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Full text of "The English staircase, an historical account of its characteristic types to the end of the XVIIIth century"

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THE ENGLISH 

STAIRCASE 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2007 with funding from 

Microsoft Corporation 



http://www.archive.org/details/englishstaircaseOOgodfiala 




COLESHILL, BERKSHIRE (165O), (INIGO JONES, ARCHITECT). 



THE ENGLISH 
STAIRCASE 



AN HISTORICAL ACCOUNT OF ITS 
CHARACTERISTIC TYPES TO THE 
END OF THE XVIIIth CENTURY 



BY 

WALTER H. GODFREY 

Architect, Author of 

" THE LIFE AND WORK OF GEORGE DEVEY," 
and "THE PARISH OF CHELSEA." 



Illustrated from Photographs by Horace Dan, &c, 
and from Measured Drawings and Sketches. 



LONDON 
B. T. BATSFORD, 94 HIGH HOLBORN 

MCMXI 




BARNICOTT AND PEARCE 
PRINTERS 



SRLT 

URL 



PREFACE. 



NO one will dispute the importance, from an architectural point 
of view, of the position which the staircase holds in the 
general design of the house. Yet it is curious that in the decline 
of Domestic Architecture which took place in the last century, the 
staircase reached perhaps a lower level than any other individual 
feature. Turned mahogany newels of fantastic form with mean 
and starved balusters of varnished pitchpine became the constant 
companion of steep flights of steps which turned in a well, care- 
fully excluded from the light ! Indeed the familiar sight of these 
unlovely stairways had all but banished from the public mind any 
memory of the broad stairs of our forefathers, with their easy rise, 
their fine proportions and well-lighted situation. 

Whether we turn to the wide and simple well-stairs of Eliza- 
beth's reign, or to the richly carved examples of James I, or 
whether we consider the massive balustrades of Charles II, the dig- 
nified designs of Sir Christopher Wren, or the graceful lines of the 
Georgian period, we cannot fail to see how varied and yet how beau- 
tiful can be the methods of treating this central feature of the house. 
The distorted products of the modern joiner's shop would, one is 
confident, disappear with a wider knowledge of earlier methods. 

It is the object of this book to place before the reader a con- 
nected and continuous illustration of the principal types used in 
England and Scotland until the end of the eighteenth century, irre- 
spective of the size of the building of which they form a part. 
The author has not attempted an exhaustive treatise, and many of 
the fine and well-known examples have been omitted to make way 
for subjects taken from houses that are not readily accessible to the 
student or the public. The purpose throughout has been to read, 
into the ancient forms of the models still left to us, all the beauty 
and interest of the ideals of architecture which obtained in the past 
centuries, and from such a study nothing but good can come. 



vi PREFACE. 

In the series of which this book is one the interpretation of the 
broad lessons of style is made by means of special details, and in 
this the appeal is as much to the general reader as to the trained 
architect. To borrow a mathematical simile, the selection of a 
single feature like the staircase as the " constant " in the archi- 
tectural formulae, enables the variations of style to be discovered 
all the more readily. 

In the first place special thanks are due to the owners of various 
houses mentioned in this volume for allowing the photographs and 
drawings to be made, the reproductions of which form the chief 
feature of the book. 

Mention must next be made of Mr. Dan's important share in 
providing the greater number of the photographic illustrations. 
Many of those for which he is responsible have been brought to 
light by him. 

My grateful acknowledgments are due to the following ladies 
and gentlemen for the use of their sketches or photographs : Mr. 
A. Whitford Anderson, Mr. J. Starkie Gardner, f.s.a., Mrs. Ernest 
Godman, Mr. Albert Halliday, Mr. R. S. Lorimer, Mr. W. G. 
MacDowell, Mr. Ernest A. Mann, Mr. J. E. Mowlem, Mr. Baily S. 
Murphy, Mr. W. Niven, f.s.a., Mr. C. H. Potter, Mr. A. E. 
Richardson, Mr. Arthur Stratton, and Mr. S. H. Wratten. I am 
further indebted to the Marquis of Salisbury for leave to publish 
the plan from the Hatfield papers which I have been able to identify 
as one of the schemes for rebuilding Chelsea House ; to Mr. 
A. F. G. Leveson-Gower, f.s.a., for permission to use the drawing, 
in his possession, of 8, Grosvenor Square, and to the proprietors of 
the Connoisseur, for the loan of the block of Stoke Edith. Messrs. 
W. H. Smith and Son have supplied the photograph of Hatfield. 
I also have to acknowledge the assistance rendered by Mr. Edmund 
L. Wratten, who has prepared the majority of the drawings found 
in the text. 

Lastly, my thanks are due to my publishers, who have been more 
than helpful throughout the whole production of the volume. 

WALTER H. GODFREY. 

ii Carteret Street, 

Queen Anne's Gate, s.w., 
December, 1910. 



CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

INTRODUCTION ..... i 

MEDIEVAL STAIRS ..... 5 

EARLY RENAISSANCE : 

Elizabethan (Turned Balusters) . . .10 

Jacobean (Arcaded Balustrade) . . .22 

CONTINUOUS CARVED BALUSTRADES : 

James 1 to Charles II . . 36 

LATER RENAISSANCE : 

Middle XVI Century to Queen Anne (Turned 
and Spiral Balusters) . . . -45 

THE GEORGIAN PERIOD. The Stepped String . 54 

WROUGHT IRON BALUSTRADES . . .61 

INDEX ....... 71 



LIST OF PLATES. 

Frontispiece Coleshill, Berkshire, Inigo Jones, Architect. 

Photographed by Charles Latham. 
Piatt 

II DoWNHOLLAND HaLL, NEAR OrMSKIRK. 

J. A. Waite. 

III Oakwell Hall. 

Showing Dog-Gates. H. Dan. 

IV Great Kewlands, Burham, Kent. 

V Restoration House, Rochester. 

>> 

VI Great Wigsell, Sussex. 

W. G. Davie. 

VII The Commandery, Worcester. 

H. Dan. 

VIII Great Nast Hyde, Hertfordshire. 

A. Whitford Anderson. 

IX Hatfield House, Hertfordshire. 

W. H. Smith & Son. 

X Lymore, Montgomery. 

T. Lewis. 

XI Lymore, Montgomery — The Landing. 

>> 

XII The Conservative Club, Hoddesdon, Hertford- 

shire. 

H. Dan. 

XIII No. 9, Great St. Helen's, Bishopsgate. 

Now in Victoria and Albert Museum. A. E. Walsham. 

XIV Staircase now at the Talbot Hotel, Oundle. 

W. G. Davie. 

XV Astonbury, Hertfordshire — First Stair. 

H. Dan. 



X 

XVI 

XVII 
XVIII 
XIX 
XX 

XXI 

XXII 

XXIII 

XXIV 

XXV 

XXVI 

XXVII 

XXVIII 

XXIX 

XXX 

XXXI 

XXXII 

XXXIII 



LIST OF PLATES. 

Astonbury — Second Stair. 

Photographed by H. Dan. 

Castle House, Deddington, Oxfordshire. 

W. G. Davie. 
New Sampford Hall, Essex. 

H. Dan. 
Aston Hall, Warwickshire. 

Harold Baker. 
Rawdon House, Hoddesdon. 

H. Dan. 

Carved Panels on Staircase at Rawdon House, 
Hoddesdon. 

H. Dan. 
Cromwell House, Highgate. 

Three Finials to Newels with Figures of Cromwell's 
Soldiers. H. Dan. 

Ham House, Richmond, Surrey. 



Stratton Park, Biggleswade. 

Dunster Castle, Somerset. 

No. 25, High Street, Guildford. 

No. 25, High Street, Guildford. 
Two Carved Panels. 

The Close, Winchester, 
potheridge, torrington, devon. 
Cobham Hall, Kent. 
Cobham Hall, Kent. Details. 
Dawtrey Mansion, Petworth. 
St. George's, Canterbury. 



J. Phillips & Sons. 

T. Lewis. 

W. G. Davie. 



H. Dan. 

» 
H. J. Earle. 

H. Dan. 



LIST OF PLATES. xi 

XXXIV The Gordon Hotel, Rochester. 

Photographed by H. Dan. 

XXXV The Gordon Hotel, Rochester. The Dog-Gate. 

>> 

XXXVI No. 4, Crosby Square, London, e.c. 

(now demolished). „ 

XXXVII No. 4, Crosby Square, London. 

Detail of Newel and Balusters. W. G. MacDowell. 

XXXVIII Circular Stair, The Friars, Aylesford. 

H. Dan. 

XXXIX Hever Court, Ifield, Gravesend. 

>> 
XL No. 9, St. Margaret's Street, Canterbury. 

j> 
XLI No. 9, St. Margaret's Street, Canterbury. 

Details of Carved Newels. „ 

XLII Warden's House, New College, Oxford. 

A. E. Walsham. 

XLIII House in Botolph Lane, e.c. 

»> 
XLIV Bruce Castle, Tottenham. 

XLV Hopetoun House, Scotland. 



H. Dan. 



XLVI Hopetoun House, Scotland. 

Detail of Balusters and String. ,, 

XLV1I The Orthopaedic Hospital, Hatton 

Garden, London (now demolished). 

u 

XLV1II 44, Great Ormond Street, London. 

j> 
XLIX Harrington House, Craig's Court, London. 

»j 
L The Hook, Northaw, Hertfordshire. 

>> 
LI Friends' House, Croydon, Surrey — Upper Landing. 

S. H. Wratten. 



xii LIST OF PLATES. 

LII Carved Brackets at 

(a) Hatton Garden, London. 

( b ) Great House, Cheshunt. 

( c ) The Hook, Northaw. 

Photographed by H. Dan. 

LI 1 1 No. 5 John Street, Bedford Row, London. 

»> 
L1V The King's Staircase, Hampton Court. 

11 
LV Chesterfield House, Mayfair, London. 

Bedford Lemere. 
LVI Chesterfield House, London. 

Iron Balustrade. „ 

LVII No. 25i Lincoln's Inn Fields, London. 

Lower Stair Rail. T. Lewis. 

LVIII No. 25i Lincoln's Inn Fields, w.c. 

Panel on Landing. „ 

L1X Spiral Stair, Queen's House, Chelsea. 

LX Whitehall Gardens. 

ii 
LXI Sheen House, Richmond. 

A. E. Walsham. 
LXII Baddow Hall, Essex. 

H. Dan. 
LXIII Old War Office, London. 

(now demolished). „ 



H. Dan. 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS IN TEXT. 



Fig. 

I 

2 

3 



9 
io 

1 1 

12 

13 

15 
16 



Stairs to Dormitory, Hexham Priory, Northumberland. 
Photo by J. P. Gibson, Hexham . 

First Floor Plan, Castle Rising, Norfolk. • 

Norman Stair, Castle Rising. 

Drawn by Edmund L. Wratten . 

Newel Stair, Castle Hedingham, Essex. 

Drawn by Jessie Godman from a sketch by Cecil C. Brewer 

Vaulting to Newel Stair, Linlithgow Palace. 

Plan of Eastbury Manor House, Barking, Essex. 

Chetham's Hospital, Manchester. 
Drawn by Edmund L. Wratten 

Goldsborough Hall, Yorkshire. 

Drawn from a photograph in " Country Life " 

Newel and Baluster from Great Ellingham Hall, Norfolk 

Plan of Astonbury, Herts. 

Original Plan for re-building Chelsea House. 

Drawn circa 1590. From the Hatfield Papers, by per 
mission of the Marquis of Salisbury . 

Finials at Langley, Kent. 

From sketches by Arthur Stratton 

Newel from the Archbishop's Palace, Maidstone. 
From a sketch by Arthur Stratton 

Detail of Stair at Astonbury, Herts. 

Photo, by Horace Dan .... 

Newel Staircase, Fyvie Castle 

Knole House, Sevenoaks. 

Drawn by Walter H. Godfrey 



Page 

4 
5 



10 
11 

13 

H 

16 
J 7 



20 
22 



XIV 

Fig. 

17 



ILLUSTRATIONS IN TEXT. 



Cranborne Manor House, Dorset. 
From a drawing by J. E. Mowlem 

1 8 Plan of Cranborne Manor House. 

19 Detail of Staircase formerly at Claverton, Somerset 

20 Heraldic Finials from the " Old Palace," Rochester. 

Photos, by Horace Dan .... 

21 and 22 Details of Stair at Dorfold, Cheshire. 

23 Holland House, Kensington. 

24 Letchworth Hall, Hertfordshire. 

Photo, by A. Whitford Anderson . 

25 Detail of Stair at Charlton House, Kent (1607-12) 

showing Ionic and Corinthian Pilasters. 

26 Park Hall, Oswestry. 

Drawn from a photograph in " Country Life " 

27 and 28 Details of Newels and Balusters, etc. 

From various sources .... 

(27) 1. Newel, Inn at Scole, Norfolk. 

2. Pendant, Old Manor House, Yatton Kennell, Wiltshire. 

3. Newel, etc., Audley End, Essex. 

4. 5, 6. Newels and baluster, Hall i' th' Wood, Bolton. 

