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I ACCEPT the early demand for a new edition of my 
book, not so much as proof of the value of my indi- 
vidual work, as of the increased interest which is being 
taken in this too much neglected subject. In deference 
to the wholesome advice of many reviewers, both in 
the London and Provincial press, especially that of 
the * Times ' and the 'Athenaeum,' I have re-arranged 
the whole of the chapters on * Patronymics ' and 
* Nicknames,' subdividing the same under convenient 
heads. By so doing the names which bear any par- 
ticular relationship to one another will be found 
more closely allied than they were under their former 
more general treatment. 

My book has met with much criticism, partly 
favourable, partly adverse, from different quarters. To 
my reviewers in general I offer my best thanks for their 
comments. The ' Saturday Review ' — and I say it the 
more readily as they will see that I have not been in- 
sensible to the value of their criticism — has not, I think, 


sufficiently understood the nature of my work. lam well 
aware that praise is due to them for having for some 
length of time strenuously advocated the claim of our 
language to be English through all its varying stages. 
I do not see that in the general character of my book 
I have lost sight of this fact. An ' English Directory ' is 
not an 'English Dictionary.' The influences that have 
been at work on our language are not the same as 
those upon our nomenclature. Every social casualty 
had an effect upon our names which it could not have 
upon our words. The names found in Domesday 
Book, casting aside the new importation, were, in the 
great majority of cases, obsolete by the end of the 
twelfth century, and of those which have survived and 
descended to us as surnames, well-nigh all are devoid 
of diminutive or patronymic desinences — a clear proof 
that they were utterly out of fashion as personal names 
during the era of surname formation. The Norman 
invasion was not a conquest of our language, but it 
was of our nomenclature. The * Saturday Review ' 
may still demand that we shall view all as English, 
and obliterate the distinctive terms of Saxon and 
Norman, but in doing so let us not forget facts. The 
language which preceded the Norman Conquest is still 
the vehicle of ordinary converse. The nomenclature 
of tlKit period went down like Pharaoh's chariot, and 
like Pharaoh's chariot, which for all I know lies where 
it did, was never recovered. 

A review in the ' Guardian ' demands a brief notice 


on account of the mischief it may do. The end kept 
in view by the reviewer is as transparent as his in- 
ability to reach it. Surely the day is past for any 
further attempt to make out that we have no metro- 
nymic surnames. The writer is evidently unaware 
of the fact that the use of ' ie ' and ' y,' as in ' Teddy' 
or 'Johnnie,' in the nineteenth century, does not pre- 
vail to as great an extent as that of 'ot' and *et' from 
the twelfth to the fifteenth. As ' Philip ' became 

* Philipot,' now ' Philpott ' ; as ' William ' ' Williamot,' 
now ' Wilmott ' ; as ' Hew ' (or Hugh), ' Hewet ' and 
'Hewetson' ; as 'Ellis' (or Elias), 'Elliot' and 'Elliot- 
son' ; so ' Till ' (Matilda) became 'Tillot' and 'Tillot- 
son ' ; ' Emme ' (Emma), ' Emmott,' ' Emmett,' and 

* Emmotson ' ; ' Ibbe ' (Isabella), ' Ibbott,' ' Ibbett,' 
and ' Ibbotson ' ; ' Mary,' ' Mariot ' and ' Marriott ' ; 
and ' Siss ' (Cecilia), ' Sissot ' and ' Sissotson.' ' Em- 
mot,' the writer says, is a form of ' Amyas,' I suppose 
because he saw ' Amyot ' in Miss Yonge's glossary. 
According to him, therefore, Emmot is a masculine 
name. How comes it to pass, then, that Emmot is 
always Latinised as Emmota, or that in our old 
marriage licences ' Richard de Akerode ' gets a dis- 
pensation to marry ' Emmotte de Greenwood ' (Test. 
Ebor. iii. 317), or 'Roger Prcstwick ' to marry 
' Emmotc Crossley ' (ditto, 338) .'' How is it we meet 
with such entries as ' Cissot« West,' (Index) or 
' Syssot that was zvife of Patrick ' (69) } How 
is it asrain that Mariot is rcfristcrcd as ' Mariot^ 


in le Lane,' or 'John fil. Mariote,' and Ibbot or 
Ibbet as ' Ibbote fil. Adae,' or ' Robert fil. Ibot^/ 
(Index) ? The fact is, we have a large class of 
metronymics many of which doubtless arose from 
posthumous birth, or from adoption, or the more 
important character of the mother in the eyes of 
the', neighbours than the father, others too from 

Amongst other errors for which I have been called 
to account, the oddest is that of attributing to Miss 
Muloch the authorship of Miss Yonge's most useful 
and laborious work on Christian names. I do not know 
to which lady I owe the deepest apology — whether to 
Miss Yonge for robbing her literary crown of one of 
its brightest jewels, or to Miss Muloch for appearing 
to insinuate that hers was incomplete. This and 
several other mistakes of less moment I have rectified 
in the present edition. 

I have to thank the authoress of ' Mistress Mar- 
gery,' etc., for the names in the index marked QQ., 
RR. I, RR. 2, and RR. 3. Such entries from the 
registry of St. James's, Piccadilly (QQ.), as * Re- 
pentance Tompson' (1688), 'Loving Bell' (1693), 
' Nazareth Ruddc' (1695), ' Obedience Clerk ' (1697), 
or ' Unity Thornton ' (1703), may be set beside the 
instances recorded on pp. 102-104. To these I would 
take this opportunity of adding ' Comfort Starre,' 
' Hopcstill Foster,' ' Love Brewster,' 'Fear Brewster,' 
' Patience Brewster,' ' Remembrance Tibbott,' ' Re- 


member Allerton,' ' Desire Minter,' ' Original Lewis,' 
and ' Thankes Sheppard,' all being names of emi- 
grants from England in the 17th century, {Vide 
Hotten's ' Original Lists of Persons of Quality.') 

February 1875. 



A S prefaces are very little read, I will make this 
-^^- as brief as possible. It is strange how little has 
been written upon the sources and significations of our 
English surnames Of books of Peerage, of Baronet- 
age, and of Landed Gentry, thanks to Sir Bernard 
Burke, Mr. Walford, and others, we are not without a 
sufficiency ; but of books purporting to treat of the 
ordinary surnames that greet our eye as we scan our 
shop-fronts, or look down a list of contributions, or 
glance over the * hatches, matches, and despatches ' 
of our newspapers — of these there are but few. 
Indeed, putting aside Mr. Lower's able and laborious 
researches, we may say none. Tracts, pamphlets, 
short treatises, articles in magazines, have at various 
times appeared, but they have been necessarily con- 
fined and limited in their treatment of the subject' 

' Proofs of the ignorance of authors and authoresses in regard to 
surnames might be cited to any extent. The novel of Au7-ora Floyd is 
a case in point. When we read the account there given of the ancestry 


And yet what can be more natural than that we 
should desire to know something relating to the 
origin of our surname, when it arose, who first got it, 
and how ? Of the feebleness of my own attempt to 
solve all this I am conscious that I need not to be 
reminded. Still, I think the ordinary reader will find 
in a perusal of this book some slight increase of infor- 
mation, and if not this, that he has whiled away, not 
unpleasantly, some of his less busy hours. 

During the last seven years I have devoted the 
whole of my spare time to the preparation of a 
* Dictionary of English Surnames,' But about two 
years ago it struck me that perhaps a smaller work 
dealing with the subject in a less formal and more 
familiar style might not be unacceptable to many, as 
a kind of rudimentary treatise. In the course of my 
labours I have come under obligations to several 
writers and several Societies. To long-departed men, 
whose works do follow after them, I must give a 
passing allusion. Camden was the first to draw 
attention to this subject, and though he wrote little, 
and that little not of the most correct kind, still he 
has afforded the groundwork for all future students. 
Verstegan, who came next with his ' Restitution of 
Decayed Intelligence,' wrote quaintly, amusingly 

of the heroine, her Scotch descent, &c., and tlicn remember that Floyd 
is but a corruption (tlirough the difficulty of pronunciation) of the Welsh 
Lloyd, we may well l)e pardoned a smile. Walter Scbtt would never 
have so committed himself. 


and incorrectly ; and, with respect to surnames, his 
definitions rather teach what they do not than what 
they do mean. Passing over several archaeological 
papers, and with a wide gap in regard to time, we 
come to Mr. Lower's studies. He was the first to 
give a real compendium of English nomenclature. 
Of his earlier efforts I will say nothing, for the 
' Patronymica Britannica ' is that upon which his 
fame' must rest. The fault of that work is that the 
author has confined his researches all but entirely to 
the Hundred Rolls. These Rolls are undoubtedly 
the best for such reference ; but there are many 
others, as my index will show, which not merely con- 
tain a large mass of examples not to be met with 
there, but which, by varieties of spelling in the case of 
such names as they share in common with the other, 
afford comparisons the use of which would have 
made him certain where he has only guessed, and 
would have enabled him also to avoid many false 
conclusions. This I would say with all respect, as 
one who has benefited very considerably by Mr. 
Lower's labours. Others I must thank more briefly, 
though none the less heartily. To Mr. Halliwell I 
am under deep obligation, for to his ' Dictionary of 
Archaisms ' I have gone freely by way of quotation. 
To Mr. Way's notes to his valuable edition of the 
' Promptorium Parvulorum ' I am also indebted for 
much interesting information regarding mediaeval life 
and its surroundings. Miss Yonge's * History of 


Christian Names' contains a large store of help to 
students of this kind of lore, and of this I have 
availed myself in several instances. In conclusion, I 
have to acknowledge much valuable aid received from 
the publications of the Surtecs Society, the Early 
English Text Society, the Camden Society, and the 
Chetham Society. It is in the rooms belonging to the 
latter that I have had the opportunity of consulting 
most of the records and archives, a list of which 
prefaces my index, as well as other books of a more 
incidentally helpful character, and I cannot allow 
this opportunity to pass without tendering my hearty 
thanks to Thomas Jones, Esq., B.A., F.S.A., for his 
courtesy in permitting me access to all parts of the 
library, and to Mr. Richard Hanby, the under- 
librarian, for his constant attention and readiness to 
supply me with whatever books I required. 

Mancukster : 

December 1873. 



THERE are several matters which I deem it 
advisable to mention to the reader before 
he turns his attention to the Index of Instances 
(pp. 514-612) 

I. I have not, in the various chapters that form the 
body of this book, in all cases drawn particular atten- 
tion when any name happens to belong to several 
distinct classes. In the Index, however, I have tried to 
remedy this by furnishing instances under the several 
heads to which they have been assigned in the text. 

II. While ordinarily adhering to my plan of giving 
but two examples, I have set down three in some 
instances that seemed more interesting, and in ex- 
ceptional cases even four. To the majority of the 
appended surnames more illustrations of course could 
have been added had it been expedient or necessary. 
There are several names, however, which, though 



evidently of familiar occurrence in early days, as they 
are now, are yet, so far as my own researches go, 
without any record. For instance, I cannot find any 
Arkwright or Runchiman previous to the sixteenth 
century. T4ie origin is perfectly clear, but the 
registry is wanting. Of several others, again, I can 
light upon but one entry. Still, in a matter like this 
one must be thankful for small mercies, and it was 
w^ith no small amount of rejoicing that in suCh a 
simple record as that of 'John Sykelsmith ' I found 
the progenitor, or one of the progenitors, of our many 
' Sucksmiths,' ' Sixsmiths,' ' Shuxsmiths,' etc. 

III. There has been a difficulty with regard to 
Christian names also, which I have not attempted to 
overcome because it was impossible to do so. With 
the Normans every baptismal name, masculine or 
feminine as it might originally be, was the common 
property of the sexes. Thus by simply appending 
the feminine desinence, ' Druett' became ' Druetta ' 
(v. Drewett), 'Williamet ' became 'Williametta ' {v. 
Williamot), ' Aylbrcd ' became ' Aylbreda ' (v. All- 
bright), ' Raulin ' became ' Raulina ' {v. Rawlings), and 
' Goscelin ' became ' Goscelina ' (v. Gosling). Any of 
these surnames, Drewett, Willmott, Allbright, Raw- 
lings, or Gosling, therefore, may be of feminine origin 
— nay, if the reader has studied my chapter on ' Patro- 
nymic Surnames ' with any care, he will see that this is 
fully as probable as the opposite view. Leaving thus 
undecided what cannot be solved, I have placed both 


masculine and feminine forms under the one surname 
to which one or other has given rise. 

. IV. There has been another difficulty also in re- 
spect of Christian names. These, as has been shown 
in the chapter thereupon, were turned into pet forms, 
and these shortened forms commonly came to be the 
foundation of the surname. In all the more formal 
registers, however, these surnames were never so set 
down. 'Hugh Thomasson,' 'William Thompson,' 
and ' Henry Tomson ' might come to have their 
names enrolled, and up" to the beginning of the six- 
teenth century at least they would be set down alike 
as ' Hugh fill. Thomas,' ' William fil. Thomas,* and 
' Henry fil. Thomas.' Thus, again, ' Ralph Higgin- 
son' or 'John Higgins' would be 'Radulphus' or 
'Johannes fil. Isaac' This has prevented me from 
giving so many instances of these curter forms 
of the patronymic class as I should have liked. When 
they are given, the reader will observe that they 
come from less punctilious and more irregular sources, 
such as for instance the Surtees' Society's collection 
of Mediaeval Yorkshire Wills and Inventories. Where 
I have given such an instance as * Elekyn ' {v. 
Elkins) by itself, it must be understood that this is 
the Christian name, and that the owner when his or 
her name was registered did not boast a surname 
at all. 

V. By way of interesting the reader I have occa- 
sionally given the Latin form of entry. Thus ' Adam 


the Goldsmith ' is set down as ' Adam Aurifaber ' 
{v. Aurifaber), ' Henry the Butcher ' as ' Henry Carni- 
fex' (v. Carnifex), and ' Hugh the Tailor ' as ' Hugh 
Cissor ' (v. Cissor). Latin, indeed, seems to have 
been the vehicle of ordinary indenture. Thus under 
' Littlejohn ' the reader will find extracted from the 
Hundred Rolls ' Ricardus fil. Parvi-Johannis,' and 
under 'Linota,' ' Linota Vidua,' ?>,,'Linota the Widow,' 
In the recording of local names, Norman-French and 
Saxon seem to have fought for the first place, and 
even in our most formal registers they had the pre- 
cedence over Latin. Thus if the latter can boast the 
entry of ' Isolda Beauchamp ' as * Isolda de Bello 
Campo ' (v. Beauchamp), still, if we come to such 
generic names as Briggs or Brook, we find the entry 
is all but invariably cither ' Henry Atte-brigg ' or 
* Roger del Brigge ' {v. Briggs), or 'Alice de la Broke 
or 'Ada ate Brok' (v. Brook). As respects nick- 
names or names of occupation, the Norman-French 
tongue had them to itself ' Roger le Buck,' ' Philip 
le Criour,' ' Thomas le Cuchold,' ' Osbert le Curteys,' 
or ' Thomas le Cupper' — such is their continuous form 
of entry. Such a Saxon enrolment as ' Robert the 
Brochere ' {v. Broker) is of the rarest occurrence — so 
rare, indeed, as to make one feel it was an undoubted 
freak on the part of the registrar, whoever he might be. 
VI. In some few cases I have set down surnames 
which are not treated of in the text. I have done 
this either because the name seemed worthy of this 


casual notice, or iecause, though not itself mentioned, 
it happened to corroborate some statement I have 
made regarding a particular name belonging to the 
same class. 

In conclusion, I will not say there is no mistake 
in the Index — that would be a bold thing to state ; 
I will not say that I may not have given an instance 
that does not rightly belong to the surname under 
which it is set; but I can asseverate that I have 
honestly attempted to be correct, and I believe a 
careful examination will find but the most occasional 
error, if any at all, of this class. 



Preface to the Second Edition ... vii 

Preface to the First Edition .... xiii 

Preface to the Index of Instances . . . xvii 

Introductory Chapter i 


Patronymic Surnames 9 


Local Surnames 107 


Surnames of Office 172 


Surnames of Occupation (Country) ... 243 

Surnames of Occupation (Town) , . . .317 

Appendix to Chapters IV. and V 415 


Nicknames 423 

Index of Instances 515 



npO review the sources of a people's nomenclature is 
to review that people's history. When we remem- 
ber that there is nothing without a name, and that 
every name that is named, whether it be of a man, or 
man's work, or man's heritage of earth, came not by 
chance, or accident so-called, but was given out of 
some nation's spoken language to denote some cha- 
racteristic that language expressed, we can readily 
imagine how important is the drift of each — what a 
record must each contain. Wc cannot but see that 
could we only grasp their true meaning, could we but 
take away the doubtful crust in which they are often- 
times imbedded, then should we be speaking out of the 
very mouth of history itself For names arc endur- 
ing — generations come and go ;.and passing on with 
each, they become all but everlasting. Nomenclature, 
in fact, is a well in which, as the fresh water is flowing 
perennially through, there is left a sediment that 
clings to the bottom. This silty deposit may accu- 
mulate — nay, it may threaten to choke it up, still the 
well is there. It but requires to be exhumed, and we 
shall behold it in all its simple proportions once more. 



And thus it is with names. They betoken life and 
matter that is ever coming and going, ever under- 
going change and decay. But through it all they 
abide. The accretions of passing years may fasten 
upon them — the varied accidents of lapsing time may 
attach to them — they may become all but undistin- 
guishable, but only let us get rid of that which cleaves 
to them, and we lay bare in all its naked simplicity 
the character and the lineaments of a long gone era. 
Look for instance at our place-names. Apart from 
their various corruptions they are as they were first 
entitled. So far as the nomenclature of our country 
itself is concerned, England is at this present day as 
rude, as untutored, and as heathen as at the moment 
those Norwegian and Germanic hordes grounded their 
keels upon our shores, for all our place-names, saving 
where the Celt still lingers, are their bequest, and 
bear upon them the impress of their life and its sur- 
roundings. These are they which tell us such strange 
truths — how far they had made progress as yet in the 
arts of life, what were the habits they practised, what 
was the religion they believed in. And as with place- 
names, so with our own. As records of past history 
they are equally truthful, equally suggestive. One 
important difference, however, there is — Place-names, 
as I have just hinted, once given are all but imperish- 
able. Mountains, valleys, and streams still, as a rule, 
retain the names first given them. Personal names, 
those simple individual names which we find in use 
throughout all prc-Norman history, were but for the 
life of him to whom they were attached. They died 
with him, nor passed on saving accidentally. Nor 
were those second designations, those which we call 


surnames as being 'superadded to Christian names,' 
at first of any lasting character. It was not till the 
eleventh, twelfth, thirteenth, or even fourteenth centu- 
ries that they became hereditary — that is, in any true 
sense stationary. 

Before, however, we enter into the history of these, 
and with regard to England that is the purpose of 
this book, it will be well to take a brief survey of the 
actual state of human nomenclature in preceding 
times. Surnames, we must remember, Avere the sim- 
ple result of necessity when population, hitherto iso- 
lated and small, became so increased as to necessitate 
further particularity than the merely personal one 
could supply. One name, therefore, was all that was 
needed in early times, and one name, as a general 
rule, is all that we find. The Bible is, of course, our 
first record of these — 'Adam,' 'Eve,' 'Joseph,' 'Barak,' 
* David,' ' Isaiah,' all were simple, single, and expres- 
sive titles, given in most cases from some circum- 
stances attending their creation or birth. When the 
Israelites were crowded together in the wilderness 
they were at once involved in difficulties of identifi- 
cation. We cannot imagine to ourselves how such a 
population as that of Manchester or Birmingham could 
possibly get on with but single appellations. Of course 
I do not put this by way of real comparison, for with 
the Jewish clan or family system this difficulty must 
have been materially overcome. Still it is no wonder 
that in the later books of Moses we should find them 
falling back upon this patronymic as a means of 
identifying the individual. Thus such expressions 
as * Joshua the son of Nun,' or ' Caleb the son of 
Jephunah,' or 'Jair the son of Manasseh,' arc not 


unfrequently to be met with. Later on, this necessity 
was caused by a further circumstance. Certain of 
these single names became popular over others. 
'John,' 'Simon,' and 'Judas' were such. A further 
distinction, therefore, was necessary. This gave rise 
to sobriquets of a more diverse character. We find 
the patronyjnic still in use, as in ' Simon Barjonas,* 
that is, * Simon the son of Jonas ; ' but in addition to 
this, we have also the local element introduced, as in 
' Simon of Cyrene,' and the descriptive in ' Simon the 
Zealot' Thus, again, we have ' Judas Iscariot,' what- 
ever that may mean, for commentators are divided 
upon the subject; 'Judas Barsabas,' and 'Judas of 
Galilee.' In the meantime the heathen but polished 
nations of Greece and Rome had been adopting 
similar means, though the latter was decidedly the 
first in method. Among the former, such double 
names as ' Dionysius the Tyrant,' ' Diogenes the 
Cynic,' ' Socrates the son of Sophronicus,' or ' Heca- 
taeus of Miletus,' show the same custom, and the same 
need. To the Roman, however, belongs, as I have 
said, the earliest system of nomenclature, a system, 
perhaps, more careful and precise than any which has 
followed after. The purely Roman citizen had a 
threefold name. The first denoted the ' pnenojuai,' 
and answered to our personal, or baptismal, name. 
The second was what we may term the chm-namc ; 
and the third, the cognomen, corresponded with our 
present siirnawc. Thus we have such treble appella- 
tions as * Marcus Tullius Cicero,' or ' Aulus Licinius 
Archeas.' If a manumitted slave had the citizenship 
conferred upon him, his single name became his cog- 
nomen, and the others preceded it, one generally 


being the name of him who was the emancipator. 
Thus was it of * Licinius ' in the last-mentioned in- 
stance. With the overthrow of the Western Empire, 
however, this system was lost, and the barbarians who 
settled upon its ruins brought back the simple appel- 
lative once more. Arminius, their chief hero, was 
content with that simple title. Alaric, the brave 
King of the Goths, is only so known. Caractacus 
and Vortigern, to come nearer home, represented but 
the same custom. 

But we are not without traces of those descriptive 
epithets which had obtained among the earlier com- 
munities of the East. The Venerable Bede, speaking 
of two missionaries, both of whom bore the name of 

* Hewald,' says, ' pro diversd capellorum specie unus 
Niger Hewald, alter Albus diceretur ; ' that is, in 
modern parlance, the colour of their hair being 
different, they came to be called ' Hewald Black,' and 

* Hewald White.' Another Saxon, distinguished for 
his somewhat huge proportions, and bearing the name 
of ' Ethelred,' was known as ' Mucel,' or ' Great,' a 
word still lingering in the Scottish inickle. We may 
class him, therefore, with our ' le Grands,' as we 
find them inscribed in the Norman rolls, the pro- 
genitors of our * Grants,' and ' Grands,' or our 'Biggs,' 
as Saxon as himself Thus again, our later ' Fair- 
faxes,' * Lightfoots,' ' Heavisides,' and ' Slows,' are 
but hereditary nicknames like to the earlier ' Har- 
fagres,' ' Harefoots,' ' Ironsides,' and ' Unreadys,' 
which died out, so far as their immediate possessors 
went, with the ' Harolds,' and * Edmunds,' and 

* Ethelreds,' upon whom they were severally foisted. 
They were but expressions of popular feeling to in- 


dividual persons by means of which that individuahty 
was increased, and, as with every other instance I have 
mentioned hitherto, passed away with the hves of 
their owners. No descendant succeeded to the title. 
The son, in due course of time, got a sobriquet of his 
own, by which he was famiHarly known, but that, too, 
was but personal and temporary. It was no more 
hereditary than had been his father's before him, and 
even so far as himself was concerned might be again 
changed according to the humour or caprice of his 
neighbours and acquaintances. And this went on for 
several more centuries, only as population increased 
these sobriquets became but more and more 

In the eleventh and twelfth centuries, however, a 
change took place. By a silent and unpremeditated 
movement over the whole of the more populated and 
civilized European societies, nomenclature began to 
assume a solid lasting basis. It was the result, in 
fact, of an insensibly growing necessity. Population 
was on the increase, commerce was spreading, and 
society was fast becoming corporate. With all this 
arose difficulties of individualization. It was impos- 
sible, without some further distinction, to maintain a 
current identity. Hence what had been but an occa- 
sional and irregular custom became a fixed and 
general practice — the distinguishing sobriquet, not, as 
I say, of premeditation, but by a silent compact, be- 
came part and parcel of a man's property, and passed 
on with his other possessions to his direct descendants. 
This sobriquet had come to be of various kinds. It 
might be the designation of the property owned, as in 


the case of the Norman barons and their feudatory 
settlements, or it might be some local peculiarity that 
marked the abode. It might be the designation of 
the craft the owner followed. It might be the title of 
the rank or office he held. It might be a patronymic — 
a name acquired from the personal or Christian name 
of his father or mother. It might be some charac- 
teristic, mental or physical, complimentary or the re- 
verse. Any of these it might be, it mattered not 
which ; but when once it became attached to the pos- 
sessor and gave him a fixed identity, it clung to him 
for his life, and eventually passed on to his offspring. 
Then it was that at length local and personal names 
came somewhat upon the same level ; and as the 
former, some centuries before, had stereotyped the life 
of our various Celtic and Sclavonic and Teutonic settle- 
ments, so now these latter fossilized the character of 
the era in which they arose ; and here we have them, 
with all the antiquity of their birth upon them, 
breathing of times and customs and fashions and 
things that are now wholly passed from our eyes, or 
are so completely changed as to bear but the faintest 
resemblance to that which they have been. To 
analyse some of these names, for all were impossible, 
is the purpose of the following chapters. I trust that 
ere I have finished my task, I shall have been able to 
throw some little light, at least, on the life and habits 
of our early English forefathers. 

The reader will have observed that I have just 
incidentally alluded to five different classes of names. 
For the sake of further distinction I will place them 
formally and under more concise headings : — 


1. Baptismal or personal names. 

2. Local surnames. 

3. Official surnames. 

4. Occupative surnames. 

5. Sobriquet surnames, or Nicknames. 

I need scarcely add that under one of these five 
divisions will every surname in all the countries of 
Europe be found. 



T T is impossible to say how important an influence 
have merely personal names exercised upon our 
nomenclature. The most familiar surnames we can 
meet with, saving that of * Smith,' are to be found in 
this list. For frequency we have no names to be con- 
pared with * Jones,' or ' Williamson,' or * Thompson,' 
or * Richardson.' How they came into being is easily 
manifest. Nothing could be more natural than that 
children should often pass current in the community 
in which they lived as the sons of ' Thomas,' or 
'William,' or 'Richard,' or 'John;' and that these 
several relationships should be found in our directories 
as distinct sobriquets only shows that there was a 
particular generation in these families in which this 
title became permanent, and passed on to future 
descendants as an hereditary surname.^ The interest 
that attaches to these patronymics is great — for it is 
by them we can best discover what names were in 

' The following extract will show how patronymic surnames 
changed at first with each successive generation : — * Dispensation for 
Richard Johnson, son of John Richardson, of Fislilake, and Evott 
daug : of Robert Palmer, who have married, although related in the 
fourth degiee. Issued from Rome by Francis, Cardinal of St. 
Susanna, 30th March, 13th Boniface IX. (1402).' Test, Ebor. vol. iii. 
p. 318. 


vogue at this period, and what not, and of those which 
were, by their relative frequency, in a measure, what 
were the most popular. Certainly the change is most 
extraordinary when we compare the past with the 
present. Some, once so popular that they scarce gave 
identity to the bearer, are now all but obsolete, while 
numerous appellations at present generally current 
were then utterly unknown. There are surnames 
familiar to our ears whose root as a Christian name is 
now passed out of knowledge ; while, on the other 
hand, many a Christian name now daily upon our 
lips has no surname formed from it to tell of any 
lengthened existence. The fact is, that while our sur- 
names, putting immigration aside, have been long at a 
standstill, we have ever been and are still adding to 
our stock of baptismal names.* Each new national 
crisis, each fresh achievement of our arms, each new 
princely bride imported from abroad — these events 
are being commemorated daily at the font. This is 
but the continuance of a custom, and one very natural, 
which has ever existed. Turn where we will in 
English history during the last eight hundred years, 
and we shall find the popular sympathies seeking an 
outlet in baptism. Did a prince of the blood royal 
meet with a hapless and cruel fate. His memory was 
at once embalmed in the names of the children born 
immediately afterwards, saving when a mother's super- 
stitious fears came in to prevent it. Did some national 

' Thus we find in the Manchester Directory iox 1861, 'Napoleon 
Bonaparte Sutton, tripe-sellcr,' and 'Napoleon Stott, skewer-maker.' 
Born, doubtless, during the earlier years of the present century, their 
parents have thus stamped upon their lives the impress of that fearful 
interest which the name of Napoleon then excited. 


hero arise who upheld and asserted the people's rights 
against a grinding and hateful tyranny. His name 
is speedily to be found inscribed on every hearth. 
The reverse is of equal significance. It is by the fact 
of a name, which must have been of familiar import, 
finding few to represent it, we can trace a people's 
dislikes and a nation's prejudices. A name once in 
favour, as a rule, however, kept its place. The cause 
to which it owed its rise had long passed into the 
shade of forgotten things, but the name, if it had 
but attained a certain hold, seems easily to have 
kept it, till indeed such a convulsion occurred 
as revolutionised men and things and their names 

There have been two such revolutionary crises in 
English nomenclature, the Conquest and the Reforma- 
tion, the second culminating in the Puritan Common- 
wealth, Other crises have stamped themselves in 
indelible lines upon our registers, but the indenture, 
if as strongly impressed, was far less general, and 
in the main merely enlarged rather than changed 
our stock of national names. Thus was it with the 
Crusades. A few of the names it introduced have 
been popular ever since. Many, at first received 
favourably, died out, if not with, at least soon after, 
the subsidence of the spirit to which they owed their 
rise. Some of these came from the Eastern Church, 
of whose existence at all the Crusader seems to have 
suddenly reminded us. Some were Biblical, associated 
in Bible narrative with the very soil the Templars 
trod. Some, again, were borrowed from Continental 
comrades in arms, names which had caught the fancy 
of those who introduced them, or were connected 


with friendly rivalries and pledged friendships. This 
era, being concurrent with the establishment of sur- 
names, has left its mark upon our nomenclature ; but 
it was no revolution. 

The period in which these names began to assume 
an hereditary character varies so greatly that it is 
impossible to make any definite statement. As a 
familiar custom I should say it arose in the twelfth 
century. But there are places, both in Lancashire 
and Yorkshire, where, as in Wales, men are wont to 
be styled to this very day by a complete string of 
patronymics. To hear a man called * Bill's o'Jack's,' 
'o'Dick's,' 'o' Harry's,' 'o'Tom's,' is by no means a 
rare incident. A hit at this formerly common Welsh 
practice is given in ' Sir John Oldcastle,' a play 
printed in 1600, in which ran the following conversa- 
tion : — 

' Judge : What bail .-' What sureties ? 

' Davy : Her cozen ap Rice, ap Evan, ap Moricc, 
ap Morgan, ap Llewellyn, ap Madoc, ap Meredith, ap 
Griffin, ap Davis, ap Owen, ap Shinkin Jones. 

' Judge : Two of the most efficient are enow. 

' Sheriff: And 't please your lordship, these are all 
but one.' 

This * ap,' the Welsh equivalent of our English 
' son,' when it has come before a name beginning with 
a vowel, has in many instances become incorporated 
with it. Thus *Ap-Hugh ' has given us ' Pugh,' ' Ap- 
Rice,' just mentioned, ' Price,' or as * Reece,' * Preece;' 
*Ap-Owen,' 'Bowen;' 'Ap-Evan,' 'Bevan;' ' Ap- 
Robert,' • Probert ; ' ' Ap-Rogcr,' ' Prodger ; ' ' Ap- 
Richard,' * Pritchard ;' * Ap-Humphrey,' ' Pumphrey ; ' 


*Ap-Ithell,' 'Bethell;'' or ' Ap- Howell,' ' Powell.' » 
* Prosser ' has generally been thought a corruption of 
' proser,' one who was garrulously inclined ; but this is 
a mistake, it is simply * Ap-Rosser.' The Norman 
patronymic was formed similarly as the Welsh, by a 
prefix, that of ' fitz,' the modern French ' fils.' Sur- 
names of this class were at first common. Thus we 
find such names as ' Fitz-Gibbon,' ' Fitz-Gerald,' ' Fitz- 
Patrick; 'Fitz-Waryn,' 'Fitz-Rauf,' 'Fitz-Payn,' 'Fitz- 
Richard,' or ' Fitz-Neele.' But though this obtained 
for awhile among some of the nobler families of our 
country, it has made in general no sensible impression 
upon our surnames. The Saxon added 'son,' as 
a desinence, as ' Williamson,' that is, ' William's son,' 
or ' Bolderson,' that is, ' Baldwin's son,' or merely the 
genitive suffix, as ' Williams,' or Richards.' This class 
has been wonderfully enlarged by the custom then in 
vogue, as now, of reducing every baptismal name to 
some curt and familiar monosyllable. It agreed with 
the rough-and-ready humour of the Anglo-Norman 
character so to do. How common this was we may 
see from Gower's description of the insurrection of 
Wat Tyler : 

' ' Ithell,' though now unknown, was once a familiar Cluistian 
name. ' Evan ap Ithell,' Z. ; Jevan ap Ithell, Z. ; Ann Ithell, II. II. ; 
Ithell Wynn, A. A. I. ' Bethell ' as a surname is still sufficiently ccnnnon 
in the Principality to keep up a remembrance of the fact. 

^ ' Ilowel' or ' Iloel ' was at one time a favourite Welsh baptismal 
name. We have a 'Ilowel le Waleys,' that is, ' llovvcl the Welsh- 
man,' or, as we should now say, 'Howell Wallace,' mentioned in the 
Parliamentary writs of 1313. As I shall show by-and-by, our 
' Powells ' may in some^cases, at least, be of more English origin. 


• Watte ' vocat, cui ' Thoma ' venit, neque ' Symme ' retardat, 

'Bat'-que 'Gibbe' simul, ' Hykke ' venire subent : 

• Colle ' furit, quern ' Bobbe ' juvat nocumenta parantes, 

'Cum quibus, ad damnum 'Wille' coire volat — 

• Grigge ' rapit, dum * Davie' strepit, comes est quibus ' Hobbe,' 

• I^rkin ' et in medio non minor esse putat : 
' Iludde ' ferit, quem ' Judde ' terit, dum ' Tibbe ' juvatur 
' Jacke ' domosque viros vellit, en ense necat — 

Or let the author of ' Piers Plowman' speak. ' Glutton ' 
having been seduced to the alehouse door, we are 

Then goeth • Glutton ' in and grete other after, 

* Cesse ' the souteresse sat on the bench : 

'Watte' the wamer and his wife bothe : 

' Tymme ' the tynkere and twayne of his prentices. 

' Hikke ' the hackney man and ' Hugh ' the nedlere, 

' Clarice ' of Cokkeslane, and the clerke of the churche ; 

' Dawe ' the dykere, and a dozen othere. 

In these two quotations we see at once the clue to 
the extraordinary number of patronymics our direc- 
tories contain of these short and curtailed forms. 
Thus ' Dawe,' from ' David,' gives us * Dawson,' or 
'Dawes;' 'Hikke' from 'Isaac,' * Hickson,' or 
' Hicks ;' 'Watte,' from 'Walter,' 'Watson,' or 'Watts.' 
Nor was this all. A large addition was made to this j 
category by the introduction of a further clement"^. 
This arose from the nursery practice of giving pet 
names. Much as this is done now, it would seem to 
have been still more common then. In either period 
the method has been the same — that of turning the 
name into a diminutive. Our very word ' pet ' itself 
is but the diminutive 'petite,' or 'little one.' The - 
fashion adopted, however, was different. We are 
fond of using ' ie,* or ' ley.' Thus with us ' John ' 
becomes ' Johnnie,' ' Edward,' ' Teddic,' ' Charles,' 


Charley.' In early days the four diminutives in use 
were those of ' kin,' ' cock,' and the terminstions ' ot' 
or 'et,' and 'on' or 'en,' the two latter being of Nor- 
'man-French origin. 

I. Kin. — This Saxon term, corresponding with 
the German ' chen,' and the French ' on ' or ' en,' 
referred to above, and introduced, most probably, so 
far as the immediate practice was concerned, by the 
Flemings, we still preserve in such words as 'manikin,' 
' pipkin,' ' lambkin,' or ' doitkin.' This is very familiar 
as a nominal adjunct. Thus, in an old poem, entitled 
' A Litul soth Sermun,' we find the following : — 

Nor those prude yongemen 

That loveth ' Malekyn,' 
And those prude maydenes 

That loveth ' Janekyn ; ' 
At chirche and at chepynge 

When they togadere come 
They runneth togaderes 

And speaketh of derne love. 

Masses and matins 

Ne kepeth they nouht, 

For ' Wilekyn ' and ' Watekyn ' 
Be in their thouht — 

Hence we have derived such surnames as ' Simpkins ' 
and ' Simpkinson,' * Thompkins ' and ' Tomkinson.' 

2. CoSk. — Our nursery literature still secures in 
its ' cock-robins,' ' cock-boats,' and ' cock-horses,' the 
immortality of this second termination. It forms an 
important clement in such names as ' Sinicox,' ' Jeff- 
cock,' ' Wilcock,' or 'Wilcox,' and 'Laycock' (Law- 

3. Ot or ct. — These terminations were introduced 


by the Normans, and certainly have made an impreg- 
nable position for themselves in our English nomen- 
clature. In our dictionaries they are found in such 
diminutives as 'pocket' (little poke), 'ballot,' 'chariot,' 
' target,' ' latchet,' ' lancet ; ' in our directories in such 
names as 'Emmctt,' or 'Emmot' (Emma), 'Tillotson' 
(Matilda), 'Elliot' (Elias), 'Marriot' (Mary), 'Will- 
mot' (Willamot), and 'Hewet,' or 'Hewetson' (Hugh).' 

4. On or €71. — These terminations became very 
popular with the French, and their directories teem 
with the evidences they display of former favour. 
They are all but unknown to our English dictionary, 
but many traces of their presence may be found in 
our nomenclature. Thus ' Robert ' became ' Robin,' 
' Nicol ' ' Colin,' ' Pierre ' ' Perrin,' ' Richard ' ' Diccon,' 
'Mary ' ' Marion,' 'Alice ' * Alison,' 'Beatrice ' 'Beton,' 
'Hugh' 'Huon,' or'Huguon'; and hence such sur- 
names as ' Colinson,' 'Perrin,' ' Dicconson,' 'Allison' (in 
some cases), ' Betonson,' 'Huggins,' and ' Hugginson.'^ 

I have already said that the Norman invasion 
revolutionised our system of personal names. Cer- 
tainly it is in this the antagonism between Norman 

' 'Ot' and * et ' sometimes became 'elot' and 'clet' — 'Robert 
Richelot' (w. 15) (from Richard); Crestolot dc Eratis (d. d.) (from 
Christian) ; 'Walter Hughelot ' (A.) ; 'John liuelot' (A.) (from Hugh) ; 
Constance Ilobelot (A.) (from Hobbe) ; 'Ilamcletdc la Uiirste' (Cal. 
and Inv. of Treasury) ; 'Richard son of Ilamelot ' (A. A. 2) (from 
Hamon). ' Hamlet ' and ' Hewlett ' are the commonest representatives 
of this class in our cxi*ting nomenclature. As a diminutive suffix ' let' 
is found in such words as ' leaflet,' ' bracelet,' ' hamlet,' or ' ringlet.' 

- The French have, among others of this'class, 'Guyon,' ' Philipon,' 
• Caton ' (Catharine), and ' Louison.' Sir Walter Scott, ever most accu- 
rate in his nomenclature, makes ' Marthon ' to be domestic to Hanicline 
de Croyc (Qucntin Durward). None of these reached England. 


and Saxon is especially manifest. Occasionally, in 
looking over the records of the twelfth and thirteenth 
centuries, we may light upon a ' Godwin,' or ' Guthlac,' 
or ' Goddard,' but they are of the most exceptional 
occurrence. Were the local part of these entries 
foreign, explanation would be unneeded. But while 
the personal element is foreign, the local denotes 
settlement from the up-country. Look at the London 
population of this period from such records as we 
possess. There is scarcely a hamlet, however small, 
that does not contribute to swell the sum of the 
metropolitan mass, and while ' London ' itself is of 
comparatively great rarity in our nomenclature, an 
insignificant village like, say Debenham, in Suffolk, 
will have its score of representatives — so great was 
the flow, so small the ebb. It is this large accession 
from the interior which is the stronghold of Saxon 
nomenclature. It is this removal from one village to 
another, and from one town to another, which has 
originated that distich quoted by old Vestigan — 

In 'ford,' in 'ham,' in 'ley,' in 'ton,' 
The most of English surnames run. 

And yet, strange as it may seem, it is very doubtful 
whether for a lengthened period, at least, the owners 
of these names were of Saxon origin. The position 
of the Saxon peasantry forbade that they should be 
in any but a small degree accessory to this increase. 
The very villenage they lived under, the very manner 
in which they were attached to the glebe, rendered 
any such roving tendencies as these impossible. 
These country adventurers, then, whose names I 



have instanced, were of no Saxon stock, but the sons 
of the humbler dependants of those Normans who 
had obtained landed settlements, or of Norman 
traders who had travelled up the country, fixing 
their habitation wheresoever the wants of an increas- 
ing people seemed to give them an opportunity of 
gaining a livelihood. The children of such, driven 
out of these smaller communities by the fact that 
there was no further opening for them, poor as the 
villeins amongst whom they dwelt, but different in 
that they were free, would naturally resort to the 
metropolis and other large centres of industry. Not 
a few, however, would belong to the free Saxons, who, 
much against their will, no doubt, but for the sake of 
gain, would pass in the community to which they had 
joined themselves by the name belonging to the more 
powerful and mercantile party. In the same way, 
too, some not small proportion of these names would 
belong to those Saxon serfs ^yho, having escaped 
their bondage, would, on reaching the towns, change 
their names to elude detection. These, of course, 
would be got from the Norman category. But be all 
this as it may, the fact remains that throughout all 
the records and rolls of the twelfth and thirteenth 
centuries, we find, with but the rarest exceptions, all 
our personal names to be Norman. The Saxon 
seems to have become well-nigh extinct. There 
might have been a war of extermination against 
them. In an unbroken succession we meet with 
such names as 'John' and 'Richard,' 'Robert' and 
'Henry,' 'Thomas' and 'Ralph,' 'Geoffrey' and 'Jor- 
dan,' ' Stephen ' and ' Martin,' ' Joscelyn ' and ' Alma- 
ric,' ' Ikncdict ' and ' Laurence,' ' Reginald ' and 


* Gilbert; 'Roger' and 'Walter,' 'Eustace' and 

* Baldwin,' ' Francis ' and ' Maurice,' ' Theobald ' and 

* Cecil,' — no ' Edward,' no ' Edmund,' no * Harold ' 
even, saving in very isolated cases. It is the same 
with female names. While 'Isabel' and 'Matilda,' 

* Mirabilla ' and ' Avelina,' ' Amabilla ' and ' Idonia,' 
'Sibilla' and 'Ida,' 'Letitia' and 'Agnes,' 'Petronilla' 
or ' Parnel ' and ' Lucy,' ' Alicia ' and ' Avice,' ' Alia- 
nora,' or ' Anora ' and ' Dowsabell,' ' Clarice ' and 
' Muriel,' ' Agatha ' and ' Rosamund,' * Felicia ' and 
'Adelina,' 'Julia' and 'Blanche,' 'Isolda' and * Ame- 
lia ' or ' Emilia,' ' Beatrix ' and ' Euphemia,' ' Anna- 
bel ' and ' Theophania,' ' Constance ' and ' Joanna ' 
abound ; ' Etheldreda,' or ' Edith,' or ' Ermentrude,* 
all of the rarest occurrence, are the only names which 
may breathe to us of purely Saxon times. In the 
case of several, however, a special effort was made 
later on, when the policy of allaying the jealous feel- 
ings of the popular class was resorted to. For a 
considerable time the royal and chief baronial families 
had in their pride sought names for their children 
from the Norman category merely. After the lapse 
of a century, however, finding the Saxon spirit still 
chafed and uneasy under a foreign thrall, several 
names of a popular character were introduced into 
the royal nursery. Thus was it with ' Edward ' and 
' Edmund.' The former of these appellations was 
represented by Edward I., the latter by his brother 
Edmund, Earl of Lancaster. Previously to this, too, 
an attempt had been made to restore the British 
'Arthur' in that nephew of Cceur de Lion who so 
miserably perished by his uncle's means, and thereby 


gave Lackland a securer hold upon the English 
throne, if not upon the affections of the country. The 
sad and gloomy mystery which surrounded the disap- 
pearance of this boy-prince seems to have inspired 
mothers with a superstitious awe of the name, for we 
do not find, as in the case of ' Edward ' or ' Edmund,' 
its royal restoration having the effect of making it 
general* On the contrary, as an effort in its favour, 
it seems to have signally failed. Of all our early 
historic names I find fewest relics of this. 

The difficulty of subdividing our first chapter is 
great, but for the sake of convenience we have de- 
cided to preserve the following order : — 

1. Names that preceded and survived the Con- 

2. Names introduced or confirmed by the Nor- 

3. Names from the Calendar of the Saints. 

4. Names from Festivals and Holy-days. 

5. Patronymics formed from occupations and 

6. Metronymics. 

7. Names from Holy Scripture. 

I. — Names that preceded and survived the Conquest. 

The peculiar feature of the great majority of such 
names as were in vogue previous to the Norman 

' As a Christian name, however, fishion has again brought it into 
favour. While the memories that cluster round the name of the Iron 
Duke live, 'Arthur' can never die. Indeed, there are as many ' Arthur- 
Wellesleys' nov/ as there were simple /Arthurs' before the battle of 


Conquest, and which to a certain extent maintained a 
hold, is that (saving in two or three instances) they 
did not attach to themselves either filial or pet 
desinences. If they have come down to us as sur- 
names, they are found in their simple unaltered dress. 
Thus, taking Afred as an example, we see in our 
directories ' Alfred ' or ' Alured ' or ' Allured ' to be 
the only patronymics that have been handed down to 
us. Latinized as Aluredus it figures in Domesday. 
The Hundred Rolls, later on, register an Alured Ape, 
and the surname appears in the Parliamentary 
Writs in the case of William Alured. It is hard to 
separate our ' Aldreds ' from our ' Allureds.' The 
usually entered forms are ' Richard Aired,' ' Hugh 
Aldred,' or 'Aldred fil. Roger.' Besides 'Aldred' 
there is 'Alderson,' which may be but 'Aldredson.' 
Aylwin is met by such entries as Richard Alwine, or 
Thomas Ailwyne: 'Adelard,' as 'Adlard' or ' Alard,' 
and ' Agilward ' as ' Aylward,' are of more frequent 
occurrence ; while Aldrech, once merely a personal 
name, is now, like many of the above, found only 

The Teutonic mythology is closely interwoven in 
several of these names. The primary root ' god ' or 
'good,' which stood in all Teuton languages as the title 
of divinity, was familiarised as the chief component in 
not a few of our still existing surnames. ' Godwin,' the 
name which the stout old earl of Danish blood has given 
to our Goodwin Sands, seems to have been well estab- 
lished when the great Survey was made. The French 
' Godin ' seems scarcely to have crossed the Channel, 
but ' Godwin ' and ' Goodwin ' have well filled up the 
gap. ' Hugh fil. Godewin/ or ' Godwin de Dovre,' 


represent our registers. Our ' Godbolds ' are found 
in the dress of Godbolde/ our * Goodiers ' and ' Good- 
years ' as ' Goder ' or ' Godyer,' and our * Goddards ' 
as ' Godard.' The Hundred Rolls give us a ' John fil. 
Godard.' . The Alpine mountain reminds us of its 
connection with * Gotthard,' and Miss Yonge states 
that it is still in use as a Christian name in Germany. 
* Gottschalk/ a common surname in the same country, 
was well known as a personal name in England in the 
forms of * Godescalde,' ^ ' Godescall,' or ' Godeschalke,' 
such entries as * Godefry fil. Godescallus,' or ' Godes- 
kalcus Armorer,' or * John Godescalde,' being not un- 
frequent. The latter name suggests to us our ' God- 
sails" and ' Godshalls ' as the present English sur- 
nominal forms. ' Gottschalk ' in our directories may 
always be looked upon as a more recent importation 
from Germany. Goderic was perhaps the commonest 
of this class — its usual dress in our registers being 
'Gooderick,' * Goderiche,' 'Godrick,' and ' Godric' 
An early Saxon abbot was exalted into the ranks of 
the saints as ' St. Goderic,' and this would have its 
influence in the selection of baptismal names at that 
period. ' Guthlac,' not without descendants, too, 
though less easily recognisable in our * Goodlakcs ' 
and ' Goodlucks,' and ' Geoffrey,' or ' Godfrey,' whom 
I shall have occasion to mention again, belong to the 
same category.'^ The last of this class I may mention 
is the old * Godeberd,' or * Godbcrt.' As simple 

' One John Godescalde was in 1298 forbidden to dwell in Oxford, 
owing to some riot between Town and Gown (Mun. Acad. Oxon. p. 67). 

* Herbert fil. Godman occurs in the ' Cal. Rot. Pat. in Tiori 
Londonensi.^ As a personal name it will belong to the same class as 
'Bateman,' 'Coleman,' 'Swcteman,' Such entries as 'BatemanGille,' 


' Godeberd ' it is found in such a name as ' Roger 
Godeberd,' met with in the London Tower records. 
Somewhat more corrupted we come across a 'John 
Gotebedde' in the Hundred Rolls of the thirteenth 
century ; and much about the same time a ' Robert 
Gotobedd ' lived in Winchelsea. In this latter form, 
I need scarcely say, it has now a somewhat flourishing 
existence in our midst. Some will be reminded of 
the lines : — 

Mr. Barker's as mute as a fish in the sea, 
Mr. Miles never moves on a journey, 

Mr. Gotobed sits up till half-after three, 
Mr. Makepeace was bred an attorney. 

Still, despite its long antiquity, when I recal the pretty 
Godbert from which it arose, I would, were I one of 
them, go to bed as such some night for the last time, 
nor get up again till I could dress, if not my person, 
at least my personality in its real and more antique 

' Os,' as a rootword implicative of deity, has made 
for itself a firm place in our * Osbalds, ' Osberts,' ' Os- 
wins,' ' Oswalds,' ' Osbornes,' and * Osmunds ' or ' Os- 
monds.' Instances of all these may be seen in our older 
registries. We quickly light upon entries such as ' Os- 
bert le Ferrur,' * Osborne le Hawkere,' ' Oswin Ogle,' 

'Thomas Batemanson,' 'Richard Batmonson,' 'Coleman le lien,' 
* Swetman fil. Edith,' or ' Sweteman Textor,' are not unfrequent. 
'Tiddeman ' is of the same class. 'Tydeman le Svvarte ' and ' Tidde- 
man Bokere ' both occur in the fourteenth century. All the above are 
firmly established as surnames. Having referred to 'Swectman,' I may 
add that ' Sweet ' itself was a baptismal name. ' Swct le Bone ' (A), 
'John Swetson' ('State Papers, Domestic, 1619-1623'), 'Adam 
Swetcoc ' (A), 


* Nicholas Osemund,' or * John Oswald.' Nor must 
'Thor,' the 'Jupiter tonans ' of the Norsemen, be left 
out, for putting aside local names, and the day of the 
week that still memorialises him, we have yet several 
surnames that speak of his influence. 'Thurstan' 
and ' Thurlow ' seem both of kin. ' Thorald,' however, 
has made the greatest mark, and next ' Thurkell.' 
Thorald may be seen in ' Torald Chamberlain ' (A), 
Ralph fil. Thorald (A), or Torald Benig (A); while 
Thurkell or Thurkill is found first in the fuller form 
in such entries as ' Richard Thyrketyll,' or ' Robert 
Thirkettle,' and then in the contracted in ' Thurkeld 
le Seneschal,' or ' Robert Thurkel' 

We have just referred to Thurkettle. ' Kettle ' 
was very closely connected with the mythology of 
Northern Europe, and is still a great name in Norway 
and in Iceland. The sacrificial cauldron of the gods 
must certainly have been vividly present to the 
imagination of our forefathers. The list of names 
compounded with ' Kettle ' is large even in England. 
The simple ' Kettle ' was very common. In Domes- 
day it is ' Chetill,' in the Hundred Rolls ' Ketcl ' or 
' Cetyl ' or * Cattle.' Such entries as * Ketel le Mercer,' 
or * Chetel Fricday,' or ' Cattle Bagge,' are met with 
up to the fifteenth century, and as surnames ' Kettle,' 
' Chettle ' and ' Cattle ' or ' Cattell ' have a well-estab- 
lished place in the nineteenth. Of the compound forms 
we have already noticed 'Thurkettle' or 'Thurkell.' 
' Anketil le Mercir' (A), 'Roger Arketel ' (A), ' William 
Asketiir (Q), and 'Robert fil. Anskitiel' (W. 12) are 
all but changes rung on Oskcttlc. The abbots of 
England, in 941, 992, and 1,052, were 'Turkctyl,' 
'Osketyl,' and ' Wulfketyl ' respectively. The last seems 


to be the same as ' Ulchetel ' found in Domesday.* 
In the same Survey we light upon a ' Steinchetel,' and 
' Grinketel ' is also found in a Yorkshire record of the 
same period.^ Orm, the representative of pagan wor- 
ship in respect of the serpent, has left its memorial in 
such entries as ' Alice fil. Orme,' or ' Ormus Arch- 
bragge.' The descendants of these are our ' Ormes ' 
and ' Ormesons.' More local names abide in * Orms- 
by,' ' Ormskirk,' * Ormerod,' and ' Ormes Head.' 

A series of names, some of them connected with 
the heroic and legendary lore of Northern Europe, 
were formed from the root ' sig ' — conquest. Many 
of these maintained a position as personal names 
long after the Norman invasion, and now exist in our 
directories as surnames. Nevertheless, as with the 
others hitherto mentioned, they are all but invariably 
found in their simple and uncompounded form. Our 

* Sewards,' ' Seawards,' and ' Sawards ' represent the 
chief of these. It is found in England in the seventh 
century, and was a great Danish name. Entries like 

* Syward Godwin ' or * Siward Oldcorn ' are found as 
late as the beginning of the fourteenth century. 
Next we may mention our ' Segars,' ' Sagars,' ' Sa- 
bers,' * Sayers,' and ' Saers,' undoubted descendants of 

' While all these fuller forms are obsolete as surnames, we must not 
forget that most of them still exist curtailed. From early days 
•kettle' in compounds became 'kill' or 'kell.' Thus 'Thurkettle' 
has left us 'Thurkell' and 'Thurkill,' already mentioned. 'Osketyl' 
has become ' Oskell' (' Oskell Somenour,' A. A. 3, vol. ii. p. 184). 
' Ulchetel ' was registered as * Ulkell' and ' Ulchel' (' W. 12, pp. 19, 
20). Our 'Arkells' (Sim. fil. Arkill, E.), I doubt not, are corniptions 
of 'Ansketyl' or 'Oscetyl' or 'Arketel.' 

* Matthew 'Paris, under date 1047, says of the bishopric of Selsey, 
' Defuncto Grinketel, Selesiensi pontifice, Hecca regis capellanus suc- 


such men as ' Saher de Quincy,' the famous old Earl 
of Winchester. The registrations of this as a per- 
sonal name are very frequent. Such entries as 'John 
fil. Saer,' * Saher Clerk,' ' Saher le King,' or ' Eudo fil. 
Sygar,' are common. Nor has ' Sigbiorn ' been al- 
lowed to become obsolete, as our ' Sibornes ' and 
'Seabornes' can testify. I cannot discover any in- 
stance of * Sibbald ' as a personal name after the 
Domesday Survey, but as a relic of ' Sigbald ' it is 
still living in a surnominal form. Though apparently 
occupative, our registers clearly proclaim that * Seman' 
or ' Seaman ' must be set here. As a personal name 
it is found in such designations as ' Seman dc Cham- 
pagne,' or * Seaman de Baylif,' or 'Seaman Carpenter.' 
With the mention of ' Sebright ' as a corruption of 
' Sigbert ' or ' Sebert,' I pass on ; but this is sufficient 
to show that a name whose root-meaning implied 
heroism was popular with our forefathers. 

The popular notion that ' Howard ' is nothing but 
* Hogward ' is not borne out by facts. We find no 
trace whatever of its gradual reduction into such a 
corrupt form. As wc shall have occasion to show 
hereafter, it is our ' Hoggarts ' who thus maintain the 
honours of our swine-tending ancestors. There can 
be little doubt, indeed, that ' Howard ' is but another 
form of ' Harvard ' or ' Hereward.' That it had early 
become so pronounced and spelt wc can prove by an 
entry occurring in the Test. Ebor. (Surt. Soc.) where 
one ' John Fitz-howard ' is registered. Our ' Hermans ' 
and ' Harmans ' represent ' Herman,' a name which, 
though in early use in England, we owe chiefly to 
immigration in later days. Such entries as ' Herman 
de Francia' or * Herman de Alemannia' are occasionally 


met with. The fuller patronymic attached itself to 
this name ; hence such entries as * Walter Herman- 
son,' and * John Urmynson,' * Harmer,' and ' Hermer,' 
seem to be somewhat of kin to the last. The per- 
sonal form is found in * Robert fil. Hermer,' and the 
surname in * Hopkins Harmar.' Besides ' Hardwin,' 

* Hadwin ' is also met with as a relic of the same, 
while * Harding ' has remained unaltered from the day 
when registrars entered such names as ' Robert fil. 
Harding ' and ' Maurice fil. Harding ; ' but this, as 
' Fitz-harding ' reminds us, must be looked upon as of 
Norman introduction. Nor must * Swain ' be for- 
gotten. We find in the Survey the wife of * Edward 
filius Suani,' figuring among the tenants-in-chief of 
Essex. This is of course but our present ' Swainson ' 
or ' Swanson ; ' and when we add all the * Swains,' 

* Swayns,' and * Swaynes ' of our directories we shall 
find that this name has a tolerably assured position 
in the nineteenth century. ' Swain ' implied strength, 
specially the strength of youth; and as Samson's 
strength became utter weakness through his affection, 
so I suppose it has fared with ' Swain.' The country 
shepherd piping to his mistress, the lovesick bachelor, 
has monopolised the title. As a personal name it oc- 
curs in such registrations as * Sweyn Colle,' ' Swanus 
le Riche,' or * Adam fil. Swain.' 

n. — Names introduced or confirmed by the Normans. 

Of names specially introduced at the Conquest, or 
that received an impulse by that event, we may men- 
tion ' Serl ' and * Harvey.' ' Serl,' found in such 
names as * Serle Morice ' or * Serle Gotokirke,' or 


* John fil. Serlo,' still abides in our ' Searles ' and 
' Series,' ' Serrells ' and * Serlsons.' ' William Serle- 
son ' occurs in an old Yorkshire register, and ' Richard 
Serelson * in the Parliamentary Writs. The Norman 
diminutive also appears in Matilda Sirlot (A) and 
Mabel Sirlot (A).* ' Harvey,' or ' Herve,' was more 
common than many may imagine, and a fair number 
of entries such as ' Herveus le Gos ' or ' William fil. 
Hervei,' may be seen in all our large rolls. The 
Malvern poet in his ' Piers Plowman ' employs the 
name : — 

And thanne cam Coveitise, 
Can I hym naght dcscryve, 
So hungrily and holwe 
Sire Hervy hym loked. 

'Arnold,* now almost unknown in England as a 
baptismal name, made a deep impression on our 
nomenclature, as it did on that of Central Europe. 
' Earn ' for the eagle is a word not yet obsolete in the 
North of England, and this reminds us of the origin 
of the name. This kinship is more easily traceable 
in our registries where the usual forms are * Ernaldus 
Carnifix,' or 'Peter Ernald.' Besides 'Arnold,' 'Ami- 
son,' and the diminutive ' Arnott ' or ' Arnet ' ^ still 
live among us. 'Alberic,' or ' Albrcc,' as we find it 
occasionally written, soon found its way into our 
rolls as ' Aubrey,' although, as TElfric, Miss Yongc 
shows it to have existed in our country centuries 

' In these same Writs occurs also the name of * Hugh Serelson.' It 
is possible they are patronymics formed from ' Cyril,' but ' Scrlc ' is the 
more probable parent. 

' The ' Parliamentary Writs ' give us * Matthew Amyet,' the ' Hun- 
dred Rolls,' ' Milisent Arnet.' 


earlier.' ' Albred,' probably but another form of the 
lately revived * Albert,' is now found as ' Allbright * 
and the German ' Albrecht.' 

' Emery,' though now utterly forgotten as a personal 
name, may be said to live on only in our surnames. 
It was once no unimportant sobriquet. 'Americ,' 
' Almeric,' ' Almaric,' ' Emeric,' and ' Eimeric,' seem 
to have been its original spellings in England, and 
thus, at least, it is more likely to remind us that it is 
the same name to which, in the Italian form of 
Amerigo, we now owe the title of that vast expanse 
of western territory which is so indissolubly connected 
with English industry and English interests. Curter 
forms than these were found in ' Aylmar,' ' Ailmar,' 
' Almar,' and ' Aymer,' and ' Amar.' The surnames 
it has bequeathed to us are not few. It has had 
the free run of the vowels in our ' Amorys,' ' Emerys,' 
and * Imarys,' and in a more patronymic form we 
may still oftentimes meet with it in our ' Emersons,' 
* Embersons,' ^ and * Imesons.' ' Ingram ' represents 
the old * Ingelram,' ' Engleram,' ' Iggelram,' or ' Inge- 
ram,' for all these forms may be met with ; and 
' Ebrardus,' later on registered as " Eborard,' still 
abides hale and hearty in our ' Everards ' and ' Everys.' 
The latter, however, can scarcely be said to be quite 
extinct as a baptismal name. ' Waleran,' an English 
form of the foreign ' Valerian,' is found in such an 

' The ' Hundred Rolls' give us a pet addendum in the entry 'Walter 
Auberkin. ' 

* ' Richard Amberson ' and * Robert Amberson ' may be seen in 
Barret's History of Bristol (index). If not sprung from 'Ambrose,' 
they will be but a variation of ' Emberson,' and one more instance of 
the change of vowels referred to a few pages further on. 


entry as * Walerand Berchamstead,' or * Waldrand 
Clark,' or 'Walran Oldman.' We sec at once the 
origin of our ' Walronds ' and * Walrands.' The name 
of * Brice ' begins to find itself located in England at 
this time. Hailing from Denmark, it may have come 
in with the earlier raids from that shore, or later on in 
the more peaceful channels of trade. The Hundred 
Rolls furnish us with ' Brice fil. William ' and * Brice le 
Parsun,' while the Placita de Quo Warranto gives 
us a * Brice le Daneys,' who himself proclaims the 
nationality of the name. The Norman diminutive is 
met with in 'Briccot de Brainton' (M M). 'Brice' and 
' Bryson ' (when not a corruption of * Bride-son ') are 
the present representatives of this now forgotten 
name.* All the above names I have placed together, 
because, while introduced or receiving an impetus by 
the incoming of the Normans and their followers, they 
have, nevertheless, made little impression on our gene- 
ral nomenclature. The factthat, with but one or two ex- 
ceptions, the usual pet addenda, 'kin,' 'cock,' and *ot,' 
or 'et,' are absolutely wanting, or even the patronymic 
'son,' shows decisively that they cannot be numbered 
among what we must call the popular names of the 
period. Introduced here and there in the community 
at large, they struggled on for bare existence, and 
have descended to us as surnames in their simple 
and unaltered form. 

' As with ' Brice ' so it is to the Danes we owe many entries in our 
older records of which ' Christian ' is the root. As a';baptismal [name 
it has always been most common in those parts of the eastern coast of 
England which have been brought into contact with Denmark by trade. 
Such names as ' Joan Cristina, ' 'Brice Cristian,' or 'John fil. Christian,' 
frequently occur in medixval registers. Their descendants are now 
found as 'Christian,' 'Christy,' and ' Christison.' 


We now turn to a batch of personal names of a 
different character, names which, with a few excep- 
tions, are still familiar to us at baptismal celebrations, 
and which have changed themselves into so many- 
varying forms, that the surnames issuing from them 
are well-nigh legion. Most of these are the direct 
result of the Conquest. They are either !^the sobriquets 
borne by William, his family, and his leading fol- 
lowers, or by those whom connections of blood, 
alliance, and interest afterwards brought into the 
country. Many others received their solid settlement 
in England through the large immigration of foreign 
artisans from Normandy, from Picardy, Anjou, Flan- 
ders, and other provinces. The Flemish influence has 
been very strong. 

I will first mention Drew, Warin, Paine, Ivo, and 
Hamon, because, although they must be included 
among the most familiar names of their time, they 
are now practically disused at the font. ' Drew,* or 
'Drogo,' occurs several times in Domesday. An 
illegitimate son of Charlemagne was so styled, and, 
doubtless, it owed its familiarity to the adherents of 
the Conqueror, Later on, at any rate, it was firmly 
established, as such names as Drew Drewery, Druco 
Bretun, or William fil. Drogo testify. That ' Drewett' 
is derived from the Norman diminutive can be proved 
from the Hundred Rolls, wherein the same man is 
described in the twofold form of * Drogo Malerbe ' 
and * Druett Malerbe.' The feminine ' Dructta de 
Pratello ' is also found in the same records. ' Drew ' 
and ' Drewett ' are both in our directories.' Few 

■ As a proof that 'Andrew' and 'Drew' were distinct names, we 
may cite a fact recorded in Mr. Riley's Manorials of London. In the 


names were more common from the eleventh to the 
fourteenth century than ' Warin,' or ' Guarin,' or 
' Guerin ' — the latter the form at present generally 
found in France. It is the sobriquet that is incor- 
porated in our ancient ' Mannerings,' or ' Main- 
warings,' a family that came from the ' mesnil,' or 
' manor,' of ' Warin,' in a day when that was a 
familiar Christian name in Norman households. A 
few generations later on we find securely settled 
among ourselves such names as ' Warin Chapman,' 
or ' Warinus Ceroid/ or ' Guarinus Banastre,' in the 
baptismal, and 'Warinus Fitz-Warin,' or 'John Wari- 
son,' in the patronymic form, holding a steady place in 
our mediaeval rolls. Two of the characters in ' Piers 
Plowman,' as those who have read it will remember, 
bear this as their personal sobriquet : — 

One Waryn Wisdom 
And Witty his fere 
Followed him faste. 

And again — 

Then wente Wisdom 
And Sire Waryn the Witty 
And wamede wrong. 

' Robert Warinot,' in the Hundred Rolls, and ' Wil- 
liam Warinot ' in the Placita de Quo Warranto, 
reveal the origin of our ' Warnetts ;' while our ' Warc- 
ings,' ' Warings/ ' Warisons,' ' Wasons,' and ' P^itz- 
Warins ' — often written ' Fitz- Warren ' — not to men- 
year 1400, Drew Barenlyn, twice Lord Mayor, came before the Council, 
asking to have his name ' Drew ' set down in the list of those who 
possessed the freedom of the city, the scribe having entered it as 
•Andrew.'— pp. 554, 555. 


tion the majority of our ' Warrens,' ^ are other of the 
descendants of this famous old name that still survive. 
A favourite name in these days was * Payn/ or ' Pagan.' 
The softer form is given us in the ' Man of Lawes 
Tale '— 

The Constable, and Dame Hermegild his wife, 
Were payenes, and that country everywhere. 

We all know the history of the word ; how that, while 
the Gospel had made advance in the cities, but not 
yet penetrated into the country, the dwellers in the 
latter became looked upon with a something of con- 
tempt as idolators, so that, so far as this word was 
concerned, 'countryman' and 'false-worshipper' be- 
came synonymous terms. In fact, 'pagan' embraced 
the two meanings that * peasant ' and ' pagan ' now 
convey, though the root of both is the same. The 
Normans, it would appear, must have so styled some 
of themselves who had refused baptism after that 
their chieftain, RoUo, had become a convert ; and 
hence, when William came over, the name was intro- 
duced into England by several of his followers. In 
Domesday Book we find among his tenants-in- 
chief the names of ' Ralph Paganel ' and ' Edmund 
fil. Pagani.' The name became more popular as time 
went on, and it is no exaggeration to say that at one 
period— viz., the close of the Norman dynasty — it had 
threatened to become one of the most familiar appel- 
latives in England. This will account for the fre- 
quency with which we meet such entries in the past 
as ' Robert fil. Pain,' ' Pain del Ash,' ' Pagan do la 

' 'Warren le Latimer' occurs in the 'Rolls of Tarliament,' and 
'Fulco P'itz- Warren' in the 'Cal. Rot. Pat.' in Titrri LondoncnsL 



Hale,' 'Roger fil. Pagan,' 'Payen le Dubbour,' or 
' Elis le Fitz-Payn,' and such surnames in the present 
as ' Pagan,' * Payne,' ' Payn,' ' Paine,' ' Pain,' and 

* Pynson.' The diminutive also was not wanting, as 

* John Paynett ' (Z) or ' P^mma Paynot ' (W 2) could 
have testified. Thus, while in our dictionaries ' pagan ' 
still represents a state of heathenism, in our directories 
it has long ago been converted to the uses of Chris- 
tianity, and become at the baptismal font a Christian 
name. * Ivar,' or ' Iver,' still familiarised to Scotch- 
men in *Mac-Iver,' came to the Normans from the 
northern lands whence they were sprung, and with 
them into England. It was not its first appearance 
here, as St. Ives of Huntingdonshire could have 
testified in the seventh centurj'. Still its popular 
character was due to the Norman. Such names as 
*Yvo de Taillbois ' (121 1), mentioned in Bishop Pud- 
sey's ' Survey of the Durham See,' ' Ivo le Mercer,' 
' Walter fil. Ive,' ' William Iveson,' ' Iveta Millisent,' 
or ' John fil. Ivette,' serve to show us how familiar 
was this appellation with both scxes.^ Nor are its 
descendants inclined to let its memory die. We have 
the simple 'Ive' and 'Ives;' we have the more 
patronymic * Iverson,' ' Ivison,' * Iveson,' and ' Ison,' 
and the pet ' Ivetts ' and * Ivatts,' the latter possibly 
feminine in origin. 

' Hamo,' or ' Hamon,' requires a paragraph for 

• Ivo de Usegate was Bailiflf of York in 127 1. A few years after 
we find the Church of Askam Richard, close to the city, given by 
William de Archis and Ivetta his wife to the Nunnery of Monkton. In 
1729 Alicia Iveson was buried in St. Martin's, Micklegate. Thus in 
the one city we have memorials of the male, female, and hereditary \i§e 
of this name. 


itself. It is firmly imbedded in our existing nomen- 
clature, and has played an important part in its time. 
Its forms were many, and though obsolete as baptismal 
names, all have survived as surnames. Of these may 
be mentioned our ' Hamons,' ' Haymons,' ' Aymons,' 
and ' Fitz-Aymons.' Formed like ' Rawlyn,' ' Thom- 
lin,' and ' Cattlin,' it bequeathed us ' Hamlyn,' a relic 
of such folk as ' Hamelyn de Trap ' or ' Osbert 
Hamelyn.' Another change rung on the name is 
traceable in such entries as ' Hamund le Mestre,' 
' Hamond Cobeler,' or ' John Fitz-Hamond,' the 
source of our 'Hammonds' and 'Hamonds;' while 
in ' Alice Hamundson ' or ' William Hamneson ' we 
see the lineage of our many ' Hampsons,' But these 
are the least important. The Norman-French diminu- 
tive, ' Hamonet,' speedily corrupted into ' Hamnet ' 
and * Hammet,' became one of our favourite baptismal 
names, and towards the reign of Elizabeth one of the 
commonest. A ' Hamnet de Dokinfield ' is found so 
early as 1270 at Manchester (Didsbury Ch. Cheth. 
Soc). Shakespeare's son was baptized ' Hamnet,' 
and was so called after * Hamnet Sadler,' a friend of 
the poet's — a baker at Stratford. This man is styled 
' Hamlet ' also, reminding us of another pet form of the 
name. We have already mentioned ' Richard,' ' Chris- 
tian,' ' Hugh,' and * Hobbe,' as severally giving birth 
to the diminutives, ' Rickelot,' ' Crestelot,' ' Huclot,' 
and ' Hobelot.' In the same way, * Hamon ' became 
' Hamelot,' or ' Hamelet,' hence such entries as 
* Richard, son of Hamelot ' (AA 2), and ' Hamelot de 
la Burste' (Cal. and Inv. of Treasury). Out of 
fifteen 'Hamnets' set down in 'Wills and Inventories' 
(Cheth. Soc), six are recorded as ' Hamlet,' one being 


set down in both forms as * Hamnet Massey ' and 
'Hamlet Massey' (cf. i. 148, ii. 201). If the reader 
will look through the index of Bromefield's ' Norfolk,' 
he will find that ' Hamlet ' in that county had taken 
the entire place of ' Hamnet.' Amid a large number 
of the former I cannot find one of the latter. It would 
be a curious question how far Shakespeare was biassed 
by the fact of having a ' Hamlet in his nursery into 
changing ' Hambleth ' (the original title of the story) 
to the form he has now immortalized. An open Bible, 
and, further on, a Puritan spirit have left their influence 
on no name more markedly than ' Hamon.' As one 
after another new Bible character was commemorated 
at the font, ' Hamon ' got crushed out. Its last refuge 
has been found in our directories, for so long as our 
' Hamlets,' ' Hamnets,' ' Hammets,' ' Hammonds,' and 
' Hampsons ' exist, it cannot be utterly forgotten. 

' Guy,' or ' Guyon,' dates from the * Round Table,' 
but it was reserved for the Norman to make his name 
so familiar to English lips. The best proof of this is 
that the surnames which it has left to us arc all but 
entirely formed from the Norman-French diminutive 
' Guyot,' which in England became, of course, ' Wyot.' 
Hence such entries as 'Wyot fil. Helias,' or 'Wyott 
Carpenter,' or ' Wyot Balistarius.' The descendants 
of these, I need scarcely say, are our ' Wyatts.' But 
the Norman initial was not entirely lost. ' Alcyn 
Gyot ' is found in the ' Rolls of Parliament ;' and 
' Guyot ' and ' Guyatt ' testify to its existence in the 
nineteenth century.' ' Ralph,' or ' Radulf,' of whom 
there were thirty-eight in Domesday, has survived 

' 'Guido,' as 'Wydo,' is found in such entries as 'Will. fd. Wydo' 
(A), or 'Will. fd. Wjdonis'(K), hence ' Widowson' and ' Widdowson.' 


in a number of forms. Our * Raffs ' and * Raffsons ' 
can carry back their descent to days when ' Raffe 
Barton ' or ' Peter Raffson ' thus signed themselves. 
The favourite pet forms were ' RawHn ' and ' Randle ;' 
hence such entries as ' Raulyn de la Fermerie,' ' Rau- 
lina de Briston,' or ' Randle de la Mill.' To these it 
is we owe our ' Rawlins,' ' Rawlings,' ' Rawlinsons,' 
'Rollins,' 'Rollinsons,* 'Randies' and 'Randalls.' Other 
and more ordinary corruptions are found in ' Rawes,' 

* Rawson,' ' Rawkins,' ' Rapkins,' and ' Rapson.' The 
reader may easily see from this that ' Ralph,' from 
occupying a place in the foremost rank of early 
favourites, is content now to stand in the very rear. 

There are a number of names still in use, although 
not so popular as they once were, which were brought 
in directly by the Normans, and which were closely 
connected with the real or imaginary stories of which 
Charlemagne was the central figure. Italy, France, 
and Spain possess a larger stock than we do of this 
class, but those which did reach our shores made for 
themselves a secure position. ' Charles,' by some 
strange accident, did not obtain a place in England, 
nor is it to be found in our registers, saving in the most 
isolated instances, till Charles the First, by his mis- 
fortunes, made it one of the commonest in the land. 
In France, as Sir Walter Scott, in ' Quentin Durward,' 
reminds us, the pet form was ' Chariot ' and ' Charlat.' 
This, as a surname, soon found its way to England, 
where it has existed for many centuries. The feminine 

* Charlotte,' since the death of the beloved Princess 
of that name, has become almost a household word. 
Putting aside * Charles,' then, the Paladins have be- 
queathed us ' Roland,' * Oliver,' ' Robert,' ' Richard,' 


' Roger,' ' Reginald,' ' Reynard,' and 'Miles.' We see at 
once in these names the parentage of some of our most 
familiar surnames. ' Oliver ' was, perhaps, the least 
popular so far as numbers were concerned, and might 
have died out entirely had not the Protector Crom- 
well brought it again into notoriety. 'Oliver,' 'Olver,' 
' Oilier,' and ' Olivcrson ' are the present forms, and 
these are met by such entries as ' Jordan Olyver,' or 
'Philip fil. Oliver.' 'Roland,' or 'Orlando,' was the 
nephew of the great Charles, who fell in his peerless 
might at Roncesvalles. Of him and Oliver, Walter 
Scott, translating the Norman chronicle, says — 

Taillefer, who sang both well and loud, 
Came mounted on a courser proud, 
Before the Duke the minstrel spnmg, 
And loud of Charles and Roland sung, 
Of Oliver and champions mo, 
Who died at fatal Roncevaux. 

' Roland ' was a favourite name among the higher 
nobility for centuries, and with our ' Rolands,' ' Row- 
lands,' ' Rowlsons,' and ' Rowlandsons,' bids fair to 
maintain its hold upon our surnames, if not the bap- 
tismal list. Old forms are found in such entries as 
'Roland le Lene,' ' Rouland Bloet,' 'William Rol- 
landson,' or ' Robert Rowclyngsonne ' ! We must not 
forget, too, that our ' Rowletts ' and ' Rowlcts ' repre- 
sent the French diminutive.' ' Robert ' is an instance 
of a name which has held its place against all counter 
influences from the moment which first brought it 
into public favour. It is early made conspicuous in 
the eldest son of the Bastard King who, through his 

• Matthew Rowlett was Master of the Mint to Henry VHI. (See 
Pro. Ord. P)ivy Cotmcil.) 


miserable fate, became such an object of common 
pity that, though of the hated stock, his sobriquet 
became acceptable among the Saxons themselves. 
From that time its fortunes were made, even had not 
the bold archer of Sherwood Forest risen to the fore, 
and caused ' Hob ' to be the title of every other young 
peasant you might meet 'twixt London and York. A 
curious instance of the popularity of the latter is found 
in the fact that a tradesman living in 1388 in Win- 
chelsea is recorded under the name of 'Thomas 
Robynhod.' The diminutives ' Robynet ' ^ and ' Ro- 
bertot' are obsolete, but of other forms that still 
thrive among us are ' Roberts,' ' Robarts,' ' Robertson,' 
' Robins,' ' Robinson,' 'Robison,' and 'Robson,' From 
its shortened ' Dob' are 'Dobbs,' 'Dobson,' 'Dobbins,' 
' Dobinson,' and ' Dobison.' ^ From its equally 
familiar ' Hob ' are ' Hobbs,' ' Hobson,' ' Hobbins,' 

* Hopkins,' and ' Hopkinson.' From the Welsh, too, 
we get, as contractions of ' Ap-robert ' and ' Ap-robin,' 

* Probert ' and ' Probyn.' Thus ' Robert ' is not left 
without remembrance. Richard was scarcely less 
popular than Robert. Though already firmly estab- 
lished, for Richard was in the Norman ducal gene- 
alogy before William came over the water, still it was 
reserved for the Angevine monarch, as he had made 
it the terror of the Paynim, so to make it the pride 
of the English heart. Richard I. is an instance of 
a man's many despicable qualities being forgotten in 

» ' Robinet of the Hill' (Y). ' Richard Robynet' (H). 'William 
Robertot ' (A). 

* We find the diminutive of this form in the name of 'John 
Dobynette,' who is mentioned in an inventory of goods, 1463. (Mun. 
Acad. Oxon.) 


the dazzling brilliance of daring deeds. He was an 
ungrateful son, an unkind brother, a faithless husband; 
but he was the idol of his time, and to him a large 
mass of English people of to-day owe their nominal 
existence. From the name proper we get * Richards ' 
and ' Richardson,' ' Ricks ' and ' Rix,' ' Rickson ' and 

* Rixon,' or ' Ritson,' ' Rickards,' and ' Rickctts.' > 
From the curter ' Dick ' or * Diccon,' "^ we derive 

* Dicks ' or ' Dix,' ' Dickson ' or ' Dixon,' ' Dickens ' or 
' Diccons,' and * Dickenson ' or ' Dicconson.' From 
' Hitchin,' once nearly as familiar as ' Dick,' we get 
' Hitchins,' ' Hitchinson,' ' Hitchcock,' and ' Hitchcox.' 
Like many another name, the number of ' Richards ' 
now is out of all proportion less than these surnames 
would ascribe to it some centuries ago. The reason 
of this we shall speak more particularly about by-and- 
by. Roger, well known in France and Italy, found 
much favour in England. From it we derive our 
' Rogers,' ' Rodgers,' and ' Rogcrsons.' From Hodge, 
its nickname, we acquired ' Hodge,' * Hodges,' ' Hodg- 
kins,' * Hotchkins,' ' Hoskins,' ' Hodgkinson,' ' Hodg- 
son^' and ' Hodson,' and through the Welsh ' Prodgcr.' 
The diminutive ' Rogercock ' is found once, but it was 

' The diminutive ' Richelot' was by no means unknown in England. 
'Rikelot, tenant at Wickham ' (Domesday of St. Paul: Cam. Soc.), 

* Robert Richelot ' (Great Roll of the Pipe), • Robert Richelot ' (Feo- 
daram Prioratus Dunelm. Sur. Soc). 'Rickett' is probably a corrup- 
tion of this. 

* The Norman 'Diccon' was coriiipted into 'Diggon.' Spencer 
begins one of his pastorals thus, Welsh-like : — 

* Diggon Davie, I bid her "Good-day," 
Or Diggon her is, or I missay.' 

' Diccon' was popular among the English peasantrj' from the twelfth to 
the eighteenth century. 


ungainly, and I doubt not met with little favour. 
Reginald, as Rinaldo, immortalized by the Italian 
poet, appeared in Domesday as * Ragenald ' and 
' Rainald.' Our * Reynolds,' represent the surname. 
' Renaud ' or ' Renard,' can never be forgotten while 
there is a single fox left to display its cunning. The 
story seems to have been founded on the character 
of some real personage, but his iniquities did not 
frighten parents from the use of the name. ' Renaud 
Balistarius ' or ' Adam fil. Reinaud ' are common 
entries, and ' Reynardsons ' and ' Rennisons ' still 
exist. Our ' Rankins,' too, would seem to have origi- 
nated from this sobriquet since * Gilbert Reynkin ' 
and * Richard Reynkyn ' are found in two separate rolls. 
Miles came into England as ' Milo,' that being the 
form found in Domesday. It was already popular 
with the Normans, and, like all other personal names 
from the same source, we find it speedily recorded in 
a diminutive shape, as'Millot ' and 'Millet* ' Roger 
Millot ' occurs in the Hundred Rolls, and * Thomas 
' Mylett ' in a Yorkshire register of an early date. The 
patronymics were 'Mills,' 'Miles,' ' Millson,' and 
' Mileson,' ' all of which still exist. 

The great race for popularity since Domesday re- 
cord has ever been that between 'William' and 'John.' 
In the age immediately following the Conquest ' Wil- 
liam ' decidedly held the supremacy. This is naturally 
accounted for by its royal associations. There was, 
indeed, a 'John' in the same line of descent as the 
Bastard from Richard I. of Normandy, but the name 

• A Richard Mileson entered C.C. Coll., Cam., in 1659 (Masters' 
Hist. C.C. Coll.). Edward Myleson occurs in the Calendar to Plead- 
ings (Elizabeth), 


seems to have been forgotten, or passed by unheeded, 
till it was revived again five generations later in * John 
Lackland.' ' William ' enjoyed better auspices. It 
was the name of the founder of the new monarchy. 
It was the name of his immediate successor. What- 
ever the character of these two kings, such a conjunc- 
tion could not but have its weight upon the especially 
Norman element in the kingdom. We find in Domes- 
day that while there are 68 ' Williams,' 48 ' Roberts,' 
and 28 'Walters,' there are only 10 'Johns.' A cen- 
tury later than this, 'William' must still have claimed 
precedence among the nobility at least, as is proved 
by a statement of Robert Montensis. He says, that 
at a festival held in the court of Henry II., in 1173, 
Sir William St. John and Sir William Fitz-Hamon, 
especial officers, had commanded that none but those 
of the name of 'William' should dine in the Great 
Chamber with them, and were, therefore, accompanied 
by one hundred and twenty ' Williams,' all knights. By 
the time of Edward I. this disproportion had become 
less marked. In a list of names connected with the 
county of Wiltshire in that reign, we find, out of a 
total of 588 decipherable names (for the record is 
somewhat damaged), 92 'Williams' to 88 'Johns,' 
while 'Richard' is credited with 55; 'Robert,' 48; 
' Roger,' 23 ; and ' Geoffrey,' * Ralph,' and ' Peter,' 
each 16 names. This denotes clearly that a consider- 
able change had taken place in the popular estimation 
of these two appellations. Within a century after 
this, however, 'John ' had evidently gained the supre- 
macy. In 1347, we find that out of 133 Common 
Councilmen for London town first convened, 35 were 
'Johns,' the next highest being 17 under the head of 


' William,' 1 5 under ' Thomas,' which now, for obvious 
reasons we will mention hereafter, had suddenly 
sprung into notoriety; 10 under 'Richard,' 9 under 

* Henry,' 8 under ' Robert,' and so on ; ending with 
one each for ' Laurence,' ' Reynald,' ' Andrew,' ' Alan,' 
' Giles,' ' Gilbert,' and * Peter.' A still greater dispro- 
portion is found forty years later; for in 1385, the 
Guild of St. George, at Norwich, out of a total of 376 
names, possessed 128 'Johns' to 47 'Williams' and 
41 ' Thomases.'^ From this period, despite the hatred 
that was felt for Lackland, 'John' kept the precedence 
it had won, and to this circumstance the nation owes 
the sobriquet it now generally receives, that of 'John 
Bull.' Long ago, however, under the offensive title of 

* Jean Gotdam,' we had become known as a people 
given to strange and unpleasant oaths. It is interest- 
ing to trace the way in which ' William ' has again 
recovered itself in later days. Throughout the Middle 
Ages it occupied a sturdy second place, fearless of any 
rival beyond the one that had supplanted it. Its dark 
hour was the Puritan Commonwealth. As a Pagan 
name it was rejected with horror and disdain. From 
the day of the Protestant settlement and William's 
accession, however, it again looked up from the cold 
shade into which it had fallen, and now once more 
stands easily, as eight centuries ago, at the head of 
our baptismal registers. ' John,' on the other hand, 
though it had the advantage of being in no way hate- 

' Tliis rivalry seems to have made its mark upon the popular super- 
stitions of our forefathers, for to this day tlic ignis fatuus of our marshy 
districts is called either * Will-a-Wisp' or ' Jack-a-Lanthorn.' It at 
least reminds us that there was a day when every country clown was 
either 'Jack' or 'Will.' 


ful to the Puritan conscience, has, from one reason or 
another, gone down in the world, and now has again 
resumed its early place as second. 

The surnames that have descended to us from 
' William ' and ' John ' are wcllnigh numberless — far 
too many for enumeration here. To begin with the 
former, however, we find that the simple ' Williams * 
and ' Williamson ' occupy whole pages of our direc- 
tories. Besides these, we have from the curtcr ' Will,' 
' Wills,' ' Willis,' and ' Wilson ; ' from the diminutive 
' Guillemot ' or ' Gwillot,' as it is often spelt in olden 
records, ' Gillot,' ' Gillott,' and ' Gillett ; ' or from 
' Williamot,'' the more English form of the same, 
' Willmot,' ' Wilmot, ' Willot,' ' Willet,' and ' Willert.' 
In conjunction with the pet addenda, we get ' Wilks,' 
' Wilkins,' and 'Wilkinson,' and 'Wilcox,' 'Wilcocson,' 
and * Wilcockson,' Lastly, we have representatives of 
the more corrupt forms in such names as ' Weeks,* 
' Wickens,' ' Wickenson,' and ' Bill ' and ' Bilson.' Mr. 
Lower, who does not quote any authority for the 
statement, alleges that there was an old provincial 
nickname for ' William ' — viz., ' Till ;' whence * Tilson,' 
* Tillot,' 'Tillotson,' and 'Tilly.' That these are sprung 
from ' Till ' is evident, but there can be no reasonable 
doubt that this is but the still existing curtailment of 
' Matilda,' which, as the most familiar female name of 
that day, would originate many a family so entitled. 
' Tyllott Thompson ' is a name occurring in York in 
1 4 14. Thus it is to the Conqueror's wife, and not 

' A certain John Willimoke, a tavcmer, was sworn before the Chan- 
cellor of Oxford University to sell good beer, 1434. (Mun. Acad. Oxon, 
P- 595)- * Williametta Cantatrix,' (Rot. Lit. riausaruro). 


himself, these latter owe their rise. It is not the first 
time a wife's property has thus been rudely wrenched 
from her for her husband's benefit. The surnames 
from ' John ' are as multifarious as is possible in the 
case of a monosyllable, ingenuity in the contraction 
thereof being thus manifestly limited. As 'John' 
simple it is very rare ; but this has been well atoned 
for by 'Jones,' which, adding 'John ' again as a prae- 
nomen, would be (as has been well said by the 
Registrar-General) in Wales a perpetual incognito, 
and being proclaimed at the cross of a market town 
would indicate no one in particular. Certainly 'John 
Jones,' in the Principality, is but a living contradiction 
to the purposes for which names and surnames came 
into existence. Besides this, however, we have ' John- 
son ' and 'Jonson,' 'Johncock' and 'Jenkins,' 'Jen- 
nings' and 'Jenkinson,' 'Jackson' and ' Jacox,' and 
* Jenks ; ' which latter, however, now bids fair, under 
the patronage of ' Ginx's Baby,' to be found for the 
future in a new and more quaint dress than it has 
hitherto worn. Besides several of the above, it is to 
the Welsh, also, we owe our ' Ivens,' ' Evans,' and 
' Bevans ' {i.e. Ap-Evan), which are but sprung from 
the same name. The Flemings, too, have not suffered 
their form of it to die out for lack of support ; for it is 
with the settlement of ' Hans,' * a mere abbreviation 

' A curious spelling of this is found in the entry, ' Ilaunce, the 
Luter, ii.s — vi.d.' [Privy Purse Exp. Princess Mary, \). 104.) ' Han- 
kin Booby ' was the common name for a clown. ( C/iaf pell's English 
Songs, i. 73.) 

' Thus for her love and loss poor Hankin dies, 
His amorous soul down flies.' 

Musaruin Deliciie, 1655. 


of ' Johannes,' we are to date the rise of our familiar 
' Hansons,' ' Hankins,' ' Hankinsons,' and ' Hancocks/ 
or ' Handcocks.' Nor is this all. 'John' enjoyed the 
peculiar prerogative of being able to attach to itself 
adjectives of a flattering, or at least harmless nature, 
and issuing forth and becoming accepted by the world 
therewith. Thus — though wc shall have to notice it 
again — from the praiseworthy effort to distinguish the 
many ' Johns ' each community possessed, we have 
still in our midst such names as * Prujean ' and ' Gros- 
jean,' ' Micklejohn ' and ' Littlejohn,' ' Properjohn ' 
and ' Brownjohn,' and last, but not least, the estimable 
* Bonjohn.' Do wc need to go on to prove ' Jack's ' 
popularity, or rather universality .■' ^ Every stranger 
was ' Jack ' till he was found to be somebody else ; so 
that ' every man Jack of them ' has been a kind of 
general lay-baptism for ages. Every young super- 
numerary, whose position and age gave the licence, 
was in the eye of his superiors simply ' Jack.' As one 
instrument after another, however, was brought into 
use, by which manual service was rendered un- 
necessary and ' Jack ' unnccdcd, instead of super- 
annuating him he was quietly thrust into the new 
^nd inanimate office, and what with 'boot-jacks' and 
'black-jacks,' 'jack-towels' and 'smoke-jacks,' 'jacks' 
for this and 'jacks' for that, no wonder people have 
begun to speak unkindly of him as ' Jack-of-all-trades 
and master of none.' Still, with this uncomplimentary 

' ' Jack ' was really the nickname of Jacobus or James. Jacques 
was the common name among the peasantry of France, and as a national 
sobriquet was to that country what John was to England. On its 
introduction to ourselves, it seems to have been tacitly accepted as but 
a synonym for John, and has been used as such ever since 


tone, there was a smack of praise. A notion, at any 
rate, got abroad that * Jack ' must be a knowing, 
clever, sharp-witted sort of fellow, one who has his 
eyes open. So we got into the way of associating 
him with the more lively of the birds, beasts, and 
fishes ; such, for instance, as the 'jack-daw,' the * jack- 
an-apes,' and the 'jack-pike.' But 'familiarity,' as 
our copybooks long ago informed us, ' breeds con- 
tempt ; ' and so was it with ' Jack ' — he became a 
mark for ridicule. Even in Chaucer's day 'jack-fool' 
or ' jack-pudding ' was the synonym for a buffoon, and 
'jackass' for a dolt ; and here it but nationalises the 
' zany,' a corruption of the Italian ' Giovanni,' or 
* merry-John,' corresponding to our ' merry-Andrew.' 
'Jack of Dover ' also existed at the same period as a 
cant term for a clever knave, and that it still lived in 
the seventeenth century is clear from Taylor's rhyme, 
where he says : — 

Nor Jacke of Dover, that grand jury Jacke, 
Nor Jack-sauce, the worst knave amongst the pack, 
But of the Jacke of Jackes, great Jack-a-Lent, 
To vv'rite his worthy acts is my intent.' 

Altogether, we may claim for ' John ' a prominent, 
if not distinguished, position in the annals of English 

' ' Sir John' ('sir' being the simple old-fashioned title of respect, as 
in 'sir knight,' ' sir king,' &c.) was the familiar expression for a priest. 
Bishop Bale speaks of them as ' babbling Sir Johns.' Bradford, too, 
writing on the Mass, asks, ' Who then, I say, will excuse these mass- 
gospellers' consciences? Will the Queen's highness? She shall then 
have more to do for herself than, without hearty and speedy repentance, 
she can ever be able to answer, though Peter, Paul, Mary, James, John, 
the Pope and all his prelates, take her part, M'ith all the singing " Sir 
Johns" that ever were, are, and shall be.' — BisJwp Bradford's Works. 
Park. Soc, p. 391. 


nomenclature. Nor must we forget ' Joan,' until 
Tudor days the general form of the present * Jane.' 
Then ' some of the better and nicer sort,' as Camden 
saith, ' misliking the former, turned it into " Jane " ; ' 
and in testimony of this he adds that 'Jane ' is never 
found in older records. This is strictly true. There 
can be little doubt that when the fair queen of Henry 
VIII. gave distinction to the name it became a courtly 
fashion to give it a different form from that borne by 
the multitude, and thus 'Jane' arose. Thus 'Joan' 
was left, as Miss Yonge says, ' to the cottage and the 
kitchen ; ' and there, indeed, it lingered on for a long 
period.' Of many another could Shakespeare have 
sung : — 

Then nightly sings the staring owl, 

To- who. 
To-whit, to-who, a merry note, 
While greasy Joan doth keel the pot. 

Previously to this, anyway, both queens and prin- 
cesses had been content with * Joan.' I doubt not, 
with regard to several of the surnames above-men- 
tioned, * John ' must, if the truth be told, share the 
honours of origination with 'Joan;' nor do I think 
* Jennison ' peculiar to the latter. What with ' John ' 
and 'Jean ' for the masculine, and ' Joan ' and' Jenny ' 

' Thus Thomas Hale, a Puritan, writing in 1 660 against May 
Games, has some versos in which tlie Maypole is represented as 
saying — 

I have a mighty retinue. 

The scum of all the raskall crew 

Of fidlers, pedlers, jayle scaped slaves, 

Of tinkers, turncoats, tospot knaves. 

Of theeves and scape-thrifts many a one, 

With bouncing Bcsse and jolly Jone. 


for the feminine, 1 do not see how the two could 
possibly escape confusion. 'Jones ' and ' Joanes,' and 
'Jane' and 'Jayne,' to say nothing of 'Jennings,' 
seem as like hereditary from the one as the other.^ 
Two feminines from 'Jack,' viz. 'Jacquetta' and 
' Jacqueline,' were not unknown in England ; ' Jac- 
quetta Knokyn ' (A A 3), 'Jackett Toser ' (Z). The 
latter was the more common, and bequeathed us a 
surname ' Jacklin,' which still exists. It is found on 
an old bell : — 

This bell was broke and cast againe, as plainly doth appeare, 
John Draper made me in 1618, wich tyme churchwardens were, 
Edward Dixson for the one, who stood close to his tacklin, 
And he that was his partner there was Alexander Jacklin. 

{Book of Days, i. 303. ) 

The peasant's leather jerkin, corresponding to the more 
lordly coat of mail, was a jack whence the diminu- 
tive jacket. The more warlike dress gave rise to the 
name of ' Jackman,' of which more anon. 

' In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries a popular sobriquet 
for Jane or Joan was ' Jugg.' In Espinasses' ' Lancashire Worthies,' Joan, 
the daughter of the celebrated Dr. Byrom, is familiarly styled 'Jugg.' 
A song of James I.'s reign says — • 

* Joan, Siss, and Nell, shall all be ladified, 
Instead of hay carts, in coaches shall ride.' 

This is Mr. Chappell's version. (English Songs, i. 327.) In Hunter's 
' Hallamshire,' it runs — 

'yugS, Cis, and Nell, shall all be ladified.' 

A ballad of Queen Anne's reign represents John, the swain, as 

' My heart and all's at thy command, 
And tho' I've never a foot of land. 
Yet six fat ewes and one milch cow, 
1 think, my Jug, is wealth enow.' 

(Pills to Purge MdancJwly, i. 293.) 



The Angevine dynasty gave a new impulse to 
some already popular names, and may be said in 
reality to have introduced, although not altogether 
unknown, several new ones. The two which owe the 
security of their establishment to it are ' Geoffrey ' 
and ' Fulke.' The grandfather, the father, a brother, 
and a son of Henry II. were 'Geoffrey;' and still 
earlier than this, * Geoffrey Grisegonelle,' ' Geoffrey 
Martel,' and * Geoffrey Barbu ' had each in turn set 
their mark upon the same. Apart from these in- 
fluences, too, the stories brought home by the Crusa- 
ders of the prowess of Godfrey, the conqueror of 
Jerusalem, must have had their wonted effect in a 
day of such martial renown. Such surnames as 
'Jeffs,' 'Jeffries,' 'Jefferson,' 'Jeffcock' 'Jeffkins,' 
'Jephson,' and 'Jepson' still record the share it had 
obtained in English esteem. ' Fulke,' or ' Fulque,* 
though there had been six so early as Domesday 
Book, when it came backed as it was by the fact of 
having given title to five Angevine rulers, got an in- 
evitable place. Few Christian names were so com- 
mon as this in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. 
But it was an ungainly one, difficult to pronounce, 
and difficult to form into a patronymic. Thus, ' P^ax- 
son ' and ' P^awson ' are the only longer forms I can 
find as at present existing, while the variously spelt 
' Fulkes,' ' Foulkes,' ' Fakes,' ' P^aux,' ' Fawkes,' 
' P^aulks,' ' P'owkes,' ' Folkes,' ' Foakes,' and doubtless 
sometimes ' P^ox,' serve to show how hard it was to 
hand it down in its original integrity. The entries 
in our mediaeval registers are equally varied. We 
light upon such people as ' Fowlke Grevill,' ' Fowke 
Crompton,' ' Fulk Paifrcr,' ' Fulke le Taverner,' * Foke 


Odeli; ' Faukes le Buteller,' ' Nel Faukes,' and ' John 
Faux.' As an English historic name it has given us 
two miscreants ; the hateful favourite of John, out- 
lawed by Henry III., and the still more sanguinary 
villain of James I.'s day, in whose dishonour we still 
pile up the blazing logs in the gloomy nights of 
November, Henry, again, or more properly speaking 
Harry, owes much to the Plantagenets, for but three 
are to be found in Domesday. With its long line 
of monarchs, albeit it represented a curious mixture 
of good, bad, and indifferent qualities, that dynasty 
could not but stamp itself decisively on our registers. 
Thus, we have still plenty of * Henrys,' ' Harrises,' 

* Harrisons,' ' Hallets,' ' Halkets,' ' Hawkinses,' and 
' Hawkinsons ; ' to say nothing of the Welsh ' Parrys ' 
and ' Penrys.' • (' Thomas Ap-Harry,' D. ' Hugh Ap- 
harrye,' Z.) The Norman diminutive was early used, 
as such folk as 'Alicia Henriot,' 'Robert Henriot,' 
' Heriot Heringflet,' ' Thomas Haryette,' or ' William 
Haryott ' could have borne witness. ' Harriot,' or 

* Harriet,' has been revived in recent days as a femi- 
nine baptismal name. ' Hawkin,' or ' Halkin,' "^ how- 
ever, was perhaps the most popular form. Lang- 
land represents Conscience as saying : — 

Thi beste cote, Haukyn, 
Hath manye moles and spottes, 
It moste ben y-wasshe. 

' In the Athena: Oxoniensis the account of Martin Marprelate 
begins 'John Penry, or Ap Henry, that is, the son of Henry, better 
known by the name of Martin Marprelate, or Marpriest, &c.' (Edit. 
1813, vol. i. p. 591.) 

* An uncouth spelling of this is met with in the De Lacy Inquisi- 
tion, where the entry occurs : ' Henry, son of Ilolekyn, for I7i acres of 

E 2 


Baldwin had already appeared at the Conquest, for 
an aunt of Williams had married Baldwin, Earl of 
Flanders, and he himself was espoused to Matilda, 
daughter of the fifth ' Baldwin ' of that earldom. No 
doubt the Flemings brought in fresh accessions, and 
when we add to this the fact of its being by no means 
an unpopular Angevine name, we can readily see why 
* Balderson,' * Bolderson,' ' Balcock,' ' Bodkin,' and the 
simple ' Baldwin,' have maintained a quiet but steady 
position in the English lists ever since. Thus, the 
Plantagenets are not without memorials, even in the 
nineteenth centuiy. 

III. — Names from the Calendar of the Saints. 

It is to Norman influence we owe the firm estab- 
lishment of several names, which had already got 
securely settled on the Continent on account of the 
odour of sanctity that had gathered about them. The 
Reformation threw into the shade of oblivion the 
memories of many holy men and women who in their 
day and generation exercised a powerful influence on 
our general nomenclature. Many of my readers will 
be unaware that there w^cre three St. Geralds and 
three St. Gerards held in high repute previous to the 
eleventh century. The higher Norman families seem 
to have been attached to both, though ' Gerard ' has 
made the deepest impression. ' Gerald ' and ' Fitz- 
Gerald ' are the commonest descendants of the first. 
As respects ' Gerard,' such names as * Garret Wid- 

land, 4S-. (xi. (Chcth. Soc, p. 12.) * King Hal' is still familiar 
to us. 


drington/ or ' Jarrarde Hall,' or ' Jarat Nycholson,' 
found among our Yorkshire entries, serve to show 
how far the spirit of verbal corruption can advance ; 
and our many 'Garrets,' 'Jarrets,' 'Jarratts,' and 
' Jerards,' as surnames, will probably testify the same 
to all ages,* As there were twenty-eight ' Walters ' 
in Domesday Survey, we cannot attribute the popu- 
larity of that name to St, Walter, abbot of Fontenelle 
in the middle of the twelfth century. But, as Miss 
Yonge shows, it had been spread over Aquitaine in 
the earlier part of the tenth century, through the 
celebrity of a saintly Walter who resided in that 
dukedom about the year 990, Few sobriquets en- 
joyed such a share of attention as this. In one of its 
nicknames, that of * Water,' ^ we are reminded of 
Suffolk's death in Shakespeare's Henry VI., where 
the murderer says — 

My name is Walter Whitmore. 
How now ! why start'st thou ? \\'hat, doth death affright ! 

Suffolk. Thy name affrights me, in whose sound is death. 
A cunning man did calculate my birth, 
And told me that by ivatcr I should die. 

University men will remember a play of another kind 
upon its other form of * Wat,' in the poems of C. S. C, 
whose power of rhyming, at least, I have never seen 
surpassed, even by Ingoldsby himself. He thus 
begins one of his happiest efforts — 

' ' To Garrett Jonjon, for shoes^ yis. xa'.' ' To Garratt Jonson, for 
shoes, iiij-.' (IIous. Exp. Princess Eliz., Cam. Soc, pp. 16-18.) 

' 'The account of Wattare Taylor and Wyllyam Partrynge, beynge 
churchewardens, in the xxxii. yere of the rayne of Kyng Henry the 
eighth, A.D. 1 541.' (Ludlow : Churchwardens' Accounts, p. 6, Cam. 


Ere the mom the east has crimsoned, 
When the stars are twinkhng there, 

(As they did in Watts's Hymns, and 
Made him wonder what they were. ) 

This, too, it will be seen, as well as 'Water,' still 
abides with us in its own or an extended guise, for 
our ' Watts ' and ' Waters,' ' Watsons ' and * Water- 
sons,* ' Watkins ' and ' Watkinsons,' would muster 
strongly if in conclave assembled. Our ' Waltrots,' 
though not so numerous, are but the ancient ' Walte- 
rot.' As a Christian name Walter stands low now-a- 
days. ' Tonkin,' ' Tonson,' and ' Townson ' (found in 
such an entry as 'Jane Tounson') remind us of 
'Anthony,'' a name previous to the Reformation 
popular as that possessed by the great ascetic of the 
fourth century. A curious phrase got connected with 
St. Anthony, that of ' tantony-pig.' It is said that 
monks attached to monasteries dedicated to this saint 
had the privilege of allowing their swine to feed in 
the streets. These habitually following those who 
were wont to offer greens to them, gave rise to the 
expression, ' To follow like a Tantony-pig.' Thus, in 
* The good wyfe wold a pylgremage,' it is said — 

When I am out of the towne, 

Look tliat thou be wyse, 
And nm thou not from hous to hous, 

Like a nantyny grice. 

The connection between St. Anthony and swine, 
which gave the good monks this benefit, seems, in 
spite of many wild guesses, to have arisen from the 

' Agnes Antonison is found in the Troc. in Chancciy.' (Eliza- 


mere fact of his dwelling so long in the woodlands. 
As Barnabe Googe has it — • 

The bristled hogges doth Antonie 

Preserve and cherish well, 
Who in his lifetime always did 

In woodes and forestes dwell. ' 

It must have been this connexion which made 'Tony ' 
the common sobriquet for a simpleton or a country- 
clown. It lived in this sense till Dryden's day, and 
certainly had become such so early as the thirteenth 
century, if we may judge by the occurrence of such 
names as ' Ida le Tony,' or ' Roger le Tony,' found in 
the Rolls of that period.^ If, however, St. Anthony 
was thus doomed to be an example, how great may 
be the drawbacks to saintly distinction : * St. Cuth- 
bert,* who, in the odour of sanctity, dwelt at Lindis- 
farne, may even be more pitied, for, owing to the 
familiarity of his name in every rustic household of 
Northumbria and Durham, he became as * Cuddie,' a 
sobriquet for the donkey, and is thus known and 
associated to the present moment. Our * Cuthberts,' 
* Cuthbertsons,' and 'Cutbeards,' however, need trouble 

' Fuller, in his Book of Worthies, writes : — ' St. Anthony is uni- 
versally known for the patron of hogs, having a pig for his page in all 
pictures, though for what reason is unknown, except, because being a 
hermit, and having a well or hole digged in the earth, and having his 
general repast on roots, he and hogs did in some sort enter common 
both in their diet and lodging.' 

* Thus in the comedy of the ' Western Lass ' (circa 1 720) the 
heroine sings : — 

' Is Love finer than money. 
Or can it be sweeter than honey ? 
I'm, poor girl, such a Toney, 
Evads, that I cannot guess.' 


themselves little, I imagine, on the question of their 
connection with the animal to whom we usually 
ascribe the honours in regard to obstinacy and stub- 
bornness. Our ' Cuddies,' perhaps, are not quite so 
free from suspicion. Our 'Gobbets' undoubtedly 
spring from ' Cuthbert.' A ' Nicholas Cowbeytson ' 
occurs in a Yorkshire register of the fourteenth cen- 
tury (Fabric Rolls of York Minster : Sur. Soc). From 
* Cowbeyt ' to ' Cobbet ' is a natural — I might say an 
inevitable — change. This name, however, owes no- 
thing to the Normans. Not so ' Giles.' Everyone 
knows the story of St. Giles, how he dwelt as an 
anchorite in the forest near Nismes, and was disco- 
vered by the King because the hind, which daily gave 
him milk, pushed in the chase, fled to his feet. The 
name is entered in our rolls alike as ' Giles,' ' Gile,' 
and ' Egedius' (Gile Deacon. A. Jordan fil. Egidius, 
A). St. Lawrence, put on a gridiron over a slow fire in 
the third century, made his name popular in Spain. 
An archbishop of Canterbury, raised to a saintship 
in the seventh century, made the same familiar in 
England. Besides ' Lawson,' we have ' Larkins ' and 
' Larson.' In the lines already quoted relative to Wat 
Tyler's insurrection, it is said — 

Larkin ct in medio, non minor esse putat. 

The French diminutive occurs also. An 'Andrew 
Larrett' is mentioned by Nicholls in his history of 
Leicestershire, and the surname may still be seen in 
our directories. ' Lambert ' received a large accession 
in England through the Flemings, who thus preserved 
a memorial of the patron of Liege, St. Lambert, who 
was martyred early in the eighth century. Sue- 


cumbing to the fashion so prevalent among the 
Flemings, it is generally found as ' Lambkin,' such 
entries as ' Lambekyn fil. Eli ' or ' Lambekin Taborer ' 
being common. The present surnominal forms are 

* Lambert,' ' Lampson,' ' ' Lambkin,' and ' Lampkin.' 
Thus our * Lambkins ' cannot boast of the Moses-like 
disposition of their ancestor on philological grounds. 
With the mention of three other saints we conclude 
this list. The legend of St. Christopher had its due 
effect on the popular taste, and it is early found in 
the various guises of ' Cristophre,' ' Cristofer,' and 

* Christofer.' ' Christophers ' and ' Christopherson ' re- 
present the surnames of the fuller form. To the pet 
form we owe our ' Kitts ' and * Kitsons.' St. Christo- 
pher's Isle in the West Indies is now familiarly St. 
Kitts. It was of the indignity offered to Christopher 
Marlowe's genius in calling him so generally by this 
brief sobriquet that Heywood spoke when he said — 

Marlowe, renowned for his rare art and wit, 
Could ne'er attain beyond the name of Kit.* 

The same writer has it also in one of his epigrams — 

Nothing is lighter than a feather, Kytte, 

Yes, Climme : what light thing is that ? thy light wytte. 

We have already mentioned one abbot of Fontenelle 
who influenced our nomenclature. Another who 
exerted a similar power was ' St. Gilbert,' a contem- 
porary and friend of the Conqueror. A few genera- 

• * To our well-beloved servaunt, Antony Lanibeson.' 
(Grants of Ed. V. Cam. Soc.) 
« 'Walter fil. Kitte.' (Household Exp. Bishop Swinfield, p. 170, 
Cam. Soc.) 


tions afterwards brought the English St. Gilbert to 
the fore, and then the name began to grow common, 
so common that as ' Gib ' it became the favourite 
sobriquet of the feline species.' In several of our 
earliest writers it is found in familiar use, and in the 
Bard of Avon's day it was not forgotten. Falstaff 
complains of being as melancholy as a ' gib-cat ' — 
that is, an old worn-out cat. Hamlet also says — 

For who that's but a queen, fair, sober, wise, 
Would from a paddock, from a bat, a gib, 
Such dear concemings hide ? (iii. 4.) 

' To play the gib ' was a proverbial phrase for light 
and wanton behaviour.- Thus ' Gilbert ' has been 
forced into a somewhat unpleasant notoriety in feline 
nomenclature. But he was popular enough, too, 
among the human kind. In that part of the ' Town- 
ley Mysteries ' which represents the Nativity, one of 
the shepherds is supposed to hail one of his friends, 
who is passing by. He addresses him thus :— - 

How, Gyb, good morne, wheder goys thou ? 

' In the ' Romaunt of the Rose,' it is said — 

' For right no more than Gibbe, our cat, 
That awaiteth mice and ratios to killen, 
Ne entcnd I but to beguilcn.' 

In Peele's ' Edward I.,' too, the Novice says to the Friar — 

'Now, Master, as I am true wag, 
I will be neither late, nor lag, 
But go and come with gossips cheer, 
Ere Gib, our cat, can lick her ear.' 

* Hence the old term, 'flibber-gib,' or 'flitter-gibbett,' employed by 
Latimer, Burton, &c. ; and later, by Walter Scott, for one of vile pro- 


The surnames formed from Gilbert, too, prove his 
popularity. Beside * Gilbert ' himself, we have 

* Gibbs,' ' Gibbins,' ' Gibbons,' ' Gibson,' ' ' Gibbonson,' 
and * Gipps,' to say nothing of that famous citizen of 
credit and renown, 'John Gilpin,' who has immortal- 
ized at least his setting of this good old-fashioned 

Having referred to Gilbert and Gib the cat, we must 
needs notice * Theobald ' and ' Tib.' ' St. Theobald,' if 
he has not himself given much prominence to the title, 
nevertheless represents a name whose susceptibility to 
change was something amazing. The common form 
with the French was ' Thibault ' or ' Thibaud,' and 
this is represented in England in such entries as 

* Tebald de Engleschevile,' ' Richard Tebaud,' or 

* Roger Tebbott' A still curter form was ' Tibbe ' or 
' Tebbe ; ' hence such registrations as ' Tebbe Molen- 
dinarius ' or ' Tebb fil. William.' In this dress it is 
found in the Latin lines commemorative of Tyler's 
insurrection : — 

Hudde ferit, quern yticide terit, dum Tibbe juvatur, 
Jacke domosque viros vellit, en ense necat. 

Among other surnames that speak for its faded popu- 
larity are ' Tibbes,' ' Tebbes,' and ' Tubbs,' ' Theobald ' 
and ' Tibbald,' ' Tibbie ' and ' Tipple,' ' Tipkins ' and 

* Tippins,' and ' Tipson,' and our endlessly varied- 
' Tibbats,' ' Tibbets,' ' Tibbits,' ' Tebbatts,' ' Tebbotts,' 
and ' Tebbutts.' Indeed, the name has simply run 
riot among the vowels. ' Hugh ' I have kept till the 

' A notorious rascal named ' Gybby Selby ' is mentioned in 'Calen- 
dar of State Papers' for 1562. This accords with ' Robert Gybbyson,' 
found in the Corpus Christi Guild, York, a few years earlier. 


last, because of its important position as an early 
name. It was crowded with holy associations. There 
was a 'St. Hugh,' Abbot of Cluny, in 1109. There 
was a 'St. Hugh,' Bishop of Grenoble, in 1132. 
There was 'St. Hugh,' Bishop of Lincoln, in 1200, 
and above all there was the celebrated infant martyr, 
' St. Hugh,' of Lincoln, said to have been crucified by 
the Jews of that city in 1250. This event happened 
just at the best time for affecting our surnames. Their 
hereditary tendency was becoming marked. Thus it 
is that ' Hugh,' or ' Hew,' ' as it was generally spelt, 
has made such an indenture upon our nomenclature. 
The pet forms are all Norman French, the most 
popular being ' Huet,' ' Hugon,' and ' Huelot , ' the 
last formed like ' Hamelot,' and ' Hobelot.' The 
second of these was further corrupted by the English 
into ' Hutchin ' and ' Huggin.' ^ Hence our rolls teem 
with such registrations as ' Hewe Hare,' ' Huet de 
Badone,' ' William fil. Hugonis,' ' Houlot de Man- 
chester,' 'Walter Hughelot,' 'John Hewisson,' 'Simon 
Howissone,' ' Roger fil. Hulot,' or ' Alan Huchyns.' 
Among the surnames still common in our directories 
may be numbered ' Huggins,' ' Hutchins,' ' Hutchin- 
son,' ' Hugginson,' 'Howlett,' ' Hullett,' 'Hewlett,' 
' Huet,' ' Hewet,' ' Hewetson,' ' Howctt,' ' Howson,' 
' Hughes,* and ' Hewson.' All these various forms 
bespeak a familiarity which is now of course utterly 

' ' Item, payde to Hew Watson, for a bawdrike to the first belle, 
x</.' (1546.) (Churchwardens' Accounts at Ludlow, Camden Soc. ) 
•Item, for markynge of Hew Davis' pew, xiu/.' (1552.) (do.) 

* 'Hugyn held of the same Earl an oxgang of land.' (De Lacy 
InquLsit., Cheth. Soc, p. 6.) 'Huckin' seems to be a corruption of 
•Hughkin.' ' Hughkin Byston' occurs in 'Wills and Inventories.' 
(Cheth. Soc, i. 142.) 


wanting, so far as our Christian nomenclature is con- 
cerned. Indeed, after all I have said, I still feel that 
it is impossible to give the reader an adequate con- 
ception of the popularity of this name four hundred 
years ago. It is one more conspicuous instance 
marking the change which the Reformation and an 
English Bible effected upon our nomenclature. 

IV. — Names chosen from Festivals and Holydays. 

We may here refer to a group of appellatives 
which are derived from the names of certain days and 
seasons. I dare not say that all I shall mention are 
absolutely sprung from one and the same custom. 
Some, I doubt not, were bestowed upon their owners 
from various accidental circumstances of homely and 
individual interest. Neighbours would readily affix 
a nickname of this class upon one who had by some 
creditable or mean action made a particular season 
remarkable in his personal history. But these, I pre- 
sume, will be exceptional, for there is no manner of 
doubt that it was a practice, and by no means a rare 
one, to baptize a child by the name of the day on 
which it was born, especially if it were a holiday. We 
know now how often it happens that the Church 
Calendar furnishes names for those born upon the 
Saints' days — how many ' Johns ' and ' Jameses ' and 
' Matthews ' owe their appellations to the fact that 
they came into the Avorld upon the day marked, 
ecclesiastically, for the commemoration of those par- 
ticular Apostles. This is still a custom among more 
rigid Churchmen. In early days, however, it was 


carried to an extreme extent. Days of a simply- 
local interest — days for fairs and wakes — days that 
were celebrated in the civil calendar — days that were 
the boundaries of the different seasons — all were 
familiarly pressed into the service of name-giving. 
These, springing up in a day when they w^ere no 
sooner made part of the personal than they became 
candidates for our hereditary nomenclature, have in 
many cases come down to us. Thus, the time w^hen 
the yule log blazed and crackled on the hearth has 
given us 'Christmas,' or 'Noel,' or 'Yule,' or ' Mid- 
winter.' This last seems to have been an ordinary 
term for the day, for w^e find it in colloquial use at 
this time. In Robert of Gloucester's ' Life of William 
the Conqueror,' he speaks of it's being his intention 

to Midwinter at Gloucester, 
To Witesontid at Westminster, to Ester at Wincester. 

' Pentecost ' was as familiar a term in the common 
mouth as 'Whitsuntide,' and thus we find both occur- 
ring in the manner mentioned. ' Wytesunday ' is, how- 
ever, now obsolete ; ' Pentecost ' still lives.' ' Paske,' 
for ' Easter,' was among the priesthood the word in 
general use ; old writers always speak of ' Paske ' 
for that solemn season. Thus, ' Pask,' ' Pash,' ' Pas- 
chal,' and ' Pascal ' ^ are firmly set in our directories ; 

' A ser\'ant of King Henry III. was called by the simple and only 
name of ' Pentecostes.' (Inquisit. 13 Ed. I. No. 13.) 

* In the old published orders for the sheriff's annual riding in the 
city of York, occurs this rule among others : — 

' Also, we command that no manner of men walk in the city, nor in 
the suburbs by night, without Torcli before him, i.e. from fasche to 
Michaelmas after ten of the clock, and from Michaelmas to Paschc after 


as, indeed, they are on the Continent also. It is the 
same with * Lammas,' ' Sumption,' and ' Middlemas ; ' 
that is, 'Assumption ' and 'Michaelmas.' Each as it 
came round imprinted its name at the baptismal font 
upon the ancestors of all those who still bear these 
several titles in our midst. It would be an anachron- 
ism, therefore, to suppose Mr. Robinson Crusoe to 
have been the first who introduced this system, as 
even ' Friday ' itself, to say nothing of * Munday,' or 
' Monday,' and ' Saturday,' and ' Tuesday,' were all 
surnames long anterior to that notable personage's 
existence. Nor, as I have said, are the less solemn 
feast days disregarded. ' Loveday ' is one such proof. 
In olden times there was often a day fixed for the 
arrangement of differences, in which, if possible, old 
sores were to be healed up and old-standing accounts 
settled. This day, called a ' Loveday,' is frequently 
alluded to. That very inconsistent friar in Piers 
Plowman's Vision could, it is said — 

hold lovedays, 
And hear a reves rekenyng. 

The latter part of the quotation suggests to us the 
origin of 'Termday,' which I find as -existing in the 
twelfth century, and probably given in the humorous 
spirit of that day.' Nor are these all. ' Plouday' was 

nineof the clock.' These niles are thus prefaced. ' The sheriffs, by 
the custom of the city, do ride to several parts thereof every year, 
betwixt Michaelmas and iT//(/7<;7V,!/'6';-, that is Yoolc.'' ('Hist, and Ant. 
York,' vol. ii. p. 54.) Lancashire Easter-eggs are still called Pace- 
eggs. — The harder 'Paske' is found in Wicklyffe's Version of 
Matt. xxvi. I : — 'Whaune Jhesus hadde endid all these words he scide 
to his disciplis, ye weten that after tweyn days, Paske schal be made.' 

' Richard Domesdaye was Rector of Caldecoto, Norfolk, in 1435. 
(Bromefield). This would be synonymous with 'Termday.' 


the first Monday after Twelfth Night, and the day on 
which the farmer began his ploughing. It was a great 
rural holiday at one time, and the ploughmen as a rule 
got gloriously drunk. Similarly, we have ' Hockcr- 
day,' ' Hockday,' and perhaps the still more corrupted 
' Hobday/ the old English expression for a 'high-day.' 
The second Tuesday after Easter was especially so 
termed, and kept in early times as such, as commemo- 
rative of the driving out of the Danes in the days of 
Ethelred. This was a likely name to be given on 
such a high day in the domestic annals as that on 
which the first-born came into the world. Happy 
parents would readily seize upon this at a time when 
the word and its meaning were alike familiar. Our 
' Hallidays' or 'Hollidays' throw us back to the 
Church festivals, those times of merriment and jollity 
which have helped to such a degree to dissociate from 
our minds the real meaning of the word (that is, a 
day set apart for holy service in commemoration of 
some religious event), that we have now been com- 
pelled by a varied spelling to make the distinction 
between a 'holyday' and a 'holiday.' Thus strongly 
marked upon our nomenclature is this once favourite 
but now wellnigh obsolete custom. 

V. — Patronymics formed from Occupations. 

We may here briefly refer to a class of patronymics 
which, although small from the first, took its place, 
as if insensibly, among our hereditary surnames. It 
is a class of occupativc ox professional names, with the 
filial desinence attached. There is nothing wonderful 


in the fact of the existence of such. The wonder is 
that there are not more of them. It must have been 
all but as natural to style a man as the son of * the 
Clerk ' as the son of ' Harry ' in a small community, 
where the father had, in his professional capacity, 
established himself as of some local importance. 
Hence we cannot be surprised to find * Clerkson ' in 
our registers. It is thus the 'sergeant' has bequeathed 
us our * Sergeantsons ;' the 'kemp,' or soldier, our 

* Kempsons ; ' the ' cook,' our ' Cooksons,' or * Filius 
Coci,' as the Hundred Rolls have it ; the ' smith,' our 
' Smithsons ;' the * steward,' our ' Stewardsons ;' the 
'grieve,' i.e. 'reeve,' our ' Grievesons;' the 'miller,' our 
'Millersons;' and the 'shepherd,' our ' Shepherdsons,' 
Of other instances, now obsolete, we had 'Masterson,' 

* Hyneson,' ^ ' Hopperson,' ' Scolardson,' and ' Priest- 
son.' Nor were the Normans without traces of this 
practice, although in their case all the examples I 
have met with have ceased to exist amongst us, 
'Fitz-Clerk' but corresponds with one of the above; 
while the warden of the woods gave us ' Fitz-Parker,' 
and that of the college, ' Fitz-Provost.' Thus, those 
who yet possess names of this class may congratulate 
themselves upon belonging to a small but compact 
body which has ever existed amid our more general 

VI . — Metronyniics. 

We have already mentioned Joan as having be- 
queathed several surnames. We did not then allude 
to the somewhat difficult subject of mctronymics ; 

' I see, however, from the Clerical Directory, that 'Ilindson' is still 
in existence. A 'Nicholas Hopperson' is found in an old college 
register for 15S2. (Hist. C. C. Coll. Cam.) 



we shall first prove by examples that there are a 
large number of such. We shall then briefly unfold 
their origin from our point of view. The feminine of 
Peter, ' Petronilla,' was a name in familiar use at this 
time. St. Petronilla, once much besought as a help 
against fevers, would no doubt add to its popularity. 
Barnyby Googe says : — 

The quartane ague and the rest 

Doth Pernel take away, 
And John preserves his worshippers 

From prison every day. 

In the above stanza we are supplied with the com- 
mon sobriquet taken from his name. As ' Pernel ' or 
* Parnel ' it held a high place among the poorer classes. 
From an ill-repute, however, that attached to it in 
the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, it is now all 
but extinct as a Christian name, and it is only among 
our surnames that it is to be met with. It is curious 
how associations of this kind destroy the chances of 
popularity among names. 'Peter' was forced into 
familiarity. 'Pernel' lost caste through its becom- 
ing a cant term for women of a certain character. 
'Magdalen' is another case in point. The Bible narra- 
tive describes her briefly as a penitent sinner. Legend, 
adding to this, portrayed her beauty, her golden 
tresses, her rich drapery. Art added touches of its 
own in the .shape of dishevelled hair and swelled eyes, 
but all to make this centre scene of penitence the more 
marked. This, and the early asylums for penitents, of 
which she became the forced patroness, prevented her 
name being used as a Christian name at this time — 
I have never, at least, found an instance. But as a 
proof how early it had become a term for what I may 


call mental inebriety, a connection which of course it 
owes to the portrayals alluded to above, I may instance 
the name of Thomas le Maddelyn, found in the 
twelfth century (H. R.), and an evident nickname 
given to one of a sickly sentimental character. Our 
present ' Maudlins ' and ' Maudlings ' may be de- 
scended from one so entitled, or locally from some 
place dedicated to the saint. 

