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Full text of "English surnames. Essays on family nomenclature, historical, etymological and humorous: with chapters of rebuses and canting arms, the roll of Battel abbey, a list of latinized surnames, &., &."

/ »IIKI1IT 

IIBRARY 

UNiveuirr op 




ox 

Cngltsf) Surnames. 

1 



C. AND .1. ADLARD, PttlNlEKS, BARTHOLOMEW CI.OSK. 



^^ Cngltsf) Surnames. 

f ESSAYS 

ON 

FAMILY NOMENCLATURE, 

HISTORICAL, ETYMOLOGICAL AND HUMOROUS: 



WITH CHAPTERS OF 



REBUSES AND CANTING ARMS, 
C|)e moll tit matttl mht}), 

A LIST OF LATINIZED SURNAMES, &c. &c. 
BY 

MARK ANTONY LOWER. 



" VVHArS IN A NAME?" 
Imago animi, vultus; vitae, Nomen est."— Puteanus. 



SECOND EDITION. 




LONDON: 
JOHN RUSSELL SMITH, 
4, OLD COMPTON STREET, SOHO. 

MDCCCXIilV. 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2007 with funding from 

IVIicrosoft Corporation 



http://www.archive.org/details/englishsurnameseOOIowerich 



t S43 




TO 

E. J. VERNON, ESQ. 

As a slight acknowledgment of his many valuable Contributions, 
THIS SECOND EDITION 



ESSAYS, 



DESIGNED TO ILLUSTRATE A CURIOUS BRANCH OF 
PHILOLOGICAL INQUIRY, 



IS MOST RESPECTFULLY INSCRIBED, 



BY HIS MUCH OBLIGED AND FAITHFUL SERVANT, 



THE AUTHOR. 



828 



iltrface. 



^ 




f^^ 



^ 



DOUBT not that the first impression of 
many persons casually taking up this 
little volume, and reading the title-page, 
will be, that a good deal of valuable time 
has been expended on a very useless subject. 
Well, it may seem so; but I trust that on 
further consideration it will be found to 
possess quite as much both of Utihty and 
interest as many others with much greater 
pretensions to importance. 



Every person, even the most incurious 
observer of words and things, must have 
remarked the great variety that exists in 
the names of English famihes. He cannot 
fail to notice that such names are of widely 
different significations, many being identical 
with names of places, offices, professions, trades, qua- 
lities, familiar natural objects, &c. I will go further. 



8 PREFACE. 

and say, there is probably no person capable of the 
least degree of reflection, who has not, in an idle mo- 
ment, amused himself with some little speculation on the 
probable origin of his own name. It cannot, then, be 
a matter of uninteresting inquiry to investigate both the 
meaning of names and the causes of their appHcation to 
individuals and famiUes. It is not sufficient for a person 
of inquisitive mind that he bears such and such a surname 
because his father and his grandfather bore it: he will 
naturally feel desirous of knowing why and when their 
ancestors acquired it. And should he be successful in 
arriving at some probable conclusion respecting his own, 
the same or perhaps an increased degree of curiosity will 
be induced in his mind as to those of others. This feeling 
will be especially excited when he meets with names of 
odd or unusual sound. If, for instance, he walk through 
the streets of a town he has never before visited, and 
notice the names of the inhabitants on their doors or over 
their shops, differing from any he has before seen, he will 
derive some information, and probably extract no little 
amusement from the carrying out of a train of specula- 
tions on the origin of those names. To persons of this 
class, (and a very numerous class I think they form,) my 
present attempt will doubtless be acceptable, and I venture 
to hope that it will serve to gratify all reasonable curiosity 
that can exist on the subject. 

This volume is necessarily antiquarian in its character, 
and not therefore likely to interest those whose pursuits 
are of the strictly utihtarian kind, and who seldom spend 
a thought upon the past unless it be to subserve some pre- 
sent interest. "Whatever the objections such individuals 



PREFACE. 9 

may raise against investigations like those before the 
reader, they would, at least to a certain extent, apply to 
the study of history, biography, and several other branches 
of human knowledge. 

It is an inquiry not devoid of some interest, "What 
would the annals of mankind and the records of biography 
be if people had never borne proper names?'* A mere 
chaos of undefined incidents, an unintelligible mass of 
facts, without symmetry or beauty, and without any in- 
terest for after ages: ("sine nomine homo non est.")* 
Indeed, without names, mankind would have wanted 
what is perhaps the greatest stimulus of which the mind 
is susceptible, namely, the love of fame ; and, consequently, 
many of the mightiest achievements in every department 
of human endeavour would have been lost to the world. 
The absolute necessity of a personal nomenclature being 
thus proved, we are led to a further consideration, namely, 
that as names were given to men, there must have been 
some meaning in them, (for it is most unphilosophical to 
imagine that it could have been otherwise,) and if it be 
admitted that they signify something, it cannot be useless 
to ascertain what that something is. Names are princi- 
pally of two kinds ; those of individualsf and those of 
families. The latter, for reasons hereafter assigned, have 
been denominated Surnames, and it is the origin and 
application of these we have to discuss. 

* Putean. Diatr.— De Erycio. 

^ The names of individuals are termed, in legal proceedings and in common 
intercourse, CHRiSTrAN-NAMES. Camden calls them foi-e (that is firsl)-nome.», 
a term which I consider far preferable to the other. Perhaps the word name, 
without any adjunct, would be better still. We should then use name and sur- 
name as distinctive words, whereas we now often regard them as synonymes. 

1 § 



10 PREFACE. 

I have just alluded to the great variety in English sur- 
names. It would indeed be wonderful if it did not exist, 
seeing that, in the words of an eminent antiquary,* we 
**have borrowed names from everything, both good and 
bad." Almost every list of surnames accidentally thrown 
together will, on examination, be found to yield some odd 
juxta-positions, the result of this extensive variety. Who 
can read a catalogue like the following without a smile, or 
perhaps a hearty laugh, while no one of the names standing 
alone could produce the least approximation to such an 
effect? 

" I have seen what was called an * Inventory of the Stock Exchange 
Articles,* to be seen there every day (Sundays and holidays excepted) 
from ten till four o'clock. 

" A Raven, a Nightingale, two Daws and a Swift. 
A Flight and a Fall ! 
Two Foxes, a Wolf and two Shepherds. 
A Taylor, a Collier, a Mason, and a Tanner. 
Three Turners, four Smiths (!), three Wheelers, 
Two Barbers, a Paynter, a Cook, a Potter, and five Coopers. 
Two Greens, four Browns, and two Greys. 
A Pilgrim, a King, a Chapel, a Chaplain, a Parson, three Clerks, 

and a Pope. 

Three Baileys, two Dunns, a , and a Hussey ! 

A Hill, a Dale, and two Fields. 

A Rose, two Budds, a Cherry, a Flower, two Vines, a Birch, a 

Fearn, and two Peppercorns. 
A Steel, two Bells, a Pulley, and two Bannisters. 

"Of towns: Sheffield, Dover, Lancaster, Wakefield, and Ross. 
Of things : Barnes, Wood, Coles, Staples, Mills, Pickles, and, in fine, 
a Medley ! 

* Camden. 



PREFACE. 11 

" Our House of Commons has at different and no very distant times 
numbered amongst its members — 

A Fox, A Hare, A Rooke, 

Two Drakes, A Finch, Two Martins, 

Three Cocks, A Hart, Two Herons, 

Two Lambs, A Leach, A Swan, 

Two Bakers, Two Taylors, A Turner, 

A Plummer, A Miller, A Farmer, 

A Cooper, An Abbot, A Falconer. 

Nine Smiths! ! ! 

A PoHer, Three Pitts, Two Hills, 

Two Woods, An Orchard, and a Barne, 

Two Lemons with One Peel ! 

Two Roses, One Ford, Two Brookes, 

One Flood and yet but one Fish I 

A Forester, an Ambler, a Hunter, 
and only One Ryder. 

" But what is the most surprising and melancholy thing of all, it has 
never had more than one Christian belonging to it, and at present 
is without any !''* 

From many other species of humour of the same kind 
I select the two following. The first is an impromptu 
occasioned by the elevation of Alderman Wood to the 
office of Lord Mayor, some years since : 

'* In choice of Mayors 'twill be confest, 
Our citizens are prone to jest : 
Of late a gentle Flower thej tried, 
November came, and check'd its pride. 
A Hunter next on palfrey gray 
Proudly pranced his year away. 
They next, good order's foes to scare. 
Placed Birch upon the civic chair. 
Alas ! this year, 'tis understood, 
They m an to make a Mayor of Wo'jd !^^ 

* Nares's Herald. Anom. 



12 PREFACE. 

The next is entitled " Wesleyan Worthies, or Ministerial 
Misnomers:" 



If " union is strength/' or if aught's in a name, 
The Wesleyan Connexion importance may claim ; 
For where is another— or Church, or communion — 
That equals the following pastoral union : 

A Dean and a Deakin, a Noble, a Squire, 
An Officer, Constable, Sargeant, and Cryer, 
A Collier, a Carter, a Turner, a Tayler, 
A Barber, a Baker, a Miller, a Naylor, 
A Walker, a Wheeler, a Waller, a Ridler, 
A Fisher, a Slater, a Harpur, a Fidler, 
A Finder, a Palmer, a Shepherd, and Crook, 
A Smith, and a Mason, a Carver, and Cook; 
An Abbott, an Usher, a Batcheler Gay, 
A Marshall, a Steward, a Knight, and a Day, 
A Meyer, an Alde-mann, Burgess, and Ward, 
A Wiseman, a Trueman, a Freeman, a Guard, 
A Bowman, a Cheeseman, a Colman, with Slack, 
A Britten, a Savage, a White, and a Black, 
French, English, and Scoits — North, Southerne, and VVest, 
Meek, Moody, and Meysey, Wilde, Giddy, and Best, 
Brown, Hardy, and Ironsides, Manly, and Strong, 
Lowe, Little, and Talboys, Frank, Pretty, and Young, 
With Garretts, and Chambers, Halls, Temple, and Flowers, 
Groves, Brooks, Banks, and Levells, Parkes, Orchards, and 

Bowers, 
Woods, Warrens, and Burrows, Cloughs, Marshes, and Moss, 
A Vine, and a Garner, a Crozier, and Cross ; 
Furze, Hedges, and HoUis, a Broomfield, and Moor, 
Drake, Partridge, and Woodcock — a Beech, and a Shoar, 
Ash, Crabtree, and Hawthorn, Peach, Lemmon, and Box, 
A Lyon, a Badger, a Wolfe, and a Fox, 
Fish, Hare, Kidd, and Roebuck, a Steer, and a Ray, 
Cox, Ca'ts, and a Talbot, Strawe, Cattle, and Hay, 
Dawes, Nightingales, Buntings, and Martins, a Rovve, 



PREFACE. 13 

With Bustard, and Robin, Dove, Swallow, and Crowe, 

Ham, Bacon, and Butters, Salt, Pickles, and Rice, 

A Draper, and Chapman, Booths, Byers, and Price, 

Sharp, Sheers, Cutting, Smallwood, a Cubitt, and Rule, 

Stones, Gravel, and Cannell, Clay, Potts, and a Poole, 

A Page, and a Beard, with Coates, and a Button, 

A Webb, and a Cap — Lindsay, Woolsey, and Cotton, 

A Cloake, and a Satchell, a Snowball, and Raine, 

A Leech, and a Bolus, a Smart, and a Payne, 

A Stamp, and a Jewel, a Hill, and a Hole, 

A Peck, and a Possnet, a Slug, and a Mole, 

A Horn, and a Hunt, with a Bond, and a Barr, 

A Hussey, and Wedlock, a Driver, and Carr, 

A Cooper, and Adshead, a Bird, and a Fowler, 

A Key, and a Castle, a Bell, and a Towler, 

A Tarr, and a Shipman, with Quickfoot, and Toase, 

A Leek, and a Lilly, a Green, Budd, and Bowes, 

A Creed, and a Sunday, a Cousen, a Lord, 

A Dunn, and a Bailey, a Squarebridge, and Ford, 

A No-all, and Doolittle — Hopewell, and Sleep, 

And Kirks, Clarkes, and Parsons, a Grose, and a Heap, 

With many such worthies, and others sublimer, 

Including a Homer, a Pope, and A RHYMER.* 



If English Surnames are remarkable for tlieir variety, 
they are no less so for their number. How great the latter 
may be it would be a hopeless task to attempt to ascertain : 
it is sufficient to say with the Rev. Mark Noble that " it 
is almost beyond belief." A friend of that gentleman 
'* amused himself with collecting all such as began with 
the letter A : they amounted to more than one thousand 
five hundred. It is well known that some letters of the 
alphabet are initials to more surnames than A : allowing 

» From the Almanack for the use of Methodists, 1843. 



14 



PREFACE. 



for others which have not so many, the whole number will 
be between thirty and forty thousand T''^ 

The Rev. E. Duke, in his valuable and extremely curious 
"ilaltc of 3Jot)n ^alle,*' starts the question, "whether the 
English nomenclature is or is not on the increase?" and he 
decides that, notwithstanding many of the older surnames 
become extinct every century, it is still on the increase, 
and he accounts for this singular fact by the following 
arguments : *' Some [names] originated from the influx of 
foreigners caused by royal marriages — by refuge from per- 
secutions — by expatriations arising from revolutions — by 
the settlement of alien manufacturers; and the names of 
many of these have often been altered and anglicised, and 
their posterity have in the bearing thereof become as genuine 
Englishmen. At other times fictitious names have started 
up and been perpetuated within our own country, from 
their adoption, in the removal from one part of the kingdom 
to another, by the criminal and by the insolvent. f Another 
increment of names arises perhaps from the occasional 
settlement here of Americans and West Indians ; for it is a 
certain and curious fact that although America was origi- 
nally peopled from this country, yet it varies very essentially 
in its nomenclature from that of England." ;]: 

Our great master of antiquities, the illustrious Camden, 
was among the first who paid much attention to English 

• Hist. Coll. Arms, Prelim. Diss. 

t See the remarks on sobriquets at the end of my second Essay, for another 
cause of the multiplication of family names. 

X Vol. i. Notes, p. 404. One reason, among others that might be assigned for 
this dissimilarity is the large intermixture of Dutch, German, and French 
families with those of English extraction. 



PREFACE. 15 

surnames. He has an amusing and learned chapter on the 
subject in his ' Remaines/ occupying, in an early edition, 
about forty-eight pages of that work. This forms the 
basis of all that can be said on English family names. 
After Camden comes Verstegan, who, though less accurate 
in his knowledge of the subject, gives many useful hints 
which serve greatly for the purpose of amplification. 
Among more recent writers, three clergymen, the Rev. 
Dr. Pegge, the Rev. Mark Noble, and the Rev. E. Duke, 
have each added something new in illustration of the 
subject. It seems that various other antiquaries have been 
labourers in the same field, whose productions have never 
seen the light. In Collet's * Relics of Literature,' 1823, 
it is stated that, 

" Mr. Cole, the antiquary, was very industrious in collecting names, 
and in one of his volumes of MSS. he says, he had the intention, some 
time or other, of making a list of such as were more particularly 
striking and odd, in order to form the foundation of an Essay upon 
the subject. A friend of the present writer has gone much farther, 
and has collected several thousand rare names, which he has partly 
classified." 

The late Mr. Haslewood also appears to have done 
something of the same kind. He had a most extensive 
collection, which was disposed of at the sale of his library, 
but which I have not been able to trace to its final 
destination. 

There are two manuscripts on Surnames in the Harleian 
collection. The first. No. 4056, 'Origin of Surnames,' 
is loosely written upon seven pages. It is a mere abstract 
from Camden, with scarcely anything additional, except a 
paragraph in which the writer differs from that author. 



16 PREFACE. 

(as it will be seen that I also do,) with respect to the 
precise date of the introduction of Surnames into England. 
The second MS. No. 4630, ' The original or beginning of 
Surnames/ is likewise from Camden, and has only a 
single original paragraph: of this I have availed myself 
at the proper place. Both MSS. form only portions of 
the volumes in which they occur. 

Having thus mentioned what my predecessors have 
done, it may be expected that I should give some account 
of my own humble labours. But as they are before the 
reader, I shall content myself with borrowing the words of 
Verstegan : " Because men are naturally desirous to know 
as much as they may, and are much pleased to under- 
stand of their own offspring [descent] which by their 
Surnames may well be discerned, if they be Surnames of 
continuance, I have, herein, as near as I can, endeavoured 
myself to give the courteous reader satisfaction.''^ 

And, as I have been actuated by this desire, I deem it 
but justice to myself to state, that if I have assigned to 
any name a meaning that is little complimentary to the 
persons who happen to bear it, it has been the farthest 
from my intention to inflict pain in the mind of those 
individuals. So little was this my wish or my endeavour 
that I have, on the contrary, made it one of my chief 
objects to investigate the etymology of many names which 
have generally been considered to imply something low or 
disgraceful, and have proved, satisfactorily I trust, that 
they mean nothing that their possessors have the slightest 
reason to be ashamed of. Thus, while I have " filched" 
no one of his " good name," I have, I hope, been so happy 



PREFACE. 17 

as to make many a person upon better terms with his own 
appellative — which he may hitherto have considered 
(etymologically) anything but a good one — than he has 
ever been before. 

The following paragraph, from a light and right plea- 
sant article, entitled * Sound and Sense,* in Chambers's 
Edinburgh Journal, I am loth to lose ; and as a more ap- 
propriate place for its introduction has not occurred in 
the course of the following sheets, I give it room here : 

"What gives pecuhar force to the theory of the con- 
nexion of sound and sense, is the fact that where mean 
things are represented by words which do not sound 
meanly, those words may be employed as Proper Names, 
or as parts of other words, without conveying a mean im- 
pression. On a similar principle, mean things may be 
represented by words of grotesque sound in our own lan- 
guage, but not in another: and the words employed in 
the other language may be used as proper names, without 
appearing to us at all ridiculous. Booth is paltry as the 
designation of a temporary shop ; but as a name it is felt 
to be so elegant as to be frequently chosen for fictitious 
heroes. Brydges, nothing as a common word, is one of 
the best of names. The same may be said of Brewer and 
Taylor. When a slight change has taken place in the 
adaptation of the word to its purpose as a proper name, 
the improvement is more marked. Stewardy for instance, 
rises from kitchen to hall by the change of the d into t. 
Durward, apart from all recollection of its origin in door- 
ward, or door-keeper, acquires a tinge of rude fourteenth- 
century grandeur. Hume, which is one of the best old 



18 PREFACE. 

Scottish names, takes its origin from a holm in the neigh- 
bourhood of Hume Castle in Berwickshire ; and it is un- 
questionably improved by the change in the spelling and 
pronunciation. So also JPlantagenety which was derived 
from the word signifying broom in French, so far from 
depreciating the dignity of the royal race who bore it, 
seems absolutely to give them an additional grace. Thus, 
also. Sack, who by himself is a plain man enough, becomes 
a gentleman with ville tagged to him ; equally so is Rat, 
with cliffe. The syllables on diViA. slow, taken separately, 
are honest decent people; but they seem instinct with 
Norman blood when put together. Bray is, by itself, one 
of the most despicable of verbs; hrook is nothing parti- 
cular: see, however, what a fine, antique, chivalrous sound 
the two acquire as the designation of Lord Braybrooke. 
It seems to be only necessary, in order to produce respec- 
table proper names, that the original words should not be 
of paltry sound. Nothing can reconcile the ear to Mr. 
Butter, Miss Bairnsfather, Dr. Peascod, or that immortal 
firm of English plebeianisms, Messrs. Mugs, Snugs, and 
Company." 

After all, "What's in a name ?" "for neither the good 
names do grace the bad, neither doe evill names disgrace 
the good. If names are to be accounted good or bad, in 
all countries both good and bad haue bin of the same Sur- 
names which as they participate one with the other in 
glory, so sometimes in shame. Therefore for ancestors, 
parentage, and names, as Seneca said, let every man say, 
Vix ea nostra voco. Time hath intermingled and confused 
all, and wee are come all to this present by successive vari- 
able descents from high and low; or as hee saith more 



PREFACE. 19 

plainely, the low are descended from the high, and, con- 
trariwise, the high from the low."* 

It only remains for me to express my obligations to 
those gentlemen who have rendered me assistance in 
bringing together tTie materials out of which this little 
volume has been composed; and first, my thanks are 
especially due to my worthy publisher, Mr. John Eussell 
Smith, who has spared no pains in placing within my 
reach many valuable works (some of them of considerable 
rarity), to which I could not otherwise have had convenient 
access. To Charles Clark, Esq., of Great-Totham Hall, I 
am indebted for a Hst of upwards of 1500 of the most sin- 
gular surnames in existence, which were collected by that 
gentleman, and with many of which this publication is 
enriched. The reference to the two manuscripts in the 
British Museum I owe to the Rev. George C. Tomlinson, 
rector of Staughton in Huntingdonshire, whose polite and 
unsolicited kindness entitles him to my warmest acknow- 
ledgments. 

The following works have been consulted : 

Camden's "Remaines concerning Britaine, but especially England 
and the Inhabitants thereof. The third Impressioq." Printed 
in 1623. 

Verstegan's ** Restitution of Decayed Intelligence in Antiquities 
concerning Our Nation." 1605. 

The Arch^ologia of the Society of Antiquaries, vol. xviii. pp. 105- 
111, "Remarks on the Antiquity and Introduction of Surnames 
into England. By James H. Markland, Esq., F.S.A.^' 1813. 

" Prolusiones Historic^, or the Halle of John Halle; by the 
Rev. Edward Duke, M.A., F.S.A., &c." Vol. I., Essay I. 

♦ Camden, Remaines, p. 133. 



20 PREFACE. 

*' A HisTORT OF THE COLLEGE OF Arms ; with a Preliminary Dis- 
sertation relative to the different orders in England since the 
Norman Conquest. By the Rev. Mark Noble, F.A.S. of L. and E., 
Rector of Barming in Kent, &c." 1804. 

The Gentleman's Magazine, 1772. Several Essaj's, by Dr. Pegge, 
under the signature of T. Row (The Rector Of Whittington) ; 
and many subsequent volumes of the same periodical. 

"A Dissertation on the Names of Persons. By J. H. Brady." 
]2mo. London, 1822. With numerous manuscript additions by 
an unknown hand. 

"CuRiALiA Miscellanea, or Anecdotes of Old Times. By Samuel 
Pegge, Esq., F.S.A.'* 1818. 

** The Stranger in America. By F. H. Lieber." 

"An English Dictionary By N. Bailey (piXoXoyog." 9th 

Edit. 1740. 

The *♦ Heraldry of Fish." By Thomas Moule, Esq. 1842. 

" Jamieson's Scottish Dict." 

"Buchanan on Antient Scottish Surnames [or Clans."] — 
Reprint. 1820. 

"Blount's Law Dictionary." 
&c. &c. &c. 



LEWES ; 15th April, MDCCCXLll. 



ADVERTISEMENT TO THE SECOND EDITION. 



The first Edition of this little work, consisting of 
nearly nine hundred copies, having been sold in a few 
months, the Publisher has called upon me to revise it 
for a second. I cannot allow this opportunity to pass 
without tendering my thanks to those gentlemen who 
have favoured me with communications, and of whose 
valuable hints I have availed myself for the present 
Edition. Nor must I be wanting in gratitude to those 
directors of the public taste, the Reviewers, whose notices 
of my humble performance have been, upon the whole, 
most flattering. My thanks are especially due to the 
conductors of the * Literary Gazette' for the handsome 
manner in which they threw open the columns of their 
valuable Journal, in ten or twelve of its numbers, to the 
discussion of the subject of this volume. -The corre- 
spondence bearing the signature of B. A. Oxon. was of a 
peculiarly interesting character, and I deem it the most 
fortunate circumstance connected with the production of 
the present Edition, that I have been enabled to open a 
private correspondence with the author of those letters, 
E. J. Vernon, Esq. a gentleman far better qualified than 
myself for etymological investigations, and who has 
kindly permitted me to inscribe his name* upon my 

• In one or two of the earlier sheets this gentleman is referred to under his 
rtom de guerre, as I was not in possession of his name when they went to press. 



22 ADVERTISEMENT. 

Dedication page as a trifling expression of my gratitude 
for his assistance. I am likewise under great obligations 
to Geo. Monkland, Esq. of Bath, who forwarded for my 
use a very curious classified list of English Surnames, 
made with the most scrupulous attention to their authen- 
ticity, a feature of the utmost importance in the compilation 
of such a catalogue; to R. Almack, Esq. F.S.A. of 
Melford; to John Sykes, Esq. of Doncaster; to J. H. 
Fennell, Esq. ; and to several other gentlemen, well 
known in the literary world, who, for reasons best known 
to themselves, forbid me the gratification of a pubHc 
acknowledgment of their favours. 

With such aid, I anticipate, with some confidence, for 
the present edition, a reception on the part of the public, 
at least as gratifying to my feelings as that which followed 
the first appearance of the work. As the Essays appear 
in a considerably augmented form, so they afford additional 
scope for criticism. I am far from considering my work 
complete, or all that could be desired on so curious a 
subject, yet as "facile est inventis addere," I trust that 
each successive edition (should others be called for) will 
be a closer approximation to what seems to me to have 
long been a desideratum in the circle of our popular 
antiquarian literature — a standard work on English 
Family Nomenclature. 

M. A. L. 



Lewes; Ist July, 1843, 



CONTENTS. 



Dedication ...... 

Preface ....... 

Advertisement to the Second Edition 

Essay I. Introductory .... 

II. History of English Surnames 

III. Local Surnames 

IV. Names derived from Occupations and Pursuits 
V. Names derived from Dignities, Civil and Eccle 

siastical, and from Offices 
VI. Surnames from Personal and Mental Qualities 
VII. Surnames derived from Christian-names 
VIII. Surnames from Natural Objects, from Signs of 
Houses, &c. . ... 

IX. Surnames from Social Relations, Periods of 

Age, Time, &c. 
X. A Cabinet of Oddities 
XI. Surnames of Contempt ; and more Oddities in the 

Nomenclature of Englishmen 
XII. Names derived from Virtues and other Abstract 
Ideas ..... 



PAGE 

5 
7 
21 
25 
35 
52 
86 

101 
114 
120 

140 

161 
166 

170 

180 



24 CONTENTS. 



PAGE 



Essay XIII. Foreign Names naturalized in England, and the 
Corruptions to which such names have been 
exposed ..... 187 

XIV. Changed Surnames . . . . 193 

XV. Historical Surnames . . . .201 



A Chapter of Rebuses . . .' . . . 216 

A Chapter of Canting-Arms, Puns, Anagrams, &c. . . 225 

Additions, and Illustrations of the preceding Essays . 242 



APPENDIX. 

The Roll of Battel Abbey :— 

Preliminary Observations 253 

Leland'sCopy 257 

Holinshed's Copy . . 263 

John Foxe's Copy 271 

List of Latinized Surnames 278 



ESSAYS 



ENGLISH SURNAMES, 



ESSAY I. 



INTRODUCTORY. 



Dr. Johnson has the following definition of the word 
Surname : " The name of the family ; the name which one 
has over and above the Christian name." Sirname differed 
originally from Surname. Simsime has been defined as 
"nomen patris additum proprio ;'* and iS'wrname as "no- 
men supra nomen additum." Mac-Allan, Fitz-Hardingy 
Ap Tudor and Stephenson are properly sir- or sire- 
names, and are equivalent to the son of Allan, of Harding, 
of Tudor, of Stephen. Of SuR-names, Du Cange says, 
they were at first written " not in a direct line after the 
Christian name, but above it, between the lines;" and 
hence they were called in Latin Supranomina, in Italian 
Sopranome, and in French Sur-noms. From the last 
the English term is immediately derived. A SuRname is, 
therefore, a name superadded to the first or Christian 

2 



26 INTRODUCTORY. 

name, to indicate the family to which the individual bear- 
ing it belongs, as Edmund Spenser, John Milton, Alexander 
Pope, Hence it is evident that, although every siRname 
is a suRname, every suRname is not a siRuame ; a dis- 
tinction which is now scarcely recognized, and the two 
words are used indiscriminately by our best writers.* 

In the first ages of the world a single name was suffi- 
cient for each individual; "nomen olim apud omnes fere 
gentes simplex,"t and that name was generally invented 
for the person, in allusion to the circumstances attending 
his birth, or to some personal quality he possessed, or 
which his parents fondly hoped he might in future pos- 
sess. The writings of Moses and some other books of the 
Old Testament furnish many proofs of this remark. This 
rule seems to have uniformly prevailed in all the nations 
of antiquity concerning which we have any records, in the 
earliest periods of their history. In Egypt we find persons 
of distinction using only one name, as Pharaoh, Potiphar ; 
in Canaan, Abraham, Isaac ; in Greece, Diomedes, Ulysses ; 
in Rome, Romulus, Remus ; in Britain, Bran, Caradoc, &c. 

Nares says, names "were in remote times commonly 
given to mark the wishes of the parents, that the children 
so named might live to enjoy the good fortune such happy 
names seemed to promise : according to the old maxim, 
* Bonum nomen, bonum omen.* Cicero used to call such 
names * bona nomina,' good names; Tacitus, *fausta no- 
mina,' happy names. Plautus thought it quite enough to 

* In several of the notices of the former edition of this volume the existence 
of Sire-name, as a word of distinct meaning, is called in question. In the Literary 
Gazette much is said on this point, pro and con, by two learned correspondents, 
under the signatures B. A. Oxon, and G. (Lit. Gaz., Sept.— Nov. 1842.) Dr. 
Booth, and others, support my opinion, which I see no reason for retracting. 

t Puteanus De Ervcio Diatr. 



INTRODUCTORY. 27 

damn a man that he bore the name of Lyco, which is said 
to signify, a greedy wolf ; * and Livy calls the name Atrius 
Umber 'abominandi ominis nomen,' a name of horrible 
portent. Pius ^neas may certainly be considered one of 
those A«/9py names which Plato recommends all people to 
be careful to select, f and ^neas must have had as great a 
right to call himself by it as any persons since to call 
themselves by the names of Victor, Faustus, Felix, 
Probus, &c., which were certainly chosen as names of 
favorable omen, according to the maxim above, and the 
saying of Panormitan, * ex bono nomine oritur bona prse- 
sumptio.' " 

The first approach to the modern system of nomencla- 
ture is found in the assumption of the name of one's sire 
in addition to his own proper name, as Caleb the son of 
Jephunneh, Joshua the son of Nun, Melchi ben Addi (that 
is, Melchi the son of Addi), I/copos tov AatSaXoi/, AatSaXos 
rov Ev7raX/4ov, Icarus the son of Daedalus, Daedalus the 
son of Eupalmus. Sometimes the adjunct expressed the 
country or profession of the bearer, sometimes some ex- 
cellence or blemish ; as Herodotus of HalicarnassuSi Poly- 
cletes the Sculptor, Diogenes the Cynic, or Dionysius the 
Tyrant.X 

Another early species of surnominal adjunct is the 

* What is said of an ill-favoured visage, " His face would hang him," may 
also be said of an unhappy name ; and our dramatists and novelists are well 
aware of this, when they give their most profligate characters such names as 
Fagin, Squeers, cum multis aliis, which will at once arise to the recollection of the 
reader. 

+ Had the parents of Alexander been blessed with the gift of prescience, they 
would certainly have hesitated before giving that "murderer of millions" a name 
signifying " the helper of mankind." 

I Nares's Heraldic Anomalies. 



28 INTRODUCTORY. 

epithet greats as Alexander the Great; with words ex- 
pressive of other qualities — concerning which the author 
just quoted says : " There are some significant titles, 
names, and attributes, to which I have no objection, as for 
instance, Alfred the Great, for great he was ; but as to 
Canute the Great I doubt : his speech to his courtiers on 
the sea- shore had certainly something sublime in it, and 
seems to bespeak the union of royalty and wisdom, but 
Voltaire will not allow that he was great in any other re- 
spect than that he performed great acts of cruelty. Edmund 
Iron-sidey I suppose, was correct enough, if we did but 
understand the figure properly (for as to his really having 
an iron side, I conclude no one fancies it to have been 
so, though there is no answering for vulgar credulity). 
Harold Harefoot betokened, no doubt, a personal blemish 
or some extraordinary swiftness of foot. Among the kings 
of Norway there was a Bare-foot! William. Rufus was 
probably quite correct, as indicative of his red head of 
hair, or rather head of red hair. Henry the First was, I 
dare say, for those times, a Beau Clerc, or able scholar. 
Richard the First might very properly be called, by a 
figure of speech, Coeur de lAoUy and his brother John quite 
as properly, though to his shame literally, rather than 
figuratively, Lack-land. Edward Long-shanks cannot be 
disputed, since a sight was obtained of his body not very 
long ago, but at the least 467 years after his death, and 
which, from a letter in my possession, written by the Pre- 
sident of the Antiquarian Society, who measured the body, 
appeared to be at that remote period six feet two inches 
long."* I fully agree with the facetious author of this 

* Heraldic Anom. vol. i. p. 107. 



INTRODUCTORY. 29 

passage, that these should be denominated nicknames 
rather than surnames. The same writer, speaking of the 
adjunct used by the Norman WiUiam, assigns to it the 
definition of Spelman, which differs from that in general 
acceptation : " Conquestor dicitur qui Anglia conquisivity 
i. e. acquisivit (purchased) non quod subegit; . . . here 
agreeing," he humorously adds, " with the good old women 
who attended William's birth, and who having quite a 
struggle with the new-born brat to get out of his clenched 
fist a parcel of straws he happened to catch hold of (his 
mother, perhaps, being literally in the straw), made them 
say in the way of prophecy, that he would be a great ac- 
quirer."* 

While thus digressing on royal surnames, I may be al- 
lowed to remind the reader that more antient monarchs 
had their characteristic epithets : thus in Rome, Tarquinius 
Superbus, Antoninus Pius ; and in Egypt, Ptolemy Phila- 
delphus, Ptolemy Epiphanes. I may also mention that 
France has had its Charles the Bald, Louis the Stutterer , 
Charles the Simple, Louis the Sluggard, Louis the Quarrel- 
some, and Philip the Fair. The house of Valois recounts 
among its sovereigns the favorable names of the Good, the 
Wise, the Well-beloved, the Victorious, &c. The Bourbons 
have had two Great, one Just, one Well-beloved, and one 
Loyiged-for.-^- 

But to return : as society advanced in refinement, partly 
for euphony, and partly for the sake of distinction, | other 

* Heraldic Anom. p. 110. ^ ibid. 

i " Cum essent duo Terentii, aut plures, discernendi caussa, ut aliquid singu- 
lare haberent, notabant forsitan ab eo qui mane natus diceretur, ut is Manius 
esset ; qui luci, Lucius ; qui post patris mortem, Postliumus." (Varro. De 
Latins lingu&, lib. viil.) 



30 INTRODUCTORY. 

names came into common use. Thus among the Romans, 
three names, and sometimes four or even five, were used 
by a single person. The first of these was called the prce- 
nomen, answering to our Christian name. This name ori- 
ginally characterized the individual ; thus the first Faber 
(like the French le Fevre, and our own Smith) was no 
doubt an artificer in iron or wood, while the primitive 
Agricola (like the first of the French FermierSy and of our 
EngUsh family of the Farmers) was, in like manner, a cul- 
tivator of the soil. Their second name, called nomeUy had 
a close analogy to the term clan as used in Scotland, and 
was given to all the branches of a common stock. The 
cognomeny or third name, indicated that particular part of 
the race or tribe to which the person belonged. Thus in 
PubHus Cornelius Scipio, Publius corresponded to our 
John, Thomas, William ; Cornelius was the generic name 
or term of clanship; while Scipio conveyed the infor- 
mation that that particular Publius belonged to the 
family of one Scipio, who acquired his name from his 
piety in leading about his bUnd and crippled father, 
to whom he thus became, figuratively, a scipio or 
sta^. The names Africanus, Germanicus, &c., bestowed 
upon military magnates for conquests in Africa, Germany, 
&c., became, in like manner, second and honorary cog- 
nomina or agnomina. 

Modern nations have adopted various methods of distin- 
guishing families. The Highlanders of Scotland employed 
the «z>ename with Mac, and hence our Macdonalds and 
Macartys, meaning respectively the son of Donald and of 
Arthur. The Irish had the practice (probably derived 
from the patriarchal ages) of prefixing Oy or 0', signifying 



INTRODUCTORY. 31 

grandson,* as O'Hara, O'Neale ; a form still retained in 
many Hibernian surnames. Many of the Irish also use 
Mac. According to the following distich, the titles Mae 
and O' are not merely what the logicians call accidents, 
but altogether essential to the very being and substance of 
an Irishman : — 

"Per Mac atque O, tu veros cognoscis Hibernos. 
His duobus demptis, quIIus Hibernus adest." 

which has been translated — 

" By Mac and O, 
You'll always know 

True Irishmen they say ; 
For if they lack 
Both O and Mac, 

No Irishmen are they."t 

The old Normans prefixed to their names the word Fitc, 
a corruption of Fils, and that derived from the Latin 
FiLius ; as Fitz-Hamon, Fits-Gilbert. The peasantry of 
Russia, who are some centuries behind the same class in 
other countries, affix the termination -witz (which seems 
to have some affinity to the Norman Fitz) to their names ; 
thus, Peter Paulowitz, for Peter the son of Paul. The 
Poles employ *% in the same sense, as James Fetrowsky, 
James the son of Peter. The Biscayans adopt a similar 
method, and, not to multiply instances, this seems to have 
been in nearly all ages, in all countries, the most obvious, 
and therefore the most customary, way of forming second, 

* It is related in the Encyclopaedia Perthensis that an antiquated Scottish 
dame used to make it a matter of boasting that she had trod the world's stage 
long enough to possess one hundred Oyes ! 

t Notes of a Bookworm. 



32 INTRODUCTORY. 

or sur-names. The most singular deviation from the 
general rule is found among the Arabians, who use their 
father's name without a fore-name, as Aven Pace, Aven 
Rois, the son of Pace, the son of Rois. 

In Sweden, hereditary surnames are said to have been 
unknown before the commencement of the fourteenth cen- 
tury. At a much later period no surnames were used in 
Wales, beyond ap, or son, as David ap Howell, Evan ap 
Rhys, Griffith ap Roger, John ap Richard, now very natu- 
rally corrupted into Powell, Price, Prodger, and Pritchard. 
To a Hke origin may be referred a considerable number of 
the surnames beginning with P and B now in use in 
England, amongst which may be mentioned Price, Pum- 
phrey. Parry, Probert, Probyn, Pugh, Penry ; Bevan, 
Bithell, Barry, Benyon, and Bowers. A more antient form 
than AP is hab. This or vap constantly occurs in char- 
ters of the time of Henry the Sixth. It w^as not unusual, 
even but a century back, to hear of such combinations as 
Evan-ap-Griffith-ap-David-ap-Jenkin, and so on to the 
seventh or eighth generation, so that an individual carried 
his pedigree in his name. The following curious descrip- 
tion of a Welshman occurs 15 Hen. VII : " Morgano 
PhUip alias dicto Morgano vap David vap Philip." The 
church of Llangollen in Wales is said to be dedicated to 
St. Collen-ap-Gwynnawg-ap-Clyndawg-ap-Cowrda-ap-Cara- 
doc-Freichfras-ap-Llynn-Merim-ap- Einion- Yrth-ap - Cuned- 
da-Wledig,* a name that casts that of the Dutchman, 
Inkvervankodsdorspanckinkadrachdern, into the shade. To 
burlesque this ridiculous species of nomenclature, some 
.wag described cheese as being 

* Recreative Review, vol. li. p. 189. 



INTRODUCTORY. 33 

"Adam's own cousin- german by its birth, 
Ap-Curds-ap-Milk-ap-Cow-ap-Grass-ap-Eartb!" 

The following anecdote was related to me by a native 
of Wales : "An Englishman, riding one dark night among 
the mountains, heard a cry of distress, proceeding appa- 
rently from a man who had fallen into a ravine near the 
highway, and, on listening more attentively, heard the 
words, * Help, master, help !' in a voice truly Cambrian. 
*Help! what, who are you?' inquired the traveller. 
Jenkin-ap-Griffith-ap-Robin-ap-Wniiam-ap-Rees-ap-Evan," 
was the response. * Lslzj fellows that ye be,' rejoined the 
Englishman, setting spurs to his horse, * to lie rolling in 
that hole, half a dozen of ye; why in the name of common 
sense don't ye help one another out !' " 

The frequency of such names as Davies, Harris, Jones, 
and Evans has often been remarked, and is to be accounted 
for by the use of the father's name in the genitive case, the 
word son being understood; thus David's son became Davis , 
Harry's son Harris, John's son Jones, and Evan's son 
Evans. It is a well-attested fact that about forty years 
since the Monmouth and Brecon mihtia contained no less 
than thirty-six John Joneses. 

Even the gentry of Wales bore no hereditary surnames 
until the time of Henry the Eighth. That monarch, who 
paid great attention to heraldic matters, strongly recom- 
mended the heads of Welsh families to conform to the 
usage long before adopted by the English, as more consis- 
tent with their rank and dignity. Some families accord- 
ingly made their existing stVenames stationary, while a few 
adopted the surnames of English families with whom they 
were aUied, as the ancestors of OHver Cromwell, who thus 

9& 



34 INTRODUCTORY. 

exchanged Williams for Cromwell, which thenceforward 
they uniformly used.* 

Having thus glanced at the usages of various nations 
with respect to second names, let us next trace the history 
of the practice of adopting hereditary or family names in 
our own country. 

* Vide Noble's House of Cromwell. Other authentic instances of the adoption 
of stationary surnames by great families may be found by referring to the fol- 
lowing works : 

(Williams of Abercamlais.) Jones's Brecon, iii. 696. 

(Her6er^ Lord of Blealevenny.) Mon. Ang. 17, 134. 

{Herbert of Llanowell.) Coxe's Monmouth, 421. 
It may be observed that several Norman families who settled in Wales, left their 
original surnames, and conformed to the mode of the country ; thus the Boleyns 
took the name of Williams. 



HISTORY OF ENGLISH SURNAMES. 35 



ESSAY II. 
HISTORY OF ENGLISH SURNAMES. 

The antient Britons generally used one name only : 
sometimes, but very rarely, they added another in the 
manner of a Roman cognomen, as Aurelius Ambrosius, 
Uther Pendragon. 

The Saxons had a peculiar kind of surname — the termi- 
nation ING, signifying oifspring, as, for instance, Bearing 
Atheling^ Browning, Whiting, meaning respectively, deart 
noble, dark or tawny, and white or fair, offspring. More 
usually this termination was added to the father's name, 
" as Ceonred Ceolwalding, Ceolwald Cuthing, Cuth Cuth- 
wining, i. e. Ceonred the sonne of Ceolwald ; Ceolwald 
Sonne of Cuth ; Cuth sonne of Cuthwin. William of 
Malmsbury notes that the sonne of Edgar was called 
Edgaring, and the sonne of Edmund, Edmunding."* 
The difference between this species of names and the sur- 
names now in use is great, for while the former were 
restricted to the immediate issue of a single individual, the 
latter are generic terms, including all the ramifications of a 
family, however numerous or widely spread. The antient 
practice seems (especially in such names as denote phy- 

* Camden's Remaines. Sometimes the sire or paternal name with the simple 
suffix -irtg composed the name, as Bryning, Bryn's son. Ing, inge, or inger is 
found in the same sense in most of the Teutonic languages. In modern German 
ing denotes a young man, and in a more extended signification a son, a descen- 
dant, progeny, offspring. Wachter derives it from the British engi, to produce, 
bring forth. {Vide Bosworth's Sax. Diet.) 



36 HISTORY OF 

sical or mental qualities) preferable to the modem, because 
such qualities are not in their nature hereditary. Of this 
latter remark (were it not matter of common observation) 
every one must have noticed many ludicrous proofs in the 
most familiar surnames. For instance, a tall man bears, 
perad venture, the name of Short , while the most weakly 
person of your acquaintance is called Mr. Strong. Mr. 
Meek is, perhaps from his passionate temper, the terror of 
his family, at the same time that Mr. Bright is the dullest 
man in every company. In like manner a pale visage may 
accompany the name of Blackman, and the complexion of 
a Spaniard, that of Lillywhite. Mr. Friend is perchance 
your deadliest foe, and Miss Pretty the plainest personage 
in your neighbourhood. Similar instances might be ad- 
duced almost ad infinitum^ did the occasion require it ;* 
my object is merely to show the absurdity of adopting, 
as the stationary name of a family, a designation, which, 
however apphcable to the person who first bore it, could 
not in the nature of things be consistently employed by 
all his posterity. In point of convenience, however, the here- 
ditary method is infinitely superior to the other. 

The Saxons sometimes bestowed honorable appellations 
on those who had signalized themselves by the performance 
of any gallant action, like the Roman Cognomina. Every 
person conversant with the history of those times will call 
to mind that England was much infested with wolves, and 
that large rewards were given to such as were able, by 
force or stratagem, to subdue them. To kill a wolf was 
to destroy a dangerous enemy, and to confer a benefit on 

• While the first edition of this work was passing through the press, the public 
mind was horrified by one of the most inhuman murders on record, committed 
by a villain named Good ! 



ENGLISH SURNAMES. 37 

society. Hence, several Saxon proper names, ending in 
ulph dindiwolfy as Biddw/p^, the wolf- killer,* or more pro- 
perly "wolf-compeller," and some others ;f but these, 
among the common people at least, did not descend from 
father to son in the manner of modern surnames. 

It may be remarked en passanty that the fore-names of 
the Anglo-Saxons are characterized by a beautiful signifi- 
cancy and simplicity. As many of these were afterwards 
adopted as family names, I shall take the liberty of digress- 
ing a little to give a list of some of them, illustrative of 
this observation. 

Alwin, all-victorious or winning all. Camd. All-beloved. 
V erst eg an. 

Alfred i all-peace. 

Aldredy all-reverend fear. Camd. 

Bede, he that prayeth ; a devout man. Camd. 

Botolph, help-ship. 

Cuthbert, bright in knowledge. 

Edmund, truth-mouth ; a speaker of truth. 

Edward, truth-keeper ; a faithful man. 

Frederick, rich in peace. 

Goddard, honored of God. 

Godwin, beloved of God. Versteg. Victorious in God. 
Camd. 

Hengist, horse, and by a figure of speech horse-maw. 

Kenard, kind disposition. Camd. Elsewhere I have as- 
signed a widely different etymology. 

Leofwin, win-love. 

* Burke's Commoners, vol. iii. p. 280. There is a parish called Biddulph in 
Stafifordshire. 

t The Saxon termination ulph more usually means help, assistance, aid, de- 
fence ; as Athelulph or -wolf, * noble help ;' Arnulph, « defence of honour,' &c. 



38 HISTORY OF 

Osherny (house-bairn,) house-child. Camd. See anecdote 

in the Essay on Historical Surnames. 
Ranulphj (now Randall,) fair-help. 
Richardy richly honored. 
RicheTy powerful in the army. — Herric^ says Camden, is 

the same name reversed ; hence our modern surname, 

Herrick, 
Rayniundy quiet peace. 
Thurstariy most true and trusty. Camd. (?) 
Walwiuy (whence our modern surnames, Taldwin and 

GaweUy) a conqueror. 



No precise date can be assigned to the introduction of 
hereditary surnames into England, as personal sobriquets 
were known from an early period of the Heptarchy. That 
the old termination ing was gradually rejected from names, 
and that of son substituted for it in the 10th and 11th 
centuries, is evident from documents of that period ; and 
I see no valid reason why such names as Herdingson, 
Swainson, Cerdicson, were not hereditary, as well as our 
more recent Thompson and Williamson. I am aware that 
Camden and all our antiquaries since his days concur in 
the opinion that surnames, of the hereditary kind, were 
not known in England before the Norman Conquest ; yet 
I hope I shall not be deemed guilty of presumption if, by 
and bye, I offer a few suggestions in support of the opinion 
that they were not altogether unknown before that epoch. 

Camden says, " about the year of our Lord 1000, (that 
we may not minute out the time) surnames became to be 
taken up in France ; and in England about the time of the 
Conquest, or else a very little before, vnder King Edward 
the Confessor, who was all Frenchified This 



ENGLISH SURNAMES. 39 

will seeme strange to some Englishmen and Scottishmen, 
whiche, like the Arcadians, thinke their surnames as antient 
as the moone, or at the least to reach many an age beyond, 
the Conquest.* But they which thinke it most strange, (I; 
speake vnder correction,) I doubt they will hardly finde 
any surname which descended to posterity hef ore that time: 
neither haue they scene (I feare) any deede or donatioji 
BEFORE THE CoNQUEST, but suhsigned with crosses and 
SINGLE names without surnames, in this manner ; 
>J< Ego Eadredus confirmaui. >J< Ego Edmundus corro- 
boraui. >J< Ego Sigarius conclusi. >J< Ego Olfstanus 
consolidaui, &c." 

Our great antiquary declares that both he and divers of 
his friends had "pored and pusled vpon many an old 
record and evidence" for the purpose of finding hereditary 
surnames before the Conquest, without success ; what then 
would he have said to a document hke the following, con- 
taining the substanceof a grant from Thorold of Buckenhale, 
sheriff of Lincolnshire, of the manor of Spalding, to 
Wulgate, abbot of Croyland, dated 1051, the 10th year of 
Edward the Confessor, and fifteen years before the 
Conquest ? 

" I have given to God and St. Guthlac of Croyland, &c. 
all my manor situate near the parochial church of the same 
town, with all the lands and tenements, rents and services, 
&c. which I hold in the same manor, &c. with all the 
appendants ; viz. Colgrin, my reeve y (prsepositum meum,) 
and his whole sequell, with all the goods and chattels which 



* Buchanan asserts that the family of Douglas have borne that name from the 
reign of Solvathius, king of Scotland, the year 770 ; and that one Sir William 
Douglas of Scotland entered into the service of Charlemagne. He settled in 
Tuscany, and was the great ancestor of the Douglassii of that country. 



40 HISTORY OF 

he hath in the same town, fields and marshes. Also 
Harding, the smith, (fabrum,) and his whole sequell. Also 
Lefstan, the carpenter, (carpentarium,) and his whole 
sequell, &c. Also Ryngulf the first, (primum,) and his 
whole sequell, &c. Also Elstan, the fisherman, (piscatorem,) 
and his whole sequell, &c. Also Gunter Liniet, and 
his whole sequell, &c. Also Onty Grimkelson, &c. 
Also TuRSTAN DuBBE, &c. Also Algar, the black, (nigrum,) 
&c. Also Edric, the son of Siward, (filiura Siwardi,) &c. 
Also Osmund, the miller, (molendinarium,) &c. Also 
Besi Tuk, &c. Also Elmer de Pincebeck, &c. Also 
GousE Gamelson, &c." with the same clauses to each as 
before.*. 

Now while the terms reeve, smith, carpenter, the first, 
fisher, the black, miller, &c. applied respectively to Colgrin, 
Harding, Lefstan, &c. are merely personal descriptions; 
Liniet, Dubbe, Tuk, de Pincebeck, have the appear- 
ance of settled surnames. The same distinction is observable 
between * Edric, the son of Siward,* and Grimkelson and 
Gamelson. Indeed some of these surnames are yet re- 
maining amongst us, as Dubbe, Tuk, Liniet, and Pincebeck 
— now spelt Dubb, Tuck, Linney and Pinchbeck, a fact 
which I think goes far to prove that they were hereditary 
at the time when the deed of gift above recited was made. 

This document is also opposed to another opinion pre- 
valent among antiquaries, namely, that surnames were 
assumed by the aristocracy long before the commonalty 
took them. Here we see that the bondmen or churls of 
the Lincolnshire sherifi" used them, at a period when many 
of the landed proprietors had no other designation than a 
Christian name. 

* See the entire deei in Cough's History of Croylantl Abbey. (A pp. p. 29.) 



ENGLISH SURNAMES. 41 

A great many surnames occur in Domesday book ; 
(Camden says, they^r*^ occur there.) Some of these are 
LOCAL, as De Grey^ de Vernon^ cT Oily ; some patrony- 
MiCAL, as Richardus^/m* Gisleberti; and others official 
or PROFESSIONAL, as Guhelmus CamerariuSj (the cham- 
berlain,) Radulphus Venator, (the hunter,) Gislebertus 
Coeus, (the cook,) &c. &c. "But very many," as Camden 
remarks, "(occur) with their Christian names only, as 
Olq^, Nigellus, EustachiuSy Baldricus.'' It is to be ob- 
served that those with single names are "noted last in 
every shire, as men of least account," and as sub-tenants. 
Here a query arises. Are we to conclude that because 
many names are given in the single form, that the indi- 
viduals to whom they belonged had only one ? I think 
not ; and notwithstanding all that Camden and others assert 
on the subject, I am strongly of opinion that hereditary 
surnames were sometimes used before the Conquest. 

Camden's remark, that these single-named gentry come 
"last in every shire," strengthens my supposition. It is 
probable that their inferiority of rank was the cause of the 
non-insertion of the second, or sur-name. We must not 
forget that many of these " men of least account," were of 
the conquered Saxon race, who would be treated with as 
little ceremony in their names as in anything else. Do 
not modern usages with respect to the nomenclature of 
inferiors support this idea ? We rarely speak of our su- 
periors without the double or triple designation : Lord 
So-and'Soy Sir John Such-a-oney or Mr. This-or-Thaty 
while the single names Smithy Brown, JoneSy and RobinsoUy 
suffice for persons of lower grade. I will venture to say 
that one half of the masters and mistresses of houses in 
large towns do not even know more than one of the two 



42 HISTORY OF 

names borne by their servants, some accustoming them- 
selves to command them exclusively by their Christian 
names, others as exclusively using their surnames, I 
know that many of my readers will regard all this as in- 
conclusive gossip, but having hazarded an opinion, I am 
unwilling to leave anything unsaid that could be said in 
support of it. 

The manors of Ripe and Newtimber, in Sussex, are men- 
tioned in Domesday as having been, before the Conquest, 
the estates, respectively, of Cane and of jElfech. Now these 
names are still found in the county as surnames; the 
former under its antient orthography, and the latter under 
that of Elphick ; but were these ever used as Christian 
names ? ^Ifech may be the same with Alphage, a Saxon 
fore-name ; but Cane was certainly never so used. By the 
bye, it is an extraordinary fact that the name of Cane is 
still borne by two respectable farmers at Ripe, in which 
neighbourhood, I have scarcely a doubt, their ancestors have 
dwelt from the days of the Confessor, and all bearing the 
same monosyllabic designation : an honour which few of the 
mighty and noble of this land can boast ! 

It would however be preposterous to imagine that sur- 
names universally prevailed so early as the eleventh century : 
we have overwhelming evidence that they did not ; and 
must admit that although the Norman Conquest did much 
to introduce the practice of using them, it was long before 
they became very common. All I am anxious to establish 
is, that the occasional use of surnames in England dates 
beyond the ingress of the Normans. 

Surnames were taken up in a very gradual manner by 
the great, (both of Saxon and Norman descent,) during the 
eleventh, twelfth, and thirteenth centuries. By the middle 



ENGLISH SURNAMES. 43 

of the twelfth, howeyer, it appears that they were (in the 
estimation of some) necessary appendages to famihes of 
rank, to distinguish them from those of meaner extraction. 
We have an instance of this in the wealthy heiress of the 
powerful Baron Fitz-Hamon's making the want of a sur- 
name in Robert, natural son of King Henry the First, an 
objection to his marriage with her. The lady is repre- 
sented as saying : 

H loert to me great iS^amtf 

Co i^abe a laxti biitiouUn l)i^ tioa name !* 

when the monarch, to remedy the defect, gave him the 
surname of Fitz-Roy ; a designation which has been given 
at several subsequent periods to the illegitimate progeny 
of our kings. 

The unsettled state of surnames in those early times ren- 
ders it a difficult matter to trace the pedigree of any family 
beyond the thirteenth century. In Cheshire, a county re- 
markable for the number of its resident families of great 
antiquity, it was very usual for younger branches of a 
family, laying aside the name of their father, to take their 
name from the place of their residence, and thus in three 
descents as many surnames are found in the same family. f 
This remark may be forcibly illustrated by reference to the 
early pedigree of the family of Fitz-Hugh, which name did 
not settle down as a fixed appellative until the time of 
Edward III. Thus we read in succession — 



* Robert of Gloucester. 

t Vide Lyson's Cheshire, p. 357, and the Essay on Changed Surnames in this 
work. 



44 HISTORY OF 

Bardolph, 

Akaris Fitz-Bardolph, 
Hervey Fitz-Akaris, 
Henry Fitz-Hervey, 
Randolph Fitz-Henry, 
Henry Fitz-Randolph, 
Randolph Fitz-Henry, 
Hugh Fitz-Randolph, 
Henry Fitz-Hugh, 

which last was created a baron, assuming that name as his 
title, and giving it permanence as a family appellative.* 
When there were several sons in one family, instances are 
found where each brother assumed a different surname. 
There is another great difficulty in tracing the pedigrees of 
families, arising from the loose orthography which obtained 
up to the time of Elizabeth, and even later. Mr. Marklandf 
mentions having seen a document of the sixteenth century, 
in which four brothers, named Rugely, spell their names 
in as many different ways. Dr. Chandler notices the name 
of Waynflete in seventeen modes of orthography, and 
Dugdale, in his MS. Collections respecting the family of 
Main waring, of Peover, co. Chester, has the extraordi- 
nary number of one hundred and thirty-one variations of 
that single name, all drawn from authorized documents. 
It might be conjectured (adds Mr. Markland) that these 
variations were intentional, could any probable motive be 
assigned for such a practice.^ 

* Halle of John Halle, vol. i. p. 10. t Archaeologia, vol. xviii. p. 108. 

t I have little doubt that what we now regard as irregularities in the ortho- 
graphy of our ancestors were by them considered ornamental ; a species of taste 
♦♦ somewhat akin to the fastidiousness in modern composition, which as stu- 
diously rejects the repetition of words and phrases." 



ENGLISH SURNAMES. 45 

It has been asserted that an act of parliament was passed 
in the reign of Edward the Second for enforcing the prac- 
tice of using surnames, but it seems more probable that 
necessity led the common people to adopt them. Before 
the Conquest there was, in most cases, sufficient variety in 
the Christian names ; but the Normans, giving the pre- 
ference to scripture names, introduced so great a number 
of Johns, Jameses, and Peters, that in the course of two or 
three centuries surnames were absolutely necessary for the 
sake of distinction. 

These surnames were of a very loose kind, as is appa- 
rent from the following list of persons who were living about 
the year 1340, (13 Edw. III.) taken principally from the 
Inquisitio Nonarum : 

Johes over the Water 

William at Byshope Gate 

Johes o' the Shephouse 

Johes q'dam s'viens Rog. Leneydeyman 

Johis vicarii eccl' Ste. Nich. 

Agnes, the Pr'sts sister* 

Johes at the Castle Gate 

Johes in the Lane 

Johes up the Pende 

Petr' atte the Bell 

Johes of the Gutter 

Thomas in the Willows 

Steph' de Portico 

William of London-bridge. 



Gent. Mag. June ]821. 



46 HISTORY OF 

About this time (to speak generally) the surnames of the 
middling and lower ranks began to descend from father to 
son ; but even at the commencement of the fifteenth century- 
there was much confusion in family names. Sometimes, 
indeed, the same person bore different surnames at difierent 
periods. Thus, a person who in 1406 describes himself as 
WiUiam, the son of Adam Emmotson, calls himself, in 1416, 
WilUam Emmotson. Another person who is designated 
John, the son of WiUiam, the son of John de Hunshelf, 
appears soon after as John Wilson. , Other names, such 
as Willielmus-Johnson- Wilkinson, Willielmus-Adamson- 
Magotson, and Thomas-Henson-Magot, prevail about this 
period.* 

The following address to the populace, at the beginning 
of one of the Coventry Mysteries, serves still further to 
illustrate the state in which the family nomenclature of 
the humbler classes stood in the fifteenth century: 

*II A voj'd sers ! And lete me lord the bischop come 

And syt in the court, the laws for to doo ; 
And I schal gon in this place, them for to somowne ; 

The that ben in my book, the court ye must come to. 

TI I warne you her,' all abowte, 
That I somown you, all the rowte, 
Loke ye fayl, for no dowte. 

At the court to " per" (appear). 

Both John Jurdon' and Geffrey Gyle 
Malkyn Mylkedoke and fayre Mabyle, 
Stevyn Sturdy, and Jack-Ax-XHE Style, 
And Sawdyr Sadeler. 

If Thorn Tvnker' and Betrys Belle 
Peyrs Potter, and Whatt-AT-THE-WELLE, 
Symme Smal-feyth, and Kate Kelle, 

And Bertylmew the Bocher (butcher). 

• Penny Cyclopaedia. 



ENGLISH SURNAMES. 47 

KyttCAKELER, and Colett Crane, 

Gylle Fetyse and fayr Jane 

Powle Powter', and P[ar]nel Prane, 

And Phelypp the good Fleccher. 

If Cok Crane, and Davy Dry-dust 
Luce Lyer, and Letyce Lytyl-trust, 
Miles the Miller, and CoUe Crake-crust 

Both Bette the Baker, and Robyn R^de, 

And LOKE ye rynge wele in yowr purs 
For ellys yowr cawse may spede the wurs, 
• Thow that ye slynge goddys curs , 
Evy[n] at my hede. 

^ Both BoNTYNG the Browster, and Sybyly Slynge, 
Megge Mery-wedyr, and Sabyn Sprynge 
TyfFany Twynkeler fFayle for no thynge, 

Ffast co' a way 
The courte shall be this day. 

Surnames can scarcely be said to have been permanently 
settled before the era of the Reformation.* The keeping 
of parish registers was probably more instrumental than 
anything else in setthng them ; for if a person were en- 
tered under one surname at baptism, it is not likely that he 
would be married under another, and buried under a third. 
Exceptions to a generally established rule, however, oc- 
curred in some places. The Rev. Mark Noblef affirms 
that " it was late in the seventeenth century that many 
families in Yorkshire, even of the more opulent sort, took 
stationary names. Still later, about Hahfax, surnames be- 
came in their dialect genealogical, as William a Bills, a 
Toms, a Luke.** 

In Scotland the same irregularities prevailed down to 
the time of James V. and Mary. Buchanan mentions that 

* Archaeologia, vol. xviii. p. 108. t Hist. Coll. Arms, Introduction, p. 29. 



