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O R A N 


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VOLUME 11. . 

L O If B o N, 



s T v; 'i T '-'■: (■ :> 



LORD Haile's Sketch of the Life of John Barclay pip, , J 
Comte de Borch's Lettcri on Sicily and Maltha, 7 

Blair's Leaures on Rhetoric and Belki Lettrei, i8,Si' 

Coleman's Tranflaiion of Horace*! Art of Poetry, aj 

Wallace's Thoughts on the Origin of Feudal Tenurei m Scotland,)} 
Thirty Letlen on Varioui Subjefb, 4O 

Wilfon's ElementE of Hebrew Grammar, 47 

iBeaitie's Moral and Critical DiJTcnationi, co 

Horae's Thought* on the Mileries of SeduAion and Profiiiution, oq 
Letter to the Bilhop of Landaff, on bit Reform in tha Church, ibid. 
Sir John Pringle'a Life, and Six Difcourrca to the Royal Society, 6a 
Matthias's Eflay of the Evidence relating to Kowley't Poems, 64 

ACollefHon of Tales and Elliyi, 6e 

Criticifm on Gray's Elegy, iiia. 

Anecdotes of a Parilian CounfeUor and Courtezant iHd. 

The Blazing Star, or the Roiy Goddeis of Health, ih!J. 

The Cyprian Cabirkt, !hiJ. 

The Modern Pantheon, or the Truth of Fijian, 66 

Pere Pafchal, a Monk of Montferrai Vindicated, ihiJ. 

A Catalogue of Manufcnpts in the Biitilh Mufeum, Aid. 

Repomof the Humane Society for 1781 and 1781, 67 

AbftraA of the Turnpike Aa, iild. 

Trial of Lieut. Colonel Cockbume, itiJ. 

Trial of Mrs. Williams for Adultery, Hid. 

Letters on the Medical Service in the Royal Nary^ HiJ. 

Webb's Eflay on Educatiott^ 68 

Sermon againfl Duelling, ihid. 

Selea ScottiOi Ballads, ihid. 

Arx llercuLea Servata, or Gibraltar Delivered, 70 

The Cumbrian Feliival a Poem, Hid. 

Ode to Mr. Lewis Hendtic, Hid. 

Poenia by Czfar Morgan, 71 

Independence a Poem, addrelled to Mr. Sberidaa^ ihid, 

Cbatfwonb, or the Genius of England, ibid. 

Addrels from the Conftitutiooal Body to their S— , ibid. 

Speech of Mr. Pitt in the Houfe of Commons, Feb. at. iHiL 

Price's State of the PuUtc Debts and Finances, 7s 

Sketch of the Chara'Aer sad Political Conduct of Mr. Fox, ihid. 

Luxury no Political Evil, addreflcd to the BritifliSenjMe, 7* 

Letter to the Bifliopof Landaffon bis Reform, ihij. 

A Sovereign Remedy for the Dropfy, Hid, 

LevefaLie's Hiilory of Ruffia, 9[ 

Pottei' £ Enquiry into Johnfon's Lives of the Poeti, i»o 

Rpoke's Travels to Arabia and Egypt, 104 

Adeiaide and Theodore, or Letters on Education, 19^ 
Mi4aD*s letters to Dr. R«es on the New Editioa of Clumbers** 

Cyclopasiia, 10^ 
Reply to Strianres on the Ba. of Landaff's Piropofed ReftKHi* 1 19 

The Errors «f Nature, or Hiftory of Charlca Manly, rt* 


%■ E *f 

. _-^ „ - it6 

VfiiperirientsiiiiJjObffirJidoililn'Eteaiwiij'j '•? lig 

I.Oaft'sHiftory of ©txece,' - i -' ■■- -. "■■ '■ - ' ■ iho 

■■^bWMablyon thcMflnnej-'ofWi';iirigHiftl»7, -i I ";;■,- -1:14, 
'JioQro'sObftrVffibiSon tEeTfeWoUSSTflein,' ■■■ 1-''.^ 1S^**J3- 
VAnriirtbrical-E^onMf.Aaitfimi ' •■:>■}■, ■ -V^S 

VYKe Female Spy, '■■'■ ■ —■'. ' ■ ; ' 1 ...:::■■■.■■■■ t^^j 
' Hawcs's Addrefson the Preftrvation-df Livis; ' ' " " ., " '*4» 
f '"Headsof a Courfc ofLeftuirsOT'iflftiiry,' ■'^-■- ; ■ -tij 

■■Lcttersfrdm i edebrated NotlemWhtohlsHCTT, ■ ""■ ■ VSirf. 

^ feflay on Modn-n Agficuimrc, ■ ■'■-■ ■ ■■-... -^ i&V. 

''The Amours orFldriicI, "' ' _ ■'■■ ■ 144 

■ 'The Efiufions of Lore, ■ ' ■ ■•'■'■■ iHif. 

■,"Hiftory of the Life of Tamerlane ttieGftar, '■ ' ■ Jiiif. 

^"LifcofChicheie, ArchMftiop of Canterbury, ■ '■ ■ H-J. 

''tleroarks on (he Fitpch and £i^Ufh LtiUies, ■ /^«/. 

', ' A &ttire on Mottos, . . .,, ,,- 

--' fhyfical Pru4eDce, ' ,• - ,. '. ' JilJ. 

'' Dr. Freemanon the Cure nf the S?AhHis,-GoiiorthsH, te. 146 

' T^ayfair*l Method of Conflrufling Vapour Balhs^ • . . Hii/. 

" '^e Kftrefs of Integrity and Virtile, ■ .... H;j_ 

^■^'The State Coach in the Mire, a 'Modeni Tale, 147 

'i Tliotights' on the Naval »nd Military EftaMifhroeilts, rfiJ. 

" tobfervations on,- a Defenceof thcRdclririghamPaHy, 'iiij. 

; "I'ownall's the Sorereign^of Anwric!*, ' ' 548 

■' llefleaions on the State of ReHgidn,' tbe Clergy and VTnvet&Mt,-iili/, 
'■ ^lackftone's Commeataneg, continued by Dr. Burn, ' 161 

'Hoole'a Tranfiation of Orlando Furrofo, - ' " 171 

SVakefield'aTranflatibnof tbeGafpelofSt-MfltlHevr, ■ 176 

Crawford's Hiftory of Ireland, 180 

'■ Mrs. Macaulcy Graham on the Imnjtrtability of Moral Truth, 185 
- 'Bifbop Atterbiiry'g Epiftolary Correfpondence^ Set. 1 ■ '- ■ igo 
' "Berkcnhout'i Effay on the Bite of a Mad Dog, .' ' '195 

""■ LindfeyS View m' thff Unitariati Dodrioe and WoriBip,' '' - 197 
"■ /Bennet'i Kvine Re^cbtion Impartial and UnivcrW, ■ - ■ "303 
■"Alcxander'i Hiftoryof Womeii, i.^^ • -■-aio 

' ^Kearney's LeSrircs concerning Hiffory, ' ■' . -^^ .; ■ sia 

' 'Reid's Effay on theNatore and Cure rfthe Pthlfil'P{iKnonalM/ii6 
^""^■-RecueUdesMeinDJres Acadcmitjttes fle M. I'Abbelkfvii^ ' ita 
■■'< -togan's Eleraean of (hePhifoftiphy of Hlflory, ■ ' ■ '113 

•' ' ' lUufirations «f Roul^ea^': Maxims end Vnaci'aitt'^-^iaenkm^iiJ. 
y -Roufleau's EmiRuiand Sof4iia, ortHe-Solnanes, ■ 'v ■ ^ iHJ. 

*■' Moral TSfc»,aGhriftma»NighliEntierti(n«MV- ":''■- ■-■ ■■•t.»j4 
-• "The Opera Rumpui, or the Ladies irf the WroBg'Biix^ ' ■■ " W*(A 
-■ Philodamus, a Tragedy, . " ■. '-.,"■■■.:'' J *:..'>:.'' !»(«/, 
^'-^ThePeafantof Aiffcurn,orth{!Eito!grattr, ' '- " '■■!'. '-: -ihiJ. 
*^'^ Memoir* of the Manflein Family, ■ ■ ■■-■■>■■:' I'-.'.j-.r .Aaxt 
'" Defcriptionof iheHland ofMfldrira, ■: ■ i' f>r ■.in--. K ^1 126 

^'< - Ufefol andPrafliealObrervatioftstm-AsTiCTilture,': 1"^ "J -' >''H1J, 
*-"■■ W»llaii'»Hiflofj><rfihcMiniftry6f JeniiChrift/' "-t"; Z \iiij. 
^-: We"phv*P«™'n'N&ie-B6ok(, ftom'tfteFrCTChoflitflitW^ 3^^ 
' '^'' ubyon Ludfcape Painting, vrithRciMrks^ — > '- ' 3>8 

■■'■'-- Effay 


Efliiy on LaDdfcapCf ffom tbt^f«V«bof Vicanw^P'£jiTtprii*pic, t^ 
Hamilton's Thit^ghti «» KitabLiriMRR ■ Rf^mequixiiDil, .' ■,'igo 
Trial af Chriftopher Atkinfon, Efq; for PerjurjTi, . ,, ; aji 

■ zShe Receipt Tax, a f»r« ia:J,v9!^*' . ■ '■ ,. . .,'W- 
: Oliver Q<>id*sLetrer of iCi>ii;e OB tbe Hewipc 'Vapt,. ^ ...'ff^- 
^ JJaiTati»eof Two Sailors wrccjifld. ia the-0rofvcnptlndiaii«i», 13 a 
' Account of ibe Loft of the Grofvenur ladiamau, ., - i'^- 

3"he Eiperienced Bep Keepjrf, . . .• . , , f'(|5 

: Sermon Preached for the Bene^t oflhe Hutmme So^irjyt |tg4 

Rcponi from the Committee ^f Parliament op lodi^ Affaira, 341 

Hiftory of the Political Liff, &c. of Mr. Fox, . ' »^i 

Douglas's Defcription of the Eaft CoalE of Scotlajid, , ^67 

Poetical Remains of Jame^ I. of Scotland, tjx 

■ Rouflcau's ConfcffioDS SDd Reveries, -jfii 
. Macpherfun's DiHertatiaii on th4 Prefervativc from Orowoiag, ' ^89 

The FraaiceofMidwifcry.-by a Piipilof ihtlneDr. HuuKr, ^90 
Rajwer's Cafes at Large concerning Tytbes, ;9t 

Hcnri-'s Mcmoira of Albertdc Haller, , , , '496 

Lord ShefReld's Obfervaiioan on the Commerce of Auienca, ^97 
Sinclair's Hints on the Sute of our ^''inances : .. }oi 

£. of Aldborougit't EJTay on the Interelb and Refourcet of Gr. Br- 304 

. Duke of Richmond's Letter tathe Iiitb Voluntecri, . 50; 

Addrefieiand Reeommc(id|tia^s hjC-oo^refs ca-the Am. StatCS) 500 
Wafliington'a Circular Lettti;Dn his Religaacioo, f^'^- 

■ Letters gf a Citizen on India AfTairs, -^07 

-.. Oven's MortificatioQ of Sin jn ^lelievert, 50I! 

' iDr. Ball's Vi&cation Sermqut. . 1309 

■ The Beauties of MethodifiOt ,j|to 
- A Rifcour&^n the DongerofEwhufiafra and ApoAacy, .jii 

. r A Call to the Jews, _ , liiJ. 

; Slat;rave*sLliffKof Bills of Exclemge, ... .,-Jia 

c .Milbke of (he Legiflature refpei'^ing the Receipt Tax, iS'J 

; .Olifrer Quid's Second Lett^rof i\dvi(xon the Receipt Tax, ibij. 

■ . .The Mag^tetit fhtd to be written by tlie late Ur. iWd, . ,'114 
.-Fruit Tables, ■ . jlid. 

'. .^ACalendar of the Weather for 1791, , . , . ' ,4iid. 

, .Advice 10 tfaeUniverlJties«f .0|cfard aadCainbridife,, > j3'S 

,'.S>«la>*-«V''*'?pf 'heConftimtioao/ tbe,BritlflilS>l(jnic*, . , .;n 
^■. .Ninth KQp«(t>ofScleftContp>itiee on India Aflars , -. ,.3^6 

>•:: Two Leitersto ^mund BurkeoD^Iodia Affairs, . 334. 

'...': <aBniniar ffciUngs's Letter w tic Court of Directors, ^335 

tt t..Saron de HeUdarfs Accaitnt of t^e Prulliau Army, 4 337 

f , Butter's Improved JUethodrol^opetiiaS theTeii)pur4 .Artery, , 338 
.^.'.-Ofbom'i E$if anLftbuKip^J'Hriiiriiipn, . 134*- 

v.v-Hunter's Lcitu'res on Sacred Biogranby, .'.34S 

.-HorOcy'sCbarKewtheGlefgyofa.Albans,. , ..■ , 3+» 

^ '. ^ Richards's ObferTations on lD(4nt Sprinkling, . .'>• 3^0 

,': -. Uaderwood't Treatife on UletFsinihe Legi, , ,• . JS* 

' v.Hiftory of He^^ ItJ. King of France, ■ ' j 35* 

.. ' Hey's DiflertattoQ <]a.the Peraicious £ffe& of Ganuogj •/ 3(9 

■. KiS(tftlfl)(> JLejIy 19 Anintad*. on his Co; rugtront irfCtmfliMi'tjJ, 362 
ii^ L Ellior on Vicanou^Stciifce, ; . , ' , \ 366 


■C '0 N~ T 'E "N T S. 

i,cfters rel^iiig (o tlie Dcatli of the cpltfcratcil Profeffor Eulcr, 37"! 

Stackdak's EHayori My^ranthrc^j', _. ■ , 37( 

C(ftni(h*« Difptiiy ofthe'lmportjtice of Claflical Lcaxaiag, ■ 578 

Maxims a^d K^jlef^lioiia, ,■.■.! ^™i 

A Father's Advkctofiis Son, . t/xU 

Vi:tllkm Sedley, or the Evil Day deferred, iiU 

Tiiftr; itimenial Shundean BApatellc, , iM, 

Femali Hiftorv o("Eu)iiia?omi'rel, iiii*. 

fatliia other I'oehis, %J9 

THfefc Ut>d Metton, ft)rdieUfcof,ChiUrBa, iiitf, 

Ttie B I Novel, ■/*/!<. 

tiitlen raxims. , 3?0 

^'oikcr'i Annus filtnibilia, Second Edition, «8| 
"Hfe Birrh Diiy, a Dramatic- I'ieec by O'Keefe, 

Gafper's Art of curing Wfeafcs among the Antient!, 

■ -■ * ■ "^ '"■ dlegj, 

._., ,_ ,_ . . Infiitiity, ■ " UtiA 

iobinfon's'Every Patient his own Do:'t..r, _ ' ■ ■ iifi 

Eflav on rhtTreirtment of Ulcerated Legs, 382 

" ertea's Addrefs,pn.tbcSnbicftof Infatiity, ■ '*♦ 

feilis's Addrefs to Perfons afBiaed with the GoOt, 385 

'Trial of I^icutfi^ant Bourne for a Libel and Allawlt, ■ ■ ' - itf/, 
trial in lite Court of Excbccj. Svtberlsndas'iu'l^i*' 'Murray, j^ 
Aikipfon'i Addrefs to the Public, ■ ■ ifi^' 

Defence of the Condudt of the Court of Portugal, ■ ' ■ (»«/. 

Tfltc Lobby, or OutdoorConrerfation, ^86 

Letter to Mr. Burlceon hie Charges B^ainll Gov. Haftingsi ' ahU 
AiJdref! to the Proprietors of Eaft-India Stoclf, ' ' ^9^ 

Cobb's Sermons at the Barapton Lcrture, Oxford, : 38S 

Ht^itf'' Sermon on the dcarh of the,(l«v. Mr. Turnbull," 390' 

Snevd's Leiterto Dr. Toulmin, . ■ ...•;. j^ 

Kdiirefs to Difney on the DoiSrinc of th? Trinity, ■. - ■ 390^ 

Duncan's Sermon on the Evidence of the RefurrefUtrnv ■ ■ ' 39* 
'Jrlie Incbgnitn, or Emily Viilars, 393 

TheRinp. aNovel, iii/.- 

Macpherfon's Anfwertoihe Reviedfers, ' T9+' 

fiiiliiutcs Political and Military ot ihc^reat Timour» . Jtot. 

tcmea'a MoallakSt, or Seven Arnbian, Poems, ■ 4d6; 

tetters from an Anreriiail Farmer On Jliintieri and ■CoSomt, ^^xi^ 
LBtiM to the. People of England on E^miiifatioBS-to AiUeiica^ ' 4171 
myson Suicide, lie. by the late D. Hutiie, Eftjj ,-'-i"-' 418 
Ttanfa^ons of the Society of AiiSi,MiWitffdft. »nd^3blBUne»(»,- ^ifl* 
ffijiotheciiBritanoicm Nwnb. 8.- _ - - .- ■— - ■'' ■ ][79' 

^fforo'sLifeof Dr, J. Fotherairi,. . - 43V' 

P-peinsoo SubjCiS* in England and the Weft-Indiei, . 433 

B:iyani'»Flor»pi=lcti«i,or.Hiflo)-j:ptWc«ltTitl*twit«;! ^. , : 4j«! 
" mper*» OlittiratiHtts on the Pafiagquvcr L;tnH wi india,^ ■■ +391 
oHb's Accouiitiiif the Lifeap^, Wriiinga o^.tke bttBiBoctfit'l 
William "Hiuiier, -i ■. .■ . ■■ '.r- ri',' 'f ■: 44-^ 

Kii^y^ Elliiy on'ihaUed Peruviajv©;.!*; ■ '(■ ^ «»' 

|{ft^'t*s Courfc o^J^c^tireipp the ^EdMationofCkiWrnJ^ i 456'' 
r(&^'s Obfervan(>n5"mMi4'si.tS)i>:i:L;ir "V.-: t'-.ciS '■■':'45ip 

Digitized byGoogle 

Si ^01 

C O K T E N T S. 
letters ad4rcfl«l to the Voliwieer* of Irelantl, ■ _ ,46* 

E. of Stair'* ArgumEiits for enquirine into the Scatt of the Natiop^fO//^ 
Confide rations on the PoUticaL Conlud of Lord Morib,, ,. 466 
'Tfie Mlm»ei4alilt, by Junius, ' ' ' ,46; 

ObfcrvaijotiionHaftinss's Letter totheEaft IiiJia'Dircflyrs, ' io'rf. 
Proceedings at a Gcnerjl Court of India Proprietors,' ibid, 

Macellan^ Delcriptionpf a Glut) Apparatus, ■■4^j 

Seffous Addref»Vo thePublic on the Dange I, ihia^ 

Dr. Sanders's Ob ervationi oh thri Efficacy i Bart, ' 

Inciter to Lord tffiagbam on his propofcd A€i, ' ibi 

Dr. Wkhere's Letter to Dr. Peiiliia Vice C! of Ojfora, /«< J 

The Magic Plflure, a Play altered from l! 47f 

Abelard to Eloifa, an Epiftle, . 4>f 

Errors of Cooinieoiators on a^ciCot Wnten poitued our, , ^p^ 

XT" ING*8 Speech at th« Opening and Clofe of the laft Seflioh con)! 
IV pa'-ed. ' ' 'ti 

FohticalTalentiof LordShelborneandMr-Fox,"' *« 

American Governm. averfe to the Loyalifts. State of E.Florida, 'it 
Nova SootiUhc Allium of the Loy aliOsprcdii^dby Abhe Raynal, if. 
Refinance of America, a Proof of the ErrotieOufnefs of roliUcaJ 


Pravilions madeby Atnerica forh^rSoIdieri, '' Sid, 

Slate of I^fiaiiiTt'Treaties, RulTra and the Porte, W 

^tfjtical Views of the Emperor of Germany, JB 

ProTtfion made by Parliaitient for Loyalifls, iiij'. 

lafluenceof American IndcpeiTdenceextcndstoAfiica, Hitr. 

Sate of Ireland. Spirit of Reform in Scotland, 7^ 

Siinationof A&irs in the Ejlt-lndiet, op 

How far the Qifpdte between 'Rullia and llie Porte may intereft dthet' 

Powers, ' 14^ 

Policy of the Turks in former Wars, ih'ia, 

Qgipmercial Views of the Nations in Europe'. ■ ijii 

Rofteftions on tbe Delay of the liefinitive Tr/atiesi ■ I tl 

SSitrtt of France to incrcafe her Navy, iji 

Aniftio&y-oFAhidrkB to England increafed by her Conceffions; if /J/. 
Thur Condu^/to th« Loyalifls mijjht jultity an Infraftion of th^ 
'■..i. Treaty, . 'SI' 

A;CDnnneToi*l--'n-«aty with Ksflia recommended, X^i. 

Rff^lar Government in America cannot bclaftinff, ' ' ' 155 

Want of Public Virtue will prevent their forming a regular Kc-" 
,";(. public, '....■:■■■■ it^; 

Fftrcgn and I>»iwftie.DebtboF America and the tmerdl, ' 15^' 

I^of the (^jngrefs and a Sketch of theConftitUtion of Apierica, tjS; 
Popiilafiojirdf Amenci.. ' Arrival of the Spanifhfib», ' ' 1'^^ 
I^U;ical Changes at Home and their Confeqaeiices, ' 160 

Rn«arks 00 the Definitive T«a(ie», aj it 

Ykpurin l*t50tiaiitiitd)(i)l8yed«nlyTnthHoBah3; ' 13?; 

F^Tiof the Stocks, and real and fiakioUiCaufet of it; iii,V. 

KcIpuKes of Great Britain, - *■ - ' 235'* 



Paon 'Rtm. Cram taadi. Cfauieh Revenaet, t^j 

Prefperoui Sute of ASt'in in India, i^fl 

How toni»ntnnaUifting:fcaCeikerr, xyf 

Free Ports in the WcA-Imlies recommended, iiiJ. 

Impolicr of Sputa in cUiming of Great ShbuD the cedin]; the Ftorv' 

1>»igen the AnwricaD Statu hart yet to eacmiBtetk 340 

KeRcoitons on the C^impleiioii of the Definitive TreaUM, 3 1 1 

Britifh Poflefliona in America lUU innrefiiog to governments 316 
Wife Policy of America may avert man v EviU, 317 

Politics of Ireland, their Military Genius and CriticslSituatimt, 318 
How far their Esampic may a&dScotUnil, 319 

Political State of Great Britain, jio 

Vietn of the Great Powers pn the CoBiinent, iii\/. 

Proceedings in the Iiifli Parljaraent, 397 

Grand ^cfbrtn in India A&trs, - 398 

Mr. Fox's Plan relating India ezamjbed, 199 

Power of the Coalition tncreafed by it, , tfcA 

St«e of the Public Funds, 400 

Comineot of Europe, iiij. 

Arguments in JiilliJicaii«n of the India Bill, jyt 

Affeirs in the Eaft may be remedied by wife Oeconomy:, ii/J, 

Interference of Government the Caufe of their Embarraffments iiiJ. 
Mcrchaiiis oU!;ht to command ind coQiroul their own Affair;, 4^^ 
India Proprietors cannot truft Direi'tors appointed by Govcrnt. iiii. 
India Bill would have been bad for this country, ^jr 

Foimer Conduct of the Duke of Portland and Party contrafled witfc 

their prefent Condurt, jiiJ, 

Increafe of iVIinilierial Influence principally to be apprehended from 

the India Bill, ^76 

'Nature and Excellency of the Britifli coaflitution, iliJ, 

Prefent Spirit. and Situation of the Houfe of Commons, ^jy 

Meafures proper to be purfued by the New Miniftry, iiiJ, 

Circumftanccs which incite to dilfolve the Parliament, 4,78 

Ireland, America, France, Holland, Ruffia.. 4^1 



'■ ''' Fo'r J U"L V, 1783, ■ ■ 

Mr. I. Sitfcft tfthe Lift of Jaba HarcUy, Author of Argin!!, 4fo,~ 
printed ^'Edinburgh. No BuoVfeller's name, 

IT is"a matter of fomc wonder, when we confider the 
partiality of the Spots for their own nattoi), that no -r^ 
gijlar h!$ery has been given of ihofc eminent individuate 
among'tbcm, who have cll{tinguifhcd themfelvcs in litera- 
ture. The field is ample ; the ^ame fertile ; and nothing 
was wanting but the Iteennefs of puifuit to find materiaU 
in which inftrudion and amufemeni might be blended with 
a happy propriety. In al! its extent, indeed, the literary 
hiftory of Scotland might be too great an undertaking for 
one man ; there is fuch a variety of matter and of charafler 
to be collected, canvaflcd, and dcfcribed. It may, there*- 
fore, be acccountcd a very fortunate incident, that the So^ 
cictv of the Scottiih Antiquarians have formed the reioln- 
tion of atchieving by degrees this extetifivc and ardnout 
taik. Nor can we rcftrain ourfclvcs from entertaining con* 
liderable hopes of the merit and fuccefs of their execution \ 
for while the means of intelligence are open and eafy to 
them, an early jealoufy has been conceived of them by men 
of letters, who have been long known to the public, and by 
a univerfity which is dcfcrvcdly famous *. 

Thefe hopes, too, we muft acknowledge have not been 
diminifhcd by our perufal of the performance before us, 
which is cxliibited as a fpecimen of the B'lograph'ta Scotica, 
projected by the Antiquaries of Edinburgh f. If we are 

Enc. Rev. Vol. II. July 1783. A rightly 

• See Papers concerning the Aaiiquariej of Scotland in the' En- 
£i;ni Review for May lail. 

f W« mull acknowledge, that It Hrlket ut as fomewhat remark- 


i Shuh if thi lift e/ Jebn Barclay. 

tightly informed, it is written by Sjr David Dalrymplc^ onff 
of the lords or barons of the C-ourt of SeiEon in Scotland. 
It bears an affinity to the former produflions of this judi- 
cious and inquisitive writer. It aoounds in learning ; it is 
ctprcJicd with the greate^ clcarnefs and precifion ; it is criti- 
cal and elegant ;' and it maintains the moft ^n^ilieus im- 
partiality. All the particulars which could becolleAcd con- 
cerning Barclay, appear in their proper place and order ; and 
acute and ingenious rem^ks arc i^ade upon the different 
works which ptDcaeded from him. 

The followmg information concerning the celebrated Au- 
thor of the ^rgln'it will amufe our Readers. 

' Barclay, [John], ihc fon of William Barclay and Anne de 
Malleville, was born at Poatainouflbn in Lorraine, on the 38th of 
January 1582 {a). 

' He was educated at the College of the Jefuita in PontamoufToD j 
Jndf when oD)y ni|i«teen yet^n old, he publi^ed ootei op the Tbc- 
bais of StatiuB fh). 

' Thejcfuits remarked his genius for lireratnre, and attempted 
tu win hSfii to ibeir order. Wmiam Barclay Looked on that attempt 
sa a breach of truil. Hence there arafe a quarrel betwecD him and 
the Jefults, i7ho at ih^t time were in high "edit with the Duke of 
Xcorraine. He quitted Lominc in difgull, yod condufUd hia £>» 
*o London (i') . This wai in the year 1603, jull after the aecejBoa 
of his npiive fovereign to the Edghfli throne. 

* 1604- Young Barclay prtfentcd to tHe King a Poetical Pan6- 
gyn'e, as a Nen'-year'i gift (y); and, foon after, dedicated to him 
ihe firft part of the Latin fatirc, intitled, EupimTmiBn {*). *' I had 
*' no fooner left ftbool," fays Barclay,' *' ihan the juvenile defire 
•* of fame incited tn« to attach the wiole world, rather with a view 
** of promoting iny owa reputation, than of diSuaouring indivi- 
" drills;" » CQirfelion equaliy candid and fingtri^r! fcoi which 
ought to have been made before he had learnt that hta fsiire^ dif- 
guiledthe public {/), , . 

' In the dedication of T.aphrmm, Barclay iniimated hii wifli to 
eucer info the fervicc of Ki^g jame;, and profelled himCelf alike 
n-ady in that fereice, " to convert his fworJ into a peti, or hi» 
*' pen into afivordj" (^) (five enfem in ftylos dlvidi, five fiylos 

able, that the life of the author of the\<^7^'/uj (hould have been eiven 
33 a Ipecanen of a Biogr^phU ScoTrc a. For Barclay was t-Friiithman, 
We ftiould imagine, ihaf as he wa« defcended of a Scots family, his - 
life is meant to accompany thofe of his anceftors. This prolrably 
will appear to be the cafe when the Biogiaphlrt ScotUa is completed, 
tor an objedkm of this kind ought not furetv to be left i& full fotce, 
' (*) PtrtraU, prefixed to Argfitiis. (i)'A»vfrKa, i.^M.edit. 
r. Not.* (f) y. Xhii Eryihrai Pinacothec. iii.p. 619. edit. 
Lipf. (<0 Odii. Poet. Sett. \. 8j. {i) Euphorm. part. r. Dc- 
Jie. edit. Ell. t/J Eapberm. Apolog, in init. (^> Evfhtrm, 


Skud tf th« Li/r of Jikn ^ancUy. I 

" ia gladiuni porrigt jubcB, pmfto' fum]."' Tb mt«// vnt liii ruliag 
piffioa.;. and yauihiul M-C^aeaey led htm lo hope that be might 
Mcell i a every dcportfiMnt: but bit i)ut«ne», and ctcd his coii& 
deMot a, Aill, hetur tiide. ta ttie favour a£ princes, availed not. 
Wiltiam. BarcUw wit confcieniioulty atiacbed to the churcb of. 
Rome; and hii fon proteir^d the relt^oD of his foieritheri. Iiv, 
thofeda^t&penfion belhiHiedi>na.<Vir<ir/{^ Papifi would bare been 
■iMtborcd unOKgCt the natiaasl grievancei ; aivithc vAilgar wouUi 
Bot ha** dtAin^iDitd bctMcan fii;uoup (liewn Po geniui or learntD^, 
andpartmlii^forthe.i^tJUoiii: of the perfan bvoured. Hence, it' 
fliould feem, young Barclay loll hopes of any el^iblJfiiineiU'ia Eo-' 

' 1604. Witlian. Barclay paHcd over into Franpe wiib bis fan, 
and was chofea ProlelTor at, Civil Lnw io the uoivcrrny of Aa- 
pn. k is (aid that John aaendtd the Le. litres of bi^ faiher (i) ; 
And, indeodi it appear* from many paiTages in bis nocks, that be- 
wa) coQTQdAnt in that fciencc which his father taugbt* 

' lioj. AJIurcd by fone proffers of cooote nance and. advance- 
menr, John Barelay returoed to Kaglaadt and abode in that coui>> 
try for aycar (()• , 

' 160& William Barclny- died : John retnoved to Paris,, marrtei 
Louifa Debonnaire, and fiMn aftcf fettled with hi^ family at Lon* 
don. I& /licrr puUifliad the.iccond pan of his F.upharm'iit, d<di>-. 
eaun|kt«th« able^andunpopulan minifter, the Earlof Salifbury. 
The dedication begins thus: " Kibit mibi debes, fc4 virtuti tus^. 
" inclyte bicos, c^iod hie liber lionori tua datur ; neminem oporiuit 
" omitti in puiilico qnicftu, et qui. in vitia non patefaas,/4*''m nimiic 
" vifudt-tUliM/fii arcu/arJ," ^i). It w*a lirauge language to utter 
bEngUnd, that the. Earl of Sqlilbury lay not open to xny chargr 
whatever ; but that, on the contrary, ie ought le bi acctpJ of ie». 
much virtxr. The (arac writer, who couid difcover no faults in Sa* 
liburv, aijned tbe.lbafis of hiaridicult;at Solli! 

' rarhapa it waa to conciliate favour with King James, that ^a^- 
cUy, in the forond part of E»^trmi», faxiri^cd tobacco and the 
puritans (/)- 

' Iatfais.yearhealfo publifhedabricf narrative of the gun-pow- 
der-plai,. u4tich he had coivpofed a few weeks after the difcovery 
ofthat treafon. Its title 'is, " Series pitcfaiti diviniius parrlcidii 
" contra Maximum Regem regnuinque Britannix co^itati ei 10- 
" ftrudi." It is hard to fay what could have induced him to with- ' 
kold this nat-rative from the ■pablic, while the events which it re- 
lates were peculiarly, intereulng from their flrange nature ; and 
then, after fo long an interval, to fend it abroad without the addi< 
nanof a finglecircumftance that was not Already known through- 
out Europe. 

' 1609. During the ctiurfe of three yenn relldence in England, 
Barclay ceceived no token of the Royal liberality. Sunk in indi*, 

'(*) itS.ja^i'.Remarnuesfiirlavied'Ayranlt. p. ia8. {!) Drlit., 

fit. Heat, \, 107. {*) EaflKtm. part. ii. Dedie. {I) Eafbarm. 
pan. n. 184. 197. 

A, ^«, 


S^ Sketch of the ll/ia/yohn Sarda;f. 

jjencc, he onlv wiflied lo fee indemnified for his Engliffi joiimies'. 
anJ to have his charges defrayed inio Fraiioe. At length, he wa< 
relieved from thofe urgent dillrelTes by his patron Sal iibury. 

' Of thefe circumfouces, fo familiar and fo difcouraging tomen 
(If letters, we, are informed by fome allegorical and ob&ure verfes 
rtritten by Barclay at that faci feafon f«) . ^ 

'' Never did dependent offer incenfe more liberally to a patron 
tfian he did ; for ciample, he admits, that Burleigh was a wife 
man ; but he adds, " that the wifdom of Burleigh bore the like 
"■ proportion to that of his fun, as the watere of the Thames do to 
•* the Ocean" (n). 

'_ 1610. He publiflied his Apology for Euphormion, The feverlty 
of a fatire that had excited enemies againfthim in every (ju arte r of 
Europe, required fome excufe, or conciliatory palliative, 

' In this year, he alfo publifhed the famous work of hie father, 
infilled,' '• De Poteftate Papx, et quatenus in reges et principes jus 
et imperinm habet." Concerning this work a learned peribn of the 
Romifli communion fays, " William Barclay proves, with great 
" jiide«meii( axiA eruditioa, that the Pope- has no power, direU or 
'* \ndire£), over Sovereigns in temporals ; and be Ihews, that they 
" Tvhoallow tA him any fUch power, whatever they may intend, do 
•' very great prejudice to the Roman-Catholic religion. John 
" Mair [or Major], a Scottifli writer, who is not fo much knowti 
" and efteemed as he defetves, had wntten very well to the fame- 
" purpofe an hundred years before.*' i 

' liiii. That work having been attacked by Cardinal Bellarmin, 
Barclay publiflied a treatifc under the following title, " Johannis 
'*'Barclaii PiV'rti, five publicse pro Regibus ac Principibus, et pri- 
" vaKe pro Gulielmo BarclaioParente Vindici«, adverfus Roi>erti, 
'* S. E. R. Cardinalis BcllaTraini Traflatum, Je Vatifiate Huaani 
" Vont'ificii in rebus femfiorali&ui." Paris. 4to, pp. 798. 

' 1614. He publiilied Icon anintarttiti, perhaps the beft, although, 
liot the moft renowned of his compofitions. It is a delineation of 
the genius and manners of the European nations, with remarks, 
moral and philofophical, on the various tempers of men. 

* 161 1. Invited, as it is faid, by Pope Paul V. (o), Barclay de- 
termined to ia his refidcnce under the immediate power of a Pontiff 
whofe political condudt he had reprobated, and of a court whofe 
ihaxiitis he hadccnfured with cxtraorijinary freedom. About the 
end of that year he quitted England (^), but not clandeRinely, ai 
his enemies reported (./J ; ami having haftily paiTed through 
France, he fettled at Rome with his family, in the beginning of the 
year 1616, 

■ ' In theParanf^i, or, " Exhortation to the SeflarJes," Barclay 
mentlqns two reafoiis which induced him to quit England, aitd 
tike Up his abode in Italy. His firft was, left his childreii, by tc- 
iliaining in England, iliould have been perverted from the faith. 

' (w) Dflit. Part. See/, i, 9J. — 100. (e) Dellt. Ptel. Scot. i. 104. 
(<t1 See Baylt, Did. i. +69. {/>) Balia^car dt Ha!, Charitum 

Libritres. p. 194. 295. (j) Pdr.Mr/j, prxfat. , 
<' Bui 


Stetch ef the Ufe of Jubn- Barclay. ^S 

But. he could have obviated that danger, by^ removing into ■France' 
in wliicli country he ha4 for friend* Da Vajr *, and Peirefc, (r) ' 
His Iccond reafon wag more fiDgnlar : he perceived that bis Pifte' 
(or Vintiicaiion of his father) was pleating to heretics, and that i 
ililgulled many perfons of the RomiHi cummunion. He repented 
of having written it; he then found that it contained erroneoi^B 
propo fit ions, and he wiflied Co fettle in Italy, that he .might Lace 
ieifure and freedom to refute them. 

* i6i^. He publilhed, " Johannis Barclaii ParsneGa adSe^ariaa 
*' Libri ii." Rom, 8to. pp. 416. It i» probable that by this Ex- 
hortation to the SeAarica he meant 10 give evidence of hi» own or- 
thodoxy, and to atone for the liberties, almoft heretical, which l(e 
had taken, as well wiih (he Papal court, as with its moH faithful 
adherents. But that coitrr, which had Cardinal Bellarmin for 11* 
cbampioD, required not the feebl« and fufpicious aid of the author 

<if Evphormian. > ■ ' 

' Although Barclay found much civility at Rome, yet it doe* 
pot appear that he obtained any emolument. Incumbered with' a 
wife and family, and having a Ipiilt above his fortune, he was left 
atfjll leifure to purfue bis literary ftudies. h was a't that tinie 
that he compofed his L:irin RomMnce, called ArgSnii. He etnploy- 
«d his vacant hour* in the cultivating of t fi[;wt;^gft^(te^l Rom (or 
Er^-thrxus] relates, in the turgid Italian flyle, that Barclay. otrod 
not for thofe bulbous Toots which produce 6t]»:et»df 'a- fweet fccnt"; 
and that be cultivated fuch ws produced fiolvers void of fmell. but 
having variety of colours. Hence We may cuncUide; that he was 
atnoQ^che firft of thofe who were infefied.with.that Grange difeafe, 
a paflion for tulips, which fuon after overfpread Kurope, and is Aill 
rememberedunder the name of the"7ft/^o-ma«ia, .Barclay had it 
to that excefs, that he placed t«vi malUns, as cen.tineli, an his gar- 
den; and, ratherthan abandoa his favourite floiyeri, chofe to con- 
tinue his refidence in an ill-aired and unwhoTefome habitation, (i.) 

' 1611. Barclay died at Rome, oti the ifthof Aaguil, (') aficd 39. 
It feems that he died of the ftone, a difeafe for which, in MwEuphar. 
mien, he had vainly jironounced the plant Ccrt!nWfi*(/ 1« bea (pecific, 
<»). At that time, his friend M. de Peirefc +wfl3 engaged infuperiti- 
tending the publication of Arg£nis at Patis/ (v). Htf.nas buried in 
ihe church of St. Onuphrius. His widow erafted a' monument for 
him, with his bull in marble, at the chuzch. of' St. "X-aurence, on 
(he road to Tivoli : but flie caufed the tMjft to^bo- removed as fpoii 
as fhe learnt that Cardinal Francis -Barbarini li^, jtt the fi;me place, 

■ • Ouillaume du Vair, Prefidenc of t(if( f !fr^^f;it'of Provence, 
afurwards Keeper of the GreaT Seals, aiii*: (ft la"fi','Bii!iop of Lilieus. 

'('■}i>'-'^*', Charit.i. J4- 0)».-7i«w^-rimift. vir.vit*. 
p; 189. 7. .V. Eryibr^i, Pinacothec, lii. Mv-" - (*) T^m^A'. ib. 
p. igo. {u) Eiphorm. \. y^.' ! ^ !-:/■;■- ■! 

' t Nicolas Claud Fabri, Seigneur de Priivfc, Counfellor of the 
Parliament of Provence, a learned man, •'"'^ 1 g'-iiTftim pr"r'';'^nru'' 
the learned. - ■ .. , , 

< {*•) Cajffiid!, viia Pclrelf, p.i88.— 19Q., ■■ ■. - 

' A '3 * ■ ■ ereSed 


'.6 Shlth^thi Ufiof Jthn Jgarel^. 

■eirSed a monument altogether fimikr, in honowr <rf hi» pRcepMr 
'Seriiar^Vi Guiiclmas i mntt Sanili Saii'rti. " My butband, (faU 
** that hig'h Ipirited Ix&y), was a man of birth, and one faniouB io' 
*' the literaiT' world ; and I will not fuffcr him to remain on a IctcI 
*' with atafe and obfcure pedagogue," fw). The infcriplion on 
the monument of Barclaj- was «ra<ed : but by whom, or on what 
account, it is not certainly knotrn. Paulus Ffeheru*, a Gcmiau 
compiler, afcribcB this to the malevolence of the Jefuits, who, in- 
deed, had no great csufe to be ftudious of prcferving the wemoiy of 
Barclay, {x). 'But Tomsfini iiyt,' that he heard, from undoubted 
authority, that the only caufe for cffiicing the infcriprion was, that 
'the widow of Barclay propofed to ereft a more fumptuoug monu- 
went for him in another place, {y). This, however, has much the 
air of an affcfted pretence : far why disfigure one raomiment, be- 
caufe another, more fumptuous, might be ei«£ted bercalter ?' 

Sir David Dalrympk, during his attention to the works 
of Barclay, was much entertained by liis fatirical vcrfes, 
which relate to a quarrel th^t is Taid to have happened be- 
.,twe«ntwo couitJadjes in the itign of Henry IV. of France. 
- He, accordingly wade a paraphrafc of Uiem ; and forgetting 
ithat he vras a btogispher, he undertook the province of the 

' Nipimi ooce a Kinjt's deligbt, 

Ati6 fhir'd his couofeU and his bed, 
Bhc faon as- voutfafui bloom took flight. 

To Chloe'^ charms her lorerfled. 
Bfreay'd of honour, influence, truft. 

The fport of jilts, the prodc'g reproach, 
"Nsjc reioWd, low in the duft 

To lay her envy'd rival's coach. 
TfauB A"iaw>nian dames of oJd, 

Their ioe difcover'd from afar, 
Kode pti vi'iih iflamitL^ fakhians bald, 

,Af>d,!inow'd the thickeA cuiks of war. 
'jUoCgthe'flnetsas Nap^roll-d, 

The "fatal carnage &k defcry'd. 
With gaudyo^ours deck'd and gold. 
In all the pornp df wanton pride. 
** Drivcoa;"'fierce'Napigave the cry, , 

" A)fd wh^m yon painted .'harlotry 
, " Aoijdjt tl*c dirt from wh«ice (be ^rung," 

"'Drive on."— Her coachman, lock'd his wheel, 
(And Cbloe's. coachman lafll'd andfwDrc, 

Enrag'd at every lafli to feel . 
T^ecart^ages eiltanglM more, 

' ('"■') 7' ^- S.TythT4ti, Pinacoth iii. 81, 7iimafi>ti^ p. 190. 
,{if) i*. jFwAwT, Tbcatr. p. 1515. ■{j)'N.ainafiiii,-^. ttp.' 


CoBite ie Borch's Letter s m Shify and Malihih f 

Doi*n leapt the furious iaraet ;— ^kj ctw?i 

Aeoedine;, fbrni'd a circle near; 
They Tiii'd in llniat fa foul anl loitdv 

Tttat ciader-wenchea btulh'tl to hear. 
To Chkic's cbeelu, to Napi'i nofe, 

The talonB of her rival flew ; 
They CuSfd, untill alternate lilowi 

Tneir fnowy fhouldcrs tum'J to bhie. 
Their horin kick'd, their lacquev* ibueht, 
Their haud-mflids in the cuficetl &ar d : 
To KoHic no Edile everbrooght 

His gladiators better pair'd. 
The combatanta lb firmly Aaod« 
£qual in prowc(i at in fame, 
Tliai oDW of chafle uniunted blood 
No drop rcm;iin3 in either dame.' 
Ix resums for us to obfen-e, that Sir David Dakymple, 
in this Ipecifoen of a Bkgrafhia Scotica, has avoided the 
manner of Monf. Biyle in bis dictionary. I'hat ingenious 
and inde&tigaUe man, whole learning, opinions, fcepti- 
ci(m, ob&cnity* and difputcs made fo great a noife in his 
own age, has been too much followed in his pUn and mew 
tbod, by thofe who h^ve fncceeded him in t\ie province of 
biogFapby. From hurry, from the fuhiefs of matter, or 
^haps from the want of tafie, he gencraUy threw tlio moft. 
loterefting portions of bi» lives into notes. Indeed bu 
notes make a laigep bwJy than his teirt. Sir David Dal- 
rymplc, in oar jnagHient, has judicioufly abftained fram this 
meriiod. He has not even oek note -, and hndeed, in com- 
polilioB» of this fort, there can- be lbIdofi> any topic of in<- 
telligence, which will not figure to more advantage in tlK 
pcrforaiance itfelf, than in ferrate dilKirtations. 

■ AiT. II. L-ttres/ur U Sieik W/ar Pip A Maiil^, A M. U C»mie 
dt Berth, aM. kC.dt N. Krilti'm I1-j-},pi>ir fervir de SupfUment 
aa •DiTfagi Jt /a Sicile tlf a- Maltht ^ M, SryJaiu, » lorn. 8. 
Turin. 1782. 
Lettm en Sicily mi Malria, intended hy W'ay of Supplethenf fo 
the Travels of Mr. Brydone. 

npHE Preface to thefe Letters is » vel»cmeH( inveftive 
I' againft Mr. Brydone, H© is charged witfe plagisr 
rimi, mifreprefentatiou, and- the molt H^tant malevolence. 

Aiter expatiating on this topic at great length and wirii 

much wariBtht tnc Author fays, "(he Englith traveller 

has caufed multitudes to laugh and myfelf ^mong the firll; 

bat I very much dgubt whether a iingle i^iyiduid, who ha^ 

A 4 beei^ 


8 Comte dc Borch's Letlert an Sicily and Maltha. 

been in Sicily, wUi adopt his fcntiments. It « to be re- 
gretted, that he did not undertake a continuation of the 
voyage to Lilliput, or the IHand of Apes, as he would have 
fhone unrivalled in this walk. But it is not by a feries of 
farcafms, that the iliuftrious Pliny of France has depiftcd 
nature, nor has the celebrated Chevalier Boia defcribcd the - 
provinces of the vaft kingdom of Hungary, by ridiculing 
the inhabitants." 

The fame language fretjuently recurs in the courfe of the 
v^ork : and the Author goes To far as to affirm, that one 
principal motive of this publication, was to wipe avjay the 
afpcrfions which thef EngliJh traveller had thrown upon the 
natives of Sicily with equal wantonnefs andinjudice. 

The firft letter holds forth the Italian, and in particular 
the Neapolitan pcrfons of diflinftion, in a light very ditFe rent 
from that in which they have been generally fhcwn. They 
are here faid to be exceedingly affable and attentive to 
ftrangers ; and that not content with fhewing them all pof- 
fible refpeft at home, they arc defirous of ferving them 
abroad. Hence they are led to give too many recommen- 
datory letters to the ftrangers that come among them. But 
this praflice has been carried to fuch a length, that fuch 
letters are granted even to unknown pcrfons. On this occa- 
fion the Count relates an anecdote, which exhibits this 
abufe in the moft ridiculous colours. " Happening, fays he, 
one day to be in a houfe where I was known only by name, 
»nd this I had myfelf announced, I mentioned accidentally 
ray intended journey into Sicily, and the pleafure I cx- 
pcfted from vifiting Malta at the fame time. A perfon in 
company obfervcd, that he was particularly well acquainted 
with the grand mafter, and offered me a letter of recom-" 
fnendation to that Prince. He took my name, and aflually 
iem me that very evening the promifed letter. Perceiving 
that it was fcaled with a wafer, my curiofity led me to ex- 
amine the terms in which a perfon in whofe company I had 
not been for more than ten minutes, would fpeak of 
me. Imagint my furptize, at finding, that the pilot of my 
boat and rayfelf, were recommended to the Grand Mafter, 
lis two gentlemen of Uncommon merit, who were unquelli- 
onablv entitled to the high protcftion of his eminence, and ■ 
the affijianceiifh'n lights, if I may ufe the Italian phrafe." ' 

In the fecond letter we find our Author felting out on 
bis voyage to Sicily ; but the pilot forcfceing the approach 
of a florm, drew his veflel on fliore, after he had proceeded 
about ten leagues along the gulph of Naples. Here the 
Author's feelings was affailed hv both phyfical and moral 
caufesbf the moft difagreeable kind. The firoeco which 




Comte dc Borch's Letters on Sielly and Maltha. <)' 

he bad been led by Brydone to fuppofe to blow only in the 
heats of fummer, fprung up, though it was now the 25th 
of November. And what was perhaps more opprellive to a 
reflefting mind, nature and man prefcnted tnemfclves in 
their moft abjeft flate. " The inhabitants, fays he, of this 
coaft, more nearly refembtc bears than men [ a barbarous 
Janguage ; the moft frightful external appearance ; a down- 
caft treacUerom look, the moft difgufling food ; fuch is the 
portrait of the Caiabrians, the wretched progeny of the 
haughty conquerors of the world. In vain do Pcevot, Ta- 
vemier, and numberlefs other travellers tranfport us to the 
deferts of America and Africa, in order to paint tlic barba- 
rous ufages of the Hottentots, CafFres, Mexicans, &c. In 
the center of Europe, and within an hundred leagues of 
the capital of the chriftian world, we. have a difguftitig 
image of the fame manners, mixed with a little chriftianity, 
and abufes and prejudices beyond number." 

In this difmal Situation the Author was detained five days. 
On the iixth he fet fail ; but after he had croffed the Gulpli 
ofFalernum, the wind became fo violent, that he was o- 
bHged to come to anchor and difembark at Yaroulfle, the 
ancient Agripolis. From this place he went to vifii the fa- 
mous temples of Pseftum, of which we have in the fifth 
letter a delcription and plate annexed : this letter contains 
alfo fome obfervations on the environs, that may be referred 
to the head of natural hiftory. The following letter brings 
us to Mefiina, that unhappy city, which has undergone the 
fcvercft vicifCtudes of fortune ; in fplendour, commerce, and ■ 
population, it once vied with Palerno; but li nee the year 
1743, it has been almoft entirely depopulated by tlie plague, 
which was fucceeded by thefmallpox, a dilcafe that was 
nearly as deftiuiSive as the former, and in fix months car- 
ried off 70,000 inhabitants. In 1777 it contained not more 
than 30,000 fouls. Commerce had entirely ceafed. " The 
beautiful houfes that adorned the port were deferred ) and in 
this ftate of languor Mellina, fays the Count, is like a beau- 
tiful body, without its vivifying principle. To this progrefs 
of miferyour Readers know, that the laft hand has been 
put, and that this btautiful body has lately experienced as fe- 
vere a fate as its vivifying principle had before experienced. 

The next letter conducts us to Catania, a city which 
from the exertions of a fingle individual, forms a perfeft 
contrail witb Mel&na. This diftinguiilied perfonage is the 
Prince of Bifcaris, a nobleman whofe public fpirit, accord- 
iog to the concurrent teftunony of travellers, would 
have been highly confpicuous, even among the patriots of 
, ancient Rome. Speaking of his palace, the Counrde Borch 



lo Cotnte <te Borch's LeiUrt tn Sicify and Maltha. 

observes, " diat if its outfrde doct not tjifphy much magnifi- 
cence, its internal beauties make ample compenfation for 
thisdefcft. Itg owner, when he bniit it, undriignedly ex- ' 
hibited a fpecimen of his own mode of thinking. Great 
modeily, and the mofl cultivated mind and- upright hearty 
I'uch is the portrait of the prince of Bifcans, and whoever 
has the happtnefs of knowing hi.ti, will perceive the moft 
ftriking likenefs. His turn of mind has alfo inthienced 
whatever approaches or belongs to him; the piincefs, his 
houfchold, his friends, all participate his politenefs and vir- 
tues, I amforry that the brevity of this work will not al- 
low mc to dwell on fo intercfting a fubjeA i but yoa ftiall 
be no lofcr ; on my return I will defcribe to you fome of 
the noble undertakings of this Prince, who is defervedly 
the idol of the Catanians," Here follows a Ihort account of 
his cabinet, which appears to have been farnifhcd with the 
utmoft magnificence and the jufteft tafte, but Wc baftcn to 
objcfls more intercfting. " The Prince, proceeds «ur Au- 
thor, ftrongly inclined to the ftndy of antiquities, has de- 
voted conliderable funis to the difcoveryof the anticnt monu- 
ments, by which the city of Catania was cmbeltiihed : to 
him we owe the recovery of the ancient theatre, amphi- 
theatre, baths, and namachia. I fhall make no rc&tariis on 
any of thefe monuments, for the Prince himfetf has under- 
taken to defcribv them, and I dart net tread in his foot- 
fteps*. All the plans are ready, and this interftmg work 
willfoon begivcn to the puUtc. But this is not the only 
enterprizc to which the Prince has confecnted bis time and 
talents. An immcnfe tra£t of foil covettsd With lava, lan- 
guifhed in the moft complete inaction, and adding fterility 
to the conft»it and dreadful im^e of the moft Cruel of all 
difafters, excited a<)ually in the mind of the native and the 
Granger the ideas of horror, difcouragement, and ^^rehenfioii. 
In this ftatc of things, tlic Prince undertakes to reftore to na- 
ture her original ^iendour. The lava broken in pieces, and 
employed with ftill, changes its dreary afpe£t, opens its fertile 
bofom for the reception of a thoufand diflereM plants, noi^ 
riftiesthem with its juices, enlivens tbetn with its falts, and 
nature more vigorous than ever, feems to infringe her own 
laws, and to add new beauties to her produdions. Tbe 
fcene of -this modem metamorpho^ ift . called Sekiarra. 
The Prince has begun to build hero a country feat, which 
will perhaps one day be another wonder of ks kind. Not 
content with his own labours, the Prinoe delimits in en- 

* This work hag been fioce publilhed at Naples. 



' Comte de Bcudi's Litttrs tn "Sicily *ni Maltha. 1 1 

ctrangins the arts and fciences. Under hit aufpices has 
arilbA tlie ilhiflntMii focKtr, taown by die tide of die 
Academy »f Etna, and ^ich Mr. Brydone has not bad eitbei: 
time or opportuAjty for cilifnating, fiiioe hit decifion con- 
cerning it IS equtlljr vnlatourablc and fal&. You, I believe 
will be convinced of this, if 1 t«ll you that ttu Prince of 
Bifcaris IS peelident, and the Canon of Recnpcro fecreUry. 
The latter, whofc uncommon acqufitioni of knowtedge 
have perhaps contributod to form the greyer part of Mr. 
Brydonc's work, is not exhibited in il with ibc dignity ade- 
quate to the fubjefl. The Englilb traveller could only dif- 
cov>er focial talents in the learnt Cauniaii ; be anributci to 
him a itrong difpoGtion to jollity; a lew notions derived 
from fome cafual obfcrvations on the dimeniions, produc- 
tions, and revolutions of Etna ; he frequently imputes to 
him his own ideas, or confounds hii rcafonings ; indilcreetly 
publifltes his falliet at table, anderefts mere conjeftures into 
fyftcms adopted and fDilowed, without attending to the con- 
fequences of fucfa condufi. Far from delerving to be reprc- 
fented in this manner, Recupero truly merits the vows all 
the refie^ing part of Sicily oStK, that a minilter equally 
vigilant and well informed, would extend the bounty of 
the king to him, and communicate to the nation the rare 
acquirements which he has derived from experience, and 
which a deficiency of means oblige* him to confine to his 
own clofet!" 

We cannot avoid «Aferving here, thit if Mr. Brydone 
has injtiriouJly degraded Recupero to a jolly, iceptical prielf, 
the Sicilian traveller exalts him to the rank of a great natu- 
T^ft with as little foundation. Mr. de Siuffure, to whofe 
authority we are inclined to pay greater deference than ci- 
ther to that of the Englifh or Sicilian traveller, reprefcnts 
him as a man ardent in the purfuit of knowledge, and par- 
ticularly of mineralogy, but without much acquaintance 
with the fubjefl for want of opportunities of inltru£tion. 
He had no teacher, fays that refpcAable writer, and has 
fcaice any bookt, and how can the nature of foflils be learn- 
ed witbont fuch Bids? Hence, when I wifhed to convince 
htm of the falfity of an opinion he entertained, 1 found he 
had no common principles to which reference might be 
made. Such, or nearly fuch, for we quote from memory, is^ 
the account of M. de Saulfure. 

Tlic Count de B<Hch notices another zoiiJeprefentation 
of Mr. Brydone in this letter. *' Mr. Brydeoe, fays he, 
mentioning his regict at being obliged to take the height of 
£ma by the barometer, for want o{ inflruments to work 
geometrically, aSiiU, that he could oot find a fingle qua- 

i2 Gomtede Borch's Letters tin Sicily and Mait^. in the whole city of Catania ; he did not then attend 
to the Mufeum of the Benedjfline Friars, which contains 
.four of thcfc inftrumcnts, in very good condition. From a 
rcprefcntation tjjus candid and cxaft, wc may judge what 
confidence is to be placed upon the relations of travellers, 
concerning more remote countries." 

The next Letters contain a defcription of our Author's 
journey to Mo«nt Etna. He had fcarcc quitted the walls of 
Catania, before he found himfelf in the oiidft of the lava 
produced by the eruption of 1669. It is only within the 
laft twenty, years that a fmall lychcn has made its appearance , 
upon it. The long fpace this fpecies of vegetable will live, 
when left to itfclf, is well known to Botaniits. " Let the 
time, fays our Author, rcquifite for the different fuccefilons 
to grow, die, and be decompofcd, be calculated, and then 
let the calculator affign the sera of the firft lava, and fix the 
limits of the duration of the world." For further informa- 
tion, he meafurcd the depth of foil upon the more modern 
lavas, and found that of 1 157 to have 12 inches, 
* J329 8 

1669 I i| lines, 

1760 o o 

It appears from this mcafurement, th^t onp hundred years 
are fcarce fufficient to add a ftratum of the thickncfs of afini- 
gle line. " What then, adds the 'Author, are we to conclude 
from the lavas of the Cape of Catania, where fcvcn different 
layers have been found, each divided from the other by a 
ftratum of foil three inches thick, of which the formation 
would require 9600 years, and if we deduA 1600, on ac- 
count of the decora pa fition of the lava itfelf, 8000 will re- 
main for the age of the world, even fuppofing the firft lava 
to have been thrown up witliin the firfl 1000 years after the 
creation, and that Etna is coeval with the earth," 

He next proceeds to the regions of Etija, which he divides 
into more fpecies than other travellers have done. Speak- 
ing of the inhabitants of this mountain, he reprehends, as 
ufual, Mr. Brydone, for reprefenting them in fo unfavour- 
able a point of view. " Exafperated, fays he, by the fatigue 
ariiing from a toilfome journey, and fome obftacles that a- 
rofe in his way, he grinds together tlie darkeft hues. And 
no wonder, for lefs is fufficient to awaken the ill-humour of 
an Engiiftiman." On the otlier hand, Jie animadverts on 
. Baron Riedcfcl, for holding them .forth in too amiable 4 
light. The Count de Borch defcribcs the complexion and 
features of the girls, as in the higheft degree beautiful anc) 



Comw de Borch's Letttri en Sicily and Maliha. 13 

engaging till they come to the age of eleven or twclvt. But 
after this period, various caufes contribute to e^e the 
graces of their earlier years. " The fine Grecian profiles 
become too long, or elfe the features turn large and coarfe ; 
the dazzling carnation of the Ikin gives place to a livid and 
tawny hue, and at the age of puberty the god of love finds 
only widiered flowers." The men are faid to be robuft and 
lively, obliging and hofpitable. 

After various remarks on the natural hiftory of the moun- 
tain, we find our Author again at Catania. Before he leaves 
this city, on his departure for Syracufc, he tells us, that the 
mode of living is particularly pjeafant, refcmbling the French 
falhion more than at any other place in Sicily. 

The monuments of antiquity at Syracufe, alFord room 
for various remarks : this is a fiibjeft upon which the Au- 
thor always dwells with peculiar fatisfm£tion. The two 
ports, the fountain of Aretliufa, the river Alpheus, the ear 
of Dionyfius, and feveral temples, are his chief topics. The 
prefent ftate of tliis celebrated city, affords one of the moft 
melancholy inftances of the revolutions effefted by time. 
Such is its extreme wretchednefs, and fo feldom is it vifited 
by ftrangers, that the whole city does not afford a fingle inn. 
After many fruitlcfs enquiries, the Count met witli an apart- 
ment without bed, chair, or table, for which the owner alli- 
ed near thirty ihiltings a day, but let it at laft for about 
three. In Syracufe, lays our Author, filthinefs feems to 
have fixed her favourite abode, and the itch, her faitliful at- 
tendant, Ihowers her favours alike on the rich and the 

The next letter contains a number of obfervations on 
the fortifications, buildings, military eftablilliment, knights, 
and amufemcnts of Malta. The fociety among the nobles 
is not of the moft agreeable kind. They are faid to receive 
a narrow education, to be full of prejudices, to have a dit- 
gufting addrefs, and to be proficients in the arts of diifimu- 
lation. The women live in great retirement, and the, men 
do not much differ from them in this refpeft. For ftrang- 
gers and the knights their houfes arc fo many inacceffihle 
forts. An acquaintance of twenty years is "fcarce fufficicnt 
to gain admifiion. Our Author, upon enquiry, found that 
the gallantry of the ancient knif^hts was the motive for this 
rcferved conduft. The order lo deeply refcnted tliis exclu- 
fion as to ordain, that ro native of the ifland ihould ever 
be made a knight. But the prefent Grand Mafter is endea- 
vouring to reuore harmony and intercourfe, and with fome 
profpcS of fuccefs. 

In the fucceding letters the Author gives an account of 


14 Comte dt Borch's Letters an Sicify and Maltha. 

^ Lipari ifhnds, attending wberawer fao goec, to the ntan- 
tiers oi the jprcfettt, and the iciaaMts of paft ages ; his at- 
tention is alio diredtd to the objcAs of natural hiftory ; and 
we fcaicdy reiQcniber aiij- travclisr, Who has printed ta his 
ireaders fuch a boundlefs variety of topics, fiutfbrhis le- 
maiks on them, we mud refer to the work. We can only 
lay before our Reatkn the fuioniary of ths Vhole, in an 
extraft from the lail letter. 

After foRM very nsailsrly tcfledions on ihe difficulty of 
forming an impartial judgment concetnu^ any nation what- 
ever ; reBciftions which wc rocommeRd to the pcruiair 
both of thofe who intend to write, and thofe who reid books 
of travels, he proceeds to the principal intention of his let- 
ter, viz. the chara^er of the Sicilians. '*- The unhappy 
xra of the Sicilian Vcfprrs, ha» entailed upon the natives of 
that iJland, the epithet of ^di£live aod ^thlefe. I at- 
tempt not to apologize for an action of fuch bcinoos barba- 
rity, but let me aik their accnfers, whether the Spapjardi 
were more humane at Mexico, or the French at tl^ mal£t" 
ere of St. Bardiolomcw, and many other natio&s in circam- 
ftancee of a like nature. Let then the fame epithets be ap- 
plied to all thefe nations ; foi certainly the aSiors in icenes. 
fo horrid, were little ftiort of monfters ; bat, if they fiained 
Aeir hand^ with the blood of their fellow creatures, did they 
therefore bequeath to their defendants, maxims fo harbar- 
ous? Every well -informed Sicilian condemns tliat atroci- 
ous and fanguinary ftep of his anceftors ; an excafs, how- 
ever, the more pardonable in a free people, enflaved, and 
impaticiitiy fubmiiting to the yoke of an imperious Conque- 
ror, whofe wantonnej^ often infringed the mofl &cred laws. 
Except during the fhort period of the tyranny of the Sara- 
cens, the Sicilians have been at all times free ; whether a re- 
publican power prevailed, or vrhether a monareh dilated 
the laws, tlie fundamental conftitution of the realm, tlie or- 
donnances of the petty flatcs, of which it is compofed, en- 
fured its immunities. Hence the Sicilian has been accuf- 
tomed to a fpirit of independence, which the abufes of the 
feudal fyfiem contributed not a little to augment ; a feint 
which education How moderates, and different intcrefts foft- 
en under the prefent government, but have not entirely dc- 
Aroved, as the treatment of the Viceroy Fogliaai, and the 
coniequencss of that revolution Ihew. - 

" The mechanical organization, the very flruftureof the 
Sicilian, fuggcfl the idea of his manners and gualificattoiiE. 
The inhabitant of this iiland is generally of a middle fea- 
ture ; robuft, from the exa£t proportion of his limbs, with- 
out having great miifcular ftrength ; well formed in every 


■ l-.l.;.J.yG00gIC 

Comte de BoFch'g Letttrt ui S'uilj end Maltha. ij 

|artofhii body, the head oval, the pbyfiognomy fcrfible, 
the eye quick, the complexion olive, tttc hair of a brown 
cheTnuC colour. He t$ penetrating;, active, equal to any ex- 
cTtion when he has a dctcrininatc objcft in view, but when 
he lofcs tight, or hat only a diftant profpcd of it, he droops, 
becomes iRdotcnt, thoughtlefs, and often foi^cts his origi- 
Daldefign. Hofpitality is tbo ^Vourite virtue of the Sici- 
lian; it is common to every rank and degree, and what is 
remarkable, it is praCtifed without the leaft onentation. 
The people are univcrfally generous, and too often to pro- 
digality i calculating Hteir revenues by this turn of mmd, 
they attend not to ma fuggdtions of prudence, and hence 
ruin too fioquently enfues. The miferies of the civil wars 
have imprciud upon every heart, a YinQure of diftmft and 
ditlimulation, at €rft fomcwhat ofienfive, birt which wears 
off by the affiDance of a more intimate acquaintance. 

'* Afingularlty, obfervabtc in the manners of this nation is, 
that itismorc jcalousof its own inhabitants thanitrangers ; this 
peeuiiarity,' ftili more remarkable at Palermo than ellewhere, 
has giyen rife to the invention of an emblem for tliat city, of 
a venerable ol<t man crowned with a diadem, and holding a 
ferpent in his hand, which is gnawing his bofom, with tbefe 
Words fubjoined, ^lieHot ttutrll, feiffum dtvorat. This em- 
Uem ftill exiits in the Scnate-houfe. The Sicilian is natu- 
rally fobcr, but runs into all the excelTls of luxury, while 
he believes that he is following the bon ton. The climate 
inclines him to the moft violent afTedion, and he accord- 
ingly gives himlelf up to all the poifon of that enchanting 
poffion without rcferve, and an emotion of jealoufy often 
produces a tuddcn and blind ^nzy, which renders his Aeps 
as dangerous to kimfclf, as to the objects that excited it. 
Though an tgtujl to cxccfs, he is no mifanthropc, but on 
the contrary, capable of the tcndereft friendOiip, and the 
moft generous effopts. When at home, by his firc-fide. 
along with his miArefs, he attends only to himfelf, and his 
own gratification, but when invefled with-a public craploy- 
tnent, and charged with the reprcfentation of his countrv, 
be is no longer the (kme pcrfon, he beconie<: a zealous citi- 
een, an undaanred patFiot, and fp«nds his fortune, and 
pours out his blood, in defence of the caufe which he 
cfpoufes. It has been at N^les, rather tlian in Sicily, that 
1 have learned this truth, fcvery Sicilian among the num- 
bers in that capital, has his particular views, frequently ciafh- 
iag with each other ; they are guided by different projects, 
and are mutually jealous. Let an incident arife, in which 
Ae nation in general is concerned, all rivallhtpccafes, envy 
is cstinguiOied, and they now form a reCpeftablc body, ani- 


i6 Comtc dt BoTch's Leiten en Sici/y and Maiiia. 
mated by the fame fpirit, guided by the lame views, which 
are no other than tlic honour and advantage of the country 
in general. Happy people, whofe very dereAs are converted 
into virtues on emergency ! - - , 

" The genius of the Sicilian differs not widely from his 
charader. Lively and difcerning, his conception is eafy, 
his apprehenfion quick, his memory exaA ; obliacles fo far 
from daunting, ftimulatc and animate him to escefs. 
Idolizing his country, and full of the idea of its ancient 
grandeur, he is highly fufceptiblc of fclf-love, and entcruins 
of himfelf the moft favourable opinion ; notions which have 
had no fmall influence in retardmg the ingrels of knowledge 
from abroad ; for he, who believes that his knowledge ex- 
tends to every fubjeft, does not enquire with much folJci- 
tudeconccrnmg the acquiiitions of others." 

Scholallic learning, we are told, is the firft objcft of ftu- 
dv, next jurifprudencc, then the mathematics. Philofo- 
piiy, adulterated with its ancient barbaxifms, is taught in 
the fchools. Natural hiftory and chemifiry are known only 
by name, if we except botany. Politics and hiftory have 
been of late attended to ; but poetry above all, and mulic 
have had, in every age, inexpreffible charms in the eyes of 
this nation, and there are fomc Sicilian poetical works that 
dtferve to be better known abroad. The ftudy of antiqui- 
ties is alfo much purfued. 

" There prevails a ftrange want of oeconomy, and the 
knowledge necellary for the management of domeftic affairs. 
Moft of the antient Amities are ruined, or overwhelmed by 
debt, infomuch, that many have been obliged by their 
creditors, to fell tlieir titles. Thus the title of Pater- 
no, ii> the fpaceof two centuries, has been borne by fire 
different families. 

" This thoughtlelTnefs of the nobility, has diffufed through 
every place an inconceivable lethargy, a want of induftry, 
more remarkable in Sicily than clfcwhcre, if we conftder the 
genius of the natives. It is common in Sicily, to fee the 
lazy farmer negleft his land, let his manufaftures fall intf> 
decav, and allow his buildings to tumble down piecemeal^ 
rather than perform the neceflary repairs. Hence the fineft 
palaces threaten ruin, agriculture is in a miferable condition, 
the greater part of tlie land is in a ftateOf wilderncfs, the reft 
is cultivated with negligence, without manure, withottc 
mixing different foils, in Ihort without the fmalkft pains, 
always under the idea that a country ftvrich in itfelf, ougbt 
to provide for every want by its produftions, without the 
concurrence of man, who has only juft to oped its furface 
with his Iharc, and cntruft to tlie furrows the feed which lie 



Vifli(s to-propagittf. NotwitbftaodiQg this, thepe w a con- 
fidfirablc exportation of corn. Silk* arp tlic next article of 
tiie natujral rjchcs of th^j ifiaod. Jt ^xpprts near 950,000 
pounds anauaUy. Thofe matjf u Mcliioa and Palermo arj 
the beft belonging to the iflai>d. The other articles of Cpm- 
merce are oils, figs, almonds, railiAs of Corinth, Jiax, pif- 
tacttio nuts, wine, fulphur and dificreiit minerals j^n^ 

Tbe Sicilian Bunufaaures arc tpuch degenerated froip 
their aiu:icii,t Itate, thofe wliich yet linger in (xiilence are 
in a very languifhing coaditlpti, although fcver^l l^rangers 
have contributed tneir efforts to the re-eftabUlhmeiit o.f 
iheta. The chief are thofe of velvet atidCUtftgffat Mcflina 
and Palermo, where ftockings arc aifo luadc. The paper work^ 
of Montreal have fome reputation. The fugar plantations 
of Avalaand Mellili are deftroyed. The induftry of fome 
£paaifh foldiers has given rife to a manutiidure entirely new, 
ia which mftead otiilk, cotton, ortiax, the nbres of a fpe- 
ciesof Alocis employed^" {Here follows a particular ac- 
count of the fabrication of cameos and coloured mart>le5, 
which we are obliged to omit for the fake of brevity.) 

" Tiie Siciliaa language is a di^e£t t^ tlic Italiao, >b9t ib 
mtnipt Aod f uH of words peculiar to the Country, qt derived 
JromtbeiGreck, or Arabic, that no Italiau can underhand 
it. One of its beauties is, jxs gre»t coacifecKfs ; it is how- 
ever ndiio f ^nonimes and fine expreflions. This concife- 
wfs is adiiianCageiHis to the poetry of tlM nation, which fpr 
lliisrcsfoncaa tievsrbe well traiiHated ; for what a Siciliaip 
will j&.y in ten *r twelve lines, jtnnft bedrowjiedin ^ page 
tjfciiEiifnlocutiims, which will deliroy the rapidity and co- 
pionfcu^s of the thoughts. A lingular peculiarity of thip 
people confifts in tlie general ufc of figns and geftures ; of 
Ibdp, the Jw^flge is io expreffivc, that ju a coofiderablfi 
dijlance, aod ina laige company, twoj«rfons will joutuallj 
ondetftand and communicate their thoughts to each other. 
The :l'aine ligns and geftnres are not applicable on all 9cca- 
fians; a woman has dilferent fets, one for herhulband, an- 
anothcr for her. lover, and others for her friends. Tliis 
dij&rence in tSe slphabet produces, if I may fo fpesik, thte* 
ilifi^irantjanguages, which the timeperfon uies with equal fa- 
■cihty. The fame aptnefs is obfervable alfo in children, wh© 
from thcic earUeft infancy, begin to compofe with their 
ichoolliellows, « language peculiar to theiofelves. Tjiis a- 
tifes from tlie national pronenefs to ge{iicu!ation \ a SicilUa 
xannot ucter the moil indifieTent ph^afe, without accompa- 
nving it with an expceflive geftui4. It it jTuppofed that th* 
dste of their geftures and figns is coeval wim the rra pS 

iwe.Hiv. Vol. II. July 1783. 3 Dioay- 


t8 'Blair's LtRurtr on Rhetoric and StlUt Lettrtt. 

Dionyfius the elder, whofe tyranny forbidding the Intei"- 
.courfe of fpeech obliged his fubjcfts to invent new means of 
communicating their thoughts, andconfoling their mutiial 
'miferics. I will not anfwer for the reality of this origin. 
But from whatever fource this ufage is derived, I cannotliut 
admire it, and a^nre you, T I'egard it as the moft fublime 
pantomime I have ever beheld." 

To thcfc letters is added a memoir on the thread of aloes 
6r zabbara, written by order of the King of Naples. They 
are alfo illuitrated by twenty-fcven plates and three maps. 
The obfervations they contain fecm pertinent and judicious: 
they appear to us to proceedjfrom a mind aftire and capaci- 
ous by rtatiire, and itored With elegant and ufefiil knowledge 
by education and indullry. 

Art. III. LtBures »» Rbtttric and BtUes Ittitrtj. Bjr Hugh Blair, 
D. D- one of the Miniftera of the High Church, and ProfeAbr 
of Rhetoric and Bellct Lcttres in the UDircHIty of £dinburgh. 
In two Voluroeh 4(0, i\. las. 6d. Boards, Sirahan and 

IT was to have bceri expcAcd from va. Author who treats 
formally of Rhetorick and the Belles Lettrcs, that he 
would have allotted fome pages to the importance of the 
findies in which he had engaged; and that he would have 
afccrtained the rank which they hold in academical educa- 
tion. To thefc purpofes, accordingly. Dr. Blair devotes 
an introductory leftufe \ and it mult be allowed, that the 
encomiums he bellows upon his &voiirite occupations are 
abundantly high. But though our admiration is not car* 
ried to them lo ftrongly as his, we, notwithftanding, are of 
opinion, that their advantages are great ; and that the pof- 
fcflion of genius and ability, is rendered the more ufefuland 
corred, as well as the more fhining and ornamental, by cul- 
tivation and polith. 

Having enumerated the general topics which give confi- 
deration and utility to the fubjeft of his academical prelec- 
tions, the Author enters, with a becoming gravity, upon 
the buiinefi of bis department. He commences bis unaer- 
taking with fome inquiries concerning tafte, ' as it is thit 

* faculty which is always appealed to in difquifitions con- 

* cerning the merit of difcourfe and writing. Upon this 
part of his courfe, be is very full ; for he has appropriated 

' no lefs than four le£tures to it. But while he examines into 
the pteafures of tafte, and into its applications to the fine 
arts, he does not, in our opinion, exhibit any fentiments 
which ftrikc from their novelty. This being me cafe, hii 


Bl^'s LtBurei an Hhetariei ami Btllei ttttnt. 19 

DbCcrvations ought to have been made with plainncfs and 
brtvity. -For what was known xnd famihar, requiTcd nb 
art or apparatus to iniroclgcc it. Much art, however, and 
apparatus arc employed by our Author to bring forward hit 
conciufions. The confcquence is, that the mind of his 
Reader opens itfclf for the reception of new difcovcries. It 
Iblacci itlclfwith the proipcA of new enjoyments. Bat no 
new enjoymeoii arc to come ; no new difcovcries are to be 
made ; and thedifcerning inquirer is fomewhat fcandalized, 
to be deluded with grand preparattoos that are t» lead only 
to old and eftablifhed truths. 

After having given what he is pleafed to term hk inquiries 
into taAe, the Author calls our attention ID language. To 
this fubjcA, which is certainly very curious, he appears to 
l»ve applied the fulleft extent of his powers. He cndea- 
iwirs, in leveral particulars, to detail the rife and progrefs 
of lango^e ; and the rife and progrefs of writing. He Ulfo 
mlks into the field of univerfal grammar; and ventures to 
malte an application of it to the EngliJh tongue. As penc- 
trabon, however, and profbundnefs are not his charafterif- 
ticS| we meet here with no theories of his own. But while 
lie difcovers bis prudence in avoiding the career of invention, 
he has attended with care to what has been advanced upon 
thofe fubjeAs by Dr. Smith, Mr. Harris, the Prefident dc 
BroOe, the Abbf Condillac, and other writers of eminence. 
Many able remarks, accordingly, arefcattcred through this 
portion of his perfonnancc. But the fentiments of thofe 
diftiaguiQicd fcnoUrs from whom he tranfcribes, arc, doubt- 
lefe, to be perufcd with greater emolument in their own 
Works ; and it can hard^ cfcape the moft fuperficial oblerver 
that they fufferconfiderably by pafTing through the hatuls of 
a writer, who, notwithftatiding, his application and dili- 
gence, does not always appear cither to have undeiftood 
their meaning, or to nave percAved the tendency to which 
tbey pointed moil llrongly. 

Having finiDied the reaiarks which he thought it right ^o 
col1e£t concerning language, the Author goes mto the con- 
fideration of ftyie, and the rules which relate to it. Under 
this branch of nis undertaking, he treats firft of perfpicuity 
as the fundamental quality of ftyle. He then enlarges upon 
the ftruflure of fentcnces ; and having wandered over this 
fubjeft^ he enters upon figurative language. Bat in this dl- 
vifioQ of bis book, he, as ufual,' exhibits nothing that & 
nocommon, or his own. Dr. Lowth, {..ord Kaims, Dr. 
Campbell, Dr. Ptiellley, Monlieur Marfais, and Abbif Gi- 
latd wf re guides whom he kfiew how to refpeA ; and. whom 
^ was faw9U^le . he could confuU without fome benefit. 
B a ' But, 


; sp ^I^tr's l.e^nru en fihtttr'u mJ StUet Ltttret. 

. Bflt, 1)», by no meaq$, rxhauAs thb fiibjcd ; for upon figa< 
rative langu^c be is brief; affc&iog lo «xplain only thoff 
%ure3of fpetdi wbich occur moft frequently. Mucb,ac- 
cordwagiy. 19 pafled over by him ; and as every book fhould 
be ae perfeft as pofliblc, we muft (^onderan his omiHioos. 
Nofi^ itwiy jufti^caiion of him, on the prefent occailoa, 
that his omiflions are vojuntary, for, jn an Author, in 
twhom labour is tb? cbi«f <]ualihcatkui, every fytnptont of 
idlenefs is to be considered as unpajdonabJjs- N°T' ()t]gbt i^ 
to.bcibj:go«en, that by his own confeflioo be bad wafted «g,- 
on Ilia work more than twenty four year*. 

From what he has faid of the difiwfnt qua^tieS' of ftylc, 
.w< fhall here layitqfore our Readers an ntraA. fot ti^i^ V 
niufenient; and this we (hall do tlie: mprfi wtlUngly, 9A D^ 
Blair, in this part of his book, was affifted by a mif\»i^r^ 
which was communicated to htm by the leamed and inge> 
nious.Dr. Adam Smith. . , : . 

* HiTHeR TO we have confidercd Style under ihule char^^t tl^r 
rerpe^ itaexprelliveneftof an autbor's meapin^. Let usjtow pro- 
ceed to confider it In another view, with re'fpe£t to the degree of 
ornament employed to beautify it. Here, the Style of oiflereiit 
authors feems to rife, in the following gradation : a Dry, a Plain, 
a Neat, an Elegant, a Flowery manner. Of each of theft iti 
their order. 

' First, a Dry tninner. Thisexcludes alt ornament uf eveiy 
kind. Content with being underdood, it has not the lead aum-io 

Sleafe, either the fancy or the ear. This U t>)lerable only in -pane 
ida^C writing ; and even there, to make us bear it, great weight 
and folidity ormattef i». re^uifite: and entire perfpieuny of l.aii- 
guage, Arillotle is the thorough esample of a Dry Style. Never, 
perhaps, was there any author who adhered To rigidly to the flriifl- 
nefs of a didaiSic manner, throughout all his writings, and coq- 
veyed fo much inftniftion ivithoat the leaft approach to ornament. 
With the moll profound geniui, and extenfive views, he writes tike 
a pure intelligence, whoaddfeffes'himfelf folely to the underftand- 
ing, without making any ufe of the channel of the imagination. 
gut this 13 a manner which dcferres not to bb imitated. For, aK 
.thoagh the goodoefs of the matter may C()mpenf3te the drynefs or 
harflinrfs of the Sf^le, yet is ithat drynefs a confidersble defed; 
as it fatigues attention, and conveys our fenument)', with diladvan- 
tage, to the reader or hearer. 

' A Plain Style rifes one degree above ' a Dry one. A writer 
of this charadier, employs very htile ornament of any kind, and 
rells, almoft, entirely upon his fenfe. But, ifheii at do pains to 
engage us by the employment of figures, mafical arrangement, or 
any otherart of writing, be {ludies, however, to avoid difgaftiag us 
like a dry and a harih writer. Befides Perfpicuity, he purfues Pro- 
priety, Purity, and Precifion, in bis LangU;^e ; which fbnn obe 
.degree, and noinconfiderable one, of beauty. Livelinets too, and 
foree, may be confiftenl with a very Plain Style i and, therefore, 



Bktr'ti €effkris m iUxtaH amd BAUi LeOrS. SI 

fnA an author, if his rentimcMi b> good, may be abundintly a* 
greeablc. The diS^rence between a dry mcd ■ plaiu writer, '», thai 
riie former is incapable of ornament, and feemi not (o know wbat 
it ii ; the latter freks not after it. He givci ua hit auaiiing:, in 
good luigusige, diflind and pure j any further □roame&t be gives 
himfelf no trouble about ; either, becauie he thinks it iinnecei&ry 
tohii fubjeft : or, becsufe his geniui doei not lead hint to deli^K 
ID it,' or, becaufeit leddihim todefpili! it*> 

' lliia h,& was the cafe with Dean Swift, who may be placed at 
thtbcad of thofe that have emfrfoysd the Plain Style. Few writer* 
bive difcorered more npacity. He treats corv fubjeS which he 
bandies, whether ferious or ludittoui, in 1 maJterly manner. He 
knew, fllmoU, beyond any man, the Purity, the Extent, the Pre- 
cifianof the £deIiBi Language; and, tbere&ire, to fuch a* wiAi ta 
actiia a pure and corrcA Style, he is one of the mofl ufcfui models. 
Sut we mull not look for much ornament and grace in hi« Language, 
His haughty and marofe geniui, made him defpife any embcllilli- 
ntent of this kind as beneath his dignity. He deliven hie fentl- 
inenit in a plain, downright, politive manner, like one who is furc 
he is in the right; and is very indifit rent whether you be pleafed or 
not. His fcntenccs are commonly negligently arranged ; difiinft- 
ly enough as to the fenfe ; but, without any regard to fmoothnefi 
ii foand ; often without much regard to compadncfs or elegance. 
Ifametaphor, or any other %ure, chanced to render his (atire 
more poig-naat, he would, perhaps, voucbfafe to adopt it, when it 
came m his way ; but if it tendea only to embellilh and illuftratei 
he would rather throw it afide. Hence, in his ferious pieces, bit 
%le often borders upon the dry and unpleaTrng ; in his humourous 
ones, the plainncl* of his manner gives his wit a fingnbf ti%e, and 
few itoffto the bigbell advantage. There is no froihi or afeftation 
in it; ilflowi without any Audied preparation; and while he hardly 
appears to linile himfelf, hemskes his reader laugh heartily. To 
a writer of fuch a genius as Dean Swift, the Plain Style was moft ad- 
mirably fitt«d. Among our pbilofophical writers, Mr. Locke comet 
oaderihii clafs; perfpicuous and pure, but almoA without any or- 
ntmcat whatever. In works which admit, or require, ever fomuch 
Ornament, there are parts where the plain manner aught to p.edo- 
niDate. But w« moil lemembcr, that when this is the charuder 
irliich B writer affeds througbout bis whole corapolition, great 
mig^iofinaner, ani great force of fcntiment, are required, in or- 
^to keep up the reader's attention, and prevent him from tiring 
of the author. 

' What ia called a Neat Style comes neit in order; and here 

' * On this bead, of the General Charai^.lers of Style, particu- 
larly, the Plain and the Simple, and the charafters of thofe Eng- 
lllh authors who arc clalTed under ibem, in this, and the foUutvinfr 
Leflure, feveral ideas have been taken from a manulcript Ireatifc 
on rhetoric, part of which was iliewn to me, man;)- years ago, by 
th( learned and ingenious Author, Dr. Adam Smith ; and which^ 
it K hoped, will be given by bira to the Public' 

B J we 


IS Blair'i Leituret m Sheterle and BtJUt Lttlret. 

we are '^<>t i"*^ <^ region of oraameiu j but that ornament not of 
the higheft or moll rparklin^ kind. Awriterof (hi*cbaradeTfliDi«*, 
that he doei Dot defpiTe the beauty of LangUige. It ii an obje<^ of 
Ait atienliQii. But hii utEeniioD a Hiowa in the choiceof bis words 
gnd in agraceful collocation of them ; rather than in any high ef- 
toTti of imagination, or eloquence. Hi« fcntenco are always clean, 
uid free from the incumbrance of fuperSuous word* ; of a moderate 
length; father inclining to brevity, than a fwelling ftruiSuref 
doling with propriety ; without any taila, or adjc^oni dragging 
after (he proper clofe. His cadence it varied; but not of the 
Audied mulical kind. His figures, if he ufei any, are ibort and 
corre3; rather than bold and glowing. Such a Style as this, majr 

- "be attained by awriter wbohaa no great poweri of fancy or genlui ( 
by indufhy merely, and careful attcnliun Co the rulei of wilting ) 

■ and it is a Style always agrecahle. It imprints a charafter of mode- 
rate elevation on ourcompoiiiion, and carries a decent degree of 
ornament, which is not unfuiiable to any f\ibje£t whatever. A fa- 
miliar letter, or a law paper, on the dried fubjcd, maybe written 
with neatnefa; and a fermon, or a philofophical treatife, inaNeu 
Style, will read with plcalnre. 

' An Elegant Style is a character, eipreffing a higher iepiree of 
ornament than a neat one ; and, indeed, is the terin ufually ap- 
plied to Style, when poflclling all the viftue of ornament, without 
any of its CTcetTes or defefli. From what has been formerly deli- 
vered, it will eafily be underilood, that complete Elegance implies 
great perfpicuity and propriety ; purity in the choice of words, and 
care ^nd dexterity in their harmonious and happy arrangement. 
It implies, farther, the grace and beauty uf Imagination fpread over 
Style, as tar as the fubjeft admin it ; and all the illuftration which 
Figurative Language adds, when properly employed. In a word, 
an elegant writer is one who pleafei the fancy and the ear, while 
he informs the underflandintr ; and who gives us hii ideas clothed 
with all the beauty of cTpreflion. but not overcharged with any of 
its mifplaccd finery. In this clafs, therefore, we place only the 
&r& rate writen in the Language ; fuch as, Addifon, Drydcn, Pope, 
Temple, Boltngbroke, Atterbury, and a few more : writers who 
difier widely from one another in many of the attributes of Style, 
but whom we now clais together, under the denomination of Ele- 
- gant, as in the fcale of Ornament, poiTeffing nearly the fame place. 
' When the ornaments, applied to Style, are too rich and gaudy 
in proportion to the fubjeii ; when they return upon us too faff, 
and ftrike us either with a daxiling lullre, or afalfe brilliancy, tbia 
forme what is called a Florid Style ; a term comnionly ufed to fig- 

' Dify the exccl'a of ornament. In a young compofer this is very par- 
donable. Perhaps, it is even apromiliogfymptom in young people, 
that their Style ftiould incline to the Florid and Lumriant : " Volo 
*• fe efferai in adolofceote fKcuudita«," fays Quinflilian, " multum 
" inde decoquent anni, multum ratio limabit, aliquid veint ufa 
" ipfo deteretur ; fit modo unde excidi poflit quid et ejeulpi.— 
" Atideat hm: «tas plura, et inveiiiat et invcntis gaudeat ; fint licet 
*' ilia non &tis interim (icca el fevera. Facile remedium eft uber- 


Blair's Leffuret en Rhtterk gfid.Beilft^ tedret aj 

"tatis: fterilia nulio hbore vincunter*." But, atthoush tlic 
Florid Style muy be allowed to youth, in tbeir firA ellkyir it mull 
not receive the fame indulgence from writer* of maturer yeari. It i»to 
be expected, that judgment, as it ripens, fhouldchalien iroagioatioiit 
aod r^jed, as juveuile, all fuch ornamenti ai are reduodant, ua- 
fuitabletu rlie fubjea, or not conducive to illuflrate it. Nothing 
can be m.ire cpniemptiblc than thnt tinfel fplendor of Language, 
which fome u'riiers perpetually affect. It were well, if thit could 
be aicribcd to the real ovcrfiowinga of a rich imagination. W« 
Atoutd then have foinething to amufe us, at teaft, if we found lit- 
tle to in{lru£t UB. But the worft is, that with thofe frothy writen, 
iti& 1 luzuriancy of words, not of fancy. We fee a laoouretl at- 
tempt to rife to a fplendour of eoftipolition, of which they have 
fanned to therafelvei fome loofe idea ; but having no lUength of 
geniut for attaining it, they endeavour to fupply the detect by 
poetiotl works, by cold exclamations,, by common place figures, 
and evtr^ ihinglhat hag the appearance of pomp and magnificence. 
Jc has (leaped thefe writers, that fobriety in ornatnent, is one great 
fecret tijr rendering it pleating ; and that, without a foundation of 
good fenfc and fohd thought, the moft Florid Style ii but a child- 
ilb impoGiion on the public. The Public, however, are but too 
apt to DC fo impafed on ; at leaft, the mob of Readers, who arc 
very ready to be caught, at firfi, with whatever ii daszlijif and 

' I CANNOT li$)p thinking, that it refie£ti more honour on thf 
teligioui turn, and good difpofitions of the preleot age, than on the 
public talte, that Mr. Harrey'* Mcditaiions have had fo great a 
currency. The pioui and benevolent heart, which i) always difr 
played lo them, and the lively &ncy which, on fome occalions, 
appears, jufily merited applaule : bUt the perpetual gliiter of ex- 
preffion, the Iwoln itbagery, and flruined defcription which aboundt 
in them, areornatncDtsof a falfekind. I would, therefore, advi& 
fiudents of oratory to imitate Mr. Harvey's ^ety, rather than hts 
Style ; and, in all compofitions of a ferioui kind, to turn their at- 
tention, as Mr. Pope fays, " from founds to things, from fancy to 
" the heart." Admonitions of this kind, I bave already had of^- 
caGon to give, and may hereafter repeat them j as I conteivtf no- 
thing more incumbent on me in this eourfe of Ledture), than to take 
every opportunity of cautioning my Readers a^ainft the a&fted ajx4 
frivolous ufe of ornament ; aad, inAead of that Hirhtand fuperfi- 
cial tafte in writing, which I -apprehend to be at prelenC too falbioo- ' 

* " In youth, I wilh to fee luxuriance of fancy appear. Much 
" of it will be diminilhed by years; much will be corre^ed Ivy 
" ripening judgment ; fome ot it, by the* mere praflice of compo- 
" fition, will be worn away. Let there only be fufficient matter, 
" at firtl, that can bear fome pruning and lopping olT, At this 
" time of life, let genius he bold and inventive, and pride 'ittclf m 
'* its efforts, though thefefliould not, as yet, be corred. Luxu^i- 
' ancy can eafily be cured ; but for barrennefl there i» no rt^ 

" mtdy," 

B 4 able, 


£4 'il&t'i hittirel n thrt»fU md BtlUs tettrtt. 

^le, to introduce, as faf ai my endeavours can avail, a uM 
foriftore fplid thoo^bt, and mare manly Simplic'rtyin Style.' 

fiflihg from his oWervations upon ftylc, Dr. Blair holds 
cut an analyfis of the diftion of Mr. Addifoit, in a critical 
ifxai&ii^atioTi of feveral pspcrs of the Speflator. He alfo fur- 
Ijilhes a criticil cxaminatioti of a paifagc in the writings of 
pean Swift. We approve very much, riot only of exercifes 
O^ this kind, bat of their being made upon Authors of high 
reputation. The execution, however, of Dr. Blair in thefe 
infttnces. We ve forry vo obfcrvc, is not completely to our 
tafte. His criticifms often defcend lb much into frivolity 
ind littltfnCfs, that they become puerile ; and what furprized 
vs & good deal, he fometimes gives way to a dafingncfe of 
emendation, which feemcd not natural to a writer «f his 
charaft<r. But as thefe criticifms tverc formed, in fome 
mcafurc, from the contributions of his pupils, an eafy fo- 
lution may be found for this difficulty. We arc informed 
by Dr. Blair himfelf, that the majority of the papers of the 
SpcAator examined by him, were giv^n out to his Audeiits 
as exercifes for remark and anatylis; and he very candidly 
acknowledges, that feveral c^lenrations bothon thebeauties 
andblemifhes of Addifon, were fuggefled by the cOmmuni- 
catioris giveft to him, in cOnfequeiicc of the exercifcs pre- 

it is i*ith gr^at propritiy that the Aathor, after having 
concluded wb^t he had to deliver concerning language aiid 
.i^ylc, iitshiroielf to treat of eloquence or public fpeaking. 
Jqdeed the arrangement of his work is its chief merit, and 
appears td us to be very natural and orderly. Before he ex- 
ainines iloq«enca as ah art, be gives a view of it in diiferent 
ages btiA countries. It was not, he faye, till the rife of thk 
Grecian republics, tfeit any rtttiarkablc appearances oforatory 
difplatred thcftiftlvbs: Ihconforftiity to this opinion, which 
W? ihitfk i's «eiy Cbntrovettible, he is anxious to trace the 
'.prMJcfs of eloquence among the Greeks. He then tries to 
'Jcicribe the progrftffion of this beautiful art among the Ro- ■ 
]^!ihs. gJOta ancient times he de&ends to modern periods. 
Hchafleii! over the middle ages, fays a few words about the 
Fathers, and then inquires at fome length into the fpirit of 
tloguence in Frtnce and England. To the French he af- 
iigns rtruftdly the palm of oratory ; but for this decilion Ke 
idvincei Jno fitisfeftory reafons. And in this matter, the 
free genius of our government is fo decidedly Irt out favour, 
that we cannot but expTcfs our fuiprize, thai he fliould have 
given way to a fcntiment fo fingular. He talks, indeed, of 
Jllie pleadirtgs of Patru and T)'Agueireau, and tbefe no doubt, 
have their merit. But if he had taken the trouble to have 
. -• turned 


Colrtan's tremflatim of Hn-Kt'i Jrttf Putry. SJ 
turned to the Hiftoricd CadeftionS <^ Ei^nd during the 
reign of Charles I. he would tttve fonitd ia inll prefcrradtm 
the fpeccfacs of muij cmifiein ftstefmni, which for power 
oFirgument, for force of tfxjtreffion, for aniimtioA And bold- 
nefs, ift infinity beyodd whit csn bs prodaceil in any of 
the pleaders of France. In times too, kfs dilbrdered by 
pallion, he might havs'fovnd in England, high examples of 
eloquence. We recoUeft not, fbr eiamp^, a»y orator of 
France who was fo flbwing and orUarial as Lord Boling- 
broke, fo cuhiTated as the Earl of Chefterfiald, or fo ex* 
libera nt and powerful ai the Earl of Chithaoi. Even in otii: 
own age, wc can pdint to a ftatefman, to whom our Author 
will not prcfumc td leek ail c^tral ia any defpotkc coutitry 
whawrer ; who, with every thing mnpromifing in his for- 
tune, and with nlany fuppofed defei^s in his charadef*, 
conid counteraA the firmelt Tcfolotioni of the Court, teach 
tbe.royal favour to flow in channels hoilile to prerogative, 
and raifc bimfetf to the Iplendour of high dKtinAion *nA 
power, by an overwhelming tide of ;u-guracnt and eloquence. 
But as this article grows into length, we mnft referve, till 
our next Number, what we have farther to remark concerning 
«T]r Aothor. Wc ftiall then continue onr account of the 
branches of his courfe; give particular ftriftures upon his 
language and mode of writing; and in fine, mark out the 

Eiroper fiatioa which belongs to him, in the republic of 

Aet. iSt. ^ HoratU Flacci E00L ad PUhiii, de Artt Peitha. 
The Art »f Poetry: aa Epiftle to the Pifos. TranMed from 
Horace, with Notes. By G. ColfnaD. 4ta. 79. 6d. Cadell. 

HORACE'S Art of Poetry, or Epiftle to the Pifos, has 
been long a bone of ccnterltion to Critics and Com- 
inentaiors. We may fay of ir what A. certain Popilh contro- 
verfialifl: ventured formerly to affcrt of the Bible, that it is a 
nofe of wax, (nafus cereus) which is pulled every wa.y, and 
moulded into all fafhions. It is, and it is not a complete 
Mem of poetry : According to Tome, it is a regular covino- 
»eiDn, where method and arrangement arc ftrikinglv confpi- 
ctK>us : Ifften lo others, and it is " a mafs of Ihining ma- 
*' tcriah ; like pearls nnftmng, valuable indeed, but not 
" difplaycd to advantage." Upon this fubjcfl, as upon ciery 
other where much has been faid, much learned nonfcnfc is 
accumulated. Ingenuity, through the medium of critical 
fpeftaclcs, can diiccra in the fame matter, things the moft 

* Mr. Fox. 



a& Celmtn'i ^ranjlathn ef Heraet^t Art of Peitry. 

^fcordant and contndiaory. The pliant courtier Polosiuf 
ii not riiorc complulant to Hamlet, than the commentator 
rial tribe are to the creatures of their own imagination. 

About thirty years ago Mr. Hurd, now a valuable digni- 
tary of the church, attemplcd to difpell the darftncfs which 
had enveloped this fubje£t. His wort difplays much erudi- 
tion and critical acumen; but, as far as we can judge,, he has 
by no means eftablilhcd the truth of bis hypothcfis. When 
wc read the Epiflle to the Fifos, we cannot be perfuaded by- 
alt the Bifhop has Jaid, that the delign cf Horace extended no 
farther than " fimply to criricifc the Raman Drama." 

Matten remaining in this ftate, Mr. Colman, already 
well-known in the chdlical world, now fteps forth, and at- 
tempts to bend the bow of Ulyfles; We have examined his 
publication witli the ulmoft attention, and are of opinion that 
hehas fucccedcd better than his prcdcceflbrt. What bisbypo- 
thefifi is, he himfelf will bcft inform the public: it is thus 
unfolded in his prefatory epiftle to MeC Wharton. 

• I now proceci to fet down in writing, the fubflance of what I 
fuggefted to you in convcrfaiion, coDcerninc my own conception* 
of die end and deCga of Horace in this Epiflle. In this explana- 
tion I (hall call upon Horuce as my chief witnefs, and the Epiftle 
itfelf, as my printipsl voucher. Should [heir teltimaniee prove ad- 
vcrft, m^ lyltem niufl: be abandoned, like many that have preceded 
it, as vaiD and chimerical : and if it Hiould even, by their fupport, 
be acknowledged and received, it will, I think, like the egg of 
Columbus, appear fo plain, eafy, and obvious, that it will feem al- 
raofl wonder^li that the Epifile has never been confidercd in the 
fame light, till row. I do not wtfh to dazzle with the Ivl^re of a 
new hypotfaeHs, which requires, I think, neither the ftrong opticks, 
nor powerful glafTcs, of a criiical Herfchrl, to afcertain the truth 
of it ; but is a fyftcm, thac lies level to common apprehenfion, and 
a luminary, difcoverable by the naked eye. 

' My notion is Cmply this. I conceive that one of the fons of 
Pifo, undoubtedly the elder, had cither written, or meditated a 
poetical work, moft probably a Tragedy: and that he had, with 
ihe knowledge of the family, communicated bil piece, or intention, 
to Horace : but Horace, either difapproving' of the work, or doubt- 
. ing of the poetical faculties of the £lder Pifo, or both, wifhed to 
difPuade him from all thouffhts of publication. With this view 
he formed the delign of writing this Epiftle, addreffing it, with a 
courtliuefs and delicacy perfeflly agreeable to his acknowledged cha- 
rafler, indifferently to the whole family, the lather and his two 
fons. Epiflala ad Pl/anti, dt Jrit Paelicd. 

' He begins with general refkiJlions, generally addreffed to his 
/Arw friends. CrtdiU, Pibones! — pAiEt, t!f javEiiEi fn'mfigni .' 
— In ihefe preliminary rules, equally neceifary to be obferved by 
Poets of every denommation, he dwells on the ncceffity of unity of 
defi-fn, the danger of being dazzled by the fplen d or of^ partial beau- 
ties, the choice of fubjefts, the beauty of order, the elegance and 



Otlmtn't Tran/laiUit af Haraeit Art tf PMrj. 17 

. fropticty of diAion, tad (he nfe of a thorough knowledge of tke 
fcTcrat different fpecica of Poetry: fumming up thit iatroduiftocy 
portioii of hiB Epiule in a mumer ftrie&ly agreeable to ttw con- 
clufioa of it. 

DeTcripta* reirare vicei, nMnimque colore!. 

Cur ego C nequeOt poeta (aluior t 

Cut nc&ire, piuieiu pra*i, ijuim difcere nulo ? 

* From thu gciietal ticw of poetry, on the canvat of AriftMle, 
bot entirelj' after hit own muDneri the writer proceed to %ire the 
rules and hiftorv of the Drama ; adTcrtiag principallT to Tragedy, 
with all iti conftitueati and appendagei of ouUod, bale, cbarafter, 
incidentt, chorui, mcafure, tnufick, and decoration. In thii pan 
of the work, according to the intcrptetation of the beil critick*, and 
indeed (I think) according to the roanifeft tenor of the Epiftle, he 
addreffes himfrlf entirely 10 '/>* ttwjnmg gni'ltmn, pdinting out to 
them the diflkulty, at well at exceltencc, of the Dramatick Art ;- 
infilling on the avowed fuperiority of the Giacias Writer), and 
afcribing the coiUparRtiTe failure oF tha Romaoi to negligence and 
iTarice, The Poet, having exhauiicd thii p^rt of hii fubjeft, (ai- 
denly drops ^ficcni, or difntiflei at once no lefi than t-'niB of the 
tbrtt Pcrmns, to whom he originallj addreflinl hit Epillle, and 
turning Awn w> thi EluEi Pi>o, moA eameltly toDJurei him to 
ponder on the danger of precipitate publication, and tbt ridicule to 
which the author of wretched poetry expofet hiitafelf. From the 
coromencement of thi* partial addrcf*, O M^ioa jtrvtMcw, CSr. 
[v, 366] to the end of the Poem, idm^ afmnb part e/ihi whale, 
the lecood perfon plural, Pifnti .'— r« l—Fet, O Pta^liui San- 
guis / Bic. 1* difcarded, and the fccond perfoa ftnguUr. Tu, Tf, Ti- 
ii, &c> invariably takes it) place. The arguments too are equally 
relative and perfonal ; not only fhewing the necellity of ftudy, com- 
bined with natural genius, to confiitute a Poe| ; but dwelling on 
the peculiar danger and delufion of flattery, to a writer of rank and 
fortune ; at well ai the ineAimable value of an honeft friend, to 
relcue him front derifion and contempt. The Poet, however, in 
reverence to the Mufe, qualiSei hit exaggerated defcrlption of an 
infatuated fcribbler, with a mod noble encomium on the ufcs of 
Good Poetry, vindicating the dignity of the Art, and proudly af- 
ferting, that the moll exalted charaoers would not be difgraced by 
the culiivatim of it. 

Nt f"rte fuiUri 
Sil tibi Mufa, fyrtef^rs, & caxtar JfelU. 

It is worthy obfervation, that in the fatyrical pidure of a franttck 
bard, with which Horace concludes his Epillle, he not only runs 
counter to what might be expefled as a Corollary of an ElTay on 
the Art ff pMtry, but coutradi^ his own ufual praAice and lenti- 
rwnts. In hit Epidle to Auguftus, iuftcad or fligmatixing the love 
of verfe as an abominable phrenzy, he calls it (U^h tuec infanta) a 
Jlifhi madvtfi, anddelcaats on its good rSe&&—qiiantai vibtdtes 
hatalf Jie ceiiiff ! 

' In 


i8 Caknan's TrMflaliM efHardie'i Art offottff. 

'Id another EpifUe, fpeaking of himrelf, ■nd hli addiOioo to poe^ 
tTf, he lays, 

I -^— -uhi fuiJ JtUar all, 

UluJa thartii i hoe tfi, MEDIOCKIBUS ILU! ' 

Ex iiitlh UHurn, &c. 

* All which, and leveral other paOages in hb works, almoft Att. 
inoiiArate that U was not, without a purticuUr purpofe in *ieWf 
«htt tiediveli fo fsrcibly on the defcriptKm of a oiaii idolTcd 

- ; i^fflu 

Of nmtUTt a/id bis fiars te tvriie, 

* To conclude, if I have not contemiriated my fyfleih, tit) I am 
twcome blind to ita imperfe&oni, th?> liew of the Epillle not only 
^Jreferfei to it all that uni/y if fiihjiB, and tlrgance of Ktibod, ft) 
itiiKh infilled on by the eicellent Critick, to whom I have fo often 
tcfctrtd : but by adding to hi« judicious general abAra^t the fatni* 
^liaritiei of pcrlonal addrefs, fo flronjly marked by the writer, not 
a hfte appear* idle or mifplaced : while the order and difpolition of 
fbe Epillle to the PifM appears ai evident and unerabaruffed, aa 
That of the Epillle to Augufiui ; in which laO, the aAual Hate of 
the Roman Drama feemi to have been more minifeAIy the ob- 
jeA of Horaoe'i attention, than in the Work now under coa£de- 

Such is the iyflcm of Mr. Coldoan, vrhich an Kteiitive 
penifBt of the original feems to conlinn. 

In the notes which arc fubjoined, and which compofe 4 
fulilialf of the publication, much learning, induftry and a> 
cutenefs arc apparent. They arc produced, not only in 
confirmatioif of the Author's nypothefis, but as iUuftrative 
of the original ii^ general, as clearing up allusions to cuftoms, 
manners, &c. and malqng us better acquainted with the' 
Rximan Banl. Theyar? interlperi«d with imitations, and 
iimiler pal&ges from our ewn poets ; and, upon ihc whole, 
CoAvey 00th inftru^tion and entertainment. Some of tbmi 
are controvcrfial ; thofe particularly where the fentiments of 
the Right Reverend Commentator on thp Epiftola ad Pifones 
arc conlidered. Innoncof them isany^Crimonydifcerniblej 
Mr. Colmanuniformlyprcfcrvcs that regard for his opponent 
and hinifelf, which always Ihould be, and which (0 feldora ts 
preferved bycontending authors. Were wc to indulge our own 
inclination, we Ihoold produce copious extraSs from .this 
part of the publication ; but, circumlcribed as we are by 
our plan, wc muft he fatisficd with prefenting our Readers 
with the following ftriftures on the Tragic Chorus. 

' Though it is not my intention 10 a^tafe, in this place, the long 
difputcd ([Ueftion concerning the eipcdicncy, or ineipedieDCy, ot the 
Chords 1 yet I Ciinnoidifinife the abovenote without Iodk farther 
obfervation. In the iirft place then J cannot think that thtjudgmint 
ef'twafmh Criiich as Ariliotle and Horace, ran be decifively quo- 


Colman's ICranflam* tfHaraeii Jri of Pettry. gt^ 

ted, ai cancurrsng -miih llx fraitke afwifia»liqmly, TO ESTABLISH 
THE Chokes. Neither of tbefe two Cr'iich hare t^ea up the. 

rcftioa, each of iliein givittgdireflioni for the ^opcr conduiJi of 
ChobtjS) conl^ered as an eilablifhed and received pnrt of Tra- 
gedy, and indeed originally, as ihey both tell us, tit vihoh of it. 
ArilVotle, in his Poet icks, has not faid inuch on the fubie^ ; and 
from the little he has (aid, more argumenis might perhaps be drawn, 
tn favQiir of the omiiTioii, than for the introduflion of /^Ciiokus, 
It is true that he fays, in his 4th chapter, that " Trajedy, after 
many changes, paufed, having ^a'aed in naiural ^rm i '-"i^^i f^'- 
6itJi( fi(Ti»fti»ouca d ffityntii iuai^irqiTg, im! iVji ii(i iaaRc fusit. ThiS 

might, at firft light, ieem to include hia approbation of /:*/ Chorus, 
as well as of all the other parts of Tragedy then in \ife ; but he hira- 
fdf ciprefsly tells us in ibe veryjame chapter, that he had no fuel) 
meaning, faying, that " to enquire whether Tragedy be perfect ii^ 
" its parts, either confidered in itfclf, or with relation to the tbca- 
" tre, was foreign to his prefenc purpole." Tt t^!' '3i (».««!.>, 

ttSfm ix- fl* h 4-;oyi"l>^ t'it 'U"v|i n •£, iiAi tt xo^ Aul) *^\ny.inty mil r^ 

«td(^Tfa,#h»gt li-^ti In the pafloge, from wbich Horace has, la 
the verfe* now befete ui, defcribcd 'the office, aad laid down the 
datiet of tbe CwMiirj, thq pftflage referred » by the learned Cr>- 
tkk, the wards ef Arilictle are not particularly bvourabte ta the in- 
j^utiopjg^or much calculated to recommend dw ufe of it. For A- 
nKotT/tbcr^-iafprint us, '* thai Sophocles alone of all the Grecian 
" writers, made'i^t Chorus conducive to theprogrefs of the fable; 
" not only even Euripides being capable in this indapce ; but other 
'' writers, after the eiampie ofAgathon, introducing OJea as liwie 
••to [he purpofe, ai if they had borrowed whole fcenea from ano- 
" ther play.'' Ki "■ x^P"' *' ■'•» *"_ "''»'^»5,;v li. J«>.p.Tii.. k.. ixJf.n 

tfifiXijin ajirci, *f»ni "p^alltf Kyfn^Kint rS Ituim. Ka'i *« ni Jiif if i., 5 "(*- 

* On the whole therefore, whatever ntay be the merits, or ad- 
vantages of t^ Choius, I aannot think that the judgment of A- 
Hftotlc or Horace can be adduced in recommend ntion of it. As to 
ilit'tJfo to tU reprefentatiex, iy iht Chorus inurpof- 
i%g aniht»ri»g apart in tht ailiea ; the PublicL, who have lately 
teen a troop of Gngers aflembled on the ftage, as a Chorvs, dur- 
ing the whole repreiiiiitacions of Elfrida and CAKACTA(.irs, are 
competent to decide for themfelves, bow far fuch an expedient^ 
gives a Toorcjlriiiag rtfimhiaxn ef huittaH life, than the common uf- 
^eof our Dnuna. As to its importance in a mjirii/ view, tn cor- 
ral the evil impreffica of vicious fenttments, impnttd to the fpeak- 
ers; the ftory told, to enforce .its ufe for this purpofe, conveys a 
proof of its inefiicacy. Togive due force to fenttments, as well as 
to diretS their proper tendency, depends on the Ikill and addre0 of 
the Poet, indepeiuicntof /^Chorus. 

' Monfieur Dacier, as well as the author of "the above note, cen- 
fures the modern liage for havin^^ reje^ed tht Chorus, and having 
loft thereby al Uqfi half its prababililj, and itt GREATEST ORtiA* 

MfiMT ; 


30 Colman's TrattJIatlim offfore^is Art tfPetiry, 

MENT ; fo that our Tragedy is hia * very faint Jhadew ef tht OLD< 
Learned Criticks, however, do not, perbap), conGder, that if it be 
espedicQC to revive the CnOiitrs, all the other parts of the Anci- 
snt Tragedy muft be revived alan^ with it, Arlftotle mcDtions 
MusiCK as one of the fix parts of Tragedy, and Horace no Iboner 
Wroducet thi CnoBus, but he proceeai to tht Pipt and Ltbe. 
If a Chokui be really neceflkry, our Dramas, like thofe of the 
tncienCs, Ihould be rendered wholly fauj&a/; the Dancers alfo will 
then claim their place, sind the prctenflons of Veftris and Noverre 
muft be admitted as clonal. Such a fpeAacle, if not more natural 
than the modern, would at leaft be confident ; but to introduce % 
groupe oi JpeSatarial aH»rt. sfeakinc in one part of the Drama, 
and SINGING in another, is as flrange and incoherent a medley, and 
full at wcla^cal, as the dialogue and airs of ih* Begqak'b Ope- 
ra t 

With regard to the Tranflation, the moft fcrupulous at- 
tention fccms to be paid to the feafc of the ori^na), whil« 
the curu/a/tlieiiat of Horace, appears, for the moft part, 
not unfuccefsfully imitated. Mr. Colman has not been atde 
to comprefs bis ideas within the narrow boundaries of the 
Latian Poet ; but^ without facrificing el^ance and perfpi- 
cuity, this was perhaps not to be done. From an extraCt 
our Readers well judge for themfelves. As the inequalities 
in the Tranflation ate neither many, nor of high importance, 
any one part may be given as a fpccimen of the whole ; we 
Ihall therefoie, without a Audicd felcftion, prefent the Pub- 
lic with a few lines at the beginning of the work. 
* What if a Painter, in his art to (liine, 
A human head and horfe's neck (hould join ; 
From various creatures put the limb) togeifaer, 
CoTcr'dwith plumes, from ev'ry Inrd a feather ; 
And in a filthy tail the figure drop, { 

A fifli at bottom, a liiir maid at top : 
Viewing a piAure of this llraage cmiditioD, 
Would you tiot taugh at fuch an exhibition i 
Trull me, my Pifot, wild as this may feem. 
The volume fuch, where, like a fick- man's dma, to 
Extravagant conceits throughout prevail, . 
.Gro& and fantaflitk, neither head nor tall. 
** Poeis and Painters ever were allow'd 
" Sc»ne daring flight above the vul^r crowd." 
True : we indulge them in that danii|; flight, i{ 

And challenge in our lum an equal nght : 
But not the foft and ftfvage to combine. 
Serpents to dovci, to tigers lambkins join. 

. Oft works of promife large, and high attempt, 
Are piec'd and guarded, to efcape contempt, ao 

With here and there a remnant highly dreft. 
That glitters thio' the gloom of all the reft. 



Co\aaa*t ttran/latioHtffforate'tj^ft9/pKtry. ■ 3 1 

Then Diin'i grove Mid altar ire the theme) 
. Then (hn>' rich meadowi flow* the filter llream j 
The River Rhine, pcrfaapi, adomt the linet, tt 

Or the g«y Raiabow in deicripcioo (hinei. 

Thefe we allow hare each iknr fevcral grace ; 
£gt each and feveral now are out of place. 

Acyprcfa youcaadraw] what then? Tou'rehit'd, 
And from your art a fea-picce is rtqdir'd ; 10 

A (hipwrack'd mariner, defpairin^, faint, 
(The price paid down) you are ordain'd to punt. 
Why dwinalc to a cruet from a tun f 
Simple be all you execute, and one ! 

Lav'dfire! lov'd fons, well worthy fiKh a fire ! , 3$ 
Mod bardi are dupes to beauties rhey admire. 
Proud to be brief, for brevity muft pleafe, 
I grow obfcure ; the follower of eafe 
"Wanti nerve and foul ; the lover of fublime 
Swell* to bombafl; while he who dreads that crime, 40 

Too fearftd of the whirlwind rifing round, 
A wretche4 reptile, creeps along the ground. 
The bard, ambitious fanciei who difplajn, 
Aad tonurti one poor thought a thoufand wmyi, 
Heaps pro£gics on prodieies ; in woods 4 j 

Figures thi dolphin, and the boar io 6oodt! 
Thus ev'n the fear of faults to laulcs betray** 
Uulefs a mafter-hand conduift the lays. 

An under workman, of th' jEmiliao clafs. 
Shall mould the nail), and ti-ace the hair in braff, {« 

Bungling at laft ; becaule his narrow foul 
Wants room to compfehend aptrftS iMhule, 
To be this itian, would I a work compofe, l 

No more I'd wifti, than for a horrid nofe, \ 

With hair sA black ns jet, and eyes as black as'floes.* j ;; ' 
By the addition " in hij art to Ihine." (for there is no- 
thing timtlar to it in Horace) the Tranflator has contributed 
fomething of his owji to the ridicule of the picture, and im- 

E roved upon his original. Horace only lays that we, muft 
lugh at the monf&uous reprefmtation he defcribes ; but 
the idea which Mr. Colman has fupcradded, gf the Painter's 
tm^iiiing that he Uad produced foniething excellent, docs 
certainly give additional Hrength and poignancy to the 
thought,' It is befidcE more applicable to the vain Author, 
who expeds fame from a work, 

' xhere, like a fickmah's dream. 

Extravagant conceits throughout prevail, 
Grofi and fatitnftick, neither head nor tail,* 
and confeqnently becomes a more appolite and perfect illuf- 

The word " exbibition" is well chofcn, though its ^- 
cvllar advantages are only temporary and local. 



3,J Colman's TraitfitnloK o/ljeratit An ef?tttrf. 

Having given tluf gcacnJ cluraftcr of i1m work, which 
we think it defeivcs, impartialiaty obltges ii« to fay, that Mr. 
Colman fonwtiincs fkili below even the epiftolarv tone of bts' 
original ; that the ideas of Honu:e fometiilKs mffer in the- 
tranflation ; and that fevcrxl mari^s of negiigcnce are appa- 
rent, H? thas tranflates, 

■ ' Cui lefla potenter Bfic re», 40 

Nee facundia deferet hunc, nee Lucidui ordo.* 

* He, who his fubjeft happily can chuie, 
Win» n> ii!« ftvour the benignant Mufe ; 
Th^aid of eloquence he ne'er Iball iati. 
And order fiiall difpofe and dear his tiaclc.' 

The word " tack" in the third line gives a vulgarity to the 
exprellion, which js difagreeable to the Rejider, and debafes 
the original idea. Had Mr. Colman writco in {wofe, to 
lack eloquence is a phraie that he certainly would not have 
employed, unleTs witt) a viaw to ridicule t>r biuW^uc. 

' Q^i netcit Tcrfus, tamen audetiiagfre/ 382 

' In Poetry he boafU at little art. 

And yet in Poetry h« dares take part;' 
" In Poetry ht ivti Mie part," is fdfely a »ery feeble 
trsn nation of " verfus audet fingcce." 

To mate lamguag* Ufi is an aukward, liarih, and we be- 
lieve, a new Hianner of expreffing, to lovier thtfiiit, and yet 
Mr. Colman has chofcn to tranflatc the ' 

' Ettratjicus pU;rumquedoletfernioi|cpedeftri* 95 

of Horace, in the following manner, 

' The tragick hero, plung'd in dcCj} diAre^, 

Sinkj with hia fate, and makei hii language /^.* 
But " UJs unfortunately rhymed to diflrefs." In the tines 
that immediately follow, the Tranflabu ulls into a grun- 
■matical error : 

* Peleui litd Telephus, poor, banUhed! ''Z'^ I44 
Drop ifieir big fix-foot words, and iiiundiog fpeech. 

Or elfc what bofom in their grief talcs part,' — — 
Here '* drop" and " tlreir," as relativcto " each," &ouli{ 
have been drops, and hh. Inftead of " eath" we are con- 
vinced that Mr. Colman meant to have written hoth, but, 
rhythmi gratia, each unluckily dropt from his peil, and he' 
went on as if he had really executed hi? firft intention. We 
could dwell longer on this part of our article, but the ta(t is 
difagreeable. Whatever we have faid will operate, wc truft, 
as it was intended : wc hope it will prove an excitement to 
a careful revilal of the work, tliat, upocL a future publica- 
tion, it may appear Hill more worthy of [he public ;Uteatioa^ 
and of the Author. 


Wallace's Thaughn on ibe Origin ef Piudal Tsuuret. 33 

A«T. V. Tljiighn en ill Origin of Feudal Tcmirri, aaJ Defimiif 
aaiUm Vteiagti la ScelianJ. Addtefled 10 *"*. By George 
Wallace, £l~q. Advociici:. 410 ixs. i»iird,.. Edicbui^h: Priated 
for Strahan and CaUdl. 

THIS Author appears to have great candour, anrf to bo 
fully convinced of the opinions which he delivers. It 
is the mark of a good citizen to ftatc freely his fentiments. 
If he is right the public will gain; aiidifheis wrong it can 
lofe notliing. With the fame liberal fpirit we Ihall offer an 
account of his work. 

He naturally introduces himfelfto hisReader by defcrih- 
ing the conilitution of the Scottifti Parliament. ' But in this 
defcription,which ought to have been very prccifcand accurate, 
he is not only loofe but ill informed. He ventures to affirm, 
tl:at ' in ancient times, attendance in Parliament was ac- 
' counted a burden, not efteemed an honour,' This opi- 
nion, if we are not miHaken, he has adopted from his coun- 
tryman Dr, Robertfon, who exprefsly affirms, that ' to at- 
' tend and to affift In the King's great council, was not e- 
' Iteemed a privilege, buta fervice*.' If, however, we go 
back to the cariieft period in the hiftory of the feudal ages, it 
appears demonftrativcly from the keennefs of the nobles to 
alTemble in Parliament and to uphold their rights, that they 
confidered tliis privilege or duty to be an honour of the 
higheft kind. At the fame time, it is very true, that upon 
the decline of the feudal fyftem, when the Sovereign had 
grown to be ofjpreffiTe, the tenants in chief were averfe from 
performing any duty as theprice of ilieir property. The af» 
fertion, therefore, of Mr. Walbcc and Dr. Robertfon has a 
reference only to one period in the hiftbry 0/ fiefs ; and to 
apply it, of confequence, to ancient times without limitation, 
is a capital miftake. For it is to chara£lerirc the feudal ages, 
not from the appearance of fiefs in their perfefl condition; 
but from their appearance in their flate of difordcr and con- 

The Author in conformity alfo to tlie opinions of Dr. Ro- 
bertfon, gives thefollowing idea of the conftituiion of the Scot- 
tilh Parhament. ' Every freeholder or. owner of lands' held 
' of the Sovereign in chief, was entitled, as well as bound, 

* bythelaws, and by the-conftitution of tlie Parliament of 
' Scotland, to fit and to vote in thataflcmblv; and a dif- 
' tinftion was not antiently made between large or valuable', 
' and little or inconfidcrable cftates. Every freehold, fmall 

* as we!! as great, undignified as well as dignified,, both be- 

* fliilorv of Scntbnd, Bi»k I. ' - " 
Eng.Rev.Vo1. II. July 1783. ■■ C - 'flowed 

34 Wallace's tht Origin ef^eudat Tenure/. 

' llowed a right, and impofed an obligation on its o'vttitt, ta 
■ attend in the general council of the nation.' 

It is with furprize that we find a Scottilh lawyer, giving 
way to this ftrangedoftrine. It is by no means true, that 
every tenant in chief was a member of the Scottifh Parlia- 
ment. Nor can it be conceived without a manifeft abfor- 
dity, that no diftinftion was made"vfith regard to great and 
fmall eftatcs. Amidft the fitbdivifions of property which 
U-ere made of old by the Scottifti Sovere^ns, wc find that 
the fixtieth part of a Knight's fee might flow from the crown 
to a tenant or v^Ufal ; and with refpeft to the value of the 
' Knight's fee, it is ufjially eftimated to be a twenty pound 
land. Now the vaflal who had only the Sixtieth part of this 
property, muft have been very lioor indeed ! He was, not- 
withftanding, a tenant in chief; and was therefore a mem- 
ber of the Scottifli Parliament, according to our Author. 
This is too ridiculous to be believed ; and upon this prin- 
ciple, it would follow, tliat every man feiving in the ranks 
of a feudal army who had an acre from the Crown, might 

fi to Parliament to deliberate upon fiate affairs with the 
ing and the nobles. We can inform this AutI>or, that \hc 
conuitution of the Scottifh Parliament was governed by 
very different maxims. But it is not at ^efcnt our province 
to enter upon that topic. 

It is unfortunate in aiv Author when he begins his work 
■witl\ improper doftrincs. For they involve him in perpe- 
tiial miflakes. As Mr Wallace proceeds with his account 
of the Scottilh Parliamcntj.he holds out the Angular affirma- 
tion that ' the barons and the freeholders, it is unirerfally 
* allowed, vfere merely commonccs.' We muft confcfs that 
this ftrong aiicrtion appears to us in a fi range light. This 
tenet inftead of being univerfaUy allowed, cannot be thought 
of withont wonder,' There is nothing in hiftory more clear, 
than that a Baron was a tenant in capite by Knight fervice. 
The word, therefore, was of a generic kind. It compre- 
hended the noble as well as the commoner ; for the former as 
well as the latter was the vaflal of tlie crown. The one 
was a great Haron ; the other was a leffcr Baron. Even the 
diftinftion of the greater and the lefler Barons, which is fo the hiftory of Scotland, ought to have pFcferved 
our Author fioro this error. 

After having made fome remarks upon the Parliament of 
Scotland, the Author proceeds to confider territorial ho- 
nours. This is the profei&d fiibjefl: .of his fecond book. 
He firfl: inquires into the origin of the authority annexed to 
property in lands. But on this head he exhibits only by i 
pothetical tenctsv He goes not into tlie hiftory of antjient 
' ■ ■ nations ;: 


Wallace's Thoughts M the Origin cf FeaJal tetnrts. 35 

nations ; and as he records no fafts to authenticate his rea- 
fonings, they we feeble and of little confequence. He next 
endcftvoors to inveftigate the origin of tenures, and to fix' 
their antiquity in Scotland. Thefe topics are doubtlefs ob- 
■fcure ; and their difficulty isfome apology for the lamcnefs 
of our Author. But as lie had many ahle guides 10 direft 
him upon etefy fubjeft of feudality, it is our opinion that 
he might, in this portion of his work, have difplayed great- 
er advantages As hisprt^refs inphilofophy is flcnder, he 
might have exhibited fome parade, at leaft, of learning. 
Du Cangc, Mr, Selden, Sir Henry Spelman, Muraton, 
Abbe Mabiy, and a muMtude of writers were at hand to 
have fupplied him with materials. He has not, however, 
chofen to dig into their works ; and he has forgot equally to 
attend to the taws and inftitutions of the barbarous tribtj 
who overturned the empire of Rome. 

Having fubmittcd to his Reader a train of obfervations on 
territorial honours, in which he obtains not always ouraf- 
fent, the Author lays down his doflrines concerning pcr- 
fonal honours. He contends, that in countries governed 
like Scotland, by the feudal law, nobility dcfcendible' to 
heirs would not foon be difannexcd from fiefs. He endea- 
vours to enumerate the cauies which tetarded the introduc- 
tion of perfonal dignities into Scotland. He tries to efta- 
blifli the idea, that noble honours, difconnefted with fiefs, 
were probably introduced into Scotland about the time of 
James I. Hecontends, that before the year 1587, pedbnal 
honours were not peerages ; and he inquires into the dcfcent 
of perfonal honours previous to that period. Thefe parti- 
culars engage his attention in his third book. 

In his fourth book, the Author treats exprefsly of peer- 
ages; and it is the chief objefl of his performance to cf- 
tabtijh the notion, that the rules which regulate the defcent 
of territorial honours, and of peerages, ate very diiFerent, 
and that they have often been confounded by the precipita- 
tion of judges. There may be fomc foundation for his dif- 
tin^ion; but he does not, in our apprehcnfion, efiabljfli 
completely his point ; and we arc not fure, but the diflfcr- 
ence to which he alludes, is chiefly verbal and eluforv. 

In his fifth and laft book, he produces additional obferva- 
tions to confirm the theory he holds out for adoption ; and 
to his performance he has annexed cxtrafts from books and 
hiftorical monuments, under the title of proo^ and iUuf- 

It is not to be controverted, that the Author, in the 
conrfc of his performance, has advanced fcveral pertinent- " 
and ufefut remarks ; and his mariner, it muft be allowed, is 

Digitized b'yClOOglC 

. 36 Wallace's' TTnu^hts an the Orlgiit bf Ftitdd TeHurtl. 
polite and unaffcfted. But from tlic obfcrvations we have 
already made, it will appear to our Readers, tliat he has 

neglefled to iludy the more eminent writers who have can- 
vafTed the nature and progreffion of ilefs ; and we fhal! not be 
contradifled, when we affircn, that he is more difpofed to 
fpeculate, than tocolleft fafls. Upon themes, however, of 
hiftory, no Author can be highly inftniftive or ufeful, but 
by going deeply into circumllances and events, and by at- 
tending to, and charafterizing, the fpirit of the different 
ages or periods to which he refers. 

But that our Readers may be able to form a judgment for 
thcmfelves of tlie prefent work, we Ihall lay before them 
what the Author has advanced concerning the origin of the 
authority annexed to property in lands. 

' In ancieni times, thut couniry* was wholly unenclofed, and 
its inhabitants were extremely barbarous. Their coneepiions of 
properly, a tratilirory relation which has been afcercaioeu by ex- 
penence to be involved in nice dithncflions, and in juridical fubtilr 
ties, were codFured and dull; and their moveables, conlifiing 
mofily of cattle reared by Nature on bleak mountains, and rang- 
ing' at liberty in the open heaths, like their hares and their groule, 
templed continually to depredation. Their ideas of jufti^e, and 
their fentiinents ofhumatiity, infefled by the wildncfs and the fe- 
rocity araidll which they were generated, were confined in their 
t)bjcdti,'<!is languid in thenilelves ; And government and 
laws, by which'ordcrl and perhaps morality, are promoted in fo- 
.i:icty, not having attained among thorn, eithe-r from apparent vi\\Sr 
ty, or from long eftablifhinent, the reverence and the vigour, with- 
out which their influence in reftr/iiiing violence, and in maintain* 
Ing right, mull ever be limited and feeble, private perfons were 
necefliiared to form amon^ themfclves leagues for obtaining, by 
their own arms, that protei^ioii whicb the mag!ilrate could not en- 
fure to (hcm'againft rapine and invafion. Hence thofe aflbciations, 
which, under different denominations, are very generally found in 
uncivilized nations, and which, in the mountainous p^rts of Scoi- 
I;md, mil fubfift under the name of Clans. 

' The connections on which thefe confederacies were erefted 
could not be entirely arbitrary. Inliirutions, not fuunded in na- 
ture, wanr foUdity ; and fabrics built on an unQ^^ble foundation 
cannot -be durable. It was chiefly in the full enjoyment of their 
property, that thofe who alTociitcd propofeJ by confederation to 
be maititained ; a circumlbnce which' immediately fuggcils a prin- 
ciple adapted to form a balls of their union. A man to whom lands deeply Intereftcd in protefling thofe who occupy thetn. 
. His tenants muA be difiblcdto pay ibeir rent; and hecannot jullly 
demand it, unlefs their pol&ifion be undidurbed. Their houfes, 
tbeir tattle, their crops, their labours, ail mull be fafe ; and his 
fecarttyis not .\ matter.indifferent to then;.. Their farms are pot 

^ Scotland. 