Among other female names, ' Constance ' bid fair 
to become very popular. A daughter of William the 
Conqueror, a daughter of Stephen, and a daughter- 
in-law of Henry II. were all so called. Chaucer in 
his 'Man of Lawes Tale' calls his heroine by this 
title — 

But Hermegild loved Custance as her life, 
And Custance hath so long sojourned there 
In orisons, with many a bitter tear, 
Til Jesu hath converted, through his grace, 
Dame Hermegild. 

This must have been its favourite form in the com- 
mon mouth, for we find it recorded in such names as 
* Custance Muscel,' ' Custance Clerk,' ' Robert fil. 
Custe,' or ' Cus nepta Johannis,' with tolerable fre- 
quency. The diminutive ' Cussot ' is also to be met 
with. I need hardly say that in our * Custances,' 
' Custersons,' * Cuss's,' and ' Custs,' not to say some of 
our ' Cousens,' as corruptions of ' Custson,' the re- 
membrance of this once familiar name still survives. 
Of late years the name proper has again become 
popular. * Beatrice ' is another instance of a name 
once common sunk into comparative desuetude. The 
Norman ' Beton ' was the most favoured pet form. 
Piers Plowman says (Passus V.) : — 


Beton the Brewestere bade him good morrow, 
and a little further on, 

And bade Bette cut a bough, and beat Betoun therewith. 

Thus it is we frequently light upon such entries as 
'John Betyn,' * Bctin de Friscobald,' 'Robert Beton- 
son,' ' John Bettenson,' or ' Thomas Betanson.' These 
latter of course soon dropped into ' Beatson ' and 
' Bctson,' which, with ' Beton ' and ' Beaton,' are still 
common to our directories. ' Emma,' too, as a Nor- 
man name has left its mark. By a pure accident, 
however, as Miss Yonge points out, it had got a place 
previous to the Conquest among the Saxons, through 
the fact of the daughter of Richard I. of Normandy 
marrying first Ethelred, surnamed the Unready, and 
then Canute the Great. Thus, though it has not un- 
frequently been claimed as of Saxon origin, it is not 
so in reality. The general spelling is ' Emme,' and 
the pet ' Emmot ' or ' Emmet ' is found in such names 
as ' Emmota Plummer' or * Emmetta Catton.' This 
at once guides us into the source of our ' Emmots,' 
' Emmetts,' • ' Emmes,' ' Emsons,' * Empsons,' and 
' Emmotsons.' ^ 

' This name seems to have been very popular in Yorkshire. The 
instances given in the index are taken from papers relating to that 
county. Thus, again, we find it occurring in the marriage dispensations 
and licences of the period. 'Dispensation from Selow for Richard de 
Akcrode and Emmotte de Greenwood to marry, they being related in 
the fourth degree. Issued from Rome by Jordan Bishop of Alba, Apr. 
27th, 3rd Kugcnius IV.' (1433.) — (Test. Ebor. vol. iii. p. 317); 'Li- 
cence to the Vicar of Bradford to marry Roger I'rcstwick and Emmote 
Crosslcy. Banns thrice in one day.' (1466.) — Do. p. 338. 

* We must not forget that at first a certain strangeness must have 
been felt in terming a woman by such a contradictoiy sobriquet as 
'Alice Johnson' or ' Pamel Simjc?«.' The feminine desinence was 
occasionally attempted. 'Alicia Thoin(/'(>^''//A7' is found in the 'Test, 


Almost as equal a favourite as ' Emma ' was 
' Cecilia.' This was a name introduced at the Con- 
quest in the person of Cecile, a daughter of William I., 
and it soon found itself a favourite among high and 
low as * Cicely,' or still shorter as ' Cis ' or ' Sis,' al- 
though the latter seems to have been the more general 
form. In Piers Plowman, however, is preserved the 
more correct initial. I have already quoted him when 
he speaks so familiarly of 

Cesse the souteresse. 

In all the ballads of the seventeenth century, on the 
other hand, it is always ' Sis ' ' Siss ' or ' Sys.' 

Long have I lived a bachelor's life, 

And had no mind to marry ; 
But now I would fain have a wife, 

Either Doll, Kate, Sis, or Mary. 

Our ' Sissons,' ' Sysons,' and ' Sisselsons ' ^ are of 
course but the offspring of this pretty appellative, 
while one more instance of the popular diminutive 
may be met with in such a name as 'John Sissotson' 
or * Cissota West ' found in the ' Testamenta Ebora- 
censia,' or ' Bella Cesselot ' in the Hundred Rolls.^ 
Our * Dowses,' ' Dossons,' and ' Dowsons ' represent 
the once popular ' Douce,' * Duce,' or ' Dulcc,' more 

Ebor.' (Sur. Soc), ' Isabella Peers</(?§-///«- ' and 'Isolda Feersu/o£/iU-/-' 
in Feod. Prior. Dunelni. (Sur. Soc), and 'Avice Matte^ci/e^ in the 
' Issue Roll.' 

' 'Item, I gyfife to Sicille Metcalfe, my sister's doughtcr, 20s.' — 
' Richmondshire Wills,' p. 128. 

^ A curious proof of the popularity of this pet form is met with in 
the Manor of Ashton-under-Lyne ' (Ch. Soc. ). In a community of some 
20 or 25 families were the following: — ' Syssot, wife of Patrick,' 
' Syssot, wife of Diccon Wilson,' ' Syssot, wife of Thomas the Cook,' 
and 'Syssot, wife of Jak of Barsley.' Robert Syssottysone, Rector of 
Lecceworthe, 1478 (xx. 2, p. 187). 


correctly ' Dulcia.' Hence we find such entries as 

• John filius Dousae,' ' Douce de Moster/ and ' John 
Dowsson.' Diminutives are found in ' Richard Dow- 
kin ' (F), and in ' Dowsett,' ' Doucett,' and ' Duckett' 
The Norman was the more famiHar form, all the more 
so perhaps because in the baronial kitchen a course 
of sweets was called dowcetts. An instance will be 
found in the Rutland papers, p. 97 (Cam. Soc). This 
is but another form of our ' dulcet.' That the more 
literal form was not lost, such names as * Dulcia le 
Draper' or 'Dulcia fil. William' will show, not to 
mention our still existing patronymic * Dulson.' The 
later ' Dulcibella ' underwent the same change and 
became * Dowsabell.' This also attained the rank of a 
surname, for beside such entries as ' Dowzable Mill ' 
(Z) and ' Dussabel Caplyn ' (Z) we light upon a 

* Thomas Duszabeir (M). Thus familiar was 'Dulcia' 
in former days. ' Dionisia del Lee ' or ' Dionisius 
Garston ' are common entries, both masculine and 
feminine forms being popular. ' Dennis,' ' Denot,' 
and ' Dyot ' were the pet forms. Piers Plowman 
styles one of his characters ' Denot.' Hereditary forms 
are found in ' Dennis,' ' Dennison,' ' Dyott,' ' Diotson,' ^ 
and ' Dyson.' I cannot but think that ' Tenison ' or 
' Tennyson ' is but a corruption of * Dennison,' as also 
' Tyson ' of ' Dyson.' That they are patronymics of 
Antony (Tony) is the only alternative, and this I fear 
is unsatisfactory. Mabel, although now somewhat out 
of fashion, was very popular four hundred years ago 
as 'Amabilla,' hence such entries as 'Amabella la 

' In the Corpus Christ! Guikl, York, 1433 (Sur. Soc), Dyot is 
feminine. There is set down, Robert Hayne et Dyot uxor.' The 
patronymic ' Diotson ' is found in the same register. 


Blund,' or ' Amabil fil. Emme,' The surnames de- 
scended from it are sufficiently numerous to testify to 
this. Besides ' Mabell ' simple, we have * Mabson,' 
' Mabbs,' ' Mabbes,' * Mabbott,' and perhaps ' Maple- 
son.' ^ Catharine, always called ' Catlin ' in the North, 
reminding us of the Irish ' Kathleen,' is the source of 
several surnames. Entries like * Eleonore Catlynson ' 
(W. 12) or ' Thomas Katlynson ' (W. 1 1) are common, 
and the shorter ' Cattlin ' is found in every Yorkshire 

There is a certain quaint prettiness about * Hilary,' 

* Lettice,' and ' Joyce,' three acceptable cognomens in 
mediaeval times. The Normans liked their women to 
be, however modest, none the less lighthearted, gay, 
and spirited, and in the synonyms of ' mirth,' ' glad- 
ness,' and * sportiveness,' they would delight in affixing 
on their newly-born children that which they hoped 
would be in the future but the index of the real cha- 
racter. ' Hillary ' when not local is therefore but the 
fuller ' Hilaria.' ' Joyce,' sometimes the result of the 
mere nickname, is nothing more than 'Jocosa,' and 

* Lettice,' 'Letts,' and ' Letson' are sufficiently nume- 
rous to preserve the memory of * La^titia.' Thus, in 
one of the Coventry Mysteries already alluded to, 
mention is made of 

Col Crane and Davy Dry-dust, 
Lucy Lyer and Letyce Lytyl -trust, 
Miles the Miller and CoUe Crake-crust. 

* Letson ' is met in the fourteenth century as ' Fitz- 
Lettice.' * Thcophania ' was anything but unpopular, 
but its length made it unavoidable but that it should 

' I say 'perhaps' because it may be but a corruption of the local 


be mutilated, or at least put in an abbreviated or nick- 
name form, and thus it is has arisen our ' Tiffany,' 
whence of course the surname of to-day. Thus, in 
the Coventry Mysteries, it is demanded that 

Both Bonting the Brewster and Sybyl Slynge, 
Megge Mery-wedyr, and Sabyn ' Sprynge, 
Tiffany Twynkeler fayle for no thynge. 

Thierry in his history of the * Conquest of England ' 
quotes an old writer, who has preserved the following 
lines of a decidedly doggrel character : — 

William de Cognisby 
Came out of Brittany 
With his wife Tiffany, 
And his maid Manfras, 
And his dogge Hardigras. 

We must not forget to mention J Eleanor,' or 
' Alianora,' as it is more frequently registered, a 
name of suffering royalty, and therefore to a portion 
of the English people, at least, a popular name. Its 
forms are too many for enumeration, but ' Alianor,' 
'Annora,' 'Annot,' 'Alinot,' 'Leonora,' 'Eleanor,' 
* Elinor,' ' Ellen,' ' Lina,' ' Linot,' and * Ncl ' were the 
most common. All of these were either surnames 
themselves, or became the roots of surnames. Thus we 
find among other entries such registrations as 'Alicia 
Alianor,' ' Alianor Busche,' ' Annora Widow,' ' Annora 
de Aencurt,' 'Anota Canun,' 'John Annotson,' 'William 
Annotyson,' 'Hugh fil. Elyenore,' 'William Alinot,' 
' Alnot Red,' ' Lyna le Archer,' ' Linota ate Field,' or 

• Sabyn or Sabina is frequently met with in the Hundred Rolls, as 
also Sybyl, referred to in the line before. A church at Rome was 
dedicated to a St. Sabina. Sybyl has bequeathed us 'Sibson.' In 
Cocke Lorelles Bote, one of the personages introiluced is ' Sybby Sole, 
mylke wyfe of Islynton.' 


' Linota Vidua.' This list will suffice to prove the 
place occupied by ' Eleanor.' I have not mentioned 
such entries as 'Johnfil. Nel' or * Elisha Annyson,' 
or ' Richard Anyson/ for though in these particular 
instances we see the origin of some of our * Ansons ' 
and ' Nelsons,' both are more generally referable to a 
different source. * Neal ' or * Neile ' was very common 
in this day, and * Neilson ' would easily be corrupted 
into ' Nelson.' 

'Julian,' the abbreviated form of 'Juliana,' as a Nor- 
man introduced name became very popular, and its 
after history was a very curious one. Such appella- 
tions as ' Gillian Cook,' or ' Gilian of the Mill,' found 
in the Hundred Rolls, or that of the well-known 
' Dame Julyan Berners,' whose work on household 
management I shall have occasion to quote by-and- 
by, only represent in fuller forms the 'Gill' or 'Jill' 
who is so renowned in our nursery literature as having 
met with such a dire disaster in the dutiful endeavour 
' to fetch a pail of water ' from the hill-side. I have 
already mentioned ' Cocke Lorell's Bote,' where allu- 
sion is made to 

Jelyan Joly at signe of the Bokeler. 

The shorter and curter form is given us in Heywood's 
Epigrams, where the following marital dialogue oc- 
curs : — 

I am care-full to see thee carelessc, Jylle : 

I am wofuU to see thee wytlesse, Wyll : 

I am anguisht to see thee an ape, Jyll : 

I am angry to see thee an asse, Wyll : 

I am dumpyshe to see thee play the drabbe, Jyll ; 

I am knappyshe to see thee plaie the knave, Wyll. 

But ' Gill ' at some time or other got into evil odour, 


and this brought the name into all but absolute dis- 
use. As a term for a wanton flirt or inconstant girl, 
it was familiarly used till the eighteenth century. It 
would seem as if the poet I have just quoted were 
referring to this characteristic when he writes : — 

All shall be well, Jacke shall have Gill ; 
Nay, nay, Gill is wedded to Wyll ;' 

or where in another place he says : — 

How may I have thee, Gill, when I wish for thee ? 
Wish not for me Jack, but when thou may est have me.' 

The diminutive * Gilot ' or * Juliet ' is used in the same 
way. In an old metrical sermon it is said — 

Robin will Gilot 

Leden to the nale. 
And sitten there togedres. 

And tellen their tale. 

This at once reminds us of the origin of our * jilt,' 
which is nothing more than a relic of the name for 
inconstancy the sobriquet had obtained. In our ' Gills,' 
* Gilsons,' and many of our ' Gillots,' a further remem- 
brance is likely to remain for all time.^ Such names 

' Jack and Jill seem ever to have been associated. 
Will squabbled in a tavern very sore, 
Because one brought a gill of wine no more ; 
Fill me a quart, quoth he, I'm called Will, 
The proverbe is, each Jack shall have his Gill. 

Satyricall Epigrams, 1 6 19. 

* One can scarce forbear a smile to find in the ' To\vnley Mysteries ' 
Noah's wife, being pressed by her husband to enter the ark, replying — 

Sir, for Jak nor for Gillc 

Wille I turne my face 
Tille I have on this hille 

Spun a space upon my rok (distart). 

• We must not forget a once familiar corruption of the diminutive 
'Juliet' into 'Juet.' Such entries as 'Juetta fil. William' (T. ), 
' Richard fil. Juetta' (T.), ' William Juet ' (A.), or ' Christopher Jewit- 


as these, however, ofifer no kind of comparison with 
that of * Margaret.' This is the only rival that 
* Gillian ' had to fear, and had the misfortunes of 
Margaret of Anjou occurred two, or even one century- 
earlier, it would easily have taken precedence, so far 
as our surnames are concerned. Apart from its being 
found in several royal lines, it had the advantage of 
undoubted prettiness both in sound and sense. Every 
one, too, knew its meaning, for * margarite ' and 
' pearl ' then, and until the seventeenth century even, 
were interchangeable terms. Every early writer so 
uses it. * Casting pearls before swine ' is with Wick- 
liffe ' margaritis.' ^ The pet names too were pretty, 
important in a day when the full name was rarely if 
ever used.*^ The Norman-French ' Margot ' seems to 
have been quite as familiar as ' Marjorie.' Thus the 
homely 'magpie' was at first styled the 'maggoty' 

son ' (Z. ) are very common in the rolls of the xiiith and xivth centuries. 
This, in the North, was pronounced 'Jowet,' hence such entries as 
'Roger fil. Jowettae' (T.), 'Jowet Barton' (W. ii), and our surname 
'Jowett.' ' Jewitt' also exists. One of this name was a jockey in the 
Derby of 1874. 

' So, also, in another place the same translator says : ' The kyng- 
dom of hevenes is lyk to a marchaunt that seekith gode margarites, but 
whanne he hath founde one precious margarite, he wente .and solde alle 
thingis that he hadde and boughte it.' — Matt. xiii. 45, 46. Foxe too, 
in his ' Book of Martyrs,' quotes Isidonis to the effect that John the 
Apostle ' turned certain pieces of wood into gold, and stones by the 
seaside into margarites.' — Vol. i. p. 28, edit. 1844. 

* 'Barbara,' as another Greek virgin-martyr, may be set beside 
Margaret. ' Barbe ' was the French form. As we shall see by-and-by, 
our 'Simbarbes' and 'Simbarbs' hail from St. Barbe in Normandy. 
(Jordan de St. Barbe, M., Thomas Seyntbarbe, B.) The Hundred 
Rolls register three pet forms as surnames. ' Bertol Babbc,' 'John Bar- 
bot,' and ' Nicholas Barbelot.' The latter belongs to the class in clot of 
which ' Robelot ' ' Hewelot ' and • Ilamelot ' are instances. 


or ' magot-pie.' Many will remember that Macbeth 
so uses it — 

Blood will have blood : 
Stones have been known to move, and trees to speak, 
Augurs and understood relations have 
By magot-pies and choughs and rooks brought forth 
The secretest man of blood. — ii. 7. 

' Madge-owlet,' too, from its occasional use by writers 
of this later period, seems to prove that the still more 
homely owl of the barn owed an appellation to Dame 
Marjorie. Her issue, as we should expect, is large. 
We have ' Maggs,' 'Maggots,' and 'Magotson ;' 'Mar- 
gots,' 'Margetts,' and 'Margetson;' 'Margison,' 'Mar- 
gerison,' ' Meggs,' and ' Megson.' ^ It will be surprising 
to many that we cannot place ' Mary ' in the first place 
among female names, as it is now among those of 
either sex, but such was far from the case, Edward 1,'s 
daughter ' Marie ' seems to have been the first instance 
we possess of its use among the higher families of the 
realm ; and doubtless its presence at this time must be 
referred, as in so many other cases we have mentioned, 
to the Crusades. Mariolatry, we must remember, was 
not yet an article of Romish belief Indeed, the name 
is still of the rarest for generations after this. Maid 
Marion, the mistress of Robin Hood, seems to have 
made thatdiminutive popular, and either from the acted 
plays in which she frequently afterwards figured, or 
the little ornamental image of the Virgin worn by 
women, is come our marionette. The one only form 
in which it can be said to occur in our English records 

' The various forms of the diminutive are found as Christian names 
in the 'Manor of Ashton-under-Lyne ' (Ch. Soc), where occur such 
entries as 'Magot, that was wife of Richard,' 'Merget of Staley,' 
' Marget of Stanly,' ' Mergret, that was wife of Hobbe.' — pp. 96-7, 


is that of ' Mariot/ such names as ' Mariot Goscelyn,* 
or * Mariota Gififard,' or ' Mariota Gosebeck,' being 
found as a very occasional registry. Thus our ' Ma- 
riotts ' and ' Maryatts ' are explained. With regard to 
another batch of names said to have sprung from this, 
I find a difficulty sets in. We have the clear statement 
of the author of the ' Promptorium Parvulorum ' 
that 'Malkyne' in his day was the sobriquet of Matilda, 
that is, 'Mawdkin.' On the other hand, I find Halliwell 
has a single quotation from a manuscript in which 
Maid Marion is styled Malkyn also.' All modern 
writers, saving Mr. Lower, who has come to no deci- 
sion at all, have comfortably put it down to this latter. 
I have no hesitation whatever myself in deciding dif- 
ferently, or at least in qualifying their conclusion. 

' Since writing the above, I find several notices in Brand's 'Popular 
Antiquities' which, while corroborating the view I have taken, shed a 
clearer light as to Maid Marian's other sobriquet of 'Malkin.' In his 
allusion to the Morris dances, he quotes Beaumont and Fletcher as 
saying — • 

' Put on the shape of order and humanity. 
Or you must marry Malkin, the May-lady.' 
Thus far, then, adding this to Mr. Halliwell's quotation, we find that 
Maid Marian for several centuries was also 'Malkin.' But we must 
remember that it was during this very period that Robin Hood and his 
mistress were popularly believed to be Robert, Earl of Huntingdon, and 
Matilda, daughter of Lord Fitzwalter. That the May Queen, therefore, 
should be occasionally styled ' Malkin ' will appear natural enough if 
we accept the view of the origin of that name as recorded in the text. 
But it may be asked how did she get the sobriquet of ' Marian ' ? 
Perhaps Mr. Steevens's quotation from an old play, ' The Downfall of 
Rob. Earl of Huntingdon,' dated 1401, may help us — 
' Next 'tis agreed (if thereto she agree) 

That fair Matilda henceforth change her name ; 

And, while it is the chance of Robin Hoodc 

To live in Sherwodde a poor outlaw's life, 

She by Maid Marian's name be called.' 


There can be scarcely any doubt, I think, that Malkin 
was originally the pet name of Matilda ; then, as that 
favourite name gradually sunk in estimation, and Mary 
proportionately advanced, but this much later on, it was 
transferred. Thus, if I am correct, our ' Makinsons ' 
and ' Makins,'' our ' Meakins ' and ' Meekins,' and our 

* Mawsons ' ^ will be sprung from Maud, rather than 
Mary. In confirmation of this, I may quote 'Malkin,' 
the early cant term for a 'slut,' a word as old as 
Chaucer himself, and one that Mary could not have 
possibly acquired in his day, as barely familiar. 

* Mawdkin ' or ' Malkin,' on the other hand, would be 
the ordinary term for every household drudge. It is 
only those who have carefully studied early registers 
who can realize the difference of position ' Matilda ' 
and 'Mary' relatively occupy at such a period as this. 
There were six ' Matildas ' of royal lineage between 
William I. and Henry II. alone. It greets one at every 
turn; the present popularity of the latter is entirely the 
growth of a later and more superstitious age.' 

Speaking of Mary, we must not forget Eliza- 
beth, known, generations ere Queen Bess made it 

* It has been thought by some that our 'Makins' and 'Makinsons' 
are from Matthew, and not in any way connected with feminine nomen- 
clature. This may be so, for aUhough there is the entry ' Maykina 
Parmunter ' in the Parliamentary Rolls, there is also ' Maykinus 
Lappyng ' in Materials for Ilist. Reign of Henry VII. 

^ Thomas Mawdeson (F. F.) would lead one to suppose that 
Mawson was a direct corruption. It may be so, but ' Maw ' itself 
seems to have existed as a pet form of Maud. In the ' De Lacy Inqui- 
sition' (1311) there occurs 'Richard, son of Mawe, for 25 acres, etc' 
— p. 10 (Chelt. Soc.) 

* The preceding paragraphs will sufliciently answer, I doubt not, 
the questions of correspondents in ' Notes and Queries,' as to whether 
we have any surnames derived from female baptismal names, 


SO popular, as Isabella. It was in this form it came 
into England with that princess of Angouleme who 
married John Lackland. But it was not a favour- 
ite ; pretty as it was, its connexion with our most 
despicable monarch spoiled all chance of popularity, 
and while on the Continent it gained friends on every 
hand, it was only with the higher nobility of our own 
land it got any place worth speaking of. Still it has 
left its mark. As Elizabeth^ at a later stage became 

* Lib ' and ' Libby,' so Isabel was fondled into 'lb ' and 

* Ibby.' Thus we come across such entries as * Henry 
Ebison,' ' Thomas Ibson,' or ' John Ibson.' But a 
foreign name without the foreign desinence would be 
impossible. With the introduction of Isabel came in 
the diminutive ' Ibbot ' or ' Ibbet.' Registrations like 

* Ibbota fil. Adam,' 'Ibote Babyngton,' or 'Ebote Gylle,' 
and as surnames 'Walter Ibbot/ 'Robert fil. Ibote,' 

* Francis Ibbitson,' or ' Alice Ebotson ' are of common 
occurrence.^ Another form of the same diminutive was 
'Isot,' hence ' Isotte Symes,' 'Izott Barn,' or ' Ezota 

' Elizabeth came into use too late to leave any mark upon our sur- 
names. I have not come across, to the best of my remembrance, a 
single instance in any record earlier than the fifteenth century. 'Bess,' 
or 'Bessie,' was the first pet name formed from it, and this veiy proba- 
bly began to grow into favour about the time of Elizabetli Woodville's 
marriage. With the proud imperious Queen Bess, however, came in 
every conceivable variety that could be played upon the name, ' Betsey,' 
or 'Betsy,' 'Betty,' 'Eliza,' 'Lizzie,' and 'Libbie' being the favourites. 
The first 'Bessie' I find is that of ' Bessye Tripps,' 1558; the first 
' Betty ' being that of ' Bettye Sheile,' 1580, both being in a Newcastle 
will. Betty for two centuries was, perhaps, the form most in favour in 
aristocratic circles. How fickle is fashion ! It is entirely tabooed there 
in the nineteenth. 

2 Thomas and John Ibson are recorded in the 'Corpus Christi 
Guild,' York. (Surt. Soc.) 


Hall.' ' But even with this we have not completed our 
list. One more pet form, and one still common 
amongst us, that of * Bell,' left its mark in ' Bellot,' 
' Bellet,' and ' Bellson,' all of which are still to be 
found in our directories. 

The preceding pages will be sufficient proof that our 
metronymics are a considerable class. Many have not 
hesitated to affirm them to be wholly of illegitimate 
descent. We cannot doubt that in some instances this 
is the case. Nevertheless, we must not be led astray. 
* Poison ' is Paul's son, ' Nelson ' is Neil's son, Neil 
or Nigel being at one time a familiar name with us. 
And even when the name is unquestionably feminine, 
as in Mollison, Margerison, Marriot, Emmett, or 
Annotson, illegitimacy is anything but established as 
a matter of fact. Adoption of children by women, 
posthumous birth, and other peculiar circumstances 
would often cause a boy or girl to be known in the 
community by a metronymic. Especially, too, would 
a child be thus styled in a family where the mother 
was notoriously, and in an emphatic sense, the better 
half, in a family where the husband was content to sit in 
the chimney nook, and let the bustling Margery, or 
Siss, or Emmot take, whether in or out of doors, the 
lead in all that concerned the domestic relationship. 
Thus, I doubt not, a large mass of them have arisen. 

VII. — Names Derived from Holy Scripture. 

We have incidentally referred to several Bible 
names, such as John, Mary, or Elizabeth. We shall 
find a certain characteristic appertaining to these. It 

' ' George Hall et Ezota uxor ejus.' York Guild (W. ii). 


is only those personages who prominently figured 
in the Scripture narrative who made any mark upon 
our nomenclature. The others, I doubt not, were 
unknown. It is even uncertain whether the clergy 
themselves had any but the faintest knowledge of the 
Bible. Indeed, such names even as were in use bear 
no testimony to the fact that they were given as the 
direct result of familiarity with the sacred pages. If 
from the New Testament, they were names that figured 
in the calendar as saints and martyrs, names to whom 
shrines and chapels had been dedicated. If from the 
Old, they were just those like ' Adam,' or * Isaac,' or 
' Joseph,' or ' Samson,' or ' Danisl,' or ' Absolom,' 
whose stories, told in the monkish performances or 
miracle-plays, were thus forced into the acquaintance 
of the popular mind. In a word, there is not a trace 
of anything beyond a mere superficial knowledge of 
the very outlines of the sacred narrative. Thus was it 
with ' Adam,' already mentioned. That he and Eve 
should be remembered at the font was inevitable. 
The Hundred Rolls give us an 'Adam fil. Eve.' 
Mr. Lower has been tempted to refer our ' Atkins ' and 
' Atkinsons ' to Arthur, but there can be little doubt, 
I imagine, that these are but sharper forms of ' Adkins ' 
and 'Adkinson.' The record alluded to above registers 
the same person twice as ' Adam le Fullere ' and 
' Adekin le Fuller.' With them therefore wc must ally 
our ' Addisons,' * Adcocks,' ^ and ' Adamsons.' Eve left 
us 'Eveson' as a rrietronymic, and 'Evetts' and 'Evitts,' 
as the diminutives, are firmly set amongst us.'^ 'Abel' 

' ' Ilamne, son of Adecok, held 29 acres.' (De Lacy Inquis. p. 19, 
Ch. Soc.) 

' A proof that this origination is correct is found in a York will dated 


was equally popular. The Norman desinence is found 
in such entries as * Abalotta de la Forde,' or Richard 
Abelot, whose descendants now figure as 'Ablett' and 
'Ablott' As will be seen, these may be feminine 
in origin. The reverence of the despised Jew for 
Abraham prevented this from becoming acceptable to 
Christians, but Isaac's sacrifice was too popular a story 
not to leave an impression. It would be frequently 
represented by the monks. I have already quoted 
Langland where he speaks of 

Hikke the hackney-man 
And Hugh the nedlere — 

an abbreviation now more generally known and spelt 
as ' Ike.' Gower also has it — 

Watte vocat, cui Tkoma venit, neque Symme retardat, 
Bat-o^\Q. Gibbc simul, Ilykke venire subent. 

From him then have arisen our ' Isaacs ' and ' Isaac- 
sons,' our ' Hicks ' and ' Hicksons,' our ' Higgs ' and 
' Higsons,' and with the Norman-French diminutives 
appended, our * Higgins,' ' Higginsons,' ' Higgotts,' • and 
' Higgetts.' ' Sarah,' in the dress of ' Sarra,' had a fair 
number of admirers. ' Sarra le Commongere,' 'William 
fil. Sarra,' ' Nicholas fil. Sarre,' is the usual entry. The 
origin of our ' Sarsons' would thus be certain, were it 

1391. William de Kyrkby bequeaths articles to 'Evje uxori Johannes 
Parvying,' and to ' Wiliielmo de Rowlay,' and then at the close he 
speaks of them as the aforementioned ' Evotam et dictum Willielmum 
Rowlay.' (Test. ELor., vol. i. p. 145-6. Surt. Soc.) An old London 
record, dated 1379, contains amongst other names those of 'Custancc 
lUisshe' and 'Evota de Durham.' The owner would be famili.arly 
known among her acquaint.inccs as ' Evote ' or 'Evette.' (Memorials 
0/ London, p. 435.) 

' ' .Sacred to the memory of George Higgolt,' etc. Bonsall Church, 
Derbyshire. The more common form is 'Higgett.' 


not that this name, as will be shown elsewhere, has got 
confused with * Saracen.' Moses also failed to be ac- 
cepted among Christians, nor was Aaron much more 
fortunate, such registration as 'Aaron le Blund' or 

* Aron Judde ' being rare. ' Samson ' or * Sampson,' 
as it is more generally recorded, was of course popular 
enough, and many of our ' Sampsons ' are rather the 
simple * Samson' than the patronymic of 'Samuel' 
' Samms ' ' Samuels' and ' Samuelson' are generally of 
Jewish descent. ' David,' with its ' Davies,' its ' David- 
sons,' its ' Dawes ' and ' Dawsons,' its ' Dawkes ' and 

* Dawkins,' or ' Dawkinsons,' its ' Dayes,' ' Daysons,' 

and ' Dakins' (when not 'Deakin'), would be equally 

sure of remembrance ; though doubtless, as the patron 

saint of the Principality, and as a favourite among 

Scottish kings, it owes much to these outer chances. 

Here, too, we are reminded of Piers Plowman, with 

his — 

Dawe the dykere 

And a dozen othere. 

This nickname seems to have had a long reign in the 
popular mouth, for we find, towards the close of the 
sixteenth century, Haywood writing the following 
epigram : — 

To a justice a juggler did complaine, 

Of one that dispraised his legerdemain. 

What's thy name ? sayd the Justice : Dawson, sayd hec : 

Is thy father alive ? Nay, dead, sir, pardee : 

Then thou shalt no more be Dau's son, a clere case, 

Thou art Daw thyself now in thy father's place. ' 

Passing by ' Absolom,' ' Solomon,' or ' Salamon,' ' Job ' 
and ' Jobson,' the story of Daniel would of course be 
common. This has bequeathed us itself in propria per- 

' *Dawe Robson, et Alicia uxor ejus.' (W. II.) 
G 2 


sona, and'Dancock,' 'Dankin,' 'Danett,' and 'Dannett.' 
With regard to 'Dans,' 'Dance,' 'Danse,' and 'Danson,' 
there is a little difficulty. We have to remember that 
'Dan,' like 'Dame,'* figured prominently in early days 
as a simple title of respect. They were but the ' Don ' 
and ' Donna ' which, in one form or another, still exist 
in Italy, France, and Spain. ' Dame,' from domina, 
meant ' mistress.' * Don,' from dominus, meant ' mas- 
ter.' To rank and age the two terms were equally 
applied. A ' dame's school ' still preserves this con- 
nexion of ideas. ' As with the mistress so with the 
maid,' is in early Bibles ' As with the dame so with the 
maid.' Thus there seems to be little doubt that our 
* Dames ' and ' Damsons ' are so sprung. Why then 
should not ' Dans ' and ' Danse ' and 'Danson ' be the 
masculine form .? Chaucer, in his Canterbury Tales, 
represents the host as asking the Monk — 

But, by my trothc, I cannot tell your name : 
Whether shall I call you my lord Dan John, 
Or Dan Thomas, or elles Dan Albon ? 

Thus he speaks also of ' Dan Constantine,' and jest- 
ingly of the ass as ' Dan Burnell.' Thus, Lord Sur- 
rey in one of his poems speaks of ' Dan Homer ;' 
Spenser of ' Dan Geoffrey ;' Thomson of ' Dan Abra- 
ham.' The best way will be, as in many another case, 

' 'Damsel' is, of course, the diminutive of this. As a surname, it 
is found in the cases of 'Simon Damescll ' (II. R.) and 'Lawrence 
Damysell' (W. 2). Other diminutives are met with in 'Damietta Por- 
ceir (Hist, and Ant. SuiA-ej', index), 'Damietta Avenell' (F. I".), 
'Dametta fil. Morell ' (D. D.) ; hence as surnames our 'Damets,' 
' Dametts,' 'Damiots,' and 'Domitts.' Entries like 'Alice Damyctt' 
(Z), ' Hugh Damiot ' (A), ♦ Henry Damctt ' (R), and ' Henry Domct ' 
(A) arc common. 


to divide the honours between the two ; and leaving it 
thus undecided, I pass on. 

Nor is the New Testament without its instances. 
Let us look at the Apostles first. We have already- 
spoken at some length about ' John,' but we purposely- 
kept for the present opportunity the explanation of 
its popularity in England. There can be little doubt 
that it owes much to its religious aspect. It was the 
name not merely of the beloved disciple, but of the 
Baptist. New and close associations with the latter 
were just coming into being. We must remember 
this was the time of the Crusades, It was the custom 
of all pilgrims who visited the Holy Land to bring 
back a bottle of water from the Jordan for baptismal 
purposes. A leathern bottle was an inseparable 
adjunct to the palmer's dress. We all remember 
Walter Scott's description — 

His sandals were with travel tore, 
Staff, budget, bottle, scrip he wore : 
The faded palm-branch in his hand 
Showed pilgrim from the Holy Land. 

Early scenes with regard to the river in which the 
Baptist specially figured would thus be vividly brought 
to their notice, and in the ceremony of baptism at 
home nothing could be more natural than to give to 
the infant the name of the baptizer of the Holy Child 
Jesus. This is strongly confirmed by the fact of the 
name taking precedence at this very period. It was 
thus ' Jordan ' itself as a surname has arisen. I need 
not remind students of early records how common is 
'Jordan' as a Christian name, such cognomens as 
' Jordan de Abingdon ' or 'Jordan le Clerc' being of the 
most familiar occurrence. The baptismal soon became 


surnominal, and now ' Jordan,'^ ' Jordanson,' * Jordson,' 
' Jurdan,' ' Judd,' and 'Judson''* are with us to remind 
us of this peculiar and interesting epoch.' We have a 
remarkable confirmation of what I am asserting in the 
fact of the Baptist's other name of ' Elias ' springing 
into a sudden notoriety at this time. If ' John ' 
became thus so popular, it was inevitable * Elias ' 
should be the same ; and so it was. Indeed, there 
was a time when it bid fair to be one of the most 
familiar sobriquets in England. For it was not merely 
the second Elias and the Jordan that had this effect. 
As the armies lay before Acre, remembrance of Elijah 
and the prophet of Carmel must have oft recurred to 
their minds. Out of many forms to be found in every 
early roll, those of 'Ellis,' 'Elys,' ' Elice,' ' Ellice,' 
' Elyas,' ' Helyas,' and the diminutive ' Eliot ' or 
' Elliot,' seem to have been the most familiar. Num- 
berless are the surnames sprung from it. It is thus 
we get our * Ellises ' and ' Ellices,' our * Ellsons ' 
and ' Ellisons,' our ' Elkins ' and ' Elkinsons,' our 

' Thomas Jordanson and Margery Jordanson occur in ' Three Lan- 
cashire Documents' (Cheth. Soc). 

* 'Jud,' now the pet form of George, was formerly that of Jordan. 
In Gower's lines, already quoted, it is said — 

' Hudde ' ferit, quem ' Judde ' terit. 
This reminds us of Aron Judde in the Hundred Rolls. 

• Dean Stanley seems to have the impression that this custom 
was confined to the pilgrims of Italy and Spain. In his Sifiat and 
Palestine, page 333, he says : ' The name of the river has in Italy 
and Spain, by a natural association, been turned into a common Chris- 
tian name for children at the hour of baptism, which served to connect 
them with it.' Judging by existing traces merely, I doubt whether 
the practice was quite so familiar in those countries as our own. 


' Elcocks ' and ' Ellcocks,' and our ' Ellicots,'^ 
• Elliots,' and ' ElHotsons.' In the north ' Alls ' 
seems to have gained the supremacy. Thus it is we 
have our many ' Allisons ' or 'Alisons,'^ 'Allkins' or 
'Alkins,' 'Allcocks' or * Alcocks,' and 'Allots.' 
' Alecot,' as a synonym with ' Elicot,' I do not find to 
be at present existing, but as a Christian name it 
occurs at the same period with the above.^ ' Fitz- 
ellis,' as the more aristocratic Norman form, is not 

' Ellicot seems to be a sort of feminine from Elisota. ' Item do et 
lego Elisotse domiceilje meas 40J.' (Will of William de Aldeburgh, 
1391. Test. Ebor. vol. i. p. 151.) 'Item, lego Elisot?e, uxori Ricardi 
Bustard unam vaccam et los.' (Will of Patrick de Barton, 1391. Test. 
Ebor. vol. i. p. 155.) 

^ We cannot but believe, however, that in many instances these 
two are but the offspring of ' Alice,' at this period one of the most 
popular of female names. Nor must we forget that Alison was itself a 
personal name, this being the Norman-French pet form of Alice, after 
the fashion of Marion, Louison, Beaton, etc. We are all acquaint«d 
with the ' Alison ' of the ' Canterbury Tales ' — 

' This Alison answered : W^ho is there 
That knocketh so? I warrant him a thefe.' 

We meet with it again in an old Yorkshire will : ' Item, to Symkyn, 
and Watkyn and Alison Meek, servandes of John of Bolton, to ilk on 
of yaim (them) 26s. Sd.' (Test. Ebor., vol. iii p. 21. Surtees. Soc.) 
This name is found in our more formal registers in such an entry as 
'Alison Gelyot.' (Pari. Rolls.) With regard to 'Alis ' and ' Elis,' and 
'Alison' and ' Elison,' recorded in the text, I may remind the reader that 
A and E were all but convertible letters with the Normans. One of 
their favourite female names, that of 'Aveline,' is found equally often as 
'Eveline,' and in the form of 'Evelyn' it came down to the distinguished 
writer of the seventeenth century. 'Arnold ' and ' Ernold,' ' Americ ' 
and 'Emeric,' 'Amelia' and 'Emilia,' 'Anota and Enota,'and ' Ame- 
lot ' and ' Emelot ' are but other instances in point. 

* I am confirmed in my view by finding ' Eliot ' registered as ' Aly- 
ott.' ' Alyott de Symondston held half an oxgang of land, xix(/.' (De 
Lacy Inquisition (131 1) Cheth. Soc.) 


yet, I believe, extinct. Thus the prophet at Carmel 
and the forerunner at the Jordan have made their 
mark upon our English nomenclature. 

Peter claims our attention next. When we con- 
sider how important has been the position claimed for 
him it is remarkable that in an age when, so far as 
England was concerned, this respect Avas more fully- 
exacted than any other, his name should be so rarely 
found, rarely when we reflect what an influence the 
ecclesiastics of the day themselves must have had in 
the choice of the baptismal name, and what an in- 
terest they had in making it popular. It is to them, 
doubtless, we must refer the fact of its having made 
any mark at all, for ' Peter ' was odious to English 
ears. It reminded them of a tax which was the one 
of all least liked, as they saw none of its fruits. It is 
to country records we must look for the ' Peters ' of 
the time. The freer towns would none of it. Among 
the rude peasantry ecclesiastic control was wellnigh 
absolute ; in the boroughs it was proportionately less. 
I have already quoted an instance of 133 London 
names where Peter is discovered but once to 35 Johns. 
In the Norwich Guild already mentioned, the propor- 
tion, or rather disproportion, is the same. To 128 
Johns, 47 Williams, 41 Thomases, 33 Roberts, and 21 
Richards, there are but 4 Peters. On the other hand, 
in Wiltshire, out of 588 names, we find 16 Peters to 
92 Johns. This wide dificrence of ratio I find to be 
fully borne out in all other groups of early names. 
Thanks then to the ecclesiastics it did exist, and its 
relics at any rate are numerous enough. It is hence 
we get the shorter ' Parr,' ' Piers,' ' Pierce,' ' Pears,* 
'Pearse,' and ' Peers.' It is hence with the patronymic 


added we get our ' Parsons,' * Pearsons,' * Piersons,' 
and the fuller ' Peterson.' It is hence once more with 
the pet desinences attached we get our ' Perrins ' and 

* Perrens,' our ' Perrets,' ' Perretts,' ' Parrots,' and 

* Parrets,' • our * Peterkins,' * Perkins,' * Parkins,' and 
' Parkinsons,' besides our ' Perks ' and ' Perkes ' innu- 

' Simon,' or * Simeon,' is represented by at least 
sixteen different personages in the Scriptures, so we 
may well expect to find that it has also impressed 
itself upon our own registers. The usual forms of 
the name in mediaeval rolls is * Sim,' ' Simkin,' and 

* Simonet.' Thus we find such entries as ' Simon fil. 
Sim,' ' Simkin Cock,' ' Symkyn Edward,' * Simonettus 
Mercator,' or ' Symonet Vaillain.' The French 
diminutive does not seem to have been so popular 
as that which the Flemings made so common, for I 
find no ' Simnets ' in our directories, while a whole 
column has to be set aside for our ' Simpkins ' and 
' Simpkinsons.' ' Simcock' must have existed also, as 
our ' Simcocks ' and ' Simcoxcs ' can testify. Other 
forms are found in ' Sims,' ' Simms,' ' Simpson,' 
' Simmons,' ' Simonds,' ' Symonds,' ' Simmonds,' and 

* Symondsons.' This latter is met with in the Rolls 
of Parliament in the guise of ' Symondesson.' * Philip,' 
as another of the Apostles of Jesus, was also popular. 

' Perrin was formed from 'Pierre,' as 'Iluggin' from Hugh or 
' Colin' from Nicol. ' The wife of Peryn ' is mentioned in ' Manor of 
Ashton-under-Lyne ' (Ch. Soc.), p. 97. Perrot, or Parrot, represents 
also the French diminutive. ' Alan Fitz-Pirot was a benefactor to St. 
Alban's Monastery.' (See Clutterbuck's Hertford, Appendix, vol. i.) 
Prince Edward used to call the favourite, Piers Gaveston, by the 
familiar title of ' Perot.' (See Notes and Queries, vii. 280, and Lower 
on ' Perrot,') 


As with ' Simon,' most of the nursery forms are still 
found as the chief components of its surnames. 
Skelton, the poet-laureate — in lieu of a better — of 
Henry VIII., reminds us of its chief contraction, 
'Philp,* or 'Phip,' in his lines on a dead sparrow, 
named Philip : — 

Many times and oft, 

Upon my finger aloft, 

I played with him, tittle-tattle, 

And fed him with my spattle, 

"With his bill between my lips. 

It was my pretty Phips, 

Thus we derive our * Phelps,' * Philps,' ' Phipps,' and 
* Phipson.' Adding to these our 'Philips,' 'Philipsons,' 
' Philcoxes,' 'Philpotts,' and ' Phillots,' we see that we 
are not likely soon to be quit of Philip. He is now, 
however,out of fashion as a Christian name. ' Philpot,'^ 
I need scarcely say, was very popular as the represen- 
tative of the Norman-French * Philipot,' found in such 
entries as 'Thomas Phylypotte,' or 'John Philipot;' 
but endeavours to deduce his origin as well in spelling 
as in sound from the characteristics displayed by the 
renowned Toby Philipot are not wanting, for I see 
him figuring in the ' London Directory ' as ' Fillpot' 
Archbishop Trench quotes from one of Careless's 
letters to Philpot the following passage, which serves 
to show that three hundred years ago at least the 
name had been played upon in similar fashion : ' Oh, 
good Master Philpot (he says), which art a principal 
pot indeed, filled with much precious liquor — oh, pot 

* There can be little doubt that 'Potts' comes from 'Philpotts.' 
We light upon a 'Thomas Potkin' (H.H.), proving that the abbreria- 
tion was in use. 


most happy ! of the High Potter ordained to honour.' 
Some years ago, when a Philpott was appointed to the 
episcopal chair of Worcester, Dr. Philpotts being yet 
at Exeter, the following lines got abroad : — 

\A good appointment?' 'No, it's not,' 
Said old beer-drinking Peter Watts ; 

'At Worcester one but hears " Phil-pott;" 
At generous Exeter, "Phil-potts."' 

* Fillpot ' as well as ' Fillip' are both found in 
mediaeval registers in the cases of * Roger Fylpot ' and 

* Walter Felip.' An old song, quoted in ' Political 
Poems ' (i. 60), says of the defeated soldiers at Halidon 
Hill :— 

On Filip Valas fast cri they, 

There for to dwell, and him avaunce. 

The ' Fillpots ' of our present directories may there- 
fore have thus spelt their names for four or five hun- 
dred years. Anyhow they have precedent for the 

* Matthew the Publican ' seems to have been a 
favourite alike in England and France. * Matt ' was 
the homely appellative, and thus besides ' Mathews ' 
and * Mathewson,' we meet with Matts,' ' Matson,' 
' Mattison, ' and * Mattinson.' Our ' Mayhews ' repre- 
sent the foreign dress, and can refer their origin to 
such personages as * Adam fil. Maheu,' or * Mayeu 
de Basingbourne.' * Bartholomew,' for what reason I 
can scarcely say, was a prime favourite with our 
forefathers, and has left innumerable proofs of the 
same. * Batt ' or ' Bett ' seems to have been the 
favourite curtailment. The author of ' Piers Plow- 
man ' speaks of ' Bette the Bocher ' (Butcher), * Bette 
the Bedel,' and makes Reason bid 


Bette kutte 
A bough outher tweye, 
And bete Beton therewith. 

'Batty,' 'Bates,' ' Batson,' 'Batcock,' ' Badcock,' 
' Batkins,' ' Badkins,' ' Betson,' ' Bedson,' and ' Betty ' 
are relics of this. ' Bartle,' and the Norman-French 
* Bartelot,' found in such entries as ' Bartel Frobisher,' 
' John fil. Bertol,' ' Bartelot Govi,' or ' Edward Bart- 
tlette,' at once bespeak the origin of our ' Bartles ' and 
' Bartlctts.' ' Nor was this all. Another favourite 
sobriquet for this same name was ' Toly ' or * Tholy,' 
hence such registrations as ' Tholy Oldcorn,' or 
' Robert Toly,' or ' William fil. Tholy.' Our ' Tolleys ' 
' Tollys ' and ' Tolsons ' ^ are thus explained. None of 
these could have been the offspring of any old ' Ladye 
Betty,' as Mr. Lower seems to imagine, since that 
name, as I have shown, did not exist in England at 
this time, nor in fact can it be said to have been known 
till rendered fashionable by Elizabeth Woodville, the 
bride of Edward IV. What an influence a single in- 
dividual may wield over our personal nomenclature 
may be thus seen, when we remember the enormous 
preponderance of this latter name during the two 
centuries that followed the reign of the imperious but 
' good Queen Bess,' and the glorious scattering of 
the Spanish Armada. This, too, escaping the wither- 
ing influences of the Puritan era, continued through 
all, and now holds the fourth place in English esteem. 

' A well-known Durham family of the name of ' Burletson' existed 
till the close of the eighteenth century in that county, and I am not 
sure that it does not still survive there. This, I doubt not, is but a 
corruption of ' Bartelotson ' or ' Bartleson.' (FiV/^ Surtces' History of 
Durham, vol. i. p. lo6.) 

* John Toloson was Sheriff of London in 1237. 


In the poem I have just quoted, Reason 

Called Caton his knave 

Curteis of speche, 

And also Tomme Trewe-tonge. 

Thus we see that ' Tom, ' as the popular form of 

* Thomas,' has been in vogue for many centuries. 

* Thomas,' Hke some of the above names, received an 
increased impulse from the Crusades. But another 
circumstance also befriended it. In its numerous pro- 
geny may be read again the story of the feud that 
arose between the haughty Archbishop and Henry II., 
a feud that terminated so fatally for the former, and 
made the spot where he fell hallowed for centuries 
by the pilgrimages of shrine-worshippers. Piers, in 
Langland's poem, says, 

I nolde fange a ferthyng 
For saint Thomas shryne. 

The surnames whose origin we must undoubtedly 
attribute, in the majority of cases, to the notoriety 
given to the sobriquet possessed by this murdered 
prelate are many. The patronymic is clearly marked 
in our * Thomasons,' * Thomsons,' and ' Thompsons.' 
The favoured Norman diminutive is equally assured 
of perpetuation in our ' Thomasetts,' ' Thomsetts,' and 
'Thompsetts ;' the Saxon being as fully popularised 
in our ' Thompkins,' * Tompkins,' ' Tomkins,' and 
' Tomkinsons.' The softer termination is also firmly 
settled in our ' Thomlins,' ' Tomlins,' and ' Tomlin- 
sons.' ^ More abbreviated patronymics are to be met 

' The romance form, ' Thomasine,' existed till recent days, and was 
at the zenith of its popularity in Elizabeth's reign. It is found in every 


with also in our' Thomms,' 'Thorns,' and ' Toms.' With 
so many representatives in the list of rational beings, 
we need not be surprised to find the lower order of 
creation under obligations to this title. It was with 
the death of St. Thomas of Canterbury, and the con- 
sequent popularity of his name, arose so many sobri- 
quets of which the same name became a component 
part. The cat became a ' tom-cat,' a simple-natured 
man a ' tom-coney,' a silly fellow a ' tom-noddy ' or 
' tom-fool,' a romping girl a ' tom-boy,' and a wren a 
'tom-tit' Andrew has made little impression on 
English nomenclature, but in Scotland he is universal,' 
for not only is St. Andrew the patron saint, but 
some of his relics are said to have been brought thither 
in the 4th century. ' Andrew,' 'Andrews,' and * Ander- 
son* are its surnames, but nearly all belong to the 
north side of the Tweed. 'James,' too, has failed to 
be popular in England, but ' John ' in the shape of 
' Jack ' has robbed him, as we have seen, of nearly all 
his property. Such entries as ' James le Queynt,' or 
' Ralph Jamson,' or ' William Gimmison,' were occa- 
sionally registered, and in the form of ' James ' 
'Jameson' ' Jimson' and 'Jimpson' they still exist. '^ 
' Jamieson ' is Scotch. Of the Gospel writers we have 
already noticed ' Matthew ' and ' John.' In ' Mark ' 
we see the progenitor not merely of our ' Marks' and 

register of that period. It is found as 'Thomasing' in Worksworth 
Ch. (Derbyshire) : ' Thomasing, filia William .Sympson ; buried 
Jan. 31, 1640.' 

' Thus Skelton, in ly/ty come ye uat to Courte ? says : — 
' Twit, Andrewe, twit, Scot, 
Ge hanic, ge scour thy pot.' 
' An instance of the diminutive is found in ' Tlwmas Jemmitt,' 
recorded in Clutterbuck's Hertford, Index, vol. i. 


the Latinized ' Marcus,' but of ' Marcock,' * Markin,' 
and ' Marson ' also. The mention of * Luke ' recalls 
such names as ' Luckins,' ' Luckock,' * Lucock,' or 
'Locock,' * Luckett,' and perchance 'Lockett.' It is 
in the form of * Lucus,' however, that he is generally 
known. The author of ' Piers Plowman ' speaks of 
' Marc,' ' Mathew,' ' Johan,' and ' Lucas.' 

Of the later period of New Testament history, few 
names were better represented than ' Nicholas,' but it 
was ' St. Nicholas ' of the fourth century who chiefly 
gave it its position. Owing to several well-known le- 
gends that connected themselves with this famous 
Archbishop of' Myra, he became the patron saint of 
boys, sailors, parish clerks, and even thieves. Two 
of the most favoured curtailments of this name were 
' Nicol ' and ' Nick.' From the one we have derived our 

* Nicholls' and * Nicholsons ;' from the other our 
' Nixs,' ' Nicks,' 'Nixons,' ' Nicksons,' and 'Nickersons.' 
Judging from our surnames, * Nick ' was the more 
favoured term. In the old song ' Joan to the May- 
pole,' it is said : 

Nan, Noll, Kate, Moll, 
Brave lasses have lads to attend 'em ; 

Hodge, Nick, Tom, Dick, 
Brave country dancers, who can amend 'em ? 

But the most popular form of all was that of 

* Cole' ^ or ' Colin,' which came to us through the Nor- 
mans. ' Colin ' is one more instance of the diminutive 

' Thus, in IVhy come ye not to Courle? Skelton introduces such fic- 
titious characters as — 

' Havell, and Harvy Hafter, 
Jack Travel), and Cole Craftcr.' 


* on ' or * in.' Thus we derive our ' Collins,' ' Collin- 
sons,' and ' Colsons.' The more usual desinence still 
lives in our ' Colletts ' and * Colets.' This is the form 
found in one of the * Coventry Mysteries,' where allu- 
sion is made to 

Kytt Cakeler, and Colett Crane, 
Gylle Fetyse, and Fayr Jane. 

Miss Yonge mentions a ' Collette Boilet ' who, in the 
fifteenth century, caused a reformation of the nuns 
of St. Clara, and Mr. Lower has a ' St. Colette,' 
whose parents had given him the name out of respect 
to 'St. Nicholas.' ' Coletta Clarke' is found in Clut- 
terbuck's ' Hertford ' (Index). St. Nicholas, it is 
clear, was not neglected. 

The proto-martyr Stephen has left many memorials 
in our nomenclature of the popularity which his story 
obtained among the English peasantry. The name 
proper is found in such entries as ' Esteven Walays,' 
or ' Jordan fil. Stephen,' and their descendants now 
figure amongst us as ' Stephens,' ' Stevens,' ' Stephen- 
son,' and * Stevenson.' More curtailed forms arc met 
with in ' Steenson' and ' Stinson,' and the more cor- 
rupted ' Stimson ' and ' Stimpson.' The Norman 
diminutive was of course ' Stcvenet ' or ' Stevenot,' 
and this still remains with us in our ' Stennets ' and 
' Stennetts.' Nor do Paul and Barnabas lack me- 
morials. Traces of the former are found in our ' Pol- 
sons,' ' ' Pawsons,' ' Powlsons,' and more correct ' Paul- 

' I have slated in p. 80 that Poison is nothing more than Paulson. 
A proof of this is found in the case of ' Pol Withipol,' who was sum- 
moned to attend the council to show why the statute passed 
27th Henry VHI., for the making of broadcloths and kerseys, should 
not be repealed. — Proc. and Ord. Privy Council, vii. 156. 


sons.' In one of these, at least, we are reminded of 
the old pronunciation of this name. Piers Plowman 
styles it 'Powel,' and even so late as 1562 we find 
Heywood writing the following epigram : — 

Rob Peter and pay Poule, thou sayst I do ; 
But thou robst and poulst Peter and Poule, too. 

This at once explains the origin of our more diminu- 
tive * Pauletts,' ' Pouletts,' * Powletts,' and ' Pollitts.' » 
' Barnabas ' has left his impress upon our ' Barnabys,' 
and when not local, ' Barnbys.' Miss Yonge mentions 
an epitaph in Durham, dated 1633, commemorative of 
one of the proctors of the chapter — 

Under this thorne tree 
Lies honest Barnabee. 

A century later we find it in one of D'Orsey's bal- 
lads — 

Davy the drowsy, and Bamaby bowzy, 

At breakfast will flout and will jeer, boys ; 

Sluggards shall chatter, with small beer and water, 
Whilst you shall tope off the March beer, boys. — Vol. i. 311. 

This name is now entirely out of fashion. 

With five Alexanders in the New Testament it 
did not need the celebrity of the great commander 
nor that of more fabulous heroes to make his name 
common. In Scotland it obtained great favour, both 
in palace and cottage. The softer form was always 
used. Chaucer says — 

Alisaundre's storie is commune ; 

and Langland, among other foreign places of interest, 
speaks of » 

Armonye and Alisaundre. 

' Capgrave, in his 'Chronicles,' under date 1394, says: ' In this 
lime the Lolardis set up scrowis at Westminster and at Poulcs.' 



This was no doubt the popular pronunciation of the 

time, except that it was usually abbreviated into 

' Sander,' or ' Saunder.' Thus, in * Cocke Lorells Bote,' 

it is said — 

Here is Saunder Sadeler, of Frog-street Comer, 
With Jelyan Joly at sign of the Bokeler. 

Hence it is we find such entries as * Thomas fil. 
Saundre,' 'John Alisaundre,' 'Edward Saundercock,' 
or ' Sandres Ewart,' and hence again such surnames 
as ' Sandercock,' ' Sanderson,' ' Saunderson,' ' Sanders,' 
and 'Saunders.' ' Timothy,' saving in 'Timms,' 'Timbs,' 
'Timson,' and 'Timcock,' seems to have been over- 
looked, and yet Glutton in 'Piers Plowman ' is followed 
into the tavern by 

Wat the wamer, and his wife both, 
> Tymme the tinker, and twain of his 'prentices. 

But, however unfortunate Paul's spiritual son may 
have been, the same cannot be said of Clement, his 
fellow-labourer. Raised to high distinction as the 
title of one of the greatest of the early fathers, a 
popular name among the Popes (for no less than 
fourteen were found to bear the sobriquet), Clement 
could not fail to meet with honour. Its usual forms 
were ' Clement,' ' Clemcnce,' and * Clemency,' Dimi- 
nutives were found also in ' Clem ' and ' Clim.' Of 
the noted North English archer it is said, in one of 
the Robin Hood ballads — 

And Clim of the Clough hath plenty enough, 
If he but a penny can spare ; 

and in the old song of the ' Grccn-gown ' a rhyme is 
easily secured by the conjunction of such names as — 

Clem, Joan, and Isabel, 
Sue, Alice, and bonny Nell. 


The chief surnames whose paternity is traceable to 
* Clement ' are ' Clements,' * Clementson,' ' Clemms,' 
' Clemson,' and ' Clempson.' Archangelic names are 
found in our ' Gabbs,' ' Gabbots,' and ' Gabcocks,' 
from ' Gabriel ; ' and in our * Michaelson,' ' Mitchels,' 
and ' Mitchelsons,' from 'Michael.' 

But let us somewhat more closely analyse these 
names. As I have said before, from the most casual 
survey one thing is evident, they represent the 
Church's Calendar rather than the Church's Bible. 
They are the extract of sacred legends rather than of 
Holy Writ. There is not a single name to betray any 
internal acquaintance with the Scriptures. Nor could 
there well be. An English Bible was unknown, and 
had there been one to consult, the reading powers of 
the nation were too limited for it to have been much 
used. Many of the clergy themselves could not read. 
Thus the Bible, so far as extends beyond the leading 
incidents it contains, was a sealed book. This had 
its effect upon our nomenclature. We cannot find a 
single trace of acquaintance with its rarer histories. 
What a wide change in this respect did Wicklyffe 
and the Reformation effect ! With an English Bible 
in their hand, with the clearing away of the mists of 
ignorance and superstition, with the destruction of all 
forces that could obstruct the .spread of knowledge, 
all was altered. The Bible, posted up in every church, 
might be read of all — and all who could probably did 
read it. This at once had its effect upon our nomen- 
clature. Names familiar enough in our own day to 
those ordinarily conversant with the Scriptures, but 
till then absolutely unknown, were brought forth from 
their hiding-places and made subservient to the new 


impulse of the nation. Names associated with the 
more obscure books, and with personages less directly 
confronting us in our study of the Word, begin now 
to be inscribed upon our registers. The ' Proceedings 
in Chancery' is the best evidence how far this had 
affected our nomenclature towards the close of the 
reign of Elizabeth. We come across such names, for 
example, as * Ezechie Newbold,' ' Dyna Bocher,' 
* Phenenna Salmon,' * Ezekiel Guppye,' ' Dedimus 
Buckland,' ' Esdras Botright,' ' Sydrach Sympson,' 
'Judith Botswain,' 'Isachar Brookes,' 'Gamaliel 
Capell,' ' Emanuel Cole,' * Abigaill Cordell,' ' Reuben 
Crane,' 'Amos Boteler,' ' Philologus Forth,' ' Zabulon 
Gierke,' ' Archelaus Gifford,' 'Gideon Hancock,' 'Seth 
Awcocke,' * Abacucke Harman,' or ' Melchizedek 
Payn.* The ' State Papers ' (domestic) of James I.'s 
reign are .still more largely imbued with the new 
influence. We arc now brought face to face with 
entries such as * Uriah Babington,' ' Aquila Wykes,' 
'Hilkiah Crooke,' 'Caleb Morley,' ' Philemon Powell,' 
'Melchior Rainald,' 'Zachsus Ivitt,' 'Ananias Dyce,' 
' Agrippina Binglcy,' ' Apollonia Cotton,' or ' Phineas 
Pett.' So far, however, the change was of a certain 
kind. These new names did not clash with the 
old nomenclature. There was a greater variety, 
that was all. Both romance and sacred names went 
together, and in the same family might be seen 'John' 
and 'Ralph,' 'Isaac' and 'Robert,' 'Reuben' and 
' Richard.' But a new spirit was being infused into 
the heart of the nation, th'at spirit which at length 
brought about the Puritan Commonwealth. We all 
know how this great change came. It is neither our 
intention, nor need we enter into it here. Sufficient 


for our purpose that it came. This revolution mar- 
vellously affected our nomenclature. It was not 
simply that the old and, so to speak, pagan names 
•WilHam,' 'Roland,' 'Edward,' 'Ralph,' ' Aymon,' 
and a hundred others, once household words, were 
condemned to oblivion, but even the names of the 
Christian saints were ignored. ' Cromwell,' says 
Cleveland, 'hath beat up his drums clean through the 
Old Testament — you may know the genealogy of our 
Saviour by the names of his regiment. The muster 
master hath no other list than the first chapter of St. 
Matthew.' The Old Testament, indeed, seems to 
have been alone in favour.' The practice of choosing 
such designations borrowed therefrom as ' Enoch,' 
'Hiram,' ' Seth,' ' Phineas,' 'Eli,' 'Obadiah,' 'Job,' 
'Joel,' 'Hezekiah,' ' Habbakuk,' 'Caleb,' ' Zeruiah,' 
' Joshua,' ' Hephzibah,' or ' Zerubbabel,' has left its 
mark to this very day, especially in our more retired 
country districts. Self-abasement showed itself, at 
least externally, in the choice of names of bad repute. 
'Cains,' 'Absoloms,' ' Abners,' ' Delilahs,' 'Dinahs,' 
' Tamars,' ' Korahs,' ' Abirams,' and ' Sapphiras,' * 

' Lord Macaulay has noticed this. Speaking of the Old Testament, 
and in respect of the old Puritans, he says : ' In such a history it was not 
difficult for fierce and gloomy spirits to find much that might be dis- 
torted to suit their wishes. The extreme Puritans, therefore, began to 
feel for the Old Testament a preference which, perhaps, they did not 
distinctly avow even to themselves, but which showed itself in all their 
sentiments and habits. They paid to the Hebrew language a respect 
which they refused to that tongue in which the discourses of Jesus and 
the epistles of Paul have come down to us. They baptized their chil- 
dren by the names, not of Christian saints, but of Hebrew patriarchs 
and warriors.' —(///jA Eiig. ch. i.) 

^ The most curious illustration of this class is that of ' Melcom 
Groat ' (T.T.), ' Milcom, the abomination of the children of Ammon.' 


abounded. Nor was this all. Of all excesses those 
of a religious character are proverbially most intem- 
perate in their course. Abstract qualities, prominent 
words of Scriptures, nay, even short and familiar 
sentences culled from its pages, or parodied, were 
tacked on to represent the Christian name. Camden 
mentions, as existing in his own day, such appella- 
tions as * Free-gift,' * Reformation,' * Earth,' * Dust,' 
'Ashes,' 'Delivery,' ' Morefruit,' 'Tribulation,' 'The 
Lord is near,' 'More trial,' 'Discipline,' 'Joy again,' 
' From above ' — names which, he says, ' have lately 
been given by some to their children, with no evil 
meaning, but upon some singular and precise conceit.' 
' Praise-God-Barebones ' is but another specimen of 
this extraordinary spirit. The brother of this latter 
could boast a still longer sobriquet. He had chosen 
for himself, it is said, the title, ' If-Christ-had-not- 
died-for-you-you-had-been-damned-Barebones,' but 
his acquaintances becoming wearied of its length, 
retained only the last word, and as ' Damned-Bare- 
bones ' left him a sobriquet more curt than pleasant. 
The following is a list of a jury said to have been 
enclosed in the county of Sussex at this time, and 
selected of course from the number of the Saints : — 

Accepted Trevor of Norsham. 
Redeemed Compton of Battle. 
F"aint-not Ilewit of Ileathfield. 
Make-peace Ileaton of Hare. 
God-reward Smart of Fivehurst. 
Stand-fast-on-high Stringer of Crowhurst. 

— 2 Kings, xxiii. 13. This is a conversion by baptism which would 
astonish equally Mr. Spurgeon and Dr. Pusey, I should imagine. A 
sister of Archbishop Leighton (son of a much persecuted Presbyterian 
minister) was ' Sapphira.' 


Earth Adams of Waketon. 

Called Lower of the same. 

Kill-sin Pimple of Witham. 

Return Spelman of Watling. 

Be-faithful Joiner of Butling. 

Fly-debate Roberts of the same. 

Fight-the-good-fight-of-faith White of Emer, 

More-fruit Fowler of East Hadly. 

Hope-for Bending of the same. 

Graceful Herding of Lewes. 

Weep -not Billing of the same. 

Meek Brewer of Oakeham. 

The above list may be thought by many a mere 
burlesque, and so I doubt not it is, but a similar cate- 
gory could be quickly put together from more reliable 
sources, and some of the names therein set down did 
certainly exist. The following entries are quoted by 
Mr, Lower from the registers of Warbleton : — 

161 7. Be-stedfast Elyarde. 

— Good-gift Gynnings. 
1622. Lament Willard. 

1624. Defend Outered. 

1625. Faint-not Dighurst. 

— Fere-not Rhodes. 
1677. Replenish French." 

The ' Proceedings in Chancery ' furnish us with 
' Virtue Hunt,' ' Temperance Dowlande,' ' Charitie 
Bowes,' and ' Lamentation Chapman.' The ' Visitation 
of Yorkshire ' gives us * Fayth Neville,' ' Grace Clay- 
ton,' ' Troth Bellingham,' and ' Prudence Spenser ; ' 
and amongst other more general instances may 
be mentioned * Experience Mayhew,' ^ ' Abstinence 

' The same writer quotes from the register of Waldron the following 
curious entry : — ' Flie-fornication, the bace sonne of Catren Andrewes, 
bapt. ye 17th Desemb., 1609.' 

* 'The Rev. Experience Mayhew, A.M., born Feb. 5th, 1673, 


Pougher,' ^ ' Increase Mather,' * * Thankful! Frewen,' 
'Accepted Frewen,'^ ' Live-well Sherwood,' * * Faythful 
Fortescue,' * and ' Silence Leigh.' ^ The more extraor- 
dinary and rabid phases of this spirit have now passed 
away, but the general effect remains. It is from this 
date, I have said, must be noted the declension of such 
a familiar name as ' Humphrey,' or ' Ralph,' or ' Jos- 
celyn,' and of the romance names generally. From this 
date we perceive the use of some of our present most fa- 
miliar and till then wellnigh unknown baptismal names. 
With the restoration of Charles II. much of the 
more rhapsodic features of this curious spirit died out, 
but it is more than probable it was fed elsewhere. 
The rigorous persecution of the Nonconformists which 
marked and blotted his reign, the persecuting spirit 
which drove hundreds to seek beyond the seas that 
asylum for religious liberty which was denied them at 

died of an apoplexy, Nov. 9th, 1758.' He was a missionary to Vine- 
yard Island. (Fit^e 'Pulpit,' Dec. 6, 1827.) 

' 'Here lieth the body of Abstinence Pougher, Esq., who died 
Sept. 5th, 1741, aged 62 years.' (All Saints, Leicester. K^V/e' Nicholls' 
' Leicester.') 

^ Dr. Increase Mather was sent from New England to represent to 
James II. the gratitude of the Dissenters for a Toleration Act in 1685. 
{ FiV/^ Neales' 'Puritans,' vol. v. p. 31.) 

• Rev. Accepted Frewen (died 1664) was Archbishop of York, and 
son of a Puritan minister in .Sussex. {Vu^ Walker's 'Sufferings of 
Clergy,' p. 38.) 'Thankful!' was his brother. 

* Mr. Livewell Sherwood, an alderman of Norwich, was put on a 
commission for sequestering Papists, in 1643. (Scobell's 'Orders of 
Pari.,' p. 38.) 

* Faythful Fortescue. (' Visitation of Yorkshire.') 

• ' Robert Thycr and Silence Leigh, married Dec. 9, 1741.' (St. 
Ann's, Manchester.) She was evidently the daughter of some old 
stickler for St. Paul's doctrine — 'Let the women learn in silence, with 
all subjection' — or had he been himself a sufferer in his married life ? 


home, could have none other effect than to make 
these settlers cling the more tenaciously to the new 
scheme of doctrine and practice, for which they had 
sacrificed so much. Thus the feeling which had led 
them at home to allow the Written Word to be the 
only source from which to select names for their 
children, or to make substitutions for their own, was 
not hkely to be suppressed in the backwoods.^ Their 
very life and its surroundings there but harmonized 
with the primitive histories of those whose names they 
had chosen. A kind of affinity seemed to be estab- 
lished between them. This spirit was fanned by the 
very paucity of population, and the difficulty of keep- 
ing up any connexion with the outer world. They 
were shut up within themselves, and thus the Bible 
became to them, not so much a record of the past as 
that through which ran the chronicle of the present. 
It was a living thread interwoven into their very lives. 
Their history was inscribed in its pages, their piety 
was fed by its doctrines. Its impress lay upon all, its 
influence pervaded all. All this has left its mark 
upon Anglo-American nomenclature — nay, to such a 
degree do these influences still exist, that, though 
derived from the same sources, the American system 
and our own can scarce be viewed otherwise than as 
separate and distinct. Rare, indeed, are the early 
romance and the Teutonic names in those tracts 

' Charles Chauncy died in New England, 1671. He went from 
Hertfordshire, where the family had been settled for centuries. His 
children were 'Isaac,' ' Ichabod,' 'Sarah,' 'Barnabas,' ' Elnathan,' 
•Nathaniel,' and 'Israel.' (Clutterbuck's Hertford, vol. ii. 401.) 
Elnathan and Nathaniel are the same, with syllables reversed, like 
' Theodora ' and ' Dorothea. ' 


where the descendants of the primitive settlers are 
found. All are derived from the Scriptures, or are of 
that fancy character, a love of which arose with their 
Puritan forefathers. Appellations such as ' Seth,' or 
'Abel,' or 'Lot,' or 'Jonas,' or 'Asa,' or 'Jabez,' or 
' Abijah,' or ' Phineas,' or ' Priscilla,' or ' Epaphro- 
ditus,' abound on every hand. Sobriquets like 
' Faith,' and ' Hope,' and ' Charity,' and ' Patience,' 
and ' Prudence,' and ' Grace,' and * Mercy,' have be- 
come literally as household words, and names yet 
more uncouth and strange may be heard every day, 
sounding oddly indeed to English ears. There would 
seem to have been a revulsion of feeling, even from 
such of the Biblical names as had lived in the earlier 
centuries of our history, as if the connexion of ' Peter,* 
and 'John,' and ' James,' and ' Thomas ' with others of 
more pagan origin had made them unworthy of fur- 
ther use ; certain it is, that these are in no way so 
familiar with them as with us. Such are the strange 
humours that pass over the hearts of men and com- 
munities. Such are the changes that the nomen- 
clature of peoples, as well as of places and things, 
undergo through the more extraordinary convulsions 
which sometimes seize the body corporate of society. 
Truly it is a strange story this that our surnames tell 
us. ' What's in a name ? ' in the light of all this, 
seems indeed but a pleasantry, meant to denote how 
full, how teeming with the story of our lives is each — 
as so they are. 



In wellnigh every country where personal nomen- 
clature has assumed a sure and settled basis, that is, 
where a second or surname has become an hereditary 
possession in the family, we shall find that that por- 
tion of it which is of local origin bears by far the 
largest proportion to the whole. We could well pro- 
ceed, therefore, to this class apart from any other 
motive, but when we further reflect that it is this local 
class which in the first instance became hereditary, we 
at once perceive an additional claim upon our atten- 

I need scarcely say at the outset that, as with all 
countries so with England, prefixes of various kinds 
were at first freely used to declare more particularly 
whence the nominee was sprung. Thus, if he were 
come from some town or city he would be ' William 
of York,' or ' John of Bolton,' this enclitic being fami- 
liarly pronounced ' a,' as ' William a York,' or ' John a 
Bolton.' For instance, it is said in an old poem anent 
Robin Hood — 

It had been better of William a Trent 
To have been abed with sorrowe ; 


where it simply means * William of Trent' • This, of 
course, is met in France by 'de,' as it was also on 
English soil during early Norman times. If, on the 
other hand, the situation only of the abode gave the 
personality of the nominee, the connecting link was 
varied according to the humour or caprice of the 
speaker, or the relative aspect of the site itself Thus, 
if we take up the old Hundred Rolls we shall find 
such entries as 'John Above-brook,' or ' Adelina 
Above-town,' or * Thomas Behind-water,' or ' John 
Beneath-the-town.' Or take a more extended in- 
stance, such as * Lane.' We find it attached to the 
personal name in such fashions as the following : — 

Cecilia in the Lane. 
Emma a la Lane. 
John de la Lane. 
John de Lane. 
Mariota en le Lane. 
Philippa ate Lane. 
Thomas super Lane. 

' Brook,' again, by the variety of the prefixes which I 
find employed, may well be cited as a further example. 
We have such entries as these : — 

Alice de la Broke. 
Andreas ate Broke. 
Peter ad le Broke. 
Matilda ad Broke. 
Reginald del Broke. 
Richard apud Broke. 
Sarra de Broke. 
Reginald bihunde Broke. 

' ' What is your name?' then said Robin Hood, 
'Come, tell me, without any fail ;' 
' By the faith of my body,' then said the young man, 
' My name it is Allan a Dale.' 

{Robin Hood^ vol. ii, 261.) 


These are extracts of more or less formal entries, but 
they serve at least to show how it was at first a mere 
matter of course to put in the enclitics that associated 
the personal or Christian name with that which we 
call the surname. Glancing over the instances just 
quoted, we see that of these definitive terms some are 
purely Norman, some equally purely Latin, a few are 
an admixture of Norman and Latin, a common thing 
in a day when the latter was the language of inden- 
ture, and the rest are Saxon, 'ate' being the chief one. 
This * atte ' was ' at the,' answering to the Norman 

* de la,' ' del,' or ' du,' and was familiarly contracted 
by our forefathers into the other forms of * ate * and 

* att ; ' or for the sake of euphony, when a vowel 
preceded the name proper, extended to 'atten.' Li 
our larger and more formal Rolls these seldom occur, 
owing to their being inscribed all but invariably in 
the Norman-French or Latin style I have instanced 
above, but in the smaller abbey records, and those of 
a more private interest, these Saxon prefixes are 
common. In the writers of the period they are fami- 
liarly used. Thus, in the * Coventry Mysteries,' 
mention is made of — 

Thorn Tynker, and Betrys Belle, 
Teyrs Potter, and Watt at the Well ; • 

' One of the best puns extant is put to the credit of the Duke of 
Buckingham by Walter Scott, in his Peveril of the Peak. A Mrs. 
Cresswell, who had borne anything but a creditable character, be- 
queathed lo/. for a funeral sermon, in which nothing ill-natured was to 
be said of her. The duke wrote the following brief but pointed dis- 
course : * All I shall say of her is this : she was born well, she married 
•well, she lived Tct'//, and she died tvell ; for she was born at "Shad- 
well," married to " Cress-well," lived at '♦ Clerken-well," and died in 


while ' Piers Plowman ' represents Covetousness as 
saying — 

For some tyme I served 
Symme <7//t'- Style 
And was his prentice. 

It may not be known to all my readers, probably not 
even to all those most immediately concerned, that 
this * atte ' or ' att ' has fared with us in a manner 
similar to that of the Norman ' du ' and ' de la.' It 
has occasionally been incorporated with the sobriquet 
of locality, and thus become a recognised part of the 
surname itself Take the two names from the two 
poems I have but just quoted, 'Watt at the Well' 
and ' Symme atte Style.' Now we have at this pre- 
sent day but simple ' Styles' to represent this latter, 
while in respect of the former we have not merely 
' Wells,' but ' Attwell,' or ' Atwell.' These examples 
are not solitary ones. Thus, such a name as ' John 
atte Wood,' or ' Gilbert atte Wode,' has bequeathed 
us not merely the familiar * Wood,' but ' Attwood ' 
and ' Atvvood ' also. ' William atte Lea,' that is, the 
pasture, can boast a large posterity of ' Leighs,' 
' Leghs,' and ' Lees ; ' but he is wellnigh as com- 
monly represented by our 'Atlays' and 'Attlees.' 
And not to become tedious in illustrations, ' atte- 
Borough ' is now ' Attenborough ' or 'Atterbury;' 
' atte-Ridge ' has become ' Attridge,' ' atte- Field ' 
' Atficld ; ' while such other designations as ' atte- 
Town,' 'atte-Hill,' ' atte-Water,' * atte- Worth,' 'atte- 
Tree,' or ' atte- CI iff e,' arc in this nineteenth century 
of ours registered frequently as mere ' Atton,' ' Athill,' 
' Atwater,' ' Atworth,' ' Attree,' and ' Atcliffe.' Some- 
times, however, this prefix dropped down into the 


simple *a.' The notorious Pinder of Wakefield was 
* George a Green ' according to the ballads regarding 
Robin Hood. ' Thomas a Becket,' literally, I doubt 
not, ' Thomas atte Becket ' — that is, the streamlet — 
is but another instance from more general history. 
The name is found in a more Norman dress in the 
Hundred Rolls, where one ' Wydo del Beck't ' is set 
down. In the same way 'atte-Gate' became the 
jewelled ' Agate,' and ' atte-More ' ' Amore ' and the 
sentimental ' Amor.' I have said that where the name 
proper— i.e. the word of locality — began with a vowel 
the letter ' n ' was added to ' atte ' for purposes of 
euphony. It is interesting to note how this euphonic 
' n ' has still survived when all else of the prefix has 
lapsed. Thus by a kind of prosthesis our familiar 
' Noakes ' or ' Nokes' stands for ' Atten-Oaks,' that is, 
'At the Oaks.' 'Piers Plowman,' in another edition 
from that I have already quoted, makes Covetousness 
to say — 

For sum tyme I served 
Simme atte-Noke, 
And was his plight prentys, 
His profit to look. 

* Nash ' is but put for ' atten-Ash,' or as some of our 
Rolls records it, ' atte-Nash ; ' ' Nalder ' for ' atten- 
Alder,' ' Nelmes ' for ' atten-Elms,' ' Nail ' for ' attcn- 
Hall,' while ' Oven ' and ' Orchard ' in the olden 
registers are found as * atte-Novene ' and ' atte-Nor- 
chard ' respectively. That this practice, in a day of 
an unsettled orthography, was common, is easily 
judged by the traces that may be detected in our 
ordinary vocabulary of a similar habit. In the period 
we are considering ' ale ' was the vulgar term for an 


' ale-house.' We still talk of the ' ale-stake,' that is, 
the public-house sign. Thus 'atten-ale' got corrupted 
into 'nale.' Chaucer, with many other writers, so 
uses it. In the ' Freres Tale ' we are told how the 
Sompnour — 

Maken him gret festes at the nale. 
An old poem, too, says — 

Robin will Gilot 

Leden to the nale 
And sitten there togedres 

And tellen their tale. 

Thus our forefathers used to talk alike of * an ouch,' 
or 'a nouch,' for a jewel or setting of gold. Gowcr 
has it — 

When thou hast taken any tliynge 
Of love's gifte, or nouclie, or rynge. 

Even now, I need scarcely remind my readers, we 
talk of a ' newt,' which is nothing but a contraction of 
' an ewt ' or ' eft,' and it is still a question whether 
'nedder,' provincially used for 'an adder,' was not 
originally contracted in a similar manner. ' Nale,' or 
'Nail,' thus locally derived, still lives in our directories 
as a surname.' 

While ' atte ' has been unquestionably the one 
chief prcfi.x to these more familiar local terms, it is 
not the sole one that has left its mark. Our ' Bywa- 
ters' and ' Bywoods' are but the descendants of such 
mediaeval folk as ' Elias Bi-thc-water,' or ' Edward 

' A will, dated 1553, among other bequests mentions : 'Also to my 
nawHt Bygott an old angell of golde.' The old angel, I need not say, 
refers to the coin, not the aunt. (Richmondshire Wills, p. 76.) 


By-the-wode,' and our * Byfords,' ' Bytheseas/ and 
'Bygates,' or 'Byatts,' are equally clearly the off- 
spring of some early ancestor who dwelt beside some 
streamlet shallow, or marine greensward, or woodland 

In this pursuit after individuality, however, this 
was not the only method adopted. Another class of 
names arose from the somewhat contrary practice 
of appending to the place-word a termination equally 
significative of residence. This suffix was of two 
kinds, one ending in * er,' the other in ' man.' Thus 
if the rustic householder dwelt in the meadows, he 
became known among his acquaintance as ' Robert 
the Fielder,' or 'Filder;' if under the greenwood 
shade, 'Woodyer,' or 'Woodyear,' or 'Woodman' — 
relics of the old ' le Wodere ' and ' le Wodeman ; ' if 
by the precincts of the sanctuary, ' Churcher ' or 
' Churchman ' in the south of England, or ' Kirker ' 
or * Kirkman ' in the north ; if by some priory, 
' Templer ' or * Templeman ; ' if by the village cross, 
' Grosser,' or ' Grossman,' or ' Groucher,' or ' Grouch- 
man ; ' if by the bridge, ' Bridger ' or ' Bridgman ; ' if 
by the brook, ' Brooker,' or ' Brookman,' or ' Becker,' 
or * Beckman ; ' if by the well, the immortal ' Weller,' 
or ' Welman,' or ' Grossweller,' if, as was often the 
case, it lay beneath the roadside crucifix ; if by some 
particular tree, ' Beecher,' once written ' le Beechar,' 
or'Asher,' or ' Hollier,' or ' Hollcyman,' or * Okcr,' 
and so on. 

A certain number of names of the class we are 
now dwelling upon have arisen from a somewhat 
peculiar colloquial use of the term ' end ' in vogue 



with our Saxon forefathers. The method of its em- 
ployment is still common in Lancashire and Yorkshire. 
The poorer classes still speak of a neighbour as dwell- 
ing ' at the street end ; ' they never by any chance use 
the fuller phrase 'the end of the street.' Chaucer 
uses it as a familiar mode of expression. The Friar, 
in the preface to his story, says slightingly — 

A Sompnour is a rener up and doun 
With mandments for fornication, 
And is beaten at every tounes cnde. 

In the ' Persones Prologue,' too, the same poet says — 

Therewith the moons exaltation 

In mene Libra, alway gan ascende 

As we were entring at the thorpes ende. 

How colloquial it must have been in his day we may 
judge from the following list of names I have been 
enabled to pick up from various records, and which I 
could have enlarged had I so chosen : — 

John ate Uruge-ende. 
Walter atte Townshendc. 
John de Poundesende. 
Margaret ate Laneande. 
William atte Streteshend. 
John atte Burende. 
Adam de Wodcshendc. 
Martin de Clyveshende. 
John de la Wykhend. 
William de Overende. 
John de Dichendc. 
Thomas atte Greaveshendc. 

Besides these we have such a Latinized form for 
' Townsend,' or ' Townshend,' as ' Ad fincm villae,' or 
' End ' itself without further particularity, in such a 


sobriquet as ' William atte-Nende.' ^ The several 
points of the compass, too, are marked in ' North- 
ende,' ' Eastende,' and ' Westende,' the latter having 
become stereotyped in the fashionable mouth as the 
quarter in which the more opulent portion of the town 
reside, whether its aspect be towards the setting sun 
or the reverse — but an exaggeration of this kind is a 
mere trifle where fashion is concerned. 

But these Saxon compounded names, numerous 
as they are, are but few in comparison with the simple 
locative itself, without prefix, without desinence, 
* Geoffrey atte Style,' ' Roger atte Lane,' ' Walter atte 
Water,' ' Thomas atte Brooke ; ' or in the more 
Norman fashion of many of our rolls, 'John de la 
Ford,' 'Robert del Holme,' 'Richard de la Field,' 
' Alice de la Strete : ' all these might linger for awhile, 
but in the end, as we might foresee, as well in the 
mouths of men as later on in the pages of our registers, 
they became simple ' Geoffrey Styles ' and ' Roger 
Lane,' * Walter Waters ' and ' Thomas Brookes,' ' John 
Ford ' and ' Robert Holmes,' ' Alice Street ' and 
' Richard Field.' Here, then, is an endless source of 
surnames to our hands. Here is the spring from 
which have issued those local sobriquets which prepon- 
derate so largely over those of every other class. To 
analyse all these were impossible, and the task of 
selection is little less difficult. But we may give the 
preference to such leading provincialisms as are em- 
bodied in our personal nomenclature, or to such terms 
as by their existence there betoken that, though not 

" This name thus formed existed till the sixteenth century, at least, 
for ' Christopher Nend ' is set down in the Corpus Christi Guild, 
York, 1530. 

I 2 


now, yet they did then occupy a place in the vocabu- 
lary of every-day converse. For it is wonderful how 
numberless are the local words, now obsolete saving 
for our registers, which were used in ordinary talk not 
more than five hundred years ago. That many of 
them have been thus rescued from oblivion by our 
hereditary nomenclature is due no doubt to the fact 
that the period of the formation of the latter is that 
also during which our tongue was settling down into 
that composite form of Saxon and Norman in which 
we now have it, and which in spite of losses in con- 
sequence, in spite of here and there a noble word 
crushed out, has given our English language its 
pliancy and suppleness, its strengths and shades. 

We have mentioned ' de la Woode ' and ' Atte- 
woode.' ' De la Hirst' is exactly similar — its com- 
pounds equally numerous. The pasture beside it is 
' Hursley ' — if filberts abound it is * Hazlehurst ; ' if 
ashes, ' Ashurst ; ' if lindens or linds, ' Lyndhurst ; ' if 
elms, * Elmhurst.' If hawks frequented it we find it 
styled * Hawkhurst ; ' if goats, ' Goathirst ; ' if badgers 
or brocks, ' Brocklchurst ; ' if deer, ' Dewhurst ' (spelt 
Duerhurst, 1375). The 'holt ' was less in size, being 
merely a coppice or small thicket. Chaucer speaks 
of ' holtes and hayes.' ' De la Holt ' is of frequent 
occurrence in our early rolls. Our ' Cockshots ' are 
but the ' cocksholt,' the liquid letter being elided as in 
' Aldershot,' ' Oakshot,' ' and ' Bagshot,' or badgers' 
holt. A ' shaw * or ' schaw ' was a small woody 
shade or covert. An old manuscript says : — 

' William de Okholt is found in the * Inquis. post mortem.' This 
would be the original form. 


In somer when the shawes be sheyne, 

And leves be large and long, 
It is fulle mery in feyre foreste 

To here the foulys song. 

As a shelter for game and the wilder animals, it is 
found in such compounds as ' Bagshaw,' the badger 
being evidently common ; * Hindshaw,' ' Ramshaw,' 
' Hogshaw,' ' ' Cockshaw,' ' Henshaw,' and ' Earnshaw.' 
The occurrence of such names as ' Shallcross ' and 

* Shawcross,' ' Henshall ' and ' Henshaw,' and ' Kersall ' 
and * Kershaw,' would lead us to imagine that this 
word too has been somewhat corrupted. Other 
descriptive compounds are found in ' Birkenshaw,* 
or ' Denshaw,' or ' Bradshaw,' or ' Langshaw,' or 

* Openshaw.' As for * Shaw ' simple, every county in 
England has it locally, and every directory surnomi- 
nally. Such a name as 'Richard de la Frith' or 

* George ate Frith ' carries us at once to the woodland 
copses that underlay our steeper mountain-sides — 
they represented the wider and more wooded valleys 
in fact. We find the term lingering locally in such 
a name as ' Chapel-en-le-frith ' in the Peak of Derby- 
shire. The usual alliterative expression of early days 
was ' by frith and fell.' We have it varied in an old 
poem of the fourteenth century : — 

The Duke of Braband first of all 
Swore, for thing that might befall, 
That he should both day and night 
Help Sir Edward in his right, 
In town, in field, in frith and fen. 

Our ' Friths ' are by no means in danger of obsolctism, 

' ' Emehna de Hogshawe ' (Inquis. post mortem). The name is 
now extinct, I believe. 


to judge by our directories — and they are a pleasant 
memorial of a term which was once in familiar use as 
expressive of some of the most picturesque portions of 
English scenery. Such a name as ' De la Dene ' or 
' Atte Den,' of frequent occurrence formerly, and as 
' Dean ' or ' Den ' equally familiar now, is worthy of 
particularity. A den was a sunken and wooded vale, 
where cattle might find alike covert and pasture. 
Thus it is that we are accustomed to speak of a den 
in connexion with animal life, in such phrases as a 

* den of lions ' or a * den of thieves.' See how early 
this notion sprang. We have a remembrance of the 
brock in ' Brogden,' the wolf in ' Wolfenden,' the fox 
in ' Foxden,' the ram in ' Ramsden,' the hare in ' Har- 
den,* and the deer in ' Dearden,' ^ ' Buckden ' or ' Bug- 
den,' * Rayden ' and 'Roden,' or' Rowden.' The more 
domesticated animals abide with us in ' Horsden,' 
' Oxenden,' and ' Cowden,' * Lambden,' or ' Lamden,' 

* Borden,' and * Sugden,' or ' Sowden ; ' ' Swinden,' 

* Eversden,' and ' Ogden,' at first written * de Hog- 
dene.' With regard especially to this latter class it is 
that our ' Court of Dens ' arose, which till late years 
settled all disputes relative to forest pannage. The 

■ Our ' Deardens,' however, may be in some cases but a corruption 
of the old 'Demeden' — that is, the secret or secluded den. The 
Hundred Rolls give us, for instance, a ' Ralph de Demeden.' This 
word ' dem ' was then in the most familiar use. Thus, in ' Cursor 
Mundi,' mention is made of 'a mountain dem.' Chaucer speaks of 
' deme love,' and Piers I'lowman of 'derne usurie.' Our ' Durnfords' 
but represent such an early entry as ' Robert de Derneford ; ' and of 
names now obsolete, we might instance ' Dcrnehus,' found also in the 
same roll as the above. Our ' Derncs ' simple probably originated in 
the reticent and cautious disposition of their first ancestor. We may 
take this oi)porlunity of noticing that 'Dibdin' is but 'Deepden.' One 
of our older rolls has a ' Randolph de Depeden.' 


dweller therein, engaged probably in the tendance of 
such cattle as I have mentioned last, was the ' Denyer ' 
or * Denman,' both surnames still living in our midst. 
While the den was given up mainly to swine, the ley ^ 
afforded shelter to all manner of domestic livestock, 
not to mention, however, some few of the wilder 
quariy. The equine species has given to us ' Hors- 
ley ; the bovine, ' Cowley,' ' Kinley,' and ' Oxlee ' or 
' Oxley ; ' the deer, * Hartley,' ' Rowley,' * Buckley,' 
and ' Hindley ; ' the fox, * Foxley ; ' ^ the hare, ' Har- 
ley,' and even the sheep, though generally driven to 
the scantier pastures of the rocks and steeps, has left 
us in * Shipley ' a trace of its footprint in the deeper 
and more sheltered glades. Characteristic of the 
trees which enclosed it, we get ' Ashley,' * Elmsley,' 
' Oakley,' ' Lindley,' or ' Berkeley.' Of the name 
simple we have endless forms ; those of ' Lee,' ' Legh,' 
' Lea,' ' Lees,' * Laye,' and ' Leigh ' ^ being the most 
familiar. In the old rolls their ancestors figure in an 
equal variety of dresses, for we may at once light 
upon such names as ' Emma de la Leye,' or ' Richard 
de la Legh,' or 'Robert de la Lee,' or 'William de la 
Lea,' or ' Petronilla de la Le.' Our ' Atlays ' and 
'Atlees,' as I have already said, are but the more 
Sax6n ' Atte Lee.' 

In some of these surnames we can trace the early 
cuttings amongst the thickly wooded districts where 
the larger wealds were situated. Our * Royds,' or 
'Rodds,' or ' Rodes,' all hail from some spot ridded 

■ By 'ley' I include both 'lee/ a shelter, and 'lea,' a pasture, for 
it is impossible to distinguish the two. 

* ' John de Foxlee ' is mentioned. (Fines, Ric. I. ) 

* More personal forms are found in ' Henry Legeman' (II. R.) and 
• Elias Layman ' (H.R.). 


of waste wood. Compounds may be found in our 

* Huntroyds,' that is, the clearing for the chase ; ' Hol- 
royds,' that is, the holly-clearing ; and ' Acroyds,' that 
is, the oak-clearing, the term 'acorn,' that is, 'oak- 
corn,' and such local names as ' Acton ' or ' Acland,' 
reminding us of this the older spelling ; ' Ormerod,' 
again, is but Ormes-clearing — Orme being, as we have 
already shown, a common Saxon personal name. Our 

* Greaves ' and * Graves ' and ' Groves,' descendants of 
the ' de la Groves ' and ' Atte Groves ' of early rolls, 
not to mention the more personal * Grover ' and 

* Graver,' convey the same idea. A ' Greave ' was 
a woodland avenue, graved or cut out of the forest. 
Fairfax speaks of the — 

Wind in holts and sliady greaves. 

'Tis true we only 'grave' in stone now, but it was not 
always so. Thus in the ' Legend of Good Women ' 
mention is made of — 

A little herber that I have 
That benched was on turves fresh ygrave. 

We still call the last resting-place of the dead in our 
churchyards a grave, though dug from the soil. I 
have already mentioned ' de la Graveshend ' occurring 
as a surname. Our ' Hargrcaves ' hail from the grove 
where the hares are plentiful ; our ' Congreves ' repre- 
senting the same in the coney. Our ' Grceves ' we 
shall have occasion in another chapter to show belong 
to another and more occupative class of surnames. 
Our ' Thwaites,' too, belong to this category. Locally 
the term is confined to Cumberland and the north, 
where the Norwegians left it. It is exactly equivalent 


to * field,' a felled place, or woodland clearing The 
compounds formed from it are too numerous to wade 
through. Amongst others, however, we have, as 
denotive of the substances ridded, ' Thornthwaite,' 

• Limethwaite,' ' Rownthwaite,' and * Hawthorn- 
thwaite ; ' of peculiarity in position or shape, * Brath- 
waite ' (broad), and ' Micklethwaite ; ' of contents, 

* Thistlethwaite,' ' Cornthwaite,' and ' Crossthwaite,' 
The very dress of the majority of these compounds 
testifies to the northern origin of the root-word. 

Our * Slade ' represents the ' de la Slades ' of the 
Hundred Rolls. A slade was a small strip of green 
plain within a woodland. One of the numberless 
rhymes concerning Robin Hood says — 

It had been better of William a Trent 

To have been abed with [sorrowe, 
Than to be that day in the greenwood slade 

To meet with Little John's arrowe. 

Its nature is still more characterised in 'Robert de 
Greneslade,' that is, the green-slade ; ' William de la 
Morslade,' the moorland-slade ; * Richard de Wyt- 
slade,' the white-slade ; ' Michael de Ocslade,' the 
oak-slade, and ' William de Waldeslade,' * the forest- 
slade (weald) ; * Sladen,' that is, slade-den, implies a 
woodland hollow. As a local term there is a little 
difference betwixt it and * launde,' only the latter has 
no suspicion of indenture about it. A launde was a 
pretty and rich piece of grassy sward in the heart of 
a forest, what we should now call an open wood, in 
fact. Thus it is we term the space in our gardens 

• 'William de Waldeslade' occurs in the 'Great Roll of the Pipe.' 


within the surrounding shrubberies lawns. Chaucer 
says of Theseus on hunting bent — 

To the launde he rideth him ful right 
There was the hart wont to have his flight. 

In the ' Morte Arthur,' too, we are told of hunting — 

At the hartes in these hye laitnJes. 

This is the source of more surnames than we might 
imagine. Hence are sprung our ' Launds,' ' Lands,' 
* Lowndes,' ' Landers,' in many cases, and our obsolete 
' Landmans.' The forms, as at first met with, are 
equally varied. We have * atte-Lond,' ' de la Laund,' 
and ' de la Lande,' while the origin of our ' Lunds ' 
shows itself in ' de la Lund.' ' De la Holme ' still 
flourishes in our ' Holmes,' while the more personal 
form is found in our ' Holmers ' and ' Holmans.' An 
holm was a flat meadow-land lying within the wind- 
ings of some valley stream. Our * Platts,' found in 
such an entry as ' Robert del Plat,' are similarly 
sprung, but in the 'plat' there was less thought of 
general surroundings. As an adjective it was in 
common use formerly. For instance, in the ' Ro- 
maunt of the Rose,' when the God of Love had shot 
his arrow, it is said — 

When I was hurte thus in stound 
I fell down plat unto the ground. 

Our ' Knowles,' ' Knowlers,' and ' Knowlmans ' carry 
us to the gently rising slopes in the woods, grassy and 
free of timber, the old form of the first being ' de la 
Cnolle ' or ' atte Knolle.' Our ' Lynches,' once written 
' de Linches,' I should surmise, are but a dress of the 


still familiar link across our northern border — the flat- 
land running by the river and sea-coast, while our 
' Kays ' (when not the old British * Kay ') represent 
the more artificial ' quay,' reminding us of the knitting 
together of beam and stone. It is but the same word 
as we apply to locks, the idea of both being that of 
securing or fastening. 

Though it is to the more open plains and wood- 
lands we must look for the majority of our place- 
names, nevertheless, looking up our steeps and into 
the fissures of the hills, we may see that every feature 
in the landscape has its memorial in our nomenclature. 
' De la Hill ' needs no remark. ' De la Helle ' and 
* atte Helle ' are somewhat less pleasant to look upon, 
but they are only another form of the same. * De la 
Hulle,' again, is but a third setting of the same. 
Gower says — 

Upon the hulles hyhe 
Of Othrin and Olympe also, 
■ , And eke of three hulles mo 

She fond and gadreth herbes sweet. 

' Mountain ' is the ' de la Montaigne ' of the twelfth 
century, but of course of Norman introduction. This 
sobriquet reminds us of the story told of a certain Dr. 
Mountain, chaplain to Charles H., who, when the 
king asked him if he could recommend him a suitable 
man for a vacant bishopric, is reported to have an- 
swered, ' Sire, if you had but the faith of a grain of 
mustard seed, the matter could be settled at once.' 
' How } ' inquired the astonished monarch. ' Why, 
my liege, you could then say unto this niowitain 
(smiting his own breast), " be thou removed to that 


see^' and it should be done.' ' Our ' Cloughs ' repre- 
sent the narrow fissures betwixt the hills. From the 
same root we owe our ' Clives ' (the ' de la Clive ' of 
the Hundred Rolls), * Cliffes/ ' Cleves,' and ' Clowes,' 
not to mention our endless ' Cliffords,' * Cliftons,' 
' Clifdens,' ' Cliveleys,' ' Clcvelands,' ' Tunnicliffes,' 
'Sutcliffes,' ' Nethercliffes,' ' Topliffs,' ' Ratcliffes,' or 
' Redcliffes,' ' Faircloughs,' and ' Stonecloughs.' Any 
prominence of rock or earth was a ' cop,' or ' cope,' 
from the Saxon ' cop,' a head.^ Chaucer talks of 
the * cop of the nose.' In Wicklyffe's version of 
Luke iv. 29, it says, ' And thei risen up and droven 
him out withouten the cytee, and ledden him to 
the coppe of the hill on which their cytee was 
bilded to cast him down.' We still talk of a coping- 
stone. Hence, from its local use, we have derived 
our ' Copes ' and ' Copps,' ' Copleys ' and ' Copelands,' 
and ' Copestakes.' From ' cob,' which is but another 
form of the same word, we get our ' Cobbs,' ' Cob- 
hams,' ' Cobwells,' ' Cobdens,' and ' Cobleys.' Thus, 
to consult the Parliamentary Writs alone, we find 
such entries as ' Robert de Cobbe,' ' Reginald de 
Cobeham,' ' John de Cobwell,' or ' Godfrey de Copp- 
den.' As a cant term for a rich or prominent man 
' cob ' is found in many of our later writers, and 
' cobby ' more early implied a headstrong nature. 
Another term in use for a local prominence was 

• Quite as good a story, and one less objectionable, is told of a 
Scottish Member of Parliament called Dunlop, who, at a large dinner 
party, having asserted that no one could make a pun upon his name, 
met with the instant reply from one of his guests, ' Oh, yes, I can. 
Lop off the last syllable, and it is dime.'' 

* Thus in the ' Proverbs of Hending,' it is said ! ' When the coppe 
is fullest, then the hair is fairest.' 


* ness,' or ' naze.' ' Roger atte Ness ' occurs in the 
thirteenth century ; and * Longness ' and * Thickness ' 
and ' Redness ' are but compounds, unless, as is quite 
possible, they be from the same root in its more per- 
sonal relationship to the human face, the word nose 
being familiarly so pronounced at this time. Our 
' Downs ' and * Dunns,' when not sprung from ' le 
Dun,' are but descendants of the old ' de la Dune,' of 
the hilly slopes ; our * Combs ' and ' Combes ' repre- 
senting the ' de la Cumbe ' of the ridgy hollows, or 

* cup-shaped depressions ' of the higher hillsides, as 
Mr. Taylor happily expresses it. It is thus we get 
our terms ' honeycomb,' ' cockscomb,' ' haircomb,' &c. 
Few terms have connected themselves so much as 
this with the local nomenclature of our land, and few 
have made themselves so conspicuous in our directo- 
ries. The writer I have just mentioned quotes a 
Cumberland poet, who says — 

There's Cumwhitton, Cumwhinton, Cumranton, 

Cumrangan, Cumrew, and Cumcatch, 
And mony mair Cums i' the County, 

But nin wi' Cumdivock can match. 

Of those compounds which have become surnames we 
cannot possibly recite all, but among the more com- 
mon are ' Thorncombe ' and ' Broadcombe,' ' New- 
combe ' and ' Morcombe,' ' Lipscombe ' and ' Wool- 
combe,' * Withecombe ' and ' Buddicom,' and ' Slo- 
combe.' We have already mentioned ' Amore.' The 
simple * More,' or ' Moore,' is very familiar ; ' atte 
Mor,' or ' de la More,' being the older forms. This 
has ever been a favourite name for punning rhymes. 
In the * Book of Days,' several plays of this kind 


have been preserved. When Dr. Manners Sutton' 
succeeded Dr. Moore in the Archiepiscopal chair of 
Canterbury, the following lines were written : — 

What say you ? — the archbishop's dead ? 
A loss, indeed ! Oh, on his head 

May Heaven its blessings pour ! 
But if with such a heart and mind, 
In Manners we his equal find, 

Why should we wish for More ? 

When Sir Thomas More was Chancellor, it is said, his 
great attention to his duties caused all litigation to 
come to an end in the Court of Chancery. The fol- 
lowing epigram bearing upon this fact was written : — 

When More some years had Chancellor been, 

No more suits did remain ; 
The same shall never more be seen 

Till More be there again. 

Our * Heaths ' explain themselves, but our 
' Heths,' though the same, and from the first found as 

' Talking of ' Manners,' however, we may add one on the celebrated 
Marquis of Granby : — 

• What conquest now will Britain boast. 

Or where display her banners ? 
Alas ! in Granby she has lost 

True courage and good Manners.'' 

Puns of this nature may be met with frequently in books of the last 
century. Some complimentary verses to Dr. Gill, on account of a sup- 
posed victory in a pul)lic controversy, in 1727, in support of immersion 
at baptism, have a play of this kind at one part : — 

'Stennet,' at first, his furious foe did meet, 
Cleanly compelled him to a swift retreat ; 
Next powerful ' Gale,' by mighty blast made fall 
The Church's Dagon, the gigantic 'Wall.' 

(CilVs Works, edit. 1839.) 


' atte Heth,' are not so transparent. Some might be 
tempted to set them down in a more Israelitish cate- 
gory as descendants of the ' children of Heth,' but 
such is not the case. Somewhat similar to ' Cope,' 
mentioned above, was * Knop ' or ' Knap ' — a summit.' 
Any protuberance, whatever it might be, was with our 
old writers a ' kjiop' ^ Rose-buds and buttons alike, 
with Chaucer, are * kjiops ' : — 

Among the knops I chose one 
So fair, that of the remnant none 
Ne praise I halfe so wel as it. 

North in his Plutarch says, ' And both these rivers 
turning in one, carrying a swift streame, doe make the 
knappe of the said hill very strong of its situation to 
lodge a camp upon.' To our hilltops, then, it is we 
owe our ' Knaps,' ' Knappers,' ' Knapmans,' ' Knopps,* 
' Knopes,' ' Knabwells,' and ' Knaptons.' Our ' Howes ' 
represent the smaller hills, while still less prominent 
would be the abodes of our early ' Lawes,' ^ and 
' Lowes,' or ' de la Lawe ' and ' de la Lowe,' as they 
are found in the Hundred Rolls. Our * Shores ' need 
no explanation, but our ' Overs ' are less known. An 
old poem, quoted by Mr. Halliwell, says : — 

' Our novT vulgar term ' nob ' is a relic of this : ' To hit a man on 
the nob ' is, in the north, to strike on the head. In the same districts 
a * nob ' is a rich man, one of family and influence. 

* Our Authorised Version has it, in Exodus xxv. 33 : ' Three bowls 
made like unto almonds, with a knop and flower in one branch.' Here 
a bud is evidently intended. I need scarcely say that ' knob ' is but the 
modern form of this word. 

' Besides 'David atte Lawe' (M.), we have the more personal 
'John Laweman' (A.), or ' Ranulf Laweman ' (A.). I doubt not these 
are also local, but one cannot help thinking of Chaucer's ' Sergeant of 
the Lawe, ware and wise.' 


She come out of Sexlonde, 
And rived here at Dovere, 
That stondes upon the sees overe. 

It seems to have been used generally to denote 
the flat-lands that lay about the sea-coast or rivers 
generally — what we should call in Scotland the links. 
I have already mentioned our 'Overends' as similar 
to our ' Townsends ; ' ' Overman ' doubtless is but the 
more personal form of the same.^ 

Coming gradually to more definite traces of 
human habitation, we may mention some of our tree 
names. Of several, such as ' Nash,' and ' Naider,' and 
' Nokes,' we have already spoken. Such a name as 
' Henry atte Beeche,' or * Walter de la Lind,' or 
' Richard atte Ok,' now found as simple ' Beech,' and 
' Lind,' and ' Oake,' reminds us that we are not with- 
out further obligations to the tree world. Settling 
by or under the shade of some gigantic elm or oak, a 
sobriquet of this kind would be perfectly natural. As 
our ' Lyndhursts ' and ' Lindleys ' prove, ' lind ' was 
once familiarly used for our now fuller ' linden.' Piers 
Plowman says : — 

Blisse of the briddes 
Broughte me aslepe, 
And under a lynde 
Upon a launde 
Leaned L 

Were the Malvern dreamer describing poetically the 
birth and the origin of the future Swedish nightingale 
who four hundred years after\vards was to entrance 
the world with her song, he could not have been more 

' ' William de Thornover ' and ' Walter de Ashoverc ' will repre- 
sent compound forms. 


happy in his expression. Our * Ashes ' and ' Birches,' 
once * de la Byrche/ need Httle remark, but ' Birks,' 
the harder form of the latter, is not so familiar, though 
it is still preserved in such names as * Birkenhead,' or 
* Birkenshaw,' or ' Berkeley.' A small group of trees 
would be equally perspicuous. Thus have arisen our 
' Twelvetrees,' and ' Fiveashes,* and ' Snooks,' a mere 
corruption of the Kentish ' Sevenoaks.' Mr. Lower 
mentions * Quatrefages,' that is, ' four beeches,' as a 
corresponding instance in French nomenclature. ' 

A common object in the country lane or by-path 
would be the gate or hatch that ran across the road 
to confine the deer. The old provincialism for this 
was ' yate.' We are told of Griselda in the * Clerkes 
Tale ' that— 

With glad chere to the yate 

she is gone 

To grete the markisesse ; 

and Piers Plowman says our Lord came in through 

Both dore and yates 

To Peter and to these apostles. '■' 

Our ' Yates,' written once ' Atte Yate,' by their num- 
bers can bear testimony to the familiarity with which 
this expression was once used. ' Byatt ' I have just 
shown to be the same as ' Bygate,' and ' Woodyat ' is 
but equivalent to ' Woodgatc.' Other compounds are 

' Several local names of this class are found witli 'tree' appended. 
Thus, 'Thomas Appletrec' occurs in the Chancery suits of Elizabeth ; 
and 'Crabtree,' ' Plumtree,' or 'Plumptree,' and 'Rowntrec' (rowan- 
tree) may still be seen in our busiest streets. 

* In the ' Townley Mysteries,' Jacob, in his vision, is represented as 
laying : — 

' And now is here none othere gate 
But Codes howse and hevens yate.' 


found in the old registers. In the ' Placitorum ' of 
the thirteenth century, for instance, we light upon 
a 'Christiana atte Chircheyate,' and a 'John atte 
Foldyate ; 'while in the Hundred Rolls of the same 
period we find a ' Walter atte Lideyate,' now familiarly 
known to us as ' Lidgate.' Our ' Hatchs,' once en- 
rolled as ' de la Hache,' like our before-mentioned 
' Hatchers ' and ' Hatchmans,' represented the simple 
bar that ran athwart the woodland pathway. We 
still call the upper-deck with its crossbars the hatches, 
and a weir is yet with the country folk a hatch. 
Chaucer speaks of — 

Lurking in hemes and in lanes blinde. 

Any nook or corner of land was with our forefathers 
a * hearne,' and as ' en le Heme ' or ' atte Hurne ' the 
surname is frequently found in the thirteenth century.* 
' De la Corner ' is, of course, but a synonymous term. 
A passage betwixt two houses, or a narrow defile be- 
tween two hillsides, was a ' gore,' akin, we may safely 
say, to ' gorge.* Our ' Gores,' as descendants of the 
old ' de la Gore,' are thus explained. ' De la Gore- 
way,' which once existed, is now, I believe, obsolete. 
One of the most fertile roots of nomenclature was the 
simple roadside * cross ' or ' crouch,' the latter old 
English form still lingering in our ' crutched ' or 
' crouched Friars.' Langland describes a pilgrim as 
having ' many a crouche on his cloke ; ' i.e. many a 
mark of the cross embroidered thereon. A dweller 
by one of these wayside crucifixes would easily get 

' I believe this word is not yet extinct in our North-country vocabu- 
lary. A Yorkshire inventoiy of goods, of 1540 or thereabouts, con- 
cludes by stating what moneys had been discovered in comers and out 
of the way places in the house : ' In hemes, xiiij. iiii^. j item, x sylver 
spones, xxiiis. imd.' (Richmondshire Wills, p. 41.) 


the sobriquet therefrom, and thus we find ' atte 
Crouch ' to be of early occurrence. Our ' Crouch- 
mans ' and ' Crouchers ' I have already mentioned. 
A 'Richard Crocheman' is found in the Hundred 
Rolls, and a ' William Croucheman ' in another entry 
of the same period. As for the simpler ' Cross,' once 
written ' atte Cross,' it is to be met with everywhere. 
' Crosier ' and ' Crozier ' I shall, in my next chapter, 
show to be official rather than local ; so we may pass 
them by for the present. The more Saxon * Rood ' 
or 'Rudd' is not without its representatives. 'Mar- 
gery atte Rudde ' is found in the ' Placitorum,' and 
our ' Rudders ' and ' Ruddimans,' I doubt not, stand 
for the more directly personal form. Talking of 
crosses, we may mention, in passing, our ' Bellhouses,' 
not unfrequently found as ' atte Belhus ' or ' de la 
Belhuse.' The founder of this name dwelt in the 
small domicile attached to the monastic pile, and, no 
doubt, had for his care the striking of the innumerable 
calls to the supply of either the bodily or spiritual 
wants of those within. Our ' Bellows,' I believe, are 
but a modification of this. The last syllable has 
undergone a similar change in several other instances. 
Thus the form ' del Hellus ' was but ' Hill-house/ 
' Woodus ' is but the old ' de la Wodehouse,' ' Stan- 
nus ' but * Stanehouse ' or ' Stonehouse,' ' Malthus ' but 
' Malthouse,' and ' Bacchus ' is found originally as 'del 
Bakehouse.' ^ The old ' Atte Grene,' a name familiar 

' Thus, also, is it with 'Dufifus.' We find it in the Hundred Rolls 
set down in the same form as ' de Duffus' or 'del Duffus,' the more 
literal dress being met with in the London city archives in the name of 
•Thomas Dufhous.' (l^ide Riley's Memorials of London, p. 555.) 
• Dove-house' is the root. 



enough without the prefix, may be set beside our 
' Plastows,' relics of the ' Atte Pleistowe ' or ' de la 
Pleystowe ' of the period we are considering. The 
* play-stowe ' (that is, 'playground') seems to have 
been the general term in olden days for the open 
piece of greensward near the centre of the village 
where the may-pole stood, and where all the sports 
at holiday times and wake tides were carried on.' 
Our ' Meads ' or ' Meddes ' hail from the ' meadow,' or 
' mead.' ' Ate Med ' is the early form.' 

A * croft ' was an enclosed field for pasture. Be- 
sides ' Croft ' it has given us ' Meadowcroft,' * Rye- 
croft,' ' Bancroft ' (that is, bean-croft), ' Berecroft ' (that 
is, barley-crofi), and ' Haycraft' (that is, hedged-croft). 
It seems, however, to have been freely used, also, in 
the sense of garth or yard, the enclosure in which, or 
by which, the house stood. Thus, in the * Townley 
Mysteries,' Satan is represented as calling to the 
depraved and vile, and saying — 

Come to my crofte alle ye. 

With the humour of the period, which was ever largely 
intermingled in even the most sacred themes, one of 
the characters, acting as a demon, replies — 

Souls come so Ihyk now late unto hell 

As ever 
Our porter at hell-gate 
Is holden so strait, 
Up early and downe late. 

He rests never. 

' 'Agnes atte Punfald ' (A.) reminds us of our ' Penfold,' or 
' Pinfold,' i.e. the pound. 

=■ ' Ralph ate Med' (A.). ' Philip atte Medde' (M). In the Hun- 
dred Rolls we find ' Willianr le Medward' corresponding to • Hayward.' 
(Vide-f. 198.) 


There is little distinction to be drawn between * garth * 
and ' yard ' in the North of England, and in reality 
there ought to be none. Such names, however, as 

* Nicholas de Apelyerd,' or ' Robert del Apelgarth,' 
or ' Richard atte Orcheyerd,' the descendants of 
whom are still in our midst, bespeak a former 
familiarity of usage which we cannot find now. We 
have just mentioned * Haycraft.' This reminds us of 
our ' Hayes.* Chaucer, in his * Troilus,' says — 

But right so as these holtes and these hayes, 
That han in winter dead been and dry, 
Revesten them in grene when that May is, 
When every lusty beast listeth to pley. 

A ' hay ' was nothing but a ' hedge.' In the Hundred 
Rolls we find such names occurring as ' Margery de 
la Haye ' or ' Roger de la Hagh,' or in a compounded 
form ' Richard de la VVoodhaye,' or ' Robert de 
Brodheye.' Of the simple root the forms most 
common now are ' Hay,' ' Hayes,' ' Haighs,' ' Haigs/ 
and * Hawes.' The composite forms are endless. 

* Roundhay ' explains itself. ' Lyndsay ' I find spelt at 
this period as ' Lyndshay,' so that it is not the islet 
whereon the lind or linden grows, but the hedge of 
these shrubs. Besides these we have ' Haywood ' or 
' Heywood,' ' Hayland ' and ' Hayley.' From the 
form 'hawe,* mentioned above, we have our 'Haw- 
leys,' ' Haworths,' and ' Hawtons,' or * Haughtons,' 
and probably the longest name in the directory, that 
of ' Featherstonehaugh.' We still talk of the haiv- 
thorn and haw-haw. Chaucer uses the term for a 
farm-yard or garth — 

And eke there was a polkat in his hawe 
That, as he sayd, his capons had yslawe. 


This at once explains such a name as * Peter in le 
Hawe* found in the Hundred Rolls. But Chaucer 
has a prettier use of it than this, a use still abiding in 
our ' Churchays,' relics of the mediaeval ' de Chirche- 
hay.' He speaks twice of the ' Churchhawe,' or grave- 
yard. How pretty it is ! almost as pretty as its 
Saxon synonym ' Godsacre,' only that is more en- 
deared to us, inasmuch as since the acre always 
denoted the sowed land (Latin * ager '), so it whispers 
to us hopefully of the great harvest-tide to come when 
the seed thus sown in corruption shall be raised an 
incorruptible body. Our ' Goodacres ' are doubtless 
thus derived — and with such names as ' Acrcman * or 

* Akerman,' * Oldacre ' or ' Oddiker,' * Longacre ' and 
' Whittaker ' (or * Whytacre ' or ' Witacre,' as I find it 
in the thirteenth century), help to remind us how in 
early days an acre denoted less a fixed measure of 
land than soil itself that lay under the plough. But 
this by the way. I have just mentioned ' Hay worth.* 
A name like 'William de la Worth' (H.R.) repre- 
sented our ' Worths ' in the thirteenth century. Pro- 
perly speaking, any sufficiently warded place — it had 
come to denote a small farmstead at the time the 
surname arose. ' Charlesworth ' is the ' churl's worth/ 
the familiar metamorphosis of this name being identi- 
cal with that ©f the astronomic ' Charles Wain,' and 
with such place-names as ' Charle-wood,' * Charlton,' 
' Carlton,' and ' Charley.' Our various ' Unsworths,' 

* Ainsworths,' 'Whitworths,' ' Langworthys,' ' Ken- 
worthys,' 'Wortlcys,' and others of this class are 
familiar to us all. Surnames like ' Roger de la 
Grange,' or ' Geoffrey de la Grange,' or ' John le 


Granger,' ^ remind us that grange also was commonly 
used at this time for a farmstead, it being in reality 
nothing more than our granajy. "^ Piers Plowman 
portrays the good Samaritan thus — 

His wounds he washed, 

Enbawmed hym, and bound his head, 

And ledde hym forth on ' Lyard ' 

To ' lex Christi,' a graunge 

Wei sixe mile or sevene 

Beside the newe market. 

Our ' Barnes,' I need not say, are of similar origin. 
The Celtic ' booth,' a frail tenement of ' boughs,' whose 
temporary character our Biblical account of the 
Iraehtish wanderings so well helps to preserve, has 
given birth to our ' Booths ' and * Boothmans,' once 
written ' de la Bothe ' and ' Botheman.' They may 
possibly have kept the stall at the fair or market. 
Comparisons we know are ever odious, but set beside 
the more Saxon ' Steads ' and ' Steadmans ' the 
former inevitably suffer. The very names of these 
latter betray to us the well-nigh best characteristics 
of the race whence they are sprung. To be steady 
and sUdfsist are its best and most inherent qualities — 
qualities which, added to the dash and spirit of the 
Norman, have given the position England to-day 
occupies among the nations of the world. Our 
' Bowers ' and * Bowermans,' when not occupied in the 

' ' His tenants, the graingers, are tyed to come themselves and 
winde the woll, they have a fatte weather and a fatte lambe killed, and 
a dinner provided for their paines.' (Henry Best's Farming Book 
(1641), p. 97.) 

' ' John Grangeman ' occurs in the Proc. in Chancery. (Eliza- 


bowyer's or bower's craft, represent the earlier ' de la 

Bore ' or ' atte Bore,' and have taken their origin from 

the old 'bower,' the rustics' abode. It is the same 

word whence has sprung our bucolic * boor.' An old 

English term for a house or mansion was ' bold,' that 

which was built. The old ' De la Bolde,' therefore, 

will in many cases be the origination of our ' Bolds.' 

Our ' Halls ' explain themselves, but the older form 

of 'Hale' (once 'atte Hale' or 'de la Hale') is not 

so easily traceable. ' De la Sale,' sometimes also 

found as ' de la Saule,' was the Norman synonym of 

the same. 

Soon they sembled in sale, 
Both kynge and cardinale, 

says an old writer. ' Sale ' and 'Saul ' are still extant. 
Names still more curious than these are those taken, 
not from the residence itself, but from particular 
rooms in such residence. They are doubtless the 
result of the feudal system, which, with its formal list 
of house officers and attendants, required the presence 
of at least one in each separate chamber. Hence the 
Norman-introduced parlotir, that is, the speaking or 
reception room, gave us ' Henry del Parlour,' or 
'Richard ate Parlour;' the kitchen, 'Geoffrey atte 
Kitchen,' or ' Richard del Kechcn ; ' or the pantry 
* John de la Panetrie,' or ' Henry de la Panetrie.' 
But I shall have occasion to speak more fully of this 
by-and-by, so I will say no more here. 

There is a pretty word which has been restored 
from an undeserved oblivion within the last few years 
by Mr. Tennyson, in his ' Brook,' as an idyll perhaps 
the distinctly finest thing of its kind in the English 
language. The word referred to is 'thorpe,' a village, 


pronounced * throp ' or ' trop ' by our forefathers. 
Thus in the ' Clerkes Tale ' we are told — 

Nought far fro this palace honorable, 
There stood a thorpe of sight delitable, 
In which the poor folk of that village 
Hadden their bestes and their harborage ; 

while in the ' Assembly of Fowls ' mention is prettily 
made of 

The tame ruddocke and the coward kite, 
■ The cock, that horiloge is of thorpes lite. 

This diversity is well exemplified in our nomencla- 
ture. Thus the term in its simple form is found in 
such entries as ' Adam de Thorpe,' or * Simon de 
Throp,' or ' Ralph de Trep,' all of which are to be 
met with in the one same register ; while compounded 
with other words, we are all familiar with such sur- 
names as ' Gawthorpe,' * Winthrop,' ' Hartrop,' * Den- 
thorp,' ' Buckthorp,' ' Fridaythorp,' * Conythorp,' * Cal- 
throp,' or ' Westropp.' Our ' Thrupps,' too, we must 
not forget as but another corrupted form of the same 

There are two words whose sense has become so 
enlarged and whose importance among English local 
terms has become so great that we cannot but give 
them a place by themselves. They are those of 
' town ' and ' borough.' Such registered names as 
* William de la Towne ' or * Ralph de la Tune,' now 
found as ' Town ' and ' Tune,' represent the former in 
its primeval sense. The term is still used in Scot- 
land, as it was used here some generations ago, to 
denote a farm and all its surrounding enclosures. In 
Wicklyffe's Bible, where we read ' and went their 
ways, one to his farm, another to his merchandize,' it 


is 'one into his toun.' In the story of the Prodigal 
Son, too, it is similarly employed — 'And he wente 
and drough him to one of the cyteseynes of that 
cuntre, and he sente him into his toun to feed swyn.' 
Let me quote Chaucer also to the same effect — 

Whan I out of the door came, 
I fast about me beheld, 
Then saw, I but a large field. 
As farre as ever I might see. 
Without toune, house, or tree. 

It is thus a name I have already mentioned, ' de la 
Townshende,' the parent of our 'Townsends,' 'Towns- 
hends,' and ' Tovvnends,' has arisen. Another entry, 
that of ' Robert VVithouten-town,' has, as we might 
have expected, left no issue. Such names as 'Adam 
de la Bury,' or 'Walter atte Bure,' or 'John atte Bur- 
ende ' (the latter now extinct, I fear), open out to us 
a still larger mass of existing nomenclature. The 
manorial residence is still in many parts of England, 
with the country folk, the ' bury.' To this or 'borough' 
we owe our ' Burys,' ' Boroughs,' ' Borrows,' ' Buroughs,' 
' Burkes,' ' Broughs,' ' Burghs,' and even ' Bugges,' so 
that, though Hood has inquired — 

If a party had a voice, 
What mortal would be a Bugg by choice ? 

still the possessors of that not exactly euphonious 
cognomen can reflect with pride upon not merely a 
long pedigree, but lofty relationships. Another form 
of the same word, familiar, too, to early registers, was 
* de la Bere,' and to this we owe our ' Berrys,' ' Berri- 
mans,' ' Beers,' and ' Beares.' It is wonderful how the 
strict meaning of 'shelter' is preserved in all the 


terms founded upon its root ' beorgan,' to hide. Is it 
a repository to guard the ashes of the dead i* — it is a 
barrow, the act of sepulture itself being the burial. 
Is it a refuge for the coneys .-' — it is a burrow, or bcare, 
as in ' Coneybeare.' ^ Is it a raised mound for the 
security of man } — it is a btiry, borough, brough, 
or burgh. How altered now the meaning of these 
two words ' borough ' and ' town.' Once but the 
abiding-place of a scattered family or two, they are 
now the centres of teeming populations. Of these, 
while some are still extending their tether, others 
have passed the middle age of their strength and 
vigour, and from the accidents of physical and indus- 
trial life are but surely succumbing to that dotage 
which, as in man so in man's works, seems to be but 
premonitory of their final decay. How true is it that 
the fashion of this world passeth away. Even now 
this ever restless spirit of change is going on. We 
ourselves can scarce tell the spot upon which we were 
born. We need not wait for death to find that our 
place very soon knoweth us no more, and when we 
talk of treading in the footprints of the generations 

' The coney, or rabbit, has made a mark upon our local nomencla- 
ture. An old form of the word was 'coning' or 'conig.' Thus Piers 
Plowman says : — 

' The while he caccheth conynges, 
He coveiteth naught youre caroyne. 
But feedeth hym all with venyson.' 

