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\ \ 


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It may seem sinpirismg that the English, ix^ho hare employed their talents 
sneeessfuily in every bruich of literature, and in none more than in that of 
philology, ^ould yet have fallen below other nations in the study of theur 
■yiionymes : it cannot however be denied that, while the French and Germans 
Imve had several considerable works on the subject, we have not a single writer 
who has treated it in a scientifick manner adequate to its importance : not that 
I wish by thb remark to depreciate the labours of those who have preceded 
me ; but simply to assign it as a reason why I have now been induced to some 
forward with an attempt to fill up what is considered a chasm in English 

In the prosecution of my undertaking, I have profited by every thing which 
has been written in any language upon the subject ; and although I always 
pursued my own train of thought, yet whenever I met with any thing deserving 
of notice, I adopted it, and referred it to the author in a note. I had not pro- 
ceeded far before I found it necessary to restrict m3rself in the choice of my 
materials ; and accordingly laid it down as a rule not to compare any words 
together which were sufficiently distinguished fh)m each other by striking fea- 
tures in their signification, such as abandon and quit, which require a compari- 
son with others, though not necessarily with themselves ; for the same reason I 
thought fit to limit myself, as a rule, to one authority for each word, unless 
where the ease seemed to require farther exemplification. 

Although a work of this description does not afiford much scope for system 
and arrangement, yet I laid down to myself the plan of arranging the words 
according to the extent or universality of their acceptation, placing those first 
whidi had the most general sense and application, and the rest in order. By 
this i^an I found myself greatly aided in anal3rzing their differences, and I trust 
that the reader will thereby be equally benefited. In the choice of authorities 
I have been guided by various considerations ; namely, the appropriateness of 
the examples ; the classick purity of the author ; the justness of the sentiment ; 
and, last of ^, the variety of the writers : but I am persuaded that the reader 
will not be dissatisfied to find that I have shown a decided preference to such 
authors as Addison, Johnson, Dryden, P(^, Milt<m, iic. At the same time it 
is but just to observe that this selection of audumties has been made by an 
actual perusal of the authors, without the assistance of Johnson*s dictionary. 

For the sentiments scattered through this woric I offer no apology, although I 
am aware that they will not fall in with the views of many who may be com- 


peteni to decide on its literary merits. I write not to please or di^ilease any 
description of persons ; but I trust that what I lia?e written according to ihd 
dictates of my mind will meet the approbation of those whose good opinion I 
am most solicitous to obtain. « Should any object to the introduction of morality 
in a work of science, I beg them to consider, that a writer, whose business it 
was to mark the nice shades of distinction between words closely allied, could 
not do justice to his subject without entering into all the relations of society, 
and showing, from the acknowledged sense of many moral and religious terms, 
what has been the general sense of mankind on many of the most important 
questions which have agitated the world. My first object certainly has been 
to assist the philological inquirer in ascertaining the force and comprehension 
of the English language; yet I should have thought my work but half com- 
pleted had I made it a mere register of verbal distinctions. While others seize 
eveiy opportunity unblushingly to avow and zealously to propagate opinicms 
destructive of good order, it would ill become any individual of contraiy senti- 
ments to shrink from stating his convictions, when called upon as he seems to be 
by an occasion like that which has now offered itself Aib to the rest, I throw 
myself on the indulgence of the publick, with the assurance that, having used 
every endeavour to deserve thdr approbation, I shall not make an ap^al to 
their candour in vain. 




A FOURTH edition of the English Stnontmss having now become desiraUe, 
the Author has for some time past occcupied himself in making such additions 
and improvements, as he deems calculated materially to enhance its vahie as a 
work of criticism. The alj^iabetical arrangement of the words is exchanged 
for one of a more scientifick character, arising from their alliance in sense or fircmi 
the general nature of the subjects : thus affording the advantage of a more con- 
nected explanation of terms, more or less allied to each other. At the same 
time the purpose of reference is more fully answered by an index so copious 
that the reader may immediately turn to the particular article sought for. Tlie 
subject matter of several articles has been considerably enlarged, and such 
amplifications admitted as may serve to place the Synonymss in a clearer point 
of view, particulariy by comparing them with the ooiresponding words in the 
original languages whence they are derived. The English quotations have 
likewise undergone several alterations both in their number and order, so as t» 
adiq[>t them to the other changes which have been introduced tfaroo^iottl the 


*tO ABANDON— to abandoD, deMit, AmmIu, r»- 

. S4S 

TO ABANDON-(o abMidoD, 


TO ABANDON—to give up, abaodoD, reilcii, 

forafo MS 

ABANDONEI>-profligate, ftbandoned, reprobate S49 
TO ABASB— to ftbeee, buiikUe, degrade, diepaee, 

debaM lOG 

TO ABASH— to abaeb, confiwnd, coDfliee 107 

TO ABATE— to tbaie, leiieii, dJmlnisb, decreeie 351 

TO ABATE— to eubelde, abate, iotermit 871 

TO ABDICATE— to abandon, reeign, renounce, 

abdicate 843 

TO ABDlCAT£-to abdicate, deMrt 253 

ABETTOR— abettor, acceasary, aecompUce 365 

TO ABHOR— to abbor, deteit, abominate, loatbe 138 
TO ABIDE— lo abide, aqjoum, dwell, reeide, in- 
habit 963 