Wallace's Thoughts en the Or/gin of Feudal Tenures. 37 

bnlv derived from his confent, but held under engagEtnents con- 
tradled to him : It U ahvoiya conveiiicnt for them to participate of 
liis favour : They cannot rcafonably expei^l aid, unlefs they l>e 
willing, on their part, to lend it ; And none of them, in his tVpa- , 
rate capacity, can polTefs the ftrength, or eircite the awe, which 
may refult from their combined efforts. The relation, therefore, 
created between the owner of an eilaie, and thofe who poDefs it, 
biada them reciprocally to cuch other ; and among an uniamca 
fierce people, an affjciation, originating in neccllitv, came natural- 
ly to be formed on this relation between them lur their mkitual 

' No militaiy power can attain its utmoft poCible force, or make 
the greateft poffible impreffion upon its enemy, unlefs its operations 
proceed on one regular confifteut plan, executed by the united ex- 

mbers mult comi>ofe only one body, which 
mlt beai^uated by one foul; Its condii^ mult be directed b 

IS of all the individuals employed to perform each detached 

"' ""'" 'byo 

underftanding: One will muft determine its movements: Eve _ 
limbmufl co-operate in making them: Oiherwife, ihe advantages 
attainable from a complete jimciion of their whole vigour will not 
be gained; and they may, from ignorance, either obftruft the ge- 
neral delign, or even, in different cjuartera, counteract each other's 
endeavours to forward it. The authority, therefore, by which 
troops, whether irregular, or regular, are commanded, admits not 
Ofdivilion; but, amidft the gradation required among ihem, one 
univerfal fuperibr, whofe orders fliould be iinplicirly obeyed, mull 
be acltnowledged in every body which pretends to be deemed an 

' Among the different poiTeffors of any grounds, the perfon who 
would commonly be allowed, on a com|>etition, to have a preferable 
preteniion ro the fupreme command, is the proprietor to whom ihc 
lands belong. It is not to be cupefled that the refl, holding them- 
felvea nearly on a level with each other, fliould fuDRiit without re- 
finance or difdain to an eijual; but in their Lord they rec.)j.,-W.c 
one greatly elevated above them by fortune, to whom it will not 
offend their pride to aft in a fubordinate fphere. Their tho.i;;- ;>, 
naturally conveyed to'hiscaflle, are concentrated there ; and, vif.a 
on a free election, the general voice would readily confer that dif- 
tinftion fpontaneoufly upon him, 

' The vicinity of the dwellings of thofe who refide in an eftatr, 
permits them to be alTernbled, occaiionally, on fliort notice ; and. 
the purpofe, for which they are fuppofed here to ereft therofelves' 
into a inllitia, requires not that they be conftantly in arms ; a fer- 
viiude hardly compatible with either their rural labours, or their 
other bufinefs : Eui they mufl always be ready, at the found of the 
flughorn*, and at iijrht of the fiery crofsf, to march in array, eveiv 

* * The parole by which clans were diflinguilbcd in Scotland, 
and, on alarms, were fummoned by their cheifa to the field. Sir 
G. Mackenzie of Heraldry, ch. 33. Pitll-ottie, p. jij. 

* f The fignal by which alarms were given, and clans were con- 
voked on them. 

C 3 to 


gS Wallace's TTscughu »n lit Origin of Feudal Ttnurtu 

tp their frontif n, in.defcnce of their territories, of their adheT«nts» 
or of their eoods. The power, therefore, lodged in thdr com" 
inaoder, muft neceflkrily lad as loni; as the connedior, on wbiclt it 
il originally founded fubfiils between him and them, or as he re- 
. itiaint proprietor of the grounds, and they coottnue to rcfide in 

* In that power, my Lord, your Lordfhipwill difcoveran autho- 
rity annexed, in the natural courfe of things, to lands ; and a civil 
jurifdiAion, as well as a military cnmmiirnl, may be fiippofed, with- 
out any improbability, to have been derived from them to their 
owners, in fome caies. Dominion, it is commonly (aid, follows 
property, which fiipplies the means of" conferring favours, of (hew- 
ing kindnefs, of creating attachments, of cultivating friendfliips, of 
iofpiring refped, of raiutig expeffations, of purchafing tools, of ex- 
citing apprehenfion, end of difcomfiting or mtimidating oppolition, 
J'overty and dependence are ufually accompanied with balbfulnefs 
and with timidity : Grandeur and wealth are arrogant, and even 
imperious : And few people have refolution to defpife the frowns, 
or to refift the dictates of fuperiors, with whom they (ind themfelvcs 
difabled to contend. In thofe wilds of Scotland, whofe prefent con- 
dition approaches neared to the favage nidenefs of antiquity, tenants 
and cottagers, ignorant of the means of obtaining redrels of their 
wrongs, or unable to drfray the espence of aftions at law, are fre- 
quently obliged, even in our days, to bear, in a moutnful filence, 
great Jnfolenee and much opprefljon. Diftrefled as, in ancient "times, 
Kufbandmen were there by penury, thev were necellitated lo fubmit, 
Vrlthout murmuring, almoft to any powers which pcrfonages, oii 
whofe caprice their tranquillity and their fubliftence depended, were 
pleafed toaJTume. Meflagei which would be fent them, requefting 
paymentof the rent ilipuiated attaLing their farms, at firft perhaps 
MprefTed in civil terms, would quickly be converted, on a refufal^ 
or on a delay, into Acrn orders, which durit not be dlfobeyed, 
Hencethe owners of lands might, and probably did, acquire by ac- 
quiefcence and by cuftoni, a right to pronounce, either by them- 
Ulves or by deputies, decrees fur performance of the obligations 
contrafted by thofe to whom their grounds were let : And iirailar 
ca,ufe8 would gradually draw to them a power of judging in other 
matten. Perfons who had any demands on their neighbours, or 
who had bfen injured by them, would naturally communicate the 
bufinefs to their landlord, on whom a clofe connection entitled them 
to rely for protciflion, and of whofe mightinefs they -knew that the 
Weas formed by their a^yerfaries, as well as by themfelves, were 
exceedingly lofty. This potentate, before taking his refolution, 
wpuldof courfe fend for thofe Hgainft whom a complaint had been 
djrfded, and would enquire into the ilfair. In caies in which im- 
portant, fads could not eafily be' adjulUd, both parties would be 
confronted in his pre&nce ; and his decifjon, pronounced on exa.- 
mining the matter, would import a command not lo be difputed by 
either. A landholder would therebv be exhibited to thofe who oc- 
cupied his ellate, invefted with a double chara&r, of their judge in 
peace, as well as of their leader in war ; each derived from the cir- 
cumftances in which afiiiirs were then placed : Parties would be filled 



Wallace's Thougbtt en the Origin t/FtuJal Tenures, jg 

Wore him ; their claims would be difculTed ; judgments would bv 
jriFen hy him ; and hit lentencet would be cvecuced. 

* The haughty appellative, Mastek. i* the correlative ter^i i^iil 
ufedfor Lahdlosi), even io (be judicial |«oceedinf> of S»nUiidi 
a ftrong proof of the fevere derpotifm exerciled there, in ancient 
timci, over thofe ufeful ciiizens, the labouretB of ihe groijnd. 1'be 
awe with which hi* perlon wa» regarded by them, co-operating with 
afeftion and with habit, enfured from hit (eoanti an iDdilcciminaie' 
obedience almofl to any mandates ilfued by him i and bis depen- 
ikents would not probably be either diffwfed to examine bia com- 
loands with accuracy, or able to difiiogutih cafei with nicety. Ne- 
vcrthelefi, amidft an authority, which, on its original bottom, n- 
[nong a rough people, in !i tuinultuous ftate^ might long be dubious 
and vacillaut, a little difcern me nt would fuon fuggeA that he ou'.>,ht 
not, ptefumingOD iheir fervility, to ad entirely wiihout c&uiion, 
but that it would be prudent, ifpoffible, to acquire for hi) judg- 
ments that weight which general approbation (bould add to tbem. 
In hia deliberations, therefore, befoie determining himfelf, he would 
naturally bold coun&l wiih a refpeiStable number of his clan : His 
decrees, after having confulted them, itwouldbe Indifpcnfably ne- 
cellary to conform to tbcir opiaioa : Semencet, founded in verdids 
returned by the neighbours and the equals of thole againCI whom 
they had been given, would thence derive much fuViility : Aud re- 
fidance would never bF made to their ex^cutiou, unlcfs,. perhaps, 
either their extreme opH^vllivenerB exciting a genera]- alarm, or their 
revolting novelty (Ijocking eftabliHied mudea, ftiould impei iiiflamr 
cd fpirits to fudden tnntinV^ 

' An auibority, whjth rdh foleiy on the prefumptuous confidence 
of him who afl'umes. and on the voluntary iubmlHion of thofe who 
appeal to it, caoaot ureLl attain perfeifl liabilU}^. or eren pQt1i;fs an 
indifpu table title to the ap))eilat)on of jurifdiftion, till it either be 
eiprefsly recognlied for legitimate by that fovereign power, whole 
aii can iire^ly beftnw a conilituiional esiftente upon it ; or be ta- 
citly confirmed by age, a reverend c|uality, which, infpirin^ an iai- 
mediate perception of the great durablenefs of ancient objefts, ex* 
cites ^n impreliion, as if, by length of time, they had acquired an 
immutability, and diffiifes over them a venerablencfs that caufes 
tbem in fome fort to feem facred. The jurifdii^tmn incident to 
property, would, tlicrefore, be -at firft indeterminate in cxtenf, 
as welt as irregular in exercise; but, being fufceptible both of re> 
gularity and ofprecifiDn, would be defined by degrees, and come at 
laft to be fettled with firmnefs, During -many centuries after the 
Piflirti empire had been fubjugated by Kenneth Macaipin, even one 
fupreme legiflature was not univerfaUy acknowledged, or not firm- 
ly eflablillicd, in Scotland : The inferior authorities, the judic.'tive 
and the executive, more impotent than the legillative, could fear- 
-eely reach all over the kingdom ; The country was rather fubdivid, 
ed into a val^ number of fmall Itates, not eaftly accelTible either to 
the general declarations, or to the particular interpo fit ions of naT 
tional equity. The only force then kept on foot ^-as the imdifci- 
plined militia, which has been defcribed, but whicK was little acr 
qu^inted with ^y officer fuperior to its I^ofd, or was not ufed to 
Q 4 reccivB 

Digitized byGoOgIC 

40 Thirty Letters en Various Subjeils. 

receive orders from another; and a few words urtered in a gravo 
tone by a dillant court, compofcd of ordin<iry men diflin^uiflied by 
faAtaftic robes, and encircled with ofiicial pageantry, to Arike a 
confbanding amazement on beholders, wltjch, under rep[ular poli- 
ties, are able to terminate any coDiroverted matter, were not always 
heard then with profound deference. A perfon refembling a ma- 
gil^racc was already found in every eflate ; and it is generally agree- 
able, as well :iB convenient, efpecially tor people whofe re&dence 
il feed atadiftance from the capital feats of public juftice, to fue for 
it, if obtainable, in a tribunal neither overloaded with bufinefs, nor 
far from their homes, from which a decifton may he expeifted at 
little eipence and in a Qtort time. Adminiftration was unabie, with- 
out his perniitTion, to execute Ue ordinances wiibin his domains, 
othcrwife than by engaging a potent neighbour to carry fword and 
defolation into his territories, and, in- confcquence, by increafing 
thofe difordera which wife politicians are ever fludioua to prevent. 
Government, therefore, fenlible.of its imbecility, wis obliged, by- 
delegating in a formal manner fome portion of its judicative power 
to the proprietors of lands, to beftow legality as well as exa£tnefs 
on the jurifiliaion ufiirped bv them,' 

With regard to composition the Author is by no means 
defe£tivc. His language ii eafy and flowing; and as we arc 
told that the lludy of the Scottifh-law has a tendency to 
vitiate the tafte of the pleaders before the Court of Seffion, 
he deferves on this head very confiderahle praife. The na- 
ture too, of his topics did not lead to rhetorical flowers ; yet 
it is very clear, that in general, he is not only perlpicuous, 
but even elegant. 

Akt. VI. Thirif Letitrs en various Su^jras. Small 8vo. a vols. 
4S./r".tv^. Cadell. 

THIS publication has afforded us much entertainment. 
Its originality, and the variety of matter it contains, 
cannot fail to cnfure a favourable reception. We mean not 
however to fay that the Autlior, when he fteps alide from 
the beaten track, docs always dlfcover a better and more di- 
refl road, or that the objeft of his purfuit is always of im- 
portance; but we will venture to affirm tliat the Reader who 
perufes thefe volumes without being entertained, muft be 
extremely feftidious, and that he muft have a fuperior de- 
gree of information and difcernmcnr, if the perufal does not 
add fomethjng to his ftock of knowledge. In the firft 
Letter the Author unfolds hispurpofe; by the infertion of 
it the public will learn what they are to expeft from the 

'. Since you re<jueft that our correfpondcnce flioiild be out of the 
beaten track, be it ib. My retirement from the world will natu- 
rally g:ve an air of peculiuiity to aiy fcntimen:!, which perhaps 


Thirly Letters en Various Suhje^Is. 41 

may entertain where it does not convince. In jufttce to tayieif, 1« 
me obferve, that truth fometlmes don not ilrike us without the af- 
fiftance of cuftom; but fo great ia the force of cuAom, that, unaf- 
lified by truth, it has worked the greatert miracle*. Need I bring 
tor ^sroof the (luantity of nonfenfe in all the arts, feienecs, and cvcu 
religion itfelf, which it has fanftified ? As pofiibly in the courfe of 
my letters to you I may attack fome received daiSrinM on each of 
thefe fubjeds, let not what 1 advance be ialbintly rcjedied, becaufe 
-contrary to an opinion founded on prejudice; but, a* much at jyof- 
£b!e, divclt yourfelf of the partiality actjuired by habit, and if at 
iaft you (hould not agree with mc, 1 (hall fufped my fcntimentt to 
be peculiar and not juft. 

' Tho' truth may want the affiftance of ufe before we feel its 
force, yet when it is really felt, we dctcll what cullom only made 
\n like. The difficulty is to procure for truth a fair examination. 
The multitude is always agaiiift it. I'he lirl) dil'covery in any thing 
is confidered as an encroachment upon property, a property become 
facrcd by pofieflion. Difcoverers are accordingly treated as crimi- 
nals, and muA have good luck to efcape execution. 

' I mean not to rank myfelf with fuch bold adMnturera ; I am 
neither ambitious of the honour, or the dacger, cf enlightening the 
world, but, it I can foftCQ prejudices which i cannot remove — if I 
can loofen the fetters of.cullotn where I cannot altogether unbind 
them, and engage you to think for yourfeU^my end will be an- 
fwered^ and my trouble fully repaid. 

Adieu! &e.' 
Such is the objcfl the Author has in view. The follow- 
ing are the fubjefts on which he has cxercifed his pen; On 
the force of cuftom, riches, cards, and duelling, languages, 
judging bj^ the perceptions of others, painting, temporary 
tafte, mufical expreffion, the narentheiis and anticipation, 
catches, the Englifh language. Homer's fcale of heroes, the 
diifcrent manners of reading, Shakefpeare, writing-hand, the 
want of accurate views, the analogy of the arts, bad aflbcia- 
tion, Quarles, petition of to and tke, felf-produiftion,' ob- 
llmdtions in the way of fame, alliteration and Uteration, 
common fuperftitions, and wrong reprcfentations of the 
folar fyftem. 

In thefe Letters, orloofe Eflays, the Reader is not to ex- 
pcft learned difquifition, or profound inveftigation, Thefe, 
the Author has neither promifed, nor attempted — " a regu- 
lar difiertation, fays he, is above mc": but he will meet 
with much good fenfe, confidcrable fagacity and diicern- 
mcnt, a lively and agreeable manner, no dogmatical aifump- 
tion, ideas which are not common, yet, for the moft part, 
juft, and very little of the crambe ih cofium of Authors. 
What he fays of riches, cards and duelling. (Lettered) 
may be produced as a fpecimeti of the work. 

* Riches, cards, and duelling, hiive been conftantly abufei'. 


4* Thirty Letteri en Farious Subjeils. 

written, and preached a^inft; and yet men will ftill hoard, play, 
and figfat. Why fliould they i Ail univerfal uaffions we may lairly 
pronounce to l« natural, sod fliould be tieaced with refped. The 
gratification of our psflions are our greateft pleafures, and he that 
has moft gratifications isofcourfe the happieft man. This, as a 
general affertion, is true, and it is true alfo in particulars, provided 
we pay no more for pleafure than it ia wtwth. 

' Every man (hould endeavour to be rich. He that has money may 
poflefs every thing that is transferable — this is a fuffieient induce- 
ment to procure it. Nay, if lie pofleAs nothing but his money, if he 
confiders it as the end, as well as the means, it is ftill right to be rich : 
for, knowing khat he has it in his power to procure every thing, he is, 
as well fatislied as if" the thing itfelf wasin his poffeflion. This is the 
true fource of the mjfer's pleafure; and a great pleafure it is! A 
moral philofopher may tell him, " that man does not live for hitn-" 
felf alone, and that he hurts the community by withholding what 
ivould be of ufe to it" — this he thinks to be weak reafoning. The 
fnecrs of wits llgnify as little; for he knows they Would bt glad to 
be rich if they could. He feels that the pleafure arifing from the 
pofleflion of Hches, whether ufed or not, is too great to be given up 
Wall tbewic, or even the ftrongcft arguments that can be brought 

' It feems to be agreed, that card-playing proceeds entirely from 
avarice— iho' this may fometimes be the motive, yet it may with 
more probability be derived from other, and more general prin- 

'Theraindofman naturally requires employment, and that em- 
ployment is moft agreeable, which engj^es, withou| fatiguisf the 
attention. There is nothing for this purpofe of fueh univerfal attrac- 
tion as cards. The fine arts and belles lettres can only be enjoyed by 
thofe who have a genius for them — other ftudies and amufemems 
have their particular charm, but cards are the univerfal amufemene 
in every country where Chey arc known. The alternate changes in 
theplay, the hope upon the taking up a new hand, and thetriumph 
of getting a game, made more complcat from the fear of lofing it, 
keep the mind in a perpetual agitation, which is found by expe- 
rience to be coo agreeable to be quitted for any other confideratLon, 
The Hake played for is a quickener of thefe fenfstiona, but not the 
caufe. Children who play for nothing feel what I have been de- 
scribing perhaps in a more exquiGte degree than he who engages for 
thoufands. A fia'te of inafKon is of all others the mofl dreadful ! and 
it is to avoid this inaftion'that we feek employment, though at the 
expence of health, temper, and fortune. This fubjeft is finely 
touched by Abbe du Bos, in his reflexions upon poeti-y, &c.. indeed 
he carries it fo far as to fay, that the pl-afurc arifing from an eitra- 
ordinary agitation of the mind, is frequently fo great as to ftifle hu- 
manity ; and from hence arifes the entertainment of the common 
people at executions, and of the better fan at tragedies, Tho' \o, 
this laft infence he may be miftaken ; yet, the delight we feel in 
reading the a£iions of a hero may be referred to this caufe. The 
inoraliu ccnfures the tafte of thofe who can be pleafed with the ac- 
tions of an Alexander or a Nadir Shah— the Truth is, we do not ap- 

TJiVfjl titters en Variutt. Su^jfffi. 43 

^roTC tbe aftiont , but the relation of rhem caufei thst agitation of 
(he mind which we tied to be plenfaot. The reign of Henry liie 
l«iremh, tho' ol' the greateft confeciuence 10 this Ducion, doci not 
intereft us like the coacentions of Vorlt and Lancailsr \fy which the 
kingdom was ruicled. — Ic is in vain that vie aie told that fceaes of 
war and bloodllitd can give no pleafdre to a good mind, and that 
the true hero is be who culiivaies the am of peace, he by whom men 
are bcneRteil not he by whom iliey are deliroycd-~'it is to Do purpofa 
— ^ve lleep orer the adione of quiet gooduefs, while afpiring, dc- 
;proylng gTeamelB, claims and corninands our attention. 

' Duelling has in msny pooniriet g. law againft it — but can cerer 
be pievented. The law can infliijt no greater penalty for any breach 
<^ it than death ; which the ducUill contemns .—The re are alio 
fomecalea of injury which the law cur.tiot prevent, nof punilli 
when committed — thefe moftbe redrefled by the man who I'uffeia, 
and by him "liy. He is prompted to do this by fomething antecei 
lient, and foperior to all law, and by adelire as eajjer a« hunger or 
luit ; fo that it is aq eafy lor law to prevent or reftrain (he two latter 
as the former. Very luckily for us, occafion» for the gratification! 
of this paffion occur but feldom ; and tho' a man may be reftrainei 
irom a duel by perfonal tear, which is its only counteraftor, there 
are very few Jnliances, perhaps none, of its being prevented by 
conQdeiing it aa a breach of the law. In the b^rginning of the hi 
centur)- duels were fo trequent, panicoiariy in Franco, aa to occa- 
'' a levere ediit tO prevent ihem — indeed by their frequency, they 

were by degrees improved into combats of two, three, and ibme- 
limcs nwre of a fide. — In thufe days a French nobleman wak rnak- 
iag up his party to decide a quarrel with another man of equal rank, 
it came (a the King's e»rs, who lent io him <.>ne of the moll riling 
men at court, with a commiind to defift, afluring him of the ilricf 
esceution of the edifl in cafe of difobedie nee .—Every one know* 
the attachment of the French to their fovereign, but yet it proved 
weak when fct againft this all-powerful paflion. The nobleman not 
OBly refufed to obey the king, but aSually. engaged the ne&uger 
to be one of his party. 

' The above feem to be the principal xe^Sont why riches, cards, 
wd duelling have fo deep a root in the mind of man — but there are 
oibert which come in aid. The delire of fi;periortty is of itfelfaU 
inoft fulficient to produce this crreat efFett.' 

The nature of our publication will not pcnnit us to no- 
licc particularly the variety of matter treated of by this pleaf- 
ing writer, neither indeed is it neccflavy. A ferw inifcella- 
neo us remarks on detached paflages will be fufficient, and 
mote congenial with the fpint of the work. In Letter 5tU 
he approves of the extravagant colouring of the fublimc or 
/iia/ painters, becaufc, as they painted for chnrclies, where 
diftance from the eye, and a bad light, required an over- 
charged colouring, they afled with judgmi;nt and propriety 
in iiepping " beyond the modefty of nature." The apology 
is certainly a good one, if the faft were th»t, bythisextra- 



44 Thirty tellers en Krious Subjeas. 

vagance of colouring, the objefts appeared to the cyejuft 
and beautiful imitations of nature at the'dilfance they were 
meant to be viewed : but we will venture to fay, from expe- 
rience, that this is far from being generally tlie cafe. We, 
on the contrary, liavc feen many paintings of this kind, 
where the extravagant or unnatural colouring, not only took 
from the fidclityiof imitation, when viewed at the intended 
diftance, but even rendered the objcfls themfelvcs obfcurc 
andindiftin£t. Sir J, Reynolds, in his notes on Frcl'noy, 
has defended the /</«/ painters on very different principles, 
but his reafons appear to us by no means fatisfaftory *. In 
Letter ii, are many pertinent remarks on the Englifh lan- 
guage. Various improprieties and folecifms are noticed, 
which have been introduced not only into our colloquial, 
but even into our written language, by the refidence of 
Authors and pcrfons of rank in London, where fuch impro- 
prieties arc prevalent. 

' The Londoo dialefl,' fays this lively eJTayt ft, ' ia the caufc of 
many improprietiea, which, if they were only uftd in converfation, 
would not much lignify ; but as they have begun to make part of 
our written language, they deferve forae auiinadverfion. To men- 
tion a few. The cuftom among the common people of adding an 
1 to many words, has, I believe, occafioned its bein}; Hied lo' 
Ibme, by writers of rank, who on account of their refidence in 
London did not perceive the improprieiy. They fpeak, and write, 
chicieiil — ceati — acquainlancei — ajjijtancts, &c. Chicken is itfelf ihc 
plural of chick, as oxen ia of ox, kine (cowen) ia of cov;, and many 
others. Coal, acquaintance, being aggregate nouns, admit of no 
plurd! termination, nor does ajjifiance. If I were to fay a bag of 
ihots, orfaads, the impropriety would be i nft an tly perceived ; and 
yet oneia full aa good Englilb as the other.' 

" A certain Author of great credit," he fubjoins, " who 
*' has taken aftrifl, nay a ti^r^u/ review of the EngHfh lan- 
" guage, ufes them as often as they occur." A long refi- 
dence in London has introduced other inaccuracies into the 
writings of the Author here alluded to, befides tiiofe above 
raencipned. Wc have one at prefent in our eye, which ap- 
pears, amjdft others of a like kind, in his laft work. "I 
•' have heard idiot," fays he, " who ufed to revenge 
" his vexations by laying all night upon the bridge, f" Be- 
fides the folecifm laying, there is another inaccuracy in the 
above fentence. WJhat bridge does the Jearned Author 
mean by " The bridge ?" We doubt not bis being able to in- 
form us, but it is a fecret he has not hitherto communicated 
to his Readers. Thcfe may perhaps be confidered as unim- 

* Vid. Erglifli Review of April laft. p. 379. 
f_Liv^ of tlie Poets, vol. 1. p. 91. 


Digitized byGOOglc 

thirty Letters an Various SubjeHs. 4.$ 

poitant matters, but eve- the petty errors of the great i» 
every department, are of confeqijence. Our Eflayift goes on, 

' The Lontlon fhraftolagy has alio been too hard for Eitglilh. 
/ gtt me up — he fits' him dawa^-rl got ua JUrp — / JUpt neft 
— fuch a ihing is a doing — a going — ^ coming — ll-vi lobfters 
— iliie cattle — I will eall of you — do not tell en it. All thefe 
are writ without feruple. Our modccn comediee, and the London 
uews-papers, abound fo math in thii language, that they are fcarcc 
intelligible to one who has never been in the capital. Nay in books 
for the ufe of fchools, iheLondon dialect ia fo predominan^ that ma- 
ny of the fentenees are not to be underflood by a country boy, and 
impollible to be rendered into Lattn even by ihofe who underlland 
them. " I will go and fetch a walk in the Green Park"—" I will 
go get me my dinnner," and fuch jargon is perpetually occurring.' 

We the more readily fubfcribe to the fufpicions of the 
Author, expreffed in the following paflage, as, from fevcrai 
circumflances, we have long had the fame fufpicions. 

' I greatly fufpeft,' fays he, ' the fo much commended draughts 
in Anfon's voyage to be nothing but ouclinea filled up at random ; 
and more than fufpeft, that many deligns in a late publication of 
this fort, are mere inventions at home.' 

It is generally thought tliat mufic has great power in ex- 
citing or quieting the paflions. If it afts at all in tliis way, 
we imagine it is in a very iriconfiderabie degree. In his 17EI1 
Letter, this agreeable writer has combated the received opi- 
nion we think with great fuccefs. 

' What palEion cannot mufic raife or quell? fays Dryden, or Pope, 
I forga which: and the fame thought is fo often exprelTed bv 
other poets, and fo generally adopted by all authors upon this 
fubject, that it would be a bold attempt to contradii^ it, were there 
not an immediate appeal to general feeling, which I hope is fuperior 
to all authority. Thus fupportcd then, I alk in my turn' — " What 
paffion c«-» mufic raife or quell?" Whoever felt himfelf atTeacd, 
otherwife tliaa withpleafure, at thofe Itrains which are fuppofe.l to 
infpi re grief — rage — joy — or pity? and this, in a degree, equal to 
the goodnefs of the compolition and performance. The efieit of 
mufic, in this inftanee, is jull the fame as of poetry. We attcnii — 
arepleafed — delighted — tranfported — and when the heart can hear 
no more, " glow, tremble, and weep," All thefc are but dlflercnt 
degrees ofpure^iw/Brr. When a poet or mufician has produced 
this lafl effcct,. he has attained the utmoft in the^werof poetry or 
mufic. Tears being a general exprellion of griet, pain, and pity; 
and mulic, when in its |)Gr(c6tion, producing them, has occafioncd 
rhemiftake.ofiy railing the paflions of grief. Sec, But tears, in 
fjct, are nothing but the mechanical efFea of everv ftrong aftcdion 
of the heart, and produced by all the paflions; even joy and rage. 
Itisthiseffeit, and the plcafuraWc fenfation together, which Ollian 
(whether ancient or modern I care not) calls the "jov of grief." 

"Thefe are Gallicifitts from the French refleflcd.verbs/i'ii'"''', to 
jet up, i'ajpiir, to fit down. 



46 tl%irff Zttltr-i en l^ariiut Suhje/ft.- 

— ^It n thii eRefl, when produced by fame gnoA iJaafft, whlal) 
Dr. BUir, bis Critic, flylfs the " fublime pathetic." 

In Letter 36tti, ** Obftrufltons in the way of fame," he 
thus deplores the fate of negle^ed and unrewarded genins. 

* The greateft part of thofe wbo feem to have been bom to make 
mankind happy, were themfelvet miferable. A melsDcholy cata- 
logue might be made of ihefe. If wc knon' any thin^ of Homer, 
it IB, that heran about ballad-lioging. Poor, unhappy, half-flarved 
Cerraniet, Cj^miien*, Butler, Fielding ! Doet it not grieve you to 
be told thiit ihe author of Tom Jonci liei in the fadoty't burying* 
|i;round at Lifbon, undiftinguifhcd, unregarded— not a Aone to mark 
the place ! And would it not raife aur indignation to behold fiately 
monuments erefled for thofe whofe names were never heard of, un- 
til they appeared in theirepifaph ?■ ' were they not eonfidcred r*- 
ihera* monuments of the fculptor's art, than as prcferving the me* 
morv of the perfbns whofe dull they fo pompoufly cover.' 

We could with plcarur<e dwell longer on the prefent ar> 
tide, but we oiuu bid adieu to this fprightly and intelligent 
writer, with returning him our tbanks for raHing our oM 
acquaintance Quarles from the dead. He has ektraded a 
confiderable portion of precious mctai from the drofs of that 
fantaftical and unequal p6et. Asafpccimen, we fliall con- 
dude with an extraA fromtlie laft Letter. 

' I have, like a prudent caterer, referred the beft thing for the 
lal). It is the twelfth eitibkm of the third book. The fubjea of 
the print is a figure trying to efcape from the Divine wngeaoce 
which is purfuing in thunders: the motto ' ■ O thai thm vieuUft 
hide mt in the grave, that thtu vituUJi litrp nte in fecret until tfy naratb 
he paft ! Vpon this faint he has produced the following excellent 

Ahl whither fliall I fly} what -path untrod 

Shall I feek out to 'fcape the thiming rod 

Of my offended, of my angry God ? 

Where fltali 1 fojourn? what kind fea will hide 

My head from thunder? where fliall i abide,. 

Vntil his flamei be quench'd or laid afide ? 

What, if my feet fiiould take their hafly flight. 

And feek proteflion in the ftiades of night ? 

Alas ! no fliades can blind the God of light. 

What, if my foul tliould take the wings of day, ' 

And find fome defert ? if Ihe fpring away 

The wings of vengeance clip as fafl ai (hey. 

What, if fome folidrock fhou Id entertain 

My frighted foul ? can fwlid rocks reftraia 

The flroke of Jiiltlce and not cleave in twain ? 

Nor (ea, nor (bade, nor diield, nor rock, nor cave, 

Nor filent deferts, nor the fullen grave. 

Where fiame-c) 'd fury means to fmiK, can fare. 



Wilfon's EleiKtnU of Hebrew Gfammat. 4,7 

Tls vain to flee ; till centle mercy fliew ■ 

Her bettei" eye ; the firther off we go. 

The fwing of Juftice deals the mighijer blow* 

*rh' ingeBiM)u»child,correfled, doth not flie 

His angry mother's band, but clings more nigh, 

And quenches with his tears her flaming eye. 

Great God ! there ia no fafety here bclonr { 

Thou art my fortrers, thou thut (eem'lt my (be, 

'Tis thou that firik'it the flroke, muA guard the blow.* 

Art. VII. EUmnhef Heimu Grammar, To which is prefixed, 
a DiflertatioR on the two Modes of Reading with or without the 
Poiitu. By Charles VVilfon, Profeffor of Hebrew iu the 
Univerfity of St. Andtewi, 41. feu-id. Cadeil and Elmfley. 

THE ingenious laboa« of-Sir William Jones and Mr. 
Richardfon had proved with what fuccefs the princi- 
ples of Eaftcrn Languages might be publilhed in Englift, 
when Mr, Wilfon, righfly concluding that the Hebrew 
ought not xo be excluded rrom the fame advantage wliich 
had attended the Perfian and Arabic, rcfolved to write a 
Grammar of the Hebrew Tongue in the native Language of 
his country. 

Profeflbr WiFTon has the honour of being tlie firft teacher 
of Hebrew in -Scotland, who, in oppofition to common pre- 
judices, has publifiied a Hebrew Grammar without poiiiti 
and accents ; and he has fhewn by the moft convincing ar- 
guments, that thefe appendages are altogether unneceflary, 
and only fcrve to embarrafs the ftudent. Upon the limplc 
plan which he has adopted, the knowledge of the Hebrew 
may be act^uired in a ftiorter time, than by any other Gram- 
mar with which we are acquainted. After a very fenfible' 
preface, in which the Author endeavours to remove thofc 
obftruftioOs, which have hitherto perplexed and difcouraged 
the fludy of this venerable Language, he proceeds to divide 
his work into twenty-three chapters. 

In the two firft chapters, the Author fupports his plan of 
reading without points, by many arguments from reafon, 
find from the authority not only of the moft learned Chrif- 
tian Fathers, but alfo that of the Jews riiemfelves in the 
manufcripts ufed in their fynagogues. 

Hcdivides the Hebrew Alphabet, according to the divi- 
£oh in other Languages, into confonants and vowels. 
The Vowels are five, viz. « a; ri e; • i or y; w o; and "• u. 

Thefe, Mr. Wilfon maintains are always long. And a^ 
many Hebrew words confift of feveral confonants. without 
WJy of thr five vowel-letters interfperfed, he propofcs to fup- 


Digitized by'GoOgIC 

4S Wilfon's ElcmenU of Hebrew Grammar. 

ply their abfencc by the admiHion of ilioit vowels at the 
plcafurc of the Reader. In confirmation of his doarinc, he 
has favoured us with a curious extraft from the Hexapla of 
Oj-/ff»,wlierc the Hebrew of the Old Tcftament is written 
in Greek characters. From this extradt; we clearly perceive 
that the learned Father uniformly exprefled the above-men- 
tioned five leners, by Greek vowels only ; and that where ' 
two or three coiifonants follow each other in fucceffipn, he 
formed fyllablcs by inferting Greek vowels ad libitum. 

Since, howtvcr, many eminent Grammarians, both an- 
ticnt and modern, have contended earneftiy for the ufe of 
the vowel points ; and, as many Hebrew Bibles are printed 
on that plan, the Autlior has, in his fccond chapter ^iven a 
concife, but fufficiCntly clear account of the doClrine of 
points, with fuitable examples ; and has fubjoined a lilt of 
thofe authors on both fides who have moft largely handled 
this controverfy. 

In chap. 3. The Author treats of the nature and genius 
of Hebrew grammar, and gives a diftin£t account of the 
imponant divifion of the letters into radical and fervile ; bv 
which laft clafs are formed all the flexions of nouns an^ 
verbs in this language. 

In chap. 4, 5, 6. He treats of nouns, fubitantive, and 
adjective; and of participles: of tlieir flexions and modes of 
comparjfon, in which the Hebrew differs from the lan- 
guages of Greece and Rome, but very much refembles thefe 
of France and England. 

In the government of nouns and participles, or what is 
called the conftrufted Hate, the Heorew diifers materially 
from all European Languages. For inftance, in the phrafe, 
kings of the earth, reges terrarum, the firft word, in 
the nominative, governs the fecond in the genitive. In He- 
brew; the firft word is governed and fuffers a change in its 
form, while the fecond remains unchanged i^i" the earth — 
a-3'j 13 kings — Kings of the earth, is rendered in Hebrew, not 
by y3K')c-3''t3. hut by v-k- ^'jt:— For this, the Author has 
coineda new grammatical term, calling it t\it genitive of pojit'ion. 
He explains the whole matter very fully in the 7th chapter, 
in which he demonftra^es this particular mode of conftruc- 
tion to be both natural and philofophical ; and Ihcws by 
many exampjcs how much the energy and elegance of the 
language are heightened by the proper ufe of this genitive of 

In the 8th and gth' chapter we have all the Hebrew pro- 
nouns, with their flexions, and their abbreytutions in the 
way of affixes to noujis and verbs. 

The verb -ii that part of the Hebrew language which 



Wilfon's Elements of Hebrew Grammar. 49 

gmmniariaiw have rendered moil difficnlt, and which th* 
, frrcnds of the vowel points have loaded with intricacies al- 
moft inexplicable. All tlic Dutch grammarians and thcit 
Yollowers admit four forms of every verb, and the greater 
^rt of them give almoft innumerable fpecies of verbs tjuief- 
ccnt or deficient in fome of the radical letters. The four 
forms arc kal, kiphil, and pihel,. with their pafTiVcs, and 
"with pahel. The third of thefe, Mr, Wilfon has very ]a- 
■dicionfly rejeftcd, bccaufc in every part of it, rhc letters are 
exaftly the fame with thofe of the firft. The deficient or 
^uiefcent verhshc hasTeduced to three general heads; and 
has rendered the whole doflrinc of the flexion of verbs verr 
fimple and eaAr, depending on a carcfdl attention to thefe 
fevcn fervilc letters 4leph, than, vau, mem, joH, m, he, 
hj'onn^^ by which the whole procefs is carried on. This is a 
Very valuable part of the grammar, and is comprehended in 
chap. loth tothe 16th inclulive, through which arc liiter- 
fperfed many folid remarks that throw much light on this 
hitherto involved fubjeft. 

Chap. 17th treats of derivative nouns, and fhows how 
fhcfc are formed from verbs, by the ufe of the fame fcven 
ktters formerly mentioned, as carrying on the inflexions of 
verbs themfehres, viz. ria-irji.-s 

Chap. 1 8th contains the names of numbers, and numerical 
letters jn the Hebrew ; and chap. 19th a lift of adverbs, pre- 
pofitions and conjunflions. 

In chap. 20th we have the peculiar roles of Hebrew fyntax 
laid down with plainnefs and perfpicujrv, Thefe rules arc 
■veryfewand eafily nnderftood. Among 01 hers, -there are three 
very rcnrarkftbic circumfiances in the fyutax of this language. 

I. "A fubftantive noun is often found atone in the body ol a 
" fentence, wtea it is neiiher a nomiaative to a verb, nar is govern- 
'* ed by a verb, nor has any propoiition or fii^n of caft before it." 
Liki tiiecaure, manner, am! ioltrumem in the Latin, it uinft be 
tranllaredBs in theabhtive. Example, '^p-''"' Bail's their tongue 
(i. e. with iheir tongue) " they flattei"— i. " The pronoun is often 
*' repeated aftrrtlie relative by a pleonafm. Example, "n uBin irn, 
" which the wind driveth it away" 3. '' The letten v:iu prefixed 
" to the ^y^ff often converts it into a/1/.'arf; and before ^ fufure 
" L-onyerta it Into a prrfed tenfe; bsaring, in this chafai3:cr, the 
*' title of van converfivum." The Avtthor fubjoins anotc here, in 
the following morfcit and candid terms, " This promlfcuous uTc of 
'* the preterite and future appears to me very insuplicablc. After all 
" my refc;ireh, I have found no fatisfa^ury account of ir." 

Chap. 2ift treats of compound words; and of peculiar 
idioms ; which are highjy figurative and metaphorical as 
might be expeftcd in a Very ancient and primitive language. 
Our Englilh verfioij of the old teftamcnt hns with great 
■ E>iG. R.EV. Vol. 11. July 1783. D pro- 

■ \ DiflltlzedbyGoOgIC 

50 Dr. Beattie's Moral and Critical Dijftrtalktu. 

propriety preferved many of thefe peculiar idioms, which 
even in.a literal tranflation, aiFord beautiful e^camples of tlie 
maiefty and fubliniity of the Scripture fttle. ■ 

The 22d chapter is exceedingly ufeful and curious. It 
contains very diftinft, and fully exemplified rules for in- 
veftigatin"; the roots of Hebrew words : and it traces a great 
variety of words in the Greek, the Latin, and the Englifh, 
to Hebrew roots. By this mode of inveftigatton, a philolo- 
'• gift may, no doubt, difcover that other languages alfo arj 
i derived from the fame common Hebrew original. But on 
the fubjeft of etyliiology, learned men are apt to be fanci- 
ful; a propenfity from which our ingenious Author is per- ■ 
haps not exempted, any more than others who have trodden 
in the walks of anticnt literature, before hjm. The laft 
chapter confifts of felefl palTages from tlic original Hebrew 
of the Pfalms, and of Ifaiah, with a potrefl Englifh traaf? 
lation, intended as exercifes for young ftudents. Upon tlie 
whole, the plan of this Grammar appears are be as com- 
pleat, as the method and arrangement are clear and accurate^ 
The Author difcovers a thorough knowledge of his fubicAj 
and communicates his ideas in a perfpicuous manner. This 
publication is undoubtedly an addition to the ftorcs of 
Grammar, and we congratulate the ancient UnivcrCty of 
-St. Andrews, on the revival of the ftudy of that language, 
which conveyed to mankind the firft revelation of the divine- 
will. A perfon of tolerable capacity, who applies to the ftu- 
dy of the Hebrew, on the plan recommended in tliis work," 
will, in the courfe of a few months, be able to read, with 
very little affiftance from a lexicon, the whole book of 
Pfalms, and moft ot the hiftorical parts of the OM Tefta- 

Art. VIII. DfirialhH< Moral and CnikaU On Memory and Ima- 
p;i[iatJoii. Oil Dreaming. The Theory of Language, On Fa- 
ble and Romance. On tbe Attachment of Kindred. lUuftra- 
tions on Sublimity. By James Beactie, LL. D. Profeilor of 
Moral Philofophy and Logict in the Marillial College and U- 
iiiverfity of Aberdeen ; and Member of the Zealand Society of 
Arts and Sciences. +to. . 15s. boardi. Caddl, London ; Creech, 

ICanduMffom but hjl Nwier.] 

IN a former Number we offered feveral ftriftures and re- 
marks upon this performance. It is now our province 
to give an account of what Dr. Eeattie has obferved on, 
Fable and Romance; and to exhibit a general pasture of 

his litecary aOiiicics. 

, Q'i'- 


Dr. Beattie's Moral and Critical Diffirtalions. 51 

Our Author introduces his fentiments on the fubjeft of 
Fable and Romance, by fome retleitions concerning the 
tales and proverbs of 'antiquity. He then treats of the fa- 
bulous narrative of the Eailern Nations. After this, he 
diftinguiflies modern profe fable into the hiftorical and the 
moral allegory ; and examines and defcribes the poetical 
profe fable or romance. He next makes excufions into tlie 
ages of fiefs and chivalry. Proceeding in his courfe, he 
endeavours to trace the hiftory of the old romance ; and 
with regard to the new romance he is ambitious of engaging 
in charaiterifiical details. 

But upon thefe topics, which muft be allowed to be in 
themfelvcs very curious and important, he is by no means 
fo fuccefsful, as we could have wifhed. His learning is cir- 
cunifcribcd ; and while he difplays no eminent ingenuity, 
his errors are frequent, and even palpable. 

With refpeft to oriental fables, he profefles to have been 
only acquainted with the colleftion called. The jirahlan 
Ki^bti Eniirla'mment. But fo carelefs has he been to inform 
hitnfelf, where information was fo eafy, that he is uncer- 
tain whether this co!ie£tion was the work of Monf, GalhuJ, 
or really a tranilation from an Arabic original. He fsenis, 
indeed, incapable of entertaining any ftrong rclifh of this 
delightful book ; and it is impoHible for us not to exprefs 
(lar furprizc, at tlii& coldnefs in a man who has written 

The fame inattention to intelligence, and the fame difre- 
fpeft of the public, appear in what he has faid of the Argi- 
nis. Of the fcrious hiftorical allegory, he obferves, ' the 
beft rpecimen is the ArgMs ; written in Latin, about the beginning 
of the laft century, by John Barclay, a Seotchm-n ; and fuppofed 
to contiin .in allegorical account of the civil wars of France during 
the reign of Henry III. 1 have read only part of the work : and 
what I read, I never took (he trouble to decypher, by means of the 
kicy, which in fome editiona 'm fubjuincd to it, or to compare the 
£ftinou9 adventurea of Mcleander and Lycogenct with the real ad- 
Teatures that are alluded Co. I thcii;fure am not qualified to cri- 
' e performance : but can freely recommend it, ae in fome 

pljces very entertaining, as abounding' in lively defcription, and re- 
markable for the moll part, tliough not uoiformly, for the elegance 
of the language.' 

Here every tiling is wild and diforderly. It is not true 
that John Barclay was a Scotchman ; for he was born in 
France. It is not true, that the Arginh contains an allego- 
rical account of the civil wars of France. For it is a gene- 
raldefcriotionof human life and manners. Our Author, too, 
■ had no title to mention the Ar^fmi, if he had not ftudied it. . 
The public could ktve waited without impatience, till he 
Da had 


SZ pr. BciXtk's Moral and CritUal Differtatians. 

had qualified himfeif for the talk of criticizing it. His re- 
peated attempts to write upon fubjefts, about which he was 
uninformed, reminds us of one of hi* general remarks, 
' that too much learning may make I man mad.' Perhaps 
he had fome fears of this fort ; for it is othcrwife diffi- 
cult to account for the contempt he difcovers of the public. 

In order to explain chivalry and romance, he goes into 
fhe hiftory of the feudal inftitutions. But this fubjefl is 
evidently beyond his reach ; if we may judge from the con- 
fufed and erroneous manner in which he treats it. After 
having diftinguilhed, with great iimplicity, xheword/evd or 
feocfas denominatinga/f/", from the viord feud a cxpreflivc 
of a conie/1, he lays down the unhappy pofition, that alhd't- 
ality or allodial property was peculiar to the Sovereign in ths 
feudal ages ; and tliat fubjcfls, in thofc times, could only 
be connefted with tenure. But, in opposition to him, we 
may, without any fcruple, affirm that the Nobles, befidc 
the eftates they enjoyed from the Crown, were in pofieffion 
oi allodium. And what may very poflibly furprize him, it, 
is demonftrahle, that their allodial poITeflions were coeval 
witli, or perhaps more anticnt than the fiefs or beneficei 
which they obtained. When a conqucft was made by a vic- 
torious nation of Gothic or G^mannic origin, partitions 
of territory were made by its General Council to tliofe offi- 
cers who had diflinguifhed themfelves. Thefe pariitiooj 
were_/rf< or allodial \ that is, they were not fubjct^ed to any 
fervice. In contradiftinftion to thefe, were the eftates 
which were granted under the burden of military fervice. 
The former flowed from the State ; the latter from the So- 
vereign. The Noble was confidered as having won his al- 
lodial eftate with the point of his fword ; and by his accep- 
tance of a fief, he was confidered as the vaflil of the Sovereign 
" from whom he held it. This diftinftion, which is of fuch 
importance ir> cbarafterizing antient times, ought not to 
have been unknown to our Anthor. 

Following Dr. Robertfon, he confiders a feudal kingdorrt 
as the encampment of a great army.- But this notion is 
very pai'tial and incomplete. The miUtary fervice of the 
feudal tenant was never, perhaps, uniform and conftant at 
any period of time. It was only due upon urgent occafions 
and emergencies. Nor ought it to be forgotten, that 
tliere were times oi feudality, when the military attendance! 
of the vallal was compounded for by a fine in monev, or by 
an elufory preftation. The general defcription, therefore, 
of Dr. Beattie, and his Guide, refers not with propriety to 
any age in the hiltory of iiefs ; aiid when given as a regular 
account of a feudal kingdom, it is widely deficient. 


Digitized byGoOglc- 

Dr. Beattie's Msral and Critical DiJJertatrom. 53 

Our Author contends, that the feudal fyftem, in its full 
extent, was not brought into England til! the Conqucft, by 
William Duke of Normandy. But there is no Iiiiloricat 
fafl more certain, than that the ptrpetuity of the fief, whic5 
was the laft ftep in the progreflioii of the feudal grant, wat 
very well known in England in the times of Edward the 
Confeilbr. And if Dr. Beattie had taken the trouble to 
confult the antieiit monuments of our hii^ory, he might hav« 
guarded himfelf againft a notion whidi has no real founda- 
tion ; and which he has been contented humbly to borrow 
from writers, who conceive, that the Norman invalion was 
aconqueftover rile people of England, and that tiie fuccef- 
fors of the Duke of Normandy, inherited from him an ab- 
folute right of dominion over the Euglifii nation ; opinions, 
which have been often refuted, and which ought long lincQ. 
to have been abandoned. It is not very honourable to fol- 
low blindly in the tra£t of any authority ; and it is ftill lefs 
lb, to wander with authors wliofe fentiinents have been re-> 
pcatedly overturned. 

With regard to the introduflion of the feudal inftituttoiTs 
into Scotland, Dr. Beattie obfervcs, ' it is not yet, fo fa* 
' as I know, determined among antiquaries.' Here we 
have a new proof of hi? difinclination to procme intelligence. 
If he had enquired into the Scottilh antiquities, he would 
have found, that the feudal law was coeval with their mo- 
narchy -, and that knight fcrvice, and hereditary liels, wero 
fully e{Ubli(hcd in Scotland in the times of David I. 

In defcribing the progrefs of the feudal grant, and in his 
account of the crutades, there likewifc appear ftrong and 
obvious marks of inattention and hafte. InAead of confult^ 
ktg the compofitions of lawyers on thefe topics, or the mo- 
numents of our antientjurifprudence, he pays a ferviJe o- 
beifance to the opinions of Dr. Robertfon ; opinions, which 
no man can refpefl much, who is even flenderly acquainted 
with the middle times. It is alfo obfervable, that Dr. 
Beattie has no idea of chivalry as a regular political inflitu- 
tion. It would feem, that he had only heard of it in its 
fiate of decline. Accordingly, he is very careful to paint 
that fantaftic objcfl the i«/^A(-(rrflW. But this objeft was 
merely an extravagance or wart which grew out of the iulii- 
tHtion of chivalry, when it was about to expire, upon the 
introduftion of ftanding armies.- For the inftitution of chi- 
valry refers properly to the knights of honour, who conftitut- 
ed die chief ft rength, as well as ornament of tlie feudal ml-, 

Upoa tlic rift of learning, Dr. Beattie is more inftruflivo 
D 3 than 


S4 Dr. Beattie's Mtral and Critical Diprtatitns. 

than ufuaJ ; ana nom this poition of his work wc Jhall fub- 
niit the following extraft to our Readers. 

' To inveftigateall thecaufea ihat brought about the revival of 
lettrrs, is now impcOiblc. The ages immediately pieceding thii 
great event n-ere profoundly ignorant : and few memorials of them 
remain. The crufades, bloody and unndtuial as they were. Item 
to have gitcn a new, and a favourable, impulfe to the human fou!. 
For the heroes of thofe wars, who I'ved to return honje, brou^rht 
•long with them marvellous accounts of Afia, and of t;>e mistbr- 
tunes, triumphs, and other adventures rhai had there befjlien them, 
Thui, it may be fuppofed, that the tmaginiitioa of Europeans would 
be elevated, their memory ftored with .lew ideas, and their curiolity 
awakened. The human mluJ, thus prepared, naturally bciakes it- 
feit to invention. Or if wc b;iie\e the djwn ot modern Uteraiure 
to have been previous to, or coeval with, the firft crufade, ir is not 
abfurd to imagine, chat the fame fpirit of a.livity, howe'ver raifed, ■ 
which made men think of %nalij;in_^ themfelvcs in feats of arms at 
home, or in queJt of adventures abroad, mi^ht alfo fiimulaie the 
mental powers, and caufe genu-us to exert itfelf in new ways of 
thinking, as well a* of afling. The war» of Thel>es and of Troy 
are undoubtedly to be reckoned among the caufes that gave rife to 
the ■" - ^" 

^ ' Be this however as it will, certain it is, that, about the beginning 
, of the twelfth century, or perhaps a little earlier, there appeared. 
In the country of Provence, a fet of men, called TaouEADOURs, 
who arc to be conlidered as the fathers of modern learning. That 
country, known of old by the name of /:6^ Roman pro-vincf, is fitu- 
- ated in a genial climate ; and, from its vicinity to iMarfeiltes, which 
was a Greek colony, and from having fo long enjoyed the benefit of 
Roman arts and manners, we need not wonder, that, when all tho 
ref) of Europe was in a rude Hate, it fliould retain fame traces of 
antient difctpline. An obvious advancigc it muft have had, in thii 
refpca, over Rome ; owing to its diflance from the feat of Papal 
defpotifn), which in ibofe days was friendly to ignorance j though 
in a later period, under Leo, it favoured the cultivation of arts 
and fcicnces. 

' The ivord Trauhaileur, in its etymological fcnfe, differs cot much 
from the Greek word pofi ; the one denoting an hvesior, and the 
Other a woi/r. In Italian, trei'art fignifita Id Jin//, or W iirveitt ; 
trimafereU A^iukr, Imatnitr^ or eemfxjer efpatliy: and trmuatm-e 
and trouhadour are plainly of the fame origin. Thel'roubadourB 
made verfcs iti the Proren^l tongue ; which (as might be conjec- 
tured from the Gluation of the country) refembled partly the 
Italian, and partly the French, and is fald to have bad many- 
Greek words and "idioms, which it owed, no doubt, to the neigh- 
bouring city of Marfeilles. It feems to have been the firft modem 
tongue that was put in writlnp, or employed in compofition. 
And the rank of fome of thofe who ccmpored in it f for many of 
the Troubadours were princes) and the wandering life which 
others of them led, made it quickly circulate through the weftern 

; The firft poets of Greece fung thrir own verfes : but the 6rft 
Proven fa ^ 

DiflltlzedbyGoOgIC ■ 

Dr. Beattic's Moral and Cnllcal Drffcriat'iam. $$ 

Provenral bards only compoffd poems ; teavins it to art inferiour 
order of men, called yoagU-uri, to fiiig thejn. This at leail was the ■ 
general praftice : tho'joh oceaSonally, no dou^t, the former mighi' 
Iin;f, and the, latter comjjole. Both svere ir.ctincd to a wandermg. 
life ; but the finger more profelTedly than the poet, though thcj' 
fometimes went in compan)'. The Jongiewr ftuJied to recommend' 
himfclf by various arts; by playing on mvilkalinllruments ; byimi- 
fating the fong of birds, by jumping through hnojw, and by all forts 
of Iciicrdcmain, Hence, probably, our word Jfgglfr. 

* No poets were ever ht'ld in higher efleem, than the Troubadours.- 
Raimond the fifth, count of Provence, eseinpted them from taies. 
They went through many nations ; and, wherever ihev went, thej"- 
found patrons and patroncflbs. The Lndics were particularly am* 
bilious of being celebrated by thera ; and would rather fubmit to be 
teized by the importunltk'S of their love, than venture by rejsciing 
thcTi ro incur their hatred; for as the troubadour was extravilganr 
in pan eg y rick, he could be equally fo in fatire, when he-thoughc' 
bimfclf afironted or defpifed. — This paffion for that fort of renown, 
which poets pretend to give, may be accounted for, perhaps, from 
the ignorance of tetters, which then prevailed in all ranks, and 
efpecially among the fair fcx. Bernard de Ventadourmentionsitaa 
one of the accoinpii(hment5 of Queen Eleanor, who was married 
firft to Louis the Seventh of France, and afterwards to Henry tha 
Second of England, that Ok could read. 

' Confidering the gallantry of the times, and the attention paid to 
thefe poets by the ladies, it is natural to fuppofe, that love would 
be a chief theme in their com poliii on s. And fo infaftitwas. 'Bot 
this love, though in fome inftances it might be genuine, had fo 
much formality in it, that I can hardly believe it to have been any 
thing elfe, for the molt part, than a verbal parade of admiration 
and attachment, in which the heart had little concern, ^nd which 
aimed at nothing further, than to fecure the proteftion of the fair, 
atid the noble. TheProvenfal poet went to the court of foitit prince 
or lord ; where he was no fooner eilablidied, tban he began to com-. 
pofe fonnets in praife of his patron's wife, and to feign, or to fancy 
himfelf in love with her. This happened, not to one onlyj or to a' 
few, but almoft to the whole fpecies of ihefe adventurers } fo that 
i< would Teem to have been the mode, and a thing of courfe. To 
unmarried ladies it does not appear, that much devotion was paid :' 
1 fuppofe, becaufe they had little to heftow, in the way either of 
pecuniary, or of honorary, favour. 

' Petrarch's paffion for Laura, though difintercfled, feems to have ' 
been in fome degree fiflitious, or at leaft, not quite fo fcrious a 
matter as many people imagine. " He was wretched to fliow he 
" had wit," as the fona; fays : he loved after the Provenfai fadiion : 
he wanted to make paflionate verfes ; and Laura, being a beautiful; 
lad)-, and a married one too, with a pretty roraantick name, fuited 
his poetical purpofes as well, as Dulcinea del Tobofo did the 
hetoick views of Don Q^isoie. Had his heart been really engaged, 
he could not have gone on, from day to day, in the fame ftrain of 
eifgant and elaborate whining: a fincerc pallion would have allowed; 
him neither time nor tranquillity for fuch an amufement. — What is 
D 4 oblerved| 


5i Dr. Beattfe's Morai-and.Ortiital DiffiriatianSr 

obTerTed, jn the old sphorifni, of violent grief, ihat it w fileut, and 
of (lii;ht forrow, that it vents itfclf in words, will be tounii Co hold 
true cf many of our affeftions. Hammon^! was not in love, when h<j 
wr-'te his elrgies [ as I have been informed on good autborliy : au^ 
Youns, while compolin^ the moft pathetic parts of the Night- 
thoughts, was as chearful as at oiher times. Thefe aj-e noi the 
oniy inilances that might be mentlojicd, 

'The Ck-jhff'n, as it is called, of modern Italv, (a fort of- ro, 
piantick atceotion paid to innrried women by tuol'e who fiiould no(. 
pay it) I do nni pretend to undcrftand : though I lielieve it to be a 
difgr^e to the country, not only as it tends to the u'tcr corrup- 
tion of manners j but alfo becsufe ic fujiplies a pretence for id!enel», 
effiminacy, faumering, golliping, and iniignificant prattle. But \i 
this felhion arofe from the bewitching iofluence of Petrarch's poe-. 
try, which has been, affirmed by fome writers, and is not improba- 
ble, there may be reafon to think, ih;it at firli it was rather a fool- 
ifli, or at moit a fclliili, than a criminal connei£lion. — Adelaide, vif- 
countefs of Baux, was estj-fmely indulgent to the Troubadour Pe- 
ter Vidal, as long as his paiTion was merely poeiical i but when he 
had the prefumption to k'fs her one day in her ileep, flie drove hiro. 
from her prefence, and would never after, even at the .retjuefl: of 
herhuftiand, be reconciled to him. Peter, finding her inexorable, 
went and fell ID love with another lady, whofe name happened to 
he Wolf; and, drciling himfelf in a Ikiii of the animal lu called, 
{iibmitted to the danger of being hunted for her fake. In this garh 
he was dilcovered by tlie d<ig8 1 who, entering with great alacrity 
into the frolic, gaTC chare, purfued him to the mountains, and 
were a>^ually worrying him, when he was with difficulty refcued 
by the (liepherds. 

' Vidal, however, though fantaftic in love, was not in every thing. 
ridiculous. His advice to a Jongleur is curious; and Hiows, that, 
though in thofe days there might be little learning in Europe, thft 
principles of good brcedine, and of elegant behaviour, were in fome 
parts of it very well uoderltood. 

■ ' Love was not the only theme of the Provenfal poets. Theyocea- 
fionally joined their voices to thofe of the pope, and the monks, 
;Vid the kings of Europe, to roufe the fpirit of ctufadiog. Satire, 
religious and political, as well as perfonal, and little tales or novels, 
with portions of real hiftory, and even theological controvcrfy, were 
all injerwoven in their compolitions. But in every form their poe- 
try plealVd i and, by the indullry of thofe who compofed, and of 
f hole who fung it, obtained a very exienfive circulation. 

' A book, or a poem, in a living language, was at this period an 
cxttaordinary a|)pearaiice. All Europe attended to it. The Pro- 
veofal tonEue, and mode of writing, became fafliionable : and ihf . 
neighbouring nations wiflied to know, whether their language;) 
4ould not alfo be applied to the fame, or to fimilar purpofes. 

; This waj firli attempted with fucccfs in Italy j where feveraJ men. 
of great s^oius happeneil about this time to arife, whofe praflicc' 
piid adthoriiy fixed th{ Italian tongue in a ftate not very aifteren^ 
iirom iiB prefent: Among thefe were Dante, .Petrarch, and Bocca- 
Cio I who all flouriflicd in the end of the thirteenth century, or in 



Dr. Beattis*i Momltnd CrUjlai Dijirtaimt. 57 

dte begiBQiag of the fourH«obIi. — Dance dilHn^^ifhcd himfelf m 
poetry : and wrote bii Ixfirnn, Para/iif's and VurgattrU, in a bold, 
out eitravagaci ftyle of fable : iutermixuig I'atire with hii poetical 
defciipiions and allegories ; whereof Duny are highly liiulhed, aD4 
in particular pa (Tag es enforced with Cngular energy and fimptjcity 
<rf exp re IB on. --Petrarch cotnpofed many poems, letters, eflays, anil 
dialogues in Latin, which he thought the only durable tongue: 
for as to his Italian verfts, he did not believe they eoiild |art, or htt, 
intciligible for a century. But in tbia ho wa» miltaken greatly: 
hU Latin worlu bein"; now almoU fbvgoiten ; whilobis Italian fon- 
Beti are ftilt the adiatration of Europe, for delicacy of fentiroent, 
snd elegance of Itylc. Their merit wu indeed thought to be lo 
trail Iceadent, that he'alooe iras attended ta, and his maller» iha 
Troubadours were negleded and forgotteti.— Boccacio's chief per- 
formance is called the Dicatieroa. Ji is a fcries of novels ; whereof 
feme are grave, others oomical, and mn.ny indecent, He fuppofff 
a Ruraber of men and women met together, at the time when a jief- 
tilencc was ravaging Florence, ano telling thofe ftories for their 
mutusl amufemenl. H« imagiaation muft have been unbounded : 
and fo highly is his profe efteemed In Italy to thit day, that a late 
author of that country declares it to be impollible, for the man who 
hus not read Boccacio, to form aa ideji of the extent or energy of the 
Italian loogue. 

* The fourteenth century produced alfo the illufirioUB Geoffry 
Chaucer ; who, though not tne lirll who wrote in Enghlh, is tho 
liril of our great aulhorg, atid may be truly called the father of our^ 
language and literature. His writings are chiefly tranHations, or 
imitations, of the Provcnfal and Italian writers then known. But 
he baa imitated and trandated with the greateft latitude, and added 
many fine llrokes of chancer, humour, and defcnption ; fo that 
we ought to canfider him ai an original ; fince he does in iaGt ex- 
hibit, efpecially in his Canterbury Tales,, a mora natural pi^re 
of the Bnglifh manners of that age, than ie to be met with in any 
other writer. He did- not, however, fix the Engl iOi tongue, as his 
contemporaries. Petrarch aitd Boccacio had fixed the Italian. Many 
of his words foon fell into difufe : and his language at prefent is nut 
welt underftood, except by thofe who have taken fome paius to ftudy 
it. He died, in the year fourteen hundred. Same of his poems, 
partlcubrly bis Knight'i Tak, which is well modernized by Drydcn, 
are written in the talle of Chivalry; but not in that extravagant 
mode of invention, which now began to difplay itfelf in the SpaniOi 
and French romances; and which was afterwards adopted, and a- 
dorned with every grace of language and of harmony, by Ariofio 
in Italy, and by Spenfer in England.* 

Dr. Beattie's account of the revival of letters, is foUowcd 
by bis defcription of the old and the new romance. But 
in this defcription, there is nothing that is not trite and 

It is with real pain, that we remark, that the volume be- 
fore us has difappointed our expedattons. From the high 
popularity of the Author, we were in hopes of being at leaft 
f ntcrtaiiied. 


58 Dr. Beattie's Moral and Critieal l>}JirtaUa»s. 

entertained, if we fhould fail' of meeting with inftnlftion. 
But we cannot, with any degree of candour pronounce, o£ 
this performance upon the whole, that it is amafing. Wc 
.have indeed been abundantly pleafed with a few detached 
places ; but in a general view, we muft abftain from any 
great praife. Criticifm, not philofophy or hiftorical de- 
diiflion, is a province in which Dr. Beattje often appears to 
advantange ; but he has no claim to originality or invention; 
and while he has nothing new, he has not even the merit 
of copying from bookEof the greateft reputation, on the- 
topics he pretends to canvafs. His materials, at the fame 
time, that they are not his own, are freijuently improper 
and dangerous. If he had waited for the treat ife, which is 
expcfted from Dr. Reid, he mi^ht have profited, a^s before, 
from the ftores of that ingenious phiiofopber, and have 
ihoneanewbya reflcftcd iu!(re. But this prudential re- 
ferve, he has very unwifely ventured, to neglefl: on the prc- 
fent occalion. 

It muft likewife be acknowledged, that in the pages be- 
fore us, there is often a pedantry which difpleafcs ; but for 
which there may be fome apology, as the Author has writ- 
ten inthe retirement of a college, and without any know- 
ledge ofthe world. His credulity is greater than his phi- 
lofophy; his tafte better than his judgment. He is not de- 
ficient in imagination, yet is no where remarkable for the 
ardour of a vigorous and inquifitive mindi and to the ho- 
nours of enlightened genius he has fmali preteniitMis. 
Though animated on fomc occafions, a langour and dejec- 
tion pervade his work, and are feldom interrupted but by 
the bitterncfs of fuperftition, or the wcaknefs of preju- 
dice. Whcnhe cenfures, for example, thofe Authors who 
have enlarged on the virtues of fimple and rude ages, hegivfes 
way to an unbecoming heat and anger, ' An idle conceit,' 
fays he, ' fince the time ofRouiTeau, has been in fadiioii 
' among infidel and affefled theorifts on the continent, that 
' favage life is moft natural to us, and that the more a man 
' refembles abnite in his. raind, body, and behaviour, the 
' happier he becomes, and the more perfedt.' What is this 
but the folly of mifreprefentation f The Authors who 
prefer the fimpler ages or fociety, do not extol men for ap- 
proaching to the brute ; but for t!ie candour, the courage, 
the love of hofpitality, the warmth of attachment, and the 
contempt of interefted motives, which they fo generally dif- 
cover. We imagine that the favage life and infidelity have 
no natural connexion ; and becaufc> our Author defpifes 
fcepticifm, he is not to be'juftified in lavilhing his djfap- 
piobation on the manners of fimple men. Under the im- 



Dr. Beattic's Mwal and Crlikal Dtjfertations. 59 

pulfc of a fimiUr weakncf;, Dr. Bcattic affcAs a contempt 
of Lprd Chcftcrficld. We acknowledge, iadeed, that his 
Lordlhip deferved to be dcfpifcd for his vices ; but bis vices 
and his accompli^mecits are very difFereni things ; and 
wc muft not infer, that he was a fool becaufe he was a pro- 
fligate. Individuals who. arc fond of making a parade of 
piety, fall too often into errors of tbis kind ; and Dr. Beat- 
tie, if he can reliih an honeft criticifm, will eafily perceive 
the propriety of our ftrifture, and be difpofcd to make a 
more temperate ufe of his zeal. Religion can gain nothing 
by difingenuity and paflion ; and a fupei-Jiciai or melancholy 
man, though he may be a keen moralift, docs no fervjce 
either to virtue or to himfelf, when he would induftrioully 
vilify talents which are infinitely beyond his attainment. 

The manner and ftyle of Dr. Beattie, are unafFeiled and 
perfpicuous. But the former is generally without dignity; 
and the latter feldoni rifes into elegance. He is often, even 
below the tone of good convcrfation ; and he difplays too 
frequently a petulance, for which the higheft abilities are no 
proper compenfation, and which in him is altogether incx- 

It now, only remains to us, to take fome notice of the 
dedication prefixed to the volume before us. It is addrefled 
to the Marquis of Huntly, who is a boy ; and as fucli, is a 
niofl: abfurd protcftorof a work of this kind. Totlie Duke 
and Duchefs of Gordon, the parents of his infant patron. 
Dr. Beattie exprefles the greateft admiration and gratitude ; 
and he obfcrves, tliat it is from tlie encouragement of the 
latter, who bad condefcended to read tlie greater part of his 
papers, that he was prompted to make them public, and ■ 
to take the liberty to infcribe them to her fon. He alfo 
ventures to indulge the pleafing hope, that when his patron 
is ' a little farther advanced in life, he will one day do him 
* the honour to declare, that his difcourfes have afforded 
' him fome amufement, and that he approves of the fenti- 
' menls conveyed in thcra.' After this implied confeffion, 
that the Marquis is not yet able to underftand his book, he 
urges him to continue to be like his nohlc parents. Inde- 
pendent of the ridicule, which appears in all this, and upon 
which we avoid any comment, there is a fervility and adula- 
tion, which every free and generous fpirit muft fcorn, 
and for which the moft afcetic ignorance can in vain 
^e held outas a proper or adequate apology. 



■6b Flome's TfnttlhttontheMiferusofScduilien. 

Art. IX. Seriout 7h9Ugfiti m thi l^firiei if SeJaaiaa and Pfoftltu- 

titn, luitbn fall amtHtt ff the Evils thai trtduct ih'-m; ts^c. ttfc, 
i^e. Ey Charles Home. 8vo. zu 6i. (enei. Swift and 

THIS pamphlet conoids of a preface, a dedication, an 
inttoduftion, a fupplement, and a panegyric, Tfa? 
Author in many parts deprecates the fcverity of critics. 
During our perufal of the firft dozen of pages, '*e were in- 
cirned to pity the man on account of his good intentions, 
but after fini'ihing, with great pain, the perufal of the \vho!e, 
we find it impoflible to withhold mark'; of difpleafure. It is 
3 duty we owe the public, and it is elTcntial to t!ie interefts 
of our publication to give praife, anly where pi aife is due. 
In few words, Mr, Home poflcflcs not one fmgle talent ne- 
ceflary for a writer, and in confcquence of his defeifis, he 
has lent into the world the mou inconfiflent jumble of 
Words, we ever remember to have read. At one time we 
laugh at his grofs abfurdities, at another, we detcft the il- 
liberal manner in which he mentions the clergy and the 
learned profcflions. His two greateft favourites are Mr. 
Fox and Dr. Madan. His politics he takes from the for- 
mer, and bis fyftem of hymeneal reformation front the 
other. — Thus far we addrefs, our Reader. 

A word now in your own ear, Mr. Hornc ! You have 
threatened by an aflvcrtifcment iicar the end of your parei- 
phlct, that you will foon publifh an entire new work, in one 
volume oftavo, entitled Men of Learning and Geniui compar- 
ed ! — For your own lake, and the fake of literature and of 
reviewers, confider what you are about. If you have any 
thoughts upon learning and genius, communicate tliera to 
, fomc pcrtbn who may put them into tolerable language. But 
if we may judge of your abilities from the pamphlet now be- 
fore us, it is plain that you will fubjeft yourfelf to difap- 
pointment and fcorn. Do not, like fome tefty Authors,, 
think we are unjuft, for if you provoke us to expofe your, 
pamphlet to the world, yoti and not wc, would fuffcr in the 
eftimation of common lenfe. 

AsT, X. J teller -to the Right Revermd Richard Lerd Bijh!>p of 
tanJaff, on theprtjflled Rrformatitu of the Church ,• parlicularly 
refpetting the Infetioi- Clergy. J. Murray. 410, rs. 6d. 

THIS writer, conceiving that Bifhop Watfon's fchera<j 
of reformation (though good) was incomplete, pro- 
pofcs to add to it new rcp:ulations refpefting the prefent ftatc 
of the inferior clergy. -On this fubjefl: hewrites with great 
energy and judgment. He has omitted no point of view, 
. and 


J Letter la iht Bi^of of Landaf. ■ (it 

and is not defkieat with regard to the faflj nrhich are ntcef- 
lary to fupport his politions. Good fenfc, a manly fpjrit and 
a good heart, mark hia endeavours to fcrvc the diureflcd part 
of the clergy, OfallthepamplUetB written, inconfegueiice of 
the fiifhop's celebrated letter, this is by far the bcft ; and we 
are happy to learn, that it has in a very con(](Jerablfi degreear- 
reftcd the attention of the learned and pjous prelate. The 
Author has alitheapprehentions of humility, but he may reft 
allured, that every good man will wi(li liini all the rewards of 
honefty. The following are the principle hints he throws out 
or the benefit of the inferior clergy. 

" The odious and unqhriftian praftice of fimony ought 
to be as much as poflible rellrained ; for this purpofe, tlic 
laws now in being fhould be ftriitly executed, and a new 
law made to prevent any prcfentation, except by the Dio- 
cefan, for twpnty years after the fa!e or transfer of an ad- 
vowfon. Profectitions for (imony ought to be allowed at 
any length of time after the h&, the hving nude void upOQ 
conviAion, and the clergyman who bought it, degraded for 
life from the holy office, — Small livings, when contiguous, 
and it may be conveniently done, fhould be confolidated.— 
An annual tax of fo much in the pound might be laid on 
all livings above 400!. per annum, to be applied to the aug- 
mentation of fuch fmall livings and thapclries, as arc obje^s 
of Queen Anne's bounty — School lands ought to be appro- 

triated to the increafing of the poorer benefices — 'The livings 
eing thus made a competent mai^ntenance, no man Ihall be 
allowed to poiTefs more than one ; and refidence ought to be 
infifted on, under forfeiture of the living." He farther fug- 
gefts, that" No ftipendiary curate can fiabfift with decency 
on lefi than 50I, per annum in the country, nor on Icfs than 
80I. in London. It ought, further, to be enacted, that 
where the living i? above aooi. per annum, the affiftant 
curate may demand in proportion to its prefent value, or any 
partlhioner may inlilt on the curate being proportionally 
paid, on making proof of the value of the benefice in tho 
coniiftory court. Thus, if the value of the benefice be 250!, 
perannura, the curate's falary might be 55I. per annum i if 
3O0I. 60I. ; if 350!. 65I. ; if 400I. 70I. ; if 500I. 80I. ; If 600I. 
90I. ; if 800I. or upwards, tool. — No lefs than three Bifliops ' 
and their chaplains oii^ht to attend every ordination '; and 
on tliis account, it will oe obvious, that no ordination could 
be conveniently held out of London, and that they muft, 
in that cafe, be held at ilaled periods of the year. Our 
Author explains and proves the expediency of the above and 
other hints, in a manner that avinces his judgment and 
knowledge of iiis fubjed. 


6a Dr. Kippis's Lift and l>ifcsiurfts of Sir Jshn PringU. 

Ast; XI. Six Dlfi-i>ur/a Jthvcrtd h Xit John Pringk, Ban. •o.-heii 
PTifiAiM oflhi RyalSfcitty ■ en ■iceafian of Six Amtnel Aj^xnmmts 
tfSir Godfrey Crfiey'i Medal. To wbich ia prefixed the Life of 
theAuibor. Ey Andnn Kippit, D. D. F. R. S. and S. A. 
6b. W. Strahan and T. Cadeli. London. 

IN the life of a man of a literary profcfTion, and of cncreaf- 
ing opulence and honours, we cannot expefl many of 
thofe vanctics, trials, and tranfitjons, which gratify biogra- 
phical curiofity, A tcrnper volatile and gay, may involve 
genius and worth in difficulties and unhappinefs, wrhich in- 
*erefl Readers of all defcriptions ; but the life of a man of 
ftcady induftry, philofophical fedatcncfs and learning, caQ 
be only intercfting to his admirers, or particular friends. 
Barren, hovfevcr, as the life of Sir John Prirtgle appears to 
have been of engaging incident, Dr. Kippis has given to the 
world, a liberal, elegant, and candid piece of biography — 
candid, bccaufe he informs us, that he was remembered in 
the will of the good old Knight. Yet unafFeSed by this, or 
by the remembrance of private intimacy and fricndlhip. Dr. 
Kippis has acquitted himfelf with a degree of impartiality, 
for which the world wi!i honour him. In giving the moral 
charafler of Sir John Pringlcj he is abundantly pleafing, 
and ihows himfelf -nafter of that philofophy, which unfolds 
the diftant caufes of uncommon appearances in the mind. 
In giving his charafter as a phyfician, he fpeaks of his merit, 
as we may fuppofc every man to do, who views, it not with 
the eye ofrivalihip. He has concealed none of thofe cir- 
cumltanccs, which (if we may fpeak fo) conftitute the f «-- 
/ii9io« of a charafter, yet, without being fuperfluous in the 
narration of failings, which are nearly the fame to all men 
at certain ages. The following extraft on the religious cha- 
rafler of Sir John Pringle, will, we truft, juftify the praifcs 
wc have bcftowcd on his Biographer. 

' On ihe religious charafter of Sir John Pringle it will be necet 
fary more particularly to enlarge ; bccaufe, fuch is the temper of 
the prefent age, that what is the "^reaieft glory of aoy man, is often 
imputed to him ns a weaknels. The principles of piety and'virtue, 
which were early inftilled into our Author by a flrift educsuion, do 
not appear ever to have left their intiueiice upon the general con- 
duct of hi» lift. Neverthelefa, when he travelled ahroad in the 
world, his belief of the Chrifli:in Revelation was fo far unfetticd, 
that he beeanis a fccptrc with regard to it, if not a profefled Deill. 
One caufe of this, was the wrong notions he had formed, concern- 
ing the genuine doflrines of the New Teflamcnt ; and it will be ea- 
fily fupjwfed, that he waa encouratred in his fcruples by the com- 
pany he met with, both in Eng^land and in foreign parts. But ir 
was not in theditpofition of Sir John ["ringle, to tefl fatisiied in his 
doubt' and difiicultics, with refpef) to a matter of fuch high impoi^ 


Dr. Kippis's Uft aHd X>ifcDurfef of Sir John Pringle. 63 
tance. He was too great a lover of truth, not to make religion the 
objeA of his feriaus encjuiry. As he feemed to be an implicit be- 
liever, he was equally averfe to the being an implicit unbeliever ; 
which ia the cafe of large numbers, who rejedt chriljianity with as 
litttle knowledge, and as tittle examination, as the raoH determined 
bigots embrace the abfurdeft fyllem that ever was invented. The 
rcfultof his invefligation was, a full convlition of the divine origi- 
nal and authority of the Gofpcl. The evidence of revelation ap- 
peared to him to be folid and invincible ; and the nature of it to be 
I'uch, as demanded his warmeft acceptance, what contributed entire- 
ly lo remove the objeftions which had formerly lain upon his mind, 
was, his beinE perfeftly fatisfied, that our holy religion did nor 
contain fome diflrines which have commonly been iliought to be- 
long to it. There were three points that, in this view, appeared to 
him of great importance ; and the removal of his ditliculties, with 
regard to ihem, effaced every imprelTion he might have received to 
the di fad vantage of chriHianity. He became fully convinced, by 
his ftudy of the Scriptures, that the Athanafian doflrine of the Tn- 
nity made no part of them ; but that they uniformly concurred in 
alTerting the unity and fupremacy of the God and Father of man- 
kind. He was equally convinced, that they did not confine the 
mercy of the fupreme being to a few, excluGvety of others ; and 
that chey did not hold out any thing, with refpnifl to the extent and 
duration of the future punifhment of the wicked, which could in the' 
leaA beconfidered as an impeachment of the divine juIUce, rectitude, 
and goodnefs. In thefe fentimcnts, he agreed with fome of the 
wifelt and beft men the world hath ever produced, fome who have 
rcfleiied the grcareft honour on human nature. He was another in- 
ftance of thofe illudriousphilofophers, who have not been afliamed 
of religion : and added aiioiher name to the catalogue of the excel- 
lent and judicious perfons, who have gloried in being Ratiokal 

. * As Sir John Pringle" was thus firmly perfuaded of the truth of 
the Gofpel, he lived under it* influence. He was animated with a 
iironj fenfe of piety to the Supreme Being, which difplayed icfelf 
in a regular attendance upon public worlhip, in the exercife of pri- 
vate devotion, and in an endeavour to difcharge all the obligations 
of virtue. - Such being the tenor of his lite and conduit, andderiv* 
iflg great confolation from chriftianiiy, as an inltitution of mercy, 
he rejoiced in a fenfe of-the divine favour, and in the hope of future 
happinefs. Neverthelcfs, whether from a conftiiutionai timiuity of 
temper, or from early impreffions, or from the ftate of his body, the 
approaches of death were met by him with fome degree of apprc- 
henfion. This was nut an apprehcnfion with regard to its confe- 
quences, but a certain kind ot awfulncfs with relation to the thing 
iiieLf; a dirpoGiIon which has been experienced by many worthy 
perfons. The wakefulnefi before-mentioned, with which our Au- 
thor was afiU^d for fo many years, will, perhaps, fntisfaiftorily 
account for this failure of fpirits ; and to the fame caufe it may be 
afcribed, if, in any other refpetfi, he did not fuflain the infirmities 
of age with that full fortitude and dignity of mind, which though 



64 MoWTHtY CATAiOOUE. Mtfi*tJa>UMS. 

alwayi defirea^le, caaoot, even by tte beA charaflen, alwayi be 

To the above remirk concerning Rational Chris- 
TiAMs, Dr. Kippis hasadded a note, in refutation of what 
Mr. Soame Jenyngs has advanced againft rational ihrijiia' 
nity. In this note, the Doftor is more fcvcre than perhaps, 
was confiftent with his fuperiority in juft rcafoning. 

The lix difcourfcs in this volume arc, . On different kinds 
of air. On the Torpedo, On the attraftion of mountuns. 
On preferving the health of mariners. On the invention and 
improvement of reflefting telcfcopes, and On the theory of 
gunnery. The merit of thefc difcources is already fufficient- 
iy known ; and the coUeflion of them into one volume forms a 
plealingteftimony of that cxtcnfive iiidoftry which Sir John 
Pringlc poiTeflcd. It appears from his life, that in his lafl 
journey to Scotland, be prefcnted to the Royal College of 
Phyficians in Edinburgh, ten volumes, folio, of medical 
and phvfical obfgrvations, in manufcripti on two condi* 
lions i firft, that the obfcrvations (hould not be publilKed, 
and fecondly, that they (hould not be lent out of the library 
on any pretence whatever. When we confider the experi- 
ence of Sir John Pring'lc, when we confider him as the firft 
praftical phyfician of his time, we cannot but regret the fe- 
vcrity of this mode of prefenting, and arc not without' 
hopes, one day or other, of profiting by the knavery of 
fome medical thief, who may contribute to our pleafure and 
his own profit, by leaving his ftolen goods in the hands of 
a bookfeller. Serioufly fpeaking, it is impoflible not to 
blame Sir John Pringie for this unfair monopoly. A9 
men, we may give credit to his modefty or national friend- 
ihip; but as phyficians, we can never forgive him for cpn- 
ftning to a few what might have been ferviceable to all. 


For JUL Y, 1783. 


Art. 12. ^n Effay en the Evidence Exttrnal and Inttrnal, re- 
lating la lie Poimi atlril/aitd to Th--mai Rmvlfy, C<Mitaining a 
feaeial Review of the whole Controverfy. By Thomas Jainct 
Slatthias. 8vo 25. 6d. Becket. 

WIXH the Ro*lean coctroverfy our Readeti are, by- ihi» 
time, perfeftly acquainted. The matter has been argued 
with much ingeauiiy, and fome acrimony on either fide. The pre- 
feat Author appear* not fo much a party a» a judge : he endeavoots 
to give ua a faithful fummary of what has been adTanced hy the 


MohI'rlv Catalogue. JitijitUafamiii 5^ 

hittititiies and nti-aufhentics, and to- form a judgement upon tfae 

' Having employed, 'fays he' ' mech rittie ahd attention upon thii 
very curious fubjcd, and findin? that the coiitroTerfy becalhe more and 
more perplexed, and the real Itaie of it lefs uaderflood) I endea- 
voured to arrange my thoughts in at diHin^ a manner aa I could, 
and to let before mylelf the fum and fubfbince of all that had been 
advanced. This I have done with the utmoft lideUty in tnypower; 
and if by this ElTay of mine any perfon Ihould be enabled to view 
this qucltlan in a clearer light than he did before, i Ihould thiidc 
my end completely anfwered, regardlefj of the opinion he may form 
in eonfequence of it.' 

He decides for the authenticity of the poemt, though his flate 
of the cafe, in fome parts, would, to many, appear uDfarourabte to 
th^ conclufion. His arrangement is clear and methodical, and 
the work itfelf well written i though fome of the pompoGty which 
appears in it, and the parade of learning mi^ht have been Ipared. 
Art. 13. JColUffienof Tales and EJfap on ike mofi Curious 

Had amufiag Sm^'Bs, 8vo. ib. 6d. Moore. 

This promiling title is not anfwered by the work. The fubjedi 
handled are neither curious nor amufing. The tales arc withodc 
iotereft; and the elTays without fentiment. The Collection can 
neither entertain nor inftrwA ; and may be pronounced to be Tulgac 
and infipid; 
Art, 14. A Crilkjfm en the Elegy written in a Country Church 

Tard. Being a Continuation of Dr. J— ~n's Cnticilms on tbs 

Toemsof Gray. 9tx>. as. Wilkie. 

Vivacity, talte, and an ironiaal iminttion of Dri Johnfon's manner 
are chara^eriftical of this perfbrmsjice. It is amufing, and above 
the cotnmon run of pamphlets. 
Art. 15. ThemidoreandRmettei »r^ Authentic Anetiatei tf at 

P-arifiaa CoMnfeihr and Courirfan. TranQated from the laft Pari* 

Edition. By a Citizen ofthe World. 29. 6d. Hookham. 

As we make it aruleio read over all the works which come before 
ua, our talk i« truly fevcre, when a performance is " liale, flat, and 
unprofitable", and furh we pronounce thit to be ; it is a low obfcens 
-narrative of prc^Igaciet which a gentleman would difdain to ba 
guilty of, the ve^ filth of Paris brought over to contaminate tha 
morals of England. 
Art. 16. The Blading Star, ar, VeJUnat the Gigantic Roff God-' 

A/s efHtaUh, isfc, IS. 6d. Bladon. 

The charaCtcriftics of this pamphlet are turgidity and bombifl.-' 
The f*^ however, is good, and the frini not contemptible, and 
may be applied to very necfjary ufes. 
Art. 17. The Cyprian Cabinet. Second Edition, is. 6d. 


This colle^on of palTages from Rochefter, Dryden, tec, spplied- 
.to fome amorous charaAers of the prefent dayt might have con- 
Tcniently filled up the vacant column of a needy newfpaper ; wt 
confefs, it U not without fnrpriie, that we fee them valued at 
eighteen pence; and that a fecond edition ftnnounces the farourabt* 

SNG.Rav.Vol.n. July 1783. £ r«^ 


^ MoHTntT Catalooos. MtftxHattnus. 

XtKOpUop (hey have n^t with. , Our furprifc, pf ckan ouglM M he 
lellened, when we confider that they border upon inoecency, wtiiQb 
alooe Icem* fufiicient to atone ias the abfcnce of ott and sftveln^ 
Art. 1%. The MoJtrn PttHtbttn; or tbi Truth af Ftaion. ThoA 

Edition, ts- 6d. Powaalt. 

Another eighteeo pennyHTOitb of quotolioBi from Ovid) VirgH, 
Sec. AppUed to. modern charaifiera. — Who would not beootne an 
.^utb9r, when fame is fo cafily actjuircd! The third edition would 
perruadeui of the public approKatioa. 
Art. 19. SetePafihat, a Monk, of Montlcrat vindicated. 

Sy£. Thkknefle. it. 6d. Darii, 

In this pamphlet the Author iccufea a certain noble (^ord of a 
ibanc of generbfity and of gratitude. At his requeft, it feemB, Mr. 
Thicknefle engaged to procure him a collE^ion of Taluable plants 
which grow on the mountain of Montferrat in Catalonia. Perc 
Pafcbal, (one of the refidcntiity monki,) with whom Mr. Thick- 
nellc acquired an intimacy during hii refidence in that countiy, wis 
employed to jnakc.the collei^a. Tbr^u^ the activity and in- 
dunty of the apothecary the deflred bulinefi was accomplifhed. '1 be 
inobli; bowcvert and hia friend thoufhl thcrafeWeaat Icafl entitled 
to the e^Kitcet of pofiage, if jhey wen allowed nothing for tbetr 
(rouble. Hope appears to be a much more lively principle thati 

f:r4tinul(.. , The plants were recetved ; the gatherera of them weic 
orgotten. From the fale of this pamphlet only, are theytoilu^ 
for rt^oonpence. Foi (bei,r (akea we wifl» it all polBjIe rucf«6. 
Art. 30. A Catah>gut ef thtManu/eripis frffervtd in the. Briti/h 
Mfjeum hithtfto uiulefvriMi Confiltiog. of Five Thoufaod Vo- 
lumci^ Including the CoUefikmi of Sar Hani SloanCr Bart. The 
Kev. Thomat Birch, D. B. and vbout Fi*^ Hundred Volumes 
bequeathed, prefented, or purchared at Variona Times. Volume 
iil;C<JWwhin| Theology, EccleliafticalHiftoty, Hiftoty, Com- 
merce, ^VtS) Mathemauc^, Aiirouomy, Phtl<^opby, and Chy- 
miitiy, Vol. 2. Containing Medicine, Natural Hiftoryj Voy^cs, 
Grammars, &c. L>'crary U^ftorj', Kography, Letters, Poetiyi 
Judicial AArolfjgy, Magic, Mifcellanics, MSS in Icelandic, and 
Orieatat Langu^ge^ with two Indexes. , By Samuel Ayfcough 
Clerk. 4to. il. » ht^rdi. Lopdoa : Printed for the Compter, 
Si, John's Squ;!)'^, Clerkenwell. 

In the prcfent extended Hate of literature, when no man 13. abfe 
ip f%r&^j;.&r lel« tn>?iK^-chebi>ok» thai awprinied end wrttt^ 
although he fliould live beyond the years of Methtrielaband 
.Tithijinus, a fdcfiion is 10 be made by every Reader of fuch books 
as are moA adapted tp.liii purpofe. He therefore who fubmits to 
the laborious work of making catalogues; performs fome fervice to 
th« refaiblic of letters, W.i^ ''JK^f'' ^9 '^9 catalogue before i«, 
"Mr. Alcough has accomplidied his taCc with confiderable exai^iaers, 
by. a judisioue and- fcemificial-arrangem^t. He baa alfo tranf* 
milted to pollerity t'.ic names of thole perfons to whom they arp 
obliged, for fecurmg fo many MSS, from oblivioii, and placing 
them in a fituation where they are defended, a^ much as poffible 
"from the ravages of time. 

I ' -- Art. 21I 

MoKTMLY- OjtTALoeot.' Hiifitttantem. 67' 

Art.'ai. Reports ef the Humane Sodelyy fvr the Teari \)Z'^ 
fndiySi. 25. f. F. and C. RiTington. ' 
This is no objcn for criticiTiTi, hut foe national gratitude and 
tflwm. We mention the boot, ta call on the wealthy anil great to 
g\K that affiftance to the buii)iin£ Souety, which their benevolent 
inientions and erninent fucccli -fo well dcferlre. The coUeiftiona 
made in 1782, fell greac)y lliort of thofe made in 1781. Whither! 
all.' whither is public charity fle'd ? 

Art. 22. An Jbftra& 6f the Geneml Turnpike A^, made the 
fhirieentl/ Gftrgt UI. 6d. L^omiidler, D^vibi London, fivang* 
Patem oiler-Row. 

This is an uftful vade-m«um forcoQntry gentlemen. It ii neat- 
ly printed^ and fo cheap that jio.pcrfon fontrerned with thebufmofs 
no plead ij^doraoce from inabili^ to {uirchafe it. But it is no oh- 
j(ft of mticifm. The performances of St. Stephen's Chapel are' 
cmicifcd lefore publication^ never ^fiff, contrary to the cuHom of 
all other works. 

Alt. aj. ^e Trial 0/ Liextenant Cohnel Caciburne, Isle Go-' 

' vtmtrofiljf yiaiitfSt. Eufiaiin!, isfc. Taken in Short hand, by 

E-HodgToOfShort hand Writer at the Old B^ley. ^to. 33. FaDider. 

The trial of this unhappy man is here taken aowa with iidclity, 

and printed with con&deritblc accuracy. Ii is not for us to lay. 

an)' thine; as critics upon it. We can only recamiaenJ it a) a me- 

i memo to officers and others intrLifted with iinporcant cofniHuudE. 

TlepcefeDt taftefor lepity has made tl^epuniflunent *erw tciflii^i 

peHupt allowance was maae for t!ie feelings of a m^ of lumaur^~ 

and the cdnfciouraefs of having deferved the punifhment. 

Art. '24. The Trial 0/ Mrs. Ellzaieth ■frilliams, in the Arches -. 

Cewt of Caalerhury, at DBihr'i CimiHoni, for commit ling Adid'trry'. 
; wiVA jaf^, PijiM Efii Captmln efihi Seawr^ Sl^af,: In which n 

Sives, the whole of the Oepofitions of the fevf ral Wltnefles, fuliy 
cfcribiiig the critical amorous, and humouroui Scenes in that . 

unp^Rdlekd Tr'ai- Bvo./e.iY,/. «. 6d, Corn welj and LLOcr. 

A t*.&e for reading obfceiK boolts is t{ie laft Aagc of human de- . 
purity. But it fccroa to be the intereft of foinc men to pratit by ' 
tbc mbCt grofs and unnatural appetites of the ' pi'ofligate. If how- 
ever, any libidinous old goal, or half feducjd boarding fcfiool boobr, 
pantB for a perufal of this trial, and Axpeck any thing very gtvt'^- 
Mg in it, we areto tnfonn^l fucb that they will be mtferit&y ^ti\ 
■ppoiateil, for the whole ia as dull and Aupi'd as we ever remember 
wlwTercad. The.fipi/vi..f'ofi, of Fleet-iircet and Driiry-laae keep 
much better Itimulaots than this uvparalhkd tu»L whjcK^* 
is a raifnomer, for there is nothing unfaraliileA in the ,wbo.k 
book. That fuch books are public! ly printed and fold is jncUfi' 
nparalfelf'ly and we live in hopes of ieemg an, wija'aiJtkJ aaxAiil^ 
Bicnt infliftrd on the propa^ainr of public lice^itioufnefa. 
An. 25. Lettef-s on the Medicai Service in the RffaJ Hayy, 8t»o 

t\. fi-ojeJ. Newfiety. -.■.., , ■-.■■,.; ,■ ■' 

Thefe Letter* phicily ««|ce*n the wifltef of navy fbrgcom » 
luve half-gav, wd.^ f^'^V^ii'T!. P^^*^ *-'^ 'q*"* ^^ Uctnced.. Hntfi< 
er;r. ilbW t'fie" Lcr'Js ' of xh.z Admir.i'.iy may be in tedteilJng tb«- , 

E I grievtnceii'-^'^^IC 


grievances of the navy furgeons, one day or other they roirft pay atteif 
tion to them ; othcnvife the fervicc mud become odious, and men of 
ability fcorn to accept any place from which they are difmifled, like 
imprefled men at the end of a war. This Author writes feofibly on 
fomepart! of thepraflice of phyQc, but when treating of the bird-, 
ftips to which furgeoas are liable, he fpcaks the language of difap- 
pointmeut. His ftory of the negleflcd officer is too much in the 
fintlmctttal ftile. It may pleafe ihe Readers of circulating lihraiics, 
but the Lords of the Admualty are cot to be melted by '* concord of 
fweet fpunds." 
Art. 26. An Mhy on Edmatlhn. By R. Webb, Clerk, 

Mader of the Free and Grammar School, at Odeham Haois. 

evo. 15. 5d. Law. 

This Effay difcovcrs much philological accutenefs, and maybe 
of life -to thofe who arc ford of grammatical fcience. The hints 
which it hazards of education in general, are alfo deferving atten- 
tion. The Author's ftile though not very nervous and concife, it 
clear and correal. Some Readers may not chink him elegactt but 
h'ls.meaning is always obvious, compafitioD has not probably been 
much his Kudy, but he certainly has the power of making himfelf 
fnfficicntly underftood. In this publication he gives a full accoUnt 
of his mode of teaching, and of thofe localities which may ope- 
rate as teeommendatory of the fchool. The ctrcuniftances and faftt 
rtientioned with this view are certainly very inviting, and we hear- 
tily wifli him fuccefg. 
Art. 27. A Sermon Intended ai a Dtjvafive from thi PraH'ice of 

jyaiUing. ByaMinillerof (he Church of England, is. CadelU- 

The, faihionable praftlce jo which the publication before us re- 
fers, was never more prevaWtit than at prcfenr. Men in all 'the va- 
lious ranks of life ruUi to ducllia!r for a decifion, even in their moft 
trivial differences. And this Dijuajion is the more fe^fonable, that 
tile hgiflature has not yet interpofed any regulation to prevent the 
fatal progrefs. of fo formidable an evil. We, applaud the humane 
Inteortion of the preacher. Hii advice is fo candid and fatutary, that 
We fincerely pray the world in general, forgiving all mutual refent- 
nient or 111 nature, may cordially unite in the experiment here re- 

' _ Poetry. 

Art. 2S. SelefJ Sconl/h Ballads. Vol: II. 8vo, as. 6d; 
' T.Nichols. 

■ Some time fince tjiis Author publlfhed a volume of Scottifh Bal- 
lads of the tragic kind, fuch as Jbhnie Armftrong, Younr Waters, 
Laird of Ochiltree, Battle of Harlow, i:c. In purftiit of hia 
tthin,' fie Fn this volume has given a feleftion of comic ballads. Pre- 
fixed is* very.fen'fible Aijjiriation on iht comk hailed, in which, hero 
and ^ere, we meet with opinions which appear fomewhat uncouttu 
Ofthefc let tbe following ferve as a fpecinico. ' 

*' If we except Sappho, the only female viho rvhrviretiam thing 
^atrlby preservation ; t]iere is no" vfritet who has painred love iti 
more genuine and tender colours than in ufed io the Sbouib aroa* 

tOTj ballads. Yet thert are none of them, ■ ttiat T reinei^eY, 
written by ladies. That proflig;acy of inanners which alwavs r^gnt 
before •onicri ran fa nrrtrfy forget atl ft ifi of Aeiency and trip Up 
^xo cdtnme^ci Authors, is yet almoft unknown id Scotland. ..iVfi^ 
it ever be fo! May donieitic;duiie9 and afTeflion* be ever the Me 
employments and amufemems of my fair country women, whife 
thufe of other kingdoms are jhavjing themfthei nakrj in love fonea 
and ronwai-ej, or ftalting the ftrcets in tiie ' irieciei of crlttcifm and 
moraViy" '.^ 

Mercy on hs! TVhat an' accuTaiibn! " Come forwart) ye He* 
roines ot' literature, Montague, Griffiths, Cowley, Aikin,jSewara! 
Here''s a precious fellow for yoli ! He lays ye have forgot;all fenfe 
(Adtcenty andfTcp'iely, — he fays you fiovi you'Jchti naked, and that 
fo\iJ!alktiie fireet) ih ir^cc^ei, and not in ordinary breeches, but in 
thehrecches 6f ixoraiily and criticifm! Had he ftld that Ve elamktd 
yourfeves With morality and critieifm, fomething might ftave been 
aHowed ; or that yoar fellienati coatained'yoMr nrtn'ality ajii^criiici/m, 
but to maintain that you (hoWea yourfelves 'n4J«^'atl-'but ths 
i-eeciei, and they'fiUed wiXh critic fm and' muralily/ What, but the 
direft vengeance of the female world can fell on the head df a man 
fo difrefpeftful ! But tobefertous, Mr. NicholUi (h our opinion, la 
rather too peremptory in tbis affertion. We 'will allow, ^hat the 
norele and romances, proddctd by women lately, difcovei* a know* 
ledge, which for the fake of their charaflefs had' better been deve- 
ioped by the other fex ; yet we believe the wdrld will agree with 
us Id thinking, that the appearance of female authors il not' fo iBUch 
a proof oi ^af,:gacy ef manners, as of refinement, and eittn6on of 
liberty to a.fejr, which when duly educarfcd arid trTeJ, feldqm ftandi 
inferior to Ours in accuracy and judgment, quicknefs of fjincy, or. 
fublimity of imagination. Thus far we think it proper tiJ obviate 
iheeriltendent-yof anaffertion'which we coniider as unjutt. 

With regard to the colleftion, it is made with" the faffiB fidelity 
and accuracy as the former was. Thtf Author _app«ita,' to have 
(pared no paioa, and his fources of information were the bift. The 
ftrft haltad PtblU to the Play is a novelty t6 the woVld ; the Editor aCf 
.tnowledes diqibebadh'fram.^X)r. fiicj.' ^JW?lfoUofting>KcniAt 
of it cannot be uncDiertaining. ^ : .■ ■ 

"Thi« old tbn^ is preferred Id' the P^fiao Ufarayat Ma^dUllen 
College in Citmbridgenn p.- i$^o( an aocicnt m«n^fcri|>t colIe^Mn 
of old Scottifli fungs and poems in folio, which manuLucript hM> 
I believe been a, prefent lo the founder of that library, (old Mf, 
Pepy's,) frooi tbe Duke of Lauderdale, miniftar-to K,. Charles l\. 
.—it is 'e»prefely quoted for K. James I'i compofirioD, an^ pofilivel/ 
afcribed to that monarch, in JohoMajor'sScottiib biftory 4(0^" 

The fong is very king and curious. Upon the whole, we recom- 
mead this colledion as affording a rich treat to rhofe who love tfap 
£n)plicity and beauties of Scottifli balladf. . Indeed both -with re< 
gard to Scottifh and £ngtilh ballads, it may be faid that we have 
hill leifure to admire then, as we fuffer no ioterrupuaa from rivals, 
the ballads and foiigi ctf our own days being iptokrably wretched, 
and generally [he cSiiJlMi of f negate fancy, of JbuUng.gaikrj 
junbition. , 

Digitized by Google 

7p MoWTStT CAT*Lj06VIi.; PMrj- 

Jijt. 29. jfrx fftrcu/ea Servata; pr, Q'tbraltat dtliytrtd. ig. 

"Th? noble defence of Gibralur by General Eljott and h>» 
.fcrsVe troops, has produced 4 very jrood Latin poem; which ia 
,'<riil dated into Enfjlilh with co'nliderabic elegance and fpirit. We 
'ftiill p'refent our Readers with a Iliort citrafl, both from the origioal 
•lit! ft^m the trantlaiipn. (which are here publiflied together,) anti 
we doubt not they 'V'!! agree with u«. in our decifiop. 
'■ The pd[lai;e M defcriptive of that depbrable ^tua'tloD in which 
the eneviy vraa pla$:cd, at the time whttq tbcir floating batteites begasl 
"*(iflJ^ fire. 

Qiiura flamm^ni cvcisjatn cohcepcre cavertiis, 
J Puivis ubi furiofalaiet, mora nulla, per aura* 

PiOil&ere, fuo pereuntes miinere, naves. 
'.\ . .IJorrenduii procvl intonuit fragor : setjuora lati 
'y ,■ Mota tremiiBt, longb gtmuerunt littora planftpr 

"Percufliim<]uelonat rei^tflomutmureSaxum. 
!,, , ..Arma, viri, tabul)efpargunturin.«hera, feque 
'' ' ■ '^Kraecipites iterum fubjefto, gurgitecg'ndqnt. . 
" ,, ^ctani?«nierguotur,opes! hoc.milliacafui 
Tot ptrifre yirum ! Tautiperiere labqrci! ■ 

' ' .'Now had the ai£li»,e. miiihief found a way, ' "] 

..... , "To .the dflHt chambers,' where concealed from day, > 
* ■ . ■ ; The death direfiing dufl cmpaniiel'd lay i , J 

"Burftinginairtte TplinterMTefiela fly ; 
■■' ' Sy their own fto're of death the wretches die. 
''."~ '.Iwid'e ether groans, the .trembling waters roar, , ' . 

'. The, wide contagion fpreads from flwre to fliorc : 
I, " ' 'ShrjU ftincka of parting Ibors are heard around, 
Apii 'be oj'd rock re-beirow8 to the found i 
Conftifed in air, planks, arms, and men are toft, 
Confufcdia waves, planks, arms, and men are loft. 
Oh ! what a walle of wealth encreafrd the flood \ 
'^":, What labwrslofi;. and wHat a fea ef blood!' 
-Art. -30. Tbt "CtMrian FtftivAl^ a Pttm. By a Catniriam. 
is.6d. Robfon. Bew. 

We «xpfe3^ « '&iale p«ftoi»l tale, but m Anind fulfonae piny- 
''V^cs Ml tbe Dukevf Foaisnd and hii " Potmt band,** a* they vie 
i»K called. Tke tinei hM« fume few poetic beauriet, bat the fub- ridicploui. PntLfM ought to be ^*e« where .tfacK hare been 
■jtJwdeffgreMdeed* todeferve them. The Duke of Portland, for 
onght wt Vnow, maybeBTcry honefl, well-meatiing matt, but tinre 
only^ aed ihat not a fiion 'tirae.nelther, aan lliow whether he or hia 
■•• patriat-band" defeire k> be the fubjefl of i-erfe, or ai this poet 
•arms it, the ^-eth't fay. ■ 
Alt. JJ . Oie ti My. L4tt)is Hendrie, the Primipal Bear KiUtr 

■ ik lir MttTPfell, rf Engla',^, £_<■. IB. Bladon. 

■ Some wag here diverts diterts himfelf at the expence of a poor 
devil of ■ perfumcri There is feme wit in the poem, hot we rcallv 
tbink-tite inbjd^ w mtdcferiinj; ofit.-Itf l^me efthe (atirconMr, 



MoirtltLY.CATJLLOtMl^. .Paktkat.'. J%' 

maim, we are afnid he will fell more pound* of be:M jiriaft, tltfli 

dK booUcIlermll copies of the poen. 

Alt. m. Pwms. By Cxfar Morgan, M.. A. Cunbrii^. «t. 

Thefe Poemt excite lltth approbatidti. 9ome there Toay be who 
will read them with a degree of pleafure, hut we conftls ourfelvts to ■ 
be ofthat number who Icidk fortheccccMricinct trf genius in a |>aeT. 
Not fiodinf ihefe in the IViem) bEt'ore us we mean never to read 
them agwD. Theirft loiirlinet are grolly de&dctitiA paiu of coa* 

The rifing fun illDtnfei the eaflern fty : 
Before hit beftnit the melting vapours fly* 
The lofty mdliAniiD't ftatelv fufni^it ./^Mr 
Bright ai the burniflieit FOld on Pf-Jla'i lirMe. 
Befide* ! thit limlle ii not famihar, the fun gilding the mountains 
IsafublimeofajeA, and weniD eonceivcit ; but sever having feea 
Ptrfia's throne, wc kiioir not how iar the mountain* maji emub'-r the 
hHn'fitil gold of that throne. 

Art. 33 JndependmA, a Pom, hi MhdHrrafiic Vtrfe, addrceid 
to Richard Brinftey Sheridan, Ef<jj jmntetf for (he Author, and 
fold by ^to as. 

&oldiy • — ' whom t Wa» the bookief ter aOumed, or the Author 

itfraid to be known f Tbe poem i« a fatire on the Bute adifrimftration, 
and is written in that ftile of mediocrity which tire«. A few ^ood 
Ion thinly fcattercd lerve to ffiew that our Author, with a little 
iwrejudemem, and left of party naUgniry, may hereafter write a 
pKm worth reading. 

Art, 34. Chatjwtrih; er, tht Genius ef England, a Prsphecy, 
A Poem. By (he Author of the Naiai Triumph, as. Bradley. 

Thi) poem is above mediocrity ; the defcriptive part is animated, 
ludthe Hyleischafte and poetical. Ilie Author compliments the 
fiuniiy (rf Cftvendilh in fome ^ay Mttrifj Jhains, as the Reader majr- 
jgdgefr(j:ji the fotl««ring fpecimen. 

" Had Heaven uught mercy, pleading From your tongue, 
prophetic truth, or eloquence avaiCd ; 
No civil furie^ o'er the realm had huog, 
Nor er'n an envious world in arms prevwl'd ; 
Ne'er bad bbr fons with ra^ and anguifh burqM, 

■ -TbTiew her matchleft empire's rppid l^ll ; 

Ne'er had the gem in pridc'i mad moment " (pura'd, 

■ Flam'd on the rival diadem of Gsul." " 

Art, 35; jtn Mir^i from the Members of tbt Conjtitutitnal 

Body to ibeh S— Prji;e is. Blaflon. 

This is no political pairiphlet, but a filly, ohTccoe poem, fit for 09 
ate gaai purpoft in the world. 


Art, 36. Tif Sffich tif the Jtigbt ffonturaite ffiliiam P'ttl, 

■ Chnxellgr of tht Sxeht^utr, in tht Hoitfi of Ctmimm, Ftiruary a I . 

P4 The 

Digitized byGoogle 

It MoNTHt-Y -Catalogub. FuSthal' 

' 'Tbe ' original of this im^rfed Iketch made fnme noift M the' 
time of its delivery both within Bud without doom. But in the 
opinion ailvi who hoard it with all our altemion, its meritg were 
then greatly over-rated. It contained only a meie fmactcring of 
Tiafoning amidft a vail pFofufion of declamation, fjir wai the 
young orator from feizing sU the facultie* and attention of the 
Houfe, as i» pretended, that he fpoke at Icaft a bovc an hour 
before he could be decently heard, for the buzz of piivate com- 
mitrecs, and Mt chat erery where around him ; and a. few only 
began to liftcn' when the majority were on the ive of flecp. The 
^lence which then enfuedwas chiefly occafioned by hii frequent 
and pertinent allufions to the cantliiBn at tb4t time fo very new and 
inierefling. The novelty too of fo youog a map, (peaking thua 
long and correifily, wat, not without its influepce. He appeared the 
ad'oeateof LordShelburnc, wdhis own intereft in !he faie of hi» 
client gafe an edge and emphaps to whatever he uttered. The 
•Hotil^ felt for hia fttuation, and thought fuch line abilities and 
promifiiTg virtues dcferved better eonneuions, and inight have been 
everted more honourably and eSe&ually in another caufc- Hia 
fpeech had igndeniably been Hudied. The concluQon of it however 
was beautiful and pathetic. ' His heart was viQbly aSei^ted, apd it 
vvas not ^y to hear th« fpeakcr without indurging the Idndred 
fentlmeots.of fynipaihy and cooceim. Others lefa fufceptibic of clo.- 
f|MWf e were yet not a little afiefled with the piany fokmn protefta- . 
tioos h^n)adeuf hig patriotifrn, and a profuilan of appeals to hit 
bwo honour and. innocence which run through the whuie of hia 
oration during three hours. But furely ihofe who could prefer it 
~as the Edjtpr dofs to that of Mr. Fox, iq whieli it was.meaiM as % 
reply, are eitfier blinded by party, or at beft forry jui^ges 'of' good " 
Ipcaking. Ai alt events, theie deplorable outlincB can add but 
little to that applaufc which thi^ celebrated oflicial exculpation 
brought to the right horjourable gentleman who made it. 
Art. 37. Tir State of the Public Dibti and Financts qt Jtgnint 

' /&• Vtilimi^my ArikUs of Viaci in Janumy l-fi\- By Richard 
Price, D. p. and F. R. S. is. 6d. Cadell, 
A deferico of the Adipiniftration' of I<ord Shelburne, by whofe 
peace, we are told, the kiqgdom has tjeeu faved from deurudJou; 
and by whofe conttiDiance in office, the ruoft falufary coiifequences , 
ihuft oeeeffarily have been derived to this couptry. Whether this 
yt preeifely true may perhaps be doubted ; we Ihall only obfervc, 
man neftrum tanfat fam^^'uf e!. 
Art: 38. 'J State of Fam, or, a Sketeh of thf Chara^Ien and 

■jPelii-calC'iYfuJ .ifibi.tbeRi^b'^'": Charts ^ama Fox.-it.di, 
Ricliardfon'mii Urquhart.' 

, ^trufsand-imiiarcial ^Jatetneijt of fufb, faiSs asconflltute thehlf- 
toryofthis'inuchadmlrcd'co'mtiioner would certainly be an accept- 
able prefent tothepubt'L-k. Whatever relates to the condud of an 
indi:Jual, on whofe fiji^le'exferiiotiTo milch depends, i» deeply iti- 
terefiinR to every member of the community. T^C contents of thia 
pamphlet bovever will be found extremely inadequate to its title. 
We espefted fome account of his publiek and difcriminatingdc- 
[Kftihent, whofe chiiraSer it prete^ids to Jhticb or dilineate. T^ic 
' " fubjett 


Monthly Catalogue. Medical. 


fubjefi was at kali fulKciently popular and, rufceptible alike of the 
Arongefl colouring and the boldelt ItrokM. Mr. ros has been tor 
yean extremely confpicuout. . The tianfcendent qualitict which 
diitiDguilh bim, are fuch aa mull ever reader bicn an objed of con- 
fci^uencc to £ngli[|iTncn. But hii juft charader is not to be ac- 
quired from this performance. 
Art. 39. Luxury ne Political Evil, but demmjiratively proved 

to h ntag'ary 10 the PrefirvaiiBi la/l F-flfpcny of Stales. Ad- 

dr«Oed to the Britilh Senaie. 8vo. 33. Baldwin. 

In an advertifemeut prefixed to this pamphlet we are informed, 
that for much of its rearoning the Author was indebted to a French 
treatife, publtfbed fame ycarsfince in Paris. This even appears in 
fome degree from ibe performance itfelf. For iis manner la altoge- 
ther Frrnch. Itmuftbe allowed, however, that it containt many 
iagcnious obferrationi ; though it ii not to be accounted a com- ' 
plete treatife on the fubjefl which it ventures tocanvafg. 
Art. 40. A titter to the Biftiop 0/ Llandaffm the SubjeH of hii 

L«rd_0!f't Letter le ilie Aicbbijbafi of Canieibury, 410. is. Murray. 

This Author is lilent on the main point of reform propofed by 
the ivorthy Bilhop. He propofes the abolition of llalls, ana particu- 
larly recoinmeads to Dr. Waifon's attention, the deplorable /laieof 
tbeiaferior clergy, who do all the duties of office, yet receive fcarce- 
\j as much as nipplies them with the pooreft neceflaries of life. 
He writes candidly and openly and fpeaks from fafls. The defefl:' 
of kis pamphlet is that he did not rnakehimfelf mailer of an efliinate 
of thefum which mightbe fared by the abolition of Aall-men, It 
has been computed that this fam when divided among the curates, 
could not Amount to two guineas per man, a fnm fo trifling as not 
tojuftify the important revolution, unlefs indeed the moQey could 
be funded in fuch a manner as to he ferviccablc in one fliape or other 
10 curates or ihpr families. 

Med I c al. 
Art. 41. A tavereign Remedy fur the Drepfy, publiflwd by 

delire for Public Benefit. 6d. Dodlley. 

This pamphlet is lb fhort, that the room ufually allotted to one of 
ntrarticles, might comprehend the whol;. The remedy propofed 
itadrachmof broom&cd, tobe taken every other day, or once in 
three days, in the morning. An hour and an half after, two ounces 
tf dive oil are to be taken. particuUr diieftions are given con- 
cerning the pecaliarity of fymptoms which requicc an alteration ia 
the medicine. This reraedy is at old as I^ntery, who recommends it 
in Ids Rieveil d^ Secrets. Some perfon has &>und it fuccefsful and 
liere recommends ir. The.defign is benevolent, and we fee nothing 
iaieteftedin it. The remedy is, however, a ftran^er in our medical 
pndice, and as a llninger weroufi receive it, . 



For the ENGLISH R E V I E W.. 


IF b" MajetVy^ S^«ecli at tat laft meeting of puUarneilt, wai par. 
ticular and copious ; hU late addrers fVora the 'Arbne wat, 
on the ojher hand very general iodcedand laconic. The former 
entered fully into tbe ftace of the naiion, pointed out die grievances 
that oppreflM, and the dangers that threatened it, but confoled all 
lovers of their country with the Ih-ongeft aHUrancei that nothing 
jhould be wanrine on the part of Admiuiftration to rcftpre its glory, 
pratleaft, ifpoffible, to protraiS its ftll. The latttr waTing all 
political matters, difmifles the Senators in a Aate of uncertainty 
with regard to the moft iipportant national abjcAs, but with a pro- 
mife to c4l1 then; together again at an early period. 
■ The protnifes hoipcver of politicians and ftatefmen, are often 
fallapioue : nor did the ferious protefl^tions of the Earl of Ghdi 
blJme, ^t the njceting of Parliament excite any higher idea' of \a\ 
virtue, than tin; very (hort and tingnlarsddrcM, framed by th? pft» 
fent minii}^ oO its prorogation, raifed of the pairiotifm of the 
POLITICAL COALITION. In this relpeft the blt»n' brevity of Mr." 
Fox may feem to merit lefs cenfure, than the Ihldied ana feriout 
Ipeech compofed by Lord Shelbume. But, undoubtedly all men of 
con fidcration will remark, heiivecn thefe cortpoGtionsj this important 
difference. The one feemed anxious to conciliate the ^ood will, 
and to gain ihe confideiice of the nation ; the other hreatheg that 
^^eftic concifcnefs which conderfcendi not to give explamtions, but 
which wraps itfelf up in the confcioufnefa of power. The Earl of 
Shclburne, it was evident, in the addrefi to Which we allude, court- 
ed the people, and it was with pteafure that the judicious fpefVator 
beheld a minifter of confcffed abiKties tacitly acknowled^bg that he 
hoped to retain his high ftation only by tiis merit. Hii talents 
would hqve been exerted ftir the good of^that countrv, whofe con- 
fidence he confidered as the fupport of bifl mwer. Plans «f c(im^. 
Rierce, and of finance would have markect the liberality of the 
eigteeenth century. A regular finking fund, hyeafmc; the load 6f 
public debt, would in time, have enabled Old £ngUnd tomn with* 
out (fifadvantage in that race of induflry on which fo many notions, 
full of the ardour of toitth, hare lately caiered. Here, tc is evi- 
dent we pay not any fulfome compliment to the diftarded Biinifiert 
We reafon on the principles of felf-love, whenweafirm, that f run 
a man dependent on the &vour of hi* couitiry, aiwi wboA conftant 
-.uiti it has been to guide hia political walks by the l>i;hi xA Iciencc, 
much indeed wai to have been expe^ed. An arithicmical annbina- 
tien with equal virtue, and equal ability, does not however prp? 
mife fo great benefita to the fubje^g erf Britain. Their power i* 
founded not on popular favour, but the artifice of intrigue, and oe' 

Althougl) we have not derived any political information from hit 
Majefty'a mioifters, yet if we call our eyes abroad on the world, oh- 
jeds oi great magnitude and curiofity flrike our perception, which 
the mou communtcative frankoefs of Aateiinen cannot illuArate, 


KalitH^ Jfairs. >j 

Wr tbdr utmofi jecrecy coccral. The goretument of the Ame- 
rican nartons ha« devolved into the handa of the peuple. Tlie 
jMople, SI in other countiiea, are narrow minded, (hort-i)£;hted, re- 
Vengeful, and cruel. The berter kind of the Americaaef the more 
inoaerate, wife, and juft, are unable to reflrain the rage of the popu- 
lace ; and the reiblutions of the provincial alFcmblies announce to . 
CoDgrefe, and to the woild, how vaiD all interceffiuD will pane i^ 
behalf of the unfortunate luyalifte. 

The angry difpofitmnt of the American province! have givep 
birth to two remarkable tppearanceB, the one on the nOtthcrn e;;- 
tremliy of their temtories, the other on the fouthern. St. Au- 
^ullinc, the capital of Eail Florida U ftrong by nature and by art. 
At the entrance into the hatbour are the north and louth brcakeri, 
vhich form two chaQcels with ban of eight feet water. It is forti- 
fied <ckh baftioni and furrounded with a ditch. It is tikewife dc: 
fended by a callle, and ii well furniflled with cannon and all ifiib- 
lary {lores. The inhabitanli, moved with indignation at the de re- 
ligion of fuch ft (ettlemeai by Grciit Britain, and animated by the 
■dvantageg of the place, tcfufe to flup their eScih on board the 
ioyal tranfporti, and demand conditions from their Dew lorda, tit'e 
[wiDiar^t. Thefe the generolity of Spain, and the wife policy qf 
tbe Houfe of Bourbon will no doubt grant. But Hiould the cafe 
'be othenvile, it is faid, and with fome oegrce of probability, thai; 
the Englifh colony in tbc Florida* are determined to matntHintheir 
.DoSeBqas and theit: rights by force of arms. Hither, if fuch re- 
bllanqc (hould take place, the braveand lefolute among the loyifl 
AinericaTis would repair in crowds, and here they would fcek for 
fafetVi and for revenge at once againft the Britifh government, and 
the enemies of Britain. A new nation might' thui arife, horn ariih 
yititni thrmvi, nurfid ,viilh bard, * fare, and nained v/>, to har.!y 
iitdi. . Their fituaiion beiweeo the AmBricana and Spaniards would 
^ve them an opportunity of mainciiinlng their own independence, 
anil of deriving advantagei from the contentions of thefe hoiHlc, 
we wiU venture to predlfl, and rival oaiioaa. 

It is however 'b^o'va Scotia, not Florida ! it ia (he barren nortl^ 
Doi the fenile (buth, that, in all probability, is deftlnei to afford 
an afylum to the fons and daughters of opprejiion. The emigra- 
tions to Halifai, which we jaft hinted at in our laft number, ftill 
increafe* and verify the prediction of the celebrated Rayaal^ ivho^ 
fo, many years ago, furetold, that if the, other American colonies 
lliouldlhake off the yoke of England, that, of Nova Scotiai that ha^ 
Deen fu much negleticd before, would ac<|uire an high degree df 
Tiliieaad. importance. Thii coufiiry, although it pours not iaio 
ibelapof iaoolence the fponlaneous p[aJu£)ioas of luxurious cli- 
'mate(, ncTcrthelcfa, .Jiolda out to the hand of induftry, fafety, piof- 
perity, and all that increafes the happinefa, and exalts the nature 
tk mj^. It is ^re( hundred and fifty mile^ in length, and two hun- 
dred aod fifty in breadth. It ia fituated between the forty third and 



j6 National Affairs, 

forty nintli degrees of nonh Iptilude j bounded by the 'river St. 
i,a«Tcnce on the north, the gulph of St. L.iwtcncc, and the At- 
lanlic ocenn "u (he e:ift, by the ccean alfo on the fouth, and hy 
Canada and New England on thewcft. It is ci^t and interfetted by 
namerona feas, bays, creeks, and lakes. The climate intenfcly 
coMin winter and hot in funimer ; but theestremes of heat and cold 
fft gradually diminflifd and lofl in each other, as to prepare the body 
for erdurine both. It is, as yet almoft one continued foreft, and in 
»any places the foil, as in all countries on the face of the earth, ia 
ihio and barren. In others, however it is fertile even to escefs, 
a«d, ill all, fined for the purpofes of pafture. A little labour in 
■agriculture, with the conqucfls of the fiOiing hook, and the gun, in 
fuch H coiir.V7y is fufficient to afford all the neceflaries, and even 
ftimc of the fuperfluities of life. But to laborious tndutlry and tKo 
atended viewsof commerce, the field here openejis iffi'menfe.' The 

I timber is e\tremely proper for fliip' buildiiig,"a6d pitch, tar, and 
Lemp are produced >n the greatefl abundance. The harbour qf 
Halifax is the moft capacious, the deepefl, the fkfrft, and in every 
rcfpeft the fineft in the whole world. The tolvo is firongly forti- ■ 
Jcd ; and with this artificial, and the natural defence arifing from 
the boundaries of the couiitry, the Nova Seotians, when popula- 
tioa fliall he in any dejrec equal to the means of their fubliftence, 
way defy the boldeft anailants. Secure In their peninfula ihey Biajf 
follow agriculture, manufaflures, particularly (hip building, and 
engage with advantage in various bfancbes of commerce. For 
fifhing on the great bank their fuuation is peenliajly happy • and, 
for every vcyago the New Englandrra perforia to Newfoundland, 
the Not^Scotisns have it in th«ir power to tnafcetwo. Such is the 
afylum wbich at prefent invites the imfoiTunate loyalifls. And 
here too the very defcendenis of thofe men, whofe revengeful paf- 
fions exiled their fellow citizens to uncultivated woods, may one day 
find (lielter from thofe furious ftorms which the contenttojis of dit 
fercni ftates, and different faftioDs muft excite. 

Politicians who affirm that mojiey is the finews of war, have beea 
taught by the fuccefs of America that this maxim admits, like 
many others, of exceptions. From the poverty of the Americaoj 
many Britidi fpecniators predicted the oilTQlutioii of their army; 
and, when the cpnteft was finifhcd, they fondly ho^d that the wani 
of pay would prevent the foldlers from difbanding,' and thai a mili- 
tary force would make the revolted Colonifts pav dear for thcireman- 
Cipatioti from Britain. As the of General Wafhington, 
however, kept his army on foot, when'ihey were wanted; to hi) 
authority difpeifed thcpi when their union ilireatened to fopprefi thj 
xxSnTX liberiics of their country. The American foldier*, foi five, 
fix, anJ feveii years fervice have agreed to acecpttrafls of hind, ac- 
cording to the old Roman manner, and ceViarniy ifaeir pofterity 
willhald [heir eftates by very honourable tenures, A fund is pro- 
vided for the payment of the debts of America, which ajnonnt to 
nine miLUons of pounds flerling. A public, banii is eflabUAicd in 
Philadelphia : and American currency is no longer an object of con- 
tempt to the world. The virtue of an infant ftate, and the enlighi- 
foed poUcy of Congrcfa will euard, for the prefcnt, againft the a- 
""■ ■ ■ ■ r- jmfj^ 

■ r-.i.;.J.yG00gIc 

Nathtui Afain,- ■ Jj 

Wfesinc'iilent tofucb an inftitution. .But iWe lime may come whea 
the public credit of Amefica may involve her in ihc moft (eiioat 
diflkulties. It WBS the public credit of England that lieajjcd upoa 
lier head fo much debt aod lb many gnevouj taict. Like a diilipat- 
cd individual of great landed property, flie baE burrowed, on hcc 
credit, tothe fallamoontut leaftof hercflutc. And if any of the 
clianaels of her wealth ftiill be dried up, a continjieiicy not wholly 
itoprobable in the piefciit juoflure of the affHirs of the world, the 
imerelt of public ftoclc mjfl be rcduifed, an event which would 
ratify and fc:U the humiliacioaof Britain. 

When we coiiGdcr ihe prefent temper of the American provinces, 
and the alBduity witb which foreisn nations court the favour of 
America, there la little room to hope that flie will ever grant any 
esclulii'e privilege* in trade to the Eii?,litb. 

The definitive treatiei between Brit<iin and her late enemiei ad- ," 
Tance but (lowly, and, ioRead of advantages, not fpeclfied in the 
Preliminary Articles, it will be vvell, if new concellions are not de- 
manded from an humbled and fallini; empire. The great naval 
force that is kept on foot by England and France, is a proof 
that thefc powers walih over each other with a jealous eye. The 
wounds they have received, and the lalfiiude they feel from the lofi 
ofblood, will.'howevcr, keep them inai!^ivc for iorae years. They, 
will reft on their urms until they ftiall have recovereii fome degree 
of ftrength, and until foms new occalion lliall tempt their revenge, 
their avarice, or tbeir ambition, agnin to come forth into the field 
of battle. In the mean time, the HuiAuating ftate of human aCairs, 
the changes that have already happened, and oihers that will, not 
improbably happen, may_ alter the general face of thliigs, and the 
(WO great rival nations may cpntend for fupcrioiitv on new ground. 
The Prince of Afturias, has imbibed the ideas of a Spaniard ; and 
the prefent King of Spain i< not imaiortal. It will be, wifdom in 
England to cultivaie the good graces of the Piincp, and in general, 
of the Spanilh nation. Lei Gibraltar be ceded to the Spinilh 
monarchy for fome verv valuable compenfation. Pull out the 
. thorn that rankles in the hreall of Spanilli pride. DaQi the Family 
Compact in pieces by one of the Pillars of Hercules. New conncils 
would quickly govern the Cabinet of Madrid. The old proverb 
would be revived in every mouth — " Peace with England, and war 
with all the world." The vicinity of the SpaniH.i feitlcments to 
North America will make the one or the'oiher of thefe powers the 
friend of England. And it may happen, that the fla^s of Spain and' 
of Britain may be united in oppoiition ta thofe of France and North 

The ilormffiil thickens in the Eaft, nor is there any longer a 
^oubt thit hoAililiei, if not begun, wilt foon commence betwecit 
Ruflia and Turkey. If we may credit certain , Foreign Gazettes, 
the Emprefs, availing herfelf ot the elJabliOied religion of her coun- 
try, appears as the proteflrefs of the Greek church, and has offer- 
ed her aid for the emancipation of the Creeks in the Morea from. 
the Ottoman yoke. The flames of war will extend over Europe : 
but whether the other European powers will take a decided part 
with TiUVey or Ku^ In the beginning of the ijuarrel, or, as is 


JS fititUnat Ajfairs. 

more profilble, aScA a neutrality as long as it is podjble, tineinuft' 
detcmiinc. Wherever war is found, money will circulate ttiiibcr 
as to its Datural centre. The £niprf fs will DQrrasr itioner, at high' 
intereft, from the tradinjj towns oa the Baltick, from Hoftand, and- 
other Slates, Sociciies, Cor|>o rations, and lodividuals. There wilt* 
of courfe be a great fall of Britilh Hock, and this demand" from' 
Riiffia, coKiperatiiig witli many other catifes, will reduce the pnbHc 
funds to a lower pitch, than they have ever delccflded to iq times of 

The Emperor, as a preparation for extending his temporal do- 
miniona, fills his coffers, by encroaching on the church. The 
bold fpirit of innovation ih matters relating to religion, baa con-' 
tinufd to produce new eRefts Ghee the times of Martin Luther to" 
ibe prcfent. The condud of the Emperor is an importaiUelkd of 
fhb fpirit. Other effeds will fallow in the courfe of time. All. 
faierHrchies, in the prefent daring age, have rcalba to tremble. 
Unprote^d by religious veneration and awe, the rieties of the' 
churdi prove a tempting bait to the unhallowej views of ft«c po- 
licy. The example of America too, will operate towards the fame' 
end. For that continent will prove the fallacy of the dofirine, that 
no llotecan fublift without an elfabliihed religion. Unlimited uAe- 
ration will make as many religions as there are families : and it is 
to be apprehended, that a very great indiflerence to all religion will* 
. be the Codfequence. The world will laugh at the pretenGons of 
priefts more than ever. The fpirit of reform in England 'will at laft 
reach 'the church. The Bifliop of Landaff advifcs to take from 
the rich clergy and give to the poor. Politicians will improve on 
his plan, perhaps, and difcovor from the records of civil and facred 
hitlory, that pomp and parade accord not with the humiliiy of the' ' 
yofpel, and that the punty of Chriftianiiy is ever bell maintained 
amidi) poverty, and various other fufierings and bardOiips.- 

We have of laie had oecafion to cmftemplate with pleafure our 
country manifefling a gre^tnefs'of mind, as well as the tnofl amaz-' 
ing refources, at a time when the wor]d had reafon to fuppofe, that 
her fpirit was fallen, and her wealth eihaufted. A pecuniary 
cumpenfation is to be made to the Loyalifts i and the ofncers who 
were railing troops for England in Switzerland and Germany, are 
to be indemnified for their Jolfes and difappointments. Thefe are 
proofs of magnanimity, of power, and of^juftice ; and we may ap- 
ply, on this occalion, to Great Britain, the ^nes irf Milton : 

■ " Nor feem'd 

" Lefs than the Arch-angel fallen."— 

The cffcds of the emancipation of America, have appeared it> 
Europe in a variety of inflancca. Thefe we have been at pains to 
trace and to remark. Some of them arc, in truth, fo obvious, as to 
obiiude themftlvea on the moft carelefs obfervers : others are lefs 
obvious, but, neveithelefs, not lefscertain. It niay bean amutinv, 
and Inftruftive novelty to many of our Readers, to be well aiTured,' 
that the infiuence of American Independence has diffufed itfelf even 
to the barbarous iflands on the coart of Africa. 

The iflaad of Joanna, though not the largcft, is yet'thtf'^inci- 


national Jfmirs. fij 

pat of tlte Comam ifUodt. It clausi fovereigDity, ani cxa^ tH- 
butc from ^L the reft. - Thtft pretenfinnk, however, it faas beeij 
fomediDM obliged ro atkrt by the (word. The iiland of Mayott;), 
tovnTis the and of the year t^Si, rote in tebctlion afaipft its 
nuflen. The tuKivei, «n ^ing aflied the caufe of their infurrec- 
tton, rcpHcd, *' Mayotta like AmcTin*^." Thi< ii a curious UH, 
and ^eaks tl^ powet of erample in the mall forcible langua^. It 
is exarap1« that goremi the world. Ezampln have a firuige power 
of mutdplication ; aod if the untutored trihet of M^atia quote the 
precedent of Amctica as a ground and encouragement to alien their 
oanre rigfan, we may conclude that this great example, %hich has 
been fiet to the lutiotit, faattt not yet fpcnt its force, but will conti- 
nue to funiiA matter of fpeculation, even to ditlaat poOerity. 