7. Newel and handrail, Star Inn, Lewes. 

8. Baluster, Ightham Mote, Kent. 

9. Handrail and baluster, Manor House, Sussex Place, Bristol. 

(28) 1. Newel and baluster, etc., Bromley Palace, Bromley -by-Bow. 

2, 4, 8. Balusters, Victoria and Albert Museum. 

3. Balusters, etc., Friends' House, Croydon. 

5. Baluster, Falstaff Hotel, Canterbury, 

6. Handrail, Great St. Helen's, Bishopsgate. 

7. Handrail, Park Hall, Oswestry. 

9. Newel and baluster, Ashburnham House, Westminster. 
10. Baluster, etc., Cranborne Manor, Dorset. 



Plate 

24 
25 
26 

27 
28, 29 

30 

3 1 
32 

33 
34.35 



29 Clare College, Cambridge (earlier stair) 

30 Crewe Hall, Cheshire. 

From a drawing before the fire by Win. Twopeny 

31 Cromwell House, Highgate. 

Drawn by Ernest A. Mann 

32 and 32A Cromwell House, Highgate. 

Measured drawing by Wm. Dean . 



37 

38 

39 
40, 41 



ILLUSTRATIONS IN TEXT. xv 

Fig. Plate 

33 Portion of Balustrade in the Victoria and Albert Museum. 4 2 

34 Staircase in Crowley House, Greenwich (now destroyed). 

From a drawing by A. Ashdown .... 43 

35 Clare College, Cambridge — Newel of Stair dated 1688. 44 

36 Ashburnham House, Westminster. 

Drawn by Edmund L. Wratten .... 46 

37 Wolseley Hall, Staffordshire. 

Drawn by Edmund L. Wratten from an etching by 

W. Niven in his "Old Staffordshire Houses" . 47 

38 Castle Bromwich, Warwickshire. 

Measured and drawn by Edmund L. Wratten . . 48 

39 Staircase at Serjeants' Inn. 

Drawn by J. B. Greenall, from measurements by A. E. 

Richardson . . . . . .51 

40 Stoke Edith, Herefordshire. 

By permission of " The Connoisseur " 53 

41 The Great House, Cheshunt. 

Photo, by Horace Dan 55 

42 The Great House, Cheshunt — Balusters. 

Photo, by Horace Dan ..... 56 

43 Wandsworth Manor House (now demolished). 

From various sources . . . . -57 

44 Carved Bracket at Bruce Castle, Tottenham. 

Photo, by Horace Dan ..... 58 

45 Iron Stair at Caroline Park, Granton, Scotland, 

Drawn by R. S. Lorimer ..... 59 

46 Iron Stair at Hampton Court. 

Measured and drawn by Albert Halliday ... 60 

47 Examples of Iron Balusters or Panels. 

From Bailey S. Murphy's " English and Scottish Iron- 
work " . . . . . . .61 

48 " Geometrical " Stair, St. Paul's Cathedral . . 62 

49 St. Helen's House, Derby. 

Drawn by C. H. Potter ..... 63 



xvi ILLUSTRATIONS IN TEXT. 

Fig. Plate 

50 No. 8, Grosvenor Square, W. 

Drawn by Edmund L. Wratten .... 64 

51 Carved Stair-ends, Queen's House, Chelsea 

Photo, by Horace Dan ..... 65 

52 Plan of Queen's House, Chelsea .... 66 

53 and 54 Designs by Robert Adam • • • . 67, 68 

S$ Circular Ironwork Newel, Millerstain, Scotland. 

Drawn by Edmund L. Wratten, from a photo, by H. Dan 69 



THE ENGLISH 
STAIRCASE. 



'THHE part played by the staircase in the history of domestic 
architecture is a very prominent one, not only because it is 
necessarily the key to a large part of the planning of a house, but 
because it performs a continual and public function, and as such, is 
the proper subject for dignified and even ambitious treatment. It 
was not until the renaissance had taken a firm hold upon English 
life, in the sixteenth century, that there occurred a development in 
house planning and building in any way comparable with the 
ecclesiastical triumphs of the four preceding centuries. It will be 
found therefore that the main body of the examples described in 
this book belongs to the period between the years 1 500 and 1 800, 
during which domestic architecture in England discovered a very 
fine and thoroughly native expression, despite the foreign influences 
which provided a strong stimulus from time to time. 

It must not be thought, however, that within these three hundred 
years any continued development can be traced from some early 
and crude form to the polished and graceful types of the latter part 
of the eighteenth century. Architecture, being the most closely 
allied, among the arts, to man's common needs, and also to his 
greatest ideals, follows his psychological moods, and is too dependent 

B 



2 THE NATURE OF ARCHITECTURAL DEVELOPMENT. 

upon national and political events to proceed upon the even path of 
an ordered progress. The Greek genius for beauty was succeeded 
by the Roman virile construction. The great church architecture 
of France and England rose on the ruins of their forerunners' 
achievement with but a lingering reminiscence of the glories of 
either. And yet again the builders of the renaissance learned to 
scorn the sublime structures of the Gothic artists. And even if 
the story of each single period is told, we still find that architecture 
does not deign to lend herself to the vanity of those who believe 
that each age is an advance upon its predecessor, but choosing the 
right moment and the right place she springs to maturity and 
beauty only to languish in the succeeding years, when the crafts- 
man is most confident of his skill. So we see the perfection of the 
Greek ideal in the fourth century, B.C., and the most exquisite 
grace of the Gothic form in the thirteenth century of our own era. 

It is important that this should be recognised at the outset, for 
in the study of a single feature like the staircase, we may see mir- 
rored, as it were, the various influences that were at work in the 
formation of successive styles of architecture, and the chief interest 
in such a study, apart from the intrinsic beauty of each example, 
lies in the relationship which these styles bear to one another. For 
the appeal of the single example is to the uncertain taste of the 
chance onlooker, but its historical interest is abiding, and from this 
we have all much to learn. 

In approaching the subject before us from this standpoint we 
shall feel that the Elizabethan period gave us a type of domestic 
architecture which must live for all time. Freed from the necessi- 
ties of church building, not only by the number of the churches 
but by the silence of the dissolved monasteries, which until then 
had never ceased to call the people to build for them, and filled 



ELIZABETHAN DOMESTIC ARCHITECTURE. 3 

with enthusiasm for the new and enticing ideals of the renaissance, 
the builders of that day turned their thoughts to the architecture 
of the home and to buildings for the accommodation of civic and 
commercial life. In this they were amazingly successful, and along 
with the invention of a plan, which with very slight modifications 
is perfectly suited to the present time, they designed the many 
domestic features which are indispensable to the complete dwelling- 
house, and set an enduring quality upon their artistic treatment of 
them. Among these features was the staircase. The new move- 
ment, too, found fresh and amplified uses for the old materials of 
building. The Gothic period of church and cathedral design was 
essentially a period of mason craft, it produced an architecture 
planned, wrought and adorned by the mason. Incidentally the 
carpenter did great things, and produced the roofs of Westminster 
and Eltham or carved the screens and stalls of a cathedral choir. 
But the Elizabethan period was to produce the joiner and it gave 
him the opportunity and incentive to carry his craft to perfection. 
With the advent of the panelled room, the carved overmantel, and 
the beautiful panelled screens and roofs came the triumph of the 
joiner — the staircase, which donned a more domestic and a richer 
quality by the change of its material from stone to wood. 

We do not think too much emphasis can be laid upon the spon- 
taneity of the birth of a new style in any department of art, and 
upon its relative superiority when in its nascent state, for art is not 
a product of evolution but is, in all its greatest phases, totally op- 
posed to it. Yet we cannot altogether overlook what went before, 
even if we regard it as rather the material of which the new style 
makes some use, than as the direct cause of the change itself. The 
directing force that turned men's thoughts to the fuller develop- 
ment of domestic life, was without doubt that great European 



4 THE PASSING OF GOTHIC INFLUENCE. 

movement which we know as the renaissance. But the movement 
had begun to make its influence known many a year before it 

brought to flower, in 
England, the arts of 
architecture, litera- 
ture, and the drama. 
The fifteenth cen- 
tury had already felt 
the coming change 
of ideals, the essen- 
tial genius of the art 
we call Gothic was 
becoming weaken- 
ed ; but the new 
movement was not at 
first strong enough 
to create its own 
style, and as yet 
wrapped itself round 
with garments of 
Gothic form. Thus, 
under the aegis of 
Fig. i. stair to the dormitory, hexham priory, fag church a by no 

means unimportant 
type of domestic architecture had been developed before the middle 
of the sixteenth century. Monastic life required a large establish- 
ment apart from the church buildings proper, and the royal custom 
of lodging ambassadors and other persons of eminence in the 
greater monasteries, was either the effect or the cause of the most 
elaborate domestic arrangements, both in the communal apartments 




EARLY STONE STAIRCASES. 5 

and in the abbot's rooms. The monasteries became the hotels of 
that age, and as they were the schools for ecclesiastical architecture, 
so they afforded the first models of the homes that sprang up im- 
mediately before and after their dissolution. 

At this time there were two strikingly different types of stair- 
case which served two entirely different purposes. The one, a plain 
straight flight of stone steps between two walls, was employed 
wherever it was in the daily use of a large number of people. 
The other, a circular or " newel " stair, formed generally of winding 
steps of stone that circled about the centre newel within a small well, 
was placed wherever required for occasional use, or where economy 
of space was specially desired. The straight flight would be found 
leading to the refectory or dining-hall whenever this was upon the 
first floor as may be seen in the Vicars' Close at Wells, and in the 
south transept of 
Hexham Priory, 
where the stairway 
to the canons' dor- 
mitory anticipates 
the later balustrades 
with its fine wall 
and stepped parapet 
(Figure 1). Another 
well-known monas- 
tic example is the 
Norman stair (circa 
1085) to the Stran- 
gers' Hall at Canter- 
bury, which is protected by an arcaded porch of which the arches 
diminish as the stairs ascend. In the Norman military archi- 




Entramce 



SCALE UFi 1) 1 t t I 1 1 



Fig. 2. CASTLE RISING, NORFOLK. 



STAIRCASES IN STRAIGHT FLIGHTS. 



tecture there was seldom room for the straight internal flight, save in 
very narrow tunnels in the thickness of the walls, but the fine ex- 
ample from Castle Rising (Figures 2 and 3) is an exception to the 
rule. In other Norman keeps like Castle Hedingham the first floor 

was approached by 
external stairs in one 
flight, and this cus- 
tom continued for 
many years. At 
the beautiful moated 
house at Stokesay in 
Shropshire, built in 
the thirteenth cen- 
tury the room at the 
upper end of the 
great hall is reached 
by an external stair, 
and there are still in- 
dications of the orig- 
inal roof that cover- 
ed it. At the lower 
end of this hall is 
a straight flight of 
solid oak stairs, car- 
ried on bold wooden 
brackets from the 
wall. This may well 
be contemporary 
with the building, 
or but very little later, and represents the time when the carpenter 
often imitated stone construction before the days of joinery. 




Fig. 3. CASTLE RISING, NORFOLK. 
Drawn by E. L. Wratten. 



THE "NEWEL" OR CIRCULAR STAIR. 7 

Of the other type — the newel stair, there still exist innumerable 
examples, and there is nothing more striking in the plan of a 
mediaeval building than the number of these small stairs dispersed 
in all directions. For churches and military buildings they were 
admirably fitted, for they occupied the minimum of space, and 
often by projecting from the face of the building, formed a conve- 
nient buttress or place of observation, the artistic possibilities of 
which were quickly seen by the Gothic and later builders. Thus 
we have the four angle turrets to the Norman keeps, the flanking 
turrets to the Tudor gate-houses, the picturesque staircase pro- 
jection to many a church tower, and finally the constant display of 
these same features in the Elizabethan house. The reason for the 
retention of the small newel stair, and for its frequency in the last 
named building is a very simple one. The Elizabethan designers 
were unaccustomed to the passage or corridor, and not till the be- 
ginning of the seventeenth century do we see in one of John 
Thorpe's plans, a passage which he calls a " longe entry throughe 
all." In place of the passage, the rooms were all made to commu- 
nicate with one another, as is usual on the continent to-day ; and 
this necessitated a number of small stairs for access to various parts 
of the upper floor, when any of the doors between the apartments 
were locked, and approach from the main staircase prevented. This 
solution of the problem was no doubt in favour with designers who 
seemed never to lose an opportunity of traversing the low propor- 
tions of their main facades with the bold but grace-giving vertical 
lines of the oriel or bay window and the external stacks of chimneys. 