Relics of this are found in such an entry as ' Nicolas Conyng' or * Peter 
Conyng,' though now met with as 'Coney.' More local registrations, 
such as 'Thomas de Conyton,' 'John de Conington,' 'John de 
Conyngsby,' or 'Walter de Cunnyngby,' are still familiarised to us 
in 'Conington' and 'Coningsby.' The North English form was 
'Cuning,' whence the ' de Cunnyngby ' above instanced and our modem 


that have gone before, it would seem as though it 
were but to blind ourselves to the sober and unwel- 
come truth that we arc rather treading upon the 
debris of the changing years. 

But there is another class of surnames we may 
fitly introduce here, which, I doubt not, forms no 
small proportion in the aggregate mass of our nomen- 
clature — that of sign-names. We in a cultivated age 
like that of the present fail, as we must, to realize the 
effect of these latter upon the current life of our fore- 
fathers. We now pass up and down a street, and, 
apart from the aid of the numbered doors and larger 
windows, and a more peculiar frontage, above the 
door we may see the name of the proprietor and the 
character of his occupation in letters so large that it 
is literally a fact that he who runs may read them. 
But all this is of gradual and slowly developed growth. 
The day we are considering knew nothing of these. 
It was a time when the clergy themselves in many 
cases were unable to read, when such education as a 
child of twelve years is now a dunce not to know 
would have given then for the possession of like 
attainments the sobriquet of ' le Gierke ' or ' le Beau- 
clerk.' And if this was the case with the learned, 
what would it be with the lower grades and classes of 
society .^ We may, therefore, well inquire what would 
be the use of gilded characters such as we now-a-days 
may see, detailing the name of the shopkeeper and 
the fashion of his stores .'' None at all. They could 
not read them. Thus wc find in their stead the 
practice prevailing of putting up signs and symbols 
to denote the character of the shop, or to mark the 
individuality of the owner. In an age of escutcheons 


and all the insignia of heraldry, this was but natural. 
All manner of instruments, all styles of dress, all 
kinds of ensigns rudely carved or painted, that a 
rough or quaint fancy could suggest, were placed in a 
conspicuous position by the hatch or over the door- 
way, to catch, if it were possible, the eye of the way- 
farer. Even the name itself, when it was capable of 
being so played upon, was turned into a symbol 
readable to the popular mind. Nor was it deemed 
necessary that the device should speak directly of the 
trade. Apart from implements and utensils. Nature 
herself was exhausted to supply sufficiently attractive 
signs ; and what with mermaids and griffins, unicorns 
and centaurs, and other winged monsters, we see that 
they did not stop here — the supernatural also had to 
be pressed into this service. The animal kingdom 
was, however, specially popular — the hostelries pecu- 
liarly engrossing this class from the fact that they so 
often had emblazoned the recognizances of the family 
with which they stood immediately connected. Thus 
we still have ' Red Lions ' and ' White Lions,' ' Blue 
Boars ' and ' Boars' Heads,' * White Bears ' and ' Roe- 
bucks,' and ' Bulls' Heads.' Relics of the more 
special emblems remain in the barber's pole, to the 
end of which a bowl was once generally attached, to 
show he was a surgeon also — the pawnbroker's three 
balls, the goldbeater's mallet, or the shoemaker's last. 
Of the more fanciful we have a capital idea given us 
in the lines from Pasquin's 'Nightcap,' written so late 
as 161 2 — 

First there is maister Peter at the Bell, 

A linen-draper, and a wealthy man ; 

Then maister Thomas that doth stockings sell ; 

And George the Grocer at the Frying-pan ; 


And maister Timothie the woollen-draper ; 
And maister Salamon the leather-scraper ; 
And maister Frank the goldsmith at the Rose, 
And maister Philip with the fiery nose ; 
And maister Miles the mercer at the Harrow ; 
And maister Mike the silkman at the Plow ; 
And maister Nicke the salter at the Sparrow ; 
And maister Dick the vintner at the Cow ; 
And Harry haberdasher at the Home ; 
And Oliver the dyer at the Thorne ; 
And Bernard, barber-surgeon at the Fiddle ; 
And Moses, merchant-tailor at the Needle. ' 

More than three hundred years previous to this we 
find such names figuring in our registers as 'John 
de la Rose,' ' John atte Belle,' ' Roger Home,' and 
' Nicholas Sparewe,' while ' Cow ' is met by its Nor- 
man equivalent in the instance of * Richard de la 
Vache.' Of the rest, too, contained in the above lines, 
all are found in our existing nomenclature with the 
exception of ' Fryingpan.' Still more recently, the 
'British Apollo' contained the following: — 

I'm amused at the signs 
As I pass through the town, 
To see the odd mixture — 
A ' Magpie and Crown,' 
The ' Whale and the Crow,' 
The ' Razor and Hen,' 
The 'Leg and Seven Stars,' 
The 'Scissors and Pen,' 
The * Axe and the Bottle,' 
The 'Tun and the Lute,' 
The ' Eagle and Child,' 
The ' Shovel and Boot.' 

A word or two about these double signs before 
we pass on, as I cannot but think much ingenious 

' Vide Lower's Surnames. 


nonsense has been written thereon. There can be no 
difficulty in accounting for these strange combina- 
tions, some of which still exist. A partnership in 
business would be readily understood by the conjoin- 
ing of two hitherto separate signs. An apprentice 
who, on the death of his master, had succeeded to his 
business, would gladly retain the previous well-estab- 
lished badge, and simply show the change of hands 
by adding thereto his own. I cannot but think that 
such ingenious derivations as ' God encompasseth us * 
for the ' Goat and Compasses,' or the ' Satyr and 
Bacchanals ' for the ' Devil and Bag-o'-nails,' or the 

* Boulogne Mouth ' for the * Bull and Mouth,' are 
altogether unnecessary. A clever and imaginative 
mind could soon produce similar happy plays upon 
the conjunctions contained in the above lines, and 
yet the originations I have suggested for them all I 
think my readers will admit to be most natural. 
There is no more peculiarity about these than about 
the ordinary combinations of names we are accus- 
tomed to see in the streets every day of our lives, 
denoting partnership. Thus the only difference is 
that what we now read as ' Smith and Wright,' in an 
age when reading was less universal was, say, ' Magpie 
and Crown.' Partnerships, or business transactions, 
often bring peculiar conjunctions of names. So early 
as 1284, I find a 'Nicholas Bacun ' acknowledging a 
bond to a certain * Hugh Motun,' i.e. Mutton. (Riley's 

* London,' p. 23.) I have myself come across such 
combinations as ' Shepherd and Calvert ' — i.e. ' Calve- 
herd,' or ' Sparrow and Nightingale,' or ' Latimer and 
Ridley.' During the early portion of my residence at 
Oxford the two Bible-clerkships connected with my 


college were in the hands of two gentlemen named 
* Robinson ' and ' Crusoe.' They lived on the same 
staircase, and their names being (as is customary) 
emblazoned above the door, the coincidence was the 
more remarkable. ' Catchem' and ' Cheetham' is said 
to have been the title of a lawyer's firm, but I will 
not vouch for the accuracy of the statement. A story, 
too, goes that ' Penn, Quill, and Driver' once figured 
over a scrivener's office, but this is still more hypo- 

But to return. We may see, from what we have 
stated and quoted, that up to a comparatively recent 
period the written name seems to have been anything 
but customary even in the metropolis. Any one who 
will look into a book printed up to the seventeenth 
century will see on the titlepage the fact stated that 
it was published or sold at the sign of the ' Stork ' or 
' Crown,' or ' Peacock,' or ' Crane,' as the case might 
be. How much we owe to this fashion I need scarcely 
say. The Hundred Rolls contain not merely a 
' Henry Ic Hatter,' but a ' Thomas del Hat ; ' not 
only an ' Adam le Lorimer,' but a ' Margery de 
Styrop.' It is to some dealer in earthenware we owe 
our existing * Potts,' some worker in metals our 
' Hammers,' some carpenter our ' Coffins,' once syno- 
nymous with ' Coffer,' some osierbindcr our ' Basketts,' 
some shoemaker our ' Lasts,' some cheesemonger our 
' Cheeses,' some plowright our ' Plows,' some silver- 
smith our ' Spoons ' and ' Silverspoons,' and some 
cooper our ' Tubbs ' and 'Cades,' our ' Barrills ' and 
' Punshons,' and so on witii endless others. It was 
perfectly natural that all these should become sur- 
names, that the same practice which led to men being 


called in the less populous country by such names as 

* Ralph atte Townsend,' or ' William atte Stile,' or 
'Henry atte Hatch,' or 'Thomas atte Nash,' should 
in the more closely inhabited city cause men to be 
distinguished as ' Hugh atte Cokke,* or * Walter de 
Whitehorse,' or ' John atte Gote ' or ' de la Gote,' or 
' Richard de la Vache,' or ' Thomas atte Ram,' or 

* William atte Roebuck,' or ' Gilbert de la Hegle,' or 
'John de la Roe,' or ' Reginald de la Wonte ' (weasel). 
Our only surprise would be were the case otherwise. 
Nevertheless, as we shall see in another chapter, many 
of these animal-names at least have arisen in another 
manner also. 

And now we come to what we may term the 
second branch of local surnames, that branch which 
throws a light upon the migratory habits and roving 
tendencies of our forefathers. So far we have touched 
upon names implying a fixed residence in a fixed 
locality. We may now notice that class which by 
their very formation throw our minds upon that which 
precedes settlement in a particular spot, viz., removal 
— that which speaks to us of immigration. Such a 
name in our mediaeval rolls as ' Peter le Newe,' or 
' Gilbert le Newcomen,' or ' Walter le Neweman,' de- 
clares to us at once its origin. The owner has left his 
native village to push his interests and get a liveli- 
hood elsewhere, and upon his entrance as a stranger 
into some distant community, alone and friendless, 
nothing could be more natural than to distinguish 
him from the familiar ' Peters,' ' Gilberts,' and 
' Walters ' around by styling him as Peter, or 
Gilbert, or Walter the ' New,' or ' Newman.' This it 
is which is the origin of our ' Stranges,' descendants 



as they are of such mediaeval folk as ' Roger le 
Estrange ' or ' Roger le Straunge.' There was 
' Roger the Cooper ' and ' Roger the Cheesemonger ' 
round the corner close to the market cross, and 
' Roger atte Ram,' so, of course, this new-comer as 
distinguished from them was ' Roger the Straunge ' 
or ' Strange,' and once so known, the more familiar 
he became, the more ' Strange ' he became, though 
this may seem somewhat of a paradox. Thus, too, 
have arisen our * Strangers ' and ' Strangemans.' 
These, however, are the general terms. To quote a 
name like ' Robert de Eastham ' or * William de 
Sutton ' is, as it were, to take up the plug from a never- 
ceasing fountain. We are thrown upon a list of 
sobriquets to which there is no tether. Take up a 
subscription paper, look over a list of speakers at a 
farmers' dinner, scan the names of the clergy at a 
ministerial conference, all will possess a fair average 
of this class of surnames, early wanderers from one 
village to another, Saxons fresh escaped from serfdom 
seeking a livelihood in a new district, Norman trades- 
men or retainers pushing forward for fresh positions 
and fresh gains in fresh fields. It is through the 
frequency of these has arisen the old couplet quoted 
by Verstigan — 

In 'Ford,' in 'Ham,' in ' Ley,' in 'Ton,' 
The most of English surnames run. 

There is probably no village or hamlet in England 
which has not subscribed in this manner to the sum 
total of our nomenclature. It is this which is so tell- 
tale of the present, for while a small rural spot like, 
say ' Debenham,' in Suffolk, or ' Ashford,' in Derby- 


shire, will have its score of representatives, a solitary 
' Richard de Lyverpole,' or ' Guido de Mancestre,* or 
' John de Burmyngham ' will be all we can find to 
represent such large centres of population as Man- 
chester, or Liverpool, or Birmingham. Mushroom- 
like they sprang up but yesterday, while for centuries 
these insignificant hamlets have pursued the even tenor 
of their way, somewhat disturbed, it may have been, 
from their equanimity four or five centuries agone, by 
the announcement that Ralph or Miles was about to 
leave them, and who, by thus becoming ' Ralph de 
Debenham ' or ' Miles de Ashford,' have given to the 
world to the end of time the story of their early 

In the same class with the village names of 
England must we set our county surnames. These 
are of course but an insignificant number set by their 
brethren, still we must not pass them by without a 
word. In the present day, if we were to speak of a 
man in connexion with his county, we should say he 
was a Derbyshire or a Lancashire man, as the case 
might be. That they did this five or six hundred 
years ago is evidenced by the existence of these very 
names in our midst. Thus we can point in our 
records to such designations as * John Hamshire,' or 
'Adam de Kent,' or 'Richard de Wiltshire,' or 
' Geoffrey de Cornwayle.' Still this was not the only 
form of county nomenclature. The Normans, I sus- 
pect it was, who introduced another. We have still 
' Kentish ' and Devonish ' and ' Cornish ' to represent 
the ' William le Kentish's,' or ' John le Devoneis's,' 
or ' Margery le Cornyshe's,' of their early rolls ; and 


our ' CornwalHs's ' also yet preserve such fuller forms 
as ' Thomas le Cornwaleys,' or ' Philip le Cornwaleys.' 
We may here mention our 'Cockins,' ' Cockaignes,' 
and ' Cockaynes,' instances of which are early found. 
An old poem begins — 

Fur in sea, bi west Spayne, 
Is a lond ihote Cockaigne. 

There seems to be a general agreement among those 
who have studied the subject that our ' cockney ' was 
originally a denizen of this fabled region, and then 
was afterwards, from a notion of London being the 
seat of luxury and effeminacy, transferred to that city. 
A ' William Cockayne ' is found in the ' Placitorum ' 
of Richard I.'s reign, while the Hundred Rolls are yet 
more precise in a ' Richarde de Cockayne.' Speaking 
of London, however, we must not forget our ' Lon- 
donish's.' They arc but relics of such mediaeval 
entries as * Ralph Ic Lundreys,' or ' William London- 
issh,' either of whom wc should now term ' Londoner,' 
one who had come from the metropolis and settled 
somewhere in the country. Chaucer in one of his 
prose works spells it ' Londcnoys,' which is somewhat 
nearer the modern form. ' London,' once simple ' de 
London,' needs no remark. 

A passing from one part of the British Empire to 
another has been a prolific source of nomenclature. 
Thus we find such names as * Henry de Irlaund,' 
'Adam de Irland,' ' John le Irreys,' or 'Thomas le 
' Ireis,' in the ordinary dress of ' Ireland ' and ' Irish,' 
to be by no means obsolete in the present day. 
' Roger le Escot ' or ' Maurice le Scot ' represents, I 
need scarcely say, a surname that is all but intermin- 


able, the Caledonian having ever been celebrated for 
his roving as well as canny propensities. It is to our 
brethren over the Border, too, we owe the more 
special form of ' Inglis,' known better in the south as 
' English,' The Hundred Rolls furnish us with such 
names as ' Walter le Engleis,' or * Robert le Engleys,' 
or ' Walter Ingeleys.' Laurence Minot has the 
modern form. Describing Edward III.'s entrance 
into Brabant, he says — 

The Inglis men were armed wele, 
Both in yren and in stele. 

The representatives of our native-born Welshmen are 
well-nigh as numerous as those across the Scottish 
line, and the early spellings we light upon are equally 
varied — * le Galeys,' ' ' le Waleys,' * le Waleis,' and ' le 
Walsshe' being, however, the commonest. The last 
is used by Piers Plowman, who speaks of 

Rose the Disheress, 
Godfrey of Garlekhithe, 
And Gryfin the Walshe. 

In these, of course, we at once discern the progenitors 
of our ' Welshs ' and * Wallaces.' ' Walshman ' is also 
found as ' Walseman.' ' Langlois ' seems to be firmly 
established in our present midst as an importation 
from France. It was evidently returned to us all but 
contemporaneously with its rise there, for as ' L'An- 
gleys ' or ' Lengleyse,' it is found on English soil in 

' One of Edward III.'s regulations concerning the sale and purchase 
of wool speaks of ' merchandises en Engleterre, Gales, ou Irlande ; ' 
and further on more personally of * merchantz Engleis, Galeis, ou 
Irreis.' (' Stat, of Realm,' vol. i. p. 334.) ' Henry le Galeys,' that is, 
as we should say now, 'Henry Welsh,' was Mayor of London in 1298. 


the thirteenth century. It is quite possible that our 
' Langleys ' are in some instances but a corruption of 
this name. Thus the different quarters of the British 
Empire are well personified so far as our directories 
are concerned. 

We have not quite done with the home country, 
however. Our modern ' Norris's ' are of a somewhat 
comprehensive nature. In the first place there can be 
little doubt they have become confounded by lapse of 
time with the once not unfamiliar * la Noiyce,' or 
nurse. Apart from this, too, the term * le Noreys ' 
was ever applied in early times to the Norwegians, 
and to this sense mainly it is that we owe the rise of 
the name. And yet it has another origin. It was 
used in the mere sense of ' northern,' one from the 
north country. Thus in the Hundred Rolls we meet 
with the two names of 'Thomas le Noreys' and 

* Geoffrey le Northern,' and there is no reason why 
these should not both have had the same rise. A 
proof in favour of this view lies in the fact that we 
have their counterparts in such entries as ' Thomas le 
Surreys ' and ' Thomas le Southern,' the latter now 
found in the other forms of ' Sothern ' and ' Sotheran.' 
Nor are the other points of the compass wanting. A 

* Richard le Westrys ' and a ' Richard le Estrys ' both 
occur in the registers of the thirteenth century, but 
neither, I believe, now exists. ' North ' found as ' de 
North ' needs no explanation, and the same can be 
said for our ' Souths,' ' Easts,' and ' Wests.' 

The distance from Dover to Calais is not great; 
but were it otherwise, we should still feel bound in 
our notice of names of foreign introducti(Mi first of all 
to mention Normandy. For not merely has this 


country supplied us with many of our best family 
names, but it enjoys the distinction of having been 
the first to estabHsh an hereditary surname. This it 
did in the case of the barons and their feudary settle- 
ments. The close of the eleventh century we may 
safely say saw as yet but one class of sobriquets, 
which, together with their other property, fathers were 
in the habit of handing down to their sons. This 
class was local, and was attached only to those fol- 
lowers of the Conqueror who had been presented by 
their leader with landed estates in the country they 
had but recently subdued. As a rule each of these 
feudatories took ashis surname the place whence he had 
set forth in his Norman home. Thus arose so many 
of our sobriquets of which ' Burke's Peerage' is the best 
directory, and of which therefore I have little to say 
here. Thus arose the 'de Mortimers' (the prefix was re- 
tained for many generations by all), the ' de Colevilles,' 
the ' de Corbets,' the 'de Ferrers,' the 'de Beauchamps,' 
the *de Courcys,' the *de Lucys,' and the 'deGranvilles.' 
Thus have sprung our ' Harcourts,' our ' Tanker- 
villes,' our * Nevilles,' our ' Bovilles,' our * Basker- 
villes,' our ' Lascelles,' our 'Beaumonts,' our 'Villiers,' 
our ' Mohuns,' and our ' Percys.' Apropos of Gran- 
ville, a story is told of a former Lord Lyttelton con- 
testing with the head of that stock priority of family, 
and clenching his argument by asserting his to be 
necessarily the most ancient, inasmuch as the little- 
town must have existed before the grand-ville. A 
similar dispute is said to have occurred at Venice 
between the families ' Ponti ' and ' Canali ' — the one 
asserting that the ' Bridges ' were above the ' Canals,' 
the other that the ' Canals ' were in existence before 


the 'Bridges.' So hot waxed the quarrel that the 
Senate was compelled to remind the disputants that it 
had power alike to stop up Canals and pull down 
Bridges if they became over troublesome. But to 
return : the number of these Norman names was 
great. The muster-roll of William's army comprised 
but an item of the foreign incomers. As the tide of 
after-immigration set in, there was no town, however 
insignificant, in Normandy, or in the Duchies of Arijou 
and Maine, which was not soon represented in the 
nomenclature of the land. From giving even a partial 
list of these I must refrain, however tempted, but see 
what the chapelries alone did for us. St. Denys gave 
us our * Sidneys,' St. Clair, or Clare, our * Sinclairs,' 
vilely corrupted at times into ' Sinkler ; ' St. Paul, our 
' Semples,' * Samples,' ' Sempills, ' ' Simpoles,' and 
sometimes ' Simples ; ' St. Lowe, or Loe, our ' Sal- 
lows ; * St. Amand, our ' Sandemans ' and ' Samands ; ' 
St. Lis, our ' Senlis ' and ' Senleys ; ' St, Saviour, our 
* Sissivers ; ' St. Maur, our ' Seymours ; ' St. Barbe, 
our ' Symbarbes ; ' St. Hillary, our ' Sillerys ; ' St. 
Pierre, our ' Sempers ' and ' Simpers ; ' St. Austin, our 
' Sustins ; ' St. Omer, our ' Somers ; ' St. Leger, our 
' Sellingers,* once more literally enrolled as ' Steleger,' 
and so on with our less corrupted ' St. Johns,' ' St. 
Georges,' and others, I do not say, however, that all 
these were later comers. Some of them must un- 
doubtedly be set among the earlier comrades in arms 
of the Conqueror. Indeed it is impossible in every 
case to separate the warlike from the peaceful inva- 
sion. Looking back from this distant period, and 
with but scanty and imperfect memorials for guidance, 
it cannot but be so. 


With respect to another class of these Norman 
names, however, we are more certain. Their very- 
formation seems to imply beyond a doubt that they 
had a settlement as surnames in their own arrondisse- 
ments before their arrival on English soil. We may, 
therefore, with tolerable certainty set them down as 
later comers. The distinguishing marks of these are 
the prefixes ' de la,' or ' del,' or ' du ' attached to them. 
Thus from some local peculiarity with respect to their 
early homes would arise such names as * Delamere,' 
'Dupont,' 'Delisle,' ' Delarue,' 'Dubois,' ' Ducatel,' 
' Defontaine,' ' Decroix,' or ' Deville ' or ' Deyville.' 
This latter is now found also in the somewhat un- 
pleasant form of * Devil.' They say the devil is the 
source of every evil. Whether this extends beyond 
the moral world may be open to doubt, but our 
* Evils,' ' Evills,' and ' Eyvilles,' from the fact of their 
once being written with the prefix ' de,' seem to favour 
the suspicion of there being a somewhat dangerous 
relationship between them.' These names, though 

* In two different rolls we come across such cognomens as ' Osbert 
Diabolus' and ' Roger le Diable.' These are very likely but relics of 
early jesting upon the local forms mentioned in the text. A ' Thomas 
de Devyle' occurs in the Parliamentary Rolls, while in the Writs of the 
same we find a ' John de Evylle.' The former instance, again, may be 
but a sarcastic reduplication of the prefix. Dean Milman, quoting the 
author of Anglia yudaica, tells the following story, which shows how 
early this name had been so played upon : — ' A certain Jew travelling 
towards Shrewsbury in company with Richard Peche, Archdeacon of 
Malpas, in Cheshire, and a reverend dean whose name was "Deville," 
was told amongst other things, by the former, that his "jurisdiction 
was so large as to reach from a place called 111 Street all along till they 
came to Malpas, and took in a wide circumference of country." To 
which the infidel, being more witty than wise, immediately replied : " Say 
you so, sir ? God grant me then a good deliverance ! For it seems I 


commonly met with in mediaeval records, are, never- 
theless, I say, not to be put down as coeval with the 
Conquest, but as after-introductions when England 
was securely won. There befell Norman names of 
this class, however, what I have shown still more com- 
monly to have befallen those of a similar, but more 
Saxon, category. If these prefixes ' de la,' ' del,' and 
' du ' are sometimes found retained, they are as often 
conspicuous by their absence. Thus while at an early 
date after the Conquest we find the Saxon ' Atwood ' 
met by the Norman ' Dubois,' it is equally true that 
they had already to battle with simple ' Wood ' and 
' Boys ' or ' Boyce.' Thus it was we find so early the 
Saxon ' Beech ' faced by the Norman ' Fail ' or 
' Fayle,' ' Ash ' by ' Freen,' ' Frean,' or * Freyne,' 
' Hasell ' by ' Coudray,' ' Alder ' by ' Aunay,' and, let 
us say, for want of a ' Walnut,' * Nut ' by ' Noyes.' In 
the same way our ' Halls ' or ' Hales ' were matched 
by ' Meynell ' (mesnil), ' Hill ' by ' Montaigne,' now 
also 'Mountain,' 'Mead' or ' Medd,' or 'Field,' by 
' Prall ' or ' Prail,' relics of the old ' prayell,' a little 
meadow. I have just set ' Wood ' by our ' Boys ' and 
' Boyces.' To these we must add our ' Busks,' 
' Bushes,' ' Busses,' all from ' bois ' or * bosc' The 
' taillis,' or underwood, too, gives us ' Tallis,' and the 
union of both in ' Taillebois ' or ' Talboys,' as we now 
have it, combines the names of two of our best church 
musicians — ' Tallis ' and ' Boyce.' This comparison 
of early introduced Norman with names of a Saxon 

am riding in a country where Sin (Pcche) is the archdeacon, and the 
Devil himself the dean ; where the entrance into the archdeaconry is in 
111 Street, and the going from it Bad Steps (Malpas)." ' {Ilisiory of 
Jaus, vol. iii. p. 232.) 


local character we might carry on to any extent, but 
this must suffice — illustrations and not categories are 
all we can pretend to attempt. 

But these were not our only foreign introduced 
names. Coeval with the arrival of these later Norman 
designations a remarkable peculiarity began to make 
itself apparent in the vast number of names that 
poured in from various and more distant parts of the 
Continent. That they came for purposes of trade, 
and to settle down into positions that the Saxons 
themselves should have occupied, is undoubted. The 
lethargy of the Saxon population at this period would 
be extraordinary, if it were not so easily to be 
accounted for. There was no heart in the nation. 
The Saxons had become a conquered people, and, 
although the spirit of Hereward the Wake was 
quenched, there had come that settled sullen humour 
which, finding no outlet for active enmity, fed in 
spirit upon itself, and increased with the pampering. 
To punish open disaffection is easy ; to eradicate by 
the stern arm of power such a feeling as this is im- 
possible. Time alone can do it, and that but slowly. 
More than a century after this we find Robin Hood 
the idol of popular sympathy ; no national hero has 
ever eclipsed him, and yet, putting sentiment aside, he 
was naught but a robber, an outlawed knave. He 
was but a vent for the still lingering current of a 
people's feelings. It was but the Saxon and Norman 
over again. 

Wc can easily imagine, then, if the spirit of the 
people was so lethargic as this, at how low an ebb 
would be the commercial enterprise of this period. 
No country was there whose resources for sclf-aggran- 


disement were greater than our own — none which had 
more disregarded them up to the reign of the third 
Edward. Till then she was the mere mine from 
which other countries might draw forth riches, the 
carcase for the eagles of many nations to feed upon. 
Saving the exportation of wool in its raw unmanu- 
factured state, she did nothing for her national pros- 
perity. The Dutch cured the fish they themselves 
caught on our coasts, and the looms of Flanders and 
Brabant manufactured the weft and warp we sent 
them into the cloth we wore. If our kings and 
barons were clad in scarlet and purple, little had 
England actively to do with that ; her share in such 
superior tints was nought, save the production of the 
dye, for in conjunction with the Eastern indigo it was 
our woad the Netherlands used. That other nations 
were advancing, and that ours was not, is a statement, 
commercially speaking, I need not enlarge upon ; it is 
a mere matter of history which no one disputes. 

Not, however, that there was no trade. Far from 
it. Long before Edward III. had established a surer 
basis of order and industry, London had become a 
mart of no small Continental importance. This out- 
lying city, as with other towns of growing industry 
abroad, had come under the beneficial influence of 
the Crusades. So far as the redemption of the Holy 
City was concerned, that strong, but noble madness 
which had set Christendom ablaze was a failure. 
But it effected much in another way. From the first 
moment when on the waters of the Levant were 
assembled a host as diverse in nation as they were one 
in purpose ; when in their high-decked galleons and 
oar-banked pinnances men met each other face to face 


of whose national existence they had been previously 
all but unaware — one result, at least, was sure to 
follow — an intercommunion of nations was inevitable, 
and, in the wake of this, other and not less beneficial 
consequences. Healthy comparisons were drawn, 
jealousies were allayed, navigation was improved, 
better ships were built, harbours hitherto avoided as 
dangerous were rendered safe, and new havens were 
discovered. This influence was felt everywhere. It 
reached so far as England — London felt it. 

But it was a minor influence — minor in comparison 
with our wonderful appliances — minor in comparison 
with the commercial "spirit developing such Republics 
as Genoa and Venice, or the Easterling countries that 
border the Baltic and German Seas — a minor influ- 
ence, too, especially because the Saxons had so little 
share in it. So far as they were concerned, this in- 
ternationality was all one-sided. Denizens of all lands 
visited our shores, but their visits were unreturned. 
What an infinitesimal part of our Continental sur- 
names in the present day are traceable to English 
sources. On the other hand, there was no town how- 
ever small, no hamlet however insignificant, in Nor- 
mandy, in the Duchies of Anjou and Maine, or pro- 
tected by the cities of the Hanseatic League, that is 
unrepresented in the nomenclature of our land. Nay, 
it was this very lack of reciprocity of commerce that 
held out such inducements to the dwellers in other 
lands to visit our shores. It was to step into posses- 
sion of those very advantages we slighted they came : 
we became but a colony of foreign artisans. Truly 
our metropolis in those early days of her industry was 
a motley community. Numerous names of foreign lo- 


cality have died out in the lapse of centuries between ; 
a large proportion have become so Anglicized that we 
cannot detect their Continental birth, but there is still 
a formidable array left in our midst whose lineage is 
manifest, and whose nationality is not to be doubted. 
We dare not enumerate them all. Let us, however, 
take a short tour over Europe and the East. We 
will begin with Normandy, and advance westerly, and 
then southerly. The provinces that border upon 
Normandy and Bretagne, especially to the south and 
eastwards, large or small, have, as we should expect, 
supplied us with many names. We have besides 
' Norman,' which, like ' le Northern,' is of doubtful 
locality, 'Bret,' 'Brett,' ' Britt,' 'Britten,' 'Briton,' 
and ' Brittain,' from ' Bretagne,' and represented in 
our olden rolls by such men as ' Hamo le Bret,' or 
' Roger le Breton,' or ' Thomas le Brit,' or ' Ivo le 
Briton.' Our 'Angers' are not necessarily so irascible 
as they look, for they arc but corruptions, as are 
' Angwin' and ' Aungier,' of the ' Angevine of Anjou.' 
Like our ' Maincs' and ' Maynes' from the neighbour- 
ing duchy, they would be likely visitors to our shores 
from the intimate relationship which for a while en- 
dured between the two countries through royal 
alliances. Our ' Arters' and ' Artis,' once registered 
' de Artoys,' came from ' Artois ; ' our ' Gaskins,' 
and more correct ' Gascoigncs,' from ' Gascony ; ' and 
our ' Burgons' and ' Burgoynes' from Burgundy." To 
Champagne it is we are indebted for our ' Champneys* 
and ' Champness's,' descendants as they are from 

' Hall, in his 'Chronicles,' speaks of the 'Duke of Burgoyne.' 
(F. xxiiii.) 


such old incomers as ' Robert le Champeneis,' or 
* Roger le Chaumpeneys,' while the more strictly local 
form appears in our * Champagnes,' not to say some 
of our ' Champions' and ' Campions,' ^ Speaking of 
Champagne, it is curious that next in topographical 
order come our ' Port-wines,' sprung from the Poicte- 
vine of Poictou. So early as the thirteenth century, 
this name had become corrupted into ' Potewyne,' a 
' Pretiosa Potewyne' occurring in the Hundred Rolls 
of that period. More correct representatives are found 
in such entries as * Henry le Poytevin,' and ' Peter le 
Pettevin.' Pickardy has given us our * Pickards' and 
' Pycards,' Provence our * Provinces,' and Lorraine 
our ' Loraynes,' ' Lorraines,' and ' Lorings.' ' Peter le 
Loring ' and ' John le Loring ' are instances of the 
latter form. More general terms for the countrymen 
of these various provinces are found in such registered- 
names as 'Gilbert le Fraunceis,' or ' Henry le Franceis,' 
or ' Peter le Frensh,' or ' Gyllaume Freynsman.' 

I have mentioned 'Norman' — one of the commonest 
of early sobriquets is ' le Bigod' and ' le Bigot' Well- 
nigh every record has its ' Roger le Bygod,' or its 
' William le Bygot,' or ' Hugh le Bigot,' or * Alina le 

" ' Champaigne,' of course, means simply plain-land, and is found 
locally in various parts of Western Europe. I have included ' Cham- 
pion' with the others because, though sometimes a combative sobriquet, 
it is as often found to be the mediaeval form of the local term, ' Cham- 
pian ' and ' Champain' being other modes of spelling the same to be 
met with at this period. Thus we find such double entries as ' Katerina 
le Champion' and 'Roger de Champion.' Our present Authorised 
Version uses the word twice, as in Deut. xi. 30: — ' Are they not on the 
other side Jordan, by the way where the sun goeth dovm, in the land 
of the Canaanites, which dwell in the champaign over against Gilgal, 
beside the plains of Moreh ? ' In the various translations of this passage 
almost all the above modes of spelling have been used. 


Bigod.' Amid the varying opinions of so many high 
authorities, I dare not speak in anywise with confi- 
dence ; but, judging from these very entries which are 
found at an early period, I cannot but think Dean 
Trench and Mr. Wedgwood wrong in their conjecture 
that the word arose from the ' beguines ' — i.e. the 
Franciscans. With Mr. Taylor ' I am firmly convinced 
it is ct/mic, and that as such it was familiarly applied 
to the Normans I am equally satisfied. In proof of 
its national character, Mr. Taylor quotes a passage 
from the romance of Gerard of Roussillon — 

Bigot, e Proven9al e Rouergues, 
E Bascle, e Gasco, e Bordales. 

The popular story ascribes its origin to the fondness 
for oaths so peculiar to the Anglo-Norman character, 
and in this particular instance to the exclamation 
' by-God.' ^ My own impression is that the origin of 
the word has yet to be found. With regard to sur- 
names, however, I may say that we have at this day 
' Bigots' in our directories as well as in everything else, 
and it is highly probable that our Bagots are but a 
corruption of the same. 

Turning westward, such names as ' Michael de 
Spaigne,' or ' Arnold de Espaigne,' tell us at once 

. ' Vuie Words and Places, p. 436. 
* Camden says : ' When Rollo had Normandy made over to him by 
Carolus Stultus, with his daughter Gisla, he would not submit to kiss 
Charles's foot. And when his friends urged him by all means to kiss 
the king's foot, in gratitude for so great a favour, he made answer in the 
English tongue, " Ne se, by God" — "Not so, by God" — upon which 
the king and his courtiers, deriding him, and corruptly repeating his 
answer, called him " Bigod," from whence the Normans are to this day 
termed •*Bigo<li."' 


who were the forefathers of our ' Spains ' and ' Espins ;'' 
while ' John le Moor ' suggests to us at least the possi- 
bility that English heathlands did not enjoy the entire 
monopoly in the production of this familiar cognomen. 
The intensive ' Blackamoor,' a mere compound of 
' black ' and * moor,' seems to have early existed. A 
' Beatrice Blackamour ' and a ' William Blackamore ' 
occur in a London Register of 1417 — (Riley's 
' London,' p. 647). Nor is Italy void of examples. 
The sturdy old republic of Genoa has supplied us 
with 'Janeway 'and ' Jannaway,'^ ' Genese ' and * Jayne' 
or ' Jeane.' Chaucer alludes to the Genoese coin the 
'jane.' An old poem, too, speaking of Brabant as a 
general mart, says — 

Englysshe and Frensh, Lumbardes, Januayes, 
Cathalones, theder they take their wayes. 

The ' Libel on English Policy ' has the word in a 
similar dress. 

The Janueys comyne in sondre wyses, 
Into this londe wyth dyverse merchaundysses, 
In grete karrekes arrayde withouten lack, 
Wyth clothes of golde, silke, and pepir black. 

Hall, in his Chronicles, speaking of the Duke of 
Clarence ravaging the French coast in Henry IV. 's 
reign, says, 'in his retournyng he encountred with 
two greate Carickes of Jeane laden with ryche mar- 
chandise.' (J. xxiv.) 

' 'John Spaynard' is found in the Ca/. Rot. Patentitim ; hut the 
name is now obsolete, I imagine. ' Peter Ispanier ' occurs in Clutter- 
buck's Hertford (vol. i. Index). 

* Hence we find Skelton speaking in one of his poems of ' That 
gentyll Jorge the Januay. ' 



Its old rival upon the Adriatic still vies with it in 
'Veness,' once enrolled as * de Venise.' Rome has 
given us our early ' Reginald le Romayns ' and * John 
le Romayns,' whose descendants now write their names 
in the all but unaltered form of ' Romaine,' ^ and to 
Lombardy and the Jews we owe Lombard street, and 
our ' Lombards,' ' Lumbards,' * Lubbards,' and perhaps 
'Lubbers' — not to mention our 'Luckes,' and ' Luckies,' 
a progenitor of whom I find inscribed in the Hundred 
Rolls as ' Luke of Lucca.' Advancing eastwards, a 
* Martin le Hunne ' looks strangely as if sprung from 
a Hungarian source. Whatever doubt, however, there 
may be on this point, there can be none on ' William 
le Turc,' ^ whose name is no solitary one in the records 
of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, and whose 
descendants are by no means extinct in the nineteenth. 
' Peter le Russe ' would seem at first sight to be of 
Russian origin, especially with such a Christian name 
to the fore as the one above, but it is far more pro- 
bably one more form of the endless corruptions of 
'le Rous,' a sobriquet of complexion so extremely 
familiar to all who have spent any time over mediaeval 
registers. I have already mentioned * le Norrys ' as 
connected with our ' Norris.' ' Dennis,' I doubt not, 
in some cases, is equally representative of the former 
' le Daneys.' Entries like ' William le Norris,' or 
' Walter le Norreis,' or ' Roger le Daneis,' or ' Joel le 
Deneys,' are of constant occurrence. These, added 

■ WicklyfTe, in his preface to St. Paul's Epistle to the * Romayns,' 
quotes St. Jerome, and adds, ' This saith Jeroni in his prologe on this 
pistlc to Romaynes.' 

* ' Turk,' we must not forget, was a general term for anyone of the 
Mahommedan faith. It still lingers in that sense in the yews, Turks, 
Infidds, and Heretics of our Book of Common Prayer. 


to the others, may be mentioned as bringing before 
our eyes the broadest limits of European immigration, 
and with scarcely an exception they are found among 
the English surnames of to-day. 

But we must not forget the Dutch — a term that 
once embraced all the German race.^ ' Dutchman,' 
though I have found no instance in early rolls, is, I 
see, a denizen of our present directories, while * Dutch- 
women,' found in the fourteenth century, is extinct. 
Our ' Pruces ' are but the old ' le Pruce,' or Prussian, 
as we should now term them. The word is met with 
in an old political song, and, as it contains a list of 
articles, the introduction of which into England from 
Flanders made the two countries so closely connected, 
I will quote it fully: — 

Now beer and bacon bene fro Pruse i-brought 
Into fflaunders, as loved and fere i-soughte ; 
Osmonde, coppre, bowstaffes, stile and wex, 
Peltre-ware, and grey, pych, tar, borde, and flex, 
And Coleyne threde, fustiane, and canvase, 
Corde, bokeram, of old tyme thus it wase. 
But the fflemmynges among these things dere, 
Incomen loven beste bacon and beer. 

' Fleming,' as our registers prove, was seemingly the 
popular term for all the Low Countrymen, bands of 
whom were specially invited over by two of our kings 
to spread their industry in our own land. Numbers 
of them came in, however, as simple wool-merchants, 

' Thus we find Bishop Coverdale, in his Prologue to the Nlio Testa- 
ment, written 1535, saying, ' And to help me herein I have had sundry 
translations, not only in Latin, but also of the Dutch interpreters, 
whom, because of their singular gifts and special diligence in the Bible, 
I have been the more glad to follow.' [Park: Soc. p. 12.) Here he is 
manifestly speaking of the German reformers. 

M 2 


to transmit the raw material into Holland. As the 
old * Libel on English Policy ' says — 

But ye Fleminges, if ye be not wrothe, 

The grete substance of your cloth, at the fulle, 

Ye wot ye made it of youre English wolle. 

But Flanders was not the only division represented. 
Our ' Brabazons ' once written * le Braban^on,' to- 
gether with our * Brabants,' * Brabaners,' and * Bra- 
bans,' issued, of course, from the duchy of that name ; 
while our ' Hanways ' ' and * Hannants' hailed from 
Hainault, the latter of the two representing the usual 
early English pronunciation of the place-word. The 
old enrolled forms are ' de Hanoia ' and ' de Henau.' 
It is very likely, therefore, that our ' Hannahs ' are 
similarly derived. The poem I have just quoted, 
after mentioning the products of ' Braban,' * Selaunde,' 
and * Henaulde,* proceeds to say : — 

But they of Ilolonde at Caleyse buy our felles 
And our vvolles, that Englyshe men then selles. 

This, and such an entry as * Thurstan de Holland,' 
give us at once a clue, if clue were needed, to the 
source whence have issued our ' Hollands.' ' Holand- 
man,' which once existed, is, I believe, now extinct. 
A common sobriquet for those enterprising traders 
who visited us from the shores of the Baltic was 
' Easterling,' and it is to their honest integrity as 
merchants we owe the fact of their name in the 
form of ' Sterling ' being so familiar. In contrast 
to the country-made money, their coin obtained the 
name of ' Easterling,' or, as we now term it, ' Ster- 

' Andrew Borde speaks of ' Flaundcrs, Ilanway, and Braban, which 
be commodious and plentiful contreys.' — Boke of the Introduction of 


ling * money — so many pounds sterling being the 
ordinary phrase for good and true coin. We have 
even come to apply the term generally in such 
phrases as sterlmg worth, sterling honesty, or 
sterling character. The more inland traders were 
styled ' Almaines,' or merchants * d'Almaine,'' terms 
common enough in our earlier archives, as ' le Ale- 
man,' or * de Almania,' or ' le Alemaund,* and thus 
have sprung our * Alemans,' * Almaines,' and ' All- 
mans,' and through the French, probably, our ' Lalli- 
mands,' * D'Almaines,' * Dalmaines,' and more per- 
verted ' Dalmans ' and ' DoUmans.' ^ Thus to these 
enterprising and honest traders we owe a surname 
which from the odious forms it has assumed shows 
that their names, at least, were corruptible, if not their 
credit. I ought to have mentioned, though I have no 
record to quote in proof of my assertion, that our 
' Hansards ' are, I have no doubt, descendants of such 
Hanse merchants in our country as were members of 
the Hanseatic League. The founder of the Hansards, 
the publishers of the Parliamentary Debates, came 
from Norwich in the middle of the last century, and 

■ An act passed in 1464 speaks of tonnage upon wines brought into 
England 'by eny Marchaunt Alien, as well by the Marchauntes of 
Hance and of Almayn, as of eny other Marchauntes Alien.' (Rot. 
Pari. Ed. IV.) Bishop Coverdale's exposition of the 22nd Psalm is 
entitled, 'A very excellent and swete exposition upon the two and 
twenty Psalme of David, called in Latyn, "Dominus regit me, et 
nihil." Translated out of hye Almayne in to Englyshe by Myles 
Coverdale, 1537.' 

* The old form of ' Dutch ' was ' Douch ' or ' Dowch.' Skelton in 
his ' Parrot' says that, besides French, Lattyn, Ebrew, 

'With Douch, with Spanysh, my tong can agree.' 
Our ' Dowch's ' and ' Douch's ' still preserve this spelling. 


I need scarcely say that the city was the chief head- 
quarters of the Flemish weaving interest at the date 
we are considering. 

Leaving Europe for a moment, a name of peculiar 
interest is that of * Sarson,' ^ or ' Sarasin,' a sobriquet 
undoubtedly sprung from the Crusades in the East, 
and found contemporaneously, or immediately after- 
wards, in England as ' Sarrasin,' ' Sarrazein,' ' Sarra- 
cen,' and in the Latinized form of ' Sarracenus,* The 
maternal grandfather of Thomas a Becket was a pure- 
blooded Saracen, settled in England. The * Saracen's 
Head/ I need not remind the reader, has been a 
popular inn sign in our land from the days of Coeur 
de Lion and Godfrey. It would seem as if they were 
sufficient objects of public curiosity to be exhibited. 
In the * Issues of the Exchequer ' of Henry VI.'s 
reign is the following : — * To a certain Dutchman, 
bringing with him a Saracen to the Kingdom of 
England, in money paid him in part payment of five 
marks which the Lord the King commanded to be 
paid him, to have of his gift.' Speaking of the Sara- 
cens, however, we are led to say a word or two about 
the Jews, the greatest money-makers, the greatest 
merchants, the greatest people, in a commercial point 

' Our ' Sarsons ' may be metronymically descended from ' Sare ' or 
'Sarra. ' Skelton, in 'Elynore Rummyng,' speaks of 

*Dame Dorothe and lady Besse, 
Dame Sare, our pryoresse.' 

Nevertheless the same writer, in his ' Poem against Gamesche,' ad- 
dresses a Saracen thus — 

' I say, ye solem Sarson, alle blake is your ble.' 

Such entries as ' William fil. Sare,' 'John Saresson,' ' Henry Sarrasin* 
or ' Peter Sarracen,' show both origins to be possible. 


of view at least, the world has known. No amount 
of obloquy, no extent of cruel odium and persecution, 
could break the spirit of the old Iraelitish trader. 
Driven out of one city, he fled to another. Rifled of 
his savings in one land, he soon found an asylum in 
another, till a fresh revolution there also caused either 
the king or the people to vent their passions and refill 
their coffers at the expense of the despised Jew. 
'Jury' would seem to be a corrupted surname taken 
from the land which our Bible has made so familiar 
to us. It certainly is derived from this term, but not 
the Jewry of Palestine. It was that part of any large 
town which in the Early and Middle Ages was set 
apart for these people, districts where, if they chose 
to face contumely and despite, they could live and 
worship together. Every considerable town in 
England and the Continent had its Jewish quarters. 
London with its 'Jewry' is no exceptional case. 
Winchester, York, Norwich, all our early centres of 
commerce, had the same. Johan Kaye, in his account 
of the siege of Rhodes, says: 'AH the strete called 
the Jure by the walles was full of their blood and 
caren (carrion).' Our 'Jurys'^ are not, however, 
necessarily Jews, as it is but a local name from resi- 
dence in such quarters, and doubtless at one time or 
another during the period of surname establishment 
Christians may have had habitation there. ' Jew,' on 
the other hand, as representing such former entries as 
* Roger le Jew ' or ' Mirabilla Judaeus,' is undoubtedly 
of purely Israelitish descent. But these are not all. 

' This surname is found uncorrupted so late as 1626. A 'John 
Jewry' is set down in C. C. Coll. register for that date. (Vide //w/. 
C. C. Coll.) ' Jewsbury ' has the same origin. 


Our early records teem with such names as ' Roger le 
Convers,' or * Stephen le Convers/ ^ deserters from the 
Jewish faith. We cannot be surprised at many of the 
less steady adherents of the ancient creed changing 
their religious status, when we reflect upon the cruel 
impositions made upon them at various times.' I 
suspect our * Conyers ' have swallowed up the repre- 
sentatives of this name. Even in the day of its rise we 
find it set down in one record as ' Nicholas le Conners.' 
So much for general and national names. To 
pretend to give any category of the town-names that 
have issued from these wide-spread localities were, of 
course, impossible. Such sobriquets as ' Argent,' from 
Argcntan ; ' Charters ' and ' Charteris ' from Chartres ; 
' Bullcn,' ' Bollen,' or ' Roleyn ' from Boulogne,^ with 
' Bulness ' as representative of ' Ic Boloncis ; ' ' Lan- 
dcls ' from Landcllcs ; ' Death' or ' D'Aeth ' from Aeth 
in Flanders ; ' Twopenny ' from Tupigny in the same 
province ; ' Gant ' and ' Gent ' from Ghent, once ' de 
Gaunt ; ' ' Legge ' from Liege (in some cases at least) ; 
' Lubbock,' once written ' de Lubyck ' and ' de Lubek,' 

' We must not forget, however, that the term ' convert ' was applied 
to such as were lay members of a monastery. They were also working 
brethren, and thus were distinguished from the 'monachi,' or monks, 
who were wholly confined to religious offices and meditation. Thus, in 
the Life of JIugh of Lincoln, it is said, ' Omncs interea Hugonem 
loqucbantur sive prior, sivc monachus, sive confcrsus, gratiam attolcbat 
collatam Hugoni.' (P. 46. See, also, Glossary to same.) 

* ' Edward I. went so far as to give the Dominican Friars, at their 
particular request, power to constrain the Jews to listen to their preaching, 
and even proceeded to waive his claim for seven years to more than a 
moiety of the gootls of tlie converts, the other half being given to 
maintain the poor in the Hospital for Converts.' (Anglia fudaica, 
P- 231.) 

* Hall, in his ChionickSy spells it ' Bullcin.' (F, xxiii.) 


from Lubeck in Saxony ; * Geneve,' once ' de Geneve,* 
and 'Antioch,' once * de Antiochia,' are but instances 
taken haphazard from a list, which to extend would oc- 
cupy all my remaining space. Many of these are con- 
nected with particular trades, or branches of trades, 
for which in their day they had obtained a European 
celebrity. If the peculiar manufactures of such places at 
home as * Kendall ' and * Lindsey ' and * Wolsey ' have 
left in our own nomenclature the marks of their early 
renown, we should also expect such foreign cities as 
were more especially united to us by the ties of in- 
dustry to leave a mark thereof upon our registers. 
Such names as ' Ralph de Arras ' or ' Robert de 
Arraz,' a sobriquet not yet extinct in our midst, carry 
us to Arras in Artois, celebrated for its tapestried 
hangings.^ Rennes in Brittany has given birth to our 
* Raines ' and ' Rains.' ^ Chaucer talks of pillows 
made of ' cloth of raines.' Elsewhere, too, he makes 
mention of ' hornpipes of Cornewaile,' reminding us 
that in all probability some of our ' Cornwalls ' hail 
from Cornouaile in the same province. Romance in 
Burgundy, celebrated for its wine, has left a memory 
of that fact in our ' Rumneys ' and ' Rummeys.' 

' So late as the year 1562 we find, in an old inventory, mention 
made of ' One bede coveringe of ariesworke, Ss. {Richmondshire Wills, 
p. 161.) ' Grant to John Bakes, arras-maker, of the office of maker 
and mender of the King's cloths and pieces of arras and tapestry, 
with \zd. a day for •W2iges.^ —Materials for History of Reign of Henry 
VII. (p. 259). 

* The Gildhallu: Mnninunta mention, among other goods, 'mer- 
cerie, canevas, conins-panes, fustiane, chalons, draps du Reynes, et 
draps de soye.' (P. 231.) ' Then take a towell of reynes of two yerdes 
and an halfe, and take the towell by ye endes double and laye it on the 
table,' — I'he Boke of Kervynge, 


Some of my readers will remember that in the ' Squyr 
of low degree' the king, amongst" other pleasures by 
which to soothe away his daughter's melancholy, 
promises her. 

Ye shall have Rumney. 

Our ' Challens ' are but lingering memorials of the 
now decayed woollen manufactures of Chalons, of 
which we shall have more to say anon ; and not to 
mention others, our * Roans ' (always so spelt and pro- 
nounced in olden times), our 'Anvers,' once 'de 
Anvers,' our ' Cullings,' * CuUens,' ^ * Collinges,' and 
* Lyons,' are but relics of former trades for which the 
several towns of Rouen, and Antwerp, and Cologne, 
and Lyons, were notorious. The rights of citizenship 
and all other advantages seem early to have been 
accorded them. In the thirteenth century we find 
Robert of Catalonia and Walter Turk acting as 
sheriffs, and much about the same time a ' Pycard ' 
was Mayor of London. 

I must stop here. We have surveyed, compara- 
tively speaking, but a few of our local, surnames. 
From the little I have been able to advance, however, 
it will be clear, I think, that with regard to the 
general subject of nomenclature these additional 
sobriquets had become a necessity. The population 
of England, less than two millions at the period of 
the Conquest, was rapidly increasing, and, which is 
of far more importance so far as surnames are con- 
cerned, increasing corporately. Population was be- 
coming every day less evenly diffused. Communities 

' Foxe, in his Martyrology, speaks of the ' Bishop of Mcntz, of 
Cullen, and of Wormes.' (Vol. i. p. 269, ed. 1844.) 


were fast being formed, and as circumstances but 
more and more induced men to herd themselves 
together, so did the necessity spring up for each to 
have a more fixed and determinate title than his 
merely personal or baptismal one, by which he might 
be more currently known among his fellows. 



A CLASS of surnames which occupies no mean 
"^^ place in our lists is that which has been be- 
queathed to us by the dignitaries and officers of 
mediaeval times. Of these sobriquets, while some 
hold but a precarious existence, a goodly number are 
firmly established in our midst. On the other hand, 
as with each other class of our surnames, many that 
once figured in every register of the period are now 
'extinct Of these latter not a few have lapsed through 
the decay of the very systems which brought them 
into being. While the feudal constitution remained 
encircled as it was with a complete scheme of service, 
while the ecclesiastic system of Church government 
reigned supreme and without a rival, there were num- 
berless offices which in after days fell into desuetude 
with the principle that held them together. Still, in 
the great majority of cases the names of these have 
remained to remind us of their former heyday glory, 
and to give us an insight into the reality of those now 
decayed customs to which they owed their rise. 

We must be careful, however, at the outset to 
remark that a certain number of these names ought, 
strictly speaking, to be set down in our chapter upon 
sobriquets. They are either vestiges of the many 
outdoor pageantries and mock ceremonies so popular 


in that day, or of the numberless nicknames our fore- 
fathers loved to affix one upon the other, and in 
which practice all, high and low alike, joined. For 
instance, no one could suspect such a sobriquet as 
* Alan le Pope,' or ' Hugh le Pape,' the source of one 
of our commonest and most familiar names, to be 
derived from the possessor of that loftiest of eccle- 
siastic offices.^ It could be but a nickname, and was 
doubtless given to some unlucky individual whose 
overweening and pretentious bearing had brought 
upon him the affix. So, again, would it be with such 
a title as ' Robert le Keser,* that is, Caesar, corre- 
sponding to the French ' L'empriere' and the obsolete 
Norman * le Emperer.' This is a word of frequent 
occurrence in our earlier poets. Langland says of our 
Lord, there was 

No man so worthie 
To be kaiser or king 
Of the kyngdom of Juda. 

Again, he finely says — 

Death cam dryvynge after, 
And al to duste passed 
Kynges and knyghtes, 
Kaysers and popes, 
Lered and lewed.* 

* The same remark will apply to our ' Cardinals ' and ' Pontifexs.' 
'Cardinal' is early found in 'Walter Cardinall ' (P.), and 'William 
Cardynair (Z). 

* In one of our old mediaeval 'mysteries,' representing the Nativity, 
one of the Magi says : — 

Certain Balaam speakys of this thyng, 
That of Jacob a star shall spryng, 
That shall overcom kasar and kyng. 

— Townley Mystenes, 


This surname, too, is now all but equally common 
with the other, being met with in the several shapes 
of 'Caesar,' * Cayser,' ' Cayzer,' ' Kaiser,' and ' Keyser.'^ 
The name of 'Julius Caesar,' as that of one of our 
most esteemed professional cricketers, has only just 
disappeared from the annals of that noble game. 
The posterity of such enrolled burgesses as ' William 
le Kyng' or 'Thomas le Kyng' still flourish and 
abound in our midst. An imperious temperament 
would thus readily meet with good-humoured censure. 
' Matilda le Quen' or ' Simon Quene' has not quite 
failed of issue ; but had it been otherwise, it could 
not have been matter for any astonishment, as the 
sobriquet was doubtless anything but a complimentary 
affix. We must remember that, somewhat curiously, 
the old ' quen,' or, as the Scotch still term it, ' quean,' 
at once represents the highest rank to which a woman 
can reach and the lowest depth to which she can fall. 
So would it be once more with our endless ' Princes,' 
and ' Comtes' or ' Counts,' ' Viscuntes,' the heads of 
provincial government.' There is no reason, however, 
why our ' Dukes,' ' Dooks,' or ' Dues,' as they are more 
generally found in our rolls ('Roger le Due,' E., ' Adam 
le Duk.' M.),^ should not be what they represent, 
or rather then represented. A ' duke' was of course 
anything but what we now understand by the term, 

' Some of these forms may be but corniptions of ' Cosier,' the old 
cheese-maker, found in the Writs of Parliament in such entries as 
' Michael le Casiere,' or ' Benedict le Casiere.' ' Cayser' would require 
little variation to make it such. 

« 'Ellice Pryncc' (Z.), 'John Ic Cunte' (E.), ' Peter leCoimle' (G.), 
'John le Viscounte ' (B.). 

' 'William le Duck' (T.). Our 'Ducks' may thus be ofikial 
rather than ornithological. 


being then, as it more literally signifies, a leader, or 
chieftain, or head. It is thus used in Scripture. Lang- 
land, to quote him again, says of Justice — 

A-drad was he nevere 
Neither of due ne of deeth. 

Elsewhere, too, he describes ' Rex Gloriae ' as 
addressing Lucifer upon the brink of Hades, and 
saying — 

Dukes of this dymme place, 
Anoon undo these yates, 
That Crist may come in, 
The kynges sone of hevene. 

It is in this same category we must set, I doubt not, 
such old registrations as ' Robert le Baron' or * Walter 
le Baron,' 'John le Lorde' or 'Walter le Loverd,' and 
' Walter le Theyn' or * Nicholas le Then,' names now 
found as ' Baron,' ' Lord,' and ' Thain,' ' Thaine,' or 
* Thane.' ^ Even in the case of names of a more eccle- 
siastic character, we shall have to apply the same 
remark. We have still in our midst descendants of 
the ' le Cardinals' and ' le Bishops' of the thirteenth 
century, and there can be little doubt that these were, 
in the majority of cases, but nicknames given to par- 
ticular individuals by way of ridiculing certain charac- 
teristics which seemed to tend in the direction the 
name suggested. 

As I have already hinted, however, there is another 
and equally probable origin for many of the names I 
have mentioned. Pageantries and mock ceremonies 

' This word is found as a compound in ' William Burtheyn,' a 
Saxon title equivalent to the Norman 'Chamberlain.' The Prompt. 
Par. has 'burmayden,' i.e. 'chamber-maid.' 


were at this time at the very height of their popu- 
larity. The Romish Church fed this desire. Thus, 
for instance, take Epiphany. In well-nigh every parish 
the visit of the Magi, always accounted to have been 
royal personages, was regularly celebrated. Though 
the manner varied in different places, the custom was 
more or less the same. There was a great feast, and 
one of the company was always elected king, the 
rest being, according to the lots they drew, either 
ministers of state or maids of honour. Thus Herrick 

says — 

For sports, for pageantrie, and playes. 
Thou hast thy eves and hoHdayes : 
Thy wakes, thy quintels, here thou hast. 
Thy Maypoles, too, with garlandes graced : 
Thy mummeries, thy twelfe-tide kings 
And queens, thy Christmas revellings.' 

' In the Hundred Rolls we find a 'Will Litleking.' This sobriquet 
would readily attach to one such feast-appointed monarch whose dimi- 
nutive stature would but impart additional merriment to the occasion. 
'Roger Wyteking' {Tes/a de Neville) would owe his nom de plume to 
the dress he wore. It is to such an institution as this, again, we must 
ascribe the origin of such names as * Reginald Kyngessone,' and per- 
chance • Richard Kyngesman,' both found in the Hundred Rolls also. 
That our ' Kings ' are but a memorial of the festivities of our forefathers, 
is an undoubted fact. Every great nobleman had not merely a pro- 
fessed ' fool,' but at particular seasons a ' King of Misrule.' This 'king' 
initiated and conducted the merry doings of Christmastide, and was a 
proper officer. Besides the 'King of Misrule,' there were also the 
'King' and 'Queen' of each village enthroned on May morning, 
who would be sure to keep their regal title through the year at least. 
Thus, among the twenty or thirty families that comprised the manor of 
Ashton -under- Lyne in 1422, we find ' Hobbc the King,' while a festival 
to be held there in that year is to be under the supervision of ' .Mar- 
garet, widow of Hobbe the King, Hobbe Adamson, Jenkin of the 
WockI, Robert Somayster (Sum-m.-ister), etc' ( Three Lancashire Docu- 
ments. Cheth. Soc.) 'We, Adam Backhous and Harry Nycol, hath 


I need scarcely say that as popular nicknames these 
titles would be sure to cling to the persons upon whom 
they had fallen, and that they should even pass on to 
their descendants is no more unnatural than in the 
case of a hundred other sobriquets we shall have oc- 
casion to recount. 

Of the rest, however, and, as I have said, maybe 
in some of the cases I have mentioned, the surname 
was but truly indicative of the office or dignity held. 
The Saxon has suffered here. And yet to some this 
may seem somewhat strange when we remember how 
little change really took place in the institutions of 
the Kingdom by the Conquest, The Normans and 
Saxons, after all, were but propagations from the 
same original stock, and however distant the period 
of their separation, however affected by difference of 
clime and association, still their customs bore a suffi- 
cient affinity to make coalescence by no means a 
difficult task. William was not given to great changes. 
He was vindictive, but not destructive. His most 
cruel acts were retributive, done by way of reprisal 
after sudden disaffection. If a conqueror must estab- 
lish his power, deeds of this kind are inevitable. 
And even these are exaggerated. The story of the 
depopulation of the New Forest, it is now pretty 
generally agreed, is impossible — its present condition 
forbids of any such act to have been practicable — and 
the notion frequently conveyed in our smaller books 
of English history, that the curfew was a badge and 

made account for tlie Kenggam (King-game), that same tym don Wil- 
liam Kempe, A'enge, and Joan V^hytebrede, Quc?t, and all costs de- 
ducted, 4/. 5j. od. {ChAvardais' Accounts: Kingston-upon-Thames. 
Lyson. ) 



token of servitude, is simply absurd, the fact being 
that the same custom prevailed over the whole of 
Western Europe, as a mere precaution against fire at 
a time when our towns were mainly constructed of 
wood. A crushed people will always misinterpret 
such ordinances. Prejudice of this kind is perfectly 
pardonable. William then, I say, was not inclined to 
uproot Saxon institutions. The national council still 
remained. The ancient tribunals with their various 
motes, the whole system of law which guided the 
administration of justice, all was well-nigh as it had 
been heretofore. But the language which was the 
medium of all this was generally changed. The old 
laws were indeed used, but in a translated form — old 
officerships still existed, but in a new dialect — the old 
policy was mainly upheld, but new terms of police 
were introduced. It was not till Edward III.'s reign 
that pleadings in the various courts were again carried 
on in the English tongue — it was not till Henry VI. 's 
reign the proceedings in Parliament were recorded in 
the people's dialect — not till Richard III.'s day its 
statutes and ordinances ceased to be indited in 
Norman-P>ench. This at once shows the difficulty of 
any officership, however Saxon, retaining its original 
title. The office was maintained, but the name was 
changed. This was the more certain to ensue, so far 
as the Church was concerned, from the fact that for a 
considerable period all ecclesiastic vacancies were 
filled up from abroad, liishops and abbots were 
removed on pretexts of one sort or another, and their 
places supplied from the Conqueror's chaplains. The 
monasteries were hived with Normans ; the clergy 
generally were of foreign descent. It was the same, 


or nearly the same, with regard to civil government. 
The lesser courts of judicature were ruled by 
foreigners and the foreign tongue. The Barons, as 
they retired into the provinces and to the estates 
allotted them, naturally bore with them a Norman 
retinue. All their surroundings became quickly the 
same. Thus the French language was used not 
merely in their common conversation — that of course 
— but so far as their power, undoubtedly large, 
existed, in the provincial courts also. 

Such entries as ' Thomas le Shirreve ' and * Lena 
le Shireve ' remind us not merely of our present 
existing * Sheriffs/ ' Shcrrifs,' and ' Shreeves,' but how 
firmly this Saxon word has maintained its hold 
through the many fluctuations of English government. 
The Norman ' Judge,' though it is firmly established 
in our courts of law, has not made any very great im- 
press upon our nomenclature. ' Justice,' a relic of 

* William ' or ' Eva le Justice,' ^ is more commonly met 
with. Our ' Corners,' when not descendants of the 
local ' de la Corners ' of the thirteenth century, are but 
corruptions of many a 'John le Coroner ' or ' Henry le 
Corouner ' of the same period. It is even found in the 
abbreviated form of ' Corner,' in 'John Ic Corner ' and 

* The Ordinary was any ecclesiastic judge, the bishop himself, or his 
deputy. Thus, in a statute of Edward III., dated 1341, it is said : — 

* Item, it is accorded and assented that the king and his heiis shal 
have the conisance of the usurers dead, and that the Ordinaries of Holy 
Church — Us Ordinares de Seinte Esglisc — have the conisance of usurers 
in life, as to them appertaineth, to make compulsion by the censures of 
Holy Church for the sin,' cS;c. {Stat. Realm, vol. i. p. 296.) We still 
call the gaol chaplain the ordinary who conducts the condemned pri- 
soner to the scaffold and reads the appointed service. The I'arlia- 
mentary Writs give us a 'John Ordeiner' and a ' Stephen Ordinar.' 

N 2 


* Walter le Cornur.' Thus we see that so early as this 
our forefathers discerned in the death of a subject a 
matter that concerned not merely the well-being of 
the crown, but that of which the crown as the true 
parent of a nation's interests was to take cognizance. 
More directly opposed to the Norman * Judge ' and 

* Justice,' and in the end displaced by them, were 
our Saxon ' Demer ' and ' Dempster ' (the older forms 
being ' le Demere ' and * le Demester '), they who pro- 
nounced the doom. An old English Psalter thus 
translates Psalm cxlviii. 1 1 : — 

Kinges of earth, and alle folk living, 
Princes and all demers of land. 

An antique poem, too, has it in its other form in the 
following couplet : — 

Ayoth was then demester 
Of Israel foure score yeer. 

We Still employ the term ' doom ' for judgment. 
Cliaucer speaks familiarly of one of the Canterbury 
company as a ' Serjeant of the Lawc.' It is, in the 
majority of cases, to the term ' sergeant ' as used in 
this capacity we owe our much-varied ' Sargants,' 
' Sargeants,' ' Sargeaunts,' ' Sargents,' ' Sergents,' ' Ser- 
geants,' * Sarjants,' and ' Sarjeants.' The same poet 
says of him : — 

Justice he was full often in assize. 
By patent and by pleinc commission. 

' Alured le Pledur,' or ' Henry le Plcidour,' and ' Peter 
le Escuzer,' all obsolete as surnames, need little or no 
explanation. Speaking of assizes, we are reminded of 
our ' Siscrs ' and ' Sizcrs,' representatives of the old 


'Assizer' — he who was commissioned to hold the 
court. Piers Plowman frequently mentions him : — 

To marien this mayde 
Were many men assembled, 
As of knyghts, and of clerkes, 
And other commune people, 
As sisours, and somenours, 
Sherreves, and baillifs. 

We are here reminded of * Hugh le Somenur,' or 
* Henry le Sumenour,' now spelt * Sumner,' the sheriffs 
messenger, he by whom the delinquent was brought 
up to the court. He was the modern apparitor in 
fact. In the ' Coventry Mysteries ' it is said : — 

Sim Somnor, in haste wend thou thi way, 
Byd Joseph, and his wyff by name. 
At the coorte to apper this day. 
Him to purge of her defame. 

A ' Godwin Bedellus' occurs so early as Domes- 
day record, and as ' Roger le Bedel,' or ' Martin le 
Bedel,' the name is by no means rare somewhat later 
on. He was, whether in the forest or any other court, 
the servitor, he who executed processes or attended 
to proclamations. The modern forms of the name 
comprise, among others, ' Beadell,' ' Beadle,' ' Bead- 
dall,' and ' Biddle.' Such names as ' Richard le Gaye- 
ler ' or ' Ada le Gaoler,' are very commonly met with 
in our mediaeval rolls. The term itself is of Norman 
origin, reminding us that, however menial the duty, 
the Saxon could not be entrusted with such an office 
as this. We cannot, however, speak of the gaoler and 
his confreres without referring to a curious sobriquet 
of this period, a sobriquet to which we owe in the 


present day our ' Catchpoles ' and ' Catchpooles.' ^ 
The catchpole was a kind of under-bailiff or petty 
sergeant who distrained for debt, or otherwise did the 
more unpleasant part of his superior's work, and was 
so called from his habit of seizing his luckless victim 
by the hair, ox poll, as was the familiar term then. So 
general was this nickname that we find it occupying 
an all but official place. It is Latinized in our re- 
cords into ' cachepollus,' a word unknown to Cicero, I 
am afraid. In the ' Plowman's Vision ' we are told of 
the two thieves crucified with the Saviour that : — 

A cachepol cam forth 

And cracked both their legges. 

Another name for the catchpole was that of ' Cachercl ' 
or ' Cacher,' both of which forms occur at this same 
period as surnames. An old political song says, 
murmuringly : — 

Nedes I must spend tliat I spared of yore 
Ageyn this cacherele cometh. 

This sobriquet also abides with us still.^ * Le Cacher,' 
I fear, has been obsolete for centuries.' 

' The term ' poll ' for the head, was far more familiar to our fore- 
fathers than to ourselves, as such terms as 'poll-tax,' or 'going to the 
poll,' testify. It was in great favour for nickname purposes, and beside 
the one in the text gave rise to such sobriquets as 'ranti-poll,' i.e., 
boisterous fellow ; 'doddy-poll,' or ' doddy-poul,' as Latimer spells it, 
i.e., blockhead; or 'withy-poll,' i.e., spoiled one. The latter was a 
term of endearment, and as such would not be resented. Hence it is 
found twice as a surname: — ' Poule Wilhipoule, taillour' {Rutland 
Papers, Cam. Soc); 'Edmund Withipole' {State Papers, Domestic). 

* An old sermon, written in the fourteenth century, upon Matt, xxiv, 
43, speaks of those whom we should now term as the ' Devil and his 
angels' as the ' Devil and his kachereles.' 

' We have the surname of ' Outlawe,' or ' Outlaghe,' figuring in 


Of such as were accountable for duties in the 
pubHc streets, we may mention first our 'Cryers,' 
registered at the time we are speaking of as ' Philip le 
Criour,' or ' Wat le Greyer.' He, like the still existing 
'Bellman,'' performed a fixed round, announcing in 
full and sententious tones the mandates of bench and 
council, whenever it was necessary to advertise to the 
public such news as concerned their common well- 
being. Our policeman may be modern in his name 
and in his attire, but as the guardian of the peace, by 
night as well as by day, he is but the descendant of a 
long line of servants who have in turn fulfilled this 
important public trust. His early title was borne by 
' Ralph le Weyte,' or ' Robert le Wayte,' or 'Hugh le 
Geyt,' or ' Robert le Gait.' All these forms are of the 
commonest occurrence in our olden registries. By 
night he carried a trump, with which to sound the 
watches or give the alarm, and thus it was he acquired 
also the name of ' Trumper,' such forms as ' Adam le 
Trompour ' or ' William le Trompour ' being fre- 

several rolls, and that of ' Felon,' or ' le Felun,' in at least one. These 
would be both unpleasant names to bear, perhaps more so then than 
now. A 'felon' was one who had, by court adjudicature, and for some 
specific crime, forfeited all his property, lands, or goods. An ' outlaw ' 
was one who had been cited to judgment for some misdemeanour, and 
by refusing to make an appearance had put himself out of the protection 
of the law. Thus, Robin Hood was an outlaw. ' Adam Outelaw' signs 
ordinances of Guild of St. John Baptist, West Lynn, 1374. (English 
Gilds, p. 102.) This name, strange to say, lingered on to within 
the last two hundred years, a 'Thomas Outlaw' being found in a college 
register for 1674. (Vide Hist. C. C. Coll. Cam.) In 166 1, too, 'Ralph 
Outlaw' was rector of Necton in Norfolk. [Hist. Nor/., vi. 55.) 

' 'On the 30th ult., at Greenheys, Manchester, formerly of Oxton, 
Cheshire, Sarah, widow of R. Bellringer, of Pendleton, aged 82.' 
(Manchester Courier, May 2, 1874.) This is the only instance of this 
name I have hitherto met with. 


quently met with at this time. To the former title of 
this official duty it is we owe the fact of our still 
terming any company of night serenaders ' waits,' and 
especially those bands of strolling minstrels who keep 
up the good old custom of watching in Christmas 
morn. A good old custom, I say, even though it may 
cost us a few pence and rousG us somewhat rudely, 
maybe, from our slumbers. ' Wait,' ' Waite,' ' ' Wayt,' 
and ' Whaite,' with ' le Geyt,' are the forms that still 
exist among us. ' Trumper,' too, has its place equally 
assured in our nomenclature. 

Such names as we have just dwelt upon, however, 
remind us of other municipal authorities, higher in 
position than these, to whom, indeed, these were but 
servitors. A sobriquet like ' Richard le Burgess ' or 
* John le Burges ' reminds us of the freemen of the 
borough towns, while ' le Mayor,' or ' Mayer,' or 
'Maire,' or ' Mair,' or ' Meyre,' ' or 'Mire,' for all 
these different spellings are found, is equally sugges- 
tive of the chief magistracy of such. Piers, to quote 
him once more, speaks of: — 

The maistres, 
Meirs and Jugges, 
That have the welthe of this world. 

The feminine form of this sobriquet appears in the 
early but obsolete ' Margaret la_ Miressc.' Speaking 

' 'Thomas le Await' occurs in the Rot. Curia Hegis. This reminds 
US that our 'waiter' was once prefixed with 'a' likewise — 'xii. esquiers 
awaiters.' {Ord. Household of Dtike of Clarence, 1493.) 

' ' And to meyris or presidentis and to kyngis ye shall be led for me 
in witnessyng to them.' — Matt x. 18 (Wicklyffe). In a Petition to Tar- 
liament, dated 1461, the following varieties of spelling occur within the 
space of thirty lines : — 'Maier,' 'Mayer,' 'Mayre,' and 'Maire.' {Rot. 
Pari. Ed. IV.) 


of mayors, some lines written some years ago on the 
proposed elevation of a certain Alderman Wood as 
Lord Mayor are not without humour, nor out of place, 
perhaps, here : — 

In choice of Mayors 'twill be confest, 

Our citizens are prone to jest : 

Of late a gentle ' Flower ' they tried — 

November came and checked its pride. 

A ' Hunter ' next, on palfrey grey, 

Proudly pranced his year away. 

The next, good order's foes to scare, 

Placed ' Birch ' upon the civic chair. 

Alas ! this year, 'tis understood, 

They mean to make a mayor of ' Wood ! ' 

As a fellow to ' Meir ' we may cite ' Provost,' or 
' Prevost,' or ' Provis,' a term still used of the mayor- 
alty in Scotland. ' Councellor ' and ' Councilman ' 
are still familiar terms in our midst. * Clavenger,' 
* Claver,' and * Cleaver ' we will mention last as filling 
up a list of civic offices entirely, so far as the lan- 
guage is concerned, the property of the dominant 
power. A ' Robert Clavynger ' occurs in the Par- 
liamentary Rolls. Its root is ' claviger,' the ' key- 
bearer,' one whose office it was at this time to protect 
the deposits, whether of money or parchments, be- 
longing to the civic authorities. The more common 
term was that of ' Clavier,' such entries as ' Henry le 
Claver,' or 'John le Clavour,' or 'John le Clavier,'' 
being of familiar occurrence at this time. Thus in a 
treaty agreed upon between the Mayor, sheriffs, and 
commonalty of Norwich in 1414, it was declared that 

' I suspect the difference between the ' claviger ' and the ' clavier ' 
la/ in that the former bore the key, and perhaps even the mace, in all 
the many public processions and pageants of the day. 


* the mayor and twenty-four (of the council) shall 
choose a common clerk, a coroner, two clavers, and 
eight constables, and the sixty common council shall 
choose a common speaker, one coroner, two clavers, 
and eight constables.' (' Hist. Norf,' Blomefield.) In a 
day when there were no patent safes we can readily 
understand the importance of appointing men whose 
one care it was to guard the chests wherein were 
stored up the various parchments, moneys, and seals 
belonging to the civic council. This comprises our 
list of Norman civil officers. One name, and one only, 
of this class is Saxon, that of 'Alderman,' but I have 
found it occurring as a surname in only one or two 
instances, and I believe it has now become obsolete. 

Turning from municipal to ecclesiastical affairs, 
we find the Church of mediaeval times surrounded 
with memorials. Some of these I have already 
hinted at as being mere sobriquets ; ' none the less, 
however, do we owe them to the existing institutions. 
Such names as ' Hugo le Archevesk ' or ' William le 
Arceveske ' can be only thus viewed. In ' Morte 
Arthure ' the hero holds festival at Caerleon, 

Wyth dukez, and dusperes of dyvers revvmes, 
Erles and erchevesques, and other ynowe, 
Byschopes and bachelers and banerettcs nobille. 

While this has long vanished from our directories, the 
descendants of 'John Ic Bissup ' or ' Robert le Biscop' 
are firmly established therein. The more Norman 

' The old and general custom of electing a boy-bishop on St. Nicholas' 
Day gave their title, doubtless, to most of our 'bishops.' The familiarity 
of the ceremony is fully attested by Brand. To him I refer tiie reader. 
The boy thus elevated by liis fellows could not but retain tlie sobriquet. 
Lyson quotes from the Latnbdh Ch.wardcns'' Accounts, 1523: 'For 
the Bishop's dynner and hys company on St. Nycolas' Day, \\s, viii^/.' 


* Robert le Vecke ' and ' Nicholas le Vesk ' still live 
also in our 'Vicks' and 'Vecks.' It was only the 
other day I saw * Archdeacon ' over a hatter's shop 
— and that it is no corruption of some other word, 
we may cite the early ' Thomas le Arcedekne ' as a 
proof. ^ Whether * Archpriest/ a sobriquet occurring 
at the same date, was but another designation of the 
same, or performed more episcopal functions, I 
cannot say.*^ The name, however, is obsolete in every 
sense. The old vicar has bequeathed us our * Vicars,* 

* Vicarys,' and ' Vickermans.' Chaucer says in the 

* Persons Prologue ' — 

Sire preest, quod he, art thou a vicary ? 
Or art thou a Person ? say soth by thy fay. 

Our ' Parsons,' as Mr. Lowther thinks, are but a 
form of ' Piers' son,' that is, * Peters' son,' It is, 
however, quite possible for them to be what they more 
nearly resemble ; indeed, I find the name occurring as 
such in the case of ' Walter le Persone,' found in the 
Parliamentary Rolls. Well would it be if we could 
say of each village cure now what our great early 
poet said of one he pictured forth — 

A good man there was of religioun, 
That was a poure Persone of a town, 
But riche he was of holy thought and werk, 
He was also a lerned man, a clerk, 
That Cristes gospel trewely wolde preche. 

' Daniel Archdeacon was recommended to the King for his services, 
1610. Instate Papers, 1623-5, p. 545.) 

* 'Roger le Archeprest' (J). The term was in use in the seven- 
teenth century. Smith, the ' silver-tongued ' preacher, speaks of ' priest, 
or priests, or archpriests, or any such like.' (GocVs Arrow against 


Our ' Priests ' and * Priestmans ' ^ answer for them- 
selves. ' Thomas le Prestre ' and ' Peter le Prest,' I 
do not doubt myself, were but other changes rung 
upon the same, but I shall have occasion hereafter to 
propose, at least, a different origin for the latter. The 
lower ministerial office is suggested to us in ' Philip 
le Dekene ' and ' Thomas le Deken,' but we must be 
careful not to confound them with * Deakin,' which is 
often but another form of * Dakin,' that is, * Dawkin,' 
or ' little David.'* Our ' Chaplains ' or ' Chaplins,' once 
written more fully as ' Reginald le Chapeleine,' repre- 
sent less one who officiated in any public sanctuary 
than him who was attached to some private oratory 
belonging to one of the higher nobility. Our ' Chanters ' 
or ' Canters ' (' Xtiana le Chauntour,' A., ' William le 
Chantour,' M.) still maintain the dignity of the old 
precentors who led the collegiate or cathedral choir — 
but the once existing ' Chanster ' (' Stephen le Chan- 
ster,' J.), strictly speaking the feminine of the other, is 
now obsolete.' In our ' Chancellors ' we may recognise 
the ancient 'John le Chancelcr ' or 'Geoffry le Chaun- 
celer,' he to whose care was committed the chapter, 
books, scrolls, records, and what other literature be- 
longed to the establishment with which he stood con- 

' As in occupative names, such as 'Fisherman' and 'Poulterer,' 
there was a tendency to repeat the suffix, or to add ' man ' to a term 
that itself expressed a personal agent, so it was in official names. We 
have just spoken of 'Vickerman' and ' Priestman.' '.Symon Prior- 
man' (W. 15) and 'William Munkcman ' (W. 15) are other cases in 

* After the fashion of ' Vicary,' from 'Vicar,' and 'Thackeray,' 
from 'Thacker,' so ' Diacony ' seems to have been formed from 
•Deacon.' — Micbell Diacony, xx. 

* 'Williametta Cantatrix ' is found in the ^^ Rot. Lit. Claus. in 
Turri Land." 


nected. ' Clerk ' as connected with the Church has come 
down in the world, for as ' clericus,' or ' clergyman,' 
it once belonged entirely to the ordained ministry.' 
The introduction of lay-clerks, appointed to lead the 
responses of the congregation, has, however, connected 
them all but wholly with this later office. Nor have 
our ' Secretans,' or ' Sextons,* or ' Saxtons ' pre- 
served their early dignity. The sacristan was he who 
had charge of the church-edifice, especially the robes 
and vestments, and such things as appertained to the 
actual service.^ The present usually accepted mean- 
ing of the term, that understood by our great 
humorist poet when he said — 

He went and told the sexton, 
And the sexton tolled the bell, 

is quite of later growth. In our ' Colets ' and 
* Collets ' (sometimes the diminutives of ' Colin ') 
we are reminded of the colet, or acolyte, who 
waited upon the priest and assisted in carrying the 
bread and wine, in lighting the candles, and per- 
forming all subordinate duties. Our ' Bennets,' when 
not belonging to the class of baptismal names (as a 
corruption of 'Benedict'), once performed the func- 
tions of exorcists, and by the imposition of hands 

' A curious, not to say cumbrous, surname is met with in the Parlia- 
mentary Writs — that of ' Holywaterclerk ' — a certain ' Hugh Haliwater- 
clerk' being set down as dwelling at Lincoln. Doubtless he was con- 
nected with the cathedral body of that city. The name, I need not say, 
is obsolete ; and the Reformation has removed the office denoted. A 
' Walter le Churcheclerk ' is found in the same record. 

* The charge of the vestry seems to have been given also to the ' revc- 
tour,' from ' revestir.' A ' William Revetour, clericus, filius Rogeri 
Morbet, revetour,' was admitted to freedom of York City in 1420. He 
died in 1446, and in his will makes mention of his father as * Roger 
Revetour.' {^Corpus Chriiti Guild, p. 24. Surt. Soc.) 


and the aspersion of holy water expelled evil spirits 
from those said to be thus possessed. Last of this 
group we may mention our ' Croziers ' and ' Crosiers,' 
they who at this time bore the pastoral staff. Me- 
diaeval forms of these are met with in ' Simon le 
Croyzer ' or ' Mabel la Croiser.' I doubt not that he 
was a kind of chaplain to his superior, whose official 
staff it was his duty to bear. In the Book of Com- 
mon Prayer of the 2nd year of Edward VI. it is 
directed : ' Whensoever the bishop shall celebrate 
the holy communion, or execute any other public 
office, he shall have upon him, besides his rochet, an 
alb and cope, or vestment, and also his pastoral staff 
in his hand, or else borne by his chaplain.' 

When we turn our eyes for a moment to the old 
monastic institutions, we see that they, too, are far 
from being without their relics. In them we have 
more distinctly the echo of a departed time. Many 
of my readers will be familiar with the distinction 
recorded in such names as ' Alexander le Seculer ' 
and ' Walter le RcHgieusc,' or ' man of religion,' as 
Chaucer would have termed the latter. To be 
' religious ' in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries 
was to be one of a monastic order bound by vows. 
Thus our great mediaeval poet says in his Romance — 

Religious folk ben full covert, 
Secular folke ben more apert, 
But nathelcss, I will not blame 
Religious folke, ne them defame 
In what habitc that ever they go ; 
Religion humble, and true also, 
Will I not IjJame, ne despise. 

The ' religieuse ' has apparently stuck to his vows, 
for I have never found the term in an hereditary form, 


while ' Secular,' as descended from such enrolled folk 
as 'Walter le Secular,' or 'Joan, uxor Nicholas le 
Secular,' still exists. I am afraid, however, the Sec- 
ularist of that time could and would have told us a 
different tale. Of these bound orders too, while the 
general term, as I say, does not now exist surnomi- 
nally, all the more particular titles which it embraced 
do. As we catch the cadence of their names a 
shadow falls athwart our memories, and in its wake a 
crowd of dim and unsubstantial figures pass before 
us. Once more we behold the fiery ' Abbot ' (Juliana 
Abbot, A., Ralph le Abbe, C), and the portly ' Prior' 
or 'Pryor' (Roger le Priour, B., Wilham le Priur, E.). 
We see afresh the ' Friar,' or ' Freere,' or ' Frere ' 
(Syward le Frere, A., Geoffrey le Frere, A.), so 'plea- 
sant of absolution ' and ' easy of penance.' Again 
our eye falls mistily upon the ' Canon,' or ' Cannon * 
(William le Cannon, A., Thomas le Canun, E.), with 
his well- trimmed beard and capped brow, and the 
' Moyne ' (now ' Munn ') or ' Monk ' (Beatrix le Munk, 
A., Thomas le Mun, A., Ivo le Moyne, A.), all closely 
shaved and cloaked, and cowled, that knew his way to 
the cellar better than to the chapel, who loved the song 
more than the chaunt.^ And now in quick succession 
flit by us a train of personages all beshrouded in garbs 
of multitudinous and quaint aspect, in cloaks and hoods, 
and tippets and girdles, and white and dark apparel. 
There is the wimpled, grey-eyed ' Nunn ' (Alice la 

' John Closterer.' (Three Histories of Ditr ham. Suit. Soc. ) This 
would be a general term for one who dwelt in a monastic institution. 
Shakespeare uses the feminine ' cloistress.' Of a similar character would 
be 'Nicholas Brotherhood' (Nicholls' Zw^j/i^-, 1633), 'John Brother- 
hood' (W. 20), or 'William Felliship' (W. 11). 


Nonne, A.), and the Dorturer, represented in olden 
registers by such a name as * Robert le Dorturer,' he 
who looked to the arrangements of the dourtour, or 
dormitory — 

His death saw I by revelation, 

Sayde this frere, at home in our dortour. • 

The word still existed in the sixteenth century, as is 
evidenced by Heywood's use of it. He says — 

The tongue is assigned of wordes to be sorter ; 
The mouth is assigned to be the tongue's dorter ; 
The teeth are assigned to be the tongue's porter ; 
But wisdom is 'signed to tye the tongue shorter. 

The figure is somewhat forced, but it has its beauty. 
The ' Fermerer,' now found as ' Fermor ' and ' Firmer,' 
was he who superintended the infirmary. Only a few 
lines further on, in the earlier of the two poems from 
which I last quoted, we find Chaucer making mention 

Our sexton, and our formercre, 
That have been trewe freres fifty year. 

The * Tale of a Monk,' too, begins — 

A black munk of an abbaye 
Was enfermer of alle I herd say — 
He was halden an hali man 
Imange his felaus. 

The fcrmery was the hospital or ' spital ' ^ attached to 
each religious house, and was under the immediate 
control of the above-mentioned officer. It is with him, 

' In the Monastical CIturch of Durham, written in 1593, we are 
told of the ' Cellarer' that ' the chambre where he dyd lye was in the 
dorter.' (P. 83.) 

' Hence the local surname ' Spital ' or ' Spittle : ' ' Richard ale 
Spitale,' M. 'Gilbert de Hospitall,' A. 


therefore, we may fitly ally ' Robert le Almoner,' or 
' Michael le Aumoner,' a name still abiding with us, 
and representative of him who dispensed the alms to 
the lazars and the poor. It is in allusion to this his 
office that Robert Brunne in one of his tales says : — 

Seynt Jone, the aumenere,' 
Saith Pers, was an okerere 
And was very coveytous 
And a niggard and avarus. 

Of the same officer in more lordly society the *Boke 
of Curtasye ' thus speaks — 

The Aumonere a rod schalle have in honde, 
An office for almes, I understonde ; 
AUe the broken mete he kepys in wait 
To dele to pore men at the gate. 

Many of those who were supported at this time and 
in this manner were lepers. We can take up no 
record, large or small, of the period without coming 
across a ' Nicholas ' or * Walter le Leper.' Leprosy 
was introduced into Western Europe with the return 
of the Crusaders. To such a degree had it spread in 
England, that in 1346 Edward III. was compelled to 
issue a royal mandate enjoining those ' smitten with 
the blemish of leprosy ' to ' betake themselves to 
places in the country, solitary, and notably distant ' 
from the dwellings of men. Such a distinctive desig- 
nation as this would readily cling to a man, even after 

' Our * Amners ' are but a corruption of this same name. The word 
had become early so corrupted — ' For in tymes paste kyngeshave geven 
theyr bysshoprycks to theyr councellers, chaplaynes .... or to 
suche which have taken paynes in theyr householde, as amners, and 
deans of the chappel!,' &c. {A Supplycacion to our moste Soveraigtit 
Lorde Kynge Henry tlu Eygkt, p. 34.) 



he had been cured of the disorder,' and no wonder 
that in our ' Lepers ' and ' Leppers ' the name still 
remains as but one more memorial of that noble mad- 
ness which set Christendom ablaze some six centuries 
ago. A term used synonymously at this time with 
leper is found in such an entry as * Richard le Masele' 
or * Richard Ic Masle,' that is, ' Measle.' Wicklyfife has 
the word in the case of Naaman, and also of the Sa- 
maritan leper.^ Langland speaks of those who are 
afflicted with various ailments, and adds that they, if 


Take these myschiefs meeklike, 

As mesels, and others, 

Han as pleyn pardon 

As the plowman hymselve. 

Capgrave, too, to quote but one more instance, speak- 
ing of Deodatus, a Pope of the seventh century, says 
* He kissed a mysel and sodeynly the mysel was 
whole.' Strange to say, this name also is not extinct. 
Our 'Badmans' are not so bad as they might seem. 
They, and our ' Bidmans,' are doubtless but corrupted 
forms of the old ' bcdcman,' or ' headman,' he who 
professionally invoked Heaven in behalf of his patron. 
It is hence we get our word ' bead,' our forefathers 
having been accustomed to score off the number of 
aves and paternosters they said by means of these 
small balls strung on a thread. This practice, I need 
not say, is still familiar to the Romish Church. 

' It was thus in the case of vSimon the I^eper of 15cthany. The fact 
of there being a feast in his liouse shows that he had been cured of his 
disorder. None the less, however, did the surname cling to him. 

* ' Go ye and tell agcn to Jon those things that ye have herd and seen. 
Blind men seen, crokide gocn, mesels ben maad clcnc, defc men heren,' 
Sec. (Matt, xi., Wicklyffe.) 


But we have not yet done with the traces of these 
more distant practices. The various reh'gious wan- 
derers or sohtary recluses, though belonging to a 
system long faded from our English life, find a per- 
petual epitaph in the directories of to-day. Thus we 
have still our ' Pilgrims,' or ' Pelerins ' (' John Pele- 
grim,' A., ' William le Pelerin,' E.), as the Normans 
termed them. We may meet with ' Palmers ' 
(' Hervey le Palmer,' A., ' John le Paumer,' M.) any 
day in the streets of our large towns, names distinctly 
relating the manner in which their owners have 
derived their title. The pilgrim may have but visited 
the shrine of St. Thomas of Canterbury ; the latter, 
as his sobriquet proves, had, forlorn and weary, battled 
against all difficulties, and trod the path that led to 
the Holy Sepulchre — 

The faded palm-branch in his hand 
Showed pilgrim from the Holy Land.' 

The * Pardoner,' with his pouch choked to the full 
(' Walter le Pardoner,' M.) with saleable indulgences, 
had but come from Rome. He was an itinerant re- 
tailer of ecclesiastic forgivenesses, and was as much 
a quack as those who still impose upon the credu- 
lity of the bucolic mind by selling cheap medicines. 
As Chaucer says of him — 

With feigned flattering and japes, 

He made the parson and the peple his apes. 

' Hermit ' I have failed to find as at present existing, 

' Pilgrims to Rome were 'Romers;' whence such an entry as 
' Cristiana la Romere' (H.R.) Piers Plowman in ' Passus IV.' speaks, 
within eight lines, of 'religious romarcs ' and ' Rome-runners.' 

o 2 


though ' Hermitage ' or ' Armitage ' (' John Har- 
maytayge,' W. 3), as local names expressive of his 
abode, are by no means unfamiliar. Our 'Anchors' 
and 'Ankers,' however, still live to commemorate the 
old ancre or anchorite ; he who, as his sobriquet im- 
plied, was wont to separate himself from the world's 
vain pleasures and dwell in seclusion and solitude. 
In the ' Romance of the Rose ' it is said — • 

Sometime I am religious, 
Now like an anker in an house. 

Piers in his ' Vision,' too, speaks of — 

Ancrcs and heremites 

That holdcn them in their celles, 

* Hugh le Eremite ' or ' Silvester le Hermite ' are early 
forms of the one, while in the other case we find the 
aspirate added in ' John le Haneker.' The modern 
dress of this latter, however, presents the usual early 
and more correct spelling.' What a vision is pre- 
sented for our notice in these various sobriquets. It 
is the vision of a day that has faded, a day with many 
gleams of redeeming light, but a day of ignorance and 
lethargy ; a day which, after all, thank God, was but 
the precursor of the brighter day of the Reformation, 
when the Church, true to herself and true to her 
destiny, threw off the shackles and the fetters that 
bound her, and began a work which her greatest foes 
have been compelled to admit she carried through 

' Capgrave, under date 1293, says: ' In the xxii. yere was Celestius 
the Fifte, Pope, take fro' his hous, for he was a ankir.' This Celestius 
at once passed a law that a Pope might resign, and instantly gave it up, 
returning to his old life agaiu. 


amid opposition of the deadliest and most crushing 

Before passing on to a survey of our feudal aristo- 
cracy, I may mention our ' Latimers,' or ' le Latymer,' 
as I find it recorded in early lists. A latinier, or 
latimer, was literally a speaker or writer of Latin, that 
language being then the vehicle of all record or tran- 
script. Latin, indeed, for centuries was the common 
ground on which all European ecclesiastics met. 
Thus it became looked upon as the language of inter- 
pretation. The term I am speaking of, however, 
seems to have become general at an early stage. An 
old lyric says — 

Eyare was mi latymer, 
Sloth and sleep mi bedyner. 

Sir John Maundeville, describing an eastern route, 
says (I am quoting Mr. Lower) — 'And men allcweys 
fynden Latyneres to go with them in the contrees 
and furthere beyonde in to tyme that men conne the 
language.' Teachers of the Latin tongue itself were 
not wanting. ' Le Scholemayster ' existed so early 
as the twelfth century to show that there were those 
who professed to initiate our English youth in the 
rudiments of that which was a polite and liberal edu- 
cation in the eyes of that period. Such sobriquets 
as ' le Gramayre,' or ' Gramary,' or ' Grammer,' repre- 
sented the same avocation, being nothing more than 
the old Norman ' Gramaire,' or ' Grammarian ' as we 
should now call him, only we now apply the term to 
a philologist rather than a professional teacher. As 
' Grammar ' the surname is far from being obsolete in 
our midst. A ' Nicholas le Lessoner ' is met with in 


the Hundred Rolls. He was evidently but a school- 
master also. The verb ' to lesson,' i.e. to teach, is 
still in use in various parts of the country, and we 
find even Shakespeare using it. Clarence says to his 
murderer — 

Bid Glostcr think of this, and he will weep ; 

to which the murderer replies — 

Ay, millstones ; as he lessoned us to weep. 

{Kic/tani ///., act. i. sc. iii.) 

In looking over the pages of our early Anglo- 
Norman history we are at once struck by the fact of 
the absence of any middle class ; that important 
branch of our community which in after and more 
civilised ages has done so much for English liberty 
and English strength. The whole genius of the 
feudal constitution was opposed to this. There was 
indeed a graduating scale of feudal tenure which 
bound together and connected each community ; but 
there was of equal surety in the chain of these inde- 
pendent links of society a certain ring where all 
alliance ceased save that of service, and which 
separated each provincial society into two widely- 
sundered classes. On the one side were the baron 
and his nearer feudatories and retainers ; and below 
this, on the other, came under one common standard 
the villein, the peasant, and the boor, looked upon by 
their superiors with contemptuous indifference, and 
barely endured as necessary to the administration of 
their luxury and pleasure. We have already mentioned 
many of those who gave the baron support. Of other 
his vassals we may cite ' le Vavasour,' or ' Valvasor/ 
a kind of middle-class landowner. The lower orders 


of chivalry have left us in our many ' Knights ' ^ and 

* Bachelors ' or ' Backlers ' a plentiful token of former 
importance. Our ' Squiers,' ' Squires,' ' Swiers,' or 

* Swires ' * carry us, as does the now meaningless 
Esquire, to the time when the sons of those * Knights ' 
bore, as the name implies, their shields. By the time 
of Henry VI., however, it had become adopted by the 
heirs of the higher gentry, and now it is used indis- 
criminately enough. Those who are so surnamed 
may comfort themselves at any rate with the reflection 
that they are lineally descended from those who bore 
the name when it was an honourable and distinctive 
title. * Armiger,' the form in which the word was 
oftentimes recorded in our Latin rolls, still survives, 
though barely, in our * Armingers,' this corrupted form 
being in perfect harmony with all similar instances, 
as we shall see almost immediately. One of our 
mediaeval rhymes speaks of — 

Ten thousand knights stout and fers, 
Withouten hobelers and squyers. 

These hobelers are far from being uninteresting. 
When we talk of riding a hobby, we little think what 
a history is concealed beneath the term. A hobiler ^ 

' The Hundred Rolls contain 'Geoffrey Halve Knit' and ' Nicholas 
Halve Knycht.' They \\ ould seem to have arrived at some half stage 
towaid chivalric rank. 

■■' Swyan, in Morte Arthurc, slays Chikl-Chatelain, and 

'The swyers swyre-bane (neck-bone) he swappes in sondre.' 

* An ordinance of Edward HI. declares that 'men of arms, hoblers' 
and archers (gentz darmes, hobelers et archers) chosen to go in the king's 
service out of England, shall be at the king's wages from the day that 
they depart out of the counties where they were chosen, till their return.' 
{Stat. Realm, vol. i. p. 301.) Of the hobby itself, too, we have mention. 


in the days we are speaking of, was one who held by 
tenure of maintaining a hobbie — a kind of small horse, 
then familiarly so known. A song on the times, 
written in the fourteenth century, and complaining of 
the manner in which the upper classes plundered the 
poor, says : — 

And those hoblurs, namelich, 
That husband benimcth cri of ground, 
Men ne should them bury in none chirch, 
But cast them out as a hound. 

Later on, by its fictitious representation in the Morris 
dances of the May-day sports, the hobby came to 
denote the mere dummy, and now as such affords 
much scope for equestrian skill in the Rotten Row of 
our nurseries. What tricks time plays with these 
words, to be sure, and what a connexion for our 
* Hoblers' and ' Hobblers ' to meditate upon. Our 
' Bannermans' are Scotch, but they represent an office, 
whether in England or the North, whose importance 
it would be hard to estimate at this period. Nor are 
we without traces in our nomenclature of its existence 
in more southern districts. Our not unfamiliar ' Pcn- 
nigers' and 'Pcnnigars' arc but the former official 
pcnuagcr, he who bore the ensign or standard of his 
lord. They figure even in more general and festive 
pageants. In the York Procession we find walking 
alone and between the different craftsmen the ' Penna- 
gers.' Probably they bore the ensigns of that then 

Thus a list of the royal stud at Eltham, in the seventeenth year of 
Henry VHI., includes 'coursers, 30; young horses, 8; barbary 
horses, 4 ; stallions, 8; hobbyes and geldings, 12.' (Collection of Ordi- 
nances, p. 2CX).) 


important corporate city. I have but recently re- 
ferred to ' Robert Clavynger ' (H.) and the probabihty 
of his having carried the club or mace or key of his 
superiors in office. All or well-nigh all the above 
names find themselves well represented in the registers 
of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. Our eye 
falls at once on an * Andrew le Gramary,' a ' Richard 
le Gramayre,' a ' Thomas le Skolmayster,' a ' Warin le 
Latimer,' a ' William le Latiner,' a ' Jordan le Vavasur,' 
a ' Simon le Knyt,' a * Gilbert le Bacholer,' a ' Walter 
le Squier,' or a ' Nicholas Armiger.' 

A curious relic of the military tactics of mediaeval 
times is presented to our notice in our ' Reuters,' 

* Ritters,' and ' Rutters.' The old English forms arc 
found in such entries as ' Thomas Ic Renter,' or 

* Ranulph le Ruter.' The root of the term is pro- 
bably the German ritter, or rider, a name given at 
this period to certain mercenary soldiers oftentimes 
hired by our English sovereigns out of Brabant and 
the surrounding country. Thus we find William of 
Newburgh, under the date 1 173, saying that Henry II. 
'stipendarias Bribantionum copias, quas Rutas vocant, 
accersivit' (Lib. ii. cap. 27.) Trivet, relating the 
same fact, says (p. 22)> ' Conduxit Brabanzones ct 
Rutarios.' ' An old song begins — 

Rutterkyn is come into owrc townc, 
In a cloke withoute cole or gowne, 
Save a raggid hood to kovcr liis crowne 
Like a rut'cr hoyda. 

• In \.hc Life pf Ifiigh 0/ IJncoln mcn{\on is made of ' Marchadcus 
princeps Kutaiiorum' (p. 264). See the glossary, however, from whicli 
I have derived much of the al)ove. 


Rutterkyn can speke no Englyssh, 
His tonge runneth all on butlyrd fyssh, 
Ecsmcarcd with grccc abowte his disshe, 
T.ike a rutter hoyda. 

The nickname ' rutteikin ' proves the Flemish origin 
of these troopers. Their capacity for stowing away 
food and drink, from all accounts, is not exaggerated 
in the poem from which the above is an extract. We 
have just mentioned our ' Bachelors,' and this reminds 
us of our ' Childs,' and of the days of chivalry. The 
term 'child' was a distinctly honourable title in the 
olden times. It was borne by the sons of all the 
higher nobility; if by the eldest son, then in right of 
his title to his father's honours and possessions ; if 
more generally by others, then until by some deed of 
prowess they had been raised to the ranks of knight- 
hood. In either case ' child ' was the term in use 
during this probationary state. Thus Byron in his 
' Childe Harold ' has but revived the * Childe Waters,' 
' Childe Rolands,' and 'Childe Thopas's' of earlier 
times.' We owe many existing and several obsolete 
surnames to this custom. Our ' Childs ' are but de- 
scendants of such a sobriquet as ' Ralph le Child ; ' 
our ' Eyres' of such an entry as 'William le Eyre ; ' 
some of our ' Barnes ' may be but the offspring of such 
a personage as ' Thomas le Barne ' (now ' bairn,' that 
is, the born one); while 'Stephen le Enfant' or 
* Walter le Enfaunt ' represents an appellation that is 
now obsolete in England.'^ I need scarcely add that 

' In the AToftc Arthurc mention is made of a youth named ' Chas- 
tclayne, a chylde of the Kynges chaml)yre.' 

* Such names as 'Alice Suckling' (ff.), or 'William Firstling,' 


this last, in the form of Infante and Infanta, still 
bears the same meaning in the royal families of Spain 
that Child did in our own land in more chivalric 

The details of early feudal life are wonderfully 
depicted by our nomenclature. Owing to the bound- 
less and forced ceremony which arose out of the pre- 
vailing spirit of feudal pride, our official memorials are 
well-nigh overwhelming. Feudal tenure itself became 
associated with office, and none seemed too servile for 
acceptance. As has been said of Charlemagne's 
Court, so might it be said of those of others — ' they 
were crowded with officers of every rank, some of the 
most eminent of whom exercised functions about the 
royal person which would have been thought fit only 
for slaves in the palace of Augustus or Antonine ' — 
' to carry his banner or his lance, to lead his array, to 
be his marshall, or constable, or sewer, or carver, to 
do in fact such services, trivial or otherwise, as his 
lord might have done himself, in proper person, had 
it so pleased him — this was the position coveted by 
youths of birth and distinction at such a period as 
this.' Many of these officerships, or the bare titles, 
still linger round the court of our sovereign. The 
higher feudatories, of course, followed the example 
thus set them by their suzerain, and the lesser barons 
these, and thus household officers sprang up on every 
side. See how this has left its mark upon our sur- 
names. ' John le Conestable,' or ' Robert le Constable,' 

(ditto) — both terms familiarised to us by the Authorised Version — 
belong, seemingly, to the same class. 


I need not say, is still well represented. In the ' Man 
of Lawes Tale ' the poet says : — 

The constable of the castel doun is fare 
To see this wreck. 

With him we may ally our not unfamiliar ' Castle- 
mans,' * Castelans,' and ' Chatelains,' representatives 
of the old 'John Ic Chastilioun,' or ' Joscelin le Cas- 
tclan,' or ' Ralph Ic Chatelaine.' The poet whom I 
have just quoted says elsewhere : — 

Now am I king, now chastelaine. 

Doubtless this latter was but a synonym of the con- 
stable, and his duties as governor but the same. Of 
decidedly lower position, but not dissimilar in charac- 
ter, we have also ' Wybcrt le Porterc,' or ' Portarius,' 
as he is Latinized in our rolls. An old book of 
etiquette says : — 

^^'hcn thou comes to a lordis gate 
The porter thou shalle fynde theratc. 

He at the postern would as carefully look against 
hostile, as our former ' Peter le Ussher,' or ' Alan le 
Usser,' within would against informal approach.' The 
Saxon form, however, was evidently not wanting, for 
we have still ' Doorward ' and ' Doorman ' (* Geoffrey 
le Doreward,' A., ' Nicholas le Doreman,' O.) in our 
directories, not to mention their corrupted, ' Dur- 
wards,' immortalized by Walter Scott, and ' Dormans ' 
and ' Domans.' The term ' doorward ' is found in 

' Among other duties the uslier lay at the (h)or of iiis lord's sleeping 
apartment. The Boke of Curtasyc says the 

' Usher before the dorc 
In outer chambur lies on the fl<jrc.' 


many of our early writers. Thus in an old metrical 
account of the bringing of Christ before Caiaphas, it 
is said of John when he returned to fetch in Peter : — 

He bid the dureward 
Let in his fere. 

Our * Chamberlaynes ' and ' Chambers/ ^ (' Simon 
le Chamberlain,' M., ' Henry le Chaumberleyne,' B., 
' William de la Chaumbre,' B.) had access to their lord's 
inner privacy, and from their intimacy with his mone- 
tary affairs occupied a position at times similar to that 
of our more collegiate bursar. We have only to look 
at mediaeval costume, its grandeur, its colours, and its 
varied array, to understand how necessary there should 
be a special officer to superintend his lord's wardrobe. 
Our ' Wardrops ' are but the former ' de la Wardrobe,* 
or ' de la Garderoba,' while ' le Wardrober,' or ' le 
Garderober,' has bequeathed us our * Wardropers.' 
Thus the ' Book of Curtasye ' says : — 

The usshere shalle bydde the wardropere 
Make redy for alle, night before they fere. 

Equally important as an attendant was the ' Barbour.' 
He especially was on familiar terms with his master — 
when was he not ? I need scarcely say that among 
his other duties that of acting as surgeon in the house- 
hold was none of the lightest. Still his tonsorial 
capacity was his first one. No one then thought of 
shaving himself, least of all the baron. Even so late 
as the sixteenth century a writer defending the use 
of the beard against Andrew Boorde employs this 
argument : — 

' Our friends across the border have this surname in the form of 
' Chalmers. ' 


But, syre, I praye you, if you tell can, 
Declare to me, when God made man 
(I meane by our forefather Adam), 
Whether that he had a bcrde then ; 
And if he had, who did hym shave, 
Since that a barber he could not have. 

I have no doubt it is here we must set our' Simisters,' 
rehcs, as they probably are, of such a name as * John 
Somayster,' or 'WilHam Summister.' The summaster 
seems from its orthography to have represented one 
who acted as a clerk or comptroller, something akin 
to the chamberlain or breviter, whom I shall mention 
almost immediately ; one, in fact, who cast up and 
certified accounts. Holinshed used the word as if in 
his day it were of familiar import. Dwelling upon a 
certain event, he says — 'Over this, if the historian be 
long, he is accomptcd a trifler ; if he be short, he is 
taken for a summister.' ' 

In such days as those, what with the number of 
personal retainers and the excess of hospitality ex- 
pected of the feudal chief, the culinary department 
occupied far from an insignificant position in regard 
to the general accessories of the baronial establish- 
ment. Our ' Cooks,' or ' Cokes,' or ' Cookmans,' 
relics of the old ' Roger le Coke,' or ' Joan le Cook,' 
or ' William Cokcman,' even then ruled supreme 
over that most ab.solutc of all monarchies, the kitchen ; 
our ' Kitchenmans' {now found also as ' Kitchingham'), 
' Kitcheners,' and ' Kitchens,' or ' de la Kitchens,' 

' The more correct form is found in the name of ' William .Sum- 
master,' who is met witli in an old Oxford record as having deposited, in 
1462, a caution for ' Sykyll-IIallc,' of which he was principal. (Vide 
Mttu. Acad, Oxon.) 


as they were once written, reminding us who it 
was that aided them to turn the spit or handle 
the posnet. Our ' Pottingers ' represent the once 
common * Robert le Potager,' or ' Walter le Potager,' 
the soup-maker. Potage was the ordinary term for 
soup, thickened well with vegetables and meat.^ 
Thus in the ' Boke of Curtasye ' the guest is bid — 

Suppe not with grete sowndynge, 
Neither potage ne other thynge — 

a rule which still holds good in society. We are 
well aware of the ingredients of the dish which 
our Bible translators have still bequeathed to us 
as 'a mess of potage.' In its present corrupted 
form of ' porridge ' this notion of a mess rather than 
of a soup is still preserved. Another interesting 
servitorship of this class has well-nigh escaped our 
notice — that of the hastilcr : he who turned the Jiaste 
or spit. In the Close Rolls we find a ' Thurstan le 
Hastier ' recorded, and in the Parliamentary Writs 
such names as ' Henry Hastiler ' and ' William 

' A strange and yet most natural change gradually crept over this 
word. There can be no doubt that the original ' potager,' or 'potinger,' 
had his place in the baronial household as the superintendent of the 
mess-making department. From his knowledge of herbs thus acquired 
he evidently came to be looked upon in a medicinal capacity. Thus the 
term came to be used synonymously with 'apothecary.' In Wxo. Archcco- 
logia (vol. xxii) we find it recorded that one of the horses connected 
with the household of James V. of Scotland was called 'le Pottinger' — 
' uno equo pharmacopile, vulgo le Pottinger.' In an old university 
record, dated 1439, I find, too, a certain 'Ralph Prestbury' mentioned 
as sworn to keep the peace towards ' Thomam Halle, potygare, alias 
chirurgicum.' {Miin. Acad. Oxou, p. 523.) Probably, however, it 
was the lowly herbalist, rather than the professional druggist, who 
acquired the sobriquet. 


Hastiler.' In the will of Humphrey de Bohun, Earl 
of Essex, among other household servants, such as 
potager, ferour, barber, ewer, is mentioned ' William 
de Barton, hastiler.' I need not remind Lancashire 
people that a haistcr, or haster, is still the term used 
for the tin screen employed for roasting purposes. 
The memorials of this interesting servitorship still 
linger on in our ' Hastlers,' ' Haslers,' and ' Haselers.' 
If, however, the supervision of the roasting and bast- 
ing required an attendant, none the less was it so 
with the washing-up department. How familiarly 
does such a term as 'scullery' fall from our lips, and 
how little do many of us know of its history. An 
esciidle^ was a porringer or dish, and a scullery was a 
place where such vessels were stored after being 
washed.^ Hence a 'squiller' or ' squyler ' was he 
who looked to this ; our modern * scullion,' in fact, 
which is but a corrupted form of the same word. In 
one of Robert of Brunne's poems, we find him 
sa) ing — 

And the squyler of the kechyn, 

Piers, that hatli woned (dweh) here yn.* 

' Amongst other gifts from the City of London to the Black Prince 
on his return to London from Gascoignc, in 1 37 1, were '48 esqneles 
and 24 saltcellars, weighing by goldsmiths' weight, 76/. 5J.' (Riley's 
London, p. 350.) 'The li messes to the children of the Kechyn, 
Sqtiillery, and Pastrey, with Porters, Scowercrs, and Turnbroches, 
every mess at 23/. i6j. 9^^/., in all 261/. \y. "jd.' (Ord. Henry VIIL 
at Ellham.) Apart from such entries as 'John le Squylier,' or ' Geoffrey 
le SqucUer,' the Pari. Rolls gave us a 'John de la Squillerye.' 

* I may here mention that our brushes were almost entirely made of 
furze or ling ; bristles were rarely used. Hence such a name as ' Robert 
le Lingyure' (H. R.), doubtless a maker and seller of brushes and 

* The 'Pronip. Par.' has ' Swyllare : Dysche-weschour.' 


In a book of 'Ordinances and Regulations' we 
find mention made even of a ' sergeant- squyllourc.' 
Doubtless his duty was to look after the carriage of 
utensils at such times as his lord made any extended 
journey, or to superintend the washing of cup and 
platter after the open-board festivities which were the 
custom of early baronial establishments. To provide 
for every retainer who chanced to come in would be, 
indeed, a care. The occurrence of a ' Roger de 
Norhamtonc, Squyler,' however, in the London City 
rolls, seems to imply that occasionally the sale of such 
vessels gave the title. I cannot say the name is 
obsolete, as I have met with one ' Squiller ; ' and 
' Skiller,' which would seem to be a natural corrup- 
tion, is not uncommon. Our ' Spencers,' abbreviated 
from * despencer,' had an important charge — that of 
the * buttery,' or ' spence,' the place where the 
household store was kept. The term is still in use, I 
believe, in our country farm-houses. In the ' Sum- 
ner's Tale ' the glutton is well described as — 

All vinolent as hotel in the spence ; 

and Mr. Halliwell, I see, with his wonted research, 
has lighted on the following line* : — 

Yet I had lever she and I 
Were both togyther secretly 
In some corner in the spence.' 

* De la Spence,* as well as ' le Spencer,' has impressed 
itself upon our living nomenclature. Our ' Panters,' 

• In an inventory of household chattels, dated so late as 1574, we 
find the furniture of the hall first described, and this begins, ' A cup- 
board and a spence, 20s. ; xxiii pewter dublers, 20j-. ; scvcntcne sawsers 
and potingcrs, 6j.' (Richtnoudshire Wills, p. 248.) 



* Pantlers,' and ferocious-seeming ' Panthers,' descen- 
dants of such folk as ' Richard le Panter,' or ' Robert 
le Panetcr,' or ' Henry dc le Pancterie,' are but relics 
of a similar office. They had the superintendence 
of the * paneterie,' or pantry ; literally, of course, 
the bread closet. It seems, however, early to have 
become used in a wider and more general sense. 
In the Household Ordinances of Edward IV. one 
of the sergeants is styled ' the chief Pantrcr of the 
King's mouth.' John Russcl in his ' Boke of Nur- 
ture ' thus directs his student — 

The furst yere, my son, thou shalt be pantere or buttilarc. 
Thou must have three knyfTes kenc in pantry, I scy thee, evcrmare, 
One knyfe the loaves to choppe, another them for to pare, 
The third, sliarp and kene, to smothe the trenchers and square.' 

Of the old ' Achatour' (found as 'Henry le Catour' 
or ' Bernard le Acatour '), the purveyor for the 
establishment, we have many memorials, those of 
'Cater,' ' Cator,' and ' Caterer ' being the commonest. 
Chaucer quaintly remarks of the ' Manciple,' ^ who 
was so 

Wise in buying of victuals, 

that of him 

Achatours inighten lake ensample. 

The provisions thus purchased were called ' cates,' a 
favourite word with some of our later poets. 

' 'Tl)c Sewer imiste sjjcke with tlic panter and oflyccrs of ye 
spycery for fruytes that sliail be elen fastynge.'— '///<• l^okc of A'cnyit!;^. 

■ A manciple was an achatour for a more public institution, such as 
an Inn of Court or College. It is quite possible that our ' Mansels' and 
' Mi.unsels' are thus derived, relics as they undoubtcflly are of the 'le 
Maunsels' or 'le Mansells' of this period. The corruption colloquially 


Equivalent to the more monastic *le Cellarer,' ' which 
is now obsolete, are our numberless ' Butlers,' the 
most accepted form of the endless ' Teobald le Bo- 
tilers,' ' Richer le Botillers,' ' Ralph le Botelers,' 
' William le Botellers,' 'Walter le Butillers,' or * Hugh 
le Buteilliers,' of this time. As we shall observe 
by-and-by, however, this was also an occupative name.^ 
With so many officers to look after the prepara- 
tions, we should expect the dinner itself to be some- 
what ceremonious. And so it was — far more cere- 
monious, however, than elegant in the light of the 
nineteenth century. Our ' Sencchals ' and ' Senecals * 
(' Alexander le Seneschal,' B., * Ivo Seneschallus,' 
T.), relics of the ancient 'seneschal,' Latinized in 
our records as ' Dapifer ' (' Henry Dapifer,' A.), ar- 
ranged the table. The root of this word is the Saxon 
' schalk,' a servant which, though now wholly obso- 

of ' manciple ' into ' maunsell ' would be a perfectly natural one. An 
instance of the purer form is found in the name of ' Thomas Mancipill, ' 
met with in Munimcnta Academica (Oxon.) p. 525, under the date 1441. 
That this was a common term at that university we may prove from an 
indenture found in the same book, dated 1459, in which are mentioned 
'catours, manciples, spencers, cokes, lavenders, &c.' (P. 346.) It 
may be interesting to some to state that to this day this is the term for 
the chief cook in several of the colleges. 

' A 'William Celarer' is mentioned in the Churchwardens' Accounts 
of Horley, Surrey, 1526. {Brand, vol. i. 226.) A Saxon form of this 
existed in the term, 'Hoarder,' z.c. one who stored up. 'Richard le 
Hordere' (H. R.), 'Adam le Horder' (Pari. Writs). The form ' hor- 
destre,' or cellaress, is met with in contemporaneous writings. 

* The duties of Butler and Panter being so all-important, they are 
often found encroaching on one another's vocation. Thus the Bokc 0/ 
Curtasye says : — 

' Botlcr schalle sett for each a messe, 
A pot, a lofe, wilhouten distress.' 
P 2 


lete, seems to have been in familiar use in early 
times.^ An old poem tells us — 

Then the schalkes sharply shift their horses, 
To show them seemly in their sheen weeds. 

In ' Sir Gawayne,' too, the attendant is thus de- 
scribed — 

Clene spurs under 
Of bright gokle, upon silk hordes, barred full rich. 
And scholcs (depending) under shanks, there the schalk rides. 

We are not without traces of its existence in other 
compounds. Thus our * Marshalls ' were originally 
* marechals ; ' that is, ' mare-schalks,' the early name 
for a horse-groom or blacksmith. The Marshall, 
however, was early turned into an indoor office, and 
seems to have been busied enough in ordering the 
position of guests in the hall, a very punctilious affair 
in those days. The ' lioke of Curtasye' says: — 

In hallo marshallc alio men schalle sett, 
After their dcgrc, withoutcn Ictt. 

Our ' Gateschalcs,' a name now altogether obsolete, 
were the more simple porter, while our ' Gottschalks,' 
a surname more frequently hailing from Germany, but 
once common with ourselves as a Christian name, 
denote simply ' God's servant.' But we arc wander- 
ing. Let us come back to the dinner-table. Such 
sobriquets as 'Ralph Ic Suur'^ or 'John le Sewer' 

• This was evidently in existence as a surname formerly, although I 
have only been alile to discover one instance of it. The Principal of 
Bedel Hall, one of the numerous smaller estal)lishments at Oxford in 
medix'val times, was in the year 1462 a certain Dr. Schalke. (Afuv. 
Acad. Oxofi.) It is very likely that our present 'Chalk' represents this 

* We still use the compounds of this, as in ']iursue,' 'ensue,' rr 


remind us of the sewer — he who brought in the 
viands.' A sewe, from the old French sevre, to follow, 
was any cooked dish, and thus is simply equivalent to 
our course. Chaucer, in describing the rich feasts of 
Cambuscan, King of Tartary, says the time would 
fail him to tell — 

Of their strange sewes. 

I believe the Queen's household still boasts its four 
gentlemen sewers. As a surname, too, the word is 
still common. A curious custom presents itself to 
our remembrance in our ' Says,' who, when not of the 
* de Says ' (' Hugh de Say,* A.), are but descendants 
of the ' le Says ' (' John le Say,' M.) of the Hundred 
Rolls. An ' assay ' or ' say ' was he who assayed or 
tasted the messes as they were set one by one before 
the baron, to guard against his being accidentally 
or purposely poisoned. An old poem uses the fuller 
form, where it says — 

Thine assayer schalle be an hownde, 
To assaye thy mete before thee. 

In the ' Boke of Curtasye,' too, we are told to what 
ranks this privilege belonged — 

No mete for man schaile sayed be, 

But for kynge, or prynce, or duke so fre.' 

'issue;' but we scarcely now employ the simple root-word so freely as 
it evidently was employed in Wicklyffe's time, lie translates Mark ii. 
14 as follows: 'And whaune he passide he saygh Levy of Alfey 
sittynge at the tolbothe and he seide to hym, sue me, and he roos and 
suede him.' 

' ' The sewer must serve, and from the horde convey all manner of 
potages, metes, and sauces.' — 77/t' Bolr of Kervyugc. 

■^ ' Item : A Duke's eldest sonn is borne a Marquissc, and shall goe 
as a Marquisse, and have his Assayes, the Marquisse being present." 


Another term for the same made its mark upon 
our nomenclature as * Gustur ' (' Robert le Gustur,' 
T.) To gust was thus used till Shakespeare's day, 
and we still speak of 'gusto ' as equivalent to relish. 

We are reminded by the fact of the existence of 
' Knifesmith ' and ' Spooner ' only among our early 
occupative surnames that there were no forks in those 
days.^ There is no * Forker ' to be found. Even the 
* Carver' (' Adam le Kcrver,' A., ' Richard Ic Karver,' 
A ) had to use his fingers. In the * Boke of 
Kervynge,' a manual of the then strictest etiquette in 
such matters, we find the following direction : — ' Set 
never on fyshc, flesche, beest, nc fowle, more than two 
fyngers and a thombe.' Seldom, too, did they use 
plates as we now understand them. Before each 
guest was set a round slice of bread called a trencher, 
and the meat being placed upon this, he consumed 
the whole, or as much as he pleased. Under these 
circumstances we can easily understand how neces- 
sary would be the office of ' Ewer,' a name found in 
every early roll as ' Brian le Ewer,' or * Richard le 
Ewerc,' or * Adam de la Euerie.' As he supplied water 
for each to cleanse his hands he was close followed 

{A Book of Precedence.) Hall, speaking of King Richard's murder, 
says of .Sir Piers that he 'came to Pomfret, commanding that the esquier 
whiche was accustomed to sewe and take the assaye before Kyng Rychard 
should no more use that maner of service.' F. xiv. 

' Forks, used first in Italy, were not introduced into the French 
Court till late in the sixteenth century. In England they did not make 
their appearance till 1608, and it is said they were there the immediate 
result of the published travels of Thomas Coryat, who visited Italy 
in that year. I am sorry to say that I cannot find aivy instance of 
•Spooner' in our earlier archives. Foxe mentions, in his Martyr- 
ology, a ' Robert Catlin, spoonmaker,' persecuted in 1552 at Byebrook, 


by the * napper ' or ' napier,' who proffered the towel 
or napkin. The word, I need scarcely say, is but a 
diminutive of the old nape, which was applied in 
general to the tablecloths and other linen used in 
setting forth the dinner. An old book, which I have 
already quoted, in directing the attendant how to lay 
the cloth, says — 

The over nape schall double be layde. 

The Hundred Rolls and other records furnish us with 
such names as 'Jordan le Nappere,' or 'John le Na- 
pere,' or ' Walter de la Naperye.' Behind the lord of 
the board, nigh to his elbow, stood the ' page,' holding 
his cup. This seems to have been an office much 
sought after by the sons of the lower nobility, and it 
is to the honourable place in which it was held we no 
doubt owe the fact that not merely are our ' Pages ' 
decidedly numerous in the present day, but that we 
also find such further particular compounds as 
* Small-page,' ' 'Little-page,' or 'Cup-page' holding 
anything but a precarious existence in our midst. 
There seems to have been but little difference between 
this office and that of the ' henchman,' only that the 
latter, as his name, more strictly written ' haunchman,' 
shows, attended his master's behests out of doors. 
He, too, lives on hale and hearty in our ' Hench- 
mans,' ' Hinxmans,' ' Hincksmans,' and ' Hensmans.' "^ 

' 'To Percivall Smallpage, for his expences, xxj.' {Household Ac- 
count, Princess ElizabetJi. Cam. Soc. ) 

* We find the modern spelling of this sobriquet little varied from 
that of the fifteenth century. An act, passed in 1463, to restrain excess 
in apparel, makes a proviso in favour of ' Ilensmen, Heroldes, I'urcey- 
vantes, Swerdeberers, as Maires, Messagers, and Minstrelles.' {Slat. 
Realm, vol. ii. p. 402.) Sir Harris Nicolas says : 'No word has been 


In several of our early records of names we find 
' Peter le Folle,' ' Alexander le Fol,' and ' Johannes 
Stultus ' appearing in apparently honest and decent 
company. The old fool or jester was an important 
entity in the retinue of the mediaeval noble. He 
could at least say, if he might jiot do, what he liked, 
and I am afraid the more ribald his buffoonery the 
greater claim he possessed to be an adept in his pro- 
fession in the eyes of those who heard him. His 
dress was always in character with his duties, being 
as uncouth as fashion reversed could make it. In his 
hand he bore a mock rod of state, his head was sur- 
mounted by a huge cap peaked at the summit and 
surrounded with little jingling bells, his dress was in 
colour as conflicting as possible, and the toiit ensemble 
I need not dwell upon. We still talk of a ' foolscap,' 
and even our paper has preserved the term from the 
fact that one of the earliest watermarks we have was 
that of a fool's cap with bells. ' Fools,' I need not 
say, wherever else to be met with, arc now obsolete 
so far as our directories arc concerned. 