ABILITT— ability, capacity 67 

ABILIT7— faculty, abUity, talent 06 

ABILITY— dexterity, addreai, abUity 68 

ABJECT— low, mean, abject 147 

TO ABJURE— to abjure, recant, retract, rerolte, 

recaU 217 

TO ABOLISH— to aboUib, abrogate, repeal, re- 

Toke, annul, cancel 247 

ABOMINABLE-aboffiinable, deteMable, execra- 
ble 138 

TO ABOBONATE— to abbor, detest, abominate, 

loatbe 138 

ABORTION-Allure, mlKarriage, abortion 135 

ABOVE— above, over, upon, beyond 879 

TO ABRIDGE-to abridge, curtail, contract 178 

TO ABRlDGB-to deprive, debar, abridge 506 

TO ABROGATE-to aboUab, abrogate, repeal, 

revo£B,anattl, cancel 947 

ABRUPT— abrupt, nigged, roagb 901 

TO ABSCOND— to abeeond, iCeal away, aecrete 

one*tieir 530 

ABSENT— abaent, abatracted, diverted, diitraeted 484 

TO ABSOLVE-10 abaolve, acquit, dear 183 

TO ABSOLVE— lo forgive, pardon, abeolve, re- 
mit 87 

ABSOLUTE— abM)lote, despottek, arbitrary 188 

ABSOLUTE— podtive, absolute, peremptoiy.... 188 
TO ABBOftB— to abaorb, awaUow up, ingnir, en- 

groei 500 

TO AB8TAIN-to abetain, forbear, reltaln 944 

ABSTEMIOUS— abelloent, aober, abitemioui, 

temperate 944 

ABSTINENCE— abatinenee, Ibst 87 

ABSTINENT— •bstlnent, aober, abaiemloai, 


TO ABSTRACT— lo abitract, aeparata, dietln- 

guisb 490 

ABSTRACTED— absent, abstracted, diverted, 

distracted , 484 

ABSURD— irrational, foolish, absurd, preposte- 
rous 91 

ABUNDANT— plentiAU, plenteous, abundant, co- 
pious, ample 341 

TO ABUSE— to abuse, misuse 390 

ABUSE—abttse, invective 100 

ABUSIVE— reproachful, abusive, scurrilous 109 

ABTSS-gulf, abyss 403 

ACADEMT-sehool, academy 197 

TO ACCEDE— to accede, consent, comply, acqui- 
esce, agree ; 151 

TO ACCELERATE— to hasten, accelerate, speed, 

expedite, despatch 961 

ACCENT— stress, strain, emphasis, accent 991 

TO ACCEPT— to take, receive, accept 933 

ACCEPTABLE— acceptable, grateftd, welcome.. 934 


ACCEPTATION I ••«**'^****P'»***« ^ 

ACCESS— admittance, access, approach 935 

ACCESSION— hicrease, addition, accession, aug- 
mentation 347 

ACCESSARY— abettor, acceasary, accomplice... 365 

ACCIDENT-«cckIeat, chance 171 

ACCIDENT accident, coatingeacy, casualty... 179 
ACCIDENT— event, incident, accident, adven- 
ture, occurrence 179 

ACCIDENTAL— accidental, incidental, casual, 

contingent 179 

AOCLABfATION— applause, aodamatkin, plau- 
dit 130 

TO ACCOMMODATE— to fit, suit, adapt, accom- 

modatSt adjust 154 

ACCOBIPANIMENT— accompaniment, compa- 
nion, edhcomltant 493 

TO ACCOMPANY— to accompany, attend, es- 
cort, wah on 493 

ACCOMPLICE— abettor, aceesnry,accomplioe.. 365 
ACCOMPLICE— ally, confederate, accomplice.. 491 
TO ACCOMPLISH— to accompuiih, efRsct, exe- 
cute, achieve 988 

TO ACCOMPLISH— to Ailfil, accomplisb, reulUe 980 

ACCOMPLISHED— accomplished, perfea 988 

ACCOMPLISHMENT— -qualiflcatfeo, accom- 
plishment 980 

TO ACCORD— to agree, accord, suit 159 

ACCORDANCE— mekxly, harmony, accordance 155 
ACCORDANT— consonant, accordant, consistent 153 
ACCORDINGLY— therefore, conseqnenUy, ac- 
cordingly 974 

TO ACCOST-Ho accost, saUits, address 401 



AOOOUNT— MMnBt,reek0idnf,bOI 431 

ACCOUNT— Meottnt,Mnatlvc,dMeriplloA 467 

ACCOUNT— Mkc, Meount, raMoo, piifpoae, tad S3S 
TO ACCOUNT— to fleuline, compote, raekoo, 

counter account, naiuber.... 438 

ACCOUNTABLE— UMWcraUe, rMpooiUilc, M- 

countable, ftmeoAble 183 

TO ACCUMULATE-40 beep, pile, eeeomutale, 

emui •••• 349 

ACCURATE— eecorate, exact, preelae. 903 

ACCUBATE— correct, accurate 908 

ACCUS ATION-complalnt, accusation 113 

TO ACCUSE— to accuae, cbaife. Impeach, ar- 
raign Ill 

TO ACCUSE— to accuae, oenKUte Ill 

ACHIEVE— to accomplleb,eflbct,ezecnte, achieve S86 
ACHIEVEMENT-deed, exploit, achievement, 