IwlandcondaHciin a pofhire of d^nee, ■« if jealbui that Bri- 
tiiB may be inclined to retntA her tcltnowledgments, and again, to 
lEp the yoke on a difarined people. The fiiew, and the parade ot' 
arms^ awnigbdly well fiiited to the difpoBtionS of the Iri(b. Ic 
ii time, howercr, n>turii their vieWs to the peaceful purfuits of 
induUty, and to convett their fwords into plough- fbares. 

The ^rit of reforni in North Britain, continues to tocrsalp. 
The Letten of Zeoo (of which we gave a^futl account in our lall 
Month's Review) bare been emulated by other produAons froVii 
the Kdinburgh prefs^ Committees and Affixriations are forming oii 
coB^utional gTOtud. A regular correfpendeKC is opened among 
the Royd Burj-hs ; and a Conveiition of £)elegates is aAually ap' . 
pointed to meet at Edinburgh, in order to concert tbe moft effec- 
VmX inexfures for the rsdrefs of common grferances. This Conven- 
OOB, we are iBformed by the befi authorities, has been encourand 
by leners frotn the Difkeof Richmond, and leveral others of the Se- 
nators in both Houles of PxrliaitKat 

Oi the iatc publicatiohs from the Scottith Prefs, we have peruf- 
ed with particular pleolure, a Letter fram « Burgrfi of Aherdun, in 
anfwer to an anonymous writer, who had made an art^l attack on the 
whole f^bem tA reform, and arraigned its pairous and abettors ivith 
great actitnatay of-iiivetiive. The patriotic Burgefs treats his ad~ 
«r(ary with alt the liberality of a gentleman, while he viiidicaic^ 
the claims of hit ietlow-citizens with equal ability iind fpirir. "V'fik 
noTthero patriots, far from being deprefted 1^ *he fate of Mr.' Pitt's 
motion, leonl to acquire fredi vigout from dilappointinent. 

Nor are the grievances of North Biitiiin contined to the r^^-x»^ 
alone. The ftaie of reprefentition in the eouatin, calls no iefs loud- 
ly for reform. By the creation of nom'ttal and fiSiiliem votes, the 
whole political power has been uftirped by a few noble families of 
extenftve property, while the confequence of the leflbr freeholders, 
and gentry in the middle ranks of life, is altnoil totally annihilat- 
ed. The fpirited efforts which have been made to recHfy fo greM 

• This faft we give on the authority of a gentleman of ithu 
army, who failed wiili Commodore Johnttone to the Cape of Good 
Hope, and to the Arabian coall, after the Commodore 3 return to 
England. ■ 


to . i^thnat j^<tir!. ■ ' - .; . 

.^n ahule orihc feviikl fyftcm, haye bicberto teen borne dawn bjr 
the weight of an opprelFive ariftocracy ; yet the(e effona, we are in- 
formed, are ilill continued with great pErfeveranCe. What may be 
the refult of thcfe proceedings in town and country, in -the line <>f 
patriolifm, is yet uncertain. But, if we may judge from, prefcitf'- 
uppearanceB, the seal and unanimity, with which the. great'boily of 
the people in Scotland i» now ai^iiated, will oat ev«{>orate in air. 
And their exertional though not attended, perhaps, with all-Ute- od-' 
vantages which the more fanguine admirers of e<]ual reprofcotainon 
may snticipatct will be produdive however of real good,^ is jt will 
c!ieri(h a fpirit of liberty, and uldmateiy tend tQithe.Bxtenfion of 
the rights of human nature in that part of the united kingdom. . 

Id India a peace is at laA concluncd with the Mabratttw on ternis 
bonourabie to that ancient {KopLe, and necelTac^ to the fingtiOi. 
In the courfe of the coatell with England the rainlHers of Poonah 
difptayed an exemplary prudence, and moderation of cottdi^A, - 
When the fortune of arms put a whole a^my in their power, they ■ 
did not rife in their demands, bu't required the enemy to.obferve 
the faith of former treaties. " To infill on more," faid the 
Prime Mfnifler in the Senate, " would be of do real ^draot^K xa. > 
*' us, and would only ferre to plant the feeds ttffCYenge, in ibe 
*' breafts of the Englith,*" The wife .policy of Madajet SindiM^^ 
was .univerfally admired by the BritiQi nation^ But here, wecaik- 
not omit to rematit, that when Lord Shelbume obferred the fame 
policy, and fought, by certain unimportant conceffions, to obrtste >• 
all future difpuies with France aod America, his qoaduA mu ar- j^ 
raigned as beneath th; dignity of Britain. On Governor HaftinpaV 
condud we may re.marlt, that if ad ardent zeal for the aggrati£se-' 
.ment of the cqnppany precipitated him into meafutea full of - em- '; 
barraflment and danger, a vigorous genius and< a foun^d bead have 
.enabled him to extricate himfelf, nut indeed without \f>{» to. the . 
reputation of his country, but witliout any of tbofc immediate dlE- 
aitcrs that were very generally apprehended. 

The death of Hydcr Ally, a chara^r which confouitda the rea- - 
foning of philofophers concerning the effeds of climate 'on vigour 
of mind, coincidmg in time with the eftablifhrnent of peace tritK 
the Mahrattas, promifes tranquillity, for fome time to Britifh Hin- 
doflan. Tipoo-Saib, his eldefl ^on, and his lawful fucceflpr, it is 
faid, is of a mild and pacific difpotition ; but, if he were otber< . . 
wife, the intrigues and plots common in Afiatic courts, io which 
the fuccellion to the throne is not always determined by priority of 
birth, and. the danger of being fupplanied in the government b^ '"'' 
at) enterprizing brother, would bend all his caret to maiataiA> the 
internal quiet of his domioione, and to eAablilh himfelf lin the io* 
verdign power. 

* See Mac Intolli's Travels id Evope, Afia, andAMcar - • 

f The Mahnua MiniHer. 



For A U Q U S T, .1783. 

Ari- I. LtSm-ts M Rhtinric m4 SeUts Lt'irt!. By Hugh Blair, 
D. D. oiie of the Miniilers of the High Oiureh, and ProfelTot 
' of Rhetoric and Belles Lettres in the Univeriity of Edinburgh. 
]a two Volumes, 410. il. i6b. Boarda. Cadell. 
[ConctuJiJ from our laft Numl'ti-.l 

WHILE Dr. Blair treats of elofjuencc, he fcts him^ 
felf formally to exhibit portraits of Demofthcnes 
and Cicero ; and it mufl be confelled, that he has been 
able to throw together their dlilinftive peculiarities with s 
conuneadable accuracy. It appears, however, tliat lie has 
execDted this taflt rather from the writings of the critics, 
thin from a careful cxanittiation of the works of thelc ora- 
tors. Of Cicero, for example, he has faid, that * he is 
' always fuU and flowing, never abrupt.' In oppofitioij to 
tiiis, we can affirm without any danger of being coniradift- 
ed, that the Roman orator is often rapid and abrupt to an 
uncoimijon degrfec. His fpeeches agamft Antony afford in- 
ftuices of this truth, which are fo ftrjking and remarkable, 
tliit they could not poflibly efcape the attention of any per- 
fonnho had perufed them. Of Demoilhenes, the charac- 
tcrillical feature according to Dr. Blair, is vehemence. But 
vehemence has a reference chiefly to the manner or expref- 
fion; and the commanding circnmftancc in the eloquence 
of Demofthcnes, Is the force and clofenefs of his rcafoning. 
The conclufion, however, of our Autlior, that Dcmof- 
Aeues ie, upon the whole, preferable to Cicero, is agreeable 
to tlie decliion of the gencralitv of the critical writers both 
ofEngland and France. And Dr. Blair ieems to have been 
imnicdiptely direfted in his judgment hy tlic ArchhiJhop of 
Cimbray, in that Author's reflexions on Rhetoric and 
EsG. Rev. Vol. II. Aug. 1783. F Frpm 


jl BiMr's Ltttura en Rhetorle and Belles LeUfet. 

From the coiiiidcratiori of eloquence in general. Dr. 
filair proceeds to take a view of the eloquence of popular 
alicmblies. After giving fome remarks on the eloquence of 
tlie bar, he exhibits an analyfls of Cicero's oration for 
Glucntius. This example or illuilration. is, doubtlefs, z 
proper one ; but, while on this occafion he does jufticci to 
Cicero, we could have wifhed, that he had paid a due at- 
tention to the eloquence of the bar in modem nations. If 
we are not deceived, there have been eloquent barrifters in 
France,- in England, and in Scotland ; and to have alluded 
to them was not only^ proper in itfetf, but the cxprefs duty 
of the Author. 

The faA appear? to be, that Dr. Blair was eager to leave 
the bar to examine the eloquence of the pulpit. Upon this 
head, indeed, he is very full. It is a favourite fubjeft with 
him ; and he has colie£ted upon it many obfervations which . 
are pertinent and ufeful. But the extreme length in which tie 
indulges himfelf in tliis divilion of hia performance, is cer- 
tainly highly improper. For it bears no proportion to the 
narrow limits which he affigns, to topics of higher and 
more univerfal importance. Thus upon hiftoricai compo- 
lition he is; comparatively fo brief, tliat the Reader is oif- 
plcafed and furprized. This impropriety is an evident vio- 
lation of good tafte and good writing; and reminds us of 
the architeQ, who would plan a ftable, that would exceed 
in magnificence the manfion houfe with which it was to be 

Nor can we agree with the Author, when in this part of 
his work, he gives to France the preference in the eloquence 
of the pulpit over England. We could here even combat 
him upon his own principles. For the very reafons, for 
which he bcftows onDemofthenes thefuperiority to Cicero, 
niay be employed againft him. The French preachers were 
orators who are pleafing and agreeable like Cicero, But 
thofe of England arc ilrong and perfuafive like Demoft- 
henes. Upon the fide of England there are deep thought, 
orderly arrangement, and conviftion. On the fide of France 

there areprcttinefs, pertnefs, declamation, and fometim 
pomp. This, we believe, will in general be allowed, t6 
be a juft reprefentalion of the matter; and why the Authof 
ihouid here depart from principles he had ufed with pro- 
priety on a former occafion, we know not, unlefs he meant 
to derogate from the honour of the Englifh nation; a cir- 
«umflance which we muft own, fcems to be probable, and 
to which we Ihall have occafion to allude again in the 

■ iLiVtng difcuflcd the eloquence of the pulpit, the Author 


tn Google 

Si iir*s Ltiinru en Rhetoric and BtlUs Ltitres'j %% 

throws out feme reflexions upon the parts, and the delivery 
efa regular difcourfe or oration. He then enters on the 
tnc[hods or means of improving in eloquence j and here it 
is proper that we offer an extrafl from his obfervations. 

' Next to moral qualllicai'iocis, wh^i, in the fecond place, \a 
fDoll neceflary to an Orator, is a fund of knowledge. Much is this in- 
culcated by Cicero and. Quiuftilian: " Quod omnibua difcipliniK 
" et anibus debet effe inflruftus Orator." By which they mean, 
that he ought to have what we call, a Liberal Education; and tO 
b-formed by a regular lludy of philofopby, and the polite an!. 
We miift not forget that, 

Scribendi refte, iapere efi & principliim & fons. 
Good fenfe and knowledge, are the foundation of all good fpeakin^. 
There is no art that can teach one to be eloquent, in any Iphere, 
without a fufiicient acquaititance with what belongs to that fphere ; . 
or if there were an Art that made fueh preteniions, it wnuld be mere 

Juackety, like the pretenfions of the Sophifis of old, to teach their 
tfciples to fpeak for and againfl every 1 ubjefl ; and would be de- 
fervediy exploded by all wife men. Attention to Style, to Compo- 
fition, and all the Art« of Speecb, can onl^ atTiIl an Orator in let- 
ting of, to advantage, the ftock of materials which he .polTeffet j 
but Che (lock, the materials themfetves, muft be brought from other 
■quarters than from Rhetoric' He who is to plead at the Bar, muft 
make hlmfelf thoroughly tnafter of the knowledge of the Law ; of 
all the learning and experiehce that can be ufeful in his profeffion, 
for fupportiitg a caufe, or convincing a Judge. He who is to fpeak 
from the Pulpit, mult apply himfelf clolely to thefludy of divinity, 
ofpraflical religion, Of morals, of human nature; that he may be 
rich in all the topics, both of inAru^oa and of perfualion. He 
who would fit himfelf for being a Member of the Supreme Council 
of the Nation, or of any Public Aflembly, muft be thoroughly ac- 

Juainted with the bulinefs that belongs to fuch aflembly ; he muft , 
udy the forms of Court, the courfe of procedure ; and muft attend 
minutely to all the fads that may be the fubjeft of queftion or de- 

' BesidM the knowledge that properly belongs to that profeffion 
towhich headdiAi himfelf, a Public Speaker, ifeverhe expefh to 
befminent, moft make himfelf' acquainted, as far as his neceflaiy 
occupations allow, with the general circle of polite literature. The 
liudy of Poetry may be ufeful to him, on many occafions, for em- 
bcUiQiing hi* Style, for fuggefting lively images, or agreeable al- 
lulions. The ftudy of hiftory may be ftill more ufeful to him j as 
the knowledge of fads, of eminent chara^ers, and of the courfe of 
human a&irs, finds place on many occafions*. There are few 

* " Imprimis vero, abuudare debet Orator exemplorum copia, 
" cum veterum, turn etiam.novorum ; adeo ut non niodo quse coo- 
" fcripta funt hiftoriii, aut Sermonibus volut per manus tradita, 
" quzque quotidie aguntur, debeat n6Qe ; verum ne ea quidem 
'^ qux a claiioribus pociis funt fifia ncgligere." 

- Q^iNCT. I. zii. C*p. 4- 
Fa great 


]l4 Blair's LeHura m Kheltiic and BelUt Ldtrti. 

great occarioni of PobHc Speaking, In which one will doc deriwe 
jdliA^ncc from culiiyate^ taue, and eitenlivc knowkilge. .The|r 
fiiU often yield him matcriala for proper (jrijanient ; fomelime*, for 
argument and real ufe. A deficiencj' of knowledge, eyea in fulijcct* 
that belong not direftly to his own profclTion, will eirpofe him to 
many difadvantages, and gire better qualified rivals a great fuyiC' 
riority over him. 

' Allow inetorecommet>d, in the third place, not only the^. at- 
tainment of ufeful knowledge, but a habit of application and, ifl- 
duflry. Withbut this, it i» impoffibic to eicel In any thing. We 
moil not imngine, thai it is by a fort of miilliroomgrojvth, that one 
can rife to be a diHinguiflied Pleader, or Preacher, or "Speaker in 
any Allembly. It U not by (tarts ot applieafion, or' by"a few years 
preparation of Oudy afterwards difcojiiitiued, that^ can be 
attained. No ; ii can be attained only by means of regular induf- 
try, grown up jnto a habit, and ready to be exerted on every oc-- 
cafion that calls for indiiftry. This is the fixed law of our natilre ; 
and he muft have a very high opinionof his own genius indeed, that 
•an believe himfelf an exception to it. A very wife law of oiir 
mature it Is ! forinduftry is, in truth, the prcat " Condi me ntum," 
the feafoning of every plcalure ; without whicli life is doomed {o 
languifh. Nothing is fo great an enemy botb Co honourable ^ttaiii' 
ments, and to the real, to thebrilk, and fpirited enjoyment of life, 
as that relaxed ilate of mind which arifcs Irom indolence and dilSpa- 
lion. One that is deliined to excel ip any art, efpecially in the arts 
•f Speaking and Writing, will be known by this more thap by any 
ether mark whatever, aa emhufiafm for that art; an enthufiafm, 
which, firing his mind with ibeobjeit he has in ^iew, will difpofc 
him to reliflievery labour which the means require. It was thi#, 
that charade rl fed the great men of anfiquitj- ; it is this, which mufl 
*lilVingui(li the Moderns who would tread in their (lep«. This ho- 
nourable emhu^afm, it is highly necel&ry for fuch as are Jludyin!; 
Oratory to cultivate. If youth wants it, manhood will fiag mi- 
ferably. .. . 

' In the fourth place. Attention to the beft models will contribute 
jreatly towards improvement. Every one who fpeaks.'or writes, 
Sioulo, indeed, endeavour to have fomewhnc that is his own, thai 
is peculjario'himfelf, and ibai tbaratSerires his CompoStion and 
Style. Slavifh Imitation dejirefles genius, or rather betrays 'the 
want of it. But withaj, thtre ii no Genius fo original^ but may 
be profited and ailiiled by the aid of proper examples, m Style, 
Compofition, and Delivery. They always open Tome new ideas; 
they 3erve to enlarge and corrtiil our own. They quicken the cur- 
rent of thought, and eiciie emulation. 

* Much, fndecd, wil! depend upon the right choice of modeli 
wKeh we purpofe to imitate ; and fiippollng 'them rightly chofen, 
a farthercare isrequihte, of mtbeing fcdifced by a blind utiiverfal 
admiration. For, " deci pit exemplar, viiiis imitabile." £ Ten in 
the moft linidied notkli we can iclefl, it mnfl not be forgotten, 
that there »fe always; foinc tbin-s impioper for imitatioD. We 
fliould Oudy to acquire a julf cfinceptioo of the peculiar -charai5t«- 
nitic beauiics of any Woicr, ot I'ublJi: Speaker, and imitate thefe 



Slair's LeHure-i on Jthtloric and Btiles Leltrtr, 9^ 

only. One ought rtevcr to attach himiclf too clordy to any lingle 
iDodel ; forhe who docs fo, is almoil fure of being leduced into a 
feulty and afedcd imitation. ' His biifinefi fliouM be, to'dr;Lw fruitl 
jeveral tLieprojicr ideas of )>crfe6H0Q. jLiTing eiamplea of Public 
Scjealiiag, in any kind, it will not be expected that I Dwuld here 
paint out. As to the Writera ancient and modern, from whom be- 
ne lii may be derived' in forming Compolition and Style, I have 
fpoken fo much of them in former Leftures, that it is needSeft to 
repeat what I have faidof their virtues and defefts, I own, it ii to 
be regretted, that the EngliQi Language, ia which there n much 
good writing, fumJIhes us, however, with but very few recorded 
examples of eloquent Public Speaking. Among the French the M 
arc more. Saiirin, Bourdaloue, Flechier, MalfiUon, panieularly 
the iatl, are eminent forthe Eloquence of the Pulpit. B\n the ragft 
nervous and iublime of all their Orators is BoiTiiet,- the famous 
Bifliop of MeauK ; in whofe Oraifms Fuitihm, there ia a very high 
fpirit of Oratory*. Some of Fontenelle'i Harangues to the FlVrich 
Academy, are elegant and agreeable. And at the Bar, the printed 
Pleadings of Cochin and D'AgueiTeau, are highly extolled by the 

' late French Critics. 

' There is one obfervation which it is of importance to make, 
concerning Imitation of the Stvle of any favourite Author, when 
we would carry his Style into Public Speaking. We mufl attend 

- to a very material diflinflionj between written and fpoken Lan- 
gnage. Thefe are, in truih, two different manners of comrnnni. 
eating ideas. A Biook that is to be read, requiresanefotrof Style; 
aman that is tofpeak, muitufe another. Id books, we look fur 
correftnefs, precifion, all redundancies pruned, ail repeticiona a- 
vdided. Language completely polilhcd. Speaking admits a more 
eafy copious Style, and lefs fettered by rule ; repetitions may ofteu' 
be neccffiry, parenthefea muy fometimes be graceful ; the feme 
thought muA often be placed in different views; as the hearers c-^n. 
catch it only from the mouth of the Speaker, and have not the ad- 
vantage, as in reading a. book, of turning back again, andofdw^U 
ling on what they do not fully comprehend. Hence the Style of 
many good authors, would appear fii^ a%>^ed, and even obieure, 
if,, by too clofe an imitation, we lliould transfer it to a Popular 
Oration. How aukward, for example, would Lord Shaftelbury's 
fentences found, in (he mouth of a I'ublic Speaker i Some kinds of 
Public Difcourfe, it is true, fuch as that of the Polpit, where more 
cia£i preparation, and more fiudied Style are adntiited, would bear 

* ' The criticifra which M. Crevier, Author of RhetoriquB 
Fran^fe, palTes upon thefe Writers whom i have aboveoamed, is 
" Btmuet eft grande, mais in^gal ; Flechier ell plus egal, mais 
" moins eJeve, & fouvent trop fleurl : BourdaWe eil folide & ju- 
" dicieux, mais 11 neglige les graces legeres : Maflillon eft plus 
" riehe en images, mais moins fort en raifonnement. Je fouhaite 
" done, que I'oratcur ne fe contente dans I'imitaiion d^un feu! de 
" ces modeles; mais qu*il tache de reunir en lai loutes leun diffe- 
*• rentes vcrtua," Vol. H. chap, deniero. 

f 3 f«^ 


86- Blair's Lt/fures on RbettrU end Belltt Lettrei, 

(ucbamaoner better than others, wliichareexpeded to approach 
more toextemporaneousfpcaking. But ftill there ii, in general, fi> 
much difference between Speaking, and Compolition defigned onljr 
to be read, at Ihould guard ut agaftH a dofe and injudicious imi- 

' SoMB Authon tfaete are, whofe manner of writing apptoachea 
nearer to the Style of Speaking than others ; and who, therefore, 
can be imitated with more Taiety, In this clafs, among the Eng- 
lifh authora, are Dean Swift, and Lord Bolingbroke. The Dean, 
throughout all his writings, in the midft of much corre^tnefs, main- 
tain! the eafy natural manner of an unaffefted Speaker ; and this is 
one of his chief excellencies. Lord Bolingbrokc's Style is more 
fplendid, and more declamatory than Dean Stvili's : but Aill it is 
the Styleof one who fpcaks, orratherwho harangues. Indeed, all 
his Political Writings (for it is to them only, and not to his Phi- 
lofophical ones, that this obfervation can be applied) carry much 
more the appearance of one declaiming with warmth in a great Af- 
fembly, than of one writing in a claret, in order to be lead by 
others. They have all the eopioufnefs, the fervour, the inculcating 
method that is allowable, and graceful in an Orator ; perhaps too 
much of it for a Writer ; and it is to be regretted, as I have 
formerly obfcrved, that the matter contained in them, Utould have 
been fo trivial or fo fatfe ; for, from the manner and fiyle, con- 
lid arable advantage might be reaped. 

After having fiated what he confiders as the proper means 
of improving in eloquence. Dr. Blair affords a kind of com- 
parative view of the merit of the ancients and the moderns. 
Boileau and Mad. Dacier, Perrault, and La Mottc, were 
open on this head to his infpeftion ; and Sir William Tem- 
ple and Wotton, with other authors, were alfo at hand 
to have given him infsrmation. This fubjcft, indeed, has 
■ beep repeatedly canvaiTed ; and he holds out upon it no new 
ideas. It may even be fufpefted, that he has not taken the 
fulleft advantage of the fpecutations of his piedecelTors ; and 
tliis omiflion in a writer whti can no where boaft of inven- 
tion, and whofe bufincfs it was to carry an anxious atten- 
tion to other men's writings, is the more unpardonable. 

Dr. Blair now enters upon hiftorical writing ; a fubjeft 
infiiiitely beautiful, but nice in its naturt, and not perhaps 
to be compictcly underftood, except by thofe who have ac- 
tually diftmguilnedthcmfclves by hiftoric works. This is 
by far, the moft impcrfeft branch of the Lc£turcs of our 
Author. - Here be is every where committing miftakcs, 
both wilh regard to ancient and modern hiflorians. He al- 
lows that ' Livy had furcly the moft ample field for difplay- 
* ing political knowledge, concerning the rife of the Romaa 
' greatncfs, and the advantages or defcSs of iheir govern- 
' ment.' ' Yet," fays he, ' the inftruftion in th^c im- 
' portant articles, which he affords, is not conliderable.* 



Blair's LiHures an Rhtlsrk and BelUs Leilns, 87 

He adds that ' Livy is by no means diilinguilhed for pro- 
' foundncfs or penetration.' It is remarkable that the very 
levcrfeof his ccnfures is the truth. The details of LivT 
about the patricians and the people, which occupy fo mucli 
the earlier parts of his hiftory, would have been infupport- 
able, if that great hiftorian had not intermingled philolbphy 
and p ro found 11 efs with his narration. To a penetrating 
reader, he conftantly points out the happy political confe- 
qaences, which could not fail to refult from the content 
tions of the higher, and the lower ranks of the citizens. 
We fee, therefore, accordingly, that the liberties of Rome 
arofeout of thefe contentions. Now the refult of the ef- 
tablithmcnt of a free conftitution being equality, wc per- 
ceive, in this principle, the riling grandeur of the Romans ; 
for it not only called upon every man who was able and 
eminent to diftinguifli himfelf, but furnilhcd him with the 
opportunity of doing fo. To tlic variations in the political 
conftitution of the Romans, Livy is ever paying a remark- 
able attention 1 and his fpeeches difplay a fagacity and pene* 
tration, which arc moft inftruflive and uncommon. 

Concerning Plutarch, Dr. Blair has obfervcd, that' his 
matter is better than his manner.' We muft acknowledge, 
that this remark appears to us in a llrange light. The mat- 
ter of Plutarch is certainly very good upon the whole -, but 
in common hands, it would have appeared with little ad-< 
vantage. The charm in Plutarch is his minncr; and it is. 
thence, that he gives fuch an air of fincerity to his informa- 
tion that he inltantly fixes his Reader, who beftows upon 
hiiB the moft unrefervcd confidence. We, think tha^ he is 
aflnally convcrfing with us ; and while wc are enamoured 
with bis fimplicity, we not only go eafily afong with th« 
Author, but are tempted to applaud the Man. Where he 
i^ls of confetjuencc into errors we freely forgive him ; and 
ftom the engaging gracefuinefs of his manner, are perhaps 
difpofed to put a greater value on his matter than it meritti. 
It IS but too obvious, that our Author is but modetately ac- 
quainted with the learning of antitjuity ; and it is to this 
caufe that we mult chiefly impute the millakes which v.'e 
have juft cenfured. 

It is obfervabic, however, that even upon modern hif- 
torians his ilriftures are generally ill founded. He affeits 
to confider Voltaire as a great hiftorian ; but biftory is per- 
haps the province in which that iliuftrious man (hone leatt. 
His conitant affeflation of wit and brilliancy, and the fre- 
quent levity of his manner, difgrace the hiPoric dignity. 
He is alfo very negligent with regard to his fafls ; and his 
eflay on the general hiftory of Europe, though written to 
,F 4 pleafe, 


%i Blair's Leilurts en Rhetoric and Bella Lettres. 

]^Icafe, is by no means indruAive, and difplays an cnAXcCa 
variety of abfurdities. When he touches upon the man- 

ner6 and cultoms of th? middle times, he difcovcrs a frivo- 
lity, a want of penetration, and a defperate boldnefs of af- 
fertion, tliatdiigiift and fatigue every Reader who is well in- 
formed and intelligent. 

- Of Buchannan oar Author does not fciupje toaffert, that 
' the feudal ftftem feems never to hafle entered into his 
' thougjits.' Yet Buchannan aftuaily lived at a time, when. 
the feudal fyftem was in fuU force over Scotland ; and there 
are many paflages in his hiftory, from which the genius of 
the feudal fyftem, might be very aptly illuHrated. In cha- 
rafterifing this diftinguilh'ed author, he has a!fo the fol- 
iowing palfage, ' Early, indeed, Scotland made fome fi- 
' gure by means of the celebrated Buchannan. He is an 

* elegant writer, claflical in his latinity, and agreeable both 

* in his narration and djfciiption.' That Scotland made 
only fome figure by means of Buchannan, is a compliment fo 
cold, that one would conceive, that Dr. Blair had fome 
title to defpife this fuperlative genius. It is known, and . 
univerfally acknowledged, that the talents of Buchannan 
gave a fplendour to Scotland, which was not equalled by* 
the luftre of any contemporary author in any part of Eu- 
rope. With regard too to his elegance, his claflical lati- 
nity, and his agreeablenefs both in narration and defcrip- 
tion ; this wi!! be allowed to be a criticifm fo general, that 

it may apply to a multitude of hiftorians. It is not in this way 
that Buchannan fhould be charafterized, Thefe are not his . 
peculiarities. At the lame time that he is elegant, he Com- 
municates an animation and fpirit to his narrative, which 
marks him out as fuperior to every modern hilWian who 
has compofed in the Latin language. The manner in 
which he appreciates and paints the virtues and the vices, 
is alfo remarkable. His fpeeches too arc fometimes admir- 
able; and he carefully avoids the prolixity of di^rtation, 
a rock upon which the more modern hiftorians have fplit ; 
and his reflexions which are often deep, are happily interr 
mingled in the ftream of his relation. He has other peculi- 
arities which it would be eafy for us to defcribe, but we 
have faid enough to illuftrate the impropriety of Dr. Blair's 
ftriftures upon him. 

There is one general remark of our Author on hiflo-' 
rical writing, which we cannot pafs over in filence. ' Dur- 
' ing- a long period,' fays he, * Englifh hiftorical authors 

* were little more than dull compilers ; til! of late the dif- 
' tinguithcd names of Hum?, Robertfon and Gibbon, have 
' raiied tlic Britifh charafler, in this Ipecies of writing, to 

• high 

Digitized byGoOgIC 

Bl«ir'9 LeBuTii an kheiarie and Befles Leil^et. ' • %^ 

* feigh reputation and-dignity.' The levity of this paflagd 
muft ftrifee every difccrning Reader. We (hall be fo bold 
as to affirm, that England has been long v6ry illuftrious for 
hiftorical writers of high eminence. This aflcrtion I'o dia- 
jnetrically oppofite to our Author, may furprize 'Uiin. It 
is therefore proper that we inform him, that my Lord 
Bacon has written the hiftory of Henry VII. with elo- 
quence, penetration, and dignity ; that my Lord Herbert ha> 
delineated the reign of Henry VIII. with precifion, force, 
and elegance ; and that Sir Walter Raleigh in his hiftory of 
the world, has diftinguilhed himfeifbythe moft profound 
hiflorical refearch, and by the greateft vigour of hiftorical 
defcription. Were thefe men ' little more than dull com- 
' pilers ?' Other inftances might be held out to our Author; 
and we cannot butVonder, that he Ihould have negleftcd 
all notice of the hiftorical eminence of Dr. Middleton, 
and of the late Lord Lyttelton; not to mention other au- 
thors both in England and Scotland who arc now alive, and 
who Irave diftinguifhed- them fe Ives in the department of hif- 
tory. His commendation of Hume, Robcrtfon, and Gib- 
bon, is alio by much too general ; and if he was to name 
them at all, he ought to have been minute and particular. 
For the hiftorical iccpticifm of Hume, and his perpetual pa- 
negyric on prerogative, are not very faftiionable in the pre- 
fent times; the charafler too of Robcrtfon, does not gaia 
by inquiry and time; and Mr. Gibbon is too recent and 
new a writer to be confidercd as fully cftablifiied in re- 

After finifhing what he had to remark upon hiftorical wri- 
ling. Dr. Blair turns his attention to philofophical writing, 
dialogue, cpiftolary writing, and fiititious hiftory. Over 
thefe topics, he paiies with a rapidity which does not agree 
with the preceding divifions of his book. Perhaps they 
were not fuited to his tailc; and indeed his remarks upon 
tliem are not by any means very flriking. He proceeds to ■ 
confider the origin and progrefs of poetry ; and upon this 
head he is full. He has many ufeful obfervafions on ver- 
fificatton ; and he treats particularly of paftora!, lyric, and 
defcriptive poetry. He then enters upon the poetry of the 
Hebrews, and confefTedly copies the opinions of I>r. 
Lowth. And from the clofc manner in which he follows the 
track of that ingenious author, we cannot infer that Dr. 
Blair, though a clergyman, has paid any fcmpulous atten- 
tion to the language of the Hebrews. 

A more interefting career now opens itfelf to our Author. 
We allude to the liigher kinds of poetical writing, the Epic 
and the Dramatic \ aod he has uken a great deal of pains 


Digitized byGoogle 

90' BUir'i Leltunsm khmtic and BelUt ttttrac ■ 

upon this branch of his plan. After premising fome gener^ ■ 
Tcfleftions, he inquires into the merits of Homer, Virgil, 
Lucan, TaiTo, Camoens, Fenelon, Voltaire, and Milton. 
In his inquiry his guides were numerous; and his remarks 
are in general pertinent and judicious. But wc thouid ima- 
gine that Milton was entitled to a higher proportion of 
praifc tlian is bellowed upon him ; and this feems to con- 
firman obfervation aheady hazarded by us, that he is fome- 
times difpofed to detraf): from the genius of the Ei^tifh 

His obfer\'ations on tragedy and comedy conclude Dr. 
Blair's courfe ; and to common readers they ate inftrufling. 
But the connoifleurs in the drama wiil defiderate that cx- 
aftnefs of remark, that pundlilious tafte, that nice difcrimi- 
nacion of paJTion and mannerst and that accurate examina- 
tion of human life, which arc neccflary to inquirers into this 
fpecies of poetical exertion. 

Such is the outline of the work before us ; and in pour- 
traying it, we are forry that any obfervations Ihould have 
been neceflary upon our part, which are unfavourable to ha 
execution. But truth and judice are due from us to .the 
public. If wc furvey our Author in a general view, he ap- 
pears in his beft light. His intentions are good ; his dili- 
gence is moll commendable; and he has colleded a gre%t 
mafs of excellent materials. It is upon a critical difcrimi- 
nation, tliat lie is to fufler. His knowledge, though often 
cxafl is never profound; he is not qualilied to fupport any 
long chain of rcafoning; and while he is deficient in phi- 
lofophy, it cannot be pronounced of him, that he is -in- 
titled to the honour of originaJity. This honour, how- 
ever, he arrogates to himfelf, and with a freedom*, 
that is rather pertinacious. In- our finccre opinion, he 
ought to have been contented with the praife of labour. 
The glory of genius does not belong to him. It is notwith- 
ilanding, a confequence of his pretentions to originality, 
that in general he has negleAed to refer to his authorities ; 
but this artifice cannot deceive; and he ought to have been 
fuperior to it. His work is a tiifue which is valuable on 
many accounts ; but neither the cloth, nor the gold, nor the 
filver are his own. He is a pioneer, not an invt-ntor, a 
fervant, not a mafter ; and in the charafter that belongs to 
him, and with the qualifications which he polIeHes, he has 
done much, and is worthy of applaufe. His induftry is 
great; and from Rhetoric and the Belles Letters he removes 
much rubbilb, and many obftruftions. 

Of his performance it is a general and very confidcrabic . 

* See hii Preface. ■ ■ 


Digitized byGoOgIC 

stair's LcSurts tn Ritlsrh and Belles l^ttrel. .gr 

ddefl that it is given under the form of Icfturcs. This ap- 
pniance is very ungracious. Men of fenfc and of tlie 
world do not choofe to be /«^«rf^ by a writer like our Au- 
thor, upon topicks which arc familiar to them ; aiid upon 
»hich (hey are more verfant than him. In a work offered to ' 
the public at large, the air of preleftioii is moil improper. 
Itwefents the idea of a pedagogue haranguing to boys, 

There is another general obfervation which applies to Dt. 
Bliir, and which we would have abilained from laying be- 
fore the public, if it were not our duty to take a particular 
notice ot it. While he delivered his leifturcs to the Caledo- 
nianyouth, he was exceedingly folicitous to make attacks 
upon the reputation of Dr. Johnfon ; and in a great variety 
ofinftances his reprobation of that writer was uncommonly 
violent and acrimonious. He even proceeded fo far as to 
rud a paper in imitation of his manner, in which he wan 
ambitious to>carry .' parody of him to the moft ridiculous 
length. From the circulation of his leftures in manufcript, 
1! well as fiom the accounts of his pupils, thcfc circum- 
flances are eftablifhed beyond the poflibihty of a doubt; yet 
in the work before us hjs compliments to Dr. Johnfon arc 
very frequent, and not only polite, but lavilh. He has fup- 
piclTed with defign his real opinion of this write. ^ and in 
ibe place of criticifm and cenfure has fubftituted enco- 
[Dinm and panegyrick *. 


* The following are fpecimens from Dr. BUir's real JefturN as 
beddiaered them, of bis opinion of Dr. Samuel Johoron as -t 

' A-fondnefa for this atitithefis has betrayed many authors into a 

' icry bad way of writing, by a ftudied afl'eCtation running through 

' the whole of iheir comfjofitions. This 19 the cafe with the author 

'ofthe Ramblers, as welliall have occalion aftenvarda to obferve.' 

Leaure nth. 

Dr. Blair concludes the charafler of Shaftetbury in the following 
tunncr. ' Such an agreeable writer is apt to millead otheri. Thu 
'iieiamplified in Mr, Black well, author of the life of Homer, 
'Letters on Mythology, and the Court of Auguftus. He ia a man 
' of learning, but infedied with an anificidi glare, and carried a"'ay 
' by the Shafteiburean manner. Not very differeut is the author of 
'iheRamblers. In ihefe papcri ive have many ingenious ellays, 
'and good morals are inculcated. But ihe IMe figured, very co- 
'fiousandfrnooth, is much deformed by afleflation. Gwat care 
'uiakea in rounding every period. For that purpofe the author 
'has introduced many latin words, fuch it/alulriiy, inanity, cagita- 
'tin. He is full of monotonies and ftudied antitbefes, and copies 
'after Ifocrates, who U aot reckoned a proper model by. good 
'JDd{ei of antiquity.' Ledure 16th. 



ft Blair's Lefture$ on Rhetoric and SelUi Lettres. 

This conduft is not only ftrange in jtfelf, but expofecl to 
an interpretation that cannot redound to the honour of oar 
Author. Bclide tl)e (ufpicion which It opens againft the 
rc£titude of his opinions in general, it is an inftance of lite- 
rary cowardice, for which no apology can be offered. What 
indeed, renders t^is behaviour the more reprchenfibic, is 
the circu^nftance, that while he bellows high prajfe on Dr. 
Johnfon, which he does not credit, he is fo partial and mean, 
as not to mention Dr. Smollet, but in order to cenfure him. 
We are, indeed, fenfible that Dr. Beattic has fallen into the 
fame error; and while we arc at a lofs to account for this 
cruelty to the Author of Roderick Random, it is natural 
to believe that it would not have been exercifed, if he bad 
been ftili alive. For in diat cafe he would have been able to 
have afted in his defence. We are old enough to remember 
the favour which that unfortunate man was happy. to 
Ihow to his countrymen ; and we ttnow, at this mo- 
ment the celebrity which he enjoys in England, The 
variety of his abilities, his natural difcernment, hit 
knowledge of the world, the fertility of his imagination, 
his wit, and his humour, drew to him an attention, 
which the more confined capacities of Dr. Beattie and Dr. 
Blair can never hope to command. And it is probable, 
thai his name will be remembered with refoeft and grati- 
tude by the public, at a period when' thofe of hts detra'^ors 
will be utterly forgotten. When men addrefs themfelves to 

, Dr. Bhir ()Uo(es the following paragraph of the 4(i<h No. of 
the Spectator, 

' There are, indeed, but very few, who know how to be idle and 
' innocent, or have a re!i(h of any pleafures that are not criminal ; 

* eTCry diverlloo they take is at the expence of fome one virtue or 

* anntner, and their very firil ilep out Of bufinefs 19 into vice and 
' folly.' He then adds, 

' Here again the ftyle of Mr. Addifon breaks forth in its full 

* glory. The language is proper and perfpicuous, and the period 
' neat, finely turned and harmonious. Perhaps there la not a more 

* finilhed fentence in the Englilh language. How different from 
' that afFcflation which diftinguiflies the Ramblers. In delivering; 

* this fentiment, Dr. Johnfon would have faid, " There are indeed 
*' very few who know how to join the relaxation of idleneft with 
" the falubvity of innocence, or have a relilh for any pleafure* 
*' lyhich are not tainted with the pollutions of guilt. Every diver- 
" fion they take, is either at the expence of fome virtue impaired, 
" or evil habit acquired, and their firft liep out of the regions of 
" bulinefs, isinto the perturbation of vice orvacuity of folly.* 

Leflure 20th. 
taken frnm ajnanufcTtpt'Mfy efDr. flair's Le^uftt ia the foje/jlaf 
tfoneef bis puflh. 



Blur's LtBurcs «x Shtitr'u anJ Btlkt Lettres. ^$ 
de world, they ought as mucli as poffible to diveft thcm- 
fel«M of their prejudices; and it will be always found that 
their renown and &aic will be cooflantly ia proportion to 
the honeft impartiality with which they cxercifc their 

It is now our province to turn oat attention to the com* 
pofilion and the language of our Author. From the na- 
mrc of his ftudies, it was to have been expefled, that Dr. 
filurwoald Jiave diftinguilhed himfeif in no common dc 
pee as a compofer But this Js not the cafe. It is true, 
indeed, that in general, he has attained to perfpicuity, which 
is one of the leading rcquifites of ftyic. It is not true, how- 
CTcr, thai he is uniformly elegant. His manner is diffufc 
wA feeble :'iic is often incorre£l and ungntmmatical : his 
«iamplcand his precept are frequently at variance : and he 
nhibits no inftance of that elevation and force, which a 
the genuine charafteriftic of genius. Thefe ftrlfturcs de- 
fervc to be illuitrated ; and we fnall therefore fubjoin a Ihort 
^imen of the defers of bis compoiltioa and language. 

1. ' When entering upon the Ibbjeit, I may be allowed 

* n this Bcca^oa, to fuggeft a few thoughts concerning the 
' importance and advantages of fuch 'ftudies, and the xanic 

* fcey are tntitled to ptffe/s in academical education.' 

It IE obvious that the words * On this occaHon.' are fn^ 
fcrflaous. For the occalion he means was his entrance 
^11 the fubje£t. Nor is this the only fault of the fentence. 
The cxpreflion to ^offi/t a rank is improper. It would have 
been better if the Author had faid ' the rank, they are jnti- 

* tied to AaW or to occK/i^.' 

2. * Of thofc who perufe the following Leflures, fome, 
' by die profeffion to which they addifi themfelvcs, or in 
' confequence of their prevailing inclination, may have the 
' view of being employed in compofitlon, or in. public 
' ipeaking.' 

The word addift is never ufed with propriety in a good 
fcnfc, Wc can fay that a perfon is addicted to vice ; but to 
faBc of being addiftedto virtue, or to a profellion, js a mode 
rf fpctch that is harfh and unufual. 

3. * They are the ardent fentiments of honour, virtue, 
oiagnahimiiy, and public fpirit, that ordy can kindle that 
fire of genius, and call up into the mind thofe high ideas, 
which atttad the admiration of ages ; and liihh fpirit be 
ticceffary to produce the mofl diftinguifticd efforts ordo-- 
gacnce, it muft be iMce&ry alfo to our relifhing them witk 
propertaflc and feeling,' 

This is an unhappy fentence. The word 7%ey has no 
Wural nominative or objed. By an ungrammatical, and 

auk ward 

^dbyGooglc ■ 

. 94 Blair's Lt^urti tn iiheigrlc end BtUu tttlret 

aukward artifice of wliich the Author is fond, it is made tn 
refer to the ardent fentiments ai honour, virtue, ntagtianimity, 
and public fpiril. There is here alfo another violation of 
fimplicity and grammar. Tlie words ' this fpirit', have an 
ifolated afpeft. To what do they refer ? To the fire of ge- 
nius f To high ideas ? or to both ? The ambiguity is pal- 
pable and apparent. 

4. ' In thediftribution of thofc talents which arc nccef- 

* fary in man's well being, nature has made lefs diltin£tion 

* among his children. But in the diftribution of thofc 
' which belong only to the ornamental part of Ufc, ihe has 
' beftowed her favours with more frugality. She has both 
' fown the ft<ds more fparingly, and rendered a higher cwl- 

* ture requiiite for bringmg them to pcrfcftion.' 

Here nature is made to iovuhc feeds of talents ot of ya~ 
Vourj. This phrafcology is rather unnatural. 

5. * I am now to enter o« cow^ir/K^ the fourcos of the 

* plcafures of tafte.' There is an awkwardnefs in the phrafe 
0ft eonfidtring. It would be better to read en ihe confidera- 
titn of. - 

6. In ihe following fenCence, there is a difagreeable ob- 
fcurity. ' What thofe anticnt orators gained by fuch a 
' manner, (healludes to the liberty with which they treated 

* one another, ) in point of freedom and boldnefs, is more 

* than compenfated by want of dignity ; which feems to 

* give an advantage, in this refpeS, to the greater decency 

* of modem fpeaking. 

7. * Ancient manners impefid fewer reft raints _/»■»» the 

* fide of decorum,' 

8. ' The eloquence of the palpit is altogether of a diftinft 

* nature, and cannot be properly reduced under any of the 

* heads of the antient rhetoricians.' 

It would have been more correfl and lefs carclefs to have 
faid ' under any of the heads which are employed by the 

* antient rhetoricians.' 

9. ' This wiU always give to their difcourfe an air of 
' tnanUnefs andjirength, which is a powerful inftrutntnt of 

* pcrfuafion.' 

It is very violent language to make an air of manlinefs or 
ftrcngth to be an injlrument of any kind. Yet to fucb modes 
of. exprelTion the Author is much addicted. 

* 10. ' He reafons firft, that there was not the Icaft reafon 

* to fufpeA it.' 

We might with great cafe extend and multiply our re- 
marks. But thefe examples of inaccuracy in our Author 
may be fufiicient, as he himfelf in the condufion of his 
preface appears to be fenlible of the defcfts of his ftyle, and 

■ ieetas 


Levefqa*'! U'l/iory of Rn^a. 9j' 

fnms moddlly to folicit the public not to be too rigid to 
bim in this refpe£t. 

But in doling this article, there is a remark which our 
love of literature fuggefts, and which it becomes us to Aate 
aa it is favourable to our Author. His labours are addrelled. 
to the world at la^C) and it is in this fenfe that we have 
criticifed them. But if the Author had been Icfs ambi- 
tious in his plan, and had crowded his matter into a nar- 
rower compafs, wc mult acknowledge, that in our opinion 
be might have done a very conliderabte fervice to his coun- 
try. The parade of two volumes in quarto in wiiich the 
allurements of novelty, and the fplendours of genius 
are wanting, is an obvious and ftrong abfurdity. A fmall 
elementary volume however, on Rhetoric and the Belles Letters 
would have come forward at this hour with the happieft pro- 
priety. For this the Author is admirably qualified. His 
averuoa from refinement and fcepticifm, his good inten- 
tions, his refpe^t for received opinions, his induflry, and 
bis experience in the art of teaching, would have enabled 
him to have prefented to young men an introdudlory trca- 
tife on the itudies of compofition and eloquence, which 
might long have occupied a place in our fchools, and havt 
fpread his reputation in the line that is moft fuitcd to him. 

Foreign Litesatuke. 
^»T. II. Hi^oire de Ruffle liret As Chromquis OrighaJei, lie P!tcri 
^uthfnfigun, ttf lit Melllevrs lli/loriens dc la h'atwn, far Mr, 
Levrfque. i. e. a Hiftory of RuBia, eitrafted from Original 
Chronicles, Authentic Papers, and Hiftorians of the Nation. 
By Mr. Levelcjue. 

" 'T^HE Hiftory of fome fmall Republics," • fays Mr, 
\_ Lcvefque,' " the dominions of which fcarcely ex- 
tend over a vifible point of the giobc, has long been one of 
the principal obJEfts of our ftudies, while the name of ilie 
grcateft empire of the world was unknown to our fathers : 
(heir ideas concerning its power and extenfion were fo con- 
fiifed they called it Mofcovy, after the name of its me- 
tropolis, which they had learnt from travellers. The un- 
common talents of one great man, his fortitude, hjs con- 
ftant defire to benefit his people, and above all the ftrikin? 
and lingular traits of his charaftcr have drawn the eyes of 
Europe on the countries he governed. Rulfia has become 
celebrated, but its hiftory isftill little known. Tlie world 
is yet to learn that antiently this country by the krgenefs of 
its dominions, its commerce, and its riches vras fuperior t» 
mofl: of the ftates of Europe of the lam: age : that the im- 


()i* LeVBfquc'fi Hiflary 6f fyffa. 

prudence of its fovereigns by dividing, cn&cbled its powen: 
that undermined by the interminable quarrels of their fucr 
ceffors, and overwhehned by the generals of Gcngifldiam, 
it fell an eafy pray to his fucceffors ; that after two ag«s of 
flavcry, it freed irfelf from the yoke, and in its turn van- 
^uifhcd the vanquifhers : that attacked by new misfortunes 
before it could recover its flrength, it again had nearly funk 
under a foreign power: and that, laftLy, it was eftabhlhcd 
and prepared for its future fplendor, by the grand^dier, the 
fether, and the brother of the hero to whom is attributed aU 
its glory. It if generally fuppo&d that Feter, when he 
mounted the throne, law nothing around him but a huge 
defert, peopled by a £i:w favage animals, of which ite had the 
art to make men. Montefquieu alone, who however bad no 
good information of Ruflia, fuCpefted the nation was pre- 
pared to fecond the efforts of the reformer." 

Such is the exordium of our hiftorian, in which he has 
Sketched the plan of his lusrk, and which after a few con- 
jeftuisB on the origin of the Ruffians, he begins with the 

' reign of Rurik in 862. As it is impo&ble to follow the 
Author through the barbarous reigns and ages of darknefs, in 
nhich aaiong fomc pi^tur^s that honour humanity, there 
arc many in which the ferocious vices of the times predonu~ 
Hate, we think it will be more agreeable to our Readers lo 
tranflate a dilTertation on the antient mythology of the Scla- 
vonians or Ruflians. This wjil of itielf form a whole, and 
give an idea of the Author's manner of thinking, after 
which we Ihali add a few remarks on his talents as a hif- 

Of the religion of the Sclayonians. • 
" The want of records and ancient monuments will ever 
prevent the hiftorian or antiquarian from fonning a complete 

' fyftem of the Sclavoiuan mythology, hut there are enough re- 
maining to convince us, that they like the reft of mankind 
were feeble, bewildered in conjefture, and prone to error, 
■fuperftition, and cruelty. Procopius is the hrft writer who 
hasfpoken of the Sclavonians, but without doubt their origin 
was much more ancient. He fays t)iey acknowledged one 
God, but denied a particular providence, and atributed 
events of every kind to chance, though he afterwards re- 
lates, that when they were lick they made offerings to God 
for the recovery of their health. Oppolite as fuch opiniont 

* Mr. ^evefque iofbrms his Te.i&xx%, that the nmterJaU of this . 
dilTertatiou arc extracted from a fmall dictionary on the SclavoniaR 
inytliolot;v, campofed by Itlr. Mikhail Popof, and printed in a 
coUetSiopV his works, liititleJ Drfnugu:. Ltil'ure hours. 


Leveiquc's Hijery of ku0a. 57 

*cre, iUe^ agree too well with the nature of tha huipan 
mind, wliicli has cvcrlieeh induurious to uQite contra4i<;- 
tions, and admire moft where it leaft undcrftands. LijCrle 
more can Be learnt on this fubjeft from ^rocopiiis. An- 
tient traditions, a fcW traits pruierved in ttie RulTian clup< 
nicies, old fohgs, iports, and cuiloiiis, ' that arc fiill to be 
traced among the people, give the tell and moft cxtcniive in- 
formation upon this lubjeft. 

' Perauh, by fome Sclavoniaii nations called Ptrkeun, was 
the firft of the Gods ; the Zcui of the Greeks, the Juplur 
of the Romans, and whore puiilahcc r^iijated and iuftain- 
ed the ceKflial bodies. It Was he who,- when the ligh'tainga 
flalKed, warned mortal) of their errori : he caofcd the than- 
ders to roll, and darted the bolts of vengeance on the heads 
of the guilty : he affembled or dllpcrfed the clouds, and 
commanded or forbad ihcm to Ihcd their waters on the 
earth. His name fignified thunder, and he wag perlups the 
fame deity, whoiii the antient Scythians revered under the 
title of Fope'us. 

* The head of this idol was of Hlvciv bis earg and muila- 
chios of gold, his legs of iron,' and his remaining members 
of hard and incorruptible wood. . Bfe was decorated with 
rubies aiid carbuncles, and held a ftone in his hand, cut in 
the fdriii of a tliunderbott, fo as to hide his nakednefs: The 
facrcd fire continually burnt before binJ, and if the pcieft^ 
ncglcftcd tofupply.iti and fulFered it to go out, they were 
condeihhed to the flames as enemies to the God. To facri- 
fice their ffocfes ivas an ordinary duty; their prifoners of 
ftaf were iijimolated oil his altars, and,, fomctimes their 
children. Supcrftftibn his tainted the hands of pricfts witli 
blood in all nations, and men have every where created 
tTieihfcTves mifchievous and cruel deities, that delighted to 
behold tlie fuffcrings of humanity. They often however 
rendered to fwoKwfacrificesiefsjfanguin^ry; they cut off their 
BeartTs and their hair, and left thefe ufelcfs fpoils at his feet. 
They confecrated vaft forefts to him, in which to cut ((own 
a' tree was a violation that death aione could expiate. Igno- 
rant natiQns believe they honour Heaven by depriving them- 
felves of tTie benefits of nature, 

' Though Permn,'ih,e mlfter of the gods, only announced 
himielf in ttiufider, and his facritices were -often ftained with 
blood, Koupah, who among their deities was n^xt in digni- 
ty, was a' beneficent divinity,, whom they revered in the 
midft of fports and pleafures. He prelided over the pro- 
duflions of the earth, and his fcaft was held on the 24tli of 
June, the conimcncement of the fummer quarter. Th? 
youth of both fexes, decorated' with crowns and garlands 

Eng.Rkv. Vol. II. Aug. 1783. G' of 

Digitized byGoOgIC 

^8 Levefque's SiJIory, of KuJJta, 

of flowers, aflembled ; and danced and furig and playeJ 
round the fires they had illuminated. Whenever the j'dyous 
name of Koupalo was' repeated, the fweet fmiles of inno- 
cence and the fongs of rejoicing were to be feen and heard. " 
The Ruflians in fome places according to Lomonofef, . pre- 
fcrve to this day the remains of this feaft ; they pafs the pre- 
ceding night in banqueting ; they light up the fires or joy 
and dance around them. Satnt jigrippini whofc feaft hap- 
pens on the fame day as did anciently the feaft of Koupah, is 
in fortie places called by the common people Koupalnitfa. It 
is fingular that thii is hkewifc the day on which we celebrate 
in, the fame manner, that is by fires and dances, the feaft 
of Saint John the Baptift. This ancient cuftom took its 
origin in the north, where the people are moft fenfible of 
the fweet return of fnmmer. ■ , ' 

' The Sclavonianshad a!fo a Fenss, a goddefs who prefidcd 
over the pleafurcs, of love, and was wonhipped by the name 
of Lada. /.d^a had feveral fons : Lelia Leliu, or Lovi was 
a child who was liniilar to tho Cupid of the Romans and 
the Eros of the Greeks, He had a brother named Dide or 
Dida, who aniwercd to the Grecian Jnterm.l Her third fon 
was Hymen called by them Fdtlia, that is jffter-Lclia, or 
after-Love: his name fufEciently defcribes nis funftions. 
Thefe people had' their Luclna alfo; to wjiom the barren 
prayed for fecundity, khd whom they adored under the 
nwne of Didilia. 

' f^e/ffs ox f^tlo/s Wis snothci of their gods', the proteftor 
of their flocks, and one the moft wormipped and mOft re- 
fpefted. The Sclavonians and the Ru^ans in the time of 
their idolatry, fwore by their arms,' by Fcrcuti, and by Valefif 
who is fomerimes called Ytac'ie. 

' The god Daiedd, was a zephyr that nourilhed the earth,, 
by foftand refrciningwinds, calmed the air, and made the day 
ferene; and Pojvid was the Boreas, the god of ftorms, he 
excited the whirlwinds and the tempefts, nothing cottid rc- 
fift the violence of his breath: 

' Demfvie-Xfoukbivreie tutelary genii that defended the 
interior part of their dwellings. We are alfured that they 
are flill to be found in the houfcs of fomc of the fuperfti- 
tious peafants, who reyere this fpecics of Penates, and trace 
grotelque figures on their walls in ^heir honour. Serpent! 
too were among their domeftic gods. They facrificed milk 
and eggs to them ; it *as fisrbiddeil to hurt them, and they ' 
fometrmes pnntfhed thofe with death. who had attempted to 
injure tliefc divine proteftors. 

' A Diana a triple Necatt was adored under the name of 
Tri^.'izd or Trigla, a goddcfs of three heads. But coniider- 


Digitized byGoogle 

■ing'Dianaas the goddefs of thechacci the Sclavohiarta wor- 
shipped her by the name of Zenovia : A was flic who mada 
the hunter fortanate. They had a noAumal god, a Mor- 
pheus, whom they called JSr/ifiwora, He preiided overdreams, 
created the dreadful illplions of the night, ind fent forth his 
phancotns over the earth to terrify mankind. 

* The utility and lutlre- of tire h^s gained boiliage from 
moft nations. The.Sclavonians revered the facred tire, and 
the unextinquifh^ble fire to which they built terrrples in 
many of their cities ; but their manner of worlhipping tliis 
pure element was barbarous and. cruel, it was by the confe- 
cration of 2 part pf the fpoils of tbeir enemies, and the-facri'- 
fice of their prifoners. They had recourfe to this adoration 
when afflifled with any fevere difeafe, and the priefts who 
were intcrefted impoftors, gave anfwers to thepatients, which 
the people believed to be infpired'by the god, wfaom they 
called Znitcb. They had however at Kief another god of 
health, at leall fuch it is fuppofcd were tlie funftions of 
Khors 01 Cqrcha; andiffo Khtrs was their Efiulapius, and 
Znitcb their jipolio. OJlad was the Comas, or the god of 
feftivals and pleafures in Kief. Niia was their Pluto, the 
dbity tlia.t prefided over the fubterranean parts of the eartli, 
and over Hell. Kaiiada was their god of peace, whom they 
celebrated by fports a^d fealls, and whofe name is ftill to be 
beard in the longs and dances peculiar to certain villages. 
Ijar-Morjki was their Ntptune, their monarch of the iat, 
and Tchoude-Morjkne was another acquatic deity, but .of an 
inferior order, fomc fay a triton, though he appears to 
have had a more frightful and extravagant form, according 
to tlie following old popular faying, or defcription of him, 
" thou art neither a crab nor a fiih, thou reptile of the fea, 
bat the fcare-crow of mortals." 

' The Sclavonians had likewife a Plutus or god of riches, 
.whom they named i)fl;'ii?jv a Pr'iapus worihippcd at Kief, 
by the name of Tour, and a god Terminus, called Tehoui; 
thatprotcftcd the plains a(id ciiltiyated lands, and defended 
the boundaries. Xlicy had giants alfo whom they called 
Voleii ; a Flora Or goddefs of the luring called Zimeftreila, and 
odier divinities named Polioni, who in the upper pans of 
their bodies rafemblcd men, and in the lower horfes and 

■ ' The Rnuffaiki ' were ■ the inferior goddelfes of the 
■woods and waters. They were defcribed vrith all the graces 
afyouth and charms of bcautyi Often were they feen fport- 
ing on the borders of the lakes aAd rivccB, fometimes they 
bathed and fwam upon the furfaee, and while they dif- 
covereid to' the raviflied beholder fome of their beauties, they 
G 2 iljvited 


)00 Enquiry lnl9 Dr. Johnfon's t'tves sf iht Puts. 

invited him to fearch for others ftill more alluring, now 
displaying their forms in ei'ery attiude of grace and ele- 
gance, and prefcntly in movements more voluptuous. 
.Sometimes they would reft upon the banks and como their 
Ica-^reciL ringlets, at others, lit upon the branches of trees, 
balance themfelveg, and ride with a gentle or a rapid motion 
n^n the flexible boughs, while their light drapery waved 
with, the wind and fometitnes concealed and fometimes dif- 
covered all the hidden treafures of beauty. They oifcrcd 
facrificcs to thefe divinities. Thus, we fec) the imaginati- 
on of the Sclavonians did not yield even to that of the • 
Greeks in the creation of their nymphs. 

' Their fatyrs whom the called Lechlet, yitre altogether 
as frightful; their name fignified tbafttiey were the Gods of 
the fercAs. From the waift inwards they were men, ex- 
cept tliat they bad the horn^ and ears of goats, and in 
the lower parts of their bodies they were like thofe of 
tnimals. Hitherto the fable is conformable to the Greci- 
an fatyK, but the refemblance goes no farther. When 
they walked in the meadows,' they were fo finall that the 
fhortcft herbage was fufficicnt to hide them; but when 
they went into the forefts, they became taller than the t^l- 
left inee. Their Ihrieks were lb piercing, that they fprcad 
terror far around them, and miferanlewasthat rafli man who 
ihould dare tt> traverfe thp woods where they refidcd. He 
was prefenlly furrounded by X^Leehiisy who led- him aftray, 
and made him wander from one fide of the foreft to an- 
other till it wa3 dark, then tranfported him into their 
caverns, wrhere they diverted themfelves by tickling him to 
death. Thefe old ftories are ftill repeated among the com- 
jnon people.' 

[ To be ccntlnued. ]■ 

AbT. III. M Inquiry hlo fime Paffagif in Dr^ fokufan's Llvts. cf 
the Peels: Panicukrl)- his Obfervadons on Lyric Poetry, aod 
the Odes of Gray. By Rohsrt Potter, 410. as. 6d. Dodfley. 

ME. Potter appears t<j.p(^fn a veryjufttftfttinicriticifro, 
extenfive lea[nii)g,a;)d aaintimaJieacquaiuCWKewith 
tile antient and modern poets. He biis.clcady con- 
vifted Dr. Johnfon in manifold inftances, of partiality, 
of rutjenefs, ajid^a tpl^l i;>fen(ibillty to the channs of' poe- 
try. As, tlie n^mq of Dr. Johnfon is defervedly hi^ in- the 
literary ^yorld, it if proper in vindication, of Mr.' Sottcft 
and in defence of wjiatoa^ ju{bnqw beea ^vancedi to en^- 
ter into foine particulars. 

Mr. Potter having acknqwleged in the ftrongeft language 

I bow 


Enquiry iato Dr. J'QlinCoti'B Live: of the Poils. loi 

how much the prefent age is indebted to the Tigorous and 
manly underibnding of Dr. Jobnfon, affirms, diat amidll 
many juft obfcrvations, contained in hii hivti of ihe PocM, 
his vrarmelt friends find fome pafllages which they mull 
wifli unwritten, or obliterated. Throughout his work the 
reader, he obfervcs, meets with flagrant inftanccs of the 
fpirit of party. This in the life of MfLTOhf is parti- 
cularly dil^fting. He rcgrCti that the mafculinc fpirii of 
r>r. Johnftn rtiould defcend to what he perhaps, ifi an- 
other, might cal{ a vile garrulitr ; and fupports his chat^ • 
by various proofs. He accutes Dr. Jolinfon of having 
wilfully traduced the memory of Mr. Addifon, and of 
the lady who is the fubjeft of Hammond's ekgiea. He 
alio affirms, and indeed, in a manner that fbews he has 
truth on his Ude, that the DoAor has been guilty of the 
moft Ihatnefiil detraftion with regard to the ^scd Lord 
Lyttletan. He jirftly cinfures this Biographer for his lav i In 
and unmerited commendations of Blaclcmore ; and the proof 
which he brings of the excellence of Yelden's hymn 
to darknefs is juftly expofed by Mr Potter. " The tenth 
llanza of that hymn, fays Johnfon " is inexprcffibly 
beautiful ■" Mr. Potter has tranfcribcd it for tlie fatisfa£li< 
im of the reader. 

* Tbou doA thy fmiicB impartially beitow, 
And know'A no difference below, 
All thing! appear the iitme by ihce, 
Though light diffinaion makes, thoiigiv'ft fquality.' 
Mr. Potter, in oppoGtion to the account that I>. John- 
fon has given of theorigin of lyric poetry in riie i5Sth 
number of his Rambler, contends that ' We ar« unjuft 
to the great writers of Antient Lyric Poefry, if we fuppofe thut 
they gave a loofe to their eenivis, and roved at random over che 
iifcal world; they had judgment as well ai imaglnarion ; and 
though they dlfd^ned CO btf in fubjeflion to rules which have 
no relation to their province, v« they have 'their fpccific laws 
wliich tbey never trarfTgrcrs. Sublimity is the eflemial and chamc 
teriftic perfeffioa of the Ode ; where thi< can be airained by 
" the placid' beauiiei of methodical deJu6iion," that artful eourle 
it purfued ; but it ii noic often feized by a rapid and nnpctuout 
tESbtitlon; yet this in always under the controul of (bme nice 
connexion, \v never vague and wanton, never lufcs fight of its 
important objedt. The Ode is daring, but not licentious ; ihouijh 
it ii great, it difclaimi " the proud irregularity of greatnefs.' 

Our Author reprobates the furlincfs of Dr. Johnfon, and 
particularly his petulance to Mr. Gray. 

' The want of good tafte,' fay« he, * in a profefled Critic is q 

mental blindnefi which' totally incapacitates him for the difcharge 

of the high oiEce he has aflumed ; but the want of good inan- 

ilert it an o&nce againfl thofe laws ofdecurtun which, by guard - 

G 3 ing 

102 Enjuirj itfto Dr. Johnfon's Livtiof the Potii. 

ing the chariiiei of ibciety, render our intercourre with each 
other agreeable: yet there i* in fome perfoca a blunt and lurly 
hiiniour, which prides iiletf id defpifing thefe laws of civility- ] 
and often with an awkward affeftation of pleafaniry they play, their 
rude g^inboU to roake mirth, and >. 

Wallowing unweiliiy, enormous in their gait, 

Teinpeft the ocean. 
■ To whatever libera! motive ihii condiiil may,, poffibly -be im- 
puted, we are told by an excellent write'r that " there is a cer- 
tsiin ejpreffion of ftyle and behaviour which vcrgca towards barf 
barifm ; and that it is a degree of barbarlfm to afcribc nuble-< 
neft of mind to arrogance of phrafe or infoleiice of manaera." 
If there ii a writer who, more than otber«, has a claim to be 
exempted from thi» pelting petulance, Mr.Gray ha»' that daim ; 
his own polifhcd manners rellrained him from ever ~ giving oft 
fence to any good man, bit warm and cbearful benevolence ent 
deared bim to 1.II bis friends ; though he lived long in. a col- 
lege, he lived not fuUeify there, but m a liberal intercourfe with 
the wifeft and mod virtuous men of his tiire ; he was perhaps 
the mofl Itarned man of the age, but his mind never contraifted 
the rufl of pedantry ; he had too good ah underftandiug to 
negleft that urbanity which renders fociety pleafing ; his con- 
verfation was inftru^ine, elegant, and agreeable ; fuperior know- 
ledge, an eitquifite tafte in the fine arts, and above all purity of 
morals and an unaffefled reverence for religion made this tx- 
cellent perfoii an ornament to fociety and an honour to human 

From this pleafing rocolleaion of the merits of the 
(Han, Mr, Potter turns to his Lyric Poetry, in which, inop^ 
polition to the captious and often puerilecavils of Dr. John-, 
ion, he fliews that he Ihone with fupcrior luftre. As a 
Specimen of the Doftor's Cavils, and Mr. Potter's defences 
of the poet, take the following : " The Ode on the 
Spring, fays the Critic, has fomething poetical both in tlic 
language and the thought: but the language is too luxuriant, 
and the thoughts have nothing new-" Mr. Potter anfwers, 
" Had the language been lefs luxuriant, the Ode had been 
lefs beautiful, qnd lefs adapted to the fmiling feafon." 
Hisanfwer is juftand fatisfaflory. How indeed is it pof- 
(iblc that in an Ode to Spring, when creative bounty dif- 
fufcs over ail nature the glory of divine power, and the 
fmiles of dii^ine love, the thoughts can be too bold, or the 
language too luxuriant f And, as to what Dr. Johnfon ob- 
serves of the thoughts in this Ode, Mr. Potter anfwers, that 
thefe, confidered feparalely, may not be new : but " who, 
he alks, has ever combined fuch an aflemblage of poetical 
iraages,and cloathcd them in fuch a fplendiddiftion f" — The 
images of nature have, for ages, worn the fame form, and 
jhe fober eje of contcmplauon may always have viewed 

Digitized byGOOglc 

Enquiry Inio Dr. Jolinfon's Lives ef the Potts. 103 

&eiii in the fame li'gbt ; _ but the poet's ikiU in fcle&iagf 
dirpQfing, and acioming .tiiem, givers thcin all the gince of 

Johofon objeQs to one word in thisOde, " I was- forry 
to fee, "in the lines of a fcholar hke Gray the honied fyring." 
NTr. Potter replies th^t " our language, from convcrfions 
of a like nature (the giving to adjeftives, derived from fub- 
fiantives, the termination of participles) g^ins much grace 
wd ftrength,and has long been in the pollelfion of the word 
honied, which it is iikely tq retain upon the authority of 
Shakrfpcare and Milton, It is obfervable, Mr. Potter far- 
ther remarks, that the Latin language has 'n%Me!Iiius formed 
upon the fame conftruftion." 

In the di^anl profpeii of Elan College, a fubjcft that in- 
fpires the poet with that eiithufiafm which maiks lUe g«nin» 
of Lyric Poetry, he alks " Father Thames what youths are 
now. bathing in \a% ilf«4iB, or fportlng on his banks f" Dr. 
Johnfon pbl^rvcs, " Thathis fiipplication to FatherThames 
to tell him who drives the hoop or toflcs the ball i,s ufelcfs 
aitd puerile. Father Tti^mes ha» qq better means of know- 
ing than himfelf.". Criticifms of tiiis nature bctiay fome 
lurking caufe of hoftilicy : for, even without diat glow of 
fancy, that congeniality of mind which reliflies- the flow of 
poetry, there is not a man of letters who docs not know 
that perfonification, addrelles to woods, mountains, ilreamii 
&c. are extremely frequent, and indeed conftitate no incon- 
£derable part of all poetry f , ^r. Potter alks the Critic,, 
whether w; " fhalUop.from Miltgn that fublime addrefsof 
Satan to the fun as ufelefs and puerile, becaufe the fun had 
nomeanspf hearinghis call?" . . 

" Idalia's iiili/et -green", fays Dr. Johnfon, fpealinr of ft 
ffanza in the fregr^s af piittiy, " hai fomething of cam. 
Aa epithet or metaphor drawn from Nature ennobles Art j an 
epithet or metaphor dray'n fr^in Art degrade* nature." ' What 
tfatb becomes of the viirea unda, of the pidff volucrei, of the 
gajr enamel'd colours of blofibms and fruits, of the embroider'd 
?a|e^ the fringed banks, and tiU ihofe bcauitful imagei drawn from 
Art, with which the beft writers antieot aod modern have embcl- 
lifhed Nature f The Arts in ttieir infancy were obliged id borrow 
terms frpm (heir rich parent Kature ; but as they advanced to 
mawritF, they amply repaid the loan j from that time the meta- 
phor and the metonymy have ranged at will from Natari; to Art, . 
and from Art to Nature ; and as it is the province of Art to a- 
doro Nature, fo the terms of Art have the fame happy cffeft in 
enriching language. On this head Dr. Johnron will perhaps pay 
fome deference to the authority of the learned Criiies, who, com- 
paring the ftyle . of Dryden with that of Pope, fays " Dryden'g 
pagt is a natural field, nfing into inei^ualitief, and diverlltied bv the 
G- 4 varied 

■ ,l,;.J,,G00gIC 

104 Travels to tie Ceqfi tf Jrabia Felix. 

T3rW exuberance of abundant TCgetation ; Fopch it a vthet Lnom, 
fbaren by" the fcythe, and tevelled by the roller." 

Mr. Potter follows Dr. Johmbn through various' other 
places, whcrt that Author difcovcrs either want of candour, 
ftr want of tafte.- Againft th? poet Gray, he evidently indulg^- 
cd the palEon of animofity and refentment.' 

* What could induce Dr. _(ohnfon,'wlio a» a good man mig^t 
be exp^ed to favour goodnefs, a> a fcholai to be ca;idid to a man 
q( leari)ing( to aitarV tfaii excellent perfon and poet with fuch 
outrage and iijdeccocy, we can only coojofturc from thii obfcrva- 
tioD, " there muilb^ a certain rycnpatby betwe^ the book and 
the- reader to create a ^ood liking, l^ow it la c^rwin tba^ the 
pritic bag nothing of this fympaihy, tio portion or fcnj^ of that 
vivida vis anirai, that etherial flame which animates the ^otx ; ho 
is therefore ai liul^ (^ualitied to judge nf thefe worlds of imagina- 
tion, as the ftiivering inhabitant of the caverns of the North 
to fdrm an tdea of the glowing fun that flames over th^ plains of 
ChiU. . 

The Author has ^bjolned to his inquiry a very feithfa}, 
ftiirited, and elegant tranflation of the' i^inth Pythian Ode of 
Pindar. ' 

We have been fuller than wc at firft dcfi^ncd, in our ac- 
count o£:this pubiicadon ; bccaufe it is written with great 
fpirit, erudition, juftncfs of conception and tafte ; and be- 
caufc it relate* to a literary charaft-cr who ftands dcfcrvcdly 
high in the opinions of his countrymen, but who is a 
ftriking proof and example that benevolence of difpolitton 
does not exempt any man from being in fome infiailces led 
away by the power of prejudice ; and that the raoft vigor- 
ous underfiaoding is not always found in conjun3ion vril^ 
thejuftcft and moft delicate tafle. 

Art'. IV. Travel) Id the Coafi ef ArahlaFtlix.: AaJjrem tl-tnc* 
hy the Red Sea and Egyf! le Eitmfe. Containing, a fljott Acceunt 
of an ^peditipn underuken againfl the Cape of Good Hope. 
In a feries of Letters, by Henry Rooke, Efq; late Major of the 
iboth Regiment of Foot, 8tO. js. 6d. Blamire. 

JAJOR Rooke having defcribcd Commodore John- 
ftone's departure with the fhips under his command. 
Spithead, his voyage to Port Praya, and the aAion, 
with Monfieur dc SufFren in that bay, crolles the line with 
tlie Commodore's fquadron, and, after that officer's return 
to England, arrives with the Jhlps which were proceeding 
to India at the ifland of Joanna, which be dcfcribcs. This 
is the principal of die Comorra Iflcs, It claims fove- 
reignty ovn- and cxa£ls tribute from all the others. Thefe 
pretenfions it is fomctimcs obliged to allcrt by the fword, 
and at prefcnt it meditates an expedition agaiiiA Mayotta, 
• which 


Ttaveh If thtCaaft tf Jrakia Ffiix. 105, 

«hidi is in 9 ^t« of rebellion. The court of thig place 
is luinio\irou0)s defcribsd : and a curious account it given 
of the climate, natural prod u ft ions, and inhabitants. The 
'voy^e^Fs 9ui^ Jpamxai ^nd ^fttr tedioiu calmti arc driven 
by contrary niiids and ^^rrents into Morebat Bay. The 
m^erahte and inliofpit^bk Ikoies of Morebat, with tlie man- 
ners and cq^Pi^a of the iinh^itants, and pallengcrs that 
OficaiianaUy reibrt ^i^ tt^ placei arc roprefeat^d ia 4 lively 
suid ap cuj^aee ntar) 

Mr. ^ooke having etrfied heire «pvrards of a month; on 
^connt of ttif^ tvuld^ iftrhich had begun to be fcufibiy jm- • 
paiiied, emb^r^s in an Arabian vellel, and iajls to Mocha, 
and tbcnc^ to Jii^dab, and tl^ncc to Suez. AH tliefc places 
^rc d^^^T'ibpd : b4<^ we And not any thing that ^vasb^n un-> 
knpvrn, and at the fame tiiue ipterefting to tke wocld. 

^r-OEQ Sues Mr, Rooke travelled acrol's tbe cjcfert, with a 
Caravan, in the fpaco q6 a day and a half to Cairo. The 
^tUi^al carava^^ tb^ Au^or ia£srw us, vichiiCh go from 
Aleppo a;id Cairo, to Mecca, aro often compofed of thirty 
or forty thpuliind pOO^lc. and. are under military govern- 
Kievt. The dilcipjijie obfei:yed> is^ very frxaft, and a guard 
pf Jani^ries, with fiqlji-pieces, forms tb^ cfcort. I'hejr 
h^ve regular ^piqs: Q$ mArcbing and balriiig. When tliey> 
iak« up. tljeir grquijiid foE ijie night, tsents are pitched, klt- 
cbfOSiCQok-tbffffS.^pd EoSao-boqfc3 aroimmediatfiyerefltd*. 
Wd, a, lafgffl oai»i^. ia f^rmpd : ovaqy. t^ing ia a^ quickly pack-, 
ed) u^i ajid.' tb^c^iopls arc loadM' ia the ■morning to be read^ 
- fpr,gun.-6ring, which put* the w.hplo body in motion. — Mr. 
Rooke pr^TCccde Wt reprofenE the mod.e of travelling in the 
'Sr^^- in ca;^yan$, wbifib. is quipk^ regular, and coismodi- 
oua. Hj; inaJw», vsirious obfei^ations, ajid relates variousi 
inpidei^ vbicbi occi]r^d. in, hip tra'cU to M-ochai Cairo*. 
Ale^andri?, &c. ^f^wtia^chieflyflrikcs the reader, is die 
dcfpptifm of thfi Turkjlb.gQv.crii^nicnt, and, the blind zeal 0^ 
die ^I«ffillmen, 

The mpft cqripD^.and.iiQpont'ant: portion, of this publica- 
tiqn, iaa political view, is a tranflation of aiirjnanof ih% 
Ottoman Perte prohibiting the trade of the Chriltiansi to 
Suez. This paper; fbews that the Turks watch, the cn- 
crQacbtnents of their npighbours with a jealous eye, tbat) 
they are not defeAiv.e in vigilance and; forefiglit, and that; 
they, know how M dedu<;c the proper political inferences froim 

Mr. Rookc does not fecm, to have been aware that- th» 
greater part ofwhat. he relates was,before well-kjiown totli||> 
literary world' : he hqwcver merits die praife of. an accurater 
•Uervcr, and itfaithiulfrelMer,of.fiidf and circumfiaoces* 


To6 Adelaide and'TheBdort : er Letlert 6h Edueaiimt. 
Art. V.-'AJtlaUleani thwdarr ; tr Litters en Eiiacaliiin, TrSnt 

ated fro m the French of Madame U Comtcflc An Gealii. jVolti 

i2mo.'Qi; Bathurfl. 

THIS book profeflis to contain all the principles' rela- 
lative to three different plans of education ; to that 
oi princes, aiid to thofe of young perfons of both fcxcs: 
It is impoflible for as to fay that thcfe purpofes are 
fully anfwcred in every refpeft, or that tbey arc negleA- 
ed in any. Taking the work, for all in all, it is by much 
the bcft fyftem of wiucation ever publifticd in France, It 
is written by a perfon moft intimately acquainted witli high 
life and with retirement. She {if the ComtelTe de Genlis be 
the author] feems no lefs familiar with the operations and 
efFefts which a bnftling life produces on the mind, than 
with the calmer and lefs perceptible changes, modificati- 
ons and influence of the affections, when fequeflercd from 
gaiety and nnconfcions of tlie fplendor of art. The ftile is 
alinoft uniformly elegant — we mean in the original — but we 
miifl fo far do juftice to the tranflator as to allow that he 
lias feldom failed in tranfplanting the beluties of tlie origi- 
hal, unlefs where thefc beauties could not be moved. The 
work is full of fentiment, but of a very different kind from 
that afFeftation of unfelt fympathy which enters into the 
compolition of Englifh novels. The fentiment contained 
in tlic letters before us is tlie language of truth, and of ma- 
ture and found judgment ; it reaches our reafon as well as our 
feelings ; and our memory and our experience give aiTent to 
tlic juflice of what we read, before either can have been 
Overawed by any itlulion dircfVcd to tlic pallions. The 
fyftem of education, is as far as polfible, perfefl. Wc fay 
as far as poflifale, for we are for from thinking that the 
mother and'father of the children, or Madame Genlis her- 
felf enjoyed many opportunities of inftruAing their minds in 
Englilh literature. This obfervation is not national. Fall 
as the French may be following us in aliterary prog refs, they 
are ftill at an unfpeakable diftance. Learning in England 
muft ftagnate for a century, before they can Qvertake us in 
two. ' 

Pleafcd, however, as we have been witfi perufing this fjrf- 
tem of education, and although we think it by far the 
mofl perfefl wc have ever feeh, there are many objeflions 
It) be made, and objcQions which, we truft, every parent 
will conceive immediately on reading the work. The piin- 
phl of thcfe is, the impoffibility of carrying into pra£ticc 
tite theory here laid down. It is a theory, indeed, moft di- 
vine in invention, but to realize it is not for man. With 
children 4ike Adelaide and Thtodore, fuccefa might fae 
•..-. expcft* 

Digitized DyGcXH^IC 

jiJekide and Tb(acl<sre : tr Letttri th EtiucatiSH toy 
expcacd, b^tweicarccly know where to find fuch'; orif 
thtyare. tobc found, the* proportion they would bear to 
other children would be as two to a million. But the au- 
thor has feld6m relkfled on this. She has adapted the 
childrtns , minds to her fyllem, and in confequence, thq 
whole has an air of romance, which no declarations of its bt- 
ing' fsunded onfalls can divert it of. Wc are enchanted 
with the charming prpgrefs of the two innocents, but when 
we con:)e to the conclufion and look back,, when we com- 
pare the whole with nature and real li£c, wc perceive that 
we have been wandering in fairy iaiid ; we have been read- 
ing of happinefs which we wilh to fee, but- the wofld we 
have read of bears fo little reiemblancc to that we live 
in, tiiaf we feel a fenfation fcarcely inferior to chagrin. 
We are mortified at the iinperfeflion of our natures, and 
at the iintowardly fituations of life which prevent the bulk 
of mankind from ever attempting fucli a plan of educa- 
tion. We admirf this . performance of the ComtelTe dc 
Genlis as we do a, ^ne painting of a non-cxiftent object. 
Some parents there are whofe wealth, and rank may enable 
them to make trial of the fyftem laid down ; may they 
do fo, and be fuccefsful ! bdt, alas ! millions muft ever 
defpair of any other education than that which fits them for 
the common duties of life. 

We have faid that this Work has the air of a romance ; 
the following extraft \*iU confirm this. Adelaide, the young 
lady, had been called unhandfome ; Ihe writes the following 
letter to the perfoa who called her fo. 

* It 1« .very true, lir, 'J am neither fuqirired. nor angry, that 
you did not think me li^n^'^in^ i ^^'■^ migM very well happen, 
and, wheo I am. flattened, and told I ampjetty, I often think ic 
is. done to igake a joke pf me. I had much rather be praifcd 
for the htile knowledge I have gained, and for the qualitiea-of 
my mind, becatifc that ii praifing my. iparama ai well ai me. 
I entreat you, fir, not to think me a young girl of an abfurd 
and frivolous turn. With fuch a mother as I nave, I can never 
be either the one or the other,' 

We Ihall only alk parents and guardians, how many let- 
ters of the above kind they ever received from girts of un 
years wW >"— No.i— sThc anthor has here been unfuccefsfnl. 
She woald have imitated the prattle of that tender age ; but 
fhe falls infenfibly into the folid fenfc and elegance of 
her own. 

The limits of our Review are more fufficient to contain 
the faults than the beauties of this work, and therefore 
we have rather dwelt on the former. But its beauties are 
many, and the fentiments have a degree of foundnefsr 
^i^pnss of originality, which gives ue auUior a higher 


Digitized byGoogle 

'•I ^delaiiU and Tbeadare : tr Ltttert bn Educat'iin. 

rank in merit than wa are dtfpofcd to beftow on fitttimem* 
taiijif of oar own nation. Take the following fpccimen. 

' Bui you will fay, ii it not poflibU to hftve ilmng and lively 
paffiont, without their leading us ailray ? Ye>, certaiiuy j and thif 
II the work of a good «ducaiion, a work which coofil^ in teach- 
ing your fcliolar to gain aa empire over himfelf, and. to ixlpire 
him with a defire to make himfelf diitinguifhed, and with 
the lore of glory. If ihefe ideas are Arongly eDgraved in a 
young and feefible mind, they will lay a foundation for his fu- 
ture conduA. Love, far from di^raeing him, will only exih bia 
fentimeats, and add to hit delicacy. Ambllion will never fuSbr 
bim to be guilty of an unworthy a^on. £ager to make hit 
name 'iUuAnoui, and looking on the whtUe world as hirjudj^, 
be will readily fachfice, if necellaryi his inclination* snd fait 
pleafuret to the ruling delire of deferviug atid obiainiag a dazxl- 
ing and fhining reputatioa. Perhaps at fa&. he may only be vir- 
tuoiis by fyftera, or by vanity, but in the end he will prance 
virtue by cuHom and inclination. In the prefent fyltem, all thefe 
ideas are confounded, together. Have you not Icen perfoni atcourf 
filled ambitious, who are only guided by the mean^ and vileft ia- 
terefl ? Avarice and lult are the fecrei and ftamefal alteraatrvn 
by which a part of our people of rank are guided. True 'ambl< 
tion makeg heroes and great men : fhe defpifcs riches and diUaia* 
even honours, if they are n«t tha reward of meritorioiu a£Hofi>. 
Sbc labours for glory for tlw &kc of pofterity, and io, an ags 
where virtue is no longer loved for its own fake, Ibe leada to xhMa 
aAonithing facriflces,; tb^fe wdieard of a^ons, which biliary r«. 
cards, never to be forgotten. Thui then, ifyod would have youi 
Ichblat make a ditHngutfhed figure in the world; " you mult 
warm his imagination and qlevate his mind."* Butif he is confined 
' in his ideas, if he is of a gloomy, favage,' or capricious tciDper, 
yoo; muft avoid this mode ci education, which will eidicr make 
him a fool or a brute. For example, the education of die laft 
Czaiv whoch only donMed in infpiring Hra with military ideas, 
might haire made a conqDeror ai well as a fovoreign oiP faim, 
baShe been born with fsnft and courage ; whereas it only now 
Dcmed to make him mers fbotidi and- ridiculous. Charles the XIT. 
Aai gloriout King of Sweden, whofe valour remlered hi) &iHet 
glorious, fhould hav»pofi«fled left ardour or more genius. If ' he 
had had left enthufiafm, his name might not have been fo cele- 
bnatkdy bac would ha'va bean more truly- great. Ft it- necel^ry 
then, if Imayfbfpeak, to " adapt the education" of your poptl 
to Ibii c4)ara£ter an4 di^fiticn; attending only m feftenhis man- 
neri, and to keep-hia-mmdcalmaodttanquii,, if bs baa but a no^ 
derate lliare of uudeiflvtdiug ; and'to^raifc and elevate bii mind 
in proportion to the merit and talents you perceive in hin». TUa 
is the difficult and delicate point on which all dependv-and which 
requires the greatell: difcernment and conAant attention. He may. 
eelily become a great man without being endowed with fuporior 
Ante and genius, provided he^ has courage, an eleraied mindi and 
a fonnd . judgment. 



Letters 'addrejfed to Jbrabfm Rces, D. D. 109 

Upon the w£61e w*-4nay fihVf ■venture to recommend 
thefe Icttcis to the ferious attention of parents and ^^rdi- 
ani. They abound with excellent obfcrvations on life and 
mannen, and will affiird pleafiire as well as inflruftion to 
the yonng, as there are fdme cpifodei in a ndvel-like form, 
which are well written, and contain many firokes of the 
genuine pathetic. The majority of children are either too 
young, or t6d untraAable to profit by this book, but 
children of a larger growth may reap tnftruftion and in- 
formation. There breathes a ^irit of piety in fome parts 
of it which we cannot fufficiently commend. 

AtT. VI. Fivf Lelttrs, addrijftd ia Ahrabam Jtiti, J>. P. Edi- 
tor of tb« sew E^HtoR »( Chambert't CjrctsiMedia ; rehtrireto 
certain Additiout wkich have been collected and istroduced by ib« 
fiid Editor. Bjr the Rct. M. Madau. 6vo. t». DodUcy. 

MR, Madan, having in the firft of thefe letters intro- 
duced himfelf to Mr. Rees as a corrcfpondcnt, in a 
cool, difpaffionate, and polite manner ; enten in the fe- 
cond, op a remonftraiice with him as Editor of the Cyclo- 
pedia, " for introducing in that Work, a very long ex- 
toA fEOM the Afenthfy Reviewerif.andtr the patronage of 
Mr. Chambers's name, on the fubjeft of pokgany. 

In the introdufiion to the paragraph icming to polvt 
SUny, Mr. Rcc* la«rs» that *' in 1780, the Reverend Mr. 
" Madan, publilhea a ireatife, artfully vindicating and 
" andfirongly lecommending polygamy." 

Mtr. Madaa-compluna with reaTon, that Mr. Rees by 
onutung to mention all the fubjeds of his book, (for pc 
l^amy makes but one out of lix of which the Thelypthora 
tKats) leads bis Reader to imagine that this performance 
was written for no other purpofe than ** artfully to vindi- 
" cKe, and ftrongly to recommend, a pradicc, which 
" j£t^O* conlidcred, at. to itfilf, is fb far from being pindi- 
*' cated or recommended, that it is in the very book itfeif, 
" jH-otofted' agunft as one of the laft things which a man 
" fhould think of, who wilhes and aims at the happinefs 
" of dDmeitic life," Mr. Recs might as well aflirm. that 
ibo anatomift Hsifter recommends the amputation ofhu- 
man-l^sand amu, bccaufe he docs fo in certain' cafes: 
The writer in the- Monthly Review, Mr. Madan obfer\-es, 
has tanght Mr. Rees to fay, that marriage according to tjiit 
writer Jim^y and vnhelly. contilh in the aA of pcrlonal u- 
nion, or dhui coitus. RutMr. Madan has on the contrary, 
con£dered' marriage in a tu'C^t/ light, as a divine infthution 
and; ac the el^eS. of human laws, T91 eaclt of tbele he has 



tlO A Ripfy to Mr; CumherianJ and the Ciwitr^j Curati. 

«ffigncd different chapters, confiding of many page^. Up-- 
"onthefe fafls, we aifirni that Mr..Recs, following an a-r 
nonymous writer bas been guilty, - with; refpeft to Mr. Ma- 
dan, of the groffcft and raoft Ihameful mifrcprefentation. 
Where Mr. Rces foirly ilates the pofitipnB and arguiiient» of 
"Mr. Madan ; the latter boldly avows^ aijd.^bly and fully de- 
fends theniiby an a]^ die genius,, the meaning, the true 
grammatical conflruclioa of the original language of the 
iacred fcrioture ; and to the nature, intention and fpirit 
of the divine laws therein coritained. Our author writes 
with flrcngth, perfpicuity, and conyiflion, and Unitss g^at 
vivacity with greater temper than was to have becn.expefl:- 
cdfrom a perfon fo highly injured. 

Art. VII. A flainRtply to ihf SrlBuw xf Mr.-Cum^frla«J, anJ 
tbt Cmntij Curati; en the Bfjhap ef Lanilaff'i Propofah ■ in a 
Letter to Richard Cumberland, Efi;; to which are added, Ob- 
fcrvatioD« on the Right of Palron^ge ; and on lite good Folicy 
and moral Tendency of Rcfignacion Bonds. . By the Author of 
a Letter to the Biftiopof Landaff,.oo thepfpjected Reformatioa 
ofthe Church. 410. is. Murray. ... 

A LTHOUGH wc confidered Mr. Cumberland's letter 
/■\^ as an invidious attempt to gbllnift the intended ■ re- 
formation propolcd by the BlfhapofLandafF, and although 
wefound that attempt to be as impotentasitwascontempttble, 
yet in oar Review for June, wc examined it with candour, 
and at full length. We were far from thinking, that fcmuch 
petulance and play-going crlticifm as Mr. Ciimberland has 
difplaycd, could ever prove really detrimwital toacaufe, which 
is embraced by the firft charaftcrs for enwnence in real merit, 
and which meets the wiihes of every ditinterefted man. 
The Author of the letter before us thought otherwife. 
Having warmly efpoufed the Bifhop of Landaff's fide of 
the argument^ be confidered Mr; Cumberland as his eneiny; 
and has in the pamphlet now before us, fully refuted every 
thing that gentleman has advanced, and bas lafhed him witb 
afatirical ieverity, which we only wifli had been morcfevere. 
Well knowing that there are not wanting men, fo ignorant 
as e^en to imbibe tlie fentiments of a writer oi fimimental 
comedies, on ecdefiallical mattcrE, our author has been at 
pains to remove the l^lfe glofs which cover- his arguments, 
vaA has, in our opinion, performed his talk with flgll and 
addrefs. From his former pamphlet (fee Review for July) 
we were taught to. cxped deep knowledge of his fubjcd, and 
precision in handling it, nor are wc.difappointed ; and to 
both he has added a prompt wit ^nd juft fatirc: WafeleA 



_A Riply IB Mr. CitmUrhnd and tht Country Cureit. iH 

the following paf&ges as ttiey include his ftriflures on both 

'' On the Bilhop of Land^iff's Tecond pfopofal, after wading 
tlirougb twelve pages of cavil, mifconceptloD, a<id abufe*, 1 meet 
with lomcthin^ like bd argument. You afTert, ibal uetbing engbt la 
U itduaidfrem the iaceme ef tU Diims and Chapttn, htcaufe bit Lerd- 
^ip acbtmvkdgts, thai they are TS^ VO-Y aijeili Vi^hicb Jiimulale iht 
ckrgyta excel in llttrary atlainmtnii. By (he .way, there ii ^^rc a lit* 
lie inaccuracy in ftaciugthc Bilhop'* propofiliun ; for if h^ had f^d 
they were ti^e •aery objetib, &c. it would be implied, that there are 
nootherobtefla in thechurch lo. ftimnlatt, Btc. which, we know, 
nould hsfatfe. If, indeed, thofe dignities, were alway«, or even 
|eaerally, made. the rewards of //r^drj' attainmeiiti, there would be 
morefprcc in yourargument than I will allow it. For I fay, and 
1 am fure,. without any perfonal difrefpeA whatever for the digni- 
fiedclerg}', that liiermy attaitimmti are fetdom, very fetdanif the 
imaedia/e caufe of promotion to thofe dignities j and that ihey are 
difpofedof, in general, quite as indifcriminately, and as .i^njuAly, 
as tbeotber preferments which are in lay-bands, to the relations, the 
defettJents, the tufort. of Peeri end MinlHers. InltaDces might be 
brought of noblemen, who, having coadAfnble private palranage in 
their own gift, have /iid the livings, put the money into their poc- 
kets, xaAfdicited preferment at Court, for the Inters of their cbildren, 
■ ' You turn the quotation from Dr. Benily, back upon the Bi- 
Ibop, and tell us from him *' that a few /hining dignities in the 
church, are the ^i«j/r^B^ that liceji the pareuis to rilk tbeir chil- 
dren's fortunes in it." Remember, after all, this is hnK A/raud, 
though Apieui one. It is well, however, that if the church has 
iamt jbinirig parts to decey Maviary ■^3.\taxii ; it has likewife its dtirk 
/fell to warn and deter the prudent. If the dignities are hrilliani, 
the poor livings and curacies, I am fure, are fiarecrows. The 
gieat confide ratioD, is to remove the latter without deliroyiug the 
former, and this t think the BlQiop's propofal promifes, in a great 
meafure, to eff&il. i 

' Suppofc, ther,, the Bidiop's propofal were agreed to, or that 
eia third at rather muh thirds were deduSed from the revenue of the 
Deans and Chapters ; — would there remain no gUtifring prizes, no 
JUitiKg dignities behind ? Would there not be Bljhops, jircb-dtacMs, 
ChanceUcrs, Treafureri, Precen/ori, and the whole range of College 
frifermenls T You muft be either ignorant of, or you muft .forget, 
the IMMENSE PATSONAGS li) the difpofal of thofe digaitaries^ whofe 
RTcnua is propofed to be reduced : -not one of them but has it in 

* * Among ihefe I might note Mr, Cumberland's very curious 
difiertaiiona upon fsmt and eilxr, which would cut a figure in 
Steven's LeHure upon Heads, Mr. Cumberland is much offended 
at SOME PEOPLE, who will aat firnple to call the parochial elergy -xha 
wa/V'/'^ofthe whole body.— l*ray, Mr. Cumberland are tbeie 
'ANT whoyrr^^ to call them fo? — And yet, according to Mrr Cum- 
berland, thefe/ttnif some people are for driring the Billiops bur of 
the Houfeiri' Lords. 

■ his 


Ill J Reply to Mr. Cumhtrland, and iki CnuMr) Cardte. 

'Vi% power to help himfelf to church preferment, frAm 400I, t» 
toooL per annum.— A pretty tolerable ^^ Jiimulaiivt" in my o- 

' The Ctuntty Guraie objei5ts to the fflode of relief pointed out 
by (hi fiifliop, ib^> it « inajltq*mi re fix nd prepefid. An objeiSion 
of too tnuch importance, if it •uxre true, to hepafled over in filenci, 
IF he meana that it is inaift^uate td the jill rtHr/of all the neceJStie* 
rf the inferior clergy, we agree with him. But that it will do 
tnuch towardj their relief, may be veiy clearly provtd. The 
bounty of Queen ABtie.i* illailequ(|te to the full relief of thi infe- 
rior clergy ; but thatisfioobjeAioil in the eyes of reafonable pet- 
fons. Ht^atctihtJUMthativoulJarcruifrrtn ibe digniiits reduced, 
according i« hiiUrdfiti^i Jidndard, at 30,000/, /ct- dvnahif vtHich I 
wusT oBSEsvE IS io,oool. Mo»E THAN THE Annual aIhobnt 
OF Queen Anse's Bounty, according t© towr coMputa- 
TION. 1 hare goodreafon to believe from other accounts, that the 
fum whidi might be raifed from the reduitioit c^ the dignities in 
(}uelHon, would amount to twice, if Dot THRICE, the real ineome 
of the bounty. On what grounds the Csii^try Csr«(r afterwards re- 
duces his calculation 10 15,0001. I caiinot ecnieeive'; ferr I can 
make out noelttmaie ef the value of the digfaitleg ifitended (o be re- 
duced, which vroistd itDt aifertt a ctcicr yearly fun j)f 40,000!. to b« 
applied to the augmetitation of poor living ; Which, fuppofiug the 
numberof livings uaiugmentM to be fouf thoirf^rrd, Woitld aflbril 
them about lol. a jnece pcr^ilnm, on an atersge^ no tiKonfidertf^U 
ftifri it we donSderthe<'Aft'rtTC/«vry(rf thofe forrthofe relief it is 
intended. 1 could produce the <!lHm3te on wfttch I gf«uad this sf- 
fertion, and I date fay, it Would he fonnd even ^hw thd truth, did 
I not think that the produAion of it woii-Id create odiutn, and bcper- 
feflly ufelefs in this itage of the hufinefs. H, boweterj the CtMntry 
Cxrarf will produce his calculation, I (till undertake 10 cwre^ his 
d^tement, and make good my aflertions.' 

Upon the whole, this pamphlet tMl( <teftrv(?3 (he atten- 
tion of all who are intereftcd in the propofcd reformation. 
The Author throughout displays thi^ liand of a mafter. 
The following paffage is inferior to few fatjrcs we have ever 
read. Addrclhng himfelf to Mr. Cumberland towards the 
clofe of the pamphlet, he fays, 

' If Sir, 1 have obtained any advantages over you, iA itu» review 
of your pamphlet, I attribute ihem, in thetirft {uacc, to the nativ< 
fircngih of my caufe 1 and, in the nest place, tayeur impmdiitctf in 
forfaklng the folid grnund of reafon, and deviating into the flippcrjr 
^a>.tii offiphlpy atii. prmai-icaHdii. J believe you wiTT do ine t5e 
juflice to-acknowledgc, that I have annclietl yaw firtrif~^\ do not 
know that I have mjiat»d a fmgle pofition in yoDr pMnphkt. — I 
have not tenured yimr tlteMisg, or jjft'iAki/ upttn yeur wwd*. — I 
have not aflauhed-you with the pen neft of parody;. (M'HflroUgh an 
»ffcRittim ofiuit, glided mto aijitrdky.—l have not by f«ret infi- 
nuaiioBt endeavouitdt«£/i^jni>kr chafaHw. — I hiivti xoa JhrnJered 
«vinue, ■v\aA\ ceuldsetemviale' 

In our Author's obfeivations on Rffiinotim Batds,- he \% 


Tie Error J tf Naiare. xi 3- 

Kcurate and knowing ; perhaps; if fealty, nther too eodi 
tife. ft was a fubjeft to be enlarged upon. 

ARTS and fcicnces fecm to decar jn proportion to the 
increafcd number of artifts ana philofopheis ; for in- 
tereft foon' gets the better of induftry. A Fielding got 
feme and no little riches by writing novels, and bis ipccef- 
Ibrs have flattered themfclves with equal fuccefs. A 
Smollet and a Sterne have rendered .themfclves popular, 
and a thoufand imitators have claimed the fame rewards> 
withoDt any other pretenfions than the merit of ferviJe copy- 
ifts. From the great number of novels publilhed, and the 
various fates to which they are condemned, it might be 
bought that novelifts would now approach or nearly ap- 
proach the zenith of excellence. But the very rcvcrfc is the 
cafe. No degeneracy is more rapid ; no dullncfs fo into- 
lerable ; no badwrinng fo very bad, as that of the modern 
uovcljfis. What their motives may be we know not, nor is it 
oorbufinefs to enquire. .It perhaps, may be owing to the 
motives which actuate avaricious parents in fending their 
children to the Eaftand Weft Indies, becaufe, perhaps, one 
iu five thoufand has amaflbd a fortune. Some novels, in 
thefe days of light reading, arc undoubtedly fncccfsful, and 
however fmaU their number is, it is ftill fufficient to ftiiDu- 
late authors to run the fame race in hopes of the fame 

Of the motives T*^hich produced the prefeat novel, we 
know not. Nor after an attentive perufal iciavc we been able 
tofindoutany ufc it can ferve. By the dedication, we 
Icarn, that it is not the firfi of its Author's productions, 
and we have fome icafon to think that it will not be the 
kft. . The prefs, indeed, is open to all ; but this Author 
Would do well to make himfelf mafter of the philofophy of 
Ac human heart, before he pretends to apologize for its er- 
rors) for what he modetily calls rrron tfnaturci arifing from 
txcefs, not criminality of feeling, (we ufe his own words) 
ire no other than the worft depravities that can ftain the 
CluiaAer of man. But let us analize the work itfelf, that 
our Readers may in fome meafuie judge for themfclves con-, 
ceming its merit. 

Charles Manly is the only fon of a farmer, who held 
leafcs to the amount of 3000I. per annum. He is intended, 
for the army, and a commiffion is procured in the army 
tbenftationed in Flanders. (Obferve, Reader, the time at 

£ko. Rev. Vol. 11. Auguft 17B3. tt / which 


tfjp. tieMrran ef Ndtiire. 

which this is fuppofed to fcavc happened). Previous to hit- 
departure, a company is invited to me father's houfe to ^n<f, 
the parking evening. He happened to dance with a lady 
juit returned from France ; me fainted during the country 
dances, and was obliged to be carried to bed, leaving hcp 
partner moft deeply in loVe with her, and what is very ex- 
ti-aordinary, fhc was as deeply in love with him. After her 
recovery from this fudden indifpolitlon, he takes leave of his 
father with very little regret ; but, loft his. Readers flioold: 
think him uimatural ordifrefpeflful, he informs them, that 
they muft feel hit feelings before they can determine thcnt 
viaous or virtuous. As well may we fuppol'e a judg* on 
the bench telling the juiy, " gentlemen, tlK prifoner at the 
" bar is a damned rafcal, but before you can. bring in a ver- 
" diftj you Tnufl be as great rafcals as he." — Well— he now 
lets outto accompany his adorabic miftrefs, whom he callsr 
Eiiza, to her own home. During the ride, as the ferv ants ' 
Have orders to keep at a proper dillance behind, he opens' 
Kis whole heart, and (he hers ; this produces another faint- 
- ifag fcene ; a houfe of entertainment prefents itfelf ; he car- 
ries her mfo a room full- of gentlemen, which doobtlefs wa«' 
an excellent place for a yoong lady, who had feinted away- 
from pare delicacy-^but who, gentle Reader, thould one of5 
the gentlemen be? No otherChan the father of ElizaJ He 
wasnotoverpleafed-wilh his daughter's new friend, and o- 
bliges'him to take his leave, which he does according to the 
due forms laid down in five hundred nO'VCls, and as many 

Ouj hero now, with relnflance embarks for tlie conti- 
rient,' not without a prayer againft the: profberity of the voy- 
age. This prayer was heard, for they had not been many 
hours at fea, ere they were Hiipwrecked near- the. plao& 
whence they had fetout i and he landing in a boat, otaAc 
the beft of his way home, where he found Eliza, inanother 
Iwoori, from which ihefoon recovered, white he related die 
evtnt which had- brought him fo foon home. Wefii>d, 
however, that be'is how ir» the hand^ of an -ancit, who is: 
aVerfctohis attachment. Here he attempts to defcribc the 
pcrfoii of EJiza, hot- in colours fo fmftt, that we cio give 
our Reader no idcft of the lady ; he feeravs indeed fenfiblc rf 
Iris incapacity to deftribe her, for he pulls out her piftnre fcC 
with diamonds, and Ibevws it to him to whom he relates bis) 
ftory. ^fter fome converfation between his uncle and him^ 
lie Writes to Eliza, andprbcufts anmtei*\'i"ew, which is dif- 
turbed by the lady' staking him for a ruffian^ and her gob- 
fequent fcrcaming.' He now applies for the alliftuiee of aa- 
old aarfc to deliver anOdier letter,- re^ueAing aa imetvintv 
' ■ ■■ with 

Digitized byGoOgIC 

- tU Mirers 0/ Nature. . :T '115 

;*ith Eliza in a rteighbouring plimt^Hon.- Heir at ii'tSi 6- 
. Act's, in die intcijin, where hbamufesthe old gentlemati 
with ijes and equivocations, (Errsrs af Nature Reader) that 
.he might have lio fui^icion of his intrigue. — NeKt.niom- 
ing (after ddiVering Uic letter, weiiippofc) be meetj, in.Hia 
w5ks, with an old ■ acquaintance, a Lncy, Watford, the 
daughter of a naval officer ; this young lady had bfcen'd*- 
'bauched by hito, and defcrted. (lAon' Error's of Nature, 
■Reader). She fingj a fang in *' wood notes wild," he is 
ineltcd by the tender ftrains, and ii ftic has crit her face 
witha flint, he comforts her with fine fpeechcs and con- 
doAs her hotne. By this time, the nurfc had dona her 
duty ; the lovers met by affig nation, and fo fond irfaie they 
that he confeiTes they " difturbed the birds with their k.if- 
." fcs." Matters probably mightiiavje gone greateUengtlas, 
and difturljed the beafls as well as the birds, had pot the 
gentleman been feizcd with a^d/^. — ^Tes, Reader, hishead. 
nc &ys, fwam, every rieive thook. — Recovering, however, 
fi'om the palfy, which in truth appears to have been mutual, 
■they part; — After- fome filly untruths told to his father, 
XErrers of Naiurt) which he might Have calily av6iaed, he 
i) once more animal^d in his purpofes of going to KKteg'i- 
tnent. He fets out! for London, and after being cnteftaincd 
•irith a dialogue betwcert hini and his nrSn Tom oniffftv wt 
are efcortcd into a hut to break&ft ; here we met with a fofdier, 
Who, In the very threfhold ofthcir acquaifttaticc relates his Sd- 
Venturesi thithehasawifc alive, was once a irian of Opulence; 
and is now going to fee his parcilti, but fwfo^.'aslieVai'o- 
Wiged to leave England- otl account of a duel. This acciSliht 
he' concludes with a fllreat, that hft woujd ftab oiirlittfi in the 
futs, ifbc dared to ftiroiif of the houfe until he {houfd Havi 
departed for onfe quarter of an hour.' Our hero, or fadicif 
DDr Author, calls this a ftrangc adventure ; we dtf tht-fttrie.- 
lmt *ho made it fo ? — After riding ^-and fro, hcgotV [nto 
a farmer's houfc; arid Who fh'oiild fie \k] No \t(i, ReidCr, 
ftan the father of the foldier^ whomhe bad jult parted Kith ? 
Parting from the farmer, he conaes tp his journey's rfnd,- 
"prhcra heerilers a town, but as he' is"- fflcnt ,' concernihg the 
iaiDe of the town, we ihaJl not pretend to fearch iiito ixay{~ 
tery fo profound.-'— Here he wjts detained, for two chapters," 
feyaficknefs, at the end of which we, find he is in Loildbn;- 
Wfirft adventure is in a madhpufe, into which ctiriSfity 
ptbmpts him to enter. Here he merits 'again wlthhiV bid 
Imjuamtancc, Mifs Wa^ard, whom, by the bye", "H5 npw 
tillj Nancy. After a. tedious deicription of fonle' ftf fhc* 
patients, which tfis iitapoffiblc (or us to give any accbijot 
ff. wilfihd he receives acarii frottf an nnknown lady. He 
H 2 tears 


Jl6 RioUay's DaSrints artJPrafftce of HifpocraUt. 

tesn the card to pieces, but rccolleAing himfelf, pays' tlte 
lady a viiit, and difcovefs that fhe is-^O ! miracle of Hun- 
clcs ! the foldier's wife ! — nay, what is ftill more miracnldus 
— hii iwn mother.' — The reft of the book is of a piece with 
the above, full of miracles, inconliftcncics, and abfurdities.-^ 
Here and there are fcraps of poetry, but of the moft wrcte^ 
ed kind. 

The Author, whoever he is, may notpcrhaps be deftitutc 
of refleftion, but he eirs mrofsly in judgment if he tbinks^ 
that this farrago can give fetisfaftion to any reader of the 
leaft taftc ordifcemmcnt. As the ftory is but half fintlhed, 
even at the end of the tliird volume, we recommend it to 
him to let it remaia fo. Nothing elfe can apologize for its 

Art. IX. Duarintiand PraSict efHlppBcralts inSurgtrj andPbyjtc, 
with occalional Keraarks. By Francis RioUay, M. B. 8vo. 4s, 
boarda. Cadell. 

A Veneration for the antients took its rife from the igno- 
rance of their numerous commentators, and has Been 
proinoted by the ftlU greater ignoraocB of the Readers of 
thofe commentators. The name of Hippocrates as the fa- 
ther of phyfic, is in the mouth of every praflitloncr from 
the mou learned ptofeObr to the meaneft apprentice ; but 
there never was a tunc when the real merit of the venerable 
old man, feems to have been Icfs uaderftood. It is not, in- 
. ^eed, cafy for a ftudent to underftand it ; and a phylician 
who has completed his ftudies, finds no leifure to attend to the 
dogmas of the ahcieiitSi. A work of the kind now before us, 
jleenis tp be not a little wantpd. " I have prefumed to think 
^at a candid reprefcptation of tjie moft efiential parts of our 
founder's doflnnes and practice, with the remarks of a man 
who proicues to pay no regard whatever to any thing but 
truth, or what appears to hiiQ to be truth, might not prove 
unacceptable to tnofo young gentlemen who are intended for 
the (ludy of ^)hyfic." 

In our t)pinion Dr. KJollay has executed his purpole 
with confiderablc flcill and addrefs. He appears to have ftu- 
died his author, and to have made proper diftinftions be- 
tween the genuine and the fporious. We are far,_ however, 
frotnthinkmg that his work is calculated for young ftodents. 
Their, imprcflions of the fcience ought to be the boft, be- 
cauili early impteffions arc the ftrongeft ; and the beft are 
certainly to be acquired from the lateft books. Refearche& 
into works of antiquily where fo much is doubt, ignorance, 
'oWcurity, apd abfurdity, can on|y be proper for liim who.ii 



RioIIay's Deffn'nej an^PraOictlifSippvenitti. U^ 

^vioudy acquainted with the fyfii;ins now in voguf, and 
who from prafticc and obfcrvation has efUblifhed in hiJ 
vwn mind a juft and proper mcihodus medtnA, Dr, Rib}' 
lay's work, tiierefore, we conCdcr as amuling. The bcft 
part of it is his owq remarks, a fpccimen of v^ich'wili con- 
vey to our Readers a fuitable idea of his abilities. In hit 
roKarii OH eriiical days, he thus oppoies the doflrioc of the 
celebatcd CuUcn. 

' Modem Aiubori, fenfible of the lielictencies of rbo theory 
whkh.wehaTeaiMlvEed, haie iacrenched ihcmfelTcg within the 
ibove fuppafed faus, and endcavoared ta flrengthen ihem bjr i 
more fpecJous explanation. If I raa^ j*i^g« of their feniimeutt hy 
niy own, they will not accufe me of having feleded a weak antop 
gonifl, wiien I Dame the iHuftrioui Profeflor CuUott ai the. writer, 
vhofe opinions I will chiefly confider in thii fecond <Qquii;y, vtz~. 
Wlxthtr the doHrituej crilic^ Atyi bai enf faund^iaJi in Mlun. Two 
realoQs induce me to niake choice of thii Keatleman: fiiA, the 
fpeciournefi of the argument he produces ; {pecioufnefi fo much 
reremblic^foliditjr, that in anfwering him, I ihall think I ani an- 
fwering afl the writera of the fame party. Second, the great and 
eiten£ve influence of hit opinion* ; an influence actjuired by the 
jnoft Ihining abilttictt and maintaioed by the mofl laudable nerfet 
Krence in their ezertkm; an. influence of all othera the mou nsr 
lural ; bat which, in tbii refpetS, he will pardon me for cndea-t 
fouring «» leifen, fince our objeft is in reality the lame, 

' Having ac<|uainted the reader with the frequent contradiftion* 
occurring in Hippocrates, concerning the days which are to be coof 
fidered aa critical, aitddcliTcred my fenttmeotson that head, I wilt 
not dwell upon the firee manner with which Dr, CuUen pafles over 
tbefe difficultteB, and leduces the number of critical dayt to the 
eight Following; 3d, ;ch, 7th, 9th, ittb, [4Ch, 17th 20th, but 
proceed to the examinatioa of hi* doctrine. — " I obftrve," " fayt be,'* 
" chat the animal oecooomy is readily fubjeAed to periodical move; 
"ments, both from its own conl1itution,.and from habin which 
" are readily produced in it. jdly, 1 obfer^e periodical moyements 
" to take place in the difeafes of the human body, with ereat con^ 
" Aancy and Exai^acfs, as in the cafe of intermittent fevers, and 
*' many other difeafes."— The aaimal etcononiy i« certwnly fubr 
jested irom its conliitutioo 10 periotlical mavenKqti ; but nothing 
can be more irregular than the periods of fuch movements, conAi- 
tutianally confidcred : habit alone fubJe£U the eeconomy to a regut 
lir return of the fame fenfacion*, and habit may be different iq 
every individual ; confequencly, the nature of animal conftitutioiu, 
and the power of habits being fulceptible of a variety of conbina- 
tioni, no movement generally and conftantly, applicable to all im 
diriduals, can arife from this mixture of caufes. There is atfo ta 
this argument, a fort of abufe of words in extending the influeticB 
of babit to difeafes 1 habits are formed in health, and depend,! in *, 
great meafure, upon our will ; riiey are left off at well ai coo-. 
traded; therefore can have no great connexion with Gcknefs, Be- 
fidei, fome criSs, fuch ai htemorrhages, profufc fwca(ts, 4e|Kifiii9ili 

J D.:,l...d.yCjOOgIC 

338 Riollaj:'a IJi^iaiu .vnd PraSic^ifS'ifpcratts. 

iff. m9ttpT,'SLc, in manyciUes, have qo ^IfUina pithei with tbehatity 

flr-wuh [hecpotlituwoa. , ' .' 

. '*;Froa[ fheuniverlality (feys Dr. CuUen,) of tenian or quarai^ 
*' perio(l3 in intermicce pi fevers, we cannot doubc of there beiag in 
" jne.gnimal aconomy, a tenjcncy^ to bbferve fuch periods; and 
" (h'e;crlf'ii:al days, atavs mentioned, are confident with this teiv^ 
"•fl Jicy of .the <Econ(>niy ;'a» all of them fearlc either tertian or 
*' iiua^t/n-jjeriods. Th^prr'iods) hort'fei'af,.aM not prom ifcuoully: 
"mixedj but occupy conftantly their feveralporiioos jn the pro^ 
^^e'& of 'the dtfrafe ; fu tbar 5vn) the bego^iag, to the 12th 
f*^ayi''a:tertiAh period tuket place; and from the i ith tothexotti 
^' and' perhaps longer, a c^uaEtan period is as Aeadily qbferred.'! 
* This, paragraph i'rinL^s to my recolliftion, the order in which 
ifippACeaKs- places- (be critical days in hispragooflics; viz. 4, 7) 
r'. I*;: 17,- *ar and fo on to fiityor-raorc. This order Dr. 
Ciiliejv^'ih'foti^ '>'*^tanans, has adopted as :)he true one; or 
rathir a» the mnH cetilimatit with the tertian and quartan periods of 
iniec^itteat fcverSf :Dpanwhich heiavstbe foundation -of his doc- 
triuej (But 1 cannocomit-mentioning here,tbat, for the fake of 
ftretigthcliinV his favourite 'analogy, hedepmesithe fourth -day <^ 
its critical attribute, thoughMcorttingtothefctcry fads which h« 
coefkltrtH^l^£i>lidbafMT this fame,- as he himfelf ac- 
krionJen^W,' fltould be- Ibi^d opod as ■the moft critical of all. 

' Howevei', I readilv-granttheesiHenceAf ihiEaaalo;^' j I acknow- 
kdgeits. forces nnS ienrihte applicaltioa j and difputc no part of ii ; 
except the univori"aliri-afit9 prevalence, ■ Was this univerfality » 
fefl, all the objeitijjns' derived from- the oontradiaory accouiMS of 
Hif^wcraites, could avaib nothing a^K'nft this law of nature, how 
itM:oinpiehetilibl»f foever the cMjfe. But fince intermittent fevera 
afltffne''ri»r(^uotidhri tvpc, and itB iimtatnps the double tertian, and 
(riple.fUJiirtaD, as wdl as a ternary, w i •uartenary McnrreBcc j 
fincethere are' tnanvitiilxhcss of a ref^filar fucceflion of fepten'ary 
bftona^y, and even aiiHaal Kturnt of panoiyftni, .for"a .long con- 
tinuance, can (he teFtiac and' dfuaitan p«rk>d be faid t« be uoiver- 
JaW -Can my inference, 'drawii frcnw-this^etendcd univerfality, 
kare any weight ? la it not,' on *he coi«¥arj-^ rational to conclude,' 
from this iDarvnerof arguin;;, that nature is laelinod, in feme cafes^ 
to. acrit-ical Urugg'.e eiery day.;— in others, every third, fourth, 
ftvcflth,- «r eight day ? And that confeqocntly her operations in in- 
ttrMjitrehtS, fofarfrnm eiiplaining the order commonly alcribed to 
cridcnl days in continued fewcrs, ihcw in thefe, by analogy, a ten- 
der^ tn n dqily decitidn f ' ' 

^ iii' Bfr.'Ctillpti-addshisOwtKWervatklns-in fupport of iiisopinion. 
Whftt'he fays he hat fseu', I believe implicitly ; becaufe no body is 
irtiWe' candid, no bedy more ad.urate, than the refpcftahle pro- 
ftliijti', 'But even ihie ot)fei"'atio!:s eflaMiflt npihing pofitive in fa- 
*t)ur of rhe caufe ho maintains;' they are confined to the termina-" 
rioii ttf two fpetiesftf' fr^ ^rs,- on fome of his critical days ; and as 
ftirtl -k -KrminHtion-tfftni ft?, according' to his own expreOion, in 
fmf^i»iyi^i'jljtnpa»t!tiffet!»i, viith at ahaicnttnl of tht frtijutacy ef 
thf'fxlff. suitheki'anydefffiv* crijii • ir appears that one might, with 
jtf'tDUchipr^prie'tJ'j -Ta^ tbat the dif<«der is isoderated, ai i^ 


Milner's Exftrinunts and Ob/ervntiam in ^USrlejty. iij 

terminated, aai that conrequentiy thene would be no great error ia 
poftpooing one or two days longer the date of the patient's recovery. 
Ttu3 train of reafoDing leads very naturiiUy to the following .rcfici> 
tioQs: that, if there it in nature a real foundation for the doflrine 
of critical days, il is not a little (Irange that the p^rtlfant of th?! 
do^rine fliould, after an interval of mor^ than two ihottfand years^ 
be ftfll obliged to derive their principal arguments from the uncer- 
tain obfervations of its firft Author.' 

Our Readers may difcovcr Ihrewdnefs and good fen fc in 
thcfe arguments, although they do not amount to a com- 
plete overthrow of the doflrine of critical days. Wc re* ■ 
peat it, that this worlt is rather amuling than inftniftive-, .for 
the Author has proved that very little knowledge is to be 
acquired from the genuine writings of Hippocntes, and that 
hitherto a veneration has been paid to him, of which he 
docs not appear to be deferving, 

AiT. X. Et^rlttifrU and Ohfervalims ia EUHriay. By .Thomas 
Milner, M.D. 8vo. as. Cadell. 

OUR ingenious Author appears to have fpent a coni- 
liderable time in thefe experiments ; nor has he loft 
his labour. Many new lights are thrown upon particular 
do&riixes, efpedally the connexion and contrariety of poJi~ 
tive and negative eleftricity, and the nature of charged glafs. 
His apparatus is delineated upon copper plates, and is cxt 
tremely Ample i although he does not appear to have had 
aay great objeA in view, the following conclulions are very 
naturally drawn from his experiments. An. eleflric power 
attrads every fubftancc which is {Slaced witjiin the fphere of 
its influence, whether it be an eleAric or aconduftor, and 
at.the fame time brings the nearcft part of that fubllance 
into a ftate of contrary electricity. When the influence of 
ancledric power a£ts on any eleftrilied fubltance, it muft 
by its tendency to produce a contrary eleftricity, deftroy or 
weaken tlie fame power, and preferve or l^rengthen the con- 
trary power, according to the different circumflances of the 
cafe. When two bodies, having the fame eleftricity, rc-r 
cede from each other, it may be afcribed to a change produc- 
ed in the eJeftrical ftate of the air, by the receding l>odics, 
and this change occafions the air to attraft them in contrary 
direftions. Although the principal phenomena of the 
charged phial appear to be ellentially the fame with tliofe 
of any other elearified body, yet it appears that the glafs is 
not brought into its natural ftate by completing the circuit 
between the two coatings, but thatfudi a degree of the positive 
aad negative powers is ftiU fo permanently united with the 
H ^ oppo0tQ 


110 Dr. Gaffg Hlfiory »f Grtece. 

oppolite &Ati of the glafs, as to enable them to produce tho 
innuential elc^rjcitics in their refpeftive coatings for fomp 
time: and on this ground the elTefts prbduced by Mr, 
Fella's elcftrophgros may be readjly explained. 

Thefc are fomc of the inferences drawn froiq a general re-i 
view of Dr. Milncr's experiments, iri the coqrfe of which, 
a great variety of collateral hints may be pickled up of great 
ufc to thefc who make elcftricity their tludy. The lludy is as 
yet in its infancy. The re^ ulcs of it remain, if not to be 
Bifcovered, at Icaft to be fq explained and Militated as tq 1^ 
of nsal fervic? to philofophy and medicine. 

Art. XI. ne Hijitry ef Grercc, from lie jlcetjion of JUxatdtr of 

Mactdox, nil in Final SuhjeHimt la ihe Ramat Empire. By John 
Gafi, D. D. Archdeacon of GlandeUgh. 4to. boards, ll. is, 
Mureay- • 

THERE Is no period of mankind which affords a writer a, 
fineriicld for fpeculation, and more valuable materials for 
inquiry, than the times of antient Greece. In their earlie^ 
uinals wc fee their progrefs from barbarifm to civilization ^ 
and, as wc purfue their interefting itory, we difcover the,-^ 
TiGng into the moll polifhed rclinement. The lima how- 
ever, at which every admirer of liberty muft contemplate 
their hiflory with the grcatcft fatisfadion, is during their 
ArugglcE for freedom againA the Perfian tyrants. From 
the cjeftjon of the Piliflratidic, to the death of Cimon, we 
behold their noble exertions at Marathon, Thermopylae, 
Salamis, Plattea, and Eurymcdon, with wonder, delight, 
and veneration. The luxurious age which fuccceded thefe 
brilliant exploits, fhcws us the caule of the decline and 
diflblution of public virtue. When this fupport of their 
greatnels was no more, their philofophy, their eloquence, 
their learning, the refinement of their manners, and the de- - 
licacy of their tafte, was the airy l^afis on which they built 
their expiring fame and power. 

1 he period at which our Author has thought proper to 
date his hiftory, is the acceffion of Alexander the Great. 
The fplendid rapidity with which that murderer of mankind, 
ipread dcfolacion through the eaftem world, however it may 
di&uft the philofopher, affords glowing materials for the 
hiuorian. In the prefer\i inftance they have not been be- 
iVowcd i:i vain. Thoui;h the ftyle of Dr. Gaft cannot be 
confidered as equal to thai of a Hume, a Robcrtfon, or a 
Gi'jhon ; yet we can recommend his language as pure, plain, 
and pcrfpicuous. His rcprpfeutation of ȣts appears jnft 



Dr. Gaft'l Wprj ef Greije. iai 

ind aecunitc, and his mode of rcaToning upon them fccms 

«) be the refult of aa cxtenfive knowledge of the human 

As a fpccimen of his ftylc, we fhall prcfcnt our Rcadcra. 

with the defcription of tbe engagement Dctwixt Alexander 

and Darius, where the family of the Perfian king were taken 


* ALEXANDEt't illaers had encreafed the ccnfideace of Dariui* 
Hit courtiers had allured bim, that the Macedoniani would not 
.dace CO meet him in baitle; aad their not appearing, confirmed hin 
in tbis vaia belief. He now looked upon it ai certain, that tht 
Greeks were fiying ; accordingly, he prepared lo purfue theni 
llimugb Cilicia, and had entered the pafi of Amanus at the fame 
time Alexander had ftruck off by that of Syria, and was thus leav- 
ing Darius behind him. When advice of the eacrny'i motion) wai 
brougjit to Alexander, he would fcarcely give credit to the report. 
But finding it fuihcicntly authenticated, he began with thanking 
the Gods, who had confounded the counfels of Dariui, and by 
ILutting him up in thefe defiles, had delivered him into hie hands. 
He then commanded his troops to march back into Cilicia, and to 
prepare for battle, 

' Darius had already ctofled the Pinarus, which d it idea Cili- 
cia, and was encamped near the city of IfluE. When the Perliani 
found that Alexander, of whofe flight they entertained not the leaft 
doubt, was advancing againll them, they were in the utmoA con- 
fufion. pent up within narrow detiles, tbcy found themfelves de- 
prived of all tbe advantages which they expeded to derive from 
their multitudes, and in a manner reduced to fight upon an equality 
with the enemy. Darius particularly, who fome hours before was 
dated with confidence, was now fliuck with fuch terror, that he 
conunanded the banks of the river to be fortified with flakes, left 
tbe Greeks (hould break in upon him. This cowardly precauiion, 
Arrian (elU us, provolicd the I'corn of the Macedonian foldiers ; 
" He has already," faid they, " the fpirit of a llave in him !" But, 
whatever caufe Alexander might have to hold the Perfians in con- 
lenipc, it did not m.ike him negligent of any of the ducie? of a 
general. With confuinmate Ikiil he eiiiended his front from the 
foot of the mountain to the fea ; io that the Perfians iliould not 
biive it in tneir power, by their fuperiority of numbers, to fur- 
round him; fome of th-ir detached parties had occupied the heights 
above him ; he fent a body of archers to diflodge them previous to 
the engagement ; he examined attentively every difpofiiion the ene- 

I myh^dmade; andwheiever he faw their befl troops placed, he 
added to tbe lirengih of that part of hia line which was to oppofe 
them. He then rude through the ranks, reminding thofe, who had 
iiflmguiflied tliemfelves by any former exploit, of what atchieve- 
(nents fhey had performed, and calling by name upon every 
ltt»ve folder, tQ fupport, on that day, the glory he had already 

'Tae command of the left jviuE^t which reached to the fea, he 

)%aed to Faimenid; andbejjau himfelf the attack at the head of 

. .the 


12? Dr. Gaftts Hi/iery ef GreKt. 

the riifht, i!irei5tiiig liU men to move upllowty, until wkMn ^ err' 
\Ma dirtance of the eneinj', and then to rulh vigoroufly on, beibr* 
(he Perfians fliould have time to difchatgc their niifliie iveapons. 
This inanceuvre had the defired effcd. The forcmoft ranks of the 
kncxnj, finding their arms, in which they iv ere mod expert, ren- 
"riered ufi-lefs, and preflcd by the violent onfei of the Greeks, who 
ohargcdthem.fword in hand, fell-back on the rankt bebicd them ; 
fhefe liVcwife on thofe next to them, UDtil the confu£on fpread 
throi)g;hout the whole left wing ; the Macedonians fliU urging on - 
Hiith^ dreadful execution. Danns, who was only coiilpicuous by 
the height of his fplendid chariot and ifae richncfi of his drefs, 
feeing his left wing broken, and that the (laughter began to cbrcaten 
the fpot where he was tlatioaed, turned from the field of battle, and . 
fled with the foremoft, 

' The Greek mercenaries, who compofed the main body of tho 
Perfiaii army, fliU bravely maintained their ground, though auainft . 
the Macedonian phatani. But Alexander^ al'rer routing the ene- 
my's wing, havinji taken them in flank, they were at length worfti . 
«d with great flau^.'hier, 

* On the right wing the Perlians had confidei-ably the advantage 
nt the beginniug of the engagement, their caralry on that tide being 
much ftronger than the Greeks, until a fcafonable rcinforpement of 
Theffalian horfe enabled Parmenio to turn the fonune of the day 
flgainflthem; when feting the general difperlion, they confulted 
their fafety by flight. 

' The purfoit which Alexander, though wounded in the thigh, 
continued till the dole of day, proved-not !efs fatal to the Perliant 
ihan ibe battle, on account of their multitudes, and of the narrov 
dtfilej and rugged mountainous paths through which thc^ had to 
jKiis. So that Ptolemy, the fon of Lajus, who accompanied Alex- 
ander on this occafion,' declared, that through the whole way they 
had trodden on nothing but dead carcaiTes. As for Darius, he re- 
mained in his chariot for fomc time; bul his fears fuggefting to 
him, that this method was not fufficiently expeditious, he alighted, 
and relinctuirtiing his royal mantle, mounted on borfc-back, and 
ficd with the ucmoft precipitation, hardly flopping for refrettiment, 
until he had got beyond the Euphrates. 

' Of the Perfians there fell, according to Arrian, ninety tho*- 
fand foot and ten thoufand horfe. Of the Greeks, if Diodoros ihay 
be depended on, only four hundred and fifty. The Perfian camp was 
taken; in which were found the mother and wife of Darius, 
with his fon and two daughters. The gicaicr part of the b.iggagc 
and treafure of the enemy had been left at Damafcus. The plunder, 
however, was verv confidcrable, every part of the camp affording 
proofs of Afiatic luxury and opulence. The tent of Darius, efpe. 
cially, the Macedonians beheld with amazement. Its fpaciouS 
apartments were laid out in in the mud elegant manner, adorned 
with coiily furniture, and on every lide were plnced vafes of gold, 
from whence the richeit. odours iffued ; fumptuous preparations alfo 
for bathing and for the royal banquet, awaited Darius's rciurn from 
the battle; and the officers of the houfchold, fplendidiy attired, at- 
tended in their refpeftive flationj. 


Dr. Gaft's HIJhry of Gritct. laj 

' It was thought proper to referve this piece of magnificence 
for Alexander hiiiifElf. He viewed it with much indifference, and 
having fmelled ihe rich eflenees, turnine; to his follos^-ers, "This 
then," faiJ he, " it was to be a king * !" Out of all the precioui 
things he felccted only a calket, ornaniented with jeweU and of cu- 
rious work man fliip, in which Darius was tvoni to keep perfumes. 
^' I ufe no perfumes," feid he:, " but I will apply it to a nobler 
" purpofe ; and accordinfrly ufed it as a cafe for Homer's Iliad, 2 
copy of which, correiSed by Ariftotle and CalliflheneE, he alwayi 
carried about with him. Hence is this copv of Homer, which^Hp- 
pears to have been in high eAimatioo among the ancients, known bjr 
Jhe n.ime of ibe ccpy of the c^ei. 