I have just mentioned the henchman. This at 
once carries us without the baronial walls, and in 
whatever scene we are wont to regard the early suze- 
raine as engaging, it is remarkable how fully marked 
is our nomenclature with its surrounclings. Several 
useful servitorships, however, claim our first attention. 
In such days as these, when the telegraph wire was 

more commented upon tlian " Henchmen," or " Henxmen." Without 
entering into the controversy, it may be sufficient to state that in the 
reign of Henry VHI. it meant pages of honour. They were the sons 
of gentlemen, and in ])ul)Iic processions always walked near the 
monarch's horse.' {Privy Purse Expenses of Henry VIII., p. 327.) 


an undreamt-of mystery, and highways traversed by 
steam-engines would have been looked upon as some- 
thing supernatural indeed, we can readily understand 
the importance of the official ' Roger le Messager,' 
or 'John le Messager,' nor need we be surprised by 
the frequency with which he is met. In the * Man 
of Lawes Tale ' it is said — 

This messager to don his avantage 
Unto the Kinges mother rideth swift. 

Though generally found as ' Messinger ' or ' Mas- 
singer,' the truer and more ancient form is not wholly 
obsolete.* But if there were no telegraphs, neither 
was there any regular system of postage. The name 
of ' Ely le Breviter ' or ' Peter le Brevitour ' seems to 
remind us of this. I do not doubt myself the 'bre- 
viter ' was kept by his lord for the writing or convey- 
ance of letters or brevets.^ Piers Plowman uses the 
word where, of the Pardoner's preaching, it is said — 

I^wed men loved it wcl, 

And liked his \vorde«, 

Comen up knelynge 

To kissen his bulles. 

He bouched them with his brevet 

And blered their eighen.' 

' Words terminating in this 'ager' seem invariably to Iiave been 
changed in the manner seen above. Thus, besides ' Massinger ' and 
' Pottinger,' we have 'Arminger' from the old 'Armiger,' 'Firminger' 
from the once not unfamiliar ' Furmager,' or 'Clavinger' from ' Cla- 

* This is confirmed by the Prouip. Pur. ' Brevetowre : brevigerulus.' 
' Perhaps I ought to have placed ' le Breviter' in the dining-hall, as 
but another name for the steward or steward's lieutenant. It was one 
among other duties of this officer to set down not merely the courses as 
they came in, but what and how much was placed before each, so that 
all might tally with the sum allowed for culinary expenses. This is 


The signet of his lord was in the hands of the 
' Spigurnell ' or ' Spigurell,' both of which forms still 
exist, I believe, in our general nomenclature. As the 
sealer of all the royal writs, the king's spigurell would 
have an office at once important and careful. The 
term itself is Saxon, its root implying that which is 
shut up or sealed. Our ' Coffers,' relics of the old 
' Ralph le Cofferer,' or ' John le Cofferer,' though 
something occupativc, were nevertheless official also, 
and are to be found as such in the thirteenth century. 
They remind us of the day when there were no such 
things as cheque-books, nor banks, nor a paper-money 
currency. Then on every expedition, be it warlike 
or peaceful, solid gold or silver had to be borne 
for the baron's expenditure and that of his retinue ; 
therefore none would be more important than he who 
superintended the transit from place to place of the 
chest of solid coinage set under his immediate care. 
Our early ' Passavants,' or ' Pursevaunts,' or more 
literally pursuivants, were under the direction of the 
' Herald,' or ' Heraud,* as Chaucer styles him, and 
usually preceded the royal or baronial retinue to an- 

alluded to in the Boke of Curtasyc. Speaking of the steward's oftices in 

the hall, it says : — 

' At counting stiiard schallc ben, 
Tyll alle be bm'd of wax so grene, 
AViytten into bokes, without let, 
That before in tabuls hase been set.' 

Further on, too, it adds — 

' The clerke of the kitchen shalle alle thyngs bnfc.'' 

The name itself lingered on uncormpted for some time ; for as simple 

'Breviter' it is found in 1580 in a Camliridge University list. (///>/. 

C. C. Coll. Cam.) The corrui)tcd 'Bretter' still exists, and is met 

with in 'William Bretter,' a name entered in the Calendar to PUadhtgs 

of Elizabeth's reign. 


nounce its approach, and attend to such other duties 
of lesser importance as his superior delegated to him. 
In this respect he occupied a position much akin to 
that of the ' Harbinger ' or ' Herberger,' who prepared 
the harborage or lodging, and all other entertainment 
required ere the cavalcade arrived. When we reflect 
upon the large number of retainers, the ceremonious 
list of attendants, the greater impediments to early 
travel, and the difficulties cf forwarding information, 
we shall see that these officerships were by no means 
so formal as we might be apt to imagine. To give 
illustrations of all the above-mentioned surnames 
were easy, were it not that the number is so large 
that it becomes a difficulty which to select. Such 
entries, however, as 'Jacob le Messager,' * Godfrey le 
Cofifrer,' ' Roger Passavant,' ' Main le Heralt,' ' Her- 
bert le Herberjur,' * Nicholas le Spigurnell,' ' Peter le 
Folle,' or the Latinized ' Johannes Stultus,' may be 
recorded as among the more familiar. A reference 
to the Index will furnish examples of the rest, as well 
as additional ones of the above. 

In a day when horses were of more consequence 
than now, we need not be surprised to find the 
baronial manger under special supervision. This 
officer figures in our mediccval archives in such entries 
as ' Walter le Avenur ' or * William le Avcnare.' * As 
his very name suggests, it was the avenar's care to 
provide for the regular and sufficient feeding of the 
animals placed under his charge.^ The * I?okc of 
Curtayse ' tells us his duties — 

' 'To John Redyng, avcner, for the expenses of le palfrais, 50/.' 
Materials fo>- 1 list, of Reign of Henry VII., p. 407. 

* * Item: It is ordeyned that the King's Avcnor, with the two clerltes 


The avcyner shall ordeyn provande good won 
For the lordys horsis everychon, 
They schyn have two cast of hay, 
A peck of provande on a day. 

Elsewhere, too, the same writer says — 

A maystur of horsys a squyer ther is, 
Aveyner and ferour under him i-wys. 

Our ' Palfreymans ' ('John le Palfreyman,' M.), though 
not always official, I do not doubt had duties also 
of a similar character in looking after the well-being 
of their mistress's palfrey, and attending the lady 
herself when she rode to the cover, or took an airing 
on the more open and breezy hillside. 

The two great amusements of the period we are 
considering were the hunt and the tournament. Of 
the former we have many relics, nor is the latter 
barren or unfruitful of terms connected therewith that 
still linger on in the surnames of to-day. The ex- 
citing encounters which took place in these chivalric 
meetings or jousts had a charm alike for the Saxon 
and the Norman ; alike, too, for spectator as well as 
for him who engaged in the fierce melee. Training 
for this was by no means left to the discretion of 
amateur intelligence. In three several records of the 
thirteenth century I find such names as ' Peter le 
Eskurmcsur,' ' Henry le Eskyrmcssur,' and ' Roger le 
Skirmisour.' The root of these terms is, of course, 
the old PVench verb ' eskirmir,' to fence. It is thence 
we get our skirmish and scriininagc, the latter form, 

of the said office, doe give their dayly attendance, as well as for the check 
r(jll, as all other concerning provisions to he made for the king's stable, 
according to the statutes made and ordeynetl for the same.' {Extract 
from Ordinaiucs of Henry VIII. at lilthom.) 


though looked upon now as of a somewhat slang 
character, being found in the best of society in our 
earlier writers. Originally it denoted a hand-to-hand 
encounter between two horsemen. We still imply by 
a skirmish a short and sharp conflict between the ad- 
vanced posts of two contending armies. As a teacher 
of ' the noble art of self-defence,' ' we can easily 
understand how important was the skirmisher. The 
name has become much corrupted by lapse of time, 
scarcely recognisable, in fact, in such a garb as 
' Scrimmenger,' ' Skrymsher,' ' Skrimshire,' and per- 
chance ' Scrimshaw,' forms which I find in our 
present London and provincial directories. Of those 
who were wont to engage wc have already men- 
tioned the majority. All the different grades of 
nobility were present, and with them were their 
esquires, with shield and buckler, ready to supply a 
fresh unsplintercd lance, or a new shield, with its 
proudly emblazoned crest. I need scarce remind the 
reader of what consequence in such a day as this 
would be the costume of him who thus engaged in 
such deadly conflict. The invention of gunpowder 
has changed the early tactics of fight. Battles arc 
lost and won now long ere the real mcice has taken 
place. Then everything, whether in war or tourna- 
ment, was settled face to face. To pierce his 
opponent where an inlet could admit his spear, or to 
unhorse him by the shock of meeting, was the knight's 
one aim. The bloodiness of such an affray can be 
better imagined than described. Wc still hear of 
distorted features in the after inspection of the scene 

' The T.ibcr Albas, among other entries, has the following: 'Qe nul 
te'gne Escole de Eskermerye, nc de IJokeler dcins la eilcc.' 


of battle, but we can have no conception of the man- 
gling that the bodies of horse and rider underwent, 
the inevitable result of the earlier manner of warfare. 
Death is mercifully quick now upon the battle-field. 
We have still three or four professional surnames that 
remind us of this. We have still our ' Jackmans,' or 
' Jakemans,' as representatives of the former cavalry ; 
so called from the 'jack' or coat of mail they wore. 
It is this latter article which has bequeathed to our 
youngsters of the nineteenth century their more 
peaceful and diminutive jacket. Thus mailed and 
horsed, they had to encounter the cruel onslaught of 
our ' Spearmans,' and ' Pikemans,' and ' Billmans,' 
names that themselves suggest how bloody would be 
the strife when hatchet blade, and sharp pike, and 
keen sword clashed together. To cover and shield 
the body, then, was the one thought of these early 
days of military tactics, and at the same time to give 
the fullest play to every limb and sinew. This was a 
work of a most careful nature, and no wonder it de- 
manded the combined skill of several craftsmen. 
Such occupative sobriquets as ' Adam le Armerer ' 
or ' Simon le Arnmrcr ' are now represented by 
the curter * Armer ' or ' Armour.' In the ' Knight's 
Tale ' it is said — 

Tlicre were also of Martcs division 

Th' armerer, and the bovvyer, and the smith, 

That forget!) sharpe swerdes on his stith. 

Our ' Frobishers,' ' Furbishcrs,' and ' Furbcrs,' once 
found as 'Richard le I'^ourbishour ' or 'Alan le 
Fourbour,' scoured and prepared the habergeon, or 
jack just referred to, while ' Gilbert le Hauberger' or 
'John le llaubergcour' was more immediately en- 


gaged in constructing it. Our present Authorized 
Version, I need hardly say, still retains the word. In 

* Sire Thopas,' too, it is used where it is said — 

And next his scliert an aketoun, 
And over that an habergoun. 

Our classical-looking ' Homers ' arc the naturally 
corrupted form of the once familiar ' Ic Heaumer,' he 
who fashioned the warrior's helmet' Our ' Sworders,' 
I imagine, forged him his trusty blade,'^ while our 

* Sheathers ' furnished forth its slip. Our ' Platers ' 
I would suggest as makers of his cuirass, while our 

* Kissers ' — far less demonstrative than they look — 
are but relics of such a name as ' Richard le Kissere,' 
he who manufactured his cuishes or thigh armour, 
one of the most careful parts of the entire dress.' 

' The old Norman word was either ' healme ' or ' heaume. ' The 
more ordinary term for the former now is ' helmet.' Hall, writing of 
the Battle of Bosworth Field, after mentioning the fact of the armies 
coming in sight the one of the other, says : ' Lord, how hastcley the 
souldyoures buckled their healmes, how quickly the archers bent their 
bowes and frushed their feathers, how redely the bilmen shoke their 
billes and proved their staves.' (Hall, Richard III., fol. 32 b.) 

'•' It is thought by several writers that the 'Sworder' was one who 
performed feats of jugglery, the sword, after the fashion of the times, 
forming the most important feature in his art, his hairbreadth tricks 
being especially popular with the country people. It is quite possible 
this may be its real origin. The only early instances I find of the name 
are in the Parliamentary Writs and the Parliamentary Rolls, where are 
recorded respectively a 'John le Serdere' and a 'Henry Swerder.' 

' In Mr. Riley's interesting Memorials of London there is recorded 
not merely a ' Richard le Kissere,' but the occupation itself is clearly 
marked in the entry, ' Walter de Bcdefont, kissere.' (P. xxii.) There 
need be no hesitation in accepting the statement that the 'kisser' was 
thus occupied. It is merely spelt according to the then pronunciation. 
In the Slatuies of Artns it is said : ' And no son of a great lorrl, that is 
to say, of an earl or baron, shall have other armour than mufHers and 


Lastly, our ' Spurriers ' were there ready to supply 
him with his rowel, and thus in warlike guise he was 
prepared either for adventurous combat in behalf of 
the distressed damsel, or to seek favour in the eyes of 
her he loved in the more deadly lists.' 

I must not forget to mention our ' Kemps ' while 
upon military affairs, a general term as it was for a 
soldier in the days of which we are speaking. I 
believe the phrase 'to go a kcmping ' is still in use 
in the north. In the old rhyme of ' Guy and Col- 
brand ' the minstrel says — 

When meat and drink is great plcntye, 
Then lords and ladys still will be, 

And sit and solace lythe : 
Then it is time for mee to speake, 
Of kern knightes and kempes grcate, 

Such carping for to kythe. 

How familiar a term it must have been in the common 
mouth the frequency with which the name is met 
fully shows. 

Our ' Slingers ' represent an all but forgotten pro- 
fession, but they seem to have been useful enough in 
their day and generation. The sling was always 
attached to a stick, whence the old term ' staffsling.' 
Lydgatc describes David as armed 

With a staffc slyngc, voydc of plate and mayle; 

cuishes {" ne seit arme fors de mustilers c de quisers ").' [Slat, of Realm, 
vol. i. p. 231.) 

' The obselete ' Hucklcrmaker ' must be set liere. Our Authorized 
Version has made us familiar with ' sword and buckler.' ' Item : Payd 
to Phillip Tynker and Mathou Ihiclcr-makcr, for drawycnge of the yron 
and makynge of the stapuls, iij.' {^Ludlow Chute hiuankns' Accounts, 
Cam. Soc.) 


while in ' Richard Coeur de Lion ' we are told — 

Foremost he sette hys avweblasteies, 
And aftyr that hys good archcres, 
And aftyr hys stafF-slyngeres, 
And other with scheeldes and speres. 

But we must not forget old England's one boast, her 
archers, and our last quotation fitly brings them to 
our notice. They, too, in the battle-field and in the 
rural list, maintained alike their supremacy. If we 
would be proud of our early victories, we must ever 
look with veneration on the bow. ' Bowman ' and 
' Archer ' still represent the more military profes- 
sional, but not alone. Even more interesting, as 
speaking for the more specific crossbow or ' arbalist,' 
are our 'Alabasters,' ' Arblasters,' ' Arblasts,' and 
' Balsters.' In Robert of Gloucester's description of 
the reign of the Conqueror, it is said — 

So great power of this land and of France he nom (took) 
With him into England, of knights and squires, 
Spearmen anote, and bowemen, and also arblasters. 

Chaucer, too, describing a battlement, says — 

And eke within the castle were 
Springoldes, gonnes, bowcs, and archers, 
And eke about at corners 
Men seine over the wall stand 
Crete engines, who were nere hand, 
And in the kernels, here and there, 
Of arblasters great plcnlie were. 

In the Hundred Rolls he is Latinized as 'John Alblas- 
tarius,' and in the York Records as ' Thomas Balis 
tarius.' The Inquisitiones style him ' Richard le 
Alblaster,' while the Parliamentary Writs register 
him as ' Reginald le Arblaster.' It was to this 



class of armour our word 'artillery' was first ap- 
plied, a fact which our Bible translators have pre- 
served, where, in describing the meeting between 
David and Jonathan, they speak of the latter as 
giving his 'artillery to the lad.' Cotgrave, too, in 
his dictionary, printed at the beginning of the seven- 
teenth century, has the following : — ' Artellier, a 
bowyer or bow-maker, also a fletcher, or one that 
makes both bows and arrows.' The mention of the 
fletcher brings us to the more general weapon. Such 
an entry as the following would seem strange to the 
eyes of the nineteenth century : — ' To Nicolas Frost, 
bowman, Stephen Sedar, fletcher,' Ralph, the strin- 
ger, and divers others of the said mysteries, in money, 
paid to them, viz.: — to the aforesaid Nicholas, for 500 
bows, 31/. 8s. ; to the aforesaid Stephen, for 1,700 
sheaves of arrows, 148/. 15^".; and to the aforesaid 
Ralph, for forty gross of bowstrings, 12/.' (Exche- 
quer Issues, 14 Henry IV.) This short extract in 
itself shows us the origin of at least three distinct 
surnames, viz.: — 'Bowyer,' ' Fletcher,' and 'Stringer.' 
We should hardly recognise the first, however, in such 
entries as 'Adamle Boghiere,' or 'William le Bog- 
hycre.' ' John le Bower ' reminds us that some of 
our ' Bowers' are similarly sprung, while * George le 
Boyer ' answers for our ' Boyers.' Besides these, we 
have 'Robert Bowmaker ' or ' John Bowmaykere ' 
to represent the fuller sobriquet. So much for the 
bow. Next comes the arrow. This was a very care- 

' We find the P.ittenmakers of London petitioning the Commons, in 
1464, that they may have restored to them the use of the ' tymber called 
Aspe,' which had been of late entirely in the hands of the manufacturers 
of arrows, ' so that the Flecchers thorougTi the Reame may sell their 
arrowes at more esy price than they were wonte to doc' The aspe was 
a species of poplar. — Rol. Pari. Ed. IV. 


ful piece of workmanship. Four distinct classes of 
artizans were engaged in its structure, and, as we 
might expect, all are familiar names of to-day. 
'John le Arowsmyth' we may set first. He confined 
himself to the manufacture of the arrow-head. Thus 
we find the following statement made in an Act passed 
in 1405 : — ' Item, because the Arrowsmyths do make 
many faulty heads for arrows and quarels, it is 
ordained and established that all heads for arrows 
and quarels, after this time to be made, shall be well 
boiled or braised, and hardened at the points with 
steel,' (Stat. Realm.)' ' Clement le Scttere ' or 
' Alexander le Settere ' ^ was busied in affixing these 
to the shaft, and ' John le Tippere ' or * William le 
Tippere ' in pointing them off. Nor is this all — there 
is yet the feather. Of the origin of such mediaeval 
folk as 'Robert le Fleccher' or 'Ada le Fletcher,' 
we are reminded by Milton, where, in describing an 
angel, he says — 

His locks behind, 
Illustrious on his shoulders, fledge with wings, 
Lay waving round. 

The fletcher, or fledger as I had well-nigh called him, 
spent his time, in fact, in feathering arrows. 

Skelton in ' The Maner of the World ' says : — 

' The ' arrowsmith ' has a much longer and less euphonious title in 
a statute of Elizabeth regarding the hiring of servants by the year. In 
it are included ' Weavers, Tuckers, Fullers, Pewterers, Cutlers, Smithes, 
Farrours, Sadlers, Spurryers, Turners, Bowyers, Fletchers, Arrcnvhead- 
makers, Butchers, Cookes, or Myllers.' — 5 Eliz. c. iv. 2. 

* Thus, among the London occupations, Cocke Lovell includes 
those of the 

' Spooners, turners, and hatters, 
Lyne-webbers, setters, and lyne-drapers. ' 



So proude and so gaye, 
So riclie in arraye, 
And so skant of nion-ey 

Saw I never : 
So many howyers, 
So many fletchers, 
And so few good arcliers 

Saw I never. 

While all these names, however, speak for specific 
workmanship, our 'Flowers' represent a more gene- 
ral term. We are told of Phoebus in the ' Manciples 
Tale,' that 

His bowe he bent, and set therein a flo. 

'Flo,' was a once familiar term for an arrow. 'John 
le Floer,' or ' Nicholas le Flouer,' therefore, would 
seem to be but synonymous with ' Arrowsmith ' or 
' Fletcher.' ' Stringer ' and ' Stringfellow ' are self- 
explanatory, and are cominon surnames still. What 
a list of sobriquets is here ! What a change in Eng- 
lish social life do they declare. Time was when to be 
a sure marksman was the object of every English 
boy's ambition. The bow was his chosen companion. 
Evening saw him on the village green, beneath the 
shade of the old yew tree, and as he practised his 
accustomed sport, his breath would come thick and 
fast, as he bethought him of the coming wake, and 
his chance of bringing down the popinjay, and pre- 
senting the ribbon to his chosen queen of the May. 
Yes, times are altered. Teeming cities cover the once 
rustic sward, broadcloth has eclipsed the Lincoln 
green, the clothyard, the arrow ; but still amid the 
crowd that rushes to and fro in our streets the name 
of an 'Archer,' or a 'Bowman,' or a ' 13utts,' or a 
' Popgay' spoken in our ears will hush the hubbub of 


the city, and, forgotten for a brief moment the greed 
for money, will carry us, like a pleasant dream recalled, 
into the fresher and purer atmosphere of England's 

In the poem from which I have but recently 
quoted we have the record of ' gonnes,' or ' guns,' as 
we should now term them. It would be quite pos- 
sible for our nomenclature to be represented by 
memorials of the powder magazine, and I should be 
far from asserting that such is not the case.' In the 
household of Edward III. there are enumerated, 
among others, ' Ingyners Ivij ; Artellers vj ; Gonners 
vj.' Here there is a clear distinction bet\\een the 
' gun ' and the ' engine ; ' between missiles hurled by 
powder and those by the catapult. Fifty years even 
earlier than this Chaucer had used the following sen- 
tence : — 'They dradde no assaut of gynne, gonne, 
nor skaffaut' In his ' Romance,' too, as I have just 
.shown, he places in juxtaposition ' grete engines ' and 
* gonnes.' Of one, if not both of these, we have un- 
doubted memorials in our nomenclature. The Hun- 
dred Rolls furnish us with a ' William le Engynur ' and 
a 'Walter le Ginnur; ' the Inquisitiones with a 'Richard 
le Enginer,' and the Writs with a ' William le Genour.' 
The descendants of such as these are, of course, our 
'Gunners,' ' Ginners,' 'Jenour,' and 'Jenners,'^ the 
last of which are now represented by one who is as 
renowned for recovering as his ancestor in days gone 

' Since writing this, I li.ive discoveictl the names of ' Jolin Fusilier' 

and ' Fuze'.ier.' (See Proc. and Crd. Prby Council, under (hates 

1437 and 1439.) 

'■ We have a similar interchange of these two letters in the 
cases of 'Gervais'and 'Jervis,' 'Geoffrey' and 'Jeffrey,' and 'Gill' 
and 'Jill.' 


by would be for destroying life. Our ' Gunns' and 

* Ginns ' also must be referred to the same source. In 
one of the records just alluded to a 'Warin Engaine' 
is to be met with. If we elide the first syllable, as in 
the previous instances, the modern form at once 

But if in the deadly tournament the baron and 
his retainers found an ample pastime, nevertheless the 
chase was of all diversions the most popular. In this 
the prince and the peasant alike found recreation, 
while with regard to the latter, as we shall see, it was 
also combined with service. The woody wastelands, 
so extended in these earlier days of a sparse popula- 
tion, afforded sport enough for the most ardent hunts- 
man. According to the extent of privilege or the 
divisions into which they were separated, these tracts 
were styled by the various terms of ' forest,' ' chase,' 

* park,' and ' warren.' To any one at all conversant 
with old English law these several words will be 
familiar enough. To keep the wilder beasts within 
their prescribed limits, to prevent them injuring the 
tilled lands, and in general to guard the common 
interests of lord and tenant, keepers were appointed. 
The names of these officers, the chief of whom are 
entitled by appellations whose root is of a local 
character, are well-nigh all found to this day in our 
directories. Indeed there is no class of names more 
firmly imbedded there. In the order of division I 
have just alluded to, we have * Forester,' with its 
corrupted ' Forster ' and ' Foster,' relics of such 
registered folk as ' Ivo Ic Forester,' ' Henry le Forster,' 
or * Walter le Foster ; ' ' Chaser,' now obsolete, I be- 
lieve, but lingering on for a considerable period as the 


offspring of ' William ' or ' Simon le Chasur ; ' 
* Parker,' or ' Parkman,' or ' Park,' descended from 
' Adam le Parkere,' or ' Hamo le Parkere,' or ' Roger 
atte Parke,' or ' John del Pare,' and ' Warener ' or 
' Warner,' or * Warren,' lineally sprung from men of 
the stamp of * Thomas le Warrener,' ' Jacke le Warner,' 
or ' Richard de Waren.' The curtailed forms of these 
several terms seem to have been all but consequent 
with the rise of the ofRcership itself ' Love ' in the 
' Romance ' says : — 

Now am I knight, now chastelaine, 
Now prelate, and now chaplaine. 
Now priest, now clerke, now forstere. 

In his description of the Yoman, too, Chaucer adds — 

An home he here, the baudrick was of grene, 
A fostere was he sothely as I guesse. 

Thus, again, Langland, in setting forth Glutton's en- 
counter with the frequenters of the tavern, speaks 
familiarly of — 

Watte the Warner. 

But these are not all. It is with them we must asso- 
ciate our ancestral ' Woodwards ' or ' Woodards,' and 
still more common ' Woodreefs,' ' Woodrows,' ' Wood- 
roffs,' and ' Woodruffs,' all more or less perverted 
forms of the original wood-reeve.' A song represent- 
ing the husbandmen as complaining of the burdens in 
Edward II.'s reign says — 

The hayward heteth us harm to habben of his 
The bailif beckneth us bale, and wencth wel do ; 
The wodeward waiteth us wo. 

' ' Thomasine Woodkeeper ' is set down in the Index to Slate Papas 
(^Domestic) for 1635. This is a name, I doubt not, of later origin. 


All these officers were more or less of legal capacity, 
men whose duty it was, bill in hand, to guard the vert 
and venison under their charge,' to act as agents for 
their lord in regard to the pannage of hogs, to look 
carefully to the lawing of dogs, and in case of offences 
to present them to the verderer at the forest assize. 
The ' Moorward,' found in our early records as 
'German le Morward ' or ' Ilcnry le Morward,' 
guarded the wilder and bleaker districts. ' The Rider,' 
commonly found as ' Roger Ic Ryderc ' or ' Ralph le 
Ryder,' in virtue of having a larger extent of juris- 
diction, was mounted, though his office was essentially 
the same. Mr. Lower, remarking upon this word, has 
a quotation from the ballad of ' William of Cloudesley,' 
where the king, rewarding the brave archer, says : — 

I give thee eightene pence a day, 

And my bowe thou shall bere, 
And over all the north countre 

I make thee chyfe rydere. 

With him we must associate our ' Rangers ' and 
' Keepers,' who, acting doubtless under him, assisted 
also in the work of patrolling the woodland and re- 
covering strayed beasts, and presenting trespassers to 
the swainmote just referred to. 

The bailiff, shortened as a surname into ' Bailey,' 
'Baillie' ('Germanic Bailif,' J., ' Henry le Baillie,' 
M.), like the reve, seems to have been both of 

' 1 he stringent care taken of the beasts of ciiase may be gathered 
from the various laws passed regarding the dogs of such swineherds, Sec, 
as had right of entry in the woods. The chief one related to what was 
called the lawing of dogs. I5y this rule the three claws of the forefoot 
of every niastifTwcre to be cut off by the skin, ami the farest assize was 
to make special inquisition to see that it was in all cases done. (See 
Stat.ik Fiuibiis, 27 lulward I.) 


legal and private capacity ; in either case acting as 
deputy.^ This word ' reve ' did a large amount of 
duty formerly, but seems now to be fast getting into 
its dotage. In composition, however, it is far from 
being obsolete. The ' Reeve ' (' John le Reve,' M., 
* Sager le Reve,' H.), who figured so conspicuously 
among the Canterbury Pilgrims, would be the best 
representative of the term in his day, I imagine — 

His lordes shepe, his nete, and his deirie, 
Ilis swine, his hors, his store, and his pultrie, 
Were wholly in this reves governing. 

Our * Grieves' (' Thomas le Greyvc,' A.), who are but 
the fuller ' Gerefa,' fulfilled, and I believe in some parts 
of Scotland still fulfil, he capacity here described, 
being but manorial bailiffs, in fact. ' The Bokc of 
Curtasye ' says — 

Grayvis, and baylys, and parker 
Shall come to accountes every yere 
Byfore the auditours of the lorde. 

Thus, too, our 'Portreeves' (' William le Portrevc,' A., 
' Augustin le Portreve,' A.), who in our coa.'-t towns 
fulfilled the capacity of our more general ma}'or, arc 
oftentimes in our earlier records enrolled as ' Port- 
greve.' ' Hythereve' (' John Ic liuthcrevc,' O.), from 
hithe, a haven, would seem to denote the same 
office, while our obsolete ' Fenrcves' (' Adam le 
Fenreve,' A.), like the ' Moorward ' mentioned abo\'e, 

' 'He seide also to hise discipilis, ther was a riche man tliat hadd.e 
a baylyf, and this was defamed to him as he haiUle wastid hise goodis. 
And he clepide him and seyde to him, what here I lliis thing of tliec ? 
Yelde rekcnyng of thi I5aylye, for thou myght not now he baylyf.' 
(Luke xvi. i, 2— Wicklyffe.) 


had charge, I doubt not, of the wilder and more 
sparsely populated tracts of land. Many other com- 
pounds of this word we have already recorded ; some 
we shall refer to by-and-by, and with them and these 
the reeve, after all, is not likely to be soon forgotten. 
But the poorer villeins were not without those 
who should guard their interests also. In a day of 
fewer landmarks and scantier barriers trespasses 
would be inevitable. An interesting relic of primitive 
precaution against the straying of animals is found in 
the officership of the ' Hayward ' (or ' Adam le Hey- 
ward,' as the Hundred Rolls have it), whose duty it 
was to guard the cattle that grazed on the village 
common. He was so styled from the Saxon ' hay ' 
or ' hedge,' already spoken of in our previous chapter. 
An old poem has it — 

In tynie of hervest mery it is ynough ; 
Peres and apples hongcth on bough, 
The liaywaid bloweth mery his home ; 
In every felde ripe is come. 

In ' Piers Plowman,' too, we have the word — 

I have an home, and l)e a hayward, 

And iiggen out a nyghtes 
And kepe my come and my croft 

From pykers and thcves. 

It will be seen from these two references that the 
officership was of a somewhat general character. The 
cattle might be his chief care, but the common village 
interests were also under his supervision. The term 
has left many surnames to maintain its now decayed 
and primitive character ; ' Hayward ' and ' Haward ' 
are, however, the most familiar. * Hayman,' doubt- 


less, is of similar origin. If, in spite of the hayward's 
care, it came to pass that any trespass occurred, the 
village ' pounder ' was ready at hand to impound the 
animal till its owner claimed it, and paid the cus- 
tomary fine — 

In Wakefield there lives a jolly pinder, 
In Wakefield, all on a green. 

So we are told in ' Robin Hood.' I need not add 
that our many ' Pounders,' ' Finders,' and still more 
classic ' Pindars,' are but the descendants of him or 
one of his confreres. I do not doubt myself, too, that 
our ' Penders ' (* William le Pendere ' in the Parlia- 
mentary Writs) will be found to be of a similar origin. 

While, however, these especial officers superin- 
tended the general interests of lord and tenant, there 
were those also whose peculiar function it was to 
guard the particular quarry his master loved to chase ; 
to see them unmolested and undisturbed during such 
time as the hunt itself was in abeyance, and then, 
when the chase came on, to overlook and conduct its 
course. These, too, are not without descendants. 
Such names as * Stagman' and ' Buckmaster,' ' ' Hind- 
man ' and * Hartman,' ' Deerman ' and its more ama- 
tory ' Dearman,' by their comparative frequency, 
remind us how important would be their office in the 
eye of their lord. 

Nor are those who assisted in the lordly hunt 
itself left unrepresented in our nomenclature. The 
old ' Elyasle Hunderd,' or ' hund-hcrd,' has left in our 
' Hunnards ' an abiding memorial of the ' houndsman.' 

' The first instance I have met with of this name is in a formal 
declaration against Popish doctrine, dated 1534, and signed among 
others by 'Gulielmus Buckmaster.' (Foxe's Marty rolog)'.) 


Similarly the 'vaultrier' v/as he who unleashed them. 
It has been a matter of doubt whether or no the more 
modern ' feuterer ' owes his origin to this term, but 
the gradations found in such registrations as 'John 
le Veutrer,' 'Geoffrey le Veuterer,' and 'Walter le 
Feuterer,' to be met with in the rolls of this period, 
set all question, I should imagine, at rest. An old 
poem, describing the various duties of these officers 
and their charges, says — 

A halpeny the huiite takes on the day 
For every houndc tlie sothe to say ; 
The vewtrer, two cast of brede he tase. 
Two Icsslie of greyhounds if that he lias. 

' Fewter ' and ' Futter/ ' however, seem to be the only 
relics we now possess of this once important care. 
Such names as ' John le Bcrner ' or ' Thomas le 
Berner,' common enough in old rolls, must be dis- 
tinguished from our more aristocratic ' Bcrners.' The 
bcrner was a special houndsman who stood with fresh 
relaj's of dogs ready to unleash them if the chase 
grew heated and long. In the Parliamentary Rolls 
he is termed a ' yeoman-berner.* Our ' Ilornblows,' 
curtailed from ' Ilornblowcr,' and simpler 'Blowers,' 
would seem to be closely related to the last, for the 
horn figured as no mean addition by its jubilant 
sounds to the excitement of the chase. lie who used 
it held an office that required all the attention he 
could bring to bear upon it. The dogs were not un- 
leashed until he had sounded the blast, and if at any 
time from his elevated station he caught sight of the 
quarry, he was by the manner of winding his instru- 
ment to certify to the hunt.'jman the peculiar class to 
which it belonged. In the Hundred Rolls we find 

' Tlie Hundred Rolls have the abbreviated form in * Godfrey le Futur. 


him inscribed as ' Blowhorn,' a mere reversal of sylla- 
bles. Of a more general and professional character 
probably would be our ' Hunters/ ' Huntsmans,' and 
'Plunts,' not to mention the more Norman 'John Ic 
Venner' or 'Richard Fenner.' It may not be known 
to all our ' Hunts ' that theirs, the shorter form, was 
the most familiar term in use at that time ; hence the 
number that at present exist. We are told in the 
' Knight's Talc ' of the— 

Hunte and home, and houndes him beside ; 

while but a little further on he speaks of — 

The hunte ystranglcd with the wilde lieres. 

Forms like ' Walter le Hunte ' or ' Nicholas le Hunte ' 
arc very common to the old records. As another 
proof of the general use of this word we may cite 
its compounds. ' Borehunte ' carries us back to the 
day when the wild boar ranged the forest's deeper 
gloom. ' Wolfhunt,' represented in the Inquisitiones 
by such a sobriquet as ' Walter le Wolfhunte,' 
reminds us that Edgar did not utterly exterminate 
that savage beast of prey, as is oftentimes asserted. 
A family of this name held lands in the Peak of 
Derbyshire at this period by the service of keeping the 
forest clear of wolves. In the forty-third year of 
Edward HI. one Thomas Engeine held lands in 
Pitchley, in the county of Northampton, by service of 
finding at his own cost certain dogs for the destruction 
of wolves, foxes, &c., in the counties of Northampton, 
Rutland, Oxford, Essex, and Buckingham ; na)', as 
late as the eleventh year of Henry VI. Sir Robert 
Plumpton held one borate of land in Nottinghamshire, 
by service of winding a horn, and chasing or frighten- 


ing the wolves in Sherwood Forest.^ Doubtless, how- 
ever, as in these recorded instances, it would be in the 
more hilly and bleaker districts, or in the deeper 
forests, he found his safest and last retreat. It seems 
well-nigh literally to be coming down from a moun- 
tain to a mole-hill to speak of our ' Mole-hunts,' the 
other compound of this word. But small as he was 
in comparison with the other, he was scarcely less ob- 
noxious on account of his burrowing propensities, for 
which the husbandman gave him the longer name of 
mouldwarp. His numbers, too, made him formidable, 
and it is no wonder that people found occupation 
enough in his destruction, or that the name of ' Mole- 
hunt ' should have found its way into our early rolls. 
So late, indeed, as 1641, we find in a farming book 
the statement that \2d. was the usual price paid by 
the farmer for every dozen old moles secured, and 6d. 
for the same number of young ones. This speaks 
at least for their plcntifulness. An old provincialism 
for mole, and one not yet extinct, was ' wont ' or 
' want.' This explains the name of * Henry le 
Wantur,' which may be met with in the Hundred 
Rolls. In the Sloane MS. is a method given ' for to 
take wontes.' It would be in the deeper underwood 
our ' Todmans ' and ' Todhuntcrs,' the chasers of the 
fox, or ' tod,' as be was popularly called, found diver- 
sion enough. It would be here our 'Brockmans* 
secured the badger. I doubt not these were both 

' Not very long previously to this we find Trevisa writing : 'There 
are many harts, and wild beasts, and few wolves, therefore sheep are 
the more sykerlyche ' (secure). Thus we have ample evidence, apart 
from the existence of the name, that this depredator of the farming 
stock was anything but unknown during mediaeval times. 


also of professional character — aids and helps to the 
farmer. Indeed, he had many upon whose services 
he could rely for a trifle of reward in the shape of a 
silver penny, or a warm mess of potage on the kitchen 
settle. Our'Burders' and 'Fowlers,' by their craft, 
whether of falconry or netting, or in the use of the 
cross-bow bolt, aided to clear the air of the more 
savage birds of prey, or of the lesser ones that would 
molest the bursting seed. I need scarcely remark 
that the distinction between ' bird ' and ' fowl ' is 
modern. The ' fowls of the air ' with our Saxon 
Bible, and up to very recent days, embraced every 
winged creature, large and small. In our very expres- 
sion 'barndoor-fowl' we are only using a phrase which 
served to mark the distinction between the wilder and 
the more domesticated bird. The training and sale 
of bullfinches seem to have given special employment 
then, as now, to such as would undertake the care 
thereof. A ' Robert le Fincher ' occurs at an early 
period, and I see his descendants are yet in being. 
As we shall see in a later chapter, this bird has set 
his mark deeply upon our sobriquet nomenclature. 
Our ' Trappers,' whether for bird or beast, confined 
their operations to the soil, capturing their spoil by 
net or gin. 

We owe several names, or rather several forms of 
the same name, to the once favourite pursuit of fal- 
conry. Of all sports in the open air this was the one 
most entirely aristocratic. In it the lord and his lady 
alike found pleasure. It had become popular so early 
as the ninth century, and, as Mr. Lower says, in such 
estimation was the office of State falconer held in 
Norman times that Domesday shows us, apart from 


others, four different tenants in chief, who are described 
each as ' accipitrarius,' or falconer. Until John's 
reign it was not lawful for any but those of the high- 
est rank to keep hawks, but in the ' Forest Charter ' 
a special clause was introduced which gave power to 
every free man to have an aerie. So valuable was a 
good falcon that it even stood chief among royal gifts, 
and up to the beginning of the seventeenth century it 
brought as much as lOO marks in the market.' Royal 
edicts were even passed for the preservation of their 
eggs. From all this, and much more that might be 
adduced, it is easy to understand how important was 
the office of falconer, nor need we wonder that it is 
one of the most familiar names to be found in early 
rolls. Of many forms those of* Falconer,' ' Falconar,' 
' Faulkner,' ' Falkner,' - ' Faulconcr,' and ' Faukener,' 
seem to be the commonest. The last form is found 
in the ' Boke of Curtasye " — 

The chauncelcr answcrcs for their clothyng. 
For yonien, faukeners, and their horsyng, 
For their wardrop and wages also. 

' Of course the breeding of falcons was a favourite as well as im- 
portant care. 15y a special statute of lulward I.'s reign, every freeman 
could liave in his own wo(xI ' ayries of hawks, sparrowhawks, faulcons, 
eagles, and herons.' (25 Edward i. c. 13.) By a statute passed in the 
reign of Edward III., anyone who found a strayed hawk or tercelet was 
to bring it to the sherifT of the county, through whom proclamation to 
that effect was to be made in the towns. If the finder concealed the 
bird, he was rendered liable to two years' imprisonment. {34 Ed. III. 
c. 22.) This will give some idea of th.c value attached to a good falcon 
in those days. 

- This form of spelling is used by Burton in his Aiiatoniy. Ifc 
asks, how would Democriius have been affected ' to sec a scholar crouch 
and creep to an illiterate peasant for a meal's meat, a scrivener better 
])aid for an obligation, a fnulkner receive greater wages 'Jim a student ? ' 
(P. 37.) 


In our former ' Idonea or Walter le Oyseler ' we 
recognise but another French term for the same. A 
special keeper of the goshawk, or ' oster,' got into 
mediaeval records in the shape of 'William le As- 
trier,' or 'Robert le Ostricer,' or ' Richard le Hostri- 
ciere,' or ' Godfrey Ostriciarius,' The Latin ' accipiter ' 
is believed to be the root of the term, which 
with such other perverted forms as ' Ostregier,' 
' Ostringer,' ' Astringer,' and ' Austringer,' lingered on 
the common tongue till so late as the seventeenth 
century.' A curious proof of the prevailing passion is 
found in the name of ' Robert le Jessmakcr,' set down 
in the Hundred Rolls. The 'jess' was the leathern 
or silken strap fastened closely round the foot of the 
hawk, from which the line depended and was held by 
the falconer. That the demand for these should be 
so great as to cause a man to give himself up entirely 
to their manufacture, will be the best evidence of the 
ardour with which our forefathers entered into this 
pastime. The end of falconry was, however, sudden 
as it was complete. The introduction of the musket 
at one fell swoop did away with office, pursuit, with, 
in fact, the whole paraphernalia of the amusement, 
and now it is without a relic, save in so far as these 
names abide with us. 

In concluding this part of our subject it is pleasant 
to remind ourselves that, however strong might be the 
antagonism which this chapter displays between Nor- 
man and Saxon, the pride of the one, the oppression 
of the other, that antagonism is now overpast and 
gone. We well know that a revolution was at work, 

' Juliana Berners says : ' Ye shall understonde that they ben called 
Ostregeres that kepe goshawkcs or tercelles.' (Ed. 1496, b. iii.) 


sometimes showing itself violently, but generally 
silent in its progress, by which happier circumstances 
arrived, happier at any rate for the country at large. 
We well know how this consummation came, how 
these several races became afterwards one by the sup- 
pression of that power the more independent of these 
barons had wielded, by confusion of blood, by the 
acquisition of more general liberty, by mutuality of 
interests, by the contagious influences of commerce, 
and, above all, by the kindly and prejudice-weakening 
force of lapsing time. All this we know, and, as it is 
in a sense foreign to our present purpose, I pass over 
it now. I trust that I have already shown that there 
is something, after all, in a name ; at any rate in a 
surname, for that in it is supplied a link between the 
past and the present, for that in the utterance of one 
of these may be recalled not merely the lineaments of 
some face of to-day, but the dimmer outline of an age 
which is past beyond recall for ever. Viewed in a 
light so broad as this, the country churchyard, with 
each mossy stone, is, apart from the diviner lessons it 
teaches, a living page of history ; and even the parish 
register, instead of being a mere record of dry and 
uninteresting facts, becomes instinct with the lives and 
surroundings of our English forefathers. 



I NOW come to the consideration of occupations 
generally, and to this I think it will be advisable 
to devote two chapters. One reason for so doing, the 
main one in fact, is that they seem naturally to divide 
themselves into two classes — those of a rural character, 
very numerous at that time on account of agricultural 
pursuits being so general, and those of a more diverse 
and I may say civilized kind, bearing upon the com- 
munity's life — literature and art, dress, with all its 
varied paraphernalia, the boudoir and the kitchen. 
In considering the former, the character of our sur- 
names will give us, I imagine, by no means a bad or 
ineffective picture of the simplicity of our early rural 
life, its retirement, and even calm. In shadowing 
forth the latter, we shall be enabled to see what were 
the available means of that age, and by the very 
absence of certain names to realise how numberless 
have been the resources that discovery has added at a 
more recent period. It will be well, too, to give two 
entire chapters to these surnames, as being worthy of 
somewhat further particularity than the others. They 
betray much more of our English life that has become 
obsolete. Local names, as I have said already, while 


they must ever denote much of change, denote the 
changes more especially of Nature herself, which are 
slow in general, and require more than the test of four 
or five centuries to make their transitions apparent. 
Personal or Christian names vary almost less than 
these. The Western European system is set upon the 
same foundation, and whatever has been peculiar to 
separate countries has long since, by the interming- 
ling of nations, whether peaceful or revolutionary, 
been added to the one common stock. Some indeed 
have fallen into disuse through crises of various kinds. 
A certain number, too, of a fanciful kind, as we have 
already seen, have been added within the last two 
centuries, but these latter have not of course affected 
our surnames. Nicknames, which form so large a 
proportion of our nomenclature, remain much the 
same ; for a nation's tongue, while receiving a constant 
deposit and throwing off ever a redundant phraseo- 
logy, still, as a rule, docs not touch these ; they are 
taken from the deeper channel of a people's speech. 
But the fashion and custom of living is ever changing. 
New wants spring up, and old requirements become 
unneeded ; fresh resources come to hand, and the 
more antique are at once despised and thrown aside. 
In a word, invention and discovery cast their shafts at 
the very heart of usage. Thus it is that we shall have 
such a large number of obsolete occupations to recount 
— occupations which but for our rolls even the oldest 
and most reliable of our less formal writings would 
have failed to preserve to us. 

It is quite possible for the eye to light upon ham- 
lets in the more retired nooks and crannies of England 
that have undergone but little change during even the 


last six centuries, hamlets of which we could say with 
Goldsmith : — 

IIow often have I paused on every charm, 

The sheltered cot, the cultivated farm. 

The never-failing brook, the busy mill, 

The decent church that topped the neighbouring hill. 

The hawthorn bush, with seats beneath the shade, 

For talking age and whispering lovers made. 

I have seen, or I at least imagined I have seen, such 
a picture as this ; but if there be, this of all times is 
that in which we must be prepared for a revolution. 
Our railways are every day but connecting us with 
the more inaccessible districts, following as they do 
the curves of our valleys, winding alongside our 
streams, like nature and art in parallel. As they 
thus increase they bear with them equally increased 
facilities for carrying the modernized surroundings 
and accessories of life on this, on that, and on every 
hand. Thus usage is everywhere fast giving way 
before, utility, and thus in proportion as art and in- 
vention get elbow-room, so docs the primitive poetry 
of our existence fade from view. We can remember 
villages— there are still such — around which time had 
flung a halo of so simple aspect, villages whose steads 
were grouped with so exquiiute a quaintncss, so 
utterly and beautifully irregular, so full of unexpected 
joints and curves, and all so thatched, and embrowned , 
and treilissed, that with the loss of them we have lost 
a pastoral. There may be indeed a certain poetry in 
model villas of undcviating line and exact altitude; 
there may be a beauty in an erection which reminds 
you in perpetuity of the great Euclidian truth that a 
straight line is that which lies evenly between its ex- 


treme points, but at times it puts one in sober mood 
to think all the touches of a past time are to fade 
away, and these be in their stead. How different the 
tale nomenclature tells us of former rusticity and 
simpler tastes. 

The early husbandman required but little deco- 
rative refinement for his homestead. To keep out 
the cold blast and the driving rain, to have a niche by 
the fireside comfortable and warm, this was all he 
asked or wished for. His roof was all but invariably 
composed of thack or thatch, and every village had its 
'thatcher.' Busy indeed would he be as the late autumn 
drew nigh, and stack and stead must be shielded from 
the keen and chilling winter. The Hundred Roll forms 
of the surname are 'Joan le Thaccher' and ' Thomas 
le Thechare ; ' the Parliamentary Writs * John le 
Thacher;' while the more modern directory furnishes us 
with such changes rung upon the same as ' Thatcher,' 
' Thacker ' ' (still a common provincialism for the oc- 
cupation), and ' Thackery,' or ' Thackeray,' or ' Thack- 
wray,' "^ These latter are of course but akin to the old 
' John le Fermery,' or ' Richard le Vicary,' the termina- 
tion added being the result of popular whim or caprice. 

• 'Thacker' represented the northern pronunciation, 'Thatcher' 
the south. Compare 'kirk' and 'church,' 'poke' and 'pouch,' 'dike' 
and ' ditcli,' or tiie surnames ' I'"isk ' and ' Fisii.' A ' Natiianiel 
Tiiackman' is set down in tlie index to ^'A/A' /'j/tv-j (Domestic) for 1635. 

■■^ A 'John Thaxter' is met with in a college register for 1567 {//is/. 
C. C. Coil. Cam.), and far earlier than this, in the Parliamentary Writs, 
we light upon a ''J'homas Thackstere.' This is one more instance of 
the feminine termination. That the word itself was in familiar use is 
proved by the fact that in the ordinance arranging the Norwich Trades 
Procession we find among others the 'Thaxteres' marching in company 
with the ' Rederes.' (//ist. Norfolk, vol. iii.) As a surname the term 
still survives. 


Our ' Readers ' had less to do with book lore than we 
might have supposed, being but descendants of the 
mediaeval ' William le Redere,' ^ another term for the 
same kind of labour. The old * Hellier,' or ' Helier,' 
carries us back to a once well-known root. To ' hill,' or 
' hele,' was to cover, and a * hilyer ' was a roofer.^ Sir 
John Maundville says with regard to the Tartars, * the 
helynge of their houses, and . . . the dores ben 
alle of woode ; ' and John of Trevisa speaks of the 
English * whyt cley and red ' as useful ' for to make 
crokkes and other vessels, and barned tyyl to hele 
with houses and churches.' Gower, too, uses the word 
prettily, but perfectly naturally, when he says — 

She took up turves (turfs) of the lond, 
Withouten help of mannes hond, 
All heled with the grene grass.' 

Amongst other of the many forms that still survive 
surnominally we have ' Hillyer,' ' Hillier,' ' Hellier,' 

' ' Robertus Brown, redere,' Guild of St. George, Norwich. 

' ' Also, that no tylers called hillyers of the cite compelle, ne 
charge ne make no tyler straunger to serve at his rule and assignment, 
etc' — The Ordinances of Worcester, English Guilds, 398. 

* According to Walsingham, Wat the rebel was ' Walterus helier, vel 
tyler.' The word is prettily used in an old Saxon Psalter, where, in the 
stead of our present ' He is a buckler to all those that trust in Him,' we 
read that a 

' Forhiler is He 
Of all that in Him hoping be.' 

The following quotations from Wicklyffe's New Testament will prove 
how familiar was the term in his day : ' And lo a greet stiryng was 
made in the see so that the schip was hilid with wavis ' (Matt. viii. 24) ; 
' For I hungride and ye gaven me to ete, I thirstide and ye gaven me to 
drynke, I was herbarweles and ye herboriden me, naked and ye hiliden 
me ' (Matt. xxv. 35) ; ' No man lightnith a lanterne, and hilith it with 
a vessel, or putteth it under a bed' (Luke viii. 16). 


' Hellyer,' and the somewhat unpleasant * Helman ' 
and ' Hellman.' Earlier instances may be found in 
the Hundred Rolls in such entries as ' Robert Ic 
Heliere' or 'Will. Heleman.' Our 'Tylers' are well 
and quaintly represented in the early rolls. One 
mediaeval spelling of this good old-fashioned name is 
' Tyghelerc ' (Adam le Tyghelere, P.W.), while such 
forms as ' Ic Tuglur,' ' le Tuler,' or ' le Tewler,' as 
representatives of the Norman- French vocabulary, 
meet us on eveiy hand. Whether any of their de- 
scendants have had the courage to reproduce any of 
these renderings I cannot say. I do not find any in 
our directories. Our ' Smiths ' have not been quite 
so qualmish. With the tylers we may fitly introduce 
our ' Shinglcrs,' they who u.scd the stout oaken wood 
in the place of burnt clay. Churches were oftentimes 
so covered. Mr. Halliwell quotes the following some- 
what sarcastic couplet : — 

Fluuren cakes hclh tlic schingles alle 
(Jf clierclic, cloister, houre, ami halle. 

Piers Plowman, too, speaks similarly of Noah's i\rk 
as the 'shyngled ship.' ' All these names have, occu- 
pativcly speaking, now become obsolete, or nearly so ; 
our ' Slaters,' or ' Sclaters,' or ' Slatters,' having usurped 
the entire position they were formerly content to share 
with their humbler brethren.^ 

' Among other items of an entry in the Issuer of tlic Exclie()ucr \vc 
fin'l for ' putting the shingles f>n tlic king's kitchen, for the afores.ii.l 
week, 17s. 4t/.' (43 Hen. HI.) 

" We fm,! all these various forms of the same occupation mentionc»l 
in a fitatu'e of Elizabeth relating to the apprenticeship of children. In 
it are included ' Lymcburner, Ihickmakcr, UricAlaycr, Tyler, Slater, 
Hcalycr, Tilemaker . . . Tha'chcr or SliinrUr." (5 V.Vt/. c. /j, 23.) 


In the majority of the above names we shall find 
the Saxon to be in all but whole possession of the 
field. The fact is, the roof and its appurtenances 
were little regarded for a long period by our early 
architects, if we may give such a grand term to those 
who set up the ordinary homestead of the thirteenth 
and fourteenth centuries. There were no chimneys 
even in the residences of the rich and noble. A hole 
in the roof, or the window, or the door, one of these, 
whether in the homes of the peer or the peasant, was 
the outlet for all obnoxious vapours. With the Nor- 
mans, however, came a great increase of refinement in 
the masonry and wooden framework of which our 
houses are composed. Such names as ' Adam le 
Quarreur,' or ' Mugh le Ouareur,' ' Walter le Marbiler,' 
or ' Geoffrey le Merberer,' * Gotte le Mazoun,' or 
' Walter le Masun,' or ' Osbert le Machun ' represent 
a cultivation of which the earlier settled race, if they 
knew something, did not avail themselves in their 
merely domestic architecture. Two of these occupa- 
tions are referred to by ' Cocke Lorclle,' when he 
speaks of — 

Masones, maicni.ihers, and mcilelcrs.' 

' Henry le Wallere,' whose sobriquet was ennobled 
later on by one of our poets, is the only entry I can 
set by these as belonging to the Saxon tongue.''^ It 
is the same with the Norman 'Amice le Charpcntcr ' 
and ' Alan le Joygnour.' While tlie former framed 

' Hugh Marbe'.er was sheriff of London in 1424. 

* Another .Saxon name, that of 'John le Sclabhcrc,' is met with in 
the Parliamentary Writs. It is, however, but an isolated in.-.tance, and 
I do not suppose tliere was any particular cr.ift in masonry that went by 
that title. 


the more solid essentials, the very name of the latter 
infers a careful supervision of minutiae, of which only 
a more refined taste would take cognizance. The 
descendants of such settlers as these still hold the 
place they then obtained, and are unchanged other- 
wise than in the fashion of spelling their name. 

Of the plaster work we have a goodly array of 
memorials, the majority of which, of course, are con- 
nected with a higher class work than the mere cot- 
tager required. The ordinary term in use at present 
for a maker of lime is ' limcburner.' It is quite pos- 
sible that in our * Limebears ' or ' Limebeers ' we have 
but a corruption of this. Such sobriquets as ' Hugh 
leLimwryte' and John le Limer' give us, however, 
the more general mediaeval forms. The latter is still 
to be met with among our surnames. But these are 
not all. We have in our ' Dawbers ' the descendants 
of the old ' Thomas le Daubour,' or 'Roger le Daubere/ 
of the thirteenth century. ' Cocke Lorelle,' whom I have 
but just quoted, mentions among other workmen — 

Tylers, bryckeleyers, hardchewers ; 
Parys-plasterers, daubers, and lymeboniers. 

Our ' Authorised Version ' when it speaks of ' the wall 
daubed with untempcrcd mortar,' still preserves their 
memorial, and our ' Plasters ' and ' Plaisters ' are but 
sturdy scions of many an early registered ' Adam le 
Plastier,' 'Joanna Ic Plaistercr,' or ' John Ic Cemen- 
tarius.' The lust of this class I would mention is 
' Robert Pargctcr ' or ' William Pergitcr,' a name 
inherited by our ' Pargitcrs ' and ' Pargeters.' This 
was an artisan of a higher order. He laboured, in 
fact, at the more ornamental plaster work. In the 


accounts of Sir John Howard, A.D. 1467, is the follow- 
ing entry : — ' Item, the vj day of Aprylle my master 
made a covenaunt with Saunsam the tylere, that he 
schalle pergete, and whighte and bemefelle all the new 
byldynge, and he schalle have for his labore xiijs. 
ivd.' ^ It is used metaphorically, but I cannot add 
very happily, in an old translation of Ovid — 

Thus having where they stood in vaine complained of their wo, 
When night drew neare they bad adue, and cche gave kisses sweete 
Unto the parget on their side, the which did never mcete. 

' Roger le Peynture ' or ' Henry le Peintur,' ' Ralph le 
Gilder ' and ' Robert le Staincr,' were engaged, I 
imagine, in the equally careful work of decorating 
passage and hall within, and all have left offspring 
enough to keep up their perpetual memorial. Thus, 
within and without, the house itself has afforded room 
for little change in our nomenclature, though the 
artisans themselves have now a very different work to 
perform to that of their mediaeval prototypes. The 
increase of wealth and a progressive culture have not 
merely taught but demanded a more careful and 
refined workmanship in the details of ordinary house- 
building. We may readily imagine, however, even in 
this early day, how little the simple bondsman, or 
freer husbandman, had to do with such artisans as 
even then existed, I do not find, at least the excep- 
tions are of the rarest, that these workmen dwelt in 
the more rural districts at all. Their names are to 
be met with in the towns, where the richer trades- 
people and burgesses were already beginning to copy 

' 'Item: Payd to a laborer for to pargytt, vii</. (P. 4, C/iurc/i- 
xoardens' Accounts, Liidlcno, Cam. Soc.) 


the fashions and habits of life of the higher aris- 

We have already noticed the ' town ' — how it 
originally denoted but the simple farmstead with its 
immediate surroundings, then its gradual enlargement 
of sense as other steads increased and multiplied 
around it. We have also seen how the old 'ham' or 
home gathered about it such accessions of human 
abodes as converted it in time into one of those village 
communities, so many of which we still find in the 
outer districts, almost, as I have said, unaltered from 
their early foundation. It was in these various home- 
steads dwelt the peasantry. There might be seen our 
* Cotmans ' and ' Cotters ' (' Richard Coteman,' A., 
'Simon le Coterc,' F.F.), the descendants, doubtless, 
of the ' cotmanni ' of Domesday liook. Similar in 
origin and as humble in degree would be our now 
numerous ' Cotterels ' or ' Cottrels ' (' William Coterel,' 
M., ' Joice Cottcrill,' Z.), till a comparatively re- 
cent period an ordinary sobriquet of that class of 
our country population. A curious memorial of a 
past state of life abides with us in our ' Boardmans,' 
' Boarders,' ' Bordmans,' and ' Borders.' They were 
the tenants of lands which their lord kept expressly 
for the maintenance of liis table, the rental being paid 
in kind. Hence our old English law-books speak 
familiarly of bord-service, or bord-load, or bord-land. 
The term board in this same sense still lingers on the 
common tongue, for we are }'et wont to use such 
])hrascs as bet! and boaid, or a frugal board, or a 
board plentifully spread. A determinate, as distinct 
from an unfi.xed service, has left its mark in our 
' Sockermans,' ' Suckermans,' and ' Sockmans,' they 


who held by socage, or socmanry, as the old law-books 
have it. Under this tenure, as a condition of the 
meagre rental, the stout-hearted, thick-limbed rustic 
was to be ready, as his lord's adherent, to stand by 
him in every assault, either as archer, or arbalister, or 
pikeman — that is, fealty was to eke out the remaining 
sum which would otherwise have been due. But 
there were of these Saxon husbandmen some under 
no such thraldom, however honourable, as this, and of 
these freeholders we must set as the highest our 
' Yomans ' and * Yeomans.' This term, however, be- 
came an official one, and it is doubtful to which aspect 
of the word we are to refer the present owners of the 
name. It is possible both features may have had 
something to do with its origination. How anxious 
they who had been redeemed, or who had been born 
free, though of humble circumstances, were to pre- 
serve themselves from a doubtful or suspected position 
such names as ' Walter le Free ' or ' John le Freman ' 
will fully show. We find even such appellatives as 
' Matilda Frewoman ' or ' Agnes I'rewyfe,' in the 
latter case the husband possibly being yet in bond- 
age. In our ' Frys,' a sobriquet that has acquired 
much honour of late years and represented in me- 
diaeval rolls by such entries as ' Thomas le Frye ' or 
' Walter le Frie,' we have but an obsolete rendering 
of 'free.'' These, as we see, are all Saxon — but 
Norman equivalents are not wanting. Our ' Frari- 
coms ' or 'Francombs' and ' Frankhams,' names by 
no means uncommon in our existing registers, are but 

' Thus, our ' Frcebodys' are found alil;e in this guise, and in that 
of • Frybody.' ' Robert Frybody ' is set down in Proc. and Oni. Pnvy 


Anglicised dresses worn by the posterity of such 
registered folk as ' Henry le Franchome,' or' Reginald 
le Fraunchome,' or * Hugh le Fraunch-humme.' 
' William le Fraunk,' too, or ' Fulco le Franc,' can 
boast many a hale descendant in our ' Franks ; ' and 
'Roger le Franklyn ' or 'John le Fraunkelyn' in our 
' Franklins,' a name from henceforth endeared to 
Englishmen as that of our gallant but lost Arctic 
hero. From Chaucer's description of one such we 
should deem the ' franklin ' to have been of decidedly 
comfortable position, a well-to-do householder, in 

Withouten bake mete never was his house, 
Of fish and flesh, and that so plenteous, 
It snowed in his hous of mete and drinke 
Of all deintees that men coud of thinke : 
After the sondry sesons of the yere, 
So changed he his mete and soupere. 

But we are not without vestiges of the baser ser- 
vitudes of the time, and in this category we must set 
the great bulk of the agricultural classes of the twelfth 
and thirteenth centuries. The descendants of the old 
' Ivo le Bondcs ' and ' Richard le Bondes ' are still in 
our midst, and to judge merely from their number 
then and now enrolled, we sec what a familiar position 
must that of personal bondage have been. 

Of .alle men in londe 
Most toileth the bonde, 

says an old rhyme.' Still more general terms for those 
who lay under this miserable serfdom were those of 

' A curiously contradictory name is met with in ' Robert Frebond,' 
found in the Hundred Rolls. The same roll contains the names of 
'Roger le Neubonde' and 'Emma Ncwbonde.' 


* Knave ' or ' Villein.' ' Walter le Knave ' or * Lambert 
le Vilein ' or ' Philip le Vylayn ' are names registered 
at the time of which we are speaking. The odium, 
however, that has gradually gathered around these 
sobriquets has caused them to be thrown off by the 
posterity of those who first acquired them as simple 
bondmen. Indeed, there was the time when, as I 
shall have occasion to show in a succeeding chapter, 
our forefathers could speak of ' Goodknaves ' and 
' Goodvilleins.' Feudal disdain of all that lay beneath 
chivalric service, however, has done its work, and we 
all now speak, not merely as if these terms implied 
that which was mean and despicable in outward con- 
dition, but that which also was morally depraved and 
vile. ' Geoffrey le Sweyn ' or ' Hugh le Sweyn,' how- 
ever, by becoming the exponent of honest rusticity, 
has rescued his sobriquet from such an ill-merited 
destiny, and has left in many of our ' Swains ' a token 
of his mediaeval gallantry. 'John le Hyne' or 
'William le Hyne' (found also as Hind), as represen- 
tative of the country labourer, is equally sure of per- 
petuity, as the most cursory survey of our directories 
will prove.' Of the ' Reve ' in the ' Canterbury 
Tales,' we are told : — 

There was no bailif, nor herd, nor other hine 
That he nor knew his sleight, and his covine. 

In the ' Townley Mysteries,' too, the word occurs. In 
the account of the reconciliation betwixt Jacob and 
Esau the former is made to say : — 

God yeld you, brother, that it so is, 
That thou thy hyne so would kiss. 

' Among the peasantry of Yorkshire the simple farm labourer is still 
a 'hine' or 'hind.' 


In the rural habitations we have mentioned, then 
dwelt these various members of the lower class com- 

The sobriquets we have just briefly surveyed, how- 
ever, are of a more general character. We must now, 
and as briefly, scan some of those which in themselves 
imply the particular service which as rustic labourers 
their first owners performed, and by which the titles 
were got. This class is well represented by such a 
name as ' Plowman.' Langland, when he would take 
from a peasant point of view a sarcastic survey of the 
low morality of his time, as exemplified in the Eng- 
lish Church ere yet she was reformed, could fix upon 
no better sobriquet than that of ' Piers Plowman,' and 
has thus given a prominence to the name it can never 
lose. What visions of homely and frugal content we 
discern in the utterance of such a surname as this ; 
what thoughts of healthy life, such as are becoming 
rarer with each returning year — 

For times are altered— trade's unfeeling train 
Usurp the land, and dispossess the swain. 

It was with him at early dawn would issue forth our 
' Till)'ers ' or ' Tillmans,' to help him cleave the fur- 
row. A little hiter on we might have seen our 
' Mowers ' and ' Croppers ' ' hanging up their scythes 
and sickles, as the autumn, in richly clad garb, passed 
slowly by. Then again in due season busy enough 

' A 'Cropper ' was a farm laljourcr wlio superintended the growth 
and cutting of the crops. In the Custom Roll of the Manor of Ashton- 
under-Lyne (Ch. .Soc.) occurs the following : — ' Roger the Croj)per, for 
his tenement, and whole service, the present S*/. ; the farm, l^s.' «icc. 
Lower down mention is made also of ' Robin the Cropper.' 


would be the ' Dyker,' now spelt ' Dicker,' ^ and the 
' Dykeman ' or * Dickman,' With what an enviable 
appetite would these eat up to the last relic their 
rasher of bacon and black bread, and quaff their home- 
brewed ale, a princely feast after the hard toil of 
draining the field. To dike was merely to dig, the 
root being the same. Of the kindly plowman Chaucer 
says — 

He would thresh, and thereto dike and delve, 
For Christ's sake, for every poor wight, 
Withouten hire, if it lay in his might. 

The Malvern dreamer, too, speaks in the same fashion 
of * dikeres and delvers,' and among other characters 
introduces to our notice ' Daw the Dykere,' ' Daw ' 
being, as I have already shown, but the shorter David. 
Our * Drayncrs,' I need not add, were but his com- 
peers in the same labour. Perhaps one of the most 
beautiful features that help to make up a truly Eng- 
lish rural landscape is the hedgerows, following the 
windings of our lanes, and mazy bypaths skirting our 
meadows. England is eminently a land of enclosures. 
Still all this has been the result of progressing time. 
If our pinder be now an obsolete officership it is 
because the lines of appropriation have become more 
clearly marked. It is only thus we can understand 
the importance of his position in every rural com- 
munity four or five hundred years ago. No wonder, 

' ' Digger' also exists, and is found in an epitaph in St. Sepulclnc's, 

' Here lyes Robert Diggs and William Digger, 
There's no living soule knew which was the bigger, 
They fared well and lived easy, 
And now they're both dead, an 't shall ])]easc ye.' 
*■ ■ Diiigli-ys History from Marble- {Cam. Soc). 



then, our ' Hedgers ' and * Hedgmans ' are to be found 
whose ancestors were once occupied in setting up 
these pretty barriers. An old song of James I.'s day- 
says : — 

Come all you farmers out of the country, 

Carters, ploughmen, hedgers, and all ; 
Tom, Dick, and Will, Ralph, Roger, and Humphrey, 

Leave off your gestures rusticall. • 

If stakes or pales were used, it is to our ' Pallisers ' and 
obsolete * Herdleres * our forefathers looked to set 
them up. The former term I have but come across 
once as an absolute surname, but such entries as 
'Robert Redman, palayser,' or 'James Foster, paly- 
cer,' are to be met with occasionally, and at once 
testify to the origin of the term as found in our exist- 
ing registers. ' Pallister,' too, is not obsolete ; strictly 
speaking, the feminine form of the above. I find it 
written ' Fallyster ' and ' Palyster ' in an old Yorkshire 
inventory. But there is one more term belonging to 
this group which I am afraid has disappeared from 
our family nomenclature — that of ' Tincr,' he who 
tined or mended hedges. A 'John le Tynere' occurs 
in the Parliamentary Writs. We are reminded by 
Verstigan's book on ' Decayed Intelligence ' that 
' hedging and tining ' was a phrase in vogue not more 
than 200 years ago. Mr. Taylor, in his ' Words and 
Places,' connects our ' tine ' in the ' tines of a stag's 
horns ' or ' the tines of a fork,' with the same root 
implying a 'twig.' In our old English forest law a 
' tincman ' was an officer very similar to the ' hayward,' 
the only apparent difference being that he served by 
night. The two terms are exactly similar in sense. 

' ChappcU's Ballad Music, vol, i. 327. 


We are not without relics, too, of our former means 
and methods of enriching the glebe. Even here 
several interesting memorials are preserved to us. 

* Marler,' ^ * Clayer,' and ' Chalker ' (' Alice le 
Marlere,' A., * Thomas le Chalker,' A., ' Simon le 
Clayere,' A.), still existing, remind us how commonly 
the land was manured with marl and other substances 
of a calcareous nature. Trevisa, writing upon this 
very subject, says — * Also in this land (England), 
under the turf of the land, is good marl found. The 
thrift of the fatness drieth himself (itself) therein, so 
that even the thicker the field is marled, the better 
corn will it bear.' ^ An old rhyme says : — 

He that marles sand may buy land ; 
He that marles moss shall suffer no loss ; 
But he that marles clay throws all away. 

An interesting surname of this class is that of * Acre- 
man,' or, as it is now generally spelt, ' Acherman,' 

* Akerman,' or * Aikman,' for it is far from being of 
modern German introduction, as some have supposed. 
In the Hundred Rolls and elsewhere it appears in 
such entries as * Alexander le Acherman,' * Roger le 
Acreman,' ' Peter le Akerman,' and 'John le Akurman.' 
His was indeed a common and familiar sobriquet, and 
we are but once more reminded by it of the day when 
the acre was what it really denoted — the ager, or land 

' Thus we find in the forest charter of Edward IH.: 'Unus quisque 
liber homo faciat in bosco suo vel in terra sua, quam habet in foresta 
marleram (marl-pit), fossatum, vel terram arabilc, iScc. {Stat, oj Kialm, 
vol i. p. 121.) 

' As there was the 'Miller' and the ' Milward,' so there was the 
•Marler' and the 'Marlward:' • Alice Ic Marlere ' (H.R.), ' John Marie- 
ward '(H.R.). 

s 2 


open to tillage, without thought of definite or statute 
measure. Indeed, it is quite possible the term was at 
first strictly applied thus, for a contemporaneous poem 
has the following couplet : — 

The foules up, and song on bough, 
And acremen yede to the plough. 

If this be the case the surname is but synonymous 
with ' Plowman ' and ' Tillman,' already referred to. 

A curious name is found in the writs of this period, 
and one well worthy of mention, that of ' Adam Ic 
Imper.' An * imp,' I need scarcely remind the reader, 
was originally a ' scion ' or ' offshoot,' whether of 
plants or animals, the former seemingly most com- 
mon, to judge from instances. That nothing more 
than this was intended by it we may prove by Arch- 
bishop Trench's quotation from Bacon, w^here he 
speaks of 'those most virtuous and goodly young 
imps, the Duke of Suffolk and his brother.' ' Chaucer 
says that of 

feble trees their comen wretched imps — 

and ' Piers Plowman ' uses the word still more ex- 
plicitly — 

I was some tyme a frere 
And the conventes gardyncr 
For to grafTen impes, 

he says. This latter quotation explains the surname. 
* Impcr,' doubtless, simply differed from ' Gardiner' or 
' Gardner ' in that he was more particularly engaged 
in the grafting of young shoots. 

' ' He shall be called . . . a Iamb of Christ's fold, a sheep of 
his pasture, a branch of his vine, a member of his Church, an imp of 
his kingdom.' — liishop Hale. 


From the consideration of the last we may fitly 
turn to the subject of fruits. There can be no doubt 
that in early days, so far at least as the south, and 
more particularly the south-west of England was con- 
cerned, the vine was very generally cultivated by the 
peasantry, and the wine made therefrom, however 
poor it might be, used by them. So early as Domes- 
day Survey a ' Walter Vinitor ' lived in Surrey, and a 
century or two later such names as * Symon le Vynur,' 
or ' William Ic Viner,' or ' Roger le Vynour,' the an- 
cestry of our ' Viners,' show that the vine-dresser's 
occupation was not yet extinct. We have long left 
the production of this beverage, however, to the sun- 
nier champaign lands of the Continent, and are con- 
tent by paying a higher price to get a richer and 
fuller juice. Our ' Dressers ' may either belong to 
this or the curriers' fraternity. An old poem, which 
I have already had occasion to quote, says — 

111 tyme of harvest merry it is enough, 
I'ears and apples hangeth on bough, 
The hayward bloweth merry his home, 
In every felde ripe is corne, 
The grapes hongen on the vyne, 
Swete is trewe love and fyne. 

We have here the mention of pears and apples. The 
cultivation of these by our ' Orcharders,' or ' de la 
Orchards,' or ' dc la Apelyards,' was a familiar occu- 
pation, and ' le Cydcrer,' ^ and * le Perriman,' or ' Pear- 
man,' and ' le Perrcr,' testify readily as to the use to 
which they were put. The home-made drinks of 
these early days were almost all sweet. Such decoc- 

• ' Peachman' must be set here. 'Daniel Peachman' occurs in 
Bromefield's N'orfolk (Index). 


tions as mead, piment, or hippocras, in the absence of 
sugar, were mingled with honey. We can at once 
understand, therefore, what an important pursuit 
would that be of the bee-keeper.^ Not merely did 
the occasional husbandman possess his two or three 
hives, but there were those who gave themselves up 
wholly to the tendence of bees, and who made for 
themselves a comfortable livelihood in the sale of 
their produce. Many of our surnames still bear testi- 
mony to this. ' Beman,' or ' Beeman,' or ' Beaman,' 
will be familiar to all, and ' Honeyman ' is scarcely 
less common. In an old roll of 1183 we have the 
name Latinised in such an entry as * Ralph Custos- 
apium.' But not merely honey, but spices of all kinds 
were also infused into these various drinks, whether 
of wine or ale. We have a well-drawn picture of this 
in Piers Plowman's vision where ' Glutton ' comes 
across ]kton the Brewstere, and the latter bidding 
him good-morrow, says — 

' I have good ale, gossib,' quoth she, 

' Ghitton, wilt thou assaye ? ' 

' Hast thou aught in thy purse,' quoth he ; 

' Any hote spices ? ' 

' I have pcpir, and peonies,' quoth she, 

' And a pound of garleck, 

And a farthing-worth of fenel-seed 

For fastyng dayes.' 

Such an array of hot ingredients as this poor Glutton 

' Thus it is expressly stated in the Forest Charter, as of importance 
to the holder, that every freeman showld have a right to the honey found 
within his woodland: ' Haheat similiter niel quod inventum fuerit in 
boscis suis.' (Stat. Realm, vol. i. p. 121.) 


could not resist, and instead of going to Mass he 
turned into the tavern, and having supped 

A galon and a gille, 

of course got uproariously drunk. Thus we see how 
natural it is we should come across such names as 

* Balmer,' or ' le Oyncterer,' or ' le Hoincter,' as it is 
also registered, or 'le Garlyckmonger,' in our early 
records. The first still exists. The second does not, 
but the cumbersome and ungainly appearance of the 
last affords sufficient excuse for its absence. It is 
quite possible, however, that our ' Garlicks ' are but a 
curtailment of it, and this is the more likely, as such 
forms as ' Henry le Garleckmonger,' or ' Thomas le 
Garlykmonger,' are commonly found, and evidently 
represented an important occupation. The Normans, 
like the Saxons, loved a highly stimulative dish, and 
garlic sauce went to everything ; bird, beast, fish, all 
alike found their seasoning in a concoction of which 
this acrid and pungent herb was the chief ingredient. 
' Roger le Gaderer,' or as we should now say 

* Gatherer,' has left no descendant, but he may be 
mentioned as representing a more general term for 
many of the above. 

In the woodlands and its open glades and devious 
windings, where several of these herbalists I have 
mentioned would be often found, we shall see, too, 
other frequenters. It would be here, subject to the con- 
dition of agistment and pannage, our ' Swinnarts,' or 
swineherds, tended their hogs. It would be here by 
the hazel bank and deeper forest pathways our * Nut- 
ters ' and ' Nutmans ' would be found, as the autumn 
began to set in, and browner and more golden tints 


to fleck the trees and hedgerows. It would be here, 
as the chills of early winter drew on, and the fallen 
leaves lay strewn around, our ' Bushers ' or ' Boshers ' 
(relics of the old 'John le Busscher' or 'Reginald le 
Buscher'), and our more Saxon * Thomas le Woderes,' 
' Robert Wudemongers,' and ' Alan le Wodemans ' 
(now ' Woodyers ' and ' Woodmans '), would be occu- 
pied in gathering the refuse branches for firing 
purposes — here our ' Hewers ' (once found as ' Ralph 
' le Heuer ') and more specific ' Robert le Wode- 
hewers,' ' our ' Hackers ' and ' Hackmans,' would be 
engaged in chopping timber, perchance for build- 
ing purposes, perchance for our * Ashburncrs,' ^ to 
procure their potash from. Oftentimes, no doubt, 
would these various frequenters of the woodland bos- 
cage be roused from their rude labours to watch as 
the hornblower (now ' Hornblow ') awoke the shrill 
echoes, the lordly chase sweep through the glade till 
it was hidden by the embrasures of the forest, or the 
darkening twilight, or the bending hill. 

One single glance backward over the names we 
have so far recorded in this chapter, and one thing 
will be obvious — their all but entirely Saxon cha- 
racter. Our agriculture terms, whether with regard 

^ 'Hewer' often occurs in composition, as in ' Robert le Wode- 
hycwere,' ' Richard Stouhcwer,' ' Riciiard le Blockhewere,' or ' Wd- 
liam Flesschewer.' This last may be but a corruption of ' Flcsher.' 
After the prevailing fashion of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries the 
termination 'ster' was sometimes added instead of 'er.' Thus, in the 
Chester Play we find the procession joined l)y the * Hewsters.' Richard 
le Hewster was sherilT in 13S2. (Ormerod's Cheshire, vol. i. 302.) 

* The ashburner is incidentally alluded to in a statute of Elizabeth's 
reign, in which, among other occupations, is mentioned the ' Burner of 
Oore and woad ashes.' — 5 Eliz. c. 4, 23.) 


to the work itself or the labourer, belong to the 
earlier tongue. There is nothing surprising in this. 
While in the nomenclature of trade we find the 
superior force and energy of the Norman tempera- 
ment struggling with and oftentimes overcoming the 
more sober humour of the conquered race, in the 
country and all the pursuits of the country the latter 
was far ahead of its rival. It was better versed in 
agricultural pursuits, and ever retained them in its 
own hands. At the same time, as we well know, this 
very detention was but the mark of its defeat and 
the badge of its slavery. It was a victory where, 
nevertheless, all is lost. Wamba the jester, in 
' Ivanhoe,' if I may be excused such a trite illustra- 
tion, reminds us that our cattle, while in the field, and 
under the guardianship of the enslaved Saxon, were 
called by the Saxon terms of ' ox,' ' sheep,' and 
'calf,' but served upon the tables of their lords 
became Norman ' beef,' ' mutton,' and ' veal ' — that 
is, while the former fed them, the latter it was that 
fed on tJieni. Thus in the same way, if those homely 
pursuits which attached to the tilling of the soil, 
the breeding of cattle, the gathering in and the 
storing of the harvest — if these maintained the terms 
which belonged to them ere the Conquest, they are so 
many marks of serfdom. Provided the supply on 
his board was only profuse enough, the proud baron 
troubled himself little as to the supplier, or how or 
under what names it was procured. Sec how true 
this is from our nomenclature. There is a little word 
which has dropped from our lips which once played 
an important part in our vocabulary — I mean that of 
' herd ' — not as applied to the flock, but the keeper. 


We still use it familiarly in compounds, such as 
sivincJierd or shepherd, but that it once had a separate 
existence of its own is proved by the many ' Heards,* 
or ' Herds,' or ' Hurds,' that still abound sur- 
nominally in our midst ; relics as they are of the 
' John Ic Hirdes,' or ' Alice la Herdes,' or * Robert 
le Hyrdes,' of our olden records. Chaucer so uses it. 
We now speak of our Lord as the ' Good Shepherd.' 
He, however, gives us the simpler form where St. 
Urban is made to say — 

'Almighty Lord, O Jesu Christ,' quoth he, 
' Sower of chaste counsel, herd of us all.' 

Thus again, in the ' Townley Mysteries ' the angel 
who visited the shepherds as they kept their flocks by 
night is represented as arousing them by saying — 

Herkyn, hyrdes, awake ! 

See now the many compounds of which this purely 
Saxon word is the root. Are we in the low-lying 
pastures. In our ' Stotherds ' and ' Stothards,' our 
* Stoddarts ' and ' Stoddards,' still clings the remem- 
brance of the old stot or bullock-herd ; in our 
' Yeathcrds ' (as in our ' Yeatmans '), the heifer herd ; 
and in our ' Cowards,' far from being so pusil- 
lanimous as they look, the homely 'cowherd.' In 
' William and the Wcrfolf ' wc arc told — 

It bifel in that f(jrest 

There fast byside, 
There woned (dwelt) a \\el old churl 

That was a couhenle. 

Nor are these all. In our ' Calvcrts * and * Calvcrds ' 
wc are reminded of the once well-known ' Warin Ic 


Calveherd,' or 'William le Calverd,' as I find him 
recorded ; in our * Nuttards ' the more general but now 
faded ' neteherd ' or ' noutherd,' ^ and in our obsolete 
* John Oxenhyrds ' and * Peter Oxherds,' the familiar 
ox. Are we in the grazing paddock. In our ' Coult- 
herds/ ' Coulthards,' and ' Coultards' ('John Colthird,' 
W. 9), not to mention our ' Coultmans ' and * Coltmans,' 
we have ample trace of their presence. Are we again 
on the bleak hill-side. The sheep have given us our 
'Shepherds,' the rams our 'Wetherherds' (now gene- 
rally written ' Weatherheads'), the kids our 'Gottards,' 
not to say some of our * Goddards,' memorials of the 
once common goatherd. Are we under the woodland 
pathways where the beech-nuts abound. There, too, 
the herd was to be found, for in our * Swinnarts,' 
' Hoggarts,' and ' Sowards ' we are not without a 
further token of his usefulness. In three instances I 
have found ' herd ' connected with the winged 
creation. In the Parliameniaiy Writs occurs ' Wil- 
liam le Swonherdc,' in the Corpus Christi Guild 
(Surt. Soc), 'Agnes Gusehyrd' and 'Joan Gusehyrd,' 
and in the Hundred Rolls ' Henry le Rocherde,' 
?>., rook-herd.^ ' Swanherd ' reminds us that swans 
were an important article of diet in early times. In 
1482 an Act was passed forbidding any but free- 
holders (and they only if they had lands of the annual 
value of five marks) to have marks or games of 
swans. (' Stat. Realm,' vol. ii. p. 447.) 

' This spelling lasted till tht seventeenth century. TIenry Best, in 
his Farming Book, 1641, says: 'The noutheard wages were, for every 
beast, 2d. (P. 119, Sur Soc.) 

* ' Adam le Roc' (II. R.), represented by our modern ' Rooks,' re- 
minds us of the older fonn. 


It will have already become clear to the reader 
that this term ' herd ' played no unimportant part 
in the vocabulary of the thirteenth and fourteenth 
centuries. But even now we have not done. For 
instance, our ' Stobbarts ' and ' Stubbards ' are 
manifestly descendants of such a name as ' Alice 
Stobhyrd ' or ' Thomas Stobart,' the owners of both of 
which are set down in the Black Book of Hexham 
Priory in company with ' John Stodard,' ' William 
Oxhyrd,' and ' Thomas Schipherde.' ' I should have 
been in some difficulty in regard to the meaning of 
this ' stob ' or 'stub' had not Mr. Halliwell in his 
dictionary of archaic words given it as an old rural 
term for a bull. This surname, therefore, is satis- 
factorily accounted for. I cannot be quite so positive 
with regard to our ' Geldards ' and ' Geldarts,' but I 
strongly suspect their early ancestor was but a 
confrb'e of the swineherd orhoghcrd, ' gelt,' or ' geld,' 
as a porcine title, being a familiar word to our 
forefathers of that date. Our ' Gattards ' and 
* Gathards,' too, may be mentioned as but mcdia:- 
valisms for the goatherd, ' Gateard ' and ' Gatherd ' 
being met with in North English records contempo- 
raneously with the above. Such a sobriquet as 
'Adam Ic Gayt,' while it may be but a form of the 
old *wayt' or watchman, is, I imagine, but repre- 
sentative of this northern provincialism. It occurs 
locally in ' William de Gatesden ' or ' John de Gates- 
den,' both found in the Parliamentary Writs. With 

' It will give the reader some idea of tlie importance of this root- 
word when I say that lliese live names appear in a list of thirty-one 
persons dwelling in tlie village of Aynwyk. (Surtees Soc. Ilcxhatn 
J'riorv, vol. ii. p. 4.) 


two more instances I will conclude. In our ' Hun- 
nards ' still lives the memory of ' Helyas le Hunderd,' 
the old houndsman, while in ' Richard le Wodehirde ' 
or 'William le Wodehirde' we have but another, 
though more general, sobriquet of one of those many 
denizens of the forest I have already hinted at. How 
purely Saxon are all these names ! What a freshness 
seems to breathe about them ! What a fragrance as 
of the wild heather and thyme, and all that is sweet 
and fresh and free ! And yet they are but so many 
marks of serfdom. 

I have just incidentally referred to the swineherd. 
It is difficult for us, in this nineteenth century of ours, 
to conceive the vast importance of this occupation in 
the days of which we are writing. Few avocations 
have so much changed as this. Hog-tending as a 
distinct livelihood is well-nigh extinct. Time was, 
however, when the rustic community lived upon 
bacon, when the surveillance of swine was a lazy, 
maybe, but nevertheless an all-important care. We 
still speak of a ' flitch of bacon,' a term which, while 
etymologically the same as ' flesh,' shows how to the 
early popular mind that article represented the sum 
total of carnal luxuries. Our use of the Avord 
' brawn ' is of an equally tell-tale character. Every 
one knows what we mean by brawn. Originally, how- 
ever, it was the flesh of any animal. Chaucer says — 

The Miller was a stout carl for the nones, 
Full big he was of brawn, and eke of bones. 

When, however, the wnld boar had been brought 
down, and salted, and put aside for winter us?!" how 
natural that to the housewife it should engross this 
general sense. It is to the imi^ortancc this unsavoury- 


looking animal held in the eyes of early rustics we 
must attribute the fact of so many names coming 
down to us connected with its keep. As I have just 
hinted, such sobriquets as ' John le Swineherd ' or 
' Nicholas le Hogherd ' were common enough in 
the country parts, our * Swinnarts ' and * Hoggarts ' 
being witnesses. The sowherd remains in our 
' Sowards,' and is as Saxon as the others. The same 
tongue is strong again in our ' Pigmans ' ' Sowmans,' 
* Hogmans,' and still more secluded ' Denyers ' and 
' Denmans.' The Norman, however, is to be ac- 
credited with our many ' Gilbert le Porchers ' and 
'Thomas le Porkeres,' by which we may see that 
when daintily served up under the name of ' pork ' it 
was not disdained on the baron's table. Lastly, we 
may mention our early ' Philip le Lardiners ' and 
' Hugh le Lardiners,' names that in themselves sug- 
gest to us the one purpose of the herdsman, the 
fattening of his charge. They would be found 
generally, therefore, neath the fastnesses of the forest, 
where the 

Oak with his nuts larded many a swine, 

and where the mast and beech-nuts abounded, the 
chief pannage, it would seem, of that day.' Higher up, 
as far indeed as the bleak and barren wolds, the 
shepherd cared for and tended his flock. His was a 
common occupation, too, as our nomenclature shows. 
Evidently he was as prone in those days to the oaten 
reed as the poets of all ages have loved to depict him, 

' In an old book of tenures kept in Vurk Castle occurs, or did occur, 
the following: ' David le Lardiner holds one Serjeantry, and he is 
Keeper of the Gaol of the Forest, and Seizer of the Cattle which are 
taken for the king's debts.' 


for it is to his Norman-introduced name of ' Berger ' 
we owe the ' bergeret/ or pastoral ode. The song 
indeed, so called, has died away from our ears, but 

* Berger,' or ' Bercher,' as it was often written, still 
lives, and may carry us back for a moment to these 
wholesomer times. 

Nor, if we approach more closely to the farmyard 
enclosure, are we without memorials. The farm of 
old, as applied to the soil, was of course that piece of 
land which was rented for agricultural purposes, and 
I doubt not the chief of the old * Robert le Fermers ' 
and * Matilda le Fermeres ' represent this more con- 
fined sense. ' Farmer,' whether colloquially or in our 
registers, is the modern form. Udal, however, main- 
tains the more antique dress, when he says, * And 
that the thyng should so be, Chryst Hymself had 
signyfied to fore by the parable of the husbandmen 
or fermers.' 

While * herd,' as a root-word, implied the tendance 
of cattle in the meadows and woods and on the hill- 
sides, * man,' I suspect, was equally significative of 
their guardianship in the stable and the yard. Thus 
if the ' cowherd ' was in the field, the ' coivman ' would 
be in the stall. We may here, therefore, set our 
familiar ' Cowmans,' ' Bullmans,' ' Heiffcrmans,' and 
' Steermans,' or ' Stiermans.' ^ One or two provincial- 
isms, I imagine, have added also to this stock. Mr. 
Lower thinks our ' Tvventymans ' to be derived from 

• Vintenarius,' a captain of twenty. This may be so, 
but I suspect the more correct origin will be found in 
' twenterman ' or * twinterman,' he who tended the 

' Nicolas Goteman (W. ii.) occurs in an old Yorkshire register, but 
the name is now obsolete, I think. 


* twetiters ' or * tzuhiters,' the old and once familiar 

* two-winter,* or, as we now generally say, ' two-year- 
old.' If the ' steer,' the ' heifer,' the ' cow,' and the 
' bull ' gave a sobriquet to the farm labourer, why not 
this .-' As a farmyard term it occurs in every pro- 
vincial record of the fifteenth and even sixteenth 
century. Thus, to quote but one instance, I find in 
a will dated 1556 mention made of *6 oxen, item, 
18 sterres (steers), item, 11 heifers, item, 21 twenters, 
item, 23 stirks.' (Richmondshire Wills, p. 93.) An 
inventory of the same date includes ' 3 kye, item, one 
whye.' This latter term was equally commonly used 
at this period for a 'heifer.' Our 'Whymans' and 
' Wymans ' will, we may fairly surmise, be their pre- 
sent memorial. ' Cowman,' mentioned above, was 
met by the Norman 'Vacher,' such entries as 'John 
le Vacher ' or ' Walter le Vachcr ' being common, and 
as ' Vacher,' or more corruptly ' Vatcher,' it still abides 
in our midst. ' Thomas le Stabeler,' or ' William le 
Stabler,' too, are yet with us ; but descendants for 
'Thomas le Milkar ' or 'William le Melkcr' are, I 
fear, wanting. A Norman representative for these 
latter is found in the Parliamentary Writs in the case 
of ' John le Lacter.' There is the smack of a kindred 
labour in the registered ' Thomas le Charner,' for I 
doubt not his must have been but an antique dress of 
' Churner.' Another form is found in an old Rich- 
mondshire will dated 1 592, where mention is made of 
'Robert Chirner' and his sister 'Jane Chirner.' As 
an additional proof that his occupation was such as I 
have surmised, I may add that in the same record in 
the valuation of household property the churn is spelt 
chime. (Richmondshire Wills, p. 235, note.) The 


most interesting sobriquet of this class, and the one 
which has left the most memorials, is found in such 
mediaeval names as ' Cecilia le Day,' or * Christiana la 
Daye,' or ' Stephen le Dagh.' A * day ' was a dairy- 
man, of which word it is but another form. Chaucer, 
in one of the most charming of his descriptions, tells 
us of a poor widow, how that she — 

Since that day that she was last a wife 

In patience led a ful simple life, 

For litel was her cattle, and her rent : 

By husbandry of such as God her sent 

She found herself and eke her doughtren two. 

Her board was served most with white and black, 
Milk and brown bread, in which she found no lack, 
Singed bacon, and sometimes an egg or twey. 
For she was as it were a maner dey. ' ^ 

The present representatives of this name are met 
with in the several forms of * Deye,* * Daye,' ' Day,' 
* Dayman,' and the more unpleasantly corrupted 
' Deman.' 

It is quite evident, judging from the places of 
abode in which we find our early * Fishers ' and 
' Fishermans,' that it is to followers, though profes- 
sional, of the quaint and gentle-minded Izaac Walton 
we owe our many possessors of these names, rather 
than to the dwellers upon the coast, although both, 
doubtless, are represented. Such entries as ' Margaret 
le Fischere,' or ' Henry le Fissere,' or ' Robert le Fis- 

' In a statute of Edward III.'s reign, dated 1363, in defining the 
attire suitable for those whose chattels came under ops. value, we find 
enumerated with others, 'tenders of oxen, cow-herds, shepherds, swine- 
herds, deyes, and all other keepers of live-stock' (' bovus, vachers, 
berchers, porchers, deyes, et tous autres gardeinz des bestes'), (Vide 
Prom. Far., p. 116.) 



cere ' are very common. This latter seems a sort of 
medium between the others and such a more hard 
form as * Laurence le Fisker.' The finny species 
themselves gave us such sobriquets as ' John le 
Fysche ' or ' William Fyske,' and both ' Fish ' and 
' Fisk ' still exist amongst us. The Norman angler 
is seen in ' Godard le Pescher ' or ' Walter le Pecheur,' 
while 'Agnes le Pecheresse' bespeaks the fact that 
even women did not disdain the gentle art. 

But the moment we hint of the village streamlet 
we are thrown upon a subject vast indeed — the mill 
and the miller. He was emphatically, you see, the 
miller. Even now, in these busy grasping days, when 
we have cotton mills and saw mills, silk mills and 
powder mills, mills for this and mills for that, still it 
never occurs to us, when we talk of the miller, that 
any one could possibly mistake our meaning. And 
well may it be so, for it is with him we entwine plea- 
sant remembrances of the country, the wheel, the 
stream, the lusty dimpled trout ; with him we asso- 
ciate all of comfortable, peaceful content. A white 
jacket and a white cap, with a black coat for Sundays 
— how black it would look to be sure — a blufif, good- 
humoured face, a friendly nod, and a blithe good- 
morrow, up early and to bed betimes, and his memoir 
is written, and a very pleasant memoir, too, with a 
moral to boot for discontented folk, would they but 
see it. The old word for mill was ' milne,' hence we 
still have the earlier form, ' Milnes ' and * Milner ' 
being nearly as familiar to us in that respect as 
'Mills' and 'Miller.' Besides these we have 'Mil- 
man ' and * Milward,' who once, no doubt, acted as 


custodian, the modern ' man on the premises,' in fact. ^ 
The ancestry of all these is proved by such registered 
forms as ' John le Mellere,' ' William le Melner,' 
' Robert le Millevvard,' 2 ' John del Mill,' or ' Thomas 
atte Milne,' all of which are found scattered over our 
earlier rolls. ^ Our 'Threshers ' and 'Taskers ' (' Bene- 
dict le Tasker,' H.R.) busied themselves in urging 
the flail. I have only lit upon the latter term once 
as in ordinary colloquial use. Burton in the preface 
to his * Anatomy ' says — * many poor country-vicars, 
for want of other means, are driven to their shifts,' and 
'as Paul did, at last turn taskers, maltsters, coster- 
mongers, graziers, etc' * Our ' Winners,' shortened 
from * Winnower,' winnowed the grain with the fan ; 
our ' Boulters ' or * Bulters,'* 'Siviers ' ' and Riddlers,' 
('Geoffrey le Boltere,' A., ' William Rydler,' Z., 'Ralph 
le Siviere,' A.), still more carefully separated the 
flour from the bran. How beautifully Shakespeare 

* ' William Wyndmilward ' occurs in tlie Cal. Rot. Chartarunt. 

* •Manumissio Thomae Haale, alias dicti Mylleward de Hextone,' 
1480 (xx. 2, p. 210). 'Milmaster' is also found. 'Mr. Andrew 
Milmaster, of the Old Jewry, died Aug. 23, 1630.' (Smith's 

' We may here mention several surnames whose original possessors 
•were evidently confreres of the miller. 'John le Melmongere' (M.), 
i.e.y mealmonger ; * Denis leOtemonger' (X.), 'Walter le Heymongere' 
(G.), ' Ralph'le Commonger ' (T.), and ' Henry le Commongere' (M.). 
These are all obsolete, I fear. 

* 'Adam Taskermale' (H.R.). This would be a sobriquet taken 
from the ' male,' or bag in which the tasker carried his day's pro- 

* In the Ordinances of the Iloitsfhold of Henry VL, dated 1455, we 
find the ' Bakhous ' (bakehouse) to be under thirteen officers, and of 
them are '6 Gromes Bulters.' (Pro. Ord. Piivy Council, vol. vi. 226.) 

T 2 


presses this into his imagery many will remember, 
where Florizel speaks of — 

The fanned snow that's bolted 
By the northern blasts twice o'er. 

Our Bible translators, too, must have yet been familiar 
with the simpler process of this earlier time when 
they rendered one of the prophet's happier forctcllings 
into the beautiful Saxon we still possess : — 'The oxen 
likewise, and the young asses that ear the ground 
shall eat clean provender, which hath been winnowed 
with the shovel and with the fan.' The manufacture 
or use of the fan wherewith to purge the flour made 
our ' Walter le Vanners,' ' Simon le Fanneres,' * Richard 
atte Vannes,' or * William attc Fanncs,' familiar names 
at this time. In Cocke Lorelle's Bote, we find among 
other craftsmen — 

Barbers, bokebyndcrs, and lymners ; 
Rcpers, /(vwrs, and horners. 

We must not forget, too, our 'Shovellers ' and more 
common ' Showlers,' * showl ' being ever the vulgar 
form. It was for no purpose of rhyme, only the word 
is so used where we are asked — 

' Who'll dij; his grave ?' 
' I,' said the owl ; ' with my spade and showl 
I'll dig his grave.' 

With these many reminders, it is not likely that cither 
the miller or his men are likely to become soon for 

The smithy, of course, was an inseparable adjunct 
to the small community. The smith, unlike the 
Wright, was engaged upon the harder metals, the 



latter being incidentally described to us by Chaucer 
when he says of one of his personages in the Reeves 
Story, that — 

He was a well good wright, a carpenter. 

Looking at the many compounds formed from these 
two roots, we find that in the main this distinction 
is maintained. Let us take the wright first. We 
have but just mentioned * Ralph le Sivicre,' or 
' Peter le Syvyere.' For him our ' Sivewrights ' 
were manifestly occupied, to say nothing of the 
farmer's wife. The farmer himself would need the 
services of our * Plowwrights ' ('"William le Plowritte,' 
A., ' William le Ploughwryte,' M.), and would he carry 
his produce safely to the distant market or fair he 
must needs have a good stout wain, for the track 
athwart the hillside was rough and uneven, and here 
therefore he must call into requisition the skill of our 
many ' Wheelwrights,' or ' Wheelers,' * Cartwrights' 
and their synonymous ' Wainwrights.' ^ Adding to 
these ' Boatwright,' or ' Botwright,' ' Shipwright,' and 
the obsolete * Slaywright,' the old loom manufacturer, 
we see wood to have been the chief object at least 
of the Wright's attention. But we have other names 
of a different character. 'Limewright' or ' Limer ' 
(' Hugh le Limwryte,' A., 'John le Limer,' A.) ceases 
to maintain this distinction, so do our ' Glasswrights,' 
equivalent to our ' Glaziers ' or ' Glaishers ' (' Thomas 
le Glaswryghte,' X., ' Walter Glascnwryht,' W. ii., 
' William Glaseer,' 2.^? * Le Cheesewright,' or ' Chcss- 

' ' Robert le Whelere,' G., ' Walter Welwryghte,' A., ' Robert le 
Wainwright,' H., ' Robert le Cartwright,' 15., 'Hugh le Schipwryte,' 
A., 'John Botewright,' F.F. 

* So late as 1^41 we have such an entry as this : ' Item, to John 


Wright,' like ' Firminger ' and ' Casier,' brings us once 
more into the scullery, and ' Breadwright ' into the 
kitchen. * Alvvright ' is doubtless but the old ' alc- 
wright,' and ' Goodwright,' which Mr. Lowerdeems to be 
a maker of goads, I cannot but imagine to be simply- 
complimentary, after the fashion of many others which 
I shall mention in another chapter. Our ' Tellwrights ' 
or ' Telwrights ' have given me much trouble, and 
though at first I did not like it, I think Mr. Lower's 
suggestion that they have arisen from the Pauline 
occupation of tent-making is a natural one. * Teld ' 
was the old English word for a tent. In the metrical 
Anglo-Saxon Psalter the fourteenth psalm thus com- 
mences — 

Lord, in thi teld wha sal wone (dwell) ? 
In thi hali hille or wha reste mone (shall) ? 

We still speak of a ' tilt ' when referring to the cover 
of a cart or wagon, or to any small awning of a boat. 
It is quite possible, therefore, that the name has origi- 
nated in the manufacture of such canopies as these. 
Admitting this, I would merely suggest ' Tilcwright * 
as requiring but little corruptive influence to bring it 
into the forms in which we at present find the word.' 

Glassier for mendynge the wyndowe over the gallery, vj, viii^/.' (^Church- 
wardens' Accounts, LudlcKL', p. 8, Cam. Soc.) A little later we find: 
' Item, to John Pavier for his labour, \\\d. Item, for pavinge before 
the gate, i(/.' (P. lo, do.) These are both interesting instances of 
the late formation of surnames. Both evidently took their second 
sobritiuets from their occupation. ' Pavier,' I need hardly say, still 

' Since writing the above I find my latter conjecture to be confirmed. 
Miss Meteyard, in her interesting life of Josiah Wedgwood, says: 
•The surname of *Telhvright,' or 'Tilcwright,' which, variously spelt, 
fills a considerable portion of tlie parish register of IJurslem down to a 


Should this be the case, we must place it with * le Tyler,' 
of whom we have but recently spoken. * Arkwright ' I 
mention last as being worthy of more extended notice. 
In this is preserved the memory of a once familiar and 
all-important piece of cabinet furniture — that of the 
old-fashioned ark. Much store was set by this long 
years ago by the north-country folk, as is shown by 
the position it occupies in antique wills, often being 
found as the first legacy bequeathed.^ Shaped 
exactly like the child's Noah's ark, it seems to have 
had a twofold character. In one it was simply a 
meal-bin. Thus in the * Tale of a Usurer ' we are 
told :~ 

When this com to the kniht was sold, 

He did it in an arc to hold, 

And opened this arc the third day. 

In the other it was more carefully put together. The 
trick of its secret spring, known only to the house- 
wife and her lord — sometimes I dare say, only to the 
latter — it contained all the treasure the family could 

late period of the eighteenth century, and is still common, is curious 
evidence of the antiquity of the tilewright's craft in this locality. . . . 
Every worker in its clays became a tilewright, whether he moulded 
tiles or formed the homely pipkin or porringer, the slab-like dish or ale • 
vat for the hall.' (Vol. i. p. 93.) 

' In an inventory of household furniture, dated 1559, we have 
amongst other articles, ' One trussin bed with a teaster of yealow and 
chamlet, one old arke, old hangyers of wull grene and red, 6s. Sc/.' 
{Richmoitdshire Wills, p 135.) Another writer, twenty years earlier, 
relating the contents of the ' mylke howse,' includes 'an arke, a tube 
(tub), a stande, a chyrne.' (P. 42, do.) The earliest instance of the 
surname I have yet met with is found in the same book, where, in 
a will dated 1556, the testator bequeaths a sheep to ' llenry Ark- 
wright.' (Do. p. 155, note.) Both the ark itself and the trade are of 
North English origin. 


boast. Here were kept what parchments they pos- 
sessed ; here lay stored up fold on fold of household 
linen, venerated by the female inmates nearly as 
much as the grandmothers themselves, whose thrifty 
fingers had woven it in days long past and gone. We 
see thus that upon the whole the wright wrought his 
manufacture out of his own more specific material, 
seldom, at any rate, poaching upon the preserves of 
his friend the smith. The smith worked in iron and 
the metals. This good old Saxon name, with the 
many quaint changes that have been rung upon it, 
deserves a whole chapter to itself How then can we 
hope to do justice to it in a few sentences ? We do 
not know where to begin, and having once begun, the 
difficulty at once arises as to where we can end. How 
few of us reflect upon the close connexion that exists 
between the anvil and the smith himself, and yet it is 
because he smote thereupon that he got his name. 
As old Verstigan has it : — 

From whence comes Smith, all be he knight or squire, 
But from the smith that forgeth at the fire ? 

Putting in all the needs which in this agricultural age 
his occupation would be necessary to supply, still we 
could scarcely account for the enormous prepon- 
derance he has attained over other artisans, did we 
not remember that his services would also be required 
in the production of warlike implements. Sword and 
ploughshare alike would be to his hands. Chaucer 
speaks of : — 

The smith 
That f()rj.^cth slmriic swonls on the stith. 


Between and including the years 1838 and 1854 there 
were registered as born, or married, or, dead, no less 
than 286,307 Smiths. Were we indeed to put into 
one community the persons who bear this name in 
our land, we should have a town larger than Leeds, 
and scarcely inferior in size and importance to that of 
the capital of the midland counties. 

The smith is often spoken of colloquially as the 
blacksmith, a title which, while it has not itself a place 
in our nomenclature, reminds us of others that have, 
and of a peculiar custom of earlier days. The word 
' blacksmith ' dates from the days of ' Cocke Lorelle's 
Bote,' and it is quite evident that at that time it was cus- 
tomary for the smith to have his name compounded 
with sobriquets according to the colour of the metal 
upon which he spent his energies. Thus the former 
'Thomas Brownesmythe' evidently worked in copper 
and brass, ' William le Whytesmyth' in tinplate, ' John 
Redesmith ' in gold, a ' Goldsmith ' in fact ; ' Richard 
Grensmythe' in I am not sure what, unless it be lead; 
and ' John Blackesmythe' in iron. The last is the only 
one I fail to discover as now existing among our sur- 
names — a circumstance, however, easily accounted for 
from the settled position the simple ' Smith' himself had 
obtained as an artificer of that metal. But these are not 
the only compounds. Our 'Smiths' are surrounded 
with connexions of not merely every hue, but every 
type. Thus * Arrowsmith,' already alluded to with its 
contracted ' Arsmith,' tells its own tale of archery ser- 
vice ; ' Billsmith ' and * Spcarsmith ' remind us of the 
lances, or rather lance heads, that did such duty in 
the golden days of Agincourt and Poicticrs. Of a 
more peaceful nature would be the work of our 


' Nasmyths,' like our * Naylors,' mere relics of the old 
nailsmith. Closely connected with them, therefore, 
we may set our ' Shoosmiths,'' but Saxon representa- 
tives of the Norman-introduced ' Farrier.' The sur- 
name still clings chiefly to the north of England, 
where the Saxon, retaining so much more of its 
strength and vigour than in the south, preserved it as 
the occupative term for centuries. Springtide and the 
approach of sheep-washing would see our * Sheer- 
smiths ' busy, while the later autumn would have its 
due effect upon the trade of our 'Sixsmiths' and 
' Sucksmiths,' pleasant though curiously corrupted 
memorials of the old sicklesmith, or ' Sykelsmith,' as 
I find the name spelt. The bucklesmith ('John Ic 
Bokelsmythc,' X.), whose name is referred to in the 
poem I have but recently quoted, has similarly and 
as naturally curtailed himself to ' Bucksmith.' ' Our 
' Bladesmiths ' fashioned swords, being found generally 
in fellowship with our ' Cutlers ' and obsolete * Knyfe- 
smythcs.' Our ' Locksmiths,' of course, looked to the 
security of door, and closet, and cupboard ; ^ while 
our 'Minsmiths' ('John le Mynsmuth,' M.), for I 
believe they arc not as yet quite obsolete, hard at 

' '-.Shuxsmith' seems but a corniption of tliis. The intermediate 
form is found in IVills ami Inventories (Ch. .Soc. ), in tlie names of 
'Margerie Shughsmythe ' and ' Ilcnry Shughsmythc.' 

* 'Buckler' may be mentioned here. 'John le Bockcler ' (A.), 
' Richard Bokelcr ' (Z). 

' With our 'Locksmiths' \vc must, of course, ally our ' Lockmans,' 
' Lockycrs,' and 'Lockers,' and perchance 'Lookers.' We find a 
'Henry le Lokier' set down in the Hundred Rolls, and in an old 
Oxford record, dated 1443, there occurs the name of ' Robert Harward, 
loker,' who doubtless found iilcnly of employment in providing for the 
security of the various rooms attached to the difTcrcnt colleges and halls. 
(Mun. Acad.Oxon, p. 535.) 


work in the mint smithy, forged the coin for the early- 
community. As, however, I shall have occasion to 
refer to him again I shall merely cite him, and pass 
on.^ But we may see from the little I have said that 
the smith never need fear obsoletism. Apart from 
his own immediate circle, he is surrounded by many, 
if not needy, yet closely attached relatives. We must 
not forget, however, that the Norman had his smith, 
too, and though the Saxon, as we have thus seen, has 
ever maintained his dignity and position, still our 
early rolls are not without a goodly number of * Adam 
le Fevres,' ' Richard le Fevers,' or ' Reginald le Feures,' 
and their cognate ' Alan le Ferons ' and ' Roger le 
Fenins.' Representatives of all these, minus the 
article, may be readily met with to-day in any of the 
large towns of our country. 

We may take this opportunity of saying a word 
about lead, inasmuch as the uses to which it was put 
made the manufacturer therein familiar to rural 
society. The leadbeater, in fact, was all-important to 

' There are several single represeniatives of occupations connected 
with the smith which I have not mentioned in the text, not having met 
with any trace of their continued existence amongst us. Thus, in the 
London Afemorials we find a 'John Chietesmyth,' which, so far, I have 
found to be wholly unintelligible. I must say the same in regard to 
' Cokesmyth,' occurring in the Boldon Book. 'John Rodesmith,' if not 
a scribe's error for 'Redesmith,' would be the manufacturer of the then 
familiar 'rood' or 'rode,' the cross which we occasionally may see still 
standing beside our old turnpikes. ' William Watersmith,' it is quite 
reasonable, may have spent his energies on water-wheels and such other 
machinery as helped to turn the mill. All these are now, and probably 
were then, almost immediately cbsolete. On the other hand, we have 
* Wildsmith' existing in our midst, only one representative of which am 
I able to discover in our olden records. It is just possible that, like the 
obsolete ' Youngsmith,' it originally referred to the characteristics of the 
man as well as of his trade. 


the farmer's wife and the dairy, for the vessels which 
held the milk, as it underwent its various processes 
until it was turned out into butter, were commonly his 
handiwork. Such names as ' Gonnilda le Leadbetre,' 
or ' Reginald le Ledbeter,' we find in every consider- 
able roll, and our modern ' Leadbeaters,' ' Ledbetters,' 
' Leadbitters,' ' Lidbetters,' and probably ' Libertys,' 
are but their descendants. That mixture of lead with 
brass or copper which went by the term of ' latten ' or 
' laton ' has left in our ' Latoners 'and 'Latners' a 
memorial of the metal of which our old country 
churchyard tablets were made, not to say some of the 
household utensils just referred to. We find even 
more costly and ornamental ware manufactured of 
this, for among other relics preserved by the pardoner, 
Chaucer tells us : — 

He had a gobbet (piece) of the sail 
That seint Peter had, when that lie went 
Upon the sea, till Jesu Christ him hcnt. 
lie had a cross of laton, full of stones, 
And in a glass he had pig's bones. 

Such a name then as ' Thomas le Latoncr ' or 
' Richard le Latoner ' would be well understood by 
our forefathers. 

But we must not wander. In nothing does our 
nomenclature bequeath us a more significant record 
than in that which relates to the isolation of primitive 
life. We who live in such remarkable days of loco- 
motive appliance cannot possibly enter into the diffi- 
culties our forefathers had to encounter in regard to 
intercommunication. An all but impassable barrier 
separated our villages from the larger and distant 
towns. The roads, or rather, not to dignify them by 


such a term, the tracks,^ were sometimes scarce 
to be recognised, everywhere rough and dangerous. 
Streams, oftentimes much swollen, must be forded. 
Where bridges existed our ' Bridgers ' and ' Bridge- 
mans ' took the king's levy ; where none were to be 
found our ' Ferrimans ' rendered their necessary aid. 
The consequent difficulties with regard to conveyance 
were great. The larger of the county towns carried 
on but an uncertain aud irregular communication, 
while the remoter villages were wholly dependent 
either on the travelling trader or peddler, or on the 
great fair, as it came round in its annual course. 
What a stock of goods would be laid in by the 
bustling wife, and the farmer himself on this latter 
occasion ! Imagine them starting forth to lay in a 
supply for a whole year's wants. No wonder the 
good, sound cob and the stout wagon it drew arc 
remembered in our surnames. Of the importance of 
the former such names as ' Horsman,' if it be not 
official, and * Palfreyman,' or ' Palfriman,' not to 
mention ' Asseman,' are good witnesses. Such en- 
tries as ' Agnes le Horsman,' or ' Roger le Pale- 
freyour,' or ' John le Palfreyman ' are familiar to 
every early register. Our * Tranters ' and * Traunters ' 
are but relics of the old * Traventcr,' he who let out 

' The roads between Cumberland and Northumberland were of the 
roughest and most dangerous character till the seventeenth century, when 
General Wade, in the course of his progress against the rebels, laid 
down some of a better kind. The following couplet has been handed 
down as the effort of some local poet : — 
' If you'd ever been here 
When these roads were not made. 
You would lift up your hands 
And bless General Wade.' 


posthorses. In process of time, however, he got 
numbered among the many itinerant peddlers or 
carriers, of whom I shall speak shortly. Bishop Hall, 
in one of his Satires, says — 

And had some traunting chapman to his sire, 
That trafficked both by water and by fire, 

Our * Corsers ' ' or ' Cossers,' too, little altered from 
the former * le Corsour,' represent, as did the obsolete 
' Horsmongcr,' the dealer in horseflesh. Another 
branch of this occupation is represented by our * RiTn- 
chemans,' * Runcimans,' or ' Runchmans.' They 
dealt in hackney-horses, * rounce ' or * rouncie ' being 
the then general term for such. Chaucer's 'Ship- 
man ' was mounted upon one — 

For aught I wot, he was of Dertemouth, 
He rode upon a rouncie, as he couthe. 

It was, however, a term applied in common to all 
manner of horses, and it is quite possible the names 
given above must be classed simply with ' Horseman ' 
and such like. Brunnc, in describing Arthur's Coro- 
nation, mentions among other his gifts — 

Gootl palfreys he gave to clerks 
Bows and arrows he gave archers, 
Runces good unto squicrs.* 

' In the Rolls of Parliament special mention is made of the King's 
Corser, he who acted as the kin ;'s agent in regard to the purchase of 
horses. A certain 'Johannes Martyr, corsere,' occurs in an old Oxford 
record, dated 145 1. {Mun Acad. Oxott, p. 616.) 

* Thus, in the Itiucrariuni of Richard I., it is said that, after a con- 
flict with the Greeks, ' Rex igitur cum pcrsecutus esset iniperatorem 
fugientem lucratus est runcinum vcl jumentum sacculo retro sellam 
collocato,' &c. — P. 191. We may quote, also, the Wardrobe of 
Edward I. ; ' Magistro Willelmo dc Apperlc, pro restauro unius run- 


In such grand-looking entries as ' William le 
Charreter,' or 'John le Caretter,' or 'Andrew le 
Chareter,' ^ we should now scarce recognise the humble 
' Carter,' but so is he commonly set down in the thir- 
teenth century, our * cart ' itself being nothing more 
than the old Norman-French ' charette,' so familiarized 
to us by our present Bible version as ' chariot.' This 
in the edition of 161 1 even was spelt after the old 
fashion as * charet' Our * Charters ' are evidently 
but relics of the fuller form, a ' John le Charter ' ap- 
pearing in the Parliamentary Writs. '^ ' Char,' the 
root of ' charet,' still remains with us as * car.' In 
' Cursor Mundi ' it is said — 

Nay, sir, but ye must to him fare, 
He hath sent after thee his chare. 

Gower, too, has the word — 

With that she looked and was war, 
Doun fro' the sky ther cam a char, 
The which dragons aboute drew. 

This was used by people of rank as a fashionable 
vehicle for purposes of pleasure ; oftentimes, too, by 
ladies.^ Corresponding with the other, the driver of 

cini favi appreciati pro Roberto de Burton, valletto suo, &c., 8/.' — 
P. 172. 

1 The Test. Ebor. (W. 2) gives us a 'John Charioteer,' and the Cat. 
Proc. Chancery (Z.Z.) a 'Thomas Charietter.' 

2 This is confirmed by the existence of ' Chartman,' more modernly 
'Cartman.' A ' John Chartman ' was rector of Sedistern, Norfolk, in 
1361. (Bromefield.) 

» The following entry is found in the Issue Rolls : ' To Master 
William la Zousche, clerk of the king's great wardrobe in money, paid 
to him by the hands of John le Charer, for making a certain chariot for 


such was * John le Charer ' or ' Richard le Charrer,' 
the present existing forms in our directories being 
' Charman ' and * Carman.' ' ' Cartman,' I need not 
add, is also found as well as ' Carter.' All these 
terms, however, are from the Norman vocabulary. 
The Saxon word in general use was ' wagon ' or 
' wain,' the conductor of which now dwells in our 
midst as ' Wagoner ' or ' Wagner,' and ' Wainman ' 
or ' Wenman.' ' Charles Wain ' or the ' Churls Wain ' 
is the name that constellation still bears, and which 
has clung to it, in spite of the Norman, since the day, 
a thousand years and more, that the Saxon so likened 
it. As in the case of so many other double words 
representative of our twofold language, these two 
separate terms have come now to denote their own 
specialty of vehicle, and it [is even possible that so 
early as the day in which ' le Wainwright ' and * le 
Cartwright ' took their rise this distinction had 

the use and behoof of Lady Eleanor, the king's sister, by writ of Hbcrate 
containing I ooo/.' {Issues of the Ji\c/ie(juer, 6 Ed. IIL) Capgrave, 
too, may be cited. Writing of IleHanore, daughter to the King of 
France, when given to Richard of England, he says, under date 1394: 
' She was ful scarsly viii yere of age, but she brought oute of Frauns xii 
chares ful of ladies 'and domicelles.' Mr. Way says that in 1294 the 
use of this vehicle by the wives of wealthy citizens in Paris had 
become so prevalent that it was forbidden them by an ordinance of 
Philippe le Bel. 

• 'Couchman' and 'Coachman' must be set here. 'Aug. 4, 
1640. Dorothy Coachman, daughter of Tilncy Coachman, buried ' 
(.Smith's Obituary, p. 17). This Tilney is recorded elsewhere as 'Til- 
ney Couchman.' Mr. Wedgewood says, 'Coach. The Fr. couchcr 
became in Dutch koetsen — to lie ; whence " koetsc," a couch — a litter, 
a carriage in which you may recline, a coach ' (p. 159). The two- 
fold spelling of this Tilney's name is thus explained. Hence, too, 
' Couchmen ' represents but the older form of ' Coachman '^Richard 
Couchman, Z., 'William Cowcheman,' EE., John Coacheman, Z. 


already begun to exist. It is thus our English lan- 
guage has become so rich, this sheep-and-mutton 
redundancy of which Walter Scott in his * Ivanhoe * 
has so well reminded us. ' Richard le Drivere ' or 

* John le Drivere ' of course must be placed here, not 
to mention an ' Alice le Driveress,' who figures in the 
Hundred Rolls, 

Of such consequence was it that the horse-gear 
should be carefully put together that it occupied the 
full attention of several different artisans. Such 
names as * Benedict le Sporier,' or ' Alan le Lorymer,' 
or ' Nicholas le Lorimer,' are found in every consider- 
able roll of the period, and they still exist. The one 
of course looked to the rowel, the other to the bit. 

* John le Sadeler ' needs little explanation, his pos- 
terity being still alive to speak in his behalf. The 
old Norman-introduced word for a saddle was ' sell,' 
and that it lingered on for a considerable period 
is shown by Spenser's use of it, where he says — 

And turning to that place, in which whyleare 
He left his loftie steed with golden sell, 
And goodly gorgeous barbes. 

Every mediaeval roll has its ' Warin le Seler ' or 

* Thomas le Seller.'' The pack-saddle was of such 
importance that it required a special manufacturer, 
and this it had in our now somewhat rare * Fusters ' or 

> In the York Pageant the ' Sellers ' and the ' Satellers ' went to- 
gether. The latter, doubtless, made satchels, and would differ little 
from the ' bourser ' or ' pouchemaker ' of that period. In the Prompt. 
Parv. we find ' Sele, horsys hameys.' A 'John de Essex, Sel- 
makere,' occurs in the London Records, 1310, and a ' Robert Newcomen, 
Sealmaker,' 131 1. (Riley's London, pp. xxii., xxx.) The latter, 
doubtless, was a maker of seals, like some of the ' le Selers' of this 
period. I have mentioned lliem elsewhere. 



' Fewsters.' ^ In his ' Memorials of London/ Mr. 
Riley mentions a * Walter Polyt, fuyster ' (p. xxii.). 
A fuster was, strictly speaking, a joiner employed in 
the manufacture of the saddle-bow, that is, the wooden 
framework of the old saddle. It is derived from the 
French 'fust,' wood, and that from the late Latin 
' fustis.' Our ' Shoosmiths,' as I have before hinted, 
made the horseshoe, while ' John le Mareshall,* or 

* Ranulph le Marescal,' or ' Osbert le Ferrur,' or 
' Peter le Ferrour,' fitted it to the foot. The modern 
forms are simple ' Marshall,' and * Ferrier,' or ' Ferrer.' 
In the ' Boke of Curtasye ' it is said — 

For cclie a hors that ferroure schallc scho, 
An halpeny on day he takes hym to. 

Nothing could be more natural than that the shoeing- 
forge should become associated with the doctoring of 
horseflesh, but it is somewhat strange that when we 
now speak of a farrier we recognise in this old term ^ 
simply and only the horse-leech. So full of changes 
are the lives of words, as well as places and people. 

A curious insight into mediaeval travel is presented 
to our notice in our ' Ostlers ' and ' Oastlers ' and 

* Osiers,' relics of such old registries as ' Ralph le 
Hostiler' or 'William Ic Ostillcr.' This term, once 
applied, as it rightly should, to the ' host ' or ' hosteller ' 
himself, has now become confined to the stableman, 
thus incidentally reminding us how important this 
part of the hostel duties would be at such a time as 
I am endeavouring to describe. The idea of the 

' While, as I have just said, in the ItV/t /'/^w;// it is the 'Satellers|' 
and ' Sellers' who go together, in the Chester Play it is the ' Saddlers' 
and * Fustcrers.' 

* In Holland's version of Pliny it is said that the Empress Poppxa 
' was knowne to cause her ferrers ordinarily to shoe her coach horses 
and other pjilfries, &c., with clcanc gold.' (Way's Piviiipt, Par.) 


hosteller being one whose especial office it was to 
tend that which was their sole means of locomotion, 
thus in time resolved itself into a distinct name for 
that branch of his occupation.* The old ' Herber- 
jour' gave lodging, whence it is we get our ' arbour.' 
Our kings and barons in their journeys always kept an 
officer so termed, whose duty it was to go before and 
prepare and make ready for their coming. Owing to 
the large number of household attendants for whom 
lodging was required, this was an important and 
responsible duty. Thus has arisen our 'harbinger,' 
so often poetically applied to the sun as heralding the 
approach of day. The older spelling is preserved in 
the ' Canterbury Talcs,' where it is said — 

The fame anon throughout the towTi is born, 
How Alia King shal come on pilgrimage, 
By herbergeours that wenten him beforn. 

It is, however, as applied to lodging-house keepers 
our many enrolled 'Herbert le Herberjurs,' 'Roger le 
Herberers,' ' William le Herbers,' or ' Richard le Hare- 
bers,' are met with, and I doubt not our ' Harbers ' 
and ' Harbours ' are their offspring. In this sense the 
word is used by our mediaeval writers in all its forms, 
whether verb, or adjective, or substantive. Tyndale's 
version of Romans xii. 13 is, ' Be ready to harbour,' 
where we now have it ' given to hospitality.' Bishop 
Coverdale, speaking of the grave, says — ' TJicrc is 
the harborough of all flesh ; there lie the rich and 
the poor in one bed ' {Fruitful Lessons). He adds 
also, in another place, that Abraham was ' liberal, 

* A suggestion I receivedat a dinner-table the other clay that 'ostler' 
was merely a corruption of ' oat-stealer ' I may as well mention here. It 
is certainly suggestive, if not overburdened with accuracy. 

U 3 


merciful, and harborous ' — i.e., ready to entertain 
strangers {The Old Faith). Bradford, too, to give 
but one more quotation, prays God may ' sweep the 
houses of our hearts, and make them clean, that they 
may be a worthy harborough and lodging for the 
Lord' {Bradford's IVorhs). Market Harborough 
still preserves this old word and its true sense 
from being forgotten. With the bearers, therefore, of 
the above names we may ally our * Inmans ' and 
* Taverners.' The latter term is frequently found in 
early writings, and was evidently in ordinary use for 
the occupation — 

Ryght as of a tavernere 
The grene busche that hangcth out 
Is a sygiie, it is no dowte, 
Outward folkys for to telle 
That within is wyne to selle. 

While, however, the tavern has undergone but little 
change, the inn has. With our present Bible an inn 
is ever a lodging, and this was once the sole idea the 
term conveyed. It was not for casual callers by day, 
but for lodgers by night. Thus Chaucer in his 
' Knight's Tale ' uses the verb — 

This Theseus, this duk, this worthy knight, 
When he had brought them into his cite. 
And ynned them, everich (each) at his dcgrc 
He festeth them. 