The newel stair had no development in England at all com- 
parable with that which took place in France, where it attained 
magnificent proportions and required the most elaborate stone- 
vaulting for its construction. With a very few exceptions it re- 



THE MATERIALS OF CIRCULAR STAIRCASES. 



mained here a stair of secondary importance, save in small buildings, 
and where the exigencies of space forbade a more liberal provision. 
The circular stair at Hedingham Castle (Figure 4) was over eleven 

feet in diameter, and this, 



though unusually large is 
fairly typical in its form. 
The steps were generally of 
stone and in one length, 
tapering towards the centre, 
where they were shaped in- 
to the circular projections 
which, placed one over the 
other, formed the newel. 
Sometimes the steps were 
solid blocks of wood (like 
the stair already described 
at Stokesay), and were either 
built up in the same manner 
as the stone ones, or tenon- 
ed into a long central post. 
Others were of brick, as at 
Kirby Muxloe Castle, Lei- 
cestershire (circa 1480), car- 
ried on a continuous spiral 
brick vault. These turret 
staircases were generally car- 
ried above the roof to form 
a feature on the sky-line, and occasionally they were vaulted with 
the help of the newel as in the charming example at Linlithgow 
Palace, Scotland (Figure 5). 




Fig. 4. CASTLE HEDINGHAM, ESSEX. 
Drawn by Mrs, E. Godman, from a sketch by C. C. Brewer 



THE RETICENCE OF GOTHIC BUILDERS. 



A reference to the plan of Eastbury Manor House at Barking 
(Figure 6), built in 1572, will show how a small house sometimes 
depended entirely on the circular staircase. This little plan is a 
model of convenience in 
a small compass, and is 
charmingly devised for ex- 
ternal effect, the two stair- 
cases rising in bold turrets 
each side of the great 
chimney stack. The stairs 
are housed into centre 
posts, and in one a hand- 
rail is ingeniously carved 
in the brickwork, as in 
another example at Tatter- 
shall Castle in Lincolnshire 
(circa 1440) where it is 
carved in stones built into 
the brick wall. 

In reviewing the Gothic 
period, including the Nor- 
man that went before it 
and the Tudor work that 
followed it, we may say 
that as a rule the staircase 
took a simple form, almost 

invariably in stone, and that the English builders did not choose it 
as the subject for the elaborate adornment which they bestowed so 
generously upon other features. That they were ignorant of its 
possibilities is not conceivable, and we have only to turn to Rouen 




Fig. 5. LINLITHGOW PALACE. 



IO 



WOOD STAIRCASES INTRODUCED. 



to see two exquisite examples of what our neighbours could do, in 
the Cathedral and in the Church of St. Maclou where the delicately 
pierced and panelled balustrade, the double flight of steps, and the 
spiral stone casing, show how well the later forms might have been 
employed in Gothic building. One curious piece of wooden balus- 
trading, pierced with trefoiled openings is to be found in England 
at Downholland Hall near Ormskirk (Plate ii). 

The second half of the sixteenth century saw the introduction of 
the new wooden type of staircase into all houses of importance in 
the country. The use of thin boards (the " treads " and " risers ") 
for the formation of the steps, in place of the solid blocks of stone 

and wood, allowed a lighter 
construction and dispensed 
with the necessity for the 
support of two parallel walls. 
The stairs themselves were 
let into long wooden bearers, 
called " strings," set to the 
slope of the stairway on 
both sides. The strings were 
framed into posts called 
" newels," which supported 
the whole framework, and 
allowed the designer to break 
the staircase into as many 
flights as he desired, to interpose landings, and to lead the steps 
round an open " well," or to double them back alongside the lower 
flight in the manner known as the "dog-legged" stair. It was 
then necessary to provide a handrail and some form of balustrade 
between the newels, for safety, and this completed the material for 




Fig. 6. 



EASTBURY MANOR HOUSE, 
BARKING. 



THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE BALUSTRADE. 



the design. It is in the forms of these several features that the 
changes of style described in the succeeding pages will be noticed. 
No portion of the staircase escaped the influence of these changes 
in style, but their characteristics are most faithfully and consistently 
shown in the method of filling the balustrade, and this provides the 
simplest basis for 
classification. In 
Elizabeth's reign 
two fashions were in 
vogue, and it is diffi- 
cult to say whether 
they were simulta- 
neously introduced 
or not. The one, 
which was most pop- 
ular, was effected by 
turned balusters ; the 
other, almost exclu- 
sively followed in 
the later Jacobean 
work, made use of 
dwarf pilasters, of 
flat section that tap- 
ered towards their 
base, a type of or- 
nament seen in ex- 
traordinary profu- 
sion and in every 
kind of design of 
the early seven- Fig. 7. chetham's hospital, Manchester. 




12 THE VARIOUS FORMS OF TURNED BALUSTERS. 

teenth century. Another form, sparingly used, is apparently found 
as early as either. It partakes somewhat of the nature of both 
kinds and might, conceivably, be a link between them, indicating 
that one had developed from the other. It is shown in the 
stair at Oakwell Hall — built in 1583 — (Plate iii) where it is the 
silhouette of a baluster cut from a flat board, and in that at Chet- 
ham's Hospital, Manchester (Figure 7) where it is a similar outline 
of a pilaster. In all such cases this flat baluster is pierced, a form 
of ornamentation that occurs in the pilaster proper, at Claverton, 
Dorfold (Figures 19, 22) and elsewhere. There is a good ex- 
ample of the Chetham type at Boleyn Castle, East Ham. 

The turned baluster, once introduced, has held its own, with 
varying popularity until the present day, but it is not difficult to 
differentiate the examples of the various periods. The Elizabethan 
baluster is large, from 2^ to 3^ inches in diameter, and is not much 
cut away, thus giving a certain uniformity of substance throughout 
the length. On the other hand, no opportunity is lost to give it 
interest, and it is not only " busy " with features, but is further 
adorned with incised lines or grooves cut round its main parts. 
The examples given in this book will show what is meant if the 
reader will turn to the stairs at Goldsborough Hall (Figure 8), 
Great Kewlands, 1599 (Plate iv), Restoration House, Rochester 
(Plate v), Bromley Palace* (Fig. 28), Ightham Mote and Hall i' 
th' Wood (Fig. 27). The drum-shaped base to the balusters from 
Hall i' th' Wood and Bromley, is of very frequent occurrence, and 
the chamfered or notched angles where the square ends adjoin the 
part that is " turned " are an almost invariable sign of early date. 

The newly discovered art of turning was evidently dear to the 
heart of the Elizabethan joiner, and he began to turn his newels as 

* Practically the same detail as at Boleyn Castle. 




Fig. 8. 



i 4 THE PLANNING OF THE ELIZABETHAN STAIR. 

well as his balusters ; but soon, guided by his better judgment, he 
confined the work of his lathe to the finials and pendants, which 
form so important a part of the general design, giving point to 
every rise and fall in the varying flights of the steps. Turned 
newels are to be seen at Holland House (2nd stair), Ordsall Hall, 
Salford (which has in the principal newel an elaborately carved and 
turned column with an Ionic cap), Hall i' th' Wood, Bolton (Figure 
27), and Great Ellingham Hall, Norfolk (Figure 9). Staircases 
with pierced balusters seem often to have had newels framed on the 
same model, as at Chetham's Hospital, where the outline — rather 
awkwardly — follows the rake of the stair (Figure 
7). With this should be compared the newel at 
Claverton which has the pierced pilaster applied 
to each face (Figure 19). With these and a few 
other* exceptions newels will be found invariably 



square until the entirely new fashions introduced 
after the reign of Queen Anne. 

The Elizabethan stair was a stair of many 
flights. We have already remarked that the long 
succession of stone steps found in the Gothic 
period had been abandoned, and the sweeping 
staircase of the later years of the seventeenth cen- 
tury was the first to try a somewhat similar effect 
with wood. The John Thorpe, and the Smithson 
collection of contemporary plans (covering a period 
some twenty-five years before and after 1600) 
show the stairs designed as "dog-legged," and 
"well" staircases arranged in short flights divided by many land- 
ings. This involved a large number of stout square newels, 

* Godinton has its upper newels carved in the shape of a square column or pilaster. 




Fig. 9. 

GREAT 

ELLINGHAM HALL, 

NORFOLK. 



SIR ROBERT CECIL'S PLAN FOR CHELSEA HOUSE. 15 

the effect of which can be seen in the views of Goldsborough 
Hall (Figure 8), Park Hall, Oswestry (Figure 26), Aston Hall 
(Plate xix), Crewe Hall (Figure 30), and indeed in most of the 
examples given. The Great Hall was still, during this period, the 
chief living room, and a position for the staircase had to be found 
elsewhere. There were exceptions to this, chiefly it seems in 
Yorkshire, where many houses have the main stair leading from the 
Hall to a passage over the Screen,* as at Methley Hall, but the 




Fig. IO. ASTONBURY, HERTFORDSHIRE. 

more usual method is shown in the plan of Astonbury, Herts 
(Figure 10) and the interesting plan of Chelsea House (Figure 1 1), 
which shows one of Sir Robert Cecil's schemes for rebuilding the 
old mansion of Sir Thomas More. Here the confined spaces 
allotted to the stairs made it impossible to arrange the steps in one 
long flight, and to the many flights thus occasioned is due much of 

* For the information of readers who are not acquainted with the mediaeval plan it 
may be noted that the invariable arrangement of the principal apartment or Hall during the 
greater part of the thirteenth, fourteenth, fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, was to have 
the main entrance in the side wall at the lower end, close by the doors leading to the kitchen, 
etc., all of which were veiled from the upper end (with its dais, oriel, etc ) by an elaborate 
screen that stretched across the entire width of the Hall. (See Fig. 6.) 



i6 



ELIZABETHAN FINIALS TO NEWELS. 



the impressive character which the Elizabethan designers were able 
to effect by means of the elaborate finials and sculptured figures 
with which they adorned the newels. 

The earliest finials were of very simple form, a circular* or acorn- 
shapedf ball being used with a small moulded base, and one or more 




Fig. II. SIR ROBERT CECIL'S PLAN FOR THE REBUILDING OF 
CHELSEA HOUSE (c. I590). FIRST FLOOR. 

lines incised around its surface. The turned ball-finial, on account 
of its simplicity is to be found in staircases of all periods, but the 
earlier examples can be recognised by their small circular base, in- 
cised lines, and the fact that they are often not a perfect sphere (as at 



* Laindon Hall, Essex, and Holland House (second stair), 
f Eastgate House, Rochester, 1595. 



OCTAGONAL AND "SQUARE-TURNED" FINIALS. 17 

Great Ellingham Hall (Figure 9), and Castle House, Deddington 
(Plate xvii). Curious finials elaborately turned are used at Ightham 
Mote, and Hall i' th' Wood (Figure 27), where they form part of 
the turned newels already mentioned. The best finials approximate 
to vases in shape, and indeed this was clearly the underlying idea in 
many an exercise in turning, as at 
Scole Inn (Fig. 27). The theory 
of the vase-motif is strengthened, 
too, by the subsequent general use 
of elaborately carved vases as finials 
in the middle of the seventeenth 
century. Great Kewlands (Plate 
iv) shows a very effective octagonal 
top to the newel, and a house at 
Langley, in Kent, furnishes another 
example of this picturesque type 
(Figure 12). From this to the 
square was not a long step, and the 
" square-turned " finial, shown in 
its infancy on the upper stair at 
Restoration House, Rochester 
(Plate v), and in a more elaborate 
form at Maidstone (Figure 13), be- 
came the standard type, as most in 
harmony with the square solidity 
of the newel itself. The somewhat clumsy repetition of features on 
what is really a square-turned newel at the Commandery, Worcester 
(Plate vii) is in marked contrast to the two beautiful and simple 
shapes that cap the newels at Goldsborough Hall (Figure 8). 

The existence of a finial presupposes a pendant beneath the newel, 




Fig. 12. LANGLEY, KENT. 



i8 



PENDANTS, STRINGS AND HANDRAILS. 



and the two followed much the same lines, as at Yatton Kennell (Fig. 
27) and at Bromley (Fig. 28). The pendant or drop was not un- 
known before its introduction into the 
staircase, for it had been used in the gables 
of timber-built houses where it was often 
most elaborate. Between each newel the 
early strings were generally quite plain, 
with perhaps a simple moulded capping 
on which the balusters could rest. At 
Rothamsted the string is moulded some- 
thing in the same manner as the fascia- 
board to a Gothic gable, and at Aston- 
bury (Figure 14) it was, till lately, en- 
riched with painting which may well have 
been a copy of the original design. Above 
the balusters, the Elizabethan handrail 
was formed out of a stout oak beam, of 
a section deeper than its width, well 
moulded or grooved, and either flat at 
the top as at Goldsborough Hall, or more 
usually finished with a bold roll for the 
hand to grasp as at the Star Inn, Lewes 
(Fig. 27), and Park Hall, Oswestry 
(Fig. 28). Much variety was possible in 
the design of the handrail which gradu- 
ally assumed the flat broad section in use 
at the end of the seventeenth century, 
and even as early a witness as one of the 
John Thorpe drawings gives us a " rayle for a stayre " which ap- 
proximates to that in vogue at the later date. 




Fig- i3- 

THE ARCHBISHOP'S PALACE, 
MAIDSTONE. 