48 HISTORY OF 

he has seen deeds of that date 'most confused and un- 
exact in designations of persons inserted therein,' parties 
being described as ' John, son of black Wilham,' * Thomas, 
son of long or tall Donald,' &c. Even so late as 1723, 
there were two gentlemen of Sir Donald Mac Donald's 
family, who bore no other name than Donald Gorm, or 
Blue Donald.* 

On the remark of Tyrwhitt, in his edition of Chaucer, 
that it is " probable that the use of surnames was not in 
Chaucer's time fully established among the lower class of 
people," a more recent editor of the same poet says, 
"Why, the truth is, that they are not now, even in the 
nineteenth century, fully established in some parts of 
England. There are very few, for instance, of the miners 
of Staffordshire who bear the names of their fathers. 
The Editor knows a pig-dealer, whose father's name was 
Johnson, but the people call him Pigman, and Pigman he 
calls himself. This name may be now seen over the door 
of a pubHc-house which this man keeps in Staffordshire.'* 

But this is nothing to the practice of bearing a double 
set of names, which, we are assured, prevails among these 
colliers. Thus a man may at the same time bear the names 
of John Smith and Thomas Jones, without any intention 
of concealment; but it must not be imagined that such 
regular names are in common use. These are a kind of 
best names, which, like their Sunday clothes, they only use 
on high-days and holidays, as at christenings and marri- 
ages. For every-day purposes they use no appellative, 
except a nickname, as Noseg, Soiden-mouth,^ Soaker, or 
some such elegant designation; and this is employed, not 
by their neighbours alone, but by their wives and children, 

• Scottish Surnames, p. 18, + With the mouth awry. 



ENGLISH SURNAMES. 49 

and even by themselves ! A correspondent of Knight's 
Quarterly Magazine,* who is my authority for these state- 
ments, says, " I knew an apothecary in the collieries, who, 
as a matter of decorum, always entered the real names of 
his patients in his books; that is, when he could ascertain 
them. But they stood there only for ornament; for use he 
found it necessary to append the sobriquet, which he did 
with true medical formahty, as, for instance, 'Thomas 
Williams, vulgo diet.. Old Puff.' . . . Clergymen have 
been known to send home a wedding party in despair, after 
a vain essay to gain from the bride and bridegroom a sound 
by way of name, which any known alphabet had the power 
of committing to paper !" A story is told of an attorney's 
clerk who was professionally employed to serve a process 
on one of these oddly-named gentry, whose real name was 
entered in the instrument with legal accuracy. The clerk, 
after a great deal of inquiry as to the whereabouts of the 
party, was about to abandon the search as hopeless, when 
a young woman, who had witnessed his labours, kindly 
volunteered to assist him. 

" Oy say. Bully ed,"" cried she, to the first person they 
met, " does thee know a mon neamed Adam Green ?" 

The bull-head was shaken in token of ignorance. 

" Loy-a-hed, dost thee ?" 

Lie-a-bed's opportunities of making acquaintance had 
been rather limited, and she could not resolve the dif- 
ficulty. 

Stumpy (a man with a wooden leg), Cowskin, Spindle- 
shanks, Cockeye, and Pigtail were severally invoked, but in 
vain ; and the querist fell into a brown study, in which she 
remained for some time. At length, however, her eyes 

* Vol. i. p. 297 et seq. 

3 



50 HISTORY OF 

suddenly brightened, and slapping one of her companions 
on the shoulder, she exclaimed triumphantly, " Dash my 
wig ! whoy he means moy feyther !'* and then turning to 
the gentleman, she added, "Yo should' n ax'd for Ode 
Blackbird r 

I could adduce similar instances, where persons among 
the peasantry of my native county are much better known 
by sobriquets than by their proper surnames ; and many 
only know them by the former. This is particularly the 
case where several families in one locality bear the same 
name. A friend of mine informs me, that he lately knew 

fifteen persons in the small town of F , on the 

coast of Kent, whose hereditary name was Hally but who, 
gratia distinctionis, bore the elegant designations of — 
Doggy-Hall, Pumble-Foot, 

Feathertoe, Cold-Flip, 

Bumper, Silver-Eye, 

Bubbles, Lumpy, 

Pierce-Eye, Sutty, 

Faggots, Thick-Lips, 

CuLA, and 

JiGGERY, Old Hare. 

But it is high time to end this " duU, dry, and desultory" 
Essay, which I now do, with a guarantee to my indulgent 
reader, that the succeeding ones shall be made, as far as 
the nature of the subject will admit, more interesting, both 
as regards " the thing to be said and the manner of saying 
it." Let me add one word in deprecation of the wrath of 
learned antiquaries, who may be incHned hastily to con- 
demn my light and cursory mode of handling a subject 
which is certainly susceptible and worthy of a more grave 



ENGLISH SURNAMES. 51 

and profound treatment. It must be recollected that I am 
not writing for the instruction of persons well versed in 
the records of the past, but for the information and amuse- 
ment of that greatly preponderating class of readers who 
have not been initiated into the mysteries of antiqua- 
rianism, and who, as yet, have to learn that 

" Not rude and barren are the winding ways 
Of hoar Antiquity, but strewn with flowers." 



52 LOCAL SURNAMES. 



ESSAY III. 



LOCAL SURNAMES. 



Under the general term Local Surnames, I include all 
such family names as were borrowed from places. These 
may be divided into two classes : first, the specific, com- 
prising such as are derived from the proper names of 
places, as Torke, Winchester, Grantham ; and second, the 
generic, being all those taken from common names expres- 
sive of situation, as Wood, Hill, Greene. 

We have already seen that some second names were bor- 
rowed from places in antient times. These, however, were 
not hereditary, like those of modern date. The latter ori- 
ginated, in all probabiUty, in Normandy and the contiguous 
parts of France, about the close of the tenth century, or the 
commencement of the eleventh. Possessors of land, in the 
first instance, borrowed them from their own estates, a 
practice in which the Normans were soon imitated by the 
English, particularly after the Conquest. Chiefly of this 
kind are the names occurring in that far-famed document, 
the ^rtat ^K-oIl of 33attel ^hhtv — a list of the principal 
commanders and companions in arms of WilUam the con- 
queror. * Camden remarks, that there is not a single village 
in Normandy that has not surnamed some family in 
England. The French names introduced at the Conquest may 
generally be known by the prefixes de, du, des, de la, 
ST. or SAiNCT, and by the suffixes font, ers, fant, beau, 

* See Appendix. 



LOCAL SURNAMES. 53 

AGE, MONT, ARD, AUX, BOIS, LY, EUX, ET, VAL, COURT, 

VAUX, LAY, FORT, OT, CHAMP and viLLE ; most of which 
are component parts of proper names of places, as every 
one may convince himself by the slightest glance at a map 
of northern France. 

I shall here set down, from Camden, some of the princi- 
pal surnames imported into England from the opposite side 
of the channel in or about the year 1066, which he classi- 
fies into those of Normandy, Bretagne, France, and the 
Netherlands. 

From Normandy. Mortimer, Warren, Albigny, Percy, 
Gournay, Devereux, TankerviQe, St.-Lo, Argenton, Marmion, 
St.-Maure (corruptly Seymour), Bracy, Maigny, Nevill, 
Ferrers, Harcourt, Baskerville, Mortagne, Tracy, Beaufoy, 
Valoins (now Valance?) Cayly, Lucy, Montfort, Bonville, 
Bouil, Avranche, &c. 

From Bretagne. St. Aubin, Morley, Dinant (corrupted 
to Dinham), Dole, Balun, Conquest, VaUetort, Lascelles, 
Bluet, &c. 

Fromother parts of France. Courtenaye, Corby, Boleyn, 
Crevequer, St. Leger, Bohun, St. Andrew, Chaworth, 
St. Quintin, Gorges, VilHers, Cromar, Paris, Rheims, 
Cressy (now Creasy), Fynes, Beaumont, Coignac, Lyons, 
Chalons, Chaloner, Estampes or Stamps, and many more. 

From the Netherlands. Louvaine, Gaunt (Ghent), Ipres, 
Bruges (now Brydges), Malines, Odingsels, Tournay, 
Douay, Buers (now Byers), Beke; and, in latter ages, 
Daubridgcourt, Rosbert, Many, Grandison, &c. 

Many persons who bear names of French origin jump, 
without any evidence of the fact from historical records, to 
the conclusion, that they must needs be descended from 
some stalwart Norman, who hacked his way to eminence 



54 LOCAL SURNAMES. 

and fortune through the serried ranks of the Saxons at 
Hastings. Such ambitious individuals ought to be re- 
minded that, in the eight centuries that have elapsed since 
the Conquest, there have been numerous settlements of the 
French in our nation ; for instance. Queen Isabella of 
France, the consort of Edward II. introduced in her train 
many personages bearing surnames previously unknown in 
England, as Longchamp, Conyers, Devereux, D'Arcy, 
Henage, Savage, MoHneux, and Danvers ;* to say nothing 
of the various settlements of merchants, artists, and re- 
fugees of aU kinds, who have sought and found an '* island 
home" in Britain. 

Although the practice of adopting hereditary surnames 
from manors and locaUties originated in Normandy, we are 
not therefore to conclude that all those names that have de, 
&c. prefixed were of Norman origin ; for many famiUes of 
Saxon lineage copied the example of their conquerors in 
this particular. If the Normans had their De Warrens, 
De Mortimers, and D'Evereuxes, the English likewise had 
their De Ashburnhams, De Fords, De Newtons, &c. ad 
infinitum. In some cases the Normans preferred the sur- 
name derived from their antient patrimonies in Normandy ; 
in others they substituted one taken from the estate given 
them by the Conqueror and his successors. In a few in- 
stances the particle de or d^ is still retained ; but, generally 
speaking, it was dropped from surnames about the time of 
Henry the Sixth, when the title armiger or ejfqut'er among 
the heads of famihes, and generosus or gentglman among 
younger sons, began pretty generally to be substituted. 
Thus, instead of John de Alchorne, William de Catesby, 
&c. the landed gentry wrote themselves, John Alchorne of 

♦ Anglorum Speculum, 1684, p. 26. 



LOCAL SURNAMES. 56 

Alchorne, Esq., William Catesby of Catesby, Gent. &c. 
Our quaint old friend Verstegan thinks tbis change began 
to take place "when English men and EngHsh manners 
began to prevail unto the recovery of decayed credit;'** 
or, in other words, when the native English began to 
breathe from the tyranny of their Norman conquerors. 
This may be true of the former, but it cannot apply 
to the latter. Brevity appears to have been the real 
motive for the omission of the de, and other particles pre- 
viously used with surnames. Had euphony been regarded, 
it would never have occurred with the French particles ; 
for, however much better Hall and Towers may sound than 
Atte Halle and Atte Tower, it cannot be denied that Be la 
Chambre and Le Despencer are shorn of all their beauty 
when transmogrified to Chambers and Spencer. But to 
return ; to bear the denomination of one's own estate was 
antiently, as it is still, considered a peculiar honour and a 
genuine mark of gentility : but sic transit gloria mundi, that 
I could name instances of persons having become absolutely 
pauperised on the very spot from which their ancestors had 
been surnamed. 

From these observations, however, it must not be in- 
ferred that all families bearing local surnames were ori- 
ginally possessors of the locaUties from which those names 
were borrowed. In all probability a great number of such 
names were never used with the de at all. In Germany and 
Poland they discriminate in this respect by using the word 
IN, when possessors of the place, and of, when only born 
or dwelling there. The like, Camden tells us, was formerly 
done in Scotland, "where you shall have Trotter ©/"Folsham, 
and Trotter in Fogo ; Haitley of Haitley, and Haitley in 

• Restitution, p. 311, 



.56 LOCAL SURNAMES. 

Haitley. The foregoing remark is rendered most evident 
by such names as these, occurring at an early period in the 
neighbourhood of Hull : Ralph le Taverner de Nottingham 
de Kyngeston super Hull ; Robert de Bripol de KyngestoUy 
&c.* 

There are several antient baronial surnames to which our 
old genealogists assigned a false origin. Some of these may 
be called Crusading names, from the supposition that they 
were derived from places visited by the founders of the 
famiUes during the holy wars. Mortimer was, according 
to these etymologists, de Mortuo Mart, " from the Dead 
Sea," and Dacre, D'Acre, a town on the coast of 
Palestine ; but it is well known that the places from which 
these two are derived are situated, the one in Normandy, 
the other in Cumberland. Jordan, however, is known to 
have been borrowed from the famous river of that name in 
Palestine; and Mountjoy is said to have been adopted from 
a place near Jerusalem, which, according to that worthy 
old traveller. Sir John Maundevile, " men clepen Mount- 
Joye, for it zevethe joy to pilgrymes hertes, be cause that 
there men seen first Jerusalem .... a full fair place and 
a delicyous."t 

There is a "vulgar error" that places borrowed their 
names from persons, instead of the contrary. On this sub- 
ject Camden says, "Whereas therefore these locall deno- 
minations of families are of no great antiquitie, I cannot 
yet see why men should thinke that their ancestors gave 

• Vide Frost's History of Hull. 

t Some religious houses in England had their mountjoys, a name given to emi- 
nences where the first view of the sacred edifice was to be obtained. This name 
is still retained in a division of the hundred of Battel, not far from the remains 
of the majestic pile reared by William the Conqueror. 



LOCAL SURNAMES. VJ 

names to places, when the places bare those very names 
before any men did their surnames. Yea, the very termi- 
nations of the names are such as are only proper and ap- 
plicable to places, and not to persons in their significations, 
if any will marke the locall terminations which I lately spe- 
cified. Who would suppose Hill, Wood, Field, Ford, 
Ditch, Poole, Pond, Town or Tun, and such like termi- 
nations, to be convenient for men to beare their names, 
vnlesse they could also dreame Hills, Woods, Fields, 
Ponds, &c. to have been metamorphosed into men by some 
supernaturall transformation. 

" And I doubt not but they will confesse that townes 
stand longer than famihes. 

" It may also be prooued that many places which now 
haue Lords denominated of them had .... owners of 
other surnames and families not many hundred yeeres 
since. 

"I know neverthelesse, that albeit most townes haue 
borrowed their names from their situation and other 
respects, yet some with apt terminations, have their names 
frommen, asEdwardston, Alfredstone, Ubsford, Malmesbury 
(corruptly for Maidulphsbury). But these were from fore- 
names or Christian names, and not from surnames. For 
Ingulphus plainly sheweth that Wiburton and Leffrington 
were so named, because two knights, Wiburt and Leofric,* 

* The practice of borrowing names of places from the fore-names of men ap- 
pears to have been pretty usual among the Saxons, and tliat even almost to the 
period of the Conquest. 

" Many of the names of places, of which the meaning seems most difficult to 
explain, are compounded of those of Anglo-Saxon possessors or cultivators ; and 
the original forms of such words are readily discovered by a reference to Domes- 
day book. Thus, on the Herefordshire side of Ludlow we have Elmodes-treow 
or the tree of Elmod (now Aymestry) ; Widferdestune, or the enclosure of 

3§ 



58 LOCAL SURNAMES. 

there sometime inhabited. But if any should affirme that 
the gentlemen named Leffrington, WiburtoUf Lancaster, 
Leicester, Bossevill, or Shor ditch, gave the names to the 
places so named, I would humbly, without prejudice, craue 

respite for a further day before I beleeued them " 

This error possibly originated either in the flattering tales 
of old genealogists,* or from the fact of surnames having 
been occasionally appended to the proper names of towns 
and manors, for the sake of distinction ; or, as Camden 
says, "to notifie the owner," as Hurst-Perpoint, and 
Hurst-Monceux ; Tarring-Neville, and Tarring-Peverell ; 
Rotherfield-Greys, and Rotherfield-Pypard. It is true that 
a vulgar ostentation has often induced the proprietors of 
mansions to give their own names to them, as Hammond^ s- 
Place, Latimer's, Camois-Court, Mark's-Hall, TheohaWs, 



Widfeid (Wooffertoii) ; Willaves-lage, or the lee (saltus) of Willaf (probably 
Willey) ; Edwardes-tune, or the enclosure of Edward (Adferton); Elnodes-tune, 
or the enclosure of Elnod (Elton); Bernoldune, or the hill of Bemold. In 
Shropshire there are Chinbaldes-cote, or the cot of Chinbald, a place mentioned 
as dependent upon Bromfield ; iElmundes-tune, or the enclosure of Elmund ; 
Elmund-wic, or the dwelling of Elmund ; Alnodes-treow, or the tree of Elnod, 
&c. Names of places having ing in the middle are generally formed from patro- 
nymics, which in Anglo-Saxon had this termination. Thus a son of Alfred was 
an vElfreding, his descendants in general were ^Ifredingas or Alfredings. These 
patronymics are generally compounded with ham, tun, &c., and whenever we 
can find the name of a place in pure Saxon documents, we have the patrony- 
mic in the genitive case plural. Thus Birmingham was Beorm-inga-ham, the 
home or residence of the sons or descendants of Beorm. There are not many 
names of this form in the neighbourhood of Ludlow ; Berrington (Beoringatun) 
was perhaps the enclosure of the sons or family of Beor, and Culmington that of 
the family of Culm." — Vide Wright's History of Ludlow, reviewed In the 
Arch^ologist, March, 1842. 

• Among other instances of this kind, I recollect that, in the pedigree of 
Roberts, antiently called Rookhurst, (Hayley's Sussex MSS. Brit. Mus.) compiled 
in the reign of Elizabeth, it is asserted that a gentleman of Scotland, named 
Rookhurst, settling in Kent, in, the eleventh century, gave that name to the 
manor so designated ! 



LOCAL SURNAMES. 59 

&c. &c. "when as now they have possessors of other 
names ; and the old verse is, and alwayes will be, verified 
of them, which a right worshipfull friend of mine* not 
long since writ upon his new house : 

jSunc mea, mox f)\ijvL&, iSeU po&tta tit&cio cujuj;/* 

But enough of these preliminary observations. It is now 
time to classify the local surnames into their various kinds : 
and first, I may mention those of the patrial description or 
such as denote the country out of which the founder of the 
family originally came. These are more numerous than 
might be expected: and they usually occur in antient 
records with the particle le prefixed. 

Alman, from Almany, (Germany.) 

Angevin, from Anjou. Camd. I have not met with 
this name. 

Braban, from Brabant. 

Bret, Bretton, Britton, from Bretagne, a province 
of France. 

Burgoyne, from Burgundy. 

Cornish, Cornwallis, from Cornwall. 

Champneis, from Champagne. 

Dane, Denis, Dench, from Denmark. 

EsTARLiNG, corrupted in some instances to Stradling, 
from * the East,' probably Greece. 

English, England. I can only account for these 
names on the supposition that they were given to some 
Englishmen, while resident abroad. Inglis. 

French, France. 

Flanders, Fleming, from the Netherlands. 

Gael or Gale, a Scot. 

♦ Camd. Rem. p. 108. 



60 LOCAL SURNAMES. 

Germaine, from Germany. 
Gasgoyne, from the French province. 
Hanway, from the old name of Hainault, which was 
so denominated temp. Hen. VIII. In Andrew Borde's 
"Boke of the Introduction of Knowledge," we are in- 
formed that the * money, maners and fashyons' of the 
inhabitants of Holland * is lyke Flaunders, Hanway y and 
Braban, which be commodious and plentyful contreys.* 

Holland, Douche. The latter is the antient form of 
"Dutch." 

Janeway, a Genoese. On the mention of this name an 
antient anecdote occurs to my recollection, which I know 
I shall be pardoned for introducing here. 

" There was one amonge the Janwayes that the Frenche 
kyng hyred to make warre agaynst the Englysshe men, 
whiche bare an oxe heed peynted in his shelde : the which 
shelde a noble man of France challenged: and so longe 
they stroue, that they must nedes fyght for it. So at a 
day and place appointed, the frenche gallaunt came into 
the felde, rychely armed at all peces. The Janwaye, all 
vnarmed, came also in to the felde, and said to the 
frenche man, wherefore shall we this day fight? Mary, 
said the frenche man, I wyll make good with my body, 
that these armes were myne auncetours before thyne. 
What were your auncetours armes ? quod the Janwaye. An 
oxe heed, sayd the frenche man. Than sayde the Janwaye, 
here nedeth no batayle : For this that I beare is a c<ywes 
heed P' (From " Tales, and quicke Answeres, very mery, 
and pleasant to rede,'* written about temp. Henry VIII.) 
Ireland, Irish. 

Lombard, Lambarde, from Lombardy. 
Mayne, from the French province. 



LOCAL SURNAMES. 61 

Man, from the Island. 

Moore, Morris. The former may be, and probably is 
a "generic" name, as it occurs in the form of Atmoor, 
Amoore, &c. q. d. at the Moor, With respect to the latter 
name I may observe that it is variously spelt Morys, 
Moris, Morris, Morice, Morrice, Mawrice, &c., and com- 
pounded with various initial expressions, De, Mont, Fitz, 
Clan, &c. Some of the families bearing this name are of 
Welsh extraction, Mawrrwyce^ being the Welsh form of 
Mavors (Mars), the god of war, antiently given to valorous 
chieftains of that country. One of the Welsh family 
mottoes has reference to this etymology, " Marte et mari 
faventibus." The other Morrices are supposed to be of 
Moorish blood ; their progenitors having come over from 
Africa, by way of Spain, into various countries of western 
Europe at an early period. It is a well-known fact that 
the particular species of saltation, called the morrice-dance, 
and several branches of magic lore, were introduced into 
these regions many centuries since by natives of Morocco. 
The professors of those arts, enriching themselves by their 
trade, seem in some instances to have embraced Christianity, 
and to have become founders of eminent famihes ; certain 
it is that several magnates bearing the names of Morice, 
Fitz-Morice and Montmorice, attended Wilham the Con- 
queror in his descent upon England, and, acquiring lands, 
settled in this country. The name Montmorris is said to 
signify "from the Moorish mountains."* 

Norman, from Normandy. 

Pi card, from Picardy, a province of France. 

PoiTEviN, from Poitou. Camd. I have not seen this 
name elsewhere ; Poit levin however occurs. 

• Vide Burke's Commoners, vol. iv. 



62 LOCAL SURNAMES. 

RoMAYNE, from Rome. 

Rhodes, from the island in the Mediterranean. 

Scott, from Scotland. 

Wales, Walsh, Wallis, from Wales. 

Westphaling, from Westphalia, in Germany; also 
Westphal. 

Wight, from the island of that name. 

To these may he added Payne,* (latinized Paganus,) 
probably given to some Paynim or Mussulman, who em- 
braced the Christian faith during the Crusades; and 
GiPSEY, bestowed on some person who had left the myste- 
rious nomadic tribe, so well known, and become naturalized 
as an Englishman. Be this as it may, it is now borne by 
a very respectable family, who take rank as gentry, and 
reside, if my recollection serves me, somewhere in Kent. 

From names of Counties in the British dominions we 
derive the following family names : Cheshire , Kent, Essex, -^ 
Cornwall, Devonshire, Devon, Darbishire, Hampshire, 
Wiltshire, Dorset, Somerset, Cumberland, Renfrew (cor- 
rupted to Romphrey), Denby, Montgomery (?) Clare (?) 
Dmrni (?) Hoss (?) &c. Also Kentish, Devenish, and Cornish, 
with which last I may add Londonish and Londonoys. 

From Cities and Towns: Torke, Winchester, Chichester, 

* Persons who wilfully remained unbaptized were antiently called Pagani. 
(VideFosbroke's Ency. of Antiq.) 

t There is now living in the weald of Kent a person called Essex, from the 
circumstance of his father having migrated from that county. The cause of 
this change of the family appellation was the oddity of the original name, which 
the honest ' Wealdishers' found some diflBculty in pronouncing. The surname 
Wildish (cognate with Cornish, Londonish, &c.) was probably given to its first 
bearer, not from any particular wildness of demeanour, but because he came 
from the wild or weald of Sussex. The peasants who go to the South-Down 
farms to assist in the labours of harvest, are still called by their hill-country 
brethren, * Wildish men.' 



LOCAL SURNAMES. 63 

Rochester^ Oxford, Bristowe (Bristol), London, Warwick, 
Buckingham, Bedford, Carlisle, Lancaster, Hertford, 
Lester, Coventry, Portsmouth, Lewes, Hastings, Arundel, 
Rye, Blackburn, Hampton, Huntingdon, Grantham, Rugby, 
Halifax, Grimsby, Bath, Wells, Poole, Dartmouth, Hull, 
Kingston, Winchelsea,* and others far too numerous to 
mention. The town of Devizes is often called " The Vise ;" 
hence, in all probability, we have the name of Fyse. 

From Villages : as for instance, from Sussex alone ; 
Heathfeld, Hartfield, Halsham, Bicker, Ernley, Waldron, 
Ore, Icklesham, Kingston, Balcomb, Wistonneston, Hurst, 
Ticehurst, Crowhurst, Westfield, Clayton, Patching, 
Preston, Iden, Mayfield, Ashburnham, Barnham, Beckley, 
Barwike, Bolney, Compton, Coombs, Etchingham, Glynde, 
Goring, Grinstead, Lindfield, which, with numerous others, 
are still borne (some few excepted) by persons resident in 
the county. 

From Manors and smaller estates : The surnames from 
these sources are innumerable. To sum up the whole 
matter, I may observe that there is scarcely a city, town, 
village, manor, hamlet, or estate in England, that has not 
lent its name to swell the nomenclature of Englishmen. 
As we retain most of the names of places given them by 
our Saxon ancestors, with their significant terminations, it 
is no wonder that — 

" )ht dfortr, in f^am, in Ecg antl Con 
C!)e mosSt of (^^i^^ ^ummit^ run.** 

I am not quite sure, however, whether the proverb is 

♦ The names of Brighton, Devonport, and other very modern towns, which 
occasionally occur, (in police reports, &c.) must be of recent assumption, and 
are probably adopted by delinquents for the purpose of concealment. 



64 LOCAL SURNAMES. 

correct. There are at least some other terminations that 
are as numerous as the four selected by the rhymester : 
FIELD, for instance ; ing, hurst, wood, wick andsTED. 
Other terminations of less frequent occurrence are bury, 

BOURNE, caster, COTE, OKE, COMBE, CROFT, DUN, EY, 
PORT, SHAW, WORTH, THORPE, WADE, CLIFF, MARSH, 

GATE, HILL, DOWN, WELL, &c.; most of which terminations 
also stand as distinct surnames. 

Some counties have predominant surnames of the local 
kind ; hence in Cornwall the old proverbial saying : 

" 33p Cre, 3PciI, aitti J^tn, 

Camden (or, more probably, his friend " R. Carew of 
Anthony, Esquire,") has amplified the proverb to 

" 33^ Ere, mo^, 33oI, Ean, Caer, ant) 3P«t, 
i^ou mag fenoii) ^t moilt Corntslj^nten/* 

In no other county of England are there so many local 
surnames as in Cornwall ; and as the names of places are 
almost exclusively derived from British roots, the family 
nomenclature of that peninsula differs materially from that 
of the rest of England. I may remark that Tre signifies a 
town ; Ros, a heath ; Pol^ a pool ; Lan, a church ; Caer^ a 
castle ; and Pen, a head. 

In Kent ?iwdi Sussex, Hurst, signifying "wood," is a 
component syllable in many hundreds of names of places, 
from many of which surnames have been borrowed, as 
Ticehurstj Crowhurst, Bathursty Hawkhurst, Akehurst, 
Penkhurst, Wilmshurst, Askurst, &c. Field and Den are 
likewise very usual in these counties, as Chatjield, Lindfieldy 
Hartjieldy Streatjield ; Cowden, Horsrmnden, Haffenden. 



LOCAL SURNAMES. 65 

In Devonshire, combe appears to be a favorite termi- 
nation. 

The frequency of two family names in a northern county 
led to this proverbial saying : 

** hi €f)t!ii}ivt i^tvt are %tts a«{ pUntp afi Utaa, 
^xits as; mang iiabmport^ ai tiog^a'^mUV** 

A Cheshire correspondent informs me that the LeigJis 
are the persons intended; the Lees, a distinct family, 
having never been numerous in the county. He adds, that 
the more modern version of the proverb is — 

"f(iS man|) %tx^^ as; flea^g, f^di^^it^ asl asljieig, antj 
JBa^enporW a^S tlogjJ^tails;.** 

Identity of surname is not always proof of the consan- 
guinity of the parties bearing it ; for in some instances two 
families have derived their surname from one place, in 
other cases from two different places bearing the same de- 
signation. As nearly every county has its Norton, its 
Newton,'^ its Stoke, or its Sutton, there may be nearly as 
many distinct families of those names as there are counties. 
Much less are such names as Attwood, Waters, Wells, 
Banks, &c. peculiar to one family. 

"Rivers,*' says Camden, "have imposed names to 
some men, as the old Baron Sur-Teys (hodie Surtees), that 

• Grose's Proverbs. 

t It is remarkable that many of the most antique places in the kingdom bear 
this name, which signifies New-town. This definition reminds me of an epitaph 
in a churchyard in the north of England : 

"" Here lies (alas !) and more's the pity. 
All that remains of John New-city." 

To which the following somewhat important nota bene is attached : 

"03' The man's name was New-iows, which would not rhyme." *: 



66 LOCAL SURNAMES. 

is, upon the Tees . . . Berwentwatery Eden, Troutbecky 
Hartgilly Esgilly Wampully Swale, Stour, Temes, Trent, 
Tamavy Granty Tyney CroCy Loney Lundy Calder" To these 
I add SeverUy Parret, Dee, Kennetty* Loddoriy Yarrow y 
Mole. I think Pickersgill belongs to this class, as it sig- 
nifies ' a stream inhabited by pike or pickereU.* 



Hitherto I have treated of names derived from the proper 
names of places ; it now becomes necessary to notice those 
taken from the common or generic names of localities, as 
HiUy Daley Woody &c. 

After the practice of adopting the name of one's own 
estate had become pretty general amongst the landed fami- 
lies, men of the middle and lower classes, (" ungentplmm," 
as the Boke of St. Alban's has it,) imitating their superiors, 
borrowed their family names from the situation of their 
residences; thus, if one dwelt upon a hill, he would 
style himself Atte Hull; if on a moor, Attmorey or 
Amore ; if under a hill, Underdown ; if near some tower 
or GATE, Atte Tower or Agate; if by some lake or 
SHORE, Bywater or Bythesea ;f if near the public road, 
Bythewayy &c. 

The prefix principally made use of was atte, which was 
varied to atten when the name began with a vowel. "An 
instance of this kind occurs in the surname of that cele- 



* Perhaps from the Scottish name Keneth. 

t One family of Bythesea, who have been gentry for upwards of three cen- 
turies at least, have a tradition that the founder of their house was a foundling, 
and that the name was given him (in reference to the situation where he was 
discovered) by a gentleman who bequeathed to him the whole of his estate. 
Names and dates, those useful verifiers of tradition, are wanting, I fear, in this 
case. The Dutch have their De Meer, and the Spaniards their Delmar, both 
signifying * Of the sea.' 



LOCAL SURNAMES. 67 

brated personage in legal matters, Mr. John a-Noke, whose 
original appellation was John Atten Oak^ as that of his 
constant antagonist was John Atte Style. That the letter 
N is apt to pass from the end of one word to the beginning 
of another, is shown in newt^ which has certainly been 
formed by a corruption from an ewt or eft."* Noke is 
now seldom met with, but its corruption Noakes is one of 
the most common of surnames. The phrase, "Jack 
Noakes and Tom Styles," is familiarly employed to desig- 
nate the rabble.f Nash is, in Hke manner, a corruption 
of Atten-Ashy and Nye of Atten-Eye, at the island. 

In the course of a few generations the prefixes atte, 
&c., were softened to a, and with the latter some few 
names have descended to our own times, as Agate, Amoore, 
Acourt, &c. Generally speaking, however, the a was 
dropped towards the end of the sixteenth or the beginning 
of the seventeenth century. Camden supposes the a to 
be a softening of of, as Adam a" Kerby for Adam o/ 
Kerby. I think it has three distinct derivations : 1, As 
just stated, a mollification of of ; 2, It had the force of 
fronij and was, in fact, the Latin preposition (used instead 
of DE for of) in a local sense, as Thomas a Dover, for 
Thomas who came from Dover ; and, 3, That it was the 
same preposition in a genealogical sense, as Peter a James, 
for Peter the son of, or one descended /rom, James. 

As this kind of surnames forms a very considerable por- 
tion of the family nomenclature of Englishmen, I must 
beg my indulgent reader to don his hat and gloves, and 
accompany me to inspect the places from which our ances- 



• Glossary to Chaucer's Poems. Edit. 1825. 

^ The inelegant name of BoaTis appears to be a contraction of ' By the oaks.' 



68 LOCAL SURNAMES. 

tors delighted to designate themselves, which, for the 
purpose of getting a better view, I shall digest into an 
alphabetical list, after the example, and with the aid, of 
my great predecessor in these matters. Master William 
Camden ; making, in the course of the perambulation, such 
explanatory observations as may be deemed necessary, and 
relating such anecdotes as may be required to enliven a 
part of my subject which all but antiquaries will consider 
excessively dull.* 

A. 

Ashy and other generic names of trees. (See Tree.) 

B. 

Beck, (A.-S. Becc,) a brook ; Beckett, a httle brook. 
How inappropriate a name for that furious bigot ^S*^. Thomas 
of Canterbury ! 

Back, a ferry. At Bristol this word signifies a wharf, 
and in Cheshire it is synonymous with Beck. 

Baine, Baynes, a bath. (Fr.)f 

Borde, a cottage. The term * bordarii* of Domesday is 
understood to signify cottagers. 

Bank, Bankes. 

Barn, Barnes. 

Barrow, (A.-S. Beajtp.) A barrow; a high or hilly place ; 
a wood, a grove ; a hill covered with wood. Bosworth. 



* The basis of this list is from Camden's Remaines, (p. 99, 3d edition,) from 
which I take the liberty of expunging whatever, in my judgment, is trivial or 
far-fetched in etymology. 

t There is a remarkable coincidence as to the name of Banwell in Somersetshire, 
where a great deposit of fossil bones has been discovered, and from which the 
place might be supposed to be denominated — ban being the A.-S. for bone : but 
CoUinson mentions a much esteemed sulphureous spring there, which doubtless, 
as a former hain or bath, caused the name. 



LOCAL SURNAMES. 69 

BiggiUi a building. Newhiggiuy a new building. 

Bent, rush, reed, sedge. 

Bearne, a wood. 

Barton, a curtilage. In Devonshire it is applied to any 
freehold estate not possessed of manorial privileges. 

Bury, Berry, a court (jCamd.), a hill, a barrow. 

By, (A.-S. By) a habitation. The shortest surname in use. 

Boys (Fr. Bois), a wood. The French have their 
Dubois, &c. 

Boroughs. Burke is synonymous. 

Bourne, 1, a boundary, (Fr. Borne.) " The undiscovered 
country — from whose bourne no traveller returns." 2, 
a stream, (A.-S. Bujane.) The last is probably the true 
derivation of the surname. Query; is the termination 
-BORN common to several names, as Seaborn, Winterborn, 
and Newborn, a corruption of this word ; or are we to 
understand that the founders of those families were born 
at sea, in winter, &c. ? 

Bottle (A.-S. botl, a village). The German buttel in 
Wolfenbiittel and many other names has the same significa- 
tion. (JSarbottle possibly means the high-botl or village.) 
A sailor of this name, who had served on board the Unity, 
man-of-war, gave one of his children the ridiculous name 
of Unity Bottle, The child was baptized at a village in 
Sussex ; the minister hesitated some time before he would 
perform the rite. Booth in Cheshire has the same meaning. 

Burne, Burns, a brook. 

Bridge, Briggs, Bridges, Attibridge. 

Bower. 

Brunne, v. Bourn. 

Brought 

y r^' Borough or Barrow. 



70 LOCAL SURNAMES. 

Burtenshaw was antiently written Byrchenshaw, that is, 
the little wood or thicket of birch-trees. 

Bush. Although it may seem exceedingly trivial that 
so insignificant an object should name one of the lords of 
the creation, there is little doubt of the fact. There was 
lately living in Scotland a peasant who, with his children, 
was called Funns, because his cot was surrounded by furze, 
called, in some parts of the country, funns. This sobri- 
quet had so completely usurped the place of his hereditary 
surname that his neighbours called him by no other name.* 

Butts, marks for archery. In the days when 

dBnglanXr iwaji hut a flmg 

^abe for tjt *Croofeetl ^ticfe' antf tje * (^reg^i^oo^e OTins,*t 

most parishes had a place set apart for this necessary 
sport, and the place is still indicated in many parishes by 
the name of " the Butts." A person resident near such 
a spot would very naturally assume the surname of " John 
at the Butts." 

Brook, A^ Brook. 

Bottom, (A.-S. botm.) In Sussex the words dale and 
valley are rarely used ; Bottom is the substitute. In some 
cases hills, or rather their summits, are called ^ Tops', e. g. 
Norton Top : Houndene Bottom. A low ground, a valley: 
hence Longbottom, a long dale ; Sidebottom, Ramsbottom, 
and that elegant surname, Shuffiebottom, which, when 
understood to signify " shaw-field-bottom," has nothing 
ridiculous in it. 

" Ramsbottom," says an intelligent correspondent, "is the 
name of a township in the parish of Bury, Lancashire. In 

• See an early No. of the Saturday Magazine. t Grose's Proverbs. 



LOCAL SURNAMES. 71 

the same neighbourliood is a place called 'Ramsden.' 
These places are vulgarly pronounced RoMsbottom and 
RoMsden. Their signification is the valley of Roms. Roms 
or Rhoms are the wild onions which abound in these two 
places and nowhere else in the neighbourhood. In many 
parts of the North this word is compounded with names of 
trees, as Oakenbottom, Ashenbottom, Owler (that is Alder-) 
bottom. In Lancashire, hickin is the mountain-ash, whence 
perhaps Higginbottom.''* 



Camp. 

Chapel. 

CarVi (Caer, Brit.) frequently applied to elevations where 
castles have stood. 

Came, from Cairn, a Druidical heap of stones. " Wilham 
by the Came." 

Castell, Castle. Chatto seems to be a corruption of the 
French chateau. 

Cave. A good name for a person residing in, or at the 
mouth of a cave. It originated, perhaps, in Derbyshire. 

Church, and Churchyard. 

Chantry. 

Channel. 

Chase, a forest. The distinction between a chase and a 
forest seems to be this : the former generally belongs to a 
subject — ^the latter to the crown. 

Cove, a creek. 

Clough, Clowes, a deep descent between hills, or rather 
a cliff. " Clym of the Clough," a Cumberland ballad. 

♦ Some consider this name to be Gennan. Vide Essay xiii. 



72 LOCAL SURNAMES. 

Clive, a cliff. 

Cobby a harbour, as the Cobb of Lyme Regis, co. Dorset. 

Combe, a valley, (A.-S. Comb.) 

Coty Cote, (A.-S. Eote.) A cottage ; also a den. 

Court. 

Cragg, a cliff or rock; perhaps also (A.-S. C;\ecca) a creek. 

Croft, a small enclosed field, (A.-S.) In the North, Craft. 

Corner. 

Cross, given to one who dwelt near a market-cross, or by 
cross-roads. 

Cotterel, in Domesday, signifies a cottage. 

Cowdray. This name seems to be another spelling of 
' couldray,' a grove of hazel trees.* 

Crouch, a cross (from the Latin crux) . That all cross- 
roads formerly had a cross of wood or stone erected near 
the intersection, is pretty clear from the names still retained, 
as John's Cross, Mark-Cross, Stone-Cross, High-Cross, 
Hand-Cross, New-Cross, Wych-Cross (perhaps so named 
in honour of St. Richard de la Wych, bishop of Chichester). 
All these, and many others, occur in Sussex.f At Seaford 
such a spot bears the name of ' the Crouch.' We find also 
High Crouch, Katty'sJ Crouch, Fair Crouch, Crow Crouch, 
&c. &c. Crouched or Crutched Friars were an order of 
religious who wore a cross upon their robes. The name 
crutch applied to the supports used by cripples is evidently 
from the same root. A person dweUing near some way- 
side cross would feel proud of such an appellative as 

* Bailey's Diet. 

t These crosses served also for direction posts. Probably this was their pri- 
mary use, the religious idea being an after-thought. The annexed cut is borrowed 
from one in Barclay's »* Ship of Fooles." (Vide Fosbroke's Ency.) 

% Saint Katherine's. 



LOCAL SURNAMES. 



73 



John atte Crouch^ a form in which the name fre- 
quently occurs. 




[A CROUCH.] 



Bale, Dearly Bell. Nearly synonymous. " Sometimes," 
as a friend observes, " dean means a bushy dingle or vale ; 
but, occasionally, something much greater, as Dean Forest, 
and kxden, co. Warwick." The Sussex family of Atte 
Denne inverted the syllables of their name, and made it 
Bennat or Dennett. 

4 



74 LOCAL SURNAMES. 

Derne, a solitary place. (A.-S. Diejina.) 

Bitch. 

Dyke. 

Dock. 

Donne, Don, Dun, a down. (A.-S. '©un.) 



JEy, Eye, a watery place ; an island. (A.-S. ij.) 
Eruth, Rith, a ford. *' John i' the Eruth" occurs in the 
Inq. Nonar. in the sense of John Ford. 
East, West, North, South. 

F. 

Farme. 

Field, Byfield, Attfield. 

Fell, Fells, barren stony hills. 

Fleet, a small stream. 

Fold. In some places the inclosure for impounded cattle 
is so called. 

Ford. 

Forest. In Holland, Van Voorst, in Fr. Lafor^t. 

Font, a spring. 

Frith, a plain among woods. In Scotland, an arm of 
the sea. Mr. Halliwell says " an inclosed wood." 

Foote, the bottom of a hill. 

Fenn. The old family ofAtte Fenne of Sussex, dropped 
the prefix, added an r, and became Fenner or Fenour. 

G. 

Garden. 

Garth, a Httle close, or yard behind a house. K fish- 
garth is a weir or dam for catching fish. 



LOCAL SURNAMES. 75 

Garnet i a granary. 

Gate, Agate, Gates, Bygate. Gate in Scotland means 
a road or way. 

Gill, a small pebbly rivulet. 

Glyn, a glen. 

Grange, a large farm, kept in hand by a religious fra- 
ternity, with buildings and occasionally a chapel attached. 

Grave, Graves, a grove ; a cave. (A.-S. Djiaej:.) 

Gurnall, a granary. (Scot.) 

Gravett, a little grove. 

Greene. 

Grove, Groves. There is now living at Tunbridge a 
pauper of this name, who was picked up when an infant 
in the Grove at Tunbridge Wells. 

Gore, a word used in old records to describe a narrow 
slip of ground. 



H. 

Hall, a great house. 

Halliwell, a holy well. 

Ham, a dwelling, whence home. Often appHed in the 
southern counties to a triangular field or croft. 

Harbour. 

Hatch, a flood-gate. 

Haugh, How, a green plot in a valley ; a hill. 

Hay, in mediaeval Latin, " Haia," a minor park, or in- 
closure in the forests, for taking deer, wild goats, &c. 

Haystack. 

Head, a foreland or promontory, as Beachy Head, St. 
Alban's Head, &c. Several names derived from places are 
the same in sound and orthography as those borrowed from 



76 LOCAL SURNAMES. 

parts of the person, of which hereafter. (Vide Back, 
Foot, &c.) 

Hedge, Hedges. There is a great disposition among the 
illiterate to pluralize surnames, as Woods for Wood, Gibbs 
for Gibb, Reeves for Reeve. . . 

Heath. 

Hurst, a wood. 

Heme, a house. Beda. 

Hithe, a haven. (A.-S. HytS.) 

Hide, an antient law term for as much land as can be 
cultivated with one plough. 

Hill, Hull. The French have Bumont, which may be 
the same with our Dymond. * At the hill' became Thill. 

Holme, (A.-S.) a meadow surrounded by water; an 
island (like those in the Bristol Channel, &c.) 

Holt, a small hanging wood. Percy says this word 
sometimes means a hill, and he cites Tuberville's Songs 
and Sonnets (1567,) in proof: — 

" Ye that frequent the hilles 
And highest holtes of all, 
Assist me with your skilful quilles, 
And listen when I call." 

I do not consider the use of the adjective * highest' conclu- 
sive of the Bishop's opinion that the term here means hills, 
although holts frequently, indeed almost invariably, occur 
upon hilly tracts of country. It may refer to the height 
of the trees. 

Hold, a tenement ; a fort. 

Hope, " the side of an hill." Camd. A small field. 

Hoo, or How, a high place. (Hop, A.-S., a mountain.) 

House. In Italy, Dellacasa ; in Spain, Las Casas. 



LOCAL SURNAMES. 'J-^ 

Huntj a chase, as Foxhunt in Sussex. Hont occurs in 
Chaucer for Huntsman. 

Hurne^ Homey a corner. JoKes in le Hurne^ that is, 
John in the Corner, occurs in the Inq. Nonar, 1341, parish 
of Wyke, county of Sussex. 

Holyoakcj some oak which a superstitious legend had 
made famous. 

Hole. 

Hookey Howke. Atte Hooke became 'Tooke. 

Hay-cock. Given first perhaps to a foundling. 

Hollow-way. (Vide Halle of John Halle.) 



Ingy a meadow, or low ground. (A.-S.) 

Isle. An eminent family called De VlsUy and afterwards 
VlsUy borrowed their name from the Isle of Wight. 
Another family adopted the same surname from the Isle 
of Ely. 

K. 

Kayy a quay. Atkey. 
Knapp, the top of a hill. (Cnjep. A.-S.) 
Knolly KnowleSy the top of a hill. (Cnoll. A.-S.) 
Kirky a church. 

L. 

Lynchy a strip of green-sward between the ploughed 
lands in common fields ; a small hanging wood. 
LaWy a hill or tumulus. (Lope, A.-S.) 
Ladey a passage for water. (La*©, A.-S.) 
Lake. 

Land; also Byland. 
Lane. 



78 LOCAL SURNAMES. 

Lath, a barn. 

Laund, Lowndes, a place among trees; kodib "lawn." 

Lee, Legh, Lea, Leigh, Lye, various spellings of one and 
the same word, meaning a pasture. In names of British 
origin, Lie, a place. 

Locke, a place where rivers receive a partial obstruction 
from a wooden dam. Or, Loch, a lake. 

Loppe, an uneven place. 

Lodge. 

Low, Loe, a barrow ; a farm ; a grove. 

M. 

March, a limit or frontier. It is often used in this as 
well as in a verbal sense by Sir John Maundevile and other 
antient writers. "Arabye durethe fro the endes of the 
reme of Caldee, unto the laste ende of Aifryk, and 
marchethe to the lond of Ydumee." 

Market. 

Mead, Meadow, Meadows, Mees. Syn. Pratt, a very 
common name, seems to be a corruption of the Latin 
*pratum,* a meadow. 

Meer, Meeres, a shallow water ; a lake. (A.-S. CCejie.) 

Marsh. 

Mill, Milne, Mulne. Syn. Desmouhns (Fr.) =i)fMZ^tw«. 

Minster, a monastery. (A.-S. ODynj-tfie.) 

More, Moore, Atte-moore, Amoor, Amor.* 

Moss, a moor, or boggy plain. 

Mote, a moat. 

Mouth, a haven. 

* A facetious correspondent of the Literary Gazette (B. A. Oxen, Sept. 1842) 
says he cannot pass 135, New Bond Street, without being reminded of the 10th 
Eclogue, " Omnia vincit amor;" and he suggests a free translation of the pas- 
sage, viz. : " Amor is the best wine merchant in London !" 



LOCAL SURNAMES. 79 

Mountain. This name once gave occasion to a pun, 
which would have been excellent had the aUusion been 
made to any other book than the Holy Scriptures. Dr. 
Mountain, chaplain to Charles II., was asked one day by 
that monarch to whom he should present a certain bishop- 
ric, just then vacant. "If you had but faith. Sire," 
replied he, " I could tell you who." " How so," said 
Charles, '^if I had but faith?" "Why yes," said the 
witty cleric, " your majesty might then say to this Moun- 
tain ' Be thou removed into that See.' " 

o. 
Orchard. A correspondent of the Gentleman's Maga- 
zine, Oct. 1820, suggests that such names as Townsend, 
Street, Churchyard, Stair, Barn, Lane, and Orchard,. 
" originated with foundhngs, and that they possibly pointed 
out the places where they were exposed," — a plausible 
suggestion, had we not abundant evidence of their having 
been first given to persons from their residing, when 
masters of famihes, in or near to such places. 

p. 

Park, Parkes. 

Penn, the top of a hill. (Brit.) 

Pitt, Pitts. Referring to the remark above, I may men- 
tion that surnames of this kind have, occasionally, been 
given to foundlings, and that even in recent times. I per- 
fectly recoUect the grim visage of a surly septuagenarian, 
named Moses Pitt, who had been exposed in infancy in a 
voMl-pit. "Nobody likes you," said this crabbed piece of 
humanity, in a quarrel with a neighbour. "Nor you," 
replied the latter, "not even your mother. ^^ Moses was 
silent. 



80 



LOCAL SURNAMES. 



PlacCi a mansion. 

Plat, Plotty a piece of plain ground ; a little field. 

Pinnock, a little framework bridge over a stream. 

Pen/old, a place where cattle are shut up. 

Peelj a pool ; a place of strength. (Scot.) 

Pine, a pit. (Bailey.) 

Plaine. 

Pende. This word is said to signify an arch, and gene- 
rally one under which there is a passage or road-way. 

Pole, Poole. 

Pond, 

Port. The French have Duport and Laporte. 

Pound. 

Prindle, a croft. 

Plastow, Playstead, a place for sports ; still found in 
many parts of the kingdom. 



Quarry. 

Quarll, a quarry. (Scot.) 

R. 

Ricks (corruptly Rix), stacks of corn. 

Ridge, Rigg. By dropping a from At Rigg, we have 
Trigg. 

Ring, an inclosure. 

Roades. 

Rodd, Rode, Roydes, an obsolete participle of ' rid/ mean- 
ing a * ridding' or forest grant. It sometimes occurs as an 
addition to the name of an early proprietor, or to the 
names of the trees cleared, as Ack-royd, Hol-royd, &c. 

Row, a street ; in Scotland called a raw, whence Rawes. 



LOCAL SURNAMES. 81 

Ross, a heath ; peat land. (Brit. Rhos.) 

Ri/e, a shore, or bank. Perhaps from the town of that 
name in Sussex. Atte Rye became Tri/. 

Rill, a small stream. John at the Rill, would first 
become John Atterill, and afterwards John Trill. How 
subtle are the clues that guide us in etymological inves- 
tigations ! 

Raynes, a bound or limit. 

s. 

Sanctuary. 

Sale, Sales, a hall or entrance. 

Sand, Sands, Sandys. 

Shaw, a small wood. 

Shallow, a fordable place in a river. 

Shore. 

Shell, a well in the old Northern English. Camd. 

Slade. 

Slough. 

Slack, a gap or narrow pass between two hills or 
mountains. 

Spital, Spittlehouse, an hospital. 

Spire, Spires, a steeple. At the time when the com- 
monalty took their first surnames Church Spires were 
unusual. They were introduced in a very gradual manner 
during the 12th, 13th, and 14th centuries. 

Spring, a well. 

Strand, the bank of a river. 

Street. Fr. De-la-rue, Ital. Strada. 

Strood, or Stroud ; "the bank of a river, as some doe 
think." Camd. Baxter makes it strawd, that is Ys-trawd, 
* the lower traject.' 

4§ 



82 LOCAL SURNAMES. 

Stable. 

Stead, a standing place or station. 

Steeple. 

Stile, Styles, 

Stock — of a tree, I suppose ; an odd name for a family, 
though not more so than the French, Zouch, meaning the 
trunk of a tree ; or than Curzon, the stem of a vine. 

Stoke, Stokes, Stow, a place. 

Stone, Stean. Given first to some one whose house 
stood near some Druidical or other remarkable stone. 

Spence, a yard or inclosure. 

T. 

Temple. This may be one of those I have designated 
crusading names, and derived from the temple at Jerusalem ; 
or it may be derived from the residence of some person 
near one of the preceptories of the knights-templars, of 
which there were several in England. We have also 
Templeman. 

Tern or Dern, a standing pool. 

Thorn. 

Thorpe, a village. (A.-S. Dofip.) 

Thwaite, a pasture ; a piece of rough marshy ground. 

To/t, "a piece of ground where there hath been a 
house." Camd. 

Tree. Under this head may be mentioned several names 
originating from the residence of their first bearers near 
remarkable trees, as Oakes, Aspen, Box, Alder, Pine, Vine, 
Ash, Plumtree, Appletree, Hawthorne, Cherry, Beech, 
Hazel, Willows, and Elmes. Apps is a provincial word 
for Asp, Lind for lime-tree, and Holme for an evergreen 



LOCAL SURNAMES. 83 

oak. To these may be added, from the French, Coigners, a 
quince tree, and Cheyney, an oak. 

Torr, a tower, or rather a castle-Hke, though uncas- 
tellated, hill or crag. 

Tower, Towers. 

Towne, Townsend. " Atte Tunishende." 

V. 

Vale. Fr. Duval, Dellavalle, &c. 

w. 

Wade, a meadow ; a ford. 

Wall, Walls. 

Wake or Werk, some work or building. 

Warren, a colony of rabbits, — also a Norman name. 

Water, Waters, also Attwater and Bywater. 

Way. 

Weir. 

Wick, Wix, a hold or place of defence. 

Wyche, a salt spring. 

Well, Wells. Atwell became Twell. 

Wold, a hill destitute of wood. 

Wood, Attwood, Bywood, Underwood, and Netherwood. 

Worth. " Who shall decide when etymologists disagree ?" 
No less than six origins have been sought for this word, 
which has been made to stand for a possession, a farm, a 
court, a place, a fort, and an island ! 

Whitaker. To this word Bailey assigns this somewhat 
unintelligible definition : " The north-east part of a flat or 
shole ; the middle ground." 

Y. 

Yarde. 

Fate, Yates, old word for gate. 



84 



LOCAL SURNAMES. 



From such places, and many others of a similar kind, 
did numbers of our ancestors borrow their family names ; 
short, and generally monosyllabic, they were well suited to 
the plain, hardy Anglo-Saxon race who assumed them; 
and well adapted to distinguish that race from their Nor- 
man oppressors : a distinction now happily merged, so that 
we cannot say with an antient poet of ours — 

*'(!^i t'i)t^otmm^htt^ i^t^ti^i^ meniu, tjatbe of t^v^ lontr, 
^nty tt^t Uiot menne of ^axon^,** 

Some names of this class had the termination er or 
MAN attached to them : thus from 



Church were formed Churcher and Churchman 


Town , 


, Towner. 


Street , 


Streeter. 


Hope , 
Field , 


, Hoper. 
Fielder. 


Bourne , 


, Boumer. 


Well 


Weller. 


Pond , 


, Ponder. 


Hide , 


Hider. 


Heath , 
Grovc , 
Rayne , 
Ridge , 
Holt , 
Comb , 


, Heather and Hother. 

, Grover. 

, Rayner. 

, Ridger and Ridgman. 

Holier. 
, Comber. 


Lake , 
Dean , 


, Laker. 
, Denman. 


Pit 
Crouch , 


J Pitman. 
, Croucher. 



LOCAL SURNAMES. 85 

From Bridge were formed Bridger and Bridgman. 



Down 


j> 


Downer and Bownman, 


House 


}) 


H(mseman. 


Hill 


jj 


Hillman. 


Mill 


Si 


Milman. 


Stead 


a 


Steadman. 


Court 


ss 


Courtman. 


Rye 


» 


By man. "^ 


Low 


»i 


Lower (?) &c. 



Before leaving Local Surnames, I must mention such as 
are derived from apartments in houses, and which were 
most likely first given to menial servants who served in the 
respective rooms. Like the foregoing, they generally occur 
in old records in the form of John t' the Kitchen, William 
atte Chamber, &c. Besides these two we have Garret, 
Buttery, and ^tair, and Camden says Sellar and Parler, 
which I have never seen. Chalmers is the Scottish form 
of Chambers; amdHall is otherwise accounted for. (p. 75.) 
Drawbridge was probably given to the porter of some old 
moated mansion. 

Thus, gentle reader, I have, in humble sort, set forth the 
origin, antiquity, and varieties of that branch of our family 
nomenclature borrowed from the names of places, and if 
thou hast found aught of gratification in my lucubrations 
I am satisfied : if not, close the book ; thy taste and mine 
concur not. I quarrel not with thee, and I trust that thou 
wilt exercise like forbearance with me, recollecting that — 
" De gustibus non disputandum est," — " and soe I bid thee 
right heartihe farewel." 

* Bollman in the Orkney dialect signifies a cottager: hence probably the 
English name Bulman. 



86 NAMES DERIVED FROM 



ESSAY IV. 

NAMES DERIVED FROM OCCUPATIONS AND PURSUITS. 

"After these locall names/' saith Master Camden, 
" the most in number have been derived from Occupations 
or Professions," for which reason I purpose to make these 
the subject of my Fourth Essay. And as some perplexity 
might arise in marshalUng the various Surnames according 
to right rules of precedence, I shall consider it no small 
advantage to follow so skilful a herald as Mr. Clarencieux 
throughout these pages. 

The practice of borrowing names from the various avoca- 
tions of Hfe is of high antiquity. Thus the Romans had 
among them many persons, and those too of the highest 
rank, who bore such names as Figulus, Pictor, Fabri- 
tius, Scribonius, Salinator, Agricola, &c., answering to the 
P otter Sy PaynterSy &c. of our own times. These names 
became hereditary, next in order after the local names, 
about the eleventh and twelfth centuries. Cocus, Dapifer, 
&c., we have already seen were borne by men of high rank 
soon after the Conquest. There was, as Camden observes, 
no employment that did not give its designation to one, or 
to many families. As local names generally had the prefix 
DE or AT, so these frequently had le, as Stephen le Sjoicer, 
Walter le Boucher^ John le Bakere, &c. Concerning these, 
Verstegan remarks, " it is not to be doubted but their an- 
cestors have first gotten them by using such trades, and 



OCCUPATIONS AND PURSUITS. 87 

the children of such parents being contented to take them 

upon them, after-coming posterity could hardly avoid them." 

Pre-eminent in this class of names stands Smith, decidedly 

the most common surname amongst us. Verstegan asks — 

*' From whence comes Smith, all be he Knight or Squire, 
But from the Smith ihhi forgcth at the fire ?'' 

but the antiquary should have been aware that the radix 
of this term is the Saxon Smiran, to smite ; and therefore 
it was originally applied to artificers in wood, as well as to 
those in metal, as wheelwrights, carpenters, masons, and 
smiters in general.* Hence the frequency of the name is 
easily accounted for. It certainly is ridiculously common, 
and has, on that account, given rise to many jokes, some 
of which I shall borrow. Smith, without some unusual 
christian name, is scarcely sufficient to distinguish a 
person; as to John Smith, it is, as a friend of mine often 
observes, no name at all. What then shall we say of the 
countryman who directed a letter " For Mr. John Smith, 
at London. With Spead"? He might as well have di- 
rected it to that inaccessible personage, the man in the 
moon. What better device could the wag who got too late 
to the theatre have employed for obtaining a seat than that 
of shouting at the top of his voice, " Mr. Smith's house 
is on fire?" He well knew that the house would be thinned 
at the rate of at least five or six per cent. " We remember," 
says the editor of the Literary Gazette, "a bet laid and 
won that a John Smith had been condemned either to 

* It is rather curious that although the appellations of the blacksmith and 
whitesmith (both very common avocations) do not occur as surnames, that of 
Brownsmith, an obsolete calling, does. The brownsmith, of five centuries since, 
must have been a person of some consideration, when the far-famed brown-bills 
of our warlike ancestors struck terror into the hearts of their enemies. Nasmyth 
is probably a corruption of nail-smith. 



88 NAMES DERIVED FROM 

death or transportation at every Old Bailey session during 
(we forget) two or three years !" Perhaps the best piece 
of humour relating to this name is that which appeared 
some three or four years since in the newspapers, under 
the title of 

"the smiths. 

" Some very learned disquisitions are just now going on 
among the American journals touching the origin and 
extraordinary extension of the family of "the Smiths.'* 
Industrious explorers after derivatives and nominal roots, 
they say, would find in the name of John Smith a world of 
mystery ; and a philologist in the Providence Journal^ after 
having written some thirty columns for the enlightenment 
of the public thereanent, has thrown down his pen and 
declared the subject exhaustless. From what has hitherto 
been discovered it appears that the great and formidable 
family of the Smiths are the veritable descendants in a 
direct Une from Shem, the son of Noah, the father of the 
Shemitish tribe, or the tribe of Shem: and it is thus 
derived — Shem, Shemit, Shmit, Smith. Another learned 
pundit, in the Philadelphia Gazettey contends for the uni- 
versality of the name John Smith — not only in Great 
Britain and America, but among all kindreds and nations 
on the face of the earth. Beginning with the Hebrew, he 
says the Hebrews had no Christian names, consequently 
they had no Johns, and in Hebrew the name stood simply 
Shem or Shemit ; but in the other nations the John Smith 
is found at full, one and indivisible. Thus : Latin, Johannes 
Smithius; Itahan , Giovanni Smithi; Spanish, Juan 
Smithas; Dutch , Hans Schmidt; French , Jean Smeets; 
Greek , Ion Skmiton; Russian , Jonloif Skmittowski; 



OCCUPATIONS AND PURSUITS. 89 

Polish . Ivan Schmittiwciski ; Chinese . Jahon Shimmit; 
Icelandic . Jahne Smithson; Welsh . lihon Schmidd ; 
Tuscarora , Ton Qa Smittia; Mexican . Jontli F' Smith. 
And then, to prove the antiquity of the name, the same 
savant observes that * among the cartouches, deciphered by 
RosseHni, on the temple of Osiris, in Egypt, was found the 
name of Pharaoh Smithosis, being the 9th in the 18th 
dynasty of the Theban kings. He was the founder of the 
celebrated temple of Smithopolis Magna.' We heartily 
congratulate the respectable multitude of the Smiths on 
these profound researches; researches which bid fair to 
explode the generally received opinion that the great family 
of the Smiths were the descendants of mere horse-shoers 
and hammer-men !" 