feat' 995 

TO ACKNOWLEDGE— to aeknowledfe, own, 

coofets,avow 443 

TO ACKNOWLEDGE— to recognbe, aeknow- 
ledfe 443 

TO ACaUAINT— to Inrorm, make known, ao- 

qualiil, apprise 194 

ACQUAINTANCE— acquaintance, fomlUarity, 

Intimacy 195 

TO ACaUIESCE— to accede, content, comply, 

acquiesce, agree 151 

TO ACQUIRE— to acquire, obtain, gain, win, 

earn 396 

TO ACQUIRE— to acquire, attain 396 

^^?}^f^'^ I •equlrement, aequWtlon.... 396 

TO ACQUIT— to absolve, acquit, clear 188 

ACRIMONY— acrimony, tartness, asperity, hardi- 
ness p 363 

TO ACT— to make, do, act 894 

^^^ iactfcML act, deed... 994 

ACTION }~^^ 

ACTION -action, gesture, gesticulation, posture, 

attitude 995 

ACTION— action, agency, operation 996 

ACnVE— acUve, diligent, lnduatrlou8,aMiduous, 

laborious 996 

ACTIVE— acUve, bHak, agile, nimble 997 

ACTIVE— active, busy, oflkwos 997 

ACTOR— actor, agent 998 

ACTOR— actor, player, peribrmer 998 

ACTUAL— actual, real, podilve 998 

TO ACTUATE— to actuate, impel, Induce 309 

ACUTE— acute, keen, slirewd 401 

ACUTE— sharp, acute, keen 409 

ACUTENESS— penetration, acuteness, sagacity. . 401 
ADAGE— axiom, maxim, aphorism, apophthegm, 

saying, adage, proverb, by-word, saw 310 

TO ADAPT— to fit, suit, adapt, aceommodate, ad- 
just 154 

TO ADD— to add. Join, unite, coalesce 418 

TO ADDICT— to addict, devote, apply 491 

ADDITION— increase, addition, accearton, ang- 

mentation 347 

TO ADDRESS— to accost, salute, address 461 

TO ADDRE8S-to address, apply 488 

ADDRESB address, speech, haranfBa, onukia.. 401 

ADMt> imn dl iatlkin , i<iiwi,iiip Mii|< loB.... 813 

ADDR£Se-dsxiartly,addf«BS,aMUty 68 

TO ADDUCE— to adduce, allege, aarigi^ advance 480 
ADEQUATE— propo>tie«ale,fomffiensMnf,ade- 

qo«te 434 

TO ADHERE— to adlMffe, attach 489 

TO ADHERE-tosdck, cleave, adbera 419 

ADHERENCE— adheskm, adherence 490 

ADHERENT— Mower, adherent, partisan 419 

ADHESION-wihesion, adhemice 490 

ADJACENT— a4)aeent,a(Uoining,ooatigaoas... 490 

ADJECnVE-epithet, adjective 490 

ADJOINING— adjacent, adjoining, contiguous. . . 490 

TO ADJOURN— 10 prorogue, a^oimi 900 

TO ADJUST— to fit, suit, adapt, aeeoMOMMlaie, 

•4imt 154 

TO ADMINISTER^to minister, administer, eon- 
tribute 16? 

ADMINISTRATION— goverameot, adnUaistn- 

tkm 907 

ADMIRATION— wonder, admiration, surprise, 

astonUbment, amasement 403 

ADMISSION— admittance, admlarion 935 

TO ADMIT— to admit, receive 835 

TO ADMIT— to admit, aOow, permit, soflbr, tole- 

nta 157 

TO ADMrr— to admit, allow, grant 157 

ADMITTANCE— admittance, access, approach. . 835 

ADMITTANCE— admittance, admission 835 

TO ADMONISH— to admonish, advise, 193 

ADMONITION— admonition, warning, caution.. 193 

TO ADORE— to adore, worship 81 

TO ADORE— to adore, reverence, venerate, re- 
vere 81 

TO ADORN— to adorn, decorate, embellish 500 

ADROIT— clever, skilful, expert, dexterous, adroit 69 
TO ADULATE -to adulate, flatter, compliment. . 996 

TO ADVANCE -to advance, proceed 301 

TO ADVANCE— toencourage, advance, promote, 

prefer, forward 318 

TO ADVANCE-to adduce, allege, Mrign, ad- 
vance 490 

ADVANCE sprogresa, progressioo, ad- 

ADVANCEMENT5 vance, advancement 904 

ADVANTAGE— good, benefit, advantage 397 

ADVANTAGE-advaotage, profit 308 

ADVANTAGE— advantage, benefit, utility, aei^ 

vice, avail, use 390 

ADVENTURE-event, Uiddent, accident, adven- 
ture, occurrence 179 

ADVENTUROUS— entcrprishv, ad venturaoa... n> 
ADVENTUROUS— foolhardy, adventttioaa, lash 391 
ADVERSARY— enemy, foe, adversary, opponent, 

antagonist 134 

ADVERSE-adverae, contrary, opposite 135 

ADVERSE— advcTK, Inimical, bosUle, lepi^nam 135 

ADVERSE— advcTM, averse 136 

ADVERSITY— adversity, distress 407 

TO ADVERTISE— to t"rMMintet proclaim, pub- 
lish, advertise 443 

ADVICE-adviee, counsel, InstructkNi 194 

ADVICE-infonnatloB, intalllgeace, Bociea, ad- 

▼»ce 195 

TO ADVI8E-to adoionlah, advise 193 

APVOCAT B ^ kn^ , • 


AFFAIR— «ftir, buatocMii cooctni 

TO AFFECT— to ftlTecl, concern ..•.. 

T<r AFPEXn*— to alfiwt, uwme 

TO AFFECT— to afltet, pretead lo 

AFFECTING— movhic, aActlag, petlMlkk . 
AFFECTION— «lfecllDn, love . 