FRENCH TYPES FOUND IN SCOTLAND. 



19 



Throughout the sixteenth century, while the changes which we 
have related were taking place, there were remarkably few excep- 
tions to the general adoption of the wood-framed staircase. At 
Burghley House, Northamptonshire, there is a stone-vaulted staircase 
(circa 1556) of considerable size, which runs either side of a solid 
block of masonry, of a width sufficient to take the five treads which 




Fig. 14. ASTONBURY, HERTFORDSHIRE. 

join the two flights. At Hardwick (1576) there is a very severe 
but imposing stone stair the walls of which are hung with tapestry, 
and a stone staircase is to be found at Montacute. In Scotland, 
which has often been in so much closer touch with the architectural 
influence of France, than of England, there is the finest example of 
the stone " newel " stair, brought to a considerable pitch of dignity 



20 



A STAIRCASE VAULTED IN STONE. 




Fig. 15. FYVIE CASTLE. 



BACON'S TASTE IN STAIRCASES. 21 

and beauty at Fyvie Castle (Figure 15). In the seventeenth cen- 
tury a solitary attempt was made at Christ's Church College, Oxford, 
to revive the vaulted staircase, in which the centre newel carries an 
interesting roof of fan tracery. 

All through Elizabeth's reign the small spiral stair was in general 
request for its own special purpose of providing direct communi- 
cation between two floors where there was not much traffic. Cecil's 
Chelsea plan (Figure 11) shows this in a striking way, and we may 
recall the passage in Bacon's essay " of Building " in which he does 
not forget either kind of staircase : " The stairs likewise to the 
upper rooms, let them be upon a fair open newel, and finely railed 
in with images of wood, cast into a brass colour ; and a very fair 
landing place at the top. . . Beyond this is to be a fair court, but 
three sides of it of a far lower building than the front. And in all 
the four corners of that court fair staircases, cast into turrets on the 
outside, and not within the row of buildings themselves." 

In Bacon's own house formerly standing at Gorhambury, near St. 
Albans, Aubrey tells us, "was a delicate staircase of wood which 
was curiously carved ; and on the post of every interstice was some 
pretty figure, as a grave divine with his book and spectacles, a 
mendicant friar, and not one twice." His essay "of building" was 
written when James I had already reigned some years, and when 
the Jacobean culmination of Elizabethan architecture had been 
reached. The luxuriance of the ornamentation, the crude magnifi- 
cence of the carving and the unrestrained adaptation of structural 
forms in the service of pure decoration, have often been criticised, 
but it cannot be denied that beneath all this show there were some 
very fine elements of design. The refreshing abandon of the de- 
signers of this time should be welcomed when we see them capable 
also of the finely restrained proportions of the staircases at Rotham- 
sted, Great Wigsell (Plate vi), or New Sampford Hall (Plate xviii). 



22 A FINE EXAMPLE OF JACOBEAN WORK. 

At Hatfield (1612), (Plate ix), Blickling (1620), Rushton Hall 
(1626), and Temple Newsam (1630), can be seen the rich combina- 
tion of all the finest Jacobean details. The square newels are 
covered with carving in low relief ; the square-turned finials (formed 
so that each face is the proportion of a short pilaster, and carved with 
a lion's head or shield), support heraldic animals and sculptured 




Fig. l6. KNOLE HOUSE, SEVENOAKS. 
Drawn by Walter H. Godfrey. 



figures ; the pendants are beautifully shaped, pierced and enriched ; 
and the dwarf pilasters which form the balustrade are of the most 
elaborate workmanship, and being connected to one another beneath 
the handrail by light keyed arches, they make a long line of arcading 
of great beauty. Other features go to produce even a greater and 



JACOBEAN SCREENS AND CONTINUOUS NEWELS. 23 

richer effect. At Hatfield the entrance to the stair is overhung with 
elaborate scroll-work, an idea which was carried out more fully at 
Wakehurst, Sussex, where the surmount has almost the proportions 
of a screen without the lower supports. At Blickling, after the 
first flight, the staircase divides, and going left and right, becomes 
two stairs which balance one another, — a device that is very frequent 
in the large houses of the eighteenth century. At Rushton Hall 
and Temple Newsam the effect is heightened by the beautiful 
screens which partly shelter the stair from the Hall and upper land- 
ing, and at the same time reveal and frame its beauty beneath their 
luxurious arches. This arcaded screen is to be found indicated on 
many of the Thorpe drawings. Two of the best examples are at 
Dorton House, Bucks, and at Knole House, Sevenoaks, built in 
1605 (Figure 16), where the arcade is repeated on the first floor 
and adds great dignity to the stair. It also occurs in a most 
charming form at Great Wigsell (Plate vi) which we have already 
mentioned. The strength and yet the simplicity of its two square 
columns with Ionic caps, the graceful arches, the well-modelled 
finials to the other newels, and perhaps above all the quiet reserve 
in the use of the carving, — a simple guilloche ornament being the 
sole enrichment to the most effective string — are all much to be 
admired. This method of carrying up certain newels in the form 
of columns to support the landing above added of course great 
strength to the stair, and the practice was not confined by any means 
to the Jacobean period. A less frequent arrangement but based on 
very sound ideas of construction, is met with in those stairs of which 
all the newels are continuous and run from floor to floor. Arches 
were often placed between them, and they formed in effect an 
arcaded screen to the well. The idea (if any prompting were 
necessary to so simple and desirable a form), may have been derived 



24 POSSIBLE ORIGIN OF FRAMED STAIRCASES. 

from the old well 
staircases sometimes 
found in square 
towers, where the well 
is enclosed by timber 
framing, plastered be- 
tween the beams. At 
Canonbury Tower, 
Islington (circa 1520) 
this well is divided 
into a series of large 
cupboards, and it 
would require little 
ingenuity to open the 
framing and insert a 
balustrade. Indeed 
we find that the space 
below the handrail, at 
places like Boughton 
Malherbe and Leeds 
Castle, has retained 
the old plaster filling, 
the upper portion 
being open. How- 
ever this may be, an 
example of the con- 
tinuous newels is 
found as early as 1523 
at Layer Marney in 
Fig. 17. cranborne manor house, Dorset. Essex, and later ones 




CARVED FIGURES AND HERALDIC FINIALS. 



25 



at Burton Agnes (1602-10), Audley End (1603-16), and Cran- 
borne Manor, Dorset (Figures 17, 18 and 28). The last-named is 
a very simple and effective design, while the first is peculiar in that 
the well is long and narrow, and the arches are thrown across the 
well at various heights. At Audley End the well is of similar pro- 
portion to that at Burton Agnes and the number of newels is the 
same, but the arches follow the direction of the handrail. The 




CAR DEN 
Fig. l8. CRANBORNE MANOR HOUSE. 

newels here are decorated with very delicate pilasters and strap- 
ornament, and the balustrade adheres to the model of Hatfield and 
Blickling but is of a rather more refined type. The upper part 
of the newels is shown in Figure 27. 

It is to be remarked that the use of figures and heraldic animals 
upon the newel has been associated, in the four chief examples men- 
tioned on page 22, with the arched balustrade, as being perhaps the 
finest form so far designed. To these we must add Charterhouse and 
Claverton (Figure 19). At the former of these the heraldic finials 



26 



ELABORATE CARVING. 




are placed upon pedestals of which the ornament differs in each case, 
while the latter is quite an unusual type, bold and well modelled, 
relying less upon superficial carving, than upon the 
simple lines of its pierced pilasters and the restful 
severity of its statues. Knole (1605) and Godinton 
(1628), both in Kent, form important exceptions, in 
that they combine heraldic finials with a balustrade of 
finely turned balusters of the Elizabethan type. We 
have already mentioned the screen at Knole (Figure 
16), and the stair is covered with the usual carving on 
newels and string. Godinton, which bears its date in 
scribed on a panel, resembles Knole in the form of its 

heraldic animals and 
their shields, as well as 
in the design of its 
balusters. It is, how- 
ever, overloaded with 
ornament, the handrail 
is carved with a flowing 
pattern of vine leaves 
and grapes, the first as- 
cent is overhung with 
elaborately pierced carv- 
ing in imitation of 
Gothic tracery, and the 
front of the balustrade is 
richly panelled. Several 
Fig. 19. formerly at claverton, somerset, of the newels are carved 

with archaic and gro- 
tesque busts forming the upper part of pilasters, as at Sydenham 




THE ARCADED BALUSTRADE. 



27 



House, Devon, but the most curious feature is the division by a 
horizontal line of each length of the balustrade into two triangular 
portions, the lower part panelled, and the upper filled with turned 
balusters, which are thus of different sizes and varying in design. 
The principle is the same as that shown in the Great Kewlands 
staircase (Plate iv), 
where the upper 
triangle is closed 
by a rail and the 
lower is plastered. 
Some good heraldic 
finials are shown 
in Figure 20. 

Of the other il- 
lustrated examples 
which have an ar- 
caded balustrade, 
the one at the Com- 
mandery, Worces- 
ter (PI. vii), seems 
the most immature, 
and that at Great 
Nast Hyde (Plate 
viii) is unusual, 
though most strik- 
ing in its total 
effect. The Dor- 
fold stair (Figures 
21 and 22), already 
referred to, pos- Fi ^ 2 °' NEWKL FINIALS - 

"THE OLD PALACE," ROCHESTER. 




28 



USE OF PILASTERS IN PLACE OF BALUSTERS. 



sesses particularly fine newels with char- 
acteristic Jacobean carving in low relief 
adorned with the "drop" ornament, and 
a freely modelled finial. And at the 
princely Holland House in London, we 
find in the newels and the balustrade that 
imitation of rusticated masonry (Figure 
23), affected by the designers of the early 
years of the seventeenth century which 
appears again at Lymore (Plates x and xi), 
the Conservative Club, Hoddesdon (Plate 
xi), and Rawdon House (Plates xx and 
xxi) at the same place. The balustrade 
composed of pilasters unconnected by 
arches includes a large number of very 
fine staircases, which are notable for their 
excellent newel finials. An apparently 
early example is that at Letchworth Hall 
(Figure 24), which attempts rather un- 
successfully to follow with its lines the 
rake of the stair. A brilliant design is 
shown in Lymore (Plates x and xi), 
where the pilasters and newels are stud- 
ded with "jewel " ornament. Charlton 
House, Kent (Figure 25), has the three 
orders represented with Doric, Ionic and 
Corinthian capitals in ascending flights. 
It is remarkable too for the lion's head 
shown in the sketch as carved against each 
Fig. 21. dorfold, Cheshire, newel, anticipating the "ramp" of the 




THE DOUBLE NEWEL AND ITS FINIALS. 29 

handrail which came later and will be described 
in its place. The newel-tops at Charlton are 
varied and include finials of carved foliage, 
pierced pinnacles and seated lions. The stair- 
case is the reputed work of Bernard Janson and 
dates from 1607-12. Park Hall, Oswestry 

(Figure 26), is quite a 
typical example. The 
stair is designed to 
avoid the necessity, in 
a dog-legged stair, of 
cutting: off the lower 
handrail where it comes 
beneath the string. It 
is therefore made with 
double newels which 
allow the handrail and 
balustrade to pass by 
instead of intersecting 
the upper string. Two 
other examples of this 
are shown in the Con- 
servative Club, Hod- 
desdon (of the Park 
Hall type) and in the 
Castle House, Ded- 
dington (Plates xii and 
xvii). In these the 
finials are taken to an 
Fig. 22. dorfold, Cheshire. equal height, but at 




30 A JACOBEAN EXAMPLE FREE OF ALL ENRICHMENT. 

Park Hall one stands well above the other. This difficulty 
in design was more successfully met at a later date 
(1688) at Clare College, Cambridge (Figure 35). The 
newels and string at Park Hall are covered with plain 
rectangular sinking, and the finials are of the usual fine 
type where no statuary is introduced, being composed 





HOLLAND HOUSE 

KENSINGTON 




Fig. 23. 

of the pedestal base crowned with elaborate 
square-turned ornaments. Rothamsted, Herts, 
provides the simplest and most striking form of 
both newel and balustrade free from all carving. 
Sydenham House, Devon, and Wick Court 
possess unusually bold and well-modelled 
pilasters placed close together in their balustrades, each having 



TYPICAL JACOBEAN FINIALS AND NEWELS. 31 

characteristic Ionic caps. The newels at the former are curious, 
and are now crowned with old lamps of quaint design, and those at 
the latter have finials very much like the usual hollow carved 
pendants inverted. At Sussex Place, Bristol (Figure 27) a pierced 
Ionic pilaster is used in the balustrade, and in a late example from 
Bishopsgate preserved in the museum at South Kensington may be 
seen a type almost square in plan, carved on each of the four faces 
and requiring a very heavy string and handrail to cover it (Plate 
xiii, Figure 28.) 