Until the fair or wake came on, as I have said, the 
community in the more retired nooks and corners of 
the country depended entirely on the mounted mer- 
chant. He it was who conveyed to them the gossip 
of the time. He it was, or one of his confrhes, that 


brought them everything which in those days went 
under the category of small luxuries. The more 
lonely parts of the highway were infested by robbers. 
Hence the pack-horsemen and other mounted traders 
generally travelled in company, with jingling bell and 
belted sword — a warning to evil-minded roadsters. 
This was all the more necessary as they but seldom 
kept to the main thoroughfare. A straight line 
between the adjacent hamlets best describes their 
course. Such local terms as ' Pedlar's Way,' or ' Ped- 
der's Way,' or * Copmansford,' still found in various 
parts of the country, are but interesting memorials of 
the direct and then lonely route these itinerant traders 
took in passing from one village to another. The 
number of these roadsters we cannot otherwise speak 
of than as that of a small army. Many of them, so 
far as our nomenclature is concerned, are now obsolete, 
but not a few still survive. Amongst those of a more 
general character we find ' Sellman ' or ' Selman.'^ 
From the old verb ' to pad,' which is still used 
colloquially in many districts, for the sober and staid 
pace the pack-horsemen preserved, we get our ' Pad- 
mans ' and ' Pedlers,' or * Pedlars,' once inscribed as 
' William le Pedeleure ' or ' Thomas le Pedeler.' It 
is of kin to ' path.' We still talk of a 'footpad,' who 
not more than two centuries ago would aho have been 
spoken of as a * padder.' So late as 1726 Gay, in one 
of his ballads, says — 

Will-a-wisp leads the traveller a-gadding 

Through ditch and through quagmire and bog, 

No light can e'er set me a-padding 

But the eyes of my sweet Molly Mogg. 

' ' William le Vcndour ' is registered in the Cal. Rot, Chartanmi. 


Perchance of similar origin, but more probably from 
the old ' ped,' the basket they carried, are our ' Ped- 
ders,' ' Peddars,' and ' Pedmans.' * Martin le Peddere ' 
or 'Hugh le Pedder' or 'William Pedman' was a com- 
mon entry at this time. On many parts of the English 
coast a fish-basket is still familiarly known as a ' ped,' 
and Mr. Halliwell, I see, quotes from another writer 
a statement to the effect that in Norwich, up to a 
recent day, or even now, an assemblage whither 
women bring their small wares of eggs, chickens, and 
other farm produce for sale, is called a ' ped-market.' 
It is likely, therefore, that with these we must ally 
' Godewyn le Hodere' or 'John le Hottere,' who 
derived their sobriquets, I doubt not, from the fact of 
their carrying their liods or panyers on their backs, 
just as masons do now those wooden trays for mortar 
which bear the same name.' Their very titles remind us 
that our 'Huckers,' 'Hawkers,' and 'Hucksters,' relics 
of the old ' William le Huckere,' ' Simon le Hauckere,* 
or ' Peter Ic Huckster,' were from the first good at hag- 
gling and chafi'ering wherever a bargain was concerned. 
Our ' Kidders,' the ' William le Kydcrcs ' of the four- 
teenth century, were of a similar type, whatever their 
origin, which is doubtful. Probably, however, we must 
refer them to the ' kid ' or ' kit,' the rush-plaited basket 
they carried their goods in. We still speak of ' the whole 
kit of them,' meaning thereby the collective mass of 
any set of articles.'^ This view is strengthened — wc 

* Mr. Riley, in his interesting Memorials of London, quotes from 
the Rolls of Gaol Delivery, temp. Edward I., the name of 'Richard 
Witbred, hodere,' who had been slain in one of the city streets. (Intro- 
duction, p. xi.) 

* An act of Edward VI. speaks of ' the buying of anye come, fyshe, 
butler, or cheese by any suche Badger, Ladcr, Kyddicr, or Carrier as 


might almost say proved — by the fact of a ' Robert 
Butrekyde ' being found in the Hundred Rolls of this 
period. This would be a sobriquet given to some one 
from the basket he was wont to bear to and from 
the country market where he carried on his calling. 
Later on we find it used for a large mug or bowl. 
In the ' Farming Book of Henry Best,' written in 
1641, we find it said — ' Some will cutte their cake 
and putte (it) into the creame, and this feast is called 
the creame-potte or creame-kitte ' (p. 93). The 
kidder's usual confrhe was the * Badger ' — up to the 
seventeenth century an ordinary term for one who had 
a special licence to purchase corn from farmers at the 
provincial markets and fairs, and then dispose of it 
again elsewhere without the penalties of engrossing. 
It is generally said the sobriquet arose from the 
habits of the four-legged animal of that name in 
stealing and storing up the grain. The more pro- 
bable solution, however, is that it is but a corruption 
of ' baggager,' from his method of carriage. 

But we must not forget in our list of early English 
strolling merchants that the wandering friars them- 
selves were oftentimes to be met with bearing treasure 
wherewith to tempt the housewife, and no bad bar- 
gainers, if we may accept the statement made against 
them by an old political song : — 

There is no pedler that pak can here, 
That half so dere can selle his gere, 

shal be assigned and allowed to that office.' (5 & 6 Ed. VI. c. 14.) A 
confirmation of this act by Elizabeth alters 'Kyddicr' to 'Kydder.' 
The lader was the old carrier or leader. 1 have deferred speaking of 
him till my next chapter. 


Than a frere can do ; 
For if he give a wyfe a knyfe 

That cost but penys two, 
Worthe ten knyves, so may I thrive, 

He wyl have ere he go.' 

Our ' Tinklers ' and ' Tinkers,' like our more northern 
* Cairds,' seem to have been scarcely removed in 
degree from the strolling gipsies. They acquired 
their name from the plan they adopted of heralding 
their coming by striking a kettle, a plan of attracting 
attention more euphoniously practised by our bell- 
men, with whom we are still familiar. Such names 
as 'Alice Tynkeller* in the fourteenth century, or 
' Peter le Teneker ' found in the thirteenth century, 
show how early had this method been adopted and the 
sobriquet given.^ Last, but not least, come our * Chap- 
man ' or 'Copeman'^ and ' Packman.''* The former is 
sometimes met with as ' Walter' or 'John le Chepman,' 
whichat once reminds us of his ongin,thatof the 'cheap- 
man,' or ' cheap-jack,' as we should now style him. 

' The greed of these strolling ecclesiastics is frequently alluded to in 
the writings of this period. An old song on the Minorite friars says — 
' They preche alle of povert, but that love they naught, 
For gode mete to their mouthe the toun is through sought.' 

(Pol. Poems, \o\. i. p. 270.) 

' An act was passed in Edward VI. 's reign to suppress in some 
degree the nnmber of this wandering fraternity : — ' P'orasmuch as it is 
evident that Tynkers, Pcdlers, and sucli like vagrant persones are more 
hurtfull than necessarie to the Commcn Wealth of this rcalme, be 
it therefore ordeyncd . . , that ... no person or persones 
commonly called Pedler, Tynkcr, or Pety Chapman, shall wander or go 
from one towne to another, or from place to place, out of the towne, 
parishc, or village, where such person shall dwell, and sell pynnes, 
poyntes laces, gloves, knyves, glasses, tapes, or any suche kynde of wares 
whatsoever, or gather connye skynncs, &c.' {^J<- 6 Ed. VI. c. 21) 

* 'John le Coper' is found in the Hundred Rolls. 

* ' Lambert Hardewarcman ' (W. ii.) is met with in York in 1473. 
^Yhether he was a travelling dealer or no, I cannot say. 


The old * cheaping,' or ' chipping,' a market-place, still 
lingers locally in such place-names as * Chipping- 
Norton,' or ' Chipping-Camden,' or the local surname 
' Chippendale ; ' and the verb * to chop ' — i.e., to pur- 
chase, I believe, is not yet extinct amongst us. The 
once common phrase for selling and exchanging was 
* chopping and changing.' Coverdale uses it. Speak- 
ing of Christ driving out the money-changers from 
the Temple, he says, * The Temple was ordained for 
general prayer, thanksgiving, and preaching, and not 
for chopping and changing, or other such like things ' 
{The Old Faith). Thus the term 'chapman' would 
be no unmeaning one to our forefathers. But we 
must give him a paragraph to himself 

The chapman, you must know, was a great man. 
According to more modern usage, he had a fixed 
residence, but we may still see him at times, after the 
olden fashion, travelling about in a large booth-like 
conveyance or rumble. This vehicular mode of 
transit set him far above the rank of ordinary foot- 
pads. He was a sort of pedlar in high life, in fact, and 
if his position was lofty, his abilities were generally 
equal to a performance of its duties. O the sensation 
his arrival caused ! The village green was instantly 
instinct with life. From impossible nooks and cran- 
nies surged forth a small army of all ages. Hoarded 
pennies or twopennies were drawn forth from 
cherished hiding-places, and flinty maternal pockets 
were for the nonce assailed with comparative success. 
To the young folks it was the next best thing to Pun- 
chinello, the chapman was so funny. Jicsidcs, he had 
so many things wherewith to tempt their juvenile 
fancy. What was there he had not .-' Everything 


that could under any lax code of fancy possibly or 
impossibly come under the all-expansive term of 
hardware was crowded within the magic recesses of 
that chapman's van. Dolls and dishes, scissors and 
hats, cornplasters and cosmetics, lollipops in the shape 
of soldiers, and lollipops in the shape of windmills 
issued forth in a succession as insinuating to the 
purse as it was tempting to the imagination. And 
what a man was Jack himself; he had a joke for every- 
one, a frown for none. His face was an ever-changing 
picture, bluffed by the wind and burnt by the sun ; 
still it was ever cheery withal, now demure, half wag- 
gish, half impudent, anon all benevolence as he de- 
tails the merits of his latest painless corn-suppressing 
plaster, and assures the gaping swains that his sole 
object in life, since the happy moment when he first 
became acquainted with its virtues, has been to carry 
through the world the blissful tidings to suffering man. 
All this, he adds, with reckless impudence, has been 
done at a great personal pecuniary sacrifice ; but an 
approving conscience, and the blessings showered 
upon his head by the recipients of his generosity, have 
been his ample reward. Of course they sell like wild- 
fire, and the profits are enormous.' 

Our ' Packmans,' ' Taxmans,' and perhaps 'Packers,* 
were, as a rule, the village commissioners.* What a 
simple and homely state of life do their names sug- 

' It is to the humorous and familiar associations inseparably con- 
nected with the early chapman wc owe our 'chap,' a mere corniption of 
the above. 

' Mr. William Markcttman was appointed by the Committee of 
Plundered Ministers in 1650 to the Rectory of Elstrcc. (Cluttcrbuck's 
Hertford, vol. i. 161.) ' Articles exhibited against Clement Markelman, 
executor of Clement Stuppeney, &c.' {State Papers, ]\\\y t.^^, 1623.) 


gest. No half-hourly omnibus, or still more frequent 
train, whisked off the bustling housewife to the big 
town — now some sleepy old place with grass-grown 
streets, and half a century behind the times, where 
' news much older than the ale goes round ' — but then 
the thrifty emporium of cheese and butter and such 
like stores, and great in the eyes of country bumpkins. 
No ; if you visited the town in those days you must 
make a day of it. And the mistress knew better than 
do this. Leave her dairy, forsooth — what would be- 
come of the cream if she left Malkin to forget her 
work, and talk with Giles the cowboy behind the 
stable door all morning .-* She leave, indeed ! Of 
course she could not, so there was the pack-horseman, 
who for a trifling commission went to and from the 
market for her and her neighbours. As he returned 
in the cool of the evening, when the sun was low and 
work over, you might see him pausing awhile at the 
door of the farmsteads, long after he has given the 
mistress her store, and, more slily, Malkin her ribbon. 
He is in no hurry now, for he is telling the country 
folk all the news ; how the great world is wagging, 
and how there has been a great battk with the 
Frenchers some six or eight weeks ago (news, good 
or bad, did not travel fast in those days). The 
Frenchmen arc looked upon by the simple rustics 
as the very impersonification of iniquity, they being 
under a sort of impression that a P>cnchman is a 
being who defies God and man alike, and would think 
no bones of eating you up. At once the packman is 
plied for a full, true, and particular account of the 
battle, and he, there being none to gainsay his de- 
scription, and with an eye probably to the good wife's 


best ale, which, as he well knows from experience, will 
be brought forth with a freedom of hospitality propor- 
tionate to the horror of the details, fills up a bloody 
tale with sundry touches of a most tragic character, 
while the country folk gape in wide-mouthed terror, 
and the old grandmother cries ' Lord, ha' mercy on 
us ! ' His face is lost to sight once more in the ale 
jug, and then he passes on to other steads, where a 
similar scene and a similar reward await his thirsty 
soul. Another name in evident use for the packman 
was that of ' Sumpter,' ' Martin le Somcter ' or 
* William le Sumeter' being common entries at this 
time. We are still familiar with the term as applied 
to the mule or horse that carried the baggage, but in 
a personal sense it has long been extinct,* saving in 
our directories, where as ' Sumpter' and * Sumter' it is 
by no means seldom met with. How large a load 
these animals were required to bear we may picture to 
ourselves from a verse found in ' Percy's Reliques ' — 

But, for you have not furniture 

Beseeming such a guest, 
I bring his owne, and come mysclfc, 

To see his lodging drest. 

With that two sumpters-\vere discharged, 

In which were hangings brave, 
Silke coverings, curteins, carjiets, plate, 

And all such turn should have. 

But useful as were all these various itinerants, it 
was at the great yearly wakes or fairs, held in com- 
memoration of the church dedication, that the house- 
keepers round laid in their greatest store. The term 
' wake ' denotes ' a watching,' because of the vigil 

' ' Willmo Mone somctario ad unum somerum pro amiis Regis.' 
( Wardrobe of Edward I. , p. 77. ) 


observed during the night preceding the festival itself. 
Indeed ' wake ' and * watch ' were for centuries synony- 
mous words.' Wicklyfife translates Mark xii. 37 — 
' Forsooth, that that I say to you, I say to all, Wake 
ye.' ^ Thus it is that our * Wakemans ' are but me- 
morials of the old village guardian or night watchman, 
while our ' Wakes ' can boast a title dating so far 
back as the time when * Hereward the Wake,' or 
Watchful, was fighting the last battle of the down- 
trodden and oppressed Saxon.^ These fairs were by 
no means for mere pleasure-seekers, as we might ima- 
gine from such a term as ' church-ale,' or judging by 
the aspect of such festivals in the present day. They 
had an end to answer, and an important end, and in 
early times they fulfilled it. It was here the farmers 
round brought their produce, ready to sell their wool 
for good sound money, or to exchange it for commo- 

' Thus the somewhat incongruous expression in Psahn cxxvii. I, 
'the watchman waketh but in vain,' is explained. That a sentinel 
should require rousing is opposed to all our ideas of the duties asso- 
ciated with this office. It should be ' the watchman watcheth but in 

^ It is in allusion to the disturbance thus created in the small hours 
of the night we find a writer of the Stuart period saying, not unwittily, 
to one thus rudely aroused : — 

' That you are vext their 7ua/cc's your neighbours keep 
They guess it is, because you want your s/fep : 
I therefore wish that you your sleep would take, 
That they (without offence) might keep their rca/r. ' 

(Brand's /'i?/. Afi/. iii. 9.) 

* Isaac Wake was university orator in 1607. lie preached Rainold's 
funeral sermon. Dr. Sleep was the leading preacher in Cambridge at 
the same time. James I., who dearly loved a pun, said ' he always felt 
inclitied to Wake when he heard Sleep, and to Sleep when he heard 
Wake,' i.e., he could not decide on the relative merits of the two. 
(Brooks' Puritans, vol. ii. p. 180.) 


dities of which they stood in need. It was here the 
foreign trader came to purchase sheep-fells and other 
skins, soon, by transmission abroad, to be worked up 
by Flemish hands into good broadcloth, and re- 
transmitted again to London or provincial marts. 
Edward the Confessor obtained a sum of 70/., an 
immense amount at such a time as this, from the toll- 
age at a fair held in Bedfordshire. Of many cele- 
brated fairs, those of Smithfield on St. Bartholomew's 
Day (which still exists as a kind of perpetual one), 
York, Winchester, and Ely seem to have been the 
most frequented. That in the Isle of Ely was kept 
up on and for some days after the feast of St. Aw- 
drey, or Audrey, the corrupted name of St. Etheldreda, 
which as a surname our ' Awdreys ' still preserve. 
This seems to have become specially noted for its sale 
of trinkets, toys, and cheap and gay laces — so much 
so that in course of time ' tawdry,' or St.-Awdry, ware 
became the colloquial and general term for such. 
Drayton we even find using the word substantively 
when he says : — 

Of which the Naiads and blue Nereids make 
Them tawdries for their neck.' 

Of the still greater one held at Winchester, we find 
Piers the Plowman speaking : — 

To Wye and to Winchester 

I went to the fair, 
With many manner merchandise, 

As my master me hight : 
But it had been unsold 

These seven years, 

' Thus, in the lVi}itcr''s Talc, the servant says : ' I have done. Come, 
you promised me a tawdry-lacc and a pair of gloves.' 


So God me help, 

Had there not gone 
The grace of guile 

Among my chaffer. 

The ' Wife of Bath,' too, has a word to say upon this 
subject. Says she : — 

I governed them so wel after my lawe, 
That eche of them ful blissful was and fa we 
To bringen me gay thinges fro the feyre. 

What a picture does all this present to our eye. We 
can see the circular stand of booths belting the rails 
of the quaint belfried edifice, sometimes, I am afraid, 
the sacred precincts within.^ Behind these we may 
note how busy are our * le Stallers ' and * le Stall- 
mans,' now found also as ' Stalman ; ' not to say our 
' Stallards,' that is, stall-wards, and obsolete ' le Ven- 
dours.' No infliction too severe can be made upon 
their readiness to please. Elbowing and chaffering 
and good-humoured haggling are the order of the day. 
Here the stupid, happy swain, with his be-ribboned 
sweetheart tucked under his arm, is buying their little 
stock wherewith to start life ; here the child is made 
blissful with a trumpet, and the hoary-headed rustic 
gets a warmer cap for his crown. Here, too, it is that 
the chapman and other of his confrhes, as I have 
already hinted, are buying in their varied commodi- 
ties. All alike are well catered for. When we talk 
of * packing up our duds,' few of us, I imagine, are 
aware that we are using a word of most familiar im- 
port in long generations gone by. A ' dud ' then was 
a coarse, patched linen gown, gaudy in colour, made 

• A law was passed at Winchester in 1285 that no fair or market 
should be held in the churchyard, as had previously been the case. 


up in fact of variegated pieces of this material. Hence 
he who sold such cheap, flashy goods at a fair, any old 
fripperer in truth, was styled a ' dudder ' up to com- 
paratively recent times, and the booth itself a * dud- 
dery.' ' Duderman ' and ' Dudder ' (now obsolete), 
' Dudman ' and ' Dodman,' are all, I doubt not, but 
interesting memorials of this once flourishing lower 
class trade. Such names as ' Thomas Dudman * or 
' Ralph Deuderman ' greet us occasionally in the olden 
rolls. * William Fairman,' * found in the Parliamentary 
Writs, would be, I suppose, a more general vendor. 
He has not a few descendants. 

But while bartering and the purchase and sale 
of these varied household commodities occupied no 
small amount of attention, such a sober mode of pass- 
ing the fairtide was very far from being the intention 
of the younger and gayer portion of the assemblage ; 
nor was there, indeed, any lack of that which could 
feed or give zest to their relish for amusement, though 
it was not always of the most innocent nature. Our 
' Champions' and ' Campions' are but relics of the old 
'William Ic Champion,'^ or ' Katcrine Ic Chaumpion,' 
a sobriquet which would easily affix itself to some 
sturdy and swarthy rustic who had thrown his adver- 
sary in the wrestling ground. This has ever been a 
popular sport amid our more rural communities. The 
Miller, Chaucer says : — 

• The same record, however, contains a 'rairnmn Allierd,' so that, 
like 'Coleman' and 'Batcman,' it may have been but a personal 

* It is from this same root lliat our ' Kemp' is derived, meaning a 


Was a stout carl for the nones, 
Fill bigge he was of braun, and eke of bones, 
That proved wel, for over all ther he came, 
At wrestling he would bear away the ram. 

In an old poem I have already quoted, the mother 
warns her daughter : — 

Go not to the wrestling, nor shooting the cock, 
As it were a stmmpet or a giglot. ' 

Doubtless such a sobriquet as * Richard le Fytur,' that 
is * Fighter,' would be but representative of the same. 
The country folks were not slow, too, to copy their 
masters, and in the friendly joust the former, ' Thomas 
le Justere ' or ' Robert le Justure,' would brace him- 
self amid the excited ring to unseat his fellow-swain, 
affording much sport to the on-looking wags. 

By the maypole you may see the conjuror, or 
'Wiseman,' as he was generally termed, battening 
himself upon the superstitious minds of the assembled 
hinds. In the Hundred Rolls he figures as * Wysman ' 
and ' Wyseman.' A little further on our ' Players ' 
would be enacting their mummery. The great crowd 
there in the corner are watching the showman with 
his dancing bear, a yearly treat the younger holiday- 
seekers always appreciated. What a change has 
come over our P^nglish habits with regard to this 
animal. Dancing was the least cruel of the sports 
connected with it. Time was when every noble of 
position had his bears and his bearward, when even 
royalty could boast a master of the king's bears, and 

' In the Complaint of the rioioniait, too, we are told tiiat the priests 
were always — 

' At the wrestling and the wake, 
And chief chantours at the nalc.' 


when as a pastime the bear-baiting took an easy pre- 
eminence in the eyes of all holiday folk. A skit on 
the Earl of Warwick, banished to the Isle of Man, 
written 1399, says: — 

A bereward found a rag : 

Of this rag he made a bag : 

He dude in gode entent. 
Thorwe the bag the bereward is taken ; 
All his beres have hym forsaken. 

Thus is the berewardc schent. ' 

In one of our earlier rolls I find several names that 
bear relation to this familiar sport. Of such are 
' Geoffrey Bearbaste ' and ' Alexander Bcarbait.' 
More common to us in the present day, however, are 
the descendants of the more simple * Berward ' 
(' Michael le Berward,' H.R.) and ' Bearman,' or 
' Berman ' (' Ralph Bareman,' H. R.). In ' Cocke 
Lorelle's Bote ' mention is made of — 

Jenkyne Berwarde of Barwyche. 

Whether 'Jenkyne' was a mythic personage, or 
whether any of our present ' Berwards ' are his lineal 
issue, I cannot pretend to say.'^ Any way, however, 

' In the Household Book of the Earl of Northumberland, in l^ii, 
under the head of 'Rewards,' is one of '6^. 8</. to the Kyngs and 
Queencs Barward, if they have one, when they come to the Earl' (Way), 
In the Parliamentary Rolls mention is made concerning the ' Bere- 
maistre of the Forest of Peake.' It was not till 1835 t'l^t bear or bull 
baiting was finally forbidden by Act of Parliament. 

* An old tavern-sign in Cheshire bore the following inscription : — 

' Good hear sold here, 
Our own Bruin.' 

The book which records this quotes from the Cougleton Tmvn Register : 
' 1599. — Paid the bearward, 4J. 4^/.' ' 1601. — Gave the bcarward at 
the great cock-fight, 6^. 8^/.' (Cheshire Ballads, p. 259.) 


the name would be common enough then. Bull as 
well as bear baiting, I need not say, was a popular 
pastime with our forefathers. We still talk of bull- 
dogs. Probably our ' Bullards ' could formerly have 
told us something about this. Fit rival to these latter, 
you may see the ' Cockman,' or, as he was more gene- 
rally termed, the ' Cocker,' matching his birds in the 
adjacent pit. The author of the 'Townley Mysteries ' 
does not give the cocker a good character — at least 
he places him in very bad company — 

These dysars, and these hullars, 
These cokkers, and these bullars, 
And alle purse cuttars, 

Be welle ware of these men. 

Among other instances the Hundred Rolls furnish us 
with ' Simon le Cockere ' and ' William le Koker.' 

Professional dancers, I need scarcely say, were 
seldom absent from the mediaeval festival. Tripping 
it lightly to some Moorish round, we may see such 
folk as ' Harvey le Danser ' or * Geoffrey le Hop- 
pere,' inciting the younger villagers to follow their 
example. The latter name, which occurs frequently 
at this time, reminds us that our modern slang term 
* hop ' has but restored the ancient use of this word. 
Our Prayer-Book version of the Psalms still employs 
the verb in the verse, * Why hop ye so, ye high 
hills ? ' ' — and Chaucer, in picturing the merry 'pren- 
tice, says — 

At every bridale woukl he sing and hoppe ; 
He loved bet the taverne than the shoppe. 

> A stoiy is tokl of an officious clerk belonging to an old rural church 
v*'ho, overwhelmed with the honour of having a bishop presiding at a 
visitation there, ransacked his brains for something worthy the occasion, 

X 2 


The feminine ' hoppestere,' which he also uses, does 
not sound quite so euphonious. In the ' Pardoner's 
Tale,' among other of the dissolute folk in Flanders, 
are mentioned * tombcsteres ' — 

And right anon in comen tombesteres 
Fetis and smale, and yonge fruitesteres. 

These, I doubt not, were female dancers, and per- 
formers of such bodily gyrations and flexions as 
mountebanks are still skilled in. The masculine 
form is found in such an entry as 'William le Tum- 
bere,' whom we should now, so far as his professional 
tricks were concerned, term a tumbler. 

All this time the mirth of music is at its loudest, 
though it is somewhat hard to separate the tones of 
the various rival minstrels. There is a trio in one 
corner by the tavern door there, discoursing sounds 
which are certainly equal, if not superior, to the 
Teutonic bands of more modern days. Indeed, with 
regard to the latter, I am beginning to suspect the 
conjecture of a friend of mine to be perfectly true — 
that they are German convicts shipped off, with 
cracked and second-hand trumpets, by the Commis- 
sioners of Police to save their keep. It is, however, 
right perhaps that the country which sends us the 
best should also have the option of sending us the 
worst music in the world. The trio we may see here, 

and then in stentorian voice gave out, instead of the usual Sternhoklic 
lines, the following variation : — 

' Ye little hills and dales, 

Why do ye skip and hop ? 
Is it l)ecause yer glad to see 
His Grace the Lord Bish-op ?' 


at any rate, have one advantage — that of their poetic 
mediaeval costume. The first we may notice is the 

* Fiddler,' represented by such men as ' Robert Fyffud- 
lere,' or 'John le Fythelere,' or the Latinized 

* Rulard Vidulator.* This last reminds us that it is 
now also written ' Vidler.' He of course played on 
the violin, for I must not say ' fiddle,' it is far too 
Saxon, for modern cultivated days. The Clerk of 
Oxenforde seems to have been superior to the 
generality of later university men, for he had — 

Liefer have at his beddes head 
A twenty bokes, clothed in black or red, 
Of Aristotle and his philosophic, 
Than robes riche, or fidel, or sautrie. 

Certainly time effects wonderful changes. But I 
doubt whether even he would have found much profit, 
not to say pleasure, in the study of Aristotle, or any 
other philosopher, had he been subjected to the daily 
practice of a well-scraped viol in an adjacent dormi- 
tory,' the author of which could boast but one tune in 
his repertoire, and was determined that every one 
should know it. After the Fiddler — Saxon or no 
Saxon, I'll stick to it for the nonce — comes the ' Piper ' 
with his reedy stop, and next to him the ' Taborer ' 
beating his drum with such rare effect as to make him 
the very idol of the youngsters. Spenser calls him 
the ' tabrere,' which form, as well as ' Tabrar,' ' Tab- 
berer,' ' Tabor,' and ' Tabcr,' still exists in our 

• Curiously enough, we have the name of ' Robert Ilarpniaker' men- 
tioned in an old Oxford record, 1452. (Mun. AaiJ. Oxoii.) This %vc 
may look upon, therefore, as an old -standing nuisance. 


I saw a shole of shepherds out go, 
Before them yode a kisty tabrcre, 
That to the merry hornpipe plaid, 
Whereto they danced. 

Such entries as ' Arnold le Pyper,' or ' Robert le 
Pipere,' or ' William le Tabourer,' or ' John le Ta- 
burer,' are of frequent occurrence in mediaeval rolls. 

The pipe, the tabor, and the trembling crowd, 

is the order of the gentle author of the ' Faerie Queen ; ' 
so having disposed of the two former, the ' Crowder 
with his six-stringed viol duly engages our attention 
next, though he ought more correctly to have been 
yoked with the ' Fiddler.' ' Crouth ' was but another 
form of the same word. An old Saxon Psalter thus 
renders Psalm cl. 4 — 

Loves him in crouth and timpane, 
Loves him in stringes and organe. 

Wickly fife, too, translates Luke xv. 25 as follows : — 
' But his eldre sone was in the fecld, and whaune he 
cam and ncighcdc to the hous he herde a symfonye 
and a crowde.' ' Like our ' Harpers ' and more 
northern ' Bairds,' the ' Crowder ' or ' Crowther ' (for 
as surnames both forms exist) was oftentimes blind, 
and thus gained the car of an audience, if not appre- 
ciative, at least sympathetic. Seldom, indeed, did he 
leave cottage, or hall festival, or fair, without a 
guerdon, and a kind word to boot ; for while customs 
fade out and die, pity, thank God, knows neither 
change of season nor chance of time. Mediaeval forms 

' Burton, in his Anatomy of Mt!aiuJto!y, says : ' Let them freely 
feast, sing, and dance, have their poppet-playes, hobby-horses, tabers, 
crouds, bag-pipes,' &c. (P, 276.) 


of the above may be found in * Richard le Cruder ' or 
' Thomas le Crowder.' But we have yet several more 
surnames to mention which prove the once great popu- 
larity of this latter class of instrument. ' German le 
Lutrere ' and ' John le Leuter ' have left no descen- 
dants, I think.^ The more common term was lutan- 
ist, but of this I have found no instance. While the 
lute had generally ten strings, and was struck by the 
hand, the viele or viol had six, was of stronger make, 
and was played with a bow It seems to have been a 
favourite instrument in the thirteenth and fourteenth 
centuries, for such registrations as ' Benedict le Viler,' 
'Nicholas le Vylour,' 'Wyot le Vilur,' or 'Jacob le 
Vielur,' occur with tolerable frequency at that period. 
Another Norman-introduced v/ord was that of ' gigue,' 
or ' gig-' This, however, seems to have differed from 
the others in being of the very roughest manufacture, 
and made specially for professional dancers. These 
' giguers ' were extremely popular at rural festivals of 
any kind. At one and the same instant they would 
be tripping it round on the ' light fantastic toe,' 
singing some not too select verses, accompanying 
themselves on their sturdy instrument, and yet would 
have a hand to spare for a trifle if you should offer it. 
If you doubted it you had but to try them. It is 
thus we have got our 'jig,' our 'gigot,' or leg of 
mutton, too, being so called from its resemblance 
thereto. The surnominal form is found in such 
entries as ' Walter le Gigur,' or ' Alexander le Gygur,' 

• The names of 'William Elyott, lutcr,' and 'William Spenser, 
harpour,' occur in 1432 in an old York will. {Test. Eboracatsia, vol. ii. 
p. 21, Surtees Soc.) ' Haunce (Hans) the luter ' and ' Philip the Inter' 
are frequently mentioned in Privy Expenses (Princess Mary). 


but I doubt whether either is represented now. The 
last of this class of instrumentalists we may mention 
is ' William le Sautreour,' he who struck the ' gay 
sawtrye,' as Chaucer terms it. The more correct 
form of the word was 'psaltery.' It was specially 
used as an accompaniment for the voice, hence it is 
freely used in this sense in the Authorized Version. 
I do not doubt myself that some of our * Salters ' are 
but a change rung on the mediaeval ' Sawtrer.' The 

* Fluter,' I believe, has left no descendants, but in 

* Nicholas le Flontere ' he was to be met with at this 
date, and, I need not say, would be as familiar as he 
would be acceptable on such an occasion as this. The 
lusty young Squire was so musical that — 

Singing he was, or floyting alle the day, 
He was as freshe as is the month of May. 

There is one name I must mention here, that of 
' Peter le Organer,' ' perhaps connected with ' Orgcr ' 
of the same date. The owner of this more modern- 
looking term may either have been organist at some 
monastery or abbey-church, or he may have played 
upon the portable regal, in which latter case he too 
might possibly have been seen here. But ' organ ' 
was a very general term. In the old psalters it seems 
to have been used for nearly every species of in- 
strument. We should scarcely speak now of ' hanging 
up our " organs " upon the willows,' but so an old ver- 
sion of the Psalms has it. Did we not know they 
were a modern invention we might have been inclined 
to suspect * le Organer ' to have been but a strolling 

' This name evidently lasted till the seventeenth century, for in 1641 
an 'Adam Orgener' entered C. C. Coll. Cam. (Vide Masters' history 
of that college. ) 


performer upon the 'hurdy-gurdy.' That, however, 
was an infliction mercifully spared to our forefathers. 
In concluding this brief survey of medieval music, 
I cannot, I think, do better than quote, as I have 
done partially once before, Robert de Brunne's 
account of the coronation of King Arthur, wherein 
we shall find many, if not most, of the professional 
characters I have been mentioning familiarly spoken 
of. He says — 

Jogelours weren there enow 

That their quaintise forthe drew : 

Minstrels many with divers glew (glee) 

Sounds of hemes (trumps) that men blew, 

Harpes, pipes, and tabours, 

Fithols (fiddles), citolles (cymbals), sautreours, 

Belles, chimes and synfan 

Other enow and some I cannot name. 

Songsters that merry sung, 

Sound of glee over all rung ; 

Disours enow telled fables : 

And some played with dice at tables. 

But we are not without traces of the troubadour. 
The simple vocalist, a strolling professionalist, too, in 
many instances, remains hale and hearty in our 
' Glemans,' ' Gleemans,' and * Glemmans,' not to 
mention our * Sangsters.' Amid such lulls as might 
intervene, we should hear them at the popular festi- 
vals bidding for favour with their old-fashioned stories 
of ' hawk and hound,' and ' my ladyes bower,' set, 
no doubt, to airs equally a la mode. A contemporary 
poet tells us their song 

Hath been sung at festivals 
On ember eves, and holy-ales. 

The recitation of these stories seems to have been a 


peculiarly popular profession. Our ' Rhymers ' often- 
times showed their skill in the art of rhythmical 
narration by weaving the exploits they described into 
extempore verse.- The 'Juggler' or 'Joculator/ 
originally a minstrel or 'jester,' something akin to the 
clown of later days, became by-and-by more cele- 
brated for his skill in legerdemain than loquacity, and 
now little else is understood by the word. Almost 
every baron, and even the king himself, had his fa- 
vourite jester ; but it was an art put to the most cor- 
rupt purposes, and ' Jagge the Jogelour ' is set in very 
low company by Piers Plowman. Certainly his jokes 
were of the lewdest description, even for the rough 
times in which he lived. His voice, too, was sufficiently 
elevated, if we may trust the account given in the 
* Romance of Alexander,' for — 

No scholde mon have herd the thondur, 

For the noise of the taboures, 

And the trumpours, and the jangclours. 

The * Dissour,' the old Norman ' discur,' similar in 
character to the rhymer and the juggler, seems to have 
left no memorial, saving it be in our * Dissers ; * "^ 

' Tlie ' Rhymer ' is often mentioned as belonging to the royal or 
feudal retinue. Like many of the above, he may be set among our list 
of early ofiicerships. 

* We may set here our 'Bidders,' or ' Ernald le Bidere,' as he 
was once recorded. He was the general beggar of that day, and no 
doubt a rich harvest would be the result of his attendance at the fair. 
Piers Plowman says : — 

' Bidderes and bcggares 
Faste about yede, 
With their belies and tlieir b.igges 
Of bread ful y-crammed.' 

'.Simon le Shobeggere' (II. R.), or 'Shoe-beggar,' as I presume 
means, seems to have followed a more particular line of business. 


neither can I trace * le Tregetour ' later than the 
fifteenth century. Every footprint of his professional 
existence, indeed, is now faded from our view. And 
yet there was the day when none could be more 
familiar than he. The Hundred Rolls record not 
merely * Symon le Tregetor,' but * William le 
Tregetur' also, while ' Maister John Rykele' is 
spoken of by Lydgate as 'sometime Tregitour of 
noble Henrie, King of Engleland.' Chaucer, too, 
mentions sciences 

By which men maken divers apparences, 
Such as these subtil tregetoures play. 
For oft at feasts have I wel heard say 
That tragetoures, within an halle large 
Have made come in a water and a barge 
And in the halle rowen up and down : 

while in another place he speaks of seeing 

Coll Tragetour 
Upon a table of sicamour 
Play an uncouth thing to tell ; 
I saw him carry a wind-mill 
Under a walnut-shell; 

with other equally marvellous feats. Thus we see 
that the art of legerdemain was not neglected at this 

I doubt whether any relics we possess so com- 
pletely convey to our minds the radical changes which 
have swept across the face of our English Common- 
wealth as do these lingering surnames. They remind 
us of the invention of printing, of the spread of litera- 
ture, and of the slow decay thereby of the professions 
they represented. They tell us of a changed society, 
they tell us of a day of rougher cast and looser tram- 


mels ; they tell us of a life around which the lapse of 
intervening years has thrown a halo of so quaint 
aspect that we all but long, in our more sentimental 
moods, to be thrown back upon it again. Placing 
these tell-tale names by the life of the present, we 
see what a change has passed over all. Let us hope 
this change denotes progress. In some respects it 
assuredly does : progress in the settlement of our 
common rights and duties, progress in civilization 
and order, progress in mental culture, progress in 
decorum. Still we may yet ask, with all this has 
there been any true progress .-' The juggler, 'tis true, 
with his licentious story, and the dissolute tragetour, 
both are gone — they would be handcuffed now, and 
put in gaol. This speaks something for a higher culti- 
vation. But, after all, may not this be a mere outside 
refinement — a refinement to meet the requirements of 
an age in which the head is educated more than the 
heart — a refinement which may be had in our shops 
— the refinement, in fact, of the lowest of God's 
endowed creatures, that of the exquisite .-' This is, 
indeed, an artificial age, and it warns us to sec to it 
whether we are hypocrites or no ; whether our life is 
entirely external or the reverse ; whether it is all shell 
and no kernel, all the outside cup and platter, and 
within naught save extortion and excess. That 
mortal shall have attained the highest wisdom who, 
in the light of the world to come, shall have seen to 
the cleansing of that which is within, and if that, if 
the heart be cleansed, then the external life will as 
naturally, as it will of necessity, be pure. 



We have already said enough to show that our early 
English pursuits were mainly pastoral. Even to this 
day, as we are whisked across the midland counties 
or driven across the Yorkshire wolds, we see what 
advantages we must have enjoyed in this respect. 
Our one chief staple was wool, and to export this in a 
raw unmanufactured state was the early practice. So 
general was this occupation that even subsidies to the 
crown were given in wool. In 1340, 30,000 sacks of 
wool were granted to Edward III. while engaged in 
the French War. This would be a most valuable 
contribution, for at this time it was held in the highest 
repute by foreign buyers. ' The ribs of all nations 
throughout the world,' wrote Matthew Paris, ' are 
kept warm by the fleeces of English wool ' (Smiles). 
So early as 1056 we find the Count of Cleves obtain- 
ing a certain jurisdiction over the burghers of Nime- 
guen upon condition of presenting to the Emperor 
every year ' three pieces of scarlet cloth of English 
wool' (Macullum). With the incoming of the Flemish 
refugees and other settlers already mentioned this 
state of things was changed. The Conqueror himself 
had settled one band near Carlisle, but his son Henry 


soon after coming into possession removed them into 
Herefordshire, and the Southern Marches of the Prin- 
cipality, Doubtless the object of both was that of 
setting up a barrier against hostile encroachments on 
the part of the Scotch and Welsh ; but the result was 
the spread of a peaceful and useful industry in two 
widely separated districts. Two other settlements, in 
Norfolk and Suffolk, one by Henry I., the other 
under the direction of Edward HI., made East 
Anglia for centuries the Yorkshire of England. 
When we talk so familiarly of * worsted,' or ' lindsey- 
wolsey,' or ' kerseymere,' or ' bocking,' we are but 
insensibly upholding a reputation which centuries 
ago the several villages that went by these names had 
obtained through Flemish aid. Thus was it then that 
at length our country was enabled to produce a cloth 
which could afford a comparison with that of the 
Flemish cities themselves. Of this incoming many 
surnames of this date remind us, the most important 
of which I have already mentioned in my chapter 
upon local names, ' Fleming,' as a general name for 
all these settlers, being the commonest. 

When, however, we turn to the occupations them- 
selves connected with the industry, we cannot but be 
struck by the wonderful impress it has made upon our 
nomenclature. The child's ancient rhyme — 

Black sheep, black sheep, 

Have you any wool ? 
Yes, sir; yes, sir; 

Three bags full — 

carries us to the first stage, and to the first dealer. 
In our * Woolcrs ' and ' Woolmans,' in our obsolete 


' Woolmongers ' and * Woolbuyers,' ^ in our * Packers ' ^ 
and once flourishing * Woolpackers,' and in our ' Lan- 
yers' and ' Laners,' relics of the old and more Norman 
' Bartholomew le Laner ' or ' John le Lanier,' we can 
see once more the train of laden mules bearing their 
fleecy treasure to the larger towns or distant coast. 
No wonder that Piers Plowman and others should 
make familiar mention of the * pack-needle,' when we 
reflect upon the enormous number of sacks that would 
be in constant use for this purpose ; and no wonder 
'Adam le Sakkere ' {i.e. 'Sacker'), and ' Henry le Cane- 
vaser ' are to be met with as busied in their provision.' 
Another proof of the engrossing importance of this one 
English article of commerce is left us in our ' Staplers.' 
The ' stapleware ' of a town was, and is still, that 
which is the chief commodity dealt in by that par- 
ticular market, A 'stapler,' however, has for cen- 
turies been a generally accepted title for a wool- 

' Here is Glyed Wolby of Gylforde squyeie, 
Andrew of Habyngedon, apell byer. 

{Cocke Lorelle's Bote. ) 

I am afraid the reader will scarcely recognise ' Wool-buyer ' in 
' Wolby,' but I doubt not such was the trader referred to. ' Geoffrey 
le Wolle-byer ' occurs in the Parliamentary Writs. 

^ One of Edward III.'s statutes says; 'That a certain number of 
portours, pakkers, gwynders (winders), and oilier laborers of wools 
and all other merchandizes, be sufficiently ordained for the place where 
the staple is.' {Stat, of Realm, vol. i. p. 341.) 

" It is not impossible that this species of cloth was in use by the 
lower classes for articles of apparel. Chaucer, in his Romance, refers to 
such a habit when he says : — 

' She ne had on but a straite old sacke, 
And many a cloute on it there stacke, 
This was her cote, and her mantele.' 


merchant, and has therefore absorbed the more 
general meaning the word ought to have conveyed. 

The first stage towards manufacture would be the 
process of carding the raw and tangled material, and 
numberless are the ' Carders,' ' Combers,' and ' Kemp- 
sters,' ' or ' Kcmsters,' who remind us of this. In these 
latter sobriquets we have but varied forms of the 
same root ' cemb,' to comb. We still talk poetically 
of ' unkempt locks,' and we are told of Emelie in the 
Knight's Tale ' that— 

Her bright liair kembed was, untressed all. 

The Norman corresponding name is found in ' Robert 
le Peinnur' or 'William le Puigncur,' but unless in 
our ' Pinners ' (a supposition not unnatural) it has left 
no descendants. But even these are not all. It is 
with them we must associate our ' Tovvzers ' and 
* Tozers,' from the old ' touse ' allied to ' tease ' — they 
who cleared the fibre from all entanglements. Spenser 
talks of curs ' tousing ' the poor bear at the baiting, 
and I need not remind the reader that in our some- 
what limited canine nomenclature, * Towzer,' as a 
name for a dog of more pugnacious propensities, 
occupies a by no mea*ns mean place. As applicable 
to the trade in question, Gowcr uses the word when 
he says, in his ' Confcssio Amantis ' : — 

What schepe that is full of wiillc 
Upon his backc they tose and pulle.- 

' A prayer to the Commons, in 1464, respecting the importation of 
foreign goods and meichandisc, mentions ' tlie makers of wollcn clotli 
•within this Reame, as Wevers, Fullers, Dyers, Kcnipsters^ Carders, and 
Spynners.' {Rot. rail. Ed. IV.) 

' A recipe from an old Ilarkian MS. thus begins : ' Recipe brawne 
of capons or of hennys, and dry them wele, and towsc them small.' 


It is here, therefore, we must place our one or two 
solitary relics of the rough machinery then in use. In 
' Cardmaker ' we have the manufacturer of the ' comb ' 
or ' card ' thus usefully employed ; in * Spindler ' 
the maker of the pin round which the thread was 
wound ; while our ' Slaymakers, ^ * Slaymans,' and 
obsolete * Slaywrights ' ^ preserve the once so familiar 
' slay ' — that moveable part of the loom which the 
webbe with his fingers plied nimbly and deftly along 
the threads. A petition to Parliament in 1467 from 
the worsted manufacturers complains that in the 
county of Norfolk there are * divers persones that 
make untrue ware of all manner of worstedes, not 
being of the assises in length nor brcde, nor of good, 
true stuffe and makyng, and the slaycs and yern 
thereto belonging untruly made and wrought, etc' 
(Rot. Pari. Ed. IV.) I believe the word is not yet 
obsolete as a term of the craft. 
I have mentioned ' Webbe.' 

My wife was a webbe 
And woolen cloth made, 

says Piers in his 'Vision.' This appears, judging at 
least from our directories, to have been the more 
general term, and after it its longer forms, the mascu- 
line 'Webber' and the originally feminine 'Webster,' 
A poem written in the beginning of the sixteenth 
century refers to 

' In the south walk, Westminster Abbey, are gravestones recording 
the deaths of 'George Slemaker,' 1802, and 'Susannah Slemaker,' his 
widow, 1 818. ( F;'(/i' Neale's Westminster Abbey.) 

^ Richard Slawright was prior of the Hermit Friars of St. Augusiin« 
Warrington, in 1516. {^Warrington in 1465. Ch. Soc, p. xliv.) 



Curriers, cordwayners, and cobelers, 
Gyrdelers, forborers, and webbers. 

Such entries as ' Elyas le Webbe,' or * Clarice le 
Webbere,' or 'John le Webestre,' are of common 
occurrence in our mediaeval and still earlier records. 
But the processes are anything but at an end. The 
cloth must be dyed and fulled. Of the first our 
' Listers,' once enrolled as * Hugh Ic Litster ' or 
'Henry le Littester,' ^ speak, and 'Dyer' or ' Dister,' 
still harder of recognition in such a guise as ' Geof- 
frey le Deghere ' or ' Robert le Dighestere,' forms 
found at the period we are writing about. It was John 
Littester, a dyer, who in 1381 headed the rebellion in 
Norwich. Here the surname was evidently taken 
from the occupation followed. Halliwell gives the 
obsolete verb ' to lit ' or dye, and quotes an old manu- 
script in which the following sentence occurs : ' We 
use na clathis that are Httcde of dyvcrse coloures.' 
Such names as ' Gilbert le Teinturcr,' or ' Richard le 
Teynterer,' or ' Philip le Tentier,' which I have come 
across in three separate records, represent the old 
French title for the same occupation, but I believe 
they have failed to come down to us — at least I have 
not met with any after instance. The old English 
forms of 'tincture ' and 'tint' arc generally found to 
be * teinture ' and ' teint.' The teinturer is not without 
relics. We still speak when harassed of * being on the 
stretch,' or when in a state of suspense of ' being upon 
tcntcr-\\ooV.s^ both of which proverbial expressions 

' A chantry to the church of All Saints, York, was erected in the 
fifteenth century by Adam del Bank, Littester.' (Hist, and Ant. of 
York, vol. ii. p. 269.) The Promp. Par. has ' Lystare, or Lytaster 
of cloth dyynge — Tinctor.' 


must have arisen in the common converse of cloth- 
workers. The tenter itself was the stretcher upon 
which the cloth was laid while in the dyer's hands. 
On account of various deceits that had become 
notorious in the craft, such, for instance, as the over- 
stretching of the material, a law was passed in the first 
year of Richard III. that 'tentering' or 'teyntering' 
should only be done in an open place, and for this 
purpose public tenters were to be set up. (' Stat. 
Realm,' Rich. III.) We find many references to this 
important instrument in old testaments. Thus an 
inventory of goods, dated 1562, belonging to a man 
resident in the parish of Kendall, speaks of 'Tenture 
posts and woodde, 6d. — ii tenturcs 20^.' (' Richmond- 
shire Wills,' p. 156.) The dyes themselves used in 
the process of colouring are not without existing 
memorials. In the York Pageant, already referred to, 
we find, walking in procession with the woolpackers, 
the ' Wadmen,' that is, the sellers of woad, unless 
indeed, they were the dyers themselves. The more 
common spelling was * wode,' and when not local, 
' Thomas le Wodere ' or ' Alan le Wodeman,' with 
their modern * Wooder ' and ' Woodman,' will be 
found, I doubt not, to be the representative of this 
calling. ' John Maderman,' and * Lawrence Madcrer ' 
remind us of the more reddish and popular hues. 
Great quantities of this were yearly imported from 
Holland, especially Middleburgh. The old ' Libel on 
English Policy ' speaks of — 

The marchaundy of Braban and Selande, 

as being 

The madre and woode (woad) that dyers take on haude. 
Y 2 


The thickening mill, however, has left us several words 
of much more familiar import than these — viz., 
'Tucker'' Fuller ' (or ' Fulman' •), and 'Walker.'* 
Among other older forms we find ' Roger le Tukere,' 
'.Percival le Toukare,' 'Walter le Fullcre,' 'Ralph le 
Walkerc,' and ' Peter Ic Walkar.' Of the first Piers 
in his ' Vision ' makes mention, where he speaks of 

Wollene websteris, 
And wevcris of lyiien, 
Tailh>urs, tauneris, 
And Tokkeris bothe. 

* Cocke Lorelle ' also refers to — 

Multiplyers and clothe thyckeis, 
Called fullers everyclione. 

' Walker,' claiming as it does an almost unrivalled 
position in the rolls of our nomenclature, reminds us 
of the early fashion of treading out the cloth before 
the adaptations of machinery were brought to bear on 
this phase of the craft. In Wicklyffe's version of the 
story of Christ's transfiguration he speaks of his clothes 
shining so as no ' fullere or walkerc of cloth ' may 
make white upon eartli.^ Reference is made to the 

' 'William Fulman,' a learned antiquary, died in l6S8. (Vii!c 
Dyce's Shakespeare, vol. i. p. 35.) 

'' A statute of Elizabeth regarding the ajiprenticeship of poor children 
includes among others, ' WoUen -weaver, weaving housewiefes or house- 
holde clothe onely and none other, Clolhe-Fuller, otherwise called 
Tucker, or Walker.' (5 Eliz. c. 4,23.) 'Of William Reynollcs, 
wa'ker, for half a pewe with Edward Doughtic, 3^. 4//.' (C/iurrh- 
Tiujrdens' Expenses, LudLm<, p. 154 (1571), Cam. Soc.) In the Chester 
Play the 'weavers and walkers' marched together. (Fzi/t' Appendix.) 

" This practice of treading the cloth ii referred to in a complaint 
concerning the fulling of cap;; and hats in fulling mills, made to 
Edward IV. It begins by saying that hats, caps, and bonnets hitherto 


same practice by Langland also when, using this whole 
process of cloth-making as an illustration, he says : — 

Cloth that cometh fro the wevyng 
Is nought comely to wear 
Til it be fulled under foot. 
Or in fullying stokkes, 
Washen wel with water, 
And with taseles cracched 
Y-touked, and y-teynted, 
And under taillours hande. 

We are here not merely furnished with the entire 
process itself, but the terms themselves employed 
harmonize well with the names I have mentioned. 
' Walker ' and ' Tucker ' or ' Towkare ' or ' Toker,' as it 
was variously spelt, together with * Tuckerman,' have, 
however, disappeared as terms of this trade; and it is in 
our directories alone we can find them declaring these 
forgotten mysteries of a more uncouth manufacture. 

The * taseles ' mentioned in the poem quoted 
above were the common * teasel ' or ' tassel,' a rough 
prickly plant allied to the thistle, which when dried 
was used for scratching the cloth, and thus raising a 
nap thereupon. Thus in Willsford's ' Nature's Secrets ' 
it is said, ' Tezils, or Fuller's Thistle, being gathered 
or hanged up in the house, where the air may come 
freely to it, upon the alteration of cold and windy 
weather will grow smoother, and against rain will close 
up his prickles.' (Brand's ' Pop. Ant.,' vol. iii. p. 133.) 
In an inventory of the property of Edward Kyrkelands, 
of Kendall, dated 1578, we find the following articles 

had been made, wrought, fulled, and thicked in the wonted manner, 
that is to say, with hands and feet — 'mayns et pees' — and then pro- 
ceeds to urge that the use of mills brought inferior articles into the 
market. (^Siat. of Realm, vol. ii. p. 473. ) 


mentioned : — iiii syckles, a pair wyes and iii stafs, 
tazills, 5^. 8^, — more in tazills, 2s. — iiii tentors, 405'. 
(' Richmondshire Wills,' p. 274.) The occupation it- 
self is referred to in an old statute of Edward IV. — 
' Item, that every fuller, from the said feast of St. 
Peter, in his craft and occupation of fuller, rower, or 
tayselcr of cloth, shall exercise and use tayscls and no 
cards, deceitfully impairing the same cloth ' — * en sa 
arte et occupacion de fuller et scalpier ou tezeiler de 
drap, exercise et use teizels, &c.' (4 Ed. IV. C. I.) It 
is probable that our ' Taylors ' have engrossed this 
name. We find it lingering in Westmoreland, about 
Kendal, till the middle of the sixteenth century, in 
a form which required but little further change to 
make it the same. In the will of Walter Strykland, 
dated 1 568, there is mentioned among other legatees 
a certain ' Edward Taylzer,' a manifest corruption of 
' Teazeler.' ('Richmondshire Wills,' p. 224.) A cen- 
tury earlier than this, however, such names as ' Gilbert 
le Tasseler ' or ' Matilda le Tasselere ' were entered in 
our more formal registers. 

Our ' Baters ' and * Beaters,' relics of the old 
* Avery le Batour ' or ' John Betere,' were all but in- 
variably cloth-beaters, although, like the fuller ' wolle- 
beter,' ' they may have been busied at an earlier stage 
of the manufacture. Capgravc, in his ' Chronicles,' 
under date 30 A.D., says, * Jacobus, the son of Joseph 
first bishop of Jerusalem, was throwe there fro the 
pinacle of the temple and after smet with a fuller's 
bat.' ^ With the mention of our * Shearers ' (' Richard 

' A 'John Wollcbeter ' is maitioned in an old Suflblk will of 1370. 
' We have the word ' bat' used in WicklyfTe's Testament : ' In that 


le Sherere,' M.) and endless ' Shearmans,' ' Sharmans/ 
or ' Shermans ' (* Robert le Sherman,' * John le Shere- 
man,' M.), who represent the shearing of the manufac- 
tured fabric, rather than that of the sheep itself, we 
have the process complete. The cloth is at length 
ready to be transmitted into the care of our' Drapers ' 
and ' Clothiers,' and from them again through the 
skilled and nimble fingers of our numberless * Tailors.' 
From all this we may readily see what an important 
influence has England's one great staple of earlier 
days had upon the nomenclature of our countrymen. 

Such a name as * Ralph le Flexman,' with its many 
descendants, reminds us of the manufacture of linen, 
which, if not so popular as that of wool, was neverthe- 
less anything but unfamiliar to the early craftsman. 
Our ' Spinners ' carry us to the primary task of thread- 
making, an employment, however, all but entirely in 
the hands of the women. The distaff and the weaker 
sex have been ever associated, whether in sacred or 
profane narrative. Thus it is that 'spinster' has 
become stereotyped even as a legal term. Chaucer, 
four hundred years ago, somewhat uncourteously 
said : — 

Deceite, weping, spinning, God hath given 
To women kindly, while that they may liven. 

Our modern 'linen' is formed from *lin ' or 'line' 
— flax — as 'woolen' is from ' wool.' Hence we still 
speak of the seed of that plant as 'linseed.' That 
this was the common form of the word we might prove 
by many quotations. 

He drank never cidre nor wyn 

Nor never wered cloth of lyn, 

hour Jhesus seide to the people, as to a theef ye lian gon out with swerdis 
and battis to take me.' (Matt. xxvi. 55.) 


says an old poem. Even Spenser speaks of 'garment 
of line,' and in ' Cocke Lorelle's Bote ' allusion is made 
to ' lyne-webbers ' and ' lyne-drapers.' ' We need not 
be surprised, therefore, to meet with such names as 
' Elias Lyndraper,' or ' Henry le Lindraper,' or ' John 
le Lyner.' Only this last, however, has survived the 
changes of intervening centuries, and still holds a pre- 
carious existence as 'Liner.' 'Weaver' was more com- 
mon. A more Norman equivalent is found in such a 
sobriquet as ' John le Teler,' or ' Henry le Telere,' or 
' Ida la Teleress,' a name which is not necessarily of 
modern French refugee origin, as Mr. Lower would 
lead us to suppose. Indeed, a special part of the 
ladies' head-dress had early obtained the name of a 
' teler,' from the fine texture of the linen of which it 
was composed.^ It is but too probable that this name 
has become lost, like ' Taylzer,' in the more common 
' Taylor.' This process of absorption we shall find to 
be not unfrequent. Nor arc we without a memorial 
of the bleaching of linen. ' Whiter,' if not ' Whitster,' 
still lives in our directories. It seems strange that our 
' Blackers' should denote but the same occupation ; but 
so it is — they, like our old ' Walter le Blakesters ' or 
' Richard le Bleckestcrs,' being but the harder and more 
antique form of our present ' bleacher.' ' Our term 

' God made '(Tor to cover us and clethe us also lyne, and wolle and 
lethire.' {Minor of St. Edmttnd, Early Eng. Text Soc., p. 21.) 

* The bailiff of Norwich in 1250 was ' Otto le Texter or Weaver, ' 
[Hist. Noffolk, iii. 58.) 'John Tixtcr ' was Mayor of Gloucester in 1270. 
(Rudder's Gloucestershire, p. 1 13.) On the 30th April 1873, the ^[alt^ 
Chester Cotirier announced ' the suspension of Messrs. Textor and Co., 
silk merchants, London.' 

^ In the Prompt. Parv. we find the feminine termination to have 
been in general use in Norfolk. The author has ' pleykstare — candi- 


'bleak,' preserving as it does the earlier pronunciation, 
is but the same word, being formerly used to denote 
pallor, or wanness, or absence of colour. From this, 
by a natural change, it came to signify anything 
cheerless or desolate. With perfect honesty in this 
case, at any rate, we may ' swear that black is white.' 
With regard to silk, we had but little to do. The 
manufacture of this important cloth was barely carried 
on in Western Europe during the period of the esta- 
blishment of surnames. It was nigh the close of the 
fifteenth century before it appeared in France. All 
our silks were imported from the East by Venetian 
and Genoese merchant.s. Of the latter an old poem 
says, they come — 

Into this londe wyth dyverse merchaundysses, 
In grete karrekis arrayde wythouten lack, 
Wyth clothes of golde, silke, and pepir black. 

Still we find a company of silkwomen settled in Lon- 
don at an early period. In the records of this city 
occur such names as ' Johanna Taylour, Silkwyfe,' in 
1348, and 'Agatha Fowere, Silkewoman,' in 1417.' 
In 1455 a complaint was raised by * the women of 
tlie mystery and trade of silk and thrcadworkers in 

darius,' and further on, ' whytstare, or pleykstare— candidarius, candi- 
daria. ' Earlier in the work, too, occurs ' bleystare, or wytstare 
(bleykester or whytster) — candidarius.' That the name lingered there 
for a considerable period is proved by the fact of a ' Robert Blaxter 
appearing as defendant in the Court of Chancery in a Norfolk case at the 
clos2 of the sixteenth century. {Proceedings in Chanciiy (Elizabeth), 
vol. i. p. 250.) The earlier spelling is found in such entries as ' Will le 
Bleckestere' (H.R.) or 'Richard le Blekstare' (P. W.). Blackister, 
like Blaxter, still exists. 

' Sylkewomen, pursers, and ganiysshers, 
Tablemakers, sylkedyers, and shepsters. 

{Cocke LorelWs Bote.) 


London, that divers Lombards and other foreigners 
enriched themselves by ruining the said mystery.' I 
think, however, we shall find that all these were en- 
gaged less in the manufacture of fabrics than of threads 
for the embroiderers to use. Thus, as connected 
with the throwing or winding of these silken tissues, 
we come across such names as ' Thrower ' and 
' Throwster,' the former having been further corrupted 
into * Trower.' ^ 

Next to wool, perhaps leather formed the most 
important item of early manufacture. We can hardly 
now conceive the infinite use to which it was put at 
this period. In military dress it had an especial 
place, and in the ordinary costume it was far from 
being confined to the extremities, as we have it now. 
Jerkins, chausses, girdles, pouches, gipsire — all came 
under the leather-dresser's hands. In 1378 we find a 
jury, called together to decide upon a case of alleged 
bad tanning, to have been composed of ' saddlers, 
pouchmakes, girdlers, botel-makers, tanners, curriers, 
and cordwainers.' Of the more general manufacture 
of hides we have numerous relics ; indeed, we are at 
once introduced into the midst of a throng of trades- 
men, the very list of which proves the then important 
character of the article on which they spent their 
energies. Such names as 'Jordan le Tannur,' or 
' Loretta le Tannur,' ' Richard le Skynnere,' or ' Hamo 
le Skynnere,' arc still numerous both in the tanyard 
and the directory, and need little explanation. Our 

' In A Cotuplaint of Artificers to Parliament, in I463, there is 
included amongst other productions, ' Laces, corses, ribans, frenges of 
silke and of thredc, tlircden laces, t/iroioen silke, silke in eny wise 
embrauded.' [Rot. Pari., Ed. IV.) 


* Curriers ' are also self-evident ; but I have not met 
with any instance as yet in mediaeval times. Our 
more rare ' Fellmongers ' were once occupied more 
directly with the larger hides, or fells, as they were 
called, of the farmyard stock. Less connected with 
them, therefore, than with the others, we may mention 
such men as ' William le Barcur,' or * Nicholas le 
Barkere,' or * Robert Barcarius,' the ancestors of our 
modern * Barkers,' ' who, by the very frequency with 
which they are met, show how important was the 
preparation of bark in the tanners' yard. In the 
conversation between Edward the Fourth and the 
Tanner of Tamworth, as given by Percy, it is said — 

•What craftsman art thou?' said the king ; 

' I pray thee telle me trowe,' 
* I am a Barker, Sir, by my trade ; 

Now tell me, what art thou ? ' 

Such names as * John le Tawyere ' or ' Geoffrey 
le Whitetawier ' (now found as ' Whittear,' ' Whittier,' 
and ' Whityer '), not to mention such an entry as 
that of ' Richard le Megucer,' throw us back upon 
the time when the terms these men severally bore as 
surnames would be of the most familiar import. 
Their owners spent their energies in preparing the 
lighter goat and kid skins, which they whitened, and 
made ready for the glovers' use.^ The verb ' to taw,' 
however, was also used of dressing flax, and we may 
have to place ' Tawyer ' in some instances in this 

' 'Edmund Barkmaker' occurs in 'Calendar to Pleadings.' (Eliza- 
beth. ) 

* According to Strype, the ' Company of Megiisers ' dealt in the 
skins of dead horses, and flayed them. He mentions ' Walter le 
Whitawyer' in the same account. {London, vol. ii. p. 232.) 


And whilst that they did nimbly spin 
The hemp he needs must taw, 

we are told in ' Robin Goodfellow.' Our ' Towers,' 
while apparently local, may be in some instances but 
a corruption of this same term. So early as the 
14th century we find a certain ' Eustace le Wittowere ' 
occurring in the Hundred Rolls, and that the simpler 
form should similarly be corrupted would be natural 
enough.' Thus we see that leather, too, is not with- 
out its memorials. The more furry skins, as used in 
a somewhat more specific form as articles of dress, or 
to attach thereto, wc will allude to by-and-by. As 
we traverse in some semblance of order the more 
definite wants and requirements of early social life, 
the importance of these several crafts will be more 
clearly brought out. We must not forget that there 
were the same needs then as now, though of a diffe- 
rent mould. Man in all time has had to be fed, and 
clothed, and housed ; and if in all these respects he 
has in these modern days become more civilized and 
polished, it has been the result of a gradual process 
by which he has slowly, and not without many a 
struggle, thrown off, one by one, this custom and that, 
which belonged to a ruder era and a rougher cast of 
society. Our surnames of occupation are a wonderful 
guide in this respect. A tolerable picture of early 
life may be easily set before us by their aid ; for in 
them are preserved its more definite lineaments, and 
all we need is to fill up the shading for ourselves. 

' Since writing the above, I have discovered in tlie same rolls a 
' Gill)ert /t' Tower ' and a 'Thomas /^ Toucre,' proving my surmise to 
be correct. The feminine form is also to be met with in a 'Juliana le 
Touestre,' this entry, too, being found in the same register. 


Forgotten wants, needs now no longer felt, require- 
ments of which a progressive civilization slowly- 
slipped the tether, necessities of dress, of habit, of 
routine, all, while the reality has long faded from 
view, have left their abiding memorial in the nomen- 
clature of those who directly supplied them. Let 
us, however, observe, as in our other chapters, some 
kind of order — clothing, food, and general needs, this 
seems the proper course of procedure. And yet one 
more observation ere we do so. We have already 
spoken of the early system of signs as advertising 
the character of the articles to be sold. The early 
shop was far more prominent as a rule than the 
modern one. The counter, instead of being within 
the walls of the house, projected forward upon the 
pathway, so much so that we can only compare them 
to those tables we may often see at night, where 
under the lee of the walls costermongers offer shell- 
fish, or tripe, or coffee to the passers-by. This was 
objectionable enough ; but it was not all. Each 
dealer loudly proclaimed to the wayfarer the merits 
of his goods, vying with his neighbour in his en- 
deavours to attract attention to himself or distract it 
from the other, especially if, as was often the case, a 
number of traders trafficked in the same class of 
merchandise. Others, and their name was legion, had 
no shop at all, not even the street table or counter, 
but passing up and down with wooden platters or deep 
baskets, made the very air discordant with their loudly 
reiterated cries of * Hot sheep's feet,' or 'Mackerel,' or 
' Fresh-herring,' ^ or ' Hot peascods,' or ' Coloppes.' It 
is in reference to this we find Langland saying — 

• Many of these cries originated surnames, which, however, in most 


Cokes and their knaves, 
Cryden, ' Hole pies, hote ! 
Goode gees and grys ! 
Gowe, dyne, gowe ! ' 

Lydgate has a still fuller and more detailed descrip- 
tion of this in his ' London Lackpenny,' and as it is 
tolerably humorous I will quote it somewhat largely, 
using Mr. Bowen's modernization of it — 

Within this hall neither rich nor yet poor 

Would do for me aught, although I should die : 

Which seeing, I got me out of the door, 
When Flemings began on me for to cry : 
' Master, what will you copen or buy? 

Fine felt hats, or spectacles to read ? 

Lay down your silver, and here you may speed.' 

Then into London I did me hie — 
Of all the land it beareth the prize. 

' Hot peascods ! ' one began to cry ; 

' Strawberries ripe, and cherries in the rise ! ' 
One bade me come near and buy some spice : 

Pepper and saffron they gan me bede. 

But, for lack of money, I might not speed. 

Then to the Chepe I gan me drawen, 
Where much people I saw for to stand. 

One offered me velvet, silk, and lawn : 
Another he taketh me by the hand : 
' Here is Paris thread, the finest in the land ! ' 

I never was used to such things indeed, 

And, wanting money, I might not speed. 

Then went I forth by London Stone, 
And throughout all Candlewick Street: 

Drapers much cloth me ofTercd anon ; 

Then comes me one crying, ' Hot sheep's feet !' 
One cried ' Mackerel ! ' ' Rystcr green ! ' another gan me 

One bade me buy a hood to cover my head : 

But, for lack of money, I might not speed. 

cases, died with their owners. ' Frcsh-fish ' is found as the sobriquet oi 
a fishmonger; and 'Coloppcs,' ' Mackerell,' and 'Peascod,' all figure 
in the rolls of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. 


Then into Cornhill anon I rode, 

Where there was much stolen gear among. 

I saw where hong mine owne hood 
That I had lost among the throng — 
To buy my own hood, I thought it wrong — 

I knew it as I did my Creed, 

But, for lack of money, I could not speed. 

If we pass on from shop to shop in a more quiet 
and undisturbed fashion than poor ' London Lack- 
penny,' we must not forget that we are, at least so 
far, enjoying that which our forefathers could not. 

With regard to the head-dress, and to begin with 
this, we have many memorials. ' Tire,' once a fami- 
liar word enough, is still preserved from decay by 
our Authorized Version of the Scriptures. Thus, for 
example, it is said in Ezekiel, ' make no mourning 
for the dead, bind the tire of thine head upon thee.' * 
I do not know how comprehensive are the duties 
belonging to our present ' tirewoman ' or lady's- 
maid, but in the day when the tragic story of Jezebel 
was first translated, the sense of the word was entirely 
confined to the arrangement of her mistress's ' tiara,' 
which is but another form of the same term. In the 
' Paradise Lost ' it is found as ' tiar ' — 

Of beaming sunny rays, a golden tiar circled his head. 

When we remember their former size, their horned 
and peaked character, and the variety of the material 
used, arguing as they do the then importance of the 
fact, we need not be surprised at meeting with com- 

' A complaint of craftsmen presented to Parliament in the reign of 
Edward IV. speaks of 'silkc in eny wise embrauded, golden laces, tyres 
of silke or of gold, sadlcs, &c. (Rot. Pari.) 


parative frequency such a surname as ' Tyrer,' * Tyer- 
man,' or ' Tireman.' It is somewhat hard to say 
whether our ' Coffers ' are reHcs of the old ' Coffrer ' or 
' Coifer,' but as the latter business was all but entirely 
in the hands of females, perhaps it will be safer to 
refer them to the other. Such names, however, as 
' Emma la Coyfere ' or ' Dionysia la Coyfere,' found in 
the thirteenth century, may serve to remind us of the 
peculiar style of the head-gear which the ladies affected 
in these earlier times. The more special occupation 
of preparing feathers or plumes has left its mark in our 
'Plumer' and 'Plummer,' memorials of the old 'Mariot 
le Plumer ' or ' Peter le Plomer.' The old ' caul ' or ' call ' 
still lives in our ' Caimans ' and ' Callers.' ' Elias le 
Callere' occurs in the Parliamentary Writs, and 
* Robert le Callcrere ' in the ' Munimenta Gildhallae.' 
Judging from the 'Wife of Bath's Tale,' we should ima- 
gine this also to have been a female head-dress. There 
the old witch appeals to the Queen and her court of lady 
attendants as to them who wear ' kercheif or calle ' — 

Let see, wliich is the proudest of them allc, 
That wcarcth on a kercheif or a callc. 

Another form of the surname is found in ' Alicia la 
Kellere,' now simple ' Keller,' the article itself being 
also met with in a similar dress. In the ' Townlcy 
Mysteries ' a fallen angel is represented as saying that 
a girl — 

If she he never so foul a ilowtle 

With lier kclles and licr pynncs, 
The shrew Iicrself can sliroud 

Both her cliekys, and her chynncs. 

In its several more general uses it has always main- 


tained its strict meaning of a covering.' Hoshea, we 
may recollect, speaks figuratively of God's ' rending 
the caul of Israel's heart.' Probably the word is con- 
nected with the ' cowl ' of other monkish days, and 
thus may be associated with our ' Coulmans ' and 
' Cowlers.' ' Richard le Couhelere,' an entry of the 
fifteenth century, may belong to the same group.'^ A 
once familiar sobriquet for a hood was that of 
' chapelle,' ^ whence our edifice of that name and the 
diminutive ' chaplet.' The Parliamentary Writs give 
us an * Edmund le Chapeler ; ' the Hundred Rolls 
furnish us, among other instances, with a ' Robert le 
Chapeler.' ' Theobald le Hatter,' ' Robert le Hattare,' 
* Thomas le Capiere,' ' Symon le Cappere,' or * John 
Capman ' need no explanation. The articles they 
sold, whether of beaver, or felt, or mere woollen cloth, 
were largely imported from Flanders. Thus it is that 
Lydgate, as I have but recently shown, picturing the 

' The caul, or membrane occasionally found round the head of a newly- 
born child, was ever preserved by the midwife, in accordance with an 
old superstition, as a preservative against accidents, but especially 
against drowning. So late as Feb. 27, 181 3, the Times newspaper had 
the following advertisement in its pages : 'To persons going to sea. — A 
child's caul, in a perfect state, to be sold cheap. Apply at 5, Duke 
Street, Manchester Square, where it may be seen.' An inventory of 
goods, dated 1575, we find thus beginning: 'Imprimis, a cubborde, 
20s.; a calle, 5J-. ; a table, y, 4//.' {Richmondshire Wills, p. 259.) 
With regard to the caul as an article of dress, we may quote the follow- 
ing: 'Maydens wear sylken callis, with the whyche they kepe in ordre 
theyrheare, made yellow with lye.' (Hormani Vulgaria.) 

* Query — Did ' Richard le Couhelere,' recorded in the Parliamentary 
Writs, dress, prepare, and sell cow-heels ? There is nothing improbable 
in it. 

* ' E qe chascun esquier poite chapel des armes son Seigneur:' — 
' And that every esquire do bear a cap of the armes of his lord. ' (Stat, 
of Realm , vol. i. p. 220.) 



Streets of London, mentions spots in his progress 
therethrough where — 

Flemings began on me for to cry, 

' Master, what will you copen or buy ? 

Fine felt hats, or spectacles to read?' 

That many of these wares, however, were of home 
manufacture is equally undoubted, and of this we are 
reminded by our ' Blockers,' representatives of the old 
' Deodatus le Blokkere.' The ' block ' was the 
wooden mould upon which the hat was shaped and 
crowned. In ' Much Ado About Nothing ' Beatrice 
is made to say : * He Avears his faith but as the 
fashion of his hat ; it ever changes with the next 
block.' The ' blocker,' I doubt not, was but a hat- 
maker ; we still call a stupid man a blockhead. Our 
' Hurrers' (' Alan le Hurer,' H. R., ' Geoffrey le Hur- 
were,' H. R.), once so important as to form a special 
company with articles and overseers, as representative 
of an old general term, arc not so familiar as we 
might have expected them. Bonnets, caps, hoods, 
hats, all came under their hands. Strictly speaking, 
however, a ' hure ' or ' howre,' as Chaucer spells it, 
was a shaggy cap of fur, or coarse jagged cloth. In 
an old political song of Edward the First's time it is 

said — • 

Furst there sit an old cherle in a blake hure, 
Of all that there sitteth seemeth best sure. 

That the word itself should have dropped from our 
vocabulary is to me a mystery.' Even in our nomen- 

' A complaint on the subject of hats, bonnets, and caps, in 1482, 
speaks of these three specific articles as ' hccures, bonnette/., et cappez.' 
{Slat, of Realm ^ vol. ii. p. 473.) ' Bonnet,' I need scaicely add, is here 


clature the rarity of our * Hurers ' and * Hurrers ' is to 
me inexplicable, bearing as it does no possible propor- 
tion to the former importance of the occupation. But 
this, as I have said before, is one of the peculiarities 
of personal nomenclature, depending entirely as it 
does on the uncertainties of descent. The head, we 
see, was not neglected. 

The sale of woollen cloth by our 'clothiers' and 
' drapers ' we have already mentioned. The tailor 
then, as now, made it up into the garments which the 
age required. Few names went through so many 
metamorphoses as this. ' Mainwaring,' it is said, can 
be found in over a hundred and thirty different spell- 
ings. The exact number with regard to ' Taylor ' I 
cannot state, as I have not dared hitherto to encounter 
the task of collecting them. The forms recorded in 
one register alone give us such varieties as 'le 
Tayllur,' 'le Tayllour,' 'le Tayller,' 'le Taylir,' Me 
Taylour,' ' le Taylur,' * le Taillur,' and ' le Talur.' We 
have also the feminine ' la Taylurese ' in the same 
roll.^ A name obsolete now in a colloquial sense, but 
common enough in our directories, is * Parminter,' 
* Parmenter,' or ' Parmitar,' a relic of the old Norman- 
French ' Parmentier,' a term a few hundred years ago 
familiarly used also for the snip. Among other 
mediaeval forms are ' Geoffrey le Parmunter,' ' Saher 
le Parmentier,' 'William le Parmeter,' and 'Richard 
le Parmuter.' The Hundred Rolls give us the same 

used, as it is still in Scotland to this day, as meaning a cap or covering 
generally for the head. 

' The ecclesiastic tailor was not wanting, judging by such an entry 
as ' Robert Vestment-maker' (W. 2). 


sobriquet in a Latin dress as 'William Parmuntarius.' ' 
As associated with the tailor, we may here set down 
our ' Sempsters,' that is, * Seamster,' the once feminine 
of * Seamer,' one who seamed or sewed. Mr. Lower 
hints that our * Seymours ' may in some instances be 
a coriuption of this latter form, but I must confess I 
discover no traces of it. 

The sobriquet of ' William le Burreller ' introduces 
us to a cloth of a cheap mixture, brown in colour, of 
well-nigh everlasting wear, and worn by all the 
poorer classes of society at this period. So universal 
was it that they came to be known by the general 
term of ' borel-folk,' a phrase familiar enough to 
deeper students of antiquarian lore. The Franklin 
premises his story by saying — 

But, sires, because 1 am a borel man, 
At my beginning first I you beseech 
Have me excused of my rude speech. 

Our ' Burrells ' are still sufficiently common to pre- 
serve a remembrance of this now decayed branch of 
trade. They may derive their name either from the 
term ' borel ' or ' burel ' pure and simple, or from 
* Burreller,' and thus represent the trade from which 
the other, as a sobriquet, owed its rise. The manu- 
facturer is referred to by ' Cocke Lorellc,' in the line — 

Borlers, lapestry-work-makcrs, dyers. 

Special articles of costume now wholly disused, or 
confined or altered in sense, crop out abundantly in 

' Talking of Latin forms, however, we are reminded that not un- 
frequently an artisan of this class would be recorded as ' William Scissor,' 
or ' Walter Cissor,' a mode pf writing the name very common in our 
more formal records. 


this class of surnames. At this period a common out- 
door covering for the neck was the wimple, or folded 
vail, worn by women. To this day, I need not say, it 
is part of the conventual dress. The author I have 
just quoted beautifully describes Shame as — 

Humble of her port, and made it simple 
Wearing a vaile, instede of wimple, 
As nuns done in their abbey. 

Of this princess, too, whose careful dress he so par- 
ticularly describes, he says — 

Full seemly her wimple pinched was. 

The maker of such was, of course, our ' Wympler.' ^ 
Among other ornaments belonging to the princess, 
also, is mentioned ' a pair of beads,' that is, bracelets 
of small coral, worn upon the arm, and in this case 
'gauded with green.' A ' Simon Wyld, Bedemaker,' 
is found in the London records of this time, and no 
doubt ' Thomas le Perler ' could have told us some- 
thing about the same. Beside these, therefore, we 
may set our still existing * Paternosters,' relics of the 
old ' Paternostrer,' who strung the chaplet of beads 
for pattering aves. ' Paternoster Row,' literally the 
* Paternostrer's Row ' was some centuries ago the 
abode of a group of these, doubtless then busy 
artisans. Mr. Riley, in his interesting 'Memorials of 
London,' records a ' William le Paternostrer ' as 
dwelling thereby.^ It is among such valuables we 

' As a common instance of the transition process then at work we 
may cite the name of 'John le Wympler, Goldsmith,' which occurs in 
the London records of this time. 

* A 'Robert Ornel, paternostrer,' is mcYitioned, under date 1276, by 
the same writer, [Memorials of London, p. .\.\i.) 


must undoubtedly set pins at this period. Judging 
by those which have descended to us, we should best 
describe them as ' skewers.' So anxious was AbsoJlom 
the clerk to please Alison that, according to Chaucer, 
he sent her — 

Pinnes, methe (mead), and spiced ale. 

Whatever her appetite for the latter, there can be 
little doubt that the first would be acceptable enough 
in a day when these were so valued and costly as to 
be oftentimes made objects of bequcathment. Such 
entries as ' Andrew le Pynner ' or 'Walter Ic Pinner' 
are, of course, common at this time, and their descen- 
dants still flourish in our midst. Our more rare 
' Needlers ' are but relics of such folk as ' Richard le 
Nedlere ' or * John le Nedlemakyere.' • Piers, in his 
Vision, speaks of — 

Tymme the tynkere 
And tweyne of his prentices : 
Hikke the hakeney-man, 
And Hugh the nedlere. 

* Cocke Lorelle ' also mentions — 

Pavyers, belle-makers, and brasycrs, 
Pynners, nedelers, and glasyers. 

The Norman form ' Ic Agguilcr,' or ' Auguiler,' still 
lives in our ' Aguilcrs ' if not ' Aguilars.' A ' Thomas 
le Agguiler ' represented York in the Parliament of 
1305. Chaucer uses 'aguiler' in the sense of a 
needlccase — 

A silver needle forth I drew, 
Out of an aguiler quaint 'ynow. 

' 'Richard le Nedeler' represented Chichester in Parliament in 
1305. {Hist. West. Div. ofSussix.) 


But if pins and needles were valued more highly then 
than they are now, none the less did ' buttons ' fulfil 
their own peculiar and important use. ' Henry le 
Botoners ' or ' Richard le Botyners ' ' may be found in 
most of our records. I do not see, however, that 
their descendants have preserved the sobriquet, 
unless, after the fashion of several other words in our 
vocabulary, they are flourishing secretly among our 
' Butlers,' and thus helping to swell the already strong 
phalanx that surname has mustered. While, however, 
all these representatives of so many though kindred 
occupations seem to have flourished in their separate 
capacities, I do not doubt but that ' Richard le 
Haberdasher ' would have been able to supply most 
of the wares they dealt in. His was a common and 
lucrative employment in a day when, to judge by the 
contents of a shop of this kind as set down in the 
London Rolls, he could offer for purchase such a wide 
assortment as spurs and shirts, chains and nightcaps, 
spectacles and woollen threads, beads and pen-cases, 
combs and ink-horns, parchments and whipcords, 
gaming-tables and coffins (Riley's ' London Memo- 
rials,' p. 422). There seems to be little doubt, however, 
that in the first place he dealt simply in the ' hapertas,' 
a kind of coarse, thick cloth much in vogue at this 
time, and that it was from this he acquired the name 
he bore.^ 

• The difTerent materials used for the manufacture of buttons are 
incidentally declared in such entries as 'Jacob le Homer et Botoner,' or 
' John le Botoner et Latoner, ' found in the Cal. and Inventories of the 

* Among other entries in the Liber Albiis occurs a list of customs for 
exposure of merchandise to sale : — 


The now, I fear, obsolete * Camiser ' made the 
'camis' or chemise, or linen underdress — he was the 
shirtmaker, in fact The former spelling lingered on 
to Spenser's time, who writes of a 

Camis light of puqjle silk. 

It is with him we must properly associate our 
* Smockers,' ' Smookers,' and anachronistic ' Smokers,' 
who, though their chief memorial remains in the 
rustic smockfrock still familiar in our country dis- 
tricts, were nevertheless chiefly busied with the 
'smok,' such as the patient Griselda wore. Of one 
of his characters Chaucer says — 

Through her smocke wroughte with silke 
The flesh was scene as white as milke. 

Such phrases as ' smock-treason,' * smock-loyalty,* 
and ' smock-race,' and the flower ' Lady-smock,' ' 
still remind us that the word was once generally 
understood of female attire. Of the flower Shake- 
speare makes beautiful mention when he says — 

And ladysmocks all silver white, 
Do paint the meadows with delight. 

' La charge de mercerie, 

La charge de leyne d'Espagne, 

La charge de canevas, 

La charge de hapertas, 

La charge de chalouns et draps du Reyns,' etc. 
An entry almost immediately ensu'ng, after mentioning most of the 
above, when come to ' hapertas,' speaks of 'haberdashery.' {GildhallcE 
Munimeiita. ) 

' Capgrave says that when Charles was at Constantinople the Em- 
peror gave him 'a part of Jesu crowne, that flowered therein their 
sight, and a nayle with which oure Lord was naylcd to the tre, and a 
part of oure Lordis crosse: the smok of ourc Ladi: the armc of Scynt 
Simeon. AUc these relikes broute he to Aeon.' (P. io6.) 


The word slop is now well-nigh confined to the 
nether garments of our youngsters, but though, in 
this pluralized sense, it can date back to the time 
when the bard of Avon said of one of his personages 
that he was — 

From the waist dowiiAvards all slops, 

still, singularly used, it was in vogue far earlier. A 
' slop ' in Chaucer's day, and even up to the fifteenth 
century, was a kind of frock or overmantle.' In the 
* Chanon Yemannes's Tale,' the host expresses his 
surprise that the Chanon, a ' lord of so high 
degree,' should make so light of his worship and 
dignity as to wear garments well-nigh worn out. He 
says — 

His overesc sloppe is not worth a mite. 

Our ' Slopers ' still remind us of this. Our ' Pilchers,' 
relics of ' Hugh le Pilecher ' or 'Nicholas le Pilchere,' 
are equally interesting. In his proverbs on covetous- 
ness and negligence, the writer I have just instanced 
thus speaks — 

After great heat comcth cold, 
No man cast his pylche away. 

A ' pilch ' was a large outer tippet made of fur, and 
worn in winter. The modern ladies' ' pelisse ' is but 
another form of the same root. Speaking of furs, 
however, we must not forget our ' Furriers,' and once 
common ' Pelters ' and ' Pellipers.' They Avere en- 
gaged in the preparation of the more furry coats of 
the wilder animals. In the Hundred and other Rolls 

' ' A Marquise (to have) for his gowne, slope, and mantcll, xvi yards, 
and livery for \\i servants.' (A Book 0/ Fnxcdcncc.) 


mention is frequently made of such names as 
' Geoffrey le Pelter ' or ' Reyner le Peleter.' A ' pell' 
or ' pelt ' was any undressed skin. The ' clerk of the 
Pells ' used to be the guardian of the rolls of the Ex- 
chequer, which were written upon a coarse parchment 
of this kind. As a general term of dress it was once 
of the most familiar import. Wicklyffe, in his com- 
plaint to the king, speaks of the poor being compelled 
to provide gluttonous priests with ' fair hors, and jolly 
and gay saddles and bridles, ringing by the way, and 
himself in costly cloth and pelure.' An old song 
written against the mendicant friars, too, says — 

Some friars beren pelure aboute, 
For grete ladys and wenches stoute, 
To reverce with their clothes withoute, 
All after that they are. 

Among the many ordinances passed to curtail the 
subject's liberty in regard to his attire, much is 
written on the fashion of wearing furs. It seems to 
have been the great mark between the higher and 
lower classes. In 1337 it was enacted by Edward III. 
that no one of those whom we now term the opera- 
tive class should wear any fur on his or her dress, the 
fur to be forfeited if discovered. The names I have 
mentioned above still remain in fair numbers as a 
memorial of this period. 

Such a name from the * Rolls of Parliament ' as 
that of ' John Orfroiser,' although now obsolete, 
reminds us of an art for which English craftsmen 
obtained a well-nigh European reputation in medizeval 
times, that of embroidery. ' Aurifrigium ' was the 
Latin word applied to it, and this more clearly betrays 


the golden tissues of which its workmanship mainly- 
consisted. In the * Romance of the Rose,' it is said 
of the fair maid * Idlenesse ' — 

And of fine orfrais had she eke 
A chapelet, so seemly on, 
Ne wered never maide upon. ' 

The term * Broiderer,' ^ however, was the more com- 
mon, and with him all textures and all colours and 
all threads came alike. The Hebrew word in our 
Bible, variously rendered as ' broidered work,' ' needle- 
work,' and * raiment of needlework,' was translated 
in a day when this would be of the most familiar im- 
port. Our ' Pointers ' and ' Poynters ' manufactured 
the tagged lace which fastened the hose and doublet 
together. In Shakespeare's ' i Henry IV.' there is a 
playful allusion to this where Falstaff, in the act of 
saying — 

Their points being broken, 

' ' To William Courteray, of London, Embroiderer, in money paid 
to him for orfries, and other things by him purchased for a velvet vest 
for the King, therewith embroidered with pelicans, images, and taber- 
nacles of gold, etc., 20/.' (40 Edward III. Issues of Exchequer.) 
' Brouderers, strayners, and carpyte-makers.' 

{Cocke Lor die's Bote.) 

^ As a proof of the costliness of this raised needlework, we may 
quote the following entry found in the Issues of the Exchequer : ' To 
William Mugge, chaplain of the King's Chapel at Windsor, in money 
paid to Thomas Cheiner, of London, in discharge of 140/. lately due to 
him for a vest of velvet embroidered with divers work, purchased by 
him for the chaplain aforesaid.' (24 Edward III.) 

The higher nobility seem to have had their special embroiderers. 
There was certainly a court craftsman of this kind. An act of the first 
year of Edw. IV. speaks of ' oure Glasier, Messagiers of oure Ex- 
chequer, Browda-cr, Plumber, Joynour, Maker of Arrows within the 
Toure of London,' &c. {Rot, Pari. Edward IV,) 


is interrupted by the response — 

Down fell their hose. 

It has been asserted that the presence of this name 
in our modern directories is entirely the result of later 
French refugee immigration ; but such registered 
forms as 'John le Poyntour,' 'Robert le Poynter/ or 
' William Poyntmakere ' are found in the records of 
the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries with sufficient 
frequency to justify the belief that it was a much earlier 
denizen than many suppose.' In the former ' Henry 
le Lacer ' or ' Richard le Lacer ' we have, too, but a 
fellow-manufacturer. Lace, it is true, is now rather a 
delicate fabric of interwoven threads ; once, however, 
it was but the braided string for fastening the 
different articles of dress together. Thus, the * shoes- 
latchcV mentioned in Scripture is a mere diminutive 
of the word as thus used. The hose and doublet 
were invariably so attached. The verb ' to lace,' 
I need not add, is still entirely employed in this its 
literal sense. There were other means, however, of 
holding the several garments together, and not a few 
of which are still brought to our remembrance in our 
nomenclature. ' Adam le Gurdlere ' or ' Robert le 
Girdlere* speaks for himself. It was for the girdle 
our former ' Agnes Pouchemakers,' ' Henry Pouchers,' 
' Robert le Purseres,' and ' Alard le Bursers ' (when 
not official) made the leathern pouch carried thus at 
her side for greater readiness by the careful housewife. 

' An act, elsewhere rcferretl to, passed in the first year of Edward 
IV., mentions among others the ' Keper of oure Armour in the Toure 
of London, maker of Poyntes, Constal^le of oure Castcll or Lordship 
of Iladleigli,' etc.— AV. Pari. Edward IV. 


Chaucer, whose sharply-cut descriptions of the dress of 
his company are invaluable to those who would study 
more closely the habits of the time, tells us of the 
Carpenter's wife that — 

By her girdle hung a purse of leather, 
Tasseled with silk and pearled with laton. 

The Norman equivalent of Girdler was ' le Ceynturer' 
('Nicholas le Ceynturer,' A.) or ' le Ceinter,' but I 
have failed to find any traces of it beyond the four- 
teenth century.^ Our decayed ' Brailers ' ^ and ' Bre- 
girdlers ' represent but the same occupation in more 
definite terms. The old English ' brayle ' (from the 
Norman ' braie ' or ' braye,' meaning ' breeches ') was 
a waistband merely, a kind of strap, oftentimes 
attached to and part of the trousers themselves. The 
nautical phrase of ' brailing up sails ' is, I fear, the 
only relic we possess conversationally of this once 
useful term. A ' brailer ' (' Roger le Braeler,' A., 

* Stephen le Brayeler,' X.) or 'bregirdler' ('John le 
Bregerdelere,' X.) was, of course, a manufacturer of 
these. Maundeville, in his ' Travels,' speaks of a 
' breek-girdille ' (p. 50). The now almost universal 
suspender was a later introduction, the names of 

* Bracegirdler ' and * Bracegirdle,' which are not yet 
extinct, denoting, seemingly, the process of change by 
which the one gradually made way for the other. A 
' brace,' from the Latin ' brachium,' the arm, encircles 

' ' Hugh le Ceinter' was Mayor of Gloucester in the reign of Henry 
the Third. (RwAd&r^^ Hist. Glojiastt-rshire, y>. 113.) ' Bcnet Scinturer ' 
was Sheriff of London in 1216. (Strypc.) 

* Under date 1355, Mr. Riley, in his interesting Mcmoruih 0/ 
London, gives the 'Articles and Ordinances of the Biaelers.' He also 
has an account of the burning of some gloves and braels for being of 
false make and fashion in 1350. {Vide pp. 277 and 249.) 


the shoulder as a 'bracelet' does the wrist. It is 
quite possible, however, they may be but a form of 
* breek-girdle.' ' Ivo le Glover ' or * Christiana la 
Glovere ' have left descendants in plenty, but they 
had to fight a hard battle with such naturalized 
foreigners as ' Geoffery le Ganter ' or ' Philip le Gaun- 
ter.' At one time these latter had firmly established 
themselves as the nominees of the manufacture, and 
the only wonder to me is how we managed to prevent 
' gants ' from superseding ' gloves ' in our common 
parlance. The connexion of the ' gauntlet ' with 
military dress, however, has preserved that form of 
the term from decay. Both * Ganter ' and ' Gaunter,' 
I need scarcely say, are firmly set in our midst. 

And now we must descend once more till we come 
to the lower extremities, and in a day of so much 
tramping it on foot we need not feel surprised if we 
find many memorials of this branch of the personal 
outfit. The once common expression for a shoe- 
maker or cobbler was that of soiitcr} It is of con- 
stant occurrence in our olden writers. Thus the 
Malvern Dreamer speaks of — 

Plowmen and pastours, 

And othere commune laborers, 

Sowters and shepherdcs. 

Elsewhere, too, he uses the feminine form when he 
makes mention of — 

Cesse the souteresse. 

The masculine term, I need not remind Scotchmen, 
is still in colloquial use across the Border, and that 
it was once so in England our many ' Souters,' * Sow- 

' And 'also, every sowtere that makcth shoon of new rothcs' Icther,* 
etc. (Usages of Winchester. Ettglish Guilds, t,^^.) 


ters,' and * Suters,' and ' Suitors,' misleading as these 
latter are, are sufficient evidence. Such entries as 
' Andrew le Soutere,' ' Robert le Souter,' or ' Richard 
le Sutor' are common to old registers. In the 
* Promptorium Parvulorum ' ' sowtare ' is defined as a 
' cordewaner ' or ' cordynare,' and this at once brings 
us to our ' Cordwaners,' ' Cordiners,' and ' Codners.' 
They were so termed because the goatskin leather 
they used came, or was supposed to have come, from 
Cordova in Spain. In the ' Rime of Sire Thopas,' 
that personage is thus described : — 

His hair, his beard was like safroun, 
That to his girdle raiight adown, 

His shoon of cordewane ; 
Of Brugges were his hosen brown. 
His robe was of ciclatoun. 

That cost many a jane. 

In the ' Libel on English Policy,' too, we find it said 
of Portugal — 

Their londe hath oyle, wyne, osey, wex, and grain, 
Fygues, reysyns, honey and cordwayne. 

In the Hundred Rolls it is represented by such a 
name as ' Hugh le Cordwaner ' or * Ranulph le Corde- 
waner.' ' ' William le Corviser,' from the same records, 
or ' Durand le Corveser,' held a name which struggled 
for some time for a place, but had finally to collapse.^ 

* ' Item, received of John Bent and John Davies, cordiner, for one 
pew, 'lis.' 1571. (C/iurc/rcoardc-ns' Exp. Ludlmu, p. 148. Cam. Soc.) 

* In the Mysteries composed for the City Pageant by Randie, a 
monk of Chester Abbey, in the thirteenth century, a part in it is 
directed to be sustained by the ' Corvesters and Shoemakers.' (Orme- 
rod's Cheshire, p. 301). In this case we have the strictly speaking 
Saxon feminine termination appended to a Norman word. I have 
found three ' Shoemakers. ' ' Harry Shomaker ' was an attendant of 


■* Cobbler ' ('Richard le Cobeler,' A ), though it has 
existed as a name of occupation fully as long as any 
of the above, has, I believe, never been able so far to 
overcome the dislike to the fact of its being a mere 
mending or patchwork trade as to obtain for itself an 
hereditary place in our nomenclature. * Cosier ' has 
fared better, as have ' Clouter ' and ' Cloutman,' relics 
of the old * John ' or ' Stephen le Clutere,' why I do 
not know. We all remember how the inhabitants of 
Gibeon 'did work wilily, and went and made as if 
they had been ambassadors, and took old sacks upon 
their asses, and wine bottles, old and rent, and bound 
up, and old shoes and clouted upon their feet, and old 
garments upon them.' Another name we may notice 
here is that of 'Patten-maker,' a 'James Patyn- 
makere ' being found enrolled in a Norwich guild of 
1385. Cocke Lorelle mentions among others : — 

Alys Easy a gay tale-teller. 
Also Peter Patynmaker. ' 

A patten seems in the thirteenth and fourteenth cen- 
turies to have been very similar to our clog, only that 
the former was more easily put on and off. It was of 
a wooden sole, rimmed with iron. We find in 1464 

the Princess Mary (1542). {Prizy Piusc Expcust's, p. 2.) 'Christopher 
Shoomaker' was burnt at Newbury (15 18), whose story is related by 
Foxe. The name seems to have lingered on till the close of the 
xviiith cent., for it is found in St. Anne's register, Manchester, in 1 781, 
as 'Showmaker:' 'Mary, wife of John Showmakcr, burial Aug. 26, 
1 78 1.' This spelling reminds me of an entry in the Household of 
Princess Elizabeth, Cam. Soc. : — ' Robert Waterman for showing 
(shoeing) xviij.' (p. 29.) 

' And that the corvesers bye ther lethcr in the seid Gild-halle, 
{Ordinances of Worcester. English Guilds, 371). 

' Another form of the name and occupation is met with in the 
Corp. Christi Guild, York, in the case of ' Robert Patener, et Mariona 
uxor ejus' (W. ii.). 


the Patynmakers of London presenting a grievance in 
that the fletchers alone were allowed to use aspen- 
wood, whereas it was the ' lightest tymbre to make of 
patyns or clogges.' (Rot. Pari. iv. 567.) Mr. Way, 
in his Notes to the * Promptorium Parvulorum,' says 
they were worn much by ecclesiastics to protect the 
feet from chill when treading the cold bare pavements 
of the churches, and he quotes a Harleian MS. dated 
1390 regarding an archiepiscopal visitation at York : 
' Item, omnes ministri ecclesie pro majore parte utun- 
tur in ecclesia et in processione /^/^;/j et clogges con- 
tra honestatem ecclesie, et antiquam consuetudenem 
capituli.' The patten-maker was evidently of some 
importance at this time.^ 

Perhaps fashion never went to such an absurd ex- 
treme as it did in the fourteenth century with respect 
to wearing peaked shoes. An old poem entitled the 
' Complaint of the Ploughman,' says of the friars, and 
alluding to their inconsistencies, that they wear — 

Gutted clothes to shewe their hewe, 

With long pikes on their shoon : 
Our Godcles Gospell is not trewe 

Either they serve the devill or none. 

Piers Plowman, too, speaks of a knight coming to be 
dubbed — 

To geten him gilte spurs 
Or galoches y-couped. 

This last reminds us that they were commonly styled 
' copped shoon.' Such a sobriquet as ' Hugh le Cop- 
pede ' or 'John le Copede' would seem to refer to this. 
Probably the owner had carried on the practice to an 
even more extravagant length than his neighbours, and 

' 'John Rykedon, patynmaker,' occurs in the Patent Rolls (R.R.. i). 
A A 


very likely he was one of those who caused a law to be 
passed in 1463 forbidding any knight, or any one 
beneath that rank, to wear any shoes or boots having 
pikes passing the length of two inches ! Even this 
curtailment, I imagine, would astonish the weak 
minds of pedestrians in the nineteenth century. Of 
a similar craft with the shoemaker came * the hosier ' or 
'chaucer,' the latter of which has become, surnomi- 
nally, so famous in English literature. Though now 
obsolete, such a name as ' Robert le Chaucer ' or 
' William le Chaucier ' was anything but uncommon 
at this time. Like * Suter,' above mentioned, it has a 
Latin source, its root being ' calcearius.' Chausses, 
however, were not so much boots as a kind of leathern 
breeches worn over mail armour. There is probably, 
therefore, but little distinction to be made between 
them and the 'hose' of former days, though it is 
somewhat odd that leather, which once undoubtedly 
was the chief object of the hosier's attention, should 
now in his shop be conspicuous by its absence. While 
' Chaucer ' has long ago become extinct, ' Hosier ' or 
' Hozier ' is firmly established in our nomenclature. 
Thus we see that clothing is not without its memen- 

A curious surname is presented for our notice in 
our ' Dubbers,' not to be confounded with our * Dau- 
bers ' already mentioned. To ' dub ' was to dress, 
or trim, or decorate. Thus, with regard to military 
equipment, Minot says in one of his political songs — 

Knightes were (here well two .score 
That were new clubbed to that dance. 

It is thus we have acquired our phrase ' to dub a 
knight.' The term, however, became ver>' general in 


the sense of embellishing, rather than mere dressing, 
and it is to this use of the word we owe the surname. 
Thus, in the * Liber Albus ' we find a ' Peter le 
Dubbour ' recorded, whose trade was to furbish up 
old clothes ; he was a fripperer in fact. In the York 
Pageant, already referred to more than once, we see 
the * Dubbers ' walking in procession between the 
* Bookbinders ' and ' Limners,' and here they were 
evidently mere trimmers or decorators externally of 
books. In another register we find a ' dubbour,' so 
called because as a hawker of fish he was in the habit 
of putting all the fine ones at the top of his basket, a 
trick still in vogue in that profession, I fear.^ In all 
these cases we see that ' adornment ' or ' embellish- 
ment ' is the main idea. I need not remind my 
more North-country readers how every gardener 
still speaks of ' dubbing ' when he heaps up afresh 
the soil about his flowers and plants. The old forms 
of the name were * Jordan le Dubber,' * Payen le 
Dubbour,' and ' Ralph le Douber,' which last most 
nearly approaches its root, the old Norman-French 
' adouber,' to arrange. 

A curious occupation is preserved from oblivion in 
our somewhat rare ' Rafifmans.' We have the root 
meaning , of the word in our * reft ' and ' bereft,' im- 
plicative of that which is snatched away or swept off. 
Thus we still use ' riff-raff' in regard to the off- 

' It is evidently in a depreciatory sense that Bishop Latimer in one 
of his sermons makes use of this word, while his very employment of 
it shows how familiar was its meaning as a term of occupation, even in 
the sixteenth century. He says, speaking of a certain bishoj), ' There 
stood by him a dubber, one Doctor Dubber : he dubbed liim by and 
by, and said,' &.c. Second Sermon before Edward VI. 

A A 2 


scouring of the people. A raff-merchant was a dealer 
in lumber of any kind. In the Guild of Saint George, 
Norwich, 1385, we find not merely the name of ' John 
Raffman,' but such entries as ' Robert Smith, raff- 
man,' or 'John Smith, rafman.' The term 'raff' for 
a low fellow is not yet obsolete, and Tennyson, when 
he says 

Let raffs be rife in prose or rhyme, 

is only using a sobriquet which, until recently, was a 
very familiar one in the mouths of our peasantry. I 
have placed the surname here because I doubt not 
the occupation whence it sprung was chiefly in respect 
of trimmings, and the shearings of cloth, wool, and 
such-like articles of merchandise. 

Another surname we must consider here is that 
belonging to ' Ketel le Mercer ' or ' Henry le Mercer,' 
now found also as ' Marccr.' We sec in the very 
title that the term has engrossed a sense not strictly 
its own, and that, though we visit the mercer's shop 
for silken goods, he was originally a dealer in every 
kind of ware. He represented in mediaeval times, 
in fact, the storekeeper of our colonies. Indeed I 
believe that to this day in some of our more retired 
country parts the mercer will supply his customers 
with haberdashery, drugs, draperies, hardvvare, and 
all general wants, saving actual comestibles. Mr. 
Lower quotes an old political song against the friars, 
in which this more correct sense of the word is 
conveyed — 

For thai have nouglit to live by, 

They wandren here and there, 
And dele with divers marceryc 

Right as thai pedlars were. 


Our ' Chaloners ' and ' Challenors,' representatives 
of such old names as 'Peter le Chaloner,' 'Jordan 
le Chaluner,' or ' Nicholas le Chalouner,' originated 
in a foreign but most useful manufacture. Chalons- 
sur-Marne, at this time one of the most thriving towns 
of the Continent, was chiefly renowned for its woollen 
and worsted stuffs, and a peculiar coverlet of this 
sort, called by the special name of a ' chalon,' became 
celebrated over the more civilized world. In the 
' Reves' Tale ' we are told of the miller that — 

In his owen chambre he made a bedde 
With sheles, and with chalons fair yspredde.' 

Any importer or manufacturer of these was a 
' Chaloner.' In a public solemn pageant held in 141 5 
in the City of York, at the end of a list of trades to be 
represented, there follows this : ' It is ordained that 
the Porters and Coblers should go first, then, of the 
right, the Wevers and Cordwaners : on the left, the 
Fullers, Cutlers, Girdellers, Chaloners, Carpenters, and 
Taillyoures : then the better sort of citizens,' etc. 
('History and Antiquities of York,' vol. ii. p. 126.) 
The trade name seems to have died out about the end 

' The word was evidently in familiar use. Thus in the will of one 
William Askame, dated 1390, it is said, ' Item, Margai'etse prenticiae 
Willielmi Askham do et lego a fedir bedd and i matras, ii shetes and 
a coverlet, i bacyn and i laver, and a bras potte and volette of crysp. 
Item Johanna; Dagh crisp volet and a c/ialoti.' — Test. Ebor., vol. i. 
p. 130. (Sicrl. Soc.) 

' And that no chalon of ray, or other chalon, shall be made, if it be 
not of the ancient lawful assize, ordained by the good folks of the 
trade.' (Ext. from Onliuaiiccs of the Tapiccrs, Riley's London^ 
p. 179.) 

' Also, non of the Citce ne shal don werche qwyltes ne chalouns 
withoute the walles of the Citee (i.e. Winchester). [English Gidlcis, 

P- 35I-) 

The Chaloner is styled the ' Chaloun-makyere ' in this ordinance. 


of the fifteenth century. How corrupted a word may- 
become in the lapse of time may be seen in the 
modern ' shalloon,' a term used for a species of 
worsted cloth. In such a name as * Hugh le Shctare ' 
or ' Roger le Shetere ' we recognize him who provided 
that other portion of the bed gear which is referred to 
in the extract from Chaucer. This name is now 
extinct. Not so, however, our ' Quilters,' who still 
thrive in our midst hale and hearty, and need never 
fear obsoletism. Doubtless, as the cold of winter set 
in, and its warm padded qualities began to be appre- 
ciated, the quilters would be busy enough in providing 
such a coverlet as this. ' Ouiltmaker ' ('John le Quylte- 
maker, (H.) is also found as a variation of the above : 
an old poem mentions among others — 

Quyltemakers, shermen, and armorers ; 
Borlers, tapestry-work makers, and dyers. 

Such a name as ' Christiana le Heldcre ' or ' Robert le 
Holdere ' must, I doubt not, be set here, both forms 
being still in existence. They belonged, I think, to the 
craft of upholdsters or upholders, at this time confined, 
it would seem, entirely to the manufacture and sale 
of mattresses, bolsters, pillows, and quilts, anything 
of a padded nature connected with bed furniture.* 
The insertion of flocks and feathers and the stitching 
together of such would seem to be a woman's work, 
and this is the clue, I suspect, to the fact of our now 
using the feminine form of upholdster. There is a 
curious complaint made to Parliament in 1495, by 

' In the Guikl of St. George, Norwiclt, 1385, is mentioned the 
name of 'Geoffrey Bedwevere.' He would l^e either a quiltcr, or one 
of those artisans aUuded to by Cocke Lorclle. 
' Fyners, phimmers, and peuters, 
Bedmakers, fcdbedrnakcrs, and wyredrawers.' 


the metropolitan upholders, that ' Quyltes, mattres, 
and cussions (were) stuffed with horse hair, fen downe, 
neetis here, deris here (deers' hair), and gotis here, 
which is wrought in lyme fattes and by the hete of 
mannys body the savour and taste is so abhomynable 
and contagious that many of the King's subgettis 
thereby been destroied,' ' It is prayed, therefore, 
that only one kind of stuff be allowed to be inserted 
in any one of these articles (' Stat : of Realm,' Henry 
VII.). In * Henry le Canevacer' or 'Richard le 
Canevacer ' we are carried back to a class of now all 
but entirely decayed trade. The canvaser, of course, 
turned out canvas, and this more especially for bags 
for the conveyance of the raw wool, or for tapestry 
purposes. In an old poem relating to German im- 
ports, it is said at the close — 

Coleyne threde, fustaine, and canvase, 
Carde, bokeram, of olde time thus it wase. 

Tapestry work would engage much of this. Hangings 
of this kind, ere wainscot came into use, were the ordi- 
nary decorations of the baronial apartment, covering 
as they generally did the entire length of the lower 
wall. In the ' Boke of Curtasye ' we are told of the 
duties of one officer — 

Tapetis of Spayne on flore by side 

Tliat sprad shall be for pompe and pryde, 

The chambur sydes rygt to the dore 

He hangs with tapetis that ben fulle store. 

» I find several writers speaking (Mr. Riley among them) as if the 
upholder was simply an undertaker. He may have been this, but it is 
evident it was but a subordinate branch of his occupation. We find in 
1445 a certain ' Richard Upholder ' appraising the bedroom furniture of 
James Hedyan, the Principal of ' Eagle Ilall.' {Mun. Acad. Oxon., 
P- 544) 


The name of ' Tapiser,' for one who wove this 
article, is famiHarized to us as that of one of the im- 
mortal company who sat down together at the 'Tabard ' 
in Southwark, Our modern ' Tapsters,' I doubt not, 
afford but another example of a surname engrossing 
what have been originally two separate and distinct 
titles. In an old sacred pageant given in York in 141 5, 
amongst other trades represented we find coupled 
together the ' Couchers ' and ' Tapisers.' ' Our ' Cou- 
chers ' and ' Couchmans ' are thus explained. They 
were evidently engaged less in the wooden framework, 
as we might have supposed, than in the manufacture 
of the cushions that covered it, and doubtless, like 
the broiderer mentioned above, worked in gold and 
silver and coloured threads the raised figures thereon.'^ 
Thus we must ally them with such names as * Robert 
le Dosier ' or ' Richard le Dosyere,' makers of the 
' doss,' a technical term given at this time for cushions 

' The ordinances for the Guild of St. Katharine, Lynn, are signed 
by 'Peter Tapeser.' — English Guilds, p. 68. (E. E. Text Soc.) 

The following entry from the Exchajiicr Issues will give the 
reader a fair idea of the work that came under the tapiser's hands : — 
' To John Flessh, tapestry maker. In money paid to him for a side 
cushion, or carpet, a bench, and five cushions worked with the king's 
arms . . . to be placed about, and hung at the back of the king's 
justice seats of his common bench within Westminster Hall.' — 14 
Henry VI. 

' It is only right to say that there seems to have been a term 
* coucher ' to imply one who resided in certain towns for purposes of 
trade of a somewhat doubtful character. In this sense it was but a 
French sobricjuet, meaning in English 'a lurker.' A statute of Edward 
III. concerning the prices of wine and tlieir import speaks of 
' Cochoures Engleys' (English couchers, or lurkers), living in Rochelle, 
Bordeaux, etc., who traded in wines. The tenor of the allusion to them, 
however, is such that we could hardly expect them to be represented 
openly in an English pageant. 


or stools worked in tapestry.^ Thus the same book 
which I have just quoted says of the groom's duties — 

The dosurs, curtines to hang in halle, 
These offices needs do he shalle. 

As a specific name for productions of this class the 
word is now quite obsolete, though familiar enough 
in early days ; tapestry indeed, in general, has ceased 
to be popular, and is now all but entirely confined 
professionally to the weaving of carpets, and as an 
amateur art among ladies to those figured screens so 
much in vogue not more than one or two generations 
ago, traces of which still remain in the framed embroi- 
deries yet lingering in many of our drawing-rooms — 
embroideries of cats with grizzly whiskers and tawny 
terriers — embroideries which as children we heard 
with bated breath had been worked by our grand- 
mothers when they were little girls, and thus we 
realised for the first time, not so much that they had 
done these wonderful things as that they had once 
been small at all, like ourselves. 

We have no surname to represent the weaving of 
carpets, as this was an introduction of much later 
date than most of our other household comforts in 
the way of furniture. In Brand's ' Popular Antiqui- 
ties ' an interesting quotation is given from Hentzner's 
' Itinerary,' who, describing Queen Elizabeth's Pre- 
sence Chamber at Greenwich, says, ' The floor, after 
the English fashion, was strewed with hay.' The 
strewing of church pews with rushes was common 

• An old Yorkshire will, dated 1383, contains the following Ijequest: 
' To John Couper, a docer, and a new banaquer (a scat -cover) and ij 
cochyns (cushions).' (Surtees Soc. ) 


until recent times, and in the North of England the 
peculiar customs attaching to the * Rush-bearing,' a 
kind of ' wakes,' are not yet extinct. It is fair to add, 
however, that carpets were in course of introduction 
at the beginning of the sixteenth century ; an old 
poem of that date mentions — 

Broudurers, strayners, and carpytc-makers, 
Spooners, turners, and Iiatters. 

Before proceeding any further we had better intro- 
duce our 'Lavenders,' or washers, for be it linen or 
woollen stuff, be it garment for the back or covering 
for the bed, all needed washing then as now. The 
contracted feminine 'laundress' is still in common 
use. That the masculine form, however, was early 
applied to the other sex is proved in the ' Legend of 
Good Women,' where we are told — 

Envie is lavender of the court ahvay, 
For she ne parteth neither night ne day. 

The gradation from 'lavcnderic' to 'laundry' is 
marked by Stowc, who in his ' Chronicles ' writes it 
' laundery.' By similar contractions our ' Lavenders' 
are now found also in the other forms of ' Launder ' 
and ' Lander.' An old poem say.s — 

Thou shalt be my launder, 

To -washc and keep clean all my gere.' 

'Alicia la Lavcndar' figures in the Hundred Rolls. 
Doubtless, like our more Saxon ' Washers,' she was a 

' Beatrice ap Rice, laundress to Princess Mary (daughter of Henry 
VIII.), is always set down as ' Mistress Launder.' ' Item, paid for 
2 11). of starche for Mts Launder, viiid.' (Privy Purse Exjvnses, 
p. 160.) 


professional washerwoman. The stiffening process, of 
infinitely more consequence then than now, has left its 
mark in such a name as * Ralph le Starkere,' or even 
in that of ' William Starcman,' starch and stark being 
once but synonymous words. Whether it were the 
carefully pinched wimple or the kerchief, whether it 
were of silk or lawn, both alike required all the 
rigidity that could be imparted to them, would the 
head be befittingly adorned. Employed, therefore, 
either in the sale of the starch itself or in the work 
of stiffening the dress, we find men of such a title as 
the above. Doubtless they are referred to by the 
author of ' Cocke Lorelle's Bote ' where he speaks of — 

Butlers, sterchers, and mustard-makers, 
Hardeware men, mole seekers, and ratte-takers. 

From the outer we may now naturally and fitly 
turn to the provision for the inner man. Nor are we 
without interesting relics also in this respect. We 
have already described the process by which the flour 
was provided. The agencies in the towns for the sale 
of this, and the uses to which it was put, are all more 
or less well defined, and well established also in our 
present directories. I do not know whether French 
rolls had obtained celebrity so early as this, but the 
name of ' Richard Frenshbaker ' would seem at least 
to give some kind of credence to the supposition. 
There can be no doubt, however, that he dealt in a 
fancy way, for in solid bread-baking the Saxon 
'Baker' has ever kept his hands in the kneading- 
trough, and need never fear, so far as our nomencla- 
ture is concerned, being ousted therefrom. The 
feminine form has become almost equally well estab- 


lished among us, * Bagster ' or ' Baxter ' ' or ' Backster' 
(the latter spelling found in Foxe's Roll of Marian 
martyrs) being among other forms of the old female 
bakester.' Piers Plowman speaks of — 

Baksteres, and brewesteres, 
And bochiers manye ; 

and such good folk as ' Elias le Baxter ' or ' Ralph le 
Bakster ' or ' Giliana le Bacster ' arc very plentifully 
represented in our olden registers.^ Still the foreigner 
did not give way without a struggle. We have 
' Pollinger,' * Bullinger,' ' Bollinger,' and ' Ballinger,' as 
corruptions of the ' boulanger ' or * Richard Ic Bulen- 
ger,' as he is recorded. In our ' Furncrs ' we sec the 
representatives of such a name as 'WilHam le Furner' 
or ' Walter le Fernier,' he who looked to the oven, 
while in the all but unaltered form of ' Pester ' we 
may still not uncommonly meet with the descendants 
of many an old ' Richard le Pestour ' or * Herman le 
Pestur,' who had spent the best of his days in the 
bakehouse. Such a name as ' John Pastemakere ' or 
' Gregory le Pastemakere ' or * Andrew le Pyebakere,' 
which once existed, reminds us of the pastrycook, a 
member, as he then was, no doubt, of a by no means 
unimportant fraternity — that of the ' Pastclers ' or 
* Pie-bakers.' An old poem speaks of — 

Drovers, cokes, and pulters, 
Yermongcrs, pybakers, and waferers. 

' The ordinances of the CJuild of the Purification, Bishoi>'s Lynn, 
1367, are signed by 'Johannes Auslyn, Baxter.' (Ktiglish Guilds, p. 90.) 

Capgravc, under date 205 D.c, says, ' In this same tyme lyved the 
eloquent man whicli hilc (was called) Plautus, and for al liis cloquens 
he was compelled for to dwel with a baxter, and grinde his corn at a 

^ The curious name of ' Sara le Bredemongesterc ' occurs in the 
' London Memorials' (Kiley), 


Best known, however, to most people would he be 
under the simple professional name of ' cook.' I need 
not remind any student of olden English records how 
familiar is ' Roger le Coke ' or * William le Cook ' or 
'John Cokeman,' nor will he be astonished at his 
being so well represented in all those forms in the 
directories of the nineteenth century. I could give 
endless references to show that this term was not 
confined to the kitchen servitor. The 'City Archives' 
give us an ordinance passed 2 Rich. II. (A.D. 1378) by 
the ' Cooks and Pastelers,' as an associated company, 
and Piers Plowman speaks of 

Punishing on pillories, 

Or on pynnyng stools, 

Brewesters, Bakers, 

Bochers, and Cookes, 

For these be men upon molde (earth) 

That most harm worken 

To the poor people. 

' Cook ' or ' Coke ' certainly holds a high position in 
the scale of frequency at present, and, as I have had 
occasion to notice in another chapter, is one of those 
few tradal names that have taken to them the filial 
desinence, ' Cookson ' being by no means uncommon. 
Of all these we might have said much, but to mention 
them must sufiice, and to pass on. Solid bread- 
baking, however, as I have just hinted, was not the 
sole employment of this nature in early days. A 
poem I have recently quoted speaks of 'waferers.' 
Our 'Wafers,' relics of the old ' Simon' or ' Robert le 
Wafre,' seem to have confined themselves all but 
entirely to the provision of eucharistic bread, though 
they were probably vendors also of those sweet and 


spiced cakes which, under the name of ' marchpanes,' 
were decidedly popular. Among other gifts that 
Absolom the clerk gave Alison, Chaucer hints of — 

Wafers piping hot out of the glcde,' 

and the ' Pardoner,' in enumerating the company of 
lewd folks of Flanders, speaks of ' fruitsters,' ' singers 
with harps,' and 'waferers.' Piers Plowman puts 
them amid still more disreputable associates. No 
doubt, true to the old adage, * near the church, never 
in it,' they were wont to hang about the sacred edifice 
abroad and at home, offering their traffic to the de- 
vouter worshippers as they entered in. We ourselves 
know how searing to heart and conscience is such a 
life as this. That all were not of this kind we are 
reminded by the will of an Archbishop of York of the 
thirteenth century, who therein bequeaths a certain 
sum to two * waferers,' evidently on account of their 
exemplary conduct while conducting their trade at 
the Minster door. 

Chaucer, describing the prioress, says that — 
With rested flesh, and milk, and wastel brede, 

she fed her small hounds. Cakes of wastel were of 
the purest flour and most careful bake, and were only 
second to the simnel in quality. Wasteler, found in 
such an entry as ' John Wasteler,' is extinct, but the 
shorter ' Wastel ' still exists in our midst. Probably, 
in the latter case, it was originally but a sobriquet 

' It is in this more general sense we find the word used in our present 
Authorized Version. Thus in Lev. ii. 4, it is said : ♦ And if thou bring 
an oblation of a meat offering baken in the oven, it shall be unleavened 
cakes of fine flour mingled with oil, or unleavened wafers anointed with 
oil.' — Tay to Ralph Crast the wafercr, 40J. of our gift.' ('Issues of 
Exchequer,' 26 Henry III.) 


affixed to a baker of this peculiar kind of bread. 
It is in a similar manner, I doubt not, arose such 
early nicknames as 'William Wytebred,' or 'John 
Holibread,' or 'Roger Blancpain,' or ' Josce Barlibred,' 
or ' Matilda Havercake,' or ' Lambert Simnel,' the 
latter a name familiarized to the youngest student of 
English history. Strange to say, ' Barlibred ' is the 
only one of this list that has disappeared from our 
directories, although ' Barleycorn ' was in existence, 
I believe, but a few years ago. But to keep more 
strictly to tradesmen : I have no doubt myself it is 
here we must place our ' Mitcheners,' as makers of 
the 'mitche' or 'mitchkin.' The diminutive was 
the modern cracknel, while the larger seems to have 
been a small loaf of mixed flour. Chaucer, in his 
praise of contentment, says — 

For he that hath mitches tweine, 
Ne value in his demeine, 
Liveth more at ease, and more is rich 
Than doeth he that is chich (niggardly), 
And in his barne hath sooth to saine, 
A hundred mavis of wheat grain. 

I have, however, no proof of the connexion I deem 
exists, so I merely mention it and pass on. We 
are more certain about our rare ' Flawners ' and 
* Planners,' ^ once the manufacturers of the ' flaon ' 
or ' flawn,' so popular as to have left its mark in 
our * Pancake Tuesday.' Caxton, in his ' Boke for 
Travellers,' says, ' of mylke and of eggs men make 

' This corruption seems to have early become the accepted one. A 
John Flanner entered C.C. Col., Cambridge, in 1649. (///>/. C.C. 
Coll.). In 1641 another John Flanner was Rector of Kilverstone. 
(Hist. Nor/., I. 546.) 


flawnes.' In the story of Havelok the Dane, too, 
mention is made of — 

Brede an chese, hutere and milk, 
Pasties and flaunes. 

A ' Roger le Flaoner ' comes in the London Cor- 
poration records, A.D. 1307, while much about the 
same time I find a ' Walter le Flawner' in the Parlia- 
mentary writs. 

I have kept our ' Panyers' and ' Panniers' till the 
last, because there is just a shade of doubt as to 
whether they owe their name to the manufacture of 
the basket so-called or to the hawking of bread, the 
very practice of which custom, so familiar as it was 
then, has given us the term. The original meaning 
of ' pannier,' the French * panier,' was bread-basket, 
and the word seems to have acquired a peculiar pro- 
minence from the fact that in mediaeval times bakers, 
through being the subjects of a careful supervision, 
were forbidden to sell their bread anywhere but in 
the public market — nay, so particular were the 
authorities with regard to this that an ofiicer was 
specially appointed to watch the ' hutches,' boxes, or 
baskets in which the loaves were exposed. A surname 
' Robert le Huchereve' is even found in the Guildhall 
records as a relic of this. We can thus readily under- 
stand how hawkers of these portable covers or baskets 
would acquire the sobriquet of ' panyers.' Certain it 
is we find such entries as ' Simon le Pannier,' ' Robert 
le Pannere,' ' Amiscus Panarius,' or * Geoffrey Pany- 
man,' while in another register the occupation of 
' panycre ' is distinctly mentioned. We can equally 
readily understand how from this the term itself 


would, in course of time, obtain a wider and more 
general sense. That it has done so the donkey's pan- 
niers are a proof. It is, however, somewhat strange, 
when we reflect upon it, that perhaps the last thing 
we should expect to see borne in this fashion in the 
present day would be that very article to which the 
receptacle itself owed its name. 

It is somewhat remarkable that while our direc- 
tories possess many records of the early manufacture 
of and traffic in cheese, yet there are no names what- 
ever in the present day, I believe, and barely any in 
the past, which are associated with the most impor- 
tant of all country produce — butter.' The most satis- 
factory clue to the difficulty will be to suppose that 
the cheese-merchant of that day, as often in the 
present, dealt in both articles. This is the more 
likely, as the many sobriquets given to dealers in 
cheese in the fourteenth century would appear to give 
that edible, important as it was and is, a greater 
prominence than singly it deserved. Thus we find 
such names as ' Edward le Chescman' or ' Robert Ic 
Chesemaker,' 'John Ic Chesevvright,' or 'William 
le Cheswright,' or ' Alen Ic Chesmongere,' as repre- 
sentatives of the Saxons, figuring somewhat conspicu- 
ously in the registers of the period. ^ For the foreign 
element, too, cognomens were not wanting, ' Bene- 
dict' or 'Michael le Casierc' may even now be living 

' Since writing the above I have found a ' William Buttyrman ' in 
the Test. Ebor., vol. iii., Surtees Soc., but I can discover no trace 
of its continuance beyond its immediate possessor. 

- The Hundred Rolls furnish us with the local ' Adam del Cheshus,' 
i.e.. Cheese-house. He would be connected with some country dairy 
or city store-room. The name is formed like ' Malthus,' from ' Malt- 
house,' or ' Loftus,' from 'Loft-house.' 