. 290 
. 301 
> 378 
AFFECTION— Attacbment, afltetion, tncHnatloii 370 

AFFECTIONATE-aflbctkmftte, kinO, fiwd 379 

AFFINITY— alliance, lAniiy 408 

AFFINirV— kindred, ralatkmalilp, affinity, con- 

aangalnltjr d07 

TO AFFIRM— to afflrm, aaaererate, aaiue, TOocb, 

ftTer,proieat 441 

TO AFFIRM— CD afflnn, aoMTt 441 

TO AFFIX— to affix, tubjoln, attach, annex 410 

TO AFFLICT— to affitct, dlatreaa, trouble 409 

AFFLICTION— affifction, grler, tortow 406 

AFFLUENCE— rtcbei, wealth, opolence, afflo- 

ence 340 

TO AFFORD— to afford, yield, produce 330 

TO AFFORD— to give, nflbrd, ipare 163 

AFFRAY— quarrel, broil, feud, afTray or f>ay . .. . 133 

AFFRONT— afliront, tmult, outrage ISl 

AFFRONT— oflbnce, trespaa, tranagrevion, mia- 

demeanour, miadeed, affront ISO 

AFRAID— afmkl, fearful, Umoroua, timid 307 

AFT£R-«ner, bebtad S7» 

AGE— genermdon, age S70 

AGE— time, period, age, dote, era, epocba 967 

AOED-elderly, aged, old S69 

AGENCY— «otlon, agency, operation 206 

AGENT— actor, agent 808 

AGENT— minirter, agent 815 

AGENT— factor, agent 338 

TO AGGRAVATE— to aggravate, irritate, pro- 

Toke, exasperate, lanialixe 181 

TO AGGRAVATE— to heighten, raiae, aggravate 355 

AGGRESSOR— nggrcaaor, aaMilant 116 

AGILE-Mtive,brtek, agile, nimble 907 

TO AGITATE—foahake, agitate, toaa 304 

AGITATION— agitatloa, emocioo, trepldatloi 

trcmour 308 

AGONT— dtatram, anxiety, anfolah, agoqy 407 

AGONY— pain, pang, agony, angniah 407 

TO AGREE— 10 agree, accord, ank UB 

TO Agree— lo accede, eonaent, eomp^, aoqol- 

eace, agree • 151 

TO AGREE— to agree, coincide, concur 151 

AGREBABL&-agieeaMe,pieaaant,pleaeiPg.... 118 
AOREEABLE-conformable, agreeable, anitable 153 

ALACRITY alaif aaa, alMrtiy .» 



Btranger, fbrelgner, alien. 


AUKE-^qoal, evaa, aVMMe. Uka or aUlM, mU- 

ALL-an, whole , 

ALL— all, cveiy, ewh.. 
TO ALLAY-io aMaii 

eompact, bargain. 158 

AGRICULTURIST— fhrmer, huabandman, agri- 

cuUurlit... 396 

TOAII>-tohctp,aiaiat,aid,aBeeoiir,rtlievt.... 364 

AIM-«im,objeet,end 394 

AIM— tendency, drift, aeopa, aha 385 

TO AIM-<eaimt point, tovd 384 

TOAIM-toain,aBplre 381 

TOAIM-4oendeaf«or,aiB,alilva,airaggle.... 381 

AIR— air, manner 181 

AIE-air,alaB,lMR Hi 


TO ALLEOE^Ho adduce, aHege, Mrign, advance 480 

aymbol,type 531 

ALLEGORY— paraUe,all«oty 638 

TO ALLEVIATE— loaOeviale, Believe 361 

ALUANCE-allianoe, leagae, f<mftdaraf y 408 

ALLIANCBt-allianea, affinity 408 

TO ALLOT— toallot, airign, appnrMoa, djaaibuia 168 

TO ALLOT— to alloc, appolac,daaiine 160 

TO ALLOW— to give, grant, beMow, aOow 168 

TO ALLOW-to admit, altow,penBlt,aaAr,lQla. 

rata is? 

TO ALLOW— to admit, altov, grant 157 

TO ALLOW— to cenaant, permit, aliaw 156 

ALLOWANCE-aUowanoe, Mipend, aahny, 

wagea, hire, pay IN 

TOALLUl»:-loalhide,reAr,hlnt,8^gmC.... 906 

TO ALLUDE TO-40 glance at, altodeio 887 

TO ALLURE-to aUore, tempi, aedaae^ cnlka, 


TO ALLURE— to attract, allure, invite, engine.. SIS 
ALLUREMENTS— «ttraotioM, aNoiamaata, 


ALLY— aHy, eonfedeiaie, aocompHee. 401 

ALBiANACK-ealendar,ahaanack,ephmnerii.. 494 

ALONE— alone, aolttaiy,hma|y 958 

AL80-al80,likewiae,loo 953 

TO ALTER— to change, alter, vary 983 

ALTERCATION— difjiwrnea, diipiMfi, alii it ai km, 

quarrel - ISS 

ALTERNATE-«uccaadve,alt«rMta 879 

ALWAYS— alwaya, at aUtimea, ever SSS 

AMASS— to heap, pile, acommlam, aiMMi 340 



tiary, deputy SM 

AMBIGUOUS— amblgnooa, equivocal 587 

AMENABLE-aaawerable, raapoMlble, acconnt- 

TO AMEND— to amend, correct, refbrm, rectify, 

emend, improve, flmnd, better ] 

AMENDS— raaioraikm, reatkiition, 

AMENDS— com p enaatioB, aadatectSao, amende, 
ramnaeratlmi,recompenae, requital, reward.. 438 