As already indi- 
cated those stair- 
cases which re- 
tained the turned 
baluster are gener- 
ally furnished with 
bold and simple 
finials, but in these 
there is to be 
found great diver- 
sity in form. The 
Talbot Hotel at 
Oundle (Plate xiv) 
has a bold design 
over a plain pan- 
elled newel. The 
two staircases at 
Astonbury have 
both excellent de- 
tail. In the larger 
one (Plate xv) the Fig. 24. letchworth hall. 




32 



THE USE OF ARCHES BENEATH THE STRING. 



tops are formed of obelisks upon four balls (a motif not unusual in 
the design of Jacobean tombs), over a small sunk panel of a shape 
reminiscent of a Gothic cusp, and pendants in the shape of acorns. 
The string (Figure 14) which has been painted with flowing orna- 




CHARLTON HOUSE, KENT. 



ment, is further adorned as at Great Nast Hyde with flat keyed 
arches which spring from the pendants and appear to give support. 
The secondary stair (Plate xvi) has pierced finials. The Castle 
House, Deddington (Plate xvii), has a fluted double newel capped 
by two balls, and the Methley stair combines a striking hollow finial 



THE DOUBLE NEWEL AT PARK HALL. 



33 




Fig. 26. 



34 



ELIZABETHAN STAIRCASE DETAILS. 




Wrt at SCOLE 

NORFOLK* ^^ 



' Old Manor Moose 
Yattom M/viell 



Auoley End 

ESSEX.. 



4. 5. 6 

Hall i'th" Wood 



LEWES J~.i.*. 



Ightham Mote 



'Maaiob. House 
Sussex "Place. 

Bristol c ««x 





Scale tr 



Feet 



Fig. 27. DETAILS OF NEWELS AND BALUSTERS. 



XVIIth AND XVIIIth CENTURY STAIRCASE DETAILS. 35 



C=7 






5 




iTRinO 



Bromley Palace 

BROtiLtl-BY-8oW fi6o&) 



•>i<wv Balusters 

Kdi... tAu^ni*^;'*" '/' 0< 



Friends' House 

Croydon. '5*<a-£.y. 



rf.torU 1 J/i,^ /Ifuttu. 



^Falstaff Motel 

CANTERBURY. 



Grvot 5*" Helen's. S.shops^otc 



7 Park Hall 
Oswestry ui^j.. 



Balusters cvk* yjoc 

\Cdin* t*tOt,/ fy. n< .«. 



"ASHBUR/tMAAI HOUSE 
WESTMINSTER c 16^0 



CRAfiDORflE flAflOR 

Mouse. Dorset. i£u 




* "^ 



6 



:^0 



-$Fee:t 



Fig. 28. DETAILS OF NEWELS AND BALUSTERS. 



36 THE CONTINUOUS CARVED BALUSTRADE. 

with a richly chased newel, and balusters of very elegant shape. 
But the staircase at New Sampford Hall (Plate xviii) is the most 
beautiful example. The carving on the newel, the delicately en- 
riched pedestal finial, — ready for statuary but quite complete without 
it, — and the well turned balusters, could not well be surpassed. 

Before the reign of James I was over a new fashion was intro- 
duced in the method of filling up the space between the handrail 
and the string of the staircase. Its simplest form can be seen in 
the earlier of the two stairs at Clare College, Cambridge (Figure 29), 
where the whole space is filled in with thin boarding pierced in such 
a way as to show the outline of a pattern in the contemporary strap- 
work design. The idea was quickly developed, carving in relief 
was introduced and the balustrade was soon converted into great 
panels of interlacing ornament. It is difficult to give an exact date 
to these staircases, for the large houses were many years in building, 
but the fashion had become fully established at the accession of 
Charles I, and continued with important changes to the end of the 
century. The two finest examples of this first period are un- 
doubtedly Aston Hall, Warwickshire, and Crewe Hall, Cheshire, 
both erected about 1 620-1 625. They belong in every sense to the 
Jacobean type in all their detail, the former (Plate xix) showing as 
much reserve and dignity as the latter (Figure 30) an extravagant 
luxuriance. At Rawdon House, Hoddesdon (Plate xx), with its 
curious crudely carved panels (Plate xxi), on one of which appears 
the date 1622 ; at Aldermaston, finished in 1636, and well known 
through Nash's view although since destroyed ; and at so late a 
stair as that in Cromwell House, Highgate (Figures 31 to 32a), 
built about the time of the Commonwealth, the Jacobean influence 
still prevails. The groundwork in the ornament of the panels is still 
the old strapwork although other subjects occur, and all three 



THE SUBJECTION OF THE NEWEL. 37 

have heraldic finials or sculptured figures. The rusticated work on 
the newels at Rawdon House, the rich carving on those of Alder- 
maston and the beautiful pedestals with Ionic caps which are 
provided for the types of Cromwell's soldiery (Plate xxii) — each and 
all proclaim their affinity to the time of James I. But these are 
the last stairs of which 
Blickling was the type. 
The all-conquering tide 
of the Later Renais- 
sance was soon to con- 
demn the newel to a 
completely subservient 
position in the design, 
and the first step that 
was taken abolished its 
figures and its finials, 
and merely marked its 
position by a modest 
vase adorned with fruit 
or flowers. This was ac- 
companied by the intro- 
duction of naturalistic 
carving into the balus- 
trade. These great stair- 
cases with continuous 
balustrades of flowing foliage have been made famous by the exquisite 
workmanship of Grinling Gibbons and his school of carvers. But 
before them there were many less successful attempts which paved 
the way for the greater triumphs. There is a vigorous and interest- 
ing stair of this type at Hutton-in-the-Forest, Cumberland, where 




Fig. 29. 



CLARE COLLEGE, FORMERLY CLARE 
HALL, CAMBRIDGE. 



38 



BASKETS OF FRUIT AS FINIALS. 



the finials to the newels have already lost all character. There is the 
stair at Ham House, Richmond (Plate xxiii) with its flat carving of 








■*el 

"iXC 



i > 






Fig. 30 STAIRCASE, FORMERLY AT CREWE HALL, CHESHIRE. 

Drawn by W. Twopeny. 

war trophies and its baskets ot fruit upon the newels, although a 
stair in King Street, Norwich, on somewhat the same lines but with 



THE LAST OF JACOBEAN CHARACTERISTICS. 



39 




Fig. 31. CROMWELL HOUSE, HIGHGATE. 

Drawn by Ernest A. Mann. 



4 o CHANGING FASHIONS OF THE XVIIth CENTURY. 

less carving possesses the rare feature of continuous supporting 
newels. Other continuous newels of an altogether unusual type 
are found in a rather later example at Castle Ashby, where they 
consist of straight columns, the shafts of which are completely 
covered with a carved imitation of ivy and creepers twined round 
them. Yet another stair on the somewhat rigid lines of Ham House 

is to be found in a 
second house near 
Kingston. This has 
ball finials and re- 
calls the fact that 
Number 5, Chandos 
Street, Strand (since 
destroyed), had 
quite an early type 
of ball finial com- 
bined with a crude 
but determined at- 
tempt at a continu- 
ous balustrade of 
flowing foliage. 

One of the first of 
the later and finest 
period of these stair- 
cases is that at Tyt- 
tenhanger, Herts 
(circa 1654), which 
is beautifully carved with leaf and flower. The broad handrail has 
a bead enrichment, the string is carved with leaves, and the newel, 
panelled with fruit and foliage, rises a little above the handrail to 




— l JJIHtMlMf1 l i? l f?^ l > PP-r 

Fig. 32. SECTION OF THE STAIRCASE, CROMWELL 

HOUSE, HIGHGATE. 

Drawn by W. Dean. 




li 6* I 2 3 + ? k 7 8 9, 10 II 12 M I* 15 

'^^ M 1 i i i i i i I l i i M i i FffET - 

Fig. 32A. CROMWELL HOUSE, HIGHGATE. 

Measured and drawn by W . Dean. 



42 THE WORK OF JOHN WEBB. 

support a plain vase with fruit. This last feature 
is wanting in an otherwise very similar staircase 
at Stratton Park, Biggleswade (Plate xxiv). 
Tyttenhanger was probably built by John Webb, 
to whom must be ascribed the stair at 
Thorpe Hall (1656). Here the hand- 
rail runs over the top of the newel and 




Fig- 33- 

BALUSTRADE IN THE 
VICTORIA AND ALBERT 

MUSEUM. 



the vase of fruit is a little more 
elaborate. A gracefully carved 
scroll in the form of a buttress adds 
strength to the bottom newel. Two 
years later it was probably Webb 
also who carried out the beautiful stair at Forde Abbey, Dorset, 
with a massive handrail, carefully ramped or curved up to each 
newel, over which it is mitred, and made to support a boldly 
modelled vase of fruit. A long flight of fourteen steps with a small 



AN EARLY EXAMPLE OF FLOWING FOLIAGE. 43 




Fig. 34. STAIRCASE AT CROWLEY HOUSE, GREENWICH (BEGUN 1647). 
NOW DEMOLISHED. 



44 



FAMOUS STAIRS OF THE XVIIth CENTURY. 



landing breaking it in the centre gives the occasion for four newels, 
and increases the strength of the design. 

With the accession of Charles II the fashion for these monumental 
staircases was at once confirmed, and we have a surprising number 
of those vast works which must have 
absorbed the best craftsmanship of the 
day. The stairs at Durham Castle (1665), 
Eltham Lodge (1663), Sudbury Hall, 
Wentworth Castle, Cassiobury, Tythrop, 
Dunster Castle (Plate xxv), and Tredegar 
Park (circa 1670), are among the finest 
and must all have been completed within 
ten years. There is not the same finish 
in all the carving, but it is nowhere lack- 
ing in high decorative quality. Intro- 
duced at first in panels, it ultimately 
stretched the whole length of the balus- 
trade. The handrail and string show a 
tendency to increase the boldness and en- 
richment of their mouldings (the latter 
taking the form of a long carved entab- 
lature) and the vertical lines are almost 
completely eliminated, until it is thought 
no longer necessary to mark the position 
of the newels, and the vases which had 
lost all meaning are finally omitted with 

great advantage, as at Tythrop and Wentworth Castle. The newel 
in fact becomes a massive pedestal, with the handrail and string 
breaking round it to form its cornice and base. The examples 
given from smaller houses illustrate the same principles in some 




Fig- 35- 

CLARE COLLEGE (l688), 
CAMBRIDGE. 



THE RESUMPTION OF THE BALUSTER. 45 

measure. Crowley House, Greenwich (Figure 34), is comparatively 
early. No. 25, High Street, Guildford (Plates xxvi and xxvii), 
furnishes a fine type of the balustrade and vase, while the beautiful 
stair from The Close, Winchester (Plate xxviii), gives all the char- 
acteristics of the later development, with the exception of the newel 
which is not capped by the handrail. A very elegant undated piece 
of balustrading from South Kensington Museum (Figure 33) may 
be mentioned here, although the delicate handrail indicates the 
work of the eighteenth century. The foliage is interspersed with 
scroll-work after the French manner and the effect is so good that 
the idea is worthy of imitation. 

From this time forward the reign of the baluster is resumed in 
the whole kingdom of the staircase, with the single reservation of 
the iron balustrade to which we shall presently allude, and in which 
will be discovered some reminiscence of the wooden scroll work 
just described. But first we must retrace our steps and turn 
our attention to a certain number of stairs which did not follow 
the lines we have already sketched. It must be remembered that 
from the reign of James I we date the intrusion of the personal 
element into design, or in other words the birth of the modern 
architect. While the vernacular building — to borrow an expression 
from language — was pursuing its ordinary course, still wedded to 
the traditions of the past, a man like Inigo Jones was pursuing his 
own ideals and producing in the large country house designs which 
would not become popular until half a century later — a separation 
which has continued to the present day. At Coleshill, Berks, 
1650 {Frontispiece), Inigo Jones constructed one of the most 
beautiful of all staircases, irrespective of period, having all the 
harmony in design and workmanship that comes from the invention 
and directing skill of a great artist. At a time when even the largest 




Fig. 36. ASHBURNHAM HOUSE, WESTMINSTER. 

Drawn by Edmund L. W ratten. 



THE BALUSTRADE AT COLESHILL. 



47 



houses were making use of the balustrade of continuous foliage, lnigo 
Jones revived the baluster, but in a form that differed vastly from the 
earlier type. He introduced the simplest type, which made its first 
appearance in stone in the Italian renascence, short in length, but 
broad in section, cut away well beneath a simple ovolo cap, encircled 




Fig. 37. WOLSELEY HALL, STAFFORDSHIRE. 



with a necking, and gradually swelling to its full diameter before curv- 
ing in again over a simple base. The cap is carved with egg-tongue, 
a ring of acanthus leaves surrounds the belly, and the base is further 
enriched. The whole stair, otherwise, might well have been the 
model for those at Cassiobury and Tythrop, except that the string, 
as befitting a more delicate treatment, is carved with simple festoons 



4 8 



s 




< 



INCHES 



Fig. 38. 

CASTLE BROMWICH, 
WARWICKSHIRE. 



