhould alone undertake. 

The Author of the Hiftorical View of Lord North's ad- 
mi niflration, does not exprefs any fenfe of tlic difficulties 
and difadvantages we have juft mentioned} but acknow^ 
edges that, 

* The Wntcr who attempts to lay 4>efar« his countPj*men an im- 
partial Hiilory of his own time, engages in a difficult, and on ma- 
ny accounts, an unplcafant work. He is himfelf liable to be drawn 
imperceptibly into attachments ; and there are few readers who can 
Kalbn calmly and judge difpaflionatcly} of prefent miniflers aod 

* Thefe confiderations,^ he continues, • might have led him to 
Tupprefs, for fomc years, the latter part of this Hillory, (which he 
has long been forming with fome cfegrcc of laborious refearc^i) I£ 
the polture of public affairs did not appear to him to require the 
recent hiftorv of this country to be related now ; that by an cpi-* 
romc of the important tranfa^ions in which this kingdom has bee.n 
t^ngag«d, the whole uuiy be brought into a clofe poiiu of view, and 
the public may from thence be enabled to form a jufier opinion of 
the meafures which have been purfurd, and how far the bufmefs 
of the ftatc has been executed. faithfully, affiduouily, and wifely.* 

With regard to Uiis apology, that is, with regard to the 
importance or utility of this performance, to the public, it 
vinuft be confcHcd, that it is not by any mbans fo great as 
the Author fuppofes : for the fafts he relates are record- 
ed and authenticated in innumerable periodical produc^ 
tions of the prefs : and views too, in great abundance, of 
the period he defcribes^ are to be found in political 
pamphlets and diflertations. But, the Author will fay, 
that his is the only •« Impartial Fiew" On this fub- 
jeft, however, tlie world will judge for itfelf : nor is it 
probable that the opinions of the Author will gain many 
converts among thole who entertain opinions contrary to 
thofe which Jie maintains. 

A clear arrangement^ and an accuracy in the.ilatement 


Hlftory of hard tfotuhl's A^mtnijlrathn. - SJ 

ifh&Sy paitioalirly of the expenditure of the public money, 
ferm the chief merit of this perforipance. 1 he ftile of the 
, Author is in many inftances deficient in point of grammar^ 
He fpeculates but little : nor is tliere in his fpeculations 
any thing of, that novelty and boldncfs, that depth and pe- 
netration, whith yre admire in a Gibbon, a HpME, and 
a Voltaire ; and which diffufe a charm around even the 
tritcft fubjefts. ^ Nevcrthelefs, Thf View of the Hiftory of 
Great Britain durinf[ th£ Admtnt/lratlon §f Lord Norths may 
be read without difguft, and even with a degree of amufe* 

The fojlowing cxtraft is a comparative view of the A* 
incrican Colonics and the Motlier Country : 

' The Colonies and Mother Country prcfcntcd, at this time, in 
f^rong oppofition, the lineaments of their different ages. Great 
Britain grovi'n old in profperity, become wealthy, prou<!^ aiTumingt 
impatient ot* every reiiraint, or of the flis^htefl contravertion of her 
mandiTos, but at the fame time, impro\'idcnt and lavifh. An gpof- 
pLtc from thofe principles to which Ihc had been habitually attach^ 
cd : indifferent to the welfaic of others, midaken in what condltuted 
her own. America on the other hand, rifing in all the vigour of 
advancing maturity, without fpccie, but rich in the produdts of a 
genial foil, the Ubours of a hardy race of feamen« and a growing 
commerce. The want of the prceious metals, though attended 
with fonie inconvcniencies, contributed greatly to fix the chanifter 
iftbd manners of the people. It ferved to place happinefs rather ia 
what was to be enjoyed, than in what was to be amalTed. Avarice 
appeared in all its deformity in the eyes of a people who had na 
titled grcatnefs to afpirc to, and with whom, honcil induftry was 
a fccurity againft extreme neceffity. In fuch a country, and in 
fuch ;»n age, a man poiTcfling a philofophic and rcfledtng mind 
would wi(h to live ; and there have been times, in which it would 
have been confidercd as the glory^nd happinefs of a prince to reign 
over fubje^s fo free, fo increafing, and fo happy, 'ere the fciencc of 
finance gave oppreflion a new form- But America was much more 
at her eafe than England, and (he muft be brought to contribute a 
rcafonable proportion t6 the neceilities of the parent ftate, whence 
joriginated the bcloA cd idea of fubjedting America to internal taxa- 
tion. Her population too increafed iu a more rapid degree than 
any other country had been known to do. Accordmg to edimatcs 
made, which have never been controverted, fome of the North A- 
merican Colonies double their inhabitants in fusteen years, whilft 
the population of the BritiOi lAes is not fuppofed to be on the ad- 
vance. From hence it was fclf evident, that the Colonies in » 
much (horter time than fifty years^ would be equal in population to 
the Mother-country, perhaps much more populous ; and when ar- 
rived at fuch an height, what probabiUty was there that the prc- 
fent fubordination would continue. 

*' So Jong ago as the year 1733*9 an a6t was palled, which laid 
* 6 Geo. II. — -— - 


a6 Htftwy ^ of JUid K^ti's Jdminiflr^uon. 

certain tlu tics OD all forci^ f^^iriti, roolofVcsy and fugarf ifiipofte4k 
into the plantations ; thefe impoils were fabniitted to, atul the 4ij^ 
tin£iion between commercial regulations and internal taxation was 
not dwelt on, until the fatal introdudion of tKe ilamp-atfi ; which» 
upon every principal of national intereft| without conBdiring the 
oucftion of legal right, or the expediency of exerting the power, 
inould either have ocen inflexibly adhered to, or that kind of tax- 
' ^tion abandoned for ever. The evil genius of this country caufcd 
neither the one nor the other to happen* Th^ ftamp-a<^l was re- 
pealed, and a duty was laid upon teas and Tflrious other articles- 
imported into America. Thh was no more an internal ta^ than 
the former one on fugars, indeed the duties laft levied were on mer- 
chandize from Great Britain, the others on foreign }>rodu£b | but 
the Americans chofc fo to consider it, and many other caufes of dip 
con'tent prevailed. Hud Great Britain, at that time, been didin* 
guiflicd for public fpirit, love of liberty, and fcrupulous atten<* 
tion to a rigid occonomy in the expenditure of public monev, the 
efFWls of which appeared in feizing every proper means of reducing 
the national debt ; and had the Americans been called upon by aa, 
adminiftratioi) purfuing (iich views, to contribute to fuch a pur» 
pofc, their feelings would not have revolted from the demand, 
indeed, they did not jdifpujte the propriety of the mother-country 
making a requiiition, they only aiked to be permitted to raiwj 
the contribution by ads of their own aflemblics. ' Had fuch a mod^ 
^ecn aflcnted iq here, the op[X)fite e?ctrcmities of the Atlantic 
would have been united in one common caufe, and the Britifh con- 
i^itution would have grown i>ermanent even from age itfelf. Mu^ 
tual confidence pould alone build up fuch a fabric, for although the 
t^wo^ountrles were united by common anceftry, by participating ia 
the fame iree con flitu tion of government; by profefling the tencta 
«;f proteilantifm ; by commercial and friendly intercourfc, 4ind the 
r.vchangc of reciprocal l)cnefit8, yet they were feparated by an oceaa 
<5f three iho;ifand miles expanfe : which, while it promoted that a- 
micabie commercial intcrcourfe, created diftin*^ inteJ*e(ls in the 
tvvo countries, which began to foment jealouiies and mutual difgutl^ 
Each country reaibned according to tire opinions moft prevalent 
there, and every age has its leading fentimcnts. The one carried 
the principles of civil liberty and the natural rights of mankind to 
a ijreat height ; the other was no lefs tenacious of the do^rihc of 
fuDordination to the parent fbtc, and fubmiflion to the regulations 
made by the legiflature. Had tlie conteft arifcn half a century ago, 
m^iy of the arguments which were urged on each fide would not 
then have been produced. A covcmn>ent founded on the princi- 
ples of freedom, could not po^oly be brought into a more perplex- 
ing fltuation than that, into which the difputc with the Colonies 
threw Great Britain. Perhaps no fovercign ever fwaycd the fceptre 
of thcfe realms, that was any way equal to the objedt to be effeaed, 
except Qjjeen Elizabeth* That great princefs, who came to the throne 
at a moH .critical period^ knew how to accommodate herfel/ to the 
temper of the times. She poflefled all the foothing arts which ztt 
calculated to perfiiadr, .and knew as well* both when and how^ to 
enforce obedience. She was fcriffld by fomc of the ablefl flatefmen 


Kifinrj fff Lord N$rth*s Adrntn/Jfration* 2f 

that this country etcr produced, and extended her vtews more into 
Huturicy, than any one of her fucceifors, the great Naflau only ex- 

Tbc different views that were entertained concerning A- 
merica at the important crifis of the meeting of Parliament 
in November 1774, are thus ftated by this judicious^ ^nd 
for the moft part» candid writer. 

* But however minillrv were proved to have been deceived in 
their ezpedations from America, yet the fitdden diflblution of par- 
liament became, from that very diiappointment, the means bv 
which they continued in power. Things were now brought to Aica 
a <nitls, that a Houlc of Commons, guided by the voice of the 
people, which in the concludiap; (b(Bon of a parliament is effential 
to their immediate views, durcd not to have proceeded upon a plan 
of coercion. It was indeed now generally undcrdood, that the now 
modelling the form of government throughout North Amenca, 
and fpcunng that continent to Great Britain, by introducing ^fuch 
regulations as might form habits -of fwbordination and obedience, 
was the favourite objeifks of the Sovereign, and to propofe the 
means by which fach a renovation ot loyalty might be cffeaed. Was 
the furelt introdu<^ion to royal favour ; notvvithitanding which, the 
nstipn was very much divided in opinion coMcerning the proper 
conduct to be obferved towards America. Some were for coercion, 
becaufe they hoped to derive a revenue therefrom, and the lo^weft 
pjdiieians, whom neither nature nor education had qualified to dc» 
cidc upon an intricate fubje^, thought themfelves able to adjuit 
t\m dtfpute, by only aiking the plain oueftion, " Why (bould not 
^<hc Americans pay taxes Tis well as we ? National pride, as well as 
an idea of national intercil, iirongly enforced the fame doftrinc, Su- 
f>cradded to thefc coniiderations, motives neither national nor laud- 
able, ajftiflUed not a few to foment the quarrel with America : fuch 
as the profpc^tof lucrative contra£^s or appoiatments, and a diftri- 
^utiop of the confifcatrd eftates of the American ringleaders. All 
thcfe were powerful incetrtives to a£lion ; however, the cont y 
opinion was refcuedfrom contempt, both by the numbers an^,u»c 
confcnucnce of thofc ulio avowed it. The country gentlemen, al- 
thouga the pill&ts of prerogative, forefaw that the land-tax muft be 
advanced to four fliilhngs in the pound, as foon as the fword fltould 
be drawn ; and although the omnipotence of Great Britain to en- 
force her laws was not doubted, yet whether a revenue could be 
drawn from America, (liould her fubmiiBon be fecured, appeared 
highly problemuticaU The commercial intefeft was yet more deep- 
ly affit^Krd by an open rupture. The Colonies ftood indebted to tho 
• Bmiflv merchants about four millions flerliag, which though a vafl: 
^am^ Was no more than the amount of a twelve month^s commerce. 
This refpe^able body of men, not only faw themfelves deprived of 
a moA lucrative trad«y b«it cut off from aU hope of cbtamin? ipeedy 
^yment of tlu: fums due to them, and in danger of lofing them for 
irer. A numerous body of manufacturers derived their only means 
Mubliftence from the intercourfe with the Colonies, and therefore 
bmdered the non-importation agreement which their confumers had 
4pitered intOy as thcgrcateft polfibk evil, and were anxious for a re- 

l8 ' Hiftorj of Lord iserth' i' AdrnimfhratiGn* 

ronclliation upon any terms. Belides thefe clafles of men, whoft 
particular and immediate interefls urged them to become Hrenuoift 
Advocates in the American caufc, there were many people, wh^ 
though influenced by no private or ioterefted views, could neither 
fee the iuilicc nor expediency of compelling the Americans to abio^ 
iute fubmiffion» and ^he operative principle of private intered a- 
mong the bulk, gave an emergency and force to fuch fpeculative 

The ingenious Rc^cr will not be difplcafed with tb^ 
Author's account of Dn Franklin. 

* This man (who formerly for many years carried -on the bufi- 
ncfs of a printer at Philadelphia) may be confidcred as the firft 
fruits of A\neripan genius : and perh^ips no man ever owed more to 
the time and place of his birth ; had he been a native of London in* 
ilcadof Bofton, and born into the fame rankof focicty*, the worl4 
would probably never have heard his naipe either as aphilofopher 
or politician. Pent within a populous city, his occupatipu woul4 
have been more laborious, ancl his incentives to cultivate fpccula- 
tivc fcicnce, would have been fupprcfled by every confideration of 
intereft or ambition. He might have diftinguiflied bimfelf as^n 
ingenious artift, bur he would neither have formed an hypothefi* 
|o account for tlie phocnomenon of the Autpra Boreaits^ nor- have 
graced o^t the principles and operations of the eledrical fluid ; and ' 
what is much more important, he would never h?vc become a 
powerful (;nginc to (liake a grea| empire, and to ere<^ a congeries of 
republics from its difmcmbered parts ; nor would he have had the 
appropriated didiuiHion of being the principal agent to introduce a 
new aera into the hiHory of mankind, which may prove as impor* 
tant as any which have yet elapfed, by procuring a legiflativc 
, power \o the wcflem hemifphcre, Ip thb view he ipay be confir 
i&trcfX as a greater ^ntt^y to £ngland than even Philip II. or 
Louis XIV. 

* His love of fcicncc marked hi^ early years f ; and, as if no cp 
yvcot of his life was declined to be unimportant, even an iatriguo 
which caufed him to quit Boilon and fettle iu Philadelphia, brought 
liim into a wider fphere of atl^ion, and placed him in a more re» 
fpedablc iitmition : he had, however, pailed the meridian of Hfe| 
before he rendered himfclf confpicuous as a politician. • As his in- 
ilucnce became extcnlive, it wa& exerted to inculcate among the peo- 
pjc fhe virtues of frugality, temperance, and induftry : and all hk 
labours were dire^ed to advance the eflential intereils of humanity* 
He poflclfed the plaiimcfs of manners, and prccifion of thought^ 
which cbarafterifed John de Witt, but he ever efcaped fallrng unr 

. dcr any popular odium, cither by being mafter of fuperior addrefs^ 
or acting under more foituitous contingencies than that devoted 

* His father was a tallow-chandler. 

f There are fome letters now extant which he wrote to Sir 
. ]tlui$ Sloaoe, in the year 1726, when he was only twenty -one years 
of j^ge. 


Uijiory 9/ Lord H^riV s AdniiniJiraUQn. 25)- 

' Trammelled in no fyAeru, be may be {kid to be a philofopher 
irithouc ibe rules, a policlclaii witbout adopting the Roman pan- 
^ie^ and a Ibte^an withouc baving racrificeJ~to the graces : po^ 
feffing a diVerlity of genius without a verfatility of temper. 

* Such was the man, tbougbvfifl, deliberate, eolkrcted, and elr- 
cumfpe^tire ; who, when more than fevency years of age, appeared 
at the court of France, 6rft, as an Agent, and afterwiirds as a Ple-^ 
nipotentiar]^, from the New American States, All rank» vied with 
each other in paying their court to this hoary-headed fage. Among 
the fubje^s of an abfolute monarch, it became failiionable to ad« 

I proof < 

quently obtain it when it is denied to the wife* Hit negotiations 
with the court of France required uncommon abilities, and that h« 
has fucceeded in the arduous work, proves, that during his lotig 
' life, he had practically (ludied the philofophy of m^n/ 

The following ftriftures on a famous pofition of th* 
Abbe Raynal, concerning a tendency in tnc North Ame- 
rican provinces to ftcrility, ifierit attention : 

* A late publication, attributed to the Abbi Ray naif, (whiclt 
indeed poifefles all hit animation and (Irong fenfe, but it remarka- 
bly inaccurate at to fa^, and fomewhat extraragant in fentiment) 
fuppofet that the Provinces in North America are not capable of 
fupporting more than ten millions of inhabitants, and that the ex* 
Ikaufled llateof the foil,, will, in a flioit time, render the lands now 
Vultirated, of little value. But is there any thing to bound their 
progrefs to the weftward ? Docs this writer make no account of the 
imroenfe tra^ of country about the fire great hket ? Are the Banks 
of the Mifliffippi to be for ever unoccupied, and only occadonally 
Tifited by parties of Indians, whofc numbers are every year Icflcn- 
ing, by the vices they have imbibed from their intercourfc with Eu- 
ropeans ? Can any phyfical reafon be afligned, why all the lands 
CO the weftward of the AUi|;any mountaint (bould jiot, in fome dif- 
tant period of time, become as populous as SwilTerland, Auilria, 
or Germany ? The tendency of the earth to fterility in that coun- 
try is a falfc aifumption. Nearly the whole province of Conne^icut» 
at this day, confifts of rich land, and though the fnow is in general 
the only manure, yields fuch abundance, that the inhabitants fend 
out of the Province as much corn, and other provifions, at are con- 
fumed in it^. That the land in many places hat been wbrn out by 
exceifive oTe, and a total ignorance of the arts of huibandrv, by 
which its genial oualities are preferved, is acknowledged, in the 
year 1 7 ^6 it u'at the practice ot the farmers about Albany, when 
die river w^s frozen, to depodt their dung on the ice, to be carried 
9way by the.flrcam on the return of fpring. The Englifli officers 
■ ^ ■ ■» ■ P I I I ■ ' 

* The motto affixed to his bull at Paris, is, Eripuit calo fuJmn^ 
^ /ceftarnnquc tyrannis, 

f Tli Revolution of America. 

X General Hiiloiy of Conncfticut, jufV publifhed, p. 243. 244- 

- in 

in. the laftwar^ firft ttuglif tbe Americaas the Tali^ of tbit compoft 
to ctinch the land ; mad there is mo douhr as the luxuriance of «•» 
fure abates^ a more fldlful method of cukiration wiU re^re ciie 
powers of ▼cgctation/ 

From thefc cxtrafts the Reader will be fenfibie that the 
Author of the pobiication under review, is a m^ of good 
Tinderftanding as well as information. Yet he intermixes 
with, his oblcrvations many remarks that are light and trif^ 
ling. That ** human expcftancy is tlie vaineft of all vain 
things," may be very true ; but it is uo very profoand re- 
iledion. It certainly was no a^ravation of^tbe politioU 
conduA of the Pennfylvanians, that ** the very name of 
their capital denoted brotherly love*." Such jMierile obfcr- 
irations as thefc we often meet with in this Writer ; but they 
arc feldom found in the produAions of a cultivated mind. 
■ I - * ' . I I ll I 

Art. V. jiJfyJUm ofVegctt^les^ tranflated from the Syftcma Vcge- 

tabilium of Linnsits, by a fiotanical Society at Ukchteld* 

8vQ, 5s. icwed, Leigh and Sotfaehy. 
ry^ H E ftody of Botany in whatever light it is coiiifidercd^ 

I can fcarcely be recommended with too much warmth. 
Of the other fciences, when too eagerly purfued, fome arc 
injqriousto the organs of fcnfc, others to the conftitution 
in genera^, and others again while they improve the under*- 
Handing, are iufpeated ot hardening the heart. But a dili- 
gent examination of the vegetable kingdom may ferve to rb- 
.pair the daou^es which the health of learaed men too often 
fuftains from tedentary employments, and at the fame time 
may teach them this important kdbfi, 

^* To look through nature up to nature's God," 

The fair fex likewifc may derive conlidcrable advantages 
from the fame iburce. The fixed attention which the com- 
parifon of natural objefts, with defcriptions of tlicm ne- 
ceflarily reauires, will beftow that fteadinefs and folidity in 
which the female mind is generally fuppofed to be deficient ; 
and botanical excurfions will tend to alleviate thofe nervous 
complaints by which modern life is embittered beyond the 
example of paft ages. Skill in gardening and agriculture 
has been feldom united with Ikill in Botany, and yet their 
mutual conneftion is fo obvious, that it hardly needs to bic 
remarked how much tbofe ufcful arts are likely to be im- 
proved, if the fyftem of -Linnaus was rendered eafy of ac-» 
' cefs to the Gardener andTarmer. 

Attempts to tranfiate thcwritings of -this great mituralift 
into nK>dern languages arc attended with diJfculties that do 

" ' , ' ■ mmmmmmm n ■ 1 ii ■ 1 T ■ ■ 1 1 1 ' 11 

* See page i77» 


J Sj^cm c/F^AM^s. ft 

not occitr in the veriion of otba* auttiors i for the trauf- 
JatoF of Linnsiis muil invent almofi aU the terms he cm- 

Tbefe coalidcrations will probably induce the public to 
legard the performance before u;i with a favourable eye. It 
it not however the firft undertaking of the kind. Iii 17^6, 
Withering publifhed a Flora Britannica in Engl)ffa,of which 
the jprefent tranilators juftly obferve that by entirely omittiar 
theuiXQaldiftin£tion$, which are eflentialto thephyloibphyc^ 
the fvftem, and by introducing many Englifli generic namet, 
whicn either bear no analogy to thofe of Linnaus, or are 
derived from fuch as he has rejeded or applied to other 
J^era, he has rendered many parts of bis Work unintelli^i- 
ole to the Latin Botanift, equally di£kalt to the £ngh& 
fcholar, and has loaded the icience with the addition of new 
w^ssds. The language of theperformance now before us appears 
to have been ilodied with greater care and formed with fu* 
4>erior Hull and addrefs. Wc Aalllav before our reader«a ihort 
account of the principles, by wmch the tranilators have 
been guided in this ntoft difficult part of their undertaking. 

As new ideas require new terow to rcprefent them, 
and mnft therefore be explained to beginners, it is of no 
confcquence from what fanguaee they are derived^ Hence 
the terms of the original have been rctatined with Engli(h 
tenxMnations. Corolla is tranflated Corol, petalum petals 
panicula panicle, verticillura verticil, &c. for the fake of 
ufing coroliet, ^petaled, panicled, verticilcd, &c. Our lan- 
guage affording few generic namcs^ thofe of Linnxus 
have been univerfally adopted, thus Triticum, Hordeum, 
&ۥ iroclude variety of other graflcs befides the wheat, bar* 
fey, &c. whicli wc cultivate for food,— whence it would 
have been produ&Ive of much confnfion to have given to 
'families any of thefe Englifti names which belong to indi- 
viduals. The well eftabliihed t.ngiifh names are however 
added in Italics. With refpe£t to diminutive terms the 
tranilators have endeavoured to form fuch from our own 
language as may eafily be familiarized to an Englifli ear, 
and are intelligible to the latin Botanift as from leal, leaflet^ 
^eom ftaBc, fi^klet, calyc, calycle. In framing the com- 
poimd terms they have dofely adhered to thole of the au- 
thor,, as cgg>-lanced, linear-lanced, clafping-decurrent, dif- 
fofe-procumbent, &c. But in the formation of thefe com- 
pounds two difficulties occurred. The firft was to deter- 
Imne wfaedier words defcribing the form of leaves, fuch as 
'Otatimi, cafmatunft, ice. (hould 6e tranflated by the corre- 
T pot ri e nt -wcfrds c|g*d, l;;eerd, &c. or by the compounds 
wgrfhaped^ kcel-Saped, &c: The following xtafons led 
^ % them 

3^ A &jfiem of ye^etaUes^ 

tHcm ttf adopt the fonncr, ift, bccaufe they more 
TeTembled the original, and 2d» were more conci^;, 3d, becgufe 
fhape includes the whole external furface, whereas tliefe 
terms cxprefs only the outline of a particular fedion, 4th, be- 
caufe when they are a fecond time compounded, as egg"- 
lance-lhaped, &c. ttey do not fo readily filggeft the ideas 
intended to be expreflcd by theift as the nmpler com4>ounds, 
egg-lanced, &c. The fecond difficulty was to determint 
whether fome oP the compounds Ihoula be vrfed as adjec-v 
tives, or as participles pauive, fince in feveral cafes the?r 
meaning .diners With this diflerence of conftruftionr thus 
fhreadform fignifies in the fhape of a tliread, but thread-^ 
formed means formed of threads. After much deli^ration 
k was refolvcd to ufe them adjeflively.- 

Fronl this general view of the plait upon which tlie lan- 
guage has been conftru£ted and a few extracts from the ori- 
ginal, the prcfent verfion, and that by Withering, our readers 
will, we hope, be enabled to -form a juft opimon concern- 
ing the merits of the publication before us# 

* Avia flexuofa, fols. fetaccis, culmis fubnudis, panicula dlvaricat^ 

pedunculis flexuofis. 
Hairgrafs twifled, withleavrs like bridles^ draw almoft naked, panicfe 

ihadling, fruitdalks zig-zag. Withering. 
Aira windings leaves bridly, culmj nnkedidi, panicle divaricatedly, 

peduncles winding. 
^ Veronica hcderifolia. flora, folitariis, fbls« cordatis, planis quinque- 

Speewell ivy leaved, with folrtar)* flowers, leava heart fliaped flat, 
divided into 5 lobes, Withering. 
V- 1, flowers folitary, leuves hearted, flat 5 lobed. 

* Galium pufillum. fols. ononis lincaribus hifpidis aouminatis (ubim- 

brlcatis, pcdimcalis dichotomis. 
Goofe grafg little- The leaves growing by eights, rough wkh ftroog 
hairs, Arap-fliaped, tapering at the end, fomcwhat tiled, fruit- 

ftalkt forked. Wifh^ng, 
G. Puny, leaves eightfold hi fpid linear pointed fubimbricated, pe- 
duncles two forked^ 

* G. Mollugo foliis o6hinis ovato-linearibus fiiblefrads pate&tiflhxds 

mucronatis, caule flaccido, ramis pateatibu^* 
G. Madder, the leaves growing by eights, betwixt egg and flrap 
ihapcd, expanding, ibmewhat ferrated a&d fkarp^pointed, fl«af 

limber, branches expanding. Withering. 
Q. M. Leaves eightfold egg-linear, fomewhat fawed* mod expand- 
ing daggered, dem flaccid, branches expanding.* 
Thefe harfh and uncouth expreflions will probaoly ofiend 
the Englifh reader, but let him remember that fcience facrU 
fJces grace to brevity and fmoothnefs to precifion ; and that 
the langxiage of the orieinal does not found kfs diflbnant t* 
the car of the chfiical Icholar. 

Hunter*^ €Vi>. " 33 

Tliis 8rft number contains the ftnir firft dafle^ wtiH their 
otders, and the firft order of the fifth clafs. The whole 
wtirk ve are toW will be comprehended in two additional 
numbers. The editors annoiance their intention of proceed- 
iog to the verfioliof the ^lera and fpccies plantarum» when 
they have compleatcd their prcfent undertaking. A very re-, 
•foeaable lift of gentlemen by vrhom they have been occa- 
Iwa^Iy affiftcd appears at the oid of the prclace, anwng 
wkoor are Dr. Johnfon, Dr. Hope, Linnaeus jon, Mr. 
HudTon, and others. 

AaT. VI. Diummorum Keterum ropUurum ft Urbium mil in mutaeo 
' Gullictmi Hunter aflervantur, Defcripiio figoris illultrata. Opera 
et Studio CaroH Combe S« IL et G. A. Lond» See, 4(0. 3 1. 1^ $• 
boards. Kicol, the Kipg's Bookfeller. 

npHE ftiidy of -ancient coins ^nd wudiU is intimately 
I cQanc£ted with that of liter^vture %\yi th9 poU^ arts. 
Toe figures by which they sure diftinguiihed ave aUufiQns to 
memorable events, to cnftoms^ fnaan^» li^hipns^ opi- 
nions, and all tbofe circumftan/oes which form the great out- 
lines in the diaraAers of different natioas. HeQce medab 
zSkSi the chronologift ii> fixii\|; dMs# and tbe hlftorian ia 
afcertaiaing j^&« In criticiw they forve, it\ many in- 
ftances, tp diiplay the f ujl |#pce of potM^ and other com- 

G^jStioBS; and exhibit a kind of vifible repre&ntatioa of the 
irit aad gciuus of former tim^s^ ^nd tv^n. convey fome 
idea pf the genersil contour of national cooint^nanoes. The 
propQTtiQna a^d fonns in famituro a^d ^chite£ture; the 
drelles, die attitudes, and the fentiments which glow on 
antienrtipo(^ls, fiu;ni(h thQ moft v^i^ahles hinta lo the anslu^ 
ted, the ftatuary, and the painter, and givo the moA ani- 
mal leBfons of th^ BB4VTIFUL and au9i^lM£. There 
is fcarceljr any ait whatever which is. ^ not oapaUo of 
deriving improvement from thofe curious vemaina cyf 
ani^^mty- ^^een that art whidi pnrofei&s to naove and 
ctiajpsi the fotU by a juft combination of ^und and 
piui^bexs^ even mxinck, jperhaps, may enrich her ftores by 
9 TW^ attention to antient medals ; and from the forms 
of muiical inlbuments, catch fome of the affefting notes ctf 
the ^Mients. But this is a iubjeft which, «i Mr. Combe 
obfenrei,^^ pepds ^ot any iUultration. Thcconi^fkioas «c 
have juft now remarkjed are obvious, and univcprfally^ ^ 

Men poflefled of klfuro and genius, havenotonteboea 
at gre^ psuns in collcfting antient coins and med^v, but 
have fometimes given compictKms proo6 and e;itamp]es of 

Rev. Jah. 1783, Voh L C th^f? 

J4 Hunter's Coins. 

their eminent fabfcrvicncy to the iiiterefts of Iitcrattirr* 
But neither Dr. Hunter, nor Mr. Combe has fubjbincd anry 
-diflcrtatjon whatever to the accurate dcfcription witli which 
the world is now prcfcnted of one of die largeft and moft 
curious collcftion of Medals that was erer poflefled by ant 
individual. The virtuofo who collcds, and at the fame time 
reafons from antiquities^ is an hiftorian who does not con- 
fine himfelf to fa£ts and dates, but wlio purfues a chain of 
caufe and effed, and marking in his copious courie what* 
ever is interefting, fpeaks to the general fenfe and feelings 
of mankind. The induftrious coUcftor who fatisfies himfelf 
with gathering coins; with arranging them in the forced 
and arbitrary order of tire alphabet; witli meafuring their 
circumference, afcertaining their weight, and fhape, and the 
quality of their metals, may be coniidcrcd as the com- 
piler of a journal or chronicle, whofe rude and Uidigefted 
mafs affords of itfelf but little- cntertarfnmenc or inftruSion, 
hxxl which fumiflies materials for a compoirtron fitted to vield - 
botli. . Mr. Combe is contented with this fecorrdaery fame. 
His dcfcriptionsy though accvrrate and regular, muft rieceffa- 
rily appear dry and unaffefting to all bttf mere antiquaries. 
To gentlemen fo coRverfant with fuch ftores of ^ntiqnity as 
Dr. Hunter and Mr. Combe, who, according to the aavice 
of the poet, handkd Grecian medals by night and by day*^ many 
relieftions nwfl have occurred that would have Ihed light oilt 
the walks of the elegant arts, and poKtc literature. By pub- 
liftiing thefe to the world, they would have acquired a (upe- 
rior and more lafting fame than it is in the power of the 
greatcft colleftion of medals to beftow : monumentutHy art 
ferennius, ^ 

In the Volume under Review there appears firfl a dedica- f 
tion by Dr. Hunter to the Queen. Next, a preface to the 
reader by Mr. Combe, in which he gives an account of tht 
nature of his work, and of the colleftiow ' of amtiem coins 
lie undertakes to defcnbe. 

The coins in Dr. Huntrr'& mufeum, he tells us, are accu- 
rately dcfctibed, and arranged, according to the names of 
the cities and nations to wbich they belong, after the ofiict 
of the alphabet. Engravings are fubjoined in the latter part 
pf the volume ^f fuch coins as either have not been pub^ 
lilhed at all ; or which have been publifhed in a flovenly ^usi 
intorreft manner. Thefe engravmgs are well executed, and 
cxaft copies of the origioals. 

Of the number of coins defcribed in this pcrfbntiance, 
th^ reader will be able to (ortii fame judgment whence is 
*■','■ ' . *■ - ' '- ■ •■ 

* . - V o8 exemplaria Graeca • > 

Nodtuma vctfatc xnanu,, vcrfatc daurna. . 


Hunter's Coini. 35 

tt>ld, that the dcfcription of each is comprifcd in One or two 
lines at moft ; and that the defcriptivc palrt of th« publica- 
tion takes up 354 pages in quarto. 

The method in which the Medals itre dcfcribed is this. 
The page is divided into five columns. In the firft column 
there is the number of coins belonging tp each nation or 
city. In the fecond the fpecies of metal, brafs, filver or 
gold. In the third the fize or magnitude t)f the coin, which 
is meafured by a fcaie fiibjoincd to the plates. In the fourth 
their weights adjufted to grains Englilh* And in the fifth, 
what -is properly called the defcription of the coins, which 
gives an account in a few words of the figures that are 
ftamped on them, and of the infcriptions, if there are any. 

A pretty full account is given in this work, of the rife and 
progrefs of Dr. Hunter's mufuem: and the names are record- 
ed of the perfons whofe donations have contributed chiefly to 
its increafe.' A continuation is promifed of this laborious 
performance, containing coins, Perfian, Phaenician, Samari- 
tan, Palmyrene, and Carthaginian; coins of antient and efpe* 
cially Grecian kings ; coins of the Emperors, ftruck in the' 
liferent cities and colonies of Greece; Roman coins never 
before publiihed ; and coins Saxouic and Eneliih ; with an 
ippendix which is to contain an account of lome hundreds 
oif coins that fell into the Editor's hands after this volume 
(vhich is already publiihed^ had been given out to be printed. 

\rt. VII. The Worh of tht Right Rev\ Thomas New/tm^ D. 2>. 
^r. in 3 voli 410. 3I. 15s. Boardi. J. F. and Charles Rivington, 

[F we confider the office of a Bifhop with attention, and 
take a view of the various and important duties he he- 
ro mes bound to perform, it muft appear, that the epifcopal 
;harge is an undiertakine truly arduous ; and that the faith* 
111 performance of its duties merits the warmeft approba- 
ion and applaufe. When death releafcs a Prelate of this 
(eicription from his paftbral labours, we may furely addrefs 
lim m the words ot the judge of all men, " Well done 

• good 4nd faithful fervant, enter thou into the joy of thy 

* Lord." Both from the public and private life, as well as 
Tom the writings of the late worthy Bifhop now before us, 
is far as we are acquainted vrith the one, or can judge of the 
>ther, we think that the plaudit of the wife and good will 
bllow him beyond the grave. Others may have pofle(^d 
norc critical acumen, greater ftrength of reaibning, a more' 
^nea uftc in compofitibn, talents mgre fplendid of every 
dad; but writings which feem to proceed with mildnefs, and 

C 2 un«« 

36 BUhqp NcwtQiiV H^tfrh. 

\inaffvimingly from the heart, which fpcak at oncn tic worSt 
of gcntleacft ^i^d rch'glon, will naturally come home to tb? 
breaft of every reader. 

Of the three volumes now prefent^d to tlic public, tlic 
firft is moftly occttpied by the ^ell-known diilqrtations oa 
the proplieczcs. Thcfe do not at o/rfcnt dome under cri- 
tical inveftigation, as the world and they are o^i acqu^- 
tances. *' Some account of the author's life, ^itb ancc- 
** dot€s of feveral of his friend^,*' ** fenunie]it& of a nc^o- 
•* derate man concerning toleration," ^Dd *' a letter to the 
** new Parliament, with hints of Ibipe Regulations wluch 
•• the nation hopes and expe£ks from them, mal^c up. the 
remainder of the firft volume. • In the fpecch and fcnti- 
ments of a moderate man, the Qifhop appears an advocate 
for toleration as far as is copliftent with the in|cre{\s of r^ 
Ijgion and tlie fafety of the ftatc. The letter ta thp new 
parliament contains many hints which dcfer\'e the aitentim 
of the Britilh legiflature. Of tlie life and anecdotes wc 
Ihall fpcak in tlie concliifion of thi$ article. Xh? Ibcpnd 
volume contains diiflfertatioris chiefly pn fomc part^ of ^c 
Old Teftam^nt, with a few charges and occaiion^al fer- 
moRs; and difTf^rtatipns oii foone parts of t^e N^w T^a- 

The views of die right reverend author in thefc letter puV 
lications may be \>eit nuderftood from the inforqi^tipja ci 
his lordfhip s Editor in the preface to the work. 

* Difabled* fays he, *as the'Bilirop wasby 'ill health from per* 
fprminghis duty in the pulpit, and ?ven from attending the (crvic^rf 
tibe Church, he was yet very unwiUing to live ^id Vlic akogctbcr 
ufclefs to the world. Several of the laft years of his life were Aen^ 
fpre employed chicly .in rev ifing, and torrefttng, and pre^^riog^M| 
works lor the prcfs. They arc intitlcd DiJ^crtathm^ becaufe n\aj^ 
of them were firft writtpii as fiKh^ and were never preached, \ ' 
kitended to be preached; Q^hers \fere origmaMy.fermons, but \\ 
received additidns and aUeratibnt ; for things nn^ ^ (aid iii tk 
ij^rtation, whi^h. cfirmot with equa^ prc^ieiy he delivered fron) 

^ Senfible of the di&dvantages which P9(UiuiQov^ WQrkt uGi;, 
lie under froni. rhe careleffneis and mifwes of olj^r ^^^'^gifs. 
judged it mofl a^v'ireablc for hijvfelf to cooupit his writings ^ki 
prcft, and to make himself Mohe anfwcrahlc for them. 

' But though for this fuid other re&fbns be caufed hb worlif q 
]Xrinted, yet lie barf no thought* of publi flung them i& hil, 
lime, being n)pre defirous to do good tnan to to 2^ witneis oiP' 
praife or cenfune that might attend th^m. Whatever may be 
^ccefs, it wasr his fincere iotrution u aU« kis diicourfes^ tki 
call bjft^Hca), oriporal, to ^9^it.aadinJbctti^hsofi(eUand 
IP prcfs a^nd. enforce feme morp] ^u^, \^ ?xpWtt andr ill 
cpriVu^p^^OJig^ of fefipiurey tp. fc«ch iiM!9 4^ r^^J|Wci»ft 

&ihc difpenfaitions from the creation to the cbnfummatlon of alt 
titiogs, and thereby 

aflcrt eternal providences 
And juilify^the ^ap of God to men. 

* One of the laft things of his wririog w;|a his account of hi« 
own life. Not that fc\tr he thought his life of foth importance 
anJcoofequence as to defcrve an account to be given of it to the 
public; biit as he had opportunities of being privy to ibme intc- 
rctHng tranfaiflians, and poireflcd feveral curious and entertai*iing 
anecdotes of Lord Bath and others of his fVierids and itcc^bslintanire, 
he knewr no better method of relating and bringing theiti together 
than by weaving them into a narrative of his own life, itiakin^ the 
oneas it were the vehicle of tjie other, and Writing the life princi- 
pally for the fake of the anecdotes.* 

'JP6 cril»r into a detail of the variety of matter contained 
irt ninety diflertations^ five charges, and nine ftrmooiiy 
wonld be' both mnncccflary, and mifuitable to the defigu of 
^ work of this kind. To give a general idea, of the plan 
iml exccation of the whole is all that can reafonably be de- 
manded ; and this we (hall endeavour to do with candour 
and impartiality. 

The firft dliicrtation is eraploved iri proWng the Pcnte^ 
tcuch to have been really the wor^ of Mofes, in viiidicatiiig 
Ms claims to itifpiration, ar^d to the charafter of ail honcrf, 
elegant, and intcrcfting wriicr. The liine following differ- 
i(ations contain a Jiiftory of the bible till the death of J ofeph. 
in all ihefe, diligence, learning, and good.fenie are evi- 
dent, but wc can d^fcover littk cither of novelty in argu- 
ment, or in conjcaure. What has been fo often faid is 
bete agfain repeated. Surrotinded with Greek and Latin 
Ikgei, we tread the wonted round ; ind the 6ld bedteii 
frack. briri^ t!s to the ^nd of ouf journey. Yet, though 
Uie Icirn^q ttiSy not be informed, the cotnnroh clafs df 
readers will be inflrufted. The remaining differtations 
are chiefly on moral fabjefts, which are treated iri fuch 
a manner as vfe hope will render them generally ufe- 
fol. The occaiional fermons do no difcredit to the au- 
tlioc;:, and the charges, wjiere tht ftate and interefts. of the 
rhfirch are fthort profeflcdly treated of, arc neither lukewarm, 
IW dvet feifdhfed^With fiery and afcrinfonious zftal. They 
it^ tifc efFuCons of a miild v^irmed hf the caufc h efpoufcs,^ 
mt; ih general, gu|4ed by itait meekhefe and moderation fo 
gon£:)Mm jtQ tli^fpint of true Chriftianity, and to the unl- 

7t^ Cnriftiajvdifpemation is jjjore parficiilafly the otj^ft 
i( ,liic teird volume. Tlie expediency dt a' writtek revela- 

C 3 ^ tion 

38 * Bilhop Newton's PForis. 

tion is endeavoured to be proved, and the truth of the New 
Teftament, both as to the fafts and doftrincs it contains, ii 
vigoroufly fupported. To the general charafter alreaJy 
given of the publication before us we have nothing to add 
with regard to this volume. It has the imperfcftions of the 
former; yet may, and we truft will be equally ufcfal. 
Learning, diligence and an animated deifire of doing good 
are apparent through the whole, but that ** acer fpirittSi 
•• ac Vis" is wanting, which charaftcrifeS true genius, and 
raifes a work above mediocrity. Through the whole no at- 
tempts feem to have been made at elegance of ftile ; and in- 
deed a certain degree of harlhnefs appears rather to predo- 
minate, which will be felt by the public, become perhaps too 
faftidious on this point. 

A few extrafts.will give the reader fome idea of tbc Bi- 
(hop's manner, and enable him to judge for himfelf. The 
firft 15 verfes of the i8th chapter of Genefis, which con- 
tain the hiftory of Abraham's entertaining the three angels, 
and the promifc of Ifaac are thus illuftrated. 

* Soon after thefc occurrences the Lord appeared again ftm 
Abraham, (Gen. XVIII.) and it wis in this manner. He ffitlcoQ- 
tinued to dwell at Mamre, and as he was iitting at his tent-door, ia 
the heat of the day, he faw three men approaching toward him, 
and taking them to be travellers he advanced to meet them, made 
his obeyf^ncc to them, and addreffing himfelf to him who feeroedto 
be the prmcipal of them invited them to refrelb and reft themfclvei 
a little, and to partake of ftich a repaft as the time would allow hint 
to prepare for them, fince they were come thither. They confcm* 
ed, and he haflcned into the tent unto Sarah, ordered her to tsait 
ready quickly fome cakes of fine meal, ran himfelf into the herdi 
and fetched from thence a calf tender and good, which be gaU 
unto a young man to dreft with all poflible fpeed, and having b# 
ter and milk for the fauce he fet it before his gucih, and ftood under 
the tree waiting upon them while they partook of it. They id* 
quired where Sarah his wife was, and he who feemed to be thecbi^ 
of them aHured him, that according to the thne of life ihe ihouU 
bear him a fon, Sarah, who flood behind him in the tent-door ani 
heard him, laughed within herfelf ; and he to fhow his knowlc^e 
of futurity by his knowlege of the thoughts of her heart a4ei 
Abraham, * Wherefore did Sarah laugh ? Is any thing too hard ibr 
the Lord?" She denied that (he had laughed^ for (he was afraid; 
but he affirmed that (he did laugh, which certainly was not a rtf^ 
fenfation, but it was worfe to deny lU Ifaac therefore was dawf 
in titled to the name of " Ifaac" derived from the ** laughter^ » 
both his parents/ 

It is with pleafure that we give the following extrad from 
the concluding diflcrtation " on the final ftatc and condi- 
•• tion of men," as it evinces that religion is every day put<« 


BiQiop Newton's JVorks.'- - 39 

dng on a milder form, and chriftianity and reafon, which 
ought never to have been foes, are approaching to that cor- 
diah'ty of friendfliip, which every good man has fo long 
anxioufly defired. The worthy prelate, amidft many argu- 
ments drawn from authorities both ancient and modern, 
from reafon and from the fci;iptures, that the pnnifhment for 
crimes committed here is not eternal, but that tliere is room 
for repentance even beyond the grave, employs the follow- 
ing mode of reafoning ; which we have feleded, not as * 
the moil forcible topic the Biihop has employed, but for 
the (hortncfs of the extraft ; the nature of our publication 
confining us within narrow bounds. 

* But that which weigheth moil in this cafe, is the coniideration 
of the divine attributes and pei*fcClions. Such a being as God can- 
not be fuppoied to have prodnced any intelligent natures, for any 
other end or with, any other dcfijn, than to conditute them all in 
their diilerent degrees and proportions partakers of his goodnefs and 
happinefs. It coaid never be his original intention to make any of 
his creatures, and much Icfs th« greater part of mankind as you 
fuppofe, for ever miierablc. *• He would have all men to bcfaveci;" 
and whence chea arifeth the obdrui^ion to his good will and 
plcafure, or how comcth it to pafs that his gracious purpoies are 
ever defeated ? Was it for want of wifdom or power to iit and make- 
them able, or was there any defeat of iivercy aiui goodueis {o difr 
pofe and make them willing, to acquire everlafting life ? No, you 
will Ciy juflty, the fault is entirely m the creatures, and not at all 
in the creator. (Ecclef, VII. 29.) " God hath miidc man upright, 
** but they have fought out many inventions." He made them 
capable of happinefs, but they rhemfelires at^ the authors of their 
ownmifcry. But (A£tsXV. 18.) ** known unto God arc all hit 
** works from the -beginning of the world.." He forcfees the moil 
1^ dJibnt and contingent actions of all his creatures* He foreknows 
j * , what courfes they will take, their bejpmiing, their progrcfs, their . 
end: And nothing can be more contrariant ta the divme nature and 
attributes, than for a Gpd all-wife all-powerful all-good all-perfe6l 
to beftow exi^nce on any beings, whofe de(Hny, he forefees and 
. foreknows, muil terminate in wretchednefs and mi{ery« ' without re* 
: Co very or remedy, without refpit or end. He certainly would either 
have created them of adiflbrent model.atid conftkution,. or not have 
■created them at all. ** God is love;** and he would rather not have 
ff^ren life, than render that life a torment and Curfe to all eternity, 
»hm indeed mu(^ have been made a free and rational moral aeent, or 
.*■ othcrwifc he could not have been capable of good or evil, of reward 
• '4U'piini(hmeut; and it is as juft and reafonable and fitting that he 
Aiould be punidied for his evil anions, as that he ihould l^ reward- 
ed for his good ones. But God never inflidts pumfliment merely for 
pum(hmeht*s fake. In the midft of judgment he remembers mercy. 
tlis chaftifemeqts, like thof^ of a loving father, are defigned not to 
banlen meu in fin, but to recover them to goodnpls, to corre^ and 

C 4 meliorate 

4» Bt<hd)i Newton'i fForisx 

meKorate their naturcv to terrtfy, to compel, to perfuade^ to oblkB% 
and tt Icttgtli to brilig them to repentance and nsfontiatkm. Hia 
goodnds' could never give birth to anv one being, and much lefa to 
a number of beings, whofe (md^ he rorefaw end could not but fore- 
fee, would be irrctrievible miler)' ; nor could even hit juftice for 
(hort-livtfd tranfgreffions intli6t everUlling puni(hments. imagine a 
creature, nay imagine numberlefs creatures, produced o«t of no- 
thing Urid therefore guilty of no prior oflcnce, lent into this worid 
of frailty, which it is well ktiown before hand they will fb ufe tt 
to abufe if, aad then for the excefTcs of a few yean deliYered over 
to torments of endiefs i^es, without the fteaft hope or pofl^lity of n* 
laxation or retltmption. Imagine it you may, but you can ^ n^ver 
ferioufty believe it, nor reconcile it to G<k1 and goodnefs. The 
thought is (hocking even to human nature, and how much more 
abhorrent then mu^ it be from the divine pcrfeASons ! God mu& 
have made all his creatures finally to be hzpfj ; he could oerer 
make any, whofe end he foreknew would bc^ mifcry evcrlafUng.^ 

\Vc Hiall take, our leave of this publication with Ibme «c- 
coimiof thelife of the autiior. In the life there will be 
found a good deal to fatisfV that avidity for biographical 
ahfcdores which prevails lo generally at prefent, as the 
Bifhop has intervoveln in his narration fomcthing relative to 
moft of the noted charafters of the times in which he litctl. 
To the political tran(a£kions, and doincftic hiftory of the 
Earl of Blth a confide'rable portion of the life is devote. 
The intimacy whith fubfilled between the Bifliop and the 
fiatefman may, by fome readers, be thought to nave giyen 
a colouring to hisr f^incipal figure, Mr. Pulteney, not per- 
feAly fuited to the light m which they view him. Phtinnefs 
and fimplicity are prefervcd throughout the narrative ; but, 
as it is difficult in life to fay and do common- things' at once 
with propriety and elegance, fp- it is equally difficult to relate 
them. We arc always in danger of^ rifing too high, or of 
falling too low, of getting above the eafe of nature, or of 
finking into colloquial vulgarifm. The following expteffions, 
and fome others which might be pointed out, if we miftake 
not, approach the latter extreme. *' Clever wpmen, a vesy 
•* p'^tty gentleman, partly engaged, partly brought up," &c. 

Witnout altering ihto a mord minute analyfo of the 
life, we fhall leave Se reader t^ detenpinc on the entertaki- 
ment he has to expeft by prefenting him with a few extta£ts, 
unaccompanied with any comment. 

* Before Mr. Newron had the honour of being' known at i^ to 
Mr. Pulteney, he liad the higheft veneration for nischarader, and 
remembered his being with his friend and fchool-fellow, the firfl 
Lord Chetwynd, at Ingeflree in Staffofdfhire^ wh^re ha lay a long 
time moft dangeroufly ill of a violent pleurenc fever ; anif he toull 
never fbr^ the conftemaiion all iht eountry were in for his dafl- 

Biih^ Newton's ^0ri^. 41 

^cpy-^and the coocerD and ahxicty they^xpre^ed for hi^ fteortrj. 
Tliat iHiids coil him about yi;6 Guineas in phyficiant^ «nd hit cact 
was efit£tc<i at lalKby fome Iniall beer. Dr. Hope. Dr. Swynfeiu 
^tiMid other phyficiaat from ^tufibrd^ Lttchfteld and Derby ^ere cal- 
led -tn« and had about 1 50 Guineas of the money. Dr» Friend cimc' 
dowQ pod from London with Mrs. Pulteney, and received 3OQ 
Gtiineaa-ibr hia ioomey. Dr. Broxholme came from Oxford^ and 
received 200 Guineas. When thefe phyficiani, who were hi« paf- 
ricukir friends^ arrived^ ^y found the cafe quite defperatt, atid 
gave him entirety oven They faid evxry thin|^ ktd Detd done^ 
that , could be done Their prefcribed fome few nKdicioes but 
without the kad tifedh. -^^as iHll alive, and was heard ro mutter 
in a low voice. Small beer, Small beer. They faid,^ Give hith 
fraall beer or ;my thing. Accordingly a great filver cup was 
brongbtv which contain^ two quarts or finaTl beer. They order^ 
ed an oraage to be fqueezed into it« t«d gave it to bun. He 
drank the whole at a draughty and called for another. Aiiother 
vns given faim» and Ibon after drinkin|^ that, he Mk into a moft 
profousd (Ie«> and a moil profufe (Weat tor near twenty-four hmifs. 
in him the wiying was verified* 1/ 'he Jlccp^ hcfiaU tio n^lh From 
ihat time he recovered martreloufly, inlomuch that in A very few 
. days, the phyficians took their leave, faying that now he had no 
want of anything, but of a_horie for his do£tor, ^nd 0/ an afs 
for hU apothecary. The joy for his recovery was diSufed all over 
the iroumry) lor h* was th<*rt ih the height of his popularity. How 
unworthily he came to be deprivrd of it, will appear in the fequeL* 
* For teveral of the laft years of his life the Bi(hop's health 
would not fufPer him to attend the tloufe of Lords. At the bfeft 
be ncvet- was a cenftant attfchder, but only when foriie debates of 
confequencc . were c:tpe£tcd j atid he always regarded Lord IVianf- 
field is the beft and ableftfpfeaker that ever he had heard in Parlia- 
raent* Lord Chatham w^6 thdted t great genius, and poflefled ex- 
traordinary powers, quick conceptions, ready elocution, grejtt ctmi- 
mand of language, a melodious voice, a piercing ei'c, a fpcaking 
countenance, an authorifative air and manner, and was as great 
an adtor va an orator. What was faid of the famous orator Pericles, 
that he lightened and thwndcred and confounded Greece, was in 
feme meafiire applicable to him ; and during the time of hia fuc* 
cefsful admltiiltratioti he had the mod abfolute ahd uncontrolled 
. fway that perhaps any Member ever had in the Houfc of Combtgns. 
With all thefe excellencies he was not without his defedts.. His lan- 

Sagc was fomctimes too figurative and pompoust^ his fpeeches were 
dom well connected, ' often defultory and rambHnj^ from dnd thing 
to another, fo that thdugh you weh; ftrock here and there with 

• noble (entiments and happy expreffions, y^t ^ou cvuld not weU it* 
^ member nor give a clear account of the whole toge^er. With af- 
fected modefly he was apt to be rather too contidetit cind overbearing 
in debate, fometireea defecnded to perfonal inve^lves, and would 
firfl comtflend t'h^t he ini^ht afterwards more . efie^ajty abufe, 
WdtJld ever have the faft W6rd, aftd right or" Wrdbrf ftiu preferVeif 

* (ill hit own phfaft) im Ane^atrapd hknttrtanti. He fpoke rtittt 
to your pi^Qos than to your reafon, more to thofe below the bar 


4a Bilhop Ncwton'j Whrks. 

and above the throne than to the Houfe itfelf ; and when that kind 
of audience was excluded, he funk and loft much of hisAveight and 
authority. Lord Mansfield was h<nppy in nioil of the fame perfec- 
tions with tew of the Qlwc failings and imperfecVions. His lau* 
guage was more natural and eafy, his fpeeches were more in a coq- 
tinued chain of reafoning, and Sometimes with regular divilloDV ^ 
that you eafily accompanied him, and clearly comprehended the 
whole from the beginning to the end. What he faid as well as his 
manner of faying it was more modeft and decent, lefs prefuminj^ 
and dii^tatorial ,* he never defcended ta^erfonal altercations, di(^ 
dained to reply even to reflexions cufi^n^L ^^'^^^^^'^^^^ ^" ^^^ 
things preferred his own dignity and thai jmne Houfe of Peers. 
He addreflcd himfelf more to vour rcafon thanro yoor paiTions ; be 
never courted popular applaufe fo much as the approbation of the 
, wife and good ; he did not wifh to take you by ftorm or.furprffe, 
but fought to prevail only by the force of truth and argument ; 
he had ajmoft an immediate intuition into the merits of every cauie 
or oueilion that came before him, and comprehending it clearlv 
himielf could readily explain it to others ; perfuafion flowed from his 
lips, con virion was wrought in alUunprejudiccd mindt, and for 
many years the Houfe of Lords payed greater deference to his au- 
thority than to that of any man living.* 

Art. VIII. The Revolution of America. By the Abbe Raynal. 
Small 8vo, as. 6d. Sewed. L. Davis. ' 

TH E tranflator of this little piece informs us that 
ill the courfe of his travels he happily fuccceded 
m obtaining a copy of it, before it had made its ap- 
pearance fromajiy prefs. He makes many profeflions of his 
own patriotifm, and exhibits high encomiums on the Author. 
The manner in which this traveller procured the raanu- 
fcript, or a copy of the manufcript which he has tranf- 
kted, is fuppofed by fome, to have been inconfiftcnt with 
the laws of honour and juftice. In whatever manner how^ 
ever, this fmall performance has made its way to the public 
eye, it bears the ftrongeft internal marks of autlienticity. It 
would be difficult to fabricate fo impofing ^n imitation of 
philanthropy, genius, eloquence, and the moft various and 
cxtenfivc knowledge. 

The Abbe fets out with a defcription of the ftate of England 
in 1763. The fplendour of her extended territory was dearly 
purchafed by a load of debt, which overwhelmed her with 
diftrefs. In this iituation an idea was formed of calling 
the Colonies to the aid of the Mother Country. This 
view, fajns the Abbe, was wife and juft. The members of 
every political confederacy ought all, in proportion to the 
extent of their powers, to contribute to its defence and to 

. ' r . "its 

^Z^nSiV s Revolution of jfnurica: 43 

its fplendour. But the pride of power and the rapacity of 
government, forgetful tliat !itl authority is founded on opi* 
nion, and that the power of thofc who eovem, is but the 
power of thofe who are governed, rouic oppreiled fubjefts 
into afts of refiftance and rebellion. 

* The firft duty, therefore,* fays the Abbe Raynal, * of ,a wife 
adminiilruiiony is to manage the prevailing opinions in any coutv- 
try : for opinion is the property rood dear to man, dearer even 
than his hfe, and confequently much dearer than his wealth% A 
wife adminiftration may, without doubt, endeavour to rcdify opi- 
nions by information, or to alter tjicm by perfualion, if they tend 
to the diminution of the public |>ower. But it is not permitted to 
thwart thcrp without nccdTity ; and there never was any neccffity 
tor rcjcdtine the fyilem adopted by Nonh America. 

^ In efieS, whether the different fettlements tu this new world had 
been authoriCed, as they widied, to fend reprefentatives to parlia- 
ment, where they might have deliberated with their feliow-citis&ens 
on the ncceffitics of the Britifh empire at large ; or, whether they 
had continued to examine, within thcrafelves, what fliould be the 
contribution which it was right for then to make, no inconveni- 
ence could have rcfulted from it to the treafury. In one cafe the 
voice of their delegated claimants would have been drowned in that 
of the majority ; and chefe provinces would have found themfelves 
Je|ally loaded with fucb a portion of the burden as it flioald be 
wiihcd to make them bear. In the oth^r^ the it>iuiQryf continuing 
to difpofe of the dignities, the employments, the penfions, and 
even of the cledlions, would have experienced no more refiftance to 
its will in that "hemifpher^ than in this.* 

The. maxims confccrated by cuftom in America, the 
Abbe goes on, were not founded in prejudice alone. The 
ideas of liberty that governed the Americans retted on the 
nature of their charters, and the folid bafis of the rights of 
every Englifli fubje£l. The very foil which they inhabit, 
he farther Ihews, liauft produce in diem a fentiment favour- 
able to Ideas of liberty. 

* Diipcrfed throughout an immcnfe continent ] free as the wild 
nature which furroui)ds them, amidil their, rocks, their mountains, 
the vafl plains of their deferts, on the confines of thofe forefls in 
which all is fHU in its favage ilate, and where there are no traces 
of either the llavery or the tyraiuiy of man, they feem to receive 
from every natural obje^ a kiibn of liberty and indepcndance* 
Beiides, thefe people, given up almoA all of them to a«[riculture 
and to commerce, to uieful labours, which elevate and fortify the 
ibul in inlpiring fimple manners, hitherto as far removed from 
riches as from poverty, cannot be yet corrupted either by the 
excels of luxury, or by the excefs of want. It is in fhis flate 
above all others, that the man who enjoys liberty is moft ca- 
pable to maintain it, and to fhcw himfelf jealous in the defence 
of an hereditary right, which feems to be the moft certain fccu- 
riiy for all the reft. Such was the refolution of the Americans/ 

' England 

44- RayuaUi Revolution of AmeAca. 

England determined to c^aft from her Colonics, what 
ih prudence (he ought to have reqUefted, impofed the 
famous ftamp-a£l, America, indignant s^ this ufurpa- 
tion, renounced thfe confumption of whatfevct' Was'furnifli- 
cd by the Mother-country, till it fhould have withdrawn 
this Oppteflive bill. This confpiraey, with the clamours of 
the Merchants whofc goods were without vent, confound- 
ed the government. The ftamp-aft was repealed. But a 
hew tax was irppofed on tea- and other articles carried to A- 
merica from England. , The people of the northern conti- 
nent did not lefs revolt at this innovation than the former. 
They infiHed upbn a general and formal renunciation of 
what had been fo iUegalty ordamed : aild this fatisfac- 
tion they ebtained. lea only was fe3tcej)tbdw But this 
duty wa^ not more cogently exafted thiah the others had 
been, until polltive orders were given for coileftlng it^- 
At this news thfe indignation in North America became 

, general. In the tumults tlut cnfued Boftbn took the lead ; 
and its port was. ihut up by aft of parliament. This mea- 
fure was adopted \\x order to divide the Americans by mo^ 
:tives of intereft and the love of gain« But that people new- 
ly-eAablifhed^ occiipted in useful labours, and uncorrupted 
"by vice, remained united^ detertnined to maintain their rights 

' with cbnftanfey and cohcord. A comBinatibn was formfcd 
4mohg the (Jolonies ; and they fent deputies to Phila- 
delphia, chargied with the defence of their rights and intfc^ ^ 
refts. And ndxC it \Vas np longer a few individuals who 
maHe an obftihatc rcfiilahce to imt)erious mafters. It was 
tht ftfiiggltf of oiie body of tilcn againft ahotlier : of the 
t'ongrefs of America againft the Parliament of England : of 
a ff^tidn dgaihft i nation. All hope df reconciliation va^ 
itlfhcd. Great Britain fertt troops to the n6w world; Ame^ 
rica prepared for defence. General Gage difpatchcd a body 
of troops from feollon/, for the purpofe of deftroyiag a ma=^ 
gazine of ariiis, and tHc encounter at Lexington W4s the 
lirftjccne of the civil war in America. 

The Abbe having, dedviced the origin of this war» ob- 
/crvis that the principles which juftified it were indebt- 
ed for their birth to Europe, particularly to England^ and 
hd*b^!t tranfolfttited into A-ttierica by^ildfopH^. Thcfc 
fjHAci^ptes h6 mfpteys in an eloquent diflittatibn ofi flie hi- 
ture a^d origin of fcivil focietv ^nd governftiertt, and the 
/oily ahd Injuftice of roiifing tne jealoiify ind refiftai^ce of 
Aixierica. The Aiithor then defcribes the part, which, in 
-his.opinip^ Englah^ ftiould haye taKtn wnen .me faw: ti£ 
fetmentaticm of her Cotefties ; the great principle <if wbidi 


Raynarj devolution of jtmericn. 45 

ihould have been, a ddiie to reftqre iud perpetuate an u- 
nion between Great Britain i^id her Colonies by tlic bonds 
pf benevoknce aiid mutual intereft. 

The Abbe, retumiM; Uom a long <^igreflion, in which 
^ paints the different ienticnents refpediug America which 
prevailed in the 3nti{h Parliament^ deicribes in a fummary 
manner the events of the ^r from the declaration of Ame-» 
tiqin independence, to the accefBon of the Catliolic King 
to the confederacy againil England. Having defcribed the 

trengtb pf this confederacy, and alfo ^at force which 
nglan<;l b^d to oppofe to it* he thus ptacoeds : 

* Who (hall d^ide (heiv, who can forefee the eveat ? f ranee and 
Spain united have poveriul menns to employ ; England, ^he an 
ot employing hei*$. France and Spain have ihcir tiTafures : Eng- 
land, a great national credit. On one fide, th^ multitude pt men i 
on the other, the ftiperiority in the art of working (hips* and, 
as it i^ere, of fubjcding the (ea in fighting. Here, iinpetuoilty and 
ralour ; there^ valour and experience. In pne partv, the ^divity 
which abfolute monarchy gives to deHgns ; in the otner, the vigour 
and elafticity which liberty fupplies. There, lolTes and trudges to 
levesge; here* their late glory, with the {bverei^iity oTAmerica^ 
and of the oce^, to i^ecover and preicrte* The allied nations have 
the advantage with which the union of two vaft powers muft be 
attended^ but the inconvenience lU^ewlie which mud refult froin^ 
this very unioii, by the difHcuky of harmony and concord both in 
their defijns, and in the execution of them by their rcfpe£livc 
forces I England is abandoned to herfelf, but having only her own 
forces to dire^ flie has the advantag;^ of unity 10 defigns, and of 
9 more fune and perhaps more ready difpofition in ideas : ilie can 
ipore eafily range her plans of defence and o$:oce under a fingle 

* In order to weigh the matter with exa^nefs, we (hould yet put 
into the icales the different energy which may be comn^unicated to 
the rival nations by a war, which is In a great many reipe^ts but 
a'war. of kings and minifVers, on one ficto; but, on the other, a 
Uuly tutional if ar, in which the greateft intenelbs of England ar^ 
concerned ; that of a commerce which produces her riches, that of 
an empire and a gloiy on which her greatncft rcfls. 

* In fhort, if we confider the fpirit of the Freilch nation, oppo-. 
fite to that with which it 1^ at variance, we Ihall fee that the ar- 
dour of the Pfehchman is as quickly extinguiflied as it is inflamed i 
that he hopes every thing wrhcn he begins, that he defgairs of every . 
thing aa foon as an obftacle ihall retard htm ; that, from his cha« 
i:aider, his arm muft be nerved by the enthu(|afm of fucccfs, in. or- 
der to reap more iuccefs t that an £ngli(hman, on the contrary, lefs 
^fuai|^uioust QO^thftandinrbis^iatural boldneis, at the begin* 
X^tiju koiptf s hovf, wheu occauons calls for it, to ftruggb courage* 
oiilfy, to raife himfelf in proportion as the da{\gec riiiBs, ^sui to ga« 
th^r advant^<^, ev€» from difgrace : lil^ '^e robuft oak, to which 
fibrace compares the Romans, which, mutilated by tV ajse^/pripga 

46 f ainc'i Letter to the Abbe Rayndl, 

afrefh under the flrokes which arc given it, and draws vigour and 
fpirit from its very lofles and its very wounds.' 

The Author next confiders what fyftem of politics th^ 
Houfc of Bourbon, ifvidorious, ought to follow with re- 
gard to Americft : and he concludes that the part j^hich th€ 
Courts of Madrid and Vcrfaillcs fliould take, if they arc 
free to chufe, is to let two powers fubiilt in North America, 
who may watch, reftrain, and counterpoize each otlier. 
This alio, as he maintains, would be the real in te re ft of 
America. He confiders what eftimate wc ought to make of 
the Colonies; when they ihall have been eftablifbed in inde- 
pendence : and this, in his judgment ihould be exceedingly 
low, in refpeft both of riches and population. He winds 
up the whole of tliis performance with raanj (alutary ad- 
vices to the North American Colonifts. 

In this publication, the fan^e turn for plcaiing and inte- 
refting digreflion ; the fame fire of iroagmation, and. bold^ 
nefs of conjefiure ; tlic fame rapidity of narration and fre- 

Suency of refleftion, appear, which charaAeri-zc the Abbe 
.aynal's other writings.. But thefccnes he defcribcs are fa 
recent, tliat it is probable he has iK>t penetrated into all the 
fprings that contributed to give them motion. And his? 
predictions with regard to futurity are IHU more uncertain. 

Art. IX. A Letter addrejftdfothr Abhe l^aynal on the Affairs of 
North America, In which rhe Miftakes in the Abbe's Account of 
the Revolution of America are corrected and cleared up. By 
lliomas Paine, M. A. of the Unlvcrfity of Pennfylvania, and 
Author of a Tra<^t, entitled, " Common Scnfe.** 8vo. is. 6d. 

"|i TR. Paine had been informed that the piece cnti- 
XVjL ^l^d ** The Revolution of America by tMe Abbe' 
Raynal," was unfairly procured from the Printer whom 
the Abbe employed, or tranfcribcd from his manufcript co- 
py, and tliat it was only a part of a larger work, in tlie prefe, 
or preparing for it. Thefe circumftances he confiders as an 
apology for fome declarations and fentiments contained in 
the Abb^'^ work, which he cannot approve, and which he 
did not expeft to find. •' Thefe, he fays, ^tjic Abbe, on z 
revifal of his work, might liave feen occsdion to change, 
had not tlic anticipated piracy of the Englifh Tranflator 
precluded all opportunity of doing fo, and precipitated the? 
mgenious Author into difficulties, which otberwifc raright 
not have happened." 

Mr. Paine, after beftowing very high encomlxiihs on the 
Abbe Raynal, charges him witlt havii^, in the courfe of 


Painc's Letter to the Abh^ Raynah '4'f > 

hiswoik, " in feme inftanccs, extolled vrktoat a rcafon, 
and wounded without a caule : with having given fame 
where it was not defervcd, and withheld it where it was 
jaftly due : and with being fo frequently in and out of tem- 
per with his fubje£ls and parties, that few or none of them 
are decifively and uniformly marked." The principal arti- 
cles that Mr. Paine infills on in fupport ot this general 
charge, arc the following: The Abbe, he endeavours 
to prove, is wrong even in the foundation of hts work, 
having mifconceivcd, 'and miftated the caufes which pro- 
duced the rupture between England and her then Colonies. . 
On this fubjeft Mr. Paine is pofitive, that it was the fixed 
determination of the Britifh Cabinet to quarrel with Ame- 
rica at all events. ** His fafts, he alledges, are coldly and 
carclefsly ftated, and he haftens through his narrations, as 
if he were glad to get from them, that he may enter into 
the i^ore copious field of eloquence and imagination.*' The 
Abbe has miftated the account of the debt and paper mo- 
ney of America. The Abbe has made .a Falfe arrangement 
of &Ss, whence he falls into very material errors : one of 
which^ and a very capita one, is, that the treaty of friend- 
Ihip^ ind commerce between France and America, was the 
circumftance which determined the latter to rejcft the pro- 
pofitions for reconciliation, proffered by the Bri^ifli Mini- 
ftry. At the time of this rejeftion, the Author of, the 
pamphlet contends, America knew nothing of the above 
treaty. Here he fpeaks pofitively, and by authority, hav- 
ing then been Secretary in the Foreign Department of 

As the Author differs from the Abbe with regard to fafts ; 
fo he controverts fome of his fentiments or opinions. ^ He 
particularly contends, in oppofition to the Abbe, ** that the 
alliance between France and America was diftated partly 
by a regard to the happinefs of mankind." He cen- 
fures the Abbe's high encomiums on the Britifh Mini-^ 
flry, on their rejefting the offered mediation of tlie Court 
of Madrid.. He then obferves, that the Abbe Raynal 
had borrowed largely from his pamphlet intitled Common 
Senfc^ and takes a concife view of the fiate of public affairs 
from the time in which that performance was publifbed. 
The following extraft from this part of his work, appears, 
at the prefent period, particularly interefling. 

* Repeated experience has (hewn, not only the Impraflicability 
of cotiqueriDg America, but the fhll higher impoffibiHty of con- 
quering her mind, or recalling her back to her former condition of 
tiunktng. Since the commencement of the war, which is now ap< 
proachmgto eight years, thoufandJ and tens of thoufands have ad- 
vanced, and are daily advancing into the firfl flage of manhood, 
nvho know nothing of Britain but as a bart>jiiou8 enemy, and to 


whom the indeiiendoDCf of Am^ncft appears as much the oaeural 
^nd en:abliihcd gpvernmiCQt of the country, af thai of Eaglaod 4oe| 
to an £nglifhni4n, fi^d on the other hand, thouf^ds o} the a|^ 
who had Britrdi ideas, have dropped, and are 4^1y dropping, from 
the ftage of buiinefs and life. The natural progrcft of p^f^eratioa 
and decay opcrates^very hour to the difadvantagc of Britain. Time 
and death, nard enemies to contend with, fight conftantly againd 
her intereft ; and the btUs of mortality, in every part of Americat 
are the thermometers of her decline. The children in the f^reets 
are from their cr^^ilc bred to coalider her as their only foe. lH^ey 
hear of her cruelties > pf their fallM^rs^ uncles, and kiodrcd killed ; 
they fee the remains ot burnt and de(lr9ycd houfes, and th^ com^su^m 
tradition of the fchool they go to, tells, themj iho/i thimgs w<?r< 4o»t 
iy the Britijb. 

* Thefe are circumftances which the mere Engliffli fiate politician^ 
who confiders man only in a ibte of manhood^ qoes not attend to. 
He gets entangled with parties coeval or equal with himfelf at home, 
and thinks not how fal^ the riHng generation in America is growing 
^yond his kftowlcdgo of them, or they of him. In a few years 
all pergonal remembrance will be lofl, and who is Kin^ of Mi- 
sifter in England. wiB be Httlc known and icarcdy enquired after« 

* The new Brniih adminiljiration is compp&d of porfons who 
have ever been againft the war, and wh* have conftaqytliy' septohaiieflk 
all the violent meafures of the ^rmer one. They cpnfider^ ^bjQ 
Americai;! war as de|lru6tive to thcmfelves^ and oppofed It on tha( 
ground. But what are thefe things to America ? She has nuthii^; 
to do with Englifli parties. The inns an4 the outs are xjothing to 
her* It is iha whole country fhe is at war with, or rnuft ht at 
peace with. 

^ Were every ^fiaiAer in England a Chatham^ k would novif 
weigh Ih^le or nothing vx the fcale of AmericaM poK«ics. Death 
has pre^rved to the memory of this ftatefman, that famt^ which hei 
by hvmg, would have loft. liis pljuns aiMl opiniABs^ ^\Kavds the 
fatter part of his life, would ha^e been atteivM w^ith a^ tp;uiy evit 
confequences, and as mych reprobated here, a^ thofb of X^xik 
North ; and, confidering him a wife mmii* the]f abouxv^ with iib> 
confiftencies amoandng to abfurdities. 

* It has aoparcntly been the fault of many in the late minority^ 
10 fuppoie, that America would agree to cutaip terms with them^ 
were they in places which fhe would' not even Hften tp frojn the 
then a^nit^inratioA. This idt% can aafwer no other pyrpole than 
to prolong the waf ; aA<^ Britaia may^ at the expeace of many mora 
QiiUtons, learn.^he iaiatity of fuck ^uftakes; If the new miniisjfi 
wifely avoid this hopelef^ poliiqy, they wil) prov^ bettet 
pitots, and wifer me^y th^ they are conceived ta be ; for it ^ e- 
▼crv day expected to fee their baf ^ ilril^e uppA ^anae bi<l4i^g r-o^ 
ancf go to pieces.*- 

With regard to the matters in dijfpute bctweca l^li:, 
Paine and the Abbe RayJi^U wc fliall pnly obferve that 
however the forpicr maj be better inibrn^ed than th^ latter^ 
witl^ ^^^A IQ 4ttesr ci,rfn^ii^ft<^«e$, ^d particular chanct 

specimen of a Hiftory of Oxfordfhirf. 4^ 

ters in Amerioi ; the Abbe feems to have takta a j after, 
and more inpartial view of the grand principles, and difpo- 
fitions, and views whitb have aituated Great Britain aa4 
ber Colonies in tfaat.contcft wbicli now dr^^ws towards f 
concluiion, Mr. Paine's writings are ingenioas, and pncK 
fbond, and breathe that bold and manly eloquence^ which 
a ftroggje for liberty, and new andanimatiog fitnations, in•^ 
fpire, more than the fmcft models of antiquity, or all the 
rules ot the fchools. But he fpeaks of Britain with the high^ 
eft degree of fHrcjudice^aod acrimony ; while he magnifies the 
victues of his countrymen, with a pa^natcneis of ex- 
preffion, that befpeaks < the partizan rather than the philo- 

Art. X. Sptcimen of a Hiftory of Oxford/hire, The pr 
dition. Corre6^ed aod enlarged, acq. ^s. 6d. Sewed. J. 
Nichols. '" ' , ' 

TWENTY copies of this work were printed laft Win- 
ter for private ufe. But thefe having been circulated 
more extenlively than the Author intended, the approbation 
he received from his friends encouraged him tojprepare the 
prcfcnt itnpreffion ibr the -fervicc of the public. The AuAor 
IS the cdehrated Mr. W,art<ui9 fp wcU)&t)own ^ a critic 
and a jpoet. , ^ 

The ^prejudices entertained againfl provinci^ biftories be* 
gin to difajppear ; and it is to t^ hoped, that ingenious men 
pofleflfed pt opportunities and leifure, will at kngdi be in- 
vited to excrcile their talents upon a province, which they 
may render inftruftive and interefting in Ac greateft degree. 
It is in vain t;o conceive that the hiftories ojf counties muft 
neceflarily be dull and uninftrudive. Books qf this kind 
have hitherto, indee^j, ]>een trifling and inade^via^. For 
they have, exhibited top of^n the regiftec^ pf pariibes, ^e 
pe<untrie$ of iieraldry, and the lying flatteries xif epitaphs 
which vainly attempted to give immortsdity to rich and 
obfimre men. But there is an infancy in every kiiki of 
ftudy i and it is now fit that foch humble coUe^ors fhou{d 
give; place to intelligent enquirers, who will furvey towns 
aud cpuptries ^ith a view to bum,an induflry and art ; who 
will be folicitou^ to paint the manners of rcqapte periods, 
tp,««pb|ifi the burcjc and utility of obCblete laws, and to 
open up whatever ,has .a relation to anti^nt property, cuf- 
ttMDSt smd modes of life. 

Vf^tb se^rd to the Author whole produftionis now he- 
fete -te, it, IS by no means his objeft to compile a^ompletf 
hjftqry of <Dxfordfhire. He has confined ftmifelf to a de'« 

-fav. VqI.4. Jan* 1783. D ' fcriptioa 

50 Specimen of a Htjlory of Oxforcf/hirs. 

fcrijption of Kiddington, one of its pariflits ; a choicr to 
which he was determined by his Situation. The remains 
k contains of rdigious antiquity, the modes of agriculture 
pra£bifedin it^ the variations of its property, the more emi- 
nent families which have tloiwilhed there,, and the military 
tranfa£tiotvs which took, place in k ^ tbefe are the principal 
ful^cAs which he examines. 

In the execution of this taik the Author gives ample 
proofs of patience and fidelity ; and he is every where per- 
A>icQous ^id m^inute. But we cannot allow tliat he lias in- 
/ufcd into his performance any fpirit of philofophy, or in- 
troduced any cvrtons oc Unking illuftrations of antienr 
manners. He had yet frequent opportunities fordifplays 
of anT inliruftire ingenuity. As this cenfure is general, 
and applied to an Author of high reputation, it is proper 
to exemplify it. 

He gives the following extraft from Domcfday book» 
which was compiled about the year 1090. 
** Oxenef' 

** Term Uxoris R»gcri de Iveri- Uxor Rogerii de Ivri tenet dc 
**• Rcge, &c« Idem* tenet v hidas in CHiDiKTON£f, ec Maina 

** it 

*• * Should not thi« IJcm be Eaiem^ and afterwards Ka for Eo f 
Uolefs we fuppofe Rojer to be now alive : in which cafe, Idem 
will refer to Rogeri dc Ivri, and the eilate will be liis, not his wi- 

* -)■ From this Norman pronuntiation of CudiajjtoiH probably 
came that which now prevails, of Kiddington, So, in Domes* 
DAY, Cudlington (now FCidliagton) in this county, the Nor- J 
man inquifitors and ttcir feribes pronounced and wrote CheddinUvBA 
They foftc^ed aU the old Saxon appellations, as (in this county) 
Rovejham for Rouiham," M^Jfhbcrie fbr Mixbirry, BPcefione fof 
Blechinedon, Hanfitene for Henfington, Efefekfe (or £lls6cld, &c» 
Other places they totally niifrcprefcnted, with the carclcflTncfs or a^ 
fc^tiou of a modern Frenchman, as ChefitfeUe for Clanfield, Cheiu% 
tone for Kcncot, Cerefdmne for Garfington, &c. Hence it has bap 
penedy that we cannot always appeal with certainty to this- ancien 
and venerable record, which would othervvife have poflcfTed thM 
liigheil authority, and would have afforded informations, now oeT(^ 
to be obtained. 

It4g, however, remarkable that Ecclefia is often written acclcfi^ 
with the Saxon a. Hence, dmong other reafons, we are led 
fufpc(S^, that the fcvcral rotuli were made out on the fpot by San 
fcnbes,, and tbat afterwards the Nornnan feribes, in dxgefti 
DoMBSDAY-BooR, from thofe rotuli, wrote the names of plai 
partly in contempt, according' to their own articulation. An am 
ent tranfcript of fome of thefc original rotuli, as it fcems, is pr^ 
ftrvod lA E^ctcr cathedrali affording other proofs of tXCn*- 

* Ital 

specimen of a Hiftory cf Oxford/hln, 5 1 

^ de Ko. Terra vj carucarum, nunc in dominio ij carucats^ eC 
" iiij I'crvi, ct vij villani, cam z bordariis habcntibus ij caracals 
*' et dimidium^ Ibi molendinum % ^ lolidorum, cc zij acre prati.. 
** Sllva i leuca lon^itudinc, et iij quarentiuls laritudine. Valujt iij 
** libras n>odo iiij hbras. Godric libere tenuit has ij terras. Sllva 
^* i leuca longitudine et dimidium Icucsriaeitudine. Valuit viij li- 
*• bras T. R. E. [tempore Regis Edmirdi] cum reccpit viij. Mo 
*^ do X libr. Oodric et Aluuin libe.e tenuerunt.'' Lib. Dom£s- 
DAT. f. 160. 5Jk 

In the margin we have placed the obfcrvations of tho^ Att-» 
thar upon this quotation troin Domcfday Book ; and they 
arc^ certainly acute and ingenious. But furely upon this 
text he might have been employed to much greater ad-, 
vantage, and might have gathered from it far better topics 
of illuftration. Prom the confideration of th# land held of 
the King by the wife of Roger de Iveri, he might have en- 
quired into the conneftion which women might poflefs with 
a landed property in the times of Domefday Book, or in 
the age of William the Norman. From the mention of 
bides and csrucates of land, he might have diftinguifhed 
between thefe, and hav^ pointed out with precifion tha 

auantity of territory they dcnotie. From the mention of 
aves, villeins, and cottagers, he might have explained 
thefe orders of men, and entered into many curious parti- 
cular with regard to the meaner conditions of ibciety in 
antient times. From the mention pf mdendinum^ iie might 
have unfolded die origin of that feudal cuftom which confer- 
red exclufively on particular perfons, the privilege of build- 
ing a mill. From the fpecincation of the value of eftatcs in 
the times of Edward the Confeflbr, and the sera of Domcf- 
day Book, he might naturally enough have made fome per- 
tinent remarks concerning money and coinage in thofe dif- 

• I take this opportunity of obferving, that as Kiddington was 
antieutly written CuJenttm^ fo Kidlington, juft mentioned, was writ- 
ten Cu^elinton. Among other proofs, I find the foUowing in a very 
antient grant to Ofeney abbey. ** Ad fuftentacionem unius lampa* 
** dis coram crucifixo in ecclefia de Cudelinton, pro animabus' 
«* Henrici de Oyly ct anteccflbrum ct fucceflbrum meorum.^ Re- 
gist I. Abb. OsENEY. MS. f. Tf. The Regifter, reciting thir 
grant, was compiled by abbot William dc Sutton, abtut the year 

« J Perhaps the fame that remained till within thefe few years. 
JliHs arc of high antiquityy and for an obvious rcafon. In Domef* 
^lybook, wherever a mill is fpccilicd, we generally fitKi it ftiil fub- 
fi(fiog. Mills antietttly belonged to lords of maftoiw. The tc- 
uiits were permhtcd to grind only at the lord's mill ; nor could 
Aey erefta mill without a fpccial indulgence of the lord. 

a tant 

52 SfecimeM of a Htftory of Oxford/hire* 

taiit periods. In fine, from the claufe • Godric and AIucjit 
6bere temiertiiit^'' he might have entered into tlic nature of 
the tennrt alluded to. For the tenure is by no means obvi- 
ous ; and fome antiquaries may find reafons to make it re- 
fer to an /i/^rf/u/ property, and otliers to 2t feudal one. 

Thefe obfervations, we imagine, will fumciently illuftratc 
our criticifm. It is now proper that we lay before our Rea- 
ders ah extraft from this publication. 

. * KiddiagtoD, or C«iddif)g;i<>D, antiemly ind properly accord! Dg 
fco its Britifli etymology written Cudenton or the Town .ahono 
THE WOODS, is a fmall viUagc pleaiantly fituated on the river 
Glym, twelve miles from tkc city of Oxford to the north-wcft» 
four from Woodftock, and fevea From Cheping-Norton, market 
towns in this CoUnty*. li is divided by the river Glyra iuto the 


* * In the Britifli, Cud, or Cwd, or Gwvn, is irooJ. In thcr 
&me language, the final fy liable £K is fometimes redimdant, yet 
with the power of a gcmtnc Cafe ; and is often introduced as con- 
ne^ive in compounds. Thus Ousenet, tTiat is Ofeney or Ofucy, 
near Oxford, the eyot, irrfulct, the watery ifne^dcyw or meadows, 
0f or in the river Oufe, Ufe, or Ife, is to be rcfolved into 
Otrs-tN-EY. Wheticc Ousenet roRt>, wow Oxford, the Ford ^f 
ast at or near Oufeney, or the meadows of Oulc* This city is writ- 
ten O»bnaf0rda or Oksnaforda, on a coin of Alfred pobkiilcd 
by Fountayne* Sec Wife, NuMw, Bodl* p» 252. Oxnapori^ 
and OxcwEFOiD^ frecjucntly in the Saxon CuroNicLE. Oxn9> 
FORD on pennies of ihe two Williams^ See SnelUne's Silv. Cotks^ 
pp. 3. II. OusEN, Ocsv, or OsK, were ^ickly reduced or cor- 
rapted into Orsk, Oxsxt or Okn. Thofc who melee Oxford to 
fee VADU^/ BouM, plaufibly contend, that it was never called 
OusEFORD. But th^ tliould rcnvembcr, Aat it was fitft cafled Ox- 
en- for D before Ox^OTto. And even this wotrldcdutrtenimcc an hy- 
|»oelie^, to the utter -exdtrfion^ of th« othefs that O^kkKford might 
fee derived from Ousen^ord. But that Ousenetsford i^ its pri- 
mitive radix, appears from hence ; that in tlie ear)ieil fpeltings of 
rtiis place, vfz cpnfiantly ifind the letter/, or a^ after//, in the ft- 
cond fyllable. A prefumptive proof by the way, that Oxen haVe 
no concern in the etymology. In £)omefday-book, we have Ol- 
BN5F*afCYRK ; and Oxexeforji perpetually in c1>arters for two hun- 
dred years below. Ac length, the original meaning l^eibg foi^ot 
imd obl4teq||ed, OxE^fEFORD^ whence Oxenford, or OxFORt), 
preiented an obvious and familiar fignification, wbich the pedantry , 
of our aacsftors latinHed into Vadum Boum. For the great fourte 
of Gorruption in etymologies of names, lM>tli of places, and men, 
confiAs in the natural propeniity to fubdicute in the place of on^ 
difficult and obfcure, a more common and hotOrious a^Uatioo, 
tege^ledaad autfaorifed by alKnity of found. It is arUully faid, 
mat the mtoas oailed Oxford Rhyd-ychek, that it, the F'ord rf 
AnriTr But thefe Britons ire the modern WeOb* Th^ truth is, | 



specimen of a Hlftory ^f O^ffwijlnr^. 53 

Upper snd Lower Town, or OTer-Kiddington and Nerher-Kiddio|^ 
toil: the Hrft is in tbe Hundred of Ch^dlfngton, the fccond in thiit 
ofVVoottoD. Both parrs contain not more than forty ^ioufes. 

* The Church, iltuated m Lower Kiddington, is (aid by Browne 
AVillis, ^oc always fuccefsful in his laborious invcfti^^ations ^ pa- 
trol faints, to He dedicated to Saint Nicholas* : but the annuai 
VV^ake is celebraied on the Stsnday following the fefKval of S^int Pe- 
ter. It coufifts of one pace, or ailc, ten yards broad, and with 
the Chancel, thirty yards long. But there is t proportionable la- 
teral projection, or fouthcm femitranfept, before we enter the chan- 
ce! ; and aii oppoGte one was perhaps iittended on the north-fide, 
ivhich would have given the church the complete form of a croft, 
it is not, ho^ferer, quite improbable, that this wns dedgned only 
for a feputchral 4ile to cover a family-vault. Within its fouthera 
wall are two niches for Holy Water : we may therefore fuppoie 
tfa;it there was once an altar, perhaps two, in the femitranfept* 
The whole fabric is deled with rafter work. In the fouth-window 
of the femitranfept, which has been altered unfuitably from its ori- 
ginal Gothic fhape, thefe arms were to be ioen in anticnt painted 
glafs about the year 1670. 
- L Or, 3 Ghcverons ij^ules, within a Bordure ingrailed. 

II. Argent, 5 Bars blue, over, a Lyon rampant Gtsles, crowned 

III. Argent, 3 Lyons paflant Argent f, a File of 3 Labeb 

* Anthony Wood, who faw thefe arms tn his ctirious parochial 
Penimbalatton of Oxfordshire, yet unpublifbed, calls this fouthen;^ 

Rhyd-ychen originated with Geoffrey of Monmouth, a fantaftic 
hiilorian of the twelfth century. "See Hist. Brit. ix. la. x. 4^ 
It would be ludicrous to refute the abfurdity pf the idea, that the 
Fqrd was rd(tn<5ted to Ox^n only. 

* There are other places in Englan(J, now called Oxenford» 
liod with the fame etymology. For Ouse was a general name for 
rlver^ or *ivafcr^ One of tKefe, near Godalmiag in Surrey, for- 
merly belonging to Waverle^-abbey, is written Ox^neford, i^ 
an jnftrument dated 1147* Dugd. Moi^. ii. ^13. a. In a charter 
of king Athelftian to Wiiton-abbey in Wiltfhire, dated 937, 9 ford 
pvcr the water is mentioned, ana written ^xnaford. Cartul. 
Abbat. de Wilton. In the pofleffion of lord Pembroke. 
« Un^^ j-rjieamer o|» Oxnapfb. ponnA yejt 0|:e|t oji ane !ak;e.'' 
That i^ ** By the river to the Ford (commonly called Qx^n* 
** Fpiii). Then beyond the Ford to the lake." foJ. 60. b. 

* * WilKs, Cat^edr. Oxford, p. 473. It was by tbe intereft 
of the l>omimcaa8, that (b man]^ churche|i were deittcated to Saint 
HidioUs. He was their favourite tutelary faint. 

* The ma^nlikcnt church of thdr :mona({ery at Oxfbid was de- 
dicated to Saint Nicholas, in 1262. Wood, Hist. Antiqpit* 
f^iMY. Oxon. i. 6;.* 

' * f So Wopd. Perhaps, Oardant/ • . 

D 3 , . mng 


54 Specimen 9/ a Hiftory cf Oxford/hire. 

wingt 1 Chdpelf . In which, perhaps, a domeflic pried, or chap* 
Iain refidiog with the family of the capital maniion before the Re- 
formation, was occupied in finging daily mafs for the fouls of thofe 
interred in the ▼ault. I find it tranfmltted to the prcfent family 
fts an appropriated chapel or chantry. It has an original doorways 
ro the fbuth, now walled up, which f>y its lituation atone end of thac 
fide of. the building, feenrs intended for an entrance to a dcfceot in- 
to the vault abovementioned. 

' The Body of the Church feems to have been built about the 
year 1400. The femitranfept, or chapel, foon after. 

' The Chancel i* evidently the reinaider of an older original 
;church, in the ftyle of the Saxon or rather Norman architecture : 
and at the back oi the prefent altar a large Norman arch is walled 
up, which feems to have opened eailwai:d into a more extended c- 
difice, perhaps into the Chancel of the old Church. The zigawig- 
ged femicircle of this arch, and its jambs, remain entire ; and vi- 
libly projc^inp: from the wall with which they are now incorpo- 
rated, form an inclofure td the altar. Over the Altar is a Pidure 
of the Crucjfixjon. On the outfide of what is now the chancel, 
under the rooting, on either ddc, is a ferics of rude grotefquc orna- 
ments in flone, refembling heads placed horixontally. They exhi- 
t>it marks of the architefture or rather fculpture of a very remote 
era. The Chancel is built of rag-ftone : the Body of a more polifli- 
jwi free-Hone. The new work of the Body is terminated callward 
by a lofty pointed arch, leading hito the chancel : the chancel is 
^idier than any part of the reil of the building. I fuppofe the 
old Church, of which the prefent chancel is the remainder, to have 
been huilt by the family of De Sauceie, or Salcey, about the reign 
of king Stephen, at leail before the year 1200. The old Norman- 
built parochial churches feldom conuAcd of more than one aile or 
fa(5e : as the chur<ih of Eifly in this county, ere£ied by a bidiop of 
*incolri in the twelfth century :(. 

• The Font remaining in its old fituation near the chief en- 
trance, is large, and well 6rnamentcd ; and was probably conflru6t- 
ed at the time of the prcfent church, with fome of whofe windows 
the Gothic mouldings on the faces of its o6togonal panes uniform- 
ly cori'cfpond. It may be remarked in general, that fonts origi- 
nally intended fqr the total immerlion of the infant, are antient in 
proportion as they are Ciipacious*. 

I " ■ ' ' ■ "J ■' ^_. i '■ .- ' ' J ' " ^»^— ■ ' - ' III 

• + Wood, MSS. JVIuf. AQimol.E. i. 4to. f. 146. a. Manu fua. 

• % The mod curious one with ailcs, that I recolle*^, I mean as 
ffOmplcte in its firft plan, although fmall, is the church of Stey- 
ping in Suflex. The middle aile has on each fide four Norman 
round arches iigzaggedj.furmounted with as many round-headed 
fmalj windows. The t^'o fide-ailes are much and difproportionably 
loWer, j|s was the cuflom. The roof is of rafter. Stone-vaulting 
"being either not known Qr not common in the Norn^n fyftem. A . 
lofty Norman arch leads into the Chancel. Only the Tower Is ad- 

^'* Of the total immcrfion the inconveniendes muft have been 


specimen of a Hijhrj of OxfordJJjire^ JJ 

' The Seating: of the body of the church b probably thcfatae 
that was* there Iwfore the Reformation ; confiding, as was anticnt-» 
ly the fafhion, of a regular arrangement of plain bendMra, low and 
open, ^i-ithout diftm(ftion, a»d on olie plan, running « right an- 
gles from cither fide. Moveable flooJs were fomeiiines ufed, Few«, 
according to the modern ufe and idea, whkh dcllroy the beauty, 
of our parochlai charclies, were noi known till lon^ afacr the Re-? 
formntion*. Tbcj' wouW liave obAruitted prooelboDS, and othef 
ceremonies, of the Romifti religion. • 

-* Thi« 

many. It is recorded of Kin^a^ Etheldred, that at his baptifm, i& 
9^7, he iif^JHed the font. W. WytceUer, Metra de. Ragis. . 
Angli^e. Apud Lij. Nig. Scacc. p^ 53a. edit* Hearnc^ 

Sacca ilatim natus Etheldred us violavic. 
Nam baptizatus, baftistek.ium maculavit* 
On this ominous occafion, archbiAiop Dunilai^ who baptised the 
royal babe, with an oath exclaimed, ** Per deum, et matrum 
"I* ejus, iCNAvus Homoerit!** See Hollinflu CftON. i* i6j. coL* 
i. io. , •■ 

' * Stowc fays, that about the year 1520, half cf the church, 
of Saint Andrew Underfbaft was rebuilt by Stephen Genntngs 
Mayor of London, ^ and the Pewe^ in <he iouth chapel 1 made of 
^ hb cofls, as appeareth in euery window, and upon the faid 
** Pewe5.** Surv. Lond. p. 109* edit. 1599. 4^0. That is, he 
fiimifbed the fouth chapel with a Ut of uniG)rm benches, otfuhftWa^ 
for the geoeral ufe ef the pari (hi oners. Before the Reformation bc- 
nefadions were often bequeathed fory^<j///fif a church in tins maimer* 
Blomfield cites legacies about the year 1 502, ioxfttAyng various parts 
of the church o^ SwafTham vn Norfolk, the choir being fitted up 
with Stalls. Hist. Norf. iii* cii. feq- That is for ^iv//;*^, or 
■htnching^ Tarious parts of the church. Particularly, for making 
*' all the gret Jioiys of both fydcs of tlie rayd aley.'^ p. ^12. Lord 
Bacon fomewhere fays, that fir Thomas Moore, when at mafs fate 
in the chaucel^ a«d his lady in a /knir. He means, that ilie fiit in one 
of the common parljh-fcats^ without, and in the nave. Weever^ 
who lived in the reigns of £Iizabeth and James the firil, fpeaking 
olF epitaphs on the pavements of churches in and ^ibout London, 
Has the following pailage. ** Many motiuments are couered with 
^ feates or pewes, made high and eafre for pariihioncrs to fit or 
^ ileepe in, a fafhton of no long continuance, and worthy xyt' re* 
" 4armation.** Fun. Mon. p. 701, edk. 1631^ 

* The Patron was always indulged with a flail and defk in the 
chancel or choir, juil within the icreen. The moll ajitient ^notice 
of this didin^^ion that I can at prefent recoiled, occurs in fomu 
Injunctions directed by the learned bidiop Grofihead to his dioccfe 
of Lincoln, about the year is^o. *' Ad ha^: adjiciraus, ne Laid 
^ fient vel fedeant inter dcricos in Cakcello, dum divina ibidem 
** celebrant ur : ni fi forte, ob rt!ferentia:ii vel aliam rdtionabilera 
^f caufam, hoc folis Patronis permitatur/* Browne's Append. 
ad Fascicuu Rer. expetend. et fuciend« vol. ii. p. 413. 

D 4 Lond^ 

|6 Haftingt'a Jiarrative tf the Tranfafiions aiBinans, ' 

* Thfl churchy in common with mod otlier p«H(h-cbu relies, rc- 
fiiitt markt of the fordid derotton of its podeiTors undfr the domi- 
iiioti of CroiliwelL But rotn]jr of thofe difgrices to divine worlhip 
which Calvintiifi had left behind, h&To been lately remo^ by a 
- generous benef^fkor, with the addition of new improrements and or- 
ftamenb. When a country-church has been beautified, to ufc 
rhe tejchnicftl phrafe on this occafion, it is cuftomary for ihc grate- 
ful topo^pfaefi minntdy to difplay the judicious application of 
fome fate piout legacy, and to dwell with fingular fattsfm^ion on 
flibderh decorations of the comniunion-tablc, confii^ing of fcinicircu- 
hr grtmpes of bloated c he r u bs^ tawdry fcftoom, gingerbread pilaft- 
^n, fDunitig urnt, and a newly-gilded decalogue, flanked by s mag- 
niiiceflt Mcdes and Aaron in fcarlec and purple, «the work of fbroe 
capital artift, who unites the callings of painter, plumber» and gla- 
Ibier, in the next dirty market-town. I do not regrcr, that the 
prefent edifice, which yet has not been Without its friends, can 
Doaft none of thcfe embelliihmctxts. 

' A Tew flc|)8 of the rood-loft remain : and on the oppofite 6de, is 
a fm«ll arcade or rcceptacfc for Holy W^rer. There is another on 
the left in the arch at entering the ckancch Thcfe receptacles in- 
dicate altars : but not always. In the old Con vocation -houfe ad- 
joining to Saitit Mafy*8 church at Oxford, ^as a pla^e for Holy 
Water, occafionally cbnfecrated by the chaplain of tl;ke Umver- 
fity, with which the Mafters crofied thcmfelv'es before they were 

It reniiiins for trS to obferve, that this performance with 
refbe^k to compofition, is a model for anticjuaries. The 
ftylc lias, indeed, uncommon merit. It is eafj;, clear, 
t>urc, and clcgint. 

Akt. 3n. A Narratl'ue of the kite TranfaBMs at Benares, By 
Warren Haffings, Efq; Dcbrctt. 8vo. as. 6d. fewed. 

ON tlie firfk intelligence in India, of the war with 
France, in Jnly 1778, it was refolvcdin the fuprcmc 
Smncil of Bengal, that the Rajah Cheit Sing, Zemindar of 
fenar^, Gazytore, and Chuudara, in the Soubah of lUa- 
Jiabai, fhould oe required to contribute an extraordinary 
iubfidy for the cxpence which this new exigency had impofcd 
pii the Englifh government. The Turn demanded of the 
Rajah was five lacks of rupees per anmim. . Delays, cva- 
iions, itnfd artifices^ on the oirt of Cheit Sing, in the pay- 
|n^t of th^s fubfidy, joined to many cifcumftances which 
ieentcd to indicate a Ipirit of independence, and a defign 
. to throw cff the yoke of thfc Coftipany*s government, ^- 
Ifemririta Mr. H^ngs to arrcft the perfon of the Rajah, 

LpnJ* j6^. fol. Compare Synod. EftON. A. D. i«8^ Cap. xii. 
lyilkms's Conal. tow. ii. p. iao. 


Hofiingt's Narrativt of ihe TranJiUllons at Mtnara. 57 

4indto confine him 1 prifoner in bis own {»al2ce. The 
n:oop« that were fcnt- to fccure the peribn of Ibis chief, 
were repuired by a multitode of his faithful yaflS^b with 
great daughter. The Rajah made his cfcape In the midft 
of thUtomvltand confufion to a'forttefs which belonged 
to him, (h^ortg both by nature and art, where he prepared 
to refift the Enriifh government. The firft encounter was 
encouraged by iucceis, and the contagion of his example 
excited a fpirit of rcvok among neighbouring chiefs, which 
rovri^ have fprcad throughout the whole of Indoftan, and ef* 
fedted a revolutioo fatal to the authority of Britaih in the 
eaft, if the timely and vigorous exertions of Mr. Haftings, 
and the military officers under his command, had not dif- 
pelled the rifing ilorm, and ai!erttd the rights, and main^ 
tained the power of the Eaft India Company. 

But, the enemies of Governor Haftings arraigned his 
conduA in this Inattet aS opprellive to Cheit Sing, and fub*- 
verfive of the interefts of the Company. There was a com- 
,paA between the Rajah and the Company, which fpecified, 
that he was only to pay them a certain annual tribute. Why, 
then, make fuch extraordinary 4emands? And why put the 
Rajah in afreft. When he profefled himfelf devoted to the 
fupreme council, and olflfeird to male every conceffion. To 
vindicate his conduA in the whole of this matter^ Governor 
Haftings wrote the nirrative under review, with that ele- 
gance of expreflion, arid that ingenious torn <af thinking 
which ajqpear in all bis writings. 

This narrative is written tmder the force of an obligation 
to truth, equivalent to an oath. '* I ihall fiudy, fays Mr. 
*^ Haftings, to diveft my mind of all partial bias, and to 
** deliver all the paft tranfefti(Dns and occurrences with the 
-*• ftridcft and inoft feithful regard to truth ; in which if t 
*• fail, I fail unknowingly ; and may the God of truth fo 
'* judge me, as my owti conibietic^ mall condesm or acquit 
'* me of intentional deception." Mr. Haftings to the 
above ftrbn^ declaration, has added the teftimony of fevenJ 
gemteraen m the Ctrmpiiny's fei^ice, and of fome very rc- 
fpeAable natives of HixCdoitan, which tends to prove that 
the rebellibn of Cheit Siog Was premeditated, although Mr. 
Haftings's journey to Benares accerated his xevoh. The 
Governor General fufficicntly evinoes to -ettry impartial 
reader, that bis condud towards the Chief ^sovud not have 
proceeded from *any ^w of private cmolament, and that 
what he did, he did from a seal for the intertft of the 
company. He leems xo have ftaied fids ^rfy, and there 
is an air of candotu: that luns tfarotighout die whole of the 
parnrtive. With tcg^d to the Tight th* Company had to 


S6 Mo NTli LY Catalogue. Poetry arid AfiftetlarAeu 

iiQpofe fucli heavy oKaftions on a native prince of India, 
to the effeft this impoiition may have had in driving him 
into fchemes of rebellion, and to other matters, contained 
in this publication, there will no doubt be a contrariety of 
opinion. It was natural, and juftifiable in Cheit Sii>g to 
make every effort to emancipate himfelf from flavery. In 
political prudence, though not in morality, it was natural 
and juftifiable in Mr. Haftings to convert the riches of -a 
man whom he fufpefted of rebellious views, into the means 
of fupporting that government which he aimed to fubvcrt. 


For J, A N U A R Y, 1783. 

Poetry and Miscellanies. 

Art. I a. Sonnets to Eminent Men. And an Ode to the Karl of 
Effingham. I 8. 4to. Murray. 

IT is the opinion of a great critic that the fabric of a Sonnet, 
however adapted to the Italian language, will never luccecd itt 
ours, which, having greater variety of termination, requires the 
rhimcs to be often changed. Experience has. hitherto confirmed 
the truth of this obfervation; even the Sonnets of Milton are 
tittle known; many have never heard of them ; and few have 
read them. Under fucb difadvantages it is certainly difficult to ar- 
rive at excellence, and to fecure apphufc. Where the greatcfl have 
failed it is arduous to conquer. 

In the prcfcnt cafe, the amhor has Tery prudently deviated, 
though in a fma 11 degree, from the original form; and has 
thereby removed fome of the impediments which flow from the ge- 
nius ot our language. His attempt, in this unpropitious path of 
the Bfitifli mufe, has been very fucccfsful ; and will,* we doubt 
uot^ meet the* approbation of every admirer of poetic excellence. 

That our readers may form their own opinions of the merit of 
rhcfe poems, we (l)all prcfcnt ilicm with the following fonnet to the 
Duke of Richmond. 

To the D U K E of RICH MO N D. 
On his Motion for Annual Parliaments, and equal Rcprefcnta- 

tion, 1780. 
The ftream that, wandering from its parent fourcc. 

Brightens the bloom -of many a fragrant flower, 
Shall oft, as chance dire^h its carelefs courfe, 
Swdl into life the plant of poifonous power. 
, Thus flows from honour's fount the flattering tide : 
It marks alike the' virtuous and the rile ! 
Ah think not, Richmond, though it pamper pride. 

Such vain diftin£iion wins the mufe's fmile: 
Let boadful heralds pompoudy proclaim- 
^Vlience flpws thy olood, thy bonours whence defcen^* 


Monthly Catalooue, p0€iry and Mifitthnie^: 59 

And draw fropi ducal rank an empty fame ! 

A loftier title fliall thy country lend. 
And fondly hail Thee by a nobler name — 

Her Freedom's Champion, and the People's friend. 

The beauty of this foiinet is too obvious and Itriking* to tequire a 
rommrnt. The analogy betwixt t a ilrcam nouriCbing, at the fame 
time, a noxious and faluury plant, and honour exalting promifcu* 
ouHy the villain and the man of viitue, is juil and happy ; and the 
application to the truly great chamd^er to \vhom it is addrefled, u 
equ^^y d>:licate, ipgenious, and poetical. 

The other elegant fonnets in their coUedion are addreiled to Dr. 
Watfon, (Bifliop of Llandaff), Mr. Jones, Mr. Warton, Dr, 
Thurlow (Bi(hop of Lincoln), and Mr. Haylcy. 

To thefe is added an Ode to t}ie Earl of Effingham, on hit 
going a volunteer to the relief of Gibraltar. On the commence* 
ment of the American war, this nobleman rciigned his commiHionr ' 
and till the late opportunity of accompanying Lord Howe, his 
fervices, during the prefent war, have been loft to his country. A 
mind, eager to a<^, and qualified to command, mufl contemplate 
with pain and regret, that theatre of employment, on which it can« 
not be engaged with honour. The(e feelings are well defcribed by 
the poet in the opening of his Ode. He afterwards combats thofe ai- 
per^ons, which were propagated againll the chara^er of this re* 
Ipedable nobleman, during, the unhappy commotiont in the me- 

Art. 13. Viffis on Several Occajtons^ ♦ 8vo. M. ad. fcwed. 


Though tferjificati^u is fometimea found in the fodety of poetry^ 
ihemore frequently appears in public without this amiable compa* 
uioo. Conscious of their difunion, in the preient cafe, the Au<« 
tbor has very juftly in his title page confulted the extent of his ge- 
nius, and called his labours by their proper name. He tells us, in his 
preface, that they are intended only for his friends, and that he has 
fufficient philofophy to fee them, without d^eftion confined to that 
amiable circle. We finccrely congratulate him upon his fortitude, 
iince, on the prefent occafion, we think, he may have an opportu- 
nity of exerting it. 
Art. 14.. The Genuine Copy of a Letter found November ^th. 

178a, near Strawberr>-Hill, Twickenham. Addrefied to the 

Hon. Mr. H— K-e W-— le, 8vo. is. Bladon. 

In this letter the charad^r of fomc of the moil refpedable jfntU 
Rawleans is violently attacked. They are accufed of having written 
again the convidion of their own minds ; and, what is worfe, of 
havin? endeavoured to annihilate poor Rowley by dark and utifair 
machinations, ^l^e charge is no doubt ferious ; bur \% comes be- 
fore ch« public in a very quedionable (hape: the jfft dixit oi an 
anonymous pamphleteer is defervedly held in fmall emmation. Lu- 
ctan's {ioic, when prelled by his anttgonifi, is forced to fupply his 

* Viz. Dedicatory Vcrfes. Epiftle to a Barriiler. Epiftlefrom 
Boilcau. Satire from Boileau. April day. Weft to Gray. Pe«- 
irarch to Laura. Laura. ' Eliza. Caroline, &c. 8cc. 6cc. 


fo MoNtHi.v Catalogue. Putrj aui MifitUawitu 

penury of trp^ument by abafe, and exclaims ** "^ jta«if«Ti <« O 
" damned villam" ! may wc not prefume tbat the letter-writer feels 
bimfelf in a (imilar fituation ? ' 

Art. 15. Slhtrian Anecdotes^ m Novell 3 vols. 75^ 6<i. fcwed. 


The Author of theic volumes, out of the matter he had colle^M, 
has not been able to produce a whoic. This indeed he basatempt- 
ed, but without fucceft : though there be juxta-pofition, there is 00 
union in the parts. To lengthen out his work by the introdudion 
of a variety of ftorics, is a dcfign in which he has perfc<5tly fuc- 
^ ceeded, but to make the heterogeneous matter coalefce, appears 
evidently beyond his power. ' 

Baron Rozen and his lieutenant Crucius, two Swedes, having 
been baniflied into Siberia, by the Czar Peter, after the battle <S 
Poltowa, meet upon the banks of Dolon^a with a Ruffian Knez, 
whore«^eives them with hofpitality, and recounts to them the hiftory 
of his family. A. manufcript in the library of the Knez furnifhes 
us with the adventure? of Yarmak, and the difcovery and conqueft 
of Siberia. A mutual paflion takes places between Rofen and £loifa» 
the daughter of the Knez ; they are married, and agrictiltufe, 
raanufaSures, and trade are introduced by the Baron. CJrucius re- 
turns to Sweden, mixes in the world, marries, is cuckolded by hit 
friend, his wife poiibns herfelf, after her feducer had been killed 
by her father; atwi Crucius retires to fcek comfort in the fociety of 
|iia frioAd Rozen. He oi>ce mo/e quits Siberia to folicit the pro- 
teilionof the C»arforthe new colony , and after a variety of ad- 
rentures, returns with a fccond wife, accompanied by Callha, Eh'za, 
Catberine, Romanfoff, 8cc. Crucius is fometime after drowned in 
the Irtiil), and his wife Seliroa dies of grief. The ftory conchides 
with the death of Rofen,. w1h>, leaving hk colony in a ilouri&iog 
fituation, *'*' was gathei-ed to his fathers (as the Author iafoMDS us) 
♦* as the ripe iheck MX% in the day of harveft." 

Such is the ftcleton of the wqrk: which is for the*moft part 
heavy atid uDifttereiling ? and though friendly to the cauft of virtue, 
will not do the good which was intended, from the want of thofe al- 
lurements -that workSK>f immoral tMidelM:y toe often ^ofkh. 
Artv 16. Love Fragments, A Series of Letters, now firft 

mibliflwd by Mr. ^obinfon, price is. 6d. fewed« J. Wallii) 

London, and J. Binns, Leeds. 

Thefe fcraps of (cnfibility feem to be wtittcn in imitation of (bmc 
parts of Richardfon, engrafted on the nvanner (we mean the mamer 
^ printing J of Sterne. ** O imitatores ! fervum pecus !** Though 
Mr. Robinfon profeiies himielf to be *' a young and inexperknced 
•• adventucer, as an editor (Author), hehaR managed matters with 
x^\ the adrQi(nefs of a veteran in the art of publicatioN. In the 
fpuce of 139 pS|;e«^ atid thefe too in the trueShandean ilije, whert 
Itratches, daines, Aars and bfanks help to fwcll the volume, he has 
rontrived 10 kill two pretty girls, and, if we unded^and him righ^ 
for be does oot fpcak out, to ruin a third. But, for good and wAt 
purpofes, he has Lett his readers almod totally in the darJc as toths 
caul'c 'of thcfe 4ifm^l events. The flicw-man who difcovjcrs the 


Monthly Catalogue. .Foitrj ani MlfctUanUl. 6r 

fpringt and wlret that give motion to his puppert) lofet the adinlra** 
lion ^nd the euflom of the public. Whether Mr. R . Tiowed mat- 
ters lA thia light we pretend not to determine ; hut he ^as kindljr 
promifed in a fccond volume now preparing for the pfcis^ to clear 
up the whole, and in^rm us of things we little cjtpeded- 
Art, 17. Frailties $/ F<i/hlon^ 4r tht Advmturts of an Irljh 
Smock^ interfperfed with whimlkal Anecdotes of a Nankeen Pair 
of Breeches ; oontai«ine among a great Variety of curious Con* 
nexibns between the molt celebrated Demi Reps and Beaux Gar<^ 
^ns upon the Ton. The Secret Memoirs of Madame D'Eon^ 
as related by herfelf. Amour^ of Count D'Artois. Private In- 
trigues of Lady W^- — ^y and Mrs. N ■■■■n ; never before pab- 
lilhcd. The Frolics of Boarding School Miflcs. The Gambols 
of Maids of Honour, &c. &c. TwcWes. ^s. 6d. fewed. LriliEr. 
This performance is addreAed to the paiiionfi, and a (ale is expe^« 
cd from the effects of the title foge^ rather than from the contents of 
the volume. The volume is an indecent and impure farrago ; and 
it would be of fervice to the community, could s fumnmy raetbod 
be invented to fupprefs publications calculated t6 inHame the youth 
of both fcxes and encourage vice, fonfuality, and licentiotifnefs. 
Art. 18. ^-w EoftrdBfrom the Life -of Limfenata Henry F^y 
of his Majcfty's -*^— Regiment of I'oot, vol. 1. lamo. ae. 6d. 
(ewed, Kobmfon. 

Of the many forward reni}fnenta4Ute who h«vc churned their de- 

icent from the ingenious Yorick, few luive been able to defend their 

title by any pbunble pretences. Lieutenant Henry Foley comet 

not in fo quefthnabU jpetpe^ but we wiUvenctfre to pronounce -htm 

illezitraMile; and, thoi^h we cannot but «p^rove the inndcent caft 

of his €lnttments, we ^ar they ai% deficient in that ^fpecies of iba* 

ibning, which fhould render them palatable to the pubhc* 

Art. 19. Rimark^ on fheTS-ial of the Right H&nourabk Ann^ 

C0Untefs of Cork attd Ornry for Adultery^ And *t^Ulating her Marriage 

Viros^ In a Letter to the Right Honourable, Edmund, Earl ^of 

Cork and Orrery, 4to« I s. Wenman. 

- Left the wounds which Lord Cork received from a fufpicion of 

hit lady's infidelity ihonld be too fpeedily clofed, this humane writer 

has been kind enough to remind him of the prmcipal circumOanccs 

of her unhappy trial; and has at lad proved thaet his Lordlhip is 

0nhf unfortunate, and bis Lad^, perhaps, neit ch^de. 

Art. 20. Letters on a Variety of ^uhjeffs, Dedicateifl, witli 

Submi£ion, to the whole human Race. By Palemon, in z vols. 

▼oh i« printed for the Author, umo. ss. 6d« fewed. £ew. 

Palemon'a Letters are^ like a village fhop, which contains fome- 

tfaing cJf cf ery thiiig, though the comtmxiities be none of the bell, an univerfal man : Religion and politics, verfe and profe, 

wit and-wi^om are to him equally eafy, he b an adept in both the 

ludicrous and pathetic, he ts-^--^ut we. colled from the book that 

Palemon is in bad civcumftances and appears to have a .benevolent 

heart ; we hc^therdBore th^t his book will n»et with no critics, 

and oua^^iiKha&rs* Though ithe kucr& are fgid to be m 2 vo* 


62 Monthly CaTAIOCCE. foHrymd Mifcdlames. 

lumes^ one only is yet publiflied. Much of the matter contaioed 
in this volume has already appeared in the news-papers. 
Art. 21. O^Brlifis Luforium: Being a CoUe^lionof Convi- 
vial Songs, Ledurcs, &c. entirelv Original, in various Siilcs, 
&c. &c. 1 amo. boards, price as. 6d. Durliam, 
We pay a compliment to Mr. O'Brien, when we fay that he fcemi 
to inherit a fmall portion of the humour of the facetious Tom Brown. 
His profe is bad, his verfe execrable, and both in many parts 
highly indecent* The following ihmza in the fong called " Ana- 
** crcontic philofophy," feems one of the heft in 'the book. 
*Mong modems, let PricAly and others keep fquabbling 
*Bout matter and fpirit, they're all in the dark. 

But we, while we quafl^ are convtncM, without dabbling 
In jargon abflrufe, that we're nearer the mark : 
For while, with fage rautt*riug. 
With farcaftic fputt'ring. 
And bombadic iplutt'ring. 
They each other batter. 

Wine makes us all fpirit, 
So vaft is it's merit. 
But thofe who decline it are lumps of dull matter. 
The portraits of the Author in the various cbaradcrs he afllraoBs, 
have a certain degree of merit. 
Art. 22. The Naval Triumph j a Poemy 4to. is. Kcarfly. 
Lord Rodney has not been unhappy in bis panegyrifl. His trr- 
wmphs over Spain, Holland, and Fram;e, are celebrated in drains for 
above the mediocrity of the general run of fuch temporary effu- 
iions. Nor does the bard run into that vein of abufe againil the 
enemies of his hero fo common to partizatis, whether in profe or 
verfe. If they are noticed, it is \nth gentlenefs^and delicacy; Mr. 
Burke himfelf could not have culled from his extenfive repofitory 
of rhetorical flowers, a more elegant bouifuety than that whicQ 
the poet has prefented him in the following (lanzas ; which we giTC 
as a fpecimen of the work. 

But whofe mild form the tranfient cloud conceals, 

Her wiles have fpread to fliavle a vet'ran's fame } 
Alas ! with grief th' hitloric Mufc reveals. 

With fault'ring accents, Burke's long-honour'd namf. 
Oh how could his pure foul, enihron'd tubliroc, 
Stoop from ethereal heights, to Paflion's turbid dime ? 
He^ from whofe lips fuch elocution flows, 
As peace to ftorray fenates can impart j 
He who with foftnefs of the feathcr'd fnows 

FMls on the fenfe, then melts into the heart. ■ ■ 
Not he, upon whofe lips prophetic hung 
The cluffring bees, more fweet, or more divinely fung. 
' Twas thus the Thracian Bard, with heav*nly fong. 

Charm 'd the fierce vultures of the foul to reft ; 
And as the thrilling mufic flow*d along. 

The rocks, and hills, and groves, itspow*r confeft: 
' Fair Science dawn'd upon the favage mind, 
By EioQueace dUarm'd, by Wifdom's rules refinM. 

A few 

MqntiIly Catalogue. Political. 6^ 

A few ioaccurate rhymes, fuch as " renown throne,*' deck wake,'* 

'• OTcrthrown rhronc," may pci haps merit the Author's attentioa 

on a fecond edition of the poem. 

Art. 23. 7J^ Trial of the Honour ahU CqL Co/mo Gordon, of 
the ThtrJ Regiment of'F»wt'GuarH^^ for Ncgk^i cf Duty before the 
enemy y p« the 23*/ June, 1 780, ne^vr SpringficUi in tbcjerfcys * contain- 
ing the whole Proceedings of a General Court Martial, held at the 
City of New- York, on the aid of AugulV, and continued by 
feveral Adjournments to the 4th September, 1782. 8vo. as. 
The nature of this pilbllcation is explained by the Title ; and we 

apprehend our readers will require no farther information upon 

the topic, than the fentencc of the Court, which is as follou's. 

** The Court having confidercd the evidence for and againll the 

*• prifoner, TifE honouiiable Cosmo Gordon, together with 
. •* what he had to offer in his defence, is of opinion that he is Nor 

" Guilty. The Court doth therefore honourably acqjjit him. 

" (the (aid Col. Gordon') of the whole and every part of the 

" charge exhibited againd him." 

Signed John Campbell, Prefident. 

Stephen P. Adye, Deputy Judge Advocate. 

Art. 24. The Corre^or's Remarks on the Firfl Part of his Ma^ 

jejly^s Speech to Parliament, December ^. 8ro. js. Debrett. 
, The corrc6tor has profit uted a very conliderablc (liare of abilities 
to the vileft purpofes of difmgenuity, and raanifeft pique and ran- 
cour. The virulence and unfairnefs of his remarks recoil up- 
on himiclf. The reader is not fo much diflatisfied with any part - 
of his Majedy's fpecch, as he is moved with indignation at the 
petulance and pamon of the corrector. 

A fingle indance will give abundant credit to the juftnefs of thefe 
renuirks on this anjjry writer. 

" We find our Sovereign, fays he, in the very commencement 
** of the fpecch, tacitly declaring, that before the clofe of the laft 
^* Seffions of Parliament he had not employed his whole time in the 
*' care and attention which the important and critical conjuncture 
** of public affairs required of him." 

The Sovereign, when be meets Parliament, is not furely expell- 
ed to take an higher retrofpe^ of the public affairs than the period 
of the luil prorogation. He only gives a view of the moll material 
<iccunrences of the interval. 

Art. 25. 72j^ Recovery of .Ameriia Demonfirated, to he pra^i- 
cable by Great Britaiir, upon Principles and DeduBioris, that are 
clear^ precife, and convincing. Containing amongiiatber Matters, 
a Copy of the Outlines of a Pl^n.for re-in(lating the Britifli Em- 
pire, addrefled to the Eariof Shelburnet when si& Lordfliip was 
• One of his Majeily'4 principal Secretaries of Sute, and delivered 
to Mr. Nepean, one of the under S^retaries in the Month of 
May lad, offering to demonftrate the Pradlicabilttv of recovering 
America, and to Hiew the Immenfity of our National Refources. 