AMIABLK-amiabla,]ovely,beloved.... S78 

AMICABLE-amlcable, friendly S78 

AMOROUS*-amoroae, loving, flmd sm 

AMPI«E ample, apaetoua, captehma 310 

AMP T F planilfiil. irttanw, **'THf * m . ^1T ^* ^ , 
mMo Ml 



▼•nlon, ipofft, ieereMk»t PMtiBM- 3^1 

ANATHEMA— makdlctioii, cone, ImpraeatloiH 

execrmUon, aiuubeiiiA 81 

ANCB8TOBa-tor»<tol>ew,pfitwilPti,iiiw»lnH Wn 
ANCIENT— old, WMlcBt, •adquc^ ■nhqiilad, 

old-Aslikioed,obnleie MB 


ANcxENTTiMEsj 's::;^jtji^j:: ^ 

ANECDOTK-HMocdol*, iKinr, lal* 4t7 





. 118 

ANGElt— uger, 


ANQFB imar, cboiar, rtgi, fliyy 

ANGF.B toplBMUi^ aagtr, amppKbaOm, 

AN6LE~«onMr,u^ 408 

ANGST-*«agiy, fMrionne, bMty, irwdUe 110 

AMGUISH— 4i«MiB,aiaiel]r,anciiirfHafoii7.... 407 

ANGUISIl-inUm«iic ifMjr, «i««tali 407 

ANIMAOVEBSION-wliMdvenkNi, crUkfan, 

■Irietara 113 

TO ANIMADVERT— 10 eennre, aoLudvat, 

cricidM Ill 

ANIMAIi-«nlaial,bnite,beMt 9U 

TO ANIMATE— to uiiaMt*, loiptre, enllTcn, 

cbeer, «KliiIaratft. 355 

TO ANQfAT'E— to «neMin«e, aniaute, tndte, 

impel, urfe, idmiitecak iBtdftte 311 

ANIMATION— animadM, Ufa, vivaeity, iptrit.. 356 

ANIMOSITY— enmlly, aniaMtity, bottllily 135 

ANNALS-aa e cdo tc e,BiciDolCT, chtoalclet, aonali 400 
TOANNEXr-toamx,Mli)olB,attaeli,aiuiaK.... 410 
ANNOTATiON-«eaiailc,«bMnratlaa, romianc, 

nota, annoCattoo, eoaMDOQlary 451 

TO ANNOUNCE— 10 anBounee, 

liili,advertiw 443 

TO ANNOY— 10 taMonTeaienee, annojr, nolaM. . 417 
TO ANNUL-io aboUlri^ abrosate, lepeaJ, la- 

▼ofce,aaiHil,eaiieal 947 

AN8 WEE -<»twar, rtply, r^Jotoder, tmpame.,. 460 
ANBWERABLE-HinMrerable, raqNioaiiilo, 


■co rmp o adem , 



tlM8B^ njrlaf, adata, pravat^ bjr-woad, taw 810 
TO APOLOQIZB-lo apologiae, datad, Jartlfy, 

aicolpata, axcoM, plaad 181 

APOPHTHEGM— axiom, aaxiiii, ■ p fc ml M , 

apoplMtapn. HJteli •'H^ Pr^«^ ^-w<»^ 

aaw 818 

TO APPAIr-iadlMay.daaBt, appal 306 

APP A&EL-appaial, aiUie, anaj tn 

APPARENT— appanot, Tiaibia, clear, plaU^ 6b- 

▼iom, airidtat, Maaifttl €78 

APPARITION — Tliioo, appa ii ltoa, ptaaatoBH 

■peetrCfff^ €79 

TO APPEAR— 10 look, appaar 481 

TO APPEAR— to aeeai, appear 483 

APPEARANCB-appearaiiea,alr,afpatt 4» 

APPEARANCE — ibov, oulilde, appcaraaca, 

aenbiaaea 4S3 

TO APPEASE— lo appeaea, calm, pacUy, qoleC, 

atUJ 381 

TO APPEASE-lo allay, ■oocli, appeaaa, amuafe, 

Diltlgate 361 

APPELLATION— name, appdlatkm, title, dtno- 

mtnatloo 471 

TO APPLAUI>— CO pralae, commend, appiand, 

extol 136 

APPLAUSE-applaoie, acclamation, plaudit.... 130 
APPUCATION— attention, application, itudy. .. 483 

TO APPLY— to addict, devole, apply 481 

TO APPLY-toaddren, apply 488 

TO APPOINT-40 allot, appoint, define 168 

TO APPOINT— toappoiDt,otder,pnecribe,oidaln 184 
TO AFPOINT—toconsHtola, appoint, depute.... 814 
TO APPORTION-to allot, amign, apponioa,dla- 

trtbaie MB 

TO APPRAISE )to appraise or appreciate, 

TO APPRECIATE t eMimate, eiteem 438 

TO APPREHEND— to apprehend, fear, dread.. . 307 
TO APPREHBND-lo conoelTe, apprebend, mp- 

poie, imaclae *.........«...•............... 78 

TO APPRIZE— to Inibrm, make known, acquaint, 

apfiriie 184 

APPRIZED— aware, on one'a guard, apprlied. 


ANTAGONIST— enemy, foe, adrermry, oppo- 
nent, antafoabt 134 

ANTECEDENT } ■",***^ preceding, forego- 
Al>rr£RIOR C "i»P'«^»'^ ■■••"**» !«*"» 

) (brmer ITS 

ANTICIPATB— to pre?ent, anticipate 850 

ANTIPATHY— aveiaion, antipatby, dldike, ha- 

trad, repugnaaee 136 

ANTiaUATED ) old, andent, antiquated, an- 
ANT IQUE f tfciae,old-ftafaioned,obaolela868 

A NXIET Y-€are,eollc»ade, anxiety 

ANXIETY— diMMH, anxiety, anguidi, agony.... 487 

ANY— •ome.any 

APARTMENTS-todgta^ apartments 

APATHY~4ad i8h iaace , In i im i ili DUy, <patby...» 878 
TO APE-ta hnltata, mlmlrk,ttock, apa 

APPRO ACH-^admittaace, accem, approach . . 
TO APPROACH— 10 approach, appnnimaia. . 
APPROBATION-MMB^ eoaaMl^ appfobattoa, 


APPR<^RIATS — peculiar, appropriate, partl- 

TO APPR<ffSIATE-lo appropriate, oanrp, arro- 

TO APPBOPRIATE-lo appropriale,laBpropriaia 831 
TO APPROXIMATE-la approach, appeaiimate 835 