THE INFLUENCE OF INIGO JONES. 

and is not heavily moulded. We do not know 
that Inigo Jones himself ever used the balustrade 
of pierced foliage. Houses like Forde Abbey 
which he altered, were completed after his death, 
and places like Tyttenhanger are ascribed to him 
on but slender grounds. On the other hand, the 
beautiful and ingenious stair at Ashburnham 
House, Westminster (Figure 36), one of the 
most justly celebrated in England, of which the 
design at least is persistently ascribed to him, 
follows Coleshill in the essential character of its 
construction and detail (Figure 28). Both these 
stairs bear one mark of their comparatively early 
date, the handrail is not ramped to the newel as 
in a similar example at Powis Castle. Coleshill, 
unlike the Jacobean staircase at Blickling, is 
really a double stair, leading up on either side 
of the Hall. The influence it had upon the 
coming fashions is shown by the general adoption 
of its main lines in all work at the close of the 
seventeenth century. Its spirit is reproduced in 
the beautiful stair at Potheridge (Plate xxix). 
At Cobham Hall, Kent (Plate xxx), it is also 
seen but a desire for elaboration has given the 
balusters Ionic volutes, and has stopped the hand- 
rail against the newels in order to re-introduce a 
carved finial which is reminiscent of Charlton 
House and Wick Court, an inconsistency rectified 
in the portion shown on Plate xxxi. 

There was another novel factor introduced in 



THE TWISTED OR SPIRAL BALUSTER. 49 

the middle of the seventeenth century which was to have far-reaching 
results. This was the twisted or spiral baluster. If we may trust 
the date (1652) on the newel at Dawtrey Mansion, Petworth (Plate 
xxxii), as referring to the stair as a whole, we have here a curious 
transitional phase which links the new feature with the fine old finials 
of Jacobean origin. The first balusters of this kind were turned in 
such a way as to give the appearance of being actually twisted, not 
carved with spiral grooves like the Georgian type. They usually 
had a small vase-shaped feature at the base of the twisted shaft. 
(See examples in Figure 28.) A stair at St. George's, Canterbury 
(Plate xxxiii), has continuous newels formed in spirals like the balus- 
ters, but the spirit of the age soon imposed the yoke of the flat heavy 
handrail, characteristic examples being those at Restoration House, 
Rochester (lower stair), and the Gordon Hotel in the same town 
(Plate xxxiv), which latter possesses an interesting and characteristic 
dog-gate of this period (Plate xxxv). The staircase which stood 
at No. 4, Crosby Square (Plates xxxvi and xxxvii) until its demolition 
in 1908, carries the type to perfection. The string and newels are 
beautifully carved, the handrail and balusters are slightly enriched, 
while the graceful ramp of the rail to each newel binds the whole 
together most effectively. At a staircase of this kind dated 1688, 
in Clare College, Cambridge, occurs the successful treatment of the 
double newel, already mentioned, where the lower post finishes 
against the upper with a neat carved console* (Figure 25). The 
Friars, Aylesford, gives a curious example of the application of the 
twisted baluster to a circular stair (Plate xxxviii) as well as to some fine 
straight flights. But the most sumptuous of them all is at Wolseley 
Hall (Figure 37), where the design and scale invite comparison with 
the triumphs of the two earlier classes represented by Cassiobury 
and Coleshill. The sweeping curves of the handrail are excellent, 

* Good examples of the same feature, by Wren, are to be seen at Chelsea Hospital 
(completed 1691). 



50 THE BROAD HANDRAIL OVER-RIDES THE NEWELS. 

and the carved mouldings and beautiful vases over the newels give 
a very rich effect. All the fine lines of the type are to be seen too 
at Halswell Park, Somerset (1689), which is almost without carving. 
Here, as was the invariable custom, is a beautiful panelled dado, 
that reproduces the slope of the stair on the wall and follows the 
ramp of the handrail. 

Along with those just described, the plain turned baluster had a 
considerable vogue, and many were the shapes devised by each 
designer's fancy. They were in the main short and stout, a good 
deal cut away from the solid and formed of full rounded shapes as 
shown in Figs. 28, 38, etc. It was some time before the fact was 
fully perceived, that the logical result of classicising the stair was to 
cut short the newel, over-ride it with the broad handrail, and abolish 
the finial. The tardiness with which this conclusion was reached 
caused a large number of more or less incongruous attempts to 
effect a compromise, chiefly by the use of the strange vases of fruit 
and flowers that had a brief popularity, as in the example given from 
Hever Court, Ifield (Plate xxxix), and in that at Farnham Castle. 
The stair at 9, St. Margaret's Street, Canterbury, affords a rare 
instance of a successful treatment on these lines, but the whole 
design is unique and owes its interest to the apparent mixture of 
features of two periods. The delicate little arched screen (Plate 
xl) is almost Jacobean in its lines, but the twisted columns and 
cherub's heads in the spandrils belong to the latter part of the 
century, as do also the balusters. The details of the upper part of 
the stair (Plate xli) reveal some good balusters with the incised 
lines that mark an earlier origin, and the boldly carved newels and 
finely proportioned vases would seem to antedate the screen. The 
excellent design of each feature and the skilful craftsmanship make 
the staircase a noteworthy one. At Westwood Park the newels are 




Fig. 39. SERJEANTS' INN, FLEET STREET, LONDON. 



52 A LATE EXAMPLE OF CONTINUOUS NEWELS. 

carried up as stout columns with elaborate Corinthian capitals, but 
they do not support anything beyond some ball finials, which make 
the design curious but not altogether satisfactory. Such were some 
of the compromises attempted during the Commonwealth and the 
reign of Charles II. 

Of the latter part of the seventeenth century is the charming 
staircase in the Warden's House, New College, Oxford (Plate 
xlii), which has continuous newels, turned somewhat after the model 
of the baluster of the period. This treatment at so late a date is 
quite uncommon, and it was not long before the general fashion 
had purged itself of all survivals of the earlier modes and sur- 
rendered to the quiet and simple lines which we have seen at 
Potheridge, and which are well brought out in the house at Botolph 
Lane (1670), associated with the name of Wren (Plate xliii). The 
new style continued until the reign of Queen Anne, and countless 
houses built at this time in London and provincial towns are fur- 
nished with staircases of which the elements are essentially the 
same : long straight flights with a low balustrade, standing on a 
string moulded in the form of a simple entablature, and capped 
by a broad moulded handrail that serves as the cornice to the 
pedestal newel. The only feature left to remind us of the earlier 
function of the newel is the existence of the pendant, which, as- 
suming the form of a carved rosette or a very shallow drop, was 
rarely omitted even to the last. The chief variety in these stairs 
was in the shape of the balusters, one of the best designs being 
figured in the detail from Castle Bromwich (Figure 38). Simpler 
types are shown from the Falstafr* Hotel, Canterbury (Figure 28), 
and from some specimens in S. Kensington Museum (Figure 28). 
Quite another form is seen at Bruce Castle, Tottenham (Plate xliv), 
which was altered at the end of the seventeenth century. 




o 



be 



54 THE IDEAL OF THE GEORGIAN DESIGNERS. 

These staircases persisted in solitary examples well into the 
eighteenth century, as witness Rushbrook Hall (circa 1735) and 
Houghton (1722-35), but the general trend of design in this 
century was on very different lines. The extreme and somewhat 
constrained intellectuality of the Georgian era, mirrored so faith- 
fully in the character of its furniture, made chiefly for that rather 
elusive quality known as elegance. We have already seen the 
exuberance of the early renaissance restrained by the desire for the 
correct classic forms which obtained from Charles II to Queen 
Anne. But the very essence, as it were, of the staircase was now 
to be materialised and expressed in the simplest lines. It was to be 
a flight of steps in one continuous curve from floor to floor and to 
effect this the covering string must be abolished, the heavy handrail 
must give place to a light and polished roll and the newel — in order 
that it may not obstruct the essential line — must become little more 
than a slightly accentuated baluster. This ideal was not completely 
reached until the finest examples of iron balustrades were intro- 
duced in the later years of the century, but every alteration that 
occurred was with this object in view. The first step was to get 
rid of the string, the necessity for which change is well shown by its 
unfortunate retention in the otherwise fine staircase at Hopetoun 
House (Plates xlv and xlvi). At Hatton Garden (Plate xlvii) we 
see the new method, the stairs being brought well out over the 
small constructional string, and the ends beautifully carved with the 
brackets or consoles which were to become the great feature of the 
Georgian designs. The ramp of the handrail now looks a more 
natural expedient, although in this case the newel rises inde- 
pendently a little way, and three slight balusters are allotted to each 
tread. The curve of the rail, and of the angle of the landing 
above, together with the carved bracket and drop below the latter, 



THE GEORGIAN BALUSTER. 



55 



help to bind the design together and give it an added grace. 
No. 44, Great Ormond Street (Plate xlviii) shows the newel as a 
simple column beneath the handrail, the lowest one being sur- 
rounded by a circle of balusters, a feature maintained in most of 
the other examples. Here the string appears enriched, beneath the 
stairs. The balusters, of which there are two to each tread, are of 
the usual slight form and show the small square block, introduced 
just beneath the shaft, 
which is the mark of 
the Georgian type. 
The grand staircase at 
Harrington House (PI. 
xlix) has three balusters 
to each tread, among 
which there are two 
distinct designs, one 
having a hollow groove 
worked as a spiral 
round the shaft and 
the other vertical 
fluting. The Hook, 
Northaw (Plate 1), has 
all three balusters dif- 
ferent, the third being 
an adaptation of the 
old twisted baluster, 
and this triple type 

became the general custom. The twisted balusters were still used 
exclusively in a few of the earlier stairs as at Sergeants' Inn 
(Figure 39), No. 6, Cheyne Walk, Chelsea (17 18), and at its neigh- 




THE GREAT HOUSE, CHESHUNT. 



56 DESIGN DURING THE REIGN OF QUEEN ANNE. 

bour, No. 4. This last named has its walls covered with painting, 
like the fine stair at Stoke Edith (Figure 40), which was painted 
by Sir James Thornhill. The three-baluster-type is again shown in 

the Great House, 
Cheshunt (Figures 
41 and 42), where 
the curve of the 
handrail at the 
half-landing is well 
illustrated. In the 
beautiful staircase 
at Friend's House, 
Croydon (Plate li), 
we may see that the 
carved string has 
not been altogether 
forgotten, but is 
commemorated in 
the face of the 
landing above, 
where no stair-ends 
would be possible. 
Here the twisted 
type of baluster has 
attained a very re- 
fined form, and is 
carved so that the 

r\g. 42. THE GREAT HOUSE, CHESHUNT. 

outer spiral is cut 
free of an inner core about which it seems to wind in close coils 
(Figure 28). This idea was carried to something like excess during 





£li 



58 CARVED STAIR-ENDS. 

the Georgian period in the American colonies, where extraordinary 
ingenuity was lavished upon these spiral balusters and even newels. 
Every form of twisting flutes and mouldings were employed, and 
in some cases the core itself was carved with a spiral grooving that 
ran the reverse way to the outer coil. 

Much variety was also shown in the design of the carved brackets, 
three of which are given on Plate lii and one in Figure 44. Occa- 
sionally, as at the Home for Aged Jews, Stepney, and the house of 




—I INCHES 



Fig. 44. 

CARVED BRACKET AT BRUCE CASTLE, TOTTENHAM." 

John Wood, 1 5, Queen Square, Bath, the outline of these brackets 
was projected the whole width of the soffit, forming a richly 
moulded ceiling under the stair. Other features of luxury were intro- 
duced in individual examples. At Glastonbury Hall (1726) is an oak 
stair, inlaid with light wood and mahogany, of which the risers are 
panelled. Wandsworth Manor House, now destroyed, had a carved 
screen (Figure 43), the Georgian counterpart of those at Temple 
Newsam, Knole and Great Wigsell. An unusual balustrade of laths 

* This Bracket is from a different staircase to that illustrated in Plate xliv. 



SCOTTISH IRON SCROLL-WORK. 



59 




Fig. 45. CAROLINE PARK, 
GRANTON, SCOTLAND. 

Drawn by R. S. Larimer 




Fig. 46. THE KING'S STAIRCASE, HAMPTON COURT. 

Measured and drawn by Albert Halliday 



APPLICATION OF IRON TO THE STAIRCASE. 



61 



arranged in a geometric pattern is that at 5, John Street, Bedford 
Row (Plate liii), although the secondary staircase in some houses 
was sometimes furnished with a rather simpler pattern, as at No. 6, 
Cheyne Walk, Chelsea. 








. 1 

3 



s 



6/ss? 



Fig. 47. PATTERNS OF IRON BALUSTERS. 
IN THE VICTORIA AND ALBERT MUSEUM, EXCEPT C WHICH IS AT DRAYTON 

HOUSE, NORTHANTS. 



The application of iron to the staircase balustrade was introduced 
in the last quarter of the seventeenth century, and it rapidly became 
the fashion in the greater mansions. Suggested at first perhaps by 
the continuous balustrade of foliage in wood, it was afterwards re- 
tained owing to its peculiar suitability to the designs which, as we 
have seen, the following century required. It is not our intention 
to go, at any length, into the development of eighteenth century 
ironwork, a large subject and capable of occupying a volume in 



62 



A CURVED IRON BALUSTRADE BY WREN. 