' Historical writers make the moll honourable mertion of tht 
temperate manner in which Alexander enjoyed hii vifloty.- To 
Dar-ius's family he behaved with Angular magnanimity. . He took 
care, that ihdr perfous, and whatever belonged to them, IhouM 
l>e faved and fecurcd from infult. The night fueceedin^ the battk, 
hearitig' of their diftrefs upon the fuppofcd death of Darius, whofe 
mantle one of the eunuchs had feen in the hands of a foldicr, he 
immediately fent Leonnatus to afl'ure them, that Darius was living, 
and that ihemfelves, though now cgptives, fliould enjoy the fame 
royal fiate to which they had been accuilomed in their higheft fplen- 
dor. The enfuing day he vifited them. in perfon, his friend He- 
phacDioD odIv accompanying' him. As they entered, Syfigambia, 
the mother of Darius, fell at IJcphacftion's feet, fuppoficg him to be 
the king ; but one of the attendants having informed her of the 
niiftake, flie in great cpnfufion, turning to Alexander began to ex- 
eufe hcrfelf. " Yoii are not greatly millaken, madam" replied he, 
railing herup, with great a ffeit ion, " for ^« alfo ia Alexander." 

' From that day, to avoid every injurious fufpicion, he laid it 
down as a law, never to vifit the wife of Darius more ; who, it ii 
faid, was the mofl beautiful woman of her time. So that, as P!ii« 
tarch obferves, (be aiid the reft of the princelTe! " lived, (hough 
'* in ai) enemy's camp, as if they hud been in fome holy temple, tm- 
" feen and unapproached, in the moft facred privacy." Syfigambls 
particularly, was treated by him with a refped and attention not 
Icfs than flie could have expcfled from Darius himfelf. He per- 
initted her to order the funeral honours that fhould be paid to thofe 
of the r03-al family who had fallen in the action ; and often after- 
wards granted favours at her requeft, eten forgiving, upon her in- 
terce0ion, fome Perliat) lords, who had defervedly incurred his dil^ 
pieafurc.' - ' . 

This agreeable and ufeful volume would certainly be more 
cotiiptete, if it had, what it at prefent wants, a copious and 
judicious index. 

* Dacier and others underftand Alexander's words, as if fpoken 
in admiration of what he faW. Dr. Langhorne confiders them as 
the words of indignation. And this idea, which fecms the moli 
natural, and gives to the paliage i^ peculiar beauty, is accordingly 
the one here ad<q>tiid. See Langhorne's flutarch. . . , 


=d by Google 

1 34 ^'i' Dialogues concerning the Manner nf writing Hijtary, 

'Akt. XII. T-Jja Dialogues conc&nUy the Manner of tvr'iiiitg Itijia-y 
From the French of Abbe de Mably. iimo. js. fewed. KLearlley. 

^ I ^HE literary reputation of Abbe Mably is very conli- 

\_ deiable ; and bis obfervations on the government of 
France arc allowed to be learned, acute, and ingenious. 
From his habits of ftudy he is convcrfant to a great degroc 
in hiftorical compofitions ; and an cxprcfs trcatife from him 
on tile manner of writing hiftory is an acquilitton which tli« 
public muit attend to, and value. 

In this work the Abbe has cbofen to deliver his fentiraena 
in the form of dialogue; a method which enables him to 
give a fcope to his vivacity; but which neccltkrily induce; 
him to be diffijfc, and to indulge in repetitions. 

After having exhibited, in his firft dialogue the thoughts 
which occjrtcd to him concerning the different kinds of 
hiAory, the Abbe pcculiarizes the iludies which are proper 
for the hiilotiiln. He then V^ats of general and untverfal 

It is his opinion that the hiftorian muft be bom as well as 
the orator and the poet ; and that education alone is infuf-. 
ficient to produce him. It may make a compiler ; but the 
gift of writing hiftory muft come from nature. The real 
hiftorian ought not only to feci with cnthufiafm the paint- 
ings of Livy, Salluft, and Tacitus, but ought to be ani* 
mated with the hope of cmql^tlng or furpidling their ex- 

He obfcrves very properly that different kinds of hiftory 
require difFcreht talents. Livy, for example, in his judg- 
ment, had occafion from the nature of his fubjeft, to have a 
greater fund of ki\Qwlcdge, and a greater variety of abilities, 
tlian either Salluft or Tacitus. Plutarch he rcprefents as ad- 
mirable in his livesi and yet he might have been unequal to 
a general hiflory of Greece. While different talents, 
however, correfpond with different hifiorical fubjefls, Iw 
accounts it as indifpenfable for every hiHoiian, to be deeply 
acquainted with natural and political law; and the advan- 
tages of this knowledge he illuftrates from the writings of 
Grotius and Buchanan among the modems ; and from thofe 
of Thucydides, Xenophon, Livy, Salluft, and Tacitus 
among the antients. 

A penetrating fpirit of philofophy, and a fevere attentioa 
to morals, he alfcj holds to be chara^l^riftics of the accom- 
plifhed Hiftorian, The Hiftorian, he fays, muft oftea 
' reafon concerning religion, death, p^n, and pur refpcflivc 
' duties' ; and without philofophy he cannot place thefa 
different objefts before our eyes. As to morality he con- 



Tw9 DieUguti caiutrning tht Manner of vriting Hifiory. I2j.. 

fiders it ai aflbciating itfclf mafi naturally with hiftory, ' in* 
' alinuch as by. the cKrnal laws of Providence it is decreed 
' that confcious virtue Ihall fill the human heart with peace; 

* and that vice Ihall infeft it with mifery and dread. The 
'one endears mc to my fellow citizens; tut, the othet 
' forces them to turn a-.vay from me with hatred and with 
' horror. Give me leave to add, (and proofs artf rtcedlefs,} 
'dutthe happinefs or the calamity of States is fubje'ft to 
' the fame hiws. An unjuft line of politics may, perhaps, 
'procure fome tranficnt advantage: but, tremble for the 
' reverfc ; becaufe the fure lefolt of this injuftice is the iofs 

* of confidence ; and from that moment, your enemies will 
' unite in a confpiracy to deftroy you. Never will you per- 
'ceivc a nation degrading itfcl^ and rapidly declining, uo- 
' till it ftiall have given up its morals ; and until the power 

* of its laws ihall prove enfeebled by its vices." 

As a model for gtmral hiftory the Abbe admires the vork 
of Livy ; and the delineation and chatafter he gives of this 
writer arc maflerly and to the purpofe. He alludes raorein- 
direftly to Thucydidcs as another mode! in this line. To 
nniverfal hiftories he is not favourable upon the whole-, 
IV he admires infinitely tlic work of Boiluel. Indeed hit 
admiration appears to us ro be excellive ; and this is one of 
die portions of his trearifc, in which we cannot go aJong 
with him. As to Tbuanus who has received fo much un- 
diftiiiguifhing praifc, he is not at all pleafcd with him ; and 
he honeftly acknowledges, that he could not perufc' him 
without unealinefs and difgui^. 

Among the ornaments of hiftorical writing he Is parti- 
cularly fond of {peechcs. 

' Take,' fays he, ' from Livy his harangues j and at once, you 
tike from liim one of ihofe chief ornaraems, by the aid of which fao 
roofcs up my imagination and animates my heart. It is from Li Ty 
that I have guthercd what little kDowlcde;e I pollefg of pc^itlcs. 
Admiring his work, I became imniediately mllruificd ; and perhaps 
ii would have ilirgulled me, if, fpeakiag la hit own name, he had 

s^ffions. But thcfe fpeeches are fubjefi to the dominion ot rifrid 
laws ; and ihe Hiftonan who dares to violate them is puniflied 'by 
being conrerted into a miferable declaimer, I mull lay it dotvn as 
a preliminary coDcKtion, that they never appenr, except in a cafe of 
>blblute neceflity ; that they ihail not be employed but on impor- 
tant occalioni, where the point inqueftion ie eithETthe prefervittiont 
thefafety, or the glory of the ftate; or the atchicveratnt of fome 
bold and weighty cnterprize. Nor is even all this fuflicient It is 
tequilite that the matter under difcuSion (liould ad nit of being 
examined, by obfervers of great talents and quick penctniion, in 
liferent pointi of view. Above all thingi let liie Hill^nan avoid 
llie common place parade of' College eloquence. Not a dnzig 


< c P-i GooqIc 

lafi Two Titategues eeneerftiug the Manner if wriiing Ifi^ory.^ 

iyllaWemuftbe introduced for ihe fake of (lie w and offeiitation.- 
X-onfult only reafon ; give proofs; lead me i/^w along; and reudcr 
ii impoflible that I ilio jld relift your force of argument.' 

In his fecond and concltiding dialogue, the Abbe mention's 
-particular hiilories, and affords niles for the compolition of 
hiftories of every kind. Among particular hiilories he com- 
mends as models the retreat of the ten thoufand Greeks ■ by 
Xenophoot tbe Commentaries of Csfar, and the two hifto- 
ries of Salluft. Of the moderns who have written particuJar 
hiftories, be extols very highly the Abbe de Vertot. 

The rules which he furnilhes for biftorical compofitiort 
are certainly very judicious ; and from this division of his 
performance we Ihall fubmit to our Readers a part of what 
lie has oblcrved concerning ero'rr. 

' This OrJer which you Co mucb approve of is the rock wtereoh 
the greater number of Huloriatjs have been daftied away. We 
might venture to aflert that fome Writers (fo negligent do they 
prove, in this refpiifl) have never attended to the iinporiant truth, 
that out of this Or./<r arifes that magic, that fecret charm which 
embflliflics even beauties, and atirafis and inlenfibly keeps alive the 
nttention of the 'Readers. Other Hifto ri a n s, ' remaining under the 
dominion of ari imagination which does injury to their judgmenr, 
look no forther than the part coDcerning which they are writing, 
and, without confidering either what precedes or ought to follow it, 
remain fatisficd if they can throw before us a brilliant and lengthen- , 
ed cluftcr of words, and conceive that upon this alone depends the 
whole pcrfeflion of a Work. But, let' us content ourfelves with 
fome remarks relating lo the art of writing Hlflory. 

' Although Chronology ("that ij, the order of the times) fliould 
always meet with due attention, yer, the Hiftorian muft nai follow 
it with undeviating fervility. When you have entered upon the' 
relation of an important fact, take care left by hacking and cutting 
one part frftm the Other, y<Ju degrade its confequtnce j and do not. 
abandon it in the very moment when you haveexeitedmy euriofity. 
This rule is the more unerring, becaufe the grcateft Hiftorians, fuch 
as Tacitus and Grotius, have fubmittcd to it even in their annals ; 
a mode of writing Hiftcry which being (as we have already a- 
greed) extremely proper to give us an idea of the formation of tbe 
laws, mannert and cuftoms of a People, either during iheir early 
' infancy, orthroughout the coutfe of an important Revolution, lays 
it down, as an indifpenfible point, that the narratives of fafls flioulj 
be arranged and brought fbrivard in conformity to the order of 
their refpedive dates. Yet, thefe two Hiftorians, endued with great 
knowledge of the World, and fenfible that they muft pleafe antl at- 
traft, If they intended to fueceed in theirdefiretomflruifl their Readers^ 
have, upon fome occafions, anticipated, the times ; and t/jin, they 
regarded it as fufhcient to take notice of this unufual deviation. 
Tacitus once forgets himfelf in the third Book of his Hiftory, where, 
fenfibly affected by the violent troubles in Germany, which' nearly 
ruined the affairs of the Romans on that frontier, he juft alludes to 


?d by Google 

7wo Diatogun concerning the Mannet of wrlling }Tifliiry. tif 

Amd, and then ]>ronifc9 to make them fcion the objed of his dircuf' 
fioD. Unlefs 1 am much miftaUcn in my opinion, the Hiriotiap be- 
iTays a w»nt of Ikill when, having annoimceii to mc ijnportant fafts,. 
he does not immediately relate lh*m. On fuch occafiuns, the im- 
palient mind of the Reader divides its attention, is putlied forward' 
from its mark, and, bein^ drawn afide from thu fubje^ which tvM 
under its con &de ration, of courfe fuSers it to efcape trom notice. 

* It has been obferved that the art of runnin'^' into trinfitions is, 
of all others, the moA difficult for the Hiftoiianto praiStice with fuo- 
cefi; and, indeed, the greater pan of our Hiftt^ries aflbrd a melitn- 
dioly proof that thefe t ran fit ions are either puerile, inlijjid, flat, 
barflily worked up, or unnaturally forced. But, I believe that I 
have already remarked that f* difguiimg a defeift nrilcs from the 

trecipitation uith which an Hiftorian begins his work, before he 
as. ferioufly meditated upon all its different parts, and/W place in 
wbichhefli'ouid arrange ihem. Granting that I fliould not hav« 
difcovered the moA natural conneiftion of eTenis, it will, iteccifii-. 
lily, follow that, in order to tack ihcm to each other, I mull em- 
[day two or three aukward expreflians, 'or that in this paflage, loo 
Tiolently unhinged by fudden jerks of fcntenees, the attention of my 
nadcr may be precipitately thrown into a new fubjed. On tbe 
contrary, I follow, without the leaft embarraflinent, in the track of 
an Hiftorian who is the friend of OrJir, A fmgle word will prove 
fafHcienC'to lead' him properly to his tranfition ; and even ihiivuxA 
will, frequently, become needlefs, provided that his narration i» 
npld, and his Ityle-fhilfully compeaed. 

* If you foil under the obligation of interrupting your recital, for 
t]w indifpenlihly requiiite purpofe of elucidating fome particular 
politt, reft alTared that you have neglciftcd that order to which it wa» 
your duty ftri^ly to adhere. Proceed over your ground a fecond 
time ; and cAfcrve whether fome effential matter has not been want- 
injin your expofition. Perhaps, even one word, fortunately placed 
only two or three pajes higher, would have fuffked for the Infor- 
miiion of your Reader. Bo this as it may, labour; exercife your 
tkoughts until you find out the fecret of either dilpenfing with this 
elucidation or of agreeable. On thcfe occalioiis, judi- 

■ iitm and etpcn Hifloriacs either introduce a fpeech to animate the 
narrative j or inflruft their Renders by painting the public difor- 
ders, troubles and alarms. In (hort, better than /u<:i d,^faulters, 
Ibould I like thofe untutored Hiftorians who, in liieir liinple way, 
inferta| margiAal notes what they have not the aft to iuicrweave 
ffithin the body of the Work. 

.' In. wf opinion, the Hiftpry of the Council of Trent, written by 
Era-PAolOj is, with refpeft to Oriitr, a model which we cannot ei-. 
thK.ftudy or imitate too much, Th'n f articular Hiftory is, in focnc 
^gree, the general Hiftory of Europe, during the time when it wai 
batboFOufly torn in pieces by the envenomed Quarrels of the Theo- 
la^iaDs, the blind faaaf icifin of the People, and the mifguided am- 
tution of the Princes and of the Great, finder thele fatal circiira- 
ftances, it was imagined that ageneral Council, by working up a 
roincidenceof opinion, might alfuage hatred, enlighttii. error and 
K^m di^ty.ta ReLigioat Never did the cspolicioii of any parti- 


128 Two D'lahguts conctrmng tht Manner Bfwrhmg Hlflory. 
cubrHiftorytmbrace atonctlme, a greater Tariery of. different 
objeftaj and foon we (ImH perceive that Fra-PaolO introduces, up- 
on the fnifie thwtre, a croud of perfonageB, all diftinguiftied by their 
importance : but whofe interefts, views and cocduft are indifpeti' 
fibiv ojjpofed tocacb other. Whilftya»fof the Prineei moft car- 
i^eCly mfiftthat the Faihcr» of the Council fliall ciplain tbemfelvee. 
Slid imprefs truths, with full conviflioti, upon the mind, others 
whu do not feel, like Mf«, the influence of Religion, bur, whodK^ 
, trufi (if I may ufe the eiprcflion) the dec! lions of the Holy Ghdft, 
■nd fear left itlliould a£t inoj)poIition to their imerefls, countenance- 
anduphold the crooked politics of the Court of Rume, more jealous 
(aecoring to the opinion of Fra-Paolo) of its power than of its ft- 
cred trufli and codes of faith ; and, at thii period, reptefented a> 
obltinately determined not to reform the atjufes of the Clergy, 
Vet, it ia necefTary to lay open the intrigueg of the Legates and the 
fervitude of the Bifhopa rclidcm beyond the Alps; to put faarangum 
into the mouths of the Theologians whofe fcholaftic oratory coo- ■ 
founds the ears, and even fcares the underftandiog ; to paint the 
obftinateperfcverance of the Innovators ; and to give fome idea of 
thofe fatal wars which continue to rage, and of which the fuccellet- 
are never poinn of little confequence to the polities ol the Coun of - 
Rome, or indifferent to the States who either defire or fear the diri- 
flons of the Council. 

* I am aware that Fra-Paolo Is fufpe^ed by the profeflbrs of our 
Religion. They obferve that he was not the enemy of the Innova- 
tors. 7%fi may have been the cafe ; aikd, indeed, fevera] great 
men of that xra have fuffered reoroachcs upon the fame account. I 
confider this Hillorian only in his relation to the art with which he - 
arranges and difpofea the different occurencca which he fubmits to 
our perufal. Obferre with what fimpncity all this chaos is dif- 
perfed, by what natural trjnfitions the HiAorian pafles from otie 
fubjeA to another, hanging heavily upon none, yet prcfenting me 
with all the elacidationa of which I fiand in necd,and,at lengthjcon- 
dufling me to a development for which I am prepared.' 

On the ftylc of hiftory the Abbe has made Ibme good ob- 
fcrvations with which he concludes his work. 
. 'Style, ' he fays,' ' ii an eflential part of Hiftory j for it Is aU 
molt ufelcfs to think well, if we cannot eiprefi ourfelves to adran' 
tage. Let your language be fometimcs more elevated and fomc- 
tiroes more timple, in proportion to the greater or lefs conGderabIa 
degree of importance pccuiiarto the fubjeft. Have words at com- 
mand ; and avoid thofe flow and tedious periods which are fo &• 
miliar to the generality of our Hiftorians. Leani to vary them willi 
your exprdlions. This is the only fecret for acquiring tfaatabun^' 
dance which Cicero recommends to Writers, becaufc it charms thdr 
Readers, and does not even tire ihem. Do not embarrafs your pr^- 
;rcf5 hy parenihefes. Mark out ^our periodi into unequal leivgthf* 
lence arifes harmqny in our language, and without barmdny, the 


fiylc i> never excellent. Let your expreflion* (obferved Lucianto 
the Hiftoriani of his time.) be underlltwd by ihe people, and pleafe 
Readers of a cultivated underftanding s trit nhm Ifjupar lif /t^moIii, 
trath. Never did any Author adhere more flnaly and more fuc-: 



■ '5W Diaiogttfs teiutriting iht MoHHti- efwriltU^ UlJIarj. 139 

Kt&hWy than Cicero ft) this law which he iitipofts upoii all Writers. 
Liry faa^ fajthfutty obferved it, and uaiced to each other the d if- 
fbrent qualities which we have admired in Het'edotus and in Thuct- 
didea. At Ofte morhent, it is a torreht Which daflies precipitately 
down, and at another rtiolneht, a riv^r which rolls itt wsterg on 
■with folcmu ttiajefty. You will but weakly ftrike againft, the fenre» 
if you ofieild tht tart j •Oaluptoti atrium iaorigirari dtiel erafiot. 
Cicero reproaches Thucydid^s becauTe hii matter was not enough 
connefttd, nor his period! fufficiently rounded. TacituS has the 
faite defeat ; bat he itltibes anlendg For it by the gceatclt beinties. 
ThijI ha« eiperienced: I never quit Li vy without concern ; and 
Although lidftiirin^ Tacitus, Z fohietimes relini^uilh him without 

In expUining his oplntotis, the Abbe gives way to his fen- 
fibilities ; and while he fomctimes lavithes bis praife with a 
prodigality that wounds jnfticc, he tt times alfo fcatters his 
cenfure with fomd degree of levity. But in genera] we car)> 
not but comisend the freedom with which he has written. 
Upon Mr. Hume, Mr, Gibbon, and Dr. RobertfoD, ht 
has uttered fome ftrifturcs which defervc to be noticed. Of 
Hume he fays, ' He is indeed, learned ; but, he wants tafte. 
The ddcriptionaitiHumeriinotimorerapidly thaninRapin;yet, not 
knowing his nation, he is, of courfe, unable to mark out and aicer- 
tain the infiuence oFihe national chara3er a; blended i;ith the evenit 
which he relates. His own refleiViona are common j and refult too 
frequeDCly from thofe falfe politics of which morality muH difap- 
pravfe. Having begiin hia narrative at the end, and without cxamln- 
uig and unravelling the chain which conne^s together all Che agei 
Sue alltde occurrences of a nitioa, it is not aftonifliing that hi* 
Hiffory of the Stuarts fliould prove delicient in a multitude of de- 
£rable barticulars. Afterwards, he carried his work up to the aa- 
cient Britons; and, here, we difcover only an Hitlorian whofii 
readlne; is confined to Chronicles. Of the law of the Normans, he, 
rertaiBly, was igftorant j and all his remarks concerning the polity 
of Fiefs atv unintelligible ; or, at leaA, I could not underfbnd 

In this portrait there are fenfe and inventive ; but the latter 
perh^s Is moft prevalent. 

OfMr. Gibbon he gives his opinion in the following 

' A ratiofeal Reader t«quirei that the tiattatioD Ihould pioceid 
irajndly, )%t will not fuffer the Hiftorian to omit any thing which 
may teiKler it extremely clear, and perfeAly intelligible. TIk 
principal art, therefore, conGlh in preparing the Reader for the 
events intended to be fubmiticd to his cqnfideration. What can 
prove more faftidious, than the method purfued by Mr. Gihbm, 
who, in his rfenal Hiftory of the Roman Emperors, fufpendi, at 
every initant, hia tedious and inlipid narrative, to explain to you 
the caufes iif the occurences the particulars concerning which you 
are on the point of reading! No impediment fliould crofs me during 
a recital ; and the author ma^ be ctear< This ii the fiiit law of aU 

£no. Rev. Vol. II. Aug. 1783. I iUiloriaiu. 


-130 Tulo DiaUguts concerning the Manntr ef writing Hj^trj. 

Hiftorians. But, he mult b« clear with art, leil he dircourage aod 
check my aticDtion ; and this fecond law is no lefs requiflte than the 
firft. I grow cold, I link into Ungour, if you fuffer me to lofc fight 
of that goal to which ii is yout buliacrs lo conduA me, Mv me- 
mory 19 only tolerable ; and, doubtlefs, it behoves you to adifl aod 
to refrelli it, by calling up what, in the perufal of a long work, I 
may have forgotten, and what I aAually want, at thii moment, in 
order that I may be able to underftand your meaning. If the Hif- 
torian execute* his talk after the manner of Mr. Gibbon, I believe 
that, without bii help, I Ihall remember what be bai already told 
mc, fevcral times ; and, therefore, I lliall rejeift hit repeiiiiona of 
intelligence with difdain. Art cafum JiiauUt ^obferved Ovid, id » 
matter totally diflerent from that concerning which we treat) atid 
(hi> dextrous management is not left necelTary for the Hiflorian thao 
for the Lover. In this refpett, ai in all others, the ancient Hif- 
toriani are our Mailers.* 

Upon Dr. Robcrtfon, Abbe Mably is not lefs fcvcrc; 
but perhaps, he has been able to form a truer judgment of 
this hiftorian. To the fuccefs which attended the hiftory of 
Scotland by Dr. Robertfon, he afcribes his attempting his 
Preliminary volume to the hiftory of Charles V. This vo- 
lume he confiders as altogether unequal to the fubjcft treated 
in it. * Wliat is is ? lays he. An unfinished work, dcf- 
■ titutedf any depth of inveftigation, and, (to confine myfelf to that 
part which relates to tiic hiftory of France) throwing before mc all 
the errors and all the prejudices of our hiftotians, whofe workt had 
been too hadily and too carelefsly examined. Dofldr Kobertfon 
ouotes the PreGdent de Moniefquien, Abb£ de Eos, the Count de 
Boulainvilliers, and Abb^ de Mably. But it does not appear to 
me, that he underftands any of ihefc writers, becaufe he at once a- 
doptt their different opinions, which cannot aftimilate, and which 
forced to§:eiher, form an indigefted mafs of hiftorical incongruities.' 
The Abbe is not lefs pointed on Dr. Robertfon'a hiftory of 
America. But as there appear fcjoie fymptoms of a 
difpofition to find l^ult with this hiftorian, we Ihall abftain 
from giving any farther extrafts on the fubjcd of his 

Ingeneralit defervesobfervation, that the prefent perfor* 
mauce of the Abbe Mabiy is equal to his former produc- 
tions ; and that it contains much profound criticiun, and 
the marks of an cxtenlive knowledge as well as of a delicate 
tafle. As to the tranflation, it is by no means'exccuted fo 
well as we could with it, and we therefore recommend it to 
the tranflator to improve his work, fhould it come to a new 


Monro's Ohfervat'tam an tht Nervous Sjflem. i^t 

AftT.XIlI. OifirvatUnienlht SlrnHtrt airii FanSiias aftbeNtrvtM 
Sffitm. Illuftrated with Tables. By Alexander Monro, M. D. 
Prelident of ihe Royal College of Phyfician*, and Prafrflbr of 
Phyfic, Aoatomy and Surgery \a the UmrerGty of £dinbui^h. 
Large folio il. t»%. 6d. Boardt. Jobnfon. 

'T^HE great importance of the fubjefl treated of in this 
I • work, and the very high reputation which the Author 
or it defcrvediy enjoys, are circumftances which 'claim an 
accurate analyfis of it. This will be the more ufeful to our 
anatomical and phyfiological readers, as we ihail find that 
the work contains fome new obfervations relative to the 
IhTifturc of the parts, and fome elucidations of phyliologicai 
points of the utmoll confequcnce to the animal ceconomy, 
and to the pradiccof phyJic and furgery. The fever a I ob- 
fervations introduced on comparative anatomy, will alfo be 
found wonhy the attention of the natural philofopher. 

The Author divides hts work into chapters and thefe 
into regions. 

After a fhort introduction, in which the Author juft 
mentions the parts of his work and the order in which he- 
means to treat thf m, he proceeds to the 6rft chapter, which 
fpeaks of the c'lTculationtf the bhodwithin the bead. 
This chapter is fubdividcd into eight feftions. 
In the firft, the Author confirms the opinion of the im- 
petus of the blood fent to the brain in man being broken 
oyits afcent, by the feveral convolutions of the vcucls that 
convey it, and by every other peculiarity of their courfe, dia-: 
meter and ftruAare, 

' This intention of nature,' fays our Author, ' appear) more evi- 
dently in the ruminating quadrupeds ; for I find that a fubftance 
CODnefled with the internal carotid artery, obferved by Galen and 
named by tiim tcte niirabtle, &Ci conlilb entirely of a dirtfion of 
that artery into fmall ferpeniine branches, which are afterward* col- 
leded, at the fide of the fella turcica, into a trunk that is divided 
Btarly M in man.' 

This curious anatomical ftrudure is Hluftrated by the &ft 
uble, which fhewsthis plexus or rete mirabile in the head 
of a calf. 

By the way, there is an obferration naturally occurs here* 
which, with fubmiflion, our Author might have made. 
This ftru£lurc in the brain of ruminating quadrupeds feems 
particularly to fhcw the neccfBty of the force of tne blood to 
the brain being diminilhed in fome violent efforts of the 
machine ; for as the ruminating quadrupeds hold their heads 
generally down, the advantage of the afcending courfe of 
the artery in manr is compcnfated by this ftruuure ; at the 
lame time that it affords a greater impediment to the force 
I 2 •* 


ijl Monro's Ohferval'uHS an tht Ntrveus Sjfirm. 

of thecircuUtipn, which is necc^qr from tibc poS.iam of 
the head in tlule uiimals. 

Thij ciTciinftzftcc leads DoSor Monro to flicw that the 
ooantity c^ the blood cin:ulating in the brain is greaterthan 
in other paru of tb« body. The rcfolt of his experi- 
roeots on tbjs fubjcd, is, that notaboveone ten^ parrof die 
whole mafs is circulated in the head, whish he fays, *' is 

* nearly four times more than, in general, is circulated in 

* the reft of tUe aortic fyftcm, as the weight of the eoccpha- 

* Ion does not exceed one fortiethpan of the weight orthe 

* whole body.' 

The fecond and third fe£tIons defciibe the Unufes, the di-^ 
reAioa ofthemoiiths of the viens opening into them, the 
fnode of their formation by the dura mater, and their iize» 
all which tend to iliuAratc the uatuce of the circulation in 
the brain. . . 

The fourth leftion is material. It dwells upon tlie 
Bfes of the ftrufturc defcribed. 

Firft, 111 an^ Tudden or forcible exertions, when tlie 
blood is repelled in the cavse or internal jugulars, to prevent 
the impulle from being communicated to the blood in the 
fmall and tender veins of the brain, which would endanger 
a rupture of them. 

Secondly. This rupture is much oppofed l>y the addi- 
tional ftrcngth the veins of the brain receive, from the covert 
ingof the aura mater. 

Thirdly. The formation .of the finufes, their lodg- 
ment in furrows of bone, tliecficAof the &lciform procefs- 
fjpon them, all tend to the fame purpofe. 
, The Author's illuftratlon of this is familiar and con- 

' If aftertakingoutttie brain and ceftbritum, we cdtthe fitx 
and Unmriuiu, and dry the heitd, the CH-viites of all tht finttiea, &c. 
will be foumi much diminiihej. But it' the Mx ami tentoriuin ats 
preferved entire, the cavitiei of the finufcs will be (b little Au 
minifbed, that we wtnild fuppoft ihl^ bad been purpofely kept in- 
flated whilft the hcMl was drying.' 

Fourthly. As the Anufes perforate the craniiini at fome 
diflattce from the arteries, the returnii^ blood i; interrupted 
a« little as poffible in its courfe towards the heart.* . 

The lifth feAion, ihews that the circulation in the brain 
ii carried on in the fame way as in other parts of Uie body. 

The lixth fcAion obfcrvei, that in inaammations, apo- 
plexy, and other difeafes of the brain, arteriotomy and vmc7 
feflion may .be of ufe, not fo niucl> by ielTeiiing the quan- 
tity of blood within the cranium,. as Vx. ^punifhing tha - 
force withwhich it is impelled into ix^ - ■ 



Monro's Ohjirvatlom en tht Nerveut Sjfletn. IJ3 

The effefl of drawing Wood, cither from the arteries or 
veins upon the animal oeconoiny. appears to us by iw> means 
to be fuSciently afcertaioed. Much might be faid both for 
and againil the AuUior's positions on this fu1:yefi, but tbete 
is 1)0 room for fuch a (Jifcuffion in a Review. 

.The fcventh feftioa very pigserly raprobatei ud fhews 
the inutility of the pra^ceatlTilcia by fove, of por&rmine tbe- 
operation oi the trepan^ in the pfarenitis, and other difeafes 
of the brain, with a view of lefiening »he diameter of the 
vcflcls by the preflute, occafioned by the admilEon of the 
external air. 

The eighth l^flioa ncations w» experiment, inflitutcd 
to provfl, that in aaintals killed by han^ng, death is not 
owiRg chiefly to the pieflure on ll^e v«flel» of -the brain, but 
to the ftoppage of reipiiation. 

' I cut a Urge hcJe in the trachea of a linng dog. I ttien fuf* 
peBded him for three quarters of an hour, by a rope hs«i lound hii ■ 
neck above that hole, with a ut killing him, or dcprivisr him cither 
of fenfcor motion. But when we afterwards fufpcndea hini, for a 
quarter of an hour, by a rope fixed under (behvi') thai hole, he be- 
came infenliblc anddid not recover. *- 

It was «p»n thefc prtnei^ea that an iRgeinous fur- 
geon of Londqii many years ago, attempted to fave a male- 
faftor condemned to be hsR^d, by making a Ihiall opening 
in the trachea and introducing a canula into it below tbe 
place where the rope was to be fixed. The experiment 
would probably hare fvcceeded, had not the criminal's great ' 
weight of body prevented it ; for after he was e«t down 
he lAewjcd many figns of fife. 

The two^foJIowing chapters, one treating of the mem- 
braaeB of the~ brain and cerebellum ; and the other, of ih? 
communi cation of the ventricles of the encephalon with 
eacli other, as defcribcd by othar Authors, wc (hall take no " 
fonbcr notice ofj than juft to Hiention, that in the latter, 
Di. Monro endeavours to prove, that the communicarioti 
•f the laVraJ ventricles with caeh other, and with the third 
ventricle, cORJcftored by feme, and denied hy others, hath 
ACVBT been foirly afcertained ; and that the paltagest^ which 
Ai« communication is maintained, have tiever been pointed 
out OF deHtteated by any Author. 

The fourth chapter treats of the commnnicBtiori of- the 
Tentricles c^ the encephalon with each other, as defcribed by 
the Author. 

At Dr. MoBfo lays claim to the discovery of thefepaflages 
of communication, and as wc do not remember to have feen 
A«iB before defcribed in print ; we ftall give the mottf of 
tookiag for thera,in his own words. 

* 4l3r lajriog open one of tbe lateral Tentriclei of the brain in 
I J lh» 

154 Monro'j Oifcrvations on tht Nervoui Syfttm. 

the uCual way, Inring the fcptum beiween the Tentriclet entire, let 
the gutter which ia betweea the corpora Ariaia and thalami nerr^- 
rum opticorum, the bottom of which i» occupied by the fubllance 
called cetitrum femidrculare geminuTn, be traced inwards, and it 
will be found to lead to the fore part of an oval bole, large enough 
toadmit a gEmfeq'uill, under the fore part of the fornix. From thi* 
hole, a probe can be readily palTed into the other lateral ventricle, 
fliewing, in the firft place, that the ttvo lateral ventriclcB cbnunu- 
nicate with each other. When the fornix ii next divided traafverie- 
\y, we find that thiipalTage hat the aiucrior crura of the fornix at 
its fore part, and ihejojtiing pr middle p^rt, ut the choroid plexufe* 
of the lateral ventricles at its bacV part, and that its middle part 19 
over a paifage downwards named the iter ad infundibulum, or 
vulva, which ftiould rather be called iter ad tertium veiitriculom.' 

Dr. Monro havinguccurately and clearly pointed out the 
real communications between the lateral ventricles and the 
third ventricle, rcftifics alfo the miftake of other anatomifts, 
who have defcribed the communication between the lateral 
ventriclesand be by the paflagc called anus, which 
hole, hcobferves, is completely Ihut up by a broad valcolar 
membrane, adhering cloicly to the fornix above it, and to 
the thalami nervorum opticorum below it. 

Dr, Monro likewifc proves, that the bottom of Ae fourth 
vcntiiclc is completely Hiut by its chorride plexus and pia 
mater, and hadi no communication with the cavity of the 
ipinal marrow, as Dr. Haller has Cuppofed. 

This communication of the four ventricles with eat:b o~ 
ther, and npt with the fpinal marrow, is further proved from 
the Aii^or's obfervations, made upon opening the bodies 
of fifteen children, who died of the Hydrocephalcy internos, 
in whom all the ventricles were diltendcd ; and ail of them 
emptied by cutting into one of the lateral vcntridei; in 
.whom the paHages were found much enlai|;ed, aad no water 
.was^itiany. of mem found in the cavity of the fpinal marrow. 

Dr- Monro fuppofes, tliat in the cafes quoted by Haller, ; 
where both of the lateral ventricles were not emptied of ] 
water by an opening made into oneofthcm, the natural open- J 
ings muft have been clofed by previous inflammation. j 

-This leads the Author to fomc pradical obfervations, in j 
which he reprobates with great prtwriety the operation pror 
pofed by fome furgcons, of punfturing the brain with a 
trocar, in cafci of the hydrocephalus internus. 

Dr. Monro obfcrves, indeed, that if the water be fitoatcd 
l>etween the dura mater and the fur^e' of the brain, it may 
perhaps, be advifeable to give the patient the only, though 
Tmail cbanceofcure, by the operation. 

This cafe, bethinks, occurs more rarely than is general- 
ly fuppofed, and even if did occur, the great difficulty of 
: . : I diftingaiibins 


Monro's OSfirvathht §n iht Ntrvtus Sjifitm. (3^ 

iHftihguiihing the Iiydroccphalus czternus from the inter- 
nus, and liic little probability, we might fay the impoffibi- 
lity of doing fervice by tlic operation, if even the diftinflioa 
tould be made, are circumdances which induce us to think 
differently from our Author in this rcfpeft, and to condemn 
the praflice of perforating the bone in any fpecics of hydro- 
cephalus whatever. The only cure w« can with fafety at- 
tempt in this deplorable difeale, is to endcavo\ir to ftrength- 
en the fyftcm, and encourage the abforption of the fluid. 
The writer of this analyfis few a child of five or fix years; 
old, in whom the cxiftcncc of water in the brain was fuf- 
pefted. The head wasconliderably enlarged ; the fenfcs to- 
UUy gone, and the patient remained for fix weeks in a per^ 
ft& flate of llupor and infenlibility, without the leaft degree 
of fenfation or motion, and with a total' inability of fwal- 
kiwingfood. He was cured by the alternate admini Juration 
«f bark and brpth glyfters four times a day. 

The fifth chapter treats of the abforbent vefiels of the Cnce- 
phalon, andof the infundibulum and glandula pituitaria. 

In this chapter, the Author endeavours by many inge- 
nious arguments, to eflablilh the exiftcnce of^ lymphatic ab- 
forbent Vcllcls in the brain. 

He urges tba^ the difcovery of them in living quadrupeds 
hath not been yet attempted by proper experiments ; and 
thedifficaityof finding them in moft of our organs after 
death ; which with pcrfons lead converfant in anatomical in- 
quiries, is improperly confidered as an argument for their 
Ron-exifVence. He obferves, by attending to dtfeafes, that 
he faath evidently feen them exilt in the eye, and within the- 
cavities of the bones and joints, where no anatomift hath 
tnced them with the knife. In filh, he has injected' coloured 
wax, from a lymphatic tr^nk, into many fmall branches on 
the pia mater of tlic brain, the membranes of the eyes, and 
the organs of hearing, which have appearefi quite red, though 
□oncof the tnjeftion had filled any of the arteries or red 
veins. Another argument ia deduced from the lymphatic 
glands of the head and neck being ib large and numerous, 
that when we compare them with the anillary and inguinal 
f^ds, we cannot fuppofe them to correfpond with theour- 
fidc of the head only; befides that they are difpofed in a 
feries, the top of which is at the bafis of the cranium. 
From thcfe arguments, and by future attention to difeait:;, 
in which acrid matter is collefled within the cranium, and 
from proper experiments which the Author propofes to be 
inftituted on living quadrupeds, he makes no doubt, bu't 
that it will be fully proved, that abforption within the head 
I 4 ii 

,d.i.GoogIc ■ 

136 14o>u»'t OhJ^vatUiu an ih$ N*rvei(s Syflem. 

i^ in all aaimaU performed, as eUewberc, by the ]yniphad« 


We cannot hut regret, tb»t the Author himfelf has DOl 
jnllituted thefe experiments before the publication of hit 
book, rather than to have left fo iniportant ^ matter to reft 
upcm arguments, wtiich, however ingealQi^s and conclulivOv 
^c nothing whpn compared to faAs. 

Dr. Monro then proceeds to Jhcw by fevsral eitpf rirnenta, 
that theinfund^bitlum in man and qu^rupeds, is not a fo- 
Ud imperforated bod}F, as many eminent writers, in oppo- 
fition to the ancients, contend; but a hallow membranous 
tube painted with many veJlets. From thcfe etperimentt 
the Dodor concludes, that there is reafon for (uppofii^, 
that the glandula pitniRM'ia performs th? o$ce qf a conglo- 
bate gland) which opinion, hejuftly obicrves., will ;q)pcar 
more probable, if further expfcticnce fhall (;on^im Ae cit-, 
cumflancc alledgcd by Petit, th^t \^ a hydrocej^bjs^ he had 
found the elandul? pituiuria fchirrhous. 

In the fixth and feventh chapters, of the ^h of ^^ vea- 
tricles of the eaccphalon ; and of the cin^riiiovs. w4 lae- 
dullary fubflancef of the brain and ccreballum, w« find nor 
thing new worthy of remark, except, that bqfide the cinen-v 
tio^s matter in the f:orfic2t part of the bntin, &c. or on the < 
fuiAce of the corpora ftriata, .a gtwt (feal of it is found in- 
dofed within the niedMllacy fqb^nce ; i^\ ^ we conAantlyi 
pbfervc, that ^cl^ parts as ^ro cirtciidous without, yre vaCt 
duUary within, fo the DoSor thinks wft may invert the 
propofition, and far* that if ariy tubercle be medullary on 
the outfide, wc uiall certainly" fifid cineritiona matter 

In the eighth, tiinth, tepth, an^deveoth chapters. Pro- ' 
feflbr Klonro endeavours to inval^d^w citaffj' rncnved c^- 
nions, .^od to prove from a more.^ccur^ invefl^stton of 
t^ie anatomy of the parts, th^ hath hi&erto appeared, ai 
well as from tnafxy ingenious argument? and axpra-iments, 
£rlt, Uut the whole medi^Uary fubfiance of the hraiaand 
cerebellum, is aa; eaipjbyed in the fpriBfttion of the nerves 
of the head and of the fpinal marrow \ fecoodiy, that the 
nerves tsay exifi without the hrajn ; and thirdly, that tb«Fc is 
i^ energy in thq 'nerves, independent of that thtsy receive 
from the brail),' 

Thefe iqjpbrtaot points vet in general ^blidied, from 
conCdei;)^ the great mafs of m^iilfvy fubfianco ia the 
brain, which the Aathor recltons' to be wio hutvdr^ times 
at leaft as bulley as all the nerves of tlie head ar^ fpinal mar- 
row conjoiiied ; fi;oin the force of the mufclcs, and the a. 
cuteneft of fenlation in fidi ^nd (>tber animals with very 



(tfa\X Waifis ; «piJ from the pcopoicUQBate fizq of the biaTn 
in mao, by whicb it ^ppwrs, tli»t tb« hrain of » Uree ox 
weighed no mose tbut oae fourth of the human brain, 
though the weight of the ox was probably fix times greater 
. than that of the man. 

Theexiftence of the nerves independent of the brain is 
fhewn, from the Author having obferved in well formed 
children delivered af the full time, the fubftaiice which flip-. 
plies the place of the brain, not larger than a fnjall nut, with 
^o appearance of medullary fubfUnce in it, white ihe fpinal 
marrow, and the nerves proccding from it had thf ordinary 
fi.^ and appev^noe. 

In 3 monfirous kitten with two bodies, the Author found 
in ono of the bodies, the fpioal marrow of its proper lize, 
connedcd only to a fmatl bunon of iqedallary fubftancA 
without a fiutabLc brain or cercbcUum, 

The Anthoi cut the ^ina| marrow and fciatic nerves re-> 
pcatedly in living fiogs, and kept the animal alive more than 
a year after. The nerves pnder ihe incifion never recovered 
their powers, though fome of the fciatic nerves were jome4 
again, but they retained their natural fize. 

The new obfcrvations refpefting the ftrufturc of the fpinal 
fnarroware, that it is divided inta four cords inficadof two: 
the two divifions already obferved, being fubdivided into a 
fmall poftenor, aiVi a l^rgc exterior chord : that it is not a 
mere mfiduUaiy tuhltanccy hut, that it has a quantity af ci- 
peiitions cortical matter undcv its pia mater, apeeing in ge- 
neral with the brain in its ftmflure : that the anterior and 
j^erior buiullec which foTEft the fpinal nerves, have each 
their pro«C[ ht>k i» ^ Ipinal Hicath. of the dura mater. On 
the OiUwc o( thii fttcalh, the cellular fobftanco is condenfed; 
and tW> the two biindle» together, io. that at firft %ht they 
«^9f as ens norve. Hence they arc delcribed as palling 
tbn)i)gh one hol«, and forming one nerve terminating in a 
gai^iion. Tlj9 Atuhor obilcrves, that upon breaking the 
ccMvlltr fvtbftanc* conoB^ing the two bondlpt, it will be 
fe^tind thiit th* pofbrjox bunw? (uily ends in a ganglion. 

The Antbor thinks, thjt all the nerves carry their pia 
natei along with, tbem, from which they lecm to receive a 
quantity of cincritious matter. He oblerves alto, that at- 
^Vgh the optic aqrves and poitio mollis of the auditory 
miv^tft)^ tofaman exception to this rule in their progrefsto 
^ ey« fnd oax, Y4t :» foon as they enter thefe oi^na, indead 
9fEemai9juig wiuK juid opaque, they become cincritioust 
which be fcys is bccaufe they carry their pia mater along 
irith them. IVom which mcnibmne every fibre of the nervo 
nceivM ciMiitiouf. RuttEC. 
^ Tiw 

Digitized byGoOgIC 

13S -^t Hifterical Effay on Mr. Jtddiftiu 

The cdncluliotis drawn from thcfe prcmifcs, it will ba 
moft proper to give nearly in the Author's own words. 

* I. TutaAnall portion only of the brain, efpecUUy of the 
human, is eloD^teil to farm the nerve* and I'pinal marrow. 

' %. That the rell, as a medium between the livin? principle xnd 
the other parti of the body, performs oStcea which are proper 
to it. 

, I. That the ODpofiie iides of the encepbalon are joined by 
bundles of fibree, which feems in a certain degree- to account for 
!hc general fympmhy of nerves. 

' t. That the rightandieft fides of thefpinal marrow bein^ lefa 
intimately connected than is commonly imagined ; this drcum- 
Itance in fo.wc degree enables us to underftand the caufe of ■ he- 

c. Tiiat; lenfation and motion is maintained in the oi^ns 
only while the brain aud nerves of thofe organs prefi-rre their 
cormeflion. * That our nerves, indeperidcnt of the ence- 
pbalon, poficfs an energy or principle of life,' which they derive 
from their proper pia mster, an<i its veliels : an energy < which o> 
Derates on the paiis of animals, in which we .find'^o organ referob- 
ling the brain'; an cncrjjy, perhaps, like to that which a>3uaies th* 
parts of the vegetable kingdom^ 

' 6> In palucs, and other difeafes of the nervous ^ftem, our at- 
tention (hovid not therefore be entirely coDfined to the ftate of the 
cDcephaloa, bBCliiould alfoezteiid to the Hate of the circulation in 
the limbs affected.' ■ ' ■ ' 

[Tt ieMwtiudtJ mnrnenil'] - 

S/M. ■ ■ Svo. No Pricey 

THE writer of this eflay, docs not give his name to the 
public. Nor was his performance intended for the 
world at large. He informs us that it was properly addreJied 
to the fmall circle t)f his acquaintance, to whom he prefent-^ 
cd copies as he would of a manufcript, not fir nor me to be 
trulted out of their fight. It may tlicrcforc be cxpefled, that 
we Ihould make an apology to the Author and to the world, 
for istioducing into our monthly publication a performance 
of this kind. To 'the Author, we plead, that his cflay has no 
occafion to avoid the cje of liberal apd impartial criticifm. 
And as to the public, it is not more the mtcntion of our 
work todirefl them to the purchafe of books, than to inform 
them of what is going forward in the literary world, and ta 
fumifh from thence an agreeable mifcellany for their enters 
tainmcnt. In profecuting this plan, itia not foreign to our 
purpofe to acquaint our Readers, that a gentleman of juft 
talle and extcnlive reading, who appears, however, rather in 
the character of an Jmaitur or DtUttanltt' than a profeflcd 
viiiot/cbeiar, entertainsbim&lf with writing the obferv»- 


Digitized byGoOgIC 

An-Hificr'scol EJfay tit Mr. jfMfan, I39 

^ions th^ cither occur to himfelf concerning certain eminent 
char'aClers, or 39 he approves of them in tlie publications of 
others. Thefe obfervations he commumcates, in print, to 
■ his particular friends. Thus, while he contributes to theii 
afnufemcnt, he enlivens his own conceptions, and derives a 
■fatisfaflion from the fympathy of his friends in his various 
ientitnents. For we are fo conftituted by nature as to feel a 
pleafure in communicating our fentiracnts. We enter, by 
an Imaginary change of perfons, into the Htuations of o- 
thers, and fee! anew, as it were, in tneir perfons, emotions 
which had grown blunt from repetition. This is one of the 
fources of the pleafure of converfation. And this, we may 
fuppofe, is the motive which determined oar Author to givo 
Jiis ideas to a fetcA fi;w,- though not to the public at large. 
It was in this manner diat the ancients cnhvencd and fup- 
poited-the fitiffue t>f iindy and writing. They addreflcd 
works to ccrtam friends whom they were ambitious to pleafe; 
they had the ratisfa<£tion to be a (Tu red that they would b« 
read without malignant criticifra, within that circle whofft 
a.i>probation and eileem were of iflore value to them than 
ihofe of the whole world befides. 

The gentleman who has revived this practice difarms all 
cciifure, by confefling, that though be " readily condemns 
the generalpiaflice of writing one book from another, be it 
yet certsunly guilty of that&ult hirafelf," 

Floriferis ut apes infaitihui omnia libant - 

Omnia nai. — '■ ' ■ ' 

He is fuch a writeras Montaigne, whoconfcflei that he 
culled here and there, out of fcveral books, fuch fentences 
as pleafcd him. Like ^ostaigne too, he is agay, plca- 
fant, ahd fcnfible companion, difcouraging ccnfure by free- 
ly cenfuring and laughingat himfclf. Addifon and his writr 
ings were the favourites of the youth and advanced age of 
this '* dealer in anecdotes," as he calls himfelf, and he de- 
lights to cxprefs to his friends, in this private exhiiiiien, 
manythings relating to that eminent writer. Nor are the 
anecdotes he relates confined to Mr. Addifon. He makes 
frequent digrcllions, but always in natural and eafy tranfi- 
tions, to feveral of his friends, and to matters that are con- 
nefled by any-flrong principle of aiTociation, with thofe that 
arc the principal fubj?£ts of his obfervations. Thus from 
Addifon be naturally digrefles to his friend and fuccclTor 
Mr. Secretary Craggs, of whom be records the following 

* The Clascal names of Damon and Pythias, of Pylades and 
Orefles, and Nifus and Euryalus, did not go oftner together in an- 
ciciu tory, than thofe of Addifoo aitd Craggs in the real life of 


Digitized byGOOgIC 

14« ■<*« tiifiaricai EJJly aa Mr. AMfin, 

modern times. Crag^ tttrat to have bad but one ioflrmity, which 
it come to the writers ktuwledge very lately imd from food autbo- 
rity. He was afliatned of tke meannefi of his bmh (which Addifbn 
cMinvieltMsmoJefyJi for his ivk«, though hy meiit nifed to 
be pofl mailer ^eoeral tind to bo bonie a^eut to the Duke of M^rl- 
boiough ; h«d been only a Barter, the rcfk^ljon, of which tonnei^l- 
cdhim through life. Better certainly to be the (irfl man of a (»xdv- 
ly, than the lad ; as had been often f^d. The man of Arpiauni 
was fuperior to the proudeft peer of Rome. The conclufion of the 
jocular epitaph of Priqr {who had himfelf been a tavern boy) ia a 
complete vi«ory over nobility of birth,' 

/' The fon of Adam and ofEve— 

" L,et Bourbon or Nal^u go higher.** 
From Craggs the writer of theft: anecdotcc nailcs by no 
•unnatural contic&iQn ((ince diffimilitude, according to Hum^ 
a» vcU »s iunilitude, is a principle of afibciattoii) to. 

* The cekbraied Arthur Moore (a ckara^r very unlike Crajm^ 
for he probably never knew whax-fiamt wu in the courts of bii FiSc) 
who rofe, fays Burnet, from bcingafootman, to be a lord of trade. {Ik 
^rviti(de was oTcrluoked by hi« party, when his merit was rewarded^ 
llew^a perfon offo inuchijnterity in bufinefs that he cctipfed or 
got before mofl other men of his time. He was to have beta Cbati.- 
i;cUor of the £xcbe(]uer in Lord Botingbroke's ad mini 11 ration. If 
the Queen had not d:ed. At the acceiSon, indeed he wa; frojbcihid. 
For he was charged with touching fome French ^nd SpantOi gold'; 
(LoidOxford alfoafltrts, in his letter to the-Queen, tbepubticwas 
cheatedoftwentyiboufacdpoundtjWhereMoorcwBicoiMHnied), ium) 
it was faidof him, veif^id't hie »ve fMtriav, Mr. Speaker C^flow* 
his provincial neighbour, defcribea him, is a margiwA tetnuk d 
tbeBiiliop*s hiilory, as one of notable t^lctiti, wdofanroft agrw? 
able converfatioo, and fays, t^iat he funk all at once in mind, body, 
and fortune.' 

The Author alfo relates feveral anecdotes pf Mr, TickcU* 
the particular friend of Addifoq. He ranges hi^Aj over 
Englilh clallical ground, and gives mvivf anecdotes ^08 
books, and a few from tradition of our moft fiiiincnt fttfcf:i 
men and authors. Of the following (which arc a lively ex- 
ample of our Author's manner), fpme ^r? ^kcn frt^ bQok^ 
others from living teOimcuiy, 

* Sir Richard [Steele] (for at the Accellion)iewt« knighted, a|i^. 
If we are not miflaken, with the fwordof theDuke of Martboroughi 
as well as Dr. Garth) relates, that Ad^ilbn was able to dia^te witb 
rapidity lo his amanuenfis, whilfi he walked about the room, and 
attend to the coh««nce and the grammar. He muA ba,ve had a. 
(irons head, and great colleflednefs for this purpole, and have per- 
fe^ed this UBconunpn <iua|i|icatioo into a, halnt. Steele mcotteiw 
this whilA he is on the lubje^ of the Haunted Houfe : in yAiffft Cv 

* Mr, TicVell, at prefentoaeof tliebvourjte writen«f tbetowi^ 
is that Mr. Tickell's grandfon. . 

. _. ""^yi 


^ohthlV Catalooite. ' Jl^ifiel/antsnt. 141 

Bcdy, almofl demonftrariTclj the |>erfbrmnm of Addifott) tt^hiSf 
entenon the ft^e, orquimt, u 11 retnM-ked of Terence, withOM 
a rearon. Lord Bicon, ai defcribcd b^ Dr, Rileig-b, hii Stcrttary^t 
WuiMe to diOate forwbok houre, witbeutibe loft intermiffian. 
-Nec^fity, u much 3» inclinuion, comptla to ttiil pra^ce^ The 
Telumtiuiin and entemining Di^ Campbell (whofe converfation iq 
Qgeen-fquare will be loDg remembered by hii friehdt) cotnpafed 
with the pen of an amanumfii. H« dieted kii-Polftkal Sarrcyot 
Brit«iii, which hit tremUini; hand could not bavC written nnthaul 
fhugue. Not to mentioa the well<kDowa takon of juliui CjeTar, 
the reader fiM}r be truly told, that Sir Willhm JonCt, now on hfl 
vojragv to hit Judgtllnp at Cahmtta, wn able to dilate in mofe 
langUa^ than one, at the fame time, in T«rf« at well ai lA prt^,' 
Thccapacity-of Philidorto plajr at three cablet, M Chelt, Mind-' 
fbU, wuan uoconunoa and aAoniihiiig cft>it of the human mind.* 
With anecdote, the writer frequently mixes v«ry jnft and 
lively criticifiD, For example, Addifon he contrafls with 
Swift in the following manner, ' Addifon endeavours to re? 
daim bf expolhilation, by harmlefs irony, and by letting you fee 
your errtiTs in a true miriwr : Swift meant to etpofe you to yourfelf, 
and prefcnied for that pUTpofe a Oorgon'a head to your imagina- 
tjon, and thought he had not done enough till he had written down 
your fame and fbrtUDCv >* ">> *^' (^"^c With Wood and Bettifworth* 
A rertigo fnatched the pen out of his hand, heForc he had fihilhed 
hi* Legion Club. Into what a pandemonidRi does he conveit the 
Irifh parliailtent! Addifun, liVe Horace, extnbiit himfelf with 
(ilniles, " but give* the dangeroUi pafles when ftc fmiies." The 
ether, to ufea ftrongexpreffion of Johnfon, " bites Kite a *iper, 
and wouM be glad to leave inflammation and gangrene behind him.' 
On the whole this fpecics of writing, which is akin to the 
mUes attic*, is very amnfing, as ithas norhing of the feyc- 
rity bfleftures or letdifcourfes, but is quite companiona- 
ble, and unites inftniftjon with a kind of fociaj delight. 
And we cannot but obfcrvc, that our Au±or would have 
done-a pleafure to the public, and certainly no difcredit to 
lionfelf, if he bad given this efSiy formally to the world. 


For A U G U ST, 1783. 


Art. 15, T^Se TemetU Spy, or Mrs. Taniins's Recount of .her*' 
Jammey through Franci, at the exprefs order of ihc Right Ho- 
nourable Charles Jamei Fox, Secretary of State. Printed for 
and Sold by the Author, it, 6d, . 

IT appears troin tfava account that Mrs. Tonkins was employed by^ 
Mr. Fox to perform the office of a Ipy ia fome parts of the con- 
tinent, that (he has beggared hecfelf in lo doing, and that her right 
Juwouia^lB eo^loycr tctuted her any recompeuce. if the » 


US MoNT«£v CaTalocce, Mfitliinuut. 

bctraei it appears to at « moil ntriordiairy inflance of creJutif^ 
lo empiojr fuch a woman, aifliem thUpatpphlet difplays a tk^dcs 
of fpirit ill calculated to promote (he de&gM of a fpy. 

Plain truth weU attetlcd, it' all that is requilite in an aecount of 
this nature. But we have here the moll illiberal abufe that perhap* 
■ ever wag printed, A few fpecimeiu of her epitljrts, ftiall iuflke-' 

* The y^""**'"^ Admiral Pyegrinoed Hit a m.-aluy'—'^ The Jlippery 
' Lord Stormont'—' Ca:ptaiii Kempthom, an infigaificani fMfpf'— 

* That^/Bf, -/nr^/f/W^j^e^ Sheridan'— ' That */(//»/, mfau/firitrd 
*^ Scotch ptbhU, Frafer* — ' OUgarmaaJlxirfg Todd s.t the Poft-office' 
— • Thick-haded Rogers, Admiral Ktppcl't Secretary'—' Old and 
' blind Mr. Sneyd'— ' The iii/e-i^wui' Lord Shelburne'— ' Mr, 

* Fox, a larii-coat Jtieifful/ellmu ;' — There! My Lord ■ and GsA- 
tlemeo, taltie your feats accordingly !— If the Reader be not fatislied 
with the above, let him.purchale the pamphlet itfelf, in which th^ 
authorcfs informs the public (ai an cxcufe for the miUnrft of her 
epithets) that "(he w no writer by profeffion, and that file defcribe* 
" people as the found them in plain language, and, that (lie writes, 
" as moft people fpeaJt of the characters in this pamphlet." , We 
hate only to add, that of the truth of the account we are no judgei. 
To determine that, is the province of the /.jvaking, Jlitpery, lying, 
deceitful, piliful, ttuan fpiriiii!, goTmandizitig, ibick-htaied, iUnd, bidt' 
ieand, aid lurTicnal grallemen concerned. 

Art. 16, An ^ddreft tt the King atid Par I'lantenl of Great Bri- 
taia, m preferring ibt Livn-ef tht lnhaHtantt, The third c<Utioii. 
To which are now added, Obfervations on the General Bills of 
Mortaliiy, by W. Hawes, M. D. Phylician to the Surry Dilpen- 
fary, and Reader of Leftures on Animatiou : Alfo, fartiiM' Hints 
for teHofing Animation by an improved Plan, and for preferving 
Health againll the pernicious Influence of noxioui Vapoura, or 
contaminated Air, m a fecond Letter to the Author^ By A. 
Fothergill, M.D- F. R.S. iimo. ja. Dodfley. 
Every thine from the pen of Dr. Hawcs wears the face of aii nrf. 
vtTtifiment. XVe are forry to learn that his plan, of which the pub- 
lic has been fo often toid, has not met as yet with due encourage- 
ment. He now addrefles the King and Parliament, but furely the 
;:ood Do<5ior cannot be ignorant that the method of addretGng the 
King is by the Parliament, and the method of addreffing ihc Pax- 
liament is by 'a motion from a minider or powerful member. With- 
out this mode of application all endeavours will' be in vam, and we 
carnellly recommend it 10 Dr. Hawes, to nuke earnefl a|^lication 
to lame men in poiver, who may procure the a Hi fts nee of^govero' 
mcnt. Surely a plan of the natur,e prepared could not fail of en- 
courage men t from the Senate; and we willi the expeiiment to be 
tried for two reafons principally ; firft, bceaufe there is a kind of 
apathy reigns at prcfent among the wealthy \ their charity when it 
is exerted appears to proceed from fafhion or oftentation j and fc- 
<;ondlv, becaule we have many reafons to believe that the freouent 
newspaper puffs, pamphbt ^oj^, and other indited) marks ef uif 
eorrefted leal for the good of the human* fociety, have injtwc^ thfc 
Mufe which they uere intended lo ferve. 

Or.Hayyes'b obitrrvitti(Hu on the bills of moTtatWy are uwre TagHo 


by Google 

Monthly Catalogve. AftJi^Uanttus. 143 

ind ancertain than the tnlli themrelvH; ibr he Jenin trlthout aflert- 
ine or attemptmE f^ prove say thing. Dr. Fothergill'* hinti for 
reltoriDg animation difcover great knowledge of the fubjeft, with- 
out that fondncTs for theory which difgracci young praAitronera. 
Much it due to both thefc gentlemen for their alSduit}^ in bringing 
the meaiu of reftoring animatioD to confiderable perfedioti, And we 
fiocerely willi, and we believe it it a wilh of the nation, of benevo- 
lence, philanthropy and fcience, that the hutnane fociety may 
fpeedily receive the alMaiice of government) that general receiv- 
ing houfes may be appointed, and the liability of the Tociety no 
longer left to the vague whims of a world which ia charitable often 
without knowing why, and niggard without kiiowii»; wherefore. 
Art. 17. Heads ef a Csurft ef Leilures en liijiery from iht 

tarlitft Acaunti m iht prr/int Time. By the Rev. W. Rutherford, 

A. M. For the Ufc of his Academy at Uxbridge. ismo. No 

Price nor BookfeLlers Name. 

Thefe' Heads afibrd a promifing view of Mr. Ruiherfordll 
I^eAurei. His attention to inform his pupilt is very commeod- 
able; and by the method he adopts they cannot fail of acquiring a 
due proportion of hiAorical learning; and of contrafiing a liberal 
manner of thinking. 

The prefeat little worlt ii not printed for Tale: it it delivered 
gratis to Mr. Rutherford's pupils, and wemetfvithacopyof it byacci- 

On thisaccount it becomes In one lliape the more valuable, ai 
ihows that the improvement of the Author s fchool ia of more im- 
}>onance to him than any advantage to be derived from the oftenta- 
tioua publication of Tht Heads of bit LeBurrs, from which a parade 
might have been made, but which Mr. Rutherford with probriety 
admits apply principally if not totally to the ufe and initrudion of 
bis pu|nlB. 
Art. 18, Letters from a celehrateJ Nobleman to hi$ Heir, 

Never before pubtiflied. iivao. as. 6d. Nichols. 

It is not true that thcfc letters were never published before. They 
iave appeared repeatedly, and in different places. They have been 
publillied at Edinburgh as wel! as at London. In the prefcnt pub- 
lication they perhaps may be prefented in a more perfedt form than 
heretofore, fhey are the genuine produAlon of the celebrated 
Lord Chefterfield. They are eafy, familiar, bfilliant and witty; 
and they are lefs difgraced than other portions of his writings with 
that loofe morality, and thofe profligate advices which he was fb 
apt to inculcate and prefg upon young perfoos. Hi« talents were 
admirable; but his heart was left pcrfeflj and the commerce of 
high life had accuftomed him to habits, and to a depravity which 
detracted from the dignity of his charafler, and are a faiire upon 
hii knowledge. 
Art. 19. Jn Effay on Modtrn Jgricutfire. is, CadsU. 

Although there are not many weeds, the land here produces no- 
ihlhg to repay ua for viCting it. In few words, this poem is be- 
neath mediocrity, dull, and tedious. The followifig inltance of the 
iaclmi may ferre aa a fpecimen. 



'^ " O happy lairf, where trade h«tl>fi«n! her throne 

** And Irwdom^ IftTcly freedom ; is thitie own j 
" JFhtrr h:p avd harhy frirndtf jtm Join, (kc. Btc." 
What ia thn but Liteil t amd arionc iees ! 
■ Art. 20. the jtnutirt ef FlmXet,viT the AdvcntuKs of » K.65^ 
■ Redcap, ice. By Mrs. R— n. li. bi. Uicfi. 
Art. ao. Jhi Efufions of LiAjt; being the AftiotouB, CoHe- 

nrpoudencc beiweeo the Amiable Florizel and the £ncbaiiting 

Kedita. 4to. is. 6d. Lifter. 

Thefe arliclei ought to go together, for they are a compound 
of dullcers and impude&ce. The tibertiei, however, which m one 
of thrtn, are talen with the firft perfonage* in the kingdom, 
nftrit the attetitioh of thofe peTToitAges. As critics «e cin giVe bo 
prailc. ' The pcfforinADceg arc intolerable, ftupid, and ubffonhy ot' 
Art. 2K Htfttrj of tbt Life sfTamerlafulhtCrtM. laitio, 

I!. 6d. Law. 

This work hag already appeared in Knglifh. but in a worfttraof- 
lation. - Tiie prefent ia the beft we have feen. The ftoiy is tntcr- 
taining, and may be inltru£tlre, but ai a hiltory, or piece of \ao- ' 
fraphy, it hat nothio? to entitle it to much notice. 
Art. 22. The t-ift af Henry CblcheU, A rdibilh op of Canterbury, 

Founder of All Souls Colle^, in the Vnivcrlity of Oxford, 8to. 

ti. boards. Walter. Charing Crofi. 

From the elevated rank which Chicbel^ held, in time) fo prcoii' 
tious to ecclefiaflical power, an.-l the important Icenes in which hK 
was engaged, he has been incidentally mentioned in moA of the 
hiliorics and public records of the age in which he lived. DifierettC 
lives too had been ivritien of that eminent peribn before Mrk 
Spencer engaged in the performance before us< And, in ti^th* 
What we find in ecciefialljcBl and civil hiliorians and in other Uo- 
graphers, might have well fatisfied the public curiolitv Concermog 
Cbichelc, without the labours of Mr. Sj)encer. This writer haa 
indeed arranged his materials in a very clear and dgfeeablo manner, 
lut has not brought ta light any important faS, or iUuArated bfr 
what he has recorded any doitrir.e in philofophy, or in the conlli- 
tutionat law of his country. The birth and education of Chichel^; 
bis various promutions : his addreis in Negotiation : his benefaiSiodB 
to tlie church and univcrlity of Oxford : his seal for the libertiea 
of the EngliHi churclt, yet his fubmiflion, in feveral lAportant 
iriDances to the Papal See; thefe ihijigs may indeed be intereftin^ 
to thofe who delight to look back with reverence to the grandeufi 
and ufurpations of' a triumphant fuperfiitiun | and they may be 
particularly ir.tcrclliiig to the redufe perfohs to whom they are dedi- 
cated^ the Warden and Fellows of Ail Sevh C<-Uigt ; but they afford 
but Utile amufeinent or initrddion to a mind coB»er(^tlft hiflor)-, 
and habituated to esteiiiive (peculation. 

Art, 22. Remarks on the French and Bn^lljh Ladrrs, in a Se- 
ries of Letters ; interfperfcd with various Anecdotes, and addW 

tionii Marter ariling from the Subjcft. By John Andrewsi 

L. L.J). 8to. Je. boards. Longman. 


by Google 

HaweVcT alludDg- diB title, ih an agtnotoviooi for lerit}', th1> 
ptirfohiMncc is in irutft out of th« dullaH, tnoD ihiipUt ami iifeUft 
(hit we have ever fem in any language: I'he remark* of Uo^hor 
Attdrews, where jult, are Dadtnied aotl coittnian : wbere thejr 
feem to be in (bine degree out of the common road, they af^pear » 
us to Want the ateuracV df mtl life and ttttu)*^ And to derive tk<ic 
novelty only from tht hyperbolica) flrainiagt of a writer i»ho i« do* 
lirotM of itMtjreftiW, aaA roiflKr thC' furprift of hli fcaien, but 
knom not hciw; Evcb hii atucdttei^ a word dear to all liglii and 
trifling mindij are uncoitrthanly lugiiid, aiul have bo d^ef cfeA 
ibsn to convert rhc dlfgiifl of trite Itmarl^i into die Maviioi of un- 
JMerefiiitg narraiitei Wittufi the m^tJlftt,- or rather the Asritt of 
three ladies in Letter Stxteetuhj and the flor^ of Mo fM»% U(Uei 
in Letter Ttmiht - 

However, Dr. Andi'M's may rfbrd foiTM«iRiGa|; iaform^iw ^ 

perfona unacquainted with the prefeot times f and is gcnenl, hit 

remarks *tt trite arid vulirar, but not unjufl. . . 

Art. 84. ^ Satin in Miuk ; being a ilt«rtl TrsliiflMioil tthl 

Criticifm on all the Mottos tfhteh now dftwrate the Anns of tte 

EngliO) NotttHty, and the prerentflnecnP'eeFi of Scotland; witl) 

hiuAounnis RefleAioDi on each. Calculated for the prcfiat ilimii 

^E- W-*-i-4to; is. 6d. Stockdik. 

Tbiiu ne Satire on Moctoi, butavery fevereonetm theAutbpr'j 
tafle and tindcribftding. 

The Duke of Norfolk'i Motto, the fed in tH* llftj xtfila'ViTtmf htt , 
miSa ! vtmte alone is invincible. The fatire cM this m«to is thki 
*• InVinc^le virtue— long 8nce ehnnged her fiatlon, 
** And now we're eonvineed fhc has quite left thU nation. ' 
It way be ^ne to America. 
The'Earlof 3hrewflmry*iMettois/rr^<^Av(N^//| 
Ready lo perfomi, 
The'Satire on thiiMptW i* . 
'* A haypy Mot^o for the marrkge (itfi 
TcHi fare ftjcceedcd — en your w^in^ Bl|fct.'' - ■ 
Lord Hentbrd's Motto is ia^t ■pirtoinm MUmniia i. c. jUtt^ttft 
^thtfu^atii^tf'vinmt. TheSartffi ^ . • : - 

" VPliea viitae Rton»>— to n£4e «> tb<s natiAb, ~ . ' ^ 
" We'll «nii her aHeady-^and frfidioundptioo." 
The Dyke of Gordon*! Moito is ««MiM MM' ^rftfi 
" ^Coumgo net by craft." The Satire^ .■: A 

" No matter ti^iith way Sir, Ue <xtt^-ot**<i*taf 
1** The times and Sodc^es mak< utamebili*" ■ ■ - ,: • 
We htw^ven the firlt of the Mottoa M -^kes^'BaiJa,'. BiMM/ 
•ad Scotch Peers as ^cimens-'df thisabfifnl-fMiWmancai' :" 1 
Art. 25. Fbi^cal Prudtnct, at the Quhtltf* 'Triumph «■*». - 
theTaeultjr. Infrribed toLordJ.^^irenidUhr is. M. Willtie. " 
After readmgthi* pam^lrt wfth a eonfiifcrsble degree of tXKn- 
»io»,_we (Jpclare oiirfejvej incapable to comprehend its meaning.' 
Ac^fitlt we imsglsed -the Author ihtended a fstiri agaioft a ta« 
wbioliamansipMet *U thephyfimlva^ants.ia Great Britain. But, 
Sf cM* really-waithc ititen^on, (he cxtwtios t« milbrabk, ai wa 
JtM«.R«r;Vcd.II. Aug. 1^3, JC baas 

Digitized byGoogle 

-146 MoNTHLT OATALOarE. Mifittlantout. 

-have not for many monthi been condemiied M read a more inCti)ie- 
rent jumble of obfervMioai. The piiblkaiion of fuch book* i* a 
heary tax on the putdic, and renders ui Reviewert a very pitiable 
'feF of mortali. C^bcr men may throw afide a book if they nod the 
•firfttiro pa^sdifguflinj;tb>''"C'"^Apc>'ufe the whole,, and for the 
mod part ^ve an inalyfii, which, however, jn the prefcot cafe is 
■Coially impollible. 
Art. it. A Letier u Mn Glare, one of the Members of the 

Corporation of Sur^om in London, upon the Prevention and 

Cure of the Siphths, Gonorrhea, Fluor Albas, 8(C. by Abforp- 
- tion.' By S. Frreman, 'M..D.. -Author of the Ladiet Medical 

Friend i the Good >Samaritan ; tha Practical Midwife, &c. 
' la. Cromwell. 

As in the whole courfe of our medical lludies both at home an4 
sbittfld; we never met with Vrl LadietMediral Fritvdi tht G»»d 'ia- 
JMwriAM ; the Praaical Mi^ifryt or nay -of the bouki meaot by 
the tec. we ai-e to derive all our kaowicflge of S. Freeman, M. D. 
ttata the publication before ui.— A woeful circumftance for him, 
indeed ! the fiile, the raijiner, and the knowledge contained in this 
pamphlet, are all derived from that fource which fuppties the news 
papers with tjuack advertifementa. Our. Keaden, thcrEfore, may 
gueft at the entertainment they are likely to receive iVora the moft 
uUpid Performance that ever difgraced good paper and print. It 
would be cruel to eipofe the poor man by an extract, elpccially aa 
the public-fee fi> many of the faipe- Author's performances in the 
public prints. We bo^ Mr. Clare; had no band in adrifin^ tb* 
publitation of thia letter. Addicted at he is to puffing, by having 
varioat lenera addrcflbd to himi we . fhould be fofry to find him re- 
duced to the oeccffiiyof petitioning for aid from S. Fretjnen, M, J>, 
amhor of the LtidUt JUr^iial FritJui, ibc Gttd Samarliojiy the Prac- 
tical Midwify, i^c. The &c, (now. we recolicfl) refers to thofe 
elegant compolitions whif^h fPplfir ns advertilementi, and which have 
the merit ol orijiinj^ity and invention. 

Art. 27. AMtiko4.of- Confiruaing Vaptur Bathit fJc. By 
." Jaroet Pl^yfair, ArchiteA 8vo.. ts. Murray. 

The difticutty with which vajmur- baths are applied to diroi>- 
den, rcndeti every new phtn an objeA of momant to mankind in 
reneral. The preient method ii contrived ia K to render vapour 
baths of fmall expence, and commodiotis itfein prutate families. The 
Author Eivei defigns cf a coi^venieilt hot watci bath. We have 
attentively eXamiiieil the dehgoi which afc excellently delineated on 
copper-plates, and are of opiniott that they are the bej^ hitherto in- 
dented'; what ittpar^calar recommends them ia the fimplicitj^of 
the mechanifm, nod the eafioe^ with which thev may be applied ia 
ivivate faniiliei, e4ch«f which may b« provided with one gf tbefe 
at 9, )ef$ ^pence th«n it incurred by a few vUiti to any of the public 
baths. The,conT!ru<^riq>peaf3 to bf an-ii^eoious man, and tve- 
doubt not w<M meet v/ith encouragement proportioned to his merit. 
Ait. is; '/ht D}prtft if IiUtgrityand FirtBt, A Ppem, ia, 
, tb'" . 'ot.>'s. •iy>ii.<nl>rofe Pittnao, £^; 410. is. 6d. Bcclcct. 
: ' ;« yv .(.,■ VV!->'^-.. >is ibe Author calls it with great juflice, if.; 
!»vi.,;-:i. • v, ' ■■.■;llijrne, In 4 barren, poor, and ial^tr- 



'Mtt^le r<»1, feifakca by ill the world, Inugrliy and virfiit latdy 
ixt tbcir nbodci being abiritxd at ibe prevateoce of lii^aiitm, mA 
Uie power of Mrmpiiaa, " Thii lovely pair," or m tbe Autbor 
clfewherc llilet theni " the fair," in thii retreit endewour, by 
Oiutual Tcafont to cadtire-ibe eviU of Mh«£iy, 'a,aA to Aippoit fx- 
plrinj; . f OTtita()e> 

Here virtue U dirtiJed tata three diLtiiiA perfoBaget. Vn-tut^ 
iniigrltj, ta& fartiiudi. Tbit ii a very unbappy perToniRcatiuD, aa 
die two latter are oonprebesded in the f^vmcn nay the Oreek' and 
Konun writer* dCRomioatcd vitttt in ^neral from a tertt whicb 
pn^rly, tmd ariginally fignificd ^* ftriituJi.*^ The execution of 
this poem it, Uke tbe defign, worfc Af^jwotnik, It is.pUeriie and 
Alt. Z9. ^ht Stat* Ctatk in tie Mrt, a Mtiern 7ak ; in Fou 

Pant, By Thoimu Brice. 410. ti. Scatcfacrd and .VVbtiakcr. 

The coach BritatuUB fitcks^ft in the mire, aiKl various coachmen 
endeavour to move it but in vain. Much waa to be expeAed from 
Mr. Htt'a reform bill t but' thia wa* 'rcje^ and' <b«' ouch £U)1 

The (rfd State Coach, &yi TbcMnai Bfice, 
. . . Once daastcd every coiauum fight. 

" For Pitt, the coachman, being clever^ - 

Hftdrabb'ditup thelikevaajnevet j < 

And giveitAtcbahcightof vantlh 

.Twaithougkt it never motre-couMtanifilt . 

Iti wheels too Pitt fo nicely gnafed, 

Ttin Inch he'd turn which way be pleaiMt 

But biioglin^ GoachtaenalcendtkeDoat , 
. . , And (be cavnage" teet'd into a flough, h^ka' g' 

" The energy of. C(»fwny'.s voice, - 1 

JoiaM to 4^ fccae before tfaeir cyci I 

Gave each mn Biitoo^ he»rt a. tmar. 

And all ftppiDved the juft harangue. . 
. W« irijl not tire the Ka^''*- padenM h^ any ob&rvfttVnn oft 
this ridiculous oerfonnafK^, fanher.dMnjoft C»&)l, ttiM it is pro- 

^blc 7i&iwiii^'-/(vi(cwchFi)into fonorreaicpt^at 

Alt. 30. Tkmtinim%btJlimvd«nUMiUttti>jl^MUhmmt^ 

, Gremt Srimim. is.; iUmOey. , "^ 

Tbit Author ia an enemy to the prefltng of ftMien.nnd. femen, 
ShdneoiniMMU.«f4aaby#hidifaathi»ktourflupa<maybeniahned ' 
Mid our army complettd.U * maitocc moy« bonouaable and lefau- 
'jMW&Te than chat wbkh has bQts.iBMdwinl during the wiir tin Ame- 
ma. We could not give h)i pjte^initboitt cowing .the wiiote of 
itacfMpUfltt kot M the. authdr writes, ianditttyv and appears to 
ti»derlhu«|liisfuhMfi,,.warecoi»ttrildhif^«^f tathofeirhoni it 
nay coDC«rd;' HiNiiviacijMlobjeiiSi.tbdingiftrBtiOn of t^men is 
■KW, miMNtnfOntea, tm the i«)iiM and will baoirrtcdinto'elcccu'' 
|«L,l<vdaofr!lti«Adnriraliy^Cdi:q)rov«dDf; ■■ 
Art. 31. Obfirvatiam^»an£*mpkkt-0aklediJt Thfmet of tit 
Rackingbam Party, with tfae Right Honourable Frederick Lord 
■ . ^orth. Thefe obfervatioos contain alfo a Defence of Lord Shet- 
^ * bume 


148 - ttavrni'-v C/itAlpabt. Afijctlttnetui, 

tarM frtm the Chir^ fcrot^hi igainft hhn, not only by thq 
' AtfiKiTr of th4 Defence, but alfo by the vnnuai iinonynuu» 
- Wnutt, riba have- cn^agvd M» the Ikmb fide of rtiequeltioD. Bvor 

The -anthoC 6f (htfc Ot>Arvadoa^^f hfc Alt in . itii judgmMt of 
Certain Readers, in his defence of Lonl Shelburne, will vet be al- 
Wed n> ba«e made* vigorausaAd-fuonrstal 'atmdit oa hii political 
cncmiei, Mr. F<»:, aadihe coatifton; The mcriit of the prefeat 
AilminiitrahM;' the Author after rnfoainff Avtn fa^ and^- Srfb 
principlCf, fuHit up with equal juftiKfi and brtvityin the fallowing' 
manner. 'They have tmuie coMceffioni they could not rsftll, an4 
hslre aded unitorfnhr fbrMM)*, t». prtfennce-to BJHicna) inierefi. 
The friendi of Mr. tax affirm that he oppofed a bad map for thtt 
good of hiixouQtt^t and diat hfrunlced with ithit Ary Uao fi>r-tl4 
fame^rpoft.' But &y>oar Aathor, "Mr. Eoioppc&d thiahiid. 
man rogel '«Um power. .Mr. ftncjouKd thn 'Verjrman on the ia'ae 

•Art. 3«. Jl M*m»rial- aJdr^bd itlht Seveftlgmi ^f. Anarlca. 
By T. Pownat], lace GoYcmor, Captain-general, Vice-adnur*^ 
&c. of the ProviocM, flow Statn, Hafla«hiifet(*i-^y, and South 
Carolioa; and LieuismM-^ovenutf of New J«rfty. 8*0. as. 61I. 

Theic is a fund of ialbmwion and of ooHticat pafcaroh in thii 

Ira^ which recommeod* kVo tiMiee) 'and«he Author is a friend to 

the rights of mabkiiid. Bat in hitpofitJoiu itAW \t occalionally a 

mixture of hypothecs, refioetDfot, and whi^ tbatfefVn tb dlminilh 

their importance and force. . Witfc regaTd^to %k the Author is tU 

^oroUl; bvthismanBerillB ^caeAl1(irda«4Bntt(fUftred.- There ia 

«1foa fpirit of'oib^tionin'h)! cORipofitioAv «*bi(^ tsbyinomesni 

cither proper in itfelF, or, agreeabte to the tafle of' (h« pfelent age. 

If he nad been a nuctfer In ttw art of gvactM : writii^, he woold 

iiave been able to have «all«d « very «DB&d>ntit»-dig;rae' of attcn' 

tioa to his do^trinei. " h .. . .•--.-(. ;:,; 

Art: 3 J. Refkaimsm tit »l4te ^i^- Sjfalfl^/M Heli^ri^ 

ike CUf^ md Mt UiOv^jkiU', and di« ttWtfw of prelervia£ 

them; in a-COh^tHAHdn hetween m tmiwirtt Prelsre, ahd » 

tcMMMl f rbih^ ComiW^OMed by the latftf,' kfWtt £i^e to a 

Cel^rated Dcitt. With an Appcn|t» and Ii}(Kes-4>y the Editor, 

tfn. it. ■9Mva^Ba&.' ■■ " ' ' . 

Tfa* ftelaie hew Wietio»d-' i»> riw jinnrtw^ iftfeey Btmnti lifs 
fanmeid friend 'IiDf. WhitWi xwi^hs i>iart:il Dh;C-ride«tHr. The 
Kditor of t)riipiA4ic»0D imArvATtnt, atitftciwtrM in the d*y«io( 
Bifliop Burnet, -fi>d««Fe i»f6!0Wo«lUch-Kftfe«f6r tenrureandcMfri 
pbint itiihrafpdft4a:«he miflf ifafta of'tcliiriaMl teoMidgt in 
.tnany candidate* tarWcte,siBd'adMr.wii)t-'«f>'«ftf'(faM m fignM 
ieiHmO«lli> ToiHt np>ttte!Utfp(lW£lkv aaA^th«:htKlMr.'er4ci»«l 
the flteicff. I« lift all«ieaM bw qniodyil^tti^fvHll* A< 4M)daU» 
•biea of tfait publicativn, :<r)fidfrt( nriVie. oMi'VMd feaft, duA « 


Tor the ENGLISH R E V I E. W. 


[/ir JUG US r IJH.] 

THE great Empiret of the world are agiHt«J wirh tbe«Mi|iB«- 
tioni that precede, or the confufrong chit follow the opcra> 
tioag of war. Wliite xre are informed that alt dilputei betweeft 
Ruffia and the P<^e are amicablf adjtifted, we are alrured from thfe 
fame authority, tjiat of farel^ ^sette* and BritlQi newi-papen, 
that the preparations, and even the Mt nMvements of war, marcbef, 
CDcampinents, and the ^nif tion of maEaziaei, are carried oA bf 
thoJe great povt-ers vith unremitting dMotfr. For the ctfrtaiiKf of 
]>eace we hare 6a\r the CDttjtihsTtt of polliieiane t fijr the pr^an- 
tioni of war there K the evManc^ gf fetife. Until tro JUt ioformed 
by better evideoce therefore tVao ihe Ipeculattont of foreign corre- 
foondents of the eflalilifltmeiit of'concon], we mulb ftitl look upox 
tile Turks and Rullijiu in the light of oppoRenp ready to take the 
Wd. The minilleivof prinpes do fiot uiually coNimlt the fecrstf 
of goVernmcat to the inquififiFe varM. j^y^tefy and iairigue art 
Buural TO fiatermen and klngi. And lealt of all i« it to fae exM^ 
id that we (liould know the fecret* of A^if friiuti. If the Rnfr 
fians are coidldent in the hope «f aSftdtice fpom (Hrmany; tl(* 
Turks with etjual confidence may ho^ for affiUmrce .from f rancc j 
■ad this the rather, th»t the Hoafe Of Bourbon bt^ipt to ton^djir 
d>e Mediterranean as a great lake m the nidll ot her doHiinionVf 
tad will be utterly arerfe from ike admiffion of Norttiem 8«eti, 
The. tame and fubmifiiTe tone of Eii|:fend tbnotMB'-not aav cA»t 
L tual refiilaBce tothepreicnfioDs of France, by fuppqrting m Sa* 
lefRuiBa. And with tht aid of the I^fksT Power lo Hi« w«fl<^ 
I Ibc TViiki may welt prefume to repel the encfoichineDta <ff life Em- 
I prefa, altboUEh fupponed by the HtKHe-ef Auftria< ■ 
\ That the Tuits know how to aVail t^mftlvei, tn gMp entef: 
Igendei of tVe power of France, ii crtdett frotb hlAqry, They 
|knaw that it ii the inierell of France to (iipifort (fattt). la the wax 
iKca Ruffia and the Porte whkb KrniinaKd ta the fWqcc of Bel- 
de, the French Monarch irfterpofed indeed hi« goad affl p t ) A th4 
ourtof Vieona, (for at that time too thi; Impetiari^ thUMened (o - 
sn the Salfians,) la favour of the Tiirks, bqt refifiedtheirpreffinc 
prtlotatlon) to afford more afiual affiSance. The IH*u, Mrentu 
ig that their chriftian ally was willing to qvoid the Aiqi^ncM of 
V, informed (he French amb^flador at Conilai^itlD^la, tlMt onleA 
e Zwitfrar tf Pranct would take tip armi In Ar^ <a^A, they 
*-" immedutrty conftnt to the teniv of pOicQ prmiofiKl by 
'tiisbad'the intended effsft: tbe rpitit?4 itKferituvaee ^ 
kt French checked (he aiqbitton of l|^ Ruffiai)* ■ The Qttoir.aii 
tart ii Dot le&poHiic now, iH»p k Wai then. Tli« ^tmpta of 
K governors of Trifiti and Tuiiii t'e ^feo^raf^e ^r^, and t»pro- 
Mt &ir trade ; the tranflatiofi of certain pohtilal wori^i t? ordef 
lAe piefent grind ViEir into the Ttfiliffa langUafe, with other 
manccf, indicate the commeneement ttf joft poticy atld liberal 
n isofiDt the di&itilci of ftt*^tO)ner, tjA Xftttaem^it^ that the 

• :_ Ji^ 

150 fJationat Affairt. 

liphtof fclcBCC witlene diy itlumlne ihofe regioDS Where itfirftJcUmi- 
ed. It is not therefore likely that the Oltoman court are infenfibto 
tb the advantages ihey might eipeft, oo a rupture with the northeni 
power!) from Fraace : nor ii it likely that with the hope of fuch 
aSAaace, the pride of the Citfccnt fltould, without an appeal to 
arma, abaadan the Crimea, and open all the I'urklfh feas for the 
xeccpiion. of its inveterate :eacmiet. But {panting, as it is faid, that 
the Turkif)) minifieri are ipuch incLiaed to peace, the great body of 
.the people magnifyingt at ia ufual, the rerourcei of the empire, and 
the prowe& of the Turkish wmt, are inipauent of the iofults of 
their chrillian foes, aod call upoo government to vindicate the ho- 
nour of their mighty prophtt. This if we may credit repeated i^ 
ports, is an undoubtea truth j and iu the prclcnt cafe it is only from 
TcpurtR, appearances, and ctrcumilHiCM that we arc to rcafon. 
Suppofing dieti, that our reaToniogs arc ioUdf it it not probable that 
the Divan will tbinl it prudent to oppoTc tb« general current of the 
nation : or, if they did, is it • unliVoly that a p^retender migh^ 
arile to the throne erf Achimiy who borne on the wings of popuh^ 
bvotir, might aJTume the reiflt of power and endeavour to coniinp 

his ufurped dominion by leading forth the bands of the faithful 
againll tht infidels. Upon ih« whole, though the cootasios 
ot pefbleoce may Interrupt the operations, of u 

paiga, or the unfettled liaie of other powers may protraft the com- 
-^Dcement of Ceget and battles, it impears to he probable that the 
f:louds which are gathfring in the EaU will not be finally difpeUed 
b^ the fun-fbine m mild parruafion jind negotiation, but that they 
inil burfl in a ftormt that fiulL darken and a£i£l a great part of 

In the Weli of Europe and; in North America, the minds of mci) 
are yet in tbm flatc of fermentadon which fuccecds an habit «t acr 
tiviiy interrupted in it* old, but not diverted into any new channel. 
The preliminary articlea erf peace .have put a ftop to former, but 
bavqaat ^xedanjr-newplana-of conduA. They leave us in un.- 
cerlBtmy, with regard to the Aationi which the different ilatea of 
Kut"^ .4iali afluine in the chain of coinmcrce. The maritime 
powflr^ however, have agreed on cenain laws favourable to free and 

, equal trade, ^n etttnfipn of the fame liberal views would open an 
unlimited pominerce throughout Europe. The produce and the 
induflry of ooc country would thus animate with full vigour the 
produce and the i^ufiry o^ another. Inftead of diltant cnterprizea 
of coloaiuaQD and of wari men would cultivate with care their 
paternal f(»l, tnould iu produ^ons into different fonns, freely i 
iraverfe the ocean to the moft diftant ports, escbangine the fuper> J 

, fluiau of qne climate for tbofe of another i and all nations would I 
co-f^rate and tend towards nutual intercourfe and comfort. How J 
pletf ng this peanful idea ! What might human courage and genius J 
not perfbrmt .were they not ab&rbeici in the pernicious fchemct pf war I 
and:fal(eaint>i^n? Wer: tbofe refgurces «f abilities and of wealth, | 
which are pMBt in the dcftrtidion of mankind, employed in the en- 
tnrprizes of coninlerce, and thewallctof fcience; did ihe nations, ili<^ 
ftead of fji^uing one another, unitc^to diminiflt themiferies of life| I 
hv fubduing i(ii«r their power die laws and the richci^of nature';! 


tbey wouldrife to a condirion as iar above tbcir pn^ent, at ibeil 
prtfentit above that ru'ie flMe in which they ran wild in the moun' 
taiaa and woods in quefi of pKy* Ab the uvage is gavemed mere- 
Vy hy the impulfe of lenfe and of appeliie, and as the man gf cutti- 
vatjon may be governed by the mild lu^eftians of reafont ia,. 
(4iicq political fociciici \xAvt their origin and progreU as well ai 
individuals,) is it not poffi.blc that the period miiy come when the 
Etiropean natiuus (liall not be driven like barbarians by ihefcourge 
of fear,' but gently draw a by the cords of afieCtion and mutuaL 
convenience : when extended imei'courle fliaU.have worn off ell an- 
gry antvpatbies among natiovis; when they fludl not yicLd tu the fu- 
rious dilutes of pallion, or be blindly led by the power of prejudiLCii 
when each, in the path jwtntcd out by local advatitages and liiua- 
lion, by working its own, (hall work the general good of the world- 
—While cofnmiflioners from digerent fiaits, protraf) the time in 
framing, treaties, by which each endiavour^ to gain fome }iartial and 
particular advantage, fuch are the reflections that occur to a citisen 
of tbewerld. There was-laieiv an appearance of a tendency tq 
this enlarged fy lie m. Tke armed neutrality profefled itfelf the .fro^ 
. lefter of equal trade:, the Americans gave out that their ports 
fbould beopAi toail the nations of the world: France Itood forth ai 
the patron qf commercial Ireeilom : the writingaof pbitorophers had 
diflcmiDated a very general belief that trade is to be courted by- in- 
dttAry, but not to be forced by lighting: that all monopdiio in 
trade are the of&pring of a falfe pi>'>cy ; und that mutual reftri^ions 
on Goismsrce arc remains of barbariim and folly. But the timp is 
Dot yet cqme for ideas of this kind to hav« any praAical eSe^ on tbs 
councils of princes. The definitive treaties, did fuch ideas prevail, 
would have Before this time been confumiqated.. But each party 
looks upon kfelf not as a member of. one enlarged community, buc 
as an. individual having it I'eparate intrrcft. £ach endeavoutf to 
conclude a hard bar^in with its neighbour, and hopes that tinM 
and accidents will furnifb the opportuoity and the means of n^ng 
ID its demand, and exiorting fiom the power that oppofes it fomQ 
important copcetSon. Thus .Frapce waits far good news from Inr 
dia; thus the Dutch infifi on the reliitution of all their foreign fet< 
tlenteots ( ,th4B the Spaniards, quibble about the article relating to 
the log-wood trade in the bay of Honduras ; thus all the enemies of 
England, .encouraged by her former facility, and prefent ^Ullrac- 
tions, are bnCiy employed in inventing and urging pretenfioni. 

SenliUe, that the treaties of liates are no KCurity againfl futui:; 
attacks, the lite belligerent powers difarm flonrly ; and the naval 
pteparaiulns in France, England, Sweden, ai>d Denmark, ara a 
proof that » ftaodtng force at I'eai is now judged as nccefTary fox thq 
protection of commerce, as Handing arniies on the continent «re foe 
the proteAion of thrones, and the bouitdarica of kingdoms. A| 
greater armies are now tupt on foot in times of peace, fo greater 
parica are kept up tn like manner. Although peace be eUablinied 
for foDic time between f canco and KnfLlaad, yet, a contelt of a 
moll ferious nature flill goes on, while either power is anxious tu 
exceed jtf'nval In liaval ftrehgth. AA attentive cAiferver is not 
fo much rejoiced at the |iacificfltion of February lafl, as he is alam- 



ed ati^e never cAi^g efforts of FntROe lo encrezfe hcp NwriaCf 
For fliould ihe-navaT poWW irf France prove fuperkir to tbat of Eitti 
glacdf the indejwndtfDCy ttf the iMter Icingdorn is »hm for 0*er, 
The kingdom oF'Frantt Ai compa^ populoui, nd fiftcuti of m^ 
itefs t» fliips of war, can eafily be defended by it) brave cod «a* 
ncTOUs arniiei a^im all ttte ajiaclu of Engtand. But Britain cm< 
pot itt ttke manned be defended, fliould flie decline in ktr ti«ra| 
ftrengthi ajrainfl all the attK^lcs of France. Our exteitded mnd aor 
eeflible coalb nre to bp defended only by a fupenior fdrcp at fca. A^ 
£nglifhman therefore cannot behold the effon* of France to encmJ* 
her aavy, even at the momeat of peace, withqat alanni If her com- 
merce (hould be able to bear up the grandeqr of her nsv^l dcfi^a. 
EneUnd muft become foonpr or later a province of Frucc, SboyU 
trade in th^t kingdum Mafe to be deemed a degradi^tiMi. and tba 
fam of the noblelTie, aa in England, beconne merchaniii Inii ia an 
^vcni greatly to be feflfcd. It it on (be abfurd prejudktf ^f out 
Aeigh^uri agalnft the chArafier of the iTMtchant, rMher than aq 
(be fuperiority of otir {ea pottfc, that the flouriftiing Hate of otn 
commerce has long depended. But fliouM fhoft ideal, ia Cbii aga 
of imp'roremtni, Ke bnnlft:ed front (he court, and the monarchy of 
France; fliould the Fre itch C(ibiii<!r, in conmliiAent to t^ir b«w 
jtHes, affix an ^'Ulf to the cliara%r of mirebmat, fuclf an trdoue 
for ra'anu futures aitA for trade would ajtpcdr thriwahaut the tvfaola 
«f that pn|)u1oii) and fruitful kingdom, ju #(mld feftdtr \t-.»% t«r^ 
(ainly ths ttrfl fower at tift, as tt is now the Rt-fi i^t hati. 

. The Englidi n;iiliAM-Er Rot igftorant of the iinportaoed t( Com- 
tneree, or infcntibt^ (X fhC commereiat views o^ FraMil, ilMUly 
cniitlatBd that kingdom wheti It ■*ut»a late, tn the courtfttip «f 
America, and grafSfd f6 the revolted coloitiei even more thai* riiejr 
Inntended for, iti Hia iM^ of rccoverinj; thole fafotir. Oit thia con< 
ijuflire bbferved at thetlifie, that it appeared' to ni uBcert^a "c 
f whether tljecoDduft of England wouMMnrpire thett) mtt) grati- 
tude, or iDfUme tfacm (vhi^ appeared the mod pR^iabla Ctwjec* 
hire,) wjfh ideas of pride and ambniott.-'i The <*«l>^ ^>m vnEbrto- 
tiatcl'y jufHfied our ai^rehenfions. 7he kmeiieans ar« indaiMK^ 
(rithpnde, ambition, Und revenge. E«Vi^ fliVp from »« Wefleri; 
trbrld brings ftcfh accounts of t^e crutfltiet exfcrcifed In tbecAlo* 
(lies agaiaft the leryat ftibje^ of Brit^ j (he raficMJT of t)w Aratrt^ 
Hcans ii inveterate; nor 19 there any gr4UnA to bope that k wtl) 
ever be lb far fofcened by the l^pfe of time, a» W ttftoM the EngOdi 
tp th« prerogative of the Ijioft favoured nation in Nottb Amctica. 
Prejudices and paffione at* highly itl|edt(»i(, «id arc tranfmine^ 
^ith vfondcrful fecility from one generation to another. Wtcre oq 
cau(e of quarrel exifte, Gmiiitude of habto, and one conmott origin, 
. ire roureei of endearment, and font) amoti^fociettei, aa atnong its 
dividual!, tio ineonUderable bond of union. But felf iMcrefi 
connterbalkncel the attachment of kindred, tifd animfofltlee frc 
quently happen ivhicb proximity of blood only farvM to iRibitKi'. 
At prefent, wc sre welt afliir'cd, there if ■ pmUlc^aii In AtDcrka 

* Secoiir Kevieivof politica for Mardu< 



^ ^ Ft; ii(^ utkw, wd & rooted kwrcil to the ntan (^EKgUjh' 
|Mn. Ii tken any hope that thii hatred will be coDTBTTcd Inw 
love i If ever thia wm t» be cxpedcd, it Vm «t the Manicnt whm 
<bat ffnejobt and patcrnai fpccch fraai the throne anmuncsd un- 
limited indepcndencct und lemiDcIed tlie AmcriciUis of their natural 
^iweAioiw with ifaii councry, with the moA ferrent wifhei for their 
future profpcrii)'. If we look into hiftory, wc can remark that the 
rctprning bvour of the people of Eulukd for their young and 
eiiled monarch was ewHd at a natural crilii, and floured with s 
iTuddcn and rapid cdrrem. But had Icofth of tine piven ftabili[f 
and authority to a new family, it it nat to bt doubted that this re- 
0UX of favour would iterer hare taken place, and that the prejudice* 
of the paojilc, (at hqi been proved fince by matter of faA,) flfainlt 
the whole Houfs of Stnart, would have oecome inveterate. Let 

1U not, tbcretbre, be too langutne in out bopet, that what hat 
b«en produced in the courfe of months, will yet be brought about 
in the courla of yean. j& ftiott time will put a period to that race 
pf North Ameiicani, whole eariy babita attached them to England. 
The fncceeding^ generation will cennefl the idea of finsjand witk 
tbat of tyranny over their country,' and that of FritiM wkh frietul- 
flm>, liberty, and glory. 

Wfthout determining tli« tnieftion whether the chance of rcgidat»2 
ibai affe^ioni, by tha mou unbounded cor>ceSioni on our pattf 
trat a chance whichin prudence ought to have been baurded, w« 
inay now aflinm that it ii matter of regret that we did not keep faft 
Mfleffionof thc-ftroo^ holdt which remained tn u» at the time of 
Sffningthe prcKminanc* for peace, an the coall of Nofdt America. . 
if the Americani with their allici (bould ^Te refufed to make peaco 
pa the ground of atl f*0Jith^ (a rircumlbacfl which, had we perfe- 
vcred a little tine longer/wouM not haft happened,] ftill, a cenatioa 
v( bpftititict had actually taken pl(K«, a ttUM between Ortat Britain 
and America had commenced, and the war of <ourfe would have 

languUhM iathe^Otber ntnrtcrt of tbe world. The formalities of 
J^U9 would have cnfued, and Britain would not have been for ever 
difgraetd, by abandoning the loyalist. RetrafpeAs of tbit kind 
•re indeed irkfome. B«it triiat if Briuln, even now, &ould return* 
H far a« potBUe, tn fucb a conduit at haa Jufl now been hinted 
•I ? %Mt_ pofioffion of Auj(nSint aitd of New-Tgrk. The conduct of 
the Ami^icana ro the loyatifia will almoft juftify thit ittearure to thf 
totntality of oe$otMt)on»nd trcanr; but certainly will in the com- 
pleieft maknet in the tj^ of ^atid policy, humanity, and good 
jenfe. Such a meafure M-ould be pCrftsUy agrceabte to the ideal of 
^imwUo aim rulmit trim tfjfmff, -hoIxm lie toot in t^tfitiaii H> x*vtm- 
futat, and would not be unwortby of the Ttgevr or hi* Andua ag 

■ • Ceaft faid Mr. Fox ffotn all hollilitiM ; bold the places 3-011 
have, make airuce with the Aiperlcanaon the (botiBg of »r/^rf««.' 

ijuarr^ atpoug ihanftbct,' and make ypu the uiiyu:e ^f their dif- 


1^4 ■•* Hattanal Afalri. 

wl. m'lDifter, ildiougk we are afnid it exceed* liii wifilom. ' It if net 
to be iats^udthat Fraoce and Spaia would immediately renew bo^ 
tilitiei' <N| fuch an erent,. and the diEIradioot in the Amencaq 
province* would fumiOi matter fuffidcot to exercife the prudenos 
of CangrtXt. 

It li CTideotly the iaterefi of Oreat Britain, cut off ai fbe aow t>« 
from at) hopes of obtaiaiDg any prefiirence in ihc trade with Ame- 
rica, to form allioBcea and com m racial trcatiei in £ur(^^ A new 
empire » rifing in the Kaft, which ihould ronfole u* under 
the ditappmntment and mortificatiDQ we btvc fuficred in the 
Wefl. Ruffia abound* in ail thole produfHont which formed tho 
moitTaluablearticlccia our trade with America; timber, fura, and 
paltry of varioiMkio'^ red leithrri linen ind threat', iron, copper, 
lail-cloth, hemp and flax, pitch and tar, wax, honey, tallow, 
itiDEgliri, ItQfeed oil, fbap, potafb, train oil, and featherg, Beiide« 
thefe article* Ruffia export* mufli^ rhubarb, fperma-czti, cavearj 
cafior, wiibotherdrugi; andallonw fiUt frpm China and Perfia. England find* in tbi* extenfive empire fuch a variety of ma* 
tcriats for the haod of induAry, & alfii in this empire Qie will find, 
in proportion totheprogrcli of fociety, itiUltipHed demendi. for her 
varioui manufaclurcs. A very confiderable. trade hai in (wEt beea 
carrifcd on between Rufiia and England for.a long feriet of year*: hut 
That trade would have been ftill more conluicrable, if Oreat Britain 
had not ];iven (uch eacoura|;eineot to her Am'criaan colunies, and to 
the LiMEK MANtJSACTUKM OF [relahd- How f<ir the fubmif- 
five and adulatory geniui of ibc Britilfa councib, at the prelcnt 
times, may think fit to continue that encouragemmt after all that 
bat happened, we do not pretend to determine, . BsK the.natioa at 
iargv will probably judee. not only that a commercial ireatv with 
KulCa is the real Incereit of thia (ounlry, ^ut thar the prefent junc- 
ture of the aSaira of Rufiia g* well'as of England, ii extremely: &-• 
vourabte to-iuformation, 

In oppofition to tljit fcbemc it miglit be urged, that while there 
u a ray of hope that we fball bo able to regain the greateft fliare of 
the American trade, it would be imp<riitic to form any treaty that 
Jltould exclude fuch an advantage, ivith a dcfpotic gorcnimcnt ; and 
a government too, that 13 not without fympiom* of reoouncing 
cornincrce, and returning to barbarifin. I'hia lad part of the objec* 

There i», at this moment, a tKtion among the noble* of Ruffia, 
who view the refiaements of the court, .the progrefi of commerce, 
and the introdui^on of the arts aad featimenti of civilized nations, 
with an eye of jealoufyand hatred : for tbefe they cotifider as tending 
to uadermioc that ariflocratical, or rather prin eel y power which 
was built on, and banded down to them from times of barbarity 
ind ignorance. SeatimentB of this kind prevailed among many u 
the cavaliers or country gentlemen in the days of our King Cbar'e* 
II.* Should this fa^ou, which, it is needtefs to fay, it diamctri* 

* See tke IntereUt of the Priscei aBd State* of £ur(^, by Slingt 
by Bethel, Efq. p. 6. 



.- Natiane! Affam. 155 

valljr en>(^'tc to the ideas whicb now gorern the court of Ruffia, <m 
tlie death of the Emprefs, or any other occafiou, be able to fubveit 
the reigning fyAem u PeterCburgh, all ticaties of commerce with 
R-oflift would M wholly inlignificant. 

To all this it tnight be anfvcfed, that the tight of fcience it id* 
-ways progreflive even under the moft delpotic gOTernmenti, and that 
cfaerc IB no infhuce of any nutioa returning from a Date of improve- 
RKDt to that of barbarity, without external riole nee, or a very ma* 
terial change in their forni of goTci-nment. The prefent Archduke 
ofAutiriais bred up in all the refiaement of the European courts; 
and hit fuc< elTort will be trained up in a Cmilar manner. Trade and 
■ndullry will meet with his proMdioo and cDcuaragementi and wert 
wK wife enough to flicw him that atceniiotii ■ whicfa was paid by thii 
nation to the King of Pru'ffia ini limiiar circumllancet, there ii not a 
doabt bat he wouldchlefly encourage the tradeof England. The Rut^ 
fiaDarmy,it is to be hoped, ii-too much civiliised, to renew the fcenet 
of a I'ubomed DrmttriMt, or in anjr other way to violate the natural ' 
right of fuccelfion to the throne, in order to forward the riewi «( ' 
■rcmed barbarifip. 

In the courfe of the .prefent month, many important particular! 
have tranfpired with refpefi to America. The Cougrefs appears to 
to be unable to govem the particular States, and the particular Satea 
unable to govern particular diftrifis and towns. The people of thoft 
parts have learned the nature of power, and the origin ofgOTcm* 
ment. Numbers whom conunon fentimenn and fituatiou unite in a 
common catife, reduce^hefe fontiments ituo the form of rcroluiions 
or laws ; and, in the prdTent fiufluatiHg flate of a&irs, defy the- 
authority of their new governors. But this anarchy will fettle foon 
into regular government. The United Provinces of the Nethertandi 
oa their emancipation from Spain, were precifely in the fame pre 
dicament, in which the States rof America Hand at prefent. Tho 
States General wtre not able to controut the particular provioctif, 
nor the particular prorinces to controul particular towns. The au* 
thority of tbcGcneral Slates was confirmed by the exercife of power, 
and that fafcinating reverence for government, which arifet froia 
length of time. Repeated inflances of fuch rigour, as that which 
Ittely quelled the tumult in Philadelphia^ will extend the authority . 
ofCongrefsoverihe provinces : and, an imitation of this condud will 
citead the authority of the provinces over particular diliri^ and 
towns. This order ot affairs will probably, take place forfocnedme; 
But it will not belailing. In the courfe of population, the provinces^ 
proud of their flrengtb, will probably quarrel with cacfa other, and 
regard the dcclGons of Congrefs with much the fame degree of re- 
^ed, thar his PruBian Majeily fhews to the ban of. (he Empire, 
In (aft. the States of America wilt one day referable that Empire in 
many important particulars. Such a confederacy may at fird fifibt 
appear all powerful and iirefifiibk. Bat divifiont, and feparaie in- 
terefts, wilt divide and diviinifl) the {irength of the whole: and 

\ See the Puke of Rohan's IJifcourfe upoo tbt dirifiom of Hol< 
tapdio i6i9,'fubjoioedu> hisMctrtcnn. 


15$ }iaUBna2 Jfa'as. 

^hat Germany if M £un^ the United Statn of America ivifi b* 
■ fa thenrocld. 

But while it fccnu highly probable that the Uaitetl Statea €>f A- 
mencawiil fettle into luch a. confederacy as the Swift CanCcntS* 
Uithdut bciag cnflsTcd by one head, and, confidered with refpcft" to 
■• each other, appear In che light of a Commonwealth, it is difficult co 
. (jrodict what will bippen to each particular profincc I whether there 
ii virtue it) each fulhk:ieDt to mould it into the farm of a Republic; **t^%. 
whether thecornbinalioniDf bdiow man will ccnpinatein thcgaverii<- 
inent of a finale family, or of an Ariftocratry.But ol'.thi* we are certain* 
tbatitiibyoomeantaneafy thin^ for acorruptcd people, (and the A- 
mericaM are cortainly not more vimiout than the reft of raankiod) t» 
cpnftiiutca Democracy. " It wm a curious fpe^aclc," (iiygMontef^ 
qnieu," inihe iaft century to behold the vain efforti of thoKnglifti ^r 
tKcfiflblithment of Democracy. Aithofewhohadalhareinthedirecf- 
(im of public afairi were Toid of all virtue, u their wabilionwaa in- 
flamed bjr the fuccefiof the mofl daring of their nemben, at the lj>i> 
jril of fa^ion vat fupprc£ed cHily by that of a fuccccding faftion, ttxK 
government was continually changing. The people amazed at fa 
many reftriutioni, foiifhl every wbere for a democracy without be- 
ing able to find it. At length, after a fericE of tucnulniary motiont 
end violent fliocks, they were obliged to. hiT« recourfe to the very 
IpaTcmmenf tiiev had fa odfoufly profcribed." Whether AmericawlU 
ever be in a fimilar Gtuationto that which ia here dcfcribed, time ahiaa 
Baa difcover. It ii ccrtaiit) that when the news of independency 
acrived, a grneri^l auticTy prcvukd, uid a jealoufy of Congrefi, 
which from tfaai momrat to the prefent has continued lo tncrEnrc. 
It ie but juftice howcT«' to ackftowledge, that America haa exhibit- 
ed in this civil ftnigglc, not' only the gneatcft talents, but alfo Ch« 
rreated virtues^ The pilfered bribca of Britain were rejected by tha 
leading men in C«ngrefs ivtih fern's! vid'thlit at a time, when thf 
ifTue of the coutcft co<iWI . not but fteip doubtful. Sue araong the 
br^toit characters Ocncrsl Wafliington fliinn with diitinguilbcd 
lulue: an ^ble commander, and a. virttiQiw eitiaen i a JvUks Caff» 
mthout his ambition; a ^i!&^ without his cnma, 

'13)e provitiuQitl arrictci beitvcen Britain and her late eohMues be' 
ing BOif formally figned by tltc latter, and there being no doubf 
that ibe dclinttivc ireaiies will be aceomp^fhed in a fliort liine, we 
•re now to conSder North America aa a great natioual confoderocy, 
emered on the cafecr of its political esiSence. A:t thit period it ii 
proper, that we advert to the moft remaiicable circumftancra in the 
fituation of tbi* infant empire. And flrA, we AmII lay before our 
HcadcT*< a -very tx»& and accurate Hate of that weigbt of pwblio 
debt, which may be confidered by ihc Ameneans at part qf the pficq 
of their independence. W* fliail Hate the origiBal fwni by them- 
feUes ; and the iniBttfl by itfelf. We fliall diOtnguJfli iho 
foreign- from the domcfiic debts, and panicularife the Hski and 
faidividaaU to whom both are owing. Our information on tilt* 

, * Sy/Zit Toluntarily abdicated the Kflati>rfliip, after having »(raded 
to fupiemc power through the blood <^ hU f«Ut)W citizcBS. ^ 

I ■ , ... . Ccxn^lc 

NatMUai Jfairi. . i$^ 

heid, and a1(b wW relatu t6 the canlKtutRUi of Con^efe, and the 
y^lation of North Americfti ii denTod £roiii the mail FclJMiSnUs 
and undoubted authority.^ 

Jmtrican FOREIGtf PvaLIc Debt. 

' To the Farmers Genera! of France, 1,000,000 

To Monf. Bcaumarchais in France, 3,000,000 

To France to ihe end of 1 782, (including a 

loan in Holland guaranteed by France) 28,000,000 
To France for the year r783, 6,000,000 . - 

Total in livres, 38,000,000 

Converted into dollars at 5 Hvrcs ifaut, 

Rectivnl on t^e loaif in Holland i,6;S,ooo florins, 

Bwrowed. in Spain by Mr. Jay, 

latereA due on the Dutch loan, i year, at 4 per cont. 

Total of foreign debt in dollars. 

Domestic Deit> 

Loan Office, .iii^fm^t 

Intend unpai4 in 1781. 140,000 

ilitto 178a, '689,899 

Ciedit M fuodry perlbiu ia creafuty boolia ^,04» • 

Amyde^ to iiU December 1761, ;i63(,6{S 

Uniinuiditted debt cflimoted 8,000,000 

Ddkiracyia 1783 ditto B,a(x],9K]q 

- lofbalfpr: ■ -^ - 

ic priTaiet ;oo,oao 


Ctromutation of half pay 10 the smgr $,000,600 

Bounty to be i^id to the priTaiet ;oo,oao 

■ ■ Dollan 4i,o«>,37| 

I \ T X K E S T. - 

V. X. The to miiliont borrowed from the tTultedStatts of the 
Kctherlands, for which France is guarantee, and the loans in HcJ* 
t^nd, arb at 4 per cent, the refl of the fsrdgn debt at 5 per .cent. 
i,;]i,;7o| borrowed In Holfand at 4 per ct. 100,862 St-ioodths. 
i.363iSr4f remainder at 5 per ct. ^ 268,17; 7y'oo^a, 

34,iij,39b4oniedic debt atftpprct. 3,046,9J7 ^-igodthsi 

Doflan i,4is,9SS jS-joodthi. 
Tai^khtiddptib&cIMiiiaiaboTC 4,i,oop,j7S 

Mlaft 44,41*, 3 30^-700*41. 


t$i h!atiinal Affani. 

CmgTtfs and Siaiis of AMERICA. 
Uembcn who aiund in Congrefs at Pl^ikddphia, from the ft*fir«l 

StatcE, 4th of June, 1783. 
New HMBpfliire, Meffrs. White and Glllman. 
Maflachufetb Ofg:cx)d, Gorhath, Higginfon, and Helton^ 

Rhode Iilatid> Collins and Arnold. 

CoonedHcut, Dyer Woolcot and Ailfworth 

New Yorit, Floyd and Hamilton> "* 

New Jerfey, Tnfiienl Boudinot and Clark. 
PeDfylvaniat Mifflin, Wilfon, FitzSmmans, Petcl*i and 

Delaware Bedford and 

Marylud, "Lee, Helmefley and Carroll.- 

Virginia, -f-Bland, Arthur; Lee, Jones, Mucer aa^ 

North Carolina, Williamfon and Hawkint. 

Geor^a, Not repitfented. 

South Carolina, ' *Rulledge, Iiard, Jerrais, and RalBftjJ/ . 

Thus marked f h«*e ferved in the America Army, and tttiiniutrJc- 
M * have been Governors of States. ' ■ " 

^ The ftyle of the Confederacy is " The United State) of America f 
but each State retains its Sovereignty, Ffcedom, Independencev ^vtA. 
every Jurifdiftion and right which ia not txpriffly ddegated to tbe 
Umttif Statts in'CB*grtfi. The free inhabitants of each State, ' (pwu" 
pers, vagabonds, and fugitives excepted) are intitled to all priri' 
leges and immuDities of free citizens in the feveral States. Ho 
Slate without the confent of the others in Congrefa, is to fend or le* 
ceive at) Embaify orenter into aAv Conference with aiiy Kin^, 
Prince, or State ; nor fhall any perfnn in office under the United 
States, or any of them accept of any prefcat, emolument, office or 
title from ai^ Kin?. Prince, or foreign State : nor (hall the Uiuted 
States in Cocgrefs alTembled grant any tid^ of Nobili^. - No twu 
or more States -^haU- enter into any treaty without the conftnt c^ tbe 
Contisenial- Congrcfs. No vcllels of war, or body of forcei, arc 
to be kept up in peace by any Stale, etcept fuch as are deemed tie* 
celTary by Congrefs. When'land forces are raifed for the commaa 
defence, all officers unjer ihtraitk tif Calanel (tisll be appointed by the 
Hate that raifcs them. Taxes Ihall be laid and levicd^^- the Legifla- 
tures of the feveral States, but checguata to be paid by each 11 fixed b]S - 
Congrefs, accordingtothe valuation of land. Tbe Contineatal Con* 
grefsis the lad refort, on appeal, in all difputes between two ormore 
States. Delegates are to be annually ajmgiinted by each State, to 
meet in CongrelJ on the lirlt Monday in Novembv^ but eacb State 
may recall its Delegates within the ^car J, 'and fend others ftnr th(r 
'remainder of the year. 'iJo perfon is to be a Delegate for more than 
three years in fix, nor, whilftq Delegat^ canbehoU^y office uw- 
der theUqited States for which he receives any Emoluraenl. '£acn 

... """ .""' rr— - — Ml.. «!■ .1. • I — 1- .ri It" g .•ii.'ij 

; A Circumftancewhich martts in tbe Strongefi light the popu- 
lar nature of the North American Government. 


.' iJtnim»l Affairt. '•i^g 

State is to muntala : its am Delegatei : And id itttfnnaiog Quef- 
nont in Congrefa, each Sute has one Vote. The Congrert appoints 
.» Committee to lit io the recefi of Congrcfi, conlifting of one Dele- 
gate from each State. Adjourn men ts muft not be longer than fiy 
mootfas. They are to publiHi the jouniaU of their proceedingB (ex- 
cept Tuch as require fccrecy) monthly : And the ^ai tai myi on 
any quefiion thall be entered on the journal, if deCred b^ a Dele- 
gate who fflull alfu have » traafcript of it to be laid befprc hii State. 
No flstc can fend more than feren luembere, or lefi than two : 
npr can a Qxa be reprefented^ or be entitled to & rote on any quef- 
rioD, unleli two of its roemben attend in Congfefi. Seren ftaiei 
repreleated nuke a Congrefi, Seven Aates mult agree to.deternine 
aay quelHon, except fuch as relate to money and peace or wu-i is 
thoic CAles nine tnuft agree. Adjouramenti are dctctiQined by a 
inajori.ty of ilatei prefect. 

By an accurate e&imate, it appear* that America hat loft 
^gbty tfaoufand men by the accideaia of the prefent war; a very 
.ctm&ierableparTof tbefe have died inihipt, prifons, and jaiU. The 
return of white inhabitants in Connedicut dui year hu this remark- 
able difparity betweeen the number of males and femalei. The 
nales are fewer than the {emalci by fix thoufand. 

An Eitiroate of the white inhabitants of the United States of 
Aioericat to be made the bafis of afleinnciit for the year 17831 >n 
refpofBve States. 


Proponioiiaof 10^. 

Nnr HwBplhiiv 





, H7 



















a JO, 700 





North Carolina 



South Carolina 





»,}89,joo- £. 1000 

The great length to whidi this article has run obliges ut to pofi* 
pone many other particulars relative to North America, as alfo fe- 
veral obfervations on the ftate of our a&irs in the Eaft and Weft- 
Indies to our next nutiiber. 

We bafien to a condufion, bnt cannM oroit to oblerre, that the 
bie arriTal i&.Cadtz, of the Spanith dota, having on board near 
tiglil millifHu fterling, (hould be a matter of joy to all manutac- 
wring oountriA.— Much of this treafure will make its way into 
l^glind, and remedy, it is to t>c hoped, the prefeni fcarcity of mo- 
sey. The di&nilSc»i from his officer of liie Lord Advocate of 



Scotland mAeH j* no iobhi a prelude to Mher «1tsngeJ in t^xf 
coilongr, it confiderad u a IpitHctl tneafnre, and Km reured S 
pretty j^Bcral curiofity to know the confc<|oences. Ciril, ec^ 
cIcGaflkfll, and literary preferment in the Scotcii metropoG* 
and Other p«rtB of tfiat country, ma generally underttood 
to be very much ttndcr the dire^ton of Mr. Dundai and hit 
inend Dr. Roberllbft. The puUk ewriofkjr i« not a Imle «- 
cilcd to know the TarjoH* tsfftHi tliat may arife, in a coimtry that 
ii DOtraninMMcd hy apaffioh fbf reformation, from the fate itp|)oint- 
mtu (o tfce oCcc «f Lord AdvvcMe, of a ^nttlemtm vAio in tho 
Generri Afcmbly has unifomly maintained the elnims of the peo- 
phi; from theprepondenneyof the interefief 6ir Thomas Duodas 
«nd bir friends in the city of Edintnirgh, over that of the Duke of 
Bucclengh, bndtheHonfeoT ArniAon; ind from all thofe other 
changes which thcfe we have mentioned prognolHcate. To tkefe 
nrc Ibill make it our bufinefs to be attentive, and whatever is molt 
worthy of oblbrvatim we fliall eomnitlnicate In another Number o£ 
ikit imfet^Hig. 



^or S £ P T E M B E R, 1783. 

AST. I: CeMMimarifi m tht Lrnvn *f SjglaiU. In Satt ^ooltu 
y Br Sic WaUiam Kaokftme, K&t. Ok vTihc Jvftk«i qf bli Mk- 

- jpfy'* Q^VX of CwmtnbB PkM. Tbo Ninth EditioD with the 
lull Correftiona of the Author; and coatinued to the. pteient 
.Txn£..£y BichudBam, .LL. D ^rqls. 8ra. il. los. StraJian 

- : awl :Cadel. 

fV'^ii I^ wnrk hat leen reoaetai bv the pi^Iit with-iieiTcr- 
X. ^ l^tpvolucicn; «nd its £ffnu uid Tire merit is ut Ml' 
)nc jufiitication of itt freai Mid utiexxmpled {iicccft. Bev 
fide the advantages wbich were peculiar to the Anthor, it is 
atwlciAoad, tliat tait tUanofcivpr was pcniTed by^the Judges 
of fJngJand ; and zhat tiieir cone&iona atbd nintg oohtri" 
bmed 10 cominunicateto.itiiofinal!propQTtton o£tbe«x-4 
c«U«iice wlncfa itdiicavert. It alfb de fer v rs ob&mtfon* 
tfaat tliR yerCM-niance made its appeeratks at. a period when 
tbe liw KM ceniidcrcd ds a ftiidy altogether bmrih. and diy, 
and 4Mapab)« lof akgance. It ycttli^ta^d no iabonfi^er' 
2l>)e diarc of elegance; atid enoanraged awn of thewoctd 
' aod'-vf letttTs TO mmtluiir attention to' the juriiprDdeoce of 
En^snd. - -'Tlu^- advantages- which fisired from the publica- 
tion of the Commentaries were indeed cxtenlive and fnper* 
Utive. But allowing to tbis lx>ok the MHl perfection 
«4tk;h'ir» moft' yadiOnate admirer can impute to ic, there is 
hOTtafon to fappofe that it is in e»*ry refpeA perftftlf com- 
pleat; or th^t it IS to fnpercede the tflbrt's and the higAim^ 
pf 'other la'«yei*s. 

■ To _gjve an ana1y£s of a wotk which is fo. generally 
known, woald at this time, be impertinent. But to eiicouv 
rage and to fiimulatc the emulation of the ftudents of the 
law, it may not be improper to point qut fomc of the errors 
y/bkh sir William Bfackftoiie has committed. In this tafk 
"ENG. R:Ey. Vol. 11. Sept. 1783. I, wt 


i6l Blackftonc's ComnuntarUs tn the Laws of Sttgland. 

we engage not from any felfilh or private motive. It is our 
iincere wiflj to advance the fcience of jurifprudence. It 
would give us no plcafure to profane the tombs of the dead ; 
but itmay intitlc to fome praife to anempt at leaft to pio- 
mote flic improvement of ttie living. 

, The acknowledged objcft of Sir William Blackftone wai 
to exhibit a pifture of our conftitution under our Britilh 
and Saxon anceftors, as well as under the Norman period, 
and dowtn to his own times. Vet to the Britons he was in 
a great,mcafure. a llranger. He has paid to diem a very 
flight attention ; and he feems to have been not only unac-> 
tjuaintcd with the Saxon tongue, but to have read very 
haltily the Latin translations which have been published of 
the Anglo Saxon laws. Two branches accordingly, of his 
plan are moft impcrfcft ; and when we coniider what has 
been written concerning the British and Saxon cufioms by 
Mr. Seldea and Sir Henry Spclmah, we cannot but imar- 
ginethat they afford topics of great curiofitv upon which an 
ingenious lavryer iniglit have employed himfelf with emolu- 
ment and utility. 

There is, however, a defcft in the Commentaries' which 
is by far more confid^rable ; which runs through the whole 
of them'; and which to .cultivated- inquirers fervcs to'djfl 
£gliicithcm in no commw) d^ree. Wc allude to the trnper- 
,6^ coiiception,' which Sir William Btackftone had been 
able toformof the feudBlcafiomt-andufages. ,' 

■ Itii now agreed pretty znicrally that dief^ftem of fie& 
wasknown.intlic Anglo »txon times; and indeed, it has 
been demonftrated by difi^rent Authors, that the- incidents 
of tcnore are mentioned in ihe Anglo ^xoo laws. .Thefe 
laws tiave^beencven produced and commented upOQ> Sip 
Williani fiiackftone has ' however bcsn folicitous to Ihow 
that tile feudal fyAem wat not formally introduced into En-, 
gland ttlLthe days of William the Norman. To confirm 
this theory which lie certainly adopted from Sir Martin 
Wright without cxaminationi he appeals to one of.tbelxwi 
«f that prince. 

This law is of the following impoit*. 

" Ornui comiles, tl baranti, tl miUlii, -el fervicKlttt tt mmiwfi 
*' Uhtri heminti tatiui rcgni tiafiri praeAiili^ hahttutl et ttHtantfifiaiftr 
" hiat la AKMis ti in eqj7IS, »t Jecel it eportrl i tt fintfimfer premfti tt- 
" htnt parati, W sebvitium scum In^Teqscm i»iis txt^nAm rt 
\* PcragtnJum, txmtfn^ fufrit; ftcutnliim ^ntdnohi! dthtnt it fatdii tt 
" leaemiafiijuii Jt jurt facft, tl ficul illh fiatuimut fer c, 
" ctttcilium lotiut regni nafiri praeJiiti." 

• Book II. Ch. 4. 


^Mk'kAoat't Cmmtntariti m th* Ltnvi of England. 163 

■ To ^Atoh who are attainted with the Un|aage of -ieada- 
}ity, it witi obvionfly appear,. th»c Sir W-iiliam £lw;ltftoDe 
•has mifunduflood, -and hai milintcrprctcd this ordination. 
. It refers not by any means to the introduftion of tlie feudal 
^ law into England; and has b reference , oniy to fomc iiQ» 
proveasfints which William the Norman had made upon that 
law. 7^ have eftablilhed all at once the feudal law in En- 
flandi w&fi a matter altogether impoffible i but it was eafy to 
improve rupon a fyllun. already eftabliflted. The gbneral 
ufagei of teudality were familiar to otir Anglo Saxon an-^ 
eettori ; but they were firangers to the Inigbt-fet and to knigiit- 
fervkt. • Thefe however, had been fome time known upon 
the confi^nt 1 and it; is to them that tlie ordination (A 
WiUiam the Norman has a reference.; The woi^ds in armii 
et EQTiscaniapply only to knighi'fiiroictt and exprefttjt* 
obli^ti^aof the valfal to Terve on horfeb^it, and'tQ (;ome 
forvnrd IB complex armour. And ic is obirioii« that the 
SE&TJTVM IHTEORUM alludes to |he fervice of the full 
:pto^a^on.<ii kmghti, yf^wh the ipyaL ^nant wastocarry 
with him :to the &id. Now this could only be afcertained 
by the titwnber of knighl-/rtj of which his holding coofiAcd. 
FrotD the icnff aad tenor of the other laws in the ordinationt 
of ^ William Z< it is alfot apparent that this interpretation it 
Sufficiently accurate *. Sir William Blackdone has Aerer 
/orecoftfound^d two things vvry cUdercnt, the introdudliqa 
of the j%»^^/itlviato England, and thp introduction of the 
knirht'tfit and knight i,firviee. He makes a eener^ con- 
clanoo with regard to a new and entire fyftem of law8> 
when he ought to have confined hunfelf to two particular 
branches .of a code already known. He aSc&s to fpcak of 
the buildjilg of thf f^rick from the foundation, when he 
ought, tp have alluded Qnly to tbo covering the ti^ of ft 
againft extemalinjury. 

On the fabjeA of tieft the errors of the Author are Tery 
numerous-; and there is oae lb very gteat and dangerooa, 
that it appears to b« finguUr how it could have efcaped his 
attention. The common feudal incidentE, wardfhip, mar- 
;rii^, teiief, aid, and efcbeat t be contends were the fruits 
or rcfuU of the perftiuitj of the lief, or of kiught-Jtrvict. 
-But there can be no poUtion more repugnant to hiftory or 
to- law. Thefe incitients vrere not peculiar to the perpetuity 
of the fief, nor to knight- fervice. Nor can there be the flight- 
eft reafon afligned why they Ihould have flowed from them. 
They neceflaruy arofe out of the general fpirit of fiefs; and 

• See hU Urn ap. Witkins. f Book U. Cfa. c. 


- 164. ^BladtJEohc'i Cemmttttdriii eH.tlm Lawt 9/ England, 

■<if Conrcquettcc, they aecoittpanicd lbs feudal grant In every 
■flage of its progrHs. "They cfaaraAehzed it in m infency, 
ds Well as when it was ^rpsioal, and when knigbt fervicb- 
MM invented.' TlMv were inherent in: fiefe front their com- 
Aidntemeiit to their ^ctine ; uidth^e- can be ^nted out 
no' period of feudality when tbf y v/vtt unknown. ' Tftigy ex- 
isted among the Anglo Saxons as Vrell «8 aaior>g the Nbr- 
ihans, atid in times ft itt later; and v^liat is remarkabl* vn-^ 
-dbf the ^urc ages of Hm ftiudkl fyftclA, they were riuTks of 
tioirdtriity and alfeftion, Vhilc under )t» corrupt periods tbey 
■grew iiilooppreffiom of the hardeft kirtil. Thcj-thus ^cfer 
' to a inaH tliciAorablfr diilindion in l!h« ^rogrrflion of ^fs ; 
■and without-attending to it the aritiiht hiftory rf Englftnd 
tiswellas of Europe^ muft be foitnd'to be not only dark and 
t^fcure, bM ftill-of contradiftionaand abfardity. 
' ■ It is ■another very confiderable error of Oaf Author, thai 
ijc n6 where pcrtdiarizcs the eHWftt snd Wrktion* *f ttifc 
hiighi'ifee; nor hdj triced and expliiiA^ the fiKftiofiV irAo 
whith it Snlgtft bt fubdiHded ; the tttturt of thefe ; and thfe 
-Hfefts-pVbdoccdby them. Nor dbes (t appetr ■frftm him 
WhMquaaiity of fend was rcqjifitc t««<inftitutt tf bttony ; 
and VrhAt Werfc the diftinAive «Ibim« 6t^ JariMiftloti Which 
"wett enjoyed from the fiiAple aogeR^- of a - nAAotir to th« 
ijvetgroWn proprietor of a i^atihitc. ' The imtKrrtltwe of 
the ^iBple tenants- t»ra«i>^ in tontradiftinAiort tAbbrbns, and 
to the nobles in etn<H^l is never once Ranted- at. Ym they^ 
■were an order oT men whofc coiire<]ufenee *ab gi*at both in 
a civil and milit^ capacity ; and to whofe exertions We art 
iehiefly indebted for thrpreferratkHiofour liberties. Tbey 
Were placed bclWeei* the king 4nd the- ndblM; and (t was 
''theircarfc to guaid alik« againft re^l and arifloeratieal A(t~ 
'tnlniiWt^ They- were the poife and ftc key ftont of our 
conftitution in more antieat times. 