64 Monthly Catalogite. PotitiemL 

By tlie Author ; a nan 4)f no Party, who will Speedily puUifli 
an Eflay on Naduoal ReA>ur€e8. 8vo. ii* Wilkie. 
On the 28th of November 1782, an addrcis was traaTiiimcd to 
ftveral of the Cabinet Miuiftcrt, io whkb (bp addre0er oC^rcd u^ 
demonftratc the pra^licabiHty of recoi^cfiog America, and to pri>- 
duce ^ a fcale of national refouroes from one to ten nuilion ftcrliag ' 
" per annum/' 

At iio notice was taken of ibis addrefs by the min)(lers to whom 
k was tranfinitted} the Autlxor conceived thH it wa^ hi^ duty bum- 
i)ly tofubmit the iropoitant fubjed^ alluded to in the addi^eft t«o rhe 
conGderation of thie public. Ibc plan prop^d ft»r the recov-ery of 
America is briefly tKia, ^^ to fi^Ai alliances tKac would counter* 
ballance thofc which have enabled America to refiii thejjwvcr of 
Great Britain. Or, what amounts to the fametbin^, to reduce the 
Biuaopean allies of thoie iiates to the aHemaHye of a iieriliifliQq of 
them, 4>r a contravention of European intepefis. Great 0rit^i;i qaa 
obtain^ 01* even enfotrce fucb alliaooes* as long* as Hanover i^hore* 
dkary in tbe fame Sorem^^, Tht Emiperoi of Oeirmany and, the 
King of Pruflia enteitain mutual jealpulies of each otlier.« JLct Great 
Britain tfua^^k t^ maritime commerce of Prullia. Tbe king could 
retort only by attacking Hanover. Ilie inv;rfion of lianpver by 
PrulHa, with negotiations at the Courts of Vienna and Peterfburgh, 
would procure allies for Great Britain, and roufe all Europe into 
atftion. America deprived of allies, would treat with Britain 00 
terms iliort of Independence.** 

Art. 26. ADefenct of the J^ight H^MOuraMe the Lwi Shcl- 
burnt ^ from the Refroaches if ^m's numerous Enemies ; in a Letter to* 
Sir Geor^gc Savile, Bart. To \\4iich is added a Poftfcript ad- 
dreifed to the Right Honourable JoJin Earl of Stair, 5^1 Edi- 
tion. "Gvo. IS. 6d. Stockdale. 

This mock defence is a veryfcrious ancl fcvere ^ack upon Lord 
Shelbiirnc*s moral as well as poUtical character. With regard to the 
wit of this ironical performance, it is not of fhe firft rate. The 
idea of cenfuring the Minifter under the colour of defending him, is 
no very bright fancy. If the Author however is defHtute of the 
irotucal powers of Swift, he fccms to poflefs all his fe^ferity ; \i 
would, perhaps, be unjuf^ to ufe the term maifgni/y: men of the 
rooft benevolent minds are fnfceptible of the fcceneft refctitments. 
The Author is' animated with a degree of bittcrnefs againd lx>rd " 
She!lburne which is feklom, if ever infpired, hy •themere contem-' 
plation of the moft infamous clKwa^rs. It is probable that fom« 
(private ai^d particular caufe of difguiV, is in reafity, the thalia that 
has diSatcd this Iplcnctic perfbrmanoe. ^Virulence is utterly tB< 
compatible with true humour, tind the Author who profeQes to play 
and amufehimfdf'wfthXordShclburAe, in ^he courfe of rhe -ex- 
erciie, drops his m^fk, and difcovcM a countenance infiaiHrd with 
the greateft decree of Fury. 

But although irony is *by no'meatw^the ftrength of this writw", ?he 
neirher wai}ts jxwcrs of -exprdfion, nor variety of knowledge and 
tn^rmatton. He focms to *bc w«ll acquainted with the views of 
Minifters, and great p6litic^l ^hera^rs of 'th4Scounti^viMMito:have 
tjcen indulged with a ptep bcbiod tbe curtaini io {oa» late changes 


M047TBLY Catalogu:^. P^$kal. 6$ 

IB AdmimAration. The moft eatetttining, imd tbc befi executed ptit 
^ of thi$ peiformaoce is»t contrail between thecbara^ors of LordShel* 
bwne and Mf . Fox :-^the firft is diiltBguifhed as artificiali fslfc^ 
ctiAgi^g^ ^iid. leniiporkui^; the fecond as plath, honefl, bold, con* 
flaniy and proud : e«t we mud refer the reader to the |pRamphlet itfelff 
iMch h iHidoubiedly fpii4ted and entertaining. A pofttenpt ii ad« 
dfdicdta the finrlof Stair^ hi which the i^thor.charges that noble* 
OMlki with ineonfiftettcies both in his writings and in his condu^; and 
«nth hetng t frrend to the Earl of Shelburne and the Earl of Bu/ff 
Ail £7. jf Short but Stritms Replj to, the J&thor c/ a [mock] 

Defimce of the Earl ef She&wriUy frem^ the Reproaches rf his nu» 

mervus Enemies. In a Letter to Sir Ge^^ Sarille, Bart. In*. 

tB&ded to present Prejudicei and to es^tOtfeMftKgBity and Decqn 

tion. IS. Bell. ^ 

The writer of this reply chafgtt the Author of the mock defence 
^ with a total ignorance of Lonl Shdharne, his perfon, his ways of 
'* thinking, his pobKc and private Tiituts* oonne^Hons or fViends*^ 

The performance before us is written in a feeble manner, and 
heaka not any nkfks of high powers either of reafon or imagination* 
Nbvtrtbeleft th^ Author confuted, his anta^onid (in jlome' in* 
fbinces at lead) by a plain tale, and convi£ls him of ignorance and 
want 4af cabdour* 

Art- 28* jtWord^Penrtinr. To the Earl of Shelburne. is. 


Hm; Atithor of this Word tnfinuates that he is a pedbn of fomo 
diftindictti^ by alluding to ^' a conTerfation which he had, (on a 
** Tery iiradrunt fobied,) with one of his lordibins moft intimate 
^ tvMt fnbtids«'' From that conTer&tion he underibod that the 
(mdUettoA of the Court was ilill as ftrong for the profecution of 
the American war, as e^er it bad been in the Adminidratron of 
iMdlf^th^ and that Lord Shelburne upon difcoTering this '^ ml* 
** ing paflion,^ to be unconquerable, and the tenure of office to 
\ft dSpa&dent upon ft, was diipofed to adcmt and gratify it. And 
that hU Lordihi]^ by wa^ of vindicating fo palpable a contradiAion 
to all his foi'mer %eeches in Parliament, had hiid '^ that it was no 
^ more than what the late Mr. Pitt had done, when in contradidion 

* 10 his former declarations hi proiccuted with great tigour, and 
*• .at great expence, the Oennan war.** 

TromXht^ peftklaia the Author reafons : and (hews that there 
Ms as littk tmilogy between the German and American wars, as 
there is droilitude oetween the characters of the Earls of Chatham 
stod Shelburne. He charges Lord Shelburne v^ith duplicity, with 
-aam>wneis df capacity, and with paying court to the Scotch and the 

Arc ^9. Fa^ «nd their Confefmehces^ fubiHitted to the ConJuUra^ 
(ioM of the Puhlk at large ; but more farticidarly to tfjat of the Ft' 
naMce Miiufier^ etui of tbofe who are^ or mean to hccome Creditors to 

• the State. By John Earl of Stair, is« Stockdale. 

The grand coticlufion, or conieaoence, which Loid Stair draws 

from the bA% he Hates, is, that fifteen millions is thb rery lead fum 

tbtd ilHIt be requfatd jretrly 10 carry on the adminiftrati^ of Oo* 

* E ' var»- 

66 MoNNTHLY Catalogue FoUtual. 

remroent in times of peace, and this on a fuppofoioti that peace cvs 
be procured in«the cotirfe of 178^9 and without difcbarging one 
larthing of the principal of the natiogal debt, or eytn making large- 
p^rovifions for contingent expencrt of imp^nancrr This, iiit Lord* 
ihip bbferTCSy is an awful and an alarmiug fum : ffad he c^ls upoa' 
the noble Lord at the bead of the Treafury, to expiain wbatin*/ 
ducements he has to belicTe fo large a fum can b« draws from the> 
people with failen rcpts, and a diminiflied languifhing trade ? Ttier 
Autbor is in a ytvy mehmcholy mood, and affirms that by <;oq«' 
tinuiDgthe war, nothing is to be expeded but the gseatefi diuftcrs^. 
A l^Jtng peace, he maintains, mud be infbitcly better mw^ than a 
ruinous one at the end of another unfortunate year# Should the 
prime Miniftf r cociinue the war another year. Lord Stair, though 
no part of his efiate is at a ftrained rent^ and though all <ii it pud 
fbes at the renewal of leafes« would be willing to gire a handfome ^ 
premium to any of the imderwriters of credit to infure to him for* 
twenty years to come, one half of what it at pre(ent produeesw : * 
Art. 50. Remarks upon the Report of a Peace^ in Conjefimur 
cf Mr i Secretary To-'iKnfenJ^ i Letter U> the Lerd Merf^ of LnniimJ 
Bdnl DireH&rs^ l^C4 By the Author of the Defence nf the £«rt' 
df Shclbtfrae/ u* Stoekdale* 

llscfc remarks were written during the interval between Mr.TowB* " 
fend*s letter to the Lord Mayor of Ixmdon and th^ meeting of Parli-. 
ament* The Author treats this epiftlc with juft iererity, and with 
^reat Tiracity expofes its ** four natures j via% Lacedsmonlan, HiljCr* 
^ nian, Venetian, and Carthaginian." It is Lacedemonian, he ob- 
ferves in brevity, and Hibernian in accuracy. ** Mr. Townfend is 
•♦ the right owner of thefe virtues." *' Its Venetian and Punic me* 
** rits (by which he underihinds fubtilty and corruption) chum the 
** firft Lord of the Trcafury for a parent." , 

The Author next iarraigns Mr. W. Pitt, and others for not 
leaving Adminiftration with Mr. Fox. " The principles which 
*' conftituted the baHs of the Rockingham AdminiAration weve 
•* then abandoned. War was the miniikrhil object. Nothing but 
^ the fear of lofing his power could induce him to thiok of peace.** 
After much declamation. Lord Shelburne's downfal is prognofB* 
cated. This pamphlet is written with fjnrit. But there is a turgid 
and ibcatricalivitn in the periods, which accords- indeed with th» 
exaggerations of party zeal and paffion, but , which is entirely re* 
pu?nant to the fobriety and chaflity of tafle, as well as to candour* 
and truth. 

Art. 31. Political Memoirs^ or a View of fome pf thefirfi 

Operations of the War^ after the French I^QitJkathn^ as they «u¥>rt, 

regarded hy Foreigners ^ in a Series of Papers^ with Kotcs find Re* 

JUSiions. To which is prefixed an Introdudion, 1containis( 

Thoughts on an immediate peace. 8vp, 2s. Part L Stockdal««, •*•- . 

Thefe Memoirs are compriied in feventy four oi^yo pages s but 

the pamphlet is fwclled to a conHderable iize by an Iiui'odudkm 

that takes Up exadly the fame number of pages. It is the pi;pdu€* - 

tion of a gentleman, immediately \ipon his return from the-Coi«^ 

tineot, where he had. palled fome time, previous to, and after ottr* 

rupture with France, a|id is the rcfutt ot impreffioi^f^eived from 

' . - obfcc* 

Monthly CATALoatJE. PoUtk^L 6j 

^Mnra^km aiul from coRyerfation abroad. The train of tboughc 
into which faSts and the ientiments of foreigners led this Author, 
noc betojp the inveati^ or the art of the day, ought to be received^ 
as he juttly obfenres, ^t tfic tribunal of candour* exempted from 
that prejudice that ofually afifedts occafional produc^ons* The amor 
fatriM is ncTer felt fo forcihly as iii foreign, and eipccially hoftile 
countrin* The Author of the memoirs feems to be fincerelv in* 
tereftcd in the profperity and glory of Great Britain, and to haye 
ielt during his refidence in France, the utmoft indignation and con- 
cern at the miicondud and negligence which had reduced her gran- 
deur. Yet eyen now he does not defpair of the flate, prorided the 
prefettt Mir^fter, agreeably to h;s former fentiments repeatedly 
pnbliflied by him^ in the Senate, will flop the courfe of our abafe- 
roeatf and exert the power of this great nation to wipe away 
its reproach. He adyiles to keep Gibraltar ; to pafs an su^ of the 
legifUture for placing Prince Ferdinand at the head of our army^ 
anl to hurl the thunder of war againd all our enemies. 

The fids upon which this writer reafons, ap|>ear to us to be welt 
authenticated, and his refle^ons are the genuine oiBpring of an 
hooeft Jieart. But whether his enthurllafm for the glory of England 
has not led him too eafily to belieye what he wi(hes to be true, is a 
gue(Kon that may bear to be difputed ; and which we fubmit to the 
jud gm e nt of the reader. 

Art. 32. ^ Letter if^Drfena of Mr, Fox and others-, in an*, 

fwerta Cicero^ Ludvs Cataline^ or the American Detufy, To which 

b added feyeral letters addreffed to the Prince ot Wales and the 

Liyery of London, on different occafions, of a political and im« 

portant Nature, is. Debrett. 

*• Denying a political tenure from the Spc6!ator, you fix on Mr» 
** Fox^s button, and thus miking him your captive, you roar out 
** treaibo, black defigns, confpiracy, under every button." — As far 
*' as language goes, currency pleases you, though Englifh pounda 
*• hare taught you to prefer fteryng to currency, in point of po- 
*• feffionrand national attachments. '* The flow of your periods 
^ are dexterous and well managed to prop ailertion, and keep it vp^ 
^ till a glutof conjedhire rifes tip in digedion and deipands evi- 
** dence, proof, and fome paufes of matter of fad.*' — Thefe are 
fpectmenS of the (entiment3y flile, and manner of this weak and 
contemptible writer. 

Art. 33. Thoughts on tbefrefent War^ with an impartial Re* 
^iew of herd NertPs AdminifiratioH^ in conducing the American^ 
French J Spenijhy and Dutch War\ and in the Management of Con* 
troBs^ Taxes^ the Puhlic Monp^ (sfc^ is. 6d. Dill v. 
Trtte obfervations on threacf-bare fubjedts ! Lora North's admi- 
niHratiofei is parHaily reviewed, . and feverely cenfured. But the 
Marquis of Rockingham with his friends fucceed to the old Mini- 

!^; and the Author, who. wrote during this Admbiflration, 
exprefies a confident hope that things would go on to his 
vayb. The Mux|uis with his part^r were engaged, according to 
tBit writer, ^ in a greater reformation than had taken place once 
•* die revointion.** " The bleffings of the people rcflupon thoib 
** flKft who prop our coumnr in its declining age.^. 

" E a Thii 

W MoNTHLT CatAlocue. PoEfU/^f. 

Thil writer profeflct himfetf ah adhaircr of t,ori ^t^U Tdt 

he 'fay's, ** our|><»virer flipt.from ui. through the flckl ^f oar.hihfi^ 

** Neptune fell afleep; and the tridenit wa^ ftolcn out or hU ^^^nd. 

Is t&is alTcrlioB conipatiW^ with refpc^ for Adm'irii'^Sjtpp^? .€r 

can tben^ be any other perfon to Wboin it alludes uhder tM^efii^* 

tioQ of Neptune ? ^ ] 

Art. 34^ ton/uleratim rf Yaxfj: fuhmiiud in a S/rU^ yF Ici^ 

ten U tbi Rithi Honourahk Lora Niirth^ his Mofcfiy^s Utt Trrg 

LitrJe/ the Yrrafiuj^ and Chancttkr of tie Mxc^gtter, Ifo w^icJ^ 

k preftKd, a Memorial to the T^^^ Honoiirable the iLoidl^ 

iConrmHE^ners of hli^^ MajelWIi Trcafuryi aj^d a LctUr to 

Kichord Burke, Efquire* By }.U* Sttuh^ Notary Po^blic^ dTOi 

js. W; Stockdakr* ,. ^ ' 

Sir* Staub, in a feries of letters, had pdintcd jout ip If^^ 1^9yk 

t variety of bbje£b of taxation, iini that Minifies ht. has tcziai 

to think profited by fomc of his hints^ The plans ke i^as pr9pof^ 

5 he Author thinks, have been of great fefvice to the flate^ ^.^&* 
ightening and informing the mipd of Lord Norths stuA thcreoy txr 
kibiting to Ae world a pioof of the great refoorccs ,of tbis o^patryv 
Thefe refour<;e8,.or part of them as difplayed by Mr. Sta^h^^gfttf 
lability to the fiocks, notwithibmding the iPreufh, §pan][&^ ;s^ 
t)utch wars, and the hoftilt appearance ot an armed neutrsli^ 
^d ht ailerti that from 17^; to 13 78, our ^dbHc himh fell lia^r 
one third ii^thcir "value. The Autnor in JuTlice to hrmfclf, ktid tW 
nis obfervations may be more extenfivrly ufeful, than they htfve 
jet been, thoogtit it propter to publifii his tetters, JPcrTiapsilva mag- 
nifies the imporCunce of hb plans, but be ftiillcienuy .proves, that he 
has fumilhed Lord North wkh fcveral excellent hlntjs, 
Art. 35. CbaraHers of Parties in tbs Britl/h Govemmfne. 
8vo. IS. 6d. Robfon. 

It 18 the objcd of this Author to trace the condition of pjgirties k 
England from the earlieA ti^les^to thcprefent hour. In di}s Imi^ 
career, he is not equally fortunate. Neither his itoduftry nor bis 
Wming are confiderable ; and in the remote ocrtods of l^glift 
IhiKory his information Is widely defective. He touches, in<feed^ 
upon great conflitutional poiats ; hut the vieVirs eute ruined ^oo«- 
ccrning thefe by the more dtillnguiHied hifioriaiis, antiquaries, 9^ 
lawyers, have efcaped altogether his rcfcarches and fcrutinvs Hm 
tea^nin^8 are not lupported by h£t% ^ and hia conduiions 4>roduce 
BO convid^ion. 

Thefe ftriftures while th<y apply to his kiflorical dcduffionsy re- 
fer hot, however, to his obiervations on the prefeiit times. In ihii 
divihon of his performance he is be'tkr inflrutled ; a^d indcMl the 
fourccs of information were more obvious aud certain. In 4jtoe- 
ral; It may be remarked, that he is difpofcd to be. candid; and that 
his language, though it atuins not to degancei is clear and. pep 

Since the unfortunate Admlniftratio^ of the Earl pf Bpte, It k his 
' opinion that the political fadions in England miy be cUvided hup 
tones, re|>ublicans, and whlgs ; and as a fpecimoi of his abili^ itf 
fiiall pUc^ heforc our readers bis dcfcription pf fte latter* , 


^ ft w^ thrl^ooQUf (^.(HirMrtyatthe RevQlticion» to efiabliib 
V^bcngfaft;^ eaualiy of the K-r^ nnd of the people. We have 
, i\ jilwaf s C9p£d^rcd the miiepcadence of the dlates of Parliament 
i* as.t|{c.i^yil of t^ goverojweiu^' ^rtd the "iburce of itsprofpop 
^ my* /jThQcigh the K*^s o^n 4d no no harm, ^ the MInifters of the 
•*. X-7f way J qje ihetefore thought thf ip^^tiija of thb jfunto 
5' faUfl to %eedom. It reduced tlie lyCnifier to be a cnachine in o£» 
V fice^ which a fecret, or treaionpJ^Te» as ceadDy as a wUe or p»- 
.** tnpcic h^4 wjjht direct, Wf ebdcrtaincd, hon^ver, too juft do*» 
f* tioQ^pf 9yr $:^ycreign*s* rights, to'i^ueftion his tH4c to name 
f^ Kis oxjia ]M.ini4«*s : the ipoip^nts we Jboped were for, before hii 
** jvifdofi and candpi^i: wouli^ difbo^ thia Tonr ^olifcy to be ini- 
** mical to thp interefU ot hid Crown, s^ld a deep tvoun4 in the 
y a^bdionf ^JT ^ ppo^iie^ devotee} to the H — r-n family* Guardians 
fy o( the (^^iltiitiob vhtch oai: fathers had edabliflied, we op 
i' poled innov;itjons in .l^e rights of elpdlon : though enemies to the 
.** vices of the man, we bhimed the punifhment of the Senator 

^ lyi^n a C^-;-— fj aij4 ^^ fc j^^d of Lord C m', bec4uie 

^^ he gave a free opinion oh a conilitutional quelHon, was difmi^ed 
^ from office, we could not but ivi|:hdraw all contidehce in a 
** Junto, who .Hfrere bidding to their encroachments on the legifla* 
^ ture, a violation <^ th.ejvK^icial rig;bt9f The chai>ggp of a Mi- 
*^ Qifier trould bnfy i;eca}l i^ur hopes, not our confidence : w^ flatter- 
** reiT<J oqci^Elvl^ that^ from his acknowledged merits aod honour, 
^. h^ W<*}^d be 90 lefs powerful iRith tl^e Cabinet than he was in 
^ th^ Hoiifi> ^f Com^^ns* pvr opo(ition to the American contpil, 
_** ^ran^ not froJij the fpirit of p^rty men v it wa^ dii^ajed by the 
♦* natp^e of Britlflj liberty ; a liberty which as litik allows the 
'** fuDjCift *to be taxed without his confent, as to be condemned 
*^ vfi!i^\i^ the ji|dg]»ent of l^i^ Pe^rs. If yte forebode^ thofe confe- 
**. <^uipixcei^ iKhfch nave divide^ ai}d deftroyed the empire, like men, 
** y/ffc felt for the diijjraces of our arms, zn4 were ready to re- 
•* vfpge .the:m* Wfy indeed, repoiixmended conciliatory meafures, 
^* J^fot? ' mvXual ijijwies a<id lufl^rinc^ fliould cojifinn national 
>* antipathy and bajred ; v^e df eadcd - the change ii?troducin|j 
■f* inio the jK;)itic4 lyOem of nations, by the uft of a rival po\yer, 
'** prcp^r^cTt^ {>e the iij^runK^t of France, in wreaking her ver\- 
** jejince oi> hjs ancicpt rival* B'^t when America declared her 
f • i9dcjpeadc«?Or» whcQ, ^er allianceVith France was publicly avoi>'- 
^^ jvhcn we faw the ftorm gatheri;^, whichwas to burft on our 

>? eiieH)ijS(s of Sf'tf^g) tp rum their ancieqt country, ft was not 
;^* iv>w'aqy^ftioij^ right, bif^ of power. J.f An)eri<?a (hould be 
*•* indfpe^tlentji apd iTje aup^ of France, wt concluded that Britain 
V would bf loA;. ^ W^ fa.W ow fleets and armies fci^t to a^ion; 
**♦ ^c iicard^ of inaSvhy ajwj aiftracc • with hopcft forrow. It 
** was n^ £^1 the QouAfcts pt t^iQ Jv^-g were inadequate to jheir 
^ oi^;i V^yyj^i )t was not till the <uitio.n felt their fufierings in- 
^ ' tolsrsDli^) that oifr WlK^e party tmite^ with the Republicans in- 

f 3 ".cjcfiing 

^^ Monthly CATALOCtfE. P^tleau 

•* eje^ng the Tory Minrftry. Thofc great exertions wfiicti tic 
^* tzftty ^f the i^ate required^ coaid only fyring from the people ? 
** hii M— y gave them the Mtnifter of their choice, and the 
** ▼irtuet of L--d R— — in affigned iiim thit honoarable fbi- 
•* tion. The diftreflet of the people called for peace, though their 
*^ fptritt never can yield to mean conceffione. We wilhed to recaU 
•* our ancient allies the Dut<;h : we negtxriated with France ; we 
** yielded to the neceifities of the times, and acknowledeed the in* 
^* dependence of America, But becauie we accepted the- confi* 
*^ dence of our Sovereign, the Republicans h^ve pronounced us 
^* deceitful and infamous : the nation is to be implored to punilh 
** our infolehce, for darine to thinlc our talents or our public vir- 
•* tues equal to theirs. We pretend not to forefee events, nor to 
^* what humilities the calamities of our country may reduce it : we 
** can only promife unremitting ardor in reformmg finances, in 
** checking corruption, and in promoting merit. We fhall confider 
** it is our duty and our glory rather to jperiih in defending the tcr- 
'* ritories, the rights, and the boBour of Britain, than to iurviTC 
•* them." 

— " Heaven and earth will witneft 
** If Rome muft fall, that we are innocent. 
Art, 36. Narrative of Lieutenant General ^tr Henry CRnttK^ 

K. B. relative to ^is ConduH during Part of bis Command of the 
.. King*s Troops in North America ^ particularly to thaf^ieb refpeBs 

the unfortunate IJfuc of the Campaign in 1781. With an Appendix* 

containing Topics and Extracts of thofe Parts tfi his Correfpon« 

dence with Lord George Germain, Earl Comwallis, Kei^ 
. Admiral Graves, &c. which are referi;ed to therein. €ro« 2s. 


This Narrative is authentic ; and has been occafioned by the 
cenfures which have been made fo ftrongly and fo repeatedly upon 
the condud of General Clinton. But while it demonftrates that 
acrimonious expreffions have been employed with regard to 
him, it is by no means a complete vindication of his military opera- 
tions. It throws a clear and fteady light upon fome faas which 
the public is intereiled to know ; but it leaves others not lefs in^por* 
tant in a ftate of imperft6tion and doubt. The friends of the Ge- 
neral will pcrufe it with fom& apprehenHons, that his meafures were 
not fufficiently vigorous ; his enemies will perceive its weak 
places, and point them out ; and the public will htffitatc to pro* 
nounce the uniform propriety of his behaviour. 

As a literary compofition, this performance is hot etititled \p 
commendation. The great generals of antiquitjr could ufe their 
pens and theik* fwords with equal addrefs. But this defcription will 
by no means appl^ to modem commanders. The Narrative of Sir 
Henry Clinton is inelegant and fomctimes ungrammatici^l | fxA 
though many difpatches appear in the Appendix to it, they are ail 
in this refpe(ft, equally dete6Hve and cenfurable. 
Art. 37. J Letur to the Firfi Belfaft Company of VoTurUetn 

in the Province of Ulfier. Fy a Member of the Brltifli Parlit* 

mcnt. IS. 6d. Dcbrett. 
^ The* Author of this letter Iji of ODioioDy that yf^ft th^ repeal 


MoNTHtY Catalogue. Political. 71 

x>T the Declaratory A6t be followed by an exprefs retiunciation of 

the right to bind .Ireland, by Britifli A£b of Parliament, Iceland 

neither will, nor ought to be fatisfied. The repeal of the Decla« 

ratory A^ was but a canftruHivi fecurity to Ireland* It was not 

dirtH* If [an exprefs and dired fecuricy was to be |iven to A« 

<Dcrica againil the cocroachments of a power which uie dreaded^ 

ivhy, the Author afks, was a conflfu^ive one deemed fuflkient for 

ireland ? 

^ Thb little pamphlet is written ib a fpirit <^ great candour and 


jArt. 38. A Letter iM the Lord Vifcount JS^aucbtrnp^ Upon the 

SubjctSt of his Letter to the Firft Selfaf^ Company of Volunteers 

inihe Province of Ulder* 8vo. zs. Debrete. 

The Writer of this letter charges Lord Beaucharop with revivincr 
u anxietyy which^ in confequence of the tranfa£uons jof the laft 
icffions ok the ParJiaments of both kingdoms, had in a great meafure 
rublided. He proceeds to point out fome miflakes in lus Lord(hip*s 
performance, " which" he fays, " would alrooil lead one to fup- 
j>ole him unacquainted with the grounds on which the refpeftiTe 
partizans for a repeal qr renuDciation (the great queftion that has 
for ibmctime agitated Ireland) have carried on that controverfy." 
' The icope of -this pamphlet is to Oiew, that the people of Ire« 
land expe^ed indeed, that £ngland would retrad its claim of bind« 
Ing the fiikr- kingdom : but that the right of binding her they ne« 
ycr ackiMwiei^ed, aod therefore never required that it fhouid be 
Tenounced. The Author afferts, that however columns of Volun- 
teer Refolutions may alarm common readers of Irifh papers, unac- 
quainted wUh the real ftate and temper of the country ; thofe who 
have opportuni(ics of beine informed, mufl be well conriticed, that 
the bui^L of the nation counder their objc^ as obtained, and wiili to 
fee a perfed redoration of that harmony between the kingdoms* 
.which thev feel to be the intereft of both* Whether fo vaft a ma* 
Jority of the Iri(h nation are fatisfied, that by the repeal of the 6th 
of Ueoree^ the Firfl, the Britifh Parliament has furrendered the 
'claim topind Ireland ; or that a formal renunciation of fuch a ri^fac 
jox claim is the general, wifh,o£Jreland is f, matter concerning which 
;we pretend hot to decide : .politicU arithmetic is a very difficult fub- 
^©ft. . With regard to the fubjeA in quciUon, the Irifli nation arc 
evidently divided. £v^fy man. calls the circle of his own acquaint* 
ancif the world. ,Hcnce many miilakes in politicks. Thole per- 

tnsivith whom the, writer oi the letter conyerfes, maybe fatislied 
at enidu^h has been done for Ireland. Lord Beauchamp*s friends 
'jure qf a difEerant^ooinion*: a»d they hafe ezprelTed their jealoufies 
yi*Ji yc^ ofjCQ an4 dkeS mannec . 

''-'-'.'■■■■• :■'-' ' -; =. . 'E* '■ , For 

. . .i ' ( 111 ^ . ■ ' 

.TKf fc tbmgst^l licreafter, in the annals of tBe ftage,'rifc io jisJgfl 
^^pisil the Manaf^r of Covent Garden, it is pleaded, atiopeiitfi^ 
mhh truth, that they ha^e not been done in the fjnrit of oppreffioo, 
iHtt ta retrench what were deemed fuperiluities, in order to embcUUh 
-cltenttals: if fuch was the motive, k was narrow and ill-fidvifed ; die 
C3ti^ was inadequate to the tWeA t or if depredations mnft be eom- 
■utled, let them fall on the rich and not on the poor ; on the siAor 
whole falary is enormous, and not on him whole income will aot 

STmit him to make the appearance his fitiiation demands. Mr. 
arris* fpares no cxpeticey however, to attrad the notice of tke 
t^WR, and therefore merits that foccefe he in general obtains* 

Wilh rei|)e6t to the Performers during the Uft fcaibn,' there was 
no remarkable change, except that Mrs. Crawford abruptly, broke 

• off a negociatien with the Proprietors of Drury Lane, which thejr 
' iappof<S concluded, and went to Dublin^ whore her fucceft im» 

Ttnr inadequate to her hopes* 

It remains then to take a Tiew of the new pieces that were ptarod 
nt each houfe, their merits^ and their fuccefs. The fum total of aU 
mcrc^ including Tragedy, Comedy, Opera, Farce, and Pantomiav^ 
fixtcen ; two of which were alterations, viz. Jupiter and AIcinei|«v 
an opera from the Amphitryon of Drydenj and the Scots Padoiai 
called the Gentle Shepherd, reduced to an after-piece. Let tis begin 
with the tragedies.. 

The firft of . thefe was the COUNT of NARBONNE^ bronrfit 
««t at Covent Garden Theatre on the 17th of November, xtSi* 
The fable is founded on a Gothic Romance called the Caille of 
Orranto, written by Mr. Horace Walpole, and famous for t^ forte 

• with which it ej^ates the paflion of terror. The Author . of the 
.piay tn qneftion » Mr. Jephfon, before known to the poetioil 
and theatrical world, by bis tragedy of Braganza. In this an* 
fira^of the bufine^ of a whole fea&ii aaexamen Aifficiently cb* 
pious to do juflice to; the author and to criticifm, cannot be ex- 
Deeded ; a general charaifler of each piece Only will be. attempted. 
In the fable of the Count c^ Narbonne there is a radical error, 
which fcarcely any degree of genius could overcome : the unhappy 
f fcnts are aU in confequencc of a prophetic curfe, impending over 
the Count ami his race^ an4 conttnuaHv ratified by^ prodi^^ies, tdrt« 
xtngt an ambitious murder committed oy the Coiini'a faiher. ^Qie 
prt^iit age is lefs difpofed to miraculous credulity than aKy4>f^ 
pad ; fhe mind in ^itc of itfclf is ilill running to. probabmty,. aad 
when once it loics fight of t^at, fufpence.and ai^xiety are I0& atfc. 
Fa^ is. the cmfeen ageiH that proauces .Che i tragical incidents .in 
this poem ; herdecrees are amiounced in the firfl fcene, and repiofl^ 
ed in almod every (bccecding one : the imagination.. therdoni^ 
loon convinced that the cataflrophe muA unavoidably be .uofefltti- 
iKite and defini^HVe to the Count and all his family. .There aim ft* 
veral other defe^ in the plot which. re(tard and perfdeXithe ^araiL 
There arc t^o very a£Hve perfontiges, Godfcev add IfidbeLlthat 
never ap|>ear, this is. a wao^utk artifice jateticlea to produce "OVfi* 
eity, but it gex^erallyji:^ tjbe^contrary effea;:itentangk|(jwWrit 
16 mcai^to nnt^.; .l}ie#Q can te i^p.rcaibn given. aihj^lkdeliiUe 


TTkstn. ^S 

flKNiU not acquaint her fjatber with the generom Valoor of The* 
odore wheo he refcoed her from a band of outlaws ; qay, 'there b 
every reafon why fbe ihould, except that it was tQconvenient to 
the poet. In the third a6t the auditor is fprccd into a belief that 
inevitable death muft be the fate of Theodore, from the furiouA 
and implacable Count, the executioners' are Drepared^ the youth is 
brou'ght in, his enemy hears what encreaies his rage, yet is the 
Count's vengeance deferred. The paffion moft incited is horror, 
which is too painful a one to be dwelt upon and reiterated : the 
Uft fcene is peculiarly horrible. With ail thefe erfors the poeM 
has a great deat of merit, the language is iTrong, and the feeling 
are often powerfully awakened. The character of Theodore ^ 
ftrikingly happy in the firil (bene, and that *of Auftin would have 
been a noble one, had not his fentiments fo frequently been inter* 
^r(ed with fuperflitious omens and religious dogmat, which have 
certainly an ili-efife^ in the mouth of a confifient and elevated cha* 

The other tragedy, for the feafon produced but two, was ths 
FAIR CIRCASSIAN, played at Drury Lane, and written by Mr* 
Pratt, lately ktiown to the literary world by the name of Courtney 
Mefmoth. It is remarkable enough that two novels, which derive 
all their great cffc6b from fupernutural agency, iliould afford fa- 
btes for tragic poems, where the mind is diliatisfied if any thing ii 
improbable ; and flill more remarkable that they (hould both be 
produced in one year. The Author of the Fair Circalfian being 
obliged to rcje^ the machinery of the romance therefore was im- 
ped^ by tbofe parts of the dory, which the afHflance of thia ' 
machinery could not be made conliflent. No '^nius thunders lol 
the Theatre, and pronounces ** Fate has decreed Almoran to Al- 
meida,** but a weak artifice of a prieft and a fcrowl are fubftituted, 
inadequate to the cffe(5t, and bordering on the ridiculous. No Ta* 
lifman a£^uallv changes the form of Almoran to tfcat of Hamct^ 
but a (imilar drefs is procured, and the audience and Almeida may 
fuppofe Almoran to "be Hamet if they can. The changes of Al- 
moran's temper in the play, from ferocitv t^ forgivenefs, from ha^- 
tred to friendlliip, and from frienufhip to hatred again, are 
too fuddcn for nature or credibility. In fa^, the Author, had ib 
Many difficulties to encounter, cither by the choice of, oradher- 
ing too flridly to Dr. Hawkcfworth*s talc, that we venture to pre* 
dia he would have fucceedcd better, had he endeavoured to have 
been more original. The great merit of the play is, the ilrength 
of fentrmcnf, which,* in the three firft adh, is io frequently and 
feely displayed : truth, however, obliges us to add, that many of 
thefe fentiments are the legal property of the novellift, and not 
of the dramattft, though the latter has with great judgment bold- 
ly brought them forward,, and placed them in a' forcible and (Irik- 
ing point of view. When we fay that fentiments are difplayed in 
eny performance with great force, it ncceflarily implies a fupc-^ 
rior power of difHoo, which in ^tfie Fair Circaffi;m is often appa'- 
ftnt. The reverie, however, is fometimes the cafe. After Ca- 
led| at ihc ehdof che firfla*^, has inflamed the paffionf pf Akno* 

»n dU ha oofifents to tkc rQMr4tfr of \\i bfotUr, ke (Cakd) cav» 
daifiWf .?» . . ... 

**'0h glorious tin ulftfiDti!-*Byyoi»hta¥C» 
7 li^^t ambition 01 my Mi^t^i hlaju f 
Tht foM\ of Cnlcd cafvhes fif'f from his 'f. ' 
1 rifc, 1 tpwcr to do forw: noble deed 
Thatthe imperial Almoranftiall fix . 

Secure; uncroudej on hjs i-^ghtful thnme.** 

To ibj5 rpefi4?b« wbich certainty apptoachcs'lhe utmoft Uiml» q{ 
Ib9n)t>fiil9 a iikic fucceeds thai Cbroaiiahotootbologo» himielf n^c^l 
^t be aflifmiied to Adopt. 

*' l?bcn ^ke a rith. rewaud," exclaims Almoran, and ercrjr one 
lAippofct lie i»«ii$ lo give the miniiUr of his pleafures and bit 
yeMenji;^* and who ii going to riik li£c and fsime^ fpul and body fo* 
Kif. iet?ic^ 4 lungdtiin at leaft. 

•* Then,tajcea rich reward — tly klng'temhrace.^ 

And then the king and Calcd kup each other. Surely the poecwim 

Srrivviggcd Xvith &ow the bald pate mounlainst never cTceedo4 
i.l« 1 lu6 is not noticed to infult or give the Author poiot bat 
Y> make him noore cautious^ for a few iuch errors woold damn i 
better tragedy thafi has been btcly written. Tlie Fair CircaiC^ 
1^18 brought Q^t ign c^e 27th pf Noretnber 1781, the b^m» day tfa^ 
paiUan;ent met, to which an^l the fuccefs of the Veftri^ a very wittjf 
and weUtlined epilogue ailiade4« Both thefp tragedies ^zA « conil? 
4craMe run. - 

The firfl comedy tjifs feafon wa* DUPLICJTT, wriircn by Mc, 
J^krott* a Cocnedian belotxging to Drury Lane Theatre, t^ougli 
bis. play waa performed at Coven( Garden. There has not bsen ^ 
coise^ wixhiA the menjiory of man, in which the denouement bai^ 
been (o artfully concealed^ and the fufpence and anxiety of t!hp ao* 

DerfcfUy a^walfe. y\^t moral pf tljis piece is as ex^ellenc as |he i«r 
1^^ aAu jwefe men to be reafoncd out of thfcir paffi^ii^, tni|i pla^f 
/night hope to ip^ke cox^ver^s from the gan^ipg-tabk. lPlter« ]f| 
}]\0weyer, a very capital error in the coniiftcncy o? §ir Kb^rfy Portr 
J^fJ*^ di^Xfi^ter^ H^, by the nature of the Uble, o^fjtjt fofcr f 
jpnfig p^ of t|ie mpft Ubefa^ principles, and the ibri^Wl equity t 
g^ is fp» e^pr ii^ on^ i/a(^9e, .^Ivch v^^tic^ l^ ? tV^^^ »^^4 
of pccy^iei^. V Tk\f young ^ntjpman, though' he pojQc&s tbe ntcef| 
jeijfe' of ^io^MwV„ Cfmdqf9cndf ^fti^T \lq ^as lolVl>is 91^ io^ai^ ^ 
, iole fu3, filter's Ukeivit^e, and to involve j^er,: aa he fupp^a, ia trsojr 
• j^aUp'riy^K No i^j^ij wiih'$ir ttarry's feelings Ci^ld 4p 44% 
mscfould anyvAjiroma^ like C^ajrt^ (his ^ijtrefe)^ ^rg^vf iuch a <Mf- 
.jH^pupUe YJoIaUp^.of ^i^cipl^.' , The pUy if,' i)^,ifb|fta4d$y|^ 
^ very powerful eior.t of ffenjus, find the circumitincsf^ s^^i^i^^ 
^xk^ ix$ ^uthor 2^re. rf njark^bli:. jpuff/c/iy wi^s broug,lit o^ iti u!f 
-WAW^^paitof thf :fc^.j?n the ijt^ of^piSjcpliJX i|l}/, bt^ 

Thatf$. >> 

Wen Ac (JitiicAs W«l* rtturncd from riifc Watering Plocea, wttifk 
Hte erf nmgs were kmgi and the^towa ifas empcy: ahd^ thMigtl 
Wen recehr^d, was not permitted as ig^ and ever kas b(3en u Aial in fHch 
^fesy totake its run while the curiofity tff thctoiwiwtts alilrc, b«c*v«i|- 
an the firft nvght of refirefentatioD, ^iKHtfct play will tidVeitiaMi at the 
bottom of the plav-bilU for the neirt night. In (hofit thbtsgb tvtrf 
perfon fpoke highly of the cortiedy. It WW fuffered to i!wtndleibC6 fdtf«- 
^cfiilnefs, and has neveir lince been attended to by^thfe 9![:mtg^. The 
plavcrs fav; no fach liberty durfthave been taken with afty p«tttifi])t' 
kad Dot been himfeif a playen The writer of th A ccmted^ il <»q« . 
W ^ofe who, felf-cducated, rife by the eBbftir «f '^thftrm^^ ill* 
^\x&ry^ and fupteridr faculties, from igD<Si*aAce aft4 :6m:afity ksto t^i*. 
niatiott. The Author of the EaH of £f^ ^k^ a Bricklcryets th* 
IfUtthor of Duplicity ia, or father was, a ^toettiafker. Tb^i^ #h# 
«rc fond of <^fcrving nature in all her bperatlont, Bnd iio TiAait 
«muieroent in tracing to what e?:tent, to Whjft degree of ^xctlifert^ 
d>Ql>y her own exertions can anive. ^ 

WHICH IS THE MAN, written by Mrs, Cbwk^, w«r th« 
ttcxt comedy this feafon produced ; it was played, for the fitd dm^ 
on the 9th of February 1782, and was well rtc^I^ed; As it has 
kkot yet been printed, neither its beauties nor hs dcfe^ Ihake ft 
"berrna a ent an impreffion, nor allow fuch ccrttimty to cnticifm, lA 
tttfiire and cpol refie6lidp gite. Stage rrprcfcntation howtver m 
ttiffident -for a chara6fcr of the piece, To fhbrt and gtlrfersl as thk 
hduft neocflitrily bfe. The moft marking d^ftah In Which h ihh MaA 
hreicebleDe(s of t>lotandchara£ler. The intereft is (b ec^imlly' di* 
Tided between the aflairs of Julia, ficTville, and Fitjfhefbert in t^ 
IccDC, and Lord Sparkle, Lady Bell, and B^a\SchartP»p in f^ »Wt^ 
^that the mind cannot attend to either Of th'tiw, Cbnfehnently »* 
neat cffe£t can be produced. Add to this, there is the ii^imi- 
Srance of the two Pendragons, by Which the ihatn defign i? not at 
Ml fotwatded, but they are brought on merely to ht laughed a#i 
Which purpofe, it is true, they effe<5l, and fomctimei vtty fortiMy> 
^ough they arc eridently nothing mofe than a fccond editibh of 
fSq'Uire.TuriiBull ahdhis fid^er, in the coftiedy of Duplicity. Solil^ 
lAe iart has tht AOthor uftid^o keep her intentions fecr«,' arfd ^vt 
ttc denioiiement its prbpcr e^6t, that the comedy can fcai^dy ht 
liud to be any thing mbre than detached fceufe^, "Which tcavc noavt^ 
^^^ concernlh|^ the fUture. 

GriginalVty of charaftcr is in fhefc days, an ^xccedln^riy dHliei^It 
faft, /l!o which- few, very ftw are equal, and therefore ^the Wattt isf 
5t muft he ranked aroong^the Venial fins of the -posit c but n«^ <bv 
tonf\ifion of ch4ntifter. To nxakc eachperfwi iH^the drama eotifil^i 
. httC, and fpeak nothing but what is probable atiid mt^ral- for oftt 
Wii his habhs ii!Ki turh of thinkihg to f]^kV'5s, W o^tght^o be 
jt^firf^, bccaufejtisthemoftefferiti^l \lHity <# the dvafmtttitc am 
TThe ^ind can tnftantly f!y vfrith the Utmofteafe "from hence to lo- 
%a, and though Upon lipfledion, 6r going with pireconctived ojpi* 
Kdna*. it ffioap p^cefve the abfurdlty of fuppofi^ foch a fiidden 
Vv^atiott ffeal ; jrct, this is by no iiflfeans 10 paSiflil a feAliltba 
its a WwM recctvc, from hearing a fenfihltahd fB«tM •brad g^mU^ 
- . * ' maa 

J% Theatre. 

man hilk ifl the language of St. Gilcs'^, or ttf licar hhn one 
meot. malLe fome rery judicious and pertincDt remark, and die 
next nttcr fomc jmerile conceit. Propfiety of fentiment, propnc* 
ty of word<9 that is, piropriet/of charader, (hould be ftudicdwicha 
Rioft minute attentiooi for the true critic would far rather bchoU 
the (ame perfon an infant and an old man in the fame pla^i^ tiua 
be peilered with charaderiilic incont^ruities. 

Let it not be fuppofed however, that we have a malevolent wUh 
fobhUl the wcll^arned laurels of Mrs. Cowley. Her comedy^ 
though defe^ve in thefc ini^ances^ has great merit in others. In- 
deed her particular excellence in this, as in. all her writings, is 4 
brilliancy of thought and an agreeable playfulnefs of imagmatioOy 
which are the true chaTa^riilics of genius, and though Ihe never has^ 
and tt may iafely be prcdi^dt never will add to her performances 
the fuperior pleafure otawell conceived, (Irong, andconneded foble, 
yet file has pnade large amends by lively dialogue, fpirited fcenes^ 
and happy uncxpjtdled turns of wit. It mufl likewife be obf<^rvd^ 
^the little plots ot intrigues of the detached fcencs in her comedkt 
have frequently a verv good efFcd. 

On Monday the 35th of the fame month was performed at Drurj- 
Lane, a comedy, called VARIETY, the author unknown. Th^ 
^icce had tvcry theatrical afiiilancc ; it was ad^ed by the befi comedi^ 
ans, and in the bcft part of the feafon. That it was not damned is t 
proof of the lenity of the audience ; that it wa? with difficulty dragged 
through its nine nights with thefe advantages) is an internal evidence 
of its own imbecility. The chara^er of Morely is an imitation of 
Lc Philofophe Mane by Mr. Nericault Dcilouches, a French comtc 
poet of great excellence. There is fo little to prailc in Variety* 
that had it been confiftent with our plan> it would have remainea 
nnnotked here. 

Tlie next and laft comedy jhis feafon was the WALLOONS^ 
written by Mr. .Cumberland, aiKl played at Covcnt Garden for the 
^rft time on the 20th of April. The Walloons, though it has 
not yet been pMblillied, has fo many obvious peculiarities, that there 
^s no difficulty in giving a genersd charadler of the piece. An4 
firfi*, it is an abfolute folecifm to call it a comedy, for its fable Is 
deeply tragical ; though it mufl be confeifed Melpomene is placed 
in a very ridiculous attitude. Daggcrly, of whom Jack the Painter 
feems to have been the prototype, is talLcn off ^e (lage to be haw* 
ed ; and Sullivan, a dill more atrocious, more infufferable villain, is 
brought back to undergo the fame fate. In the firfl night's rq>refenr 
tation indeed, he was permitted to efcape, but this was fo nag^rant 
a breach of all poetical jullice, it could not be endured, Cha* 
racers fo diabolically, fo ileadily, and fo condfbntly wicked as 
that of Sullivan, if anv fuch charadters exifl, are by no means fit 
to be ib publicly helo up to view : they are dangerous, they are 
difgufting, they are degraoing : and how Mr. Cumberland could 
think of letting fuch a deteftable being go off tiiumphant, which he 
at firft did, is truly ailoniAiin^. No man who had ever obferved 
the warmth of benevolence whtch is fo predominant m this Au« 
thor's Weft Itt4ian> and Failuonable Lover, could have fuppofed i^ 


j^BUe for him to bave wnttcD fuch a chan^r or Tdch a piece** 
Xlie ^der Belfiekl in his firft comedy, it is true, might ^lairn (orae dif-^ 
pwit kindred with SulliTaoy thou|^bio Mr* Cumberland's praife be* 
it ^kes, k is a very diidant otic indeed* There is likewise a mat . 
fimilarity between his comedy of the Ennhers and this of the Wal- >, 
looas : ttie Dangles and the Doves are of the fame &inily, bat 
the defeandants have greatly degenerated. The young &ilor toa- 
b an illegidmate fon of old Iiron&des. The groupeof d:ara(fbrs ia ', 
this play with few excepcionft, is a colle^on of villains, fools, and 
pto^tiites. Tire girl that Daggerly introduces to Sir Sok>moo*s 
£unily is fo (haraelefe a hufley, that (he goes off the flage for pur* > 
p^es which no perfon can mifiake, with tliroe or four (we (^ixcficr 
hma neraory) di&rent men. Her language, on the fir^ tiight^ 
was aliBoft as indecent as her condu<fl ; they are both dill fufficieot- 
ly i;^HioiM. How the Author of this piece, who has lon^ been 
accuSooied to the refmed and elegant manners of polite lite, and 
v^ has had much experience too aa a dramatic writer, how ^ 
coi^ fuppofe fuch a fable, fuch fentiments, fuch charaders, and 
fach manners, as the a>medy of tht Walloons exhibits, would give 
pkafure to any perfon whom /j< coiild have an ambstion to pleafc« 
JS periedly unaccountable. Imbecility is not, however, in this cafe 
as ID the lafl, a charaderifUc of the play ; had the fame degree 
of ibtngth and genius been employed upon an innocent and agreea* 
lie fobjcd, the piece would have met, becauie it would have nw- 
rified, mdalntable applaufe. 

Tfaeoriginat three ad operas of la ft feafon were. The CARNU, 
CAN, but as neith^ of thefe have been printed little can be i^d of 
then. The firft was the production of Mr. Tickle, the author of 
Aancipation, a pamphlet that had raifed great expectations in the 
puUk refpe6ting his .dramatic abilities, more efpeci ally as he had 
nvried the 6fter of Mrs. Sheridan, confequently enjoyed the be« 
nefit of Mr, Sheridan's advice and iaffiftance, whofis tame among the 
votaries of Thalia, ranks the higheft in the kingdom. The Carnival 
of Venice by no means anfwered the high hopes of thoie, who had 
made (he wit and iattre of Anticipation a ftandard for their opi<r 
nions. Let us do the Author the jUllice^ however, to fay, that the 
l3rrk part .was ht fuperior to tht unmeanb£[ rhimes that are ufuaUy 
oompoied for muiic«, 

Tlic Banditti, written by Mr. O'Keefe, was played only ono 
a^t, the fenfe of the audience (which was univerllil indignation, 
at fadi an unmeaning farago of quibbles* and conundrums) irns 


* Take the following as a fpecimen : 

My fine little woman well met 
Por fuppcr pray what can I get ? 
I*ve fearchM the houfe round 
And noth'.ttg I've found 
S\»t fffmefbing is better to cat. 

to mmre. 

^mii^ly ciHifill^m ^ih \\kt ttm fpiric of liberdl ttid impartidl ^* 
ttotfiA. How thit hnp bf inc&tifiitdnd06 cahie U be agtafu ftdpoM 
H]^ the town u^der anorber ti&mc^ vnd how tfab towA w<rm ift* 
danced to run after thft difgrAcc to liremture and the T*htfatre, nufy 
Hflbrd futtjc^ 4>f dnquif y heFtafMr. 

•rtie *>rcgoi*i|^ OperHl werfe both brought out before ChriClitiM ? 
the FiUr Am^rfetri was not fo feminate. It'wis not perfoiwipd till 
the iStt) of M^y, a time of the year when tiiene art little . hoMsi^ 
ah Author, It was however exceedingly luclw in one cireumft^Bfct i 
it was playedat Drury Lane Theatre for theiirft time on t1<e Ytty 
day When the new* an-ived of the great haVal vtaory ^bt^ed by 
Admiral Rodney ot6r the French fleet in the Weft Indies*; «ttd ^Mie 
of th^.princij^l chara^efs in th'6 opera being jin tAdmiral^ there 
h>]»pened a prodigious nuhiber of things in the diak^^ tliat %are 
apropos to tnt moment of joy and t^<^ry^ and Wtre applauded hf. a 
happy audience^ who ^med Imcapable btexpreifing tlicir high ftnlb 
of gratitude^ wh^n any thing ccflDjilitlictiiary was fiiid of naval officen 
or a&irs. This pMt an appearance of vafl fuccds and exceflbe 
rterit to the piece, that it neither deferv«d^' nor bad iben^fth to 
maintain. Except fome plcafing h^guage from the yootig liAf 
who gare the title to thfe opera, thtre Was little of the AutfatrrS to 
cOmmend. Admii^l Dreadnoughr, though lie ipeaks^the very kh* 
^agcof feji^ollct, i^« fecbJe trawfoript of Commodore Tr^ooienk 
Mr. Balei wh^om the critic of the daj^ cried up as a woftderfal bftnt 
of originality, is an imitation, and in many places h Ittehd dfeQ» 
of Lump in Shadweirs cothedy ca4h3d A true Widow. Mr^ Pi- 
lo0, (he Author of the Fiiir Anterican, ftems not tb jplac^ a fuffid^ 
ent depchdence on his ^vn genhis ! he has even condelceoded 16 
imittite theeqfuivoquesof Mr. O'Kcofe, infltad of etoStavburinf to 
etigage the paffions, and follow nature, truth, «nd i^robiibHityi 
Let this cenfure be xinderdood as k is meant. Mr. O^Keefe ai a 
farce writer has great (were it not for his obfcemty, we might ixf 
WoBiierful) merit ; but mtift never wink any higher: atiekft, not 
tin his tafte and ji^dgfment are exceedingly reformed. lifr. Piloia 
therefore, or any other Author, who in thie more elevated (p6des 
of thfc drama, Ihall debafc his wnthigs by cottfintiiaAly ih-anoing at 
jHm8» ouibbles, and <^qurroqocs, molf not eatpodt orktcifol flioall 
CDi^tammate herfelf by approving what i« a diiVrace to thepoec, ^ 
audience, and the age. Mr. P^lon has occabonally, both in ^ 
piece under prefant^^OnfideVation, and in others, difpfafed powm 
that h^ay lead us to hope for bettor things, tvhen bs ftuUl fuffitr cai^ 
induflry, and corre6tion to adb^late with geftint. 

VERTUMNUS and POMONA was an operatical aftcr-piccc 
brotsght out .at C^vMit Gar da n , that was oaly ^played three jushts. 
It was deficient in humour and incident but the poetry was abq^ 

In which the Author anxious left his Readers ihtitild not under 
fland this very excellent joke, printed, as we have done, the words 
fomething and nothing in Italics. ^ , 

The words of the fongd were prlntedr 


7%eaire. 8 1 

The new ferccf of tkis fcafon were the DIVORCE^ the POSI* 

Tfcc firil Uras written by Mr. Jackman, ifid firas perfontted at 
Dnury Lane November 1781. TJie bcft thing that can be faid of 
tbb 18, that it contains a great deal of farcical humour, and was , 
mo& excellent^ plaved : but the Author forgot hunfelf Art ngel^rf 
wbcQ in the play-bilk he Called it a comedy of tn'O ^C\*. . 

The Pofitive Man was written by Mr* O'Kjccfe, and played at 
Covent Garden on the i6th of -March* There is a fccnc be- 
tween Groe and Stem in this farce, that would do honour to any 
Author,, and makes every man who compare* it with fome other of 
Mr* O^eefe's writings, lament that his abilities have t^en foch 
an ihiproper turn. The remainder ^ the Pofitive Man is i^ery-r-r- 
Tery indifferent. - . . , 

- Ketallation was not brought out till the 7th of May, therefpre 
.we may conclude, that the Author gained more fame than HxaJthy 
Jbgr thU proikuSlion of his Mufe. It , was pl:iyed at Coveot Garden^ 
and very well received, the incidents vyere laughable, and there 
•rerc fome excellent ftrokes of wit in the dialogue. 

The pantomime called Lun's Ghoft at Drury Lane, was only a 
iekdion of old tricks and ol.d fcenes. The Choice of Harlequin at 
the other Houfe, was remarkable for a good moral, and a fuperl^ 

In our next Number we propofe to give an account of the V^tr 
formers at botb Houfes, and their rcfpe^ve merits. 

Bjiv.VoLL Jan. -1783, . F * For 


rof tte £ N G L T S H R E V I E XT. ' 


^IPTHEI?? wc turn pur eyes to the political ftatc of this coua^ 
W tnr inf fhc prefem moment, the firft reflection that occursr 
is a painful confparitoii of what it fa lately was, with what it now 
IS. in Febrifary t^&^r sc definitive treaty of peace was concludedf 
between his Brifarfiiic Majcfty, the King of France, and the Kin^ 
of Spsdn, ftvwAich the wkok continent of North Aiivirica on this 
iide the MinJflippif together with the adjacent iflands, was* ceded 
dnd cotffirffleif t<J the fltft of thefe powers j.and by which the proi^ 
perity aad |9lsa<iiers of England fccmcd to be feciircd for ages. lit 
February 1783', another treaty feparates the North American Colo- 
nies from the Mofher-coulitry ^or everf and thercbv underminet 
the foundations of Britifli opulence and grandeur* Hiflory docs not 
afford an inflance of fuch rapid* dcdenfion. In no other empire 
has humiliation fo quickly fucCceded to glory. 

How far a mild eifccrcife of aTrthoritv, might have prolonged the 
conne^ioivbctweeti the Colonies and the Parent-date, it is impo£- 
He to determine. Jntcrcft, and thofe various antipathies which 
gradually fpring yp between the inhabiunts of different cotintrics^ 
rrttift have cffeifled a feparation fooncr or later, llie pride of a^ 
fluence too, mirft have grvew birth to the pride of inaeperhfence : 
and the high-fpirited .^Americans, in procels of time> would hare 
' been as ready fo (h^e off the (lackened reins of a feeble and diflain 
government, as (h6v were 10 take arms on the firfl appearances of 
oppredion. In reality, there^ is not ati eacample of any ilate that 
Was able to maintain a lailin^ authority oVer dil^ant dependencies^ 
while it permitted them to enjoy a regular and eftabliflied fyftem of 
freedom. The fevere jurifdii^iorr of the Ri»mans over their colonieSy 
IS recorded and authenticated beyond a dottbt: the jealoufyt and 
the deipotifm' of the Spamiarda, the Portuguefe, and creoF the Dutch, 
oyer their fettlements, are known to all the world. 

The Britilh conllitution docs not admit of thai ftea^y, that unJ* 
form, and vigorous conduct, which fi>bdues nations, and main* 
tains potiquefts. Different fa<ftions, and difierem intereds, perpetu- 
ally impede the wheels of government, if the ambition of the 
Monarch points to war ; the avarice of Merchants points to 
peace : and the fa^ion that is not employed in ihe adminid ration 
t)f government, are loud and violent in iheir cenfures of every 
hieafure that is adopted and purftsed by the Minifters of the King. 
Such being the frame of the Biitifh goremmetit^ its power, though 
great, is rai*ely brought to one centre of percufBon. However pa* 
Iradoxical it may appear, it may yet be confidently affirmed, that the 
glory and the liberty of this nation united, were the circumfbances, 
^hicb prepared the way for the revolt of the Americans ; fo true 
it is in politicks as well as in morals, that Pride comet h hefirt dfaik 
The glorious fuccefles of a fortunate war, iufpired in the. Engliih 


iinuonal JfiSts. - , <3 

«9iftoii ^ fpirit of haujhly infolence, which ap^ared in rudtncft 
«ibroad, and in licentiduincis at home. Certato unjud'ifiable, becaufe 
^icgal lb-etches of prcrogatrvc^ roufed this fpirit into a rcfiftancc of 
TOvernmcnt. Miniftry were obliged Ko recede from' their prctcn- 
Sons. The moft daring HbcHers cfcaped with impunity; and the 
rtofl profligate of men Graved the threats of the county in confidence 
of the favour of the people. This exampSe of fpirii was not with- 
out its efieifts acrofs the Atlantic. It was eiridecvt that adminiflra* 
tioa .was unable to oppo^fethe ftream of a ,popti1flr torrent ; atid 
that a combination t>f the fubjc^s was able to refift the encroach- 
ments of the crown. The Anoericans wppc .as teiiacious of .their 
property ; as high-fprrked as EngHlknten *; and they had an equal 
right to freedom* Wtth the example juft «ientioBed before their 
eyes, they refdlvcd to ▼indicate their nghta, and refafW to be tai- 
ra, becaufe they ^artf^ *B«rt reprefcnwd in the Bntifh Parliament. 
But iiad the ponder of Britain been exerted in time, with wifd(5m 
and rigour, there is not a doubt that the American rerolt would 
have been cruflied in the bud, «ml the authority of th6 Mother- 
country over the Colonies more firmly rivetted than ever. If the 
4SrittOi goveromeot bad been purely monarchical, this undoubtedly 
would have happened. The jealoufy inherent ^n aU ^folute roonar- 
<&ies, would have quadied the firft tendency totumuH and infurrcc- 
tion« The liboi^ and indcpendenec of North America have thcre- 
fbrc fpmng'from the liberty of England^, and the cirfightencd na- 
tives of that continent, however they may reprobate particular mea- 
^res and particular men, muft ever jrevere that conltitution whence 
tteir forefathers derived }«ft ideas of thfe dignity and privileges of 
Iruman nature ; that conditution which cheri(hed 4u their breads 
the feeds of refinance ; and which retrained the hand of power 
Which would have crufhed th^ir infant ftate. Is there a doubt that 
4hc cabals of fa<5tion, according to the language of fome j or the 
friends of liberty, according to that of others, in the Britifli Se- 
nate, fprrited 'up the Americans to revolt, by beldty defending 
their caufe, by calling on them to defend their rights, by infinuating 
that fhey^ were lefsthan men if they did not, and by encouraging 
their belief that more than two^hirds of Englifhmen were friehdt 
to American independence ? It is true, that the Britifh Cabinet 
were lliamefully ignorant both of the flrcngth, and the dtfpofitiont 
f6f the Amcrkrans ; and their contempt of f« formidable an encmy^ 
betrayed a total inattention to the nature of the paflion for liberty, 
and alfo to the hiilory of the world. But f^iFl they would have 
a^d with rreater cderity and promptitude^ as wdll as with greater 
vigour, had they not been apprehenuve of the c!amo\i£S ««f fadion, 
And of the imputation of tyramiy and oppreffieo. 

As civil diMentions prevented Miniftry from exerting the power 
#f the nation in proper time, "fo they alfo -hindered them from ex- 
erting it with cne<5t. Intimidated by the cabals and combinations 
•f party, Minifters were not at liberty to a6l with decilion. It 
waft their firft objcd to footh the difcon tents of oppofition, and by 
kumouring great families, to fecure their own power. Hence the 
jne^t machine of goyerament feemed to want an animating foul. 

^4" Naticnal jtfairr. 

Conim^ndiRj^ officers by fea and land : men' in M the difleroot ^ 
partnWnta of adminiftration did whatever fecmed good in tbcif own 
eyes. The mod flagrant infhmces of mifcondu^^ were pftflcd- over 
lyith impunity. A fear of giving offence produced a connivance 
at the timidity^ of Keppel, the indccifion of Clinton, the fbUv or 
* treachery of Howe. At no period of the Britifh hi{h)ry did the 
valour of individuals fhinc with brighter luftrc ; nor. had Bntaia 
cveV made greater preparations for war'^by fei and land. But t 
prefiding mind was wanting to compofe the jarring elements jof 
this great mafs ; to eflabltfh harmony^^by confirming fubordina* 
tion and difcipline ; and to call forth into exertion virtue^ and ability 
vrtieiTvcr they were to be found, without regard to political intereib 
or connexions. Such a mind it was difficult to find ilmong a divided 
people. Xhcrc was not a Chatham to ride in the tempelV, and to rule 
the {lorm. Yet iliil the lofs of America is ultimately chargeable, not 
on the want of courage or of wifdbm in the Briti(h cabittet, io 
much as on that free conftitution which nourifhes faXions and divi* 
fions, which dilcovers the dcfigns df government- to our natural 
enemies, which difVra^ls the minds of the fervants of the crown^ and 
renders therii more attentive to the means of preferving their power^ 
than to the mofl proper meafures for maintaining the honour of the 
cation. For, as on the one hand it is poflible that a tranfcendent 
genius may arife fitted to quell the tumults of faction, and to drowa 
the clamours of party in the "general vofce of applaufe and acclamA* 
tion : fo, on the other it is certain that any degree of fpirit and 
condud in an abfolute (late, has an advantage over an equal degree 
of fpirit and condu<5l in a free government. And the Bridfh Mr- 
niftry might have fubdued their foes in America^ iT they had DOC 
teen obliged to encounter their enemies in England. 

The gallant Earl Cornwallis, unfupported by Sir Henry Clinton^ 
miet with the fate of Burgoyne, defertcd by Sir William Howe* Thit 
fatal difafter decided the fortune of the Britiih empire. A majority 
of the Houfe of Commons, difpirited and mordned at repeated diA 
^dmfitures, and the continual wafte of public money, refolvcd to »• 
bandon offeniive war in America, defoairing of being able to redoce 
the Colonies by force. The brilKant uicceff& of Sir 6eorgc Rodney* 
the intrepid and glorious defence of Gibraltar by General £llott, and 
the refolute and obftinate bravery of the fleet under the command of 
Sir Edward Hughes, have more than counterballanced the furrender 
6f Lord Comwa]lis,and give ground to iipagine that, if a change of 
Adminiflration had not taken place in March iaft, the nation Would 
thereby have been encouraged to have tried at Icaft another oam* 
mign in America, efpecially as there appeared in the New EngUmfl 
provinces the dawning of a difpofition to return to the mother 
country. Or, if aiflive and oflenfive war had been abandoned by 
land, powerful armaments at fea might have recovered, at leaft, • 
part ot North America to England, by mai)itainbg the full &▼•* 
rei^nty of the ocean. But the Rockingham Adminiftratioir,^ fai 
their eagcrnefs for peace threw all away ; and piefented us an objeft 
of contemjpt to the afloniflied nations. Great Britain, with her trmt 
bound behind her mt$f€C€<9vi to the Amecksui Statti aad the Untte^ 


¥iofiflc«s> voi z^kmowkd^ci the Indepettdwiee of t^ fofsier, witli* 
OQC ftipulating any tccm^for the mother country, or^.-cven for thofe 
cotifiant lo^alijEb who l^d preferved in the midfk of* many perils 
their allegiance to the Crown'of England. The Americans and 
the Dutch defpifed the hiean advance? of the Britifh Cabinet, and 
refttfcd to treat ieparately from their allies.' Providence called the 
Mkrqins of Rockingham from a fcene of action to which his virtues 
indeed, but ^ot his abilities^ — were equal. A nobleman ^f rreat 
pans, who had declared that -t^ fun af Brksi^s gUty ^utula/efp 
^wl^tver Inekpendtnce fiauldhe gfanied u Amtrica^ die Earl x^Shel*' 
iMune, was raifed to the important office of Firft l^erd of the 
'I'reafurys difiufing hoped to the American loyaliils, and - to great 
numbers of the natives and fubjedb of Briuin^ that he would em* 
pby his talents and his authority in fome noble e£forts to reftore ei- 
ther the whole; or a part of North America to a conflitutional and 
boeourable dependance on the mother country. Me had been loud 
in his cenfures of . Lord North's Admtniihmtion ; and 'he was- par- 
ticularly- vehement againll him for negle^ing to form alUances* 
which might counterbalance that confederacy which threatened* even 
the national exifhnce of Britain. It was therefore »j>e£ted by 
many that his Lordihip would (Kr up fueh cdmmotions m Europe 
as would withdraw the affiance of France from America, and Ieav# 
the revolted^ Colonies to make the beA terms they could - for them-^ 
iblves, with the mother country* As fom^ liien hoped t^at Lord 
Shelbame wCtuld profecute the war, fo there were others who'were 
4^mU of it. The event has proved how groundlefs were the ho|^ 
di the one party, and the fears of the other* The Adminiftratioxi- , 
of theprelent Minifler has been diilingttiOied by continual^ and 
rather e^ger negotiations for peace. The jsprand objeA for which 
France drew the fword being attained, a kingdom fo renown^ for 
^Ikical wifdbm, could not long hefitate to ratify and confirm bjf 
the folemaities of a treaty of. peace the advantages (he had contri- 
buted to gain over England by the force of bei* arms. Americaa 
Independence ; a right to fi(h on the banks of Nev-foundland ^ and 
*^ participation in a fVee commerce with the North American CoUh 
Aies : Theie advanta^^ promote the intcreds of France In e two* 
fold ratio; they not Only add. di redly to her wealdi and f>ewer$ 
but alfo weaken proportionally the hands of Great Britain her 
jBoftfonni<tible rival. The force of Engltnd was- every day en* 
^reefing and Coming forwaiTd, with that effe£^ which reuiks from 
unanimity, into full exertion : while that of France had bc^n to 
namleft ftrmptoms of decline. Jealoulies too had i)egun to appear 
between the Congre^ and the Provinces, and «Ifo between the Con^ 
Ifrefe and their grtat and good aify. ^ The contingencies of wtr 
end theflu^uetkms and unaccountable tranfitions of popular aOlem* 
btie^ impsti'ent of oppreffiem di^f^nted in their hopes^ and 
ever Ibnd of ch^uige and revolmion : Thefe circumilances deter* 
mbied the policy of Fraiure to feixe the gibriovs opportunity of 
Agytt ncfaing the Houie of Boqrbon, by formaU)r ratifying the 
MvtifisH of the Britiih empire. Spain, having obtained conoeflione 
jperiiigerioiistQ ihe booour tkaa the power Si Eegland^ and hav« 

55 Tfational Affairs. 

TO^ bcm' exhauflcd by Ae exertions of war, wae ^^fil/ tmlocci t«r 
fbUow the example of France. Holltnd is left to fliiit for hcrfelf, 
-watl to romhiate Oft the foHy of preferring a <iependcneir on France, 
TO iHi honourable .eonne^lion with Britahu By a ibange conca- 
tcY%ation of circumilances the acceflion<rf the Dutch to the ^ronfede^ 
rSKy againll Great Britain, has pcrHaps, tended rather to acctJcratc 
ffian to impede a general peace. France connived at tbe poflefKon 
ot' TrliKoiftale in the ifland of Ceyion by the £ng1i(h. This co«- 
tkivauce w^s a Toiuable conceflion in the efmiatioti ot En^latid. Thus 
liare the Dutch been facrificed as iefenor^^ often arc, to the policy 
And ambition of a more powerful ally* The fortrefs, harbcnir, 
^md bay of Trincotna&c, is the only acqm(itton that Great Britain 
Va» nftadc in the prefcnt wan Wliether the peace with France and 
Spain be not on the whole as farourabk to Britain aft it could have 
l>ccn expe^ed lo be in the prcfent circumftanoes of this nation : or, 
whether it would not hare been wifer as well as a bolder po- 
Key to ikave eowtinoed n naral war, and harraiTed^ and wearied 
^kc Colotiifk into terms ntore honourable to Britain, are mieftionf 
concerning which wc pretend not to decide. We give the Winiilcr 
'Credit for the fo^recy w4th whkh he has €ondu6hd hts ncgottationi, 
indfarthe attention he has (liewn to the interc^s of commerce and 
Aiannfa^res. This attention has appeared in his refifting all pre- 
tenfions on the part of France to a monopolv of any part of tho 
produce <A Anienca ; in his inlilHng invanably for the poflefiSon of* 
Trincomalc, ib important to the commerce and navigation of Great 
Britain ic <he £aR ; afiid in his efforts to remove thofe barharotia 
«ttd mutiaai rcfbridHons of CDmmerce between this country and 
France, which may be confidered as the moft foolifli and cohfhmr 
KoAilities in times of profound peace* The attention that has heci^ 
iSiewn to Lord Shelburne^s propofitioiis on this head by the Count 
df Vcrgennes, is a proof of the enlightened and liberal policy of 
France ; and the hiilory of tbr prcfent peace, will mark the frog reft 
•f humanity and refinement in JBurope. The proofs of -ability 
which the Minifier has exhibited on this important oCcvi6on are not 
howerer able to obliterate from the mmd of every Britain, that 
America is loft to England* From the iirft commotions in the Ne* 
cherlands in the ^e;gn of Phillip II. of Spain, to the peace of 
Manlier 1648, a fpaoe intervenect of more than 60- years. In that' 
long period, Spain ftiil maintained her pretcnfionps to Sovereignty' 
over the fevcnteen provinces of the circle of Bnrgundyt iind at tho^ 
peace of Munftcr ilie retained her authority over ten of thefe pro- 
tinces, as the price of Independence accorded to feveis. Is it owiagt 
to the fuperior fagacity of Britain^ and that flic difcemed tbe tim« 
tjinheh it was wifdom to vielj, that fl)e has hot prefetved mithority 
^ver fo miich as one of her province? Or is it rather owing to tho 
mnfteady nature of t popular government, and to the limited ^iewi 
ef merchants, and eve^ {iibjc^ more honourably diftinguifhed, 
who do not, like princes, look forward to the glory of the nooiiaiw 
€tiy and crown, but are avoid prefent inconvcniei^eti 
and to grafp at prefent > advahtagcs? But concerning thefe things' 
^ikri^ will de^ioc :. and' po^crity only will be competent Ju^^ 


Uuiicnal Jffaln. tf 

For ume alone will |>roTe the wiOom or th^ UXj of the prefent 
tpetiy* If Britain (ball fink, like Venice, from the fovereif nty of 
the ocean, into a (lato of infignificance, hlAoriaoa wilJ frv, ic wouH 
^ve boea better that flie had exerted every ocrrf, availed her£^f 
of the contingencies of time and foitttne, and ref»(ed to farreoder 
her authority but with her national exillence. If, on the conttary^ 
her power faall encreafe with encreaiing comoiercei fpecuiative po- 
litktana will admire her wifdom in contta^ing in time, the limits of 
her empire* 

It 10 qi«t«erof €0»(blationto1£ng1andy that, Us the early etnan- 
cipadoR.!of%Aroerica arofe out of the freedom of the BritiQi con* 
Attution i fo, this emancipation will in its turn contribute «o fup« 
port and prolong that liberty from which it iprung«' Had the re* 
^i^uK Americans been fiu>dued by force, the Tons oi Briuin,' 
would, in the end, have found more matter of grief tlian of tnumph 
in ib fual a vjidlQry* The patronage, the property, the power of 
the crovra would have exceeded all bounds of moderation ; and, 
together with fo £lurdy an in£rument as a ihmding Ameri^rm army, 
would have been able to iet every fpecies of controut provided by the 
conflitution at defiance. The liberties of Engfiibmen th\u pre* 
ienred, sure a* derti tlmt may yet bear the nobleii fruit« Libeity, 
which is but another word for juftice, (ecu res propei ty ; the fccn- 
tity of property encourages induftry ; and induftry, the world be- 
gins to leam at length, not extended dominion, is the great fourcc of 
national wealth and grandeur. 

The efieds of the revolt and emancipation of North Am^ 
rica, have already been important: and they will continue. to 
hare a mighty mfluence on the hiAory of the world. 71)e 
fuccefsful flruggle of the Americans for .Independence, although 
not the origin, was a circumilance which encouraged that demand, 
which has been made by fo coniiderabie a portion pf the people of 
England for a reformation of the conditution. The Independence 
of Ireland followed that of the Colonies, as an tfk^k follows a 
cauie. The Americans and Irifli having fuccefsful ly claimed the 
power of fovercigns, the Scotch nation ventured at length to ' 
thifi^ of arming itfelf iji its own defence, and to claim the' privi* 
leges of loyal fubjeds. 

The infiuence of thefe revdtutions has extended itfelf even to 
India : and the hardy fons of North America will alleviate the op* 
preens of, the effeminate inhabitants of the eaft. The Britifli go- 
vernment begins to be fenfible that juilice and modemtion are the 
inoft permanent foundations of power : and in this belief, f hey have 
determined to frame new regulations for the reUcf of the.opprefled 
natives of Hindollan. In other nations as well as in Britain, there 
nre fymptoms of a rifing fpirit of liberty among the people, and of 
philanthropy,^ or at haft the femblance of it among the rulers. 

Thegreat revolution in America and in Europe, that has operated 
fhefectteds, hath not^et fpent i(s force. It wiUl)e an intcrelling 
fpeculation to mark its influence on commerce ; on fciences and 
arts ; on the genius of nations ; the balance of power ; and the ge* 
setal hapfindfy qI the world* To obferve and to trace this various 


inineoce wilt otturalty form a part of tfie potjttoal fpecntatiocif-ft 
THE ENGLISH R£VI£1¥< And^s ie will be proper, in tbii 
part of our undertaking^r to mark the influeace of politicks ^xA 
commerce OQ-literakUFe ; (bit will alfo be pn^r tp-mark the in- 
fluence of Uters^ure, on politicks and commerce. Trade and nan* 
fation will be more extended than they have ever been* This will 
promote a ipirit of enquiry » and the encreafe of knowledgat. MM 
fmramfhau §t ^mgthitvr fcimtia ( ^ ) . And may we not • hope that a 
general intercour(e among nations, and jufler notions of n^cn ^xA 
ci dungs, will tend to wear out antipathies and narro^^fHvjudices, 
sndittduoe^fiepeBt tribes of mortals, to co-operate by ^ the arts of 
peace towards the great end of alleviating the mifories, and oul* 
tipt3ring the enjoyments of huitfan life ? 

We fhottld now prooeed to contider the view» of the great Eu» 
fopean powers that have been neutral during the late conteu, and to 
connect in thismanneri the hiftory aikl politicks of Britain with 
thofe of the Condnecit. But thefe, and other particulan, the lengA 
of thb -articles obliges us to poflpone to » f utu re number. 

* Loc|l JBaepaVviotto (under the jBgUre of a (hip) pre&cedtahit 
book de augmentis fcientia£USB» 



For FEBRUARY, 1783: 

AltT. Jm The Hifiary of Prance, from tie Commencement of the Reigm 
0/ Lewis XilL to the General Peace of Munjler^ Togeclier with 
the inrereftin? £vent8 in the Hiilory of £urope during that 
Period. By Walecr Alidcrfon, D, D. VoU. IV. and V. 410. 
zl. I IS. 6d. boards. Robfon. 

THE Volumes now before us contain a very memorable 
portion of the hiftory of France. They open with 
the regency of Mary of Medicis^ and with a ftatc of the 
eondltioQ of the parties which were then cflabliihed. The 
difgrace and retirement of th^ Duke of Sully, the double 
alliance of France and Spain,, the difcontents occaiioned by 
it» the infurre£tions of liie. French nobility, and the ma- 
jority of Lewis XIII, then engage the attention of the 
Author. He next explains the dilgufts which arofe between 
Mary of Medicis and Lewis. XIII ; unfolds the diifeniions 
of the Papifts and tlie Proteftahts ; and enters upon a narra- 
tion of the civil war which they excited. A noble career 
now prefents itfelf to hitn in the adminiftration of Cardinal 
Richelieu. No period in the annals of any nation is more 
marked and curious, ^ more various and political. Having 
treated this fruitful fubjefl, the Author delcribes the death, of 
Lewis XIII ; and exhibits a Ihprt account of the minority 
of hi» fucceflbr. He then concludes his work with fomp 
general obferv^tions relative to the ftate of manners, the 
progrefs of refinement, and the advancement of fcience and 
tafte during the period- under his review. 

While the grandeur however of the fubjeft treated by 
Dr. Anderfon, attra£b our admiration, we are forry to ob- 
ferve that his executioa of his taflc is by no means able, and 
fortunate. That a clergyman in an oblcure vilhge of Scot- 
hnd, (hould undertake any portion whatever of the French 

Rev. Vol. L Feb. 1783, G Wftor^, 

^ Df^ Anderfon's Hlftory of Franct^. 

hiftory, may to many appear to be romantic. For a dioti-' 
fand fources of information familiar to Frenchmen, muttr 
doubtlefs, cfcape the curiofity of any foreigner. Indeed, 
in fuch a iituation there is but one apology which can be 
accepted by the public. The poflclfion of high and uncom- 
mon abilities will give a full fanftion to an undertaking of 
this, or of any kind. For topics the moft difficult and the 
moft imprafticablc, mav receive fuperlative advantages in 
the hands of men of gcjiius. This apology, however, can- 
not be made for Dr. Andcrfon ; and bis courage in venture 
ing into the labyrinth of French hiftory cannot be com* 

Great natural difcernment, and much knowledge of the 
world are neccffary to the hiftorian ; but in thefe refpefts 
Dr. Anderfon is furprifingly defcftive. He removes not 
the veil which covers the cabals and intrigues which arc fo 
frequent in the Court of France. His delineations of emi-' 
nent perfonages are without likenefs or charafter. The 
nice difcrimination of circumftances, the happy details of 
the cfFefts of jealoufy and pride, caprice and emulation, 
the infinite importance of the French ladies in affairs of 
ftate, arKl the power of trifling incidents in tlie produfiion' 
of fignal events, no where diilinguifh bis narration. His 
mind is neither piercing nor capacious. The dignity of the 
hiftoric manner is foinetrmes imitated by bim withadegrceof 
fuccefs ; but his page is often deformed with a giddiaefs and 
frivolity which difturb the gravity of his reader. He relates 
tragical tranfaftions, and matters of littfc moment in tlic 
failie tone. He does not agitate his reader, and never a- 
wakens diftrcfs and fympathy. He feems* fixed m a fuilen 
apathy, and keeps himfelf at an awful diftance^from the 
prower of the paffions. The art of converting his narration 
mtq a whole, of giving it a due proportion of parts, of being 
circumftantial in great affiiirs, of paffing with brevity over 
trivial occurrences, and of relieving the attention by the in- 
tcrfoerfion of anecdotes, rs unknown to him. His account? 
of battles arc almof^ unintelligible ; not becaufe he is pro- 
feTund in the military art ; but becaufe he miderftood im- 
perfeftly what he had undertaken to defcribe. When he at 
any time touches upon the progrels of tlie French govern- 
ment he is loft in darknefe ; and, like many wntcr^ of 
higher name, he gives details about the feudal fyftem, which 
only prove that he did not comprehend it, 

Amidft tliefe ftriftures, however, which candour and our 
iuty to the pubhc extort from us, it i^ proper to lay before 
»ur readers, a fpecimen, from which they may judge for 
themfelvesL. concerning the ability of tliis Author. For this 

Dr. Anderfon*i Hijlorf of Franct. 9I 

cfnrpofc, we fhall extraft a few pages in the beginning or 
entrance of his work/ 

* The immature age of Lewis XIIL diibualified him for govern^ 
menr, and aggmvated the .lofs which the French (late fi^amed bf 
the violent death of his illuflrious father, Henry IV. It feemed 
that fortuae fported with the grandeur of kingdoms, as well as with 
that of particular men ; when France, elevated to the condition ot 
being arbiter of £urope, found afudden and an inaufpicioas change 
in her domefHc circumilances, and had reaibn to dread the erup' 
tioD of fa^ion, and the various didrelTes incident to a mlnorify^ and 
the converfion of her government into a regency. 

* The claim of the Queen-mother, Mary de Medicls, to the re- 
gency of the kingdom, was indiiputable ; but fome limitations of 
her authority might have been innded upon by the Princes of the 
blood, confiftentlr ^th the ufages of the monarchy *• The tuition 
of the young Kmg*8 perfon was (lill confidered as feparable from 
the regent's office, and a di(lin6t branch of the adminiflration* 
Former precedents had not eilablifhed the rule upon this head : 
and no provifion being made before the death of the late King, 
with'relpe^ to it, the parliaifkcnt of Paris could only pronounce 
a legal decifion of the controverfy. In the agitated (late of tb« 
goremment, the judgment of the counfellors could not be relied 
on. Their fears and their party Tiews, as well as their political 
principles, might divide their fuffrages, or induce them to favour 
the pretenfions of the Princes of the blood to a (hare in the re« 
gency f • To obviate this apparent danger, a precipitate and bold 
ftep was taken by fome partisans of Mary de Medicis. In concert 
with the Chancellor SiUery, and the Prefident Seguier, a conven- 
tion of the parliament was demanded by the court* \yhUe feveral. 
companies of the guards befet the ftreets leading to the convent 
jof the Augu^nes, the place of its meeting, the Duke of Efpernon 
enteral the hall, and required the couniellors. In a commanding 
totte, to pafs an a^ for the regency of the Queen-mother. Upon the 
Duke's retiring, in iliew of refpe^t to the court, the motion, fup^ 
ported by Gtiefle the Procurator General, was agreed to ; though 
in filence, and without aby form of deliberation. To fupply this 
defisfty and give more authority to the important deed of the magi- - 
ftrates, the young King went, next day, in folemn proceflion, with 
the Queen^mother, the Princes, pecH^, and nobles of the court, to 
the chamber of parliament. In the conflitution of his bod of juflice, 
the a6t of regency was more formally ratified, not only by the una- 
mmous confent of all the prelates and peers then jprefent, but by 
their fuUcriptions being annexed to it. Some heutation in their 
procedure arofe from the expreffions inserted in the record of the 
ftft; which was faid to be according to the decree of the parltament the 
&rmer day. This appeared an approbation of the privilege of 
that conrr, to appoint or onlain the regent of the kingdom. The 
Chancellor, as by miflake, pafled over this daufe in the reading 

* Henault, Abbreg6 Chron. oQi. edit. p. 392. 

-^ Gramondi Hiftoriaruro Galliae, lib. 8. fol. edit. p. 4. Me^ 
IQ^^ires 4s Baflomprere,' duedec. edit. torn. i.p.*297. 

92 Dr. Anderfon^s Htftory of France^ 

of,tbea<St; and the couDfellora the more eafily acquieiced m thi* 
emiilion, as the rcgifter bore the tranfcript of it : lb diiHcirit to br 
adj u (led are foroe points in erery political fyilem. Sovereigm apd 
abfolute power is noteafiy fubje<4ed ta legal forms; and yet-thcfc, 
arc founa neccflary to prefcrve it. 

* This cfbblifliment of Mary dc Medicis tv the regency, with* 
out oppofition or rcftraint of her authority, miy be afcribed to 
fhc general grief for Henry's fatal exit *• While, for foroc days^ 
Jiis Dody, marked with its mortal wound, was laid out in the 
Louvre, and the tears of Ins widow Quoen, and of his Too, not 
ten years of age, were fccn to flow; all movements of fa6Hon 
were reprefled. Parties, the mod oppofite to one another, in¥C- 
loped in the affecting fcene, concurred in teftifyine their rcTC- 
rence of the admired ^and beloved character of their d«ceafed 
King, by demon (Irations of allegiance and attachment to the re- 
t\€t% of his family f • Ih vain did the Count de SoiiTon^, wheahe 
cathe to Paris, complain that, though the fecond prince of tb^. 
blood, he had not been called to the meeting of parUament which 
fettled the regency, and alledg^ that the fuffrages were informally 
colle<5{^d. He was regarded as one who uttered the indecent langua|;e 
of party, at a time when all true Frenchmen deplored the calamity 
of the ftate, and imited to preferve the public peace, U wa^ pre- 
fumed,, by the generality of the nobles, that the adminiftration of 
Henry's confort wou}d be mild, and gain, all pm> 
ties ; and, though not conducted with the ability and glory thatcli^ 
tinguiQiedhis reign, that it might beprodu^ive of fiipilar cpntei^- 
ment and tranquility to the kingdom, 

* The part a6tcd by the Duke of Sully, in the day of the caCjp^. 
flrophe ot his beloved mader^ teftlfied the tranfports of lus gcsef . 
«nd indignation, more than the fortitude natural to hin^ or th^ 
recollection and compofure adequate tQ the occafion* Impreft4» 
as others were, with the bcnef that Henry's aiTaffination was not. 
the ViSt of one enthu(ia{l, but the dark blow of a malignant, parry^ 
who were ready to execute like vengeance on his intimate fn^tids i 
he drew together a large retinue of horfemefi |, but fi<»ped ia 
his way to the Louvre, when he met Boflbmpierc, Colonel-pene- 
ral of the Swils, attended with a (itpilar train, and, a^ if m appre^ 
henfion of the aflault of his enemies, retreated within the. walla of 
the Baflile* Though meifages were Tent to him fronot the Qijmii 
he remained diftniSful, and did not.prefent him(clf in the palace 
till the next day. This inftance of his behaviour, which \tiok 
only from the confofion of bis fpirits, was improved, by his ad- 
verianes, to leilcn him in the efleem of Mary dc IVIedicis. T^ 
public ferment, inevatible in Aich a conjuncture, w^ inftigated by 
the examination and trial of the execrable parricide^ Ravaillac. 
Though hardened againfl every torture, he could be forced, to no 
epnfemon of his having accomplices in his horrid deed; the va- 
^— — ^ ' _ _ ' . ' 1 . — 

* Menioires du Due de Bohan, duodec. edit, Difccwirs fOr la 
ibort dc Henryje Grand, p. 6. '"" 

4- Mem.dc Sulljr, o6^. edit. liv. 28^0, 27. 
% Mem. dc Baflompicrc, ibid. Dc Sully iUd. 


3>i*. AnSerfdn's TJijhrj cf Prmct. ^ 

rmt informations given witli rcfpc6t to his intercourfc with fuf- 
peded people, chcrimed the contrary opinion, and the vague fur- 
mlfes and accttfations, always prevalent in an emergency of this 
nature, tended to propagate it among the multitude. The College 
t>f the Sorbowne concurred with the Parliament of Paris, in con- 
f ^cmning the book of Mariana, t Sp^nifh Jefuite, upon the nature 
And extent of regal authority, and the Pope's fuprcmacy over ic^. 
It b (aid that,^ in the fxrft edition of this piece, James Clement, the 
murderer of Henry III. was called the jJSfernum Galiiae iffcus^ 
.Bellarmine*s treatife on the pontifical authority yas alfo ftigmatifcd, 
Imt, at the interceffion of the Pope*s uuncio, it was not committed 
to the fiames. 

* For fome time, it was not perceptible that the Queen-regent 
meant to advance any particular favourite into the minillry, o;* 
make a change in that edablifliment of it which fublided in the 
lati-er period of Henry's reign. Her ftudy only appeared to be, 
to imder herfway in the government gracious and acceptable to an 
the couiticrs^' to prevent difputes and contelb for precedency amonr 
the princes of the blood, and to imprefs the people with fcntimenti 
of the lenity, and equity of her adminiftration. In conformity to 
tliis iinif counMls of llate were held almofl every day, and the 
princes of the blood, and the late fCing's minifter?, regularly called 
to them f . To alleviate the public burdens, above f&y pecuniary 
cdifiks, deftined to be the fund for Henry's expedition into Germany, 
were ordered to be abrogated by the parliament. To obviate the 
feats that nrfght be entertained among the Proteftants, about the 
malfltenance of rhiiir religious and civil privileges, a confirmatron 
of die edU^t of NantK was publiflied in the movt ample form. Iii 
die d elib er a tion with regard to the fulfilling of Heme's engage* 
inaits with his allies abroad, fuch a refolution was taken, 9s ap* 
ptsa^ refjpeftful to his memory, and the honour of the (late, and, 
atth^fkme time, confident with the fecurity of the kingdom, in* 
its prefettt advede circumftanccs ^. While the army, on the fide 
cf mly.* was ordered to bedtibanded, ic was judged proper to keep 
<nr mc ^ thoufand of the forces in Champagne, on account of the 
^t^mted fCicce(Edn to the dutchy of Cleves, The army of the States 
of iMfamd living already advanced to the fieee of luliers, the 
^4|^t of the dutchy, which the Imperialids had feiKcd, it was de- 
cermtaed to aflid theformer in reducing it; and the command of the 
^taiSary troopis was given to the Marflial la Ch^tre. This afforded 
fonk ih-ofpe^i^ that like fuccours might b^ obtained by the other con* 
MttfBtH of the (late. 

* ltwa» foott diftovcrcd, that the(b political refolutions of the 
f^oeta-r^nent, and her council, flowed neither from utianimity, nor 
itoj|r ^ern^ined maxims of government. The cbnftiiution of the 
iwiriftiy bemg yet unfixed, the procedure of thecdurt was rendered, 
fey Ac tndtijkal jealoufy of bartics, cafual and precarious. Until 

tJdbe mtereftio? conted was decided, about the diflribution of the 
jHMSpal p6m. and hon <^urs of the ftate ; expedients only - were a- 

* Dc Scrres ; Engliih fupplement hv Grimftone, P« ^.^ 

t Gfr^awM^ hill. ibid« p. 14. t ^i<l« P« '2. Battbmpiere, ibi3«L 

G 3 dopted 

94 Df . Andcrfbn's Hiftory of France. 

ckmced» infiead of a plan of admimfinitxon*. Befide other appamtt^ 
oburu^ons to, union, there Were two which operated with pard- 
cular force. One of them aroife from an apprehenfioa conceived by 
the late King*8 fenrants, and efpecially by the Duke of Sully and 
his friends, that Mary de Medicis fccretly intended a change both of 
meafqres and minifters; and that| having alreadv formed a choic^ 
of them in her mind, ihe only waited for the fubfiding of fadion 
to declare it. The other related to the expe^ed appearance of the 
Prince of Cond^ at court ; whofe rank, as iirft prince of the blood, 
entitled him to a pre-eminent degree of honour and authority in the 
council of (bte ; when now, in the King's nonage, a regency was 
eftablilhed. His flight from the court of Henry IV, into lulv, 
howfoerer animadverted upon, could only be deemed a weakneis, 
ariiing from jealoufy of that princess amorous paflion for his coo- 
fort, and not from any difloyal, or finifter intention. To the 
Queen-regent, who haa incited him to this courfe, he could ap- 
pear, in no refpe<^, culpable; but rather might plead the merit 
of faffcring in a caufe that nearly concerned her peace. It was 
a fpecial proof, how much the vigour of the principle of loyalty 
yi2z increafed by Henry's popular reign, that no motion was mode 
for fupporting the daim of the iirft prince of the blood to parti- 
cipate in the regency ; an J that even nis prefence was fuppofcd un- 
Tieceflary to its eiublifT)roent in the peribn of the Queen-mother. 
The parties, however, llill continued nuifhiating in their hopes and 

• aims, and no decided fupcriority of one above another could take 
place, until it was known what mfluence the Prince of Conde's ap- 
pearance might have on their arrangement, and the ftability of the 

♦ This prince wanted not ambition to afpire to the honours be- 
coming his rank; but the vigour of fpirit, and the decilive judg- 
ment, reauifite to a£t any f^nal part in the political fcene, were 
weakly mingled in his chara«er. Confcious of his importance, he 
'^could make the (liew of claiming what was due to him ; but he was 
neither bold nor pcrfevering in the purfuit of his objcd f . From 
Chautcauroux he came to Paris, accompanied with fifteen hundred 
nobles, or gentry r a train of partiians, Aiflicient to have createdan 
alarm to the Queen -regent. But no man is formidable, who is un- 
determined in his purpofes. He wanted dire(5tioi\ as to the line he 
was to take, and the party he ought to cfpoufe ; a ctrcumilance al- 
'Ways unfavourable m an intricate or embroiled fcene. Party 
leaders, when capable, fcldom give candid advice; and, if thl'^ 

. ^happens, the fludied embellifliments of their adopted fyHema are 
s^pt to perplex the moll difcerning, and miflead the Icfs judicious. 
The conferences which the Prince of Condc is faid to have held on 
the flatc of affairs, firll with the Duke of Sully, and then with the 
Duke of Bouillon, had no other effe^ but to throw him into am- 
biguity and fuipenfc;. According to the Memoirs of the former, 
after he was convinced, and fully determined to ad, in confeouencc I 
of the arguments Sully ufcd with him, all the conceptions ot their 

♦ Mem. de Sully, ibid. De Serres, ibid. 

^ Baffompicrc, Ibid. p. 301. Mcm^. de SuUy, lib^ 28. p. j 


Dr. Andcrfon*s WJlory of France. ^5 

prq>riety were fuddcnly orerfct by Bouillon, only demon Orating to 
liim, that they were calculated to fupport the party interefl of the 
oki mniifter ot {^;ite *. 'I his politician proceeded then to prove it 
lo be Coade'ft highell jidvantage, to refume the late connection 
his family had with the Proteilants; which, though interrupted by 
iiis education in the Catholic faith, might be accounted a natural 
and hereditary one to him, and could not fail to advance his au- 
thority in the (late. As the Prince's principles corrcfpondcd not 
with thi^ political do^ine, he remained in hefitation about his con- 
duct, until the Queen-regent's gratuities, and more liberal promifes 
to him, difpofed him to be pncitio and obfequious to the fyltem of 
adminidration that prevailed. Belide a large penGon, a prefent was 
jnade htm of the Hotel de Gondi ; which coft the Queen forty 
thoufand crowns.' 

With regard to compoGtion and language. Dr. Anderfon 
has not much to boaft. He is not always either clear or 
perfpicuous ; and he never^rifes into eloquence. The flruc- 
tore and purity of the Englifh tongue have not been attended 
to by him with fufficient care. His confukation of the * 
.French hiftorians has led him often into Gallicifms ; and he 
abounds in Scottilh idioms. From the refpefl which we 
bear to the elegance of our language, we Ihall offer a few 
fpecimens of his impurities. 

I. ! H« is feid to have got a plain figmficatixinoi his dan- 

• ger.' 2, * The king had ordered him to be in cuftody.' 
3. * Deftitute of heirs as himfelf was.' 4. • Be better ad- 

• vifedior the future.' 5. * The pifture ev'iditiud in the 

• Duke of Rohan's charafier and conduft.' 6. * The in- 

• JIammation of minds, attendant on the denunciation of war.* 
7. * Tlie deliberation about it was now cutjhort, i.^Baaikid 

• in the payment of his penfions.' 9. * The fmall ex- 

• periencc he had acquired in the campaigns of armies.^ 10. 

• After th^^ece/s of a pain in his fide.' 11. * The fevere curb 
-• of Richelieu's government was of courfe fallen off.^ 12, 

• It is unneceffary to narrate,^ 

To this work there is prefixed a Dedication to Lord Vif- 
count Stormont, dated at Edinburgh in December 1781, 
jwhen that nobleman was one of the Secretaries of State. In 
^his Dedication there is a fentiraent foabfurdly Angular, that 
we camiot but take notice of it. • The people of Bri- 

• tain fenfibie of their obligations to the Lord Chief 
f JusTick OF England, the enlightened Guardian 

• of the laws, beheld with pleafure a Secretary ov 
^ State fo nearly related to him, and diftinguiflicd by 
'•fimilaraccompHihments.' We doubt not the fincerity of 
Dr. Anderfonin this compliment; and if he had given it 

* Gr^ragndi hiil. iW, p. ii> 

G 4 '^^y 

g$ Tki Scb^l for Scandal, 

in his own perfon, we ihould not have tal^en the trouble -to 
have held it out to obfervation. The fentimentt however, 
as imputed to the people of Britain is widely erroneous. la 
it neceiTary to inform the Authors of Scotland^ that no En-^ 
gliOiman can eaiily foi]get, that Lord Mansfield durinjg the 
courie of his long life has been., uniformly the zealous 
champion of prerogative; and tliat he has exerted and pro- 
llituted his abilities to undermine the trial by a jury, and the 
liberty of the prefs ; tliofe facred and formidable bulwarks 
which fupport the glorious fabric of the Eaglifli govern- 
ment ? 

■ I III — ^—^pM ■ ■ ! ■ I ■ 11 I I I I I I 

Art. II. The School for ScanJal^ a Comedy ; as it is performed at the 
Theatre-Royal in Drury-iane. Dublin, 1781. 

THE public are here prefented with an Irifh edition of 
Mr. Sheridan's School for' Scandal, which has fo long 
been expected to be publllhcd hy the Author himfelf. Why 
this has not yet been done, it is not our province to deter* 
mine. We think ourfelvcs entitled, however, to give it a 
place in our Review, as every oublication which appears in 
our filler kingdom, is comprehended in our plan. The 
plot of this celebrated Comcay is fo well known, zs to ren- 
der an accpirate delineation of it altogether unneceilary. We 
fhall only, therefore, take a general view of it, and enquire, 
iince it has contributed fo highly to the amufement of man- 
kind, whether it be calculated alio for their infbrudion. 

We are forry to obferve, that this play is certainly defi- 
cient in its moral tendency. The hero of^it, is a young man 
devoid of prudence, juftice, and decency 5 who, confiflent 
with his own honour and ^nerofity, can live fatisfied and 
happy amidft the ruin which his extravagance had brought 
upon the honed and induflrious. This indeed, is a common 
character in life; but it ought not, on that account, to be 
lefstheobjeft of repfehcnfion. It muft be allowed, that 
the fmooth-faced villany of Jofeph Surface, when con- 
trafted with the vices of Charles, makes the latter appear in 
an advantageous light. Yet fome^ may, perhaps, doubt, 
whether the man who conceals his vices and punftually 
pays his debts, be not a lefs injurious member of fociety, 
than he, who openly declares war againft morality, and def*; 
pifes his creditors and all the rules of decorum. 

The chara^ers of the brothers evidently refemble thofe 
of Blyfil and Tom Jones. Their uncle and patron Sir 
Oliver may alfo have been imiuted from Alworthy. But 
Fielding feeras to have been more intimately acquainted with 
nature, tha^n the Author of the Schoql for Scandal. Why 


Ithe School for Scandal. 97 

"ik Oliver on his firfi arrivtl ihould immedifttelf cotklema 
one of his nephews, becaufe evfrv bodyfpeki %ucUofhimy it, 
perhaps, not eafy to be reconciled ; nor can we allow, that 
prudence clinging round the green fuckers of youtb^ is Hie ivy 
round thefafiin^ andfpoils the growth of tSe tree. When for 
want of this cautious principle fuch multitudes of the young 
of both fexes a^e continually involved in mifery and ruin, it 
is furelv dangerous, as well as uniuft, to reprefent it in fo un* 
fevouraUc a point of view. The brevity of wit often gives a 
more fatal ftab to virtue, than the protraAed reafomng of 
the moil laboured difquiiition, 

It were, indeed, to be wiflied, that foch a profuiion of 
wit, and fuch elegance of expreffion, had been employed on 
a moral more unexceptionable and harmlefs. Yet, under 
thefe circumftances, the fuccefs of the piece had probably 
been lefs. Mankind, in general, are more fond of attend- 
ing to excufes for vice, than to incentives to virtue. A 
libertine je^Iaimed, all at once, amidft youth, health, and 
a large acquiiition of fortune, does not appear, as an im- 
probable event : though it is, perhaps, one of the moil un- 
common occurrences in real lite. The pidure is pleafine ; 
and therefore, the want of a refemblance to nature, is dif- 

Since this is the firft opportunity, which has been ofiered 
of reading this admired comedv, we doubt not the curiofi^ 
of our Readers will be gratined in prefentine them witn 
that moft interefting fcene, where Sir Peter and Lady Tea- 
zle by th^ fall of die icreen> are expoied to each other ia 
Joicph^s ' Study. 

* SCENE the Apartments of Jossph SuEFACt* 
Enter Joseph and a SAavAMT4 
y^f. No letter from Lady Teazle« 
Serv. No, fir. * 

Jof. I wonder (he did not write if ihe could not com^-^I hope 
Sir retcr does no| fufpc^k me— -Bat Charles's didipation and extras 
▼agance are great points in my favour (Kmeking at the ^Ai^,/— -See 
if It is her. 

Serv. *Ti8 Lady Teaa^k, fir ; but ihe always orders her chair to 
the milliner's in the next flreet. 

fof Then draw that fcreeii— my oppofite neighbour is a maiden 
r of fo eurioua a temp«r**You n^ not wait. (Exit ServoMt./ 
Ay Lady Teazle, I'm afraid be^ns to f«fpe6t my attachment la 
Maria i but fiie nui^ oot be acquainted with that mxex tiU I have 
her more in my power. 

Enter Ladf TeazJ-E. 
L. Teaz^ What,. Sentiment in foliloquy ! — Have you beeo very 
impatient aoW ? Nay you look to grave, ■ ■ » I tfhve you I came aa 
fooo as I could. 

^$8 % Th€ School for ScanSal 

Jrf. Oh, madam, pun^uality is a fpccics of conf^ancj^-*-* r^tf 
vnfalhionable cuftom among ladies. 

L. Tea»^ Nay, now you wrong me ; I'm furc youM pity mc if 
you knew my (icuation — [both Jtt. "y^ir Peter really, grows lb pec- 
vUh, and fo ill-natured, there's no enduring him ; ^d then, to 
fufped me with Charles — 

Jof. Vm glad my fcandalous friends keep up that report. [AfiJe. 

L, 7^a%. For my part, I wifli Sir Peter to let Mana marry him 
— WouMn't you, Mr. Surface ? ' 

Jof. Indeed I would not^^Afole] Oh, to be fure,; and then 

my dear Lady Teazle would hie convinced how groundlefs her fuf- 
picions were, of my haTtog any thoughts of the lilly girl. 

L. Tea%, Then, there's my friend Lady Sneerwell has propagat- 
ed malicious dories about me — and what's very provoking, all too 
without cbe lead foundation. 

Jrf. Ah ! there's the mifchief — for when a fcandalous flory la 
J>crieved againft one, there's n^ comfort like the conlcionfneft of 
naving dclcrved it. 

L. Tea%, And to be continually cenfured and fufpe^led, when t 
know the integrity of my own heart ■ ■ it would almoft prompt 
mc to give him fome grounds for it. 

Jof. Certainly — for when a huiband grows fufpicious, and with* 
draws his confidence from his wife, it then becomes a part of her 
.diity to endeavour to outwit him.-«-You owe it to the natun^ privi* 
lege of your fex. 

L, Tea%. Indeed ! 

J a/. Oh yes ; for your huftand fliould never be deceived in yaU| 
and you ought to be frail in compliment to his difcemment* 

L. Tcaz, This is the ncweft do£lrine« 

Jof, Very wholefome, believe mc. 

L. Teaz, So, the- only way to prevent his fufpicions, is to give 
iiian cHufe for them. 

J of. Certainly. 

L. Teaz, But then, the confcioufnefs of my innocence—*— 

Jif. Ah, my dear Lady Teazle, 'tis that confcioufnefs of 
yopr innocence that ruins you. What is it that makes you impru* 
dent in your condu^, and carelefs of the cenfures of the world .* 
The confcioufnefs of your innocence. — What is it makes you re* 
gardlefs of forms, and inattentive to yoUr hufband's peace ? — Why, 
the confcioufnefs of your innocence. — Now, my dear Lady Tea- 
zle, if you could only be prevailed upon to make a trifling ^tt^r^r, 
you can't imagine how circumfpe^i you would grow. 

L. Tfax. Do you think fo ? 

yof. Depend upon it. — ^Your cafe at prefent, my dear Lack' Tca- 
. rJc, refeinblcs that of a perfon in a plethora — ^you arc ablolutely 
dying of too much health. 

l^Teaz. Why, indeed, if my underflanding could be convtnc« 
#d ■■ ■ '• . t>. * 

Jcf. Your underfVanding ! — Oh yes, your underftanding JhomJd 
be convinced* Heaven forbid that I ihould perfuade you to any 
ihin^ yov thought%rong. No, no, I hay^ too much nonodr for 

The Scbtpl for Scandal 99 

L. TeoK. DoD*t you tiiink you may as well leave honour but of 
tKe queftton? [ictb rt/e,} 

yi/l Ah ! I fee. Lady Tcarlc, the eiSe& of your country educa* 
tion ftill remain. 

L. Teaz. They do, indeed, and I begin to find myfelf impru« • 
dent ; and if I fliould be brought to a^ wrong, it would be fooner 
from Sir Peter's ill treatqaent of me, than from your honourable 
logic, I ailiire you. 

. yi^. Then by this hand, which is unworthy o f [ htceltng^ a 
Servant enfers.\ — What do you want, you fcoundrel ? 

Srnv. I beg pardon, fir 1 thought you would not chufc Sir 

Peter Qiould come up. 

Jc/"- Sir Peter ! 

L. Teaz. Sir Peter! Oh, I'm undone!— What (hall I do ? Hid« 
me fomewhere, good Mr. Logic. 

Jof, Here, here, behind this fcreeo, (She runs hebind the fcreen) 
add now reach me a book. . \Sth down and reads. 

Enter Sir Peter. 

Sir Pet. Aye, there he is, ever improving himfelf.— Mr. Surface, 
Mr. Surface. 

Jfff. {Affe^ntg la gape^ Oh, Sir Peter ! — I rejoice to fee you— 
I was got over a flccpy book here— I am vaftly glad to fee you— I 
thank you for this call — 1 believe you have not been here fince 
I finifbed my library — Books, books you know, are the only Hiisg I 
am a coxcomb in. 

Sir Pet, Very pretty, indeed — why, even your fcreen is a foUrcc 
of knowledge — hung round with maps I (ec. 

yof. Yes, I find great ufc in that fcreen. 

Sir Pet. Yes, yes, fo you muft when you want to find any thing 
in a hurry. 

J^of. Yes, or to hide any thing in a hurry. [4fi^* 

if Pei. But, my dear friend, I want to hare fome private talk 
with you. 

Joj. You need not wait. [Exit Servant. 

Sir Pet, Pray, lit down — (hothfit) My dear friend, I wint to 

impart to you fome of my diflrefles — In (hott. Lady Teazle's be- 
haviour of late has giyen me very great uncafinefs. She not only 
diffipates and dcftroys my fortune, but I have ftrong reafbns to bc^ 
jiteve die h^s formed an attachment elfewhere. 

J of, I am unhappy to hear it. 

Sir P(t, Yes, and between you and roe, I believe I have difcop^ 
vered the perfon. 

J of. You alarm me exceedingly. 

Sir Pet, I knew you would fympathize with me. 

Jof, Believe me. Sir Peter, fucn a difcovery would affed m^-** 
juft as much as it does you. 

Sir Pet, What a happinefs to have a friend we can trud, vetn 
with our family fecrets— Can't you guefs who it is ? 

Jof I hav'n't the moft diftant idea. — It can't be Sir Benjtmii 

Sir Pft. Ko, no*— Wh4t |lo you think of Charlee I 


a 00 STie Sch^^ljor ScanJoL 

Jof. Mybrbthcr! impoflibie !*^I can't thittk he would lie capable 
of fuch baleoefs and ihgratitude. 

Sir Pe/. Ah) the goodne($ of your own mind makes you flow to 
believe fuch villany. 

J'f* Very true, Sir Peter.— —The man who it confciout of the 
tntej^ty of hit own heart; it erer flow to credit another's bafeneft. 

Sir rtt. And yet that the fon of my old friend fliould pra^ice a* 
gainft.tbe honour of my family* 

Jof^ Aye, there's the cafe, fir Peter, — —When ingratitude barbs 

the dart of injury, the wcmnd fedt doubly feiart. 

Sir Pet. What noble fentiraents !— He never ufed a ,fhitimenty 
ungrateful boy ! t)iat I aded at guardian to, and who was brought 
up under my eye ; and I never in my life refufcd him — my advice. 
, Jof. I don't know, Sir Peter,— he may be fuch a man— if it 
be fo, he is no longer a brother of mine ; I renounce him. I di^ 
^laim him*— ^For thd man who can break throujg;h the lawt of hoP- 
pitality, and feduce the wife or daughter of his friend, deferves td 
be branded as a pefl to fodety. 

. Sir Pet. And yet, Jofeph, if I was to maktt it public, I fliould 
only be fneered and laughed at. 

y»/I Why, that's very true— —No, no, you Inuft not make it 
I^bric 5 people would talk 

Sir JPf/. Talk !—^— they'd fay it was all my own flult; an old, 
doodng batchelor, to marry a young giddy girl. They'd paragraph * 
me in the newfpapers, and make ballads on me. 

Jof. And yet, Sir Peter, I can't think that my Lady Teazle's 
Sir Fet. Ah, mv dear friend, what's her honour, oppofed ag^inft 
the flatterer ^f a handfome young fellow.— -^But Jofdph, flie has 
been upbraiding me of late, that I have not made her a (ettletnent ; 
and I Ihink, in our lai^ quarrel, flie told (ne flie fliOuld not be verv 
ferry if I was dead. Now, I have brought drafts of two deeds 
for vour perufal, and flic fliall find, if I was to die, that I ha-re 
not Dcen inattentive to her welfare while living. By the one, flie 
wilt enjoy tight hundred pounds a year dunng my life ; and by the 
oi^r, the bulk of my fortune after my death. 

Jof, This condud is truly generous.— —I wifti it mayn't cor- 
rupt taj pupil. [Afide. 

Sir ret. But I would not hare her as yet acquainted with the 
leafi mark of my affeftion. 

Jof, Nor I— if I couM help it. [AjiiU. 

Sir Pet. And now I have unburthened royfelf to you, let tis talk 
ever your afiair with Maria. 

Jof.^ox. a fy liable upon the fubjea now. (alarmdj^^-^-^Saait 
othav time ; 1 am too much affeded by ytxxx aflaira, to think of my. 
own. For the man, who can think of his oWn happinefs, while his . 
Mmd is in dSftrefs, deferves to'be hunted as a monlbr to ibciety. 

Sir Pet. I am Aire of your aflfeaion for her. 

J^. Let me entreat you. Sir Fete r " ■■■■ ' 

Sir Pet. And though you arc fo averfe to Lady Teazle's knowin|f 
it, I aflure you, flie is not your enemy, and I am febfibly chagrined 
you' have made no further progrefs. 



7U School for S<^d^. ^<H 

5V» S**" Peter, I muft not hear yo u T h^ in» who r ""*' 

(Enter a Servant J What do^oa want (urak } 

Serv^ Your brother, fir, i» at the <loor talking tp a^ gentleman i 
he fays he knows you are at home, that Sir Peter is with you^ andt 
he muA fee you* 

7c/. I am not at home. 
Sir " ^' 

Sir Pet, Yea, yes, you (bsAl bo at home. 

5V* (4fl^^ fi^^ befaaiUn) Very weU, let him coine up. 

{Exit Servant* 

Sir Pet, Now, Jofeph, I'll hide myfelf, and do you tax him a* . 
bout the affair with, ipy La^y Teaxle, and fo draw the^ fecret from 

Jpf* fyc.! Sir Peter— —what, join in- a plot to trepan my. bro- 

Sif Pet. Oh aye, to ferre your friend :-— befides, if he ia inno* 
cent, aa yo.u iliy. h^ ia, it wiU giFe him an opportunity to clear him* 
felf, and make me very happy* Hark, I heiar him 9oming' ■ ■ 

Where {hall I go ? Behind this fcreen-*— What the d^rtl! here 

his been one liBener already, for I'll fwear I faw a petticoat. 

Jrf. (Affe^ing, t$ kmgb) It's very ridiculous— Ha, ha, ha» ■ a> 
r^iculousa&ir, in dee d ■ h a, ha^ ha.- H ark ye,. Sir Petcr„ 

(fuUing him afide) though I hold a man of intrigue- to be a moft 4cr 
fpjcable chanu5ler, yet you know it, does notMlow^ that one is to 
he an abfcdute Jofq>k either. Hark ye, 'tisii little French millinery 
who calls upon me fometimes, and hearing vou were coming, and 
baring (bine^anider to lofe, (he flu>ped behind die fcreen. 

^ix Pet* A French milliner! (fmiling) Cunning rogue! Jbfeph 
— rr-Sly. rogu^r^^But zounds, (he has orerheacd eyery thing that 
has pafled about mj wife. 

Jof. Oh, neyar-fta r 1 1 T ake my word it wiU never go fiju:- 
tktrfor her. 

§ir-P#/. Won't it? 

J^^ No, depend upon it. 

Sir Pet. Well, well, if it will go no farther— ——But— —where, 
ihatl ^hidemv(elf? 

y<^ Iielv» berc^ flip into tins do&t, and you may orerbear c- 
Tcnr word*^ 

L* Tea%. Can I fieal away* (Peeping) 

Jrf. Huih! fauih.! doa't ftir. 

Sir Pet. Joieph, tax him homa* (Pn^g) 

y^ In, liv my. dear Sir Peter. 

L* Teas^ Can't vou lock the cklfet door ? 

J4- Nata>wor Qii ii.ij vou'U be diibovtredi 

Sir Pet, Jofeph, don't fpare him. 

Jef. For heaven's fake lie clofe m A pretty fituation I am in, to 
•part man and wife in thia mapner* \Afidt. 

Sir Pet. You're fure the kttk French milliner won't blab. 
Enter CoAaLBa. 

{AenTh W1iy« how. now, brother, your fellow denied 'you^ they 
Cwdyou^wtre not athomci i ■■ WTiat^ have you had a Jevv or a 
awcndfcirithyoM.? ^ - 

101 7%e School /or ^Mndttl. 

Jof, Neither, brother, neither. 

Chmr. Bdt whcre*8 Sir Peter } I thought he wtf with you. 

J»f* He was, brother : but hearing you was coming, he left thi 

Char. What, was the old fellow afraid I wanted to borrow moaeir 
•f him ? 

^ Jof. Borrow ! no, brother ; but I am forry to hear you hare 
4pTen that worthy man caufe for great uneaiinefs. 

Char. Yes, I am told I do that to a great many worthy me n 
But bow ^a you mean, brother ? 

Jof. Whv, he thinks you haTe endeavoured to alienate the a£feo 
tions of Laay Teazle. 

Char. Who, I alienate the affcdions of Lady Teazle ! ■ 
Upon my word he accufes me very unjullly. What, has the old 
gentleman found out that he has got a young wife: or, what \% 
worfe, has the lady found out that flie has got an old hufband. 

Jcf, For ihame, brother. 

Cbar, *Tis true, I did once fufpedt her lady(hip had a partiality 
for ^nc, but upon my ibul I never gave her the Icail encourage* 
ment; for, you Icnow my attachment was to Maria. 

Jrf. This will make Sir Peter extremely happ}^ — But if (he had ft 
partiality for you, fure you would not have been bafc enough 

Chmr. Why, look*ye, Joieph, I hope I iliall never deliberate- 
ly do a diflionourable action ; but if a pretty woman ihould pur* 
poiely throw herfelf in my wav, and that pretty woman (hould hap- 
pen to be married to a man ola enough to be her fathe r 
' What then? 

Char. Why then, I believe I (hould-«— have occafion-to borrovr 
t little of your morality, brother. 

Jof. Oh ^ brother^— The man who can je ft - ■ 

char. Oh, that*s very true, as you were |;oing to obfcrve. ■ ■ ■ ' 
But Jofeph, do you know that I am furprized at your fufpcdin^ 
me with Lady Teazle. I thought you was always the favourite 

Jo/. Me ! 

Cimr. Why yes, I have feen you exchangt Aich fignificaot 

Jo/. Pfliaw! 

Clhwr. Yes, I have; and don't you remember when I came m 
here, and caught you and her a t 

Jo/^ I muft dop him. \Afidt\ \Sto^ his mouth.] Sir Peter hat o* 
verheard ^▼ery word that you have laid. 

Char. Sir Peter! where is he? What, m die dofe t 

^Fore}»ad Pll have him out. 

yo/ No, no. [Stepping him.} 

CJbar. I will Sir Peter Tcatle, come into court* 

Entir Sir Peter. 
Wbait, my old guardian turn inquifitor, and take evidence inccM^* 

Sr Pft. Give me your hand, — I own, my dear boy, I h*vc fitf- 
fc&ed you wrongfully ; but you muft not be angry widi Jokfh 9 ' 
It WIS all my plot, aad I (bail think of you as long aa I live for- 
what I. gtveriiMrd. 


Thi School for Scandal. lOJ 

Gar. Then *tis wdl you did not hear more. I9 it nor, Jofeph ? 

Sir Pft, What, you would have retorted oil Jofeph, would you ? 

Char. And yet you might as well hare fufpeaed him at me. 
Might he not, Jofeph? 

J5/i/^ Servant^ 

Serv. [lyhljpering Jofeph,]— Lady Sneerwetl, fir, 19 juft conot- 
iog up, and fays (lie mull fee you. 

jjf. Gentlemen, I muft beg your pardon ; I have compMiy wait* 
ing for me ; gire me leave to conduct yea down ftairs. 

Char. No^ no, fpeak to them in another room ; I hare not fecn 
Sir Peter a great while, and I want to talk with him. 

Jof. Wefi, I'll fend away the perfon and return immediately. Sir 
Peter, not a word of the little French milliner. [AfiJe^ mnd txiK 

Sir Pet, Ah, Charles, what a pity it is you don t afibciate mors 
with your brother, we might then have fome hopei of your refor« 
mation ; he's a young man of fuch fentiments— *-^Ah, there's no- 
thing in the world fo noble as a man of fentimcnt. 

<£ar. Oh, he's too moral by half ; and fo apprehenfive of his 
good name, that, I dare (ay, he would as foon let a prieft into his 
houfe as a wench. 

Sir. P^/. No, no, you accufe him wrongfully — ^Tho' Jofeph is^ 
not a rake, he is no faint. 

Char. Oh ! a perfed anchorite—a young hermit. 

Sir P^. Hu(h, hu(h; don't abufe him, or he may chance to* 
hear of it again. 

Char. Why, you won't tell him, will you ? 

Sir P^/. No, no, but 1 have a great mind to tell him. [A- 

JUe] — [/eems /# befaate ] H ark ye, Charles, have you a mind fon 
a laugh at Jofeph ? 

Char. I (hould like it of all things let's have it. 

Sir Pet. Gad I'll tell him— I'll be even with Jofeph fol* difco- 
Tcring me in the clofet. — f-^^^]— Hark'ye, Charles, he had a 
girl with him when I called. 

Char. Who, Jofeph ! impoffible ! 

Sir Pet. Yes, a little French milliner, [tales htm to the/ronty^-^-^^ 
and the beft of the joke is, fhe is now in the room. 

Ckar. The devil (he is 1 Where ? 

Sir Pet. Hufb, hufli- ^behind the fcreen. 

Char. Ill have her out. 

Sir Pet. No, no» no. 

Char. Yes. 

Sir Pet. No. 

Char. By the Lord I will-— fo now for it. 
JSalh run up to the fcreen-'-^'^be fireen falls^ at the fame tiate Jos^Pff 


Char. Lady Teazle, by all that's wonderful ! 