APT— ready, apt, prompt 807 

APT— Ac, apt, meat .« .«.. 15S 

ARBITERH«Mlga, umpire, arbltar,aiMtrator.... SU 
ARBITRARY— aboolule, deepocick, aiMtrary.... 18r 
ARBITRATORHad8^«npfM.uM*«r,alMtralor 811 

ARCHITECT— arehltact,buiklar ^ 400 

ARCHIVE reco r d, regkiief* aichlva. .••• 460 

ARDENT-hoc,tey, bwiang,aadwU.. 475 

ARDOUR— Ibnrooi^ ardour €78 

ARDUOUB-terd,dltte(ill,aidomB.^ 384 


TOABOI7B>-to«rfM,4lip«l8k4iteie U4 

TO ABOVn— Co ■fine, tTtoee, proTO 77 

ABGUMBNT— fffgUMiit, nsMMi, proof 77 

TO ABSBE— cowlMor rfse^moant, Meendi enmb, 

scale 308 

TO AMSSB~4it vIm, proeeed, iwu e, ■ pil ng, flow, 



AXliT-«m7, tort HI 

TOAMBAION— toMeai8,clwite,liDpMeli,amifti 111 

TO ABEANGB—caclMi,ntmaffe, range 977 

TOARBANOB-'lodlfpow,anmiige,dlfMl S77 

ABEA Y ap pi el, atllfe, amy S77 

TO.AtSIVB— 10 cone, wrhre ^ 301 

ABBOOANGE-arroganee, preeanpUon S31 

ABEOOANGB'-haafbtioen, diadain, arroganee 101 
TO ABB06ATEr-4o appropriate, oanrp, arrogate, 

aaMBie, aacrlbe 830 

AIT— «rt, conning, decek 981 

ART— Mnen, trade, pioflBatoo, art 331 

ABTFUI.— arifU, ardfidal, fledtioai j»l 

AETICI.F. ankJe, condldoa, term 335 

TO AltTiCIH«AT£-4o niter, qieak, artioilate, 

proBoonee 4S0 

A BTlFIO B-arttflce, trkk, flnene, itratagem .... 581 

AirriP10IAL-«rtftil, artttdal, flcxltkHia 981 


ABTIBAN >artiic,arti«ii,artUlcer,meetiankk330 


ilSCENDAN0T-4nfliieiie«, anttorttj, 

«»e y,iway 186 

TO ASCBND-to artoi or liae, moont, aMend, 

ellnb,acale 308 

TOABCRIBE— to apfffopriate, unvp, arrogate, 

aMune, aicribe 

TO ASCSIB£-toa«:ribe, attribute, tmpale 831 

TOABK— coaric,beg,reqQeet 157 

TO ASK— to aek or aiklbr, claim, demand 888 

TdABK— 10 aric, Inquire, qoeotkm, interrogate.. 97 

AgECT— appearance, air, aepect 478 

ABPKRrrr—acrimony, taitnea, Mperlty, baiab- 

TO ABPBRflB-to aapeiac, detract, delbme, ila*- 

dw, calumniate 105 

TO AflPIRE-io aim, aaplie 325 

TO A8BAIL--to attack, anatl, aamnlt, encounter 110 

•ASSAILANT— eggreeeor, aaaUant no 

TO ASSAflBDfATE-^ kill, murder, «— -hm e, 

HayorilaugtMer..; 510 

TO ASSAULT— to attack, amail, amault, en- 

»•■•« Ug 

ASSAULT^-Htftack, amul^ encounter, onet, 

«**!• 110 

ASBIMBLAOB-Hi^abljr, aeeemWage, group, 

coHecsien «..........,.,,,,,,,,,, ,,,, joa 

T0A8CTlIBLB-^aii eiuti le,mn«ter,collecti.!! 480 
TLtJS??'*^ '■■•"*'*' «»▼«»«» convoke 400 
group, col- 


my, meeting, con- 
• diet, eongrem, oonven- 

^■ynod, eo B foe aito n, cooncO 400 

" I approbation, concur- 


ASSmUOUB-aednkMM, dlUfeat, 
TO AS8IO1I-40 addwce, alefe, 

TO AS8ION-«oaliol,airigB,appQfftkm,dblilb«ta 
TO ASSIST— to help, amlrt, aid, aneeoor, reUeve 
ASSISTAN T eo l eagni, partMr, coa^oior, ae> 

ASSOQIAT M a wo el a te, compankm 

ASSOCIATION— aHoeiatkiB, eecSeiy, company, 



ASSOCIATION aawelattoa,eoBibin«Uoa 

TO ASSUAGE — to allay, aoocb, appoMa, an- 

TO ASSUMB-to aflbcc, I 

TO ASSUME-to appioprteto, aBurp, anogaiib 

ASSUBANCF. aiwrance.eonideBoe.. 
ASSUBANC K aiw n ace, hapud en ee . 
TO ASSUBE — to afllrm, 

. 4U 
> 419 

ASTONISHMENT — wander, adalratioa, aiv- 

ASTB0L06T > 

ASTBONOMYJ**™'***'y»**"**^ *• 

ASYLUM— «aylaBB, reftige, iMter, rMTMt 919 

ATALLTIMES-alwayB,atalltiflNi^eT«r..... 9S8 

AT LENGTH l*^'^'''*^ •*'«"«*'» ^ 

TO ATONE FOBp-to atone |br,aqiiato 87 

ATBOdOUS— beinona, flagrant, flagittoae, atro- 


TO ATTAClI-toadber^ attoeh. 

ATTACHMENT— attacbfltoot. 