Intd'the great tonflitutional qutflions about thtf'antiqnity 
«f parliaments, and of the rt^HefciiWtion of tht peopl*, 
'which have been agitattd fo much Hi England, ht avoids to 
enquire. Nor does he ofier any afiofogy for this neglcft, 
litit the difficulty and the uneertainfy tif ttfc to^Cs. Hif 
•ferely did not mean to infer that hfc hftd nti buBtwfs -with 
'■any thing that was difficult or uncertain. For diftcultf 
and doubt, ought in fofl, to hive ftimulated his induftry, 
"andtohave^arpcned his fjuicknefs and ingenuity. Goq- 
■cemingthc origin of vidames, vicedomini, or valrafon, lift 
IS equally earelefs ; end we are in vain to look into his Work 
JfcrJllE oft of. the ^erift .and for the ftcfB in confequcnce 
of which he was difunited from the carl, and conncAed 
folely fidk-the-cKwa. He ttemblb 'fthen he 
': - ■ • ftumbles 


ilnmbles upon any point of high antiquity or i^ nice di(^ 
cuHion. Yet it was his duty to have been both an aitti-' 
<juary and an hiilorian. For law can only bo a fcicnce 
when it goes back to the fpritig and fource of ordinations 
and cuftoms, and when it explains their nature, fpirit, and 
meaning in their liTe, tbeic progrcfs, 4nd th«ir cAablilh- 

It becomes us likewjfc to remark that Sir-WiUjaTn Black- 
itone baa improperly neglefled to extend his attention to th« 
hiftory of the feadal uliiges in Spain, Italy, Germany, an4 
France. For from his obfcrvation of thoir various condi- 
tions in thcfe different kingdoms he might haveaflifted pow* 
erfully his invention and knowledge, and have been enabled 
to qm the greatefl: light upon tlic manners and the laws of 
England. To nfc the language of Sir Henry Spclmsn on a 
lioiiUr ocat{ion, he might thus have coUe^tcJ ' inany 
* flowers of antiquity and of foreign learning.' 

At the fame time, there is another general f^uU, of lUU 
greater moment to be imputed to him. He is almod every 
where inclined to facriiice tlie people^ to thi; crdwn ; and 
while bis courtfhip to the prerogative is fpecious aiid artful 
it is the more dangerous. His private interelt, and his hopes 
of o^ce and rAnk, may indeed have been the fource of this 
in£dious and unmanly conduft. Jiut nothing can excule 
it( and though fuch arti6ce may efcape with little animadr 
VcrJion in a political and dilSpated age like the prefent ; yet, 
if his book IB to defcend to pofterity, when alt .tl}« topicks 
he treats fliall have been amply unfolded, it w{ll do th9 
greateft injury to his reputation. For it wilt not only hurt 
him as an Author, but as a Man. 

To relieve however the attention of our RenderG, it may 
no^ be proper to hold out to them an extraft from our Au- 
riior ; and for this~pun)ofe we (hall carry them to the moll 
finished part of bis Commentaries. In his chapter con^ 
cerning the rife, progrcfs, and ifradiial improvements of the 
Uws of England, there are the following pillages. 

' CousiQEsiNQ tbe reign of Q^jeen Elie.ibeth in i. great and po. 
litical view, we \\*i% rp reafao to regret maiiy fubfeqijent alterir 
-tioDt in the EngliQi conflitmion. For, though va general ftie was 
a mft and excellent princefe, aod loved her people ; thougb in her 
time trade flaurtOiBd, rivTies increnfcd. the lawa were duly admini^ 
ihrcd. (fee nation wai refpeeled abroad, bqiJ the people happy at 
faomc ( yet, the ioertate of the power of th« ftar-chaHiber, ami ttu 
creAioB of the high cominiffioii court in matters ecclefiaDic^t. were 
the w«rk of her reign. Sbe alfo kept her parliameoti at a Very 
awful diftatiCe : and in many particulars flic, at times, would cairv 
the prcrDgativn 3» high a« her moft arbitrary prcfieccirars. It it 
tniCt ^ very ftldom eser^tcd this prerogative, lo m w opprels ior 
L 3 dividutlt; 

l66 BlacSftone'i CmttuHfarks MlhfLaws of Euglanei. 

dlviduaU; but ffitl fhc had it to exert: iai therefore the'felicit^ 
of her leign depended more on her want of opportunity and incli- 
nation, than want of power, to play the tyrant. Thie it a high 
encomium on her menij but at the lame lime it is fufScient to Aiew, 
that thefe were not thofe golden days of genuine liberty that wc 
formerly were taught to beheVe : for, furely, the true liberty of the 
flibj'efl' coofifts not fo much in the gffariou* behaviour, aa in the - 
limited power, of the fovereign. 

' The great reTolutions that had happened, in matilAers and 
in property had paved the way, by imperceptible yet fute- degree*, 
for as great a revolution in government ; yet,- while that .reToTut ion 
was cnc&ng, the crowti became more arbitrary than ever;, by the ~ 

(rogrefs.of thofe very means which afterwards reduced it's power. 
E is obvious to every obferver, that, till, the clofe of the Lan- 
cadrian civil wan, the property and the power of the nation were 
chiefly divided between the king, the nobility, atid the clergy. 
The commoni were gcnenllly in a ftate of great ignorance; their 
perfonal wealth, before the eitenfion of trade, was comparatively 
fmall ; and the nature of their landed property was fuch, as k^t 
them in continual dependence upon their feodal lord,: beifig ufaally 
fame powerful baron, fome opulent abbey, or fometimes the king 
bimfelf. Though a notion of general liberty had (Irongly pervaded 
and animated the whole couliitution, yet the particular liberty, the 
natural equality, 3nd perfonal independence of individuals, were ^ 
little regarded or thought of ; nay even to alTert them was treated 
as the height of fedition and rebellion. Our anceftors heard, with 
deteilaiion and horror, thofe fentiments rudely delivered, and 
pufhed to mofl abfufd extremes, by the violence of a Cade and a' 
Tyler j which have fince been applauded, with a seal almoS rifing 
to idolatry, when' foftened and recommended by the eloquence, the 
moderation, and the arguments of a Sidney, a Locke, and a 

* B0T when learning, by the invention of printing, and the pro- 
grofi of religious information, began to be unlverfally difleminatcd j 
when trade and navigation were fuddenly carried to an amazing ex- 
tent, by the ufeof the compafs and the confequent difcovery tn the 
indies \ the minds of men, thus enlightened by fcience and en- 
larged by obfervation and travel, begati to etitenain a more jdl 
opinion of the dignity .and rights of mankind. An inundation of 
wealth Sowed in upon the merchants, and middling rank ; whilo 
the two great elites of the kingdom, which formerly had Iralanced 
the prerogative, the nobility and ctergy, were greatly impoverifii- 
ed and weakened. The popifli clergy, deteAed in their fraud* and 
qbufes, cipofed to the refentment of the populace, and ftripped of 
their lands and revenues, Hood trembling fur their very eminence. 
The nobles, enervated by the refinements of luxury, (which know- 
ledge, foreign travel, and the progreft of (he politer arts, are too 
spt to introduce with themfclvcs) and fired with difdain at being 
rivalled in magnificence by the opulent citizens, fell ihto er*"™"-" 

expencei: to gratify which they were permitted, by the policy of 
theumcs, to diflipate their overgrown eftatee, and alienacetheir ao- 
"" ' ' " ' ' "^ ' " " " 'cr. and jheir 


b, Google 

ttent patritnoniet. This gradually reduced thrir- power and fheir 


Blackftqae's Cmmtntaneitn lit Laws ^ En^takd. 167 

influence within a rery ra(Klera.te bound: while the king, by the 
fpoil of the iDonafteries and the great incrcafe of the culto^ns, grew 
nch, independfnt, and hauj;htv: and [he commons were not vet 
fenfiblc of the ftrenglh they bad acquired, nor urged M examine 
it'a extent by new burthens or oppreflive taxations, during the fuif- 
jlen ojiuleai.'e of the exchequer. Intent upon acquiring lictv richet, 
aad happy in beiiig^ freed from the infolcnccand tyranny of the or- 
.ders more iniTncdiately above them, they never dreamt of op^ufitiE 
the prerogative, to which ibey had been la little iccuDomed'; muck 
ler»uf taking the lead'in oppofition, to which by their weight and 
their property they were now entitled. The latter yean of Henry 
she eightb were therefore the times of the greateft deIj>otifm| that 
fcave been knOwn in this tdand fince the death of William the 
Norman: the prerogativr, as it then flood by common law; (and 
tnuch more when extended by aA of parliament) being too large tp 
be endured in a land of liberty. 

' QoEEN Elizabeth, and the intermedtate princet of the Tudor 
line, had almolV tbe fame legal powers, and foraetimet exertdd then} 
as roughly, as their father lung Henry the eighth. But the tritical 
fituatioBof that princcfs with regard to her legitamacy, her reli- 
gion, her enmity with Spaio, and her jealoufy of the tjuee'i) nf 
Scots, octralioned greater caution in her coiidud. She probably, 
or herable adTifers, had penetration cnoui^ to difceni how the 
powet of the kingdom had gradually fliifted it'i channel, and wif- 
dom enough not to provoke the eomnioni to difcover and feci fhcir 
llrength. She therefore drew a veil over the odious part of prcro- 
^tivc; which was never wantonly thrown afide, but only to an- 
fwer forae important purpofe: and, though the royal ti-eafiiry no 
longer overflowed with tae wealth of the clergy, which had oeen 
'at! granted out, and had contributed to enrich tbr peopte. (he alked 
'fbrfupplieswi[h fuch moderation, and managed with lb itiuch ceco- 
Domy, that the commoni were happy in obliging ' her, Sucli, l|i 
ihort, were her circumftai)ces, her neceffiiies, her wifitoiji, and her 
good difpofition, that nerer did a prince- fo long and fo cDtirety, for 
the fpace of half a century together, reign in the flfcftioni 6f the 

' OHtbe acecSonofking Jamts I, nonewdesrecofrtyal power 
was added to, or exercifed, 1^ him; but fuch a Ccepire was top 
weighty to be wielded by fuch a hand. Th; unreafonahle and im- 
prudent exertion of what was then deemed to be' prerogative, upon 
trivial and unwonhy occafions, and ttie claim of a more abfolutc 
power inherent in the kingly office than had ever been Carried inro 
prafhce, foon awakened the deeping lion. The people heard uith 
aflonilhmentdoiftrines preached from the throne and tbe pulpit, fub- 
verfivc of liberty and jprooerty, aiid all the natural rights of hii- 
tnantty. They exammen into the divinity of this claiih, and found , 
itwe;Odvand fallacioufly Supported: and, common reafon aiTorcd 
(hem, that, if it were of human origiii, no conilitutioil could el^a- 
blifli it without power of ae vocation, no precedent could fahrtify, 
flolengthof time could conJtrm it. The leaders felt the pillfe of 
the nation, and found they had ability a» well as incliaatioh to fe- 
lift it; and accordingly refitted and oppofed it, wtcnctcr the pufiU 
L 4 .-■---.- 


t68 BlKkAooe'a Commtntarm w tht Lonut tfBuilmi. 

lanimous temper, of the reigning roonsrcfa had courage to put it to 
tbe trial: uaii tbej guned (ome little vifloriet in the cafet of con* 
cealmente. monopohes, snd the difpen0ng pcmer. In the mean 
timet very little wm done for the improvemcDt of priratc jutiic<, 
except the abolition of fanfiuariei, and the cstenlion of the bank- 
rupt law*, the limitaiion of fuiti and afiiona, and the rc<>ubitu)£' 
of informatioDi upon penal Itatutea. For I cannot clafs the hiwa 
againH: witchcraft ana conjiiratiua li&der the head of improvement* ; 
nor did the difputc between lord EUcfmere and Cr Edward Coke, 
VoDceming the powers of the court of chaocery, tend mucfa to the 
gdvanctment of juElice. 

' iNDEEDwhenCharlei ihefirftfuccccded to thecrownof hia.fii- 
.ther, and aitemptrd to revive fome cnocmities, which bad been 
doimoBt iu the rcij;n of king Jamc$, the hiang and bcnevolencet 
extorted from the fubjefl, the arbitraiy imprifoamenrs for refufal, 
the exertion of martial law in time of peace, nod other domefttc 
grievancei,. clouded the morning of that mifguided prince's reign; 
which, though the noon of it began a little to brighten, at laA wetit 
downinblo(3, and Ittt the whole Idogdom in darknefi. It muft 
be acknowledged th^t, by the petition of right, ena^ied to abolilh 
thele encroachments, the EagUlh conClitution received great altera- 
tion and improvemint. But there ftill leniained the latent power of 
the foreft lawi, which the crown mod unfcalbnably revived. The 
legal jutifdi^ion of the llar-ch:imber and high commiflioD court* 
waft ilfo extremely gieit; tho-jgh iheir ufurped authority was ftitl 
greater. And, it we add co ihele the difufe of parJiairenis, the i)I- 
timed xeal and deffjotic proceedings of the eccleliaftical governors 
iD matters of mere inditTerence, tugetbef with the arbitrary levies 
of toanageand Doundage, fliipmcaeyt and other proje£U, we may 
fee grounds mou amply fufficiem for I'cekii^ rcdrcls in a lag al cod- 
Aitutional way. Thi& rcdrcfs, uhcn fought, was allb coniliiutio- 
nally given : for all thefe opprcSions were actually al^liflied hy >he 
king in parliament, before the rcbtllion broke out, by the fevcrat 
iUtutes fbi trieruiial parliaments, for abolifbiiig the ftar-chambcr 
^4 high comsuHion c»urta, for afcertainiug the exttnt qf ferefis 
and forefi lawi, for renouncing fhtp-moncy and other exafiiona, and 
{or giving up the prerogative of knightitw the king's tenantsi> cm^ile 
iitconfequencs of tbeir feodal tenures: though it mud be acknow- 
ledged that thefe conceffiuns were not nWe with lb good a grace, a» 
to conciliate the confidence of the people. Unfortunately, cither 
hy hi> own mirmanagement, or by the arts of his encDiies, the kin^ 
bad loA the reputation of finccrily j which is the greaieft unhappi- 
pefs that dui betiJ a pi ince. Ttiough be formerW had ftraiocd his 
prerogative j pm only beyond what the genius of the prcfent time* 
would bear, hut alto Dcyond the examples of famur*ges« he had 
novcoDfeiitedtp reduce it to a lower ebb than wa* conli^eni wMh 
TQonarcbical government. A <oaduA {a ojipoliie to bis temper afd 
principles, joinM with fome ralli aAiona and u)iguarded cxprcffioM, 
tnade (he people TufpeA ibat this condefccniion uas merely lemjw- 
rary, Fludied therefore with the fuccefs they had gained, fintd 
with refentmest for pall oppreffiotts, and dreading the confequea«a 
if thdlotlf fliovil4 fcgMli hu power, the popular leaden {.whp-iit fll 


, r.:.l.;.J.yG00gIc 

B)aiJiAoDchCainmnieri(iMtbtXjfvn_qf£MglaifJ. -i^ 

(jes haTc called therofeWes ibe /*^) beg»» W grow inf«Uot and 
ungovernable: their infolcncc foou rendered cticni defper^e: and 
dclpairat length forced ihera tojoin with a fet of military bypostiu* 
mdenchufiafh, who overturned the church and monarchy, andsr?- 
ceeded with deliberate fokmnitjr to the trial and murder uf ihejr 

To the preface of this edititwi of the Commentarin, there 
is a poftlcript in which the Author obfcrves, that • no 

* fooncrwas his work completed, but many of its pofitions 

* were vehemently attacked by aeaUu of &lt (even oppofite) 

* denominations, religious as well as civil ; by fome with a 
' gieater, by others with a lefsdcgree of ncrimony.' It is 
ccroinly very true that Sir Williarn Blackftonc tias liad 
many opponents ; but we muft own that this notice of thein 
was-read by us with a confiderable degree of furprizc and 
pain. The lenity and commendaEion with whtcli lie has 
niiiformly been treated, dcferved expreffions very diffitrent ; 
and we arc not afraid to obferve thai m this reprehenfion of 
lus adverfaries, there is not only a llrange injuftice, but an 
extteme peeviftineis. As this remarV however tnay ajr- 
pcar to be (Irong we Oiall illullrate it by an example. 

In a work publifbed in the year 1778, there \s the' fbl- 
lowin^ notice of Iwo very capital errors ia his Comtncnta- 

' Speaking of knights of honour,' fays Dr. Smsrt, * or- 
' the cqaites aurati, from tlw gilt fpurs they wore, ■ Sir 

* William Blackftotw thus exprellcs himfelf. " Tl^ey-tem alf 
" Jieatkd in euriaw MlLiTBi, heauje thty Jirmtef a part, or 

" injied THE wHOLl OF THE HOYAL ARMY, in virtut ■ 
"-ej th*ir feuJal Uiturei; «»* eanJliinit af luhieh ivaj, that 

" tWBRY ONK WHO HELD A KNIGHt's FEE, (wh'ich /ft. 

" Henry the fecoiufs time arHounled le 20/. ptr anrtvm,) was 
" ohiig4d t» be knighted, and attnd the iixg in bis wdri, ir fine 
*• frr nat-comflianceir _ .... 

* After what I have laid down in my text I need hardly 
' obfervc, that this learned and able writer has confounded 
' the knight of htnour and the knight of tenure. And that 

* the requifition to take knighthood, was not made to' every 
' pofleflbr of a knight's fee, but to the tenants of knight s 
' ftes beW /» ea^iie of the crown, who had merely a fuf- 

* fieiency to maintain the dignity, and were thence dilpofcd . 

* not to tftke it. The idea that the ivhale force nf the royal 

* army, conlifled of knights of hotitur, or dubbed knights, is fo 

* extraordinary a circumflaiice, that it might have fhown of 

* id^f to^this eminent writer, the fotrrce of itis cttoA ■ -itsd 

* View of Society in Europe by Dr. Rtuarr, p. 347. 

f See the former edidoBs 9T the Commcntarici, Bookl. ch. a- 

' every 

Digitized byGOOglc 

lyO ' Blaekftone's Cemmtntariet on tbe Lmos of England. 

* every foldier in the feudal annj received the inveftiture of 

* wins f Could he wear a fcal, hirpafs lii filk and drefs, ufe 

* eofigils armorial, and enjoy all the other privileges of 

* knighthood? But while I hazard thcfe remari^s, ray Readers 
' will obfcrve, that it is with the-greateft deference I diflent 
'; from Sir Willifun Blackftone, whofc abilities arc the ob- 
' je£t of a moil general and deferved admintion.' 

In the edition now before us. Sir William Blackdohe has 
attended to the errors noticed in this pat&ge, and has en- 
deavoured ta coTttSt. them- His words noitf arc. " Tbo 
*' cquites aurati,) are alfo called in our law miliUs, becaufc 
.** they formed a pan of th0 royal army, in virtue of their 
*' feodal tenures ; one condition of which wa$, that every one 
" who held a knight's fee immediately under the crown, (whi(^ 
" in Edward the lecond's time amounted to 20I. per iim.J 
" wu obliged to be ^nighted, and attend the king in bis 
" wars, or liae for his non-compliance* 

It 11 very obvious, in the prcfent cafe that the cetifuret 
inflicted upon Sir William Blackftone were perfe&Iy juft ; 
and that the writer who made them exprelled bimlelf in 
temu oS the higheft refpefl. It is alfo very clear, that Sir 
William Blackltone took the benefit of his remarks. But, 
inAead of making any acknowledgment to htm, he includes 
him by impUcatron among the zealett, wbom he reprobates 
in his pomcri{». It is at the fame time obfervable, that Sir 
William has benefited in a variety of other inftances by th« 
.writincs of the {ami: Author i and that he has invariably- 
negleded to make any mention of him. If it were neceU 
iiiiy we could with great eafe juftify ftill ftirther our cham- 
of injufiice and peevilhnefs againA Sir WiUiam. But the 
topic IS difagreeaole to us. 

4a die title page CO this edition of the Commentari^, it 
is laid, that they are continued down to the prefent time 
by Dr. Bum. Wc muft acknowle^e that this intimation 
raifed our curiolity. But we were miferably dil^tpointed. 
Dr. Burn has given a few notes only ; and they are of fo 
little value that they might have been ftimiflied by any com- 
mon clerk to an attorney. The view, however, of the 
bookicUers in their application to him is ful&ciently appa- 
rent. Bypuningbis name to tlie title of the Commen- 
taries, they meant to prolong their property in the book. 

(If^ frefefi infime future Numieri to coniauit our firiilurei ■>■ thii 
ceUirited vaerk.) 

• Book I. ch. 12. 


Hootc's Tranjlaiim of Orlando Funefi. 171 

Aax. n. Oriarnio F-ariafe ; TranflMed from the Iralinn of LrOdO" 
rico AHofto ; with Notes. Bv John Hoole. In fira Vt^ttet, 
ivo, ii. 111. 6d. boariii, Bathurft, Murrojry be. 

THE wUdncfs of chivalry, though it excites ridicule' 
when examined by re^oii, is, yet, in many rc- 
fpefls,^culated for poetry, It ii a charm, ac- 
cordingly, which engages us in the old poeti. It pteafest 
in no common degree, m Spenfer ; and in Ariofto, if it haj 
been fomewhat more moderate, it would have etcited « 
moft genuine and lalling fatisfaAion. In Italyi indeed, tht 
Orlando Furiofo has obtained the higheft reputation ; and 
the Critics of that nation do not Temple to prefer Ariofto to 
TaJib. His merits, it muft be allowed are very uncommon 
and great; but, perhaps, he was too little dir?3«t by cul- 
tivation and art. He owes every thing to nature, and ao • 
thing to ftudy. He was ignorant of the rules of Ariftotle, or*- 
diiregarded them. His work, though grave and fublime in 
its nature, yet abounds in iallics of wit and humour ; and 
this unh^py mi^'^'^c cannot fail of giving difguit to readers 
of a delicate tafle. IKs performance is not properly an EpJa 
poem i for he violates nnity, and feems folicitous to amufc 
by the exhibition of violent and romantic incidents, and by 
narratives that amaze by their extravagance. But, ifitts 
difficult to commend and to admire the contrivance and 
<]eiign of his poem, the difpofition of its materials, and 
the fymmetry of its parts ; it is yet impollible pot to be 
delighted with his invention, his fentiments, his figures, 
hisi}iarmony and verification. If his ftorles fatigue with 
their endJefs variety, he may be thought to compenfate 
for them by the haroinefs with which he diver^fies his ftyle 
aad his jnanner. For his command over language is en- 
tire and ablolutc. . The vcrfatility of his genius is a molt 
flriking proof of its power ; and to a mind fo fertile, 
nature has generally rcfufed that chadifed judgment which 
is fo nece^y to manage it. His richnels ouen runs into 
weeds, and his fertili^ is often a grotefque exuberance. 
Hence it happens that his epifodes arc generally aile£tcd 
and impmbaple. His ufe of enchantment and maeic is 
by Jkr tpo ^undant .and profufe. Nor U he always fortu- 
nate .in charadcrizipg his perfonages. His females are not 
wtfrequcntly degraded, by bis imputing to them qudities 
which s)uj ought not to have poliellcd. In place of dut 
timidity which paints fo feelingly the fex, he afcribes to 
them heroifm and. valour. Wc rfiudder at the cqnibats of 
ladies, fierce with hpftility,_ and cafed up in armour ; nor 
do the mannen of chiTalry juftify fuch mting infringements 
of jnodefiy and nature. His males too, are ntuctt -too for- 

Digitized byGoOgIC 

J72 H(wl«'s TruitlhtiM ffOrkiuh J^wruji. 

nul mi majeftic, and appear to moclc the confinfd aa^ au- 
towliioitt of bumuiity. His d^fcriptiom, hoi^cvcr, arc, 
with a few exceptions, fuHiale and nufterly ; Ui« hv^ts 
«re fought with Ikill, and may vie with tUofe of Hqnifr an4 
Virgit i and when he pleafes, he excels fo much in the . 
tender and patbetici he moves fo forcibly the amorous paf- 
ifionSf that the maa who can perufe him without ^motion, 
piult be ftceled to every fentimem of foftnefs and fen- 
(Ibility. _ . . 

Such 15 the Poet whom Mr. Hoolc has chofrn to drefs 
}n an En'glifh garbi The talk it confeffedly of the greateft 
difliculty. Nor can we justly affirm that he has bees able 
to execute it uniformly with the happicft propriety. But" it is 
f^ir to fayj that he has done much, and that his merit is very 
con^derable. I^he has not reached the iire and animiition 
of Ariofto, he has given his meaning with fidelity, and is 
by no means ^c^^cient in force. If hit veriification is not 
always fqll, ripe, and njcllow, it is in general woven with 
art ; and there is an eguality in it which marks Hot only 
Jiis induftry hut his tafte. If the charter of the original is 
considered, and a due cftimatiolt is tnade of the extreme 
length of the undertaking, and of its irk^nnenefs, be wiD 
be allowed to be entitled to great pr^ife; 

To go beyond our prcdeceilbrs in the fame walks of lite- , 
rature is ^n undoubted proof of excellence. Before tbe pre- 
fent publication, two vcrfions. of the OrlandoFnriofo bad ap* 
peared in Englifh. The fortner was the work of S Jrjoiin 
Harrington, who flourifhed m the reign of Queen Etiza> 
beth i the latter was publilhed only fome years ago. It is 
not enough to obferve that the penormancc of Mr. Hoole 
is fuperior to thefe translations. It excels them in' a great 
degree. Nor is this all. The foi'mcr tranflatprs had W- 
lowed the odave Aan^ in' imitation of x)k Italian original. 
But in this they aftcd rnoft injudicioimy ; as theftruc- 
ture and idioms of the two languages arc verv different. Mr, 
Hoole, on tlic contrary, by ufing the En^ifli couplet gives 
1 ftriking example of his 'judgment's aodwe may venture to 
propiiefy, that he wijl be imitated, in this rofpcft, if any 
tuturt tranflator (hould be ambitious to contcnct wiA him. 

It is now our duty-to exhibit fome extr^fts frtfm which 
our Readers may judge for themfelvcs- of Ac vzlae-of tlw 
voluipes before us. j - 

In .the fcventh book of the Orlanrfo'PnrWo we have the 
following beautifu! defcription of Alclpa. 

",",'.H«'" matchlcfs perfon cveiV charm wmWn'd 
'.'/_ ToftnM in th* idea of a painter's mind. ' ■■ . . 

. ■".'■'■•Bonpd in a knot behind, her ringlet* roH'd 

' ^ ?DoWA her Ibft necl^ ttnd feein'd like Vftiteg gold, ' 

Her I 

Cr:,l...d.yG00gIC 1 

Koolel TratifiSi'iim •fOrhiSb /itm^ 773 

Her cheeks ^tk lilin cnixthb Uuftun rof«i~- -' 
Her forebwd highj like polifli'd i«'ry flwwi. 
Beneath'two vching brow* with ipkadofdiDae . 
Her fpirklif^ cyei, ^w:h cye.« ratfiaBtTunl - 
Her artful gjances, winnibg look* a[q)Cbr, 
AndwiDtoQCHwd lit) in jiAifaufii here : J3 

"ni heoce he ImkIs Ms bote, he poitiU hit flart^ ' 
*Ti* hencerhe licsli th* tHiwKr7SiiBcn^<i"'^ ^ ' '>- 
Her ndTnib-trvlj' flMpM, the faultleft fnunc . i 
Not covy «m dt&^ec, nor art on hkinc. 
Her lips bcRMth, with pure 'tcnniUen bright^ 
Prefeat two MWi of oriuit pcirl to fight ; 
Here thole foft wnnli ue fortt'tl, w&ofe power iiXMxa 
Th' obdardtc foul in love's RUttring bliiint t' 
, And here the fmUet receiTe their infant birth, 
Whofe fweea revetl a paradtfc on car^. 
Her neck «ad bmA won -vhitvu 'fUlin^ firimi ; ' 
RoudU wtuber tMck, Bud fiiU^hor.bbfDm rofe. 
Finn as the budding fruit, with gnrtk IweH^ . 
Each jovelyhreAftutematervfeand t«U. 
Thus, on the tiurginofthepMarful.laf, 
The witen hfOM MifiiK the faaniDg breue. - 
Her arpi iveU rarn'd, aad of h daz^ing huc^ 
With pcEfcftbeaaty grati^'d. the Tiow. ■ 

Her taper JMf^n long and £ur to fa, . . 

From every' Ti&ng vein anifmlUng.ftEC; 

And from her Tc^hehnv, -with new dsUght, 
Her fleoAer foot attra^ tbe'loter'a fight. 
Not ArgiB* ictf her other chahniculitd^jTt 
So dofely wL'd from every \aB^m^ tyt % • ■ 

Vet tnay tn jai^e the graces fluiievesk'd ' * ' 

Suipafi'd noifthoft her niodcflgaibciincefll'd, 
Whiffa fltaorein.vua>ncj'«cye to hide, 
Each aogel charm that itcm' hea>em BUy'ij.* 
The extravagant featt of Orlando in hit madnefs are thus 
depicted in the banning of the twcnty-fottfth bo^. 
' Whoe'er ttia feet inCupid't fnares flwU ftt, ' 
Mufi fetk t'rfcapfc, ere In th' eBtatigling net 
Hii wings wt caught ; for (a^e esperience tells, 
Inlorc's esttvme, estrcmeof tnadnefi dwell). 
Though each may rage not with the wild excefl " , 
' Orfamdo rtg'd, their trenzy all esjireti 

Bv diffiweat ■ways— what more our folly ttnnn, 
TTiat while wc others feek, orirfeWea to lofc ? 
Various th'eteAs erf' this deltru^ve 'Same, 
The firitdire<:aufeof phreaty is the fsttie : 
lAve it a ftirefi, whert the loyer flrajs 
From path to path, bewilder'd hi the mate ; 
And he trtn leads his life in amonms pnn, 
Deferres <o fral the gyves and Aackhng chain. 
Here fomo fflay eiy— Mother, thy words h»« Hiom 
Aootber'B faala, foijetfulof thy eWn. ^ 


174 Roble'c YrMfiatiiH tfOrlcmJa /Wtf^. 

Yes — h-in ray intnvalt of fenfe 1 fee 
My bofom** CotifliA with the cbar^ Bgrec : 
Yechnvc*! Ariy'ii, Add hope in rime to core 
The wound* I now fWnn beauty's fliafts endviv. 

* J totd, faqw ftaia. his timbs Orlsudo diew 
Furioui hii artnt,. »oA «'«r the foreft tbtew 
The fcatter'd hundj ; iiow hi* veil lie rent. 
And to- the gronad hi* faxaX falchion feat t' 
How tree* he nmteil, while the wood* around 
And ca*ern'd.rocki K*echo'd toihe found : 
Till mftic fwaina, to where the twnult femdt 
Their grievoui &IU, ^rcniel plaQet»led. 
Ai nearernowdic madman tfaey beheld, . 
Whofe feat* of flreng^ih all human flrength excelled ; 
They tum'dto€y ; buj knew not where,, nor whence* 
Such fudden fear* diftrb^ every fenfo^^v. 
Swift he purfn'd, and om who vainly fled ' 
He feis'd,. and f^om tlu fliduldcri lent the head* 
Eafy, u from the lUIl^' or tender ihoot, 
A peafant crop* die flower, or plu^ the fiwt { 
The lifelefi body by. tb^ 1<^ tic tocfc, . . 
And, at a clubi -^punll hit fellowf Amok. 
Two ftretch'd on .eanh in laHinv flumher lay* 
Perchance to rile not till the judgment day.. 
The re& were foon difpen'd on every £de, 
. So well advii'd their -capid feet they ply'd ; 
Not had the madman toiter'd to purfxe^. 
But on their henlitrith headloiigQxed he flew. 
The labouring hinds the peril near furre}>*d, 
And left their ^Hxmj^t with all the tuiial trade 
Offcythesandfpatus, while feized iritb pale afiight 
One climb* a roof, and one the tensile** height, 
(Since clras and oaks avail not) trstnbling dKic, 
They view the dreadful havock from a&ri 
■ Before hb.furyfleedsandoHn yield, 
Aud fwift thecourfer that efcapei the 6eld. 

' Now might ye hear in every village rife 
Tumultuoui clamours, blending human criei 
With rullic born* and pi|>es ; while echo'drami4( 
The pealing belU from neighbouring fieeplei (bund. 

' All feize fuch weapon* a* th^ time provides, 
Bowi, flings, andHavoi and down the mountain'* fides 
Athoufandrufh ; while from the delis below. 
A* many fwarm agunfl « lingje foe. . 
As when the tide appear* the fliore to Uve, 
The fouthern wind impelling wave on .wave. 
Scarce curls the fitft, tnc ferood deeper fweOs. 
And this, the third with tifing force excels ; 
mi more and more the vi^f-flood afccndst 
' And o'er the fand* his liquid fcourge ezteadt. 
Th* increajlng throngs Orlando thus allail, 
Pour down the hill, and iflUe from the vale. 

by Google 

■ Hook's 'frahJliithH tf Orldnda Furiofi, ' '" i"?5 

* Tea wrctchei firfi, then other ten tie flew, 
That nearliis hand in wild diforder drew. 
None from hit fated fkin could draw the blood ; 
His ftin unhurt each weapon's flroke withllood : 
To himfuch wonclrgo» grace the King t^Heavea ■ 
To guard hit faith and holy church bad given. 
Could augbt of mortal ri&Orlando'i life, 
Gmt were his rtlk in thii unequal (Itifc : 
Then had he mifi'd the mail he late unbrac'd, 
Andmifi'd the falchion, which aiide.he aa&j- 

' The crowds, that riew'd each weapon aim'd in Tun, ' 
With backward {tepe retreated from the plain i 
When mad Orlando, who no further thought, .. , - . 

The ruftic dwellines of a hamlet fought : 
All thence were fled : yet there in plenteous {tore 

UefouDd fuch fiiad at fuita the Tillage poor. 

Of homeljt kind ; — ^utpreft widi pining fa& ... 

On roon or bread hii eager hands he cafi ; 

Greedy alike Htvour'd wbMe'er be bw, 

Or dvaury viandtbak'd, or tnorfcl'traw : 

Thien thiwi^ the country round, with n4nd pace. 

To man and beaA alike he gave the chace ; 

Through the.dMp.coTert of the tangled wood - . 

The nimble goat or ligbt-foot deer purfu'di 

Oft on the bear 3.bA tuOky pM he £ew, 

AAd, with fab tingle arm, in combat flew;' 

Then, with their fleO), his farage fpOilt of %ht 

Infatiate goi^U hit ravenouk appetits.* 
In the twenty-vventh book, Rodomont ii nude to pro* 
noanee the ToUowing iliTefiivc ^unft Women. 

' O female fee! (he cry'd) whofe worthlelt nindf 

Incontiaat, fhifti with ererr changing wind : 
-Ofuihlalt woman ! perjur'dandunjult, - 
■ Moil wretched thofe who place in thee their tryfl I 

Not all my fervice trj'd, my lore cTpreit 

,By ihoufand proofi, could in one cruel breaft 
. Secure a heart, fo foon. atas ! eflrang'd ., 

From truth like mine, and to another chang'd. 

Nor have I lott tbee now, becaufe n 

J fource of woe to call- 

- that comprize* all ! 

O fex accurt'd ! — by God and Nature feot, 

A deadly bane to potfon man'a content ! 

So hattfulfnakea are bred, the wolf and bear 
So haunt the fliades ; fo nun'd by genial vr 

Swarm gnats and wafps, the venom d infed train, 

- And tares are bred amtdfl the golden grain. 

Why could n« Nature (fofleriag nurfe of earth !) 

Without thy aid, give man his happier birth i 
As tree*,' by human lull engraftt-cf, bear 

The juiqr fig, Ihtooth plumb, or racy pear } 


17* WatcfieWs Trmt^iM s/(A» Gi^'tt/St. Attttthtw. 

But, ah! can KafureaiiKlit ibM'i perfeft frame, 
When Nature beirt hnfefr a Itmak ntiiK f 
Yet be HOI htnn with empty pride o*er-niti. 
To think, O woman ! man » bom yoat fim. 

'^ 1 

r Mr. Hoc 

And from b fetid bet^the lily fmvn. 

Infidious, cr«ei ftjc \ whoTe feithteft mtfij 

No love can ioluence, aftd no trutb can hind ; 

Ingrate abd iflftploos, pla^uet of hbman kind !* 
Thefc fpcciimns ©f the ability and gwiins of Mr. Hoole, 
wliiJt they may gratify the cunollity of our Readers, may 
ferve to jullify the opinion wc have given of his perfonnaacc. 
With regard to the decorations with which hU Tolutncs 
are embelliOjed,. \i is fufBcieat for us to remark, that they 
are defigned with uigcouky, andeagnwd vnthckguice. 

Art. hi. A nem Tnn^titk tftk Gi^ ^ St. A6mi»w, •aiilh 
Notts Critical, PbiUtgStai «rf £.^iM*wy,.. By <KlbeK' Wake- 
field, Bj a. bus FtUDw. of jefui CWege, Ciannidgv ; and now 
ClaiScal Tutor at Watrtagton. 4x0. iM^lNMrAi. Johafoa. 

SOME of the nsoft rcfpeftable chartfters, that have «i- 
hghtened th£ pfoteftant world in this and the loft cen- 
tury, have declarcdin favour of a. new oannatibnof the 
fcripturcs : and the labours of i^any vf thcoa have, -it muft 
be confefTed, greatly £KiUtMx4'tbt-aiiib't0:aRf fuitirB com- 


^r. Wakefieldi thcmglibcvbesiMtcapriuMiiljr ttjeftdie his piedcficfibtis and tbough .hi« mdmg appear? 
to have been extmfite, ftands foi-tli tn tfae woric mbre us, 

as " a felf-taught Oritk ;" not as the ctrflea*r and ret«ler 
of the fentiimehKof others, but as deoehiSTtg -altimatcly oa 
an intimate knowfcdwof the Fcript\rral languages. 

From a tran/lritor lb ijua!iJied, tlie Ipeculative theologian 
will naturally expeA many new and curious obfervauons ; 
and in this rcfpeftwe may vcaturc to piomife, that te will 
not be difappointed. 

The pbcafcology of ihd oW verfion is tido]ieed by Mr. 
Wakefield, wheiever an obfoletc wwtl,im' ambtgoms phrale 
or a miftianflation did not create neceffity of ^departing 
from it ; for, as he obfcrwis in his prtfecc, *• We are not 
cafily brought to acgtiidcE in any alterations of a Vcriion, 
. fo familiarized to us trom oureatlieft years, and in gene- 
ral, fo excellent as our common verfion of the New "Tcfta- 
ment certainly is." He has, however, careened iiu tranfla- 
tion in jcany inAanoe^ i he has ^Ib aavttOtci jhc former 
'abfurd divifion into chapters and vedcs, by fobftkntitig one 
moie judicious, aoid more agreeable to the ftrits pf die nar- 


Digitized byGoogle 

Wakefield's Tranjatien ef iht Gefpel ef Si. Matihnv. I?; 

*^rivc. The tranllation is illuftratcd wild notes, in which 
the Claflical 'Reader will find much gratification, though 
ibme will be apt to think, that they increafc too much the 
bulk of the performance ; but the author himfelf h^s apolo- 
gized for this circumftaacc (pi 159-) to which we refer our 

It is alraoft JrapoffiWe to give a general idea of the merits 
of fuch a work, as that now before tis. Wc muft therefore 
content ouifclves with feJeiting a few paflages, as fpecimcns 
of our Author's critical abilities. 

Matthew vii. ver. 6. Tranllated by Mr. Wakefield. 

' Giv« not the facrifice to the dogs. 

Nor (hrow your pearls before the iwine ; 

l.eft they trample on them with ilieir feet, 

Andiurn ag^in and tear yoii.' 
'"Hie fentencesofrhiiverfearc trahfpofed: t\it ftufi/j cainfpon^ 
to tkefrft, and the third to tbe/ecMd, a follow* 1 

Miii j8«»iiii rut fJ^tfiTa; ii,wiuy .(itijotSiv -hut y^iur 

■ ' Thertare other inftaiiCes of thia traiifiiofitiont both in theO.and 
tf- T. and in other authors. The following \a one, though the 
Wranf ement is not exaaiy parallel as in that before o» : 

_ ' (radfff them (thc/wB and ttmon) la tin firmament efibe heavtn, U 
give light ufua tie earlh \ 
jitij la rule ever iht rfay-— (that is) the/«ii j 
And g-ver tijf'mgbl — (that isj the mooH, Gen. 1. 18. 

' The next arc cortiplete : 
/ am ilaci, hut comely ; 

jis ibe tennefKeJar, aslhipavlUnmofSohmea. Cant. i. 5. 
' Let /if" cxamplei of this artifice of eompofition from tvjo great 
poets of our own country clofe this remark. 

7he i','»rf,>r'j, /oldler's, feMar's, rye, langae, /-Mtrd. Shakefpcare. 
* Aadye, that, from tb* fiaiely irotu 

Of IVlndfar't heights, th' (xpanfe Mow 
Ofgreve, eflaim, tf mead furvey ; 
fVbife turf, ivhefejbade, vuhofe fiovj*TS amimg, ^ 
Winders the hoary Thamet along 

Hh fiver-winding ivay. GrAV. 

TheMEssAGS, of John the Baptist to jEiUsCiiHiiT i" " J 
fptOfmO- 1 iri^ iT(offi.:<»p.y .] Mr. Wakefield tranflatei. Thou are be^ 
•iuljeixai te came: cfnixeUtekfar aneiherf * This is, Ithiufc,' add» 
Mr. Wakefield m hisnote on this paffage, uncjuEftioBably the proper 
tranflatioh of the words, and is afcertained liy the cosiezt and the 
former occurrences between ?'/•" and tbe Raftlfi, 

' "the phraffolKgy of the fir^ claufe — r-j 1, i tfx'f*"©'-. — pron* 
nothing eithei" way ; a* an laterrogatlaii 'may be either made vjii '' 
or •oiitbaiit, a eoijunSiBH ; and it la equally proper to fay ">/ ", 
(H »« II,©' > Seec. X. V. 39. Markxiv;6i, Jcjiniv. i 
XTtii. 3«. Afta »i.. )8. Sec. and 1, which introducei &% frcond 
Ewe. Rsv. Vol. 11. Sept. 1783. M , claub 


t78 WakeSeli's'TraHjJatien dJ the GofpeltfSt. Matlhtw. 

clAufC) i) often reduodaat, whether a queflion be alked, or not : fea 
ttM« c. vii.v.4. c. Jtii. v, iq, 33. e. iY,v. 15. Sec. ^ 

' But the greateft difticuUy, that attemli the comtnon tranflatiotf 
is ihe eaiire doubtfulnefs and uncertaintv, which he afcribes to 
y»hii, refpefling the perfon of.the MeJJiab. Any hefitation upoa 
this head would have been inconfiftcnt with hii former declarati- 
ons concerning J'V"' ; and altogether impoffible, when wcconfider, 
what inducements he had to believe him to be the Chrifi from his 
owh account of the matter : (compare John i. 39 — 38, with Matt. 
c. iii. T. I J— 17. Mark c. i. v. 9— ji. Luke c. iii. v. 21 — 23.) 
He could not but know, after thefc attcftationi from heHvea, and 
Itis own. complete coDvidion, that J'Jui of 'Nazareth raufl be the pro- 
phet, "U-'ia was la eomf, 

* The truth of the matter a[^an to be this. Jehi mufl have been 
perfuaded in his owa mind, thai Jf/us was indeed the promised 
Me^ia!\ All hii embarraJTment and doubts arofe from the ctndull 
of our Lord, which did not fuit hii apprebenlioos of the Mtffiab\ 
charaiter. He thought it exceedingly ftrange, that one, whoii^ 
he, like the reft of his nation, expelled to have feen a glorious 
and triumphant perfonage, flwutd continue in fuch a low anddef- 
pifed ftate, tnvolyed in calamity and diftrefs; the fcern ef men, ani 
the euicaft of the pe^U : and he began to defpond ^ feeing fairafetf, 
tbefire-rmncr o( the C6ri^, fo utterly negleifted', apd left lo perifh 
■D prifoo, by the hand) of a tyrant, without any ptoTpefl of de- 
liverance. To relieve his perplexity and folicitude, he tends foms 
•f l)is difciples to propofe in a format manner the queltion under 
confideration to our Lord. 

* It is as if he had faid : ** I know and am confideiit, that thou . 
" art the glorious Perfon prediftcd in the iinu and the PrafbeUj 
" whom I and all the people of the Je^.ai expe£t, a*, the great 
*' King appointed by God for the deliverance of his people Ifrofl. 
*' It ij iiapoffible for me, after the fignal atteftations, which 1 have 
" feen and heard, of thy heavenly defignation, to entertain any 
** doubt of thy character, or to look for any MtJ^ab but thyfeli. 
** Why then dofl thou not conduft thyfelf in a manner conform- 
** able to the grea^nefs and excellence of thy pretenfioni '? Why art 
** thou fo backward in averting thy prcrogatiTc, and in taking pof-- 
•* feflton of thy kingdom ? Why am I, thy fore-runnw, who have 
** excited fuch eipedations of thee and of myfelf, fu&rcd tbu» 
•' to languith in prifon, and in the power of the enemy ? It is ftmn 
* thee, and fFom none but thee, that I and our sauon expeA do- 
*' liverance." 

* Such appears to have been the ti^e intention of this meflage o£ 
tbo ^B^itf.— — And the t^bfequenl sondufl of Jffus^ (and parti- 
CUIbtI^ ai it h recited with mope prectlion by Z.«ji«^ c.vii. v. ai.) 
^d bi» iddfcfi t» yebn\ dirciples, cqnftitutc a moH admirable and 
delicate rebuke of the fcruples and importunity of their mafier : 
ffld» bv infbfTMn^ them of the huiaility of his character and the 
bowvolfflt iqtoniioiM of hit mj^sM, he at the fame time re^fict 
and TBpritvM. J^id eiToneout conteptiona (A the nature of the 
ii^rif\ kjngdpm ; a kingdom which wa* to be foutuled on me^cy 
Md LOTS, ani 10 eiercife % vtiumay. atitlu^tx ores the himp and 


Wakefield's frdr^ilut o/t^t Cafptl of Si. Matlhevl. J79 

AFFECTIONS : as uulike M poflibte to the afpirin^ nature of tiiC 
luDgioms ef tbh ivarU, whrCK are often ufurped by •aititace, and 
tfWiliihed by ermliy and Bpprt^^n over a rela^aai people. 

'And bacaufe of tHie falfc and injurioueappreiiettfiotl of the 
Chriftia^ dirp«iili)tion, Jahn the Jiapiift, though inferior itt dignity 
to DO prophet, who had ever appeared -among men, ii pronoilBcea 
by J4»s (v. to.) W be t.E93 ihd« /A- least in tie UngAm ef 
Heavtm : thai is, *' lefs than th^ lealt of the true itliclPLEi o{ 

''a HEsk and hjimble Saviour." Nor do I thihlt thatfo rea- 

fooable an accoUot of thU feemingly inconfillent declaration of our 
Lord concerning ^a/ia, can be given upbn any other accepfatlon of 
the pilTage. befort us. All iuterpreten,, that 1 have fiien, appear en- 
tirely at a laf9 for a proper cjtpl a nation.' 

Matt. xvi. ver. 18. " Thou art indeed Pft«r : and Upon 
this very rock will I build ffly church." 

' mi Tavit, *i 1HT5,] Uf,^ this vtty rack. The Remonlfit interpret 
this iffertion of the ApafiU Filer himfclf, as if A- Wire the mti up- 
on which the Chrijlian cbarch ivas to be erc£icd : dnd, on this «c- 
couBt, «fleem-*?Jatwbethe trffrfof the ^^y?/«, and the chUf nkr 
af the ehurcb. By ancafy coUfequence, they make hit imaginary 
fiKceRbrv the hijheps oi Kemr, the inheritor! of hit power ahd pre ' 
rogattve, and effe^ually efiabltOi, as is fuppofi-'d, iheir claim to /»— 
failiiiiry, abA fpirilual daminim, . Preltftaal commcntatora have in- 
cnnGderately Mopted thi* interpretation, and apply this declaration 
to the perfon and chara^i' of >SVi Peler, 

' It would be equally difficult to prove either prbpofition i eithel 
that Pfier wai the itaJ of the 'Ap'iftUs, or that the Chrifiian church 
VitfaunJidii^ahim. After our Lord*s a/TM/iiHf \\xAfnJiUJamtt 
nppean to \afc frrfided ovti i^c clmrch M Jerufaltm, and to have 
Men acknowledged m fiipfri»ur, ia fome meafurej by the reft of the 
AfefiUit yobii, if any of them could juftly claim a pre<nlinencc, 
liid a much better title to it than Puir, from the uncommon re- 
Jjtrd and sifeftion aiwayi marifefted for him by hit Mafter.'^And 
x'iMJ^^UPautexpKiiiy fays, itidntte rMJici cA tht Chrljliax cl^urcb 
was not ercHed upon Peter, upon one Afaftlt ; but upon all the 
AptfiUi a«d Prvpheti ! and that jf/oi Cbrifi him/elf U lil cbiif eoti- 
KER-STONB. £ph< ii. 30. 

' The truthofthe maittris as follows t 

' The words, upon this very rati, do not refer at all to the 
*w/oii of Prrer, but to his declaration, exhihiied in the i6th rerfe 1 
liaH atl'llx Chrift, tl^i jBaef the tiviag G^dt Triis was the kocb 
upon which our liord intended to fvand hit church ; namely, his 

own Messiahshif this important eflemial point, that Hi, Jcfui 

of Ntnarcei, was theCKKJST, the promifed Rsueemek of J/ratlf 
and the fl^TttointedMspiATOR betrreen Gad and mat. 

' Accordingly, we find, from confutting the hijlqry of the firft 

' ' ■-'-'--•■ ntained in the A3s at i\\z Afofilei, the 

, that Jefui of Naxarrlh was -the Ciri/?, 
the only ankle of Chriftian faith, re- 
tfiired by the ApnfiUs, as a neceflaty qualification to an introduc- 
tion into iheciifri:*, at /Anf period of difcipline anddoArine.* 

■ MaBti xxvi. ver. a6. " Take cat : this is my body." 

M 3 wn 

phnang of CbrMa-n'tf, contained in the ASi of t\\cA^fiUi, the 
Belief of this fingle point, that Jefui of Naxarrlh was -the Chrif 
m Mepth, to' have been the only ankle nf Chrijliaa faith, i 


l8» Crawford's "Hiflary sf TreianJ. 

■ * «.Ti ,ci ] Tbh is : that is, " This reprcfcnfi my body." S« 
Aie faliag ef ihe Fafchal'Lamh I'i cMeA mrtonymrealh th'i f^Sittfr^ 
becaufe it nprefcuttd the fajjing-over of the deftroyirg atigrl. No' 
^B»-< in language more common. See note c, xii. ». ig. The 
Twi "fi' hss often this force in l1ie i^.T. So " •n~-vohal it could 
«rMff, otfign'fy : Adb X. 17. So Mate. vii. li. xii. 7. 

' There is no term in the Hcbriw language to eapreft to mean, 
jfigii^, or Jeipte : the ^iMiy, therefore, ufe a Jigurt, and fay, it is, 
infleadof rV/^ySri.' See i Cor. *. 4, Bishop LAw/i-0M hi» I'a- 
ttrJtaruid hibU lent to //>? Traijfaior, as Ai 'nfnrint us f* Aj prrfacr, 

Mr. Wakefield differs from the orthodox creed in feve- 
raldoAriiial points, and we coiifefs, defends his particular 
opinions with great acutenefs and force of reafoning. Biit 
*e are forry to find an Author of his great abilities and eru- 
dition fo httle mafl^r of his temper, as to dcfcend, as he 
too fre<iHently docs, into afperity and petulance-, if not into 
downright«iKyt of the opfpofite party. 

Art. IV. n-e Hip'y of IrrlanJ Jram tbt tarHi/l Ptrigd te the- 

prrfrnt Timi. In a feries of Letter*, addrefled to- William 

- Hamilton, Efq. By ^ViUiam Crawford, Elq; A.M. one of the 

Chaplaini of the firft Tyrone Re|iment. ivol, 8to, los, fewed. 
. Pr'nied^tSttabanc, by John SelTcn-, and fold in LondoD, by T. 


THE late difputes concerning Ireland have given occa- 
fion, to thefe volumes. It is' their object to trace from' 
the earlieft periods to theprcfcnt hour the ftruggles of the 
Irifh iq behalf of freedom. The Author is ambitious to 
c^iplain the nature and progrefs of the conftitution of Ire^ 
land ; to enumerate the encroachments whicti have been 
made upon it ; and to record the emancipation of the Iriih, 
froni the dominion of the Britifb legiflature. The artempt 
is certainly moil commendable ; and Mr. Crawford difplays 
a patriotic ardourvhich is Worthy of a good man and a 
good citizen. 

It is, however, obJervable, that the abilities of this Au- 
thoT are not equal to his zeal; and that the execution of his 
work bears no proportion to the finccrity of bis intentions. 
Jn the more rernote a^rasof the Irifli ftory, he difplays cre- 
dulity, and not penetration. The infringements upon the 
liberties of Ireland in tatter times, are not difltnguilhed \ff 
him with accuracy ; and though he has turned over, a great 
many books, he has not obtained that prccifc and d<%nt- 
fivc knowledge, wbicli alone could give a value to his per- 
formance. He declaims rather tlian informs; and In tlie 
ipidft of his admiration of freedom, it is obvious to perceive, 
that his mind was too much heated with faftion. The 
, calm and difpafGonatc tone of hiftoiy never difcovers itfclf 
-> - in 



Cratorford's WfiBTy of Irtlaxi. l8( 

in his work. He a£ts like a partizan who was. more at- 
aciied to his party than to truth, ai\d who had blindly fur- 
rcnaered himielf over to the power of his paffions ; and it is 

imposing upon his reafon. His natural faculties, at the fame 
time, are not very confidcrable ; and his proficiency in lite- 
rature is but moderate and (lender. 

The form of letters, under which he delivers his narra- 
tive&and his Opinions, is not calculated for hiftorical cx- 
xfinefs and precifton ; but it fuits that loofenefs of detail 
which characterizes him. He attains not, however, that 
«ly propriety of ftyle which correfponds with the cpiliolary 
mode of compofition. Nor is his language remarkable 
cither for purity 'or grammatical excellence. It is flowing, 
without eloquence ; and pairionate without ftrength. 

What Mr. Crawford has remarked concerning the recent 
fettlement, or revolution of t!ic Iriih affairs, has the merit 
ofexhibiting the general opinion of the Author's country- 
men on that fubjeiS ; and for this reafon we Ihall fubmit it 
to the obfervation of our Readers. 

' The ad repealing (he fiwh of George the Flrft had now paf- 
£m1 the Brltiil) legiflature and arrived iu Ireland. It was in ihefe 
words. " Whereas an ad was tralfcd in the listh year of the 
reign of his lafe Majefty, King George Firft, entitled, an aft for 
, the better fecuring the dependency at Ireland upon the crown of 
Great Britain, may it pleafe your mort escelieot fljajellv that it bo 
enaded, and be it enacted by the King's moil excellent Majefty, by 
aod with the advice and confent of the lords ^iritual and renipa- 
rtl, and commons in this prefent parliament aUembled and by the 
authority of the fame, that fram and after paifiiig of this a€t, the 
aboie memioDiM ait and the feveral matters and thinga therein cun- 
lained, (lull be and is and are hereby repealed." . Notwithftanding 
the addrefles of the volunteers of the three provinces, the dilbuie 
which had commenced in rc(pcft to this ad, as a competent fecu* 
rity of our eiclufivc legiflatlve rights became every day more 
warm smd univerfal. But no change, had taken place, coneerninj; 
this queftion, among our rep refenta lives, a few excepted. The 
I3S time the poiot was delated in the houfe of commons it 
Wii deterraind in the affirmative, with only fix dciTenting voices, 

* The reafons which fupporied their opinion and for fomc time 
at 6rli were confidered as conclufivc by a majority of ihc nation, 
were, that the declaratory law with its clairocs were pointed 
out iq the addrefs of our parliament, in the mull esprefs tennS, 
31 the grievance of all others the moil iqiQlcrable to Irifli-- 
mea; that the unfcferved, unconditional repeal of that law, in 
confequcnce, with all the circumftances attending it, could, with 
fairnsfs, be conftrucd in no other fenfe than as a difavowal on the _ , 
part of Britain, of every claim to bind us, in future, byhertawsf ' 
thit Britain muft know that to do away the law and yet retain the 
rjaim, would be do wife conhilent with his MajcAy's declapatioo, 
BJ 3 (haj 


iBt Cnwfbrd's Hl/hry 0/ Ireland. 

that all our grievances (faould be redrelTed ; tbat if ta Engli^ 
law pretending authority to bind this nation, had exited, antece- 
dent tp the declaratory aft, a fimple repeal of it would have bceo 
infufficient, but that no fuch law dia exift, therefore the repeal 
ought to be adequate to our wUhcB ; that at the fiith of Geofge tha 
, FirH a&rted that England, had, haih, and, of right ought to bava 
a power to make laws to bind Ireland, the repeal of it was equal to a 
declaration that England had not, hath not and ought not to have 
9 power to bind us, in future, Thfy faid that to fuppofe the dej 
flaratioD to be done aWay and that the claim, which wa? the thing 
declared, remained, was altogether abfurd ; that the honor and 
jjood faith of England were folcmnly pledged 10 us in tU« tyn of 
Europe, on which, if we could not rely, no additional fecaiity 
would be of any ufe to us ; that with relation to ifbai it called 
legal fecurity, wir lituation was quite different ftimi that of itultTi- 
'duaU under the fame garernmfnt, to decide whole ditferences a 
coinnion tribunal is provided, but with rdpeA .to England and us, 
there was no tribunal but the world, in whofe judgment, tha 

, f ountry could not be rendered more criminal if flic violated her 
faith as already pledged (o this nation ; ibat relpefting all the par; 
riculars contained in our addrefs, the kingdom wa$ cornmitted, to 
<3eviate from which by advancing new claims upon England 
would be injurious to our natioii^l dignity and to good faith, the 
breach of which was fetting before England a bad eKtinplc in rer 
lation to her own engagements. They farther added, that not to 
fell fati»fied with the removal of the grivance, but to infift upon 
oUr filler country making a mortifyinj]; acknowledgement of her pail 

' infuftice, was a humiliation, to which it was unreafonable 10 lup- 
pofc her pride would fuffer her to fubmit and which, conSdering her 
prefent irate of weaknefs and repentance, would call a diftioBourable 
reflexion on our generofity. Ingenuous refinements had nothing to 
do with the Irifli conititution which we were not to look fer in 
the Britifh itaiute books but in ihc antient privileges of the king- 
dom ; thefc we muft protefl, not by written agfeements but by 
our own fpirit and force ; that a confcioufnefs of freedom and a 
determined refolution to defend it werr. true dlgoity and our only 
bulwark ; tbat to raife fcruplcs with refpeft to our prefent fituatkui 
ytM weak and (ended to furntib England with arguments which flic 
inight afterwards ufe to our prejudice. 

; It was admitted, by thofe on the other fide, that the declaratory 
law with it's claims injurious to our rights, were fully ftated in 
the addrefs to the throne, but ihey denied that this iHTulved 
an obligation- of rffting fatisfied with a limple repeal of it, as the 
word repeal or any term fpecifying our wilhes iii refpe£t xa it we/B 
not mentioned in the ftatemept of our grievances. They argued, 
that the parliament called for a total eraancipation from the u- 
furpcd authority of the Bntifli Icgiiiatuce ; if therefore the requi- 
fition was not complied with in all it's parts, inftead rfbe"ing our 
duty, it would be criminal to be fatisfied ;' that the repeal was not 
unqualified, for had it been fo, it_ would have taken away evevy 
thing obnoxious to our conftitution, inftead of this, it had re- 
ferv^ the afliimed authority of all things moft inconfiC^t wit'h 
... . , ^ . 

D,=,„:ed;>y Google • : 

Crawford's Hiftery tf Ireland; 183 

it ; tliat whaitver were the etrcumflance* connefled wIA the ad- 
dreft, England muCt know and every unprejudiced IriAiman muli 
lee, that a Umpte repeal of a declaratory aii, extended no farther 
than to a repeal of the declaration, and that nothing would be more 
improper than to reft our privileges upon conllrui^ion, which ought 
to be iifcertained in the fulleit, the clearell and moft expreff 
terms. They pleaded that the repeat trf an enacting law, took a- 
way that which, antecedent to the repeal, waa law ; that the re- 
peal of a declaratory law did not affefl the principle, but left it 
ID full force ; that the principle of the declaratory law in quetUo» 
was the claim of a right to make laws to bind Ireland which lUU 
cxifted, and, if not renounced by Englaud, mighi, at a future 
day, be revived to forge new chains for this country. They (aid, 
that it was nothing to the purpofe for us to deny that any prior 
law exifted of which the lixth of George the Firll was decUratoi-yj 
England, the power againft which wc were to guard, ailertcd it f 
it was aflerted by fome of her moft celebrated lawyer* ; in tnanjr 
cafes ;the aflumed right had been eiercifed, esamplea of which, 
in a number of afla yet unrepealed, were to be found, at this daji, 
in the Britifh ftoiute books. Thij appears, they obfetved, from 
the very law in queAion, the title of it being " A law tbr better 
fecurirg the dependence of Ireland 00 the Britifh crown," if iher« 
was no fuppofed antecedent dependence of this country on Gieaf 
Britaiti by law, by the exercife of a claim of right or aathority 
thefe 'worai have no meaning. It was their opinion, that ths 
faith of England was not fo pledged, that her obligation not to 
fojure us in future could not be heigtitcned, for if to the limj^e 
repeal, even with the circumftances attending it, were added a re- 
ounciation of the principle, (he would then be bound in the eyea 
of the world, not indirectly or by iraplicatiao, but exprefs^ and 
fi^emnty, and therefore, in point of honour, would be niofe power- 
-fully reitraiaed from breaking the obligation ; tbat it wna inju-r 
lioua to ourfolves and to our poAericy not to guard againli the 
^turc violation of our rights, by obixining the gre»tcil poflibto 
Security ; that legal fecunty, of all others the bcfl, might be ob- 
tained by nations under the fame crown ; thai fueh was the fe- 
^urity which Eagland gave to Scotland at the union ; -it had never been 
infringed ; it had remained an impregnable defenoe of their li- 
berties. . Great Britain had oSered to renounce all claims ei a 
power to bind America, why then did {lie not part with her af- 
fumed authority in refped to us ? To dcc]tae inlifting upon this, 
from a regard to the pride of England, was, in their eyes, jalfe de- 
licacy. The pride of England, (ay they, is the pride of power, 
which had' been cherilbed by a feriea of ufurpafioits on the rights 
pf our conftitution, to which, every regard to jufUce and to our 
Mefon'ation required it fiiould now be facrificed ; Great Britain 
had no claim at prefent upon our gratitude or generous feelings, 
M (be bad not treated ui with affection or even with juflice, in 
the day of her profperity. If in the feafon of England's wCak- 
fiels, when fo many circumfftances combined in tkdr favQur, Irifli- 
mendidnot aflert, effe<3iiHlly, their owo^ rights, the opportunity- 
would, innl^ort time, be loii for ever. 

M 4 Ib 

I ,l,;.J,,G00gIC 

j84 Crawford'i IJiJleiy of Iceland. 

' In thii dirputc, the point was not whether we ftould be fatif- 
■ficd with any thing Ihort o( the full rc-efiab^iflimeM of our rights ; 
that we Ihould jiol, all parties were agreed ; the queftion entirely 
ivas, whether we, 'were aiiually free f That thole difpofcd to ac- 
quiefce in the repeal, who alone were liable lo fulpicion, did not dc- 
iign to giTC up any Tecuriiy ot our priTilcpes, is evident, for ia 
that number were to be tbund the firft character* in the nanou, men 
u-hctn Ihc will ever huall of as her pride and ornament, who 
had .eietted every ncne to promote our interclti and in whole 
abilities and integrity the people had placed the bighell coii- 

' Belides the arguments meniioned above, feveral matters occur- 
red, during the courfc of the debate, which had influence in 
adding to the nuipber of thoic who were diflatisfied with our 

' AnEnglifh. taw permitting a liberty of imponaiion from one of 
the Weft India iflands taken from ub during the war, mentioned, 
its afteiiled by it, all his Majell^'s dominions, and, of courfc, in- 
cluded Ireland ; this, though faid to have been owing 'to a clerical 
error and a law of the fame import was enafted by our legiilature, 
made an unfavourable impreflion, in relpcS to the inieations of the 
BritiOi parliament towards ibis country. Great o&nce was taken 
at a member of the Englifli boufe of lords for a fpeccb in par- 
liament in which ba allertfd, that Great Britain had a right to 
bind Ireland by her laws in matters of an eiternak nature aild pro- 
pofed to bring in a bill to that purpofc. Some circumllancesi with 
rcfpeft to it, were at firll mifunderftood, particularly obnoxious, 
<which entlamed the public difconient. Lord Bcauchamp, one of the 
Englilli commons, a nobleman who had uniformly fupported the 
rights of ihi« country, in a letter addreffed to one of our refpeii^le 
Volunteer corps, took much pains to fhew that the fecurity of our 
Icgiflalive privileges which we had obtained from the Britifli parlia- . 
tnent, was infulficient. This alfo made converts. 'J'he fentimcnta 
flf tbe lawyers corps who had taken the queliion into confideratioa 
and gave it as their opinion that our privileges were yet info- 
cure, produced a limilaj- effeif, Buf there was a circumAahce 
which, of all others, created uneatinefs, as it was thought to be x 
convincing proof, that a farther -adjuftment with Eni-laBd was- iii- 
difpenlibly. neceffary. The' IriQi aS for reforming ertoneout 
Judgments in our own parliament was extended, to all caufes 
depending in England poflerior to tlie firft of ^une., DiredUy 
in the faceof this law,, the chief juriice of the tnglifli court of 
Icing's bench retained and gave judgment in an Irilli caufe,. fubfe- 

Su'ent to that'period. From tbefc reafons and circurri fiances the 
rengih of the party difisrisfied with the preftnt fecurity of our 
rights, daily.caercafcd. But the caufe of dilfHtisfaftion with the 
cooduci of England in refpcfl (o tbe repeal of the declaratory act 
aiidthe wiflied for fecurity of our iegilLuive. privileges was foon to 
be removed. 

' Th£ death of rhc. Marquis of Rockingham, who was the bond of 
union and the great fupport of the prefent miniflry, occafioned fe- 
veral of them to retire. The Duke of Portland rc%ied, and l,ofd 


Macaiiley's Trtatife on fht Immutabirit^f of Moral 7r«l&. 185 

Temple, whore patriotic admjniftration has been univerrally a<i- 
tnirea, caioe 10 jicctide in the a!tuirs oi IrclanJ. HU bruther and 
iecrerary Mr. (irepvUle went to England and made fUch rcprc- 
tentationiof' the diicoiitepta which prevailed here toncernin;; the 
infufficiency of the repeal of the detlaratory aft, thitt Mr. Town- 
Ihend, one of the fecretaries of liaie, niosed in the houle of com- 
mons lor leave to bring in a bill to remove from the minds of 
the people of this country aU doubts refpeifting their legiHalive und 
judicial privileges. It was granted, 'i he bill which pafled into n 
lavf contained in the fulleft and moll eiplicil terms, a reliDtjuifli' 
niem> OD tlie prt of the Britill) legitbiurt-, of all claims of a rigltC 
to interfere with the judgment of our courts or to make laws to bicd 
Ireland in future. 

* 'I'hus ended a contcfi that involved in it every thing dear to 
the hearts of freemen, in which >hc fpirit of me Inlli nation, 
favoured by a coccurteiu^e of the tnolt fortunate circumftances, wai 
. called forth into eaeriious admired by Europe aqd which wili refteCt 
upon our country immortal honour.' 

It remains that wc fuggeft an idea which has occurred 
to us during our perufat ot thcfe volumes. A pidttirefque 
view of the conftitution of Ireland from its rife, during its 
revolutions, and till its prefent full ertablilhment and con- 
firmation would form a (ubjeft of inquiry, not only com-" 
picte in itielf but of the greateft curiofity. It would require 
however a profound hiftorical inveftigation, a contempt of 
the ebullitions of party, and a liberal fpirit of philofophy. 

Aet. V. J Trtatlfi an tf^r ImmKiahiHiy of Moral Truth. By 
Catherine Macauley Grah»m. ;s. 8vO. Dilly. 

MRS. Graham takes notice, in a preface, of the preva- 
lence of fcepticifm in matters or" religion, which flic 
:s to the concurrent operation of fuperftitton and 
libcitinifm. *' Thefe baneful principles, in her judgment, 
have received their ftrength and fupport from that deviation 
from tlic true fource of moral differences which have been 
made by the late moral writers ; fome having fixed the prin- 
ciples of moral virtue, in mere human fentimcnt, on the 
fubjeft of utility, while others have taught that moral obli- 
gatiops are not founded on the rea! difference of things, but 
take tlicir rife from the laws of God, as they arc found 4n 
his revealed will." 

There is an ambiguity in this fentence. What have 
been made by the late moral writers ? Is it. as would appear 
from the different branches of the fentence taken iix connexi- 
on, a dtviauon from the true fources of moral dilferen- 
ces } But if fo, the verb with which this nominative 
. Ihould agree, vovld have been not in the plural, but the lin- 


tt6 M»efalej*s Treatifi ou lie TmmtHahiUlj of Moral Truth. 

£ular. number : In place of have, it would have been hatb ; 
and we do not find the woribtwr in a long lift of typo- 
■ graphical errors. According ,tO the grammatical arrange- 
ment, therefore, of this fcntence, we are to untlerftand that 
it is " thcnioral differences, Sec." which agree with the 
verb have- And in this cafe, we obiirve that philofophers 
may be faid to rfmatk, but not to matt moral differences. 
If the £rft of tbefe fenfcs be intended by the Author ; 
if it b(f the deviathn from moral differences Ihe means, it 
is to frofeflbr Hutchinfon, of Glafgow, and Mr,- Hume, 
that (he principally alludes when fhe ipeaka of the late moral 
writers^ But if it be the mom/ (/j^er^««i thcmfelvcs which 
flie means, by the late mor?l writers, ftie fihiefly intends Mr. 
Locke, Dr, Hartley, Dr. Prieftty, and Mr. Jonathan Ed- 

That God's power is omnipotent !n the largcil fenfe of 
the word, and that his works and commands are founded 
in righteoufnefs, and not in mere wiU, Mrs. Graham has 
endeavoured to prove in the work before us. " And," (he 
fays, " ihat llie has the pleafure to find, gn reading Dr. 
Clarke, whofe excellent difcourfes were put into her hsndv 
eiter her treatife was written, that this very eminent divioQ 
preaches exa£tly the f;^me doctrine." It were to be wiihed, 
that many Authors, inftead of indulging an itch for writing, 
would heftow more of their time in reading. Thus they 
would leam to know what the world wants, and what it 
poflclIcG, They would be intruded where to A\itSt their 
efforts ; and, if they fhoald not be able to furnifti, for the 
entertainment or the ufe of mankind any tbjng new, they 
would, at leaft, be taught to abftain from peftering them, 
with what is old and ftale. But Mrs. Graham claims the 
merit of having vindicated the liberty of man by arguments 
lefs exceptionable than thofe ufed by Dr. Clarke, 

' In treating on the liberty of man, Dr, Clarke feems onlv dfr 
firaus of freeing human agency from ercry degree of phyficn ne- 
c^ty, but that moral neceffity which arifes from ch« iTiaatea of 
the underHanding, or vhe impulfe of itl regulated padions) he acr 
knowledges in as exteadve a latitude as tbey ars fet ferth in this 
i-Treatilc* : and, indeed, the great and only difliculiy which feeips 

* * Every moral aAion which man performs, fays'Dr. Cl«rke, is 
free, and without any compullion or natural neccHiry, and pro- 
cecds either from Tome good inotiTc or fpine evil one. Againt 
fays the fame Author, though probably no rational creature can be 
in a Clriftphilofophical fenfe impeccable ; yet we may eafily c 

e bou' God can place fuch creatures as ^e judges worthy of 1^ 
excellent a gift, in fuch a date of knowledge ai^ near communi- 



Maoraley'i Trtatife »n the Imtutob'tUif tfMorat Truth, xtf 

to lie on the queflion, arifn from the intricatE niture of ' the difier- 
cnce betveen natural libeny inJ morml neccffiiy i ihe ooe uii> 
plying 4 praAical libtny, anA the other a reftmint op that pradical 
liberty exilUog in certain cautee, iiulepeadeiit oi the ageot, wbich 
inditces a fiate of mind iaimicat to the g;iving rile to thofe motioni 
whifb are osccjlary to the producing vohtton* which accord 
with the line of duty, and the didaiet of a well informed iir« 
derAanding, caules which on aa accurate invElligatipn, will he 
found entirely to eiift either in an igngrance of our rational \a- 
terelt, or in an ijrnorance of the mechanirni of the human mind, 
and the proper method of difciplining it ; and a« thefe caufei 
can never be removed but by the Lnowkedge acquired by an early 
education, or by an experience painlully and attentively gained, 
the obfervationa made in the fourth cliapier of thii TKaiife, oa 
the doArine of a pbilofophical «r a nioriil oeceffiiy, may be found 
advantageous to the freeing natural liberty from a great part of 
that moral nccefficy wbi?b bai hitherto produced the eonmiffioa of 

The ddign of the Author the Reader may, perhaps, col- 
left iroiQ this account of her preface. She divides her 
work into five chapters. In the firft fhe cftimatcs the pre- 
fent flats of morals. In the fecond fh^ maltes fcve'ral ob-r 
fervations on Dr. King's origin of natural evil, tending to 
prove the immutability of moral truth. In the third fhe 
animadverts on Lord BoJing^roke's fccptical opinions on tlw 
fubjeft of a future {taK. The fourth contains fundry re- 
marks on Dr. King's origin of moral evil, with obfervati- 
ons on the doftrincs of liberty and neceffity. The fifth con- 
tains additional arguments for the belief of a fatart flatc, 
with obfervatisns on the ftoic phiiofophy. 

Although Mrs. Graham has ftiled her work, " A Trea- 
" life on the Immntxbility of Moral Truth," it pollefles 
not either the order and regularity of a legitimate treitifd 
or dilcourfe, or even that loofe and free method which 
charaAcrifes an cflay. It is in tmth a colleAion of obferva- 
tions on different authors and different fut^efls : although 
the main fcope of the Author be to defend the grand doc- 
trines of morality and religion. Of this collection we itrt ob- 
liged to affirm, that it is neither diftinguUhid by any origi-- 

on with bimfelf, where goodne^ and holinefs fliall appear lb ami- 
able, and where they fliall be exempt from all means of temptxti- 
on and corruption, that it lliall never be pofliUe, ootiviihftanding 
the natural liberty of their will, to be feduced from their un- 
changeable happinefs, in the everiaftlng' choice and enjoyment of 
their greatelt good, which i$ the Hate of good angels and of the 
faints in heaven. Clarke's Evidences of (fatural and lie raaled Re- 
ligion, 8vo. edit, pages 115, 173. 



iB8 MKxalcj^Trtaii/t en the Immuiahlliiy of Moral Truth. 

nality of Ti^itiment, or happinefs of expreffion. The ob- 
fervations arc frequently jull, and difcovcr cxtenfive read- 
ing, as well as a turn for refle&ton, and a difpo£tioti in 
fevour of religion and virtue ; but they difpiay not any 
thing of that nice and fubtle fecutty forreafdmng /n a iro;K, 
that raetaphyfica! accumen which aftonilhes the ingenious 
Reader, and bellows on the moft abftrafted topics in onto- 
Jogy, pneumatics, and morals, the beauty of mathematical 
demonftration. They ate equally deftitute of that charm 
which is the refult of, what we meet with fo often in 
French writers, and in a few Englifh, an happv union of 
iibftiiaAed rcafonings on the conduft of the mind and pro- 
grefs of the paflions with the phenomena of real lite. Men 
of learning muft be at a lofs to conjeflnre the reafons that 
induced Mrs. Graham to publilh a peformance in which- 
thcre is neither originality of thought, nor beauty of man- 
ner, nor grandeur of defign. In compofition. this writer is 
Pgregioufl? dcfediive, confufed, tedioiis, and oftc:) u'ninteN 
ligible. Mrs. Graham's genius is by, no means fuited to 
abftraflion. She is more moral than metaphyfical, and 
more political tlian moral ; her obfervations on the great 
.theatre of nations, and human charafters and manners arc 
worthy, however, of attention ; and while we condemn this 
publication as a mctaphyjlcal performance, wc muft except 
many moral and political obfervations, and the whole of die 
£rft chapter, on the prefcnt ilatc of morals, firoin nhich tht; 
following is an extraft. 

' The world, I knoisr, hag beet) reprcfented, by many diltia? 
guiftied writera,-as being in a rapid (late of progreffive improvcT 
mcnt j and commerce has been celebrated bb a Deity, wbote uuit 
verial influence on the happinefs of mania fflt in prefent enjoy- 
tntnt, and in a profpeflire increafing felicity ; but It will be found, 
on ao acturate furvey of thefe temporal advantages, thM the en- 
larged knowledge of mankind has - a^ed merely to the imprOTement 
of that fuborduiate intcrell mentioned in the beginning of this 
work : and as to eonimerce, in the prefcnt ignorant and tiegli-r 
gent flate of men's minds on the fubje^ of their only valuable 
purfuit, it naturally tends, by afiitrding the means of extending 
the gratifications of fcufe beyond their proper hounds, to deftroy 
that due balance which nature has formed between corporeal ap- 
petites and mental enjoyments : it furniflie* means, .to delude the 
imagination, by an endlefs variety of fantafiic objeils of happi- 
nefs ; and though it muH be allowed to foften that barbarous 
fiercenefa, which the want of means, or the want of incentives 
towards a general communication produced in ■ the manners of our 
anceftors, yet. as men are mneh more prone to copy the vices 
and follies of thofe with whom they alTociate, than their good 
qualities ; and as vice is a niuCh more glaring feature in all foci; 
ties, than virtue, fo commerce has aflej with a ptevaience and an 


Macauley'j TrMfi/i on tht Tmmulabiittj of Msrul Truth. I?} 

uoiverCility- fuperior to every other caufe in the fpreading the con' 
t^liM of a JtiigLtious luxury i befideg, the elTenliiil principlei of 
comaicrce tenti to uicre»le that felfilbneft in ni«n, which inoft , 
powerfully militdteg agaiDftthequalitiei of honelty, integrity, fru- 
gality, moderation, lobriety, and a confcientioui regard to the 
intercDs of the community at brge, and to the private good of in- 

' Same conleciuencci, and, indeed, fuch as by a proper attenti- 
on to our fiipcrior intereft, may be rendered of a very importanc 
nature, are anneied to the more general ufe of letter* and the ez- 
tenlivencffl of commerce ; but, if cicitizaiion i» any thing more 
than an atterjtion in the modes of vice and error, we have not ^ci 
attained to any laudable degree of ciTilization. ' 

' It is true, we have got rid of fome prejudice*, whicji are found, 
by experience, to have a tendency to narrow our pleafures and en- 
joymcnis, and to be produOive of mutual and unnecelTary evil. • 
It it on thefe reafons, that men have agreed to lay ime ih« 
cuftom of their anceftors, in the manner of treating the Tan<^ui(h- 
«] in war ; ami, by that unintcrrup:ed conunvicicaiion, which a 
general fpirii of commerce has introduced, the unfriendly pre- 
judices which one man ufed to entertain of another, from the ac- 
cidental circumltances of not being born in the fame part of the 
globe, in the fame city, or on the fame fpot of ground, is great- 
\v and happily dimioillied. But thefe, with an almoit univerfal 
abatement of that fpirit of pcrfecution, which ufed to harrafi the 
more religious age) of the world, are, I think, the only points on 
which the fo much boaftcd civilization and progreft of improTC- 
nent turns : how &r thefe improvements may, in their con fcquen- 
ces, tend to the general enlightening the underAandings of 
mankind towards a cultivation of their rational interet^, remain* 
yet in the fecrets of futurity ; for, furely, no real and univerfal 
melioratioa of the ftate of^ morali can reafonably be expelled, 
whillt men arc tettered with illiberal prejudices; but though 
thefe circumflances may, probably, lead to the attainment of that 
wifdom on which the excellence and happtnefs of man depends ; 
yet they never conlidered as an attainment of the prin- 
ciple itfeU. 

' It is true, that men have agreed to fpare. one another, for the 
confide rdtione of mucuai fecurity, when no iutcrclt tempts theni 
to cut one another's throats : yet are wars lefa frequent than tbejr 
«'ere of old ; and does a fentimcnt of juftice forbid the carnage of 
the human race, when intercfl prompts and opportunity give* the 
word ?, It is true, that merchants and travellers conrerfe U^- 
geiher freely and without moteftaiion, in almoU all the knOi^n 
parts of the globe : but are public trufts lefs abufed; are public 
offices held with greater integrity than in former time's ; has 
fuch an imiiroveraenr in the laws, manners, and the police of mo- 
dern focieties taken place, as to fprcad thole advanlagesof opulence 
and plenty, which commerce furnillies in a manner as iliall be 
fennbly felt by all their citizens ; is the right of property in the per* 
fcniof our. fellow-crentures given up ; or are flaves lefs abufed? 
When treachery, intereft, and impunity arc found in union, are 



I9Q tiifiiap Attert)ilTy*s Epijiotary Corrt^enJence, t^ii 

the, trsinfa£)ion» of |triv^c life, even among ihe itiore derated 
dalles of men, more fair and honourable t have we fewer execu- 
tion* i have we fewer lawyers j ha»e we fewer debauchees | are the 
, CDonnities of vice dccrCafed ; or rather, as one rtcc decreafcs, docs 
not another gain xro^nd ; does noC gaining, and a fenfelefs diffip»- 
tion aflunw the place of a more general inebriety ; hafrc we Hot an 
increafed, though, perhaps, a more refined fenfualtty ; do not die 
triumphs of a fenlelefs vanitv often overpower all con^derations 
ariftng from the fentimenti of juilrce and benerolcnce .' In {horr, 
have we fewer illicit defires ; or are illicit defircs more rarely grati- 
lied ; do wc feel kli the flings of envy ; or arc we lefs afluated \jy 
that paffion t or have we more charity, in the extenfivc fenfe of 
the word, than formerly ? 

' If thefe queries cannot be fairly anltvered in the negative, I 
think the prejent times have no reafon to boall of having made an^ 
proercfi in that higher part of civilization, which vSo&i the rau-^ 
onaliniereilof man, and conflitutes the eicelleace of hit nMurei 
as for that (pint of toleratian, which is happily prevailing all cntt 
the world, lis growth, I am afraid, arifes not from an improve- 
ment of religious principle, but from the total lofs of it. 

' This is, perhaps, obvioufly the cafe with a neighbounng fo* 
ciety,whoma temporary policy has rendered confpicuous in. the iraya 
of modern rejinemcnt ; but for my countrymen, I wifli there was 
not too much reafMi to lament, that they have rather' gotie in a 
retrograde than in a protrefltre courfe, as to the atticle of eivilis»>' 
tion, when compared with the virtue of ancient rimei. Tlierehaat 
undoubtedly, esilled in the fortune of this nation Ibveral unfa- 
vourable cirtfuml^ances which iiave tejided to a general depravity in 
its mortals. The infolence which too ctrnimonly attends fucceft ; 
the prodigality and diffipation which accompany riches, with cer?- 
tain corruptions interwoven with its gnvcmment, hat produced, in 
the point of national reputation, the moft mortifyinz confcquences j 
and, though it is proper to avoid the mixture of political refledions 
in a moral treabfe, yet it mud be acknowledged, that the annals of 
this age have a fhameful tale to tell of a certain people, who hava- 
incurred the moft humiliating lolles and difgracea, hy. fcandalous 
deviations from all the plaineft rules of jufliccand good policy.' 

Akt. VI. Thi EpifloUvy Corrr/pondnci, Fifilaihn Chargti, ^chci, 
and Mififllanici, of the Right Reverend Francis Atterbury, D, D. 
Lord Bilhopof Rochefier, 2 vols. Svo. 10s. boards, Nichols. 

'Tp'HE Literary fame of Dr. Atterbury, and wliat, in the 
I courle oi providence, be was called XJo afi, md to 
ru%r, excite in bis countrymen a curioiity to know ill tbe 
productions of bis genius, and tbe tranlauions of bis life. ' 
The Stuart party in the Englifh government endeavoared 
to avail themfclves, as It is wcU known, of that nation^ 
ferment which arofe In confequence of the faiqous Soutb- 
feafchemc, and of the encreaiing connexions of England- 


tn Google 

Biftiop Attcrbory's Spiftalarj Carrefpandtnee, tfc. igt 

■with the continent, and particularly the predileflion of tiw 
king for Hanover. The Jacobites we^e bufy, and the whigs 
vcre lufpiciouSt Several perfons of great quality and dif- 
tinftioti were apprehended ; bnt Francis Attcrbury, Lord 
Silhop of Rocheucr, was deprived of his fee, and bis feat ia 
Parliament, and.banilhed for life. The jiiftice of his pu- 
nilhment was brought in queftion even at that time. In ths 
pre&nt there are few, wc prefume, who rpad with care his 
memorable fpeech in the Houfe of Lords, who will not pro- 
uounce his fentenceto have been fevere and unmerited. 

This fpcecli may be faid to be now firft feithfuily publjfh- 
ed, as the flighteft comparifon with that crroneoully printed 
in the Sutc Trials will evidently ihew. The Bilhop opens 
with great fenlibility, by complaining of the uncommon £:- 
verity he had experienced in the Tower : which was car- 
ried io far, that even bis fon-in-law, Mt. Morricc, was not 
permitted to fpeak to him in any nearer mode than ftanding 
in an area, whilft the Bilhop looked out of % two pwr of 
ftairs window. The fame vindictive fpirJt purfued him ia 
foreign climes ; no Britilh fubjeA, not even hii neareft rela- 
tions being permitted to vi£thim, without the Icing's i^n 

But it is Belles Letters, and not politicks, which are the 
, immediate objeft of this publication. And here we recw- 
nize thofe high church and monarchical principles which dtf- 
tinguifhed the Bilhop of Rochefter; at the fame time that 
purity of ftile, that elegance of tafte, that correAncfs of 
judgment, and extent of polite erudition which drew pr^ife 
and admiration from Adaifon, Prior, Pope, Arbuthnot, and 
Swift. Even in the minutelt trifles, in the molt familiar 
epiiltes, and on the bumblefl topics we difcover an air and 
manner which befpeak the man of tafte and dignity. 

The conrefpondence of Atterbury with the Lords Orrery 
and Stanhope, with Swift and Prior, and his pamphlet on the 
tefbaA, are now for thcfirft time printed: With four vifita- 
tion charges, of which that to the diocefe of Rochefter, in 
particular, is of uncommon excellence. 

As it is fcenes of diftrefs which difplay the higlicft and 
moil affefling degrees of virtue, fo the exile of the Bifhop 
of Rochefler gave occaftoa to a noble and very iiUerefting 
exercifeof parental tendcrnefs on the one part, and of filial 
dutj and anedion on die other. What molily embittered 
the banilhmentof the Bifliop, wai regret at Leaving behind 
him his daughter Mi^. Morrice, in aN infirm ftate of health. 
A mutual longing to fee one andther took fiift hold of the 
fether and daughter ; and the lady though very ill, performed 
with great dimrulty and paint ^ ^ovioey aod voyage from 


lt}2 Biriiop AtterbtiryS Efiijloiarj Corrtfpott^Hct, i^c. 

Wcftminfter to Bourdeaux and Touloufc, where Dr. Atter-* 
burr refidcd. Mr. J. Evans, a gentleman who accompanied 
Mr. and Mrs. Morrice on their voyage from Dover to Boor— 
dcaux, and from thence to Touiouft, gives an exaft diary 
of this journey and voyage, Which is truly interefting. The 
fame gentleman who was prefeht at Mrs. Morrlce's death, 
gives a very pathetic narrative of that event, with the cir- 
cumftances that accompanied it, The fictions of the tr^ic: 
mafe hav« not enhibitod a more affc£ling fceiie : aod, to 
forcible are the imprcHions of truth and nature, that a plain, 
gentleman widi a good heart, unknown to the world* and 
unambitious of literary fame, defcfibcs the latter ertd of 
that amiable lady in a manner that could not have been, fnr- 
palTed by the fineft writer. Such is the power of fimplicity 
and nature, and fuch the connexion between tafte and vir- 
tue I It is in an affefling defciiption ofhuman lifirand man- 
ners, and above all in difjilaying amiable and heroic virtuei 
that literature is inoft happily employed- It is thus that it 
fbftcns and humaniies the mind and difpofes it touniverfal 
fympathy. Emoliit more] necfinit effefercs. 

Mr. Evans in a letter to his brother in.LondoHt dated 
from Montpelier, Nov. 30, 1729, writes thus. " 

' Dear BrotJver, 

In mine of the 9th inflant, from Touloafe, I pfotttifed yoM 
4 more particular account of the death of Mra. Morice at my 
arrival here, mhere t got the ijih; but, within ab hour after, 
was confined to my bed by a fit of the gout, which tirak me the laft 
day on the road, and held me ten days ; fo that I was not out of 

y bed for two hours in all that time : hut, having ttow ag^ain the 
of my hand, I do with plCafurc write to yoU attd keep my 

. ' On Sunday the 6th inftant N. S. iff the evening we reached 
Blagnac, a village not above half a league, by land, from Tou- , 
touie ; but by water (by reafon of a very ftrong' current, .and (he-j 
windings of the river) Ic takes three hours to get up to the town. 
80 it was refolved, rather than expOfe Mrs. Morice tos iDuch ti» 
the fatigue (of which Hie had undergone an infinite deal, and bore' 
it with incredible patience), or keep her late on the water* to reft 
at Bla^nac that night, where llie was put to bed in the fame weak 
condition fhc unlaUy had been, but not feeraingly worfe. But 
about midnight the women came to Mr. Morice and rae, and told 
W, they thought they faw her changed. We, rofe, and cami 
her chDitiber ; where we t(>und her fu ill, th it t we thought fit to 
up the boatmen, and order them to pnparc the boat to depart imtne> 
diately J fearing much, from the change we faw, that, near «3 (he. 
was to it, flic would fcarce live to reach Touloufe, which we all; 
earneflly dcfired to do, lince no phyfician, or other help, could be 
had, in the poor place where we then were. She herefclf prelled 
this matter ; and we well knew, that all her defires and wifhes were 
conflajitly beat upon feeing Jber father, whom (he hoped to find at. 


DiflltlzedbyGoOgIC I 

nie o' 

Si&op AtKrbmy'a Sfi/ttltiry CarvJ^andtHCt, (ic. I93 

Ttfuloure. She wsw taken out of her bed, at her own defire, and 
carried to the hoat with great difficulty, not bcin^ able to fit in the 
chair wbtcfa Mr. Morice bad brought from Bourdeaux, with (w6 
dtainBcc, purely for the carrying her in and out of the boat mora 
at her eafcj aod fb wc parted thence about two o'clock in the morn- 
ing, reading two fcrvanta by land, to procure a lilter to meet her 
at the landi>g-place. About five we artrivcd there ; and Toon afiei* 
fii the liuer came, which carried Mn. Moriee to the houfe in Tou- 
Loule, where her father was eipe^iog her arrival, and 'not know* 
ing, till then, how near or how far (he was, though he had diC* 
patched a man and horfc to get intelligence of us, who happened' to 
mift us. When the TervaBtB, who had been fent for the litter, re- 
turned, (b* waa jaformed of the Bllhop's being at Touloufe, and 
feemcil ta fpirits upon it, which no ^abt wrre of gnsat 
«£;, to eaable her to bear going in the litter, which otherwife the 
could (irarce have done, eren for fo (liort a way. After (lie had 
been pot into her bed (where, a* I told you, (he nerer flept CiU ftie 
ilcpt her laH) and had a tittle recovered the fatigue (lie underwent it) 
the conveyance from the boat, which was about a mile, her father, 
whom (he iiamediat«ly enoui red after, came into her room, and 
ivu llxnlcd to filid her in fo very low a condition. After mutual 
«zpic£oa3 of concern and leBdcrneft, (he particularly ackntwl edged 
the gMai-bleffing that wa« granted her, of meeting her dear Papa ; 
and cxRTcd all the little life that was in her, in grafping hii ' 
faaoda aritb her utmoA force, as (he often did ; and told him, that 
HKctiag was the chief thing that (he had ardently defired, 

' The BiAiop fome time after left her chamber, that (he might 
compofe htt&lt, and that he might himfelf ^ive vent to the juft 
^iet he wa»>tilled with, to fee hia beloved child in a manner ct- 
ptriDg> Bui we found (he tnofa no Ttfi ; fo he foon returned, and. 
<ben. laid prayer* by bar, and prt^ofed to her the receiving the 
holy facrament the next morning, when he hoped (he mi);ht have 
beett • liiil* refrelhed in wder to it : (he embraced the offer with 
much fMisfa^Honi He then a&ed her, for fear of any acddent, if 
Ac wasnot defirout to hare the abfolution of the church } She de- 
clared (tie WQi ; and begged to have it. After fome little private 
difcottrfo with her, he gave it her, in the form prefcribed in " the 
*' Vtfitatian of theSkk ;" and (lie eiprefled great comfort upon 
receiving tt. A phyfician had been fent fur immediately upon her 
Mrival, .When tie came, he gave little hopea, but faid all depended 
upon the manner of her paOtng that nighc ; and in the mean lim« 
■prefcribed only what would be cotnrortable and cordta) to hcE 
llomach and bowels, which (lie waa to take every three haun. It 
had tbMcftciff t fur (he feemed to lie pretty compofed and eafy tht 
teft of the day; and her purging, which beft^e had been ex- 
tremely troublafome, became led violent. 

' She once mentioned Dr. Wyntle, who you know had been her 
phylician ; and who had io neglefied her aa for fome time before 
the left England never to come near her, according to his appoint- 
ment, nor give the leaft direi^on for her management^ the long 
voyage Ihe was about to make. She faid to the Bifhop, *< Dear 
*< fapo, hat Mr. Morice told yoa how Dr. Wyntle bae faired u'g?" 
KNG. REV. Vol. U. Sept. 1783. N Who 


194 ' Biibop Attcrbury's Epijtt>larj Corrifpmdtnct, (fc^ 

Who anfivered, " Yes, my de»r, I know ie all j but do not leC 
" that (Toublc you Qow." She replied, " Oh,jia, Pupa, i do noi 
^* troubk myfell about that ; 1 have other things to think of at 
*' thit tima; but I did not kuow whether Mr. Morice fastd told 
*' yon." 

' Hoping by this time (he might incline to tike ;i little reft, hcc 
father and' hulbaad retired, it b?ing between eleven and twelve at 
night; but about twoin the morning Qie Tent one of her wometi to 
me (who lay on the fame floor, in the neit room to her) to defire 
to fpeak to me ; and when I carae, flie fuid, not feemingly with 
mttcb pain, but with fueh a Ihortnel's of breath, that the wat forced 
to breathe after eTcry two or three words, " Mr. Evanf, I hawe 
•' been working — thefcihree hours — and would fain— have the&cro- 
" mem," I wondered at her fending for me on that accouM, her 
hulband and father being both near at hand ; but I found afterwardi 
it was her unwillingneft, by a dire^ ipeffage from herfelf, too 
much to alarm cither of them. However, being then not apprifed of 
her reafon for it, I doubled a liitlc of her being ia her right fcnfcs, 
and'faid, " Madam, would you low receive the facrameot ?" 
She faid, " Yes, I would — if poffible — preftntly — ." Of which 
the Biibop being immediately adviled, a$ was Mr. Morice, and 
every thing prep;ired, he came, and adminiftered to her, and to alt 
prefent, the facrameni ; and afterwards, at her deGre, continued 
repeating the prayers of the church till flie bcgiui to draw very near 
lierend; a^d then he ufcd and contiawd the recommeDdatory 
prayer only; fhe all the while holding her hands in a pofture of 
prayer, and fometiraes joining in a low voice with him. . 

' After this, her father being gone from the bed-fidc, fhe callo} 
tor him (ai Ihe had very frequently done.) and again faid to him— 
*' Dear Papa— what a blemng is it-rr-that aftei' — fuch ■ a long— 
" troublelbme — journey — we have — the comfdrt — of thia meet> 

And indeed, when I reflect on it, and confider the weak condiiioa 
fhe was in upon the road, the many accidems that happened to re- 
tard the voyage, and the Uti efToi t (lie made when fhe wai at tht 
worA towards iinilbing it, I cannot but think that that meeting 
fecmed granted by Heaven to her caniinual fervent prayers for it. 

' About thij time (he called to her hufbaod (who was alwayi in 
near attendance upon her) and faid " Dear Mr. Morice — take cue 
*' of the children — I know you will— r-Remember me — to the 
" Dutchefs of Buckingham." 

' She alfo in a proper place recommended her foraDts to Mr* 

' She now found her feet cold, and ordered them to be rubbed, at 
the fame time calling for her broth ; but when it came, not beinr 
able to fwallow it, (he turped herfelf on her left lide, and rellen 
■ her head on her left hand, which (he doubled ; extending her right 
^hand and arm over the bcd-cloaihs; and in this podurelhe continued 
drawing her breath (liorier and (barter, but with the leaft emotion 
that poffibly could be, till (he at laft expired, » quarter before four 
o'clock on Tuefday morning, Nov. 8. N. S. 

' Alt' entire t^fignation to the will of Cod, a piety towards her 
, father. 


Bericenhout*s Ejfay on'tht Sltr e/a Mai Dag, 195 

father, hiifljand, and faini'ly, made her death full of the religion of 
a Saint, and.of iKe regularity and cOmpofednefs of a Philtriopher. 
Itwastb«n Oicgave afenl and land ion to the judgmnit and aSei^Hon 
of het friends ; and IliEWed one ut the bell and (vifeil, ai mtcU ai 
nablelt, of her fe^ (tbe DDtdtef* of Buckingham, who I haveheard 
had_ a »ry ^reaiVegurd for her), [hat (lie had made a riglu jud^ 
menc.of her, and beAunreiJ her liiveon oiie who deferved ii, Sucli 
adeaih,.'^^ eD)i of 3. vitcuoui life, would. make. one Iim: what » 
deareft and heareft to 111 (Jtpire, not only without uaeafinefs, .but 
with pieafiire; lyefe hurnao nuture eap4ble of ailing by reafpn at 
fuch a time, without paflion : but the moll exalted 'of mankind par- 
take of thr' dying patnt of. tliofc that aatafe and affedion hav« 
made dear to (hem ; and eveii feel agonies whtch the -dyini; are' 
fonieiiines^ihy fpecial faTotlri e^ienipied fronij ai I really think (he 
wa*.- . [ ■■;',-■;■■.■■ ..-.,■- 

' I .IhaJl ponclftde thif.apcou^it ^ith^r^e^on I mule at. the 
time; j;^^ it was well worth;: tny while to h»ve takea fo Ipag Ai 
Yoyage; 4i<>i^^ ^ was immediatEly to reluro home again, and leap, 
no other bcoeht J^rom it than the feeing what paCed in the lail hours 
of Mrs. Moriee. 'lam, d;>r bioihr^r, yours molf afieflionately, . 


On the, whole, although there be fcarccly any thing' ia 
thefe, produftions of Atterbury that ferves to illuftrate the 
grand objefts of fcicnce, yet as an elcganr'and agreeable 
amufement, they will be much regarded byail men of tafie, 
as they arc every where dirtingurlhed bya peculiar deifcacjr 
•f thought, and a mafterly turn pf cxpreffion. 

AsT. VII. An EJay an the Bin c/dMad D'g ', in which the Cldm 
to Infallibility of tte Principal Prefervative Bcme)lie» againft the 
Hydrophobia it examined. By John Berkenhout, M. D. Sro; 
IS. 6(1. Baldwin. 

FROM the plainnefe and (iinplicity of ftil«, and pcrfpi- 
cuity of argument in this pamphlet, it muft prove 
highly ufeful in mc country where inftances of the bite of a 
mad dog occur more frequently than in town, and prove 
more fatal, owing to the ignorance of country furgeons and 
apothecaries. But the more learned medical praflitioner 
will find nothing new in It. The beil received opinions 
however are judicioufly arranged, and all that is known on 
the fulneft is brought into one view. 

Dr. Berkenhout reprobates the ufual cuftom of calling this 
diforder the hydrophobia^ as the dread of water is only one 
fymptom, and not a conftant one, nay he affirms that the 
patient rarely has an aversion to water until he finds that it 
canles convulfion in the attempt to fwallow it. He objefis 
aUb to the name raiiu canina, becaufe the patieat generally 
N 3 KtainB 


retains his fcnfet to the laft momcat. This fiift probably 
gave rife to an aiticle of news in a late moraing paper, that 
V a pcifon bit by a mad dog died taving niad, and what 
v. was vprjr- CKtraordinary, rttaintd hh ftnfti u tbt ktft" 
Dj^urdii^ thafc names, our Author thinlcs it oiigbt to be 
rankci as a ipeciea of an^inty ctHvujHva vtl fuffaeath, tnd 
prefers the definition given by Dr. Cullen. \it next cnu- 
itieratcs the fymptoms «bich indicate approaching miulncrs 
it) a dog, which, however, arc very equivocal, wid little 
liable to be obferved in time. In enunicrating the fymp- 
toms of the diforder in men, he is accurate, and ■4>pe»rs to 
write irom what be has feea. He lejefts tlie theories ibrmer- 
iy advanced concerning the operation of the poijbn, and is 
of opinion that the poifonous faliva of the dog is abforbcd 
by the capillary lymphatic veins, whofc rami^c^onB expand* 
K> every MTt of tbe fnrface of die human body ; bqt why it 
fttnains lo long as five or fix weeks without exerting its in- 
fluence, is no more accountable than why the fmill p6x does 
BQt appear until a certain number of days after innocula- 

; In treating of tbe cure, he objcfts with many welUfoonded 
ieafons, to all tbe medicines hitherto ufed in the cure of the 
diforder, and which have generally pal&d for arcaiia, par- 
iicultrly to bathing. This part of bis work we ttiiiik is ^le 
itioft ufefuK His own mmlus medettAi is the following, 

" The perfon bit muft imniediately apply his mouth to 
the wound, and eontjnae' to fack it during ten nmwftcs ora 
quarter of an hour, frequently fpitting out, and waihing 
©IS mouth after each time with water, warm or cold, mi 
matter which. If the wound be In a part of his body which 
he cannot reach with his mouth, poflibly he may prevail pn 
Ibmc rational friend to do him this kind office; cfoecially 
when I alTure him, that it may be done without tbe leatt 
ianger. My own fon, then about eight years oW, inrc-_ 
turning from Tchool, was bit by a dog in the thigh. My 
eldeft daughter being informed of it, without the leaft heu- 
t«tion, immediately fucked the wound. She had heard me 
fay it might be done with fafcty. The d.og. tras certainly 
Aot mad^ but I relate the ftory in juftice to her afiefiiohate 
intrepidity, which in a young girl was fomcwhat cxtraordi-- 
nary.— The wound being wiped dry with liiit or tow, let 
two drachmas of mercurial ointment be rubbed into it, and 
fct the part be then covered by a blifteiing plafter fomcwhat 
longer than the wound. As foon as a bladder is percci*e(i 
(o have rHen under the plafter, raifc the edge of it, and let 
6utthe lymph : and, in order t(^ keep it running, let it be 
4ai]y drefled, during fourteen days or longer, with an oint- 

l,irtdfcy's Fitw of the tTmtarlan Deffrint and fVorJhip. ig? 

nient com[>oftd of equal parrs of emplaflrum vtjtcaiorium, , 
and Ufiguertium cterulfutn feriius. ^. i.. melted together ip a ^ 
ver^ gcfiUe heat. Let a drachm ot mercurial ointment be 
nibbed into the" foreoart of the legs of the patient every 
other night, and on the night intervening let him take a 
bolus, compofed' of three or four grains of calomeli (is 
grains of campliirc, and a drachm of coiiferve of rofcs. tf 
any fign? of falivation fhould appear, it muft be checked by 
a day or two's fufpenGon, and a dofc of Glauber's falts." 

The bydrophebia Dr. Bcrkenhout confidcrs as incurable- 
HcSs however, difpofed to try the effefts of jntoKlcation, 
although he gives no reafoh whereon to found at^y fuppbli- 
tion of fuccefs from. a remedy fo ftrange. Thi? trcatife well 
deferves perufal by country pra ft It) oners, as it combats 
(rejutlices which have fent many unhappy ci^aiufes to an 
untimely grave.' 

A« T. VIIT. An Hi^rical fnt^v ff tit Staff of it.r UMana^ J)oi. 
irlur and Werfljip, f^om the Rrfarmalhn fa cur T-m<. IVilh 
fome Account o^ the ObftruAions which it haa met with icr dif- 
ferent Periods. By Thcopbilui Lindfey, A. M. 8vo. ts.'ed. 
biMirdi, Johnfon. 

SVERY thing in nature exilts in the individual cJalles, 
or arrangements ; general and abllraj^ed ideas iir? the 
u£tions, and exifl: only in human, and perhaps other 
minds. This power of abftraftion, which leads to the 
contemplation of all thofb fublime ideas which are fo pleaf- 
ing to ie coipprehenfive nature of our fouls, is nev^rthe- 
ieiS the plentiful fdurce of perpieBity and error. Palling 
beyond the limits of nature, men have extended their no^ 
tions derived from material objects into infinity, aq .abyft, 
perhaps the creature of tlicir own imagination, and con- 
vetted general ideas of their own formation into phyfical 
caufes, and evch into living agents whofe luti&enc^ '» 

From the days of Plato to die ^»efent, metu>hy<kian3 
have been employed in yain attempts to ican fubjecis- utterly 
beyond their comprchenfion. From certain myiterious pro- 
|ierties in the number three, and frorn the conrfmplation 
of the three leading principles or powers of th^ humaii 
jniodf wifdom, efficacy, and will, Pjato conceived, or 
adopted .an idea of a trinity of gods, or of divine perfons in 
the fame godhead; and the deraiurgus of thac philolb- 
pher is the fame with the Itgis or fta/on, or wtrd of th^^- 
cred Icriptures, by which God isade the world.. - Hence 
i^rd J^ohtt^brikt after tracing th.t influence of the antient 
If 3 fchools 


19? Liodfcy's P^ew of the XJntiar'tan HtSrint and Pfrjhif^, 

fchools on the fyftem of revealed religion, afrrms that 
chriftianity is nothing elfc than ft mixture of Plaionijm and 
Juiaifm-. and, certain chriftian divines' have derived the 
crnh oi churches with refpeft to the trinity, from the fame 
origin, at the fame time that they affirm, no fuch doctrine 
is to be found either in esprefs terms, or by fair cohftruc- 
tion in thft facred fcriptures. 

The "reigning philofophy never falling to influence the 
tenets of religion, the fyftem of Sir Ifaac Newron, which 
fuppofes the cxiftence of one free and eternal firft mover or 
canfe, revived, in the beginning of the prefcnt ceniurj^ the 
fcfl of Arian in this country: and chnftian. divines, im- 
proving, as they conceived, on the religious theory of the 
philofopher, rejeflcd Arianifm itfclf as "derogatory to the un- 
divided majetty and power of the eternal and individual 
ONE ; Jehovah fthb made, and governs the world. 

The Reverend Thcophilus Lindfey, whofe candour and 
-finceri^ arc proved to the world by his fecefiion from the 
eftabliincd church, and refignation of his ccclefiaftic prefer- 
ment, in a fmall tra£t, not long ago publlfhed, iii. the way 
of dialogue, endeavoured' to Ihew, from the holy fcriptures, 
that one Almighty Father of the Univerfe is the only God 
of Chriftians. And a fecond part, we are informed is in- 
tended to follow, in which in the fame familiar manner, all 
the pafiages of fcripturc, fupoofed to favour the ivorfhip of 
JefusChrift, and of the Holy Spirit, will be <:onfidercd. 

In the work, now under review, which was undertaken 
with a' view to ferve thq fame defign, continual opportuni- 
ties have offered thcmfclvcs of commenting on different 
portions of the facred writings which relate to this great fub- 
jeft : fo that it is a mixture of hijicrical fatli with fatrid 
erticifm, the former intended' to difplay the number, the 
piety, and virtue of the Unilarians ; the latter to prove the 
truth, iuftnefs, or onhodoxy of their opinions. After a 
preface of confiderable length, containing fundry explana- 
tions, apologies, and coiitroverfie», Mr, Lindfey gives a 
ftate of the Unitarian Doftrine at t^ic beginning of the re- 
formation, and of the violent means ufed in England t^ 
fupprefs it. He next gives a view of the worfhip of JzsDS 
Christ by Sse/Wt and his followers, and afterwards pailes 
en to thfe flatc of the Unitarian Doflrine in the reign trf" 
Queen Elizabeth and of the Stuarts, and- enquires 
Into the caufe of the great filence concerning the divine 
unity during this period. He contSnucs the ftate of . the 
Unitarian Doftrinc and Woiftiip in the laft and tljeprefent 
century, and expatiates fully on fome circWmfiancej fevoup- 
able of h^ years to the progr^fs ofihe doiftrinc of E>iviit£ 
'■■■'• ■ .■■ ■■- ■■ - ... ■- Ul^^ 

-■■ ■ . I /^ 

D.=,l.:edbyG00gIc ■ 

Unity. Here, he infifts on the benefit aocruing to the' 
caufc of tmth, from, an open defence and mainteauKC o^ 
it: and particulsriy on fome recent public declarations ]|t 
fiivour of the Unitarian Doftrinc and Worfhip, t^ ati^ 
open and avowed feparation from the woffhip of the Char<^ 
of England. He defcribes the firft rife of the church of 
unitarian chriiliaiis afTembliii^ at the chapel in Eflex-ftreet, 
and gives an account of the lecelTion of Dr. Robcrtfoif, of 
Dr. John Jebb, of Dr. Chambers, ' of Mr. TyrrwbJt of 
Cambridge, of Mr. Evanfon, of Mr. Maty, of Mr. Hernes, 
of Dr. DifncY his colleague, and laftly of an Unitarkii 
Society of Cbriilians at Montrofe in Scotland. ' Of rtiis 
ibcrety his accoant is cvriou! and interefting. 

* It \i often matifr of lurprifc ami concein to many, that whilft 
our brethren and fellow fubjefts, the flerjrT uf thr church of 
Scotland, prefent us continuaUy with ingenious and learned 
treatifes on mitural philofophvi rnathemitics. hirtory, philology, 
&c. nothing whatfotfcris produced or traiifpirca fro:n rhrit part of" 
our ilbnd, which tendi to relorin their theological fyliem, or to 
open the eye* of the common people oti the grand iubjcft of the Di- 
Vine Unity ; who, at thi» day. are got no farther than what John 
Knox and the DtviBcs of that titne taught ihem from 'Calvin; and 
thou;;h both (hefc ivere trulv great men, and eminent re&rmers, the 
fate of Scrretm ig a melancholy monument of the darkncfs and'in- 
lolerance of the church thyt adheres toihfir fentitnents. 

' Liberal, rational, and truly esceilent Divines, there are 
-many, »vc are perfuided, among tTicin; who, although uneafy 
under their fubicriptiooa at entrance into the Miniflry, endeavour 
filently, in their pnvate depanm^nti, aitd parilhes, to correft and 
qualify the rigour of the 'received orthodcwy. In doing this, iftey 
have a great advantage over ^e minifters of the church- of England, 
in not being bound to make afe of forma of pmyer and invocariori,' 
which they difapprove ; Dud mly therefore remain in ihelr refpcc' 
rive fituaUonc without, fuch.a degree of lelf-condcmiiatiau.— And. 
from the fecrct light diffufed by fuch worthy parfons, \\t may.hupe 
tt will be found, that multituJes will be prepared to difclaim the 
worlhip of any other perfoa a» God, but the God and Father of 
our Lord Jefus Chrift, the omnipotent Creator and Governor of 
the univerfe,-' whenever that Great Truth ii plainly and properly 
held forth, and recommended to them. " ■ 

' Under this general Ihte of things, in that country, it gives pe- ' 
culiar fatitfafiion to .behold tiling among them, a Ibciety of pro- 
fefled, nniiatian chriftiins, fuch as never before appeared there. 

' It took its rife from a * pcrfon eiigaged in fecular affairs,; biit 
Who notn'ith (landing has found time to accompliih himfVlf in dif- 
ferent parts of literature, and particularly in every thing tending to 
fllullrate the facred writings; and with this view chiefly, has amalibda 

•"Mr. William Chrillie, Tun. Merchant at .Montrofe. 

N 4 ■ large 


ma Ua&ft Vitm if At UvUtrtM Datlriiii ami ff^ajsip, 

large Well cbofcn library, Aich u feldom f>ll> to the lot of a prlvaM 
Jer&n. ''■. 

' One much left qua^fied than thu gmtlenian, nay cafily pro- 
Tide bimfelf witk uleful prill ted dilcourfn, and fuiublc pncom- 
pofed feimt of prayer, by which a chriilUn audience may be edi- 
fiedj and may mil fallow bit worldly, occupation fix days, while on 
the Lord's duy be ofEciatei as a chriHian miaifiei'; where one of 
ereaccr learniue and abilitiei cannot be procured. 

' The unreformed condiiton of the whole cfariftian world, in tbo 
^nt of Ood't true trorihip, will, it i* probable, make it more and 
more neireirary for priiace chriliiant tohaTfl recourfc to fuch expc- 
flienta of gathering congregation! among themfdvei, with whom 
to join in worlhip. For vaS bodiei of men refbnn llcwly. In the 
inean time, it is the duty of iodividuali, not to wait for th^r. 
^oremeatf, but quietly to do the work for themfelves, * where . 
they cannot with a I'afe conlirience freauent the eliablillied woriliip : 
which perhaps i) the only way by which a general reformation in 
fuch important points can be effected. . 

' Mr. Ci iyt«ai Mmfra/t, wai happy, when he found it neceflary 
to withdraw from the worQiip of the eiUblilhed church, to fio4 
Qtheti in the placet of tbe like unttarian fentimentt with faimfelf. 
There is a iburi- account which the fociecy givei of itfelf, by wa;.r 
ef preface to a colle^on of bymos for their ufe; which it here 
gtveii qt length. 

" The following coUeaion of Hymns and Pfalms, wat made (a* 
f' tbe -f title page eipreDet it} for tbe ufc of ilic UnitHnaDS in En- 
f gland ; and in particular, for the accomodation of tbe Unitarian 
" congregaiion, at Eirez-flreet chapel, in the Strand, Loodontr 
'* over ivhich Mr. Lindfey, lace Vicar of Caiterick in Vorkfhire* 
^* prefides, His refignation of his church-preicrment was followed 
V by that of the learned Mr. Jehb of Cambridge { and by ihaic «f 
'* the Ke*. Mr. Evaofon of Tcwkelbury, another fufierer for the 
y fake of coaCdence, although his cafe ii oot lo ^erally koowi* 
^* with us M that of his two brethren. Thus widiin this \%!l half 

Thert is foranhicg To weicbty, and fo UuJy apoHolical in Dr. 

Priellley's " exhortation to ajf mitari^uu, wtwttwr thej' be mem- 
f* hers of tb« eiUbllllied church, or of any fbciety of Dillenters,*' 
contained in one of bis valuable pra^ical trads, that t would hem 
earoe^^ recommend it to every one's peoifal. It is in the lafl edi- 
tion, printed at Birmitighaot. 1781, of^ his " Appeal to the ferioui 
"* andcandid ProfeObrsof Chrifiiaoity," p. 37 10 30^ The wholt 
of this litdc book is invaluable, and fbould be in tb« hands of every 
didlHan. . 

+ The title ruBj thus: " A Colkaioapf Hymns afid Pfalawfiw 
t' public woribip > fii'A pubii(bed for the uic of Uniuriaas is £■• 
^* glatid, and now reprihted, with a Supplemeiit, for ihf Ufe of 
** the Unitarian. Society, Mpiitrofe. Tbe ^aur contelh, and ne^o ri, 
" vjheit lie Irae twrjftiffen fl>tit •Marjhip tht Fatik^ in jptrit W/ft 
" tntib: farli^ Father fiihlb fmb l» v.vr^P him. — }s%vtJ* Duir- 
dea: Printed for the Proprietors, iti^i- 

*'_ fcora 


'Limlfey's Vitw uf ih* VnitarUm DiiiritU Mi Wor^f. sM 

" fcore of years, we have fecp, e«ii in thefe lirfie* of diffipaiion 
*' and degeneracy, three * clergymen of learning, knowkdge, inij . 
•* virtue, vefign their pTeftrmeacs, and caft themfelves upon th* 
" proridcnce of Ood, rather than continue n> officiate in a chasch 
" where unfcriptural atritlt* of faith were im^fcd, and unfcrip- 
*' tural (firms <rt worlhip made ufc of. 

" From motivcB of a like kind with thofe that aAuated the refpeC' 
" able and wonhy gentlemen before mentioned, feveral of ihc 
" membcra that now compofs.thc Uniisrian fodeiy ot Montrol'e, 
**_ found thentfelrca under a neccffity of departing from the different 
" feftt and partki they t^orinerly beloneed to. Fully convinced, 
** that the God and Father of our LorcTjefui Chrift, is aione Ch« 
" only living and true God, tbcy deemed it highly iscongruoui ttf 
" remain any longer in thofe religious ibcicties, where, beBdei 
** this God and Fathrr, two other perlbni, or intelligent agenti, ' 
**. were acknowledged as the fupreme God, and equSl with the F»- 
" ther in every refpeifl. 

*' For fomc time they were deprived of the benefit of public 
" worfhip; until, at larf, becoming accjuaitited with one another'* 
** fituittioo and fentimems, they judgAl it eipedient to aflemblc to* 
•* gether for the perfbnmiBCe of this nectfiary duty.-*-Thi« (botf 
.'' preface does not afford room, cither to enter into a defence of 
*' their awn opinions, or a confutatioti of thofeof tbeiropponemt I 
" this was done atcunliderablelength in aferies cf-dilcourfee, thai 
*' were delivered when the focieiy was mada. public. 

" To Mr. Lindfey's colle^on, it has been »hought proper to add 
" a fuppicment, cof)icd iVom Dr. Wattt's Pfalme and HymoE, with 
** Tome fmall variations and tranfpofitions. From the compofitionis 
" of this pious writer, the greateft part of Mr. Lindiey't cotledtiun 
" is alio taken. At the time, Dr. Waits wrote thele devotional 
" pieces,' he was a rigid Trinitatian; and, of confequence, fome 
^' of his pfdliDs, aod » great many of hii hymns, are fo itrongly 
" fnarked wi^ the peculariiies of that fyilem, Aat they are altog e* 
** tber unfit to be ufed in an Unitarian congregation. Before b)i ' 
" death, however, the Do^or faw realbn to moderate his litoti* 
f mcnts ; and in fome of his laft publications, ezprelTed bimfelf 
" in Aich a doubtful, heliuttng manner ; and found himfelf oblige 
** ed, from his natural candour, to make fuch concel^ons to the 
" Unitarians, and to approach fo near their fyftem, that he loft 
** his credit conlideraU]' with fomc of the friends of pretended or- 
•* thodoxy." 

'In a letter from Mnntrofe, dated March 13, iJ8j, are the f<riIow* 
ing particulars relating fothis Society. 

" Our Society has new been of about eighteen months Ibndihr. 
" For feverat [nonihs after its commencement, we kept cur me^* 
" ingt in a great mcafure private) admitting few fpedaton. 
" But about the middle of the lail fummer, it was mada 

* " Mr. Evanfon underwent a profecution for making aitera- 
" tions in the liturgy. In this refpefl his cafe was different from 
" that of bis two reverend brethren." 

" acceffible 


1D2 Litldlejr*t yhw ^the Unilarian Daetrine end Wofjh^: 

** acceffibl^ to.all nriihout exceptioa. We admioider the Lord's 
., *' fupper the firft Lord's day of every month) in a plain and lim^e 
** farm. Ab there are feveral Anu}MedobutU( amongA ug, every 
" ^enibcr of our Society has ii in his ofitiun, to baptize hi» chil- 
" dreu when young, or to defer that ceifinony till they arnve at 
" years of difcrctlan. We admit alike Arians and SociniaoE, teav- 
" ipf every one to judge and determine for hinifeU. as ro (he pre- 
<* exiflence, &c. but we are all fixed aod determined concerning 
*' the Divine Unity, and the fupreine GodScad, and unequall^ 
" dignity of the Father." 

It is not our intention to enter minutely into the fubjeA 
In difpute between Mr. Lindfey and the Trinitarians. We 
ihall only obfcrve that it is a fubjeft quite beyond human 
comprehcniion, and that the eternal exillence of the trinity 
is not more ipconctfivable than the eternal cxjftence of one 
God. Nay a plurality of Gods, if we were to be guided in 
our reafonings merely by natural analogies, could not ,btf 
Ihewn to be either abfurd or wholly improbable. The in- 
ference we draw is, that a belief in the trinity, is as confiftent 
with 2 fpiiir of found philofophy, as a belief in one God- 
The manner of its exiftcnce, the mode in which three dif- 
ferent beings may be united in eflencc, yet diftingujlhed by 
particular funflions, fotofpcak, in the fulfillment of the 
plans that arc harmonioufly agreed on by the whole, cannot 
out cicapc human penetration. Yet the more we confider 
the interminable varieties and poffibilities of exiftence, 'and 
the mote we contemplate our own weaknefs, we fhall be thjc 
readier to believe on.divirie tcftimony, what to human views 
may feem incomprehehfible; and while we give to reajen 
the things that are riafom, to yield in like manner, xa faith 
the things that arc /fljiAj. And as there are manifold texts 
of fcripturc ^U. prima facie, affert the exiftencc of three pcr- 
fohs in the godhead, we at^nt entirely to that doArine. 

We allow at the fame time that Mr. Lindfey maintains 
the contrary opinion with ability and candour, and with 
zeal unmixed with acrimony. The hiftorical fiifts and th^^ 
reafonings which he records, cannot but appear curious to 
allfuchas wiih toknow what has paiTcd, and now pafles in 
theworld, on a^int offofublimcanaturc; the diverfityof 
opinions ihathavc been entertained about it,the warmp^oni 
it has excited, and the fingular events to Which it has fomc- 
times given occafion, in whatever light they look upon the 
cbriftidn religion. But to thofe who believe that religion to 
conje from God, they will appear' not Only curious, but of 
the highcft importance. 


Bennet'a Divint Revilatictii Impartial and Univer/a^. aoj 

Art, IX. Divine Kt-Vfla^iim Impartial and Univirfal: or an Hiimhlt 
Aiiempt ta defend Chrifranily Hpm RalLwal Priw-ple; againft rim ' 
lafiJelityanJ^cept-fmi/lhejige: \<jiih Vsm, containing Ob ferra- 
tions upon moft of the eapitnl and dlftingOillieii Unbelievers of 
the prefent Timesj fuch as Hume, Voltaire, Raynal. Gibbon j 
. xad inveftigating and aligning the nioft probable Caufe* of this 

• Infidelity. By the Rev. John Sennet, Cuiaio ot St. Mary'i 
Mandiefler. Bvo. 39. boardi. Cadell. 

THE moft formidabte objeflion to the truth of chrifti- 
anity is, pfrhaps, its want of univcrfality. There is 
in mankind a difpofition to reafon from analogy, or what 
fome philofophers have called ' an analogical uculty. By 
this principle wc naturally extend the laws with which ,wo 
are acquainted over all nature, and in like manner imagine 
the Divine Being muft obfetve the fame conduft to all his 
creamrcs. A contrary condud we arc apt to charge w^ith 
injuftice, without opening our- eyes to the comprchenfive 
plans of providence, which out or feenjing evil produces the 
greateft poflible good. It was the apparent partiality of the- 
chriflian fyftem, its being addreffed to certain natures and 
defcriptlons of men, rather than to the whole race of maq, 
thatnrft alarined thclibeial mind of Lord Herbert of Cher- 
bury, and led him to deifm. Others have avowed {imilar 
fentimcnts. The' moft diftinguifhed' fcepticks triumph tn 
the argument that a contracted and partial difpenfation is ut- 
terly unworthy the common parent and fupreme governor 
of the worM, While they allow the purity of the do£trines 
of the gofpcl, they contend that cbrijliamty l*«s old as the 

In the prelent century, and, particularly of late years, the 
ingenious and liberal among chriftian divines, have been at 
great pains to foften thofe narrow doSrines that gave offence 
to cultivated and candid minds, and to fhew that the cliritlian 
difpenfation is not contrafted and partial, but univerfally Be- 
nevolent, merciful, and juft. On this fublittie fubjefl much, 
ingenuity has been dii^layed as well as learning. But among 
the numerous apologius for the chriftian f^th, we have not 
for ■fome time paft found a more ingenious, learned, and. 
candid reafoner than Mr. Bennet. 

His work is an attempt to obviate the capital objeflions to 
chtifiianity, by. proving that the uniform, unvarying plan 
of tlie deity has been the diffufion of religious information 
and happinefs to all tlie people and ^es of the world ; that 
if his mode of doing this, as well as the nature, the degree, 
and extent of the revelations he hath vouchfafed may have 
varied, and confcquently have had the appearance of partia- 
lity, yet this mode and thefe revclatioas will be found on in- 


104 Bennet's JSiv'me ItevtUttUn, Impartial and VnlverfaL 

quiry to have been the bcft accomtnodatMl to the time» and 
{cafons in which tbey have been given, and the diipoiitions 
of mankind to receive them, in different ageS) coimtries, and 
circumllances, upon the principle of that free-will, free- 
agency and choice which conftitute the very c0ence trf in- 
ttUigent creation. In illuftrating this fnbjeCT, the Author 
fupports his own aJTertions and reafonings by the authorities 
of^refpcAable and. numerous guides, without whom, bcde^ 
clarcs, he would never have prefumed to traverfe fuch unex- 
plored and folitary paths. He has accordingly fubjoined to 
bis text n)3nifold notes, which throw confiaefable;iight on 
bis fubje^, and which fbcw that bis reading has been very 
cxtenlive. From a furvey of antient as well as modern na-> 
tions he proves that the grand moral doftrines of chriftianity 
bave been very generaUy diff^ufcd by taeana of tradi- 
tion. In many countries the chciftian r«)igion may 
have been planted, although the precious and iiumoital feed 
of the gofpel has been choaked and over-run with the wecdl 
of ignorance and fflperilition. Many nations, it Is certain, 
which have received chriftianity, have fo dcb^fed it with a 
mixture of their own traditions, that but a very dubious re- 
{bmblancc of its original air is vi&ble a{nongft them. 

fiut many nations he confeiTcs ftill fit in darknefs, or ai 
be calls it, a comparative darknefg. He give* many rcafoni 
for this, and infills much on the bad example of chriftians 
which bangs as a dead weight on their dofirinei. Granting 
however, fays he, what never can be proved, that the deity 
did not intend the common and external comtnunication of 
chriftianity to be univcriai,'. ftill the redeemer may be the 
medium of h^ppinefs, and the inftnmtent of falvation td 
maiiy people and nations who never heard of bii name. 
" He draws, by his reftoring power, he unices, he recon- 
ciles to heaven, even the moft dark and uninformed people, 
whole hearts will at all allimilatc with deity, and who potfelt 
but a fpark of that celeftial fpirit which afcends to the 

Having expatiated on that variety of hap^ncfs which it 
adapted to the infinitely various fentimcnu, feelings, and 
£tuations of Che creatures of God, he thus proceeds, 

' Le( ut now enier fully into the theory of tnis dtftin^on ob- 
fervable ia the proviilentiat diflribution of bleffingi, and juflify, 
as tnuch ai poffible, the wtmderful ways of htrarea to tnanlUail, 
Let us examine whether fiich a difierence be only the arbttraiy 
appointment of Deity, or whether it doth not eeeeffiirily fprio^ 
from the permifiiati of free agdney ; whether it doth not, iti a 
very great (k^ree, coafiitiae the oatvre of % probaiioMry ftaie, 
and be not ncceffiry fo the peace, the oidnr, m hap^ncfr, awl 
goTUsment of the world. 

DiflltlzedbyGoOgIC ■ 

ficnactV Divine Rtvtkt'iin and Univtrf at Impartial: Soj 

' I^t m begia trilh. tbe dtfparity which preraili in extern^ 
bleffiugs : this uiuft Urike the moH fuperficial ind carel«Ii * obfer- 
Tcr. In ». natural light* what a -^ differCDcc may be obferTed iiv 
men's capacitic(, juJ^mcau, inemoric*) genius, fagacity, and pe- 
netration : what amazing gradatiotu esi& in the fcale from a Ba- 
<:aDf a Boyle, a. Newtun, aad a Locke, to t bole whofe abili- 
Dcs fcarcely are fufligietit for the eiemeatJ of knowledge, 
or the outlinet oMiuproicmeot ? And in a civil view, how quick- 
ly Ibmc are raifcd ; how nuay are even hru lo the fummit of ft 
tiiFaae, at lead, in a fplendid palace, have every elegance and- 
Igxary of lite ; while ather«, by bcefliuit toil, fcarcely can pro- 
cue (he neeeil&net of fubhlience, aud depend, when Ikknefa or 
miifiaitune come, on the precarious and rcanty almi of an unpity- 
Ing world ? Aa equality of condition, had it been ordained* 
QOHld not have long fubliJled. The moderation, the induAry, 

* * See Dilqui&iaa on feveral Subjefb, lately pubtilbed by 
Soame JettyiH, £f<]; where this idea ia moQ: ingeniouily pur* 

f " It i» true, indeed," (fay» aa able writer) " there are de- 
'* gren i^ perfection in the creatures, and, God is itot equally 
** goodtoall. Thofe.creatupGa which are of more noble and vx* 
*' cellent natures, and to which he hath, cotomuwcated more de- 
" grcea of perfe^ion, they partake more of bi^goodnefa, and are 
" more glorious initances of it. But every creature panakei eJF 
" the divine goodaefs in a. certain degree, and according to their 
" nature and capacity «£ it. God, if be pteafed, could hare mads 
" notbiog but immortal fpirits, and he could have made a* many 
" of thefe as thrre are laJivulual creatures of all forts in the 
'-' world. But k feemed good to the wife Arcbitcft to make ie> 
" Tcral ranks and order* of being, and to difpUy bis power, 
'* a»d goodnefsf aad wifdom in all imaetnablc variety of creatures, 
•' ^^ which ibtHkld be good in their kino, though far fltort of tho 
" perfection of aogds and immortal fpiiiti. 