Sir Pet. Lady Teazle, by all that's horrible 1 ' 

Char. Sir Peter, this is the fmarte(l little French milliner I ever 
faw-— But pray what i» the meaning of all this } You fcem t# 
liaTC been playing at hide and feek here, and for my part, I don't 
know wturs in or who's out of the fecret— Madam, will you pleafe 
to e»>lain ?— — Not a word !— — Brothcrt in \t your pl^rfuro to il- 


tOf 22tf SfBcol /or Scandal 

luArate ?'—— ^Morality dumb too!'— -WeU^ though I can nuilte 
nocbiDg of it* I fuppofe you perfiedly underdand one another, ^ood 
lolki> and To I'll leave you. Brother, I am ferry you have ^ven that 
worthy man fo much caufc for uneafinefs — Sir Peter, there 8 nothing 
in the world fo noble as a man of fentimenr. Ha, ha, ha ! [Exit. 

Jof. Sir Peter„ notwithftandin;^ appearances are a^ainft me ■ i f 
—if you'll give me leave— FU explain every thing to you* it^ 

Sir Pet. If you detfe, fir* 

. ytf. Lady Teazle knowing my-*-Lady Teaxle— I fay«*-kB0wiiig 
my prctcnfiona-rto your ward— Maria---and— Lady Teade — ^I fajF 
^knowing the jealoufv of ray— of your temper— (he called in here 
-rin order that Ate— -that I might explain.— what thefe pretenfions^ 
were— And— hearing you were coming — and— as I faid before—* 
knowing the jealoufy of your temper — me — my Lady Teazle — I fay 
—went behind the icreen — ^and— — This is a full and clear accounC 
of the whole affair. 

Sir Pet. A very clear account truly ! and I dare fay the lady 
will vouch for the truth of every word of it, 

L. Ttan. [Advancing] for not one fyllable. Sir Peter* 

Sir Pet. Whatv the devil ! don't you think it worth your while 
to agree in the lie ? 

L. Tea%. There's not one word of truth in what that geotlemaa 
lia» been faying^ 

Jof. 2^unds, madam, you won't ruin me. 
' L* Tea%. Stand out of the ivay, M^. Hypocrite^ I'll fpeak for 

J Sir Peu Aye, a3re*-let her alone — (he'll make a better ftory of 
it tlianyou did* 

L. fea%. I came here with no intention of liilenbg to-faia ad* 
dr^s to Maria, and even ignorant of his pretenfions ; but fedttced 
hy his infidious artSi, at lea(( to liden to his addrefles, if not to ia- 
crifice his honour, as well as my own, to his unwarrantable dcfires* 

Sir Pet. Now I believe the truth is coming indeed* ' 

Jofi What ! it the woman* nwd ? 

L* Tea%. No, fir, (he has recovered her fenfes* Sir Peter, V 
cannot cxpe^'you will credit me ; but the tendemefs j*ou exprcAd 
for me, when I am certain you did not know I was within hearing, 
has penetrated fo deep into my foul, that could; I have efoaped the 
mortification of this difcovery, my future life (hould have - convinc- 
ed you of my fincere repentance* As for that fmooth-tongued hypo^ 
criie, who would have feduced the wife of his too creduloua intvA^ 
while be pretended an honourable paffion for his ward, I now view 
him in fo defpicable a light, that I (hall never again refpeft myfelf- 
for having liilened to his addrefies* [Exit. 

Jof. Sir Peter — Notwithilanding all this— 4ieavcn is ray wit- 

Sax Pet. That you are a vilbin-F-and fo I'll leave you to Jroui' 

Jcf. Nay, Sir Peter^ jrou nnift not leave moii^— TJie man wtei 
(huts his .ears agaioft coavi^io n i 



t)r. FothcrgHPs IVftrh. laj , 

Sir Pr/. Oh, damn your fentimcnts— damn vour fcnflmcnts— — i 

The applaufe which thh fccne has cv«r met with in the 
reprefentation, is a lufficicnt tcllimony of its merit. Wc , 
cannot, however, help obferving, that, in our opinion, fome 
part of it is unnatuTal. When Jofeph is agitated with fur* 
prize and fea^r at the fudden arrival of Sir Peter, it is reafon^ 
able to ejcped, that, whiift the caufe continue, the effcSt 
fimnld remain. The falljes of wit,- and the fmartneis of 
repartee, cannot properly flow, bm from a heart at eafe« 
The immaculate charader wl)ich this yoang man wiihes ta 
pfeferve in Sir Peter's ojpinion, and the hazardous litnation 
m which Lady Teazle is placed, muft natnrallv excite the 
moft poignant apprehension ; nor will it be fnfllcient to fay^ 
that a feigned vivacity and eafe is requifite, in order to im-* 
pefe on dir Peter ; £nce, if that be admitted, it will not ob-^ 
tain with - lefpeft to a diicerninr audience, who expeA to 
difcover a tnort expreiSve confli^ betwixt guilt and hypo- 
crify. When Sir r. {feeaking of the fcreen,) therefore ob- 
ienres, that Jofeph Inciit find great nfe in it, when he wants t9 
find any thing in a hurry ; he anfwers, moft unnaturally to 
the audience,-— ^fi, or to hide any thing in a hurry. Such ex- 
putffions as this will catch the applaufe of tlie crowd, but 
mvft ofl^nd die judicious. 

Our obfervations on this celebrated Comedy, it is hoped* 
wilt not be eonfidered as illiberal ; fince our admiration of 
the many beauties with which it abounds, is at leaft equal 
to oinr fcgret, that the plot was not le(s exc^ionabie. 

*RT. TTI. The W6rh of John FothergJU^ M. D. By J. OaUcy 
Lettforo. Vol. I. and II. 8vo. 128. boards. Dilly. . 

THESE efl^ys poflcfs very unequal degrees of merit. 
Some are peunle and infignificant, whilft others con- 
vey ufeful information. Dr. Lettfom would, we appre- 
henA; have ^nfulted better both the memory of his frienil 
and the pleafurc of the pubHc, if he had reduced this 'col- 
\t&iton to half its prefent fize. But recent publications are 
too numerous and their claim upon our attention too juft, 
to BiBow us to enter into a prtictilar difcuflion of t^e 
contefits of thefe volumes. We (hall therefore fatirfy our- 
felveS' with barely pointing out thofe pieces, that might 
with propriety have been left in that oblivion to which 
ttey have been for fome time configned. Thefe are the 
Inaugi^lal Di0ertation, the Meteorological ObferVations, 
wtiicn take up great part of the fipft volume, but are far 
too inaccurate to anfwer any ufeful purpofes, and many of 
' Rb¥. Vot. I. Feb. 1783. H *^ 

te6 Sauffurc's JourHeyi i^thi Alps. 

the Papers on Natural Hiftory, The Phyikal Eflays are 
entitkd to a very different charader : and if the writer of this 
article niav venture to propofe the idea of Dr. Fothergili as a 
Medical Author, which the peruial of thofe eflays has im-' 
preiled upon \i\% mind, he would oblerve tliat accuracy and 
fidelity are his diftinguUhing excellencies. No writer has 
defcribcd with greater precifioii the appearances of nature in 
a ftate of difeafe, and upon none may die ftudent rely with 
more'fcntxre confidence as a fure guide : he feems to have 
poffefftd little of that fpirit of enterprize, or of ncihnefSf by 
which the refources or medicine have been encreafed, and 
the great improvements of that fcience fuggefted ; but he 
was well acquainted with the difcoverics of others, and 
knew how to employ them with advantage : few authors 
have indulged fo little in fpeculations, yet from the incon* 
fiderable number of exprcflions relating to the theorv of 
difeafes which occur in his writings, he appears to havc^ 
been contented with th^ Boerhaaviaa doArities, fuch as he 
received them from his preceptors. 

Dr« I^ttfom has announced his intention of pnhtiffaing a 
third volume, which is to confift of an account of the Itfi^ 
of the author, and inedited eiEiys and letters : he will, we 
hope, pardon us^^ if we confefs^ that our expe^tions front 
tbefe pofthumous papers are not very high, ^and we fug- 

?ft extreme caution in the feleftkm of the n»terials. 
o the Editor's part, however, we look forward Wid> 
picture, for we have reafon to believe that the more Dr. 
r othergiU's condufl in private life is known, the nx>re his 
memory will be refpedcd. 

-'---■ - - - ' ~ ' - - . >. 

Art, IV, Foyages d^ki les Alpes* Jourms in the At^i. To vvhich 
is prefixed) aa £^^ on the Natural Hiftor^ of the £nvijroiu.o( 
Geneva. By H. B* Dc Saufllrfe, Profcflor of Phifbibphy in 
the Univcrfity of Geneva* Vol. I, 540 pages 410. 

IN the Preliminary Diflertation by which this interefting 
work is introduced we have fome general remari^s oit 
the improvements which ge9Ugy* is likely to receive frav 
the ftuoy of ofountains. '* The progrefs of the theory of 
the eartli,'^ fays M. de Saufliice, ^* is chiefly to be decele- 
rated by the fiudy of mountains. The plains are uniform^ 
and do not exhibit fe£tions of diflferent ftrata, except wbete 
- , .-...* .. ■ . 

* This term was employed by M. de Luc. M. de Saufiiire hav 
adopted it. It is evident from its etymology, that it expreflei tlw 
idea it is defigned to convey, better than *' Cofmologv,'^ the woirf 
in general ulc. 

SaniTarcV Journey in the Jlpi. 107 

txcactations have been made by water or man : now tbefe 
are quite inadequate to the purpofe becaufe tbey are of rare " 
occurrence, of fmall extent, and becaufe the deepeft do not 
penetrate more than 200 or 300 fithoms. The high 
feionntains, on the contrary, infinitely diveriified both in 
matter and form, . openly difplay natural fefiions of ^reat 
extent, in which may be obferred with the utmoft diftm^t-^ 
nefs, and M a fingie glance, the order, fituation, direc* 
tion, discknefs, aii^ nature of the ftrata of which they 
confift^ and of the fiiTures by which they are divided.^ The 
Author then defcribes the torn of mind proper for deduc*> 
ing^ufeful condufions from particular obfervations, juftly 
cenfnrm^ thofe felf-called naturalifts whofe only obje£t is 
the ooUeAing of curiofities. After which he warmly expa- 
tiates on the pleafures experienced by the frequenters €4 
mountains, adding, ^* with refped to myfel^ I have ever 
fince my childhood been paffionately fond of thefe purfuits. 
I ftill remember my fenfations the firft time my hands 
touched the rock of the Saleve, and my eves enjoyed its 
pvolpcAs. At the age of eighteen (in 1758) I had akeady 
traverfed the mountains that lye neareft to Geneva. Next 
war I went to ipend fifteen days in one of the hieheft ham«- 
leta of the Jura, in order to vifit carefully the Dole, and the 
neighbouring mountains ; the fame year I afcended the Mote 
for the iirft time : but thefe mountains of fmall elevation (zx\U 
fied my cufic^ty very imperfectly. I felt the moft eager defire 
^ofhavmg a nearer view of , the high Alps, which appeared 
*fb majeftic from the fummits of the former mountains ; at 
Jength, in 1760, I fet out alone and on foot, to vilit the 
glaciers of Chamouni, little frequented at that time, a;id 
of which the approach was efleemed difficult and dangerous. 
I returned to tpem the following year, and fince that time 
I have not fuffered a fingie year to pafs without undertake 
ing long excurfions, and even joumejrs, in order to fludy 
tiMmnuuns. In that fpace I have crofTed the whole chaitt 
of the Alps fourteen times, by eight ditferent roads ; I have 
bcfidea made fixteto excuffions to the center of the chain. 
I have tcaverfed the Jura, the Vofges, the uvountains of 
Switzerland, of part of Germany, thofe of England, Italy, 
Sicily, and the adjacent ifles ; I have vailted the ancient 
Tolcanos t»f Auvergne, part of thofe of Vivarais^ and fevc-* 
xal mouiUains of Forez, Dauphiny, and Burgundy/^ Such 
aifc the claims of ^is acoDmplifhed Naturalif); upon the con«* 
dUenceof his Readers. Nor will his accuracy be thought 
IdQi praifeworthy than his unremitting dal^nce ; for h« 
teUs us, that he always takes down his obfervatious on the 
fp«t. apd copies thcm'fair within twenty-four hours. Yet, 
- H * not- 

|o6 ' .Sauflurc's Journlei In the Alpu 

notwithftanding this minute attention, he tliinks tlte great-* 
er part of his collodions too imperfeft to be fubmitted Id 
public infpcQian, and ventures only that which has beai 
made within the laft four 6r fixe years. '* And even tliefe," 
&ys he» *' I fubmit with extreme diffidence, well affurcd 
that thofe iiaturalifts who Ihall happen to view after me, the 
obje£ls which I defcribe, will difcover many things that hav* 
efcaped my refearches." The rcmainde/- of the Preface is 
taken up^with an account of the plan of the work. It U 
tQ be completed in three volumes : in the third, M. dc 
Sauflure will give the general confequences deducible from 
adl his obfervations. In die courfc of his travels he has 
paid particular attention to die ftudy of the primitive moun- 
tains, and above ail, to'thofe of granit ; a fabjeft which 
kas been confidered as above the reach of human abilitiosg 
by the lateft AnA beft naturalifts. Dr. Pallas^. M. dc Luc, 
Sec. M. de SauiTure, however, has neidier been difcou- 
raged by authorides nor difficuldes, and he perfuades him-r 
fetf that his afliduous attention, to the forms of thefe, primi- 
tive mountains which are fo well deiigned in the Alps, aad 
fbme new h&% which accident threw in his way, hav^ cont»r 
buted to give him fome information, rcfpe£liiig their origia. 

The two firft chapters are filled with various obfervadoii$ 
relating to the celebrated Leman Lake. We are told, that ia 
time the bafon muft Be filled up by tl^ depo&tons of tbis 
Rhone, which at its entrance is very turbid,^ and ifiues out 
quite limpid. The height of the. water is fabjed t#confidera- 
Wb variation* r it is higheft firoin April to Auguft, and loweft 
from September to December. Thereafon of this diflfc- 
rcnce is very obvious. The Rhone and other rivers whidi 
run into the lake, take their rife in the Alps. Now in the 
bigh Alps, little or no rain falls during winter. Hetice the ri« 
vers are fupplied only by. the fprings, the rain felling in the 
k>w vallies, and the incon&ierable quantity of (b^w melted 
by the internal heat of the earth ; wherca« in fiinuoefy tbefe 
rivers are fwoln, not only, by the rain which waters the 
whole extent of tfa^ mountains, but alfo by the meldng oT 
die gr^teii part ot the fnow, accumulated otrring widter on. 
the fame mountains. 

But the moft remarkacble plisnometKm reUting. to thi» 
lake, are certain ofciilations calleil &/VAu. On fkirmy 4*7^ 
the water is £een fuddenly to rife four or five feet^ aod fiofc 
again with equal fuddennefs, and continue thefe allernatiom 
during fome hours. Several exf^anationsr of this^ {^hibsiv 
menon liave been given ; tliat of M. Bertrand fcema tl|9 
moft pkuifible: he f uppofec that the doud^ charged vi[idi 
dteftricity, attrafi the water, which in oodt^uence of itt 
. - ^ idling: 

8ati0\ire's Jourmif /V U)9 Mps. 109 

frtltngback, produces thcfe ofcillations. M. dc S^uflura 
adds, that fuddcn local varialiaas of the gravity of the air 
may caofe mofxientaineoiis fluxes aiid r«tluxeA« by occafioning^ 
imcqtial preiTure on different parts of' the lake. The leconi 
chapter treats of the depth and teipperature of tlie lake, but a* 
the Author promifes fome further obfervations on tlte fama 
fobjeft, we fhall conlider this part when we gjive an account 
of the iecond volume. The third chapter contains 'obferva- 
tions on the fhape and ftrudure of the hills hh the vicinity 
tS Geneva. The fourth and fifth furnifh us witli the no- 
nenclacure <^ the different kinds of ftones that are found 
<Sfperfed near the fame city. I'his article, though very u^-i 
firuAive, evidently admits not of abridgement. We Ihall, 
however, take notice of two digrcffions introduced in th« 
0(mrfe of it, Tbfe firft relates to the chymical hiftory of 
die ambii^tts. One hundred parts digefted in the nitrous 
and vitriolic add, lod only two, which confiflcd partly of 
cticareous earth, and partly of ma|neiia. Four drachms of 
vitriol tc acid> diitiiied from two of amianthus, afforded the 
fame lefult. The Pruliian alkali precipitated no iroii from 
Ac water in which 'the amianthus had been waihed, after 
the acid was driven over iipito the receiver. The colour of 
the fiooe was changed to yellov^, but its fiexibiiity remain* 
ed uminpaired. This aoalyiis is not very fatisfa£tory, and 
we doubt not but difEbrent r^fult^ will be obtained, if this 
feffil floKild be examined in the vmy deicribed by Profcffbr 
Bergmann in the fifteenth and iixteentli of his chymical ef* 
fays. The digrefBon relating to the nature of the ftones, 
by Ihefviion of which the various kinds of Java have been 
produced, is more interelling. M. Defmareft, who has ob* 
fenred with the QtmcU attention, the progrefs of nature in 
the production of volcanic matters, and deteAed many of 
her operations by uncommon iagacity oi'conjcfture, has ad- 
vanced that granits are the moft general materials of ba« 
tiksBS« Bat me experiments related by our Author com-» 
pletely otverturn this hypotheiis ; they prove, that granits 
tequire for their fufion, a heat mpch fuperior, in the opi- 
imm ol M. Defmareft htm&lf, to that .of volcauos, and 
tbat when fufed, thcy^ve very different products from lava 
or faafidtscs. From fnniiar expfriments on various kinds of 
ponhyiTf be deduces the fame confequence with refpeft 
todtitt ^d^ of llone.' M. de Sauffure is of opihioh, that 
tho fiixs cornea moUiora of Wallerius, h^ve afforded the 
OBater pact of the black, CQmpaA, and thoroughly fufed 
tittdi of lava. Ai\ the fiones of this fort, which lie fubje^led " 
tMhe sfiioA of fire, were fufed b^ a moderate heat, fuch as 
tlH^I'vokano^feems w Itave been> and were ^hanged iht^ 

H g . a black, 

1 14 Sttiflttire's Jcmrniis in the^pu 

a black, hftlf-vitrified matter, exaAly rcfembling poi-oas la- 
va. After the heat of fubterraDeous fire hath converted 
thefe ftones into porous lava, the long daration of this heat, 
gradually expells the bubbles which occ^iion its porofitj, or 
caufes them to be abforbed* and fo changes them 
paft lava : for it is only in the center of volcanic currents 
that tlie heat has continued long enough to produce lava of 
a clofe texture^ and free from bubbles. 

The fame fpecies of rock, which a moderate heat changes 
firft into porous, and afterwards into compaA lava, expoTed 
to a more violent heat, is changed into a black, brilliant, 
opake glafs, or enamel, pcrfedly like that exhibited by vol* 
canic lubftances, wherever any aocidcntal caufes have aug- 
mented the heat. 

Homogeneous lavas and bafaltcs produced by volcanos, 
expofed to an equal degree of heat, atrord alfo a black ena- 
mel, exa£lly refembling that afforded by hom^ftobes. 

Befidcs, vitrifications of thefe ftones treated with acids, 
are partly folublc in them, and give out precifely the lame 
proouds as lava and bafaltes. 

From thefe and other confiderations our Author con* 
dudes that the horn- ftone, 01: the tender kinds of (chorU 
have fumiihed the greateft part of the homogeneous la^ras 
and bafaltes, and that the fame ftones have formed the bafis 
of moft of thofe lavas and bafaltes,. which in an uniform 
ground contain grains of quartz and feld*lpath, or other re- 
fra&ory fubftances. 

Marls, and fome fpecies of talk, fuch as are eafily fufcd, 
and give a compaft glafs, may alfo have fupplied the mate- 
rials of difierent folid lavas, 

Laftly, cellular and fpongy lava, is probably the produft 
of different kinds of flates. 

However plauiible this theory may appear, with refpeft 
to bafaltes we are not to forget the ftrong objef^ions alledg- 
cd by the greateft of modern chymifts, Profeflbr Bergmaon*^ 
againft the received opinion of its production by fire. 

The next chapter treats of the pebbles, and tragmencs of 
rocks, fcattered in the vallcV of the Lake of Geneva, and 
.the adjacent moi^n tains, tie adopts the received opinion 
concerning their origin. Clofe by the beds of torrents he 
^as found them with all their angles (harp, and their 
fides rough. Within the beds tlicfe fragments began to 
lofe thefe appearances, till at laft they b^ome quite routid 
and fmooth. But it is not only near the lake, and at the 
fcet of the mountains that petioles are obferved, they ^re 
feen difperfed over the Saleve, and that fide of the Jura 
which look^ towards the Alps, at the heighl^f three or four 


^tff\xTt\ ytnirnus h the Alfl. lit' 

ImndJed" fethoms above the level of the lake. And if thcfe 
bocfies have been tranfported by waters, whence had thcfc 
waters their fource, what excited fo violent a commotion, as 
to enable tlicm to tranfoort thefe mafles to eminences fepa- 
rated by extenfive and deep Tallies from the primitive Alps ? 
Iri anf\rcr vo thefe qwellions, our Author lays down the 
following hypothcfis, ^' The waters of the ocean, in whicli 
our mountains were formed, ftill covered part of thefe 
mountains, when a violent earthquake fuddcniy opened 
many large caverns that were before empty, and (battered a 
great number of rocks." 

** The waters rulhed towards thefe abyfles with eixtreme 
l^ry, in proportion to their height, formed profound val- 
hes, and fwepraway immcnfe quantities of earth, fand, and 
fragments of various kinds of rocks. Thefe matters half 
liquid, artd driven along by the weight of the waters, were 
accumulated ow the heights where they arc now found fcat- 

Several obfcrvations are adduced in fupport of this hy- 
pothcfis. Thefe fragments are faid to be nowhere found m 
greater plenty, or in higher {ituations, than in places op- 
^pofite to the vallies of the Alps, They are not obfcrved in 
tliofc.yallies of the Jura, which lye behind tl^ high ridge 
trtiich bounds this mountain where it feces the Alps. 

M. de Sauffure alfo believes, that at the time of this great 
revolution, the waters of the Lake of Geneva were far 
higher than at prcfcnt. This lake lies in the center of an 
immenfe bafon, on all fides enclofed with very high moun- 
taitls ; the only outlet for the Rhone is a very narrow 
paflage between the Vouache and Jura, which M. de Sauf- 
fure believes -were once united : were this paflTage filled up, 
Geneva and all the adjacent country would l>e covered vwitk 
water. In his rcfcarchcs on the Saleve, our Author 
thinks he has difcovercd many traces of this ancient eleva- 
' tton of the water, fuch as cavities, furrows,"' beds of fand, 

Bat wc can no longer follow this entertaining and in- 
flmftivc naturalift, flep by ftep, in hh excurfions. What 
we have already faid of his work, will, wc trull, be abun- 
dantly fufficient to racomiiKind it to the lludents of na* 
tural hiftory, and to excite an ardent with in the Englifli 
reader, that it may foon be tranllated into our language. 
His notions, however, ccxncerning the origin of granits, 
arc fo original aqd peculiar, that we are tempted to lay be- 
fore otlr Keaders the fubflance of what he has advanced on 
lilis rdbjcift. 
' ^ TBofe who would maintain that tlie grjinit has been 

H 4 formed 

1 1 c SMfxitt?$ yournies in tBi J^.^ 

formed hj the union of the parts of a loofe fand or gflteV 
may fuppofe that the ouartZt one of the chief ingredients, hai 
infinuated itlelf by innltration, and tbas filjiing tbeir intef'^^ 
ftices, has can(ed their cohefion; but the,quart2 forms not 
only the gluten, but alfo the bafe of the Itone^ and com^" 
monly the di^rent materials are in fach proportion, and ftr 
acrranged, as to appear all equally neceilkfy to the fupport o£ 
the edifice, which they contribute to form, fo that neither 
can be taken away without the ruin of the whole; whence- 
it follows, that two pr three of thefe materials cannot hav^ 
exided firft^ and then the laft have fuperveued and filled the 

It is common to find gcanits oompofed of nearly eqsal 
mins of quartz and (chorl, or of quartz and feld-fJKith.. 
Imagine one of thefe ingredients takei^ away, and ypu wiU 
perceive* that the gravel formed by the remaining, rmufl Ifave 
funk down together, and thus have filled up the ifoid 
fpaces, that are now occupied by the fubftance, which you 
fuppofe tq h^ve fupervened afterwards. 

Frequently in the fame block, the fame materials are «a- 
equally mixed ; here nothing but mica, there quartz- Qolf^ 
in artothcr place' chryftals of teld-fpath piled one upda ano- 
ther, whichever you fuppofe to have ocen added the isL&p 
you mufl of nectility admit large voids, whiph couid ai»fc 
have fubfifled in a loofe and incoherent gravel. ' ' 

I think it probable then that all the conftituent parts of- 
granit are cotemporary, that they all have beeQ formed in . 
fhe fame element, and by the fame caufe, which caufe was 
no other than chryttalUzation. The elements of quarts, 
ifehorl^ and feld-fpath, were dilTolvcd in th^ fame fluid,- and 
i^hryftallized togetfier ; juft as we fee water faturated with 
different falts, depofit in the bottom of the fiame vcflel, 
ehryftals of all thefe different falts of greater or lefe regula-* 
rity, and more or lefs interwoven with each other.'* 

The Author here adduces three obfervations of crevices 
filled with granit recently formed and moulded in them. 

** Thefe obfervations," he proceeds, ** feom to throw great 
light on the formation of granit ; for to perfons at aU verM 
in mineralogy it will appear evideiit that thefe veins faftv^ 
"been formed by the innltration of wajter, which as it de* 
/cended from tne eminences above^ conveyed tlie* elements- 
of granit along with it, and depofi^d them in tlie fifliii^* 
where they chi^rflallized. When crevices of marble or flam; 
are filled with fpar or quartz, it is determined without hefita^-^' 
lion that thefe parafytical bodies have been conveyed by watoi^ 
fnd that they alfterwards chryftallize in the places where they 
siiffi found. Sm^ ^le ^meats of gi;aJik a?€ ivU fi^f^ateptiUe 


SanCoie^s Journiss in tbf Jlf^ 

qf tjie aqi^eous duyiUlbutioii, why flftould we h«fiute> if^ 
rtic fame circumHances, to acknowledge that this ttone alfo 
]^ been diflblved and cfaryilalliz^d by iqeans of w«ier ? 

As then the Aau^re of the elements ef grank^ and th« 
ttaaner ia whUik they are difpo^» feem to (hew that it it 
llic pr^dti/ft ^ fhsyitaiii nation, what fesoains t^ cofiQ^et^ 
liiepFoa^ tha^ it neally proceeds from this origia ? 

Two things remain : firft, to find thejr fttatificifctioii& ; 
^nd fiKrandly, to diicover tbe> fn^^axs of marine prodoc- 

With refbe£k to die firft pe^nt, after having feeft in the 
Alps the dilpofition of th^ Jaaves pa^^lel to the dire^on o^ 
lh« ffreat dviiai thereffularity andpara^liim Qf tbefe leaves^ 
or i&atathemlelveSf. there ca^ no linger Tea&ain with mm 
an^y doubt : iov their inclination can^be no objcQion* fiace 
'ihe ftrata of iofc^ caUarcoua and flate hills are found equally 
iocUoed to the hori^onr 

. Yet it nmft be owned, that all granits (hew not alike re- 
gular ftrata^ thofe of the plains and lower moutit^ins foldoOi 
-Qxl^^it this ftru&ure : but the reafon is obvious^ for thejr 
2^ idmoit all divided iuta ^rhomboidal fragments : nowr 
thefe diviiioo^ have canfed the rupture and confulion of d)0 
ftnila : whco Uiey w^re onc^ rediiiced into incoherent fueces^ 
4^ could no longer refift the injuries ^. tim^/ the ftnkin^ 
of their bafes, earthquakes, &c. by wbi^h accidents tfceyl 
have been (b ^r obljtecated, a» now to feem mily foaateii' 
heaps at materials fplil into all manner of (hapesti 

But in the high Al^s, altifiough fi(rures may (bmedm^* 
beper^ived, yet they ^re mu<ph 9)ore rare, and firequenthr 
ibldered by quartzv ; s^^ the ilii^au harve been fti:oflg enougk 
to fupyort th^mfeives. 

If d^ reafon of this diffei«Hce(houl(l be Remanded, I wouUk 
ancfwcar, that it is owing to a, g^^eat;^ proportion of clay beinip 
iXkfxed with the other couilituont pans of the ^^ranit : (m t 
tendency to break into fragmei^ts more or Ie(3 regular, ter-- 
minated by plane fides, is a property of this earth, whkh it 
alfo <;oaimuaicates toother n^aerals^ pay even to the bafisdtes^ 
tjHuich are produ^d by the fufio^^ pf ro^W^ ia part comp#ied 
cif day. 

Natuialifts have been mifled, with refpeft to the ftrufturc 
of graMts, by the dcgradatioi^ the great inclin»iS«!ii« auid 
fbmettmes by the great thicknefs of their Arata. But if 
ihejF wiil ftudy them where they are not broken into fhig- 
ments, if they will ackaowlec^e that nature prlklu^s inclin- 
^aad vertical .ft1ata^ with the fame regularity ae horiaon-* 
ul ones, if they will refie^ that calcareous (Iraia. afitain fome^ 
times^the tlvcwo(§ QC^t; feet^ t]^y will bo convineed that 


1 14 SaiiJBure*s Jwrnies in the Alps. 

giQuihs weiie 9t firft ffaratified, as well as calcareous and ilaty 

The fecond condition, which it is ncccffiny to fbMil, int- 
order to prove diat granils have been formed by means of 
water, it is not fo eafy to faifil, nay, probably it never wi!P 
be fnlfiUed ; fo matty good eyes, to fvf nothing of > rt^ 
own, have fought for marine produftions m them, that pro**' 
bably none exift. ' * 

But is this condition abfolutely indifpenfabic ? Are tiie 
foliated rocks, of which the leaves and ftrata have an indn-' 
bitaUe exiiience, and which are conne^d with the caka- 
leotts and flaty earths by gradations fo inienfible, are they' 
not evidently the work of water, and yet, as well as ^rranltsv 
are they not totally deftitute of veftiges of marine fubftanoes? 

Further, from a great number of obfervations it appears,* 
that in the high mountains, the moll ancient of the' calcare- 
ous and flaty rocks, thofe which appear to have been fonned 
immediately after the primitive mountains, contain very few 
er no fea bodies ; while thofe, which have "been found in 
plain countries, abound in them ; fo that one might almoft 
eftabJilh it as a rule, that the number of marine prodtt6rion$' 
contained in any earth, is inverfely as its antiquity. - '• • 
» And this docs not haupen becaufe time deftroys thefeVef- 
tiges, fof when thin ftrata, fine chryftals, iilky filamentl? 
Jrttfe been perfeftly preferved, it is impofllible to fuppofc" 
itiat ftvong flieHs would Mve left no trace behind uiem, 
.efpecially Sncc they fo often acquire the nature and hard^ 
ilefs 6f the earth by which they are furrounded.'* 
^JTh^fe '^ideas on the formation of granit are, we be- 
lfevc«altt)f*ther new : the ^reat and moft ftriking objeAion 
to the hypothelis evidently is, the difficulty of accountihgfor 
ilie folutidn of the conftituent parts of granit in water; tfiis 
13 a poiiU M de SauflTure will - no doubt confider in his ft- 
0)11(1^61 ame, in which he has given us ground for cxpeft* 
ing many- further illuftrations of the fubjeft ; but we cannot 
help remarkih^'that this appears to be an unneceflary part 
of his fuppolitton, for folution is not indifoenfaWy requifife. 
tb chryftalli/a^dh ; it is fufficient, as profcflorBargmann wrfl 
obletves, tliat the particles of tlie lubftance to be chryibtU 
Jfiacd be fo far attenuated as to remain fufpcnded in a 
fluid, and to be thus enabled freely to exert th^ir attraftlve 
power. It appears to us that this confideration will take 
away much <A the. difficulty of the Author's hypothefis. 
- Before we take leave of tVw important work, it is proper 
K> inform our readers that M. de Sanflure has taken care, ta 
x^mbellifti it with feveral plates. The publication of the 
fccond vdJume-bas, no doubt,- been retarded by the late dif- 


Cnnningbam^s Jcccunt rf the Right ofEkffiwt. 115 

tofbances at Geneva^ bat as they have now fubfided, we 
hope that it will loon be in our power to anaoance its ap- 

AjtT. V. j^a Hifiar/cai Acvunf of the Rights of EU^ioM ff the fi* 
'wral C'untiiSy Cities^ ami Boroughs cf Great Britain ; <:oiitaipin^ 

. the Time \\hci3 each of them was fir{l reprefenrcil in Parliament, 
and by wlat Authority ; together with Abftra<5l« of the Procccdr 
ings rdatiTc to controverted Elections, under ercry Place, and 
all the new Writs ifliied on Scats being vacated br Death, Ex- 
putfion, acceptinc^ of Places, of Preferment, or being called up 
tf> the Houfe of ^eers, from Ed^rard VI. to the Dillblution oi the 

"■ Parliament in the Year 1780. To which ia prefixed, an Enquiry 
into the Origin of Election to Pari taraenty and the Right ot the 
Ciommons to a Share in the Legiflature. Alib» the Number of 

> Ucmbers returned in the Reigns of Edward I. Henry iV. 

r Hpnry V III, ^c. And the Named of the Places that have loop 
diibontinued to fend Rcprefcntatives, and have no( had the Pri« 
vilege reftorcd. The whole ex traced from the be ft Colledtiona 
of Records and Hi (lories, and the Journals of Parliament* By 

' T, Cunningham, Efq; Barrifter at Law, and Fellow of the So* 
cicty of Antiquaries, London, 8vo. Robfon. 

AFTER giving an account of the firft reprefentation of 
the counties, cities, and boroughs of Great Britain,- 
this j|\uthor famifhes an abftraft of all the proceedings 
which have taken 'place, with regard to controverted olec« 
tions and of all the new writs which have been ifltied 
upon feats being vacated from whatfoever qiufe. In the ejc* 
ecution of this bufinefs, he has been gr(:atly affifted by the 
Uiftorical colleftidns of the late Thomas Carew, Efq; but 
it is proper to obferve, that he has fupplied tlic omiifions of 
that indaftrious comjpiler, and that he has continued hit 
refcarclies to a much later period* For the coUe&ions of 
Mr. Carew -terminated with the year IJ54> and he bis.con- 
tinaed his notices down to the year 1780. 

As an introduftion to tliis volume Mr, Cunningham has 
given a political di&rtation upon the form or conflitutioa 
of the Engliih government. This he has alfo founded 
upon the foUcftions of Mr. Carew ; and it is a piece of 
juftice to him to remark, that the obfervations he has ex- 
hibited are generally pertinent and ufefuk/ He has not, 
however, been able to avoid the errors \Khich many coi^itu* 
tional writers have fallen into upon fome points of high 
inoment. Thefe have a reference to the Saxon wittenagc« 
mot to ^e Normannic conqueft, and to the notice 
that the 49tli year of Henry III. and the 23d year of Ed- 
ward I. are the dates of the origin of tlie reprefentation of 


1 16 Conmngbam's Account of the Right &f EkOic^. 

the peof>k» But while we aiTirm that the Author has erred 
in his account oi' tbefe imjportant points^ it is fit tliat we fet 
ourfelves to reflify his miAakcs. 

I. Mr. Cunningham relying upon Mr. Carew, intimates 
t fufpicion that the people were not rcprelent;cd in the Anglo- 
&)coii tiines^ But it U impoiTibie to read, with difpaihocry 
the proambles to the laws of the Anglo-Saxon princes with- 
out feeing convinced that the people aifembled in the wittena- 
geH^ots by their repl^fentatives. In thefe laws an exprcfs 
and pofitive mention is made of. the people. The antient 
hiftorians alio concur in producing a umilar evidence :• and 
the fcattcred and combining authorities which evince the 
poiition bare been fully and accurately colleded and ex«- 
plaiiuid by Fctyt and otlier antiquaries of ability. 

H. An error of greater confequencc is inculcated by Mr: 
CcHiningham, when he endeavours to prove that the Nor** 
mannic revolution was a conqveft^ and that the government 
of England was at this period defpotic, and dependent on 
fl]C: fword of the prince. This opinion has been foftered 
with great care by all the Englilh hiftorians and antiquaries, 
who have thought proper to diftinguiih themfelves by their 
7eal for the prerogatives of the crown. But it is wild and 
jprecariotls in no coimnon degree. The tide of William I. 
to she crown of England was preferable to that of Hanfild ; 
and tht army he levied to invade England was to <letfarono 
an tlfu4rper» and to eftablifh his own legal rights. The battle 
0f Halvings, accordingly, operated a forcible transfer of the 
erown, but was not a vidory over the laws^ and people of 
England. In fad William die Norman took an oath to 
uphold the laws and the conftitution. From a carefut ex-* 
aminatioA of the antient hiAorians, it appear^ with the 
moll expteffive clearnefs, that Edward the Confeflbr had af-» 
pointed -William the Norman to be bis fucceflbr; that the 
/eftates of the kingdom had ratified this appointinent^ and 
4hat even Harold himfclf had been commiiConed to go to 
the continent to give this information to William, and that 
he liad adually fworn fealty to him* . What is extremely 
. curious, in a fuit of tapeftry hangings prefetved at fiaieux 
in Normandy, and which is undouUedly one of die moft 
valuable monuments of our hiftory, xh€ embafly of Harold 
to William is reprefcnted with a minutenefs and preciiion 
which cannot be mifunderftood. This monument which is 
contemporary with the matters itdefcribes cannot be contra- 
dided, aiKl gives a mortal wound to that idle and fervile 
liypotheiis of the Norraannic conqueft of England, which 
/o many writers found upon as an evidence, diat . our kings 
Were d^potic of old, and that their fucccflbrs of conlequence 
• have 

Cunningham's Amount of the Right of £k/lIon. 1 17 

bave<bcen robbed of their rights. Indeed die violent admi^ 
niftration of William the Norman, gave a fort of colour to 
thoir notion : but thofe muft indeed be poor reafonerft, who 
would conclude from his ads of tyranny, that our government 
m his age was adually defpotical. Adts of oppreilion may even 
be appealed to in very late times ; but would we infer from 
thcfc that; the prcfent government of England is without 
freedom, and dependent on the caprice of die reigning mo-» 
narch ! " ^ ^ 

I J I. The third opinion we fhall mention as receiving ari 
improper fanfiion from our Author and Mr. Carew, is the 
fency that the 49th year of Henry III. and the 23d year of 
Edward I. are the real dates ot the reprefcntation of the 
people. The foundation of this fancy is an allertion that 
there are no writs of fummons to the knights and burgeflei 
befoi*e thefe dates. But this aflcrtion if true is a very impcr- 
feft argument ; for it is well known, that the rolls or re- 
giftcrs of fummonfes have not been preferved in any regular 
chain. The aflertion however is abfolutely falfe ; for iti 
fa£i there are writs of fummons ftill extant whiph are pre* 
vious to thefe dates. For example, there is a writ of fum-i 
fnons dired:ed to the.iheriiFs of Bedfordlhire and Bucking* 
hamfhire which required two knights to be fent for each of 
thefe counties, and which is to be feen in the clofe roll of 
the 38th year of Henry III. And with regard to burgeffes, 
not to mendon other authorities, we have a parliamentary 
declaration in the days of James I. that Agmondefham, 
Wcndover, and Great Marlow, had fent burgefles to Parlia- 
ment, previous to the invafion of England by the Duke of 
Normandy ; and that from their poverty an interruption of 
tliis right had taken place for four hundred years. 

But while we have taken the trouble to remark thefe mif- 
tftkes, we mean not to draw any improper concluiion to tho 
prejudice of the Author, whofe work is now before us. 
Writers, more able than he is, have fallen into the fame er- 
rors ; and indeed, diere are fo much faftion and prejudice 
in the works of the Englilh hiftorians and antiquaries, that 
it is very difficult for the moft candid inquirer to reel his way 
with fatififadion through the dark ages of our ftoi;y. 

In the execution of what is properly the intention of hh 
undertaking, Mr. Cunningham is laborious and exa£l ; and 
as the nature of his performance will appear beft from a fpe- 
cimen of it, we fhaU prefent our Readers with what he lias 
obferved about the borough of Agmondefham. 

• This borough is in the county of Buckingham, and rcturti^ 
members to fervc in parliament in the a9th of Edw. I. and in the 
6rft and fecond of Edw. II. according to the lift given bv Mn 


Ji8 Ctniniaglum^s Account (^ the Right ofEUitloHw 

Piynn, in the fourth part of his calendar of parliamcntaTJr writ»; 
but in his bre? la paHiamentaria rcdiviva, he writea the return irf 
the (heriffof Bucki a6 Edw. I. is— ♦♦ Nulti fiitit civcs oec burgenica 
** in com, pned. nee ciritas nee biirgus, propter quod dve» ncc 
** burgrnfes coram nobis [toWs] venire facere non poifum,** Bm 
the very next parliament 28th £dw. I. he returns *^ burgcnfea lie 
*• A^ondefluioi* qui ad ultimum parliamentum vencrunt;" re* 
fumme. both their names, and foalfo i and 2 £dw. II. a£ter they 
intermitted- until the 21ft of Krng Jaities I* 

* In tlie parliament held 1 1 Jac. it being difcoveredf by a fearcb 
made in the Tower of London, amongit the ancient parltanienc 
writs, by Mr. Hakevill of Lincoln*8-Inn^ that, in former tiraetg 
there liad been burgeflcs returned for three boroughs in the countjr 
of Bucks, which, of later times, had not fent any burgcfles to tb« 
parliament, namely, the boroughs of Wendover, AgmondeOiamv 
alias Amcrfliam, and Great Manow, petitipns were referred to tlio 
Commons Houfe of Parliament, then iittingi in the names of thoTe 
three boroughs, that they might be rcftorcd to the liberty, or fraRr 
chife, of fending bursites to the parliament, and that a writ mighc 
be directed to the (henfT of Bucks for that purpofe. To which pc« . 
tition the Houfe inclining, notice thereof was given to the iCiog't 
Majefty, who declared himfclf unwilling to have the number of 
the burgeifcs increafed, declaring, be was troubled with too grtac 8 
number already, and commanded his then folicitor. Sir Robert 
Heath, being then of the Houfe of Commons, to oppofe it what 
he might ; and moft of the Commons then of the Houfe, under- 
iianding the King's inclinations, did their utmoft endeavours to crofir 
it. The main and legal objedtion made again (l it was, by the loc^ 
difcontinuance and difufe in not fending burgeifes for above 400 
years, the franchife for fending burgeues to parliament was lofl* 
On the other fide, on behalf of the boroughs, it was confeflcd, that 
fince 28 £dw. I. it was not found by any record extant, that thefe 
boroughs had f'ent any burgeiics, but it was alledged for them, that 
moft of the ancient records fince that time afe loft j which, if thcjF 
might be found, it was conceived would declare that they had feot 
many times fince 28 Edward L ^eccndfy^ It doth appear that 
iherifts, in thofe times, were negligent in ^ndin|^ their precepu to 
boroughs to make choice of their burgeftes ; for divers ftatutcs were 
made to compel the flieriffs thereunto ; fo that the not feildiiig the 
burgeifes was not to be imputed to any negled in the boroughsy ao^ 
therefore the negligence of the flieriff ought not to turn to their pre* 
judice.- ThtrMyy the ufein thefe ancient times being, that the bur- 

Kftes attending in parliament were maintained at the charge of the 
roughs ^ when the l)oroughs grew poor, they only for tiiac rea* 
Ion, negteded to fend their burghs to parliament; tberdbrey nowf 
ieeing they wci'e contented to undergo that burthen, or to clioolc 
fuch burgeifes as fbould bear their own charges, there was noxeaibqt 
to deny that pctltioQ. l-^fiiy^ it was urged in behalf of the bar- 
fc0es, that the liberty of fending burgej^ to parliament, is a liber- 
ty of that nature and ouality that It cannot be loft by negle^ of any 
borough : lor every burge& fo font is a member of the gnea^ 
couocU of (be kix:^<Kmi| maix^iained at the charge of ihc borougb ; 


Cutinhighain''s Acount of the Right vf EU^ioru 1 1^ 

MxA if fuch a ocgkd may be permiaed in one borough, fo it may 
la more, aod confecjuently in all the borourhs of JEngiand ; and 
then it migkt follow, that, for want of burgems, there (hould be no 
parliament. And as for thefe boroughs, it did anciently appear, 
that they wereparliamefit boroughs by prefcnption, and not by chHr- 
ter ; for e?ery of them had thcic feverai forrcns, and did pay iif- 
leens, as parliamentary boroughs, and not ns other boroughs or towns. 

* This was that which was then alied^d for them by their coun* 
fel, Wr. Hakevill of Lincoln's Inn, before the committee for pri- 
Tikgea and returns; at which time Mr. Glanville, Snce createdf^ 
fcrjeanf, fitting in the chair, did put it to the queftion ; anJ, upon 
thequeftion, it was refolved, that a warrant iliould be made to the 
ckrfet^f the crown, to make writ to the (heriff of the county of 
Bocks, for the chufingof Burgedcs in thofe three boroughs; of 
which cefolution of the committee his MajeAy taking notice, difl* 
before the fame was reported to the Hoitfe, fend unto the t^o chief 
juices, requiring them to fend him their opinions on the point, 
Mfho thereupon defired Mr. Glanville to acquaint them with fuels 
reafoss as had been alledged by Mr. Hake v ill. Whereupon the 
chief juflices certified his Majefty, that it was juft a writ (hould be 
awarded accofdingly : and the opinion of the committee being re- 
ported to the Houfe of Commons, the fame was there confimaed^ 
nemimt cantraMeenie. 

. * Whereupon a warrant, under the Speaker's hand was made to , 
the clerk ot the crown in the Chancery, for the making of fuch a 
writ, which was ilTued out accordingly ; and thereupon were e]e£^- 
cd, and returned to ferve in the fame fKirliament, the burgefle^ 
hereafter named: for Amerfhano, Mr. William Hakerill, Mr. John 
Crew ; for Wendover, Mr. John Hampden, who beareth the charge^ 
Sir Alexaitier Unton; for Marlow, Mr. H, Burbce, Mr.— — 

^ Ificw writ for election in the room of Mr. Francis Drake, who 
made his election to ferve for the county of Surry. 

* New writ, in the room of Sir William Drake, Bart, deceafed. 
Information given of a falfe return, referred to committee of privi- 
leges and ele^ions ; order for their fitting ; Sir Ral|>h Bovey and Sir 
William Drake, the perfons returned, not to fit till their ele^ons 
determined. Report ; return to be amended ; Jonathan Ball order* 
ed iotD cudody for making a falie return. Return amended. BalKa 
petksoD; debate thereon; reprimanded and difcharged^ but to attend 
committee. Indenture of S}r Ralph Bovey taken off the writ, and 
the indenture of Sir William Drake afiixed. Jonathan Ball dif- 
charred, paying his fees. Petition of Sir Ralph Bovey referred. 

* Fetition of Algernon Sidney, Efq ; referred. Petition of Sir 
Willtamr Dndce referred ; report to be made ; made ; right of eledioa 
determined to be in thofe inhabitants only who pay fcot and lot. ^leo- 
tion declared Toid. New writ. Petition of Algernon Sidney to be 
jead *, read ; matter to be heard at bar. Petition of Sir Roger Hill 
and Algernon Sidney referred. 

* Petition of Sir Roger Hill referred. 

•. New writ for cleflion, in the room of Sir WilRam Drake,' dc- 
defied. _ ^ 

• * Peti- ' 

i^ G^muagliani^s JccBunt tfthe Rigbt of Elt^$n^ 

* PctUlooiof Sir Roger Hill, of Timothy Winfirficid, tml mfcef 
inhabitants referred. Report to be made ; made ; refolved that Sir 
John Garrard was duty eleded* Qutdicmy that petition of Sir Roger 
Hill was frivolous. Negative, 

* New writ for eledion in the room of Sir Francis Gerrard^ de^ 

*' New writ for ele^ion in the room of Lord Cheine, who madtf 
l»is election to ferve for fiuckioghamfhire. Petition of inhabitanta 
refufcd-to be received. 

* Petition of Sir Roj»cr Hill, knight, referred. 

* New writ for ele^lon in the rdom of Lord Cheine, who mado 
his ele6\ion to ferve for Buckinghumfhire. 

* Petition of Sir Thomas Webfter, Bart, referred. Report to b« 
madfc; made; right of eledion determined to be in the inhabitant* 
paying icot and lot only. Rcfolved, that William Lord Cbcynet 
and 'Sir Thomas Gerrard, are duly ekd^ed. 

' ^ New writ fo^ eledion in the room of Lord Fermanagh, in tfa^ 
kingdom of Ireland, deceafcdy 

* New writ, in the room of Mountague Garrard Draice, Eiqj 
who made his ele^ion for the county of Bucks. 

. * New writ, in the room of BaptiH Levefon Gower, Efq; wh9 
made his eletftion for Newcallle-unaer-Line. 

* Petition of Charles Hayes, Efq; -referred. 

* New writ for eleSion in the room of Thomas Lutwyche, Efqj 

* New writ, in the room of Thomas Gore, Efq; made commiflary 
general of the mu^rs. 

* New writ, in the room of Sir Henr}^ Marfliall, decenfed. 

* New writ in the room of 9ir Benuet Gerrard, deceafed. 

At a time when the attention of parliament is about to btf 
called to the topic of a more equal reprefentation in partia- 
ment, this work may be of confiderabic utility. And, in 
matters of fuch acknowledged confequence, the members 
^ of the Houfe of Commons ought to negleft no fource of 
information. It is from the colle Aions of our hiftorians and 
antiquaries upon conftitutional points that they are to de- 
rive the knowledge that is the moil beneficial, and the m^ft 
likely to lead to benefit in the talk of improving our govem- 
meat. Conceptions founded in hypothecs, and arifingoot 
of theory are generally infignificant. They may ententin 
in the clofet ; but are too rifionary for bufinels and prac- 

Art* VL Hinti fir tmpron^ment in the Art of ReoAng^ fy 

I J. Walker. 8to. jw. Cadell. 
T has been much doubted whether the art of reading Ctft 
receive any confiderable improvement from 1 fyfiHCt fit 
written rules and precepts ; fince they are incapable ^f;iB00^ 
Veying a complete idea of that infinite variety of cleyatipii 


Walket^s Improvement In the Jrt ef Reading. It I 

and depreffioa oi the voice, which is fo eflfcntid to its per-* 
fcSion. But, were we to rejeft ev«ry fpecies of inftruaion 
which cannot conduA us to perfcft ion, were we to refufe 
•cquiring any portion of an art, where the whole cannot be 
conveyed,— we (hould confine our refearclies within a very 
narrow circle ; where much cannot be obtained, we ought to 
be thankful for what we can accjuire; and, where diificul-* 
ties are numerous, we Ihould rejoice at feeing them dimii^ 

They who are defirous of improvement in the art pf 
reading will be pleaied with the hints which this ingcnioi 
Author has prefcnted to the public. The rules, which M 
bas laid down, are of a particular and fpecific nature, ^xA 
may be cafily reduced fo praftice. Tliey arc calculated to\ 
convey much real inftruftion, fince they explain, with acv 
turacy and precifion, fome of the moft important difficulties 
which occur in reading. 

After obferving — that mankind in general fpeak more na- 
turally than they read, becaufe, in fpeaking, the idea arifes 
firft in the mind, and that eleds the word by which it is ex- 
prefled ; but, in reading, tlie uford fuggefts the idea, and 
produces the correfponoent feniibility of tone in an inverted 
order; Mr. Walker proceeds to fhew what are th& peouliar 
requifites of a good pronunciation. This, he very juftly ob- 
ferves, when diftinft and delicate, is the furcft^gn oi an e- 
laborate education,, and the leafl equivocal mark of early and 
habitual politenefs* v^ 

Om: Author next determines when the participial ed is to 
be pronounced as an additional fyllable, and when not ; when 
you is to be fo expreiled as to rhyme with ruw^ aiul when fo 
as to found likey^; when my ought to rhime with blghy and 
when it ihould be founded like t^e ; when your is to be prQ- 
nounced long, and when fhort; when thy ihould be ufed as 
rluming with high^ and when it (hould found like the. What 
he has advanced concerning this laft mentioned pronoun, 
we think, will aiFord both ihftruftion and entertainment to 
our readers. 

* From what has been already pbfcrved of thefc pronouns, wc 
are naturally led to fuppofe, that the word tfy^ when not emphati- 
cal, ought to follow the iame analogy, and be pronounced like /^, 
as wf conliantly hear it on the ftage: birt if we refle<^ that; reading 
or reciting is a perfe£l pidlure of Tpeaking, we fliall be induced to 
think that in this particular the ftagc is wrong* . The fccond per- 
fonal pronoun thy^ is not like my the common language of every 
fubje^ » it IS ufed only where the fubjc^ is either railed abovepom- 
ihon life, or funk below it into the mc^n and fumiliatr. When the 
fubjcdt is elevated above conjmon life,, it adopts a language fuiuble 
tb Ittch an elevation^ a;id the pronunciation m this lauzuagtf (iught 
* ilEV. Vol, I. Feb. 1783. It ^ to 

ill Walker's Improvement In the Art o/ReaJirtg. 

to be as far removed from the femiliar as the language itfelf. Thus, 
in prayer, pronouncing tby like tbe^ even when unemphatical, 
would be intolerable : while fuffering thy^ when unemphaticaU to 
ilide into the in thp pro'nunciatioil of liight and famiUar compofi* 
ttODy feems to lower the found to the language, and ..Ssrm a pn>|>cr 
diilin^tion between difiereut {ubje<^d. If therefore it ibould be alked, 
Why in reciting epic or tragic compolitioo, we ought always to pro* 
nounce tfy rhyming with high^ wh>U nty^ when unemphatical, finks 
into the iound of me^ it may bcr anfwered, becaufe rrty is the com- 
mon language of every fubje<^, while thy is confined to fubjc6ts ei- 
ther elevated above connnon life, or funk a little below it into the 
negligent and familiar. When therefbrCf the language is elevated, 
the UDCommonoefs of the word tiy^ and its full found rhyming 
with hifrb^ is fuitabk to the dignity of the fubje^: but the (lender 
found like the gives it a familiarity only fuitable to the language of 
endearment or negligence, and for this xtry reaibn is unfit for the 
dignity of epic or tragic compofxtlon. Thus in the following paf- 
fages from Milton: 

Say iirft, for heav'n hides nothing from thy view, 

Nor the deep tra6t of hell — — . 

Parad. Lofl. b. x. 

O thou, that with furpaffing glory crownM, 

Look'll from thy fole dominion, hke the God 

Of this new world ; at whofe fight, all the ibirs 

Hide their diminifh'd heads ; to thee I call. 

But with no friendly voice, and add thy name, 

O fun, to tell thee how I hate thy beams. 

Parad. Loft, b. 4. 
Here pronouncing the proaoun tly^ like the word t/j^^ would fa- 
miliarize and debafe the language to profe. The fame may be ob- 
fcrved of the following paflagc from the tragedy of Cato. 

Now, Caefar, let thy troops bcfct our gates, 

And bar each avenue ; thy gathering fleets 

O'erfpread the fea, and (lop up ev'ry port ; 

Cato (hall open t9 himfelf a paffage, 

And mock thy hopes ■ — 

Here the impropriety of pronouncing thy like the is palpable : nor 
would it be much more excufable in the following fpcecb of Fortius, 
m the firft fcene of the fame tragedy. 

Thou fecM not that thy brother Is thy rival ; 

But I muft hide it, for I know thy temper. 

Now, Marcus, now thy virtue's on the proof; 

Put forth thy utmod itreni^h, work evVy nerve, 

And call up all thy father \\\ thy foul : 

As this pronoun is generally pronounced on the fbge, it would be 
difficult for the ear to difUnguifn whether the words are 

Thou know'll not that //ry brother is thj rival— or 

Thou know'ft not that the brother is the rival, Wc. 
and this may be one reafon why the flcnder prouunciadon of thy 
ihould be avoided as much as poflible. 

After dctenninlng, in our opinion, with peculiar accuracy, 


Btbfiotbcca Topographica Brltannica. 1 23 

the nature, force, and extent of emphafis^ Mr. Walker in- 
Veftigates that cfclicate part of reading* which confifts in a 
juil inflexion of the voice. The limits of our plan prevent 
us from tranfcribing his ingenious remarks upon this ful>- 
jeft. We muft tliercfore, refer our readers to the pamphlet 
itfeify which they will find to be the refult of tafte, oblerva* 
tion, and experience. 

Art. VI L BiblUtheca T(^ogrdphica Britannicay No. VII. Containia; 

the HiiWy and Autiquities of Hidckley, in the county of Lei- 

ceftcr; including the Hamlets ofStoke^Dadlington^Wykin^and the 
• Hyde. With a large Appendix, containing fame FatttcuUrs of 

the antient Abbey of Littt in Nonnandy \ Agronomical Remarks^ 
. adapted to .the Meridian of Hinckley ; and Biographical Me- 

moirt of fereral PerA>Qs of Eminence. "J^y John Nichols, F. S. A. 
, Edinb. Correfp. and Printer to the Society of Antiquaiics of 

London* 4U>. 7s. 6d. boards. 

THIS work is the fruit of a patient induftry, and caa 
boaft of nothing that is either original or ii^enious. 
It coiitains,^ ^ot>Mrithilanding> a few fliaterials which ma^ 
^contribute to general hiftory, and fome notices concerning 
cufioms, tenures, and lordihips, which might give rife to 
ufefiil fpeculation in the manaigement of anable antiquarian. 
The minute and uttdngag^g particulars which refer to the 
town and parifh df Hinckley, and to the hamlets of Stoke, 
Dadlihgton, Wykin, and Hyde, are detailed with great dili- 
gence and care ; and to thofe who can be amufed vcitli fuch 
petty informations, this publication will be acceptable. 

In the copious Appendix which Mr. Nichols has added to 
liis Hiftory of 1 Hinckley, there arc coUeded many biogra- 
phical anecdotes which are. entertaining. Among accounts 
of obfcurer men^ we find memoirs of that indefatigable col* 
Jeftor, and diftinguifhed fcholar. Sir Robert Cotton, of 
William Burton, the Author of the Hiftory of Lcicefterfhire, 
cf Anthony Blackwal, the Author of the IntroduAion to 
the Sacred Claflics, 'and of Mr. Dyer, the Author of Gron- 
gar Hill and otlier Poems. 

'f^% tlie artlcjk, about Mr. Dyer ma^r amufe fomc of our 
Readers, we IbaU. take the liberty to (ubjoin it. 

^ Of tbijigentle9ia«ki(tMrtv. John Dyer,) Dr. Johnfon could collet 
>lio other aicsfOgmthftivbisiOrwn, letters to Mr. Duncombe, publi(hed 
with Hughes's correrjk>ad<uQe, and thenmes added by the editor, af- 
forded*, He was born m * 7O0, the fccond fun of Rohen Dyer of Abcr- 
glafney in CicrmiutheaAiire^ a folicitor of great capttcity and note. He 
periled througli WeAroini^er fchool uader the care of Dr. Fre^id, and 
was tlien called, hotvke 10 be inifar^i^led 49 V^ father's pcofeffipn. His 
father dje4 li)V0>*n(l h0 tpgk no dfiUgfctvift^he'iludy.i^rf the 1^^, but, 

J 4 ' having 


124 JSibllotheaa Topographka Briiannlai^ 

having always amjufed himfclf with drawing, refolved to turn paiilr 
tcr, and became pupil to Mr. Richardfon, an artift then of hij^h 
reputation, but now better known by his books than hi& pi^Ufcs. 
Having (ludied awhile under his maimer, he becape, as he telU hii 
friend, an itinerant painter, afid* wandered ^jout •South Wales anil 
the parts adjacent; and about 17 27 printed ** Grongwr HiW/* 
Beiag, probabty, unfatkiied %vit^ his own proficiency, her lilte-otber 
painters, travelled to Italy ; and coming back m 1740, publi&ed 
•* The Ruins of Rome.*' If his poem was written foon after 
bis return, he did not make much ufe of his acqurfitions, whatever 
they might be ; for decline of healthy arid Jove of ftudy, determin- 
ed him to the church. He therefore entered into orclcrs ; and^ it 
feems, married about tkc fame time a lady of Colennll, named Eri- 
for ; ** whofe grandmother," fay^ he, ** was a6lftakefpeare,*dteicctid- 
** ed from a brother of every body's Shake^jkane*.** His ecde^ili- 
cal proviiion was a long time but flcnder. His (iffb paltrafo, Mr» 
Harper, gave him, in r74i, Cakhofp in LcicefterflHre of eighty 
poand$ ayear^ on which he lived ten years ? and, in April 1757, 
exchanged it for Belchford in Lin coin (Hi re- of (cyeaty-nTe^ wbich 
was given him by Lord Chancellor Hardwickp, on the rccommen- 
idation of a friend to Virtue and the Mufes. His condition tiow fce- 
j^an to mctrd. In 17??; Sir John Heathcote gave him Cdiiinglby, 
ofonc hundred and fort^' pdunds'l'^ye^j ami in 1756, when he 
was LL« B. without biwtblkiMfibn o^ y» owny bbtailiod for iiim^ 
from the Cfaancclkir, Kirkby onBaaevof on? hundred and tmu *f I 
** was glad of ihii," feys Mr^ I)|sei:.iR §515^ **<» «cwMcf tta 
*Vn£ar»c(« to me» though I, tlHnH;JH|y4?J4\4rlofcr'by^^M W^angc, 
^' through the ex|>eAce of the ieaf, dijpeiv^cipnsv journcys;^ ^c« and 
** the charge of an old' houfe, half of'^wHich I am going to 

two fteps, had a handfome ^\•lndow to the cl4urdh-ytrd, tvhich he 
ilopped up, and opened a lefs thW^Ve tifini ^AiftAl view of the 6uc 
'churck and caHUat TueAnHi; tabour^a: miie'crff, -awi iof the road 
leading to it. He. ilib impronred (ibe tnoit jatglt&td igardcn* En 
May 1757, he was agai? in mortar; rebtjil<^g[ t^ljargej^m, whkk 
a late wind had bflown dofirft, and j^^Uiering materials- for ]rcbni{ding 
above half the parfonagc-tonfc at Kiricbv/ *' T^eic,^' hq fay% 
•* foffic years t^o^ I fliould ha^c called tn^e* ; but 'Mj e^Jll tf^^s^ off 
" come; and the Iigli tell thingj eVen the^hafaf-tiofcTpSi^ is a Wir'deh 
•* upon the fliouldcrs of the old and fitJiy .* tie ' had' ifitti ^Ajft. 
publrflied •* The Fleece," His gi^ateff pcfetM w?fft V^f' whidi Dr. 
Yohnfon relates ttiis^iudkroofe ftdf^'.'*Dol(k5^iftiiiifeiJoltT(6llcr^wwto^ 
3av mentioning it ti a critical vifitcMi • Wttk ttVdWf '» Jj^djlliW* dF fuc- 
Ws than thre ^her ceuW eafily a 'hiSt;i ''Ilritlieitft^n^rtWon ibt a^K 
thor's age was afked ; aiid being repnsftMetl usti'ml^sHiped in JKfe, 
•* He will,** raid the drrtic,' "be burUd Jtf Hv^rtcw>='He »did not 
indeed liwig outline that pujMicfatiof!, n*r*lbngf <jr^dy tlii increafe of 
Ws jrrcferments : for he died in iljft/ ' Mr^'Ooothy 'who- viiited 
Ceninglby, &ebt/^, 1782^* ^%\A ^fiitll tio^e^oriitl 3r^e«ied to If im in 
the ehnrcfr^ it&iclk ia^ v«y ftaadfom^ 4mldUig) wi^A Mcf fqvai^ 
• - ^ ^ tower 


Elliot's Ekments of Naiurai Phlhfiphy. 17$ 

towcf open at bottom with three high arches. Mrs. Dyer, on her hiif- 
banifs deceafe, retired to her friends in Caernarvon Ibi re, where flic 
IS fuppofed to be iHll refidcnt. In 1756 they bad four chiUfen Irr- 
jn», three girK and a boy. Of tbw, Sarah died fww^« The foo, 
ft youth of the moll amiabie difpoiklou, hctr to hit father's truly 
ciaffic:il tafle» and to his uncle's e^ate of three or four hundred a 
year in Suffolk, devoted the principal part of his time to travelling; 
aud died iti Londpn, as he was preparing to fet out on a tour to 
Italy, in A^ril 1782, at the age of 32. This young gentleman's 
fortune is divided between two turviving fiftcrs; one of them mar- 
ried to Alderman Hewitt of Coventry ; the other, Elizabeth, to 
the Rev. John Gaunt of Birmingham. Mr. D^er had fome bro- 
thers, all of whom were dead in i7;6 except one, who was a 
clergyman, yeoman of bts majefly's almoitfy, lived at Aria ry bone, 
and^ had then a numerous famUy.' 

With regard to literary merit this publicatioa is exceed <> ' 
ingly defedi^c. But the intentions of die Author are meri^ 
torious ; and the individual who (erves the public to the iuU 
extent of bis (talents is a good citizen. 

"Art. VIII. Elemrnts tf tin Brandies of Natural Fhilfothy connel^ett 
• ^tth Mnlicine^ viz. Chemiftry, Optics, »Sound, Hydvoftatics, E- 
leAricity and Pltyfiology, See, with BergmannV Tables. By 
J. EUioc, M . D. 8f o. 5s, boards. Johnlbn. 

THIS laborious condenfer of fcience feems to be ani- 
mated with a fpirit not unlike that whidi ilimulated 
tl>e minute induftry of the copyift of old to reduce the Iliad 
to^thefizeof a nutihell. The work in queftion may be 
numbered among thofc productions of which it is not dif- 
ficult to form a jufl eftimate without examining any fyrtlier 
than the table of contents. Chemiftry occupies 142 pages. 
Optics 42, Sound 8, Hydroflatics 4, Elcftricity 15, ana Phy- 
iiology 77. Thus has the addrefs of Dr. Elliot included as 
much of Natural Philofophy as is connofted with a profeC- 
(lon that above all others requires its memben to be well 
verfed in that extenfive fcience in 211 ; and Phyfiology, the 
corner ftone of medicine in 77 8vo pages. 

This will not appear furprizing to thofe who know that 
the fame indefaligaDle compiler had before enriched medi- 
cine with ** an account of the fymptoms, caufes and mC'^ 
" thods of cure of tlie difeales incident to "the human body/*' 
Including fuch as require fur^ical treatment, together with 
the virtues and dofes of mcdicmal compoiitions and fimples» 
in 138 i2mo pages. 

Should the Reader yet doubt what opinion is to be enter- 
tained of thefe elements, a few quotations will foonfatisfy him. 
•* The marine acid when concentrated is lighter than the 

I vj ** vitri* 

1 26 Elliot's EUments $f Natural Phihfspbf. 

** vitriolic or nitrous acids, of a y6llow or ftrawbcrry co* 
*• lour, and emits white fumes: it attrafts metals more 
" ftrongly than other acids ; with the foffil alkali, it forms 
"common fait, and with volatile alkali, fal ammoniac ; it is 
** diflodged from alkalis by the vitriolic and nitrous, but 
•' not b^ the vegetable acid ; it is obtainable in a feparate 
** ftate in the form of air." 

" Aqua Regia is not a fimple acid, but a compound of 
*• the nitrous and marine, it is diftinguilhablc from others 
*' by its property of dilTolving gold." . 

'* Copper is cafcinable by heat, of a rcddifh colour, not 
** fufible out in a great heat, and foluble in all the acids. 

" Lead is fufible in a very moderate heat and not diflS* 
** cultly calcinable. It is the fofteft of all the metals, and 
** aifo the heavieft excepting gold, platina, and quickfilver." 

Such is the information afforded by Dr. Elliot, concern- 
ing objefts fo important in medicine and various arts. The 
other parts of his fubjeft are treatcdin the fame ctirfory man- 
ner. The compends of Mao^uer, Neununn, Rowning, 
Cavallo, &:c. are, wcapprehcnd, m the hands of every medi- 
cal ftudent : and till fcicncc has been enriched by further 
difcoveries, or fome happier mode of arrangement has been 
contrived, he may well be content with them: after they 
have been diligently perufed, tliefe Elements will afford little 

It would indeed have been no eafy taik to coniefture what 
defcription of readers were defignedto be benefited by the 
workoefore u$, if the Author himfelf had not taken care to 
inform us that *' it was defigned, rather as an introduce 
*• tion to, than a complete treatife on the fubjefts mention- 
** ed, and tliat if it excites a tafte for this ufeful kind of ftu- 
" dy, his end will be anfwered." How this end can be an- 
fwered by fuch a dry recital of matters familiar to thofe who 
are at all acquainted with the fciences here abridged, and tx- 
hibited in a drefs not likely to allure thofe to whom they are 
unknown, it is difficult to conceive. If an admirer or an» 
cient literature in order to promote tlie ftudy of the elegant 
writers of antiquity, (hould publifh an index of the words 
contained in them, he would appear to aft juft as nationally. 
If Dr. Elliot would direft the public attention towards na-i 
tural philofophy (a purfuit however which at prefent feems 
not to be negleaed,) let him digefk abetter plan, and enter into 
more minute details, let him difplay the ample means it af- 
fords of gratifying curiofity, improving the productions of 
art, ind explaining the appearances of nature. 

In a work, of which the whole difficulty confifts in com- 
piling from compilations and abridging abridgements, it can- 

Pi^urefque Beauties of. Shakefpeare. 1 2^ 

QOt be expeded that the doctrines fhonld allow much fcope for 
criticifm ; yet it may be obferved, that the fpeculations on 
heat and phJogifton are impropcrlv introduced ; what is con- 
fidered by many as doubtful, and by moil as falfe, ought not 
furely to have been taught in an elementary book^ where 
beginners fbould meet with nothing that is not founded on 
indubitable proofs; and more ufeful matter mi^it eaiily hive 
been found to fubftitutc in their flead. 

Dr. Elliot's Phyfiological Efl&ys and Pbilofophical Obfer^ 
vations^ we believe, met with no unfavourable reception from 
the public ; they were coniidered ag the produAion of a 
writer, who thou^ he dtfeovered no uncommon talents or 
extent of learning, was too ingenious to be detpifed, and 
. too modeft to be repulfed ; hence he has probably been en- 
couraged to fend into the world, feveral compilations whicfa^ 
feem not likely \o advance his intereft, and certainly will not 
jucreafe his reputation. 

■ ■ ' \ ■ ■ I ■ " j ■ ■ ■ ■ I » ■ II II ■ i» 

Ar t. IX. No. I. Of the piHuref.^ ucBeautks of Shakcjpearc^ being a Selec- 
tion of Scenes from the Works of that great Author; intended to 
contain die moft ftriking Incidents and Dcfcriptions of each Play ; 
in Oval Prints, Six Inches high by Four and a half wide. Publiflied 
at Charles Taylot^s, No. 8. Dyer's Buildings, Holborn ; and at 
Mr. Taylor's, Bookfelter, Holborn. 4to. 5s. ftitched. 

nr^HE title pa^ fufficiently explains the nature of this 
Jl periodical publication *. But Shakefpeare and medio- 
crity fnould never be united. The painter, to exprefs his 
ideas fhould poflcfs at Icaft a portion ot his foul of fire. We 
pannot congratulate the prefcnt artifts on the fuccefs of their 
undertaking; but we think the public is indebted to them 
for the hint it n>ay furnilh to thofe who might attempt the 
arduous talk with more probability of reputation. Could Ci- 
priani and Bartelozzi be induced by a generous fubfcriptioa 
to exert all their powers on this fubjeft, we might ^X^St 
fomething worthy of our immortal bard* 

We mean not however to fay that Mr. Taylor and his af- 
fiftants have not produced a work above tlie common run of 
title page engravings* In that line, though not at the top, 
yet they Hand pretty high on the fcale; and in that line 
we wifti them fuccefs. But, that a perfon, able to judge of 
tlie arts of engraving and defign, jmd at the fame time capable 
of relifhing the beauties of the ^i;d«/V7« mufe^ will be highly 

* It confirts of four prints, the fubjeds from " As you like if.*' 
The I ft is " Rofalind giving her chain to Orlando," the 2d is Or- 
^ lando and Adam," the 3a *^ Orlando and Oliver, ** aqd the 4tK 
^ the Woody napkin (hewn to Rofalind." 

I 4 g^fi' 

1 2% Piffun/qui Biontm of Sh^keffeare. 

gratified by their labours, is what thefe gentletnea muft not 
expert. The bold and glowing thoughts of the poet are but 
ill cxpreflcd by die timid and laborious touches of Mr. Tay« 
lor's needle^ or the tamenefs of defign apparent in his coad* 

Such in general is our opinion of the work before us, which 
-wi (hall endeavour to confirm by a few additional flric- 

To each print, .bdide the geneial fault' of laborious littlc- 
nefs in the engraving, and tamenefs of defign, the following 
^hjcAions may be made. 

In tlic firft, Celia, who is defcribed by the poet as fhorter 
than Rofalind, is reprefented as of e^ual he^ht ; and, in* 
(lead of that youth atul gaiety whicli Shakefpeare's Celia 
pofleflcs, the artifts have given her the face and fevcrity of a 
^oman matron. The Flemifh lumpifhnefs of countenance 
which they have beflowcd on Rofalind, but ill fuits the play- 
folnefs and vivacity of her charafter. For, though the 
tender fcene which is delineated, ihould give a ferioumefs to 
the face^ it by no means juftifies tlie Belgian caft of features 
with wluch we are prefented. In the fame print, the flaihed 
breeches of Orlando, vie with ftone in folidity<, 

The fccond print we think the befl upon the whole. The 
figure of Adam Ts preferable to tliat of^ Orlando, the air of 
the head, and the expreflion in the countenance are equally 
good, and the hair and beard, arc touched witli a lighu^is 
and freedom in which thefe artifts do not ufually excell : the 
drawing of the right hand is to be commended, and the po- 
fition is natural ; but five upper joints to the four fingers 
of the left hand appear, to us at leaji^ one too many. In the 
figure of Orlando either the thighs are too long, of the legs 
•too fhort. 

In the third print, the fore (hortened head of Oliver, 
from fome faults in the drawing, in the management of tlie 
light and fhadc, together with the hardnefs of the hair and 
beard, produces a moft difagreeable efFeft : it is a mafs of 
black and whitt fpots without relievo. The aflonifhment 
and horror in the countenance of Orlando feem to have been 
well enough conceived, but the execution is bad, though 
the artift has fo overworked the face as to give it a dirty and 
muddy appearance. The fnake, inflead of glidinj^ away, on 
feeing Orlando, according to its natural inflina, and ac- 
cording to Shakefpearc, is advancing towards him with e- 
>reded crefl. The head of the lionefs, though very indif- 
* ferently -executed, might ferve well enough for that of a 
^<j>/if|- lionefs: but we appeal to all who have eyes if there 
be in It any thing of tlie '♦cat-like watch'' which Shake- 
^ * ' fpeare 

ChsAn^rs^s Ejihntfte of the S$rength 0/ Britain. i^^ 

l^re has depiAed, that eager glare in the eye with which 
animals of prey regard their victims. 

Oliver in the fourth print ftan4s well upon his legs : wc 
vdih he had a better left hand; it has a^rong refembknce^ 
to iht Jiuffed hand of a layman ; as part of the hill, which 
ferves as a back ground, has, -to a cloud. The back grounds, 
with the leafing of the diilant trees, are, lor the tnoflr part, 
ftiff, heavy, and'unmafterly. 

One general obfcrvation, and we have done. When there 
19 a fucceffion of prints, where the fame perfbns are intro- 
duced, the features of thofe perfiJns ihould be preferved 
throughout as much as poffible. Hogarth had great excel- 
lence in this way, of which any one may be convinced who , 
examines the works of that extraordinary nun. This is by 
no means the cafe with Meflrs. Taylor, Stodhart, and 
SmJrke. After having made us acquainted with their Rofa- 
lind, Celia, and Orlando in tl^ firll print, we arc obliged to 
be introduced to them afrefti whenever we meet them in tlie 
other prints. They put on foch various appearances that it 
is impollibte to recognize them. 

Abt. 1L, Am EftimaiQ of ihi Qm^arative Strtngtb of BritaU Jaring 
the frtfent and four fr feeding Reigns; and of the LoiTes of her 
Trade from every War fince the Kevolutioti« By George Chal- 
mers. To which is added, an £f!ay an Population, by the Lord 
Chief Juflice Hale, Lofxk)n. 4to. ^s. iewed. Dilly and Bowen. 

THE Author of this Eftimate, or as he modeftly ftiles 
himfetf> *' The Compiler of tliefe fhects, having col- 
le£ted for a greater work various documents with regard to 
the national refources, thought it his duty to make an 
humble tender to the public of that authentic intelligence, ' 
which amid the wailings of defpondency had brought con- 
vidion and comfort to his mind," 

There is a conftant difpofition in mankind to admire, and 
to praife the pail ; and to undervalue and blame tlie prefent 
times. From the days of Queen Elizabetli to the prefent, a 
period wherein this nation underwent the bappien change, 
twelve months have fcarcely pa&d away, in which a treatife 
has not been published, either by ignorance,, by good-inten- 
tions, or dcfign, dej^ring the lofe erf our commerce, the 
depopulation of the kingdom, and the ruin of the ftate. 
.Mr. Chahncrs, in oppofition to fucli melancholy views^ 
gives a very comfortable account both of our population tod 
trade. He demonftrates with great accuracy of inveftigation, 
and piKcifioix of judgment,. *• that in every war there is a 
point of depreifion in trade, as there u^ in all things, beyond 


^5^ Cluteicrs's Eftimatt oftbt Sittngth of Sritain. 

v^hidx k docs not decUot ; from which it graduelly rifc^^ 
unlefs it meets with additional checks, beyond the extent o( 
its former greatnefs :" and Ihews, on probable grounds, that 
tlie population Qf Great Britain* whicn has b<^ gradually 
increanog 6nce the Conjuefty is at the prcfent moment nearly 
nine millions. 

The plftA whfeth Mn Chalmers follows in cftiraating the 
rcfources of tliis country is this. He takes a fjarvey of th^ 
trade, commerce, revenue, national debt, and, in general, 
of the national ftrength and rciburces of Great Britain a( 
tlie commencement, durine tlie time, and after the condu* 
fion of every war fince the Kevolution, in the reigns of King 
William, Queen Anne, George I. <jeorge II. and of his 
prefent Majefty. He ftates an account of our traffic widi 
every European country, and traces the progrcfs of our trad^ 
with each, from the beginning pf the current century to die 
commencement of the pr^ifi/, fhall we fay— or late hoftiliy . 
ties ? From the moft mmute details, and acute inveftiga<r 
tions, he concludes, that die. reiburces of Great Britain 
have gradually encreafed, and are ftUl encrealiu?* 

^ An hillorical detj^il of thp trade of our fadories iq Africa and 
Ada, as wel) as of our colonies in America, was dcfignedly omitted, 
b«cau^ it 16 a fa<^ known and acknowledged, that their traffic has 
^uridied prodigiouny : our colonial commerce has profpered, fince 
we have fodcrcd it by every means which intereiled traders could 
licvifc, or the mercantile fydcra admitted ; we have cheriflied it 
by bounties, by drawbacks, by the ob{lru<Stions that hare bcci^ 
thrown in the way of European rivals. If we again compare trade 
to a fluid, wc mav eaGly perceive, that when mounds were mifed oi| 
the banks, and (lioils were formed in the channel, it would find 
a vent by a thoufand pafTages : it was direded in its courfe to the cor 
Ionics, and it therefore no longer ran with its former force into the 
fevcral European ports. In every community there can only exift 4 
certain quantity of ftock, either lor carrying pn its agriculture, its 
manufaaurcs, its commerce, or for the aggregate of its whole raer? 
cantilc tran factions. If part of the capital, which had been ufefully 
employed in hulbandry, is withdrawn, in order to cultivate the cane 
and the coffee of the Weft Indies, our domeftic agriculture muA 
neccflarily fuffcr in the exa6b proportion to the fum taken away t 
if the buiinefs of (hip-building is no longer carried on near the 
banks of our rivers, but on thofc of our colonies, that important 
manufadiure can be no longer confidered as a national one. \i a 
portion of the capitals, which had been engaged in tranfa£Hng our 
commerce with our European correfpondents, is diverted to the 
plantations, our European traffic muft necelTarily languifh ; ;t 
muft decline in the exa(5l proportion to the amount of the (h>dc 
withdrawn*. When thefe principles are applied to the foregoing 


* This fubje£t has been amply difcufled and finely illuilrated by 


Chalmerja'& EJiimati tf tbt Strimgth f>f Britain. 1 3 1 

d^ls, we fhall find id the cooipanibn the true reafon why ibtne 

branches of tnuie have a<5iaally withered, why others have- not 
greatly profpcred. And it has been (hewn by the numbers of our 
fiiippLng cleared outuarii$, fince they were excluded from our co- 
Ipaics, that a revullion had taken place, whereby the capital which 
bad been gradually in veiled in the plantation-trade, was a?atn 
employed in its original biifinefs. They who amidll" their oelu* 
fions prefuihed, that the mechanic^ the merchant, or the mariner 
could be induced to lit down inad^ive and idle, only erinced how 
httk t£ey had Hudied the fcience of manldnd, who delight in 
a^vky and adventures. As Spain had been formerly Vuined by 
withdrawing her wealth from doraelHc indudry, and turning her 
energy to diftant enterprizes, more than by the emigrations of 
her p>eople« or the importation of the ^metals ; fo England r«n 
iimilar riiques in the purfuit of colonization, from fimilar caufcs 
produciog fimllar eficos. It was the greatncis of her capitals and 
credit, uze ikill and the dilio^cnce of her people, and other means 
that cannot be fo eafily defcnbed, which hare prevented her colonial 
policy, ii) refpe£t to trade, from introducing greater diforder into 
her European commerce, and bringing on a real decline. 

Having examined the ftrength of England at the epoch 
of the American troubles, having enquired into her lofles of 
trade from the moft cooipUcatedflniggles in which fhewas ever 
engaged, and demonitratcd the fuperiority of her navigation 
during the prefent war over that of the former ; and alfo, hav- 
ing taken a tranfient view of the trade of Scotland during both 
the laft and the prefent war» Mr. Chalmers concludes that, 

* He who has entered into the fpirit of this intereding comparifoii 
may alk. What then is the amount of our commercial loHes during 
the prefent war ? Admittir^ that our foreign commerce during our 
exiihng hoililitic?, and during the war of 1755, ^^^ precifeiv of 
the fame extent, (though the fuperiority of our navigation amia our 
preient conteOs forbids fuch a fuppoiition) the anfwer is, Wc have 
only loH by the war the amount of the annual gains of an increaitng 
induilry and traffic from 1763 to i77S» fince we nearly enjoy now 
what we enjoyed at any time previous to the peace of Paris. Were 
we to figure the trade of Britain, foreign and domcftic, as iin 
Atlas, fuAaining her affairs mercantile and political, wc might find 
aa argument and an illullration from the progreifivc ftages of the 
growth of man. We have fccn, that during the laft war he 
exerted all the a«5livity and the vigour of youth ; that during the 
prefent he excrcifed all the energy and the force of manhood : 
wh«n the endjarraflinents of the former period prefied him with 
additional incumbrances, he fiirunk from his load with the fup- 
plenefs of his age, but recovered his poiition with his natural agi* 
lity : when the complicated difficulties of the prefent wars heaped 
upon him additional weight, he bent reluiftantly under his burden ; 

Dr. Adam Smith, who merits the praife of having formerly flrcngth- 
^oedour morals, and lately enlightened bur intelle<5t8. [See the 
Inquiry into the Kature and Caufcs of the Wealth of Nations.] 


1 3a Cfcalmcrs^s EJtimate of the Strength of Britatn. 

hot, htTin.^ eafily collected his powers, he ftood firm in his mig'ht 
tinder all his prcffunes, becaufe his fincws had been flrung, and his 
jolnw had beep knit.* 

If this Alleeory tc as juft as it is expreflivc and elegant, 
it is undoubtedly one of the beft that has ever been ima* 
gi"ed. ^ 

To the foregoing brief cxtrafts* which the conjunfturc 
of the times, as well as the importance of their fubjeft, 
cannot fail to render interefting to every reader, wc Ihall 
fubjoin anotbtr, in which a corlcife and elegant account is 
given of the conncftion that fubfifts between human wants 
and induftry ; between induftry and food ; and between 
f<^od and numbers. • 

* The Lord Chief Tufticc Hale formerly, and Sir James Stewart 
«nd the Cqdut de Buiton lately, confidcred man, as to hi» bodily 
faculties, merely ns an anlitial, dirc<fted by the fame indiods, and 
urged by the fame motives of procreatiorf as otlicr animals, and, 
like them, fubfiiAcd aftenrards or deftroycd by iimilar means. 
Among the irrational chlfcs, we fee the young fupported by the 
mother till they are able to protkle- for themfelves i TTie' off- 
fprinij of n}mi, as We have all -fetf, arc mairftatned ^ring their 
childhood and yputh by the .pairetitSy who divide with the obje^ 
oi their tendet cure tbe means o€ ftbeifi.own fabfifknQe. Ix ts 
indir)^, then^ which is thjd caule •f pFoereM9>n ; but it is food 
which keeps popuUcion full and accumulates numbers. We 
behold the force of the firft principle in the vaft numbers of ani- 
mals, cither of the fifli of the fca, tRe fowls of the air, or the beafft 
of the field, which are yearly produced : we perceive the effential 
confequeuce of' the lall from the multitudes that annually periih 
for want. Experience has fliewn to what an immenfe extent the 
domelHc animals may he multiplied, by , providing; proportional 
/iibfiHence. In the lame manner man h^s been found to ex?tt 
and to multiply in exadl proportion . to the flandard of bis means 
of fullenance, and to the meafure of his comforts. How few are 
the wretched people whom our voyagers difcovered ihivering in 
tl\e blafl and pining in mifery arOUnd the fouthem extremity of 
Amciica ! The favagc tribe^ who hunt over that extcnfive con- - 
tinent are known to be more populous, becauie they are blefled 
with more ample food and raiment. Yet, the mofl potent body 
of , the American Indians cnnnot be compared, as to numbers, with 
the Tartar hords of Afia, who derive their fupport, not only from 
the produiflions of the earth, but from the cares of the (licp'heFd. 
How inconfiderable, however, are the numbers of the moll 
potent nations of Tartary, when contrafled with the prodigious 
populoufnefs of their neighbours of China, who find that fuV 
liflence, which a barren foil has denied them, in an unremitting 
indutlry. And univerfal hiHorv fceins to demonflrate, that every 
people nave increaied or dimrniuied in proportion to the means of 
exiltencc and comfort which they enjoyed either from nature or art. 
During the celebrated times of antiquity, the citizens, who alone 
tixre free, derived their fupport, not iojdecd from their owjn dih- 



Chalmerses ^filmatt of tit Sttingtb of Britain. 13 j 

grace, but from the labour of thofe whom thev had overcome m 
bsttle. During the fubfequent ceoturics of fupcruition, whoie com- 
muDUics were raauitained in kilcnefs by the miilakeu charity o^ 
the devout. In the pjo^^refs of refinement ^wA X)f freedozu, men 
were gradually prcflea by wants which they found no one, ready 
to remove ; and, being at length forced to labour, as the only 
mode of gratification, they derived in the end not only the ^hjjlcal 
necejpary^ but real independence, from thefveat of their bfo^vs^ 

Such were the conddorations which induced Sir James Stewar. 
to conclude, that ^wants promote injujlry ; indtifiry gains food ; atid 
food incrtafes numbers : Among the ancients, men laboured becauie 
they were ilaves to gthers ; among the moderns, every one labours 
hecaufe he is a (lave to his own pallions* When mankind had beciv 
thus induced to. labour, fmce they were ^ree ; when ,by cultiva- 
tion the earth has ppuroi out plenty, which, all may enjoy, as t'jt!c\k 
has learned that he nas an equivalent in his power, wc behold the 
energetic princiole of population exerting its a(5^ivc pouters of 
podoi^oo : ana here we difcover the origin of barter, of huA 
bandry, of manufa<5hire, of commerce. What numbers were af- 
fembled on the marflies of the Adriatic, by a dcfire of fafety, amid 
the fimpdo of the Ronmn empire, and were aforwards augmented by 
diUgence! What multitudes were coUeded hi the free cities of 
\\sSf% dttrittg the barharifm o^ the thirteenth century, by mean 9 
of kuduilry and tra^k: ! What gre;^ncfs and renown were ac^^ui red 
by the H^fb-towns of the Baltic, in the fubfequent age, through 
the indrumentalicy of an active commerce and navigation! Wiac 
populoufnefs, and opulence, and fplendour, were gained by the 
Netherlands, in |he following ccntufy, by thejr energy, their ma- 
oufa^ures, and traffic, while England was yet unhappily debili- 
tated by her political fyftem, perhaps more than by her civil wars ! 
HetKX *Mr* Hume juilly concludes, that if we would brine to 
foiDC deternStiitRm the qcieilion concerning' tbc^populoiifneJs of 
andeiit luid imo^ero tin|(i!|> Mt will be requifite to cqi'npare botl^ 
the ^«fC/^V )uid /o///^^ AtuatiotiSr of the two periods, in order to 
judge of the faas by their moral caufes : be<;aufe, if every thing 
elfe be eqiul, k fecms natural to expedl, that where t)iere are the 
wifefi inftitutions, and the mofl happinefs, there will alfo be the 
moft people/ ' ' 

Trie conclufion >hjch this, tnoft refpeftable Author draws 
ftxnli the whole of hi^ obttrvations and reafonings oa this 
impomnt futje.i^, Is a^ fSlTows : 

* SUCH then Is the eftimdte of our comparative rcfourecs^ t>f fhe 
lodes "and giins of our' commerce, and of the augmented number* 
•f o«^ ptopk &cd'the Revolution. He who* has honoured the fore^ 
gotngi aomiients with an'mtentive peruCkl^ ma|r probablybe jmliic*> 
ed to alk. What valid reafon is there for relinquilliing hope^ by de? 
fipolni^ i9f ^oCpmmoaWealih ?: The ijnklivi4ual who dei4K>nds, ia- 
4alg«» a paffion the vioft to be ^^ploixd,. .becauie it i».thetmot\ i^gu- 
rabku .Thcnttion| which in any conjunfture entprtaius doubts vf 
her own abi^(yi; Vf tWpks of. fybmiflSon to hpr unprov9|ced "/"pes,, is 
ii^raJj conqfiered,* fihcc (he is eaila:yed to 'her IrrefoluCion or' h<^f 

1^4 Chalmerses Efimati of the Stren^rk of Srltain. 

f?ars. The weaknefs of the (bt^, during a war of ahexampled cnt* 
barrafiments, confifts partly in the iKvifion of its members, placed at 
they are on every quarter of the globe, and to the conf<fquent dif- 
perfion of its Taf{ force ; but perbaps more to the dilfimilarity of the 
principles and views of the leading characters in the nation. Wliik 
the empire remains entire, tliC4x may be a]>pHed to the former e?i!$ 
temporary palliarrves, but not an^bfolutc cure. While the patfiom 
of men continue to produce their accuftomed efFcds, domeftic una- 
nimity, however delirabie, may be wilhcd for without rea(bnable ex- 
pcrtatron ; and every lover of his country ought therefore to pray, 
that whoever may be called to the hehii, durmg the florm of the 
times, may be dire^d in their counfeh and anions by wifdom, and 
moderation, and vigour.* 

Mr. Chalmers has fubjoiiied to his book two appendixes* 
The firft is an effay on populatiop, which, he informs us 
is nothing more than the tenth chapter of •' that elaborate' 
performance, Theprlmithe Origination of Mankind canfidcred^ 
by Lord Chief Juftice Hale ; a book, which, if piety of 
purpofe, ability of performance, and candour of dj£]uifitioo, 
are eflimable qualities, ought to occupy every clofet, as well as 
the cabinets of the curious.'* The republication of old traAs 
is fometimes very ufeful and cbBrnnendrt^le ; and afuhjeft is 
often treated with greater depth, metliod, and pcrfpicuity in an 
old, than in a new book. In reality the writings of the pre- 
fent day contain little that can be confidcred as altogetlier 
new: they are occupied for the moft part with fentiments tha5 
iwd often occurred to men of former times, withobje^ons 
which had been often raifed, and with confutations which bad 
fucceflively been repeated. The truth of thefe obienrationa 
will be fully illuftrated by a perufal of this treatifeof Juc^e 
Hale's. The Editor therefore -could not have offenxi a 
more valuable prefent to the public, tlito the fisature fcn- 
timenls of fo great a mailer of evidence, ^d ib ju- 
dicious a writer, with regard to ah intcreftin^ ^^hje^, 
which has lately fo much engaged the pens of the ingenious 
and the learned. The. end of this treatife i$ to fhfiw, i. T^at 
upon the fuppoiition of the exiftcjacje ofwlut the'Author calls 
reduHiviSy as famines, plagues,, Yff(rs^ .flqodi;, and cppilftgi^* 
tionSf thejr could not have beeii of fuch^f* ^JBcaoy* fi^cor- 
reft the nicreafe or expefs o/ , pi^|iV.i|i^, ; #s to raider it 
compatible w^th an eternal dur^ti^O.^j X^ /^;.Trhat d^ fekil^ 
notwithllanding all thefe reduSives^ .the workLihatb* intAli 
ages increafed.^^ ' , ' ^' ,-./..<• i * 

The execution of this deiign inerits alt the pi^fe'thaf 
Mr. Chalmers bcftows on it. And we fhall only* tetUUirfif 
that as thp views of commercial {peculation' *rtd*pmh>fcmhyt 
turn the attehtrpji of men of^erlms,t6'tK^ TifibiOT of "^^ 
lation'in the prefent ce'htury : fo the concerns or pi^ wd 



Human Happlnefsy or the Saptlc. f 35 

religion, made the lame fubjcft an objcik of attention to 
learaed and good men in the lall. Nor is this the only iii- 
ftancc, in which religion has been fubfcrvient to the pur- 
pofes of literature, ahd general knowledge. It was religioiw 
controverfy that ftimulated the revival of fiteratlire ; and pre- ^ 
ferved, in the darknefs of the mid(cHc ages, fome rays ot the* 
light that Ihone forth in the brighteft days of Greece and 

The fecond Appendix confifts of correftions, additions:, 
and retraftions, which Mr. Chalmers has ftated in a brief 
manner, inconfequenceof his having difcovered, linpcTttii 
Estimate was printed, feveral documents, .which, in fome 
inftances contradift, but in more confirm, the realbning^ 
Contained in that publication. 

We cannot difmifs this excellent pciformance without de- 
claring, in the ftrongeft manner, our opinion of its merit. 
Mr. Chalmers is patient, and acute, in his inveftigations ; 
and in his reafonings, judicious, (olid, and cahdid. And 
though the fubjefts he undertakes to illuftratc, admit not, 
in general, of the embelliftiments of ftilc and compofition, 
yet, from the fpecimens already produced, it will appear 
evident to the Reader, tliat a vigorous and lively conception, 
joined to a clear judgment, has beftowed on this writer, a 
nervous and manly eloquence. 

AjtT. XL Human Happ'tiffs, or tht Sceptic^ A Poem. la fix 
Cantos. By Thomas Holcroft, Author of Duplicity, a Come* 
dy. 4to* 3$. L. Davis. 

NOTHING can give us fuch true pJcafure in tlic dif- 
agreeable taik of infpeding errors, and developing the 
Erinciples of falfe tafte, as to be able to fay they are exceeded 
J the beauties of imagination, and the glow of genius^ 
Wc lament to fee a charming pifture witlx an Qcc;vfiana} 
grois daub, or s^ diftorted feature, and more fo, that it is 
our office to direft the ev^ of criticifm upon thefe blunders ; 
but we have great confolation when they are overpowered, 
and almoft loft in ftrongth of colouring, originality of de- 
iign, and bappinefs of execution. The. poem under conii-* 
deration is in the predicament alluded to. It ha^ many de- 
fers, but it has more excellencies. The fubjeft is an en*" 
quiry into bappinefs ; the purport to deny that it exifts. To 
compofe a poem on a metaphyiical queftion is no very in- 
riting taik, not is it probable on a flight infpefUon, that; 
the poet fhould attrad many readers ; yet this has been fe- 
veral times attempted in our own language with fucceO, 
^Lixna Mater, and the Eflay on:Man, are read by all who 


1^6 IfumMH Happlnt/sy or the Sceptic. 

h»ve a taftc for poetry. The plan of the Sceptic is fliriil-if 
to that of Alma Mater : and the Author fpcaks towards the 
latter end of the third canto of the difficulty he had to keep 
clear of tlie fame thoughts » not forgetting to pay a very 
handfome and a very poetical oompliroent to Prior. Ealy 
dialogue was evidently the beft vehicle for this kind of ar* 

fument, which is meant to be, and is^ whiniiical and witty; 
ut the poet is guilty of an error, by laying himfelf under 
an unncceffary reftraint : one of his fpeakers is a depen- 
dant on the othoi't whicli deprives him of the liberty of 
making -that iirm o]>poiition to the principles of his fupcrior 
as he apparently is inclined to do, or of returning thole far- 
cailic replies which lie might, had he been hi$ e<jual, have 
found freqilent opportunities of doing. The principle of 
the poem too ia wrong ; it tends to make us diilatisfied witli 
life; but this, the poet has very artfully undermined, by 
letting the reader perceive, in the arguments of William, 
that he diA>clieves even wliile he averts. Some will likewife 
£nd the ^me fault with him as Pope did with Prior, when 
he declared how happy lie fhould have been to have written 
Alma M^ter, but for its fcepticifm. As this, however,* is 
matter of opiniofi, concerning which different men entci* 
tain di0^rent idittas> we ihall not venture to obtrude oyr 
own upon our Readers, but fuffer tliem to determine for 
themfelves. - There is one advantage which the Author has 
derived from a iuppofition of the negation of happinefs, and 
that is the moral he has thence deduced, which is fo ftrong, 
pointed, and conclufive, that we are perfuaded our Readers 
will thank us for giving it among the extrafts. 

^ And^uld you think tbeie doc^i^ncd yaliiy 

Hear, Will, the moral they contaiiu * .* 

So lliort a time arc mortals twirl'd 

About this tranfitory world ; 

(For he who tarries longcll in It * , ^ 

,Can fcarce be faid to live a ^jiiuute) 

${0 little do \ve truly know. 

What flwll bring future weal or -woe ; 

Soch trifles are the thitigt we pHise, 

In Truth and fober Rcafon'f eyes ; 

So futile and iricompetcnt,f j 

To make one blcfling permanent \ ^ 

That he who'd ignominious livc« 

For any good this world can give \ 

Would condefcend to recollc6l 

The \o(& of Worth, and Worth's refpcfl j 

Or, to obtain fome private end. 

To guik, or meanncft could defccnd. 

And a6t, from (elf-applaufc exempt. 

What finks kiia into fclf>comempt ; 


Human Happintfsy or the Sceptic. X37 

r CouW fee iow fliort, how vague, how vaiA 

Art joys, and nil that joys contuiu ; 
' Yet, (ecing this, could be betray'd, 

Doth CommoD-fenfe fo much degrade. 

Such ample infamy deferves, 

If he with ftich conviction fwcrves. 

No epithet, by man ejrprefs'd 

That Wit or Malice can fuegeft. 

Of fcurril Rnncour e*cr devisM, 

Can fay how fuch a fool (houM be defpisM/ 
It is with pain wc arc obliged to bring a verv h^avy draw- 
back upon this bcft part of praifc, the moral tendency of 
.the work. The reasonings which begin at the eighth page, 
SMid proceed, while that fubjeft continues, is flagrantly 
iauQoral, and ijt is the more fo, becaufe the poetry is fome- 
-tiffle^ delightful. 

The Author proceeds in the jEame kind of firaioi for half 
;die panto, ^nd wie almoft wi(h we could iay the veries were 
as dull and difguAing as they are attraftive. He is confci- 
ous (^his4e(fiFts for taking thefe Uberties, and wifhes to 
Jaugh the Critic x^go mercy. Thus he makes Sir Thongs 
iay: . 

^ HoweVr, I am ^lad our evagation, 

With the^ free hints on fecundation. 

Are but by way of converfation, 

Por, were they meant t' appear in print, 

Tho' I, inftcad of flelh, were flint, 

I would not fee] the goofe-quill rod. 

No, not for fifty pounds by -— . 

Which Critic would remorfelefi thwack, 

With iteration, on my back.* 
His profane ^e of the name of God, opens our eyes 
with a kind of glare upon his audacity, but the fmfe of 
feeling and anxiety with which he pronounces it, half clojes 
them again. There are a few yerfes tow;irds the clofe of 
the canto, which for wit and fatire have great merit. 

• Ma'am Venus, ever In mutatiop. 

Gives mo^ light at her elongation ; 

Our Venus too. without a feoff*. 

Shines brighteft when Ihe's farthefl off; 

For Bel a wife, and Bel a maid, 

Areoppofite as light and (hade. 

Your women, when in hopes of wivery, i 

Ap^ar as they were carv'd of ivonr ; 
.Ana, though we iee they carry noles. 

They furely fmell to nought but rofes ; 

But, when unloosed the virgin zone is, 

Tohr alahftfier flefii and bene is. 

Your maid of fnow, fome (hort time a*ter. 

Melts into frothy muddy water/ 

• Rsv. Vol. I. r«b. 1783. IL In 


138 Human Happhiefs^ or tii Sceptic. 

In the fecond canto the Author purfucs his fubjcft ttKn^ 
fleadily, and defcribes in a very whimlical manner, the ef* 
fed that the imagination has upon ou|[ happinefs r his Gmb- 
ftreet poet is an original arw llriking piflure on a very 
hackneyed topic, arul his (imile of the Iheep and the patriot 
h as perfefl in all its allulions as k can be. Many of hi? 
leaders will differ with him in politics, but there arc none 
of them but will acknowledge he has given a very pathetic 
defcription of the miferies o? civil diflention. 

The third canto is fportive and fanciful, but tlie fourth it 
that in which he gircs the greateft proofs of a poetic genhis. 
His dreams are original ; they rife gradually from tne lud?- 
crous to the terrible and the fublime. They are a faithfitl 
defcription of the almoft miraculous wanderings of the mind 
in lleep, and contain an extenfive difplay of a ftrong inrur- 
pination. They, however, are not faultlefs ; the colouring 
IS fometimes overcharged; and they are not always fufficf- 
cntly delicate. Thefe are errors to which the whole poent 
is too frequently fubjeft. As a proof of the poetic powers 
<jf which we have fpoken, we (hall prefent our readers wklb 
the following extracts from his laft dream. 
* I went one night, ahout eleven. 
To bed— or, rather— went to Heaven. 
*Twti in the l;»trer end of fpring, 
" f y heart was light as Wood-lark's wing ; 

y health was good, mv fpirits better, 
• jc ' 

My mind without a fingle fetter ; 
~y caret nor crofles was I teaxM, 
or fpieen, nor pailion, on roe feixM / 

• I went to bed, thcov thus difposMy 
And, as I guefs, not long had doz'd 
Before I fell, by feme blefV chance, 
Into a kind of heav'nly trance ; 
Unconfciops I of deep or bed. 
No pillow now fupports my head. 
Nor bolts, nor bars, nor walls refbaia. 
Nor heavj limbs ray foul detain ; 
But, gliding on, bv fwift ((e^rees, 
I fccm to be wberc^r I plcafe : 
I lightly leap o'er brook, or briar^ 
And flep— as far as I deBre/ 

• While down the win<Mng vale I ftray, 
Upon an ivory pipe I play, 
A various and delightful lay. 
My fingers touch as though they flew, 
Each note's fo fwcct, and yet fo new, 
I play and liflen to the found, 

F*om rock to rock I lightly bound f 



ffumcn iJappitiefsy of the Scepiu. -^1 j^ 

S^f^t ecbos cv*ry cavern fill. 

While ray agUity and frill 

A mizturp breed of ftran^e furraite, 

Ofdoubty ofpleafiire, and furprize! 
EncouragM by the paft, I try 

If it be po^ble to fly : 

When, ft range to think, with utmoft cafe 

I fail adown the pleafant breeze. , 

Amazement new, and new demur. 

Again, and yet again, recur. 

Haft 1 my former fclf forgot ? 

Or is It mc— or is it not ? 

Again I try, again I find, 

My body lighter than the wind ; 

Till, wanton grown, with joy and mirth^ 

I fpurn the bofom of the earth ; 

Into the middle region'mount, 

And cities, feas, and kingdoms count : 

Strait recoiled, and now behold, 

Whate'«r I*ad read, or had been told* 

My mind, my£ght, my foul expand i 

r view the near and didant land. 

Each object (ee, eza;nine all. 

And under(hind both great and fmall!* 
The attempt to fly ; the amazement at fuccecding ; the 
doubting whether, the body can really be lighter than the 
wind; Sie joy at being confirmed in the belief; the fpurn*» 
ii^ the bofom of the earth; the view of qities, feas, and 
kingdoms, and the expanfion of the 
piidiending of ail, are lo natural, as well as elevated, that. 
we fcem to wonder there is nothing of the iSime kind to be 
found among the poets*. 

Paradoxical, however, as it may at firft appear, fome of 
thefe vcrfes may be faid to have been burlefqued before they 

♦ There is a (bort contraft of pleafurc and terror in dreams in 
the fi^ty^nijith, and two following ftanzas of Dryden's Annus Mi- 
rabilis, in which the poet has reached the true fublime, (one line 
excepmi) mod happily indeed. The concluding verfe, 

•* They wake with horror, and darejleep no more** 

Is admirable. But thefe are very dificrent from, and very ihort, whea 
compared with thofe under conlideration in the text. We by no 
meant, however, would be under Hood to fay, that dreams have not 
foaod their way into poetry ; they have been frequently ufed with 
great fucceft both by ancient and modern writers, and, by none 
perhaps more happily, than a modem poet. Mr. Hayley> in his 
Triumphs of Temper, has dreams fo beitutifnl, that we could wi(h 
him to dream thus for ever. The originallity of their ufc tod con- 
dnt^on, is the thing we fpeak of in the prefcnt ipdaace. 

K 'a- , werr 

1^0 HwftUin Hdpplmfs^ or ibt S^fri^. 

were written. Moft of our Readers will probably remem- 
ber to ha^e (een the {bliowing humorous epigram : j 

** As iti his cart Giles Jolt a flceptog lay, 

** Some pilfering yiilains ftolc his team away : 

*• Giles wakes, and cries, what's here ! a dickins 1 what? 

** Why how now ! Am I Giles ^ or am I not ^ 

** If he» Vvt loft fix geldings^ to my fmart, 

** If not«»-<His boddikins — I've found a cart.** 

The fimilarity of Tenfation, ofAnprize, atid of exprcffion 
in both ihftances, will excite a fmile, but will not deftroy 
our admiration. 

The fifth and fixth cantos are chiefly argumentative, 
but with fo ftrong a degree ot humour and whim, as to 
make them entertaining ; they likewife prove the Author 
well acquainted with metaphyfics and metapbyfical writers. 
His fentiments on toleration are liberal, and worthy of the 
1^ ; they are exprefied in an ironical flow of iatire, which 
expofes the ridicule of endeavouriog to make ixie& ^1 of one 
opmion on religious matters. 

With rcfpeft to the poem, as a whole, it has great me- 
rit. The Author feldom lofcs fight of his fubjcft, and 
when he docs, he brings his reader back fo naturally, that 
his digrelfion becomes a part of his argument. " 

The vfcrfification is flowing and harmonious in' the fc- 
f ious parts, and hudibrattic in the comic. The pa&ges we 
have /elcfted will fupply e^arfrples : though with reipeft to 
ihimc, there are Others perhaps toore whimffcatl. As, 

* It was by this kind of bbmogetry. 
King Priam had fo vaft a progeny/ 

Again : 

* And his puff M down who their fitfe'fianis fconts. 
Like Jericho at hlaAs of rams-homs/ 

Again : 

* Thcfc man-fleni butchers with their fly-flc^ 1 

. Thefe Anthropophaginian Cyclops, r> 

That tap who never had the hydrops.' J 

Again : 

* Leaves not a rat, cat, hog, or dog an eye, 
But cleaves them as youM cleave mahogany.* 

In this, however, as in the more cflchtial parts pf com- 
pofition, though he often excels, he fometimefs oflemk. fh 
occafionally defers the rhime by infcrting two verfes bci 
fween, ana now and then writes in alternate verle, follow- 
ing the.prafttce of .La Fontaine and the French &buli{ls.| 
But as this is only done feldom, it has a fudden, harfh, and| 
diiagreeahte efie£t, and is like waking a man from a pl^Uant 
' iietm by an elcftric (hock.^ Neither is he always enough 


tft^y of the life of thi Sari 9f Cbathmm. . 141 

circtimfpeft in the exadriefs of the rhiinc— jTwwf, down-^ 
tn^oJ^ underftood — tony^ monty — tvily devils &c. &c. rhime 
to the ^ye but not to the ear ; there are others that 
neither ihiiiie ta eye up r ear. The inoft material dcfcfts 
ia the poem are thofe we have before obfervcd, an indelica- 
cy that ibaietimes approaches groilhels, and an overcharge 
of coioormg that in ccrtaia ipots becoioev daubing. The 
Author's imagination has occa^onally galloped away T^ith 
his judgment, but there is a ftiificicnt blaze of poetry to il- 
luminate and obi^re his faults, and recommend them tp 
many of thofe who may hereafter hear his beauties praifed. 

A5 T. XI I, The WJhry nf tin Life of mitUm Fitt^ Earl of Cba* 
ih^tm. Svo. 4s. boards* Keariley. 

COM^^^N iame dq>end3 on common under (landings; 
and whether it be employed in panegyxic, or in oblor 
<juy, it is indiicriminate^ extravagant, jnd unjuft. The fa- 
vourite of a people, or the objeft of their dctcftation, is 
forced above or below humanity ; and pvery thin^ relating 
to him is exaggerated bjr a j>ccuUar fpecies of fallhood. It 
is the bufineis of the hiftorian to remove the efFeft of this 
error, founcled on the ignorance and impetuofity of the peo- 
ple. And we arc forry to obfervc, this is not done by the 
{Author of the wprk under our prefcnt confiderp.tion. 
^ He begins, as biographers uiually do, with the extrac- 
tion and early purfuits of^is hero ; introduces him into 
Parliament, where his eloquence was taken notice of in the 
adminyftrations of Sir Robert Walpole and Lord Carteret, 
and procured him the office of Paymaftcr General undr r Mr. 
Peliiam. The pliablencfs and vcrfatility of Mr. Pitt's chri- 
jaftcr^ when the alluring objefts of ambition were bcforp 
him, are here touched with a tender and reludant hand. 
The Author's apology for Mr. Pitt's change of principle^ 
aqd conduft, when he came into office, is among the moft 
Ingenious paflages of the work ; and we will lay it before 
our Readers, as it may enable them to judge of hiis ta- 

* The generality, I believe^ will be inclined toqucflion the fin- 
ccrity of this converllon, and will reprcfent to thcmfelvcs Mr. Pitt, 
as engaged in the fupjxjrt of i^eafures,^\vhich, in his own breurt, he 
pcreitij^nly difapprored. But they know little of the human 
tieart, who fuppofc, tha^, in fuch cafes, the judfrmcnfr'evidently 
points one way, and interell and inclination aoothen Perhaps, 
there does not cxil}, upon the face of the earth, an hypoqrifjr un*- 
BHsed and pure. lAOFdert'o dec^vc ocUeriy wc iirft d«u:civc 
oiriclvps, Intcrcft and ambition mjt •nly alter our lanj^uagc, biu . 

K 3 our 

14a Hiftoryfif tb£ Lift of lie Earl cf CbaAam. 

our miadft. They attra^ our choice, they warp our underftsoding;* 
and they cloud our dtfcemment. It inu(l alio he remembered^ that 
chanec of mind is fearcely ever the rcfuU of fudden convidion, but 
almoft univerfally produced by a flow and impcrccpribla progrcfs. 
In the complication of motives then, by which our conduct is go- 
verned, it is feldom poflible, to afcribc its proportion to the influ- 
ence of each : atid, though it were eafy, we (hould hardly be much 
inclined to fo unpleafaot a taft. Mr* Pitt was probably partly in- 
duced to this Second recefiioo, fron^ hif original line of condoo, by 
the motives we.ftated in the former cafe. His converfion may t>e 
partly aicribed^ to the power, exhibited in a thoufand ioflanccs^ c€ 
the falcinating manners of Mr^^ Pelhanv And, I believe, the rc- 
bellton had, in fbme degree, the fame influence upon his compre-* 
benflve foul, that it certainly had upon every weaker mindf to iil« 
creale his loyalty, and improve his complaifance.* 

He then exnibits his Hero, .as a moft illuftrious fignre 
in the hiftory of the period in which he lived. The cpn- 
duft of Mr. Pitt, as Secretary of 'State; and die canies of 
tits difmiflion ; the coalition of parties, on i^bich his bril- 
liant adminiftration was founded -, and the reafons of his re- 
iignation on die introduftfon of Lord Bute into power ; are 
related witli the warmth of a young and credulous devotee, 
not with the temper and penetration of an hiClorian. 

In relating the circuinftances which led Mr. Pitt into a 
^lucrative office, iheltered from the inconveniencies of re- 
f{>onfibility, and introduced him, a j>enfioner to an admi- 
niftration he defpifed, into the Houie of Lords, are gilded 
-over with fome degree of art. Put here the Writer can ex- 
crcife only the talents of an apologift. When Lord Cha- 
tham takes the lead in oppofition, and direfts the thunder 
of his eloquence againft the American war ; when he pro- 
duces plans of conciliation with the colonies, and delineates a 
iyftem of government for India, hardly any epithet in John- 
ion's Diftignary is left unemployed in the panegyric of this 
great man. He is • the laft.of Britons — the firft of ftatefmen 

* the grcateft political charaftcr that ever exifted — ^his mind 
' had a native royalty — he felt himfelf born to command — 

* the fable of Orpheus was realifed in him, he led millions 
/ f of beafts we prefume] in his train ; he fubdued the rugged 

* lavage, and difarmed the fangs of malignity and envy.' 

* His eloquence was beyond defchption — ^the aftoniflimg 

* extent ot his views — the myfterious comprchenfion of his 
^ plans, did not fet him^above little things — for in a far 
' huoablof walk, likt Omnipotence*, the complicadon and 

* mtnuteaefs of the lefler motions, that were eifenua^ to bi$ 
f grand machine, cofild not diftrad him*' 

■ _ , '*' ...... ■■■ ■ ^ , ^ 

' - * Pare J89. 

. . • It 

Uyhry rfihi L^ rf the Earl of Chatlmm. 143 

It is with foch paflages, thatidmoft every page of this work 
is ornamented. It it be^the produftion of a youn^ man, it 
may be ufeful to point them out as blemifties iii rcfjjca to* 
compc^tion,, as well as offences againft the chafte veracity 
of impartial hiftory. If it be written by a perfon, matured 
in bis hahits^ we mall only have his indignation, or pre- 
tended contempt, for our pains. 

Lord Chatham's indifpoi5tion in the Houfc of Lords, 
which juft preceded his deaths is thus dcfcribcd : -' ' 

* As the duke* (of RicbinoDd) * drew near the end of his reply, 
lord Chatham feemcd much agitated. He immedintcly attempted 
to t\fcz Bat his feelings proved too ftrong, for kis debilltiited con« 
ftimtion. He fuddeniy prefled his hand, upon his 4lotDacht and fell 
down in a convoKiTe 6t. lite houie was inibndy thnown, into 
tlie greate{l alarm. The buQneft of the day was at an end. The 
ih^angers, beloiv the bar, who were uncommonly numerous, were 
ordered to withdraw* The houfe adjourned. His lord (hip was 
• prefently, in fome degree, re^ored ; but he nev^r pcrfe^ly reco- 
vered, and thissfcene proved the prelude^ to his death. That melan* 
iCholy event took place on the eleventh of May (778. 

^ Maj^y drcumilances concnr, to render the A;cnc, I^have dc- 
icribed, finj^ujarly intcrcOing. The crifis, with refpe(Jt to public 
•.ffiurs ; ifQci the queflion, which was to be, that day, dcclJcd, were 
•f the firft magnitude. It was a c^eftion, that caken in all its, 
parts, could never recur again. They were to determine on peace» 
or war. Tkey had already |j>een worked, upon a narrower icene;; 
and they were CO deterreinc, whether they would cnj^;i;|e, exhauH- 
^cd, as they were, upon a (bene, widctied, to an extent, that the 
mind of longeft reach, could fet no founds to it. They were about» 
<o commit the ver}' exiftence of their country, for an objcci, which 
every unbiafcd mind might then have pronoanceJ, abfolutcly unat* 
tainable. They were about ta commit it, for an obje»f^, of which, 
at lcal>, it was very doubtful, whether it were legiiimAtc.— Bur, 
why ihould I fay, doubtful ? The impartiality of hillory coniifls, 
in maniieding no refpe<ft of perfons, or of p.irty. It is the far- 
theil, ID the world, from- conliftin;*, in mincing truth, or trifling 
with the eternal, immutable laws of « rectitude. -^Thc objed then 
vaft perfe^ly and eyideojtly ilicgitimarc. Every country has an in* 
herent, iinaiicnable right to aflert its independency.—- They were to 
chufe then, between the imai^inary dignity, which confifls, in pci- 
fbveriog to do wrong : ^m\ that true great ncfs, whofe firft obje^ is 
ju'Alge ; that ** long-fighted and ilron;:^- nerved*' policy, that daret " 
so cotmtera^ all the private feclinga of humanity, in tl>c purfuit of 

On the wbok, this work, thougli written with aaima- 
tion, is» Hbe many pieces of modem biography, defeftivc 
in the Bioft eflcntiaL requifitcs of a valuable performanco. 
If ftimifhes no Information, but what may be' had in the 
news-papers. The Author draws the charaflcr of his Hero 
£roQi popular and indifcriminate applaufe; and the addition^} 

. K 4 which 

t+4 ' 5r*^ Mji/lerlou$ Kkjb&ki. 

which proceed more immediately from himfelf, are taudry 
and glaring. His language is fprightly ; but it is afFefted : 
his riietoncal flowers are falfe and artificial j not thofe 
which are cultivated, in the fail of truth and nature, by the 
hands of Addifon, Bolingbroke, and Swift. 

Art. XIII. ^he Myjierhus Hujband^ a Tragedy. By Richard 
Cumbcrladd, Efq. 8vc». is. 6d. C. Dilly and J. Walter. 

THERt has not been a tragedy for many years, per- 
haps not .fincc the Gamefter by Mr. Moore, in which 
the pailions have been fo forcibly roufed by the condu^fl of 
the table, as in the Myfterious Hufband. In fome parts of 
it indeed, the fame objection may be made to the* latter, as 
was to the former, that is, that the paffion of horror inftead 
of terror is excited, and that the dlilrefs is almoft too deep 
to be borne. This however is the fault of genius, and is 
infinitely preferable to infipidity. Our tragedies ever fince 
the fupcels of Douglas and Barbaroffa, have almoft uni- 
formly depended for applaufe on the difcovery of a loft 
child, or a concealed hero. No Author feemed to poiiefs 
•ny of that poetic furor which could exhibit the paifions 
violently agitated, or the perfons plunged into that inex- 
tricable mifery, that might call forth thofe racking feelings 
and deijperate efibrts to which' the mind reforts in the trto- 
tnent of dcfpair. A Have's habit, a falfe name, a concealed 
dagger, or fome fuch llage trick, was to give eclat, and the 
Le Jue de Theatre was more affiduoufly ftudied, than paffion, 
plot, or charader. The mufes fire was extinguilhed by 
cold deckmation, while infipid epithets, common place fi- 
gures, -and wire-drawn metaphors, fupplied the place of that 
lentiment and pathos, which a ftrong and animated fable 
feldom fails to produce. Let this be underftood in a gene- 
ral fenfe ; there have been exceptions ; though none lately; 
as we think, that may be pur in competition with the My- 
fterious Hufband. But though, as a tt'Ao/4?, it is exceed- 
ingly ^ffefting, and difcovers gteat abilities in the Aiithor, 
yet it is in parts very defedive. We will examine it under 
the following heads : Plot, Incidents, and Moral ; Charac- 
ter, Manners, Sentiments, and Di£tion. 

Andfirft, of the Plot, Incidents, and Moral: 
The ground-work and moving principle of the plot,^ 
are the crimes (already committed) of Lord Davenant, who 
is the hero of the tragedy. In the very firft fcenc ^c find- 
^im opprefled by, and ftruggling under a lokd of guilt. He 
has married two wives, one of whom, Mife Dormer^^ 
though an Epglilh lady, he has left in Fltodcrs, where 


he trent by the name of Brookes, and by felfc reports, 
made her believe him dead. The other he obtained for the 
fake of her fortune, by deceit and forgery, in which, from 
motives of worldly cunning, he was affifted by her uncle. 
Sir Edmund Travers. In this double guih he has doubly 
injured a voung fca officer, of the name of Dormer* firft ia 
trcacheroufly making him and Lady Davenant (to whom 
Dormer was betrothed) believe each other falfe, and after- 
wards by marrying his filler at Antwerp, where as an or- 
plian fhe had retired to hve, for oeconomical reafons. Lord 
Davenant is a man of ftrong paffions and deep refleftion, and 
is evidently more prone to extricate liimfelf from the proba- 
ble efFefts of his crimes, by adding to, than repenting of 
them. He has placed a lawyer in his houfe, drefled like 
a footman, as a fpy upon the conduft of Lady Davenant, 
who is uniformly a good and great charafter. He tells Her 
he hates her, prompts her to vice in hopes of a divorce, and 
appears fo willing to commit any wickednefs rather than 
fuffer detedion, that the mind of* the fpeftator is in conti* 
nual alarm for the fafety of its mbre virtuous favourites. 
But (hough it is alarmed, it is not without hope ; guilty zi 
Lord EJavcnant is, and urged on by fear, to the commiflitm 
of ads ftill more horrible, yet his propenfity to virtue at 
fome moments, and deep fenfc of his own vlUany at all 
times, make itpoifible he fhall defift from farther mifchicf. 
This conduA is very artful and judicious in the poet, fuf- ^ 
penfe being the mairer-paflion by which the audience mufi; 
be kept attentive. We do not anticipate what is to corne^ 
nor can we prophecy that when a drefs is thrown off, a 
name pronounced, or a bracelet produced, that the plot (hall 
be unrsfvelled. We are obliged to wait in filent and anxi- 
ous expeftation, thedefperate conteft of vice and virtue, and 
the efrcfts of future accidents. While things are in thl9 
ftate th^ diftrefs is greatly aggravated, even to horror, by 
Captain Davenant, the fon of Lord Davenant, who pri- 
vately marries Mifs Dormer, fhe being returned to Eng- 
land after tlie fuppofcd death of her hulliand. From 
tliis moment the plat turns upon the feelings^ meetings^ 
and other incidents of foregone caufes, fo that tlie denou- 
ment begins, in faft, in the firft fcene of the third aft. 
This is the grcateft defcft in the plot. We are then affur- 
ed there is no pofBbility of happineis for any of the pcr- 
fons concerned, and \rt are only anxious that their fuffer- 
ings may be* as light -as poffible. Had this happened later 
in the pby, it would have been more conformable to die 
precepts of the critics, and wtmld not have laid the Anthor 
under the ncccffity of introducing a very aukward'cpilbdical 

14^ f%i Mj/lerldus Hu/band* 

jcaloufy, concerning Sir Harry Harwood, which is evident* 
ly a poor resource to lengthen out the plot, when every 
thing Ihould be rapid and decifive : this is a material blemilh 
to the play. We arc, however, fo much engaged in the mi* 
fery and feelings of Lord Davenant, that the attention fel- 
dom fla^s while he lives, and he does not die till the lall 
fcene of the laft aft. 