B B 


in our ' Cayzers,' if they be not but another form of 
' Kaiser,' and * Wilkin le Furmager ' or ' WilHam le 
Formager' in our ' Firmingers,' is in no risk of imme- 
diate obHvion, The majority of the Saxon forms, I 
need scarcely add, are also thriving in our midst 

It may seem somewhat strange that ' grocer,' of 
all trades the most important, so far as the kitchen is 
concerned, should be so rarely represented in our 
nomenclature. But the reason is simple enough. To 
sell in the gross, or wholesale, was a second and later 
step in commercial practice. A 'John Outer, Gros- 
sarius,' appears in the London City Rolls so early as 
1 310, but it had scarcely become a familiar name of 
trade till the close of the fourteenth century.^ In 
1363 a statute of Edward III. speaks concerning 
' Merchauntz nomez Grossers,' so termed because 
they ' engrossent totes maners des marchandiscs ven- 
dables,' and then enhanced the price on each separate 
article. Before this they had been known as the 
Fepperers, or Spiccrs Guild, such names as ' John le 
Espicer' or ' Nicholas le Espiccr ' occurring not unfre- 
quently at this period. Spice, indeed, was the then 
general term for all manner of drugs, aromatic and 
pungent, which were brought into England by foreign 
and especially Venetian merchants from the East. 
These were carried up and down the country again 

' In the country, and more north, wc shall scarcely find the teiin to 
have made any way till even the fifteenth century. In llie York Pa- 
geant which occurred in 141 5, and was supposed to represent, as a 
survey of its programme shows it evidently did, every trade or occupa- 
tion that could claim the slightest right to attention, we do not find it 
having a place. The 'Spicers' and 'Sauce-makers' are prominent, 
however, and they, no doubt, even then were upholding the interests of 
the trade which by-and-by was to go under this new .sobriquet. 


by the itinerant traders, so many of whom I have 
already referred to in a previous chapter. An old 
song, written against the mendicant friars, relates 
that, among other of their vagaries — 

Many a dyvers spyse 

In bagges about they bear. 

As I have just stated, however, the term ' Grocer ' 
superseded that of ' Spicer,' and as such seems to 
have confined its dealings to the modernly received 
limit at an early date. As we must have already seen, 
each want had always hitherto been met by its own 
special dealer. With us now the Cutler would supply 
all the 'Knifesmith' and * Spooner' then separately 
furnished ; while our ' Ironmongers ' or * Hosiers ' 
or ' Upholdsters ' would each swallow up half-a-dozen 
of former occupations. Thus it was here. Our 'John 
le Saucers' or ' Ada la Saucers ' provided salt pickle.' 
As with the * Frankelein,' so with many another 
there — 

Wo was his cook, but if his sauce were 
Poinant and sharpe, and redy all his gear. 

'Peter le Salter' or 'Hugh Saltman' furnished forth 
the chloride itself; ' William le Mustarder' or * Peter le 
Mustardman,' or 'Alice Mustard-maker,' the mustard ; 
' Thomas le Pepperer,' ^ now spelt ' Pepper,' the pepper; 

' 'Joan Sausemaker' occurs in the Corpus CJuisti Guild, York. 

' 'John Nutmaker' gave to a loan upon Middlesex in 1463. (ViJe 
ScobelPs Declarations of Pari., 429.) This name has troubled me 
much. Halliwell has 'nut,' a term for sweet-bread in the eastern 
counties. Failing this, I can only suggest 'nutmegger,' and place it 
among those set down in the text. 

B B 2 


'Ralph le Soper' or 'Adam le Savonier,' the soap. 
Each set before his customers' eyes those peculiar 
articles of household consumption their names seve- 
rally represent. All these, having flourished in the 
earlier age, established for themselves a better place 
in our register than our rare ' Grosers ' or ' Grossers,' 
who in this respect only appeared in time to save 
themselves from oblivion, though they have long ago 
revenged themselves on their humbler brethren by 
swallowing up entire the occupations they followed. 
It is curious to note that in later days, through the 
various accessions of luxury, the result in well-nigh 
every case of foreign discovery, even * Grocer ' has 
failed to comprehend all. In our country villages 
we all but invariably find added ' and licensed dealer 
in tea, coffee, tobacco, snuff, &c.' In our towns, 
however, this addendum has been dropped, and a 
' grocer's shop ' is the place we turn to, without 
thought of refusal, for these modern introduced 
luxuries. What changes in our domestic resources 
are here presented for our notice ! In my previous 
chapter it was the over-abundance of certain rural 
and primitive surnames which told the story of the 
times in which they sprang. The contrary is here the 
case. It is in the absence of particular names, some 
of which I have already noticed, we have the best 
guide to the extraordinary changes that have taken 
place in our household economy. Look at our tea- 
table. Already in the two short centuries from its 
introduction this article has given its name to a 
special meal, having thrown the once afternoon supper 
into a nocturnal repast. Even Shakespeare could only 
say — 


Now can I break my fast, dine, sup, and sleep, ' 

How strangely would it have affected our nomencla- 
ture had this and other like novelties been brought in 
earlier. We should have had ' William le Coffyer ' 
giving us endless anxiety in the endeavour to separate 
it from the actual ' Godfrey le Coffrer.' We should 
have had, too, such folk as 'John le Riceman,' 'Walter 
le Snuffer,' ' Ralph le Tobacconer,' shortened into 

* Bacconer,' and the still more awkward ' le Potato- 
man,' almost as inconvenient as ' Garlickmonger,' 
though doubtless it would have been quickly curtailed 
into ' Taterman ' or ' Taterer ' or ' Tatman ' and 

* Tatter,' and later on again into other forms too 
obscure to contemplate. The very recounting of 
these changes, which are strictly on a par with other 
names of a less hypothetical character, serve to im- 
press us with the difficulties we have to encounter in 
the task of deciphering many of our surnames after 
the wear and tear they have undergone through 
lapsing generations. 

But I must not wander. The sale of vegetables 
and fruits left its mark in our former ' John le Frue- 
mongers ' and 'Ralph le Frueters,* and 'Hugh le 
Fruters ;' ' Richard le Graper ' testifying seemingly to 

' We are all familiar with the old adage, 

'After dinner sit awhile, 
After supper walk a mile ' : 

it often used to puzzle me that this last line, while speaking from a 
medical point of view, should so calmly give up the general question as 
to whether suppers were or were not advisable as a part of the domestic 
regime. When we remember, however, that the couplet doubtless 
arose in a day when dinner was at twelve and supper at five or six, we 
can better understand its intent. 


a more specific dealing. Our ' Butchers ' of course 
have been busy enough from the day that the Nor- 
mans brought them in. The variety of spelHng which 
is found in olden records of this name is so great 
that I dare not attempt a list, but I believe there still 
exist, sans the article, such of the old forms as *le 
Bouchier,' * le Bowcher,' and * le Bowsher,' while 
' Botcher' is at least not altered in sound from * le 
Bochere ' of the same period — ' Labouchere,' which 
preserves this article, is of more modern introduction 
from the Gallic shore. But the Norman was not 
without his rivals. Such names as * Walter le Flesh- 
mongere,' or ' Eudo le Flesshemongere,' or ' Richard 
le Flesmongere,' ' prove that the Saxon did not give 
up even this branch of daily occupation without a 
struggle, and in the two isolated cases of ' William 
Fleschour' and 'John Fleshcwer' that I have lit upon 
we are reminded that Scotland, with its still flourishing 
' flesher,' is but the asylum where this truly Saxon 
term found its latest retreat. Even yet in England 
with the country folk the butchers' shambles are the 
' flesh-market.' That ' Fleshmonger ' was the col- 
loquial term, we may prove from a list of tradesmen 
mentioned in ' Cocke Lorellc's Bote,' a poem I have 
already quoted several times ; reference is there made 

Woolemen, vyntcrcrs and llcsshcmoiigers, 

Baiters, jewelers, and haberdashers. 

• William Fleshmonger, D.C.L., was Dean of Chichester in 1528. 
(Hist. Univ. Oxford. Ackermann, p. 154.) 

'Also, the usage of fleshemongeres ys sivych, that everych flcshe- 
mongere ' not a freman shall pay 25;/. a year to the King if he have a 
stall. (Usages of Wimhatcr. English Gilds, 2,$^-) 


The ' Pardoner,' too, in the same poem, thus begins 
his roll — 

Here is first Cocke Lorelle the Knyght, 

And Symkyn Emery, mayntenaunce agaynz ryght ; 

With Slyngethryfte Fleshemonger. 

But if not in the common mouth, yet in our rolls 
there were two other names of this craft, which we 
must not pass over unrecorded. They were those of 
' Carnifex ' and ' Massacrer,' both representing the 
slaughter-house, I doubt not. The existence of the 
former would lead us to suppose that the old Roman 
hangsman was settled in our midst, but it was merely 
a mediaeval Latinism for a butcher.' After the fashion 
of the time nicknames were affixed upon everybody, 
and our ' Butchers ' and ' Slaughters ' did not escape. 
The Hundred Rolls alone register the names of 
'Reginald Cullebol,' 'Henry Cullebulloc,' 'WilHam 
Cullehare,' and ' William Culle-hog,' or in more 
modern parlance 'Kill-bull,' 'Kill-bullock,' 'Kill- 
hare,' and ' Kill-hog.' The original and more correct 

' The following list in one of our early statutes will help to fami- 
liarize the reader's mind with some of these mediaeval Latinisms : 

' Item, sallaril, pelletarii, allutarii, sutores, cissores, fabri, carpen- 
tarii, cementarii, tegiilarii, batellarii, carectarii, et quicunque alii arti- 
fices non capiant pro labore et artificio suo,' etc. 

' Item, quod carnificcs, piscenarii, hostellarii, braciatores, pistores, 
pulletarii et omnes alii venditores victualium tcneantur hujus-modi 
victualia vendere,' etc. {Stat. 0/ Realm, vol. i. p. 308.) 

The first list refers to the ' saddlers, skinners, whitetawycrs, shoe- 
makers, taylors, wrights, carpenters, masons, tylers, boatwrights, and 
carters ; ' the second to the ' butchers, fishmongers, taverners, 
brewers, bakers, and poulterers.' With regard to the 'Carnifex' we 
may add that among other items of expenditure belonging to Edw. I.'s 
Queen at Cawood is mentioned ' expensa duonim carnificum eosdem 
boves emcncium.' 


* poulter,' he who dealt in ' poults ' or poultry, as we 
now term it, has bequeathed his name to our ' Poul- 
ters ' and ' Pulters.' Such names as ' Adam le Puleter,' 
or ' Bernard le Poleter,' or ' William le Pulter,' by the 
frequency with which we come across them, show how 
much did the farmyard help to provide in these days 
for the supply of the dining-table. 

I have no peny, 
Poletes to biigge (buy), 

says Langland, showing that in his time they were 
commonly exhibited for sale. Indeed, the fact that 
in the York Festival of 141 5 the 'bouchers' and 
' pulterers ' walked in procession together clearly 
proves their importance at the period in which the 
surname arose. 

We have already mentioned the fishmonger, or 
what was practically the fishmonger, the fisherman, in 
our last chapter while surveying rural occupations. 
Our rare 'Pessoners'' as representative of the Norman, 
and common 'Fishers 'of the Saxon, lived in a day 
when under Roman ecclesiastic influences fish was of 
infinitely more importance than it is in this nineteenth 
century, when it is merely used as a go-between or 
mediator to soothe down the differences betwi.xt soup 
and beef Then the year was dotted with days of 
abstinence, or strongly indented with seasons like 
Lent. Among the higher circles it mattered but 
little. So much had the culinary art excelled in 

* ' Egeas Fisher, or Pessoncr,' was M.ayor of Gloucester in 1 24I. 
(Rudder's GloucesUrs/iiir, p. 113.) ' Ralf Ic Pecimer ' was bailiff of 
Norwich in 1239. {Brotnefidd, iii. 58.) This is a manifest corruption 
of Pessoner. 


respect of fish that such periods as they came round 
only brought to the epicurean mind visions of gas- 
tronomic skill that put the sterner and weightier joints 
utterly in the background for the time being. Pasties 
of herrings, congers, or lampreys were especially popu- 
lar, and, judging from the lists of courses contained in 
some of our records, that only one of our mediaeval 
monarchs should have succumbed to the latter is 
simply an historic marvel ! Dishes too were prepared 
from the whale, the porpoise, the grampus, and the 
sea-wolf * It is lamentable,' says, facetiously, a 
writer in ' Chambers's Book of Days,' referring to 
these viands as Lent repasts, ' to think how much sin 
they thus occasioned among our forefathers, before they 
were discovered to be uiamnialian! 

A curious name is found in the Hundred Rolls, 
that of ' Symon Haryngbredere.' In what particular 
way he carried on his occupation I do not know. 
' Richard le Harenger ' is more explicable. Our 
* Conders ' were partners in the fishing excursions of 
the above. A full account of their duties may be 
found in Cowel's 'Interpreter,' published in 1658. 
The conder stood upon the higher cliffs by the sea 
coast in the time of herring fishing, and with a staff 
or branch of a tree made signs to the boatmen which 
way the shoal was going. It seems there is a certain 
discoloured aspect of the water as they pass along, 
which is more apparent from an elevation than from 
the level of the sea.' In mediaeval times the plaice 

' That this is the real origin of this name may be proved by I 
James I. c. xxiii., which is entitled an 'Acta for the better preserva- 
tion of Fishinge in the Counties of Somersett, Devon, and Cornwall, 
and for the relief of Balkers, Conders, and Fishermen against malicious 


was a very favourite dish. The term it usually went 
by was that of 'but.' Thus it is, I doubt not, we 
meet with such entries, as ' William le Butor ' or 
' Hugh Butmonger.' From some fancied resemblance 
to this fish, too, it would be that such humorous 
sobriquets as 'Walter le But' or ' John le But' would 

But while good and solid food could thus be pur- 
chased on every hand, we must not forget drink, for 
our forefathers were great tipplers. I have already 
mentioned our ' William le Viners ' or ' Roger le 
Vinours,' in most cases, I doubt not, strictly cultiva- 
tors of that plant on English soil. None the less 
certain, however, is it that our many early * John le 
Vineturs ' or ' Alexander le Vineters ' were also, as 
merchants, employed in the importation of the varied 
wines of the Continent into our land. How abundant 
and how diverse they were an old poem shall tell us — 

Yc shall have Spayncshe wyne and Gascoyne, 

Rose colure, whyt, claret, rampyon, 

Tyre, capryck, and malvesyne, 

Sak, raspyce, alycaunt, nimney, 

Greke, ipocrase, new made clary, 

Such as ye never had. 

The entry ' Adam Ic W^ncter ' reminds us that in all 
probability it is to our early wine-merchants also we 

suites.' In it too is found the following: 'And whereas also for the 
necessarie use of the takinge of the said Herring . , . divers 
persons , . . called Balcors, Iluors, Condors, Directors, or 
Guidors, at the fishing tymes . . . tyme out of mynde have used 
to watch and attend upon the high hillcs and groundc near adjoining to 
the sea coast . . . for the discovcrie and givinge notice to tJie 
fisherman,' etc. (Stat, of Kcahn.) 


owe our ' Winters.' ' Walter le Brewers,* or 'Emma le 
Brewsteres,' or * Lawrence Beerbrewers,' ^ abound on 
every hand. We are reminded of the last by ' Cocke 
Lorelle' — 

Chymney-swepers, and costerde-mongers, 
Lodemen and berebrewers. 

The Norman equivalent for our * brewer ' was ' bracer,' 
and thus it is we meet with such a name as ' Stephen 
le Bracer ' or ' Clarissa la Braceresse.' Latinized 
forms are found in 'Reginald Braciator' or * Letitia 
Braciatrix.' Brewing was at first entirely in the hands 
of women. We have here ' brewster,' ' braceress,' 
and * braciatrix,' and such phrases as ' alewife ' and 
the obsolete ' brewife ' (though it lingered on till 
Shakespeare's day) show the ale-making and ale- 
selling business to have been mainly hers. ' Malter ' ^ 
and ' Maltster ' or ' Malster ' both exist, but the latter 
has ever denoted the avocation.^ ' Tapper ' and 
' Tapster,' too, are both occupants of our directories, 
but as a term of industry the latter has ever held its 
own.'* It is the same with several other occupations 

' ' Lawrence Beerbrevver' occurs in a Norfolk register. (Hisi. Nor/. 
iv. 357') ' Lambert Beerbrewer ' was one of the Corp. Christi Guild, 
York. (Surt. Soc.) 

* ' Malter' I have failed to discover in our archives, but ' Aleyn le 
Maltestere ' and ' Hugh le Maltmakere ' are both found. On the other 
hand, while I have no feminine ' Tapster ' to adduce, I have hit upon 
'Robert le Tappere ' and 'John le Tapper' in two separate records. 

* A curious name is found in the St. Edmund's Guild, Bishop's 
Lynn, the ordinances of which are signed by ' Johannes Mashemaker ' 
(English Guilds, p. 96), evidently a maker of mash-vats or of the 
mashel, i.e., the rudder used for mixing the malt. (v. Maschd 
Pr. Par.) 

* Another proof of this is contained in the fact that in all allusions 
in our olden ordinances to false dealings in the brewing and sale of ale 


which we have already noticed. It is so with ' bread- 
baking,' manifesting a woman's work. As we have 
already seen, the familiar expression in olden times 
was ' bakester,' now represented by our ' Baxters.' It 
is so with weaving. Our nomenclature, as I have 
previously shown, still preserves the 'Webster' and 
the ' Kempster ' from being forgotten. In the winter 
evening, as the logfire crackled on the hearth, and 
while the good man was chopping wood, or tending 
his cattle, or mending his outdoor gear, who but his 
wife should be drawing woof and warp in the chimney 
nook .-* Whose work but hers should this be to clothe 
with her own thrifty fingers the backs of them who 
belonged to her .'' But, as with the others, her work 
in time became less a home occupation than a public 

the punishment affixed is that of the tumbrel, the instrument for women, 
corresponding to the pillory for men. I would not be mistaken. I 
cannot doubt but that malster, tapster, baxter, webster, and kempster 
were feminine occupations, and arose first in these forms as such. But 
in the xivth century the distinction between *er' and 'ster' was 
dropped through the Norman-French ' ess ' becoming the popular 
termination. As 'ess' became still more strongly imbedded in the 
language, ' ster ' came into Ijut more irregular use, and by the time 
of Eliz.nbeth men spoke of 'drugster,' 'teamster,' 'rhymster,' 
'whipster,' 'trickster,' 'gamester.' (Em^iish Accidence, p. 90.) 
'I'hat this confusion was marked even in the earlier part of the xivth 
century, not to say the close of the xiiith, is clearly proved by such 
registered names as 'Thatcher' and ' Thaxter,' 'Palliser' and 
' Pallister,' 'Hewer' and ' Hewster,' ' Bcgger ' and ' Bcggister,' 
'Blacker' (bleacher) and ' Blaxter,' 'Dyer' and ' Dyster,' 
'Whiter' and 'Whitster,' 'Corviser' and 'Corvester,' and 
' Buliinger, ' or 'Billinger,' and ' Billingster.' An old statute of 
Ed. HI. (Stattile Realm, I, 380) mentions 'filesters,' 'throwsters,' 
and ' brawdesters ; ' and Dr. Morris quotes ' bellringster,' ' hoardster,' 
and 'washster.' These latter are xiith and xiiith century words, and 
were strictly confined to women. 


craft, and thus it got into the hands of the male 
creation. While ' Spinner ' still flourishes as a sur- 
name, the feminine * spinster ' never obtained a place 
in our nomenclature.' This is no doubt to be attri- 
buted to that early position it took in regard to 
female relationship, which it still holds. This would 
naturally prevent it from losing its strictly feminine 

A vintner went commonly by the name of a wine 
tunner, tunner itself being the ordinary term for one 
engaged in casking liquor. 'Tun ' rather than ' barrel ' 
was in use. In the ' Confessio Amantis ' it is said of 
Jupiter that he — 

Hath in his cellar, as men say, 
Two townes full of lovedrink. 

Thus have arisen such words as ' tunnel ' or ' tun-dish,' 
the vessel with broad rim and narrow neck, used for 
transferring the wine from cask to bottle. That our 
nomenclature should possess tokens of all this was 
inevitable. We find such names as ' Edmund le 
Tender ' (F.F.),3 'William Tundcr' (F.F.), ' William le 
Toneleur ' (H.), ' William le Tonier ' (H.), ' Richard le 
Tundur' (T.), 'Hugh le Tunder ' (A.), or 'Ralph le 
Toneler ' (A.) Till the close of the fifteenth century 
wine of home-production was the common drink, for, 
though beer was not by any means unknown to us, it 
was not till the Flemings brought us the hop that it 

' I find the term used occupatively once. Cocke Lorellc speaks of 
' vSpynsters, carders, and cappe-knytters.' 

* 'Juliana Rokster ' occurs in an old record of 1388 (R.R. 2). The 
*rock' was the old distaff. {Vide p. 74, note 2.) 

* ' Edmund le Tonder' was bailiff of NorMach, 1237. 


became a familiar beverage. We all know the old 
couplet — 

Hops, Reformation, baize, and beer, 
Came into England all in one year. 

Previous to this various bitter ingredients had been 
admixtured, chiefly, however, wormwood. 'John de 
la Bruere ' or ' William de Bruario ' are the local sur- 
names met with in early records. 

But we have been wandering. The Mayor of 
York in 1273 was 'John le Espicer, aut Apotecarius'* 
(so the record is put), and while the two trades were 
distinct in character, there can be no doubt at the 
period referred to there would be much in common 
between them. The one would sell certain spices 
and drugs as ingredients for dishes, while the other 
disposed of the same for medicinal uses. Our ' Potti- 
carys,' of course, represent the latter. The term itself, 
professionally speaking, is fast becoming obsolete, 
having been forced into the background by our 
'chemists' and 'druggists.' But in the fourteenth 
and fifteenth centuries it was the one name for all 
such. In the ' Pardoner's Tale ' the abbreviated form^ 
is familiarly used — 

' The bailifTof Gloucester, in the year 1300, was ' Robert L'espicer, 
or Apothecary.' (Rudder's G/oucesiers/nn; \y. 114.) 

^ We have a similar curtailment in our ' Prentices' or ' Prentis's ' 
(relics of ' William le Prentiz ' or ' Nicholas Apprenticius ') a name of 
the most familiar import at the time of which we are speaking. 
Chaucer begins his ' Cook's Tale ' by saying — 

'A prentis whilom dwelt in our citec, 
And of a craft of vitaillers was he.' 
In the early days of national commerce and industry, when the jealousy 
of foreign craftsmen was at its^leight, the prentice boys showed them- 
selves on various occasions a fomiidable body, capable of arousing riots 
and tumults of the most serious character. 


And forth he goth, no longer would he tarry, 

Into the town unto a Potecary, 

And praied him that he him wolde sell 

Some poison, that he might his ratouns (rats) quell. 

Such men as 'John le Chirurgien ' or 'Thomas le 
Surigien' are occasionally found,. but through the fact 
of the craft being all but entirely in the hands of the 
barber, they are rare, and I do not see that they have 
surnominally bequeathed us any descendants. Even 
so late as the reign of Elizabeth this connection seems 
to have commonly existed. In the orders and rules 
for an academy for her wards the following passage 
occurs with respect to the teaching of medicine : — 
'The Phisition shall practize to reade Chirurgerie, 
because, thorough wante of learning therein, we have 
verie few good Chirurgions, yf any at all, by reason 
that Chirurgerie is not now to be learned in any other 
place than in a Barbor's shoppe. And in that shoppe 
most dawngerous, especially in time of plague, when 
the ordinary trimming of men for clenlynes must be 
done by those which have to do with infected per- 
sonnes.' ' That ' Thomas Blodlettere ' and ' William 
Blodlettere ' should be conspicuous by their absence 
in modern rolls is not surprising. Their former exist- 
ence, however, reminds us how in the past the fleshy 
arms of our forefathers were constantly exposed to 
this once thought panacea for all physical ills. It has 
long ceased, however, to be the resortment it was, 
and science, by taking it out of the tensor's hands, 
has left it to the wiser discretion of a more cultivated 
and strictly professional class. We have no traces of 
the dentist, as he too was absorbed in the barbi- 
• Early Eng. Text Soc, Extra Series, vol. viii. p. 6. 


tonsorial craft. Some lines, quoted by Mr. Hotten 
in his interesting book on ' Signboards,' remind us of 

Ilis pole with pewter basons hung, 

Black, rotten teeth in order strung, 

Rang'd cups that in the window stood, 

Lined with red rags to look like blood, 

Did well his tlireefold trade explain, 

Who shaved, drew teeth, and breathed a vein. 

Here, therefore, we see one more explanation of the 
plentifulness of our ' Barbers,' ' Barbours,' * Barbors,' 
and more uncouth-seeming ' Barbars.' The old 
records give us an equal or even greater variety in 
such registrations as ' John le Barber,' ' Richard Ic 
Barbour,' ' Nicholas le Barbur,' ' Thomas le Barbi- 
tonsor,' or 'Ralph Tonsor;'^ while feminine skill in 
operating upon the chins of our forefathers is comme- 
morated in such an entry as ' Matilda la Barbaresse.' 
It is just possible, however, that she kept an appren- 
tice, although such things are still to be seen, I believe, 
as women-shavers. But the one chief sobriquet for 
the medical craft, and the one which, excepting our 
* Barbers,' has made the deepest indenture upon our 
nomenclature, was that of ' Leech ' — zaas, I say, for 
saving in our cow-leeches it is now, professionally 
speaking, obsolete. In our many 'Leeches,' 'Leaches,' 
and ' Leachmans,' however, its reputation is not likely 
soon to be forgotten. With the country folk it was 
the one familiar term in use. Langland, while speak- 
ing of — 

' The surname of ' Shaver ' was not iniknown then as now. 
' JefTery Schavere' was rector of Fincham, Norfolk, in 1409 (Brome- 
field). ' Henry Shavetail,' an evident nickname, occurs in the Patent 
Rolls (R.R.I). 


One frere Flaterie, 

Physician and surgien, 

makes mention also of — 

Conscience called a Leche 
That could well shryve, 
To go salve those that sike ben, 
And through synne y-wounded. 

' Le Leche ' is the general spelling of earlier times, 
and it is that of the lines just quoted.' The Hundred 
Rolls furnish us with a ' Hugh le Leche,' while 
' Robert le Leche ' figures in the Parliamentary Writs. 
Having just referred to the barber, we may here 
introduce an obsolete surname somewhat connected 
with his craft, that of ' le Loveloker.' In the fifteenth 
and sixteenth centuries the lovelock was as familiar 
as the chignon is in the nineteenth, only that the 
former was worn alike by men and women. They 
wore curls or plaits of hair, oftentimes adorned with 
bows or ribbons, and hung in front of the ear and 
about the temples. If false, the hair was fastened by 
means of adhesive plaster. In the ' Affectionate 
Shepherd ' it is thus alluded to — 

Why should thy sweete love-locke hang dangling downe, 

Kissing thy girdle-stud with falling pride ? 
Although thy skin be white, tliy hair is browne ; 

Oh let not then thy haire thy beautie hide. 

How long this custom existed, and how commonly 
the exquisites of the period wore these pendants, we 

' In a popular poem of Henry the Eighth's time mention is made 

' Ilarpemakers, leches, and upholdsters, 
Porters, fesycyens, and corsers. ' 
C C 


may judge by the fact of a 'Walter le Loveloker* 
occurring in the Hundred Rolls of the fourteenth 
century. Probably he added to this the craft of 
peruke-maker, and between the two, I doubt not, 
throve and grew fat — for wigs too were an early 
institution. The surname of occupation has been 
long obsolete, but the simpler ' Lovelock ' is firmly 
set in our registers. 

In a day when the luxury of gas was unknown, 
and the hearth, burning more generally with wood 
than coal, would throw but a chequered light athwart 
the room, we ought not to be surprised to find the 
chandlery business to be somewhat demonstrative, 
and so it is. In such a name as ' Michel le Oyneter ' 
or ' Hointer,' we are reminded of the old melter of 
grease, and of the equally old English term * to oint,' 
for to 'anoint.' With him, therefore, we may asso- 
ciate such of his confreres as * William le Candel- 
maker,' ' Roger le Chaundelcr,' ' Richard le Chaund- 
ler,' 'William le Candeler,' ' or 'Thomas le Candlcman,' 
names all in existence formerly, some of which still 
abide with us. In ' William le Cirgier ' we are once 
more reminded of the earlier religious rites of our 
Church and its many vigils, from a performance of 
which he who dealt in wax tapers, or ciergcs, as they 
were then styled, would derive no doubt a steady 
gain. In the ' Romance of the Rose ' wc arc told — 

The nine thous.ind maidens dere, 
That beren in Heaven tlieir cierges clere. 
Of which men rede in church and sing, 
Were take in secular clothing. 

' Johannes Thurton, Candelerc. (Guild of St. George, Nor\vich.) 


With these latter then it is we must associate such a 
name as ' John Wexmaken' 

While, however, we are dwelling upon such and 
similar wants in the domestic consumption, we are 
naturally led to make inquiry concerning the utensils 
in fashion at this period, and of those who provided 
them. Of drinking vessels we have many, for, as we 
have previously hinted, this was a decidedly drinking 
age. Chief of all was the * Mazerer.' No word 
could be in more familiar use in the day we are speak- 
ing of than the ' macer ' or * maslin,' carved from the 
maple. It was the favourite bowl of all classes of 
society. By the rich it was valued according as it 
was made from the knotted grain, or chased and 
rimmed with gold and silver and precious gems. We 
are told of Sire Thopas how that — 

They fetclied him first the swete win, 
And made eke in a maselin, 
And real spicerie. 

There is scarce a record of any magnitude or impor- 
tance which has not its several surnames derived from 
the occupation of carving this cup, and as the term 
itself was variously pronounced and spelt, so did the 
name vary. For instances the Hundred Rolls give us 
' Adam le Mazerer ;' the Close Rolls, ' William le 
Macerer ;' the Warranty Rolls, ' William le Mazeliner ;* 
and the London Records give us again a 'John le 
Mazerer.' Besides these we have ' Mazclyn,' ' Maselyn,' 
and ' Mazarin,' probably sign-names, the latter fami- 
liarised to us in the celebrated Cardinal of that name. 
Strange to say, ' Maslin ' and ' Masser,' or ' Macer,' 
all rare, are now the only relics we possess of this 

c c 2 


once well-known surname and occupation. No instance 
I can furnish more clearly demonstrates the uncer- 
tainty of descent in our personal nomenclature. Such 
a name as ' Geoffrey le Hanaper ' or ' William Ham- 
permaker' bequeaths us a strange story of changed 
circumstance. The shorter appellation, common 
enough at this time, still lives in our ' Hampers.' 
While the maccr was invariably of maple, the ' hanap,' 
or two-handed goblet, might be of wood or metal. 
From the fact of a ' hanaper,' Latinized in our 
archives into ' hanaperium,' being the crate where 
these hanaps were kept, it acquired a secondary sense 
of a repository for things of a more general character. 
Thus has arisen the * Hanaper Office' ' in Chancery, 
where writs were treasured up in a basket ; and thus 
also it is that we now talk of a ' hamper,' a term so 
delightfully familiar to schoolboys about Christmas 
time. Our common ' Bowlers ' represent such olden 
personages as ' Robert le Bollcre ' or ' Adam le 
Boloure,' they who made the cheap wooden ' bowl ' 
or ' boll.' The old spelling still survives botanically 
in such a phrase as we find in the Authorized Version, 
where it speaks of the ' flax being boiled,' that is, the 
seed vessel was forming. It is always so spelt with 
our mediaeval writers. Thus Glutton, in the ' Plow- 

' Thus vre find in an indenture of Henry the Seventli's reign it is 
said at tlie close : ' And over this cure said Souveraigne Lorde 
grauntcth by these presents to the said Abbas and Convent that they 
shall have as well this present Indenture as all other grauntcs necessary, 
wythout eny fyne, fee, or other thyng to hym orto his use in 
his Chauncerie, or Hanapore, or other place to be payde.' {S/af. of 
Realm t vol. ii. p. 671.) 


man's Vision,' after sleeping away his last drunken 
bout, wakes, and — 

The firste worde that he warpe 
Was, ' Were is the bolle ? ' 

* William le Cuppere ' and ' Richard le Kuppere,' 
while engaged in the same occupation, are, speaking 
surnominally, absorbed, I doubt not, by our ' Coopers ' 
and ' Cowpers.' ' Copper ' may be but another antique 
form of the same. Langland speaks of — • 

Coupes of clere gold 
And coppes of silver. 

I shall have occasion almost immediately to mention 
Chaucer, as speaking of ' turning cups,' which Avould 
seem to infer that they too were often made of wood. 
Another name once existing was that of ' Doubler,' 
a maker or seller of the ' doubler ' or ' dobeler,' or 
dish ; a term derived from the French ' doublier,' 
The word is still in use in the North of England,' and 
both ' Doubler ' and ' Doubleman ' are in our directories 
of to-day. The name of ' Scutelaire ' must be set 
here also, though when we think of our modern coal- 
scuttle we might imagine it somewhat of an interloper. 
A change, however, has come over the stricter mean- 
ing of the word. A ' scutcl ' was formerly nothing 
more nor less than a wooden or metallic dish or platter 
used on our early dressdirs for culinary purposes. It 
seems ever to have had its place in the dining-hall, for 
in the household expenses of Bishop Swinfield (Cam- 
den Soc.) we find the entry, 'xv. scutellis, xvii. 

• Vide Way's Protiipt Pan\, p. 124. 


salsariis.' The learned editor of this book, com- 
menting upon this passage, says, ' " scutella " is a word 
of somewhat extensive apphcation to dishes or platters, 
saucers or salvers, and it is retained in our .present 
English " scuttle." ' I doubt not Avith him that while 
' scutum,' a shield, is the root, the term is here in- 
tended to refer to the large flat spoons or plates used 
for the sauce-dishes. It is from his resemblance to 
these that some wide-mouthed country bumpkin is 
set down in the Hundred Rolls as ' Arnold Scutel- 
muth,' while the occupation of making them finds its 
memorial in the Rolls of Parliament in such a 
sobriquet as 'James le Scutelaire.' Speaking, how- 
ever, of the dining table, we may here mention the 
cutler. Of such a name as ' Henry Knyfesmythe ' I 
have already had occasion to hint. The cutler enjoyed, 
or perhaps I ought to say was the victim of, a very 
uncertain orthography in mediaeval times, and some of 
the forms found are extremely curious, I may cite 
such personages as 'Richard le Cutylcr,' ' John le 
Cotiler,' ' Peter le Cotyler,' ' Henry Ic Coteler,' or 
* Solomon le Cotillcr ' as representative of those which 
were then most in vogue. All are now content, it would 
seem, to be absorbed in the simple ' Cutler.' Strange 
to say, I cannot find a single ancestor of our familiar 
' Spooner.' A mediaeval rhymester, however, speaks of 
' sponers, turners, and hatters.' With many of these 
names I have just mentioned the ironmonger would 
have much to do. The uncertain form of the term 
used for this material gave rise to three familiar words, 
those of ' iron,' * ise,' or ' ire.' Trevisa speaks of Eng- 
land as being plenteous in ' veynes of mctayls, of 


bras, of yre, of leed, of tyn, of selver.*^ Thus while 
' Henry le Ironmonger ' dealt, as no one of my readers 
will doubt, in vessels and utensils of the material his 
name suggests, it is not to be supposed that ' Geoffrey 
le Iremonger ' or ' William le Irremongere' was but a 
cant nickname for one of splenetic temperament ; or 
that in * Isabel le Isemonger ' or ' Agnes la Ismongere' 
we have traces of any disposition for those frozen 
creams which in the hot summer time we of the nine- 
teenth century are so glad to seek on the confectioner's 
counter. All alike were hardware manufacturers. 
The present forms are ' Iremonger,' ' Irmonger,' and 
* Ironmonger.' 

It may seem strange that wood should hold such 
a conspicuous position in work of a culinary nature, 
but it is with good reason. We must remember all 
our ornamental fictile vessels were unknown to our 
forefathers. It was not till the close of the sixteenth 
century they came into any settled use. It is to this 
circumstance we must doubtless refer the extraordinary 
prevalence of our * Turners.' Not the least important 
articles of their workmanship would be the vessels 
they turned off from the lathe. That Jack-of-all- 
trades, the Miller of Trumpington, could, according 
to Chaucer, amongst his many other achievements, 
' turn cuppes.'^ When wood, however, was not used, 
the utensils were of the roughest character — mugs, 
jars, and such like vessels, formed of the common 

' Thus the author of Cocke Lordle's Bote refers to— 

' Yermongers, pybakers, and waferers, 
Fruyters, chesemongers, and mynstrelles. ' 

2 ' There dwelled also turners of beads, and they were paternoster- 
makers ' (Stow, iii. 174). The term was evidently very general. 


baked and glazed clay, and reserved for the ruder 
requirements of the household. Our * Stephen le 
Crockers ' and 'John le Crokers ' (P. W.) — for both 
forms then as now are found — made simply the glazed 
crock, or ' crouke,' as Chaucer has it, used for holding 
butter or milk or such like store — vessels, in fact, re- 
served for the scullery or the pantry rather than the 
parlour or hall. John de Trevisa, writing in 1387, 
says in his description of Britain : * There is also 
white clay, and red for to make of crokkes, and 
steenes (stone jars) and other vessels.' The same may 
be said of our * Jarmans.' Most of our domestic utensils, 
therefore, if not of wood or clay, were made of metal, 
and this generally of a mixed kind. * Henry le Brasour ' 
or' Robert leBrazur,' now' Brazier' or' Brasher,' worked 
in brass ; ' Thomas le Latoncr,' or' William Ic Latoner,' 
in latten or bronze ;' while a mixture of lead and tin 
fully employed the wits and hands of our ' Pewters,' 
' Pewtrers,' and ' Founders.'^ We must not suppose 

' 'Founders, laten-workers, and brochc- makers.' {Cocke Lordlfs 

' A law passed in the first year of Richard II. forbids halfpennies 
and farthings to be melted for vessels or other things, on pain of forfeit- 
ing the money so melted and the imprisonment of the founder — 'sur- 
peine de forfaitre del monoie founder et imprisonement del foundour.' 
(Siaf. J\ealm.) The 'founder,' as his name implies, melted down the 
metal, and then poured it (fundere) into the mould. We still speak 
familiarly of a foundry; but the term 'founder' as a worker therein 
is now, I believe, obsolete. Such names, however, as ' Robert le 
Fundour' or 'John le Funder,' whose descendants are still with us, 
show that this was once in common use. As an additional proof that 
they were formerly more tlistinctively engaged in the manufacture of 
pots and vessels, we may state that in the \'ork Pageant, elsewhere 
spoken of, the 'Pewterers' and ' Founders ' marched together. .Speak- 
ing of ' Founder,' we arc reminded of ' Alcfounder.' In 1374 \N'illiam 
Alefounder was Rector of Bichamwcll. {f/ist. Nor/., vii. 295.) The 


therefore, that ' John le Discher ' or ' Robert le 
Disshere ' (with their once feminine partner, * Margaret 
la Disheress '), and ' Ranulf le Poter' or 'Adam le 
Potter ' or * Thomas Potman,' ^ laboured after the 
modern style. The * disher ' all but invariably worked 
in pewter,^ and the ' potter,' if not in the same, could 
only resort to common clay as an alternative. 
' Calisher ' is probably the old ' le Calicer ' or ' Chali- 
cer.' The more modern spelling is found in the 
London Records, in 13 10, where mention is made of 
' Ralph de Chichestre, Chalicer.' The ' chalice ' has 
now, however, allied itself so entirely with the sacra- 
mental office of our Church that it is hard to regard 
it in the light of an ordinary utensil. As a trade-sign 
a chalice would be readily conspicuous, and to this 
we owe, no doubt, our ' Challis's ' and ' Challices.' 

While speaking, however, of drinking vessels, I 
must perforce allude to the horner. I need not remind 
my reader how many are the descendants of such a 

alefounder took his name from his duty as an inspector, appointed by 
the Court Leet, of assizing and supervising the brewing of malt liquor. 
He examined it as it was /(7«;r(/ out. Thus 'fundere,' and not ' fun- 
dare,' is its root. Another name he bore was that of 'ale-conner.' A 
poem of James the First's reign says — 

' A nose he had that gan show, 
What liquor he loved I trow ; 
For he had before long ' ' seven yeare, 
Been of the towne the ale-conner." ' 
' The following entry appears in the Issues of Exchequer : — '20/. 
paid to John le Uischer, of London, for him and his companions to 
provide plates, dishes, and saltsellcrs for the coronation.' (i Ed. II.) 
^ As an illustration of the use to which the art of working in 
pewter was put, we may instance one of the ' Richmondshire Wills' in 
which the following articles of this mixture are bequeathed : ' iij basyns, 
ij uers, one doson plait trenchers, one brode charger, iiij potijjcrs, xx"« 
platters, x dishes, and vj sausers. ' {Surtces Soc. ) 


man as * Richard le Horner ' or * John le Horner,' but 
it may not equally have struck him how all-important 
would be his trade at such a period as this. That his 
chief manufacture was that of the musical horn I 
cannot doubt, so used as it was officially or ordinarily, 
at fair and festival, at dance and revelry, in time of 
peace and in time of war. The ' Promptorium Par- 
vulorum ' describes it as ' hornare, or home-maker.' 
Still this would not be all — far from it. Windows 
were commonly made of this material, frames were 
constructed of it, the child's horn-book being but a 
memory of this ; lanterns were formed of it, cups of 
all sizes were fashioned from it, chessmen were manu- 
factured out of it. In the 'Franklin's Tale' de- 
scriptive of Winter it is said — 

Janus sits by the fire with double berd, 
And drinketh of his bugle-horn the wine. 

As a sign-name ' at the horn ' would be a common 
expression, and certainly we have had plenty of 
' Horns,' if not the ' horn of plenty,' at all times 
during the last six hundred years. 

Turning for a moment to vessels of a more general 
character, our ' Coopers ' or ' Cowpers ' ^ or ' Coupers ' 
have ever flourished extensively. Such forms as 
* Thomas le Cuper,' ' Warin le Couper,' or ' Richard le 
Cupare ' are found on every side ; while even such 
entries as ' Richard Cowpcman ' or ' Roger Cowperese' 
may be occasionally alighted upon. The term * coop ' 
is not in itself in common use now — indeed, saving in 

' We find this now well-known surname thus spelt in a statute 
passed in Elizabeth's reign, in which are included the ' lynncn-wcaver, 
turner, cowpcr, millers, earthen-potters.' (5 Kliz. c. iv. 23.) 


composition, as in hencoop, for instance, it is all but 
obsolete. The Norman and more correct ' cuve ' gave 
us such early names as ' Ralph le Cuver ' or ' John le 
Cover,' or * Adam le Covreur ' or ' Robert le Coverur,' 
the latter being one more example of a reduplicated 
termination.* Our modern ' Covers,' however, pre- 
serve the earlier and more simple form. Our ' Cad- 
mans,' once written * Cademans,' framed the cade or 
barrel, the sign-name of which gave us the notorious 
Jack Cade of early insurrectionary times. Shake- 
speare facetiously suggests a different origin when he 
makes Dick the butcher to insinuate that it was for — • 

Stealing a cade of herring. 

In either case the same word is used, and the deriva- 
tion in no way impeached. Our ' Barrells ' are either 
sign-names also, or but corruptions of such an old 
entry as 'Stephen le Bariller.' 'Alexander le Hopere' 
and ' Andrew le Hopere,' now ' Hooper,' explain 
themselves.^ Doubtless they would be busy enough 
at this time in strengthening these several barrels, 
cuves, coops, and cades with pliant bands, whether of 
wood or metal. Speaking, however, of wooden bands, 
reminds us of our ' Leapers,' ' Leapmans,' and ' Lip- 
mans.' A ' leap ' was a basket of flexible, but strong, 
materials, its occurrence in our old writers being so 

' In the Issues of the Exchequer we find a ' Ric. le Cuver ' at one 
lime providing three buckets, and at another working with other eight 
carpenters upon the outer chamber of the King's Court. (43 Henry 

^ 'John Busheler ' occurs in Valor. Eccles. Henry VIII. He 
probably made the old bushel measure, once in common use. ' Is a 
candle bought to be put under a bushel?' (Mark iv. 26.) 


frequent as to need no example.^ The ' niaund ' was 
similar in character, but made of more pHant bands, 
probably of rushes, for we find it in common use by 
our early fishermen. Our ' Maunders ' and ' Manders ' 
are, I think, to be set here, therefore, either as manu- 
facturers or as wayside beggars, who bore them as 
the receptacles of the doles they got. Another sup- 
position is that they were beggars who acquired the 
sobriquet because they maundered out their petition 
for alms. I cannot but think the former is the more 
likely derivation, our Maundy Thursday itself having 
got its name from the practice of doling out the gifts 
for the poor from the basket then so named. 

But we have not even yet completed our list of 
surnames derivable from manufactures of this class. 
Our ' Coffers ' represent seemingly the same word in 
a twofold capacity. We find occasional records where 
the cofferer was undoubtedly an official servant, a 
treasurer, one who carried the money of his lord in 
his journeys up and down.'^ More often, however, he 
was a tradesman, a maker or dealer in coffers or 

' Mr. AVay, in his valuable series of notes to the Proiit/'lorium 
Piirvulorum, quotes a later Wicklyfiitc version, in which the ' basket 
of bulrushes' in which Moses was placed is termed 'a leep of segg' 
(sedge). An old list of words which he also quotes has 'a lepe maker, 
copliinarius.* {Cat/i. Aug.) I mention this latter especially, as I 
have not been able so far to light upon any instance of the sobriquet. 
I have no hesitation in saying, however, that if ' Leaper ' and ' Leap- 
man ' be not manufacturers, they have, at any rate, as fish-sellers, ori- 
ginated from the same root. 'And thei ceten and weren fulfilled, and 
tliei taken up that that lelte of relifs scvene leepis.' (Matt. viii. 8. 

^ Thus in the Trevelyan ])apers (Cam. Soc.) we fre juently come 
across such a record as the following : ' Item, to Edmund Peckham, 
cofcrer of the Kinge's House for th'c-xpcnses and charges, etc' 


coffins, the two words being once used altogether 
indiscriminately.^ Many of my readers who are 
familiar with Greek will recognise the more literal 
translation and meaning of the word in Wicklyfife's 
rendering of Mark vi. 43, 'And they token the 
relyves of broken mete, twelve cofifyns full.' Lacking 
any other name to represent the undertaker's busi- 
ness, I doubt not our early ' William le Cofferers ' and 
' Godfrey le Coffrers ' were quite able and willing to 
furnish forth this portion of the funeral outfit. These 
early surnames, then, must be set beside our already 
explained ' Arkwrights,' while, as sign-names, our * Cof- 
fins ' and ' Coffers ' (supposing the latter not to be a 
curter form of 'Coffrer') will be as readily recognisable. 
While, however, wood, clay, and the various 
cheaper metals were thus brought into requisition to 
provide the utensils of the household and the means 
of carriage, we must not forget that leather, too, had 
its uses in these respects. It is this lets us into the 
secret of the numerosity of our ' Butlers.' Important 
as undoubtedly was the ' Boteler ' to the feudal resi- 
dence, that fact alone would scarcely account for the 
large number of ' le Botillers ' or ' le Botelers ' we find 
in every considerable roll. The fact is, the name was 
both official and occupative. Of this there can be no 
doubt. In the York Pageant of 141 5 we find walk- 
ing in procession together with the ' Pouchmakers ' 
the ' Botillers ' and the ' Cap-makcr.s,' all obviously 
engaged in the leather manufacture. The phrase 
'like finding a needle in a bottle of hay ' still preserves 

' The list of tradesmen in Cock LorclL's Bote includes — 
' Pype-makers, wode-mongers, and orgyn-makers, 
Coferers, carde-makers, and carvers.' 


the idea of a bottle as understood by our forefathers 
four hundred years ago — that of a leathern case, 
whether for holding liquid or solids.^ The hay-bottle 
was doubtless the bag that hung at the girth, from 
which, as is still the case, the driver baited his horse. 
Bottles for liquids were commonly of leather. The 
'black-jack' was always such. It is of this an old 
ballad sings — 

Then when this bottle doth grow old, 
And will no longer good liquor hold, 
Out of its side you may take a clout, 
Will mend your shoes when they are worn out. 

Thus we see that the * Botiller ' was, after all, in some 
cases but identical with the old pouch-maker, repre- 
sented in our old rolls by such folk as ' Henry 
Poucher ' or * Agnes Pouchmakcr.' Another and 
more Norman term for this latter was that of 'Purser' 
or ' Purser,' though in later days both forms have 
come to occupy a more official position. Such names 
as ' Alard le Purser ' or ' Robert le Pursere ' are of 
frequent occurrence. Nor, again, while speaking of 
leather, can we omit a reference to the old ' Henry 
Male-maker,' who made up travelling bags. ' Cocke 
Lorelle' mentions — 

Masones, male-makers, and merbelcrs, 
Tylers, bryckc-leyers, and harde hewers. 

The modern postal viail has but extended its earlier 
use. We may remember in the ' Canterbury Tales ' 

• An Act of Edward VI. relative to the buying of tanned leather 
speaks of the ' mysterie of Coriar (currier), Cordewainer, Sadler, 
Cobler, Girdler, Lether-seller, Botlelmaker.' (3 and 4 Ed. VI. c. 6.) 


SO pleased were the company at the end of the first 
story, that the host said — 

Unbuckled is the male, 
Let see now who shall tell another tale, 
For trewely this game is wcl begun. 

We must not forget, however, that many of these 
baskets and boxes would require cordage then as 
now. Piers Plowman mentions ' Robyn the Ropere,' 
and both name and occupation are still familiar 
amongst us. In the Fabric Roll of York Minster is 
mentioned a 'William Raper,' 1446; and again in 
1457, under the head of 'Gustos canabi,' one 'Thomas 
Kylwake, rapor.' Both forms are equally common in 
our directories. As representative of the more tech- 
nical part of the industry we may cite ' Thomas le 
Winder ' and ' Richard le Windere,' whose progeny 
still dwell among us. ' Adam le Corder ' or ' Peter le 
Corder, ' or ' George le Stringer ' or ' Thomas Streng- 
fellowe,' carry us back to names of the commonest 
import in the fourteenth century. The — 

Lanterners, stryngers, and grynders 

are set together by an old rhymer. But I have 
already said something about them in connection 
with our 'Bowyers' and ' Fletchers,' so I will pass on. 
There are but few traces in our nomenclature of 
more delicate workmanship. Much of our jewellery 
came from abroad. Most of that fashioned in Eng- 
land was under the skilled eye of the Jew. Still 
' Robert le Goldbeter ' or ' Henry le Goldsmith ' is 
not an uncommon entry at this time. The Norman 
equivalent was met by such a name as ' Roger le 


Orfevre ' or ' Peter le Orfeure,' and these lingered on 
in a more or less full form till the seventeenth cen- 
tury. Their memorial, too, still survives in our 
' Offers ' and ' Offors.' ^ Ivory was much used, too, and 
our ' Turners ' here also were doubtless very busy. A 
pretty little casket of this material, called a 'forcer,' 
small and delicately carved, used in general for stor- 
ing away jewellery and other precious gems, was 
decidedly popular among the richer ranks of the 
thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. In an old poem, 
sometimes set down to Chaucer, it is said — 

Fortune by strength the forcer hath unshete, 
Wherein was sperde all my worldly richesse. 

Our present 'Forcers' and early 'Nicholas le Forcers' 
and ' Henry le Forcers ' represent this. Our use of 
ivory tablets is not yet obsolete, though of late years 
the wondrous cheapness of paper and the issue of 
pocketbooks and annuals have threatened to absorb 
their existence. Of somewhat larger size were the 
' tables ' of this time. Chaucer, in portraying the 
Limitour, speaks of him as followed by an attendant, 
bearing — 

A pair of tables all of ivory, 

And a pointel, ypolished fetisly, 

And wrote ahvay the names, as he stood, 

Of alle folk that gave them any good. 

It is in a yet larger sense of this same word our early 
translators introduced the phrase ' tables of stone,' 
found in the Mosaic record — not, however, that the 
smaller 'tablet' was unknown. Apart from such a 

' • William le Orbater ' (goldbeater) is also found in the Hundred 


registration as * Bartholomew le Tabler,' found in the 
London Rolls (1320), we have mentioned as living in 
Cambridge in 1322 one 'Richard le Tableter.'' We 
can readily understand how useful would be his occu- 
pation to the students, who were thus provided with 
a writing material capable of erasure, at a time when 
paper was infinitely too expensive to be simply 
scribbled upon.^ The pointel, or pencil, mentioned 
above, seems to have required also a separate manu- 
facture, as we find the surnames ' Roger Poyntel ' and 
'John Poyntel' occurring in 13 15 and 13 19, the latter 
the same date within a year as the ' Tabler ' just re- 
ferred to. These tablets, I need not say, were, whe- 
ther the framework were ivory, or box, or Cyprus, 
overlaid with smeared wax, the pointel being, as its 
name more literally implies, the stile with which the 
characters were impressed. The pointel was a com- 
mon ornament and hung pendent from the neck. 

Two surnames far from being uninteresting must 
be mentioned here. They are those of * Walter 
Orlogyr ' ' and ' Thomas Clokmaker,' the one being 
found in the 'Guild of St. George, Norwich' (1385), 
the other in the ' Proceedings and Ordinances of the 

' A ' Bartholomew le Tableter ' is also found in the ' Memorials of 
London' (Riley). The date being the same or nearly the same as that 
of * Bartholomew le Tabler ' inscribed in the Parliamentary Writs for 
the capital, we may feel assured both are one and the same person. 

- ' And thei bikenyden to his fadir, that he wolde that he were 
clepid. And he axinge a poyntel wrote seiynge Jon is his name.' 
(Luke i. 63. Wicklyffe.) 

* I have since discovered another instance of this name — • 
' To Bartholomew le Orologius, after the arrival of William do 
Pikewell, 23 gallons.' 1286 (Domesday Book, St. Paul's, Cam. Soc). 

D D 


Privy Council.' ' It is just possible also that * Clerk- 
wright,' set down in the former record, may be but a 
misspelling or misreading for ' Clockwright' The 
two first-mentioned names remind us that if not of 
clocks, as now understood, yet the manufacture of 
dials did make a transient mark upon our English 
nomenclature. I say transient, for I find no trace of 
either being handed down even to the second genera- 
tion by those who took these sobriquets. The 
' horologe ' seems to have become a pretty familiar 
term in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, for we 
find Wicklyffe translating 2 Kings xx. 1 1, ' Isaye the 
profete clepide ynwardly the Lord, and browgte agen 
bacward by x degrees the schadewe bi lynes, bi 
whiche it hadde gone down thanne in the orologie of 
Achaz.' The transition from clocks to bells is not 
a great one, as both have to do with the marking of 
time. I Avill here therefore refer to the old bell- 
founder, and then pass on. The ' Promptorium 
Parvulorum' gives us ' Bellezeter' as the then usual 
term for the trade, and from the occurrence of such 
entries as 'Robert leBelzctere' or 'William le Bel- 
zetere' we cannot doubt but that it was so. Of course 
a corruption of so awkward a word was inevitable, 
and Stow, by informing us that ' Billiter Lane * was 
formerly nothing more nor less than ' Belzetars Lane,' 
has prevented dispute from arising regarding the 
origin of our ' Billitcrs.' * If, how^ever, further proof 

' ' Imprimis Tliom.x Clokmaker for makyng of the sail when it 
was broken, \'nis.' 1428 (Pro. Ord. Privy Council). 

- Stowc and .Strype, however, while aware of the corraption, were 
both ignorant of its meaning. Sjieaking of the woodmongers, the 
former says, ' Whether some of these woodmongers were called ' Billiters 


were necessary, we could bring forward * Esmon Belle- 
yeter' from the Privy Council Ordinances.^ Stripped 
of its uncouth orthography, we are here shown, the 
process by which the changed pronunciation gradu- 
ally came into use. 

We must say a word or two about former coinage, 
and weights and measures, for all are more or less 
carefully memorialized in our directories of to-day. 
The two chief names, however, by which the early 
scale was represented, ' le Aunserer' and ' le Balancer,' 
are, I am sorry to say, either wholly, or all but wholly, 
extinct. Such entries as ' Rauf le Balancer' ^ or ' John 
Balauncer ' or ' Thomas le Aunsercmaker ' were per- 
fectly familiar with our forefathers. The ' balance ' 
was of the simplest character, a scale poised by the 
hand. The manufacture of such is mentioned by the 
author of 'Cocke Lorelle's Bote,' when he includes — 

Arowe-heder.s, maltcmen, and cornemongers, 
Balancers^ tynne-casters, and skiyvencrs. 

By its repeated occurrence in our present Autho- 
rized Version this word is sure of preservation from 
obsoletism. The ' auncel ' or ' auncer ' was strictly 

from dealing in billets I leave to conjecture. In the register of »vill.s, 
London, mention is made of one William Burford, billeytere.' (ii. p. 5,26. 
The Woodmongers were sellers of fuel. ' Robert Wudemonger ' is 
found in the H. R. 

' I may quote a statement recorded of Congham Manor. ' In 1349 
Thomas de Baldeswell presented to the church aforesaid, as chief lord 
of this fee ; in 1367, Adam Ilumplirey, of Refham, and in 1385, but 
soon after, in 1388, Adam Pyk ; and in 1400, Edmund Belytter, alias 
Belzeter, who M'ith his parceners,' &c. (Hist. jVorf., viii. 383.) The 
said Edmund is also met witli elsewhere as ' Belleycter ' and ' Bel- 

' Another ' Ralph Balancer' was sheriff of London in 1316. 
D D 2 


the vessel in which the provisions were weighed. Piers 
Plowman says — 

And the pound that she paied by 
Peised a quatron moore 
Than myn owene auncer. 

In an appraisement of goods in 1356 mention is made, 
among other chattels, of ' one balance called an 
auncer.' ^ Thus our somewhat rare ' Ansers ' are 
not such geese as they look ! Our modern notion of 
the Mint is that of a place where with a certain amount 
of State secrecy our money is coined and sent forth. 
Nothing of this kind existed formerly : each consider- 
able town had its own mint, and even barons and 
bishops, subject to royal superintendence, could issue 
coin. Thus it is that we meet with more or less 
frequency such a name as ' Nicholas le Cuner,' from 
the old ' cune ' or 'coin;' or 'John le Meneter,' or 
* John Monemakere,' or ' William Ic Moneur,' or 
' William le Mynsmith,' mint-smith, that is ; and thus 
it is our present ' Moniers ' or ' Moneyers ' and ' Min- 
ters ' have arisen. Our ' Stampers ' remind us of the 
chief feature of coinage, the die. The system being 
thus general, and subject to but an uncertain and 
irregular supervision, abuse of alloy crept in, and it 
was to remedy this, it is said, our ' Testers ' and 

' This weight was abolished in 1351, and the balance made universal. 
' Item, whereas great damage and deceit is done to the people by a 
weight which is called Auncel (par unc pois qu'est appelle Aunsell), it 
is accorded and established that this weight called Auncel betwixt 
buyers and sellers shall be wholly put out, and that every person do sell 
and buy by the balance.' {Slat. Realm, vol. i. \>. 321.) Cowell, in 
his Interpreter, suggests as the origin of the term 'auncel' hand"- 
sale, that is, that which is weighed by the poised hand ! 


' Sayers,' corrupted from assayers, 'were appointed. 
* Sayer' or 'Sayers,' however, I have elsewhere derived 
differently, and in most cases I feel confident the 
account there given is more approximate to the truth. 

Literature and art in regard to the market are not 
without their relics. So far as the outside of books 
was concerned, our former * John le Bokbinders ' or 
' Dionisia le Bokebynders ' are sufficiently explicit. 
These, judging from their date, we must suppose to 
have bound together leathern documents and parch- 
ments of value, or books of manuscript. Speaking 
of parchment, however, we are reminded of the im- 
portance of this for testamentary and other legal 
purposes. Thus we find such names as * Stephen le 
Parchemyner ' or ' William le Parchemynere ' to be 
common at this time. They afford but one more 
instance of an important and familiar name failing of 
descent. In the York Pageant, mentioned elsewhere, 
the ' Parchemyners ' ' and ' Bukbynders ' marched 

The old sealmaker, an important tradesman in a 

• Another form is found in 1389. William Parchmenter was seized 
for holding independent views of the Sacraments. (Nicholls' Leicester.) 

^ In the Exchcqiter Issues we find the following: — 'To John 
Ileth, one of the clerks in the office of privy seal of the Lord the King, 
in money, paid to his own hands, in discharge of 66s. which the said 
Lord the King, with the assent of his Council, commanded to be paid 
to the said John, for 66 great "quaternes" of calf skins, purchased and 
provided by the said John to write a Bible thereon for the use of the 
said King.' In an old Oxford indenture between the University and 
the Town, dated 1459, we find the more usual ' parchemener' spelt 
'pergemener.' The agreement includes 'Alle Bedels with dailly 
servants, and their householdes, alle stacioners, alle bokebynders, 
lympners, wryters, pcrgemencrs, harbours, the bellerynger of the uni- 
versitie,' &c. [Aluu. Acad. Oxoii., p. 346.) 


day when men were much better known by their 
crests than now, left its mark in the early ' Seler.' In 
the ' Issues of the Exchequer ' we find a certain 
' Hugh le Seler ' commissioned to make a new seal 
for the See of Durham. The modern form is ' Sealer.' 
Professional writers and copiers were common. The 
calling of scribe has given us our many * Scrivens ' 
and ' Scriveners,' descendants of the numerous 
'William le Scrivayns' and 'John le Scrivryns' of our 
mediaeval rolls. Piers Plowman employs the word — 

I wel noght scome, quoth Scripture, 
But if scryveynes lye. 

Our ' Writers ' are but the Saxon form of the same, 
while ' le Cirograffer ' vv'ould seem to represent the 
Greek. A ' William le Cirograffer ' occurs in the 
Hundred Rolls. As a writer of indentures he is 
frequently mentioned. An act passed in the first 
year of Edward IV. speaks of such officers as ' clerk~ 
of our council, clerk or keeper of oure Hanaper, office 
of cirograffer, and keeper of oure Wills.' • Employed 
in the skilled art of text-letter we may next mention 
such men as * Godfrey le Lomynour ' or ' Ralph Illu- 
minator ' or ' Thomas Liminer.' A poem, already 
quoted more than once, makes reference to — 

Parchementc makers, skynncrs, and plowcrs, 
Barbers, Boke-byndcrs, and lyniiners." 

How beautiful were the decorations and devices upon 

' Another ordinance has the following : — ' And that all Jews shall 
dwell in the Kings own cities and boroughs, where the chests of chiro- 
graphs of Jewry are wont to be' ('ou les Whuches (hutches) cirografTes 
de Geucrie soleient estre '). (Siat. of Realm, vol. i. p. 221.) 

* 'Nicholas Cotes, lummer.' {Corpus Christi Guild, York.) 


which they spent their care, some of the missals and 
other service books of this early period show.^ This, 
I need scarcely add, was a favourite monastic pursuit. 
I do not know that ' Limner' still exists as a surname, 
unless it be in our ' Limmers.' That it lingered on 
in its more correct form till the beginning of the 
eighteenth century is certain, as the Tostock register 
serves to show, for it is there recorded that 'John 
Limner of Chevington, and Eliz : Sibbes of this town, 
were married, August 22nd, 1700.' (Sibbes' 'Works,' 
vol. i. p. cxlii.) 

Before closing this necessarily hurried resume of 
mediaeval trade, we must say a word or two about 
early shipping. We have mentioned certain articles, 
especially those of spicery and wines, which were then 
used, as the result of foreign merchant enterprise. 
Much of all this came as the growth and produce of 
the opposite Continent. Much again reached our 
shore brought hither from Eastern lands in caravan 
and caravel by Venetian traders. Our ' Marchants,' 
* Merchants,' or ' le Marchants,' we doubtless owe to 
this more extended commerce. Apart from these, 
however, we are far from being without names of a 
more seafaring nature. It is a strange circumstance 
that our now one general term of ' sailor ' had in the 
days we are considering but the barest existence sur- 
nominally or colloquially. In the former respect I 
only find it twice, the instances being those of ' John 

' In the Mun. Acad. Oxon., p. 550, we find a quarrel settled by 
the Chancellor between ' John Conaley, lymner,' and 'John Godsend, 
btationarius.' Through him it is arranged that the former shall occupy 
himself in ' liminando bene et fideliter libros suos.' In the York 
Pageant the ' Escriveners ' and ' Lumners ' went together. 


le Saillur ' and ' Nicholas le Saler,' both to be found 
in the Hundred Rolls. It may be said to be a word 
of entirely modern growth. The expression then in 
familiar use was 'Shipman,'' and * Shipman ' is the 
surname best represented in our nomenclature. It is 
by this name one of Chaucer's company at the 
Tabard is pictured forth — 

A Shipman ther was wonecl far by West, 
He knew wel alle the havens as they were, 
Fro' Gotland to the Cape de Finisterre, 
And every creke, in Bretagne, and in Spainc ; 
His barge ycliped was the ' Magdelaine.' 

This, intended doubtless to set forth the wide extent 
of his adventure, would seem cramped enough for the 
seafarer of the nineteenth century. The word itself 
lingered on for some length of time, being found both 
in our Homilies and in the Authorized Version, but 
seems to have declined towards the end of the seven- 
teenth century. ' Henry Ic Mariner's ' name still lives 
among us, sometimes being found in the abbreviated 
form of * Marner,' and ' Shipper ' or ' Skipper ' is not 
as yet obsolete. The strictly speaking feminine 
* Shipster ' comes in the quaint old poem of * Cocke 
Lorellc's Bote,' where mention is made among others 

Gogle-eyed Tonison, shipster of I.yn. 

' Cogger,' found in such an entry as ' Hamond Ic 
Cogger ' or ' Henry le Cogger,' carries us back to the 

' Thus in Kaye's description of the siege of Rhodes it is said : 
' Anone after that tlie Rhodians liad knowledge of thces werkes a ship- 
man wel experte in swynunyng, \\ente by nyghte and cutted the cordes 
fro' the ancre.' 


old * cogge ' or fishing smack, a term very familiar on 
the east coast, and one not yet altogether obsolete. 
It seems to have been often used to carry the soldiery 
across the Channel to France and the Low Country 
border, or even further.^ Our cockswain was, I doubt 
not, he who attended to the tiller of the boat. We 
still speak also of a cock-boat, written in the ' Promp- 
torium Parvulorum ' as ' cog bote,' and doubtless it 
was originally some smaller craft that waited upon 
and attended the other. Thus it is highly probable 
that ' le Cockere ' may in some instances have been 
but equivalent to ' le Cogger.' - ' Richard le Bots- 
weyn,' ' Edward Botswine,' ' Peter Boatman,' * Jacob 
Boatman,' or the more local ' Gerard de la Barge,' 
are all still familiar enough in an occupative sense, 
but surnominally have been long extinct, with the 
exception of the last.^ 

Coming to port, whether it were York, or King- 
ston, or Chester, or London, we find * Adam le 

' In the Itinerarium of Richard I. we find it recorded that while 
the Christians were besieging Acre Saladin's army began to hem them 
in, ' In hoc itaque articulo positos visitavit eos Oriens exalto ; nam 
ecce ! quinquagintas naves, quas vulgo coggas dicunt, cum duodecim 
millibus armatorum, tanto gratias venerant quanto nostris auxilium in 
angustia majore rcpendunt.' — p. 64. The Cog was evidently in common 
use as a transport. To judge from the following entries, it was, in some 
cases, at any rate, of considerable size: — 'Henrico Aubyn, magistro 
f<7o^ Sancti Marie, et 39 sociis suis nautis, 23/. I2s. bd.' ' Thomo de 
Standanore, magistro c<7j-f Sancti Thomcc, et 39 sociis suis, 23/. 12s. 6d.' 
(Ed. I. Wardrobe.) 

* ' Benjamin Cogman ' occurs in an old Norfolk register. Hence 
'Cockman,' like ' Cocker,' may in some instance belong to this more 
seafaring occupation. 

' ' John Shipgroom ' occurs in the Rot. Orig. (G. ) ; ' John 
Shypward' in Cal. Rot. Chartarum (D.) ; and ' Alexander Schipward ' 
in Rolls of Pari. (H.). 


Waterman,' or ' Richard Waterbearer,' or ' William le 
Water-leder ' busy enough by the waterside.' The 
latter term, however, was far the commonest in the 
thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, I have already 
mentioned the sense of ' lead ' at this time, that of 
carrying. Piers Plowman, to quote but one more 
instance, says in one place — 

With Lumbardes letters 
I lackle gold to Rome, 
And took it by tale there. 

In the York Pageant of 141 5 we find two separate 
detachments of these water-leaders in procession, one 
in conjunction with the bakers, the other with the 
cooks. It would be doubtless these two classes of 
shopkeepers their duties of carrying stores, especially 
flour, to and from the different vessels would bring 
them in contact with most. Our ' Leaders,' ' Leeders,' 
* Leders,' and * Loders ' are either the more general 
carrier or an abbreviated form of the abovc.'^ ' Gager,' 
though rarely met with now, is a descendant of 

' ' Richard Drawater ' (A.) would be a Tiicknamc. 

* This word ' lead ' is worthy of some extended notice. We 
still speak of a path leading our steps to a place, but we scarcely now 
\vould say that 'iue lead our steps to it. Shakespeare, however, does so, 
where Richard III, addresses Elizabeth — 

* Dorset your son, that with a fearful soul 
Leads discontented steps in foreign soil,' 

Several commentators on Shakespeare have proposed * treads' in the 
place of 'leads,' not knowing, seemingly, how familiar was this 
sense of carrying or bearing in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, A 
century earlier the Malvern Dreamer says — 

' And maketh of Lyerc a lang cart 
To leden all these othere :' 


'William le Gageour,' or 'Alexander le Gauger,' or 
* Henry le Gaugeour,' of many a mediaeval record. 
His office was to attend to the King's revenue at our 
seaports, and though not strictly so confined, yet his 
duties were all but entirely concerned in the measure- 
ment of liquids, such as oil, wine, honey.' The tun, 
the pipe, the tierce, the puncheon, casks and barrels 
of a specified size — these came under his immediate 
supervision, and the royal fee was accordingly. Such 
a name as ' Josceus le Peisur,' now found as ' Poyser ' 
or ' Henry le Waiur,' that is, ' Weigher,' ^ met with 
now also in the form of ' Weightman,' represented 
the passage of more solid merchandise. The old 
form of ' poise ' was * peise.' Piers Plowman makes 
Covetousness to confess — 

I lerned among Lumbardes 
And Jewes a lesson, 
To weye pens with a peis, 
And pare the heaviest. 

while just before he writes — 

* And cart-saddle the commissarie, 
Oure cart shall he lede 
And fecchen us vit?illes.' 

In North Yorkshire to this very day they do very little carting. 
They all but invariably 'lead hay,' ' lead corn,' etc. An old form of 
'lead' was 'lode.' We still talk of a 'lode-stone.' This cxplams such 
an entry as ' Emma le Lodere ' or ' Agnes le Lodere.' They were both 
doubtless 'leaders' or 'carriers,' that is, wandering hucksters. 

' ' Item, that all wines, red and while, which shall come unto the 
said realm shall be well and lawfully gauged by the King's Gangers, or 
their deputies' ('bien et loialment gaugcz par le gaujeour le Roi, ou 
son depute.'). {Stal. of Realm, vol. i. p. 331.) 

^ An epitaph in St. Anthony's, London, dated 1400, says of the 
deceased that he was — 

'The King's weigher more than yeres twentie, 
Simon Street, callyd in my place.' 

(Maitland, ii. 375.) 


Richard in ' Richard the III.' finely says — 

I'll strive, with troubled thoughts, to take a naj), 
Lest leaden slumber peise me do\\ii to-morrow, 

(Act V. scene 3.) 

With the above, therefore, we must associate our 
' Tollers,' once registered as ' Bartholomew le Tollere' 
or 'Ralph le Toller,' together with our 'Tolemans' 
and ' Tolmans,' they who took the King's levy at fair 
and market — by the roadside and the wharf.' Piers 
Plowman, in a list of other decent folk, includes — 

Taillours and tynkers, 
And tollers in markettes. 
Masons and mynours, 
And many other crafts. 

Cocke Lorcllc is not so complimentary. He says — 

Then come two false towlers in nexte, 

He set them by pykers (thieves) of the beste." 

In concluding this chapter, and our survey of trade 
generally, it will be necessary to the completion 
thereof that we should say a word or two about the 
money trading of four hundred years ago or more. 
Banks, bank-notes, bills of exchange, drafts to order — 
all these are as familiar to the tongues of the nine- 
teenth century as if the great car of commerce had 
ever gone along on such greased and comfortable 

' The local form is found in the case of 'Jeffery Talbothe,' a 
Norfolk Rector in 1371. (Bromefield). The 'receipt of custom ' is 
with WicklifTe the 'tolbothe.' 

■^ Skelton seems of the same mind as the author of Cocke Lordle. 
' .So many lollei"s. 
So few true tollers, 
So many pollers, 

Saw I never.' 


wheels. But I need not say it is not so. Very little 
money in the present day is practically coin. Our 
banks have it all. It was different with our ancestors. 
As a rule it was stored up in some secret cupboard 
or chest. Hence it is, as I have shown, the trade of 
* le Coffer ' and the office of ' le Cofferer ' are so much 
thrust before our notice in surveying mediaeval 
records. Still, trading in money was largely carried 
on, so far, at any rate, as loans were concerned. The 
Jew, true to his national precedents, was then, I need 
not say, the pawnbroker of Europe, and as his disciple, 
the Lumbard soon bid fair to outstrip his master. 
Under the Plantagenet dynasty both found a pros- 
perous field for their peculiar business in England, 
and, as I have elsewhere said, Lombard Street • to this 
day is a memorial of the settlement of the latter. In 
such uncertain and changeful times as these, kings, 
and in their train courtiers and nobles, soon learnt 
the art, not difficult in initiation, of pawning jewels 
and lands for coin. The Malvern Dreamer speaks 
familiarly of this — 

I have lent lordes 
And ladies my chaffare, 
And been their brocour after, 
And bought it myselve ; 
Eschaunges and chevysaunces 
With such chefifare I dele. 

This species of commerce is early marked by such 
names as ' Henry le Chaunger ' or ' Adam le Cheves- 

• I need not remind the majority of my readers of the origin of our 
term 'lumber room,' that it is but a corruption of lombard-room, oc 
the chamber in which the medixval pawnbroker stored up all his pledges. 
Hence we now speak of any useless cumbrous articles as Mumberi' 


tier,' • while still better-known terms are brought to 
our notice by entries like ' John Ic Banckere,' ' Roger 
le Bencher,' 'Thomas le Brokur,' or 'Simon le Brokour.' 
Holinshed, in the form of ' brogger,' has the latter to 
denote one who negotiated for coin. As * Broggers,' 
too, we met them in the York Pageant. There, 
probably, they would transact much of the business 
carried on between ourselves and the Dutch in the 
shipping off of fleeces, or the introduction of the 
cloth again from the Flemish manufacturers.^ The 
pawnbroker of modern days, dealing in petty articles 
of ware, was evidently an unknown personage at the 
date we are considering. The first distinctive notice of 
him I can light upon is in the * Statutes of the Realm ' 
of the Stuart period. It will be there found that 
(chapter xxi.) James I., speaking of the change from 
the old broker into the more modern pawnbroker, 
refers to the former as one who went 'betweene 
Merchant Englishe and Merchant Strangers, and 
Tradesmen in the contrivinge, makinge and concluding 
Bargaines and Contractes to be made betweene them 
concerning their wares and merchandises,' and then 
adds that he ' never of any ancient tymc used to buy 
and sell garments, household stuffc, or to take pawnes 

' Mr. Ilalliwell gives ' chevisance,' an agreement, and 'chevish,* 
to bargain. Mr. Way commenting on 'chcvystyn,' quotes Fabyan 
as saying — ' I will assaye to have liys Erldom in morgage, for welle I 
knowe he must chevyche for money to pcrfourme that journey.' Mr. 
Wright's Glossary to Piers Plmvvinn has ' chevysaunce, an agree- 
ment for borrowing money.' The word often occurs in mediceval 
writers, and no wonder at least one surname arose as a consequence. 

' An act of Richard II. speaks of officers and ministers made by 
brocage, and of their broggers, and of them that have taken the said 
brocage, ' pour brogage, et de lor broggers, et de,' etc. 


and bills of sale of garments and apparele, and all 
things that come to hand for money, laide out and 
lent upon usury, or to keepe open shoppes, and to 
make open shewes, and open trade, as now of late 
yeeres hathe and is used by a number of citizens, etc' 

Appendix to Chapters IV. and V. 

It will perchance help to familiarize the reader with 
the manner in which the occupativc names contained 
in the two preceding chapters arose, if I transcribe 
several lists of tradesmen which have come across my 
notice while engaged in the work of collecting sur- 
names for my index. The first is found in most of 
the Yorkshire County Histories, and is a record of the 
order of the Pageant for the City of York in 141 5. 
The second is the order of the Procession of the 
Craftsmen and Companies of Norwich from the Com- 
mon Hall in 1533. This list will be found in Brome- 
field's 'Norfolk,' vol. ii. p. 148. The third is the order 
of the Chester Play, inaugurated 1339, and discon- 
tinued 1574. This list will be found in Ormerod's 
' Cheshire,' vol. i. p. 300. These records possess an 
intrinsic value, apart from other matters, as proving 
to the reader the leading position which these several 
cities held as centres of industry in the thirteenth, 
fourteenth, fifteenth, and sixteenth centuries. The 
last list I would furnish is that met with in the quaint 
poem entitled ' Cocke Lorelle's Bote,' published about 



the beginning of the reign of Henry VIII., and pur- 
porting to give a list of the tradesmen and manufac- 
turers of the metropolis at that time. I have quoted 
merely the portion that concerns my purpose, and it 
is taken from the edition published by the Percy 
Society. Though not perfect, that edition is un- 
doubtedly the best. 


The Order for the Pageants of the Play of Corpus Christi, in 
the time of the Mayoralty of AVilliani Alne, in the third 
Year of the Reign of King Henry V. Anno 1415, com- 
piled by Roger Burton, Toion Clerk. 



































































Porters, 8 torches. 



Coblers, 4 torches. 



CordwanerS; 14 






Carpenters, 6 






Chaloners, 4 






Fullers, 4 torches. 



Cottellers, 2 






Wevers, torches. 



Girdellers, torches. 








Wevers of Wolle 

It is ordained that the Porters and Coblers should go 
first; then, of the Right, the Wevers and Cordwaners ; on 
the Left, tbe Fullors, Cutlers, Girdellers, Chaloners, Car- 
penters, and Taillyoures ; then the better sort of Citizens ; 
and after the Twenty-four, the Twelve, the Mayor, and four 
Torches of Mr. Thomas Buckton. 


The Order of the Procession of the Occupations, Crafts, or 
Companies {Norwich) to be made on Corpus Christi Day, 
from the Common Hall. (1533 a.d.) 

I. The Company of Masons, Tilers, Limeburners, and 

£ £ 


2. The Carpenters, Gravours, Joiners, Sawers, Seive- 

makers, Wheehvrights, Fletchers, Bowers, and 

3. The Reders, Thaxters, Rede-sellers, Cleymen, and 


4. The Butchers, Glovers, and Parchment-makers. 

5. The Tanners. 

6. The Cordwaners, Coblers, Curriers, and Collamiakers. 

7. The Shermen, Fullers, Woolen and Linnen Weavers, 

and Wool-chapmen. 

8. The Coverlet-weavers, Darn ick- weavers, and Girdlers. 

9. The Combers, Tinmen. 

10. The Vintners, Bakers, Brewers, Inn-keepers, Tiplers, 

Coopers, and Cooks. 

1 1. The Fishmongers, Freshwater-fishers, and Keelmen. 

1 2. The Wax chandlers, Barbers, and Surgeons. 

13. The Cappers, Hatters, Bagmakers, Paintmakers, Wier- 

drawers and Amiourers. 

14. The Pewterers, Brasiers, Plombers, Bellfounders, 

Glaziers, Steynors. 

15. The Tailors, Broiderers, Hosiers, and Skinners. 

16. The Goldsmiths, Diers, Calanderers, and Sadlers. 

1 7. The Worsted-weavers and Irlonderes. 

18. The Grocers and Raffmen. 

19. The Mercers, Drapers, Scriveners, and Hardwaremen. 

20. The Parish Clerks and Sextons, with their banner- 

wayts, and minstrals. 

Bromefield's ' Norfolk,' vol. ii. p. 148. 


The Chester Play was inaugurated 1339. The following 
trades, guilds, and companies took part in it : — 


First List. 

1. The Barkers and Tanners. 

2. Drapers and Hosiers. 

3. Drawers of Dee and Water Leaders. 

4. Barbers, Waxchandlers, Leeches. 

5. Cappers, Wyerdrawers, Pynners. 

6. Wrightes, Slaters, Tylers, Daubers, Thatchers. 

7. Paynters, Brotherers (i.e. embroiderers), Glasiers. 

8. Vintners and Marchants. 

9. Mercers, Spicers. 

Second List. 

1. Gouldsmithes, Masons. 

2. Smiths, Forbers, Pevvterers. 

3. Butchers. 

4. Glovers, Parchment-makers. 

5. Corvesters and Shoemakers. 

6. Bakers, Mylners. 

7. Boyeres, Flechers, Stringeres, Cowpers, Turners. 

8. Irnemongers, Ropers. 

9. Cookes, Tapsters, Hostlers, Inkeapers. 

Third List. 

1. Skinners, Cardemakers, Hatters, Poynters, Girdlers. 

2. Sadlers, Fusters. 

3. Taylors. 

4. Fishmongers. 

5. Sheremen. 

6. Hewsters and Bellfounders. 

7. Weavers and Walkers. 

The last procession occurred in 1574. 

Ormerod's ' Cheshire,' vol. i. p. 300. 




Extract fro7n '■Cocke Lorell^s Bote' 

The fyrst was goldesmythes and grote clyppers 
Multyplyers and clothe thyckers : 
Called fullers everj^chone : 
There is taylers, taverners, and drapers : 
Potycaryes, ale-brewers, and bakers : 
Mercers, flelchers, and sporyers : 
Boke-prynters, peynters, bowers : 
Myllers, carters, and botylemakers : 
Waxechaundelers, clothers, and grocers : 
Wollemen, vynteners, and flesshemongcrs : 
Salters, jowelers, and habardashers : 
Drovers, cokes, and pulters : 
Yermongers, pybakers, and waferers : 
Fruyters, chesemongers, and mynstrelies : 
Talowe chaundelers, hostelers, and glovers : 
Owchers, skynners, and cutlers : 
Bladesmythes, fosters, and sadelers : 
Coryers, cordwayners, and cobelers : 
Gyrdelers, forborers, and webbers : 
Quyltemakers, shermen, and armorers : 
Borlers, tapestry-worke-makers, and dyers : 
Brouderers, strayners, and carpyte-makers : 
Sponers, torners, and hatters : 
Lyne-webbers, setters, with lyne-drapers : 
Roke-makers, copersmythes, and lorymers : 
Brydel-bytters, blackcsmythes, and ferrars : 
Bokell-smythes, horseleches, and goldbeters : 
Fyners, plommers, and peuters : 
Bedmakers, fedbedmakers, and wyre-drawers : 
Founders, laten workers, and broche-makers : 
Pavyers, bell-makers, and brasyers : 


Pynners, nedelers, and glasyers : 
Bokeler-makers, dyers, and lether-sellers : 
Whyte-tanners, galyors, and shethers : 
Masones, male-makers, and merbelers : 
Tylers, bryck-leyers, harde-hewers : 
Parys- plasterers, daubers, and lymebomers : 
Carpenters, coupers, and joyners : 
Pype-makers, wode-mongers, and orgyn makers : 
Coferers, carde-makers, and carvers : 
Shyppe-wrightes, whele-wrights, and sowers : 
Harpe-makers, leches, and upholsters : 
Porters, fesycyens, and corsers : 
Parchemente-makers, skynners, and plovvers : 
Barbers, bokebynders, and lymners : 
Repers, faners, and horners : 
Pouche-makers, below-farmes, cagesellers : 
Lantemers, stryngers, grynders : 
Arowe-heders, maltemen, and corne-mongers : 
Balancers, tynne-casters, and skryveners : 
Stacyoners, vestyment-swoers, and ymagers : 
Sylke-women, pursers, and garnysshers : 
Table-makers, sylkedyers, and shepsters : 
Goldesheares, keverchef, launds, and rebone makers : 
Tankarde-berers, bougemen, and spereplaners : 
Spynsters, carders, and cappeknytters : 
Sargeauntes, katche-poUys, and somners : 
Carryers, carters, and horsekepers : 
Courte-holders, bayles, and honters : 
Constables, hede-borowes, and katers : 
Butlers, sterchers, and mustarde-makers : 
Hardevvaremen, mole-sekers, and ratte-takers ; 
Bewardes, brycke-borners, and canel-rakers : 
Potters, brome-sellers, pedelers : 
Shepherds, coweherdes, and swyne-kepers : 
Broche-makers, glas-blowers, candelstycke-casts : 


Hedgers, dykers, and mowers : 
Gonners, maryners, and shypmasters : 
Chymney-swepers and costerde-mongers 
Lodemen and bere-brewers : 
Fysshers of the sea and muskel-takers. 


* Nicknames.' 

IF we may trust the accredited origin of the term 
nickname — viz., that it is prosthetically put for ' an 
ekename,' that is, an added name — it may seem some- 
what inconsistent to entitle a special branch of my 
book by that which in reality embraces the whole. 
But I do not think I shall be misunderstood, since, 
whatever be the original meaning intended, the word 
has now so thoroughly settled down into its present 
sphere of verbal usefulness that it would be a matter 
of still more lengthened explanation if I were to put 
it in its more pretentious and literal sense. By 
* nickname,' in this chapter, at any rate, I intend to 
take in all those fortuitous and accidental sobriquets 
which, once expressive of peculiar and individual 
characteristics, have survived the age in which they 
sprang, and now preserved only in the lumber-room 
of our directories, may be brought forth once more 
wherever they help to throw a brighter light upon the 
decayed memorials of a bygone era. It will be seen 
at a glance that it is no easy task that of assorting a 
large body of nondescript and unclassed terms, but I 
will do my best under pleaded indulgence. 

We are not without traces of this special kind of 
sobriquets even in the early days before the Norman 


Conquest was dreamt or thought of. I have already 
instanced the Venerable Bede as speaking of two 
missionaries who, both bearing the name of Hewald, 
were distinguished by the surnames of ' White ' and 
' Black,' on account of their hair partaking of those 
respective hues. In the ninth century, too, Ethelred, 
Earl of the Gaini, was styled the ' Mucel' or ' Mickle ' 
— ' eo quod erat corpore magnus et prudentia grandis.' 
With the incoming of the Normans, however, came a 
great change. The burlesque was part of their nature. 
A vein for the ludicrous was speedily acquired. It 
spread in every rank and grade of society. The 
Saxon himself was touched with the contagion, ere 
yet the southern blood was infused into his veins. 
Equally among the high and the low did such sobri- 
quets as ' le Bastard,' ' le Rouse,' * le Beauclerk,' ' le 
Grisegonel ' (Greycloke), ' Plantagenet,' ' Sansterre,' 
and ' CcEur-de-lion ' find favour. But it did not stay 
here ; the more ridiculous and absurd characteristics 
became the butt of attack. In a day when buffoonery 
had become a profession, when every roughly-sketched 
drawing was a caricature, every story a record of 
licentious adventure, it could not be otherwise. The 
only wonderment is the tame acquiescence on the 
part of the stigmatized bearer. To us now-a-days, 
to be termed amongst our fellows ' Richard the 
Crookbacked,' ' William Blackinthemouth,' ' Thomas 
the Pennyfathcr' (that is, the Miser), or 'Thomas 
Wrangeservice ' (the opposite of Walter Scott's 
'Andrew Fairscrvice '), would be looked upon as 
mere wanton insult. But it was then far different. 
The times, as I have said, were rougher and coarser, 
and the delicacy of feeling which would have shrunk 


from so addressing those with whom we had to deal, 
or from making them the object of our banter, would 
have been perfectly misunderstood. Apart from this, 
too, the bearer, after all, had little to do with the 
question. He did not give himself the nickname he 
received it ; pleasant or unpleasant, as he had no voice 
in the acquisition, so had he none in its retention. 
There was nothing for it but good-tempered acquies- 
cence. We know to this very day how difficult was 
the task of getting rid of our school nicknames, how 
they clung to us from the unhappy hour in which 
some sharp-witted, quick, discerning youngster found 
out our weak part, and dubbed us by a sobriquet, 
which, while it perhaps exaggerated the characteristic 
to which it had reference, had the effect which a 
hundred admonitions from paternal or magisterial 
head-quarters had not, to make us see our folly and 
mend our ways. None the less, however, did the af?ix 
remain, and this was our punishment. How often, 
when in after years we come accidentally across some 
quondam schoolfellow, each staring strangely at the 
other's grizzly beard or beetled brow, the old sobriquet 
will crop up to the lips, and in the very naturalness 
with which the expression is uttered all the separation 
of years of thought and feeling is forgotten, and we 
are instantly back to the old days and the old haunts, 
and pell-mell in the thick of old boyish scrapes again. 
Yet perchance these names were offensive. But they 
have wholly lost their force. We had ceased to feel 
hurt by them long before we parted in early days. 
See how this, too, is illustrated in the present day in 
the names of certain sects and parties. We talk 
calmly of * Capuchins,' * Quakers,' ' Ranters,' ' Whigs' 


and * Tories,' and yet some of these taken literally 
are offensive enough, especially the political ones. 
But, as we know, all that attached to them of odium 
has long ago become clouded, obscured, and forgotten, 
and now they are the accepted, nay, proudly owned, 
titles of the party they represent. Were it not for 
this we might be puzzled to conceive why in these 
early times such a name as ' le Bonde,' significant of 
nothing but personal servitude and galling oppression, 
was allowed to remain. That ' le Free ' and ' le Fre- 
man ' and * le Franch-homme ' should survive the 
ravages of time is natural enough. But with ' Bond ' 
it is different. It bespoke slavery. Yet it is one of 
our most familiar names of to-day. How is this ? 
The explanation is easy. The term was used to 
denote personality, not position ; the notion of condi- 
tion was lost in that of identity. It was just the same 
with sobriquets of a more humorous and broad cha- 
racter, with nicknames in fact. The roughest humour 
of those rough days is oftentimes found in these early 
records, and the surnames which, putting complimen- 
tary and objectionable and neutral together, belong to 
this day to this class, form still well-nigh the largest 
proportion of our national nomenclature. There is 
something indescribably odd, when we reflect about it, 
that the turn of a toe, the twist of a leg, the length of 
a limb, the coloyr of a lock of hair, a conceited look, 
a spiteful glance, a miserly habit of some in other 
respects unknown and long-forgotten ancestor, should 
still five or six centuries afterwards be unblushingly 
proclaimed to the world by the immediate descendants 
therefrom. And yet so it is with our ' Cruickshanks * 
or 'Whiteheads ' or ' Meeks ' or ' Proudmans ; ' thus it 

' NICKNAMES.' 427 

is with our ' Longmans ' and * Shortmans,' our * Biggs' 
and ' Littles,' and the endless others we shall speedily 
mention. Still these represent a better class of sur- 
names. As time wore on, and the nation became 
more refined, there was an attempt made, successful 
in many instances, to throw off the more objectionable 
of these names. Some were so utterly gross and 
ribald as even in that day to sink into almost instant 
oblivion. Some, I doubt not, never became hereditary 
at all. 

In glancing briefly over a portion of these names 
we must endeavour to affect some order. We might 
divide them into two classes merely, physical and 
moral or mental peculiarities ; but this would scarcely 
suffice for distinction, as each would still be so large 
as to make us feel ourselves to be in a labyrinth that 
had no outlet. Nor would these two classes be 
sufficiently comprehensive .'' There would still be left 
a large mass of sobriquets which could scarcely be 
placed with fitness in either category : nicknames 
from Nature, nicknames from oaths, or street-cries, or 
mottoes, or nicknames again in the shape of descrip- 
tive compounds. Names ffom the animal kingdom, 
of course, could be set under either a moral or phy- 
sical head, as, in all cases, saving when they have 
arisen from inn-signs or ensigns, they would be 
affixed on the owner for some supposed affinity he 
bore in mind or body to the creature in question. 
Still it will be easier to place them, as well as some 
others, under a third and more miscellaneous cate- 
gory. These three divisions I would again sub- 
divide in the following fashion : — 


I. — Physical and External Peculiarities. 

(1) Nicknames from peculiarities of relationship, 

condition, age, size, shape, and capacity. 

(2) Nicknames from peculiarities of complexion. 

(3) Nicknames from peculiarities of dress and 

its accoutrements. 
II. — Mental and Moral Peculiarities. 

(i) Nicknames from peculiarities of disposition — 

(2) Nicknames from peculiarities of disposition — 
I II, — Miscellaneous. 

(i) Nicknames from the animal and vegetable 

(2) Descriptive compounds affixed as nicknames.' 

(3) Nicknames from oaths, street-cries, and 


I. — Physical and External Peculiarities. 

(i) Nicknames from Peculiarities of Relationship, 
Age.) Size, and Capacity. 

{a) Rclatio7iship. — There is scarcely any position in 
which one man can stand to another which is not found 
recorded pure and simple in the surnames of to-day. 
The manner in which these arose was natural enough. 
We still talk of 'John Smith, Senior,' and 'John 

' I use this phrase as the most convenient. I shall have to record 
many descriptive compounds under every separate division, but it is the 
most suited for my purpose, and will embrace all the more eccentric 
nicknames that I have met with in my researches, especially those 
made up of verb and substantive, a practice which opened out a wide 
field for the inventive powers of our forefathers. 

* NICKNAMES.' 429 

Smith, Junior,' when we require a distinction to be 
made between two of the same name. So it was then, 
only the practice was carried further. I find, for 
instance, in one simple record, the following in- 
sertions : — 'John Darcy le fiz,' 'John Darcy le frere,' 
' John Darcy le unkle,' ' John Darcy le cosyn,' ' John 
Darcy le nevue,' and ' John Darcy, junior.' How easy 
would it be for those in whose immediate community 
these different representatives of the one same name 
lived to style each by his term of relationship, and 
for this, once familiarised, to become his surname. 
'Uncle,'' once found as 'Robert le Unkle,' or 'John 
le Uncle,' is now quite obsolete, I think ; but the 
pretty old Saxon ' Eame ' abides hale and hearty 
in our numberless ' Fames,' ' Ames,' ' Emes/ and 

* Yeames.' We find it used in the ' Townley Mys- 
teries.' In one of them Rebecca tells Jacob he must 
flee for fear of Esau — 

Jacob. Wheder-ward shuld I go, dame ? 
Rebecca. To Mesopotameam 

To my brother and thyne erne, 

That dwellys beside Jordan streme. 

The ' Promp. Par.' defines a cozen to be an ' emys son,' 
and it is from him, no doubt, our many ' Cousens,' 

* Cousins,' ' Couzens,' and ' Cozens ' have sprung, 
descended as they are from ' Richard le Cusyn' (A.), 
or 'John le Cosyn' (G.), or 'Thomas le Cozun' (E.). 
'Kinsman' ('John Kynnesman,' Z. Z.) may be of the 
same degree. 'Widowson' ('William le Wedweson,' 
R., ' Simon fil. Vidue,' A.^) is apparently the same as 

' ' Lease to Thomas Unkle of a wood within the manor of 

Bolynbroke, Nov. 30, 1485.' (Materials for Hist. Henry VH. 593 p.) ■ 

* The English form of Guido was commonly Wydo — hence sueh 


the once existing ' Faderless ' (' John Faderless,' M.),' 
while 'Brotherson' and 'Sisterson' ('Jacob Systerson,' 
W. 3) seem to be but old-fashioned phrases for a 
nephew, in which case they are but synonymous with 
the Norman ' Nephew,' * Neve,' ' Neave,' or ' Neaves ;' 
all these forms being familiar to our directories, and 
descendants of 'Reyner le Neve' (A.), or ' Richard le 
Nevu' (E.), or 'Robert le Neave' (Z.). Capgrave, 
giving the descent of Ebcr, says : ' In this yere (anno 
2509) Sala begat Heber ; and of this Eber, as auc- 
touris say, came the people Hebrak, for Heber was 
neve unto Sem.' Thus again, the Saxon ' Arnold le 
Fader ' was met by the Norman ' John Parent,' and 
the still more foreign ' Ralph le Padre,' while ' Wil- 
liam le Brother ' found his counterpart in * Geoffrey le 
Freer,' or 'PVere;' but as in so many cases this 
latter must be a relic of the old freere or friar, we had 
better refer it, perhaps, to that more spiritual relation- 

{b) Condition. — We have still traces in our midst 
of sobriquets relating to the poverty or wealth of the 
original bearer. Our ' Poores,' often found as ' Powers,' 
are descended from the ' Roger le Poveres,' or ' Robert 
le Poors,' of the thirteenth century, while our 'Riches ' 

entries as ' Wydo Wodecok,' or ' William fil. Wydo.' Thus, as I have 
already said, ' Widowson ' may be a patronymic. 

• The curious name of 'John Orphan-strange' is found in a Cam- 
bridge register for 1544. (Hist. C.C. Coll. Cam.) Doubtless he had 
been a foundling. 

* Some Norman-French terms of relationship have been translated, 
resulting in names of utterly different sense. Thus Beaupere, a step- 
father, has become 'Fairsire ;' 'Beaufils,' a step-son (still surviving in 
BolTill), ' Fairchild' ; and ' Beaufrere,' a step-brother, ' Fairbroihcr,' or 
• Farebrothcr,' 

'NICKNAMES.' 43 1 

are set down at the same period as * Swanus le Riche ' 
or * Gervase le Riche,' Of several kindred surnames 
we may mention a * John le Nedyman,' now obsolete, 
and an ' Elyas le Diveys,' which, in the more Biblical 
form of Dives, still exists in the metropolis. It is 
somewhat remarkable that we should have the Jewish 
' Lazarus ' also, and that this too should have arisen 
in not a few instances from the fact that its first 
possessor was a leper. * Nicholas le Lepere ' and 
* Walter le Lepper ' speak for themselves. With the 
above we may ally our early 'Robert le Ragiddes' and 
'Thomas le Raggedes,' which remind us that our 
vagabonds, if not our ' Raggs' and * Raggetts,' are 
of no modern extraction, but come of a very old 
family indeed ! 'Half-naked,' I unhesitatingly at first 
set down as one of this class, but it is local.^ 

{c) Age, Size, Shape, Capacity. — This class is very 
large, and embraces every possible, and well-nigh im- 
possible feature of human life. A glance over our old 
records, and we can almost at once find 'Lusty' and 
' Strong,' ' Long ' and ' Short ' ' Bigg ' ' and ' Little,' 
< High ' and ' Lowe ' (both perchance local), ' Large ' 
and 'Small,' 'Thick' and 'Thin,' 'Slight' and 'Round,' 
'Lean' and ' Fatt,' ' Megre' and ' Stout,' ^ 'Ould' 
and ' Young,' and ' Light ' and ' Heavy.' Was this 
not sufficient ? Were there several in the same 
community who could boast similarity in respect 

' ' Adam de Halfnaked' (H.), 'Adam de Halnaked' (M.). 

* The Hundred Rolls have a • Henry Mucklebone.' 

• 'Lusty,' 'Fat,' and ' Stout' evidently were not expressive enough 
for some of our forefathers, to judge by such entries as ' Henry 
Pudding,' 'William Broadgirdel,* or 'Joan Broad-belt.* The last still 


to one or other of these varieties ? Then we got 
•Stronger,' ' Shorter/ ' Younger,' > 'Littler,' ' Least,' » 
' Senior,' ' Junior,' and in some cases ' Elder,' Some 
of these are of course Norman ; but when Saxon 
occur we can all but invariably find the Norman 
equivalent. Thus, if ' Large ' be Saxon, ' Gros ' (now 
* Grose' and 'Gross ') is Norman ; if 'Bigge' be Saxon, 
' Graunt ' or ' Grant' or ' Grand ' is Norman f if ' Small' 
be Saxon, ' Pettitt ' or ' Pettye ' or ' Petty ' or ' Peat ' 
is Norman. Thus again, ' Lowe ' meets face to face 
with ' Bas ' or ' Bass,' ' Short ' with ' Curt,' ' Fatte ' with 
'Gras' or 'Grass' or 'Grace,'* ' Strong ' with 'Fort,' 
' Ould ' with ' Viele,' ' Twist ' with ' Tort,' and ' Young ' 
or ' Yonge ' with ' Jeune.' Sometimes the termination 

' Epitaph on William Younger, Rector of Great-Melton, deceased 
March 6th, 1661, setat. 57 — 

♦ Younger he was by name, but not in grace, 
Elder than he, in this, must give him place.' 
(//isi. of Norfolk, vol. v. p. 13.) 'Youngerman' may be seen 
over a shop in Cheetham Hill Road, Manchester. 

* ' Littler' and 'littlest' were once the common degrees of compari- 
son. Shakespeare uses the superlative. Mr. Halliwell gives the Nor- 
folk dialect a large range. Besides 'less' and 'least' he adds 'lesser' 
and 'lessest,' 'lesserer' and 'lesserest,' 'lesserer still' and 'lessest 
of all,' and 'littler' and 'littlest.' 

* The former ' Haut,' that is, high or tall, is obsolete, I think. 
' Robert le Haut' is met with in a Norfolk register. {.Hist. Norf, 

* It is curious to compare local registers with local dictionaries. 
Thus the Promptorium Parvulorum gives as a familiar Norfolk term 
in the fourteenth century, ' craske, fryke of fatte,' or 'lusty,' as wc 
should now say. This crask was a vulgar form of the French ' eras ' 
(Latin, 'crassus'). Turning to our registers, we find that while our 
' Grass's ' are found in our more general rolls as ' Richard le Cras ' or 
'John le Cras' or 'Stephen Crassus,' our 'Crasks' must go to a 
Norfolk entry for a 'Walter le Crask.' {Vide Hist. Norfolk, Index. 

' NICKNAMES.' 433 

' man ' is added, as in ' Strongman,' * Longman/ 
' Smallman,' ' Oldman,' and * Youngman,' or if a 
woman, dame, as in such a case as * Matilda Lene- 
dame,' which as a surname died probably with its 
owner. Sometimes, again, we have the older and 
more antique form, as in ' Smale ' and * Smaleman,' 
that is, small ; ' Yonge' and ' Yongeman,' that is, young ; 
and * Lyte ' and ' Lyteman,' that is, little ; ' Wight ' 
and 'Wightman,' now obsolete in our general voca- 
bulary, referred to personal strength and activity. In 
the 'Vision of Piers Plowman,' one of the sons of 
' Sire Inwit ' is described as being — 

A wight man of strength. 

• Manikin,' found at the same period, needs no ex- 

Of the less general we have well-nigh numberless 
illustrations. It is only when we come to look at our 
nomenclature we find out how many separate limbs, 
joints, and muscles we individually possess, and by 
what a variety of terms they severally went in 
earlier days. No treatise of anatomy can be more 
precise in regard to this than our directories. Some 
prominence or other peculiarity about the head or 
face has given us our 'Chins,' ' Chekes,' or * Cheeks,' 
and 'Jowles,' or 'Joules.' We are all familiar with 
the protruding fangs of our friend ' Jowler ' of the 
canine community. Thus even here also we must 
place 'cheek by jowl.' ' Glossychcek ' ('Bcrtholomew 
Gloscheke,' A.) once existed^ but is obsolete now. 

' ' Robert Manekin,' A. Nevertheless this is a baptismal name 
also with the diminutive ' kin' appended. 'Manekyn le Heaumer,' H. 

F F 


The same is true in respect of ' Duredent * (' Walter 
Duredent,' E.), or ' Dent-de-fer,' i.e., ' Irontoothed ' 
(' Robert Dent-de-fer/ E.), which spoke well no doubt 
for the masticatory powers of its owner. ' Merry- 
mouth ' (' Richard Merymouth,' X.) would be a stand- 
ing testimony to its possessor's good humour. It is 
decidedly more acceptable than 'Dogmow'^ ('Arnulph 
Dogmow,' A.) or ' Calvesmawe ' (' Robert Calves- 
maghe,' M.), recorded at the same period. 'Sweet- 
mouth * (' Robert Swetemouth,' D.) also speaks for the 
sentiment of the times. In modern days, at least, 
the eye is supposed to be one of the chief points of 
personal identity. I only find one or two instances, 
however, where this feature has given the sobriquet in 
our mediaeval rolls. In the ' Calendarium Genealogi- 
cum ' a * Robertus Niger-oculus,' or 'Robert Black- 
eye,' is set down as having been ' pro felonia sus- 
pensus.' We are reminded in his name of the ' Black- 
eyed Susan ' of later days, but whether Nature had 
given him the said hue or some pugilistic encounter 
I cannot say. Judging by his antecedents, so far as 
the above Latin sentence betrays them, the latter 
would seem to be the more likely origin.^ 'William 
le Blynd,' or ' Ralph Je Blinde,' speak for themselves.^ 
The ' Saxon Head,' in Lome cases local, doubtless, 
is still familiar to us. Its more Norman 'Tait' fitly 

' ' To mnke a mow ' was to pvit on a mocking expression. The 
word was once very familiar, though rarely used now. Bishop 
Bradford, speaking of the Romish priesthood, says — ' They never 
preach forth the Lord's death but in mockery and mows.' (Parker 
Soc, p. 395) Mow has no relation to mouth. 

^ 'William Malregard ' (T.), or 'Geoffrey Malreward ' (T.), i.e. 
Evil-eye, would not possess enviable sobriquets, but the name lingered 
on for several centuries. 

» 'John Monoculus' occurs in Memorials of Fountains Abbey. 


sits at present upon the archiepiscopal throne of 
Canterbury. Grostete, one of which name was a dis- 
tinguished bishop of Lincoln in the fourteenth cen- 
tury, is now represented by ' Greathead ' and ' Broad- 
head' only. Butler, in his ' Hudibras,' records it in 
the more colloquial form of Grosted — 

None a deeper knowledge boasted, 
Since Hodge Bacon, and Bob Grosted. 

The equally foreign ' Belteste ' (' John Beleteste,' A.) 
is content, likewise, to allow ' Fairhead ' (' Richard 
Faireheved,' H.) to transmit to posterity the claims 
of its early possessor to capital grace. 'Blackhead'' 
existed in the seventeenth, and ' Hardhead ' in the 
fifteenth century. These are all preferable, however, 
to * Lambshead ' (' Agnes Lambesheved,' A.), found 
some generations earlier, and still firmly settled in 
our midst, as the ' London Directory ' can vouch.^ 
So much for the head. ' Neck ' and ' Swire ' are both 
synonymous. Chaucer describes Envy as ready to 
* scratch her face,' or ' rend her clothes,' or ' tear her 
swire,'^ in respect of which latter feat we should now 
more generally say ' tear her hair.' Either operation, 
however, would be unpleasant enough, and it is just 
as well that for all practical purposes it only occurs in 
poetry. Some characteristic of strength, or beauty, or 

> A ' William Blackhead ' entered C. C. Coll. Cam. in 1669, and 
a 'Thomas Hardhede' in 1467. {Hist. C. C. Coll.) 

* The Abbot of Leicester in 1474 was one ' John Sheepshead.' 
' William Sheepshead ' is also mentioned in the Index to NichoUs* 

' We must not forget, however, that ' swier ' is early found as a 
provincialism for 'squier,' so that it may be referred in some cases to 
that once important officer, (v, p. 199.) 

F F 2 


deformity (let us assume one of the former) has given 
us our ' Hands,' ' Armes,' and ' Brass's,' from the old 
' Braz.' ' Finger,' once existing ('Matilda Finger,' H.), 
is now obsolete. Whether this sobriquet was given 
on the same grounds as that bestowed on the redoubt- 
able * Tom Thumb,' I cannot say. * Brazdifer * 
(' Simon Braz-de-fer,' E., ' Michael Bras-de-fer,' B.B.), 
arm of iron, once a renowned nom-de-plume, still 
dwells, though obsolete in itself, in our ' Strongithams' 
and 'Armstrongs,'' A common form of this north 
country name was 'Armstrang' or 'Armestrang' 
(' Adam le Armstrang,' G.), reminding us that our 
' Strangs ' are but the fellows of our more southern 
'Strongs' ('John le Strang,' E., 'Joscelin le Strong,' 
H.). ' Lang'' and ' Long' represent a similar differ- 
ence of pronunciation. The 'Armstrongs ' were a 
great Border clan. Mr. Lower reminds me of the 
following lines : — 

• Ye need not go to Liddisdale, 

For when they see the blazing bale 
Elliots and Armstrongs never fail. 

(Lay of the Last Minstrel.) 

Another and more foreign form of this sobriquet, 
' Ferbas' (' Robert Ferbras,' M.), has come down to us 
in our somewhat curious-looking * Firebraces.' Still 
earlier than any of these we find the sobriquet 
' Swartbrand.' Thus we see the arm wielded a 
powerful influence over names as well as people, no 
mere accident in a day when * might was right.' 

' ' Guy le Armerecte' (A.) would seem to be a Latinization of the 

* 'Henry Langbane' occurs in the list of the Corpus Christi 
Guild, York. (Surt. Soc.) 

' NICKNAMES.' 437 

*Main,' when not local, corresponds to the Saxon 

* Hand,' and is found in composition in such designa- 
tions as * Blanchmains,' that is, white-hand, ' Graunt- 
mains,' big-hand, * Tortesmain,' twisted-hand, ' Male- 
meyn,' evil-hand, or perhaps maimed-hand, equivalent 
therefore to * Male-braunch ' (found at the same early- 
date) in 'Mainstrong,' a mere variation of 'Armstrong,' 
and in * Quarterman,' scarcely recognisable in such an 
English-like form as the Norman ' Quatre-main,' the 
four-handed. In the reign of the second Richard it 
had become registered as 'Quatremayn' and 'Quatre- 
man,' and the inversion of the two letters in this latter 
case was of course inevitable.' * Brazdifer,' I have 
said, is extinct — not so, however, ' Pedifer ' (* Bernard 
Pedefer,' G., ' Fulbert Pedefer,' X.), that is, iron-footed, 
which, occurring from the earliest times, still looks 
stout and hearty in its present guise of * Petifer,' 
'Pettifer,' ^ and * Potiphar,' though the last would seem 
to claim for it a pedigree nearly as ancient as that of 
the Welshman who, half-way up his genealogical tree, 
had made the interesting note : ' About this time 
Adam was born.' Even this name, however, did not 
escape translation, for we find an ' Ironfoot ' (' Peter 
Yrenefot,' A.) recorded at the same date as the above.' 
Our ' Legges,' our * Shanks ' and ' Footes,' * are all 

' I see 'Catterman' also exists. This is early faced by ' Richard 
Catermayn ' (H.). 

* Robert Pettifer was Sheriff of Gloucester in 1603. (Rudder's 
Gloucestershire, p. 1 16.) 

* The famous old surname of ' Ironsides ' is found so late as 1754, 
the Lord Mayor of London for that year being 'Edward Ironside.' 
The Bishop of Bristol in 1689 was 'Gilbert Ironside.' His father, 

* Gilbert Ironside,' preceded him in the same see. 

* 'Antony Knebone' (Z.), This would seem to belong to a similar 


familiar to us, though the first is in most cases un- 
doubtedly local, as being but an olden form of 
' Leigh.' * We all remember the inimitable couplet 
placed over the memorial to Samuel Foote, the 
comedian — 

Here lies one Foote, whose death may thousands save, 
For death has now ont/oot within the grave. 

* Jambe ' was the Norman synonym of ' Shank,' and 
by way of more definite distinction we light upon the 
somewhat flattering ' Bellejambe,' the equally un- 
flattering 'Foljambe,' the doubtful ' Greyshank,' ^ the 
historic ' Longshank,' the hapless ' Cruikshank ' or 

* Bowshank,' ^ the decidedly uncomplimentary * Sheep- 
shank,' and, last and worst, ' Pelkeshank,' seemingly 
intended to be ' Pelican-shanked,' which, when we 
recall the peculiar disproportion of that bird's ex- 
tremities to the rest of its body, affords ample reason 
for the absence of that sobriquet in our more modern 
rolls. Some fifty years ago a certain Mr. Sheepshanks, 
of Jesus College, Cambridge, while undergoing an 
examination in Juvenal, pronounced ' satire ' ' satyr.' 

' ' Leg ' did not come into use till the beginning of the xiiith 
century, when it was imported from Norway. ' Shank,' as the various 
compound sobriquets found below will fully prove, did duty. 

' Mr. Halliwell quotes the following couplet from an old manu- 
script : 

' Hir one schanke blak hir other graye, 
And all her body like the ledc. ' — (Die. L i.) 

» 'Gerald Bushanke' (A.). This might be 'Beau-shank,' and 
therefore equivalent to ' Bellejambe,' but such an admixture of 
languages is not likely. We still speak of ' bow-leg,' and this is the 
more probable origin. 


A wag, thereupon, wrote the following epigram, which 
soon found its way through the University : — 

The satyrs of old were satyrs of note, 

With the head of a man, they'd the shanks of a goat : 

But the satyr of Jesus all satyrs surpasses, 

Whilst his shanks are a sheefs, his head is an ass's. 

Swiftness of foot was not allowed to go unrecorded, 
and we have an interesting instance of the way in 
which this class of surnames arose from an entry 
recorded in the * Issues of the Exchequer.' There 
we find a ' Ralph Swyft ' mentioned as courier to 
Edward III. Nothing could be more natural than 
for such a sobriquet to become affixed to a man 
fulfilling an ofiice like this, requiring, as it did at 
times, all the running and riding powers of which he 
could be capable.^ Other memorials of former agility 
in this respect are still preserved in our ' Golightlys ' ' 
and ' Lightfoots,' while of still earlier date, and more 
poetical form, we may instance ' Harefoot ' and ' Roe- 
foot.' These, however, are altogether inexpressive in 
comparison with such a sobriquet as ' Scherewind ' or 
' Shearvvind,' which seems to have been a familiar ex- 
pression at this time, for I find it recorded in three 
several rolls. It is strange, and yet not strange, that 
every peculiarity that can mark the human gait is 

' Swift, however, is not the only courier's sobriquet preserved to us. 
' In the Countess of Leicester's service were several whose real names 
weresunk in titles ridiculouslydescriptiveof theirqualities. ^^ Slittgaway" 
the learned editor of the Household Roll, has pointed out, he might 
have added " Gobit/iestie'^ (go a bit hasty) and " Boldt" (bullet), so de- 
nominated from their speed, and " TntcbodW^ (true body) from his fidelity. 
These were all couriers.' (flotis. Exp. Bish. Swiufield, p. 143.) 

' ' C. P. Golightly,' 'Thomas Goliglitly.' Vide Clergy List, 1848, 
and other directories. 


distinctly preserved in our nomenclature. ' Isabel 
Stradling ' or ' William Stradling ' represent the 
straddle \ 'Thomas le Ambler' or 'Ralph le Ambuler' 
(when not occupative), the amble ; our ' Shailers,' 
* Shaylors,' and ' Shaylers,' the shuffle ; ' Robert le 
Liltere,' the hop ; our ' Scamblers ' and ' Shamblers,' 
the weak-kneed shamble ; ' Ralph le Todeler,' the 
toddle ; and * Samuel Trotman ' or ' Richard Trotter ' 
(when not occupative), the trot, if that be possible on 
two legs. Besides these, we may mention the obsolete 
' Thomas Petitpas ' or ' John Pctypase,' ' William 
Noblepas,' and ' Malpas,' which we might Saxonize 
into ' Short-step,' ' High-step,' and ' Bad-step.' 'Chris- 
tiana Lameman ' and ' William Laymeman ' remind 
us of more pitiable weaknesses. ' Barefoot ' may have 
been the designation of some one under penitential 
routine, unless it be a corruption of ' Bearfoot.* 
' Proudfoot ' and ' Platfoot ' (plat = flat; need no com- 
ment, while ' Sikelfoot,' found by Mr. Lower as exist- 
ing in the thirteenth century, seems, as he says, to 
bespeak a splayed appearance or outward twist.' If 
this be so, the owner was not alone in his distress. 
We have just mentioned ' Cruikshank.' Our ' Crooks' 
are, I doubt not, of similar origin, and another com- 
pound of the same, now obsolete, was ' Crookbone ' 
(' Henry Crokcbane,' A.). Our ' Crumps ' are but 
relics of the old ' Richard le Crumpe ' or ' Hugh le 
Crump,' the crookbacked, and perhaps our ' Cramps ' 
and ' Crimps' are but changes rung on the same. Our 
nursery literature still preserves the story of the ' cow 

' I have mentioned 'Matilda Finger '(II.). I do not find any 'Toe' 
in our Directories, but ' Peter Pricktoe ' (M.) and 'Thomas Pinchshu ' 
(A.) existed in the xivth century. 


with the crumpled horn.' Thus, also, was it with our 

* Cams,' once ' William le Cam.' As a Celtic stream- 
name, denoting a winding course, it has sur\'^ived the 
aggressions of Saxon and Norman, and is still familiar. 
Cambridge and Camford are on two difTerent streams 
of this name. In the*north a man is still said to * cam 
his shoe ' who wears it down on one side. I have 
heard the phrase often among the poorer classes of 
Lancashire. ' Camoys ' or ' Camuse,' from the same 
root, was generally applied to the nasal organ. In 
the description of the Miller, which I shall have occa- 
sion to quote again shortly, Chaucer says — 

A Sheffield t-hwitel bare he in his hose, 
Round was his face, and camuse was his nose. 

As, however, I find both ' John le Camoys ' and 
' Reginald de Camoys,' it is only a fair presumption 
that in some cases it is of Norman local origin. With 
one of our leading families it is undoubtedly so. The 
two great clans of ' Cameron ' and ' Campbell,' I may 
say in passing, though treading upon Scottish soil, are 
said to mean severally ' crook-nosed ' and ' crook- 
mouthed.' If this be so, we may see how firmly has 
this little word imbedded itself upon our nomencla- 
ture, if not upon our more general vocabulary. Not to 
mention ' Crypling,' ' Handless,' and ' Onehand,' ' we 
find ' Blind ' significative of blindness ; ' Daffe ' and 

* Daft,' of deafness ; ' Mutter ' and ' Stutter,' not to say 
' Stuttard ' and ' Stammer,' of lisping speech ; and 

' Accidents of this kind naturally became sobriquets, and then 
surnames. Hence such entries as ' William Crypling' (A.), 'William 
Onhand'(B.), 'John Onehand' (D.), or 'John Handless' (W. 11). 'John 
Gouty' (V. I) represents a still troublesome complaint, and may be 
mentioned here. 


* Dumbard,' of utter incapacity in that respect. Such 
a sobriquet as ' Mad ' • of course explains itself. As 
we might well presume, this. has not come down to us. 
Still less pleasant in their associations are our ' Burls* 
(' Henry le Burle/ A.), that is, blotch-skinned. But 
complimentary allusions to the smoothness of the 
hands and face were not wanting. Apart from a 
touch of poetry, such names as * Elizabeth Lyllywhite/ 
now ' Lilywhite ; ' ' William Beauflour/ now spelt 
'Boutflower' and 'Buffler;' and 'Faith Blanchflower,' 
still existing also, are not without a certain prettiness. 
Of equally clear complexion would be the obsolete 
' William Whiteflcsh ' or ' Gilbert Whitehand ' 2 or 
' Robert Blanchmains,' not to mention our ' Chits ' 
and 'Chittys' ('John Ic Chit,' A., 'Agnes Chittye,' Z.). 
We still talk in our nurseries of a ' little chit,' a word 
which, though strictly speaking confined to no age, 
had early become a pet name as applied to young 
children. It is with these, therefore, we must ally our 
' Slicks,' from* ' sleek,' ' smooth,' •'' ' Sam Slick ' being 
by no means in possession of an imaginary name. 
Chaucer says of ' Idleness,' in his Romance — 

Her flesh tender as is a chicke 

With bent browes ; smooth and slicke. 

It is astonishing how carefully will a sobriquet of an 

■ ' Jordan le Madde ' occurs in the Placita de Quo IVananto. 

* ' William Whitehand' is set down in the C. C. Coll. records for 
1665. {Hist. C. C. Coll. Cam.) 'Humbert Blanchmains ' is found in 
Nicholls' Leicestershire. 

* In the Prompt. Parv. we find not merely 'slyke, or smothe,' but 
' slykeston.' The slick or sleek stone was usetl for smoothing linen or 
paper ; vide Mr. Way's note thereon, p. 458. ' The eban stone which 
goldsmiths used to sleeken their gold with,' etc. (Burton's Anatomy.) 

' NICKNAMES.' 443 

undoubtedly complimentary nature find itself pre- 
served. Such a name as * Hugh le Bell ' or * Richard 
le Bell ' is an instance in point.^ While objectionable 
designations, or even those of but equivocal character, 
have been gradually shuffled off or barely allowed to 
survive, the mere fact of this being at the present day 
one of the most familiar, and in respect of sobriquet 
nomenclature the absolutely most common, of our 
surnames, shows that the human heart is not altered 
by lapse of generations, and that pride then, as now, 
wielded a powerful sceptre over the minds of men. 
Our * Belhams ' represent but the fuller ' Bellehomme' 
(' William Bellehomme,' M.). Thus the two may be 
set against our Saxon ' Prettys ' and ' Prettimans,' ' 
though ' pretty ' would scarcely find itself so accept- 
able now, denoting as it does a style of beauty rather 
too effeminate for the lords of creation. In the Hun- 
dred Rolls occur ' Matilda Winsome ' and ' Alicia 
Welliking.' Both these terms, complimentary as they 
undoubtedly were, are now obsolete, so far as our 
directories are concerned. 

(2) Nicknames from Peculiarities of Complexion. 

After all, however, it is, perhaps, complexion which 
has occupied for itself the largest niche in our more 
general nomenclature. Nor is this unnatural. It is 

* Thus ' Bell' conies into three categories — the local, the baptismal, 
and the sobriquet, represented in our registers by three such entries as 
'John atte Bell' (X.), 'Richard fil. Bell' (A.), and 'Walter le Bel' (G.). 

' 'Katharine Pretty man' (Z.), ' William Prettiman' (P".F.). Thename 
still flourishes, and as ' Miss Prettiman ' figures in the Caudle Lectures, 


Still that which, in describing people, we seize upon as 
the best means of recognition. Sobriquets of this 
kind were so numerous, indeed, that there was no 
term in the vocabulary of the day which could be 
used to denote the colour of the dress, the hair, or the 
face, which did not find itself a place among our 

It was the same with our beasts of burden or 
animals of the chase. In these days their hides 
almost invariably furnished forth their current de- 
signations. Thus we find the horse familiarly 
known by such titles as ' Morell,' from its moorish 
or swarthy tan, or ' Lyard,' that is, dapple-grey, or 
' Bayard,' bay, or ' Favell,' dun, or Blank,' white. 
The dark hide of the ass got for it the sobriquet 
of * Dun,' a term still preserved in the old pro- 
verb, ' As dull as Dun in the mire,' while again 
as ' Burnell ' its browner aspect will be familiar 
to all readers of Chaucer. Thus, also, the fox was 
known as ' Russell,' the bear as ' Bruin,' and the 
young hind, from its early indefinite red, ' Sorrell.' 
How natural that the same custom should have its 
effect upon human nomenclature. How easy for a 
country community to create the distinction between 
'John le Rouse' and 'John Ic Black,' 'William le 
Hore' and 'William le Sor' or ' Sorrell,' if the com- 
plexion of the hair or face were sufficiently distinctive 
to allow it. Some of these adjectives were applied 
to human peculiarities of this kind till within recent 
times. Burns uses ' lyart ' for locks of iron grey, 
and Aubyn, in his ' Lives,' describes Butler, author 
of ' Hudibras,' as having ' a head of sorrell haire.' 
We ourselves talk of ' brunettes ' and ' blondes/ of 


* dark ' and ' fair,' Thus it was then such sobriquets 
as 'PhiHp le Sor,' 'Adam le Morell,' 'William le 
Favele ' or ' Favell,' ' Walter le Bay ' or ' Theobald 
le Bayard,' ' Henry le Dun ' or ' Thomas le Lyard/ 
arose. Thus was it our ' Rouses ' and ' Russells,' 
our ' Brownes ' ^ and ' Brunes,' with the obsolete 

* Brunman,' or 'Brunells' and 'Burnells,' our 'Whites' 
and * Whitemans,' our * Hores ' and * Hoares,' our 

* Greys ' and ' Grissels ' * sprang into being. Nor are 
these all. Our ' Reeds,' ' Reids,' and ' Reads ' are all 
but forms of the old ' rede ' or red, once so pro- 
nounced ;^ while ' Redman,' when not a descendant 
of 'Adam' or 'Thomas de Redmayne,' is the be- 
quest of some 'Robert' or 'John Redman' of the 
thirteenth century. Our ' Swarts ' are but relics of 
the old ' John le Swarte,' applied no doubt to the 
tawny or sunburnt face of its original owner. The 
word was in common use at this time. In ' Guy of 
Warwick ' we are told : — 

His nek is greater than a bole, 
His body is swarter than ani cole. 

The darker-hued countenances of our forefathers are 
immortalised also in such entries as ' Reyner le 
Blake ' or .' Stephen le Blak,' now found as ' Blake ' 

' ' Nutbrown ' is found in several early records, and existed till 
1630 at least. ' George Nutbrowne was sworne the same daye 
pistler, and Nathaniel Pownell, gospeller.' {Cheque Bk., Chapel 
Royal (Cam. Soc), p. 12.) 

* 'White' and ' Grissel ' are combined in 'Anne Griselwhite,' 
a name occurring in an old Norfolk register. {Vide Index, Hist. 
Norfolk, Bromefield.) 

* • Thomas Pock-red ' in the Hundred Rolls would not be accept- 


and ' Black,' or ' Elias le Blakeman ' or ' Henry Blac- 
man,' now ' Blakeman ' and ' Blackman ' respectively. 
' John le Blanc ' and ' Warin Blench ' find themselves 
in the nineteenth century supported by our 'Blanks' 
and ' Blanches ;' ' while the descendants of such people 
as 'Amabilla le Blund,' or ' Walter le Blunt,' or ' Regi- 
nald le Blond,' or ' Richard le Blount ' still preserve a 
memorial of their ancestry in such familiar forms as 
'Blund,' 'Blunt,' 'Blond,' and 'Blount' 'Blanket' 
and ' Blanchet,' as fuller forms, we shall notice shortly, 
and ' Blondin,' ' Blundell,' and the immortalised but 
mythic 'Blonder are but changes rung upon the 
others. Our ' Fallows ' are but relics of the ' Fales ' 
and ' Falemans ' of the Hundred Rolls. The some- 
what pallid yellow they represented we still apply to 
park deer and untilled earth. We find it, however, 
used more personally in the ' Knight's Tale,' where it 
is said of Arcite that he began to wax lean — 

1 1 is eye hollow, and grisly to behold, 
His hewe falew, and pale as ashen cold. 