, " He that will build an hottfe for all uf« and par^>ofes, of 
" which a hotife is capable, cannot make jt all ieuiulation, and 
" great beams and pillars .; m.uA not fo contrive it, as to make 
*^ it tUl rooms of flate aad entertainment ; but there moHofae- 
" cclSiy be in it meaAer materials, rooms, and offices for fevcral 
" ufea andpurpofes, which, however inferior to the reft in dig- 
*' My ««1 degree, -do yet contribute to the beauty and advantaze 
" of (he whole. So in this ^reat frame of the world, it was fit 
•' there Aiould be variety and difl'ereni degrees of perfcSion in thq 
" fcveral parts of it : and this ia fo fsr from bein* an impeach- 
" meoi of ^e wifdom or goodnefs of him that made it, that it 
" ii an evidence trf both : for the meaneft of all Ood's creaCUr'ea 
" is good, conSdering the nature -and rant of it ) and the end ' 
" for which it ivm deligned ; and We cannot imagine how it could 
*' have been ordered or better framed, tbou^ we can ealily tell 
*' how it might have been worfe, &c. Till. Ser. fol. vol, II. 


io6 Benrtet'i liivlne Revtlatien, tmp/irtia! and Univer/at. 

the virtuM of (bmfl ; the eitravagance, the idlenefi, and vices of 
ethen, would 'have deran^nl luch a fyfletn, and produced a revo- 
lution. This laridjF of blefbigs i> appointed, we juftly reafon. 
by the great fupreme DirCflor and Parent of the world. But, if 
all mankind had been originally placed on one common level, it 
would foon hate taken place. The induftry, the moderation, 
the virtue* of fome, and the indolence, the luxury, the vices of 
ether* would have fpeedily created the important diftin^ion. On 
the principles of freedom it is, therefore, unavoidable, and fpringi 
fram the oeceflary' mode of our eriftence. , But the Deity himfeW 
batfa very wifely appointed it, in the order of' hig providence, ai 
a fource of happtnefs, and a principle of enjoyment to his intel- 
ligent creatures. Society ii the medium of bur rtioft valuable com'- 
forts; and every reflcfling perfon will acknowledge,- that,' in ■« 
(blitary ftate, even with the gteateft blellings, we (hould pjne uA< 
> WeiTed, We feel the llrougcri inftinft for focietj.. We are, foijne* 
for \n * enjoyments ; but a focial life could not poffibly eiift 
without fubordi nation ; fubordi nation without a variety of'ranks ; 
■or would mankind be happy in their different departments, fitu- 
ations, and ranks, without difference of fentimenr, which necel*' 
farily fprings from a difference of allotment, views, and educa- 
tion. Such a variety, in ftiort, is fibfolutely neceflary to the 
peace, the government, the prefervation of the world, according 
to the prefent conftitution of things, eftablifhed by a God, whofe 
wifdotn ia infinite, and whofe goodnefa is immenfe. If all had 
8a equal advantage, or eminence of capacity, or f fortune, who 
muft fubmit to the drudgeries of life, to the tilling of the earth, 
the reaping of its fruits, the adminiflering to our conftant and ma- 
nifold neceiTities, or to I thofe other inferior mechanical employ- 
ment), which, however low or triEing in themfelves, a:e necelEiry 
to the world. The philofophic mind would be ill fitted for thcfe 
inferior occupations ; and the labourer would bo wretched, who, 
with feeling! as refined, fentiments as enlarged, and knowledge 
as increafed, as can even be pofTefTed by the bigbeft of hii bre- 
thren, muft yetcondefcend to the degrading, and very bumilitating 
office of attending to their wants. Happily, however, fnrviJn- 
tially indeed, the views, the knowledge, and the feelings of men 
are fuited to their Aate ; and the cottage is not without fome pri- 
vate comforts denied to the throne. Perhaps, indeed, more p<ng- 
nant forrows clufter upon || greatnefs, and invade its repofe, 

* See Foil. Obfetv. in a Voy. round the World, fol. vol. ill. 

P- 338- 

+ Nich. Conf. vol. i. p. 117. 

'% Very appofite to this fubjecl is the reafoning of St. Paul coti> 
ccriung the difierent members of the body, i Cor. xii. 14. 
)| NoQ enim gazz neque coafularis 
Summovet lidor miferos tumultus 
Mentis, & curas laqueatacircum 
Tetta Tolantes. 

Hor. Od. lib. a. od. 16. 


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Bennct'e Divine Revelation, Vnivtrfal and Impartial. 267 
than evtj faften ppon the poor man's cTenioj: pillow, or prey upon 
his thoughts by day. This is the circuniflance (I mean the hu- 
maa feelings being futted to f their ftate) which fo amaiinnly 
connefts, prefervo, fopports the fabric of fociety, and harmoniiei 
ill the orders of the creation. On any other plan, the fuppofirion 
1 mean, of an equality in^bleilings, there would be nothing bu^ 
diforder, quarrels, and confufion j a continual competition, who 
fboukl obey, or who be obfeyed. The world would no longer be, 
fo immediately as it is,, a probationary ftate j and the exercift 
of manyof the Chriftian virtues would nCceJferily be fufpendcd ; 
charity, moderation, fymyathy in the rich, -and, in the poor, con- 
tentmcDt, indutlry, and reHgnation. And then as to the * difference 
in religious bleffingi, it inevicably fpring* and arifcs from the 
other. If men m lift be born, as neceflary to the peace and order 
of the world, with different capacities ; if Tome be placed in the 
bighcft ranks, and others in ihe lowefl ; if fome be fituated in a 
itformed Chriftiancountry^ and others live under -a variety of 

Scncc. c. 36. Confof, ad Polybium. Magna fervitui eft ma^ns 
fortuna, &:c. . _ 

^ The fame fcntiment happily prevails v*'ith regard to Ciuation. 
Men, in general, are not only reconciled, but even much at- 
tached to their native ful, whatever may be its comparative ta^ 
convenicncies. Dr. Reinold Forfter tella us, " that the Savages, 
" on the frozen eitremitiea of the globe, think themfclves happy 
" and even happier than the moft civilized nation ; and every in.' 
" dividual of themii fo well fatisffed with his conditioo, that 
" not even 3 wifti is left in his breaft for the leaft alteration." 
Fort. Obf. in a Voy. round the World, vol. III. fol. p. 303.—— . 
I.etters on Iceland. Obf. made in the Voyage of Jofeph Banks, 
Efqj Utter 6. p. 83. 

• *' Alter all" (fays an ingenious reafoner) " is it not ftill 
" perplexing that religious advantages fliould be fo unequally dit^ 
•* tributed ? — No ; for, like thofc of nature and fortune, they 
" arc the free gift* of Ood, who, for reafons unknown to us, 
" hath decreed that happinefs ftiould depend On other ctrcumftan- 
" ces independent of pcrfonal merit, though this, imperfeft as it 
" always is, will be chiefly regarded. Indeed, if it be reconcile- 
" able with the attributes of the Deity to have conftirutcd diffi:- 
" rent ranks of beings, what caiife can be alligned, why thofe of 
" the fame rank fhould not be diftingulfhed from each other ? It 
" is difficult to conceive how things could have been ordered 
" othcrwife. Were revelation univerfal, it would flill be unequal^ 
" unlefs you wilt require in all the fame capacity to undcriland, 
" and difpofition to eiamine it. Extravagant demand ! which 
" foits with no fyftem, which limits the exertions of divine good- 
" refs, and, by overturning the regular gradation and dependence 
" of things, aniuhtlatea every bleffing derived from that fource,'* 
Main. Serm. p. 96. — Seeker's Scrm. vol. IV. difc, 8. — See the 
very fame train of thought very ingenioully purfued in YoUng'» 
Defence of RcTcl. vol, II. p. aji, Sec. 

• go»em- 


aSS fiennct't i>fVfi/ JttvtUttM, Un't-Otrfel a*d fmpartfii 

• goverDments, Uwi,- and iiilHtutioi», where derpotifTn, 615007* 
and fuperflition rei^n, where the monarch eire* the word t^ 
command, which, at once* Ihall enflavc the body and mind, or 
v/btvt abfcdute ignaraoce knows no lawa, ami fubmiu to do re< 
{Iraints ; if, io uiort, the world muil be what it ii ; and, uaieft 
the Almighty wouU entirety alter the prefent eftablif^d form aad 
tonftitution oC thine* ; a difference in the perception, knowledge, 
and jroproTeuiaat of raortl and rctiKioHs Ucffingi Mceffanly arifes 
from the already prcniling; and ellabmhed difference ib the na- 
tural external worlo. Greater abilitiet are bener calculated for 
the rcfincmcntt of inveAigation, and the office of difcovery 1 
higher rank fuppofet, of courfe, fupertarity of education, and 
gteatei leifure for profecuting every fpeciei of impEo*enicnt, reli- 
gious, ai Weil ai nailtu-al or ciril. And in a Chrilliin coddot, 
where the mind it releafed horn ihe fhackles of Qarery, and the 
llill deeper bondage of ignorance or fuperffition ; where excel- 
lent form) of difciplbe arc iniljtiUed, and inquiry ta earned on 
with liberality and cafe, the inhabttanti have certainly better 
opportunities for " growing io the grace and knowledge of theit 
•• God," and finally "becoming + wife unto falranon. . Religi- 
ffiouB, therefore, ai w$ll as natural and ciril difUniftiont, necef- 
faiily muft fubllil : they are unavoidable in Ibciety, and/ equally 
with the other, the Tery foul and eflencc of a probationary Aate. 
Before they can be altered, or entirely difatinulled, we taw con- 
CMve a new fottn, and mode,' and fyjtem of creation ; and who- 
erer cenfures them, eeofures the great Arehiteft and Framer of the 

* For be amazing inSuence whifb climate, gOTcrnment, lawa, 
tec. have in forming the reniiinenta and manner* of a people, fee 
HeU, on Man. — -Mr. Hunfe'a EUav* on Nation. Cbara^- — Mon- 
tefq. Spir. of Law*.— Ferguf. Eff.on Civ. Societ.— Abbe Chape'* 
Ace. of a Tour 10 Siberia. The two htttcr very able and diflin* 
^uiflied wriiera, {eem to rcfolve thii wonderful influence chie% 
into the force of climate; the otfaeti arc of opinioo, that moral 
caufes of education, government, lani) and poUce have a greate/ 
efie^. Wilfon, in hi* iogcniout effays on this Cuhjefi, lcein% 
in a very forcible manuerv to have reco&ciled thefe contendiilg 
patties. Beyond the tropics, he apprehends, that the human char 
ra^er may be more formed by the power of climate^ which, in fueh 
a fituacion is prodieious, taan by all other United caufes. In 
more temperate regions, he fuppofei, that the iBoral caufei in- 
finitely pr^ondcrate over the natural, and account for the dif- 
linAion. Hia fyftcm i> ingenious, and hi* argumenti appear ii»- 
lid and concttifivc. — I haie nothing more to ao with thcle cUft^ 
ing theories, than only to obferve, that, on whatever fide the 
truth may be, the difiercuce eiiH* and fuppor^ the lentiment main- 
tained in thefe obfervaiiori. 

'* Among the caufes which forwarded the ercurtb of mor«l 
" corruptions was the want uf laws, and of regijlaF goienuncui." 
Main. Serm. p. 317. 

+ a Tim. iii. ij. 

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Sennet's Divim Rcvektioh, Impartial and Univtrfal. aot) 

aftiTcrfe, and virtually declare*' that fuch a fabric mi^hi have 
been becter contrived and conllri^ed ; and that it bean upon ita 
very face, mofl indifputable mnrk» of defei^ and imp^rteftion. 
But " * who art thou, O man, that replied againfl God." 
Search more minutely into tJie couofds of providence, and th-y 
arrogant complaints mufl be changed into the raptures otaftoniflt- 
ment and veneration. 

The idea of the miHennium being in all probability prc- 
.cedcd by fome univerfal empire fwallowing up the reftf 
is ingenious and not improbable. Al the firft advent 
of the Mefljah the Roman government extended over the 
known world. 

We would recommend to the ingenious writer to be 
more attentive to the graces of flile and compofiti- 
on. The extreme length of fome of his fententes is not 
only ofFenlive to the ear, but inconfiftent with perspi- 
cuity, tlie chief quality in all difcourfes addreflcd to the 
•nnderftanding. The i2tli, 13th, and greater part of the 
14th page of hiB preface form one fcntence. He alTo 
&IIs frequently into a redundancy of epithets and an im- 
proper ufe of adverbs, J fatal and unhappy combination ; 
Aard/iips and rigours : radiant fplcndours : indifference and 
toldnefi : Thefe' and fimilar tautologies are excufable in 
converfation, or in difcourfe addrefled to an audience from 
the mouth of a fpeaker. It is otherwife with written, coni- , 
polition, where there is no occafion for' guarding agajnll 
the chance of one word having efcaped the attention Dr, 
the eye', of the Reader by the addition of another, and 
where concilenefs is the chief elegance, as perfpicuity is 
the moft cffential quality. Thetc is nothing that gives 
greater elegance and harmony to compofition than an ac- 
curate and proper ufe of adverbs and conjunflions. Thefe 
arc in reality (whatever Mr. Home may have urged to the 
contrary) the chief links that bind tc^ether the different 
branches of difcourfe. The improper ufe of thefe con- 
neflives is clumfy. and repugnant indeed, to that accuracy 
of reafoning which forms the great excellency of didaftic 
compofition. Having obferved that the uniform, unvary- 
ing plan of the Deity hath been the di^ufion of religious 
information and happinefs to all the people and ages of 
the world, our Author fays " his mode of doing this, 
as well, liinuife, as the nature of the revelations, &c. Now 
where is the ufe of the adverb //i^wji/a'.s Is it not fuperfiu-i 
ous and aukward ? Thefe remarks are not intended to ex- 
pofc or depreciate a work for which we profcfs a veiy high 
efteem ; but as hints to the candid and mge nious A uthor 

• Rom. IT. so. + P. 160. 

Ekc. Rev. Vol. 11. Sept. 1783. O t» 

Digitized byGoOgIC 

»I0 Alexander's -i/yfor^ of Wamtn. ■ 

to fubmit to the taik of watching over the cxccl^s of his 
pen, and cloathlng his excellent fcntioients in unexcepti- 
cnable langnage. 

Art. X. TlxHiJiory ofmmtnfrem iht endUft AniUiuity to the 
prtfent Time. By William AlcKander, M. D, Second Edit, 8ra. 
1 vols. Hi. Dilly. 

THE Author informs us that this work was com- 
pofed folcly for the araufement and inftruftion of. 
the fair fex, and that, in order to render it more intelli- 
gible, he has Itudicd the utinoft plainncfs and fiinplicity of 
language. As he was. perfuaded that nothing would be 
lefs attended to by the fex than a long lift of writers on 
his margin, he has entirely omitted all aotiiorities, and 
contented himfelf with fometimes interweaving into his 
text the names and fcntiments of fuch inqnirei-s as have 
more pccuharly elucidated the fubjcfls he was invefti^ating. 
He recommends not his work to the learned, as they muil . 
have met with every anecdote related in it ; bat to the ge- 
nerality of the fair lex, who fpend many of their idle hours 
in pormg over novels and romances. He wiflies they would 
fpare a part of this time to look into the hifVory of their' 
own fex, which would be no irrational amufement, and 
which would, at the fame time be a gratificanon of a very 
natural curiofity. 

In the prefent edition, he acknowledges that fonieobfer-- 
vations which he thought exceptionable, have been expung- 
ed, that feveral hiftorical anecdotes have been added, that 
fome difference has been made in the arrangement, and that 
, every polhble attention has been paid to the language. He 
hopes tlial therefore this edition" may deferve better of the 
public than the former one ; and adds, that he waits with 
anxiety its impartial dccifion. Thus farthc Aiithorhas hint- 
ed concerning himfelf : but it is the bufinefs of criricifm to 
examine withaftrid eye, his views and pretcnfions. 

That the fair fex may be more rationaUy, and agreeably 
entertained by the perufal of the work before us, than by 
poring over romances and novels muft be admitted. For 
although it difcovers not any of thefe general, grand, and 
originalviews which diftinguift the produftions of profound 
and philofophic minds ;.Jt poflefles the merit of prefentJiig 
ift one view, a variety of information concerning the ftx, 
which lay fcattered in a great number of books, both an- 
tient and modern, and not within the compafs of a lady's 
reading. And as the ladies arc naturally very curious with 
regard to whatever relates to themfelvcs as contradiflin- 
guiilhed from the men, as they pollefs more tlian the 
... men 


Alexander's .f^fl/-^ 0/ fFofniit. , 2Ii 

men of what the French call L'Efprlt du Corpt; this col- 
leftion (null appear to them, not a little entertaining. It 

is but juftice, at the fame time, to take notice, that there 
is nothing in this publication, which tends by playing on 
the fancy, and mifleading the judgment of the fair Reader, 
-to corrupt the heart. His delign is moral and good. Idle- 
nefs, levity, frivolity, and vice, are every where reprefent- 
ed in their real colours : and ju^t commendations, through- 
out the whole of tlicfe volumes, are beilowed on the pur- 
fuits of induftry, knowledge, and virtue. The!'e, accord- 
ing to this Writer, have, in every age, formed the brighteft 
ornament, and the highell glory of the female charaftcr. 
The following extraft will ferve as a fpccimen of the ftile, 
the manner, and the views of this Writer. 

' Should itiis impcrfeft atiempr, to'wriie the Hiftory of the Fair, 
furvive rhe prcfent, and be read in any future generation, when 
this frivolous mode of female education fliall have given place to 
a better, that our readers may then have fome idea of what it 
waitowards theclofe of the etgbteenth-century, we fliall flietch 
ibc outlines of it as now praifiifcd in the puliteA countriet of 
lurope. Among the firft lefTons, which a mother teaches her 
daughter,' is that impoitant article, accotdiug to the modern 
ribrafe, of hclding up her Ixaii, and learning a proper carriage. 
This begins to be inculcated at the age of three or four at lateS j 
and is ftrenuoudy infified-on for many years afterward. When 
the young lady has learned imperfcilly to read her own language, 
and fometimes even fooner, flie is fcnt to a boarding fchool, where 
flie is inltruaed in ihe moft fi'imfey and ufelefs parts of needle- 
work, and left entirely ignorant of thofe which are ufefut and 
neceffary. While ftie is here, fome part of her rime is fpem in 
further, lexrning to read^ either her own japguage, or the lan- 
guage of fome neighbouring kingdoms ; all which are too fre- 
quently taught without a proper attention to Grammar or Ortho-' 
^phy. Wriririg, and Arithmetic, likewife employ a part of her 
time ; bo* thefe, particulary the laft, are only confidffred as auxi- 
liary- aceompliflimeiiis, which are not to be carried iuto life, and 
confequently deferve but little attention ;#T he grand efibrt is ge- 
nerally made to teach the girl what the woman will relinquifh j 
fuch .as drawing, mufic, and dancing. Thefe, as they' arc art* 
agre^ble to youthful fprightlinefs, often engage the young lady 
ill mti^ as to make her ne^le^, or forget every thing eife. To 
what we have ttow mentioned are added the modes ot drel1)ng in 
faibion. The punctilios of behaving jn company. And we are 
feiryco'fay, that in fome fchools h»ve been introduced tnalters to. 
teach tbe falbionable games at cards ; a dilGpatiun, if not a vice, 
which already prevails too much among both fcxcs, and may perhaps 
ftill gain ground by this early imitation. 

'SuCHfwith a few trifling variations, is the common courfe 

of European education ; a courfe, which feems alrtiofi entirely 

calculated 10 cuhiTatcitheperfooal graces, while 'the eara of the 

O 3 hfad. 


»li Alexander's Hiftory of fVomen. 

head, and of tht heart, are little, if at all, attended to ; and rhS 
ufeful duties of domefiic life, but too often turned info ridiculct 
a« the obfolete eroployincnti of fuch filly women as drawled out 
an inlipid exiHencc a century or two ago, unacquainted with 
fadiion and with pleafure. Women fo educated, may be fought 
after to help in trifling away an idle hour ; but whare»er pro- 
grefs ihcir perfonal chartna may make on the pallions, when 
the hours of trifling and of pallioii are over, they muft infalli- 
biy be neglefted if not defpifed. We tvouLd wiih them ■ there- 
fore to confider,' that when youth and beauty fl>ail be no more, 
when the* crowd of flatterers and admirerg fliall have ceafed to 
attend, fomethicg will then be necellary to fill up (he Toidi 
and prevent the peevifhnefs and difguft which the want of fuch 
attendance often occaflons ; that the natural fouree of this fome- 
thing, is fiiendfliip, and friendship caunot fubfill, uulefs it is built 
upon the foundation of reafon and fcnfc' 

It is not to the generality, or what wc fhall call the tiwi^or 
of Readers, of cither fex, alone, that this hiftory is fitted 
to afford enteitainment as well as a certain degree of id- 
ftruflion. The learned will not be difpleafed to find a great 
variety of particulars relating to Womankind, fclefled from 
a great variety of authors, and arranged viiidsr the heads of 

I. Female education : 2. The employments and amufe- 
ments of women ; 3. The treatment, condition, advan- 
tages, and difadvantages of women in lavage and civil life : 
4. The charaftcr and conduft of women : 5, The influ- 
ence of female fociety : 6. Sketches of ceremonies and cuf- 

. toms, for the moft part obferved only by women : 7. De- 
licacy and chaftity : 8. Opinions of different nations con- 
. cerning women : 9. Drcfs and ornament ■ 10 Courtfhip : 

II. Matrimony: 12. Celibacy: 13. Widowhood. 

An Appendix is fubjoined, containing a fhort view of 
feme of the mofl material laws and cuftoms, concerning the 
women of Great Britain. 

Thefc topics are intcrcfting Tn themfelves, and, as they 
are treated by Dr. ^exander, they ferve, in many inftan- 
ces, to illuftrate the genius and tendency of different laws • 
and forms of government, and the progrefs of fociety from 
rudenefs to refinement. 

Concerning the improvements and additions, in this edi- 
tion of the hiftory of women, they arc neither many nOr 
important, Plainnefs of language, the Author declares 
was always his objeft ; yet in this edition, Ije fays, 
that to the language, he has paid every poffiWe attention, 
Wc are at a lofs to underftand what he means by tliis. 
Does he mean that in tnis edition the ftyle is roore 
iimple and perfpicuous, than in the former one ? or that 
be has departed from his OEtginal plan of fimpUcity and 
, ftudicd 



Alesandei'a Hifiery of Wemtn. 213 

fludied elegance f There is nothing in the work itfelf, 
from which it is in our power to t'olve thefc qucftions. 
But this appears to be one of thofe lures, which the doflor, 
with great foHcitude, throws out to gain admirers. It is 
probably, for the lame end that he fo glaringly flatters the ■ 
ladies, as to affirm that " we, [that is, we of the male 
" fcx] have never in any period, nor in any country, fuf- 
" ficiently attended to the happinefs and intereft or thofc 
" beings, whom in every period, and in every country, 
" wc have profe fled to love and adore." This is inconliu- 
ent with what the Doftor fhews in feveral parts of his book, 
from which it appears indeed, that in many, nay, moft 
countries and ages the fair fex have not met from the men 
ufagc becoming their merit ; but from which it alfo ap- 
pears, that HI others they have been treated with an adora- 
tion fiir above it. This language may iecm very rude to a 
courtly phyfician ; but it is, neverthelefs, very fuitable to 
the finccrity of an impartial Reviewer. 

There appears to us, in that mode, which the Doflor has 
chofen, of fpeaking conflantly in the plural number, fomc- 
tliingafFtfted and. pompous. " /?^haveonly to add, that' 
!' fome fcntences' which lue thought exceptionable, &c*," 
Why not ' / have only to add that fome fentcnces which / 
thought exceptionable ?' The Author may perhaps reply; 
that we curfclves make ufe of the plural number, in the 
faaic manner and on fimilar occafions. But, let it be ob^ 
ferved that we Rcvhivers are more than one perfor;, nos nu- 
meri fumus. There would in our cafe be an impropriety in 
fpeaking in the (ingular number. 

We do not by any means admit the validity of the apolo ■ 
gy Doiftor Alexander has made for not quotmg his authori- 
ties. In his apology we can fcarcely fuppofe him to be fe- 
rious. The names of his authors might have been placed 
at the foot of the page without offence to any of the fair 
fejt. This would have been a fatisfaftion to the inquifitive 
and fceptical reader : a fatisfeflion which is (00 often want- 
ed. For example, we fhould be glad to know on what 
authority. Doftor Alexander affirms that the " Swifs think 
" it neceflary that married and unmarried women fhould 
" be vifibly diftiiiguilhed from each other }\ 

From the plan which Doiftor Alexander follows in the 
work under review, it happens that the fame hSts and 
Icntiments frequently occur, under different heads : an cffeft 
which difpleafes the reader.; though it is not eafy to fee 

* See the advertifement. 
f Sec vol, II. p. 103. 

O 3 hovr 


214 Kearney's LeHures concerning Hlftory. 

how tliis could have been avoided. Upon the whole, 
however, it is to be obfervcd, that this is an agreeable, and 
in fome rcfpedls an inftruftive performance. 

Art. XI. LrHures ci>neert/!pg Hijlaiy, read during the Year 177;. 
In Trinity College, Dublin, by Michael Kearney, D. D. Pro- 
feflbr of Hiftory on the Foundation of Erafnius Smyth, Efq. 410, 
23. 6d. Murray. 

THIS pubJitaiion confifts of four leftures. In the firft 
of thcfe, tl)c Author having obferved, that •■Hiftory 
' julUy written, mud form a fund of the moft ufefol and 
' .engaging wifdoni,' fets himfelf to offer fomc general re- 
mains on tl:e inilruftive tendency of hiflorical purfuits. He 
confiders the exertions of human nature in every fituation as 
objefls of curiofity ; and as the human fpecics is fufcep- 
tible of improvement, he juflly concludes that the contem- 
plation of man in his progrefs from barbarifm to the fulnefs 
of refinement, muft afford the moft bewitching plcafure to 
the "ingenious and iiKjtiintive. 

Of thedifferent n^^tbods of profecufing Hiftory, he feems 
to approve tliat of my Lord Bacon. His Lordfliip tliought 
. that Hiftory (houid bo divided into periods; and of thefc, it 
was his opinion, that ' fome parts fliould be tailed, fomc 
• fwallcwed, and others chewed and digefted.' In con- 
formity to this rule, Mr. Kearney rakes a furvey of the 
fevcral periods of the Roman conftitution ; and this retro- 
fpeft or antieiit ftory he deems not unneceflary to the fludv 
of -modern times. 

The objeft of our Author is to fhow, that antient Rome 
offers us a regular feries of al! the viciflitudes of govern- 
taent ; in fo much that it would feem the happy product of 
a philofophical imagination, exemplifying by a detail of the 
revolutions in an ideal commonwealth, the fucccflive changes 
that occur in tjie hiftory of fociety. There is fomething 
original in this idea; and it is in this light that the Author 
takes a furvey of the hiftory.of Rbtae, 

In the confent of the people, the Author very properly 
places the legitimate foundation of government ; and he fun- ■ 
ports this notion by the authority of Locke. Now in Rome 
he finds a very apt illuftration of his theory. For there a 

feneral and voluntary union of the people actually gave 
irth to a new commonwealth. 
His next pofitioii is, that the form of polity that firft 
arifes in an infant foclety niuft be monarchical. .This he 
confiders as an eafy tranhtion from the domcftic or patriar- 


'Yicimcj''s LeHures concerning Hi/ivry. 215 

dial government. The fimplicity of manarcliy would, ho 
imagines, leconimend it to a rude people; and more parti- 
cularly its ability to repel external injuries'. He fails not 
accordingly, to obfcrvc, that monarchy was the firft govern- 
ment of Rome. But he adds that unreferved fubmiffion" 
■was not to he expe^^ed from perfons who had alTociated 
from choice, and who were proud of their own impor- 

Thcnextpofition of the Author is, that monarchy, though 
it was natural that it Ihould arife firil, could not be conti- 
nued long in exigence. It was not to be conceived that the 
prerogative of the prince could be accurately defined. His 
temptations to power were many; and he would encroacii 
upon his fubjefls. A uew change or revolution would there- 
fore take place. 

This chaii'^e he contends would be an ariftocracy The 
prince pofleflcd of little means of corruption could not fup- 
port hinifelf. The people would Iburn his infolence, and 
attach themfelves to leading men. Thefe leading men would 
cftablilli their power, and fucceed to the ejected fovereign. 
Mutual jcalounes wodld confirm their equality, aiiil enfure,- 
for fome time their confequence. This theory he holds to- 
be infallible; and Rome no doubt paiTcd from an unfettled 
monarchy to the ariftocrstical mode of government. 

Thefe are the topics which employ Mr. Kearney in his 
firil leituje. in his other le£lures he continues to reafon in 
afimilar hiethod. By a particular detail of the viciifitudcs 
of the-Roman affairs, he endeavours to point out the fteps 
by which the ariftocracy expanded itfelf into a'democracy. 
He then obfervcs the movements of the democratic fpirit ; 
and in the fuccceding variations of the Roman government 
he remarks the rife and progreffion of a fecond and different 
ai-iftocracv ; and of this ariftocracy he holds the termination 
to be a military defpotifm; and thus he runs the changes 
upon government from its firft mode to the abyfs of every 

While we muft allow that there is confiderable ir^enuity 
in tlie general plan of our Autlior, it is very clear that he 
difplays ability and hiftorical refearch in cariying it into ex- 
ecution. But perhaps, he does not always give a complete 
conviflion; and it is rather too obvious, that he is difpofed 
to bend fafts to his theory. 

As a cbmpofer he is rather forcible than elegant. But he 
has been attentive to grammatical purity ; and he is every ■ 
where eafy.and perfpicuous. 

0.4 Art. 


ftl6 Reid's tffaj on the Curt of the Pthi/ts PKlmBnalii. 

Aft. XII, ^1 Effay <in iht Uaturc and Cure af ihe Plhip Pulmonallt. 
By T. Reid, M. D. 8to. j. fewed. Cadcll. 

IN the firft chapter the Aathor defcribes the ftrufturc of 
body which predifpofes to this fatal difcafc, and gives a 

^neraJ. defcriptioii of the fymptoms as they arife in the fc- 
veral flages. In thefe obfervations there is nothing which 
may not be found in every one of the numberlefs writers on 
this fubjefl. In the fecond chapter he fuppofcs that the 
mouths of the exhalant veiTcls may be fo altered as to emit 
a vifcid matter into the air-veficles of the lungs, by which 
they will be obftrufled and opprefied, and the fame difpofi- 
tion of the vcflels continuing, or even being encreafed, their 
extremities thcmfelves will at laft be (hut up, and thus they 
will he converted into thofe fmall granules which are every 
where found in difeafed lungs and denominated tubercles.' 
Sucli according to our Author is the origin of tubercles.' 
The common' opinion is that they are difeafed lymphatic 
glands. We have next a defcription of tubercles from their 
fmallell fize till they are enlarged into vomica, and we arc 
told that tlie alteration of the aflion of the veflels ftUl con- 
tinuing and incrcai^ng, they at laft fecret the nus which is 
to be found in the cavities of tiiefe tumours. The intelli- 
gent Reader will at once perceive that this theory belongs to 
Mr. Kcwfon, and that it rauft ftand or fall with the notions 
of that ingenious anatomift concerning the formation of pus. 
As this doftrine has been noWmany years fubmitted to the 
difcufhon of learned men, it would be improper for us to 
beftow on it that attention which we owe to what is new and 
original. We may be allowed to *ifli Dr. Reid had 
confirmed Mr. Hewfon's hypothcfis with fomc proofs, of 
which it is ajmoft tf not quite deftitutc, before he had chofen 
it for the bafis of his pathology. The two fucceeding chap- 
ters afforded us greater fatisfaftion. In thefe the Author 
denies that the heflic fever is the confequencc of the abforp- 
tipn of purulent matter. Hi« arguments arc deduced from 
the difference between the heflic fever of confumptions and 
that which attends large abfceffes. He a!fo thinks, that if 

■ this fuppoliiion were well founded, the lymphatic glands 
betweertthe lungs and thoracic du£l ought to be affcflcd, for 
whenever any offending matter h taken up by the lympha- 
tics, the glands between the part and 'the thoracic duft gene- 
rally fwell and fuppuiate, &c. We Ibould, incline to carry 
this idea ftiU further; for we entertain many doubts whe- 
ther any fever or other ill confequelicc attends the abforption 
of pus. It is ccltain that tumors, in which fuppuration has 
been pretty far advanced, have frequently difappcared with- 


Heid's Ejfa^ nn tht Cure of tht Ptb'ifts Pulmenalis. 217 

out injury to the patient. And in thofc cafes where the 
fever is commonly afciibetl to pus, fuch as abfcefles of the 
proas niLiicle, the fagacious phyncian need not be at alofs to 
find other more probable caufes of irritation. For our own 
parts, we are inclined to confider purulent matter with lefs 
dread and abhorrence, nor Ihonld we be at all furprized if " 
fome ingenious phyfiologift fhould one day fhew that pus is 
a fluid provided for fome ufeful and beneficent purpofe, and 
that it contributes in fome way or other to repair the niif- 
chiefs that inflammation has occalioned. Having rejefled 
the common theory of heflic fever, our Author proceeds to 
fubftitute one more rational in its room. 

' When (he lungs,' fays he, ' from inflatnmatioB, or the forma- 
tion of tubercles and vomicae, are reni^ei'ed in part imperviods to 
the air in infpiratlon ; the ufuat quaDlity of fluid cannot be carried 
off by the action of rtfpiration ; the ijnantity fo retained wiir re- 
main in the habit, lill eicreied hy fume other emunflory. That 
quantity of fluid fo retained in the habit, I conceive to be the great 
and principal caufe of the.heftk fever, which ioTariably abates, as 
foon as it is difcharged by the pores of the fliin : and as the impe- 
diment to its exit by the lungs continuf s ; fo the fever is daily re- 
newed, that the conflitution may be rdicTcd from ita accumulated 
burthen. As ihe lungs become more and more unfit for exhaling 
the ufual quantity of lymph, we find ttie morning fweats propor- 
tioiiably increafcd, and thcesacerbatJons of the fever more violent; 
till towards the clofe of the difcafe, when the patient's ftrength is 
fo eshaufted, and the mufcular force, and action of the veflels fo 
much weakened, as probably to be unable 10 produce, fuch a de- 
gree of fever as is neceffary to force the fluid through the pores of. 
iheilcin; it f.illa upon the inteftines, and produces a diarrhcca. 
From being ufually colHve, the patient has frequent motions in a' 
day ; tilt in a Iliort time the purging becomes confirmed : we then 
find the fever and fweating confidtrably diminilhed, and the ei- 
pe£t oration of purulent matter in lefs quantity. 

* 'J'lie fpittmg abating, as the diarrhcea advances, fecms rather 
to proceed fiom the greateft part of the fubftance of the lungs be:ng 
diliobed, than from the pus being abforbcd, and running on by the 
bowels ; add to this, thiit in the latter period of the diforder the 
patient has fcarcely firength fufficier.t to cough it up.' 

Again he obfcrves, 

' Whether the air attracts phlog-fton from the blood ; whether 
the blood attrafls the pabulum vitx from the air ; or whether the 
air becomes (aturated with moifture from the lungs ; in either cafe, 
whatever principle the blood communicates to, or attrafts from the 
infpired armofphcre, that vnW be diminitbed, in proportion as the 
velicles of the lungs become impervious to the air. If that prin- 
ciple is phlogifton, (and the fuppofition feems wel! founded) will 
not its retention in the circulating mafs of blood be an occjfional 
caufe of fever f View the argument in any light ; as it is abfoluce- 
ly neceffary fur ihepurpofes of life, that the blood, after receiving 



2i8 Rcid's EJfuy on th: Cures/ the Pthlfu PulmmaTiSi 

the chyle and lymph, poared by the thoracic duft into the left fub- 
etavi'iii vein, (hould paia through the lungs; it is very ccriain, 
when the palliije isimpeilcd by the difeafed ftalc of that organ, it 
will l.eciHT.cthecaufe of ifevcr.' 

Whether this tlieory bears the inarks_af truth or not, iet 
■ our readers determine. Wc cannot however help fmiling 
at theaptiiiidc, wliich Dr. Reid has, in common with hi* 
brethren, of recurring to the perfpirabte matter, in order to 
account for the fymptoms of difeafc. It mufl at Icaft be al- 
lowed that fuch coiulufl favours of prydence, for the quaii- 
tks of that matter being altogether unknown, it isadmirably 
iittcd for conOmciing^ hypotliefes. He has indeed left tliis 
offspring of his underftanding naked and nnfopported, to 
gain admirers by the mere attraftions of perfoiial beaaty, 
but to prove that Ihe is not related to truth, will be a taik 
attended with all the difficulties that accompaijy attempts to 
eflabliih the negative, fuperaddcd to thofe which will arifc 
from want of data. 

In the fucceeding chapters, the Author lays down his 
mode of cure. In the intlammatory ftage before any puru- 
lent matter is cxpeftoratcd, he advilcs bleeding according to 
circumftances, daily vomil?, and what arc termed cooling re- 
medies, together with anodynes. The'bowels arc to be kept 
open, and diluents tO be drank plentifully. The patient is to 
weaf warm cloaths, to avoid cold and moillurc, and to rife 
early. The diet is to confiO of milk and vegetables. 

In the next flage where the cpnfequences of infiammation 
begin to appear, when the pus is copioufly expeftorated, 
and the hectic fever marked diftinftly, the vomit is to be re- 
peated twice a day ; a draught with acid elixir of vitriol- by 
which the patient is cooled, and the colliquative fweat; flopp- 
ed, is to be given at bedtime. During tlie day a julep con- 
ilfting of two or three drachms of fpiritus vitrioli dulcis, 
with fome red fyrop, is to be taken. Opiates are to bt 
employed occafionaliy. The bowels as before to be kept 
open. The diet is to confift of milk, vegetables, broth of 
young animal fubftances, fmall iifli, oyfters, &c. Toaft and 
water, lemonade, &c. are to be ufed for drink. Country air 
is confidcred as highly expedient, and fea voyages are r«com- 

In the !aft ftage, the fame mode of cure, with the addition 
of mild aftringents. ^ 

From this abridgment of the Author's plan, it is manifeft 
that it differs from that commonly purfu^d only in the more 
frequent repetition of emetics. Emetic^ have long been oc- 
cafionaliy employed in this djfeafe, and almoft eveiy phyfi- 
■ cian has given temporary relief to his patient by them. 



Rcid's Eff'aytn the Cure of the Plhljs Pulmcnalh. 219 

Whether they will afford permanent benefit according to the 
aflertion of Dr. Reid, it belongs to time, and pot to us to 
determine. We expefted to have met with a defcription of 
fome'cafes, and we conlider the omiifion of them as a great 
impcrfctlion : it may however be yet remedied, and we ad-. 
vifc the Author, if he is acquainted with any, to lay them 
before the public. The reafon he afiigns for not having 
done this, viz. the facility with which cafes may be forced 
to fuil any mode of treatment, is altogetJier infufScient. , 
It ma/ be referred to that fpecies of fophifm, by which we 
are forbidden to employ ufefijl things, becayfe according to 
fonie modes of application they may be pernicious. A na- 
tural phiiofopher may aflign the very fame cxcufe for omitt- 
ing to relate his experiments, when he propofes a new doc- 
trine. Cafes are indeed to die phyfician, precifely what ex- 
periments arc to tlie philofphcr. They are the balls upon 
which his coiiclufions icft, and they at once ■ authenticate, 
and add ckarncfs and pretifion to what he advances. 

Inthecourfe of the work, the Author rejedls fevcfal re- 
medies th?l are often employed in the cure of confump- ■ 
tions. Among thefe the chiet are oily, and terebinthinate 
medicines, and Peruvian bark. He a!fo thinks iiTues may be 
fafely neglefled. 

In refiefting upon the remedy upon which in his opinioQ 
the hopes of recovery principally reft, a difficulty, againft 
which tlie Author has made no provifion, will occur to the 
moft inattentive Reader, and will almoft juftify his fccpti- 
cifm with refpcdV to the happy effcfts faid to be produced by 
it. As the difeafe is generally flow in its progrefs, and it is 
almoft a diagnoftic fign for the patient to flatter himfelf with 
the hopes of amendment, few will confent to fuch conftant 
leperiticns of emetics ; unlefs the Author was called 
only to thofc whofe lungs were of brafs and tlieir ftomach of 

Not to have informed us by what arts of perfuaiion ob- 
ftinacy may be foftened, and the fick he induced to fubmit 
to fuch rough treatment, is no fmatl omiflion, for before 
his daily and nightly emetics, even the dry vomit of Dr. 
Marryat Unks into infignificance. 


220 .CoUcaien of the Memcln af Abbe Mam, 

Foreign Literature. 
Art. Xlll. RccueU ila MfmNra j^c/iJm!qun Ai M. 1' AbbS 
Mann. ABruxclles 410. 157 pages 1783. 

Colleffion of the Academic Memoirs of Abbt! Mann, 

THOSE who jud^'C of thcfc memoirs by the celebrity of 
the Author in Flanders, the country where he now 
refides, will form an opinion much more favourable than a 
perufal of them will juftify. To us they appear to be the 
prodttftjon of 3 writer, ignorant of the principles of natural 
phiiofopliy, or at leaft whofc notions concerning them are 
but half formed. Hence he frequently throws out ideas ma- 
nifeftly falfe, and is at variance with himfelf; but he has on 
ail occafions taken care to fupply by confidence the deficien- 
cies of his knowledge. What he has acquired, feems ra- 
ther to have been by reading than experiment and obfcrva- 
tion. But thcfe ftrifliires upon the moft diftinguilhcd mem- 
ber of a learned and fcientifica! fociety, require fome con- 
firmation more weighty than bafe aflcrtions. We iTiall 
therefore feleft the Memoh on ihe means ef frejervathn fro^ 
Hgiining, and endeavour to fupport what we have advanced 
by an analyfisof it. 

In this Memoir the Author propofej to examine the prin- 
cipal effefls of lightning, and to compare them with thofc 
produced by artificial electricity, then to confidcr.tlie known 
means of prefervation from lightning, and to add new ones. 

He obferves * that lightning or elcftricity prefers the paf- 
fing along metals, water and wet bodies, and follows all llicit 
finuofities without affefting the contiguous fubfiances. 

The wind, he faysl", uiddenly rifes from the quarter 
■where the cloud is, and its force is proportional to the 
velocity of the c4oud. This is by no means generally 
true, for we often fee terrible effefts produced by lightning, 
without any violent wind acconipanying it. 

He is at' a lofs to account]; ' for the difference between vi- 
treous and reCnous fubftanccs, and confounds" the power of 
electrifying pins or minus, with the idio-eledtrics from which 
fuch itates of other bodies are obtained. 

Readers but little vetied in eieCtricity will perceive how- 
little he underftands his fubjcit, by the lift he gives§ of 
conductors and non-conduCtors. He quotesjl his Memoir 
on elementary fire, in which he feems to have had the teme- 
rity to affert that a magnetic bar of fteel cannot conduft 

*p4gei34. fPageise. J Page 141, § Page 141. || Page 144. 


Colltii'm oflhi MfmeJri of Jbbi Mann. 231 

He again confounds* the power of eteftrifying other bo- 
dici widi the quantity of eledricity which bodies thu 
poflefs tliis power contain. 

He propofest to protefl a body from lightning by co- 
vering it with idio-eleftrics. He, likewifc adopts the i- 
dea of Wilfoii who mifapphes the term att»dion to con- 
ducting bodies : an idea full of abfurdity and confit- 
iion. For what for inftance have mecais to do with at- 
ttafling this fluid any more than a hole in a vcflel hat with 
attrafling the water that is rranfmitted through it P But this 
has been before obferved by Lord Mahon m his excellent 
treatife. If a charged cloud meets with a metallic conduSor, 
it wiil difcharge itfelf through it; if Hot, there can be no 
danger of the ele^ric 6uld being attracted and accumulated 
by the metal. The cafe is then very different from wliat this 
Author reprefents. Aconduftor never aSs unlefs there be 
in its vicinity a quantity of eleftric fluid already coileitcd. 

Here another error occurs X ; for wherever there arc 
good conduftors, the lightning never quits them : if there 
be an interruption, they are no longer good conduitora. 

We find a paflage here]| fo curious, that we cannot 
withhold il fronl our readers. " Let us," fays ijc, " fee 
it thunder and lighten, as it rains, without admitting 
the vain hope of exhaufting or turning afidc ■ at pleafure 
this dreadful meteor. And as no one places himfelf under 
,a gutter when it rains, in order to avoid being wet, fo let 
us not approach fubftance, lik.ely to be ftruck." This rea- 
foning we believe is fcarce to be paralleled. Should we be 
iafer from wet when it rains, if there were no gutter and 
tiles? Befides, who advifes to put one's felf under a con- 
doAor, as Profeffor Richmann inadvertently did ? When I 
put myfeJf undera conduftor, tliere is an interruption and 
the tonduftor exifts no longer. But when tlie continuity is 
not broken, though there be finuofities, the ciciarical fluid 
-will pafs freely, as Abbe Mann has already admitted^. 
He alTerts that a wet woollen is fafer than a wet linen 
drefs. He feems not to know tliat wet woollen and linen con- 
duit equally well. 

He obfervesJI that the precious ftones wora by wo- 
men in their hair are fo many fafeguards againft light- 
ning, as if the precious ftones were not iet in metal, 
.and this according to his ideas muft aitraS. 

He recommends liik habits to the rich and oiled ones to 
the poor ; but it fhould be remembered, that unlcfs the 
hody be entirely furrounded by idio-elc£lrics, it remains 

•PageH6. f Page 147. J Page 148. || Page 149. § Paga 
13;. U Page 151. 


■ ' l-.l.;...l.v.G00glc 

2M ColU^f'ion of the Memoirs of the Jhhi Mann. 

equally expofed to be ftrack, and the Abbe Mann wiil 
not find it cafy to furround it completely. 

Our Readers, are, wC doubt not, by this time weary of 
attending to the indigelled notions of this pfeudo-phllofo- 
pher. Of tlic other Eflays we fhail only obferve, that 
none appear fo full of contradiftions, as this upon which 
we have been animadverting. We cannot, however, re- 
commend them to onr Readers, That on large farms 
feems to be the Jeaft exceirtionabie : but it futnilhes no new 

Of thofc who profefs to purfue fcicntifical knowledge, 
there arc not many whofe fortune has undergone fuch a re- 
volutionas that of the Abbe Mann, The following anec- 
dotes we believe to be founded on authentic information, 
and as. fudi, we Jay them before our Readers. Perfons of 
veracity atfert, that when young, tliey remember him in 
the ftation of a footman in London ; a capacity . in which 
he difplaycd great quicknefs and dexterity. He afterwards 
. went to Spain, and having employed a ftrong memory in 
acquiring a few notions.concerning the art of engineering, 
he found means to get into the fervice there'; but being de- 
tcfted in forae mal-prafticesj of which he dreaded the con- 
fcquenccs, hq turned catholic, a refoarce by which in that 
country of bigotry, a man may generally varnifh over the 
dcepeft ftain in his charafler. But meeting with fome dif- 
appointment or difguft, he entered into- the order of Car- 
thufian fiiars, and by addrefs or by fortune, attained the 
rank of fuperior of the convent at Nicnport. He now em- 
ployed his Icifure in reading, and by induftryaild the great 
memory he pofiefies gained the admiration of his order, a 
fet of men condemned to ignorance and ftupidity almoft 
by their profeiiion. 

About this time, the late Mr. Needham was appointed 
principal for erecting an Academy of Sciences at BniQels, 
where he was fettled with a penfion. But being little 
qualified, as we may gather from his works, to contribute in 
any great degree to the fupport of fudh an inftitution, he 
looked round for a coadjutor capable of difeuffing fcieotifical 
topics,' and difcovering that Father Mann iva? ready to re- 
linquilh his profeflion, he engaged thofc at the head of af- 
fairs in the Netherlands, who very warmly intcrefted in 
themfelves- in the credit of the new literary inilitution to 
rcprefenl to the late Emprefs, that tlie talents of Mann 
might be very ufefully employed in the purfuit of tliofe ob- 
jc£ts which the Academy was t& hold in view. In confo- 

?ueocc of the ftrcnuous exertions, of the Duke of Arm- 
erg and other men. of rank, an abfolution for Abbe Manii, 



MoMTHLY Catalogue. MiJiellanUt andPoeirp aaj 

from his vows and engagements, was applied for and ob-. 
lained. He now quitted his convent amid the exclartiati- 
ons of the other friars, who were of opinion that it way 
by no means juftifiable, even with the Pope's permilTiDH 
to renounce what he had fo folemnly engaged in, A 
good penfion was immediately fettled upon him, together 
with a canonicat. He may be now faitl to conftitulc the 
whole Academy, as appears from the collefllon of memoiw 
printed in four volumes, of which the greater part are writ- 
ten by him, nearly with as much judgment, and as mucU 
novelty and. found philofophy, as that which has beenjufl; 
reviewed. . ," 


For SEPTEMBER, 1783. 

M I s c E i L A N I E 9 and P O E T R Y. 

Art. 13. " Elcmenls 0/ the PhUcfephy of Hiflory. Part Firft. 
■ By the Rev. Mr. Logai), one of the Miaillers of Lekti. 
T2ino. js. fewed. Ediaburj^h. Elliot. 

THIS pcrfoi lUancc, thougli only intended as heads for ledurcs, 
which the Author delivered at Edinburgh, is worthy of at- 
tention. IHr. Logan takes a very comprehenlive view of hiflory ; 
and it isBot to fafls merely, that he confines himfelf. He dlfplay* 
a deep and liberal fpirit of philofophy ; and as he carries a pene- 
trating and cultivated mind to the examination of human a&irs, 
he eicites in us a lively wiih, for the publication of his !e6iureft. 
Many ■ of his opinions appear [O be eiceediui;ly ingenious j and 
tviih regard to the government of Sparta, and upon other proble- ■_ 
matical portions ofilory, h£ is luminous and origniul. lu his &y\e, 
he b various and animated; flowing and pcrfpicuoua. Wbile we 
announce with pleafurei the prefent production, wc mull coiifefs, 
that our Author has raifed expectations, which ive tmft he will 
fully realize. 

Art. 14. lUKjiratkns of Maitms and Principles of Education, ' 
U./he Second JiBok of Koupaii's Em:le. la Four Letters to the 
Mother of a young Family, difpofed to adopt them; but era- 
barrai&d by dilticulties in the execution ; and particulaily by the 
objeflionf and prejufeea of her Friends, iicaa. is. 6d, 

There is good fenfe in thefe illuftratlons ; and the writer ex- , 

prefFes himfelf with great clearnefs. He h, however, on the 

whole, too ditTufc ; and perhaps too defuhory. 

Art. 15. Emiilus and Sophia, or l/je Solitaries. By; J. J. 

Roulleau. Being a fequel to EmiUu!>i with fome adaitions to 

Eloifa, by the lame Author. Both found among his Pdpirs 

after bis Deceafe. iimo. is. 6d. ■Baldwin. 

Thefe pieces bear the marks of authenticity. It feems to be the 

, objCu'e 


-52+ Monthly Catalogue. MifcellanUs and Pottry. 

objei^ of the former, to facirize the deprariry of the matinerv, 
which prevail in gt'eat citie*. In the latter, there i» an eihibiiion 
of the amours of Lord Edward B*. In both there are fentiraent, 
defcription, nnd elo<)uence ; but the Uft eiu.y la by tar the moft 
malkrly and tiniHied. It is in the happieft manner of Rouflcau. 
Art. i6. Moral Talts. J Chr'ifimas Night's EnltrtmnmMt. 

By Lady . IS- 6d. 

1'hefe tiles, we prefume, are called maral, for the lame rcafon 
that the gram raariam derive /in-»j, a titn UrnJa; they are, how- 
ever, ceriaioly M confpicuous for morality, as they are for wit and 
poetical merit. 

Alt. 17. The Opera Rumpus ; ar the Ladies in the wrm^ Sax. 
23. Baldwin.. 

This borlelque poem, ;is the Aachor informs us, took its ■rife 
from a difpute, concErning a. box in t!ic Opera houle. The lie- 
fortunate ladies, we are icjd, ivere in the v-Tntig iax ; an4 we are 
forry to add, that the Author of this performance, if he conGdert 
himfelfas either a faryriftoi ii poet, is in a fimilar litaation. 
Art. 18. Philodamus: a Tragedy. 410. is. 6d, Dodf- 

This tragedy has been peculiarly unfortunate. Oa the firft nieht 
of its reprefcntation it was condemned, perhaps, m fome meanire 
from its defefts, but more apparently from the ludicrous and im- 
proper behaviour of one of the principal adors. -When in compli- 
ance ^th popular difapprobacion it was withdrawn /rom the flage, 
it might reafonably be espefled, that the candid and- judicious 
would fufpend their decifiooa, till the publication ga»e thern an 
opportunity of examining it. But left this fliould be too favour- 
able an event, the printer in an inhuman, infolent manner, has 
prefixed an adrertifement, to which is added an eitraft from the 
Morning Chronicle, expreffive of the ill fuecefs which attended (he 
reprefentation. If this is meant to promote the fate of the play, 
we confefs, It appears to ua a new moae of recommendation. If to 
indulge a malignity of temper, by wounding th? friends of the 
Author, we cannot fuSciently exprefa our abhorrence of fuch un- 
generous behaviour. ' 

Though this tragedy has feveral dcfeits, yet it has certainly 
been more unfortunate than it defer ves< 

Art. 19. The Pcafant -ef Auburn ; ar the Emigrant. lafcrib- 
ed to the Eatl ofCarlifle. By T. Coombe. D. D. 410. is. 

The Author very judicioufly remarks, that " it is almoft fupef 
fluous to inform the Reader, that the hint of this little' poem is 
taken from Dr. Goldfmith's Deferted Village." Indeed he bas 
not only copied Dr. Goldfmiih's manner, but he has traafplanted 
his feotiments ; and wc find half lines and even whole lines, with 
the alteration of perhaps a word or two, manifdlly taken from cht 
IMerted Village. Take as fpecimena the following, 

'* How often have I bleff'd the coming lAiy, 
" When toil remitting lent its' turn to play ? 
*' And all the Village train, from labour free, 
'* ^«</»^f^/r^^(i beneath the fpreading Ires, , 

" Whilt 

• r:.i.;.J.yG00gIc 

'Monthly Catalogue. Mifcellahles atidPectry. ^15 

*' While many a pailiine circled in the (haile, 

" Tbcyving conltading ai the aU /ur-oiytJJ" Dr. Goldrauth. 

" There, with my fickle, thro' long fuminet iaji, 
" I work 'd, regardUlaof the Doontide blazej 
** And there the labouring bsod, u leifure fway'd, 
*' The bough-crown'd reaper, and the Village nuud, 
" Lt/i up tbtir fpaiti along the bo rderinj^- green, 
*' ff'iiTf «^</floiVon, ftiMlbleff'd theharmleftfccae." Dr. Combe. 

" One only mailer grafpe ihf lubtlt Jtmait," Dr. G, 

. " Thctyrant Lord ufprp! litviitlfAimam."' Dr. C. 

" jfai//M the bare worn comroon »jV«»V." , Dt. 0< . 

" JnJ t'ea the flraw^thatch'd cottage isdfJtitJ." Dr. C. 

" £v^a fiMu perhaps, iy ceU and hunger UJ, 
** At proud men*! doora they ^ a little irc^i/.". Dr. G. 

*' Hfnce at thii haar, by .ielper^tc forrow led, 
" A banilli'd man, I rove the world (oTireaJ, Dr. C, 

Tbit unlucky fpirit o( imitation brings on a compuifon ua&- 
Tourable to Dr. Combe. 

Dr. Combe is alfo much obliged to fevcral other of the modem 
poets, but the limits of this anicle will not allow us to fcunt 
them out. ' 

In the (bltomng couplets the Author fecms to have faerificed ft 
little to the rime. < 

" Thus Edwin mourn'd, pale, melancholy, J2eWf 
" Where wild Ohio's founding waters floff." 

*' The fcene, the hour, renew'd the trickling tear, 
** When thus, with minted groans, the mournfui_/«r," 

If the emigrant had been a blghlandtry the epithet would perhapi 
be ratffe proper. Our Author muft excufe us, if we premme to 
queffion his knowledge of the EogliQ] language in the foUpwing 

" Twas there, when (pring renew'd the ploughinaii'i Wi^ 
." My iBng-Jravm/urro^v, /arnV the rugged foil." 

"To all my mite,, to fome more ^"^^ dear, 
" I gave; &c, 

■ " God of my life! proteft me as I llray, 
" Where human wolves in murd'rous ambulli laj." 
' " The funfct low'ring on the plaints he made, 
*' And favage howlings doubly ^iwmV the (hade." 

The fallowing are m our opinion, examples of very lisfntiona 

*' Thou, 
" Whofe high born bonoun are thy humbkfi pride" 

** Ye glittering towns that crmun th' Atlantic itip, . 
•* WitncTs the change, and as ye wJtnefs, weep." 

On the whole, the verfification is fmooth, and the twem feentt 
highly labour*d ; but it isdciieient in vivacity and pcniui. 
Art. 20. Memoirs of the Manfte'm Family. Pathetic, Sen- 
timental, Humorous, and Satirical. lamo. a volt. 5s* 

Novels like every other fpectea of compofitioii, never fucceed hut 

in the nands of a mafler. And few books of this, lund are now 

Exc. Rer. Vol. II. Sept. 178), P publUhed, 


^36 MoNTHLy CATAtOOVE. A^/ceHomu anj poftfjf. 
publidied, which ■ man of tafte and learning might nor blul]^ ta 
perufe. We are lorry -to find the prefent ank^ lo litrie cilcalainl 
t6-«A(>rdfBCi«fai!iiqD. Out Author wriretm a l^tr that t( pretty, and 
fometimei elegtiAt enough ; but hii charafteri are vulgar and inr 
iignificanc ; his drift it not always 6t>Tiou», and his ftory is ahog^ 
ther without patkos, or i^i'cident.' A book of entertainment fiiouli^ 
be capable of arnft^ng the Biieiition, and rendering k impaffibi; 
for the Rewierto difittifs it; tlH hets mailer of the whole narration. 
But oni may readtnore or lefa Of thefe memMrt Without feeling any 
aniie»yabii*it them.' Andnoother exoelleft^e can )mffibh'''ci^^D- . 
fate for adefeft foc»pitat. Nor docs it alter tfee cifc \?Bptljer the 
narratiTs Iti real or (ii^nous. For even failiK (rtiicfa pol^fp T{titl])ng 
to excite curiolity','deferre not to be known, much lefs toi bp mib- 

iiftied. ■ ■ ■>■ -' ■' ■. ■-■ •■ ' 

Art.- '41. '^ Defc'ripikn ef tht IJHinfl'if MadtirH, wfef^' 'B 

.Ke^ey: ■ '- ■ ' 

- A'-fewpartitJulitrrfconceming the Wand t)fIVIadeii% arehtrtre- 
lated in a mnft vulgar ftvle. .-..-■.' 
hn: Il.%. XJfeM and ^jankal Obferv^tktts m^grifuKujrei 

- witlrfome Effays anneited on tnclofliiies, ' (he improv^ineifC of 
the Country, and the ?oor. By .a Clerjymaa. "^f. '^ 

* -IxmrnJes.' '- ■ ■ --'■ ' ■ ./^ 

Our Asthor, thougK in holy orders, and a gentleman haifer^n 
no vifionary theorif^ His bool'feems'a'llmple, Wt'judjt^LcJua^attd 
accurate liatement of his own ejipcr^enrt' in thfi nifnag*kBe^_| of .hia 
glebe. H(;, recam mends itidijftrj; aiiJ.'attenrion wire jgrotcarneSi 
nefs, as.indiffieiifibte' to priifperity in ' this 'laborio'tis ^h^iof i^e. 
Hij language, 'as it'lliouM be, is correa and incdiigibte, lieTfcj^^ 
Sl!i;Rs'to fpeindapi, atid'ftewii particularly cau nous lij^ttjj^^^) 
Keaderi againft'theijekliffn'of fyHems, Arhich are^obt "toq'iiaf^Q^ 
praflicc^. Hi* reipark with refpeft to the pet^a|.it^^n^^''it^ 
exertion- of the r^aWef, "M ia Angularly fbreiit'd afit|'atif6ntc. ^itt it 
will appe^ to the juiiicfous Sted^er no unftvtiiirab^ fpecunen' of 
the Author's good fdnfe'itKl Sifceniment: " "' If iha'maii'i Taiya^fac, 
who rifes before the fun, and is the Islitoquit the fic]d, often c^un- 
plainofthe neg^gepcc, tdleheis, or fraud of his fi^^i^ajits.t&oug]! 
Ilia eye is fo c<ki tin u ally over them, himfelf aniftiatirig thejD liy.£i 
prcfence, and offen' by his inb^irj whbfe eipences ifi kw « poTt 
able, and hii whole atiection fijtecfonfene objcil— if he dties I^le 
more ilian pay' hia fent and fubfifl his faniily : what cati"be expcA? 
cd when the mailer's eye is abfent, when ferrants wholly' nrana^ 
where often necillefsly incurred; and want of ca^ jici 
•effarily leads to a variety of lofles and accident, which, however 
they may be treated' generally aa. ihcbnfldcrable,' at tlie'end of - ttw 
year increafe amazingly the debtor fide of thcaccouritr" 
Art. 23." The Hl/iorj of tht Afinijtrj ef Jefu's Chrift: CMft- 
binedfrom the narrations of the four Eyfingelilla, By Rofaetc 
• ■Wilfen, M; D. 8vo. i^. boards. Brown. ' • 

■ The defign of tfilswork'ir to exhibit the events of the Cpo^I- 
Kiftqry in a conneded chain, a«d by. c^Mnning, Ibc acceuat* of 
. ,. " ." ' «^ 


,M<>ffTilLY CaTAi;{)GP£, MifctUMkt and Pttttf. S2^ 

flcb Efrao^lift, ta ftkte in tht^own «c^'4•r ^uy iDcident wi^ 
all its ciccaraftuOvm U tengtb< The rarioui UciU qiconliftendM I« 
lunDiEion that appear in lbs diJTerenc Oufpels, {iibjed thti plan to 
foine .otje^^ioiu ^nd difficu,)tia*> w^h render tt n^eflary fur Dr« ' 
WiUm to cImt hif ground which he (joes &y ac^oQurlQdgia^ that 
** ii» t<rbal ac^MTwy appears iit i)ie Goipd narration'^' that it wai 
flottlu.inteMkMX^ tt)« divide fuirit that iafpiredtha Apalilei, to 
comcrccad (o mfticuUiif Ba4 tjiM oBly the general feotimeat aiut 
. inCtru^iaoifl.&rirtciy iDrpi|ic4y heiog (oofefTi^ly the faoie iaall.-^ 
-WbiJe the arrangea^nt, ialtgDi^, and (a»d« of conveying the W 
ftrudion, may deptpd fbmBwkat oa the geuiui apd cWa^r g^ 
each Writer.V 

The do^Mnqs of ^ripture, tccorfiing to this wiiter, appear m 
h»TQ been tnfplred) but not the nvr'tioQ, wbich was employed hf 
>he Evangeliui at a vehicle for ibalr inftr)J^on. And tt imuld be 
nnreafcnable, he juftLy gbfefvest from afcur unimportant devlatioaif 
bidcn]! the credibility of thp^-hok Oorpel-hiftorf, paffiag pver the 
llrii^ harmony and umfbrmity in alt the general ccinciujjons txA 
great moral trutfai. 

The Author in his pwfacc,expUii)i the plan of hit atraDgement* 
vhlch.uppears.tO'U^ well chofen, being ,funple and comprehen&Te. 
He inches feveral judicious obferTitians on the gcoiu* or jtiiumer* 
tjid leading vKiya (>f each Evangelift, calculated for the purpofec/ 
'd)vi*ttfi^ certain caviU of fcepdcal men. 

Ths hiftoiy and gonenil dotlrinci of chrijlianity are deliTered W 
>u by theSvangQliib ias.yery clear $ii.4 dinindt i^anaer, Althqitgh 
die learned labQura of numerous comnientatort have involved rheoj 
in doubt snil UQcenaioCy. Tbe bell GamiDent that can bemadeofi 
the Evattgelicul hiAory, is thar which, like the work before ui, .by 
a metbodi^al arrangemr^t, and the fuUeii account of every iocl^eat^ 
inaliei ihc G^fpel e^plwo ilftlf- 

To thefacrcid narrative vhich Dr<.Witlan has compofed ffom-th^ 
difiefcni .gofpelsi he. has ocnConally fubjoin^l explanatory note^ 
in many of which he has dqjlived advantiige fratp lus iludies as- ^ 
I^y&etaH. ' ,- . , . . 

Art, t4 Jofeph, APotm in Nine Bcuks. TraBflaCed from tKe 
French of BrL BUaubfe, Meisber.of the Hoy a 1. Academy of Scieticei 
. and Belles Lcitrei of Berlin, i tuIs. lamo. js. X«ngnnii» 
London. Dickfon. Edinburgh. 

Thefe Tolutnw coa&d of the hii^n' of Jofcph, fpun out iotojk 
kind of e]»c poem, in the mann^. oT the German writers. Fi£^- 
tious jncidentE arc added to complete the interad. lof^ih is pro- 
vided ti;)ih a miftrcfs, and b bofoiU fiieud, and of Potiphar*s wi& 
we hear a great tieat nure than could ha^e been expeifted. Tl^e 
work upon the wboU is e):trcine1y plea&ng ; the imagery pte^r- 
Koue, and in many parts beautiful. The allufionj and metaphoi^ 
nre in ferae places {Irikiog, io others feeble and ill^exprelled. The 
author attempts the fublime, but he is deficient in grandeur at 
inagireitinn. But his ^ateft defeA is a want of the true patbot, 
which is moll obvious in thofe parts where we expe^ed It wiml4 
have bufll forth with irreGltible ftrength. The- author, like mo^ 
French tragedians, fpeakf^rarf a palSon, bft he fpeak»notthc Iai> 
t P » IMaje 

Digitized byGoOgIC 

at MoRTHtTCATAtflCUE. M/ceHanlct Mt^ Petlrf^ 

"ruage of paflion, a ctrcumflanee which has jufUy been noted by tb* 
ingenioui Mr. Richardlbn, ai conAituting- the principai difference 
'.bftween Shakefpeare and the 'fnoft celebrated French writert. Tha 
{^flawing estraft will juftify ourcenfure in the cafe of the work be- 
-foreui. When Pharaoh inform* Jofeph that it it hi* pleafure'he 
Should remain in the land, and biing hii father and brethren tht 
ther, wc might ejpeft that Jofeph'i acknowledgement* would flow 
in Arains (if the higheil gratliud<e, m' tlui was the ot^edt which 
termmtcdeTery profpeft ofhi»hapi«neft; On the contrary, he falli 
it the' feet of the king, and ainbTacing hi* knee*, utter* the follow 
)ng word*, which we may temt ah inltancf) (^ the baihoa. 

" Verily," faid he, " thou haft found the way tq my heart, and 
*' thou canii notoffer me a moreflattering reward." His tears exprcIT- 
ti the gratitude which bit tips were unable to utter. He how halleai 
to joihlita brethren. Tbcy are preparing fo* their journey : full of 
■joy he accofts them. They are Itrock wfih aiwaietnent. '* I detain 
.'* you no longer," faid he, " depart this inflant and Qy to your fo- 
*' ther." — The exiv/i if my ImMnr/j Inrrrrufin mj 'xerJi. •» Tell him 
" to come dowp tQ Eeyp ; that his fon Jofeph waits him ; thai the 
" king gives him the fruitful land of GoffiCD, Jtc.** 
■ Themtetiajof Jofeph with his father is ftill more lame. The 
suthor appears onenuat to aoy defcription of the burft of affedion. 
.He has carefully omitted the tew wordsof dialogue that are to be 
found in the bibic, and wc think wfth propriety, as their fimplkity 
Xtould have ill agreed with the flowery lan^age which he has put 
into the mouths of his heroes. Taking the Poem "for all ia afl,** 
We think it has a fhiBcient portion of elegance end ta(1e to recon> 
tnend it to general oerufal. It would be mjuftice to the tranflamr 
not to add that he tins executed his taft with ocatnefs, excepting a 
ievr vulgarifms which perhaps are to be attributed to the careleflhefs 
of the printer. Each book is furniflied with a ne«f engraving, which 
'tvill so doubt recommend it to the young, to whom it may prove a 
Very enicriainiag fcbool-book, imd may take its pl^c0with weDtaA 
#/^ ^£W, and other works of thatkind. 

Art. 25. . 4" ^cy «" Landjcapi Tatnt'mg, with Remarks 
General and Critical ; on the diSerent Schoob and Mullen an- 
• cieot and Modern. 8vo. as. 6d. lewed. Johnfop. 
' This appears robe the work of a proiiefledartift, for he fi^jpofei 
the theory of his fubjefl known, and that hi« own opinions and 
eriticifms will be moft acceptable. As he lives general (rfiferratioas 
. on the. works of all landfcapfe' painters, ancient and niodem, foreign 

.. tnd doiHelUc ; it is not to be wondered, if he is fuperlichil, and 
ibmrtimcs opiniattve. In general, however, his criticifma befpeik 
'a correal and ete|;ant talle, and hit philofophy on the powera of 
'painting in excitmg pleafurc is jufl. In order to improve the art of 

- landfcape painting, he recommends England and Wales as eshibib 
■ing the moO perfect fubjefts. It is probable he would have added 
Ihme-paris ot Scotlmd, had he ever travelled into that c 

■This fijbjeft deferyes attention, as latidfcapES are beyond a doubt the 
enly paintings which afleft the mind with pathetic ientimetits of re- 

,. ^- ? .: ,__A :...{.. ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ 

the author* crii 


coUetlioDj^of pain or pleafure proportioned to our tafte, our e»e- 
*-' — w udoiir knowledge. A* a fpecimen of the author* criticifm 

"Monthly Catalogue. MiJttUdnitus. %t% . 

It may not be improper to fubjoin hit ctiarafler (jf Gainlboroti^Ii 
tni Loocherbourg; the latter of which we think peculiarly juft* ■ 

' In coufi4<iring Giiinlboroagh's chara^r as a painter, I felt 
ilrong inducements to give hira the pseferencc to all.hjs predtt 
cetToTi or cotemporaries in this country. Hii firft manner wae very 
differeQt from that tie has now adopted. At his 6v& outlet in life btt 
appears to have l^udied aad preferred the Flemifh Ayle; atid parti> 
cularly to'faave imitated VVynants in the breaking of bis grouadi 
and choice of his fubjeiSb; in thefe pi^uret, however, he gives* 
faithful reprefentation of Envlilh nature. His churches, coctagcti 
litres, hamlete, are all EnVhlli, and are painted will) drift atteotioa 
to truth. Upon tnnturec Itudy and riper judgment, he feems'tp 
have aimed at fqraething more elevated ; he began to ncglc<a the 
miauicr chara^n of nature, and to depen4 more upon the cbiarf 
'tfiuro^ and upon the beauty of his figures; yet he iUll continued to 
paint in the Flemifh (Ule, but !c was in the broader maoAcr, moiiE 
TefembliQ£ Artois. Althnugh in this latter manner be gives us Util^ 
of the detail of nature Va its more delicate j;races, yet his 'yfot\$ 
have increafed inconceivably in their jnerit and. value, and the 
change has been a inoti fuccelsful one. 'Nothing can be, more 
charming; forcitde and harmonious than his colouring now is, hiv 
penciling is broad snd mafterly, the light and fliade ivonderfuUy 
veil managed, an4 the efTede of t)U pi^ure not to be equalled by 
any madcr ancient or, fuodern, His figures are admirable, and 
being beautifully adapted to {andfc^, afford 9 flrong pro^f hoitr 
much this, propriety alSlJs the good 9&&A of the #ho]e. 

' Before I conclude this chapter, fome meation fhoijld be mad? of , 
X name fo eminent io Ijndfcape as Dc I>outherbourgh, wbp reGdc^ 
^ prcrenf if) Lottdon, , VVere we tq ju4ge from the grejt prices. his 
aioures bear, we fliould rank him on a level with Gainfborough or 
Vnifon; but I can by no'm'eans confent to this. He has a tnofl 
bewitching pencil, and lays-on his colours in a manner uncommon- 
ly fweet ; his Ikies are clean and beautiful, and his touch e:fqiu- 
fite ; but if his merits are great, his defei^ arcnulefsobvioua. liiv 
pifhim areTifiboary, if'itbaut a trait of nature, and are paintCfl 
with alt that French pompofity fo unlike the truth of the rlcmilb, 
or the chafte elegance of ihc Italian manner. This cafile, trees, 
and every object, kbour \m(Ier the fame charge of afTc^atioti and 
extravagance. In his talents for Aage decorations, he \i however 
unrivalled. And the two pidlurcB of the review at Warley, painted 
for the king, fhow^ that when he ts to copy froiq nature^ and, nqt 
compofe from his own ideas, tbat he deferye« fvcry praife that can 
be beftowed upon him.* 

The fuperfluous that ajay perha^ be an frror of (he prefs, 

Imt from the ftjle of this work, there is every reafon to believe that 

iia author is a foreigner. He throwa his technicals about hini in 

fuch plentyi as evidently to fpeak the profeflional artift. 

Art. 26. ^» Effay on Landfiape, er, the Mcanj of Improving 

and emhcttiQiiug the Country round our Habitations. Ti-anflated 

from the French of R. L. Geratdln. Vi^omte D'Ermenonvillq, 

8vo. 3s. fewed. Dodfley, \ 

'^hilc we cannot help allowing that there are fame ufeful obfef 

P 3 Vatibiij 



fi3« MoKtifty CAt~At6c*i. Mifiithtaeaus. 

VatioH fcattered hereu«l (here Ihrou^bMii tbi( work, we «iUft fa)* 
at thcfttmetinK thatthereif a profuBoD of puerility, anil uniotel- 
ligible jargoD. The tranflaiM-, if he underftood his amhor, has 
been »t very littte paiiH that othin IhoUld. ^he ftik and maoner are 
iafupporably dull and tadelefi ; the author writea withoi^t 3n^ or- 
der or connexkin. If he nrtna^ the objeiftt- in his ^rden at he 
doea hit thtwghts on this Work) n nufi b« a mderneig indeftd; Ths 
trftnllalor'i preface !a inmany parii fcDfible, andhis <^erTationtjnft t 
but ai he profelfts a regard for llni wdrlf of D'KrmcnoDvUle, bo 
Ought to hive abridged, com6tcd, and pruned it in fuch a maciacr 
Uiorenderit, at icaft,anagi^ttbk perFortnaBce. ' Tbi! ainfaor in- 
(deed it fometime* fo vague, that the litlei of hit chapters- do not 
«arre^ond witb the ctrntenis. The 'firfl cha|iKT it an inAdnee-; it 
is emituted, " An Attempt to define and determine a differawc bo- 
** tween ft Garden, aCouQtry, and a LaHdicr^K." But from the begin- 
ning to theendof thechapter,tbereis iKRa-fingle-oblemtion tendiiw 
tdlmy fucb definition Or determinaiioB. As a proof of the iultsea 
CFf bis obfemtions, be fays in anothcf place that *' Rwgnificeara 
'** may be fometimes ftriktng at firft fight ; the cSeii of osturet on 
^* the contrary, h ncti>er ufierpriat", NoW 4^' aver that liiagkifi- 
cenceis toall perfonsfurprixing iiJ^^^^fir, and that aaiuFeisiKit 
"boly akijMi furf rising mt firfi j%i/, but i^undaiitly fo the more we 
eonlider tne obje^. Did CTer any man take a view from (he (op-ttf 
■pea Man Maur in Wales, or from toy of the lofty moont^s JK 
Scox\»aAiuiihe»iJiirfr!/tt Did ever a man, who until Mveat^ yeati 
of age, neveKfaV apiece of water larger 'than tbe Thames, vw m the 
^a 'viitheutjiirprifrt Or did et^r any one view the lake-of KiUraey 
in Iivbuid, orofLochLoiRondlit ScMland V'/'^^vrywr^iyj? And it 
hot the furprize arifing from the view of thefe objeSs of nsture 
Knnaoent even on a reeolkftion many yean after the objcd hai 
«e(f& fcea ? ■ ■ 

■ CoreerBinj this Work we hart only to add, that a judiciout fc- 
^A^ of thi; uftfu) pan mi^ht have done credit to its author, but 
Its it now Hands, it abounds m irregularrriei and wast <^ method. 
■A-rt ay. ThnightS ^^mtttd in tht Confideratittt of tht C^ers 
■' if -lb* Arty, refpec'ring the Eftablifliment of a regimental Fund, 

for the Relief of^ttre fick and neceffitous Wives of private Soldiert. 

Sy R. Hamilton, M. D; 8vo, k. Simmons, Lincoln; Crow- 

der, London. 
' Th^ Author ihitn plainly »' and from a^nevoUnt heart. Hit 
Vayt and means fbf iffatlifliing the iliiendedfUnd are taxes upon the 

Jrivatesuid officers. Of ihefornter are, f- tax of two pence on 
runkenpe&, rA fiut fiiViigt for the venereal difrafc, if the patieat 
be an unmarried man, suld unjhlllings if married. Of thefe taxes 
we take horice here; becaiife we rlanlt it impoffible that they ever 
'Caa tdcepl^e; for if a foldier unmarried \>t &^eA five Jbilli»gt^ It 
mufi either be deduced in the fnlallefl funps, or at once';- ao natter 
^hicli, as it muft deprive him iti a confiderabic degree of tlie ttitHa 
■eff fuWifteo<;e. And if ttn fitHi'gi, which are the p^ of twenty 
days, are talcea front » married -fnldier, on what is he to iifU[ft> 
Or .if ten (hillings be given to h.ia wife and family, the tax c<iafb lo 
'"ift tpunifliment. Theoriier meaw mentioned by Dri HamtitDU are 
- ' ■ , /more 


MoirrHLY CATAto'Ctlt.' MfielUmeius. 231 

, matt litely to be produftivc \ but he has provtd tli« rte (tiili re^ui- 
fitefbr fuch » faad id every regiment Is fo fiwall, that it could be no 
bimhen on FO'ernment to create it, aad make \x permanent without 
&ardftiip citSer » tlirf men or oncers'. If we underftaflj him right, 
three tundrrd pounds a year wodld be tiiofe than {litf)<^ient for a re- 
^oifite provifion; dnd We apprctieQd thut th;eatv tbi>afaAil pdQnds; 
which tvduld l>e a fiind for fiwy regimsnts; nitglit vtry well be far^ 
ed from the rapicidUs hands of atenta add btb^rS, Who pi-olit \)f the 
payment of oar tt^ops. Dr. Hamilton defervei credit for many 
uleFul hinu thronn out in tht« pamphlet.. 

Ait. a8. Tht Trial cf Chrlflophir ■A-ilUnfM, Efq. M. P. for 
HiMJ->H /» r^rkjbirt, and Utc Cornfaaor to hisXlujcfly's Viflual- 
Wng Board, fdr Perjury, &c. Taken in Shorthand by VV. Wil- 
■ iiiinCoQ. 8»o, it. Debre't. 

' This moft extraordinary Trial appears to be herj taken down by 
Mr; Williamfon trith his tifnal accuracy, elcept in the charge to the 
Jury, in which we think he is rather laconic, but not matetially fo. 
The argument of the ct-imtnal's Counfel is at admirable a rp^ihtea 
of law chicane, as eter ^t remember to have read. Wi think ttiat 
if Foot had deligned to ha^e his jeft at the profeilioo, be needed only 
tO' Kave copied part of ihis fpeech into a Comedy. IVtr, Bearcroft 
dnhckilr' forgot, rhat by faying; many big things concerning his 
client's being jt wan cf Awrojrr, af frohity, a gcnllenian, a mc/nitr ef 
farliament, itc, he coifveyed a tacit but fcverc ceufure on a man, 
ii'hti failed in the iniegrity.anne»d to tho'e titles.' , 

Art. 29. The Retilpt Tax. A Farce irt two Afls, as per- 
formed it the Theatre Royil in the Hay-Market, with univerfat 
- apptaufe. Written by the Author of Too Civil by flatf, &i. 
8vo, IS. StoelLdaTe. 

To have bceii performed ^u//i univirfal applaufr ! This is wonder- 
ful. But nre muft aver, that with whatever applaufe it may have 
heect afied, it will be read, if read at all, with coniempt, far it is' 
<Ieftitute of that wi(, and thofe humorous faSlies, which compofethe 
very effence of Farce, The freouent repetition of (/niii »«^ fiiowa 
the Author's Jelicaiy, and liiay pals for wit with thofe who beltowed 
iailiierfal apfihufi ojj the piece, in which cafe we actioit them, as 
there is more of fuel) wit than is commonly to be met with in dra- 
mas of greater length. 

^rt. 30. v' Letitr 0/ Advice, He, concerning the edieus ani 
alarming Tm or Reeeitu, i£fc. By Oliver <^id, Tobacconift, 
Third Edition. Svo. 6d. Kearlley.' 

This Author is fome wag, who, between jeft and eamefl-, pn> 
pofefe to evade the receipt tax by girin? common receipts before wit' 
neffia ; tut from the general maantr ot his Pamphlet, it is not eafy 
to fay whether be means thi* as a farcafm, or as a fcrioui propofal j 
Bor IS it of great confcquence, as the many inconveniencea atteniiinff 
Sa practice would foon prove more detrimental than the tax in quef- 
uoB. As to the wit ot this p^imphlei, if- the Author meant .any, 
we confefs we have not'becn able to liad it out, although here and 
utere a ferious is h& cxprefied in a quaint manner. To the Letter 
u added an ftbftraA of the 4^, fo that the Pamphlet is haneftly and 
fcii'Iy Worth flj-peiice, " ' ' 

. P 4 - Alt. 

232 MosTHLy Cat ALOcvz. :Mifcellaneeus. 

Art. 31, Nsrraiive of tht Iwo Sailers tauly arrived in E«g~. 
iaaj, and ivia were tureeiid it lit Gre/veaor IiiManum. 8vo. is. . 
5tl. Pownall, . ' ' 

' Before we read two paget of tlus catchpenny, we difcovcr it to be 
in im^ofitioa, and thii opinion we trull will be amply confirmed by - 
the account publilhed by authority of the Direflors, and which was 
coUefted from the four furviTJng perfonj who reached England. 
Every page of this difcovers fiflion, and it is a lii3ion of that kind, 
which It is ever our bulinefs to detefl. / Of the real aecounc, fee the 
following ai tide. ' 

Art. 32. Jn Account tf the Lofs 6f ihe Omfvemr InSaman^ 

commanded hy Ctttt. yobn Cexoix, eit ibe i,ih of Auguji 178!. (in-- 
\ fcrred from the Portuguefe Defcrlption of the Coaft of Africa to 
havehappenedbetweerithe28'*3nd jg^S.) With aRelation 6f the 
events which befel ihofe Survivors who have reached England, 
viz, Robert Price, Thomai Lewis, John Warmingron, ani 
Barney Larey- BeinR the report given to the Eaft India Com- 
pany by Alesandcr Ddlrymple, Efq^ Publilhed with the Ap- 
probation of the Court of Direaor!.,Svo. IS. Elmfly. 
This account ii neceflarily defcdive and deCultory, nor is it eafy 
to reconcile the different anfwers of the men to queffiona feemingly 
put without much order. The authenticity, however, of the ac- 
count recommends it. 

We find that the numher of perfon's on board of this unfortunate 
fhtp, amoiintcd to i J9 or 141 at mod', and of this number, dread' 
fultolhinkl only four peribns- have reached England. ..Their ac- 
count ii' compaftly as follows. On the 4th of Auguft, the wind 
having frefliened in the S. W, and the tliip under fore fail, and 
ftanding about N. W. by N. about half paft 3 A, M. l-eitfis thouzht 
he difcovered land ; he averred the fame about an hour after Dut 
was not believed; in a fliort time the fhip ftruek, on which the 
crew endeavoured (0 backoff, but wifhout lucceft ; the fliip filled 
with water and went 10 pieces. The yawl which they hotfted out 
was (toy c immediately, and the raft, which they made was drove 
aftiore with four men on it, three of whom were' drowned. By 
means of a haufer made f aft to the (hore,fome got fafc on land, 
others were drowned in the attempt. Almoft looperfons were on 
board' when the (liip parted by the forechaini, but the whole were 
gnt on Ihore by means of the pieces. This wreck happened to the 
northward of a rocky point, where thefe was a high furf. Such 
- was the fituation'of the coaft, that there was no poffing along the 
fea lidc. Here they remained from Sunday 'the day of the wreck, 
until Wednefday, when having faved as much provifions as would 
laftcightor nine days, which was all they could carry, theyfet oat 
to travel to the Cape. During their ftay at the wreck, the natives 
offered no violence, biii picked up what bits of iron or other, metal 
they could find, until they began m march off in a body, when 
they threw ftones at the poor travellers, and hove their lancei at 
ihem. They contmued nieir journey, however, over ground tn 
fomc places eafy,' in others fteep and cliffy. Neit day they fell in 
with B man lighter coloured than the natives with Ihaighi hair, 
whom they fuppofed ro be a Malayman^ but' who appears to have 

■ ' been 


Monthly Catalogue. - Mifctllaaenui. %%% 

been ^ [alc«t, ts he did them ^flcrv ice with^he uativea. Chi llic 
4th day from leaviag the wreck they had a finart engagement whU 
the natives of a {mall village, in which they cvnc offvi^riaui, and 
after this ibey never qaarrcled with the naitvea. Abu ut the 12th ' 
of Auguft, we find the cofnpanv feparated, \\ix fooa »fter they meet 
ag^iu, except one poor man wiui 4'''>Pped behind, and the two who 
remained at the wrt^ck. Finding in their way a tree with a kind of 
fweet berry, they were ipduced to cat, but found that it btlund them. 
Next mocning they crbflcd a river with fitfety, but foon after they 
feparated; the furvivors knew nothing of what bcMme of the cap- 
tain or of thofe left with him,' amounting to Dear fifty fouU; about 
the i6lh of Augufl, the parr^ of which the furvivors were, tame 
to a rivers mouth, where fome of their number were lofl by fa- 
tigue. About thei4th, they tvere obliged to part ^lio. being ftill 
too many to get proviflons ; the party which fet out firft confilled oC 
33, that which followed confifted ai .31. Of the death of i; from 
both oumbers we hi\ve an account, and of the fate of fome of tho 

The lirlt party kept muching by the fea coaCt, the natives dl{^ 
turbing them lefs and Icii everyday. The other party went in- 
land, and were fo much didrelTcd for proviHons as to be obliged to 
return to [he coaft, where they coat ioued to fubSil «b fome- IbeU 
fifli, and part of a dead whale which they found- la .about 
tbree-Hreclcs or a month after partiog with the captain ''<md the 
' ladies, they came .to a fuidy COHQtiy, and by tbia time theyr 
were feparHtfd into, fmalL parties. After c^is the dcwunt is irre* 
gular until their arrival at the Cape, where fome of them remain- 
ed ; others took pa&ge to Denmark, a^d our fucvivors failed for 
-England. From the combined accounts of thefe men, it does nof 
ftf^ar that any barbarities were cxercifed. upon (he ladies as tfe 
were fome time ago made to believe. Mr. Daliymple propofei 
fending fome (mail TefTcls to range the coall from the limits of th» 
Dutch farms to.De la Goa, as undoubtedly many of the crew and 
paflengei-s are now alive In the Caffree Country, the naiiyes of 
which, although hoftlle to numbers, never were favagely ioctined 
agalnil Aich as. felt fmgly amour them. 

From the difficulty with which a connciflcd account of the wan- 
derings of thefe four men cfMild be procured, ir may be judged what 
credit is due to the the "Sarfaii-ve mentioned in the preceding ar* 
tide, which. Indeed, Is of Itfelf fufficient to confirm the charai^ier 
we gave of it. 
Art. 33. The Experienced Bee~iteper ; containing aa Eflay 

on the Management of Beet, &;c. 8vo. a, Dilly, 

As this Writer appears to derive all his knowledge from 
lung 'praAIce, his pamphlet doubtli^fs cmitulns m^ny impor- 
tant dlrediont. ' The improvements he fuggefls arc highly ttfc- 
ful, and eafily carried. into e:ie*curion. The work too, is high- 
ly amuliQ?, in as far as ifdefcribes the government of that woo- 
^rful litde animal, which may be called one of nature's niol^ 
delicate gifts. The principal improvement is a kind bf hive, 
whicti is well defcrlbed and a plate given of it, and Other partjculars 
■ ' - per- 



•134 Naii'siu^ jff^n. 

jtertidmng to Beei. Theauttior (aMf. Brysn, Jinfon Bramwicti,^ 

Itioddlty apologifis for tht errort of huriy, whkb, howevfrart verj' 

few, Bad inconfiderRbtc. 

Art. 34. A Serintn frtaehtd at St. Md^tiiCs in ihi Fiilis, 
Lei/hti, fl* Sunday, td^ the 30, and at Hinipftead chu;^ JWid- 
dlcfex, on Sunday, M3ythej5th 178], for the Bniffit of ibc 
Humane SocUty. By J»hn HftdleJ- Strain; Morning Prtachcr rf 
St. George the Martyr, Qurtn Squart, Leflurer of the Unhej 
PariOiM of Sr. Aliguftiiie and St. FaitH, Watling Strwt, and 
Mafttr of the Boarding School, Kinfington Gravel Pin. 870. 
II, Rivihgtoit. 
Sentions preached and fold for charijiei, defycHtie'ifm. God forbid 

that we keep back one finele fliilling that rtily be of&red ihcharit^, by 

the raediatidn of this panl^hlet. The mohey we can afliire our Resderi 
)t be thrown away, for the greater pSrt 6f the pamphlet, con- 

tidiof aUflof the Direfioriof the humane Socitty, an account of 
the Society, ind fortie ofhtf papert btloh^hg to ft, Which are ue- 
eefiary to begtneralty known. We may add that thefemnnn wai 
frhudhy deSrc of the Society, and ii dedicated to the Lord Mayor, 
Aldermen) and Common Couhcil of thri city of London. 

;. For' die fi N G L r S H R E V I E W. ' 


[Fur SEPTEMBER 1783.3 
Remarln tin the DttlMiT'ivE tki&Tia.i. 

IN foireying the events tKat have either happened, or comi *• 
onr knowledge, in the courfe of this month, the firft objefi that 
prefentsitfclf toour view ia the Definitive Tbsaties. Theft 
»rc not yet laid before the world: but there h not a doubt that they 
are in fubttance the fame with the prelitninary articles: no com* 
niercitf corapadwith France. Spain, or Atnerica: no traces in the 
cabinetraf prineesof that bumane and enlightened policy which 
the ComptesfiVEROEirNSt and the Earl of Srelburnb are faid. 
to have imbibed from a natural Sublimity of mind, cultivated and 
beighteiied by the views of fcrence. From the fpint of all the 
parties concerned in the late imponant negotiaiiaiii at Paris, it too 
plainly appears that the treaties and ratifications have eSeiSed a tcm- 
porxry truce, not a permanent peacsi This i( only to be founded 
m that mutoal favour wRicH ariftr froni a reciprocity of imeieft'. 
Urm-PiIUf atjue iJiBi arJif, ta daitum firma aaCiciiiitft, All the bar- 
barous reltriiflioni of trade, for a.ught that appears, iHII remain, 
find by irritating ihofe principles of antipathy wnicb prevail among 
diiferent nations, retard the general progrcfs of human fociety 10 
' Vnonledep, refiiiement, and happinefs. The Spanilh nation' do 
not cordially receive the Etigllfli in the bay of Honduras. The 
Court of Madrid could not be compelled by alt the blunthefg of the 
^nglifli minillry 10 define the privileges of the Briiifii on tbat coall 
with thM opennefs, esafincls, swd peripicmty wKicE would natu- 

■ ■ ' DiflltlzedbyGOOgIC 

Kethiial Affairs^ ijf 

iktlyfcm'refultKl from intenelen! truly junfic. The Fmtb inv 
filled on the imniediMe ixfGon of the ilta&dt St. P^v wut MrfMtim 
Aith a Srtautb which demonftrated the idea they cntertiined of 
our/, and the t$ageme(* with which they enter on the forti- 
fication • of thofe iflandi, and their conception* concerning 
the importUKC of the Newfoundland fifheriei to the wealth aos 
naval urength of the kingdom. The dcfiniilrc treaty with Ame^ 
rica adhcrci with a diftant and fiifpicioui coldneft to the preliminary 
articles.. Manvfubje^ of tont^ntion between that continem tU)4 
Great Britain Aill retnain. Nor it there indeed at prefent in ihft 
United Amcricali States, any fapretne power that can ratify and 
give lUbility to any treaty of peace and cdntmeKe. 

It n In-tbeir nrjotiationi with the weakeft of all the parties coti- 
ceriud, that the ^infh minifters have afleAei to difplav the vigour 
of their councils. When an interior itlierferei, or is drawn intoK 
contelt between fajperior and neighbouring powera, it U ja tfae ut- 
motl danger of ram or lofs in the termi of pacificatian. For either 
iti iotereua are facrificed for feme advantage (o itt ally; or if that 
ally be fa powerful as to (b^te the aniclee of agreement wiihoul 
any conceffiom to iti rival, it it inftuned with anibition, and turns 
iu Tkdoriout arms^aint) its dependent and humble neighbotlr. It 
it to be ranked among the remaining fymptoms of Briridi impor' 
tance, that the Court of Verfailles judged it polirical to II)ure with 
England the fpoilt of Holland. The pof&ffion of Ncgapatiiani,.aiid 
the undilhirbed navigation of all the Ealb-India feas have an im' 
pofins air on the Urii view. But reflect on what claimi wc baTe yield' 
cd to France, and the claims that are made, by that ambittDUs kingdom 
on the feven United pronncct ! The foHy of the provinces indeed 
deferved chaflifemedt : but it ought not to be raattcr of joy to ait 
^nglilbnian, t'hat We hare gained fome a<)*ainage9 over a natural 
ally, at'tbe expence of the inoft important conceSioai to ti praud 
and powerful nTal. 

Fail op ths Stocks.. 

While the roaring of artillery on the Tower of London ah* 
Bounced the ratification of peace between England nnd the HouI<i 
of Bourbon, the evening news papers intimated that the public 

. fund, known by the name of tht three per cent confolidared ftock, 
ffai in flu^ation between 6i and62l. lierling. It is vain to account 

V for fo melancholy a . circumftance by the esrportatioii of EngliQi 
guineas, or the new channels Chat are opeUed by peace to the 
wealth and the induClry of merchants. The advene balance of 
exchange, and the arts of Jews are not noveiries: and at the peace 
of Verfailles 1 763, the avenues that u-erc opened to commerce wcrti 
Jtill more extenfive at well as inviting, than thofe which encourngS 
8 fpirit of adventure, on occafian of the prefent. We are therefore 
to account for the towncf^ of the fundi, if poISble, upon other 

- War, a^it it- carried-on in modem limetf is attended wiih an 
expence that is immeofe, and draws into itt vortex almoft all the 
money which the belligerent powers can command, whether among 
their otvn fubiefla or ibole of other nations, llie impending war 
between Jl.uma and Turkey naturally emptors in military prepara- 


.13^ NaiUhdl Jfiirf, 

tKMii much of that wealth which would otb«rwife CiKuIate in iho 
«rt» of peace, tor it U utA only the prepMitiuns of thefe great 
power* that areio be fupported by the currem fpecic of Europe, but 
alfothofeof ubbr )K>wcra, likaly lo be infolved in the flainei uf 
war by roean! of their (quarrel. Tbe Swedes and Daces firen^hen 
their nawtt f^rcc : ihe Empeiqr, belidea hit n^al eaercions, main- 
tain! a migh^ Wd army ; the I(ing of Prufli^reft* ftill on bu armft 
at if in tbe midfi of a great cam[t: France keej^t up her marine : 
Spun, to H ccrEain dcgroe, follows her .example :' the king- of Sar- 
dinia raifct new. IcTiet:. tbe Veooiiaa republic encreafet hetSeet: 
the graoddtilie ofTuIcaiiy anditiekingof Napks will be obedient 
IB the movement? tA-Aufin* and ^Burlon^ The demands <rf France 
on Holland rae, together with ' the czpeoaci incurred by that repub- 
ik ID the )are war. will oblige the Itatei to. borrow, money st aa 
intereft high in an invetfe ratio- to its prefcnt, low Gtuation : aad 
America, while fhe ellabliftiea a fut^' fortbc payment of her debik, 
and openi her ports to all natioBi, drawi by a po«er&I attra^ftion 
tbe coin of tht: old to the new world. In this maDiKE an £ngLiil>- 
maUi in a chcarfuL mood, and a clcu* day, accounii for tbe fait ai 
fiocki. But what ia all thicreatbiung, bi^t drawing a veil over an 
objcA which we like not to contemplate in its true coloura ? For jf 
the antient good faith of thei*«r/<', if the" riling gk>ry of RuflSa, the 
unviolated honour of the Houfe of Auflria, <* the credit of the Re* 
public of Holland, and tbe prorpcroug flatc of faithleft France, nkli 
that of her new confederate acroft the Atlantici if in one word, 
the circuniilanceB of the timot^bcTucb, that, (tbe quant um of in^ 
tcreli and (he credit from which it it expected being compounded- to- 
gether,) tbe monied nant or the mertaotile ftdvennirer ii led to em- 
ploy hi* wealth on oCher bottoms, and m other funds than the Eiw 
glifli ; what are we'o infer from thii, but that the glory a Jffarted 
'froM Its t Thai we have ceafed to be tbe firft among nattom-? Th* 
immcnfity of the national debt, the diftra<iW and.hupibled flate o{ 
the km^ftoin deter« fareigneri from pur^hi^g in tbe Britilli funits l 
the (locks do not rife aiwA* eipcdeiat ihcconclufion of (he peace: 
coiifequeat ncceHity that the hotderti of what it called the yt-rr^ an4 
iiauimji are under, of fejling out »t a dlfadvantage, in order t^ make 
good their piiyincntc, and Anally to indemnify the adxaiy:?* of tlic 
bank, is a ciicumilancc which prcflei down public credit fliil U>we[ 
and lower, and increafe* the general alarm. The unavoidable ne- 
ceSity of future loans, future taie*, and futUK war, aggravaiet tbe 
glopmof this melancholy prafpcfl; a gloom whie'a nothing left 
■han tbe uuiicdy;/>i>:f and viriae of the whole natiou.ciui difpel : in 
this all parties are agreed : La thia opinion political writers, of op- 
pofite tcmpcrs-and churailers, and entertaininit oppolitc fentiinenis 
concur. Thepenfive SfAiR, and the rpirilcd SHkiFiti.i) ; I'kicE, 
who explores the ilate of the nation with the fevere eye of phitolbpby, 
and Si:;c:lair, who views it through the medium of high fpiriti 

* The Iloufe of Auftria never reduced the ftato of iniercft like 
France, or exchanged the nominal valiis of the coin, oi; bj any art 
defrauded bet public creditors. ■. 


and fenguioe bbpe: all writcrton polilici a^rm, tittr triiliout t1» 
^reatefl exertions of Tirtlle aod pruilcnce, Britaia is un^looe-.' But 
if Britain be ruined^ that is, if b^ the intiifaiktion of her pubtic 
creditt fi>e links-isto an inferior and fubordinue Ibite, defirndeitc for 
. faef nacional exiftence on that balance of power which rniiy refuk 
from the jealouReiof her powerful neigihboure, her humilJHcion and 
tuin will be owing not fa much to a deficieucy of knowledge, ai to 
the want of virtue. Were the thrane faTrounded by vatxt fearii^ 
Gad, and hating cavltnufstfi., the Wifdom of the naCfon' wouM ba 
called into eietrioa, nwoy uf the plans already fuggcfted by in* 
diyiduak would' be adopted, And new^ rcfourees would be. difco- 

The Resources qf Great Britais. 

As on' the one hand ihe Englilh nation has muiy cauf^g ofalamit 
To, oti the othef, there are not wanting fubjeas of comfort, live 
feisngth and the Ipirit of the nation, ftrugg-'fin j . at once ,wir1i the 
impolicy of the court, the ra^e of faiaion, and the errors of mili" 
tary oomrajinderg, yet n^aintained a conteft wiih hercombined foes, 
though not with fuccefsj certainly with glory. Britsin alwayj re- 
fificd, and fomeiimn raii<|iiinied the maritime power; of the world: 
and thefe cfibrts, though unprofperous. ■will be as fampus ia the 
annali of hifiory,' a^ thofe wars in which Ihe htrt been moft fucccfs- 
ful. To cherifh and to flrengthen public fiiirit b^ ohviating tie 
taufta of iiationarcalamlty, ought to be the lu-ft objeflof the legi- 
ilaturc When oUrlcnators (hall have leifure from political ftrug-- 
gles, to pay atrentiofi to the interefts of the nation, may we no! 
hope that they will take into their moft ferlons con fidcranon that 
ingenious, that Ibtid, and infallible plan which \% propofed by Dr. 
Pncc for the estinftion of that great fource of public alarm, the 
national debt ? TTie ttnoTmous aDufcs, and the cnl confetjueoces, 
too, oftbatintolerahleoppreffion, the^fiwrjriirti, claim ferioui atten* 
tion. Expedients might furcij' Iw de*ifed, whereby charity miglit 
be rendered confident vith political Wifdomi Is it not priu^cable 
to fucconr mifery without opprefling induftrj' and CQCOUragiag 
floth? The fate of the crown lands, or the diftribution* of them 
among the American loyalifts r the feparation of 'waftes and com- 
mons into difiinfl" pofieffrons : the fale of dean and chapter lands r 
thePe puHic refourccs, which have long been 'talked of, bOt at the 
fame time confidered only as political revf ries, are noiv more fre* 
quently in the mouths of al! men interelied in ihe prorperity of thirf 
country than ever, and putting off the apearanceof airy fpeculation, 
begin to appear in the light of judicious and folid improvements. 
Mr. ^"'iii'' fee himfelf to ceconomife the public eliablifhments of 
France. Mr. Bmlt applauded the virftie and wifdom of this pro* 
iedor, and ferupled not to hold up the patriot kin^whom he ferved, 
as a pattern to other princes. In imitation of his example Tic 
framed hir reform bill, from which, as well as from the comm!fi 
Jian af account!, much good has arifen, and more is to be expefled. 
The" Emperor of Germany has fct an example of reformation, in 
the management of ihe temporalices of the church. This example 
is at much more worthy of imitation than that which the Britifti 


BuniftrylitTe'follawnl, at the chsntf^r ef the imperial monrdf 
it fupertor to that of hit noft chriAUn mtjcAy. There it not. a 
doubt that th« pomp of (he Church oS England mull odc da^ fall 
before the rifing fun oC fctence, awl the refhuvion of that umpli^ 
citjr which clura^rileJ the primitive age* of chriSianity. Ijet 
poUcyaadcipatethee&fltof pbiloPyphyi )«( the M^ing clergy bli 
oeceQcly fupported: but let the funde which were iit foFiaer 
timet cooferrol on the church by fu|lertliiion, hd io the prefent 
moment of natural czigeocy, redeem^ by the hand of political ' 
necellity. The irgunKnti employed to defence irf hferacchiat pa« 
geantry, are vain and futile< To talk of ezcitiug and exajtm^ 
piety by the allurementt of human wealth and grandeur, ia et^uwUjr 
■bfutd and. impious. 

But among the Tarioui topics of national encotiragcraent, mluch 
B public fpiriied KngliHiman finds lu the prefent juouure, dieproP 

firous flateof our aSirt ia the Eail Indiei holda the firil place* 
bia profperity it ehie6y owiilg to the ri^ur, and capacity, and pa- 
triotifm of the man whofe public cooduS ia at prefent a fub^Qof 
ParliaineBtar)|enr|uiry. Itti doubtlef^ a fyihptom of difcafc in the 
'ttatc, thatwbile themen whofe nulconduAlolt ouppolTefiians in th6 
Well, have enjoyed, or fttU en^y fame of the highefti^wrei is g(H 
Yernmentt Uft whofe talents ai^, virtues have prefervedl and even 
extended our fettlnneois in. the Eaft, hatbcenj and continues to be 
theobje^ofan invidious iniiuiCiiOQt condufted' under the autho- 
ptyof Parlinmeat, b}[ men trho have tongprafdTcd thetn&Ivct hit 
enemiei, and who afpirc to be hii fuccefiors. A peacfc with .the 
Marrhattas leaves the Btitifli troopi to prefs niih vigour, and it if 
fatd, wtib fucceft, a^^Qlt the fon and fueceQbr otHyder Allyr 
The arms of the coiqpany will doiibtlef} prevail in ihe contei) 
with Tipoo Saib, and the gloiy of firitaii^ be thereby fully te- 
itored throughout Hindoihu.' On this occa^iw, it it fit that we re< 
narii, that ii was not by mild, pliant, and fi^DjcIe meaoE, but th^ 
boldefl andhardieA mearuras tbitthc Miirriiatu jxace was eficfled* 
A detachment of troops marched acrofs tiidia under Colonel God^ 
dard, «nd fulfaincd on the coiifts of Sur^ and Haiaiar the falling 
fortunes of England. While Mudajre ScinJia * ii ci^erly employed 
incondufltDg the affairs of Poanab, and direiSing the force of th^ 
Marratta Empire agunll the Englith, word ii brought to hicn, that 
hit own country is made the ftene of war, and ravaged by the vicT 
torioos flrangers. A genera! peace with the Marhrattas was the oav 
fe(|uence of this intelligence. But although the terrors of waf 
have brought about a peace with the Marrhattas, and confequentlT 
with all India,., it is b^ gentle and beneficent arts alone that thii' 
jkeace can be long maintained. It will exe/cite the wifdom of th« 
Briufh legiflature to dcvife means by which the reQ>ed of the 
Hindoos roav be tempered with actachmeut. The flaves of terror 
ever watch tor an on>ortunity of (halongi off the yoke: aiid that 
dominion alone it uable which is fixed in the hearts of a willing 

* The only ailive mcfflber of the Marrharta ftate : and the leading 
mania the Congreft of Marthatta pflncn at Pteiah. 


i^le. To exteod ta a much injured pepplf the pratefUon of tb« 

iricilli I4WS, aad to fecure them in the enjoyment of libcnyi pro- 
trty, and life, appears ai firll ligKt a. plain and eafy method ofcgn- 
liating their attachment. But the feptiments of the Oentga* on al- 
tnoftall fubje£i>, are fo -'itTerent froiri t^oit of EuropeaaSi tbu ihcjp - 
fcarcely poiicfs any thing in cotninpp yrlch u;. befid^s the human 
form. To govern fuch a people by our laws is tc^ violate their CttQag^A 
prejudices, and often to wound them in th,c mo3 fenGble Mrt. If 
Will be impoffible, it is to be apprehended, To to teintier tjic jlgaut 
^f domination, and to reftraip' the rapacfty of the E^i lodi* cOrt).- 
pany's fervaiits, j^ tobroduce in the.naiiTSf.'of Hindollaiiaay fiocers 
attaqhmeot to the Ktiglifli. The ufe of firf ,VWt military difci; 
pline i the art of (hip building'^, the difputei between England am] 
Prance ; all theft circuraftances will enahlf the naiiTe princes of 
tndia, oneday, to vindicate their owt'rt'^tural rights, and, tb exjKi 
the Europeans for ever, from their coalls. ^ provident policy will 
took forw^d CO thia event, and endeavour to fecure a few forts 01^ 
the continent, and td conilitute a few iflanda in the ocean, 
^■ec ports, in order to proteft our coni;nerce. Nor is this any rhe; 
lancholy ncceffity. It would only he to reduce our afiairs in the 
Bail to that (ituation'in which they moll flouri'Oied. The reports o£ 
the ftleft cotpmittee on India affairs, abundantly' prove of how Httl^ 
advantage territorial property in Alia is to a company of merchaatl 
It) Eiirope. It is t^e trade to China, and this is a very firikinK 
ft^a! it 18 the trade to China, wber):il[ey have not a foot of lan£ 
iitii to Sumatra, where they have onlv a fort efs,^' that ha&ettablei 
thcqompany to fnft^ip the lolTes and difa,l^ere of Huidollau. To re- 
linqiiifli the fair, cxcenfive ppfleffions we hold in the Eaft, while w<j 
tan hold them, might not on tnany account*, be an advifeable mea; 
fure. But we ought in prudence, to anticipate the neceflityof relinr 
(juilhing them, that the intcrefts of Bficaia may not be fwalloweil 
up ard loft in a getiAal convulfion. lu iotn on thi; coaft, an4 
fortified iflands, we may find a fife retreat. 

The pl«B of frttiing-iTer-porn in ttnrWB ft" India iHahds "I'oo Tia« 
been recommendedf, L«t rentiers be re ■eflablilhed in one ,or more 
afihdcy fiibjcA b^ their charter and civil conllitution to ihe Imilar 
ture of Great Britain. Let' them be confined to the railing of Uv4 
flock or other provifions for the planters in othe)' illands. Let the 
illand or^iflandsbe ftron£ by nature and-fbili&ed by arti let thele 
be'inarts for the trade orthe world, and defy thole afTaults which 
ihf Bptifh Weil India i(U^a It^ve ibmd fime to fear from the at- 
tars, of Korth America. 

The impolicy and fi^cipjtatlao of ^e courts of both Madlid tni 
l^dndoo', have in tio m^ance appeared id fo ftriking a view u tbf 
ceffion by the latter to the former, of the Flo'ridls. In the h^ad^ot 
Spain they will become, barren, defarts ; in thofe of Ensjnnd theferti- 
rity\of the fbii, the advantages of fiiuaticin, and the migcatiom 
of loyalifts would rejld4r tbam populous and rich. la fuch a 

* Three fhipi of war hive, been buUt ia the port of Mangalore. 
+ By Mr. Stokes, 


4^ ■' Katiotml Affairs. 

Hale tliey wouH liavi ibrmedto Spain, io eonjunflion with Canada 
ind-Nova Scotia, a barrier againft the encroachments of the American 
States on Mexico : and, as to England, tbey would have contributed 
much to the protedion of her WelHndia illand*.' It is for the 
^niar^ and the Engliflij^t to confider whether, in exchange for 
Gihrattar/ii wouJd not be for the advantage of both nations to r&- 
(lore the Florida! to Great Britain, and to fccure to- that kingdom, 
^ the ereftion of fan*, the navigation of the Mififfppi. Thus the 
Enslifli territories in Amfcrica would furround the United States* 
Bnithe plan ihat tbc French meditated, at the cornmencement of 
the war before talt, againft their prcfent allies, would now be car- 
tied into execution by the Englifh. \% is not improbable that fucK 
an exchange aa wc bat'c now histed will fooncr or later take, place* 
What DaltiTC and found policy reiromtncnda, may be neglefteo for a 
tine, but IB generally adiqttea at lalh Spain has for a long timi; 
heththe natural ally of Ehgland, ind theinterefts of tbefc'ltlDg- ' 
djras are now more cWely eonnedVed than ever; Many dangers &q 
yet await the Vnited ftatcs. Spain may be leagued againit thern 
with England, The Indian nations may unite with the Cruciwi f 
to defotate the Souihfm prtivinces, and check the' exteolioii of cul- 
tivation on their back fettlcments. Internal difTentions will add to 
their embarraffnient : and emigration* from dilba^cd flatea may 
Drcngtheh the rifing colonies of Great Britain in the Bay, and on 
the nver of St. Ltr-ireuce. F6r let it be obfervcd, that not only ia 
Fundy Bay and the gulph ot St. Lawrence, more convenieatly 
fituated for the great Newfoundland HflierieB, but alfo for the V^ta- 
India trade in general, than the coafls of the United ftatcs of Ame- 
iica. For, dne fair wind will carry the fhips of Canada and Nova- 
Scotia to the Leeward Iflands, and we may add to the Brafils and 
the cpafls of Africa:' whereas Ihipa from' the. United Hates before 
tbey can direia their courfe to any of thefe p^ts, niuH firike a great 
way £aftward inthe Atlantic Ocean. 

f A numerous encteafin? and hardy banditti, who impatient <^ 
toil, live among the woods by hunting, ai^ by occaConal depreda- 
tiotia on peaceable planters. 

t^ Our PaUlical RejkaicHseti thefVifdam of America', the 
freftm State of Inland, and particularly the RefoluUans of lU 
Vmnl'eers'of Dungannun-; en the State of Scotland, and tht 
Centintnt ef Europe \ are unamidahly f^pned tilleur m*t 

The cotititiuatioti of the Review of M, Levefquts Hiptry »f 
RvJJia is unaveidally pcflpcined to a future Number. . . 

The Csnclufion cf the Revie^ of Dr. Ji^onra on the Nervmf 
S^em, will appear in our next. 



Pdr O C T B E R, 1783. 

Akt. I. Referti frmf tbt Ciimniilri mfi^emtUby ParUameiU t»'mgidf$ 
init-Ua^Af-airs. F(J, 4 vols. 81. Evani. PaterTMofter-Row. 

rr'^HE Caramitici that had b^cn infliftcd for ages, by Hi* 
I .hand of European rapacity on die natives' of India, 
Im excited indwd an unavailing lympathy in the breads 
of all friends to humanity, but no erfbrr was made for their 
fflficf; until the lame principle which had imporcd, became' 
aAivff to alleviate- their fuflcrings. The enormous bribes 
that were, everyday, extorted by the menaces of the Englifti 
Eaft' India company's (crYants from the princes and fub- 
jefts.of Afia', or purcliafed b/ a lacrifice of the Coomany's 
inrercfts; riic fplendid fortunes acquired in the E'aft ; and 
tfte'riches that were poured from thertcc into the port of 
■ ILondon, preftntcd an inviting fource pf revenue to the 
Britife- legiflature. The ftate claimed a (hare in the com- 
pany's profits, and the right of fupremacy over tlieir ex- 
tended dDininions. Itwas to be'expeded that the policy of 
tire Britifh fenate would be more liberal and comprehenfive 
Aan that of a (bcicty of merchants, ever ready to facrifica 
a great, bnrfuturc; toifmall but prcfcnt advantage. The 
fervants' of thr crown'' became interefted to preferve the 
foucccs. of arcvenne which they were to aditiinlfter, Self- 
intereft now affiimed the guife of compaffion, . and, in the 
British Icnate,. vdietnehtly arraigntrd" the opprdffions and 
outrages which wrcfted from the hand of indoftry ihd re- 
ward of^toil,, impoverilhca and 'depopQlate4'pToviuccsi and 
tfirtateried," by ccJnentiii^ a confederacy 'i.moKr tfie native 
pmvets' ofljirfitt, to annihilate on thatfcbntiifemyie authoritV 
andpowm)f Englatid.' '"Then were fun2'lSe'prftifti''o'f'.h!a' 
manitj-.-arii titewifdom of moderation. It wSf'iitt 'sff 6W*d 
■ Enc Rev. Vol. II. Oft. 1783. Q. objeft 


i42 Reports from the CemmiUe ef ParViamant »n India Avoirs, 

objcft of Parliament to ftrengthen the enfeebled bands of 
the artifan, to raife the fad and defponding hufbandman to 
coniidence and hope, to protefl the nobility and gentry from 
the rapacity of mercaniilc adventurers, 4nd to confirm the 
interefts of Great Britain, by fecuring to the inhabitants 
and natives of the Eaft Indies, the enjoyment of property, 
liberty, and life. In the profecution of this plan, it was deter- 
mined, by the inftitution of a fupreme court of judicature 
at Fort William at Calcutta, to extend the free gcniu) of 
England, as far as that ftiould be confiftcnt with political 
fubordination, to the kingdoms of Benral, -Babar, and 
Orifla. Had it been the intention of theBritifti l^&tnrc 
to confer on the natives of India entire freedom, or to im- 
pofc the yoke of unqualified flavcry, 3 plain road in either 
cafe, lay before them. But it was found, on trial, a difficult 
tafk to minffle jufticc with injuftice, liberty with oppreflion. 
The preju^ces of the Hindoos, interel^s dearer than proper- 
ty via even life, began to roufe, among that tame and fiib- 
miffive people, a fpirit of refifiance to the introduftion of 
English law. The violence committed by the fherifTs of- 
ficers, and their riotous afiiftafits at Dacpa, and Cosst- 
JURAH, were regarded with univerfal horror. Thcfe were 
but the ktf Inning of farrows. The fury of the natives would 
doubtlefs nave been excited by their continuance. Even the 
pacific Gentoos, it was to be prcfumed, would not tamely 
fuffer the pillage of their houfes, difgraceful outrages offered 
to their perfons, the violation of their zenanas, and the pol- 
lution ot their religious fanftuaries. The governor geneiat 
few with concern the embers of a flame that muft foon 
fpread over India. The aibbiguity of the law, fo often the 
fourctf of infinite calamity, proved a fortunate circumflance 
on this important occafion. The perfons over whom the 
fupreme court of judicature fhould have power, and the 
limits to which their jurifdiflion fhould extend, were not 
accurately defined. Mr. HaAings. ilanding on this ground, 
with that vigour and decifion which belong to his charaCler, 
oppofing force to force, maintained the authority of his go- 
Tcinment, confulted tbe prejudices of the nattvet, and pro- 
longed the power of Briuin in Hindoflan. 

While inteftine contefts between the civil and judicial 
powers diitraded the Britilh councils in Calcutta, difficuUiet- 
from abroad threatened to terminate aDdifputcs, by the ex- 
puI£on of the Englvffa from India. The Kfahrattas, con- 
federirted \rith Hvder Ally aigainft the Er^Iifh, were en- 
couraged by the afliftancc of Frances and fymptoms of revolt 
begai^ to xppcar among fcvcral Gentoo princes. The genioi 
rfHAiTiHGs, as v.t:, '.as proved, wa* able to funooonr 


• Reports from tht Contmitit of Parliament bm Mia Affairs, 243 

al[ thefc dangers. But the Britifli legiflature was natural' 
1^ alarmed. And accordingly, fot fome years back, par- 
liamentary committees iiave enquired with the utmoft dili- 
gence, and pericvcrance into the prcfcnt ftate of tlieir fettie- 
ments, and into the pative powers of India. The chief 
filbjcfls of their inquiry have been the eficft of the infti- 
tution of the fuprcmc court of judicature ; the condaft of 
the Members of which that court is compofed -, the caufes 
of the war in the Carnatic ; and the condition of the Bri- 
tifli poffeflions in thofe parts. The inquiries into thefe 
have oianched forth into other inquiries of iefs moment. 
Were it our province to nuke obfcrvations on the re- 

Earts of the fecret and feieft committees, we might, per- 
aps, find occalion to i Hull rate the nature of party, and of 
tx parte evidence. But thefc reports are not to be viewed in 
the light of judicial, or rather inquilitorial records, only. 
They open a vaft field of contemplation to the philofopher 
and antiquary, as well as the legillator. The facts they fo 
well authenticate are deeply Intereding to human nature, and 
will continue to draw the attention of ingenious' and cul- 
tivated minds, long after the paflions and difputes which 
brought them to light, fhall luve been loll in utter oblivi- 
on. Oa this account, the reports of the committees ought 
not to be pafled over in filence by 2 literary jaurnal. If the 
travels Af an individual through any country are deemed 
an obje£l of curiofity, and as fuch lield up, in periodical 
Reviews, to the learned world, how much mote worthy of 
notice is a long and ftrift enquiry into the flate of fo inte- 
refling a country as India, condufted, for years, by the au- 
thority of a great and enlightened nation, polIelEng all pof- 
^ble means of information } It is thus that the active pTin> 
ciples.of the human mind are eminently fubfervient to the 
promotion of trutii or knowledge. The loveoffcicnce^isbut 
ageiitle pafiion, and generally courts the ftudiouG Ihade, 
■where the philofopher may learn from books what is already- 
known, but not lb readily find out what remains to be dif- 
covered. Atleall, we may fafety affirm, that few in the 
prefent age, travel into the eaft, like Pythagoras and Platoiai 
the fake of knowledge. But the a^ive palfiom of avarice 
and ambition explore every corner of the world, and open 
new views to the eye of fcience. 

It was the cuHom of that great commander and ilatefman ' 
Julius Cxfar, (and indeed, it was the genius of the Ro- 
man government) in the progrefs of conquefts, to inquire, 
in the firft place, into the manners and cuftoms of the na- 
ttOBS agaihlt whom he advanced his arms, ^ut marts ho- 

^- A knowledge of their prejudices fcemed neccffary, 

Q_2 to 


^44 RtptrtsfrttR the Committee »/ ParHenunl an Lidia Jffairu 

to tbc.eftalMilhincnt of fuch political iniUtutiont as might 
beft (ubjcfl, and retain tliem in fubmiffion to the autho- 
rity of Rome. Great Briuin has inverted the order of tbe 
Roman policy : fhe has iirft framed lavrs for her conquered 
provinces, and proceeded to inquire into the niannen of 
the, people afterwards. The ncceffitv, however, of fnch a 
fublequent inquiry has taught a kJtbit of moderatioTi to 
dates and princes, and forms a prefage that limilar inquiricSt 
on future occaiions, will illuitrate the itaral fhtnomexa of 
the w<»rid. 

Ag all antiquity points to Afia as the parent of mankind, 
and of every fi:icnce and art, fo in the reports of the com- 
mittece of India aifairs, we every where meet with cuf- 
toms, muincrs, and opinions whofc origin is buried in a 
fVrofound and Tmfathomible anti<jnity. The veneration of 
the Hindoos for every thing that is antient appears &> be the 
moft prominent feature intheir chamber. TheGrecks, indieir 
learned difquifitions hada great reverence for the opinions of 
the anticnts, and inP/ato pattici)larly </"(»■( «•!««)( >.jflt (^Jp*^ 
palaiois hgUt) occurs at every tufti, Jifere trte^trum too occurs 

' often in the Roman writers, and all lutiong, indeed, en- 
tertain in fome degree, a veneration for their iincefiora. 
But this vencratiou in the eaA knows no bounds. The 
doftrinei xnd cuftoms that have been handed down by 
their foFe&thers, the Gentoos obfervc with mv|olablG at- 
tachment-; and their delicate nerves, when thefc arc invad- 
ed, afliiffling a bold and vigorous tone, they brave famine, 
and death. Their doArines and cul^omt arc fandified by 
the authority of religion. Every thing in India points to x 
divine origin. The empire of religion is univcrfal, and 
joxtends to the mofi minute circumuanctfs of life. Reltgi~ 
«n contTouk the great as well as Ute fmall. It mirigatcft 
the rigour of dcipotie govcmment, and affords an afyluns 
to the dillrcffed. The Mahomcdan conquerors c^ India,^ 
finding that they might indeed exterminate, but not fiib- 
due the religious opinions, of the Gentoos, yielded to thnr 
finnnefs, and indulged them in all their prcjuidices. Hence, 
in the di^rent provinces, or principalities in India, the 
Gentoos arc governed fay the Gentoo law, and MuQiilmen 
bf the Mabomedan. It is a very unufuol thing, indeed, in 
India to arreft the perfons of individuals, or to break iat» 
their houfes, or feizc on their privatv property. But their 
. religious CinAuaries and the apartments of the wotDenwen; 
^dwaya facred. It was refervea for chriftiaruto pollute their 

' tttnples, and break into their Z»ia»di, 

There is an affinity, if weare not miChker^ betwecn^itr 
ftneratiDn for uUiqofty whidi di&inguj&cs the GoatooSi 


,j,, Google 

Rfptrtifrtm tht Cammittee ofBvIiamttu «* Ittdia Affmn. 345 

and their Acuity, in all works of art, for imitation, ta 
Europe, in coM ctimates, and in freegOYemnwnts elpeciaf- 
ly, men arc aOive and iiwenttve, and look forward to foiiie 
period that Ihall be iartlier advanced, in imppovement of 
•very kind, than the prefcnt. The Gentoos Itody to imi- 
tate toperfefiion, wliat has been done already, and look back 
to times of greater pHTity, happincfs, and glory. 

Another remarkable feature in the character of the Hin- 
doos, Mahomedans, as well as Gentoos, is. t^ieir patience 
under fnfferiiig*. This feems c(»ine£ted with their ideas of 
predcftination, and their habits of living under defpotie go- 
Tcrumenis, and is a proof, how much opinion and cuftom 
inftuence the rery tempers of men. 

In penifing the reports of the committees, the hiftorian rs 
ftni£t with manifell proofs of the feudal fyftem of govern- 
msnt in India. This fyftetn is not in all probability coeval 
withtbe Gcntoo caftorns and manners, but, has pro^bly, 
been introduced, or naturally arifen out of the conquefts ^ 
India, by the Tartars and Pcrfians. The King of Delhi is 
the fovereign from whom the Nabobs nominally derive their 
right of inheritance : snd different princes bear the nsmes 
of the offices tlieir anceftors held in his court. The Na- 
bob is the Lord paramount : the zemindar, a feudal lord, 
polTeiling a judicial authority over ryots or tenants, who 
alidtoay have fubten^nts. Appeals are made I o the court 
tii this feudal diicf, if, aither tkc higher faimcrs, or the 
coUcAoTs of bii rcrcnucs, opprefs the tenants. His 
nffiils repair to his flandard, each with an armed force, 
in cafe of^ war : and he treats them in times of peace with 
moderation, and indulgence. 

But there is nothing which firikes an European more, 
thari the lingular prejudices of the Hindoos, and the vio- 
lencs of their fympathies^ and antipathies. Their aver- 
£ons to certain kinds of food aad of drink ; their divi- 
lion into t«Jit*, and their abhorrence of Grangers ; their 
troubkfome and evpenfive ablutions an4 expiations ; their 
holy cities and liyers ; their feafons of jubilee, or inter- 
vals c^ hapmnefsand cafe \ the juftice and the mercifol- 
neft of their laws, which extend not only to men but 
to tfcafls ; their lively and dramatic manner of writing and 
telling a ftory ; the polite fimplicity that reigns in their 
'psrfonal interviews and their cpiAohry cortefpondence ; 
their manner of writing, which like that of the iacrcd fcrip> 
tures, holds a middle place between the the abftraft pre> 
cifion of the European, and the figurative nature of cer- 
tato .Afiatic produSions : alt thefe ciruumftances are ex- 
f^dingly iBterefting to the divine as well as the pbilofo- . 
Q,3 phcr. 

14*^ Reptrtsfram the Committee ef Parliament an India Affairi. 

phcr, for they not onl/ ferve to difplajr the extreme 
verlatility of numan nature, but plainly point to pa- 
-triarcbal times, and lend their aid to authenticate thofc 
SACRED RECORDS, which are doubtlefs the moft pre- 
cious remains of antiquity, whether' they are viewed as 
containing the moA curious matters of fsi£t; or a$rc« 
plete with confolation to aguUty and miferabLe world. 

There are many other points that might be illuftrated 
by tlie difcovcrics that have been made by the commit" 
tees. The fpcculations to which they lead are indeed 
fndtefs. We Iball therefore content ourfclves for the 
prefent with jlluftrating what wc have advanced, in this 
criticifm, by what may juftiy be deemed a literary curiofi- 
ty : an account of an examination of a Gentoo, and a 
Mahomedan prince by the Englifh Houfe- oi Commons. 
It is extrafied from the report of the committee appointed 
by the Houfe of Commons to take into their coniiden- 
tion the Bengal petitions. 

' There being »t this timf a Sramin in EngUttd, who is a fubjeA 
of a Geotoo government, your committee judging it to be the nwft 
authentic fource ol" information, concerning the ufages and reli- 
gion of the Hindoos, re[)iie<Vcd his attendance ; and the particulars 
'of his examination being interpieicd by William Charles Botigbtnn 
- ' - • ' ' of yo ' 

Roufe, efquire, a member of your c 
name it Hod won crow — Thathccotnes from Foonnh, a Gentoo go- 
vernment, of which Sittarah ii the capital That it is governed 

by the PeOiwafa, who ii a Bramin — That he ii come to England 
on the part of Ragenaut Row, with letters to the Kitig, and the 
£aft India Company— That he is a Bramin— That hii caft, aa.well 
■s alt others, ii obliged to obferve particular rules and modra of life 
— That the objeft of worfliip ia alike to all cafti ; but that there are 
many fe£b and dift!n£tion9,cachof nhichhas its peculiar ruUs — That 
there are four principal cafVs ; and" within thcfc there area great 
many others j and that it is criminal for any Gentoo, to tranf- 
grefs the rulei of his particular cafl— — That he may lofe hh- caft 
entirety, or according ro the nature of the offence, it'may adtnir of 

expiation. That being afked. Whether Ibme of thefc expiations 

are not espcnfive and troublefome ? he &id, Without cxpeitce 
and trouble how can ex[Hation be made f — That it would be pro- 
porttonable to the crime ; for inAance, Brimhatta, or kiltiog of a 
Sramin ; Sirehatta, or the killing of a woman ; Barhatta, or the 
killing of a child ; Gowhaita, or the killing of a cow ; aic the 
four great ofieocei that require the mo(V rigorous expiations ; and 
the degree of critninality is neariy alike.— That he muft make 
one diltinflion, that it can only be done by confrnt and diredtlOii 
of teamed Bramins — That in cafe of a rich perfon, the expiation 
is large fums given in charity ; if of low condition, long pilgri- 
mages) at far as twelve years, without fboes, and naked feet, 
would be enjmned.— That by the taws and cuAoms of the Gen- 
too*, a Bramin might pofllbty commit fuch a crime, as to incur 



Sixperlsfrem the CommtUt tf Parliament an India Affairs. 247 

tbe puaifhmenc of death ; for inftancc, wilful murder j but there 
is one thing, it i} not right to hang a Bramin ; if he is put to 
<icath, itfliould be with a ftvord At the f^itic time the wicneft 
added. That lie never heard of an inflance in which, uodcr an Hin- 
doo goTernmert, a Bramin was put to death. — Then being aflced,, 
Whether there is any other crime, beiides wilful murder, for 
which a Bramin can ha punllheJ -with death ? he faid, Tbe prince 
may take his lifc for foine great breach of truft, or crime againft the 
Hate 1 but hanging would not be the puniQiment — the puniAiment 
of death « not inflifled for fmallcr matters j but what other 
crimes can merit death I — That hanging ii, by ihe Hindoos, 
ieonfidered aa a great poiluiion ; and farther, it is the belief of , 
theFIindoo9, that a man who fufTcrs death by the fword, ha« par- 
don for his offences, but if he dies by the halter, he dies with hU 
liDs upon him— That a perfon dying ^y foicide, or by the' bolter, 

cannot have his funeral rites performed That the body of » 

hanged Bramin is fo polluted, that another will not touch it. 
And being alked the particular reafon ? the witncfs .faid, How 
can I tell you the reafon for it ? fuch is our ancient reiigioni ■■■ 
It is a general principle of faith, that an Hindoo lliould die plac- 
ed upon thecauh. — Being afked. Whether there are not crimes 
by which Hindoos may lofc their caft ) he faid, There are ; for 
inlbnce, that he, being a Eramin, could npt eat any thing pr:- 
J>ared by the hands of the Perfcc {who was then IJtdng by him) : 
that if he did, he IhoiiU lofe his caft ; and that if he had done it 
of his own free ivill, it could not be expiated ; that, though a 
Gentoo, fliould hive refifted, if he be forced violently into an a^ 
of impurity, it ivill reft with the learned Bramins, whether to re- 
ftore him to bis caft again or not .'—That they can do nothing ia 
it,_ but by tha order of the Shafter, That they can eat only the 
things that are permitted them by the relca of their caft j that 
he has heard the Bramins of Canooge eat fome kinds of flefli ; but 
that if the Bramins in liis country eat meat they would lofe their 
cafl— That a Bramin cannot eat his food, unlcfs prepared by an- 
other BraiKin ; thft if he (hould eat food dred by a perlon of 
another c^ft, it would be an impurity— That indulgence) would 
be allowed to perfons under an emtrenie illnefs, or fuch hunger as 
might take away power of judgment ; but that if he (hould 
Only be hungry, and bad the power of diftinguiHiing perfons, no 
deviation from rule would be allowed. — Being aflted. Whether 
there are any diflinftions as to Tcflels or places of cookery ; he 
faid. There are ; that for inftancc, he could not drefs his food at 
the fire in the room where he was then fitting, nor could he drefi 
it in borrowed veQets, nor could he drefa it upon a woode^ 
floor, but if there was a fpan of earth upon the fioor, he might 
—That if a man of another call, or of no caft, was to touch him at 
meals, or whilft he was dreffing his food, or was to enter into 
the fpacc allotted by him for the dreiUng hn fbod, he Ihould be ob- 
liged to throw away the visuals ; and if an Hallachore, or man of 
n»C3ft, (hould come into the room where his viftuals were, the ivhol? 
houfe muQ be walhed before he could eat in it again — That if in the 
flpenai^an Hallacbore Should touch him, he Ibould be obliged to 
CL4 waJb 


24^ Ripartsfrcm the Cima'utee of Parliameirt on LuUfi A£'airs, 

jcafti himfelf— Tlist fome calls wowld be oWigcd to waOi their 
cloaths and body, ocheri only their body ) and fome low calls 
would 7191 be obliged to walh at all. — And -being alkcd, Whcdier 
lie DOt fuSe red great difficulties in the journey from til» own 
country to England ? he faid,. Yes, very great ; that from Bom- 
bay to Mocha, though the voyage lafled i^ days, he ncTer 
cat any thing but what he brought with him, fuch as f«veaCiDeats 
9Dd preferved fruiw, and pumkins ^nd vegetables, and drapk tla? 
jcater he biTjoght with him, and never tailed food dreft on board 
the fliip — That when he arrived at Judda, the governor, who i» a 
MahomedaD, ezaniined his baggage, and ordered him into con- 
linemeot in tUe farne houfc with the Perfees ; that the governor 
fcnt him viftuals (wo or three limes a day ; but for two whole 
days he neither eat nor drank any thing ; thai they were furprifed 
af his not eating, when they had fent him fo good a dianex ; vaA 
after fome difficulty he made them underiland, \y means of a boy, 
who fpoke hia language, that being a Bramin, he coul<j not eac 
their victuals ; that when he inftru^ed them what hU cul^oms re- 
guired, they futaiflied him with a Knt, and other neceffary colo- 
veniencicB for dreffing his visuals ; which he did then .with hit 
own h"t>d. Being al£cd. What it their mode of co^ltncment ^f a^ 
debtor ? he faij. In the firft place, it is not ufual to conljne them j 
but if the peribn (hould be retVaflory, and difobey the order* of 
fh!S magiflrate for difchargiug the debt, perhaps he would place %. 
guard upon his houfe ; if his debts amounted to more rhan his 
efiefls, the magilliate would then order diftribgtion, but he nevw 
touches the images or ornaments of the place of wodhip, or of 
the apartment! of the women and children, nor the furniture of 
the houfe ; and that the guard fuffers nobody to go in or out with- 
out his permiilion, but that it is not theburuiefs of the guard to pre- 
vent the viduaU coming in, unlefs be has a fpecial order from the 
piagiftrate, for the bufineft of the guard is to prevent any thing 
from being carried out ; that if the perfoo has committed, a crime 
and the magiftrste wi(lies 10 difgraee him, he may give fucb »n 
order ; that be mud not, even in that cafe, di^ffAce the women—; 
That it fometjines "happcna, that a prince prefles a Zemindar ^^l. 
payment of his rents, and fends a guard upoo his houfe ; thaf i{ 
the Zemindar is abfent, and has not money to pay, he abfconds, 
but then the guard will not do any thing to aifeii big wojnen j 
that if }ke Qtould felze ihe property of a Zemindar, It would not 
\t juftifiable 10 touch his religious ornaments, or bis women'* 3^- 
partmeots ; that belideE, nothing is got by ruining a JSemindar,. 
who is the paramount proprietor' of the lanfl. — Being aflted, Wfeat 
. dealings arc allowed to the Bramins ? be faid. He is prohibited 
from trading in fait, (pirituous liquors, oil, butter, fboes, aul from 
low trades ; that an Hindoo is obliged to wafh in a'tanic, or lirer, 
at lead once a day ; that wafliing in a river is beA, if he canooi 
do that, he mull walh in a tank, or with water, in his own luHife ; 
that not to walh at all, would be an immirity; that he can- 
not eat without, except in cafe of ficknef! — lliat if an Hindoo if 
excluded his caft, he is difgraced, and becomes Hallachore, and it 
confidered by bia family as dead ; that even big funeral ritei arq 



Jbtptrtsfrwi tbt CavuutUe ef Par^Mutli an latili Afalrs. S49 


irformed, and his face is nner to be feen aftuwarU^-— Ttuc (he 
rduos confiilcr the Ujater of the Oaagei at t'acred, and voir la 
waihitiit on parciciulacaccafioiiE—'lhat long pilgrimages *rc con- 
jidered as Mpiations— — r— That the interior cafts ot" Hindoo* 
pay refpcA W tberopcrior; to.a Brjiiiin p^rticukrly thp hivhefij 
that wcslIc I1 is nofhing in coropeiition wiih that degr« of rank- 
That the lo» people may drini the water in which a loperior hat 
wa(hed hit feet ; (bat he hiuirdf would drinlc, and think it would 
be right to do il, of the water in whicfa a Bramin, learned in their 
jiQots, has wafhed bis £eu, but it wuiild he a diigntc« lo The Bra- 
min to fuffcr Hallichorcs or bafe people to do it.— -^BeJng alfced, 
Whether the lower cafis arc not much oHeiided when ihey fee the 
higher, fuch as the Braraius, treitui iviih indignity or diirclpcft, or 
whether they are plealcd j belaid, if a.R.xjihpoul fees anitidignity 
oBercd to 3. Bramin, he will rifquc his life to protect him ; that 
even the lovell cafb of Hirulnas woald not be pieafcd to fee a Bra- 
min dej^raded ; that what a Mdhumedan might think upon it, h« 
^snot kaom^ — <—Tii« wiCDCts further laid. That under a- Gentoo 
governroew, the charges of recovering a debt at* a fourth part, 
Wbjcb gixs to the magiilrate, and makes part of the public revenue 
' ■ That in his country, women are not lb much fecluded a« 
amoag the Mabnnedani ; but it would be a. difgrace if tbe^ went 
into courts of ju flice-^Tbat if he hnd giiells at bis boa fc, his wJffc 
plight come in with the rituals, but i^suld not lit dbwn with 

men That he has beard that tf^: Kajahpouli,< and people of 

Bcngsl cnnfiDe their ffomeo mors thjn the MarattM | that the^ 
w^ not permit itwm, particularly AiA of rank, to be -fiien • •' ■ ' ■ 
Thu in bis CDUMTy, the modeof reooT<ringa debt frBm a woman, 
il for the magifttate to fend to her, to fatisfy the CTediter ; if fht 
refufes, he wders her, if Die he a woman ot chaMi^er, to be brought 
to his houfe ; flie is carried in a co«e*ed -carriage, and recciTedby 
hii woroeo, but is never compelled- to attend the caufe in a publift 
court; and even if the mtgillrMe himfelf fpeaks to her, there 
will be' a curtain between thera— ->^He laid affo^ That it is ufual 
for women, inhisroumry, to burn themiehea on the faneralpile 
of their hufbamls, that the fame cultom prevails atfo in Bengal anil 
other parts of Indoltan. 