The incidents, arc many^of them well imagined, and have 
their proper efFcft in the conduft of the fable. The card 
preparatory to the introduftion of Dormer, is a very natural 
and a very happy thought. Dormer's generous gratitude 
and confidence in Lord Davenant, which makes him prefs 
Lord Davenant to become the guardian of his filler Mari- 
anne (Lord Davenant's other wife) have likewife a good ef- 
fe<5l, and form a fine contraft to the vicious felfifhnefs of 
Lord Davenant. The borrowing of the chariot feems trifling 
in the dialogue and forced, but its confequences are very eflcn- 
tial to the {wot, and might have been more fo. The forcible 
introduftion of Dormer to Lady Davenant, by Lord liavc- 
nant, is fo unnatural, that it could not have happened, unleis 
Lord Davenant had refolvcd to become virtuous, from which 
he is fo diilant, tliat the moment preceding, he has been 
reafoning* pcrfuading, and conjuring her to elope to Dor- 
mer, that he might be divorced, and again enjoy Dormer's 
filler. If it belaid, he brought them together to produce 
this efFeft ; we anfwcr, he would not then have avowed his 
foregone fraudulent praftices to Dormer. In laft, his con- 
duft Is here wholly inexplicable, and we fee the poet follow- 
ed his convenience, and not his judgment. The incidents 
of the uncle's entrance while Lady Davenant aad Dormer 
are embracing, and of Captain Davcnant's and Dormer's 
entrance while Sir Harry Harwood is kneeling, have too 
' much of the hackneyed Itage trick of comedy, to be worthy 
of where they are. The coming in of a lady to part men, 
when they are fighting, is in the fame predicament, except, 
that it there clears up a millake, which according to the 
turn the plot has then taken, gives the fpcftator relief, and 
is neceflary. The eiforts Lady Davenant makes to conceal 
the mifery of the inceftuous marriage, from both father and 
fon, are generous, and like the other parts of her conduft, 
therefore proper and judicious. The reluftance with which 
flie tells Lord Davenant of it st ^aft, and the manner \\\ 
which he receives it are likewife fo. The death of Lord 
Davenant is unavoidable, and tlie introduftion of Mariaane 
at that moment is a fine tragical incident, ai.d wc thinks 
might have given room for fome i?ioil beautiful expreffions 

'Ofpftfiion; but thev mv& have been beamifb!, or thejf 
would have been execrable. 

The Author has not hirafclf, as is the cuftom with fomc 

«9f our beft poets, drawn any moral, nor does he feem to have 

' had anv precife and determinate one in view, in theconfiruc- 

iion of the fable : the one moft obvious is, that crimes ne* 

ctjjarily incur pnni/bment ; but this is fo general, that it will 

fuit any pla;^ which is not immoral. 

The uniues are (o ftri£tly obferved, that the time iis the ' 
time of reprefentation, the place is never (except one fcenc 
of Marianne's lodgings) out of Lord Davenant's houfe, 
and the aAion is fo progreflive, that the fcene is only va* 
cant twice. We, however, are among thofe modern fcep* 
tical critics^ • who think, that thefe are not fo^elTential to 
perfection, as have by fome been thought. Were a writer 
to convey us throuen the four quarters of the globe, by 
fuch beautiful vchicks as the choruflcs to Henry the Fifth, 
and keep a connected and interefting fable, we would more 
willingly attend him, tlian fit to yawn over dulnefs and 
vraife nth lance. 

Let us proceed to a fhort view of the Chara£ters, Man^ 
nersr Sentiments, and Did ion. 

We do not tliink there. exifts any fuch charaAer in na- 
ture as Lord Davenant. He, who can forefec confequences, 
and examine bis own heart and actions fo deeply, cannot 
commit fuch crimes] He might have committed them while 
a rafh, inconiideratc youth, but thefe are all done in the 
middle,, or rather the decline of life. When a man at that 
period is guilty of errors, if he reafonf?, it is to juftify them. 
The moral tcndehcy, however, of ihexving a man opprefled 
and tortured by the weight of his own guilt is fo excellent, 
that if it be a fault, in this ir^dance, it is a fault we could 
not wi(h to fee reformed. Lord Davenant is uniformly a 
man flruggling with paflior^s tliat are oppofed by a ftrong 
fenfe of virtue ; which is a charafter exceedingly proper for 
theatrical exhibition. 

Lady Davenant is throughout a fine example of fuffering 
and perfifling vinue, and has likcwifc a moll excellent mo* 
ral tendencv. 

Captain Davenant and Mr. Dormer too have a very pro* 
per, and a very ftrong fenfe of rectitude, but would tlie plot 
have admitted of one of thefe young men plunging mto 
the thoughtlefs and mad guilt that the father of one of 
them does, it would have been far more probable, and wp 
ihould have pitied the hero, whom now we often defpife. 

Marianne might have been a great charafter ; fhe is af- 


14^ ^^ Mjifiertous Mujbani. 

taioit an infipid one, and we arc forry to fee fuch an oppor- 
tunity loft. 

Sir Harry Harlow, and Sir Edmund Travers, are rijctwo 
tnoft exceptionable charafters. The firft of thcfc is an ex- 
tremely virtuous maker of cuckolds, whom Lord Davcnant 
eiicourages to come to his hbufe, hoping, he may fuccccd ; 
and who being caught on his knees to beg fomething of the 
lady, (nobody knows what, or, at Icaft, why he fhould fell 
on his knees in fuch an extacy) and being reproached for 
his attempts by the Jealous Dormer, who caught him in the 
very aftion, this chaftc inftrument of crim. con, aflaults 
Dormer, bids him ftop his blafpheming tongue, and die like 
a madman in his error. To make a number of incidents all 
happen nearly at the fame time, and in the fame place, and 
all tending to the fame purpofc, is fo difficult, that happy 
k he who ittemps it, without abfurdity. The inconfiften- 
cies that are in the charafter of Sir Harry Harlow, and in 
the plot, wherever he is concerned, mignt all have been a- 
voided> had the Author chofe to Ihift his fcencs and extend 
his time of aftfon. la labouring to be correft, he becomes 
rfdiculous ; and fo, in this refpeft, have almoft all that ever 
went before him, which perhaps is fome confolation. 

While we behold the poet \q careful not to offend againft 
the code of criticifm in one inftance, we are aftonifhed to 
fee him make fo free with it in another. The charafter of 
Sir Edmund Travers fhould not, furely, be allowed a niche 
in the temple of Melpomene. This is a far greater offence 
to the feelings, than the violation of the unities. * It is very 
tnse, that the charafter is in nature, and that fuch fboIilK 
people arc fonictimes very bufy in producing great events ; 
)t is alfo true,' that in the common amirs of men, a 
great number of circumftances, all at one inftant, and all 
conducive to the ruin or falvation of an individual, feldbm 
or never happen. But as the mind is very much difturbed 
and (hocked by the impertinencies of a buffoon, when it is 
employed in confidering eve'hts of the moft ferious and a- 
Jarmjng nature, and as thefe charafters are by no means ne- 
ceflary to the conducing of a plot, why in the narfie of 
rood fenfe and found criticifin, mould we fuffer vrtiat is <rf^ 
enfivc and painful ? It is evident from the charaftcr of Sir 
Edmund, as well as fiiom many paffages both in thispfay, anj 
in others of Mr. Cumberland's writing, that "he fhidics out- 
old Efiglifh poets with jjreat attention, for which we com- 
Imend him, but not for imitating what, all the worid now 
^lows, was their difgrace. Otway*s "^Anthony in Venice 
Prefcrv'd, and Sir fedmxmd Travers, are too nearly related. 



7%^ Afji/ltrUus Hyfimni^ 149 

The manners of Lord Davcnant approach brutality and 
frequently (hock; that is, when he fpeaks to his lady. Nei- 
ther can we be perfuaded that a man of his fcnfibilit^ and 
education, cooid aflumc fuch modes of behaviour. It is true 
he is under the influence of violent paffions, and that^ per^ 
haps, may reconcile them to truth and nature. 

Captain Davenant entirely forgets the manners of the 
gentleman on the firll entrance of Sir Harry Harlow, who 
iilks , 

* Sir H. H, Won't your fair mothcr-iu-lair make her ap 
'pcarancc ? 

Ca^ D. No. 

Sir //i //, No, man ! is that all the anfwer you can afford twt-i 
ih^jmdnhg xmulfi^ as much, 

Cmpt. Z). Take y out anfwer from him then, when you nmke.your 
next enquiries.' 

This is the language and the wit of the porter and his com- 
rades at his Lordmip's gate, and not of gentlemen. 

Tixefe things excepted, tlie manners feldom deviate from 

Of the fentiments and diftion had we room, much might 
-be faidi but we have aiicady fwdled this article beyond the 
.ufual limits, though we confefs we think poetry of 9II kinds 
has not employed lo much the attention cifther of the Critic 
or the Reader lately, as fuch fnbjefts dcfervc. We ihaU 
contribute all' we can to reftore the diminkthed dignity of tho 
mufes. We fhall clofe this account with a few obfervationay 
rand an extraA to give our Udders an eisample df Jfhe Au- 
thor's manner. 

The fentiments arc generally ftrongly on the fide ^f vir- 
luc, but not always. Lady Davenant who refolutely perfiib 
<Hi oiaintaintng her innocence, is thus aofwered byLor4 

* L^dD. Curd be thcfc pecvilh fcniples.— By the power that 
made me, if you will not accord to my propofal I will render your 
life a torment. And for that buhhk reputation which yoi*. prize fo 
mueh abcve ifi worih^ TU Waft it through the world: I'll f^ftcn 

^'ihame upon you ; it fliall haunt you like your fliadow : ridicui^ 
'iOiall dog you at the heels : abufe and flander bark at you like houndi{, 
and- tear that virtue which U but a chak^ to nakednefs and rags*^ 

Again, > 

* Compare this ipeech with that of Corvioa's in Ben Johnfon's 
fox, whcrclie attempts to perfuadc his wife Celia to fubmit to the 
embraces of Volpolse. 

Ceiia. Sir kill me, rather; I will take down poifoin , 
Eat burning coalSf do any thiBg.— 

C#rr. BedaoMi'd 

Heart ! I will drag thee home hence by the hair ; 

ISO Tie Mjfiertnui ttujbani. 


• Lord D. P*(haw this is tnfiing. — If a man and wife ke^Tff 
forms *tls all that is required, but to pretend a paffion and ta'k of 
iove to a huiband, *tis an affcfUtion that loEjv^rsyour uoderIlaading« 
but cannot impoTe open mine. 

The di£tion has occafional errors ; there are too many 
vulgarities and worn out metaphors ; neither is it free from 
quaintncfs and quibble. An attempt at wit is feldom happy 
in a tragedy, nor is it ever, ia our opinion, in the myfterious 
bufband; though there are too many fuch attempts. 

Sir Edmund 1 ravers fays he had occn let into the houfea 
of three married couples and found but one and a half at 
borne. Again. 

Lady Turtle was on the wing that Dove had left the ark* 

A knot of old fogruml : — brains a gadding : an excellent 
man tn the main: — aj^r^^head and a green ontt — a monjbcous 
fortune ;— a >&«»imi;i^ jointure: — tbafs the truth onU^ &c. &C/ 
may bccharafterifticexprcflions for Sir Edmund, but they 
i?<rill find few admirers where they are. Tragedy fhould nci- 
ther iValk upon the ftilts of epithet, nor (lain her robes in 
the lees of colloquial vulgarity. 

The play upon the word jourrtey between Paget and Lord 
Davcnant while the latter is dying, is a glaring inftance ei- 
ther of ill taftc or inattention. We forbear ro (peak of the 
merits and demerits of a profe ftile, in which this play i$ 
written, hccaufe we cannot ftay to difcufs the fubjeft its h 

After having pointed out errors, we fhould ill execute the 
office of true criticifm were we not to cite fomething inthr 
Author's fiivour; more efpecially, as we venture to fay the 
Tragedy is poflcflcd of very great merit. The following fs 
the laft fcene of the fourth a A ; it contains much of that 
true pathos which arifes from events terrible to all Hearts, 
and to incite which, is indeed the moft eflential province of 
the tragic poet. 

• Sir H4 ii. Look to my lady — . 

Loily D. No, no ; regard not me ; I dial! not fail ; Heaven fcn<h 

me ftrength for my appointed talk. Let me be private with 

you* [?• LordDavcnant. 

Cry ihcc ai ftrumpct thro' the ftrcets, rip up 
Thy mouth unto thine ears, and flit thy nofe 
Like a raw rotchct — Do not tempt me, come. 
Yield, I am loth — death ! I will buy fomc other flave, 
Whom 1 will killand bind thee to4iim alive ; 
And at my window hang yc forth devifing 
Some mon(ht>us crime, which I in capital letterBf 
Will eat into thy flcftiwith aqua fortis 
A&d burning co^rfivcson thy ftubboro breafi« 



The Mji/lcrlous Hujband. 151 

Lard Dm Not for the world : — my thoughts arc terrible ; I am 
pof!efs*d by fiends — day, and be witncfs to my flume, whilll I coi>- 
tefs the black ^ccompt which 1 muil pa fs with Dormer: I have bo- 
tray'd his iider ; ruin'd her by forgeries and i'alfeboods, as I did you, 
LouHst;— ^^narricd her. 

Sir //. //. Infamous deed ! 

l^rJJ), Yes, Sir, there is rebellion in mybloud; his fword 
muft let it out : — therefore no more, but let me pafs. 
[jis he isgo';ng out^ Lady Davcoant^^/J him. • 

hady D. Hold, hold ! you mud not ftir. 

Lprd D» What is't you mean ? why do you croft me thus ^ 

LaJy Z). To fave you from a meeting worfe than death. 

LoraD. To fave your lover from a meeting that may lead to 
death. — Oh! whilftyou live, fpeak truth :—*tis love of Dormer 
raifes this alarm. Have I not found the caufe ? 

Isodjt 2). No^ youVe not found the caufe :— wouM that you never 
could I 

Sir H. H. Be cautionM by you lady, and impute to her concern 
no other than the purcft motive ;— my life upon it, you will find it 
fuch. Alas, unhappy roan, what trcafure have you caft away? 
Hear her, confole her, be advis'd by her : recover, if you can, her 
forfeited eibem. She is a miracle of c;oodnefs. - 

Lord /). Doft think me fo far uink in honour, as to fliriok 
Irom this difcuffion ? Dormer's entitled to an honourable fatisfa£Hon« 
and I (hall give it him immediately. Before we part however, Lady 
Davenant, let mc own that 1 am penetrated with remorfc for my 
condu^ to yon. Tho' I alk nothing for myfeif, I am not out of 
hope that you will cafl an eye of pity and protection oil that guilt* 
leis fuflferer, who, if I fall, will be the partner of your widowhood : 
—flic is young and beautiful ; and, if your influence over Dormer 
is exerted in her favour, (he may retrieve the unhappy error int» 
which I led her. — Farewell ! ^ - 

La/fy />. Yet, yet prevent hiin. — Stay ; — flic has a huiband. 

Lcrd D,' What do you tell me ? fpeak that word again. 

Lad)^ 2>. She has a hufl>and — and that hufl)and — how fliall I pro- 
nounce it? — 

Lard D. Go on : IMl have it, tho* it breathes deftruflion. 

Lady 2). That hufband is your fon. 

LardD, Death to my foul! — My fon! 

Lad^ D, Your fon this morning married Dormer's iiftcr. 

Lard 2). Why do I live a moment ? 

[Layf his hand on his fvjord. 

Sir H. 77. Stop your rafh hand — What phrenzy feizes you ? 

Lard D. Why does the eaith not yawn, and whelm me to the 
centre ?— Oh what a day of dreadful retribution !— Why was this 
nurriage fecret ? — which of you was privy to it ? 

Lady D. I knew it not, nor had fufpicion of it:-— few hours arc 
paft fince he difclosM it to me. 

Lard 2>. Fatal concealment !— horrible event !— — O God, 
God, into what mifery have I plung'd my fon!— —Does he know 
w6at I have done ? 

, Str if. H, Nor he nor Dormer kn^w it .--—take this comfort alfo to 


your bean; k 10 as yet a marriag^e but in form : theTlap 1$ nof ytk 
pailed, iu which their hands were joiu*!!**— Heavea in its vengcanoe 
has remember**! mercy. 

L§rd D. Call my km bercdire^Iy. 

Ldtfy 7>. There let me inteipofc again. Take aibortttive for Se- 
rious meJitntion: we will aiffift your thbughti. Your friend here has 
already ft ruck one fpark of light amid ft your dark defpair ; patient 
reflection may l>i"iog more in view. Perhaps this meeting with your 
fon, which you in your mi ii4^ prefentagitatioB are for hailening, 
prudence may pollpone. 

LorJ D. Speak on, for there is femethtnf^ ia your T<Mce like . 
comfort ; foinething that falls upon my ear, like mufic in the dead 
of night after dlftref^ul dreams. 

Loj-y Z>. Oh! if a few calm words can lull yx>ur ear* think howr 
repentance may afll'.age your Ibul:— for fo-much of your oience a« 
{alls on mc nloae, 1 thank Heaven's mercy for its aid, I^ao forgire 
it , nay, my Lord, I have forgiven it. 

Lord Z>. Nay, but you mud abhor me ; darknds muft be Jeft 
•oppofite to light, than I to innocence :—fo loathfome am I to myfel^ 
I iliouM defpiie the per fon that couM pity inc. 

Sir //. //. Come to your chamber ; follow your guardian angel 
where flie leads you :— If I can ferve you in this meianchcily -hociry 
-command mc^ if I am in your way, difmifs m^ 

L»rd D. I pray you leave me noi-^1 have a thing to tell yoo-*^ 
is not known to man, nor can your heart concciiLC, how dire a deed* 
I've had in meditation : — there was a thought flruck on jny mind . 
too terrible for utterance : but it is pad : this ftroke, that cuts up all 
Tefourceof hope, cuts up«he bloody purpofe that 1 had in hand. 
And now I feel as it were two natuves :-^my good amd evil gewiii 
feem ^t flrife within me ; this touches me with human kindneft 
4md pemorfe; that tears me with.dcfpftir and horror. How it will. 
end I Xnow not ; for all command is loil, and my mind drives like 
a wiec4c before the tcmpe(V.—jGo with my Lady Davenani ; -ftay by 
her, I befoech you. 1 will-retire to my chamber. Farewell ! 

[Exeunt fewralh* 

In tl)is fcenc our Readers will doubtlcfs remark ibmo w- 
fefts. Lord Davcnant's little jealoufy concerning Dormer 
is unnatural and impertinent at fuch a moment; it calls off 
the bufy fjpirits that arc all eager to know tlie ilTue of a great 
and terrible tytnt. The idea too of Lord Davenant's giving 
Dormer an hxinourabk faiisfaSl'ion is im'ntoral : Lprd Bavc* 
nant ipight give his lijfe^ but if he lifted his liand againft the 
life of Dormer he muflbc the moft atrocious of \Hlkins. 
It juftifies the praftice of duelling, in that vcrv point where- 
in it is moft rcpTcheniiblc ; the defend ingot one crime* bjr 
-the committing of another. The ftilc of Sir Harry is too 
verbofc ; when the paflions are thus agitated, every fentc^ed^ * 
every word fhould be pointed, -—my life upont: — comnuwd 
fke: — ^^^/7w//i.w^,&c. are here trifling. There is an incor* 
ted, or rather a ridiculous mataphor ufed. Lady D9>TCfuiit * 


' Ji D'^vtmy h Ciem{/tfj^ . t$$ 

\ kjMr ** jaar frieiul has tlnmiy^fituet one fpark of light tmidft 

I your (brk defbair; patient refleftion may Mng more in 
view/* To ^riie a Tpark of light is proper, ^ough it i$ 
pcjir, Irat for patient rtfliHion to bring mortfparks is mak- 

- ing patient refleftion a drtidge of a veiy droll nature. Lord 
Davenant in his laft fpeech ^>eaks two unes too muchr His 
bidding Sir Harry do this, and laying he will do that him<» 

^ fel^ and tlien uking a formal £ireweil b entirely out of the 

! tone of the paffion. 

The Reader who makes tbefeobfcrvations, we hope will 
obfcrve likewife that they are only fpecks in the fun; that 
the cfFeft of thcfcene is great; the pathos glows in almoft 
every line ; that there arc beauties of didion as well as^ de- 
fers, and tliat die greateft art of the poet is here exerted,* 
which is that of obliging his Auditor to attend. As we have 
pointed out an erroneous metaphor, and as there is a very 
cliarming one almoft immediacy following, it is our duty 
:o notice that alfo. *♦ Speak on; there^ is fomething in 
yojr voice like comfort. Sonutbinr that falls upon my ear 
I ^* mu^ in the dead of night after di/irefsful dreams y Thofc 
wiio concei%'e tlie feelings of Lord l5a¥enanty will under- 
ftand the force of the application ; and thofe who have in- 
dalgfid in the funihine ot poetic imagery, will fee the beauty 
of die fimile. 

^' ■■ III ■ I II I ; ■ t I ■■ I I j » II ■ I I I i n 

For the E N G L I S H REVIEW. 

We have been favoured with the following Philofophical New8« by » 
Ceotleman^ whofe ComiaunicatioDS have frequently done Honour 
to the mod celebrated Publications^ and whofe Acqu;iintance 
with the Sciences and their Cultivators^ is perhaps more extenfive 
Aan that of any other Pcribn in Europe. 

AtT, XiV. Ov the fuppiffJ Formation of a SiUciaus M/Uier ^ the 
Sparry AciJ, 

SOME years ago there was a dJfcoTery made in Swieden 
by Mr. Scheele, a chemift of great Tepuution, of a 
new kmd~of acid, which, when combined with calcareous 
earth, form^ the |AofpIibric fpar. Its properties are fo 
widely difet'ent from thofc of every other acid, that it cer-» 
tainly coiiftitutes a diiUnd fpecies of acid, and ought no; 
to be confounded with any otlicr known before. In 1772, 
Dr* J. R. Forfterpubliflied in Et^lifh, an abftraft of the 
experiments on this iubjcft, related by tlie Author Mr. 
Sdude, in the Swcdilh Memoirs for 177 1^ in which may 
be feioi an account of the difcovery at large. But what ap- 
peared the moft extraoFdinary w^s, tlie formation of a iilice- 
H^. Vol. I. Feb. 1783. L OUR . 

dus ftifeftanceV generated, ay it was' beTtevci, bjfthWffumr 
irid coming into conti^ With' common' Water; and to re* 
pcatcdly was this obfefvcd and cbnfirmed by the tcftimony 
6t fo rtiinj- ^Ij^ftaMc vouchers, among whbm riiajr w 
rtckoncd proftffor Sir T. Bcfgman; WKo ia his opbfeula ad- 
duces very Itfong arguniehts in bchdf of Aif opinion, that 
it was boldly aflerted to be a'faft' eftabliflicd beyond aH con- 
troverfy. A report however fcas of lite been fpread amonj^ 
our Englifh chemifts, that not only the fiifts on which the a^ 
fertSbn was grOundedV were dubious, bbt that the U|^ 
projfeflbr himlelf had given up his opinion, and was rcriv to' 
retraft what he had advanced in his publication on the nib- 
jeft. That this^ indeed vs exaftly true, appe^ from an 
original letter from ProfeflTor Bergman, to a gentteman in 
London, in Which he acknowledges with the utmoft can- 
dour, that Mr. Nfeyer of Stetin, has evinced the whole to be' 
a\miftake. P. Btrgman has aifo written an accqtfnr of the 
ftme thing to M. dc Morveau, the French tranflaitor of hre 
opufcula, "that it may be made known to the wdrld. This 
is one of the moft honourable modes of prbcebdiiig cVcr 
adopted bj a true philofopher, for fuch Proftflbr TO giOial i 
certahily is. We fee ffew firfiilar inftances in the numeTOtft 
philofophical tribe, nor can' they indeed be expeiSfed ftbiy 
thofe mean geniufcs, who alTume this title without any Otfict 
right than a mere pretence-to kiaowledgCj- of whid» thDy'ave 
not poflefled. 

What has mHled thefe great chcmifts to aflErt that th« 
fluof acid in the form of air, produces a flinty matter, is, 
that it generally corrodes the glafs veflels iri which tlie op^ft(- ' 
tion is performed, and belides there often exifts in the ^(par^ 
fluor, a flinty fubftance which comes over during the dimlfa- 
tion along with tliat acid when it aiHiraes the form of air. 
This circumt\anc6 has fuggefted the idc4 of there hmg in 
all probability fome of this fluor acid in that wonderfol fpost 
of hot water ait Geyfer in Iceland *, which has- fohMed.a 

. . ' -. . ' ^ . ■ .t'. ' ' ' : ■ ^ - ■ " J r - 

* At Geyfer, fays Dr. Trqil, not far from^kallhet, a. ^It ex- 
traordinary Jargefpouting fountain 18 to 1^ ffcn, with whicH the 
celebrated water fpouts at Marly and SK CloiiJ^ or at CaJ/el^ ' jjnd 
Hcrrenbdujeni cannot atall be compared. ^Withih the circiimrcrcftcc 
of thrcfe En^Urfi mHes, one fees hei-c 40 or 50 boiling fpfhi^, f\\t 
Urgcft which is in the middle, paWioularly en|^aged ^Ur stteiJtiofiv 
the aperture was 19 feet in diameter. ' A cdlu^n of 'wtffcc ipCHlttd 
from this opening, which at a gresc .height divided itfeif jiit^^ 
veral rays, and, according to the qbfervatiiona made i^ich . tho- ciaa- 
drant, was (^z fc^thigh. Itfpoutft by intervals fcvcral t»mp6^«>d^. 
J)r. Troil fays, that round the place of thi^ waw fpowt, is a ba^n 


febAk ofr tigftm for itfidf fFom tfaer filkdm? M^rdr, wliidii 
iciMitaittriti'ibtiittoiTt sindF which^ w predpitateed: wkm tbdi 
«Mer€oeIs.^ Biit »t ^ Hef dlMifft kas benr upon the fpot 

MiM* B^gtMn hialXB f(>imvvii9te''M his Opu&tib^ thxt tli9 
fteat >fe>Ae' of that fjirinfi^itKiy in dlltprobabilky, be fufficient 
loke^ttecniych in fol^tiohr arrd m the letHDor jboTemen- 
tk)A^ te %s> tiMrt he kfl^ ^tooipced t!6 diiiblve fiiiceoat 
anrtk b3r medBtf of P^ptit's digefie^ hot without &^cefs. H|5 
he^^^ever fafSy tliat he n bf no means iiitisfied with his; fbnher 
g xp ef k ficn^^ which wtt^e not fe complcteljr or ditrfally exe« 
^9bced^^hecoyid wifh^and that he has hlrheno been pre- 
^Mrft«d*b^atiretiiridfi>to oth^r obje^s froni rdtiiiiiAg his expe-> 
f^hmstijik. Wharf tSty to fde colfeAions of butterflies, and 
{Miy (jlMRsitneM^ or niatuiHl hvftory made ac fuch ari euor- 
m^M tMlMmo?, while fo litt4e 19 bfcftowed on useful experi- 
iM*ttSf and Aidh a« would lead to 7i more intimate kri^owiedge 
c^ fh€ ihod cottMion* fi^bf^ces, whkh are ftill fo little unv 
deittodKfi^h #e^^ tb their efl[^tialpropeitieS; Whether 
'flinty earth is or is not foliibl^ in- water h^ted to a much 
hlgBM-tej^^se tha^ has hiCliertcr been employed, may readily 
be «ft:ertainitd in. a good- Papin's digefter, and is mdieed a 
AeMeratuti'well wordiyof bnng attempted to be fupplied 
by We lover of true natural knowlege, whofc circumftjmces 
wiii^aw hhn to incur theexpcnce, which by the bye wiii^ 
no^bcvcry tonfiderable. -- 

Exfraa of *L«lttiraddrcflferf Co TH/tr. Magofteft^ F. R. S. by 
» ProfcflToT Cigwa of Turin. 

I^bavebeifn juft prcfcnt at fomc very ititfereftingexperi- 
jne^ made by tiie CottiW^ie Mbfoajks whidli I think de- 
fcrve your attention. Theyr were made in a glafs re<Jeiver of 
a C}4iridrical;ibrm, in ordc^f to afc^ruim the? ttotirf Jtbforption 
of ^ed and other kinds 6f aif by dif^t^^tfrt imrnediately ex- 
tin^iihed after it had been heited t^ a red beat. I' toe glaf^ 
cylinder waa fet in ^ ba(bn of <}tiick^f^r, 4nd ilUed fuc- 
eefBvely with tlie different kihds" 6{ alf, into <^ hich fhd char- 
eoal^was inttodaced tl^ron^ ^le <^i6k<liver. 

According to Mr. Stflie^Ic^s thcctfyy the dephlogifiioatodv 
Wr (io> denominated, bv Dr,.Prietllcv, who £rfL difcoyered 
this new and wonderful ^ria I fubftanc^) unites with the 

whkh h«$tbe form of a caufdron, the margiii pf this bafon is ^»p«^ 
a^sifds of 9 feeF high, arid its dTia'ift^tcr 66 feet, A piece df the 
iioMa^e of which this b^fon itf fontjed, hafe "been fbtihd to he ftf a 
fltotr lond^ aceofding to the anajj-fis of Pref. Berpnah, The hcaf 
of inc water after the ba<bu was fitlcJ, and confequenth' cooled,- was 
ftill aiJ degpeesof fafenHeit* 

L 2 - . , phlo'- , 

T56 A Dtfimnrj $n Gbemi^iy^ 

phlogiftic Tafioiir of the charcoal* becomei btkfti mi nma 
off tbmigh the g^s neflrl in which it niras coofiofd* Ac* 
cording to an experiment attribntod I0 the Abbe Fontaine^ 
€K>mmon air it entirely id>lbrbed by die iiune' wapoDr. In 
ArndCT to aicertain fomethihg relating to tbefe twp tbeoriea, 
the Coont dt Morauo tmdkrtpok tp try the efipAs o£ red 
boicfaaicoalt i:eventt]r.extingiii(hcd» not ^oniy when put in^ 
ntmo^ihericalair, hot atiat into .other, kinds of. aerimm inb- 
fiances. You will fee by the refult of bis experiment^ that 
drpUogifticsted air t«£u: from being entijrdy abforbed* and 
srmofii^erical air is only in ppt. Bpt ^x^d mir is lotal^ ab- 
^Kbeo, infemuch that the whole receiver* when of arpropMBT 
cmcity IS filled with the quickfilver. The following are tbe 
rtiults or fads afcettained by the experiments of the Cqmt. 
de. Morozzo. The gUfs. receivers were cylindrical, aaA 
fiood 12 inchep eaclui3>oye th^ furface of the ^quickfilver in. 
the bafon. The charcoal was of the wood we call Jmn 
fajari^ the length of the pieces was one inch,, the breadth 
eight lines, and they weighed one 4nK:hm and an.half eadi. . • 

The abforptionshappetied as under. 

Abforptions in inches a4i4 fima. 
Atmofpherical air " 3 4 - 

Fixed air* — — ^ — i4. .0 . 

Nitrous air ' 6 . X0 

Alkaline air , — -. .8, . . «., 

Inflanmiable air ' . a,. 1 

Dephlo^icatedasrextraAedrfrpm rr^i>r^ci)>jMrii , -x %\ 
Ditto ditto from nitre \ . i 11 . 

Pitto ditto from water ■ a ' - H-. 

Common air phlo^fticated by a candle 1 - 1^' 

burning out in jt " ■ ' /.' ^ 

Ditto ditto by the vapour of fulphur 3 : y . 

Pitto ditto l«r. a mixture 0/ iron filings 1 . ^ , 

with brimftpn^ a little wetted . j * ^ 

PittodittOLby the rcfoirationofa moufe , 3 A 

Ditto ditto ditto of . a rabbit 3-4 

Ditto ditto . ditto of a pigeon . 3. . .S 

Ditto ditto ditto of afparrow : 3 « 4. 

For the E N G L I S H REVIEW. 

AxT. XV. NewDtfc0tferi€sinCbemtjflry\ "*/ 

^TTTTE have been informed^by a correfpondent; that tlie 

VV. ii>gcnious Mr, Watt of BinnirtghJun, has^difcdwrc^ 

the acid offugar in g^ls, and that ^mother chemift has, 

^ N. B. WhcQ the receiver contained only ten inches of fixed 
ait^ the mercury btireiy filled up the whole ^>acc of the receiver^ 
and of courfe the air wa^ completely abforbed. 


MoHTHtY Cataloove. MifcellamUs and P^tfy. 157 

{bund die flnne icld ia otls^ we are not told whether m 
uhdnous or eflendai oils^ or in both. .-. 

Oar cicyrref][>ondcitlt adds, that the fame Mr. Watt hat 
, coniBtrted the whole •£ a quantity of water into dephlo- 
gifticated air by the application of heat. Thit 11 an eitperi^ 
ment fo ferious and ' important, that we ho^ the Axx^ 
thor will not long withh^ the psrticolarg of it ftom tbe 

Kl* Wb are much obliged by Ai$ comtnunicadon, and we 

kivhe gentlemen who may happen to come at tlie knowledge 

of ^fimihir experiments^ to grvc os information of them. 

We have only to requcft that they will take care to be certaia 

'that their intelligence is authentic. 

• • 

.■ ■ I III 1 1 ^ ■ II—— —i—ii^—^—.—^— ■»—— ■■—■—— ^M»^w 


For F F B R U A R Y, ^7*3. 

Miscellanies and Pobtkt* 

An. 16.' itife Art rfPUq/itig\ or Inftru£Hons for Youth m 
.the firi^ Stage of I^ife* Id a Series of Letters to the prefent Earl 
^Chefterfield. By the late Philip Earl of Cbclkrfield. Now 
.firftcoUe^ed. ' tamo. 28. K^rfiey. 

THIS colleaioD of letters, which are faid to be ooir oolleded 
for the fkfk time^ were fome years ago pubtiihcd in Scotland, 
in dtlferent forma* -Thejr appear to he genuioe writinn of the cele* 
bnted Earl of Cheflerfield; They difcover a creac deal of kno^r- 
ledge of the world, exhibit many uiefol aemarks* and are.expreiled 
vrirh a hapf^ ek^oce. But the rooraRty of the Author being lopfe^ 
th^^ibn they iniHll, is more than a counterbalance to their me* 
m : and they ought net^ l^ any iseani, be recominended to young 
. and inexperienced perfons. 

Alt. »7. TJr Floumrs af Literatun^ or Treafury of Wit add 
Genius. Cobtatksmg the^Eflebce of the Beauties of Johnfon* 
awtft^ FtekHng, Pope« GoMfrnkh, Hehrey, Sterne, Watts, &c. 
To whith is added^ a Seledton of the rnofi ftriking Paflages, ex- 
^ttmSM fronr'the Wbtlts of other celebrated Mc^m Writers^ 
3 vols, tamo.* j(s. fewed« Cook. 

The littebtioci of Mr. Cook, and other publiibers of the pr^fenc 
day^ to the ^ Httle ones'* m literature, leems to be neari}^ of the 
lame kind with that of holy modier church to her babes in faith* 
Mother Churchy as Cardinal Perron informs us, in his ** Re« 
^liqueau Rot de la Grande Bretagne," «« cuts her childrenam^ 
^ anty often f^&mr/ itforthemv leafl^they fliouU. CHt their fingers 
••"la'carring for themfelrcs ;•• and our nvodem publifticrs foed^ their 
'diildreB with ^^ Jl^wers** and ^* ejcncej^^* we prcfurae by way of 
fniting the food to the weaknefs of the recipleot ftomachs. ' 
The nature dF this ^compilation is apparent from the title-page: 

L % we 

tjS MoKT-UtY Catai^ogu^. Jlfi/ceUmuu 4mdf(^ty. 

we have only to a4d, that thefeUdioOt lyonthe iirbfd^ ftems to 
be made with fufficieiit taile and judgment. 
Art. 1 8. Obfimations an J)r, JohnJoiCs Life af Ifammpnd. 
4to. , IS. 64. Brown. 

lu-this welNwrittcn pamphlet, the deciiion of* our modern AriHar- 
' chus, with regard to the poetical merit of Hammond, it examined, 
<■ aiid Its validity controverted. The attack is fuffictentty w«rm and 
pointed; yet, upon the whale, there is -ilecemy and good mannert 
. preferved, which we are forry to fay, are often wanttn^ iaiitenury 
ftifputes. The Du^or, it is true, teems to have cfnnleinn^ too 
tna^ilerially, too much m cumuli ^ Imagery drawn from RoaM|ii 
manners, was certainly a fair objodb of criticifm fn ^ modern lore 
poem , but why pai^ over thofe numerous pa(Diges where na^ui^ 
limplicity, and palTion fpeak directly to the heart, where the force 
arid fpirit of the original are pcrfedly preferved ? The auonvmous de^ 
f e n der of Hamnrond, on the other hand, fureiy goes too -tor, -when, 
by implication, atleafl, he would exalt hjs h^'O i^bove eveiy lore 
*poct that ever exilled, except hrs original TibulluS. ** Tibullbs/* 
nc informs iw, *' hasconfelfedly deicribcd the pailipD of love in a 
^^ manner fuperior to every other poet,'' and Mr. Hammoiid accord- 
ing to him, not ot)ty^uals, but fometiipes excoeds .his original. This 
we imagine is railing the"" latter, and perhaps the former, above their 
' proper level. Pope's Eloife to Abeiard, :keeps all other ^rodllc- 
tions of the kind at 2a\ awful aivd humiliating dii^ance : it is, and 
tvc'have fome reafon to think it,will*be long .an uniqmi^ Dr. John- 
fon muft certainly have known that Hammosul was to be cotmder* 
cd as an imitator ; his filencc on this head we cannot preceAd Vo 
account for. As reprefented by his antagonift, it may no dqube 
be brought as an impeachment of hU candour. Mr« Hainmbad 
certainly meant to accommodate the thoughts of die Roman poet to 
Jiis own iituation ; they were to -appear 40 his Delia as fais'oirn 
thoughts, as the inflantaneous eftution of paflion, as the hnrwitr 
' of the fouU As an Englidi lover he addrefled an &igli(h mSfw* 
What he therefore met with in TibttllUs, tliat could be accoma w * 
dated to this pur4>ofe he had a right to appropriate to hii|i^elf| waif 
in every fenfe of the word, ought to iave made ;his oH'n, ^njoe 'fee 
•chofe to mak« love through the. medium .of Cmi&Mion : b^t fiirclv 
the introduction of the *^ folemn pyre, the^lden vvfe, P;i|iclit]» 
'•< odours," and all the apparatus of a Roman funeral, )Wbe|i he 
*4pfakA of his own burial, makes us loie fight^f the jpoet> ibeioTer, 
and of truth, while the paralitical tranftau>r only. remaiqsiiniHew* 
,The ienlible Author of the Obfervadons eodeavouc^ |o apolfgrze 
'lor thisr, and every ^ing of the kind, by informing us, th^ '^^faa 
**^ woman of education, the anbur of true pdiionv though rtfr^Q^i 
***^ through the incdium of ^ton, m9ff not only be ^afiag but 
'^ delighffuh*^ Perhaps in fome cafes it may ; but wotrid it not be 
more plcafing, more delightful, without the refwiftion i Whtttever 
, imy be the excctleticies of this re/raB^d love, wefcru^ not to give 
•ur vcrdift for xYk^direM ray^ conveyed by tmith,.natuiv,-and gcoiop, 
««rcfra.6tedto the heart. 

Mj^on the whole, truth here,^ as inipoftiotherdtfoiHeiicciiip-io He 
'between the c^itremes. To the ieoiCoB- o£ Dr. JpohnfoBy whoi he pro- 


^^SjplMT^ Y, C a T a to c ux, , MyctlloHiiS ffui Poetry, 1 59 

jiouQco of ^ainmond, " It would be bard to find in all bis pro- 
^^ du£tions, tbrec ftanzas that defcrve to b^ remembered," we can* 
not ^flibly.fubrcribe ; .ncitbcx'can Hammond alibo' a pleafing writ- 
er be cdnndercd as at the head of that clafs of poets, where be is 
pbiced by the Author of the Oblcryations, .^ ' 

Art. 19. The Farmer' s Kigbt-cdp \ Qx^ the Parron's Pocket 
Companion. Being Remarks upon the Penal L^ws affecting tlic 
Clergy, and particularty in rcfpJ^d to Non-refidcnce and Simony*, 
witb^^j Ridged Cafes. 8ro« xs. Wilkic, ^ ^ 

W^c want difcernment to find out why the c^i^int title of *' The 
** Farmer's Night-cap,'* iVands prcfixea to this pamphlet. It pro-- 
/eflcs to inftru^ two clafles of men, who* arc often not upon the 
iDoft cordial footing* Here the clergyman, for the froall fum of one 
flnlling, is taught to avoid fome dangerous rocks and Oiclves, and 
' here the fiarmer, for the fame fum, may learn how to annoy and 
harrafs bis parfon, become difagreeable to him perhaps, by too 
ftradi an .attention to the collp^on of his tithes. The Author alone 
can determine which pf thefe obje<^t he had in view. Or did he 
mean t)y his allai titjc " The Farmer's Night-cap, or the Parfon's 
,.*• ^pcket^Cpmpanion," fhat his publication, like, a. two-edged fword, 
_ ihould cut both ways ? , Is he of Juno's opinion, ** tlcftere fi 
** nequeo fuperos, acheronta roovebo" ? 

Art. 20. ^he Adventures of a Rupee. Wherein are inter- 
ibericd various Anecdotes Afiatic and European. A new >£di- 
tjon. Tq which are prefixed. Memoirs of the Life of the Author* 
And to wliicb thci:e arc added, his Remarks concerning the In- 
habitants of Africa, izmo. 38. boards. Murray. 
The idea pf this poycl is. borrowed from the Adventures of a 
Guinea ; ;BLQd there, is nothing original in its execution. The ad- 
ventures have pothing to recommend them either from incident, 
jjancy, pr character. They are common and* uninterefling ; and it 
,,i$ in vain, that we have endeavoured to difcover any traces of merit 
in.t&is work* Yet, with ajl its defe<S^s, the genius of the Author 
ha& bc^n.fuppofcd fo confiderable, that Memoirs of him are prefix- . 
^cd tP U, and fome indifcreet friend' has written a paffionate eulo- 
gium in his favour. The honours of ability and genius are wan* 
^ HsmHy- Uvifliedupon Mr. Helenus Scot ; a young man of whom the 
literary world know nothing. The bopk and the encomijums arc 
in the diredeil contradi^ion j and the olfended reader in the midA 
of his contempt, cannot but recoiled the adag/e, V^^^t there is no 

* fool, who may not find another, dill more abfurd^ to admire 

• him.' 

Art. 21. An Heroic Epiftle to the Right Honourable Lord 

FifcQuni Sachuillc. 410. is. 6d, Kearny. 

An heroic epijlleh^^ been a favourite title, fiuce the famous epiftle 
to Sir William Chan^bera firft ipadc its appearance. Tbt prcfent 
performance is a violent phillippic againfV Lord . Vifcount Sackville, 
the Miniftry, and the King.' It contains too, a pidure of our na- 
tional fituation, which appears to us highly exaggerated : coUld we 
be perfua^ed, that this poetical Spagnoletto had preferved the re- 
icmWnce, in his drgidful caricature, we would jquit.this'accurfed 
- . . X 4 , land, 

l6o MoKtiTLT CATAM«<r£. Mifc$Stmk$ mdPmirj. 

land, and feck for freedom ao4 bappincfii in the wcAen^ worfd^ 
where the bard infbriAi us, 

♦ THt o^ the thick flwd^ of ftlling em^Mjpe^s night. 
We fee the beaming of c«le(lml ligiu, 
1 be light of FHEKDOM-«-wHofe aufpiciout txj^. 
Already dtrts Che beam of promisM day, 
When liberty't full orb fliaU radiaat rife, 
AfcendsUit be, and gild the Welkrn Bliei. — ^ 
The E^ftle it written in Churchill's mamieri though not in hf» 
hjl manner ; hit riolencc, and the roughneif of his numbers are 
fufficiently difcemible, but the better part of him it wanting. It 
it often incorrect, and the (Ble oftci^r obfcure* An inftance or 
two of each, may be fatbfa^ry .to the pubHc* Speaking of the 
Vifcount's coronet, the Author has the following Unet^ page lo. 

• O ! may it fjotg^ whene'er \tf9efs thy bead. 
With weighty care as made of ten-fold lead/ 

Here arc two faults m mie line. The verb ** hamg^ can only be 
allied to iomtiWxnf^ peruUnt^ which is not the ca& with a coro- 
net when placed on the head : and ** /'^^" it incorredly ufed for 
frejfes^ ox JhaM frrefs. In the next page we meet with tUt ridicu« 
loua p^eonafm, 

* Widt o*er Germania's plains th* embattled hoSs 
Spread «twV< * 

When the Author is telling the Vifcoont What his condud onght 
. to hare been at the battle of Minden, we are puxaled i^th the 
fc^lowing (to us at leaH) msintelligible lines : 

* Faft at hi cook! fly, 

Jore^s meflenger, the pluroc-heelM Mercury % 
Fate*s meflenger in armt, (houldft thou have JU( 
Keapt gloriout meed, or mingled with the dead.* ' 
This paffitge, after repeated actemptt, we «re able to conftrue in n^ 
other manner than the following: Lord SAckville, *« Thou 
^ fhould'ft have JUd (run away, like) fate^ m^aiger ia 'armt» 
M fafl at the plume-heerd Mercury, Jovc*t mefleii^r he (why he ' 
** here^) could fly: reapt gloriout xuot^ er mingicd with the 
^ dead.** We leave the KeaSer to make what; he can of it. 

The coipmettcenient of the Epiftle may be givctt aa »o iMfavour- 
able fpecimeo of the work. 

* Son of <tyiaiNut f or to |[reet thine ear. 
With 'founds more pleafing, hail \ thou new made Peer : 
In lu>mage to thy moulted fMne I bow, 
perch'd on the coronet that decks thy brovir \ 
Well may it-fit-—— pemidous gold raiay finne 
Hound bfowt where facrcd laurel ne*er would twine* 
. The aoBB fatkicijwn bow fliall cover all; 
' ^fgrace no more degrade, or fear appal. 
^ Ttie guilt it loft that once the coa&aout fKlaiti 
bf Mf|NDBN bluniiap faw tbro^ all her ilain«r 
Such it the magic of this crimfon- veflv 
When clafpM with royal hands acroft the breaft \ 
Vices deform'd anddreft in Stygian gloom, 
Vtrtae't feir port, aad hotioori fonotaflume.^ 



'ItoNT^Lt Catalogue*. MfceUaniis anJ Ppttry. i6i 

* THe charm of courts that operates fo mucht 

More than king's eril cures by flighted touch. 
4 lafpirM by fumes oif this omnific powV, 

ToarBs to oeorgb the xHiao hbatlons pour : 

It mounts the coward to the hero*s plncc. 

Wipes frdra the recreant brow each fqul dil^racc { 

Cures all but conscience — w^aHies Ethiops white; 

Makes ni^t of noon-tide funs-^and day of night i 

Co&fouilds, perverts all honours and degree : 

And makes a hero e*en Gtrmahe ! of thee. 
I have no wiHi behind the fcenes to (feaU 

To fpy the movements of the common-weal ; 

To view the puppets, or the mailer's art. 

And fee how each puft lord ling plays his part ; 

How ibifting miniUers to court keep time, . 

And harlequin this great world's Fanttmumtp 

Nor to that fatal clofet would I creep, 

Whttt folks are tickled till they fall allcep. 

Nor would I, airftate fecrets to unfold, 

Give Cesar's lawful image (lamp'd in gold«t 

It fuits not us, plcbean wights, to know. 

The arts, and tncks of the ftate faree-fliew. . 

Or how imperial pr^unswick wears his fact. 

Now urges horrid war, and now the chace. 

Or why as whim of faction give the word. 

He now a burton makes, and noW a Lprd.' 
Art. 22, Tthe Pro^refi of Poetry. By Mrs. Madati. 
19. 6d. Dodfley. ' 

♦• The f rogrefs of Poetry" might have remained undifturbed in 
the portfeuille of \\^t Editor, without doing either injudice to the 
'inemory of Mrs.Madan, or injuiy to the public. The Editor 
thinks that this produ^ion, will add ** to the large colle^ion of 
* beautiful writings with which this country already abounds;" 
t^iepublic, we are afraid, will not fubfcribe to his opinion. 

The poefn is deficient both in poetieal and critical excellence : it W 
in {ome places turgid and exuberant, while profaic flatnefs difguils 
us in others.' In the delineation of the various poeti, we are either 
tired with cha racers the moft hackney 'd ;ind common-place imagin- 
able,- or prefented with falfe ones. To give an example of thefor^ 
mer would be to tranfcribe; almoft the whole poem, the two k\' . 
lowing lines will prefent the reader with a finking inflance of the 

* There Plrgll his ifpmortal harp has ftrung, 

And Addison, great Flrgirs rlval^ fung.' 
This is furely a bold ({roke, but ^* poetis quidlibct nudendiim.'^ 
The poem concludes in a {Ule of criticifm, no lefs glaringly ctm- 
^icuous. After having mentioned Chaucer, Spenfer, Cowley^ 
Milton, Dry den. Pope, i&c. Uc» the Lady ieems to place; them all 
equally ** high on the radiant lifl,'' as (he exprefles it i Drydett 
does not fbina one Aep above Denharo, nor does Milton overtop 
Granville a fingle hair's breadth. All are placed pn th^ tUmmit of 
Pamafliis. Hear her own- words, 

• Fain 

^ FaiB would I pqw th* excelling 3^1x1 ,cey^]. 
And point where jnoft tb*iaflembled Mufcs dw^ll \ . 
Where Phoebus has his warmcft fmiles beftowM, 
.:, Aiid yrhq moft latwurs with th* infpiring Qod i 
But while I fVrivc to fix the ray divine. 
And roUad that head the la urerd triufnpblwinei. 
UnnumbcrM Bards dii!rj& my dazzled %ht. 
And my firll choice grows faint with rival light,' 

And then, having likened tnem unto the Cala^ij', the Po^m thus con* 


* The datzled eye* in countlefs heaiity lodi 
Vainty eflays to mark which (l.ines the |noft; 
From each the feme quick lilring Iplcndors fly, . 
And undifhnguiflied brightncfs charms the eye.* 

In a pelformancc, thus eflentially faulty, to notice fuch |-himes at 

•* fccne be^iM, chime line, fublimc join," or lUch grammar as we 

Jneet with IB tbefe lines 

M -— — « whok jlratffU 

With cotifcious ftrength a vulgar thcmcVi^/»j,* 
may be thought a \frork of fupcreroqration. 

Art. 23* j/ Review of Airs, Craiofovd^ and Mrs., Slddoni^ 
in the CbaraHer of BctvUerat In A.Lcuer to.a Gcntieinaii at Bath* 
8vo. IS* Debrett* 

This Review is written with an evident jruentlon of beftowlnir 
the palm of adHtig upon. Mrs. Crawford* ** To fum up. tj^^ wholc,^ 
fays the Author^ " Mrs. Siddons is a gppd Bclvidera, .to tbofc who 
•*^ havt nevcf fecn Mrs. Crawford.'* Tbc AyUthor >then ipomfiarca 
his favourite to a faCc-marc, and fays, " (lie has prpypi tjic O&iZ&rj 
** of theatrical fame, and diflanced tcvefy .^thcr female, in the tbea- 
•* trical courfc." Mrs. Siddons is ccrifuiid in the beginnijtgfAf 
this pamphlet for railing in fome part of the pit at her b'^c^* 
This is an unfair accufatio;), for the pradice of milling in tjjc pit 
.on benefit nights is common j and IVIrs. Crawford, oar hyixH^Qjs^g 
heroine, has pradifed the fame thing more than once* 

The Author quotes fpccches in the play^ and points put minuttfy 
in thefe, the fuperior excellence of Mrs. Crawford* But it i^ un- 
fortunate for the reputation of the Reviewer^ that njanv of fus 
quotations were never fpokcn by either of the parties ; oeingt V* 
reality cut out of the prompter's books, ai^d always omitted oh .the 
ftage. ■ 

Art. 24. An jtrchaotogkal Dl^ionary ; or, ClajJ^cal Au^- 
quitics of the Jews, Greeks, and Romans, alphabetically .ar- 
ranged : Containing an Account of their ]^aju»ers» CuAoms» Di- 
verUons, Religious Rites, Fcftivals, .Oracles, Law8» Arts, En- 
,gincs of War, Weights, Meafures, Money, lyiedals, Cjp[ny[m^- 
lion and Divifion of Time, &c. J^y the Rev. T. Wilfon* 5vo. 
iCa. boards. Cadell. 

The dcCgn of this performance points to utility, in an exteaCf« 

degree* But the execution is lame,. and impisrfp^* Tbc^AmtiQr 

. appears xo have more kao^^icdf^e fhan judgment. For jam^ft t^c 

yaricor of articles wbigh ho exhibits he is oftpn joo ^rt,..«i!flm« 

JklMtH^xCArAtMoon^. Jfi/cfi/Mfies and t^$^. t$3 

he ought to bare been full i and .often minute, when he ought to 
have been concife. 

.Art. 25. JBubliotheca Croftficma. A Catalogue of the curiovia 
and 4iftingui(bed Xabrary of the late Reverend and Learned 
Thomas Crofts, A* M. Chancellor of the iDIocefe of Peterbo- 
rough, and Fellow of the Royal and Antiquary Societies* Whivh 
] will be Spld by Aud^ion, by Mr. Paterfon, ^i his Great Room, 
No. 6, ^ing-ftreet, Covent-garden, London ; on Monday, April . 
7, 1 78 i. and the Forty-two following Days. [Good Fnday t^t- 
ccptcd^J 8vo. 5s. S. Paterfon. 

Tnc biblipgraphical knowledge of the late Mr. Crofts, was allow 

cd to be extenjfiye and uncommon, and few libraries have ever been 

offered to &1(^' that were collc£lcd at a greater expence, or with a 

more fortunate care. In mailing a catalogue of his books, ^r. 

'J^aterfon l\as fubmitted to a fatiguiq^ labour. This, howc\-6-, ii 

' the fmall^ praife to which he is intitled. His mode of claA^^S^* 

tion is able and judicious ; and difcovers an ei^celleuce and raetU 

th^t (eldom belongs to the compilers of catalogues. 

, Art. ,26. Reafons for Reji^nlng the ReHory of PantoH^ and ^- 

carMgt of ^ineierhj^ in Lincoujbhe ; and quitting the Churcif pf 

' E^amd. By John Difnev, D. D. F. S. A, 8vo. fyi. Johnfop* 

Dr. Diii^, in this addreis to the public, gives a ptain, and un« 

, jimpalfioDed^iqcount of his reufonsior quitting the cAabliiilied churcp* 

• The doctrine of the Trinity, ai uught in the Articles and Liturgy of 

\ the Churcbof England, has brought him to Eflex-flreet Chapel, 

.as* it did Mr..Liodfey fome years aj;o. Throughout this fliort pi^V- 

f^njnance, the mildnefs of gcnume Chriftianity is confpicuoiu. 

.Contem with a peaceable retirement from the flation in which lys 

^confciei^ce'^ould not permit him to remain, Dr, Difney is .wilUijg 

to n^ke erery liberal allowance for thofe who pot think k ne * 

,4eS$)ry to withdraw from the eftabliQiment. 

* I make no doubt, but the time will come when ;tKe forms of 

^■vvorfhip i*i the Liturgy of the church of England will be correfted, 

*fi^ reduced nearer to the 0and^rd of jScripture.^ ^ut, ^ias ! this 

^ijll^tjbe the work of m^ day. This generation will probably 

nafs away without feeing it. in the mean time, individuals muu 

&tisfy themfelves in their compliance wkb the prefcnt fyftcip, 

according to their different apprebenfions of the truth of it, or feek 

their Fclicf by a peaceable retirement from a churcjt, with whiqh 

fhij arc not a^grecd in the obje<^ of religious woriliip. In either 

of thffe ca^, there is 00 juft occalion given for reproach* Tl^ 

'concern is perfonal, and connned to the confcience of every indiyi- 

. dual, over which, neither the magiilrate, nor any pwr^^ ptcribns, 

.fingk or aflboiated, have any authority.* 

Aft. %!» Nim jbifcoMrfis on the Beatitudes. By* the Rev* 
Willuun Smith, JD, J^ Dean 6i Chcfter. 8vo. as. fewcd, Ri- 

^\^ leiNNied Dean is already Weil known tfi the literary world Ijv 
jbb iraoBati^ftlof fereral of the Greek dailies. His reputation vn)X 
flufbr no diminMtion by the publicaiion of his Difcourfes on th« 
" WkboiH iliy>sNr«ilC labour, they an equally qowofi aiyi 


1^4 MoKTttLT CATALOotTB. MifccUtmei m%iTmtfj. 

elegant ; while the gUre of merftriciouf oroament, aod the tricks of 
rhetoric am no irhere to^ fiouod. The nutter of the 4ifcourfe$ poi^ 
feilet equal merit with the manner in which it i^ conyeyedv A clear* 
neft of arnmgementi and ilrength of argument run through the wholcp 
' and through erery part ; which, while they render them agreeable to 
the learned reader, will at the (ame time make them generally ufefuU 
. The fenfe of the text it marked with preciBon, and the deidu^oni 
from it enforced by a flratn of reafoning, where vigour of intellef)^ 
and evangelical Qmplicity, appear in perfed unifon. 
Art. 28. Jh Atu^fifis rf the principal Duties of Social Jdfc : 
Written in Imitation of Rochefbcault : in a Series of Letters, to 
a Young Gentleman on his Entrance into the Wbrki^ By John 
Andrews, L. L. D. Small 8vo« }s» fewcd. Richardtoa aad 

Dr.^Andrews appears to be a man of confideiaUe obferration. 
His maxims on the duties of life, though they po&fs not all the 
elegance and point of Rocbefocault, certainly merit^ approbation ; 
md the more fo, as he hu given us a leis humiliating, and we 
liope, a truer delineation of human nature. To convey knowledge 
in thb fententious manner, has its advantages, as a maxim is ottpD 
ftmembeted, when the purport of a long dHconrfe is entirely for* 
gotten. Maxims ought to be clear and ^vious, that the mind may 
fnfbintaneoufly ailent to them without the trouble of bvefHgatiqjp* 
Any fimilitude by way of illuftration, iiiould be perfedly appofite, 
otherwife it tends to obfcure what it was meant to illudrate. !>• 
Abdrews has, in general, kept thefe rules in view. To give the 
jtitle of Letters to the divifioas of hb work feems improper, as no* 
thing can be more unlike e[>iilolary writing, than the fHie which Iiq 
Jiasiivowedly aflHimed. This, however, is only a flight iittm»riety» 
which is not efTendany injurious to the i)crformance. The follow* 
ing maxims will give the readers .fome idea of what they are lo 
meet with in this publication. 

* The fentiroents and inclinations of a well-educated po-fim nucf^ 
in (bme meafure, be compared tp a tree whofe branches have been 
pruned and trimmed by an expert gardener, and which retains tn 
Its growth and appearance, ever after, an air of iymmetr^ and pr6- 

* A free and candid difpolition paflet current with ^ yxntn ; it 
Is like a prefent of light weight and rich value, which the receiver 
may carry about him without trouble : but die fuperior parts of 
others are frequently like a burden, which wc bear through merv 

* Self-love -benumbs and deadens all fenfation lor. others* 
While we fancy ourfclves fecure, we fet their welfare at a didance 
from our thoughts ; aa the OH'ners of a careo who have iiUured their 
property, are mdifferent about tlic fate of tne veilel.* 

* The company of wit9 is courted ; but >wc4irefer the intimacy 
4^a man of thoughtfuluers and re^dion. Thompft ii|e can pro* 
mi(e ourfclves from the former, is diverfion and merriment ; but 
we depend on the latter for folid fuhftantial fervices. The Mt is 
like funfiune without rain, pleafant but unprofitablo ; die ftoon4 


Moirtinv CAlr^Loat7t. Mijcettmihs.mtd Pfttty. tdi 

like « maUt Imt fertile.eluiiate, whkh, tW doudf «iid lefi eftlif et»- 
JOg» yet' repays the dweller with pkoty.*, 

. *' Ic were paying too great a compliment todtlHmtationto gire 
k a name Jfmoo^ tne virtues. •Tis, with refped to them, what a 
priTy door IS to the brtnctpal gate of a palace^ die paflage through 
"which is poUtc and bonoorablei while the other b ufed for mean* 
«r iotercQurfe/ ^ 

* Happiae(flf like a pacific neighbour, » will tog to enter into 
im atiiaoce aiid ^nfederacy ; but we (land, as it were^ on punc- 
ti&M, and like unflcilful .ne|(ociators> refuie to treat for want of a 
few triffin^ formalities* 

^ Nothmgfooner leads to defpondency than hope improperly 
indtrlged. To' be thrown from towering expe£btiont, and to find 
jEMie-feirin diftrefs wliere we promiied ourfeUcs undobced ibccefs, is 
like being caft from the ^ top of a precipice: our fMroities are 
ftoaned, ad it were, by unexpeded calamity ; and it is with di& 
ciilty our minds recOTcr from the fudden fall.* 

Upon the whole, We recommend the preftnt work as an excellmt 
vdide mecum for every young man who wi(hes to pais through life 
with the applauTe of the world, and the approbation of his own 

Ai[t. 29. Difirefs ; J Pcm. By Robert Noyci, Craiv> 
brook, Kent. For the Author. 4to. 2S* 6d.~ Law* 
^The following poem, (fays the Author, in his addrefs to'h^ 
cMidid Reader,) and the perfonal fubjed of it, was occafioned by 
c^ cruel and unprecedented behaviour of a diflentlng congregat^n, 
whodiimified the Atithor from his miniftry among them (after hai^ 
t^ ipent twenty 4ix years of the prime life of his in their fervtcey 
without a&^ing to nim any other rcafon for th^ procedure, thkti % 
falie otie ; for they^ being aikcd by him in the public Afiembly, ** whjr 
he bad notice g^ven htm to leave them V* the only anf^er he receiv* 
c^ was, ^* becanfe they were not able to maintain a niinifier;** 
thotsgh at the lame time they intended to invite another, and to give 
htm (at leaft) ten pounds a year more than they gave the Author. 

This ^xpulfion by his eongnegation feems to have reduced Mr. 
Koyes to extreme poverty^ aiui to have led to that train of thought 
which pervades the work before us. He appears to be overwhelm*' 
ed with Kis fituation, ahd to view every thing through the mod 
^ooBiy medium. 

Of the Author's ideas, and the efxecution of the work, the public 
will be able to judge from the conclufion of this poem. 
* Farewell, fublunaryfcenes, and gay! 
Where the ohi trifie, and where children play ; 
Where youths fantadic weave the magic dance, ' "*• 
And to the grave with hecdlefs fleps advance ; ' 

Where bufy crowds, like ihie^, iwarm and die ; 
Ahd pleafure's ions purfue a painted fly ! 

Farewell, ye fuhlunary fccncs, and fapje ! 
Where the gravt fophift turns the midnight page ; 
With dofc attention into Nature pries. 
Reads *till b^'slofl, and thinks he ^rows more wile; 

* Where 

Wh^rtst1ie<kcJ>'M'«gi•Vrf^<krl€imeddlly;* - " .-^ 
In fancv tread the coifi<iturV way; 
Wher6'LocI«'*s difcipleS fpfitthc !q^<* tlmn&; ' 
WheVe Galen's pupil* from \he Grccilin ckad, 
Likcbe<fsindiitH'iotiS| ^atb^ he^Iin^^ll^ * - 
Attd thchce pwfcrtbc'the fftlutswy piltj- 
Wbcre fludioas minds from Coke inftru^on dnnV'^ 
Antf kitrh ^ n<acc"'the labyi^ifttisof Ij^ ; 
\Vbcrt pri^a ftd«^,to l^iebp fWkmic lore, 
Turn dWy v^ihttc* of. the Firhftrs o*cr. 

.Farewell, ye fublunary fcehes, and dall ! 
JISa<!b ittbre infipld by tfie-prarfAg foof; ' 
Whcir flun^rifig lopi jar wiftJtemV lei^hirti hifi--^ 
Wfiere art itrit's targif coxcombtf aim JWd niiA^ 
Where fe!f conceit o*ei* mbddly pr#*'i!T9, 
And cfoys'lbciety with ftnftleli talfc^f 
Where mifcrs waftc tfieir vearB in h)?apltog ftfti*^ " - 
Ttnf tobierich, and yet a{« always' pWJr; 
Whucre fordid Epicures, of boafted talte^ 
Pamj^r thctttfelvca to give the wortm^ a fcaft. 
FarewcH, ye fublunary fcenes, and fad ! ' 
ITang round with* '(ctitcheoASi atid in mouiniis^ cUtf:; 
'\\liere-ciAiel-war ^d fifhalUy feaiae mgt, 
Afic^fuddeti fwfeej!> lifti^r tchip<mlry ftagc; * ' 

Wb«repalediftafedeftra6Kvc powVifflinnes^ 
And fills rhe wortd with ho^itaU and tomb9 ) 
Where paitts the bbdy mck, the limbs di Aort, • 
' And %^ their arrows iii the ficketiM hvart ; 

Whert poignant grief o'cnvhdms the hart an mind^ 
Robs k of reafoti, and diflra^ts mankiMl; 
Whcnd hope by <iR<appointment*$ dagger bleeds, 
And Ui)« tty woe \^fh fpe«d;f ^ "feec^s ; : 
Where pof *rty ftalks forth in att her |^oibm, - i 
And le^$ her children pettH^e to the tom^ f - 
Where De ATI*, the itioriarch'bf this trejicfcerie, 
" With rag* infatiatc, and withpoin^rd^keen. 

Spreads ruin wid^-^and wtieh the \yvwt calls, 
The dran'ia clofes, and the cnrtaiA fallc* ' 

Once more, ye fublunary fccnes, farewell? . * 

I*m warnM to quit you by cuch folcmii kne» : 
^ Dull world, and fage ! of thee I take my leav«$ 

Form'd to diftrefs, difquict, aftd bereave j 
Let others fawn» and pay their ooftrt* to- thee ; 
Thou haft no fricndfllip, and no dhartftS' for wfi J' 
Gay world to fomc — ^to me ftd world, adieu f 
Till the lalVday-fliJ^ll break with glories new.* ' 
Two cpifodical fcenesof diflrefs are ifltroduced: in' tffe firft he 
paints the maflTacre of a family by tlie North Ai*eric«i Indians, the 
other ddcribes the melancholy fati6 of fh^ Royal Oeorgc. 

It gives us plcafiirc to ftft fo rcfpe^liWe fl lift of fuWcribers pre- 
fixed to the potm i it fhcws thrft me Author's misjfortunes liave been 

♦ com- 


Art*. 36. APieti^ fectrd to the Mcmoiy of the late Sir John' 
CIcrtc, Aalrt. ByTol^bH GiUibi-aad, 410. is: BuckUhd. 
Sfr. Giltibf^nd^s jWinisiVot Iddg, fbf vc^ich th^ rcHdier ^If 
tkattkhim, aBVe'iiidftheaAily do. Th'e public (hill hear rti4 twK 
;hor fpeak for birafelf. 

* EJtf^ag^ in fdclr^MftiAfe, wliy ftikrf my fQul f 
Arid \Chy I A tfnglrtfti^evVy mittutc r<>ll f 
Bccaufe I IotM» and therefore much bemoan 
The worthy y^Ourh vtrhom vfrtue caSPd her own. 
Becd\ifc 1 reel iier fbrrours, (hare her pain, 
AVhb fees a friendl a fbn* fo carfy flam : 
A Ton, a friend', for jufHy migbt he claim 
An im''i*eft Tn cacfi dear, each tcncter natne.* 
Btt. 31; ^Tye i^icel/itcct'ian: 6r^ the Qjeftion conccmirfg'Li-[ 
^ifny .and ifreccfljty Hated and difcuilcd, in jo letters. By Benjamin 
Dawfen; \s. L, D. Re«^>br of Surgh, in Suffolk, 8vo. is. 64,; 
fewcd. Johnfon, 

fnjhcfe fetters Dr. Dawfon argues on the queftioh of liberty andf, 
nebcflity with great m'etaphyfical acutenefs. He endeavour to. 
prove uui^ the tv/V/ is determined by ikotlvti z he accounts however; 
•* eveVy a6l th^t proceeds no^frohi ej^ternal mechanical force, a ''vd^\ 
** lukfary a^ a/w a6t/* but calls ^ that ^olantary a^ rtecejfary^** xxi * 
OMiforiiiitv to //^/> ** idjca of necejfity\ who, on fuppoiition of the 
^ wtll bcmg determined by motives, wilt not allow ft to be free,' 
*• though voluntary.** Heroes farther, having efkbliflied thli 
ipecres of necejjity^ he endeavours to (hew that " free-^Mtll leaves no 
** f[>undation for attributing merit or demerit to the agent," and 
that, oh the coptrarj', *' the doi^rine of necejjity doth that which 
** the doi5!rine of fer-nviU doth not. By leaving the foundation of 
*^ morality (ecure, itlcfavcs a foundation for merit and deracritt vi±« 
*^ the moral nature of a6Uons. That which gives the a<5Hon itft 
*^ mmral qualUji givee it at the fame time its vSorlb or fUerW*^ But^ 
** on the do^rine of (ree-wiTl, there can be no foundation for at- 
** tributing merit or demerit to an agent, — bccaufe il deftroys Sill 
** diltiniftion between ac tions, g<>od and had^ being terms without a 
** meanuTg, when applied to adion? without a moral motive." 

SucTi w the icbp6' of thTs publication, to which the advocates for 
frce-will, will finil i^ di/ScuU to make a faiisfa^^ory reply. 

. V ./: v,., Medical. 

Art. VI. VBpri/atidfii onJircB Nutrhk^ Vegetables as niay hi* 

fuytitl^dM tht^Pldtk Vf Ordinary Food in flmts 0/ SeHr^iyi^ 

^rtT^t)i'1Mtt\fii FVtnth of M. f armcntler. is. 6d. Murray. 

Th^ iMSiMSty^'of rttfe fJreferit period is uhiverfally acknowledgi^ to 

be fuch, as to recjoire every exertion of ability and humanity to'Ward 

off the caflamitie^ by wMch the poorer ranlcs of fociety arc threaten* 

cd.. This littlir pamphlet therefore fejems at leafl: to poflbfs the mttk 

of bcingjwtfl^ timed and well intended. Nor is this iJl, maAy of 

the d^rofiotis* may be reduced^ fof-pra^ice, and poor* houfekee|peri 

would tliut bo.enablcd to make conlidcrable favings. The original 

i^ MomrHtY CATALoeos. MtScsL 

tt die frodu^tkMi of ao Author advantageoufly koown by fewtnl 
lo^mout and ufefu] performances. From a memoir which gained 
yiepnze of the ncademy of Befan^on in Z777v it wai dilated into 
the Dulk of a lafge 8vo, and publini^d in 1780. Thefe extradls are 
irery mbcji inferior in point ot fize ; but the tranfiator telU us, that^ 
^s u was deHfrned tot general ufe, he has omitted every thing which 
did not coinade with that hitcntion. - , 

Art. 33. Apb9r\JmicomtoJed for a Text U pra^lcal Lectures en 

the Ccnjthuthn aiid Dijeafcs tf QlMnn^ By Dr. Wilfon, Hvo. 

IS. Murray. 

Tezt*books can fcarcely be confidered as objeds of critictfm. 
The propoGtions are generally exprcfled with {o much brf vity aa to 
be almoK unintelligible without a comnnentary: and even i^ they 
could always be clearly comprehehded» it would be as uacandidon 
the one hand to rejcd^i as it would on the other ba rafl^ to admit 
them, without weighing the proofs on which they reft. Thcic a» 
pborifms have however one feature {o prominent, and at the iame 
time Co uncommon in modern medical produ^ons, that it mnft 
llrike the moil carclcfs'obferver, we mean, a flrone bias to the ku*- 
moral pathology. In treating of the rickets. Dr. Wilfon obferves* 
*^ that it mud be owing to a preceding weakne(s and coldnels in the 
blood, and in the motion and qualities of the other fluids, produced 
by predominant acidity, if the bones ar^ not ftrengthened by th^ . 
time nature calls them to fuftain infant afBvity.** In the next jpage. 
he adds, ** I cannot omit noting that all deere^of rottenneis of the 
teeth, and of tooth-ach ought to be referred remotely or ulti* 
mately to a manifefl tincture of the rickets, or of tbefc caufes that 
produce it in the blood.^ Of the itch he aifcrts, that it is the true- 
accfccnt fcurvy, difUnguifhed fcom other fpecies of that difeafe only, 
by the trvly great Boerhaave, and that *' it is not owing to ani- 
malcula.'* In another place he fays ^* local inflammation ^indeed 
all inflammation and every d^gitre of it) conflds in the introdudlion 
of red Uoo(|, into veiTels into which it does not pafs in that fbte na* . 
turally." *' pus is a conco<5Hon of coagulable lymph, tending to 
fibrous granulation, but collecting too foft, and fubje^ed to adi-, 
geftiveheat,; that i{|, a greater heat than is natural to found parts. 
Whence we may infer that fince folids are formed or regenerated out 
of fluids, tie frincffFes f*f vitality are more immediiftehf anJ' friwiarify 
f« thejluids than in the falidsj^* ** The chilblains, we arc toM, are 
certainly produced by a confli^^ between the keen fenfc of cold felt 
by young pcrfons, and the greater natural heat of* fheir blood, and 
laxity of their folids.'* We charitably hope that Di. Wilfon, is in 
poffii^on of new and powerful arguments to fupport theft Angular 
q]Nmons, many of which indeed have been long/iuce exploded. 
Alt. 34. Some Thoughts on the Relaxation offfuma^ Badks^ 
« mnd^n the Mifapplicatum of the Bark in that Jm^ fime other Ca/es^ 

8vo. 28. NiccJl 
. It will be perfectly gnneceflary to make any remarks on this per- 
formance ; after laying before our Readers a few quoutions, they 
ii^ay he fafely entruiled to form their own opinipn concerning its 
merits. Of cold bathing the Amhqt obfcrves, that ** all abhor in 

I ^neralf 

' MotffHLT Catalog erf. AleJkaL 1J&9 

lenewl, tKe iirft (hock; -and we mav jullly fufpcia that, what fl\« 
fenfc* in general difapprote, cannot be agreeable to nature.** 

S|K«king of the Jatt i^floenM^ he fays ** jpihtie^s at the y^rr 
iirf) bn^t pecame fu3denly enervated with fuch a proftration of 
ffrengtb $ad fpirits as feeraed to be id a manner infupportable ; m 
this Unguof did not proceed from mere defeat of ftreneth, but from 
th^conta^on9 which feizing the whole fyftem) iielaxed or obftru^d 
diefjMings of life, tind the principles of the conllitution* which re« 
jUzattoo BO bark or bracers could cure/* 

Soon aft^r he thus proceeds, •* fome afcribed the cnufe of the 
difbrdef to a very wet and c6ld feafbn. But whence this extraordi* 
Dtry cold feafon? Might not cold or nitrous particles in unufual 
aqaBtitiea floating in the air, have checked the fpring and produced 
the cold ieafoQ ? And might not fuch particles, according |;o thp 
Ppittion of the late eminent Dr. Alcock, cither have arifen from the 
earth, or come to us from fome of the planeta. As thh difordcr 
Icemed at firil atmoipherical, although afterwards perfonallv com- 
rovnicable, it w^ fiirprizing it fell upon man only, and did uof 
fcem to afedt the reft of the animal treation/*^ 

From the maltitude of paiTages equallv fagacious and confifcnjjc 
tha't might be adduced, we will only add the following : " no pn^ 
would 4ihmk of ftrengtheQin^ a body clogged with feronties, or irri* 
tated by on^dities, however weak and feeble it might be, or fancy 
he could correft the putrefaction of fuch humours, rendered a6Hve 
bv putrefccnce; which aftivity proves the means of expulfign,** 
Art. 3ii- Curfory Remarks on the Nature and Caufes of thf 
Marine Sfumjy^ fhewit^g th^t that fatal Difeafe may not only be 
prevented, bvit probably eafily cured on hoard of .Ships at any 
IHAance frpm L^od^ By Jpha Sherwini Enfield, Middlfei, 
4to. 1?, 6d. Baldwin. 
'^The intention of thi^ pamphlet is an obje(5t of the firfi national 
tibportance. Tfccre arp many fenfible remarks in it. 'J\xt Author is 
cl opinion that by means pf vegetables, the health offeamen may be 
preiervedin allcUmates, ^d at all (calbns. In purfuing this doc- 
rine he has ftt bimfclf g^inft the opinions of fome of pur firft 
writers pn the fubje^ and will have many difficulties to conquer 
before be brings his views into execution. He is too fond pf theory, . 
and the niore (o that he allpws his experience to be circumfcribcd. 
This fbodnef^ leads hi,nx into^bfurdities; for in (lance ; lie denies that 
the ipvr^y is a /^/r/^diiprfleir, and he gives fonxe ingenious thought 
in con(irn:>at!an of this opinion. Not fo^^ pages after, in mepCionr . 
in^tKe cfic^ o^ jiflf 4iet in pro4ucing th^ diiorder, he gives as a 
proof, dvtf,! a Dr. Smil^h had a ftariti {ore throat from eating too 
ireely<^f £th in Scotland. Opinions fp irreconcileable mv^ft injure 
any stteinpt tp.eftablHli ^ general do^rinp. Although this pamph- 
let, uppn the whol$f, to be perufcd by gentlemen concerned 
in thp treatment of pur fajlors, yet there are manv captions omitted, 
for vrant pf which the young jpra<ftitioner taa^ be led in^ fxrpr* 
Ai the general conflitution of feamen at preient is, a inixture of 
^imal and vegetable feems more proper, unlcfs attention could bi 
^^id to the idiofydcralies of individuals* 
, fUv. Vol. 1. 2783. M Art. 3^ 

I70 Monthly Catalogue P^BHoiL 


Art. 36. A Reply to Sir Henry CUmon's Narathe. fVb^^ hit 

,. ., J ^ nufnfro^s Errors are p'inft^ out^ and the eondu^ of Lord CorhTvalUs 

; 'J(^^y vindicated from all AJpe^Jtons ; including the ^whole if the puhUc 

anJfecret Correjpondence oettveen Lord George Gertnainey Stf Henrj 

Clint fyn^ and his Lordjhip ; as alfo intercepted T^tteri from General 

Wi^fhingfon, 8vo, 2S. Faultier. 

In this performance,, there are doubtlcfs, many particulars which 
prefs againll Sir Henry Clinton. The pu(hes arc made with vigour* 
and will not eaiily be parried.' The Author, indeed, produces hit 
Touchers ; and they are generally to the purpofe. It*s to be oblfefved, 
Iiowcvcr, that he is fomewhat angry; and this circumftancc canooc 
fail tocxpofc his work to the fufpicion of difpafBonate and candid- 
Readers. In all difputes about fa^s, the in<]u(rers ought conftantlj 
to abflain from inventive. It gives a moA improper bias to their 
minds, detrads from their authority, and ferves to keep the truth in 
concealment. But Authors cannot prcferve themfclves from the 
power of the paflions any more than ilatefmen; and their writings 
too often nearly refemble the fadious riolence which diigracet fo 
. tnuch our two Houfes of Parliament. 
Art. 37. An Jnftuer to that Part of the Narrative of Lieute- 
nant General Sir Henry Clinton^ K. JS, which' relates to the C^ndk^ 
of Lieutenant General Earl Cornwallis^ during the Campaign in 
North Atnerica^ in the year 1781. By £trl Comwallis* 8vo. 
18. Debreft. 

The fenfibility with which Lord Cornwallis perufed the Narra- 
tive of Sir Henry Clinton has given occafion to this ^publica- 
tion. The cenfures exprelTed or infinuated agaioft hit Lord- 
ihip are not replied to in a continued chain of reafoningt 
or by any hiAoncal method of dedudion. Lord Gomwallu has 
cfteeined it the better method to prefent to the public biy cor- 
refpondence with Sir Henry Clinton. Tliis correfpondence is di- 
Tided into (ix parts. In the iirft patt, the letters are exhibited which 
pafled between the two Commanders in relation to the csnnpaign in 
North Carolina. The fecond part Includes the cbrrefponaence re- 
lict ive to Lord Cornwallis 's march into Virginia. The third part 
comprehends the letters which refer to the operations ia Virginia. 
The fourth part contains the correfpondence relative to occupying 
an harbour for line of battle (hips. The 6fth part holds out- to o^ 
fervation, the letters which arc conne^ed with the defence of York 
in Virginia. " And the fixth part is formed by iette'rs from Sir 
Henry Clinton, delivered at New York a' month' af^ei* Lord Com- 
watlis's furrender. To the letters or correfpondence *whtch this 
publication fubmits to remark, there is prefixed, a (hdrt introduc- 
tion by Lord Cornwallis which is written with politenefs and can* 
dour. As to the merits of the difpute, they are not properly an 
•bjedl of criticifm. The critic when he has mentioned the Aatuxt 
and purpofes of this performance, has done his duty. 

f'or the ENGLISH R fe V I E W. 


A Vkw of the Ptr formers^ Tragic ani Comic ^ of the Loudon- 
Theatres^ snd of their refpedive Powers and jibiiities. 

THERE is not in the whole circle of human inAitutions, one, 
which under proper regulations, would more cfte^ually coii» 
tritHite to improve and reform the manners of fociety, than theatrical 
'exhibmoa9« To this fubjedt therefore too much attention cannot 
be paid by a wife governmenc or 4 virtuous people. The fafcination 
of the Drama is fo wonderful^ that the youthful fpc(5tator is carried 
irrefiftibiy along, and may be made whatever the poet pleafes. No 
legillature has hitherto fufficiently coniidercd the force of this in- 
fluence, or to what happy purpofes it mif;hr be applied. The taftc 
of the prefent age however in fome meafure does the duty of the 
ma^ifi^rate, and wifely reje<fts what is oflTenfive to decency or virtue* 
-Tbit 18 only fpoken generally; there have been and will continue 
to be exceptions, till fome legal tribunal fliall be appointed to iDfpc<ft 
into the. att^r^ tendency of dramatic poems. The office at prefent 
is (hamefully \cft to the. vague determination of chance; or the 
^Mnetimes deceived or inattentive eye of criticifm. It is mutually 
to the honour of the Authors and the Auditors, that the caufe of 
virtue is (b well promoted in the Theatre, and it is univerTally thq 
disgrace of the nations of Europe that it is not better. 

Whoever views the Drama and its effedts on fociety in this light, 
will likewife perceive that the a6tors ought to be held in a very dif- 
ferent diitin^on from the general orders of men. Not as they long 
have been, contemned for buflbons by the grave, oV (liunned as 
contaminated beings by the precife, but revered as the mod eficc* 
ttial moral teachers, beheld with veneration as the reprefentatives of' 
tbe moft noble and dignified of the human race. Tney (liould be 
taught the refped that is due to their functions, by the refpe^t 
wh^h the laws and the public fhould hold ihem in, and not becaufe 
they cannot find admittance among the worthy and the eflimablc, be 
ient to feek confolation among tbedifTolutb and profane. To fay a 
man is an ador has long been held a fufficient reafon to make thofe' 
who mod fliould feek his company fhun it. The young and unex* 
perienced, who in reading plays, are charmed with the elevated fen* 
Timentf and virtuous charaders they prefent, and with a laudable 
enthufiafm, wifhto (hew the world how forcibly they feel by the 
force with which they can deliver thefe heroic precepts, no fooner 
become players, but they find thcmfelves excluded from the con- 
▼crfe of thofe whofc notice it was their gre^^tcft ambitfoti to attra^. 
This b the efFed of ill advifcd laws and unjufl prejudices,; and it is 
no hyperbole to fay, that if an ador be as good as other men he it 
better; nay it ipaylafely' be averred, that as a<5lors arc at prefent 
confidefcd axid treated, tKi&y mud inevitably become the pefls of fo- 
ciety, were they, not continually recalled to virtue by the repetition 
of thofe beautiful truths with which good j>octry abounds and which 
firfi fcized on^ and delighted their imaginations, 

W a This 

This difcourfe in t^is place needs no apology^ it it ib$ 
duty of the philoftipk^r to point out, and of th« patfiot to reform 

Let us proceed to an examination of the profeffional abilities of 
the prefent a^ors: we will be^in nith Drury L^e^ an^ wMi th^ 
traeediansof thsit theatre ; in vrhich clafs, as there are but feir who 
perform principal parts, but few can be noticed here. 

So many and (& uncommon arc the rcquiiitea to form a period 
iOiory that no one ever }*ei poflefled them all. No perfon can be 
accountable for what he never received, and when we remark that 
an a^lor has certain natural defcds' which neither time nor ftudy can 
overcome, let our readers remember, thar if thefe are numerous^ 
and he yet approaches excellence, his merits are the nwre confpiciF- 
oift, though we may wi(h his inpperfeiftions were tefs lb. Aeainft iiwt* 
tention, idlenrcfs and ignorance only, fliould the ancjer of the critic 
be dire<^ed, and 'for the reformation of thefe fliould bis zeal be catr- 
clidly, thoujsjh fpiritedtv exerted. 

Mr. Smith, Mr. EenHey, Mr. Piilmer, Mr. Brereton, Mr. Aickin, 
Mr. Farren, the younger Mr. Baiinilicf, and Mrs Siddonsi are the 
perfons we Hiall fpeak of in the tragic department, though all of 
ch^m, except Mrs. Siddons, play as frequently in comedy as \n 
traeedy: and as the nature of our Work will not admit bf ampli^ 
«<ftiODt we (liall confider the merits of each in this double capacity. 

Mr. Smith is indebted to nature for a fine figure and a clear atKf 
amiculate voice ; and to art^ for a graceful difplay 6f his form i« 
pleaiiDg Knes and chara^erif^ic attitudes. To this latter, which tt' 
DO inconfiderable part of his arvhe has paid great atteotioov 
but not enough to that dill more difficult ftiray, which teaches tor 
difcriminate pecnliarlty of fcntiment, fituation, and cbara^cr* 
When a hero is oppreiTcd, injured, or itifultedr we are detigbted (o 
fee him rouzed, and to hear him thunder forth denunciations of 
vengeance againft his enemies ; hut we^i^b to fee him a hero like-' 
wife wbea he is not thus violently agitated. King Richard; ihouki 
not fpeak in recitative when he nvakes love to Lady Anne, nor 
declaim, when in his fir ft foliloquy his active and anrnitious mind 
is conjuring up what has been, aiid what it determines (hall bc^ here- 
after. When he fays 

** Grim vifaeed wai* has fmoothed his wririkled fronts 
And capers mmbly in a lady^s chamber 
To the lafcivious pieafing of a lute.*' ' 

It it not to amufe himfdf that he it maldng llicft c^ 
(ervations, nor mu-ft the a^or deliver them as if they i^ere only in* 
tended to amufe the audience, by the defcription, or the poetry, 
l}ie}r are but the perturbations 6f a difturbed and rei^left fiMm that 
ineditates only to put thoughts into action* The glorious diadem is 
ihc^Qiininsr objc^, the firfl moving principle. On this ke is fo tii« 
cent, of this he is fo fu'll, th^ eveiy otticr thought is an adpM^ of 
this, and contains fome circum (lance to pt*omote ot confirm himhr 
his great defign* The a<^or therefore who would fhew Richvrd 
iuch as the poet has drawn him, muil not come with an even toi^ 
and pace, and fpeak hU part ; he nuifl poltcfs the anxiety, tha fuf* 
ficioB, the diUiiiMilatioiv and ^e intrepidity of At charaf^,^ 


JfHien be lirft ftu^es it, be flioold beunremittiagfv amnttve to theie« 
and a* diligeat at every repedrion, to recall the utroe train of think* 
in^, IcA the mind ihould fufter thofe ideas to die, or become 
feeble, with, which at firft tt was ftron^ly imprefled; and ia 
«f every other character. Mr. Smitk hat indubitably ereat 
powers; tt depends only upon himfelf to make a great me of 
them ; but he appears to ha ire lofl Jnuch of tbat ferrid umbition« 
that theatrical enthufiafm, which iiril bids the youth become 
a hero, and muft afterwards teach him to be one; perhaps the re- 
titmiik^ taflc of the public^ and the genius of a^ Siddons^ may revive 
in hin& that hal^exnnzuiQied glow, without which no mac can be 
a great a<^or« Comedy feems mor^ fuitable to his genius and his 
temper ; in th^t, his words and a^ons come with fuperior force and 
meaning, and though we are fometimcs tired with his want of va- 
riety in declamation, we are always delighted with his eafc and viva- 
tity in the fine gentleman*- He has long given the public plcafurr, 
and they owe him n>acb ; hfi may, whenever he pleaies, encreaie the 

Mr. Benfley is by no means fo happy as Mr. Smith in exterior^; 
]ie is fuf&ciently tall, but thin ; the lines of his face are fliarp, his 
eye is too prominent and apt to glare; his nofe gives an acrimonious 
appearance to his vifage, and renders it extremely difficult for him 
to expreis tendemefs or grief, without burlcfqiiin? the paffion. 
Tbefe are his ^misfortunes not his faults; and thefe he frequently 
overcome and makes the ipe<5btor forget. His demeanor on the 
ftage is that of a gentleman, and his delivery that of a man of 
ftnie. He exprefles fortitude, and ilrcngth of (entiment, with more 
frmnefs and dignity than the generality of perfonners, and never 
mistakes, though he cannot always convey the feelings of his Author, . 
Hit voict |iud afpe<ft feem peculiarly adapted to the tytabf, thou^^h 
we do no( remember ever to have feen him in that kind of charafler. 
Every peribn has fome habitual defc<ft.< ; Mr. Smith too frequently 

• half clofes and fccnis to peer out of his eyes, which thouf^h proper and 
erpreffive in the jealous Kitelv, is wrong in the generous Haftinjgg. 
Mr. Bcnlfey when he tWkes his breaf!, feems to turn upon a pivot 
tnd make two or three efforts before he can accomplifli his intention^, 
This, gives (bmetimes an air of ridicule to die adiiou, which he is 
•liot aware of. It may tikcwife beobferved, that this a(^ion noble 
^nd expreffive ia itfel^ is degraded from its dignity, by a too fre- 
quent ufe on the ftage. Mr. Bendey alio has a mode of dwelling 
#00 loftg upon the laft exprelfive fyllabk in the half clofe of his pci- 
Twif and of (inking too low to be audible at the condunon of his 
fenttnces. Thefe obfervations, atui all in >\'hich errors are noted, are 
made torefbriiL, not to wound. It vi'ould be ungrateful to overlooli 
1^ very excellent hianner in which this performer played the cha- 
fa^tof Omar in^ the tmgedy of the Fair Cxrcaffian lafl fcafon. 
JBveryperfon who heard, will eafily recolleft the pleafure they re- 
ibeived, when he threatened by the haughty Almoran, with a dc- 

^pprmiiiedf cool, ytt forcible tone, look, and gcfture, replied 

** The* death ftood ready with his bowflring, 
Qnunr dace t^sm the firmnefs of bid virtut-^ 

U} • Vn. 

UnawM, undaunted like a faithful fubjcAt 
Dare unappallMy tell Alnmran hc*s guilty-v 
TcU him, whene'er he deviates into rice ; 
Prcfumcs that kings arc left to range at large, 
0*er the Heaven-guarded property of others. 
And trcfpafs on the fovVeign rights of man-r 
Then tell him that he merits well the fcorn^ 
Of cv'ry loyal heart-r^a king no more-?- 
A king ;-r-the public father, born to blefs. 
And court the imiles of all bis fubjedl children .^^ 

In comedy likewife there is a particular caft of chara£kr, for the 
^rformance of which Mr. Bcnflcy is peculiarly adapted. Th^. 
Mifanthrope; or the Man of Strong Senfe, who has flrong paflions 
of which be is afhamed. His Old Batchelor, Plain I)ealer, and ^ 
good part in a vcrj' indifferent Comedy, called the Eaft Indian^ 
jvhich was played lail feafon in the Hay market, are indances of bis 
excellence. His performance likewife of old Wilmot at the fame 
theatre, in Lillo*s beautiful, but barriblc tragedy of the Fatal Cu- 
iriofity, docs great honour to him as an a<^or. 

The abilities of Mr. Palmer are fo rarious, and fo fuperior in 
comedy, that it is almoft ungenerous to fpeak of him as a tragedian, . 
in which they are by no racans adequate. His figure is exceedingly, 
good and his face handfome, even the roundnefs of his flioulders^ 
?*'hich in moil forms would be an infurmountablc blemifli, in him 
icems eafy, if not elegant. On the flagc, he always appeals conver- 
(ant in the manners of the times ; and the fop, or the fine gcntle- 
inan, arc by him perfonated with equal facility and prccifiou. His 
performance of Jofeph Surface, in the School for Scandal, has been 
confidcred by fdme as a maftcr piece of a<5liag, and fo gisnerally 
ipeaking, it is : in places however it is defe^ivc. His aflre£bed whine 
while he delivers the fentiments, has been praifed as a true pldUre 
of hypocri fy ; thofc who confider more attentively will find, thiit 
liypocrify is continually fearful of dete6Hon, and therefore would 
not difcover afic<5lation. One phce in particular is always remark* 
ably offenlive. In the library fcene of the fourth a6l, while Lady 
Teazle is behind the fcreen, and he is endeavouring t6 diirert Sir 
peter from a converfation whifch he is anxiouily afraid iheihould' 
hear, a fervant enters and interrupts him in the beginning of ft 
fentimpnt. This fentiment like moft of his others, he utters m- th6 
whining way above noticed, and alks the fervant what he Wanti In 
the very - fame key and tonel This, Jofeph Surface, with- fuch 
feelings, and in fuch a fituation bould not do, even if He had fo 
^ttle art as to adopt fuch a fing-fong mode pf venting his.fin^ fentl'- 
inents, and which is fo contrary to his^ufual manner of fpeaking« 
Errors of this kind excepted, his ftile of playing the charadtr is ex- 
cellent, and very diftind from what cither he, or any other per- 
former docS| or perhaps has an opportunity of doing in othet 
pieces. . *' 

Truth obliges us here to remark another fault predominant' iii Mrl 
.Palmer*8 comic ading ; which is a continual, propeniity to laugh. 
It has been obferved of him, and fome Qthera wW iU^d high b 

. . ■ . fhe^. 

Theatre. 17$ 

dieir^profcifian, and wbo are therefore the more reprehenfiblc, that 
they are frequently more bufy in playing tricks with one another, 
thatt in attending to accuracy 6f character, and prefent feelings. 
From adtors who have fludied their profeflton, who undcrftand pro-^ 
priety, and who are ambitious of fame» this couM not be expe&ed, 
could not be believed^ were it not every night too palpably re- 
peated. Do they want to make their brother performers ridiculous 
to the public ? Let us hope not, that were a deipicable efibrt of envy ; 
.and if they are only defirous of obtaining applaufe among each 
other for (bpcrior cfirontery, and command of countenance, that 
is a pitiful ambition. They violate character, they injure the poet, 
they infult their auditors, and then laugh at ' One ai;other ; they 
likewife cnrirdy difconcert adlors of lefs abilities, or lefs afllirance 
ttian themfelves. This cenfurfe is neither confined to Mr. Palmer, 
por to this theatre: it is an error grown into a habit, which if the 
players will not, the public ought to correct : it is to be hoped they 
have fenfe enough, and refolution enough thentfelves*xo begin the re- 

Till the prefent feafon^ the merits of Mr. Brereton were not fuf- 
fictently known, becaufe, as we fuppofe, they were not called forth* 
No one believed him capable of lb much feeling, or fo much ei- 
preffion as he has difcovered in Caf^alio and Ja^re. He has far 
outgone' ezpe^tloo, and as. he evidently aipires at pre-emi«- 
nence, there is no doubt but he wilfr proceed. He has (c vera I na- 
tural deficien'ces to overcome; his induflry therefore, as well as his 
talents, dcferves encouragement. His figure is good, but his fea^ 
fufes, though handfome, are not expreilive nor Bexible; his utteg^ 
ance is flow, and he is oblig^ to labour to tpake his hearer feel bu( 
lialfas much as he himfelf doies. This has given him fome auk- 
Ward and violent habits in a6>ion, to the progrefs of which in judicc 
to himfelf and the public, it becomes him to be attentive. Hf 
rlafps his hat, contra£b his arms into acute angles, il rides, and 
heaves with apparent pain, before he can give his paf^ipn utter- 
•hce. Thefe things, though tliey' originate in want of power, may 
.by care be overcome, fince ic is evident bis powers cncrcale by 
calling them forth. It was once thought vmponible for Mr. Brere- 
jlon to do what bb had done ; it is now evident he may do more, 
fits conception -of his Author is fh-ong, and his exprelHon gene- 
rs^corre^, but he, and almofl all tragctiians, fpeak too much in 
^recitative, jnay fo di^ult is it to avoid this defeat, that none are en- 
tirely free ifrom it,, I'o check this as muph as poflibl^, to keep a 
fufpiciout eye upon an error that allare guilty of, is a duty incum- 
bent upon dl, but efpeciajly upon him, whofe voice is naturally 
plaimire, and who 4s therefore more liable to be betrayed/^. Let 
Mr. Breretotr ufc lefs, much kfs 4idion, let him afFume more 
tirmnds, and keep himfelf (biHer yvithout abating his paffiou, where 
Mffion ill requifite, and he will find himfelf more at eafe, lefs em- 
Mrrafled, and a flill greater favourite with the public, in whofe 
efteem>he has lately rofein a very deferved, though in a very unexr 
pelted manner^ 

. TTwre are few men upon the ftage, if any, who give lefs offence, 
ftnd moire pkafure in tbp charaAert be \mdertakes, than Mr. Aickin 
fi Jhnry Lant. It it an unhappinefs to the public, that his pow. 


17* Simiff. 

•rt do Boe Mud kU yti4fr(Wiiifan> ud he u$emg maor adicri, k 
4 ftrong^ P*?^'. ^' *^ obferradon we fat out with* yh. how ^Imoft 
imooi&ble it iff to find aB thole woaderful endomntBtt of bbdjr 
and mindy which tre requifice to form the perfed player, conceii«L 
trate in one pcrfon. VVe fpeak of thofe playert who are to reoTe- 
ieat the hero» or the heroine^ the fine gemkinan, or the fine lady ; 
in the humoroua walk we frequently imet with more aLmoft thao we 
could hope ; for in thefe, ftrength of imagination it the thing noed* 
tiilf beauty of perfen would be a defeat* Mr. Aickin, wheUier i^ 
tragedy or comedy, always conceives, and always ezp^etict the ia« 
tentio^i and paifion of ^he author i at ie^ii| the exceptions are vtrf 
Sew. That the fpe^atort do not applaud him fo often as jhef do 
fome others, n becaufe he in general ena<Ets but iiecondary perfon^gcs 
in the drama, and becaufe they are neither diligent enough to ob« 
ierve, nor liberal enough to reward, thofe, who gire the rood dc- 
licKtc touches of their art ; but they frequently ffsit of him, stnJi 
erer With refpe^ ; he never ofiends, but he olten pleales them, mH 
Whenever he quits the ftage, it will be difficult to find fo worthy a 
^eprefentative of the numerous Dramafis Fnfina^ m whofe focks 
aiid buikins he has trod* 

It is our turn now to fpeak of an a£lor, who from fpectmens we 
have feen, does not appear to have met fi> much dif^in^iion cs be 
might were he more atpiring. Mr* Farren ha& theatrical requifitd 
that Giould place hihi high among the devotees of Melpomeae. 
A contmanding brow, a good ftatore, and the befl voice without 
exception of atiy perfon on the flage, are advantages, that, in thia 
profeflion, fhoufd promote the intereil of their owner. He has ob* 
vioUs defe^ likewife ; his figure^ for fo young a man^ has too 
much rotundity, and wants elegance ; to this he has not been enough 
attentive, or he might affift it verv materially by an eafy depcut- 
tnent, which he wants. The gootfnefs of his voice has led hini 
into another error, he fometimes rants. This like the recitative of 
declamation, woald be an univerfal fdult, wore it^uaHy in every 
fetor's power : the exceptiotis, at lead, would only reft with tho^ 
bf very fuperior geniu^* The illiterate part of an audience -eveir 
have applauded) and ever will Applaud paiion, falie or real, and 
ranting always gives the counter&it of paffion. -To prodace a clap 
IS a circumflance fo flattering to anadfor, a thing at which his ambi« 
tion fo continually aims, that yttv tery iew haveMie fortitinie to ra- 
fifl the temptation, eVen though their judgment cbndenas the means 
by which they Obtain it. ** To fplit tl^e ears of the groundlingay** 
has been the pradHce, and the complaint^ from the 4»ld days of 
gbodman Shakcfpeare, to the prefent popfl age ; and will fo cooti* 
nife. Thofe actors who have arrived at great excellence, have air 
ways Iqarnt the fecret of retraining their voice without, enfoeblio^ 
the fentiments, or the feelings of the poet, till thev caa>e to fomc 
particular paffage where fUperior exertion is abfbi»tcly maifitc^ 
iod then of barlting forth like a peal of thunder upon their SKooiih- 
od bearers. Thus when Mrs. Yates ufed to prono\mce the fonow-> 
ing lines in the Roman Father, amazement and fofpeocc cnorofefed 
^ cv^ry fidutid. 

*' Sutkd oflT-^ ami not ftiad^ 
Nay drtw thy fword-^ <l6 defy rtiec— murfkref^— 
BarbftrnHi-^.M#«M/r — mad? — Thenattieof R«ni» 
Maket madmeQ of yo«i all — my ciirii» oa tt-^ 
« I €!6 decefi its tmpioOs (xolicy— 

A>ie— *rift y« Srnfe8-^(0h that my ^cc CcuM fi#c 
,Yow ta^dy wrath) -^Confound itt ielfifh greatneft 
R4& itt ^roiid waHf and iajr ki towers in albea.^ - 

Jfrdt &tflti, i^hcn 

'< He called fo kmd that all the hdllow deep 
« Of Hell refeuod^d* * ■ ■ 

t»« Htfard with toott aftonifhmettt, or mort effi^ually rdufed hi 
Andttofs, than We have hedfd Mrs. Yates in this fpeech. Biit thf» 
^rm dftft could nqt have been product, if her voice hiui bce& 
Itr^uned^ im^rxt^^ and half-exhaufted by continiTed vociferation* 
Wdthkr docs It follow* that (lie wjis tame and irt lipid itt the reft of 
Ihe pjift. The expfeilion of paflion is feen in the eameft eagemefe 
of deKMddt of reply, of apprehention, in the anxiety of ffifpcnfe, 
the station of the (!et>, of the look» and the tremulous accent of 
fear. The whole fotce of the toice (hould be teftff ted for fome ex- 
traordinary afid great occdiidn. There is a climax in the charac- 
ter, as well as in the peHod, which if aitccnded to, will raife an ac- 
tor's repmatlottf far moi-e effedluallv than a few extorted 4nd ill- 
jmlged plaudits. We wifh we conid make the public more judi- 
ciona in beftowing their fatfourt, for as long as the fpe^tof wiN 

fiv^fbofifh pratfe, the player will receive it. With refpcdtoMr* 
arren we repear, we are afraid he wants ambition, that is, that he 
wants that dtgf^ of it which ftimulates the mind, and makes it 
refllefi Under inferiority, that Incites ftudy and attention, malces the 
fancy glow when it obftfv'es beauties In competitors, with the ar- 
dour Ofgenerous fivalftiip, ^nd burn to outdo what tvtrv one Allows 
•o be excellent. The lift of an a£tor fliould be molt affiduoufly 
irmpkijed. He fliould be perfcaiy acquainted with the cliara^tcrs 
of men living and dead. In the morning he fliould read, in the 
evening nake obfervations on life and manners ; during the time of 
performance he fhould never be out of the theatre, but look with 
unremitting care into whatever is erroneous, or whatever is pro- 
per, pleafing, or delightful: in thofe who are mod eminent* In 
bis carriage and depo««ment, nothing (liould be too minute to efcapc 
bif notice ; when he commits (he words he is to utter to memory, 
he fhonld never lofe light of the meaning or paffion of a finglc line 
in bis part4 He Ihould determine what and how much aoion b 
prc^r, and be as perfe<St in that, as in the repitition of the words, 
otherwiie his gedurcs will many of them be unmeaning, unfuttable, 
wad impemnent. He (hould continually be recalling to his fancy 
how the person he reprefents, were he really there, would behave ; 
that he may not fuffer a look or motion to eicape unworthy of hii 
hero, or a^ beneath bis dignity, or his feelings, when they ihould be 
more forcibly called forth. Whoever were thus anxious and thua 
ioduftriouBi with Mr. Farren*9 natural endowments^ could not fail 

tft Thtatn. 

of being highly didipguiniecl. He has kcquired reputation as if ii, 
we hope to fee It rncrc^fe gn hundred fold. 

Xhe younger Mr. fiamiiftcr ia a very promifing a6Vor, though 
he labours under fome defe6is at preient^ which are apparently, the 
defers of immaturity, but whichy if he is not very careful, will give 
him falfe habits that will remain when the caufes of them ^re vanUhed* 
His voice has not yet attained either all its flrength, or compafs ; 
bis fpeechy there^M^ is fometlmef flow and laboured, and hi$ paufes 
improper. The clofe of his periods is fo fMiik^ that the words/of* 
ten become unintelligible. His deportment wants eaie and fiability, 
his (lep is too fltprt, and he is too apt to retreat and advan^ alter* 
nately. In recompence forthis, he fpcaks not only with propriety, 
but fpirit ; his eyes are animated, 9na the injuries ,or refentnjyeots of 
his cbarh(!^cr glow upon his countenance. , His figure w^njts fome of- 
^hat rotundity, of which we complained in Mr. Farren, but though 
.' we know of no pradical expedient inllantly to redu.ce fi;te, yet fur(»>^ 
ly the ^ili^ance of art might aid the oppofite deficiency ; if sot^ 
who (liould embowel poor Old Jack ? Mr. Bannifler-has more un»' 
dcrjlanding than ^noA .men of his years ; if h^ catches but:a fpark of 
that fervid, that perilling ambition, of whyrh we have ipol^tn be- 
fore, he may be more perhaps, than at prefent he afpires to.- He 
mud not, however, fuppofe he yet has learnt the ar; he profeiIef«< 
Jet hha -look round, and he will fee many of his feniprs \Yho are (Ul| • 
in the accidence. He who imagines that when he knows, (hat'h^ 
knows all, will never improve. It is the province of genius to thinlc 
but Hghrly of piift acquirements and pafl performances, 'becaufc it 
perceives the poffibility of doing much more, ai)d much better. 

We fliould now proceed to an examcn of Mrs. Siddons, but the 
meriis of this la>ly are fo great, the fuccefs die has met with (o un» 
common, and the attention paid her by the town, fo full^of refpe^l^- 
that we Ibould think ourfclvcs deficient in the regard we owe our 
rtaders were we to fpeak of her in too (hort and defultory a man* 
Mcr ; for which reafon we mufl defer it to another number, having 
H I ready employed as much room as the nature of our plan will at 
JoA, uppii ^hr prefent article, , . 


For the E N G L I S H R E V I E W, 

(Contlnutd from our Idfi,) 

^ I «HE moft difiinguUIung Mature of the prcfent times is an tr^ 
X ^^^^ fpinr of commerce* In former ages, nations contended 
ka military renou^n and extent of dominion : in the prefeat* foi 
adrantages in trade. The empire of coiKjueil is fuperceided by that 
of roanufaftureSy and na violation . - \ 

The Amct icans, when they tirft avowed to the world their pre- 
tenfi6ns t6 independence, folicited the favour of the European u»* 
tionai by holding up to their view, the allurements of a free trade. 
The ports of An[>cnca were to be open to the (liips of evonr nation 
of toe earth. Mankind were inritcd to break the bonds which 
Ofi^t Britain bad impofed on American commerce, and by < pro- ^ 
jnocing the liberal views of an infant ftatc, firuggrmg with tymnny 
and oppreffion, to advance the general luipptnefs of the world. One ' 
of the rooifl enlightened nations in Europe, was the HrA to take 
an active part on the lide of a p^ple, whofe eflforts, if fuccefsful^ 
wouUI open new channels of commerce, and humble the over* 
bearing infoleoce of a proud and hated rival. Long had -France 
aimed at uniyerfal dominion, and waited her. ftrength in vain at- 
tempts feo fubdue her confederated ncighbo'urs. The fyfiem of het. . 
policy Was changed in the end of the rejgn of Lewis XV. This 
change mav be traced to the experience of difappbintment in her 
ichenies o( ambition ; to the jealoufy with whicTi neighbouring na- 
tions watched the balance of power ; to the juft and liberal views 
of ptogreffive commence and political wifdom. 

Jn a monarchy where the gcnitrs of the Prince has fo great 
iaflaence on the difpolitions of the people, a fpiiit of war ift the 
cabinet, would have furtnounted the general inclination to the arts 
of peace; and diifufed itfi^lf throughout all ranks of the nation* Bus' 
Lewis XV. loved trancjuillity : and the heir apparent to his crowa 
diicovered the mo(l amiable proofs of benignity, but not that ge- 
nius which is necelTary to conduct, or that ambition which prompiB 
the operations of war. The French nation faw the imbecility of 
jtheX^upbin: and Lewis XVL was to be great by the ai:ts of peace*. 
This was the tone of JF ranee : and it guid^ the views of the. pliant 

But the c^>portunity of weakening Gieat Britain, which wa* pre* 
fented by the ncvolt of America, was fo inviting, that it muil have 
been embraced even by the moft pacific cabinet. The Independence 
of America beii^ now cffeAed, and the commerce of France, her 
ally, prodigiouily extended ;. the court of Verfailles will return to 
that tone which it had aiTumed before the commencement of the 
war, and profecute the aggrandizement of the nation, . by manufac- 
tures and trade, not the force of arms. It is in vain to ima« 
^ine, that the French, from an anlbition of conqueft, will involve 
tiiemfelves in quarrels with America, or any other power* The 
vkwi of that enlightened people are padfic, modecatei wife, and 


l8d Jfationai Jfiurs. 

. juftf T^Lty are now fenfible tbot domdKe induftry^ not extc&ftvt 
ierritoiSe«^, ferms the real firength and ^reztntkoiz aatioQ. 

With (hefe difpofitions, it is not \\kety that France will com^ 
;inence hoilllities agaidft EngUnd, unlef^ Ae is proiroked by ibme 
inJAiry. Her forti^tng Chand»maj;ore^ 6t« Pierre, and Miquekm, 
are proofs that fhe is refotved to defend her own rights, but nor diat 
ftK lAtendf m in'Tade thoie of othersw Peace will probably co«f •> 
nue for m long courfe of ytcars : and truk will certainly rebomnd 
with an etfilipiry pr«poi;d<mcd to kt lait oomprcffioa, «Bd fa » r U k 
•nure ihan it ever has done in any period. 

The condu<5t of Sp^in, in the l^tc. conteft between 0peat Britam 
«nd America, apparn^ a ftriking inflance of political inftttiadon : -the 
^wealth of that nation lies in iu illands in the Weil Indies^ and ita 
^r^vinccs on the American Continent. Is it poSbW tint te ^oaHi 
' wi(h to fee a mighty independent empire of co^federaied r epuW ica 
tftabiiihed in the neigh^onthood of all her tfeafuret ? It ii fmfyt' 
h\e that the -Sptinkrds v/tytr imagined that the American fltwgie 
vould have tcrminamd ai it has done. England, tfa«y e»eSe4^ 
^onld retain her foreraignty over at leaft> a part 3of W comiiet | 
atid it is evident they wiftieU (lie (hould. The SpaniA Mmniftk 
foflared to mediate a p«ace between America apd £ji|;laiKl» an^'the 
-fbmm^ afnti ptJIUetisy at a time when thelatttr w«t m'|poflefiiMi>«f 
-Ot^aia, Not'a Scotia, New York, the Floridas, Qaorgiai and tl|» 
Canrtfiia^. Tbeie views were wife and (biid : Uyt 'thut Wo l4n4 
po^at* wotild have been eftabliihed in North America, and tfa#4l»» 
wittioDe of Spain would have found fafety in t\ytif Rmtoal cootcoM 
tton^ The Spamfii nation is tindoubtedlv much dtfcoacerted by liit 
Midoe^pation of the Britifh colonies. NortV America, 6«#d fmm 
#11 fiureptfan contixHil, will be at liberty to break with Soain %t^mf 
time, without diflurbing the peace of Europe, Or inferefting atty aif 
Its pQf^j^m in the qtiarreL The family conne^oa between .11^ 
vouit^ of France and Spain, and the denre of reveiige for -feraer 
loAea, hav<e prompted Spam to aid a pow«r |ha( mnft fooa frtn^ 
^fotal to her dominions ih the weftem world. ' 

It has been faid, that France^ having valuable poftfl iaaa io'tha 
WeH Indiei, ought al(b to have dreaded the indepeikknee of ^Fot|ll 
Aimenoa, from a iimilar caufei Butjt ought to be eooGdrtad, thic 
the ooHeffions &{ France bemg iflatids, can have nothing to appro- 
•kend from th« independent fovereignty of the Uof^ %ti^^ 
?fanice, (Irengthetted by extended oommeree, wilt at aU timas Imivs 
a .fleet fufhcient to proted her foreign dependencies ; and i^ oaa atr 
1^ be the intereft of America to have aify conoera^Wkli the Ffinacli 
Wed Ittdia iflaods, but in the way af tradet At aify rate, the pa- 
Yiod of the adjacent idaada being aanCTdd to the faveit^gaty ef Af 
7tierioi,-doe6 not appear to be to near, at fome laay '«magiae« A 
long coiirf<;of time rauiielapfe, before the United States of Aaia> 
yi^a ran equip n naval force, eqtial to the Britifh, <n even to the 

h i III II I II I III I 11 III ■ ■ n il I r I I I I ■ III ■ f i , I. ■ . T '• I I M 

^ When a deputation oi the Tohago Merchants waitad on Mk» 
^yneval, the converfatidn turned on the reftoratton oi the Fiari^ 
das to Spain* lie iM^ fmiling^ tha Kia^. of Spain kr^«a to Imvc 

a greatcrad of «efric«ry« ' * . -. . 


mcniiati 48tff of the two branches of Bourbont. BvK with i^jpiT^ 
to Sp^tn, the pofition of America is diSortnu Befiore rhc pmmi 
pMc«» Dothiog feparaied thcfe powers but i rirer. The odfioa of 
tbe Floridas to €^sufi wat ooe of the w'lMi articles* on the' part of 
Oreat Brttain^ io the hue padficatkm. Their TscsAity to the Ame'^ 
vkran provioces will precipitate a quarrel between the United Sum 
tmi Spain. The cofitrariety of the dtfpohitontt. maimeriy ^vA ha* 
hitl of the North Ametiams, smd Spaniard! , it fueh, that H it iHH 
poffihle tiiev fliotild iWe together, for any time, in aaiity* The 
mpcure is likely to happen the {boner, that both thefe aatiorn con* 
fider cHeoMws as haring beea ? id^orjous in the late war. Suecefii 
a«ak«s and nonrifiies aiBbiti<M3* Both America end Spain a<« foff 
ptoud, tatsely to Aiiier any of thofe iocroachmeots aud tDf«Ji«»f 
wittck nraft ooaToidahly artfe from the Ticimty of thek doMK 

The cotido6^ of the United Prorinces of the Nethertaadtr i9 tte 
haa ^svteft, aippcars at imaccoitatabk upen a&^ principles of fotind 
pliey, as that of Spain* The United Provm^ had loo^ betM 
■tdafe ailaaoct with Great Britain. The principal ohyc^- at ikM 
ailiaMBC was . their oommon iafety, and pror^e^Hon agaiaO the amhii* 
liana dafi^ of a dangefoos neighbour. In the necent w«r* tMt 
9tme^- jnaed their arms with thofe of Fr^ince, to hAimble # 
p aa mc that-fitpportt their independence on that new allv, aod c^ 
■dfe up 4o thconfelvea a moik dangerous, riral in every bfandi •of 
male. Hie two rreatTpuree^ of the Dutch weahh and power^ gr# 
gboir^flioncsv and their freights for other nations* Io both thtf^ 
AntncM-nrntt iben interfere with then. The New EngUnders bcf- 
gaa to fftval then in thoie branches before the war. And there if 
■at a 4auht ^ttt they will lefiuMe them now^ and aurry tkevi 'OH 
mitli nwccH* 

The Eanpefor, and the King of PruiBa, not being commencii^ 
paweff, were bitt little inter«(l^ in the eonteft l>etvreen En^^d 
and her colonies. It is,, however, matter of furprize, that the. em? 
ptror Sd not ieice the opportunity, which the junt^re of tho 
teatf aad the fituation of Ijolland afforded, of opening the nnvi^ 
wtio o of the Schtid^ and reviTit^ the commerce of AntsuHrfy. o»C0 
ibe empoiinaft of the world, and whofe inhabitants polTefs,, even al 
llm^ay, weakh AiiKeient to £orm a ibck for an eatenGve tradew 
nera is ground to iasagine, that this political and ambitious pnnot 
miii%»ut an a«t»Dk on theTurkiib domitiions in Europe. Hi»i¥ar«' 
like preparations muft bare fbme obje6^ ; and when we confidtr -tht 
i ^n npto aB S af dlami tkmt appear in the Ottoman Forte, there is no 
oli^e^ that ^pearo io likely to be the real one, as that which haf 
btcafliefltioaed. If time ihoald prove tbe jttllnefs of this coiyeo 
t|»e, the world will not be at a lois to account for the inadivit^ 
aif 4th« Bn^wror, on an oecaiion which feeracd to tempt his anlbk* 
tian. With £o gnmd an eoterprize In contemplation as an aMck 
an the Tw^tidi emptre, it would hare been impolitic, lo h»v^ 
lalHb n fcp whioh would have provoked the vemtmf nt of thf' 
Oatds «oct alarmod the jfakrafy of PruAa» 

UiaiMt improbable, that Praffia and Rudta ntay be invited by thf 
^tQpiOJDOif hisdefignf agaiuft the Tuxkat bythepaoBMip^ a 


tit National AffairL 

fttfire in the plunder. The partition of Pohmd ^ili drovtr afle'r k- 

masiy important conftqucncea. Airihkious and powerful prince* 

. have found out a rery convenient method of nuikin|^ conqueSsi It 

. it an eafier^ m well a m6re adrantageous plan of policy, to unite 

^ their arinsy for the porpofe of plundering (oroe neigh bouriog-power* 

than to go to war with each other. 

If the -TurkS) in order to nvert the impending flontif ilMtll make 
important facrifices^ in refpe^ to trade : if they Aiall open to the 
Rulliam and AuflrianSy the navigation of, what we {ball call, the 
TurkiHi feas ; a rivality and jealoufy of trade would aii(e between 
thefe nations of the one part, and France of the olheij at. tbit 
-kingdom has long been in poileflion of the greated ihare ci the Le* 
v^nt trade, l^is jealoufy and competition would not be unlmpor-' 
tant to Britain, as it would draw thofe bonds dill dofer, that unite 
her with the courts of Peterlburgh aiid Vienna in political intereii^ 
' and friendlhip* • 

With refpe6^ to the great northern powers, Denmark, Sweden, 
and Ruffia ; the emancipation and aggrandizement of Nqrth Ame« 
rica, appears to be no vety defifcable revolution to them, more 
than to Holland. Their productions are the fame with thofe of 
North America in every article, rice ah4 indigo, which can never 
be a foundation for any great extent ^of commerce, only excq>ted« 
Kuflia raifes tobacco for its own confumption, and bej^ns to.exporc 
large quantities to its neighbours. Flax, hemp, tar, rofin, tallow^ 
If ides, honey,' wax, wood, iron, &c. &c. ^ which form the ftaple 
commodities of the great northern European nations, are alfb the 
itaple commodities of Nonh America. Their interefta undoubtedly 
interfere in the mofl eifential points : and there does not appear be« 
tween thefe powers, any thing of that c^uordik Mfc^rt^ which arifet 
from a reciprocity of redundancies and of wants, and which tinitea 
kingdoms- differine' in refpedt of climate, foil, and natural produc- 
^ tions, in the bands of commerce, and mutual intercourfe and friend- 

If England has fuflfered an immenfe lofs in the emancipation of 
lier colonies, it is perhaps, fome confolation, that a free trade with 
North America, will contribute to the profperity of her frienda 
and allies, Portugal and Ireland. The firil of thefe kingdoms will 
iind in North America a market for its fruits and wines; the (eoond, 
- lop its linen and woollen manufa^ures : the iituation of both, which 
is precifely in the fame degrees of weft longitude, is the haj^ieil 
in Europe for commerce with the new world. 