The following piece of banter, in the same style, is from 
a newspaper paragraph of July, 1842: "By a chain of 
reasoning not less logical and conclusive than that which 
enabled Home Tooke to establish the etymological deduc- 
tion of the word gerkin from King Jeremiah, Sir Edward 
Bulwer proves, in his beautiful prose-poem of *Zanoni,' 
that tHe common surname of Smith which I had hitherto 
supposed to have been professionally derived from Tubal- 
Cain, or from the family of the Fabricii, so celebrated in 
Roman history, owes its origin, in point of fact, to the 
term 'Smintheus', a title bestowed upon the Phrygian 
Apollo! Sir Edward, following the schoUast upon Homer, 
assigns the name to one of the god's high priests : but 
Strabo assures us that it was bestowed upon the deity 
himself in consequence of his having destroyed an immense 
number of 2/iiv0at, or rats, with which the country was 
infested!" 

But it is now time to leave this widely-spread and suffi- 



90 NAMES DERIVED FROM 

ciently celebrated race of the Smiths, and to notice the 
long Ust of English surnames derived from other trades and 
professions. We have then, besides, the Masons and 
Carpenters^ the Bakers and Butchers^ the Braziers and 
Goldsmiths, the Butlers and Taverners, the Carters and 
Wagners,^ the Sadlers and Girdlers, the Tylers and 
Slaters, the Cartwrights and Plowrights, the Wainwrights 
and SievewrightSj the Colemans and Woodyers, the Boxers 
and Siveyers, the Taylors and Drapers, the Plowmans and 
Thatchers,f the Farmers and Shepherds, the Cappers and 
Shoesmiths, the Chapmans and Grocers, the Cowpers or 
Coopers, the Browkers or Brokers, the Cutlers and Jrow- 
mongers, the Wheelers and Millers, the Tanners and Glovers, 
the Oxlads and Steermans, the Wrights and Joiners, the 
Salters and Spicers, the Grinders and Boulters, the 
Gardeners and Tollers, the Cardmakers and Bookers, the 
Armorers zxAFurhishers, the Shipwrights dindi Goodwrights, 
the Marchants and Brewers, the Pipers and Vidlers, the 
Homers and Drummers, the Bellringers and Hornblowers, 
the Marketmans and Fairmans, the Coo^5 and Porters, the 
Hosiers and Weavers, the Bakers and Cheesemans, the 
Colliers and Sawyers, the Turners and Naylors (nail- 
makers,) the Potters and Potmans, the Hoopers and 
Hookers, the Portmans and Ferrimans, the Poticarys and 
Farriers, the Sellers and Salemans, the Firemans and 
Waterman^, the Plummers and Glaisyers, the Alemans and 
Barleymans, the Skinners and Woolers, the Paynters and 
Dyers, the Mercers and Ironmongers, the Workmans and 
Drivers, the Boardmans and Innmans, the Chandlers and 

* This is from the German: it is equivalent, however, to our ' waggoner.' 
t Thacker, and the German Decker, and Dutch Dekker, have the same 
meaning. 



OCCUPATIONS AND PURSUITS. 91 

Pressmans, the Fiddlers and PlayerSi the Rhymers and 
Readers, the Oastlers and Tappers, the Whiters and 
Blackers, the Grooms and Stallmans, the Ropers and 
Corders, the Twiners and Stringers, the Leadbeaters and 
Stonehewers, to which may be added from the Nona Rolls 
— whether extinct or not I cannot say, the Quarreours, 
the Swepers, the Waterleders, the Lymberners and the 
Candlemakers. 

A very great number of words obsolete in our language, 
or borrowed from other languages, and therefore unintelli- 
gible to the generahty of people, are retained in surnames 
which thus furnish the etymologist with many an agreeable 
reminiscence of the pursuits and manners of our ancestors. 
Thus Sutor,* is the Latin, Old English, and Saxon (Sutene) 
for shoemaker ; Latimer is a writer of Latin, or as Camden 
has it " an interpretour." Chaucer, like Sutor, signifies a 
member of the gentle craft. Leech, the Anglo-Saxon 
(laece) for physician, is still partially retained in some parts 
of the country in " cow-?eecA," a business usually connected 
with that of the farrier. Henry the First, according to 
Robert of Gloucester, 



-OTiUftJ of a lamprcpe to ete, 



?3ut i)t£; Ittcl^eg l)tm berbetre, bor gt iuaiS a feble iitett.** 

Thwaytes, according to Verstegan, means a feller of 
wood, an etymology supported by the A.-S. verb " thweo- 
tan,''^ to cut, exsciudere. Barker is synonymous with 
Tanner. In the dialogue between King Edward the Fourth 

* The native of Lancashire and the lover of Scottish song will understand the 
meaning of this term without my aid. Soutar, Sowter, Shuter, and Suter are only 
variations of the same name. 



92 NAMES DERIVED FROM 

and the Tanner of Tamworth, in Percy's Reliques of 
Antient Poetry, we have the following lines : 

" What craftsman art thou, said the King, 

I pray thee telle me trowe ? 

I am a Barkevy Sir, by my trade, 

Now tell me, what art thou?" 

Jenner is an old form of joiner, Bowcher of butcher, and 
Milner of miller. A Larimer is a maker of bits for bridles, 
spurs, &c. There is or was a " Lorimers' Company'* in 
London. An Arkwright was in old times a maker of 
meal-chests, an article found in every house when families 
dressed their own flour. Furner is an anglicised form of 
Fournier (French), a man who keeps an oven or foury a 
baker; Lavender of Lavandier, a washerman; {Launder 
and Lander are further contractions of the same word); and 
Pullinger of Boulanger a baker. Webber Webber, (and 
Weber from the German,) are equivalent to weaver; a 
Sayer is an assayer of metals ; Tucker a fuller ; and 
Shearman one who shears worsteds, fustians, &c. — an 
employment formerly known at Norwich by the designa- 
tion of " shermancraft ;* Banister is the keeper of a bath ; 
a Pointer was a maker of "points," an obsolete article of 
dress ; and a Pitcher a maker of pilches, a warm kind of 
upper garment, the great-coat of the fourteenth century ; 
hence Chaucer : 

*' After gret hete cometh cold, 
No man cast his pylch away.'H 

• '« As for the cloth of my ladies. Hen. Cloughe putt it to a shereman todight, 
and he sold the cloth and ran away." (Plumpton Cor., Camd. Soc. p. 30.) 

t The A.-S. pylche, whence Pilcher, is equivalent to our (or rather to the 
French) pelisse, which Is derived immediately from the Latin pellia, pellicum, 
skin or fur. A pilcher was also a scabbard, as being made of hide or leather. 
Mercutio says to Tybalt, " Will you pluck your sword out of the pilcher by the 
ears ?" (Correspondence of B. A. Oxon, in the Lit. Gazette, Sept. 1842.) 



OCCUPATIONS AND PURSUITS. 93 

Kidder and Kidman are obsolete words for huxter, (Goth, 
"kyta," to deal, hawk.) Hellier for tyler, slater, or 
thatcher, (A.-S. helan,) and Crowther for one who plays 
upon the crowd, an antient stringed instrument, the pro- 
totype of the modern viohn, called in Welsh crwthy and in 
Irish cruit. Spenser, in his Epithalamion, has 

"The pipe, the tabor, and the tremblinpf croudJ' 

A Conder was a person stationed on the sea-shore to 
watch the approach of the immense shoals of pilchards and 
herrings, and give notice thereof to the fishermen by cer- 
tain understood signals, it being, singularly, a fact, that 
those migrations cannot be perceived at sea, although from 
the shore they appear hterally to darken the deep. In 
Cornwall these men are called Hewers (a name probably 
derived from the A.-S. eapian, to show), and hence the sur- 
names Hewer, Huer, and Ewer. A Ridler was a maker of 
sieves. 

In the north of England a " hack" means a mattock or 
axe ; hence Hackman is possibly either the maker or the 
user of such an implement. Crocker (and perhaps Croker) 
means a maker of coarse pottery. The word * crock,' in 
the provincial dialects of the south, signifies a large barrel- 
shaped jar. It was in general use in Chaucer's days : 
" Spurn not as doth a crucke against a wall." 

Maunder (from the Old Eng. verb * maund,' to beg,) is 
beggar, and Card, a word still in use in Scotland, means a 
travelling tinker! *Napery' is household linen; hence 
Napper probably stands for a manufacturer or seller of that 
article. Seamer is the A.-S. for tailor, and Lomer for a 
maker of 'lomes' or tubs. Fortner is believed to mean a 
combatant in a tilting match, from the Old English * for- 



94 NAMES DERIVED FROM 

tuny,' a tournament — the issue of such conflicts being very 
much dependant upon fortune or chance. Sanger is singer. 
Monger (A.-S. CDanc^ejie and oOon^eji) is merchant. The 
monger of Saxon times was a much more important personage 
than those who, in our days, bear the name. He was the pro- 
totype of the merchant-princes of the nineteenth century ; 
he was a dealer in many things (unde nomen) which his 
ship-men brought from many lands ; but our modern mon- 
gers, be they Ironmongers, Cheesemongers, Fellmongers 
WoodmongerSy or Icemongers (?), traffic chiefly in a single 
article. All these compounds stand, I believe, as surnames, 
but Horsemonger, Newsmonger, Matchmonger, and Cos- 
tardmonger, (i. e. a dealer in apples,) have never been used 
as such. 

As a general rule, all names terminating with er 
indicate some employment or profession. er is un- 
questionably derived from the Anglo-Saxon ' pe;^' or 'pejie' 
a man; hence Salter is Salt-wian, and Miller, Mill-m«w. 
These terminations er and man are often used interchange- 
ably, thus we have Potter and Pottman, Tiler and Tile- 
man, Carter and Cartman, Wooler and Woolman, cum 
multis aliis. Besides these, we have Horseman, Palfriman, 
Coltman, Wainman (corrupted to Wenman), Carman, 
Coachman, Boatman, Clothman, Seaman, Tubman, and 
Spelman, which, Camden says, means * learned man,' but 
which, I should rather say, signifies a man who worked by 
* spells' or turns with another, if indeed it be not intended 
for a necromancer, charmer, or worker of spells. 

pa onjunnon leape men pyjican ' spell.' 

Then began false men to work spells. {Boet, 38, i.) 

One of the most singular features in this department of 
our Family Nomenclature is the existence of several sur- 



OCCUPATIONS AND PURSUITS. 95 

names terminating in -ster, which is the regular Anglo- 
Saxon form of feminine nouns of action, as er is of mascu- 
line ones. The word ' Spinster' is the regular feminine of 
* spinner' and not of bachelor, as Lindley Murray would 
have us suppose. Bcecestre, sangstre, and seamestre, are 
the regular feminines of hcecere, baker, sangere, singer, and 
seamere taUor ; hence it is evident that — 

Tapster is the feminine of Tapper. 

Brewster „ Brewer. 

Baxter and Bagster Baker. 

Whitster „ Whiter. 

Webster „ Webber (Weaver.) 

Kempster „ Kember (Comber.) 

Sangster „ Sanger. 

Fewster „ Fewer (A. S.peoh-fee) a feofee. 

Dexter also appears to be a feminine form — ^but of what? 
Although no such word as saesertjie occurs in the Saxon 
dictionary, may it not be a compound of baeg, baj, day, 
and the feminine termination, and so signify a woman that 
works by the day— a charwoman? 

The formation of feminine names of employment in the 
Dutch language is precisely similar, where brouster is a fe- 
male maker of beer; zangster a female vocalist, &c. &c.* 
It is difficult to account for the adoption and perpetuation 
of names derived from the avocations of female ancestors. 
Perhaps widows, carrying on the trades of their deceased 
partners, conferred them on their children. 

There is a string of names derived from occupations 
which sound right oddly when placed in juxta-position, and 
which, primd facie, would appear to be fully as applicable 

♦ A. B. Oxon, Lit. Gaz., Sept., 1842. 



yb NAMES DERIVED FROM 

to the equine as to the human species ; namely. Traveller^ 
Walker, Ryder, Ambler, Trotter, Hopper, Skipper, 
Jumper, and Holler! Of these. Traveller was pro- 
bably given to some one who had visited * straunge contries 
andilands ;' and Trotter I am unable to explain, although 
it seems evidently to possess the same meaning with 
Trotman, whatever that may be. To the remaining seven, 
etymologies, more or less satisfactory, may be assigned. 
ThusWALKER signifies either (A.-S. pealcefie) a fuller,* or 
an officer, whose duty consisted in ' walking' or inspecting 
a certain space of forest-ground. Rider means another 
forest officer, a superintendent (as I take it) of the 

* walkers' — a ranger, who derived his name from the circum- 
stance of his being mounted, as having a larger district to 
supervise. In the ballad of * William of Cloudesley,' &c. 
the king, rewarding the dexterity of the archer who shot 
the apple from his child's head, says : — 

** I give thee eightene-pence a day, 
And my bowe thoii shalt here, 
And over all the north countre, 

I make thee chyfe rydere /"f {Percy's Reliques.) 

Ambler, antiently le Amhlour, is from the French, 

* ambleur,' an officer of the king's stable. Hopper pro- 
bably signified an officer who had the care of swans. By 
swan-* hopping,' or ' upping,' was meant the searching for 
and marking of the swans belonging to particular pro- 
prietors. It must not be forgotten however that the A.-S. 
Hoppefie means a dancer. Skipper (A.-S. Scipefie, a sailor) 
is a very antient term for the captain or master of a vessel ; 

• In the North of England a fulling-mill is still called a * u;aZAf-mill.' 
t JRyder has elsewhere been considered as the equivalent of the German 
" Ritter," a knight ; but there seems no good authority for such a supposition. 



OCCUPATIONS AND PURSUITS. 97 

Jumper possibly meant a maker of *jumps,' that is, a 
kind of short coats or boddices for women ;* while Hobler 
is most unquestionably a contraction of 'hobbelar' or 
* hobiler,' a person who by the tenure of his lands was 
obliged to keep a hobby or light horse, to maintain a watch 
by the side of a beacon, and to alarm the countryf in case 
of the enemy's approach in the day-time, when the fire of 
the beacons would not be discernible from a distance. It 
would seem also that the term was sometimes used to signify 
persons of an equestrian order, lower in dignity than knights, 
and probably mounted on meaner and smaller animals. In 
an antient romance we read of 

'* Ten thousand knights stout and fers, (fierce) 
Withouten hobelers and sqnyers I" 

The etymology of Dancer is sufficiently obvious. The 
first of that name doubtless possessed peculiar skill in the 
art saltatory. Perhaps, after all, the names Hopper and 
Jumper were acquired by proficiency in the gymnastic exer- 
cises to which at first sight they seem to refer. 

Massinger is an evident corruption of the French * mas- 
sager,' a messenger, a bearer of dispatches, &c. Pottinger 
is the Scottish for apothecary,;]; and Lardnerh an obsolete 
word for swine-herd, or rather a person who superintended 
the pannage of hogs in a forest. 

Names of the foregoing description, however mean in 
their origin, are now frequently found among the highest 
classes of society. The names Collier and Salter are, or 
have been, in the British peerage, although those occupa- 
tions were once considered so menial and vile that none 
but bondmen would follow them. Some names of this 
sort have been changed in orthography to hide their ori- 

* Bailey's Diet. t Fenn's Faston Letters. % Jamieson's Scottish Diet. 

5 



98 NAMES DERIVED FROM 

ginal meanness; "mollified ridiculously," as Master Camden 
hath it, " lest their bearers should seem vilified by them." 
Carteer, Smeeth, Tayler, Cuttlar, &c., are frequently met 
with as the substitutes of Carter, Smith, Tailor, and 
Cutler. " Wise was the man that told my Lord Bishop 
that his name was not Gardener as the EngUsh pronounce 
it, but Gardiner, with the French accent, and therefore a 
gentleman,"** 

Some names have reference to mihtary pursuits, as 
HarmaUy Arblaster,'^ Hookmany Billman, Spearman, Bow- 
man, Bannerman. 

The number and variety of surnames connected with the 
pleasures of the chase furnish evidence of the predilection 
of our progenitors for field-sports. Thus we have in great 
abundance our Hunters, Fowlers, Fishers, Falconers, 
{Faulkners, and Fawkeners,) Hawkers, Anglers, Warreners, 
Bowyers, and Bowmakers, Stringers, that is bow-string 
makers. Arrow-smiths, Fletchers (from the Fr. ' fleche'), 
that is, either an arrow-maker, or more generally, a super- 
intendent of archery. But some of these may be official 
names, and, therefore, more properly belong to my next 
Essay. Buckman and Hartman were probably servants to 
the * Parker,' and had the care of herds of venison. Brock- 
Tnan is a hunter of 'brocks* or badgers. A *tod,' in 
Scotland and the North of England, is a fox ; hence Tod- 
hunter is a fox-hunter, though not in the red-coated sense 
of that term. A Northumberland correspondent informs 
me that he knows an old man, a destroyer of foxes, who 
calls himself, and is caQed, the "Old Tod-hunter of 
Grapington," in Craven. The expression "wily tod" occurs 
in the writings of Wyclifie.:^ Burder signifies a bird- 

* Camden. + Vide infra. % Todman also occurs as a surname. 



OCCUPATIONS AND PURSUITS. 99 

catcher or fowler, as the following jest, written upwards of 
three centuries since, will prove : — 

"There was a doctour on a tyme, whiche desired a 
fouler, that went to catche byrdes with an owle, that he 
might go with hym. The hyrder was content, and dressed 
him with bows, and set hym by his oule, and bade him say 
nothynge. Whan he saw the byrdes a lyght a pace, he 
sayde : There be many byrdes alyghted, drawe thy nettes, 
where-with the byrdes flewe awaye. The hyrder was very 
angry, and blamed him greatly for his speakyng. Than he 
promysed to hold his peace. When the hyrder was in 
again, and many byrdes were alyghted, mayster Doctour 
said in Latyn, Aves permulte adsunt: wherwith the 
byrdes flewe away. The hyrder came out ryghte angrye 
and sore displeased, and sayde, that by his bablynge he had 
twyse loste his pray. * Why, thynkest thou, foole,' quoth 
the doctour, * that the byrdes do vnderstand Latin .?' "* 

'Low' is the Scottish for fire, and * low-bellers' are, 
according to Blount,t men " who go with a light and a 
bell, by the sight whereof birds, sitting on the ground, be- 
come somewhat stupified, and so are covered with a net 
and taken." Hence Lower is probably a hird-catcher. 
The Teutonic word *loer' is one who lays snares, and 
Lowrie in the Scottish dialect signifies a crafty person, in 
allusion probably to the same occupation. 

Most European languages, as has already been intimated, 
possess many surnames derived from manual employments; 
but in no country are they so various and abundant as in 
England. 

Before leaving this division of my subject I may notice 
a fact which is Httle known, and which cannot fail to ex- 

• Tales and Quicke Answeres, very mery, &c. + Law Diet. 



100 NAMES FROM OCCUPATIONS. 

cite the reader's astonishment : the surname Butcher was 
given as a title of honour. "Le Boucher," says Saintfoix, 
" was antiently a noble surname given to a general after a 
victory, in commemoration of his having slaughtered some 
thirty or forty thousand men !"* Horribile dictu /—hence- 
forward let all lovers of peace exclaim, 

" One murder makes a villain ; millions a Butcher V 



NOTE TO ESSAY IV. 

With respect to the application of the surnames treated of in the 
foregoing Essay, we may observe that there was much greater propriety 
in making the names of occupations stationary family names than ap- 
pears at first sight ; for the same trade was often pursued for many 
generations by the descendants of the individual w ho in the, first in- 
stance used it. Sometimes a particular trade is retained by most of 
the male branches of a family even for centuries. Thus the family of 
Oxley, in Sussex, were nearly all smiths or iron-founders during the 
long period of 250 years. Most of the Ades of the same county have 
been farmers for a still longer period. The trade of weaving has been 
carried on by another Sussex family named Webb (weaver) as far back 
as the traditions of the family extend, and it is not improbable that 
this business has been exercised by them ever since the first assumption 
of the term as a surname, by some fabricator of cloth in the thirteenth 
or fourteenth century. But the most remarkable instance of the long 
retention of a particular avocation by one man's posterity is in the 
family of Purkess, of the New Forest in Hampshire. The constant 
tradition of the neighbourhood states, that when William Rufus met 
his untimely end in that forest, there lived near the fatal oak a poor 
" coleman,'' or maker of charcoal, who lent his cart for the purpose of 
conveying the royal corpse to Winchester, and was rewarded with an 
acre or two of land round his hut. His immediate descendants of the 
same name live there still, and yet carry on the same trade, without 
one being richer than another for it. This family is deemed the most 
antient in the county. (Vide Gough^s Camden,) 

* Le Boucher ^toit anciennement un surnom glorieux, qu'on donnoit k un g^- 
n^ral, apr^s une victoire— en reconnoisance du carnage qu'il avoit fait de trente 
ou quarante mille homraes. (Saintfoix, Historical Essays.) 



NAMES FROM DIGNITIES AND OFFICES. 101 



ESSAY V. 

NAMES DERIVED FROM DIGNITIES, CIVIL AND ECCLE- 
SIASTICAL; AND FROM OFFICES. 

The same principle which introduced surnames bor- 
rowed from trades and occupations led to the adoption of 
the names of dignities and offices, which also became 
hereditary. 

The following is a list of EngUsh surnames derived from 
civil dignities, according to the rules of precedence : 

Emperor. 

King.* 

Prince. 

Duke. 

Earle. 

Baron. 

Lord. 

Knight. 

SciUIRE.f 

Gentleman. 
Yeoman. 

♦ A learned correspondent is of opinion that our surnames Canning, Channing, 
and Gunning are so many forms of the Anglo-Saxon cyninj, king. To me 
they have the appearance of local names. 

t Arminobr appears to be a corruption of Armiger, the Latin for this 
title. 



102 NAMES DERIVED FROM 

The following are from Ecclesiastical dignities : 

Pope. Deacon, Deakin. 

Cardinal. Clerk, Clark, Clarke.* 

Bishop, Bysshopp. Chaplin, Caplin. 

Abbott. Friar, Fryer, Freere, 

Prior, Pryor. Frere (Chaucer, passim.) 

Dean. Monk. 

Archdeacon. Nunn. 

Parsons. Proctor. 

Vicar, Vickers. Saxton. 
Priest. 

The following offices have all lent their designations as 
names of families : Stewart (steward). Constable, Marshall, 
Chancellor, Chamberlayne, Sheriff, Serjeant, Castellan, 
Mayor, Warden, Burgess, Porter, Champion, Beadle, Page, 
Reeve, Woodreeve, Ranger, Bailey (bailiff), Parker, 
Forester, Botiler (or Butler), Hunter, Falconer, &c. 
Many offices, &c. now obsolete, have also conferred surnames 
on the persons who bore them, as 

Le Despencer, corruptly Spencer, and Horden, a 
steward. The ancestor of the family of Spencer, dukes of 
Marlborough, was dispenser or steward of the household to 
"William the Conqueror. 

Seneschal, a steward, vilely corrupted to SnashalL 

Staller, a standard-bearer. Camd. 

Foster, a nourisher ; one who had the care of the children 
of great men. We have also Nurse as a surname. 

Kemp, a soldier, especially one who engaged in single 

* " Adam the Clerk, son of Philip the Scribe," occurs in an antient record, 
as also does ** Alexander, the son of Glay the Seneschal." 



DIGNITIES AND OFFICES. 103 

combat. In this sense it has been revived in the works of 
Sir Walter Scott. Kempes and kemperye-men for warriors 
or fighting-men occur in the ballad of King Estmere in 
Percy's ReUques : 

" They had not ridden scant a myle, 
A myle forthe of the towne, 
But in did come the kynge of Spayne, 
With kempes many a one. 

Up then rose the kemperye-men 

And loud they gan to crye 
Ah ! traytors, you have slayne our kynge. 

And therefore you shall dye." 

A kemper is stiU used in Norfolk in the sense of a stout, 
hearty, old man — a veteran. The A.-S. cempa has also 
supplied us with the surnames Campj Champa and Camper. 
Campion and Champion have come to us through the 
French, from the same root. The Swedish Kempenfelt and 
the Spanish Campeador belong to this family. Kimber is 
also synonymous ; " Kimher^ enim, homo beUicosus, pugil 
robustus, miles, &c. significat."* 

Segar and Seagar, (Sax. Sijejie,) a vanquisher. So 
says Verstegan ; but a Northern correspondent informs 
me that this is a provincialism for ' sawyer.' 

Latimer. This name was first given to Wrenoe ap 
Merrick, a learned Welshman, who held certain lands by 
the service of being latimer or interpreter between the 
Welsh and the EngUsh ; and the name of his office de- 
scended to his posterity, who were afterwards ennobled as 
English peers. f 

Valvasour, (now more generally written Vavasour y) an 
office or dignity taking rank below a baron, and above a 

• Sheringham. t Vide Burke's Ext. Peerage. 



104 NAMES DERIVED FROM 

knight. Bfacton says, *' there are for the civil government 
of mankind, emperors, kings, and princes, magnates, or 
valvasours and knights.'* In the Norman reigns there 
was a king's valvasour, whose duty probably consisted in 
keeping ward ad valvas Regniy at the entrances and borders 
of the realm ; whence the name. 

Arblastevy a corruption of Bahstarius, one who directed 
the great engines of war used before the invention of 
cannon, a cross-bow-man. 

Spigurnelly a sealer of writs. 

Avery. Camden places this among Christian names, 
but query, is it not the name of an office — Aviarius, a 
keeper of the birds? The Charter of Forests (section 14) 
enacts that " every freeman may have in his woods avyries 
of sparhawks, falcons, eagles, and herons.'* But there is 
another distinct derivation of this name, for Avery ^ accord- 
ing to Bailey, signifies " a place where the oats (avence) 
or provender are kept for the King's horses." 

Franklin, a dignity next to the esquires and gentlemen 
of olden times, the antient representative of the class of 
superior freeholders, known in later times as country 
'squires. Fortescue (de Legibus Angliae, c. 29,) describes 
a franklein as *5 pater-familias — magnis ditatus possessi- 
onibus." " Moreover, the same country (namely England,) 
is so filled and replenished with landed menne, that therein 
so small a thorpe cannot be found wherein dwelleth not a 
knight or an esquire, or such a householder as is there 
commonly called a /mwA;Zem, enriched with great posses- 
sions, and also other freeholders and many yeomen, able 
for their livelyhoodtomake a jury in form aforementioned." * 

* Old Translation of Fortescue de L. L. Ang. 



DIGNITIES AND OFFICES. 105 

Chaucer's description of a Franklin is everything that 
could be wished : 

" A Frankelein was in this compagnie ; 
White was his herd, as is the dayesie. 
Of his complexion he was sanguin. 
Wei loved he by the morwe a sop in win[e] 
To liven in delit was ever his wone, 
For he was Epicure's owen sone, 
That held opinion that plein delit 
Was veraily felicite parfite. 
An housholder, and that a grete was he ; 
Selnt Julian,* he was in his contree ; 
His brede, his ale, was alway after on ; 
A better envynedi man was no wher non, 
Withouten bake-mete never was his hous, 
Of fish and flesh, and that so plenteous, 
It snewed in his hous of mete and drinke, 
Of alle daintees that men coud of thinke. 
After the sondry sesons of the yere. 
So changed he his mete and his soupere. 
Ful many a fat partrich hadde he in mewe, 
And many a breme, and many a luce in stewe. 
Wo was his coke, but if his sauce were 
Poinant and sharpe, and ready all his gere. 
His table dormant in his halle alway 
Stode redy covered alle the long^ day. 

At sessions ther was he lord and sire, 
Ful often time he was knight of the shire ; 
An anelace, and a gipciere all of silk 
Heng at his girdel, white as morwe milk. 
A shereve hadde he ben, and a countour. 
Was no wher swiche a worthy vavasour. ''J 

Heriot, a provider of furniture for an army. Versteg. 
CoheUy a usual name amongst the Jews, signifies priest. 

* St. Julian was the patron of hospitality. 

t Envyned, that is, stored with wine. 

X Canterbury Tales. Prologue. Vol. i. p. 44. Edit. 1825. 

5§ 



106 NAMES DERIVED FROM 

SomneVj one whose duty consisted in citing delinquents 
to the ecclesiastical courts ; an apparitor. The office 
existed in Chaucer's time under the orthography of somp- 
noure, literally summoner, sompne being then the mode of 
speUing the verb. In the Coventry Mysteries we have the 
following : 

" Sim SoMNOR, in hast wend thou thi way, 
Byd Joseph, and his wyfF, be name, 
At the coorte to upper this day, 
Hem to pourge of her defame." 

Chaucer's portrait of the Sompnour is one of the best in 
his inimitable gallery. He 

" . . . . hffilde a fire-red cherubinne's face 

With scalled browes blake and pllled herd. 

Of his visage children were sore af^rd. 

[He loved] to drinke strong win as rede as blood. 

Then wolde he speke, and crie as he were wood. 

And whan that he wel dronken had the win, 

Than wolde he speken no word but Latin. 

A few 6 termes coude* he, two or three 

That he had lerned out of som decree ; 

No wonder is, he herd it all the day ; 

And eke ye knowen wel, how that ^jay 

Can clepen watte, as wel as can the pope. 

But who so wolde in other thing him grope.t 

Than hadde he spent all his philosophie, 

Ay, Questio quid juris, wolde he crie," &c. &c.J 

To this list of official names I may add Judge ; but how 
the word Jwri/ became the name of a single person I do 
not pretend to guess. (On reconsideration, ' Jury' appears 

♦ He knew. t Examine. %. Cant. Tales, Prologue. 



DIGNITIES AND OFFICES. 107 

to be a corrupt spelling of Jewry y and is therefore a local 
name. That part of a city or town inhabited by Jews was 
formerly styled *the Jewrie'.) Foreman was probably 
adopted by some one who had served on a jury in that 
capacity. Association of ideas reminds me of another im- 
portant functionary, Dempster, the common hangman, un- 
less indeed it signify a judge of the Isle of Man, as the 
judges of that little kingdom formerly bore this designa- 
tion. Lockman is a Scottish word for the public execu- 
tioner. 

Several names end in gravey meaning a steward or dis- 
poser, as Waldegrave, a steward of the forest ; Margrave, a 
steward or warden of the marches or frontiers ; Hargrave, 
the provider of an army. I think, however, that these 
names were not indigenous to England, but brought from 
Germany, where ^vaf is synonymous with count, and 
'Pff^zgraf,' whence our Palgrave, is a count-palatine. 
Grave, in Lancashire, especially in the disafforested dis- 
tricts, means a constable, and constables' rates are called 
* grave-leys.' 

Pilgrim and Palmer are neither offices nor dignities, yet 
they may find a place here. The Palmer differed from a 
common pilgrim in making a profession of wandering. The 
pilgrim laid aside his weed and cockle when his pilgrimage 
was done, and returned to the world ; but the palmer wan- 
dered about incessantly ; his pilgrimage was only laid aside 
at death. He derived his name from the palm-branch he 
constantly carried as a pledge of his having been in the 
Holy Land. In the church of Snodland, in the diocese of 
Rochester, was formerly an inscription to the memory of 



108 NAMES DERIVED FROM 

Palmer, of Otford, Esq. containing several 

puns or allusions to this name and profession. 

'* 3^almer5 all otor dFatferj} torn, 
^ a ^Palmer liu^tr i^ere, 
^ntr trau^rtr isttll, till toorne hipt^ agt, 
If entfptr tjijs hjorlti*^ pplgramage. 
•©n tlje bl^sit ^si^mtton^Kap, 
Ifit tl)e cl)erM nwnti^ of ilHaj), 
^ tSoto£(ant( h)|)t]& fohjre l)untrr^tl, £iemn, 
^ ntJ toofe m» tornej) l^eniSe to Hcuen.* 

Sir Walter Scott has given us a sketch of a palmer in 

Marmion : 

" Here is a holy Palmer come 

From Salem first, and last from Rome, 

One that hath kissed the blessed tomb, 

And visited each holy shrine 

In Araby and Palestine ; 

On hills of Armenie bath been, . 

Where Noah's ark may yet be seen ; 

By that Red Sea too hath he trod 

Which parted at the Prophet's rod ; 

In Sinai's wilderness he saw 

The Mount where Israel heard the law, 

Mid thunder-dint and flashing levin. 

And shadowy mists and darkness given. 

He shows St. James's cockle shell ; 

Of fair Montserrat too can tell ; 
And of that Grot where olives nod, 

Where, darling of each heart and eye, 

From all the youth of Sicily 

Saint Rosalie retired to God. 
* * * « * 

His sable cowl o'erhung his face ; 

In his black mantle was he clad ; 

* Weever's Fun. Mod. 



DIGNITIES AND OFFICES. 109 

With Peter's keys in cloth of red 
On his broad shoulders wrought ; 
The scallop-shell his cap did deck ; 
The crucifix around his neck 

Was from Loretto brought ; 
His sandals were with travel tore, 
Staff, budget, bottle, scrip he wore ; 
The faded fialm-branch in. his hand 
Shewed pilgrim from the Holy Land," 

The origin of the name of Gear is curious. In the 
'^ olden tyme'' great men employed an officer to superin- 
tend the provision of their entertainments and the equip- 
ment of their armed retainers ; and, as all sorts of wearing 
apparel, arms,* utensils, and chattels in general, were 
called gere or gear^ this person would very naturally ac- 
quire the name of John-of-the-Gear, John-o-Gear and, at 
length, John Gear. 

The termination ward indicates some office, and is 
equivalent to keeper or custos — thus Milward is the keeper 
of a mill (probably some manorial or monastic mill;) 
Kenwardy the dog-keeper, or more properly Kine-wardy 
cow-keeper ; Aylward, the ale-keeper ; Durwardy the 
porter or door-keeper ; Haywardy the keeper of a common 
herd of cattle belonging to some town ; and Woodwardy a 
forest-keeper, "an officer that walks with a forest-bill, and 
takes cognizance of all offences committed, at the next 
swain-mote or court of attachments.*'f Howard certainly 
belongs to this family of names, but antiquaries are not 

• Thus in the old poem of Flodden Field : 

« Then did he send Sir William Bulmer, 
And bad hym on the borders lye. 
With ordinance and other gem-, 
•' Each fenced house to fortify." 
t Bailey's Diet. 



110 NAMES DERIVED FROM 

agreed as to the meaning of the first syllable. Camden 
makes it the high-warden; Spelman, the hall-keeper; 
Verstegan, the keeper of a strong-hold; and Skinner, a 
keeper of hospitality. What such great names cannot 
agree upon, I shall not attempt to decide. Ward also 
stands as a surname, as do Warden and Guardy which have 
the same meaning. 

Granger, the superintendent of a grange— a great farm 
pertaining to some abbey or priory. 

Portmany an officer, now called a portreeve, with duties 
similar to those of a mayor. The sessions of some of the 
older corporations were formerly called portmannimotes, or 
portman's courts. 

Landseer, probably a land-steward or bailifi". 
Palliser, a person who had the care of the pahngs of a 
park or forest. 

Poynder, a bailiff, one who distrains. 
Having given this long hst of names derived from titles 
and offices, I shall next attempt to account for their having 
been adopted as the designations of families. 

That the first of the name of King, Prince, or Duke, 
held either of those dignities is too preposterous for beUef. 
Nor is it more likely that the inferior titles of Knight and 
Squire were so derived, for that would have been a mean 
kind of nomenclature. If a person were really a knight or 
an esquire, he would prefer styling himself Sir Roger de 
Such-a-place, or John So-and-So, Esquire, to taking the 
simple designation of his rank as a surname. Again, in 
ecclesiastical dignities such names if adopted could not 
have been perpetuated, seeing that all churchmen, from 
his hohness of Rome down to the meanest curate, led a 



DIGNITIES AND OFFICES. Ill 

life of celibacy, and, consequently, had no recognized pos- 
terity. 

It has been conjectured, however, that these names in- 
dicate bastardy, and that the persons bearing them are thus 
bona fide of royal, papal, knightly, squirely, or priestly 
descent — a plausible surmise, but the proofs are wanting. 
Most of these names, particularly of the secular de- 
scription, were probably borrowed from the first users of 
them having acted or personated such characters in myste- 
ries or dramatic representations ; or from their having been 
chosen, as Camden supposes, leaders of the popular sports 
of the times, as Kings of the Bean, Christmas Lords, &c. 
The same high authority reminds us that the classical 
antients had such names as " BasUius, Archias, Archelaus, 
Flaminius, Csesarius, Augustulus, &c., who, notwithstand- 
ing, were neither Kings, Priests, Dukes, nor Caesars." 

There are those who think the clerical names originated 
from widowers y who had gone into the church and gained 
particular offices in it, having given the designations of 
such offices as surnames to their children. The Rev. 
Mark Noble thinks that such as took these names held 
lands under those who really bore them. This may be 
true of some of them, both lay and clerical, but it does not 
account for the higher dignities, as Pope and Emperor, 
which have never existed in this country. Of all these 
conjectures, Camden's, although the most humiliating, 
seems the most probable. 

The French name of Archevesque (Archbishop) is thus 
accounted for. Hugh de Lusignan, an archbishop, be- 
coming unexpectedly entitled to the seignories of Par- 
thenay, Soubize, &c., obtained the pope's dispensation to 
marry, on the condition that his posterity should take 



112 NAMES DERIVED FROM 

the name of Archhishopy and bear a mitre over their arms 
for ever. 

None of the objections just adduced apply to surnames 
borrowed from offices of the inferior kind, as Steward, 
Reeve, Parker, &c. ; and we have evidence that family 
names were borrowed from the offices held by the founders 
of houses. According to Carew, the Porters of Cornwall 
derived their name from the office of porter of Trematon 
Castle, antiently hereditary in the family under the Dukes 
of Cornwall. We have already seen that the name of 
Spencer originated in a similar manner; but there is a 
more illustrious instance. The name of Stuart, borne 
for centuries by the regal family of Scotland and England, 
descended to them from Walter, grandson of Banquo, who 
in the eleventh century was steward of Scotland. 

In conclusion, I may remark that these high-sounding 
surnames are a very numerous class. Almost every village 
has its King or Prince, or at least its Knight or Squire. 
Bishops are, I think, rather more numerous than parish 
churches ; and as for Popes, it is no unusual circumstance 
to find eight or ten dwelHng together in perfect amity, a 
thing never heard of at Rome, where only two have been 
known to set Christendom in a blaze ! The following 
humorous morceau will form an appropriate tail-piece to 
my present essay : 

" Ctue Copg of a jury taken before Judge Doddridge, 
at the assizes holden at Huntingdon, a.d. 1619." [It is 
necessary to remark that "the judge had, in the preceding 
circuit, censured the sheriff for empannehng men not 
qualified by rank for serving on the grand jury, and the 
sheriff, being a humourist, resolved to fit the judge with 
sounds at least. On calling over the following- names, 



DIGNITIES AND OFFICES. 113 

and pausing emphatically at the end of the Christian, in- 
stead of the surname, his lordship began to think he had 
indeed a jury of quality] : 

"Maximilian King of Toseland, 

Henry Prince of Godmanchester, 

George Duke of Somersham, 

William MARauis of Stukeley, 

Edmund Earl of Hartford, 

Richard Baron of Bythorn, 

Stephen Pope of Newton, 

Stephen Cardinal of Kimbolton, 

Humphrey Bishop of Buckden, 

Robert Lord of Waresley, 

Robert Knight of Winwick, 

William Abbott of Stukeley, 

Robert Baron of St. Neots, 

WilUam Dean of Old Weston, 

John Archdeacon of Paxton, 

Peter EsauiRE of Easton, 

Edward Fryer of Ellington, 

Henry Monk of Stukeley, 

George Gentleman of Spaldwick, 

George Priest of GrafFham, 

Richard Deacon of Catworth. 

"The judge, it is said, was highly pleased with this 
practical joke, and commended the sheriff for his ingenuity. 
The descendants of some of these illustrious jurors still re- 
side in the county, and bear the same names ; in particular, 
a Maximilian King, we are informed, still presides over 
Toseland."* 

* History of Huntingdon, 12mo, 1824 ; also quoted by Nares. 



114 SURNAMES DERIVED FROM 



ESSAY VI. 

SURNAMES DERIVED FROM PERSONAL AND MENTAL 
QUALITIES. 

These seem to form one of the most obvious sources 
of surnames, and a prolific source it has been. Nothing 
would be more natural, at the first assumption of sur- 
names, than for a person of dark complexion to take the 
name of Black or BlackmaTif a tawny one that of Browne, 
and a pale one that of White or Whiteman. So, doubtless, 
originated RufuSy Rom, Rousseau (Fr.), and Russel (which 
seem only modifications of one word signifying red), 
Redman, Pink, Tawney, Motley, Whitesides, Silversides, 
Ruddiman, and perhaps Scarlett.* As no person ever had 
a green face (however green in other respects), we must 
refer the common surname that represents that colour to 
a local origin; John atte the Greene, Roger a^ Green, &c., 
being among the most famihar names of that class. The 
colour of the hair also led to a numerous train of these 
hereditary sobriquets (for they certainly are nothing else) : 
hence Hoare, Grissel, Grey, Blackhcke, Whitelocke, 
Silverlocke, Fairhaire, Whithair, Blound (Fr.), fair- 
haired, Fairfax (A.-S.), fair locks, Blackbeard, Whitehead, 
Blackhead, Redhead, &c. But it was not from the head 
alone that names of this description were taken, for we 
have, in respect of other personal quahties, our Longs 
and our Shorts; our Langmans, Longmans, and 

• Purple occurs in America ! 



PERSONAL AND MENTAL QUALITIES. 115 

Longfellows; our Pretty mans and our Tallmans; 
our Biggs and our Broads; our Greats and our 
Smalls; our Strongs and our Weakly s ; our StrongmanSy 
Strongers, Strongfellows, StrongiHK arms, audi Armstrongs ; 
our Littles and our Lowes, and even our Little rs and 
our Lowers (!) our Goodbodies and our Freebodies ; our 
Groses and our Thynnes ;J our Swifts and our Slowmans 
Speeds, Quicks, and Quickly s ; our Plaines and our Prettys 
our Larges and our Pettys ; our Lovely s and our Plainers 
our i^«##5 and our Stouts ; our Darkmans and our £2'%- 
whites; our Lightfoots and our Heavisides, with many 
more whose meaning is less obvious. 

Among these may be noticed, Starkie, strong of body ; 
F2>5#, broad-footed; Crumpe, crooked; Mewet, one who 
speaks inwardly; iiVar, a leprous person; Morphew, a 
scrofulous person ; Michel (A.-S), great ; <S/«eZZ, agile.f J5e4 
when affixed to le, is from the French, fair ; Fleet, swift ; 
JTttZe, healthful; Holder, ihrn-^X Carr and ^er, stout; and 
Pigot, from the French 'picot^,' pitted with smallpox, 
speckled ; with its variations, Piggott, Pickett, &c. 

The very common name of Reed, Read or Reid, is an 
old speUing of Red, (a name given, probably, in reference 
to complexion), thus Chaucer : 

" And floures both white and rede ;" 
and Sir John Maundevile, speaking of the Red Sea, says : 
" That See is not more reed than another see ; but in some 

♦ This name (so far as one family is concerned) has a different origin. John 
de Botteville, so lately as the reign of Edward IV., resided at one of the Inns of 
court, and was thence named John ofth'Inne (Thynne). {Brady's Diss. p. 13.) 

t **ea't>mun'& cmj Ifien-fi*© paep jeclypo^o pofi hif &nell-fcipe. 
King Edmund was called Iron-side for his hardihood, agility." {S(^. Chron.) 
Snell appears to have been a Christian name before the Conquest, when the 
name of Snelson sometimes occurs. 

t Camden. 



116 SURNAMES DERIVED FROM 

places thereof is the graveUe reede: and therefore men 
clepen it the Rede Sea." 

Many names of Welsh or Gaelic origin, common in 
England, have similar meanings, thus, More, great ; Begg, 
little; Roy, red; Duff^^ Dove, Dow, Dee, black; Bane, 
(whence behke Baynes), white or fair ; Vaughan, little ; 
Moel, or Mole, bald; Gam, crooked; Fane, slender; 
Grimm, strong ; Gough, red ; Gwynne, white ; Greig and 
Gregg, hoarse ; Gleg, quick ; Balloch, spotted in the face. 
Wight is strong, and Doughty, formidable, (A.-S. 
Sohti^.) 

" Lordynges, lysten, and you shal here, 
You shall well heare of a knight, 
That was in warre full wyght, 
And dougfitye of his dede." (Dowsabell.) . 

The antients had names of cognate significations, as 
among the Greeks, Pyrrhus, Chlorus, Chryses, and among 
the Romans, Candidus, Rutilus, Longus, Paulus, &c. with 
many others indicative of personal qualities or peculiarities. 

Among the names indicative of mental or moral qualities, 
we have our Hardy s and our Cowards; our Meeks and our 
Moodys ; our Bolds and our Slyes ; our Lively s and our 
Sullens ; our Eagers and our Dulman^ ; our Giffords or 
liberal ones, and our Curteises. Curteis I take to be an 
antient spelhng of the adjective courteous. Chaucer says 
of his " yong squier" — 

" Curteis he was, gentil and aflFable." 

So in Percy's Rehques : 

" And as the lyoune, which is of bestis kinge 
Unto thy subjectis be kurteis and benygne." 

Nor must we overlook our Wilds and our Sangwines ; our 
Merry s and our Sobers ; our Nobles and our Willeys, or 



PERSONAL AND MENTAL QUALITIES. 117 

favorable ones ; our Blythes and our Cleeres j our Sternes 
and our Bonnys ; our Godmans and our Godlimans ; our 
Wakes or watchfuls ; our Terry s or tearful ones;* our 
Forwards and our Wises, our Wooralls or worth-alls,f 
our Ay twins, or beloved of all; our Proudes and our 
Humbles; our Sharpes and our Blunts; our Sweets and 
our Sweetmans ; our Illmans and our Freemans ;% our 
Wisemans and our Booklesses (!) our Stables and our 
Hasties ; our Gentles and our Lawlesses]; our Giddys and 
our Carelesses ; our Sadds and our Merryman^ ; our 
Innocents and our Peerlesses; our Luckies and our Faithfuls; 
our Gaudy s and our Decents; our Gallants and our 
Trusty s ; our Dearloves and our Trueloves ; our Truemans 
and our Thankfuls ; our Brisks and our Doolittles ; our 
Dears and our Darlings ; our Closes and our Allfrees ; our 
Brightmans and our Flatmans ; and, to close this long 
catalogue, our Goods, § Goodmans, Goodchilds ,\\ Goodfellows, 
our Thoroughgoods, Allgoods, Bests, Perfects, and Good- 
enoughs ; and, what is very extraordinary indeed, our 
Toogoods ! 

To these (from less obvious origins) add, if you will, 
jS^mw^ (Stunt, A.-S.) stupid, foolish; taken substantively 
it means a fool, by no means an enviable designation, but 
far from applicable to all who bear it. In a Saxon trans- 
lation of the book of Job, that patriarch calls his wife 
"stunt wif," i. e. a foolish woman. Widmer (py^, 

* Verstegan ; la more probable derivation is from the Fr. Thierry, Theodoric. 

+ So Verstegan, Restit. 

:t The name F?'y, is a modernized spelling of Frie, free. 

§ Goad, a corrupt spelling of the O. E. gode, good. 

Q The French likewise have Goodman and Goodson — Bonhomme and Bonfils. 
The surname of Pope Gregory XIII. was Buoncompagno, good companion, and 
that of his secretary of the treasury Buonfigluolo, good son. 



118 SURNAMES DERIVED FROM 

wide and ODeaji, fame, A.-S.) widely renowned ; Huhhardy 
(Hu^hbejit, A.-S.) disposed to joy and gladness; Joyce 
(Fr.), the same ; Hogarth (Dutch,) high-natured, generous ; 
Mire (A.-S), clear; Baudy pleasant ; iJwsA, subtle ; Barraty 
cunning. Bowne, ready; Bonner, (Fr. bonaire, 0. E. 
boner,) kind, gracious; Eldridge is defined by Percy as 
wild, hideous, ghostly. See a description of an " Eldridge 
knight," in the ballad of Sir Cauline. 

Very much do these resemble the Agathias, Andragathius, 
Sophocles, Eubulus, Prudentius, Pius, Constans, &c. of 
the classical antients. Indeed there is scarcely any kind 
of names now in use that has not its prototype among the 
Greeks and Romans. 

To this list of names from personal and mental qualities, 
I may appropriately adjoin such as had their origin in 
some feat of personal strength or courage, as Armstrong 
(already mentioned), All-fraye, Langstaffy Wagstaff, 
Shakestaff and Shakespeare y or, as Mr. C. Knight wiQ 
have ity • Shakspere. Also Box-ally Tirebucky Turnbully^ 
and Breakspear, which was the original name of our 
countryman. Pope Hadrian the Fourth. 

^'Harmany^ observes Verstegan, "should rightly be 
Heartmany to wit, a man of heart or courage." It also 
signifies a soldier or constable, in both which avocations 
"heart, or courage" is necessary. Holman may be Whole- 
many a man of undeniable valour — a man, every inch of 
him. Analogous to this etymology is that of the patrial 
noun Alman or German, which, according to Verstegan, 
" is as much to say as all or wholly a man," attributed 



• During our wars with the Scotch in the days of Edward I., one TurnbuU 
—a man of gigantic power — was champion of the Scottish army. 



PERSONAL AND MENTAL QUALITIES. 119 

to that nation "in regard to their great manliness and 
valour.'* 

There are certain surnames which I have the greatest 
difficulty in assigning to any particular class. Gladman 
probably belongs to those derived from mental pecuharities, 
but Beadman is a complete nondescript— the most absurd 
appellation ever given to living creature. I know several 
people of this name.* 

* Dudman occurs as a name in that celebrated burlesque poem the " Tourna- 
ment of Tottenham" in Percy's Reliques. 



120 SURNAMES DERIVED FROM 



ESSAY VII. 

SURNAMES DERIVED FROM CHRISTIAN NAMES. 

Everybody must have remarked the great number of 
names of this kind. Who is there among my readers who 
does not immediately call to mind some score or two of 
Edwardses, Johnsons, Stevenses, and Harrisons, in the 
circle of his acquaintance ? Yet such names are far more 
common than at first sight they appear to be, as I shall 
prove before I arrive at the end of this Essay. 

Many of the christian or fore-names of our ancestors 
were taken up without any addition or change, as Anthony, 
AndreWy Abel, Allen, Arnold, Ambrose, Amos, Alexander, 
Baldwin, Bartholomew, Boniface, Bryan, Barnard, Charles, 
Clement, Cecil, Cuthbert, Dunstan, Donald, Dennis, David, 
Daniel, Edgar, Ellis, Everard, Frederick, Gregory, Goddard, 
Godfrey, Gervaise (now Jarvis), Griffith, Guy, George, 
Gerard, Gilbert, Henry, Howell, Humphry, Herbert, 
Hilary, Isaac, Ingram, James, Jeffrey, Lawrence, Leonard, 
Lambert, Lewis, Martin, Matthew, Miles, Morgan, Neale, 
Nicholas, Oliver, Osmond, Owen, Paul, Percival, Philip, 
Ralph (usually written Relf), Randal, Reynold, Rice, 
Sampson, Silvanus, Simeon, Theobald, Thomas, Titus, 
Valentine, Vincent, Walter, &c. 

Great numbers of these have been assumed in the geni- 
tive case, as John Reynolds, for John the son of Reynold, 
James PhilHps, for James the son of PhiHp ; others have 
been corrupted in various ways, as Bennet from Benedict, 



CHRISTIAN NAMES. 121 

Cutheard from Cuthbert, Emary (whence Emmerson) from 
Almerie, Errey from Eric, Stace from Eustace, &c. 

Those who are conversant with documents belonging to 
the middle ages, are well aware of the disposition that then 
existed to make the father's christian name the surname of 
the child. Even at a much more recent date the sire-name 
was frequently preferred to the stationary surname of the 
family. In Dr. Fiddes's Life of Cardinal Wolsey, Edmund 
Bonner, bishop of London, is called Dr. Edmunds, and 
Stephen Gardiner, bishop of Winchester, Dr. Stephens. 
These prelates, indeed, had no children ; but such in- 
stances may serve to show, nevertheless, with what facility 
christian names would pass into surnames in cases where 
there were children. 

Camden has a hst of surnames, formed of such forenames 
as are now obsolete, and only occur in Doomsday Book 
and other records of atitient date. From this list and from 
another by Dr. Pegge in the Gentleman's Magazine for 
1772, p. 318, I select such as I have myself met with, 
omitting from the doctor's catalogue those names which 
are still common as christian names, and adding others. 

Anstis (Anastasius). 

Ayscough, Askew (Asculphus). Huskisson = 
Askew's son? 

AUCHER. 

Ansell (Anselm). 

Baynard. 

Brand {Sax. Chron.) 

Bennet (St. Benedict). 

Brandon. 



122 surnames derived from 

Baldric. 

Bardolph. 

Barchard (Belchard). 

Barringer (Berengerius). 

Berners. 

Bryant (Brient). 

Coleman (Bede). 
Cadman (Csedman). 
Christian. 
Calfe. 

Degory. 

Durrant (Durandus). 

Drew (Drogo), 

DoDD. Whence Dodson. 

Edolph (Eadulph, Sax. Chron.) 

Ellis (Elias).* 

Elmer (^Imer). 

Everest, Every, Everett and Verry (Everard). 

Eachard (Achard, Doomsday). 

Etty (Eddy). 

Edlin (Atheling). 

Eade, Eades (Eudo). 

FULKE (Fulco). 

Farand, Farrant (Ferdinand). 
Folkard, Folker (Fulcher).t 

* The EUises of Yorkshire consider themselves to be surnatned from Eliseux 
in Normandy. 

^ FcLCHEB is evidently the origin of Fullagar and perhaps of Woolgar. 



CHRISTIAN NAMES. 123 

Girth. 

Godwin, Goodwin. 

Goodrich. 

Good LUCK {Doomsday). 

Grimes (Grime). 

GuNTER {Ingulphus). 

Gamble (Gamel, Sax.) 

Hassell (Asceline). 

Hesketh (Hascuith). 

Harman {Sax. Chron.) — See page 118. 

HoDE, HoAD, Hood (Odo). 

Hake (Haco). 

Hamlin (Hammeline) . 

Harding {Ingulph). 

Hammond (Hamon). 

Harvey (Herve). 

Heward. 

Herward, 

Hubert. 

Ive. 

Jernegan. 
Jollande. 

Kettle (Chetell, Doomsday). 
KiLLiCK (Calixtus). 

Lucy (Lucius). 

Mervyn (Merfin). 



124 SURNAMES DERIVED FROM 

Mallet (Sax. Chron.) 
Maynard. 

Massey (Macey, Doomsday). 

Orson (Urso), whence Fitz-Urse. 

Ody (Odo). 

Orme. 

Other. 

Reyner (Reinardus). 
Raymond. 

Rothery (Rodericus). 
Rolle (Raoul). 

Stiggins (Stigandus or Stigand.) 

Saer, now Sayers. 

Searle (Serlo). 

Semar. 

Sewell (Sewellus). 

Seaward (Siwardus).* 

Swain (Sweyn). 

Seabright (Sigebert). 

Selwyn. 

Savery (Savaricus). 

San KEY (Sancho). 

Semple, Sampol (St. Paul). 

Sampiere (St. Peter). 

Stydolph (St. Edolph). 

Samand (St. Amado). 

SiMBERD (St. Barbe). 

* This was also a name of office, the Anglo-Saxon &£Bpeajl*& was a high- 
admiral, who kept the sea against pirates. 



I 



CHRISTIAN NAMES. 125 

Tipple (Theobald). 
Tippet (the same). 
Toby (St. Olave). 
Terry (Theodorie). 

TOVY. 

TuRROLD, or TuRREL (Thorold). 
Tudor, Welsh, (Theodore.) 

Ulmer. 

Vivian. 

Wish art (Wiscard). 

Wade. 

Warner. 

Wimble, Wimboll (Winebald, Doomsday). "^ 

From this enumeration I omit many of the names called 
by Camden " Christian names in use about the time of the 
Conquest," such as Hasting, Howard, Talbot, Pipard, 
Poyntz. What, I ask, are these but surnames ? Does not 
the fact of such names occurring singly in Doomsday Book, 
add weight to the opinion I expressed at page 41 ? 

We have a few surnames from Welsh Christian names, 
as Cradock (from Caradoc), Chowne (from Chun), Merricks 
and Meyrick (from Meirric), Meredith and Madox, cor- 
rupted to Maddicks, * whereby hangs a tale.' " Are you 
acquainted with, mathematics .'"* asked a young pedant of a 
country acquaintance. " No," was the reply ; "I know 
Tom Maddicks and Will Maddicks, but as to Matthy, I 
never heard tell on him before." 

* Wimbledon, in Surrey, is probably the tun or enclosure of one Winebald, a 
Saxon. 



126 SURNAMES DERIVED FROM 

Next in order come the names terminating with son, as 
AdamsoUy Johnson^ Henryson^ Clementson, Richardscm, 
Philipson, &c. whose derivation is clear, together with 
Heardson, Crowson, Quilson, Wigson, &c. from corrupted 
names, or from names no longer in use. Many of these 
were doubtless assumed before the Conquest, as we find 
GrimkeUon, Gamelson, &c. in the time of Edward the 
Confessor, if not earlier. The Norman fitz, a corruption 
of FiLs, was used in the same way, and among the con- 
quered Saxons was sometimes adopted instead ; thus 
Waltersonne and Geroldsonne became Fits-Walter and 
Fitz-Gerald ;* generally however the fitz denotes a 
Norman extraction. Sometimes, but rarely, son was 
appended to a profession, trade, title, or condition, as 
Dukeson, Clarkson, Cookson, WrightsoUy Smithson, 
Masterson, Stewardson, Hindson, and Widowson. 

The FITZ or son conjoined to a female name is thought 
to denote illegitimacy, as Fitz-Parnell, Fitz-Emma, Anson; 
Fveson, EmsoUy and Nelson, from Ann, Eve, Emma, and 
Nel or Eleanor.f So also Susans, Maudlins (Magdalene), 
Avis (Hawisa), Grace, Hannah, Fegge, that is Margery, 
Mary, Rachel, Jane, and the Hke. But it should be 
remembered that the Romans occasionally used their 
mother's name, when born in wedlock, and that our 
Henry the Second called himself Fitz-Empress. 

Other names are formed of, and upon, the cant or 
abbreviated Christian names ; ("pardon me,*' saith Master 
Camden, " if I offend any, for it is but my coniecture,'") as 

* '* The use of the prefix fitz has, with propriety, been revived in modem 
times. The eldest son of Harris, Earl of Malmesbury, is, by title of courtesy, 
Viscount Fitz-Harris." 

t Some of these apparently female names are possibly corruptions of masculine 
ones ; thus Anson may be Hanson — Nelson, Neilson, &c. 



CHRISTIAN NAMES. 127 

Nat for Nathaniel; Bill for William, Wat for Walter, 
"and many such Uke, which you may learn of nurses P' 
Whether these odd monosyllables were originally applied 
to children as terms of endearment, and thus acquired the 
appellation of nurse-names, I cannot say. However they 
originated, they are plentiful enough, and of considerable 
antiquity. The poet Gower has the following verses on 
the occasion of Wat Tyler's insurrection, which are curious 
as containing several of these abbreviated names in a 
Latin dress : 

'* Watte vocat, cui Thoma venit, neque Symsie retardat, 

BATque, GiBBE simul, Hvkke venire subent: 
CoLLE I'urit, quem Bobbe juvat, nocumenta parantes 

Cum quibus ad damnum Wille coire volat, 
Gbigge rapit, dum Davie strepit, comes est quibus Hoebe, 

Larkin et in medio non minor esse putat; 
HuDDE ferit, quem Judde terit, dum Tibbe juvatur, 

Jacke domosque viros vellit, en ense necat," cfec. 

Andrews has rendered thesfe lines in the following 
humorous manner : 

" Wat cries, Tom flies, nor Symkin stays aside ; 

And Batt and Gibb and Hyke, they summon loud ; 
Collin and Bob combustibles provide, 

While Will the mischief forwards in the crowd ; 
Greg hawls, Hob bawls, and Davy joins the cry, 

With LiiRKiM not the least among the throng; 
HoDD drubs, Judo scrubs, while Tib stands grinning by. 

And Jack with sword and fire-brand madly strides along!"* 

The names of the class of which I am now treating are 

• Respecting these abbreviated names, Camden remarks that they " seeme to 
proceede from nurses to their nurslings ; or from fathers and maisters to their 
boyes and seruants ; for as according to the old prouerbe. Omnia herus seruo 
monosyllabus, in respect to their short commands ; so Omnia aeruua hero mano- 
syllabua, in respect of the curtolllng their names." (Remaines, p. 102.) 



128 SURNAMES DERIVED FROM 

exceedingly numerous, as eight, ten, or even fifteen sur- 
names are sometimes formed upon a single Christian name. 
The name of William, indeed, is the basis of no less than 
twenty-seven such names, as will be seen by referring 
to the list I am about to place before the reader. Besides 
the syllable son, annexed to the cant names Sim, Wild, 
Hodge, &c. we have three principal terminations; kin, 
OT, and COCK, as Simkin, Wilmot, Hedgcock. Of the first 
two it is only necessary to state that they are diminutives ; 
-kin being derived from the Flemish,* and -ot from the 
French. Thus Timpkin stands for ** little Tim" or Timothy, 
and Adcot for "little Ade,'* or Adam. But the termination 
COCK is not so easily disposed of. Camden appears to 
derive it from the male of birds : hence among his names 
deduced from the "winged nation," he places Alcocke^ 
Wilcocke, and Handcocke ; but, so far as I am acquainted 
with our provincial dialects, those are not names locally 
assigned to any particular species of birds, as some others 
(shrillcock, stormcock, &c.) are well known to be. We 
must therefore look elsewhere for the derivation of the 
termination. 