* And in order to enable the houf* to compre the tSfe& and (en- 
dcDcy of theprocaedingt which appeared in evidence in their en* 
quirtes concerning Bengal, with the policy and condu^ of the Ma- 
homuian gOTemraente, now and lately rx-ftitig in the neighbour- 
bnod of that province, relatively to the fame objefls;. your committee 
prDce«led to examine Captain Gabriel Harpur ; who informed them. 
That be bad relided in Bengal, Bahar, and OrilTa, from 1761 to 
'77+; that he wat in the compeny's fervice from 1763 to 1776, 
and commanded a battalion of Sepoys from 176610 1774.-— — Be^ 
ing alked, Where he was flationed the laft fix years of his reli- 
fl«aee in India ? he laid, In the province of Oude, with the Vi> 
sier Soujah Doulah~-~-That he was a Mahomedan,- and an inde- 
pendant prince; that hit dominions extended from tall to well joe 
miles in length, from north to fouth, near 100 tfiilei in breadth ; 

that they were very populous, and well cultivated That he 


«50 Reports frm the CammiUte of ParEamni- on Inifia Jffairt. 

cititnated the stAualcoUe^on of his revenues at about one million 
eight hundred thoufaiid pound per annuni. 

That the Viiier'* army wm limited by treaty, in 1768,- 
^.JOOmeni that it whs compoled of Mabomedans and HindcKM 
>ut by far the grrateft part Hindooa, That many of the princi- 

SJ,0OO men ; that it whs compoled of Mabomedans and Hindooi 
ut by far the grrateft part Hindooa, That many of the pi ' 

pal officer* were Hindoos, and amongit them feveratwho held 

tnands^That the'Vizierwas more attentive to the Hindoo oAicers 
than to thoft of hii own religion, in order to-attach his Gcntoo 
fubje^ more to his perfon and government. 

' That the Vizier treated the Kajahs and Zemindars under his 
dependencies with the greateft marks of j:ivlliiy, tefpe^ft, and friend- 
Ihip, and particularly with regard to the women's apartments— < 
That in coming near a village, he would quit the main road, that 
be might avoid feeing iheir inclofures, as his Atuation on an ele- 
phant would enable him to overlook them That he alwaj-* i«» 

commended a GibUv- condud tq the wttnofs, which he invari- 
sbly obferyed, 

* Bapgaft^d, Whether, during his TBfidenc:e with the Vizier, 
he ever knew a Zemindar being difpoiTeflcd of his Zemindary by 
him ? be faid, That be can only rccoUcA one inl^ance ; that tt 
was for arrcsrt of rent, and it happened to a man who had been 
frequently in arrear, and frequently pardoned ; and who was no- 
torious not only for ill payment of revenue, but for hit conduft 

towards thofe who were under his governmeiiti Being a&ed. 

What W4i his mode of procticding on that difmiffion ? faid, Tha.c 

' the Zemindar was fummoned to attend at Fizabad, the Vizier's 
court J that being unable to pay his arrears, or to find fecuritv 
for the pay meat, he was di^fjelfedof his Zemindary, and impn- 
foned ; where be remained lome time, but was afterv^rds releafed 
at the interceffionaffomeof the Genioo ofliccra about the court. 

* Being alked. What he meant by impnfbnment \ &id, Aguarxl 
fet over his porfon in a place near the Cutchery, appointed for tho 
confinement cf Gcntoo piifooers, where his own fcrvants attended 

him in the fame manner as if he had been in bis own houfe ^ 

The he was fuf^red fometiraes to fit under a tree, and to fleep 
under a tent occafianally pitched fbr him " ' That in the pror 
vince of Oudc, perfons of different religions and cafls arcnever 
confined in the fame place i far they are very careful not to ofiend 
the cuftoms and religions of one fcft or the other, and it would 
give great o8enec.—— Being alked. Whether it is ufual to impri- 
fonperfona for debt in^that cimntry ? he laid. They are itxai^ 
times imprifoned for debt, but not often ; that itnpruoning their 
periqns la the lafl refource they apply to — That they treat their 
debtors with great lenity, and never diftrefi them, if they can give 
pmbable fecurity of paying their debts in a moderate time ; part 
of it is fTec|ueatly remitted ; and particularly in the cafe of the 
Zemitular beforementioned, who was indebted id the vizier 14,000 I. 
all of which was remitted when the Zemindar was releafed : That 
a "man is conlidered as of a very unfeeling and litigious difpolition, 
who purfuea hia debtor to the extremities of coniinement, and it 
is difcountenanced by the courts of jufUce. — Bein^ a&cd, Wh« 
it the ufual rate of intercft in that country ? he infonned yoav 



1 Rtpert/rem tbt Committet tf Parlimunt en In£a Jffidru 451 

I cwsiiiittee. That it ii geocraUy one per cent, per nicMith ; but tiiat 
|)riiui mdividual) *rc much prefled for monc)', themanied men 
I are ipi to exa£k more, but are liable to punifhment for ufury ; thu 
in ibu he coniiaet ^unfelf 10 mercantile cranfaftioiu.— -Being atk^ 
[cd, If be ever knew or heard of places of public woF(hip beings 
iproftuwdby the Mahomedans, ;n executing the Viaier'a orden a« 
ijainfi a Zemindar i he faid, Never once ; ilri£i ordcra are alnrayt 
IpicQioAvCHd any thing of that kind, 

I ' BeiDf a&ed. In what degree of refpefl the women of the Rajahi 
W prbcipal Zemindars sre held in the ViBier'i dominioni t he 
kliid, In the grrateft rcl'ped \ that he never heard ,an inftance of an 
LinlaJt being ofiered to an Hindoo woman of any defcription, dur- 
|ii% the time of hl» reridcDce there — That by infult, be tneiini, that 
[d^r private apartmenis may not be invaded bv any perfoa wb«' 
JbeKf^— That ihere are fome of the lower orden of Gentoo (TO* 
!wn, who in the titne- of harvell affiH io the fields— That to fee 
ilhufe wtHnen is no indignity ; but if you oflered to touch their 
{Kcfom, break, in upou their reiirerMota, or to touch the placet 
[irlKre ihey drefs ihcir vitfluala, it would be coulidered as a viola* 
^D of their cuAoms and reiigioui obfervancet~~That he never 
i^rd of fuch infulta being offered in nny cafe, either by orden from 
'iheVitier, or from. his courti of juftice. 

' Being afltedi Wb»t wai the proportion of Hindoos and Mahome- 
^) in the pcoviscc of Oudef heiaid, he could not precifely an- 
fwet,.bu thattbc' MabMnedao) bear a very fmall proportion to 

' Being atked Whether he wu tt the furrender of Ellihad, ift 
Jjij^he&id, He WlU; and that it furreDdescdaidiicretiott— That 
itbere were man^ women of diftio^ion, Mahomedani and Hiodooi, 

jlhereat the tinie of t}ie furrendcr That Sir Robert Flstcheri 

\ti^ eoitunanded the Englifh army, fuSercd the women awliy 
jiDcoveroj (carriages unexanjiaed, and with ■ guard, ibou^ be had 
'JiidniaciaD at the time,, that they had fecreied mniey and jewels to 
'•very con&derable amount. 

' Beios K&cdt If l>c had beqn at the city of Becarea? he&id, 
ifinjuent^ ; and that it 11 .eQeemed a holy city, the refidence of 
Inmliu; and ,TcrtgiDn.^-^-Being alkcd, in whbfe d<Mnittioi)* that 
Miy is r he faid. It w.aa then in the doroinioas of Soujah Dowlah, 
but under the immediate govern ment ai his Zemindar, Rajah BuU 
wan Sing, who, by the Visier's permiHtea, exercifed foverrign au* 

iboricy That the annua! tribute he paid the Vizier, was about 11 

|iir 13 lacloof rupees'~^Thai he thinks there were no Mahomedati 
{•ficersbelonging to Soujah Dowlah, who were iit authority at Benares 

Tbatthc Vizier appointed one otKcer, thefuperinteitdanc of the 

Hint, who wa« ufuaUy.a Gentoo. Being aflted. If he had often 

rtiided in, or palTed through the provinces of Benares or Gazypore 1 
&c(iiid, lie had frequent^ pafTed through them; and often bad re- 

ided a month at a time at Benares That rather a mere than left 

Indent mode of government is obferved in the profincei of Benares 
itnd Gaiyporw, than prevails in thofe provinces which were more 
immediately under Soujah Dowlah's government. 

' Being afted, ]f then arc many reputable ifaroK refideat at Be- 


\ -■ , ■ -c;. 

t$S Stftrts/rm Um Cammitet tf Paxlttmnt m IiuGa y^airf. 

tarn i be bid, A gnat maajr tnen of large propcrtTt whofe nKniey 
dcsliDgi extend to all pana of In(li3-~-Thii iheir bilti of «• 
change are very current at Su«t— — That the rate of inrercA there, 
U, he bclievet, nearly the Jtifnc ' ai tliroughout the whole provlac* 
of Ouile.— - Being lAed, If it naa confidered as a place of parti« 
culariecurity for thedcp<^t of moDey ? he faid, Itwai; but be be- 
liens thatideaarofe from the nature of it» government . ■ - 'B eing 
alked. Whether the effcift of this government wm» «> attach the id* 
habitant! to the pcrfon and government of Soujah Dovrt&h and 
BulvanSing? belaid, Thumodeof governinebt (ertainly did M- 
f^h them to thur parTon* and ad tal oil} rati on. 

* Being alked, How the province) of Benares pndGaa^vporc arc 
cultivated, compared with ihofe parii of Bahar which xljoin, aa4 
US only feparated by the river CuramnatTa? he faid. The provrnct* 
0f Benares and Gasypore are more highly cultivated thstn any h« 
ever palfed through, and far fupcHor to the adjeailtDg <me of Babari 
and that he attributes thit comparative profperity of thofe provincM' 
to the induflry of the inhabitants and to the lecurc and teuient ga- 
vcTDnieDl tbey live under, 

' * Bcisg alked, wheahtr the Hindooi arc much attached to tbdrj 
mannen and cuftomi, aod religioui obfervancei^? he &id, "l^iey um 

very much.- And whether the Genrau^t^ptiyi in the Eogtiffi kr4 

vice pay much rofpe& to the porfuns of 'the Bramint, to the placet] 
of their worfliip, and to their rcligioua ohfervaecct? We refuted. 
That bs ktia*iTS nnmberiefa inftancei to pnm that they do— — Tfaatj 
Gcntoo Sepoys, on the line of a march palling thrwgh the naigbbouv^l 
'hood of aplaeeof sorih^ frequently hav« - apjilied to their ^iccitj 
foi' leave of ah&ace te perform th«n^ devotjoatr— -That tbe hu-i 
talion which bo coromanded, wai principally eoropofbd of Gentowt] 
^nd that in the feveral rout* that ht bai marched through the- prvi 
vinceaof Sm^^ Dowlah, he ha* fometimfs, at the geB«raI rvqaiM 
of bU the Oentoo rroopi, when it did aot interne with *ny par^ 
cnlarfer^we thathetras'employed in, bahed a day tt> givvthciiU 
an opportunity of paying their dcvotioiH at any pemarlEKbte I^MH 
of worfhip; and he Irumvsv that Souj^ DcMlah hattfftepoH^fVMJ 
the fame conduft with the Hindoo* of lii» ortsy.^-^-rBeiftg •fln^ 
Atthatfeafan of the year nhcupilgrinw feme from allfaptaa£ Indlli 
JO bathe in the Ganges,- and other riveriy what wa* their treMmt^ 
frotn Soniab Dowlah's government i he laid. Thai there are tn^ 
place* of bathing and wocfhip in the neighboqFheod of naatw^l 
wheec, en the arrival of the pilgrimt, guardi were ftatimicd fo- pg^ 
mA them io tbdr religious obfervanceg ; and -Soujah DowUh eoB« 
flantly made large donations atMongft the poat«r fort of th* I'i>^ii«w 
for their maintenance during thth nlgrimaee.* 

The importance and fingalarityof the owKer, will w» 
doubt not, fufficiently apolocizc to out Reader? fbr tbf 
length of the forcgoiirg cxtnift. The obfcrv4tiotrs wc h&v^ 
hitherto ii&de on the reports of the fecret and feleft oom* 
itninees relate, more or Icfs, to tbem all. la our npxt 
number wc propofc very fully and lartiiculaily to caamiM 
the meata of the n'mt// reptrtt which .tm b«m pabtiOiej 


Monro's Ohfirvat'iKU m iht. NttVtiit ^jfitiH. ft^ 

to the votld in a formal manner, and whidt bas attiaded f 
very general attention. 

A».T. II Oh/ervationi en tbi Simelure and FlutMltmi tf the Jftrimu 
Sfjitm. lUuftraKd with Tabki. Br Alexander Monro, M. D. 
Pn&dtat of the Royal College of Phyficiwn, and Profeffor at 
PhyGc, Anatoni^r and Surgery in the Unjverluy of fdtnburjb. 
Iiarge folio il-. [M>6d. Boards. Juhnlba. 

CttUhmtJ fi-am titr Revieoi of At^ujt, 
TN the 33th Chapter, of the appearance of the ncrv«s 
I in their courfe, &c. the Author contradiAs the idea adopted 
by other writers on the fubjefl, that the nerves confift of 
longitudinal fibres laid parallel to each other. He averts, on 
the contrary, that tliey confift of 2 femipellucid fubHaftce, ia 
which a more white and opalte fibrous looking matter feems 
tb be difpofed in tranfvene and ferpetitiae liiiei, which arc 
evident in all the nerves, efpccially the fmall ones. 

The Profefflor confiders. thefc lines as folds ot joints, 
fenring to accommodate the nerves to the different ftatci) 
of flexion and exteniion ; and confirms this idea by ob- 
ferving that the tendons have a fimilar appearance in their 
relaxed ftatf, which they lofc, as well as the nerves when 
they are greatly fireKhed. 

In the 15th Chapter, on the plcxnfes of nerves; Dr. 
,Monr6 obfervss, that the fibres of the different trunks iii 
them arc intermitted, and that every nerve under the plexua 
coniilts of fibres of all the nerves, that are tied together 
above the origin of that nerve from the plexus ; and in tlis 
t7th Chapter he aJTerfs, that the chords which compdlq 
each of the nerves form a.fucceffion of plctufes with each 
OthcCt nearly in the fame manner as in the axillary plexus 
formed by the trunks of the cervical nerves. The Doftof 
imagines that the intention of nature. In fo carefully intsr- 
(nittihg the nervous fibres, is to lejlcn the danger of accU 
dents or difeafes affeftingtbe trunks of the nerves. 

In die' 19th Cliapter which treats of the ganglia of th^ 
(lerves; after having fhevn, as we noticed in a former Re- 
view, that only one of the fafciculi of the fpinal nerve, 
(the pofterior) enters into a ganglion, Profeffor Monro con- 
cludes that only one half of all the nerves of the m.ufcala^ 
prgans of the trunk, and one half of the nervesof the arm^ 
ana legs pafs through aganglion. 

The 6lh pair, the portio dura of ^the '7th the 8th and the 
9th pairs being connected by filaments to the ganglia of thq 
great fympatheticnerve, gives fbme reafon to fuppofc, that 
jome part of tbefe ncrvejpafii tliroughtheft'tangiia, c6n7 


ft^ Monto^i CUfiyvtttiani tn the Nervous SjftttH. 

triry to the opioioili of authors, that thele aa well as tU 
oifadory, the optic nerves, and the fourth pair are deftitutf 
of ganglia. 

Ganglia all agree in their general ftrudore, 
' Jn the fixtb Sedion of this Chapter a number of conclafioni 
tre drawn from the feveral faAs mentioned bj the Autb6r re- 
fpefting ganglia. As thefe c'oncluitons containf and arc in 
reality the fadls themfelves, wc Ihall have a coniprehenJivc 
view of his opinions on this fubJcA, by laying thctn befora 
our Reader, obforving by the way, that this mode of draw- 
ing conclujiona, which is little more than a repetition of the 
fafls themfelves, feems to be too frequently followed in this 

lA. ' Several branches of the nerves which enter a gang- 

* lion, run upon its furfacc, feparating from each other* 

* and joining again, fo as to fom^ new continuations of 
' threads at the other end of the ganglion. 

2dly. ' "When we cut a ganglion, we are lo fer from 
' finding that the courfe of the nerves is interrupted within 

* it, or that it is a fubftance totally different in its nature, 

* from the nerves that enter it, that we arc abk to Jrace in 

* every part of the ganglion nerves diftinguifhable by fuch . 

* folds or joints as arc feen in them in all other places. 
3dly. The Author aflerts from obfcrvation, that ^re 

IS a great intermixture of nervous threads in a ganglion. 
4tlily. ' It appears very difficult in many ini^ances, to 

* didinguifh ail the nerves which enter a ganglion from -. 
' thofc which are lent off (rom it ; and of tourfe it is very 

' difficult or impoflible to determine all the. fotirccs from ,' 

* which any branch fent off to the ganglion is derived.* 
jthly. Though the nerves iffuing from g»igtia, fcem , 

to be more bulky than thofc which enter them, ' yet I have I 

' not been able to difcovcr that the coates of Ue' nerves | 

' going out were thicker, or different from the coati of the ; 

* nerves going into the ganglia. Hence there is joft lea- ■■ 
' fon to fuppofe tliat nervous matter is fiimilKed by gang- ' 

6thly. In confirmation of this' opinion,' Jt' is pMnVed, 
^ That the yeUowifli or brownilh' matter of nnglia Ibj 

* numerous vcflcls conveying red blood, dilperled upon it : i 

* tliat its colour, efpccially in man, very much rcfemblcs ' 

* that of the cortical fubftance of the brain : that m fevcnl 

' children, in whom the hrain had been ei&er originally : 

* imperfc^, or comprcffcd by accident, it's colour ana con- | 

* fiftence ftill more clofelv refembled that of a ganglion, t 
' That, in man, the trunk of the dlfeftory iicrvc has, ad- , 

* bcring to its end, a cineritious bulb, titiiated within the ! 


Moaro*S Oifirvationt en the Nervtut SjfttiK. ij j 

and which is evidently pi the laioe tnttorc 
with the cortical matter of the brain. In fith, the olfa£torf 
nerve has no fuch .buLb within the cranimn; but nearer 
to the nofe we find a ganglion, fupplying the place of thif 

7thjy. This opioion is further confirmedi- from what 
has \xea. previouuy obfervcd of every nerve being tioTcrcd 
with cincntious matter, impardng energy to it. 

Stbly. 'From a comparifon between a ganglion snd »' 
lymphatic conglobate ^nd. 

Hence ganglia are moft nttmerons in the necrei of- die 
moft important organs. 

In Chapter 20th Dr. Monro gives an account of fomo 
Spheroidal bodies which he has difcovered in - fome fiih, to 
wit, the cod, the whiting, and the haddoclc, between the dura, 
and pia mater, ^nd on the outfide of the brain, cerebeUnm, 
and (pinal marrow ; lodged in a vifcid dear humour tnterpofed 
between the cranium and the brain. The minute branches 
of the nerves are dcftitute of them, and fimilar to the nerves 
m other iilh, or in other clafles of animals. The' AuThor 
concindea that tlicfe bodies makepart of the nervous fyftcm, 
and conjcflutes that they fervc iome office of high impor- 
tance, but thinks that tliey do npt'fupply the placs of gan- 
glia, becaufe although there are no ganglia in thcfe fim at 
the root of the fpinal nerves, yet the fame deficiency is ob- 
fcrvable in other fifti. 

In Chapter '21 the Author gives an account t/fomffrin-r 
tipal nervtt which bavt rut ietitprifei'iy traced hy Jlutbon. ' 

And firft, be has traced the olfaSory nerves by dilTedioni 
even in the human fubjed, a great way within the nofe, 
where they form an elegant net work. This is contrary to 
the opinion of ^nn and Haller, of their fiibftance being 
lb foft and pulpy, that it is ioipoflible to trace them beyond 
the etfambiae bone. Tfaefc nerves in the Iheep and ox are 
hollow, but the Profellbr hath not determined whetbet they 
be io in man. 

He hath alfo traced the firft and fecond branches of the 
fifWi pair within the nofe ; the former being fpent, tn man, 
as well as in the Oiecp and ox, on the upper and for« part 
of the feptum navium, and the latter, particularly in the oz 
and iheep, being diftributed on the lower part of the feptom 
navium, and upon the olTa fpot^ofa and ude of the nofe. 

The retina which by all other anatomifts has been fup- 
wtfed to terminate, at the iigamentum ciliarc, Dr. Monro 
finds ending abruptly like the edge of a tea cup, fomewhat 
forthei back in the eye, and covering only HiM pan of the 



a^ "Memo's Qbfirvaliant en the Uervum Si^at. 

eje on which the piaores of objeas can. be diftin£llj' 
painted. v 

Tlie Author obfcnej tiiat Dr. Meckel has cotnmhted a 
aitftakc in his trcatife on the fifth pair of aerres, in lepce- 
I'cnting the carotid artery as puffing between the feciHid and 
third branches' of that nerve ; and &f s,' iltat it is on, the 
inner fide of both branches. 

The ProfefToT has aKo' traced the nerres of ^le txttit fai' 
ther than Mr. John Hunter, and obfinvcs, thdtihz child 
at birth, their fcveral branches can be viaioij Ibcvn, firft^ 
.conntded fo is to form a picxns, and afrcr that enterii^ the- 
pulp of the tootli. Other branches pais between the teeth- 
and gums. 

The Prc^flbrthen combats the opinion of die voice being- 
entiKly IoA,-when the recurrent nerres are ciit. From his ' 
experiment it appears, that' the voice wai fpnfibly altered in 
time by this operation andwpakened ; but that in the coiirfir 
of &i weeks after, the ftrength of it was conliderably rc- 
ftorcd. This faft is afterwards confirmed from the anato* 
mical ftriWllare, for the: ProfciEn found, on diHe^ltng tlic 
nervin of the hnman larvox, that die. recurrent and faperior 
laryngeal nerves were joined together by their apices, or 
foTOted a pie&ns, sefembhTig that of the nerves of die face. 

Dr. Monro has likewife delineated a faraQ tMairch of z 
nprve from th^ tnufcular fpdral nerve of'thc arm, whidt en- 
ters into the back part of the ligament of &e carpus, and is 
chiefly fperit upon it, in oppqMiion td E>r. Haller, who has 
tlenied that any ncnre can be- lnic«d into die, figautent o£ a 

Dr. Monro further advances,' that the chorda: lympaui i» 
fermcd by Ihc fecoiid branch <tf the fifths pair^ as well as i>f 
tlte portio dura of the fevendi ; and diac is it added! to thtf 
Kngual' branch of the third branch of the fifth pair. He had 
^fe reprefbxted the pingi^i and tuininadon of the por^ 
Bioliit of the fcveuth pair in the cochlea o( tlae hmnan. cari 
of which no account has yet been given by authors. 

We nowcomsia the Ixd Cltaptcr tn the Aothor's ftii- 
croitopical obfervatiansan i3ie nerTes^ opon which oAa£6n 
it wiU neither be impropctf nor foreign to ourporpafe^ to 
give our Readers a friiniBary of what has pafied betweeUoar 
Author,, and rhccdebnited Abbe. Fontann on tins fahjo^ 

From Dr. Monro's £rik obfetvations; the accmak. of 
which be read to the phjiofoplBc^ focicty of Eidinbiir^^ in 
Janvuy 17*9, it appeared to bimi that tiK akinnes ffi)Ttis;of 
the'otxves were legutari^ and. unifiicndy Jtapexnine and emr^ 
vohitcd ; and d|at ttus appearance was ^fo ex^in&dto- duift 
«]«, bones, teguments, and even the hairs, of the bodv. 


MortroV Qhfirvatioas an tht Nervous Ssfltm. ijj 

He likenvife oblerved the fame in the recent parta of* vege- 
tables, in the follile kingdom, and in all folid bodies whe- 
ther opaque or pellucid. 

The Abbe Fontana, being at this time in London, and 
at work upon tliis fubje^l, wilhed to be informed from Dr. 
- Monro himfeif of the nuure of the difcoveries he had 
;nade, that in his publication he might be able to dotb$ Pro- 
fcSoT the justice he deferved^ and might net run the rifqtw 
Af advancing as his own, difeoveries, which belonged to ui-^ 
pther. With thjg view the Abbe wrote a polite letter to Dr. 
Monro) intreatingthe infotidation he wimed to be faroured 
with^ Did to prevent the leaft idea of fufpicioB, : exwekly 
told Dr. Monro in that letter, that he conlidered his dU- 
coveiiei as already |>ublifhed, and confequently ant'iior to 
his own. ... 

To this letter the ProfelTor, for rcafons beft known to bim- 
felf, neVcr returned any anfwer. The Abbe Fontana. was 
therefore obliged to jake bis information from the EtcfOunt 
given of thefe difeoveries by Dr. Duncan In the MedioaJ 
Commentaries of EdinbjiTgh. The Profcflbr in his prcfent 
publication fays, this account was written without his dtfWtt 
tMjt at the fame time acknowicges, that the Doftor llUWcd 
him what he had. written before it was fcnt to the pre^iL . 

Fiom hence we may fairly conclude that tiiis was at leaft 
a tacit approbation on Dr. Monro's fide of what Dr. Dun- 
can had written. , . . 

From the Abbe Footana's lirft experiments fomething 
£tnilar to Dr. Monro's ideas feemed to appear; that is, the 
nerves fcemed to be compofed of a number of diftinft fplral 
bands; but a more accurate examination .convinced the 
Abbe that this appearance of fpiral bands was merely an op- 
^cal deception ; and that they alternately appeared and difr 
appeared according to various direflions of the light or mi- 

* We ihall not trace the Abbe's very curious and interelting 
difeoveries upon this fubjeft any further, than aa they are 
rmtnedratety connedted with the book we are! reviewing. 
Wfi,fhall only therefore obferve, that the Abbe's work was 
publiihed at Florence, in the year 1781, and that Proicljbt 
Mbnto's b6ok:<lid not appear in print tilt the year 1783. In 
this work, the learned ProfetTor acknowlcges his former 
miftilkes, and declares that he had found out this convo- 
lotBd'appeafancc to be alfo an optical deccprion^ but through- 
ODtthe whole of the chapter on this fub)e£t, makes not the 
kaft mention of 'the Abbe Fontana; This is a ftatc of 
^^.' WeleoVeoilr Readers to make- their own cbm'ment 
ium: tbem* and Ihalt only esprefs our warmeft wifhes, that; 

Emc.Rev. Vol. II. Oa. 1783. R all 

,j,,GoogIc ^ 

a^S Monro's Obfirvatlmt an the Nervous Sy^flttH. 

ill men of true fcicnce would imitate the candour, libcralityv 
and Rx>dcration which the Abbe Fontana hath difplayed up- 
on this occafion. 

On the nMurcof theericTCT of the Nerves, Dr. Monro 
advances no new opinion; not argues againft thofe who 
fuppofc with Haller, that thtf nerrous energy is moved with 
prodigious velocity ; and alfo thinks that the arguments (rf 
thofe who contend, from the eifcfts and ftruflure of the 
torpedo and gymnotus eflcflricus, that the nerves operate 
by the medium of an eleftrical fluid, arc by no raeaas con- 
cllrfjVe. ■ 

In the 25th Chapter, where the qneftion. Whether thr 
nerves convey noxrijhmrnt M our 'argons, is difcufled ; ■ Dr. 
Monro, afier invalidating all the ailments that have been 
brought by others in fupport of the affirmative lidC of (bis 
^ueftion, proceeds to prove the negative by a chain of very 
clofeand found rcafoning, fupportcd by anatomical fafts 
and experiftients, fome of which have \xkr mentioned upon 
anoth'er accalion. He likewife fhcws that onr nourifhrnent 
is dire£lly fecreted and applied by the arteries, wWKJUt the 
intervention of the nerves. 

' We fliall mention only the lafl of thete arguments in his 
own words, as it feems to eftablifh the point mcontrfllblf 
tiy its <>wn weight, without the concurrence of die other 
arguments he has made ufe of. r - 

" To conclude with an arguracni a^inll thn hypothefii, (of 'tKe 
" nerve* being parli that convey DOuriflimeDt,) which may be 
" copfidercd at ao orgumfMlun cruch, it ii well Vnown, that ST 
'* powder of madder root if mixed with tbs tbod ot at y»ung aiii-> 
" iriitl, the bones become r«d ; or if a bone has been broken, tbM 
** the callus joirnng its paits witt be red. The ferum of the blood, 
*' in'the firft place, is aeejjy tinged ; but the red colour of ibe 
" bones IS not folcly, nor even chiefly, owing to the coloured 
" ferUrti, or blood circulating, for I have foutid' that after inje^ng 
" water into the velTels till thefe were emptied of the blood, aoa 
** that the water earae out coloorkfj, the tin^ in the iionea ap- 
** peared equally deep, and was, therefore, plaiidy oning to a great 
*' quuuity of ^e red eartb added to the bones in rbc time of thetr 
*' growth. But this earth was not tranfhiitted by the nerves ; for 
•' the colour of thefe, as I fouttd. remained unchmged;" \ 

The Author bavini; now endeavoured to prove that tlie 
onlytwafunQionE of the i^ms arefenfation and tnotionp 
fpeaks in the 26tb chapter of the former of thefe fun^ioCs.' 
tie argues agiunft t^e opinion, that the living and' feeling 
principle, which wecall the mind of the aniaial, is feated 
entirely within the head, occupying there a ienfOrium com-. 
mune ; by obfcrving, that aMiough a wound beyond the ' 
place at which a nerve is' cat, does notescctte paui) yet thcrr 



Monro's Oijervftloni an tie iferveitt Syflem. 259 

hre effcffs following the^wound, which cannot be accounted 
for on mechanical principles. 

From obfcrving, that a^ flight punflure of the heart of a 
frog, when feparateil from its body, throws all its fibres in 
a violent motion ; he im^inrs, fuch a caufe is fp difpropor- 
tionate tq the etFe£tp, that fojue living principle lus- been 
influenced. He rauft therefore conceive that the living 
principle is featcd in the fevcnLl parts of the body, 'inde- 
pendent of their connexion with the brain. This, feems 
only reviving the iyttcm of fomc philafophers, who have 
fuppofed that the foul or mind was uoiverfally diifufed 
through ;aU parts of the body, and exifted even in the -ex- 
tremities of the toes and fingers. Upon this fubjed he qdds 
the following ingenious idea. ,.,,.-■. 

.' OT) (we may conceive) chat there are twoVindjof feeling; one 
with, and another witliout confcioufners ; tUe latter perhupi re- 
femb ling that kind of fceiins which ws may fuppofe inherent m 
vegetaMea, and in eonfequcnce of which, their velTels are fo afluated 
»i to produce ftill more numerous and wonderful changes on the 
fluids ibeyj:oiivey and fecrete, than arc to be obferved'in the animal 

In the 27th Chapter the Author endeavours to proVe by 
n^uch ingenious reafoning and curious cxperitiient, that the 
mufcles^o.notpoiTeis any vis inlira or power of afting dif- 
ferent from the vis nervea ; or in other words that mulhular 
aftion depends entirely- on the infiuencc or -power of the 

. The 28th and laft Chapter treats on the: manner and 
tarafes of the actions of the mofcles. Here the Author 
contends with' great force of reafoning, after ftating tlip va- 
rious fympathetic aftions which take place in animal bodies, 
that fucli complicated adtions cannot be produced or aocMlun- 
ed for from their Biechanical ftrufliffc j and tlrat they can- ■ 
not either principally or entirely depend" on ths connexion 
which our diflcxcntoervcs have with each other. 

He then Jlateetbe heads of his objections to the doiftrine 
trf^.lbchifyiiipathy being dependent on mechanical princfiplcs 
iitthe-fttUowing manner. 

I. ' Mufcles t'npplied by the nerves irritated, often do not a^, 
but other* ftta diftmce. 

3. ' Mu&ttt mol) conneAed by their nerves do not fynipathife 

3. ' Sympathy i$ not to be traced the reverfe way. -_-\ 

4. ' Mufelei tupplied by intermediate Dervej.are at reft. 

J. * The fame uerve, irritated in different parts, produces dif- 
ferent motions. 

6. * The fame nerve, gently and violently irriuted, producet 
different mocion$. . 

R a 7. ' Tli« 

DiflltlzedbyGoOgIC " 

i6o Monro's 0)>fervm9ni in th^ Ntrvtus &^tm. 

•}. ' T^e fame ne^ve, accuftomed to the fiiiouius, s^kfs, ttr 
not at all. 

fi. ' ADt>s;oiiifiintL'cles.teceiv«nprrcs from ttie fame root;. 

9- * There are many Tympaihies, where a connexion of nerrof 
1^ not to be traced. 

10,' Maiij'impulfesaffeftt'hemindfirft. 

It.' Afiedtion» of the mind, without the prefcnce of ^steriMl oV 
ye&t, produce the fame effciti,' ' '■ 

In order to lay his claim to thefe krgumcnti agtinft ifae 
common mode of accounting for the caufe of^mpathyin ths 
nerves, the Author mentions, That he had detiTcrcd thfun 
in his cour'fe of Icdurcs, eight years before Dr. Whytt wri*- 
lilhetl his treatiie on the fubjeS, in which many of'-thefe ar- 
goments arc co'ntairted ; and three years before that gentfe' 
man wrote and delivered tenures upon iL 

Thetc is niuch metaphyficai reafbning inthis Ch^ler 
which is perhaps mote curious than nfefal. 

The Author terminates his work with the following in- 
ference deduced from his principles; which we Ihall give in 
lits own words. 

* When we throw into the fc ale the various effeiSs of wliathas 
teen connnQnIy called the inlliȣt of anlin^lg, ion it not ap^r, 
that the rouA juil, as well as moil becoming cohclulion we can draw, 
18, that the power which created all things, which gavelife to ani- 
siaU. and irioiion to the Heavenly bodies, c'ohtutuel to i& up^, 
and to maintain all, by the imceaflng influence of a IWittg^-f rindple 
pervading the aniveiTe, the nature of which our facnMBs are in- 
capable of comprehending.' 

Wc now come to the plxtes, in number fortytfeven. nitb 
which our Ai^w tclis us in his title page, his work is illsf- 
tratcd; bat riicfeareingeneridfo indiAercntly executed^ that 
h« tnl^t with greater propriety have laid that his work was 
difgraccd by thon^ The dnwing in . gencraL is not &ffi- 
eitmxly eorreCt, nortlic csagiuving etthier,.giuihed enough, or 
pivpei'iT adi^lBd io exprefs. the levcral charaAers. of the dif- 
ferent (ubftanoes. W« are at a lofs. to. find out .vi^iat mo- 
tive awld poflibly induce out Autlior to bcinattcntlYe to^an 
obje^of fttchmagaitudc, and lo cffemialina work of this 
kind : more cfpcciidly when he hadan SKample befin^llini 
of fo high a dsgrec of pcrfbflion in the prints publuhed ^by 
Baron Haller on the fame fubjeft in his'&fciculi; ,we arc 
afraid' tfeat the iHirfhious Profcflbr has viewed the work; of 
thoartifts of his'own country with too partial an /Bye japon 
this occaiiont a'hd that this circumftance has pfpyaileij oVei 
his tafte and judgment. To illullratc a peiformaqce upon 
which he ^eems to wifh to fupport the well conftri^ftiyi cdi- 
£ce of his own fame; hefjiould haye fearcbed, (he univerfe 
«vet for the moft complete and perfed aitiftS' 


Hifiary and Pg^'ualLife af.ibe Hon. CiarUs Jamn Fax. a6l 
Thus hate nv^m. oar Readers a full analyfii of this 

truly great work ; from which they will perceive that it 
ibounds in {lifcorrcries and cYqaifke anatomical inveftiga- 
tions, which not only coiteft inaiiy flrrors, and open a 
larger jieid of inquiry to future anatomii^s, hat likewile are 
nfffullyapplied to the iinprovemeni of mfdicat and chimr- 
gical prafticc. We do not know tliat wc h»vc omitted the 
notice of one fingle dilcvv^ry which the Author lays claim 
tOi FtxUof important and new matteras this' work is, we 
are furprraed to hE*r an opinion prevail, th*t it doth not an- 
fwer Uu: bKpedationi which had been raiTed in the medical 
world, from ihe PrcrfelTor's rcpuucion. Wc know not wiiat 
(kcopjecanexped or dclire, when, befide the numerous ad- 
vantages already mentioned, the work, excepting fome few 
iinle inaccuracies of Style, fcarce wortli mentiouing, is 
Written throu^aut, and in all the parts of it particularly, 
which are Upon abftrufe points, with that degree of clear- 
Befs and preeifion, to which none but a man of eminent 
and confpicooas talents can attain. All we have to regret 
it, thM in (u tkh a- fcutcheon, there ihould be oneiingie 

A*T. nU H!fi^ f/ thi Politkal Vfe, and puUk ter^ktS^ ' as a 
Seialor, im^ a St^ufman, of the Righi jJonhraUe Charks Jumts 
P^x, Bi^nf bU Majtfiy's Principal ttatidrUi a/'^iaiei 8vd. ;.s. 
bbards, Debrctt. 

CRITICS often fpeak, and with great juftice, of the 
many difficuhies" which attend the wriiiBg hiAories of 
our own times: fome are apt to be partiaLto.a.feJej&iew, 
o; ,*rp blindly attached to the prejudicesof the multitfidc. 
Their profcffions of impartiality are contiadifted in'their 
Vwy Dtitfet, and tliey rarely poifefe that caolnefa which en- 
quires into rqeafures and not men, and eaablss us to judge 
of afiairi as if nowife concerned in the ovcnt. Inftcad of 
tliis indi'p^nfable property of pohtical detail, ft moet with 
mtemperate aeal hurryii^ narrators' icito.abfordities, aiul'a 
.warnlith of fpeech and argument ofteiv dat^imentat to in- 
(egrity, and at aU times defeating the punrpofes intended to 
-be ferved. Emulous likewifc to excel in depth t^i pene- 
tration, writey often draw fahe concltr^ns frem-, imper- 
fcft data, and wax wife and warm on the chimeras of taeir 
pi«il, hrairv. . If the^ .ai^ a fsw of the dt^i^tics which at^ 
.^i>d .political inveitigation of public -isi^urps and. .eveitts, 
- how much are dangers of every kind cncareaf^d w^en the 
. pplftician ti|Fi)t hlQgri^^ier, andgi<^,ta the; voiM :u> en, 

R 3 ■ . quirj^ 


a62 Hifttry end Tolitkai Ltfc of the Hon. Chafhs James Fix. 

quiry into the life and Icrviccsof a tOaa to wbomJte is paf- 
nooately and avowedly devoted i . ■ 

The life of Mr., fox has been on uncommon one, but it 
is lefs generally known tban it ought. The prcvfiltitg in- 
fluence of a permanent miniftry under Lord North, with- 
drew the attention of the public from an inetF«£luaU though 
induArious oppolition. By a miitake not unafual in vulgar 
minds, that man. and thofc minifters tkppear«d to have 
the greateft nserit, in as much as (hey outbnved excty ef- 
fort to deprive them of power, Itistr.ue, and it is not un- 
natural, that the adminiftratorg who de6ed.Mr- Fo^ and 
his friends for aferics of years, were. a popular • miniftry ; 
for they were aililled in all thGtr plans by unbounded gitts 
of troops and money ; they had the free ear of their fo- 
vereign, and baneful as all tlisJr fchemes prov«, be, 
they ftill had words whereby to fafcinate the public, and in 
places remote from lie metropohs they were refpefted m 
men who were rather unfortunate than blamcphlat ^^ 
whofe fuccefs was ill proportioned to their wild<mi- The 
generous and fubmilTive fpiric of the natjon readily ' .gav9 
them credit for their profcflions, and allowed tlial. the 
race was not always to the iwift, nor the battle to the 
llrong. They had the art by means not yet clearly eluci- 
dated to fecHre a majority in parliament — a kind at fiKcefi 
(hat wins more upon the general difpofition than cvep s 
eonqueft in the field. During this irreiiftible progrefs in 
parliamentary dominion, the labours of Mr. Fox, arid his 
party were forgotten, or left to the panegyric of an obfcure 
ncwfpaper and a Wcftminfter mob. He wfts confidered 
as a faftious and ambitious matt who wilhed to grtfw great 
it the cxpence of his country. He *fas reviled and abufcd 
in every poffiblc manner, and anecdotes were invented and 
propagated toblackenhis reputation. Whethcp they had 
the defiredeffeft or not, we cannot determine, hut they 
made him appear -in a light truly ridiculous, /and de- 
prived his charaftcr «f-that dignity, without which; it it 
impollible for a man to be popular: -His fr^ertds in par- 
liament'w'erc not few nor of the loweA rank ;■ Wt thoi;- o- 
■nited efforts could not, unlefs in a very incotilid^^Ulq *1«- 
grec, fhake that confideiKe whicli the people patin the 
moft' compaft and' firm miniftry this country perhaps t^ibt 

Bur this triumph of the tfiiniftry was doopMd to' end 
jn -a ciimplett defeat. -Men were- liotalwayS: tp-|i(Katairf- 
ed ^wth plans tliat never were carried'ihto ctecirtiMi^ nM 
dcliided''with htipeS thM neVer'-failed to terminate itt- the- bit- 
tetcft difappointmeni. National debt, difgficc, and weak- 



Ihftary mtd PalhicaJ Life ef thi Hon. Charlit Jams Fox. 263 

nels- became glaring and abrming. The princitriei of op- 
polition were con&med hj a mm of refiftleis :iads. A 
war attempted to be conda&tdii by men deilimte of know- 
ledge, and which was at oace a fchool and'a nsrard to 
men deftitute of integrity, wss attended with deltruftion 109 
rapid not to terrify, and too obrious not to. awaken the 
mod lleepy oMerver. As men began more and more to 
perceive the tllnjions which had led them into error, the hero 
of die work before us emerged from <^fcvR'ity into coofc- 
qnence. Men in oppofition, hitherto weak, took coiirage from 
the numerous delems of' their enemies, and foon ovxrturned 
a tniniftry formerly deemed impregnable, but which now fell 
into ilifgiace, and was permitted to leave no traces be- 
hind it. 

The events which fuccceded this defeat confiitute tlK moft 
important part of Mr. Fox's life and charader. Hedid not 
Airmk from this teft of his profefTtons, but it mxA be 
confejied thatbe confirmed the ambiguity of hii charadtei, 
and loft many of his friends by a precipitate retreat from 
{lis office at a time when his abilities were moft wanted, 
and when the eyes of the nation, nay, of all Europe were 
upon him. He Aill more and more made the faith of 
his beft friends to waver, by forming a coalition with Lor3 
North, a minifter whofe meafures he had uniformly repro- 
bated, and that with a feverity of cenfurethat often made.tlie 
noble Lord tremble, even though the dait Mi point)e& to 
tlKground before the ihield of minifierial inAuence. 

To reconcile thefc fecming Jnconfiftencies in the charac- 
ter of Mr; Fox, to prove that he is one of the moft ac- 
complilhed heroes of political valour and integrity — in a 
word, to hold him forth, as the faviour of his country, if 
ever it can be faved, is not only the obvious but the profe^d 
intention of the Author of tliis work. It is impoflible for 
^s to enter into a minute detail of tbo feveral topic* which 
our Author has combined, aij that would lead ns into politi- 
cal difquilttions which would be endlefs, and which, per- 
haps would give little fatisfa£tion to our Readers, When 
we cenfure any part of this work, we are not cenfuring the 
Author but Mr. Fox, and from tiie province of criticifm we 
Aiould thus wander into that of politics. We Ihall there- 
fore give what we conceive to be the general charafter of 
fhe work, and leave it to the reader to determine bow for 
the Author has accomplifhed his wi(h ; after which wo /ball 
point out a few objections which juftice will not allow ns to 

Throughout the whole, this Author difplayi a lively 
«nd proUnc imRgiaation, fubjoA to many of the eccentrici- 

ifi4 jmitrytinifpliucal lift nftbpHen, ChkrJtiyama Fm;1 . 

ties- \tbti^ itcend genius. Hit "ftile :)s Ttgftfoat-m ^mutf 
part&i and almoft in all- he is vninwDsi joid enterUinitig^ 
Battbeproinment fixture is fabclcty ; his plan being tq 
exlubit Mu Fox as the meft pcrfeft political cliaraflcr now 
oa earth, 1* dq where lofes fight of this moft important 
plirpofe, hut extricates his hero from evpry difficulty and 
embarraflinent, in ft manner highly ingenious, if not con- 
vincing. He has evidently fpared no pains in pFOcuring 
fnatcrifU, and he has amngcd thele in a judicipus manner. 
A habit of reUcdion fometimcs betrays him into <tiff'afcnefs, 
but as his judgment is not Jihaliow, nor his manner dHagrec-r 
able, the Reader can fcarcely bUmc him for teoipofarj t^an-^ 
fitions from dubious politics te found philoTophy. Sqch is 
pur opinion on the fair fide, which we truft is not rcfntcd 
by the following extrad from cbapt«r 14th, concerning the 
character of Mr. Fox. 

' The mlniliter, who forefaw the purpofes to trhich the poneri 
ful oppofition of Mr. Foi would certainly be applied, and the gcr 
peral cUmours it would occafiuH, endeavoured, Irom the heptiq>Dg, 

by every fpecice of artilice he coi^ld either excrcife or eoqourageq 
(o counteract its operation. lyur was it difficult to ptcpoflers-Uis 
public with an unfavourable impretHon of ■ mari, »nble" irer^ 
y dillikcd, fo liir from coticiliatibg ll<cif 
) a proof qt fugh political verfatifity as 
bar to the utility of t!ie grcatcft a.bili^ 

public with an unfavourable impretHon of ■ mari, »nble" irer^ 
dereition of a fyllein ihey dillikcd, fo liir from coticiliatibg ll<cif 

eftcfrti, was conftrued in— ' -'■' ''■■"'■ — i'---—' -— f—.«.-. — 

would Se an everlaftinj^ 

ties. This early and honourable preference of duty to interefl, or 
virtue tt> emolumei^t, whiirh difcovered, aniidft all the vioteat propen- 
litics of youth, and in fcenei of peculiar temptation, an. iavipcUtlie 
regard' to maplinefs of coaduft and purity, of prinoiple, was Je^ 
duloufly ridiculed,, and openly exploded, as oridnatipg in tcniei;tty 
jof ten)per, perfonat piqjje, or. dilappoiated aqibicioii; ' PubUc.liK;T 
culatian feemed peculiarly interelled in a llep at.oucq fpiiogubii;, 
and fo little cTpedled in fo young a man, and varioue tjicorfcs 
were adopted f& the folutlon of a problem not to be accpuiued 
for oiv the ordinary principles of political conTerRon, It pade^ 
however,' after defeating every fpeeies of invcffigation,' among &e 
favourites of idminifh^iion, fot treachery and ingratitude; auMMg 
thofe acquainted in the utmofl extent of hit findsces, for fupei^ 
lative ext.i^ragance and folly ; and, BmDng hi) couiitT)'meii 
neral, for an equivocal prqfellion of virtue tq wfai^h they did- not 
ibiok faiin equal. 

iBut, when tinie, perfeverance, and al&dulty, bad f4>^g(^-'!)d 
matured tbe public opinion of his charaijter, anoibex fyflenj <rf 
traducing and defeating him ^cas formed and profecuted. "I^^ 
foon found that the tnoft likely way of deftroying ih? efficacy of 
lii» eloquence Was to tarniOi 3nd blacken bis jcputatioti. Notaiqj 
is raore eltential to perfuation fhan a 'good opinW oF the Ibcalcer. 
Perfeil conBdencc, Id his probity, candour, diiintereftedo«(S, wfti 
other amiable and capdvattiig qualities,, add weigbt- xid.- "vigour to 
whatever be i|ttcr«( 'clotbe%.^i$lAiicl(ncati<' with a-xbsroi which w 


enbdttflinicnt cftBisipart, dUp*l«v>to tiftei) wltb ]i^xure <ff atT 
iuitM»).wd scfMy< creaK a Iccret bnc fcn^bte imxinlky for the 
£de he efpoufti, and the aMwineot* vl>i^ fitpport- fei* caavi^oiB 
are generally produfUve oToun. ^ut tb* pratv wHom we ro- 
gacJ with furpicion, wUI ottcn fiod U dilGciUt. to perfixade U) .vf - 
the truth. ' HU clocntioif may hf polidied anil heattuful, may 
be copious and cWffical, may entertain and amulci or dazzle aiw 
flafli, bur can neither c^iprivate the affciHion*, nur cntigtitiD tbe 
tinderfhin<rin£, The genuine ftnrnneiits of a worthy andvimious 
mind, Uttered with btcomin^ efltneftncfe and dtspity, are ftrilting , 
and iricfiliibU- It i> impofllble for fuphiftry or prtjudjw tow-:h- 
Aand the 'coiqiMndiBg energy oi true oratarv and puriottfm thus 
united and cxertcdt afpecially ingmt ami critical occaiioas, A 
fpirit of tbe foulcA eAprmity a»d flaodpr vm tlwn&>r« imrBoli- 
ately raifed, aod propagated, to derive ibe elioqaeace of Mr. Fox 
of lu faireil and molt prevailing amlUary, Hi< fupcrLaiive gcniu* 
yna the only thiqg 'in his favour which the fyeophdiitt'Of party 
^nd faction bad not the temerity to deny, I'he geuerofity, can- 
dour and affability, for which his company had been always fulicit- 
cd and cfteeTTied in private, were now treated is the contemptible 
rales <rf an impoftw purpofcly thrown out to catch the plaodits of 
a mob. Thai noble fpirit of indeperulence, which enabled hint, 
even in poverty^ to treat with fcorn whatever bore the femblaaco 
of a bafe aaion, was bluntly impuied to a turbulejit temper, ar a 
proud heart. Every public or private exertion, which did hirn 
mofthonouT, was daity condrued, or improved into a libet on hia 
moral, focial, or political (jua lilies. That ardour, in tWbatCi which 
lo eminently diltinguillies his fpeaking aiid confounds his ad^erf^- 
ries, was viewed, not asrefulting from the prefTure of public vir- 
tue^ or s great underftanding agitated by a feries of the moft int«- 
refttng conceptit^s aijd glpwinp with love of bis country, but as 
originating in'the low-born paffions of private averfioft or perfonal 
refentment. His predeli^oo for fediiion and floarchy was grav«- 
ly lod aTDTCCdlr inferred from bis generous appeals to the people, 
ind his acknowledged approbation of popular atfociatioDs. Nor 
has he paired without cenlure for even a jew temperate and harjii- 
leA,inItancCT of conviviality with his canflicuentt, and tbajudicii- 
pui acco?n modal ion of his drefs and mauner, to a fimplicity of tafie 
which reflcfh equal credit on the nianlioefs of his underftanding# 
and the haqeihr of his heart. Thefe trivial circumftances, fo ha- 
bitnillyconfiaered in other meD as exterior badges of Gncerity, his 
lae;acious and fedulous revilers trace "with much ingenuitv'and 
pmns to obje£b of the rooft fordid and ^rovtling ambition.' 

In this ihantur docs our AiKlior apolof^ize for the fail- 
ings of M'r. Fox, and endeavours to reconcile ttiem to 
tome ftvidard independent of baiincfs 6f healrt. His apo<- 
logy for gaming is ingenious and entertaining. But neither 
love of candour, nor jufti>c« to the -pubiie permit us td 
difmifs this work wiihouc forae' repfehAnlibn. The taults 
of onr Anthor wc take to be tiiefe. Ho fcts out witfi 
what be ought to haw eondaifed with, puiogyric on Mr. 



,s66 WJhryeiuIPtHticaltift oftht Hon. Cbarlti Jamts Tm 

Fox. From the firft page to the laA, we iiikl that Mr. 
Fox is the Tame great charafter, (o that the Work has an 
uppearance not of an impartial and hiftorical enquiry into 
, the meritE of Mr. Fox, but of a regular ftudied calogium. 
Whether we alTent to a part of his conctufions, or to the 
whole, we aie ftiti clearly of opinion that his data are in- 
'fufficicnt to the fullncfa of his ded^uflions, Bcfides, the 
Author feems to prcfume that the great aflions of Mr. 
Fox's life are fuiScicntly known, that the controverfics in 
wjiich be was engaged are fufficicntly underftood, and that 
lie is fpeaking not to men ignorant of the hiftory of the 
prefent reign, but to men who have been perfonally and 
intimately acquainted with every faft direftly. mentioned or 
alluded to. But the very reverfe is the truth. Let us go 
into what company we will, where politics make the fub- 
jeft of convemtion, and we ihall not find that any Aib- 
K& is Icfs underftood. The prejudices and ribaldry of 
hireling newlpapers have loi^ mifguided the ienfes of the 
■greater part of this nation, and we never hear fownch ab- 
furdity, inconfiAency, and inipudencc as from thofe who 
pretend to ttlk o£ politics. To teach fuch men the charac- 
ter of Mr. Fox wai a laflc indeed. This r>bjeSion oor 
Readers may oWerve docs not impute a fault to our Au- 
thor, but rather implies a defeft, of which, with ito cir- 
cumfcribed knowledge, and recollcftion of the fubje£t, we 
were often fcnfible. 

Our Author, likewilf, as he fcts out with encomium, fo 
he continues it throughout the whole. We meet no where 
with a failing in his hero, or any thing that can be conftrued 
into an imperfcftion ; even his difBpations arc (haded br the 
gentle fpirit of benevolence ; and we are much afraid that 
in ftriving to analize fome parts of Mr. Fox's condoft in- 
to the moft virtuous principles that can dignify the heart of 
m3n,the Author derived his fources of goodnefsfrom hisown 
heart, or copied old piflurcs of reditude and integrity 
Vhich he thought fitted his hero. We are pcrfuaded 
that our Author is a man of great fimplicity ana amiable 
manners ; and it is our opinion that his enthufiafm, has 
often led him into errors. In particular, he aSeds to deny 
the . charges^ exhibited agaiofi hard Holland, whicli be could 
not have done bad hefeenthe reports of the Commifflon- 
crg appointed to examine the public accounts. To con- 
clude, this book is beyond all exception the beft defence 
ever yet written of Mr. Fox and his party i bat let it be 
remembered that Mr. Fox and his party are but jull come 
to the important trial. Let us not ered monuments until 
they have ran thejr race. AJtdoft ^-Mr. Fox's proicfGons, 
- . and 

Digitized byGoOgIC 

Douglas's Dtfcriptiett of the Eafi Ct^ if Scttlaiid. s^ 

'■ mi every part of his behaviour giw hopes, but that man 
muft be little aoqnaiatcd, with the hjftory of ftateliaen who 
would at this crifis indulga prefumptioii. If intbis dif- 
iftrous period, Mr. Fox fhall only be able to atchieve 
jittle, we may itttec that bis abilities are traRfcendaDt. 

I We can only recover by regular degrees. Let us not dif- 
truft his remedies t^ov^h their operation may be- {iow. 
That, perhaps, may be a procf that they are fure^and 

. Art. IV. J gtHtral Jir/rriftion ef Eaft Coaft of ScBfUnd, fr»m 
Etiinhargh u CuiiiK, Including a brief Accouat of the Uoi- 
verlities gf St. Andrewa and AberiUett, of the Trade and I^nu- 
fit^ures carried on ia (he large Towqs, and tbe ImproverDcntt' 

! of the Country. Id a Series of Letters lo a Friend. By.Francii 
Douglas. I2IIIO. IS. 6d, feived. Paiiley. Printed lor tlia , 

\ 'T'HE Aiitbor in. bis firft letter * forewarns bis friend 

i X that he is not to look for a very extonlive or pavti- 

; cglar_ description of the country, or a minute detail of its 

trade and manufadtures, but gives aJTurances that he will 

i jepprt itothing hot what be knows to be true. He then 

I makes feveral pertinent remarks on fiile, and particularly 

reprobates tbst poinpolity which afFe£l« lo tell common 

thmgs with, the gravity of a philofoper : thu inftcad of 

%ingt in a few..iVQr<JB« " in a foggy morning oncisapt 

: to caich cold" tells- us with a iblettmity rof an eaftsm mo- 

I nito'r that " one who goes abroad in ' foggs, fhould liave 

' bis breaft and throat well protedcd by coverings and ban- 

i^^, fufficiendy thick to abforb the acute pcftilential va- 

Siitrs-that Uicn noat id the air,. and may by congealing the 
qo^,, capioUy vSe& the aninud (economy.": Soch flile of 
' - writing remiaos Mr. Douglas of a remark that " whkn a 
lady's petticoat comes down to her heels, it rarely covers 
apair ctf handfome.legs." 

Mr. Douglas apologizes &r trcadii^ in tbe fame traft 
with Mr. PcHHutnti oa whom he beOows great encomiums 
for his defcriptioM of antiquities. " Fafts and circum- 
ftanccs, (the Author juitiy obfcrvcs) may come to ■ the 
kuowledge of . ono man which 'had efcaped the obferyation 
of anotlwr, aud.the fame objeSs will appear in .diSi;renC 
lights, and excite various ideas in different tnindSi",Xhi.s 
: apology ii iiU^s^fEory. Mr. Douglas had as good a right 

• Dated Ediaburjjib, May 1780. 



ifd Dba^ J>lfi?iptii^ ^lheEaJtC6ajiof'Si«tUHi. 

to pubtiih his (As^twiSAOxiA on the eaft'cosit of Scotlaibt 
M any other Author. The fabjeft ts hj no liieatts cx- 
hunftM by Gordon's Itintrariam ; or Siihalifs Sceua il- 
lu/iraia! Micl ftiU !efs by the t<Wr» of Jtbnfm and i'w 
xaM. Mr. Pennant is ahle tio furrey a ^^ictiUr objed, 
but be wanu that fubljipity of geniuS -which views objefls 
ii) corineftion with on^ another, and ^$ thoy ate parts of 
dnc whole, Tb< eafiern cotft of Scotland is ^tted by na- 
Jurc, and ,by the courfc of bymaa events', to open to a rc- 
^^ingand c)Utiv3ted niii]d views i.ofirtitely.oiore enlarged 
thai} any that appear in the writings of thofe joumalifts 
who have traverfed it. The face of the cpantry^ bold, a- 
bropt, an^ broken by pitdpices, caverns, rivers, moan-? 
tains, bays, creeks, and prqinontorics ; the different flrata 
expofed by the operation of the elements to tlie pUilofophio 
eye ; the traniitions froti; one kind of foil to another ; the 
fha(!es byi#hich they are 4iverfifio4; the ye^table and ani-. 
nial prodi]3ioiis that are the natives and thrive bcil in each : 
Theu patticiilftrt wptild have Aiggefted to the otind of ^ 
fiaproH various conjedaoes, and »ch is iqkhtbe apj^wd , 
to tb« aftabliflttncnt, or the fubvurfioi) «f fy&f fyftem of : 

lit Ail route the eivtl hlftorian too attd tlM politlciari findi 
iinple inattet for fpccutatlon. The doaft of T'lSt frii^ed 
wim a ckain of Cswtis, Once flourilhing in inatl«|aAtirM U«i 
conuncKe, btit now redoGed to a ftate of dOeay, tt|liia^ tiie : 
traveler of the eofineAion of ScotlaFt4 with France, and o- 
tbsr cowurift- on iher Gen^aft oce&n, «n<l fmnmon bia tq j 
conudrft the advaAtxgcs: and difadva^tiigeft that refulted to ' 
the toriDcr kil^clom from her union v^tft Englant}. The | 
finilarity of names oi ptOctM, iti whdt an ^Ifod t6« Lowlnfedi ' 
of Scotland, tor the; nanftes t^plJtA ih S>*wdftt MviNot**)', ■ 
and On A4 Ihores of th^ ftsfltiCf fumifbei3|Aentifi(iI fenitE 
of obfetvation toihe anfiqii^nan. And, faeh 9fi. iWfoircr 
t* Jit. Stoart * would have fotfnd in the records of fo' ihmy 
towns that were vifited by Mr. 0oilglai, abtlWdairt ntatCT 
raltf for iUaftdiiing th« ' ptind^lei Uid antiquit'iet of 
the Scottiih ^fla»on uid ^emaitfnt, and paMkulai^ 
the' political Rwdoiti and importance «f du antieaC bar- 
gefl"e». ■ ■ 

Bat althoilgi neither Ae ge«i*i ftiW-tiW fttftoitt of 
Brmeh DMgtai hf bi^vat to fucb ^f^tf^'i& -Wt haVe fit^gefit 

* See obfervatioiu conceruing the publib law, and the cooiiitutl- 
oBil'hiftwy of Scutlacrd. ' '~' 

■ ■ . . ' ■ ed; 


Douglas's De/triftaH vf tbt tafiGa^ tf te»Uiii4. JH^ 

ed ; or to fucb other objcds of invefti^tion as micht »ttnA 
tiie attention of enUrged aiiiids, yet his tout may dq pvrufed 
by ordinary K,saders with ^vintage, and even by men of 
letters without (Lifguft. He has txea careful to nuiia the 
ftate of manofaftiires and commerce ) he rccOTdt many nfeftil 
bints thrown otijby others, foftheimprovenientofagrieulmre ; 
and has interfoerled in his work fcvcral amufing ftories and 
anecdotes. He fecms particuiarly well acquainted with the 
town and thcneigbboMrnoodof Abcrdcea. His cotDTnunjcati' 
ons on thefe mbjefts form napre than one half ojf his 
volume. If we can pronounce with truth, from this p»ib- 
Ucatipn, aad we hafve reafoa t? think tbst we maj% 
&e ipirit of improvement in plairting and ^Ticultare in 
the cold and barren climatE of North Britain it tml^ 
afionilhin^. ' ' 

■ The (SlloWing arwfcdotcs of ihi' Celebraled Banlayi of 
tJrie are amufing. , 

* A mile ngrth of Stonliaven lie»^ry, the feat of Robert 
Barclay, cfq; great grandfon of the famous Apologift, and tho 
firft, snd moftdiMngUiftied improTerin thcctSuntry. David Bar- 
dar, of Madteri, the ApologiS^i father, ferved as a coLphel, un- 
der the freat Gliuavus ^dolphua, kine of Sweden, and' wbeu ^e 
iroubleg broke out in Charlet the rlrfl's time, did_^ n°f remain 
neuter, f o that fludiuating period, he became i ijualier, and, 
when he reared ra live upon bis eftaie, wif^ied to imprpve hta 
perlbnal farm. Biit as 1^ knew nothing of agriculture, he was ob- 
liged to trufl all to bis fervants. Having difcovercd that he 
had ^11 untkilfuL ploughman, he was at much pains to recom- 
mend better mpthodi of ploughing, from what he had obforved 
among hia QcighbouTS ; but the fellow was obftinate, and would go - 
on in his own way. ** Thou knoweft, friend, fjjd Mr, Barclfi}', 
(hat I feed" and pay thee to do my Work in a proper manner, 
but thou art wife in tbiqe own eyes, and regardcft not the ad- 
monitions of thy eipploycr. I have hitherto fpoken (9 thee in ». 
ffile thou, underftandeth not, for verily thou qn of aberv^rfc 
' tpirit i 1 wilh 10 eorreft thy errors, for my own fake and for 
thine, and therefore thus tell thee, (comia? over his head with 
■'blow which brought him to the ground) that I am thy niaAer, 
^od'will be obcj-ed?" — Tbough the weapon was carnal, thia wa» 
the demon Itration of pnwer, and had the defired efled ; the plough- 
man became tradable, and quiet as a lamb. 

' Of however little value we may think the propcrty.of a few 
hamjrcd yards of a barren mountain, in former ages great djf- 
putei bf^ve arifen, and much blood has been Ihed, in regard to 
t6e match-line of the different heritors, which is com^nonly iiiitrk- 
ed out by cairni, or large flones, the bearings of which are 
matted, dqwtr in writing, and, in cafe of encroachments, the 
rioi)ad,' is. perambulated by the oLdelt people in the neighbour- 
hood. A difli:rence of this kind arofe between Colonel Barclay, 
aad a neighbour of his, who had built a Ibeeling beyond hit 



. ift ' i!>oiiglas's Definfthn tf the Eaft Coa/ of ScolLnd. 

imreh. A (haling, is a temporary but, for ihofe wtio anend 
cattle in the fummer time. Mr. Barclay Tent the geatleman no- 
tice to rertovc the' hitt, ,fi|;nlfytng, if he did not, he would come 
and throw ic down ( no rcgUrtlwaa paid b) the melTage ; on which 
the colonel called together a few of his tcnanti, and went to the 
rp0t4 The other gf^tletnan had heard pf his intencioo, and came 
'ftlfo, ready preparca to oppofe force to force. When the bellige* 
rent powers, oa the head of their refpeitive corpa, armed, with 
fpades, pitch-forks, fworda, and rafly mufketa, had got witliin the 
pr^iti^ of death, 2 halt was commaoded on both lides ; wtieti 
the chief* advancing between the front lines, with a fullen' filence 
falutfed each 'other. '* Friend, faid Mr. Barclay, I have long a- 
go renounced the wrathful principle, and wi(h not to quarrel with 
my body ; but if Thau hitlt a right to burld within the tparch- 
line ^between us here, it is but extending that right, to build* 
within my arable fields, which are alfo unicclofcd. Let our people. 
&ind by, while thou and I thPow down this hut, injurious to my 
property, and of no confequenre to thee." The other affirmed 
he had a right, to build -^e hut where it flood, that his neigh- 
'bour's claim to the ground was unjull and ill-founded, and 
that he would be the death of the iirft man who {hould dare to 
touch it. " Friend, faid the ccdonel, the titne was when thou 
would not have dared to (peak to me in this flile ; but though I 
am only the withered remains of what I once wat, ihoii hadft 
better not ftir up the old man within me : tf thou io& he will 
foon he too much for thee. Be thy threats unto thy felf, Ifliall 
throw down the firit flone, and do yov), my people, level this 
unjufl encroachment of my neighbour." The hut was thrown 
down, without the lealt oppofition ; and both parties returned in 
peace to their refpeSive places of abodeJ 

* With whatever wild freaks the fci2 may have been charged, 
when it firA fprung up, and whatever grounds thnr conduA 
may have given for the charge, it appears, that when Colonel 
Barclay embraced quakerifm, he did it in the (implicity of his 
heart, and from a real regard to religion. The great figure 
which his fon made, as a polemic writer, and the irreproachable 
charader which he uniformly fupported through a long life, 
reflect honour upon the memory of his father, and demonttra- 
tively prove that he mull have had an excellent education. That 
the quakers have fo long ftuck together, andgivento the wo^ 
an edifying example of brotherly afie£fion, mud, in a high de-. 
gree he the refult of his excellent apology for their principles. 
If he had never writ a line, but the dt^cation of that woik 
to King Charles the Second, the memory of the author would 
have been dear to every good man. He does not weakly and li- 
diculoufly endeavour to profeiyte the king to quakerirm, butm-. 
foning upon the great and univerfal acknowledged principle* of, 
morahty, in the mod dutiful and aCTeAionate manner, lays hi* 
duty before him as a man, and a king. There is a fitnplicity, vet 
% force and emphafis in the flilc of this dedication, which bai 
rarely been equalled, and never will be exceeded, in the Engtilh, 

■ Isn- 


tioMgha's Defcriptien of iht £aft Caafi of Scotland. iff 

UogHage. A quarto edition of this work, on a fine paper, did 
honour to the prefs of the late Mr. Baflcervilte of Mancheflcr.* 

The account our author gives of Robert Gordon, fouader 
of an bofpital, is not a little entertaining, 

' The founder of this hospital vas a man of parts, family, and 
cducalton, and 19 fald to have had a patcimony of twenty ibouland 
marki, (eleven hundlvd and eleven pounds, two fhiUings and two- 
pence two-thirds Sterling.) In hia younger ^ayi he rifited feveral 
paitsof Europe, in company with a frienJ, when, it is fuppofcd, he 
^>ent mod of his fortune. This h the more probable that he then 
leeins to hare had a genteel lade, which appeared from a good col- 
IcAioa of coins and medals found by him at his death. After hii 
return to Scotland he never was concerned In trade, and tfaerefnv 
iDufl have amalTed the large fum he left, by hard living, and the ac- 
cumulation of inlereft. 

* One would blufli to repeat fome ftories told of his fordid oeco- 
nomvj after he had entirely fci his heart upon dying; rich. He 
lived and died a batchelor, never kept houfe, and but a very wit' 
nary apartment. Fire is not a cheap article at Aberdeen, but ha4 
it been ten times dcaVer, it would have made no material odd& lu 
Mr. Gordon, who poflefs'd the happy fecrei of estra^ag the virtue 
of coal, without confuming it : he had a bafket, with a breaft-ropc' 
fixed to it, into, which he put a large piece, and oarried it up and 
down the room, till he grew fofliciently warm. He ufed very fpar- 
ini^lyt the inoll ordinary, neceffaries of life: loaves made of oatjnoal, 
wiih a little Ikl named milk, were his cotntnon fare; or vrhcn hO' 
would regale hiijifelf, a little poor checfe and butter. The o&lt of 
thebutclier-niarket, were a luxury, in which'ttc did notchufeto 
indulge iiimfelf,. 

' ^ may be doubted however, whether (his philofophic way 
of livin* was entirely agreeable to him, further than as a neceflary 
mean to the great end he had in view ; for no man enjoyed the good 
things of life with a higher relifli, when fumilhed at theexpencc of 
others. This was often the cafe, as he was a fenfible converfable • 
nan, and had a numerous acquaintance ; perhaps not the feldomer, 
that he was known to be rich. It was thought, that for inaiiy yeut 
before his death, his pcrfonal expence, room rent included, did . ooC 
exceed five pounds Sterling annually. 

* He had a liller married to a very refpeflable gentl^mao la a 
neighbouring county, who had a numerous family, and whofe for- 
tune was not equal to his merit. It was the wilh of every body, 
that this worthy family mi^rht not be overlooked in their relation's 
fmlcmcni; but private conexions were no obje^ to him. Wirilo 
he one day converfed with the provoft of Aberdeen, on the fubjeA 
of his intended fettlrment, the provoll raodellty iofinuated, . that, 
however commendable fuch iniHtutions were, yet near and rcfpe^- 
aMe connexions merited fome notice. The gentleman's humanify 
vas fpeedtlv chcck'd, by a (]i cat, butfevere, rebuke, to the follow- ' 
log eSedt : " What have I to expeX, Sif, when you, who arc at the 
brad of the town of Aberdeen e a&in, plead againft a fettlement, , 
htm which your citizens arc to derive }'o g;teat benefits, t" 


i;2 Pntuat ]»int ef Jamet tht Pirft, £iii^ »f ShttanJi 

* Cautious aa Mr. Gordon WM, be met with icTCral tofle* is 
1ms aunny trinrafbens^ and thou{[h one would h»te little eipcded 
it> was always among the lir<V to accept the offered C(»npo£tu>B of a 
bad debt. No doiibt he bad ohferved, that, in fuch carea, thcfirll 
offers are geneta!!)' the bcil that can be madeofabad fubjeiS* Soon 
after he had ligned ihc appeodix to his fettlctnent, he dined with a 
friend, afld next day was feized with i fever, of -which he died,, 

Slii nephew, a fon of the gentleman above itferrea to( then appren- 
ee to a phyCcian in toiMi. was called by the magillrates to let 
blood of hi« Uncle, and attend him. - This furniflied them with a 
hkndiome opportunity of making him a prefent, and I hare been 
totd it was no left than five hundred pounds Stefling. 
■ ' Tbe magSllralet gSve their b?nefa£lor a princely burial J hi 
may be f.iid to have been buried with military honours, for a great 
Inany cannOn were flationed upon the eminences about lownt and 

'while all the bells to|lc(l| minu(e-j;ui)s were fir«l during the lolem- 
hity. The eXpencecet-tainly was great, but it wa« out of tiitie lor 
Sb. Ciordon lo objert to it.* 

We have only to obfervc that Mr. Douglas's ftriaureS Oil 
what lie calls the yif-iAV acemmy of this maa arc not jnft. 
The gretlncfs and benevolence of the end julUfied the meanf 
e^nployed l>y Mr. Gordon to acc^Oiplifti iti and the worft 
tbiag th»t can be juftl^ advanced agamft him is, thatthcftue* . 
UnetE and thephilan^mphy of his miod were forinewhal 
Ibadsd irom cohiinon obKrvation by an eccentricity of con' 
du£t wbich dAfpifed the opinions of mankind) on whon^i 
however, even at the expence of felf- mortification, he was 
happy to bcftbw the greateft benefiis. 

Mr. Douglas appears to be a man of good natliral parts, 
uncaltivated by regular ftudy and education. Henci;, al* 
though he be accurate in his ftatemcnt of fafts, he knowi 

' not» at all times in what manner to make a proper felcftion t 
- and many of his obferv-ations and ncAediotu, although wc 
cznnot fay of them that they are unpift, are ncvertheleft trite 
and vulgar. His hints for the tmproVCTncnt of agriculture 
confer on his book a degree of utility : but it is chiefly to the 
natfves of North Britain, and efpecially to the inhabitants of 
the Counties of Aberdeen and BamiF that it wili appear 
interefting and entertaining. 

AaT. V. Poclhai ReniaiHt ef Jamis tlf Pivfi, King of. Sealing. 
Svo. ;t. Edin. Ballbur, and fold by Cadell in LoBdoB, 

THE Scots who in the prefent age cannot boaft of many 
Poets, were cralnent for the ait of poetry in anneal 
■ liaies. Thus of the older Scottifli fongs the. merit is too 
nncrally acknowledged to require any notice from qg. it 
IS not, however, our province to feek for the caufes of dii» 
remarkable circumltuice. The tad is undoubted i and en 
^ ^ ■ this 



PpelicalRemalm if Jamil the Ftrft, King of Scotland. 273 

this foundation) the antlquar^n is judified for employing 
bis induliry ia coUeiling the remains of former bards. 
James I. of Scotland. altliougLi diftinguilhed by his pene- 
tration and political abilitv, thought himfcif enobled by the 
parfuits of literature. To his talents as a king and a ftatcf- 
man, ample jiiftice has been done both by the Englilh and 
the Scottilh hiftorians. But to pay a proper tribute of rc- 
fpeft to his literary exertions, has oeen.referved as a taikiov 
the Editor of the volume before us, 

Circumtiance and accident which govern mankind fo 
much, feem to havc>turned the attention of the elder Jamds 
to the. amuiements of poetry. His father Robert IIT. a 
prince of a feeble mind, felt himfelf over-ruled in his govern- 
ment by his brother the Duke of Albany ; a man who was 
guided more by ambition than by probity. He' dreaded, ac- 
coniingly, lealt the arts of this unprincipled and cntcrprizing 
mintilcr Ihoiild be exncifed to the prejudice of James. He, 
therefore, rcfolved to fend the young prince to France. 
Henry IV, however of England, though at peace with 
Scotland, did hot fcruple to intercept the veflcl in which he 
had embarked. This event, apparently fo hoftilc was very! 
favoutat^e to James. He received in England ail the ad-' 
vantages of a moit liberal education ; and mufic and poetry 
being then in high faAiion, he applied with afliduity to cul- 
tivate a ftill in them. His captivity continued during eigh-- 
teen years ; and he had nearly reached his twelfth year when 
be was n^ade a prifoncc... The hours of confinement and- 
folitude which are in general fo tedious, were not fo to him.; 
He devoted them to poetry ; and this divine art made him 
foi^et that he was a captive.' 

It was during his relidcnce in England that James com- 
pofed what is called ' The King's Quair.' In the old 
£nglilh and Scots, quair figniiics a book ; and thus by way. 
of eminence the poem of James obuined the appellation of 
' the king's book.' That fo valuable a remain of antiquity 
fhould have continued fo long unknown is furprizing ; and 
the manner in which the Editor became poflefled of it is 
explained by liim in the following paragraphs. 

Alihough all the Scottilh nricen mention King James I. as the 

author of many poetical pieces, yet, as in the age of James, and for 

century after, printing was not introduced i 
to be wondered that molt of his pieces lliould now be loft. 

' yuaniies Maji>r,ia his Hiftory of Scotland, mentions this poem of 
King James I. thus : ' Anijirliifum liiellum ^t Rigiaa dum capiivus 
' erat compafuh, anlequam lam in cenjugem duxerat. 

' Dtmpfter alfo, in his Hifloria Ecclefufttca, mentions, amongfl the 
works ofjimes, this poem, Su/>er Uxort fuiitra. A later -writw, 
Tannery Bilhop of St. Afxph, in his Bibliotheca Britannico-Hiber- 

£nc. Rfiv. Vol. II. Oa. 1783. S nica. 


274 Poetical Regains of James ihe Tirft, King of Scotland. 

liica, mentioni it ftill more paniciilarly, under the anicte yaaiti 
^tuarfui Primal Rex feetiiit, ihui : ' Lameniaiie JaUa dum in A»^a 
' fuii Kex," It appear! thac Bilhop Taaoer had both fcen and read 
- this poem, as he rccicet the firll lioe of it, 

' Heigh in tit Hevynii^gare cirrulare,' 

' M. S. Bib. Bod. Selden. Archiv. B. 14. and ' la fnt pMoaiiM 
* (fays Tanner) GirJ:erum tt Chauctrum otirifselaudat^ — Rex. . 

' The above authorities coticurring in [Qentiouing this poem, and 
the particular leference to its being amonglt the Seldentaa manu- 
icripts in the Bodleian Librarj", excited the Editor'* curiolity to 
' fearch fbr it. After feveral fruittefs attempts, xm his applying to ■ 
an ingenioos young gentleman, a iludcnl irf Oxford, ht undertook 
the talk, and found the MS. accordingly. From a «ry accurate 
ccpy made by him, the prefent publication ii giren.' 

Tlie icope or fubjeet of ' tiie King's Quair,' is the Iotc 
with -mhicJi he was infpircd, by Jane the daughter of Ae 
Earl of Somcrfet, the' grattdfon of John of Gaunt. He 
had feen her whiic he was a prifontr in the cafllc of Windfor; 
ftnd he married her fometimc bcfoie he was ^nnltted to re- 
Tifit his own country, 

In the condudtas well as the exeoitiDn of his poem, there , 
is fomcthing very poetical and romantic. The misfoitnnes j 
of his youth, his early captivity, the tife-of his love, andits j 
happy iUbe were forttmate jncidetus. The throwing them { 
into an allegory according to the fafbion of i&ac age, gare a 
leope for invention and fancy. ' The prevailing ideas lA cbi- 
valry fumilhod him with giants, dragohi', and furies ; and he > 
ibigtit indulgi in the wildneft of incbanied caftles, fbrefis, I 
znd lakes. j 

There are fix divifions or parts, in his poem. In the fitft 1 
be opens liis delign. Iit-the fecond he is employed on. the 1 
fiibjeft of his ini:eniled voyage to France, and his nnfortu- 
liate capture at fea. In the third, he pourtrays bis tran^r- 
lanon to the fphere of love. In the fourth, he is condnStd 
to the temple of Minerva, and takes virtue for his guide to 
happitiefs and the completion of his wilhes. In &e fifth 
he takes a journey in queft of fortune. In the fixth he an- 
nounces the lieps by which he attained the poliel&on of bis 
mifirefs, and tben concludes, 

Asaipecimen of this poem welhall fabmittoonrRcalerSi 
the defcription of Jane, ' his future wife,* whom he ob- 
(ervcd from the window of his prifon, 
* And in my hede I drew ry' haffily. 
And eft (ones I lent it out ageyne. 
And faw tur walk that v^rray Wamanlyt 

With no. wight md, hot only women tueyne^ 
Than gan 1 Audye in luyfelf and feyne. 



pHllcal kt^alnt ff Jams the Fuji, IGng of Scatland^ SJI 

Ah ! fuete tre «c a wardly creature. 

Or heviogly thing in likencfle of nature *? ' 

' Or ar m god Copidis owin princeB<r? ' 

And cumj'n are to loufe me out of band 
_ Or arc ze vcrai' Nature the goddcfle. 

That have depayniit w zour bcvinTy hand. 
This gardjn full of flou'ia, m they liand 1 

Qiihat fall I think, allacc ! (juhat rererenci 

f Sail I meller to lojr excellence ? 
' Girf EC a gt}ddefle be, and y* m like 
. To do me payDC, I iiiay it not allett j 
Olff le be wardly wight, J yt dgoih me fike, 

Quhy lefi God mik zou ^ my Aext& faert^ 
tTdo a fely prifeaerthtit fmert; 

Yhat lufii Eou all, and wote of noi but wo, 

And, ikeretore, merci fuete! iea it is !<>.' 


* Quhen I «- tytiU ^raire hod Maid n? motw^ 

Bcivalling myn infortuoe and my chance. 

• In the Prince'* fituation, tiewihg from his window, in th« 
Tower of Windfor, the iKautiliil Jane walking below in the palace- 
garden, he could not with propriety have given h minute defcrip- 
iion of hsr fcatutt* ) ^u' i^wilI bedHfieult for imagination ii> form 
a more lovely idea of beauty th^n what our poet hii drawn^ under 
thefigoraiive defcriptiou of 

The faircft and the freftheft young floutv 

That ever I faw,- 

A piAui* expreffire of beauty, health, and blooming yoiith !-7With 
Tilore prppricty he liefcribea the fweetnefs of her countenance, rc- 
futting from a view of the while, without the leifft 'esprcilion of 
pride dr haughFinefs, and the fudden pafGon with which her beauty 
infpired him. Her golden locks, and white enamelled neck, wurh 
her head-drefs, attire, and ornaments, are particularly and ffloft 
poetically Jjaimcdiii the following 37th, aStfa, 'a9ih, and'jiMh 

+ itatl Im^ir^ Perhaps aimialfitr. 

J Thai dots me Jdn."] The word Jiie, or /yie, in oaroia language, 
figolfies^rw/or/^rrffW. O. D. p. 177. v. 14.— p. 164: v. 19.— It 
is not improbable that, for tht fake of the metre, the poet may have 
madefree with the termtnanon. The poet feem« thua to eipoliu-» 
late: "IFthoa^tt a goddcfi, I cannot rclift thy power ; but if only 
■ " a mortal creature, God fu rely cannot left or incline you t6 grie»e 
** or give pain to a poor captJve that loves you." G. D. p. 285. 


476 Psttlfal Rimaitii efjamn the Firfi, King ofScttland. 

So fevre I fallying into luBs dance, 
That fodeynly my wit, my conienance, 

IVIy hert, my will, my nature, and m^ myndt 

Was changit dene ryi in ane other kind. 
' Of hir array the form gif I fal write, 

Toward her golden haire, and rich aiyrc, 
* In fretwife couchit w" pedis igiibiie, 

And grete -{- balas lemyne; as the fyre, 
W mony arie emerant and fiure faphire, 

X And on hir hede a chaplel frefch of hewe, 

Of plumys partit rede, and quhite, and blcwe. 
Full of quakingfpangisbryt as gold, 

Forgit of fchap like to the § amorettiii 
So new, fo frefch, lo pleafant to beboldi 

The plumys eke like to the |{ floure jonettu. 
And other of fchap, like to the fioure jonetti* ; 

And, above all ihii, there was, wde I'wote, 

Beautee eneuch tomakaworldtodote. 

.* ^fretviife cemchit.l Hid or couchit with fretwork of pearls. 
jrGrett halas Umyng as ibe fyrf,'\ Precious ftones, fparklmeas fire. 
—Bdiay is fo called from the place whence this (lone is Drought, 
called aaiaffia in India, Otuated to the north of Bengal. Urry*s 
Gloir. on Chaucer. 

*' No faphire of Inde, nu ruble rich of price, 
** Nor emerand fo grenc, nor Solas" —— 

Ca. PaUci if Lwe. 
% " And on her hede a chaplet frefche of hewe, 
'* Of plumys partit rede, and quhite, and blewe 

" Full of quaking fpangis bright as gold." 

It i* pleafant to obferve here the fimilarity of the Princefa Jane'f 
kead-drefs to the mode at prefcnt ufed by our modem ladies, in 
.sdoming their head* with flowers, plumes of various colours, 
fpangles, and Jewels fet in Qiapes of flowers. 

§ Fm-git efjbap* like tn tht amarrui{\ Made in the form of a lore- 
knot or g,arland. — Thus Chaucer's defcriptiou of Cupid, iti the 
Romaunt of the Rofe : 

" This God of Love of hi) fafcion— ^ 
" ■ — -Notycladin filk was he, 
" But alt in flouris and floureitis, 
" ypainted all with atnorecti)." 
n L3it to tht fieuTt Jtmtiiij.} What flower our poet here alludes 
to I do not know : By his repeating it, he fecms to be-4ftid of the 
name; perhaps thejoa^uil, a May flower. Or he might ha?e dubbed 
f^me. flower, then worn by her, with the oatatJaMta, in honour of 
his miUrclB the Lady Jane, 



Patlicat Remains of James the Firjl, Xing ef Scotland. 5577 

XXIX. . 

* About hir neck, ouhite m rhe * fyre amaille, 
Agudliecheyne of Imall f orfc»erye, 
Quhare by there hang a ruby, I wtout faille 

Like to ane hen fcnapin verily, 
That, u a fp:irk of § lowe fo wantonly 
Semyc birnyng upon hir quhice throte, 
Now gif there was gud peitye, God it wote. 

* And for to walk that frefche Maye» tnorowe, 
Ane huke fhc had upon her tiflew nuhite. 

That gudckirs had rot bene fenc 10 forowe, 
As I fuppofe, and girt fche was aly te ; 

|] Thus halflyng \owk for hafle, to fuich delyte 

It was to fee her zouth in gudelihed, 

That for rudenes to fpeke thereof I dredc' 
Another rclick of the poetry of James I, is given by the 
Editor, This is ' Chrift s kirk of the Green.' It has, in- 
deed, been foppofed, that this piece was the compofitTon of 
James V, and my Lord Hailes, an admirable judge in mat- 
ters of this fort, has advanced fcveral arguments to fiipport 
tbis opinion. Thefe the Editor examines, and he has taken 
a great deal of pains to overfctthem. But we pretend not 
to dccitie between thein. It is fufficient for us to obferve 
that the poem itfelf is here exhibited with Icfs imperfeftion 
than in former editions; and that like ' The King s Quair.' 
it is accompanied with explanatory notes. 

It is likewife our duty to remark, that the Editor has pre- 
fixed to the prefent volume, an hiftorical and critical dificr- 
lation OQ the life and writings of James I. in which he is in- 
genious as well as learned ; and that^ he has fubjoined to the 
poetical remains of this prince a treatifc oa the Scottilh 
mufic. Upon this laft traA it is fit that we ofier a fei/ 

* Hrrneek quhile ai thtfyre amailr,'] I fufpeft the laft two words 
to be erroneoufly tranfcribcd. The original probably is, " Quhite 
" at the fa.yre aaimaili, otmamell" 

f A chefnteffmall arfivtTye.l A chain of gold-work. From the 
Fr. erftuveru. 

X A rahiiwitbaul faille.'] Without flaw. 

\ Ai a/park e/lovie.] Bright as 3 (park of fire, feem'd burning 
upim her white neck. — A beautiful fimihc ! 

II Tiiut halfiyag loo/i,'} This defcription of his miftrefs, id ber 
loofc mominff attire, her robe failened with a hook or clafp, in a 
uegligent mode, and halflyn loofc, which gave her lover (unleen) 
the pieafure of fpyin^ Ibme hidden beauties, which the poet with 
great delicacy only hints at, is finely and modelUy ezpreOcd. ■ 

S3 It 


ayS Pottical Remains sfjamti the FWft, King tf Scotland. 

It is ihe opinion of our Author that the Scottifh melodiei 
arc of a very high antiquity. He repTobatcs, accordingly, 
the fancy that they owed their origin to David Kizzio. In- 
deed, it is not very clear, that Rizzio was a gicat niafter iti 
mufic ; and theie is an irrefragable cviderice thkt the Scotulh 
melodies inllead of having an Italian origin were purely na, 
live, and were even imitated in Italy. Ibis evidence which 
is produced by'our Author, is that of Aleflafidro Taffon; 
in his Penfieri Diverfi. His words are : 

' W'e may reckon among^ us moderns Jokii King ef Scatlantl^ 
f who not only compofed many facrrd /ilecej of vocal mufic, but al- 
' fo, of himfclf, in-uiitled a nruj kind rf mujic, plaintiiit and mtlan-, 
f chi:ly, di^ertnt frem aU 9ibrr ; in whicli be baa bnn imif at cd hy 
f Carlo Geiaaliio, Prince nf f^eitB/a, who ia outage has improved 
* mufic with new and admirable inventions*.* 

This evidence is fuiliciently exptefs ; and our Author 
confirms and fupports it by other ptoofs, and by an inge- 
nious hypothetical fyllem which he has adopted. We con-^ 
ceive, the whole of^ this trad to be entertaining, tafteful, 
and inftruflive ; and we cannot refiO the pleafure of ptcr 
fenting our Readers with a (hort extract, in which the Au- 
> thor communicates a few .general obfervations concerning 
Scottifti fongs. 

' The Scotiijli melodies, contain [Irong exprelSon of the paHioos,. 
peniciijarly of t\tt meliiocboly kind ; in which the air often finely 
correfponds to the fl|^jea of the fong. In this, I conjeflure, the 
excellency of the ancient Greek mufic confifted, of which we^ra 
lOH fnch wonderful eftft; . The Greek muficians were alfo Jftns,. 
who accompanied their own verfe* oii the harp. Such, lil^wife, 

■ • * Noi ancora poffiamo connumerar, tra noftri, Jacopo Re di 
''■Scona, the non pur cf/i Jaert caii^nfe in cantc, mi trOva da fc 
f fefib, una nuova mufica, UmtitliveU e V^fia, differeafe Ja taHe 

* Fallrr, Nel che poi e ftato tmitato da C^T^Grfa^ide, frineipt di 

* Fcttefa, che in aueAa, noftra eta ha illuArata anch* egli la mufica 
f coft noove mirabtli inveijtioni^ — Let me here io juibce to the 
rtftorer of this reeoid^ who, next to TaHbiUt deTcrvea the thanks 
of every Scotfman ; I mean the late Patrick Xarrf EUiiaiki For al- 
though Tsflbpi it well known as .a poet, particularly ^ hta ctJe- 
brated lafeehia ropiia, the lirll of the modern mock' h^oic poems,, 
yet his book i)fJ?/'u«-/Pn(/Skr/, though printed near tw-o ceomries 
ago, and contsiiiiiig a. great deal of learned and curious obfeivatioRs, 
ii but little known on this ftde of the Alps: And the above cntioua 
paflagQ, which had fo'lon^.tlcapcd the notice of every Scqtfman, 
might ij'uietiy have flept in the dark rcpafe of great librariea, had 
nOF the.penei^ing'efearchof thi^ learned .Nobleouin, about twenty 
years- ago, produced / From him J hadaco]^ ofthvt 
paflage, fiacc pidiliflieit by sir John Hawkii]&. 

'Ji " ■ " " ' " ' * , '■ _^ ffa^ 


PeHical Remains' ef y amis the Firji, Kiag of Scotland. 279 

wai tbe Saxoti Alfred ; and in the fame light we may fee our 
Jamea I. who both of ihem accompanied iticir owa poems on the 
lute or harp. Terpaoder is faiU to have conipoled muGc for tbe 
Iliad of Homer; Ti moth eu 3 played aod fung his own lyiical poems; 
and the poet SimonideG hia own elegiei ; 

' Quid mocflius lacrymig Simonidls !* 
eicldms Carullui ; and, infpircd with the gcDiui of inuflCi in thia 
fine apoflroj^e, cries out great poet! 

And, O fad Vir^n, could thy power, 
But rajfe Mufcua from his bower I 
Or bid the foul of Orpheua ling. 
Such Dotei as warbled on the llhng'. 
Drew iron tears down Kluto's cheek. 
And made it/l grant what love did fceV.' 
' Let ua a<!knowledge the excellency of the Greek mulic ; yet as 
tbe principles of harmony, or compolition in parts, feem not to 
haie been known to them, at leafl ae far as has yet been difcoveredj 
fbii excellency of their mulic mult have refulted from tbe natural 
melody of their airs, ezprcllife of the words to which they were 
adapted. In this light, therefore, we may run a parallel between 
(he ancient Greek mulic and our Scottifh melodies ; and, ia fpice of 
the prejudiced fondne'a which we are apt to cqnceive in fkirour of 
the ancients, it ia probable that we do the bed of their mufic no 
hurt in claffing it with our own. 

' Whatpcrfon of tafle can be infenfible to the fine airs of, Pll 
vnier liave tiiee~^jiiL)ii IVattr — An' than ivf't mine eia thing— 7be 
trees ef BalienJine, &e. when fung with taile and feeling ! 
, ' Love, in its various fituationa of hepiffmafi, Aifapbaiiument, and 
JeJ^uir, are finely cxpreSed in the natural melody of the old ScottiUi 
foDga. How naturally does the air correfpond with the followiDg 
dercripdoa of the refllefa languor of a maid in love '. 
Ay wa'kingoh ! 
Wa'king ay and wearie i 
Sleep I canna get. 
For tliinking o my dearie. 
When 1 lleep, I dream ; 
Whonlwakf, I'mirie*! 
Refl I canna get. 
For thinking o' my dearie. 
' Thefimple mebdy oftheold fong Waly .' IFaiji/ is the pathe- 
tic complaint of a forfaken maid, bemoaning herfelf along the late- 
freouented haunts of her and her lover. The old Scotiifli word 
waiy fignifies wai/, or heavy forrow, and lamentation. 
Waly ! waly ! up the bank, 

Andw^y! waly! dswn the brae; ■ 
And waly ! waly l' on yon burn tide, 
Where 1 and my true love did gae, . 

• IrieU a Scottifh word that has no correfpoiidenC term in En- 
jUfli. It implies that fprt of few which ia conceived Wapcrlon 
ipprehenfive of apparitions. 

S 4 Thus 


aSo Poettcal Remains afjames the Firfi, King af Scolaiti. 

T)mi Pttrarch, in one of bis beautiful fonnets! 
Falltf che d?kinenti miei fe' piena, 
Fiamt, ehc fpeffo del mio [»>nger crefci.™ 
Callt che mi piacefti, hot nii ritifrefcif 
Ov' ancor ptrufaavaoMarmi lataa— 
Quinci vedea' 1 mio bene \~i^c'. 

' How foothing and plaintive is ihe lullaby of a fbrfaken millrcfK 
over her child, eiprefled in Lad^ Anne Baliinvrtf's lamtnl! How 
romantic the melody of the old loye-ballad of hero and Liander /, 
What a melancholy love-ftory is told in che old fong of Jetky mJ 
Sanih ! and what frantic grief exprelied in / wOb I -aiere wbtrt Helen 
liet ! 

* It were endleft to run through the many fine sirs eipreffive of 
fentiment, and palSon, in the number of our Scottilh fongs, which, 
when fung in the genuine natural manner, muft aBc£t the hraitof 
every pcrfon of feeling, whofe tafte \i not vitiated and feduced by 
fajhion and novelty, 

' As the Scottilh fongs are the fi'ghti ef gtnit', devoid of art, 
they bid defiance to anificial graces and affeded cadences. A 
Scots fong t;an only be fong in tafte by a ScottiHi voice. To a 
jwtel, li(]uid, flowing voice, capable of fwelUng a note from the 
foftefito thefulleftrone, and what the Italians call a •oaeedifetio, 
laa&hejointA/en/iili/yandfitlin^, and a perfeft undcrliandine of 
the fubjeft, and vietJi, of the long, fo as to know the /gnifiant 
ivarj on which to fwtll or fnften the tone, and lay the force of the 
note. From a want of knowledge of the language, it generally 
happens, -that, to moil of the foreign mailers, our melodies, atfirfl, 
muft fccra wild and uncouth; for which reafon, in their per- 
formance, they generally fall (hort of our cxpefiation. We feme- 
times, however find a foreign mafter, who, with a 'genius for the 
pathetic, and a knowledge of the fubjefi and words, has afforded 
very high pleafure in a Scottifli fong. Who could hear with iofen- 
fibility, or without being moved in the grcateft degtee, Tendncd fing 
ril nearr Itave iha, or The hrais i>f Balteniliiie I—ht tVill yr ga » lit 
twe-hugbis, Maritm, fung by Signora CorriT 

' It is a common defeft in ibme who pretend to fing, to aSe& to 
fmotber. the words, bv not articulating them, fo as we can fcircc 
find out either the fubjeft or language of their fong. This is al- 
ways a lign of want of feeling, and the mark of a Bad tinger ; par- 
ticularly of Scottilh fongs, where there is generally fo innmate a 
correfpondeoce between the air and fubje^t. Indeed, there caa be 
tto good vocal roufic without it. 

' The proper accompaniment of a Scotlifh fong, is a plain, thin) 
flropping oafs, on the harpfichord or guitar. The fine breaihiDgt, 
t\toit htart-feU louchti, which ^Mr»i alone can eiprefs, in ourfoogs 
are loll in a noify accompaniment of infiruments. The full chonit 
of a thorough-hafs fhould be ufed fparingly, and with judgment, 
not to overpower, but to fupport and raife the voice at proper 

' Where, with a fine voice, is joined fome fkill and execunwi 
on cither of thofc inflruments, die air, by way of fymphony, or 
introdudtion to the fong, fliguld always be txa played OVer ; and, 


Tie Com/eJiaMS of J. J.Rtupau. ' 281 

at the dofc of every llanza, the Uft part of the air (hould be re- 
peated, as a relief ior ihe voice, which it gracefullv fets off. In 
th'ii/jintfibBnic part, the performer may Rkvt his tulle and fancy on 
the mftrument, by varying it */ libitum. 

* A Scottifh fang admits of no cadence ; I mean, by this, no 
fanciful or capricioui dckant upon the clofe of the tune. There i* 
one einbeltiOinient, however, which a fitie finger may ealily a«)ui re, 
that ii, an eajy ^ke. This, while the organs are flexible in a 
young voice, may, with pra^ice, be ealily attained. 

' A Scottilh fong, thus performed, ii among the bigheH of en< 
tcrtainments to a mufical gcaiui. But is this genius to be acc|'uir- 
ed either in the performer or hearer? It cannot. Gfiiui in muJU, 
as in poetry, it tbt gift »f Heaven, It is born with us ; it is not to 
be learned. 

* An anift on the violin may difplay the magic of his lingers, in 
running from the top to the bottom ot the finger-board, in various 
intricate capricious, which, at moft, will only excite furprife ; white 
n very midilling performer, of tafic and fcehng, in a fubjefl that ad> 

' jnits of thcpathiti, will touch the heart in \u linell fenfations. Tlie 
fincft of the Italian compofers, and many of their fingers, pofleft 
this to an amazingdegrce. The opera- airt of thefe great maAers, 
Pergolt/e, Jomelli, Galuppi, Perez, and many others of the prcfent 
age, are aftonifliingly pathetic and moving. Genius, however, and 
feeling, are not connned to country or climate, ji tnaiJ, at her 
fpimng-^vhet\ who knew not a note in niulic, with a fweet voice, 
and the force of a native genius, has oft drawn tears from my eyes. 
That gift of Heaven, in uiort, is not to be defined: it can only 
be felt.' 

If we are not miftakcn, the Editor of this volume is Mr. 
Tytlcr of Edinburgh, the acute and inquilitive Author of 
an inquiry into the honour and charaftcr of Mary Queen 
of Scots ; in which it is now pretty generally allowed that 
he has proteifted the chaftity of that Princefs, not only againft 
the r\iac attacks of Buchanan; but againft the more refined 
and artiticial atKmptt of Mr. Hume and the Rev. Dr. Ro - 

A«T. VI nt Conftjins of J. J. Ro^ffiai ■ w.VA /A* Ren^triis tf a 
Solitary Ifaiitr, Tranflated from the French, a vols. iimo. 

THIS is, perhaps, one of the moll lingular produAions 
that ever iffued from the prcfs. RoulTeau in this 
piece is employed in pourtraying a faithful piAure of him- 
lelf ; and in a folcmli apoltrophe to the Divine Being, he 
affirms, th^t he has not concealed the truth in any particular. 
' I have expofed myfclf, fays he, as 1 was, contemptible and vile 
fometimes ; at others, good, generous, and fublime. Eternal Be- 
ine ! aflemble round jme the numberlefs throng of my fellow mor- 
tals ; let tKemlitten to myconfellians, let them lament at my un< 



rfl* 7be Confeffimi of J. J. Rai^eau. 

worthincfB. lat them bluih ai m^ mifery. Let eacli of them in Ihit 
turn, lay open hU heart with the fame lincerity, at -the foot of ihy 
throne, and then fay, if he dare, I was belter ilian ilat man.'' 

In the profccution of his worV, it is but too obvious, that 
KouiTeau ads up to his profeHions, and exhibits, witliout 
rcferve, the motley fcenes of his life. From his- childhood 
to his old age, we have not only the detail of his adventures, 
but the progrcffion of his ideas. He alfo peculiarifes his 
inoft fecret crimes ; and while he lifts up the veil from his 
turpitude, he difplays his regrets and repentance. The paf-' 
fioiis which by turns tore and agitated him, are minutely 
defcribcd ; and at the fame lime that we are ilruck with 
the unblujhing fidelity of his pencj!, we admire the powers 
cf his mind. Ourpleafure, however, is not unmixed. His 
elevation, though far above the common level of humanity, 
appears not to have been an objedl of envy. His irkfomo 
pnde, and his endlefs inquietudes, were perpetually embit" 
tering his days ; and all his enjoyments were dalhed with 
fufmcioni and mifery. 

The account he ^ives of his youth is exceedingly enter- 
taining. Every thing is peculiar,- romantic, and tnarked, 
Jn the fixth year of his age ne had read the Lives of Plutarch 
9nd other hiiloricai works. 

' Ineeffantly occupiet! v{'\th Rome or Athens, living in a manner 
with their great men, nivfejf born citizen of a republic, and fon lo 
a father whofe love of hi3 country was his ruling paiTion, I glowed 
at his ezample ; I thought myfelf Greek or Roman ; I was tranf* 
■formed inio the perfon whofe life I read : the recital of an »&. of 
conilancy and intrepidity which ftruck me, rendered my eyes fiery, 
and my voice ftrong. One day at table, reciting the ftory of Scse- 
vola, they were aflrighied to (ee me go forward, and hold my hand 
over a chafing di(h to reprcfeiit his aflion.' 

In his eighth year, Mifs Lambercicr, who took a charge 
in his education, ufed at.^imes to chaitife him ; and he was 
careful to commit faults, in order to provoke her. She per- 
ceived that his punifliment was a matter of fcnfuality to 
him ; and in this tender age flie was therefore led to conli- 
der him as a great boy. 

' As Mifa Lambercier had a mottier'a affeftion for us, (he had 
ilfo the authority, and fometimes carried It fo far as to inflift on ui 
the pumQimcM of infantt, when we deferved it. She confined he^ 
felf long enough to ipenaces, and menaces Were fo new to ma 
t^ tu feem very dreadful ; but after their executton, I found 
them left terrible in the proof than in the eipedation ; and, 
vhiX lit ijjorc extraordinary, the chaftifcment drew my affcdlion 
ftill piore towards Tier who gate h. Nothing left than the re- 
ality' of this affefiloQ, and all my natural mildnefs, could have 
prevented tne from feeing a return of th'e fame treatment in d^err- 
ing it'i, % I felt in my grief, and even in my fliame, a iDixtureof 


fenfuality which left more ilefire than fear to experience it again 
frora the fame hand.' 

In this example, o( wliich, however, we have induftriouf- 
ly avoided to tranfcribc what is moft exceptionable, our read* 
tt% will perceive the nature of that refined depravity which 
runs through the prefent volumes. To be minuter in ex- 
plaining it would be indecent. It is, notwithdandiug, our 
duty to hint at it, and to beAow our difapprobation. Rol- 
feau, even in his vices, maintains the eccentricity of his 
character ; and his Confeffions, which may be confidcred as 
tlie records of his Jhame, while they may tc read with ad- 
vantage by men of underflanding, who can fpecalate coolly - 
on tlie aberrations and follies of the Jiuman race, will prova 
detrimental to inferior pcrfons, by inilaming their fenfes and. 

The prejudices of this ifolaied man grew with his years ; 
and the unfettlcd manner of his life expofing him to perpetual 
adventures, fuppiicd tljc opportunities that fervcd completely 
to dillurb his eafe, and to communicate the fable tinge to his 
opinions. He exhibits himfelf in a wide variety of fitiia- 
. tions, and as engaged in the moft opffolite occupations. He' 
was at times a traveller, a fidler, an engraver, a footman, a 
debauchee, a thief, a religious convert, a philofopher, and 
^n author. His amours, however, arc the circumftanccs 
which recurred the ofieneft to his memory, and which took 
the fafteft hold of his fancy. But in whatever employment 
he found bimf^If, his' propenlity to melancholy ever difturbed 
his happinefs, and caft a gloom over his exiftence. 

His mind, fo open to fcnfibility and paflion, gives a 
charm to his narratives. They are lively, interelling, and 
pathetic. W\i Unguage correiponds with the ardour of his 
feelings. He paints like a maiter ; and his figures fpcak oh 
the canvafs . 

To his eonfeffions there are added, his Reveries. They 
are a very proper fequel Eo them, ^i\A were written in his old 
age. AU his antipatliies were now unalterably rooted. He • 
had conceived that all mankind had entered into a conic- 
deracy againft him ; and this chimera appears gradually to 
have impaired his intellects. In his walks, every incident 
that happened fervcd to ruffle him; and white he coniiderect 
it as in connexion with his pall misfortunes, he held it to be 
a proof irrefragable, of the confpiracy which had been form- 
ed againft him. His fpleen, his pride, his indignation, his 
fufpicions, his memory, and his genius itfelf, were inex- 
hauftible fources of affliftion tohmi. But his lamentation^^ 
though unmanly and ill-founded,' arc engaging and elw^nt; 
)}i| grkf an4 cxpoftulations affcft his reader with tendemefs; 



a84 5^ Conftfftam of J. J. Roupau. 

and wc fliut his book under the workings of a mingled fen* 

timcnt of admiration, difplcaiure, and forrow. 

As 3 fpecimcn of this performance of Roullcau, we Ihall 
exhibit his firft walk or reverie. 

' Htre I am, theo, alone on the eartb, having neither brother, 
neighbour, friend, O;- fociety but myfelf. The mo& fociable aod 

iDour, tr:end, o;- lociety but my 
loll friendly of mankind ii profei 

ibcd from the reft bi 

fal confcnt. They have fought in the refinementa of their loalice 
to find out that torment which could moft afflidl my tender heart ; 
they have violently broken every tie which held me to them : I bad 
' loved mankind in fpite of themfclvea. They had no other meatit - 
than eeafing to be fuch of avoiding my affemon. They arc there- 
fore unknown foreigners ; nothing, in faft, to me, fince they will 
have it fo. But I, withdrawn from them and from every thing, 
what am I then ? This remains to be fought into. .Unfortunately, 
this refearch mud be preceded by a view of my fituation. This is 
an idea thro' whicb I muft neceflarily paft, to arrive from them to 

* For fifteen years and more that I am in this flrange fituation, 
it fiilt feems to me a dream. I continually imagine an indigeftion 
troubles me, that I fleep badly, and thai I am going to awake quite 
eafed of all my pain, and am once more with my friends. Vei, 
without doubt, I mull, without perceiving it, have fkipped from la- 
bourtoreft, or rather from life to death. Torn, I don't know how, 
from the order of things, 1 find myfelf precipitated Into an iacom- 
prehentible chaoc, where I can't diftinguifli the leaD thing ; and 
the more I rcfle£t on my prefent fituation, the lefs I comprehend 
where I am. 

' Ah ! how could I ferefee the fate which awaited me ) How can 
I yet conceive it, at this moment that I am devoted to it ? Could 

I, it) my right fenfes, fuppofe a time when I, the fame man I wai, 
the fame I filll am, flioutd be called, (hould be held, without the 
lead doubt,' a monfier, a corrupter of mankind, an aflalTm; that 
I fbould become the averhon of the human race, the (port of the 
rabble J that all the falutation I fbould receive from thofe who pafl'- 
ed me would be ^'pitting at me ; that a whole generation would di- 
tert thcmfclves, by common accord, in burying me alive ? When 
this Itrange revolution took place, taken unprepared, I was at firft 
loft as in a maze. My agitation, my indignation, plunged mc in- 
to adelirium which ten years were not too much to calm ; and in 
this interval, felling from error to error, from fault to fault, from 
follv to folly, my imprudence fupplied the directors of my deftinjr 
with all the iaitrumenis they have ingenioufly fet to work to fix it 
without a hope. 

' I long violently and vainly contended. — Without addrefs, with- 
out art, without diffimulation, without prudetjcc, frank, open, im- 
patient, choleric, I, by contending, only entangled myfelf the more, 
and inceffantly fumilhed theilj with new matter, which they took 
care i»ver to neglef^. Findine, at laft, all my efforts vain, and 
tortuiing myfelf to no purpofe, I took the only method which ic- 



The Confefttm of J. J. Rmfeau, 185 

maioed to be taken, that of fubmitling to my deftiny, without any 
loDger wreftl'mg with neceiGty. I found in this refignation a re- 
ward for all my mwfortuues in [he tranquillity it procured roe, aod 
which could not be united to the contioual J^^ouj- of a re£flaace ai 
painful as unpro&iabte, 

' Another thing ha» contributed to this tranquillity. In all the 
nfinements of their malice, my pecfecutors omitted one which their 
animofity c?ufed them to forget j which was fo aptly to regulate iti 
effefli, that they might feed and renew my aflliflion without ceaf- 
ing, in continually hpldiag up <ome new czpcdation. Had th^ 
had the addref* to have left me a fpark of hope, they would ilill 
have had me that way. They might yet make me theic fporf by 
forae falfe glimmering, and afterwards wound me by a torture con- 
tinually aew for my fruftrated hopes. But they exhaulled all their 
rcfources too foon ; by leaving me nothing, they have alfo deprived 
themfelvcs of all. . The calumny, the dcprcffion, the derifion, th« 
ignominy, they have heaped on me, are no more fufceptible of 
augmentation thati mitigation ; we are equally unable, they 10 ag> 
gravate, and I to extricate myfelf from them. They were in fo 
greatahutry toAU up the meafure of my mifery, that no human 
power, aSAed by all the fubtlety of hell, could any longer add to 
It. Even phyfical pain, inflead of increaling my fuflerings, would 
only divert them. By extorting fliriekt from me, they might 
pernaps exempt me from grief, aad the wounds in my body 
might have eaftd thofe of my heart. 

' What more have I to fear from them, fmce all U ended ? Not 
being able to make my fituatioa worfe, they can no longer All m* 
with alarms. The uneafme^ and dread ot the evils from which 
they have for ever delivered me, ia iome comfort. Real misfor- 
tunes have very little elfea on me ; I eaGly determine on thofe I 
feci, but not on thofe I dread. Myadrighted imagination combines, 
tutns, extends, and increafes them. 7'heir expectation terrifies roc 
an hundred times more than their prefence, and the threat is more 
terrible than the flroke. The moment they reach me, the event, 
removing every thing they had imaginary, reduces them to their 
real value. I then find them much lets than I had imagined, and 
even amidft my fuflerings 1 feel myfelf eafed. In this ftate, freed 
from anv frelh fears, and delivered from uneifinefs and hope, habil 
alone Will fuflice daily to render a fituation more fupponable which 
nothing can make worfe ; and fi'ill, as my feelings are dulled by 
their duration, they have no farther means of enlivening them. 
This is the fervice my perfecutors have rendered me, by eihauft- 
ias without end every weapon of their animolity. They have de- 
pnvedthemfelvei of all power over me, and I may in future laugh 
at them. 

' It is not quite two months that an entire calm is reflored to my 
mind. It is long fioce I had no more fean ; but I fllll hoped, and 
thefe ^hbpes fometimes nurfed, fometimes fruftrated, were a fcuffle 
in which a thoulknd different palTions were continually engaged. An 
event, a» melajicholy as unexpedted, has at laft wiped from my 
heart this feeble glimmering of liope, and has (hewn mc my fate, 

., flared ' 


i86 th, Cmf4n, rfj. J. gmfiA 

fixed without Tetum, here below. Since tli« lime I hare i^iacd 
Inyftlf without refcrve, and peace bus retiirBed again. 

' Ai foon as 1 began to perreii'e the whole fcope'of the plot, I 
for e»er gavt up the idea of -regaining the public favour during 
life; anj through the impdlTibility ot this being reciprocal, it 
Would, in foiure, be ufelcfa to me. Mankind In vain might feck 
me again ; they would find me no more. From the difdain they 
have infpired me with, their converfation would be infipid, and 
eVen a burthen to me; I am a thoufand times happier in my foli- 
tude, than I could poflibly be in living amongfl them. Tbey haie 
torn from my heart all the fweets of focieiy. They could nor gio» 
there anew at my agt ; it is too late Let t^em hereafter feck my 
good or my harm, all is indiflerent to me from them ; and whatever 
Ihey trtay do, my cotcmporariea (hall never be nothing to me, 

' Bur yet I depended on the future; I hopcdthat ibcftergene- 
ration, iTiamining clofer the judgment of the prefent, and iti con' 
dui5 in ncfpefl to me, would eafily perceive the artifice of thoje who 
direft it, *Twa! in thefe hopei I wrote my Dialogues j 'twas that 
which foggefted to me a thoufand fooiidi attempts to make them 
t>ar« to pofterity. Thefe hopes, though diftant, kept my mind in 
the fame- agitaritm as when 1 Aill fought, in this age, an honelt 
heart ; and my cipeaations, whith in vain were far estended, e- 
qually rendered me the fport of the prefent limes. I have faid, in j 
tny Dialoguea, on what 1 founded (hia hope. 1 was miftakeiw i 
Happily for me, I have felt It time enough yet to fee, before my | 
lafi honr, an Interv^ of real cafe and abfotLiic rcpofe. Thin inter- i 
*»I began at the period I hiivc mentioned, and I have reafon to be- 
lieve it will never be ipccrrupted. 

' Viety few davs pafs but new reflcftions confirm roe hciw nweh 
I erred in depending on a return of the public eftrera, even in a fu- | 
lure age, fince it i» condnfted, as to what regards me, by guides I 
*ho never die, in thofe focittles that have a mortal hatred to me. ! 
Individuals die ; but edieftive bodies do not. The fame paHions . 
ate pttpetiiated, and theit fehemenc malice, imtnortal as the fiend 
which mfpires it, has always the fame aftlvit]^. When all my pri- 
TBtewiemicB are dead, doflors and orators iviH ftrll live ; and al' 
though I had but thtffe two bodies as perfecutors, I migbt be cer- 
tain they would grant no more peace to my mesnary after tny death 
than they have granted my perfon during my life-time. Perhms 
by lettgth of time, the phyliciaua, tvhom I really offended, migil 
t»e appeafed; but the orators, whom i loved, efteemed, in whom 
i had every confidence, and whom I never dffended, the oraton, 
"church-men, and derai-monks, will be for ever itnplacable ; tbrir 
flwn iniquity makes my crime, which their fclfiftincfe will nevw 
pardoii ; and the public, ivhofe aaimofity they will ince&Dtly ti^ 
care to iced and revive, Will be appesfcd no foontr thab theai- 

' AH K at an end for mc in this world. No one can do me TO™ 

«r harqg. I have nothing more to hope or fcar ; and here 1 att 

tranquil in the midft of an abyfs, poor unfortunate mDital^ but im> 

pafTibk as Ood himfetf. 

* Everything exwinal is, in future, foreign to me. I have no 



ne Cc«/cSi<m e/y. y. Roujftat. iS? 

longer neighbour, friend, or brother alive. I am on tbe earth »• 
id a foreign pknet inio which I fell from that 1 inhabited If I 
have a knowledge of any thing aronnd me, it is only objeft* which 
^Sa.& and rend my heart j and I cannot look on any thing Which 
touches or furrounds me, without perceK-ing fubjeA for difdain 
which provokes, or of grief which afflifla rtie. Let ua therefore re- 
move from rrty mind e^eiy painful objeft which /night employ my 
thoughts as forrowfuUv a& gfclcfaly. Alone fiir the reft of my 
Hfe, fiticc 1 find confolaiion, hope,'and peace, in inyfelf only, I 
ought or will not employ my thoughts but on myfelf. Tis in 
thisftate 1 return to the I'evcre and fiiiccre enquiry I formerly cal- 
led niy Confpffians. 1 coiifecrate my lad days to (he fludj' of my- 
ftlf, and to prepare bcfort-band the account I rauft foon give of my 
a^ons. Let me entirely devote myfelf to the charms ot Mnverling 
with tny foul, fiiKe it is the -only thing of which I cannot be de- 
prived by man. If, by dint of refleSing on mjr internal difpofi- 
tions, I arrive at orderihg them better, and correfting the evil 
which may have lurked there, my meditations will not be entirely 
efelelB, and though I atn of no value on the e^rth, I ffliall not en- 
tirely loft my latter days. The leifurc part of mv daily walks bai 
often been filled by delightful contemplatton, wiiofe remembrance 
I am forry to have loft. I fliall determine on writing thofe which 
rtay again ftrike me j every time I read them I Ihajl enjoy them 
over again. 1 will farget my misforliiiiei, tny perfecutors, th^r 
retilingj, by refleftifig on the prise my heart has mciited, 

* Thefc -1116613 will DC, properly, no more than an imperfect jour- 
nal of my meditations. There will be a great deal of myfelf, be- 
caufe a Solitary man, trho reflet, mufl neceSatily employ tnucb . 
ot his thoughts on hlmfelf. However, cteiy foreign idea- which 
revolves Sn my rciitut, during my walks, Ihill equally have its place. 
I.Aiall mention all my thoughts jull as they flruck me, and with as 
little coherence as die idtas of the eve generally have with thofe 
of the morrow. EiM the refult will, however, be a new knowledge 
of my natural inclinations and humour by that of my thoughts and 
ftoriments, from which my mind takes \a daily food in my ftranM 
fituation- Thefe (beets may, therefore, be looked oh aa an appendix 
to my Oonfeffions ; but I no longer give them that title, rinding 
nothing farther ro fay which might delerve it. My heart has been 
ptrrSfred at theteft of advrrfitj', and I canfearcely find, on founding it 
(viih'care,anyretnainBof repithetiflhlepropeciity. Whatcan I havo 
morewconfeft, When every tcrreftrial affection is wrung away ? I have 
no more to thank thah blame myfelf for : I am nothing for ever 
amongft men, and h is all I can be, having no farther real rtlation 
or adtual fociety with them. Being no longer able to do any good 
that ^oes hot turti otrt fcad, being no longer able to afl without pre- 
jndtcing myfelf or fomc oik, to abftain is become my fole doty, 
and I'fnlfil n sn far as I afn able. But in this mafiivity of body, my 
foal nimeiBi adivc, ti fliU produces fentimeots, ihovights ; and ir.« 
teroal aiid morkl lifs fcom to gnnv out of the deadi of all tetreflFial 
and temporal intercAs. My body is nothing now but a trouUC) 
•n obtbcle, and 1 dlfe^gage inyfelf from it be^arC'hand as much aa 


a88 ' 7%i CoKft^nns of J. y. Rimjiau. 

* So lingular a fittiatlos certainly deferTca to be examined and de' 
(bribed, and 'tis to fuch an examination I canlecrate my lall leifure 
hours. To do it with fuccefs, I fliould proceed with order and me- 
thod ; but I am incapable of this labour, and it would alfo take 
me from my view, which is, rendering an account of the modifica- 
tiona of my Taul and their fucceflioQi. I Ihall make ufe on myfelf, 
in fome refpeAi, of the methods made ufe of by naturaliftt on the 
air, in order to know its daily itate. I Ihall apply the barometer to 
tay foul, and thefe operations, well dircAed and long repeated, 
may be produftivc of refults as certain as theirs. But I. {hall not 
extend my undertaking quite lb far, I. Ihall content myfelf with re- 
cording the opei-ations without endeavouring to reduce them to Tyf- 
tem. 1 have undertaken Montague's plan, but with a quite d'life- 
rent view ; for he wrote his eflays for others only, and I write my 
meditations but for myfelf. If in my oldeft age, at the approai^h 
of my departure, I remain, as I hope, in the fame difpolition as at 
prefeiit, reading them over may recal the charms I feel whilA writ- 
mg them, and thus renewing time pad, will, in a manner double 
myexiftencc. In fpite of mankind, I ftiall ALU tafte the delight*, 
of fociety, and' I fhati live decrepit with myfelf ia another age, at 
I might live with a lefs aged friend. 

* I wrote my firft Confeffions and my Kalogues under a continual 
anxiety on the means of concealing them from the rapacioufnela of 
ray perfecu tors, to tranfmit them, ifpolTible, to piher generations. 
The fame uneafinefs no longer tortures mc for the prefent writing'; 
I knotv it would be ufelefs ; and the deiire of being better knotra by 
mankind being quite eitinguiftied in my heart, leaves in it but a 
profound indifterence for the fate of my real works, and monuments 
of my innocence, which, perhaps, are already for ever annihilated. 
Let them fet fpies on what I am doing, let them perplex themfelveg 
about thefe flieets, let them fcize them, let them lupprefs them, let 
them alter them, ''tis all equal, -in future, to me. X neither bide 
nor eipofe them. If they are taken from me in my life-time; they 
cannot take from me the pleafure of having written them, or the 
remembrance of their contents, or the foUtary meditatkms of which 
they are the ftiiit, and wbofe fource can be flopped but with my 
breath. Had I known, on the beginning of my calamitici, hsw to 
withhold from flruggling with my defliny, ana determine a* I son; 
determincevcry effort of mankind, all their dreadful enginee would 
have had no effeit on me, and they would have no more ,t«>u* 
bled my repofe by aU their plots, than they could, in future^. W 
every fuecefK : let them enjoy as they may ray difgrace, they wtU 
never prevent me from enjoying my innocetice, and ending my days, 
iu peace, indefpiteof them.* 

Some fufpicions have been entertained of the genuinenefs 
of the volumes before us. . But we muft confeA, that we can 
perceive no fufficientreafon to doubt their authenticity. If, 
however, they ftiould prove" to bean impofition or aforgei- 
rv, we Jhall rejoice in this circumftance for the fake 'of 
Konfleai]. At the fame time, we Ihall- be ready to allo% 



I>ifftrtat'mi on tit Prefervalivefrem l)rowu'mg: 289 

thegreateft merit to the Author. If this be an imitation, i| 
is tliat of a great mailer. 

Art. VII. A Diffirtatian an the Pir/ervail-ve fmm Drowniig; and 
S'.vimmei's Affijiatil. A new invention, iimple, -commodious, and , 
. of fmdl Espencc: c!in be carried in an Handkerchief, and in* 
flantly applied to the Body, whether nuked or clottched, fo 9,% 
dSt&atWy to preferve from drowning — affiils in fwimming— and 
pioves no Hindrance to Motion or AAion of any kind. Either iii 
or out of the Water. Adapted 10 principle, eliablillied by Exper 
ritnents, and proved by Trials, Together wjth an uleful Ac- 
count of Loffea of Lives by Water. By H. Maepherfoii, Gent. 
xi. 6d. fewed, Murray. 

' "TTT'E have fcen the Prcfervative mentioned ia this 
VV Pamphlet, and are informed iliat it 'anfwcfs the 
purpofes intended by the Contriver. It is fimple anilinge- 
iiious. But in the name of every thing decent and orderly^ 
what could teiopt Mr. Macphcrfon to write fuch 3 pamphlet? 
However lie may fupport himfelf above the water, wc are 
afraid he has gone beyond his Jepib in this cafe. The An- 
tbor biegins with itiJbrming the pablic, that in the winter 
1779 he jtd/^wA^ to ffK/r with a fall, which_^rDiȣ^ one of 
his legs, and that he diverted himfoif with newfpapers, ma- 
gazines, and die like. — But why are we informed of the 
JiraiHtd leg, it is not cafy to conceive, as in that Htvafioii 
he Was but ill-qtlalified to make experiments on the water. 
He next abruptly introduces the ftory of Captain Farmer 
of the Quebec fricate, anj informs us that his Majefty fct-' 
tied a penfion on liis widow nnd children, but what has this 
to do wilh the Prefervaiivt from drowning ? He takes occa.-* 
fion, however; to exclaim, " Good God ! arc the corkjac- 
*' kct, the air jacket, &c. of no ufe ?" Here, now, Read- 
er, there is a wonderful inftance of the Jinking^ in poetry, 
OF rather prole, for God, and a cork-jackel, are in the fame 
line. He next enters upon an exaAiinatlon of the cork, 
jacket, and the other prelcrvatives which liavc been recom- 
mended at different times. On this fubjeft he fpeaks to the 
Parpofe, but very confufedly. But the greater part of the 
amphlet conliUs of Accounts of Lives loft by water, be- 
ginnmg with the year 359, in which King John loft his ar- 
my, with all his baggage, in crorting the wafhes between 
Lynne and Norfolk. From thefe accounts he always inters 
that had they been provided with his Prcfervative, no fuch 
accidents could have happened. Sut as he went fo far bacic 
as the reign of King John, why did lie not go ftrthcr, and 
after relating the many duellings which he might have pre- 
ferved the Grecians and Romans from, why not give nt fly 
EsG.REv.Vol.II.Oa. 1783. T iiitita • 


2^0 S^pTtatisn eH the Prefervat'ive frith Drotoning, 

lUiUB ' tlut - Plrar^ah and his hoft never could have bcCn 
drowned in the Red Sea, had Mr. Macphcrfon fpratned bis 
leg among the Egyptians ? Nay, why not prove, for it 
certainly may be cajly done, from what he has faid of other 
accidents by water, why noi pfove, we fay, that had this 
Prcfervatiyc been in life in the days of Noah, no fuch thing 
a^ 3. 4eluge cou!d' have happened, or if fo, it could never 
have proved fatal, tccaufe mankind might h^vc floated on 
the top of the waters, until they had been dried up ? If, af- 
ter recounting the lofs of inanythoufands by drowning, he 
infers, thathis Prefervalive might have faved theSi, why 
iTot fcarch all the records of antiquity, fum up the nuhiber- 
■ and confcquencc of the drowned', :ahd prove what Jove and 
aflelStiiMi the world ought to bear to a tijan, who mizht havt 
done fo; much good, had not the Jpnaning tfhis ifg been pot 
tff until 177^. — But thus it ever is with Ichemcrs. A fond- 
ncfe for the offspring of their labour or ingenuity, betrays 
ttcih into abfuidttics which arc unfriendly to the intcrefts of 
their invention. . We may venture to, recommend Mr. Mac- 
pherfon's Prefervmive is one of the bell and-mollfimple ever 
ifiveiit^dv but it is impoHiUe to recomn>end his Pamphlet hi- 
the mofi elegant and fcnlible ever publifiwd. 

AitT. "Vin.'Thc PraSice «f Mld-'.-ifny, I'jlth the AnatMnj >f the 
'Graviil Uierui, By a Pupil of the late Dr. W, Hunter. ("With ' 

■ the 'Medical Terms iu Midwifery cTplained, for the Benefit rf 

■ Female I'raiftidoficrfi.) 6vo. 2s, Fiemey. 

IN an advtrtifement we are told, that " thcfc p^cs are 
part oFa,5yftem of Anatomy, Surgery, and Midwifery, 
which it is deligned to publilh by fubfcription." An accu- 
rate copy ofpr. Hanter's Leflures, publdhed by fonie gtn- 
tleman acquainted with, the fuhje^t,- would prove a valuable 
aBdition to our medical libraries. But tlie prefent work i* 
a grofs impbfition upon tlie public. The Author or Com- 
piler, fo far from being a Medical Reader or Prkaitioncr, 
dpes not feem to .know the xaaQ. common terms of the art, 
a;id what he prefents to the world as Dr. Hunter's fyflem, 
confifts of a few iiotej crudely and confufedlypot together, 
wicliout otder, or utility, and abounding in blunders and 
abfurdities. An impofition of this fort we think proper thus, 
e^rly to detefl, that the meniory of the learned and ingeni- 
ous Dr. Hunter may not fufFer, by 2 belief, diat thcfc pages 
are partofhis Lertures. Any fiudent, without thc'art of 
(fiort hand, might ealily have taken down tlie fubflsnce in s 
manner more juft and accurate, than tlie Publiflier of-thil 
Pamphlet, who, if a pupil of the lide D^dor*!, fe^ms to. 


fie Praflice «/ J^iunfrry. i^l 

haVe jirofitad vary little from his oppotmnitres. A rtfvie* 
bi fome bi tlw pagca will ferve to jollity our cenfurc. 