* Scarlet ' doubtless was a sobriquet given, as may 
have been some of the above, from the colour of the 
dress, this being a very popular complexion of cloth 
in early days. Tripping it — 

In skerlet kyrtells, every one, 

would be a familiar and pretty sight, no doubt, as the 
village maidens went round to the tune of the fife and 

• • Blanchfront ' seems to have been common, as I find it in three 
distinct registers. * Joan Blaunkfrount, ' a nun of Molseby. {.Letters from 
Northern RegisUrs, p. 319.) ' Philip Blanchfront' (F. F. ), 'Amabil Blanch- 
front* (Fines, Ric. i.) 


tabor at the rural feast or ingathering, nor would 
umbrage be taken at the title. Several ' Blues ' are 
recorded in the more Norman-French form of ' le 
Bleu.' Whether they still exist I am not quite sure, 
nor are we helped to any satisfactory conclusion by 
the epitaph which Mr. Lower wisely italicises, when he 
says it is said to exist in a church in Berkshire — 

Underneath this ancient pew 
Lieth the body of Jonathan Blue. 
N.B. — His name was 'Black,' but that wouldn't do. 

There may be more or less doubt as to the pre- 
cise reference some of the above-mentioned names 
bear to the physical peculiarities of their owners, 
whether to the complexion of the face, or the hair, 
or, as I have lately hinted, to the dress. But in 
many other cases there can be no such controversy. 
For instance, no one can be in perplexity as to how 
our 'Downyheads,' 'Ruf heads,'* 'Hardheads,' 'White- 
heads,' ' Redheads,' ' Flaxenheads,' * ' Shavenheads,' 
' Goldenheads,' 'Weaselheads,'^ 'Coxheads' or 'Cocks- 
heads,' and ' Greenheads ' arose, many of which, now 
extinct, were evidently intended to be obnoxious. 
Nor is there any greater difficulty in deciphering 
the meaning of such names as ' Whitelock ' or ' Whit- 
lock,' 'Silverlock' or ' Blacklock.' ' Shakelock' seems 
to refer to some eccentricity on the part of the owner, 
unless it be but a corruption of ' Shacklock,' a likely 

' It was in the house of a Josias Roughead, of Bedford, that John 
Banyan was first licensed to preach in 1672. 

* ' Richard Flaxennehed ' occurs in the Hundred Rolls. 

• ' Antony Wiselheade ' is registered in Elizabeth's reign in the 
Calendar to Pleadings. 


sobriquet for a gaoler, from the fetterlocks, once so 
termed, which he was wont to employ — 

And bids his man bring out the fivefold twist, 

His shackles, shacklocks, hampers, gyves, and chains. 

' Whitehair,' ' ' Fairhair,'* and ' Yalowhair,' are equally- 
transparent. The latter was once a decidedly favourite 
hue, as I believe it is still, only we now say * golden.'^ 
With the gross flattery so commonly resorted to by 
courtier historians, every princess was described as 
having yellow tresses. How they allowed themselves 
to be so cajoled is an equally historic mystery. Queen 
Elizabeth had more obsequious adulation uttered to 
her face, and possessed a greater stomach for it, than 
any other royal personage who ever sat upon or laid 
claim to a crown, but nothing pleased her more than 
a compliment upon her golden locks, carroty as they 
really were. In a description of another Elizabeth, 
the Queen of Henry VH., as she appeared before her 
coronation, 1487, quoted by Mr. Way, it is said that 
she wore * her faire yellow hair hanging down pleyne 
behynd her back, with a calle of pipes over it,' and 
further back still, when Chaucer would describe the 
beauty of Dame Gladness, he must needs finish off 

' 'William Whitehcare ' was Dean of Bristol, 1551. (Barrett, 
Hist. Bristol. ) 

* ' 1522, 31 Dec. To Mr. William Farehaire, Doctor of Laws.' 
(Letters of Fraternity (Durham Priory), p. 119. Surt. Hoc.) 

Names like 'William Harebrown,' 'Ralph Lightred,' and 'John 
Litcwhyte' seem to belong to the same category with the above. 

' Burton, in his Anatomy of Melancholy, says, ' Apollonius will 
have Jason's golden hair to be the main cause of Medea's dotage on 
him. Castor and Pollux were both yellow-haired. Homer so com- 
mends Helen, makes Patroclus and Achilles both yellow-haired \ 
Pulchricoma Venus, and Cupid himself was yellow-haired.' 


the portrayal by touching up her locks with the 
popular hue — 

Her hair was yellow, and clear shining, 
I wot no lady so liking. 

' Yalowhair ' is obsolete, but in our ' Fairfax ' is pre- 
served a sobriquet commemorative no doubt of the 
same favoured colour. In ' Sir Gawayne ' we are told, 
after the alliterative style of the day, how ^ fair fanning 
fax ' encircled the shoulders of the doughty warrior. 
In the * Townley Mysteries,' too, a demon is repre- 
sented in one place as saying — 

A home, and a Dutch axe. 

His sleeve must be flecked, 
A syde head, and a fare fax. 

His goune must be specked. 

* Beard,' once entered as ' Peter Wi'-the-berd,' or 

* Hugo cum-Barba,' still thrives in our midst; and 
even ' Copperbeard,' ' Greybeard,' ' Blackbeard,' ^ and 

* Whitebeard ' contrive to exist. * Redbeard ' * to- 
gether with 'Featherbeard,' ' Eaglebeard,' 'Wisebeard,' 
and ' Brownbeard,' ^ have long disappeared, and ' Blue- 
beard,* of whose dread existence we were, as children, 
only too awfully assured, has also left no descendants ; 
but this, I fancy, we gather from his history. ' Love- 
lock ' is a relic of the once familiar plaited and 

' This sobriquet, as old as the Hundred Rolls, is found in tlie 
xviith cent., at Durham. ' Peter Blackbeard ' was 'brought up for not 
paying Easter reckonings, 1676.' (Dean GranvilW s Letters, p. 235.) 

* A contributor to N'otes and Queries, Jan. 14, i860, quotes an 
old Ipswich record in which is mentioned an ' Alexander Redberd ' 
dwelling there in the early part of the sixteenth century. 

^ 'John Brounberd, son of William, a hostage from Galloway.' 

(Letters from Northern Registers, p. 163.) 
'Janet Brounebeard ' was an inmate of St. Thomas's Hospital, York, 
February 6, 1553. (VV. il, p. 304.) 

G G 


beribboned lock which I have already alluded to, as 
having been familiarly worn by our forefathers of 
the more exquisite type. To the same peculiar, if 
not effeminate propensity," we owe, I doubt not, 
' Locke * (' Nicol Locke,' A.) itself, not to mention 
' Curl ' (' Marcus Curie,' Z.) and * Crisp ' (' Reginald le 
Crispe,' J.). The former of these two, however, seems 
to denote the natural waviness, the latter the arti- 
ficial production. In the poem from which I have 
but just quoted we find the same hero described as 
having his hair — 

Well crisped and cemmed (combed) with knots full many, 

and a memorial of the fashion still lingers in the 
' crisping pins ' of our present Bible version. In the 
Hundred Rolls appears the sobriquet of ' Prikeavant.' 
This, as Mr. Lower proves, lingered on till the close 
at least of the seventeenth century, in the form of 
' Prick-advance.' ' I cannot agree with him, however, 
that it arose as a mere spur-expression. I doubt not 
it is but the earlier form of the later ' pickedevaunt,' 
the pointed or spiked beard so much in vogue in 
mediaeval times. The word occurs in the ' Taming 
of a Shrew ' — 

Boy, oh ! disgrace to my person ! Souncs, boy, 
Of your face ! Vou have many boys witli such 
I'ickedevaunts, I am sure. 

Nothing could be more natural than for such a custom 
as this to find itself memoriah'scd in our nomenclature. 

' I find this name still exists as ' Pickavant.' It maybe seen over a 
boot and shoe warehouse by the Railway Station at Southport, Lancashire. 
Probably ' Pickance ' is an abbreviated form. ' Charles, son of Daniel 
and Eliza Pickance, bapt. March 26, 1754.' (St. Ann's, Manchester.) 


Exaggeration in the habit would easily affix the name 
upon the wearer, and though not very euphonious as 
a surname, the popularity of the usage would take 
from its unpleasantness. This also will explain 
' Thomas Stykebeard,' found in the H. R. at this 
time. But let us turn for a moment to an opposite 
peculiarity. Though we often talk of getting our 
heads polled, few, I imagine, reflect that our ' Pollards' 
must have obtained their title from their well-shorn 
appearance. It is with them, therefore, we must set 
our ' Notts,' ' Notmans,' and doubtless some of our 
' Knotts.' The term ' nott ' was evidently synony- 
mous with ' shorn,' and to have a nothead was to 
have the hair closely cut all round the head. It 
is still commonly done in some parts of the country 
among the peasantry. Chaucer, describing the ' Yeo- 
man,' says — 

A not-hcd hadde he, with a browne visage. 

Andrew Boorde, too, later on, writing of the ' Mores 
whyche do dwel in Barbary,' says : ' They have gret 
lyppes and nottyd heare, black and curled.' ^ The 
name as a sobriquet is very common in the old 
registers. Among other instances may be mentioned 
' Henry le Not ' and * Herbert le Notte ' in the. 
' Placitorum ' at Westminster. Nature, however, did 
for our ' Callows ' what art had done for the latter. 
The term is written ' calewe ' with our earlier writers, 
and in this form is found as a surname in 13 13, one 
'Richard le Calewe,' or bald-headed, occurring in the 

' Many of my readers will be familiar with the sobriquet 'nott- 
pated,' which Shakespeare puts in Prince Henry's mouth several 

GG 2 


Parliamentary Writs for that year. We still talk of 
fledgelings as ' callow young.' From its Latin root 
* calvus,' ' and through the French ' chauve,* we get 
also the early ' John le Chauf,' ' Geoffrey le Cauf,' 
and * Richard Ic Chaufyn ' — forms which still abide 
with us in our ' Corfcs' and ' Gaffins.' Our * Balls' are 
manifestly sprung from some ' Gustancc Baldc ' or 
' Richard Bald.' But there is yet one more name to 
be mentioned in this category, that of 'Peel' or 
' Pcile,' descended, as it doubtless is in many cases, 
from such folk as ' Thomas Ic Pele ' Or ' William Ic 

As pilled as an ape was his crown 

is the not very complimentary description Ghauccr 
gives of the Miller of Trumpington. It is but the 
same word as occurs in our Authorised Version of 
Ezekiel xxix. 1 8, where it is said : ' Every head was 
made bald, and every shoulder was peeled.' In 
Isaiah xviii. 2, too, we read of a ' nation scattered 
and peeled,' the marginal reading being 'outspread 
and polished.' "^ Used as a surname, it seems to have 
denoted that glossy smoothness, that utter guiltless- 

' ' Calvus protests for foes he doth not care ; 

For why ? They cannot take from him one hair.'' 

[Satyriail Ef>i}irants, 1 6 1 9. ) 
' The Allten<tHtn thinks the more manifest origin is the local 
'peel,' a small fortress used by Chaucer in the House of P'amc — 

'God save the lady of this/f/<'.' 

I was not ignorant of the word, but as I could not find any examples 
in the old roll;^, I gave the preference to the nickname. I have since 
met with an entry which justifies the AtheninivCs remark : ' 1605, 
Nov. 14, Rodger of ye Peele.' Also, ' 1621, July 10, Robarte Rodley, 
of ye Peele in Chetham.' {^Memorials of Manchester Streets, p. 282.) 


ness of capillary protection which belongs only to 
elderly gentlemen, and even then to but a few.^ 

It can be no matter of astonishment to us, when 
we reflect upon it, that our nomenclature should owe 
so much to this one single specialty of the human 
physique. The face is the mark of all recognition 
among men, and how much of its character belongs 
to the simple appanage we have been speaking of 
we may easily gather from the difference the slightest 
change in the style of dressing or cutting it makes 
among those with whom we are most familiar. Look- 
ing back at what has been recorded, what a living 
proof they afford us of the truth of Horace Smith's 
assertion that surnames ' ever go by contraries.' The 
art of colouring may be hereditary, but certainly not 
the dyes themselves. Who ever saw a ' Whytehead ' 
who was not dark, or a ' Blacklock ' who was not a 
blonde .-' Who ever saw reddish hair on a ' Russell,' 
or a swarthy complexion on a ' Morell ' .'' How 
invariably does it happen that our * Lightfoots ' are 
gouty, and our ' Hales ' dyspeptic, our ' Bigges ' are 
manikins, and our * Littles ' giants. Such are the 
tricks that Time plays with us. Recorded history 
gives us the slow development of change in the habits 
and customs of domestic life, but here we can com- 
pare the physical shifts of the family itself As 
history and everything else, however, are said to 
repeat themselves, we may comfort or condole with, 

' 'John Lytlehare ' occurs in a Norfolk register. Query, is it 
meant for ' Littlehair ' ? Probably it is. (Bromefield's N^orfolk.') 
' Simon Lyt^liare' (lyte = little) is found in the Pari. Writs. 'Richard 
le Ilerprute' occurs in the II. R. The modern form would be ' Hair- 


as the case may require, those who, if this dictum, 
like the Pope's, be infallible, shall some time or other 
return to their primitive hues and original proportions. 

(3) Nicknames from Pcadiaritics of Dress and 

An interesting peep into the minuter details of 
mediaeval life is given us in the case of names derived 
from costume and ensigncy, whether peaceful or war- 
like. The colour of the cloth of which the dress was 
composed seems to have furnished us with several 
surnames. For instance, our * Burnets ' would seem 
to be associated with the fabric of a brown mixture 
common at one period. Our great early poet, in 
describing Avarice, says — 

A mantle hung her faste by 
Upon a benche weak and small, 
A burnette cote hung there withail, 
Furred with no minevere, 
But with a furre rough of hair. 

It was the same with our 'Burrels' (' Roger liurell,' J., 
' Robert Burcll,' R.), whom I have already had occa- 
sion to mention. So familiar was this cloth that the 
poorer classes acquired from it the sobriquet of ' borel- 
folk.' This is only analogous to the French 'griscttc,' 
from the grey cheap stuff she usually wore. Our 
* Blankets' ('Robert Blanket,' B., 'John Blanket,' X.) 
or ' Blanchets ' or ' Plunkets,' ' for all these forms are 

' ' Plunket' was in early use as a perversion of ' blanket.' Thus 
a statute of Richard 111. relating to this stuff calls it 'plonket.' The 


found, are in the same way but relics of the time when 
the colourless woollen mixture, called by all these 
names, was in everyday demand, whether for dress or 
coverlet. A story has been spread abroad that our 
woollen ' blanket ' owes its origin to a man of that 
name, who first manufactured it. Even otherwise 
well-informed writers have lent themselves to the 
furtherance of this fable. ' Blanket ' was originally 
the name of a cheap woollen cloth, used for the 
apparel of the lower orders, and so entitled from its 
pale and colourless hue, just as russet and burr el were 
in vogue to express similar manufactures of more 
decided colours. It was but the Norman form of the 
Saxon 'whittle,' once the household word for this 
fabric. Thus we find it occurring in an old Act, 
already referred to, passed in 1363, to restrict the 
dress of the peasantry : — All people not possessing 40 
shillings' worth of goods and chattels ' ne usent nule 
manere de drap, si noun blanket et russet, laune de 
xii^.,' that is, shall not take nor wear any manner of 
cloth, but blanket and russet wool of twelvepence. 
{Stat. Realm, vol. i. p. 381.) An old indenture of 
goods contains the following : — ' Item, i olde Kendale 
gowne, and a hood of the same, pris ix^., the gowne 
lynyd with white blanket.* {Mini. Acad. Oxou, 
p. 566.) Both ' Whittle ' and ' Blanket ' are existing 
surnames. The reader will see from these references 
alone that, whether in the case of the man or the 
manufacture, it is the colour, or rather lack of colour, 
which has given the sobriquet. Our ' Qreenmans,' 

form in the Prompt. Pa)"', is ' pluiiket ;' and Mr. Way, commenting 
upon it, quotes a line from the Atuntyrs of Arthure — 

' Ilir belte was of plonkete, with birdis fulle bauldc.' 


whether as surname or tavern sign, are but sprung 
from the old forester — 

Clad in cote and bode of grene, 

of Lincoln or Kendal make. The * Greenman ' was 
a favourite rural signboard, and I doubt not the 
reader will have seen it occasionally swinging still in 
the more retired parts of the country. Crabbe knew 
it well in his day — 

But the ' Green Man ' shall I pass by unsung, 
Which mine own James upon his signpost hung ? 
His sign, his image —for he once was seen 
A squire's attendant, clad in keeper's green. 

Turning from the colour of the cloth to the gar- 
ments into which it was fashioned, nothing could be 
more natural to our forefathers than to take off with 
a sobriquet the more whimsical aspects of dress in- 
dulged in by particular individuals. Royalty itself 
did not escape. It was through his introduction of 
a new fashion our second Henry got his nickname of 
' Curtmantcl,' and this was matched by ' Capet ' and 
' Grisegonel ' across the water. ' Richard Curtepy ' 
reminds us of the poor clerk of whom Chaucer says — 

Full thrcdbare was his ovcrest courtepy, 

that is, his cloak or gabardine. ' Henry Curtmantle,' 
just mentioned, ' Martin Curtwallet,' and ' Robert 
Curthose' (still existing in Derbyshire in the more 
Saxon form of ' Shorthose '),' satirise the introduction 

' This was a nickname of Sir Thomas Woodcock, Lord Mayor of 
London, 1405— 

' Hie jacet, Tom Shorthose, 
Sine tomb, sine sheets, sine riches.' 

In tlie neighbourhood of Belper this surname may be commonly met 
with. Some change of fashion at this date, encouraged by the mayor- 


of a curtailment in the general as ' Reginald Curt- 
brant ' does in the more military habit ; ' Richard 
Widehose ' and the Scotch ' Macklehose,' on the other 
hand, suggesting a change of an opposite and more 
sailorlike character, ' Hose,' itself a surname, is again 
found in composition in ' Richard Goldhose,' ' Nicholas 
Strokehose,' 'John Scrothose (' Scratchhose,'), and 
' Richard Letherhose ; ' the latter still to be met with 
in Germany as ' Ledderhose.' ' Emma Wastehose,' 
though now obsolete, evidently bespoke the reckless 
habits- of the wearer, while 'John Sprenhose ' {i.e., 
' Spurnhose ') seems to have declared its owner's want 
of appreciation of that article altogether. The old 
' paletoque ' or doublet, a loose kind of frock often 
worn by priests, left itself a memorial in 'Thomas 
Pyletok,' which is now extinct, but ' Pylch ' (' Symon 
Pylche,' A.), the maker of which has already been 
mentioned, remains hale and hearty in our midst. 
'Mantel ' (' Walter Mantel,' L.) and ' Fremantel ' ' are 
well established among us, the latter probably owing 
its origin to the frieze-cloth which the Frieslander of 
the Low Countries once manufactured out of our own 
wool. It is Latinized in our records into ' Hugh 
de Frigido-Mantello,' and the cloth itself as ' Frisius 
pannus.'^ The herald's tunic, barely covering the 

alty, would readily give rise to the sobriquet in the metropolis. Some 
country squire or bumpkin carried the new style into Derbyshire, and 
the Belper people still relate the fact of the grotesque appearance he 
then made in their eyes by the nom-de-plume that as a necessary conse- 
quence arose. ' Sic est vita nom'uiiim.^ 

' * Agnes Blakmantyll' (W. 1 1) occurs in an old York register, 1455, 
but must have become obsolete with the bearer, I should imagine. 

* 'John Caury-Maury ' (V. 8) belongs to this class. It was a 
nickname given to him on account of the exceedingly coarse cloth in 


chest and open from the shoulder downwards, gave 
us our ' Tabards.' It must have had plenty of last 
in it, for Piers Plowman talks of — 

A tawny tabard of twelf wynters age. 

The variegated dress, much in favour then apparently, 
still survives in our * Medlecote ' and * Medlicott.' ' 
The stuffed doublet gave us ' Thomas Gambeson,' 
now perhaps ' Gamson,' while the short petticoat is 
memorialised in ' John Grenecurtel.' ' Alicia Caperon ' 
and ' Thomas Chaperoun ' are early found. The 
cJiaperoii was a hood by which the entire face could 
be concealed if it were so desired. Taylor, in the 
seventeenth century, mentions it as but recently out of 
fashion — 

Her shapperoones, her periwigs and tires, 
Are reliques which this flattery much admires. 

It is thus, by a somewhat strange but easy association 
of ideas, has come our modern protector in society so 

Excess of apparel has often in olden days been 
under penal statute. Chaucer, in his time, decried 
its abuse, and an old rhyme of Edward III. date is 
still preserved, which is scathing enough — 

Longbeards, heartlesse, 

Painted hoods, witlesse, 

Gaycoates, gracelesse, 

Makes England thriftlcsse. 

which he was attire<l. In Skelton's Elynoiir Rutiniiytig^ some slatterns 
are thus described — 

' Some loke strawry, 
Some cawry mawry.' 
'Item, presentatum est quod 'Johannes Caurymaury,' 'Johannes le 
Fleming,' 'Hugo Hunting,' 'Isaac de Stanford,' et Lucas de eadem 
consueti fuemnt currere cum canibus suis sine warento,' etc. {CJirotiicon 
Pctrobnrgcnsc. Cam. Soc, ]i. 1 38.) 
' This may be local. 


We are reminded in this of * Gai-cote ' (' William 
Gaicote,' A.), which once was a surname, though now 
extinct. 'Woolward' or'Woolard' (' Geoffey Wole- 
ward,' A., ' Reginald Wolleward/ N.) still thrives. 
To go 'woolward' was to undergo the penance of 
wearing the outer woollen cloth without any linen 
under-dress. It was often prescribed by the priest- 
hood. Piers, in his Vision, says — " 

Wolleward and weetshoed 
Wente I forth ; 

while another old poem bids us — 

Faste, and go ivokcard, and wake, 
And suffre hard for Godys sake.' 

The name was not an unfrequent one at the 
time of which I am writing, and I doubt not was 
oftentimes familiarly applied to friars. We must 
probably refer to more warlike accoutrements for the 
origin of our ' Gantletts ' or * Gauntletts ' (' Henry 
Gauntelett,' Z., ' Roger Gauntlet,' Z.), our ' Pallets ' 
and ' Vizards.' The latter was that part of the hel- 
met which was perforated for the wearer to see 
through, 'pallet' being the general term for the 
helmet itself ' Ranulf Strong-bowe ' was a likely 
sobriquet for a brawny-armed bowman to acquire, 
and, like * Isabella P^ortiscue ' (brave shield) and 
' Emelina Longespce,' belongs to more general his- 
tory. 'Sword,' 'Buckler,' ' Lance,' ^ 'Spear,' 'Pike,' 
' Bill,' the renowned ' Brownbill,' and others too many 

' We all remember in Love's Labour'' s Lost^ how Armado, being 
pressed to fight, refuses to undress, and says: 'The naked truth of it 
is, I have no shirt ; I go wool\\ard for penance.' 

^ One feels much tempted to add ' Roylance ' to this list. It cer- 
tainly has a most kingly aspect. Still there can be little doubt that it 
is but a corruption of ' Rylands.' 


for enumeration, have similarly found a place in our 
nomenclature. What a revolution in the mode of 
warfare do they betoken. What a sweeping change 
has the invention of gunpowder effected on the battle- 
grounds of Europe. 

But I mentioned ' badges.' It is amusing to see 
how the early love of distinctive ensigns has made its 
mark here. While it is an English instinct to reve- 
rence authority, this authority itself has ever been 
distinguished by the outward manifestation of dress 
and emblem. The ceremonious requirements of the 
feudal state have had their effect. As I endeavoured 
to show in a previous chapter, these were simply over- 
whelming. The ofifice of each was not more distinct 
than his outward accompaniments, and it was by the 
latter his precise position was known. The ' baton,' 
however, seems to have held the foremost place as a 
token of authority — a sword, a javelin, a spear, a 
wand, a rod, it mattered not what, a something borne 
in the hand, and you might have known in that day 
an ofificial. Nor are we as yet free from its influence. 
Royalty still has its sceptre, the Household of State 
its 'black rod,' magistracy has its mace, proctorship 
its poker, the churchwarden his stafif, the beadle — far 
the most important of all to the charity children and 
himself — his stick. From official, this rage for badges 
.seems to have passed on to the quieter and more 
ordinary avocations. The shepherd was not better 
known by his crook, the huntsman not better known 
by his horn, than the pilgrim by his ' bourdon,' the 
woodward by his ' bill,' or the surveyor by his ' mete- 
yard ' ' or ' metewand.' How easy then for all these 

' I need not stay to point out the early familiar use of ' yard ' as a 

' NICKNAMES.' 46 1 

words to be turne"d into sobriquets. How natural 
they should become slang epithets for those who 
carried them. How natural that we should find them 
all in our directories. ' Meatyard,' ' Burdon ' or 
' Bourdon,' ' Crook,' 'Wand,' 'Staff,' ' Rodd,' ' Home,' > 
all are there. Nor did the personal characteristics of 
such bearers escape the good-humoured raillery of our 
ancestors. Far from it. ' Waghorn,' ^ would easily 
fix itself upon some awkward horn-blower ; ' Wag- 
spear '(' Mabill Wagspere,' W. i.), or 'Shakespeare' 
('William Shakespeare,' V. i.), or ' Shakeshaft ' ^ or 
' Drawsword ' (' Henry Drawswerde,' A.), or ' Draw- 
espe' ('Thomas Drawespe,' A.') upon some over- 
demonstrative sergeant or clearer of the way ; or 
' Wagstaffe ' (' Robert Waggestaff,' A.) on some ob- 
noxious beadle.'* ' Tipstafife ' we know for certain as 
a name of this class — he was a bumbailifif. In 1392 
one Roger Andrew was publicly indicted for pretend- 
stick orstaff of any length. In Wicklyffe's New Testament we find the 
following : — ' And he seide to hem nothing take ye in the weye — 
neither yerde, ne scrippe, neither breed, ne money.' (Luke ix. 3.) Our 
Authorized Version still preserves the meteyard from obsoletism : * Ye 
shall do no unrighteousness in judgment, in meteyard, in weight, or in 
measure.' (Lev. xix. 35.) 

' The horn Avas carried by the watchman as well as the huntsman 
and the cryer. ' Henry Watchorn ' was mayor of Leicester in 1 780, 
and the name occurs in the Nottingham Directory for 1864. Other 
compounds besides 'Waghorn' are ' Crookhom,' 'Cramphorn' (i.e., 
ciooked horn), 'Langhorn' and ' Whitehorn.' 

- It was a Captain Waghorn who was tried by court-martial for 
the wreck of the Royal George, which went down off Portsmouth in 1782. 
lie was acquitted, however. 

' ' Anne, daughter of Hugh and Elizabeth Shakeshaft, baptized 
Dec. 6, 1744.' (St. Ann's, Register, Manchester.) 

* ' Robert Go-before ' in the Rolls of Pari, is an evident sobriquet 
affixed upon some official of this class. 


ing to be an officer of the Marshalsea, which he did 
by bearing a ' wooden staff with horn at either end, 
called a " tippestaffe." ' It does not seem, however, 
to have been confined only to him. Chaucer says of 
the frere, that — 

With scrippe, and tipped staf, tucked high 
In every house he gan to pore and pry ; 

and but two lines further on he tells us — 

His felaw had a staff tipped with horn, 

which thus explicitly explains the term. The same 
humour found vent in 'John Swyrdebrake,' ^ 'Adrian 
Breakspear,' 'William Longstaffe,' 'Antony Halstaff' 
(perchance ' Hale-staff '),2 and 'Thomas Ploghstaf 
(Plowstaff). With one or two more general terms of 
this class wc may proceed. ' Robert Hurlebat'^ and 
' Matthew Winspcar,* ' Richard Spurdaunce ' and 
' Robert Bruselancc,' ' Simon Lovelaunce' and 'Thomas 
Crakyshield,' * ' Roger Benbow,' ' Cicely Brownsword,' 
and 'Thomas Shotbolte,' are evidently nicknames 
fastened upon certain individuals for special prowess 
in some of the sports of the Middle Ages, probably 
at some church-ale or wakes. 

' 'John Sw/rdebrake,' ahas 'John Taillour.' 

[^Materials for IlUt. I/citiy \ll., p. 441.) 

* In a list of bankrupts, dated the thirteenth year of Elizabeth, and 
quoted in Notes and Queries, Jan. i860, occurs an ' Anthony Ilalstaffe,' 
doubtless originally ' IlalestafFe,' from 'hale,' to drag, and thus a 
likely sobriquet for a catchpoll or bailiff. 

* In the biographical notice appended to Archbishop Sandys' Sermons, 
published by the Parker Society, we find that one of his friends was 
called ' Ilurlestone.' This will be of similar origin with ' Hurlebat.' 

(pp. 13, 14) 

* ' Thomas Crakyshield ' was Rector of North Creak in Norfolk in 
the year 1412. {Hist. Norfolk, vii. 77. ) 

* NICKNAMES.' 463 

II. — Mental and Moral Peculiarities. 

(i) Nicknames from Peculiarities of Disposition — 

Let us now turn to the varied characteristics of 
the human heart. If we wish to know how many- 
good and excellent qualities there are in the world, 
and at the same time deceive ourselves into a belief 
that the evils are few, we must look into our direc- 
tories. Scan their contents, and we might almost per- 
suade ourselves that Utopia was a fact, and that we 
were consulting its muster-roll. At every turn we meet 
with virtue in the guise of a 'Goode,' or an ' Upright,' 
or a ' Righteous,' ' or a ' Patient,' or a ' Best,' or a ' Faith- 
ful;' or infallibility in a ' Perfect' or 'Faultless.' We 
are ever coming across philosophy in the shape of a 
' Wise ' or a * Sage,' Conscience must surely trouble 
but little, where ' Merry ' and * Gay,' ' Blythe ' and 
'Joyce,' that is, joyous, are all but interminable; and 
companionship must be ever sweet with such people 
to converse with as 'Makepeace'^ and 'Friend,' 

' ' William Ryghtwys ' was Vicar of Fouklon in 1497. (Brome- 
field's Norfolk.) ' Upright' appeared in a trial at Exeter in October 1874. 

^ 'Make' was a familiar compound. 'Joan Make-peace' was 
sister to Henry III., and so named by the Scotch through her betrowal 
to their monarch, by which peace was brought about. Bishop Hall 
uses the opposite for a quarrelsome fellow — 

' If brabbling Makefray, at each faire and 'size, 
Picks quarrels for to show his valiantise. ' 

'Julian Make-blisse' and ' John Make-bly the' occur in two separate rolls, 
and Mr. Lower mentions a ' Maud Make-joy ' in an old Wardrobe 
Account: ' 1297, Dec. 26. To Maud Make-joy for dancing before 


* Goodhart ' and * Truman,' * True ' and ' Leal,' ' Kind 
and * Curtis ' or ' Curteis.' ' Fulhardy ' and ' Giddy- 
head,' ' Cruel ' and ' Fierce,' ' Wilfulle ' and ' Sullen,' 
and ' Envious ' did indeed find a habitation in its 
pages, but they have long since disappeared, being 
quite out of place in the presence of such better folk 
as ' Hardy' ' and ' Grave,' and ' Gentle' and ' Sweet ;' 
or if the cloven foot of pride be still visible in ' Proud ' 
and 'Proudfoot,' it is nevertheless under constant re- 
buke by our familiarity with such lowly characters as 
' Plumble ' and ' Meek.' ^ Nevertheless, this was any- 
thing but so in the old time. The evil roots of sin 
may still abide hale and strong and ineradicable in the 
heart of man, but he has carefully weeded the more 
apparent traces of this out of his nomenclature, I do 
not mean to say we are utterly without names of ob- 
jectionable import, but we shall see that what I have 
stated once before is true in the main. We shall see 
that as a rule it is only when the sobriquet word has 
changed its meaning, or that meaning become obscure 
and doubtful, or when the name itself has lost ths 
traces of its origin — easy enough in the lapse of so 
many days of unsettled orthography — that the sur- 

Edward Prince of Wales, at Ipswich, 2j.' Here the sobriquet is adopted 
in compliment to the profession. 

• Our ' Ilardmans' are but a corruption of ' Ilardyman.' John 
Ilardyman, D.D., was installed prebend of Chester in June, 1563. 
(Ormerod's CItczhire, vol. i. p. 223.) 

* 'Reginald Littleprowe' was Mayor of Norwich in 1532, and 
'John Littleproud' was buried at ' Attleburgh ' in 1619. [I fist. 
Nor/., iii. 219, and i. 535.) This sobriquet, I doubt not, was in 
sarcastic allusion to the haughty demeanour of its first possessor. As 
in so many cases, however, there seems to have been no objection to its 
acceptance on the part of his posterity. 


name has lingered on. This will make itself apparent 
as we advance. 

Such names as' Walter Snel,' 'Richard Quicke' (A.), 
including the immortal Quickly, ' Richard le Smert ' 
(M.),now 'Smart,' 'Thomas Scharp,' now 'Sharp,'' 'Gil- 
bert Poygnant' ( A.), 'Thedric le Witte' (A.), now ' Witt' 
and * Witty," Nicholas le Cute' (A.), and 'Ralph le 
Delivre ' ^ (M.M.), argue well for the keen perceptions 
and brisk habits of early days.^ The slang sense of 
several of these, strangely enough, is but the original 
meaning restored. 'Witty' arose when the word implied 
keenness of intellect rather than of humour. Chaucer 
thus speaks of ' witty clerkes,' using the latter word 
too in a perfectly unofficial sense. Our numberless 
' Clarkes ' and ' Clerkes,' sprung from equally number- 
less ' Beatrix le Clercs ' or ' Milo le Clerks,' may there- 
fore belong either to the professional class or to the 
one we are considering. * William le Frek ' (M.) or 
' Ralph Frike ' (A.), now found as ' Freak,' ' Frick,' and 
' Frekc,' was a complimentary sobriquet implicative of 

' 'Oswin Sharparrovv'(W.3), 'John Sharparrow' (W. 2), 'William 
Sharparrow ' (W. 1 1). The original nominee was probably of a sarcastic 
turn. The following inscription was once to be seen in York Minster: 
' Orate pro anima dom. Johannis Sharparrowe, quondam parsone in 
Eccles. Cath. Ebor., qui obiit xxv. die Oct. an. 141 1.' (Drake's Ebora- 
cum, p. 498.) 

'■' 'Deliver' as an adjective meant 'nimble,' 'lithe.' It was 
familiarly used. Chaucer has 'deliverly,' ' deliverness,' and 'deliver.' 
Of the young squier he says — 

' Of his stature he was of even lengthe, 
And wonderly deliver, and great of strengthe.' 

' Ralph le Delivre ' is found in the Rot. Curiae Regis. 

* The names of ' Thomas le Busteler' (F.F.) and 'Robert le Bustler' 
(T.) are less complimentary than most of the above. 'Nicholas le 
Medler' (A.) would be quite as objectionable. 

H H 


bravery and daring even to rashness.' Minot in his 
political songs tells us in alliterative verse how the 
doughty men of Edward the Third's army were — 

Fill frelv- to figlit. 

The old 'William le Orpede,' or ' Stephen le Horpede,' 
or ' Peter Orpedeman ' denotes a disposition equally 
stout-hearted.* It is a term found in well-nigh all our 
mediaeval writers, and was evidently in common and 
familiar use. Trevisa, in his account of the Norman 
invasion, represents ' Gurth ' as saying to Harold, 
' Why wilt thou unwary fight with so many orped 
men .-*' The monk of Glastonbury also, speaking of 
Edward the Third's expedition to Calais in 1350, re- 
lates that he * towke with him the nobleis, and the 
gentelles, and other worthi and orpedde menne of 
armes.' Our ' Keats ' and ' Ketts ' are the old ' Walter 
le Ket ' (G.) or ' Osbert le Kct ' (J.), that is, the fierce, 
the bold. Thus the cowherd in ' William of Pelerne ' 
directs the child how to conduct himself — 

When thou komest to kourt 
Among the ketc lonles. 

With these therefore we may associate ' William le 
Prew,' now ' Prew,' ^ ' Nicholas Vigerous,' now found 
also as 'Vigors,' 'Helen Gallant,' 'John le Stallworth,'^ 

' ' Ciaskc, fryke of fatte,' ?>., lusty, fresh. (Pr. Par.) 
^ ' Richard Curtevalur' (A.) would seem to have had an instinctive 
acquaintance with the moral of that couplet which asserts that 
' lie who fights and runs away 
.Shall live to fight another day.' 
There are a good many people, I fancy, who thus ' take thought for the 

* Fr. Preux = valiant. 

* • Simon Stallworthe ' is mentioned in the Grants of Edward the 
Fifth. (Cam. Soc.) The modem form of the term colloquially used is 

* NICKNAMES.' 467 

* Thomas Doughtye,' and * Robert le Bolde,' all 
still well-known names. ' Prest,' * Peter le Prest ' 
(M.), when not the archaic form of ' Priest,' is 
of kin to the mountebank's ' presto,' and means — 
quick, ready. It was thus used till the seventeenth 
century. ' Kean,' found as ' Hugh le Kene ' or ' Joan 
le Kene,' implies impetuosity. All these names speak 
well for the pluck of our forefathers. They are found 
with tolerable frequency, and naturally have not been 
suffered to die out for lack of pride. The Norman 
element, as we see, is strong in these chivalrous sobri- 
quets. Nor is it less so with many other terms of 
no unpleasant meaning. Our ' Purefoys ' or * Purfeys ' 
represent the pure faith of their countrymen.' Our 
' Parfitts ' are but the quainter form of * Perfect.'^ Our 
'Bones,' 'Boons,' and'Bunns' are but variously cor- 
rupted forms of Duran le Bon,' or ' Richard le Bone,' 
or 'Alice le Bonne,' or ' William le Boon,' equivalent 
therefore to the earlier ' Goods.' ' Bunker ' is similarly 
but 'Bon-coeur' ('William Bonquer,' O.),^ our Saxon 

* Goodhart ,' and ' Bonner,' and the longer ' Debonaire' 
(' Philip le Debeneyrc,' A.),"* our more naturalized 

• 'Arthur Purefoy' or Turefayc' was Rector of Redcnhall in 
1584. (I/ist. No>-/., V. 363.) 

^ Thus Archbishop Sandys commences a sermon at Paul's Cross: — 
'The Apostle .St. Peter, like a i)errit workman and a skilful builder, 
first layeth a sure foundation.' (Parker Soc, p. 386.) 

' ' Thomas Bontemps ' appears in a Norfolk register of the fourteenth 
century, {//is/. A'orfolk, Index.) It seems somewhat analogous to 
the now familiar ' Bonheur.' 

* The son and successor of Charlemagne, Louis First, went by the 
sobriquet of 'le Debonnaire,' on account of his courteous and affable 

II II 2 


'Gentle' ('William le Gentil/ M.), ' Gentilman ' 
(' Robert Gentilman,' V. i.),' and ' Curteis' or ' Curtis' 
('Walter le Curteys' J., ' Richard le Curteis,' C), 
Chaucer says — 

All men holde thee formusarde, 
That debonaire have founden thee. 

' Amiable ' (' Edward Amiable,' Z., ' Joan Amiable,' Z.) 
once existed, but in our registers, at least, that sweet 
grace is now wanting. Equivalent to these latter, but 
more Saxon in character, come our ' Hendys' or 
' Hentys ' (' Thomas le Hendy,' F.F., ' John le Hendy,' 
F.F.), a term found in all our early writers, and prettily 
expressive of that which was gentle and courteous 
combined. In the ' Canterbury Tales* thehost reproves 
the friar for lack of civility to one of the company by 
saying — 

Sire, ye should be haide. 
And curteis as a man of your estate, 
In company we will have no debate. 

In the Hundred Rolls we find a' William Hendiman' 
occurring, and a ' John Hende' was Lord Mayor of 
London in 1391. We have just mentioned the word 
' musarde.' This reminds us of our ' Musards ' 
(' Malcolm le Musard,' M.), who were originally of a 
dreamy temperament.' With our Saxon ' Moodys ' ^ 
(' Richard Mody,' G.), however, their title has fallen in 
general estimation, the one now denoting, when used 

' 'Thomas Genlilhomme' in the Writs of Paul represents the 
Norman-French form. The surname still exists in France, as does 
' Gentleman ' in England. 

* Akin to 'Malcolm le Musard' (M.) was 'Alan le Mute' (A.). 
'Henry Duceparolc' (T. ) or 'Richard Parlebien'(M.) is decidedly compli- 
mentary, but ' William Spekelital ' (P. ) would seem to have been morose. 

* 'John Strictman' (A.) and 'John le Severe' (A.) may be set here. 

' NICKNAMES.' 469 

at all, a trifling, the other a morose and gloomy dis- 
position. Our * Sadds ' (* Robert Sad,' H.), too, from 
being merely serious, sedate folk, have become sorrow- 
ful of heart. Our great early poet speaks in the nega- 
tive sense of — 

People unsad and eke untnie, 

that is, unstable and fickle. In a short poem, ascribed 
to Lydgate, pointing out to children their course of 
behaviour in company, we are told — 

Who spekithe to thee in any maner place, 

Rudely cast not thyn eye adowne, 

But with a sad cheer look hym in the face.' 

Here of course sobriety of demeanour, rather than 
sorrowfulness, is intended.^ That ' Henry le Wepere' 
(A.), and ' Peter le Walur ' (A.), and ' William le Blu- 
bere ' (A.), however, must have been of rueful coun- 
tenance we need not doubt. 

Many changes too have passed over the names as 
well doubtless as over the lives of another section of 
our nomenclatural community. Our ' Cunnings,' we 
will hope, dated from the time when he who kenned 
his work well was so entitled without any suspicion of 
duplicity.^ Very likely too our 'Slys' ('John Slye,' 
H.), and ' Sleighs ' (' Simon le Slegh,' M.), ' Slees ' 
(' Isabella Slee,' W.G.), and * Slemmans ' and ' Sly- 
mans ' were simply remarkable for being honestly 

' The Babces' Book (Early Eng. Text. Soc). 

* ' Every niidwyfe shulde be presented with honest women of great 
gravity to the Bysshop,' for she ' shulde be a saddc woman, wyse and 
discrete, having experience.' (Andrew Boorde.) 

* The Hundred Rolls give us a 'Robert le .Sotele.' ' Salomon le 
Sotel' was Sheriff of London in 1290, according to Stow. There is 
no reason to suppose that either of these was distinguished for any of 
the unpleasant features that often lielong to sharp characteristics. 


dexterous in their several avocations,* The * mighty 
hand and outstretched arm ' of modern psalters was 
once translated ' a hand that was slegh.' But as sly- 
ness got by degrees but more and more associated 
with the juggler's sleight-of-hand tricks, the word fell 
into disrepute. Such is the invariable effect of keep- 
ing bad company. So late, however, as the seven- 
teenth century, one of our commonwealth poets was 
not misunderstood when he spoke of one whom — 

Graver age had made wise and sly. 

But the same predisposition to give ' cra!fty ' and ' sly' 
and ' cunning ' and ' artful ' a dishonest sense has not 
been therewith content, but must needs throw ridicule 
upon the unsophisticated and artless natures of our 

* Simples ' (' Jordan le Simple,' A.), who would scarcely 
feel complimented if their surname were to originate 
in the present day.'^ It is the same with our ' Seeleys' 
(' Benedict Sely,' D.) and ' Selymans ' (' George Sely- 
man,' D.), the older forms of ' Silly ' and ' Sillyman.' 
Perhaps the phrase * silly lamb ' is the only one in 
which we colloquially preserve the former idea of 

* silly,' that of utter guilelessness. A ' silly virgin ' 
with Spenser was no foolish maiden, but one helpless 
in her innocence, and the ' silly women ' Shakespeare 
hints at in his * Two Gentlemen of Verona ' were but 
inoffensive and unprotected females.^ ' Scaley,' ' Silly,' 

' The Issue Roll gives us an opposite characteristic in * Thomas 

* ' Christopher Greynhome ' (W. 15) would represent the mo<lcm 
sense of this word. 

* There used to be an old proverb — 

' Whylst grasse doth growe oft sterves the seely steede.' 


* Sillyman,' and ' Selyman,' ' are all pleasant memorials 
of the earlier sense of this word. Our ' Quaints ' and 

* Cants have gone through a changeful career. They are 
but the descendants of the old ' Margaret le Coynte ' or 
' Richard le Queynte,' from the early French * coint,' 
neat, elegant. A shadow fell over it, however, and a 
notion of artfulness becoming attached to the word, 
to be quaint was to be crafty. Thus Wicklyffe, in his 
translation of St. Mark's account of Christ's betrayal, 
makes Judas say to the servants of the high priest, 

* Whomever I shall touch, he it is, hold ye him, and 
lead him warily, or queintly.' Thus, too, Lawrence 
Minot, in his ' Political Songs,' tells us how — 

The King of Berne was catU and kene, 
But there he lost both play and pride. 

Strange to say, the word has well-nigh recovered its 
original sense, betokening as it does a whimsical and 
antique prettiness, if not the bare quality itself Our 
original 'Careless' ('Antony Careless,' Z.) was of 
that happy disposition which the petty worries and 
anxieties of life do not easily disturb, and, to judge 
from our nomenclature, he forms but one of a large 
band of cheery and easy-minded mortals. 'Joyce,' 
that is, ' Jocose,' when not a Christian name,* and 

Vide Dyce's notes to ' All's Well that luids Well.' {Shakespeare' s 
Works, vol. iii. p. 288.) One of the best illustrations of this word, 
however, is to be met with in Foxe's Martyi-ology, where, describing 
the martyrdom of a young child not seven years old, he says : ' The 
captain, perceiving the child invinciljle and himself vanquished, com- 
mitted the silly soul, the blessed babe, the child uncherished, to the 
stinking prison.' (Vol. i. p. 126, Kdit. 1844.) 

' Thomas Selybarn (/.('. Silly-cliild) occurs in tlie \'ork Guild. 
(W. II.) 

* Joyce may belong either to tlie nickname or the baptismal clas.s. 
•Richard le Joyce,' J., 'Joyce Faukes,' II., 'Joice Frankline,' W. 9. 


* Jolly ' must be set here, not forgetting the older and 
prettier 'Jolyffe' ('Henry Jolyfife,' M.). In the 
' Miller's Tale ' we are told of ' Absolon,' how that 
when at eventide he had taken up his 'giterne' — 

Forth he goth, jolif and amorous, 

to the window of his lady-love. 'Gay' ('William le 
Gay; R.), and ' Blythe ' (' Richard Blythe,' Z.),' and 
'Merry' ('William Merrye,' Z.), or ' Merriman' ('John 
Meryman,' X.), and ' Gaillard,' or ' Gallard,' or ' Gay- 
liard,' or 'Gaylord' ('Nicholas Gaylard,' T., 'William 
Gallard,' A., ' Sabina Gaylard,' H.), must all be placed 
also in this category.^ I am not quite sure, however, 
that the last are without a suspicion of that conviviality 
which the buxom alewife was but too ready to bestow. 
Our merry, versatile friend Absolon, whom I have just 
referred to, among other his unclerkly arts, could play 
on the 'giterne' as well as any 'galliard tapstere.' 
It seems to have been a common epithet, and would 
readily find a place in our nomenclature, where it is 
now firmly fixed. Our ' Merryweathers ' ('Andrew 
Meriweder,' A.) and ' Fairweathers ' ('John Fayr- 
wedcr,' A.)^ may seem somewhat diflScult of explana- 
tion to those who are unaware of the colloquial use 
of these expressions in former times, ' Mery-weder ' 

' 'William Gladchere' (' Gladcheer ') (F.F.) would be a pleasant 

* 'Alicia Blissewenche' occurs in the Hundred Rolls— a light-hearted 
ruddy-faced country girl of happy disposition and blithe expression. I 
doubt not he was a lucky swain who got Iier to go to the priest with 
h m to sue wedlock. Cf. 'JeiTery Joyemaiden' in the same record. 

» The early ' John Bellewether ' (H.) may be either a partial transla- 
tion of this, or that which is more likely, a sobriquet taken from the 
custom of fastening a bell around the neck of the leading sheep, by 
which to conduct the rest. We still tenii such an one the 'bell-wether,' 

' NICKNAMES.' 473 

especially being of the most familiar import. In the 
* Coventry Mysteries ' mention is made of — 

Bontyng the Brewster, and Sybyly Slynge, 
Megge Mery-wedyr, and Sabyn Sprynge. 

A happy sunshiny fellow would easily acquire the 
sobriquet, and indeed both are found at a very early 
day as such.* 

Not a few of those expressive terms of endear- 
ment, some of which still flourish in our nurseries, 
have made their mark upon our directories. We have 
already alluded to our ' Chittys.' Our * Leafs' repre- 
sent the old ' Alice le Lef ' or ' Matilda la Lef,' beloved 
or dear. We still use it in the well-nigh solitary 
expression * lief as loth,' but once it was in familiar 
request. Robert of Brunne, in one of his stories, 
says — 

Blessed be alle poor men, 
For God Almyghty loveth them : 
And weyl is them that poor are here. 
They are with God bothe lefe and dere. 

Akin to this latter is ' Love,' which, when not the old 
' Robert le Love' or wolf, is found in composition in 
not a few instances. ' Lovekin' and ' Lovecock,' after 
the remarks made in our first chapter on these termi- 
nations, will be readily explainable ; and ' Truelove,' 

' We never use 'merry' now in relation to sacred things, though 
our linglish Bible does. The fact is, the word has somewhat sunk in the 
social scale. Few preachers would say, as Bishop Bradford could say 
quite naturally in his day, ' The Lord for Christ's sake give us merry 
hearts to drink lustily of His sweet cup.' A monument in Marshfield 
Church on A. Meredeth ends thus — 

'Judge then, what he did lose who lost but breath. 
Lived to die well, and dyed A MEREDETH. 

( Rudder's Glojuestershire. ) 


' Derelove,' * Honeylove,' and ' Sweetlove ' ' supply us 
with expletives of so amorous a nature, we can but 
conjecture them to have arisen through the too pub- 
licly proclaimed feelings of their early possessors. 
' Newlove ' sounds somewhat inconstant, ' Winlove ' 
attractive.'^ ' Goodlove,' ' Spendlove,' and * Likelove,' 
1 believe, are now obsolete — a lot, too, which has 
befallen the hardened ' Lacklove,' while our * Fulli- 
loves ' ^ still declare the brimming affection which 
belongs to their nature — or at least did to that of 
their progenitor. But even they are commonplace 
beside our 'Waddeloves ' or ' Waddelows,' the early 
form of which, 'Wade-in-love,' would seem to tell of 
some lovesick ancestor so helplessly involved in the 
meshes cast about him as to have become the object 
of the unkind sarcasms of his neighbours. A longer 
and equally curious sobriquet abides in our ' Well- 
beloveds' and ' Wellbiloves.' It is this latter form in 
which it is found in the ' Issues of the Exchequer.' * 
The French form of this was * Bienayme ' (' William 
Bienayme,' A.), and to some settler of that name upon 

' ' Sweetlove ' is met by ' Duzauiour ; ' ' Felicia Duzamour' occurs 
in the Domesday, St. Paul's (Cam. Soc). ' Dulcia Fynamour' is set 
clown in the IVardrobc Accotnits Ed. I. 

* ' Wooer,' and even ' Wooeress,' seem to have existed. 'John le 
Wower' (A.), 'Hugh le Wewcr' (R. ), 'Emma Woweres' (A.). 

* ' Ralph Full-of- Love' was Rector of West Lynn in the year 1462. 
(Hist, of Norfolk, vol. viii. p. 536.) 

* ' Well beloved ' was the usual temi applied in any formal address 
in the Middle Ages, such as when a king in council made any public 
announcement, or when a priest addressed his people, or when a testa- 
tor mentioned a legatee. It was then a perfectly familiar ex]iression, 
and would easily affix itself as a sobriquet. A Rev. C. Wellbeloved 
published a translation of the Bible in 1838, printed by Smallfield and 
Co., London. 


our shores I suspect it is we owe our ' Bonamys ' 
('William Bonamy,' A.). I have just mentioned 

* Sweetlove.' Associated with this are our simpler 

* Sweets,' the nursery ' Sweetcock,' and ' Sweetman,' ' 
variously corrupted into * Sweatman,' * Swetman,' and 
' Swatman,' ' Bawcock ' and ' Baucock,' if not from 

* Baldwin,' will be the endearing ' beau-coq,' once in 
familiar use. Our ' Follets/ ' Follits,' and ' Foliots,' 
the last the original form, meant nothing more than 

* my foolish one ' or ' fond one,' and were very com- 
mon. They are but varied in the longer ' Hugh 
Folenfaunt,' but I am afraid 'Walter Fulhardy' at 
the same period is less complimentary. ' Poppet,' or 
puppet, once the doll of English infancy, only remains 
in the gilded and waxen manikins of the showman. 
The surname, however, abides with us, as does also 
' Poplett.' The old ' fere,' a companion, has left its 
mark in our ' Fairs.' We all remember Byron's 
resuscitation of the word. In * Troilus and Cressida,' 
mention is made of — 

Orpheus and Euridice his fere. 

Thus ' Playfair,' once written ' Playfere,' is simply 
' playfellow,' while the obsolete ' Makefere ' (' Hugh 
Makefare,* A.) would seem to be but intensive, ' make' 
being the invariable dress with olden writers of our 
more familiar ' mate.' ^ 

' ' Sweet ' and its compounds, however, are most probably to be 
referred to our baptismal nomenclature. A ' Swet le Bone ' is found in 
the Hundred Rolls, and in the same record occur such other forms as 
'Swetman fil. Edith' and ' Sweteman Textor.' 

^ In All Saints Church, Hertford, exists or existed a tablet with an 
inscription dated 1428, beginning thus — 

' Here lyeth under this stone William Wake, 
And by him Joane his wife .md make.' 

(C\\x{itrb\xc\Cs I/crt/oriis/iire, vol. ii., p. 165.) 


There is something in obtrusive virtue that instinc- 
tively repels us. We always like a man's face to be 
the index to the book of his heart, but when he would 
seem to have carefully turned down each leaf for our 
inspection, we get a revulsion of feeling — we like to 
look out the page for ourselves. An elevated sense 
of self-esteem was decidedly approved of by our fore- 
lathers, but its too demonstrative exhibition soon 
showed itself condemned in our ' Prouds,' ' Prouts,' 
Proudmans,' ' Proudloves,' and ' Proudfoots ' (' Hugh 
le Proud,' A., ' John le Prute,' H., ' George Proude- 
love,' Z.Z., ' Robert Prudefot,' A.). A very interesting 
name which has escaped the notice of surname hunters 
is that of * Gerish ' or ' Gerrish,' both forms being 
found in our modern directories-. They are but the 
truer representatives of the word ' garish ' as used by 
our later poets. Shakespeare's Juliet, we may remem- 
ber, apostrophizes Night, and bids her, when Romeo 
be dead, cut him into stars, and thus — 

All the world will be in love with night, 
And pay no worship to the garish sun. 

This splendidly describes the term, expressing as it 
does that which glares ostentatiously and showily 
upon the eye. Lydgate, far earlier, had used it thus, 
in the form of ' gerysshe ; ' and such names as 
' Umfrey le Gerische ' or ' John le Gerisse,' found yet 
more remotely, testify to its once familiar and fre- 
quent use. Wc now talk of a prude as one who ex- 
aggerates woman's innate modesty of demeanour. 
Formerly it denoted the virtue pure and untravestied. 
The root, the Latin ' probus,' excellent, still remains 
in our 'Prudhommes' ('William Prodhomme,' R., 


' Peter Prodhomme,' A.), with their more commonly 
corrupted 'Pridhams' and 'Prudames' and 'Prudens,' ' 
a sobriquet which once referred simply to the honest 
and guileless uprightness of their owners. How truly 
do such words as these remind us of the poor estimate 
man, after all, forms of himself Man often rebels at 
the declaration of Revelation that he is a fallen being, 
and yet how strongly does he assert this fact in the 
changes he himself has made in the meaning of words. 
Our 'Bauds' ('William le Baud,' B., 'Wauter le 
Baud,' M.) were once but the Norman equivalent of 
our ' Merrys ' already mentioned.^ Must lightness of 
heart inevitably end in wanton levity ? There was a 
day when our ' Parramores ' (' Roger Paramour,' M. ; 
' Henry Parramore,' Z.) ^ were but the simple honest 
lover of either sex, when our ' Lemons,' ' Lemans,' 
and 'Lemmans' (' Eld red Leman,' A., 'John 
Leman,' M.) meant but the beloved one from ' lief,' 
' dear.' Both Chaucer and Piers Plowman employ the 
term ' lef-man ' or ' leef-man ' as an expression of 
endearment, with no thought of obloquy. Thus, too, 
in the ' Townley Mysteries,' God is represented as 
bidding Gabriel to go to Nazareth — 

And hail that madyn, my lemman, 
As heyndly (courteously) as thou can. 

' * Prudens ' should more properly, perhaps, be placed among 
abstract virtues. ' Richard Prudence ' F. F. Later on it became a 
baptismal name — ' Prudence Howell.' (Proceedings in Chancery : Eliza- 

* ' Richard Merricocke' (F. F. ) was evidently a jovial fellow. 

' ' Parramore ' is always found as ' Paramour ' in early rolls, and in 
this form existed till the xviith century. ' April 18, 1635, Whitehall. 
Captain Thomas Paramour appointed to the Adventure.'' State 
Papers, 1635 (Domestic). 


Still, SO early as the days of Gower, its corrupted 
lemaii had become a sobriquet for one of loose, dis- 
orderly habits.' 

(2) Nicknames from Peculiarities of Disposition — 

The mention of such names as 'Baud,' 'Parra- 
more,' 'Leman' or 'Lemon,' 'Proud,' 'Proudman,' 
and 'Proudfoot,' which we have charitably set in 
the list of complimentary nicknames, as havin.[j, 
perchance, risen at a time when the meaning of the 
words conveyed a totally different idea from that 
which they now convey, brings us to the category of 
those which can scarcely seek any shelter of such a 
kind. ' Lorel,' ' Lurdan,' and ' Lordan,' together with 
the once familiar ' losel ' and ' losard,' denoted a 
waif, or stray, one who preyed upon society, exactly 
identical, in fact, with the Latin ' perditus.' Thus 
we find Herod, in the * Townley Mysteries,' saying 
to his officers — 

Fie, losels and lyars, lurdans each one, 

Tratours and well worse, knaves, but knyj^Iits none. 

Cocke Lorelle,' too, speaks of — 

Lollers, lordaynes, and fagot ])erers, 
Luskes, slovens, and kechen knaves. 

' It was a favourite joke some few years ago in the House of Com- 
mons to say that there were in it two Lemons and but one Peel. 
While Sir Robert Peel was Irish Secretary, from 1812 to 1818, and was 
somewhat remarkable in that capacity for his opposition to the Roman 
Catholics, it was customary to style him by the sobriquet of ' Orange 


Cotgrave explains a ' loricard ' to mean a luske, lowt, 
or lorcll. This luske, from the old French lasqiic, or 
lache — slothful — though now wholly obsolete, did 
much duty formerly. The adjective luskisJi and the 
substantive Itiskishness are often found. In law lache 
still survives as a term for culpable remissness; Our 
* Laches/ ' Lashes,* ' Laskies,' and * Lusks/ I am 
afraid, therefore, come of but an indifferent ancestry. 
Nor can anything better be said of our ' Paillards ' or 
' Pallards.' We still talk of a ' pallet,' the old ' paillet,' 
or straw bed, from 'paille,' chaff. A paillard was a 
cant term for a lie-a-bed. 

By ' ribaldry ' we always mean that which is foul- 
mouthed in expression. This was ever its implication. 
A ' ribaud,' or ' ribaut ' belonged to the very scum of 
society. He was a man who hung on to the skirts of 
the nobility by doing all their more infamous work 
for them. Chaucer, wishing to comprise in one 
sentence the highest and the lowest grades of 
society, speaks in his 'Romance' of 'king, knighte, 
or ribaude.' ' William le Ribote,' therefore, men- 
tioned in the ' Chapter House Records of Westmin- 
ster,' or 'William Ribaud ' (W. 15), could not have 
borne the best of characters, I am afraid. Although 
not quite so degraded in the world's esteem as 
some of these last, we may here include our ' Ged- 
lings,' reminiscences of the old 'Gadling' or 'Gedling,' 
one who gadded about from door to door to talk the 
gossip and scandal — the modern tattler, in fact. Our 
former * Gerard le Gaburs ' and ' Stephen le Gabbers ' 
were equally talkative, if not such ramblers. As 
overmuch talking and jesting always beget a sus- 
picion of overstretching the truth, so was it here. 


Wicklyfife uses ' gabbing ' in the sense of lying, and 
an old poem says : — 

Alle those false chapmen 

The fiend them will habbe, 
Bakeres and breowares 
• For alle men they gabbe.' 

(A litd soth Serinun. ) 

In the North of England, I need scarcely add, this is 
the ordinary and colloquial sense of the term to the 
present day. The name of ' John Totillcr ' might 
well-nigh induce us to believe that teetotalism was not 
unknown by that name at this period, but it is not so. 
A ' totiller ' was a ' whisperer ' of secrets. In the ' Le- 
gend of Good Women,' one says to the God of Love — 

In ye court is many a losengeour 
And many a queinte totoler accusour. 

The name of ' Dera Gibelot ' or 'John Gibbclote "^ 
reminds us of a term now obsolete, but once familiar 
as denoting a giddy, flighty girl.^ It is found in 
various forms, the commonest being that of ' giglot.' ■* 
Mr. Halliwell quotes an old proverb by way of adding 
a further variation— 

The smaller pesun (peas), the more to pott, 
The fayrer woman the more gylott. 

' ' Lyare, or gabbare — mendax, mendosus.' {^Prompt. Pan'.) 
'Henry le Liere' (H.R.) speaks for himself, unless he belies himself. 

" Like ' Gabelot,' ' llamelot,' 'Hughelot,' Crestelot,' etc., ' Gibelot ' 
may be a diminutive, in which case ' Gilbert ' will be the root, and the 
name will belong to the patronymic class. i^Vide p. i6, note i.) 

» A * William Gidyheved ' (Giddyhead) is mentioned by Mr. Riley 
as living in London in the xivth century. (X. index.) 

♦ In the Pr. Par., 'Gybelot' (or Gyglot) is rendered 'ridax.' 


I would, however, suggest this as but the pet form of 

* Gill,' mentioned in my chapter on Christian names. 
In either case the meaning is the same. An often 
met with sobriquet in the fourteenth century is that of 

* Robert le Burgulion,' or ' Geoffrey le Burgillon,' the 
old term for a braggart. It is now, however, wholly 
obsolete. ' Robert le Lewed,' or ' William le Lewed,' 
is also lost to our directories, and certainly would be 
an unpleasant appellation in the nineteenth century. 
Its general meaning four hundred years ago, however, 
was its more literal one, that of simplicity or igno- 
rance. It is connected with our word ' lay' as opposed 
to * cleric,' and arose at a time when knowledge was 
all but entirely in the hands of the clergy. Thus in 
the ' Pardoner's Tale ' it is said — 

Lewed people loven tales olde, 

Such things can they wel report and holde. 

Such a name then, we may trust, implied nothing 
beyond a lack of knowledge in respect of its possessor. 

* William Milksop,' or ' Thomas Milkesop,' or ' Mau- 
rice Ducedame ' were but types of a class of dandified 
and effeminate beings who have ever existed, but 
even their names would be more acceptable than 
those which fell to ' Robert le Sot,' or ' Maurice Drun- 
card,' or ' Jakes Drynk-ale,' ' or ' Geoffrey Dringke- 
dregges,' ^ or ' Thomas Sourale.' ^ It is evident that 

' Teetotalism was not without its representatives — 'Thomas le 
Sober' (M.), 'Richard Drynkewatcre ' (M.), 'John Drinkewater (A.). 
There is no proof for Camden's statement that this is a corruption of 
Derwentwater. From the earliest days it appears in its present dress. 

* ' Memorandum, quod die sancti Leonard i, fecit Galfridus Dringked- 
regges de Ubbethorp homagium.' (V. 8, p. 151.) 

* 'Thomas Sourale ' (A.) is met by 'John Swctcale,' a member of 

I I 


there were those who were disposed to follow the 
dictate of at least one portion of the old rhyme — 

Walke groundly, talkc profoundly, 
Drinke roundly, sleape soundly.. 

' Ralph Sparewater,' I fear, was a man of dirty habits, 
while ' John Klenewater ' was a model of cleanliness. 

But we have not yet done with sobriquets of an 
unpleasant nature. Men of miserly and penurious 
habits seem to have flourished in plentiful force in 
olden days as well as the present. ' Irenpurse ' figures 
several times in early rolls, and would be a strong, if 
somewhat rough, sarcasm against the besetting weak- 
ness of its first possessor. ' Lovegold ' is equally 
explicable. * Pennifather,' however, was the favourite 
title of such. An old couplet says — 

The liberall doth spend his pelfe, 
The pennyfather wastes himself. 

It is found in the various forms of * Penifader,' ' Pany- 
fader,' and * Pcnifadir,' in the fourteenth centur3^ 

* Pennypurse,' ' * Halfpcny,' and ' Turnpcny ' - are met 
with at the same time, and somewhat later on ' Thick- 
peny.' ' Broadpeny,' ' Manypcnny,' now corrupted 
into ' Moneypcny,' ' Winpeny,' now also found as 

* Wimpenny,' ' Pinchpenny,' with its more directly 

St. George's Guild, Norwich (V.). The former, I doubt not, was a 
crabbed peevish fellow. 

' 'Simon le Chuffere' occurs in the II. R. This was a common 
term of opprobrium for a miser. As ' ChufTcr ' it is found in the 
Toivnley Mysteries. 

* * The wife of Mr. Turnpenny, newsagent, Leeds, was yesterday 
delivered of two sons and one daughter, all of whom are doing well 
{Manchester Evening News, July i, 1873.) 

' NICKNAMES.' 483 

Norman * Pinsemaille,' and ' Kachepeny,' with its 
equally foreign * Cache-maille/ are all also of the 
same early date, and with one or two exceptions 
are to be met with to this very day.^ It is a 
true criticism which, as is noticed by Archbishop 
Trench, has marked the miserly as indeed the em- 
phatically miserable soul. ' Whirlepeny ' is now ex- 
tinct, but alone, so far as my researches go, existed 
formerly to remind men that the spendthrift character 
is equally subversive of the true basis of human 
happiness.^ Several names combined with 'peck' and 
' pick,' as ' Peckcheese,' ' Peckbean,' ' Peckweather,' 
and ' Pickbone,' seem to be expressive of the glut- 
tonous habits of the possessors, but it is possible 
they may be but the moral antecedents of our modern 
'Pecksniffs '[3 

Our ' Starks ' and ' Starkies,' if not ' Starkmans,' 
represent a word which can hardly be said to exist in 
our vocabulary, since it now but survives in certain 
phrases, such as ' stark-mad,' or ' stark-naked.' We 
should never say a man was ' stark ' simply. A 
forcible word, it once expressed the rude untutored 
nature of anything. Thus, on account of his unbridled 

' ' William Taylemaylc ' is found in the Chronicon retrobtirgense. 

(Cam. Soc.) 

- We may also mention 'Gilbert le Covetiose' (M.) and 'Robert 
Would-have.' We still say ' much would have more.' ' Robert Would- 
have, sergeant-at-mace, witness in trial before the Mayor of Newcastle, 
March 23, 1662.' (W. 16.) 

' ' William Rakestraw' reminds us of ' Piers Plowman's ' ratoner and 
rakyer of Cheape,' i.e., ratcatcher and scavenger of Chcapside. A 
still more objectionable name was that of ' Adam Ketmongere ' (H.R.), 
Ket = filth, carrion. ' Honorius le Rumonjour' (Rummager) (N.) would 
seem to have followed a similar calling. These sobriquets would 
readily be affixed upon men of a penurious and scraping character. 

I I 2 


passion, the Bastard King is termed in the Saxon 
chronicle ' a stark man, and very savage,' while just 
before he is asserted to be ' stark beyond all bounds 
to them who withsaid his will.' Thus it will be akin 
to such names as ' Walter le Wyld,' ' or ' Warin Cruel,' 
or ' Ralph le Ferce,' or 'John le Savage,' or ' William 
le Salvage,' or ' Adelmya le Sauvage,' or ' William 
Ramage.' Chaucer speaks somewhere of a ' ramage 

III. — Miscellaneous. 

(i) Nicknames from tJie Aiiinial and Vegetable 

Mr. Lower, in his ' English Surnames,' gives a long 
list of names from what he calls vegetable pro- 
ductions, but, although he does not say so, I am con- 
fident he would be the first to admit that the great 
majority of those which he instances should really be 
set among our local surnames. For example, he 
includes ' Cherry,' ' Broome,' ' Bramble,' ' Feme,' 
' Holyoak,' ' Peach,' ' Rowntree,' in this category. 
While 'Cherry' and 'Peach' might possibly be 
sobriquets of complexion, the manifest course is to 
look upon them as of local origin. So persuaded am 
I of this, after a long perusal of mediaeval records, 
that I shall notice but some half-dozen names from 
the vegetable kingdom, and only those of which I can 
find memorials in past registers. This is a place 
which of all others might well tempt me to run riot 
among our directories, and collect a curious list from 
our present existing nomenclature ; but I would even 

' ' William Wildeblood ' is found in a Yorkshire Roll (W. 9), and 
'Jordan Kite-wilde' in the II. R. 


here persistently adhere to the idea with which I set 
out, and' to which I have mainly been true, viz., to 
instance names about which I can speak somewhat 
positively, because I have found them imbedded in 
the nomenclature of the period in which surnames 
had their rise. ' Blanchflower,' ' Lilywhite,' and ' Bout- 
flower ' I have already dealt with. * Robert Daisye * 
occurs in the ' Trial of Dame Alice Kyteler ' (Cam. 
Soc), ' Nicholas Pescodde ' in the ' Proceedings in 
Chancery ' (Elizabeth), ' Godfrey Gingivre ' (Ginger) 
in the ' Writs of Parliament,' ' ' Geoffrey Peppercorn ' 
in the Hundred Rolls, ' Robert Primerose ' and ' Sara 
Garlek' in the 'History of Norfolk' (Bromefield), 
and 'Roger Pluckerose' and 'John Pullrose' in a 
Sussex Roll of 1296.^ I doubt whether more than 
one or two of these can be said rightly to belong to 
the nickname class. As sign-names — for I feel 
assured they thus arose — they will have their place 
in our second chapter on ' Local Names.' ' 

But when we come to the Animal Kingdom we 
are on clearer and more definite ground. The local 
class must undoubtedly embrace a large number of 
these names, as such an entry as ' William atte Roe- 
buck ' (M.), or 'Richard de la Vache' (A.), or 
* Thomas atte Ram ' (N.), or 'John de la Roe ' (O.), 
or 'Gilbert de la Hegle ' (A.), or ' Hugh atte Cokke' 
(B.), or 'Walter de Whitchorse ' (C), or 'John atte 

' Also ' Agnes Gyngyveie ' in Riley's Memorials of London. 
Like 'John Vergoose' (W. 13) i.e., vincgarish, they would seem to hit 
off the sharp temperament of their owners. 

* Vide Lower's English Surnames, i. 242. 

' Thus it is with our 'Roses.' The Rot. Fin. in Turri London. 
give us a 'John de la Rose,' while the Hundred Rolls furnish us with a 
'Nicholas de la Rose.' 


Gote' (M.) clearly testifies. But on the other hand 
we find a class, set by which the last is insignificant — 
a class which has its own entries — ' William le Got ' 
(A.), 'Katerina le Cok ' (B.), 'Alicia le Ro ' (A.), 
'Philip la Vache ' (C), or 'Joachim le Ram ' (T,), 
corresponding to the former, only differing in that 
such entries are vastly more numerous and embrace a 
wider range, taking in, in fact, the whole genus and 
species that belong alike to ' the fish of the sea, the fowl 
of the air, the cattle, and every creeping thing that 
creepeth upon the earth.' In dealing with this large 
and varied assortment of sobriquets, I would say 
then that, where there is no proof positive to the 
contrary, the course is to survey a name of this class 
as referable to three distinct origins, and I put them 
in the following order of probability : — i. A nickname 
taken from that animal whose generally understood 
habits seemed to bear affinity to those of the nominee. 
2. A local sign-name. 3. An heraldic device. With 
these preliminary statements, let us proceed. 

As we find all the moral qualities seized upon to 
give individuality to the possessors, so, too, we find 
the names of animals whose peculiarities gave pretext 
for the sobriquets pressed into the service of our 
nomenclature. In our earlier Pagan history it had 
been the wont of Saxon fathers to style their children 
by the names of such beasts as from their nobler 
qualities it was hoped the little one would one day 
copy. The same fashion still existed, only that the 
nickname as the exponent of popular feeling was 
really more or less appropriate to him who was made 
to bear it. In the latter case, too, it was the ridicu- 
lous aspects of character that were most eagerly 


caught at. Our general vocabulary is not without 
traces of this custom. We still term a shrewish wife 
a vixen, i.e. a she fox. Men of a vile, mean character 
are rascals, i.e. lean deer ; and rough boys are tirchins,^ 
2l corruption of the old herison, or hedgehog. Apply- 
ing this to surnames, we come first to 

{a) Beasts. — Our ' Bests,' when not local, are but 
the ' Richard le Bestes ' or ' Henry le Bestes ' of the 
thirteenth century. Their superlative excellence is 
therefore imaginary, I fear, but we may be permitted 
to hope that they are what they appear. ' Edith 
Beest,' in the sixteenth century, is nearer our mo- 
dern form. Our ' Oliphants,' ' Olivants,' and ' Olli- 
vants' represent but the elephant, and owe their 
origin, doubtless, to the huge and ungainly propor- 
tions of some early ancestor. In the ' Romance of 
Alexander' is a strange description of the fabled mono- 
ceros, which would seem to have been a kind of pot- 
pourri of all other beasts, for besides a tail like a hog, 
tusks like a dog, and a head like a hart's — 

Made is his cors 
After the forme of a hors, 
Fete after olifant, certis.' 

This sobriquet, in a day when size and strength went 
for much, does not seem to have been thought ob- 
jectionable, for its owners have left issue enough to 
prevent its ever falling into abeyance.^ Thus we see 

» ' Paid John of the hall, of tow (two) urchines, o/. oj-. 40'.' (Hist, 
and Ant. Staffordshire, i. 197-) 

2 George Camel and Jane Camel were apprehended as Popish 
recusants, May 2, 1673. [Dean Granville's Letters, p. 225.) 'William 
Cammille ' (V. 4), * George Camil ' (W. 20). 

' '1438.' "Item, pro aula 'Olefante,' Magister Kyllynworth." 


we may meet with elephants every day in our streets 
without going to the Zoological Gardens for them. 
Our ' Lions ' (' Richard Lion,' V. 2) and * Lyons,' when 
not local,' speak doubtless for the brave heart of 
some early progenitor. Our ' Bears,' relics of ' Richard 
le Bere ' (A.) or ' Lawrence le Bere ' (M.), as a reflec- 
tion upon a surly temper, would be less complimen- 
tary, or perhaps the original nominee wore his hair 
shaggy and long. A fierce disposition would meet with 
rebuke or praise, as the case might be, in such a sobri- 
quet as 'John Lepard,' or 'Tiger,' now all but obsolete, 
saving for our striped and liveried youths ; or 'Wolf 
(' Elena le Wolfe,' A., ' Philip Ic Wolf,' M.), with its more 
Norman ' Lupe'^ ('Robert le Lupc,' B.), or ' Lovel'^ or 
' Love ' (' Robert le Love,' A.), the latter being in flat 
contradiction to the usually ascribed instincts of the 
animal. Timidity or reserve, or perchance fleetness 
of foot, would soon find itself exalted in ' Geoffrey le 
Hare,' ' Reginalde le Raye,' ' Walter le Buk,' ' Hobart le 
Hart,' * Dorothie le Stagge,' ' Henry Rascal,' "* * William 

{Afun. Acad. Oxon. p. 522.) This hall or smaller college was so 
called from the sign over the door. Skclton has both ' olyfant ' and 
• olyphante.' He describes a woman in ' Eleanor Rummyng' as 

' Necked lyke an olyfant.' 

■ ' Herveus dc Lyons,' C, ' Richard de Lyouns,' M. 

"^ It was ' Ungues le Loup' the Conqueror appointed Second Count 
of the Cheshire Palatinate. 

' ' Lovel' is the diminutive. ' Maulovel ' will thus be 'Bad-wolfkin.' 

* A Rascal was a lean, r.igged deer ; Shakespeare so uses it. Very 
early, however, the term was applied to the vulgar /leni of human kind, 
but with far less opprobious meaning than now. Ilall, quoting Henry 
of Northumberland, speaks of Henry IV. as having obtained his crown 
' by the counsaill of thy frcndes, and by open noising of the rascale 
people' (f. xxi.), i.e. tlic rabble. An extract from the Ordin.inces of 
Henry VIII. at Eltham says, ' It is ordained that none of the sergeants 

* NICKNAMES.' 489 

le Do,' or ' Alicia le Ro,' the ancestors of our ' Hares,' 
* Rays,' or ' Wrays,' ' Bucks,' 1 ' Harts,' ' Stags,' * Does,' 
or * Roes,' of legal notoriety, and ' Prickets.' That 
old spoiler of hen-roosts, the polecat, has left us in 
' Fitch ' and * Fitchett ' no very happy relationship of 
ideas. Craftiness would be very properly stigmatised 
in ' Henry le Fox ' or ' John le Tod,' and a ' John le 
Renaud ' occurring in the Parliamentary Rolls reminds 
us that some of our ' Renauds ' and * Renards ' may 
be more closely associated with this wily denizen of 
our forest fastnesses than they think. The badger has 
originated ' Walter le Broc ' or ' Henry le Brok ' (now 
Brock) ; the beaver ' John le Bever,' or ' Johnle Bevere ' 
(now Beaver).^ The rabbit gave us ' Henry Cony ' and 
' John Conay ; ' the weasel ' Mathew le Martun ' (now 
Marten) ; the mo/e * Walter le Want ' (now Want) ; 
the nimble haunter of our forest boughs ' Thomas le 
Squyrelle ' (now Squirrell), and the otler ' Alan Otere,' 
or ' Edward Oter ' (now Otter). 

Nor must we forget the farmyard and its acces- 
sories, which, as we might readily presume, are well 
represented. * Alice le Bule,' or ' William le Bule ' 
(now Bull), is a sobriquet which has now such a firm 

at arms, heralds . . . have, retain, or bring into the court any boyes or 
rascalles, nor also other of their servants.' The surname was very 
common, and lasted a long time — 'John Raskele' (H.), 'Henry Ras- 
call ' (Z.). Robert Rascal was persecuted for his religion in 1517 (Foxe). 
' Received for a pewe in the lower end of the churche set to Richard 
Rascalle, wis.' (Ludlow Churchwardens' Accounts, Cam. Soc.) 

' As we have Cock and Cockerell, Duck and Duckrell, so we have 
Buck and Buckerell—' Peter Bokerel' (A.), 'Matthew Bokerel' (A.). 
Cf. Mackarel and Pickerell. 

* Sometimes this is local, and a mere corruption of Bcauvoir — 
'Roger de Bel voir' (M.), 


place as symbolic of our national character that we 
need not show to what peculiarities of temperament 
they owed their name. ' Simon le Steer,' ' Peter le 
Vache,' with its Saxon ' Thomas le Cu ' or ' Ralph le 
Cou,' ' Richard le Calf, * ' Godwin le Bulloc,* * Peter le 
Stot,' ' Roger le Colt,' are all of common occurrence, 
and still abide with us. ' Roger le Mule,' as repre- 
sentative of obstinacy, we might have suspected, would 
have become early obsolete, but it still survives.' ' 
'Robert le Veyle,' or 'William Ic Veel,' now written 
'Veale,' 'Philip le Mutton,' and 'John le Boeuf,' or 
' Robert le Bef,' ^ carry us back to the day when these 
several terms denoted the living animal. Thus, with 
respect to the last, Burton in his ' Anatomy,' translat- 
ing Plautus, says — 

Like other cooks I do not supper dress, 

That put whole meadows into a platter, 
And make no better of their guests than beeves, 

With herbs and grass to feed them fatter. — p. 69. 

Alongside our ' Muttons ' we may place our ' William 

' ' Duncalf ' may be seen over a window in Oldham Road, Man- 
chester. ' William Duncalf (A.A. i), 'John Duncalf ' (A. A. l). 

^ Such names as Roger Runcy, Richard I'alefray, John Portehors, or 
Ralph Portehos represent terms very familiar to our forefathers. 

* This word 'beef as denotivc of the living animal was in vogue 
in the seventeenth century at least. The plural ' beeves ' is still to be 
found in our Authorized Version. For instance, Levit. xxii. 19, is trans- 
lated, ' Ye shall offer at your own will a male without blemish of the 
beeves, of the sheep, or of the goats.' Shakespeare, also, has the word 
in this sense. He speaks in his ' Merchant of Venice' of the — 

'Flesh of muttons, beefs, or goats.' 

We have here mutton used in the same manner. Edward the Second 
was accustomed ' to breedc upp beeves and motonnes in his parkcs 
to scn'C his household.' [Liber Ali^cr, Ed. IV,) 


le Lambs ' and ' Richard le Lombs,' ' and if they were 
remarkable for their meek disposition, playfulness, I 
doubt not, was equally characteristic of our ' Reginald 
Kidds' and ' Cheevers,' relics of the old 'Henry le 
Chivre ' or goat. I am afraid the connexion of ideas 
that gave rise to such sobriquets as were represented 
by 'Alice le Hog,' 'John le Bacun,' ^ 'William le 
Gryse,' ' Gilbert Gait,' ' Walter Pigge,' ^ ' Roger Sugge,' 

* Richard le Bor ' (Boar), 'Richard Wildbore,' 'John 
Pork,' and 'John Purcell' (little porker, that is), is 
not of the pleasantest — terms, too, as they are, all 
familiar to our directories to this present day. Several 
of these words are now colloquially obsolete. ' Grice,' 
I fancy, is one such. We still speak of the ' griskin,' 
Locally It comes in such names as ' Grisdale ' and 

* Grisvvood.' As a sobriquet of the animal, it was 
quite familiar in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. 
Piers Plowman says — 

Cokes and their knaves 
Cryden, ' Hote pies, bote ! 
Goode gees and grys !' 

' Sug ' was provincial for ' sow,' and comes in the local 
'Sugden' mentioned in my first chapter. Richard 
ni. was sometimes styled the 'Boar' or 'Hog.' It 
was in allusion to this that the rhyme got abroad — 

' Apart from such entries as ' Wiliiam le Lamb,' we find a 'John 
Lambgrome' in the Himdred Rolls. Though obsolete, we must set him 
by our ' Shepherds.' A brot!ier-in-law of John Wesley bore the name 
of ' Whitelamb.' I am not sure whether this surname has died out or 
not. In the Visitation of Yorkshire, 1665, it is found in the person of 
' Isabel Whitlamb.' 

2 'Robert Spichfat' (X.), ' William Spichfat' (W. 11.), fromthcold 
'spic,' bacon, seem to refer to the greasy habits of their owners. 

' Christopher Pigg was Mayor of Lynn Regis in 1742. 


The Rat, the Cat, and Lovel the Dog, 
Rule all England under the Hog. 

The first two referred of course to Ra/cliffe and 
Crt/esby. But the mention of these reminds us of 
our household pets and indoor foes. * Elias le Cat,' 
or ' Adam le Kat,' or ' Milo le Chat ' still boasts de- 
scendants, and the same can be said for ' Nicholas 
Dogge,' or * Eborard le Kenn,' or * Thomas le Chen.' 
The usual forms are Catt, Ken, and Kenn. In our 
kemiel we still preserve a memorial of this Norman- 
introduced word. Our ' Hunds ' and ' Hounds ' are 
but the old ' Gilbert le Hund ' or ' William le Hund,' 
and carry us to the forest and the chase. The especial 
bugbear of cat and dog alike found remembrance in our 
early ' Nicholas le Rat ' and 'Walter le Rat,' or ' Ralph 
Ratun,' ' and in 'John le Mous,* 'Hugh le Mus,' or 
' Richard Mowse.' ' Ratton,' ' Ratt,' and ' Mowse ' still 
exist. With one more name we conclude. Through 
Spain and the Moors of Barbary monkeys were early 
introduced for the amusement of the English people. 
In the ' Miller's Tale ' it is said of Alison — 

And thus she maketh Absolom her ape, 
And all his earnest turneth to a gape.* 

that is, she was wont to make a fool of him. The 
sobriquet is found in such an entry as ' John le Ape,' 
registered in the Hundred Rolls, or 'John Jackanapes,' 
in the Parliamentary Writs. 

' Raton is still the term in the North. Langland uses it, and in 
Chaucer the Potecary is asked by a jnirchaser — 
' That he him would sell 
Some poison, that lie might his ratouns quell.' 
' An old political poem says tlic Italians bring in 
' Apes and japes and mamusctts taylcde, 
Nifles, trifles, that litelle have avayled.' 

' NICKNAMES.' 493 

{h) Birds. — The surname that represents the genus 
is ' Bird,' the name being met with as ' John le Bryd ' 
or ' David le Brid,' a pronunciation still in vogue in 
many parts of England. Falconry has given us many 
sobriquets of this class. Accustomed as our fathers 
were to seeing the fierce and eager instincts of the bird, 
to nickname a man of rapacious and grasping habits 
by such a term as ' John le Kyte,' or ' William le 
Hawk,' or Richard le Falcon,' would be the most 
natural thing in the world. And just as the difference 
in breed and disposition in these birds themselves gave 
rise to separate definitions, so an imagined resemblance 
to these distinct qualities must have originated such 
different names as ' Muskett,' ' Buzzard,' * Puttock,' ' 
* Goshawk,' ' Tassell,' ' deed,' or * Glide,' ^ and ' Spar- 
rowhawk,' or ' Spark,' or ' Sparke,' as it is now more 
generally spelt. So early as Chaucer, however, this 
last was written 'Spar-hawk,' ^ and that once gained the 
further contraction in our nomenclature became inevi- 
table. Thus was it with other birds. Did a man 
develop such propensities as showiness, then he was 
nicknamed 'Jay;' if pride, 'Peacock' or ' Pocock,' 

' ' Some bileve that yf the kite or the puttock fle ovir the way afore 
them that they should fare wel that daye, for sumtyme they have 
farewele after that they see the puttock so fleyinge.' [Brand, iii. 113.) 

* Our present Authorized Version retains the term in Deut. xiv. 13, 
where mention is made of 'the glcdc, and the kite, and the vuUure 
ifter his kind.' Locally it is found in ' Gledhill' and 'Gladstone,' or 
more correctly ' Gledstane,' that is, the hill or crag which the kites were 
wont to frequent. A 'William de Gledstanys' is met with in the 
Coldingham Priory Records of the date of 1357, proving its North 
English origin. ' Ilawkstone' and 'Gladstone' are thus synonymous. 

» 'Richard Sparhawke ' was Rector of Fincham in 1534. {Hist. 
Norf., vii. 358.) 


as it was once pronounced ; if guile, ' Rook ; ' if pert- 
ness, ' Pye,' with its diminutive 'Pyet ' or ' Pyett ; ' if 
garrulity, ' Parrott ' or * Parratt ; ' if he was a votary 
of song he was styled ' Nightingale ' or ' Lark,' or in 
its more antique dress ' Laverock ' or * Woodlark,' or 
' Finch,' or ' Bulfinch,' or ' Goldfinch,' or ' Chaffinch,' 
or ' Spink,' or ' Goldspink,' or ' Thrush,' or ' Thrussel,' 
or ' Cuckoo.' If jauntiness displayed itself in his actions 
he was nicknamed ' Cock ' or ' Cockerell ' or ' Chaunte- 
cler ; ' if homeliness, 'Sparrow; ' if tenderness, ' Pigeon ' or 
' Dove,' and so on with our ' Swans,' * Herons,' ' Cootes,' 
' Gulls,' 'Storks,' 'Ravens,' 'Crows,' 'Speights,' 'Cranes,' 
' Capons,' ' Henns,' ' Chickens,' ' ' Ducks,' ' Duckerells,' 
' Drakes,' ' Sheldrakes ' or ' Sheldricks,' ' Wildgooses,' 
'Mallards' {i.e. wild duck), ' Gooses ' or ' Goss's,'^ 'Grey- 
gooses,' ' Goslings,' ^ ' Ganders,' ' Woodcocks,' ' Par- 
tridges,' ' Partricks,' ' Pheasants,' or ' Fcsants,' as once 
spelt, and ' Blackbirds.''' These are names ornithologi- 
cally familiar to us. Many a pretty name, however, 
once on the common tongue but now obsolete, or well- 
nigh so, still abides in our surnames. Thus our ' Pop- 
jays ' still preserve the remembrance of the once 
common popinjay or parrot, ' the popinjay, full of deli- 

" * Philip Chikin' (A.), 'John Cliilcin' (A.). The name existed in 
the xviithcent., for one 'George Chicken' was summoned at Ryton 'for 
not payeinghis assessments, July 28, 1673.' (Dean Granville s Letters, 
Sur. Soc.). 

' * Peter leGoos,' F.F., ' Walter IcGows,' A., 'Amicia Ic Gos,' J., 
'John le Gos,' M. The latter, as ' Goss,' is the present most common 

' This is as often from Joscelyn. ' Goscelinc fil. Gawyn,' A., ' Roger 
fil. Gocelin,' A. 

* A tablet with the inscription ' Sacred to the Memory of Priscilla 
Blackbird ' has been put up in Stepney churchyard within the last few 

* NICKNAMES.' 495 

easy,' as Chaucer styles her.* In * Culver' or ringdove 
we are reminded of the pathetic story of Philomine, 
where the same writer likens her to 

the lamb that of the wolf is bitten, 
Or as the culver, that of the eagle is smitten.' 

Our ' Ruddocks ' or ' Ruddicks ' (' Ralph Ruddoc,' A.), 
again, are but the old ruddock or robin-redbreast, * the 
tame ruddock,' as he is termed in the * Assembly of 
Fowls.' The hedge-sparrow still lives represented by 
our ' Pinnocks 'or * Pinnicks ' ' John Pynnock ' (G.), 
'Richard Pinnoc' (A.)— 

Thus in the pinnick's nest the cuckoo lays, 
Then, easy as a Frenchman, takes her flight. 

So an old writer says. Our * Turtles ' (' Roger Turtle') 
D.) are but" pleasant memorials of the bird that has 
been so long emblematic of constancy, the dove ; our 
' Challenders,' if not a corruption of ' Callender,' are 
representatives of the chelaunder or goldfinch, so often 
mentioned by early poets ; and in our * Woodalls,' 

* Woodales,' and ' Woodwalls,' not to say some of our 

* Woodwells,' we are but reminded of the woodwale, 
the early woodpecker. Our ' Rains ' are but the old 
' Robert or William le Rain,' another term for the 
same ; ' while our ' Stars ' and * Stares ' (* Robert Stare,' 

' ' The bailiffs and commons granted to Robert Popingeay, their 
fellow citizen, all their tenement and garden in the Parish of St. Mary 
in the Marsh.' 1371. (_IIist. Norf.,\\\. ()1.) ' Richard Popingay,' T.T. 
*To a servaunt of William ap Howell for bringing of a popyngay 
to the Queue to Windesore, xiiij. iiii^/.' [Privy Purse Expenses of 
Elizabeth of York, 1502.) 

* ' He turnede upso down the boordis of chaungeris, and the chayers 
of men that solden culvers. ' (Matt. xxi. 12. v. WicklyfTe.) 

* The Prompt. Par. has ' reyn-fowle, a bryd, ' so called, the Editor 
says, because its cry was supposed to prognosticate rain. 


A.) carry us back to the day when the starling was 
so familiarly styled. In the ' Assembly of Fowls ' 
the author speaks of — 

The false lapwing, full of trecherie, 
The stare, that the counsaile can beurie. 

In the ' Romance of the Rose ' a list of birds is given 
embracing many of the above — 

For there was many a bird singing, 

Throughout the yard all thringing, 

In many places were nightingales, 

Alpes, finches, and wodewales. 

That in their sweet song delighten. 

In thilke (such) places as they habiten. 

There might men see many flocks 

Of turtles, and laverocks, 

Chelaundres fele (many) saw I there, 

That very nigh forsongen were (tired of singing). 

Every one of these birds so styled is still to be met 
with in our directories, for even the alpe or bull-finch 
is not absent. It is only in the investigation of sub- 
jects like this we see how great are the changes that 
creep over a people's language. What a list of words 
is this, which if uttered now would fall dead and 
meaningless upon the ear of the listener, and yet they 
were once familiar as household words. 

{c) Fish. — 'John le Fysche' or 'William Fyske* 
have left descendants enough to prove that many a 
Fish can live out of water, although much has been 
advanced to the contrary. At a time when the 
peasants lived daily on the products of the inland 
streams and sandy sea-banks, and when the supply 
was infinitely more plentiful than it is now, we can 
easily perceive the naturalness of the sobriquets that 
belong to this class. Terms that are all but obsolete 

' NICKNAMES.' 497 

to us now, were household words then. Hence it is 
that we find our directories of to-day abounding with 
such entries as ' Whale,' ' ' Shark,' ' Dolphin,' * Her- 
ring,' 2 ' Codde,' ' Codling,' ' Salmon,' ^ ' Trout,' ' Macka- 
rel,' ' Grayling,' ' Smelt,' ' Pilchard,' ' Whiting,' ' Tur- 
bot,' ^ ' Keeling,' ' Crabbe,' ' Chubb,' ' ' Tench,' « ' Pike,' 
and * Pickerel.' ' John Sturgeon ' is mentioned by 
Foxe in his ' Martyrology,' under date 1541, and still 
remains. The Hundred Rolls contain a ' William 
Lampreye.' ' Barnacle ' is still common, and * Mus- 
seir and 'Spratt'^ are not unknown. But perhaps 
the most curious of these early nicknames are those 
belonging to ' Matilda le Welke ' and * William 
Welkeshorn.' Probably they were notorious for a 
weakness towards that mollusk, which is still eaten in 
large quantities in some parts of England. 

(d) Insects and Reptiles. — This is not a large class. 
The Hundred Rolls furnish us with a ' Magge Flie ' 
and an ' Oda ^ P'lie.' The same records contain a 

' ' Thomas le Whal ' (B.), ' Ralph le Wal ' (A.). As with Oliphant, 
over-corpulence would give rise to the sobriquet. 

* ' Reymund Heryng' (M.). The diminutive is found in the case 
of ' Stephen Harengot' (D.D.), i.e., 'Little Herring.' 

' 'Elizabeth Salmon' (G. ). It is said, a Mr. Salmon having been 
presented by his wife with three boys at one birth, gave them the names 
of 'Pickled,' 'Potted,' and 'Fresh.' I would call the reader's 
attention to the italicised words that preface the statement. 

^ Daniel Turbot was summoned ' for not paying Easter rcckonyngs, 
Aug. 23rd, 1674.' (Granville's Letters. Sur. Soc.) 

* 'Matthew Chubb,' a member of the 'Gild of Tailors, Exeter.' — 
21 Ed. IV. (Euolisk Gilds, 323 p.) 

^ ' John Tenche' (A.). Tcnche is the name of one of the yeomen of 
the Guard to Queen Mary when Princess Mary. (Priv. Purse Exp. 


' Thomas Spratt was Bishop of Rochester in 1688. 

* This is doubtless but a feminine form of Odo. 

K K 


' Margaret Gnatte' and a 'William Gnatte.' ' Baldewin 
Bugg ' (B.) and ' Bate Bugge ' (A.) are also found, but 
although the question has been asked — 

If a party had a voice, 
What mortal would be a Bugg by choice, 

I fancy the cognomen is local, one of the endless 
forms, like ' Brough,' ' Burgh,' * Burkes,' of the old 
* Borough.' ' Roger le Waps ' ' reminds us of the still 
existing provincialism for wasp, and ' William Snake * 
or ' John Frog ' would be as little acceptable.^ The 
smallest and most repulsive insect we have, the para- 
sitic louse, is found in ' Nicholas le Lus' (J.), but our di- 
rectories have now got rid of it — an example that might 
be followed with no small advantage in other quarters. 

(2) Descriptive Compounds affixed as Nicknames. 
But in an age like that of the thirteenth and four- 
teenth centuries we cannot imagine that society would 
be merely required to come under a verbal castigation 
such as, after all, did nothing more than strike off the 
names of the animals that entered into Noah's Ark. 
To call a man a 'wolf or a ' bull ' or a 'grayling' or 
a ' salmon ' or a ' peacock,' after all, is not very 
dreadful. Terms of a more compound form, sobriquets 
more minutely anatomical, arc also met with, the un- 
pleasantness of which is proved by the fact of so few 
of them having come down to us, while not a small 
portion, as not fit for ears polite, must be altogether 
left in their obscurity. There are others, however, 
of which none need to be ashamed. For instance) 

• • Roger le Waps ' is found in a Sussex subsidy roll of 1 296. (Lower, 
i. 242.) 

« In Ricirt's Calendar of Bristol (Cam. Soc), William and Robert 
Snake are set down among the earlier ' Prepositi.' 

' NICKNAMES.' 499 

the kingly denomination of * Quer-de-lyun' (* Ralph 
Querdelyun,' T., * William Querdelion,' X.), ^ found in 
several lists, could not but be agreeable, while ' Dan- 
de-lyun,' or 'lion-toothed' ('William Daundelyun,' B.), 
would be in thorough harmony with the spirit of the 
age. ' Colfox ' (' Thomas Colfox,' Z.), still existing, 
would be less pleasant. The term * fox ' is supposed 
in itself to be synonymous with deceit, but the inten- 
sive ' col-fox ' or ' deceitful-fox ' must have implied 
duplicity indeed ! Chaucer, in his * Nunn's Story,' 
speaks of 

A col fox full of sleigh iniquity. 

Clenehog ' (' William Clenehog,' A.) or * Clenegrise ' 
(* Roger Clenegrise,' A.) would seem to be a sarcasm 
upon the dirty habits of its early owner, while 
* Piggesflesh ' (' Reyner Piggesflesh,' M.) or ' Hogges- 
flesh ' (' Margery Hoggesflesh,' Z.) ^ is as obviously 
intended to be a reflection upon the general appear- 
ance. 'Herring' ('Robert Heryng,' A.), already 
mentioned, is not objectionable, but ' Goodherring ' 

' In 1433 it had got corrupted into ' Querdling,' a 'Thomas Querd- 
ling' occupying an official position in Norwich in that year. Of him 
the following rhyme speaks — 

' Whoso have any quarrel or pie, 
If he but withstand John Hankey, 
John Querdlyng, Nic Waleys, John Belagh, John Meg, 

Sore shall him rcwe 
For they rule all the court with their lawes newe.' 

(Bromefield, iii. I45.) 
I doubt not 'Curling' is the modern representative of this name. 

' This name is not obsolete. Mr. Lower quotes a local rhyme thus — 

' Worthing is a pretty place, 
And if I'm not mistaken, 
If you can't get any butcher's meat, 
There's "hogs' flesh" and "bacon."' 
K K 2 


('Adam Godharing,' A.) and ' Redherring' ' ('William 
Redhering,' M.) are. * Fish ' one would not for a 
moment find fault with, but few young ladies, I 
imagine, would be found to face at the matrimonial 
altar a 'John Pourfishe' (M.). Objection, too, if not 
by the fair inamorata, yet by her parents, would be 
raised, I suspect, to an alliance with a * Roger Fcldog,' 
or ' Thomas Catsnose,' or ' William Cocksbrain,' or 
'Robert Calvesmaw,' or 'Peter Buckeskyn,' or ' Arnulph 
Dogmaw,' or ' Henry Crowfoot,' or ' Matthew Goose- 
beak,' or * John Bullhead.' ' Talking of the last, how- 
ever, it is interesting to notice how much the bull has 
entered into compounds of this kind. Thus we light 
upon such names as ' Walter Oyl-de-beof ' or ' William 
Oldbeof,' that is, bull-eyed ; ' Ralph Front-dc-boeuf,' 
that is, bull-faced ; 'John Cors-de-boeuf ' or 'Thomas 
Cordebeofe,' that is, bull-bodied ; ' John Queer-de- 
boef,' that is, bull-hearted, or 'Amice le Wildeboef or 
' Nicholas Waldebeof,' seemingly like ' Wild-bore,' 
referring to some wild untutored characteristics of the 
bearer. In all these the genius of the age is quite 
apparent, and probably not one was looked upon as 
otherwise than complimentary. ' William Scorche- 
bouef ' was evidently some unlucky young kitchener 
who had mismanaged his duties as spit-turner, but it 
betrays the process by which the term ' boeuf ' has 
come into its present position of verbal usefulness. 
In this light 'Cors-de-boeuf also is further interesting 
as reminding us that there was a time when ' corpse ' 

' 'William Wolfheryng' occurs in a Sussex subsidy roll, 1296. 
(Lower, i. 242.) 

* 'Joan Blackdam ' occurs in Hist. Norfoll^. (Bromcfield, v. 


did not necessarily imply the inanimate frame. 
'Behold, they were all dead corpses/ found in our 
Authorized Version, was no tautology, it would appear, 
even in the seventeenth century. Thus do changes 
creep over the lives of words as well as men. 

We might fill a book with these descriptive 
compounds — surnames so whimsical, so absurdly 
humorous that they manifestly could not live. For 
instance, we meet in the thirteenth and fourteenth 
centuries with such a sobriquet as ' William Honde- 
shakere,' which no doubt spoke for the hearty good- 
will of its easy possessor, ' Geoffry Chese-and-brede* 
seems to refer to the peculiar taste of its owner, 
while ' Arnold Scutelmouth ' would be a sarcasm on 
personal capacity for such things. ' Alan Swet-in- 
bedde ' would not be an acceptable cognomen, nor 
'William Badneighbour,* nor 'Thomas Two-year-olde,' 
nor 'Geoffrey Dringke-dregges,' nor 'Anna Hellicate' 
(hell-caty 'Alice Gude-ale-house ' was evidently a 
homely landlady, who kept her tavern in good repute 
by assiduous attention and good-humoured ways. 
* William Kepegest ' would seem to bespeak the kindly 
cheer of more private hospitality, while ' John Dry- 
bread,' if not stingy, was doubtless crusty. ' John 
Ratelle-bagge,' or ' John Leve-to-day,' or ' Serle 
Go-to- Kirk,' or 'Thomas Horsenail,' or 'John Light- 
harness,' or ' Richard Myldew,' or ' John Buckleboots,* 
or 'Edward Tortoise-shell,'^ or 'John Hornbuckle,* 

' ' Anna Hellicate' was called before the Archdeacon of Durham, for 
not coming to the Church, 27th July, 1673.' {Dean Granville's Letters, 
Surt. Soc.) 

* This most curious name appears in the Manchester Directory for 


while conveying no slight upon the character, would 
be obnoxious enough as surnames. Our * Doolittles,' 
* Lovejoys,' ' Scattergoods,' ' Makepeaces/ and ' Hate- 
wrongs ' belong to this same category. ' A large and 
varied assortment of this class will be found in the 
notes to this chapter, and to them I refer the reader. 
They are of a class which were especially popular at 
the time of which we are writing. Many of them are 
used as expletives in the railing poets and writers of 
the period. For instance, the author of ' Cocke 
Lorelle's Bote ' speaks of — 

' Slingthrift Flcshmonger,' 
Also 'Fabian Flatterer,' and 'Cicely Claterer,' 
With 'Adam Avenis,' flail-swinger, 
And ' Francis Flaproach,' . . . 
With 'Giles Unreste,' mayor of Newgate, 
And 'Lewis Unlusty, the leesing-monger.' 
Here is ' Will Wily,' the mill-pecker (thieQ, 
And ' Patrick Peevish,' hairbeater. 
With ' Davy Drawlatch ' ' of Rockingham. 
Also 'Hick Crookneck,' the rope-maker, 
And 'Steven Meascllmouth,' mussell-taker, 
With 'Gogle-eyed Thompson,' shepster of Lynn. 

The above selection of fancy names will give us a 
fair idea of the kind of sobriquet which went down 
with the lower orders during the Angevine and 
Plantagenet dynasties. 

But the largest branch of descriptive compounds 
is yet to be mentioned. We find not a few instances 
where names of simple relationship or occupation or 
office, or even, we may add, of patronymic character, 
having become compounded with adjectives expres- 
sive of the feeling of those with whom the nominee 
had to deal, naturally place themselves under this 

* This seems to have been a surname— 'John Dravvlace' (W. l8). 


same category. These, so far as they have come 
down to us, are generally of a favourable, or at least 
harmless, description. Thus, to notice Christian 
names first, this has especially been the case with 
' John.' Probably as this sobriquet grew into favour 
the practice became the means of distinguishing be- 
tween several of the same title. Thus, as I hinted in 
my previous chapter, if John were doughty, he became 
*Prujean,'^ that is, preux-jean ; if fat, 'Grosjean;' if 
young, ' Youngjohn ; ' '^ if clownish, ' Hobjohn ; ' if big, 
' Micklejohn ; ' if small, ' Littlejohn,' ^ or ' Petitjean ; ' * 
if of a sunburnt countenance, ' Brownjohn ; ' ^ and if 
comely or well proportioned, ' Properjohn ; ' thus pre- 
serving a once familiar sense of ' proper,' which we 
may meet with in such an olden phrase as a ' proper 
knight,' or in our present Authorized Scripture 
Version, where our translators make St. Paul speak of 

' The President of the College of Physicians in 1665 was Sir 
Francis Prujean, Bramston, in his Autobiography (Cam, Soc), styles 
him • Prugean.' 

* The newspapers for June 6th, 1874, mention a 'Mr, Youngjohn * 
in connection with an election petition at Kidderminster. 

* We have already noticed that ' Robin-hood ' had become in itself a 
surname. It is quite possible our ' Little-johns ' have arisen in a simi- 
lar manner. Little John, I need not say, was as carefully represented 
at the May-day dance as Robin himself or Maid Marian. Ritson has 
preserved us a rhyme on the subject — 

' This Infant was called Juhn Little,' quoth he 
' Which name shall be changed anon ; 
The words we'll transpose, so wherever he goes, 
His name shall be called " Little John." ' 

* ' Item, to Guillam de Vait, Guillam de Trope, and Pety John 
mynstralles, iv/.' {Trevely an Papers, ii. 20. Cam. Soc.) 

' We might be tempted to place our ' Brownbills ' here, but I have 
recently shown them to be representative of the old and famous pikes 
known as 'brownbills,' used so commonly in war previous to the 
introduction of gunpowder. 


Moses in his infancy as a ' proper child.' ' Lastly, we 
have the estimable ' Bonjohn,' the origin, I doubt not, 
of ' Bunyon ' and ' Bunyan,' the familiar bearer of the 
latter form of which we shall all doubtless admit to 
be well worthy his name. It is happy chance that 
when we speak, as we often do, of ^ good John Bun- 
yan,' we simply give him a reduplication of that very 
title which none more richly merits than he. In 1310 
there was a ' Jon Bonjon ' in London, and still earlier 
than this a ' Durand le Bon Johan' figures in the 
Hundred Rolls. ^ Several others we may mention, 
more Saxon in their character, and all long obsolete, 
save one. Indeed, I doubt not they died with their 
original possessors. These are ' Robert Good-robcrt ' 
(P.) and ' Richard White-richard ' (J.), ' William Holy- 
peter ' (A.) ' William Jolif-wiU ' (A.) {i.e. ' Jolly-Will '),' 
and ' William Prout-picrre ' (M.). ' William Grood- 
hugh ' (M.), however, has contrived to hold his own, 
unless, as Mr. Lower thinks, it belongs not to this 
category, but one I have already surveyed, that re- 
garding complexion. Its early form of ' Godhewc ' 
would seem perhaps to favour his notion. Names of 
this class, however, are rare. When \\c come to oc- 

' Thus Desdemona says to Emilia {Othello, iv. 3) — • 
' This Lodovico is a proper man ; ' 
and the latter responds — 

' A very handsome man.' 

' ' Apple-John ' must be looked upon as a nickname taken from the 
fruit of that name. An apple-john was a species of apple which was 
never fully ripe till late in the season, when it was shrivelled. Hence 
Shakespeare's allusion in 2 Hcniy IV. ii. 4. 'Sweet-apple' will belong 
to this category. 

* * Full-James' must be looked upon as a corruption of Foljaml^. I 
prefer the original, though that is not complimentary. 

' NICKNAMES.' 505 

cupation the instances are much more common. 
Thus if we have ' Husband,' who doubtless owes his 
origin to his economical rather than his marital posi- 
tion, we have, besides, ' Younghusband ' — in his day, 
I dare say, a somewhat precocious youth — the now 
obsolete ' Goodhusband ; ' if ' Skinner,' then ' Lang- 
skinner ; ' if ' Wright,' then ' Longwright ' or ' Longus- 
Faber,' as it is Latinized in our rolls ; if ' Smith,' then 
' Gros-smith,' that is ' big-smith,' or ' Wild-smith ' or 

* Youngsmith ;' or if ' Groom,' then ' Good-groom '' and 

* Old-groom.' If we have * Swain,' we had also 

* Goodswain,' or ' Brownswain,' or ' Madswain,' or 

* Summerswain,' or ' Cuteswain,' or ' Colswain ' (that 
is, deceitful swain , or ' Littleswain ; ' if ' King,' '^ then 
' Littleking,' ' Coyking,' ' Brownking,' ' Whiteking,' 
and 'Redking;' if ' Hine,' or ' Hyne,' or 'Hind,' 
a peasant somewhat similar to Swain, then also 
' Goodhyne ; ' if * Bond,' then ' Youngbond ; ' if 
' Knave ' or servant, then ' Smartknave,' ' White- 
knave,' ' Brownknave,' and ' Good knave,' the latter a 
strange compound to modern ears ; ^ if ' Clerk,' then 
' Bonclerk,' ' Bcauclerk,' ' Goodclerk,' ' Mauclerk,' '' and 

' This name lingered on till 1674 at least, for one of the private 
musicians attached to the household of Charles II. was 'John Gode- 
groome.' (Plde Chappell's Ballad Literature, p. 469.) 'Robert le 
Godegrom ' had appeared three centuries before in the Hundred Rolls. 

* ' King ' I have already suggested as a sobriquet given to one who 
represented such a rank in some mediaeval pageant. Peculiarities of 
stature, manner, or dress would readily give rise to the compound forms. 

* Archbishop Chichele, when founding All Souls' College, purchased 
for this purpose the sites of • Beresford's Hall, St. Thomas's Hall, 
Tyngewyck Hall, and Godknave Hall.' {^Ilist. Univ. Oxon, vol. i. 

P- I9S-) 

Probably its founder bore that name. 

* 'Godfrey Mauclerk' was mayor of Leicester in 1286. Also, 


'Redclerk;" if 'Page,' then ' Littlepage ' ^ and 

* Smallpage,' and to put it here for convenience, ' Law- 
page ; ' if * Wayt,' a * watchman,' then * Smartwayt,' 

* Stertwait' (active, on the alert), and * Goodwayt ;' if 
' Man ' or ' Mann,' a rcHc of the old ' le Man ' or 
menial, then also ' Goodman,' a term, however, which 
became early used of any honest householder.' ^ ' Le 
Mayster ' or * Master ' was common enough, but I am 
sorry to say I have not lighted upon a ' Goodmayster ' 
as yet. Thus * Fellowe ' also, or ' Fcllowes,' as we now 
have it, is met by ' Goodfellow ' and ' Longfellow ; ' 
' Child ' by ' Goodchild ' and the obsolete ' Evilchild ; ' 
' Son ' by ' Littleson ' and ' Fairson ; ' ' Sire ' by ' Lit- 
tlesire ' and ' Fairsire ; ' ' Nurse ' by ' Goodnurse,' and 

* Fowl ' by ' Goodfowl.' Norman equivalents for these, 
however, were not wanting. ' Goodfellow ' had its 
mate in ' Boncompagnon,' ' Good body ' in ' Bonecors,' 
' Goodwait ' in * Bonserjeant,' * Goodclcrk ' < in ' Bon- 

' Walter Malclerk' (P.P.). Corrupted into 'Manclerk,' this name still 
exists. (Cf. Clerical Directory, 1874.) 

' ' Jolian le Redeclerk, hosier dc Coventry.' (V. 9, p. xxiv.) 

* The first ' Litllepage ' I can light upon is in the case of ' John 
Littlepage ' and 'Joan Littlepage,' persecuted for their religion in 1521. 
(Foxe's Marty rology.) 

* ' Man ' in the sense of .servant is found appended to several 
Christian names. Thus we come across such combinations as ' Mathew- 
man,' 'Harriman,' and 'Thomasman.' The wonder is more are not 
to be met with. The customary way of registering servants in the old 
rolls is 'William Matthew's man,' or 'John's man Thomas.' Thus 
the surname arose. The Proceedings in Kent, 1640 (Cam. Soc), 
contained the name of 'Nicholas Ilodgman,' and 'John Ilobman' was 
buried May 17th, 1649. {Smith's Obituary. Cam. Soc.) 

* 'Grant to Henry Goodclerk for his services in the parts beyond 
the sea, 23rd Sep. 1485.' {^Materials for Hist. Henry VII., p. 557.) 


clerk,' and ' Goodman ' ' in * Bonhomme ' (our present 

* Bonham ') "^ and ' Prudhomme ' or ' Pridham.' ' Evil- 
child ' found itself face to face with * Malenfant,' 
' Littlesire ' with ' Petitsire,' * Goodchild ' with ' Bony- 
fant,' * Bonenfant,' or ' Bullivant,' as we now have it, 
and * Godson ' or ' Goodson,' it may be, with ' Bonfils ' 
or 'Boffill.' We have still 'Clerk,' but 'Bonclerke,' 
if not ' Beauclerk,' is obsolete ; * Squier,' but ' Bon- 
squier ' has disappeared ; ' Chevalier ' also thrives, 
while ' Bonchevalier ' is extinct. In some cases the 
simple and the compound forms are both wanting. 
It is so with our former ' Vadlets ' and ' Bonvalets,' 
our ' Vileins,' ' Beauvileyns,' and ' Mangevileyns ' 
(scabby), our ' Queynts ' and * Bonqueynts,' and our 

* Aventures ' and ' Bonaventures,' the latter sobriquet 
evidently given to one who had acquitted himself well 
in some mediaeval joust or tournament. It is found 
in several records. Piers Plowman uses the term 
simple, when he speaks of Faith crying — 

As dooth an heraud of armes, 
When aventrous cometh to justes. 

' Christian,' which may be but the proper name, still 
lives, though ' Bonchristien ' is gone ; and ' Count,' 
too, lingers, ' Boncount ' being obsolete. Sometimes, 
strangely enough, the French idiomatic compounds 
got literally translated into Saxon, resulting in terms 
of utterly different meaning. Thus, as I have already 
shown, ' Beaupere ' met face to face with * Fairsire,' 

' ' Goodwife ' seems to have existed formerly. A ' William Good- 
wyfe' was Rector of Stapleford, Herts, in 1443. (Cluttcrbuck's 
Hertfordshire, vol. ii. p. 218.) 

* ' Alan Bondame' represents the feminine (P. P.). 


' Beaufiz ' ^ with * Fairchild,' and * Beaufrere ' with ' Fair- 
brother.' But this bare and naked translation into 
the vernacular seems to have been a general prac- 
tice. The Norman ' Petyclerk,' for instance, was 
speedily met by ' Smalwritere,' ' Blauncpayne * by 
' Whitbred,' and * Handsomebody,' over which much 
obscurity has lingered, is, I have no hesitation in as- 
serting, a directly Saxonised form of ' Gentilcors,' a 
name not unfrequently met with at this date. 

Many of the names I have mentioned above, how- 
ever, are, strange to say, being reproduced in the 
present day after a curious fashion. The multiplica- 
tion of forenames has been the primary cause of this.'* 
In many cases these, by becoming as it were adjec- 
tives to the surname, form sobriquets no less ludicrous 
and striking than those which for that very reason 
so soon became obsolete. Thus such a combination 
as ' Choice Pickrell ' is exactly equivalent to * Good- 
herring ' just alluded to. ' Arch Bishop ' restores the 
archiepiscopal name which fell into abeyance in the 
twelfth century ; while such other names as ' Perfect 
Sparrow,' ' Savage Bear,' ^ ' Royal King,' ' Sing Song,' 

' John Beaufitz was Sheriff of Warwick in 1485. 

' A curious circumstance happened, 1 believe, but a few years ago, 
causing the increase of a forename, unintended, we may feel sure, by 
those most immediately concerned. A child was taken to church to 
be baptized. The clergyman at the usual place turned to the mother 
and asked what name the infant was to bear. ' Robert,' was the reply. 
'Any other name?' he inquired. 'Robert honly,' she answered, 
her grammar not being of the best description. 'Robert Iloniy, I 
baptize thee, in the name,' etc., at once continued the clergyman, and 
the child was therefore duly so registered. 

* A 'Savage Bear' was at large in Kent a few years ago. (Lower 
i. 177.) 


' Ivory Mallet/ ^ * More Fortune,' ^ * Christmas Day,' 
' Paschal Lamb,' ' River Jordan,' ^ or * Pine Coffin,' * 
may be met by designations equally absurd, if less 
travestied. These, of course, must be attributed to 
mere eccentricity on the part of parents, rather than 
to accident. Combinations of this kind, however, 
have arisen of late years through another circum- 
stance. It not unfrequently occurs that through 
certain circumstances two family names arc united. 
Thus we have such conjunctions as ' Burdett-Coutts ' 
or ' Sclater-Booth.' Speaking of these reminds me of 
a story I have heard anent a combination of this kind. 
A certain gentleman, it is said, of the name of Colley, 
in bequeathing in his will a considerable estate to a 
friend of the name of * Mellon,' made it the condition 
of his acceptance that the legatee added his bene- 
factor's name to his own. His friend had no objec- 
tion to the property, but when he found that his ac- 
quiescence in the terms imposed would make him 
* Mellon-Colley ' to the end of his days, he considered 
the matter afresh and declined the offer. 

' 'Ivory Malet' (D.D.) This, though registered in the xiiith, would 
seem to have anticipated the croquet of the xixth cent. ' Ivray ' was a 
baptismal name at the earlier date. 

^ 'More Fortune, bayliff of St. Martin's, died May 17th, 1367.' 
{SmM's Obituary, p. 13.) 

' 'May 27th, 1805. River, son of River and Rebecca Jordan.' 
(^Christenings, St. Ann's, Manchester.) 

* Several ' Pine Coffins ' may be seen in the Clerical Directories of 


(3) Nicknames from Oaths, Exclamations^ Street- 
cries, and Mottoes. 

{a) Oaths. — A remarkable, though not a very- 
large, batch of surnames is to be referred to perhaps 
the most peculiar characteristic of all — that of the use 
of profane, or at least idle oaths. The prevalence of 
imprecations in mediaeval times was simply extraor- 
dinary.' If the writings of that period bear but the 
faintest comparison to the talk of men, their conver- 
sation must have been strangely seasoned. For in- 
stance, in the ' Canterbury Tales ' we find introduced 
without the slightest ceremony such oaths as ' for 
Cristes passion,' ' by Goddes saule,' ' for Cristes 
saule,' ' by Goddes dignitec,' ' Goddes banes,' ^ 
' Cristes pcin,' ' Goddes love,' ' Goddes hate,* 'Cristes 
foot,' * God me save,' and the more simple ' By-God,' 
or ' Parde ' or ' Pardieu.' That they are mostly mean- 
ingless is their chief characteristic. 'JohnPardieu' inthe 
Rolls of Parliament will represent our many * Pardews,' 
' Pardows,' ' Pardoes,' and ' Pardies ; ' and although I 
have given a different origin in my second chapter,^ I 
may mention ' Alina le Bigod ' (J.), or 'John le Bygot* 
(M.). ' Barbara Godselve ' -* (F.F.), 'Richard Godes- 

* 'Jean Gottam,' the Frenchman's title for 'John Bull,' is old. A 
witness in the trial of Joan of Arc used the term 'Godon,' and ex- 
plained it to be a sobriquet of the English from their use of the oath 
' God damn.' 

* A clever article in the Edinburgh Rcvinv, April 1855, suggests 
' Blood ' and * Death ' from ' S'Blood ' and ' S'Death,' the abbreviated 
' God's blood ' and ' God's death.' 

' Vide page 160. Camden says the Normans were so called because 
' at every other word they would swear by God. ' 

* ' Henry Godsalve' entered C.C. Coll. Cam. in 1614. {Mas/as^ 
Hist., C.C. Coll.) 

' NICKNAMES.' 5 1 1 

name' (X.), 'Richard Godbeare' (Z.), (now 'Godbeer,' 

* Godbehere,' and ' Goodbeer '), ' Roger Godblod ' (E.) 
(God's blood), 'Alicia Godbodi' (A.) (God's body), 
seem all to be representative of familiar imprecations. 

{b) Mottoes. — In many cases we can scarcely doubt 
that ensigncy has had something to do with the 
origin of our surnames. Edward III. at a tourna- 
ment had his trappings embroidered with the couplet — 

Hay, hay, the white swan, 
By God's soule I am thy man. 

' Godsol ' and ' Godsoule ' formerly existed, and may 
have so risen. Among other names of this class may 
be mentioned ' Janett God-send-us '' (W. 13), 'Roger 
Deus-salvet-dominas,' ^ ' John God-me-fetch,' ' John 
Dieu-te-ayde,' ' John Flourdieu,' ' Henry Grace-dieu,' ' 

* Henry Warde-dieu,' 'John Depart-dieu,' and 'John 
Angel-dieu.' * From the escutcheons of their wearers 
these would easily pass on to the men themselves 
who first bore them as surnames. 

{c) Exclamations. — ' Peter Damegod ' (M.) and 
'John Domegode' (O.), meaning literally 'Lord God,' 
represent a once favourite expletive.^ We are here 

' ' Item, to Jannett God-send-iis, I give a caldron, and a pare of 
tonges.' (Extractor will of William Hardinge, Vicar of Heightington, 
1584. W. 13.) The editor suggests she was a foundling. 

^ The Saturday Review, in a criticism of my book, mentions a 
Rogerus Deus-salvet-dominas in the Essex Domesday. 

' ' Mr. Gracedieu, Incumbent of St. James's, Duke's Place.' (Strype, 
London. ) 

* A curious heraldic name is found in the 17th cent. John 
Poyndexter, fellow of Exeter Coll., Oxford, was dispossessed. 
(Walker, Sufferings of the Clergy.) 

* Our ' Olyfadres ' will similarly be the expletive ' Holy-father,' 
unless, like ' Thomas Worthship ' (Z, ), the name be but a title of respect 
to some ecclesiastic functionary. 


reminded that there was a time when ' Dame,' from 
dominus and domina alike, was applied to either 
sex. One or two exclamations of less objectionable 
import are also to be met with. ' William Godthanke' 
(A.) seems but a reversal of our ' Thank God,' while 
' Ralph Godisped ' (A.), fossilised in our ' Goodspeeds,' 
may represent ' God-speed-thee.' ' * Richard Fare- 
wel' (A.)/ Simon Welfare' (A.), ' John Welcome' (Z.Z.), 
'William Adieu ' (M.), would possess affixes readily 
given for their kindly and oft utterance. Our ' Rumme- 
lows,' ' Rummileys,' and ' Rumbelows,' without dis- 
pute, represent but the old well-known cry of * Rom- 
bylow' or * Rummylow,' the sailor's 'Heave-ho' of 
later days. In the ' Squire of Low Degree ' it is said — 

Your mariners shall synge arow, 
Hey how, and rumbylow. 

The ancestor of those who bear the name was doubt- 
less a sailor at some period of his career.'^ 

(d) Strcct-crics. — The calls of hawkers could not 
of course escape the good-humoured raillery of our 
forefathers. We find 'Robert Freshfissh' (X.) to 
have been a fishmonger, and ' John Freshfisch ' is set 
down in the Rolls of Parliament. About the same 
time * Margaret Frcssheharyng ' dwelt in the Me- 
tropolis. ' Agnes Godcfouelc ' (A.) and ' Basilia God- 
fowele ' (A.) were manifestly poultry-women, for even 
the most respectable occupations were then, as I have 
already shown, itinerant. But perhaps the most 
curious thing of all is to notice the price-calls that have 

' 'Good-speed' may belong to the same class as Swift, Golightly, 
Lightfoot, Roefoot, etc.— V. p. 388. 

* The Constable of Nottingham Castle in 1369 was one Stephen 
Rummelowe, or Riunbilowc, for both forms are to be found. 


found themselves inscribed in our registers. The 
larger sums will have a different origin, but I place 
them here for convenience sake. The Writs of Parlia- 
ment give us a ' Robert Peny ; ' the ' Wills and In- 
ventories ' ^Surt. Soc), a ' Thomas Fourpeni ; ' the 
Hundred Rolls, a ' John Fivepeni ; ' the ' Cal. 
Rot. Originalium,' a ' Thomas Sexpenne ; ' the ' York- 
shire Wills and Inventories ' (Surt. Soc), a ' John 
Ninepennies ; ' and the Hundred Rolls, a ' Fulco 
Twelpenes.' ^ 'James Fyppound ' (Fivepound) is men- 
tioned in ' Materials for History of Henry VII.' So 
early as 1342 we find 'John Twenti-mark ' to have 
been Rector of Risingham (Norfolk, i, 64) ; while 
' William Hunderpound ' was Mayor of Lynn Regis in 
1417 (do. viii. 532). This latter may be a translation 
of a Norman sobriquet, for ' Grace Centlivre ' and 
'Joseph Centlivre' are set down in a Surrey register 
of the same date. (' Hist, and Ant. Survey,' Index.) 
In both cases, I doubt not, the nickname was acquired 
from the peculiarity of the source whence the income 
was derived. ' Centlivre ' existed in the eighteenth 
century at least, for it was Mrs. Centlivre who wrote 
the 'Platonic Lady,' which was issued in 1707, 
' Thomas Thousandpound,' the last of this class, ap- 
pears in the ' Wardrobe Accounts' (Edward I.), and 
concludes a list as strange as the most ardent ' lover 
of the curious ' could desire.^ 

' ' Fulco Twclvepence ' was perhaps related to 'Robert Sliillyng,' 
found in the ' Patent Rolls ' (Slate Paper OfTice). 

' A most anachronistic name is met with in the ' Calend. Inquis. 
Post Mortem,' 30 Henry VI., in the entry 'Robert Panknott.' A 
• knot' was a small local prominence. On the bank or side of this the 
nominee doubtless dwelt. 


Looking back, however, upon these eadier names, 
how many varied and conflicting qualities of the 
human heart do they all reflect, some honourable, 
some harmlessly innocent, the greater part, I fear, dis- 
creditable. Of all how much might be said, but I 
refrain, lest I be liable to a charge of acting contrary 
to the spirit of the kindly old adage, ' de mortuis nil 
nisi bonum ' — ' speak no evil of the dead.' Thus tell- 
tale, however, are our surnames, and if it be no plea- 
sant task to expose the weaknesses and the frailties 
of them whose bones have so long ere this crumbled 
into decay, still we may comfort ourselves with the 
remembrance that their names, with many others I 
could have adduced had space permitted, offer no 
kind of reflection upon their present possessors. It is 
not unseldom we see the bearer of a worthy name 
dragging the same through the dust and mire of an 
ignoble life. It is amongst these names of somewhat 
unsavoury origin v\'c oftentimes meet with the best, 
and the truest, and the noblest of our fellows. 