Considerable discussion on this very subject took place 
in the pages of the Gentleman's Magazine not long since, 
the substance of which is given below. A correspondent, 
J. A. C. K., in an article pubhshed in that periodical in 
the number for May 1837, speaking of the great number 
of surnames of which cock is a component syllable, ob- 

• It may be remarked that names with this or a similar termination are still 
very numerous in Holland. There is a great similarity between the family no- 
menclature of that country and our own, especially in those names which have 
christian names as their basis. Thus Symonds is Simmonds ; Huygens, Higgins ; 
Pieters, Peters, dsc. The termination -son is found in most of the languages 
of Gothic origin. 



J 



CHRISTIAN NAMES. 129 

serves, that many of them are evidently borrowed from 
the animal creation, as Peacock, employed to designate a 
vain, showy fellow; Woodcock, applied to a silly coxcomb ; 
and Shilcock, that is shrillcock, a Derbyshire provin- 
cialism for the throstle. Bocock or Bawcock is, of 
course, nothing more nor less than the French Beaucoq, 
fine fellow." Alcock, Badcock, Drawcock, Grocock, 
Slocock, this sapient scribbler casts aside as " indelicate ;" 
"LuccocK or Luckcock," he continues, ** probably 
denotes some lucky individual (!) With respect to Hitch- 
cock, it appears to have been synonymous with woodcock, 

and employed to signify a silly fellow Glasscock, 

Adcock, Mulcock, bid defiance to all etymology, unless 
the termination be a corruption of cot. Thus Glasscock 

becomes Glas-cote, Adcock, At-Cote, &c It seem 

highly probable that Atcock and Alcock, Hiccock and 
WiLCOCK, are but varieties of Atcot and Alket, Hickot 
and Wilkot, the familiar terms At and Hal, Hick and Will, 
for Arthur, Henry, Isaac, and William. As far as relates 
to the latter name, Wilcock, I am decidedly of opinion 
that such has been its original form, corroborated as it is 
by the surnames of Wilcockes and Wilcoxon, still existing 
amongst us." 

This communication led to a second, (Gent. Mag. Sept. 
1837,) in which the writer observes, that only six out of 
the ONE HUNDRED AND FIFTY uamcs Containing this 
mysterious syllable can be assigned to the animal creation ; 
while he is inclined to think many of the names local, 
being derived from cock, a hillock : Cockburn, the burn by 
the hiUock ; Cockham, the hamlet by the hillock : so also 
Cockfield, Cocksedge, Cockwood, &c. The reader will 
remark that in this article the examples are chosen from 



130 SURNAMES DERIVED FROM 

such names as have cock for their initial, and not for their 
final syllable, and therefore do not aid our inquiry; although 
the derivation of Cockburn, &c. is probably correct. 

J. G. N. in a third article on the same topic, (Gent. 
Mag. May 1838,) remarks that the word "often occurs 
in the records of this country under the various forms of 
Coc, Koc, le Cok, le Coq, &c., answering in fact, to the 
Latin Coquus, more usually, during the middle ages, written 
Cocus, and while the greater number of those antient 
professors of the culinary art have modified their ortho- 
graphy to Coke, or Cooke, or Cook, others have evidently 
retained the final c, and thus assimilated their names to 
the victims instead of the lords of the kitchen. Hence we 
proceed to Cock, Cocks, and Cox." He then quotes 
the Great Rolls of the Exchequer for 25 Hen. III. 1241, 
in which one Adam Coc or Cok is commissioned by the 
king to superintend certain repairs at Clarendon palace, 
"and to instruct the workmen, so that the kitchen and 
stables might be enclosed within the outer wall." Having 
hit upon this clue, he thinks it leads to an " explanation of 
some of the names ending in cock, as Meacocky the meat- 
codk (\) . Salcock, the SALT-MEAT-cook (! !) Slocock^ the 
sLOw-cook (! ! !) and Badcock, the iMPERFECT-cook (!!!!) 

Grococke is the gross or wholesale cook ... or, 

perhaps, le gros coc, or fat cook (! !) and those com- 
pounded with Christian names are thus readily accounted 
for. Wilcox, will be WiUiam the Cook; Hancock, Johan 
the Cook ; Sandercock, Alexander the Cook ; Jeffcock, 
Jefl5y the Cook, &c.* The Allcocks may be descended 

* If Christian names were ever so compounded with avocations, how is it we 
have no such names as Han-SAiiTH as well as Hancock ; FTiW-MiLLER as well as 
Wilcock; Sander- TAILOR as well as Sandercock ? 



CHRISTIAN NAMES. 131 

from Hal the Cook, unless their great ancestor was Aule- 
cocus, the Hall-Cook." Some others, he thinks, have 
originated from names o( places, as Laycock fromLacock, 
in Wiltshire, &c. &c. ; others from the bird, from their 
being persons of noisy or pugnacious dispositions, or 
perhaps from their practice of early rising (!) Cockerell 
(he justly says) is derived " from cockerel, a young or 
dwarf bird of that species." 

That Peacock, Woodcock, and a few others, are derived 
from birds, is unquestionable, seeing that we have the 
congenerous names Raven, Finch, Sparrow, &c. from that 
source ; and that others are corruptions of cot, cannot, I 
think, be denied; but that cock, as a termination, has 
aught to do with cocus, coq, or cook, is a supposition 
perfectly ridiculous. As to J. G. N.'s record in the Exche- 
quer RoUs, it is a most amusing piece of nonsense to 
imagine that the said Adam Coc was the royal cook. Who 
indeed ever heard of a cook's possessing any architectural 
skiU beyond what is required in the construction of the 
walls of a gooseberry tart or a venison pasty ? Besides, 
what had a cook to do with walling in the royal stables ? 
We have just as much right to assume that he was the 
king's farrier. But even admitting this same Adam's 
surname to have been originally derived from that neces- 
sary office of the kitchen, does it at all explain Meacock, 
Salcock, &c. ? I do not consider the question deserving 
of a serious reply. 

What then is the meaning of cock ? Why, it is simply 
a diminutive, the same as ot or kin. This opinion I had 
formed long before I saw the correspondence just noticed, 
and it is supported by numerous proofs. I do not profess 
to assign a satisfactory meaning to all the names with this 



132 SURNAMES DERIVED FROM 

termination ; yet I think I have been successful in affixing 
that of five sixths of all such names as I have ever met 
with. And I doubt not that the remainder might be 
explained with equal facility were not the Christian names, 
of which they are the diminutives, extinct. Badcock and 
Salcock in J. G. N.'s list are evidently "Little Bat," that 
is, Bartholomew; and *' Little Saul," which, however 
unenviable a name, was sometimes used by our ancestors. 
In like manner we may account for Wilcocke or Wilcox^ 
" Little WilUam," Allcock, "little Hal or Harry," Luckock, 
" little Luke," and the rest.* My old friend, N. Bailey, 
$iAo\oyos, whom I have found very useful in these 
matters, has not the word cock in this sense, but he has 
the low Latin terms Coca, a little boat, and Cocula, a 
small drinking cup, which I think help me a " httle."f 
The term, in its simple form, was probably never used 
except in a familiar colloquial manner, and in this way the 
lower orders in the south of England, are still accustomed 
to address "Httle" boys with "Well, my little Cocky* a 
piece of tautology of which they are not at all aware. 
Nor must we forget the use of this mysterious syllable in 
the antient nursery-rhyme of — 

Ride a coe?c-horse 

To Banbury Cross, &c. 

where little horse is evidently intended. I was long puz- 

• A correspondent reminds me that " ock is still a common diminutive in 
Scotland, as Willock, Lassock, Nannock." This sugrjestion enables us to ac- 
count for Pollock, Mattock, and Baldock, which are evident modifications of 
Paul, Matthew, and Baldwin. 

t Bishop Percy is of opinion that the much debated " cocknei/" is a "dimi- 
nutive of cook from the Lat. coquinator or coquinarius,"— a corruption I should 
rather call it. 



CHRISTIAN NAMES. 133 

zled with the surname Coxe, which I have now no hesita- 
tion in calUng a synonyme of Little. Mr. Coxhead is 
probably Mr. Little-head, (in contradistinction, I pre- 
sume, to Mr. Greathead.) What a pity it is the sylla- 
bles of that gentleman's name were not transposed, for he 
might then stand a fair chance of obtaining the prefer- 
ment of Head-Cook in J. G. N.'s kitchen!* 

But lest I should be accused of making "much ado 
about nothing," I proceed to set down my list of son- 
names, nurse-names, and diminutives, which I hope will 
furnish some amusement to the reader : — 



• I thought I had settled the true etymology of this termination— cock, but 
from the correspondence of several literary friends I find that it still remains a 
moot point. It would be no difficult matter to gossip over an additional half- 
dozen of pages in a similar style to the preceding ; but as the tendency of such 
discussions is rather to darken than elucidate the subject in hand, I deem it 
most prudent to leave the matter to the decision of the reader. I cannot how- 
ever resist the temptation to quote a few observations with which I have been 
favoured by the secretary of the Gaelic Society of London. «• Coch, the Welsh 
for red," says that gentleman, " makes in English, Cox and Cocka." , . . ." They" 
—namely, the surnames in Cock — "are merely Gaelic, Cornish, and Welsh 
terms (! !), expressive of personal qualities slightly modified into English, as — 

Algoch, great, Alcock, 
Stangoch, pettish, Stancock, 
Magoch, clumsy or large-fisted, 

Macock and Meacock, 
Bacoch, lame, Bacock, 
Leacoch, high-cheeked. Lay cock, 
Lucoch, bow-legged, Lucock, 
Peacoch, gay, handsome. Peacock. 

Bochog, blob-cheeked, Pocock, 
Bachog, crooked, Bacock, &ic. &c." 



134 SURNAMES DERIVED FROM 

From Adam are derived Adams, Adamson, Ade,* Adye, 

Addison, Adcock, Addiscot, Addiscock^ and 

Adkins. 
Abraham, Abrahams, Mabb, Mabbs, and Mabbot. 
Arthur, Atts, Atty, Atkins, Atkinson, and Atcock; 

perhaps also Aitkin and Aikin. 
Andrew, Andrews, Anderson, Henderson. 
Alexander, Sanders, Sanderson, Sandercock, 

Allix, Aiken, Alley. 
AiNULPH, Haynes, Hainson. 
Allan, Allanson, Hallet, Elkins, Elkinson. 
Anthony, Tony, Tonson, Tonkin. 
Benjamin, Benn, Benson, Bancock, and Benhacock. 
Baldwin, Ball, Bawcock, Baldey, Baldock. 
Bartholomew, Batts, Bates, Batson, Bartlett, 

Batcocky Badcock, Batty, Batkin. 
Bernard, Bernards, Bemardson, Barnett.f 
Christopher, Christopherson, Kister, Kitts,Kitson. 
CuTHBERT, Cuthbertson, Cutts. 
C LAPPA, an obs. Saxon name, Clapp, Clapps, 

Clapson.J 
Crispin, Crispe, Cripps. 
Clement, Clements, Climpson. 
Charles, Kell, Kelson, Kelley. 
DiGGORY, Digg, Digges, Diggins, Digginson, Tegg ? 
Drogo, Drew, Dray, Drayson, Brocock. 
Donald, Donaldson, Donkin. 
Dennis, Denison, Tennison. 

* Adam is usually abbreviated to Ade in the Nonarum Rolls, and other an- 
tient records. 

t Often so corrupted . 

t Clapham, in Surrey, is the ham or house of • Clappa,' a Saxon, who held 
the manor temp. Confessoria. 



CHRISTIAN NAMES. 135 

From Daniel, Dann,* Daniels, Tancock. 

DuNSTAN, Dunn, (if not from the colour.) 
David, Davey, Da%, Davison, Davis, Dawes, 

Dawkins, Dawkinson, Dawson, Davidge, (i. e. 

David's,) &c. 
Edward, Edwards, Ethards, Edes, Edkins, 

Edwardson, Tedd. 
Elias, Ellis, Ellison, Elliot, Elliotson, Elson, Elley, 

Ellet, Lelliot. 
Edmund, Edmunds, Edmundson, Munn, Monson. 
Francis, Frank, Frankes. 
Fergus, Ferguson. 

Gideon, Gyde, Giddy, Giddings, Giddies, Geddes. 
Gilbert, Gill, Gillot, Gilpin, Gibb, Gibbs, Gibbon, 

Gibbons, Gibson, Gubbins, Gibbings, Gipp, Gipps. 
Giles, Gillies, Gilkes.f 
Gregory, Gregg, Gregson, Grocock, Gregorson, 

Griggs. 
GoDARD or Godfrey, Godkin, Goddin, Goad. 
Geoffry, Jefferson, Jeffson, Jepson, Jeffcock, 

Jeffries, Jifkins. 
Henry, Henrison, Harry, Harris, Harrison, Hal, 

Halket, Hawes, Halse, Hawkins, Hawkinson, 

Haskins, Alcock, Hall (sometimes), Herries. 
Hugh, Hewson, Hugget, Huggins, Hugginson, 

Hewet. 
Joseph, Joskyn, Juggins. 
John, Johnes, Jones, Johnson, Janson, Jennings, 

Jenks, Jenkins, Jenkinson, Jack, Jackson, Juxon, 

Hanson, Hancock, Hanks, Hankinson, Jockins. 

* Unless it be from Dan, an antient title of respect from the Lat. Dominus. 
t When the initial G is soft, those names above assigned to Gilbert probably 
belong to Giles. 



136 SURNAMES DERIVED FROM 

From JuDE, Judd, Judkin, Judson. 
Job, Jubb, Jobson. 
Jacob, Jacobs, Jacobson, Jeakes. 
James, Jamieson. 
Jeremy, Jerrison, Gerison, Jerkin. 
Isaac, Isaacs, Isaacson, Hyke, Hicks, Hixon, 

Higson, Hickot, Hiscock, (q. d. Isaac-OCK,) 

Hickox, 
Lawrence, Larry, Larkins, Lawes, Lawson. 
Luke, Luckins, Luckock^ Lacock, Locock, Lukin, 

Luckin, Luckings, Luckett. 
Matthew, Mathews, Matheson, Matson, Madison, 

Mathey, Matty, Maddy. 
Maurice, Morrison, Mockett, Moxon. 
Mark, Markcock, Marks. 
Nicholas, Nicholls, Nicholson, Nickson, . Nixon, 

Cole, Colet, Colson, Collins, CoUison, Glascock, 

Glasson. 
Neal or NiGELL, Neale, Neilson, Nelkins. 
Nathaniel, Natkins. 
Oliver, Olliver, Oliverson, OUey, Nolls, NoUey, 

NoUekins. 
Peter, Peterson, Pierce, Pierson, Perkin, Parkins, 

Parkinson, Peters, Parr, Porson, Parson, (some- 
times.) 
Philip, Phillips, Philps, Phipps, Phippen, Philpot, 

Phillot, Philcox* 



• " Pillycock, Pillycock, sate on a hill. 
If he's not gone, he sits there still." 
From the ' Nursery Rhymes of England/ by Mr. Halliwell, who observes that 
this word also occurs in (MS. Harl 913,) a manuscript of the fourteenth century. 
It is probably an older form of Philcox. 



CHRISTIAN NAMES. 137 

From Paul, Paulett, Pawson, Porson, Pocock, Palcocky 

Palk, PoUock. 
Patrick, Patrickson, Paterson, Patson. 
Ralph, Rawes, Rawson, Rawlins, Rawlinson, 

Rason. 
Randolph, Randalls, Rankin, Ranecock. 
Rhys (Welsh.) Ap Rhys, Price, Apreece, Preece, 

Brice. 
Richard, Richards, Richardson, Ritchie, Rickards, 

Hitchins, Hitchinson, Hitchcock, Dick, Dickson, 

Dixon, Dickens, Dickinson. 
Robert, Robins, Robinson, Roberts, Robertson, 

Robison, Robson, Roby, Dobbs, Dobbie, Dobson, 

Dobbin, Dobinson, Hoby, Hobbs, Hobson, 

Hobkins, Hopkins. 
Roger, Rogers, Rogerson, Hodges, Hodgson, 

Hodgkin, Hodgkinson, Hoskin (?), Hodd, Hodson 

(if not from Odo,) Hudson. 
Reynold, Renolds, Reynoldson, Raincock. 
Simon, Simmonds, Simpson, Simmes, Symes, 

Simcock, Simpkin, Simpkinson. 
Stephen, Stephens, Stephenson, Stercock (?), 

Stimson, Stinson, Stiff (?), Stebbing, Stubbs. 
Silas or Silvester, Silcock. 
Timothy, Timms, Timmings, Timpson, Timpkins. 
Thomas, Thorn, Thorns, Thompson, Thomlin, 

Thomlinson, Tompkins, Tampkins (a northern 

pronunciation), Thompkisson, Thompsett, Tamp- 

sett (northern). 
ToBiT, Toby, Towes, Towson, Tobin, Tubbe, 

Tubbes. 
TuRCHETiL, Turke. 



138 SURNAMES DERIVED FROM 

From Theobald, Tibbald, Tipple (a murderous corrup- 
tion),* Tipkins, Tibbs, Tippet! Tibbats. 

Walter, Walters, Watt, Watts, Watson, Watkins, 
Watkinson, Watcock. 

William, Williams, Williamson, Wills, Wilks, 
WiUdns, Wilkinson, Wickens, Wickeson, Bill, 
Bilson, Wilson, Woolcock, Woolcot, Wilcocke 
and Wilcoxy TFilcoxon, WiLet, WiUmot, WiUy, 
WiUis, Wylie, WiUott, Till, TiUot, Tilson, 
Tillotson, Tilly. 

^pparnttlg tleribttJ from female namesi : 
From Katherine, Kates. 

Margaret, Marjory, Margerison, Margetts, 

Margetson, Margison, Maggs, Magson. 
Mary, Moll, Malkin, Makins, M.eikm&on,Maycock (?) 

The Latin termination por is said to stand for puer, 
the son of, as Publipor, Marcipor, Lucipor, which signify 
Publii puer, Marci puer, and Lucii puer.f Nor must it be 
forgotten that the Romans formed one name upon another, 
as Constans, Constantius, and Constantine, somewhat ana- 
logous to our own mode, in Wilks, Wilkins, Wilkinson, &c. 

Camden tells us of a landlord at Grantham who used to 
make a distinction between guests as they bore the full 
name or the nick-name. Thus he was accustomed to treat 
the Robertsons, Johnsons, and Wilhamsons with great 
respect, while the Hobsons, Jacksons, and Wilsons, fared 
in his hostelry as best they could. A "dainty deuice,*' 
truly! 

* I know a place called Tipplel Green, which in old writings is called 
Theobald's Green. 
+ Camden, p. 116. 



CHRISTIAN NAMES. 139 

Some christian names have been oddly connected with 
other words to form surnames, as Goodhughy FulljameSy Mat- 
thewman, MarklovCy Jackaman (!), Cobbledicky on J. G. N/s 
theory, * Dick the Cobbler !') The name of John has at least 
seven of these strange appendages, viz.: LittlejOHN, Mickle- 
JOHN, UpjoHN, PrettejoHN, ApplejOHN, ProperjOHN, 
and BrownjoHN ! ! ! I cannot consider these last corrup- 
tions of other names, as the prefixes seem to be all signi- 
ficant and descriptive. Indeed so common is the forename 
John, that before the invention of regular surnames, these 
sobriquets might have been given with great propriety, for 
the sake of distinction, to as many inhabitants of any little 
village. Thus the least John of the seven would be the 
Little John of the locality ; while Mickle (that is great) 
John would be a very appropriate designation for the 
most bulky of the number; John at the upper end of the 
street might be called Up-John j Pretty John was, I sup- 
pose, the beau of the village, while the goodman who had 
the best orchard was styled Apple- John ;* Proper- John, no 
doubt, answered to his name, and was a model oi propriety 
to all the youth of the parish ; while, to complete the list, 
Brown-John possessed a complexion which would not have 
disgraced a mulatto. I know the Oldenbucks will reject 
all this as inconsiderate trifling, but whether it has less 
probability than some of the graver conjectures and more 
learned hypotheses of F.S.A.'s, I leave to the impartiahty 
of my reader to determine. 

* I may remark, in support of this etymology, that I once knew a person who 
was famous for growing an excellent kind of potatoes, on which account he was 
often spoken of by his rustic neighbours as-Tater-John ! 



140 SURNAMES FROM NATURAL OBJECTS 



ESSAY VIII. 

SURNAMES FROM NATURAL OBJECTS, FROM SIGNS 
OF HOUSES, ETC. 

One would suppose that when almost every description 
of locality, whether town, village, manor, park, hill, dale, 
bridge, river, pond, wood or green ; every dignity, office, 
profession and trade; every peculiarity of body and of 
mind, and every imaginable modification of every Christian 
name, had contributed their full quota to the nomenclature 
of Englishmen, the few millions of families inhabiting our 
island would have aU been supplied with surnames ; but 
no : the thirst for variety (that charming word !) was not 
yet satisfied ; and consequently recourse was had to 



objects celestial and things terrene. 



The wondrous glories of the firmament, 
And all the creatures of this nether scene. 
Beasts, fishes, birds, and trees, in beauteous green 
Yclad, and even stones, ." 

Accordingly we find the names of the heavenly bodies, 
beasts, birds, fishes, insects, plants, fruits, flowers, metals, 
&c. &c. very frequently borne as surnames. I shall first 
attempt a classification of these names under their various 
genertty and then offer some remarks on their probable 
origin. 

First, from the heavenly bodies. Sun, Moone, Star. 

From FOUR-FOOTED creatures. Ass, Bear, Buck, 



AND SIGNS OF HOUSES. 141 

(with its compounds, Oldbucky Roebuck, Clutterbuck*) 
Badger, Bull, Bullock, Boar, Beaver, Brock (a local name 
for the badger), Coney, Catt, Colt, Cattle (!), Cow, Calfe, 
Beer, Doe, Fox, Fawn, Good-sheep, Goat, Gray (another 
provincialism for badger). Hart, Hogge, Hare, Hound, 
Heifer, Kitten, Kidd, Lyon, Leppard, Lamb,f Leveret, 
Mare, Mules, Mole, Oxen, Otter, Panther, Pointer, Puss, 
Poodle (!), Palfrey, Pigg, Rabbit, Ram, Roe, Setter, Steed, 
Steere, Squirrel, Seal, Stagg, Tiger, Talbot, (a mastiff — 
familiar as an heraldic word), Tod (a fox), Wildbore, and 
Wetherhogg. Moyle is the 0. E. for any labouring beast, 
and Capel is an old word, signifying a strong horse ; hence 
Chaucer, 

" And gave him caples to his carte." 

In an ancient "ballade of Robyn Hood" we have, 

" Yonder I heare Syr Guy's home blow, 
It blows so wel in tyde -, 
And yonder he comes, that wight yeoman, 
Clad in hys capul-hide." 

I have not found the name of Mouse in modern times, 
but "le Mouse" occurs in the Nonarum Rolls. One of 
the most widely-spread names of this kind is Wolfe, 
which occurs in the classical, as well as in many modern, 
languages, as Avkos (Gr.), Lupus and Lupa (Lat.), 
Loupe (Fr.), Wulf (Sax.), and Guelph (Germ.) 
— the surname of the existing royal family of Great 
Britain. The old baronial name of Lovel is from the 

* The word cluttered, in the northern counties, signifies stirred; hence 
Cluttkrbuck may possibly mean, a " stirred buck,"— a buck just roused or 
stirred from his lair. This name probably had its origin in some circumstance 
connected with the chase. 

t Charles Lamb, in reply to the question, " Who first imposed thee, gentle 
name?" comes to the conclusion that his ancestors were shepherds ! 



142 SURNAMES FROM NATURAL OBJECTS 

same source. The original name of that family was 
Perceval, from a place in Normandy ; until Asceline, its 
chief, who flourished in the early part of the twelfth century, 
acquired, from his violent temper, the sobriquet of Lupus. 
His son WiUiam, earl of Yvery, was nicknamed Lupellus, 
the little wolf, which designation was softened into 
LupEL, and thence to Luvely and became the surname of 
most of his descendants.* Fosbroke mentions the name of 
Archembaldus Pejor-Lupo, Archibald Worse-than-a-Wolf ! 
but does not give his authority.f 

One of the most singular surnames I ever met with is 
that of a gentleman of fortune in Kent. His family name 
was Bear, and as he had maternal relatives of the name of 
Savage, his parents gave him the Christian (or rather un- 
christian) name of Savage ! Hence he enjoyed the pleasing 
and amiable name of Savage Bear, Esquire ! ! 

Long prior to the invention of surnames, our Saxon 
ancestors were accustomed to bear the names of animals ; 
the names' Horsa and Hengist, both signifying a horse. 
"The antient pagan Germans too, especially the 
^roBLEMEN, did sometimes take the names of Beasts, as 
one would be called a Lion, another a Bear, another a 
Wolf, &c/':t And, in ages much more remote, the Greeks 
and Romans. Among the latter we find multitudes of 
such names as Leo, Ursinicus, Catullus, Leporius, Aper, &c. 
The Persian name Cyrus, means a dog, and is possibly 
the etymon of our EngUsh word cur ! Speaking of such 
names the witty author of Heraldic Anomalies § says : 

" We should think Ass and Sow not very elegant names, 
and yet there were persons of respectability at Rome who 

• Burke's Extinct Peerage. t Encycl. of Antiq. p. 429. 

% Verstegan Restit. p. 133. § Vol. I. p. 179. 



AND SIGNS OF HOUSES, 143 

bore them — no less indeed than the Cornelian and 
Tremellian families. The former got the name of Asinia 
by one of the family having agreed to buy a farm, who, 
being asked to give pledges for the fulfilment of his en- 
gagement, caused an asSy loaded with money, to be led to 
the Forum as the only pledge that could be wanted. The 
Tremellian family got the name of Scropha or Sow, in a 
manner by no means reputable ; but by what we should 
call, in these days, a hoaXf and a very unfair one into the 
bargain. A sow having strayed from a neighbour's yard 
into that of one of the Tremellii, the servants of the latter 
killed her. The master caused the carcase to be placed 
under some bed-clothes, where his lady was accustomed to 
lie, and, when his neighbour came to search for the pig, 
undertook to swear that there was no old sow in his pre- 
mises, except the one that was lying among those bed- 
clothes, which his neighbour very naturally concluded to 
be the lady herself. How the latter liked the compUment 
the history does not relate, but from that time the TremeUii 
acquired the cognomen of Scropha or Sow, which became 
afterwards so fixed a family name as to make sows of all 
their progeny, both male and female." 

Not content with having appropriated the names of the 
living animals, our ancestors sometimes, oddly enough, 
adopted the terms applied to their flesh, &c. when dead, as 
Mutton, Veal, Tripe, Pigfat, Gammon, Brawn, Giblets, 
Hogsfiesh^ and Bacon, These last two were borne by two 
innkeepers at Worthing, when a very small town ; where- 
upon a rustic poetaster penned the ensuing most elegant 
stanza : — 

* The mistress of a ladies' semiiiary in a fashionable watering place, who used 
to advertise her establishment under this name, now spells it Ho'flesh .' 



144 SURNAMES FROM NATURAL OBJECTS 

" Worthing is a pretty place, 
And if I'm not mistaken, 
If you can't get any butcher's meat, 
There's Hogsflesh and Bacon /" 

From BIRDS we borrow the following names : Birdy 
Bisset, (Fr. a wild pigeon). Blackbird, Bunting, Bulfinch, 
Buzzard, Barnacle, Bustard, Coote, Crane, Cock, Cuckoo, 
Chick, Chicken, Culver (A.-S. a pigeon). Chaffinch, Crowe, 
Capon, Brake, Buck, Dove, Daw, Egles, Fowle, Finch, 
Falcon, Goshawk, Grouse, Gander, Goose, Gosling,* Gull, 
Goldfinch, Hawke, Howlett, Heron, Heme, Henshaw (that 
is, heronshaw, a young heron). Jay, Kite, Linnet, Larke, 
Mallard, Nightingale, Peacock, Partridge, Pheasant, 
Pigeon, Parrot, Raven, Rooke, Swan, Sparrow, Swallow, 
Starling, Stork, Swift, Teale, Thrush, Throssell, Wildrake, 
Wildgoose, Woodcock, Woodpecker, Wren ! Also Popin- 
jay, more usually contracted to Popjay, the old. English 
for Parrot ;f Carnell, a bird — but of what species I know 
not. Hone mentions a Christmas carol commencing, 

" As I passed by a river side. 

And as I there did rein (run). 
In argument I chanced to hear 
A Cbrwa/ and a crane." 

"As good names these," says Camden, "as [the Roman 
names] Corvinus, Gallus, Picus, Falco, and Livia, that is, 
stockedoue.'* 

So numerous are the names derived from this source 
that in a small congregation of dissenters at Feversham, 
CO. Kent, there were lately no less than twenty-three 

• Pegge's derivation of this name, from Josceline, is not at all probable. 

t I have not met with Owl as a surname, but ' Towle looks like an abbreviation 
of "At the Owle," the meaning of which will be discovered a few pages 
forward. 



AND SIGNS OF HOUSES. 145 

names taken from the "feathered nation," their pastor, a 
very worthy man, bearing the singularly appropriate name 
of Rooke ! 

Many names of this sort have been the subjects of 
excellent puns, among which may be noticed the following. 
"When worthy master Hern, famous for his living, 
preaching and writing, lay on his death-bed, (rich only in 
goodness and children,) his wife made womanish lamenta- 
tions what would become of her little ones ? * Peace, 
sweetheart,' said he, *that God who feedeth the ravens 
will not starve the herns ; a speech (says Fuller) censured 
as Hght by some, observed by others as prophetical ; as 
indeed it came to pass they were all weU disposed of." 
Akin to this were the words of John Huss at his burning ; 
who, fixing his eyes steadfastly upon the spectators, said 
with a solemn voice — " They burn a goose^ but in a hun- 
dred years a sw«w will arise out of the ashes:" words which 
many have regarded as a prediction of the reformer of 
Eisleben ; the name of Huss signifying a goose, and that 
of Luther a swan. 

The following is of a more humorous cast. As 
Mr. Jay, an eminent dissenting minister of Bath, and his 
friend Mr. Fuller were taking an evening walk, an owl 
crossed their path, on which Mr. Fuller said to his compa- 
nion, "Pray, sir, is that bird 9. jay?" "No, sir," was 
the prompt reply ; "it's not like a jay, — it's fuller in the 
eyes, and/wZZer in the head, £ind fuller all over f" 

It is related in Collins' s Peerage that a certain unmarried 
lady once dreamed of finding a nest containing seven young 
Jinches, which in course of time was reahzed by her becoming 
the wife of a Mr. Finch, and mother of seven children. 
From one of these nestlings is descended the present earl 
of Winchelsea, who still retains the surname of Finch. 

7 



146 SURNAMES FROM NATURAL. OBJECTS 

Pye, which might be supposed to be derived from the 
bird so called, is a corruption from the Welsh, Ap-Hugh — 
u in that language having sometimes the sound of y. This 
name is exceedingly common in some districts of England 
and Wales, a fact that can excite no surprise in any one 
who "marks the conclusion" of the following epitaph from 
Dewchurch, near Kevenol: 

"1550. 
Here lyeth the 
Body of John Pye 
of Minde, 
a travayler in far countryes, 
his life ended ; he left be- 
hind him Walter, his son, 
heire of Minde ; a hundred and 
six yeares he was truly, and had 
sons and daughters two and forty /" 

Corbet, the name of more than one eminent family in 
the North of England, is raven. In Scotland, the name, 
both of the bird and the family, is varied to Corby. The 
reader who is versed in the old Scottish ballads will call 
to mind that of the Twa Corbies, which for tragic effect 
and wildness of diction is unequalled, and which for the 
benefit of those to whom it may be new, I shall here take 
the liberty to introduce. 

As I gaed donn by yon house-een', 
Twa Corbies there were sitting their lane j 
The ane unto the tother did say : — 
' O where shall we gae dine to-day?' 

O doun beside yon new-faun birk. 
There, there lies a new-slain knicht ; 
Nae livin' kens that he lies there, 
But his horse, his hounds, and his ladye fair. 



AND SIGNS OF HOUSES. 147 

His horse is to the hunting gane, 

His hounds to bring the wild deer hame ; 

His lady's taen another mate ; 

Sae we may mak our dinner sweet ! 

O we'll sit on his bonny breist-bane. 
And we'll pyke out his bonny grey een ; 
WV ae lock o' his gowden hair. 
We'll theek our nest when it blaws bare ! 

Many a ane for him maks mane, 
But none sail ken where he is gane ; 
Ower his banes when they are bare, 
The wind sail blaw for evermair / " 

Next from fishes, come Bream, Burt, Base, Cod, Crab, 
Cockle, Chubb, Dolphin, Eel, Flounders, Gudgeon, Grayling, 
Gurnard, Haddock, Herring, Jack, Ling, Lamprey, Mullett, 
Pilchard, Plaice, Piper, Pike, Perch, Pikerell, Ray, Roach, 
Sharke, Sturgeon, Salmon, Sole, Scale, Smelt, Sprat, Seal, 
Trout, Tench, Whiting, Whale; to which may be added 
Fish and Fisk, the latter being the true A.-S. form of the 
same word. The Romans had their cognates, Murena, 
Phocas, Grata, &c.* 

From INSECTS, Bee, Wasp, Fly, Bug, Cricket. I do 
not give these on my own authority, for I never met with 
any of them. Mr. Monkland's list contains Moth, Spider, 
and Summerbee. From reptilia. Leech, Worms, and 
Blackadder. 

Then from the vegetable world (besides the names 
of trees to which I have already referred as being borrowed 
from some specific tree of each species, and therefore 
classed among local names) we have Myrtle, Box, Holly, 

* Camden. 



148 SURNAMES FROM NATURAL OBJECTS 

Jvy,* Crabtreet and Gourde (Reed and Rush are already 
accounted for,) Hay, Straw, Cabbage, Sage and Spinage, 
Leek and Onion, Pepper and Peppercorn,'^ Barley, Oats, 
Bean, Peascod, and Vetch. Also Pease, (lately among the 
M.P's ;) Budd, Flowers, and Leeves, Rose and Lily, Lis 
and Blanch/lower, Daisy and Primrose, Weed and Nettle, 
Peach and Pe«r, Nutt and Filbert, Grapes, Cherry, and 
Sweetapple, Orange, Lemon, and PeeZ. I place this last 
name in juxta-position with the two preceding, for juxta- 
position's sake, for it is probably a local name. Some 
others are possibly corruptions of other words; thus 

* Holly and Ivy were •personated in the antient holiday games. In Hone's 
Mysteries is the following quotation from a MS. carol, called '• A Song on the 
Holly and the Ivy." (p. 94.) 

" Nay, my nay,hyt shal not be I wys. 
Let HOLY hafe the maystry ; as the maner ys : 
Holy stand in the halle, fayre to behold 
Ivy stond without the dore she is ful sore acold. 

'Say, my nay, Sfc. 
Holt and hys mery men, they dawnsyn and they syng, 
Ivy and hur maydyns, they wepyn and they wryng. 

Nay, my nay, Sfc. 
In the Gentleman's Magazine for 1779, a correspondent, under the name of 
Kitty Curious, describes an odd kind of sport which she witnessed in an obscure 
village in Kent on the festival of St. Valentine. The girls and young women 
were assembled in a crowd, burning an uncouth effigy which they called a HoUy 
Boy, and which they had stolen from the boys ; while the boys revenged them- 
selves in another part of the village by burning a similar figure taken from the 
girls, and called an Ivy Girl. The sport was carried on with great noise and 
much glee. Kitty inquired the meaning of the observance from the most aged 
people of the place, but could only learn from them that it was a " very old 
antient custom." That surnames were occasionally assumed from such and 
similar mummeries, is confirmed by the following short extract from Fabyan's 
Chronicle (edit. 1559), sub anno 1302 : " About Mydsomer was taken a felow 
wych had renued (renewed) many of Robyn Hodes pagentes, which named 
hymselfe Grenelef," This name is not extinct. 

t There were formerly living in two adjacent houses in Deptford Broadway, 
Mr. P/McA;ro5e, a perfumer 5 agd Mr. Peppercorn, a grocer. 



AND SIGNS OF HOUSES. 149 

Filbert and Pear very probably mean the two French 
Christian names, Philibert and Pierre, while Lemon is a 
corrupt spelling of the old English word leman, a para- 
mour or mistress, which often occurs in Chaucer and 
elsewhere. 

Mr. Monkland's MS. affords the following additional 
names borrowed from vegetables, &c. : Ashplant, Bays, 
Laurel, Pippin, Codling, Quince, Plum, Damson, Olive, 
Almond, Nuts (!), Raisin, Barberry, Cranberry, Plant, 
Balsam, Woodbine, Tulip, Stock, Holy-oak, Hemp, Poppy, 
Lupin, Violets, Furze, Leaf, Ivyleaf, Hawthorn, Quickset, 
Grain, Seed, Clover, Garlick, Parsley, Beet, and Thistle I 

Roser is an obsolete word for rose-bush or tree, (Fr. 
'rosier,') as the following true tale from our unsophisti- 
cated friend Sir John MaundevUe, wiU show : 

" And betwene the cytee [of Bethlehem] and the chirche 
is the felde floridus ; that is to seyne, the feld florisched : 
for als moche as a fayre mayden was blamed with wrong 

and sclaundred, for whiche cause sche was demed 

to the dethe, and to be brent in that place, to the whiche 
sche was ladd, (led.) And as the fyre began to brenne 
aboute hire, sche made hire preyeres to our Lord, that als 
wissely as sche was not gylty of that synne, that he wold 
help hire, and make it to be knowen to alle men of his 
mercyfuUe grace. And whan sche hadde thus seyd, sche 
entred in to the fuyer ; and anon was the fuyr quenched 
and oute ; and the brondes that weren brennynge becomen 
REDE RosERES ; and the brondes that weren not kyndled, 
becomen white Roseres fulle of roses. And theise 
weren the first Roseres and roses, bothe white and rede, 
that evere ony man saugh." 

Surnames adopted from the mineral kingdom, are less 



150 SURNAMES FROM NATURAL OBJECTS 

numerous: hence, however, we borrow Clayy Chalky CoaUy 
Irons J and Ccyppery Gold, Silver,* Brass j Jewell, Diamond, 
or Bymond, Sands, Whetstone, Hone,f Stone, Flint, and 
Steele. Some of these may be local names, particularly 
Clay, Flint, and Stone, there being places so called, situ- 
ated respectively in Norfolk, Flintshire, and Kent. Coke 
is not derived from charred coal ; it is, as we have seen in 
a former Essay, the old orthography of cook. 

" A COKE they hadden with hem for the nones 
To boile the chickenes and the marie-bones. 
He coud-e roste and sethe and boile and frie, 
Maken mortrew-es and wel bake a pie.'^J 

Now, while it is quite likely that a few of these names, 
from natural objects, may have originated from some 
fancied resemblance of their first bearers to the animals, 
&c. whose names were assigned them as sobriquets, we 
must, as I apprehend, look elsewhere for the application 
of the great majority of them. Those names to which the 
prefix LE occurs in old records, may be with safety assigned 
to the characteristic class. The first Adam le Fox was 
doubtless a clever, knowing fellow, a Httle too sharp for 
his neighbours in matters of meum and tuum. Roger le 
Buck and Nicholas le Hart, I should say, were capital 
fellows for a foot-race ; while Richard le Stere was, with 
equal probability, a hard-working peasant. Hare would 
answer nicely for a person of small prowess. Pike for a 
gourmand, and Jay for a chatter-box — but let us be serious. 



* Ricardus d'Argent. {Ant. Rec.) 

t This is an antient spelling (gratis rythml) of hand. (Vide Gloss, to Percy's 
Ant. Rel.) 
t Chaucer. Prologue. 



AND SIGNS OF HOUSES. 151 

The names of celestial objects, very many names of animals, 
and all names of vegetables, would be inapplicable in this 
manner. I conclude, therefore, that they were borrowed 
from the signs of inns and shops, kept by the parties 
who first used them.* This opinion was original with 
me long before I had read Camden's " Remaines" : a 
passage in that work fully confirms it : 

"Many names that seeme vnfitting for men, as of 
brutish beasts, &c. come from the very signes of the 
houses, where they inhabited ; for I have heard of them 
which sayd they spake of knowledge, that some in late 
time dwelling at the signe of the Dolphin, Bull, White- 
horse, Racket, Peacocke, &c. were commonly called 
Thomas at the Boljphirit Will at the Bully George at the 
Whitehorse, Robin at the Racket, which names, as many 
other of like sort, with omitting at, became afterward 
hereditary to their children."f 

Hence the names of persons derived from natural objects 
may be most satisfactorily accounted for — even those bor- 
rowed from the heavenly bodies ; for the Sun, [Half-] 
Moon, and Star, were formerly among the most famiUar 
signs of shops, as they still continue to be of inns and 
public-houses. 

Having accounted for this extensive class of surnames, 

* These signs were not the least curious feature of " London in the Olden 
Tyme." Every quadruped, from the lyon and hee-cow (!) down to the hedgehogge 
—every bird from the eagle to the wrenne— every fysshe of the sea—almost every 
known object in nature, in fact, was employed by the good citizens to excite the 
attention of passers-by to the various wares exhibited for sale. The numbering 
of shops and houses is of comparatively recent introduction, although it is as su- 
perior in point of convenience to the antient practice, as are the fine modern 
buildings to the round-about timber edifices which existed before the great con- 
flagration of •« sixty-six." 

t Remaines, p. 102. 



153 SURNAMES FROM NATURAL OBJECTS 

it becomes, at once, an easy matter to dispose of another, 
and not less remarkable class. I mean those names that 
are derived from commodities, articles of dress, imple- 
ments, and others of a similar kind, which bye and bye I 
shall mention. They are, I think, almost without excep- 
tion, borrowed from signs of houses and inns. Formerly 
every tradesman had his sign, and generally it bore some 
reference to the commodities disposed of under it. This 
practice is still retained in many towns on the continent. 
The city of Malines is said to abound with them, and they 
add much to the picturesque effect of the streets of that 
remarkable place.* Even in England some faint traces 
of the practice remain, particularly in the more antique 
portions of old cities and country towns, where we occa- 
sionally find the Golden Fleece at the Drapers', the Pestle 
and Mortar at the Apothecaries', the Sugar-loaf at the 
Grocers', &c. The Red Hat, the Golden Boot, the Silver 
Canister, and others of that kind, which are everywhere 
pretty numerous, are modern imitations of the antient 
fashion, and are certainly preferable to such names as 

* Commerce House,' * Waterloo Establishment,' and 

* Albion House,' by which enterprising traders dignify 
their shops. A collection of antient signs in any given 
place would be a curious and not uninteresting document. 
A great number of them might be collected from the 
imprints of old books, among which I recoUect, at this 
moment, the Rose and Crown; the Angel, the Black Raven, 
the Hedgehog, the Bible, (on London Bridge), the Star 
and Garter, &c. ; being the signs chosen by printers of 
former times. 

* Vide Gent. Mag. March, 1842. 



AND SIGNS OF HOUSES. 153 

I am inclined to think that the names adopted from 
signs generally originated in towns, as such names as 
Field, Wood, and Grove, did in the country; a consider- 
ation not devoid of some interest, as from it a conclusion 
may be arrived at as to whether one's ancestors were citi- 
zens or * rusticall men.' 

In Pasquin's "Night-Cap," printed in 1612, we have 
the following lines, which show that at that comparatively 
recent date, individuals were recognizable by the signs of 
their shops : 

** First there is maister Peter at the Bell^ 
A linen-draper and a wealthy man ; 
Then maister Thomas that doth stockings sell ; 
A nd George the grocer at the Frying-pan ; 

And maister Timothie the woollen-draper; 

And maister Salamon the leather-scraper ; 

And maister Franke ye goldsmith at the Rose ; 

And maister Phillip with the fiery nose. 

And maister Miles the mercer* at the Harrow ; 
And maister Nicke the silkman at the Ploiv ; 
And maister Giles the sailer at the Sparrow ; 
And maister Dicke the vintner at the Coiv ; 

And Harry Haberdasher at the Home; 

And Oliver the dyer at the Thome ; 
And Bernard, barber-surgeon at the Fiddle ; 
And Moses, merchant- tailor at the Needlel'^f 

The following names are obviously derived from this 
source : Bullhead, Silversj)oon, Image, Rainbow, Bell, 
Posnet (a purse or money-bag). Grapes, Tankard, Pitcher, 
Scales, Crosskeys, Fyrebrand, Home, Potts, Hammer, 
Funnell, Baskett, Board, Bowles, Hamper, Tabor (or 

• The word Mercer is now exclusively applied to dealers in silk; but its 
original and true meaning is a general dealer. Gospatric Mercenarius occurs in 
this sense among the burgesses of Clithero, co. Lancaster, in the 12th century. 

t Vide Gent. Mag. Jan. 1842. 

7§ 



154 SURNAMES FROM NATURAL OBJECTS 

drum), Cowlstick, Cade, Cottrelly Cresset. Most of these 
are quite intelligible, but some others require explanation, 
as, for instance, Cowlstick (often refined to Costic.) A 
cowl is a vessel with two ears, generally made of wood, 
and for the sake of convenience carried between two, on a 
staff, thence called a cowl-staff or cowlstick. Cade is an 
old word for a barrel or cask, and hence a very appro- 
priate sign for an alehouse or tavern.* Cottrell, 
according to Grose, is a provincial word for a trammel for 
hanging an iron pot over the fire ; but this name, as I have 
elsewhere shown, is most probably derived from a very 
different source. A Cresset was a machine used during 
the middle ages by soldiers; it was a kind of portable 
beacon made of wires in the shape of an inverted cone, 
and filled with match or rope steeped in pitch, tallow, 
resin, and other inflammable matters. One man carried 
it upon a pole, another attending with a bag to supply 

• As I intend " to put into my book as much as my book will hold," I take 
an opportunity here, on mentioning the name of Cade, to correct an error into 
which most of our historians have fallen relative to that arch-traitor Jack Cade, 
temp. Hen. VI. They uniformly state that he was an Irishman by birth, but 
there is strong presumptive evidence that to Sussex belongs the unenviable claim 
of his nativity. Speed states that "he had bin seruant to Sir Thomas Dagre." 
Now this Sir Thomas Dagre or Dacre was a Sussex knight of great eminence, 
who had seats at Hurstmonceux and Heathfield, in this county. Cade has for 
several centuries been a common name about Mayfield and Heathfield, as is 
proved both by numerous entries in the parish registers and by lands and loca- 
lities designated from the family. After the defeat and dispersion of his rabble- 
rout of retainers. Cade is stated to have fled into the woods of Sussex, where a 
price being set upon his head, he was slain by Sir Alexander Iden, sheriff of 
Kent. Nothing seems more probable than that he should have sought shelter 
from the vindictive fury of his enemies among the woods of his native county, 
with whose secret retreats he was doubtless well acquainted, and where he would 
have been likely to meet with friends. The daring recklessness of this villain's 
character is illustrated by the tradition of the district, that he was engaged in 
the rustic game of bowls in the garden of a little alehouse at Heathfield when 
the well-aimed arrow of the Kentish sheriff inflicted the fatal wound. 



AND SIGNS OF HOUSES. 



155 



materials and a light. Shakspeare and Milton both allude 
to the cresset as a familiar object: 

" The front of heaven was full of fiery shapes 
Of burning cressets.'^ ( Henry I V. 1 .) 

*' Pendant by subtle magic many a row 
Of starry lamps and blazing cressets." ( Farad. Lost.) 




I have made the annexed sketch of a cresset from a de- 
scription in Fosbroke's Encyclopaedia: I cannot answer 
for its being very correct. A " cresset with burning fire" 



156 SURNAMES FROM NATURAL OBJECTS 

was formerly a badge of the Admiralty. In the Coventry 
Mysteries, p. 270, we read — 

This name. Cresset, is the designation of at least one family 
of gentry ; and should my humble lucubrations meet the 
eyes of any who happen to bear it, I trust they will pardon 
my insinuation, that they are descended from tradesmen 
— ^vulgar persons who had great flaring signs over their 
doors — when they call to remembrance that all families of 
gentle blood must have been amongst the plebeian ranks of 
society, till some adventitious circumstance raised them to 
eminence and wealth. A large number of our peerage 
families are proud to record their descent from Lord 
Mayors of London, who must necessarily have been trades- 
men ; and it is probable that many of our great houses of 
Norman origin, on tracing their pedigrees beyond the 
Conquest (were such a thing possible), would find them- 
selves sprung from the poor and servile peasantry of 
Normandy. For pride of ancestry there is perhaps no 
antidote more salutary or more humiliating than a calm 
consideration of the question proposed by the jester to 
the Emperor MaximiHan, when engaged, one day, in mak- 
ing out his pedigree : 

«i)m ^am ^tlhtti ant» (Bbt ^pan, 
"W^txt toais ti^en ti)t gentltman? 

Bicher staff (with its corruption Bickersteth), was proba- 
bly the sign of an inn. It seems to mean a staff" for tilting 
or skirmishing. (Vide Bailey's Diet, voce * Bicker.') In 
the old ballad of Chevy Chase we read — 

" Bowmen bickered upon the bent 
With their broad arrows clear." 



AND SIGNS OF HOUSES. 157 

Several names are borrowed from habiliments of the 
person, as Copey Mantell, Coates, Cloakcj Meddlicote, 
(that is, a coat of many or mixed colours, a favorite fashion 
of our ancestors,) BooteSy Sandally Froche, Hosey Hat, 
Capp, Peticotey Freemantle, GaicotCy* and Mapes.f I have 
no doubt that aU these have been used as signs of houses, 
perhaps of inns; certain it is that there was a tavern in 
Southwark called the Tabard (a herald's coat), and a very 
famous tavern it was too, which will never be forgotten so 
long as the name of Chaucer survives. 

" Befelle, that in that season on a day 
In Southwerk at the Tabard as I lay, 
Redy to wenden on my pilgrimage 
To Canterbury with devout corage, 
At night was come into that hostelrie, 
Wei nine and twenty in a compagnie. 
Of sondry folk, by aventure yfalle 
In felawship, and pilgrimes were they alle, 
That toward Canterbury wolden ride."| 

Some of the names borrowed from habiliments, how- 
ever, were given as sobriquets to those who first set the 
fashion of wearing them. Of this we have an instance in 
Curtmantle, the surname of our Henry the Second, given 
him from his having introduced the fashion of wearing 
shorter mantles than had been previously used. This rule 
was reversed in later days by one Spencer, who gave his 
surname to the article bearing that name ; which is said 
to have originated in the following manner : Spencer was 
a celebrated exquisite, who stood so high in these matters 
that he had only to don any particular fashion of garment, 
to be imitated by all the dandies of the day ; and so confi- 

* Camden. t Vide Archaeologist, vol. i. p. 102. 

± Chauc. Cant. Tales, Prologue. 



158 SURNAMES FROM NATURAL OBJECTS 

dent was he of his influence in this respect, that he once 
declared that he verily believed that if he wore a coat 
without tails, others would do the same. He assumed 
this ridiculous vestment — so did they ! 

Hugh Capet, the founder of the royal line of France in 
the tenth century, is said to have acquired that surname 
from a freak of which, in his boyhood, he was very fond ; 
that of snatching off the caps of his playfellows. 

The names derived from parts of armour, as Helme, 
Shield, Greaves, Swords,Buckler, Gauntlett,Gunn,Muskett, 
Shotbolt, and Broadspear, were also, in all probability, 
signs of inns kept by those who first bore them. Some 
similar names, however, originated from fashions in war- 
like implements, and were given to the persons who first 
used them. Strongbow, the cognomen of the famous Earl 
of Pembroke, and Fortescue, that is, strong-shield, are of 
this kind. Longespee, the cognomen of WiUiam first Earl 
of Salisbury, and son of Fair Rosamond, was given him 
from his using a longer sword than usual ; and WilHam, 
son of Robert de Belesme, earl of Shrewsbury, gained the 
name of Talvas from the kind of shield so called.* 

This hypothesis respecting signs enables us to account 
for such surnames as Angel, Saint, Apostles, Martyr, 
which could never have been applied with propriety to 
any living person. The Angel is still a common sign for 
inns, as Saints doubtless were before the Reformation. 
St. George and the Dragon still retain their post at the 
doors of some country alehouses. Martyrs, too, I dare 
say, were plentiful enough in those days; but the only 
vestige of them remaining, so far as I am aware, is 
St. Catherine on her Wheel, now usually termed the 

• Camden. 



AND SIGNS OF HOUSES. 159 

Catton Wheel. Indeed, I am not quite sure whether it 
has not been corrupted still further to the Cat and Wheel ! 
There are some other names of a religious cast, as Crucifix, 
Hallowbready Fix, a little chest for the reception of the 
consecrated host; Pascall, another utensil used in the 
service of the church ; and Porteus, a breviary or priest's 
office-book, to which I am disposed to assign the same origin. 

Several surnames are from the names of articles of diet ; 
as Figg (a most excellent name for a grocer). Buttery 
Dryhutter, Salt, Sugar, Ale, Suet, Honey, Pepper, 
Mustard, Pickles, Perry, Syder,* and Beer. This last 
(and perhaps some of the others) may be of the local class, 
there being two towns of that name in Devonshire, namely, 
Beer-Ferris and Beer-Alston. Salt, Sugar, and Suet could 
never have been signs of houses, whence I conclude they 
were first given as sobriquets to persons who dealt in such 
articles. 

I have already extended the present Essay beyond due 
bounds, but I must not close it without adverting to one 
other batch of names: I mean those derived from the 
heathen divinities and celebrated personages of antiquity, 
whose names and portraitures doubtless, in former days, 
adorned some of the signs of which I have already said so 
much. Of the former we have Venus, Mars, and Bacchus,-f 
and of the latter Homer, Tullsy, Vergil, Ccesar, and 

* A friend remarks, "The Italian Peray is at least as likely a derivation, 
and, at all events, a more costly liquor." Syder is probably synonymous with 
Sidesman, the name of an office. 

t I am rather afraid we must be content with a much humbler origin for this 
name, viz. ' Bakehouse.' Backhouse and Bacus are similar corruptions, In 
some districts, house, as a termination, is often corrupted to us, e. g. Stonehouse 
to Stonnus, Woodhouse to Woodus, Dovehouse to Duffus, and Malthouse to 
Malthus. (Mad. d'Arblay's Mem.) 



160 SURNAMES FROM NATURAL OBJECTS, ETC. 

Horace. "^ It is sometimes amusing to find these immortal 
names in the oddest possible associations: "Many years 
have not elapsed," says Mr. Brady, in his humorous dis- 
sertation, "since Horace drew beer at Wapping ; Homer 
was particularly famous for curing sore legs ; and C^sar 
was unambitious of any other post than that of shopman 
to a mercer !" 

The failure of a person named Homer once gave rise to 
the following admirable puns : 

" That Homer should a bankrupt be 
Is not so very odd-d'ye-see, 
If it be true, as I'm instructed. 
So ILL-HE-HAD his books conducted !"t 

* Had we not evidence that such names as Colbrand, Gup, and Bevis were 
antiently used as Christian names, I should not hesitate to add them to this 
catalogue of celebrated persons as being derived respectively from the Danish 
Giant, from the famous Earl of Warwick, and from the no less doughty, if less 
illustrious, Bevis of Southampton : 

"Which geaunt was myghtie and strong. 
And full fourty feet was long ; 
A foote he had betwene each brow. 
His head was bristled like a sowe !" (Romance of Syr Bevis.) 

It is remarkable that there is still living at Southampton, the scene of his 
giantship's adventures, a family of Bevis, who from time immemorial have been 
located there ; but whether they are lineally or collaterally descended from this 
giant (whose effigies still adorn the Bar-gate of the town,) I leave to the proper 
authorities at the Herald's College to determine. 

The name of Littlejohn I formerly imagined to be borrowed from the far-famed 
compeer of that most redoubtable deer-killing, bishop-robbing, and sheriff-tor- 
menting wight. Master Robyn Hood of Nottinghamshire. That the name of a 
person so popular, so courageous, and so worthy in some respects as this antient 
forester was, should be adopted as a surname by some lover of "hunting craft 
and the green- wood glade," In the next generation, would have been a circum- 
stance by no means extraordinary. 

t Heraldic Anomalies. 



SURNAMES FROM SOCIAL RELATIONS, ETC. 161 



ESSAY IX. 

SURNAMES FROM THE SOCIAL RELATIONS, PERIODS OF 
AGE, TIME, ETC. 

There are several English surnames derived from con- 
sanguinity, alliance, and other social relations, originating, 
as Camden thinks, from there having been two or more 
persons bearing the same Christian name in the same 
neighbourhood; as Fader y Brothers^ CotmnSj Husband, 
Young-husbandj Batchelor, Kinsman, Lover, Paramour,* 
Guest, Stranger, Prentice, Master, Masterman, Friend,f 
and Foe. Here, for want of a more appropriate place, I 
may add Mann, Boys, Goodboys, Littleboys, Littlechild, 
Stripling, Suckling, Baby (^\),X Child,^ Children (I), and 

* Lei/child seems to be the old English form of love-child, 1. e an ille- 
gitimate. 

t The common surname BeUamj/ is derived, according to Bailey, from the 
French Bbl-Ami, fair Friend ; while Farebrother is probably a corruption of 
father-brother, a Scottish term for uncle. 
i^ I have three authorities for this name. 

§ CJiild is frequently used by our old writers as a title. It seems to be equiva< 
lent to Knight. In the " Faerie Queen" it is applied to the son of a king. Child 
Waters, the Child of Rile and Gil or CAzVd-Morice, are personages well known to 
the readers of Percy's Reliques. The word sometimes occurs in its plural form 
as children. Thus in the ballad of Sir Cauline : — 

" The Eldridge knight he pricked his steed ; 
Syr Cauline bold abode : 
Then either shooke his trustye speare. 
And the timber these two children bare 
Soe soone in sunder slode ! (split.)" 

{Perc. Rel. Ed. 1839, p. 12.) 

«' In former times the cognomen Childe was prefixed to the family name by the 
eldest son ; and the appellation was continued until he succeeded to the title of 
his ancestors, or gained new honours by his prowess." {Lond. Encyc. 1836.) 



162 SURNAMES FROM SOCIAL RELATIONS, 

Gasson, which looks like a corruption of GAR90N (Fr.), a 
boy. That some of these are corruptions, or words having 
a double meaning, is, I think, unquestionable. Mann, for 
instance, as I have already surmised, may be from the 
island in the Irish Sea ; Batchelor is applicable otherwise 
as well as to an unmarried man ; and Boys, with its com- 
pounds, is, in all Hkelihood, a mis-spelling and false pro- 
nunciation of the French bois, a wood. The French 
surname Du Bois, naturalized amongst us, is equivalent to 
our Attwood, &c. To such names of distinction also be- 
long Rich and Poorer Fassall, Bond, FreemaUy Freeborn, 
and Burr ell. Borel is used in Chaucer in the sense of 
LAY, as Borel-clerks, lay clerks, Borel-folk, laymen. 

The. surname of Wardedu or War deux, formerly borne 
by the feudal lords of Bodiham, co. Sussex, is of very 
singular origin. Henry, a younger son of the house of 
Monceux, was a ward of the Earl of Ou in the thirteenth 
century, from which circumstance he left his antient patro- 
nymic, and assumed that of "Ward de Ou. This Henry 
Wardeou or Wardedu was knight of the shire for Sussex 
in 1302.* 

Closely connected with the foregoing are the names de- 
rived from periods of age, as Young, Younger, Youngman, 
Eld, and Senior, Rathbone is from the Saxon, and signi- 
fies "an early gift." This class of surnames presents 
some very strange anomalies ; for instance, though Eld or 
Senior might serve very weU to designate a man in the 
decline of life, how could it apply to his children? 
"Yong," says Verstegan, was derived from one's "few- 



* See a very interesting little work, lately published, called •* Gleanings re- 
specting Battel and its Abbey," p. 63. 



AND PERIODS OF AGE AND TIME. 163 

ness of yeares ;" if so, every day of his life must have 
made the absurdity of the name increasingly apparent. 
How oddly do such announcements as the following 
sound : " Died, on Tuesday week, Mr. Young ^ of Newton, 
aged 97." " The late Mr. Cousins, the opulent banker, 
of Kingston, is said to have left the whole of his property 
to pubUc charities, as he could not ascertain that he 
had a single relative in the world!" "Died, on the 
10th inst.. Miss Bridget Younghushand, spinster, aged 
84." " Birth : Mrs. A. Batchelor, of a son, being her 
thirteenth,*' &c. &c. 

From periods of time we have several names, as Spring, 
Summer, Winter. The writer of the article " Names," in 
the Penny Cyclopaedia, thinks these three corruptions of 
other words, because the remaining season. Autumn, does 
not stand as a surname. Thus, he says. Spring signifies a 
hill; Summer, somner ;* and Winter, vintner. This is 
far-fetched; besides, I would not undertake to say that 
we have no Autumns in our family nomenclature. It is 
a word easily corrupted to the more natural speUing of 
Otham or Hotham, although I am quite aware that some 
famiUes bearing that designation take it from places 
where they were originally settled. Moreover, it is no 
greater matter of surprise that names should be borrowed 
from the seasons than from the months, the days of the 
week, and festivals of the church, like the following : Dai/, 
with its compounds Goodday and Doubleday ; Evening, 
Weekes ; March, May; Sunday, Monday, Friday; 
Christmas (and Noel, Fr.), Easter, Paschall, Pentecost, 
Middlemiss, that is, if I mistake not, Michaelmas; 

* See p. 106. 