Page 7. " The child's head, in common, lies in- .the 
" ilcck. of the uterus, iri the pelvis, and jirds (lart of tlic 
" bladder, which e^fpafids it, as it, were, over the child's 
I' head. Now as the bladder cannot' be eUended, the mo- 
" ther will have frequeqt calls to make water." — Here we 
are toJd, that the child'^. head girds part of the bladder-wf 
girdi meatis any thing, it means tntireUti buthoW the chikl'e 
head cancncirclc any tiling, we leave to oqf readers to de- 
termine. *' Girds partof thebladder, which cspilnds it," — 
expands what ? the bladder — no, for we are iram6diately 
fofd, thSt the bladder cannot h extended. The Aothof, 
probably, meant to fay, 1 . c. he Ought to, have laid, that the 
neftd of the child prelies on the neck of the bladder, whicli 
would have been intelligible. ' ' , 

Page 8. " Impregnation occasions 3 laxity In the fab- 
*' ftancE of the uterus (this is oCcafioiied by an cnLargei^ent 
" oT the blood veflels} fo that it may be ftrctched to he' tjiree 
" inches thick." This' is fo wholly myfterious, (bat wo 
mtiil leave it to the faocious to determine, wheth^a{ty.fub>- 
ftance grows thick by being flretched, or whether any prac- 
Vitionor ever found that the fides of the uterus wctiC. thrtd 
inches thick. ' rf/ ■ 

Where he treats of the fccundires^ it is with fonle 4i|ncultj'' - 
we can lind out the ufes of the navel ftriiig, and to embarra^ 
The Reader the more, he informs him, that *' tlie blood of the 
" child and the mother do not communidatc reciprocally,** 
But Im meaning is not found out until wc come to the 27tli 
pagC} in which he&ttempts to prove,, thait there is ilocommu- 
DiCBtidH between the mtother and the chilrf, but by* abfofptibn. 

Page 34. . ." Molit women jnifcatry at the lixth or fcrEoih 
" weclc, jvhich bq;ins With a_/iw or ^odingia.fiA fomc pfcin 
" iefirt. After flooding) pain returBs, find the nifcari'Ngc 
" comes « way,. .^nd in ^ week or two it is over." ThecoU'- 
fuuon and inaccuracy of this paUage can only bte equailbd by 
the iitdc&ili;e expreffions, which ao m^n .woiri^ ever Mk ia 
addrejlng lludents. . : . ■ ,...,., 

By the following extrafl from tlie Chapter on Difficwh Xa- 
JiBun^ tb£ .Reader will judge of tk\e. accuracy of this Writst* 
and what, degree p{ iiiura^ioa Itudstits are likely. , to v&f 
from the worki 

' Xf the QfLveWfiriDg prefentf, it may be prd&d,' asd kill dto 
child. However; this fljou^'be-lcft to nature^ The c^ild wil), 
in fht's aXt^ Ajli^ao equal cbjince of its life, anj if yoti oAet m 
TUtti it,' y6u lefSn that cfiaftce. 

"}f "mleiit fioMic^s come on, froitt the placenta's ftdheriasTScar 
T 3 ■ the 


a^i R^ynec's Cafts at Lar^efOHarHtag Tilbii. 

the ni uteri. haftcB the labour by liretching thcos i^uin, or hre^ 
thewaurj, and by ^lt^oduci□g the han^. take hpUl of . the child'* 
itii,. zn^hnag a awiy f hut tbii 11 a fatal cafi, _ 

■' So are fonvulfionB. thefe will take away the ipother's ^«/«_; 
flit foon recovers «rd relapfn again. If labour comet on at ihb 
fenfeleft time, taiure will freqiiemly do Tta office, and itntllf'. La- 
haw'&oaM, btrr^ha^eacif. Afterit i) over, the cdnvulfions wiU 
coafe, if not ttiey t»iH tfften' brorft fatit. laibh' eaft M egual •»«- 
lenwIilJU. Wotaen Owula belafgaty Ued when the conTulfion 
firft takei tbem, to eafe th«brMivby!a docivatien of blood ^Awr, 
treating it a> an apopl«dic cafe. Tlis-. ii owing to a gt«ic nerrous 
.Uterine ii:ritatiot), not from a dead child ; therefore loirt, W»w i' 
.over the ponvulfion ff.i/J(, SoijKiimet a fit or two will continue af- 
terwards, but without ilaagfr, Tiiey (hould hare a giain- of ^iate 
^ivcatliim to Jlup^ lit acrvfi; nothing mire can be done. Ji/ter 
fA/j you may bleed «fa/», if necelfary; The Iboncr the labour ti 
■over aiebetteti' 

From the above heap of inconfiftendes and tiodigeficd 
notes, the Reader may difcover that the Writer of this 
Padiphlct is grofeiy ignorant of his fubjeft, atid th»t he has 
even fo litrieltiwwlerfgc of Engiifh, as to be tmable to con- 
"vey his meaning in language that can be nnderftood. Per- 
haps wfc have dwelt rather foo long on an article fo iniGg- 
nificant, for ttpon fecond thoughts, it does not ajipear to us, 
tbat any man can mifiakc thefc pages for Dr. Hunter's Lec- 
tures.. . If two ignorant old ,wiiB(^ ""/^^ ^° **""" ^ J"^**" on 
cfearicity, they would bring a^y nearly as accurate an ac- 
count of it, »i we na^-c here of 'the Proflici ef Mtdvjiferj 
and tht Anatamy of the Gravid Uterus. 

Art. IX. Qa/t'al Large cmcernmrTiihet. By John RavDer.oftbe 
Inner 7eaiple. 8vo. 3 voU. 181. hoards. RictuudloR ana Unjubart- 

XHCR£ are few fubje£ts of a dolttcftick huure, that're- 
qnitc a more fpeetry, judicious, and dtfplfiionat? dUf- 
)a of the LegiHatArc, than the fubftitunoi> of Tome a- 
de^uate provjfion for the clergy, in lien of tithes. Th« 
numbcTlcfs difputes they have occaiioncd betweeni tlH parfon 
iVttA faifi papifhtonets, rcAcA neither laflre on our religion 
nor on our laws : for Where the feeds oHh^xtion~Biul ani- 
•nofityarelo univerfally and'fo^eeplyiaid,' tt»R VfcXBtioos 
■bnr-fuits muft too often tMt&itiate, eititer irt tbh ttaa oFAe 
^ergyman,' or in loading his pariflitoners widi whathu etier 
by them been canliderca as a moifc odious additicfn t(> ti)eTr 
taxatjoii ; it is not, in the COR'^eiBpUtion of hiitnaa tfstuie, 
•to be espe£ted, that a cordial affiiction and rerie^ux can 
'liibfift between the paftor and &it fiodc ; or ^ut wKf delciip- 
tipn of people can inaprove by prcttptt from tbe nooth of" 

a maA 

tn Google 

Rayncr's ■Cafis at Large concerning Tfthet. 2C|3 

a man, *hoin the irritation of new burthens, and the ranT 
, cour of fitTgation, have taught them to hate and to dcfpife. . 
Till fome partial or total aherariqn however may take 
placi:m thetloflrineof tytfias', the c.oiopilatlon now before 
us may have its ufes, It-profcifts to briug into one view 
aJJ the reloiutions of the refpcftive courts ■ of equity, par- 
ticularly rliofe of tiac Exchequer, Uken from, die printed re- 
port?, nnd manurcript dolieflions, moftly' by Sir Samucf 
JOodd, late IjOrd Chief Baron ; together with all the appeals 
in the Hotife of Lords to'thc end of the Seflion' of Parlia^ 
■mcnt of the 2ad of the prefrtitKing. Ther? is added aii 
appendix of a'fls of Parliament relative to ty'thes, tlie aliena- 
tions of ecdefiaftkal livings, &c: and to the whole is prefixed 
an introduflion giving fome account of the law of tythes, 
compiled chiefly from Blackftone's Coramentariw and 
Burn's Ecclciiallicai Law; together with alphabetical and 
chionolc^cal tables, an index, &c. 

The following extraft from the Preface will give the Rca- > 
derfomc idea of the Author's plan, ftile, and manner. 

* The compiler preftunes tliere needs do apology to be mude, for 
ihedefiyn of thc.ivork iifelf, as the natureof the fubjefl muft draw 
the attention, .not only of the whole body of clerg^v, but olfo 
of all perfotis whomfoever, intitled to receive, or liable to the pay- 
mentol tffhes. 

' Whdiver U in the leaft converiant \vith this tnatter, cannot hui 
lament, aa an unhappy fpcflator, the diTputes, that have arifcn re- 
fpei^ing tithes, between the parr^n nnd hi; pariSii6neri, thruugbout 
this kingdoin, the animofitics they have occaficoed among lAany 
private familiei ; the jealoufy of the former, in'eoofiderin^ mmfcit, 
aa deprived of his jiift rights, and of the latter, in thinking them- 
ftlves great!)' impoled upon by the demand* of the former. 

' Thefe diBiMimcw, it is well known, have been prod iiflivfe of 
fuch improperxonduift and example, oo the part of the clergyman, 
in many parifhea, u rather Icflencd the dignity of his facrea office, 
and reftdevidhirn'moft unhappy, as he was,' in confequenee thereof, 
obliged to aft,' in a manner, feemingly derogatory, both to his cloth 
land callings 

'Tbtfiifbrtit.'h is hoped, wilt, >n fome degree, be the means 
of^redOBciting Hich jarring !iW«teAi, and of fofieoing fuch uiitoivard 
difpofitiont ^ilDd'that too, on fuch a lading toundatjon, as to ren- 
der >^? tuCuTc interruption of it fcsrcely pofSble, unlefsfrom choice 
and- defigti ; fat ia the following f^ffti will be foand altnoft every 
auefiioD, t^at has ,ari(en .on the fobjf^ fatisfaftorily and finally 
fettled, as welllin thecourt bfCi*if#'y, as Exihrtjiitr, in the Ec- 
defiamcal court, as before iuftjcF I of peace: the compiler indeed 
hatnot beenfo'particular tA^e'edcleliaiUcal, as in the other eourti 
ofjuftice, becaiiie the cbgnSasce of tithes in that eo(irt, is very , 
much litnjted'rail reducedi; -bf fidei, the clctp* may be prefumed to 
be rather belter acquainte^^ith the proceeduij;i is the ecclcliiillicul, 
Yhan ip any of th^ other courts. 

T 3 'The 


194- ilayner's Cafit at Lar^e eaBMming Tuba, 

' .The reader yr'\l\ find ia tlje foUowiog cod:, the foil,, able, et* 
j^ulnr, aad fcienutic argumenie of the j^ntlctpen uf thp Wn^ l'OM( 
and che Moil clcarf uneqaivocj), aiiil faiiifa^ory deciI!on« oljudgcS) 
of as great ciurafter for abilities anJ iniegiity in th.cir profcffion, a^ 
etcr (at on the refpeftiTe benches of the Aiperior coufta ; and thole 
too given upon the moH maiurs deliberation, as well as the roleiiin 
•nd/fiiial judginems of ihcfupreme judicature in this country, on 
cfcry impomni qQcflion, that hath arifcn, on that firfl of temporal 
concerns to tlipdergy, v!x, their right to tit bei. 

* Ainong ibe arguments of the- counf^t, and the refi^utiont, or- 
ders, and decrees of the fupcrior courci m. iViJhmnfidr Hail, »nd 
tbe final judgmeai* of the Houic of l^rd*, in their appellaot jtirifr- 
diction, the detnii^r ^nd mod fatisf^fiory refort of ihe iubje^, will 
be £pund debated and finally adjudged, what is due to the clergy, 
in t^eir right toiiihu. and alfo what meani are to be purfued, lu 
ra-der to flbt^n fuch right. 

' The cafes on appeal, (which make no incon tide table part of 
thefefheeU, whether their t^uaniiry or quality be prgncijully re- 
rarded,') are not to be found, in any other colleflion, hitherto putv. 
lifhed. There cannot be more l<>lemn determinaiioni lai4 before 
the readers ; for how can cafes be liampcd nith an higher degree of 
authority, than thofe determiiicd by the integrity, wifduni, and 
juftice, of the peers of the realm, oftcntinea upon a prcvious.cooftilr 
latioD, with all .the judges of i,'«^/«W? _ ^ 

*. Thefe fhects will conviacc all unbialled readers, ho:^ unjuftly 
jhe clergy have been charged with a Rtigious difpofition, in hav- 
it]{ a^ed, contrsxy to the meelincfs and forbearance enjoined th«nij 
By the mild precepts of the holy gofpel, in fuing their parifltioners, 
fur the recovery of their tithcB ; it wilt appear iiy tbefe p^jcrs, (o 
have been fettled, that a parfon has a rigjit to appeal to- the iav» 
of his couDtry, ^br with-haldinf; his tilhei from hinij be they of ever 
^o inpqnfiderible amount : an inflance will be prcuinced, in whicb 
tithes bare been withheld, whereby the vicar has been obliged tafubr 
£^ on the charity of the pajifliiMiers. Sure when the vlctgy found 
.their predeceflors thus hardly treated by their pirifluoners, it becatne 
ii'duty tothernfelves, their families, and their fucceflbrt,, to fue the 
barlQi, rather than Aarve, even in oppofttion to the commaiidf of 
jhe gofjjel, if fuch procedure can be confidered, as a difohcdicnce of 
the divine precept, and if fuch can be the rcaliinabU cqnltrgc- 
jion of thai part of our bleffcd Lord ^nd Savioar's bcnrvolettt 
■ojun^on. Thefe ftieeis wi)! Ihew, that the hard hantl of proud 
oppfellion, hath been, irtorc than once, exerted, merely to ~d^ 
prtve the parfon of his due, and his pariMooert encooragvd io. 
perfonal intuits on him, when he camt to demand hia tifbes,' 

The compiler has, in his latro^uftion, and otHer p>rts 
of hiB- pul>li»tioni itazarded « few critic^mt, in which 
■we think be has in geneial been unfartunuc. Two «• 
ihall take fome notice of. I'be firft is upon the following 
paflage in Bla£kflonc*s Commentaiies. 
■ "The midus muft not be too Urge, which Jn law is called 
•' a rgnimsdus: « if the real valine of the -tythes be 6dl, 
■■•*"■""■' '" per 


^^xm^tfit^i It -Large tVlceKhivg^thts. 495 

" pvrannutn, xaA a nMbfisTft^cftcNJ <^.40l^thi!:kn6das 
'* will- ttor be good ! ■though o8e<rf' 40»; might have 
" beenvalid, 5fefi^«e'j C7s»nwn«hir(w,»ol. 2,^1 30." Upon 
which Mr. Riyncr mikes the foliowing oh&rvwttoa*, V as 
" neithcir II mod. 60. (the reference to fuppijrtwhatis faid 
" ill Blackltone ;as to .3. rauk mtdas,) nor the fenfe ft«.n« to 
" authorife the text ;, we wiih.ta read the firft tfi^.faxtyjhil' 
" /('njri, and ath^r 4Q,/ii>rf^;i«tiJi^," and Jila uoie>he^ds, 
" I prefuioe to oonfider tlie above as a m^ain, Jwos^Ib tjierc 
- " is a cafe in thcfe fhcets, whevein a medus c£ fix fexudst for 
^' tithes really woidi fevcnty-fcven posads «> year, was;iet 
" aiide, both in tlie Exchfiijtier aad on appeal,- iSce Z/i^t/ 
" znd Mortimer, i^c. Raynir' s Satradaflivn I3 Cafes nncerning 
'* Sz/Aw, p. alvii." Now nothing can b? more idle than 
the propofedaltcratiDn. K modus oi Afls. for tithes o£,60l. 
wouldijadoubtedlybe fullained, were there complete proof 
of itanacmarial uia^ ) whilft a modus oJ'401. Micnubl he &> 
notBrionfly ranlt, thatnoeourt of law or equity'wiiiiktGip- 
.fon it. The reafoQ too afligned by Mr. RAyner ■iii th: 
note is not in theicaft in point; Thequoftionin Li^iioA 
Mori'trHer A\A not torn upon whether the nMlHsof (ix-.ponnds 
was or was not a good and fufficient »M<yaf . It wa^-ticU to 
be no modus at all. It was a men aery^leficnct KttJtr a ttmpa- 
rary compcjiiiott by indenture dated in ib-]b, vrliish was in 
no ika^ hinding ot obligatory on the fucccflbi^ of the 
Vicar; the indenture taking no notice of my.vtodiis thon 
exiftjng, and thereby .fumilhing a ftrong ^iamfSyom tlutt 
no modus whatever had exifted earlier than the year 1676 ; a 
period by mu?h too fhort to eftablith an iinmemoriSfCinlom. 
It was oi his- genieraj title titat tho Vicar avaijecf hioii^if in 
thatcaute, and therefore in no Ihape fupports Mr. R.-ayher's 
doSrine. • ■ -■ 

The othef criticifm of Mr. Rayrter's on"Sfc Xa"Sof Nifi 
.Prius is niore unpardonable, bccaufc it is njoft unfairly flat- 
'ed.' Nothing can be liiore uncanjid M} criticffjn Jhaji 
faifc quotation. .Whqre 9 roan is %q be cenfureij, ■lie ought to 
'lie arraigned for what he hiipfelf has laid, l)9t for what afl- 
other has ,made hin) fay- But to dif^rrange ^is matter, ' to 
omit, xo infert, and make him fpeak a laDjfuage he never 
meant, is folty or it is worfe, and idcfervos.thc fevereft repre- 
benfion We (hall firft (hew what Mr. Juftice Bgilcr has ■ 
faid, arid then ftate what Mr. Rayoer lias thought proper to 
make him fay. 
■ ** iV»(« ; In « fVrlt of Enquiry hefore th« Sheriff, on a judgment 
/'by default in an etUionOK a promiffory note, the. plaintiff mitfl 
" prove his hate the fame, as if the defendant had pleaded non 
*' afliimptit i tliough in debt on bond and judgment by de- 
T 4 " h\x\x 

' ' ' D.:,l...d.yG00gIC 

496 ■ Henry'l MerMirtafAlbtrt dt HMlkr. 

*' fttih-itik-otbsrwifc." itfj^PMSw -3d. edit; I78. On tbij 
palSigeiMr. Rt^ner intRxhiceahM cbfemdons as follows: 
1" tlMugh 'di^'-vftfui worlc :i> fgpoDfed to^be Wrinen by a 
" l>Arwd jadge; aiid edited b^inocncr.teanied judge ; yetit 
*' feetm nwcflarv out o£ rcganJ 10 the ftudentand young 
'" praftiler, to obferve, that in pv 278 is tbe following nm^ 
" i«.rf'«iS»* if-inquiry hefsntka. Sker,iffi>t6.^ onhmtdand 
'^ judgineltt-hy^defituU the pittiKtiff meed not prove his honA, as 
•" ifi/it'AfenAHtbad'pl^dednoneR{a&.vta," and for this 
■" IS otWU i/iV. 18^ Get. II. ptr C. B. Now there is a 
." cafe of that tcrtn {continuei Mr. Rayner,) in' Barnes 
" fljji'butitis upon i-prbmijjbrynete, and fays nodnng 
" tMOMLt-Abtnd." V\A. Antherititi, p. vi. 

We-febmit to our Readers without commentary, whctlier 
-therS'isthBteaft refemhiance between the reil paJDage and 
the ti£tkitniB quotation ; or any ground whatever iot ttic ttn- 
pomtion'he Icv^i againft- the lamed and : icfpcjlabie chi- 
-rafiers he has chofen for the objc£ls of his lUiinadvedioiTs. 

Upon the whole we would recommend to this Author, 
vho informs us that he has been the Compiler and Editor 
' of ftvnallsw books, and who appears to be a man offome 

■ induftty, to pay, for the fnturc, a little more attention to 
the cor-itSion ^f his own errors, and leave rhc fuppoftd 

■ mifiakcs' of fupcrior men to thofe who are more capable of 
deciding upon them with judgment ; keeping always in re- 
membrance theilory of the aftrologer, who Humbled inro a 

' dilcb-wliik'be inV'gazing at the l\an. 

A»T.X. MfMtifief jHhtriJeUaUer^-iA.'D.t^c.Cefa^Wei chiejy 
from the Elogium fpoken before the Royal Academy ttf Sciencti 
at Paris, and from the Tributes paid to his Memory by Cthcr 
. ..Ftirtign Societies. ByT.Henr>-. 8vo. as. fid. Johnfim. 

THIS Compilation has produced on ut no other e&£t 
Ibaft to excite a wilh for a better and more particular 
account cif the mighty genius which it profefles to delineate. 
The French elogium is itfelf a very jejune produflion, and 
by no means deferving of the pains Mr. Henry lias bcftow- 
ed upon it. Had he been acquainted with the writings of 
Hallcr, he might have added information much more valu- 
able than, was to be found in the fources to tehich be^- 
plicd, for the great Author has every where fcattercd fhort 
notices of hifttfelf. which are not left agreeable and intetdl- 
jng than tlic digrellions in Paradife Loft. The colleflion pf 
his friends letters which he publilhcd would alfo have been 
ufeful. It were greatly to be defircd that fome biographer. 


Obfervadtns M the Ci^iunerct tflht Jmirican Stam'. 297 

fif tdcqwttc tklenti wonkl un<Itit:ik« to ^nfiniA and 'euter- 
uin the world wrtb the lift of this ^reat aiutecdiH, ffhyficH 
logift, bonnil), flMl(>f«pbn-,'mvtaptiyficiftn','niAfl>er of lan- 
gaagcs, poet, and <liviile'; for all thefe purfuits did hfl cultivate 
mthas mncJ], aiid .fotne of tbem with ■siorft-fttccefs than 
other men have cultivated only one of them. Nor docs 
thi^cOBiprcbeodailhis exCellcnc«i for ihefe-ddzzling' taJcnts 
wne fofuned by the moA aaaifefted modejiy aoJ candour, 
and heightened by an nndeviatiug perseverance in the pathi- 
irf moi-al rcftitude. How will Mr, Henry's readers be 
dt&ppotnted vrhen itldeliiieatmg fuch n character, the bio- 
grapher tells- in the language of the milliner and the taylor 
that " his imtnenfe reading, fertile and faithful memory, and 
found jndgnicnt, gav* fati^aflion to men af ail A^fitifu." 
ThiE afieition is as Jatle as the exprcllion ,is law and inela> 
gant, as Mc. Henry will find it, if he will refer to iJK Anaoi- 
taDones:A(ademice of Albtnus, the writing* of Hsnbei^er, 
and twenty other»^ 

Al^T- XI. Qi^fvatiant tm thi CoauOerce ^ tbf. •4'Ba-ictui Sl«ttt \ 
mthaa Appendix; ^oDUioiog an Accaumi of all ^ ice, loidigg,, 

. CouhJneaC Tobacco, Sugar. Mulafles, .and Rum jnipQTted in^ 
and e^ported^ from Great Britain ihc lail ten 'YcaraJ Of the 
Value of all Merchandize Imported Into and exported from En- 
gland. Of the Inipona and Eiports pf Philadelphia, New-YorE, 
Ste. AHb, an Account of the Shipping', eihployed In' Atirerirt ' 
previous 10 the War. The Second Edilloo.^ frro, ». 6d. 

THE political writings of, men deeply interefted ip the 
pToIperity of the ftate have a;weight which natqraUy 
commands attention, and obtain a candid and cvetifarour- 
able peruIaL ^nanymous produ^ions qiay blithe offspring 
nf laflion, and even thofe of honeil and nncere men m;^ 
be cotiBdereid as the re&icments of fpeculation, or Yain> diT- 
tdaysof genins, where no foHd intereft bindj the Aoihor to 
bircanntiy. But when hertttitaf y wealdi; poKtkal fn^>or- 
tance, and honours conferred by the fovtteigii', ftrongiy and 
irrefiftifaly attach a man to Ms native land, wc give him cre- 
dit for his finccrity, and naturaUy fuppofe that a regard to 
intereft will fet him above the views of faftibii, and equally 
correct tihe> affeftations of vanity, and the refinemenu of 

BntwhenweTefleAAat Lord Sheffield, to all the advan- 
tages akcady iRcndoned, adds the proofs he has givtn of 
ability as a public fpeakcr, and a generous zeal for r&tt we'I- 



t^ (HiJirV^tms mtb* Cimntretaftht jtmtriani Staus. 

^««f:|fiHS.awqCnr, * w« t«ke.- upJii* boojt with die moft 
^vowmhia ptt^nSt&om. '■--■'■ 

. His OMemi;>oi)s on the ■Commerce of \ho- American 
Stwest difthigaifticd by an sir of ctndodr, jl manlincfs of 
cxjircflion, an aqpuracy of iiivefHgation, and t glowing zeal 
for the velf^ro and glory pf Iiis country, futly anfw^r il*e 
oxpftftaiiotis jbatitr? t*ili4 hy tlie chwaftei of, Lord Slief- 
feJd. ■ ■ . ■ „ . 

' THE defirc of inut^tiii^ ^ful a IrafoDablp 
^n£tu|-e h^flfne^ the lirlt uublic^iioa of [his paavpb)«t in the mid^ 
4f ^icuUra^ ui^etpei^d avoc*tipn»v— Thcjdeinasid f»t a ^ooi 
edicion requires and permits a more acctjrate revitaj, apd tt)C "ppiH- 
tuiiity hai Dot been neglefted. Some palT^gcs l),aye be^a c^rrc£l(tl 
Qr explained) ai>d many additions are rn^w totroduced. 
. f On tlus recent fiibjeft no' informatiott could be obtaijicd frMD 
-any bookl irfiatfoever ; but the beft judges ic each article of expom 
-and' isLport* had been iepBraiely confulied, thtir fovcral .o^wtibiu 
badfaeeacarefully ircigheq an^ coiniMi:ed,.aBd th»£uBeist«r«fiii>g 

S|uelUona have been again fubmiEtcd to a fecond ^bdi nwn rigoiwu 
I>»rmng-Street, June ir, 1783. .'Skeffiild.' 

Having pKmtJcd ^«fe thitigs, our Author.'feitS'^t-with 
difplaytng'tfa^ advantsRcs of adhering to the prjnciplc of tbe 
navigatSftn aft, the jhifchiefs of crude and precipitate fyftehis, 
'artd'tiic' rafhneft pf hafty and pernicious conceffbus," Jn 
tJItG taft particular, h« alludes to the bill moved in parliil- 
iiaentty tfie.Rigl^ Hon, William Pitt, late Cb^VelJor of 
y^e Excheftuer, inijtled, " A bill fw tbe JroffifujEal £^ 
'' bliflimeDtand R eolation of Trade and Iutercouiil>betsKea 
'' the Subjefis of Great Britun, and thafe of di& llnit^ 
t* States of America." What he fays on tljefe fub^eCtslie-. 
Icrves to tc Kprcfcnted fiiHy in hi? own fangti'dge. 

* As a fuddeo reveilucion— an' un'pfficedeoted Cafij-^he 'fAJepCTr 
dener of' America, hkttticaingH the lOUft f^lHet %F i^^inar 
fian J '^(le»M bate hein 'prefNreU tnexpeHeil^, 'Rafh' ifhcory 'ia 
-ftiiKs&ftri pniiSket' and the Navigation AG itfiif, the ' g;uardnTi V 
-th« pM^imity -of Britain, has been altnoft abbndofledfay the le^f 
-«K (giMfraiKc- «^ fhgfli^ who hunt My^T^tTiw^y etxiwmoitkeSfbm. 
ortbiCftnle^ucnceDf aiBcient r^les. Our calmer T^cl^qm ii^ 
Saga difcover, that fuch Ercat faciilices are neither ppqtdfiie aar 
expedient; and the knowledge of the expoiia and impqm ed'tiic 
Aiijencan (latM, will afford us fafh and ^rinciplesto idcertamfbc 
.x'alu«of dteir trade, to forcfee their true in'tei'clt ajid probable t%p- 
du£^ and toehooft thewifeft meafures (fhj wil^It aie aimjVAc 

* Lmd Sheflietd fln the general apprebeBfion of 3 FrtBch Ih*s- 
fia»; nifei n regiment ' of light ' iatiiQtry ani cbt^ ihism at ^ 

AW expencc.— — ^ 


tn Google 

(noft fimplc) for fncuHns wd im[iravin2 the bcfi«filt off cnmrMTRal 
intercourfe with ibis fgrcign aod tndepcodeac ludon;' For « is i|( 
ths lijhtof ft forei^ cmnify (b« Anicat.-fl mull bgncdforvni d b« 
limed — it i» t^v fitwiioo ft* h;:rfcU lisa chpfen bj- afttning fair, 
^dependence, and the wMroGcti] definition of iptople/ui^uirii, is 
citbel" a figure of rhcturic which (odvcvk po diSinii ide^ or tho 
fforc of cunning, 'to unite ai ihe 'Tnnie time (he advaiii^iget <if two 
inwnfiflcnt chira&eri- By alftrring their independence, the Ainc. 
Ticang have renounced the prirelr^Cf) 11 well as the ducitt, of Bri* 
tilh fubjefls-^^hey are become torei^n flatrs; and if is foitie in- 
lianeej, as ia ibe loft of (he carrying-trade, thty ftti the in. n- ' 
yeniencti of their chtwce, they c«a no longer CDni[>!ar(i ; hu( if tkey 
are placed on the fooling ot the tnoii favoured natioS) th^y tauu 
furety applaud our libefafitv and'fiend^iip, without eipcctiug th^ 
for their cmoluraent, we flioijid facriflec the navigariop and (he 
niTslpmrerof Great-Britain- By this (impic, if only teinpor4ty 
leir^dfent, we'fhall eft'npe the unknown mifchiefg of i;rl!ideand prC'* 
«ipitatt fyjlenis, wt Oiall aTwd the raflinefs of baftyztr^ jperhicioua 
CDUcefliOAs.' trhichcawneverbe refuiAed without provak?Ag the jea- 
iMfy, aiMperhap* not without » entire commercial brcactii \viA 
fbt Amerinp States. 

' In the youthful ardour of grafping the adva^lvgcB of the Ame- 
rican trade, ft-bilW fltll depending, was firll intwducftl inco piirlitH 
liagieni. ^ad it paflcd into a law, it wo^^ld have a^i^d «itr nwt 
cfl^Htial interclla ip every brapch of connncrce, and^y a^ 
of the Wotldj' it would bave deprived of their efficacy flur pavtga- 
tionlaws, aiidgreatlyreducedthe naval power of Britain; it. would 
hSve endangered the repofe of Ireland, and eicitcd the ujft liidigna- 
tion'of RtiffbbndoibcFCouiTtriM ; -and the Well India plan tert 
woaldhave beetiibec4tlyrubjeftB0f Brit^ who cto^ld derive atiy 
hcnefitv'bowever partial and trtnfieni, from their opd*' < InttercvuHe 
diReftiywitll tbt Americaa Stales, and ffidire^Hy wrfa' the rcti of 
the world. Fortun^ely fonM dqlajft have intcf Moetli and it we 
diligentiy wfe the opportunity _ of refledtion, ih» fifWre .welfiic of 
our country may depend on this faluc^y paitie, , ,, 

' Our natural Mtipatience to ore-occupy the American marker 
fiiould.perfaBpa be rather checked than eD«;auraged. TKe.fanie ea^ 
gemefa na^been iiiduh^ed by our rival nations; they have vied ivith 
each other >° P'^u'^itig their manutafhires into Americii, snd the 
country K already Docked, inoii probably overftocked, with Eu- 
ropean commoditie*. It ia eiperience alone that can demonftratc to 
the French, or Dutch trader, the fallacy of his eager hopes, and 
/iaf. experience will operate each da^ in fevourof the Britifli mer- 
chant. He alotie U able and wilhng to grant thut tibcr.-il credit 
which mull be extorted from hi^ comp«;itorfl by tlie raOuiefs of 
" dwif early venturee ; they will fooa difcover that America ha> nej- 
tlier money nor fbfBcicnt produce to fend in return, and cannot 
have for loinethm;'«nd not intending or being able to give credit, 
their fuiuls will be exhaufted, rhclr jginta wiU never return, and 
the rula of the firfl creditors will ierve as a lading wariupB to their 
countrytncii. The folid power of fuppli'ing the wants of^ America, 
of reeeiringherproduce, and of waiting her convenience, belongs 


=dt>yG00gIC _ 

JOO Otfiruationt en the dmmerce of the Arherlcan Slata.' 

almoil cxclufi'H);(a,ourowtti mer^lia'oM. ,1^ Wp'-can ahftsin Uotn 
jnifchievo'iu f recipiution, we'raa.y jiow learn, . what wcfliall hereafter 
Ael, that tbejnduliry ot Briiain ^rill encounter J itije, competition in 
the AmericanniHrfcw. We (Inill Sbferve wit)i pleafure,' thiit, among 
rhemaritime"fti(tea, France,' after 111 her dferBi'wilf derive the 
fmalteA bdhefitt from the commercial jndcpeildence of'ftmeriea. She 
my Miilf In the difinemternWiit of th« BritillCtnipin!, hot 
iCwEarr.trus'tddurfitlvei, «nid>WthaWtfitoni Af oui'attcettw», there 
.4ifti[lliir«)d «tgour left to difiippoiiit her hvpAi Bod tOdTDttaiii 
Iter ambiliatb' ' 

The articles in nhich titer? will be Icarca any competittoiH 
■rc-wooUefis ; cutlery ; iron and fteci manufaftwes ; porte* 
i*in%nd earthen ware ; .glufs j.ftockings; > IKocS; buttona j 
Jiau-; cotl«p\or Manchei <r ipanufaaurrs ; habctidaflKry 
andmillinaryi tin in plates; >ad in pigs and in ikaOai-fStp- 
|wr jalheetBi arid wrought inta kitchen undntiicttntenlils; 
painters colpvrt 1 curdagc and fliip cband^ery^ : jeweUcry, 
plate, and ornamental at wdll as ufefuL aitic]ea^«f Ihc Bir- 
Blinghaiq^XRW^tire 1 fudi as buckles* watchffibainsi ftc 
Alfo Sheffield mannfaAures i materials for co4tb-B:iak«r8» 
ladlersr ^ni upboUtererK; medicinal dru^, il«ei in baiBj 
«oodi foi: the Indian trade; books, whicb t)]«i:aotkoroH- 
Icrves h a confiderable arti<;le of export^iotL to America 
from Great Britain, and muft continoe fo as-long as the 
jrice of Uboor ts high th^ce, and the langtiage continues 
the 6aie, 

-I9 ttKioHowuig articles, the noble autborc^fervM, there 
Jinay be potBpeliiion, linens, &il-cloth, paper, at«d ftMiona^; 
huxs ; ^ottd callicoes, and other printed goeds;' filki ; fait 
iroKi'Europv; tea and Eaft India gdod« in general 1 lUt 
p«re and gortpowdcr, lawns, thread, hemp. 
'■ Thc-foifowmg are the articles which Cannot be fiipplied 
by Great Britain to advantage. Wine, brandies, ceneyai 
oil, railins, figs, olives and other fruits. To thefe impor- 
tant lifts tlie author fubipiiis this interelling note^ 
. ' Hc^rly ail iht ariicln ^f ia^riati^nfram Eurape inif iht Ataeriran 
SiiUtif ari cem^ibtnilt^ imJtr dt ^ovt ginrral barJi, .3te piintipal 
fart, a(Je^fifi>ur-fifihi'>ftbfm, ^re at ali limi fr»vi4*4 tp rreJi/. 
fht ^m_irican Slatttareln gTMtfr %i^m 6f tredil at, thii time.thaimt 
Jiirmir teritJt, It eat Itbadtnty in G^eal-Britain, Thf frtvth, wi« 
gave them ertilty are all hankrupis : Frt«ehmir.chtMU,in.gtiMr^_eA1iM 
give nmch crt4i'i nurny triHci^l ritamereial-hamfi4,_i» Framt,l>ave,iet* 
ruistd Jjr y V '^be Hatch .in general have moI tryfiedilit Jimtritaiii, 4t»d 
^viBnat: it lsn«i iheireafiamja give cTtdii,})U eathf^ifiJifUKlfy^. Jf 
it therejiiri cbvioul, Jrimi this circumjlanct, anj/rem the ahmit^sU if 
imfarti, hrtoViAatehaaneU the canmeree ef tie ^laetlean Staw jukM 
iHevifaUfJievo, mJtfvt nearly /aur-Ji/fhs of their imf^fHtens 'U'llt te 
made fi'trnXSreeti-Britain direnlj. Where aHieUt'dre mtarU n^ual, tit 
fuperin credit gitjen ij England nvill ahxayt give tlte frtfirence ; ewet. 


ObftTVations en the Commrcs »f tbt jtmirteaifStMa. jot 

It ij^reiaile, many f^e^ anUifi '"'^ ff te Antrica ihrtuib Grtat 
BriiaiK^ a'i formerly, ea.atctmi eflhtJ^etiliy tilt ^uurkaa mtrci/ant 
v^eulABtii in 'rtfirthg to tviry gua^ttr of tbt '■JiarU m cdkj^ a carge' . 
Ins of great "impOTtaiice, Lord Sheffield juftly pbfen'cs, 
to attend to tije exports frotp America to Europfi, by which 
tiie Americang . arc to pay fpr the goods imported. -Thjej' 
confift of tiie following. The- produce of thf wh^le lod 
cod &(heiies« vis. nhaie-oil. bone, fini, aad faleedfi^ ; flour 
aod wheat ; naval ilorc^, viz, rnxxh, tar, mA turpentine, 
malls and fpars fdr the navy, and for merchant ' ihibs ; pipe 
Ibvesafid'tafflbcr in general ; tlax focd, iron, and pot aln, 
totocco, ftfrd,'bnd peltry, fpermaceti candles, indigo and 
yicc ; Ihips built for fale on the taking of frejglits -.-r-thefi: 
cDtnprebettd noariy tbe whole of the exports- fiWA) the Amti>- 
rfcan ftMcl, of the growth of Ihe c&untry. :.■■■■ 

Tbc articles imported by the Amcrican^tMef-fioM ^ 
Weft- India iflands and fettlemems in general, afe fngars^ 
mola&E:, fnm. Coffee, cotton, cocoa, fait. " i ' ■ -; 

Tlie articles exported from the American ' Stdtes to the 
Weft Indies, werehorfes far the faddle, for draught,' and for 
t^eiiiigar works, wheat, falted beef, falted pork, butter, oandlei, 
and fOBp, falted fith, lumber, viz. ftaves and b&op», rcaiVb- 
lings and timber for houfe and mill fraoies, boards, ihineles^ 
&c. live oxen and ftieep, poultry of evMy kind fw irefll 
pTOviflons, &c. In the lilands, rice', IndiilnL' ^om, %rsA 
tobacco. " ' 

< From the faregoior (Ute of ike hrponi flitd'«xpbrtg of the 
Amcricaa Siatei to uia froai Europe -and the Wclt'hKUn, a' Judl^ 
mcni iqay be f^rnied-of their aacviral courle andmalenj'^r-af tfanr 
tniporaincei-T-snd of chc mt^fiiKa. U>at lliould b*: adopted bjr 
Great GritRtn;' or jiather, it appears, chjt little, ii to be d*"ie, »M 
our great care ftwuld be, ca avtid'daing mifchief. TH^. American 
States ire (eporatcd frdin ua aad indepcn'dont, confcqueqtljr fo^gqt 
the declaring them fuch, puts them it the only lituatioh, in which 
ihiry can bej "M dlflkulty ii tiMoMi, nothing i» haiarded, iio hid- 
den in ifchief i*''tO'be dreaded, but' rilying o'n thofe ' coihtit^ciat 
principles and roRUIation* under which our tAde dhd faaTyhdve be-' 
come fit neat. Great Britain will lofe few ol' the adyantam flie 
^ctSelTed' oefere the American States became independent, an4 with 

Srndcot BtvngeiDcnt;^ will Iiave as tnoch of the trade iiit^riUbv 
er intareftrowilhfor, without any expelicc to the State, of cinl 
cAablifhnient or prdtefliMi.' 

The Author now goes on to defcribe tfie mighty advan- 
taiges tliat .have arifen to Great Britain from the famous 
Naviga'tioin Ad, and to dcmonftrate the ncccHity of ^ill a- 
tidlng by it, and keeping UR the carrying, .trade, as. t^ 
i^rcat ^/m(<(ff Qf England. The puiptns. of hiy i^feivar 
tuHu, hSiUs^, in, coDciuiton, will be ' aafi«ereij( ryif tboy 
Aiiould leadmeot toJee theneceltiiy of maimaioitigthafpiritof our 


3*4 Mo»*lit,vCAtAL«*Gtii, PotiitcaL 

WiTipittMi la*^ irtliCh'** Tettned atmoft to' hate forgot, iiTtliOUj^ 
to tnntt Wc Otre out confeqiience, our powtri.aqil alrnofl eveiV 
ferrtt Rttibnaf adt^nTflge, "I'he Navigation afl, ilie bafii of our grcs* 
pHtvOf at fA, ^ve tl» th« t^adc of the world : if wc abcr tbat aft, 
by pennitfing' my Hit* ta UidE With our iftdbil*, or by fufferiag 
anyltate ta-briftginto this coantry any prAduct bni its on^n, iM 
4efert the NavigatlDn aA, mil racrificc the marine (if England: But , 
if the principle of the Na^gation aft ii proj>«rly ' ajid«rfl.ood^ iwd 
wcit foHowed, this country may ftill be fafe an^. great. Aliniftera 
^ll RnJ, nticD the country underllanJs the queition, that the 
printip1*ol-tiie Nifigation ah, muft be kept cotjrej^nd that A^ ' 
o»iTyi*g tWtte irioft hot in any degree be given lip. . . They wifl fee . 
the prwdpitt! on which they ftand j any ttegleSt *ir hiifmaoageriitot 
at thh ^ittt, ttr abnfidoTied policy to gain a fpA^ votes, tvilt hieyita- 
bty bring *n th*lr dowhfal, evtrf ftiSre dercf»e(ity'tfiah the mirrraWi 
peaoi brought on thntof their ^iVde^elToi-e t -and bk ihti'mifcfcicf 
wit) b«-trtDi«^rM)n>ni thtif fall t*)ll be, ■■ it oiighf^-nior^ ignAmi' 
MOM. Their 'con^udoQ this ocv^oft ought tobe tlie teft trf^theit 
ibilitfes and good manaBement, and to dedd< the degpe^rf eosfi: 
dcnce which ftould be placed ia them for the lutu^eJ ThtscauQ. 
ny hi£ not Found ItTclf in a more interelliixg fitiiacion,..tIi9s lyi^ at 
prefetrt. 'Itil nm? fb ht dccideatvhetKef Ae.are'tg^te rujicj^by 
the MtH^Mttdeh^ t1 America; or not. The peact,^ in cbtopari&a, 
i(MrtrH!Kit'''^j*«r and if the ne^irfl of ahy orii;' ffttiSttft;' rtirfi 
ikatTMathetdeAn^Btlft^ichtMn^, iMttiy k wtn be tlienesliia'af 
dMi u4i4h itiTolna in it not iMrely the gttUAeft, b^t i'via ttte 
•Biy cjwflertc*^ our coUntiy.* ' , , 

• Toonnith praife c4nnot be beftowed on Uiis not^' An* 
dt«r. His intentions arc {tstriottc, his kAouc It^ b«iea 
great ; he has' confulted the beft judges md «tathoritiea ia 
the dtf^nvnt psths h^ tttiveries, and he has 4nwn jaA and 
tiftful inferences froln ttye faftt he hid been st^ns to 
iuguire. H^ clearly demoAllniteS' where rcftriAions bti 
ffaicte are ufefuU and vi'hcre mifchievous. — It tnay -paiiafa 
be ohfuved with jnftice, that he fhews i difpofition to con- 
template the bright fide of the medal : whatever may beiU 
this, he certainly points out d&iitfold refonrces of .nattooal 
wealth and grandeiir. 

For O CT O B E R,' 1783. . 

pD L J n C A t.. - - - , 

Art. H. H'mts addrtfftd to tht PubUe SH tht Stitt ^f dur ft- 
nAticti. By John Sinclair, Efn. 8*0. ti.CiiA\,-\ 

MR. SiucUtr. having AbTcri-e^ thdt !t h« bcM of lafttoumoA; 
tar evex iTlpcaabte isdiwidualt to ttHMSS tOtMkVnk^iA xUvSf 
(he puUi^i with -ao^ge rated accounts 'of tbe ^aS^IMi (IMcjC^'At 
■ational fiuanecti be, at as iiidividutl, anxiout tor iha Iranotir nU 



MoNTMiv CATAtOGCE. P^lticHt. f^i 

profperity^ oF hit couoirf, pfoltfk asatnfl the general tm^ency «f 
fuch pertorifianceB. 

Ainotig rtve "gloomy prophew of the day, he nariicyUriy diftin- 
guiii)«s tb« Ba« of Staw. Tho fegr points infifed on by ihU no- 
ble LorJ, Mc.Sinelair begs leave to cootroren:. The firft ii, that 
riW aiMua) 'incomi: oV thU country does not exceed xirelre MUIiottS' 
yearly. Mr. Sinclair cuinpucet il to be 14,168,196/, ji. loi/.— 
Lonl Stair ii> fecondly, of o|Hnioii, that the twtioiui expence can- 
not Iw de^rkyed utUtr thetnortaotis Tuiti of 16,^71, J46/. Mr, Sin- 
clvr calcuUtei that the national cipcncei, in tunes of pMtce, ^ttf' 
vided It wife and prudent iyftem ai (economy m enforced, it) the dif- 
fet-ent departments of the Rate, w'ltl uoc eKeed 11^105,669/. lot. ^il.- 
Lonl Stair diirdty costeadtt that the unfundod debt, includins the 
loan of ibe prefent year, wiU amount at le«ft to forty millioast the* 
iatered of which, he thinks, will aiironnt to full two millons. Mr.' 
Sinclair computes the total intercft and charsei of the unfunded debt 
to be 1,514,000/. — Lord Stair affimw, that to nife tddiuonal \tiim 
tblhCiimaiMit of 4,371,346/. were it ncceflary> >« aoiogig the bftrt^t 
of all bBTs poffitiiliticG. Mr. Siaclair thinks fo latge a fum, (tho'' 
it might be nifcd) will not be watjied, and that, all nuikMial es- 
pences beinx defrayed, there will renain lo the flaie, ti clear bsUitce' 
or finkhig randttf 2,i6i,;i6/. 131.6'/. 

Mr. Sinclair hw certainly taken a very favourable view of the fi- 
ninceiof ihisconutry, indhM SEalto prerect defpandeacy, toinfiije 
into luB coumrymeo ff^rit, and to inculcate eKonamjrratkeflate, is 
cDtnmmdable. Tlie tempers of men ioSuence tbeir judgment; and 
the underftanding'ls often govrraed by the will. Amanof adoud^ 
dirjufition fees thin^ thtouEh a gioomy, and a man of heakh i^nd' 
high fpiriti throngh a chewful, medium. And though ihefe cir- 
cuDiftaocei mny fcem to have nothing to do with maitcn of catcu^ 
laQoM, yet, where the iafii of calculation are cahjtlhirr, analogy, 
fifftjl/itm, U'inAe prefent eafe, they are of imptifiance, and be-' 
come tl)cmleim^ in warhing the merits of ■ 6nai)cnil performance,' 
minent^c^Bltcios. For. asanalo^ei and fnppottiuni are in'fi- 
niie, ' a fekdian it made by inclination. The grounds «if Mr. Stn-' 
clau-'i calenlatiaos, ^s welt as thofe of Lord Stair, are conj^iii^' 
h>yothetical, and awalogicil reafoning. Nay, the Commoner it' 
bolder in hie conjeAures, end builds more upon favout'itbte contin- 
gencicn;: than the Peer does upon fuch as are adverfe. 

There is one argument ufed bj Mr, Sinclair, and it 11 alfo in the 
moatk of eteryiulf(ar potiikixB, which we cannot paf^ Over Wifhout 
notice. He fayi, that the " world has been ftunned with perpb- 
taal prognoftieatiDM of ruin upon ruin, for at haft a century pait :' 
•-and that there is reafon. to ima^oe, thtrtiis we now ridicule the 
ilt'founded despondency of our anceftors, whd imagined that lifty^ 
or a hundred millions would reduce them to a ftafe of bankruptcy,' 
foiiur pofteHlf wUi laugh at the ignorance, (*i»r frrfiijites to ajitt 
(hat we haw iflUlly eihaufted our refources," It is cehainly pa§^ 
ii4 10 cxtuCfi ourMliaurces ; and the more tnillions that are Mdti 
to.oucaxtiotihlidi^-tht neartr we annoach the period tif fiattoO^ 
haoknipt^, Butaocttrdins-to Mr. SinelairVar^ment, pufhctt to 

■ ■■- \u 


304 MoNT|n,Y'CATALOGtfE. PtMeat 

indue extent, the more miltions that jm% addEd, tbe Uranger the 
proofthat wehavi'botliiDg te'#ar. ' 

. ' We tiaMf tftmtd'-ffti» jMRtpIDet-^nth free^jn ; htsHn 'ivtg^ the 
WrheT'ibc.ltii^-pdUic xrat, ind.^ tliepiTtiSfie k^'^iklfi^'to know 
tlWfirefelM'ltht* df Great Britaihi- ■' ' ' ■ '■•1 *■ '■ -, ' 
Artvij. '^«"i§*>- tm the' bw -flfftf^fc ■i>«rf'IBriB»r6J 1^ 4fx 
■ Empiifaf'iht iOv tf Great B^i^kwiM' trOaufi-^ Vi\hti''ExA 
of A-— ^hi -Bto. i!.6d: ;^BK*kdale. " ■■■! •.:;■■"'-'■■ ■ 

'ThicKflar'U de«fieaKid to iheKIng : >Bd) no^donfat, bk'Milj^- 
*y will be wB^tiftd with iti tomcntj, as they apjwit- to'V ' thf ■ 
penutne lenttmenti of a vinuoMVnd Ipyal Snbj^^i £eVt(^ lbf_;tlw 
il«cVBft» nridthc-glory-of thc'Bril5flf(;rown aodempire. ^tte'jKE- 
ineitiberTtoent t>f Aniepca fnWn tbe'Brltifli cnipire, (nd'tht emiaci- 
pation of IrelandiVoia the filbiu^tlf^n df the BriifOil te^flkilare; the 
^l6f Atdbcirovij'h hefitatei natlb affirm, inficad of inpoverirhi'ng^ 
Will'cnrJch (hefe kingdoms, and turt]-<)i« the luVeff and only meaii* 
t^-* reducltiK, in& jmaHy litjuidinn^ their nation ardel>tf, and'rcn- 
"dcring; whatteiiiaiiy (by reciirHn({to.' flrft principle! of virtuous 

* charity add aconamy, by the cotnpaihieft of theemgirCfciiid gd- 
V verhing it &y Honefe, not famous, corrtipf, .'and fdollfli td.dhcilB, 

* a (riifty Ad mtn til ration under t Viyuou* and.prlidnABIohircijaf 
«>lnoiv Itrengtb f© defend, tnorc twwtfr and fcfee tfi'am^, ■ibd"e47 

* fitr to'inartfl|eaad tonduft, than \rhen cl^cftiHAi&e'itdifprt- 
*/dy burden of too large and dtdsntit portion of. j?>naa|Df; 'wludi 
*. 'm^o the l<arcnt State, if Imay'he allowedthe-^fifSait; &eBpti^ 

* Cftl, the body and members infinitely too krge ffii; iS'.'b^^^.n^t 
'-tut tliat it might ftil! have remained arniesed tct^beicr^^ trf tii^t 
','-r*alm», at leaft for manj- years t« eome,' under any^Jtift 'aad't^ifd 
^ Admitriliratlon, who (in thtir ^ulr age)' baditftBtt'd''Bi4tp''&A 
^friends and Bllies, not as children add ftive* ; 'iirtidef Wtibns 

* wbofe corr.upt »icws were fordid and-felBfb, whofc' H)vi of ^^' 

* UtioD, weak mindi, and baler difpofvions, would liAniaMc tl^i/ 
t Kihg and tiftomry,- at the Ibriueof '»ml>ition»' powW, i»htf_k+aiicft| 
*^^'and this is a'tnelinciioly butttve pidureef m^Ftof ^ Ate~S3tnw' 
' ni^tioni, during hit MajeAy'treignj Who, faultlefr'hiftfrlf, liiiK 
*-bad^theblame|afid odium bfabf^rci, violettt, |hd t)ei:ftcioa''cbiJd';; 
<.'^U and HiixftiB meafurcs, attempted to be iaid. at W .dAb^'j 

* who hath lately had tbe gorefnhrtnt rf lii» kii^ifaiii^t^ iAft fttf 
■-power of appointing hi* own fttrvanta, and fh6 K^Ettioirof'lin^ 
*.oWn family concerns, the cftaUiAuaeiit of his fota'^hMffib^i'-tn- 
*..tcrfeied IQ, and wrelled aiR tif hii- haudi, by RJttdtb AftdetiMt- 
' tian dfimerefls, till. then ininnml and of dtffet«nt pfhtd^les', Ad 
*,- .whofc JncraMency hath rendered it-obtMniwu/ awd 1il[t>ttnM^ 

* both realmi, at well as to tlie-Sdaeraign, wbofe oidl^ftaf Sr^te 
•:eluraaei-af:onejnaB, tbf Chancellor of €bb Bt Aii^NWV' ttife -i%t^ 

* being moftlymenof ndrarioufi prafUfiMnt af ]iMMalti{,-^^tMti^Br 
' andpowrty, of^defperate »4d 'ruiiKd mriuric^ riMH CitalificKt' 
'alievt^iatl^^.finifx^ ingredle^n wblchill ItVtiai^forSfait^ 
''men-; wkicb(:jfiiidy, ctKBpob! nopan of ^'OnAkitriitaGa^hr, 

* forwitfaoM iue^irityand propetly,"^ firiaadbdfitiki-dk'^^atbt-JM- 

* U(x,:ai]dtfaetrwom,'%rtiac Monaaihi «4iat>pt<i(te4ti'tni(frilMti? 
' Uliat dependence can be had on neo, ti^ote *K)idii ui'd £9ians. 


Monthly Catalooue.v PtniUaTi Joj 

* ut and out of office, dil&r ; vrboTo privtte and jMbUc ctiVftAerir 

* hare not £)U(^rad ; wkals li*c* liavf b«9ii a oontiwcd rj>fiem of de^ . 

* ceit, trcacoerv, aadiw^afiibD^ i ■ d)r^ CDSCndtAioa to e^ety 

* principle of honour tod hoaeay, ]<et of ftcb a Jdifendtk tR(f 

* FBSfcbed fam^oii thepreleEX, and rooA of i^ latter Adjiun^pi- 

* Son madf iip; need wc then look further at tke LoITe* the empire 

* 1laf faftfloed, the caufes of Uadequate trcatiea ofpeace, as veil 
*.M:linfuooc(ffulifan] and the late revolution* whjch have taken 

* place,' do sm ttiey prove their incapacitr to manage, and that 

* qnfiBrKal«birttWuiibaelcedby. the coibfidence.of tbp Kia^ aod 

* pcojiUi (for aa their interefii are the fan^e, I fhail never ^parate 

* uem,' M Iwickcd miniAert ha« attempted) though they may by 

* iatle cofoiineg t<x a time delude, fan ncrer 1od|; in^xile upqn a 

* di&f tninr jicepk, but muH ihortly fink into merited cpntempt.* 
FnMQ thnToiig&titcBce the Reader will eafily perceive that Lord 
A^ - ' b is' Bo.great tnaller in the art of compofiticw ; butlh; honeft 
featiracntt of men of rank, integrity, and tRdependeace, ought cet^ 
toiiilf 'to wany a finarter AinK than the mpft pointed farcafm, or 
thi^mofi labtwrpd invedi*e. — Hit Lordlhip doe« not aim at eloquence 
and' ret^mcnt : but he does what it better ; he fpealu the words -of 
ln^$a*djiiern^s. The plain flandajxt by which thii qobte Author 
thin|uit.r«>liuuit>Ie tojudgeof miniften, tnerita public atteatioQ: ' 

• 'Thi^ wd'thu 6nly uiould be the criteripn to judge, of JUi- 
UtScn, U l^y did not fettle their accounts annually, and there-' 
b;r'C°pvincB tlie pmple tbat con^rabte deduAioi)i fasTe \xrn 
ai»^ in the fpace of^lime, both in their debts, taxes, «nd eix- 
pco^ i foc^ a Min^y flvould bjr univerfat confetit be difnrilled, 
•od a tiiarc jirpper one put in its place ; integrity &qil OEconomy 
WDoid then take ^dace pf fraud aiul extravagant profuiioOi they 
VPi^d b«i^ne ni^tioatil obje&a, and reftore us to tbtt Arft ptinci^ei 
ofTirtnons GoTCrnment.' 

%€ men of cimdour and ind«pendant fbrtunei .would,. like LiEA'd 
A'.- ' !;i" ' --k in- a ipiala and unandtd mamtc)-, eottmntueaM ihrir 
fto^nvnts on the fiibjc^ of politica, and of miniftvs, to the pob^' 
lie, fudh Jixoncen of judgmenu and of wilk might be formed^ a- 
tpQQ^i^en of ^rcpetty, «e would chafe fi^Mitbefhn^e, the BMft 
potre^iA Cii^ deliniuig and wttlied ftien.' 
AjS^^Ij^.'^ Miter af hijGrattth*I)*kt9f Rnbrnimd, in Ah- 

/<aw\^jf)€ §^triti praitfedir). a C«p««V*M ^ Cnrrffendmcfin Irt' 

i0iidSf*tk^S*ytSf/fi ^arUamentmry Kt/arm. Together with' 
■■ ^eCDiMKffiK pf t)»e Volunteer Dcleratee of (he Provinctof Ulfter ; 
.afrf^^lBf t9FWValM(>Mer Atmy Of UlUer; and other itnporttmt 

Fapcn, / 8^0, , fs. 6d. Stoclcdalev ' 
■ ^^.Camu^iieofGorrerpondence, appointed' by the Ddentai 
af,j^t^9«0Re,V«Uwieer Coi^, afltfnbled at Lr^nt, oii the fit% of 
iWx^^Vt WdafcBalftfton the i^thof July 178J, fcnt a lejtorro. 
the Ji>tp(;#C£^(Mond( fhewing the corrapt Aate of the boroughs; 
in Sft^f/tni^ ( ji if , g <I BiCB>l o^ioDof.the people, fkat the «Di^ituriqB' 
cft^jKifsftpp^Miiu MKUM pURty and vigour by aoothefmesni" 
tban,9|xtrl|«mBnlin:y refnntiv atidiiikf4rming hit Orane-t)f the tept: 
wluch^4 li^*-bdun, at)d were 'fiilt taking by theVfihsntKn, in 
determining to procure that defireable objeS, They propofe fome 

£««. Rtv. Vol. II, Oa. 178J. U ^ueriea 


306 RIoNTfiLY. CatalooiJe. PoMcdU 

^uerioB to tile Dulte relative to the nature, extent, and mixk of 1 
parliun^tary reforiDf »iul retjusA hia -fcntinHnn and advice can-- 
cefouig-tlie mojl p^ii'^ticable node of deflroying borough mflueoce, 
V .in Older to lay uvtm befow. tb« Provincial AfleBibly of litel^tny 
" tobeheldMt DuDgannoD on the Stli.of September." ' 
: , The Duke, in aotuer, declatef buufelt more and more conviticed, 
raai /ie rtfiti-ing ibi T-i^bUtfiitling uMitutfiil^ la tmerj 'moA,- mtf rmca- 
pacified ly naiart-ftr v:tiiii of rrd/ax, or ^by.J^ift.Jaf ihf .ai/nim^iigtf 
crij^uu,.. together with annual elodtiohe,' \i the oit\f- reforon that etn 
\t eScci-.ial and pcrinanetit. He himtelf, be lelU tHefn,;dreir up i 
plan; upoat4i)G noble [foundation, in (tie fortn of a bill-, h hkh Me 
{frelentcdtoiihe-Houfeof -Lprdx in 1790. -A coiiy <if ,ihi* Uit he 
praniifcs'tO'troiilJniitta ihcin, at fpon as ^eOiould he a^hi'toget tne 
mdy. At prelcni, therefore, he only meniioni r few of its pwwi- 
fions) which. tiDtbiakt entirely remove, the. moli plautihle objeaioni 
thac have been urged agaiaA it. . la what be fayi of hie bill, he 
^leivs iii ofiinion concerning the greatai aumber, and tks moft im- 
portant uf the (]uefiioa« that had beea pmpol^d to him. Thbo- 
thcft,. ri;latiDg to the adipilhoa of RoTnan.Catl»plic* ta vote at clec- 
nons;. the votiag by bailoi ); auii bbceciuity andeaiiedjc&cc of ibc 
i]at<9in:putclialingi boroughs now in the potirSan o£ imdiiudualsi he 
aJfo aouvcrs briefly^ but. with great .ope nnefs.dml frecdonk ■ He.cea- 
ctoAes withejqtfdliifga.iTi^, that.£nglaad ami Jirland ToigYa d- 
ther be iuGorporateo into one |ial)oat:rf>r, m Icafi. coaneSed ^ a 
fouleraLuaioti. Thi^Dukeof Ric^rp<K^^ritn vritb biKHfuaixool- 
lief^:. Mid in the paper! of^:lhe Iriib- Voluj^ncrit we.&nd' but* lltde 
oC,that iatcrdlT tha^ animation aoil finr.'ill'W' chant^eoite tUc'.-fiatc 

pap:rs_of America. ... , 1. 

4xt. 15. £y0r(ifr-.fjf_-Ct9grtJi. jld^r.tffis.and'Renmnuniia- 

^.titnt teiljtSiiu*$, By vbc-U^ited Stated in' Cungrela''AjSitnbltd. 
-8vo, it. Stockd-.le. ..-,.(. ■: . 

I Ip this pubUcwioQ'CoOgrefatfCBfoice the obligation theStUei 
afa pB4«r, to. rea^tr. cornpUtc juaiccto' all the pttldic - yre ^ i wt», 
wil'h'great digniiyandcner^-t and poiottnie, with perfeS elearnejj, 
the re.rourccs, whence a pubLic<i«venue mflybcdrawnfer tbM btu^ 
pj|i^. ^The rfa&oiags and allegciionC Df'Con^Kr»,.«D thnfubjed, 
are fupported b<i>..vanety of- pope'TSr fahjoined'Mrttie AiMrtft. 
ThWe papen, ai wqfl a« the Addrels itfrif, arc waiten witk-' grcai 
.eloquence and ligoiic;.' , - . , ■ . .,.:., 

Art . 16, J cirtukr Letttrfrom Gterge fVaJhin^m, Cammait- 
JcT tn Ch'stftiftht Atiniii tf tht UhikJ Slaies -vf- Jlmeriro, H Us 

. E^eUtiHiy- WHliam Grtrnt, ■£/.[.- Governor 0^ fit StMr-^jBMe 

' i/laii^. 8to. 6d. Stockdale-. ' ■ . .-■ 

We have hadoctnliait'co remark, ihat gm^t and important occi- 
fions^ by r^ufiag and calling forth into eieitioD all cb^'fcdittp and 
faculties of the rntnd, ari) axtremely fa.Tourabte to ehjoacnce^ Oe-. 
i^ral WalhiogtonV letter 11 executed in a ftraia «>* 'tt» be rlvilled 
Iw fi^itiout wriciag. The impot-taAce andihe i^agnitade'-of'the 
obJe£U he difCulTci,' «lcvate his tobs to a hc^le entHufiafinL'- Bui 
his emotion* are equaily under *he twaruul <rf reafonV -atiitwidi 
the fire of oratory he unite* the preciiiou of truth. The- ftdlowing 
ii a lUort fpccimcn of b^ luaniiec : ' 

* The 

Digitized bwGoogIc 

Mt)NTH£Y GATALdaifE.' PeUfical. ''■ "'307 

' The foil ndatioB of our eW!''' fras.iuX laid in''th« gloomy age 
of-iRnoRtoceand fuperftition, butrat an epocha when the righta of 
minitind were better oftderftoodj clearly delined, thaa at 
any form et- period ; refcarches of rtie human mind after ftclal hap- 

fiihdi have bc<(Q carried to. a great extent { the trcafurea of kaow- 
ed^ acquired . by ihe labourt, of phitoibphers, fajcs, and legifii- , 
tors,' through a long.facceffioQ of. years, arc laid open for ufe ; and 
th'eir coHefled wifdbm may be happily applied in the eflabtidiment, 
ofiour forms of gnvernnjent : che fret cultivation of letters, the un- 
bounded txwafibn of comiliercc, thfprogrrfi»o refinenient of man-. 
ner3, (he growing liberality of ftotitnent, and, above dll, thepuie' 
and benign tight of revelation, bave bad a mcUorattng influence on 
nunkind, ani increafed thebleflrngs of fociety. At this aufpicious 
period the United States came into existence at a nation } and if 
. tbeir.citiEens (bould not be completely free a^d happy, che fault 
wifi be entirety their own.' 

-In tha publioadon General Waftrin^ton difplays, in all the co- 
louring of a glowraiff eloquence, the virtuoui femimenti of a good 
ciriaen^ and ibe abilities of an ^ble liatefman. ... 

Alt. 17. .The Lriicri of a Citizen en India Affairs. 8vo. is. . 

■Gilbert and PlMmmer. ' . . 

Thcfc Lutters have airfiady been publiflwd in a newfpaperJ' This , 
ciixum&anee, however, ought not to form any pr^udi£:e againft 
thtm. They contain fevei-al flirewd obferrations joa the " Nlntb 
Report of the SeleS Committee ;" fome ftriftiirea on the Tenth Rs- ' 
pdii ;' and various coiiimendaitoni of Major. Johp Scott'i Two Let- 
ters to Mr. Biirkc: a circumHance, which being united to a certain ' 
peculiarity of manner, inclines o« to imagine, that the' Author 
may be no oflier than Major Scott himfe'lf. Be that as U may', tTiey' ^ 
COf tc^ly .difcover a very intimiite aCquaintMice *'ith ftMny punticni , 
charaiiers and fafls, rai no inconfiderable Ihare of penetration and • 
ji^dgment; _ 

As afpecimeoofour Authiy's manner,, aad in proof of what we 
have advanced, ive Ihail (e]'e6t the fbUdwing parages, nrhich will, 
noi^tjbt, cnteiiAin JQany of .our Reacbers.' ' . : 1 ., ;.. 

. ;' itJtarc'.f(xn,-Mr. Editor, 'in Several of youi' papen^ andtn- 
dfSFd ihf «ther pspera too, an asqount of the appointmtnt. of/: odb- 
'^A^lfam Burk«. £iq;. to the office of Receiver of the balances dde 
from the Cornpany to ihe, Crown in India. You hare, been fo so- 
cur^fe^B to flaK tJie different orders that were ilTued fipm hence, 
and the pcciodi at which they were jflued- Still, hoircpef, thia^af- 
f^^K ^pei^red tg me lb exttaotdinarv, that I could not give ci-edit ta 
k. That a man, who like Mr. Edniuod. Burke, bad talked for 
n]>9J)^>eanof ibf acoelliiy of public teconomy ; who liul.evanAt- 
tacl^d the Civil IA& ; who iuierlered in the domeftic arrangemcnta 
of p^r moA gj^eiouB Sovereign, God blefs him ! who'had. brought 
in.a bill tota&oLiQi: iuudry ufelelV offices, by which very.inany wor- 
tbr families are reduced to beggary, and want : That fueit a tnan» 
Mi>{ Editor, ftieuld have created an ufelefs oflice, for his -coufin, 
jbi$ fx^jUt three thotifand - pauodt a year into bis pocket, and to < 
takciginuch from the Hate, was, to me, abfolurcly incredible ! I 
fpoke to a brother citiien yederday, a verj' honcl), worthy man, 
U 2 ttha 


JoS MoifTHlY CATALOeUX. JD'tvhiUf, 

V ho ii in the IXre^ion. I af^cd bini if It wat tcue^ that WitliAnI 
Eurke,_Efq; was .ippoinced Mr. Edmund Burke's Deputy la India j 
aijd if it was true chat no fuch appointment did exiff, in the titne 
of that, prbluic Miniflcr, Lord North, as Mr. Burke formerly de- 
fcribcd him ? He told me, " It certainly is fo ; ho foch appoint' 
" tnont^d exill in XmH North's time. I have esainlaed the Re- 
v'cordl of the Company, and I find that ;r/Z//ini J^arir, Efq; wai 
" appointed l)y the Lbrds of the Treafury, Deputy to E-Jmund 
" Bur.kt, Eff, at the recommendation of the faid EdmUod Burke, 
" Ef^; and that cIub appoiatnKnt was noliSed to m hv Richard 
** En if, E/r, a few days before the death of ihe Marcjui^ of 
" Rockiaghaiii ; and I can further tctl too, my friend, that the 
" appoiniment is worfe than ufelcfs — it ii nfifchicrous,"— Really, 
Mr. £ditqr, I can find no inftailce like this, of a' wafte of .public 
money ForpriTate purpofet, by Mr. HalHngs,' 

The Citiien obferves, that the (hhries of the Oentlemeo that 
would be invoked in Mr. HaHiugs's fall, would, together with the 
ftivernor'f, amaant to Eaty-one thoufand pouada a year, indepea- 
dent of the great power and patronage annexed to their offices. 

* Thinki' fays he, 'my fiiend, what a temptation to the many 

* feecdy dependents of our great men, who were themfelves, moa 

* ff tlum at Icait, in the greaceA diftrtli, and iu d^l to ever^ oiu 

* that would truft them !* 

Al^tr ffireritly cenfurlng Mr. Burkfj for attaelting in 'a Ihameful 
mannec, a tnaht (Mr. HaAings] who amidlt all rhc firugglci fiur 
plicn and power in this abandoned country, bad proceeded lo ' a 
ip|t9ied aod honourable difchar^e of bii duty, and bad the glory to 
iave Iiidiai before he knew of the 'peace in Europe, he makes the 
following farcaflic reflciSion, ' That Mr. Burke, from Jnferefl, pafll- 
' <fVf enTy, and mrnr, lliould behave as he hai done, 11 

* not to be wondercdTai ; but ibat-iicri Nertli Jliould a& the pait 

* of.Noll BlufftodtUSir Jofe^, U indeed moft citr3««lia*rxi' 

■D IV 1 N I T Yi 

Art. 18. ^e Mwi'tficatitn tf Sin- in SeiuvtKt ; containing 

die'MeceCty, Nature, and Mean* of Jt. .With a -Reiblutioc 

W fundry dafei of Coofcience. thereunto belongiag, By |*bB - 

Owen, D. D. A Servant of Jefii* Chrift in the W«k of the 

Go^. A new Edition. Bvo. is. 6d. Bucklan^. 

It 14 with pleafure, that amidll the beTer^:ea&ijrd(fputcs«oiiecn)- ' 

ing the perfoa «f Jefut Chrift, and the opiniotu of the iir& Chrifti- 

ani on niat and other fubjet^i, we announce the republication oif. a 

book, whieh avoiding all vain Cubtleiie«, and inquinot thattraofccnd- 

the capacity of man, hdi for its obje£t, the purification of hunun 

' nature from fin, and its refloration to the image of Ood. The' ne- 

celCty of a famfs^oh for fin, and of a Mediator between God and 

. Man I and:af divine aid to enable him to refift temptation, and to 

ri&i above lufb and paffioni, to the true dlgnitj' and and of hit 

creation ; are dofiiines, which are not only held forth in the Sa< 

cred ScriptUTts, but which are confonant to the fentimenti of naturt 

ID all nationi and ages, aad to the eapre& notions of the moft en- 

lij^CBWl . 


MONTHI-Y CXTALObUE. Divlntly. 309 

liglitea^ pbilofophcre. Her« «-c might take nodceof the uaiverlal 

prevalence of facrifice,-or fome pthcimode of tspiation, and of the 
wifcft mazinu of the andciusand moderHs, conccTnirfg the nncontjncr- 
■ble power, erf cufloQ). habic, . and p^klTion. But it i| fufficieDC ta ap- 
)>eal to ihc ctpefieucc of every niaD, for the truths chst do^ins 
Khich Uacbes, thai human nature is in a A^t^ of d^adation, aod 
that it cannot. bercftorui ivithout divine afljl)an«e. .for who is he, 
rhat ii iiot read>' to or^ ou^ntith the ApolUe, " I feol a law ia my 
members warring ^ainl) the luv of niy mind.** 

Of the nat^reand defign orf thii work of Dr. Owen, fq ijiurfi cele- 
brated amqa{;fiau» man in the UAat^d the beginning of this ceniuryt 
we hitve a very juD and bfiaf account ih tha following adTercifcDienr. 
by the 'Editor, who appean to be not onlv a mira of pictvi bat of 
> jujl god jiuite jurn of thinVing, and wno has certaitriy l)ccn p cr- 
fedlr cof^i^.ia tbis edition. 

■ "booki are to ui, as we mc ta |he boolu whklt<we read. If • vaipi or TJ^iqut, curipusi or cenforious, thofe booki 
which gratify, or attempt to juHi^ hia predominant .turn, will bavs 
thcpretcr.eoee. ,^it boQkwillarways.have cheJionour to be coa* 
demued t?y fucit B-^aders. But, if the Reader of tbii fm.^I pvatife 
be Wounded with a deep fenfe of guilt, and wearied out witii- felf- 
lisbtrqiij attcinptsfooacify hisconfcicncei and to puHfy, his Hfiin:^ 
t'tobf j iHu t^atiie of Or. John Owtt oa [lie Murnfitautsn'of Sin in 
^lieverg, T)i>f betol^im a.^lclGog. , . 

* Ofir sf!C'i;i^uii{s cannot be,puriSed, unlefs our coafcioncei ore-ps* 
cilied : the confpicacc af a. iinner tpay .be. t^uietcd by foine ^ati or 
otbeTi .for a feifon, t"*^ 'Kcanaoxaefu'-^edfroin'l'itd'aiariittfirvti 
il>e Hvi'ng Geff, l^vfi^y fae il»pd ^l('r Lami : i^r ia tbeite any po»T 
cr,.bilt ttiepowci of tJip iielfChii^ that can eBcfioally apply thlt 
diviaejcciiie^:,9=Sucb ate thegiand eifiliiiei of thi* cxcdocnt trea-r 
life ; which, though having paCcd tl;raugli three editiont, it now 
outt^print; and i| is believed, that this if iufSclenf toi^omtDeiu) 
the prelenc edition to the pioui Reader.' 

of thv part of this raluabic Trcatifo which relltei to Catet tjf 
Con&ieace, we tnay alfirm, that ft is particularly ureful. .In.for- 
fflertHRcSf divinea fpoke and wrote much on Ca/?j 0/ CsnrcXtnct ; % 
fubfed in which every feriou* Chi-ifliaij n^uft fitid' bunfelf deeply 
interclled. And ibbUgH this mode be very gcnenklly exploded, it ii 
tbe very i|fe and foul of preaching-. 

Art." 19'. J Sefttion pi-iachMl at 'Afildcn Hall, at ihe'VUttoiion 

^ (bt Architai:tm, tf Huelbury: on Monday April i%. 1783- By 

Thoma»BaIl,D,D.RcaorofErifivcIl ifl guftbllt. 410. is. D^- 

bfett.- '■ \ , , ," 

pr. Bali is Tcjy 'angry at rhf prcralence qf fc^ticlfii^ a?4 juftly 

cqmpWni that inc world " contuses to be pelferfd wit^ jiublica- 

i tionsj vhtch'from their fpecioufncfs,' are but calculated to do tha 

more hurt.— w" fhrft writers" (no wnter) had been jpepfjoned,) be 

.goes M, " diOaimng referve, in dcSance of tlic laws— in contempt of 

■tecerK7 «nd- ^bddmnniien, bare openly avowed their fceptical opi- 

[ nioni; mif niat' contented with dtvtfiing tltrnfel-on of all religion, 

I they a* fer as in them lies, endeavour to prevent others." All thia 

[u very lamentable: yet we do not approve of all the maaas which 

V 3 ■ th» , 


310 MoNTHLV Catalogue. Divinky. 

this author proptsres for remedying the evils complained of. . He 
Call* on ihe civil m^glftrate. to execute certain AcG of PatliimfM 
"gtunft feepucs. Undoubtedly Afls of Parliam^t. are as formid- 
'able engiDBJ,, aa ail the reafoning that the Doflof feemk capeble of 
employing Sut. this altertiative proceeds aoi ittm ihc fpirit oE 
nieelinefs: and a chriilian divine ought not to ami h?mfel[f with 
fwords anii flaves, but with the " fword of the fpirit which is the 
word of God." , , ■ 

There IS one of Dr. Ball's complaints againfl fcepticS which, al- 
though it may perhaps be well fuunded, will yet !n all probability 
appear more amafing than ferious and folid. He charges them with 
a want oi gacd mannrn. Now, although it would be more polite in 
fceptical writer? to fuffer thi clergy to enjoy their livings, and their 
flock their religious opinions without molcftattbn, yet we can 
hardly expeft thA any pcrfti'h fhould hefitate tb publifli 'his feiBi- 
mcnts tj>,,the world rperely from a delicacy of good m'anners. Nei- 
ther is ft" certain iliat all who oj^pofelhe doi^riHcs of tlie eftabliflwd 
cljijrcli'opjxjfe i( as this' inccnied writer feems to fuppgfe, from 
'finiller motives. Wh^t he has written conefrniii^ thofe of hit 
btetiiren ' 'who have withdrawn tlicthfelves from the chiircH of En- 
gland, dcferves the fcvercfl animadverfion. He inSnuates H>ai thrir 
conduit originated in craft and oftentation, and wonders that in- 
■ ftead of " meeting ciiher with advocates, or followers, it is bm treat- 
ed with the contempt it deftrires." 

\Vc pannot difmirs ihi» Author Without cenforiho; the very abfutd 
'sSci^atlon of feparaiing almoft every feme nee, ana very often the 
'different claufes of tli» fame fentenecj by hyphens; for exami>le: 
(peaking of the churlilh anfwer of Cum to God he fays,^ — **'It is a 
Iclfflh condufl indeed, — but not more ftrange than tfue ;— it is fayin" 
— I live to' pica fe myfelf, — (vhat have T to do with OthtJrs?— ' 
Were fit to judge of the Author from this fcecitiien, we fhould be of 
opinion that the Reverend Thomas Ball, D.'D. Reftor of Erlfwdl 
in Suffolk, i5aweak,ahd an irifctble man, very miich alartned at 
. that" ". jeyelllng fpirll which has appeared not only in the depatt- 
ments of the ftate, navy, and army, but alfo amcmg the clergy, 
fotpe 'of. wljom have attempted to fet up the right Wprivate judg- 
'nieht in.oppolitioii to efiailijhcd in^ nccejfayy reitraints*'."- | 

Art. 20.. The Beauties of Methodifm. Sel^fltd irota the i 
Works of ilic Reverend John \<'efley, A. M. Ute Fellow of tin-. | 
.coln's^inji College, Oxon. ,To which is prefixed the Life of tte ■ 
Author, i.imo. 2%. 6d. fewcd. Fielding, 1 

Atthougb we cannot help thinking that the ftal hrd»tlei. of , 
metkodilm might have been contained in a lefs .Tohime, ve 
ate fai; from faying that this is an ufelcfs cmiipilatioii. ' It it id i 
agreeable conjpanion for thofc of Mr. Weflcy^s iwrfiialion ; atid 1 
others, who from curiofity may wifli to know fortiethiog of Methd- \ 
djfreu will here find their genera! and principal doittiilal, arranged \ 
in tolerable order. There arc extracts, likewife framMr. Wefley'i. ' 

• Se*p. 4. ■ ■■ ■ ■■ 

Philofo- , 

r.:.l.;.J.yG00gIc' I 

MoMTtiLV Catalogue". ■Wtviithy. '. .gn 

Pliilofophicitt and Medical Works, by which the Reader is enabled 

to jud^ of the abilities and merit of that extraordinary nan. 
Art,,2i, A Difcourfk ; ifetting forth' d^ dangerous Confc- 
Hucoce of Eiithuliafin'nnd Apoilacy: With Cautions, in Order 
to draw the Unwary from the i'l-inciplcs and' IVaftices of ■ the 
Methodills. By a Mcmb.-r of the Eftabiiflied Chorch, Cvo. 64. 
J. F. and C. !ii»;ngoi. ■ .-.,■■■ 

Thigis a w«H meatitdifuafioo fromMiJdiodifJn, bur n(rt ll'selyto 
prove fuccefsful. The argumcnis a^e few, and the daftrines men- 
tioned in a'^focr/iy manner. The Author oiigh't to hare defcendcd to 
fuch pirtteulars as inort probably would foit tlirf cafes of the lower 
clafles: of people lowhom we cDBceive-thij diftourft in addreffed. 
Art, 2a.'' ji'Cili 10 ibe Jews. By a Fnend U the JeH/s. 8yq. 
J!. 6d. Seived. J. Jahiifon. 

The Au*hor of this Call profeiTes an ardent defire to convert ibe 
lews to the l^lief that the A^r/BP^.yVf'of the chriftiaos Was thdr - 
Meflkh, of-tb« feed of David. He aflurcs them thi.t they wiii not 
be able, to obuin a ftttbment in any part of the earth till thcyba- ■ 
.|ie»c in the MelBah ; reminds tbemof tne failure of \h£ Jcivs Naeura' 
Uzaiia* 3-U, in the aduiini first ion of Mr. Ptlham, after it had 
made itsway through thetwo Houfes of Parliament} and" thaf ai- 
-thoiigh ;the liberal Emperor of Germany had granted them the li- 
berty of educating xhAr children in his univerntieE, he would nQi 
permit them to purchafe a foot of land'throug-hout his extenfire da- 
minions. But ubrifliant themfclvei, he obfcrscg, have dtrown the 
. greateft obftacles in the wny of the Jewifli coarcrfion, by their niif- 
conceptiotu of the tfftnce tA Jtfus Ch'-ijl. He then proceeds to.inake 
a petuknc and indecent qttncit on the divinity of Jefus Chrifti the 
great ftumWing block, as he conceives, in the way of tbelfraelites. 
He rpe»l(«wJih great contempt of Ariani, Sotiniaris, and Athiina- 
fianst -and even of tht four cvangelifii, whom he familiarly calls 
Mr, .Mwtl»n>, Mr. Marl, Sjc. and whom he accufes of manifold 
incoofiftencies and concradi.5tions. He profeCes to bcfieVe that the 
.reHoradon of the lews to their own country will happen on ofbefore 
the year 1J93 ; and. declares that if his God' fhould vimebfafe to 
grjnt himihe ttklFing of heidch at th^t time, it is his intention tQ 
be " one of the. ten men; who (according to a fcriptural prophecy,) 
(lialt titkehold out of all bn<;iiages of the nations, of the fititt of 
him that ja a Jew, faying, 1 will go .unth you ; for .we have heard 
that God is with you." " My heart", fays the Author, " is deeply 
imprelfed with a fjrateful fenfe of the gooifneft of your and my Jt- 
bovab in dilpoliBg he by a train of HIS natural events, to become 
his humble inflrument in facilitating the great ivyrk of yourcon-. 
verfions." In a pofifciipt be adds.' " Since I wrote' the above, I 
have beeo informed, .that the prcfent liberal-Ttiinded Emperor gt' 
Germany, whom I mentioned in the beginning of this work', as 
' baving^rintrd yoiir people the privilege of educating fhcir children 
in German .umverfmes, was defirous of giving them 3II (he rights 
of cltizenfhip \ but that be was oppofed \vt his bcoevttlent deftgn by 
the BurgO-maftfrs, ■ Hcticc yon-phmily fee, that, -till you acknnw- 
ledi* the crucified Jcf«» the fon of Jofeph for your Mefiiab, your 
» . ■ ■ i . ■ U ♦ - ^ ";i- 


312 MoHTHtPy Cataloci'e. Mifeellanteus. 

uolettled, TS^abond, difperfed ftate will continM, in cotifimnity 
to the propbecicB of your JefapTzh, ta thti rc(|ie£t, who, by hu 
^upcnatendutg praVidence, will fo-f^RfpoTe hit natfi^ evorts, that 
while you remaib in your unbelief, thougti good itmv «r kiogi of 
enlarged ihindi, may propofi: thfc adbpoon of yon tlrte tbtfir refp«c- 
jive civil com muoitiesi yet other- flictt'oT tMore<iBn£eid'afid nB:n< 
lightened uDdcT&andiags will not -be \*amiiig, who will make it a 
poiiit of duty to counteriifi and fraflnte ttmrmnfcy htmww iif 
tentions towards you. 

' * I have alfo heard, that there aft Jewifli pRiftlfan to Chriflianity 
refiding at Lille la Flanders, and in nrioiu parts of Gctmany, who 
have it In contemplation to rettim to flieir own had. If the re- 
port be true, I Ibould not he^te to encourage theni to return 
without delay ( and, if there beany fuch fincere coHvem in Bri- 
tain, whether they be BritiOi or foreign Jewi, or beth, or thofe 
whofe converTion may be efieAed by the argumenti ufed in tbi« tf- 
ftflionate Cftllto you, I uifh to confult with honcft and good iA(»al 
men among them, at fixne proper place of tnterntfWf <3n the fubjed 
of projecting anetigible plan for their reftonttoB to their owfl land. 
1 therefore hold myfelf prepared to nieet any man of a" fair cha- 
raAer among you, who tball be pleaftd to hMor ma wilb a line 
ptfi-paid, nddreft ' to the Author of a Call to ttie Jew*, at Mr. 

iOHNsotj'a, BookfcUer, Su PauFs C*BrfA.J'«rrf, , fenl^ing hit 
eart-felt conv'uflion that Jefiu tra* the MeSah, ezprelbi^a wiffaof 
an interview with the author, and ligi)ed with hia mi name and m- 

' Of thh Urange produflion we may affirm that itli ootuoftiteiiioft 
impious, indecent, and impudent attempts to euro the facrad finrip- 
tures into ridicule that ever tvai penned. loi^ely haftat diSereot 
timei appeai'ed under the {hade of philt^gohy, or vamilbed over 
with the allurement* of wit and humour: mtb tbexjnly enticantni 
- that ift held out to the Beader is a more daring degree of-profiiDity 
than we ufu ally meet with even In tfaefe liberal time*.— It dw Au- 
thor hai his doubts concerning the truth of the ckriitiati religioii, 
or rather, if he believes it to be an impofture, yet k dttrt ao re- 
verence due to the rel^ioui fentinieAls of mankind i None to the 
eilabliflied religion of this country ? None lo the pureD morality 
and ihc moAfpotiefs and heroic cnarailer that ever^i^peared na tbe 
fiage of this world ? The Author may flatter fatmfelf witb the idea 
of his being a wit: but the man of taik and letters, will view him 
as apetutent pretender to talents he does not poSefi t white, the feri- 
ous chriftian muft look upon the vain fcofer, at a ^oof «f that 
doArine, which itis, hietAyea to ridicule. 

M I S C E L L A K E O U S* . 

Art. 23. Lavjs for regulating Bills ef Exthatt^t, Jnhnd aid 
Ftrtigm with Abftra^ta of feveral Atis lately palttd, for levying 
a Stamp Duty on Promifibry Notes, Drafts, Receipn, Ac. with 
the additional DutKs upon Bonds, Btlb of &ile, Wills, Powers 
of Attorney, Ecclefiaftical Preferments, 8tc. &c. -With Fonsi 
•f Promillory Notes, Bills of Exchanj^e, IndorfeRienCs, iml Ke- 


MoNTHtY Catalooue. Mlfcellantius. 313 

<«pu, u prescribed Sy the liK Afls of Parliament, By J. Bla- 
grave, Noeary Publ)c. ,.8vo, . li.. Uicoll. 
A Tcry uftful Vadp Mie]CH«o...wl>icIl no, pradcr ought to be with- 
out. Iia ctwapneft and oeat _fiMjfCCpinmenJ»|,*it. ^ The following 
(ri>&rvMionB«D A lata pjtbpjilii^, ip tvtucli the. pgbtjt; nre iiiftruded 
bow tp evade the reccipi lax, .catmot be unacceptable to our Read- 
ers — " If,",iay»Mr. Slagr^KB, Juealing of OliVer Quid, " thi* 
' cdHoaa authM* nta Jtot-atfaie^ it is tut neh.t,the public Oiould be, rbat 
the giving of any written receipt, for the fum of forty fliilliogs or 
VpVQFdMt or ai;^ Other njod^ of, eyatBng the Hamp.dury, is punifti- 
ableuponir/armaiion, by the alcTenth ariicje of the Aft, in the 
pensiUj'of.aoU— AndritomiVlwrecoIleiacd, with, e<]ual truth and 
regret, tfa!it<ufn* are too con»u;aly demanded, after payment haf 
been alrtady made, fometimet dcfignedly, and fomctijncs by acci- 
'dent. SU|ipofe Jheo, your vr^Dcli ^utd die, a« life is very preca^ 
rieot, is It. better to pay fiftyi thirty, tweutyt ten, or even fve 
pMHidia/oMRi/iime, .than topay I'oie-peave or fkir-pence for a rc- 
ccijJt ?— ^»hieh-ai onccfecurcs you from the dangxir of in form a lions, 
/torn lawftiHts and f mpofitioni, aadfroin accidental, or jiremedjtai^ 
cd dainu, tt^aihtvo be^i before IJttiGiied, either from executors, in 
cafe afdcBtb* or. from fliarpera and ftvindlers, agaiuH the treachery 
-rf ivhoni'tlie moll cautious and wary are not alwavs feciire," 
Art. 24^ ji capital Afiftake if tht Le^iflature refpeilin^ the ?«*■/( 
o<i BeuipiK Which miiA either produce an immediute Repeal of 
dtof* unprecedented Duties, or convince the V\'oild that the Sub- 
jei9j of Great Britain are now entirely loll to cccry Scnfe of their 
own Interell. By a Gcmlemaa coqveffant in Revenue A&irs. 
Sto,' n:* Kewfly. 

Thii Author a|^an to be a Stationer, or Epgraver. He objedi 
-to tlw receipt tax, bccaufe it will give rife to many forgerjes, and 
tlrale of . a Iciai not eafily deto&d. He purfues tVis argument 
ibrm^k twentyfbur pages with confiderHbla judgment, and urge* 
Merchantt and- Traders (o be (frenuous in procuring a repeal of the 
, a.SL — But fwoly, the flamp, however liable to be cbimierfeitcd, 
cannot be eatied a Caphal Mifiahe of the Legl'Jature, It rather 
was « wQfal eiYor to tax receipta 3t all, but at to the iJamp itfclf, 
if lnbl« to be countet£»ted, and that without danger of deteflion, 
the inconveaisncB extendB to. bills and Bank tiotca, which we often 
find foartfolly counterfeited, that ihofe perfons- whofc bufinefs it ii 
to fign them can fclrcely.fwear that the couiiterft-it (ignatorct are 
cot liirir own. If* howevef, any perfon is bold eiina_:;h to eoun- 
tcrfeltthe ilamp on receipts, he may ppobahlv- find in the end that 
ht and not the legillature, hae a made Capital iHfiake, The gallowi 
generally reftifies fuch Mifiaiei, ■ We give this Author great credit 
for the knowledge he dil'^hyi on this fubjefl, and think his obferva- 

Art 25. A Stcand Letter ef Advice; addrcflbd to all Mer-- 
chants, Manufafturer* and Traders, of every .Dcnnminaiion, , in 

■ Great Britain, concerning the Oiioue and af3J-ia,ing Tax on Re- 

f:eipts ; in which their Fears and Jealoulirs of funirc Alterations 

- « theA^ with Intent to force it upon them by Miniftry, is 


314 Monthly Catalogue, . 'MifieHammt; ■ 

coirfiJerci, Trj^^tbsi" with many otlicr incerelliiig and intpor* 
lanc Subjc.^ of Tra^;, w;ll tt-)rlliy the m<ifl ferioits P.;rural ani 
Attention iif \\\\ thegaoJ People of 'this Reilm. To whkh are 
frJJed, the Oj)lmo!is of M^iTrs. Mjiisfi-U. Kciiyon. and Arjim, 
as to oar p-clent CjiiJuJlunJcr the A:t, which entirely agree 
with our Advice in the Firll Lettei". B/ Olive* Qjid, T^c 
conift. W. Keiirllej-. 

In our laft Review we garc an account of ilic fit ll Letter of Mr. 

Oliver Qjid. Of the prefcntwec^n only lay that is not wortb 

reading. It is a nawf-'ous mixture, of which we cannot difcover the 

leading iogreilicnt. Mr. ^U may be a w/ anioag leiai-caaifii, biW 

among '.vrlw-i he is but n tvbaccBa-J}. , 

Art. 26. Tit Magdalen ; or Hiftory of the Firil Penitent 

jcceived into that Charitable Afylum ; in a Seriei of Letter* to a 

Lady. With AnecdoteK of other I'ciutcnEt. By the late Rct» 

\\^iLliam Dodd, L, L. D. Dedicated to the Rev. Mr^ Harrifbn, 

Chapluin taibc MagilaknHorpital. jiuto- ^h. 6d, -i(uvd. Laof. 

To write the biAor^ of Magdulens, and avoid delcriptions loo 

highly cot oure.t for tem Ale delicacy, is not an ealy taik. Sut'.wp 

mufi fay ihat this Author, whether Dr. Doiid oJ* any other, 'bas ac- 

(iimpiiflied his talk with the firiif^A dflKacy, aqd yet baa omtited 

r.o tircumitance wldch may be uftful. The flury li alfeifting anj 

«'el) lold, although there Is oot that portion of the intnatural which 

Yccms at prcfent to pleiife the million. The book may be read tfith 

n c«nlidcr»!>>e degree of ir.IiruAion, but we catinot dtfmifs tbi& ar^ 

title vvirhcut reminding parents and guardians that a firctlaticg ll- 

f'ff'y may very properly be called the Magdql^n twnpiif. Hun- 

1)1 eds i>dfa that way to prolHtutioo from one that 18 initiated by male 


Art. 2;. Fiujt TahUs; exhibiting in Columns aa accurate 
Defcription of the Site, Colour, Shape, Flefli, juice,- and other 
jieculiu' or dilt!nguiniin;>; Charafterllics, (with the various Timet 
of ripciiir.[;) .of ihe moil elteeiuedand valuable Specif of' I'eacbes, 
Ntrtaiincd, Plumbs and Pcar»: Toi^hich ia added, a Catalogue 
tif the diiicrent Sorts of cfculent and herbaceous Plants, that are 
r.iilpd for the Ufs of the Kitchen, with the moft common Varie- 
ties, and the I'arts which are eaten. By an old expericDCcd 
Gardiner, Siocktlale. as. 

'i'hefu ufeful tables appear to be compiled with &il! uf^ cor-* 

rc/tnels, and we doubt not may be ferviceable to gardetiers. Tli« 

tutala;-ue fubjoincd makes (he book rcry convenient for private 

families, where there arc no Urge gardens, at many fatal accidciHi 

happen from tbe careleliiiers of fervants iu gathering efcuients. 

Alt. 28. ^ Cidleuilar of the fVtalhtr f»e thf Ttar 178-1 j with 

ai> Introdtu'lory Difcourfe on the Moon's Infiuence at Common 

I.ur.arior.s in griicrn! ; and on the Winds at the Etlipfes in pai^ 

ijcolar, Foundpd ii* a Scries of regoUr Obfervatians for fome 

Years : tnken at Keiiibolton in the County of Huntingdon. By 

B. Hiiichinfon, Vicar ot that Place, and Prebendary of Lin- 

onln. .Gvo.. la. Fielding. 

.. There, ne^er was apeiiod when meteorology, wa? fo mu^h, ftujied 


NationalJffairs. * 315 

as In the preftnt. The courfes and variutJoiu of the winds, and all . 
' the vanous ch.mgca in the atmofphcre ; the quantities that fall of 
rain, ha;i, or fnow, with other pankulai-s- are attended toby many 
ingenious perfons ia different parte of the world, and meafured and 
afcertalnecf with Breat accuracy and patience. The infiuence of the 
atmofphere oh animal and vegetable bodies renders meteorology a very 
ufeful as well as curious ftudy : and, though 'this fcience be ;yet la 
its infancy, it is not lo be doubted, that in iti filture prwrefs, it will 
contribute to extend the poiverof man over nature, and enable him 
to guard agaioff many evils. We may wke notice w«hout great, 
impropriety on this occafion, that the ftaie of the atmofphere for 
thcfc nvo years, all over Europe incites ingenious mind* lo tbc 

fludy of nte'teorology. , 

The obfertacions of Mr. Hutchinfon appear to have faeenmadc 
with accuracy aMd ability! ani therefiwe wc hare no hefiatbn m ■ 

recommertlini; the prefent performance. 

Art. 29, ^idv'felB thtUttiverfiUaeJ Oxford and CMiiridgt, 
8vo. as. Kearfly. 
A moft impotent attempt at wit. It cannot fursly be wntten by 

the -Aiitbor of ihe Advice to the Officers of the Britifll Array. 

That had fonic wit, this has none. 



[For OCTOBER, 1783.] 


THE Ilefioiiive Treaties between Great Britain, and the pow- 
ers with whom flie was lately at war, which hare been pub- 
lillied by auibority in the courfe'of this Month, prefent not any 
new fuhjea of political fpeciilation. They arc nothing more thai) 
the Preliminaries for Peace arranged in a more regular met htKl, and 
'fct forth in 'z greater variety of languiige. Commiflariei are indeed 
appointed to treat of new arrangements of trade, between Eng- 
land and her rivals in power and commerce, on the bafis of reci- 
procity and mutual convenience :, and ihefe arrangements, we arc 
told, Ihall be fettled and concluded within the fpace of two years, 
to be computed from the firft of January, in the year 1 784. 

If nations and men would, in reality, conduct themfelves on the 

firinciples of reciprocity and mutual convenience; if they urauld 
ay afide for ere r all animolity, and all fraud, and co-operate for 
the general good of human focicty, by cultivating die advantages 
which nature and providence have beftov/ed Qn them, the golden 
age would bereftorcd, and univerfal benevolence and peace would 
diffufc felicity throughout the world. The progrefs of commerce, . 
of fcience, and of humaaitj-, has a tendency to bring about fo glo- 
rious a change in human. affairs ; but whether tiiis pro^rcfa will not 
be checked by fome of thofr; natural and moral convullions, which 
have exterminated great nations almoft from the memory of man, 
ihc hillory of the world is too recent lo determine. The antJpatKiq^ 



■ 3lfi fiatimal Jffain. 

and prejuJicci (hnt diviJceven the mo{> poliflied nations of Curofh:^' 
are yet limnj, and aclivc. Theft will give binh to different iirte* 
refts and policies : and different inwrefts and jroliciea will either pre- 
rent, or (owi break through any treaty of commerce or peace. Seed* 
of difcord are pl.intfil in the breads of States and Priucei, which the 
ca:irtioii and fubtlet^ of ntrgociacion in tain attempt to extirpate. 
The vanouifhcd are iufpired with revenge, and the connuerors ttith 
pride. ThefepnUioiis ilifpofe their minda for war, aivd the unfct- 
^ed ftate of the viiaM nuy foon ^^tl them 'ferth into exertios. It 
was impriUblc, indrcd, by any circifnifpeitioD of negotiaiKni, to 
prnrcnt sit thofc offcnircs, which muH needs arjfc from interferiag 
interefts in the Eall Indies, on the Coaft of Africa, in the ft'elt lor 
dies, and on tlie Continent of America. But there is a HipukddB 
in the PtQvifional Treuiy with the Americans, l^ich leeim to. 
l)9Te coqfuCion and difcord for its abje^L 3y the thlr^ (^ 'l>fi 
PrpTJfional Articles it it agreed, tha,t "' The Amcdcan fiflietni^ 
fiisll ha-Tc Ubeny to dry »aa cure fiHi tit iny of the ntftntfd' ba^i, ' 
barbonrs, and creelu, of Kora Scotia, Magdalene IQandi, and La< 
VradoF, fo long as the fjnie fl]all remain utUettled.*^ It wai at « 
timo,- when the Financien of France eodeayoured to prop (ler fall- 
ing credit and poncr, by a colliTfion with ihcBvik tft^fiwM, thai ' 
Ri CHARD OsnALofubfctibcd hi* degraded name to this article. If 
the Briiill) arms were beaten back to Canada ai^ Nora Scot^, here 
atleaft-tb^ tnight, and here they ought 10 hare tiiade «' Hand, 
The admiffiop of the ATnericsns, upon uiy prtieoce, into the bar* 
bours, baj-s, and creeks of Nuva S^otia^ viH enable thcro to c(ia< 
blifli their power in thofe <]i}^rtCi-9, Stid to Ihate witfa Great Britaiii 
in tb^ etK:ottrag;einet{ts they offer to ^udufiry and adventure. It will 
be necellary to wdtch over t^e Anjerican Fifliermea is the crcekit 
(itid bays ot that Province, with ftlll Ercaier jealou^ than the Spa- 
ntards exerclfe towaids the Engtilh in the Bay of Honduras, 'tor 
the advantages of thofe northern parts of Amcrrcx uro itnmcnfe ; and 
the fame circumlbnccs which will induce the Americans lo fij> 
j^etr power and pretenfions there, (liould engage the Britiih natiut 
To kevp a firm ^old of fuch invaluable pofie&ms, 

There are many pli^ccs on the eoafta erf N»vs Seotia,, where, it 
particular fe.ifons, large rjiiantitles of cod are tak<;n, with a net, 
in the creeks, and even in the parts. And the fjlmon filhtry to 
that Province, and in the (Julph of St, Lawrence on thecoafti 
of Canada, is unfia^flicnably the befl in the world. The fhores 
arotind the iPand of St. John's abound with every fpeciea of fiflj. 
The (oil of the i(Iatid is excellent in itfelf, and capable of great 
improvemeni. No country in the wtu-ld affords better pafhirc for 
cattle, and prnvifions of all kinds tnay t>e raifed in great abundaoct. 
Ar.d as Canada produces the mofl luxuriant crops of wheat, and- 
ihe woods and dellirts of that immenfe region, aa well as thofe of 
Nova Scoria, abound in various game, it roav be juftly faid, that 
Great Britain is iliil in poffcllion of a verj- valuable part of Amcrt- 
ca : and thnt by a wife improvement of what llill ivmains, fhe may 
slsrive feme cum pen fat ion for what flie has lofi. The fupcrabuo- 




ddvctof itroodt for theprefeat, plentifully fuppUcifiwl E'butwben 
i( Hull become lcan:e, from the progreft of cultivBtion, and tlie id- 
creafe of peopkt in ample refource will be found \a tbe iiliod of 
Cape BrctoQ) where coali miiy be had Itigh above the level of ibfl 
fei. In the mean time, tliii valuable article ma^ be made the fub^ 
jed of a lucrative trade with the New England Proviiiceit 
where firing Iuib abfotutely become the dcared necelTary of life. 

Thuf then it a[^an, that the poiTcllions which remain to thJl 
nuiant ia America, are, in the picfcut Hate of thlngi, an objedi 
highly iotcrelKiig to Government. It wouKI, unJoubteillyi be 
good policy to take off-aUdutiet from every fpecics of goodg iis-- , 
pa;tcii.ffom Nova Scotia and Canada. This would encourage tlM. . 
Atnericanif and particularly the lUhermcn, to fettle clicrei ThciY 
it no need to cootend with our late Colonies for extent of territory. 
Of that, both th«y and we enjoy what is foihcient for every good , 
and wife purpafe. But let ua ciuitend with ibem in endeavouring 
to.increate our popahtion. Let us invite their induflrioua and - 
iceable fubje^ fiom the diltra^iuDs chat a(Eid, and ihrvatm RM - 
leeper affliiiiioD to tbe ualettted States, to fhare in the bcne&« ol' a 
peaceful, juA, mild, and indulgent government, under which tbcy 
may t,aysv tbe fruits of houcil iiiduHry, anii tranfmit ibem in 

Ke to their pofierity. And let he proiit by the difaflen that 
; fpr nag from our tyranny, in the firft place, and our ilUinKd 
ancl uotnonly fubmlffioos, in the fecand, to oui- fqrmer Cc49qlMt 
DOW our rivals. If the advantages of nature, and of the prefenc 
coDJunAuFe^ are improved by pOlit)-, the." Am eric jrs may find that 
thejr contcQ with Britain is not yet over : a coxit^ll, not of arm^ 
but of indultry, and political wifdom, 

Bui as firn human prudence can provide againll thele and o* 
ther dangers, fome of which were n;cntioncJ In our laft Number, 
there is reafon to belleTe^ that the enlightened policy of the Ame- 
rican States will provide for them, and prevent them. Their unre- . 
lent'mg revenge againft the unfortunate Loyallits, it is true, is a( 
impolitic, as it is inhuman. It it to be conlidered, however, 
that in the prcfent political feirment, the fovcreign power of the 
States is in the hands of the rude and psflionate vulgai-. But fo- 
vcreignity never remains long with' trie populace in any llate. 
When tbe prefect tumults flialT fu'bfide, the influence of property, 
ofcbarader, and of wifdom, will rirein the fcale of political im> 
portance, and tbe couocitB of Aitierica will be governed with great* 
er moderation and prudence. For the Arnericans are naiuralTy ak 
acnie aod fugacious people, and not yet diveited by luxurj-, or the 
predorairiailcy of (afhon, from purfuiog the inieiei's of tlieir coua. 
try. In Europe, we read newrpa'pers, and all the various, pfodvic- 
tions of the prel's, for amufement. In America, they read for po- 
litical iufoHiiiitioii, ever-cagor to catch, to aelopt, und to apply e- 
very hint for the advancement of national profperity. In that con- 
federation of infant Republics, there is 3 fine fe'nlibility,, whi^h 
vibrates esery fcufation from the estremities of the polifn-al bojy 
t» the heart. Tbe whole virtue and abilirisi of the nilion may he 

collected , 


Jl8 National j^a'ir's. 

colleflcd anJ cmptoj-ed in the grand afiairs of ftate. The provifion 
that has been made for eftablifliing public credit, antt liqaidating 
the public debt ; the laws ihar have been enaiiled in fomeof the 
States, for preferving an equality of property*, and for the gradual 
and BTentual abolition of rfarery ; the refoUttJoti to admit no part 
«ftthc African trade into thrir ports, but foch as h imponed in 
their own bottoms : thefe firft acts of their Lejriflatiott, befpeak 
foOnd political wifdom. The Refolxition "refpeiHDg the Afncan 
trade, feems to forebode an ezpanfiiin of the principle whence it 
araft, into fojiiething like the fanYous Navigation A&, the great 
bitiwafk of the commetT:c and naval power of England. And fuch 
an a£t, it is probable, will be the more readily uiODgbt of, aad a- 
dopted by the AmericiinB, that Britain, adhering very wifciy to the 
fpirit of the Navigation Aft, hai refetved to her&lf, the trade with 
heKplantattonE in~the Weft Indies. 

If the Americans, however, be wife, they wit! -not 'bend the 
whole of their efforts to commerce. A Marinr being necelTarily 
conneded with commerce, they will naturally fieri thcrfifolres to 
cftablHh it. The dangtr of a continental war among theijifelves, as 
well aa with foreign nations, flwuld determine the different ftatR, in 
like manner, to nourifh (hat military fpirit which ih^rlatie fltugglea 
bred,, and to provide experienced commanders for any fimirt emetv ■ 
ge«cy, by fending their youth into the armict of 'die b^gerenl 
powen of Europe. 

From America we pafs by too natural a traufit'ion to Ireland. A 
genial climate, a fertile foi], capacious harbours open to all the 
world, freed from the impediment) of ice, aod exempt from the ne- 
ceflity.of being approached by (low navigation through narrow 
chilnnels, are circumfiaoces which, rightly improved, would make . 
Ireland, in procefs of time, the great emporium between the 
caAerirand weflern hemifphcres. All, too, that a people habituated 
to the arts of iuduliry would have required, has' alrca^ been grant- 
ed by the legiflature of Great Britain to the Iriftination. But the 
power of laws ro produce habits is liol iriftantaneous. The genlui. 
of the Irilh is rather military than commercial, and delights not fo 
much in the fober purfuit of gain, ^1 in the fplendour* a(id 
buAle of atms. The. 8th of September may be an important 
aera in the hiftory of both Great "Britain and, Ireland. The 
military power of Ulfter has erefled a throne at Dungannon, 
snd is ftrengtheoed by he accelSpn of Leinfler and Munfter. 
The objcift of thefe is to annihilate every reiiiatnt of Englilh 
gi>Vernmeat oyer Ireland, and to new model the Irilh P«rlta<. 
nent on the moft democrj ileal principles that can poffibly be ima- 
gined. The Britilli miniftry yield to a torrent they are uoable to 

* The eftablifhment of gavel-kind, whereby the lands of any per- 
fon are, at his death, divided equally among hia fons, ot ttext re< 



reCft, and anticipate the formal demanis of the" /ivjJi'by ircora- 
mending to their Parliament to enai'i laws for' the rci^jlation of the 
Poll Office, and the Couits of A^'miralty, both wbiili dc|i.irtmciits 
of fiate have hiihcrio beer in the hnoiii of EugknJ. Their thims 
of-equal rcprefentation. and annual i^arliamenu t^'ill in like manner 
be granted, or rather, will not be oppufed by this itatioa. But will- 
the <'oiauCcer» of Ireland lay d.tivn their arms, ai)d betake tkcra- the hubiti of peaceable iudnilry, even after alt chefe con- 
celBoas? If new eround^ of coinpbint ure v.-antini;, new occalloas 
of quarrel will be iivtateii. The enemies of England will foller : 
animoiity, and if arts to tliie purpofe have uot already been, prac- 
(ifed, we m»y ihnnk, perhaps, the failure of the bank «f JifeoucC 
at Pari£. The Englilh and tbe IriOi tbus divided, woM not hmr ■ 
have the fame enemies ajid tiie fame trieads. OppoHie .view* una 
prejudices might Lead one kiiigdo)n to think it necclIiiry,'oT,gUin(iu9 
to ga to war, while the other might judge it prudent to 'reiuaia in . 

Eutj will the great families, will the wife and moderate amiwi;. 
the middling ratihs futicr,. without a iliug^^k lo pi-evepttlteni, fucb 
(Ungerous jnnovatioai? A conceit it is polCbke, may arife, (lilw 
t^at which h^pened in this country about the middle of htik cet* 
nity,) between the Iridi Parliacnent fupported fay iLagluni^ ludtti ' 
Iriih army fupported fecretly if not openly by France. In an ap. 

dto arms it is probable thnt the mol) refpe^able families in Irc- 
wpuld join the ftandard of Parharoent and of Great Britain. 
And although the power of England bs greater than that of Ire- , 
land, the coriteft might be urulonged, and the ijfue rendered du- 
bious by meatis of foreign afliftancc. Thug ih'e fidiation of Iceland 
is truly alarming. If lubdued by tSe Toluniecrs it is under a mill-., 
lary govarnmcBU Ifthc voluntesrfi fiiould be fubdued by the ioint 
fSrce of Parliament and En"land, they muR feel thofc rcilriciiona . 
that are iieceffarily impofeo by the moft [uotierate victors oh a con- 

Juered people. How great the infatuation that runs the nfque of . 
1 great evils ! The ingenious natives of Geneva, the rich Jiieivliants 
of Glafgow, and manufaflurers with' large caiiitals from England 
begin to refort to "Ireland, as the mod inviting feat of ind.illi-y. , 
When that kingdom is rc;idy lo flouridi in all ufeful and elegant 
arts, an impatience of reft, and an ardour wiihoiit an objc^, blalls 
die fait profpeft, and threatens blooJ-il.edand ruio. 

Thea£Uvity of the Irifli volunteers, and the deffrmincd tone in 
whicb ihey demand political reformatioil, trill no doubt coinmuiii- 
-caie themfelves, in fume degree, to Scotland, aud f^n tbofe em- 
bers of dilcoiiteDt which have lately appeared in that kjn^tom. 
The temper of the Scotch is abundaiuly inflammabk', and in the - 
purfuit of any ohjei^ they are, at the fame lime, renowned for perfe- 
TBtatice. But their principal nobility and, gentry are fo oooneded 
with England, that it is uncertain how the claims of c<|vial repre- 
fentaiipij in I'jrliaincnt, and of the aboliiiojiflf that great and emir- 
V •nous 


^6 Uatiiiuil ^airt. 

noiM ainfVihcl /fj' ^^rmu^t in eccte&dlin) fflUttri, Buy ternu*' 


The Briiilb gover m went grafpid u the repore of peace, by fub- 
nining to the Amnicaii revolien, ud abawioniDg' the- faithful 
loyalifti. The mumentiirY enjoyment left a fting behtnd it. The 
fnt>je£h of the Briiifh empire were taug:hi how to efHmaie the power 
of the ftaie : they were ciMvtnced that etery thing was to be loft 

fpmng from a loil- reputation. The cahmitits with which we are' 
threatened, from what, in the puerile languid of fawning conitfliipi 
we fiitl affi»n to call the fifitr-hiitgJem^ will too prohaUy expiate the 
injuries vhieh our timid policy has inffiAcd on the American 
Ivyaliih. - It would not, perhaps I>e juR to afcribe wholly to the 
fame cauie the alarming lliock that ia giyeo to publit! credit. The 
Bccdlitio of the Dutch and French oblige them to draw deeply 
from our funds. And, in general, the extended intercourfe uat 
fubfifli among the different nations of Europe, renders alkinqmricf 
into the caufes that influeoce the rifi or the /•»? Of fto^ extremely,, 
difficult and uncertain. 


The great powers on the continent of Europe are Kill bofy, and 
appearances continue {Irongly to indicate a general war. It u miirc 
and more probable chut the Emperor will ^oin his arms to tbofc of 
the Rii^tt StmWanth^ and that the Pw/e will be aMed by the houfc- 
of Bourbon. 

Fetek the Great extended his conqueftt on the gtllph of Finlaod, 
and waged war with the hardy Swede. So formidlhlQ an enemy 
taught him the art of war, and, confidering the in^cy of his eni' 
pi re, he could not have bent his eSbni m an happer dircSioDc 
The prefcBt Czarina avoids all quarrels with the hard^ fona of the 
NoKTu*, and feeksto extend her fway over the e&muute Sovte 
and East. The Ruflian empire ii a vigorous tree, which gridti- 
aily expands iti branches over the neighbouring nations. Aod in , 
roots turning back from the impenetrable rock, feek and boot 
through the pliant foil, their fibrei being watered with the Euxibc, ' 
the ftfediierraneao, and the Cafpian feas. 

* We are well informed that the {eneral charaAer of tbe Eto 
preftin the Courts of Europe ia, that (be is overhearing to an infti 
rior power, but Audies to make a decent rctieat whea vigORMilj' 

t^ In our next wtjhull give ExtraHs fratn two Lttttrt »• 
teivid by Mr Magtlknfrtm PelerAKrrJs, giving Jiou iWftV-' 
(ulart ttmtrning tin latectUhratidFrojeJfor0emitr, 

by Google 


Fot N O V E M B E R, (78^. ; 

■_ J»frica OfJ tbf mfi I'u/ifSf fit the Tmt tht Cirjii tV<ir hreke, fui 
mi lie C^U'im ef America, la which Notice \& ^akpn of fucfi 
tAltfratiQas as bate hap])Ciied fince that Tiii;e, down to thc 
prelenf ^riod. With i Vrtriety of Colony prtcedtiiis, wbitli 
; are cJrirfy adapted to the Britifli \\;elV' Ifdia Ifljiidi ; and may 
Ve lAftri to tbofc who hare aoj-'Iiltefcborfc wltti the Cotonteii 
By Anthony 'Stokes, of the loner Temple, Lon^ldn ; Bartiflcr at 
Law; &U Maj^fty'i Chief JuAice tlf G6argla. j>a. 6j. traanli. 

>T"*ttE iftythdrof'tbii ptrfofmancc, "tAta takes the jflo- 
'I deft title of Editor, cxpreffes art hope that as it is hjs 
^£5 attempt of the. Wn^, .the public wili ^ew. biiji fome 
indiilgen'Ce. He apofogizes for a few ftrjftures he has made 
pn pertain Colony officer^j by obfervitig that he ha? neithcf 
tuentjoned their names, nor thofe of the cquntrifS wherd 
IJiBjtrefitl^";, that chrilU^hy enjoins bcn^volerice to all 
fne^ ■ ^nd- Jihat bit rcfentment is ^veiled at the mifcondudt 
ikod A6t at tjlff ilidividiial : but there are otber colony of^cers 
Vhom bsTiotices with great refpea, and particularly Siif 
Tatoes Wright, governor of Geofgia, from the fetondyear 
of his prcKut Majefty's reign, down .to the ; Svacuatioit of 
ih»t mroyince in Ae furanaer 1782: He alfo menlions wiUj 
■ t&.iimf.%\r RkltJi ■ Pflyne, formerly governor of the \^^'- 
ward JUlap^s i !5?n*ral ., Jooyh,, governor ot' Eaft Florida; 
iwd Cpi. MaffyiK governor 6f North- Carolina. He ejt, 
jlFe0^» a lenfe of the imfie'rfcfllons i>f his effay, and," ' 

^cmiB of-ipodefly aiid i^efyci^,' 7nyiti:'i the gehtleiWsn of the 
UwiJoin'tijf Colojyfs, t<o point out fuch miftakes as tihey 
may ditcover in ^ ot' 4 Hne divefted to him at \ui book- 

nEBov'R$v"m II. Nov. £783. ^ (eUv, 

pf - . 

fey. i. line divefted to him at Ji's book- 

tn Google 

JH A View of the Cenftituilon of the Br'tti/h Colonies. 

feller. Thefe things carry an air of candour with them' 
and befpeak the favour of the Reader. 

Mr. Stokes, having premifed thcfc things in z preface, 
before lie enters on the immediate fubje£l of his compila- 
tion, enumerates the difleient Evrepean powers that, have 
l^ttleibeiits in America, and among whom fuch parts of 
the new world as do not remain in the hands of the In- 
dians, or in the poffcffion of the United States of America 
are at prcfen; div)d£d. This [tart of, the woHt is performed 
in a cfMicife and accurate manner, and fhews in a firiking 
point of view the connexion between colonization and op- 
preflion. It is the unfortunate and needy who leave tlieir 
native countrica in t^ueft of new icttlemeiits.. 

The Autlior having finifhed his account of the prefem 
divifions of the property of America, takes notice of the 
nature and different kinds of Colonies. Between thefe and 
plantations andprovinces he itiakcs a.diftinAioh : and here 
ne gives an anecdote which feryes to evince among other 
proftfs to the fame purpofe, the early jcaloufy which was 
entertained by the provinces of the mother conntry. Even 
before the civil wa; broke out in America, the popular 
leaders there afie£ted to call the Provincial EftabliHuncnts or 
King's Governments on the Continent not "Provinces," 
but " Colonies," from an opinion they had conceived that 
the word " Province" meant a conquered country. 

It fufficientty appears from various K&s of Padtaoieiy 

Quoted by Mr. Stokes, that the authority of the'lClotier 
lountry over her Colonies was originally very ftrift, id- 
though in feme UriAer than in others. The nature qF this 
dependence on the Mother Country, at the breaking Out of 
the civil war, on the Continent of "America, is' accurately 
expldncd, and fuch alterations are noticed as , have &keB 
place fincc that time down to the prefent period. The 
commercial laws of the Colonics are ajfo explained. Wc 
are then entertained with.> defcription of the thirteen 
United States of America, whofe independence hath been 
lately acknowledged by Great Britain, and of the .'forms ^ 
jgovcrnment, and of the courts of juflice in, eaaj. He pvel 
the forms or copies of deeds and inflrumchts, and a Ikctcb 
of the form of procefs in pleading at the 6ar, in tht^ cori' 
veyance of proper^, in authenticating letters of ^omcj^^ 
in obligations m ^mailing eftatcs,^ aijd, authen- 
ticating deeds, &c. .&c. The decree of the Mal^chufetu 
.commonwealth reipefting.the important article of reUginL 
will be cqnfidered as cbaraiteriftic of the prefifnt '.ehl^P'te'i' ' 
cd^^iid moderate finies, and by operating »» kA example, fr& 
pCobaijly produ96 great effi;As iii tlie world. ' ' 


~ jtyitaoftbeCenfiintiaHtftitSrUi/hCaloniti* 313 

■ " No fubjeA (id that Hiite) h to be molefbed for worlhifipiDg 
** 'God IB the manner and feafon moA agreeable td.his coilfcicace, 
"or for bit rcligioui fcntimcnu, if he .doih oui dlJlurb rii* 
** public peace, or ob(lrui5t others in their rcligioUB worfhip r 
" and the LegiOature ii to require ch; feveral towns, &:c. to 

' ** nuke fuitable jiroTiSon, at their awa expence, for tbe public . 
" worlSip of. God, and ihe fupport of public Proteftant 
** leachert, when fucb provilioti it not made vuluniarUy ; and 
"' to enjtnn all fubje£U to attcml public leacheri at ftared feafone, 
** if there-beany qn whom they conrdcntioufly can attend ( but 
" the toWnf, &C. have the eiclulive right of eie^ng public 
** teuheri, and «oiitrading with tbem for tbcir fupport : and alt 

■ " laoaitt paid by the fuhjeft, to the fuppon of public ivorQiip and 
" public teacheii, are, if he requires it, to be uniforilily applied 

' " to tbe fupport of thofe of his own {td ; but if he atiendi none, 
" the mowet arc to be paid towards the fupport of the leather 
"of the ^rifli or prenoa where railed ; and every denomination' 
" of .ChriftianB demeaning themfelvet peaceably, and at good fub- 
" je£tB, aie to be c<fually under the proteAiou of the law j and no 
*' fuborctinuiqn of one. SeA ^o anulher, U ever to be eftablifhcd 

The following particulars rcrpeCling the province of 
Gcoi^ are curious and not generally known. 
• ' As & proof of the amazing progiefs that Georgia made, I 
ihotild obferve, that when Goveraor Reynolds went to that pro- 
vince in 17^4, the ezportii did not amount to 50,0001. a year; biit 
at the t»^alMng out of the Civil War, tbey could not be much 
leli Aan 100,000k. ftcrling. The cafe is now quite altered, for 
moft of (be genHemt n of £ilin£tion and property in Georgia were 
LoyiliAs, andoB the evacuation tbey left the country, and carried 
offtheir Negroes ; and othen of the.I^oyalills were cruelly mur- 
deied for their attachment to their Sovereign. I am perfuaded that 
not a tenth part of the white inhabitants, that were in Georgia at 
the brealunr out of the Civil War, remain there at this time ; and 
the proportion of Negroes ii much leli. Should the Reprefenta- 
tire) continue to vote themfelves wages, as they did before Colonel 
Campbell reduced the Country, the whole taxes of the Provinca 
will not be fuflkieni for that purpt/fe ; and wh^t is to become 
of their Governor^ and the numerous train of civil Officers i 
Georgia it alfo fubjefled to another difagrccable circumflance be- 
yond any other of the Thirteen States, which is this : The Sou- 
thern Colonies are over-run with a fwatni of men from the weflera . 
parts of Virginia sod North Carolina, diilinguifhed by the name 
of Crackers. Many of tbefe people are defcendcd from convifls 
that were tranfported from Great Britain to Virginia, at different 
titties, and inherit fo much profligacy from their anceflors, that 
Ihey are the moft abandoned fet of men on earth, few of them hav- 
ing the leaft fenfe of religion. When tbefc people are routed in 
ihe other provinces they fly to Georgia, where the winters are 
mild, and the roan who has > tifle, ammunition, and a blanket, can 
fubfiA in that vagrant way, which the Indian) purfae ; tor the 
quantity of deer, wild lurkies, and other game there, a&rds fub- 
. ■ , . X a ■ fifleacc ; 


3*4 ^ Vittae/tktCen/l'ttuUond/the Brit't/h Cehnia. 

iiftenee ; and the country being alitioft covered nkh tvbodi, th^ 
have it always in their pawer to conflrua temporary ho«, and 
procure fuel. TheEaftera Coaft of Georgia, ia which they pluit 
rice, ii at this time thinly fcttted on account of the etnigration of 
'he Loyalifts, and the ^ateft pro|kinion of inhabitatiii are Ne- 
gro flaves : wher^S in the weflern partai the inhabitants are DUItat- 
rous, and daily increafc bjr the acccllion of the Cracllera from th« 
other' Provinces ; and it is highly probable thattbefe people nill 
?n tifne orcrrvin the rice part rf the eountrr, a« the Tartar* in 

' AGa have dOne by the fruitful cultivated provihoes in ^c fiMilheni 
part* ofthat'eoQQtry. What induces me rather tothink fo, is» that 
^u'rinj the King's Government thcle Cracleri toera very troubte- 
. lome in the fettlements, by driving off gangs of horfes and cattle 
to Virginia, and committing other enormities : tbey aifo occafioaed 
frequent difputes with the Indians, whom they robbed, and fome- 
times murdered ; the Indiana in return, accarotng to tk«ir cuDom, 
nilirdered the firfl while man they met, by way of retaliatien. To 

. 8 Ijmilar fituatioh with thofe Crackera, wOdtd the dtfcipleB ^Httme 
reduce the people of this country, could they fucceed in aboliih- 
ing Chriffianity, and (>trfuading the vorld to beliefs tliRr mnrat and 
natural defi:^ are oo the fame footiog.^ Geor^ bdog bounded 
. by the mod northern flreom of the Rirec Savannah, it npacdi 

'Sreally in that quarter, forms part of the tteftem boundary of 
South Carolina, and jmns North Carolina. Since the !at« prorili- 

r treaty, no other nation but the Indians can conteft wilth tbeitt 
right to' that Urge and fertile country, whidi ties betweeK 
Georgia and the Ri»er Mifl^ppi. During the Civil War, i^ A- 
nieriCans loil much of that apprehenfion which tfacy formerly tn» 
tcrtained of the Indian), for the Craclicn, who are deiEtate of | 
every fefift of religion, which might withhold them frwn sds of 
ncrlidy and cruelty, have beett diftovered to outdo die Indiana in ' 
ttearing hunger and fatigue ; and at they lead a favage lund of 

~ life, they are e(]ually Oiilled in buffa firlmtig, and dafcwveriag ^ 
«nemy by iheir tracbs : Thefe men will nMurally fettle 1^ in tb«, 
welieu partsof North Carolina and Georgia] and » the Indiana 
dwindle away befbte them, tbey certainly thivatcn nnn v> the civi- 
Ijsed jiarts of the rice Colonies, who have not aonr a coiwdod 

' aarent to can to their affiitance. HowmucbfMycr I may deteit the 
(onduft of fome men in America in bnngiogMilu! Cinl War, asd 
Jhc ■confrhuent /uin of their country ; yet Chrilliatuty forlnda nt ' 
|o wifh lit to an individual ; how much more then does it fatbid 
the willing ill to thoufandt i andhad I abilities to Wg^ h'uita 
jhat wOuIifconduce to the goodof my greateft CRcmiei, I fhoutd re- 
joice in having an opportunity of doing it.* 
, The Author has fuggcftcd fome hints for iectirii^ to 
Great Britain what remains of her for^n depcndcnekss &04 
her commerce, which arc by no means unworthy the atttn* 
^n, of gOYcrnmerit. 

■ * The affefiiop I have for my native country, (fays he) lodulwt 
me to. .TCCdtsmend one meafurc p> Government, which, hoWeWt 
cliimcfi>al>it,nifly appear, will, I flatter myfelf, give oi> oStact 
tp May oae. I would, m the srli jjtiace, prunift, tlial ViH int 



^1;e upon mo to queft'iOD the attachment of the pnf^ot let Of men 
in the Weft Indin ta thnr Sovemga and Pareat Staie ; btU chafe 
Iflands change tbcir iohabitantB in a £>w yean ; a nen net tnoy 
be inclined to give ihe Mother Country a* mtich trouble ai the Oo- , 
loaios oa the Continent have done ; and it ii by ncS means clesT, 
that the North Americaoa willrcfufc them their' aSAaacit.^-It'tliofe^ 
Iflandi fttould -become independent. Great Britain would hsFC no 
footing in the Weft Indies, unlef* the firilowing plan vaa adopted : 
—The celfion of Gibraltar would inrure to Gre:it Britain fucfa of 
the Spamfh Iflands in the Wed ladies as fhe mig;ht chufe ro allc 
for. Let fome Ifland of a moderate lize be pitched upon, that is 
naturally defenSble, and has a good harbour, capable of i-eL-eiving 
and bearing down line of battle Ihips.— Let an Adt gf Partiament 
be made, which nnalienably innexes this ifland tQ Great Britain. 
-^After refcrriog lands fuflKient for Fortifications, a Dook-yard, 1 

Churches, and other public Places, let the lands on the harbonr 
be laid out in town lots, and the reil of the' liland in &ttn ; lots -or 
plantetionsr not ncepding a fmall number of acres ; aiid let- tC be 
protided 1^ the A£t, that no pcrloa fliall hold more th^fi 00c town 
lot, and one farm lot ; and it more (hould come to him by deJcer^ 
or otherwife, he fliall be obliged to 'fell the overplus number 
within a given time, or elfe they fliall be forfeited tp the Crown. 
' This liland being intended merely as an emporium, provide 
that no fugar'^ranes, corton, or indigo, flialt be raifed on it, but 
that the inhabitants ftiall , be confined to the raifing ilock and pro- 
vifion»,-^-^Make this Illand a free port j give the people trial by 
jary, and elltabliih cnrery other part of the Confiituiion of England, 
eieept that of a right to chufe Rniwcfenlatrves,— ^And ict every 
grant of a town or farm lot have a claufe in&rted |n it, to run 
with the laniJ, eiprefsly flipulating, that there never fliitll be a 
power of legiflaiion in the Ifland, bat thatthe Parliament of Great 
Britain fliall always eiereife thejwwers oflegiflation and tasanon 
over it, A jnan who purchafsd land* in the Ifland, asd volun- 
tarily fettled there under fuch a reftriiSion, could never coniplain 
of the want of a Colony Legiflature ; and as the Parliament would 
pay every attention to the profperlty of the Tfland, and the en- 
coQhigment nf trade, fuch a Colony would be as free as any 
the£nglilli tvei t^d. and much more faappy. The Ifhsd might 
-be -rendered asflnaagat -art, comtnmed with nature, e^auid m^e 
it, and fljould always have a llran? gariifoa.— — If the GoveriKir 
was an able civilian, and the Ju^ea good c6mmoo lawyers, the 
inhabitants would fiiffer no oppreiEon ; but if the gentleman who ' 
eommaaded the forces was the Governor of the Ifland, it might un- 
(loevery thing.— ^ — Such an IHand wuuld probably have an im- 
Brafe trade, and be of great importance to the commerce and ma- 
nufaAures of this country. In a Colony fettled on fucKa plan, 
wlierc the iuhabitanti ettjoyed the benefits 4if the Commen Law of 
EvgUn4, ud had regular Courts of JuJUce eflabltflied, svery thing 
wo^d probably remain quiet, unlefs <a General .ASentUy waa 
eonvened, and tben a fceae of coofugon night enfue ; &»-, » an 
ingenious writer 'in. the year 1770 obferved, " When you put 
*• your Colony oa the fame fooiinc; with the Mother Country, 
X 3 it 

'ii.6 ■-' Nhih Rfpert fn» tht Sfleff Cemmlttii. ~ - 

■ ** it bccomei an iDdependent Government. - The Britiih em^ 
** it no long;er to be gOTenwd by the lame .geaeral trnor of 
" lawt. . h ceares to be one, it i) at beft but a confeileracy of 

-*' mtty State*. Inftead of the Empire's being ftrengthcned with 
** Provinces, it la weakened by tailing, nral), where there ought 
" only to be fubjeflt." I muft owQi I never, could conceiie any 

• juft mediuin between the fuprcmacy of Parliament over the Colo- 
nies in all cafes,' on the one hand, and the indipeadency of the 

' Coloniei, on the other. Hai-int jutt taken up a book whirfi 
ex9&ly. exprefles my tboughti, I lliall quote a padage from it 
• — — "' "iiie Briiilh Parliament mull be the fupreme power in 
" all the Britiih dominioni t and if (o, all the BHiilh domini- 

. *' ont ougbi to pay obedience, in all cafes, to all the Uwi in 
" which tbey are meniianed, that may be eaaAed by the Bri- 
" tifli' Parliament ; and that to rcfufc o^ieoce in any fuch cafe il 
** to declare themfclves an independent people.'.' 

On the whole, Mr. Stoltes tloes not pretend to catch , 
the attention, and to animate the imagination o£ his Read- 
ers by any flow of elevated and regular compofition ; ' 
bat he faithfully fubmits to their nnderftanding many im- 
portant fafts, ufeful hint', and judicrous obfeiVations. His ^ 
took IE not charafterized with any marks of bold and in- ! 
ventive geniuKj but he is entitled to the praife of 2 candid, | 
benevolent, unaffefled, and fenfilfie writer. What be hu ■ 
publilhed will be particularly ufeful to gentlemen wbo in- 
tend to praftife the