Fig. 48. st. paul's cathedral. 



SCOTTISH EXAMPLES. 



63 



itself. We will therefore content ourselves with giving examples of 
the different types, and comment on the function that each was able 
to perform. 




WROVGMT \Wn DALV5TRADL- 
A1AIH STAIIJCA5L. 



Fig. 49. sr. Helen's house, derby. 

Drawn by C. H. Potter. 

In Scotland we find the most curious attempts to follow the lines 
of the continuous foliage designs, the stair at Caroline Park, 
Granton (Figure 45), dated 1685, Dem g one of the most successful. 



64 



SIR CHRISTOPHER WREN'S DESIGNS. 



The foliage is divided into panels by upright bars and the treatment 
is simple and effective. With this should be compared the work 
at Holyrood Palace, Hopetoun House and Craigiehall. 

Under Sir Christopher 
Wren, who may or may 
not have designed the iron- 
work himself, we find the 
adoption of the more 
familiar treatment of the 
metal, a treatment that led 
the craft to such an ex- 
traordinary pitch of suc- 
cess that it has made this 
period famous for its beau- 
tiful examples of gates and 
railings. Using bars of a 
square or oblong section, 
the designer worked them 
into simple scrolls and 
curves, generally in long 
vertical panels, the out- 
lines being symmetrically 
repeated each side of a 
central bar. The main 
lines, or skeleton, of the 
design were thus always 
emphasised and the panel 
was further elaborated with 
smaller scrolls and foliage, 
which followed or grew out of the guiding curves. The beautiful 




Fig. 50. 8, GROSVENOR SQUARE. 

Drawn by Edmund L. Wratten. 



IRON BALUSTERS. 



65 




vv 1 miiiw i ' 



staircases at Hampton Court (Plate liv and Figure 46), the work- 
manship of Jean Tijou, show this type in perfection. Wren's pupils 
and successors followed on the same lines, as (to take one example 
by Hawksmoor) at Easton Neston (1702-13), where however the 
' flowing work is confined to the landings, the rest being divided into 
small panels, one to 
each stair. This il- 
lustrates that ten- 
dency to resume 
the " baluster " 
idea, which declares 
itself most openly 
in Sir John Van- 
brugh's staircase 
at Beningbrough 
Hall, Yorkshire, 
where stout iron 
balusters are actual- 
ly used, relieved at 
intervals by panels 
of scroll - work. 
Here, however, the 
result was scarcely 
satisfactory, and the 
more usual practice 
took the form of a 
compromise. The 
scroll-work of the panels was freed from the rigid enclosing lines 
seen at Easton Neston, and being made in a form, the individ- 
uality of which was easily recognisable, they were placed in suc- 





Fig. 51. queen's house, chelsea. 



66 



USE OF IRON PANELS. 



cession along the balustrade in exactly the same way as the 
earlier balusters themselves (Figure 47). In the masterly design 
for his circular stair in St. Paul's Cathedral (Figure 48), Wren 
himself used this form, and its appropriateness here is as readily 
discernible as in such final types as the one at Sheen House, Rich- 
mond (Plate lxi), which we shall notice in a moment. The long 
continuous line of the balustrade curving in one sweep from floor 
to floor, is emphasised more by a succession of vertical balusters or 
panels, than by an unbroken filling of flowing lines. The principle 
is the same as that which underlies the facade of a Greek temple, 

the horizontal effect of which is 
accentuated by the row of vertical 
columns. The forms taken by 
these panels do not number a 
great variety but are usually taste- 
ful and elegant (Figure 47). The 
earlier types are somewhat the 
shape of a lyre, as in the charming 
stair at St. Helen's House,* Derby 
(Figure 49), the work of Robert 
Bakewell, the Derbyshire smith 
(flourished 1707-23). Later in the 
eighteenth century the S type 
found much favour, as at White- 
hall Gardens (Plate lx) and at 
8, Grosvenor Square (Figure 50). 
The last-named shows the sweeping curve of the flight of steps in a 
marked degree, and it soon became fashionable to have at least one 
circular stair, and that often the principal one, in the house. Two 
examples of small stairs are shown in the illustrations, one from 

Cf . Okeover Hall, Staffs. , where an almost precisely similar design occurs. 




Fig. 52. queen's house, chelsea. 



STAIRCASE DESIGNED FOR THE DUKE OF CHANDOS. 67 



Queen's House, Chelsea (Plate lix and plan in Figure 52), and 
one from Baddow Hall, Essex (Plate lxii). In both of these the iron 
panels are curiously reminiscent of the pierced wooden balusters of 
early Elizabethan days. The stair at Queen's House is remarkable 
for the beauty of the carved brackets, which appear at the end of 
each step from the basement to the top floor (Figure 51). An 
example of monu- 
mental work is ■wwwi^ s^ 
given in Plates lv 
and lvi which illus- 
trate the staircase 
inserted by Isaac 
Ware in the Earl 
of Chesterfield's 
house. This stair 
was brought from 
Canons, Middle- 
sex, the property 
of the Duke of 
Chandos, and be- 
yond the change in 
the coronet needed 
no further altera- 
tion. The Earl remarks that "the staircase particularly will form 
such a scene as is not in England. The expense will ruin me but 
the enjoyment will please me." 

The brothers Adam and their disciples put the finishing touch to 
the eighteenth century staircase. However much of innovation we 
may consider they introduced into other features, in the staircase at 
least they found a subject which had attained a form almost equal 




Fig- 53- 

DESIGN BY ROBERT ADAM FOR GAWTHORP HOUSE. 



68 



DESIGNS OF THE BROTHERS ADAM. 



to their own delicacy and refinement. Two graceful sketches for a 
balustrade by them are shown in Figures 52 ar, d 54- If not actually 
an "Adam" stair, the one from Sheen House, Richmond (Plate lxi), 
is a typical example and a perfect embodiment of the idea which we 
have endeavoured to show was the goal of the Georgian designer : 
the subservience of every part to the upward gliding plane of the 
stair itself. Another stair of this period is shown from 35, Lincoln's 
Inn Fields (Plate lvii), but here, either from deliberate choice, or 

because the owner re- 
used some old material, 
the lower portion pos- 
sesses the lyre-shaped 
panels of an earlier 
fashion. The stair pre- 
sents an interesting con- 
trast and the panel on 
the landing is worthy of 
Jean Tijou (Plate lviii). 
The lines of the hand- 
rail in these examples 
are very graceful and 
they finish on the 
ground floor in the 
same hollow circular 
newel which we ob- 
served in the wooden 
Georgian stairs. A par- 
ticularly successful de- 
sign which covers the circular staircase at Millerstair is shown in 
Figure $S- 




Fig. 54. DESIGNED BY ROBERT ADAM. 



THE DECLINE OF THE STAIRCASE. 



69 



From this time design became impoverished. Sir John Soane 
made a felicitous composition in his stair at the old War Office 
(Plate lxiii) which, lit from above, 
invested the circular colonnade 
and the simple lines of the steps 
with a certain charm and dignity. 
The plain iron bars which do duty 
as balusters are curved, and this 
arrangement became the fashion 
for a brief period since it main- 
tained the severity of character, 
at the same time affording to the 
eye a little relief. The way, how- 
ever, was being prepared for the 
cast-iron balustrades and the mis- 
erable successors of the old turned 
balusters in wood, which were 
to last throughout the decline of 
architectural art, until the days of 
the revivals had come. In some 
of the greater mansions staircases 
in " the grand manner" were being 
constructed of stone or marble, as 
at Holkham Hall, Norfolk, built 
circa 1754. At Devonshire House, 
London, is a successful design with 
marble steps, bronze scroll-work 
and an alabaster handrail. 

In the short period of the three 1 / ^' 5 ^" 

r / MILLERSTAIR HOUSE, 

centuries which have been the Scotland. 




70 THREE CENTURIES OF DESIGN. 

main subject of our review, the staircase is seen to have mirrored 
with remarkable fidelity not only the great changes in style but even 
the minor modifications and eccentricities of fashion. It reflected 
the glory of the early renaissance, the solidity and restraint of the 
later classical design, and the whimsical intellectuality of the 
eighteenth century, and in the end, it faded from interest, with the 
death of all invention and inspiration in the art in which it had 
held so high a place. 



INDEX TO TEXT AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Note : The Roman figures in brackets refer to the plates. 



Adam, Robert, designs of 

(^gs. 53» 54) • 67, 68 

Aldermaston . . 36, 37 

Ashburnham House, Westmin- 
ster (Figs. 28, 36) . . 48 
Aston Bury, Herts, (xv, xvi, 

Figs. 10, 14) 15, 18, 31, 32 

Aston Hall, Warwickshire (xix) 15, 36 
Aubrey, John . . .21 

Audley End, Essex (Fig. 27) . 25 
Aylesford, The Friars (xxxviii) . 49 

Bacon, Sir Francis . .21 

Baddow Hall, Essex (lxii) . 67 

Bakewell, Robert . . 66 

Bath, 15, Queen Square . 58 

Beningbrough Hall, Yorks . 65 
Blickling Hall, Norfolk 

22, 23, 25, 37, 48 
Boleyn Castle, East Ham, Essex 12 
Boughton Malherbe . . 24 

Bristol, Manor House, Sussex 

Place (Fig. 27) . . 31 

Bromley Palace, Bromley by 

Bow (Fig. 28) . 12,18 

Bruce Castle, Tottenham (xliv, 

Fig. 44) . . .54 

Burghley House, Northants . 19 
Burton Agnes, Yorks . . 25 

Cambridge, Clare College 

(Figs. 29, 35) . 30, 36, 49 

Canonbury Tower, Islington . 24 

Canons, Middlesex . . 67 
Canterbury, Falstaff Hotel 

(Fig. 28) . . . 52 

,, St. George's (xxxiii) 49 



PAGE 

Canterbury, 9, St. Margaret's 

Street (xl, xli) . 50 
„ Strangers' Hall . 5 

Caroline Park, Granton, Scot- 
land (Fig. 45) . . 63 
Cassiobury, Herts . 44, 47, 49 
Castle Ashby . . .40 
Castle Bromwich, Warwickshire 

(Fig. 38) • • • 52 

Castle Hedingham, Essex 

(Fig. 4) . . 6,8 

Castle House, Deddington,Oxon 

(xvii) . -17- 29, 32 

Castle Rising, Norfolk 

(Figs. 2, 3) . .6 

Cecil, Sir Robert . 15, 19, 21 

Chandos, Duke of . .67 

Charlton House, Kent (Fig. 25) 28, 48 
Charterhouse, The, London . 25 
Chelsea House (Fig. 11) 15, 21 

Chelsea, No. 4, Cheyne Walk . 56 

,, No. 6, Cheyne Walk 55, 61 
Chelsea Hospital . . 50 

Chelsea, Queen's House, Cheyne 

Walk (lix, Figs. 51, 52) . 67 
Cheshunt, The Great House (lii, 

Figs. 41, 42) . .56 

Chesterfield House, London (lv, 

lvi) . . . . 67 

Chetham's Hospital, Manchester 

(Fig. 7) . . 12, 14 

Claverton, Somerset (Fig. 19) 

12, 14, 15 
Cobham Hall, Kent (xxx, xxxi) . 48 
Coleshill, Berks (i, Frontispiece) 

45> 4 8 > 49 
Craigiehall, Scotland . . 64 



72 



INDEX. 