164 SURNAMES FROM SOCIAL RELATIONS, 

Holidayy Midwinter,* &c. Domesday seems to be a cor- 
ruption of " domus dei," a name given to some religious 
houses. We are not singular in the possession of such 
names: the Romans had their Januarii, Martii, Maii, Festi, 
and Virgilii — the last so named from having been " borne 
at the rising of the VirgiHse or seven stars, as Pontanus 
learnedly writeth against them which write the name 
VirgiHus."t 

Perhaps most of these originated from the period of the 
birth of the persons to whom they were first assigned, or 
from some notable event which occurred to those persons 
on the particular day or month. The name Friday, which 
De Foe makes Robinson Crusoe give to his savage is ex- 
tremely natural. Perhaps they were occasionally given to 
foundlings : thus, in Crabbe's " Parish Register :" 

" Some hardened knaves that roved the country round, 
Had left a babe within the parish bound, 

Hi Hi :ki ^ Hi 'Hfi 

But by what name th' unwelcome guest to call 
Was long a question, and it * posed' them all ; 
For he who lent it to a babe unknown, 
Censorious men might take it for his own. 
They look'd about ; they gravely spoke to all, 
And not one Richard answered to the call. 
Next they enquired the day when, passing by, 
Th' unlucky peasant heard the stranger's cry. 
This known, how food and raiment they might give 
Was next debated, for the rogue would live! 
At last, with all their words and work content, 
Back to their homes the prudent vestry went, 
And Richard Monday to the workhouse sent." 



* Mr. Monkland's MS. contains the additional names of Thursday, Harvest, 
August, Dawn, Noon, Eve, and Morrow. 
^ Remaines, p. 111. 



AND PERIODS OF AGE AND TIME. 165 

The following surnames may find a place here : Soone, 
Later J Latter, Last, and Quickly. Well may Master 
Camden say of such, " To find out the true originall of 
Surnames is full of difficulty ;" and I shall not waste good 
time and paper by any attempt to guess at their origin. 
There is also another commodity of which I should regret 
the loss still more : to wit, the patience of the reader. I 
shall therefore close this short Essay by thanking him for 
his indulgence, and announcing a shorter. 



166 A CABINET OF ODDITIES. 



Eg"SAY X. 

A CABINET OF ODDITIES. 

" Odd, very odd !" 

Old Play* 

There are a good many surnames which seem to have 
originated in sheer caprice, as no satisfactory reason for 
their assumption can be assigned. I doubt, indeed, if 
they were ever assumed at all, for they have very much 
the appearance of what, in these days, we are accustomed 
to call nicknames or sobriquets^ and were probably given 
by others to the persons who were first known by them, 
and so identified with those persons that neither they nor 
their immediate posterity could well avoid them. 

To this family belong the names borrowed from parts 
OF THE HUMAN FIGURE, which are somewhat numerous. 
There were lately living, in a very small village about ten 
miles from Lewes, three cottagers bearing the singular 
names of Head, Body, and Shoulders I It may not be 
unamusing to classify this description of names according 
to their proper position in the human frame, thus : 

Head, with its numerous compounds, which are already 
accounted for, with Pate, and Skull, Face and Fore- 
head ! 

Haire, and that of various colours. 

Cheeke. 

♦ At least I dare say so, for I am not a reader of old plays. I believe it is 
generally understood that authors are at full liberty to coin a motto, and to as- 
cribe it to any imaginary source that may strike their fancy. 



A CABINET OF ODDITIES. 167 

Mouth, Tongue, Tooth, Gum and Gumboil ! 

Chin and Beard. 

It must not be imagined that I have overlooked the 
nose : that was too prominent a feature to be forgotten. 
It generally occurs in composition with other words, how- 
ever, and in its antient form of nesse ; as Thicknesse, 
thick-nose ; Bednesse, red-nose ; Longnesse, long-nose ; and 
Filtnessey which, if I may be allowed a jocular etymology, 
is no other than " fcedus nasus," or, in plain EngUsh, foul- 
nose f Having thus disposed of the head, I proceed to the 

Neck and Shoulders, and thence to the 

Body (with its compounds Goodbody, Freebody, which 
are mental rather than personal epithets). 

Side, Back, Bones, and Skin,* with Joint and 
Blood and Marrow. 

Heart (with Great-heart, &c.) 

Belly, Bowell, and Kidney, with its Fat. 

Arms, Hands, Fist, and Nailes ! Next, in respect of 
the " nether man," 

Shanks and LEGGE,f with its Knee-bone. In our 
downward progress we pass the Shin and the 

Foote, with its 

Toe, Heele, and Sole, where having reached "terra 
firma," we remain as much in the dark as ever as to the 

• Skin and Bone were the namea of two millers at Manchester on whom Dr. 
Byrom wrote:— 

*' Bone and Skin, two millers thin. 
Would starve us all or near it ; 
But be it known to Skin and Bone, 
That yiesh and blood can't bear it." 
t Some of these names may have been borrowed from signs of houses. Vide 
Essay VIII. In an old ballad called * London's Ordinary,' we read :— 
" The hosiers will dine at the Leg, 
The drapers at the sign of the Brush, &c." 



168 A CABINET OF ODDITIES. 

motives which led our whimsical ancestors to the adoption 
of such very absurd and extraordinary surnames. 

Names of this sort are not confined to the human body, 
for we have several that seem to have been borrowed from 
parts of the inferior animals, as MaWy HorUj Wing, 
Feathery Scutty Beaky Crowfooty and Shell. 

Then there is another set of names not much less ridi- 
culous, namely, those borrowed from coins and denomi- 
nations of money; as Farthing y Halfpenny y Penny y'^ 
Twopenny, Thickpennyy Moneypennyy Manypennyy Fenny- 
morey GrotCy Tester y and Pound; also Pringle and Bodle, 
two obsolete Scottish coins. The last, however, may be a 
corruption of Bothwell, as the name of the coin was taken 
from that of the person. Angely NobUy and Marky although 
names of coins, are referrible to other classes of names al- 
ready discussed. Besides these we have 

From the weather, &c. Frosty SnoWy Haily and 
Hailstoney Rainy y Thundery Tempesty Foggy Fairday, and 
Fairweathery GaUy Breezey ShowerSy Sunshiney FineweatheVy 
Misty and Dew I 

From sports and amusements. Bowles, Bally Byce, 
Dodd, Cards, &c. ; to which may be added Fairplay and 
Playfair. 

From VESSELS and their parts, &c.. Ship, Cutter 
(inn signs), Barge, Boat, Wherry, Beck, Forecastle, Keel, 
Locker, Tackle, Rope, Cable, Anchor (an inn sign). Mast, 
Helm, and Rudder. 

From PACES. Trot, Gallop, Canter (?). 



* Upon a person of this name some one wrote the following distich by way of 

epitaph : 

** Reader, If cash thou art in want of any. 

Dig four feet deep, and thou shalt find a Penny !" 



A CABINET OF ODDITIES. 169 

From MEASURES. Gill, Gallon, Peck, Bushell, Bagg, 
Measures, Cuhitt, Yard, Hal/yard, Furlong, and Inches. 

From PREDILECTIONS. Loveday, Loveland, Lovethorpe 
(thojip, A.-S., a village), Lovegrove, &c. 

From NUMBERS. Six, Ten, Eighteen, Forty e ;'^ also 
Once and Twice ! and 

From DISEASES. Cramp, Akinside, Headache, Akin- 
head, and Ague ! ! ! f 

Is our motto realized ? 

* These names seem so absurd, that one would be induced to pronounce them 
corruptions of others, had we not similar names from various countries ; for 
Instance, there were lately at Rome two Cardinals, Settantadue and Quarantotto, 
the Italian for * seventy-two' and ' forty-eight.' The name of the eminent 
sculptor Trentanove signifies 'thirty-nine!' In Belgium there is a family 
called Vilain Quatorze or ' fourteen-rascal !' 

+ ^feinside. Headache, y4/finhead and ^^ue may be local from the A.-S. ac, 
an oak. 



170 SURNAMES OF CONTEMPT. 



ESSAY XL 

SURNAMES OF CONTEMPT; AND MORE ODDITIES IN THE 
NOMENCLATURE OF ENGLISHMEN. 

It is really remarkable that many surnames expressive 
of bodily deformity or moral turpitude should have de- 
scended to the posterity of those who perhaps well deserved 
and so could not escape them, when we reflect how easily 
such names might have been avoided in almost every state 
of society by the adoption of others ; for although in our 
days it is considered an act of villany, or at least a ' suspi- 
cious affair,' to change one's name unless in compliance 
with the will of a deceased friend, when an act of the 
senate or the royal sign-manual is required, the case was 
widely different four or five centuries ago, and we know 
from antient records that names were frequently changed 
at the caprice of their owners. The law seems originally 
to have regarded such changes, even in the most solemn 
acts, with great indifference. Lord Coke observes : " It is 
requisite that a purchaser be named by the name of bap- 
tism and his surname, and that special heed be taken to 
the name of baptism, for that a man cannot have two 
names of baptism as he may have divers surnames." And 
again: "It is holden in our antient books that a man 
may have divers names at divers times, but not divers 
Christian names."* 

• « The question how far it is lawful for an individual to assume a surname 
at pleasure came before Sir Joseph Jekyll when master of the rolls in 1730, 
who, in giving judgment upon the case (Barlow v. Bateman), remarked, 'I am 



SURNAMES OF CONTEMPT. 171 

Names of this kind are not very numerous in England ; 
still we have Bad, TrollopCy that is, slattern ; Stunt, that 
is, fool; Outlaw, Wanton, Silly, Silliman ; Parnell (an 
immodest woman). Bastard, Trash, Harlott, Hussey, 
Gubbins (the refuse parts of a fish), and Gallows, which 
strongly implies that the founder of that family attained a 
very exalted, though at the same time unenviable, station 
in the world ! Kennard, antiently Kaynard, from caignard 
(Fr.), literally signifies "you dog!" which assuredly 
merits a place among surnames of contempt. The same 
word, in a figurative sense, means a sordid fellow, a miser. 
Dudman, according to Bailey, means ' a malkin, or scare- 
crow, a hobgoblin, a spright !' Craven, the surname of a 
noble family, might be thought to belong to the same class, 
but this is a local name derived from a place in Yorkshire.* 
Bene or Bean is an expression of contempt, the meaning 
of which is not ascertained. f Cheale in the southern dia- 
lect is probably the same with chield in the north, where 
it is applied to persons in a shght, contemptuous manner.;]: 
The A.-S. Eeoj\le, whence our modern English * churl,' is 
probably the root. 

Many of the names mentioned in former Essays might 
be placed among these surnames of contempt. Such, also, 
are a variety of those indicative of ill-formed Hmbs or fea- 
tures, as Crookshanks, Longshanks, Sheepshanks, Greathead, 



satisfied the usage of passing acts of parliament for the taking upon one a sur- 
name is but modern, and that any one may take upon him what surname, and 
as many surnames, as he pleases, without an act of parliament.' It is right, 
however, to add that the above decision was reversed by the House of Lords." 
(Archceologia, vol. xviii, p. 110.) 

* Craven, antiently a term of disgrace when the party that was overcome in 
a single combat yielded and cried Cravent, &c. {Bailey's Bictionaj-y.) 

t Vide Percy's Ant. Rel. X lb. Gloss, voc. Chield. 



172 SURNAMES OF CONTEMPT. 

Longnesse, &c. The antient Romans, like ourselves, had 
many family names implying something defective or dis- 
graceful. Their Plauti, Pandi, Vari, Scauri, and Tuditani 
would have been with us the Splay-foots, the Bandy-legs, 
the In-knees, the Club-foots, and the Hammer-heads ! Tlie 
meanness of the origin of some of the patrician families 
was hinted at in their names. The illustrious Fahii de- 
rived their name from being excellent cultivators of beans, 
and the Pisones theirs from their having improved the 
growth of pease. The Suilli were descended and denomi- 
nated from a swine-herd, the Bubulci from a cow-herd, 
and the Porci from a hog-butcher ! Strabo would have 
been with us a Mr. Squintum, Naso (Ovid) a Mr. Bignose, 
and Publius, the propraetor, a Mr. Snubnose. Cincinnatus, 
and the curly poll of the Dainty Davie of Scottish song, 
are, strange to say, identical ideas.* The modern Itahans 
are not more courteous than their ancestors of "old 
Rome" in the names they give to some families ; as, for 
instance, Malatesta, chuckle-headed ; Boccanigras, black- 
muzzled ; Porcina, a hog ; and Gozzi, chubby-chops If 

To this place may also be referred the by-names of 
kings, as Unready, Shorthose, Sans-terre, Crookback. 
"William the Conqueror was so little ashamed of the ille- 
gitimacy of his birth that he sometimes commenced his 
charters with William the Bastard, &c. ! 

Among other names not yet mentioned may be noticed 
Whalebelly (for which, with all the rest that follow, I 
have authority), the designation, probably, of some cor- 
pulent person ; Rotteuy Bubblejaw, and Bottenherym/, a 
»ame which occurs in some antient records of the town 

♦ Chambers's Edinburgh Journal, t Ibid, 



MORE ODDITIES. 1/3 

of Hall, and was most likely gWen, in the first instance, 
to a dishonest dealer in fish.* Indeed, I have little doubt 
that these odd appellations all applied with great propriety 
to those who primarily bore them. How well might 
Save-all designate a miserly fellow ! and Scrape-skin would 
answer the same purpose admirably. Doubleman would 
be odious if it related to duplicity of character, but humo- 
rous if it originated in some person's being double the size 
of ordinary people. Stabback and KUlmaster are really 
horrible. 

It is perhaps scarcely fair to take many of the above 
names au pied de la lettre, as they may not be really what 
they appear at the first sight or sound ; " and a more dili- 
gent search into our own antient dialects, as well as into 
those foreign ones from whence we receive so many recruits, 
would doubtless rescue some of them from unmerited op- 
probrium." Nor should it be forgotten that in the muta- 
tions to which a living language is ever exposed many ex- 
pressions which now bear a bad sense had originally a very 
different meaning : the words knave, villain, and rascal, 
for instance, would not have been regarded as opprobrious 
names in the thirteenth century. The name Coward may 
be adduced in support of these remarks. " The Argillarius 
or Hayward of a town or village was one whose duty it 
was to supervise the greater cattle, or common herd of 
beasts, and keep them within due bounds. He was other- 

* The following anecdote will serve to show how easily, even in modem 
times, a nick-name may usurp the place of a true family name. •♦ The parish 
clerk of Langford near Wellington, was called Red Cock for many years before 
his death ; for having one Sunday slept in church, and dreaming that he was at 
a cock-fighting, he bawled out : • a shilling upon the red cock !' And behold ! 
the family are called Redcock to this day." {LackingtorCa Life.) This anecdote 
forms an appropriate appendage to what has been said in Essay VII. 



1/4 MORE ODDITIES PUNS. 

wise called Bubulcus, q. d. Cow-ward, whence the re- 
proachful term Coward. "^'^ With respect to the term nick- 
name I may observe that it comes to us from the French 
{nom de nique), in which language nique is a movement of 
the head to mark a contempt for any person or thing. 



I trust that the gentle reader will do me the justice to 
acknowledge that I have been tolerably successful in the 
appropriation of surnames to the various classes to which 
they belong ; but he really must excuse me if I do not so 
much as attempt either to classify or explain such names 
as Overhead, Challenge, Pennyfeather, Merrywether, 
Starkwether, Hayday, Broivnsword, Physic, Wigg, Sus- 
tenance, and Nothing ! Snare, Need, Stilfox, Brace, Hazard, 
Horsenail, and Music! Emblem, Mummery, Portwine, 
Doors, Theme, Tomb, and Vesper ! Chataway, Sermon, 
Coffin, Fancy, and Pickfat ! Quickfall, Parcel, Casement, 
Window, and Fudge ! What can we say to compounds 
such as these : Look-up, Standfast, Small-page, God-me- 
fetch, and Weed-all? Good-year, Twice-a-day, Small-shoe, 
Good-lad, May-powder, and Pay-body ? Small-piece, Still- 
weU,f Ride-out, and Quick-fall? Good-be-here, Full-away, 
God-helpe, Gay-lord, Twelve-trees, dindi Twenty-man ? Rue- 
gain, Pop-kiss, Tram-pleasure, Doo-little, Tread-away, % 
Clap-shoe, Gather-c&al, and Shake-lady ? Rush-out, Well- 
fit, Met-calf, Go-lightly, Tip-lady, Tap-lady, 9xATop-lady? 
Gather-good and Scatter-good have some propriety, but 
what shall be said of Lady-man, Go-to-bed, Hearsay, 

* Rees's Cyclopedia. 

t There is a physician of this name. 

% The name of a shoemaker at Springfield, co. Essex. 



MORE ODDITIES PUNS. 175 

Thick-hroom, and Leather-barrow ? House-go, Crownin- 
shieldy Hood-less, Cheese-wright, and Honey-loom? Small- 
boneSf Bean-bulk, White-leg, and Buck-thought ? Bean- 
shop, Dip-rose, Spar-shot, Hugg-up, and Middle-stitch ? 
Strange-ways, Bird-whistle, Drink-water,^ Brink-milk, 
Brink-dregs, and, to conclude, that ne plus ultra of all that 
is odd, ludicrous, and polysyllabic in English surnames, 

GOD-LOVE-MI-LADY ? 

For aught I know, we have the name of Go-and-see ; 
our neighbours over the water certainly have it, as one 
poor fellow proved to his cost. An officer under the 
command of the celebrated Turenne, one Count Falavoir, 
(Anglice as above,) walking round the camp after night- 
fall, passed the post of a sentinel, who, as in duty bound, 
challenged him with the usual " Who goes there ?" to 
which the officer replied, Va-la-voir. The soldier doubting 
if he heard right, twice repeated the question, and was 
twice again answered in the same manner. Enraged, at 
length, by what he considered an insolent response, the 
sentinel levelled his musket, and, horribile dictu, shot the 
bearer of this unfortunate cognomen dead upon the spot.f 

I cannot conclude this Essay without introducing the 
following jeux d* esprit in the shape of puns upon a few 
of these humour-exciting names. 

Within the precincts of one of our cathedrals, a ball 
being about to take place at the house of one of the 
canons, a gentleman of the name of Noys was asked in 
company whether he was to be present at it. "To be 
sure," said a gentleman who heard it; "how should a 
canon-ball go o-^ without Noys ?"" 

* Camden has this among local names ; but query, where is the place situated ? 
t Smollett's Adv. of an Atom. 



176 MORE ODDITIES— PUNS. 

A person whose name was Gunn complaining to a friend 
that his attorney in his bill had not let him off easily y 
" That is no wonder," said his friend, " as he charged you 
too high /" But this is not so good as an entry in the 
custom-house books of Edinburgh, where it appears that 
A, meaning Alexander — "^. Gunn was discharged for 
making a false report /'* 

Sir Thomas More enjoyed a pun and a repartee. On 
one occasion his fondness for this species of humour got 
the better of his persecuting zeal. A man named Silver 
being brought before him, he said, " Silver , you must be 
tried by fire." "Yes," repHed the prisoner, "but you 
know, my Lord, that Quick Silver cannot abide the fire !'* 
Pleased with the answer. Sir Thomas suffered the man to 
depart. 

On the failure of two bankers in Ireland, named Gonne 
and Going, some one wrote : 

" Going and Gonne are now both one, 
For Gonne is going, and Going's gone !" 

Dr. Lettsom, a famous physician of the last century, 
used to sign his prescriptions " I. Lettsom," which gave 
rise to the following : 

" When any patients calls in haste, 
I physics, bleeds, and sweats 'em ; 
If after that they choose to die, 
Why, what cares I ? — 

I Lets'em." 

The late Mr. I. Came, the wealthy shoe-maker of Liver- 
pool, who left his immense property to pubUc charities, 
opened his first shop on the opposite side of the street to 
that in which he had been a servant, and inscribed its front 
with " I Came from over the way." 



MORE ODDITIES PUNS. 177 

A paragraph to the following effect went the round of 
the papers not many months since: Two attorneys in 
partnership in a town in the United States had the name 
of the firm, which was " Catcham and ChetuMy' inscribed 
in the usual manner upon their office door; but as the 
singularity and ominous juxta-position of the words led to 
many a coarse joke from passers-by, the men of law at- 
tempted to destroy, in part, the effect of the odd associa- 
tion by the insertion of the initials of their Christian 
names, which happened to be Isaiah and Uriah ; but 
this made the afiair ten times worse, for the inscription 
then ran 

"I. CATCHAM AND U. CHETUM." ! ! !* 

While on the subject of puns, I may remark that very 
few persons like to have their names made use of in this 
manner. Shenstone is said to have comforted himself with 
the consciousness that his name was not obnoxious to a 
pun. " I was once," says F. Leiber, " in company with 
a Mr. Short, in whose presence a Mr. Shortei' was men- 
tioned. ' Your son V said a bystander quite gravely to 
Mr. Short, who, like most people, disrehshed the joke on 
his name very much."f 

, Names sometimes form a singular association or contrast, 
as we have already seen in the case of Messrs. Peppercorn 
and Pluckrose, and especially in that of Messrs. Catcham 
and Chetum. Take, if you will, a few additional specimens. 

♦ Chetum is probably a corruption of Chetham, the name of an antient family 
in Lancashire, of which the munificent founder of Manchester College was a 
member. 

f Stranger in America, vol. ii. ; a work which contains a very curious letter 
on American names. 

8§ 



178 MORE ODDITIES PUNS. 

" The duke of Wellington in a visit to some place in the 
country was conducted by a Mr. Coward. In partnerships 
we often discover a singular junction of names ; for in- 
stance, ' Bowyer and Fletcher ;' ' Carpenter and Wood ;' 
* Spinage and Lamb ;' * Sage and Gosling ;' * Rumfit and 
Cutwell, tailors/ &c. The occupation sometimes asso- 
ciates very peculiarly with the name; we have known 
apothecaries and surgeons of the names of Littlefear, 
Butcher, Death, and Coffin ; Pie, a pastry-cook ; Rideout, 
a stable-keeper ; Tugwell, a dentist, [another a shoemaker] ; 
Light-foot, a dancing-master : Mix-well, a publican ; and 
two hosiers of the names of Foote and Stocking. We also 
recollect a sign with * Write, late Read and Write," in- 
scribed upon it ... . Hymen, too, plays sad vagaries with 
names. We have seen Mr. Good married to Miss JS'mY; 
Mr. Bean to Miss Pease ; Mr. Brass to Miss Mould ; and 
Mr. Gladdish to Miss Cleverly."'^ "In the neighbour- 
hood of one of the squares in London there are now living 
surgeons whose names are the appropriate ones of Church- 
yard, Death, Blood, and Slaughter. ""'\ On the Eastern 
side of Regent street there were, some few years since, 
only three pastry-cooks, whose names, singularly enough, 
were 

VERRY 

LONG 

BEARD! 

Fogg and Mist were china-men in Warwick street. The 
firm afterwards became Fogg and Son, on which it was 
said that * the Sun had driven away the Mist !* 

• Collet's Relics of Literature, p. 395. f Daily Paper, Oct. 1838. 



MORE ODDITIES PUNS. 179 

A most respectable firm of London attorneys not long 
since bore the very ominous names of Stilly Strong, and 
Rackham. 

An ancestor of my own, by trade a carpenter, used 
often facetiously to remark, that he should never want 
timbevy as two of his workmen bore the names of Seven- 
oaks and Tree ! 

In the 1 7th century Attorney-general Noy was succeeded 

by Sir John Bankes, and Chief-justice Heath, being found 

guilty of bribery. Sir John Finch obtained the office : hence 

it was said : 

** Noy-s flood is gone, 
The Banks appear ; 
Heath is stiorn down, 
And Finch sings there !'' 

Camden closes his curious collection of Epitaphs with 
the following, on " Thomas Churchyard, the poore Court- 
Poet." 

** Come, Alecto, and lend me thy torch 

To finde a Church-yard in the Church-porch, 
Pouerty and Poetry this Tombe doth inclose. 
Therefore, Gentlemen, be merry in Prose.''* 

But I am forgetting the adage, " Play when your work's 
done," and must, for the present at least, dispense with 
puns and punsters, and proceed in another Essay to the 
consideration of several classes of English Surnames, 
which yet require explanation and illustration. 

* Churchyard, however, was buried not hi the church-porch, but in the choir 
of St. Margaret's, Westminster, (Weever's Fun. Mou. p. 271.) 



180 NAMES DERIVED FROM VIRTUES 



ESSAY XII. 

NAMES DERIVED FROM VIRTUES AND OTHER 
ABSTRACT IDEAS. 

My business here is first to name — and then to account 
for — such names as Justice y Virtue y Prudence^ Wisdom, 
Liberty y HopCy Peace, Joy, Anguish^ Comfort, Want, Pride, 
Grace, Laughter, Luck, Peace, Power, Warr, Ransom, 
Reason, Love, Verity, Vice, Patience, &c. 

To these may be added Bale, sorrow or misery,* and a 
few other obsolete terms of a similar character. 

It can hardly be supposed that these names were assumed 
by persons who thought themselves pre-eminent for the 
possession of those attributes ; as such arrogance would 
certainly fail of its object, and expose the parties to con- 
tempt ; although I am aware that something of a similar 
kind was attempted by the Puritans of the 1 6th and 1 7th 
centuries with regard to Christian names. " It was usual," 
says Hume, (quoting Brome's Travels,) "for the pretended 
saints of that time [a.d. 1653] to change their names 
from Henry, Edward, Anthony, William, which they 
regarded as heathenish and ungodly, into others more 
sanctified and godly. Sometimes a whole godly sentence 
was adopted as a name. Here are the names of a jury 
inclosed in Sussex about this time : 

• Coventry Myst. p. 30. 



AND OTHER ABSTRACT IDEAS. 181 

" Accepted Trevor of Norsham. 
Redeemed Compton of Battle.* 
Faint-not Hewett of Heathfield. 
Make-peace Heaton of Hare. 
God-reward Smart of Fivehurst. 
Stand fast-on-high Stringer of Crowhurst. 
Earth Adams of Warbleton. 
Called Lower of the same. 
Kill-sin Pimple of Witham. 
Return Spelman of Watling. 
Be-faithful Joiner of Britling. 
Fly-debate Roberts of the same. 
Fight-the-good-fight-of-faith White of Emer. 
More-fruite Fowler of East-Hadley. 
Hope-for Bending of the same. 
Graceful Harding of Lewes. 
Weep-not Billing of the same. 
Meek Brewer of Okeham." 

Had Hume taken a little pains to investigate this sub- 
ject, he might have saved himself the reiteration of Brome's 
sneer about the '^pretended saints," for we have indu- 
bitable evidence that such names were not assumed by the 
parties who bore them, but imposed as baptismal names. 
Take, in corroboration of this remark, a few instances from 
the parochial register of Warbleton : 

1617, Bestedfast Elyarde. 

Goodgift Gynninges. 

1622, Lament Willard. 

1624, Depend Outered. 

1625, Faint-not Dighurst. 

Fere-not Rhodes. 

1677, Replenish French. 

* Minister of Heathfield (1608.) 



182 NAMES DERIVED FROM VIRTUES 

Hence it will be seen that fully as much of blame (if 
any exists) rests with the clergy who performed the rite of 
baptism in these cases as with the " sanctified and godly'* 
parents who proposed such names of pretended saintship. 
I do not for a moment wish to extenuate the folly of the 
parties who gave such absurd names to their children, but 
I deem it an act of justice to the much-maligned, though, 
in many respects, misguided, and even fanatical Puritans 
of that period, to show that the sarcasm of the illiberal his- 
torian falls pointless to the ground, because, generally 
speaking at least, the bearers of such names had nothing 
at all to do with their imposition, and could no more get 
rid of them than any persons now living can dispense with 
the Christian names they have borne from their infancy. 
Indeed it seems to have become fashionable towards the 
close of the 1 6th century for parents to choose such fore- 
names for their offspring, and scarcely any of the parish 
registers of the period, that I have examined, are free from 
them. It seems that Sussex was particularly remarkable 
for the number of such names, long before the unhappy 
dissentions which disgraced the middle portion of the 1 7th 
century. There is another jury-list for the county in the 
Burrell Manuscripts, Brit. Mus. without date, but which I 
have good reason for assigning to about the year 1610, 
many years, be it remarked, prior to the era of Barebones 
and his "pretended saints."* I know that I am disgressing 

* Since the above was written, I have observed a passage in Camden which 
had previously escaped my notice, in which he alludes to these "new names. 
Free-gift, Reformation, Earth, Dust, Ashes, Delivery, More-fruit, Tribulation, 
The Lord is neare, More-tryall, Discipline, Joy-againe, From-above, which 
have lately [that is probably about the close of Elizabeth's reign] beeti given hy 
some to their children with no evil meaning, but upon some singular and precise 
conceit " The names • Remedium amoris,' * Imago sasculi,' are mentioned by 
this author, among the oddities of personal nomenclature at the same date. 



AND OTHER ABSTRACT IDEAS. 183 

from the subject of surnames, yet as I am upon a kindred 
topic, I think I shall be pardoned for the introduction of 
this Ust also, which will probably be quite new to the ma- 
jority of my readers : 

" Approved Frewen of Northiam.* 
" Bethankful Maynard of Brightling. 
Be-courteous Cole of Pevensey. 
Safety-on-High Snat of Uckfield. 
Search-the-Scriptures Moreton of Salehurst. 
More-fruit Fowler of East-Hothly. 
Free-gift Mabbs of Chiddingly.f 
Increase Weeks of Cuckfield. 
Restore Weeks of the same. 
Kni-sin Pemble of Westham. 
Elected Mitchell of Heathfield. 
Faint-not Hurst of the same. 
Renewed Wisberry of Hailsham. 
Return Milward of Hellingly. 
Fly-debate Smart of Waldron. 
Fly-fornication Richardson of the same. 
Seek-wisdom Wood of the same. 
Much-mercy Cryer of the same. 
Fight-the-good-fight-of-Faith White of Ewhurst. 
Small-hope Biggs of Rye. 
Earth Adams of Warbleton. 
Repentance Avis of Shoreham. 
The-peace-of-God Knight of Burwash.*';}: 

* A near relative of Archbishop Frewen. 

t He was living at Chiddingly in 1616, I make these notes because the au- 
thenticity of these lists has been called in question. 

t Horsfield's Lewes, vol. i. p. 202. Some of the names in this list are the 
same as those in the preceding. 



184 NAMES DERIVED FROM VIRTUES 

To return to the names which stand at the head of this 
Essay; I am inclined to think they originated in the 
allegorical characters who performed in the antient mys- 
teries or moralities; a species of dramatic pieces, which 
before the rise of the genuine drama served to amuse under 
the pretext of instructing, the play-goers of the "olden 
tyme." The favourite characters in these performances 
were Charity, Faith, Prudence, Discretion, Good-doctrine, 
Death, Vice, Folly and Iniquity,* who strutted upon the 
stage in grotesque costume, and, I fear, did far more to 
injure than promote good morals. The humour of these 
performers was of the broadest kind, and their acting 
irresistibly droll, but indecencies both in gesture and lan- 
guage neutraUzed their attemps to improve the moral 
feelings of their audiences, and eventually brought them 
into disrepute. It is probable that the actors in these 
performances acquired the names of the characters they 
personated, which thus became surnames and descended to 
their posterity. We have already seen that the names 
King, Lord, Knight, &c. originated in a manner very 
similar. 

The name of Woodhouse may be either a local name, or 
the designation of a favourite character in the mummings 
and Christmas festivities of our ancestors — if the latter, it 
may find a place here. The Wodehouse, or Wild Man of 
the Woods, was usually represented as a hairy monster 
wreathed about the temples and loins with holly and ivy, 
and much resembling the "wild man," so famihar in 
heraldic bearings. I am inclined to think he was ori- 
ginally derived from the Woden of the Saxon mythology. 

* Strutt's Sports and Pastimes. 



AND OTHER ABSTRACT IDEAS. 185 

The etymon of Woden appears to be pobe, mad, wild, 
furious, which agrees well enough with the assumed cha- 
racter of the "Wodehouse straunge*' of the olden days 
of merrie England. As the Wodehouse was distinct from 
the rehgious cast of the characters who performed in the 




Mysteries just referred to, he survived the Reformation 
and continued to be a favourite till a comparatively recent 
period. "When Queen Elizabeth was entertained at 
Kenilworth Castle, various spectacles were contrived for 
her amusement, and some of them produced, without any 



186 NAMES DERIVED FROM VIRTUES, ETC. 

previous notice, to take her, as it were, by surprise. It 
happened about nine o'clock one evening, as her majesty 
returned from hunting, and was riding by torch-Ught, 
there came suddenly out of the wood by the road-side, a 
man habited Hke a savage, covered with ivy, holding in one 
of his hands an oaken plant torn up by the roots, who 
placed himself before her, and after holding some discourse 
with a counterfeit echo, repeated a poetical oration in her 
praise, which was well received. This man was Thomas 
Gascoyne the poet ; and the verses he spoke on the occasion 
were of his own composition."* As an accompaniment 
to this Essay I have presented the *' lively effigies" of a 
Wodehouse, *'set down," as old Verstegan would say, "in 
picture." 

* NichoU's Progresses, vol. i. quoted in Hone's Strutt's Sports and Pastimes, 
p. 253. 



FOREIGN NAMES AND CORRUPTIONS. 187 



ESSAY XIII. 

FOREIGN NAMES NATURALIZED IN ENGLAND, AND THE 
CORRUPTIONS TO WHICH SUCH NAMES HAVE BEEN 
EXPOSED. 

Various causes might be assigned for the great variety 
that exists in the nomenclature of Englishmen. Probably 
the principal cause is to be found in the peculiar facilities 
•which our island has for many ages presented to the 
settlement of foreigners. War, royal matches with foreign 
princesses, the introduction of manufactures from the con- 
tinent, and the patronage which our country has always 
extended to every kind of foreign talent — all have of 
course tended to the introduction of new names. It would 
be a vain and hopeless task to attempt anything like a 
classification of these names by the various countries 
whence we have received them. I shall therefore confine 
myself to the mention of a few, my principal object in the 
present Essay being to show that many very usual names, 
generally supposed to be English, are merely corruptions 
of foreign words, and therefore unintelligible even to the 
famiUes who are designated by them. 

Of French names I have already incidentally said much. 
The proximity of Normandy, and the fact of our country 
having been poHtically subjected to that duchy at a period 
when surnames were of recent introduction, sufficiently 
account for the vast number of French names which have 
become naturahzed in England. The names already men- 



188 FOREIGN NAMES 

tioned, and those included in the Roll of Battel Abbey, 
given in the Appendix to this volume, must suffice for 
French surnames. I shall therefore only allude to names 
corrupted from the French, which are sufficiently numerous. 
I may quote, by way of example, Molineux, La-Ville, 
De-Ath, and De-Ville, which have been scandalously trans- 
formed to iUfw/ZmcA;*,* Larwill, Death, and Devil! St. Leger, 
has become Sellenger ! Scardeville has fared still worse ; 
for while on one hand it has been Anglicised to Skarfield, 
on the other it has been demonized (shall I say?) to 
Scaredevil ! ! The Americans are, if possible, worse than 
ourselves in respect of this torturing of names, for F. Lieber 
tells us that "in Salem, Massachusetts, there is now 
living a family of the [vile] name of Blumpay, a corrup- 
tion of Blancpied (Whitefoot), their original name ;" but 
more of the Americans presently. 

The readiest corruption from the French is that 
which turns ville into field, as Blomfield for Blondeville, 
Summerfield for Somerville, Baskerfield for Baskerville. 
** The late Lord Orford used to relate that a dispute once 
arose in his presence, in the way of raillery, between the 
late Earl Temple and the first Lord Lyttleton, on the 
comparative antiquity of their families. Lord Lyttleton 
concluded that the name of Grenville was originally green- 
field; Earl Temple insisted that it was derived from 
Grand-ville. "Well, then," said Lord Lyttleton, "if you 
wDl have it so, my family may boast of the higher anti- 
quity, for Little Towns were certainly antecedent to Great 
Cities ; but if you wiU be content with the more humble 
derivation, I will give up the point, for Green Fields were 

* In some families the true orthography is retained. 



AND CORRUPTIONS. 189 

certainly more antient than either."* In some cases 
VIX.LE has been changed to well, as Rosseville to 
Roswell, Bosseville to Boswell, Freshville to FretweU! 
Among other corruptions may be given Darcy from 
Adrecy, Mungey from Mountjoy, Knevett from Duvenet, 
Davers from Danvers, Troublefield from Tuberville, 
Frogmorton from Throckmorton, Manwaring and 
Mannering from Mesnilwarin, Dabridgecourt and Dabscot 
from Damprecourt, Barringer from Beranger, Tall-boys (!) 
from Taille-bois. 

Many of our family names came from Germany, a cir- 
cumstance not to be wondered at when we recollect that 
our present royal family are of German blood ; others from 
Holland, between which country and our own the most 
friendly relations have for a long time subsisted. The 
famihar names of Rickman, Bunk, Shurmariy Boorman,f 
Hickman, Vanneck, and Vansittart, are all probably from 
those countries. The ludicrous names of Higginhottom 
and Bomgarson are corruptions of the German, Ickenbaum, 
an oak-tree, and of Baumgarten, a tree-garden, or 
orchard.^ 

The names of Denis, Scrase, and Isted, are said to be of 
Danish original, while Boffey, Caesar, Castilian, Fussell, 
and Bassano are derived from Italy. Names in an denote 
an Irish extraction, as Egan, Skogan, Flanagan, Dor an, &c. 

* Brady's Dissertation. 

t Among corruptions may be noticed the changing of the syllable man into 
mer. In the parish in which I was born there are living persons of the names 
of Heasman, Hickman, and Holman, who are usually called Heasmer, Hickmer, 
and Hiimerd. This is interesting, as it seems to indicate something like a re- 
membrance of the meaning of the original Saxon termination er, and its 
identity with man, (Vide p. 94.) 

i Vide Gent.'s Mag. Oct. 1820. 



190 FOREIGN NAMES 

If foreign names have been liable to corruptions, it must 
not be imagined that names originally English have escaped 
deterioration. Such corruptions were excusable in times 
when few besides learned clerks could write their own 
names, and when the spelhng of words was governed by 
the sound, whether truly pronounced or not; but that 
they should be perpetrated now, in the nineteenth century, 
when the schoolmaster professes to be everywhere abroad, 
is a sad disgrace to that personage. I know a family of 
farmers who are descended from a younger branch of the 
antient family of Alchorne of Alchorne, and who always 
spelt their name properly until about twenty years since, 
when a new schoolmaster settling in the village, informed 
them that their proper designation was All-corn^ which 
name they are now contented to bear! Another family 
who antiently bore the name of De Hoghstepe, a local 
appellative, signifying * of the high steep,' have laid aside 
that line old Teutonic designation, and adopted in its 
stead the thrice-barbarous cognomen of Huckstepp ! What 
can be more barbarous than Wilbraham for Wilburgham, 
Wilberforce for Wilburghfoss, Sapsford for Sabridgeworth, 
Hoad for Howard, or Gurr for Gower? Alas for such 
" contracting, syncopating, curtelUng, and moUifying" as 
this! 

Who would think of looking for the origin of the name 
o^ Lewknor va. Levechenora, the name of one of the hun- 
dreds of Lincolnshire?* Who but a patient antiquary 
could find Buppa in D'Uphaugh?f The Italian name 
Hugezun has been corrupted to Hugh-son I This reminds 
me of an anecdote in Lieber's Stranger in America, which 

♦ Pegge's Curial, Miscel. p. 208. f Ibid. p. 209. 



AND CORRUPTIONS. 191 

forms so good an illustration of the manner in which 
names are often corrupted, that I give it as it stands : 

" The plain EngUsh Christian name and surname of 
Benjamin Eaton, borne by a Spanish boy, was derived 
from his single Spanish Christian name of Benito or 
Benedict ; and this by a very natural process, though one 
which would have defied the acuteness of Tooke and the 
wit of Swift. When the boy was taken on board ship, 
the sailors, who are not apt to be fastidious in their atten- 
tion to the niceties of language, hearing him called Benito 
(pronounced Benee^o), made the nearest approximation to 
the Spanish sound which the case required, and which 
would give an intelligible sailor's name, by saluting their 
new shipmate as ^ Ben Eaton,'' which the boy probably 
supposed was the corresponding English name, and ac- 
cordingly conformed to it himself when asked for his 
name. The next process in the etymological transforma- 
tion was, that when he was sent to one of our schools, the 
master of course inquired his name, and being answered 
that it was Ben Eaton, and presuming that to be his true 
name abbreviated as usual in the famihar style, directed 
him, as grammatical propriety required, to write it at full 
length, Benjamin Eaton .-'" 

Sometimes the speUing of names is so changed that the 
various branches of one family lose sight of their consan- 
guinity. I think there is little doubt that the Goring Sy 
Gorrings, and Gorringes of Sussex proceed from a common 
ancestor, and that he borrowed his designation from the 
village of Goring. Similar instances might be adduced 
from many other districts in the kingdom. 

There are many surnames that have the appearance of 
nicknames, but which in reahty are from names of places. 



192 CHANGED SURNAMES. 

as Wormewoodi Ink-pen^ Allchin, Tiptow, Moone, Maners, 
Cuckold, Go-dolphin, Hurl-stone, Small-back, Bellows, 
Filpot, Waddle, &c. ; from Ormond, Ingepen, Alchorne, 
Tiptoft, Mohun, Manors, Cokswold, Godolchan, Hudle- 
stone, Smalbach, Phillipot, Waliiill, &c. Also Task, Toke, 
Tabbey, from At Ash, At Oke, At Abbey ; and Toly, Tabbe, 
Tows, from St. Olye, St. Ebbe, St. Osyth. The following 
are taken from places without change : Spittle-house, 
Whitegift, Alshop, Antrobus, Hartshorn, Wood-head, 
All-wood, Gardening, and Killingback ! 

We are not to suppose that all families bearing Enghsh 
names are of English extraction. " Sometimes," says the 
author of the Stranger in America, and the remark applies 
equally well to England, ** Sometimes they are positively 
translated; thus I know of a Mr. Bridgebuilder, whose 
ancestors came from Germany under the name of Brucken- 
bauer.* I have met with many instances of this kind. 
There is a family now in Pennsylvania whose original 
name was Klein; at present they have branched out 
into three chief ramifications, called Klein, Small, and 
Little ; and if they continue to have many * little ones,' 
they may, for aught I know, branch out into Short, Less, 

and Lesser, down to the most Lilliputian names 

A German called Feuerstein (fire-stone, the German for 
flint,) settled in the west when French population pre- 
vailed in that quarter. His name, therefore, was changed 
into Pierre h Fusil ; but in the course of time the Anglo- 
American race became the prevalent one, and Pierre a 
Fusil was again changed into Peter Gun !" So much for 
corruptions. 

* Our English Pontifex has the same meaning. Query —how liave we come by 
the Latinized forms of several names, as Pontifex, Princeps, Virgo, Magnus, &c. ? 



CHANGED SURNAMES. 193 



ESSAY XIV. 



CHANGED SURNAMES. 



I HAVE already hinted at the changes which frequently 
took place in the nomenclature of English families from 
the substitution of one name for another ; but I consider 
those changes sufficiently interesting to form the subject 
of a short separate Essay. 

The practice of altering one's name upon the occurrence 
of any remarkable event in one's personal history, seems 
to have been known in times of very remote antiquity. 
The substitution of Abraham for Abram, Sarah for Sarai, 
Israel for Jacob, Paul for Saul, &c. are matters of sacred 
history; but the custom prevailed in other nations as well 
as among the Jews. Codomarus, on coming to the king- 
dom of Persia, took the princely name of Darius.* 
Romulus, after his deification, was called Quirinus. Some 
persons adopted into noble famiUes substituted the name 
of the latter for their own original appellations. The 
practice of changing names in compliance with testamen- 
tary injunctions is also of antient date ; thus Augustus, 
who was at first called Thureon, took the name of Octavian. 
Others received a new name when they were made free of 
certain cities, as Demetrius Mega, who on becoming a free 
citizen of Rome was designated Publius Cornelius.f Slaves, 
who prior to manumission had only one name, received, on 

• Camden. + Ibid. 



L94 CHANGED SURNAMES. 

becoming free, the addition of their master's. Among the 
primitive Christians it was customary to change the names 
of persons who left Paganism to embrace the true faith. 
The popes, as all know, change their names on coming to 
" the holy apostolical see" of Rome ; a practice said to 
have originated with Sergius the Second, because his pre- 
vious name was Hogs-mouth ! One pope, Marcellus, re- 
fused to change his name, saying, " Marcellus I was, and 
Marcellus I will be; I will neither change name nor 
manners."* 

In France it was formerly customary for eldest sons to 
take their fathers' surnames, while the younger branches 
assumed the names of the estates allotted them. This 
plan also prevailed in England some time after the Norman 
Conquest. Camden gives several instances. "If Hugh 
of Suddington gaue to his .second sonne his mannour of 
Fridon, to his third sonne his mannour of Pantley, to his 
fourth his wood of Albdy, the sonnes called themselves De 
Frydon, De Pantley, De Albdy, and their posterity re- 
mooued Be. So Hugh Montforte's second sonne, called 
Richard, being Lord of Hatton in Warwickeshire, tooke 
the name of Hatton. So the yongest sonne of Simon de 
Montfort, Earle of Leicester, staying in England when his 
father was slaine and brethren fled, tooke the name of 
Welshorne, as some of that name haue reported. So the 
name of Euer came from the mannour of Euer, neare 
Uxbridge, to yonger sonnes of L. John Fitz-Robert de 
Clauering, from whom the Lord Euers, and Sir Peter 
Euers of Axholme are descended. So Sir John Cradocke, 
knight, great grandfather of Sir Henry Newton of Somerset- 

• Camden. 



CHANGED SURNAMES. 195 

shire, tooke first the name of Newton, which was the name 
of his habitation ; as the issue of Huddard in Cheshire 
tooke the name of Button their chief mansion."* 

The annexed little pedigree of a family in Cheshire soon 
after the Conquest affords a most striking illustration of 
the changes which occurred in family names before here- 
ditary surnames were fully established, and the difficulty 
which must be experienced in tracing pedigrees in those 
early times. It was taken by Camden " out of an antient 
Roule belonging to Sir William Brereton of Brereton, 
knight." 

♦ Camd. Rem, p. 123. 



196 



CHANGED SURNAMES. 



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3 -> 



CHANGED SURNAMES. 197 

From this table it will be seen that in four descents, and 
among about fifteen persons descended from one and the 
same individual, there were no less than thirteen surnames. 
Well may our antiquary say, "Verily the gentlemen of those so 
different names in Cheshire would not easily be induced to be- 
lieve they were descended from one house, if it were not war- 
ranted by so ancient a proofe." * It is also worthy of remark 
that we have here in one family, within the compass probably 
of a single century. Jive descriptions of surnames, namely, 
FOREIGN, as Bel ward ; local, as De Malpas, De Cotgrave ; 
from PERSONAL QUALITIES, as Gogh or red, and Little; from 

MENTAL QUALITIES AND ATTAINMENTS, aS GoodmaU and 

Ken-Clarke; and from the paternal name, as Richardson. 
Another of Camden's instances : — A young gentleman 
of the family of Preux, an attendant on Lord Hungerford, 
Lord Treasurer of England, being of remarkably tall sta- 
ture, acquired among his companions the sobriquet of 
Long Henry. Marrying afterwards a lady of quality he 
transposed his names to Henry Long, and became the 
founder of an eminent family, who bore Long as a 

* A correspondent has called my attention to a curious point; namely, the 
similarity or identity of armorial bearings between families beaiing the name of 
a place, and other families originally located in the same place. For instance, the 
Stanleys were of Lathom — the arms of Lathom and of Stanley are alike. 
Freschvile, Foljambe, and Daniel, were all antiently connected with Tidswell in 
Derbyshire : accordingly the arms of all these families and those of Tidswell 
vary principally in their colours only. The arms of Middleham and of Glanville 
are very similar, Glanville having been possessed of property at Middleham. 
This similarity or identity of arms seems to point out an original connexion be- 
tween the families. In the first case mentioned we have proof of such connexion, 
for Sir John Stanley, k.g., in the 14th century, married the heiress of Lathom 
of Lathom, and so acquired that estate. But it must be recollected that tenants 
in fee often assumed the bearings of their lords, differenced only by colour or 
the addition of some new charge. — (Vide Chapter of Canting Arms.) 

Another correspondent remarking upon the above note, says, •' the arms of 
Stanley and Latham are by no means alike." — Sir John Stanley's descendants 
used the crest of Latham (the eagle and child), but retained their paternal arms. 



198 CHANGED SURNAMES. 

surname. The original name of the most renowned of the 
compeers of Robin Hood was John Little, (a sobriquet 
acquired from his being a foot taller than ordinary men,) 
but on his joining Robin's party he was re-baptized, and 
his names were reversed. Will Stukeley loquitur : 

" This infant was called John Little, (quoth he,) 
Which name shall be changed anon ; 
The words we'll transpose ; so wherever he goes. 
His name shall be called Little John." 

{Vide Ritson.) 

There are many cases on record of the sons of great 
heiresses having left their paternal surnames for those of 
their mothers : this was done by the Stanleys, Nevilles, 
Percies, Carews, Cavendishes, Braybrookes, &c. &c. Others 
took the names of attainted lords, whose property fell into 
their possession : this was the case with the Mowbrays. 

Some changed their names by the royal command, as we 
have seen in the case of the Cromwells. " I love you," 
said Edward the Fourth to some of the family of Picardy 
" but not your name ;" whereupon they adopted others : 
one took that of Ruddle, from the place of his birth* — no 
improvement, certainly, so far as euphony goes. 

During the civil wars in the time of Henry the Fourth, 
several antient families totally changed their names for the 
purpose of concealment, as the Blunts of Buckinghamshire, 
who took that of Croke ; and the Carringtons of Warwick- 
shire, who took that of Smith.f 

Ralph Brooke, York Herald in 1594, says, "If a man 
had three sonns, the one dwelling at the Towns-end, the 
other at y*" Woode, and the thyrde at the Parke, they all 
took theyr surnames of theire dweUinge, and left their 
aunciente surnames ; which errour hath overthrowen and 

* Camden. t Fuller's Worthies, p. 51. 



CHANGED SURNAMES. 199 

brought into oblyvion manye aunciente houses in this 
realme of England."* 

With respect to ecclesiastics, or as they are styled by 
Holinshed, " spiritual men," it was, according to that his- 
torian, an almost invariable "fashion to take awaie the 
father's surname (were it never so worshipful or antient), 
and give him for it the name of the towne he was born in." 

Of this practice amongst the clergy, especially upon their 
entering into holy orders, innumerable instances occur, but 
it may be sufficient to quote the two celebrated prelates, 
William of Wykeham, whose father's name was Longe, and 
William Waynflete, who, as an unbeneficed acolyte, is found 
in the episcopal register of Lincoln (as Dr. Chandler con- 
jectures) under the name of Barbor, and which he dropped 
on becoming a sub-deacon. Waynflete' s father was called 
indifferently Richard Patten or Barbour.f 

There is one other circumstance under which, according 
to Camden, names were changed ; namely, when servants 
took the surnames of their masters. I much question if 
ever this was of very usual occurrence ;|: if it was, the know- 

• From a MS. quoted in Blore's Monumental Remains. 

t Archaeologia, vol. xviii. p. 109. " It was the use in old time upon entrye 
into religion to alter the name and take it from the place, for that by their 
taking religious habits they were dead persons in law, as to the world, and the 
next heire should inherite and enter upon their lande as if they were ded indeed; 
and professing themselves of an order, they were revived to a spiritual life, and 
so assumed a new name." (Harl. MS., No. 463Q.) 

:j: On further consideration I do not believe it ever took place, and my reason 
is founded on the pride which characterizes great and antient houses. This would 
have prohibited the adoption of the cherished family appellative — which had 
been for ages regarded as a distinctive mark of the high-born and noble— by 
humble dependants and neighbours. An excellent illustration of this feeling 
occurs in a recent publication on Esthonia, where it is mentioned that on the 
enfranchisement of the serfs on a certain estate, which took place two or three 
years since, the nobleman, their former proprietor, advised them to assume 
surnames; but would not, on any account, allow them to bear that of his own 
family, notwithstanding their earnest and oft reiterated entreaties. The system 



200 CHANGED SURNAMES. 

ledge of the fact inflicts a sad blow on our plebeian 
Seymours, and Lovells, and Pierpoints, and Sinclairs, and 
Spencers, and Tyrrells, who fancy themselves to be de- 
scended from noble blood; for they may, after all, be 
nothing but genuine Smiths, and Browns, and Joneses, 
and Robinsons, with changed names. Alack-a-day for 
such pretensions ! 

Finally, women, at marriage, change their surnames. 
How many wish in this manner to change them: how 
many regret they have ever done so!* 

of clanship in Scotland may be urged in defence of Camden's assertion, as the 
members of the clans generally assumed the surnames of their lords and pro- 
tectors ; but the circumstances under which clans were originally formed had no 
parallel in feudal England. We have not space to enter minutely into the ques- 
tion how the most illustrious and aristocratic of names have come to be diffused 
among all classes of the community; but it may suffice generally to remark, 
that the fact may be accounted for by the mutations to which families as well as 
individuals are subject in the common course of events. Families seldom remain 
at a stationary point in worldly prosperity for many successive generations; and 
instances of the rapid advancement of some families to fortune, and of the 
equally speedy decay of others, must be familiar to all. Hence it is that the near 
kindred of the most exalted individuals are often found in stations compara- 
tively humble. The story of Lord Audley and shoemaker Touchet is well 
known : and the claim of a trunk-maker to the earldom of Northumberland, and 
the honours of the illustrious house of Percy, is a matter of history. There is 
now living in a southern county, a rat-catcher, whose near consanguinity to a 
noble earl representing one of the most antient houses in England, would not be 
questioned, on investigation, by the most fastidious member of the Heralds' 
College. With such instances before us, it ceases to be a matter of surprise that 
the proudest names of English history have, in the lapse of ages, descended to the 
very " basement story" of society. 

Suetonius mentions " that it was thought a capital crime in Pomposianus for 
calling his base bond-slaves by the name of grand captaines." 

• In Spain, the wife does not change her name at marriage. The son uses the 
paternal or maternal name, as he thinks proper. The choice generally falls 
upon that of the best family, in accordance with the proverb : 

" El hijo de ruyn Padre 
Toma el appelido de la Madre." 



HISTORICAL SURNAMES. 201 



ESSAY XV. 



HISTORICAL SURNAMES. 



I HAVE reserved this subject for my last Essay, because 
it would have been difficult to find a place for it under any 
of the respective heads to which I have undertaken to re- 
duce our English family names. 

By an historical surname I mean a name which has an 
allusion to some circumstance in the life of the person who 
primarily bore it. Thus Sans-terre or Lack-land, the bye- 
name of King John, as having relation to one incident in 
that monarch's life, might be designated an historical sur- 
name. Of a similar character were the names Scropha and 
Asinia, borne by the famihes of the Tremellii and the 
Cornehi.* To this class of surnames, also, belongs that of 
Nestling, borne by a Saxon earl, who in his infancy, ac- 
cording to Verstegan, had been rescued from an eagle's 
nest. Perhaps the term " accidental" would be more 
proper as applied to such names than that which I have 
adopted, as they generally had their origin in some acci- 
dent which befel the persons who first bore them. 

Many examples of historical or accidental surnames 
might be given from antient and mediaeval history, but I 
shall confine myself chiefly to such as have become here- 

* Vide Essay VIII. Most modern nations have surnames of the historical 
kind ; for instance, the Italian family of Santa-Croce (i.e. Holy Cross) were 
so denominated from one of their ancestors who brought the wood of the true 
cross into Italy. {Dr. Adam Clarke.) 

9§ 



202 HISTORICAL SURNAMES. 

ditary within the last eight centurieSy and which I have 
either met with in genealogical records, or gleaned from 
oral family traditions. 

Several of these belong to the period of the Norman 
Conquest and the times of the Crusades. Thus the name 
of FoRTEScuE is Said to have been bestowed on Sir Richard 
le Forte, (that is " the strong,") one of the leaders in the 
Conqueror's array, who had the good fortune to protect 
his chief at the battle of Hastings, by bearing before him a 
massive escue or shield. The noble family descended from 
this personage use, in allusion to this circumstance and to 
their name, the punning motto, — iffaxiZf^cvitVixa i^alu^ 
ISucum — " A strong shield is the safety of commanders." 

The following traditionary anecdote belongs to the same 
date, and accounts for the name of Eyre : 

"The first of this family was named Truelove, but at the 
battle of Hastings, Oct. 14, 1066, William was flung from 
his horse and his helmet beaten into his face, which 
Truelove observing, pulled off, and horsed him again. The 
duke told him, "Thou shalt hereafter from Truelove be 
called Fyre (or Air), because thou hast given me the air I 
breathe." After the battle, the duke, on inquiry respect- 
ing him, found him severely wounded (his leg and thigh 
having been struck off), ordered him the utmost care, and, 
on his recovery, gave him lands in Derby in reward for his 
services, and the leg and thigh in armour, cut off, for his 
crest, an honorary badge yet worn by all the Eyres in 
England."* 

There is more of romance than truth in this story, for it 
must strike the reader as very remarkable, that the per- 

* Thorpe's Catalogue of the Deeds of Battel Abbey, p. 106, note. 



HISTORICAL SURNAMES. 203 

sonage of whom it is related, a Norman born and bred, 
should bear a cognomen so very English as True-love. 
The singular crest borne by his descendants must have ori- 
ginated from some more recent occurrence, as armorial 
bearings were not used fo. many years after the battle of 
Hastings. Still there may be some foundation for the tra- 
dition. The following has more appearance of credibility ; 
while it is unfortunate that the name to which it refers was 
borne as a Christian name (teste Camden) much earlier 
than the date of the occurrence. 

"Walter, a Norman knight, and a great favourite of the 
king (WiUiam the First), playing at chess on a summer's 
evening, on the banks of the Ouse, with that king, won 
all he played for. The king thtew down the board, saying 
he had nothing more to play for. * Sir,' said Sir Walter, 
*here is land.' * There is so,' replied the king, * and 
if thou beatest me this game also, thine be all the land on 
this side the bourne or river, which thou canst see as thou 
sittest.' He had the good fortune to win ; and the king, 
clapping him on the shoulder, said, * Henceforth thou 
shalt be called Ousebourne.' Hence it is supposed came 
the name of Osborne."* 

The thrice illustrious surname of Plantagenet, borne 
by eight successive kings of England, originated with 
Foulques or Fulke, count of Anjou, who flourished in the 
twelfth century. This personage, to expiate some enormous 
crimes of which he had been guilty, went on a pilgrimage to 
Jerusalem, and wore in his cap as a mark of his humility, a 
piece of planta genista or broom (which was sometimes 
used by his descendants as a crest), and on that account 

• Life of Corinna. Pegge's Curialia Miscellanea, p. 319, 



204 HISTORICAL SURNAMES. 

was surnamed Plantagenet. The antient English family of 
Broome are said to be lineal descendants of this nobleman. 

The following is said to be the origin of the surname of 
Tynte: In the year 1192, at the battle of Ascalon, a 
young knight of the noble house of Arundel, clad all in 
white, with his horse's howsings of the same colour, so 
gallantly distinguished himself on that memorable field 
that Richard Coeur de Leon remarked publicly, after the 
victory, " that the maiden knight had borne himself as a 
lion, and done deeds equal to those of six croises [crusaders], 
whereupon he conferred on him for arms, " a lion gules on 
a field argent i between six crosslets of the first ^''^ and for 
motto, Tynctus cruore Saraceno ; that is, " Tinged with 
Saracen blood." His descendants thence assumed the 
surname of Tynte, and settled in Somersetshire.* 

WilUam de Albini, earl of Arundel, received the surname 
of Strongimanus, or Strong-hand,f from the following 
circumstance, as related by Dugdale : 

*' It happened that the Queen of France being then a 
widow, and a very beautiful woman, became much in love 
with a knight of that country, who was a comely person, 
and in the flower of his youth : and because she thought 
that no man excelled him in valour, she caused a tourna- 
ment to be proclaimed throughout her dominions, promising 
to reward those who should exercise themselves therein 
according to their respective demerits ; and concluding, 
that if the person whom she so well affected, should act 
his part better than others in those mihtary exercises, she 
might marry him without any dishonour to herself. Here- 
upon divers gallant men from forrain parts hasting to 

* Burke's Commoners, vol. iv. 
t In this instance the surname did not become heredit.ary. 



HISTORICAL SURNAMES. 205 

Paris, amongst others came this our William de Albini, 
bravely accoutred, and in the tournament excelled all 
others, overcoming many, and wounding one mortally 
with his lance, which being observed by the queen, shee 
became exceedingly enamoured of him, and forthwith in- 
vited him to a costly banquet, and afterwards bestowing 
certain jewels upon him, offered him marriage ; but having 
plighted his troth to the Queen of England, then a widow, 
he refused her, whereat she grew so much discontented, 
that she consulted with her maids how she might take 
away his life, and in pursuance of that design enticed him 
into a garden, where there was a secret cave, and in it a 
lion, unto which she descended by divers steps, under 
colour of showing him the beast ; and when she told him 
of his fierceness, he answered, that it was a womanish and 
not a manly quality to be afraid thereof. But having him 
there, by the advantage of a folding door, she thrust him 
in to the lion ; being therefore in this danger, he rolled his 
mantle about his arm, and putting his hand into the mouth 
of the beast, pulled out his tongue by the root; which 
done, he followed the queen to her palace, and gave it to 
one of her maids to present unto her. Returning there- 
upon to England, with the fame of this glorious exploit, 
he was forthwith advanced to the earldome of Arundel, 
and for his arms the lion given him." He subsequently 
obtained the hand of Queen Adeliza, relict of King Henry I., 
and daughter of Godfrey Duke of Lorraine, which Adeliza 
had the castle of Arundel in dowry from the deceased 
monarch, and thus her new lord became its feudal earl. 