The dtuation of Great Britain between the northern and ibudiern 
kingdoms of Europe, and at the fame time fo convenient for tranf- 
atHmtic commerce ; her credit, her ftock, her habits of manufac- 
ture and commerce, her bein^ in poireifioo, in refpe6t oC fo many 
articles of (he maiicet, her atiinity to America in bloody mapners* 
cuilomSf and rel^^ion : all thefe circumftances afiord grounds of 
lk>pe, that extended and free commerce will encreaie the wealth of 
this, as much as of any other country, that in trade (be will ihll hold 
one of the firft ftations^ and fbare larc:ely in the general firrstml^le. 
if flte no longer monopolizes the trade of Norths America, other 
ehannels ave not wanting, in which the induftry of EiiflaM may 

^ be 

national Jtffairi, l8j 

hk fWlr&M profitably tecrtcd*. The* Idft of . Vur exdufive trad« 
with (foTth Afnerrca^ ta^j be compenfated by an increaic of com* 
iBenx with Raffiay in confequeoce of that increafe of yrantSf whtch 
orifet from tbekdvaoces made in civilization throughout that cxten* 
£▼€ empire. It will be wifdom m the Court of London to cukivate m 
^ood correfpondencb with that of Peteriburgh: and it will be wifdom 
in Ruflia to promote the greatnefs of .England. For^ fliould £n-* 
gland ever become fubordinate to France, the latter would give the 
law both in the Mediterranean anil the Britifli feas, and controul 
the power of every commercinl rival. It it the intereft of Ruflaa 
to hold the balance between thefe contending nations* and to fup- 
port a power whofe friendly ports are ever open to receive her fiecta 
amidft the dorms, whether of the raging elchoentt, or of war. 

It is curious to remark the power of the various fympathies and 
antipathies that divide or unite diflferent tribes of mortals.. Among 
the fympathies that unite men* there is fcarcely any fo powerful as a 
ftmenefs of language. On- this account it is fortunate that the 
Engliih language is planted and has taken fuch root in North Ame* 
xica, that it mud flourifb on that continent for ages. The time in* 
deed will come when an American and an Engli^bmsin will as littld 
underftand each other's language, as an Engltfhman does that of a 
Dane, a Swede, or a German : and when an Anieriean antiquary 
iball delight in tracing the affinity between his own and the En* 
glilb tongue, in the fame manner that a BritiQi antiqtuarv traces the 
refemblance between the Englifli language and that of Scandinavia 
and the northern parrs of Germany. But that period ia remote s 
aad before it arrives many important revolutions will have totally 
changed the prefent flate of the world. The French nation^ ieu- 
£ble of the political importance of language, have laboured to 
rive lability to their own, and to extend its empire over the world. 
2o Riiffia the number of perfons who have been feut out, by the 
Courf of ' Verfailles, an4 encouraged to propagate the French lan- 
guage in that empire~is prodigious. I'he prevalence of the Ftench 
language and French manners at Peteriburgh, ha» operated no iu* 
coiwderable political effeds. It has given a prcpofleHion in fome in- 
fiances injBivour of France and again ft England « 
; The plefent month of February, an sra that will for ever b 
ineniorable in the hiAory of Europe, has given a frefli proof of tha t 
llu^uation and change, apd fpirit of party, which have fo long dif- 

f raced Englifli councils, and which have in -fa^ diOnembered the 
Iritiih empire, A coalition has taken place between the .leaders of 
two great nidioos ; Liord North and Mr. Fox. This is the fourth 
cbfnge of^mtniders in the courfe of twelve mouths* It was con^ 
^flintt in Lord North to reprobate the rerms of the prefent peace* 
•The dtreli^ion of. the loyaliils, the conceflions made |o the enemiti 
of Britain in every part of the globe, without any conceiBons on 
their part in return, and the bribe that was given to the American| 
by Lord Shelburne, through the hands of that exevutit^er tf bis 

country^ Mr. R d O— d, are circumdances which juflify the 

oppofition that was made to a motion for applauding the 

condu^ of the minifter of the day, and thofe who r^ged 

chMtfclrf; under his ftandard. It is not fo cafy to reconcile tha 

^ prefent 

if 4 kiitlMal Jjfkmu 

preftntcottduAof Mr. F6v to i^^yMMi^^dcvlantiofu^ 'Wbcn iw 
cinie tmo pawer tht otfioa wm » a (kplefsblt' fiMMUon, e«ir fle#t 
was MbaUe to ccm with flmt ok Ftaoee and Spaki, aiid peaot o«t 
•ay itmt wM prewrable to war. Now be fio^ it convcsient to iajr 
she MM^9 by the entrtioM of Kit r«Ution LordKcppeU hat ftmedup* 
in the ^ourar of a h^ nonths to a dt^t^ t>f rdTpe^^atnli^ that tf , 
ibrfnidabk to the ¥n)rU[y which met Britain a title to didate^ ncC 
tcr receive the termt of peace* How great th^ cradulity, or how 
violent the animofitiet of a nation in which iuch aiertioat can b« 
. niade without ihame, and Mceived with acdahR<and appn>baMoa« i 

The nation at thit moment waits for the new aratfgcmedtt that 
•re to form an adminlftrsition, withotit any ▼itihle iignt of curiofitj 
oranxi^y. Its curiofity, coocorntngf political vevokidonty iecoM 
•o bt fomewhat hlunted by the rapid changetthat have happened ib 
often in the Cabinet. It it poffible that i.ord Korth and viu Fox 
can ^ longhand in haad« and condu^ the at&nrt of the }>ubttc wkli 
harmony and concord } How are they to ibttio between tbem the 
important point of the reformation of the eonilitution ? Or it Lord 
North to relinciuift his former prtociplet) and to fit in thM O^^ 
hinet which purftiea meaCuret, in hit opinion, r«tnout lo tte 

The fite of the £arl of Shelbume wHI be bat lirtk fcgvetted by . 
thofe who recoiled the craft and duplicity of hie coodnd. In ordor 
to obtaili tbt fipvour of his fovercirn, and of all who wfiiod for the 
profoerity and glory of £nglandt he openly maintained that the [im 
•f England vowli fit the- mommu InJfptndency fitouid ht f^amiei. m 
AmtrUa^ ^Tbe inference to be drawn from this loRguage plainly 
wot, that if he were at the head of adrntniftracioo, he would makja 
Ibme noble eSbrts for rei^oring the power and the famaof GncatBri* 
tain. But more anxious to fecure his own power, he condudod hafiy 
peace t at thit moment however he has the morttdcatioo of being 
drirenfrom office, afrer having exhibited the moft ihrildng proofs that 
can be conceived, of artifice >ind inconliftency o^ coAdu^. It it 
faid that he had formed an admirable plan of finance : on thit ae- 
Oeunt perhaps his fall it to be lamented. The flu&uation that takea 
place in the Britifti Cabinet, mud needs excke a degfoe of aktmia 
foreign flatet. They may imagine that a mition which hat fo 
Ihronglyexprefled her difapprobation of the termt of peace, will fooa 
prepare for war. Bur fucb fufpicions, if they exiil, are not 
*well founded. Whatever adminiftration fuoceedt will avoid, if 
pofible, a renewal of hoiHilittes, and Audy to maifKaan peace, as 
the greatefl fccurity of their own power. The refafal of tbeijotilt 
of Commons H nff r g i ft the termt of f^t^a^^ mantMh, tint tbo 
fpirit of ' the nation tt yet high, and fcornt 4!o iubmtt vidmit 
fome marks of feeling, to difgrace and humiliation^ 



F«r M A B. C B. 1783. 


pmklic. By Adam Fergufon^ L. L. D. Prrfeflbr of Moral Phi- * 
lolb|^y in the iTdhreHity of EAobtfr^h. Ilkidrcted with 
Ifaqpi^ 4tD. )^ Toli. il» C2f • M^ bo«hlt< Smihatt Mid Caddk 

IT It II teHUttOfV obfermtion^ diiC tboogh lament phi-* 
loiMllili^ tNd dvrmes ha?e drftingaiftied tfaetmichm in 
rem BrioriA it mmtIj period, it cannot hoift of any ac-^ 
MMflUhal liift^yriM tHi of luM timas. Tkb obfenration, 
howiy^, «« dloft Mnfeib, dews not appear to u^ to be per-< 
MStty fMltfootWted. It h cnir opinion €bat in at£m fiateor 
gdvernnfeot, the ftndjF of Uftory miift neceflarily be one oi 
tbe e«rlk»ft dMwtmdfitt in literature that will be culdvatect 
itidk <mte« Nor are there wanting fufficient lotborities to 
lbppo^thi«p<^«ion. Sir Walter Ralc%b who was iUuf- 
triont oof onif ae af connicflr and a foldier^ but as a mart of 
^MkA, wft>M hiftory with aom advantages tlian any writer 
we kMW of in the preTem age. Sir Thomas More eivcelted 
ift hi<iof}i3al painting^^ui^ ddcriptions. Sir Francis Baoort 
^4f\Mfti ah #irtMf^ eloquence and profound wifdom iii 
ht$ tcdoUnt Of the feign of Henry VIL And my Lord 
Herbert hasr p^itra^d tke aftiont of Henry VIII. with » 
AtecHioni. a per^iemnr, and a difcernment which have bden:' 
ftkl6M#itber dqnalMor forpafied. 

B«€ thoi%li ovkt more ancient luftoriaas are ckfenrodly U« 
ItlftriofM^ h if iMt 10 bo denied, diat in otn* own tinee, 
iMHy htilorlcal wdt»ry haw attained to i high reputation 
sMtf cdi^bri^. The p^m i^feems to be pecttlhartv foind 
^hillorical ft tidies ; and its encouragement has producdt 
many competitors in a literary province, which af!ords pet^-^' 
^pe, the moft extenfi^ fix^ fof the exertionf of ability 
ttxr genius. 
JtKv. V^. I. Mar. 1783. N Dr. 

Dr. Fei^fon, who has advanced bimiclf to a place amo^ 
|hilofophers by his cflay coticefiung civil focicty, has pub- 
filhed the Hiuory of the Progrefs and Termination ot the 
Roman Republic; and it muft be allowed that this per- 
fonni|ince>entitle9;hifl^tano infenor nm1% aiuong tbtbiiW* 
^ians who n«w flouufli iiuGreat Britain. « « .* J^ 
. The fubjeft he undcrtatles irof great grandeur. It com- 
prehends the moft inftruftive revolutions of fortune. If 
exhibits a widd^and exteudcJ pi£tu9e of^nanVu^d; and re-* 
fers to tranfaAiohs under afpeas* tlve nvoft vmnous, and thcr 
Eioft interefting. It includes the moft fingular add the moft 
eminent men> who have fuftatncd the honours of their kindyi 
and affords the bi;igbtefi enawiplcg of polkical ability, miti-' 
fary prowefs, and public yirtue and probity. Its importance 
hiaced canflot be difpttted ; and it is our purpefe to confider 
(be propiiiety with wliich he has executed xhe difficult tadk ju 
)\'hich he has engaged. ^ 

^ The chief obje« whrcli tlic learned Autlior had in vicw^ 
in the volumes before us, was to detail * tb^ great rcvolu- 

* tion» by which the republican form of government was 

* exchanged for defpotifm; and by which the. Romair 

* people, £pom being joim fovereigns cl*, a gytateiQpire» bcf 

* came, together wi^ their own provioiccs, the rubjeAs^ 
r* and oftentl^piej, of a tyranny, which was ^oaUy cruel 

* to both* *. Tlus defign, whUe k is limited ia its nature^ 
is philofbphical and fyi^ematic in its tendency ; and ^>pOir 
thefe accounts^ we muft own, that we cannot but object to- 
rt. I. From the limited intention of the Hiftorian it «- 
fults that he hurries Over the darket ages of the Romaic 
ftory with a rapidity that precludes inftrudtion;. and as^ 
every book ought to oe perfect in itfclf and fatisfa^ory, the 
Reader feels tlvj unealinefs of traverfing at full gallop ove». 
fields which he meant to, examine with an anxious curiofity*. 
i. BVom the philofophical or fyftematic obje£t of exhibiting; 
€hie% the revolution of the Roman government from thp 
republican form to the miferies of delpotifm, it follows 
that the narration of the Author has imbibed a fofpictoiMi 
tin&ure. An accurate obfervcr perpeives him preifing tm-^ 
6nt particular point ; and be cannot eafily be convuiced that. 
tins dire&ion of his inind does not miflead hi^f underftand- 
Ingand perplex his induftry. We mull, therefore ackjftow- 
ledge, that it wouki have pleafed us better; if the Author 

:fiftd.begun his narration with the building of Rome, an4 

* Vol I. p. 3. 


had continwd a full, a detailed, and regular exhibition of 
fSifts tfS the deipotical times of the Emperors. 

But though Dr. Fergufon from what we conceive to be a 
defeft' of his plan, has ncglcfted too much the earlier hif« 
toVy of the Romans, it is to be obfervcd, that he has at- 
tended with care to the origin aad progrcfs of the Romaa 
cooftitution. This portion of his work is inftru£tive and in* 
lerefting. It iUuilrates in a forcible degree his knowledge of 
afiairs, and his polttical ragBk:ity. 

From the sna of Tiberius Gracchus, our Author enterr- 
more ininutcljr ihtd the tranfaAions of the Remans ; and 
fr^m this point he carried down a complete and orderly nar- 
ratirc to the dominations of Tiberius and Caius. This 1% 
i noble career of ftory ; and, upon the whole, he travels 
'over it fuccefsfully. He appears to be generally well inform- 
ed;' his carriage is vigorous and manly; and there is a 
£mple majefty in his ftyle. To go oyer the ground he has 
trod would however neitlier fuit the limits of our journal, not 
he pM]^r in itfelf ; but before we proceed to oner critically 
cmt opinion of his merit, it is fit, that we lay before our 
llcadets fome fpecimens of his performance. 
' 'He accounts for the cbrruption of Rome at the time of 
Cataltne*s*conlpiracy in the following manner. 

• Amobg tbc caufes that helped to carrj' the characters of menja 
Ais^^ to ilich dUlant extrcriies, may be reckoned the philofophy of 
*f)ie Greeks, which was lately come into faihion, and which was much 
mffir^ted by the higher ranks of men lA the State*. Literature being, 
by the diibculty and cxpcncc of multiplying copies of books, con- 
feed to peribns having wealth and power, it was ^n/idcrcd as a 
diftin£tion of rank, and was received not only as an ufeful, hut as a 
fifhionable accompltfhmentf . The IciTons of the fchool were con- 
sidered as the elements of every liberal and active profeflion, and they 
were prac^ifed at the bar^ in the field, in the fenate, and every whcra 
in the coududl.of real anairs. Phllofophy was considered as an orna- 
ment, as well as a real foundation of ifrength, ability, and wifdom ia 
the practice of life. Men of the world, inilead of being aQiamed of 
their fedl, afieded to employ it^ language on ever)' irYiportant occa- 
fion, and to be governed by" its rufes fo m.ich as to alfurac, iii com- 
pliance with particular fyflitms, dlilin<5tions of manners, and even of 
drefs. Tl^ey embraced their forms in philofophy, as the iec^arics in 
modem qmcs have embraced theiri in religion ; an'd probably in the 
one cafe honoured their choice by the (incerity of their faith and th« 
regularity of tbcir practice, much in the fame degree as ihcy have 
done in the other. 

* In thefe latter times of the Roman republic the fc^ of Epicurus 

♦ VW. Ciccrg's Fhilofophical Works. f The grandees had 
their flaves fometimes educated to ferv^ as (ccretaries to thcmfelvo), 
0t as preceptors to their chtldren. 

... : N 2 *i' 

tppqsm to kaiii# pearaiM i mi what FAriotua «^ifi*^«i> hm^p^'A^ 
tencuof this philofophy^ for the «iieiiik»o( iUiiK« 1ia4 mm^ W^ 
CiUco bcr citUei»^*« M«a were glutted witb tunooal piolpcri^.; tkcy 
-tkoughe th^t tb«jr were bom ta oojoywHac their Cftthcrt mi worn^ maSi, 
iaw not (he ufe of tboie auftere an4 aidiKfui virtu^ by wKick the 
State haU increaftrtft to it» prcfcnt greatnefs. . The votaries of this fc^ 
afcribed the formatkm of the world to chance, and denied th< e»- 
hlence of provideiice. They refolved the diftifi£Hons of ri^t ancP 
WTonf^ of hoMonr and dUbefiocir, m& mtrt appvltatioiit of p i eafbr tf 
and pain» Every mati*s pleafure waa to kimftlf iM (up«rc»e nila of 
aftimataoii and of adtton* Att good waa pritat»# Tke fioblbwaii s 
flMff impoAwi^that mi^t ba facceftfaily en y to yedi fmhnft ttf^o* 
fraud the ignoniai of tbaia prUatc eMoyqmtfc whila if fwmM h edtiia 
convenknciea of the wifef • To parMot ta inpu^ed, the fart o( 6k« 
iniltca and of ftatei, with whatevei eUe bcolw ki upoa tUc enjoy* 
mentsof pleafure and eafe, nuit appear anion^ the foUief of kumao^ 
life. And a fe^ under thefe impuiationg might be contidercd aa 
patrona of KcenttouToefst both m morality aod latlgSoim and <ls 
dared enamiet to mankind* Yet the Epictrrcani^ wiitn oi^ed to ar^ 
f«nent by thcMropponanii, mada fniae conceffiooa ii» to liflwn^ ««# 
many move ga flM>rali«y» T\»y adiottiad the exMbtiiei of godtf. b«» 
bp^oM thofe bdnga o# too emitad a uammta \vtm mf cmiatra m 
human affairs. Thay owihmI: thot» akIii9U|^^ vatti^ <« titHp^^atf 
to ba ipeafurod hv the pltafu^e it f^^ yea true piaaAica was (Biib» 
found m Wrtve afone ; and that ii mij^bt be aai<^r€d ia th« b^betb 
i^ptc even iivthe midft of bodily paan. Notwittti^aocUac tfaiade^ 
^i^ on the fide of moraHty* the ordinary hugua^a. of thia UA^ 
faprefentins[ virtue as a n^orc prudeitt chcace among ue pleafufas tiifc 
which men are varioufly addicted), ferved to fuppreis the ipedfic fear 
foments of conicionce and elevation of mind^ and to cisangotha ri^ 
proachb of criminality, profltgacy, or vilcnefsv by which even haU 
men arc reftrained from iniquity^ into mere imputationa o( mftafae^ 
or variadoDs of taSe« 

* Other feOs, particularly that of the Stoicks, maintained^ almofl ua 
eVery porricular, the raverfe of theft teAets^ They maiotaiaad the, 
leality of Providrnce^ and oCa comnaon intareft of ^oodaefa anjl of 
juftice, for which Providence waa eji;ePted^aiMi in wmch aff rational 
creatures were deeply concerned* Tbey allpwed, that in the natuM 
of thiugs there are many grounds opoa which we prafer or rty^aft. 
the obj^s that prefent themfatves t6 us> hot that the ohqice which- 
we make, not the event of our efforts^ decides our h^fdoeCk er^ 
ourmifcry; that right and wrong arc thcBK)ft impottanaandtht 
only gro^uiids upon which we can at aU tFrnes fafely proceecl tn our 
clioicc^ and that, ia comparifon to thifr difference^ every thing e{i]er 
is of no account; that a jufi man will ever a6t aa i£ uiere was na 

* See Plutarch, m Pyrr. The philofopher Cyneas,.b tho 
hearmg arf Fabricius, etitntanicd hif prfncc wfth an ar^tnnettt, ctj^ 
ptx)ve tbar pleaftira was the chkf goodv Fabvieius imHiod tliat tlie 
enamies o£ Koma might long ant^tak^ fuch tenets*' 

+ Cicero in Pilbnam.. - • 


F«rpiibn% H^cry ef the JUm^n It^fM^tti. iB^ 

d i kg' f UM f bm wfiM Is tlebe, a&tf iMUng eril but vtfbat is wron^i 
tKtt ^ Epicureflm tfnftoek bimiMi iHHuft wht» tkcy fuppofed all 
k> in i aciy l ts reMv^tMs mto ftppemet for pltafurtf or arcrfiofts to 
pM I tbftt bofiour sn^ dlOionour, ex6ttlehct aii4 deie^^, were con« 
fidcnctons vrhkb necontf led h> much tiobler ^nds, but which wert 
xsi muck iprettier power in comttiaiWKlig the huimiB will ; the lore of 
pteaftfe was |^yeliiig aod yiltf waft the f^rU of diffipation and 
of <loth ; the lore of \eaeellenee and hottour was aipiriog •ami iid>le^ 
atidlal to the greater extrtionfs an4 the hrghaf^ attainments of our 
Hatore* Hicy mahitahied that thein; is no private good ftparate from 
the poMic good ; thi^ the fame <]iiatities of the uhderftandittg and 
i)ie heart, wMdom, benetolence, and courafe^ which are good for tho 
ltodiTid\«d, ar^ fb Hhewife fertht public f- that cheie blmn^ ervrjr 
man majr poiefs, independent of fortune or the will of other men i 
and that whoevtr does pofleis them has nothing to hope, and no- 
thing to fear, and can hare but oae fort of emotion, that of fatifr 
fi6bonatid}05'; that his affb^bnt, and the maaiins of his. ftation^ 
as a creature of God, and as a member of ibciety, ^ead him to adfbt 
the good of matiUnd : and that for himfeif he has nothing more to 
de6re, th»p the hapoinefs of a6Hng this part. Thefe, they faid, were 
the tcnetii f>f reiribn leading to per^ton, which ought to be the aim 
of orm^perlbn whomeanstopreferve his integrity, or to confult 
luaM^t^eis, and towards which every one may advance, although 
■o one -has nduaity reathed tt^ 

* Other fc&9 aft^^ed to find a middle way between theie extremes, 
nadwttbnpied, in fpecutation, to render their doctrines more phiu6ble $ 
that is, more agreeable to common opinions than either ; bur were^ 
ttt hStt of no farther moment in human lift than as the}' approached 
ftotfie one or to the other of thefe oppofite fyftems/ 

The death of C«lar is thus defcribM by Dr. Fei^nfon. 

* In the mean time Ctriar, at the pcrfualion of Decimus Brutus^ 
though once determined to remain at home, hid changed his mind^ 
and was atreadvin the ftrects being earned to the Senate in his litter* 
9oon after be had left his own ht)Uie, % flave came thither in hafte» 
defired protc^Kon, and faid he had a fccret of the greateft moment 
to impart. He had probably overheard''the coni\)trarors, or had ob* 
lerved that they were armed ; but ftot bcinj: aware bow preifing tht 
•thftc was, he inficred himfelf to be defained till Crfai's return. 
Others, probably, had obifenred eircumftances which led to a dif* 
covery of the plot, and C«far had a biH^ to thisefit^^ g^^^n to him 
at he paOed m the iheets ; he was intreated by the perfon who gave 
itiommlytoreadir; and he endeavoured to do ib, but was pre- 
vented by the multitudes who crowded around him with numberleft 
applications; and he ftili carried this paper in his hand when he en* 
lered the Senate. 

^ Brmos and moft of the confbjrators had taken thdr places a little 
while befoTY the arrival of Cseiar, and continued to be alarmed by 
foany drcumftances which tended to (liake their refolution. Porcia, 
in the fame moments, being in great agitation^ .cjfpofcd hcrfelf to 
piititlc notfre. pte ttftened with- anxiety to erer y notfc in the ftreets ; 
fbc difoatchrd, without any pretence of buHnels, continual meifages 
fowaroi the place where the Senate was aflenibled; fiie aflced every 

N 3 * perfon 

4^0 Pcrgufta's Uiftary ^ tin Rman fUpuhSf. 

p^ribn who ciune from that ausiter if thev obrefve4vrhfl«|Mrhttlh8a4 
was doing. Her fpirit at \tvt fuok uiuie'r ibe eSk£i of fuch vtolopft 
emotions ; (be fainted away, and was carried, for dc^ infto bcr 
apartment. A meiTage came to Brutuf in the Senate with this ao* 
count. He was much aflc^d, but kept bis place** Popiliut 
Lamas, who i little before ieemed, from the eipretiMKi he bad drop* 
ped, to have got notice of their defign, appeared to be in earned co»* 
veriation with Caefar, as he lighted from his caniage*. This left the 
confpirators no longer in dou^ that they were difcovered ;,andthe)r 
made (tgns to each other, that it would be better to die by their ow'js 
hjinds than to fall into the power of their enem^« But they ikw 
of a fudden the countenance of Ltenas change into a fimlcf and 
perceived that his converfation with Ciefar could noc relate to fuel 
a bufinefs as theirs* 

* Caefar's chair of (late had been placed near to the pedeffaVof 
Pompey's ftatue. Numbers of the contpiratort had (bated rhemfelTtc 
around it. Trebonius, under pret^ce of buiinefst had taken An- 
tony afidc at tlie entrance of the theatre* Cimbexy who, with others 
of the confpirators, met Csefar in the portico,- prefent^ him with j^ 
petition in Mvour of his brother, who had been esccepted from the bte 
tndcmnity ; and in urging the prayer of this petition, attended |^c 
Dilator to his place. Having tliere received a denial from Caefar, ut- 
torrid with fome exprellions of impatience at being fo much import 
tuned, he took hold of his robe, as if to prefs the intreaty. A**^ 
faid Caefar, ihh is vhknce. While he fpoke thefe words, Cimber 
flung back the gown from his (boulders; and this being > the {ftoal 
agreed upon, called out to ilrike* Ca(cA aimed the iirft blow. QmJ^ 
ibfted from his place, and in the iiril moment of fuiprii^ ilM^^ 
Cimber with one arm, and laid holdof Cafca with, theotber^ 3ur t^ 
foon perceived that refiilance was vain; and while the fwords of the 
poo(pirators da (bed with each other, in their way to his* body,, h^ 
furapped himfelf up in hia gown, and fell without any fortburr 
flruggle. It was obfcrved, in the fupcrftition 9f the times, that hi 
falling, the blood which fprung from his wounds fpHnkled the pe^ 
dedal of Pompey's ftatue* And thus having employed the gitattft 
abilities to fubdue his fellow citizens, with whom it would have bcea 
a much greater honour to have beenabletoliveontermsof fji|UAUiy^ 
he fell, in the height of hi« fecurity, a facrifice tq th<^ ju(^ imligiia* 
tion; a flriking example of what the arrogant have to fear iA,triSin|^ 
with the feelings of a free people, and at the fame tinW, a, \tSksft of 
jealoufy and ot cruelty to tyranu, or an admonition not to fparcy iu 
the exercife of their power, tho(c whom they may have inftil^ed by 
ufurping it* - ^ 

*' When the body lav breathlefs on the ground, Caflius called ouf^ 
that there lay the worft of men f * Brutus called upon the Senate to 
judge of the tranfa^ion which had pafled before th^m, and watpm- 
cee^ing to ilate the motives of thod who were concerned in it, whci) 
the members, who had .for a moment ftood in filent amaacmcnt^ 
rofe on a fudden, and began to feparateia great conflemation* All 

I ■■ ^ » ■' ■'■■ ] ' ■ ' 

* Plut. mB|;uto.. 

f Cic. ad* Famil. lib.xii. ep. t. Ne<}uifllmum QCciAini eile. 


Y^xg^t^"^ Oilf^y $f tif Roman KfpmUic. «9t 

4n3^ vb# hmA tome to the S^iate in the train of Cseiar, hk Li^ors^ 
tlie ordiiiarj officers of State^ citiaens and foreigners, with manj* 
iertaatt. ana/^epeodanls pf every iort, bad been inftantly feizel 
^ «kb a jMinotc ; aod as if the fwonls of the oonfpirators were drawn 
•golnfi^hemfclres, bad ^ready mihedinto the Arects, and carried 
terror and confufiou yv'herever they went. The Senators themfelvc* 
vowfoltowcd. No roan had pretence of miiui to give any account 
of what hiid happened, t)irt repeated the cry that was ufual on great 
mlarms for all perfoi^s to withdraw) and to (hut ap their habitations 
«nd fiiopt. This cry was communicated from one to another in the 
ifaneets* The people, imagining <hat a general malTacre was fome- 
«diere b^UB» (Huh up and bacred ail their doors as in the dead of 
ftight, and every one prepared to defend his own habitation.' 

la the art of hirtorical compoiitlon, tliere is one improve- 
ment wiiich the modtms liave made upoQ the ancients* 
Wc TiUudt to that i^rit of philofophy with which tlie moft 
iKHihgnifheil of the modern hiik>rfans have adorned and 
charaderifed their produAions. Voltaire, we believe, was 
the father of this tefinemerrt ; and he has been imitated irf 
it. and perhaps fnrpafled by other witers. Jn this refiilc- 
^^nt Dr. Fergufon lias great merit. He fcatters every 
where throughout his work the lights of aphilofophicmind. 
But while wc commend the Author for adopting this mo*- 
dem hnprovemcnt, we muft condemn }nra for avoiding te 
foUmr the prafHce of the anciemts, who upon grand occa- 
SoHs put Ipcechcs^into Ac mouths of great aftors. Wc 
fcnow ^hat Pere Daniel and other liiftorians of eminence 
have objeftcd to fpeedies as in fomc degree contradiftory t© 
truth, and as embcUffhments that ate chiefly rheloncaL 
But it is paft even the fufpicion of a doubt, that fpecChes 
afl^rd both a dignity and Iprrit to hlftory ; and that their 
dtfufc is principally to be afcribed to tlic mferiority *of the 
Tnodern hiftortans to the ancjent, with rcfpcft to knowledge 
and ability. Tfwcydides, Livy, Salluft, Tacitus, and the 
moft admired hiftonans of antiquity, having communicated 
i fatlAion to this exercife, we cannot conceive that thete is 
-tny proper reafon, Why a modern narrator <of ancient ftory ' 
^hrould ne^left it. For thouch he nright be unequal of him* 
fi?(f to compofe harangues of confpicuous merit, he might 
tranilate or imitate his authorities. He might (bine by a 
borrowed or refkded luftre. Wc mean not, however, to 
ftifiDuate, that the Author was not poilefled of talents fuffi- 
cient' for the compofition of fpecches. On the contrary, wc 
4rtc of opinion, that his gcAius and itudies have qualified 
him for this employment ; and it is an objeft of our regret, 
that he has not felt an ambition to fignalizc himfelf by it. 
Nor has the praQice been fo reprobated in modern times as 
to be without an example^ It has been followed by Guicci- 

N 4 ardini^ 

9lini, BmtiMftlio, and Lmd B^oom. It it « m«iii 
miftAe in the Critiot to fiiticf that tloa wet w» co|^ fronr 
Hornet by die antient Mftariant. It hu kt rife Qiat ia-fia^ 
tion but in retHty ; for fitnerab at ^le head'of anBicB, aad 
iUtefitien in the midft (rt debates made knowa by it thek* 
fenfibility, and difcovered the afcendency of th^r talents. 

Here, howerer^ the narrow limits of our. work compel 
«s to ftop for the prtfent. 'In our nei^t nmnber we 4»R 
continue our obfcrrations ; and whi[le we (hall venture to af-^ 
certain the charaAer of this hittorian, we flwdl ctkrfomn 
ftriftures'upon the pecuiiaritiet of his manner and lan g aagt^ 

^. IL Naimral Hiftofy* Gaural mmJ Fart/ftJar. Jfy tbt, Coumt Jk 
Bnffonn Tranflated into £ogli(b. Illu(hared with ip iCq>p(;r 
Plates, and occadffn^l Notes and Obfenrationi* Bj the Tranfla- 
tor. 8v6, 8 vols. 3I. i^. bound. Strahan. 

THE Count de Buflbn poiTefles talents which are Ukej^ 
(o acquire popularity, and which deferve it. ^ In lii^ 
own CQAUitry, iooeed, he has long iincc attained this f^pen 
objeA of the fchemes of the politlciant and the lucubrationif 
of tl)e writer : but having never yet been presented, tp ^ 
KngUih reader in a drels becoming the fplendouTr of hi^ acn 
co^pdifliments, he is not fufficiently knowa to thf V(^vi^ 
tudca who feek not for knowle4ge or amnfcipent bcyqQ4 
tbe limits of their native tongue. Perhaps no in/^nc^^ffn^ 
be produced, in w^ich nature has been moit profile ^f|t 
^ia ^fts^ which are requifire to attain juft ideas of ner 
sna^ic, and lAfiniteiy varied produ£lionsK a^ilto defciibe 
Ibem in a i^anner worthy their extent ai^dj^randeur. If ho 
be confidcred with reipe£l to his powers ofcooipofition* he 
muft be allowed to be iuch, as a nation eager of the praUe o^ 
fuperior elegance, may juiUy adduce in fvmpoitof herclaimsf: 
^ke oaoft elaborate writers of France abound in thongjhta 
andexpreflions in the higbeft degree off^ofive to ^eadi^ ^ 
juft tafte. . But in the voluminous works of Bu^^l^ i( 
IPOisld not perhaps be e^y to find a fingle inftance ofcoiVr 
eeitf antithefis, or, what has been denominated thif^ ^^ 
Boileaii and Addifon*. When he dcfcends to minute dfi^ 
feription* b^ is peifpicupus, eafy, and unai&&ed. When 
be iurveys th^ migni^nce o^ qatuns, His con^^eptiooa ipd 
Mprefliona^ rife to the elevation of hia fubjeA, *and thejmnA 
is expanded by the feme glow of pkafure wluch attends tbo 

* What Quintilian hasobfervedof the father of poetry, maybe 
applied on theprefent occafion. Hunc nemo in magnis fublinritate, 
1)^ parvis propnctatc faperavcrit. Idem lamii ac prefius, jneuudus 
|c gravb, turn copiA, turn gravit«te mirabilit. 


MmM vrtbojwft r<bUaie|i^laget.orJHbNiiirai)4Skal»i» 
jj^rt* If we oanfidrr him m a tcadiar of ntivnd fcitooek 
(Mpr aargar4 Bo mKl| wiU forbid m to tefttw focb miltttslftl 
CDopiai««M4 it 10 iod^ trw, tbat noiimited coooMinait 
fcan Icl4am be apf]^ l» UirpatfonMiicfo of oim^ biHHif 
the doty of die criik t» mmf9M tbe ^byiA of liis cnmi—r 
tioowtththeidetofperfeAsofi. Btfidet, if w# miftakt ooi« 
A^ d«fe^ M wiU noi admit of an cafy eaenfe, may bt 
{Kuntrd ootin the do£tri«c« e^ the Csuat di BulRm. A4 
the brig^ pact of his charaQer, wc are wiltiac to adopt lh# 
foUowing word$^ of iu« TMiilator. *' Tht$ kanmi and e« 
loqoent writer, fan he, has introdoced iatobit fiibjefts a 
neater variety of diiqui^tion, and |;ivea moirc comprthcn* 
frre views of nature,* dian Uny prtcediiu; or conteciipoiary Wi* 
torian. His jads are, in general, coUeded with jvdgmeat 
and fidelity ; and his reajonings and inferences are not only 
bold and i{|{enio«s, but adorned with all the beanties oi 
ebtprrffion, and' fll the charms of novelty. They ev^y 
whereleadto reflexions which are momentous and intere ti^E* 
They expand the Blind imd bahiih prejudices. They ereate 
Ml elevation of Ihooght and ehcri(n an ardour of enqmry; 
They open nnrny great and delightful profpeAs of the oeco- 
Jiemy of nature, and of the altemtiocit and aecidenta to 
which (Be is HaUe» of the caufes of her improvevifail m 4t> 
^neratioa, and of the general illations that conneA tho 
#holb» and give rife to all the dn^erfittes which chauadkerib 
and conftitute particular orders of eKifbcnce.'* 

Such tnd fo many are his excellencies. Bstt on the athe# 
hand h Ihoeld be remembered, that his fauhs are fearcely 
lels glaring or leis numerous. His ikiU in Anatomy and 
Chemiftry, the two pillars on v^ich Natural Hilary ia 
Atpported', IS not fumcienriy particular and exad. Incon^ 
finm^n of this cenfore we may refer to his rep eat ed ami 
poiflfeed rejection of finalxaufes. For it is baldly jK>ffiblo 
tfnt gmat anatomical knowied|e can eon(tft with (uch aia 
opinion. His pofitite. denial of the exiilenee of the Hymoa 
muy be quoted as another proof t^ the fame aflehion. If ho 
had been verfed in Chemiiby, he never could hate osaiit-' 
tatned that the trgillaceous and filiceous earths are identicak 
It has^lfo been obferred by an author, who to all the greaft 
QxHStvies ^^VriGn CAe v.«^unc oe '0xi^ronponvnO9y aocMu ut* ^inn 
fee urants, that he did 'not repeat and ^Rverfify his expen-* 
4Knts with (irfficiciit confftancy, and that he did not enqmio 
after and attend to the weighty objeAions that were brought 
againlt his hypothefes*. *^ His reafonlngs and inferences 


* Prolc06r ZiauQcrmao in hit fpeciinea Zfx>logi» Qeegniphic«« 


innis ff wr work CMn| 
^ «r aa: soAcr vrflttQ 

=-irx -J ^=1" 'j. ILi-rai* «i BDi Copper 

s £ r-:rr:r x'^r* :2e:is w LjA se Ack 

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1 - ■ £ :3B X- 'ST., su Htf lacabotKiQi 

^ « ^: ..i; ■r-j.y ijuvs ID tJbr 1BQ^« 

» -r.- ' 3£=rc .S2 je=i ass pnfizie g^ 

* ** ^ * *.■ X sa. i i^c Jiiaoc of ooo* 


t il.- — -■• ^ 

— -:^r 

- - M. 


• T. - 


tf4 TrMtf/Uti4^9f9§fJim^$,fiai9r^H^fk9j. 

«i«-bold and ingenkras,^ fays his Translator. They mre 
itideed too frequently bold, even to temerity. And we wilt 
Mtc the piisfeht opportunity of obiervinrg, tnat Mr. Smeliie 
€)ionf^ he did notchoofe, as'lie exprefles it, to write acorn- 
Mcntary on his Author, yet, for the fake of his unlearned 
readers, might, and certainly ought to have pointed out fuch 
<lf bit opinions as are now commonly cdhfidered as errone- 
mis. 1 hofe who are defirous of feeing his notions on tb« 
formation of the pljtnets, the revolutions which the ter- 
raqueous globe has undergone, and the caufes that are at 
prefent producing great changes upon it, confidered at full 
length, will meet with abundant iatisfaAion on confuking 
M. de Lue*s Lettres Morales & Phyiiques. Haller in his 
Elementa Phyfiologi^ has britdy, but ably refuted his fyilcna 
of generatioa. I'hofe who have' read SpalanzanVs OfntfcM 
wilfnot be inclined to piy much deference to Tiis organic 
molocules^ In the fame view Bonnet's confidcratians Surr 
Ics Corps Organilcs, niky alfo be referred to, efpeciaDy the 
late edition. 

. After having thus endeavoured to lay before 6ur 
Readers a flight (ketch of the French original, we Ibalf 
now proceed to enquire into the merits of the tranila- 
fion. The verfions of French authors in general with 
Which the <hops abound, are well known to be among die 
produAions that are moft difgradeful to the literature of our 
tikrid. They coniift for the moft part of an uninOeUigible 
aflembla^e of Englifh words arranged according to the 
French idiom, and are juftly confidered by our great critic 
and lexicographer, as the moft dangerous fource of corrupt 
^n by which tlie Englilh ton^e is threatened., 
• We had not proceeded fer m our perufal of the tranfla- 
HoiviR queftion, before we were fatisned that fuch ftri£tures 
^ere by no means applicable to it, and that in point of pro- 

£ietv and elegance of expreifion, there was not much room 
f objcAion, and we felt ourielves difpofed to congratulate 
the public, that the talk of tranfmitting the beauties of Buf-^ 
fen, had fallen into the hands of a man of tafte and judg* 
metlt. But another, and perhaps more important point ^e-* 
mained to be afeertained, viz. whether he had added accu* 
facy and fidelity to propriety and elegance. 

ipcaking ti feme fources of Information with which M. dc Quiba 
ibould have been acquainted, remarks, that the French dooocMjr 
fuch attcntioi^ to German literature as the Germans to French ute^ 
rat u re. The truth is, that although M. de BufFon cannot be re* 
preached with this dctc(^ in fo rrcat a degree as moft of hit coantry- 
men, yet his enquiries among foreign authors have not been fuiiici- 
«ntly eztcnilve, 
. la 

pave < 

Trm/kti^ of Sufin's Maiur'aJ ffi^^ry. I9I 

In «der- f» JclenBine diis, it becaine Mcd&iy to CM»» 
vc caicfiilly the tianflation with the original. We fliaM 

better lUe ^ l^y before our readers the refult of this com- 
•rarMbn, by a quotation and a few remarks in the margiity tbasit 
by any general teni» we conld emoley. For tbis purpofe #e 
fhall take without ieledion the fim paffiige that occurs. 

* Man changes the natural conditioa of aniinaby by forcing them 
tn obey and to fcrve him. AdomelHc animal it a flare dcflihed to 
the arauferoenfy or to aid the operations of men* The abufei to 
w'hich he is too frequently fubjci^ed, joined to the unnatural mode 
of his living, induce great alterations both in his manners and dif- 
pofitions*. But a favage animal, obedient to nature alot^e, knows 
no laws but thofe of appetite and independence; ' Thus the hiftory 
of favagc animals is limited to a fmall number of fa(fts, the rcfuhf 
6f pure nature. But the hUlory of domeflic animals is complicated^ 
and warpedf whh every thing relative to the arts employed in tam- 
ing- and fubduing the native wildnefs of their tempers : and^ as wa 
are ignorant what influence habit, Feilraiot, and example, .may have 
in changing the manners, determinations, movements, jind incliiui« 
tions of animals, it is the duty of the naturalid to eieaminc them 
With care, and to diftinguifh thofe fafts which depend iblcl}^ on in- 
(Hn^ from thofe that originate from education ; to afirertain what 
St proper to them from what is borrowed ; to feparatc artifice 
from nature ; and never to confound the animal with the Have, tht' 
bdaffof burden with the creature of God. 

' •'Man holds a legitimate dominion over the brute aoimalr, which. 
flo rc\^lution can dc^oy. It is the dominion of mind over matter ; 
a 'right of nature founded upon unalterable laws, a gift of the Al- 
m<ghty« by Which man is enabled at all times to perceive the digni- 
ty of his being. For his poa^er is not derived from his beiujg the 
moft perfcA, the iVrongcft, or the moil dexterous of all animals* 
If he hold only the firll rank in the order of animals, the inferior 
tribes would unite and difpute his title to fovereignty. But man 
reigns and commands from the fuperiority of his nature : Ht thinks j 
and therefore he is mafter of all beings who are not endowed with 
thls'inefHiilabie talent {. Material bodies arc likcwife fubje^ to his 
power : To his will they can oppofe only a grofs refiftaoce, or an 
ob^imte inflexibility, which bis hand is always able to overcome^ 
hy aiaking them a<^ againd each other* ' He is mafler of the vege- 
table tribes, which, by his induflry, he can» at pleafure, augmeua 

■ I fc ■ I II I 11 I ■ ■ 11 ■ ■■! ■■ J I " ' I ■■■!■■ I I ■ II 11^ 

.* Thia js.vcry wide of the original, which ruas thus. Vn ani* 
mal domciUquc efl uo efclavc dont on s'abufc , qu*on alt^re , ^qu'o» 
d«paU«.&<|iieI!oAdeaatui£4. tandisque Tanimal fauvage n'obclf- 
tetiiui*^ la oaturet ne coouoit d'autres loix c^ue celles du beibin k 
de^iiherte. . . .^ 

' f There is no word anfwering to warped in the original. To 
warp an hiflory with every thing, .to. is not an happy cxpreflion. 

X Tht origmal is more Smple and more energetic j li pcafe U 
iMan il eft mattre dcs ctres oui nc fenfent p^lnt. 


A^ Ttmfjbuim •/ ^uj^n^t Na^ftU B^hrj. 

tlon ; becaufe, like theoi^ he b noc only Midowed wiiii imdHMor 
«ad the powcrof motion^ hut becaufc he tbuAi^ ^fUttgntOMfeftdb omI 
/mt9m»9 dtreBM hit »{Uont» c^noeru hk operatioai» overcDcwt forar 
i>y i^geauUvt and A? iftn^ byjpeifc¥craiicei« 

''Among aniioaU/however^ &100 are inore (oft ami gcnt1t» ^xtfaera 
fnore^ favage and fercxrious. When we compare the dociUtjF and 
fubmiSvc temper of the dog with the fierctoeft and rapacity of the 
tigcff the one appears to ^ the friend^ and the other the eoemy o[ 
man* Thus his empire over the animals is not ab(blute* Vkuty 
fpccies elude his power^ by the rapidity of their flight, by tlie 
fwiftnefs of their courft, by the obfcurity of their retreats^ by tho 
element which they inhabit : Others efcape hivi by the nustiieoeA 
of their bodies ; and others, infiead of acknowledging ^eir (bve- 
Veign, attack him with open hoftitity. He is lihewife mfulted with 
the flings of iofcif^St and the poifonous bites of ferpents^; and he is 
often incommoded with impure and ufelefs creatures, which (ecra to 
cziS for no other purpoG: out to form the fliade between good and 
evil, and to make man feel how little, fince bis fall, he is fcfpe£kcds 

* But the empire of God muft be diiUnguiflied JFrom the limited do- 
minion of man. God, the creator of all being, tt the (ble gover* 
Hour of nature, Man has no influence on the uniTerfe||» the too- 
tioBS of the heavenly bodies, or the revolutions of the globe wbidi 
ht inhabits* He hap no general dominion oyer animals^ vegetableii 
or minerals. His power extettds not to fpecies, but is limittd to in* 
liividuals ; for fpeci^ and the great body of matter belongs ta, or 
rather con^itutes nature* Every thing moves on» periOies, or if 
renewed by an irreGAible powerC • Man himfel^ hurried along by the 
torrent of time, cannot prolong his exiftence. ^ Conneifted, by meant 
of his body, to mauer, he is forced to fubmit to the univer(al law, 
and, like all other organized being9« he is born« grows» and periflies* 

* But the raj^ of divinity with which m^ if aoimated« ^oncblea 
and elevate^ him above every material eariftence. This ^iritual 
fubftance, fo far from being fubjeA to matter, is enftitled to govern 
it ; and though the mind cannot command the whole of nature^ ihe 
njles over individual beings. God, the fource of all light and of all 

' "'■ ■ ■ ■ ■ : ? 

»* Here is an omiffion of the words ^* renouveler, denacurer^" nof 
are the ideas they convey csprefled. 

, f The Tranflator has dropped the fine allufion to mechanics, 
the fcience which perhaps affords the nobleft proofs of hnman inge- 
iiuity« contained in the words " la vitefle par Temploi dn rimps.** 

I To be infulted with the iHngs of infe^ is a proper expre£Son, 
1>ut inflilted is too feeble a word to be applied to ^e ^ J o ife ttet rt 
bites o( ferpcnts.** Accordingly on referring to the tmginal/we 
find it to run thus, ^ not to mention thofe imeifts, trhiw feeifiiD 
infult.him (man) by their iHngs^ thofe icrpents, w<N>fe Intt k 
fraught with jpoiion and deadif &c* 

\* Man has no influence on the univerfe,** by 00 meaai €bn« 
treys the foil force of ** if ne peut rien fur le pf>Dduit*de ht cretrton.** 

§ The original is tout fc paflr« feAnt, fe fttccUe,ie fenouTC#e» 
8t fe meut par une puiffimce irr£fiftible« 


S^ntt^iMT ^ 'Bufm's Kainntf Hifi9ff4. t^f 

_ , gof^m* the Qfiii^erftt^ and etcfjriji^deir^y wUliinBxtu^ 
r: Mab, vhe poflefo ontj a ray of thb imelltf<iKC» esjoyn 

acfiofdiiigly, ap«vcif linutect ta iii4iTiduali»:^d ,^ fii»ftl) portbhfc' 

cf matter* 

* It is therefore^ 8pftretit» that man hss beca enabled to £iihdu4 
theaaimat creation, not by force, or the other qualitiM of! matter, (ui^ 
by the powers o( his mincf. In the dx^ ages of the wg^ld/ aU am- 
naU were e<}uall[j' ind^ndenf. Man, after he became cr!inbat| 
dnd ^va^ wflf notid a eondttfon wtamc thefn. Before hecmiJd' 
difkotfmfh,. chojcef , and reduce animals to a dotnefHc flate, befure- 
be cqmU ioftniat »fid commflRMi them, be Who^vd fo be cWiUfed 
l«ai4Uf I attd the empire over the animals, likeaU odierempiivs, could 
not be efiflblitfbed ps^rious to the tnlHtntion ol ibciety. 

* Alan derives ail his poiver frum.Cbeiew, which matnrea bis rei^ 
foo« .eserciiea his g^ut, and univtet his force. Before the forffta* 
tion ^ibciety^ man was perhaps the moft favage and the leaA fory. 
JtAiiMt 6f all animals. Naked*, without fticker^ and deilUute of 
sraif, the earth was to him only a vafl delert peopled with mon- 
ifcrff of which he often became the prey : And, even long after 
tWa ptfrtedy ^ftory i^orms us, that the firft heroes were only de* 
ttpv/en of wild btinto* 

^ Bat^ when the homan ij>ecfes mukij^led and' ijKead ^ytr th« 
tankk '9ttA when, by trtcaos ef ibciety a»d the arcs« than was civ 
abled to conquer the univerfe{» he made the wild beaflt gradoally 
jnetimf he purged the earth of thole gigaatic animalsy wboie etyor- 
m9M% bones V9t fiill to be found f he deftroyed, or reduced to a 
fnuill number^ the voracious and hurtful (pecies ; he oppofed ono 
adulia}^ tb another i and, fubduing (aint by addrefi, and others bv 
<bncr|f^ and attacking all by rea(bn and art, he acqmred to himfeff 
perfbf^ fecfurity,. and elhibfiflwd an empire, which knows no other 
Dm^ra than macoeffible folitudes, burning funds, 'frozen motmraim,' 
or dark cswernif Whkb ferre a§ retreats t» a few Q)ecies of ferock^us 
animals §/ 

I»tbeiHft*pAfagraph <»f the artide of the horft, in whicli 
die avibte has fo well defbibed the fne and fpirit on fome 
octefions^ and tbe jsentlenefs and docility on otbccst of.Aatf 
noKRr animal, ihe Tranflator hy dropping fbtae cxpreffioas> 
and ^ftif^cing otiMrt, has vecy muek weakcsied the cffe£k of 

■ n il t i <| II < H il| ■ I ■! n I * i n III I 

^ **Letei^t«e»eiithiss" is not well reildtiW by •« every jpecicw***' 

f- ;**■ Chuitc^ lynotan fingiifti rerbr rhii hr a Scotrictfm of rhr 
Tt^nlhHwrv not an efrot ofthe prd^ otl^rwrfe hf Would havvb^n 
correOeditt^tfte tabteof erhita, 

J'A'veiy energetin* phtaffe'h here reduced to a "ftrt feeble enc. 
Theotigiwalit-** #/» mart%$r t^firge poor eonquerir l^imvers.*'^ 

t; Hete n anerther Instance ^ Ibe otnffion of a whole feittence/i 
Ou ies ecartant par la nombre. Has noching to correfpond with 2v in 
tbe tfwifiation* -^ ^ ' 

§• ** forociotnriin^tMk,'* and antmatfx indompfables, differ eon*/ ^ 
laiti a M y . '^^Tfcrety art' Aiany aimttalf f ^^ t aeiOft in albte of na^Me,' 
which human ingenuity has found the means of taming. 


i^ft ^MHj^hff of Buf^n's Natural Hijlky. 

tiie piftufc ; "fbr both m painting and in compofitidn, t&e 
jadicious addition of ccrtam little circumftances, gives grac<t 
and animation, wjiiiky their omiflion prodticcs dcfonnrty 
and dulnefs. 

* Ataoft cwTY page In the work would afford us an oppor-: 
^nity of nluftiplying thefc remarks, but the.narrow hinits 
of our publication will not allow us to proceed farther ia 
fuch details. It is furcly unneceflary to oii^ranY apologjr 
^or the fecming minutenefs of thefe ftn£ture$ ; ior general 
criticifm b on all occadons uninftrudive and uninter^fting ;= 
and with refpeft to tranilations in particular^ it ftrouM be 
remembered that their value can only be ellimated, firoto the 
total amount of fuch minutiae. 

The conchifibn we would draw from the "whole is, that 
the Tranflato^ has too often and too widely deviated froih 
both the letter and the fpirit of the original. We are bv no 
means advocates for drift ly literal verfions ; but.wetninic 
that Mr. Smellic might have united equal elegance and 
greater fidelity. Some palTages would almoft warrant tho 
Hifpicion, that from the want of an intimate acquaintant^ 
with the French idiom, he did not always fully compte*' 
bend the meaning of his author*. 

Words and phrafe^ in themfelves aukward and improper^ 
very feldom occur in this tranflation, as we have already 
hinted ; yet a nice eye may diftinguifli a few, fuch as, '* af- 
feftable by prcfent objefts." ** Horfes may be eaficr broke," 
(for moreeafily broken). " To think in great." ** Penfcr 
en grand" may be very good Frencli, but it might have beea 
rendered by a better Englilh phrafe tlian that which Mn • 
Smellie has adopted.* 

The occafional notes and obfervations which the title paga 
announces, will not detain us long. Thofe which belong' 
to the Tranflator are neither ilumerous nor importantf. 
The addition of fhort defcriptive diftinftions to ^ch fpecics, 
and of the fynonima of Klein, Linaeus, Briflbn, and otlier 
naturalifts, was certainly judicious. Mr. Smellie has like^ 
>Hrifc omitted with equal propriety, ** The method of ijtudy- 

^ This may have glvcu rile : to his adoption of a pradHce, too 
frequetu bochj^^moiig tranflators and ^ommeiitatorH aad-of whi^h} 
if we are not (greatly miA'i^keD, very evident traces may be difcem* 
fd la the parformance, vrc mean, that of paffibg b^t <^(t9 
feJi anf leatcnce that niay happea to require a mle lab^iAr a«i| 
fuidvcfs in coQplaiiuag or rcttderiag it. ; ^^ .. , ^,, « 

f thty con£il chiefly of a ^rief account of the pfadi^i reUdip 

t£^K\^ managcmcttt o( cattle foiU^v^Td ia Orrat 9dt^i|f)i^ lytlidi^ it 

' Kicnv (li^ec €»)iaii4linibl||^ ia^itq\ Uvoie of 9ur oeif (i^^ra ^ V^QQ^^ 

tinc«%^ - * " ,. ,..- t • • '• " I •.' •* ''''• 

^g. miftirsl hiftdry, the retureheniion of methodicstl^vftribi}:^ 
UonSt and the mode of deicribing animals." The chief in- 
tention of tbefb difconrfe^ is,, as he jiiftly obferv^s, to ridi- 
cule the authors of fyftematic arrangements, and particularhr 
the late ingenious and indefatigable Sir C. Linarus, whofef 
zeal and labours In promoting the inv?ftigation xy£ natuVai 
objeSs, merit the higheft applaufc. 

This tranlktion is embeliifhed witli a great many copper- 

flates, eflentially neceffary for illuftrating works of IvTaturaf 
liftory. Thev are copied from tU^ French originals, aivi 
Ijeing engraveu by Bell at Edinburgh', have neither (altho" 
executed m bis beft manner) much accuracy nor beauty to re- 
commend them. This obfervation is by no means pointed 
illiberally at the engravers of Edinburgh : for the fame ob- 
jeSion will hold wim refpeft to all attempts toengrave in tliefd' 
kingdoms Out of the city of London. Nay it is alfo a fad, 
that were there artifts to produce good engravings in any of our 
provincial towns, they would be fpoilt i;i the printing; for it 
IS in London alone, exdufive of every other place in the 
Britifh dominions, where they have arrived at the art of 
^ working oflF copper-jjlates to a high pitch of perfeftion ; in 
other words, to give impreffions their beft effeft. 

Akt* III. Reb^h of Cafes argued and determined in the Court nf 
Kht^s Bencb^ in the iQth, 20tli» and iiH ycarf of George III. 
' By Sylvcfter Douglas, Efqiure, of JLiacoln's Inn. Folb il. i65.* 
boards. CadelL 

THIS volume of Reports (by the Author of the Hiftory. 
of Cafes of controverted Elcftions) is a valuable ac-. 
quiiition to the lawyers library. Many important cafes are 
h^e reported upon almoft every Branch and rule of law ; 
but particularly in regard to infurance, freight, bills of ex- 
change, and other mercantile contrafts ; in 2\e difcuflion of 
which many points tliat have been long floating In un- 
ceruinty, have at length been fettled uoon fuch principlca.^ 
of found reafoning as to go far, with other modern report^,. 
to fix the law .of merchants upon a lolid and rational baiis. 

As it is ictipoffible for any legiflaturc to frame fucli a code > 
afg^oeml laws as might in all points be exaftly adapted to* 
tiir peculiar . circumftances of every cafe, the intention of* 
the law and of the parties muft, of courfe, be often left to* 
the legal difcretion and difcernmenc of the Court, to be>^ 
ihaped to the juftice of the cafe by analogy to former deci-\ 
fions i ifiij as fuch decifions are only to oe collefted from 
the v?ifious books of tcports, it muft be unnece&ry to dw^ 
ilpan the ufe^N^fe of e)(ery publicatioa of this kj^f that i» 


it6 Douglases k^orfs. 

framed with judgment* and conduced with accuracy- in- 
deed Mr. Douglas fecms to have been particularly fefiiible 
how much tl\e chara£ler of correAncfs muft ftarop a value 
upon lus work^ at he obfcr\xs, ** that no fpccies of publi- 
** catioa demands a more fcrupulous accuracy than thok hif- 
^^ tories of judicial proceedings and deciiions to which the, 
** name- of reports has been long appropriated." And he 
appears accoroingly to have been remarkably folicitous ta 
lupport the truth of his obfervation by every eadeavour u> 
Knder his own labours correal ami fatisfaftory. 

The following obfervations on the nature of reports in 
ffcneral^ and ofthe records of courts are judicious ; and 
luggeft^ at the fame time,, nuny grounds which might m- 
duce the learned judges^ who now prciide in our Courts of 
Juftice,. to recommend to the legiilature the re-ellabli(bment 
of the ancient o£ce of tt,iporurs ; or at leaft to favour thofc 
flentlemen, who may voluntarily ezigaec in fuch ufeful nn- 
iertakingSi with the judgments of the courts^ and everr 
other fpccies of coumenanco and aiUfiance which the BeocA 
and the Bar can poflibly aiford^ 

* The immediate provifice of the Courts crfjufficcis to admint- 
fler the law in particular cafes. But it it equalFy a bran<fh of their du- 
ty, anfr etie err ztitr ?rcstei^ finportsnce t'cr ttieeomiittnityf 'tor expouiMS 
the law they admimfter upon fuch priBciplet of arguroonc and coa* 
ihru^tion as m^ furniih rules which fhall govem in all fimilar or a* 
nabgous cafes 

^ Such are the various modifications of which property is fuieep- 
tible, fo boundlefs the dtverOty of relations which may arife in civil 
life, lb inftmte rhe pofflble eombiDations of cventr ana circittiiibsi** 
ces« that they ehide the power of CDumermioiv ami ans beyond tie 
reach of Kuaiaa ibrftfight- A moment's reflediooy iborefere^ UfMti^ 
totiiince> that it would be'impoflible, by po&ive anddiroftIe|^ 
lative authority, fpecially to provide for every particular cafe which 
BMy happen. 

^ Hence it has been found e'xpeclient to entfoft fO the wifdom atid 
experience of Judges, the power of deducing, from the mbrtf general 
proportions of the lat^, fuch ncccflar}' corohrries, as (hall J ppea i ', ' 
thoii^h not CYpreiied in words, to be within their inttoirt aad DAMskiift* 

* -DedxidiotM thus formed, and eftabtiHicd in ch6 adjadteafioa^ of 
particular cautfes become, in a manner, pare a£ tati text of the law* 
Socceedtag Judges reeeirc them as fuchi and, in general; eoAMer 
thensielves aa bound to adhere to there ao leis ftr^y than ta th« 
expreis dldlates of the legiilature. j 

^ But whether a certain decifion was ever pronouneed, and,, if U^ 
was, what were the reaibns and prmciples upon which it was found*. 
ed. are matters of fadt, to be afcertained and authenticated, a& all 
other fafts are, by evidence. 

* The law of this country has been pectrfiarly watchful in pi^evcfni • 
the approaches of fsKehoad; in the. intelHgatioH and'Mof ^ tMI^ 
pairtkular fa^s litigated between contej\ding panies. For this pur- 


Doughs's JUp^fu tOI 

pofc manv nilc« Have been eibl>ii(he<l relative to the cbmprteocy or 
admiftbility of cvideace, of all which the ultimate Qbjc<ft is, t» 
guard the avenues of belief, and to fecure tbc miod^ of thofe wh(» 
arr to determine, from impofition and miftake« , 

* I^would b^ natural to exped a caution ftlH more rigid with re- 
gard to rtie evidence of judicial proceedings and decifiOQS- Whe- 
ther a'parti<;ularaft was done, or contra£l entered into, by a party 
to acflWie, or not, can only aSe<5t hiin and his opponenT, or, af 
«k>fV, thofe who become their repreientatives ; and (hoiild that bi 
pronounced to have happened which in troth never did, third pcr» 
fons would not be injured. Byit whether a judgnient allcdged to 
have been delivered, was really delivered, and upon the alledged. 
reafgns, may affc<^ all perfons who are, or*{hall be, in circumftaijr 
CCS firailar to thofe ^ the parties to that caufe. Yet it has fomc ho\sr 
or other happened that litt4e or no care has been taken, nor any 
provifions made, to render the evidence of judicial proceedings cer* 
tain and authentic. 

* The records of the Courts are, indeed, framed in fuch a man* 
ner as to conftitutc indifputable documents of fuch pans of the jTrq^ 
ceedings as are comprised in them, but it is eafy to (liew that this 
goes but a very little way. 

* In the firft place, the authority of a decifion for obvious rea- 
fbns, is held to be next to nothing if it ^oXk^/uhfieutio^ without zxr 
gument at the bar, or by the Court ; and it is impoffible from the 
fecord of a. judgment to difcover whether the cafe was folcmnly de- 
cided or not. Records, therefore even when they contain t fuifi- 
cieat ftate of the cafe, do not aflford complete evidence of what it 
rcquifite to the future authority of the deaiion. 

^ But, in the fecond place, it is welt known in how few inilances 
^e material parts of the iVate of the cafe can be gathered from the 
record* According to the modern ufage, by far the greater number 
of the imporpipt queftions agitated in thejcoum of law come before 
thcra upon morions for new trials, cafes referved, or fummary ap- 
plications of different forts. In none of thefe inftances does the re- 
cord fumidi the evidence even of the fads ; for which in fuch cafes, 
chere is no other repofitory, nor {or the arguments and reafoning of 
the Council and the Court in any cafe but the coHe6^ions made by 
Reporters*. On their fidelity and accuracy, therefore, ;he evi- 
dence of a very great part of the law of £qgland, almoft entirely 

* The moft ancient compilations of this fort wore the work of 
pcrfcms fpecially appointed for the purpofe« In what particular 
manner they cxerciied their funiftton, how far the Courts fuperin- 
tended, or the Judges affiled or revifed their labours, no where ap- 
pears ; and indeed almoft every thing relating to them is involved m 
to much obfcuritj^, that I believe their very names are totally un- 
known. . . . 

^ It is probable, however, that tbe cotemporary Judges and thofe 

^ At aa fairly period of our confHtution the reafons of the Judg- 
ment jR^ere f^ forth in (be record^ but that practice has been long 

ILev. VoL I. Mar. 1 783. O who 

aot Dougte's Reports. 

who immcdTiately followed tbem, had fatisfadlor}'^ reafons fbr coa- 
fiding in tht accuracy of thofe Reporters, fincc their writinei called 
the Tear Bocks^ have always poiTclTed a degree of traditional weight 
and authority fnperior to what is allowed to any fubfcquent reports. 

* This^ indeed is in fome meafure owing to the circumftances of 
Aeir priority in point of tinic, exclufive of any confideration of pe- 
culiar authenticity or excellence, the decilions contained in them 
forming the baiit of that large fuperftrudure of fucceffivc determi- 
nations which now fills the library of an Engliflvlawyer. 

- * The fpecial office of Reporter was difcontinned fo bog ago as 
. the beginning of the reign of Henry VIII. and the hiflory of the 
judicial proceedings in Weflminfter Hall, from that time till now, 
would have been loft in oblivion, if it had not been for the volun- 
tary induftry of fuccecding reporters. 

* The example was firft fet by fomc of the ablcft Judges and Law- 
yers of the 1 6th century, who finding that official accounts were no 
longer taken of what paflcd in the Courts of Juftice, were fliraulatcd 
by a commendable zeal for that fcience of which they were diUin- 
guidied ornaments, to commit to writing, for the ufe of pofterity, 
the hiftory of the moft imporunt decifions which took place within 
their pra£tice or obfcrvation. 

* Thofe eminent perfons have had a numerous train of followers, 
of different defcriptions, who, with unequal merit and various fuCcefs, 
have continued down to the prefent times a pretty regular feries of 
decided cafes. 

* In the reign of James I. Lord Chancellor Bacon procured the 
revival of theantient office of Reporter, but it was foon dropped a- 
gain, and does not feem while it continued to have been produ<5^ive 
of the advantages expected from it. I know of no reports attribut- 
td to the perfons then nominated to the office except thofe printed 
in the name of Serjeant Hetley, who, as . we arc told in the title 
page, was ** appointed by the King and Judges for one of the Re- 
porters of the Law. Whether it was he or the Lord Keeper Little- 
ton who was really the author of thofe reports (many of them being: 
cxa(5l duplicates cJ thofe afcribed to Littleton) they are far from 
bearing any marks of peculiar Iklll, information or authenticity. 

* S^n after the reftoration an ad of parliament having prohibit- 
ed the printing of law books without the licence of the Lord Chan- 
cellor, the two Chief J u dices and the Chief Baron, it became the 
pra«Sticc to prefix fuch a licence to all reports publiflied after that 
period, in which it was ufual for the reft of the Judges to concur, 
and to add to the imprimatur a teftimonial of the ercat judgment 
and learning of the author* The adt was renewed from time to 
time, but finally expired in the reign of King William. But the 
fame form of licence aqd teftimonial continued in ufe till not many 
years ago ; when, as the one had become unneceifaryi and the other 
was only a eeneral commendation of the writer, and no voucher for 
the merit of the work, the Judges, I believe, came to a refolution 
not to grant them any longer ; and, accordingly, the more recent 
reports have appeared without them.' 

The analogous cafes, with other illuflrations and remarks 
Fhich Mr. Douglas has thrown i?i, by way of notes, we 

• . con- 

> t 

l3ougIas's Reports. cej 

eonccivc to be jnoft ufcful variations from the ceiicral fyf- 
tem of reporters ; as they ferve to throw a fatisfiftory light 
on the precedents and principles upon which the arguments 
of the Couhfel, and the judgments of th« Court, are built. 
As the mode in general which lie has purfued in his reports, 
lias, at the &me time, in jDthcr relpefts, <:onfiderable fnades 
of diftindiioc from tboiib who liavc gone before him in the ' . 
fame line, we fhall fubmit to our Readers a part (our limits 
not admitting the whole) of the learned Author's reafons for 
ihe preference he has given to the. plan and arrangemenl: 
'which he has adopted. 

* Iq conlidcring what is the bcft method of roportinj: I found that 
different writers had proceeded upon plans widely difibrent froin one 

* Sorae have prefixed, to all the leading cafes, a full copy of the 
pleadings, thereby rendering their work at the fame time a book of 
-entries anS 6f reports. It was once my lntont4on to have done fo, but 

' 1 was difluaded ^m it by much better opinions than my own. 

' Some have not onh^ ftated the fads at great length, but ha?* 
^vcn the arguments of Counfcl almoft ^s difttifely as they were dc- 
iiyered at the bar, diilinguifhing the fpeeches of the different advo- 
'Cates on the fame fide, feparately, under the names of «ach« 

* Others, on the contrary, have only given a very abridged ilate 
■of the caie, together with the mere point decided, omitting not on- 
ly all the arguments at the bar, but alfo mod of «be neafonings of 
the Court. 

* £acb of thefe two methods has its partixans, and each has its 
^culiar advantages and di fad vantages. 

* The firft is more kirtru<fHve for the younger part of the profef- 
^OD ; it exhibits a moreromplcte pidure of the cafe, and does moce 
judiceto the learnkig -and inffcnufty of the feveral advocates. 

* But, OB the other hand its prolixity fatigues the attention, it a- 
4x>unds with repetitions, and often difguds the experienced lawyer, 
by a detail of elementary principles, ttivtal arguments, and back- 
-neyed authorities. 

* I have endeavoured to fleer a middle courfe between thefe two 

* I. I have been particularly attentive to flate whatever was ma- 
terial in the pleadings or evidence ; and fometimes where I was a- 
/raid of omitting what might be deemed effential^ I have fet forth 
verbatim, a cafe, a plea, or a fpecial verdidh 

* 2. I have thrown together into one difcoarfe, the arguments 
which were ufed by all the different Counfel who fpoke on the fame 
fide, digedtng ihem in the order which fi)emed to me to give them 
greateft effect. In following thn plan, as I have been often obliged 
<o cloath the thoughts of others in language of my own, fo I have 
been rather folicitous to preferve what appeared weighty and important 
in point of reafoning and authority, than anxious to retain every 
4hing that was faid. But I have taken caix to omit no cited cafes 
which I have found upon examination to be materially applicable to 
^be point in queilion. * 

O a * 3- The 

• » 4 

1^4 Doughs'* Itep^U. 

* )• The jo^gments of the Court I coald hfctt wKhcd to gfre in 
the words in which they were delirered. Bot this I often found to be 
irtipra^csble, as I neither write fbort hand^ nor verv quickly. 
Kfemory however, while the cafe was recent, fupplied, at home, 
many of the chafftns which I had left in Court ; and by comparing^ 
and as it were confronting, a variety of notes taken by others, with 
iny own, I was frequently enabled to recall, and iofcrt in my Re* 

Sort, material pafTages which 1 ihould otherwifc have loft. Thus I 
ave profited in fcteral rcfpe^h by the liberal communications and 
concurrent labours of others of the profeflion, fome of them^ perfons 
of (he fird eminence at the bar. I acknowledge the aififtance I have 
received from them with fatisfadlion and pride. If this book fhosU 
'meet with any degree of approbation, they are fairly entitled to a 
great (hare of it ; and I fhould with pleafure declare that fome of my 
friends ought, almoft as much as myfeif, to be confidered as the 
authors, were it not that I might thereby feem defirous to involTe 
them in my refpon Ability for its imperfedions. 

^ 4. I have carefully confulted the original authors for all the 
cafes cited, and hare bellowed all poiTible attention to fee the names 
and references corro6^ly printed. 

* 5. To avoid unneceffary repetitions, I have omitted the fre- 
quent conclufions per cttr, unanimiter^ ttnanimoujly^ &c. and therefore 
I take this opportunity of mentioning, that the unanimity- erf" the 
Court is to be underuood in every cafe where I have not expref^ly 
^ted a difii»'ence of opinion. 

* 6. It is ufual with fome reporters to give an account of different 
i^ges of the fame caufc, or of arguments in the fame cafe but deli- 
vered at different times in different parts of their reports, according 
to ftri6t chronological order. This feems to me to give them too 
much the appearance of being the mere tranfcript of their note books* 
I have therefore thought it more advifeable to bring every thing re* 
(peeling the fame cafe into one point of view, by uating the whole 
together and inferting it on the day on which the cafe was ultimate* 
ly difpofed of, difHnguilhing however the different ftages of the caofe 
and the particular dates of each.' 

We forbear to infert any of the cafes quoted in this vo- 
l\im«U cither in the whole or in the abftraft ; bccanfe moft 
of thelp which are of principal importance arc of confiderable 
length. To give any of them therefore a place verbatim 
would neither fuit our plan, nor the in{lru£lioi> and amufp- 
xnent of our general Readers: whilft an abftraft might nei- 
ther do iuftice to the learned Reporter, nor to tlie judgment 
of the Court ; a proper idea of which can only with certain^ 

2r be colleded from a combination of the various circum- 
antes of the cafe, with the expoiition of the law, as appli* 
cable to the whole : and this a flight deviation or omiihon 
might place perhaps in an improper point of view. For fa* 
tis&aion on this ground therefon? we muft refer the Read- 
er to the work itfclt. 


PriciU«y*j Corruftktu. of Cbrifthimtp a05 

AlT. IV. AnHift^ry of the Corruptions of Chriflianity , By Jofcph 
PrielUcy, LL. D, F. R. S. 8vo. 2 vols. jas. boards. Jo^nfon. 

THE Author of this elaborate work, bms i>f late ye^rs y^ 
ry much diftinguifhed himfi^ amoof % fociety of prli^ 
gionifts, who arrc^te to thcmfclvcs the denoixiiuatioo fif 
rational Diffinters, It is not our bu£nefs to enter into a cri- » 
tkal examination of thoib difcriminating particulars which 
conftitute their religious charader, and from which they t£* 
iume this pompous title. We would only whifpcr in their 
-earst that bigotry is jisft as repugnant to thf genius of libeial 
and manly drinking in connexion with tlie prepoflcflions of 
a Prieftley as with thofe of a Calvin. On thefc principles jdd 
man is rcfponfible for any thing beyond his own convic- 
tions. That error oaly is blameablc which loriginatcs in t 
bad intention. Whoever is honett and indefatigable ii|L 
fearcfaing after truth, whatever his opinioos arr» is entitkd 
to refpe& His opponents may charge iiis ideas of Cbrlft for 
inilance with idolatry, not leis caihly ac kaft than he di^ss 
theirs with blafphemy. 

On ibme minds the love of novelty, the pride of difUnc- 
tion, and a contempt <^ vulgar crcdubtf, may operate as for- 
cibly and effeAnatly as the fbongeu perniauiDn. Whait 
though a certain conftitutional timidity, or tbe^trly and in*- 
veterate prejudices of a narrow education, ihould not allow 
others to be thus daring and Sceptical, •is it decern in the 
^rmer to afied a latitude of thinking among tbemfidives wfaMln 
'they would deny to the latter i The ntoft Bberai diiqutfi^ 
tion on -every bbjeft of human curiofity ought undoubtedli/^ 
to-be encouraged, j>ut furely there is fome .difference be- 
-twoen an opennels to conviAion from ^every quarter, and a 
Sovereign contempt for every one's opinion but^tliRtof our 
own party. And it is feldom'diatfsriraur ttf tieal is either 
-in proportion to die orthodoxy or imporrtajBceof itst>b/e£t; 

It were greatly to be wifhed, as an elegant hrftorian.hBS 
-well expreiffed it, that all matters of religioiss opinion were 
♦* left unfettered like philofophy and fi^aitee." The bfft 
light perhaps in which attacks on the prevailing ientimoig^of 
others can oe viewed, \% doing evil that good may follow. The 
iiuman mind is not to be diuodged from entrenchments (nus 
long and affiduouHy poifefled without pain. We naturally 
abate much of our own prejudices, to ^oie, wfaoafiert their 
conviftions with modet^ and diffidence. Tfaefirft ataxiaiin 
the great art ofperfuaiion is to pleofe ; and the Do^or would 
certaiiily have fucceeded better, had Jie begun by fliaking 
himfelf maftcr of the heart. In all his nefeaErche&, his oppo- 
nents are conftantly treated as peribns of a .low.odiication, 
or ]€iierior inteUe^, or narrow hcarta, jor ^s bafely jatfeacfa- 

O 3 ed 

106 Pticftlcy's Corruptions of Chrifiianltf. 

cd by motives of. intercft, to prefer that fyftcm to the fnie 
which they know to be falfe. This in our apprchenfion ar 
Icaft, is not tlic raoft probaHc way of inakii^ profelytr^t 
Pride and meannefs are rrever fo- confpicuoufly viniled as in 
the fupcrcilioiis demagogues of contending fcftaries. . There 
rs a fowncfe hifeparabkr from little minds, which general- 
ly makes them flirink at the ilighteft touch. And we may 
always judge of candour and libenfclky by this infallible 
mark, that contradiftron prQ5)uces not petulance but recol- 
fcftion. We deem it impoffible t^perufe tliefe volumes at- 
tentively, without baviiig frequent occaiion to make this re- 

The work before us, notwithftanding the fubjefi is fo cu- 
^ fious, fo variotts, and fo intercfting, is greatly deficient in 
* point of tafte and animation. Such a fameneis of manner 
and tritenefs of remark run through all the articles of which 
the Do£tor treats, as unavoidably fatigue and dif^ft the 
Reader. The happy art of keeping alive the attention, ef- 
pecially in a compofition of connderable lengtli, feems' by 
no means the leaft difficult part of the Writer's bufincfs, bur 
is Ihamefully negleftcd by this Author. His general ar- 
rangement IS made with judgment ; but he fills up the more 
minute particulars which conftitute his plan, witliout either 
tafle or accuracy. His dedufticns are crowded with triflings 
fa£ts, which if not altogether foreign to his leading objefts^ 
fcem at leaft to affeft them but (lightly. A number of in- 
fianccs to this purpofe may be produced. He wanders quire 
fi-om his fubjea page 66^ xol. I, In fe£tion 9th> part I. 
moft of the quotations f rova Juftin and P. Lomb<trd^ as well 
as thofe from jinfelm^ mighJt have beer^ fpared. His Read- 
er's patience is Severely tried with a vaft load •f'iiSperfluoiis 
matter in the three laft fedions of part II. Indeed one iixth 
of the quotations almoft throughout the work, feems abun- 
dantly lufficient for every objcft he has in view. 

The Doftor's diftion, like tlint of all his other writings, i<^ 
ipn general plain and unaffefled, though it might with no great 

1>ai^s have been much improved not only in ftrength and c- 
egance, but frequently alfo in clean>efs and precifion. What 
we are moft furprifed to obferve is, fomeiimes an awkward, 
negligence of ftyle, which would be unpardonable even in 
Writers of an inferior dofcription. We inftance in the dif- 
tinftive particle hut^ which on various occafions is made to 
begin feveral fentences in fucceflioni This is one of thofe 
petty blunders, againtt which the Author is feldom on his- 
guard, but wliich has always a moft ridiculous cffeft. 

Trom one who has treated fo largely and fully concerning 
oratory, we (hould natarally expeft frequent addreffes to the 

» Prieftky's Corruptions of Chrifilanity. !lO^ 

fancy and affeftioris. There is much reafon to regret that 
he has been at fo little pains to relieve the mind occafional- 
ly from the dull fatigue of a long uninterefting narrative, by 
alluiions and figures, which at times he can touch with pe- 
culiar delicacy. We have particularly in our ey€ the dcdica- 
rion to his friend and co-adjutor the Reverfend iTheophilus 
Lindjey^ which notwithftanding a few inaccuracies at the be- 
ginning, is a very beautiful piece of compofition, fuperior 
perhaps to any after part or paflage in the work. His ad- 
drefs to the celebrated Author of the Decline and Fall of the 
Roman Empire^ is alfo mafterly and ftriking. Here he 
leems to rife above himfelf ! confcious of the juftice and the 
ftrength, he boldly ftands forth the champion of truth, and 
gives a kind of literary challenge to the orightefl genius of 
the age. Freethinkers would do well, to give the following 
paflage a very ferious perufal. 

• With many of -them (the philofbphical part of the world) 
Chridianitv is now rejcdcd ; bat do they on thtc account fcera dil- 
poicd to adopt any other mode of religion^ or any other fyilem of 
mythology in its place. And would not fucK men a^ Mr, Hume or 
lieUuetiui among the dead, and Mr.Qihbon himfelf among thc^living^ 
examine with fcrupulous exa^nefs the pretentions of any fyilem of 
dirine revelation, efpecially before he would regulate his life by it, 
and go to the flake for it. And yet philofophers of antiquity, men 

'of as good underflanding as Mr. Gibbon, and who no doubt, loved 
life and the pleafures and advantages of it, as much as, he does, em* . 
braced Chriftianity, and died for it.' 

The Doctor fuppoiing the labours of all his rational breth* 
ren with his own, finally triumphant, puts the following 
cafe, which even the fceptical Humey had he lived, would 
not have treated with a fnecr. 

* Let any other religion, fays the Do6tor, be named that ever 
was fo much corrupted, and that recovered itfelf fr^^m fuch corrup- 
tioDf and continued to beprofeiled with unoue^onable zeal by meu 
of refledion and underflanding, and I fball look upon it with re- 
ipe£^ and not rcjc£l it without a very particular examination. The 
revival of a zeal for the religion of Greece and Rome under Julian 
is not to be compared with tne attachment to Chriftianity by inqui- 
iitive and learned men in the prefcnc age. Let literature and icience 
£ourif]i but one century in Afia, and what would be the ftate of 
Mahometantfm, the religion of the Hindoos, or that of the Tartars 
fubjed to the Grand Lama ! I thould rejoice to hear of fuch a chal- 
lenge as I give Mr. Gibbon being fent from a Mahometan Mufti 
to the Chriilian world.' 

We cannot however fpeak of the confiderations which the 
DoAor fubmit§ to Bifliop Hurd, in the lame terois of appro- 
bation. This in our opinion is an indecent attack upon a 
moil refpedable writer, whofe great and well cultivated ta- 
lents are eng^ed i^ the laudable defign of healing diflen* 

O 4 tion, 

1C$ Prieftlty's Corruptions of Chrl/liamip - 

tion, and direaihg the curreht of vtilgsH- and received con- 
victions, in the c^nnel of virtue ^And order; a defign which 
every wife and good citizen muft certainly approve. We are 
finccrely concerned to obfi^ve a very obvious want of can- 
dour, in aimoft every confidcrfetion addtcflcd by the Dofior «o 
this learned and elegant prelate. People are to be led> not 
driven into religious opinions, imd were his propofitions ta 
be implicitly and uncxccptionably adopted, we have reafon 
to apprehend the iffbe of fuch a (hock to their ideas would be 
either a total ncgleft and contenlpt of religion, or what is. 
r wprfe, perhaps the increafe of fanaticifm and fuperftition i 
confequently the vulgar would fall into the pdwer of every 
fool or knave^Who might have an intereft in pradiiing oi» 
their credulity^ Irk fpite of all theDb^or has faid^ we ftillcan- 
not help thinking, tliat without cft^liftMnents of forae kln^^ 
the utmoft diforder would enfue, and the caule of vktue and 
truth eKceedingiy fuffer. Why does he not acknowledge,, 
for he canifot have forgotteA, that the feeds of all the cor* 
ruptions of l^rhich he complains, were long fown «nd -evea 
deeply rooted i>tforc the Emperors became Chtiftians ? 

Doftor Prteftley very properly begins his hiftory with Ae- 
doftrine of the Trinity. This is the great bone ofcorrtentioit 
between the Socinians and the reft of the Chriftian worlds 
on which every other difference of opinion hinges, and 
which if it be a corruption, is certaimly a moil extraordinaryy 
as well as a moft deteftable otie, and fraught with a thoufand 
dangerous coniiequences* It muft be allowed even by the 
Trinitarians themfelves, titiat it has been the grand caufe of 
^vrfion and animofity in every age of the Church 4 and that 
it has often given birth to the moft extravagant^ as well a^ 
to the moft whimfical atid abfard prafticcs. Could fuch a: 
doftrine then be feirly difprovfcd, Cbriftianity would imme«* 
diately and infallibly become a plainer fyftem, and itmch left 
liable to the objeftions of Dcrfts, JeWs^ Mahotoettos, &nd 
Heathens. For this purpofe nothing more feems neceflary 
than to ihew that the firft Chriftians in general believed the 
iimple humanity of Chrift, and that the truth was gradually 
corrupted by introducing a mixture, firft of the Oriental, 
and afterwards of the Platonic philofophy. This |)oiQt out 
Author has laboured with great indunry and acutenefs. 
Moft of his arguments, however, we think, are far from 
' being conclufive. What pofitive proof ha^ he been able to 
produce, that the Jewifh Church was originally aftd pure- 
ly unitarian ? How can we be afliired that they affWent by 
Wit common name of the Ebionitcs and NazSirencs \ What 
ean be ^tawn from the dmifCon of Hegefipp^s, in fetfour of 
the Doftor*8-hypbthi»fis, fiace we have only a few rnc(ftifider- 


able fragments of his writings, and are altogether ignorant 
of his ientiments concerning the nature and perfon of 

,Thc account of our Saviour's miraculous conceptioil, of 
the ftriking circumftances of his death and refurreaion, his 
fuddenly ^pearing and difappearing after it, and his vifiblc 
afceniion into Heaven ; the language of this iUuftrious per- 
ion concerning himfelf, and efpccially of his Apoftles who 
knew him intimately and familiarly, lead ftrongly to the 
belief xti fooretbing in him more than ^mple humanity. 
St. Paul in writing to the ColloiTians, , and in moft of his o- 
thcr writings, afcribes to the perfon and offices (Jf Chrift 
qualities which never met, at leaft in any other man. The 
^iftle to the Hebrews, whoever be the writer, is certainly 
of apoftolical antiquity, and the produftion of a Jew. And 
this epiftle prefents us with ideas of Jefus Chrift peculiar- 
ly exalted and fublime. It is a compolition which no Jew- 
ish Chriftiau, of the Dodor's fentiments at leaft, could iin* 
cerely relilh* 

Tne advocates for the fimple manhood of Chrift, are not 
aware of the dilemma to which they are reduced by this doc- 
trine. If they admit not the miraculous conception, how 
^ they account for its being fo diftin£Uy and circumflanti'- 
ally recorded by St. MattlTew and St. Luke, as well as be- 
lieved by numy of the Jewifh Church. On the other hand, 
4f this wondenul faft be admitted, may we not aik them 
bow be can be merely a man, v\rho was conceived by the 
power of the Holy Ghoft overfhadowing a virgin, and who 
is therefore ftiled the Son of the Higheft, and the only be- 
. gotten of the Father ? 

S^poiing the Author of Chriftiamty properly and fimply 
man, -as we are, ^hy was he conceived in fuch an extraordi- 
^isry- manner^ and why diftinguifhed by fuch an aflemblage, 
of extraordinary titles as he bears in every part of the facred 
writings ? Was it neccflary that this man mould be produced 
"without a father, or by fome myfterious and fupernatural in- 
fluence, in order to his being divinely commiilioned, as o- 
ther men the patriarchs and prophets had been before him } 
Had the variotas particulars of his hiftoiy, and tlie difcourfes 
of his apoftles given no countenance to tlie notion of his di- 
vinity^ how came the Gnojiics immediately to be fo filled 
.with this idea, as even in the days of the apoftles to deny 
bis humanity ? 

/The Vakntinians we are told had their logos as well as 
the Platonifts, and the beginning of Sr. John's gofpel is 
iu{q>oiied to be dire£ted againft them ; but let any unpreju- 
diced perfon read that exordium and ^y, whether it has not 


ft 10 frieftley's Corruptions of Ckr{/itamty. 

more the appearance of being written with a view to eftab« 
lilh the logos of Plato, or the divinity of Chrift, than to ©• 
verturn or confute that of the Gnojlics. The laft at leaft 
could not have been the Apoftle's intention, otherwife it 
was impoffible for him to have found a combination of 
words more hoftile to his purpofe, or better adapted for af^ 
ferting the very doftrinc he wiflied to explode. 

In his account of baptifm, Doflof Prieftly appears not very 
confiftent with himfelf. In page 67th, vol. II. we find his 
idea of tlie ufe and intent of this well known rite. ** Its ori- 
ginal meaning, he fay6, fcems to have been a folemn decla- 
ration of a man's being a Chriftian, and of his refolution to 
live as becomes one ; and very far was it from being imagin- 
ed, that there was any peculiar virtue in the rite itfelf. It 
was confidered as laymg a man under obligations to a vir* 
tuous and a holy life, as the profeflion of Chriftianity necef- 
farily does, but not as of itfelf making anv perfon holy.' 

Ir this be the proper idea of baptifm, the application of it 
to infants is a very great abfurdity, and ought to have been 
marked by theDoftor among the corruptions of Chriftianity. 
A corruption too it would appear of a very dangerous nature, 
and which foon led to a moft deteftible fuperftition. Yet 
we find the Doftor patronizing baptifm fo warmly, as to hunt 
after the moft for fetched arguments in its favour. That ef- 
pecially from the patria poteftas, except the mereft aflertions 
pafs for demonlb-ation, is of this fort. ** We are not able, fays 
ne, to trace the origin of infant baptifm, and therefore are 
neceflarily carried back to the age of the apoftles for it." 
The meaning of this argument, if it has any, is, that be- 
caufe we cannot trace the origin of this rite or cuftom, it 
muft have been the uniform praftice of the church firom the 
beginning. But the DoSor tells us, ** that in the very next 
age to that of the apoftles, he finds baptifm and regeneration 
ufed as fynonimous terms, and that hence proceeded a moft 
capital miftake concerning its nature.* Now this is fo 6bvi- 
ous a corruption of the Doftor's original baptifniy that we muft 
fuppofe he would have traced its origin had it beenat allprac- 
ticaole. But no fuch thing has been done ; nbr, we believe, can 
be done. Itfollowsconfequentlybyhismodeof reafoning,that 
baptifm and regeneration were always ufed by the apoftles to de- 
note the fame thing, and that there is a fomewhat in the rite 
itfelf to which the grace of pi\rdon is annexed. Neither has 
the argument drawn from the controverfy between Auftin and 
Pelagius much weight, when we confider the time in wbicli 
it was ftarted, but efpecially as Pelaf^ius himfelf allowed the 
propriety of infant baptifm, and only denied its abfolute or 
indifpenfible neceility in all cafes whatever ; and ab^ve all, 
' as 

Pncftlcy^s Cdrrupthns of Chrlftlanity. ait 

as Pclagius was chiefly concerned tafhew, that baptifm and 
regeneration are two things, and it does not appear that ha 
-was ablp to trace the origin of the contrary opinion. 

The Doftor is fometimes guilty of repeating the fame fafts 
and rcafonings without any neceility. We inftance in page 
68, vol. IL where he fays, it was cuftomary in premature 
times to baptize perfons at the point of death, and very juft- 
ly infers- that the ceremony could noc well, in foch cafes at 
•Icaft, be performed by immerfion. And in page 82 of the 
fame volume where tho^ fame fadt is ftated, and the fame infe- 
rence made. This argument, en paffant^ does by no means 
extend fo far as the Doftor would have it : nor goes, as he 
meant it fhould, to prove the propriety of fprinkling in all 
cafes, even where dipping could be attended with no dange- 
rous or difagreeable confecjuences. Extraordinary cafes ad- 
mit of extraordinary provifions, and extreme weaknefs, or 
the near approach of death, will be allowed to warrant fome 
deviation from the common and ellablifhed praftice. But 
does it therefore follow that in ordinary cafes, where no dan- 
ger of health or life were apprehended, a mode ihould be a-^ 
dopted and juftified, which has no countenance from th^ 
example of Chrift and his apoftles ? Not that we conceive 
the difierencc between dipping and fprinkling of ai>y 
confequence whatever. We only mention this, as one of 
the* various kiftances which might be given, of the Author'^s 
erroneous mode of arguing from particular fa£ts. 

We might blame Doftor Prieftley in die prefcnt very copi- 
ous publication, for omiflions as well as fupe.rHuities. Som^ 
Readers will doubtlefa deem it a capital one, that In an at- 
tempt to account for the corruptions of Chriftianity, none 
at all is gi^en of the principles upon which the Quakers re- 
jeft both baptifm and the Lord's fupper. Doftor Prieftley was 
hound by his plan to pay a very ferious attention to this cu- 
rious and Angular circumftance. He difcharges this obliga- 
tion, however, in thefe few words, *' the Quakers make na 
life either of this rite or the Lord's fupper." We muft 
think he might have vouchfafed a pretty full and diftinft 
Tiew of the opinions in general, by which this denomina- 
tion of Chriftians is diftinguifli^d ; efpecially as their pecu- 
liarities arc fo very ftriking, as the feft has increafed^ is in- 
creaftng^ and probably (m^t not be dimini/hed ; and as it is a 
native of this country, and Hill retains in fomc degree the 
fimplicity of its original. But though it is a fubjeft which« 
comes frequently in his way, he fecms not a little ftudiou*^ 
to avoid it. 

In (hort, almoft every part of this polemical work affords 
equal fcope for farcafm and remark ; but the above mention- 

tit HyUfk^ frmgmtifis tf Hk ^hgul £tj^rf* 

^ mftances are fofficknt tt> Acw tbc pinigQMtk dif^idom of 
tbe Writer, and his <kfo)torf mode of oompofitioa. 

iUlT. V. Hf/l0ricaJ Fr^mJttJ iff fhe Mojul Ef^ire, <f the MaraUoeJ^ 
mmddfiht Englilh Concerm in InJoftany from the year iby^. Small 
^o. 58. Noorfc. 

INTIMATELY conncflbed a« Great BrUaia now is^ 
and, we hope, long muft be, with Indoftan, -every cir- 
cuinftance which may throw liglH on the hiftory and maa- 
aeis of -that Great empire, cnuft he peculiarly intei«iting ta 
<chis -country. Few parts of the f lobe have heen the theatre 
^more extmordinary revolutions than the extenfive aod fer- 
tile regions bounded by the Indus and the Ganges, and y€t 
fbw portions <^ htftory remain to this hour, more daridy la* 
volved in obfcurity and ^ubt. Every -encouragement and 
•commendation is due therefore to thofe, who favour the 
world with fuch documents^ as may lead in time to a bon*^ 
42eAed chain of autheatic uMterials for futui?e hiftory. 

The period to which this volume iielatcs, is about thiky 
.years, from the commencement of the ta^ii of Aurengaehe 
in 1659 to the year 1689^ ^^ forms tlie firft feGion ofii 
work which the Author informs us be means to <x)ntinue. 

The people called Morattoes have, .for a confiderahle time;, 
been one of the moft powerful of the Indian Aatioiis ; and 
have long been pecuharly ^Drmidable from thoir aumbers, 
their fpirit, and their aftiw f^em of (nredatory war, which, 
by the rapidity of their motions, fub>e^ their -enemips to 
attacks they find difficult to preirent or to revenge ; the hand 
that fmites difappearing alhnoft as foon as (ben. Thou^ 
the name of this finguktr nation (which is tiow Ibi^med into 
a ipecies of ariftocratical republic) has ^en long famihar «o 
-our tars, their hiftory is fti 11 very impepfeftly known. The 
lirft fteps therefore, oy which th^ intrepid, aAivc, and Ik- 
^cious founder of their empire, roTe to lovereignty, and eK- 
tended his dominions, j»uft be cooiiderable obryeAs'^if hifto* 
orical curiofity and political intereft. 

This extraordinary roan, whoie name was Sev^, dssm 
iiis lineage from the Raja's of Chitorc, who boaft^eir 
dc&ent from Poms ; and are efteemed the aK>ftanoiofktefta- 
bliffament of Hindoo Piinces, and tbe nobleft -of the Hftj- 
poot tribes. 

Sevagi's movements towards independeacfe and empive 
commenced abont the j^ar 1660, and are related by our 
Author in part as follows : 

* The Wow lie meditated was fl^^ifiA-Sonbt. It is&id-he went in- 
to the ci{y iu driTguifG, 4ind remaiiiqd in it thxeeday^ JMckicg qp 


Hifi^riufl Ff4gminn of A4 M^gui Smpire, ttj 

incdligence, and marking tlM optikot hottfet. Tp coaomI hit im 

ceDtioQ5> he foroied two csunps, one before Chfuil, the other befor* 
Baflcin, as if his deigns wert- in tboie quarters. He then took 4^000 
horfe from kis camp at Baitein, ordering the reft to coati&ue tho 
fame watches^ tad iHulicy as if th<ir nuoibers ware not dtmioiOMd, 
ajad hirafelf not ablent. He led hit party -through unfrequented 
tra^Sy which ha had himfelf examiniMi ; and appeared hi ught of 
Syrat before hii approach was known* The citj at this time h^i 
only one wall, and that of earth ; aor were tke gates of any ftrengt)i* 
The governor of the town took refuge wkhin the ca(Ue> and his dK<; 
ample was followed by all who cotild gaia admittance. From this 
terror no reliUance was inade in the town* but the cadle iired con-* 
tinually after. Sevagi had entered, which he difregardcd; but, ap*' 
prehenfive of troops from Ahmedabad, remained only three days' m 
the town. The booty he colle£Ud in treafure, jewels, and precious 
commodities, was eftimated at a millioa fie rling, which ^ not io^ 
probable, for he knew where to feek and demand them ; and the 
annual importations of gold and filver from the gulphs of Arabta 
and Perfia, befides what came direi^y from Europe, amounted at this 
time to 50,00,000 of rupees, and two families in the town were the rich* 
eft mercantile houies in the world ; there were many others of great 
wealth. The EngliAl «nd Dutch factories ilood on their defence, but 
Se^agi gave them no moleilacioa* This happened in Janpar^ 1664^ 
Belkks the abundance of its commerce, Surat was in high re- 
jiowD, as being the port through which the Mogul's fubjeds made 
the pilgrimage to Mecca, of which, in the archives of the empire, 
it was called the port. Aurengxebe felt the difgrace, as well as the 
^ietriment of the infuk ; and forefaw it might be repeated, until the 
city were better fortifkxi^ which required time ; unlefs Sevagi were 
coerced by the ftfongeft nccefiity 0/ felf defence. The whole ar- 
my of the Decan invaded his lerritory^: the condu^l of the war was 
■commitced to Jyfing, the Rajth of Abnir ; who had a fecret in- 
:ftrudion to entice Sevagi to Delhi, but prefenvd thc^ nobler exer<^ 
«ife of the fword, until the active and oUluiate refifhusce of Sevagi 
produced a folemn affurance of fafety from Aurengxebe himfelf; on 
whfch he fet out for Delhi, accompanied by a dacent retinue, and 
bis eldefl fon* He had formed feveral excellent officers, worthy of 
trud, and ordered them to keep up his whole force, under the ufnal 
firiifhiefs, and ready to move at nis call ; but forbad them to truft 
any letters from himfelf, unlefs confirmed by the verbal mefiagcs 
of particular perfons whom he took with him, in appearance as hm- 
aial fervanli. He was received by Aurengzebe with much courte* 
ff ^ which continued, pntil the ladies of the fers^lio, incited by 
the wife of Chaeil Khas, in revenge for the deatl of her ^n, and 
the difgrace of her huihand, folicit^ Aurengzebe» not unwilling, to 
defhoy him. But the high Omrahs faid tli^y had no other fecitrity 
for their own lives, tliaa the word of the Ki^ ; and that the Hin- 
cbo Rajahs would revolt at fuch a breach of faith to one of their 
own condition. Sevagi, at the jpublic audience, upbraided An* 
rengzebe with the tntention, and laid that he thought Chaoil Khan 
and Surat had taught him better the vidue of fuch a fervant ; then 
drew bis iaggtrto flab hrnifelf^ but his arm was ft>pt» Aurengxebe 


St 1 4 nytoncal Fragments of tke Afogtii Empire. 

con^icended to (pothliim, repeated his firft aflTurancc of fefety, and 
rtquefted his fervrcc in the expedition he was preparing againf^ 
Candahar. Sevagi replied, he coutd command no troops but hit' 
Own, and was* permitted to fend for thent. Neverthclcfs his dwel- 
ling and all hi?'doings were narrowly watched. He fent his letterB 
by his trufty mclTengcri, who carried orders very dii&reDt from the 
letters. His army mov^d into Guzerat, on the road to Delhi, and 
fmall parties, too fmall to create fufpicion, were fent forward, one 
beyond another, with the fleeted horics. When the foremoft reach- 
ed its ftation, Sevagi and his fon were carried out of their dwelling" 
at night in covered baflcets, fuch as fruit and rtpads are fent in from 
pcrfons of diOindlion to one another ; and a boat, as for common 
paiTcngers, was waiting at the extremity of the city, lliey pafied 
the river unfufjjec^ed, when Sevagi givmgthe boat-man money, bid 
him go and teil Aurengzebe, that he had carried Sevagi and hia fon 
tcrofs tt^ Jumna ; then mounting with the firiV party, they let off 
at fpced, and rccrofled the river at a ford lower down ; after which 
their track and Nations were thro* an unfrequented circuit to the weft 
of the great cities, and afnongjlthe mountains. The fon, who had 
not yet reached his growth, emulating his father, funk, and died in 
the way, of fatigue ; and the father, leaving attendants to perform 
the obfequies of his funeral pile, puHied on until he joined his arrajr 
in Guzerat ; which he turned with burning vengeance againft the 
Mogul's lands, wherefoever they were not appeafed by money, or 
oppofedby llrong (ituations, Surat, as the moil (cornful defiance, 
Sevagi referved to himfelf, A new wall was begun, but far from 
finiflied ; and the inhabitants, to prevent his troops from entering 
the city, as well as to remove them from the manufacturing villagea 
around, capitulated with him in his camp, for a ranfbro ; which he 
•did not raife to excefs, as he intended to come again for more. The 
Rajah Jyfing was again employed to oppofe him, and, as before, 
with inltru^tions to perfuade his return to Delhi ; to which Se* 
vagi replied, that he did not think Aurengzebe fuch a fool, as to 
think him fuch a one, to truft himfelf a fecond time to the man who ' 
had once deceived him. 

' All accommodations bemg at an end, the Mogul troops belong- 
ing to the governments of Aurengabad and Ahmednagar, moved a- 
gain to the hills of Concan, and pafled the campaign at the foot 
of them, watchful to prevent the incurfions of Sevagi into the plain 
country ; but made few attempts on his ftrong holds within the 
mountains ; nor were they folicitous to give prote^ign to the terri- 
tories on either iide of them, belonging to the King of Viaiaporc, 
with whom they were at continual variance, on the account of difput- 
eddiflri^, or defaulring tributes. Their principal ftationw^as at the 
city of J^nneah, which lies under the impregnable fort refs of the 
fame name. Sevagi, who never preferred the fame to the urility of 
bis exploits, determined to avoid all encounter with the Mogul 
troops, without certain advantage ; to plunder in Viziapore, when 
moft <:onvenient or ncceifary ; out to perfevere without ccafing in 
reducing the country between the hills and the fca. 

* Every fuccefs howfoever extraneous, which cncreafcd hb flrength, 
was now coniidered by Aurex^gxebc, as eflbdual obflacle9 to his own 


Hlft^rical Fragmaits of tbt Mogul Empire. 215 

febemes of conqued in the Decan : Nor was he afiedcd idth left 
refeniment by the fpoil 0/ his own territory, in which the bands of , 
^tcvagi, dcfceuding fuddcnly from the mountains, committed ra- 
,aee, as it were at will ; eluding both rcMaoce and purfuit. To 
educe him by the fyvord was out of the queftion ; nor was the dag- ' 
ger more likely to fucceed again (l a man, who had ufed it with lo 
much fubtlety and expcrtnefs ; and Aurengzebc concluding that he 
could only be taken in the toils of ambition, form^ a plan, which^ 
even if failing in the main end, would, like many others of his pro- 
found fagacity, operate to other intentions of his policy. 

' lie appointed his fon, Mahomed Mau2um (now become the 
eldcft by the death of his brother in imprifoniucnt) ro the viceroyal- 
tv of the Decan, and gave him in fecrct conference the inllru^tion of 
his conduct. The Pnnce marched from Delhi with a numerous and 
choicn army, and amongft the officers were fcveial of whom Au- 
xengzebe entertained fufulcions. It is faid that Sevagi, difguifed 
like a peafant, waited hts paflagc through a village near Brampore, 
and prefented a plate of cream, which from its appearance, Mauzum 
ordered to be (crved at his meal ; witliin was a note inclofed ia 
wax, written by Sevagi, declaring, that curiolity had led him to 
Tiew the mighty prince, who now condefcended to become his anta-^ 
gonift in the lifti of fame ; expelling to acquire more from this con- 
tcfl than from all his former atchievements. The gallantry of the 
defiance, if true, muH have warned the prince, (had there not been 
proofs before) of the dangerous rcfourccs of his intricate intrepi- 

As one of the beft fpecimens of our Author's ftilc and 
manner, vfc (hail here lay before our Readers the death and 
chara£teFof tliis great Prince. 
' In this interval Sevagi was gone from Rairee, but no one knew 
whether ; a <:onvoy of money to a great amount was coming to Au- 
reogabftd, of which, as of every thing concerning his enemy, he re- 
ceived early intelligence ; and taking his time, before his intentions 
could be fufpe<5led, iflued with a^detachment of his hardiefl cavalry, 
remote from all the Mogul's flations ; and fell upon the convoy be- 
fore his approach was known, within a few miles of Brampore ; 
where It would havejbeen fafe, until fent forward with flronger ef- 
corr. He feized the whole, and brought it u'ithout interruption, 
and the fame rapidity to Rairee. But the purchafe was dearly eara- 
ed ; for the exceffive ilrain of fatigue, greater than any he had en* 
ilured iince his cfcape from Delhi, caufed an inflammation in hit 
. breaily attended with fpitting of blood : his difordcr although in- 
creafmg every day was kept fecret within his palace at Rairee ; aiKl 
if it had been publi(hed would not have been believed, iince he had 
more than once fent abroad reports of his death, at the very time 
he was fetting out on fqme iignal cxcurfion ; and at this very time 
; hia army towards Surat, which he probably intended to have 
joined, were adin^ with fuch ravage and hodihty, up to the walls, 
that the city imagined Sevagi himfelf was commanding in perfon ; 
and expeded an aflault with fo much terror, that the Englifli prefi- 
dency font off the treafure of their factory aorofa the river, to the 
.l&arine of ^aily» where lay fome of (heir fiiips $ and the governor 


tl6 ' Hifiotteal Fhagftunts .of the ifogul Empire, \: 

«f the town redeemed his fears by a large contribution ; 
Morah Pundit returned to Rairce t* fee his ma^r die. 
'Onthe ^th oT April, 1680, and in the pd year of his I 
funeral pile was idminidered wilh the fame facKfices as I 
Totcd the year before td the obfequies of t{ie Maha R 
Sing, of Joudpore : attendants, animalt, and wiv«6, 
with his torpfe. C • *«** 

* The name of his family was Bonfolo which claiming their dc- 
defeent from antient princes of the Rajpoot nation, were exempted 

5 we fuppofe in convenience to military exertions) from Tome of the 
\r\€t6T obfcrvances of the general religion ; from which ncverthe- 
lefs he never deviated for the fake of indulgences ; and affeded the 
deepeft reverence to his bramins, undertaking no expedition with- 
out their aufpices ; and was as punctual in his private devotions, at 
tffiduous in the ccraraonics of public worfhip : it fliould feera from 
conviction ; but whether (b or no^ his practice gained the.public 
refpeCt : and as he jdeli(;hted in every occafion of throwing defiance 
againfl Aurcngzebe,he frequently (liled himfelf in his correfpoodence 
and manifeilos the champion of the Hindoo gods againft the fangui- 
nary violator of their temples ; which, with his own example, 
(harpened the antipathy of his troops againft the Mogul's, whom 
they deemed it religious retaliation to dciftroy. 

* His private life was fimple, even to parlimony ; his roattnen 
void of infolence or oilentation ; as a fovereign he was humane, and 
folicitous for the well being of his people, as foon -as aflTuired of 
their obedience ; for he gathered them as we have fecn by degrees. 

* ConflidHng againft th^ Mogul, Viziapore, and Oolcondah, the 
revenues of his own territories, all wrefted from their dofniaioBS, 
were not fufficient to fupply the means of maintaioing «lfe^ml war 
againft fuch rich and mighty powers; but hts genius created the 
rdfourccs which nature had denied. The cavalry of the three Ma- 
homedan dates were always drawn from the Boitheni countries and 
borders of India with efpecial regard to the ftrength and iize, as 
well of the riders as their horfes ; whofe pampered maintenance was 
of vaft expence ; but their iliock was not to be refilled by any of the 
native cavalry to the fouth of Delhi, and all the conquefts made by 
the Mahometans in this lower rmoft may be imputed to this une- 
qual deciiion. Sevagi-Hrfl difcemSl and provided the equivalent op* 
volition, by e^abli flung a cavalry, of which the requilites were agi« 
iity and endurance of fatieue : many muft have perifhed in the pro- 
bation, but beiides the Supplies of purchale and capture, broods 
were raifed from the mod approved. The horie without a faddle 
was rode by a man without cloaths, whofe con Aant. weapon was a 
trudy fabre ; footmen ennured to the fame travel, and bearing all 
kind of arms trooped with the horfe: fpare horfes to bring off the 
booty, and relieve the wearied or wounded. AH g»tbei«d their dai* 
ly provifions as they palled. No purfuit could rnicfa their march : 
in conffidt their onfet fell wherefoever they cho(e, and was relin- 
quiflied even in the Ihftant of charge. WhcJe didri^ were in flames 
before their approach was known, as a terror to others to redeem the 
ravage. Nor were they ib wanton in bloodllied as re]iorted by 
affright; but gave, no querter to rtfiftance or intcrruptien t in ^ 



it^pruai Fragm$9its pf the Megui Brnpfn. tl) 

^ama diey onlj fougl^t the wealthy inhabitant! to carry them oflTfor 
future rabfom. Such was their war of plunder. In reguUr catn* 
jwH^ns, in which fortrcflc* were to be reduced, they muft have mov- 
ed with thei uAial incumbrances ; but Sevagt ieems to have befief^ 
ed none at an inconvenient di^ance from others of which he was in 
{x>fieiIion ; cxceptibg when he invaded the Carnatic, of which We 
have acquired no circqmlhnces. 

* We are not apprifed in what manner he fatisfied and paid hit 
ioldiery and their officers ; but befieve with portions of the cumb* 
rous pltrnder^ grain, land, honour, priviieges, ezemptions^ and 
very little ready money, for the continual influx of treafur^ from 
his predatory ezcuriions raifed the fame of the caves of Rairee to a pro* 
▼erbial fymbol of eaftern wealth, as a repofitory from which nothingre* ' 
lumed. Neverthelcfs nothing neceflary to the fucceis of his operatir 
ons was dinted, and wWt capture did not furni(h was procured by pur« 
chaie* He^ared no cod to obtain intelligence of all the motions and 
intentions of his enemy, and even of minuter import ; for his de* 
tacbmeott always knew the opulent houfes of the towns they attack- 
ed, and often the very cell in which the treafure they. fought was 
buried; he was dill more profufe. in corrupting the generals with 
tvhom be contended ; the Mc^ulV governors orSurat, his Subaha 
iQ the Dec9nt, and even Sultan Mauxum.his fon,^ atid the heir of his 
ompire, had move than once accepted the gold of connivance from 
Sevagi. ' i . ^ v^ • 

' The {ante ppnciples of frugality and expence were obferved in 
the muj^icip^l diiburiementji of ; his government ; for fuperior him* 
lelf to magnificence^ none of his officers were l^d to exped more 
than competence : but nothing was fpiired ^hich might contribute to 
the internal defence pf his country* Regular fortifications, well arm*. 
ed and garriibned, barred the opener approaches ; every pafs was 
coQimaiMed by ipfts, and, in the clofer defiles, every deep and over* 
fianging rock wasr o«;Gttpied as a dation to roll down great mades of 
fione, which 4nade^eir way to the bottom, and became the mod 
^ffi:£k^ai annoyance to the labouring march of cavalry, elephants and 
carriages. Itis,fald t)^at he left 350 of thefe pods in the Concan alone. 

* $evagi pofle(ij:d all the qualities of, commatid : every Influence 
howfoever latent was combined in his fchemes, which generally 
comprehendca the option of more than one fuccefs ; fo that his in- 
tention could rarely be afcertained, and when accomplifl^, did not 
difcover the extent of its advantages, until developed by lubleqitent 
gcquifitions. In perfonal activity he exceeded all generals of whom 
there is record ; for nopartlzan appropriated to fervices of detachment 
alone, ever tr^verfed as much ground, as he at the head of ar- 
mies. He met every emergency of peiil, howfoever fudden and ex* 
treroe with indant difcemment, ami undiaken fortitude; the abled 
of his officers .ac()aiei€ed to the eminent fuperiority of his genius ; 
^nd the boaft of the fbldier was to have feen Sevagi charging fwor4 
in hand. 

' Thus refpe^led, as the guardian of the nation he had formed, 
he nu)vcd every whcj^ amongd them with unfufpicious fccurity, and 
o£tcn alone ; whild his wiles were the continual terror of the princes 
with whom he was at enmity, even in the mldd of their citadels and 

Eng.Rev. VoKi. Mar. 1783. P aroiict.. 

iM^* WhAttib^rcr we fliall oblftio a hiflory of his life written ilt 
kit own country, he will d(^iibtlei« appear to have polTeiled the hi^eff 
fcibiirccs of ilraeagem, joined to imdauntrd courage ^. whichf althoiigh 
equal to the encounter of any danger, always preferred tofurmouBt ic 
l^y circumvention ; which, it impra^icablc, no arm exceeded his In o^ 
on daring. Gallantry imiil lament that it (hould once have been ibia-* 
cd by the blood o*^ alTaflination*' 

Sevagi was fdcceoded by his cideft (on Sambagpe, wha 
fofkSki all the courage a»d adivky of his father, otit littde 
of his judgment or peottration. We ibadl coodiide outf 
extrafts from this work with the following^ aoceunt of his 

* Aurengzebe comimied throughout thh year in the citj of Viet* 
apore, fupcrintending with the utmoftattciitioathcwarag:tfnilSaf»- 
bagi. The noiDbcrs and artillery rf the Mogtii^ army rceovered aUr 
the towns and forts in the opener country, which Sambagi had tt^ 
duced whilft they were employed againft Gnkondah ; bat hts holdt 
on hills and mountains were inexpugnable ; and aH that conW'bc? 
done again ft them was to flation troops m- foch of the neighbouring 
fituations as might beft reprefs the garri(bns above fnMn &(oe&dit)^ 
to plunder inr the plain, whp^ from their back country aad the gaut^' 
were fupplicd, when necefTary, by (bcttted parties, with protilons. 
Even Pannala, which Sambagi madfe hi«owir' retreat «nd cftpttap 
during this war, was continually inveiled, but with no profped of 
furrenderat the end of the year. When Aurengzcte < tog viHc ed of 
the improbability of getting Sambagi intohit power by dint of^penr 
hoftility, recurred to other means. 

* That propeniity to women, which the wifdom of his fitherSe*^ 
vagi fecmrto have early forcfcen as the germ of Satobagi*s deftruc-' 
don, had encreafed with has manhood and power. It walled not hh" 
time in the allurements of dalliance, but'ht^ ▼ariety' was* infadahl^. 
and every beauty he heard of bccawtethe objtjflPof htS'acquiliHmi, itr 
defpite of aH parental and religious re^ntmctrt. Cahfis Caun, a# 
mentioned before,, was the pi-o^rer of' hjs^ pfcrfurcis, and* &oi« thir 
connexion g^ned fome fhare of his confidence- in the afiair» of hlr 
government, without any political ability^ and arcoiHldbrablecom* 
ma»d in the army, with Tcry little courage. He feemt by his name 
and manners so have been a Mahomedair. Awtngrcbc' tried, awdr' 
ftund no difficulty in tampering and fuccecdtng wkh (bch a^harac- 
ler, but Was obliged lo leave the mode m his. owti' judgment, who 
ctmfalting above sH other coniiderations Hs own* ft^unty,' rifquedf 
tfo attempt on Sambagi's life hy poifon or af^i^ation, hut waifetl' 
for fome left dangerous means of treachery^ whftch occurred in the 
ijdonth -of June. ' 

■ It 19 well known that the marriages of the Hindoos' are contrac- 
ted by the parents during the earlfeft infancy of the children, wh^ 
from rhat tJmc are kept feparatc in their own famiKesv nntil the vir- 
gin wife arrives, at the realise of nubJlity, whei> fbe is fenthome 
with much pomp to the houie of htr hu^nd. "Hns pn)cefSoQ i» 
gtncrally matlc in ^e night, accompanied by many h'ghttj and i»' 


Rifigrkat PrafffUnts 9f fht Mogul Empire. *^t^ 

lirfil fecrcd from all interruption, A young Hindoo of diffinAion, 
and much beauty, was to be carried to her huiband ; and the repre- 
fentation of Cablis Caun, who pretended to have fcen her, ealily 
pcrfuaded Sambagi to feiac her. He put himfelf at the head of a 
imall fquadron of horfe 5 but for fear of accidenta in this tirtc of 
boCliUty, Cablii Caun wa« to follow at a didance with a much larger 
body« We are ignorant from which of his ftrong holds this intempc* 
rate excuriion was made ; but bcHcTC from Pannchi, of which the in* 
TeHmeBr might have been raifedby thradvicc of Cablis Caun» The 
onftt of Sambagi had fcarcely difperfcd the pr<Jccflit>nt when his par- 
ty vm attiBcked by a detachment of Mognl cavahy, whoy «p^ 
prised of his perfprn, refrained from his life, and (Hzed him at the 
wtrefified r^iftie 0fbU fwerd. , They then proceeded againft the bo- 
dy with Cablis Caun, who pretended refiitance only to be taken* 

' Sambagi appeared before Aafengiebe with an uttdaunted brow \ 
who rq>roached Cablit Caun not with his treachery, but the encon^ 
raj^ement which his prodituted minidry iMd given to rices which at 
length had led his fovereign to ruin ; and ordered fiim to infbnt 
death. To Sambagi he proifered life and rank in his ferrice, if he 
would turn Mahonwdan, who anfwered by an inventive again ft the 
prophet, and the laud of his own gods* On which he was dreiTcd 
jn the fantaitic ornaments of a wandering Indian devotee, who beg 
m- Tillages with a rattle and a cap with MU* In this garb he wa$ 
tied, hiking backwards, upon a camel, and led through the carop^ 
cstling on all tile Rajpoots he (aw to kill him, but none dared. Ai* 
ter the p rocc ffi bn his tongue was cut out, as the penalty of bki^ 
pheming Mahomed. In this forlorn condition Auivogxebe, by a 
meffiige^ agtfin offered to oreferve his li£e, if he would be convcrtedv 
when fae wrote, ** Not if you would give me your daughter in mar* 
•* riage ;** on which his executioir was ordered^ and pcrfocmed by 
ctitting out hi» heart, after which hit limbs and body "were feparat- 
«d, aiul altogether were thrown to dogs prepared to devour them. 
Manouchi fays, that Aurengzebe beheld and enjo)red the fpedbcle^ 
wliich is icarorly crodible. Neverthele^ human nature won4<rt 
at his inflexible cruelty, as much as it admires tlte invincible courage 
of Sambagi ; whofe death produced not the expeded effecft of Tub* 
IkitAon from any part of the Morattoe government, which it only 
animated the more to continue the war. ^ 

This vokHAe (which ia illuftrated by a very correA nis^ 
of liidoftan from Cape Conaorin in Lat. 8, to Lat 23 north) 
Mpears without a name; but^ froxn fome pa^^^s in 
the firft and fecond pages, we are led to confider it a^ thtf 
produftion of the ve«y correft and elegant hiftorian of the 
•* Britifh TranfaAion9 in Indoftan." We cannot howe^ 
ver in any Hu^ pbce it on a levjel with his former works. 
The ftile is vmeqioid ; often ailededly inflated, fometimes 
qoaindjr obicure ; and there runs through the whole erident 
marks^ef carelefiheft and hafte, which to us appear the more 
remarkable, as coming from thejMm of %: Writer fakfaorto 
diftinguiihed for accuracy and tefinement. 

P a Tbe 

The fbllowiiig pallages by way of fpecimen, ^e fabmlt 
without commentary to o\ir Readers^ 

* Nevcrthclefs, not attacked they refrmncd from a(Kng oflfenfivc- 
ly» for the/ivarii of tbtir ancient valour hadiong cankered initsfpnLf 
f^ 56. * He fell upon ihe Mogul^'s canip, although confiding of 
^40,000 horfc, and tffeHed tenfold more rout than His own loft.' (N 6^.. 
"* Acbar was fooii i^ftcr furrounded in'a fituatioii capable of cttrem* 
defence ; but from which, if properly watched, he could not elcape f 
fo that famb.e Jtemed the emjnre \ againft which Acbar was likewise 
proTided/ p. 147. *But the dijpmty of the throne forbad any over- 
tures of peace to a refiftanee^ wbich had even attempted the depoial,- 
if not the lite of the monarch.' p.. 150* ^ Until the aiTailants and 
defenders were brought /# the hrunt of fiandingfgbt on the fame le« 
vel.' p. 116. 

We are noc however certan that fome of tbeie paflages 
which to us appear moft exceptionabie, may not, by the o« 
miilion or tramjpoiition of words, be more juftly imputed to 
the printer than to the Auttror; as the whole tecn-w with 
palpable errors of the prefs : an obfcrration which to thedif- 
credit of the printers of the prefent day, we have occafion to 
make in r^rd to modern books in general, which are 
turned out from the prefs, with a flovenly carelcflhefs, which 
demands the fevcreft repcehenfion. 

Though we have pointed out however, as impartial men, 
what we confider as Dlcmifhes, yet we think the publication 
now under review, of confidcrable value ; and we hope thi* 
celebrated writer will go on with a work, which has enough 
to recommend it, greatly to crverbalance fome (Tight imper- 
feftions ; and which a very fmall degree of care may, fcr the 
future, make it as unneceilary as it is pamful for us to ani« 
madvert upon. 

Art. VI. Enquiries concerning the Poor^ By John M*Farlan, 
D. D. one of the Miniflcrs of Canongato, Edinburgh. 8vo» 
5s. 3d. boards* Longman. 

SINCE the firft exiftence of poor laws to the prefent day^ 
a train of growing evils has conftantly attended them ; 
which, though onforefeen, as it Ihould feem^' appears tO' 
fprinff from the laws themfclvcs.^ By way of remedy varir 
mis Itatutes have been from time tx^ time enafted, and 
ichemes without number offered to the legiflature : yet, notr 
wrthftanding every effort, the parifli poor has yearly increaf- 
ed, and beggars of every deVcription fwarm as much as ever. 
Individuals confider with aftonifliq^nt and regret the un- 
ccafing rife of the tax wkh which they are loaded, and con^ 
^mplatc futurity with terror. 

The bencvolem. Author of the work before- us has there** 


M*Parlan*8 Enqmriey CcHceming the Poor. tai 

fere the higheft claim to our attention ; as his propofed 
icheme, if carried into execution, feems to promife fair as a 
failiative^ fliould its cffcAs fall fhort of a radical cure. The 
intimate and extenfive acquaintance he feems to have with 
every thing relative to his fubje£l, unaccompanied by anjr 
dogmatic pereoiptorinefs, together with the clear and com*- 
plete view he gives us of matters in which the community is 
lb highly interefted, ^uft recommend him ftill more ftrong- 
•ly to the public. 