TO ATTACK — to attack, 

ATTACK— attack, 






TO ATTACK— to impugn, attack 

TO ATTAIN— to acquire, attain 396 

ATTEMPT — attempt, trial, endeavour, emay, 

eflbrt 919 

ATTEMPT-attemp^undertaklBg,etttorpriBe.... 889 
TO ATTEND— to aoooapaay, attend, eoeort, 

Walton 191 

TO ATTEND TO— to attend to, mind, regard, 

beed, notice ^88 

TO ATTEND-to attend, bearken,lielen 488 

A TTEN TION— attention, appUcatton, etndy 483 

ATT^mON—beod, care, attention 489 

ATTENTIVE~«ttenUvc, carelU 484 

ATTIRE— apparel, attire, array 877 

ATTITUDE— action, geeture, gilknileHuM, poa- 

tuie, altitude, poeltkNi 809 

TO ATTRACT— to attract, aUaia, Invito, engage 918 
ATTRACTIONS attraetloai, aDweaMntf^ 

cbarme 919 

TO ATTRIBUTE-to aacrlbe, attribotoilmpnto.. 8S| 


A VAIIr-«d vuli«t» taMil, olillQrtWviNb ««il^ 

use - •••-• IM 

AVAIL-tifBUkMioa, Mrail, impmi—^ com»- 

vceoce, weiglit,BiooMnt.« 456 

AVARICE eoTHoftM^ oipidiiir, availn .-.111 
AVABiaOUS-ftTwkkNii, ■hwljr, iimiImoiI 

ous, nlffwdly -• Ml 

AUDACITY andaclty, iHpsatsy, >«iillwn< «ff 

hardiMii, boUsMi ^ ^. m 

TO AVENGS-lo avMifti rtftini, viirtlrti «> • Ut 
TOAVEBr-ioafflrm, Mwrwan, mhu^ tmcIh 

ATer, protest 411 

AVERSE— ■dvent, Mr«w » IM 

AVERSE — avtcMk imwUU^ backvai^ lotfk, 

raluctut •^••. 136 

AVEBSIOK-avcnloB, aatt^Mlv, 4Mik^ iMttod, 

nimfiiMM IM 

AUOMENTATION-liieitMB, •Umtm, Me«- 

■IOII,«llglMBttllM..... •• •• 

TO AUCUBi toimuripliiil»ifc>^fco^i>>H>M> 

portend M 

APGUBT— MHienril, ■njenicii, mmHtf, fan- 

AVlDITT-«vidil|r,|cwdiaen, !•§■•«■» Ml 

AVOCATION — UmUmm, ofwinHoo, Moplor 

■Mat, eagifMMBt, avoetttai. 91 

TO AVOII>-lo avoid, ewbtw, iImi, ehidv ..«•.. 887 
TO AVOW— 10 ackoowledte, owb, ron>»> atow 4<9 
AtmnciOUfr-ftvourable. propltloui, aMpl«loui Ut 
AUSTERE— aoilcre, riftd, etvera, il|O w e,— 

AUTHORp-wrller, aatlMt .•• 


Imperioue, aothoritailfe 

•way « •... 

AUTHORITY-*powaK» fllrantll^ teee, antboriir, 

doqUnkm •........•»... 

TO AUTHORI2F tnnMMniirtia,MlhQiin,fH 

powwr IM 

TO AWAIT— to await, wait fiiv, look Ibr, aipaet 415 
TO AWAKEN — to awalno, eaeit^ pMvoka, 

rouiCiitlrop. 311 

A W ARE— awava, oa one^ faard, appitoid, eaa- 

ifJooi ••■•.....••.•...•........••...••...r. 4M 

A WE— awa, iwar eoii a , dtead .• 307 

AWKWARD-«wl(wnd, ctaaaf 

AWKWAR B a w twa id, mrn^ oiowaid, 

crooked, firoward, perveiM 315 

AWR Y h — t,<ttnra4,af»okei,awty 316 

AUOM-acion, aaalM, apkortMi, apopkthipn, 

fa/iof,adate,pf«fecbkkf-woi)i,fltw tlO 

TO BABDLB-Ho tabUa, ahatier, ditl, ppaifli, 
prala .* 49D 

BACKWARD l'********^"*^' ***•■*'- 

BACKWARD amat^ aawWIng^ teekwaH, 

loath, leluetaat 136 

BAI>-lMd,wkkid,avll.. ]f7 

BADGB-aMrk,ba6ta,eligaM 441 

BADLY— hadljr.a 117 

TO BAFFLft-^ kaflik **M, dheoaMt, aM> 

•••••••••••»•*♦♦*•*...,•,«. J43 

TOBAlAIKTi lifllWb 

•••••••••*•••* I 

BAND-«haia,*ctar, kand,! 

BANE— baaa, pert, nUa 

TO BANlBB-to kaakik, Mila, aipd.. 
BAKKRUFTCY— iMDlf«nqr» fl 
BAN aUET-ltaK, baaaael, < 


TO BANTEB-to dvide, anck» ildkirie^ lair. 


tal, tavafe 

BARE— bare, naked, uncofvend... . 

BARE— bare, ecaaty, destttuta 

BARE— bare, nere 

BAREFACED-ilarlHi kaiateed 
BARGAIN epaemeat, coatrac^ 


TO BARGAIN— to bay, punikiai, 



TO BARTER— to cbaafe, i 

■tliute • 

TO BARTER— to aaebaoge, baito^ track, ( 





TO BE— to be. beoMne. now 


aeijiialiiied with •••.•••* 



TO BEAR— k» beer. vMd... ^... 