The Scottish surname of Dalzell originated, according 
to Nisbet, from the following incident. " A favourite of 
Kenneth II. having been hanged by the Picts, and the 



206 HISTORICAL SURNAMES. 

king being much concerned that the body should be ex- 
posed in so disgraceful a situation, offered a large reward 

to him who should rescue it This being an 

enterprize of great danger, no one was found bold enough 
to undertake it, till a gentleman came to the king and said 
* Dal zieli that is * I dare/ and accordingly performed the 
hazardous exploit."* In memory of this circumstance his 
descendants assumed for their arms a man hanging on a 
gallows, and the motto I dare. The Dalziels at length be- 
came Earls of Carnwath. — Another eminent Scottish sur- 
name, that of BuccLEUCH, is derived, on the authority of 
Sir "Walter Scott, from a very trifling incident. " A king 
of Scotland being *on hontynge,' in company with his 
courtiers, a fine buck of which he was in pursuit being 
hard pressed by the hounds fell into a clough or ravine, 
Scottic^, ^ cleuch.^ The sports being thus interrupted, the 
royal hunter requested one of his attendants to extricate 
the game in order that the sport might be renewed. This, 
although no slight task for a single arm, he accomplished 
to the king's liking, and the athletic courtier received from 
the king's own mouth the name of Buck-cleuchy which is 
still borne by his descendant, the Duke of Buccleuch." 

The old Norman Malvoisin or Mauvesyn is, strictly 
speaking, a local surname, but its origin is so singular that 
it deserves a place among these anecdotes. Our old histo- 
rians inform us that when a besieging army erected a tower 
or castle near the place besieged, such castle was called, in 
French, a Malvoisin or 'dangerous neighbour' to the 
enemy, because it threatened to cut him off from all possi- 
bility of relief. In the northern district of the Isle of 

• Peggs's Curial. Miscel. p. 233. 



HISTORICAL SURNAMES. 207 

France, not far from the banks of the Seine, some time 
stood one of those awful bulwarks, from which the great 
ancestor of the English family, who was Lord of the neigh- 
bouring domain of Rosny, received his surname.* 

The name Mauleverer was antiently written Maliis- 
Leporarius or Malevorer, the " bad hare hunter," and tra- 
dition states that a Yorkshire gentleman being to let slip a 
brace of greyhounds to run for a stake of considerable 
value, held them with so unskilful a hand as rather to en- 
danger .their necks than to expedite the capture of the 
hare. This deficiency of skill brought down upon him 
the nickname above mentioned, which thenceforward de- 
scended to his posterity, an everlasting memorial of his 
ignorance of hunting-craft. But that learned student in 
matters genealogical, Peter le Neve, Norry king of arms, 
more rationally supposes it to be Malus-operarius, (in 
French Mal-ouvrievy) because that in Domesday Book 
(Essex, p. 94) Occurs the following entry: "Terra Adamis, 
filii Durandi de Malis Operibus," which I translate, the 
land of Adam the son of Burand of the Evil Deeds ! no 
enviable surname, in truth, if it corresponded to the cha- 
racter of the original bearer. The arms of the family how- 
ever seem to support the tradition : they are * Sable, three 
greyhounds courant in pale, argent.' 

The next anecdote has often appeared under various 
forms . I give it on the authority of a famous genealogist. 
'^ One of the antient Earls of Lennox in Scotland had issue 
three sons, the eldest succeeded him in the earldom ; the 
second, whose name was Donald ; and the third named 
Sillcrist. The then king of Scots, having wars, did con- 

* Burke's Commoners. 



208 HISTORICAL SURNAMES. 

vocate his lieges to the battle. Amongst them that were 
commanded was the Earl of Lennox, who keeping his 
eldest son at home, sent his second son to serve for him 
with the forces under his command. The battle went hard 
with the Scots, for the enemy pressing furiously upon 
them, forced them to lose ground, until at last they fell 
to flat running away, which being perceived by Donald, he 
pulled his father's standard from the bearer thereof, and 
valiantly encountering the foe, (being well followed up by 
the Earl of Lennox his men,) he repulsed the enemy and 
changed the fortune of the day, whereby a great victory 
was got. After the battle, as the manner is, every one 
advancing and setting forth his own acts, the king said 
unto them, * Ye have all done valiantly, but there is one 
amongst you who hath NA PIER !' (no equal,) and calling 
Donald into his presence, commanded him in regard of his 
worth, service, and augmentation of his honour, to change 
his name from Lennox to Napier, and gave him lands in 
Fife, and the lands of GofFurd, and made him his own 
servant."* 

Some of the Scottish surnames originated in the slog- 
gans, slug-horns, or war-cries used by the clans ; as in the 
case of the Hallidays, an old family of the genuine Celtic 
blood, who settled in Annandale, and made frequent raids 
or marauding excursions on the English border. On these 
occasions they employed the war-cry of " A Holy Day ;" 
every day in their estimation being holy that was spent in 
ravaging the enemy's country : hence the surname. 

Tradition is, at best, but "an uncertain voice," and 
many of the little tales I am now telling, seem to be only 

* From a MS, temp. Charles I. written by Sir W. Segar, Garter king of arms, 
quoted in Burke's Commoners. 



HISTORICAL SURNAMES. 209 

"figments of fanciful brains." Such, doubtless, is that 
which follows, as Tyrwhitt is a local name. A knight of 
Northumberland, who lived in the time of Henry I. being 
severely wounded in defending a bridge, single-handed, 
against a host of assailants, fell, exhausted, the moment he 
had forced them to retire, amongst the flags and rushes of 
an adjacent swamp, where he would probably have perished 
had not the attention of his party, who in the mean time 
had rallied, been directed to the spot where he lay by the 
vociferations of a flock of tyrwhitts or lapwings, which had 
been disturbed by his fall. Hence, says the story, the 
wounded Sir Hercules received his surname. This tradi- 
tion possibly originated in the canting arms borne by the 
family, which are Gules, three tyrwhitts or lapwings or, 
and the crest, which represents an athletic human figure 
defending himself with a club. 

The next anecdote is about as true as the foregoing, with 
less point in it. At a remote period (that is to say, " once 
upon a time,") the head of a certain family having quar- 
relled with another gentleman, they agreed, as was the 
fashion, to settle the dispute by single combat in the 
pound-fold at Alnwick ; and such was the deadly hate that 
influenced them both, that having procured the key of the 
inclosure they locked themselves in, determined not to 
quit the spot until one should have slain the other. The 
gentleman first referred to having come ofi" victorious, to 
escape the vengeance of his enemy's partisans, leaped over 
the wall of the fold, and escaped to Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 
From the affair of the key he was afterwards called Key or 
Cay, the name still borne by his descendants. A lame 
story truly ! 

Some of these historical surnames originated from absurd 



210 HISTORICAL SURNAMES. 

and servile tenures under the Norman kings. Thierry 
says, " Those among the Saxons who after much servile 
crouching succeeded in preserving some slender portion of 
their patrimony, were obliged to pay for this favour by 
degrading and fantastic services. . . . One woman is left 
in the enjoyment of the estate of her husband on condition 
of feeding the king's dogs. And a mother and son receive 
their antient inheritance as a gifty on condition of their 
offering up daily prayers for the king's son Richard. 
"Hoc manerium tenuit Aldene teignus R. E. et vendere 
potuit sed W. rex dedit hoc m. huic Aldene et matri ejus 
pro anima Ricardi filii sui."* From a similar tenure origi- 
nated the name of Paternoster. In the time of Edward 
the First Alyce Paternoster held lands at Pusey in Berk- 
shire by the service of saying the paternoster, or Lord's 
prayer, five times a day^ iov the souls of the king's ances- 
tors ; and Richard Paternoster, on succeeding to the same 
estate, did not present the fee usual on such occasions — a 
red rose, a gilt spur, a pound of pepper, or a silver arrow — 
but went upon his knees before the baronial court and 
devoutly repeated the * Pater noster qui es in coelis,' &c. 
for the manes of the illustrious dead before mentioned ; and 
the like, we are told, had previously been done by his 
brother, John Paternoster of Pusey. f — Among the surnames 
of this kind we have that of Amen, which I suppose ori- 
ginated in some equally absurd, (and query, irreligious ?) 
custom. Delicacy almost forbids the mention of another 
name, Pettour, which was given to Baldwin le Pettour, 
who held his lands in Suflfolk " per saltum, sufflum, and 



• Thierry Norm. Conq. Edit. Whitaker, p. 123. Domesday, 1 fol. 141 ver. 
r Vide Blount's Tenures. 



HISTORICAL SURNAMES. 211 

pettum, sine bumbulum," that is, as Camden translates it, 
** for dancing, pout-puffing, and doing that before the king 
ofEnglandin ChristmassehoHdayes which the word * * * 
signifieth in French." 

In a royal wardrobe account, made towards the termina- 
tion of the thirteenth century, and preserved in the British 
Museum,* is the following curious entry : " 1297, Dec. 26. 
To Maud Makejoy for dancing before Edward, prince of 
Wales, in the King's Hall, at Ipswich, 2«." Here the sur- 
name evidently took its rise from the pleasure which the 
saltations of this antient figurante afforded the royal per- 
sonage. As this name does not occur in modern times it 
is probable that the lady lost it in marriage. 

Camden relates that a certain frenchman who had 
craftily smuggled one T. CrioU, a great feudal lord of Kent 
about the time of Edward II. out of France into his own 
country, received from the grateful nobleman a good estate 
called Swinfield, and (in commemoration of the finesse he 
had displayed on the occasion) the name of Fineux ; 
which became the surname of his descendants — a family 
who attained considerable eminence in England. f 

In the late Mr. Davies Gilbert's^ History of Cornwall, 
is an anecdote of a pretty Cornish maiden, the daughter 
of a shepherd, who by a concatenation of fortunate cir- 
cumstances, almost without parallel, became (by three 
several marriages) the richest woman in England, and a 
connexion of several of its most dignified families. On 

* /Vddit. MSS. 7965. t Remaines, p. 117. 

t This venerable, talented, and much-lamented gentleman paid considerable 
attention to surnames. Among other conversations which the humble writer of 
these pages had the honour of enjoying with him, within a week of his some- 
what unexpected demise, these formed the topic of a very agreeable colloquy. 



212 



HISTORICAL SURNAMES. 



this account she received the appropriate surname of 
BoNAVENTURA or Goodluck. 

The great and widely-spread Scottish family of Arm- 
strong derive their surname from the following circum- 
stance : "An antient king of Scotland having his horse 
killed under him in battle was immediately remounted by 
Fairbairn, his armour-bearer. For this timely assistance 
the king amply rewarded him with lands on the borders, 
and to perpetuate the memory of so important a service, as 
well as the manner in which it was performed, (for Fair- 
bairn took the king by the thigh and set him on his 
saddle,) his royal master gave him the appellation of Arm- 
strong, and assigned him for crest — ' an armed hand and 
arm ; in the left hand a leg and foot in armour, couped at 
the thigh all proper.' "* 

The family traditions of Scotland abound in anecdotes of 
this kind. " The Skenes of that kingdom obtained this 
name," says Buchanan, " for killing a very big and fierce 
wolf at a hunting in company with the king in Stocket 
forest in Athole ; having killed the wolf with a dagger or 
ahene.^'' His original name was Strowan. The Colliers, 
according to the same authority, borrow that appellative 
from an ancestor, having, when hotly pursued by his ene- 
mies, concealed himself in a coal-pit. 

Alfray (or Fright-all) was the surname of a Sussex 
worthy, who died in the reign of Elizabeth. As he was in 
point of rank a gentleman, and no mention occurs in the 
pedigree of any progenitor bearing the same name, it seems 
probable that the surname was adopted by him in reference 
to some extraordinary strength of limb he possessed : a 

* Burke's Commoners, vo\ iv. 



HISTORICAL SURNAMES. 213 

supposition that receives support from his epitaph, which 
may still be seen on a brass plate in the choir of Battel 
church. The whole inscription is worth copying : 

" Thomas Alfraye, good courteous frend, 

Interred lyeth heere, 
Who so in actiue strength did passe 

jIs none was found his peere ! 
And Elizabeth did take to wjfe, 

One Ambrose Comfort's child, 
Who with him thyrtie one yeares lyvid 

A virtuous spouse and mild ; 
By whom a sonne and daughter eke. 

Behind alyue he left. 
And eare he fiftie yeares had rune 

Death hym of lyfe bereft. 
On Neweyeares day of Christe his birth 

Which was just eighty-nine, 
One thousand and fiue hundreth eke, 

Loe here of flesh the fine. 
But then his wooful wyfe, of God 

With piteous praiers gann crave. 
That her own corps with husbande hers 

Mi,u:ht ioine in darksome graue. 
And that her soule his soule might seek 

Amongst the saints aboue, 
And there in endless blysseenjoye 

Her long desired loue ; 
The whiche her gratious God did graunt. 

To her of Marche the last. 
When after that deuorcement sower 

One yere and more was past.'' 

There is a tradition that a certain gentleman was com- 
pelled, during some popular commotion, to quit his resi- 
dence in the north of England and to seek safety in flight ; 
but so sudden was his departure that he was unable to pro- 
vide himself with money, for want of which, in his journey 
southward, he might have perished had he not fortunately 



214 HISTORICAL SURNAMES. 

found on the highway a glove containing a purse well 
stored with gold. How the purse came there, or how the 
finder satisfied his conscience in keeping its contents, the 
tradition does not state. It merely adds that deeming an 
alias to his name necessary, he, in allusion to the circum- 
stance, adopted the surname of Purseglove ; a name 
which is not yet extinct. What credit can be attached to 
this story I know not : certain it is that many years before 
the event is supposed to have occurred there was a Thomas 
Pursglove, (or Purslow, as his name was sometimes spelt,) 
bishop of Hull. 

Many of the names given to foundlings might be classed 
with historical surnames. A poor child picked up at the 
town of Newark-upon-Trent, received from the inhabitants 
the whimsical name of Tom Among us. Becoming a man 
of eminence he changed his name for the more euphonious 
one of Dr. Thomas Magnus. He was employed in 
several embassies, and, in gratitude to the good people of 
Newark, he erected a grammar-school there, which still 
exists.* 

The following was related to me by a gentleman, one of 
whose friends witnessed the occurrence. A poor child who 
had been found in the high-road and conveyed to the village 
workhouse, being brought before the parish vestry to receive 
a name, much sage discussion took place, and many brains 
were racked for an appropriate cognomen. As the cir- 
cumstance happened in the " month of flowers and song," 
a good-natured farmer suggested that the poor child should 
be christened John May ; an idea in which several of the 
vestrymen concurred. One of the clique, however, more 

* Camd. Rem p. 128. 



HISTORICAL SURNAMES. 215 

aristocratic than his neighbours, was of opinion that that 
was far too good a name for the ill-starred brat, and pro- 
posed in lieu of it that of Jack Parish — the designation 
that was eventually adopted ! 

I shall conclude these anecdotes with another on the 
name of a foundling. There now resides at no great dis- 
tance from Lewes a farmer whose family name is Brooker, 
to which the odd dissyllable of Napkin is prefixed as a 
Christian name. Both these names he inherits from his 
grandfather, a foundling, who was exposed at some place 
in Surrey, tied up in a napkin and laid on the margin of a 
brook ; and who — as no traces of his unnatural parents 
could be found — received the very appropriate, though 
somewhat cacophonious name of Napkin Brooker ! 



2h6 



A CHAPTER OF REBUSES. 



"This for Rebus may suffice, and yet if there were more I think 
some lippes would like such kind of Lettuce.'' Camden. 



The word Rebus (from the ablative plural of the Latin 
res) is accurately defined by Dr. Johnson as "a word 
represented by a picture." Camden says that this whim- 
sical mode of representing proper names by objects whose 
designations separately or conjointly bear the required 
sound, (and which he calls " painted poesies,") was intro- 
duced into England from Picardy, after the wars between 
Edward the Third and the French. 

Whatever may be thought of the pueriUty of hunting 
out a fanciful picture or device to answer a purpose which 
the letters of one's name would answer much better, the 
practice has the sanction of some eminent names in antient 
as well as in modern days. Even the great-minded Cicero 
was not too proud to represent his name by the paltry 
species of pulse called by us vetches or chick-pease, and by 
the Romans Cicer ; and that too in a dedication to the 
gods. Many of the coins of Juhus Csesar bear the impress 
of an ELEPHANT, as the word cesar signifies that animal 
in the antient language of Mauritania.* In Mke manner 
the sculptors Saurus and Batrachus carved upon their 
works, the one the figure of a lizard, and the other a 

* Camden. 



REBUSES. 



217 



FROG, as their names implied;* and two Roman mint- 
masters distinguished themselves upon the coins struck by 
them, Florus by a flower, and Vitulus by a calf. 

Having thus seen that there exists classical authority for 
the use of rebuses, I shall proceed to set before my reader 
a dish of "lettuce" culled from the fruitful garden of 
Master Camden and elsewhere, and which I hope he will 
find salted and sugared to his palate. 

" Sir Thomas Cavall, whereas caval signifieth a 
horse, engraved a galloping horse in his scale, with this 
limping verse : 

** Cj^omae txttiHz cwm axmti^ t)Vii (ilEqtmm.^* 

Trust Thomas when you see his Horse. 



Gilbert de Aquila, alias 
Gislebertus Magnus, alias Gilbert 
Michel, founder of the priory of 
Michelham, temp. Henry III., 
was sometimes styled Dominus 
Aquilse, Lord of the Eagle, and 
his rebus occurs in the shape of 
an eagle on the corporate seal of 
the town of Seaford, where he 
had great possessions. 




John Eagleshead used as his rebus an eagle's head, 
surrounded with 

'*f^oc aqttilae caput t^t, sugnumque figura 3lo]^amiisi/* 

This is the head of an eagle, the seal and badge of John. 



* Vide Donaldson's Connexion between Heraldry and Gothic Architecture, a 
work to which I am indebted for some other hints concerning rebuses. 

10 



218 REBUSES. 

The Abbot of Ramsay bore on his seal a ram in the sea, 
with this verse : 

" Cwjus; jgigna gcro t>ux gr^ffisl iit ego ! *' 

He whose signs I bear is leader of the flock, as T am. 

Abbots, priors, and churchmen generally, were famous 
fellows for these name devices, which, like oral puns, may 
be either apt and good, like those already mentioned, or 
forced and bad, like the following : 

" William Chaundler, warden of New College, Oxford, 
playing with his owne name, so fiUed the hall-windowes 
with candles and these words, ^iTiat llux, [Let there be 
light,] that he darkened the hall; whereupon Vidam of 
Chartres, when he was there, said it should have been 
FiANT Tenebr^, [Let there be darkness!]" Here the 
rebus, to be correct, should have been a candle-maker 
" drawing his dips," like that of old Barker, a printer 
of the sixteenth century, which represents a man with an 
axe stripping hark from the trunk of a tree. 

Some rebuses 
were defective, 
representing only part of 
the name ; as that of Abbot 
Ramridge on his tomb in 
St. Alban's Abbey Church, which gives only 
a ram, as in the annexed engraving. Still 
more defective is that of 
Abbot Wheathampsted, who 
presided over the same monas- 
tery, and spent six thousand 
pounds (an immense sum in 
those days,) in adorning the 





REBUSES. 219 

church, in which his device many times occurs : it is three 
wheat-ears fastened together with a wreath. The rebus 
of Peter Rams am, abbot of Sherborne, was a text or 
old Enghsh ^ inclosing a ram and an abbot's crosier. 
This still remains in Sherborne Church, as also another, 
namely, a ram holding a scroll inscribed 3^tttx 3^am£iam. 

This last instance, among others, induces one to believe 
that the ecclesiastics had a motive in employing these de- 
vices which lay deeper than a mere playing upon words. 
It must be recollected that the majority of the persons 
who frequented the splendid edifices their piety or their 
vanity had adorned were unable to read any inscription 
that might have recorded the benefaction ; but these pic- 
torial representations were intelligible to the most illiterate, 
and served to commemorate to the populace the names of 
the reverend fathers to whom they stood indebted for the 
sculptured glories of their houses of worship. Perhaps 
the general ignorance of the common people accounts for 
the absence of inscriptions on the sepulchral monuments 
of early date. Whatever may have been the motive, this 
omission is very much to be regretted, as all the acumen 
of learned antiquaries very often fails to assign them to 
their proper tenants. Very probable conclusions are some- 
times arrived at from the heraldic achievements, the cos- 
tume of the statues with which tombs are adorned, and 
the posture of those figures ;* but the parties commemo- 
rated are seldom satisfactorily ascertained. 

• Thus an abbot may be distinguished from a bishop, and common warriors 
from crusaders, which latter usually 

«« lie. 

The vow performed, in cross-legged effigy. 
Devoutly stretched upon their chancel floors." 



220 REBUSES. 

Sometimes the whole range of visible objects could not 
furnish a full rebus. In such cases 

® single letters or even whole words were 
adjoined to complete the device. Thus 
a capital A in a roundlet or rundle was 
made to do duty for the name of Thomas, 
Earl of Arundel. 
Sir Anthony Wingfeld devised a wing with the letters 
F. E. L. D. quarterly about it, "and over the wing a 
crosse to shew he was a Christian, and on the crosse a 
red rose to shew that he followed the house of Lancaster." 
In like manner the old Surrey family 
of Newdigate used for their seal an an- 
tient portcullised gate with nu at the 
top, and a capital D in the centre, thus : 
Nu-D-gate. 

Camden tells us of an amorous youth who, in order to 
express his love for a certain fair damsel named Rose 
Hill, painted on the border of his garment lively repre- 
sentations of a rosBy a hill^ an eye, a loaf, and a well, 
" that is, if you will spell it, 




ROSE HILL I LOVE WELL 



f" 



Ton being a common termination to names of places, 
and consequently to those of persons, has rendered a tun 
a favorite ingredient in rebuses, as the following list will 
show : 

Archbishop Thurston. A thrush upon a tun. This 
device still remains on the ruins of Fountain's Abbey, 
which that prelate founded. 



REBUSES. 



221 



Archbishop Moreton. The letters mor upon a 
tun, and sometimes a mulberry-tree (in Latin morus) 
issuing out of a tun. 

Luton. A lute upon a tun. 

Thornton. A thorn upon a tun. 

AsHTON. An ash-tree issuing out of a tun. 

Bolton, prior of St. Bartholomew's, in Smithfield. A 
\mdi-bolt through a tun. 

Huntington (John), Rector of Assheton under Lyme. 
" An huntsman with dogges whereby hee thought to ex- 
presse the two former syllables of his name. Hunting ; on 
the other syde, a vesseU called a Tonne, which being ioined 
together makes Huntington.* 

Rebuses are occasionally of great use in determining the 
dates and founders of build- 
Thus the parsonage- 



ings. 

house at Great Snoring, in 
Norfolk, is only known to 
have been bmlt by one of 
the family of Shelton by 
the device upon it repre- 
senting a shell upon a tun. 

Many of the seals of antient corporations exhibit rebuses 
on the names of the towns, as that of Camelford, a camel ; 
Gateshead, an antient gate ; Kingston-upon-HuU, a king 
between two lions rampant and another couchant; Hertford, 
a hart statant in a ford : Maidenhead, a maiderHs head ; 
Lancaster (antiently Lun-ceastre), a lion couchant before a 
castle, &c. &c. 

Sometimes rebuses occur as signs of inns, as at the 




Hollingworth, his Chronicle of Manchester. 



222 REBUSES. 

antique little village of Warbleton, co. Sussex, where the 
device is a battle-axe or war-bill thrust into the bung-hole 
of a tun of foaming ale. In the neighbouring hamlet of 
Runtington, there was a similar rebus, namely, a runt, or 
young cow, and a tun. 

Quaint was the conceit of Robert Langton, who gave 
new windows to Queen's CoUege, Oxford, (where he re- 
ceived his education,) and placed in each of them the 
letters ton drawn out to a most extraordinary length, or 
rather breadth, for Lang- (that is Long-) tun ; thus : 

TT OINJ 

"You may imagine," says Master Camden, "that 
Francis Cornfield did scratch his elbow when he had 
sweetly inuented, to signifie his name. Saint Francis, with 
his Frierly kowle in a corne-field T** 

A hare upon a bottle, for Hare bottle, forms one of 
the best of these speechless puns. A mag-pie upon a goat, 
for Pigot, is very tolerable. As for a hare in a sheaf of 
rye standing in the sun, for Harrison, it is barely pass- 
able, but a chest surmounted with a star, for Chester, 
is the ne plus ultra of wretched punning. 

Lionel Bucket gave as his rebus a Lion with an l upon 
his head, " whereas," says Camden, " it should have been 
in his taile." — " If the Lyon had beene eating a ducke it 
had beene a rare deuice worth a duckat or a ducke-eggeV 

The rebus of Ralph Hoge or Hogge, (who in con- 
junction with Peter Baud, a Frenchman, was the first 

* Remaines, p. 145. 



REBUSES. 223 

person who cast iron ordnance in England — at the village 
of Buxted, in Sussex,) was a hog. On the front of his 
residence at that place this device remains carved on 
stone, with the date 1591 ; from which circumstance the 
dwelling is caUed the "Hog-house." The rebus of one 
Medcalf was a ca^ inscribed with the letters m. e. d. 

Our old printers were as fond of name-devices in the 
sixteenth century, as the abbots and priors of the fifteenth 
had been. Thus WiUiam Norton gave, on the title-pages 
of the books printed by him, a sweet-William growing out 
of the bung-hole of a turij labelled with the syllable nor ; 
John OxENBRiDGE gavc an ox with the letter N on his 
back going over a bridge ; Hewe Goes, the first printer 
in the city of York, a great f| and a goose! WiUiam 
MiDDLETON gave a capital M in the middle of a 
tun ; Richard Grafton, the graft of an apple-tree issuing 
from a tun ; and Garret Dews, two fellows in a garret 
playing at dice and casting deux ! John Day used the 
figure of a sleeping boy, whom another boy was awakening, 
and, pointing to the sun, exclaiming, "Arise for it is 
day ;*'* a clumsy invention, scarcely deserving the name 
of a rebus. Perhaps the most far-fetched device ever used 
was that of another printer, one Master Jugge, who 
" took to express his name a nightingale sitting in a bush 
with a scrole in her mouth, wherein was written "jugge, 
jugge, jugge !"t 

Some printers in recent times have imitated their 
typographical ancestors by the introduction of their rebus 
on title-pages. The late Mr. Talboys, of Oxford, ensigned 

• Vide a plate in Ames's Typogr. Antiq., and in Fosbroke's Encyc. of Antiq. 
t Peacham («' Compleat Gentleman," I presume,) cited in Johnson's Diet, 
voc. Rkbus. 



224 



REBUSES. 



all his publications with an axe struck into the stem of 
a tree, and the motto taille bois! Some of Mr. 
Pickering's books have an antique device, representing a 
pike and a ring. 

I have reserved for the last, as being the best I have 
seen, the celebrated rebus of 
IsLip, Abbot of Westminster, 
which occurs in several forms in 
that chapel of the abbey which 
bears his name. Two copies of 
this rebus are now before the 
reader: a description of the one forming our tail-piece will 
suffice for both. It may be read three ways : first, a human 
EYE and a slip of a tree ; second, a man sliding from the 
branches of a tree and of course exclaiming " i slip !" 
and third, a hand rending off one of the boughs of the 
same tree and again re-echoing, "J slip!" Camden, 
who mentions this quaint device, gives a fourth reading 
of it, namely, the letter % placed beside the sHp, thus 
again producing the name — Islip. Reader, our Lettuce 
is exhausted! 





225 



A CHAPTER OF CANTING ARMS, 

tfec. tfec. 



When Rebuses are borne by families as coats of arms, 
they are called, in the language of heraldry, Arma Can- 
TANTiA, Armes Parlantes, or Canting Arms. They 
seem to be in use in most countries where heraldry is 
known; thus among the French, du Poirier bears 'Or a 
Pear tree, argent;' among the Italians, Colonna bears 
* Gules, a column argent ;' among the Germans, Schilsted 
bears * Argent, a sledge, sable.'* The arms of the united 
houses of Castile and Leon are quarterly, a castle and 
a lion, and those of the province of Dauphin^, a Dolphin.f 

English Heraldry delights in these punning devices. 
The arms of Arundel are six swaUows, in allusion to the 
French word hirondelle ; and those of Corbet, a raven, 
referring to the French corbeau, from which the surname 
is derived. 

The arms of Towers are 'Azure, a tower, or;' those of 
De la Chambre, 'Argent, a chevron, &c. between three 



* Porny's Heraldry, p. 12, note. 

t Louis VII. of France (or as the name was then spelt Loys) used for his 
signet a fleur-de-Zw, evidently a play upon his name. This was the origin of the 
royal arms of that kingdom. 

10 § 



226 



CANTING ARMS. 



chamber-pieces^ proper;'* those of Brand, Lord Dacre, 

* two brands (or swords) in saltire argent ;* those of Coote, 

* Argent, a chevron between three cootSt sable;' those of 
Heron, * Azure, three heronsy proper;' those of Colt, 
' Argent, a fesse between three colts, current, sable ;' those 
of OxENDEN, 'Argent, a chevron, between three oxen, 





sable;* those of Blackmore, 'Argent, a fesse between 
three blackmoor's heads erased, sable ; those of Coningsby, 
' Gules, three conies, sejant argent ;' those of Starkey, a 
stork ; those of Urson, a bear (in Latin ursa) ; those of 
Laroche, * Or, a rook, sable ;' those of Shelley, * Sable, 
a fesse engrailed between three whelk shells, or ;' those of 



* Chamber-pieces, a species of small cannons. The various kinds of artillery 
in use amongst our ancestors bore the most singular names. There were can- 
nons and demy-cannons^ curtall-cannons and robinets, culverins and demy- 
culverins, calivers and fowlers, fawcons and fawconets, dragons and basilisks, 
sakers and petronels, chambets and jakers, harquebusses, dags, and pistols ! 
" This," says a writer of the age of Elizabeth, «« is the artillerie which is now 
in most estimation." How many more kinds there might be I am unable to say, 
but the above catalogue seems sufficiently numerous. Most of the above terms 
are calculated to inspire a degree of terror, being derived from the names of 
monsters, serpents, and birds of prey. Culverin is from the Fr. Couleuvrine, a 
snake— and faucons, fauconnets, sakers, were various species of birds used in 
hawking. Dragons, basilisks, &c. need no explanation. 



CANTING ARMS. 227 

Wood, * Argent, Sitree, proper ;'^ those of Dolfin, * Azure, 
three dolphins naiant, or ;' those of Whalley, ' Argent, 
three whales' heads erased sable ;' those of Maunsell, 
*Argent, a chevron between three maunches (antient 
sleeves,) sable ;' those of Dobell, ' Sable, a doe passant, 
between three hells, argent ;' and last, though not the least 
remarkable, those of Trebarefoot, * sable a cheveron, 
or, between three hears^ feet.'' 

Porny seems inclined to place arms of this description 
amongst what are called Assumptive Arms, that is, such as 
have been assumed at the caprice of parties to gratify 
personal vanity, without any authority from the heralds.* 
It is perhaps impossible to place any limits to the class 
of coats that come under this designation. It is certain 
that comparatively few families of antient gentry have 
any record of the exact date of their arms, or of their 
having been conferred in a legal manner. The college of 
arms is of no older date than the reign of Richard the 
Third. Prior to that time coat-armour was sometimes the 
immediate gift of royalty, but oftener conferred by com- 
manders on such as had earned it by valour on the battle- 
field ; or given by noblemen to those who held estates under 
them and followed their banners. Camden says *' Whereas 
the carles of Chester bare garhes or wheat-sheaf es, many 
gentlemen of that countrey tooke wheat-sheaf es. Whereas 
the old carles of Warwicke bare chequy or and azure, 
a cheueron ermin, many thereabout tooke ermine and 
chequie. In Leicestershire and the countrey confining 

* Heraldry, p. 12, note. Menestrier of Lyons, a better authority than Porny, 
states that Armes Parlantes are as antient as any other heraldic device. (Vide 
Moule's Heraldry of Fish, p. 47.) 



228 CANTING ARMS. 

diuers bare cinqaefoyles, for that the antient earles of 
Leicester bare geules, a cinquefoyle, ermine. In Cumber- 
land and thereabouts, where the old barons of Kendall bare 
argent two barres geules, and a lyon passant or, in a can- 
ton of the second ; many gentlemen thereabout tooke the 
same in different colours and charges in the canton."* All 
this shows that many of our antient families had no good 
authority for their arms, which were taken up without the 
warrant of the officers of arms, if any such in the modern 
sense of the term, then existed. But if Porny means to 
insinuate that canting arms ha\e been generally assumed 
by upstarts within a comparatively recent period, he is 
certainly mistaken, as vcL2i!a.j grants of such bearings, devised 
by the heralds themselves, are duly registered in the 
College of Arms. I recollect one instance of the grant of a 
coat containing a canting charge within the last few years. 
King William IV. on visiting his antient borough of Lewes, 
10th Oct. 1830, was pleased to use the mansion called 
'The Friars,' belonging to Mr. Nehemiah Wimble, on 



* It would seem that the practice of borrowing the arms of other families is 
not quite extinct, for a certain plebeian high-sheriff of Sussex not many years 
since, on being asked by his coach-maker what arms he would have painted on 
his carriage, replied, "Oh I don't care — suppose we have Lord Chichester's — I 
think they're as pretty as any !!" Nor is it altogether confined to our eastern 
hemisphere, if the following anecdote is correct. An English gentleman 
at New York sent his carriage to a certain coach-maker for repairs, with 
a promise that he would call in a few days to view the progress of the work. 
Judge of his surprise on entering the coach- maker's workshop to find some half- 
dozen other carriages besides his own bedizened with his family arms. When he 
asked the coach-maker for an explanation of this " heraldic anomaly," that 
worthy replied with genuine simplicity : " Why you see. Mister, several of my 
customers who have been in to look at their carriages have ordered me to copy 
the arms from yours, for let me tell you," he added, in a patronizing manner, 
" it's a pattern that's very much liked !" 




CANTING ARMS. 229 

which occasion His Majesty gave that gentleman a coat of 
arms, containing among other charges, a wimble."^ 

But to give some other instances of heraldic rebuses : 
the family of Oakes bear acorns, (very natural that they 
should !) the Butlers, of Ireland, bear three covered cups, 
(very proper again!) the Lambs, three 
lambs; the Roaches, three roaches; 
the Bacons, a boar ; the Pines, 2^ fir- 
tree ov pine ; the Parkers, a stag's 
head; the Calls, three trumpets; and 
the Featherstones, three feathers. 
Sometimes the crest cants when the 
arms do not ; this is the case in the family of Beevor, a 
beaver; Ashburnham, an ash tree; Beckford, a heron's 
head holding in his strong beak (Bee fort) a fish ; Fisher, 
a kingfisher, &c. 

Canting arms are common in Scotland as well as in 
England. " The Arms of Matthias are three dice (sixes, 
as the highest throw), having, no doubt, a reference to the 
Election of St. Matthias to the apostleship ; " and the lot 
fell upon Matthias." "The arms of Lockhart are *A 
man's heart, proper, within a padlock, sable,' in perpetua- 
tion, as they tell you, that one of the name accompanied 
the good Sir James Douglas to Jerusalem with the heart of 
king Robert the Bruce."t The following are also from 
Scottish heraldry: Craw, three crows; Fraser, three 
/rases or cinquefoils ; Falconer, a /aZcow; Forester, 
three bugle-horns ; Heart, three human hearts ; Hogg, 

• Ermine, on a pile gules, a Lion of England in chief and a wimble in base 
over all a fesse chequy or and azure, thereon two escallops sable, 
f Pegge's Curial. Miscel. p. 229. 



230 



CANTING ARMS. 



three hoars^ heads j Justice, a sword in pale, supporting 
a balance ; Peacock, 2^ peacock ; Skene, three daggers, 
called in Scotland skenes ; and Bannerman, 'd^ banner 
displayed argent ; on a canton azure, St. Andrew's cross.* 

The Lucys of War- 
wickshire bore luces or 
pike; three however — 
not twelve, as might be 
inferred from Shakspeare, 
whose Justice Shallow is 
supposed to be a carica- 
ture of a knight of that 
family. "Merry Wives of 
Windsor," Act I. Scene 1 




Shallow. Sir Hugh, persuade me not; I will make a Star-chamber 
matter of it: if he were twenty Sir John Falstaffs, he shall not abuse 
Robert Shallow, esquire. 

Slender. In the county of Gloster, justice of peace and coram. 

Shal. Ay, cousin Slender, and Custalorum. 

Slen, Ay, and ratolorum too; and a gentleman born, master par- 
son ; who writes himself armigero ; in any bill, warrant, quittance, or 
obligation, armigero. 

Shal. Ay that we do ; and have done any time these three hundred 
years. 

Slen. All his successors, gone before him, have done't; and all his 
ancestors, that come after him, may: ihey mscy gi\eX\iQ dozen white 
luces in their coat. 

Shal. It is an old coat. 

Evans, The dozen white louses do become an old coat well ; it agrees 
well, passant : it is a familiar beast to man and signifies — love. 

Shal. The luce is the fresh fish ; the salt fish is an old coat. 




CANTING ARMS. 231 

The arms of Sir William Sevenoke or Sennocke 
were seven acorns, 3, 3, and 
1 . This remarkable person 
was deserted by his parents 
in infancy, and found either 
in the hollow of a tree, or in 
the street, at Sevenoaks, co. 
Kent, towards the end of 
the reign of Edw. III. By 
the charitable assistance of 
Sir William Rumpstead(the 
person who found him) and 
others, he was brought up, and apprenticed in London, 
where being admitted to the freedom of the Grocers' Com- 
pany, he gradually rose in eminence, until at length he 
became Lord Mayor, which office he served with great 
honour in the 6th year of Henry V., and received from 
that monarch the honour of knighthood. Three years 
afterwards he served in parliament for the city of London . 
He was a benefactor to the parish of St. Dunstan in the 
East, and also to the place whence he received his name, 
for " calling to minde the goodness of Almightie God, and 
the favour of the Townesmen extended towards him, he 
determined to make an everlasting monument of his thank- 
full minde for the same. And therefore of his owne charge 
builded both an Hospitall for reliefe of the poor, and a 
free Schoole for the education of youthe within this towne, 
&c."* He made his will in 1432, and was buried in the 
Church of St. Martin, Ludgate. 

* Lambarde's Perambulation of Kent, p. 520. Quibbling old Fuller says 
"he gave Seven Acorns for his armes, which if they grow as fast in the Field of 
Heraldry as in the common field, may be presumed to be oaks at this day." 
(Worthies, vol. i. p. 509.) 



232 PUNNING MOTTOES. 

Punning mottoes were at one time much the fashion. 
The motto of the family of Piereponte (Duke of Kingston) 
is PIE RE PONE TE, a Capital A^Y, as the three words make 
the name almost exactly. FoRTE-Scu^wm Salus Bucum, 
the motto of the Fortescues, has already been mentioned. 
The family of Onslow use Festina lente, "On slow !" or 
" Hasten slowly." The windows at Chiddingly Place, co. 
Sussex, the seat of the Jefferays, formerly contained their 
arms and motto, 

*' %tf^x^y> tt que tiiraj)/* 
I shall do what I say ! 

Sir John Jefferay, lord chief baron (temp. Eliz.) who 
was of this family, used the shorter motto, 

"(©uetra^jefra.'*'* 

The Cavendishes use Cavendo tutus, " Safety in cau- 
tion ;" the Fanes, Ne vilefano, " Bring nothing base to the 
fane, or temple;" the Maynards, MAnusjusta nardw*, 
"A just hand is a precious ointment ;" the Courthopes, 
Court hope ; the Fairfaxes, Fare, fac, " Speak, do ;" 
the Vernons, Fer non semper viret, " The spring does not 
always flourish," or " Vernon always flourishes ;" the 
FiTTONS, *' Fiffht on quoth Fitton ;" the Smiths, "Smite 
on quoth Smith ;" and the Manns, Homo sum, " I am a 
man !" the Nevilles, Ne vile velis, " Incline to nothing 
base ;" the Agardes, Dieu me garde, " God defend me ;" 
and the Lockharts, Corda serat a pando, " I lay open 
the locked hearts." The antient family of Morrice, of 
Betshanger, co. Kent, who trace their genealogy to Brut, 

* Hearne's Curious Discourses, vol. ii. p. 270. 



PUNNING MOTTOES, ETC. 233 

the first king of Britain (!) have for their motto " Antiqui 
Mores." Many of the Scottish mottoes originated in the 
slug-horn, slogan, or war-cry of the clan of which the 
bearer was chief. Thus the motto of Seton, earl of 
Wintoun, is Set-on ! being at once, an exhortation to the 
retainers to set upon the enemy, and a play upon the 
name. 

The motto of John Wells, last abbot of Croyland, 
engraved upon his chair, which is still extant, is, 

" 33metKtcite ^(B§,%e^ IBomim.*'* 
Bless the Wells O Lord I 

Thus much for canting arms and punning mottoes : a 
few additional allusions, or puns upon surnames, with a 
word or two upon anagrams^ will conclude this chapter and 
my lucubrations. 

Giraldus Cambrensis tells a curious anecdote of three 
persons travelling together, of whom the first was an arch- 
deacon named Peche (latinized Peccatum,) the second, a 
rural dean called Beville, and the third, a Jew. When they 
arrived at Illstreet, on the borders of Wales, the archdeacon 
remarked to his subordinate that their jurisdiction began 
there and extended to Malpas. " Ah !'* said their com- 
panion, "is it even so? a great marvel be it if I escape 
with a whole skin out of this jurisdiction, where the arch- 
deacon is Sin, the dean a Devil, and the boundaries Ill- 
street and Mal-passe F'f 

One Alexander Nequam, a man of great learning, 
wrote to the abbot of St. Albans for leave to enter his 



* There is an engraving of this Chair in Cough's Croyland Abbey, p. 98. 
t Camd. Rem. p. 141. 



234 PUNS. 

monastery, to whom the abbot returned this laconic note : 

" ^i ijonuj; iSisl, beniasi, ^i ^eijuam, nequaquam/* 
If you be good you may ; if Wicked, by no means ! 

The applicant changed his name to Neckham, and was 
received into the fraternity.* 

Gilbert Folioth, bishop of Hereford, having incurred 
the hatred of the partisans of Archbishop Beckett, one of 
the latter went to the prelate's window at midnight and 
vociferated, 

" Folioth, Folioth, FoHoth, 
Thy God is the goddess Azaroth /" [Venus.J 

To which he promptly replied — 

" Thou lyest fowle fiend. 
My God is the God of Sabaoth !"t 

An epitaph on Mr. John Berry. 

" How ! how ! who's buried here ? 
John Berry, Is't the younger? 
No, it is the Elder-'QY.'R.B.Y. 
An EldiSr-Berry buried surely must 
Rather spring up and live than turn to dust : 
So may our Berry, whom stern death has slain. 
Be only buried to rise up again." 

On the worthy Dr. Fuller : 

" Here lies Fuller's Earth !" 

On Dr. Walker, who wrote a book on the English 
particles : 

"Here lie Walker's Particles!" 



* Camd. Rem. p. 141. 

^ Ibid. This is not a pun, but rather what our antiquary calls an allusion. 



ANAGRAMS. 235 

On Mr. Aire, in St. Giles's Cripplegate : 

" Methinks this was a wondrous death. 
That Aire should die for want of breath !" 

Perhaps the oddest mode of expressing a name ever seen 
was that made use of by one of the family of Noel : 

" ABCDEFGHIJKMNOPaRSTUVWXYZ." No-* L.* 



As my motto is, "What's in a Name ?" a few words on 
Anagrams cannot be out of place here. Few people are 
aware of what their names really include ; for they most 
probably contain a deal of mysterious wisdom did we but 
know how to extract it. As for myself I am one of those 
"duU wyttes" who might as well hunt for a statue of 
ApoUo in a block of marble, as try to extract what Camden 
calls the * quintessence' of names. I must therefore rest 
content to be a compiler^ that is to say, literally, a robber* 
of the produce of more fertile geniuses. 

" Anagrammatisme or metagrammatisme," (forgive me 
* shade of the venerable Camden,' if I, for the hundredth 
time, again rob you,) " is a dissolution of a name truely 
written into his Letters, as his Elements, and a new con- 
nexion of it by artificial! transposition, without addition, 
substraction, or change of any letter into different words, 
making some perfect sense applyable to the person 
named."f 

" Some of the sowre sort wiU say it (namely the search- 
ing out of anagrams) is nothing but a troublous ioy, and 



* Compile, v. a. to rob, pillage, plunder, filch, steal ! How truly honorable, 
therefore, is the office of a compiler, 
t Remaines, Anagrammes, p. 147. 



236 ANAGRAMS. 

because they cannot attaine to it will condemne it, least by 
commending it, they should discommend themselues. 
Others more milde, will grant it to bee a dainty deuise and 
disport of wit not without pleasure, if it be not wrested out 
of the name to the reproach of the person. And such will 
not deny but that as good names may bee ominous, so also 
good Anagrammes, with a dehghtfull comfort and pleasant 
motion in honest minds, in no point yeelding to any vaine 
pleasures of the body. They will also afford it some com- 
mendations in respect of the difficulty ; {Bifficilia quce 
pulchra ;) as also that it is the whetstone of patience to 
them that shall practice it. For some haue beene scene 
to bite their pen, scratch their head, bend their browes, 
bite their Hps, beate the boord, teare their paper, when 
they were faire for somewhat, and caught nothing therein.'* 
The invention of anagrams is ascribed to a Greek poet 
called Lycophron, who flourished about B.C. 380, in the 
time of Ptolemy Philadelphus, king of Egypt, whose name 
he proved to be full of sweetness, 

nTOAEMAIOS, 

Atto fxeXiTos — Made of honey I 

Nor was he less successful upon that of Arsinoe, Ptolemy's 
wife, which he thus read : 

APSINOH, 
*Hpa$ \ov — Juno's violet ! 

The practice of making anagrams was first used in 
modern times in France, upon the revival of learning in 
that country under Francis the First. Not long after, the 



ANAGRAMS. 237 

following transpositions were made of the name of the un- 
fortunate Mary Stuart, Queen of Scotland. 
Maria Stuarta, 
VtxitH^ ^rmata, 
Armed Truth. 

This, however, does not come up to Camden's rule of 
" making a perfect sense applyable to the person named." 
The next is much better : 

iHaria ^tetoartfa, ^cotorum i^egina. 

TRUSA VI REGNIS, MORTE AMARA CADO, 

Thrust by force from my kingdoms^ I fall by a hitter death! 

It is to the French also, we are indebted for the beautiful 
anagram on the name of Christ, which has an allusion to 
the passage in Isaiah lviii, " He is brought as a sheep to 
the slaughter." 

IHSOYS; 
2v 17 oh — Thou art that sheep. 

Anagrams, on their introduction into this country, were 
often employed for the purposes of flattery. Camden cites 
several, made in his own times, on the names of James the 
First and his family, which do not, according to my view 
of that race, conform to his own rule. I shall pass by 
these and many others my author has given, and come at 
once to notice a few of the best I have met with upon 
English names. Among these is that upon 

" Dorothy, Vicountesse Lisle. 
Christ joins true love's knot. 
Where hands and hearts in sacred Hnke of love 
Are joyn'd in Christ, that match doth happy prove." 



238 ANAGRAMS. 

Of the name of Sir Francis Bacon, Lord Keeper, 

one Mr. Tash, * an especial man in this faculty,' made — 

Is horn and elect for a ric [A] speaker. 

Of that of Johannes Williams, the Welsh divine and 
statesman, well known as the strenuous opponent of 
Laud, Mr. Hugh Holland made a quadruple anagram, 
which, however, is far from exact : 

1. lO SIS LUMEN IN AULA. 

O, mayst thou be a light in the palace ! 

2. My wall is on high. 

3. My wall high Sion. 

And (in reference to his love for the country that gave 
him birth,) 

4. WALLIS ES IN ANIMO. 

O Wales how I love thee ! 

Honest John Bunyan found out the following for his 
anagram, which, albeit somewhat defective and rough, is 
highly characteristic of the man : 

John Bunyan. 

NU HONY in A B (!) 

The anagram on Monk,^ afterwards Duke of Albemarle, 
on the restoration of Chas. IL included an important date 
in our history : 

Georgius Monke, dux de Albemarle, 
Ego Regem reduxi, An\ Sa. MDCLFF.* 
I brought back the King in the year 1660. 

* D'Israeli, Curiosities of Literature, vol. iii. p. 209, 



ANAGRAMS. 239 

Anagram-making seems to have been the favourite 
amusement of wits and scholars two or three centuries ago, 
and every name of note was found to contain what would 
least be expected from it. Those indeed were the days for 
seeking 'what's in a name.' By a slight transposition 
a Wit was found in Wiat, Renoun in Vernon, and 
Lawrel in Waller. Randle Holmes, the heraldic 
writer, was complimented with 

LO, men's herald! 

Few anagrams have been more happy than that on 
Lord Nelson. 

Horatio Nelson, 
Honor est a Nilo. 
My honour is from the Nile. 

It would be an easy matter to extend this gossip over 
many pages, but I must refer the reader who wishes for 
more of it to the teeming chapters of Camden and 
D'IsraeH. There is, however, an anecdote connected with 
anagrammatizing which although ^decies repetita, placebit.' 
"Lady Eleanor Davies, the wife of the celebrated 
Sir John Davies, the poet, was a very extraordinary cha- 
racter. She was the Cassandra of her age, and several of 
her predictions warranted her to conceive she was a pro- 
phetess. As her prophecies in the troubled times of Charles 
L were usually against the government, she was at length 
brought by them into the Court of High Commission. 
The prophetess was not a Httle mad, and fancied the 
spirit of Daniel was in her, from an anagram she had 
formed of her name, 

Eleanor Davies, 

Reveal O Daniel ! 



240 ANAGRAMS. 

The anagram had too much by an l and too little by an s ; 
yet Daniel and reveal were in it, and this was sufficient to 
satisfy her inspirations. The court attempted to dis- 
possess the spirit from the lady, while the bishops were in 
vain reasoning the point with her out of the scriptures, to 
no purpose, she poising text against text : one of the deans 
of Arches, says HeyUn, * shot her thorough and thorough 
with an arrow borrowed from her own quiver :' he took a 
pen, and at last hit upon this excellent anagram : 

Dame Eleanor Davies. 
Never so mad a Ladie ! 

" The happy fancy put the solemn court into laughter, 
and Cassandra into the utmost dejection of spirit. Foiled 
by her own weapons, her spirit suddenly forsook her ; and 
either she never afterwards ventured on prophesying, or 
the anagram perpetually reminded her hearers of her state 
— ^and we hear no more of this prophetess."* 

A few more "last words." A friend of mine has 
favoured me with two specimens of his own construction, 
which have so much of the spirit of true metagrammatism 
in them, that I am sure I shall be pardoned the introduc- 
tion of them here. 

After the battle of Navarino, Admiral Sir Edward 
Codrington having made some reflections discreditable to 
the reputation of Capt. R. Dickenson in that affair, Capt. D. - 
demanded a court-martial, the result of which was, not 
only his honorable acquittal, but the most complimentary 
testimony of the court to his high professional merit. 

• Curiosities of Literature, vol. iii. pp. 212-13. 



ANAGRAMS. 241 

This circumstance gave rise to the anagram below, on the 
name of 

Sir Edward Codrington. 

Rd. Bic'enson got reward. 

George Thompson, Esq., the eloquent anti-slavery advo- 
cate, was solicited to go into Parliament, with a view to his 
more efficiently serving the cause of negro emancipation. 
This question being submitted to the consideration of his 
friends, one of them found the following answer in the let- 
ters of his name : 

George Thompson. 
O go — the Negro's M.P. ! 



11 



242 



ADDITIONS ; AND ILLUSTRATIONS OF THE 
PRECEDING ESSAYS. 



[Several highly valuable communications having been 
received since the first sheet went to press, I deem it 
more advisable to present them to the reader in this 
desultory form than to omit them altogether.] 



Essay I. Patronymics. — The use of the word son, 
adjoined to the father's name as a surname, is by no means 
pecuhar to this country. Many Swedish and Icelandic 
names end in -son, as Torstenson, Arfredson, Thorlaksson, 
Sturleson. 

Danish in -sen, as Herningsen, Cristensen, Emarsen. 

Dutch in -sen, as Petersen, Jansen, Hendriksen. 

Essay II. Inappropriateness of surnames denoting 
qualities inherent in the person, &c. &c. for transmission 
to descendants. Some droll lines proving that " surnames 



ADDITIONS, AND ILLUSTRATIONS. 243 

ever go by contraries," written by * a Mr. Smith,' contain 
the following hits : 

" Mr. Oldcastle dwells in a modern-buUt hut, 
Miss Sage is of mad-caps the archest, 
Of all the queer bachelors Cupid e'er cut, 
Old Mr. Younghusband's the starchest. 

Mr. Swift hobbles onward, no mortal knows how. 
He moves as though cords had entwined him ; 

Mr. Metcalfe ran off upon meeting a cow, 
With pale Mr. Turnbull behind him ! 

Mr. Barker's as mute as a fish in the sea, 

Mr. Miles never moves on a journey ; 
Mr. Gotohed sits up till half-after three, 
. Mr. Makepeace was bred an attorney. 
Mr. Gardener can't tell a flower from a root, 

Mr. Wild with timidity draws back ; 
Mr. Rider performs all his travels on foot, 

Mr. Foote all his journeys on horseback !" 

Essay III. Local names. — Goth and Gaul occur in 
Yorkshire : these, if not corruptions of foreign names, 
were probably sobriquets. 

Si/kes, hitherto regarded as a diminutive or 'nurse- 
name' of Simon, appears to be a local name of the second 
class, meaning in the North a small brook or a fountain. 
In the latter sense it occurs in the blazon of the arms of 
Sykes of Yorkshire, viz. "Argent, a cheveron sable be- 
tween three si/kes or fountains." 

The names of foundlings were usually local, as we have 
seen in the instances of Bytheseuy Pitt, Groves, &c. At 
Doncaster there is a person named Found, whose grand- 
father's grandfather was a foundling. Inventus occurs in 
the register of that parish as a surname. 

Galilee occurs in Yorkshire. 



244 ADDITIONS, AND ILLUSTRATIONS OF 

By the shortest surname in England. 

On has occurred since this was written. 

In Belgium there is a noble family bearing the still 
shorter one of O. 

To the glossary of local names, add 

Bold, a dweUing, (Newbold, Archbold, &c.) 

Russell, (sometimes — See Essay VI.) a stream, brook. 
Two channels near Guernsey are called * le grand et le petit 
Ruiseil,' and by our seamen * the great and little Russell.' 

Eccles, (eglise, ecclesia, eKKkriaia,) a church. 

*' Ollerenshaw^^ a local name meaning holly-grove, has 
been contracted to Renshaw, and that in its turn corrupted 
to Wrencher! 

Thwaytes may be nothing more than the plural of 
Thwayte, notwithstanding Verstegan's assertion. A York- 
shire correspondent thinks Thwayte, a crasis for * the wait,'' 
that is, minstrel. 

Halytreholm, the singular name of a benefactor to St. 
John's Coll. Camb., probably means *the island of the 
holy tree.' 

Heap occurs as an English surname, and the French 
have de Monceux, * of the heaps.' 

Essay IV. To the list of surnames derived from avo- 
cations, add Copper-wright, Starman (^1) Tyerman and 
Tireman, probably a maker of ornaments for the head ; 
tire being, as Johnson supposes, a corruption either of 
* tiara' or of * attire.' 

" On her head she wore a tire of gold, 
Adorned with gems and ouches." (Spenser.) 
Round tires lilje the moon. — hakh, c. iii. v. 18, 
* Tirewoman,* an obsolescent word, meaning one whose 



THE PRECEDING ESSAYS. 245 

business it is to make dresses for the head, is retained by 
Johnson. Perhaps, however, the TyerMXs of olden times 
was no man-milHner, but followed the more masculine 
occupation of making ready the furniture of the battle- 
field : 

" Immedicate sieges and the tire of war, 
Rowl in thy eager mind." {Philips.) 

Lunhunter has cost me conjectures not a few. An in- 
genious correspondent suggests the two following etymons : 
1 . Lone, soUtary, having no companion — one who hunted 
by himself. 2. Loon, Icelandic *lunde,' a sea-fowl of the 
genus Colymbus — a hunter of that species of bird. I con- 
fess that it would have been more satisfactory had my 
correspondent identified lun or lund with some quadruped 
bearing such trivial or provincial appellation. 

Names of occupations in a latinized form occur among 
the freeholders of Yorkshire, (vide Poll-books,) as Mercator, 
Tomor, Faber, &c. 

Smith in Gaelic is Gow : hence M'Gowan is Smithson. 
The Gows were once as numerous in Scotland as the 
Smiths in England, and would be so at this time had not 
many of them, at a very recent date, translated the name 
to Smith. M'Intyre is Carpenter's son. 

Comber, Camber, and the feminine form Kempster, are 
from *came,' and *kembe,' old forms of comb, and are 
synonymous with Coomber, a wool-comber. Carder, 
Towzer, and Tozer, point to another branch of the same 
craft : * toze' and * towse' are synonymous with tease : 



Upon the stone 



His wife sat near him teasing matted wool, 

While from the twin cards tooth 'd with glittering wire 

He fed the spindle of his youngest child." 



246 ADDITIONS, AND ILLUSTRATIONS OF 

Tubman, Tupper, and Dubber are probably synonymous 
with the Germ. ' Taubmann,' a maker of tubs. * Daube' 
in that language is a stave used in making tubs, and to 
* dub,' a piece of wood, in the language of our shipwrights 
and coopers, means to fashion it with an adze. 

*Cade' we have seen (Essay VIII.) is a cask; hence 
Cadman is a maker of cades or kegs. Cade, in this sense, 
was used in Shakspeare's days : 

" Cade. We John Cade, so termed of our supposed father." 
" Dick. Or rather of stealing a cade of herrings /" 

{Hen. vi. Act iv. «Se. 2.) 

In the same play we have an illustration of the name 
Shearman. George Bevis loquitur : 

"I tell thee. Jack Cade the clothier means to dress the common- 
wealth and turn it, and set a new nap upon it." {Act iv. Sc. 2.) 

Stafford (to Cade.) 
" Villain, thy father was a plasterer, and thou thyself a shearman, 
art thou not?" 

"With respect to Gladman two suggestions have been 
offered; 1, that it is a corruption of (cla'c-man) cloth- 
man ; and 2, that as 'gley'd' or *gleed,' in Scotland, means 
squinting as applied personally, or crooked as applied to 
things inanimate, a gledeman might be either a squinting 
man or a crooked man.* 

Spelman. In addition to what has been said upon this 
name it may be remarked, that * spelman' is the Swedish, 
and ' speilmann' the German, for a wandering musician, 
while ' spielman' in the Scottish dialect, means a chmbing 
man.f A ' spill' is a spindle or a lath : hence Speller, 

♦ Lit. Gaz. Ap. 29, 1843. + Id. 



THE PRECEDING ESSAYS. 247 

Spiller, and Spillmany must be makers of spindles or 
cleavers of laths. The latter business, it may be observed, 
still maintains its existence as a separate branch of em- 
ployment in some districts. 

To Horseman, FalfrimaUy &c. may be added F adman : 
a * pad' was an easy-paced nag. 

Pulter, Poltevy and Poulter are the original and true 
forms of poulterer (to which, as in the cases of fruiterer, 
upholsterer, &c. an extra -er has been added). In the 
directions to the Lord Mayor of London for the reception 
of the suite of Charles V. when he visited Henry VIIL 
appears this, 

" Item, to appoynt iiij pullers to serve for the said persons of all 
maner^M^n/,* 

and the same king incorporated a " Poulters' Company." 
Cramer is German (kramer), and signifies a retail dealer. 
Among other names of Occupations which require no 

explanation may be added. Stapler, Paviour, Milliner, 

Collarmaker, Driver, Drover, Pilot, Caulker, Pedlar, 

and Bellman. 

Essay V. To the names from ecclesiastical dignities 
add Canon ; also Primate, borne by a family in Yorkshire. 
The Highland name M'Taggart means the son of a priest. 

Essay VL To the surnames from qualities inherent in 
the person, of the physical class, add Spruce, Fairest, Nut- 
brown, Long-waist, Mankin (manikin, a dwarf). Fairy, 
Shurlock (shire-lock), Hurlock (hoar-lock), Brunell (0. F. 
brown), Sale (Fr.) dirty, and Lyt (A.-S, lyt, little). 

* Rutland Papers, Camd. Soc. 



248 ADDITIONS, AND ILLUSTRATIONS OF 

Chaucer describes his poor parson as visiting impartially all 
his parishioners, "both moche and ZzYe," that is, both great 
and little. Handsomehody occurs in the west of England. 

To those of the moral class add Holyt Precious, Idle, 
Lax, SilUman, the last, by the "way, the most inappropriate 
in the world for the great transatlantic philosopher. 
Prudhom and Prudhoe are from the Old French * prud- 
homme,' brave man. 

In the church at Eaton-Bishop, near Hereford, is this 
epitaph : 

" Good was first her maiden name, 
Better, when in marriage given, 
Best she at the last became ; 
The next degree reached Heaven !" 

Essay VII. Gillot is more probably from Gmllot, the 
French diminutive of William. 

Tidd and Teed are from Tit or Tid, the abbreviate of 
Theodore. 

Essay VIII. Mushett is the male sparrow-hawk. 

Mudd occurs in Suffolk, and possibly its origin may be 
traced by a very antient inscription on the pil/pit of the 
church at Newton in that county : 

" (©rate p aia ^itfy. |Hotri.*' 

The following are probably borrowed from signs : Buckle, 
Phoenix, Griffin, Garland, Arrow, Dart, Lance, Banner, 
Vase, Bowl, Goblet, Knife, Cruse, Cushion, Bridle. 

The German names Rothschild and Schwarzschild mean 
respectively * red-shield' and * black-shield.' 



THE PRECEDING ESSAYS. 249 

To the names borrowed from habiliments add Shirty 
Stocking^ Boot, Buskin, Breeches, Hat, Bonnet, Scai'f, 
Robe, Mitten, Patten, Silk, Ribbon, &c. 