His performance is divided info three enquiries, ift, " In- 
^* to the caufes of poverty." adly, ** Into the difFcrent 
^ methods hitherto employed to provide for the poor." 
And 3dly, *' Into fomc more efFeftual methods ofprcvent- 
** ing the increaie of beg|ars, and of proiriding for the 
^* poor." In the ift enquiry the Author begins with the 
natural ca.wk% of poverty, viz. difeafe, misfortunes in life, 
infancy, old age, and wcaknefs of undcrftanding. He then 
proceeds to tlxe adventitkus caufes, arifing from an in- 
creafed population. Here he endeavours to (hew that an 
improved ftate of agriculture, manufaftures and coiiiraerce, 
though friendly to population, is likewife produdive of po- 
verty : that, in fuch a ftate, there is a greater proportion of 
ihoxt who muft be fupplied from tlie common ftock than in 
lefs induftrious nations. Paupers, whofe poverty has ori- 
ginated from either of tliefc caufes he tliinlcs have an un- 
doubted claim upon the public far fubfiftcnce. But the vic- 
es of mankind (his 3d caufe) he informs us are by for the 
moft"fraitful fource of poverty : and (ays very properly that 
want, fpringingfrom vice, a^ it has not the fame claim up- 
on the public with tlie fpecics of poverty already mentioned, 
merits not the fame compaiHon, nor relief. This defcrip- 
tion t)f paupers he has therefore called ** ondcTerving poor.'* 
Their numbers he tells us, we are afraid with too much 
truth, are •* increafed by the certain profpeft of a fupply, 
** and by the ample provifion hidifcrlminatek^ afforded to 
" thofe in want. 

* The impropncty, fays the Do<ftor, of indiifcrrminate charity 
will more fally appear, if wc conlidcrthe charaiftcr of thofe vagrant 
invpoftors, with the bad conlequcnccs of fapplying them. Howe* 
xtT aofit they may appear for the duties of life, yet they dJf:over no 
finall geaiuB'in their own trade. By their art they are aWle to im- 
pofe on the moll diCcerning ; and, by their eloquence, to ejctnkSl 
money even fronv thofe who had betbre determined to give them 
nothing. When they are fcdubus and (killed in their bulinefsi, 
they often gain more in one day than the muft laborious tradefman 
i:an earn in a week. Befides (Irect beg^rs, there arc ftill grentcr 
numbers who do not fo much afte^ the outward femhlance of pover- 
ty, ^butjipply^ in a more concealed manner^ by lettert, or private 

P 3 ~ folici- 

fblicitadotos, Thefe .are fb lurtfuUy dmwn, aii4 fcftrfcnt fucll 
ifcencs of fecret niifipr}^ thar, if we could credit the half of what 10 
(aid, we mud wonder how - there could be ib little compaffion, and 
ib much wretchedncfs^ in a Chriftian land : But, if we (bould be at 
paint to ent^uire moi*e narrowly into their circumflances and charac- 
ter, we fhall find by far the greateft part of them living welU and* 
at the fame ttme, the mod ikxhfiil and the moil worthiefs of the hur 
man race. 

* If thif undifBnguiflied charity (erved only for the relief of. one 
worthiefs perfon, it would be of little confequence* Bur, while it 
confiisms 09e in the habit of begging, tt encqurages others to begin 
the fame tradty and thus becomes no fmall diicourageraent to inauf- 
try. Few would toil from mornin|f to nijfht for a icanty fubfiftence 
in a laborious occupation, if they could lire mucli better by the ca- 
fier occupation of begeing. 

* The certain provifion made for the poor, by means of the pub- 
lic funds colle^ed for them, may be affigned as another caufe of the 
increale of the numbers of the poor. This method of fupplying 
ihem is not att^ded iiHtfa the dune bad confequences as the former. 
It is feldom that they can receive more from the public than is fuffi- 
Oteot for the neceflknes of life. Being di^ributed by peribns who 
may*, or at leaH ought to know, the general charaders of fuch at 
apply, there is lefs danger of encourag'uig abfolute iloth and idieneiV, 
while fuch as are dcfcrving will be more probably preferred. But it 
is affirmed, that, by the manner in which the poor funds are com- 
monly adminillered, an encouragement is a<5tually given to idlenefs. 
When a large provifion is made for the poor, on which they know 
they may depend, and this is beftowed indiicriminately, no diftinc- 
tion being made between defervin^ and undefcrving poor, the chief 
i*tftraint on floth and profligacy is removed. Thole who might 
have lived comfortably by their own induftry are tempted to be idle 
^y relying on fuch fupply.* 

This enquiry Concludes with the *^ pa^al, local and teijx- 
^* poraryctufes of poverty.** 

Thc^d enqtiiry, ** Into the different methods (hithct:to) 
•* employed to provide for the poor*" opens a very extenfive 
pro&c£t, where matters of the bigbeft import lo the intercfts 
of iociety ane treated with equal khovi^ledge and ability. 
The nature of our Review forbids us to follow the Apthcur 
through the nece0ary m'mutenefs of his invcftigation, but 
we ihall endeavour to give the public a general idea f4 what 
ia to be met widi in this part.of the wo^. It fets out witb 
Dr. Bum's fummary of the En^lilh poor bws, and an a- 
bridgement of the Scotch iiAs of Parhiment relative .to the 
poot:. Thefe latter bear fo ftrong a refemblance to the for-^ 
Iner, that had they * been executed,' fays the Author, * in 
the fame, manner, the burden in the northern would have 
been no kfs heavy in proportion than that now on the fouth- 
ern part of .the nation — but the country in general hath been ' 
aver^^ to a tax ir^cb, in England, is fo much oonqUained 

4if, and ilJttch £> imptcOAly .aaAners dicmdi/ This pmn 
of the work is more ourioiis, as -diefe afts of the Sooteh to* 
giflamrt have not till now, as^faar fts we recolkft, cone an- 
gler the confidcration of any of the writers on' the poor laws. 
Xhe Author then proceeds to enquire into the rcafons why 
.laws that appear, at firft iiglit, Co Well calculated to aiifwer 
the end propofed, Ihould have proved fo ineifedual : and 
this he attrioiites to three caufes, to the inadequateuefs of 
the laws tbem^ves, to thofe that are moft adequate not be- 
ing umfbfttly and ftiriAiy put in execution, aod to the iat- 
poffihiiity of^whoUy remedying the evil fay any bnman taw. 

Having confidered this qutfftion in gefiertl, he lorries his 
-inyeftigation into the particular modes of provifion for the 
jx)or which have hitherto taken place. His detail refpefting 
poor-houlies and poor-rates difpJays a thorough knowledge 
of the fubje£t, and his reafoning on their advanta- 
.ges and diiadvantag;es equal difcernfuent, and flrength of 
uaderftanding. H^s chief objedioos to poor-hou4es or 
wprk-boufes are that they are an expenlive nuMle of provkl- 
sng for the wants of tlie poor, that, when managed in the 
moft fru^I manner, each individual cofts the puMic more 
Chan individuals in the lower ranks of life adually do fubiift 
upon with apparent content and comfort, that, according to 
the general run of management, this excefs is prodigious, 
that they tend to increafc tlie number of poor, that they are 
a fcene of contention and vice, improper feminaries tor the 
education of youth, and that they render the poor, who ea- 
ter them wiA good morals, eixlier dtflblute, or miferable. To 
. poor-rates he <%je£ts their being unfriendly to uida^ry, that, 
by encouraging idlenefs, thty efKOurage tice^ that the tax is 
oppreffive to Ae rich, without providing eflfcftttiHr for the 
poor, and that ft is an unequal tax, and thei^ibre a bad one. 
Accouiits of the police in Holland, as far as it regards the 
}>oor, of different charitable foundations in Edinburgh, and 
-clfewhere, of charity fchools in Great Britain and Ireland, 
witli a variety of miKellaneous and appoiite matter clofe tlus 
fecond enquiry. ' ' 

From this part of the work we (hall make the ibUowif^ 
.eatfaft, wlie#e thfe queftion, ** Whether poor ehildren 
-^^ flio«id weeiire a Ht^ry education or not,** is cortfidered. 

• Wit>io«ithe'kbduYof wli,'4bciety could not fubfifl ; the PrinCc 
r would be left folit«fy hi his palace, and the rich man would pcrrfti 
.aandft^ilie abundance of his wealth ; yet fhf re is np mnn who would 
'dMole a ti^rioud ibte ; nothing but ncccfCty could compel him to 
Jm iTtn iitthaig tbil and co4H<i fare, and nothing but habit from his car- 
'tieft^'s Goald reconcile him to it. Had he ever known better 
j&iiigt, or had he been accu(lomed in the beginning of life to cafe and 
^ '. - • .' P4 * ''• . good 

%f^ M^aiiaii'» Ewfmrks tmetrning ftk Fhr. 

good liTitii^, it would faaveiweii a cruel aod iafuppoitabk dAflgt to 
rcturafrom that to a fhitc of ptoiary and hard labour* ^ 

* If» cben« it be abfolutely fteceflary that there (hould be a great 
proportion of mankind deftined to drjuidgery, in the roeaneft occupa^ 
tiontf who muft fweat under heavy burdens, and yet be fatisfied with 
ft fcanty morfel, it is furely an obje<fl of importance to render this 
flate as fupportable as we can make it. As iiothing b\lt earlv habit 
can render it tolerable* therefore to give to the meaneft of the peo- 
ple an education "beyond that fiation which Providence has affigned 
them, is doin^ them a real injury. This accuftoms them to a more 
cafy and comlortable manner of living than they 4ave afterwards 
the probability of enjoying^ which only ierves to render their ad- 
vanced-years more unhappy ; or it tempts theoir to.afpire to a (hition 
beyond what they can ever reafooably hope to attain ; the profpo^ 
of which makes them difcontcnted with their bumble fphere. 

* The fgnof a ii^y labourer has before his eyes the cs^imple of 
his father, who, by perfcvcring induftry, and hard labour, orings 
home what is barely fufiicienr to afford food and cloathing to his m- 
mily. He entertains no idea of his having a title to a better ftatioo . 
in life than his parents poifeiled. He (ees he muft fubmit to a like 
toil, or be reduced to the more defpicable Aate of beggary or want ; 
he, therefore^ caters chearfuUy on his taik, and is happy to £nti 

.* We may pity the ftate of fucb, but we ieldom hear them oom- 
pkin. Having never known better, things, they are .contented with^ 
their lot. Temperance and exercife renders ^ cruft of breadi.and a 
cup of water more delicious to their tafte, than the richcft fcaft is to- 
a pampered appetite. The fatigue of the day renders, the fi^ht of 
their cottage pleafant, s^nd they lie down to a found fleep without 
feeling the hardnefs of the board they red on.' 

* 'Hiis manner- of living, which habit has rendered familiar, is 
fiur from being* fo unham>y as many are inclined to think itr A per- 
foil who has been accuftomed to liva delicately would foon faint be- 
neath that toil, which to them is little more than a recreation* In- 
ueaa of groaning, we hear them whirling and ^ging in the midH 
of their labour. They may enjoy few of the luxjifries of life, and 
be ignorant of many plealures which afQuence aifards. But they 
^ alfo freed from many of thofc dKquictudcf, s^nd uneafy paflipns, 
which vex the fpirits of the great, and often render even their exif- 
tence infuppoctable. ' If their induftry affords them only the plaineil 
food and cioathing, it is fome compenfation that they are perplezecl 
with no ather care. They are happily ignorant of the pangs of dif« 
appointed ambitioo, of mortified pride, and. of >humblcd^ vanity. 
Their fleep is not difturbed by guilty fcars^ nor i» th^r mind t6^ 
tured by long laboured fchpmcs«or hazardous deiigna* Their days 
tnd years Aide gently on in (Implicity and peace* 

* Let U9 now fuppofe a child born to this lla|tc^ of Jife^tdKa 
from his father's cottage by a wealthy neighbour ^ lhat.h« is com- 
fortably fed and cloathed until he is twelve ye^s of ag9, withattt 
being put to any hard labour ; that l;i,e receiyt^s. kj^owi^C »xkd ^- . 
cation far beyond what liis parents potlclTed, or^ were ev^r able to 
afford hiin, and that he is then qrdcrcd to return to his father** ho- 

. t ^cl, 

M^Farkn's Enfuties tcftcerktng^ the Poor. M$ 

voly to cotrfe fare and eo labour« of whidi he had hitherto IK> uieai 
cao we fay that fucb a fecmiog bencfa^^or had done this |>erfoa a re^ 
al good fervice ? Ii he uoc, on the contrary, rendered miferabkt or 
whoUy unfit lor that (lation, wbkh otherwife would have become 
.faailiacund eafy to him ? 

* |t way he replied, Why compel him to return to thif fenrik 
ftate^ why not let^imvHfe to a better ? If he cannot bear the fultrr 
heat of the mtd-day fun, or Hand the beating rain and diilling cold, 
lft:liim (;o to an eafitfr occupation. Be k fo : but who then is to 
undergo that labour which be (liould bate performed, for which he 
was borsi and wbich-Proirkknce at firft atfigned htm ? It muft be 
citiier left updone^ or othen, born to better things, mud fubmit i^ 
it. Hum, bv a partial ferme done to him, a real injury b done to 
.iociecy, pr a und'of injuiHcr to fome other indi viduai.' 

Wo muft refer the Reader to the book itfelf for the re« 
mainder of this inyeftigation, -where the Author wc think de« 
cidcs moil fcnfibly that, after being *• taught to read," an4 
** inltrufted in the principles of religion and morality,'* the 
education of this clafs of men (houid go no farther. 

In the 3d and laft enquiry, ** Into fomc jnore eflfeftaal mc- 
** thods for preventing the increaiie of beggara, and of pro* 
** vidiqig for the poor,'* a.reaiedy is propofed for the evils 
complained pf in thip former part of the work. The Andicr 
however prctendl riot * to remove every evil complained of 
relating to the naanageiifkent of the poor. While the vices, 
die folUes and the w^aknfefles of mankind remain we mult 
expeA the continuance offome diforders and irregularities 
in focicty. It would be therefore a vain attempt to pretend 
-cither entirely to prevent idlenefs and beggary*, or properly 
to fdpply every one defending of our charity. In. planning 
a Reformation, all that can be hoped for is to prevent the 
growth of abufes, anH to leflca the evils which arc moft no- 
torious., Tl^s ovuch at teaft iecnas in our power, and this 
much ought to> bo attebipted.^ 

To bring about this refiorm, Dr. M^Parlan docs not think 
-the pepcai >af the poor lafw^ now fubfiiling, nor the authority 
of a new ftatute^ neoeflarj'. He is of opjirtion that it had been 
^jctter forthe commuAfty had they never been crafted ; but 
now' that we arc accliffomed to tbem> that they have as it 
were taken Yqoj;^:. at once to tear them up he is apprehenfiv^ 
would produ(;*e iflr^nj^ incoiivepii;n,ces, and great diiorder. He 
wifhcs thercfqr^ i<^VV whc^r a well regulated police, and 
the, utmofteMftioaJn the execution of the laws npwfubfift* 
ing wottid iwt inna great rmoafisre remove the evil$ of which 
we nowcomflakvj -i'Wecannot follow the Author through 
the whole of His prppofed reform, but' fliall prcfent ifye pubw 
•lie WMf hls"a*« •*• Suitimanr view of thePIan.'* 
''•<ilt'hath aj>pfe,SlrW*(fay$ heVf?6b the firffand fccond eoquLries c^ 
this wddC)' that^tht great btunbar of poor, and the high amouat of tho 
^ poot 

pf0t me, ptfficukrly m En^afkd, srHes chMj from not dcrty at- 
JK^lng to the dyferent thantdttx^ and ctrcttjnfances <»f thofewlid 
<^pply lor charity, -aod from imitiGriroinalely -gniDtii^ a liberal {up-^xhtiAle tod tvorthbs£si ^s readily as td tlie maft dtfttrtng^h* 
\vf\t. By this injudicious diilribution of the poor fundti «ii enoiMl- 
ti'agtffieiit js ia<S^u»l!y dnren to tdknefs, and even to Ttce{ tbe jfoor 
me 18 incrMfed, xi'hxic many of thofe^' y/rtso h«re the beA daim to 

* TjO irimedy tl^fe evibi if it, in the precediog^ iVdiMs propofed, 
M* To e&ibliki a movt fbud police, particularly in gieat towns, 

«ith. a YteiT to acquire a knowledge of the red ckara^n tod eit- 
^uniUnces of tboi'e who idpeady sue, or who ape likely «b becotne 
4i>ys^ of the puhHc charity. I ktvt endeavoured to llfeow, that» 
even in the lat^ft citiea» thi» it far front being (6 difficult a tA «• 
49aii^ are indioed fx> tfaitik. Tlie ioattsntion of citifteat Co this du- 
1}', IS that M^ich ynakes it uppear.much mofe nrduoos thank veal- 

* II. I have endeavoured to (how to whom thn duty of oianagii^ 
^nd orcrfeeing the pbor naturHliy belongs. It has been obftm^ 
that if a i^roper plan of management was laid down^ by which gen* 
tlemen might fee it to he in their power to be eflentiatiy fenriceablfe 
to'therofelves and to the public, t^ere it reafon to hope that peribns 
'propcfly<]lmrified M^ould not decfine the duty, and that it would not 
lie left td chofe of iakHor'clMiraf^^ri, Who, h^ folidting for the of- 
Vcr, havie only forae QMUt lucrative objeift iofview. 

*' III, Tii kfloh the^rotsMe, and td afift $k» maoagien in tb*4if- 
cluurge of {heWdvty, it is propoied that in towna nn iai^>ador, or iti 
lar^e cities two or more iufpe^ors, fliould be appcuntodi, wWfe bii€- 
^e^ it fliall be;to vitit the houiet, and to infonn tfa^felTcaof tke. 
charni^ers and circumftances of the poor and loweft clafs of pcopl^ 
of which they Qiall make a faitliful report to the managers, who may 
ihcreh}' fie Enabled, not only to grant a fuitable allowance to fudi 
♦tiipply to thcin, but topnofccute vagrants, and thofc of difonterfy 

^ IVi* I .haw endeavoured more particularly to point out the 
principal bulineis of the managers, and the ge^ral roks for itMir 
•prdioary paac^ure '^ <kH the poor W bad chara^bflMougbc- lo re^ 
^ve only th^ fcancieilprMrldy ; ^aft, though the poos of good ciia- 
radUrs (hould be mor^ \ll^*i^ly ptropvided for, yet tbia ilioald nensr 
1)e equal to what an indvtfirious. jman cattjurn by ^ooAfnon labourri 
th^t particular atteu^on ilK>uld be givfin, to diftinguiOl hetnyecn 
thofe who are occaftoiiatly in dfftrefs, and tivofe )vho, bf ^gc and 
infrmttics, mud remain continued burdens on tb< funds ; and that 
^he fupply granted to the fifft be cpofintiad nb lobger tban they 
iftaad in need of it ; that varticuli^r attentidn be alfb beftowed on 
thde who fiand in need tsniy of a partial fapplyt «mmI thofe who cifti 
do nothing for thctaielvea. A Y«ry finldl axdr.may* pre vent ike ttti 
from- qoming alVDgctiier on the public; the laft naW aonther^ 
^ndcDf?^;, .., " . . !.'•'* - ' T ! ■ * .- ' 

' ^ In procuring ftyiy^ iov ^beXupport of the ^poi^v , tha sm^gw 
^uft be, at Icailfor fdiBc tiin^,„dirf<?^ by srt^bas been M^pnK- 
li|Qe pf the place to yvhicb they Jbe^nj. ^n Ib(»c {blf)0^ . a jpw «fw 

22^ C^icmu i^. «»f 

9 jaxi9^rDi4Abk« Where it can be ,prevcmQdf ihcy aiigbt ^« be «m^ 
tious of impofipg it. Though it is Sar from beiQg meant to lUrvp 
the poor, yet the managers ought to have fr^^gality) 4n the dUlribU'- 
tiot) of their fan^s, always in view* if attentioA were paid to lucl\ 
roles, it is believed that the poor rate in many places, particu- 
larly i« fingland, mif^t be confiderably rcdueedi am yet the poor 
he as wnell prorided for a*4bey now aae* 

* V. Where the )x>or arecUefly ptortdcd fbr bjr owx fmrAm$^ it it 
<f>rop9red <o oUiji^t iWre^iubo rac^ivetpeiiAyis ro waar 4 bad^e. This is 
with a viaw te pravanc Ahofe wIm can lUa without p ^t> ficiD S fr^aa ap- 
pivingi arvi to prevem tbofe who receive penfions from begging* 
An exempt ion from \yearing a bndga may be fometimes gi:aotad| but 
to thofe only who a<T kno;vn to be the mpft needy and thfi moft da- 

* VL That, to enforce tjip atitbority of the managert, toprerent 
Vagrancy, and to reprefs iflHenefs and vice in the lower ela0es at' the 

rpk, it 16 propoled that BndcMreils, or €>orre6don*hou(et, (bould 
built ID every lonrn and bage' parifli. TtM)(ugh, tbrot^h 1 30- 
arame bad m^ma^^ement* they have not anfwered any good purpofib 
in BritatD, yet it ia iliown from fa^ that tbey ma^ be readereA 
highly iervices^ik by a vcjy moderate dfgrteo£«ttciUloi^ aod tha^ 
vi^oat them, no regular pUn of police can ev^r be put in cjf^oti- 
tion* A plan of f .corre6ion-hou{e, with rules for the maoagprnaoX 
of it, is Ia«d dov\ n, apd fome other pr6pofe4 pl^ns contidered.* 

In the appendix, notice is ta^en of varipus publication! 
both at home and abroad on the &me fubjed ; -^m fome ien» 
iible queries relative Xo the poor ^o infertc/j, vhicb wat« 
^tto the Author by a friend* 

Upon the arhole, we think itbe pi»bUc is indobflcd to thsa 
intelligent Writer for the pains and attention he has beftow-* 
ed on a ful^jeCt at ofice iotricate, and of die higheft eonfe- 
qucnce to ftJciety. And, whatever may be Ae fate of his 
plan, we fincerely wilh him long to enjoy that heartfelt fa- 
tisfadion which a confcioufnefs of having endeavoured to do 
good will always impart to the virtuous iin4 feeling mind. 

I W B U p t !<■ 

Akt. VII, 7/y C*ipndovi LaJy^ a Coyiedy, altered from Beaamont 
'and Fletcher, is. 6d. Dilly. 

TRIS play is an alteration of the Scornful Lady, to a* 
dapt it' to preftnt limes and manners. Wc know 
that many people are fo highly plcafcd by the ftrong colour^ 
ing of the poets, and others have acquired fucTi a revcrooj:ial 
regard for the antique, that we fhall hazard much in ventur- 
ing Xf> give it as our opinion^ that Beaumont and Fletcher fo 
j^:tqt|ciitly offend probafulity both in manners and fable, as 
fcaroely to be r«co«cileable, by any ajtteiation, to truth and 
nature. That they h»vc many very ibriking beauties, we 
aire ftnfihle 5 and that they might greatly comributrhy ihcir 


kl% Tit €apric}$us Lady. 

wit and pathos to affift one, or one hundred modern dramast 
we are ready^ to allow. They are a mine of trcafure, ia 
which the poetic labourer who has not Wealth enough of his 
own, may aig with infinite profit ; he ought however to ftir- 
nifli new vechicles for the conveyance ofois diamonds, and 
to give them a fmoother polifl^ or they will hardly appear to 
fo miu:h advantage as a well fet coantemit« 

Let any impartial perfotx determine whether the Elder 
Lorelcfs preferrcs in the leaft degree the manners of a well 
Wed and polite gentleman, or if a lady were iikely^to be won 
by his ftile of courtfliip. We think the comedy might as 
^ell be called the Scornful or Capricious Gentleman^ as Lady'y 
for furcLy none but Grimdkin ever wooed in his mode. 

Of the alteration little caa be faid, becaufe little has been 
done except negatively, tliat is» much has been left out, and 
in general with propriety. Some things however of tieoeflity 
have been added. The following fcene contains more, wc 
believe, of the prefent Author's (and vrc have read with 
(qme attention) than all the reft of the play ; from which our 
Readers will be enabled to determine, how far the ftile and 
manner of the Modem Writer aflimilates with the Ancient. 
• $cent changes^ Enter Yov^Q Loveless, Captain, smJ Poet. 

Capt. Well, but, my gallant LoveUfs^ tho* thy brother be come 
home, and hath refumcd his fortune, marriage tvill cure all again. 
There's no fear of the widow's hufband returning to life again. 

Pott. Yes, yes, Marriage will cure all again ; and thanks to our 
mod excel^ot luufy Grocer^ for giving tt« fuch good nafiMs to be 

T. L^.. Why, 'faith, Gcmlcmea, I rovft join you in the gene- 
ral mirth \ for our mod excellent LaJy Grocer^ as you call her, hath 
not only made me merry ^ but nxiife. In (hort, (lie has (hewn me the 
end of my line, and happily has taught me to barter folly-^for re* 

Piftt. ("ivhijj^hg totheCttptam.)Vni^t does he mean by Reflection i 

'Copt, D-mn me, if i know ! — I never made ufe of Aich a word in 
illl my life. 

Poet. Well, noble Lovelefs^ you arc plcasM to be merry, we (cc ? 

T. )Lov. Why yes, Gentlemen, merry tnf»rt^ but not maA. There 
was a time I could be the latter ; but the full moon, that then iniu^ 
«nced my underflanding, is now on its wane, and I am juft ^ I 
fhpuld be. 
; Capt. and Poet. Explain— explain— my noble Lonyelefs / 

X.Lo*v* Why, as thus: Born with. (Irpng paffions and a good 
eonflitution, thty played into each other's hands again (Imy reafon— 
my fortune furniflied thctn with the means: — ^but juft befoVe the 
game was up, this charming ^idow betted on my fide, turned the 
luck againft my adverf<(ries, and thxis I recovered my original fiake. 

Capt. Z~nds ! I don't w*U underdand this lingo. 

P$et. I ^ar we're ajl aground, Captaun, (^fide)r-^t^^ bgt my 
.♦. nobie 

. 7%f Capric(9Us Ldij*, ttf 

tto^ Loveh^, vou don't mcin to iodaSk/t 1M ? Confider/ we hftvf 
been your deareit friends. 

T. Lov. Aye, but you fee the detreft friends mufViuirt. Comef 
cofne, you have had your turn ont of me> long enough, in all con- 
iciencc ! It is but looking out for fuch another fool as I have been ; 
and fure. Gentlemen, you cannot pay fo fafltionable a town as this 
isy fo ill a compliment, as to think you'll long want a choice. 

Caft. Prithee, my noble Lfotlefs, do but contidcr! — We arc un- 
done, if you defi^rt us. «^ 

T. Z#v. For (hame. Captain ! If you hayc the courage you pre- 
tend to, carry it to the camp : your country demands it, and will 
pay yo}X nobly for it. If it is out pretence (as I have (Irong reafon 
to think it ^)you mud take it to other markets^ — the Stews and Qi^- 
ing-boufti^ There you will meet with thofc to whom the confciouf- 
nefs 6i deferring chafif/ement will make the cou^iterteit pafs for there-* 
ality. — As to you, my little Poet, who feem to be born for theag« 
you live in, the World, I dare Uy^ will do you more jiifticc \ lor 
fixMre your fraternity have Hiortened the road to fame by pulling 
down the merit of others to their own level, the Worfliipful Compa- 
ny of Scribblers cut no inconiiderable figure in the great Corporanon 
of Knaves and Fools. 

Cafi. So, fo, 'tis all over, I fee ! — D-mn me, this comes of fol- 
lowing Younger Brothers ; fellows who are often as much obliged 
to live by their wits as other people ! 

Poei, This plot thickeos too loon, Captain ! — We ibufk lay ^ur 
•cxt deeper. — ^Adieu L^elefs ! {Exit vjith Captain. 

T* Lov. Farenxll, my once noble compeers ; and. as I have met 
with my reformation, may ye as fpeedily meet with your deicrts! — 
Enter Widow. 

WttU So, Mr. LoveJefs^ I faw your companions on the flairs F 
They kxrfted rather moodily, methoughr, and leemed to cail their 
eyes upon me as the caufe of their ill temper. 

IT. L^v. Thou hail guefs'd right, ipy fweet Widow !«^A vagin 
gom^ into bondage like me, having no occailon for a train, I took 
the liberty of difcharging mv fupernumerary attendants. 

ff7d. I (hould be forry, Sir, to break in upon your nleafures. 

/*. L^, Thou wert born to heighten them, my uveet Widow ; 
and 'tis with ())ame I now reflet, ever to have calkd my former fol- 
lietby that name. 

ffids But art thou fure now, thou wilt never relapfe, and find 
thy felf again miftaken ! 

f. Lov. O ! never after recovering a furfeit ! — It is your fickly, 
appetite that finds a novelty in variety ; but your man of experince. 
knowing how unhealthy it is, fits do)vn pleafed with the wholfomc- 
nefs of a good fingle difli, and {licks to it to the end of his life, 

WiJ. If I was but fure now, that you would conftantly obfcrve, 
this regimen 

T. Lev, You being the phyfician, bow can you doubt it ? 

fFiif* O, I do not doubt tne ^oodnefs of my prefcriptions ! But 
fnay not vou, like a fpoiled child, refnfe the phytic, tho' it be ad- 
^inidereo to you for your own good ? 

Tm X^9. (iever, when it comes from fo fair and kind a hand 


i NMet i ItftMnrfe-lohr >jr(ieAeiiced wtiatit was tohtiB^ i&af t (baQ 
now be tbe more ruftraed as:ainft a relirpfe. 

Wlif. WA\^ 1 md I mull tiAA to thole promi^ ; dnid as fou 
iMive cur«4 me of the M^yaf km^jMnod^ I anvthe more^aj;^ to flat* 
tfcr mffell) 1* might hare cured you of the folKes ^'tfitriety and /A^ 

T. Le^4 tVTiy, this is as it ^cidd be;— « free confeffion on both 
fideit and the onlV way taroako our union lafting.— As for my part, 
Pm dtttrmined to be haftfy ; and when once a man takes upfcrioufly 
this refolutlon, k !^ IHiraly in the powfer of Occidents to thwart irv 

Wid, I will tior protiiiii» fo iloutty, bur hope to learn obedience 
from my fcuft>an(}» 

T. h9^. Here, theft, let m« figii attd feal (Idffis her htmi) 
And thusf my l^rty re6fnr ; 
My grea^ happinefs to call yoii mine. \Exeunf, 

It requires Iktlc »pchetratioii to obfcrvc, Aat the iceae is 
of a very different comptexion from ttieodiers where the o- 
riginal Authors fpeak. When the old writers ufed a metii- 

Shor, they did riot run it out of breath, fearful left they 
^ould never find another. From the fpeech of Young 
Lovelets bcginnii^ ** O ! never after recovering a forfeit,'^ 
tjbe aUufioti! to wylic, ficknefs, an^l bisalth, W drtraedl 
through fix fpceches, tillev^ry Reador of^aftenmft indeed 
ha%>e had Zifitrfeit. It is the bufinefi of him who alters and 
adapts (be pilayft of others, to read his author wkfa circum- 
fpealon, to endeavour to catch his manner wherever he 
make^ additions, and to warm his imagination; if poffible, 
tW he equals what he iniitated. 

, 1 1 ■ ■ M l ii III • 

Art. VIIL Elements nfihe Theory md PmtBlceofPhyJtck andSktgefy: 
By J.- Aitkin^ M. D. &vo% t vdls. 12s. boards* No BodkMer's 

OF thcfc volumes the latter has heen in the hands of tlic 
* ptiblic for fcveral ycais ; and if we mifiake npt, it has 
been a general and a juil opinion, tliat Dr. Aitkin's Eie-- 
;ments of Surgery are the offspring of vanity and a|!cAadon. 
TThe additional' rolnme is wcH calculated to confirm this o- 
pinion. The reader, as he toils through it, is diftrafted'be- 
tWeen contrary- inclinations ; fomclimes he is dilpofed to 
throw away the book in difguft at the quaint and fkr fetched' 
ttrms'in whidi the Author has attempted to difguife'trite 
and obvious refledions, and fomcthnes he is amufed at the 
ftniHirig dignity of exprcflioh in which he has conveyed his- 
fiiigular opinions. Dr. Aitkin imprefles us with' the idea of 
a pedant ftrainiag every nerve in the fcarch'of wordb and 
pbrafesthat have the. appearance of deep ertiditioh,-littte fo- 
licitous, nay perhaps incap^c of judging, -wh^ct they are^ 
harlh or elegant, ob'fcuVe or p€trfpjcuo^^i proper -oi^'mtpro- 


r; md ihoxild nKoi^or mventk)!^ f«raUb WW lie>f^^ 
feems \o feUe it with the moft eagtr avidj^yv mW to dii* 
play it to hjc RoKierwith sua^air- of coaicip«« triisMpby apd » 
imile of tha hsMitft &if-coiB^l«ccnof • The Author's W* 
bours have not been unfuccefsful, and we venl!ote ta foretel 
that when aifc£bition and igm9ianc<&(hftUhftva focoeeded m the 
^fiwts they are daily making to expel fimplicity and propriety 
^^ o| the Engliik language, thea Dr. Aitkin's wntiogs 
will be fttuiied as mqdeU of clailical ek^n^* In fupport of 
tfiis p^ediftion we adduce the foilowiiig p^flages. *^ Th« 
diagnoftic of mealies fever prior to ihe fpecific eri^tion \a 
chiefly collected froni the Specified affeAUo of the eyes." 
** The agiie poifon^is varioufly virulent and '^itis molcbiik tii'j 
duence will oe proportioned^" In pn« pteee' the Authoe 
tsiks of ** the medifial coAdu£k of a cireuoiAfiiMe^'' and \si 
aiwtlieF of ^^ ardent fpirit being fupremely adtifeptsc over 
dead animal fubftanqesw 

That the Readev may not fuipe^t that tbefe fj^cioiens aro 
-moSakx rep^cfentateons of thisr Writer'^ laode ok eieprefBoliv 
we fhaQ tra^ribe ;| whole pangraphr or twoi ** Materia 
medica in % reftn(£UdaRd= yul^ aooeptation- denotoi the niaA: 
^ the pharmai»nti€rcm<4i^pr'.d^sLehi«fly (Which at^ ftiH 
monfbroufly numerous, and have obtained- in; gentm) eftir 
mation a preponderance over thtf diotetie 0iiH» opprobrious 
and highly pernicious/' ** Atra^uous- application of re<^ 
medies n Q^ified^ accommodated to tbo- intensity of vefko^ 
lar fi^er, conftitutefl any fpceiality of-^^ure it fceoU to-admit.'^ 
if he whcflt'WOvk Gonfim of tbe ^hkks obfcnre avid uocovithf 
jai^9». If Loiaan, himielf had a^dertakeli to ridicale medi'-^ 
cine; h^ €0^4 not have contrived a ftyle better adapted ta 
his purpofe. 

. We oomet^W to make a few obfervations on tltcf doc- 
t^ne^ delivered bv Dr. Aitken. In his prefiuie he fets omfr 
with bidding denance to the tyrant, authority. Writers 
may perhaps be divided intp three clafles, when coniidered 
with refpe^ to the deference thdy pay to authority, the firft^ 
conning of tbofe who implicitly adbpt received opinions^ 
d^ fecond of tbofe who deviate Irom them^ from couvi£tioat 
and a regao-d to truth, the* third of thof^ who rejeft themi 
iperely becaufe they are the received opinions. The few de«: 
▼Jations of Dr; Aitjcin we are inclined to impute to the lafti 
mentioned motive* We fay the few deviacionsv becaufe in* 
reality.tbe.chi^f npyeltx of theie elements confifts in- tha)l 
fin|g^r mode of exnreilibn which has been already noticed. 
His plafiic power, tbr example, is neither more nor leis'i 
liwv tbe principle oatled byfbme, futture^ by others vis tnedi* 
Motrin m$ur^t &c. Dr. Aitken's denomination well e^ 


||l AittdnV Ptaake of Phj/ici. 

tfoQgh ^prtibt that modificatioft 'by which fych effeds a 
MW grmnnlatiotis of fltOi, &c. are produced, but of thofe 
violent efierts, fach as proftifc fweats, by which nature at- 
tempts to relieve herfelffrora acute and dangerous diicafcs, it 
conveys no idea. 

Among the lingular tenets of this Author may be enume- 
rated a ftrong antipathy to emetics : how far this notion is 
C% we fubmit to the judgment of praftitioncrs. He aMb 
Ijeves that in the exhibition of opium, the ftimulant pow- 
er of that drug may be fafely negledcd. Now this Is iiot 
only a falfe» but a dan^rous doArine ; -it is contrary to uni« 
vcrial praftice and univerfal experience. Should any unex* 
perienccd perfon be induced to exhibit opium in pleurify,* 
phrenitis and the like difeafes by tlic authority of Dr. K\U 
kin (and furely if nothing was to be dreaded from its ftimtM 
lating qualities, no good reafon could "be given for wift- 
holdmg it in inflammatory complaints) he would fcon be 
convinced, by too melancholy a proof, of the tfertjerily with 
which our Author has ventured to recede from the general 
opinion. In a writer who profefles to delpife authority, fucfa' 
an indication of cure as the pleotiftkl ufe^fdtluents in order 
to waJh away faline and acrimonious fttatt^jr,- will be tliou'^hr 
a little extraordinarv. * h: . '«• 

Of Nofologifts Dr. Aitkin aflerts, thit tlieit labours hive 
not been ** entirely wafted, bccaufe they kfvt to Aew the 
vanity of the attempt." After fuch a declaration, it would 
ieem tb require no vulgar ihare of confidence in his own abl-, 
lities to compofe a nololo^. He however has not been dif- 
couraged by the failure of^his prcd^eflbrs, and if we may bei 
allowed to parody a line of the poet, he will be found 

** Such in thofe pages as in all^he reft." * 

If obfcure and unintelligible definitions cotfiftltuto Ac fae- 
Tit of a nofologift, he will be efteemed' the Magnus Ap^o* 
of the fcicnce. 

Thcfe fpecimens of the ftllc and the dpftrines of this 
work will we doubt not, be deemed by many redundant, and 
by all fufKcient. But before we conclude, it will be prt>per 
to mention an artifice of the Doftor's, in whidi thougJK he 
has had many rivals, yet he muft be allowed to have gone 
beyond ihcm all ; we mean in fuelling out his fcanty mate- 
riah into two verr large oftavo volumes*. 'Miny ot his pa- 
ges do not contain more tlian three or four lines of original 

* Mr. Cfldell bookfellcr firft aJvertifcd this publicatioiji at 14s. 
in boardi. Mr. Difly has fincc<idT'ertifcd the fiimc book m bb Wt| 
tit 12s. in boards, but wt are not intormeil of thc'reafon dfthi^Va-" 
Jiation ofpubliihcr orcf price. . , »- ir - ^ „ 


Gregory^s yiiW of the Theory of Medicine, II33' 

matter, and many none at all ; the deficiency* is fupplicd 
by numerous fynonimcs and a parade of unneceffary quo* 

- - 

Art. IX. Confpe^us MeJicime 7heoref':ca, Ad ufum Acadcmi" 
cum. Au£tore J. Grcijory, M. D. Ei. alt. i. e. A View of the 
Theory of Medicine. By Dr. Gregory, Second Edition, z vols. 
8vo. I2S. boards. Creech. Edinburgh^ 

AT the entrance of this work we meet with a preface or 
diflertation of very confiderable length. It furnilhea 
us with an account of the improvements and additions to be 
found in this fecond edition, the Author's reafons for ufing 
in his text book a language different from that in which he 
delivers his Icfturcs, and a brief hiftory of Medicine with 
obfervations on collateral fubjefts. As this diflertation is 
perhap^tbe only part of the work which can be ftriftly con- 
sidered as original, it requires panicular attention, ^elides 
many correaions and enlargements throughout the whole 
performance, this edition is made one third larger than the 
former by the addition of the therapeia. 

Notwithftanding the advice of many of his friends, and 
in particular of his bookfeller, the prince of critics^ who aflur- 
ed h^m that there ar^ now few readers or purchafcrs of Latia 
books pQ medical fubje£ts, he has perfiflcd in writing in that 
language ; for he is of opinion tliat the contrary praftice, 
which has for fome tiine prevailed in this and fome other 
counties, and now indeed begins to prevail uoiverfaily, threa- 
tens fcicnce with great inconveniences ; as in the firft place 
new improvements and difcoveries are prevented from palling 
from country to country with the fame rapidity as when learned 
men ufed one common language, or what is ftill worfe, they 
arc entirely confined to the fpot where they were firil made ; 
and fecondly many valuable Authors are condemned to un- 
diflurbed repofe on the fhelves of gloomy libraries. Nay 
perhaps^ lays he, the time will come when phyficians fhall 
3i3^\j to Latin works the fame expreflion, with the change 
oif only a fingle word, that in the ages of darkncfs v^as ufed 
by the Monks of thofe which were written in Greek, ** It 
is Latin, it can neither be decyphered nor understood. '* 
Such are the reafons by which Dr. Gregory has been in- 
duced to recommend to his pupils the lludy and ufc of the- 
Latin language by his authority and example. He next pror 
ceeds to confider what is to be underftood by the term T6eo- 

2 of Medicine t the difficulties under which it labours, and 
e rocks on which theorills have in general fplit. To this 
fucceeds a Iketch pf the rife and progrefi of medicine. The 
-£no. Rev. Vol. I. Mar. 1783. Q^ charac- 

^J4 Grcgory^s Unu of the Theory tf MeJicint^ 

charaders of the moft celebrated medical authors both hi «nr- 
cient and modern times, have been fo frequently the oWe£ls 
of critical difcuiliony that it is difficult to advance any obfcr- 
vations that have not been anticipated by others. Accord- 
5ngly our Author has contented bimrelf widi repeating thcr 
leceived opinions o» their merits and defers « But the way 
in which he has executed this deithres commendation. Hisr 
manner of expreiHon is fprkhtly.and agreeable, liis meta— 
phors are well fupported and well adapted, and he has hap* 
pily contrafted the praifes and the cenfures that hoi« been be* 
ftowed upon the feveral fyftematic writers. 

We now come to the laft topic, viz. fbme r«fleftions oi^ 
the prefent ftate of jpbyfic, and on the adrantages and difad^ 
vantages refahiae n-om the maxims b]r which medieal pur* 
fvits are now wreded. The fotlowing oxtraA wiU,, we 
hope^ convey to our Readers fome kka of ^om* Autlior*^ 
mode of thinking. We have alfo another redon fop* £ded-» 
ing this paffi^, it is becauft io cor epiniovf the remarks 
contained in it deferve the attentfon not of phyfieiant Oft-^ 
f;f , but of others ; for rtotwithftandirtg' our daily boaft^ oF 
fuperior refinenient and knowledge, empirics are as nume* 
rous arrd as impudent, and tbembre mvft meet with as- 
great encouragement in the prefent as at any fdrmer period. 

After having ftated the mifcbiefs arifing from a blind deie-* 
rence to the opinions of celebrated writers^ the Aiitbor pro-*^ 
ceeds thus : 

*> But another evil^ of a very ^^kiftnnx noxmt^ and eifgiiMfiia^ 
from a quite oppoite fimrce^ dcw corropM medickcy aad t&easewi 
more imraineat danger. PhjrfictaQt umrly rcied^ng boili lUKkom • 
ty and reafoMag, have fet about cfiUrgi&g and ioiproviag the fi^hi-- 
fary art, by experimenft and obfervatxoaa alone, which can adraie 
of no doubt*. Hence have arifen creditlijdr and a leniclefs admrrados 
of whatever medicines miflake or dcfisn have propofedy at the fame 
time extolling them with the mod lan|;utne commendations, and 
boldly affirming that they were infallible remedies for certaih dil^ 
esfes. ' / 

« We cannot be fnrpriiH that ibch kind of teowMge^ lb well 
adapted to the ignorant and tfee idle, (hould have pmved acomablr 
to many as well ph^ficiant ik oihert, and that great mrmbeie moukl 
have employed their endeavoure whe)^ the labour waa fo iaconfider- 
able and the KewardB fo ample. It ha& in, fnnJEX hap^ned that maojr 
remedies,, fome good and more bad, have been brought forward aiw 
many obfervations made, and fnany forged bv phyucians under a 
jsjcrfuafibn that they thus not only advanced the art thev profoiTed^ 
0ut alfo acquired for thcrofelves both reputation and prom. But, ^ 
I may again quote Bacon^ it is not only necdTar}' to -procure a great- 
er numwr of experiments, andthofe of a quite'dtfitrent kind from 
^hathave been hitherto made, but likewife to introduce a quite dif* 
fert ot ofder aad mode of pmcecding ioxaondM^ng foeh expeiiiieuts ;. 


Gregory's Fkw vf the Theory 4if Medkim. 235 

Ibr as it was before obierredy vague experiment with co obje^ in 
view, is mere griping in the Jariy and tends rather to confound than 
enlighten. But when thcj arc condu(fted by certain rules, and in t, 
continued feries, then juif ezpe^ations may be formed of advancing 
the iciences« 

* Were even aH the obfervaHons true, and the remedies that have 
b«en bropaied eficacious, 4til a certain theory would be neceilary, 
ID order that the phylician may know when k is proper to give Mt 
nKdicine, ^and whets and with what view, to withhold or change if^ 
as a c&ann of circumftances may require : for c'very one who it the 
leaft verfed in thele matters knows, that the more excellent the me- 
dicinCy the greater danger is to be apprehended from an improper ap* 
plication of it| and the rreater care it requiAte to exhibit it with 
laitty and tfk(k, Notwithilariding this, a blind and bound Icfs con- 
fidence Jfi the power of^fuch and fuch remedies to heal fuch and fucli 
iHfeafes, is fl natural and pleafing^ to the vulgar, and indeed to all 
' wbo are not enckied with triK fcieRce, that if the fame madnefl 
llMttfal ieite phyficians themlelves, the foundation on which alone 
icoiQ fiand)' ima% deftroytd, the fcimce of medicioe mxA fall to the 

Such credulity and boafiiug with refpcdt to the wonderful and aK 
moft divine virtues of certain medicines, may indeed ferve the pui^ 
po^ of mountebanks, and are excufeable m the common people, 
but nothing can be more unworthy of a man of fenfe and learning, 
.sind e^yeciany of an honed and candid phyfician : for fuch an one, 
kflows^ or leM ought to know, if he #iH mike tm of his reafiin and 
leoies^ that there does not nor cati there exid^ certain and infallible 
reta^ly for even the moft trifiing coiiq>lainc. Nor would any man 
of ibund tasetiod (unkft he wifl^ to decetre) make an unlimited 
piioaitt& to- curt the flighted cough or headacfa or toothaeh by any 
aBediciae»;'lbr fuch power does not exift ia the whole fcience and 
arc ot medieiae, far leto in a fiagle remedy, however vaunted. Suck 
is the flrutSiure of the human body that it is expofed to various dif- 
e^tfes, from varioni caufes, from which, it recovers fooner or later, 
either by the uqaffiiled efforts of nature, or by the aid of fuch reme- 
dies as are proper to pronK>te her endeavours, but fcarc^l v ever by 
the eftds of medicine iitone without the help of nature. Now lince 
the condition of the body woaderfylly varies in different men, and 
hadetdi in the fflune periba at diffident times, it is evident that the 
heA and asoft eAcaeious medecines wil^ not always produce the fsanc 
aie&% aor be ^nt^j^ beneSeial, but fonMtimes hurtful, and that 
the efl^Mts of nature herielf, which in general do §0 mtidi iervice, 
win be .ibmetiaies exceffive, fometimes inconlrderable, i»p none ac 
all, and ibaiedmee again imihoderate and therefore very daogeroasi. 
Moitover fotAe diforder^ are abfolutely incurable ; the innate pow- 
ers of the x^oeiHtatton make ho efibrts aga^ft them, nor do any 
aMdieines produce the fmalleft good eife6t It it necdftry therefore 
to be on our guard agaiilft fuch natural and common miftakes wii& 
refped to the virues of remeditts and the e$eacy and dominion of the 
art itiblf ; for they are not only anbeoomiag a wife and iogenuoua 
phvfidao, but lead to wode aad more daageroMs errors. The can* 
did confcffion of th<^ {agaqious aad experienced RadcUffii fhould bib 

.Q^a deeply 

^^ Foreign Lit^kature. Natural Hlfiory. 

deeply infixed in the minds of all medical perfons and effNcciirHV 
tf u^ents, whofe credulity is greater as their experience is little ut 
none. *' When I was young, faid he, and little converfant in th« 
art; I had at lead twenty remedies for erery difoafe, but now I an¥ 
grown old in the pradtice of medicine, I know at leaft twenty dif- 
cafes for which I have not a iinglc remedy.** 

Wc fhould now proceed to a difcuflion of the dodrincs 
contained in thefe TolwmeSy but we have already in a former 
nurtiber affipied o«r reafons for not entering into a ^parti- 
cular examination of text books; Of the prefent per- 
formance it may be fufficient to obfcrve in general, that the 
learned Reader will not find the (lock of his ideas much en- 
larged by a perufal of it, but for fuch Readers it was not dc- 
iigncd. The Author has availed b-irafelf of the privilege 
that belongs to all compileFS of elementary tres^ifes, o4* 
taking their materials wherever they are to be found: 
The phyfiology appears to have been ^ drawn firom the 
beft writers: the pathology and therapeutics' nearly cor^ 
rcfpond to the moft approved opinions taught in the JSritifb 
fchools. This will not furely oe underftood as a reproach^ 
For fo young a teacher as Dr. Gregory, it is fuf&cient praiie 
that he has fclefted with jwdgmeirt and arranged with pcr- 
fpicuity the obfervations of others. It were neither to ht 
expe^ed nor wifhed that he fhould have conftrtiAed a new 
theory of medicme. ' 

The Author is entituled to great praife on tccovnt of the 
propriety of his flyle : this is the part of his w6rk which 
more peculiarly belongs to him. It is fmootli, dear, zivi 

fure, at leaft as pure as the naturt of his fubjeft will admit, 
t IS not like many modern books deformed by a^rities 
from ignorance of the Latin idiom, nor like others render* 
ed obfcure by an afieftation of elegance. 

Foreign LiTERATtJJtE. 

Art. X. OEwwrei ^ Hificirey Naturelh^^i Pbihfipbit^ de Charles 
Bonnet. Works relating to Natural Hiilfory and Phiiofophy* 
By Ch. Bonnet, 8vo. 12 toms. 3I. 38. * 

THOSE tof our Readers who are fond of natural hiftory, 
and efpecially of the fpeculative part, will be pleafed to 
hear of this coUeftion. It is^not however a mere colle^ion ; 
the additions are very coniiHerablc amounting perhaps to a 
third of the whole : they appear under various forms, of 
notes, effays, and letters. All Europe is well acquainted 
with the writings of M. Bonnet; it would therefore be im- 
proper for us to enter into a particular confiderarion of their 


Foreign Literature. NainraJ JTi/tory. h^J 

^rits. Infteadof taking this ftep, we (hall, by way of fpc- 
itimen of the additional matter, lay before our Readers a 
tranflation of one of the letters relating to a fubjeft in the 
higheil degree curious and interefting^ and at the fame time 
known, wc believe, in this country, only in confequence of 
Ibrae vague reports. 

*^ Letter 43. To Sr Spallanzani, Genthod 13th of Ja- 
nuary 178 1. 

** T perceive by your intereibng neply, my dear and cele- 
brated friend, that our opinions coincide on feveral pojnts ; 
this coincidence ^ords me the greater pleafure, be- 
caufe it (hews that I haVe reafoned juftly on feveral of your 
.experiments. But fuch acoincidence is no new thing between 
you and mc, for how often have we converged in like manner 
on feveral topics of natural hiftory. It may be faid, that 
sny foul fometimcs pa£fes into your brain, and yours into 
mine. I owe you many acknowledgements for having in- 
terrupted tbe corapolition of your work on the generation 
of .plants, in order to write tliat long and excellent letter 
¥vhich you call «poa me to anfwer. i am furprifed that yoH 
have been able to do it in two days. I am not (o happy as 
you in this refpe£l, and am able to allot a few hours only 
<very day to composition, fo that when I write letters of eigh- 
teen or twenty pages, you may be fure that they have taken 
up at leaft twelve days« i nveil therefore now in my turn, 
fufpiend my own labours for the fake of anfwering die prin- 
cipal attiqles of yours of the i2th of December. I Ihall 
follow the order of your articles, or rather of my own in my 
laft letter, which you yourfelf followed, and to which you 

** I. I doubted not but the experiments which I propofed 
to you, in order to deteft the germ in the ovarium before 
fecundation would likewife fuggeft themfelves to your con- 
iideration. You feem not to expedi much from them: yoti 
prefume that the extreme minutcnefs, as well as the tranlpa- 
lEency of the germ, would conceal it from all-your refearches. 
It feems to me, that the firft ftep is to find the means of 
' diminifhing the tranfparency of the germ withowt altering 
it; for in my opinion this rather, than its extreme minute^ 
Rcfs keeps it concealed from the mod piercing looks of the 
obferver. A very fmall drop of vinegar or fpirit of nitre pour- 
ed on the cicatricula of the egej, by condenfing a little the 
moifture which dilutes the folids of the germ, i^ay perhaps 
render them perceptible. You might alio try other liquors. 
Two other means fuggeft themfelves to mv mind ; the firft 
MTould confift in endeavouring to fpreaa a liquor coloured 
by ibme vegetable tinflture over the yolk; how do vrfiknow 

0.3 ^^ 

n$M FotBlGH LtTERATURS. NotUf^l WflffJ. 

but the Ttftlf of the joOl woulil aUbrb this dnfttite^ Zfki 
carry it to ds^ gtrm : ikould it only €ok>ar the Goatigwrns 
pArts» it would at le^ft fhitw its place or point. The aftioa 
o£ the veflUs fhould be aided by a gemtle heat. The ii^* 
nious procefs employed I^ Mr* Bq;iielifr to ihew the focc^- 
tve progrefs of the dhicken in the ^g would not ha unfiH*-- 
viceable to you in your attempts : again who knows bat a 
ceruin degree of heat would contribute to render the germ 
apparent by eoagvltting its lymph i to fubftitute the ikmtn 
of the cock, or any other bicd, would be another means of 
attaining the fame end. As the femen is beyond contro- 
verfy the liquor which has the greateft inilueaoe over the 
germ, it foems to be beft adapi^ to produce feme fud* 
den change which might render it accoffihle to our micro* 

** 2« I am obliged to Meflrs de Reaumerand NoUet, fbt 
thofe little breeches of waiced taiBtty, which they^ contrtv^d 
for the male of a certain fptcies of the frog^ m ^rder to 
difcover tlie manner in wnich he impregnates his looiate t 
and I am not lefs obliged to you for the repetitioo ^ this 
ingenious expcfiment. The male, which yeu ^loathed widi 
thefe breeches, did not accompliih the in^mgnation of the 
female, becaufe the femen remained then in hia breeckct* 
Since this liquor impregnated artificially the tad-poles td 
which you applied it, there can ht no doubt but thak it was 
real femen. 

^^ ^. You afe^then of opinion that the fu^icion *" I tnti-' 
mated in this article is not without foundation. I kacn from 
this article of your letter a new truth, via. ^* that ia the 
TREE-FROG, the tad-poles are fometimes found fecundated^ 
tboufjh they remain as yet in the rectum, whether it hap* 
pens HI confequence of the femen Aiding into the orifice of 
that gut, or beeaufe the tadpcrfes fcarce out of the reftum, 
and already iaoiftened by the femen, perhaps return into ia 
in CQ»fequence of the motions of the female at tfafinftant 
fhe is furprized by the obferrer.*' Both thtfe expkinatioiis 
appear much more prpbable than my own. 

** 4. I am ^lad t6 be informed that you have feen irery 
diftin£Uy the circtilation of the bk>od in aad«-poks> oven bo^ 

' n ' ' 1 > ' ■ " ' ' " ■ ■ 1 > 

* This fufpicion is thusexpreiTed in the prflceding lemer ^^ Hero 
I am unable to difcover the icnfe of your eiq;)reifioos." •* that the 

tinous matter which envelops the eggs ? bot I ought not to attempt 
to gueft your meaning/* 


Ibrt flbty began to move at t\U Many other mteftinc rtiovc* 
metits no doubt take place inotnrgerms, before they ara* 
.filAcitndy deydoped to noove their imalliimbs. l( germ 
^re origiaally contained one within the other, if they gro«r 
one by means of another, a vaft ntinibtfr of inteftine movc^ 
ments muft haire taken place in them fince the time of their 

•* 5. I am always a great gainer, when according to your 
wifties I point out to you new experimenis to laake. Yoil 
iiavc t^n made upon ths fecundated eggs of Afhts that 
which I indicated, (Art. 318. Corps Organ:) in order to af- 
tfemun whether fhefe eggs might be kept in the dry like thofe 
of the tufted polypus; ind you have found that they dek 
not poflefs ^h pnvited^e. Your various ways of proceoding 

ermit me not to doubt of the truth of the relult. Yoti 
ve carriod Ate experiment ilill farther to the fecundated 
«mbrf09 of l^gs and toads, and you hare found that they do 
not, aii^ mote titan the eggs of nfhes fpoflfeis the property of 
keeping in thedrv. My hvpotbeiis then with reipedt to the 
M-'peo^img of ifricd ponds is infupportablc: but mtjn&t 
iMs prwikdfe, which hath been refuied to the egzs of nfhol; 
lidve been acomded to fiihes themlelvas .in the Sale of in* 
Atncy, or at foaae other period of their life. I am very de- 
firons of knowing the conjefture you fubftitute inftead <rf 
lairte, and which you intend to explain in your work. 

•• 6. You have feafled me by your account of the 
fester manner in which the male falamander ^pregnates 
Ac female : the whole of this was entirely new to me. The 
ftfammnder i^ then very chafte in his amours } no true eopu* 
latioft takee place between, the two individuals; only a few 
carcfts on the mrt of the male, whieh prepare! the fenlale for 
fbcvndatioH. The male d&pts his iemen mto the water ; it 
jarms a little whififh clo«d, which goes to envelop tlie open 
and fwoinanueof tlie feiule sik) fhe is fecvmdated. What 
pity that the poets were imaoquainted with the chafte amoure 
of our fklamanders ; they would have'turned them to good 
'aeeount in their fiftions. T)mt of Zepiiyr and Flora bears a 
iEtrOffig andh>gy to the fecundation of the palm ; in the ani- 
mal kingdom I know nothing which refembles it more than* 
^w impregnatioft of your wlamandcrs. That of marine 
l^ants apbfoaches ftiU nearer, the niale does nOtprojeA a 
fine powder, but a liquor which ia like man her forms a little* 
doud in the water. 

*• Since the femcn of the male is always mixed with water^ 
I fee the reafon why the artificial impregnation does not 
(ucceed with pure femen. The obfervet muft imitate na- 
1K}|« aivd dilute it with w^ter. I . fuppofe with you that the 

CL4 very 

t4o FoAEtcli Literature, Kmural Rijhrj. 

very thick feed of the iklamander fequires dilutioa in order 
to effeA the natural and artificial fecundation. In like man- 
ner tlie Mrifdom of nature ha» found the means of diluting 
the human femen by the lymph, which fo many veflels pour 
into the tefttcles and the feminal veiicles^. ~ Phymlogifb tell 
us wonderful things on this fubjed. - 

** 7. Few fpeftacles arc fo engaging to the philofophic 
obferver as that pfcfented by the amours of animals, and the 
various means by which the Author of nature hath ordained 
that they ihould prefer ve their fpecies. Should fot|ie able 
phyfiologift ever undertake to compofe a complete hiftory of 
generation, he would undoubtedly begin by a delincatio.n 
of jhe amours of animals and plants ; and it he Ihould be 
as great a painter as theJUuftrious Buffbn, he will attain the 
art of interefting the underftanding without exciting the 
paffions ; he will produce not a phyfical Venw*, but a phy- 
fical Minerva. There is room tor fuppofing that the dif- 
ferent modes of fecui^dation obfervable in different animals, 
are proportional to the degree of fen£iition accorded to each 
fpecies, or, what amounts to the fame thing, to their capa- 
city for enjoyment. What diflereace in this refpcft between 
the filh or faJamander, and the ape, the lls^, or dog ; an4 -in 
the imperial race of man, how is the phyfical part modified 
by the moral ! 

** 8. It is certainly very remarkable that amphibious ani- 
Hials, fuch as toads and the tree frog, never depofit their em- 
bryos on the ground, where they muft infallibly perifh, and 
that they always take care to depofit them in water, their 
natural element. You even give me to underftand that they 
do not lay them in the firfl water they find, that they never 
lay them in running waters, which would convey them 
away and would not fjupply them with proper food 1 but that 
tiiey conflantly depofit them in ftagnant waters, where the 
little tad -poles are not expofed to concuflion, and where 
they are always furrounded by proper food. This kind* of 
inftin£t vpry nearly imitates foreught, and attains its end 
equally well. But fince we cannot in this cafe admit seal 
fprcfight, which belongs exclufivbly to reafon or imeUi- 
gence, it remains to be afcertained how our ampbibiotis ani- 
mals are fo unerringly determined to quit the earth for the 
fake of laying their eggs in dormant waters. The female, I 
ihould imagine, prefled by the defire of laying mufl feel a cer- 
tain internal fenfation, which renders her abode on dry ground 
painful, and infpiles her with the defire of gaining the water, 
and iincc flagnant waters are not fo cold as running waters, 
tliis may perhaps he the reafon why fhe prefers the former, 
not on account of her young, of which (nc caanot have Miy 


FoRBlGM LrtERATURE. Natural Hijiory. i\x 

koQwIege^ c^ fprefee the wants: for it is tbiis that natuce 
hath on ail occ^ifipiis provided for the wants of young ani- 
ixiab; Ihe hatli ibuncf means to conne£l thefe wants with 
lliofe which the parents m^ft feel in certaancircumftances. 
Your memory muft fuggeft fo many inftancesas to, render^ it 
uhnecelTary for me to point them out* Befldes I fee^ you 
entirely agree with me witli refpeft to the forefight and in- 
teliigQn(:6» attributed fo gcatuitou(ly» and fo nnphilofophi- 
cally to brutes, , - 

*^ 9.- 1 knew not that your illuftrious compatriot Valif- 
liieri had entertained the fame idea as myfelt, concerning 
the effe^ of the long embraces of male frogs and toads.. Nor 
did I recoUe£t that Swammerdam on the contrary Iiad fup- 
pofed that fo far from facilitating the {KiiTage .of the eggs into 
the tubes, they rather ferve to hinder it. I ihould not th^n 
have known which fide to have uken between thefe two 
great authorities, if nature herfelf had not pronounced her 
deciiioii from ypur lips. Vou inform roc then that the opi- 
nion of Swammerdam, that the females are not embraced 
by the males, until the ^gs have already traverfed the 
tubes is> not generally true ; that it does not hold but in the 
tree frogs^ and by no means in the aqwtic frogs and 
in toads, but that Valifnicri is right with rcfpefl: to the 
green aauatic frog. In this cafe then no general rule can 
be eftablifhed^ as you very properly remark, and we 
muftwait till new reiearches have increafed the number jo( 

** lo. Mr. Demours had raifed our curiofity. to a very 
highpitch, by his account of the addr^fs of the male toad 
iu affiiling the female in bringing fortli. His details were fo 
citcumftantial, that the truth of the fa£l appeared to be un- 
queftionable, and I hefitated not to make ufe of it in the 
Contemplations. But it is really very fingular, that neither you, 
sa]^ worthy friend, nor Mr. Roefel, fhould have furprifed 
the male toad in tliis jn^reflipg employment. This would 
appear to weaken the credit due. to the recital of the French 
wferver, if teflimonies fimply negative could impair the moft 
juaifitive affirmation. Mr. JDemours ought, as you obferve, to 
have fo deferibed his tpad that we might have k^own to what 
fpoctes it belonged. . 

:** I irf Your doubts with refped to the manner in which 
tb« ifBpregnation of fcaly iiih is efFeded proceed from a 
•fowjtd logic, and we have both reafoned properly upon this 
bAijtQiy by eftimati»g the autliorities on either fiae. We 
know at leaft from the experiment of Mr. Jacobi, that 
£mple difperfion in water is fufficient /or the impregnation 
of the eggs. Your idea of employing the Chinefe gilt 


t4t FoJtEiov LiTERATtnit. KiHurmt Hykij. 

fiflies to clear tip the qtieftfon, to tne appears exeeHenC, n<l 
I cannot preis you «oo warmly to roalize it. 

*'* 13. You adopt then with me the Halieriui dodrineof 
embryos lodged in the ovarium, or in the upper part of the 
tubes of our amphibia, which cannot be iKrundafied autifi- 
cially . But you affign another caufe of the fad, which I fuf- 
pefted not, and whidk appears to me, not lefs than to you, up 
contribute to prodace it ; iince the glairy -matstr' k the firft 
nu^ment of fecundated embryos, ami (ince this matter doos 
not envelop thofe contained m the ovarkrm, or the upper 
part of the tubes, it is quite evident, that even if the femen 
could impregnate them artificially, they would feon perifh 
forwant of nouriihmenti Your experiments on ^Is fubjeA^ 
kave nothing to be wifhed, fince the enUMros you bavtf 
ftripped entirely of their glairy matter coukl never be ifi»- 
prrgnated, wbik thofe which were only partially deprived 
of it were almoft all fecundated. I know not whether 
iiaturaltfts before you^ knew the true ufeof this matter. 

'* 15. The btood of amphibious animals, their ialka, the 
juice extrafted from their liver, lungs, kidneys, their tniit« 
and ours are then the diffefent liquors with whicii you har^ 
conceived fi\R idea of mixing the (emen. T# theft yotf 
have added vinegar, and none of thefe mixtures hate de-^ 
prived the femen of its prolific victue. You htfve otAj ob-» 
fervcd, that when the urine and the vinegar wore in too 
great abuiidanoer £icundation did not ladte^^e, I ixrak^A 
not but that you would Aink with me that the femen is not 
decomposed by thefe mixtures. But they prove admirably 
the aftonifhii^ energy of this fccundaltne liquor. They 
may Aipther fervt to guide you to dtfcover which of 
the animal liquors hath the greateft analogy with the iemen ; 
/or the liquor whkfa in e^uat dofes Should have the leaft ^ 
ficacy indeftroying the virtue of the femen, might }uftly be 
prefumed to be moft analogous to it; and this would not 
DC without its ufe in enquiries into the conftkuent parts c^ 
the femen. 

^' 16; It affbnls megmt pleafure to find thtt we have 
both had recourie to the fkme comparifon, in oider to ac^ 
count for the prolific power of the femen incclpporated in 
very fmall quantity with a very lai^ mafs- of wafer. Yoar 
example taken from the poifon of a viper, of which a v6ry 
little drop often proves fatal to a great animal, is not eithef 
lefs appropriated or left infhuftive. Hence you hsr^ good 
reafon for faying that vine cannot be fuvpriaed that a very 
finall'portton of femen is ftrfScient to animass ti^e hei^ of 
the embryo^ 

'' 17. In this article you furnifii me vnth a4tuil of the 


FoUEicN Literature. * Natural Hr/imrj. t4j 

mADner in which you hav^ proceeded in yotir artificial ftctm- 
<btipns. X entirely approve of it. It is fureW very fvrprifinp 
that an embryo touched with the iine point of a needle^ which 
l)ad been dipped in a mixture of three drops of feaien and 
eighteen qbaccs oi w&teiv afwi which retained a drop mea-* 
faring I -50th of a Une, (hoiiild have been developed as per^ 
fe£tly and fpeedily as othnr embryo which were plunged 
into the femeii. Your iclledion on this faBjeft is very juft^ 
fince fo fmaU a drop of feoaen mixed with (o large a quantky 
of water is fufficient to animate the embryot it is very na«> 
turai to infer that the furplus fumiihed hy the male does, not 
ooncur in the operation. But nature is never fparing in 
what coi^ems jtho propagation of th% fpectes : (he is deter-. 
mined not to mils her aim, and (he would mn the riik- of 
miffing it by too great oeconomy. She jperhaps alfo has an eve 
to the pleauiits m fruition with refpccc to the male; for tno 
emiffion is without doubt- a pleafing fenfation to him« and 
that kiad mother is deiirous tliat all her children flioold en* 
joy pleafure ^ otherwife loo the male would want a motive of 

** 1 8. Youjuftly conceive^ my dear philofophttr, all the 
attention I have paid to this interefting article of your lettier. 
I imagined that I beheld with you thofe fmall pores in the co^ 
ver of the embryo contrived for the introdu&ion of the femen. 
Your details on this point folly prove to me that you'have not 
Cbfiefed yourfelf to be impoied upon ; and that thefe little 
mouths of which I had fuipeded the exiftence, are certainly to 
be found : and fince they are difperied over the yrhole cover^ 
aad this cover in perforated like a iieve^ it can ho longer be 
matter of furprize that the fectrndatton focceeds equally well 
vtirherever the embryo is touched with the needle after it has 
been dipped in the fem<»i. The queflion now is» whedier 
fuch apertures e)dft in the covers of the embryos of evenr 
ijpeeies ; and how probable is this after aU that has been din 
covered conccrniia^ the myftery of fecundation : I do not 
then doubt, and I have never doubted thftt, if the germ of 
the puUet, of the larnb^ of the calf, vrere as perceptiUe is 
tbc tadpole^ you would deteft abforbcnt pores hmilar or ana* 
lagous to thcoe in the embryo of your amphibia. I w«uld aflcif 
we have not the ftrongeft proo^ that fiKnindation is eff^ed 
firmn wibouu and if it be thus efl»£ked» is it not neceilary diat 
there fliouM be little pores prepared for th^ reception of the 
iecondating Ikfuor ? Thefe abmrbing pores and their depetr* 
deocies contain witKeut doubt anatomical peculiarities which 
ve ihoisid admire if we wtate permitted to defeend to the 
bottom of the abyls. Each pore is probably the orifice of t 
veieteomuQicatiiig with the heart, &c. 

*• i^. I 

t44 FoREioN Literature. Natural Hlflory* 

' " iQ. I now come to the moft curious and important ar- 
ticle ot your excellent letter, I fufpcdted not, I own, that 
you had already fucceeded in the artificial impregnation of 
the female of a large animal by means of a fmall fyringe, as I 
propofed to you to attempt in my lad letter^ , Tim. is. one ^ 
ef the moft important and intcrefting novelties that have pre- 
sented themfelves to the notice of naturalifts and philofo- 
phers iince the creation of the world. Your mode of pro- 
ceeding ar^d your fcrupulous attention toel^ablifli in the moft 
rigorous manner the truth of this artificial impregnation, 
put it beyond all controverfy. Your bitch was then clofely 
penned up for 23 days .before the operation : on the 13th 
Ihe began to be in heat; on the 23d you injefted tllfe fcmen, 
and you kept her in clofc confinement 25 days longer, and 
on the 62d^fter the injeftioulhe brought foith three whelps 
well-^nditioned, very lively, and refembling both the dam 
and the dog, which had fupplied the fecundating liquor. - 
Nothing can be more cxaft or better afcertained ; nothing 
can be finer or more original than this experiment. I con- 
gratulate you fincerely on your fuccefs, and what adds great- 
ly to it, is that it was obtained with Icfs than 13 grains of 
femen. This experiment comes very near thofe which you 
have executed on amphibious animals, and we have good 
reafon for inferring that the dofe of femen which produces, 
fecundation in large animals, is very inconfiderable. I even 
pre fume if you could tffeft the fecundation of the embryos 
of a large animal in the ovarium, by theprocefs I pointed out 
to you, you [would obtain the fame refults as the amphibia 
afforded, and that a drop of femen i -50th of a line in di- 
ameter would be fufBcient to animate the embryo. 
• ** Yoii are now in pofleflion of a fui-e and eafy way of af- 
certainlng what fpecies can procreate together ; and the expe- 
riments you propofe attempting next fpring by puttmg 
your voluptuous fpaniel in the com{)any of cats and rab- 
bits, promife not fo fair as thofe which vou will make by 
introducing the femen of this fpaniel into tlie uterus of a Ihe- 
rabbit and a (he-cat, and ,on the other hand by introducing 
the femen of the male rabbit and cat into the uterus of a 
bitch, y^u hold in your hand a pecious clue which will 
paide'you to the moft important and unexpefted difcoveries. 
I know not whether what you have now difcovercd may not 
one day be applied in the human foecies to purpofes we lit- 
tle think of, and of Which the coniequences will not be tri- 
vial. You conceive ray meaning : However that may be, 
1 confider the myftery of fecundation as nearly cleard up. 
What remains principally to be difcovered is the formation 
of tlie mule, and what occafions the different marks of re- 

FbilEiGN LfT£RATURE. Natural Hifiofy. 2^ 

femblance between children and their parents ; and this 
brings me to your 20th article. 

*' 20. You do me great honour, my dear affociate, by 
fufpending your judgment between' Haller and me with rc- 
fpeft to the manner of the formation of the mule. What ! 
did not the authority of the great Haller overbalance mine^ 
which is fo much leis weighty, in your eftimation ? I would" 
not have hefitated a fingle moment to admit with him that 
the femen afts on this occafion merely as a fimple ftimulant, 
could I have accounted for the converfion as it were of tlie 
horfe into the mule. His hypothcfis from its greater fimpli - 
city is more acceptable to the mind. But is it fuiBcient in 
all cafes ? In order to account for the formation of the great 
MULE is it enough to fay that the femen of the afs is a more 
powerful ftimulant than that of tlic horfe ; and that hence it 
elongates fo much the ears of the embryo contained in the 
ovarium of the mare ; for how comes a part of the embryo's 
'tail to be obliterated ? why is its crupper fo flender ? and a- 
bove all, whence comes the larynx fo different from that of 
the horfe and fo nearly refembHng that of the afs ? I cannot, 
I own, conceive that the inftantaneous a&ion of a drop of 
femen on the heart of the embryo can produce efFefts fo great> 
fo different, fo permanent. On the otlier hand I have a- 
gainft me the complication of mV own hypothcfis, of which 
the expofition required a long leries of propofitions, which 
make it appear ftill more complex, and not tote comprehend- 
ed but by readers of great attention and much accultomed to 
ahalytic deduftions. Hence many have committed ftrange 
miftakes with refpeft to jny principles and their applicatioi^ 
*• There is alfo another circumftance which feenis to mili- 
tate againft my hypothefis ; this is the very triHing portion 
of femen which is lufBcientfor generation ; it is not eafy to 
comprehend how a drop of femen fo difproportionate to the 
whole body of the emoryo, can fervc for its firil aliment. 
But tliis difficulty prefles on Haller as much as upon me ; 
for it evidently implies that a given femen ads with more 
force than another on certain parts, and occafions a more 
ample evolution ; that the femen of the afs, for inftancc, 
impels the blood with greater violence into the arteriesof 
the ear ; thefe are his own terms ; he admitted therefore that 
the femen of the afs arrives at the arteries of the ears of the 
embryo of the horfe; how, otherwife, could the fimple ac- 
tion of this femen on the heart of tlie embryo propagagate its 
impreffion to the ears, and caufe fo exceflive an evolution 
of them ? Befides, how come the ears to be the only part of 
the head which grow to fuch a prodigious length, fince all 
partake alike in the impulfc of the heart.. Further^ Haller 


^L4fi FonEidw LiTZHAtURK. Natural ttyiary. 

fpeaks of the powor pofleiled by the femen of occafioning the 
growtli of the beard, and of lengthening the tuiks of the ele- 
phant and the wild-boar ; he adds, if it hath this power of 
promoting a greater growth in certain parts than in others of 
the body which prepares it, it ma^r have the fame eflTeft in 
the body of the rectus which it animates. Would not this 
Icrre to fhcw that our author tacitly fuppofes a difpcrfion of 
the femen lUrou^ the whole body of the embryo ? I fup- 
pofe the faine things and you have no greater difficulty thaa 
injf^lf in conceiving the prodigious divifion of which a drop 
of femen is fufceptiblc What we know of the divifibiUty oif 
matter imooths this difficulty. It is much to be regretted 
that ourgjeat jhyfiologift confined himfelf to mere gcnerall- 
ties on this fubjeft, and tliat he did not appljr bis hypotbefit 
to die explailatioQ of the principal pectrharities ottered by 
the mule. ** It is true, fays be,Hiy anfwer does not explain 
cither the niode or tfie mochanifm by which the femen of the 
mak excites the germ of t£e ear, and caufes fo large an evo<« 
lution of it. But I am not obliged to explain this mecha* 
nifin, provided my fads are well eftaWiincd. The influ- 
ence of the femen on the growth of the beard and horn» is 
demonftratedy though the manner may be perlmps for eveir 
unknown. It k uifficient to fh^w that there is a certaij^ 
power in the femen of the male, which determines the 
growth of the foetus, fo that certain parts coine to be more 
developed : It would not be more juft to demand an expti- 
catioix of die medianifoi by which this is brought about) 
than of the reafon why the abforption of the femen of the 
male produces the growth of the beard." 

^* I ihould have evaded much kibour, if in imitation of my 
Uluftrious friend I had contented myfelf widi Repeating, tbaX 
the femen of the male hath a certain power to eaufe the 
greater dcvclopement of certain parts*. But i^ ^ague an 
explanation not fatisfying me, I have endeavoured to afia- 
1^ hSct^ and from this analyfis I have fought fome fbJhiT 
turn whidh may be applics^le to the moft eflential peculiad- 

' i> II M l I I III ' ■■ III PI ■ ■ I I \ * \ » I ^ 

*Mr. Boonet might have fpared this ceu(breof the illu(WoU8 |^y- 
fiolegiiL Baron Haller,whcD he undertook the grcsiteft work which 
this or any preceding age has ieen, did not iatend to allow nucii 
room to mere conje^ures* He teU« ut id hit pre^KS^ that i^ was 
his dclign to give to account of the fun£tioii8 of the bttaum body^ a9 
far as they were known with tolerable oertainty* Whv hare the 
£!ementaPhy(iologise never been traoflated into Engllfl^^r The taft 
18 indeed furrounded with difiicalty and toil, but in coi^peofatipii for 
this we may obferve, that a tranflation worthy of the excellence of 
the original would confer more honour on the tranfiator than inofl. 
original productions* 


Foreign Literature. Natural Hiftorj. 24J 

tics of thefe fads. In 1 word I have fuppo&d that the ftrong 
traces of refemblancc between the mule and afs implied iu 
the femen of the latter foiaething more than a (imple ftimu- 
lating power : am I deceived, think you, in this conclufion, 
and are you inclined to believe that a fimple ftimulating pow- 
er is fufficient for the whole ? I cannot yet prefume fo much* 
but it is very poflible that a more fatis£Uftorv bypothefis than 
mine may be imagined, and I will be theiirft to adopt it. 

•* 21. You have done every thing with the femen of your 
imphibia you poffibly could do in order to deteA its real 
nature. It is not then either vifcous or inflammable, acid 
or alkaline ; and yet how wonderful is its energy ! it evapo- 
rates like water, and it is very well worth remarking, tnat 
its moft volatile patt is precifely that which is uniSt for fe- 
cundation. This in all appearance is only lymph or rather 
£mple ferum provided to prevent tlie too great viicidity o^tbe 
fecundating part. It would be anintereuingemplovmentto 
carry on thefe refear^hes to the femen of ku:ge arunnls : thej 
have not been pushed fo far as they ought. Nor would it 
be left interefting to know whether the femen of large ani- 
mals incorporated like that of the amphibia with a great 
2uantity ot water or other liquors would in like manner pre- 
:rve it3 energy. The happy experiment you have made on 
your bitch points out the path that {hould be followed in or- 
der to alcertain this point. The femen hath been ordained 
in a latent proportion to the force which cflfefts irritability ia 
juikbals, fince it ig deftined to promote the aAion of that 
quality. I would not even venture to affirm that there does 
not exift in nature (bme other liquor beiides femen capable 
of cauiing the evolution of the germ. Who Ipiows if the 
powder of the ftamina of certain plants may not i>iake fome 
imprcffion on certain germs belonging to the animal kingr 
dom. This is, if jom pleafe, a filly idea, but I lay before 
you every thing which pafles through my brain. I could 
wi£h that the powder of the ftamina of the barberry (hould 
be tried, in which the fcetid and pen^rating finell fee^s to 
Announce great energy. Animals and vegetables compofe 
but one Eimily, and their analogies are vrry numerous. In- 
verted e^tperii^ents fuch as this ought to be attempted, for it 
is only bv infinitely multiplying the combinations of beines 
that our Knowledge increafes. 1 am always a little diftruu^ 
fill of our general concluiions, however apparently well-found- 
ed, beotufe ourpremtfes are always more or leis particular." 
Sr Spahnzani publiihed the work of which this letter is a 
fynoj^s at Modena, towards the end of 1780, in 2 vols 8Vo. 
under the fbllowii^ title . DiJJirtazmi dtFlfica Jinimale # Fegs- 
i^i. Few or nooopies havewebeKeve, yet reached this country. 


M e N T H L Y C A T A L O G V E^ 

Political. . . , . .^. 

An. n, S^i|*f e/the Public I)ebts^ affJ of the Annua! fnterejt 
amti Btntjiti fatd pr them as tljey nviUfiat^ on ihct^fht^f'^yanvary^ 

, IJ5J3; likrvi''fey asthey^v\llJlaAd(ifthcWarcoHtiuueiy\iii^ihe ph 

t ef Jamiaty^ 1784^ .Together with fome Thoughts on the Extent 
10 wKkh "the State ftiiiy b^ bencffted by OEtoQomy ; and* a few- 

* JleHc^ioui on the Condvi6i<*nd Merit of the l^^arties coutending 
for Power, Ev Joha Earl of Stair. Sixth Edition. To whiclj 
15 now ilrtl added, A Poftfcript, in Anfwer to a Poflfcppt ad- 
dreilcd to the E.irl of Stair by the Author of " A Defence of the 
Enl of'Shclburne." 8vo. is. Stockdale. 

HIS LordQiip Qiews that^ agreeably to what he had Iprcdiftcdi' 
the total annual charge on the public on the 5th of January 
J7R3, neat money, amounts to 15,138,3111. And that the total 
^uinu^ charge of neat money on the public, if the war cbntinues 
jfor 1783, will, on the 5th of January 1784, amount to i6,229,3jtr* 
He next proceeds to (late the probabilities, on which he prcfiimes chat 
the neat annual revenue of the nation can never durably, and per* 
nmnentlyi for an average of years, be brought to exceed iwelv^ 
millions. The confequence of which is, that the deficiency muft 
fall on the creditors of the public, who, inftead^of receiving ah- 
Vually 9,638,3 1 1 1. will only receive 6,500,000!. or 13 s. 6 d. ia 
the pound. 

Witb regard to public oeconomy, Tsord. Stair is of opinion, that 
the relief to be fexpeded from thence is very fmall, if confideped re- 
latively to the.boundlcfs expences in which we are atprefent invol^* 
cd ; although he is far from difcouraging the practice of it, as it U 
jx duty government owe to the reft of their fubjeds, ftaggering unddr 
the weight of multiplied taxes. 

As to the conduiSt and merit of the parties- contending for powet, 
Lord Stair, in a vein of good-natured irony, obferves, " that vf^ 
ought to acknowledge with becoming gratitude, the generofily of 
thofe gentlemen, who have offered and accepted of the fervice of 
the public at reduced prices : one gentleman, I think, fo low^ as at 
4000 1. a year, hard money, and to name his deputy. To thofe 
who know the great abilities of the men, this will appear fervinj 
tte public for next to nothing ; in the mei'cautile ffile of adver^ 
tifing, at the ready money price, furbelow prime coft. But as the 
public, continues his lordfliip, as well as individuals, may be hurt 
py buying pennyworths, I would not advife them to make many 
more uich good bargains. In truth, however great the merit* of the 
propofer may be, a reform is introduced witti' nogootf'gA'ce I5y 
thofe who are to continue to poffefs offices in^nitelv mtiri lucfkrfVh, 
and perhaps, not much more efficient than thofe 'thrCf are tb beHbo* 
liflied. Lord Stair, with a fevere dignity, that f<i wcll-becdm^ hift 
virtue, his rank, and his years, juftly animadverts on the eftimatibft 
in which oratory is held in the Bxitiifi Senate. ** In my'coitfciencei?* 

Monthly Catalogue. PoUticsl. 049 

tkyt he, ^ I belkTC, a man would gain more credit^ and certaiol^ 
Woold be much more fure of preferment, by an ingenbits rheion- 
cal apology for the want of every human vutue, than by pofidCngi 
wkhouc the power of announcing, erery great and gooi quality 
that can adorn human nature.'* 

Receding a Poftfcript addrefled to the Earl of Stair by the Au*^ 
thor of a Defence of the Edrl of Slielburtie, his lordOnp anfwcra 
with dignity and with temper* He conliuers t^t as a defperate 
caitfe which muft be iupported by grofs mifreprefcntanon. The 
enTenomed Author of the Podfcript muft bimfcff allow^ that Lord 
6uur era fairly the better of him on the fubjcd of his quotation 
from dKakeFpeare. *• I accept, embrace, and apply to myfclf,** 
£siys his lordship, ^* the omen of the quotation from Shakcfpeare { 
it is thechara^r of the Earl of JK-^f, who is fpokcn of by an a* 
bandoned man, in the way the abandoned fpeak of thofe whom they 
<ilo not like, bccaufe they do not rcfemble ihemfelvcs : A man who 
loved Ills country and his King, }xt would not floop to make him* 
iclf agreeable to either by flauery, and fcorned to make himfelf 
formidable to either by fadion." 
Art. i:^. j/n AdJrefs tQ the Peopk of England on the intended 

Reformation of Parliament, 8vo. is. Debrctt. 

The Author of this Addrefs is of opinion, with a thoufand other 
pamphleteers, that a reformation of rarliament is neceflary to the 
ialvation of public freedom. His own hcar^ and experience telt 
him^ that there is vet much generous and difinterefted zeal ior the 
public good, remaming in many of his countrymen : and this ftock 
o£ virtue he hopes will encreafe, and be able to lop off the rotten 
part of the connitution* ** Deflroy" fays he, " the boroughs no- 
corioufly corrupt, add to the counties and large towns more mem* 
bers, extend the right of vbting to copyholders and ftockholders in 
counties, and to all houi^keepers in towns ; and limit the duration of 
Parliament to the term of three years. The confequences of fach an 
alteration would be, that the condituents would be fo numerous, as 
to render all attempts to bribe entirely abortive." This is the fub* 
fiance of the addrefs : and it is really adonifhing that men (hould 
pefler the public with repetitions of what meets our eyes in every 
pamphlet, and.our ears in every company. 
Art. 13. Free Parliaments : cm: a Vindication of the Parlia* 

mentary Conflitution of England ; in Anfwer to certain Vilion* 

nary Plansof Modem Reformers, 8vo. is. 6d. Debrctt. 

The blunt, but lively and ihrewd Author of this performance en* 
^eavours to (hew that^ neither have the people any claim of right to 
- 4innual Parliaments, nor would the exerciie of fuch a right, fuppofing 
h to exill, be political wifdom. In like manner he endeavours to jvovev 
dktt there is no period when all the people of England were repre- 
sented, that ia, voted for members of Parliament ; and that the ex- 
erciie of fuch a rights would be attended with the moft mifchievout 
and minouf coaiequaices. 

k is qfiio importance, he obferves, to fearch for the cuftoms of 
parliament before the Norman conqueft. They cannot be afcer- 
taioed with precifion ; and, if they could, the conciueft gave a new 
Urth to the conilitution, by which they weie 9II ooliteratcd. The 

£no. Rkt. Vol. I; Mart 11%%. R con- 

ns^ AloKTHLY' Catalogue P^iticaL 

fonTCniog olf Parlkunent was Indifput ably a braoch of t!ie pmt^ 
, r^ire^even ia the early toaoa ©f- WillkmJfc At fa .thciurmhttr q$ 
Vj^lifuner.Ut -inui their periods, that were heW b^i.-thefcfcral Kings 
/£n9q» t^e conoueil to .{ftnry l|L io whoTc reign re|v«eiiBot«ioB 
/cpromencea, tnofe crrcum^ance^t tbe\ Aurho^.^Wervea, prove 
nmhiDg^oiic way or the otherv becauie\iii ali the Parliamcptv r or 
Wlttcua^emptcs, there were no reprelieuittctves of the peofdc^ «ack 
pcrfon Aimir.oncd,. a^e.t for himfel^V aod wa« anfwemUe^ to .sone» 
lie (liews from the fingliOi hiftory ;fince that period, that "there 
^cver was a genei:al right oieU^i0H ; Vud that ,the firft ideaiaf ^fiar^ 
liament was ^/tleShn^ The origtinal barons weit i» JMHtm, - I'he 
firfl writs for counties were dire&cd to a fele£Hfm^ The writrtbat 
were afterwards rc;iit topaiticular cities and town^ were a fdeBttm. 
A general ric^ht of eIeftidD« fays he, was never fvfppofed to ezift, 
Irom the firft day,, to the prefent hour. 

Aiffcr rpafomng. concerning, matter of fa£^ he proceeds, to natter 
of expediency, and amon^ other rcnwrks, obfervcs, that a <)uick 
change of Parliarnent wouki mider many, if not all of the meafuret 
ofMinifters uncertain and unfbble. From an unlimited number 
of roters, t|M greateft confufiops woirid ariie in e]e<5Uona. Meo of 
fenfe and property would be di&ufled at Parliamenrs. Theoon- 
Aitution wovld be at- an end. Sweden recently loft her tiberty, 
fays the author, not bjr the ^onfcM of the nobles, who riiqueil 
every thing to prefe^e it, but by the people abandoning their owa 

Art. 14. A Dltdogm §n tie J^nal Stau of Parliament. 

Two gentkmen, one of them a Foicigner, the other a lif ember 
ef Parliament, baring met in a Caffee4ioufe, not far frooi the Ex- 
change, fall^into a conlrer&tion oa the Brkifti government* The 
Editor, who happened to be in the next box, recolle^ed the fob* 
ibmce of it at well as he could, and threw it ujpon paper. The Fo- 
reigner fuppofes the three principles of the Bntiih government, the 
regal, the ariftocratical, and the popislar, to be di^a^ and iepa* 
rate, and to a^ in oppofition, and 1^ balances to each other* The 
Eaglifli gentleman (liews, on ttuTcentnny, that the advantages of 
thefe pnnciples arife from their bemg miaed and bleiided togethert 
and that if they were independent and op^wfite, a diflbhition of the 
. gO¥ernmeat muft enfue. The Crowa js dependent apon Parlia- 
ment, the Houfe of Lords is dependent upon tne Crown, and both 
of them ultimately dependent on the Hou(e of CommDna* All 
thefe rights^ or inftUutions^ or princifUi^ are beneficial to^ach od>er 
from iheir conne^on, though not from their oppofition* The fcart 
which alarm fo many pcrfons,' left the inftuence of fo dependent a 
King (hpuld, through the corruption of the tinnrs,, render our;go« 
Ternment abfolute, are wholly groundlcfa* If there are del^^ in 
pur confiitution^ they are owii^g to the prigmal frame of the I^nifi» 
of Commons, wbich never had an idea of an equal ^reiemtioa 
of the people, as hs objc6l. To infjufc,' therefore, ,into it ii prim:)* 

Sle fo oppoiite to its juftitution, the whole p^afs ^muA be meltbl 
ovvn^and new*modelled ; a tery dangerous and ruinoMA.aae^iiuki 
Suppofe that the Houft of Commoha could, by any rq^iiIationJB, 


Monthly CATALo^uit. P<fiiueal. a^i 

be cfie^stlljT fe^prd from «11 ini!u«Me «f «lie Crawti, and' of t)ie 
gvtat men <^fh« eouMiy $ and thjit, by opeitiiif^^ th« de^ions to 
dM people «c Ur^ bf ftif^u^ rcM-eictif ^ion, by annual ParliatriRtts, 
&c. that aflembly might be renderrd totally, or by a-great majori* 
ty plebeian; ivould not the confequeace he, the certain atiilftila* 
tioii of every other principle iti our government, and the eAabliib- 
laent of a perfect democracy r 

This is a natural and imp(»taiTt QUfHioii, aitd merits the utfiioft 

« tcm km % For we agree entirely with the Author of this judici^crt 

-^ublwvtion, that ^* Theor)' is but little to be depended ^pen in 

matters of government j and that nothing but experience ci^\ pro- 

ikMmce »pon the effect of insovation. lliat maladies may he long 

palliated or borne with patieooe, when the ignorant interference of 

^empirics may in an inftant put a |>eriod to exiflcnce/' 

An, 15. J Cdnftitiitional Guide to th4 PtopU of Enrl^ (H 

ffrftni uttreprefinied. With a LeHer to the Rt. Hon, M^- Wii- 

liam Pitt, on the Neceffity of his moring for a Repeal df fto 

Septennial Bill, previouily to his proceeding on the Great Q^ef- 

tion of a Reform in Pailiament. And with a Dtredion to each 

Parilh pr Town to take the Senfe of the Inhabitatvts in the con- 

ctfeft manner^ in regard to a Reform of Pa,rliament| and its Du« 

jration4 8rp. is. 6d* Harrifon and Co. 

There is tKKhing tn thia little pamphlet of two flieeti« with ib 

long a title, and ro large a price, that is not hackneyed everyday 

in neWfpapers, magazines, co4k«4ioaie8, ale-houfes and in ^every 

circle or^dety, except it be the following dire^on. 

^* The inlimtants of each town and parifh are deiired to pj^pare 
*a parchmom with ibur cdilmns ; and under .«ach to fign their 
«iimies, to exprefs their fenfe of a reform in Parliament, and the 
^ttratkm «M>(t agreeable to their colleded opinions." 
Art. l6. T&r Propriety tff retaining GtbraUar impartiaUy confix 
dereJ, 8vo. is. Stockdale. 

The Author is decidedly of opinion, *• That the reftitution of 
Oibraltar ihonld be no obllacle to a peace, and that it ought to be 
Teilored t6 Spain, provided full and ad^uate compenfatioa is re* 
coved. He thinics, FiW^ i^w, with other advantages, might, 
perhapsy be an adequate compenfation. 

At* 17. A'Sefiovs Anfiverfrom One of the Peopk^ to L9ri 
Getrge GofJon*s Letters to the Earl rf Shelburne^ Id which an At- 
tempt is made, by fair and ingenious Argument to give ample 
Satbfi^on to his Lprd(hip*s Doubts : and to relieve him, if po& 
£bie, from any Inotiktude for the Salvation of the State, con* 
* fidered either in a Moral, Political, or Religious View. With a 
- Dedication to the RighrNoh. the Counteis of Huntingdon. 6vo. 
*' ij. ^'tlookham. 

^' Thd Author of this piece advifea Lord.tJeorgt ^o •* return «o an 
Hfnlffibus.i^n^y, juftly alarmed for his future <;ondti£{ and fafety, * 
t^ pbk*ctivibg evldenr roarkft of his difpofition to engage once more 
Hntn * Saincno FHber' in reli|pous errantry.*' This ^ious Anfmer . 
f^ooir indeed to have bcea written by One qf 1 iul People, 
'-' '• ^.t s Art. 

!*S2 Monthly jCATALootTE. PoFaicaf^ 

Art. i8» Remarks on th€ Letters fror^ an jimerleaH Ftirmer^ 

QT 4 Detection of the Errors of Mr. J. Hc6lor St. John : point- 

. iQ^ out the pcmicioufl Tendeufij of. chefe^ Letters to Great Br^ 

Sia. ftvo. 6d. Eieldiag. 
t a titne whea there k greac,<{anger ^f , tho&lands of indufirioii» 
-DP<^>ic emignttiogfrom thU country to America, the Author of tbi» 
Ettle piece thought he would'do no injury f» mtny niiflcd indivi- 
^u»b,. or cHflcrvjce to hb country, tf h« fliotild iliew, that the hopes 
.which arc held up to encourage em^igration, are, in many infhinces 
V. fallacious and deludve* He has, particularly, convi<fkd Mr. J.^ 
Hedlor Sr. John of nany forgeries and failaciss, calculated ' to at- 
iude the good people oC Kf^l^^ ioto a perfuaiion that aU beyoni} 
(he Atlaiyic is a perfcd paradi fc. He al^fo convi^ (he American 
Farmer of iuc6&ufiencies ; and all this in a vein of pleafantry and 

Art. 19. J Letter to the Earl of Shcliurney ^c. ^c. from m 
'Ncble Eari of the Kingdom of Ireland^ uptn tfje Suhje£l ofjiiml Ex^ 
fUtnation refpcBrng the Leg(flative RiglU of Ireland^ Second Edi- 
fton. .To which is annexed, aji Extradl from the Proceedings of 
the Irifh Hovfe of Loidsr upon the SiU>je^ of the Repeal of the 
6th of George !• Svor G. Robinfon. 

The Author of this Icttei (fuppofed to be Lord Bellamopt) 
.complains^ that the folemn voice o^* the Irifli nation had been treat* 
rd 09 the outcry of private views, or partial diA:oRtenl : and that an 
attempt. had been made to difprove the neceffity of a final explan^ 
lion refpe<fling the legiilative righr^ of Irelj^nd, in order to arraign 
the patrom of that meafure. His Iordfl)ip : infifU on the neceffity 
of that meafure ; proves that it is called for by the people of Ire* 
hnd; but declares in the (Irongeft l;^nguage, his wiihes» his hopesy 
- and bis cbnvi£^k>n, that it will .be for the mutual benelk of both 
' JEngland and Ireland. . Theaiwiexed extraft from the proceedings 
of the IriHi Houfc of Lords, is intended to prove and illuflrate his 
lorddiip's poliucal principles on the important fubjed^ of Irifh in* 
dependence^ There is in Lord BeUamont'is flile, ^reat pathos and 
energy, but at the fame time a degree of perplexity and obfcurity. 
His heart feems to labour with feelings which, though he wants 
not a flow of words, he is unable fully to exprefs. 
Art; 20. A Letur to the Earl af Shelbterne tnt the Peac^ 
8vo. 18, Dcbrctt. 

The flile and manner of this letter is elegant, animating, and in* 
tcrefting.^ It proves the importance of excellence' in compofition. 
The very iirft page commands attention^ and draws on the Reader 
to give the whole of the performance a patient, and favourable 
hearing*. T^e Author defcribes the unparalelled combinjction of 
foes that have ftiaken, with too much fuccefs, tjic Britid^' empire. 
He paints the difaderous Oate of Britain at the comn^ncetnetit of the 
year 1782. But foon after, the Yide of adverfe foitune| which for 
ib man)r years had lun with an imp^ruplity not to be reiiibd^ fuP 
, pended its couife 2^t the moft critioal junaurc, and. retumiae^ in a 
comrary dircctron with equal violence apd rajpjdity, bore up the 
drooping gcmvjs of En^laiul on itt currtBt* 'this was'tne xt'd, Lord 


Sh^lbume chnie, to humble his country at the feet of Fi^ncciftn4 
$pni|]. He ^fraigns the indecent and precipitate haftc wiH^ whick 
>he treaty of p<fac^ was carried on ; deicribes its great outlines y 
and fliews that it was equally repupjnant to the .intercft and thfl.ho^ 
jiouT.of £n^land. He h^ fc^erely e^rpofed the foHy of the Mmi- 
ileri in cofifenting to the 4U-ticle that fetriet the line of ^ip^ution be- 
tween Canada a^d the Apnerican Pi-ovinces, by which Great Britaia 
is entirely cut off from her connnuoicatiod wichtbe i<aikes, and the 
navis:ation a( r^ MiilriEppi ; and particularly cenfopc$'hts openilit; 
the Hfhery of Newfoundland to France and Aneiaca. He threatens 
the Minifter with an impeachment, and endeavours, with great pow- 
rrs of language and reafoning, to akrm, and excite the vengeance 
of his countrymen, ; , , • 

Art, 21, ji Report' fiffdhe' Proc^cMngi ^f the Committee of 
Affoc'iat'mn appointid at tht atfjoirrntd trcneral Mfttin^ of the 
County of Tgri^ hcUtn on t/j€ :t%th ifof of March lySd; pi^ 
fented to the General Meeting of tKc County of York* hoWen 
on the 19th ^ay of December, 178^* Stockdrie. :■ *- 
As the bufinefs and debates recorded in this com^liatTon* are pub- 
lidied by the authority of the AflcHriation, there is no doubt of their 
being genuine. York Tavera fcems to have grown into a new St* 
Stephen's Chapel. The Rev. Charles Wyvil is fpcaker of that 
houfe. Dr. Swinney^ Mr. Edmunds, Mr- Haggawl, 4ind a thou- 
fand, other obfcure name«, appear as' members, atid ^eat a'fe the 
applaufes which thefe patriots beftow on one another^ 
Art, 22* An Addreji t9 the People vf Great Britain : contain- 
ing Thoughts etueruined during* the Chriilmas Recefs on the 
IndependeDCC of A«aer»ca. Bvo. 2s, 6(L Miine. 
The Author of this Addreft endeavours to (liew, that tliere is a 
tieceffity of Great Britain declaring the independctjce of America z 
and alia that the independency of America will be beneficial to 
England. The independency a£ America is, in fad^ acknowledge 
<rd : although^ it is probable^ •not in confequeiux of the reafoning 
contained in this addrefs, 


Art. 23. TTx Tragk Mufe : A Poem addrelftd to Mrs. 
*. Siddons. . 4to. 16. Keariley. 

The declared f»uipp(e of the Author of this Poem is, to delineate 
<he particular aad extraordinary merit of Mrs. Siddons as a tragic 
a^refs, and to expofe the falfe tal^e in aAin«f, that has fo lori'r 
been too convmon, but more efpecialty in playing female charaders 
of didrefs. In order to illurtrate his fubje^, he Tcntured to exhi- 
bit his Heroine, or Tragk Afvfi, as he caHs her, in her five prin- 
cipal pbHtsi6lers, viz^ in Catt^a, BcCvidera, Jane "Shore, Ewphrafi;*, 
and Ifabella. A finer field was never perhaps oflered for poetical 
^ defcription. In the whole circle of hunnin affairs, and the whole 
riingc of human imagination, more iiitcrefting fubje^ls arc not to 
he found, than in thofc five chara£krs. 

l*hofe who have feeo Mri.-Siddoiis in all her "principtil charac- 
ter^ will be the bql> judges of th<<m€frit of the ^a^?^ Mkf^ con- 
4^OTd in a critical li^ht ; but thofe whom want of leifure, or dif- 

R 3 taoce 

tS4 MoiTTtt&rY Cat A^4k;i7<. JUiJcdkmts kniFMtfl 

Imbce of place hire deprived of dMie pleftfafe, wHl be no M aiixi« 
#ot to koov ber*ft)rlr of fliyittft. We ptWead not to decide on, 
th»taatter<nirieWet, btif tUnktite .piece hat fn&ny be«uttei as a 
poetical compofitioti* ' 

Churchill's chftri£ter of tlt« late^ebraced Mrs. Gibber, itlo^rtt^ 
ed by a daP:riptioi» of ber particular merk in Alicia, has lon^ beeil 
deftfrv^ty adtnired* 'We cannot, bo«verer« help thinking, that oat 
poet*s chani^r of Mrs. Siddons, and his exemplifkatton of her t%* 
etfUdnte in the part of Califta, which immediately follows that 
chanE<^f r, \t drawn with great force. But the reader (hall jud|;« 
for himfelfi 

After reprobating fha £ilfe tafle in a^ting^ the Aathor thus in- 
trodu^s his Heroine ^ - 

^ t)ow diAn-eht, diDDOks ! thy affdfting fiyk. 
Thou glory, pride, and wonder of our ifle I 
UncocSsious of the crowds thy talents pleafe. 
Thy motions all are dignity and eafe : 
Ko trap, no lure, for mean applaufe is laid ; 
No ftart^- no langcndi, to the Pit ispaid : 
To Kiture juft and thy Drimatic' Part, ~ . 
Thy Afidon all it taught Thee by the Heart ; 
Without whdfe leflbns faired Players foek 
In ▼ain with Virtue's tear t' hnpearl the koneil check. 
. ^ Thv piercing eyes, through PafBon's maaethat roll, 
Mark all the painful feelings of the- foal, 
With UxA as keen as thofe allied to joy, 
Or tboft where reveM the Idaliak Boy. 
The glance of Rage, Diftra^ion's frantic ilare. 
The pangs of Grief, the workings of Defpair, 
Arc there diftin^ly feen x there drawn fe true. 
That Beauty's ielf with terror ftrikes the view 1 / 
When to the eye their aid the features lend. 
And all the tints of darked Trouble blend, 
- To paint Calista, fond ill-fated maid ! 
By boundlefs love and confidence betray'd. 

* When her proud Spirit flames, Kkc Fury fell, 
'n That Friendlhip dares unwelcome truth to tell ; 
When Self-reproach her haughty bofom dings, 
And Public Shame yet (liarp^r forrow brings ; ^ 
When (lavtHi PaiHon yields to high Diiilain, 
And all the Heroine throbs in erery vein ; 
When Vengeance jud has laid her fpoikr low. 
And (he her weaknefs wails in weeds of woe. 
All hope extind ; yet heaves a woman's iigh. 
That one fo vouog, io gay, (b foon (hould die !. 
And drops, Dy intervals, a guilty fear, 
. JKor knows die fibcds it o'er Loth Ajtio's bier > 

Beneath a Parent's frown, when ^^i%^^ to earth,' i^ * * •• 
The Day die execrates tb^ gave her Biith j 
. .,. Whjen, by a Father's ai^uimM heart foi^given, . 

She fmiles^ forgetful of odcnded Heaven y t- . 

. Thea 


■ '"Tfteo boKHy oils fhg Poin m xbfo^faer awi, 
"^ ^Aai reftigetales in Dffith's nvmettfdous fkode ! >" - 
T^y ev^r^'Loek and erery Motion (hew 
' Th Italian Bride, the mafterpicce of RoTfE.* 
lier«clSrrcbara6t«rs, dmwn wifh ectiMl boldndk, fbik)\v in ru<> 
cfttoir, after certain pAtiibs, concloding with that of l€ibelht; 
which af- it is the laft, is perhaps the ,l^f>. The Author is pectt- ' 
liarly happy im adapting the flowiof.his verfificacion to the tone of 
the fiuilion he dcfcnbes, and in giving force to hit images without 
the:too frequent life of compound epithet^. The poem h«is, iiow- 
ever, one capital defed, which it is yet in the Author^ power to ' 
remedy : it afFordi no room for direft comparifon. If the merits of 
other great tragic aifti^fles had been cont railed with thofe qf Mrs. 
Siddons, thf piece wrnild hare been infinitely more intertflmg. 
Art. 24. The Famiiy Piefure : or Domcftic Dialogues on 
amiable and intercrtmg Subje^s- ; Hluilrafed by Hfflories, Alle- 
gories, Tales, Fables, Anecdotes, &c. Intended to ftrengthen 
and inform the Mind. By Thomas Holcroft, Author of Dupli- 
city, a Comedy. 2 vols. 12 mo. L.Davis. 
Mr. Holcroft mforms us, in his advertlfcmcnt, that ** The prin- 
cipal intention of this ^'ork is to give that ftrength and fonitudc to ' 
moral condu(% which arc fo apt to decline in times of refinement 
jrad luxury ; but which are foefiential to ^individual and national 
happinefs. The author's claims to literary reputation are few : 
he has endeavoured, however, both in the D-aiogue and Narration^ 
Co write to the underihtnding as well as to the heart: of, to fele6t from 
thofe who bad the fame intention. His own feeling-s have certainty 
been on the fide of proptiety and virtue: if he has exprcfled him- 
felf fb as to incite (imilar fenfations in others, he has obtained what 
lie purpofed.** The exectition of the prefent work, which is chief- 
ly a compilation, will not, we are peifuaded^ hurt the benevolent 
intentions of the Author. 

There is a mixture of dialogue and fioryAin the performance* 
Mr. Egerton, who had been in the fervice .of the £aft India 
Company, having married, and retired into the country,' dedi'f 
cates the moft of , his time to the education of his children, whoiis 
minds he endeavours to form by introducing, on proper occafions, 
appofite Aories, where the bad confeoucncet of vice, and the ad- 
vantages of a virtuous condud are difptayed. Mr. Egerton, with 
hb wife and children, together with Mr. Forreilert a neighbouring 
^entlemlin, and his daughter, are the fpeakers introdticed in the dia^ 
logue part of the publication. 

The Tirtues, the vices, and foibles of mankind, arethe fubje^ 
of convtrfation. To illuftrate the advantages and amiableaefs of 
virtue, and to point out the deformity a^d bad cottieqaences of 
vice and foUj^, are the hi^ries, allegories, &c^ 'introduced 4. they 
are fele^ed with jadgment/ will inflri^ b^ fiheir appofiteneft, and 
allure by their variety. 

Alt. 25. 7he P»litical SqMtMh\ or a Scrtrabk for "the 

- XA>aves and Fifties, A poetical E^a^ t (partly in Hudibraflic 

Verfc) adapted to 4het^hara6tei% of owr Seatcftnen in general, 

" • R 4 , from 

as6 Monthly Cat^il^^uej -JW/r«£&Miiritf«yPd/fr7. 

: fV©m tV Dcrtiifc of hU Ule Mijefiy ' to^^ilK^prefenti idatB*. Al- 
' dre€ed to drPartiet, aihl^bdioaced «6 cbc^ Rights HoDj^iirBAar- 
' ^UM of CftMnaitltcii. By Nkhobi Neithcrfidc^ Ocm.- 4ta. 
IS. 6d. Barker. ...,,• 

-' Pity us, gentle Reaifer !' we hmvo iduallf peruied die PoCitical 
8|^bble frotn the beginning even unto the end^ and* ir coofilU 
6t uo lefs than thirty pages of fuch Aytnet as the following 
* In Britain's Kcalm, ^herc Freedom reigna^. 
Atid Charter genVal Right maiatains ; 
* Where all arc fuhJcA to Cohtroul, t , 

And Form comilMx'd pervades the,wholc ; 
A Govemnient on ftable Baft* , 
Which Scberhcs nor fap» nor Plots can raze; 
ComposM of Prince, of Pecrs^ a»d CoiBmons, 
Amenable to equal SunnnKHss ; 
' No wonder that, as Qjack Phyficians, 

Start up our Pfeudo-Politicians.: 

Aa mortals all arc lurM by Pelf, 
And View in ultimate is Self ; 
Whether we foar in higher Sphere, 
Or Rank of Life bring up the Rear ; 
Hence long the Hue and Cry arc giv*n 
Within the Walls of Holy Stephen ; 
With Venom fraught, the envious Outs 
The Ins hare worried with their Scoutd ; 
An haplefl Pack their Fate bemoan^ 
To quit a Subftance for a Bone ; 
And tantalize on didant Difhes, 
Norjrealizc the Loaves and Fifties,* 
A^t. 26. OJe on the late Change in jidmlnijiration^ infcribed 
to the Right Hon. Charles James Fox. is* Cruttwell, Bath. 
This modern Pindar, in a pcrft^^ orgafm of poetico-political ^11- 
th ufiafm, fwears ** by the eternal powers" that all was loft had not 
Lord Shelburne, Mr. Fox, and the Rockingham party come into 
■power, Thefe be calls a " firm, ««/W, patriot bapd;'* yet thicks 
It neceflary to caution them againft the machinations of the *-* idle 
»< drones thaty^w baniftied from the hive;** and therefore exclaims 
iDoiib paftiopately ^^ beware !** After this his Mufe becomes quite 
hcadftrong, fo that he is obliged to alk her '* What frenzy hurrica 
*' thee away ?"— But, without making any reply, ftie carties him 
fuli-fpecd to the fea fide, where Neptune appears to him in all his 
glory, and aftlires him, that Old England ihall rife again, like a 
Fhocnix from her afties, and flay Frenchmen by thoufands, suid 
ten thoufands, as of old. A compliment to the Americans, aiid 
the Rockmgham adminiftration, clofes this performance, viiich the 
Author calls an Ode*. 

. Xh«! writer is a irarm politician* but a very frigid poet. 
Att. 27. Cpovtbe fVhod, A Noycl : in a Scries of Letters. 
By ^e Author of Barford Abbeyi^ and the Cottage. 2 tqU.. 
timo. cs^ fewed* Baldwin. 

Coorobe Wood is one of thofc literary whipt-fyllabubs which 
fumifii a fpecies of amufcment to a numerous thh of readers. Wc 



'iecA litde«iiW^1>kitii& or t^ <)cr4fnepd. m Ut .e;sceat t^at^ioiie of, 
thbfe>itmcm^ibttptiiDW"WHli Ivbich £9^199 ^i' ^mjj^ novels abou9<i» ana 
ivbich mdLe tdo deep atr knpreilitfCi on the oiinJsolrthe you^i of 
l)pth fexcs, arc here to be met with, ■ . . ^ ^ - 

IW ber^ and herpiiK of ithcKo^Hrel, LQr4. Edwin and. Mlfs * Al- 
tampion the;.eicr of having their mutual pailloDtcraivned t^c^ ma- 
trimonki} union, have all their profpe^s blafted for a> time, |>y the 
dark intrigues joi a Mifs Moi^. Lord Edwin is led to believe that 
]\ltfa Altam purpofed to. marry him merely from ihe views of in- 
tereil, tbbugh her afiedHons were unalterably fixed on another ; and 
IVIifs Altam is perfuaded, from appearances, that Lord £d|rin never 
Jiad any ferious intentions of majtiage. This, as ufual, produces 
iighs, tears, complaints, melancholy, ficknefs, &c., &c. The 
^loom by degrees is diipelled. Mifs More is dete^ed, and matri* 
inony and happinSfs bring the novel to a conclufion. The detached 
account of the Blank family, as it has nothing to do with the (lory, 
can ferve no purpofe bi^t that of, dwelling the work to two volumes. 

^' ■ ■ ■ _ ■ I l» ■■ I I 1 I H I I I I I I I !>»■ ■ I II III ■■ 11 ■ ■ I »l (. 1 II 

For the E N G L I S H REVIEW. 
Academical News, 

Among tlic numerous curiofities which have excited the 
admiration of the prefent a^e, we recolleft none more 
extraordinary than that which we are enabled to lay 
before our Readers, by the politencfs of a gentleman, to 
whom we have been before indebted, and whofe ardour 
in promoting the circulation of ufcful knowledge is 
known and refpe&ed through Europe. 

THE late convulfions and difturbances which had nearly 
brought the Imperial Academy of fciences at Peteri- 
burghtto its dilToIution, and which originkted in the mif- 
condud and arbitcary proceedings of the Vice Prefident, Mr. 
Domafchneu, induced, the northern Semiramis to attempt 
the removal of evils, which threatened to put a total Hop to 
the progrefs of fcience in the metropolis, and confequently 
in the whole empire. In order to cfFcft fo dcfirable a ]^r- 
pofc, her Imperial Majefty appointed to the prefidency a 
perfon, who is acknowledged to confer the higheft hoilour 
on the fair fex, gnd whofe great abilities, and profound 
knowledge in many branches of fcience, have been'/eeA 
and adnnred in feveral parts of Europe. This was no othiu: 
than die celebrated Princefs Daihkoil^. the fame, who 
came to refide at Edinburgh a few years ago, for the purpo£r 
of pcrfonally itifp^fting the education -of the young prince, 
fifcf fon, and is now returned to her native country, after 
^ting (In 1781,) the beft provinces of England, Fraiice, 
Italy* &c. not in fearch of oddities, baubles, butterflies^ and 
the like ufcleTs and ridiculous objcfts of modern purfuit; but 

15^ jhademkal Newu 

in ordcc^tc make herfelf acwainfed \riA til^* meft emtncnt 
men in every department of learning, ,atjd to examine what* 
ever was capabfe of fuggefting-ufeful knowledge, and afford- 
ing real inlhruftion : hence fhe did not traverfe tin^- 
liihed and barbarous countries, fince what (he 'fought^, was 
only to he fotind in the mt)ft civilized nations. , . 

This very diftinguilbcd perfonage lately entered upon her 
new charge, at a full ailembly of the Imperial Academy, 
at which many of the firll jiobiliCy were prefent. On. this 
ocprfion ihe delivered a very elaborate and pertinent dif- 
courfe, in a manner that gave univerfal fatisfadion, and ob- 
tained the moft unbounded applaufe. During the^fblemnity 
there happened ati accident, trifling in itfdf, but which 
fervcd at once to difplay in the moft ftriking manner, the 
attention and prefence of mind of the new Prefident. The 
old and venerable prince of European mathematicians, the 
famous Leonard fiulcr, being at a lofs on account oif his 
blindnefs, where to dircft his fteps, in order to take his feat 
as a veteran in the aiTembly, the Preiident immediately per* 
ceivcd his embarraifment, and addrefling herfelf to him,' with 
that peculiar delicacy which fo confpicuoufty adorns the fe- 
male fcx, Monfieur, faid fhe, ** vous aurez la bontc de vpus 
placer, on vous voulez; la place, que vous occupcz ici, eft 
toujours la premiere,^ *' Sir, have thegoodnefs to fit dowa 
where ever you chufe ; the place which you occupy here, 
will always be the firfl.'* 

This is, I believe, the firft inftance of the appointment of 
a lady to an academical prefidency in Europe. But who in 
the prefent age can befodefKtute of refle.£iion as not to be fully 
convinced that our fuperiority over the fair fex Jn point of 
thofe abilities and quahfications that are reguifite to the cul- 
tivation of fcience, and the condi^ft of afEurs is not merely 
imaginary, or affumed without foundation, after fb many 
examples of illuftrious women, as are recorded both in an- 
ticnt ^nd modern hiftory, particularly after witneffingJn our 
own times, the glorious reign of Catherine the Great, of 
Ruilia, that unparalelled lawgiver of the north, whc^ difplays 
through her extenfive domfnions fuch beneficent rays of wif- 
dom, and who fhcws in all her public aftions, fuch powers 
of mind, fuch liberal principles of government^ ftnd fudi 
exertion* of humanity, fortitude, and other royal virtues, 
as leave far behind the moft ftriking examples that ^Ver were 
recorded in the annah of mankind. .../.. , 


Pbr the E^N G L I S H REVIEW: 

TH ^ A T IL X. 

AGREEABLE to our prnniie of kft montb, we (Ml here 9t^ 
tem^ fame iketchct of tbt (Kcotrlcal talenti of Mn. StddehSi- 
amd iiiict n^d impsiFtiality it^ or (Itould be, the efleoce of criticiffn, 
we are hi^py to obfcrve the public (b umfotrm in their admintfioii 
of her, left we fhoM otherwife hare been Aifpe^ted of wnt\ti^ m 
ypcgyrio, inflead of deliTtring the pure didatet of unb'uiiM jud^e- 

1^ bn. r crtorated ailertioB amoa)^ foch as 9^k€t to defjpifrwhaf 
$ksyfM\\ the mob, that the public are occaiionallr feiz^ with a kfRd 
of raaota, and r^n in crowds while the fretMf mils, predetermined 
to praife what thcj cannot comprehend. But this accusation n only 
true in part. The fmall talk of fociety it is true, is always imita-* 
tiTC : k affirms, but does not tnveftigaee ; it fees, admires, and com- 
mends, nat at reafon, bat, as fsHiion prefcribes. It is the tongae 
of nnderfianding howeter that gives the tone to the affirmations df 
folly, and whoever looks round, will eafily perceive, that tvtry man, 
in gradation, forms his opinions upon fome one above him, whofe 
judgeineat he has oft^ experienced to be better than his own, and 
whKh he hiis therefore very radonally learnt to revere* Fools can-* 
not beflow repatatiai; ther are themfelTes defptfed, and their re^ 
marks, when falfe, would be heard only to be ridiculed. Whence 
we may conclude when the praife is univerfal, the merit is real, and 
that thofe people who affe& to contemn what all the word approves, 
have cither eredcd a falle Aandard of tafte for themfelves, or con* 
tradi^t for the &ke of being fingular. If this be true, as we are 
perfuadtd it is, the annals of the Theatre do not afford an in (lance 
of more univerfal approbation, confequently none of greater merit, 
than Mrs. Siddons. Garrick himfclf did not exceed, if he equalled 
lier> in awaking pobHc curiofi^. When he firft appeared the 
Theatres were fmall, if compared to the prei^nt, yet tt is a known faSt 
that the boxes have been all engaged every night, for a fortnight or 
nore in advance, on thofe nighu when it was fuppofed (he would 
* play, and this fer a continuance, while the other parts of thehoufe 
bave as contbuaUy overflowed; iior is this avtf'itV itr'the lead abat- 
ed. Let us endeavour by developing her excelletscies to account 
for thele extraordinary markt of public favour. 

There never perhaps was a better f^age figure fcen than Mrs.' 
Siddbna. Her height is above the middle lixe ; (he is not at all in* 
dined to the embonpoint, yet fuAkieiKly mufir^lar, to prevent all 
appearances of afperity, or acute angles in the varieties lof ai^ion^ 
or tbe difplay of attitude ; the fymmetry of her peHbn is captivating ; 
lier face is jpcculiarly hJ4f»py, by having a (Ireagth of features with« 
out the lead propenntytpcoarfenefs or vulgarity; on the contrary, 
it is fo well iiarmonized when quicfcent, and (o expreffive when iaK> 
pa£S6ned, that moft people think her more beautiful than (he is. So 
great too is the flexibility of her countenanee, that it takes the in* 
lantanedul tranfitions of pafCon, with fuch variety and efib^, as 
never to tire the eye. Her voice is remarkably plaintire, yet ca\ 
pable of all that firmnefs and exertion which the intrepidity of for- 

tbo 7teatri. 

txtude, or die imiMiIfe of fudden rtge denum^. ;Her:t)re?i^ large 
and markinc^, f nd her brow capable of contra<5tiog to dlfdaiD, or 
dilating wit^ the emotions of fympathy or pity ; her tnem|>ry is tc« 
naciousy and her articulation clear, difHn6^ and pcnttfatinf . 

That nature might not be partially bountiful, (he hat endowed 
her with a quicknefs of conception and a drench of underftanding, 
equal to the proper ufe of fucb extraordinary gifts« So entirely tt 
(lie mlArefs of herfclf, fo collected, and fo determined in. her ge^ 
tures, tone, and manner, that (lie feldois errs like other ^idors, be* 
caufe fhe doubts her powers or coroprehenfion : (he fludies her Aor 
thor attentively, conceives juilly, and defcribes with a iirtn con- 
f<:iournefs of propriety ; (be is fparing in her a^on, becaufe nature^ 
(at lead Enghih nature,) does not aS mu^h, but it ia proper, pi^hi- 
refque, graceful, and digniiied ; it arifes immediately trom the fentt* 
nients and feelings, and is. not (een to prepare itfelf before it begins« 
No fiudied trick or flart can be predi^ed, no forced tremulation, 
where the vacancy of the eye declares the abfcnce of pafllion, can be 
feen ; no laborious flraiabge at fslfe dimax, in which the tired xoice 
rcitefates one high tone beyond whkh it cannot reach, can be heard ; 
no artificial heaving of the breads, fo difguding when the afieda- 
tion is perceptible ; none of tho(c arts, by which the adrefs is fcen, 
and not the charafter, can be found in Mrs. Stddons. So natural 
are her gradations and tranfitions, fo claffical and correA her fpeech 
and deportment, and (b exceedingly affeding and pathetical are her 
voice, form, and features, that there is no conveying an idea of the 
pleafure (lie communicates by words. She muft be feen ro be ad- 
tnired. What is dill more delightful, (be i« an original f flie copies 
no one living or dead, but adts fi'om nature and berfelf. 