The Alphabetical Letters appended to the Names furnished 
in the Index refer to the Documents in the List here 

Hundred Rolls. A. 

Calendarium Inquisitionum Post Mortem. B. 

Calendarium Rotulorum Patcntium in Turri Londinensi. C. 

Calendarium Rotulorum Chartanim. D. 

Rotuli Litterarum Clausarum in Turri Londoncnsi. E. 

Valor Ecclesiasticus. F. 

Calendarium Rotulorum Originalium. G. 

Rolls of Parliament. H. 

Placilorum in Dom. Cap. Westminster. "J. 

Testa de Neville, sive Liber Feodorum. K. 

Calendarium Genealogicum. L. 

Writs of Parliament. M. 

Munimenta Gildhalloe Londoniensis. N. 

Issues of the E.xchequer. O. 

Issue Roll. P. 

History and Antiquities of York (Pub. 1785). Q. 

Placita de Quo Warranto. R. 

Guild of St. George, Norwich. S. 

Excerpta e Rotulis Finium in Turri Lcndinensi. T. 

V. Camden Society Publications. 

V. I. Bury St. Edmunds Wills. 

V. 2. Dingley's History from Marble. 

V. 3. Trevelyan Papers. 

V. 4. Camden Miscellany. 

V. 5. Smith's Obituary. 

V. 6. Diary of John Rous. 

V. 7. Liber Famelicus— Sir James Whitelock. 

V. 8. Chronicon Petroburgense. 

V. 9. Proceedings against Dame .Mice Kytcler. 

V. 10. Autobiography of Sir John Hramston. 

V. II. Doomsday Book of St. Paul's. 

V. 12. Ricart's Kalendar. 

V. 13. Proceedings in Kent. 

/'. 14. Rutland Papers. 
W. Surtces' Society Publications. 

\V. I. Coldingham Priory. 

\V. 2. Testamenta libor. 

\V. 3. Durham Household Book. 
L L 2 



































Kirkby Inquest. 

Knight's Fees. 

Norn. Villanim. 

Illustrative Documents. 

Priory of Finchdale. 
( Fabric Rolls of York Minister. 
I Wills and Inventories. 

Hc.\ham Priory. 

Corpus Christi Guild. 

Hist. Dunelm. 

Barnes' Eccles. Proceedings. 

Visitation of Yorkshire. 

Feodarum Prior. Dunelm. 

Depositions from York Castle. 

Memorials of Fountains Abbey. 

Depositions and Ecctes. Proceedings. 

Liber Vitre. 

Remains of Dean Granville. 
Memorials of London (Riley). X. 

Proceedings and Ordinances : Privy Council. Y. 

Calendar of Proceedings in Chancery (IClizabeth). Z. 

The Publications of the Chetham Society. A A. 

Wills and Inventories (Lancashire). A A. i. 

Three Lancashire Documents. A A. 2. 

Lancashire Chauntries. A A. 3. 

Birch Chapel. A A. ^. 

Rotuli Normanniae in Turri Londinensi. B D. 

Documents Illustrative of English History. D D. 

Index to 'Originalia et Memoranda.' E E. 

History of Norfolk (Bromefield). /•'/•'. 

Fines (Richard I.). G G. 

History of Hertfordshire (Clutterbuck). // H. 

Rotuli Curias Regis. M Af. 

Calendar and Inventories of the Treasury. A'^ N. 

History of Leicestershire (Xicholl's). P P. 

Register — St. James, Piccadilly. (J Q. 

State Paper office. P P. 

Patent Rolls. A' P. i. 

Compoti. P P. 2. 

Issue Rolls. P P. 3. 

History of (Surtees). S S. 

State Papers (Domestic). T T. 

Materials for History of Reign of Henry VII. A' A', i. 

Registrum Abbatia; Johannis Whethamstede. XX. 2. 

Letters from Northern Registers. X X. 3. 

Calendar to Pleadings (Elizabeth). Z Z, 


Ablet t, 

A ARON, 83. Aaron le Blund, T. 
■^ Aron Judde, A. 
A'Becket {v. Beckett) 85. 
Abbe, 191. Radulf le Abbe, C. 
Abbott, 191. Juliana Abbot, A. Ric. 

Abbot, M. 
Abel, 82. Abel le Orfeure, T. Thomas 

Abel, A. 
Abigail, 100. Abigail Cordell, Z. Abi- 
gail Tayler, IF 16. 

82. Abalotta de la Forde, 
A. William Abelot, M. 
I Ric. Abelote, Fii. 
Abner, 77. 
Above-brook, 108. John Abovebrok, 

Above-town, 108. Adelina Abovetoun, 

A. William Abovetoun, M. 
Abraham. Gerard Abbraham, A. 

Robert Abraam, A. 
Absolom, 83. Absolon in le Dyche, A. 

Absolon fil. Simon, C. 
Abstinence, 103. Abstinence Rougher, 

104, n. 
Acatour, 210. Bernard le Acatour, M. 

John le Acatour, M. 
Accepted, 104. Accepted Frewen, 

104, «. 
Achatour, 210. Jocius le Achatur, A, 

Henry le Achator, H, 

Acherman {v. Acreman), 259. Alex. 

Acherman, A. 
Acland, 120. John Acklande, Z. 
Acreman, 259. Roger le Acreman, A. 
Acroyd, 120. Henry Aykeroid, Z. Ric. 

de Akerode, W 2. 
Acton, 120. Reinerde Acton, A/. En- 

gelard de Actone, A. 
Adam, 3, 81. Adam fil. Warin, M. 

Adam le Flecher, T. 
Adams, 81. Juliana Adams, ^. Richard 

Addames, ZZ. 
Adamson, 81. Hugh fil. Adam, A. 

Hoel fil. Adam, A. 

)8i. William Adcock, IF 9. 
Stephen Adcock, Z. 
Hamme, son of Adecok, 
A A 2. 
Addison, 81. Gilbert fil. Adae, C. 

Thomas Adesone, R. 
Adela \v. Adelina), 19. Adela uxor 

Roberti, C. 
Adelaid {v. Alard), 21. Adam Adelaad, 

Adelina, 19. Adelina le Hcyr, A. 

Henry fil. Adelyne, A. 
Adieu, 512. William Adieu, M. 
Adkins, 8r. Adekin le Fuller, A. Wil- 
liam Adekyns, EE. 
Adkinson, 81. William Adkinson 
(London: Maitland). 



Adlard (v. Adelard). 

Agate, III. Richard Attc-gate, A. 

Leonard Agate, Z. 
Agatha, 19. Agatha le Karcter, A. 

Agatha do Dene, B. 
Agnes, 19. Thomas fil. Agneta, y. 

Agnes le Bruno, A. 
Agrippina, 100. Agrippina Bingley, 

Aguiler, 342. Thomas le Aguiler, A/. 

William le Aguiler, Q. Lucas le 

Aguler, A. 
Aikman (v. Acreman), 259. 
Ainsworth, 134. Margaret Aynes- 

worthe, Z. 
Akerman (v. Acreman), 259. Peter le 

Akerman, A. John le Akurman, B. 
Alabaster, 225. Richard le Alblaster, B. 

Henry le Alblaster, A/. Reginald le 

Arbelestre, A. 
Alan (v. Allen). Alan fil. Warin, Af. 

Alan le Chapelein, L. 
Alanson (v. Allinson). Brien fil. Alan, 

C. William Alynson, IV 2. Thomas 

Allason, Z. 
Alard, 21. Alard le Fleminge, B. Alard 

le Burser, //. Robert Alard, M. 
Alaric. Robert Alrych, A. Agnes Al- 

rich, A. 
Albert, 29. John Albert, A. Robert 

Alberd, A. 
Alcock, 55. John Alcoc, A. John Al- 

kok, //. 
Alder, 154. 
Alderman, 186. Thomas Alderman, 

y 8. Robert le Alderman, A. 

Benjamin Aldermannus, A. 
Alderson, 21. John fil. Aldrech, C. 

Christopher Alderson, IV 8. 
Aldershot, 116. Robert de Alreshawc, 

A/. Thomas Allshawe, XX. 
Aldred, 21. Aldred fil. Roger, y. 

Aldred Andre, A. 
Aldrech, (21. John Alrich, Af. John 
Aldrich, 1 Aldrich, A. 

Alecot [v. Alicot), 87. 
Alefounder, 392, n. William Ale- 
founder, FF. Mary Alfounder, PP. 

Richard Alefounder, Z. 
Aleman, 165. Custance de Alemania, 

A. William Alcmannus, C. John 

le Aleman, IV 7. 
Alexander, 98 (v. Saunder). William 

Alexandre, A/. Nicholas Alesandre, 

A. Alexander fil. Seman, y. 
Aleyn (v. Allen). Aleyn Forman, //. 

Aleyn, Af. 
Alfred, 21. Alurod fil. Ivo, y. Alfred 

Dionysius Langsomer, A. Robert 

fil. Alfridi, A. 
Alianora, 19, 72. Alianora Bushe, ££. 

Alicia Alianor, P. 
Alice, ("19, 87, //. Nicholas fil. Alicia, 
Alicia, (^ A. Richard fil. .Alice, P. 
Alicot, 87. Alecot fil. Almar, C. Wil- 
liam Alicot, A. 
Alina (i: Alinot), 72. Alina Atte-broc, 

Alinot, f^9. 72. William .Minot. A. 
\linet' i ■'^I'^o' K^*^d, A. Havisia 

' ( Alinet, A 
Allot, 19, 72, 87. Robert Allot, A, 

Walter Allot, A. ,\lyott de Symond- 

ston, A A 2. 
•Mison (i), 87, «. Ric. fil. Alise, A. 
Goselin fil. Alice, A. John 
Alicesone, A'A' i. 
(2), 87, ;/. Alisccon de Tux- 
forth, IF2. Alison Gdyot, 
//. Alison Wrangwish, IV 
.Mkins, 87. John Alkyn, Af. 
Allbright, 29. Aylbreda do Cheny, A. 

Aylbricht le Turner, A. Albrcd de 

laHayc, J. 
.Mlcock, 87. William AUcockc, ZZ. 

John AUcock, ZZ. 
Allen. Thomas fil. Alani, Af Will. 

fil. Alani, P. 
Allinson {v. Alanson). John /Mleyn- 



sone, S. William Aleynsonne, BB. 

George Alonsonne, ZZ. 
Allison {v. Alison), 16, 87. 
AUkins (v. Alkins), 87. 
AUman (v. Aleman), 165. 
Allott, 87. Alote le Messer, A. Alot 

Chapman, FF. Thomas fil. Alote, 

Allured {v. Alfred), 21. Alured Ape, 

A. William Alured, M. 
Almaine {v. Aleman), 165. 

Almaric, ( 18, 29. Almaric Breton, Af. 
Almeric, | Almaricus le Botiller, B. 
Almoner, 193. Robert le Almoner, //. 
Alured {v. Allured), 21. 
Alwright, 278. Richard Alwright, Z. 
Amabilla, 19, 70. Amabilla le Blund, 

B. Amabil fil. Emma, y, 

Amand {v. Samand), 125. Aymer de 

St. Amand, M. 
Amary, 29. Rob. Amary, A. Roger 

Ammary, A. 
Amberson, 29. Richard Amberson, 

29, ;/. Robert Amberson, 29, n . 
Ambler, 440. Thomas le Amblur, A. 

William Ambler, IV g. 
Ame (v. Eame), 429. 
Amelia (v. Emilia), 19, 87, «. 
Amclot {v. Amelia), 87, «. Nic. Amelot, 

A. Ric. fil. Amelot, A. 
Americ, 29. Americus Balistarius, £. 

Americ Wylson, IV 3. 
Amery {v. Emery), 29. Hugh Amery, 

Amiable, 468. Edward Amiable, Z. 

Joan Amiable, Z. Thomas Amablc, 

Amice, 17. Geoff, fil. Amice, /t". Amice 

le Noble, A. Robert fil. Amicie, A/ 
Amiger {v. Armiger), 199. Robert 

Amiger, Z. 
Amiot (v. Amy). Amiot de Pontefracto, 

DD. Walter fil. Amiot, GG. Wil- 
liam Amiot, A. 
Amner {v. Almoner), 193. 

III. Agnes atte-More, .5. 


Amor, \ 

Amore, f ' 

Amy {v. Amelia). Thomas Amye, E£. 

Amy le Strange, FF. 
Ananias, 100. Ananias Dyce, TT. 
Ancell {v. Ansell). William Auncell, AI, 
Anchor, 196. Sarra Ancorita, A. 
Anderson, 94. Alice fil. Andre, A. 

Colyn Andresonne, BB. John An- 

drewson, ZZ. 

94. Nic. fil. Andree, A. 
Emma Andreu, A. An- 
dreas le Orfeure, L. 
Angel-Dei, 511. Henry Angel-Dei, A. 
Anger, 158. Isabella Anger, H. Hugh 

de Angiers, y. Robert Angler, XX. 
Angwin, 158. Geoffrey leAungevyn, Z,. 

Maurice le Anjevin, A. Simon le 

Angevin, F. 
Anker (v. Anchor), 196. 
Anketell, 22. Anketil le Mercer, A. 

Peter fil. Anketill, C. Ankelill fil. 

Thomas, /sT. 
Annabel, 19. Anabilla de Harpham, 

I V 2. Peter fil. Annabel, A/. 

V. Alianora), 72. John 

IAnnotson, FF. Enota 
Coley, A. William An- 
notyson, FF. Anota 
Canun, A. 
Anora [v. Alianora), 72. Annora Vidua, 
A. Annora le Aencurt, A'. Annore 
Beine, A. 
. „ ji I'll. William Ansel, ^. An- 

Anselm, ^^'l'" "^^ Bamburgh, A. 

\ John fil. Ansclmi, A. 
Anser, 403. 
Ansketil {v. Asketil), 24. Robert fil. 

Anskitiel, IV 12. 
Anson, 73. Elisha Annyson, FF. 

Richard Anyson, FF. 
Anthony (v. Antony). 
Antioch, 169. Nicholas Antioch, Af, 

Robert de Antiochia, F. 
Antonison, 54. Agnes Antonison, Z. 



Antony. John fil. Antony, A. Antony 

Stilman, H. 
Anvers, 170. Richard de Anvers, A. 

Thomas de Anvers, E. 
Ape, 492. John le Ape, A. Alured 

Ape, A. 
Apollonia, 100. ApoHonia Cotton, TT. 
Applegarth, 133. Robert del Apelgargh, 

A. Geoffrey de Appelgarth, IC. 
Appletree, 129. Thomas Appletrcc, Z. 
Apple-jolin, 504. 
Appleyard, 261, 133. Nicholas de Apel- 

yerd, A. Thomas Appleyeard, ZZ. 
(225. John le Arblaster, A. 
' \ Reginald le Arblaster, B. 
' \ Urric le Arbelastrc, y. 
Archbishop [v. Archevesk), 186, 508. 

Hugh Archiepiscopus, C. 
Archdeacon, 187. Richard I'Ercedekne, 

V 9. Thomas le Arsdckene, A. 

Adam Ercedekne, A. 
Archer, 225. William le Archer, B. 

Pagan Ic Archier, E. 
Archevesk, 186. Hugo le Archevesk, C. 

William le Arcevcskc, E. 
Archpriest, 187. Roger leArcheprest, y. 
Argent, 168. Reginald de Argente, ^/. 

John de Argentcyn, K. 
\rkcll f^^' ^' Simon fil. Arkill, 
Arkeu'le, ^- ^Villiam Arkell. W ^. 

\ Roger Arketel, A. 
Arkwright, 279. Hugh Arkewright, ZZ. 

Lawrence Arkewrighte, ZZ. 
Arme, 436. 

222. Gsvydo le Armcrcr, A. 
Armcr, Simon le Armurer, G. 

Armcrer, Adam le Armercr, M. 

Marion Armourer, l^'I8. 
Armiger, 199. Thomas Armiger, C. 

Nicholas Armiger, E. 
Armingcr (v. Armiger), 199. JefTry Ar- 

minger, Z. 
Armitagc, 196. John Harmaytayge, IF3. 

Gregory Armitage, Z. 
Armour [v. Armcr), 222. 


(436. Adam le Armstrang, 
G. William le Arme- 
strang, G. Guy le 

Armerecte, A. 
Amison, 28. 
Arnald, 28. Walter fil. Amald, A. 

Arnald atte Brok, A. 
Arnet, 28. Hugh Arnyet, M. Milisent 

Amet, A. 
Arnold {v. Ernald), 28. Amoldus 
Bassctt, E. Arnold Lym, //. Arnold 
Lupus, H. 
Arnott [v. Amett), 28. Emot Stead, 

Amulph. Amulph Dogmaw, A. Arnul- 

fus de Derham, C. 
Arras, 169. Ralph de Arras, A. Robert 

de Arraz, A'. 
Arrowsmith, 227, 281. William Arowe- 

smythe, ZZ. John Arrowsmyth, 

Arsmith (v. Arrowsmith), 227, 281. 

Richard Arsmith, Z. 
Arter, 158. Robert de Artoys, //. 
Arthur, 19, 20. William fil. Arthur!, 

A. Harthurus Bosewyll, It' 2. 
Aquila, 100. Aquila Wykes, TT. 
Ash {v. Ashe), 154. 
Ashburner 264. Peter Ashburner, ZZ. 

Thomas Ashburner, ZZ. 
Ashe 154. Pagancl del Ash, M. Roger 

atte Ashe, FE. 
Asher, 113. 
Ashes, 129. 
Ashford, 146. Walter de Ashford, M. 

Roger Ashford, Z. 
Ashley, 119. John de Ashlegh, A'. 

Oliva de Esscligh, E. 
Ashman, 113. Walter Ascheman, A. 

Thom. Asheman, B. 
Ashover, 128. Walter de Ashoverc, A'..V 

Ashurst, 116. Adam de Ashurst, M. 
John Asshenhyrst, Z. 




Asketil f^' ^^- J°'''^^" Asketil, A. 

A kell I '^""''^'" Asketil, Q. Askill 
' ( le Fisherman, VS. 

Assman, 285. Richard Asseman. A. 
Roger Asman, A. 

Astrier, 241. William le Astrier, E. 

Atcliffe, no. 

Atfield, no. Linota Ate-felde, A. John 
Atefelde, A. 

Athill, no. Bateman .'\te-hil, A. Gre- 
gory Attehill, FF. 

Atkins, 81. William Atkyns, F. Thomas 
Atkyns, H. 

Atkinson, 81. John Attechenson, XX. i. 
Raufe Atkinson, Z. Mariona Atkyn- 
sone, W 19. 

Atlay, 1 119, no. Lawrence Atlee, Z. 

Atlee, I Hugh Atlee, Z. 

110. Walter Atteburg, 
A. John Atte-bury, 

Alton, no. William Atton, B. 

Attridge, no. Jacob Atteriche, ^/. 

Attree, no. 

Attwell (^^°' ^gncs Attc-well, /?. Wil. 

\twcl] ' 1 ^"'^ ^^^^'^' ^^- J°^"^ ^^' 
' [ welle, M. 

Atwater, no. Elias Atwatere, A. 

William Atte- Water. (Lower's Eng- 
lish Surnames.) 
Atwood, no, 154. Richard Ate-wode, 

A. Adam Atte-wood, C. 
Atworth, no. 
Auberkin (v. Aubrey), 29. Walter 

Auberkin, A. 
Aubrey, 28. Albericus Balister, C. Al- 

bricus le Child, T. Aubrey Bunt, A. 
Audrey [v. Awdrey), 302. 
Aumeric [v. Almaric), 17, 26. Robert 

fil. Aumeric, C. 
Aumoner (v. Almoner), 106. Michael 

le Aumoner, B. Walter le Aumoner, 

AI. Adam le Aumencr, G. 
Aunay, 154. 
Aunger {v. Anger), 158. Charles de 


Angers, H. John de Aungiers, M. 

Robert Aungier, XX. i. 
Aunsermaker, 403. Thomas le Aunserc- 

maker, X. 
Aurifaber. Adam le Aurifaber, M. 

Andrew Aurifaber, R. 

IAwsteyne Mayne, Z. Astin 
de Bennington, A. Wilekin 
fil. Austin, C. 
19, 87, n. Avelina Batayl, 
FF. Wydo Aveline, A. 
Avelina le Gros, y. 
219. Walter le Avenur, A. 
William le Avenare, G. Ralph le 
Avener, M. 
Aventure, 507. William Aventur, A. 

Andrew Aventur, A. 
Avery [v. Every), 27. Avery le Batur, 

A. Avere de Dayce, A. 
Avice, 19. Avice le Aubergere, //. 
Avicia de Breaute, E. Hawisia le 
Gros, y. 





[v. Avice), 19. Avis Tailor, 
V 2. Richard fil. Avice, A. 
William Avison, ZZ. 
Await {v. Wait), 184. Thomas le 

Await, AIM. 
Awdrey (3°^- Etheldreda Plote, A. 
Aw dry, j 


Audrey Bendish, 
Awdrie Butts, Z. 
Aylmar, 29. Aylmar Chikl, A. Elyas 

fil. Ailmar, C. Picysaunt Aylmair, H. 
Ayhvard, 21. Simon fil. Aylwardi, R. 

Alan Alward, A. Ranulph Aluard, 

Aylwin, 21. Richard Alwine, A. 

Thomas Ailwyne, AI. 
Aymon, 35. 

T) ABBE {v. Barbara), 75, n. Bertol 

-*-' Babbc, A. 

Bacchus, 131. Edmund atte Bakhus, 

AI. Henry del l^akchouse, AI. 

Thomas Bacchus, ZZ. 
Bacheldor {v. Bachelor), 166. 



Bachelor, 199 - Jordan le Bacheler, L. 

Backler ] Gilbert le Bacholcr, E. 

Backhouse (y. Bacchus). Robert Back- 
house, V. 5. 

Backstcr, 364. Giliana Ic Bacstere, A. 
Geoffrey le Bakestere, M. 

Bacon, 491. John le Bacun, T. Roger 
Bacon, R. 

Badcock (v. Batcock), 92. Roger Bade- 
cok, M. Richard Badcok, H. 

Badger, 295. Nicholas Badger, ZZ,. 
Thomas Badgger, ZZ. 

Badkins [v. Batkins), 92. 

Badman, 194. Simon Bademan, A. 

Badneighbour, 501. William Badneigh- 
bour, PP. 

Bagger (v. Badger), 295. Thomas le 
Baggere, A. John Bagger, XX . i. 

Bagot (v. Bigot) 160. Margery la Ba- 
gode, K. Haney Bagod, E. 

Bagshaw, 117. Nicholas Bagshawe, Z. 
Humphrey Bagshawe, ZZ,. 

Bagshot, 116. John Bagshot, ////. 

Bagster [v. Baxter), 364 

Bailey, \ 

Bailif, (232. Seman le Baylif, "J. 

Baillic, 1 Henry le Baillie, -1/. John 

Baillif, ) le Baillif, B. 

Baird, 310. 

Baker, 363. Robert le Baker, B. Wal- 
ter le Bakare, M. 

Balancer, f 403- K^uf Ic Balancer, M. 

Balauncer, John Balauncer, G. Ra- 

\ dulf Ic Balauncer, N. 

Balcock, 52. 

Bald, 452. Custancc Baldc, A. Richard 
Bald, A. 

Balderson, 52. Ric. fil. Baldcwin, A. 
John fil. Baldewini, A'. AUaine Baw- 
dyson, V i- 

Baldwin, 18, 52. Baudewin de Bitton, 
A. Baldwin Boton, C. Bawdcn 
Maynard (English Gilds, 320). 

Ball [v. Bald), 452. Roesia Balle, A. 

Ballinger {v. Bulhnger), 364. 

Balmer, 263. Christiana de (le?) Bal- 

mere, PP. 
Balster, 225. Thomas Balistarius, Q. 
Bancroft, 132. 

Banker, 414. John le Bancker, M, 
Banknott, 513. Robert Banknott. B. 
Bannerman, 200. 
Barbar {v. Barber), 384, 205. Richard 

le Barbar, A. 
Barbara, 75, ;/. Barbara Bickerdykc, 

IK 16. Barbara Claxtone, IF 19. 
Barbelot, 75, n. Nicholas Barbelot, A. 
Barbot 75, ;/. John Barbot, A. 
Barberess, 384. Matilda la Barbaressc, 

A. Isabel le Barbaresse, A. 
Barber, 205, 384. Bela le Barber, A. 

Luke le Barber, M. 
Barbitonsor, 384. Thomas le Barbi- 

tonsor, J. William le Barbitonsor. H. 
Barbour, 205, 384. Richard le Barbour, 

M. Robert le Barbour, M. 
Bardsley. William de Bardcsley, //. 

Robert de Bardesle, A. 
Barefoot, 440. Norman Barefoot, A. 

Roger Barefoot, Z. 
Barge, 409. Gerard de la Barge, C. 
Barker, 331. William le Barcur, A. 

Osbcrt le Barker, M. Robert Barca- 

rius, A. 
Barkmaker, 290. Edmund Barkmaker, 

Barkman (t'. Barker). John Barkman, 

IF 18. 
Barleybread, 367. Toser Barlibred, M. 
Barleycorn, 367. Richard Barlccorn, A. 
\ 96, 97. Barnabc le Teyl, 
Barnabas [ --/. Burnaybc Brooke, 
Barnaby 1 Z. Barnaby Benison. 

I Z. 
Barnacle, 497. 
Barnc, 202. William le Bamc, A. 

Thomas le Barne, 7". 
Barnes, 135. Warin de la Banie, A 
Baron, 175. Robert le Baron, A. Wal- 
ter le Baron, M. 



Barrel!, 144, 395. John Baryl, A. Ralph 

Bard, A. Gilbert Barrel), Vs. 
Barreller, 395. Stephen le Bariller, E. 
Barter. Hugh le Bartur, A. 
Bartholomew, 91. John Bartylmewe, 

ZZ. Lawrence fil. Bartholemew, A. 
Bartle, 92. John fil. Bertol, A. Bartel 

Frobisher, W 9. Bartly Bradforth, 

Bartlett, 92. Bartelot Govi, A. Thomas 

Bartholot, A. Edward Barthlette, 

FF. Thomas Berthelett, ^^3. 
Baskerville, 151. Sibilla de Baskervillc, 

M. Isolda Baskervillc, E. 
Baskett, 144. 
Bass, 432. Alice la Basse, A. Robert 

le Bas, BB. 
Bastard, 378. Peter le Bastard, B. 

Robert le Bastard, E. Nicholas le 

Bastard, A. 
Batcock, 92. Robert Batecoc, A. John 

Batekoc, M. 
Bateman, 22. Bateman Gille, A. Bate- 
man Taye, A. Bateman de Capele, 

Batemanson, 22. Thomas Batemanson, 

/''. Geoffrey Batmanson, W 2- Richard 

Batmonson, IV 12. 
Batcr, 327. Avery le Batour, A. Adam 

le Batur, A. William Ic Batur, B. 
Bates, 92. Bate Bugge, A. Bate le 

Tackman, A. Bate fil. Robert, A. 
Batkins, 92. Batekyn le Clerk, A. 

Batekin Lahan, A. 
Batson, 92. John Bateson, F. Gilbert 

Batessone, M. 
Batt, 439. Geoffrey Ic Batt, B. Walter 

le Bat, G. 
Battenson \v. Betonson), 68. John 

Battenson, Z. 
Batty, 92. William fil. Battay, W 5. 

Ralph Baty. A'. 
Baucock, <i75. 
Baud, 477. William le Baud, B. 

Wauter le Baud, Af. 

Bawcock, 475. 

Baxter, 364. Elias le Baxtere, Af. 

Barth le Bakesture, B. Andrew le 

Bakester, G. 
Bay, 445. Walter le Bay, A. Robert 

le Bey, B. 
Bayard, 445. Thebald le Bayard, A. 

Thomas Bayard, A 
Bayley [v. Bailey), 197. 
Beaddall, \ 

Beadell, I [v. Bedell), 181. 
Beadle, J 

Beaman [v. Beeman), 262. 
Beanover [v. Over). Richard Beanover, 

Bear, 488. Richard le Bere, A. Law- 
rence le Bere, AI. 
Bearbait, 306. Thomas Barebat, A. 

Alex. Barebat, A. 
Bearbaste, 306. Geoffrey Barebast, A. 

John Barbast, A. 
Beard, 449. Peter Wi-the-Bcrd, D. 

Hugo cum-Barba, A. 
Bearman, 306. Ralph Bareman, A. 
Bearward, 306. Michael le Bereward, 

Beater, 326. John le Betere, A. 
Beaton [v. Beton), 68. 
Beatrice, j 19, 67, Beatrix Cokayn, B. 
Beatrix, | Beatrice de Knol, y. 
Beatson, 68. Walter fil. Betricie, A- 

Richard fil. Beatrice, A'. 
Beau. Richard le Beau, AI. 
Beauchamp, 151. William de Beau- 
champ, K. Isolda de Bello-Campo, 

Beauclerkc, 505. Charles Beauclerkc, 

Beaufils, 430. Henry Beaufitz, AI. 

Hugh Beaufiz, A. John Beaufitz, 

XX. I. 
Bcauflour, 508. Thomas Beauflour, Af. 

Jacobus Beauflour, G. 
Beaufrcre, 430. Roger Beaufrere, Af. 

Walter Beaufrere, Af. 



Beaumont, 151. Alice de Beaumont, M. 

Robert de Beaumond, M. 
Beaupere, 430. 
Bcauvileyn, 507. William Beauvilayn, 

R. William Belvilein, E. 
Beauvoir, 489. Roger de Rclvoir, Af. 
Beaver, 489. John le Bever, G. Ino 

le Bevere, N. 
Beck, 113. William en le Bee, A. 

William atte Beck, M. 
Becker, 113. 

Beckett (i), iii. John de Beckote, A. 
Wydo del Beck't, R. 
(2), Becket fil. Emerie, E. 
Beckman, 113. 
Bedell, 151. Reginald le Bedel, B. 

Roger le Bedel, M. 
Brdson (z'. Betson), 92. 
Bedweaver, 358. Geoffrey Bedvvevere, S. 
Bee (v. Wasp), Nicholas le Be, y. 

Cuthbert Bee, W g. 
Beech, 128. Eufemia de la Bechc, B. 

Robert de la Beche, K. 
Bcccher, 113. John Becher, A. Henry 

le Beechur, A. 
Beechman, 113. 
Beef, 490. Robert le Bof, A. Richard 

b Beef, A. John le Beuf, M. Mary 

Beefe, QQ. 
Beeman, 262. 
Becrbrewer, 379. Lawrence Berbrewer, 

FF. Lambert Beerbruer, W. 11 
Beere, 138. Thomas de la Beere, B. 
B< hind-the-brook, 108. Reginald Be- 

hundebroke, A. 
Bchind-the-water, 108. Thomas Be- 

hundewattre, A. 
Bflham, 443. William Belhom, A. 

William Belhomme, Af. 
Bell (i), 443. I'eter le Bel, A. Walter 
le Bel, G. Robert le Bel, 
(2), 80. Richard fil. Bell, A. 
Bele le Felawe, A. Bcyll 
Horsle, W g. 

(3), 142. John atte Belle, V. 
Richard atte Bell, M. John 
atte Belle, X. 

Bellejambe, 438. Peter Belljambe, A. 
Richard Beljaumbe, M. Alex. Bele- 
jambe, A. 

BcUet, 80. Robert Belet, A. Belet le 
Pestour, H. 

Bellewether, 472. John Bellewether, M. 
Stephen de (le ?) Behvether, MM. 

Bellhouse, 131. Thomas de la Belhous, 
A. Walter atte Belhous, M. 

Bellman, 183, 296. John Belman, ZZ. 
Christopher Bellman, ZZ. 

Bellot {v. Bellet), 80. Adam Belot, A. 

Bellows {v. Bellhouse), 131. John Bel- 
hows, It^2. Isabel Bellows, W 2. 

Bellringer, 183, tt. Sarah Bellringer, 
183 //. 

Bellson, 80. John Bellesone, M. Ann 
Bellson, IF 9. 

Belteste, 435. John Beleteste, A. 

Belzeter, 402. Robert le Belzeterc, B. 
William le Belzetere, B. 

Beman (t;. Beeman), 262. 

Benbow, 462. Roger Benbow, /•'. Wil- 
liam Bendebow, X. 

Benchjr, 414. Roger le Bencher, A. 

Bendbow (v. Benbow), 462. 

Beneath-the-town, io8. Alyva Benethe- 
ton, A. Roger Benethenton, A. 

Benedict (v. Bennet). 

Benison {v. Bennet). Bamaby Beny- 
son, Z. Simon Benesson, /•'. 

Benn {z: Bennet). Eborard Bennc, A. 
Benne fil. Ive, M. Antony Ben, 

Bennet, 189. Reginald fil. Beneyt, A, 
Benet Lorkyn, A^ 

Bennetson (v. Bennet). Roger Bennet- 
son, /•'. William Bennetson, //. Wil- 
liam Bcnctson, 1^17. 

Benson (v. Bennet). Alison Benson, 
IV 17. Ann Bensone, IV g. 




Bercher, 271. Thomas le Bercher, R. 

Dorken le Bercher, A. 
Berecroft, 132. William Barecrofte, 

Berger (v. Bercher), 271. 
Berkley, 119, 129. Robert de Berchelay, 

E. Maurice de Berkelay, A. 
Berman, 306. Alan Berman, M. Wil- 
liam Berman, A. 
Bernard. William fil. Bernard, A. 

Bernard Coronator, A. 
Berner, 236. Reginald le Birner, A. 

Richard le Berner, H. 
Berners, 236. John de Berners, E. 

Matilda de Berners, E. 
Berriman, 138. John Buryman, /•". 

Jane Berryman, Z. 
Berry, 138. Alex, de Bery, B. Nicholas 

de la Bere, B. 
Bertie. Alexander fil. Bcrte, A. 
Berward [v. Beanvard). 
Bessie, 52, n. 
Best, 463, 487. Richard le Beste, A. 

Henry le Beste, X. Edith Beest, Z. 
Be-steadfast, 103. Be-steadfast Elyarde. 
Bcthell, 13. Evan ap Ithell, Z. Jevan 

ap Ithell, Z. 
Beton, 68. Betin de Friscobald, O. 

John Betyn, HH. 
Betonson, 16, 68. Robert Betonson, IF 

II. John Bettenson, PP. Thomas 

Betanson, HH. 
Betson, 68, 92. William Bctoson, IV'2. 

Thomas Bctisson, FF. 
Betsy, 52, ti. 
Betton (v. Beton), 68. James Bctton, 

Betts, 92. Margery Bettes, IV 2. 

Thomas Betts, Z. 
Betty, 92. 
Bevan, 45. Eygncnn ap Yevan, D. 

Howel ap Evan, M. 
Bidder, 314, fi. Ernald le Bidcr, J. 
Biddle [v. Bedell), 181. John Biddle, 

Bidman, 194. 

Bigg, 431. Agatha Bigge, A. Elias 
Bigge, A. 

fi59> 510- Roger le Bygod, A. 
Alina le Bigod, J. William 
le Bygot, A. John le Bygot, 
Bill, 44, 459 

Billingster, 380, «. Henry Billingster,£'.C. 
Billiter {v. Belzetere), 402. Margaret 

Billyetter, FF. Edmund Belletere, /'7=". 
Billman, 222. Richardus Billman, IV 

19. Stephen Bylman, FF. 
Bills, 44. 
Billsmith, 281. 
Bilson, 44. Henry Bilson, Z. Edmund 

Bilsone, FF. Thomas Bilson, A '7. 
Birch, 129. Hugh de la Byrchc, ,-/. 

John atte Birche, M. 
Bird, 493. John le Bird, A. David le 

Bird, A. Ralph le Brydde, F12. 
Birkenshaw, 129, 117. William Burch- 

ingshawe, Z. Robert Beckinshaw, Z. 
Birks {v. Birch), 129. Bartholomew 

Birks, FF. 
Birmingham, 147. John de Burmyng- 

ham, M. William de Bcrmingham, 

Bishop, 186. John le Bissup, A. Robert 

le Biscop, C. 
Bithewater [v. Bywater). 
Black, 444. Ederick le Blackc, A. 

Ste])hen Ic Blak, G. 
Blackamoor, 161. Simon Blakamour, 

A' A" I. Beatri.x Blakamour, A'. Richard 

Blackamore, FF\ 
Blackbeard, 449. Richard Blacberd, 

A. Thomas Blackberd, IF 18. I'etcr 

Blackbeard, IF 20. 
Blackbird, 494. Riiscilla Blackbird, 

494. "■ 
Bhickdam, 500. Joan Blackdam, /•'/■'. 
Blacker, 328. Roger le Blackc re, J/. 

Geoff, le Blakere, M. 
Blackester, 328. William le Bleckestcre, 



A. Richard le Bleckstere, M Robert 
Blaxter, Z. 
Blackeye, 434. Roger Niger-oculus, L. 
Blackhat. Henry Blakhat, Je/i i. 
Blackhead, 435. William Blackhead, 

435i ^- John Blackhead, /''/•'. 
Blackinthemouth, 424. William Black- 

inthemouth, X. 
Blackleach (v. Leach), John Blakeleach, 

A A 3. Thomas Blakelache, A A 3. 
Blacklock, 447. Peter Blacklocke, A. 

Dame Blaikclocke, If^g. 
Blackman, 446. Elias le Blakeman, B. 

Henry Blacman, A. 
Blackmantle, 457. Agnes Blackmantyll, 

IV Ji. 
Blacksmith, 281. Nicholas the Black- 
smith, FF. John Blacksmythe, ZZ. 
Bladesmith, 282. John Bladesmylh, 
SS. John Bladsmith, FF. Thomas 
Bladesmith, S. John Bladesmithe, 
IV 13. 
Blake, 445. Soman le Blake, A. Warin 

le Blake, A". 
Blakeman (v. Blackman), 446. Thomas 

Blakman, IV 17. 
Blamestcr. Robert le Blaimestcr, A. 
Blanche (i), 19, 446. Warin Blanche, A. 

(2), Blanche Chalons, B. 
Blanchet, 446, 454. 
Blanchflower, 442. Faith Blanchflower, 

Blanchfront, 446, 437. Philip Blanch- 
front, FF. Joan Blaunkfront, XX 4. 
Amabil Blancfront, GG. 
Blanchmains, 437. Robert Blanchmains, 

FF. Humbert Blanchmains, PP. 
Blanchpain, 367, 508. Roger Blancpain, 

A. Edmund Blankpayn, I). 
Blank, 446. Riolle le Blanc, C. John 

le Blank, M. 
Blanket, 446, 454. Robert Blanket, B. 

John Blanket, A'. 
Blaxter (z: Blackestcr), 328. 

Blind, 434. Ralph le Blinde, A. Wil- 

le Blynd, y. 
Bliss, 452. John Blisse, A. 
Blisswench, 472. Alicia Blissewenche, A. 
Blocker, 264. Deodatus le Blokkere, A. 

Richard le Blockhewere, £. 
Blond, 446. Reginald le Blond, A. 

Gilbert Blond, FF. 
Blondel, 446. Amicia Blondelle, FF. 

Olive Blondell, FF. 
Blood, 510. William Blood, X. Tho- 
mas Blood, J'F. 
Bloodletter, 383. Thomas Blodletere, 

A. William Bloodletter, X. John 

Bloodlatter, IF 12. 
Blount, 446. David le Blound, B. 

Hugh le Blount, Af. ' 

Blower, 236. Mabil le Blouer, A. 

Robert le Blowere, T. 
Blowhorn [v. Hornblow), 236. Gilbert 

Blouhorn, A. 
Blubber, 469. William Ic Blubere, A. 

Nicholas Blubcr, A. 
Blue, 447. Walter le Bleu, E.. 
Blund, 446. Herbert le Blund, A. Ama- 

bclla Ic Blund, B. 
Blundcll, 446. Jordan Blundel, A^ 

Petronilla Blundel, T. 
Blunt, 446. Alicia le Blunt, B. Sibil 

le Blunt, G. 
Blythe, 463, 472. Antony BIythe, Z. 

Richard Blythe, Z. 
Blythman, 463. William Blythmari, W 

3. Jasper Blithman, Z,. 
Boar, 491. Richard le Bor, A. Robert 

le Bor, E. 
Boaider, 252. 
Boardman, 252. Hugh Boardman, ZZ. 

Peter Boordnian, Z/Z. 
Boatman, 409. Peter Boatman, FF, 

Jacob Boatman, FF. 
Boatswain, 4C9. Richard le Botswcyn, 

;1/. Edward Botswino, Z.. 
Boatwright (f. Botwriglu), 277. 



Bodkin, 51. Robert Bodekin, A. An- 
drew Bawdkyn, IV c). 
Body, 455. William Body, A. Robert 

Body, FF. 
BoffiU (v. Beaufils), 430, 507. 
Bold (i), 467, William le Bold, M. 
Robert le Bolde, /?. 
{2), 136, John do la Bold, A. 
Elias de la Bolde, A. 
Bolderson (z/.Balderson), 52. 
„ , ( 168. Simon de Boleyn, FF. 

r, „ i Richard de Bolovjjne, A. 
BoUen, t u ^ n 1 ^^ 

V John de Boloyne, A. 

Bollinger, 364. Richard le Bollinger, E. 

Boloneis, 168. Stacius le Boloneis, A. 

Bolter, 275. Johnle Boltere, A. Geoffrey 

le Boltere, A. 
Bon, 467. John le Bon, O. Duran le 

Bon, Af. 
Bonamy, 474. William Bienayme, A. 

William Bonamy, A. 
Bonavcnture, 507. John Bonavenlure, 

//. Giot Bonavcnture, y. 
Bonchivaler, 507. John Bonchivalcr, B. 

William Bonchevaler, A'. 
Bonclcrk, 505. Emma Bonclerk, N. 

John Boneclerk, /f. 
Boncount, 507. Guido Boncunte, O. 
Boncristien, 507. Andrew Boncristien, 

Boncompagnon, 506. 
Bond, 254. Ivo Ic Bonde, A. Robert 

le Bond, B. Richard le Bonde, 71/. 
Bondamc, 507. Alan Bondame, PP. 
Bondman, 254. William Bondman, 

XX. I. 
Bone (v. Bon), 467. Thom. le Bone, A. 

Richard le Bone, //. 
Bonecors, 506. Manellus Bonecors, F. 
Bonenfant, 507. Nicholas Boncnfaunt, 

jM. John Boncfaunt, A. Walter 

Bonenfaunt, A. 
Bones, 455. 
Bonfils, 507. 

ii f 507. William Bonhome, A. 
me, \ Agnes Bonhomme, A. 



Bonjohn, 46, 504. Durand le Bonjohan, 

A. John Bon-John, X, 
Bonner, 467. William le Bonere, A. 

Alice le Bonere, A. 
Bonnivant, 507. John Bonnyvaunt, Z. 

John Bonyfant, Z. 
Bonqueynt, 507. Andrew le Bonqueynt, 


Bonserjeant, 506. John Bonserjeant, A. 

Richard Bonsergaunt, G. 
Bonsquier, 507. Wiliam Bonsquier, A. 

Walter le Bonesquier, AfAf. 
Bontemps, 467. Thomas Bontcmps, F/-'. 
Bonvalet, 507. John Bonvalet, y. 

Richard Bonvallet, A. 
Bonyfant (v. Bonenfant), 507. Henry 

Bonyfant, A. 
Bookbinder, 405. John Bokbyndere, X. 

Dionisia le Bokebyndere, X. Robert 

Bukebynder, IF 9. 
Boon (v. Bon), 467. Alice le Bonne, ^-f, 

William Boon, B. 
Boor, Robert le Boor, B. Robert le 

Boor, G. 
Booth, 135. Nicholas de la Bothe, A. 

Odo de la Booth, F/\ 
Boothman, 135. Roger Bothman, A. 

Henry Bootheman, ZZ. 
Borden, 118. John do Borden, C. 

Mathew de Borden, F. 
Border (v. Boarder), 252. 
Bordman (v. Boardman), 252. Ralph 

Bordman, ZZ. James Bordman, FF. 
Borehunt, ^38. Henry Borehunte, D. 
Bonoughs, 138. 
Borrows, 138. 
Boshcr, 264. 
Boswell. Henry de Boscvil, /i. John 

de Boseville, A. 
Botcher (v. Butcher), 374. Elias le 

Bochcr, M. John Ic Bocher, Af. 
Botcler (v. Butler), 211. Ralph le Bote- 

ler, B. Walter le Boteler, Af. 



Botiler (v. Butler), 117. Teobald le 

Botiler, A. Richer le Botiller, A. 
Botwright, 277. John Botewright, FF. 

Bartholomew Botwright, Z. 
Boulter (v. Bolter), 275. 
Bourdon (v. Burdon) 461. 
Boutflower {v. Bcauflour), 442. Mar- 
garet Butflower, FF. William Beau- 
flour, B. 
Boville, 151. Warin do Boville, A. 

William de Bo vile, A. 
Bowcher, 374. John Bowcher, ZZ. 

William Bowcher, ZZ. 
Bowen, 12. Griffin ap Oweyn, /?. Jane 

Abowen, Z. James Aphowen, XX 2. 

j (i), 226, John le Bower, A. 

' I (2), 135, Richard atteBowre, M. 

Bowerman, 135. William Bourman, F. 

Bowler, 388. John le Bolur, A. Robert 

le Boiler, Af. Adam le Bolour, iM. 
Bowmaker, 226. George Bowmaker, 

SS. Robert Boumakcr, \V i. John 

Bowmaykere, I^' 3. 
Bowman, 225. Robert Bowman, Z. 

John Bowman, ZZ. 
Bowshank, 438. Gerald Bushanke, A. 
Bowsher, 374. Katerin Bowghshere, F. 

George Beawsher, /•'. 
Bowyer, 226. William le Boghyere, A. 

Adam le Boghiere, M. William le 

Bowyer, //. 
Boyce (v. Boys) 154. 
Boyer [v. Boyer) 226. Geoffry le Boyer 

T. Adam le Boiere, E. 
Boys, 154. Ralj:h del Boyes, A. Henry 

du Boys, .1/. 
Braban, 164. Saher de Braban, F. 

Arnald de Braban, .1/. 
Brabaner (v. Braban), 164. Isabel Bra- 

baner, ZZ. Robert Brabaner, ZZ. 
Brabant {v. Braban), 164. Margaret 

Brabant, Z. John Brabant, ZZ. 
Brabazon, 164. Roger le Brabanzon, M. 

Reginald le Brebanzon, //. Roger le 

Brabanson, //. 

Bracegirdle, 349. Justinian Bracegirdle, 

Bracegirdler (f. Bregirdler), 349 
Bracer, 379. Robert le Bracer, A. 

William le Bracur, T. Reginald 

Bracciator, A. 
Braceress, 379. Clarice le Braceressc, A. 

Letitia Braciatrix, A. Emma le Bra- 
ceressc, T. 
Bradshaw, 117. Mabel de Bradschaghe, 

A A 2. 
Brailer, 349. Roger le Braeler, A. 

Stephen le Brayeler, X. 
Braithwaite, 121. Roger de Bratwayt, 

A. Richard Braythwait, XX. i. 
Branson {v. Brainson), John fil. Briani, 

A. Edward Bransonne, Z. 
Brasher [v. Brazier), 392. 
Brass, 436. Simon Braz, A. John 

Brass, M. 
Brazdifer, 436. Walter Brasdefer, E. 

Simon Brazdcfer, E. Michael Bras- 
defer, BB. 
Brazier, 392. Robert le Brazur, G. Wil- 
liam le Brasour, A^. 
Brcadmongster, 364, Sara la Brede- 

mongestcre, X. 
Brcadwright, 278. 
Breakspeare, 462. Adrian Brakspere, 

////. Alexander Brekspere, MM. 
Bregirdler, 349. Jolin le Bregerdelere, X. 
Brelson [v. Burletson). Henry Brel- 

son, Z. 
Bret, j 158. Hamo le Brett, ^. Milo 
Brett, i le Bret, M. 
Bretter (^'. Brcviter), 217. William Bret- 

ter, ZZ. 
Breviter, 217. Peter le Brevctour, M. 

Ely le Brevcter, O. Richard Bre\7- 

tcr, Z. 
Brewer, 379. Walter le Browere, B. 

William le Brcwere, J. 
Brewery, 379, 382. John dc la Bruere, 

A. Walter de la Bruario, M. 
Brewster, 379. Emma le Breustcrc, A. 



Brianson (i), Giles de Brianzon, M. 
William de Brianzon, DD. 
(2), Thomas fil. Brian, A. 
William fil. Brian, A. 

Bricot (v. Brice), 30. Bricot de Brain- 
ton, MM. 

Brice, 30, Brice fil. William, A. Brice 
de Bradelegh, A. Bricius le Daneys, 
R. Brice Persona, A. 

Bridge-end, 114. John ate Bruge-ende, 
A. Stephen atte Brigende, B. Wil- 
liam atte Brigende, M. 

Bridgeman (v. Bridgman), 113. John 
Bridgeman, Vj. 

Bridger, 113, 285. John Bridger, Z. 

Bridgman, 113, 285. Jasper Bridge- 
man, Z. Giles Bridgman, FF. 

Briggs [i.e.. Bridge). Roger del Brigge, 
AI. Sarra atte Brigge, B. 

Briton, 158. Wygan le Bretun, A. 
Robert le Breton, B. Ivo le Breton, E. 

Britt, 158. Thomas le Brit, B. Wydo 
le Brit, A. Nicholas Britte, XX i, 

Brittain (v Briton), 158. 

Britten [v. Briton), 158. 

Britton (v. Briton), 158. 

Broad, 381. John le Erode, B. Richard 
le Brod, M. 

Broadbelt, 431. Joan Broydbelt, IF 11. 
Robert Brodebelte, IV ij. 

Broadcombe, 125. Robert de Brude- 
combe, AT. 

Broadgirdle, 431. William Brodgirdel, 

Broadhay, 133. Robert de Broadheyc, 

Broadhead, 435. Walter Brodhcved, A. 
Edmund Broadheade, /.Z. 

Broadp'.nny, 482. William Brodepeny, 

Brock (i), 489. Walter le Broc, T. 
Henry le Brok, A. 
(2), {v. Brook), 108. Edeline de 
Broc, E. Elias del Broc, T. 

Brocklehurst, 116. 

Brockman, 238. John Brockeman, H, 

Robert le Borckman, A. 
Brogden, 118. Alice Brockden, ZZ. 

James Brocden, FF. 
Brogger, 414. 

Broiderer, 347. John Brauderer, O. 
Broker, 414. Robert the Brochere, B. 

Thomas le Brokur, M. Simon le 

Brokour, G. 
Brook f •^°^' ■^'■'^^ ^^ '^ Broke, A. 
Brooke I ^^^ ^'^ Brok, B. Laurence 

(. del Broc, A. 
Brooker, 113. 

Brookman, 113. John Brokeman, C. 
Brother, 430. William le Brother, A. 

Wymond Brother, M. 
Brotherhood, 191. Nicholas Brother- 
hood, PP. John Brotherhood, W^o, 
Brotherson, 430. 
Brough, 138. 
Brown, 445. Wymarc Brown, A. Simon 

le Brown, M. John le Broune, G. 
Brownbeard, 449. John Brownberd, 

XX <^. Janet Brownebeard, W 11. 
Brownbill, 459. 
Brownjohn, 46, 503. 
Brownking, 505. Simon Brun-king, F.. 
Brownknave, 505. Richard Brownknave, 

Brownman, 445. Richard Broneman, A. 
Brownsmith, 281. Thomas Browne- 

smythe, ZZ. Hester Brownsmith, FF. 
Brownson. Roger fil Broun, A. Regi- 
nald fil. Brun, ;i/.l/. 
Brownswain, 505. John Brounsweyn, P. 
Brownsword, 462. Richard Brown- 

sworde, A A 3. Thomas Brownc- 

sworde, ZZ. Cicely Brownsword, 

AA 4. 
Bruges. Saber de Bruges, E. Oliva dc 

Bruges, E. 
Brun, 445. Hugh le Brun, B. Nigel le 

Brun, C. 
Brune, 445. Alicia le Brune, B. Robert 

le Brune, M. 

M M 



nrunell, 445. Brunellus Carpenter, E. 
Brunman, 445. Henry Brunman, A. 

Robert Brunman, O. 
Erunne, 445. William le Brunne, G. 
Bruselance, 462. Robert Bruselance, A. 
Eryson [y. Brice), 30. Henry fil. Brice, 

F8. Bamabe Brisson, F4. 
Buck, 488. Walter le Buk, C. Roger 

le Buck, M. 
Buckden, 118. Sarra do Bokeden, A. 

Richard Buckden, Q. 
Buckleboots, 501. John Bukclboots, 

AA I. 
Buckler, 282,459. Johnle Bockcler, //. 

Richard Bokeler, Z. 
Bucklermaker, 224. Mathew Buckler- 
maker (Ludlow. Cam. Soc). 
Buckley, 119. Michael de Bokele, A. 

William de Bucley, SS. 
Buckman, 235. Alan Bokcman, A. 
Euckmastcr, 235. William Buckmaster, 

/•". Thomas Buckmaster, Z. Elias 

Buckmaster, F5. 
Buckrell, 489. Peter Bokerol, .-i. Mathow 

Bokerel, A. 
Buckskin, 500. Peter Euckcskyn, D. 

Nicholas Buxskyn, M. 
Bucksmith, 282. John le Bokclsmyth, X. 
Buckthorp, 137. Hamalin de Rugtorp, 

A. Thomas Bugthorppc, IF 11. 
Buddicom, 125. 
Buffler (t'. Boutflower), 442. James 

Beauflur, X. 
Bugden (f . Buckden), 118. William de 

Bugenden, A. 
Bugge, 138, 498. Bate Bugge, A. 

Baldewin Bug, B. 
Bulfinch, 494. Edward Bolfynch, X. 
Bull, 489. Alice le Bule, A. \\ illiam 

le Bule, n. 
BuUard, 306. 
BuUen {v. Bo'eyn), i63. William BuUcn, 

FF. Robert Buleyn, Z. 
Bullhead, 500. Richard Bolchcved, ./. 

John Bolehcvcd, M. 

Bullinger, 364. Richard le Bulengcr, E. 
Bullivant (ta Bonenfant), 507. Robert 

Rallyfaunt, Z. 
Bullock, 490. Godwin Bulloc, A, 

Edmund Bullok, B. 
Bulman, 271. William Bulman, D. 

Walter Bulleman, FF. 
Bulness, 168. Stacius le Boloneis, /4. 
Bultcr (z'. Bolter), 275. 
Bunker, 467. John le Boncer, D. Wil- 
liam Bonquer, O. 
Bunn (i'. Bonn), 467. Rocelin le Bun, 

Bunyan (v. Bonjohn), 504. 
Bunyon (v. Bonjohn), 504. 
Burdcr, 239. Thomas Burdcr, F. 
Rurdett-Coutts, 509. 
Burdon, 461. Richard Burdun, E. 

Maria Burdun, R. 
Rurelman, 454. John Burclman, X. 
Burend, 114. John attc Rur-cndc, R. 
Burgess, 1S4. John le Burges, A. 

Richard le Rurgeis, /:. 
Rurgh, 138. Walter atte Bergh, B. 

William atte Burgh, R. 
Rurghman, 138. William Burgman, B. 
Rurgon, f 158. John Rurgoyne, A, 
Rurgoyne, j Thomas Rurgoyn, B. 
Rurguillun, 481. Geoff, le Burgillon, 

T. Robert le Burgulion, M. 
Burke, 138. Hubert de Burk, A. John 

de Rurk, A, 
Burle, 442. Henry le Burle, A. 
Rurl'-lson [v. Bartlett) 92, n. 

Ryrtletson, IT 17. William Burletson, 

SS. Bryan Burletson, SS. 
Rurman [v, Rurghman). Isabel Burc- 

man, A. John Rurman, B. 
Rurnell, 445. Pagan Burncl, J. Bur- 

nellus Carpenter, E. 
Burnett, 454. Thomas Burnet, Z. 
liurroll, 340. Roger Burell, J. Robert 

RurelC R. 
Burroughs, 138. Robert de la Bcrwc, B. 

Henry Burroughe, Z. 



Burscr (v. Purser), 398, 348. Adam le 

Burser, E. Alard le Burscr, H. 
Burtheyn, 175, «. William Burtheyn, G. 
Bur)', 138. Geoffrey de la Bare, A. 

John atte Bury, M. 
Bush (v. Busk), 154. 
Busheler, 395, n. John Busheler, I^. 
Busher, 264. Reginald le Buscher, y. 

John le Busscher, M. 
Busk, 154. Hamo de Bosco, A. John 

ad Bosc, A. 
Buss, 154. Alicia Busse, A. 
Bustard. Richard Bustard, ^^2. 
Bustler, 465. Thomas le Busteler, FF. 

Robert le Bustler, T. 
But, 378. Roger le But, F. John le 

But, 7. 
Butcher, 374. Michael le Bucher, T. 
Butler, 211, 397. Robert le Butiler, A. 

William le Butiller, B. Hugh le 

Butellier, F. John le Butteller, M. 
Butmonger, 378. Hugh Butmonger, 

Butrekyde, 294. Robert Butrekyde, 

Butt, 228. 

Butter, 378. William le Butor, P. 
Butterman, 327. William Buttyrman, 

P. George Butman, Z. Lancelot 

Butiman, ^Fi8. 
Buttoner, 343. Henry le Botoner, A. 

Richard le Botyncr, //. Lawrence le 

Botaner, N. 
Buzzard, 493. Eustace Busard, A. 

Peter Buzard, A. 
Byatt (v. Bygate), 129, 113. 
Byford, 113. Abalotta de la Forde, A. 

Stephen dc la Forde, A. 
Bygate, 113, 129. Philip de la Gate, A. 

Walter de la Gate, A. 
Bythesea, 113. Roger Bythesca, Z. 

Pagan de la Marc, A. 
Bythcway, 113. Richard Bytheway, Z. 
Bythewood, 113. Edward Bythewode, 

A, William Bythewood, A/. 

By water, 112. Elyas Bithewater, A. 

Robert Bithewater, M. 
Bywood (v. Bythewood), 112. 


^ Cacherell, 152. Grig le Cacherel, 

A. Adam le Cacherel, M. 
Cade, 144. Margery Cade, A. Walter 

Cade, A. 
Cadman, 395. Walter Kademan, A. 

Robert Cademan, y. 
Caisar {v. Kaiser), 174. Susan Coesar, 

Caffin, 452. Richard Chauffin, A. 
Caird, 296. 

Caitiff. Richard Caytyf, DD. 
Caleb, 100. Caleb Morley, TT. 
Calf, 490. Nicholas Calf e,/i. Richard 

Calf, M. 
Calisher, 393. Elena Calicer, D. 
Callender, 495. 
Caller, 336. Eiias le Callere, M. Robert 

le Callere, ^V. Robert le Callerere, 

Callow, 451. Richard Calewe, M. 

Richard le Calue, FF. 
Caiman, 336. 

Calthrop, j 137. William de Calthorpe, 
Caltrop, \ M. Ralph de Kalthorp, R, 
Calve (v. Calf), 444. Henry le Calve, 

M. Idonia le Calwe, T. 
Calvcrd f^^^- Henry Calvehird, M. 
Calvert ' I J*^'^" '® Calvehird, H. 

\ Warin le Calvehird, W 4. 
Calvesmawe, 434. Robert Calvesmaghc, 

Cam, 441. William le Cam, A. Wil- 
liam Ic Cam, R. 
Camamilla. Camaniilla Helev\-ys, RR i. 
Camden, 389. John de Campcden, A. 

Maurice de Campeden, FF. 
Camel, 487. George Camel, W 20. 
Richard Camill, V 5. William Cam- 
mille, F4. 
M 2 



Cameron, 441. 

Camiser, 344. Bartholomew Ic Camisur, 

Camoys, 441. John le Camoys, A. 
Campbell, 441. Thomas Cambell, Z. 
Campion (i), 304. Walter le Campion, 
A. John le Campion, T. 
(2), 159. [v. Champion, 2.) 
Camuse [v. Camoys), 441. 
Candeler (v. Candler), 386. 
Candleman, 386. Adam Candeleman, 

Candlemaker, 386. John le Candle- 

makere, M. 
Candler, 386. Mathew le Candeler, A. 

John le Candeler, E. 
Cane. Hugh de Caen, C. Richard de 

Cane, H. 
Cannon, 191. John le Cannon, A. 

Richard Cannon, Z. 
Canon, 191. William le Canon, A. 

Thomas le Canun, E. 
Cant (i'. Quaint), 471. 
Canter {v. Chanter), 188. 
Canute, 20. 

Canvaser, 319, 359. Henry le Cane- 

vacer, M. Richard le Canvaser, M. 

Capcron, 458. Alicia Caperun, A. 

Thomas Chaperoun, y. 
Capet, 456. 

Capmaker, 337. Thomas Capmaker, //. 
Capman, 337. John Capman, M. James 

Kapman, Z,. 
Capon, 494. Robert le Capon, DD. 

Agnes Capun, A. 
Capper, 337. Symon le Cappierc, A. 

Thomas le Capicre, A. 
Carboner. Geoffrey Ic Carbonerc, \V 

15. Alfred Carbonator, MM. 
Carder, 320. Peter Carder, Z. John 

Carder, Z. 
Cardinal, 173. Walter Cardinall, /'. 

William Cardynall, Z. 
Cardmaker, 321. Robert Cardemakcr, 

Careful. Robert Carefull, MM. 
Careless, 471. Roger Carles, H. Antony 

Careless, Z. 
Carlton, 134. Geoffrey de Carlton, A. 

Audeley Carleton, Z. 
Carman, 288. Henry Carman, A. 

Matilda Carman, A. 
Carnifex, 375. Hugh Carnifex, A. 

Henry Carnife.v, M. 
Carpenter, 249. Amice le Charpenter, 
T. Stephen le Charpenter, D. Robert 
le Carpenter, M. 
Carter, 288. Magge le Carter, A. Wil- 
liam le Caretter, E. Robert le Carec- 
ter, A. Robert le Karettcr, A. 
Carteress. Cristina le Carteres, A. 
Cartman, 288. 
Cartwright, 277. Robert le Cartwright, 

B. Thomas Cartwright, Z. 
Carver, 214. Adam le Karver, A. 

Richard le Kerver, A. 
easier, 174, n, 278, 369. Michael le 
Casiere, M. Benedict le Casierc, M. 

Cassell. John de Castell, A. William 
de Castell, A. 

204. Jocelin le Castlelyn, 

A'. John le Chastilioun, 

A'. Thomas leChastelain, 

A/. William Castleman, 


Robert de Catalonia, p. 


Catcher, 182. Adam le Cacher, A. 

Richard le Catchcre, A. 
Catchcrel, 182. Nicholas le Cachcrcl, 

A. Lucas Cachercllus, //. 
Catchhare. Hugh Cachehare, M. 
Catchman, 152. Edmund Catchman, 

Catchpeny, 483. Nicholas Kachcpeny, 

Catch pole, 
Catchpool, . 


Catalonia, 170. 

182. Hugh le Cachcpol, M. 
Geoffrey le Cachepol, A, 
Michael Catchpoole, Z. 




Cater, 1 210. Henry le Catour, A. 
Caterer, I John le Catur, J. Nicholas 
Catour, ) le Catour, B. 
Catlinson, 71. Richard Catlynson, 55. 
Eleonore Catlynsson, IF 12. Thomas 
Katlynson, IF 11. 
Cats-nose, 500. Agnes Cattesnese, A. 
Catt, 492. Adam le Kat, C. Mi!o le 

Chat, E. Elyas le Cat, A. 
Catterman {v. Quarterman), 437. 

Richard Catermayn, H. 
Cattell, Uv. Chettle), 24. Cattle 
Cattle, ( Bagge, A. 
Cattlin, 71. Robert Catelyne, HII. 

Richard Kateline, A, 
Caury-Maury 457. John Caury-Maury, 

Cayser, 1 174. Samson le Cayser, A . 
Cayzer, 1 Thomas le Cayser, A. 
Cecil, 19. Richard fil. Cecille, A. 

Thomas Cicell, Z. 
Cecilia, 69. CeciUa in the Lane, A. 
Cecilia la Grase, T. Sissilie Linscale, 
Ceinter, . 349. Girard le Ceinter, C. 

Robert le Ceynter, Af. 
Cellarer, 211. Richard le Cellarer, O. 

John Cellarer, D. 
Centlivre, 513. Grace CentlivTe, Joseph 

Centlivre, v. p. 513. 
Centurer, 349. Nicholas le Ceynturer, 
A. Richard le Ceynturer, A. Benet 
Seinturer, v. p. 349. 
Cesselot [v. Sisselot), 69. Bella Cesse- 

lot, A. Alicia fil. Scsselot, A. 
Chaffinch 494. Abraham Caffinch, v. 13. 
Chalk (v. Schalk), 212 n. 
Chalker, 259. Thomas le Chalker, A. 

Gilbert le Chalker, A. 
Challen, 170. Rodger de Chaluns, A. 

Piers de Chalouns, M. 
Challender, 495. 
Challenor [v. Chaloncr), 357. 
Challice, ] 
Challis, [ ^^^' 



Chambers, 205. 


357. Jordan leChaluner, T. 
John le Chaloncr, B. 
Peter le Chaloner, M. 
Nicholas le Chalouner,y4. 
, 205. Walter le Cham- 
berleyne, A. Simon 
le Chamberlain, AI. 
Henry le Chaumber- 
leyne, B. 
Henry de la Chambre, 
A. William de la Chaumbre, B. 
Champagne, 159. Robert de Chaum- 

paigne, AT. 
Champion (i), 304. Katerina le Cham- 
pion, A. William le 
Chaumpion, A. 
(2), 159. Roger de Cham- 
pion, B. 
^158. Robert le Cham- 
peneis, E. Roger le 
Chaumpeneys, A. Ste- 
phen le Champenays, L. 
Chancellor, 188. Thomas le Chanceler, 

AI. Geoffrey le Chaunceler, R. 
Chandler, 386. Jordan le Chaundler, C. 

Roger le Chaundclcr, B. 
Changer, 413. Henry le Chaungcr, AI. 

Adam Chaunger, FF. 
Chanster, 188. Stephen le Chanster, J. 

Williamctta Cantatrix, E. 
Chanter, 188. Christiana le Chauntcr, 

A. William le Chantour, AI. 
Chapell. Henry atte Chapelle, AI. 

Hugh de la Chapele, A. 
Chapcller, 337. Robert le Chapeler, A. 

Edmund le Chapeler, AI. 
Chaperon, 458. Almeric Chaperon, O. 
8. Reginald le Chape- 
lein, y. Hamo le Chape- 
leyn, T. 
Chapman, 296. Geoffrey le Chapman, 

AI. Alard le Chapman, T. 
Charer, 287. John le Charer, O. 
Richard le Charrer, AI. John le 
Charrer, A, 




Charioteer, 287. John Charioteer, IV 

2. Thomas Charietter, Z. 
Charity, 103. JohnCharite, ^4. Charitie 

Bowes, Z. 
Charlesworlh, 134. 
Charlewood, 134. Isabelle Charlewood, 

Z. John Charlewood, Z. 
Charley, 134. Philip de Charleyc, Af. 

John Charley, ZZ. 
Charlton, 134. Thomas de Charlton, 

Af. Henry de Charewelton, A. 
Charman, 288.- -John Charman, FF. 

John Chareman, ////. 
Chamer, 272. Thomas le Charner, A. 
Charter, 287. William le Charetter, 


Andrew le Chareter, A/. John le 

Charter, Af. 
Charteris, ( 168. Ralph de Chartres, Af. 
Charters^ | Alan de Chartres, Af. 
Chartman(t'. Cartman), 287. JohnChart- 

man, F/\ 
Chaser, 230. Simon le Chasur, A. 
Chatelain (v. Castelan), 204. Ralph le 

Chatelaine, A. 
Chaucer, 354. Gerard le Chaucer, //. 

Mary le Chaucer, N. Ralph le Chau- 
cer, E. Robert le Chaucer, .1/. 
Chauntecler, 494. Roger Chauntcclcr, B. 

Agnes Chauntler, Z. 
Cheek, 433. John Cheeke, Z. 
Cheese, 144. Nicholas Chcse, T. John 

Chese, X. 
Cheese-and-brcad, 501. Geoffrey Cheesc- 

and-brede, I V 5. 
Cheese-house, 369. Adam del Cheshus, 

Cheesemaker, 369. Robert le Chese- 

maker, A. 
Cheeseman, 369. John le Cheseman, 

A. Edward Cheseman, //. 
Cheesemonger, 369. Adam le Chis- 

monger, //. Alan Ic Chesmongcre, L. 
Chcesewright, 277, 369. John Chese- 

wright, Z. 


Cheever, 491. Henry le Chivere, Af. 

Jordan Chevre, C. 
Cheke (v. Cheek), 433. 
Chen (v. Ken), 492. Reginald le Chen, 

Af. William le Chien, F. 
Chcpman, 296. Walter le Chepcman, 

Af. John le Chepman, B. 
Chesswright (v. CheesewTight), 369. 

William Cheswright, Z. 
Chettle {v. Kettle), 24. Chetel Frieday, 

Chevalier, 507. Walter le Chevaler, A, 

Roger le Chevaler, A. 
Chevestrer,4i3. Adam le Chevestrcr, A. 
Chicken, 494. John Chikin, A. PhiHp 

Chikin, A. 
Chietsmith, 283. John Chictsmyth, 


202. Milisent le Child, A. 
Walter le Child, Af. Roger 
le Childe, A. 
Chin, 433. John Chync, A. 
Chippendale, 296. 
Chit, 442. John le Chit, J?. 
Chitterling. Richard Chitcrling, A. 
Chitty, 442. Agnes Chittyc, Z. John 

Chittie, Z. 
Choice-Pickrell, 508. 
Christian, 30, 507. Christian Forman, 

IV 2. Bricc Christian, A. 
Christiana, 30. Joan Cristina, A. Cristina 

Alayn, A. 
Christie {z: Christian), 30. 
Christison, 30. John fil. Christian, A. 

Robert fil. Christine, Af. 
Christmas, (62. Simon Christemasse, A. 
Crislmas, ( Richard Cristemassc,j1/. 
Christmas-Day, 509. 
Christoferson, 57. Richard Christo- 

ferson, ZZ. 
Christopher, 57. John Christophre, Af. 

William Cristofcr, Z. 
Chubb, 497. John Chubbe, Z. Isabctl 

Chubb, Z. 
Chuffer, 482. Simon lo Chuffere, A. 



Church, 113. Robert atte Chyrche, A. 

Alicia atte Chirche, B. 
Churchay, 134. William atte Churche- 

haye, A. Robert atte Churchey, IV. 
Churchclerk, 189. Walter le Churche- 

clerk, M. 
Churchcr, 113. Richard Churcher, Z. 

Johan Churchcr, Z. 
Churchdoor. Reginald atte Cliurche- 

door, M. 
Churchgate, 130. Robert atte Chirch- 

yate, A/. 
Churchman, 113. Ousc le Churcheman, 

A. Simon le Chcrchman, J\/. 
Churchstile. John atte Churchestighele, 

Churncr (v. Charner), 272. Robert 

Chirner, IV g. 
Cicely {v. Cicilia), 69. Cicely Harbord, 

Cirgier, 386. William le Cirgier, X. 
Cirographer, 406. William le Ciro- 

graphcr, A. Isaac Cyrographer, £. 
Cissor, 340. Walter Cyssor, A. Hugh 

Cisssor, Af. 
Clare (v. Sinclair), 124. 
Clarice. 19. Alanfil. Clarice,^. Claricia 

Crowe, A. Richard Clarisse, A. 
Claver, 185. Henry le Claver, £. Agnes 

le Claver, FF. John le Clavier, BB. 
Clavenger, ) ^g ^^^^^ Clavynger, //. 
Clavmgcr, J 
Clay. Alice in le Clay, A. Thomas de 

la Cley, A. 
Clayer, 259. Simon le Clayere, A. 
Cleangrise {v. Cleanhog), 499. Roger 

Clenegrise, A. 
Cleanhand. John Cleanhond, X. 
Cleanhog, 499. William Clenehog, A. 
Cleanwater. John Klenewater. Lower 

1, 242. 
Cleaver (v. Claver), 154. John Cleaver, 

/••/'; William Cleaver, F6. 

[v. Clerk), 412. 

Clement, <'98. Richard Clement, W 
Clements, I 16. Ralph fil. Clemence, 
Clemcntson, I A. Eustace fil. Clement, 
Clemms, ' A. Roger Clempson, Z. 
Clempson, Peter fil. Clem, A. 

Clemson, [_ Joyce Clemson, Z. 
Clerk, I 189, 465. Beatrix le Clcrc, A. 
Clerke, | Milo le Clerk, A. 
Clerkson, 65. Geoffrey fil. Clerici, A. 

William Clerkessone, AI. 
Clerkwright, 402. Robert Clerkwright, 5. 
Cleve, 124. Henry de la Clyve, A. 

Thomas de Cleve, FF\ 
Cleveland, 124. 
Clever (v. Cleaver), 154. William le 

Clever, FF. 
Clifden, 124. Raymund de Clifdcn, A. 

Thomas de Cliffedon, A. 
Cliffe, 124. Thomas del Clif, A. Henry 

de Clyf, Af. 
Clifford, 124. Robert de Clyfford, Af. 

Roger de Clyfford, E. 
Cliffshend, 114. John de Cleveshend, 

E. Martin de Clyveshend, A. 
Clifton, 124. Ralph de Clifton, A. 

Gervase Clifton, XX i. 
Clive, 124. Humfrey de la Clive, A. 

William atte Clyve, Af. 
Cliveley, 124. John de Clyveley, A. 

Nicholas Cleveley, XX i. 
Clockmakcr, 401. Thomas Clokmaker, Y. 
Cloisterer, 191. Johannes Closterer, 
IK 12. 

Clothier, | ^^-^^^^^ Clothman, XX 2. 

Clothman, I 

Clough, 124. Roger Clough, A. Richard 

Cloughe, Z. 
Clouter, 352. John le Clutcrc, N. 

Stephen le Clutere, N. 
Cloutman {v. Clouter), 352. 
Clowes, 12^. John Clowes, Z. Thomas 

Clowes, Z. 
Coachman, 288. Dorothy Coachman, V^. 

Telney Coachman, V$, John Coache- 

man, Z. 



Cobb, 124. Robert de Cobbe, M. 

Milisent Cobbe, A. 
Cobbett {v. Cuthbert), 56. 
Cobbler, 352. Robert le Cobcler, A. 

Edward Cobler, H. 
Cobden, 124. Godfrey de Coppdcn, 

M. John Copedenne, A. 
Cobham, 124. Reginald de Cobcham, 

M. John de Cobbeham, A. 
Cobley, 124. 

Cobwell, 124. John de Cobwell, M. 
Cock (i), 145. Peter alte Cok, D. Wil- 
liam atte Cok, G. 
(2), 485. John le Koc, A. Ka- 
terina le Cok, D. 
Cockaigne, (148. Alande Cokayne, v-/. 
Cockayne, \ Richard de Cockayne, ^. 
Cocker, 307. Simon le Cockere, A. 

William le Kokerc, A. John le 

Coker, M. 
Cockerell, 494. Giot Cockerel, M. Jac. 

Quoquerell, C. 
Cockeyn {v. Cockaigne), 148. 
Cockin (f. Cockaigne), 148. Richard 

Cokyn, H. 
Cockman, 307. Maud Cockman, FF. 

Robert Cokeman, M. 
Cockney, 148. John Cokeney, B. 
Cocksbrain, 500. William Cockes- 

brayne, A. 
Cockshead, 447. Adam Cockshevcd, 

M. Antony Cocksliead, Z. 
Cockshaw, 117. Adam de Cokeshaw, 

A. John de Cokeshaw, ,-/. 
Cockshot, n6. Alan Cockshott, /■'. 

John Cockshott, '/,. 
Cockson (y. Cookson), 65. VA- 

ward Cockson, 7.. John Cockson, 

Codde, 497. Thomas Codde, /•'/•". Joan 

Codde, FF. 
Codiner {v. Cordwaner), 351. 
Codling, 497. Alan Codling, /•'/•'. Simon 

Codlyng, FF. 
Codncr (v, Cordwaner), 351, 

Coeurdebeef, 500. Thomas Cordebeofe, 

A. John Queerdeboef, B. 

Coffer f^^^' 336. 396. Godfrey le 

Cofferer. Coffrer, ^. Ralph le Cof- 

\ frer, H. John le Coffrer, .1/. 

Coffin, 144, 397. Richard Coffyn, H. 

Elias Coffyn, y. 
Cogger, 408. Hamond Ic Cogger, O. 

Henry Cogger, P. 
Cogman, 408. Benjamin Cogman, F'F. 
Coifcr, 336. Emma leCoyfcre, A. Ralph 

le Coificr E. Dionysia laCoyfere, A. 
Coke (ta Cook), 206, 365. Roger le 

Coke, M. Alexander Coke, A. 
Cole (v. Colin), 95. 
Coleman, 22. Editha Coleman, A. 

Coleman le Hen, A. 
Colet (i'. Collet), 189, 96. Nicholas 

Colyt, il/. William Kolytte. IF 11. 
Colfox, 499. Thomas Colfox, Z. 

Richard Colvox, A. 
Colinson, 16, 96. William fil. Colin, A. 

Colin le Balistar, E. 
Collet {v. Colet), 189, 96. Collctta 

Clarke, HH. Henry CoUette, XX i. 
Collier. Robert le Cohere, A. John le 

Collier, C. 
CoUinge \v. Culling), 170. 
Collins (i'. Collinson), 96. Colinus de 

Barcntyn, E. Colin le Fcrur, A. 
Collinson {v. Cohnson), 96. John Col- 

lynson, Z. Lanclot Colynson, \V i\. 
CoUopp, 333 ;/. John CoUop, A. Mabil 

Collope, A. 
Colson (f. Colinson), 96. George Col- 

lison, HH. RolxTt Colson, HH. 
Colswain, 505. Stephen Colcswejiic, 

A. Richard Colswcyn, T. 
Colt, 490. Roger le Colt, ./. William 

Ic Colt, /f. Joan Col tc, Vj. 
Coitman, 267. John Coltman, //. 

Geoffrey Coltman, M. Richard 

Coltman, W \i. 
Colville, 151. William de Colville, M. 

Felip de Colville, A. 



Colyer {v. Collier). Henry le Colyer, A. 
Cnmh (^^5- Elias de Comb, A. 
Combe I William atte Combe, M. 

\ Nicholas atte Combe, J\f. 
Comber, 320. John le Comber, A. 

Walter le Comber, E. 
Commander. William le Comandur, A. 

William Commander, Z. 
Conder, 377. 
Coney, 139, 489. Henry Cony, D. John 

Conay, A. 
Coney beare, 139. 
Coneythorp, 137. Robert de Conig- 

thorpe, XA'4. 
Congreave, 120. Robert de Concsgrave, 

A. William Congrove, //. Henry 

Conygrave, XX 2. 
Coning, 139. Nicholas Conyng, //. 

Peter Conyng, /-". Michael Conning, 

Coningsby, 139. John de Conyngsby, 

F. Walter de Cunnyngby, A. 
Conington, ( ^39- John de Conyngton, 
Connington, 1 ^^- Thomas de Cony- 

I ton, A. 
Conqueror. William Conqueror, A. 

Robert Conqueraunt, A. 
Constable, 203. John le Conestabic, B. 

Robert le Conestable, (7. 
Constance, 19, 67. William fil. Con- 
stance, A. 
Convert, 167. Dyonis le Convers, A. 

Stephen le Convers, B. Nicholas le 

Conners, B. 
Conyers (v. Convert), 197. 

Cook, i^°^' 365- ^'-'"'"''^ ^'oca, A. 
r^ ,' i Roser le Cook, J/, loan 
^°°^'' i le Cook, /.•/.■. ■' 

Cookman, 206, 365. William Cokcman, 

y. John Cookman, IV g. 
Cookson, 65, 365. Robert fil. Coci, A . 

John Cokesson, /•'/''. Henry Cukcson, 

Cooper, 389, 394. Richard le Cupare, 

A. John le Cuper, Af. 

Coote, 494. 

Cope, 124, Robert Cope, A. Adam 

Cope, M. 
Copeland, 124. William de Copelaunde, 

£. John Copland, Z. 
Copeman, 296, 124. Laurence Copiman, 

A. Hugh Cowpman, A'. 
Coper, 296. John le Copere, A. 
Copestakc, 124. William Copcstake, 

Copley, 124. Avery Copley, Z. Christo- 
pher Copley, Z. Thomas de Coppc- 
Icy, XX 4. 
Copp (i). John le Coppe, A. Thomas 
Ic Coppe, A. 
(2), 124. John de la Coppe, FF. 
Richard de la Coppe, FF. 
Copped 353. Hugh le Coppede, A. 

John le Copede, M. 
Coppcrbeard, 449. Robert Coperbcrd, A'^. 
Corbet, 151. Nicholas Corbet, M. 

Felicia Corbet, A. 
Cord' r, 399. Adam le Corder, A. Peter 
le Corder, A. 

('351. Durant le Cord- 
Cord iner, J waner. Af. Roger la 
Cordwaner, 1 Cordewaner, C. Ger- 
\ vaise le Cordewaner, N. 
Corfe, 452. John Chauf, A. Geoffrey 

le Cauf, E. 
Coroner, 179. John le Coroner, AI. 

Henry le Corouner, A. 
Corner (i), 179. John le Corner, A. 
Waiter le Cornur, A'. 
(2), 130, 179. William de la 
Cornere, ^\. Robert Atte 
Cornere, AI. 
Cornmongcr, 275. Ralph le Corn- 
moiigcr, T. Henry le Cornmongere, 
Cornish, 147. William Cornish, D. 

Margery Cornish, H. 
Cornthwaite, 121. 

Cornwall, 169, 147. Geoffrey de Corn- 
wayle, B. Wauter de Cornwaille, AI. 



Comwallis, 148. Thomas le Corn- 

waleys, A. Philip le Cornwaleys, L. 

Walter le Comewaleys, X. 
Corsdebeef, 500. Thomas Cors-de-bcef, 

A. Thomas Cor-de-beofc, B. Galiena 

Cordebeof, y. 

/•286, 351. Ralph le Core- 
Corser, I viser, A. William le 
Comser, 1 Corviser, B. Durand le 

\ Corveser, ^f. 
Cosier, 352. 

Cosscr (v. Corser), 286. 
Cotman (i), 252. Richard Coteman, A. 
William Coleman, A. 
(2). Thomas fil. Cotman, A. 
John fil. Cotman, A. 
Cotter, 252. William le Cotier, A. 
■ Simon le Cotere, /''/■'. 
Cotterel, 1 252. William Coterel, M- 
Cottrell, I Joice Cotterill, Z. 
Cotwife, 252. Beatrix Cotcwife, A. 
Coucher, 360. John le Cochere, A. 

William Coucher, 11^2. 
Couchman (t-. Coachman), 288. Richard 

Couchman, Z. William Cowchcman, 

Coudray, 154. William de Coudrayc, 

Af. Peter de Coudray, H. 
Coulman, 337. Launcelot Coulman, 


CouUhard, 1=^7- John Colthirdo, IF9. 

Coulthcrd, j D'-^vy Cowlhird, fFi8. 

Coultman, 267. 


Councilman, j 

Count, 174. John le Cuntc, E. 

Peter le Countc, G. Richr.rd lo 

Counte, N. 
Countess, 174, 507. Judetha Comm.i- 

tissa, A. John Countcsse, A. 
Countryman. John Cuntrcman, A. 
Couper, 394. Nicholas Ic Coupcr, A. 

Warin le Couper, ^f. 
Coupercss, 394. Roger Coupcresse, A. 


Coupman. Richard Coupman, A. 

Courcy, 151. 

Court. Baldwin atte Curt, AI. Godfrey 

ate Curt, M. 
Cousen, [429. Richard le Cusyn, A, 
Cousin, \ John le Cosyn, G. Thomas 
Couzen, \ le Cozun, E. 
Cover, 395. Richard Ic Cuver, O. 

Walter le Cuver, E. Michael le 

Cuver, A. 
Coverer, 395. Robert le Covcrour, A. 

Adam le Covrcur, M. 
Covetous, 483. Gilbert le Covetiose, 

Cow (i), 490. Thomas le Cu, A. 
Ralph le Cou, M. 
(2), 485. Thomas del Cou, M. 
Coward, 266. William le Kuhcrde, A. 

John le Couherdc, B. Adam le Cow- 

hirdc, M. 
Cowbcytson, 56. Nicholas Cowbeytson, 

IF 9. 
Cowden, ii3. Thomas Cowden, /•7\ 

Nathaniel Cowden, EF. 
Cowler, 337. Richard le Couhelcre, 

Cowley, 119. Alexander de Couleyc, 

A. Roger de Couele, A. 
Cowman, 271. 
Cowpcr (v. Coujx;r), 389, 394. Willel- 

mus Cowi>ere, Wig. 
Cowi^iman, (v. Coupman) 394. Richard 

Cowpcman, A. 
Coxhcad (v. Cockshead), 447. Thomas 

Coxhead, I/H. 
Coxon [v. Cockson), 65. 
Coy king, 505. John Coyking, Rf. 
Crabb, .^97. 

Crabtree. John Crabtre, IF 16. Wil- 
liam Crabircc, W 16. 
Crackshicld, 462. Cracky- 
Cramp [v. Crump), 440. William Cramp, 

Cramphom, 461. Joseph Cramphomc. 



Crane, 144, 494. Hugh le Crane, G. 
William le Crane, £. 

Crask, 432. Walter le Crask, FF. 

Crass, 432. Richard le Cras, A. John 
le Cras, A/. Stephen Crassus, y. 

Crestolot, 16. Crestolot de Pratis, D. D. 

Crimp {v. Crump), 440. 

Cripling, 441. William Crypling, A. 

Crisp, 450. Robert le Crespe, A. Regi- 
nald le Crispe, y. 

Crocker 392. Simon le Crockere, A. 
Stephen le Crockere, M. 

Croft, j 132. Roger de Croftes, A. 

Crofts, I Agnes de Croftis, A. 

Croiser, 158. Simon le Croiser, Af. Wil- 
liam Croiser, //. 

Crokcr, 392. Robert Croker, F. John 
le Croker, AI. 

Crook, 461. Roger le Cruk, A/. John 
Cruke, A. 

Crookbone, 440. Henry Croakbane, A. 
Geoffrey Crokebayn, IV 4^. 

Crooke (v. Crook), 440. Vincent Crooke, 

Crookhom, 461. John Crokehorn, B. 
Robert Crokehorn, T. 

Cropper, 256. Roger the Cropper, 
A A 2. Robin the Cropper, A A 2. 

Crosier (t'. Crozier), 190. William Croy- 
ser, G. 

Cross f^3°' J*^'^" ^"'^ Cross, AI. 

Crosse, ^"S^"" ^""^ ^''°'- ^- Jo-"^^" 

V ad Crucem, A. 

Crosser, 113. 

Crossman, 113. Julyan Crosman, Z. 

Emme Crossman, Z. 
Crossthv.-aite, 121. Henry de Cros- 

thvvcytc, Af. John de Crostwyt, 7?. 
Crossweller (v. Crcssweller), 113. 
Crotch, [ 130. John atlc Cruche, A. 
Crouch, I Matilda atte Crouche, B. 
Crouchor, 113, 130. John Ic Crocher, 

A'. John Crowclicr, FF. 
Crouchman, 113, 130. Richard Croche- 

man, A. William Croucheman, B. 

Crow, 494. Claricia Crowe, A. Robert 

Crowe, Af. 
Crowder, 310. Ricard le Cruder, A, 

Thomas le Crouder, H^2. 
Crowfoot, 500. William Crowfoot, FF. 

Henry Crowfoot, FF. 
Crowther {v. Crowder), 310. 
Crozier, 190. Simon le Croyscr, A/. 

Mabel le Croyser, G. 
Cruel, 464, 484. Warin Cruel, A. 
Cruikshank, 438. 
Crump, 440. Richard le Crumppc, A. 

Hugh le Crumpe, T. 
Cryer, 183. Philip le Criour, F. Wat 

le Creyer, G. Edward le Crciour, 

Cuckhold. Thomas le Cuckold, A. 

Matilda Cuckold, A. 
Cuckoo, 494. Stephen Cuckoo, /•"/'"'. 

William Cuckow, FF. Thomas 

Cuckowe, V. 13. 
Cuddie (v. Cuthbert), 55. 
Cullen, ( ^7°- 1°'""^ ^'^ Coloigne, FF. 
/■-„ii;«^ -| William de Culinge, A. 
^""'"- i Alan Culling,^. 
Culver, 495. 
Cuner, 404. Ada le Cuner, A. Henry 

Cunator, A. 
Cunerer, 404. Samson le Cunerer, A. 
Cunning, 139, 469. 
Cunningham, 139. 

Cuppage, 215. John Cupage, A A 3. 
Cupper, 389. William Ic Cuppere, G. 

Thomas le Cupper, A/. 
Cure. John le Cure, A. Anno Cure, 

Curl, 450. Marcus Curie, Z. William 

Curie, Z. 
Curling (?■. Qucrdclyur.), 499. 
Currier, 331. 

Curt, 432. Thomas le Curt, A'. Wil- 
liam le Curt, L. 
Curtman. Adam Curtman, A. 
Curtbrand, 457. Reginald Curtbrant, 




Curteis, 468, 464. Walkelin le Curteis, 

C. Richard le Curteis, E. 
Curtepy, 456. Richard Curtepie, A. 

William Cortepy, A. 
Curthose, 456. Robert Curthose, A. 

Robert Curthose, PP. 
Curtis, 468, 464. Osbert Ic Curteys, A. 

Walter le Curteys, J. 
Curtmantel, 456. Henry Curtmantcl, 

Curtvalor, 456. Richard Curtevalur, 

Curtwailet, 456. Martin Curtwallet, A. 

{(f. Custson), 67. Eliza Cusse, 
W 9. Matilda fil. Cusse, 
A. Osbert Cuson, A. Cuss 
Balla, A. 
Cussot, 67. Cussot Colling, A. 
Cust, 67. Custe Newman, A. Robert 

fil. Cust, A. Custe Alver, A. 
Custance, 67. Custance la Braceresse, 

A. Henry fil. Custance, W 6. Rey- 

ner Custance, A. 
Custerson, ( 67. William Custson, IF8. 
Custson, \ Henry fil. Custance, A. 
Cutbeard, 56. Thomas Cutbert, //. 

John Cutbert, A. William Cutteberd, 

Cute, 465. Nicholas le Cute, A. Bene- 
dict le Cuyt, A. 
Cuteswain, 505. John Cutswcyn, A. 
Cuthbert, 56. Cuthbert Capun, R. 

Cuthbert Ricerson, W -3,. 
Cuthbertson, 56. Elizabeth Cutlibcrtson, 
W xd. Thomas Cuthbertson, IF 11. 
Cutler, 282, 390. Walter le Cotilcr, A. 

Peter le Cotelcr, M. Jordan Ic 

Cotilcr, N. 
Cydercr, 261. 

■r\'Ai:TH (f. Death), 140. 
^ Uaffe, 441. Lcfcke DafTe, A. 
Daft, 441. William Daft, ./. 
Daisy, 485. Roger Daisye, V 9. 

Thomas de la 

tance de Alemania, A. 


Dakins, 188, 83. 

Dale, Sibill de Dale, B. 

Dale, M. 

Dallman, \ , ai _ \ e. 
„, , .' \{v. Aleman), 1615. 
D Almaine, ' ^ /• o 

Dalmaine, . 
Dalman, 165. John Dalman, FF. Wil- 
liam Dalman, FF. 
Dame, 84. Henry Dame, A. Alexan- 
der Dame, M. 
Damcgod, 511. Peter Damegod, M. 

John Domegode, O. 
Damsell, 84. Simon Damsell, A. 

Lawrence Damysell, W 2. 
Dameson, 84. John Damson, Z. 

C 84, Dametta, A. Dametta 

I fil. Morrell, DD. Henry 

^ Damctt, R. Hugh Damiot. 

A. Daniietta Avenel, FF. 

\^ Alice Damyett, Z. 

Damned-Barebones, 78. 

Damsel (f. Damsell), 84. Damosel 

Skren, QQ. 
Dance (v. Dans), 84. 
Dancer, 307. Herveus le Danser, A. 

Henry Dawnser, Z. 
Dancock, 84. John Dancock, G. 
Dandelyan, 499. William Daundelyun 

Danett, 84. Ralph Danett, PP. 

Thomas Danet, XX i. 
Daniel, 84. Daniel fil. John, i?. Richard 

Danycl, M. 
Dankin {7'. Daniel), 84. Gunnilda 
Danckin, K. 

(-84. Daniel Dann, PP. Henry 
Dannn, J Dann, PP. Moses Dan- 
Dannctt, \ nett, V 5. John Dannctt, 

L F4. 
Dans, 84. » - , ^ 
Dansn. iJol^nDanse, Z. 

Danser [v. Dancer), 307. 

Danson, 84. Christoi>hir Danson, Z. 
John Danson, Z, Marniadukc Dan- 
son, \V \\. 




Dapifer, 211. Henry Dapifer, ^. Sewall 

Dapifer, J. 
Darling. Jane Darling, W 20. 
Dason (v. Davison), 83. 
Dauber, 250. Roger le Daubere, A. 

Silvester Daubere, H. 
David, 83. David Faber, A. Gilbert 

David, A. 
Davidson, 83. Robert fil. David, A. 

Thomas Davydson, Af. 
Davies, 83. Davey ap Davidson, Z. 

Gerves Daves, W 9. Davy Cow- 
third, IF 18. 
Davison, 83. James Davyson, IV g. 

Thomas Davison, FF. 
Davitt [v. David), 83. Robert fil. Davit, 

A. Isabel uxor Davit, A. 
Dawber [v. Dauber), 250 

83. Daw le Pestour, H. 
Dawe le Falconer, DD. 
Lovekin Dawes, A. 
Dawkes, 83. Charles Dawkes, FF. 

Robert Dawkes, V $. 
Dawkins, 83. John Dawkyns, F. Henry 

Dawkins, Z. Dorken le Bercher, A. 
Dawkinson, 83. 
Dawson, 83. Richard fil. Dawe, A. 

Raffe Dawson, Z. 
Day, (273. CecilialeDay, y. Stephen 
Daye, ( leDagh, Z. Thomas le Day, .1/. 
Dayes, 83. 
Dayman, 273. 
Dayson [v. Davison), 83. 
Daystar. Robert Daystcrre, A. 
Deacon, 188. Senxa le Dekcnc, A. 

Philip le Dekene, M. 
Deakin, 188. 

Dean (i), 156. Roger le Dene, A. John 

le Dene, FF. 

(2), 118. William de la Dene, A. 

A lam atte Dene, Af. 

Dcarden, 11 i Ralph de Derneden, A. 

Dearlove, 47 William Derelove, F. 

Richard Lcrclove, ZZ. Thomas 

Dearlove IV 16 

Dearman {v. Deerman), 235 
Death, 168, 510. John Deth, M. Hugh 

de Dethe, A. 
Debenham, 17, 146. John de Deben- 

ham, A. Giles de Debenham, FF. 
Debonaire, 467. Philip le Debeneyre, A. 
Decroix, 153. 
Deer, 443. Robert leDere,^. Lawrence 

le Deer, M. 
Deerman, 235. John Dereman, A. 

William Dereman, A. 
Defend, 103. Defend Outered. 
Defontaine, 153. 
Delamere, 153. Reginald de la Mere, 

A. Grigore de la Mere, A. 
Delarue, 153. 
Delilah, 77. 
Delisle, 153. 

Deliver, 465. Ralph le Delivere, MAf. 
Delivery, jj. 

Deman, 273. Roger Deyman, Z. 
Demer, 180. Simon le Demer, B. 
Dempster, 180. Christopher Dempster, Q. 
Den, 118. Henry de Denn, A/. William 

ate Denne, A/. 
Denis {v. Dennis), 70. 
Dcnison (z>. Dennison), 70. 
Dcnman, 119, 270. Ralph Denmane, ZZ. 
Dennis (i). Denneyse Fowler, Z. Denes 
Lister, IV 9. Richard Dio- 
nys, A/. 
(2), 162. Joel le Deneys, A. 
Price le Daneis, Af. James 
le Danoys, XX i. 
Dennison (i), 70. Henry Dennison, IV 
16. John Denyson, IV 12- 
Micliael fil. Dionysia;, A. 
(2). Walter Denizen, A. 
Dcnt-de-fer, 434. Robert Dent-de-fer, £. 
Denthorp, 137. Catherine Denthorp, 

XX 4. 
Denyer, 119, 270. 
Departedieu, 511. John Departc-dicu, 

Deputy. Thomas Deputy, IV 20, 




Derbyshire, 147. Henry Derbyshyre, 

ZZ. Thomas Derbyshire, ZZ. 
Deme, 118 n. 
Demhouse, ii3 n. Thomas Derne- 

huse, A. 
Denventwater, 429. Henry de Der- 

wentwater, M, Thomas de Der^'ent- 

water, L. 

175. Thurstan le De- 
spencer, A. Edward le 
Despenser, B. 
Deus-sahet-dominas, 511. Roger Deus- 

salvet-dominas, i'. p. 511. 
Devil, (153. John Deyvyle, ^f. Tho- 
Deville, I mas de Dey%7le, T. 
Devoni h, 147. John le Deveneis, E. 

Isabel le Deveneis, A. Nichol le 

Devenys, M. 
Dewhurst, 116. John Dcrhurste, XX x. 

Grace Dewhirste, ZZ. 
Deye {v. Day), 273. Hugh le Deye, G. 

Cecily le Deye, FF. 
Deyville, 153. Goscclin de Eyville, M. 

John de Eyville, M. 
Diacony, 188 n. Micheli Diacony, XXx. 
Diable, 153. Osbcrt Diabolus, C. 

Roger le Diable, y. 
Dibden, ii3 «. Randoljih de Dependen, 

A. John Dcbden, XX i. 

^65. (i),Johnfil. Decani, ^. 
Amice fil. Decani, A. 
(2), John Dyconson, H. 
Anthonye Dickon- 
son nc, \V 9. 
Dick, 40. 'Agatha Dick, FF. John 

Dik, FF. 
Dickens, 40. William Dicons, /•"/•'. 

Richard Dikkins, FF. 
Dickenson (v. Dicconson), 16, 40. 

Robert Dickenson, ZZ. William 

Dykynson, Z.Z. 
Dicker, 257. Symon le Diker, A. 

Geoffrey le Dykere, A. 
Dickerson, 40. Henry Dickcrson, FF. 
Dickman, 257. Walter Dikemaii, A, 


Agnes Dykman, B. Henry Dickman, 


Dicks, 40. William Dikkys, FF. 
Thomas Dykys, FF. 

Dickson, 40. Ralph Dikson, F. Nicho- 
las Dykson, W 2. 

Dieu-te-ayde,5ii. John Dieu-te-ayde,^/. 

Digger, 257. William Digger, V 2. 

Diggs [v. Dicks), 40. Robert Diggs, 
257 «. Anne Digges, Z. 

Digginson (i^. Dickenson), 40. John 
Digginson, Z. Agnes Digison, Z. 

Dinah, 100. DjTia Bocher, 100. 

f70.Dionisius Garston, \Vi\. 

Dionisia, J Dionise Argentein, HH. 

Dionisius, | Dionysia la Coyfere, A. 
LMichael fil. Dionisie, A. 

Discipline, 77. 

Disher, 393. John le Discher, O. Robert 
le Dishere, X. 

Dishcress, 393. Margaret le Disheresse, 

^'^^^'■' 1 314. Roger le Disser, A. 
Dissour, ) ^ ^ 

Distcr, 322. Robert le Dighestere, G. 

Walter le Dighestere, G. Thomas 

Dyster, B. 
Ditchend, 114. John dc Dichendc, R. 
Dives, 431. Elyas le Diveys, A. 
Dix [v. Dicks), 40. William Dixe, Z. 

Thomas Dickes, /'"/''. 
Dixon (i'. Dickson), 40. Bayll Dixson, 

IF" 9. Agnes Dixson, Z. 
Dobbins, 39. Toby Dobbin, FF. John 

Dobbins, Z. Matilda Dobin, A. 
Dobbs, 39. Roger Dobbs, M. Richard 

Dobbys, /?£. Robert Dobbis, 1^17. 
Dobinett. John Dobynctte, v. p. 39, «. 
Dobinson, Mg. Miles Dobsonne, ZZ. 
Dobison, \ Richard Dobyson, It' 2. 
Dobson, i Henry Dobbinson, 1^20. 
Dodman, 304. Peter Dodcman, A. 

John Dodman, FF. 
Dodson (f. Davidson), 83. John Daud- 

son, M. Adam Doddson, ZZ. 



Doe, 489. John le Doe, A. William 

le Do, A. 
Dog, 492. Nicholas Dogge, A. 
Dogmow, 434. WilHam Dogmow, A. 

Arnulph Dogmow, A. 
Dollman, 165. Ales Dolman, Z. 

Mathew Dolman, EE. 
Dolphin, 497. John Dolfin, Z. William 

Dolfin, A. 
Doman [v. Doorman), 204. 
Domitt, 84. Henry Domet, A. 
Dook [v. Duke), 174. 
Doolittle, 500. 
Doomsday. Richard Domesdaye, FF. 

Margery Domesday (Lower). 
Doorman, 204. Nicholas Doreman, O. 
Doorward, 204. Geoffrey le Doreward, 

A. Elias Dorewarde, B. Isabel 

Dorewarde, H. 
Dorman {v. Doorman), 204. 
Dorturer, 192. Robert le Dorturer, D. 

William le Dorturer, DD. 
Dosier, 360. Robert le Dosier, A. 

Richard le Dosyere, A. 
Dosser {v. Dosier), 360. Gilbert le 

Dosser, A. John Dawsor, EE. 
Dosson, 69. 
Doubleman, 389. 
Doubler, 389. Hans Doublcr, O. John 

Doblere, X. 
Doublcrosc. Annabell Doublcrose. 
Douce [v. Dowse), 69. 
Doucett {v. Dowsett). John Doucctt, 

Douch, 165. 
Doughty, 467. John Doughty, FF. 

Thomas Doughtye, ZZ. 
Dove, 494. Richard le Duv, M. Niclio- 

las le Duv, ][f. 
Dowch, 165. 

Dowkin {v. Dowse), 69. Richard Dow- 
kin, F. 
Downe, 125. John de la Dounc, B. 

Nicholas atte Doune, M. 
Downyhead, 447. John Downyhead, M. 

Dowsabell, 19, 70. Dowsabell Cobbe, 

FF. Dowzable Mill. Z. Dussabell 

Caplyn, Z. Thomas Duszabell, M. 
Doomsday, 63. Richard Domesday, 

Doucett [v. Duckett), 70. 
Dowse, 69. Duce Mercatrix, A. Douce 

de Moster, A. William Douce, M. 
Dowsett (v. Dowse), 69. Walter fil. 

Dussote, A. 
Dowson, 69. John fil Dousje, W 5. 

John Dowsson, Z. Stephen Dowson, 

Dragon, 428. Walter le Dragon, A. 

William le Dragon, A. 
Drake, 494. Adam le Drake, B. Martin 

le Drake, E. 
Draper, 286. Roger le Draper, A. 

Henry le Drapier, M. 
Drawespe, 461. Thomas Drawespe, A. 

William Drauespe, A. 
Drawlace, 502. John Drawlace, IV 18. 
Drawsword, 461. Henry Draweswerd, 

A. Maurice Draugheswerd, AI. 
Draw-water, 410. Richard Drawater, 

Drayner, 257. Elizabeth Draner, Z. 

Thomas Draner, Z. 
Dresser, 261. Raphe Dresser, Z. John 

Dresser, H'' 16. 
Drew, 31. William fil. Drogo, A. Dru 

Rarentyn, //. Drcwe Drewery, Z. 
Drcwett, 31. Druett Malerbc, A. 

Druetta de Pratcllo, A. 
Drynk-ale, 481. Jakes Drynkale, XX i. 
Drink-dregs, 481. Geoffrey Dringke- 

dreggcs, I' 8. 
Drinkwatcr, 481. John DrinkewaterT-'^. 

Richard Drynkewatere, M. 
Driver, 288. John le Drivere, .4/. 

Richard le Drivere, M. James Driver, 
IF 16. 
Drivcrcss, 281. Alice le Driveress, A. 
Drunkard, 481. Maurice Dmncard, A, 
Drybread, 501. John Drybrcd, A. 



Dubber, 354. Jordan le Dubbrre, B. 

Stephen le Dubbere, M. Payen le 

Dubbour, A^ 
Dubois, 153. John Dubois, A. 
Ducatel, 153. 
Duce, (v. Dowse), 6g. Duce Vidua, A. 

Agnes fil. Duce, A. John fil. Duce, 

Ducedame, 481. Roger Duccdame, A. 
Duceparole, 468. Henry Duceparolc, 

Duck, 174 «. RogerleDuc, ^. Adam 

le Duk, M. William le Duck, T. 
Ducket (f. Dowsett), 70. Margery 

Duckett, HH. Robert Duckett, PP. 

Dulcia Duket, A. 
Duckrell, 494. 
Dudder, 303. 

Dudderman, Mos. Simon Dudeman, Z). 
Duderman, -j Ralph Deudeman, M. 
Dudman, ( Obbe Dudeman, E. 
Duffus, 131. Thomas Dufhouse, X, 

John del Duffus, A. 
Duke, 174. Nicholas Duke, ^. Thomas 

Duke, D. 
Dukeson {v. Douce). Robert Dukeson, 

Dulcia (f. Duce), 69. Robert fil. Dulcie. 

A. Dulcia le Drapcre, G. Dulcia fil. 

WilUiam, E. Dulcia Boveton, A. 
Dulcibella {v. Dowsabcll), 70, 
Dulson (t-. Dulcia), 70. 
Dull. Alicia le Dul, A. 
Dumbard, 442. Roljcrt Dumbard, A. 
Dun (i), 125. Gilbert atte Dune, A. 
Henry de la Dun, A'. 
(2), 445. Henry le Dun, A. Wil- 
liam le Dun, B. 
Duncalf, 490. John Duncalf, AA i. 

William Duncalf, A A i. 
Dunman, 395. William Dunman, .,-/. 

John Dunman, A. 
Dunn (f. Dun), 395. William le Dunne, 

Dupont, 153. 


Dyott, . 

' Henry fil. Durant, A. Durand 
le Bonjohan, A. Ivo Du- 
raunt, A. 

Duredent, 434. Walter Durcdent, E. 
Durnford, 118 n. Radegund Derneford, 

RR I. Robert de Derneford, A. 
Durward {v. Doorward), 204. John 

Dunvard, B. 
Dust, ij. 
Dutchman, 163. 

Dutchwoman, 163. Katherine Dutch- 
woman, X. 
Duzamour, 474. Felicia Duzamour, v. p. 

Dyer, 322. John le Deyere, A. Geoffrey 
le Deghere, G. Nicholas le Deighere, 

[v. Dionisia), 70. Diota de 
Walworte, W 19. Dyot 
Hayne, W \x. Diotson, 

Dyson (f. Dionysia), 70. William Dy- 

sone, M. 
Dyster ^v. Dister), 322. 

T7AGLE, 145, 485. ( I ), Gilbert de la 
^ Hegle, A. 

{2), Custance le Egle, A. 
Eaglcbcard, 449. Ismay Eglel>erd, A. 
Eame (f. Erne), 429. 
Earl, 145. Roger leErl, /f.John Erie, B. 
Famshaw, 117. 
Earth, 77. 
East, 150. Robert de la Este, A. 

Christopher Easto, /. 
Eastend, 115. Emma ate Estende, A. 

Adam in I'.stend, A. 
Eastcrling, 164. 

Eastern, 150. Thomas Esteme, A. 
Eborard, 27. Geoffrey fil. Eborard, A. 

l"l)orard le Ken, A. 
Edeline (f. Adeline), 19. Robert fil. 

lideline, A. Edelina del Brok, K. 

Edelina Aylevc, A. 



Edelota {v. Edeline). Edelota Darby, 

y1. Ydelot Binytheton, A'. 
Edith, 19. John fil. Edithe, A. Editha 

uxor Edwardi, C. 
Edmond, j 19. Edmon le Ussher, M. 
Edmonds, | Walter Edmonds, Z. 
Edmondson, 19. Robert Edmondson, 

Edmund, ( 5, 19. Robert Eadmund, 
Edmunds, \ A. Edmund BuUok, Z. 
Edmundson, 19. John fil. Eadmundi, 

A. Alexander fil. Eadmund, A. 
Edred. John Edred, A. Thomas 

Edrede, A. 
Edward, (19. Roger Eadward, A. 
Edwardes, | Robert Edward, M. 
Edwardson, 19. George Edwardscn, 

XX r. Emma fil. Edward, A. 
Eimeric, 26. 
Elcock, 87. Francis Elcock, Q. Roger 

Hellecok, A. 
Elder, 432. 
lileanor {v. Alianora). Eleanor Lovet, 

H. Hugh fil. Elyenore, A. Elner 

Martin, Z. 
. EUas, 86. 

f87. Elyot ad Cap: Ville, A. 
Eliottus de Balliol, E. 
1 Richard Eliot, M. 
Elizabeth, 79 n. Elizabeth Draner, Z. 
Elcock, 87. John Elcock, ZZ. Henry 

Elcocke, ZZ. 
Elkins, (86. Elekyn, N. Robert 
Elkinson, | Elkyn, X. 
Ellcock (v. Elcock), 87. 
Ellen [v. Eleanor), 72. David fil. Elene, 

A, Elenc le Fleming, y. 
EUice, 86. Duce Elice A. Ellice Covv- 

pcr, Z. Elice Apprice, Z. 
Ellicot, 87 71. Elisot?, A. Ellisoto 

Dispenser, A. Elisota Domicella, 

W 2. Elisot Bustard, W 2. 
Elliot (v. Eliot), 16, 87. Richard fitz 

Elote, M. Henry Elyot, A. 
Elliotson, 87. Robert Elyotson, I\ 



Ellis, 86. Elis le Fitz-Hugh, M. Elis 

de Albrighton, J/. Nicholas Ellys, 

Ellison, 86. Henry fil. Elis, A. John 

Ellison, r. Elias fil. Elye, AI. 
Ellson, 86. Roger fil. Elie, A. Wil- 
liam Elson, H. 
Elmer [v. Aylmer), 29. Richard Eilmar, 

A. William Elmer, M. 
Elmhurst, 116. 

Elmsley, 119. Albred de Elmsleie, ^. 
Elwyn {v. Aylwin), 29. Elwyn le Hey- 

ward, A. William Elwin, A. 
Ember, 61. Ember SoleiroU, QQ. 
Emberson [v. Emerson), 29. 
Erne, 429. Nicholas Eme, A. 
Emelia, 19, 87 n. Emelia la Prys, M. 
Emelot, 87 n. Emelot, y. Elena Eme- 

lot {v. Emelia), A. 
Emeric, 29, 87 «. Emeric de Bezill, A. 

Emericus de Sacy, B. Emericus de 

Bosco, C. 
Emerson, 29. Richard Emryson, VV 

12. John fil. Emerici, Af. William 

Emeryson, W^. Richard Emerson, 

Emery, 29. Emerius Monetarius, C. 

William Emery, D. 
Emlott [v. Emelot), 87 n. 
Emma, 68. Emma mater Andreas, C. 

Emma la Gradere, A. Emma uxor 

Saer, y. 

68. Walter Em, A. Wil- 
liam Emms, A. Edmund 
Emmes, I- 1'. 
Fmmet f ^^' ^^' ^'-"'""^"^ Catton, X. 
Emmett,] ^'"'"'''' Flessour, IV 9. 

\ Emmet Cliapman, \V 9. 
Emmot [v. Emmott), 16, 68. 
Emmotson, 68. 
Emmott, 68. Emmota Plummer, IVa. 

limmota Fysscher, IV 2. Emmot 

Kneyt, A. 
Emperor, 173. Richard le Emperer, 

Em me, 





Empson, 68. Richard Empson, H. 

John Emmeson, FF. 
Emson, 68. Elyas fil. Emme, A. John 

Emyson, F. 
Enfant, 202. John le Enfaunt, A. 

Walter le Enfaunt, H. John le En- 
fant, E. 
Engineer, 229 (w. Jenner), William le 

Engynur, A. Richard le Enginur, B. 

Emulf le Enginnur, E. 
English, 149. Walter le Engleis, A. 

Richard le Engleys, B. John le Eng- 

lisshe, M. 
Enota, 87 n. Enota Coly, A. 
Envious, 464. Hamo le Enveyse, A. 

William le Enveise, C. 
Epiphany, 61. Epiphania Jackson, QQ. 
Eremite (v. Hermit), 196. Hugh le 

Ermite, E. 
Emald (v. Arnold), 28. Ernaldus de 

Baiona, C. Ernaldus Camifex, C. 

Peter Ernald, R. 
Escot (s/. Scott), 148. Roger le Escot, 

A. Adam le Escot, //. 
Escriveyn (v. Scriven), 362. Robert le 

Escriveyn, E. William le Escrevyn, 

Eskirmesur (w. Skrimshire), 220. Henry 

le Eskirmessur, A. Peter le Eskur- 

mesur, E. John le Eskirmesour, K. 
Espaigne [v. Spain), i6r. Arnold de 

Espaigne, H. John de Ispania, A. 
Espicer {^. Spicer), 329. Alan le Espe- 

cer, A. Milo le Espicer, N. Richard 

le Espicer, B. 
Espigumell (w. Spigumell), 183. Nicho- 
las Espigurnel, A. Edmund le Espi- 

gumel, L. 
Espin {v. Espaigne), i6x. 
Esquier (v. Squier), 166. Thomas le 

Esquier, E. Gilbert le. Esquier, J. 
Esquiler {v. Squiller), 174. William le 

Esquiler, //. Robert le Escuyller, E. 
■^■''.stiBnge (w. Strange), 146. Robert le 
"P' Estrange, A. John le Estrange, R. 

Estraunge [v. Straunge), 146. Roger le 

Estraunge, H. John le Estraunge, J. 
Estrys, 150. Moyne le Estrys, A. 

Richard le Estreys, T. 
Etheldreda (w. Audry), 19. Etheldreda 

Castell, FF. Etheldred or Audrey 

Clerc, FF. 
Ethelred, 5. 
Euphemia, 19. Eufemia de Grey, K. 

Eufemia de Heslarton, W 9. 
Eustace, 18. Herveus fil. Eustace, A. 
Evans, j Howell ap Yevan, H. David 
Evanson, 1 ap Evan, Z. 
Eve, 3, 81. Eva Textrix, A. Eva la 

Warre, J. Eva fil. Dolphini, J. 
Evelyn, I 87 n. Evelina Coynterel, A. 
Eveline, \ George Evelynge, '/.. 
Everard, 29. Fulco fil. Everardi, R. 

Everard Gallicus, E. Geoffrey fil, 

Everard, A. 
Everardson (v. Evorard). Nicholas Eve- 

rardsonne, BB. Peter Everadsonne, 

Eversden, 118. John de Eversdene, A. 

Luke de Eversden, DD. 
Eversholt, 116. Richard de Eversholt, 

M. John de Everesholt, R. 
Every, 29. John Every, H. William 

Everye, Z. 
Eves {v. Eveson), 81. 
Evesk (w. Vesk), 156. Henry le Eveske, 

E. Elyas le Eveske, T. 
Eveson, 81. John fil. Eve, M. Cecilia 

fil. Evse, T. Richard fil. Eve, A. 
Evett, 81. Evota de Durham, JV. Evota 

de Stanley, W 2. William Evote, X. 

^^''' 1- 153- Peter de E\7ille, M. 
Evill, I 

livilchild, 506. Alan Evilchild, A. 

Kvitt [v. Kvett), 81. 

Evott (i'. Evett), 81. 

Ewe (i), 445. Leticia le Eue, M. 

Nicholas le Ewe, FF. 
{2), 118. Jordan del Ewe, A. 

John del Ewe, A% 



Ewer, 214. Brian le Ewer, E. Richard 

le Ewere, H. William le Ewer, T. 
Ewery, 214. Adam le Euere, A. Roger 

de Euere, M. 
Excuser, 180. Peter le Es-cuzer, H. 
Experience. Experience Mayhew, 103 
Eyre, 202. William le Eyr, B. Simon 

le Heir, A. Robert le Eir, M. 
Eyville, 153. Nicholas de Eyvil, A. 

John de Eyvill, R. 
Ezekiel, 100. Ezekiel Guppye, Z. 
Ezota (v. Ehzabeth). Ezota Hall, 

■pABER. Silvester Faber, A. Nicho- 

^ las Faber, H. 

Fail, 154. Gilbert Fayel, E. Matilda 

Faiel, E. 
Faint-not, 103. Faint-not Dighurst, 
■ 103. 
Fair, 475. Richard le Fayre, A, Marcus 

le Faire, C. 
Fairbrother, 508. 
Fairchild, 508. Robert Fayrchild, A. 

Godfrey P^airchilde, C. 
Fairclough, 124. Wilham Fairclough, 

Z. Hugh Faierclugh, Z. 
Fairfax, 449. Thomas Fayrfax, M. 

Guy Fairefax, H. William Farefaxe, 

Fairhair, 448. Geoffrey Fairher, N. 

Edward Fayreheire, Z. 
Fairhead, 435. William Fairheved, A. 

Richard Faireheved, H. 
Fairman (i), 304. John Fayerman, A. 
Richard Fayrman, A. 
(2), 304. Fairman Alberd, M. 
Fairesire, 506. Henry Fairesire, X. 
Fairson, 506. Richard Fairsone, M. 
Fairweather, 472. John Fayrweder, A. 

Hugh Fairweder, A. 
Faith, 103. Faythe Childe, W 14. 

Fayth Neville, W 14. 
Faithful, 104. Faythful Fortescue, 104. 

Fakes (w. Fawkes), 50. Fakes de 

Breante, E. 
Falcon, 493. William le Falcon, M. 
Falconar, / 240. Guido le Falconare, A. 
Falconer, Geoffrey le Falconer, M. 
Falkener, 1 William le Falkoner, M. 
Falkner, ( Antony Falkner, Z. 
Fallow, 446. Roger le Falewe, A, 

Alicia la Falour (?), A. 
Fallowman,446. William Faleman ^),A. 
False. Agnes le Faleise, J. 
Fanner, 276. Walter le Fannere, X. 

Simon le Fannere, X. 
Fanne, 276. William atte Fanne, R. 

Margery Fanne, Z. 
Farebrother, 430. 
Farewell, 512. Thomas Farewel, A. 

Richard Farewell, A. 
Farmer, 271. William le Farmere, A. 

Robert le Fermere, A. 
Farrier {v. Ferrier), 290. Sibilla le 

Feryere, A. 
Farthing, 456. Geoffrey Ferthing, A. 

William Ferthing, M. 
Father, 430. Arnold le Fader, A. 

Robert le Fader, R. 
Fatherless, 430. John Faderless, M. 

Ralph Faderles, SS. 
Fatman, 431. Richard Fatman, FF. 
Fatt, 431. William le Fatte, M. Alan 

Fatt, PP. 
Fauconer, /-l^- Falconer), 240. Bernard 
P , \ ^^ Fauconer, M. John le 

FaulcTner, j Faukencr, A. Heniy le 

\ Taucuner, E. 
Faulkes (v. Fawkes), 50. Edmund 

Falkes, H. 
Faulkner (f. Falconer), 240. 
Faultless, 463. 
Faucet [v. Fauset). 

Fauset {v. Fawkes). Richard Fauset, /'/', 
Faux (v. Fawkes), 50. Nel Faukes, A. 

John Faux, H. Nicholas Faukes, A, 
Favell, 445. Hugh Fauvel, M. John 

Fauvel, M, 





Fawcett (v. Fawsett). 

Fawkes, 50. Faukes le Buteller, A. 

Faukesius de Breant, A. Fauke de 

Glamorgan, E. 
Fawsett (v. Fawkes). Robert Fawcett, 

Fawson, ] 
Faxson, [ ^ 
Fayle (v. Fail), 154. 
Fear-not, 103. Fere-not Rhodes, 103. 
Fearon (v. Feron), 244. 
Featherbeard, 449. John Featherberde, 

Featherstonehaugh, 133. 
Feelgood. William Felegod, A. 
Felicia, 19. Felicya Pudforth, A. Felicia 

de Quoye, A. Warner fil. Felice, A. 
Fell-dog, 500. Roger Feldog, {1^15. 
Fellmonger, 331. 

Fellowe, J 506. Bele le Felawe, A. 
Fellowes, \ Robert le Felawe, A. 
Fellowship, 191. William Felliship, 

W II. 
Felon, 182 «. Henry le Felun, A. 
Fenn. Roger del Fen, A. Thomas 

atte Fenne, B. Gonnilda in le 

Fenne, A. 
Fenner, 237. Richard le Fenere. //. 

Ralph le Fenere, P. 
Fenreve, 233. AdamFenreve, v4. Symon 

Fenreve, A. 
Fermer {v. Fanner), 271, 192. Robert 

le Fermere, A. Matilda la Fermer, G. 
Fermerie, 192. Idonia de la Fermerie, 

B. John le Fermery, H. 
Fermor {v. Fermer), 192. 
Feron, 283. Alan le Feron, A. Mar- 
gery la Feron, B. 
Ferrers, 151. Wydo de Ferreris, /''/''. 

Elizabeth de Ferreris, PP. 
Farrier, 290. Osbert le Ferrur, A. 

Peter le Ferrour, G. Colin le Ferur, 

Ferriman, 285. Peter Fcryman, Z. 

Richard Ferryman, Z. 

Ferron(z'. Feron), 283. RogerleFenm,/!. 

Fesant (v. Pheasant), 494. 

Feure, 283. Reginald le Feure, B. 

Thomas le Feure, M. 
Feutercr (v, Fewter), 236. Walter le 

Feuterer, A. 

(283. Richard le Fevere, A. 
John le Fever, M Torald 
le Fevre, y. Achard le 
Fevre, T. 
Fewster {v. Fuster), 289. Ralph Few- 

ster, 55. 
Fewter, 236. Geoffrey le Wewterer, A. 

John le Vautrer, A. Godfrey le 

Futur, A. 
Fidler, 308. Robert Fyffudlere, X. 

John Fydler, ZZ. Ruelard Vidulator, 

DD. Thomas le Fytheler (Lower). 

RobertFediller, JfA"!. John le Fythe- 

ler, A A 4. 
Field, 115. Linota ate Feld, A. 

Thomas atte Felde, Af. 
Fielder, 113. Alice Feylder, ZZ. Rich- 
ard Feilder, W g. 
Fierce, 464. Ralph le Fere, A. 
Fighter, 305. Richard le Fytur, A. 
Filder (v. Fielder), 113. 
Fillpot, 91. John Filpot, P. Roger 

Fylpot, PP. 
Fillip, 91. Walter Fclip, A. Jon fiz 

Felyp, DD. Felipp Clerk, A. 
Finch, 494. Thomas Finch, A. James 

Fynch, //. 
Fincher, 239. Robert le Fincher, B. 
Fine-amour, 474. Dulcia Fynamour, 

V. p. 474. 
Finger, 436. Matilda Finger, //. 
Firebrace, 436. Robert Ferbras, M. 
Firminger (v. Furminger) 278, 370. 

Andrew Firminger, Z. John Far- 

mynger, Z. 
Firstling, 202. Bartholomew Firstling 

(Strype). William Firstling, PP. 
Fish, 274, 496. John le Fysche, Q, 

Richard Fishe, PP. 



Fisher, 273, 376. Thomas le Fishere, 

B. Henry le Fisscre, J. Margaret 

le Fischere, A. 
Fisherman, 273. Antony Fishenian, 

FF. Andrew Fishman, FF. 
Fishmonger, 334. WiUiam Fyshmon- 

ger, F. 
Fiske, 274, 496. William Fyske, Q. 

Catherine Fiske, FF. 
Fisker, 273. Robert le Fys-cer, A. 

Lawrence Fisker, E. 
Fitch, 489. William Fitche, A. Wil- 
liam Fitch, FF. 
Fitchett, 489. John Fichet, M. William 

Fychet, H. 
Fitz-amice, 13. Robert Fitz-amice, M. 
Fitz-bennet (i-. Bennet). John le Fitz- 

beneit, H. Alan Fitz-bennet, FF. 
Fitz-clerk, 65. Alexander Fitz-clerk, H. 
Fitz-ellis, 86. Robert Fitz-elis, M. 

William Fitz-elias, M. 
Fitz-garret (v. Garret). Edward Fitz- 

garret, EE. Agnes Fitz-garret, FF. 
Fitz-gerald, 13, 52. Gerald Fitz-gerald, 

M. Thomas Fitz-gerot, H. 
Fitz-gibbon, 13. 
Fitz-hamond (v. Hammond), 13, 35. 

John Fitz-hamond, D. Sibil Fitz- 

hamon, FF. 
Fitz-herbert (v. Herbert), 13. William 

Fitz-herbert, Z. Thomas Fitz-her- 
bert, EE. 
Fitz-howard, 26. John Fitz-howard, 

Fitz-james (w. James), 13. John Fitz- 

james, Z. James Fitz-james, EE. 
Fitz-lettice, 71. Roger Fitz-lettice, H. 

John Fitz-lettice, M. 
Fitz-neel, 13. Robert Fitz-necl, D. 

Thomas Fitz-neel, M. 
Fitz-parker,65. Thomas Filz-parkere, ^V. 
Fitz-patrick, 13. Thomas Fitz-patrick, 

Fitz-payn, 13. Ela le Fitz-payn, //. 

Elis 1g Fitz-payn, M. 

Fitz-pcers (^'. Peers), 13. Lucia Fitz- 

peers, B. Aveline Fitz-piers, FF. 
Fitz-provost, 65. Simon Fitz-provost, H. 
Fitz-rauf, 13. John Fitz-rauf, B. Rich- 
ard Fitz-ralph, M. 
Fitz-richard, 13. John Fitz-richard, B. 

Rauf le P'itz-richard, M. 
Fitz-simon {v. Simon), 13. Edward le 

Fitz-simon, B. Robert Fitz-simon, M. 
Fitz-water (i/. Walter), 13. William Ife 

Fitz-water, A. Humfrey Fitz-wau- 

ter, B. 
Fitz-warin, 13, 32. Ino Fitz-Waryn, B. 

Fulco Fitz-warren, C. 
Fitz-william (i*. William), 13. Jarvis 

Fitzwilliam, Z. Roger Fitz-william, 

Five-ashes, 129. 

Fivepenny, 513. John Fivepeni, A. 
Five-pound, 513. James Fyppound, 

XX I. 
Flanner [v. Flaoner). John Flanner, 

/''/''. John Flanner, 367«. 
Flaoner, 367. William le Flaoner, A. 

William le Flaoner, B. Roger le