To those from articles of food, &c. Cheese, Bread, Cake, 
Cakebread, Eggs, Jelly, Custard, Coffee, Ginger, Sherry, 
Claret, and Dinner ! 

Essay IX. The non-existence of Autumn as a surname 
may be accounted for by the recent introduction of that 
word into English : * fall' was the old name for the season, 
and is still retained in America. Fall occurs as a surname, 
though not so frequently as Spring, probably because not 
of such good augury. 

Essay XI. Surnames of Contempt, &c. Maulovel, 
a Norman name, is * bad wolfling,' and Maureward, may 
be either * mal-regard,' evil look, or bad reward, probably 
with some historical allusion. Ourson is from the French 
— a young bear ! The Normans seem to have given many 
similar names : the following with others occur in the 
Battel 2don : Malebuche, bad-mouth ; Malemayn, bad- 
hand ; Musard, the loiterer ; Maucovenaunt, ill-bargain ; 
Mauclerc, bad-scholar. 

Essay XII. Oddities. The following names may fairly 
rank under this category : Boast, Bragg, Blow, Bias, Cure, 
Cheap, Cant, Clammy, Duel, Speck, Spike, Shirt, Tuck, 
Pick, Tremble, Slumber, Pant, Whip, Much, Skim, Battle 
(local?) Priesthood, Worship, Gossip, Gabble, Open, Shut, 
Treble and Bass (in one street in London), Mummery, 
Foppery, Simper, Grieve, Self, Gaze, Ogle, Catch-side, 
Cap-stick, Drink-row, Duck-wit, Drake-vp, Pick-up, Card- 

11 § 



250 ADDITIONS, AND ILLUSTRATIONS OF 

up. Luck-up J Broxhup, Green-up,"^ Wool-fork, Pitch-fork, 
Stand-even, Garman-sway, Smooth-man, Kettle-band, Ket- 
tle-strings (!) Red-rings, Suck-smith, Hug-buck, Rake-straw, 
Inch-board, and Great-rakes. 

What, without conveying the shghtest idea of their 
meaning, can be more absurd than the following? — Twitty, 
Nutchy, Jowsy, Snarry, Vitty, Thruttles, Jagger, Wox, 
Fligg, Jibb, Ragg, Lutt, and Brabbs. 

It is but right to state that the authentic list from which 
the above names have been selected, was compiled in part 
from such authorities as the Pohce Reports and the Newgate 
Calendar. Hence probably a great many of them are but 
sobriquets and * aliases.' Pillage was literally the name 
of a thief brought not long since before the magistrates at 
Bath ; and a female brought before the Lord Mayor bore 
the ominous cognomen of Comeagain, which she averred to 
be her true and only name! 

Essay XIII. Foreign names naturalized in 
England. Many Jew^ish names are German, as Roths- 
child (vide ante), Ha7^t (herz, heart). 

Some Dutch, as Goldsmid, 

Some Portuguese, as Lousada, Lindo. 

Some Italian, as Montefiore. 

Some Spanish, as Ximenes, Mendoza. 

Names in -er with the name of a German town are 
Jewish, as Friedland-er, Bantzig-er, Hamburg-er. Having 
no surnames of their own, the German Jews often assume 
them from the place of their abode. 



* Many of these are questionless corruptions of local names. Those names 
terminating in up are piobably corruptions of hope, explained in Essay III. 



THE PRECEDING ESSAYS. 251 

The greatest importation of French names and families 
since the Conquest was at the revocation of the edict of 
Nantes : hence date the Ducarels, Chamiers, Palairets, 
Gtiardots, Laprimandayes, Tessiersy and many others. 

Essay XIV. To what is said on changed surnames, it 
may be added that many famihes in our own times have 
changed their names for others of better sound or higher 
fame ; thus Hayward has become Howard ; Sheepshanks, 
Yorke ; Upjohn, Ap-John. 

Many Jewish families have assimilated their surnames 
to others of English origin, as Abraham to Braham, Moses 
to Moss, Salomon to Salmon, Jonas to Jones, Levi to 
Lewis. 

Almack is supposed by the family bearing it to be a 
transposition of the Scottish Mac-All. 

Chapter of Canting Arms, Puns, &c. — Robert de 
Eglesfield, the munificent founder of Queen's Coll. Oxon. 
thought fit to perpetuate his name with what may be 
called a practical pun. On Christmas-day, the great 
annual solemnity of the College, when the boar's head is 
placed on the hall table with various ceremonies, each of 
the senior fellows receives from the provost pertain needles- 
ful of purple and scarlet silk, with the admonition, *Be 
thrifty :' the French aiguillis et Jil, (needles and thread,) 
being a play on Eglesfield. The donor's punning v/as as 
poor as his liberality was large. 



252 ADDITIONS, &C. OF THE PRECEDING ESSAYS. 



Victor Hugo (a close observer of nominal curiosities), in 
his work on the * Rhine,'* mentions c?e-MEUSE ; that is, 
" Of the Meuse," as a common name at Namur and Liege 
on that river. At Paris and Rouen (both on the Seine) 
c??SEiNE and c^^senne are found. The Roman name 
Tiberius was derived from the Tiber. Hence it appears 
that the borrowing of names from rivers is by no means 
peculiar to the English, nor to modern times. From the 
same work we find that names borrowed from classical 
personages are not infrequent on the continent : M. Janus 
is a baker at Namur, M. Marius a hairdresser at Aries, and 
M. Nero a confectioner at Paris ! ! 

« Vol. I. p. 76. 



253 



APPENDIX. 



m)t ISoU Of ISattel atiea. 

INTRODUCTION. 

I HAVE already mentioned this celebrated document, 
and 1 cannot better introduce it to the reader than by 
citing the Rev. Mark Noble's curious and valuable 
"Dissertation on the various Changes in the Families of 
England since the Conquest," prefixed to his History of 
the College of Arms. 

"Those who had fought under the ducal banners [at 
Hastings] took every possible means to have their names 
well known and remembered by future ages, not only be- 
cause they and their descendants would by it be enabled 
to plead for favours from the reigning family, and an 
assuring to themselves the estates they had gained, but 
also from the pride inherent in human nature as founders 
of families in a country they had won by their prowess. 
For these reasons the name of every person of any con- 



254 ROLL OF BATTEL ABBEY : 

sideration was written upon a Roll, and liung up in the 
Abbey of Battel.* 

" As the persons there mentioned were the patriarchs of 
most of the EngUsh gentry for many ages, and of many of 
our chief nobility at the present day, it will not be im- 
proper to examine into the authenticity of this roll of 
names; for different authors have given, some a greater, 
and some a less, number. As to the orthography, it is of 
little consequence; the spelling of names was not at that 
time, nor for many ages afterwards, fixed; every one 
writing them as he pleased. 

" Grafton, in his Chronicle, has given very many names, 
which he received from Clarenceux, king at arms, and out 
of John Harding's Chronicle, with others. Holinshed 
mentions upwards of six hundred; Stow, in his Chronicle, 
only four hundred and seven ; Thomas Scriven, Esquire, 
still fewer. Fuller, in his Church History, has copied 
them, but he does not mention who Mr. Scriven was, nor 
from whence that gentleman took them. Foxe, in his 
Acts and Monuments, has also given in a list of the names 
of William's officers and great men; but these. Fuller 
thinks, were not collected by Foxe. This catalogue of 
names is valuable, however, because the initials of the 
christian names are given. The great difference made in 
these collections naturally leads us to suspect that many 
omissions are made in some, and that numbers of names 
have been put in others to please individuals. Sir WiUiam 
Dugdale openly accuses the monks of Battel of flattery, 
from having inserted the names of persons whose ancestors 

* William ordered the erection of a monastery on the very spot where he had 
gained that decisive victory which gave him the crown of England, from which 
circumstance it was called Battel Abbey. 



INTRODUCTION. " 255 

were never at the conquest. Guilliam Tayleur, a Norman 
historian, who could not have had any communication with 
the monks of Battel, has also published the muster-roll, 
which was called over after the battle of Hastings."* 

In the foregoing enumeration of the copies of this famous 
Roll, the writer does not mention Leland's copy, nor that 
of Dugdale. It is remarkable that although many, per- 
haps the majority, of the names occur in all the copies, 
others occur in one or two only ; and the difference between 
the copies is such as to render all attempts at collation 
useless. As my object is to give names said to have been 
introduced into this country by the Norman Conquest, 
rather than a critical inquiry into the authenticity of the 
several lists, I shall lay before the reader three of the latter, 
namely, those of Leland, Holinshed, and Foxe, adding, en 
passant, such notes and observations as may seem useful 
in illustration of the subject. 



The original Roll, compiled by the monks of Battel, 
was hung up in their monastery, beneath the following 
Latin verses : 

" Sicitur a hello, fSellum locu^ ^tc, quia hello 
^nSltgenae iiictt, ^unt ^t in morte relictt : 
IRarturiiS in €^x\^ii fes'to cecitiere Calixti : 
^exagenuig evat i^extu^ miUeiSimug annus; 
Cum pereunt ^ngli Jitella monsitrante cometa.** 

♦ *« The day after the battell, very early in the morning, Odo, Bishop of 
Baieux, sung masse for those that were departed. The duke after that, desirous 
to know the estate of his battell, and what people he had therein lost and were 
slaine, he caused to come unto him a clerk, that had written their names when 
they were embarked at S. Valeries, and commanded him to call them all by their 
names, who called them that had bin at the battell, and passed the seas with 
Duke William." (John Foxe, Acts and Mon.) 



256 RdLL OF BATTEL ABBEY : 

Id esty 

" This place is called Battel, because the English, slain 
in war, were here left dead. They fell on the day of the 
feast of Christ's martyr, Calixtus. It was the year one 
thousand and sixty-six when the English perished, a great 
comet being visible at the time(?)" 

A metrical Enghsh version of these verses was formerly 
inscribed on a tablet in the parish church of Battel. 

** Z^i^ place of toar t!^ ?3attel fallttJ, becauiSe mhattle \)txt, 
(Suite CO nqiierttJ antJ obeirti^^olun t\)t (Qn^i^\^ nation iwere ; 
%^^ iSlaugl^ter ^appenetr to t^em upon ^t. Celtct'iS t(ap, 
Cf)e^ear tojereof (1066) t^ijg uumtiei: trot]^ arrap.*' 

Of the history of the Roll subsequently to the dissolution 
of the monastery nothing certain is known. Three months 
after the surrender of the abbey, the site and lands were 
given by Henry VIII. to Sir Anthony Browne, ancestor of 
the Viscounts Montague, This family sold the mansion, 
with its appurtenances, to Sir Thomas Webster, Bart, 
(whose descendants still possess it), and resided afterwards 
at their other seat, Cowdray House near Midhurst, and 
thither this famous document was probably carried.* 
Cowdray was destroyed by fire in 1793, when the Roll is 
presumed to have perished, with everything else of value 
which that lordly edifice contained. 

• Gleaniugs respectinj Battel Abbey. 



leland's copy. 257 



The preference ought unquestionably to be conceded to 
this copy. John Leland saw and transcribed the original;, 
and in the notes to his transcript he notices some particular 
points marked upon the Roll, which he also transfers to 
his copy. There seems to be an attempt to arrange the 
names in such a manner as to make the last syllable of the 
second pair rhyme with that of the first, and also to 
produce aUiteration in the pairs, e. g. 

'' Ferers et Foleville, 
Briaunson et Baskeville.'* 



AuMARiLLctDEYNCouRT, Camoys et Cameville, 

Bertrem et Buttencourt, Hautein et Hanville, 

Baird et Biford, Warenne* et Wauncy, 

Bardolf et Basset, Chauunt et Chauncy, 

Deyville et Darcy, Loveyne et Lascy, 

Pygot et Percy, Graunson et Tracy, 

Gumey et Greilly, Mohaud et Mooun, 

Tregos et Trylly, Bigotf et Brown, | 

* Some families bearing this name are unquestionably of English origin ; from 
the first persons bearing the name having resided near a rabbi t-wan-en. 

+ According to Camden the name of Bigod was a sobriquet given to the Nor- 
mans for their profanity, " because at euery other word they would sweare 6y 
God," (Remaines, p. 106,) and hence our word bigot. 

^ This name occurs in most copies of the Roll, but it would seem to be an 
interpolation, unless, indeed, it be an English spelling of the French Brun. 



258 



ROLL OF BATTEL ABBEY: 



Mamey et Maundeville, 
Vipont et Umfreville, 
Mauley et Meneville, 
Burnel et Buttevillain, 
Malebuche et Malemayn, 
Morteyn et Mortimer, 
Comeyn et Columber, 
St. Cloyis et St. Clere,* 
Otinel et St. Thomer, 

•• t 

Gorgeise et Gower, 
Bruys et Dispenser, 
Lymesey et Latymer, 
Boys et Boteler, 
Fenes et Filebert, 
Fitz-Roger et Fitz-Robert, 
Martine et Muse, 
St. Ligiere et Quyncy, 
Cricketot et Crevecuer, 
Morley et Moundeville, 
Baillol et Boundeville, 
Estraunge et Estoteville, 
Mowbray et Morville, 
Viez et Vinoun, 
Audele et Aungeloun, 
Vausteneys et Wauille, 



SouchevilleCoudrey et CoUe- 

ville, 
Ferers et FolevUle, 
Briaunson et Baskeville, 
Neners et Nereville, 
Chaumberlayne et Chaumbe- 

roun, 
Fitz-Walter et Werdoun, 
Argenteyn et Avenele, 
Ros et Ridel, 
Hasting:^ et Haulley, 
Merkenfell et Mourreis, 
Fitz-Phillip et Filiot, 
Takel et Talbot, 
Lenias et Levecot, 
Fourbeville et Tipitot, 
Saunzauer et Saundford, 
Mountague et Mountford, 
Forneux et Furnivaus, 
Valence et Vaux, 
Clerevals et Clarel, 
Dodingle et Darel, 
Mantelent et Maudiet, 
Chapes et Chaudut, 
Cauntelow et Coubray, 
Sainct Tese et Saunay, 



* Some of the Normans " affecting religion took the name of some Saint." 
(Noble, p. 6, 7.) 

t Sic cum duobus punctis. 

+ This name would seem to be of the local kind, and was probably borrowed 
from Hastings in Sussex. This, however, is no argument against the Norman 
origin of this celebrated family, as some Norman grandees took the names of the 
seignories given them by the Conqueror. 



LELAND S COPY. 



259 



Braund et Baybof, 
Fitz-Alayne et Gilebof, 
Maunys et Maulos, 
Power et Panel, alias Paignel, 
Tuchet et Tmsselle, 
Peche et PevereUe, 
Daubenay et Deverelle, 
Sainct Amande et Adryelle, 
Ryvers et Ryvel, 
Loveday et Lovel, 
Denyas et Druel, 
Mountburgh et Mounsorel, 
Maleville et Malet, 
Newmarch et Newbet, 
Corby et Corbet, 
Mounfey et Mountfichet, 
Gaunt et Garre, 
Maleberge et Marre, 
Geneville et Gifard, 
Someray et Howarde, 
Perot et Pykard, 
Cliaundoys et Chaward, 
De la Hay et Haunsard, 
Mussegros et Musard, 
Maingun et Mountravers, 



Fovecourt et Feniers, 
Vesay et Verders, 
Brabason et Bevers, 
Challouns et Chaleys, 
Maihermer et Muschet, 
* 

Bans et Bluet, 
Beke et Biroune, 
Saunz Peur et Fitz Simoun, 
Gaugyf et Gobaude, 
Rugetius et Fitz-Bohant, 
Peverel et Fitz-Payne, 

-ger, 
Fitz-Robert et Fitz-Aleyne, 

••• t 
Souley et Soules, 
Bruys et Burgb, 
NeviUe et Newburgh, 
Fitz- William et Wateville, § 
De la Launde et Del Isle, 
Sorel et Somery, 
St. John et St. lory, 
Wavile et Warley, 
De la Pole et Pinkeney, 
Mortivaus et Mounthensey, 



* Sic cum puncto sub posteriore parte literae m. 

t Gage ? 

t Sic cum tribus punctis. 

§ The termination ville (equivalent to our own ton) was the prevalent one 
among the Normans. Noble gives the following general rule for ascertaining the 
district to which any particular name in the Roll should be assigned : " The 
Norman names end chiefly in -ville ; those of Anjou in -lere ,• those of Guienne 
and the banks of the Garonne in -acj and those of Picardy in -cour." 



260 



ROLL OF BATTEL ABBEY : 



Crescy et Courteny, 
St. Leo et Lascey, 
Bavent et Bassey, 
Lascels et Lovein, 
Thays et Tony, 
Hurel et Husee, 
Longville et Longespe, 
De WakeetDelaWar, 
De la Marehe et De la Marc, 
Constable et Tally, 
• * 

Poynce et Paveley, 
Tuk et Tany, 
Mallop et Marny, 
Paifrer et Plukenet, 
Bretoun et Blundet, 
Myriet et Morley, 
Tyriet et Turley, 
Fryville et Fresell, 
De la River et Rivell, 
Destranges et Delatoun, 
Perrers et Pavilloun, 
Vallonis et Vernoun, 
Grymward et Gernoun, 
Herey et Heroun, 
Verdour et Veroun, 
Dalseny et Dautre, 
Mengle et Maufe, 



Maucovenaiint et Mounpin- 

son, 
Pikard et Pinkadoun, 
Gray et Graunson, 
Diseny et Dabernoun, 
Maoun et Mainard, 
Banestre et Bekard, 
Bealum et Beauchamp, 

• t 
Loverak et Longechamp, 
Baudin et Bray, 
Saluayn et Say, 
Ry et Rokel, 
Fitz-Rafe et Rosel, 
Fitz-Bryan et Bracey, 
Place et Placey, 
Damary et Deveroys, 
Vavasor et Warroys,;]: 
Perpounte et Fitz-Peris, 
Sesce et Solers, 
Navimere et Fitz-Nele, 
"Waloys et Levele, 
Caumpeneys et Chaunceus, 
Malebys et Monceus, 
Thorney et Thornille, 
Wace et Wyville, 
Velroys et Wacely, 
Pugoys et Paiteny, 



* Sic, cum puncto sub posteriore /. 
t Sic, cum puncto sub posteriore parte literse m- 

i The names that contain the letters w and k aie thought to be Flemish - 
those letters not being found in Norman-French. 



LELAND S COPY. 



261 



Galofer et Gubioun, 
Burdet et Baroun, 
Davarenge et Duylly, 
Soverenge et Snylly, 
Kymarays et Kyriel, 
Lisours et Longvale, 
Glauncourt et Chaumount, 
Bawdewyn et Beaumont, 
Graundyn et Gerdoun, 
Blundel et Burdoun, 
Fitz-Rauf* et FiKol, 
Fitz-Thomas et Tybot, 
Onatule et Cbeyni, 
Maulicerer et Mouncey, 
Querru et Coigners, 
Mauclerk et Maners, 
Warde et Werlay, 
Nusetys et Merlay, 
Baray et Breteville, 
Tolimer et Treville, 
Blounte et Boseville, 
Liffard et Oseville, 
Benny et Boyville, 
Courson et Courtville, 
Fitz-Morice et St. More, 
Broth et Barbedor, 
Fitz-Hugh et Fitz-Henry, 



Fitz-Aviz et Esturmy, 
Walangay et Fitz-Warin, 
Fitz-Raynald et Roselin, 
Baret et Bourt, 
Heryce et Harecourt, 
Venables et Venour, 
Haywardf et Henour, 
Dulce et De la Laund, 
De la Valet et Veylaund, 
De la Plaunche et Puterel, 
Loring et Loterel, 
Fitz-Marmaduket Mountrivel, 
Tinel et Travile, 
Byngard et Bernevale, 
La-Muile et Lownay, 
Damot et Damay, 

•• X 

Bonet et Barry, 
Avonel et St. Amary, 
Jardyn et Jay, 
Fourys et Tay, 
Aimeris et Avereris, 
Vilain et Valeris, 
Fitz-Eustace et Eustacy, 
MaucLes et Massey, 
Brian et Bidin, 
Movet et St. Martine, 



* Verstegan is of opinion that the prefix fitz originated in Flanders. It is 
remarkable that it is now unknown in France, and that it does not occur in 
the antient chronicles of that country. {Noble.) 

t This is evidently an English name. 

% Sic cum duobus punctis. 



262 



ROLL OF BATTEL ABBEY : 



Surdevale et Sengryn, 
Buscel et Bevery, 
Durant et Doreny, 
Disart et Dorynell, 
Male-Kake et Mauncel, 
Burneville et Bretville, 
Hameline et Hareville, 
De la Huse et Howel, 
Fingez et Coruyele, 
Chartres et Chenil, 
Belew et Bertine, 
Mangysir et Mauveysin, 
Angers et Angewyne, 
Tolet et Tisoun, 
Fermbaud et Frisonn, 

St. Barbe et Sageville, 



Vernoun et Waterville, 
Wermelay et Wamerville, 

u 
Broy et Bromeville, 

•• t 
Bleyn et Briecourt, 
Tarteray et Chercourt, 
Oysel et Olifard, 
Maulovel et Maureward, 
Kanoes et Keveters, 
Loif et Lymers, 
Rysers et Reynevile, 
Busard et Belevile, 
Elvers et Ripers, 
Perechay et Perers, 
Fichent et Trivent. 



* Sic cum duobus punctis. 



t Sic cum duobus punctis. 



KOLINSHED S COPY. 



263 



'^o\mf)tr>'^ ©DPS. 



Aumarle, 


Bertram, 


Blondell, 


Aincourt, 


Buttecourt, 


Breton, 


Audeley, 


Brebus and 


Bluat and 


Angilliam, 


Bysey, 


Baious, 


Argentoune, 


Bardolfe, 


Browne, 


Arundel, 


Basset and 


Beke, 


Auenant, 


Bigot, 


Bikard, 


AbeU, 


Bohun, 


Banastre, 


Arwerne, 


Bailif, 


Baloun, 


Aunwers, 


Bondevile, 


Beauchampe, 


Angers, 


Brabason, 


Bray and 


Angenoun, 


Baskervile, 


Bandy, 


Archere, 


Bures, 


Bracy, 


Anuay, 


Bounilaine, 


Boundes, 


Asperuile, 


Bois, 


Bascoun, 


Abbevile, 


Botelere, 


Broilem, 


Andevile, 


Bourcher, 


Broleuy, 


Amouerduile, 


Brabaion, 


Burnell, 


Arcy and 


Berners, 


BeUet, 


Akeny, 


Braibuf, 


Baudewin, 


Albeny, 


Brand and 


Burdon, 


Aybeuare, 


Brouce, 


Berteuilay, 


Amay, 


Burgh, 


Busseuille, 


Aspermound, 


Bushy, 


Blunt, 


Amerenges. 


Banet, 


Baupere, 



264 



ROLL OF BATTEL ABBEY : 



Be\d]l, 


Braine, 


Cribett, 


Barduedor, 


Brent, 


Creuquere, 


Brette, 


Braunch, 


Corbine, 


Barrett, 


Belesur, 


Corbett, 


Bonrett, 


BlundeU, 


Chaundos, 


Bainard, 


Burdett, 


Chaworth, 


Barnivale, 


Bagott, 


Cleremaus, 


Bonett, 


Beauuise, 


ClareU, 


Bary, 


Belemis, 


Chopis, 


Bryan, 


Beisin, 


Chaunduit, 


Bodin, 


Bernon, 


Chantelow,* 


Beteruile, 


Boels, 


Chamberay,t 


Bertin, 


Belefroun, 


Cressy, 


Bereneuile, 


Brutz, 


Curtenay, 


Bellew, 


Barchampe, 


Conestable, 


Beuery, 


Beaumont, 


Cholmeley, 


Bushell, 


Barre. 


Champney, 


Boranuile, 


Camois, 


Chawnos, 


Browe, 


Cam vile. 


Coinivile, 


Beleuers, 


Chawent, 


Champaine, 


Buffard, 


Cauncy, 


Careuile, 


Bonueier, 


Conderay, 


Carbonelle, 


Botevile, 


Colvile, 


Charles, 


BeUire, 


Chamberlaine, 


Chereberge, 


Bastard, 


Chambernoun, 


Chawnes, 


Brazard, 


Comin, 


Chaumont, 


Beelhelme, 


Columber, 


Caperoun,:^ 



* Cantelupe ? t De-la- Cham bre ? 

:j: Caperoun. The antient family of Quaife, of Kent and Sussex, have a tra- 
dition that their ancestor came into England with the Conqueror, and that he was 
called Ck>ife, because he wore a hood in battle instead of a helmet. Now caperoun 
is the old French (or chaperon , a hood, which renders it exceedingly probable that 
the individual named in the Roll, and the person referred to by the tradition are 
identical. 



HOLINSHED S COPY. 



265 



Cheine, 


De la Ware, 


Estrange, 


Curson, 


De la Uache, 


Estuteville, 


Couille, 


Dakeny, 


Engaine, 


Chaiters, 


Dauntre, 


Estriels, 


Cheines, 


Desny, 


Esturney. 


Cateray, 


Dabernoune, 


Ferrerers, 


Cherecourt, 


Damry, 


Folvile, 


Cammile, 


Daueros, 


Fitz Walter, 


Clerenay, 


Dauonge, 


Fitz Marmaduke, 


Curly, 


Duilby, 


Fleuez, 


Cuily, 


De la Uere, 


Filberd, 


Clinels, 


De la Hoid, 


Fitz Roger, 


Clifford. 


Durange 


Fauecourt, 


Denaville, 


Delee, 


Ferrers, 


Derey, 


Delaund, 


Fitz Philip, 


Dive, 


Delaward, 


Fohot, 


Dispencere, 


De la Planch, 


Furnieueus, 


Daubeney, 


Damnot, 


Fitz Otes, 


Daniel, 


Danway, 


Fitz WiUiam, 


Deuise and 


Deheuse, 


Fitz Roand, 


Druell, 


Deuile, 


Fitz Pain, 


Devaus, 


Disard, 


Fitz Auger, 


Davers, 


Doiville, 


Fitz Aleyn, 


Dodingsels, 


Durand, 


Fitz Rauf, 


Darell, 


Drury, 


Fitz Browne, 


Delaber, 


Dabitott, 


Fouke, 


De la Pole, 


Dunstervile, 


Frevile, 


De la Linde, 


Dunchamp, 


Front de Boef,* 


De la HiU, 


Dambelton. 


Facunburge, 



• An early instance of the sobriquet, literally signifying " the forehead of 
an ox." 

12 



266 



ROLL OF BATTEL ABBEY : 



Forz, 


Fitz Fitz, 


Guines, 


Frisell, 


Fitz John, 


Griuel, 


Fitz Simon, 


Fleschampe. 


Greneuile, 


Fitz Fouk, 


Gurnay, 


Glateuile, 


FolioU, 


Grassy, 


Giffard, 


Fitz Thomas, 


Graunson, 


Gouerges, 


Fitz Morice, 


Gracy, 


Gamages. 


Fitz Hugh, 


Georges, 


Hauteny, 


Fitz Henrie, 


Gower, 


Haunsard, 


Fitz Waren, 


Gaugy, 


Hastings, 


Fitz Rainold, 


Goband, 


Hanlay, 


Flamvile, 


Gray, 


HaureU, 


Formay, 


Gaunson, 


Husee, 


Fitz Eustach, 


Golofre, 


Hercy, 


Fitz Lawrence, 


Gobion, 


Herioun, 


Formibaud, 


Grensy, 


Heme, 


Frisound, 


Graunt, 


Hareeourt, 


Finere, 


Greile, 


Henoure, 


Fitz Robert, 


Grenet, 


HoueU, 


Furnivall, 


Gurry, 


Hamelin, 


Fitz Geffrey, 


Gurley, 


HareweU,* 


Fitz Herbert, 


Grammori, 


HardeU, 


Fitz Peres, 


Gernoun, 


Haket, 


Fichet, 


Grendon, 


Hamound, 


Fitz Rewes, 


Gurdon, 


Harcord. 



* From the frequent occurrence of names with such very English orthographies, 
one of two things is pretty certain. Either the monks of Battel introduced names 
of English families surreptitiously to gratify the vanity of benefactors, or the 
Roll cannot have been compiled until many years after the foundation of the 
abbey, and by persons who did not understand the French language. This re- 
mark may seem to clash with a former note, (vide the name of Hasting in 
Leland's copy;) but the names borrowed from seignories in England, immediatel.v 
after the Conquest, were very few in number. 



HOLINSHED S COPY. 



267 



Jarden, 


Loterell, 


Mare, 


Jay. 


Loruge, 


Musegros, 


Jeniels, 


Longueuale, 


Musarde, 


Jerconuise, 


Loy, 


Moine, 


Januile, 


Lorancourt, 


Montrauers, 


Jasperuile. 


Loious, 


Merke, 


Kaunt, 


Limers, 


Murres, 


ICarre, 


Longepay, 


Mortiuale, 


Karrowe, 


Laumale, 


Monchenesey, 


Keine, 


Tiane, 


Mallony, 


Kimaronne, 


Lovetot. 


Marny, 


KirieU, 


Mohant, 


Mountagu, 


Kancey, 


Mowne, 


Mountford, 


Kenelre. 


Maundevile, 


Maule, 


Loueney, 


Marmilon, 


Monthermon, 


Lacy, 


Moribray, 


Musett, 


Linnebey, 


Morvile, 


Menevile, 


Latomer, 


Miriel, 


Manteuenant, 


Loveday, 


Maulay, 


Manse, 


Lovell, 


Malebrauch, 


Menpincoy, 


Lemare, 


Malemaine, 


Maine, 


Leuetot, 


Mortimere, 


Maniard, 


Lucy, 


Mortimaine, 


MoreU, 


Luny, 


Muse, 


Mainell, 


Logeuile, 


Marteine, 


Maleluse, 


Longespes, 


Mountbother, 


Memorous, 


Louerace, 


Mountsoler, 


Morreis, 


Longechampe, 


Maleuile, 


Morleian, 


Lascales, 


Malet, 


Maine, 


Louan, 


Mourteney, 


Malevere, 


Leded, 


Monfichet, 


Mandut, 


Luse, 


Maleherbe, 


Mountmarten, 



268 



ROLL OF BATTEL ABBEY : 



Mantolet, 


Newmarch, 


Pomeray, 


Miners, 


Norbet, 


Pounce, 


Mauclerke, 


Nonce, 


Pavely, 


Maunchenell, 


Newborough, 


Paifrere, 


Mouett, 


Neiremet, 


Plukenet, 


Meintenore, 


Neile, 


Phuars, 


Meletak, 


Normavile, 


Punchardoun, 


Manuile, 


Nefmarche, 


Pinchard, 


Mangisere, 


Nermitz, 


Placy, 


Maumasin, 


Nembrutz. 


Pugoy, 


Mountlouel, 


OteveU, 


Patefine, 


Maurewarde, 


Olibef, 


Place, 


Monhaut, 


Olifant, 


Pampilivun, 


MeUer, 


Olenel, 


Percelay, 


Mountgomerie, 


Oisell, 


Perere and 


Manlay, 


Olifard, 


Pekeny, 


Maularde, 


Ounall, 


Poterell, 


Menere, 


OrioU. 


Peukeny, 


Martin aste. 


Pigot, 


Peccell,* 


Mainwaring, 


Pery, 


PineU, 


Matelay, 


Perepound, 


PutriU, 


Malemis, 


Pershale, 


PetiuoU, 


Maleheire, 


Power, 


Preaus, 


Moren, 


PaneU, 


Pantolf, 


Melun, 


Peche and 


Peito, 


Marceaus, 


Pauey, 


Penecord, 


Maiell, 


Pevrell, 


Preuelirlegast, 


Morton. 


Perot, 


Percivale, 


Noers, 


Picard, 


Quinci, 


Nevile, 


Pinkenie, 

• PechelH 


Quintini. 



HOLINSHED S COPY. 



269 



Ros, 


Saunsouerre, 


Tracy, 


RideU, 


Sanford, 


Trousbut, 


Rivers, 


Sanctes, 


Trainell, 


RiueU, 


Sauay, 


Taket, 


Rous, 


Saulay, 


Trussell, 


RusheU, 


Sules, 


Trison, 


Raband, 


SoreU, 


Talbot, 


Ronde, 


Somerey, 


Touny, 


Rie, 


Sent John, 


Traies, 


Rokell, 


Sent George, 


Tollemach, 


Risers, 


Sent Les, 


Tolous, 


Randuile, 


Seffe, 


Tanny, 


Roselin, 


Saluin, 


Touke, 


Rastoke, 


Say, 


Tibtote, 


Rinuill, 


Solers, 


Turbevile, 


Rougere, 


Sent Albin, 


Turvile, 


Rait, 


Sent Martin, 


Tomy and 


Ripere, 


Sourdemale, 


Tavernez, 


RigDy, 


Seguin, 


Trenchevile, 


Richmound, 


Sent Barbe, 


Trenchilion, 


Rochford, 


Sent Vile, 


Tankervile, 


Raimond. 


Suremounte, 


Tirell, 


Souch, 


Soreglise, 


Trivet, 


Shemle, 


Sandvile, 


Tolet, 


Sucheus, 


Sauncey, 


Travers, 


Senclere, 


Sirewast, 


Tardevile, 


Sent Quintin, 


Sent Cheveroll, 


Tinevile, 


Sent Omere, 


Sent More, 


Torell, 


Sent Amond, 


Sent Scudemore. 


Tortechappell, 


Sent Legere, 


Toget, 


TrevereU, 


Somervile, 


Tercy, 


Tenwis, 


Sieward, 


Tuchet, 


Totelles. 



270 



ROLL OF BATTEL ABBEY 



Vere, 


Vauuruile, 


ViuiUe, 


Vernoun, 


Veniels, 


Vancorde and 


Vesey, 


Verrere, 


Valenges. 


Verdoune, 


Vschere, 


Wardebois, 


Valence, 


Vessay, 


Ward, 


Verdeire, 


Vanay, 


Wafre, 


Vavasour, 


Vian, 


Wake, 


Vendore, 


Vernoys, 


Wareine, 


Verlay, 


Vrnall, 


Wate, 


Valenger,* 


Vnket, 


Watelin, 


Venables, 


Vrnaftd, 


Watevil, 


Venoure, 


Vasderoll, 


Wely, 


Vilan, 


Vaberon, 


Werdonell, 


Verland, 


Valingford, 


Wespaile, 


Valers, 


Venecorde, 


Wivell. 


Veirny, 


Valine, 




- 


* Now Wallinger. 





JOHN FOXE S COPY. 



271 



3fo5n Jfoxt*^ S'opg. 



It is, strictly speaking, a misnomer to call this a copy of 
the Battel Roll. Foxe does not mention it as such, but 
says, he took it "out of the Annals of Normandy, in 
French, whereof one very ancient written booke in parch- 
ment remaineth in the custody of the writer hereof." 



" The names of those that were at the Conquest of England. 



Odo, Bishop of Baieux, 
Robert, Conte de Mortaign, 

(these two were brethren 

unto Duke WilUam by 

their mother,) 
Baudwin de Buillon, 
Roger Conte de Beaumont, 

surnamed With the Beard, 

of whom descended the 

line of Meullent, 
Guillaume Malet, 
Le Sire de Monfort, sur 

Rille, 
Guill. de Viexpont, 
Neel de S. Saveur leViconte, 



Le Sire de Hougiers, 

Henry Seigneur de Fer- 
rieres, 

Le Sire Daubemare, 

Guillaume Sire de Rom- 
mare,* 

Le Sire de Lithehare, 

Le Sire de Touque, 

Le Sire de la Mare, 

Le Sire de Neauhou, 

Le Sire de Pirou, 

Rob. Sire de Beaufou, 

Le Sire Davou, 

Le Sire de Sotoville, 

Le Sire de Margneville, 



* It is pretty evident that this personage and numerous others in this list had 
not as yet assumed surnames, although they soon after took the names of their 
estates as family appellatives. 



272 



ROLL OF BATTEL ABBEY 



Le Sire de Tancarville, 
Eustace Dambleville, 
Le Sire de Mangneville, 
Le Sire de Gratmesnil, 
Guillaume Crespin, 
Le Sire de S. Martin, 
Guill. de Moulins, 
Le Sire de Puis, 
Geoffrey Sire de Maienne, 
Auffroy de Bolion, 
Auffroy and Mangier de 

Cartrait, 
Guill. de Garrennes, 
Hue de Gournay, 
Sire de Bray, 

Le Conte Hue de Gournay, 
Euguemont del'Aigle,* 
Liviconte de Touars, 
Rich. Danverrnechin, 
Le Sire de Biars, 
Le Sire de Solligny, 
Le Bouteiller Daubigny, 
Le Sire de Maire, 
Le Sire de Vitry, 
Le Sire de Lacy, 
Le Sire du Val Dary, 
Le Sire de Tracy, 
Hue Sire de Montfort, 
Le Sire de Piquegny, 
Hamon de Kaieu, 



Le Sire Despinay, 

Le Sire de Port, 

Le Sire de Torcy, 

Le Sire de lort, 

Le Sire de Riviers, 

Guillaume Moyonne, 

Raoul Tesson de Tin- 

gueleiz, 
Roger Marmion, 
Raoul de Guel, 
Avenel des Biars, 
Paennel du Monstier- Hubert, 
Rob. Bertram le Tort, 
Le Sire de Senile, 
Le Sire de Dorival, 
Le Sire de Breval, 
Le Sire de S. lehan, 
Le Sire de Bris, 
Le Sire du Homme, 
Le Sire de Sauchhoy, 
Le Sire de Cailly, 
Le Sire de Semilly, 
Le Sire de Tilly, 
Le Sire de Romelly, • 
Mar. de Basqueville, 
Le Sire de Preaulx, 
Le Sire de Gonis, 
Le Sire de SainceaiUx, 
Le Sire de Moulloy, 
Le Sire de Monceaulx. 



* Elsewhere called Engenulph d'Aquila or Aguillon. 



JOHN FOXE S COPY. 



273 



^ The Archers du Vol du Reul, and of Bretheul, and of 
many other places. 



Le Sire de S. Saen, i. de S. 

Sydonio, 
Le Sire de la Kiviere, 
Le Sire de Salnaruille, 
Le Sire de Rony, 
Eude de Beaugieu, 
Le Sire de Oblie, 
Le Sire de Sacie, 
Le Sire de Nassie, 
Le Visquaius de Chymes, 
Le Sire du Sap, 
Le Sire de Glos, 
Le Sire de Mine, 
Le Sire de Glanuille, 
Le Sire de Breencon, 
Le Vidam de Partay, 
Raoul de Morimont, 
Pierre de Bailleul Sire de 

Fiscamp, 
Le Sire de Beaufault, 
Le Sire de Tillieres, 
Le Sire de Pacy, 
Le Seeschal de Torcy, 
Le Sire de Gacy, 
Le Sire de Doully, 
Le Sire de Sacy, 
Le Sire de Vacy, 
Le Sire de Tourneeur, 
Le Sire de Praeres, 



Guillaume de Coulombieres, 

Hue Sire de Bollebec, 

Rich. Sire Dorbeck, 

Le Sire de Bonneboz, 

Le Sire de Tresgoz, 

Le Sire de Montfiquet, 

Hue.le Bigor de Maletot, 

Le Sire de la Hay, 

Le Sire de Mombray, 

Le Sire de Say, 

Le Sire de lay Ferte, 

Bouteuillian, 

Troussebout, 

Guillaume Patric de la Laund, 

Hue de Mortemer, 

Le Sire Danuillers, 

Le Sire Donnebaut, 

Le Sire de S. Cler, 

Rob. le filz Herneys Due 

de Orleans, 
Le Sire de Harecourt, 
Le Sire de Crevecoeur, 
Le Sire de Deincourt, 
Le Sire de Bremetot, 
Le Sire Combray, 
Le Sire Daunay, 
Le Sire de Fontenay, 
Le Conte Deureux, 
Le Sire de Rebelchil, 
12 § 



274 



ROLL OF BATTEL ABBEY : 



Alain Fergant Conte de 

Britaigne, 
Le Sire de S. Vallery, 
Le Conte Deu, 
Gualtier Gilford Conte de 

Longeville, 
Le Sire Destouteville, 
Le Conte Thomas Daubmalle, 
Guill. Conte de Hoymes 

and d'Arques, 



Le Sire de Bereville, 
Le Sire de Breante, 
Le Sire de Freanvible, 
Le Sire de PauiUy, 
Le Sire de Clere, 
Toustan du Bee, 
Le Sire Maugny, 
Roger de Montgomery, 
Amauri de Touars. 



" Out of the ancient Chronicles of England, touching the 
names of other Normans which seemed to remaine alive 
after the battell, and to be advanced in the signiories of 
this land : 



John de Maudevile, 
Adam Vndevile, 
Bernard de Frevile, 
Rich, de Rochuile, 
Gilbert de Frankuile, 
Hugo de Dovile, 
Symond de Rotevile, 
R. de Evile, 

B. de Knevile, 
Hugo de Morvile, 
R. de Colevile, 
A. de Warvile, 

C. de Karvile, 
R. de Rotevile, 
S. de Stotevile, 



H. Bonum, 
L Monum, 
W. de Vignoum, 
K. de Vispount, 
W. Bailbeof, 
S. de Baleyn, 
H. de Marreys, 
1. Aguleyne, 
G. Agilon, 
R. Chamburlayne, 
N. de Vendres, 
H. de Verdon, 
H. de Verto, 
C. de Vernon, 
H. Hardul, 



JOHN FOXE S COPY. 



275 



C. Cappan, 
W. de Camvile, 
I. de Cameyes, 
R. de Rotes, 
R. de Boys, 
W. de Waren, 
T. de Wardboys, 
R. de Boys, 
W. de Audeley, 
K. Dynham, 
R. de Vaures, 
G. Vargenteyn, 
I. de Hastings, 
G. de Hastank, 
L. de Burgee, 
R. de Butuileyn, 
H. de Malebranch, 
S. de Malemain, 
G. de Hautevile, 
H. Hauteyn, 
R. de Morteyn, 
R. de Mortimer, 
G. de Kanovile, 
E. de Columb, 
W. Paynal, 
C. Panner, 
H. Pontrel, 
I. de Rivers, 
T. Revile, 
W. de Beauchamp, 
R. de Beaupale, 
E. de Cu, 



F. Lovel, 

S. de Troys, 

I. de Artel, 

John de Montebrugge, 

H. de Monteserel, 

W. Trussebut, 

W. Trussel, 

H. By set, 

R. Basset, 

R. Molet, 

H. Malovile, 

G. Bonet, 

P. de Bon vile, 
S. de Rovile, 
N. de Norback, 
I. de Corneux, 
P. de Corbet, 
W. de Mountague, 
S. de Mountfychet, 
I. de Genevyle, 
H. GyfFard, 
I. de Say, 
T. Gilbard, 
R. de Chalons, 
S. de Chauward, 
H. Ferret, 
Hugo Pepard, 
I. de Harecourt, 
H. de Haunsard, 
I. de Lamare, 
P. de Mautrevers, 
G. de Ferron, 



276 



ROLL OF BATTEL ABBEY : 



R. de Ferrers, 

I. de Desty, 

W. de Werders, 

H. de Borneuile, 

I. de Saintenys, 

S. de Syncler, 

R. de Gorges, 

E. de Gemere, 

W. de Feus, 

S. de Filberd, 

H. de Turbervile, 

R. Trobleneur, 

R. de Angon, 

T. de Morer, 

T. de Rotelet, 

H. de Spencer, 

E. de Saintquenten, 

I. de Saint Martin, 

G. de Custan, 

Saint Constantine, 

Saint Leger and Saint Med, 

M. de Cronu and de S. Viger, 

S. de Cray el, 

R. de Crenker, 

N. Meyuel, 

I. de Berners, 

S. de Chumly, 

E. de Chares, 

J. de Gray, 

W. de Grangers, 

S. de Grangers, 

S. Baubenyn, 



H. Vamgers, 

E. Bertram, 

R. Bygot, 

S. Treoly, 

I. Trigos, 

G. de Feues, 

H. FiHot, 

R. Taperyn, 

S. Talbot, 

H. Santsaver, 

T. de Samford, 

G. de Vandien, 

C. de Vautort, 

G. de Mountague, 

Tho. de Chambernon, 

S. de Montfort, 
R. de Ferneuaulx, 
W. de Valence, 
T. Clarel, 

S. de Cleruaus, 
P. de Aubemarle, 

H. de Saint Arvant, 

E. de Auganuteys, 

S. de Gant, 

G. de Malearbe, 

H. Mandut, 

W. de Chesun, 

L. de Chandut, 

B. Filz Urs, 

B. Vicont de Low, 

G. de Cantemere, 

T. de Cantlow, 



JOHN FOXE S COPY. 



277 



R. Breaunce, 
T. de Broxeboof, 
S. de Bolebec, 

B. Mol. de Boef, 
I. de Muelis, 

R. de Brus, 
S. de Brewes, 
J. de Lille, 
T. de BellUe, 
J. de Watervile, 
G. de Nevile, 
R. de Neuburgh, 
H. de Burgoyne, 
G. de Bourgh, 
S. de Lymoges, 
L. de Lyben, 
W. de Helyoun, 
H. de Hildrebron, 
R. de Loges, 
S. de Saintlow, 
I. de Maubank, 
P. de Saint Malow, 
R. de Leoferne, 
I. de Lovotot, 
G. de Dabbevile, 
H. de Appetot, 
W. de Percy, 
H. de Lacy, 

C. de Quincy, 
E. Tracy, 

R. de la Soucbe, 
V. de Somery, 
I. de Saint John, 



T. de Saint Gory, 
P. de Boyly, 
R. de Saint Valery, 
P. de Pinkeny, 
S. de Pavely, 
G. de Monthaut, 
T. de Mountchesy, 
R. de Lymozy, 
G. de Lucy, 
I. de Artois, 
N. de Artey, 
P. de Grenvile, 
L de Greys, 
V. de Cresty, 
F. de Courcy, 
T. de Lamar, 
H. de Lymastz, 
L de Moubray, 
C. de Morley, 
S. de Gorney, 
R. de Courtenay, 
P. de Gourney, 
R. de Cony, 
1. de la Huse, 
R. de la Huse, 
V. de Longevile, 
P. Longespy, 
I. Pouchardon, 
R. de la Pomercy, 
L de Pountz, 
R. de Pontlarge, 
R. Estraunge, 
Tho. Savage. 



278 



3Latini?eii §>urnamej3* 



As Latin was the language employed by the clerks of 
early times, proper names were almost uniformly latinized. 
This practice was in full vogue from the eleventh century 
to the sixteenth, in most legal and other documents written 
in that language. Thus Hall was made D'Aula, Rivers, 
De RiPARiis, and Haultry, D'Alta Ripa ; Gilbert de 
Aquila, surnamed the Great, who flourished in the eleventh 
century, was called Gislebertus Magnus. This name was 
again transformed into the Saxon as Gilbert Michel, and it 
is remarkable that although the family of which he was the 
head is extinct in the legitimate Une, there are two Enghsh 
families illegitimately descended, from him still in existence 
— one bearing for their patronymic EgleSy from Aquila, 
and the other Michel, from Magnus — the one his family, 
the other his personal surname. By means of this latiniza- 
tion some very commonplace names were transformed into 
high-sounding appellations — Goldsmith and Saltmarsh, for 
instance, became Aurifaber and Salsomarisco, Sometimes 
the EngUsh form was retained with a Latin termination, as 
Lowerus Boscowinus, Lower Boscow^en, Thomas Chouneus, 
Thomas Chowne. Even scholars and divines affected this 
pedantry, and that after the revival of learning, not iu 
England alone, but in Holland, Germany, and several other 



LATINIZED SURNAMES. 279 

countries.* Some of these attempts to put modern names 
into a Latin dress were extremely ridiculous. Andrew 
BoRDE, the "original Merry Andrew," in his "Boke of 
the Introduction of Knowledge," written in the reign of 
Henry VITI. styles himself Andreas Perforatus (bored!) 
But this is nothing to the name of Sir John Hawkwood 
being turned into Johannes Acutus ! Let Verstegan tell 
the story : 

" Some gentlemen of our nation travelling into Italy and 
passing thorow Florence, there, in the great church, 
beholding the monument and epitaph of the renowned 
EngUsh knight, and most famous warrior of his time, there 
named Johannes Acutus, long wondered what John Sharp 
this might be, seeing in England they had never heard of 
any such, his name rightly written being indeed Sir John 
Hawkwood ; but by omitting the H. in Latine as frivolous, 
and the K and W as unusual, he is here from Hawkwood 
turned into Acutus, and from Acutus returned in EngHsh 
again unto Sharp /" 

Camden gives a list of latinized surnames in his 
Remaines.f In Wright's " Court Hand Restored,":}; is a 
more copious catalogue, which I here copy, in the hope 
that it will prove useful to the antiquary, and afford some 
amusement to the general reader. It is certainly interest- 
ing in an etymological point of view, although not much 
to be depended upon in that respect. I have made a few 
literal and verbal alterations, but they are not of sufficient 
importance to need particularizing. 

* Does not our veneration for Erasmus and Grotius and old Puteanus, receive 
a slight shock when we find that they were de jure, only simple Gerard and 
Groot anJ Vandeput ? 

t Pages 130-1-2-3. % London, 1776. 



280 



LATINIZED SURNAMES. 



De Adurni portu, 

De Albeneio, 

De Alba Maria, 

Albericus, Albrea, Aubraeus 

vel Aubericus, 
De Albo Monasterio, 
Ala Campi, 

Henricus de Alditheleia, 
De Alneto, 
De Arcubus, 
De Alta ripa, 
De Aqua frisca, 
Aqua pontana, 
De Arida villa, 
Arundelius, 

Arundelius, De Hirundine, 
Johannes Avonius, 
De Augo, 

Aurifaber, 

De Aula, 

De Aureo vado, 

Bardulphus, 

De Beda, vel De Bajocis, 

De Bella aqua, 

De Bella fide, 

De Bello loco, 

De Bello foco, 

De Bello marisco, 

De Bello faco. 



Ethrington. 
D'Aubeney, Albiney. 
Albemarle. 

^Awbrey. 

Whitchurch. 

Wingfield. 

Was the first Lord Audley. 

Dauney. 

Bowes. 

Dautry. 

Freshwater. 

Bridgewater. 

Dryton, or Dry don. 

f Arundel. 

John of Northampton. 

Owe, or Eu. 

rOrfeur, an»antient name in 

L Cumberland. 

HaU. 

Goldford, or Guldeforde. 

B. 

Bardolf, cr Bardolph. 

Bacon. 

Bellew. 

Beaufoy. 

Beaulieu. 

Beaufeu. 

Beaumarsh. 

Beaufo. 



LATINIZED SURNAMES. 



281 



De Bello campo, 


Beauchaimp. 


De Bello monte. 


Beaumont. 


De Bello prato, 


Beaupre. 


De Beverlaco, 


Beverley. 


De Bello situ. 


Ballasise. 


De Benefactis, 


Benfield. 


Benevolus, 


Benlows. 


De Bona villa. 


Bonevil. 


De Bono fossato, 


Goodrick. 


De Blostevilla, 


Blovile, Blofield. 


Blaunpain, alias Blancpain, 


* Whitebread. 


Bononius, 


BoUen. 


Borlasius, 


Borlace. 


De Bortana, sive Burtana, 


Burton. 


De Bovis Villa, 


BovH. 


De Bosco, 


Bois. 


De Braiosa, 


Braose. 


De Bosco Roardi, 


Borhard. 


De Bruera, 


De Bryer, or Bryer. 


De Buliaco, 


Busli, or Bussey. 


De Burgo, 


Burgh, Burk, or Bourk, 


De Burgo charo. 


Bourchier. 


De Calvo monte. 


c. 

Chaumond. 


De Camera, 


Chambers. 


De Campania, 


Champnies. 


De Campo Florido, 


Chamfleur. 


De Campo Arnulphi, 


Champernoun. 


De Capricuria, and 


IChevercourt. 


De Capreolocuria, 


De Cantilupo, 


Cantlow. 


De CamviUa, 


Camvil. 



* Some few of these names are Frenchified, not Latinized. 



282 



LATINIZED SURNAMES. 



De Capella, 

Caradocus, 

De Cearo loco, 

De Casa Dei, 

De Casineto and Chaisneto, 

De Castello, 

De Castello magno, 

De Ceraso, 

De Cestria, 

Cinomannieus, 

De Chauris, and Cadurcis, 

Cheligrevus, 

Chirchebeius, 

De Claro monte, 

De Claris vaUibus, Claranas, 

De Clarifagio, 

De Clintona, 

De Clivo forti, 

De Columbariis, 

De Conductu, 

De Cornubia, 

De Corvo Spinse, 

De Curva Spina, 

De Crepito Corde, 

De Curceo, De Curci, 

Cunetius, 



Capel. 

rCaradock, or Cradock, now 

L called Newton. 

Carelieu. 

GodshaU. 

Cheyney, Cheney. 

Castle, or Castel. 

Castlemain. 

Cherry. 

Chester. 

Maine. 

Chaworth. 

Killigrew. 

Kirby. 

Clermont. 

Clarival, or Clare. 

Clerfay. 

CUnton. 

Clifford. 

Columbers. 

Chenduit. 

Cornwayle. 

Crowthorne. 

Creithorne. 

Crevecoeur. 

Decourcy. 

Kenet. 



De Dalenrigius, Dalegrig, Dalyngruge. 

De David villa, D'Aiville, D'Eyville. 

D'Aynecuria vel Daincuri-' 

ensis, 
De Dovera, 



"JDai 



Daincourt. 
Dover. 



LATINIZED SURNAMES. 



283 



De la Mara, 


De la Mare. 


De Doito (Fr. Doet), 


Brooke. 


Dispensator, 


Le Dispencer, Spencer. 


De Diva, 


Dive, Dives. 


Drogo (Saxon), 


Drew. 


Dunestanvilla, 


Dunstavile. 


Dutchtius. 


Doughty. 


De Ebroicis and de Ebrois, 


E. 

D'Evreux. 


Easterlingus, 


Stradling. 


De Erolitto, 


Erliche. 


De Ericeto, 


Briewer. 


Estlega and de Estlega, 


Astley, or Estley. 


Extranaeus, 


L' Estrange. 


De Fago, 


F. 

Beech and Beecher. 


De Ferrariis, 


Ferrers. 


De FiUceto, 


Fernham. 


Filius Alani, 


Fitz Alan. 


Filius Alvredi, 


Fitz Alard. 


Filius Amandi, 


Fitz Amand. 


Filius Andrese, 


Fitz Andrew. 


Filius Bernardi, 


Fitz Barnard. 


Filius Briani, 


Fitz Brian. 


Filius Comitis, 


Fitz Count. 


Filius Eustachii, 


Fitz Eustace. 


Filius Fulconis, 


Fitz Fulk. 


Filius Galfredi, 


Fitz Geoffry. 


Filius Gerrardi, 


Fitz Gerrard. 


Filius Gilberti, 


Fitz Gilbert. 


Filius Guidonis, 


Fitzwith. 


Filius Hardingi, 


Fitz Harding. 


Filius Haimonis, 


Fitz Haimon. 



284 



LATINIZED SURNAMES. 



Filius Henrici, 
Filius Herbert!, 
Filius Hugonis, 
Filius Humphredi, 
Filius Jacobi, 
Filius Jobannis, 
Filius Lucse, 
Filius Mauricii, 
Fnius Micbaelis, 
Filius Nicbolai, 
Filius Oliveri, 
Filius Osburni, 
Filius Osmondi, 
Filius Odonis, 
Filius Pagani, 
Filius Patricii, 
Filius Petri, 
Filius Radulpbi, 
Filius Reginaldi, 
Filius Ricardi, 
Filius Roberti, 
Filius Rogeri, 
Filius Simeonis, 

Filius Stepbani, 

Filius Tbomasi, 
Filius Walteri, 
Filius Warreni, 
Filius Gulielmi, 
De Foliis, 
De Fonte Australi, 
De Fonte Limpido, 
De Fontibus, 



Fitz Henry. 

Fitz Herbert. 

Fitz Hugh. 

Fitz Humphrey. 

Fitz James. 

Fitz John. 

Fitz Lukas or Lucas. 

Fitz Maurice. 

Fitz Michael. 

Fitz Nichols. 

Fitz Oliver. 

Fitz Osburn. 

Fitz Osmond. 

Fitz Otes. 

Fitz Paine. 

Fitz Patrick. 

Fitz Peter. 

Fitz Ralph. 

Fitz Raynold. 

Fitz Richard. 

Fitz Robert. 

Fitz Roger. 

Fitz Simon. 
rFitz Stephen, commonly 
\ called Stephenson. 

Fitz Thomas. 

Fitz Walter. 

Fitz Warren. 

Fitz William. 

FouUs. 

Southwel. 

Sherbourne. 

WeUs. 



LATINIZED SURNAMES. 



285 



De Fonte Ebrardi, 


Fonteverard. 


De Forti scuto. 


Fortescue. 


Flavus, 


Blund, Blount. 


De Fossa nova, 


Newdike. 


De Fluctibus, 


Flood. 


Frescoburnus, 


Freshburne. 


De Frisca Marisca, 


Freshmarsh. 


De Frevilla, de Frisca villa, Frevil, or Fretcheville. 


De Fraxino, 


Frene, Ashe. 


De Fronte bovis. 


De Grundbeof. 


G. 

De Gandavo, et Gandavensis, Gaunt. 


De Glanvilla, 


Glanvil. 


De Gorniaco, 


Gorney, or Gurney. 


De Granavilla vel Greenvilla, Greenvil, or Grenvile. 


De Grandavilla, 


Gran vile. 


De Geneva, 


Genevile. 


De Genisteto, 


Bromfield. 


De Grendona, 


Greendon. 


Giovanus, 


Young. 


De GrossoVenatore, Grandis^ 

vel Magnus Venator, jGrosvenor. 


De Grosso Monte, 


Grismond. 


De Guntheri sylva. 


Gunter. 


De Hantona, 


H. 

Hanton. 


De Harcla, 


Harkley. 


Havertus, Howardus, 


Howard. 


De Hosata, Hosatus 
Usus Mare, 


veh 

> Hose, or Hussey. 


Jodocus, 


I. 

Joice. 


De Insula, 


Lisle. 


De Insula bona, 


Lislebone. 



286 



LATINIZED SURNAMES. 



Be Insula fontis. 


Lilburne. 


De Ipra, 


De Ipres. 


J4. 

De Kaineto, alias Caineto, Keynes. 


De Laga, 


1.. 

Lee, Lea, and Leigh. 


Lambardus, 


Lambard, or Lambert, 


De Langdona, vel Landa, Langdon. 


De Lato Campo, 


Bradfield. 


De Lato Vado, 


Bradford. 


De Lato pede. 


Braidfoot. 


De Lseto loco. 


Lettley. 


De Leicestria, 


Lester. 


De Leica, and Lecha, 


Leke. 


Leuchenovus, 


Lewkin. 


De Lexintuna, 


Lexington. 


Laurentii filius, 


Lawson. 


De Limesi, 


Limsie. 


De Linna, 


Linne. 


De Lisoriis, 


Lisurs, Lisors. 


De Logiis, 


Lodge. 


De Longo campo. 


Longchamp. 


De Longo prato. 


Longmede. 


De Longa spata. 


Longespee. 


De Longa villa. 


Longville. 


Lupus, 


Woolf, Love, Loo. 


Lupellus, 


Lovel, or Lovet. 


Macer, 


M. 

Le Meyre, 


De Mala platea, and 
Malo passu. 


^^1 Malpas. 


Magnus Venator, 


Grosvenor. 


De Magna Villa, and 


^^\ Mandeville. 


Mandavilla, 


/ 



LATINIZED SURNAMES. 



287 



De Magroomonte, 

De Mala terra, 

De Malis manibus, 

Malus catulus, 

De Malo lacu, 

Male conductus, vel De Malo 

conductu, 
De Malo leone, 
De Malo visu, 

Malus leporarius, 

Malus lupeUus, 
De Maneriis, 
De Marchia, 
Marescallus, 
De Marei vallibus, 
De Meduana, 
De Media villa, 
De Melsa, 
Medicus, 
De Micenis, 
De Mineriis, 



Grosmount, or Gromount. 

Mauland. 

Malmains. 

Malchin, vulgo Machel. 

Mauley. 

.Malduit. 

Malleon. 

Malvisin. 

rMaleverer, Mallieure, co 

1^ monly Mallyvery. 

Manlovel, Mallovel. 

Manners. 

March. 

Mareschal, or Marchal. 

Martival. 

Maine. 

Middleton. 

Mews. 

Leech. 

Meschines. 

Miners, or Minours. 



DeMolendenis,Molendinarius,Molines. 

De Moehs, Moelles. 

De Monasteriis, Musters, or Masters. 

Monachus, Moigne, Monk. 

De Monte canisto, Montchensey. 

De Monte hermerii, Monthermer. 

De Monte fixo, Montfitchet. 

De Monte pesono,De Monte ~)-^ ^ i ,t 

- TIT ^ • • fMontpesson, vulgo Mom- 
pessulano, Monte pissonis, > ^ ° , 

vel De Monte pissoris, ) P 



288 



LATINIZED SURNAMES. 



De Monte Jovis, De Montel ^ . . 

r<„„j" f J J' 



Gaudii, 


I''- 


De Monte acuto. 


Montacute. 


De Monte alto, 


Montalt, or Moald 


De Monte Gomericee, 


Montgomery. 


De Monte hegonis, 


Monthegon. 


De Monte forti. 


Montfort. 


De Monte aquilse. 


Mounteagle. 


De Mortuo Mari, 


Mortimer. 


Ad Murum, 


Walton. 


De Musco campo, 


Muschamp. 


De Mowbraia, 


Mowbray. 


De Nevilla and de Nova villa 


N. 

, Nevil. 


Nigellus, 


Niele, or Neal. 


De Novo burgo, 


Newburgli. 


De Novo loco. 


Newark. 


De Novo castello. 


Newcastle. 


De Nodariis vel Nodoriis, 


Nowres. 


Norriscus, 


Norris. 


De Norwieo, 


Norwich. 


De Nova terra, 


Newland. 