This is general praife, let us take a more particular view of her 
powers in fome of thofe charadlers in which (lie has fo repeatedly 
charmed the town. 

Her (ir(l appearance was in Kabella in the Fatal Marriage, a play 
in which one of our greated poets has produced (bme of his mo& 
happy edufions. There is not perhaps in the ran£;e of dramatic 
wriung a more dlHicult character to fupport with jultice than that of 
Ifabella. Her fettled melancholy for the lofsof Biron, her di(hTfi^ 
ful poverty, her forrows at the cruelty of her incensed father-ia- 
If w, her maternal fears, and her reludant acceptance of Villeroy, 
may be reprefcnted by abilities inferior to thofe of Mrs. Siddons, 
thouzh not with that'fullnefs of e&£l ; but the intervals of fanity 
and didra^tion th^t fucceed, ace fo various, numerous, and per- 
plexed, that nothing but the utmod edbrts of genius and of art can 
exhibit Ifabella in all her thoufand horrors. ^ Any thing below ex- 
cellence nvud be contemptible, and therefore it is with great juftice 
that the critics have pronounced thi« to be her chef d- oeiivre. Great 
talents are alw^'s mod confpicuou% where great obdaclea are to be 
furmounted. , . - • ' 

. If there be an^ who ftill affed to doubt ithe fuperiorky of Mrs. 
Siddons, who dill affirm, they remember to jba^^. iieen.fome one 
more excelleut, let them examine her Ifabella, letthenirbdiQid her 
looking at Biron in difguife, let them liden Ao her, (blUoquy wfcoo he 
leaves ner, let them hear her repeat 


WhatVid be itene f — for fomctiririginuft be done— 

Two hufbands ! yet not one! bv both enjoy'd. 

And yet a wife to neither! hold my brain.— 
Aad agaikti 

1 am contented to be mtierable 

ftut not thi« way, — &c. 
Let them obfer^e during her'progrefliona to madnefi, with what 
dt^nA (hades fanity and reafon are depi<^ed, let them behold her 
fptacy increafe till uie attemots to (lab her h^fbaod, let them watch 
the inexpreffible anguifh of ber looks^, while ihe clings to his body 
when deadf let them view her in her lailsLgonies give her laugh of 
horTOr, for having at lail efcaped from fuch inhuman perfccutors 
and infupDortable miferies, and then while their paffions are warm» 
let them declare who is her equal. 

In Jane Shore the fame regard to propriety, to chara£ler, fitua- 
tkm, and feotiment is preferved. We have heard it affirmed, that 
ihe mifUkes the firft part of this character, that (he is too full of 
grief, aiKi exhibits too ftrong a pi6lure of melancholy, but this was 
evidently a hafty and ill formed criticifm. Qloder and Lord 
Haftingt before (he appears defcr'ibe her fully* 

L. Haft. — I am to move 3rour highnefs in behalf. 

Of Shore's unhappy wife. 
Ghfl. Say you of Shore. 

L. HafI: Once a bright (lar that held her place on high. 

The firil and fairefl of our Englifli dames, 

While royal Edward held the fovcreign rule. 

Now funk ID grief and pining in defpair ; 

Her waining form no longer (hall incite, 
- « ' Envy in woman, or defire in man ; 

She never fees the fun but thro* her tears. 

And wakes to figh the live long night away. 
OUft. Marry the times are &idly chang'd with her 

From Edwards days to thefe : then all was jollity, 

FeafHng and mirth, light wsintoonefs and laughter ; 

Piping and playing, minilreify and mafquing, 

Till life-flea from us like an idle dream, 

A fliew of mummery without a meaning. 
This quotation will prove how attentively Mrs. Siddons had 
ihidied her Author, when file gave rife to the above ill judged de- 
dlion, and every fentence in her firfl fcene is a confirmation that (he 
was right. The whole character is indeed little more than a peniten- 
tiary repetition of j>aft crimes, as the fource of prefent misfortunes, 
rill the fourth a^, in which Jane Shore is tempted by Glofl^r to be- 
tray King Edward's children, and we never beheld Mrs. Siddons in 
this fcene,, without increafing admiration. From her performance 
of I£ibella:>and Belridera, we were convinced how powerfully fhe 
could infpire pity and terror, but her Grecian daughter and Jane 
SUi^, Joon^inced every beholder how perfe6lly fhe was miftrcfs of the 
fublime' as wrfl a» of'^the pathetic. Never were gratitude, patrio- 
dfin, aisft difregatd of partial felfifh feelings better conceived or 
bettBT eiprefled^ than by Mrs. Siddons, after Glofler has told her that 


Hadings oppofcs thofc who wHh to deprfvc Ae orpjiaa prince of th# 
crofVDy when fhe ejdahns— 

y. ^<^. — foocs he! docs Jf^t^fings! 
Glojt.— Ay HaftiRPSt 

y. iJ^. Reward him for the noWcxfcedjti ft Heaven, 
For tbia one adHon guard him and dil^inguifli him 
With fignal mercies and with great deliverance. 
Save him from wrong adverfity and (bareey 
Let never fading honours flouri(h round hnn 
And confecrate liis name even to time's end ; 
Let him know nothing elfe but good on earth, 
And cverlafting blefledncfs hereafter, . * 

• She does not as we have fecn others, fiay to caft*a look of con- 
tempt at Glofter, her whole foul is intent upon the gcnerofify of 
Hastings, and her affedion for ber^ prince ; all other leji£itions are 
fo totally abforbed, and thde are poured forth in fuch a rapture of 
dignified enthufiafm, that the fpe<EVator forgets while (he is fp^iag, 
the danger flic incurs* There never was a Glofter but muu appear 
1nfignif£cant by the iide oflMrs. Siddons, notwithftandiug all his 
threats, while (he fays 

Oh! that my tongue bad every grace of fpeech. 
Great and commanding as the breath of kmgs ; 
Sweet as- the poets numbers and prevailing • 

As foft perfuafion to a lovefick maid. 
That I had art and eloquence divine. 
To pay my duty to my mailer's afhci. 
And plead till death tnecaufe of injured innocence. 
Her fortitude if pofBble increafes, and becomes eoual to die jlrongeft 
exertions of the ftron^eft mind, after Glofter^s denunciation of 
vengeance, when flic thus devotes hcrfelf to mifery^ xather tbaa 
abandon her gratitdde and loyalty. 

Let me be branded for the public fcora, 
TumM forth and driven to wander like a vagabond; 
Be friendlefs and forfekcrt, feek my bread 
Upon the barren, wild, and defqlate wafte, 
Feed on my iighs, and drink my falling tears, 
EeV I confcnt to teach my lips injuftice, * 

Or wrong the orphan who has none to fave him. 
Her refignation is foperfed, lb determined, and lb fublime, her 
tone of voice fo firm, yet free from rant, her adion fo uncon* 
fcioufly noble, and her deporment fo void qf all ollenfatious felf - 
applaufc, perceptible either in die players fpeaking well, or the 
woman as a^ing with fupfcriority, that we diink we behold abfolure 
perfc6tion, both in the a^refs and the charaifter. It is not the de- 
clamation of fludy, the diiplay of attitudes, or the ^:Ai't of al^ 
fumed dignity by which we arc charmed, but thofc e^aft and for- 
cible expreflions of fccfing that flanip rfcafltj' on fifidjoni ai>d make It 
no longer an imitationf but a trtrfb. . . 

And here we cannot but recommend to fhdtc 'gentlemen who do 
at prcfcnt, or hope hereafter to perform HaflUigs, (as well as thofc 
yoimg iadies, who fltall make flmilar attempts pn Jane. $liore,) to 
iobfervc with the utmoft degree of affiduity, by what means Mrs* 


Siddons excela in thif icene. Did they do fo» we^furely fliouldno 
iongcr fee Hiift!ng8 in a iccnc, cc)iml,it not fuperiar, with rcfpe^t to 
writing and theatrical advantages^ depend alone on the (Irength of 
hit voice for applauie ; we iliould then (ee thefe performers emulative 
only to give a fupcrior energy of fortitude inflead of vociferation. 
We fiiould no longer conilder them ai Adors but as^ Heroes, when 
tkey iay» 

On this foundation will I build my fame. 
And emulate the Greek and Roman name. 
Think England's peace bought cheaply with my blood, 
And die with pleaiure for my country's good. 
We rtad in the papers that a deputation fcuid been fent to Mrs. 
Siddon», requefting her to (peak in a more enfeebled tone in the lad 
fcene of Jane Shore. Whether fuch deputation was or was not fent, 
is not our bUfinefs to enquire ; but as there is fome juftice in the cri- 
tkifm, we fliall, for the entertainm'"-'t of our Reader's curiofity, 
examine how far it is pra<5ticable in llage exhibition. That a wo* 
man emaciated with^ extreme hunger and in the agonies of death, 
Ihould be able to fpeak h loud, we can readily allow to be almoft im- 
poflible, and fo it is that (he iliould fpeak fo much, or that !he 
iliould continue to traverfe the ilreets fo immediately before (he dies. 
But t;hefe feem rather to be among the ncccflary dcfcAs of imitation, 
in which fidlion is obliged to allow its inferiority to fadt, and in 
which the f oet and the Performer are at lead to be excufed if not juf- 
tified, than of that kind, that criticifm by difcoverin?, may reform. 
Had Jant Shore been (hewn on the (bge as feeble and helpfefs as die 
anally was, when expiring for want .of food, her words mud 
have been few, her a£Hon none, and her voice not audible ; but the 
Pdet wanted to exprefs her thoughts, and the A£trefs to be heard : 
. to effcft which, fome improbabilities are perhaps inevitable. We 
willj^rant, however, that the weaker the voice, the more natural is 
the Flayer, provided (be be entirely beard ; but this is the drd con- 
fideration, and to this every other mud give place. 

In the Grecian Daughter Mrs. Siddons difplays the nobler paf- 
fioos in a iUU more. eminent degree: the cfaara6teridic virtues of 
Euphraiia are fortitude and filial piety, and of thefe (be gives the 
llnniged and mod permanent piaure^ To cite every paifage in 
which (he isexcellent, would be endlefs ; but there are two in which 
fbe fifes fo much above expedation, that not to note them would be 
tixijod. The fird ts when (he fuppofes her father murdered by Phi- 


And dod thou then, inhuman that thou art, 

Advife a wretch like me to know repofe ? 

This is my lad abode — thefe caves, thefe rocki« 

Shall ring for ever with £uprafia% wrongs ; 

All Sicily (hall hear me — Yonder deep, 
. STtall echo back an injured daughter's caufe. 
"HcCc^U I dwelt, and rave, and (hriek, and give 

The^ fcattered loclu to all thepaifing winds ; 

Call oh ftvander )o(t, and pounng curfes, 
' Ahd cruel Gods and cruel fbin invoking, 
'Stand on the cliff in nudnefs and defpair. 


fi64 7%Mri. 

In the fttitatioo of this fy^\ Mrs^ Siddoos is (b perfc^ly whtf 
iiie defcribeS) (he ravet and ihrieks in accents (o piercing and fo loud, 
that the Spectator fuppHes all the cfther circumilances : he imagines 
all Sicilly aduallv hears her, and that he fees her ibnding on th<^ 
cliff in madefs ano defpair ! * 

The other is in the fourth a<5^| where Dionyfius requires her to 
draw off her Hufband Phocion and his powers from the fiege ; to 
which fhe replies, 

Think*ft thott then _ 

So meanly of my Phocion i Doll thou deem him 

Poorly wound' up to a mere fit of valour 

To melt awav in a weak woman's tear ? 

Ob thou doft liule kno-w him. 
Her manner of faying Oh thou Joft Unk incw btm^ conveys (o 
<k>nfuroroate an idea of an elevated mind, that twtvy one who heart 
her is perfuaded fhe isperfeflly capable m real life of acting the part 
fhe here only perfonates^ anti they admire the woman even, more 
than the adrefs. * When we fay every one, wc would be undcrilood 
to mean every one of thofc who are themfelves fufceptible of the like 

Wc {hall pafs over her agitation while flie fears Philotas has at laft 
betrayed her father, and the manner of her tabbing the tyrant, as 
we mud many more beauties, and make a few obfervations on her in 
the Fair Penitent. 

Nothing, perhaps, gives more permanent fatisfa^on from Poet, 
Painter, or Player, than when they perfectly afTume the moftners of 
the perfons they reprefent ; and in this Mrs. Siddons is particularly 
happy. Her look,, her ftep, her geftufes, vary with the charadten 
In liabella her behaviour is meeknefs and refignation to unmerited 
misfortunes ; in Jane Shore lowlinefs and contrUion for paA o&n* 
ces ; in the Grecian Daughter that true dignitv which a confcious 
Arength of miud and rectitude of adion naturalhr infpires, is every 
where prevsjent ; and in CalilVa that haughty affectation of being a^ 
hove controul, which a deviation from virtue ever produces in a 
great but proud mind. She walks with greater precipitation, her 
gedures are more frequent and more violet, her eyes are reftlefs and 
fufpicious, pride and fhame are Urugeling for iiiperiprity, and guilt 
is in the comradtion of her brow. We think however, that in her 
fcenc with Horatio in the third adt, the night we faw her, ihe Icll 
into an error by no means ufual with her ; (he difcovered too n[iuch 
rage in the firil part of the fcene, and thus formed an anticlitnax : 
but perhaps this was cafual. Her general performance of the part 
is fuperlativc, and the fpeech where fhe flabs herfclf is above de« 
fcription terrible in the utterance. It is immediately after the cti- 
trance of Horatio, who comes to tell her of her father's death. 

And doft thou bear me yet, thou patient earth ? 

Doft thou not labour with thy murd'rous weight ? 

And you ye glittering heav'nly hoft of fhirs. 

Hide your fair heads-in clouds or I (ball blaft 3rou ; 

For I am all contagion, death, and ruiot 

And nature fickens at me.— Rcfl thoii world 


Hhetttre. a6^ 

TbU ParrJcidc fliall be thy plague no more. 
Thus— thus I fet thee free. 

So perfect is her conception of the infamy of her crime and the 
horror of its confequences, and fuch is her deteftatton of herfelf and 
of the cuin (he has induced, that we think it impoffible for an inno- 
cent female to behold her agony, without feeling an additional dread 
af the like fin ; or if (he had begun to cherifli vicious inclinations^-* 
not to be terrified from putting them in a^* It is no hyperbole to 
£iy we congratulate the nati6n on the happy effects that are 
Hkely, at leaft iot a time, to follow from its being fo mtich the 
^aihion among thofe of high rank to attend the performances of Mrs* 
Siddons. That they were degenerating into that laxity of manners 
which ridicules the ties of conjugal obligations, and the dictates of 
felf denial, is too notorious to be difputed ; there is now, we hope, a 
probability that they may be roufed from their lethargy. 

We cannot dofetnis accolint of hercharaders without noticing the 
afie^ingahd capital (Hie in which (he plays the madfcene of Belvidera, 
and of this nothing can be a better proof', than when in the midft of her 
phrenzy, (he breaks out into a laugh, we fee the audience alwa)rs burft 
mto tears. The reality of her raadnefs mufl be thoroughly impref- 
ied upon the mind, before laughter can incite a fenfation fo*different 
as that of weeping. The manner likewife of her pronouncing the 
exclamation oh ! in 'all (>airages where the paflions are violently agi- 
tated, is one of her moft marking beauties, and peculiar to herfelf^ Let 
us conclude with a few general obfervations, which may point but to 
others the errors they are liable to, and the excellencies it is their 
duty to emulate. 

We have before ipoken of the attention which Mrs. Siddons payt 
to the manners, and we repeat the obfervation, to (hew the ne* 
ceffity of this attention by its effe<fh. All who excel as Artiihf 
Poets, or Critics pay the llri6teft regard to coniiflency, and the 
production of a whole. Whoever ncglefb or (lightly regards this, 
IS in continual danger of offending. The idea of a whok muftex* 
tend itfcif as carefully to each diftin6f part of a performance, as to 
the work collectively. Incongruities give difguft in a proportao* 
natc degree as they cleviate from truth and reality. The Ador who 
at his entrance is feen to ftare about, or even to take what he may 
fuppo(e an unobferved peep, that he may examine how many of bit 
acquaintanoe he can* difcover in the pitt and boxes, lofes fight not 
only of character but of refpeCt, and defer ves a fevcre reprehenfion* 
Tet this is done at our theatres every night with an ado^j^lhing afV 
farance. Whatever reminds the Sjpe^ator that he is at the play* 
houfe, and that Rofincraus and Ouildenflern are not the fchool-fel* 
fellows of Hamlet, but two filly youn^flers who have taken up the 
pro£efiion of an a^or, becaufe thfey arc idle, and not becanfe they are 
amlutious, brings to his remembrance feveral difagreeable circum'- 
fbinces all at once, and infpires him with a portion of contempt for 
Meffieurs Rofincraus and Ouildenilem, of which were theyawai^ 
rfiey would certainly behave with more propriety and caution. 
Nor is this cenfure anned at or confined to individuals ; the fault ia 
fe common, that there are but very few who are not fometimes guil- 
ty of tt« This evil is of the £ime ipecies with that of the A^brs pSrfo- 

£ko. R£V. VoU L Mar* 1785. S iHd 

266 Theatre* ' 

hal jokes and laughter on tbe (bfc among ieiieh qdier« concenuog' 
which we fpoke in our lafl number ; and ^ the(e we muft fay, in 
the language of Adam Overdo *» ** It is timel<> take .enormity by the 
forehead and brand it.'* Another very common and v^ greatr 
ibge error is, the inattentioa with whi^h A6^or& are apt to tupax no€ 
only the general bufinefs of the play, but thje very charadecB wkh- 
whom they are fpeaking. If a letter be to be ihrown down oalhe 
ground, the A<^r fcorns to lower his dignity fo f^ir as to (loop and 
take it up again ; the fcene-'raan muft enter to do fucb commoiv 
drudgery : no matter that it contains fscrets of thq utm.o^ Jo^port- 
ance^' and that the perfon he reprcfents could not poffibly b^ fq care- 
lefs about things on which his happinefs or even life may depends 
If a duel be to be fought, the hat is thrown away, for the fake of 
fliewing, as we fuppofc, with what a grace it may be done, and not 
becat»fe men always throw away their hats when they fight duels r 
and when fiome good-natured friend comes to part them, they dif- 
dain as mvKh to pick up a hat 'as a letter, chufiag rather to walk a 
few miles bareheaded* And here we may father remark, that the 
light of a drawn fword has very little or no effect on the counte* 
nance of a player ; death is rather a ferious concern when it 
makes fuch near approaches, to all people elfc ; but at the property* 
man keeps neither three-edged nor two-edged fwords in his poflcf> 
fion, but a fet of blunt, harmlcfs weapons, that fcorn with anv 
force of arm^ to penetrate as far as the ikin,- the a6tor very logically 
concludes, it would be a folly to ilicw fear fince he is certain theiV 
is no danger. He is likewife apt co difcover an equal degree of con- 
tempt concerning the purport of the dialogue. It is none of his 
bufinefs to fiotii:e wlwt other people fay, if he, in Othello^ phrafe, 
do but " know his cue without the prompter.** Tlfoi is, what he 
is to watch ifor, and not to give any ngns of anxiety or concemv- 
a.t the reafoas, threats, or promifes of a. perfon, who like hi os, ia 
only come there to-fay his leflbn. The proverb fays, " every dog* 
has his day,**' and a^ain, ** he that fliarply chides is die mod ready 
to pardon,** both orwhich we often lee verified on the ftage, where 
eiach a(5tor takes his turn to make a fpeech,; and be very anzry^ and 
tlien — to hold hi* tongue, and be *very cooU And thus the altera 
nate buckets come and go ; the empty one deicends, while the full 
one is wound up* The different pailions that might be fuppoied 
once tJk have taken place in the minds, and been apparent in the 
ccruntenances of the Roman mob, when Adthony harangued over 
the dead body of Csefar, are nothing to a player ; he neither knows^ 
nor wants to know any thing about fuch matters. He is eertaiiv 
Csefar's legacies will never defcend to him or his heira ; he never 
iaw the Tiber, nor was he ever in the walks, the private arbors, oe* 
the new planted orchards, that Antliony t^lks of : htjian^ thirt t^ 
J^eak his part. If, indeed, he can make his friends in the gaUery^ 
l^ugh at the quaintnefs of his drefs, or the drollery of his grimace, 
while Anthony is deploring the fate of his mighty mailer, that is 
a deed worthy his ambition, but as for the real manner in which it 

' ^ See Ben.Jobufon's. Barthol9mew &in 

Tnftjr te coiijedtiredtlie. plc^iatit of Rome aAitall/ bektiVcd oft 
that occafkn, tt is a thing he never once thought of. . 

We have Tpoken thus ironically of glaring* though common 
im{Mrapnetie9, that the Reader may recoUe^l, with the greater de- 
g rod- of force, the {nrecifion and accuracy of good performers, aftd 
eipedatly of Mrs. Siddons. Her eyes never wander, her paffions 
areas adive while flie is £lent as when Ihe is fpeaking, (he is not 
Belvidera this moment^^ and Mrs. Siddons the next, hut (he is Bel- 
vtdera always. She does not flab horielf^ as if (he were flurathing 
ber (ciffiirs m heroics. She does^ not continually make her exit with 
a ftrut or expire with a groan ; but her manner varies with her fit«' 
AtioD. She conjures up the gboft of the chara^er (he perfonates% 
beholds it with the piercing eye of flrang imagiaattony and ernbo^ 
tiies the phantom. 

Wt ihaM i^iM. in tnir next of t^e oomic |>erformcr3 of Drury-kne^ 
jvtd then proceed to the other llieatrc. 

5 1 For 


For «c E N G L 1 S H R E V I E-W. 

(Continued from our laji.) •- 

T is evident, from the hiftory of. all free flatrs, that peace 

abroad* is naturally produ£Hve of domcftic- difcord. This 

tn^xim in politics is not fulfified by the prcfcnt (tate of Great Bri- 
tain. For if the clamours of fa^ion were louder, during the laft, 
than in any former war, they arc alfo Idudcr in the prefent, than 
they ever have been, in any former period of peace. But here it is 
neceflary to remark, that there is a difieretice betweeh fad ton fbund- 
ed on ammoiity and intereil; znd fa^ton founded on fentimenr, 
principle, or conti<fHon. It is the firft of thefe only that properly 
dcferves the name oi fa^ion^ and it it to this only that we allude, 
whence affirm, that the voice of fa£Hon is louder at the prefenr, 
than it has ever been in any former period of the Brittjb hiftory. For 
as to the fecond fpecies of faHlon^ it may be juftly affirmed, that 
never was real political principle lefs clamorous in the BritiQi ^- 
nate, than it is at the prefent moment. In former periods the repre- 
ibntativcs of the people contended for the rights and privileges of 
free men ; and diiputed whether the fovereign power mould remain 
in the royal line of Stuart, or be transferred to the Houlc of Brunf- 
wiclc. J5ut what is the mighty objc^ of the prefent din and buille ? 
What right of the people has been invaded bj' the crown ? Are any 
ideas entertained ot altering the regal fuccemon ? No! the general 
voice of the nation replies, God forbid! But fome will affirm, that 
the filent lapfe of time, which induces revolution and change into 
every machine, and eveiy objed, has marred and corrupted the 
eonflitution of the BritiQi government. The itifluencc of the 
crown, they will maintain, according to the cant of the three la ft 
years, has increafed, is increaling, and ought to be diminiOied : and 
this they will fay, is an objed worthy of the cffoTts of a vFrtuou^ 
patriot and ftatefman. 

To effedl this obje£l, a jundion was formed between the forces of 
the Marquis of Rockingham and the Earl of Shelburne. Their 
united ifrength was irrefitVible, and bad public reformation been 
indeed the objedt of their views, they would have carried on their 
improvements, according to the language of Come, or their attacks 
on the conftitution, according to that of others, without any material 
interruption. Succefs in the great and important outwork, which 
all of them pretended to have fo much at heart, would have allayed 
every little jcaloufy and dilTatisfa^tion, would have formed a concert 
of wills and afFc6tions, and would have united thofe political adventur- 
ers in bonds of mutual forbearance, at lead, if not of fincere and cordi- 
al friendfhip* A very fliort time, however, produced an open rupture 
between the united iqiudrons : nor were public zeal, and a common 
caufe able to prolom^ their connection. Their coalition arofe from 
their common hoftihty to Lord North, and it ccafed when that Mi- 
nifler was no longer irrcfillible. The conteft between Shclburne 
andFox was grounded not on political principles, but on private 
iu^ercifi and aiubition ; and thefe antagonifb, facrificing the public 


Hmonal Affaifs. 269 

welfarcw apt>Hjre<I eqiially fcHicitous to eflablifli their powtr "by the 
fame means : a precipitate, uniafe, and inglorious peace. Yet Mr* 
Fox, who kneeled, in lowly reverence, to the Americans and to\he 
Dtitchf confeJiMg the fins of hh^oph^ even he coMld arraign the pft- 
cificatipn pf Paris in February hr((, and loudly lament the falldi 
glory of the Brici(h nation. It was but a few months before, that 
he had declared he Would not (it alone with Lord NTorth, in the 
fame room : and that his lorddiip retaliated fo rude an attack, by 
glancing at the private pi^fiigacy of his blunt opponent. A com? 
mon relentm^nt again il Lord Shelburne has, for the pref^^nt uiiited 
chefe powerful adveriUries, and their eloquence and political talents, 
fo formidable to each other, when in a (late of mutual hoilliity, in* 
fyire them now with mutual confidence* 

Butisjt polTiblc, that even the extravagance of hope, and of con* 
fidence i^ their own good fortune, can fo far blind the eyes of fucb 
enlightened Hatefmen, as to perfuade them that rhey ilill retain tht 
undiminiibed conlidenceof their refpe^tive parties? To what prin- 
ciple of patriotifm are we to afcribe fuch fluduatiou ? Is there any 
other folution of iW\% pbancmenon more obvious, more oatural, more 
juft than that which is in every body's mouth, thry art fcr ambling for 
the haves andfi^fhts f Let us however allow- due weight to Mr. rox'a 
argument^ in defence of this coalition. It was necellary lays he, 
to unite with Lord Norths becaufe it was impoflible to form an axiU 
roinidration from the PortlemdUQtXQii that would not be in a mino*, 
rity in Parliament. The whigs chofe, in this extremity to joia 
a party whom they had^uniformly accufed of Jacohltlfm ; Jacobitifna 
of the very worft kind*, rather than to adhere to men whofc prin- 
ciples were fo confonant to their own, with refpe£l to the great and 
important queftions, relative to the reformation of the conilitution, 
and the independence of America. Is not thia a political paradox, 
if we fuppofe the fadion alluded to, to be gorenied by pure politi- 
cal fpeculation? But does it not appear perfetflly natural, if we fup- 
pofe them to be %(yi^rnt6, by private paffion, not a regard to the 
public welfare. Lord North, it feems, is contented with a fubor* 
dinate (hare of power : Lord Shelbume and the Chancellor fly at 
bigher game ; and this is the myHery that has for feveral weeks a* 
ibnifhed the world. 

It is not more true that our political adventurers are governed by 
private and felfidi views, than that their felii{hnefs has now very ge- 
nerally become apparent to the nation. Their revolutions are too 
barefaced : their profeffions are too glaringly impudent. The well 
known venality of the different combinations of men, that impede 
and dif^urb the operations of government, is doubtlefs a circum- 
Aance which encourages a difpofition in the perfons moil favoured 
by the crown, t^ defend the royal prerogative againd the encroach* 
ments of popular violence. Did parliament, as in former times, 

>■ ■ ■ ■ I ■ ■■ I ■ M I!—! ■ ■ I ■ ■II. ■ I III ■ >■ ■ ■■ 

* la-an attachment to the peribn of the Pretender, faid Mr..FoXt 
fherewas fomething generous; but the Tacobitilm of Lord North 
and'his adherents is pure, unmixed, and diabolical Jacobitifm. It 
is a/y?rtfiS^// Jacobitifm ; JacobitifcQ of the word iind. This ho - 
affirmed 10, 1781. 


])ofleft the confidence of the p^le^ it would be at Irttle in tJw 
power, as we muft Aippofei it is in the inclination of tfofe who 
lurround the throne, ta form an «dminiftration by the mere exer- 
cifc of the royal pferogpativr. Bwt is it to be wcvnaered, that amidft 
the fhamelefs fluauations of "reha! parties, timting to day, and dif- 
folvin*; to-morrow, the advi(<?r«. of his Maje#y fhould dare to 
thiiik of compofmg a miniftry not fk»m one, but from different 

The time dors not fcem far diflant, when exalted ambition and 
genius on the throne might fhake the liberties of the people. If 
corruption and venality mould advance with at hafty jltidct as tbcy 
bavc done, of late years j and if the pet^ple's confidence in parlia- 
liament Ihould continue to decay in a fimilar proponton, it is pof- 
fiblc that ra (bme remote period, it might not always be ** thclin- 
cercft difpofition of the Prince on the throne, to comply *i^ith the 
wifiics of his faithful Commons*** 

£orope, in the preCent ipra, beholds with admiration a fbreretj^ 
prince pf the molt fpleiuiid f^ilitary and political talents, whafe 
generals are only bis aids dc can)p, and whofe minifters are id 
reality no other than his clerks. Should fecb a chara^r hold the 
leins of the Britiih goVerriinent ; 'military renoWn, largeflcs to the 
foldiery, profeffiont and at^s of tetidemcfe towards the people, 
lbi|[bt enable him in a corrupt and degenerate age, to tmbittge the 
political conftitution of his cuuhtryt 

. It is a fubjt^tof cOnfolatioii tathe KngUfli people, that fuch at* 
tempts are not to be dreaded from the virtues, at\d incficnfive ;^ius 
<if the Houfe of Brunfwick : yet it cannot but appear obvious to every 
veafoner, that the liberty of this country h sntiotttely cotmetflet) 
with its virtue. 

Open licentiou&afs«nd tumult are fcarcely lefs inimtca! to pnbHc 
frecdotn, than fecrtt bribery and corruption. Lice^ntoufnefs pro- 
duces anarchy, and anarchy leads to cefpotifii^. The fcratioiv-of 
the Britiih goverument, the example of America. and Ireland, tire 
county aflbciatioa^, the divi (sons in parTiament ; thefe' have engen^ 
dered » fpirit of mutiny in the army and navy, at well as a bold- 
©efii and a tendency to political difobedience i« 'different cbfl^ of 
the people. The prcfeut month has addcH to the fymptoms of tbi? 
di£>rdef in theftate, the mutinies at Portfmouth, and the tmlbrtu- 
siatc.afiiir between the regiments in JcHey. While the btifinefs of 
government is at a iland, and a combination of famous in the Hourfc 
of Commons, dilates a choice of minrftcrs, there are*not wanttng^ 
numbers of men who are ftill alarmed ftt the undue inAtSence of the 
Crown. The fpirit of aftbciation it, however, Ibwcwliat dairrpecf . 
It is impofBblc but men muH perceive that the royal perogatire 
begins to fuffer K^htenccy snJ that ikt vtokn^ mJecnHur to take it iy 

The fpirit of reformation has extended itfclf from the-ftatc to a 
few individuals in the church. The Bilhop of LlandafT recom- 

* The attfwer irtmi the Crowu to the addk^fs of the ComRK>iu, 

W^dncfd^y the 26ck Blarch 1 783* 

T inends 

iBcmis i^reckidion of the revenues of the bifhops, ..and an iM^jfiy 
of the iVipends of the poor inferior -clergy. There is nothing in 
this plau, but what appears reaibnable: but u is probable that a 
Ttry great majority of Dr. Watibn's brethren will be of opipioot 
that it would be very improper to tamper with the ecclefiailical coiv- 

In the mid(k of the internal diAra^ons, which have been men^ 
uoaed in this political iketcb, bufincis of the moft important.naturtf 
Remands the attention of government. A total alteration muft he 
inade in the trade laws of this country^aiui a peace is to be concludedl 
vith the Dutch. Buiinefs more complicated or diilicttlt nevef 
certainly came before parliament. How is it podible to frame a 
code of commercial laws» that iliall at once be fatisfadory to the 
Americans^ to the people of England, and their friends and allies ? 
The advantages accorded to the Americans, may prove a fourceof 
jcaloufy and diicontent to the Ruffians and Danes, and the trading 
towns on the Balticlu It will be diffioult to make fuch arrange- 
ments refpe^ing Portugal, as (hall at once be fatisfa^tory to thir 
Iriih nation and the £ngli(h. The pride and the enterprise of the 
Americans will, in the (pace of a few years, carry them to the £a(l^ 
ladies, nor will £nglan3 be forward to check the pro^e(s of their 
growing commerce. But Oiall the Americans be permitted to trade 
with India, and even to pour Indian goods into England, while the 
Irifli are prohibited ? And if the tamenefs of Britain (ball connive 
at the adventurers in India, both of America and Ireland, are the 
merchams: of England to be excluded from the fame advantages ? 
Thcdiflblution of the Engliih Ead India Company, it is to be feared^ 
'will be »mong the difaflrous eft'e6ls of that lois of reputation and 

Evyer, which'has degraded us in thefcaleof nations. And, as our 
.d-India trade is the grand fund that enables us to pay the in- 
tered of the national debt, a national bankruptcy would foon foU 
low.the^mia of the Eall-India Company. 

It is pplfibjc however that tinicly prudence, vigour^ and unanimity' 
in the ^ritifh councils, may avert or protradt fo great misfortune* 
Concord at home and wife alliances and vigorous conduct abroad, may 
iitilain, for fome tiipe, the falling fortunes of England. Hi (lory at 
^nce aflibrds ground to dread thoie calamities, and to confide in thefe 
lemedies* After the famous truce pf twelve years that was eila* 
blilhed in 1609, in the fechk reign of PHILIP III, between tho 
Spaniards and the Dutch, the dominions of the former wc:e at- 
tacked in the Indies, their authority was oppofed in Italy, and the 
Vaited States, elated with vi^ry, and the pride of recent indcpen- 
dctM^e^ begaA to extend their cooqueils along the Rhine, the pro* 
^^reft of which woold have ravilbed from Spain the whole of th« 
Netherbods.. Such were the eiet^s which in the (hort fpace of five 
years* refulted from the lofs of national fame ! but, on thei^ emcr^ 
genciesy an uauftial fpirit of vigour appeared in the councils 06 
Spain. A Spani(h army was oppofed to the Dutch, and the pro^ 
grefs of Prince Maurice was timeoufly checked by the Marquis of 
Spinola. An alliance by marriage gave the Spaniards an influence 
in the councils of France, and an offenfive as well as defenfive 
lea|;ue between, the Courts of Vienna aad Madrid, retrieved the 


t jrt NiftFonai J^irs. 

' honour of Spam, and revived her glory among the nation^. Humair 
nature is the fame in nil ages and nations ; and although it is diffi- 
cult to predict the conduct or the fortune of an individual, it is not 
tlways impoflible to foretel the condud and the fate of nations. 
The Spaniui hiilory holds out to Great Britain thefe important so- 
ftrodions. i. Political conccflions engender political demands, and 
waHike attacks. England may therefore expe£l that North America 
will ibon make encroachments on what yet i^emains of her foreign 
dependencies, a.- In fuch acafe it will be the interefl of Great 
Britain to oppofe the firft appearances of fuch encroachments with 
▼igour, and to form fuch alliances as may counterbalance that lois 
of reputation which (lie has fudained in the eyes of the world. 

At prefent, the principle which feems to predominate in the Bri- 
rifli councils is an immoderate love of peace. By driving to pleafe 
all parties, miniders are in danger of pleafing none. They wiQi to 
conciliate the good will of America, of Ruflia, of Ireland, of 
Holland, of France. This obfequious pufillanimity may conM 
with peace, while the enemies of Great Britain find it neceflary to 
breathe from the toils ot war; but it is more vigorous condu6^, and 
more extcnfive views that can alone cnfure a laflhig peace. 

While the Englifli nation purfues thcfe pacific meafures with cagcr- 
ttcfs, an ignorance of the nature, and extent of the treaties that have 
undoubtedly been ratifkd between America and Holland, and Ame- 
rica and France throws ridicule upon their proceedings, and ex- 
pofcs them to the laughter as well as the contempt of thefe nations* 
What is commonly reported appeal^ in no wife incredible: that the 
pufiUaniinous condudt, and internal diftra£lions of Britain, have 
determined the Dutch to rife in their demands in the treaty of 
peace, and induced the French to keep on foot the greater part of 
their military force, in cxpcdation of finding an opportunity of 
itriking fome new blow, and reaping f6mc new advantages. 

The envigrations which have been fo often foretold, have begun 
to take place, both in Great Britain and Ireland ; and add to the 
gloom which hangs over this falling empire. 

The fmall republic of Geneva refunies its wonted quiet and in- 
duftry : Riiffia, the Emperor, and the Turks, afcftill m what Ge- 
neral Conway would call a Vi^himfical fituation ; and everyday brings 
frefli proofs of the truth of the prcdi<d[ions concerning the downfiil of 
the Pope. 

It is probable that in our review of politics for the m^nth of 
^prilwQ (hall find fubjec^s for fpeculation in a new arrangement of 
Miniftry, and in accounts of the effects which the very pacific and 
bumble difpofition of England has produced on the minds of the 
United Provinces of North America. Until fuch accounts (hall arrive 
It will remain uncertain whether the condu^ of England has infpired 
them with gratitude, or inflamed them (which in our opinion irthti* 
mod probable conjecture) with ideas of pride and ambition. 



For A P R I L, lyS^. 

Ajit. I. The Art of fainting of Charles Alphonfe Ju Prefnoj : 
Tranilated int6 Englifh Vcrfc by W. Mafon, M. A. With 
Annotacioof » bj Sir Jofhua Rejoolds, Kt. Pf eUdent of the 
Royal Acadany. 410^ 8s» boards. Dodfley* 

IT was with ferae degree of furprize that we beheld Mr^ 
Mafon, who' has been called the " firft of living bards," 
appear as a traiiflaton That he fhould have defcended from the 
higher regions pf poetry, the fairy orround of invemion, crea- 
tion, to 3ie humble walk of tninflation, is fufficlently ex- 
tcaordinaiy ; but that he fhould have made choice of a mo- 
dem, dulC preceptive poem, for the exercife of his talents, 
is ftill more wonderful. On this Poem, however, Mr. 
Mafon, as he infonlis us, has '* lavifhed much pains." 
The verfion, as it fs now offered to the public, is the work 
of manyj^ears. Itwasbe^n •* in very early youth," re- 
ceived the correAions of his friend Mr. Gray, and appears 
at lafl, after a mofl fcrupulous revifal, where ^* hardly a 
^* fingk line" was left without what was ** thought an e- 
** mendation, improved (as the Author fays) to the utmoft of 
*• my mature aliihties." Without entering into the queftion, 
whether it was worth while to beilow fo much labour on 
die tranftnutation of F^refnoy's lead into £ng0(h gold, we 
ihall only ftj that, upon the whole, the attempt has beeii 
crowned with fucctis. Mr. Mafon*s tranflation will be 
read with more pleafore than the original : the hard and dry 
manner of the latter, to borrow a metaphor from the 
fttbjeft of the poem,' is melted into eafe and freedom ia the 
former. The TranHator has 


•• The Mufe of Frefiioy in a modem teft.'* 
Eko. Kzr. VoL I. April lyffj. T which, 

274 Mafoh'^ Tran/taikH rfUu Trcfn^fi Art of Fainting. 

which, though it adds confidenblr to her fize^» yet, at the 
fame time, gives her a gracrfolnefi that Ihe did not formerly 
poflcfs. Not but that fome pafllag^ fmell of the Uunp. and 
.difcorcr ilmt lahur which it ts the pmeAion of art to con* 
c^. This is ptfhap$ a Amlt which i> swre tr k(9 difcer* 
f\ibk in noftof o«r Ao4ior*s prod^Aions. 

The fabjeft of diis Pdtm rmders it diflfeuk to prodace 
an extract that will be rdiihed by the generality of our 
Readers. The ipUowiog pa4&g^ whefe the Ambmr lays 
down roles for dieconduA of painters, may be moic fmt« 
able to the public tafte than any other part of dM work, 
and will at once eirsnce the pairta that hare been taken, and 
their fuccefs. 

* To TeMtranee all our liveltaft Fowers we mtc. 

She bid» the Ju^pem wake* the Fai»cy flow f 

for her the hfm Auw the liiminf: few, 

The Midftight roar, the Bacchanalusr gucilf 670. 

And (eeks thoft Mker ooiam of the fouft 

The ibcial c!rcls» the drtuied bowl > 

CrownM with the Fstcdom of a fingte Ufe^ 

H^ flies doxaeftte 4f o« Stis^'om <Nife ;. 

itt)hors the liorfy hjiuntt of bo ftlia^frider, - ^7| 

Aod ileals fertile to (olifudle and ftiSst i 

There cafanly feaitd in h^ Tilla|e bower, 

Ke eives to oeblrfl themetthe midioiK h«iii\ 

Whue Oenias, Fra^tioet Comennflaiion'jeift 

To warm his frul wish eaerfjrdiNrtne; M» 

For paltry gM \t% fmag Mifersifii^ 

Hit feuluivokef a noUar Deity ; 

Smit.with the glorieva Arariee of Famaf^ 

He clarms no kfs than an immorta! naoie ; 

Hen<;e on hit Fancy juft Conception (hiiiEs, M{ 

True JiKlgment guides his hand, true Tafle refines ; 

Hence cenejefs toil, devotion to his art, 

A docile tenwer^ and a generous heirt; 

Do^iky his lagcFNc^torio obey, 

Generous, hb aid with gratitude to pay^ 6190' 

Bleft witfh the hleom of 3»outh^ the nanrec of healdv 

And cooMMtence a bi^aer boon than wealth. 
Great Bleffings thefe ! yet vAM not theie empower 

His Tints to charts at evei^y bbourini^ hour > 

All have their brilHant monients, when, atone 694 

They paint as if fome ibr propidous flione. 

Yet then, ev^ then, the hand hot ill conveys 

The bolder rrac? that m the Fancy plays r 

Hence, candid Critics, this M Truth confeft^ 

Accept what leaft is bad, and deem it beft f ^00- 

* The origiujAconfiftiof 54^ the tranftariQai of 798 lines. 


pbXgtfy Tr4}tpathn ^Du ff^h^^s Art tf PmMiHi. ^7$ 

Lameot the feul io Si^or't thralddm bel<)t 

Compare Life's ipan with Art^s eztcnftirc fteU, 

I^ow thatf ere frerftrft Taftc matures the mind, 

Or perfea jmi^icc to that Talk be joined, 

Com^ a|6, comes flcknefs, comes contract ng pain, 705 

Ad4 chiUs th^ wariQth of youth in tv^vy vein. 

Rife their, ye youths ! while yet that warrtith infpires, 
While yet nor years impair, nor labour gres, 
While health, while ftrength are yours, while that mild ray. 
Which flipne aiifpicious on your nat^lday, 71a 

Condu^s you to Mincrra's peaceful Q^iil*^, 
Sons or her choice, and (barers of her fir«. 
Rife at the call of Art : expand "your breaf}, 
C^apacious to receive the mighty gue(t, 
While^ free from prrjudice, your avSltve igr© 
PreferTCt its firll unfutlird purity ; . 7i# 

While obw t(> Beauty's charms^ your eager foul 
Drinks copioua drauj^hts of the delicious whole, 
And Memonr 6n tftf foft, yet lading page. 
Stamps the frefli imaG:e which thall charm thro' aji^c. 
Wc cannot cfcrty curfelrcs th^ pleifure of tranfcribing tlic 
fenowine lines ; of which the four laft are perhaps the mod 
'ticautil'tirin the poetB, from the happy application of the 
tbougbt of Tilvanthea in bis famous \>idure of the facrifice 
of Ipb^t^. bere too the Tranifator^s merit Is all his 
own, as there u riothing in the parallel paifage of the cri« 

g'nal which is not flat and profaio* Speaking of Greece, he 

^ ^was there the Ooddcfs fixt her blefi abodes. 
There reignM in Corinth, Athena, Sicyon, Rhodes. 
Her vai'ious rot'ries rartous talents crownM, 
Yet each alike her infpiration ownM : 
WitneA thofe marble miracles of grace, 
Thofe tells of fmroetrywhere ftifi we trace 
All Art's pcrfeftion : With relu6tam gaze 140 

To rhefe the Oeilius of fucceeding days 
Looks diizxM up, 4nd, as their gloriet fprcad, 
Hidet in his mantle his diminifli^d head/ 
Though wo have fiUd that, tipon the whole, Mr. IVIafoti 
)ias fiicceeded in bis tranflation, yet we Ihall notice fome 
pafl^;ii which, We think, have efcaped the laborious at- 
tention uaid to the otiginal work. Telling us that painting 
confers immortality on Heroes, he fays, 1. 31, zi. 
* Hence from the canvas, ftill, with wonted Jafe^ 
He lives, ht breaths^ he braves the frowns of fote/ 
Vfe a]^ehen4 that the word ^ate vus here introduced 
metelv tor the fake of the rhyme, and that it coaveyt at 
burkioue and laughable idea. A hero may indeed ilve with 
Jiatt^ though it is by no ni^AS eflentlal to the cbara£^er^ btatr 
to brt^b Wth JUne^ to ht^^ tie fr%wfu ^f f^tt unth Jiati^ 

T a are 


arc furcly iin|ular ihodes of expreffion : they convey cither 
no idea, or, if any, that of a very Jlrutting hero indeed. 
Frcfnoy lays plainly and fcnfibljr— 

' * Magnanimis Heroibus indc foptrftct 
Gloria / ■ ■ ■ . 

In the laft of the four following lines, the ♦* He** will b# 
perceived to be redundantr 

* The fool to native ignorance coofin^d. 
No beauty beaming on his clouded miitd. 
Untaught to relifli, yet too proud to leani. 
He fcorns the grace his duilnefs can't dilcero.' 

Had the verfc n;n thus : 

Scorns the bright grace his dultne& can't difcem, 
an additional force would perhaps have been added to the 
thought, and the folecrfm avt>ided. 

* Nor paint confpicuous on the foremoft phid 

Whatever h/al/e^ ■ no 

The Tranftator has here mifled the fcnfc of fhe origmaU iQ 
which there is nothing equivalent to falfit' Whatever is 
^al/i muft neither be introduced into the fore-ground noc 
>ack-ground. The meaning of Frefhoy is obvious, that nor 
trivial circumftaqces (hould occupy the moft confpicuous 
part of the pidure : and this is the ftnfc that Sir Joftiua 
Keynolds has affixed to it in the note. The ** Wnate'er 
** IS falfe,** of Mr. Mafon, will applv to Ac preceding 
rule for preferving what the Italians call coftumty 

** Exprefs the manners, cuftoms, forms, and a^," 
but it is quite out of its place where it now ftands. 

* Relievos high that fvyell the column's ftem, . 

Speak from the marble, Iparkle from the r«w/ tVf 

As the Author is a connoifleur in painting, wc fuppofe 
him too well acquainted witli the fiftcr arts to abide by the 
expreflion ** Sparkle from the gem ;" he muft know that 
the beauties of a Cameo, the thing he is here defcribing^ 
can only be difcovercd by the gem's not fparkling. The 
four following lines are perfeftly clear in the original. 1. ^fA. 

* Quo magis adverium efl corpus, lucique propinquum, 
Clarius eil lumen ; nam debiltratur eundo. 

Quo magis e(l corpus diredum, ocuUfque propttiquuia, 
Conlpicitur melius ; nam vifus bcbefcit eundo.* 
Frcfnoy here informs us, that the light on obje3s near the 
luminous body is brighter than what is thrown on thofe at 
a diftance from it, for light,- (fays he) is -enfeebled by dif- 
rance : and that objcAs near the eye are more d'tftin^ly per" 
ceived than more diflant ones, becauie diftance renders vi<»' 
lion lefs perfc£l. Here arc two diftin£l propoikions clearly 
expreflfed, whereas the four correfpondjng lines in the tranf- 
Ution arc^ at bed, confufcd and obfcure, and do not give 


JAifon*s Tranjlaiiom of Du Frtfn^ft Art of PalMting. 277 

f he feiife of the text. We Ihall produce them, and lesre 
the public to jugde. 1. 367. 

^ Thus bodies nekr the light dtftin£^ly (bine 
Whh rays dire<^, and aa it fades decline. 

llius to the eye oppoa'd with Wronger light 
They meet its orb, tot diilance dims the fight.' 
We do not much approve of the word declitu^ when applied 
CO bodies becoming more obfcure as the light decreafes. Had 
jMr. Mafon written in profe, we (hould not have met with 
it in this fenfe. 

Thefe are fome of the miftakes we have difcovered on the 
peniial of this, work ; which in a lefs popular Author might 
have been pafled over without much riik to the public talte. 
JSuty as in morals, crimes become more dangerous from 
the fitoation of the criminal and the influence that his ex- 
ample may have on mankind » fo, in matters of tafte, the 
errors of a £sivotirite writer ihould be particularly attended 
to, as their paffing current may have the worft of confe- 
<iuences. We bad almoft forgot to add, that inftead of fol- 
k>wiQg Frefnoy in hit political conclufion, inftead of adding 
jnore politics of his own, which he has done, the Tranfla- 
tor ought to have avoided fuch a heterogeneous mixture, and' 
the poem ihould have concluded with, 

* Whence Art, by pra^Stice, to perfedion foars/ 772 

To this work Mr. Mafon has prefixed an epiftle to Sir 
^oihoa Reynolds^ and fubjoined Pope's beautiful epiftle to 
Jervas, which perhaps it had been prudent to have omitted : 
'the comparifon that unavoidably taxes place is not favour- 
able to the former, though it is far from wanting merit. 
Mentioning that mafterly performance in his own epiftle, 
fic has the following lines, which fufFer when contraftei 
fvith the cafe and natural glow of the Twickenham Bard. 
* How oft, on that *tjiir (lirioe when Poets biod 
The flowers of Song, does partial Pa^on blind 
Their judgment's eye! How oft does Truth difclaiin 
The deed, and fcorn to call it genu'/t€ Fame ! 
How did fl\e here, when Jervas was the theme,, 
Waft thro* the Ivory Gate the Poet*s dream ! 
How view, indignant. Error's bafe alloy 
The ftcrling luftre of his Praife dcftroy. 
Which now, if Praife like his my Mufe could coin, 
Current thro' Ages, die would fbmp for Thine.* p. 6, 

tt is fomctimes dangerous to enter too minutely into metapho* 
rtcal detail. The fame metaphor that,when not dwelt upon,wiIi 
give force and noblenefs to the fentiraent, may often debafe it 
^hen expanded into circumftances. Of this we remember there 

* Of Friendflup. 

T 3 are 

are fome examples ia the biibas. SooHithinf; of ibk kiad 
we prcfume may be objeded to the two Wficii|dii|( Unts of 
the pafTage wc have quoted. The JIAJi is too meehanically 
emr)o)ed when €$mMg ittrrtmi frmifi. A Ittdtcrons and 
handicraft pidore is prefented to the imagination, and the 
end of the poet, which was to elevate his ihoudbt by t{^ 
fplendour of diAion, is defeated. Is not caufi and tfft^ 
confounded in the concluiion of the fourth line of our cxr 
trad ? The *♦ deed of binding the flowers of fong on the 
** flirine of friendlhip," i. e. of commending our friei|ds, 
cannot with propriety be called ** /iww;** this latter may 
indeed be the confequence of the former ; but prmift^ the 
caufe^ and /am/, the effeff^ fhouid never be confound* 
)ed, efpccially by an author who afpires to a fcrupu* 
Jous corrcdncfs. *^ Let pity warm thy tears'* in the fea>nd 
line of the epiille, without treating it more barfhlyi may 
at left be pronounced a very aifcAed way of expreffing what 
is meant, viz. let cpmpaflion draw tears from your eyes. 

We have now done with Mr. Mafon's part of the work^ 
and ihall next prefent qur Readers with fome accoisnt of the 
Notes, ^hich make no inconfidend>Ie portion of this puhli«' 
cation. In the Preface it is (aidt 

*' If the Text (Day htve ioil fomewbat of its original merit, tlie 
Notes of Mr. DtJ Pi lbs, which hare hitherto i|ccoinpanied it, have 
loft much more. Indeed it may be doubted whether they ever had 
merit in any conMerable degree. Certain it is thdi they conuio 
fuch a paraide of oommon-place quotation, with fb fmall a de^iprob 
of H lucrative fciemra, that I have thought proper to expel theiQ 
from (hit edition, in order to make room for their betters.' 

$oine SLtaders may probably be furprized^ aftef this, to 
lind that the mater part of Sir Joihua*s notes is to be found 
virtually in Pu Files. The thoughts are indeed oonvey- 
ed with more perfpkuity jind elegance^ and the lumber o]r 
quotaticyi is remov^ but the preceptive matter is e^ntiaily 
tbe fame. The (i^lleft recollection roaft convince us that 
this could not be otherwife. At tlie time that Du Piles 
wrote, painting had arrived at the higheit degreir of pcrfJcc- 
tion, and the uieory of the art was well undernood : let us 
then grant to the Frervchman only induftry and common- 
fcnfe, which he feems to have pofleded, and we Ihall re* 
main faris^ that novelty of precept, to any ^xtent, was 
not funu to be exp^d^d. We are hx from meaning to fiiy by 
tJais, that there is nothine in the prefent no^et wmch is not 
to be found in the Fvencb Commentator : on the contrary* 
we have met with many ingenious obfervations, which c- 
vince the tal^e and judginent of the Annotator,^ and to 
which Du Piles has lio claim : yet ftill xre maintain, after 
an accurate cxaminationy. that in him is to be found a great^ 


pkik of thit ** iU tritrt iti Vt RteM%'' wliMi ^Sir JoSiin kfts 
tiow given to the public. 

Among the notrs which ttt mote con^jnaibtltfly the pro- 
peny of me Prcfident tjf the Royal Aauieiti]^, the mod con- 
iidemble arci N. 37. On the cchmrlng and coihp^tkn rf the 
ancients. N« 39* 0» light andjhade, N. 43. \Jn the various 
JiHes ^ efJmtring. N. 54. ISisfffaeUe^ Atiei. ^ngeky and Julio 
Jdoman^ And N. 56. On ttejiudf^nd ietutmint ^f Haturr. 
In all of them great knowtedgd of thi art, and an cxqtiifite 
Cafte art difeonible ; and v^vc that tht AuAor is dc&rved* 
ly at thi^ b^ad of the Brttiu School. 

In N. 54. he enqoires whctlitr a ftrift imitation of the 
trolout^ing of nature, or what is termed deception^ would be 
an additional merit in tb^ hetoie, oi- g;tand liite of paintine, 
2nd decides tibe qtieftion in the negative, becaufe it would 
give too much *^ tndividiiality'* to the work. We think . 
&is decision rather imutrdie^ though it has the fandion of 
.feveral Miners and Connoifleurs. It appears to us that, as 
fttihtera are obliged to give h«^nan foroks to their gods and 
goddelles^ tfieir beroi and heroines^ they ihould imitate na- 
tufe*l beft and fraeft hue, as wdl as ner hobieft forms ; 
fiot do we perceive that etes grandeur of the fubjeft Would 
by that means be dearoy^d. why a Vehus, or a Hercules, 
badlv coloured, (hould convey to die mind a nobler idea, of 
the divine charms of the one, or the ftrength of the other, 
we are at a lofs to conceive. In the fame note, t^e elegant 
Annotatot ftys, that *• The Hours, as reprefented by Ju» 
** iio Romano, wouM not ftrike die imagination more for- 
^ ciUy fiom their being coloured with dit pencil of Ru- 
'* bens, though iir would have reprefented thehi more na^ 
** tktaUj'' while in N. 56. he maintains, that *« The 
^* works of Mich. Angelo and Julio Romano may be fajd 
^' to be ai natural 2A Uiofe of the Dutch paintefS,^* becauft 
they are ^' analogous to the mind or imagination of man/* 
TMre feems here an apparent contradiction : the laft afler^ 
tion is at leaft too ftrong^ As all painting is an imitation of 
nature, we fhould imagine that the pidure which gives the 
beft andrtrueft refemblance of it, according to the kind of- 
fubjeft that is treated^ will ever be m6ft analogous to the 
mind, and confeauendy m6il naturaL l3uf, ih thefe mat- 
fcri, which may be confidered as thfc metaphyfic^ of paint- 
ing, as well as irt every thing fcladvd tp the art, it is witl^ 
the utmoft diffidence that we give an opinion^ which may 
k>pear to contradiA what comes from lb refpe^lFable an au- 
thority. To enable the Reader to form ftmie judgment ^f 
(bis yart of the work, we infert N. 37, oa the colouring 

T 4 and 

wd compofitioa^f the tn^knts, inwkidi we think fome 
new ligbu are thrown tspon the fubjed. < 

* From the Tariout aaticot Paintiogs, which have come dowQ to 
ui« we mav form a judgment with tolerable accuracy of the excel- 
kncies ana defe^ of the art amoiig the antienti. 

* There can be no doubt but* that the' fame corre^iieff of defirn 
Uras rfquircd from the Painter as from the Sculptor ; and if the 
fame eood fortune had happened to ut in regard- to their Paintings, 
to pouefa what the Antients themfelres efteemed their mafter-plecea, 
whith i$ the cafein Sculpture* I have no doubt but we fhould find 
their iigurei as corredly drawn as the Laocoon, and probably colour* 
ed like Titian. What difpoies me to think higher of their colour- 
ing than any remains of antient Painting will warrant, is the ac- 
count which Pliny gives of the mode of operatioa ufcd by Apelles, 
that over hit finiflied pi^ure he fpread a traofparent liauor like iok« 
of which the effect was to give brilliancy, and at the fame time to 
lower the too great glare of the colour : ^oJ tdftlmta operaa tn^ 
mint9 iUinfbat 7/^ ttnu'^ ut td ipfum repercujfu flaritates colaritm exei* 
Utrtt. ■ Et turn ra^ione magnm nf cdwum clarttm oemUrmm acettm of" 
fmdrrtt. This paiTage, th<? it may poffibly perplex the critics, is a 
trUe and arti(l*like defcrtption of the e£k6t of Glazing or Scumbling, 
fuch as was pra£Hfed by Titian and the red ' of the Venetian Pain* 
ters : this cuilom, or mode of operation, implies at leaft a true tads 
of what the excellence of colouring confids, which does not proceed 
from fine colours but true colours ; from breaking down thefe fine 
flours which would appear too raw, to a deep-toned brigbtnefs. 
Perhaps the manner in which Corrcgio pratMfed the art of Glazing 
was ilill more like that of Apelles, which was only perceptible ro 
thofe who looked clofe to the pi^urc, ad manwm intuemi Jemum op* 
faren^ • whereas in Titian, and dill more in BaiTan and others his 
imitators, it was apparent on the (lighteil infpe^^ion : Artiils, who 
may not approve of Glazing, mud dill acknowledge, that this 
pra^^ice is not that of ignorance. 

*^ Another circumdance that tends to prejudice me in favour of « 
their colouring, is the account we have of fome of their principal 
punters ufing but four colours only. I am convinced the fewer the 
colours the cleaner will be the effect of thofe colours, and that four 
is fufficient tb make every combination required. Two coloura 
mixed together will riot prcfcrve the brigbtncfs of either of them 
iingle, nor will three be as bright as two : of this obfervation, 
fimple as it is, an Artid, who widies to colour bright, will know 
the value. 

* In regard to their power of giving peculiar exprefiion, no cor^ 
re£l judgment can be formed ; but we cannojc well fuppofe that 
men^ who were capable of giving that general grandeur of cha* 
ra&cr, which fo eminently didin^uidies their works in Sculpture, 
ivere incapable of expreifing peculiar patfions. 

* As to the enthunadic commendations bedowed on them by their 
contemporaries, I confider them as of no weight. The bed words 
are always employed to praife the bed works . Admiration often 
proceeds from ignorance of higher excellence. What they appear 

- ^ to 

Maftn^s Tran/bikH of Du Fnfnofs Aft ^fPrnmi^i* aft 

to ha?e moft fatlod in b compofition, both in rmrd to tlie ^rotip* 
ing^of their figures, aa^i the art of difpo^ng the Tight agd ibadow 
in mafie«. It is apparent that this« which makes ib coniiderabk 
a part of modern art, was to them totally uoknown* 

* If the gieat Painters had pofTefTed this excellence, fome portion 
of it would b««« infaili^y been diffufed, und been diicoverable in 
the works of the ioCerior rank of Artiils« fuck M thofe whofe workt 
have come down to ii», and which may be contidered ai on the 
fame rank with the Paintings that ornament our -public gardens : 
A^ippofing our modern piduret of chit rf nk only were preferved for 
the infpedion of Connoifieurs two thousand years hence, the ge« 
oeral principles of compotition would be Hill difcoverable in thofe 
pid^urcs ; however feebly executed there would be feen an attempt 
to an union of the figure with its ground, fome idea of difpoling 
both the figures and the ii«;hts in groups. Now as nothing of 
this appears in what we have of antient Painting, we may conclude, 
that chi« part of ftie art was totally negle^ed, or more probably un- 

* They might, however, have produced fingle figures whiob ap- 
-proached perte^on both in drawing and coTpuriBg ; they might 
eixel in a Solo, (in the language of Mulkiana) though they wen 
probably iucapable of compoiing a full pie(^ for a concert of diflb* 
rent 'nltruments.* 

We cannot difmift this article without ohfcrving, that 
Mr. Mafon has fwelled his publication to an unwarrantable 
fize. The title-page deceives us in a manner very different 
from moft title-pages. Wc are led to expe<Jl only a tranf. 
lafion of Frefnoy with Annotations : befides wKich we 
"have an Epiftle to Sir Jofhua Reynolds, a Preface, the Life 
of Frcfnov, his original Text, his tudgmcnt on the Pain- 
ters of the two laft ages. Pope's Epiftie to Jervas, Dryden's 
Preface to his TraniTatlon of Frelnoy, and a Chronological 
Lift of Painters by Mr. Gray. To eke out a work with 
uneilential accompanyments is a fpccies of authorfhip which 
docs not at all meet with our approbation. Should we be 
. difpofed tc grant that the other attendants of this work are 
In their proper places, a conceflion, by the bye, fufEcicntly 
liberal, yet why load us with Frefnoy's text, or why com- 
T)el us to pay for fcraps from the works of Pope and Drydcn^ 
books which arc in every body's hands ? We are forry to 
add, that this unneceilary addition makes up near one half of 
this very dear eight Ihilling pamphlet. — Belidcs, the London 
Bookfellers confider the writings of the Uft two authors a^ 
property, and their works are bought and fold at their falea 
every day. The Reverend Poet fhould not have done unto o- 
thers what he wilhed not to be done to himfclf— he Ihould not 
have invaded the rights of the trade. Or had he forgotten the 
ilriking inftance he gave of his own tenacidufoefs of literary 


property a few years ago? f There ^^nz Icfs ttdbn fbr 
this armce in the prefent cafe, at we are convinced that 
Mr. Mafonlias not, Bke the Qnfortiinate Diyden, 
** For very bread defcended to tranflatc." 

Art. II. VbHofophkal TranTadions of thi Rnyal Society 9f Lmi&m^ 
VoU LXXII. for i-fit. Part I. 410. L. Darit. 

ART. i; RiUmi^ne it uMt mdva Pi$ggia, An tccoant 
of a new kind of rain by Coont dc Gioeni, an in- 
habitant of the 3d region of Etna. Communicated by Sir 
^. Hamilton. 

On the morning of the 24th ♦ cnrrant, all unfheltcred 
places to the extent of icventy miles from N i. N. E. to S f . 
D. W. in a ftfa^^ht lint from the vertex of Moant £tna» 
were covered with a yeilowiih chalk coloured water, whtcfa 
4ftcr it iiad evaporated, or infinuated itfelf rinto the eardi, 
left behind it a fubftance which it contained, to the he^lit 
of two orthree lines ; wherever it came in contaA: with iron, 
ttit metal became mfly. It is by no means unvifukl for volcano^ 
to throw up land, and for this fand to be tranfported by 
winds to a rrcat diftince, but the remarkable circunlilance 
of the fubftance in queftion being accompanied wiA wet, 
afforded ftrong rcafons for doubting whether it proceeded 
from this fource. In order to afcertain this point, and like- 
wife what effeAs might be expeded from it, the Count pro* 
beedcd to fome eitneriments, both upon the rain aftor its 
Jbontents had fubfided, and upon thofe contents. Tht water 
exhibited no (igns of decompofitioit on the addition of al* 
kalis or mineral acids ; when part of it was evaporated, the 
acids occalioned a (light effcrvefcence, and fyrup of violets 
gave a pale green colour, fo that he was penuaded it con-r 
rained a calcareous fait. The decoAion of galls produced 
no precipitation. 0(i calcining the depoiited matter, it 
aflfumed a brick colour, in a more violent heat it almoft 
ioft tliis colour, and in a heat fiill more violent loft it en* 
tircly ; it did not vitrify. No fulphureous or arienical 
odour could be perceived. Thefe tlircc portioiii whidi iiad 

- f Mr. Mafou very btely profecuted a bookfeiler for prinQpjrw^ 
Qixd tlwu by mifiake too*— ^/>y «r^^i or If'vfs written by ihe late Bffr. 
Gray. Aiter this it b difficult to ccta<!eive with whstt face he ean 
cofnrait the offence he condemned fo fcvercly, and apj^ to his own 
ufe and emolument the woiks, or parts of the works ok AAithors^ fbr 
which a valuable coofidcfation was paid by the Proprietors, 

• The- month is fwrt mentroncdf ! by the date of the pofticript it 
woi^d ^?ar to have hapi)encd in April 1781. 


Jhvs undergone iifferent degreet of beat wert cxpofrd lo a' 
Aaagnet, which did not ad either on the firil pr fikCoodU btrt 
nianifeiU3r attniAcd part of the third ; hsncc Cohu Oireoo 
«oncladcd that this ^ith contains t martial prifict|Ml in a 
metallic form, and not combtaod with vitnolir aeid» 
From thefe e)ip«rinienu be conckides the fiMtaace ia^nef* 
tkm to be a volcanic matter, eonfittng df/lnd tmm^acf^ 
with a mixture of the calx of iron. We cannot fati^ oh» 
ienring tl|iat hh analyiis is exceedingly defiosent anitwatts* 
£iAory : Why did not be decompofe the fixed ammoniar.' 
Why did he not endeavour to afcertain the refpedive q^n^om 
titles of the iron and cakareous fait 7 In ihort m thouiand 
^ueftions occur, concerning none of whifib this a^alyfis will 
ntisfy us. 

With refped to the manner in which this WKtter casnetQ 
1^ /nixed with water, it might have been accidental, i* e* it 
might have been thrown «p and have defirended oft th» 
clouds below, and fo have fallen with the rain, or we may 
conceive that the thick fmoke which eontttned tht vofcanic 
matter* might have been earried by the winds over that 
trad of country on which it fell, and then by being cooled, 
might have been fo for oondenied, a^ to exceed the gravs^ 
of the air beneath, and confequently &11 in a coloured kini 
of rain. 

In the Snglifh tranflation of this nper, fliort at it is^ 
there are iWerai inaccuracies. For indance, it it £udthat 
^* the grey water after evafwrat'mg and filteratuig away, left 
^* every place covered with it." Now the relattve if has no 
antecedent to which it can be referred except water* i* e« left 
«very ^ace covered with i felf. In the original wt fifid, kfiuo 
peroqui dove la materia che contenea, left every trtiere the mat^ 
itr which it contained. Again in one of the iiotes ** and diiu 
^^ account for the efBorefctnce on the iron's being expofed 
'^ to the air." This is either not Endiflt^ or not what the 
Author fneans to fay: his words fiterally tranlktfed are 
** and thus explain thecAorefeenoe (or nift,) whidi it pro« 
^^ dttced on iron-work that lay expofed to the air.'* TmSb 
mro inaccuracies: the laft expn!lTion we fliall notice, proves 
that the tranflator did not underftand the original ; we art 
te4d ** that the thick, finoke which the volcanic matfer coivi 
•^ tained might &?c.** This is nohfcnJe, who ever heard 
of a fine powder een«aimng a thick fmoke.^^ The original it 

■ ■ ! ■ , ' lip 

f In «i noite he fsys that numerous and repeated experiments kavt 
perfiuMled htm that fta fjrfi is one of the prtocipaU and mofi ahundaat 
9>enftftta that exckc oftrvcfcf^ctf ia Etna, of thss ii is (hf Ufii •< 

^"»* goad 

484 Philofiphical Tranfaffldns ^ tht Royal S9c:iiy of Londotu 

good ibafe and clears tip the blonder ; it runs thus *^ cbt pal 
*' dinfr fume^ che cotUemea Id materia vokanieay the ttudc 
finoke which contained the volcanic matter, &c. 

Art. 2. Nova exfirimenta themica qua ad ftnitwcm aciJi 
i ptnguedim eruti cQgnitionem valere vidtntur. 
^ Ncf«r chemical experiments which tend to throw light 
upon the acid obtainable firom hu In a letter from Ur. 
Crett to Dr. Hunter* 

lo the bcgintiing of this paper, Dn Crell defcribes a 
method of obtaining the acid of fat much more expeditions 
<Chan that which is laid down in bis former communication. 
^His metiiod is briefly this, he firft prepares a foap from pure 
t6iuftic alkali and lat. To this diublved in water he adds 
pounded allum, till there arifes no more coagulated oil to the 
furface of the folution : the oil he takes c^ with a fidmmer, 
and then fihers the liquor and evaporates it to drynefs. To 
threeparts of the faline mafs thus obtained, (which is acorn* 
bination of the acid of fat and vegetable alkali,) he adds 
one part of vitriolic acid, which immediately extricates grey 
fumes with the odour of acid of fat, and aflifted bya gentle 
heat, drives over all that acid into the receiver. The acid 
tiius procured, is adulterated with the vitriolic, and may 
■be reftified bj adding four parts to one of the faline mau 
and re-diftillmg. For tlie theory of this procefs, which is 
exceedingly ingenious, we muft refer to the paper itfelf. 

He now turned his thoughts to the effeds ptodixed hj 
tliis acid on roetab. He began with gold, entertaining how- 
ever fmall hopes id obtaining a folution; he expoled the 
mixture to digeftion in a gentle heat, and was furprifed at 
the appearance of a yellow hue in the menftruum» though it 
was evident that much of the folvcnd remained in the bottom 
of the veilel. Upon employing platina and even iilver, the 
fiime appearance took place: He now began to fufpeA that 
this hue arofe from* the acid itfelf, and upon boiljng down an 
ounce to half that quantity, the reiiduum became of a golden 
colour : upon diiUlling the fame quantity of acid eight times 
%o drynefs, a brown matter in concentric circles was left at 
the end of each operation at the bottom of the retort : It Js 
remarkable that the acid lofes ftrength by each diftillation ; 
and in this refpcfl the Autlior obferves, that the acid of iat 
is to be efteemcd intermediate between the mifieral acids and 
vinegar, and thofe acids fuch as tartar and fait of forrel, which 
cannot be made to diftil without being deftroyed. But 
though this acid be incapable of diflblving gold in its me- 
tallic form^ it combines in fmall proportion with its calx, 
and whatisilill more. remarkable, when eighty drops of the 
5^cid of fat were poured on gold leaf, and twenty drops o^ 


Phihfiphkal Tranfa^tons $/the lUcjal Sot ttty $/ Londom tZ J 

'nitt^ns acid were added, a folmion evidently took place; on 
the addition of other twenty drops of nitrous acid, it be- 
came more remarkable, and when heat was applied, the 
Vhole leaf was diilblved. The calces of platina and filvcr 
Were diflblved. Its cffeas on merctiry were reniarkaWe: it 
feemed to dcftroy its mobility without combining with it, 
Which however it did in an inconfiderable degree. Ilic calx- 
it readily diffolved, and on expoiing the fdlution to beat, a 
new kind of fublimate, not eafily foluble in water, arofe t6 
the neck of the retort. Copper and iron and zinc were 
readily diflblved, fcad with fome difficulty : minium ^ain ca* 
lily. The regulus of antimony was diflolved by abftradion. 
Tm was corroded into a yellow powder, as this fubfided tho 
tranfparent liquor above alTumcd a beautiruFrofe colour. It 
did not aS on bifmuth, but diflblved the calx. The fame 
was the cafe with refpeft to cobalt. On nicke it had a very 
trifling aftion, but diflblved the calx readily, which was not 
precipitated by the vitriolic or nitrous acids. With white 
arfenic it combined in very inQoniideraWe proportion. The 
ore of manganefe it firft corroded and then diflblved. It is 
remarkable that this acid, which had always afl^imed a 
brown colour when digefted with other metallic fubftances, 
did not exhibit the fame appearance when digefted with the 
ore of manganefe. The Author next proceeds to c^nfidcr the 
cffefts prodticed by the acid of fat when added to folutions 
of metals in other acids : from thofe of the three perfeft 
xnetals'it throws down a precipitate, which, after it is ciVcr, 
fully edulcorated, is more or Icfs deliquefcent. When added 
to nkrated mercury, it threw down a white fcdiment ; and 
from corrofivc fublimate it alfo threw down fomething. The 
Author imagines that the white fediment produced thus 
from corrofivc fublimate may ferve as a teft to diftinguifli 
the acid ^of fat from other acids, and particularly from the 
marine. The precipitate was foluble in water, and when 
the folution was evaporated, aflbrded a white refiduuni 
which was not deliquefcent. Spnall needle-like chryftals 
defcended towards the bottom of the veflel on adding the 
acid of &t to a folution of lead in the nitrous acid. The 
iblution of bifmuth in nitrous acid, and of regulus of an* 
timony in aqua regia, afforded precipitates on addition of 
our acid, when water no longer rendered them turbid. The 
iblution of tin in aqua rc[gi^ afforded a precirate of a yeU 
lowiih brown colour. The acid of fat produced no ef&£l 
on being added to the following fcdutions of copped in the 
▼itriolic acids, of iron and 2inc in the fame acids, of cobalt 
in the nitrous acid, of nicke in the nitrous and marine acids, 
and of aritnic and manganefe in the nitrous acid. 


Tbe next mqviry of Pr« Crdlr was inio the aAioft of 
the di^mnt acia» mpM S«gmr't iak, viz^ the eombiruttJol^ 
9f the acid of (at aHa tht vegetable alkali. It wat iecom^ 

Kfed bjr fbe U^pee tniMfat acid^, but not by ttie ao^tout^ 
or atarfs or pUomioric &lt, or white arfcnie, at ikitrated^ 
cobak. Animal m ammoniac, (which coofifts of our acid 
Tmite4 with volatile alkali J mix«d in the proportion of two 
'4raebma« with fifteen gtaint of lapis haunatites ; amd fubmit- 
ed to fuMimatioiH aroic undnnged while the haroiaidtes Fe« 
mained in the boftompf ^ vc0eK 

The AothorU n«xt obje^ was» to exaioifie the effbfts 
pTodoced by hia acidt when tt was mixed with difFcrent 
oeiitrU udta« Oo mixing it with nitre and performing <H(^ 
tillation» lie found in the receiver, a fluid confiding p^Htlf 
of the nitroua acid and partl^r of the acid of m. Oft 
making the fuM experiment with fca fait, the liqaor wbick 
waa dnveiu appeared to be the marine acid in a ftal6 cyf 
fwttj. His way of ascertaining this difficult point waa 
verY ingexnoua. Ho made three mixture^, the firft with 
eighty (frops of aq. fort, with forty of ipirit of fak ; the fe-^ 
cond with the (ame quantities of nitrous and marine acid; with 
the addition of forty drops of acid of far. The third of eighty 
drc^ of aqua fortia, with forty of the acid of fat. For each 
of thefe mixtures he ftt afidc two fcrupks of makec^ tin, 
which he added very gradually^ taking care Hot to tbroMr ii^ 
a frelh portion before the former was difiblved. No. i a&ed 
with the greateft force upon the metal, No. 3 with lefi force, 
and No. a with the l»ft of all. No. 1 diflblred aH- but fic^en 
grains; the folution was tranfparent and without fedimentr 
No. a. was the moft turbid, had a copious blackiih fedtmient, 
and left iln^enteen grains unditTolved: No. 3 exhibiODda 
tranfparent folution, had a fmall brownilh Miment, an^ 
left nine grains undiflblved. After thefe experiments which 
were defigned for fiandards, he mixed cri^W drops of the^ 
Huid obtained by diftillation with 160 of nitrdus icid, 
in which hedtflblved, as before, one drachm of tin; in tha* 
bottom of the v^l there remained a Usck fediment. Front* 
the ^reat quantity of tin difiblved and the Uttle fodiment, 
and Its not being of a brovra colour, and the limpidity of 
the fohition, he concluded that Acre was no mixture of the- 
acid of fot In tlie diOtUed liquor. He fuppofes the black 
colour to have ariien from the marine acid, (which Atas moror 
concentcated than he fufpe&ed,) not being diluted with a 
fufficient quantity of ^ nitrous. It is a littlis furprifinc^ 
that the Author has not here made an obfervation which- 
very naturaUy fuggefts itfelf ; we mean that this experiment 
compared with a preceding one, which we have noticed* 


Piflhfopkical Tranfa^hns 9/ the R^ Sockty ofl^tuhf^ 7^- 

ajiovc, affords the appearance of a reciprocal decocnpofitmn. 
In this cafd the acid of fat decompofes fea^ fait, befoje the 
marine acid decooipofed Segner's ialt« . What caa b& the 
qaufe of thefe contrary phenomena? 

On the addition of our acid to terra foliata tartari, atvf 
applying heat, acetous acid pa(&d over into tha recipient. 
The Author did not expert that Glauber's fait would be de* 
compofed by hu acid ; however the liquour obtained Ky tha/ 
procefs we nave fo often alluded to had a fulphur^us fimell ; 
but this cfk& the Author attributes to phlogiflon' adhering 
to the acid of fat. On adding the fame acid to tartarus tar- 
t^rifatus, an abundant fediment &11 to tlie bottont^ which 
proved to be cream of tartar. 

In this brief view our Readers will obfervc feveral marks* 
of refemblance between the acid of &t and the marine. This 
did not efcajpe the fagacity of our Author, and be has drawn 
the foU&wmg parallel oetwccn them. With this volatile- 
alkali both conititute a dry fal ammoniac, and witli mag- 
neiia a very deli^uefcent fait; both precipitate iilver and 
mercury from their menftruum : both when combined with. 
reeulus of antimony quit it on the affufibn of water. Thi^ 
refen)bUnce feems to be indicated by tlie muriatic acid nor 
precipitating mercury or filver from tlieir Tplution in owr 
acid. There is however a great difference between the cha- 
racters of the two acids^ which conMs in the intimate com- 
bination of our acid with oily particles^ its forming with- 
calcareous earth a fait that is not deliquefcent; the eafy pro- 
durAionof a naphtha from it; its diiiolving iilver and mer- 
cury in the moift way, an^its precipitating the latter metai 
from corrofive fublimate. 

Juitice requires us to add, that this is one of the befl 
c)icmical eilayt we have lately met with : the experiments are 
well contrived and well conduced, and the Autlior appears to 
be well acquainted with all the refources of cbemiftry. We 
iball be ^ad to fee the continuation of liis experiments which 
he promifes. 

Art. 3. Okfervations on tbf bills of mortality ai T$ri* 
By W:Whiie, M.D. F. S. A. 

The general ardour of enquiry which now prevaik, with 
T€fyeSt to the ftate of population in this lungdom, will we 
hope fbon afcertain the important queftion, whether it is on 
the deline or not. Dr. White's tables are in favour of 
the former opinion. Ft appears from them that for f&verv 
years from 1728 to 1735 the burials exceeded the birtlxs 685, 
or 9S annually. From January i, 1770, to December 31, 
1776, the number of males bora in feven years was 1666 

Ditto bujdcd * > ' ' ' ■ 1476 


$Zt ThitofiphiiAl Trmfaaiom of the Royal Sotlcty of London. 

Of females bom y * i65f 

Burie<t ■' ■ 1699 

He farther calculates, that in 1735, one died annually out 
of 2i|» but at prelent only one in 28^. This increafing 
population and heatthincfs he afcribes to inoculation, to 
improvements in the cure of difeafes, and in the manage- 
ment of infants: tbefe are the general caufes; the local 
eaufes are improvements in and near the city of York. 

Art. 4. jln qccotmt of a monftroui birtbf by John Tor- 
lefc, Efq; chief of Anjango, 

This article conlifts* rather of a plate than a deicription. 

Art. 5. E^trlments with Chinefe hemp f ted. In a letter 
from Keane r itzgerald Efq; to Sir J. Banks, F. R. S. 

The Chinefe hemp, as Mr. Fitzgerald was informed, by 
the perfon from whom he had the feed, is deemed fuperior 
to that of any other country, both for fincnefs and ftrength* 
Thefe feeds, though they had. been kept for a very confidcr- 
able timet almoft all vcgciated and produced plants remark* 
able for their height and fizc. The toughnefs of tlie hemp 
which they afforded appears to be extraordinary; upon 
drying and beating it divides into an infinity of tough fibres. 
Tne plants w hen ftrippcd are quite white, and when the 
lateral branches arc cut off, appear like liandfome young 
poles. The woody part feems prettj fubdantial, and if it 
ihould be found of any duration, might by applied to many 
ufeful purpofcs ; or it not, Mr. Fitzgerald imagines they 
would produce plenty of good alhes by burning* The rough 
hemp which was peeled from the thirty two plants, when the- 
roughly dried, weighed three pound:^ and a quarter En- 
couraged by the fuccefs of his experiment, Mr* FitzgetaJd 
applied to the Direftors of the Eafl India Company^ to or- 
der their agents to procure fome of the beft feed that can be 
obtainjid in China: the Direftors lie tclJs \x% very obligingly 
promifed to attend to his application. 

Art 6. ^« account of fome fcoria from iron-works^ which 
refcmble the vitrified filaments defer) bed by Sir W. Hamiltoil. 
In a letter from Samuel More, Efq^ to Sir Jofeph Banks, 
Bart. F. R. S. 

Art. 7. jfn extras of the regijier of the tartjh af'^ofy 
Crofsy Salop^ being a third decade of years, from Michael- 
mas 1770, to Michaelmas 1780, carefully digefted in the 
following table. By the Reverend Mr. William Gorfocby 

It appears that the excefs of the births above the burials 
in this parifh, amounts to feventy four in ten years. In 
one of the tables annexed to this article, we were ftnick, by 
what appears to us a very remarkable circumflance. In the 

. cata* 

tMXzlofSatxd the diiOettpan aadcafitidtiBtf^feom 1770 to 17609 
mt btTcthe fbUowuif items. 

Confonapdoa ■■■ >iii f i n » 6^ 

Conmlfions ■ ' fij 

Dropfy . » ■* ' * ■»'» -^ *■>■■ ' 20 

Fever ■ * ^1' 15 

SmsrU^mc ' ■■*t ^'» ' . i — * ■ *» ■■ 42 

Sore Throat » ' ■ ■ ^- < ' 8 

. In UlU c^ moitalityy Si is well knawn, tliat voder conyuI<- 
fioas, aodcvencoitiamfftmH wn dafiedverjr heterogeneous 
4]6afes« Ifenoe^ipe tmj fm^oTe thB^ .the ntimber of perfons 
cutoffby the fmalUpoxin Salop, equals that deftrojed by 
^tfaifis jralmonatis, and fsx exceeds chat 4eftroyed by any 
other diieafe. Is not this circumftance aimoft pecalkr to 
Sdopf Ifib, wtiat on be the ntafon of iti Are the preju- 
dices aptnft innoeiiiation ftill in force in thst place? Or is 
it ooffible that the iinpfoyed mode of treatment is not prac* 
tifed there ^ Thecauie of this pha-nomenon wjiatever it may 
tie, it vmVi wotth the enquiry ef Mr. Gorfucb, and we fhoul^ 
bejriad 00 fee it sfdtrtained. 

^ The fix following artktei ekher require for their- illuftra- 
tioa plates and dis^^rams, oroanfift of calculations and cata- 
iofgam For thele veafons, it is impoffible either to give 
i«ch an abridgement, or make fuch quotations, as will en* 
aBfc our Readers to form clear ideas of their merit and con- 
Mits. We th^refac^ refcr to the Tranfaaions. The titles 
are as follow. 

Art* 8. An exptriment fr$p$ftii for determining bf the 
tten 9/ the ^fixtd fi^rXy whether the rays $/ llrbt 
^w4^ng afferent meaim^ change their vckcitv according 
AwV ^hicb refubs from Sir Ifaof Ne^vton s idem coM" 
the caujk cf r^fra^ifn; and for afcertaining their 
/ in every tnecfium, whofe refiaftiog denfity is luiown. 
trick Wilfpn, A. M. 
'The method of exjperiment here alluded to, is that of 
pWerring the aberration of the fixed ftars with a tdefcope 
filled wi£ a denfe iuid» fuch as water, or any other equally 
liaipVl, and' of greater refrailion, fitted to bring the rays to 
a fodus, by the furface of the medium oppofed to the oojeft 
having a pxoncr degree of convexity. 

Sirjfaac Newton, it is well known to Opticians and*A(lro* 
Aomers, upon the hypothefis^ that the refradtion of light it 
caufed bv a certain a^ion of grofs and fenfible bodies upon 
it, has demonftrated that the fines of incidence and refrac- 
tion, when the rays pafs out of one medium into another of 
ilifiercAt denfity, muft always be in aoenfttxit ratio. Upon 
the fame grounds he b^s alio (hewn that the velo^ty of the 
Eug. Rfiv. Vol. I. April 1783. tJ rays 

29^ A Letter to hit Grati the Archil/hap »/ Cantcrhirf. 

fty^ muft be greater in the more refrafting medium in tfae 
mverie ratio of the fines. It is this pro per ty of fefraAio* 
which Mr. Wilfon propofe» to bring to the teft of direft: 

Art. 2. Sttanuty 9f Rain which Jell iU Barrvuftj^ mar LaJs^ 
By G- Lloyd, Efq; F. R. S. 

Art. lo. Am^ Account of an impro/ytd Tbermnmt€r. Bjr 
Mr. James Six. 

Art. 1 1 . Oif rir Parmllax &f thifixtd Stars. By Mr* Iferrdd. 

Art. 12. CataUguM 4f doubk Stars. Bytheiame^ 

Art. 13. Dejiription of a Lamp^iftUromttirj and the me«^ 
thod of ufing it. By the fame. • ' 

Art 14. A Paper ^ •hviats Jome dombis concemimg ebe prea$ 

Two papers remain of confiderable lengjdi »id knpohancc^ 
one by Mr. Kirwan» and the other by tfaar ingentovs philofe- 
pher, "Pjrofcflbr Volta of Como. Or thefe we Audit endearour 
to fumifh oor Readers with am accoimt in a fnblemient num- 
ber. After Avlut we have already (aid, it is fearceiy Deceffiury 
to obferve, that no publication of any of the mmseroui 
learned focieties in Europe is better entitled to. the attention 
of chemifts and aftronomers, .and indeed of natural philoio* 
phers in general, than the prefent volume of theTranu6lions. 

AltT. IIL A Litter to hit Grace thr drehhijhtp ef Cknttrhmry. By 
Richard Lord Bifhop of Landaff, 410. 2S. Erans. 

IT is with the utmoft pleafure that we have perufed thU 
well written and fenfible letter* The plan of refomi^- 
tion which it lays before the public, mcrks the moft hearty 
and warmtil approbation. To the bpeunefs and candour of 
an honeft heart is joined, in this addrefs, a manly decifivencif 
of opinion. Led on by the ** mens confcia reeii^ ^ unfettered 
by prejudice, unxeftraincd by fituation, and regardlefs of 
felfim confcqucnces, a bishop boldly informs, the public, 
that the unequal diftributron of the temporalities of thr 
Church is, to the gt^eatcr number of the Clergy,, a matter of 
much liardfhip and injuftice, in its confequences hurtful to 
the intereftsOT true religion, an<^ loudly calls for a reform. 
We fay BOLDLY Informs the public^ becaufc this worthy Pre- 
htc, while lad>ouring for the intercfts of the Qiurch, and of 
fociety, muft have feen confcious that he ^-as going to ex- 
pofc liimfelf to the fate of all reformers; to every thing that 
the rancour of malevolence could fuggeft againft the man^ or 
the narrow foul of prejudice objeft to the reformer. But, 
fortunately for the Bifhop of Landaff, he lives in the i8ih 


Jl Letttr to it's Gract th4 ArMi/hop of CanUrlfiry. ft^l 

century: and however uiipleafant it may be to merit praiifp 
ind to meet with reproach, yet, at leaft, the £ite of Cranmtr 
9r Gallileo is not now to be dreaded. 

The evil, which this enlightened Father of the Church 
wiihes now to cure, has been long felt and lamented by the 
fober and thinlui^ part of both laity and clergy. But, that 
blind reverence whicli is acquired by education and habit for 
ancient cftablifhments^ that acquiefcence which follows it, a 
fear perhaps of doing harm, felfafti, prudential confiderations^ 
&c. have, hitherto, prevented thofetrorofpeaking, to whom it 
was prolate any attention would be paid. It was no fecret 
diat the incomes of the Bifhopricks were (hamefullyunccjual, 
and not a^ all proportioned to the extent or labour of the 
diocefe, the only thing that could warrant inequaUty of in--^ 
come-— That, this naturally produced a deiire of tranilation 
from the poorer to the more profitable Bifhopricks-— That, fre- 
quency of tranflation prevented that intimate union between 
me paflor and his flock which Ihould ever fubiifl between 
thei^H— That, it had a tendency to make bimconfider him^ 
ielf rather as the herdfman of a day, than as an eftablifhed 
and £uthful iheph^d— -That, in purfuit of preferment, the 
Biffac^ night give too much of his time and attention to the 
Court, and too little of both to his diocefe — ^And, that the 
fame canfe might produce a criminal obfe(juioufnefs to the 
Crown, and^ of courfe, a negkft of the rights of the com- 
It was Hkewife well known that the lefler dignitaries pof- 
led more than their proportion of what has been granted 
^ lire ftate for the maintenance of the Clergy, after allowing 
I AUl force to the argument generally allec^c^ in &vour of 
^ dignities, viz.t^tthey are ufeful, that they are necef- 
Am as xtwards of merit. 

mt we fufoeft it is not fufficiently known that the income 
of near two thirds of that refpeAable body of men, the paro- 
chial Clergy, does not exceed 40/. a year. Here the Reader 
omft not miftake us ; we mean npt to hy that none of thofe 
benefices art under 40/. on the contrary, we are certain that 
many are under ao/. and we have good reafon to believe that 
a very confiderable number are of this kind*. The bene- 
volent man, the patriot and the Christian mufb read this ao^ 
count with regret and iodignation. 

Such are the grievances whic^ the plan of this fenfible 
Prelate propofes to redrefs. The pub0c will be enabled to 
ju<%e Of it from the following, extram. 

■ I II iiii I I I I I i> ' i u i* ri !■ I I I II ■ I, 

* to thif iceoual CW-nw ait net indgded. 

TJ a To 

192 A iMUr <0 bh Grscc tbi Jrchhificp if CanuHnfj. 

* Tpke^ jour Grace Tfa^rs the Blihop,) no loagtr in fufpeaic as 
to d>c oieaoia^ of this addreis, I have two propo&U to nuke to 
3roo ; one rcfp^s the reircoues of the Bi(bops ; the othtr thole pf 
the in&rior Clergy ; both of them tending to the fafne end ;— f-not a 
parity of prefefmenti, but a better apportioned diOribiirion of what 
the ftate alkiwt for the nwMitefiaiice ef the ellabKfticd G(ergy. 

^ To begin with the Bifhopridu* k «vould ba wm cafy mamr to 
difplay much erudition, in tracing cha hi(hu^ of afae embiUhJaMttf 
•f the feveral ArchbfflM|>ncki and KfiiopncM, wbitfh mar iMUk in 
ILo^axA and Wales { 'but $» the inTclligaQOB waald loud ^ly HtH^ 
if at all, to the iHu&raiion of the fobjed we are lyon, I will not 
miipend either ^ur Grace's leifure or my owa In msUuBjE^ it* What* 
erer was the primary occafion of it, the fa^ is ccrtaiq, — that the 
Revenues of the Biihopricks are very unequal 11^ value, and that 
there is a g^rcat incqualit}' alfo in the Patronage appeitaining to ihr 
diiicrent ^es. The firft propofai which 1 huanbly ftibmit to your 
Grace's delvberatioB, is the utility ol bringing a BiU into FaHia* 
mcnt, — to render the Biihopricks moKa e^ol to each other, both 
with refped to iocome and patronage, by annexing paitarf tiw £• 
i)aict, and part of the Preferiae^ts ^ th^ ikber B4UoprickSf ^^ ^%' 
licttM *iHumHUto the poorer. 

* I* By a Bill of this kiocU the poorer Bldiops would be fineod 
from the necefljty of holding ccdcfiaincal prefermenrsk in €Qmm^^^» 
\rith their Bifhopricks ; a pradice which bears hard upon the Tlg^ 
and expedtatioDS of the reft of the Clergy j which is difagreeable to 
the Bitnops themfeiye^; which cxpofcs them to much, pp^J^'f ^' 
deferred obloquy, but which certainly had betternot fubmin the 
Church. I do Bol take vfon aoc to iix the predffa fuat.itfhich would 
enable a Kihop, not to pollute Gofpel Humility with the ^ium of 
Prelacy, not to emulate die Noble a^ Opulc«ft in 6idbt lucmnea and 
expenfive levitias as become neither Chiu-chmen nor Ch^riil^fM^ ; but 
to maintain fuch a decent efiahliXUincnt in the world as would |^ve 
weight to his example, and authoritv to bit admonition ; to make 
fuch a moderate provifion for his childrep, as their ^bcr^smodc of 
Rving would give them fome little right to expc6t; and to rccoRj- 
mend his religioa by works, of charity, to the ferious examination 
of believers c? every deiK>int natron.. 

* A fecond conie^uenee of the Mlpropofed, wo«ild l» a greater 
Independence of the Btfliops In the noa& of Lord&.-!4.iuHMr that 
many wiU be fianfed, I beg tbem not to be oftntbd^ actbe Suxtt^ 
of the Bi&o^ oat being h^pend^t iki the Vs^ii^ of Lords t tmi 3t 
would be eiiiv enough to wcikva a logical cobweb» I^^^o e^ugh a«d 
^ot^ enough to cover and protect the coodu^ of the Might Reverend 
Bench from the attack? of thpfc who diflike Epifcopacjr. This I is^y 
would be an eafy talk, but it is hx above my ability to eradicate 
from the minds of others, (who are, ndt^'ith Handing, as weU at- 
tached to the Chtwrh EftabliftmDent as. ourfeWes), a fa^cton, that 
the prolpe6k of being tranilated influeticet the minds of tha Btfltopt 
too powcrf uVly» and inducM theqy to- pay too ^rreat an attention to> 
the Deck of a Miniftcr. I am far from fayin|r or thinking, that the 
Biiliops of thc-prcfent ate are moreobfequious in their attention to 
Miiiiilen t^» their frtdoaeflciva kawobeoDy oc that the Spiritual 

■ * JLo^da 

%^t^i are the only Loi»dk Wlib are liabte to thti (ul\>tcioir, or fhif . 
l^tdh in geifehll, art the only peHbnton whom expe^tition has ad 
ihfltleace ; btit the fufpknoo, wBcrtier wtW or ill fi^uftdied, li dif- 
r^jMJttible to dur Of ^r ; and, what it <# \rorffe *onftc|«ence, it hie- 
4kH It* frckn do\«g that good vrtiic* f^re Oth^rWiie might do ; for 
the Lait^, Whtld they cmertthtt^ fiich il fufpidon coBcerninj u», 
«f iH arculc i« of Ataricc and Ambition, of makSi^ agiiiD of Godhnefe, 
df bartferrng th« digmry of our Ofike fot %he chance of a tranflatioht 
ifi ottc xvord of-^fArilkntV.-**** 

T6 ffie obj^ftiort rfi*t tni^hf bJJ h^drc bfdtlght igdirifl his 
pfen, that It " ^ill rtduct the influence of the Crowu in the" 
^' Houfe of Lords," he ha^ given a moft able and fatisfac- 
tory reply, which elolies with thefe remarkable words ; 

* The Bifhops have» on trying occaOons, bCen fad friends to the 
Crown; they have, on trying occafions alfp. been faft h-icndt to. 
<fhe HberCics of the people ;. and they wonld not, in my humble 
•opinion, beconie worfc friends to either feing or People, from their 
&ein£^ rendered indepciwienx of them both. 

* A third probable effed, (fays this judicioQS writer,) of the pro- 
pofed plan, would be a lonrer reiidence of the Bifhops in their re- 
fpe^rve Dioc«fe8; from Which the bell con fequences might be ex* 
pei£^. When the temptation to wifb for trailations were in a great 
meafure renioved^ it wotUd be natural for the Sifhops, in general, 
to confider thcmfelves aa fettled for !!£% in tiie Sees to which they 
fhould be 6rfi appointed j this con fide ration would i^kduce them to 
reiMler their places of rendence more comfortable and commodious ; 
and an opportunity of livinjg^ more comfortably, w6nk) beget an in* 
^iiaation to five more coniiantiy in thenv. Bciag wedded as it were 
to a particular Diocefe, they would think it expedient to become, 
a'nd* they would of courfc become better acquainted with theu" 
ChcFgy; and by being bettef acquainted with the fituationa, prof- 
pe^, tempera, and talents of their Clergy, they would be better 
able to co-operate with thciei, iff th^ treat work of Amending 
cko mtffaW df his MajelhrV fi^av-«t^ of Isedrhg tlic flock ^ 

^ The leeofnd thing which I have ta rSBcommead^to ycur Orace^a 
aticntioci^ is the ijitrodu^on of a Bill into ParlUntei^-^for appro- 
priating as tbiy itetome vacant^ one third or fome other ^fuiitive part^ 
o/ the Income of every Deanery, Prebend oi* Canon ry, of the 
Churches of Wefiminfter, Windfor, Chriftchurch, Canterbury, * 
Worcefter, Durham, Norwich, Ely, Petcrborongh, Carlifle, Uc, 
to the fame purjp^fes, mutafls mufaii-iis^ as the Firfl fruits and Tenths 
were appropriated by the a6t palled in the fifth of Queen Anne*. 

* Enough has been faid concerning the poverty of the greatcft 

1 ■ ■ - ■- -1 I * -" - r I 

* The^aft of Qgeen Annt appropriates the 4irfl fruiti and tenths 
to t& augmentation of fmaU Hvings. But, fo inadequate is the 
fitsid^ and, of courfe, {q flow has been the progrefs of augmentation, 
that numbers of livingy tinder 2oh per annum flill remain unaug- 
iMMtcft^: and before they can be all augmented in this way to joU 
orr annum, between 2 aiid 300 years mull elapfe. 

1/ 3 part 

riit of oor Parocliiil Churdies am! Cbapek ; tt it a izdt waft kncnni* 
beUerr, by many of the Laity ; felt, however by many deierviiis 
Clergy; and lamented^ it it to be hoped, by ail of ua, who hue 
heen fortunate enough to obtain better fituationt in the £ftabJiib* 
snent ; fortunate enough I msA be allowed to call it, for there mr« 
many amongd the pooreft qf the Paroebial Clergy, whefe merita as 
Scholars, a« Chriffiaos, and at men, would benodifgrace to the. 
mod deferring Prelate on the £eoch« The plan I have the honour 
of jprcfentiog to your Grace, would remedy thit defed in our Efta* 
bliuiment in no long courft of years ; it would produce a wonderfnt 
change for the better, in fourfcoreor an hundred years, in die con- 
dition of the inferior Clergy. It would immediately begin to ope- 
rate for rheir benefit, though its operation would not be complete, 
till all thofe who are poiTc&d of the Dignities in queAiun were ga- 
dierrd to their fathers : thirty or forty years are a long period when 
confidered as part of the life of an individual, but they are nothing 
when confidered as part of the exiftence of a community ; no di(Bke« 
therefore, (hould be conceived againil the propofal, from its not 
beinc^ infhintly attended by its utmoft pomble utility ^ that could 
not be efTeded, without depriving of their property the prefent pof- 
feflbrs of thdc dignities ; a meafore too full ot injuftice and crgehy 
to be thought of, eircept by felfHh Enthufiaifs in times of public con- 
fufion. If the plan is adopted we ourfelves fliall fttX its jgood efe^ 
in part, and our po&rity will feel them in its full perfcoion. The 
dignities though thus diminilhed, would ftill be great objc^ to the 
Clergy, great enough, if properly befiowed, to procure the exertion 
of the mod diftinguifhed talents in the Service of Learning and Re- 
ligion/ - 

The Bifhop, after this, tbongh he does not abfolntely de* 
cidc as to the method for carrying this latter part of his plan 
into execution, yet mentions feveral ways in which it might 
be done: and fuccefsfully anfwers an oojedion that might 
be made to bis propofcd arrangement, *^ That it would be 
^ the occafion of too ^cat a portion of the lands of tbe 
*^ kingdom being held ih mortmain.** But, for a detail of 
thefe matters we muft refer the Reader to the Letter itfelf. 

Though we have already dwelt long upon this article, jdt 
we cannot help giving to the Public a curious fa£t, which 
we have reafon to think, is far from being genefally known. 

* the revenue of the Church of England (fays the Bifiiop,) k 
•or, I think, well underftood in general; at leafi'l have met with a 
great manv very fenfible men, of all jprofefCons and ranks, who did 
nor ufiderftand it. They have expreifcd a furorife, bordering on d!& 
^ belief, when I have ventured to aflure them, that the whole income 
of the Church, including Bilhonricks, Deans and Chapters, Redo- 
net. Vicarages, Dignities and Benefices of all kinds, and even die 
two Univerfitics with their refpedive Colleges, which being Lay 
Corporations ought not to be taken into the account, did not amonatp 
upon the moft liberal calculation^ to isoooooh a year.* 

Ht theii fuppofes all the dignities of the Churchy and the 


two Univerfities annihilated, and tbeir revcnnt divided -e* 
mally'among the parochial clergy ; in which cafe, he af^ 
uires ^» that the annual income of each wotdd not exceed 

We (hall take ovr leave of this mafterly performance witk 
laying before the Reader part of the condufion, which 
Wrongly marks at once the vigorous mind» and-Chriftian 
meeknefs of the Writer, 

* The Bufiaeft cbus fubmitted to tlie public judgmeat, cannot be 
^^ft^ by the effbns of iater^ft or prejudice : nor will it ever be 
hrougbc f<inrard by ict propofer in any other way ; ualefs publick . 
approbation (ball prove that it is calcttbted for publick Oood. I 
flftay not, perhap, be able to give up my opinion to the opinion of , 
others ; but I mall be both able and willjng, in definvnce to their 
<^>iaions, to give up my plan ; for my seal for reifying what 
feems wroi^, is tetnperf d^ I hope, by a refpe6t for the judgnoent 
«f others ; by a dHpoiitioo (after having ^rcfwfed openly and freely - 
«rbat feems amti^ to acqaicice quietly, ai ^^ikxi cannot quietly ht 

* At to aay eenfare to whidi I najr havewpofed niyfclf in be* * 
•coming, asiome will fcoffingly phraie it, a Reforiaer ; in difturb* 
ia^t as others will, or will ieem to apprehend, the repoie of the £- 
fiaUiroeat, I will, at the Apoflle recomniends, taki It patiently : 
it is miicb ea^to bear the reproach of other meo^ toi^aes, than 
of our own minds ; and that I could not have efcaped, bad I done' 
Icls than I have done* I flatter myfclf, however, or rather I have 
l^ood reafoa to expe£^, that many of my Brftbrcn wB fee the fob- 
jc^ in the fame light that I have done, and will concur in recom^ 
meodiog it, when the more urgent concerns of the State are in fone 
mcafare fetded, to the notice of Parliament. And from the hottom 
of my heart I befeech both your Grace and them, to wei^h the 
matter with great accuracy, aod i have no doubt that both you and 
they wiH then give judgment concerning it with great SiDcerit]'/ 

hJkT.W^F^^nshle FMin: a Novel. Containing the HHIofy 
ofaParifian Family* i2mo. a volt« %%* fewed. Dodiley. . 

'TT^HE Morafift, who views with the eye of fpec\ilatk>n» 
I the various orders of which fociety confifts, will find 
each of them marked with a confiderable portion of vice . 
and folly. In the loweft ranks of mankind, the many paf-'. 
iions which degrade our nature, are feen in their groileft 
habits, and moft difgufting appearance. As obfervatioit 
wandm from vuteirity to^ refinement, it^difcovers vice iq 
a variety of charaaers, though her eflfenti^ Qualities are the 
iame. Falhion may change the features ot her borrowed 
countenance ; but, whenever her maik iklls off, her origi* 
iia! aiped remains unaltered. The blaze of diftinAion, the 
glitter of w^Itli, and the authority of power, may, with 

«|6 fij^H^HOle JMUm: tHh^. 

tht wttk tnd igiioraikC^ chatigt 4Mf Mmt* iitd enA 4b» 
nature of things ; our aiak« vtG» Icem to be virtcie, tn4 
folly to be wmom. With the fopcdictal obfcrver of nghc 
and wrong, cuftom and inclination confpire to confound 
tl^eir diftinftion. The deli^tcjr of manners which gilds 
Qirerdacincesof the freat^ fixftens the dttortrnty df theit 
appotraeice ; and cootr^mtes la rtntdor their poflfeflors, rathor 
the objeds of imitation^ than of abhovreilte. Tpji^ct frlfjf^ 
therefore, oi it fist ; ami to exp^e< the deformity of vice m 
a manner moft likely to be xifefol, it firems aecefliry to ^^ 
robe her of thofe t3K)rrowed amaments, whkh five ufurpe 
firom rank, elegance, and diftinftion. This is a raft, how- 
ever, hardly to be expected from a' modern novel : fince the 
fuccefs of this fpccies of writing, feems rather to depend 
on gratifying the faftiionable vices of the age, than on 
fatir^ng and ex;po£p£ their malignity* The light ccadcr 
feekt for amufimeat rather than inftru^tion; be perufe^ 
with eagemefs th6 annals of fuccefsful gallantry ; but tame,, 
with averted eye, fr^m tbcr pa^e of moral impravemem. 

Under thefe cifcamftanctfs, to diffhfe even a fmaU ^rtion 
of utility into a wott calculated for entertainment, i*?, at 
leaft in fome degreC| meritorious. And» after tracing a 
diffipated charaftcr through all the ftages of ftflrionablc fol- 
ly, to be difgufted with U at laft, and diflktisfied with th^ 
principilea on which it afted, is oftener to bewilS^for^ 
Shan expedod. 

The voLumea bef6ie us are thft hiftory of a Parifian hm\^ 
It* Gallantrv, of courlb, has no fmall fliare in die narr»*^ 
tive. An old Baron and his Wife, both tottering on the 
brink of another world, are ftill playing a n^ltiplieity of a^ 
morous pranks in this. Their daught^ and her huiband, 
are the pr in cip a l he ro in e and hero of Ae piece. And, in 
truths their extravagancies entitle them to that diilin£lion« 
The (lory is told in a pleafing, familiar ftyle, and appears 
to be the prpdudion of^ a perloh accuftomed to faihionablc 
fociety. The following deftription of an intrigue of the 
young M^rchionefs, wiU> we doubt not, be acceptable to 
many of our Jleadcrs . 

^B O h h Y eXL. 

AT lift, ho^^eycr, it happened that the Marchioncfs one er cnrug 
at a ball, at a friend'a hoiifc^ met with the Vifcount De I'Eiictuft ; 
he was a tall b6y, juft turned of ninefeeo, i<t the Moom of youthr; 
tke luftre of health glowed oir hit cboeka ; aa aoimaiedcomplHiis- 
ptt^ fparUing e^ and whit^evco teeth), geined hkn theadmtraebis 
of moil of the ladies ; he wa$ well (baped lac his (uk, bu(.i:aihQcy 
ic».Iia^(i ^o fiit ; he was audacious^ lively and familiar ix^ hu beht^ 


Fi^HmiaUe FdSn: uNoMT ^ 

^vwttiramoii^'wQmaii^ itad. mcA «f c&ofirwith tvfamt be rmmtvkilp 
liktd baoL die bcucr fur the impdittiitfnce M^ch which be luUrdled 
them : hk cbimii^er wM not ii> amiable as bis %UM $ b« wait botb 
iDa)kitni8 and ipitefol; wou])^ rtpoac aiMbpropagata icancbd Qt tfao6r 
to ti*hom he p^feffed friendflnp ; was paitrcobiriy fatirical oix the 
condud of womrdy as hss adt(riicui*ps among' the worthleft poit ci 
tbr frx bad been fb mftay tkit ha had iTom ihendtniil^fesd an UU<» 
beral notionof aiil. Tktt wai the man «nth wkoai Madane D^ilia^ 
became capdvated at irft figbc | Iba i^iougbt biia tbe moft cntcrtsHiiv 
i»g« agreeable creatittt m the worlds apd at he tveated Inr.witb tcv 
ry little cersmooyt ihc encovraprtsd blm by kogfaiiig at the fcanda** 
lous anecdotes he told of her accpMnBtancty. and permtttad bim; great 
liberties ia bis conveiibtioai iMt doubting but whan fha ohoSr t^ 
aiiime a <fifieroilt mode of bcbatsioctr, fiie could eafily awe htm iato 
a proper rtiped ; but the Vilcouat was too mtrcb vned to tbo ad« 
Taaces of the ladies, not to perceiv* the impnefiott be had madr od 
tbe Macchioaefa, or to be lb eaiilj^ repuUed : her panialk^ tot him' 
was loo apparent to be dettiat, hotbereiiafo attacbad bimfelf to Ytae^ 
and the Marchiooeftah-eady more than haif Tooqutlbed \ff the 6^ 
flTBvity oi* her own iaclaiiatioo, yveUed in a very Iboit time to her 
loveTy and became as compleady ridtciilonS' towards him in her h^ 
bavioor nt^anf of tbisle anfoftuaats aFoaiev whole biAaaies ha bad» 
cutertaiBcd her witb« 


THS Vifcount, by a rery eitraondinary tlhtt aiuf mofl (ur- 

Stfinj^ taciturnity, kw>t the fetfer of bis conqueft otcr Madame 
*Il!oit for thr^ whole diiy$, at the end of which he wat umible to 
re(if! the pteafirre of rdaring it to fome of his intimate friends, (af- 
ter taking the precainion tb fwear thetn tt> fccttcy, wbich they 
doubtiefs obfcrvcd with the feme delicacy h* had done bimlelf) ; 
but efown more negiigeittin a few dayr^er, when he had finilh^ 
ed his ttfoal bottle of dBampajne, •• Cbme, (he would fty) let us 
^^ drink a bumjper to poor Httle I>*fl]ois, the btf! womaur in the 
^ worhi, ami fo partial 4o me that it is ailonifhing^; my acqyain- 
** tance with her has been (b (hort, that rattl ftfrpriifcd mylclf at 
•* the rapidity of my fucccfs* I may fay with Csefar, I carne^ 
•• taw, and conquered. I have not the honour of knowing the la- 
•* dy*s hufband, bur I ant lure he hat the mod cafy, gentle^-tWn- 
**^ per*d wife in Paris.* Noteoatwxt with trWt^n^ hvr natne ndtR 
fo Httle refcrvc amongft his companions, he prevailed on Madame 
lyiHois to give him her picfhite, whichr fliere&dily granted; atid' 
atid looked on the reciuei! as a proof of his paiEon, little rtifpe6Imj; 
tbe* purpofe fbr whitn -he intended ir. 


SOON after, the Marctuis happened to meet the \nfcount atf a* 
jeyQU» fupper, at the ho«He of a friend ; they nxre mutually plea& 
edwith eacK other's cooveriation ; and the Marcyiis being UHicb, 
too polite ever to mcotAon the name of bis wtfe^ oio^ o£ we corn*- 

paxj (uni the' Vtfenmt amQsi|;ft the reft) lodied upon him ts s fin* 
f^ man ; before they p^ed, the Vifcount engaged the whole par* 
tv to fpend the foUovring evening at hU hoofe. They met at the 
Cinie appointed ; and wtt* good humour, and plenty of champagne 
made them fiillmoiv gay than the^ were the night before; mirth 
and wine elattd the hncj of the Vifcount, and he b^;an as ufual to 
boaft the number ot his triumphs orer the moft celebrated beauties ; 
att4 eren went ib far as to a£rm, ^ there was not a truly Firtuous 
^ worenn in the world, at leaft not one who might not be fubdued 
*^ by any man of perlbn and addreft, if he thought it wDlth hie 
^ while to give himfelf any trouble about her ; and to convince 
^* you (continued he) that Lmcretias are in this age very rare to be 
^ met with, I willdiew you the portraits of thofe whom I have 
^ found to be very different creatures, and yourfelves (hall judge. 
** from the number of pi^rcs in my poflCTont how many a mo- 
** narch mi^t obtain if he bad a deore to become matter of the 
*^ pi^res S all the condefcending (air ones in the uaiverfe i** here 
he rofe, and c^»ned the door of a large elegant dofet, who(e walls 
were almoft covered with pidures^ and illuminated in an elegai^. 
ta(le t they all rufhed into it with impatience ; and the iirft objcA 
that (Iruck the eyes of Mon(ieur D'lUois was the exa& rt(embbince 
of his wife ; however well-bred a hufi»and he might be, yet it wouU 
be a. difhonour to human nature not to fuppofe he felt a very di(ii«- • 
greeabk fenfation at this difcoverj' ; but he difguifed his emotion, 
and with the calmnefs of a philoiopher, iittended to the Vifcount, 
who enraptured at being thus furrounded,with trophies fo Satterin^ 
to his felNove, pointed to each particular painting, and gave hia 
fiiends a (hort hillory of the fair one it refembled, ** The firil, 
•* gentlemen^ (faid he) on my rirht hand, is old Madame de P— — j 
^ no great addition to th^ coUeaion I confefs, but (he was my firft 
*' conqueft among what is called virtuous ladies i Sbt it fcema had 
*' . a Viod of curiohty to know how a boy of fixteeh made love ; and - 
*^ I, (out of a frolic) had a mind to try whether a woman of fifty 
^* would relifh fuch a declaration : next to this old hag, (by way 
'* of contrail) behold the ^oung blooming Celia ; I purfued her. 
*' five weeks with unremitting ardour, but (he condefcended not to 
** reward my pa<5on till the very day before flie married my moft 
** intimate friend the Count of ft — — : this little bewitching face , 
^ (up higher) the Countefs de Morun, who though (he fcmplcs 
*^ not to sprant favours to her lovers, has the delicacy to declare 
** (he (Hlladeres her^ hu(band with the moft unabated fondneis ; 
*' this on your left, is the famous devotee Madame dc M. who e<r 
** every day in public devoutly prays to heaven that (lie may be 
^' forgiven the nns (lie hourly commits in private : this hauchty 
•* beauty is the Dutchefs Ce C — — , who yielded to my widies 
•• with a moft petrifying air of grandeur ; but making u(c of the 
" privilege of a favoured lover, and going rather abruptly into her 
•* apartment three days after, found her in the arms of a footman : 
" that further lady is the fmiling princcfs of T— , who when I 
** hinted at noon in a whifper (after palling the night iti her apart- 
". ment) that I fhould be gfaJ to repeat the afBgnation, turned from 
" mt and burll into a Ipud latlgh ; told me that flie wondered at 



Atfin; Z^mrL tff 

'** niv afRirtnce, that I oufht to know that a /stur fas\n%} 
^ of her rack, was a iDcrejcfl; and that fhe fappoied I was jiM)t 
^ to learn that aothine couU be moia dull than the repetition of a 


IN thif manner he ran ortr great numbers with the moft forpnf* 
ing Tolubilic;^, 'till he came at laft to t^at of the MarchioocA t 
"** Here! (faid he, turning to the Marquti}« do you Icnow this. 
** young beauty ?*• " I have fecn her (returned Monfieur D'Illotfi« 
•* rtther cmbarrasM) :*• ** a firefufi (continued De Tfinclufe) (ht* 
•* it your name fake i !• (he a reliltion ?** ♦• very diKantly, Mt 
•* the Marauis;** " fo much the better, (cried the Vifcounc) L 
** ihan\ lofe my ilory for all that ; thefe little fparklin^ eyes and 
** coquettifh ain announce the vivacity of the difpoHtion of dia 
** Marchione1& DUloif ; Md in truth fo very lively b fhc^ tfiat Ae 
** hat fcarce patbnce to wait for the offer ot her lover's heart, ba- 
** fore (he takes pains to convince him (lie meant to accept of hh 
** perfoD ; I fpeak from experience : three days from the hour I 
^ nrfl faw her, arranged matters between her and me ; but then I 
^. niufl do her the juHice to fay, (he received an impreflian in pij 
^ favour at firft fight ; (he is a charming, diflipated, lively crea* 
^ ture — ^but I have had her thefe ten days ; and if it were to contK 
^ nue ten days longer ; I (hould think myfelf married to he r ■ I 
^ would adviie you, D*I11oit, faith, to begin where I leave oC She 
** Would fuir you exa6Hv— her beauties are worthy a particular exa* 
*^ mination ; come you Uiatt have a nearer view of mv little goddeis.^. 
He then took down the ptdure, and gave it into »e hand of the 
Marquis, who endeavoured to look upon it with a fmile, when at 
that very inftant there entered a yoAing man, a relation to Monfieur 
Dniloit, juft come from the college. ** Ah ! (faid he to the Mar* 
^ qub) what do I fee ! my dear coufin enraptured with the por^^ 
** trait of his own wife. I never faw any thing fo like fince I 
** was bom.** At this iinexpe^led difcovery the Viicount ftarted 
with furpriie, and feemed covered with confufion, and buriUnr into 
a loud laugh, ** Well, gentlemen, &id the Marouis, my blundering 
** coufin here has difcovered to you the hufband of the complaifant 
^ lady whofe hiih>ry you have heard ; but be aiTured her coodud 
^ gives me not the lead difquiet, we arc very happy people, and 
^* each amufe onrfelves our own way : I am not in the leaft angry 
** with the Vifcount for endeavounng to make him^lf agree&le 
^ to a pretty woman becaufe (he is my wife ; and one day or other, 
** when he is fo imprudent as to marry, I (hall hope to return the 
^ compliment, which is the only wny I (hall ever think of reveng- 
^ ing the wrongs he hat done me/* He then (hook hands wiui 
the Vifcount, and every one p'rcfent declared he was a noble hU 
low, praifed the noble manner in which he had received this in- 
telligence to the friest and unanimoufly agreed none bui a k$6i 
would make himfelf unea(V about the coodiU^ of a woman. ** But 
^ what devil, (faid the Marquis) brought you, couiio of the woe* 
^ fill couiut^ance^ hither at U^ critical a junQure ?** ** A moik 

** unac* 

*^ niiift^MriUbfe tAtttumti upon ^7 lioiimif (fidJ Ihe y^i^% 
^ him) I \ivft bAA naiyljr terfHfed out bf ^ibr l^itfct« Kdd lecm^ 
^ )tt«# tftrruigd vi^Hftni^ «t dbit door,- w^t glai t» <9vo» m to re- 
** cover my furprize ; and believe me, when you have heard iHfst 
** I have to fay, you will owa my jfean have oot been without 
*< foundation.^ 

Tteif* Who He ift fi»Mk of ^tudrtaiiim^it^ wiU find gm*. 
tl&ftticn in theft Toluitie9 ; md from the manner in wUch 
Ac priacioal chanftcrs terminate their career of diflipatic3f|i> 
it is h6ped> they will not be re^d witUoil^t ini)tu£tion. 

Aat. v.* Albert^ Eeh34ir4 and Laxra^ anitbeffermh of Pr'ttftktmi ^ 
Three Legendary Talet, by R. Roberts, 410. ^t. CadcU. 

A MONGST the numberof tales m iitfltation pf tbt 
J\ ancient balhd^ of chividtf, or wbBft ibe Spaniards call 
K&fnokcBt^ which have appdtred WiiMh thefe ftw yesrt, Wc 
do Hot recolteft many Aat have confpicuouj merit. Injpoc- 
try, a< iit pointing, to imitate the ede and fin!iplicity otna* 
tuit, feenu an arduous taik, if we are to judge by the want 
of fuccefs which, fo generally attends the attempt. Everjr 
dauber, who &rik fees the fimple and graceful attitudes of 
Rai&ele,. dunks hiknfirlf able, not otily tb equate buteaeel 
them ; di&ppointment,^ hewerei!, hao^ hithertio attended ifad' 
effiorts even of the greatefi? maften; So, to attain the iote^ 
tiding fiMplkitv in which the excieUenee of this fpeti«^ of 
compofition coilhte, thoiigh eafy in idea, is found by expe- 
rience beyond the powers of the herd of writers. For the 
moft part, inftcad of the Jimfle^ we are prefcnted with the' 
in/ifia: and fometiilies fimphcity is totallv deftrojred by a. 
load o^ gaudy and vneitential emamcat. Wo are* tired at o-> 
ther times witj^ a roeagre^ nftnative, without any of tbolb m*. 
ctdents with which gSehius knows how to adorn a fubjcA. 
It is hard to enumevate the various ways in which we are 
dtfappointed, btit rtotflir^ fo eafjr as to a&tn whh'truth, 
that diiappointment and dlfgvtft, are What vte in mieral 
meet with, on the perufal of w&t are called Legendary Tales, 
&c. We are forry to fiy, thtit the three Talcs which we 
have now before us, cannot be exempted from this general, 

In the iirft, Albert^ who had retired to a houle belonging 
to the Knights of St Johii of Jenifidem, rooounts to the 
Prior, that the infidelity of hk wife with an humble inend, 
whom he had raifed f^om indigenoe and obfcority to ^* a 
*' poft of profit and command," was the occafion cif his re- 
tirement. Informs him, that he hiul facrificed them both to 
his injured honour, arid 'that his fotlrows never wJH'havc an 


^ Uol>crt$'s^ Lffmd^ry Tales* $01 

tni^ TAie fifiws« Ia whioh Albert 4efctijbe$ ^he ** guU^ 
'* Icene^ that had forever robbed him of his l^pinpls, ^f^ 
fohwi the beit in the whole pubUcatioa* 

♦* E*5^cr tlic tidings to declare, 

*' I trufted npt the courier** liafie > 

** Myfrf/ the wchrotne news would bear, 

** And wkh my friend the pkafore tafte. 

** T«d Mtbe fettine fun dedin-'d, 
'^ 2 reacii my otice'litlovM retreat j 
^ And eAt Ving ^Mwogh a wood behind, 
^ WbiA kd to luLiA't £rr*]3tf 6st{ 

Ai What k9i0Li^e ^^^fqfttS^ &»Af ^ 
** Wl»| WAcds c^ paj^t the guilty ftene ? 
•* From thofc dread ftruggles xr\ my mnif 
"•' ph father! guefs the^uilt t mean. 