Cranborne Manor House, Dor- 
set (Figs. 17, 18, 28) . 25 

Crewe Hall, Cheshire (Fig. 30) 15, 36 

Cromwell House, Highgate (xxii, 

Figs. 31, 32, 32A) . . 36 

Crowley House, Greenwich 

(Fig- 35) • • • -45 
Croydon, Friends' House (li, 

Fig. 28) . ... 56 

Dawtrey Mansion, Petworth, 

Sussex (xxxii) . . -49 

Derby, St. Helen's House 

(Fig. 49) . . . .66 

Devonshire House, London . 69 

Dorfold House, Cheshire 

(Figs. 21, 22) . . 12, 27 

Dorton House, Bucks . . 23 

Downholland Hall, Ormskirk (ii) 10 

Drayton House, Northants 

( Fi g- 47) • • • • 61 
Dunster Castle, Somerset (xxv) 44 
Durham Castle . . . -44 

Eastbury Manor House, Bark- 
ing, Essex (Fig. 6) 9 
Easton Neston . . . -65 
Eltham Lodge, Eltham, Kent . 44 

Falstaff Hotel, Canterbury 

(Fig. 28) . . . .52 
Farnham Castle . . -50 
Forde Abbey, Dorset . 42, 48 
Fyvie Castle (Fig. 15) . .20 

Gawthorp House (Fig. 53) . 67 
Gibbons, Grinling . . -37 
Glastonbury Hall, Somerset . 58 
Godinton, Kent . . 14, 26 

Goldsborough Hall, Yorks 

(Fig. 8) . . 12, 15, 17, 18 
Gorhambury, Herts . . .21 
Great Ellingham Hall, Norfolk 

(Fig. 9) . . . 14, 17 
Great House, Cheshunt (Hi, 

Figs. 42, 43) . . . 59 



Great Kewlands, Burham (iv) 12, 17 
Great Nast Hyde, Herts (viii) 27, 32 
Great Wigsell (vi) . 21, 23, 61 

Greenwich, Crowley House 

. (Fig. 35) : • • -45 
Guildford, 25, High Street (xxvi, 

xxvii) 45 

Hall i' th' Wood, Bolton 

(Fig. 27) . . 12, 14, 17 

Halswell Park, Somerset . . 50 
Ham House, Richmond (xxiii) 38, 40 
Hampton Court, King's Stair 

(liv, Fig. 46) 65 

Hardwick Hall . . . .19 
Harrington House, London (xlix) 55 
Hatfield House, Herts (ix) 22, 23, 25 
Hawksmoor, Nicholas . . 65 
Hever Court, Ifield (xxxix) . 50 
Hexham Priory, Northumber- 
land (Fig. 1) . . . 5 
Hoddesdon, The Conservative 

Club (xii) . 28, 29 
„ Rawdon House (xx, 

xxxi) . 28, 36, 37 

Holkham Hall . . . .69 
Holland House, London 

(Fig. 23) . . 14, 16, 28 

Holyrood Palace, Scotland . 64 
Hook, The, Northaw (1, Hi) . 55 
Hopetown House, Scotland (xlv, 

xlvi) . . . 54, 64 
Houghton Hall . . . 54 
Hutton-in-the-Forest, Cumber- 
land 37 

Ightham Mote, Kent (Fig. 27) 12, 17 



Janson, Bernard 
Jones, Inigo 



. 29 
45» 47> 4 8 

. 40 



Kingston, House at 
Kirby Muxloe Castle 
Knole House, Sevenoaks, Kent 

(Fig. 16) . . 23, 26, 61 



INDEX. 



73 



55 



PAGE 

Laindon Hall, Essex . . 16 
Langley, Kent (Fig. 12) . -17 
Layer Marney Towers, Essex . 24 
Leeds Castle, Kent . . .24 
Letchworth Hall, Herts (Fig. 24) 28 
Lewes, Star Inn (Fig. 27) . 18 

Linlithgow Palace, Scotland 

(Fig. 5) .... 8 
London. 

Ashburnham House 
(Figs. 28, 36) . 

Botolph Lane (xliii) 

Bruce Castle, Tottenham (xliv, 

Fig. 44) ... 
Canonbury Tower, Islington . 
5, Chandos Street, Strand 
Charterhouse, The 
Chelsea, 4, Cheyne Walk 
„ 6, Cheyne Walk 
Chelsea Hospital . 
Chelsea House (Fig. 14) 
Chelsea, Queen's House, 

Cheyne Walk (lix, Figs. 51, 

52) . . . 
Chesterfield House, Mayfair 

(lv, lvi) 
Cromwell House, Highgate 

(xxii, Figs. 31, 32, 32A) 

4, Crosby Square, E.C. (xxxvi 
xxxvii) 

Devonshire House 

9, Great St. Helen's, Bishops 

gate (xiii, Fig. 28) 
44, Great Ormond Street 

(xlviii) 
8, Grosvenor Square, W. 

(Fig. 50) . 
Harrington House, Craig's 

Court (xlix) 
Hatton Garden, Orthopaedic 

Hospital (xlvi, Hi) 
Holland House, Kensington 

(Fig. 23) . . 14, 16, 28 

5, John Street, Bedford Row 

. 61 



48 
52 

55 
24 
40 

25 
56 
61 

• 50 
16, 21 



67 
67 

36 

49 
69 

3 1 
55 
66 

55 
54 



;, John Si 

(iiii) . 



London — continued. 

35, Lincoln's Inn Fields (lvii, 

lviii) 68 

St. Paul's Cathedral (Fig. 48) 66 
Serjeants' Inn (Fig. 39) . 55 

Stepney, Home for Aged Jews 58 
Wandsworth Manor House 

(Fig. 43) .... 58 
War Office, The old, Pall Mall 

(lxiii) . . . . .69 

Whitehall Gardens (lx) . . 66 

Lymore, Montgomery (x, xi) . 28 

Maidstone, Archbishop's Palace 

(Fig. 13) . . . .17 
Manchester, Chetham's Hospital 

(Fig. 7) . . . 12, 14 
Methley Hall, Yorks . 15, 32 

Millerstair, Scotland (Fig. 55) . 68 
Montacute Priory, Somerset . 19 
More, Sir Thomas . . .15 

Nash, Joseph . . . -36 
New Sampford Hall, Essex 

(xviii) . . . . 21, 36 
Norwich, House in King's Street 38 

Oakwell Hall (iii) . . .12 

Okeover Hall, Staffs ... 66 

Ordsall Hall, Salford . . 14 

Oundie, Talbot Hotel (xiv) . 31 

Oxford, Christ's Church College 21 
,, New College, Warden's 

House (xlii) . . 52 

Park Hall, Oswestry 

(Figs. 26, 28) . 15, 18, 29, 30 
Potheridge, Torrington (xxix) 48, 52 
Powis Castle . . . .48 

Richmond, Ham House (xxiii) 38, 40 
„ Sheen House (Ixi) 66,68 

Rochester, Eastgate House . 16 
,, Gordon Hotel (xxxiv, 

xxxv) . . -49 



74 



INDEX. 

PAGE 



Rochester "Old Palace" 

(Fig. 20) . . 27 
,, Restoration House 

(v) . 12, 17, 49 

Rothamsted, Herts . 18, 21, 30 

Rouen, Cathedral and St. Maclou 10 
Rushbrooke Hall . . .54 
Rushton Hall . . . 22, 23 

Scole, Norfolk, Inn at (Fig. 27) 17 
Sheen House, Richmond (lxi) 66, 68 
Smithson, Robert (plans) . . 14 
Soane, Sir John . . .69 

Stoke Edith, Herefordshire 

(Fig. 40) . . . .56 
Stokesay, Shropshire . . 6, 8 

Stratton Park, Biggleswade, 

Beds (xxiv) . . .42 

Sudbury Hall . . . . 44 
Sydenham House, Devon 26, 27, 30 



Tattershall Castle 
Temple Newsam 
Thornhill, Sir James 
Thorpe Hall 
Thorpe, John (plans) 
Tijou, Jean 



22, 23, 58, 61 

. . 5 6 

. 42 

7, 14, 18, 23 

. 65, 68 



Tredegar Park . 
Tythrop 
Tyttenhanger, Herts 



. 44 

44. 47 
4.0, 42, 48 

65 



Vanburgh, Sir John . 
Victoria and Albert Museum, 
Examples in 
(xii, Figs. 28, 34, 47) 31, 45, 52 

Wakehurst, Sussex . . 23 

Wandsworth Manor House 

' (Fig. 43) .... 58 
Ware, Isaac . . . « 67 
Webb, John . . . .42 
Wells, Vicars' Close ... 5 
Wentworth Castle . . -44 
West wood Park . . .50 

Wick Court . . .30, 48 
Winchester, The Close (xxviii) . 45 
Wolseley Hall, Staffs (Fig. 37) . 49 
Wood, John . . . -59 
Worcester, The Commandery 

(vii) . . . . 17, 27 
Wren, Sir Christopher 64, 65, 66 

Yatton Kennell, Old Manor 

House (Fig. 27) . . .18 



Plate II. 




DOWNHOLLAND HALL, NEAR ORMSKIRK. 



Plate III. 




OAKWELL HALL, (1583). SHOWING DOG-GATES. 



Plate IV. 




GREAT KEWLANDS, BURHAM, KENT (1599.) 



Plate V. 




RESIGNATION HOUSK, ROCHESTER, UPPER STAIR. 



Plate VI. 




GREAT WIGSELL, SUSSEX. 



Plate VII. 




THE COMMANDERY, WORCESTER. 



Plate VIII. 




GRKAT NAST HYDK, HERTFORDSHIRE. 



Plate IX. 




HATFIELD HOUSE, HERTFORDSHIRE (l6l2). 



Plate X. 




LYMORE, MONTGOMERY. 



X 




Plate XII. 




THK CONSERVATIVE CLUB, HODDESDON, HERTFORDSHIRE. 



Plate XIII. 




9, GREAT ST. HELENS, BISHOPSGATK. 



Plate XIV. 




THB TALBOT HOTEL, OUNDLK. 



Plate XV. 




ASTON BURY. HERTFORDSHIRE. FIRST .STAIR. 



Plate XVI. 







ASTON BURY, HERTFORDSHIRE. SECOND STAIR. 



Plate XVII. 




CASTLE HOUSE, DEDDI.N'GTON, OXFORDSHIRE. 



NEW SAMPFORD HALL, ESSEX. 



Plate XVIII. 



Plate XIX. 




ASTON HAT.L (l6l8-35), WARWICKSHIRE. 




RAWDON HOUSE, HODDESDON, (l622). 



Plate XXI. 




CARVED PANELS ON STAIRCASE AT RAWDON HOUSE, HODDESDON. (l622.) 
SUBJECTS: "SAMSON AND DELILAH," AND "MUSICIANS." 



Plate XXII. 








@ 



CROMWELL HOUSE, HIGHGATE. 
THREE FIN'IALS TO NEWELS WITH FIGURES OF CROMWELL'S SOLDIERS. 



Plate XXIII. 




HAM HOUSE, RICHMOND, SURREY. 



Plate XXV 




DUNSTER CASTLE, SOMERSET. 



Plate XXVI. 




NO. 25, HIGH STREET, GUILDFORD, SURREY. 



> 

u 




Plate XXVIII. 




THE CLOSE, WINCHESTER. 



Plate XXIX. 




I'OTHEKIDGE, TORRINGTON, UKVON. 



Plate XXX. 




COBHA.M HALL, KENT. 



Plate XXXI. 




mlim «... . ..t im im- 





COBHAM HALL, KENT. DETAILS. 



Plate XXXII. 




DAWTREY MANSION, PETWORTH (I652) 



Plate XXXIII. 




ST. GEORGE'S, CANTERBURY. 



Plate XXXIV. 




THE GORDON HOTEL, ROCHESTER. 



Plate XXXV. 




THE GORDON HOTEL, ROCHESTER, THE DOG-GATE. 



Plate XXXVI. 




NO. 4, CROSBY SQUARE, LONDON, E.G. 



Plate XXXVII. 




NO. 4, CROSBY SQUARE, LONDON, E.C. DETAIL OF NEWEL AND BALUSTERS. 



Plate XXXVIII. 




THE FRIARS, AYLESFORD. CIRCULAR STAIR. 



Plate XXXIX. 




HKVKk COI K'i", IFIELD, GRAVKSEN'O 



Plate XL. 




NO. 9, ST. MARGARET'S STREET, CANTERBURY. 



Plate XLI. 




NO. 9, ST. MARGARET'S STREET, CANTERBURY. DETAILS OF CARVED NEWELS. 



Plate XLII. 




WARDEN'S HOUSK, NKW COLLEGE, OXFORD. 



Plate XLIII. 




HOUSE IN BOTOLPH LANE, B.C. (CIRCA I670). 



Plate XLIV. 




BRUCE CASTLE, TOTTENHAM. 



Plate XLV. 




HOPETOUN HOUSE, SCOTLAND. 



Plate XLVI. 




HOPETOUN HOUSE, SCOTLAND. DETAIL OF BALUSTERS AND STRING. 



Plate XLVII. 




THE OKTHOIVEDIC HOSPITAL, HATTON GARDEN, LONDON (NOW DEMOLISHED.) 



> 

-J 
H 




Plate XLIX. 




HARRINGTON HOUSE, CRAIG'S COURT. LONDON. 



Plate LI. 




friends' housk, ckoydon, surrey, upper landing. 



Plate LII. 




(a) HATTON GARDEN. 




(b) GREAT HOUSE, CHESHUNT. 




(c) THE HOOK, NORTHAW. 
CARVED BRACKETS. 



Plate LIU. 




No. 5, JOHN STREET, BEDFORD ROW, LONDON. 



Plate LIV. 




THE KING'S STAIRCASE, HAMPTON COURT. 




CHESTERFIELD HOUSE, MAYFAIR, LONDON. 



Plate LVII. 




NO, 35, LINCOLN'S INN FIELDS, LONDON. LOWER STAIR RAIL. 



Plate LIX. 




QUKKN'S HOUSK, CHELSEA. SPIRAL STAIR. 



Plate LX. 




FROM A HOUSE IN WHITEHALL GARDENS. 



Plate LXI. 




SHKEN HOUSE, RICHMOND. 



Plate LXII. 




BADDOW HALL. ESSEX. 



Plate LXIII. 




OLD WAR OFFICE, LONDON, 



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