De Nova mercatu, 


New march. 



o. 



De Oileio, and Oili, and^ D'O'l 
Oilius, J 



Pagenelli, 

De Pavilliano, Pietonus, 

De Parva villa, 

Parmentarius, 

De Palude, 



p. 

Pagnells, or Painels. 

Peiton. 
Littleton. 
Taylor. 
Puddle, Marsh. 



LATINIZED SURNAMES. 



289 



De Pascua Lapidosd, 


Stanley. 


De Pavilidro, and Pauliaco, 


Paveley. 


De Pedeplanco, 


Pauneefot. 


De Peccato, 


Peche vel Pecke. 


Pelliparius, 


Skinner. 


De Perrariis, 


Perrers. 


De Petraponte, 


Pierepont, vulgarly Perpoint, 


De Pictavia, 


Peyto. 


De Plantageneta, 


Plantagenet. 


Ad Pontem, 


Paunton. 


De Porcellis vel Purcellis, 


PurceU. 


Le Poure, 


Power. 


De Praeriis, 


Praers. 


De Pulclirocapellisio, 


Fairfax. 


De Puteaco, 


Pusae, com TTi only Pudsey. 


De Querceto, 


Q. 

Cheney. 


De Quinciato, 


Quincy. 


De Ralega vel Regeneia, 


R. 

Raleigh. 


De Radeona, 


Rodney. 


De Redveriis, De Ripariis, 
Rigidii, De Riperia, 


S-Rivers. 


Reginaldus, 


Reynolds. 


De Rico monte. 


Richmond. 


Rotarius, 


Wheeler. 




rRouxcarrier, Roussir, 
t Rooper, Roper.* 


De Rubra spatha, 


De Rupe forti. 


Rochfort. 



• " There is a very antient family of the Ropers in Cumberland, who have 
lived iramemorially near a quarry of red spate there, from whence they first 
took the surname of Rubra-Spath^." (Wright.) 

13 



290 



LATINIZED SURNAMES. 



De Rupe, Rupibus, Rupinus, Roche, Rock. 
De Rubro clivo, Radcliff. 

De Rubra Manu, Redmain. 

Rufus, Rouse. 

De Rupe scissa, Cutcliffe. 



De Sabaudia, 
De Sacra quercu, 
De Sacra fago, 
De Sacro bosco. 


Savoy. 
Holyoak. 
HoUebeach. 
Holywood. 


De Sacro fonte, 
De Saio, 
Sagittarius, 
De Salceto, 
De Salicosa mara, 
De SalchaviUa, 


Holybrook. 

Say. 

Archer. 

Saucey. 

Wilmore. 

Salkeld. 


De Salicosa vena. 


Salvein. 


De Salso marisco, 


Saltmarsh. 


De Saltu capellee, 

Salvagius, 

De Sancto Mauro, 

De Sancto Laudo, 


Sacheverel. 

Savage. 

St. Maur, or Seymour. 

Sentlo, or Senlo. 


De Sancta Terra, 
De Sancta Clara, 


Holyland. 

St. Clare, Sencleer, Sinclair. 


De Sancto Medardo, 


Semark. 


De Sancto Amando, 


St. Amond. 


De Sancto Albano, 


St. Alban. 


De Sancto Audemaro, 


St. Omer. 


De Sancto Lizio, and 
Sylvaneclensis, 
De Sancta Ermina, 
De Sancta Fide, 


rSenlez, Seyton. 

Armine. 
St. Faith. 


De Sancto Mauricio, 


St. Morris. 



LATINIZED SURNAMES. 



291 



De Sancto Wallerico, 


St. Wallere. 


De Sancto Leodegario, 


St. Leger, vulgo Sallenger. 


De Sancta Barbara, 


Senbarb, vulgo Simberb. 


De Sancto Petro, 


Sampier. 


De Sancto Paulo, 


Sampol, or Sample. 


De Sancto Lupo, 


Sentlow. 


De Sancto Audceno, 


St. Owen. 


De Sancto Gelasio, 


Singlis. 


De Sancto Martino, 


Semarton. 


De Sandwico, 


Sandwich. 


De Sancto Quintinio, 


St. Quintin. 


De Sancto Alemondo, 


Salmon. 


De Sancto Vedasto, 


Foster. 


De Saxo ferrato. 


Ironston, vulgo Ironzon. 


De Scalariis, 


Scales. 


De Sicca villa. 


Drytown, or Sackville. 


Sitsiltus, alias Cecilius, 


Sitsilt, or Cecil. 


De Solariis, 


Solers. 


De Spineto, 


Spine. 


De Stagno, 


Poole. 


De Stipite sicco. 


De la Zouch.* 


De Stratone, 


Stretton. 


Super Tysam, 


Surteys, Surtees. 


De Sudburia, 


Sudbury. 


De Suthleia, and Sutleia, 


Suthley, or Sudley. 


De Sylva, 


Weld. 


De Tanaia, 


T. 

Taney. 


De TankardiviUa, 


Tankerville. 



* For William de la Zouch, archbishop of Yorke, is so called in this verse, for 
his valour in an encounter against the Scottishmen at Bear par ke, 1342: 
*' Est pater inuictus sicco de stipite dictus." 

(Camden, Rem. p. 133.) 



292 



LATINIZED SURNAMES. 



Teutonicus, 


Teys. 


De Tulka, 


Toke, Tuke. 


De TurbidaviUa, 


Turberville. 


Turchetissus, 


Turchill. 


De Turri, 


Towers. 


De Parva Turri, 


Torel, Tirel. 


De Turpi vado, 


Fulford. 


De Vado Saxi, 


V. 

Stanford. 


De Vado bourn, 


Oxford. 


De VaUe torta, 


Vautort. 


De VaUe, 


Wale. 


De Valentia, 


Valence. 


De VaUibus, 


Vaux. 


De Vesci, 


Vesey. 


De Veteri aula. 


OldhaU, Oldham. 


De Veteri ponte, 


Vipont, or Vipount. 


De Vicariis, 


Viccars. 


De ViUa torta. 


Croketon. 


De Villariis, 


ViUers. 


De Villa magna, 


Mandevile. 


De Vino salvo. 


Vinesalf. 


De Umbrosa quercu, 


Dimoak, now Dymock. 


De Urtica, 


Lorti, Lort. 


De Warrenna, 


Warren. 


De Warnevilla vel 


jwilloughby. 


Willoughbaeus, 


De Watelega, 


Wateley, Wheatley. 




FINIS. 



C. AND J. ADIARD, PIUNTERS, BARTHOLOMEW CU)SE. 



2^aluai)le antr Xnterestiitfl HSoofes 



PUBLISHED OR SOLD BY 

JOHN EUSSELL SMITH, 

4, OLD COxVlPTON STREET, SOHO SQUARE, LONDON. 





*/\ DICTIONARY of ARCHAIC and PROVINCIAL WORDS, 

'*• OBSOLETE PHRASES, PROVERBS, and ANCIENT CUSTOMS, from the XI Vth 
Century. Forming a Key to the Writings of our Ancient Poets, Dramatists, and other 
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BY J. R. SMITH, 4, OLD COMPTON ST. SOHO. 3 

ENGLISH SURNAMES. A Series of Essays on Family Nomen- 
clature. Historical, Etymological, and Humorous ; with Chapters on Canting Arms, 
Rebuses, the Roll of Battel Abbey, a List of Latinized Surnames, &c. By MARK 
ANTONY LOWER. The Skcond Edition, enlarged, post 8vo, pp. 292, with 20 
woodcuts, cloth, 6s. 

«* This is a curious volume, and full of divers matter, which comes home to everybody, both 

in the way of information and amusement." — Literary Gazette. 
'• This is a curious book of its kind, written by a man of some antiquarian reading, and 
possessed of a certain vein of dry humour. He apologizes to the utilitarian for the 
frivolity of his subject ; but the origin of surnames is a branch of the history of the 
formation of language, and of the natural operations of the mind in making known or 

supplying its wants Taken, as a whole, the book is really entertaining as well 

as informing," — Tait's Mag. 
" An instructive and amusing volume, which ought to be popular. Perhaps no subject Ls 
more curious than the history of proper names. How few persons are there who 
have not on one occasion or other been struck with the singularnames which have fallen 
under their own observation, and who have not sought for information as to their 
origin? Yet we know of no work of any value, much more a popular work, which 
treats on the subject. Mr. Lower has written a very good and well-arranged book, 
which we can with confidence recommend to our readers." — Archceologist. 
" This is a most amusing volume, mingling wit and pleasantry with antiquarian research 
and historical interest." — Weekly Chronicle. 

QT. PATRICK'S PURGATORY: an Essay on the Legends of Pur- 

*^ gatory. Hell, and Paradise, current during the Middle Ages. By THOMAS WRIGHT, 
M.A., F.S.A., &c. Post 8vo, cloth, Qs. 

" It must be observed, that this is not a mere account of St. Patrick's Purgatory, but a 
complete history of the legends and superstitions relating to the subject, from the 
earliest times, rescued from old MSS. as well as from old printed books. Moreover, 
it embraces a singular chapter of literary history, omitted by Warton and all former 
writers with whom we are acquainted ; and we think we may add, that it forms the 
best introduction to Dante that has yet been published." — Literary Gazette. 

" This appears to be a curious and even amusing book on the singular subject of purgatory, 
in which the idle and fearful dreams of superstition are shown to be first narrated as 
tales, and then applied as means of deducing the moral character of the age in which 
they prevailed."— Specfa^or. 

" This is a very curious and learned work, and must have cost the writer an immense deal 
of research. The subject is full of interest, and one on which we have scarcely any 
literature, at least in a collected form. It is a curious fact, that nearly all the old 
monkish legends relative to purgatory are either English or Irish. They are exceed- 
ingly poetical, and open up a new field to the imaginative mind. There can be no 
estimation of the power these Legends must have had upon the minds of the ignorant 
people of the middle ages. The monks, when they invented them, perfectly knew 
what they were about, and perhaps they did what was best on the whole,— they could 
only reach the intellect of the age by these means." — Weekly Chronicle. 



?!3ramatic Hitcrature* 



A COURSE of LECTURES on DRAMATIC ART and LITE- 

■^ RATURE. By AUGUSTUS WILLIAM SCHLEGEL. Translated from the German 
by JOHN BLACK, Esq., Editor of the 'Morning Chronicle.' 2 vols, foolscap 8vo. Second 
Edition, cloth, I2s. 

" The present work contains a critical and historical account of the ancient and modern 
drama — the Greek, Latin, Italian, German, Spanish, and English. The view which 
the author has taken of the standard productions, whether tragic or comic, is ingenious 
and just, and his reasonings on the principles of taste are as satisfactory as they are 
profound. The acute and sensible remarks— the high tone of morality — are very ad- 
mirable and exemplary ; and we refer those who desire to elevate their understandings 
to a guide so learned and philosophical as the author of these volumes." — Edinb. Rev. 
" In a few pages we reap the fruit of the labour of a whole life. Every opinion formed by 
the author, every epithet given to the writers of whom he speaks is beautiful and 
just, concise and animated." — Mad, de StaeVs Germany. 
" A work of extraordinary merit." — Quarterly Review, Vol. XII. pp. 112-46. 



4 VALUABLE AND INTERESTING BOOKS ON SALE 

CHAKESPERIANA, a Catalogue of the Early Editions of Shakespeare's 

^ Plays, and of the Commentaries and other Publications illustrative of his Works. By 
JAMES ORCHARD HALLIWELL, Esq. F.R.S. F.S.A. &c. 8vo, cloth, 3s. 
" Indispensable to everybody who wishes to carry on any inquiries connected with 

Skakespeare, or who may have a fancy for Shakesperian Bibliography." — Spectator. 
" It ought to be placed by the side of every edition. It is the most concise, yet the most 
copious illustration of the subject which has been given to the public."— Li<. Gaz. 

AN ACCOUNT of the only known MANUSCRIPT of Shakespeare's 

•^ Plays, comprising some important variations and corrections in the Merry Wives of 
Windsor, obtained from a Playhouse copy of that Play recently discovered. By JAMES 
ORCHARD HALLIWELL, F.R.S. &c. 8vo, sewed, Is. 

T'HE HARROWING of HELL, a Miracle Play, written in the reign 

-■- of Edward II., now first published from the Original in the British Museum, with a 
Modern Reading, Introduction, and Notes. By JAMES ORCHARD HALLIWELL, Esq. 
F.R.S. F.S.A. &c. 8vo, sewed, 2s. 

This curious piece is supposed to be the earliest specimen of dramatic composition in the 
English Language : vide Hallam's Literature of Europe, Vol. I. ; Strutt's Manners and 
Customs, Vol.11.; Warton's English Poetry; Sharon Turner's England; Collier's History 
of English Dramatic Poetry, Vol. II. p. 213. All these writers refer to the Manuscript. 

■pARLY MYSTERIES; and other Latin Poems of the XHth and 

■^ Xlllth centuries. Edited from original MSS. in the British Museum, and the Libraries 
of Oxford, Cambridge, Paris, and Vienna. By THOS. WRIGHT, M. A., F.S.A. 8vo, bds. 4s. 6d. 



ANECDOTA LITERARIA: a Collection of Short Poems in English, 

"^^ Latin, and French, illustrative of the Literature and History of England in the Xlllth 
Century ; and more especially of the Condition and Manners of the different Classes of Society. 
By T.WRIGHT, M.A., F.S.A., &c. Bvo, cloth. Only 250 printed, la. Gd. 

T^UG^ POETICiE ; Select Pieces of Old English Popular Poetry, 

•'■^ illustrating the Manners and Arts of the XVth Century. Editedby J. O. HALLIWELL, 
Esq., F.R.S., &c. Post Bvo. Only 100 copies printed, cloth, 5s. 

Contents: — Colyn Blowbol's Testament; the Debate of the Carpenter's Tools; the Merchant 
and his Son; the Maid and the Magpie; Elegy on Lobe, Henry Vlllth's Fool ; Romance of 
Robert of Sicily, and five other curious pieces of the same kind. 

nrORRENT of PORTUGAL ; an English Metrical Romance, nowjirst 

-*- published, from an unique MS. of the XVth century, preserved in the Chetham Library 
at Manchester. Edited by JAMES ORCHARD HALLIWELL, Esq. F.R.S. F.S.A. &c. 
Post 8vo, cloth, uniform with Ritson, Weber, and Ellis's publications, 5s. 

" This is a valuable and interesting addition to our list of early English metrical romances, 
and an indispensable companion to the collections of Ritson, Weber, and Ellis." 

lAterary Gazette, 
«« A literary curiosity, and one both welcome and serviceable to the lover of black-letter 
lore. Though the obsoleteness of the style may occasion sad stumbling to a modem 
reader, yet the class to which it rightly belongs will value it accordingly; both because 
it is curious in its details, and possesses philological importance. To the general 
reader it presents one feature of interest, viz. the reference to Wayland Smith, whom 
Sir W. Scott has invested with so much interest." — Metropolitan Magazine. 

rpHE MERRY TALES of the WISE MEN of GOTHAM. Edited 

■■■ by JAMES ORCHARD HALLIWELL, Esq. F.S.A. post 8vo, Is. 

These tales are supposed to have been composed in the early part of the sixteenth century 
by Dr. Andrew Borde, the well-known progenitor of Merry Andrews. " In the time of Henry 
the Eighth, and after," says Ant.-a-Wood, «• it was accounted a book full of wit and mirth by 
scholars and gentlemen." 

rpHE NOBLE and RENOWNED HISTORY of GUY, EARL of 

-*- WARWICK, containing a full and true account of his many famous and valiant actions, 
12mo, new edition, with woodcuts, cloth, 2s. 6d. 



BY J. R. SMITH, 4, OLD COMPTON ST. SOHO. 5 

©oposrapibical Hiteratuve* 

TJISTORY and ANTIQUITIES of the HUNDRED of COMPTON, 

BERKS, with Dissertations on the Roman Station of Calleva Attrebatum, and the Battle 
ofAshdown. By W. HEWETT, Jun. 8vo. 18 plates, cloth. Only 25Q printed. I5s. 

UISTORY and ANTIQUITIES of DARTFORD, in KENT, with 

■*•■■■ Incidental Notices of Places in its Neighbourhood. By J. DUNKIN, Author of the 
"History of the Hundreds of Bullington and Ploughley in Oxfordshire;" "History of 
Bicester;" "History of Bromley," &c. 8vo. VJ plates, cloth. Only 250 printed. II. Is. 

Published Monthly in royal &vo, averaging 52 pp. and profusely illustrated with woodcuts, 
price Is. per part, 

nPHE LOCAL HISTORIAN'S TABLE BOOK of Remarkable Oc- 

-*- currences, Historical Facts, Traditions, Legendary and Descriptive Ballads, &c. &c., 
connected with the Counties of Newcastlk-on-Tyne, Northumberland and Durham. 
By M. A. RICHARDSON. Parts I. to L. have already appeared. 

Volumes I, II, and III, of the " HISTORICAL DIVISION," containing 1309 pp. and 
554 woodcuts may now he had in cloth, price 9*. each. 

Volume I, of the "LEGENDARY DIVISION," containing 424 pp. and 31 woodcuts, 
cloth, 9«. 

This will be found a very interesting volume to those who feel no interest in the 
Historical portion. 
** This chronology of local occurrences, from the earliest times when a date is acertainable, 
possesses an especial interest for the residents of the Northern Counties ; but, inas- 
much as it records historical events as well as trivial incidents and includes biogra- 
phical notices of men whose fame extended beyond their birth-places, it is not without 
a value to the general reader. The work is divided into two portions, the larger con- 
sisting of the chronicle, and the lesser of the traditions and ballads of the country. 
Some of these are very characteristic and curious ; they invest with poetic associations 
almost every ruin or plot of ground ; and the earlier legends of moss-troopers and 
border-strifes afford an insight into the customs and state of society in remote periods. 
The handsome pages are illustrated with woodcuts of old buildings and other an- 
tiquities."— Spectator. 
" We cordially recommend this work to our friends. We are at a loss to conceive how, 
at so low a price, the proprietor is to be remunerated for the immense outlay incurred 
in its production." — Newcastle Journal. 

l^EWCASTLE TRACTS; Reprints of Rare and Curious Tracts, 

^^ chiefly illustrative of the History of the Northern Counties; beautifully printed in 
crown 8 vo, on a fine thick paper, with Facsimile Titles, and other features characteristic of the 
originals. Only IW copies printed. \Q tios. sewed, \l. 14*. 6d. 

Purchasers are expected to take the succeeding Tracts as published. 

HISTORIC SITES and other Remarkable and Interesting Places 
in the County of Suffolk. By JOHN WODDERSPOON, with Prefatory Verses by 
BERNARD BARTON, esq., and a Poetical Epilogue by a " Suffolk Villager." Im- 
proved eAition, fine woodcuts, postSvo, pp. 232, closely printed, and containing as much matter 
a many 125. volumes, cloth, 6s. 6d. 

Principal Contents: — Framlingham Castle; Staningfield ; Rookwood; Mrs. Inchbald ; 
Aldham Common; the Martyr's Stone; Westhorpe Hall, the residence of Charles Brandon, 
Duke of Suffolk ; Ipswich ; Wolsey's Gate and Mr. Sparrow's House ; Rendlesham ; Redgrave; 
Bury St. Edmunds, the Abbey; David Hartley; Bp. Gardiner; George Bloomfield ; 
Wetheringset ; Haughley Castle ; Grimstone Hall ; Cavendish, the Voyager ; Framlingham 
Church, the burial place of Surrey, the Poet; Bungay Castle; Dunwich; Aldborough ; 
Wingfield, and the Old Halls of Suffolk. 

A NEW GUIDE to IPSWICH, containing Notices of its Ancient 

"^^ and Modern History, Buildings, and Social and Commercial Condition. By JOHN 
WODDERSPOON. Foolscap 8vo, fine woodcuts, cloth, 2s. 6d. 
" It is handsomely got up, and reflects great credit on Ipswich typography."— Specfo^or. 



6 VALUABLE AND INTERESTING BOOKS ON SALE 

"DIBLIOTHECA CANTfANA, a Bibliographical Account of what 

■^ has been published on the History, Topc^raphy/ Antiquities, Customs, and Family 
Genealogy of the County of Kent, with Biographical Notes. By JOHN RUSSELL SMITH. 
In a handsome 8vo volume, pp. 370, with two platea of facsimiles of Autog7-apha of 33 eminent 
Kentish Writers. 14*. reduced to 5s.— large paper, 10*. 6d. 

Contents— I. Historians of the County. II. Principal Maps of the County. III. Heraldic 
Visitations, with referenceto the MSS. in the British Museum and other places. IV. Tracts 
printed during the Civil War and Commonwealth, 1640-1660. V. A Chronological List of all 
the Local, Personal, and Private Acts of Parliament, (upwards of 600) which have been 
passed on the County, from Edward I. to Queen Victoria. VI. Works relative to the County 
in general. VII. Particular Parishes, Seats, Customs, and Family Genealogy, in alphabetical 
order. The work also comprises a notice of every Paper which has been written on the 
County, and published in the Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, Gentleman'* 
Magazine, Archcenlogia, Vetusta Monumenta, Topogiapher, Antiquarian Repertory, and nume- 
rous other valuable publications, with a copious Index of every person and place mentioned 
throughout the volume. 

" The industrious compiler of the volume before us has shown how largely the history and 
antiquities of Kent have already occupied the attention of Topographers and Anti- 
quarians; and, by exhibiting in one view what is now before the public, he has at 
once facilitated the researches of future writers, and has pointed out how ample a 
field still remains for their labours. The volume contains a complete catalogue of 
all the printed works relative to the county, including, with respect to the most im- 
portant, not only their titles in length, but also useful particulars which serve as the 
guide for collation, in ascertaining whether a book is perfect, or the principal divisions 
of the contents, the number of pages, lists of plates, &c. We must also mention that 
it is rendered more readable and interesting by the insertion of memoirs of the 
Kentish authors, and the plates of their autographs." — Gentleman's Magazine. 

TTISTORY of PORTSMOUTH. PORTSEA, LANDPORT, SOUTH- 

^^ SEA and GOSPORT. By HENRY SLIGHT, Esq. 8vo, third Edition, hds. 4*. 

npHE VISITOR'S GUIDE to Knole House, near Seven Oaks in Kent, 

-•- with Catalogue of the Pictures contained in the Mansion, a Genealogical History of the 
Sackville Family, &c. &c. By J. H. BRADY, F.R.A.S. 12mo, 27 woodcuts by Bonner, Sly, 
^c. cloth. As. 6d. Large paper, 10s. 

" A very interesting guide to one of the most remarkable old family mansions, or we might 
even say, palaces, of England. The biographical notices of the portraits are very 
curious, and the descriptions of old trees, and other particulars in the park and 
gardens will amuse the gardener ; while the architect will be instructed by the 
engravings of difftrent parts of the house, and of the ancient furniture, more par- 
ticularly of the fire-places, fire-dogs, chairs, tripods, masks, sconces, &c." — J. C. 
LiOVDON, Gardener's Magazine, Jan. 1840. 

ILLUSTRATIONS of Knole House, from Drawings by Knight, 

"*- engraved on Wood by Bonner, Sly, &c. 8vo, 16 plates with descriptions, 5s. 

nREENWICH: its History, Antiquities, and Public Buildings. By 

^-^ H. S. R1CHARDS(3n. 12mo,^ne woodcuts by Baxter, ls.6d. 

THE FOLKESTONE FIERY SERPENT, together with the Hii- 
mours of the Dovor Mayor; being an Ancient Ballad full of Mystery and pleasant 
Conceit, now first collected and printed from the various MS. copies in the possession of the 
inhabitants of the South-east coast of Kent, with Notes. 12mo, Is. 

THE KENTISH CORONAL, consisting of Contributions in Prose 
and Verse. By Writers of the County of Kent. Fcp. 8vo, pp. 192, with frontispiece, 
cloth, gilt leaves, 2s. 6d. 

Among the papers inserted may be mentioned a series on the " Vegetable Productions of 
Kent," by Ann Pratt, author of " Flowers and their Associations ;" on the Geology of 
Maidstone and its neighbourhood, by W. H. Benstkd ; on the Historical and Traditionary 
Incidents connected with the County, by the Editor G. H. Adams, and other matters 
LOCALLY interesting. 



BY J. R. SMITH, 4, OLD COMPTON ST. SOHO. ^ 

A JOURNEY to BERESFORD HALL, in Derbyshire, the Seat of 
CHARLES COTTON, Esq. the celebrated Author and Angler. By W. ALEXANDER, 
F.S.A., F.L.S., late Keeper of the Prints in the British Museum. Crown 4to, printed on 
tinted paper, with a spirited frontispiece, representing Walton and his adopted Son Cotton in the 
Fishing-house, <ind vignette title-page, cloth, 5s. 

Dedicated to the Anglers of Great Britain and the various Walton and Cotton Clubs. 
Only 100 printed. 



THE ARCH^OLOGIST and JOURNAL of ANTIQUARIAN 

-*' SCIENCE, Edited by J. O. HALLIWELL, Esq. 8vo, Nos I. to X. complete, with 
Index, pp. 490, with 19 engravings, cloth, reduced from 10s. 6d. to 5s. 6rf. 

Containing original articles on Architecture, Historical Literature, Round Towers of 
Ireland, Philology, Bibliography, Topography, Proceedings of the various Antiquarian 
Societies, Retrospective Reviews, and Reviews of Recent Antiquarian Works, &c. 

nOINS of the ROMANS relating to BRITAIN, described and 

^ illustrated. By JOHN YONGE AKERMAN, F.S.A., Secretary to to the Numismatic 
Society, &c. Second Edition, greatly enlarged. 8vo, with plates and woodcuts, cloth, 10s. 6d. 

A NCIENT COINS of CITIES and PRINCES, Geographically arranged 

■^ and described. By J. Y, AKERMAN, F.S.A. Nos. I, II, and III.-HrsPANiA,8vo, with 

12 plates. 2s. 6d. each. 
" This promises to be a large and laborious work, but for which neither the industry nor 
the talents of the now long experienced author are likely to prove deficient. He has 
commenced with the coins of a country presenting, probably, greater room for novelty 
of illustration than any other, in consequence of having bafiSed, in a great degree, the 
learning and research of the most eminent numismatists."— Genu's Mag. 

nPHE NEW TESTAMENT of our LORD and SAVIOUR JESUS 

•*■ CHRIST. The Text from the authorized Version, with Notes and Numismatic Illus- 
trations, from Ancient Coins in various Public and Private Collections. By J. Y. AKERMAN. 
No. I. 8vo, 2*. 6d.—(To be completed in 8 parts.) 
*' Mr. Akerman's Numismatic Illustrations are not confined to the explanation of the direct 
allusions to different kinds of money in the sacred text ; but he brings his numis- 
matic knowledge not only to explain historical difficulties, but to furnish new and most 
decisive evidence of the authenticity of Holy Writ. In fact, he has done as much 
(if not more) for the New Testament as the Gronovii and Graevii of former days did in 
this department of criticism for the classical writers of antiquity. His notes are en- 
tirely explanatory, and he has carefully avoided entering into all subjects of a con- 
troversial or doctrinal nature, so that we can safely recommend his edition of the New 
Testament to all classes of readers, to whatever religious sect they may belong. 

Literary Gazette. 

T^UMISMATIC CHRONICLE and PROCEEDINGS of the NUMIS- 

MATIC SOCIETY, 5 vols, and 3 Nos. to Oct. 1843; a subscriber's copy, many plates, 
eloth, 21. I2s. 6d. (pub. at 3/. 17*.) 



l^eraltirB anti CSenealoag. 

'^FHE CURIOSITIES OF HERALDRY, with Illustrations from old 

■*■ English Writers. By MARK ANTONY LOWER, Author of " Essays on English 
Surnames;" with Illuminated Title-page, and numerous Engravings from designs by the Author. 
8vo, cloth, GULES, appropriately ornamented, or. 14,v. 

Contents :~C\\'AY>. I. The Fabulous History of Heraldry. II. The Authentic History 
of Heraldry. III. Rationale of Heraldric Charges. IV. The Chimerical Figures of Heraldry. 
V. The Language of Arms. VI. Allusive Arms. VII. Observations on Crests, Supporters, 
Badges, &c. VIII. Mottoes. IX. Anecdotes relative to the acquisition of arms and Aug- 
mentations ; X. Desultory Remarks on Titles of Honour. XI. Brief Historical Sketch of 
the College of Arms. XII. Notices of Heraldric Authors and their Works, from the 15th 
century to the 19th. XIII. Genealogy. — Appendix. On the Differences of Arms, by Sir 
Edw. Dering, Bart., noiv first printed. Exemplifications of the Practice of Deriving Arms 
from those of feudal superiors, &c. drawn from the County of Cornwall, and several other 
curious Papers. 



8 VALUABLE AND INTERESTING BOOKS ON SALE 

A GENEALOGICAL and HERALDIC HISTORY of the EXTINCT 

-'^ and DORMANT BARONETCIES of England, Ireland, and Scotland, By 
J. BURKE, Esq. and J. B. BURKE, Esq. Medium 8vo, Second Edition. 638 closel}/ 
printed pages, in double columns, with about 1000 arms engraved on wood, fine portrait of 
James I, and illuminated title-page, extra cloth, 105., published at II. 8s. 

This work, which has engaged the attention of the Authors for several years, comprises 
nearly a thousand families, many of them amongst the most ancient and eminent in the 
kingdom, each carried down to its representative or representatives still existing, with elabo- 
rate and minute details of the alliances, achievements, and fortunes, generation after gene- 
ration, from the earliest to the latest period. The work is printed to correspond precisely 
with the last edition of Mr. Burke's Dictionary of the Existing Peerage and Baronetage ; the 
armorial bearings are engraved in the best style, and are incorporated with the text as in that 
work. 

\ GENERAL ARMORY of ENGLAND, SCOTLAND, and 

-^ IRELAND ; comprising a Registry of all Armorial Bearings, from the earliest to the 
present time. By J. BURKE, Esq. and J. B. BURKE, Esq. Royal Bvo, Third Edition, 
with Supplement. 1200 pages, in double columns, illuminated title-page, cloth, 1/. Is. 
published at 21. 2s. 

The most useful book on Heraldry extant; it embodies all the arms of Guillim, Edmonson, 
Robson, Berry and others, prefaced by a history of the art. 



tlrabincial ©ialectgs of ©nglanli. 

pOEMS of RURAL LIFE, in the DORSET DIALECT, with a 

■*■ Dissertation and Glossary. By WILLIAM BARNES, royal 12mo, cloth, 10*. 

A GLOSSARY of PROVINCIAL WORDS and PHRASES in use 

-^ in Wiltshire, shewing their Derivation in numerous instances from the Language of the 
Anglo-Saxons. By JOHN YONGE AKERMAN, Esq. F.S.A, 12mo, cloth, 3s. 

WESTMORLAND and CUMBERLAND DIALECTS. Dialogues, 
Poems, Songs, and Ballads, by various Writers, in the Westmorland and Cumberland 
Dialects, now first collected, to which is added, a Copious Glossary of Words peculiar to those 
Counties. Post Bvo, pp. 408, cloth, 9s. 

This collection comprises, in the Westmorland Dialect, Mrs. ANN WHEELER'S Four 
Familiar Dialogues, with Poems, &c.; and in the Cumberland Dialect, I. Poems and Pastorals 
by the Rev. JOSIAH RELPH ; II, Pastorals, &c., by EWAN CLARK; IIL Letter from 
Dublin by a young Borrowdale Shepherd, by ISAAC RITSON ; IV. Poems by JOHN 
STAGG ; V. Poems by MARK LONSDALE ; VI. Ballads and Songs by ROBERT 
ANDERSON, the Cumbrian Bard {including some, now firat printed) ; VII. Songs by Miss 
BLAMIRE and Miss GILPIN; VIII. Songs by JOHN RAYSON; IX. An Extensive 
Glossary of Westmorland and Cumberland Words. 

"Among the specimens of Cumberland Verse will be found some true poetry, if not the 
best ever written in the language of rural life this side the Scotch Borders. The 
writers seem to have caught in their happiest hours inspiration from the rapt soul of 
Burns. Anderson's touching song of wedded love, ' The Days that are geane,' is a 
worthy answer for a husband to Burn's • John Anderson my Jo.' " —Gent's. Magazine. 
••No other two counties in England have so many pieces, both in prose and verse, illus- 
trative of the manners and customs of the inhabitants, and written in their own native 
dialect. The philologist will find numerous examples of words and phrases which are 
obsolete in the general language of England, or which have been peculiar to West- 
morland and Cumberland from time immemorial. Nor are the pieces uninteresting 
in other respects. Some of the patois verses are rich in the true spirit and vigour of 
poetry." — Metropolitan . 
•« A charming volume : it contains some beautiful poetical effusions, as well as characteristic 
sketches in prose." — Archceologist. 

THE VOCABULARY of EAST ANGLIA, an attempt to record the 
vulgar tongue of the twin sister Counties, Not-folk and Suffolk, as it existed in the last 
twenty years of the Eighteenth Century, and still exists; with proof of its Antiquity from 
Etymology and Authority. By the Rev. R. FORBY. 2 vols. postSvo, cloth, Us. (original 
price II. Is.) 



BY J. R. SMITH, 4, OLD COMPTOiN ST. SOHO. 9 

PROSE'S (FRANCIS, F.S.A.) GLOSSARY of PROVINCfAL and 

^ LOCAL WORDS used in ENGLAND, with which is now first incorporated the Sup- 
plement by SAMUEL PEGGE, F.S.A. Post 8vo, elegantly printed, cloth, 4s. 6d. 

The utility of a Provincial Glossary to all persons desirous of understanding our ancient 
poets is so universally acknowledged, that to enter into a proof of it would be entirely a work 
of supererogation. Grose and Pegge are constantly referred to in Todd's " Johnson's Dic- 
tionary." 

EXMOOR SCOLDING and COURTSHIP in the Propriety and 
Decency of Exmoor (Devonshire) Language, with Notes and a Glossary. Post 8vo, 12th 
edition. Is. 6d, 

" A very rich bit of West of Englandism." — Metropolitan. 

nBSERVATIONS on some of the DIALECTS of the WEST of 

^ ENGLAND, particularly Somersetshire, with a Glossary of Words now in use there, 
and Poems and other Pieces, exemplifying the Dialect. By JAMES JENNINGS. 12mo, 
pp. 210, 3*. 

A COLLECTION of FUGITIVE PIECES in the DIALECT of 

-^ ZUMMERZET. Edited by J. O. HALLIWELL. Post 8vo, only 50 printed, 2s. 

A GLOSSARY of some Words used in CHESHIRE, by ROGER 

■^ WILBRAHAM, Esq., F.R.S. and S.A. 12mo, 2d edition, with additions, 3s, 

THE YORKSHIRE DIALECT, exemplified in various Dialogues, 
Tales, and Songs, applicable to the County, with a Glossary. Post Bvo, 1". 

"A shilling book worth its money : most of the pieces of composition are not only harmless, 
but good and pretty. The eclogue on the death of ' Awd Daisy,' an outworn horse, 
is an outpouring of some of the best feelings of the rustic mind ; and the addresses to 
riches and poverty have much of the freedom and spirit of Burns." 

Gent's Magazine, May 1841. 



T 



HE HALLAMSHIRE (district of Sheffield) GLOSSARY, by the 

Rev. JOSEPH HUNTER. Post 8vo, bds. 5s. 

It also contains Thoresby's Catalogue of Yorkshire Words, and Watson's uncommon words 
used in Halifax. 

THE BAIRNSLA FOAKS' ANNUAL, an onny body els as beside 
for't years 1842 and 1843. Be TOM TREDDLEHOYLE. To which is added the 
Barnsley and Village Record, or the Book of Facts and Fancies. By NED NUT. 12mo, 
pp. 100, Is. 

This almanac is written in the Barnsley Dialect, and therefore fits itself with peculiar em- 
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SHEFFIELD DIALECT; with a Glossary, and general Rules for 

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THE NEWCASTLE SONG BOOK, or Tyne-Side Songster, being a 
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''FRIAL of the WITCHES at BURY ST. EDMUNDS, before Sir M. 

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BY J. R. SMITH, 4, OLD COMPTON ST. SOHO. 11 

WONDERFUL DISCOVERY of the WITCHCRAFTS of MAR- 

* ' GARET and PHILIP FLOWER, daughters of Joan Flower, near Bever (Belvoir), 
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puftUcatton^ of Jameu ©rcftavli f^alltoelL 

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ly^ANUSCRIPT RARITIES of the UNIVERSITY of CAMBRIDGE. 

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PNGLISH MONASTIC LIBRARIES. I. Catalogue of the Library 

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ISTORIE of the ARRIVAL of EDWARD IV. in ENGLAND, 

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KYNG JOHAN, a PLAY, by JOHN BALE, {now first printed.) 
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ALLITERATIVE POEM on the DEPOSITION of KING RICH. II. 

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Report of the C. S. 1841. 

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'^rRAVELS of NICANDER NUCIUS of CORCYRA in ENGLAND, 

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APOLOGY for LOLLARD DOCTRINES attributed to Wicliffe. 

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ORIGINAL LETTERS of EMINENT LITERARY MEN of the 

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pROMPTORIUM Parvulorum sive Clericoruin, Lexicon Anglo- 

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LETTERS and STATE PAPERS relating to the Proceedings of the 
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pOLYDORE VERGIL'S History of the Reigns of Henry VI, Edward 

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BALLADS of the utmost rarity, now first collected and edited 



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BY J. R. SMITH, 4, OLD COMPTON ST., SOHO. 15 

ROWLEY'S SEARCH for MONEY, reprinted from the Edition 
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PAIN and SORROW of EVIL MARRIAGE, from an unique copy, 
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TTISTORY of PATIENT GRISEL, with Introduction, 3s. 
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TROLLIES' ANATOMIE, or SATYRES and SATYRICALL EPI- 

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TACK of DOVER, his Quest of Inquirie, or his Privy Search for the 

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rPHE HARMONY of the CHURCH, SPIRITUAL SONGS and 

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A KERRY PASTORAL, in Imitation of the First Eclogue of 
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A POEM to the MEMORY of WILLIAM CONGREVE, by JAMES 

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UONESTIE OF THIS AGE; proving by Good Circumstance that the 

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TTISTORY of REYNARD the FOX, from Caxton's edition in 1481, 

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LYRICAL POEMS, selected from Musical Publications, 1589 and 
1600. Edited by COLLIER. 3«. 6d. 

pRIAR BAKON'S PROPHESIE ; a Satire on the Degeneracy of the 

■■■ Times, A.D. 1604. Edited by HALLIWELL. Is. 6d. 

N,B.— The above 52 pieces are all the Society have published. 



^|ui)Ucatton0 of ti)e<Sf)aftj3peare5ocietB, 1841-44. 

(Not printed for Sale) all 8vo, in cloth. 

IXTEMOIRS of EDWARD ALLEYN, Founder of Dulwich College, 

-^'-*- including new particulars of Shakspeare, Ben Johnson, Massinger, Marston, &c. by 
J. P. COLLIER. 7«. 6d. 

THE SCHOOL of ABUSE, containing a Pleasant Invective against 
Poets, Pipers, Players, &c. by STEPHEN GOSSON, 1579— HEYWOOD'S (Thomas) 
Apology for Actors, 1612, reprinted in one vol. 5s. 

T UDUS COVENTRIiE— A Collection of Mysteries formerly repre- 

■^ sented at Coventry, on the Feast of Corpus Christi. Edited, with Notes and Glossary, by 
J. O. HALLIWELL. A thick volume, 12s. 

A DEBATE between PRIDE and LOWLINESS, by FRANCIS 

-^ THYNNE. Edited by J. P. COLLIER. 8vo, 4s. 6rf. 



18 



VALUABLE AND INTERESTING BOOKS ON SALE 



pATIENT GRISEL, A Comedy by DEKKER, CHETTLE, and 

•*■ HAUGHTON, with Introduction by COLLIER. 8vo, 5s. 

J^XTRACTS from the ACCOUNTS of the REVELS at COURT, 

temp. Queen Elizabeth and James I, with Introduction and Notes by P. CUNNINGHAM. 
6*. 

"PIRST SKETCH of SHAKSPEARES MERRIE WIVES of 

-^ WINDSOR, with a collection of the Tales on which the Plot is supposed to have been 
founded. Edited by HALLIWELL. 4*. 6d. 1842. 

"M-QTES on BEN JONSON'S CONVERSATIONS with WILLIAM 

DRUMMOND of Hawthornden. Edited by LAING. 5*. 1842. 

■pOOLS and JESTERS, with a reprint of ROBERT AltMIN'S 

-■- NEST of NINNIES, 1608. Edited by COLLIER. 4*. 6d. 1842. 

THE OLD PLAY of TIMON of ATHENS, which preceded that 

-*- of Shakspeare, now first printed from a MS. Edited by DYCE. 3s. 6d. 

piERCE PENNILESSS SUPPLICATION to the DEVIL. By 

■^ THOMAS NASH, 1592. With Introduction and Notes by COLLIER. 4*. 

XTEYWOOD'S (THOMAS) FIRST and SECOND PARTS of 

-■-*- KING EDWARD VI, with Notes by BARRON FIELD. 4*. 6d. 

XrORTHBROOKE'S TREATISE against DICE, DANCING, 

J-^ PLAVS, and other IDLE PASTIMES, 1577. Edited by COLLIER. 4«. 6d. 

nBERON'S VISION in the MIDSUMMER NIGHTS' DREAM, 

^ illustrated by a comparison with LYLIE'S Endymion. By the Rev. J. HALPIN. 4s. 6d. 

'THE FIRST SKETCHES of the SECOND and THIRD PARTS 

J- of KING HENRY the SIXTH. With Introduction anr'. Notes by HALLIWELL. 5*. 

The possessor of this volume will have the two Plays upon which Shakspeare founded his 
Second and Third Parts of Henry VI. both printed from unique copies in the Bodleian— one 
a small octavo, which cost at Chalmers's sale, £l30 ; the other a very thin small quarto, which 
cost £64 several years ago, and would now probably realize more than twice that sum. 

THE CHESTER PLAYS: a Collection of Mysteries founded upon 

-*- Scriptural Subjects, and formerly represented by the Trades of Chester at Whitsuntide. 
Edited by THOMAS WRIGHT. Vol. I. 95. 

ALLEYN PAPERS; a Collection of Original Documents illustrative 

-^ of the Life and Times of EDWARD ALLEYN, and of the Early English Stage and 
Drama. Edited by COLLIER, is. 6d. [A Companion to the first Article.] 

"TTONOUR TRIUMPHANT;" and "A LINE of LIFE." Two 

-O- Tracts by JOHN FORDE, the Dramatist, recently discovered. 3s. 

rrARLTON'S JESTS, and NEWS OUT OF PURGATORY : with 

-*• Notes, and some account of the Life of Tarlton. By J. O. HALLIWELL. 4*. 6d. 

rpRVE TRAGEDY of RICHARD III; to which is appended the 

■■■ Latin Play of RICHARDUS TERTIUS, by Dr. THOMAS LEGGE, both anterior to 
Shakespeare's Drama, with Notes by BARRON FIELD, is. 

rpUE GHOST of RICHARD III, a Poem, 1614, founded upon Shake- 

■*• speare's Historical Play, reprinted from the only known copy, edited by COLLIER. 3*. 6d. 

CIR THOMAS MORE, a Play now first printed, edited by DYCE. 



BY J. R. SMITH, 4, OLD COMPTON ST. SOHO. l9 

'^FHE SHAKESPEARE SOCIETY'S PAPERS, being^ a Miscellany 

of Contributions Illustrative of the Objects of the Society. Vol. I. 6s. 

'T'HE OLD TAMING OF A SHREW, 1594, upon which Shakespeare 

■*■ founded his Comedy; to which is added the WOMAN LAPPED IN MORREL SKIN. 
Edited by AMYOT. 4*. 6d. 

N.B.— The above 31 volumes are all the Society have published. 



^amfiviSge iinttquarian Societg, 1840-44. 

(Printed in Ato.) 

CATALOGUE of the ORIGINAL LIBRARY of ST. CATHE- 

^ RINE'S HALL, 1475. Edited by PROFESSOR CORRIE. 4to, 25. 6d. 

ABBREVIATA CHRONICA, ab anno 1377, usque ad anuum 1469. 

-^ Edited by the Rev. J. SMITH. Ato,fac- simile, 3s. 

APPLICATION of HERALDRY to the Illustration of various 

■^ University and Collegiate Antiquities. By H. A. WOODHAM, Esq. Part I. colotcred 
plate, and 30 cuts of arms, G«. 

Part II, coloured plate, and 2 woodcuts, 3s. 6d. 

ACCOUNT of the RITES and CEREMONIES which took place 

-^ at the Consecration of Abp. Parker. Edited by J. GOODWIN. 4to,/ac-stmj7e, 3*. 

A refutation of the foolish and absurd story, commonly known as the Nag's Head Con- 
secration. 

DESCRIPTIVE CATALOGUE of the Manuscripts and Scarce Books 
in the Library of St. John's College, Cambridge. Part I, 4*. 6d. 

Part II. 4*. 6d. 



ACCOUNT of the SEXTllY BARN at ELY, lately demolished. 

-^ With Architectural Illustrations by PROFESSOR WILLIS. 4 plates, 3s. 

A RCHITECTURAL NOMENCLATURE of the MIDDLE AGES. 

-^ By PROFESSOR WILLIS. 3plates.7s. 

REPORT of the First, Second, and Third General Meetings of the 
CAMBRIDGE ANTIQUARIAN SOCIETY. 8vo, Is. each. 



i^iiftUcation of tibe abftotjsforii ©lufj. 

r E ROMAN des AVENTURES de FREGUS (an Anglo-Norman 

-L' Romance.) Par GUILLAUME LE CLERC, Trouvere du treizieme sifecle ; public pour 
la premiere fois par F. MICHEL, 4to, cloth, only 60 copies printed, I/. 15^. 



l-incolnjsSire €opoBvap!)ical Societg. 

A SELECTION of PAPERS relative to the COUNTY of LINCOLN, 

-^ read before the Lincolnshire Topographical Society, 1841-2. Small 4to, ten plates, cl. 7s. 6d. 
Contents: Opening address, by E. J. WILLSON, F.S.A. ; Geology of Lincoln, by W. 
BEDFORD ; The Malandry Hospital for Lepers at Lincoln, by Dr. COOKSON ; Leprosy of 
the Middle Ages, by Dr. COOKSON ; Temple Bruer and its Knights, by Dr. OLIVER ; Ad- 
vantage of Recording the discovery of Local Antiquities, by W. A. NICHOLSON; Tat- 
tershall Castle, by W. A. NICHOLSON, 



20 VALUABLE AND INTERESTING BOOKS ON SALE 

^^atfeer Societg^^ ^uftUcationjs.— 1841-44. 

(^All%vo, in cloth.') 
T> IDLEY'S (BISHOP) WORKS. Edited by the Rev. H. Christmas. 

-■•*' 105. 6rf. 

CANDY'S (BISHOP) SERMONS and MISCELLANEOUS PIECES. 

^ Edited by Rev. J. AYRE. lO*-. 6d. 

piLKINGTON'S (BISHOP) WORKS. Edited by the Rev. J. 

■*^ SCHOLEFIELD. I0s.6d. 

TJfUTCHINSON'S (ROGER) WORKS. Edited by J. Bruce, Esq. 

-* ■*■ 10*. 6d. 

"pHILPOT'S (Archdeacon and Martyr, 1555) Examinations and 

'^ Writings. Edited by the Rev. R. EDEN. 10^f.6rf. 

r<RINDAKS (ARCHBISHOP) REMAINS. Edited by the Rev. W. 

^-^ NICHOLSON. 10«. 6rf. 

yURICH LETTERS, comprising the Correspondence of several 

^-^ English Bishops and others, with some of the Helvetian Reformers, temp. Q. Elizabeth, 
from the originals at Zurich. Edited by the Rev. H. ROBINSON. II. Is. 

■DECON'S (Prebendary of Canterbury temp. Hen. VIII) EARLY 

-^ Vy^ORKS. Edited by the Rev. J. AYRE. Royal 8 vo, 10*. 

(CHRISTIAN PRAYERS and HOLY MEDITATIONS. Collected by 

^^ H. BULL. 12mo, cloth, 6*. 

PULKE'S DEFENCE of the TRANSLATIONS of the BIBLE 

-■■ Against GREGORY MARTIN, a CATHOLIC. Edited by HARTSHORNE. 8*. 6rf. 



XJOOPER'S (Bishop and Martyr) EARLY WRITINGS. Edited by 

■■•■■• CARR. 8». 6d. 

BECON'S CATECHISM, and other Pieces. Edited by Ayre. 
Royal 8vo, 10*. 

T^HE LUTURGIES,and other DOCUMENTS set forth by EdwardIV. 

•*- Editedby KETLEY. 8*.6d. 

COVERDALE'S (BISHOP) WRITINGS and TRANSLATIONS. 
Edited by PEARSON. 8*. Qd. 

LATIMER'S (BISHOP) SERMONS. Edited by Corrie. 85. 6t/. 



§)aciete ^jsiatiiiue tie l^m^. 

IV/rENG TSEU vel MENICUM, inter Sinenses Philosophos, ingenio, 

doctrina nominisque claritatc Confucio proximum, edidit, latina interpretum {with the 
Chinese Text) a STANISLAUS JULIEN. 2 vols. 8vo, seived, 11. 5*. 

RODRIGUEZ, ELEMENS de la GRAMMAIRE JAPONAISE, 

*■ avec Supplement par LANDRESSE et REMUSAT. 8vo, aewed, 8s. 

JJURNOUF et LASSEN, ESSAI sur le PALI, ou Langue Sacr^e 

de la presqu'ile au-dela du Gange. 8vo, six plates, sewed, 10*. 



BY J. R. SMITH, 4, OLD COMPTON ST. SOUO. 21 

T A RECONNAISSANCE de SACOUNTALA, Drame Sanscrit et 

Pracrit de Calidasa, public pour la premiere fois en original, accompagn^ d'une 
Traduction Fran9aise, de Notes philologiques, critiques et litt^raires. Par A. L. CHEZY. 
4to, sewed, 11. 10s. 

VAJNADATTABADA, on la MORT DYAJNADATTA, episode 

extrait du Ramayana, poeme ^pique Sanscrit, avec le texte et une traduction Fran^aise 
et Latine. Par CHEZY et BURNOUF, 4to, sewed, 12s. 

flHRONIQUE GEORGIENNE, Traduite (avec le texte original) 

^ par M. BROSSET, jeune. 8vo, sewed, Is. 

VOCABULAIRE et GRAMMATRE de la LANGUE GEORGl- 

^ ENNE. Par M. J. KLAPROTH. 8\o, sewed, 12s. 

PLEGIE sur la PRISE d'EDESSE par les MUSULMANS. Par 

"■-^ NERSES KLAIETSI, Patriarche d'Armenie; public pour la premiere fois en 
Armenien. Par Dr. T. ZOHRAB. 8vo, sewed, 4*. 

Any of the other publications of the Society will be procured by J. R. S., who has been 
appointed Agent to the Society in London. 



l\/fEMOIRE, LETTRES et RAPPORTS rel 

■*■'-*• LANGUES MALAYA et JAVANAISE, fait k la Bibliotl 



ilatifs au COURS de 

Biblioth^que Royale 1840-42, et k 
deux voyages litt^raires entrepis en Angleterre sous les auspices de le Ministre de I'lnstruc- 
tion Publique, et de I'Acad^mie Royale des Inscriptions et Belles Lettres. Par EDOUARD 
DULAURIER.— Paris, 1843. 8vo, sewed, tiot printed for sale, 3s. 6d. 



Soci'et'e tic Vd^tolt BogaU tiejs ©tavtejf. 

T^IBLIOTHEQUE de L'ECOLE des CHARTES, Recueil Histo- 

-■-' rique, Philologique, et Litteraire. Public par la Societe de I'Ecole Royale des Chartes. 
Royal 8vo, handsomely printed. Vol I, (out of print.) Paris, 1839-40. 

Vol. 11, sewed, I2s. 6d. 1840-1. 

Vol. Ill, sewed, I2s. Qd. 1841-2. 

Vol. IV, sewed, I2s. 6d, 1842-3. 

Vol. V, sewed, \2s. 6d. 1843-4. 

Five Volumes of the Publications of this Society have appeared at 12*. 6d. per Vol., which 
contain many articles interesting to the English Historian and Antiquary. The succeeding 
volumes of the Society will be on sale by J. R. S., who has been appointed Agent to the 
Society for England. A Prospectus may be had on application. 



BOOKS AT VXIZtY XtEBTTCBS PRICES. 

UISTORY of GERMAN LITERATURE. By WOLFGANG 

■■■ -■• MENZEL. Translated from the German with Notes by THOMAS GORDON. Four 
Vols, post 8vo. — Oxford, 1840. Cloth, 15s., pub. at 21. 
A very popular work in Germany, of which there has been many editions. 

UISTORY of the ORIGIN and ESTABLISHMENT of GOTHIC 

ARCHITECTURE, and an Inquiry into the mode of Painting upon and Staining 
Glass, as practised in the Ecclesiastical Structures of the Middle Ages. By JOHN SIDNEY 
HAWKINS, F.A.S. Royal 8vo, eleven plates, bds. 3*..6d., pub. at 12s. 



22 VALUABLE AND INTERESTING BOOKS ON SALE 

T ECTURES on the COINAGE of the GREEKS and ROMANS, 

-*^ delivered in the University of Oxford. By EDWARD CARDVVELL, D.D., Principal 

of St. Alban's Hall, and Professor of Ancient History. 8vo, c/., reduced from 8*. 6d. to 4*. 

A very interesting historical volume, and written in a pleasing and popular manner. 

A RRTAN'S VOYAGE ROUND the EUXINE SEA, translated and 

accompanied with a Geographical Dissertation. By THOMAS FALCONER, Editor of 
Strabo, Hanno, &c. 4to, tvitti maps, and a plate of the Coins of the Cities on the Coast of the 
Euxine, bds. 3s. 6d. (pub. at 1/. 15.?.) 

The Appendix contains— I. On the trade to the East Indies by means of the EuxineSea. 
II. On the distance which the ships of antiquity usually sailed in twenty-four hours. III. 
On the measure of the Olympic Stadium. 

gNGRAVINGS from PICTURES in the NATIONAL GALLERY, 

published by authority, imp. folio, containing twenty-nine engravings, in the line 
manner. By BURNET, DOO, GOLDING, GOODALL, J. and H. LE KEUX, J. PYE, 
J. H. ROBINSON. &c. &c. with descriptions in English and French. In cloth, lOl.lOs. 
(pub. at 14/. Us.) 

A very choice subscriber's copy. The size of the work corresponds with the *• Musee 
Francois." and the " Gallerie de Florence." 

PLANS, ELEVATIONS, SECTIONS, DETAILS, and VIEWS, 

-■■ of the CATHEDRAL of GLASGOW. By W. COLLIE, Architect. Folio, 43 fine 
plates, bds. I6s. (pub. at 21. 2s.) 

The Cathedral of Glasgow is, with the solitary exception of that of Kirkwall in Orkney, 
the only one which escaped the destructive hands of the early Reformers, and to this day it 
remains one of the most entire, and at the same time the most splendid specimens of Gothic 
Architecture in the island. 

TJISTORY of the ANCIENT PALACE and late HOUSES of 

■*■•*■ PARLIAMENT at WESTMINSTER, embracing Accounts and Illustrations of St. 
Stephen's Chapel and its Cloisters ; Westminster Hall ; the Court of Requests ; the Painted 
Chamber, &c. &c. By E. W. BRAYLEY and JOHN BRITTON, Fellows of the Anti- 
quarian Society. Thick 8vo, illustrated with 41 fine steel engravings, bf/ the best Artists, and 
7 woodcuts chiefly from drawings by Billings, cloth, 8s. 6d. (pub. at 21s.) 

A very interesting volume to the Historian, the Antiquary, and the Architect. 

]>JAUTICAL OBSERVATIONS on the PORT and MARITIME 

-'•^ VICINITY of CARDIFF, with Remarks on the TaffVale Railway, and the Commerce 
of Glamorganshire. By Capt. W. H. SMYTH, R.N. 8vo, two charts, privately printed, 
cloth, 2s. Qd. 

r)OMESDAY BOOK for the COUNTY of WARWICK, translated 

"■-^ with the original on the opposite page. By W. READER. 4to, only IW printed, bds. 
7s. (pub. at 21*.) 

A brief Dissertation on Domesday Book, compiled from various authorities, is prefixed to 
the translation — also, a List of the Saxon Possessors in the time of King Edward the Con- 
fessor ; an Alphabetical List of the Land-owners after the Norman Invasion, with Biogra- 
phical Notices ; The names of the Persons who held under these Landholders ; and to com- 
plete the arrangement, a copious Index of the Ancient and Modern Names of Places is 
added. 

POPULAR ERRORS in ENGLISH GRAMMAR, particularly in 

■"■ Pronunciation, familiarly pointed out. By GEORGE JACKSON. 12mo, Third Edition, 
with a coloured frontispiece of the " Sedes Busbiana." 6d. 

AN EXPLANATION of the ELEMENTARY CHARACTERS of 

•^ the CHINESE, with an Analysis of their Ancient Symbols and Hieroglyphics. By 
JOSEPH HAGER, D.D, Folio, finely printed by Bensley, a curious book, bds. 5s. 



BY J. R. SMITH, 4, OLD COMPTON ST. SOHO. 23 

■QIBLIOTHECA SCOTO-CELTICA ; or, an Account of all the Books 

which have been printed in the Gaelic Language, with Bibliographical and Biographical 
Notices. By JOHN REID. 8vo, bds. 5s. (pub. at 10*. 6rf.) 

PEDIGREES and ARMS of the FAMILIES in the COUNTY of 

-*■ SUSSEX, collected from the Heraldic Visitations, &c. By WILLIAM BERRY, fifteen 
years Registering Clerk in the College of Arms. Folio, bds. 2\s. (pub. at 6?. 6s,) 

PEDIGREES and ARMS of the FAMILIES in the COUNTY of 

*■ HANTS. By WILLIAM BERRY. Folio, bds. II. Is. (pub. at 61. 6s.) 

PEDIGREES and ARMS of the FAMILIES in the COUNTIES 

■■- of SURREY, BERKS, and BUCKINGHAM. By W. BERRY. Folio, bds. II. Ws. 
(pub. at 5/. 5*.) 

PEDIGREES of the NOBILITY and GENTRY of the COUNTY 

-'- of HERTS. By WILLIAM BERRY, late and for fifteeen years Registering Clerk in 

the College of Arms. Author of the " Encyclopaedia Heraldica," &c. &e. Folio (only 150 

printed), bds, 31. Ws. 

" These Collections of Pedigrees will be found of great utility, though not of sufficient 

proof in themselves to establish the claims of kindred set forth in them : but affording 

a ready clue to such necessary proof whenever it should be required, by pointing out 

the places of nativity, baptism, marriages, and burials, and such other legal documents, 

I' as localities will otherwise afford, and the modern entries in the Herald's College, are 

of no better authority, requiring the very same kind of proof for legal purposes. This 

observation will perhaps silence the ill-natured remarks which have emanated from 

that quarter : and it is self-evident that the printing of 250 copies is a much safer 

record than one manuscript entry there, which might easily be destroyed."— Pre/ace. 

A CCOUNT of the FOREIGN ORDERS of KNIGHTHOOD, and 

other marks of Honorable Distinction, especially such as have been conferred upon 
British Subjects. By NICHOLAS CARLISLE, Secretary of the Antiquarian Society . Royal 
8vo, very handsomely printed, cloth, Qs. (pub. at 20?.) 

T EGENDS of the CONQUEST of SPAIN. By WASHINGTON 

^^ IRVING. Post 8vo, bds. 2s. 6d. (pub. at 10*. 6d.) 

r)OINGS in LONDON, or, DAY and NIGHT SCENES of the 

^^ FRAUDS, FROLICS, MANNERS, and DEPRAVITIES of the METROPOLIS. 
By GEORGE SMEETON (the curious Printer) 8vo, 33 woodcuts by R. Cruikshank, a 
very amusing volume, cloth, 4*. 6d. (pub. at 12*.) 

OISTORY of MUHAMEDANISM, comprising the Life and Character 

of the Arabian Prophet, and succinct account of the Empires founded by the Muhamedan 
Arms. By CHARLES MILLS. 8vo, cloth 6s. (pub. at 14*.) 

nPHE ORIGIN, PROGRESS, and PRESENT CONDITION of the 

-■■ Fine Arts in Great Britain and Ireland. By W. B. SARSFIELD TAYLOR. 2 thick 
vols, post 8vo, with many woodcuts, cloth, 8*. 6d. (pub. at \l. Is.) 

fiOLECCiON de OBRAS y DOCUMENTOS relativos a la HIS- 

^ TORIA ANTIQUA y MODERNA de las PROVINCIAS del RIO DE LA PLATA, 
illustrados con notas y disertaciones. Por PEDRO DE ANGELIS. 6 vols, folio, sewed. 61. 6s. 

Buenos Aires, 1836-7. 
The most valuable and important collection of documents that has yet appeared relative 
to this part of the New World : they were printed at the expense of the Argentine Republic, 
and not for sale. Through the kindness of the editor, J. R. Smith has been allowed to import 
a few copies for the purpose of being placed in some of the public libraries in England and on 
the Continent, or in those who take an interest in the early history and geography of the 
middle part of South America. 

pAPPORTS aM. le MINISTRE de I'lNSTRUCTION PUBLIQUE 

-■■*' sur les ANCIENS MONUMENTS de I'Histoire et de la Litterature de la France, qui 
se trouvent dans les Bibliotheques de I'Angleterre et de I'Ecosse. Par FRANCISQUE 
MICHEL, 4to, pp. 280, Part*, Imprimerie Royale, 1838, sewed, 8*. 

Of this interesting volume, only 200 copies were printed, at the expense of the French 
Government. 



14 DAY USF 

^-^TOOBSKPKOMWH^BOKROWBO 

LOAN DEPT 

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(H241slO)476B 



. General Library 

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