^ The mfe, 'fAto ktpt tnj trcEfurM hearty 

** The friend, my bofom held isoft^dMr f 

" Nature with horror ftem^d to lUrt, 

** Aod caft around a wiMneft draar/ 
The juft toturhing on the <XLVLft of Us ibrrows, the re^ 
luftance he Ihews to mention the fmaOeft errcnmi^ce» and 
his abrupt manner of |etti^ quk of the idea, are ilrokes of 
nature and^niua which the Aut)au9r very feldom difpiays. 
** Thofe^*^ IT II. >s perhaps an error of the pxaefs : as it ftands 
at ^relent, iS'givea an incorredneis to tl^ paflage^ which 
fpoiis the beautv of the thov^ht. 

In the fecona Tale, Laiira, being prevented bv her Bither 
from marrying Edward, a nerfon of infetioF btrtn, confents 
to her Lover's going agaiim the infidels, that hj acquiring 
military glory, apd tl^ honour of knt^thood, he miglit 
return to demand her of her father with more probability of 
foccefs. After. djfplayingconfpicuous bravery, he is wound- 
ed and taken priiciiner. The report of his deith reaches his 
native country^ and X^un^ aftei havirig long mourned his 
lois, is at laft pex&94ed by her &dier to give Jbuer hand to 
De Coucy. Tlie news of ti)i$ marriage being conveyed 
to Edward, he abandbns himfelf to defpair, and feeks for 
death in battle, where ha i» mortaltj wounded. Feeling 
his end approach, he gives orders to a faithful domeftic to 
have his heart baked ^er death, reduced to powder, and 
prefented in a gojden urn to his Miftrefs. De Coucv in- 
tercepts tfie urn, is made acquainted with ^e whole Aory, 
and, inflamed by jcaloufjff makes his wifa drink, the powder 
in a pretended cordi^* He ^^tqrwaxds informs her what 
Wife the contents of the draught. The information proves 


yit Hobeitt's tigtndary Taies. 

fatal to the h^Iefs Ladra, (he hSh a viftlm to horror utd 

In the third Tale, as in die iecond, are related die fatal 
odniequencet of unequal love. Antonio, a peribn of ranlu 
ialls in love widi;t fanner's daughter, nitrri«s her private* 
ly, to avoid the confequenoea c^ his unde^s refentment^ 
his ilolea viijiti are peroeived by the neighbours, and 
^ Throufli all the country the report wu fpread 
That beauteous Emma playM the wanton's part/ 
Fired by theie reports, her brother, a foldter, fttks Anto« 
nio, and attacks fuin, who rdu^huitly draws, and kills the 
a&ihtnt in his own deferioe : the fifber dies of grief, and An« 
tonio for ever after livea fequefteted from the world. 

Such are the outUoes of the work before us, which feldoia 
or never rifes above mediocri^, wtd fiequMtly hih below it. 
The veriification is mean and profai<U whilft the expledvea 
Jois and did occur almoft in every pag^ As a fpecimen, we 
Ihall fubmit to the puhlict Antonio^s rencontie widi the 
brother of £mrea. 

As from the cot with penfiVe fiep I went. 
An unknown youth witb fury cix^ my way ;. . 
With wrathful ire, his eyes on me were bcnt^ 
; •• Thou villain, flop thy courfe !** I heard him fay, 
„ .. XXVI. 

Then from the (heath he drew the glttt'rin^ blade ; 
\ ** Defend Hiy&lf, unwbrthy wretch !^ he cryM 9 
. 'tlitb aimM a ftioke which ms in daft had laid. 
But that my weapon drove his point afide. 

Redoubled rage now flaftiing from his ejr^ 
With eager fury full on me he prefl : 
Seeing that either he or I mud die, 
My faul fwerd I lodfi^d within hit breaft. 

Tlie cUihing ndfe had reachM my Emma's ear, 
And with he/ mother forth ihe wiM did run : 
Ah me ! what founds did ilieB Antoiiio heai^^* 
** Alas, my brother! ah, my wretched ion}** 
- StiffenM with horror, all aghaft I fioed, , 
My look expreffive of my £ei^de^r ; : . * 
Firfl on the youth, now weltMng m. his bloody. . 

, Then fix*d on Emma, my unhappy fm* 
She from her brother's h)eedin|[ coHe was tor% 
And to her mother's cottasfe C& conveyed ; 
Her tender Aind by cruercon€i6ts torn, 
A iettled forrow on her Titals preyM. 


ihA'% Ififi$rual SJUfch of MJkimi 0Md Suf-giT^ ^f 

XXXI. " 
Sy flow demts it (app'cHh^ fpnngt erf* Kfe, 
Inning conianipiioa brought her to her grare | 
No hcalmg balfam could preferve lihy w%« 
Vain was the mediciiml art to fore. 
The lines ^' writtm on the fs^^ereftt whkb happened ia 
"VLeadenhall-ftreet, x8^ Januaiy^ 1782,^ ecmtain much 
pichr, but no poetry. - .. - 

There is tafte in the frontifptece prefixed to AlBert. 

. ^ ' ■ .'. I ' ■111. 

AtT. VL J^ HiJUrieal Sketch 0/ Medkim tmdHmrgery from fkiit 
Origin t§ the frtfemi Timt'r and of the pi^efMi Author's^ Difco* 
venes, ItDprorepieDtt and Erroct. Bj VV« JEUaok, M«.IX 8?o. ^ 
boards. Johnfoa^ . 

IT has been long fince obferved that hiftory, whether of 
civil tranfaAions or of the arts and fciences, is a work as 
difficult as it is ufefoh To be inftrodive» the Hiftorian 
(hould po0efs extenfiye knowledge, and the art of impreffing 
that knowledge upon the mind of his Reader bjr profound 
and mafterlj reflections. And to be entertaininffy he ihonld 
be capable of arranging his materials with penpicuity and 
addreis, and of recommending his narration by expreffive 
and ele^nt language. Did not every man acquainted with 
the writings of naUer, find himfelf difpofed rather to won- 
der at what he has.peiformed» than to wiih that he had per^- 
foqned more ; it might be r^r e tted that a writer ib eminent 
for the qualifioitions we have jufl enumerated, did not di- 
geft his cfofervations on medical Authors into the fbrm of an 
hiftory, inftead of that of a catalogue. But without in- 
ducing in fpeculations/ which now can never be realized^ 
let us proceed to confider how far Dr. Black has difplayed 
the requifites of an Hiftorian in the performance before us. 
And we apprehend that if he Ihould be found deficient, 
the title which he has. chofen, and ufider which he 
ieems defirous of Ihel^ng.his imperfeSions, X^f ^^y ihould 
be deteftedO will not be deen^ a plea of fufficient force to 
ibiten the feverity of criticifin. For if fuch picas were to be 
admitted, the whole difficulty of compofition would be re- 
dneck to the invondon of tide, and the only barrier by 
vrhich multitudes are with diffi<hiltir reftrained from pouring. 
forth their immature conceptions being removed, produc- 
tions of merit would be buried under heaps of ignorance apd 

The flcetch before us confifts of about 300 pages, of thefe 

_ _____ - - I - - -^ ■ ^ ■ '11— — 

* The bumisg of Mr, WoodmafooV children. 


nearly the ludf are taken up tn Crating the progrcfs of ine4i* 
cine to the middla tf ifce i cth ccfttury. Ifere, we thinks an 
important enw occurs In the arnmgttnent, the fptoe allotted 
to the antients being, beyond tR proportion, too large. And 
there is a ftill more material cUfparity between the former and 
the lattcrpart of this performance. Thq tenets of the ai\- 
tients are dcfcribed with lolcraWe accuracy and pcrfpituity ; 
the attention of the Reader is fcldom indeed roufed by acute 
or learned remarks, and he finds as he proceeds, Kttte to 
ytfe, and n o t m u eh to blame . ^ this wft part the ibl- 
Jowiog quotation* whkh is the caiiclii&m of the accodott ^f 
•lite opintostf ind Madic* of Hippocnates, is by w> means 
j|i unfavouimbik ifccimeo. . 

* Modern Anatomifts cannot SToid pronooitcsng the- Aostomy 
of Hippocrates to h^ gmfs and imperfe^. Humap oodtes had »oc 
then been diHcAed, and his knowledge upon this fub/^ (ea- 
^cept p er ha p s ^he Oftedogy) was acquired by opcoio]? atrimala-of 
Jthe bruseLc^rcddoo f f^nie^ wlioM,-as the Ape and Momceyin thdt 
intenwl firuduis, %ebf » ftntig i«i#ih^lanM to Man. Motwi^ 
fiwding foch ntdical, impediniMns to obtaio oomoa Aiasoiiscal 
adeas^ he haa gjvfo « €9mt Ivperfitial defifertpttos ## the Luag% 
Heart, Stomach, Liver, Spleen, KMtmyi^ Vf^taH and BMdist, 
and of the taif^e trQidu^of the Slpod^v^Iels. The OAeoJogy aMels 
every other part of bis* Auatomy* He fays notbiM more of th0 
MuiclesthaQ that they are ui(bum«n(s of ijiodon^ He knew that 
the bxah) was the primary faring o£ motioii and fcnfation i th^l)Iood 
toohefmermounflied the body, and hr imagined' v^as rtic'fout'ce of 
heat { but he ^res totally unacquainted wkh the ft^tatory cijiCT^hmoti 
^ thfliflaid. Hie fM4M th^mdimentr tff ffnde^ and ifc^nale em- 
bryos .were contataod ia tiie femea «f teth 4eae^ 

^ HH^tmawtes'-s iangnage is feaeralisttacotDnmlyioanrifb,^ and 
from thatcaufeoten^eufsc it 4» for ictferior^ iRvupo&iofi 4r 
«k^Q€Otoia«)e of his paedeGefioKi* or ^ maay .vvt^ foc^o^ipd hm^ 
' There are contradi^ons and Sir^y romaqks. Ix^dAs ^ coofu^D^ 
medley of (everal difeafes, unknown %o and uaoefcrlbed hypoAcn^, 
which gives room to believe, that' additions and altera^ioa^'Tiav^ 
been made after his death, and that fomb parts are Ypudous. Ih many 
placet) we nnrft'Coniefs, he teems^n^th ufeful maxunj and infbt- 
■rtiatkra. Iti attendinj^ «o diAhi|e», ^rrodphotft all t4)ef rt^ranges and 
joeaaders, hewas viguaat'Snd indefat%aot^, hisJNdgmeAvpi^feaiid 
andcorrr^ His oondntoiB and predii^naanv iiQtfvichtsindia|; 
often huik upon a finglet iytnprain; kut.aotjneiagc ftttura.«venis,.in 
coniibrmifvtoWsowo^rulea, ^ niO#q*i$twrefctfisft^ jttiwey^iptildbe 
tnade of the difeaie, the remaining powers 4>f (h« coniUautioni aad 
the probable fuccefs to be exjpef^ea .{xom Medicine. His i^phorifnvi 
begin in the ufual (lik, of which 1 before ^avc a fpeciraeo* ** Vita 
brevis, Ars longa, occafio precept, experientia faUa^, judiekira, 
difficile,** &c. The Latin is put in place of th5 original Olrck, 
which tstttttmbrecompendto'js, andtnc di<5Hbn adbrneawit^ greater 
niajedy. Tbrou^honti his lax)guageisc)o6 aad-eomprefTed; and 

6i<bcbB* To beginoprf io Medical ^tu<Ue# he would be dry an^ 
fisqueotly anit^lieibie. His sviittngs rjErrepiblc rather^ regillcr qt a 
Apk bo|U(b pf fpliafa^lieap^ together, thaA a pica ling narrative. 
fit ^avy I tbinj^y be compaised to our ^acon. Lord Verulam : thp 
one IS in Phy(i<ilt what the other, In modern tiroes^ w»s in Philoib^ 
phy* Hippocrates fii-ft pointed out the true road to arrive at Mc- 
ciica) knowledge, and made a beginning in almoin every branch of 
Medickity altboiigh he-broujifht none to perfe^on. In' fo Ojorc a 
tkoe tie did Hioadei«>fbr one man i but the fabric of Phy(tck .was in- 
£nkely coo iai^e and fxtenfive for<« fingle perfon xo finifii. Hippo- 
Cr9tes jifi^ tb/e i^nmoitiil honour of having Curniibed the fit ft model, 
phtkk ^hert V^ tbe ^cpjude of fucoelEve ages have imitated an4 
gtieatlv furpaided* 

* jiipiHKrates df^icribes jthe duty gt\d ^fEce.of a Phyfician, and 
lays .down rviles for his deportment and manners. He praftifed in 
every fphere of healing, he a6ted occafionally as Phyfician, Sunreon, 
Apothecary, Accpuoheur, and even as a Nurfe : icappearv too, rbat 
WtraveHed tbrougb moft <)f the Greek towns in the exercife of hit 
pvoMBon. Athens decreed him a golden crown, and 4umptuoui 
frckax^ 4m aoponnt of ^vne eauoent ienrice xkne to that State, 
achen iiMHi4ed <by a pcftileptiiil 4difeafe* An^a^erjces, a|i Al^atic mo^ 
Mtdhf .^lifiited ,4^i?)*H^ prcffing teirm^ and -by offers of princely 
lewaKdn, to p^y a vifit to his camp, and xo dire6^ him how to 
flop a ^con^g^Mj? Gd^Kft, .which preyed upop hi^ army. Hippo- 
crates, we are tpjd, rej|edted bis oners, becaufe he was the enemy 
of O^cece. Their eplflolary correfpondence, the authenticity of 
Wbich bt^ been doubted, is mfer^ed in,^he works of that venerable 
Imtriarcb of JJ^dicinc.* , 

The part yAfich -relates to die Modems, 'feem) very ln-» 
4:rior in point of execution ; iri^ther it was that wearinefs 
and 4ifpk^ leifened the Author's exertions, or that being 
^feferted 4)y Le Clerc and Frierid, -he could no longer conti- 
ftne the narration without the help of fuch guides. This 
latter opinion is very probable, and it is confirmed by an -er*- 
error rdatipg to Galeh. We are toW, that he delcnbed the 
different fpecie^ ojF Hernia with accuracy. Now there is a 
ipecics of i^i:nia ^ieh Galen did not defcribe, viz. the 
mrnia congenita : it has been difcovcFed, or «t leaft, /fc* 
fcrHedwith actfiracy^ fince the time of Le Ckrc and Friend*j 
afid this citturafftance will perhaps at once account for the 
particular tniftake^,i^id the grneral fupcriority of the former 
partof this Sketb^ over the fetter, which is. In general, je- 
june, pninterefting, and uninftruftive* It is alfo by no 
means free 'fronr narrow prejudices, and erroneous opinions* 
This ccnfure m.igUt,bc copfirme^ by numerous . i^iftances, 

* 7V> indeed J>r. Bl^ck himfclf obfcrvcs, in his account of Mo« 
dem 5^u»'£ery. 

Eno, Rsv. VoLI. April 1753. K -kit 

306 Bfeck^s Uiftorical Shtch of M$ii€int and Surgerj. 

but that wc may' not be too prolix, we (hdl cotifinc onr* 
felves to a few ftriftures on one of the moft important medi- 
cal topics, we mean, the' Theory of Medicine. ** Yoting 
Students, it is faid, are too frequently mifled and abufea 
by fyftems of turgid fophiftry. They find themfelves in a 
fituation fqmewhat fimilar to the traveller, who inr a dark 
night has been led aftray by an ignis fatuus, but on tlic 
dawn of light perceives he* has wandered aftray : they rcfolvc 
to unlearn and caft away a great part of that fpecious non* 
ienfe, garnifhcd with the name of theory, and to confider 
thofe oracled, whether writers or lefturers, by whom they 
had been mifled, either as ingenuous romancers, t)r perhaps, 
a few, as felf-interefted cheats and impudent impoftors." la 
the fame ftrain of pointed contempt, he every where fpeaks 
of theoretical fpeculations, and ftrongly intimates that thejr 
are to be numbered among the moft unprofitable, and ab- 
furd employments of the human mind. Such fentiments 
are not peculiar to our Author, they are very prevalent a- 
mong the fupcrficial thinkers of the ptefent day. But it is 
not difficult to prove, that they are not only erroneous, bujt 
kad to pernicious confequenccs. There are few difeafes for 
which fpccifics have yet been difcovered : now, in all dif- 
eafes for which there are not fpecifics, the praAicc of the 
phyfician, unlefs he prefcribes at random^ muft be influ- 
enced by.tlaepry, that is to fay, he will form to himfelf cer- 
tain notions with refpeft to the nature of the morbid alte- 
ration that has t^ken place 4n the fyfbsm ; and he will, of 
courfe, endeavour to oppofe its progrcfs by Aiitable reine^? 
dies, concerning the aaion of wlnich, h« will alfo form cer- 
tain conjeftures. Hence, not only tlie cxptdicncy, but the 
abfolutc neccffity of cultivating the theory of raediciue, ap-r 
pears evident. Every praftitioner inuft have^a theory, good 
or bad. In fupport of this a{Iertion,,we may appeal to thoie. 
who are thougUt by many to be pure praftical writers, fuch^ 
for inftancc, as Sydenham. The whole of hirs writings, 
and in particular his obfervations on the dropfy, fhew, that 
his pradicc was on all occafipns direfted by theory. 

The language of this performance is ftfU lefs unexception-' 
able than the^iarration and opinions. Every dc£eft of ftyJc 
might perhaps be exemplified -from it. The following arc 
a few of tl>e numberlefs fpcciAjtens of vulgarifros, mifappUed 
epithets, and grammatical blunders, ** Apothecaries arc 
flefti and Wood, they have moutl>s to eat." '* It was fuffi- 
cient, to ruffle the tc;pper of Job." ** To deprefs or ruffle 
the paffions.". ** To difturb the pulfations of the pulfe."" 
'* Garfick eat he recommended as efFeftual,'* &c. ** The 
M^^omctan Moors wjre routed (we /"pppfe for rooted ckif; 

. - ^ "or 

Saunders'^ Obfervations on the Red Peruvian Bark. ^J 

or exterminated) from Spain." ** He ordered nothing cold 
to be eat nor drank." . ** Every vcftige were obJiterated." 
** With the expuliion of whom at the ?nd of the laft cen- 
tury, this royal impoiition is laid afide." ** He who would 
undertake to execute this arduous izfk compieat,** ** Inge- 
nuous (for ingenious) romancers." The Author calls Buf- 
fon '• a fyftematic writer." If he had taken up Dr. John- 
fon's Di£tionary with a determination to u/e the firft epithet 
that fhould occur^ chance could not have prefented to^ him 
another fo improper to be added to the name of this grear 
enemy and decrier of all fyftem and method. 

From the whole of what has been faid, the Reader, will 
readily colleft, that litrlc of this performance rifes above 
mediocrity, and much falls, below it. l^o the work is an- 
nexed a chart of medical authors. . 

Art. VII, Ohfervatiom on the fuperlor Ejfftcavy of the Retl PiTwv'ian 
JBarky in the Cure of Agues atid other Severs, Interfpcifcd with 
€)ccalional Remarks 6n the Treatment of other Difordcrs by the 
fame Remedy. Third Edition, with contidcrable Additions* and 
an Appendix, containing a more particular Accounc of its Na- 
tural Hiftory. By W. Saunders, M. D. F. S. A. 8vo. is. 6d. 
fcwed. Johnfon. 

fT^HESE Obfervations may perhaps be confidered as not 
I jproperly falling under- our notice, for two reafons, 
fim, becaufe their date is prior to that of our Review, r nd 
fecondly, becaufe it appears from the title-page of the pre- 
fent edition, that they muft have beeii very generally dif- 
fiifed ; but works of extraordinary utility are entitled to ex- 
traordinary diftinftion, and it may very poffibly happen 
that our publication may make the work in queftion known 
to praftioners, whom fituation or accident, might otherwifc 
have prevented from obtaining notice of it. 
' Dr. Saunders thinks it highly probable, if not abfolutely 
certain, that the Red Bark is the bark of the larger branches 
of the Cinchona Offlcinalis. Its fenfible qualities, when com- 
pared with thofe of the common Peruvian Bark are, that it is 
m much larger and thicker pieces, that it evidently confifts 
of three diftinft layers, in the middle of which chiefly re- 
fides its refinons part, which is extremely brittle, and 
contains more inflammable matter than any other kind of ^ 
Bark. The entire piece alfo breaks in that brittle manner 
which has been defcribed by writers, as a proof of the fupe- 
rior excellence of the Bark. The middle layer is not eafi- 
ly reducible to powder. The flavour is evidently more a- 
romatic and bitter than that of the quill Bark. 

The comparative qualities which experiment detefts, are, 

X 2 that 

tfairt it is mtTt foloble than the Peravsm Bkk| botji Srt 
waiter %nA fptrit-^tlist it contamt more re6iioiis ^rt$— « 
that it<r iAi?e mrft, even When greatly dilated, retain their 
lenfibie qualities in a highef degme fli^n the moft fatots^ 
fblutions of common BaErk— tt«r it doei not widergo the 
&fne doGomfyolitMA of its fnrts by boiling-— that at is anore 
aftringeiYt — and that its antnc^trc powsers are greater. The 
inoft hnportant quaHty« t^^. txn anmonaoea in the title* 
aopears to be proved beyond cowiroverfy, by tfce Aitflxor's 
eofervatiohs, afrd the concurrent teftiikiony of maoy refpcA^ 
jtble praditionen. But the tcAate abore-mentiontid^ 
thou^ they have aot indiked us to overlook this treadfe 
altogether, neftratn us however from enterhig into a fnS de^ 
tail of its contents • Hie oi^ objedion which captkHifiitft 
itfelf can, in our opinion, ftart agamft tbefe Ohfervaekmfi^ 
is,, that the Author might iiave curtailed the accounts fur- 
iiifhed by his correfpondeats, which» as they cofvtain a re* 
petition of the fame pybpofitions, are tedious without being 
mflruAive. . But there is a remark of Dr. Saunders, which, 
at the fame time that it affords a fatisfa£^ory repl^ tb this 
«bjcaioa, is io applicable to medical obfervations m gene- 
ral, that we camiiot clofe this brief iuticle better 'diaa by 
tranfcribrng it. 

' Being h^hl)( finfible of the dlftcuhy oFcihibUtfiingiMi hA^ 
either on the efiedh of remedies, or on any branch of medidkie 
which regards the amiinal oecouomy, Iliavr folicited the optnioo-of 
many ingenious asd attentive praaitionert, wboy from Their finia* 
lion, liave liad frequent opportumtio» of tcyitsg the Red Bark. 
This caution appeafied the more ucccfitrry, bccanfe I wm wtll ^per- 
funded, that the love of novoky, and too great a arediirlity in m^ 
idicting fa^ on very doubtAil authorities, have corrupted mediciitt 
more than any -other icieiic«, and prored more tniunoas than- the 
mod abfurd and iuiciful theories, thexrrors of ^hich wet eoiily dc* 


Art. V1I1. Travels in the T^vq Sicilies. By Henry Swinbumer 
E(q. In the Years 1777, 1778, 1779, and 17B0. Vol. I. ^»^ 
1 1, is; boards. Elmily. 

• 'THHERE is not any (jpccies of literary cottipofitipn thar 
X furnifhes fi> agreeable and enchanting an amufementf 
as Voyages and Travels^ Interefting fcenes of nature, and-oF 
human life and manners, and thefe fliifting in quick fuc- 
ceflion, form the moft delightful prfturc that can be con- 
ceived to the mind of man, vrhicn cannot remain untouch-^ 
ed by the fituations of his fellow-men, or by the various- 
appearances of creatioir, v/hen they are defcriDcd with that 
fe&iibillty and infedibus fympa'thy^ which fo naturally 


fimftdt &om breaft ta ht^A^ w»i. dfftitqpiiibea works of fe^t 
nta& from doll g^izettes, aod contenptible xmtattioms of «p« 
fxroved writers. The writers of Tnwds m thft pc^^ent 
tames^ arcr intiumet^le. But &w» if any of tfaeai, equal 
thv vartetjr, tlic novelty^ and the boM aad interefting de-* 
fi:ription» that we fiod in die travettert of the filYeentb, th^ 
lixteenth^ the firventcenth, aad d^ earty part of the prefent 
century. The (Dore ilnkio^ani obvious ftsi^rea of utuft 
being ab^eady defcribed, a ttmidand coM genius paflls ovet 
whsft is tnoft beautiful and fublime in il^ rt^os wliidi 
forBis the fubjed of ms obferratipiiSy and pries tata the ob^ 
fcttre and negtefled cocoerst whjch the noQle career of gc^ 
nius kaves as gleanings to the hand of laboripus isdufby; 
.Yet, die operadoiis of nature^ whether in tlie «toralv orphy*^ 
fical woria, are ib various and hard to bt comprehended^ and 
hei features are fo majeftic and affefting, that afubHmeandl 
feeli^^ wkni can ne\xr want a fit fubie^ ^ « majeftic anA 
aff^ftiDg narrative and detcriptioa. Had a thou&nd Rapbatk 
And Michel Jnf^doi lived at the fame time, we might hai^ 
-ftod z tfaottfand difietent laftures of the fuUc^ cdebrated 
by diole gieat anifls^ ana all of them fo difierentfrom one 
another^ as to be conteovplated ta fiacoaflioa wkhout diff 
gufl,' and with freifa del^ht. 

The apology, tfaeiefose, which fo many traveliers make 
far the cbyneu and unimportance of their narrations, that 
tbs gprottfid orer which they pa{s has been oftoa trod befofe 
and tticdy enaoamedt can never be the apology of genius; 
Geniott ne^ier complains of the kkfome neceinty of treadl- 
ing in the fbocC^ps of preceding Avtfaots : but eidier finds 
fcmedun^ affefting that has cmped their penetrarion, or 
by the vig^our of imagination gives a sevelfey of appears 
^ncetoob^fts afarady generally known, and well deKnrib- 
cd. ^ 

In tbe Tnivels of Mr. Swinhurae, we find not any marks 
of fuch exalce4 powers. Yet he is weii indtied to the ptai& 
of an accurate, judicious and learned obferver, and in fome 
loftanees, to 'thatt of an agreeable anil interefting writer/ 
li, in the greater part of bis woiic, he is contented witk 
tbe ^dsfaAory dryiiefii of an authentic Gazette, fae deferve^ 
however infinitely better of the republic of letters than 
ihofe frivolous trai^llers, whole ambtdon it is to emulate 
jlhe idle pcatde of a fpri^hdy morning paper, who inter* 
weave athoufand pleafing impoftures with half a dozen real 
fkA&, and who enrich their barren defcriptions from printed 

Tlie fcene of Swinburne's travels is a corner of the world, 
w)^^ hM ^%i> attr^ed the attention of mankind by its 

% 3 moralt 

jro Swinburne's Travels in the Two SialiiS. 

moral, political, and phylical revolutions, and never more 
than at this moment, when the great agents of nature, fire 
ind water, have operated a confidcrable change on the face 
pf this part of the globe, and interefted the world in the 
incxpreflible fufFerings of thoufands of unhappy mortals. 
The Reader perceives thit it is the fouthern parts of Italy 
to which we allude, where the elements ferment with more 
Aan ordinary violence, and where changes in Government 
have fucceeded each other with uncommon rapidity. In 
this fcene the face of things has been fo much altered in the 
courfe of fieventcenccnturies, that the defcriptions given by 
•he antient claflics, can feldom interfere with thofe of a 
modem writer. ** The later Italian and Latin Authors^ 
as Mr. Swinburne obferves^ are but little known or read 
in England, and moft of them are rather difcuflcrs of de- 
tached points of hiftory and geography, than general cir- 
cumamoulatpry obfervers. They were too little acquainted 
With the laws and cuftoms of foreign nations to be able to 
form juft criticifms upon thofe of their own country ; and 
apvithout fome folid grounds for comparifon, a writer will 
bewilder himfelf in his reafonings, and betray in each page, 
that he is blinded and mifled by ignorance and vanity." 

The Authors who have treated of Mr. Swinburne's fub- 
jeft being thus either little known, -or greatly deficient in 
point of knowledge and extent of oljfervation, he ought not 
to complain, as he has done, ** of the unpromiiing circum- 
y fiance of paffing over ground, often and nicely examined," 

His route is frdh land, and opens a full career for the views 
of learning and genius. In the work ninder ' review, wc 
every where meet with proofs of the- former of thcfe : but 
feldom with any of the latter. 

From page thirty to forty we are entertained with a 
very curious defcription of the ifland of Elba, known to 
the Greeks by the name of Aithalia, and to the Romans by 
that of Ilva, and renownrd for its mines from aperiodbe^ 
yond the reach of hiftory. 

From page fixty to fcventy tl^e Reader is entertained with 
a very plcaiing defcription of Neapolitan manners and 
culloms, and particularly of the Laxarones, or lowed clafs of 
the people, who in the delicious and benign climate of 
Naples, make a fhiftto live, not uncomfortably, under all the 
difadvantages of a dcfpotic Government, without houfes, 
witli meagre cloathing, and almoft without any labour. 

* The filhcrmcn of Santa Lucia arc the handfomeft men m Naples ; 
they have the true old Grecian features, and fuch well proportion- 
ed limbs, that they might ferve for models in any academy of dc« 
lign : they are the moft fubftantial and bcft lodged portion of thcNc^- 


ipolitah populace. It is true, as mod writers aflcrt, that 'the houfe- 
-room of this metropolis is very inadequate to the population, which^ 
according to authentic accounts, amounted, at thcclofe of the year 
f 776, to three hundred and fifty thoufand ^xty-one fouls 5 ^nd thac 
numbers of thefeare deftitute of houft and property. But it is not 
^ually a fa<f>, as they allerr, that winter and fumnftr thefe houfe^ 
lefs inhabitants pafs their lives in the open air, and flcep in all wear 
fhers in the ftreets. fn fumnier it is very pleafant fo to do, but in 
winter not even a do^coold bear the inclemency of the wcaVher, not 
lb much on accoimt of cold, as of wet. When the rainy feafon'fett 
in, it commonly lafts feveral fucceffivc weeks, /ailing, not in fpck 
fhowcrs ae we are acquainted with in England, where we have rain 
hiore or lefs every month in the year, but by pailfuls, an abfolut* 
water-fpout, that carries all before it, and almoft drowns 'the ua* 
fortunate paflenger who is cnwght out of doors by the ftorm. The 
qiMintky of rain at Naples is much more confidcrabk than that 
which falls on the fame fpace of ground in England. Whole 
months of drought are compenfated by the deluge of a day : an4 
beiides, the fouth winds arc frequently fo boifterous in winter, M 
to burft open the bohs of both doors and windows. At that rainy 
Time of the year, few are fo wretched and helplefs as to lie in the 
ftreet, but moft of the vagrants refort to the caves under Capodt 
Monte, where they deep m crowds like Qteep in a pinfold. As they 
are thus provided with a dwelling, for which noret^t is exai^cd, they 
uMb procure food without the trouble of cooking 01: keeping houfet 
the markets and principal ftreets are lined with ieHers of macaroni^ 
fried and boiled nfli, puddings, cakes, and vegetables of all forts j 
where, for a very fmall fum, whic4i he may earn by a little labour^ 
running of en*ands, or picking of pockets, the lazaro finds a ready 
tneal at all hours : the flaggon hanging out at every corner invito 
•fiim to quench his third with wine ; or if he prefers watcr^ as moft o£ 
them do, there are Halls in all the thoroughfares, where lemonade 
And iced water are fold. The pafiion for iced water is fo great and 
fo general at Naples, that none but mere beggars will drink it in ita 
natural ftate : and, f believe, that a fcarcity of bread would not be 
more fevercly felt than a failure of fnow- It h brought in boati 
jc very morning from the mouatains behind Caftelamarc, aad isfarnv- 
cd out at a great rent ; the Jefuits, who poflefled a large Capital, 
'as well at the true fpirit of cnterprize, had puchafed the exclufive 
privilege of fupplying the city with it. 

* Very little fuffices to clothe the lazaro, c^ttept oil holidays; 
" -Jind then he is indeed tawdrily decked out, whh laced jacket and 
^amie-colouredftockings: his buckles are of ehormdus marnitudc, and 
ifem to be the prototype of thoie with which our prefcnt men of mode 
load their infleps. The women are alfo very fplendid on thofeaaysof 
ihew; but their hair is Ihen bound in tiffue caps and fcarlet nets, 
'« faftiion much lefs becoming than their every day fimple inethod. 
.Citizens and lawyers are plain enough in their apparel, but the 
^male part of their family vies with the firft court ladies in expen- 
£ve drefs, and all the vanities of mod iib fopperies* Luxury has of 
iate advanced with gigantic ftrides in Naples. Farty years ago, 
<^he Neapol^an ladles wore nett and ribboas 00 their heads, as the 

X 4 Spajaifb 

SteBiili wwneii do to thu i^^ mud poc twenty of cImw went polMt 
•B of a cap : but hair plainly dreft la a mode now confined to tM 
loweft order of iahabitaDtt, and all diiHn<5tion of dreft between th^ 
wife of a Boblanan and that of a citiaen is now entirely laid afidob 
Ezpence and extravi^anca art here in the extrerne* The great &> 
mihet are oppreA witn a kMwi of debt i the working part of the com* 
SHUiity always fpend the price of their labour before they receiva 
it : and the oitiaen is reduced to great pariimony, and almoli peaiK 
ryt in hit houfekeepiog, in order to anfwer thePr demands of ezterr 
Hal fliew : fliort commons at home whet his appetite when invited 
out .to dinner ; and it is fcarce credible what quantities of visuals 
ht will devour. The nobilitjr in general are well ferved, and livt 
con^fortably, but it is npt their cuitora to admit Grangers to tbdr 
table ; the number of poor dependents who dine with them^ and 
cannot properl]^ be* introduced into company, prevents the great 
fcmilies from inviting ibreigners : anothier reafon may be, tketr 
Seeping after dinner in (b regular a manner as to undrefs and go to 
Wd : no ladies or g(mtkmeo finidi thdir toilet till the afremoo«» 
#B which account the<f dine at twelve or one oVlock. The great 
officers of (late, and iBuiifters, live in a different manner, ai>d keep 
Vimptuqus tables, to which ilraogen and others have frequent iov^ 

* The ei>abli(hment of a Neapolitan grandee's houihold is upon t 
▼cry cxpeo0ve plan ; the number of fervants, carriages, and horiea 
Wbuld fuflScc for a fovercien prmcc ; and ■ the wardrobe of thdr 
flrivfi is formed upon the fame magniticeut fcale ; yet it is a iatfi 
fiile,"that all ladies whatever, be the circumi^ances of their huifaands 
affluent or circunrfcribed, have an hundred ducats a nionthf and no 
more, allowed them for pin money. At Che birth of every chtld^ 
the huihaad makes his wife a prefeot ot an hundred ounces, and 
feme raluaUe trinkets, according to his fortune. Marriage poi^^ 
tipBS are WA very great in general ; it does not coft a nobleman 
Aiore to mafry hia daughter than it does to msdce her a nun ; fc^ a 
tfioufand pounds will not defray the expence of the ceremonies at her 
reception and profeffion : fhe muft have a penfion fettled upon her^ 
and reserves, beirdes, a power over her inheritance, in cafe (he (hall 
trrive at any dignity in the convent, and wUh t6 enrich it with 
kuildingSf plate, or veibnents* 

* Servants aad artificers of the city give from fifty to an hundrW 
ducats^with their daughters ; peal^uts and country workmen go aa 
Ur afe thrre hundfcd. Females at and near Naples are efleeroed help^ 
lais and indolent, and therefore have always twice or thri«8 aa 
nuch fortune as their brothers, who have greater refburcel in their 
ftrength and a^Uvitv. A girl would fcarce get a huftiand, if bar 
lover did Hot exne^ to be reimburfed by her portion the fum he had 
j^id away with his own fiflers. In the plains, it is cadomary (6f 
t peafant, on the birth of a daughter, to plane a row of poplar 
trees, which are cut dowd and fold at the end of ieventeen yea^ 
to n»ake up a fortune for her. The proverbial benedi^on of 
figlj mmfchi^ Male children, which a Neapolitan gives a womaft 
when (lie fneeoel, is founded on th« great facility with which tha 
common people provide for fhek torn \ as foon a< they can run a» 

'"•••' • bout 

\0fm tbejr art able 10 earn tbeir bread* while thtir (ifien remaia idk 
at .bomcy or beg Hil they are old enough to attra^ the notice of t&^ 
men.' ^ 

In dlifttieftt J>art6 of this voltitoe, we hawc an accotrntof 
various pem^ins of ancient manners, cuftocns, fafhionSf o* 

S'nions, and even of the contour of the ancient Grecian and 
omaH: features. From page 132 to 135 we raeet with. fevc« 
tal curious conjedures coACemiAg the origin of Italy, which 
feme hare afcribcd ta fire, others^ ta water* From page 16^ 
to 173 there is an accurate and ingenicyus account of the fidd 
«f battte, and the a£kion itfclf, at Cann*. In page 180 Mr* 
Swinburne prefefrts its with art amtifing rcprefemation of the 
th^arful mmners of the inhabitants o/Ttaui. 

From page ^^% to the end of the volume, amon^ man^ 
obfervatiorts of little importance to any perfon who is laot 4 

Iwok&i virtubfd. We find entertaining anecdotes of the co« 
^nies irona Greece that, long before the building of Rom4 
peopled, cultivated and refined the f9iithern part» of Italy i 
the Tarcntincs, the Crotonites, the Sybarites, Stc* ice. 

At page 2 20 We are farprifed with the fo\\om\n% account 
ef E>og-tatefs. 

* Thi» tovvii (meaning Cafalnuovo) contains about four thou* 
bnd iababitantd, noted! ^o^ nothing but their taflt for dors fletht in 
which they hate'nti cbitrpctitots that I know of, except Acir nei^h- 
bodrs at Lecce, aod the tiewiy difcotrered vobptoaries of Ofahelre^ 
We did hot A^ one animal of the canine fpeciei in the flreeis ; and 
woe be to the poor cor that ibllowf Itv maner into this cannibal fet« 
tlement! I could not prevail upon my condudf^r to own whether 
they had any ftock of puppies, a% of (heep ; or took any pains, by 
tallration or partic'trlar food, to fatten and fwceten the dainty ht* 
fere they brought it to their fliambles. I have fince Drocured fome 
iflformation on the fubjed from impartial perfons,' and find thAt th^ 
people of this neighbourhood are looked ujxm by the reft 6f thd 
xi^doin as dog-eaters ; and that it is certam that, both at Lctct 
ama Cafalmiovo, many of the lower fort relifh a Hice of a well fed 
^ur. At both places tanners kidnap do^, and tan their hides into 
mxL irtiftation of TilrkeyJeathcr, with which they fupply the getxtle* 
tten of the nei€:hbouriftg cities, who arc their flippers. 'Thta 
dbraiand for falfe Motoccv) occafions the flaughter Qi many dogs, and 
nodotrbt the cuilom 6i eating their 4e(h began among the needy tan* 
ne^ ! huftg^r and experience h^vt taught their countrymen to con& 
Aer t&e dilbovery as a very bo^ieficial oAt. At Bari ana Francari^l^ 
korfe-fiefh is (aid ta be publicly fold in |he mariiet ; aod the tail le^ 
€>o, (o ihew the wretchbd pui^haiets what beail tbt; roeiit belonged 
tfy0 The wits among the populace Bickliamc tbeib ih^mblc borfet 
Cmprto ferrttta, i. c. a ihod Deer.* 

From page 2S0 to 290 the £nzli(h Reader is moved with 
indignation at the Dppreifion of the Calabriaa fian>as, with 
|;ompaj£on for the mi&ry of thtir taums, aad with thank* 


|I4 Swinburnc^s Travib in the Txvo SicHiei. 

tiilncfs to Providence when he compares his own fituation 
with theirs. 

* At Roieto, which i8 but a poor place, I was very hofpitably re- 
ceived by a pried. The old man plied me with many queilions 
concerning Naples, England, and America; and, in return for my 
teadinefs m gratifying his curiofity, entered with great good fenle 
into a detail of the manners and cuffoms of his own country, and 
informed me of many paiticuUrs I was an entire Granger to. 1 
learned from him, that population is daily decreafing within the 
circle of his knowledge, from many caufes anting out of the general 
government of the kingdom, of which he acknowledged himfelf an 

.jncompetent judge ; and alfo, from many others that were within 
his fphere, and were daily felt by him. He attributed, but mc- 
thinks without fufficient grounds, this progrefs of depopulation to 
thecuftom follofwed by the Calabrians, of never marrying beyond the 
limits of their Own townfliip, which he thought perpetuated defc^ 
anddiforders among them, and from a want of proptr crofles in the 
breed, ended in barrehnefs and the extin6Hon of families. By thefe 
means all the peafantt of;a village are nearly related. The marriage 
portion of a girl depends upon the wealth and numbers of the family, 
und generally -con fills of a piece of vineyard, or a (ingle fruit tree, 
among which the mulberry holds the firil rank for honour aad 
profit. ... 

* The common mode of letting farms of baronial or ecclefiafiical 
eflates throughout Calabria, is by a leafe of two years, with many 
claufes and reAri<^ions. Proprietors of land of plebeian rank extend 
the term to fix years, and allow the tenant the liberty of cutting a 

dipulated quantity of wood, on condition of his fencing ofifan equal 
portion to ipring up again. 

The Barons are in general veiy far from confidering themfelves 
as the protedors, the politi(;al fathers of their vaflals, but encroach 
ifo much on the commons and the cultivated grounds, for the fake 
of extending their chace, that the peafants have neither room nor 
opportunity to raife fufficient food for their fupport ; they therefore 
fly to the mendicant and other orders of friars, and take the religt* 
pus habit to procure a fubGfience. The father of a family, when 
preiTed for the payment of taxes, and finking beneath the load of 
nunger and difircfs, *va alia moniagna^ that is, retires to the woods, 
where he meets with fellow-fuffcrers, turns fmuggler, and becomes 
by degrees an outlaw, a robber, and an afiaflin.* 

Thefc arc the portions of this book which appear to us fit- 
ted to afFord general entertainment. There arc others, 
which, though oy no means generally interefting, yet will 
yield both amufement and ufeful inftruAion to a certain clafs 
of Readers. Such are Mr. Swinburne's account of the na- 
tural. produAions of Naples, its exports and imports, his 
obfervations and anecdotes concerning the agriculture of the 
Neopolitans, and the culture of the famous Puglian wooL 

We come now to. the moft difagrceable part of our talk, 
which is, to initnadvert upon a very coiifiderable portion of 
this publication, which is neither amufing nor ufeful, and 


Stvimmme's Travels in the Tw0 Sicilies. 315 

^hich, in otir opinion, betrays a want of tafte aud judg- 

- The genealogical table of the fovercigns of the Two Sici- 
lies ; the very minute geographical view of the kingdom of 
Naples, which confifts wholly of an infinite number of 
proper, aiid for the raoft part unknown names. The 
chronicle, or what Mr. Swinburne calls a {hort Iketch of 
the hiftorv of the kingdom of Naples ; his details concern- 
ing the Darbarians who over-ran, and fucceeded each other 
on the thrones of the different principalities of Italy : thcfc, 
notwithftanding Mr. Swinburne's apology, appear to us 
wholly unintercfting to all perfons, who are not Neapoli- 
tans, and indeed only injerefting to a very few of them, 
Mr. Hume the hiftorian hurries over the period of the hep^ 
tarchy'y and cncojuragtt. his Reader under this difagreeablc 
taik with the profpcS of fpeedily conducing him from a fc- 
ries of b;lttles, which Milton compares to the Ikirmifhes of 
kites and crows, to fcenes that will afford both entertainment 
and inftruftion. Mr. Swinburne, without any neceiiity or 
■propriety fatigues his Reader with meagre chronicles, that 
cannot be read either with patience or profit. 

There are alfo in thefe travels many ftories of the credu- 
lity and fuperftitition of monks as well as of the catholic 
laics, with which every common traveller fluffs his diaries ; 
and many defer iptions of places and antiquities, which are 
neither interefling in themfelves, nor form any clofe connec- 
tion with objefts that are. 

Refpefting the ftile of this publication, although it is ge- 
nerally perfpicuous as well as nervous, it is not wholly free, 
notwithftanding the profeiCons of the Author in his pre- 
face, from an affeftation of learned phrafes zwA founding words. 
Of this kind are the viords el rcumambulatory^ cupidity ^ exhauf* 
tiortf catacMffm for deluge or inundation, veterinarian^ precocity^ 
with a few others. 

On the whole, however, the learning, and the accuracy 
of this Author merit confiderable praife : and of his work it 
may be faid in general, that it is more fitted to gratify curio-'^ 
fity," than toamufc the imagination, or intereft tiie paffions. 


gli M. Dooket^s Curt $f A$ Ihnrpand P^mr. 

AtT. IX. A Opimhmiiv^ (iy mrdtr ^f Gn m ^a mtmi^ tfmm , 

cancer niitg a Meth0d pr^^ifed ly the latt M. Dntlat^ in tbt Cmn tf 
M Dlfis^ ittc'tiknt $0 Lfiag-im W9men^ caOid tlm Pmgrftrai Fever, 
Read at a Mecttog of the Royal Society of MediciDe, held at the 
LouTi^ the 6tb of September 1782. Tranilated by N. Hait 
lard» M. D. 8vo* ri. 6a. Murray. . 

// RepifTt muik 1j Order rf Governments Wr. tremjlafed frmm the 
Frtntk* Towhkb areadded, Kotet cootaimng a View of Hie 
Nat«re and Caiite of ebit alarmiBr tnd fetal DHeafr. By 
J, Wbsiehead, t^ 11. DiUy. 

rr^HE Pucrj^ral Fever has of late years enga^ moch of 

I the attention of Medical ^iVriters ; but tneir fucceft in 
finding a fuccefsful mode of treatment has^beea by no means 
proportional to their diCgjnxce in feekinc" it; for it is certain 
that almoft all who have been attacke4 by this difeafe^ havr 
^len vi&ims to it. The method of^cure here recommend* 
ed, aiyl which we are told» has never yet fkiled, is very 
jimple.. It coniifts in giving immediately upon the attacK 
^teen grains of ipecacuanha in two doles» at the interval of 
an hoyr and half» and repeating the fame proce(s next day, 
whether the fymptoms'^ have abated or not ; mould the difeai^ 
continue in the fame ilate» it is to be repeated the third and 
even the fourth day. The tfkSt of the ipecacuanha is kept 
up by a potion compofcd of two ounces of oil of fweet 
almondst one ounce of fynip matfh mallows^ and two 
grains of kermes mineral. 

M. Doulcet was led to this difcovery by mere accident* 
He happened to be prefent when a woman newly brought to 
bed, was attacked by the difeafe. It commenced with vor 
miting. M. Douk^t happily ^izine^ the indication^ pre« 
fcribed the mode of treatment which we have mentioned, 
and with fuccefs. 

The report is in the higheft degree favourable. It is figped 
bv Mrs. de La({bne« Geoffroy, I^rry, Mareduyt, Vic^ 
D'Azyr, Jeanroy, Halle. 

Of the two tranflationsy the latter though by no mean^ 
unexceptionable in point of langua^ is evidentlv the bed. It 
is alfo recommended by feveral pertinent and juaicious notes, 
taken for the moftpart from our Englifh writers on the 
Puerperal Fever. There is however a circumftance in favour 
of Dr. Maillard's tranflation which our duty obliges us to 
notice, and which we doubt not will have its due wei^t 
with the public. It is this; while Dr. Whitehead could 
only dilate his tranflation and preface and notes, into a 
(hillHig {>amphiet, his competitor has had the ingenuity to 
expand his into an eiehteen-penny publication, without th^ 
aid of any of thofe additions. 

AlanJiMi's Prafficml Ohfirvaikns pn Jw^tmUiu fif 

AiT. X. PraBiad O^emfathns 9h jh^^mtuiim^ and the jifur^ntat- 

meni : To wiuch is added* ao Account of the Amputation above 

the Ancle with a FUp: the whole illuftrated by Cafet. By 

Bdward Alanfon^ burgeon to the LWtrpool Infirmary. 8to, 5s. 

* boards. Johnfon. / 

THE new I^hts thfown upon the modern prafticc of 
Surgerr in this ingenious performance, and the im^ 
portance of the improvements fuggefted in it, with refpe£l 
to an ojperation, unfortunately too conunon, and which 
cv^ the leaft ikiUul furgeon thinks hirafelf qualified to j>cr- 
form, cannot but recommend it to the ferious attention oJP 
every praftitioner, anxious for the advancement, as well as 
the dignity of his art. 

The three points in whidi otnr Author profeflfes to differ 
from d^e eftahiifhed mode df praftice, are in the application 
of the tape, -the quantitjr of tkln faved, and the mannet of 
<executin|; the double incifion. 

The firtt Chapter treats of the firft of thefe articles. Mrl 
l^lahfon after having quoted the opinions of fome eminent 
writers, who have propofcd the u(e of the tape, or circular 
band, previous to the firft incHion, .gives his rcafons for 
rejeAing it. This tape hath indeed always appeared to us as 
fuperfluous ; for if it be ufed as a guide to the knife, it is 
certainly totally unneceflary, fincc we have always obferved, 
<hat behde the prolonging of the opration, it frequently came 
m the way of the operator's lecond incifion, and was therefore 
•rather an -eml^arramnent than an afiiftance to him. If it be 
fifed as at^t band, to cive a firmnefs and compaAnefs to 
the mufcles, which in lubjefts who undergo amputation, 
are often loofe and flabby, and which appears to us the oriiy 
rational principle upon which itTias'been prafttfed, this end, 
as Mr. Alanfon judicioufly dbferves, may be arifwered as 
well if not better, by an ajfifiant grafping the Jimb circularly 
with both hofids^ ana firmly drawing the Jkin and tnufcles up^ 
wards. We therefore perfeftiy agree with him in rejefting 
the tape as unneceflary; and indeed, notwithftanding tli^ 

Seat authorities that have recommended it, there are many 
i;geon$ in this town Who have totally laid it afide for manv 
years paft, and others whom we iecolle£t never to have 
nfcdit. . ^ 

The next Chapter treats x>f the double incifion, and fug- 
gcfts a new proceis to te purfued after the Ikin and adipous 
membrane are cut througn, or in other words after the firft 
incifion is made, before you proceed to the fecond inci- 
fion, or to the cutting through of the mufcles. This re- 
fers to the fecond point ipentioned, in which the Author 
aijfFcrs from others, via. the quantity df flcin faved. This 


jxt Alanfon*s Tra&lcal Obfervatlons ofi Jmputatloh* 

IS done, in the Author's own words, -hyfeparating the cellulaf 
and llgamtntous attachments with the point of your knife y till as 
much flan is drawn upy as will with the united affiflance of the 
particular divifion of the mufcles hereafter recGmmended^ f^^^ 
cover the whole furf ace of the wound with . the mofl perfeii eafe^ 
Although Mr. Alanfon's ftylebe in general, finiple, clear, anJ 
cafy,as that of a man of fcicncc ought to be, and although it b^ 
free from thofc grofs inaccuracies and folccifms, with which 
fcveral modern writers in our art, delight to embclHlh their 
pages, yet we could have wifhed that he had defcribed 
this .material part of his , operation more' fully and with 
•greater prccifion. It confij^s, after the fijrft circular incifioni 
is made, as we ju<^e from feeing the operation performed in 
Mr. Alanfon's way in town, m diffefting and feparating 
with your knife, (why the point of it only,) the llcin and 
adipous membrane all round the limb, from their attachment 
to the fubjacent mufcles, and in continuing this feparation 
up the limb, till you judge from your eye that a portion of 
Ikinand adipous membrane (hall be detached fufficient to cover 
fully the whole furface of the fubfequent flump. 

The third point, in which Mr. Alanfon judici- 
oufly differs from others, is the direftion of the fecond in- 
cifion, through the mufcles, which however in Mr. Alan- 
fon's mode of operating, may with greater propriety be 
called the third incifion. He objefts, and with much reafon, 
to the diredion given of dividing the mufcles in a circular 
and perpendicular manner down to the bone. Inftead of 
this, he propofcs to turn the edge of the knife obliquely up- 
wards, and to cut through the fubjacent mufcles in that 
fame oblique direftion, by which the bone will be laid 
bare about three or four fingers breadth higher than is ufually 

By this oblique divifion of the mufcles, the ftump will 
form a kind^ of conical cavity, the apex of which will be 
upwards at the point where the bone is fawed off, and the 
bafis downwards. This mode of dividing tlie parts is par- 
ticularly advantageous irt amputations of the thigh, where 
difagreeablc projections of the bone often make their ap- 
pearance, and is certainly ^^ calculated to prevent what is 
called afugar loaf flump. 

The third Chapter treats of the ligature of the arteries. 
The Author reprobates the' praftice of including the neive 
in the ligature, and advifes the ufe of thfe tenaculum firft 
recommended by Mr. Bromfield. Of whatever ^onfequencc 
thi« may be fuppofcd to be Jn other modes of operating, 
it becomes more particularly ufeful to attend to it in Mr. 


In die fecond Part of his work, Mr: A]tnfond^feribeii-th« 
After-treatment. The improvements our Author hath made 
in this branch of our art, appear to us to be the moft im« 
^ortantand ufeful of any he has propofed, inafmuch ^s they 
tend to the'' improvement of other operations as well as the 
one in queftjon, and to the improvement of furgery in ge- 
neral. The reafoning^upon them is clear and convincing, 
and the arguments, well fupportcd by fafts, imanfwerable. 
We ll^all give a Ihort account of them. Firft, he draws the 
fkin forward, and fixes it there by a circular bandage at the 
time of the operation. In thw indeed, notwithftanding a 
contrary praftice be advifed by fome other writers, he is not 
lingular: but in fubftituting a flannel to a linen roller for 
this purpofe,. he is entirely original. It is a praftice we ^;e- 
commend to every one, and their experiehce will foon coii^ 
vince them of its utility. Mr. Alanlon rejefts with great 
propriety the application of dry lint to the (lump, coniider^ 
It as an extraneous body» and often produftive of pain and 
irritatioi;!. And here we cannot but obfervc by the way, 
that it was juft before the middle of this century when the 
indifcriminate application of dry lint to all fair wounds was 
introduced as the fofteft, mildeft, and moft comfortable 
drcfling that could be ufed. This was confidenfed at the time 
as one of the greateft improvements of modern furgery, 
in rendering the praftice of it fimple and eafy. Now we 
fee on the contrary towards the latter end of this* fame cen- 
tury, that the praftice introduced about the middle of it is 
judicioufly and from experience exploded. We ferioufly re-? 
commend all that the Author hath faid updnthis fubjqft to 
attentive confideration. Indeed in Mr. Atanfon's peculiar 
thode, the ufe of dry lint to the fore would fruftratc entirely 
his intention, which is next, to bring the f(^arated ikin 
forwards, and to place it in immediate contaft with the fur- 
face of tlie ftump. He retainsit there by long flips of linen 
or lint, fpread with cerate or any foft ointment, meaning to 
excite the parts by what is called the firft intention, or by 
the adhefive inflammation ; in which it appears from his 
owtt cafte,. and from many refpeftableteftimonies, that fuc- 
cefe has often been obtained. Mr. Alanfon prefers makings 
his line of union betweeen the edges of the fkin rather acroU- 
the face of the ftump, than in the dircftion of its perpen- 
dicular axis. 

The Author concludes his fecond part with fome obferva- 
tions on the air of hofpitals, which as they materially con- 
(;em the |>ublic gqod, and plead the caufe of humanity, wc 
(hall make no apology for tranfcribing. 

* f . No ward ihould be inhabited for naorc than die fpacc of four 
- , • raoaths 

|t^ Akgim^i^fm^mt{Ui/0wVfiMmm 

tftAt ft ocwteodfier^ttied imfa 4tie(kif«l people: thf wtltt tmw 

«M for ibo puri ii cU HK of tW ,air^ t«wrp fbf seiiflvi^C^W >ff 


* 2. The bed^ocU (hovW fee rMe of iroiD, to prei^iit the k>dj- 
Dnenc of vermin* and the more eafy abforprion of patri<i joatter. 

* 3* The bedding fliould be nnire freruiendy dianged, than ^ .ufa- 
illydone; and the bed-ticks Ihifled vrtth chaff, hay, cut flmw or 
euitemlf of 4«oh eafy expettce, at to admit of iMr bttsg frtqiieotly 

* 4. WlkeuB M kifptttl itCQtmnifntly (ksomd #ar the pttnPi^ 
Sti the piMtiepttithat are iMe, Aould $:ariy 91H tNir ^^ddiiig, a»4 
ejq^ It ie ijbe^^pes akf ^M-Averal hoiKa ^e^^cfy da^ wbea j^ )v»ir 
ther will penpiu 

* $. On the dajdjof ndnuffoob thofe |>at}fiixtt that hnyt ukh^bjitei 
foul ihips, jaib^ rel.lart ox ^cretSj jnrorkhoufesy or other infeded 
placetf or whofe doatbt are dirtyt Or /ufpided .to contain rermidy 
before they -are filfered to appear to ilie ward, fliould %r^ ht Aripr 
ped» and waflitd hi the warm bath^ aod aft er wa rdt detbcd mih 
pteper^reifef, pfo^4dcd at Ae eajMAce-of the chatty; by wliiok 
tteaiu alie evVl of imporcing lnied5oii« lb detnaieotal ao the ^nbnty 
«f «vcfy lio^iul would i)e;SKadgr aunodittd^ 

*h. The drcfliw /or the inpuQiay coufift chiefly ^f a dean iX»t% 
jaiokfat, apd tnowfart ; ifor 4he wofnen ja (h&^y jietticoat^ ,ai»d -bed- 
gown«; the jQftft ma^ be (uppUcd from thebr ivku cl])mhia|;» wbich 
will jcafily admit of^Jbebs nrft wcU clejiiied. 

* 2r* Th.e ii^edted clpthes Ihoyld t](e leaked yi -an ,oven ccufflm^MI 
for the pur))Ote; 'by Which dl vermin and inftdion wiH i>e deflroy- 
cd, and the clothes ma^r be rettimed cleai} to the pfiiiefitt,-w4ieii ^cf 
are di^argcd Ae hofpitai* 

'*^« The^tient6 i^en peoemd, onAe dayticf admiffion, iboold 
betplaced iciichc wards, which ha«eAioen bift nendlated* «i^ jMt \m 
cbofei^thaTe^oilongiDbahilpd; v^^t it tiMiy ^leai^bl^ be 
prefiimed, the air is contictcrably^aiotcd. 

*^. JVlLmcurable.or,infe(^tiQU3 c^TeSribopkl ]9ie.r^&iie4.^ixnttaiipe,; 
andamougftrtbcfe flioidd,be clafled .old chvonic ulcers pf the le|3» 
and particularly thofcin which there is a|;reat4ofs of fubftance, for 
thefe feldom remain long healed, hence tndSi hofpitals are fy crpud- 
ed, that the intention ptthj; /charity is perverted!; at the. air n Ten* 
dered unwholcfomc. 

^ ID. All offenfive i^angrenou^, />r other putnid i«rtt,ihftQkl k» 
fSaced in di(lim5t rooms pro^vided ifor tthAt^HMtpofe, and JKn^fuflaM 
to taint a whole ward. 

'* II. There ihoiildbepiirtieiilarrrooimfproTlded^r ihofe pa^Wttt 
who arc the fubje<^s of operations; they flwdld be in the pioft^aiqr 
€tuation; never long inhabited, sxui alterna^Iy ^cleaned an4 v<Hm* 
latcd, as before advifcd. 

* 12. An hofpital Hiould never be crowded on any account, and al* 
Ways of fo large a conllru6tion, that fome part pf the buihlra|^ mvf 
at all times be uninhabited, for the ptiTpoic of \vhxte-wa(hui£, -vettH* 
lation, &c« 

• ij- When 

Akidbtt^i Pra/Hcal Ohfervathns on JmptMttm. *^t 

^ !)• Wben any peifon hai been affli«5ied with a putrid difeafet or 
Confined to bed for a kngth of time, let the bed be emptied, and 
the bed ibckt, the bed, the iheets, and other linen be walhed,- and 
the reft of the b^d clothes, expofed for ibme time in the open air». 
and baked in the oven before thej be ufed ac^ain. 

* 14. Lee the iiurfet< fee tbac e^rery patkni'a hands and face are 
walhed every morning f and their ieet once atyeek. 

* ic« Let the nurfe c£ each ward be iiable to a iine« to be de* 
dnded from her wages, if ibme of tlh: windows in her ward, are net 
kept opeti, during a ftated number of hours every 6iy^ 

" 10. To trcrj infirmary, particularly where the wards aie 
tTWldc&, % houfe in the country well fituated, and ab a convenient 
diilaoce fiioukl appertain; without luch affiftance many of th,e pa* 
Cttfits muft peHAif who would be eaiily and certainly pi^eferved *r smd 
it will be found, (as may without difficulty be demondrated,) the 
beft policy iti the trufieca of ao Infirmaryt to profidc fuch an Ap- 

Mr. Atanfon then proceeds to recommend the Amputa- 

tioQ with a flap above the ande, and adviies the fame in the 

\Am|nitation even of fingers and toes. There is nothing 

particnUrlv new In this part, thongh it contains many ufefal 

pradical oofervatlons upon this mode of operating:^ 

The Writer next gives an account of an Amputation of 
the arm at its articulation with the fcapula^ fuccefsfully per- 
formed ; and takes this opportunity of Introducing fome 
judicious remarks on the exfoliation of cartilages. 

The reft of his book contains chiefly hiftories and cafes 
from many icfpe&able perfons intheprofeflion in fupport of 
his improved method, and concludes with a few obfervations 
tendinff to fliew the utility of his do^rine with refpe£t to 
the di£ardin|;of dry lint^ after other operations, as well as 
after amputation. 

Snch are the various improvements fuggefted in Mr. 
Alanfon's work in the mode of amputating ; and the fubfe^ 

?[uent treatment. Experience muil determine in a matter of 
uch importance, how far his pradice fliould be followed in 
all its i>articulars. The trials made of it in London havb 
1>een frequently, though not always fuceefsful ; aind from the 
accounts we have been able to coHedl, tia fuccefs has beeti 
f more general than the failure. Neither do we venture t6 
afcribe the failure in any particular inftanccs to the mo<fe 
kiclf, or to the principles on which it is founded ; it may de- 
j>end on other, and totally foreign cauies. Be that as it 
may, Mr. Alanfon deferves the warmeft ^anks of the pub- 
lie for his attention and affiduity ; ;and we recommend hk 
book to the perufal of all the protfeflbrs pf the art. 
Eh6.R«v.V61.I. April 1785.. 'Y Art. 

^2i Fcj^ttfon's Ht/iotj oftht Roman ReptbBc. 

AxT. XI. 7 he Hifloryof tb^ Pmgrcfi and Terminaficn pj tbe Romaa 
Republic, By Adam Fergufon, L. L., D. ProfelTor of M>ral 
Philofophy in the Univerfity of Edinburgh. Illuflratcd wito 
Maps. 4to. 3 vols. 2I. I2S. 6cl. boards. CadelL 
(Concluded from our lajl.) 

IN our former .article wc had occafion to mcntkm a defefl 
ill die plan of the work before us ; . and while we conr- 
mendcd the fpirit of philofophy exhibited iy the Author, 
we ventured to cenfurc him for ncglefting to adopt the praci- 
tice of the anticnts, who were fond of putting fpeeches into 
the mouths of great aftors. It now remains for us to coo^ 
dude what wahavc to obfervc concerning thefe volumes. 

Tbe manner of Dr. Fcrgufon is peculiar and his owi^ 
In this refped it has merit ; but we imaghie that he does not 
manage his imagination with fufficieht prudence. His 
march is unequal ; and after periods of brightnefs, there are 
paflag^s which are cold and languid. While he fuftains not, 
an uniform elevation, he often iinks below thehiftoric gran- 
deur. This perhaps may be a confequcnce of inequality of 
temper, and of the extreme length of the tafk in which be 
was engaged. At leaft we arc notdifpofed to impute it to any 
ignorance of compofition, or to an incapacity of attaining 
that art and fkilfulnefs which pradice and habit have com- 
municated to very inferior writers. In works, however, 
which approach to perfeftion, the regular and fupported 
poliih to which we allude is indifpenfably neceflary; and 
It is the province of criticifm to remark imperfections of 
this kind. 

In the great outline of his work, Dr. Fcrgufon Ihcws his 
difcernment ; and he wrote after having meditated upon his 
fubjeft with an anxious care. His labour has been painful^ 
and the guides he has followed were, in general, intelligent 
and faithful. But while antieiit Authors werr, doubtle&, 
the authorities by which he ought to have been ^ireftcd, he 
might yet upon many occaiions have been fuccefs folly affifted 
by what modern writers have coUedled upon his fubjeft ; and 
his want of attention to this aid is a blemifh of a confider- 
able nature. For by this means he would have added both to 
hisfafts and to hte reafonings. It is prudent in Authors of all 
defcriptions to take every poffible help and afliflfantc; and in 
turning over books even o( an indiffer^ht 'charafter, hints 
may be prefenttd which are highly important and ctirious. 
When a man of talents has confulted every record and 
voucher, lie may, indeed, have attended to many writings 
that are prepofterous and ab(Wd, but he has furvcyed every 
thing which it was proper for him to fee; and it maybe 
iaid, that he has obtained a dominion over his fubje^. 


Fc^ufon*s Hifiory p^jhi Roman RepuUk. 323 

One duty, and perhaps, the moft difficult in ahiftorian, u 
to weigh the contending evidence of writcfrs, and lb prcfervc 
hioifelf alike from 4 weak credulity and a didruftful fcepti* 
cifm. In.this refped, we muft commend the prudence of 
our Author; and it has not eicaped our remark, that with 
, regard to the confpiracy of Cataiine, he has very properly 
preferred the authority of Ciceroto that of Sallult. Yet it 
IS worthy of obfervation, that from the writings of Cicero, 
he has not perhaps extraAed ail that was ufeful tipon this oc- 
calion, any more than upon other topics of flill higher 
; moment. 

To pleafe, is the leading obje£t of the common hidorian \ 
"but oiar Author is more inclined to inftruft. For this hi: 
deferves praife, as it has become too falhionable to convert 
hiftory into romance. The agreeable or the graceful hif- 
torian may delight moft generally, but his fame cannot laft 
lon^. He dazzles like a meteor, and is as tranfitory. Tlie 
\ifeful hiftorian on the contrary, rifcs flowly into reputation ; 
but his reputation is founded on a rock, and is as permanent 
as the fads he records. 

In his tranfitions, we do not conceive that our Author is 
always fufficiently artful. The Reader is not uniformly pre- 
parea to pafs from one objeft to another. There thus rc- 
^ts an aoruptnefs, and even a haffhnefs that is difagreeablc^ 
This deficiency in the texture of the piece, gives it an un- 
finifhed afpedt. We glide not pleaiingly alono: npon the 
llream of his narration : Vfst often feel the want of that happy 
art which conneds together circumftanccs and incidents the 
moft oppofite and the moft difcordant. Bat, indeed, few of 
our hiuorical writers have attended to this beauty; and we 
find it not in any coniidenfble degree, in Hume, in Lyttel- 
ton, or in Robertfon. 

With regard to the motives of great aftors. Dr. Fergufon 
hza been remarkably folicitous to unfold them. THis is a 
moft valuable brancn of the hiftoric department. A writer 
Who exhibits only naked fads is a compiler of gazettes or a 
chronicler. He gives us a Ikeleton* from which we are gene- 
rally to turn with difguft. But the hiftorian gives a colour- 
ing, a diftinftion, a charafter to his figures. He enters into 
the minds of his perfonages, opens up the moft fecret fprings 
of their aftion, and xnakes them pals in review before his 
Reader. . 

But though our Author is difcerning in affairs, and pene- 
trates into the principles which governed the celebratecl men 
who adorned the «ra of which he writes the hiftory, yet 
it does not appear that he is perfedly happy in finifhmg 
l^% portijaits or charaAers. \Ve obferve his 9&ox% with 

Vji greater 

f^kxftter delight in hit ntmnion than uriita he Ictt hkkrfelf 
lormally to ptint th^m. The toochcs of hit P^ii ^r^ 3i^^ 
mirable and mafijcrly.^ They ftrike with their Jpirit and like^ 
aefs ; but the pidores are not drawn at full length. There ia 
no trait in the chtraAer of Csfar^ Brutus^ Pompey, Cato» and 
Cicero, which wfe wifh not to dwell upon witti curiofitf^ 
Yet in this we are difappointcd ; and from the little that it 
don^, we are led to regret, that the artift has not done more* 
The example of the antients ought here to hare been foU 
lowed by Dr« Fergiifon. With what freedom and ilcill do 
Livy, Salluft, and Tacitus delmeate perfons of etoinenea 
and coniideration! ' 

What our Author has (aid of Sylla vpon the refignation of 
his power, approaches in oor opinion more iiearly to k re-^ 
gular hiftorkal portrait, than any other d^feription he hai 
attempted of a diftinguifhcc} perionage* 

* Upon theietUTO,fayi he, of the ete^ioilSt SylU wis tgaih deftiflied 
for one of the Confuli ; but he deeKned this piece of flattery, ind di^ 
re<Sled the choice to fall on P, Servilius and Appius Ckiudiiiis. SoeH 
after thefe magif^rates entered on the difchaige of their trud | the 
di6^ator appeared, a^ ufoaU in the ForuiHt anended by twenty-four 
li6h>ri : but, inftead of proceeding to any ^xercile of his powers 
made a formal refignation of it, difnlified hid retinue, and, haying 
declared to the People, that, if any one had any matter of charc^^ 
againft him, he was ready to anfWer it, continued to walk in the 
llreets in the^ character of a private man, aAd afterwards retired to 
his villa near Cumsr, where he extrcifed Umfelf ia huBting*, aad 
other country amuiemenu* 

* This redgnation throws a new light oh the cbira^er of Sylla^ and 
leads to a favourable con (lru6Hou oTfome of the Rioft etceptioaabW 
parts of his condu^. When with the helo of the coomicBt it a€bids» 
we look back to the cdabliiliments he made while in power, they ap* 
pear not to be the a6ts of a deterlnincd ufOrper, but to be ntted for a 
republican government, and for the reftorati'on Of that ordei* whicH 
the violence and corruption of the times had fuibended.. 

* That he was actuated by a violent r^rentment of peribtiaf wrongs 
cannot be quefHoned ; but is A likewife evident, that he felt ott 
proper occafions for the honour and prefervation af his countryi ttf 
the noblcft fenfe of thefe words. In hts firft attick of the cit^ 
with a military force, his anions Oioived, that he meaat to rdfcue the 
republic from tbe ufurpations of Marius, not to ufurp the govern* 
ment himfelf. When he returned into Italy from the Mithridatic 
war, the date of parties already engaged in holHlities, and the vio- 
lence done to the republic by thole who pretendbi to govern it, 
will abundantly juftify his having had recourfe to arms« For the 
mafl^cre which followed, it may be fhocking to fuppofe t^tatthe evilt 
of human life can require fuch a remedy: but the cafe was fingular,i 

*" ♦ Appian, Bclk Civil, lib. i. 


Tefigufok^ FT^ry %ftU Htman litpuUic. ji^ 

-MDoM to difordert which required Tiolent remedies, beyond what 
M knowB in the hiftory of mankind. A populous citjr, the capital 
of « large country, whofe inhabitants (HII pretended to adt in a col- 
le6Hve body, of whom tvtry member would be a mader, none 
woiftld be a fubjolly become the joinc forereigns of many provinces, 
ready to fpum at all the in(HtutioDS which were provided for the 
l^rpofcs of i^ovemmeat over themielves, and at all the priuciplea 
of ju^ce and order which were required to regulate this govern- 
ment of others : where the gangrene fpread in fuch a body, it 
was likely to req^uire the amputation-knife. Men ru(hed into crimes 
in numerous bodies, or were led in powerful fo^ons to any fpecie^ 
of eril which fuited their demagogues. Whatever may have been 
Sylla's choice among the inilrumencs of reformation and cure, it ii 
likely that the fword alone was that on which he could rely ; and he 
uM it like a peribn anxious to e§e^ its purpofe, not to recommend 
llis art to thole on whom it was to be pradtifed. 

* In his capacity of a political reformer, he had to work on the 
^regs of a corrupted republic; and althoueh the tSt6i fell (hort 
of what is afcribed to fabulous legiflators and founders of iVates, yet 
430 none ever were afcribed more tokens *of magnanimity and great- 
nefs of mind* He was fuperior to the reputation even of his own 
fiplendid anions ; and, from iimplicity or difdain, mixed perhaps with 
lAiperflition, not from affected modedv, attributed his iuccefs to the 
erodls of his ?ood fortune and to the favour of the gods. While he 
beftowed on l^mpey the title of Great, he himfelf was content with 
tiiat of Fortunate. He was a man of letters, and paiTed the earlj- 
part of bis life in a mixture of diHipation and fiudy; He wrote his 
own memoirs, or a journal of his life, often quoted by Plutarch, and 
continued it to within a few davs of his death. A work poffibly of 
little elegance, and even taintecl, as we are told, with fuperftition ; 
but more curious furely than many volumes corredied by the labours 
of retired fludy. 

' When tired of his youthful amufements, he fued for the honours 
of the State ; but with fo little appearance of any jealous or impatient 
amlMtion, that, if he had not been impelled by provocations into the 
violent courfe he purfued, it is probable that he would have been 
contented with the ufual career of a profperous Senator ; would have 
difdained to encroach on the rights of his fellow-citizens, as much at 
he reiented the encroachments that were made on his own, and never 
would have been heard of but* on the Rolls of the Confuls, and in 
the record of bis triumphs. But fortune de(line.d him for a part ftiU 
A>ore.4:oofpipuous, and in wliich it may be thought, that, although 
none ever leis fludied the unneceliary appearances of humanity or 
a fcrupulous morality, none ever more cifentially ferved the perfons 
with whom he was conne^ed. 

^ With refpe^ to fuch ^ perfonage, circum fiances of a trivial nature 
become fubjcu^b of attention. His hair and tyt%^ it is faid, were of 
a light colour, his complexion fair, and his countenance blotched. He 
was» by the tnofl |:^obable accounts, lour years old at the time of 
the iedition of Tiberius Gracchus, and feventeen at the death of Caius 
pracchus; fo that he might have perceived at this date the efie^ 

Y 3 , of 

Sa6 Fergufim's Ht/foiy of tbi Hori/im RtpuhUt. 

of tribunman feditions, tnd taken the impreiSooi f[x>m which beided 
againft them. He fenred the office ot Q^eflor under Mariua in 
Africa at thirty-one; was Confut for the firft time at fbrn^-nioe 
or fifty*; was Di^tor at fifty-fix; refigned when turned of fifty- 
eight ; and died yet under fijcty, in the year which followed that of 
his refignation. 

* Thei^e remained in the city, at hiir death, a numerous body of 
new Citizens who bore his name : in the country a dill more numerous 
bcxlyof veteran officer^ and foldiers, who held eftates by bis gift: 
number^ throughout the empire, who owed their fafety to his pro- 
tedHon, and who afcribed the exigence of the commonwealth itielf 
to the exertions of bis great ability and courage : numbers who, aU 
though they were offended with the fevere exercife of his power, 
yet admired the magnanimity of his refignation. 

* When he was no longer an objed of flattery, his corpfe was car- 
ried in procefiion through Italy at the public expence* The fafces* 
and every other enfign of houour, were refiored to' the dead* Above 
two thoufand golden crowns were fabricated in hafie, by order of the 
towns and provinces he had prote^ed, or of the private pcrfons he 
had preferved, to tcftify their veneration for his n)emory. Roman 
matrons, whom it might be expe£led his cruelties uoald have af- 
fc^cd with horror, loft every other fentimeot in that of admiratioti, 

, crowded to his funeral, and heaped the pile with pertumesf • Hit 
obfequies were performed in the Campus Martins. The tomb wat 
marked by his own d;re6tions with the following charaderiflical in- 
fci ipcioQ : *^ Here lies Sylla, who never was outdone in good offices 
** by his friend, nor in acts of hoftility hy his enemy t-" His merit 
or demerit in the principal tranfa£tions of his life may be varioufly 
eflimated. . His having flaiu fo many citizens in cold blood, and 
without any form of law, if we imagine them to have been innocent* 
or if we conceive the rep*jblic to have been in a (hite to allow them 
a trial, muft be confidered as monflrous or criminal in the highed de- 
gree : but if none of thefe fuppofitions "Were juil, if they were 
guilty of the greatefl crimes, and themfelves the authors of that 
lawlcfs (late to which their country was reduced, bis having faved 
the republic from the hands of fuch ruflians, and purged it of tho 
Tiled dreg that ever threatened to poifon a free State, may be coi^ 
fidercd as meritorious. To fatisfy himfelf, who was neither Iblicit- 
ous of praife nor dreaded cenfure, the ilrong impulfe of his owii^ 
mind, guided by indignation and the fenfc of neccmty, was proba- 
bly fumcient. 

As another fpecimen of the abilities of Dr. Fcrgufon, we 
fhall exhibit his account of the death of Brutus. 

* Brutus himfelf being cut off from the camp and dofely followed, 
Lucilius, one of, to give him time to efcape, afie^ng 
to perfonate his general, and falling behind, was taken. This cap- 
tive, fuppofed to be Brutus, the leader of the republican army, being 
conducted to Antony, to whom he was known, met with a recep- 

* Vel. Pater, lib. ii. c. 17. J Appian de 3elK Civ. lib* i. Plu- 

tarch. in Sylla. f Plutarch in Sylla, fine. 


Fcrgufon's Hifiory of the Roman RjtpubUc: ^2 J 

tTon Bot unwonhy of his generous artifice. ** You intended," fuitf 
' Antonv to thofc '.vho brought the prifoner, with a politcnefs whick 
feemfd to refute fome of the impuutions on his chaira6tcr, ** to bring 
** me an enemy, but you have brought me a friend*." 

*' Brutus in the mean time, having io the darV paiTed a brook that 
ran between (leep and rocky banks covered with Wood, made a halr^ 
with a few trieads, on the oppofite lide, as in a place of fafety* 
Being yet uxurertain of the ejctcnt of his loA, ht fc«t an officer to 
obfervc the field, and with orders, if any conlidcrablc body of the 
army were vet together, to light a blaze as a iignal or token of its 
fafcty. TKis officer accordini;ly made his way to the camp, and 
finding it (HH in the pofleflion of his friends, made the fignal ; bu^ 
IcO it fhould not be obferved, he attempted to return to hit general, 
fell into the enemy% hands, and was (lain, 

* As, from the tign^ now made, it appeared to Brutus ond the 
fhiAU company who attended him, that the camp was ftill in pofleffion 
of their own people, they thought of ranking their way thither ; but 
recolicding that the greater part of the army were difpcrfed, they 
doubted whether the lines could be defended until they could reach 
them, or even if they fliould be maintained fo long, whether they 
could furnifh any fafc retreat. While they reaibned in this manner, 
one of their number, who went to the brook for water, returned with 
an alarm that the enemy were upon the oppotlte bank ; and laying, 
with fome agitation, ** We muft flv." ** Yes," replied Brutus, ** but 
** with our hands, not with our feet.*' He u'as then (aid to have 
repeated, from fome poet, a tragic exclamatioD io the character of 
Hercules : O Firtue! I thought thee afuhftance^ hut find th^t no more- 
than am emf*y wame^ or the J}a*o€ of Formats The vulgar, in their 
traditions, willingly lend, their own thoughts lo eminent men itt 
diilrefs ; thofc of Brutus are exprefled in his letter to Atticus alrc:^^y 
quoted : / have dofie my farty and ^vait for the tjjue^ in *voh'ich death 
or freedom is tofollovy. If he had ever thought that a mere honour- 
able intention was toenfure him fuccefs, it is furprifing he was rtot 
fooner undeceived. Being now to end his life, and taking his leave 
of the company then present, one by one, he faid aloud. That he 
was Ijappy ia never havihg been betrayed by any one he had trulUd 
as a friend. Some of them, to whom he afterwards ^Kifpered apart,' 
were obferved to buril into tears ; and it appeared that he requeued 
their adiilance in killing himfelf ; for be foon afterwards eiecuted this 
purpofe in company with one Strato and fome otherS) whom he had 
taken afide. 

* This cataflroph^ as ufual, fct the imaginations of men to work ; 
and many prodigies and prefaces were helievcti to have preceded it. 
A fpedbne, it was faid, had prefented itfelf in the night to Brutus, when 
he was about to pais the Hellefpont, told him it was his evil genius, 
tad was to meet him at Philippi ; that here it accordtngly again 
ajq)eared on the eve of the late afiion.* 

Amidft the other merits of Dr. Fergufon* it is fit that we 
ihould remark, that -lie has <very Where fcattered Uiroughout' 

* Plut. in Brvuo* 

Y 4 his 

pA f$qp9bm\Hyhrfrftb$MjmfimiUpMe. 

hi» porlprm^uice a beautiful morality, and a high approbatioa 
of Dublic virtue. WhUe he reprobates the mifconduft of 
amoitiout and unprincipled men, be exhibits himfelf to his 
Keader not merely in the light of a good hiftorian, bat of an 
exceUent citisen. The refped which he pays to probity^ 
candour^ and viltue is moft becoming and proper ; and as 
his book may fail into the hands of young Headers, it will 
neceffiiriiy contribute to form them for aftive life, by im- 
pucffing ftrongly upon their minds the admiration of what- 
ever is moft honourable. The air of fcepticifm and infin- 
ceri^ which many eminent writers have a^ded, and the 
laviih praifc they have befiowed upon wicked men, we con- 
£der as not only prepofterous in itielf, but as an argument of 
Ae depravity ot their own hearts. We can trace fiDmewhat 
erf* this libertine dxfpofition in Polybius; and ^e uniform 
malignity of T«:itus has been frequently condemned. Hif- 
tory can only be faid to have attained to perfcftion, when to 
the arts and graces of compofition, it joins a deteHation of the 
vile and the corrupt, and fires' to virtue by a juft and liberal 
panegyric of the wife and die good. 

To the obfervations we have already made, it becomes ut 
to add, that the language of Dr. Fergufon is very open to 
eenfure, and that he often deviates from correSnefs and pro- 
priety. Nor will it be unufcful to fubjoin a few examples of 
his miftakes. 

I. • The Roman people, from their being joint fovcreigns 

* of a great empire, became together with their owi\^«- 

* vincis^ the fubje^Sy and often the prey of a tyranny which 

* was cruel to both.' It is obvious that provinces are impro- 
perly u(ed in a coimedion with fubje^s. 2. * The vtfttgi of 
♦former movements were efiaced.' 3. * By offering the 

* freedom of the city to every alien ^ho crowded from all the 
< confines of Latium to vote in the affemblies of the Romai) 

* people.* .4*""* About the time when the Romans became 

* mafters of Tarcntum, thi$ combination was bectime the moft 

* confiderabic po^i^er of the Peloponnefus.' jf. * Mutually 

* agreeable to. both.* 6. * The minds of men beheld with 

* amazement.' 7. ^ Pompey was quoted in every harangue as 

* the ^eat fupport of the empire.' 8. ' He prelierved his 

* dignity, by never cewunUting his reputation without being 
^prepared, and having oon^rted a variety of arts by whicS 

* jt might be fupported.' o. * >Vcre urging the (late and the 

* people to ruin* 10. * 5tf provided Milo ventured to ctti 

* eounter with Clodius.* 11. * Xbis appears to have been a 

* man of great moderation.* 12. ' Neitbh- could acquiefce in 

* the tsMi^ meafures of confideration or power which o&er 
•feinators had enjoyed before */«,' -' 



; Fi«ks Uk« tbofe msi^ be pronounced to be trimL Bol 
wlien their appctraoce is too frequeat^ they ferve to injurt 
die tone^ aod the execution of any, Uteraiy work. Upon 
the whole, however, the Hiftory of the Progrefs and Ter^ 
mination of the Roman Republie, muft be allowed to 4>d 
a valuable accelBon to our libraries. If Dr. Fergufon \^ 
not fo accurate in his reafonings, nor fo rarious in his 
piodes of expreffion as Mr. Hume, he is yet more candid* 
and more favourable to the natund and political rights of 
Hiankind* If his didion is moreobfcure, lefieafy, and lelii 
pleaiing than that of Dr. Rober tlou^ he is yet more ver&at 
in aflairs, more kamed, and more jpenetracing in philoibplnr 
^d manners. And, in fine, it he is not fo acute, \o 
witty, fo eritica!, and fo brilliant as Mr. Gibbon, he is yet 
more filithful to his authorities, and more friendly to mora* 
Hty ; and whatever religious opinions he may entertain, he 
4oes not go out of bis way to make an ollentatious parade 


For APRIL, 1783. < 


Art. It. J Lift ^ibt Jbfiatut pf JreUfnt. And an Eflhu^ 
rftbe Ttarly. F^e 9/ their Efiates and Incames fpent eiromd. With 
OM&rvattoQs on the Trede and Maaufaftarea of Ireland, and tha 
Means to Encourage, £xtcnd, and Improve them; with tome 
RealoBs why Greitt Bdritain ihotild be more ti^dulgeat to Ireland, 
In paiticuUr Poiott of Trade. Aftfo, iomt Rcafoos aad Obferra* 
tions why A^entees (hould be ohligied to contribute to the Sup* 
port and Welfare of cbe Country they deirive their Honours, & 
Jbtes and iBcomes from. Humbly fahmkted to the CoaGdera- 
tion of the Le^flattfr^ of Ireland. The Siath Edition* In this 
Edition the Lift of the AbCenteeB are greatly amended, and &t 
fertii, as they f^ood in the Year 1782^ To ^ich » added* 
Notes, and an Appendix, containing fome material Tra*ladtoiia 
- that have occurred fioce the PubHcatioa of the former Kditioii* 
• 1769. With Ohiervacioos upon thea^ and the (ierenU A^ of 
PariMment pafled dnce. Bro. as. T« T« Faalkiier. Dablin* 

^'^y^HE energry of the Irifh M/^«a» > rouied hy a« ctppoftune and 
j|^ mod fuccefsful ^^g^ ibr the rights of men, will not relapse 
into Jna^oo after the attauuaent of Ui animating an obje^ The 
public ^rtt of that people will now be turned to the arts of peacd» 
and their improvement iaagncukure, manufadures, and eommerce^ 
Will contribute to the prafperity aad aggrandisement of the Britilh 
empire. The puUkatioB miader Reriew is as cttraeft of thb riSng 


J30 MoNTltLY CaTAL60UE; PdSiital. 

fpint. And tbe general attention that hai been paid to it in Ireltnd, is 
t proof of the patriotic of that oatton. It ha8 nerer been printed 
in England* alUiough it has come to the fizth edition. This circuoK 
fiance is not unworthy of attention, as it it an evidence thut the Iriftt 
aalton now pofleflet withij) itfelf the fprings of goTcmment. A wri* 
ter whole objed it is, to influence the powers that rule the kingdom 
of Ireland, does not. think it neceiTary lo nuke his appearance oq 
the theatre of London, He i)ubli(hes, with propriety, a political 
treatife on Irijb affairs ia a city, which is now in tnith the hifi 

This pamphlet undoubtedly contains many ufeful hints to the 
parliament of Ireland : but, in our opinion, the attachment of the 
Author to hit country^ has carried him, in foroe inftances, int^- 
TetA'S with refpe^ to commerce that ire neither liberal nor jufl. 

The fums of money which is needlcfsly drawn annually out of 
Ireland, according to this writer, exceed two millions fbrling. 
But he reckons as a part of this, the travellix>g expenccs of 
Merchants and Traders, and the money expended on the infurance . 
of fliips ; articles which eertainly bu^ht not to have appeared in % 
lift ot the grievances of a commercial nation. The want of hkk 
cey, which throws a damp upon all bufinc^ the Author ^fcribea 
to that wadeful drain of its treafures, which is experienced by the 
kingdom of Ireland, more fhan by any other on the face of the 
earth. It is believed by manyv be fays, and he himielf feems to be 
of the fame opinion, that there is lefs fpecie now in the kingdom, 
than at any time (ince the Revolution. All its remaining ^cie, 
he prefaces, will foon be carried off, the confequence of which 
itill be a total flop in foreign and domeftic commerce, an inability 
to pay rents, or difchar^ the public eftabliAiment. Thefe are 
' mebncholy views. And it may be obferved, that not a year has 
pafled fince the Revolution, in which the fame or (imilar views 
were not entertained by fome politician or other. On this fubjoid 
fpcculators are often more attentive to the expenditure and diibuHc* 
ments of money, than to the channels by which wealth flows into 
» nation. The Writer of this i)|imphlet acknowledges that the peo- 
ple of Ireland, in the midft of this gloom, ** are much increafed 
in numbers, and that the linen manufactory, which is the flaple of 
Ireland, has encreafed greatfy of late years,, and extended itfelf. to 
moil parts of the kingdom, and that there is fUU room for further 
improvement and exteniion.*' We therefore hope, that the appre* 
hendons of this Author, concerning his country, are not weA-fbund- 
ed. Although fo great a drain of money is doubtlefs a lofs to Ire* 
land, yet induilry may enable that nation to ward ofl" and prevent 
the great evils which this pamphlet prognoiHcates. The people of 
Il^and are repreiented in this publication as induflrifm* But we^ 
have never heard that induftry is a gineral cbaraHertftic of the Irifli 
nation, and we are the rather inclined to queflion this polition, be* 
caufe it is aclcnowledeed, page 77, that " one of the greateft ob- 
ftrudions to the benems and encreafe of the manufai^res of Ireland, 
is the frec^uent riots and combinations among the manufadurers.*' 
Commercial habits, large capitals, exteafive credit, and a general 
iaduihry amorfg the people, together with the natural advanta^s of 


MoHTttLY Catalogije. Politicat. 3^ 

cKoiiate; ibil, fieuadoD, and roantnne ports^ notwithftandiii; tfie 
mnoual drains of its treafure^ which this waiter deploret, and la- 
bours to prevent) would make Ireland a flourilhrng kingdom* But 
until Xuch habits (hall be fbnncd, and fach advantages eftabU(hed» 
the fodering care of the opulent and great (hoiild be affiduoally cm* 
ployed in the encouragement of indiwry of every kind. Two mil* 
lions ilerfing would afluredty operate as a ftimulus to i^riculture, 
manuia^turcsy commerce, and arts in general, liberal as well as 
mechanic. Nor can there be conceived a more delightful amufe- 
ment than for a gentleman to employ his time at once in the ctil* 
tivation of his eftatc, and the aggrandizement of his country. The 
Author propofes to compel the IriQi gentlemen to follow fuch a con^ 
du<5k, by meant of taxes. Thefe, hc^ever, would have but partial 
and limited effeds ; and until Indand. can allure her fons by ob- 
jects ot ambition, of tade, and of pleafure, equal to any that can 
be obtained in other cuuniries« the evil of emigration and noa*refi« 
dcnce, will dill remain. 

Our Author throws out many ufefal hints for improving and ex- 
tending the exports of Ireland : but he regrets that any thing, aU 
moil, mould be /wported, and rather than admit foreign brandy, 
or Engliii) beer, and Scotch ale, recommends the encouragement of 
home fpirits. This is not in the true fpirit of extended commerce. 
It is a lade for foreign eleg^mcies, convenicQcies, and comforts ; it 
is the mutual wants of nations, that link them together in the gol- 
den chains of commerce, and excite that general induflry which 
promotes it. Baniih from Ireland all taile for elegant luxury, and 
the times will return, when its Princes and Nobles (ball intoxicate 
themfelres with oceans of U/quehagb^ and roll in the mire to allay 
the heat of their feveriOi intemperance. The mod liberal, the moll 
ufeful part of this publication, is not that which is employed in the 
difcouragement of non-refidence, and of foreign imports ; but that 
which teaches the IriQi how to improve and make the rooft of the' 
^vantages of their country. Ireland, once become the feat, not 
only of Icgiilation and government, but of every liberal and me- 
chanical art, eraiffration and non-re(idence will ceafe of courfe, and 
grangers from dilfant countries will vifit a young, mn ardent, and a 
flounlhing kingdom. The Writer before us contributes not a little 
towards this important obje^f when he confiders, with <b much 
judgment, what are the countries with which Ireland trades wifh 
moft advantage or difadvanuge ; when he teaches how to improve 
and extend the linen manufa^re, the fiftieries, the collieries, the 
filk-manufa6ture, &c. &c. 

On the whole, this Writer dcferves high commendation for his^ 
public fpirit ; for that moderation, loyalty, * and alfediBon^ with 
which he fjpeaks of the people, and the government of Great Bri- 
tain; and tor the many ufeful hints he has fumiflied for the im- 
provement of Ireland, and the general advantage of the Britifli em- 

If this ufeful performance (hould come to another edition, we re-* 
commend to the Author to revile what he has advanced refpe^Hn^ 
the culture of flax in Scotland. The ufe of fuch a wooden frame as 
be mcntionsi is by no means common in Scotland, nor n it poffibl^ 


3|t M#irr«LY Cataloove. Fatkkati 

llac it (hould he fo. And u to what lie ikjff of the Scotch dt^t 
iog tbotr flax bjr abruih, it nqiiirct expianatioii. Tlie dilfereaco 
fiiould be niemiociedi between what he oUU imekUng^ ao4 hn^fl^a^ 
pf flax* 

Art. 13. ConfidirMtms m tbi Provj/hfUti TnMy with Anw 
rica^ mnd the Prelimmary ^riicki rf Femce with F^atue ami ^^m^ 
. flvo. a«- 6d. Cadell. 

Thft fmall treatife ii» in fubflance, the fame with the Earl of 
Shclburne^ Cpeech in the Houih o# Lords in defence of the Pre!imj« 
luuy Artickt of the Peace. The ob|e€Honi that were made to the 
Articles in the courie of that debatCt ^re here anfwered* Several 
jMMoa that hit Lordlhip touched upon biit fltghtly are here difca£^ 
ed at greater length, and a few fa^ are tfiterfperfed, which were 
not mentioned in the Honfe of Peers on the occafion alluded to. 
Ainong thefe fa6H the foUbwing appears fomarfcable : it is, we be- 
Uere, iuit little known in this country. ^ The Americans bad it 
in contemplation, to hare a book compofed^ containing a dtfHn^ 
and firparate biilory of the foftrings their people had endured ; 
which book was to be madr ufe of in the inftmdion of their chil- 
dren, to infpire them with a lafting ienfe of the calamsttet their 
fore-fathers had experienced. Such an inftitution might have pro- 
rented a coalition <2F ineerefta, and the recorery of a real and dura* 
ble MikBwm^ But, ioce* the oeifiition of hbftilities, and the ac« 
knowledgmrnt of the independence of the Unked States, the defign 
has been wholly laid elide/* Lord Shelburne faid In the Houfe 
of Peers that he k^w that * America felt more obliged to England 
* than to France' (thefe were his words) in the late padflcatton. It 
were to be wi(hod, however, that his Lord(hip*had been able to ad- 
duce other proofs of ^ comfortable a pofition, than that which hat 
^ft been fpecified. We fay Bis L^nf/bif had htm able j for there 
IS. not a doubt that the pei^rmance under Review is the produc- • 
tion of his pen. And it it luftice to fay, that it is written with 
temper, with judgment, withdignity^ and in the enlightened and 
liberal fpirit of a Philoibphic^ Statefman well acquainted witfi 
. hiilory, with commerce, and with human nature ; and it cannot 
fail to eradicate many of the prejudices univerialiy entertained a« 
gainft the terms of the late peace. 

Art. 14. Candid and impartial ConJUkratidm en the Preltmi" 
wary Articles of Peace ^uth France msd Spain^ and the Premifimal 
Treaty with the United States ef America^ By a Country Gen- 
tleman. Svo. IS. 6d. Robfon. 

The Country Gentleman, after depreciating all the conceffiont 
we have made to o«r enemies, concludes, that by ** concentering 
the temaining forces of the BritiCh empire ; by cultivating a liberal 
and amicable intercourfe with Ireland ; by the prance of public 
CBConomy^ -and the fair encouragement of every ipecies of national 
itiduflry ; by avoiding, as much as honour and found policy will 
permit, all ruinous wars and burthenfome foreign conneaiont ; Jb^^ 
a fyAematic redudion of the national debt ; by a lefs ezpenfive anci 
oppreffive mode of colle6^ing the reveuue ; by a liberal and equal 
plan of taxation ; by a complete and regular fupport of a powerfi4 


J^NTllLT CAtALOCVE* P^Mo^ $%i 

Mtf , tad by the adaption of fotnt otker pt9!t poKtleiftl ti^^UerdtA, 

tftsch Otty b# done to prtfonre tbii« A dioft pO#6rfal and illuftribuv 

mtioB, the groat dlreoreft of coitmiefte, thd enlightened fehoot 

4farttt and the powerful arbitreft of nationi/' ThSa Oentlen^an, 

it evidently appears, does not defpair of the ^tfuUic. 

Art* 15. GoHfolat^y TTj^u^his 4n Jmericsn Ifidependefta : 

Shewing the great Advaiitages that will arilb fmm it to the Ma- 

nufM^res, the Ag^cultdre^ and cofrnnerctal Intered of Britain 

and Ireland. Publifhed for the Benefit of* the Orphan Hofpital 

at fidibbargh^ By a Merchant. 8vo. iU Donaldfon, Edin* 


The Author of.theie Thoughts is well acc^uainted with the jjritt- 
tipks of commerce^ aikl the intereik of nattoni. His obje£^ is» to 

* u That the inherent materials of tnanufadure, climate, foil, 
MKi fituatiOb, with the ttatural genius and adivlty of the inhabitanta 
of Gteat Britain iiid Ireland, by remaining at home to improve 
their own coiintryt as farmers, mechanics, and merchants, is a 
more certain means of adirancing the power, intereft, and h*noti¥ 
^ Britain, than by roaming abroad as ibldiers and heroes, in quel 
i>f difiant unhealthy territories, to eftabKfl) an exdufive trade^ and 
Y«in«xpeiiB>e ^vtneignty, Or td wreft ftdsii unoffending natit«t 
fSbitkf right abd property, otberwife to ejttirpate and dedroy them% 

' a« That thorichea of Britain dependt on ^ humber of its inha-^ 
bitants, when properly employed, and confequently all emigrations 
iaipoverilh tha couutry. 

* 3. Hmc Brifiih colonies cannot be »>veklied, or kept In fub* 
jcdion in the manner of Spantih, or other colonies ot arbitrary 
pDwevi^ wh#fe goveramant is incompatible with the idea of Britilh 

* 44 That the preleat commotiom and appat«)M dang^ of the iu- 
bnbitants of Britaih, may turn out the happy means of c6rre6Hng 
mur miilakes, and, by obliging its to imprbve our natural advan^ 
cagea* tarminate tn rdftng us to a greats a virtuous, and a happy 

* 5« That htHvetM' matters may be inanaged, it is the jtmft- 
MMsnry rf tbt meitfwr^ itfeJy that (hould with any propriety fall un- 
der the obftrV4don of thofe who fee not, nor know th|e motives 
item whence thty proceed; therefore, perfonal inve^tites on the 
cJiaraAar of fhofe, who with British freedom deliver their opinioi^L 
\tk the great fenate of the nation, on whatever fide they fpe», arf 
aioty the ^fiiifiona of a menseiMty fenibdv ^ the oveHidwifigs of a 
violent party ibirit.* 

Alt. 16. 7%9Ughti on if$al Repnfentathn. 8vo. t 9. 


Th» Author of thefe Thoughts proves with great force of rea- 
lbnHig;» and in a fpirited manhei-, that equal reprefentation never 
bad a Jj^^ce in the Britifli conilitution ; that ijb would be inexpedi- 
ttit and iaipradicable to change the conilitution for the purfolb of 
introducing it ) and thiat if rach a meafure could at any tittoe ba 
kilfiiabie, the prafeDt it the moil improper time to adopt it. 


934 MoUTfiUT GATALO€t»E. P^ticitL 

Alt, XT. J LiHUr t» ibf Lhfry of Londm ; tending to Prov« 
that an £c|ualtty in the Right of £le£iioQ ia founded upon the 
fame Principles as a mom equal Reprefcntation ; and that the 
Firft will be the neoeflkry Confequcnce of the Latter. 8vo. 6d. 

The Writer is of opinion, that fuch is the prefent corrupted (Ute 
of our manners and morab, that every man will be influenced bj 
bis own private intereil, in every queuion that can be agitated, let it 
be of the greateft importance, or of the moft trifling concerny and 
that no arguments, either drawn from hiilprical fs^b, or derived 
from natural reafon, will be able to controvert the prevailing paffion 
«f felf-intereft. He therefore^ judicioufly avoids all diicuffions con- 
cerning (be origin and conilitution of Parliament, proves by a ^ety 
plain and (liort and argument, that if any change in 'the mode erf* 
reprefentation (bould tsSce pbice, it would nrobably be highly decri- 
BKntal to the iatereils and privileges of the Liverymen. For die 
popular Leaders having gained tbHcir point of an inoreafcd re^re- 
lentation of London, would afied to di (cover by experience, 
that the calling fucb a concourfe of Liverymen to every eledion 
was attended with manv tiKXMivenienciea, and would be the &ft 
to apply to Parliament for a better mode of ek£Hon. 
Alt. I o. ^m Emjttiry C9nc€ming the ATilitmy Fera prefer ftr 
' a fret NatM 0/ fxttmjht D^mimhrn ; in which the Bntilh Mil^ 
tary £ilabliaunenti are particularly coo&dered* 8vo. . la. 6d. 

In this Pamphlet we have a fuccinA, 3ret dear aocoiuit of the ise 
trodu^on of nanding armies into Europe, and of the conoe^Hoa 
between a coniHtutioBal defenfivc force, and civil liberty. The ad- 
Tantages of the Engliih militia are proved from experience, particii- 
larly from reriments of mditia quelling riots in dilBerenc parts of 
England, and above all by the behaviour of the militia ott the 
occalion' of the fiktfa in Lotnlon, when they united in dieir coiHlhift 
the difcipline and the vigour of r^uLir troo^ with the duty of 
good and faithful citiaens* The Author ol this feofibk pcrior- 
mance,* after ob^nring that a Miniiier, who k alio a Gcoeral» OMy 
hope to moold a ftamSng anny to his private parpofes, and chat 
an armed populace is the very inftrument for a fortwie-hnadi^ «fe- 
BMgogue, warns his countrymen to tabe care that no wem propel 
iball either forcibly wreft, or infidiosflj tworaa horn ikcai that miH* 
i:m^ which n not likely to beoone cither iervik to the <iDe» uk. a 
dupe to the other. 

Art. 19. J rmJkmiimrf G€mtrml RidmrJ SmM. 
tf tt€ Stka Cmmritw •/ the lUm/t *f C jhmks m m kit 
$t9€y H* P'rfiJi ««ifr tfW Din^ «■ Imvtjfz^mimm caAr thf itjt . 
#/* /ryrrVi'^ the Iwrt/^memt fmr the E^ /lutTtf Cm 
^rmrj hmmJBe^^Sh^ To which ^ added» io 
to prove that the General is not that Prowd, l«faW«> l ja£Jt i t 
Man, his Eoemiea woold induce the Pabiic to bcfiere hiai ao he. 
As alio, a litw ierious Hints 10 the Sckct CuwmiWM 
^lewy that they arc waftia^ their TiaK ia the Minanw of i 


MoKTHLY Catalogue. Midicai. m 

€2ominenDe> whiift the great OutHnes and confequentia] Bratichet 
are in Danger of being Over-looked. 8vo, 28. 6d. Stockdale. 
This curious Medley, in. which there is a great deal of buffoon- 
Xy and low humourt contains many ludicrous anecdotes of General 
Richard Smith, many excellent obferyations on the hiftory of trade, 
and trading nations, feveral flirewd obfervations on the affairs of 
the Eaft India Company, and the mod ludicrous, but fevere attack 
on the charai^r and condu<f^ of Mr. £. Burke. This Pamphlet ap- 

Siars to be written with a defign of defending the public conduift of 
ovemor Haftings, whofe chara^er is contrafled with that of Mr. 
Burke, in the moil material indances of their public appearances on 
the flage of public life. 

Although there is no regular defign, or arrangement of matter in 
this curious performance, and that the Author, fo far from affedt* 
ing elegance of (lyle, delights in bluntnefs, and even coarfenefs both 
of fentiment and expreilion, yet the compafs of commercial and hif- 
torical knowledge it difplays, the ludicrous anecdotes it contains, 
and the droll manner of the Author, render it at once amuling and 


Art. 20. ^n Enquiry by Experiments into the Properties and 
EffeBt of the Meiiicinal PVaters in the County of EJptx. By 
W. Martin Trinder, L. L. B. at Oxford, ancf M. D. at Lcydcn. 
8vo. IS. Rivinetons. 1783. 

A notion has for k»me time prevailed, and prevails at prefent more 
univerfally than ever among young phyficians, which is attended 
with bad effeds to individuals, and is alfo very inconvenient to the 
public. They conceive that it is abfolutely ncceflary, as fooh as,* 
or before they enter upon practice, to become candidates for lite* 
rary fame ; not confidcring either their own qualifications, or tha^ 
the number of fucccfsful authors bears a very fmall proportion to 
that of unfuccefsful ones. We have introduced this remark in the 
prefent article, bccaufe we charitably hope, that the Author of th^ 
Enquiry before us is both a young writer and a youn^ man. For 
this circumdance, joined to the general practice to which we have 
alluded, is the only apology that can be offered for fuch a publica^* ^ 

The Preface confids of a rhapfody about temperance and the la- 
dies. The analyfes are in the highell degree incomplete and unin* 
ilruftive. The Author has not even attempted to alccrtain the fpe- 
cific gravity, or the temperature of the feveral fprings he mentions, . 
or the quantity of the impregnating fubftances contained in each. 
Of the name and writings of Profeiior Bergman, who has introduc- 
ed io many improvements into the art of analyfing mineral waters, 
he appears to be in profound ignorance. We therefore advife him 
to fupprefs his publication, as far as it now lies in his power, and 
by a dilijrcnt perufal of the beft authors, and in particular, of the 
^reat philofopher we have Juft named, to endeavour to acquire that 
Knowledge in which he is (o mifcrably deficient, before he attempts 
.to convey information tQ others. 

3f35 MdHTHLY CAtAl6o\3t. MtMimt. 

Art. lu J Tr^atlfi on the iynwhus AtrabUhfa^ a tonfdtMts 

ftver tvJkieh rage J atSetftgal in the Tear 1^78, Wf. By J. P. 

Schottc, M. D. 8r0, 2s. 6d. Miirrajr. 

This is a fcienrWc, praflteal, and ingcniolit Trearifc on a d!(af^ 
itr moft Qdc6mnion m its appcirance, rtiorc dtffieuh of care, iraA- 
more dclatcrioiis in its eflRrfV, ihto any ia which European phyii- 
Cians arc fititted. 9d rerHble, hideed, was the havock it mz&t^ 
chat It is no little wotider that the Author fUiViired to give the rcfci- 
tioo, and had flrength to eoHeift the experience tipon which it ia 
founded, Fh)m the ttncotttmofl natttre of Hie dHbraer, the Anthof 
had few helpfr from books, artd ftom the rapidity with which tlie 
fymptoms rantothe fatal climax, he found it iteCenary tomake fpe«d^ 
tifcof his judgroebt. Accordingly, we^ad^^very fucceeding opi- 
nion founded on a previous fa^, zoA the ^#hole Treadfe compiled 
with fidelity and accuracy. 

After a minute defenmion of thts fyi*iptoih«» he fires the dimgw 
nodics, and terms the diforder fynei^t Jmdfititfit^ a ne# dHKoo 
tion, and founded on a leadb|: fymptoih,-the difi9i<f{e u^arda 
and downwards of black bile. He has been * the oioflD'eita^ in hit 
defoition, as ther^is no fuch diiUiidio<l4n iny woti^of No(alogy. 
The dHeafe apoearv to hanV beet^ ti CtftrfbtnatioA of ioaiiy antagoatft 
fymptoms, and on perufal of ttt peculiar difibsctw^-and sialigiitty, 
many new lights are preiehted td ena^o tt« to. thet^riie with pro- 
priety on the nature and cure of putrid asid bilious diforders. The 
predHponent caufe§ Wete, as Df* Schoitethitekft* beat of the wea- 
ther, and conftant ufe of animal food without f^di tcftubles, and 
the bractdfliiieiii of the water. Bach of thefe he fully «x^laini, aa 
depending on local circumlbmces. In his curaciro prefcnpdons he 
ts plain, perfplcuous, and judicious, bat as he found h<iw incAca* 
6ious naiolt Common remedies i^etfe, he dircsds hia attendoa prino- 
pally to the prevention of a ^iLfordier w4iich happens frequently, tJi 
thofe years when the rains are ea^traordiiiarily frequent, heavy, and 
6f a long Contitiaance* 

befides the di&afe immediately in qneCHon, t>r. Schotte makes 
remarks on the other diiHfes peculiar to St. Lewis, and gives an 
accurate defeription of the iituatioh with regard to climate, wvth a 
Joufnal of the weather duriiig the prevaiiaiice of the dilcale, that 
nothing may be Wanting to the £uropeaii Reader in his Coniideratloa 
of it. The work ends with a few obfervatioiu on the gum trade. 
Upon account of which he thinks the pOileiuon of fort' St. l«oui$ of 
the utmofi confequence to the Englifli nation ; it t)eii^, however, 
given up, thofe remarks come too late, and it is now ui^ncceilkry to 
mention, that in 17779 when Senegal was in the polTeflloa of the 
EngUfh, the gum araoic was ibid in London. at thirty or thirty-£ve 
pounds i^erling per-ton, and now it has rifen to the enormous price 
of two hundred aiid forty and upwai^ds. 

Upon the whole, this treatife will prove very ufeful in many re- 
fpe£^, as the ingenious Author haS taken occaiion to difplay learn- 
ing and medical &\\\ upon a variety o( rubjefts, not immediately 
connected with the difcafc of which he profelfedly writes* He (hows 
an intimate acquaintance with Authoi^ both ancient and modern, 
and has fpared no expence of time and tabdUr in cbmpleating his 


MamtKLY Cataloohie. MJkdl: 137 


tmiUiimirhicfcy howetrer^ would have been mere agrmble if he had 
arraofcd hit cUBferent (ubje<fts metbodicallyf and made hit reidera 
refer to» rather than be interrupted by defcriptiona and cafes. 
Art. 22. Tie Efficacy and hinoancy $f SoJventi candhdly ex^ 

amlmd* By Robert Home. Sureeon to tht Savoy, tt. 6d. Murray. 

Perhaoa it trere well for the fSmce if phyficiaos ^It the dif- 
ordert which they defcribe. Thit Writer may {x^ with the poet» 
dsUr df/ertmmfedt. Having been for many yeart afflicted with ne- 
phritic cproplainttt he wai induced to make trial of foWentt, and 
ai thia PaaiphWt ht gWet an accoiuK of the manner of ufmg them« 
Aod their e&^ His esperimeou are fimple and eafily undcrflood^ 
and» togethec with fome cafet faithfully attefted by men of eipi* 
•ence, go ta pn>ve the f real utility of lixivia in cafes of flone« 
where the fiooea are ef a (ball flae. He takes occafioo at the 
fame time to i»fOve» that lixivia have 00 putrefa^ve tendency on 
the iySnu^, Of the fevetel £E4veiita moft comaioal]^ ufed he prefera 
Biackrie's, and advaocea aothitag for it, oc againft the others, 
but what neae&ry ariftt (tam hit ex^rimeiita and trials. The me- 
dical world it jpartitularly interefted In a queAioo ^ this impor- 
tftocey for however lithotomy may be tendered perfe^ as to execu* 
lion, the prejudicet of perieati are agaiaft it, and at the fame time 
they are apt ittonmly to miftake the* primaiy nephritic fymptoma 
for comaoo tpefmt> and mf le^ iblvcau until they are become un* 
profitable. ' 
Alt. 2}. Jm Jciwrn rf u ntw MlttM 0/ trmting Difeafes x>f 

fht Jaiaii ^ftht Kmt tmd Elhui : m a Letter to Mr. P. Pott ; by 

H. Pari, of Liverpool, ooe of the Siirttona of the HofpitaK 

tt.6d« JokAfoo. 

Few diferdert are attended with more di£m-eeable coofequencet 
dttut affidiopi of the joaatt, whetlKr white rapellingt, fcrophuloua 
Iwelltngt, or Uie reoMina of wounda and fra6hiret ; deformity and 
deatb are the oaly altem«tivet« Patientt in aeneral cannot bear 
die idea of ampata^oa, until it be too late. Mr. Park pn^>ofc8 a 
new method of cure by which the limb may be Oived, vis. the 
iotal extirpation of the articulation, for which he hat given judi' 
cioua and accurate dire^ont. He has taken notice of the principal 
olQedioiia that profeot thon&lvet on the mention of this method, 
aiid although he hat not, and doet not pretend to obviate every one» 
yet hia pra^ke it fomuied on a judgment and cauttoua tafie for 
esperioient, which juiHy entitle him to attention. He has given 
en account of two ca(et in which the operation fecoeeded, frani 
which Snrgeont may fafely draw fuch exnedations a^ to make them 
turn their thoughtt to^rards the fubjea. His mcdms operauidi it 
deforibed with great accuracy, and his fteps ait judicious and na* 
Art; 24. Pra^caJ Tbpugbis 9H Amptitati$HS ; by R. Minors, 

Surgeon. 2s. Robinibn. " / 

Tlie limits of our Review do not permit us to give a' long extrad 
from this Pamphlet, and without that it it not eafy to give the 
Reader a compleat idea of the improvementa whid;^ Mr. Nfinort haa 

Eng. Rev. Vol. I. April 1783. Z jntro- 

ifitrodQoed. Hit medKid Ibems well cakalstei to «veit tlft slantf' 
i^g fympcoins con(iEX|ticDt oo amputatiooSt luchasgroit p«o» ^<kv 
li«fnorra^e> fever, inflamioatiop, great lenSoB of the adiaceat partSy 
ftipparati^n, aod deformhy. He has add«d a lit of. cures pct^ 
ibrmcfi more fpeedily than ufiukl. Hit iiieri»od hat owt wkb 
flattertag approbacioti frMB fame («i|;eotts of aMOKC, skdto 
have fuccefsfuUy carried ^t iiift> pradice. But at Ibis diredieni juv 
connectedly minute, aod at grc^ kngvliy wc wmSl uAa tbc R ea d er 
to the book itielf. 

Art. 25. An Effay $h the SymfUms md Curt tf dk vindnm 
Gonorrhtta UFemakt^ By C Armtbtttg^ Manwr of the Car— 

? oration of Surgeons, Loiidoa, and Accoucheor. t%* Ditty, 
n tbc multitucfe of books cm the Vtnereal Diisa^ 'we find fei» 
Dr none in which particolar confideration b tahra #f the manner is 
which the Mr kaL are afie6kid. Much diflbnence Urare ceitaint^ i# 
not betivrrn the fympcoins in men and women, but yet cwmglutQi 
direct a writer to a particular chapter on tlie fubf«i^. The -prefcoc 
Author treats brieHy tif 4he nppearancef of the ▼iruleocgonoinrhaba^ 
and m few other f^rmptoms of luet in women* As. an ^KsmnmSi iMt 
M aocurate, and jiadidoot ns a pm<^l|floner* The g nn or rhcm hm 
divides into throe fpeciet, and gives th« A^^toflict,' and curt «# 
each. There arc not many <iew difeoverkt -In what he: haa advtnc^ 
ed, but he has given (cfcml uMut^-hbiO ^and <aKat pn t to youm; 
praditioners, for whom the work appears to have been dcngne^ 
Mr. ArmihxHig b«1tiiend to ]Vfereury,**^«rfai(]h -he aoaUcn as'tbe- 
only medicine to be depen^d npon.;.hlttin*a T«tatife:o»«heVe* 
nevcoi Diieafe in Fenmlest it.ia partiaaladf . -ntcc&ry to dwtU at 
confidcrable length upon the effedb of Mercury eawdie ^femak .coo* 
flitutaoa, duiiag tha meaftnia, ihgring picgawi^ and-ittceitata t- 
diofyncmfics. in the aUb of fanha we hagg^iitqe iafariarian fsmm 
him, as he appeaasaor have follenaad tha coadirioaat direi Sti a t af 
former writers and pra^itioners. It weie wdl if ccatain. rukt coiil4 
he adapted to every cafe of bubo, with tt^^ard Jo fuppuiation and 
diiperton. Mr. AnaAnm^ hasnot beeainmtfcemive,; nor iciiidica* 
ous, but on this fttbjed he IS xmt ib oompkte al» his expanosce asA 
underfiaadif^ enable htm to be. . . 

Art. 26. RtfMrks aa Mr. Bruits CiirttgmJ Efig/ts. Bf 

T. ShfUrake, Junior* ttu Stockdale* 

In this Pttmphlet Mr. Sheldrake endimViMiti 4o prove, that Mr« 
Brand, Tnifs-naker, is the moft igadraat, conceitnlt felf^inficiaiir, 
mean upibirt, that ever ditgractd the fviMSom of 6uf|;ary aa4 
Trufs-making f ' Let Mr. j^and fpiMik for bimitlf. Ilere are acctt«' 
fiitions for a fwinrging pamphlet in anfwer. We flnU only obferve, 
that there is a viritlence and fUtbtraHiy in chit Pamphlet, wbieii 
•an onlv be jui\i6ed by the full and unequivocal proof that. Mrl 
Brand def^rves the bitter reproachN here thrown otit a|^ai^ bint. 
We would, however, reconimend to both geotiemen, m the lan« 
guage of thiir pcofe^oii, to mend^hss rmf/hn^' between^ them with^ 
•ut the atiSlbncc of the prefs, for the curecan ailbri but 'Kttle a* 
fMibaent at information to the public* 


Art. 27. J Treatife on the Venereal Dlfeafe. By G. Rcany, 
Surgeon to the Athoi Hi^lilandcrs. 3s. Murray. 
This-i$ nor a compleat Treatife on the Venereal Difcafe, nor iv 
it a review of all that ^as been faid on the fubjetSt. It confifts o^ 
die •afkial obfervations of the Author on the leading fy mptoms^ 
during a long practice, which he confeiles himfelf to have begun 
with prejudices in favour of manv icholaftic, hut imprudent doc- 
trioct. In the courfe of hit praake he (bon found it neceifary to 
^zcrt hiB own judgment, and profit by bis own experience^ the re* 
fiilt of which tbe Pampbiet before us coiftains. Mr. Renny hat 
advatkccd no molieB of pra^ice unknown to phyficians, but he hat 
let ibme things m new lights, and hat endeavoured to e(hbli(h 
certain curative iadicadotis^ very much oppofed, if not nearly ex* 
ploded. Hit obtervadons merit attfation, as he delivers them with 
candour and fimp Itcity, and as ^hey are the rtfult of adual experK 
, mentt, without the iuterruptiotts of clofe t theories. Many of them 
Oiay perhaps be oppofed by old praftitionecS) but of thit the Au* 
^bor wat fuifidentiy aware, and fubmits them with due defermce» 
His principles and indications of cure are thefe : that the fimpk go* 
BorrlMea may be cured by inje^ions in preference to every other 
IBetkodt ^M the difeaft ti {Mirciy local, and rarely if ever fucceeded 
^ hy % coninaed lues ; particular irritability cauaag the running to 
fontinue, to be remedied by anti|Alcgimcs, or in fome cafes, o* 
pates ; topical trritatkni from warts or excrcfeences, by bougies ( 
trritatiotttn a particular ^t of the penis, by undtions of mercu* 
sial oi«taent; debility of^the Cyibm, alio caunng gkctt, by conies ( 
ioflamBjcdteAide^. ^ olviervea, is not brougiu oOf vk commonly 
fiijppofed^ by the 11& of aflringtnt tnje^ooa, but by violent exer* 
Ov» or es^fiire to ccdd } the remedies are a fiyifpcn^ory bandage^ 
^Btiphkigitfic <iiet, bleediogv foments tioii>t &c. avoiding the uie of 
QKroiry. Theiha»ci« heconfidert at a proof diet the general mala 
k tainted, and prefcribet mercury in ointment ; as external applica«> 
tjoos he prefers fimple ttigefiive ointment to mercurials or cauilic. 
In phymofis^ be recommi^wiaantipblQgiiiics, but in the paraphymo* 
lis, is of opinion, that the o^cation^rauft not be delayed. His chap^ 
ter on buboes is very ingenious ; he it an adKOcaieior repuliion^ and 
where fuppilratioa has taken pUuce or been brought on^ he prefers 
cutting out a part of the flcin in the opening the tumor, and not aN 
lowii^^ the matter to burft out of itfelf. C>n the oonirmed fymp> 
coma his obfervatipiu are generaU and contain little dMt i* oeww 
Id every port of the oire, the reftri£tiotts are fiicb t% will preroot 
danger from following bit methods, which he offers to the Public 
as the refult of pra^bce, ami which are therefore to be jittended 
to by the olde^ Pra^itiiioer, who cannot be ignorant that the 
ibapes in which the Venereal Difeafe n)q:Mrs itielt, tnuft vary with 
the varieties iu our manner of living, aj^ habits of Juxury. 
To the abovcy Mr. Renny has fubjoincd' Cafes explanatory of 
^s doctrines, and fome remarks on the preparations ami exhimioa 
tif m^rcury> 

P O E T II T. 

34<> MoKTHLY Catalog OEr iWf^ 

P o E T R y. 

Art. 28. Ode on the Peace. By the Author of E4win an<£ 

Eltruda. 410. is. Cacicll. 

The Poem opens with the fcorrors of the American war. It then 
paints the joys and advantages of returning peace : its efFefis onr 
individuals, on commerce, on fcicnce, and on arts, Interworcir 
^ith the general fubje^^ arc the namei of Andre, Afgil, Rey- 
nolds, Romney, Hayley, Momagtr, &c. whom the Poet has no^ 
deed with elegance and propriety. Too great a profufion of inna- 
ftry glitters through thi^s performance. The fair Author's Mufc^ 
tf Icfs adorned, would haver f>een more pleafing than in her ptefenr 
gorgeous apparel. And, were we not afraid of flepping bcybnd thcr 
fobnety of Frofc-men and Revjewert, we Aioald fay that to plunge 
fnto the fca of metaphor, and fafciy to reach the (liore, requir-^ 
ed the fkill amd ftrcngth of Gray himfclf : feebler bards mud often 
perifli in that dangerous ocean* We mean not, howev