» 911 

BSAST— animel. brute, beaet.. ...... .••...•••• 

TO Itf.AT— ta brMt. tf rfk* hit 

. 141 
» 149 

throw ..• 

1MM bratkiidft 


BEAU— felent^ boau, epark •**.• • 


BEAUnPUL-beautiru], liaa, baadnaM, pMQr 313 
TO BECOME— to be. beeoBie. now MO 

BECOlONG-beeonloi, deeeat, mmbIt. it, aate- 

BEOOIfmo-beeQaik«,eoaM^,paeiAa 119 

TO BE CONSaOUS-to Ibel, be aearibie, ba aoii- 

TO BE DEnCIENT-to (bil, Adl dmrt, ka di«- 
eleat m 

TO BEDEW-toiprinkle, bedew 3S3 

TOBBG-tobeg,dedi« 199 

TO BEG— to beg, b c eee ck, eolleit, eatnat, ippll 
cate,faDplore, crave*. .••.•••• 199 

TO BEG-toa*, be9,n«aect..... 197 

TO BEGIN — to bcgln,c 





BEHA VKNTBr-bdMrvlovr, coQdael, onlifi, «e- 

BEHlND-«Aer, beMsd 


TO BBHOLI>-io look, Me, baliold, vkw, ejrt... 
fiEHOLDBB-loolMroii, tpKUKor, kdKiMer,o^ 

BELKP-belier, credit, tnHC,fUtb W 

TO BELIEVE— lo tbink, eappoee, laM«liie, kt- 

HeTe,deein W 

BELOVED-Huniable, knrely, betoved 378 

BELOW-«nder,betow,beDeiab «t 

TO BEMOAN— «o beweU, beeMM, ItBent, de- 
plore ^0 

BEND-beod, bent «« 

TO BEND— to teen, Ineltne, bend UB 

TO BEND-lo tarn, bend, twkt, dleloit, wting, 

wreit, wiench • 31* 

BENEATH— under, below, beaeeOi S79 

BBNEFACnON-fift, preeent, dooetioi^ bone- 

(bctkm IM 

BENEFKJB llilui, beoittee •• 

BeNEnCENOE-bencfoleDee,benelleeoce MS 

BENEFICENT— beaefleent, bonntlfbl or boaoto- 

otti,niaiiUleeBl,|eaefoae,llbenl I8S 

BE NEFIT— benH», flmrar, Undoeee, dvfBtr* •• • IM 

BENEFrr— bei wit . eerrlee, good oOee •• Wi 

lUBNEFIT'-mdveuiage, benefli, ttility, eertleek 

eTaIt,iiee— • • 3>3 

BENEFIT— food, benefli, edTaatege. 9n 



BENIONnT-bene fo lei reiben t niiy , 

kiodBeM, tendenMM ^. MS 

BENT-beod, bent ~ tlO 

BENT— ben^ conred, cfooka^ cwiy — US 

BENT-begt. Um, Incltneifcw, pmioeeeeriBP »>« . ISt 

BENT-C«ni,beBt ~. SM 

BENUMBEP-WMib, tm—bf d, loqdd f» 

TO BEaUEATB-toderKbefBettb. ....... IM 

TO BSBEATS-iobera««9,difrlve,elil»..^. SIS 


3 wennt***** 

flO BE 8flH8IBLB-^Co ftei, be i 

edose ••••••••••••••••••«•••••••••• • 

lO BE8EECB— 10 beg, beeeeel^ eoBeli, i 

«••••••••••••«••• 1 






WO BEWAIL-lo bew»l» 

> 970 




■iMlMtr** ISP 


TO Bm- toodlhr ,Md,t«der,prepoee M? 

TO BID ADIEU ) to leeve, take leave, bid 

BI O tw amane,bli. 


IbrewcOoradlea.... tSS 

BILL Bcreuni,rtiifcenhn,bin 4SS 

BILLOW— wave, b B ki w, eaue, bceaker SS3 

TO BIND -tobtod,tle Slfl 

TO BIND— to Mad, ebUge, engage SIS 

BIBHOPRtCK— blebopi1ck,dloeeie 8S 

TO BLAME— to tdame, reprove, repraacb, up- 

TO BLAME-loflBdfhi*wtib,blaaie, object to 119 
BLAMELFBn bliiiiuliai, tneproachable, aa- 

blenilibed,ttnepotiedorBpotlcn 19S 

BLAST— braese, file, Meal, goat, etom, tempeet, 

borrlcaoe 359 

TO BLAZE— Aaine, Man, flaeb, flare, glare .... 478 

BLEMIBB— Uemiab, rtain, apot, ipeok, flaw 197 

BLEaOSH bkimkh, defect, (bmt 1S7 

TO BLEND— Co BBlx,nilBgle,bleBd,eoaftNind... tM 


BLIND— cloak, OMMk, blind, TcO 510 

BI«IS^— bapplMjae, Mldij, bllH, Ueeeedneei, bea* 

dtode 384 

BLOOD Y leeivnlnaiy, bkxidr, bh)od- 

BIXX>D-THIB9rT I tblnlf 887 

TO BLOT OOT-lo btot oat, eipange, nee or 

enee, efltee, ca n c el , obliterate ••.*••••.••••• 948 

BLOW— ldow,aimke 149 

BLUNDE E en oor, mletakf , blnnder 190 

TO BOAST— to glory, boaat, vannt 598 

BOATMAN— wateraMn,boatBttn,fefTyaian.... 337 

BODILY— eotpor a l, corporeal, bofflly 518 

BODY— bodf,eorpee,carcaei 510 

BOI8TEBOUS— vloleot, flntooa, bolsteroas, relie- 

■Mnt, Inpetnoiia 9M 

BOLD-bold,fearleM,lttrepld,nndaomed 300 

BOLD-darii«, bold 141 

BOLD i mmi one,bold 141 

BOLDNBSB-andaclqr, eflKiMety, hardlbood or 

baidlneaa,boldncai 148 

BOMBAffnCK-targld,tnnld,konibaMfck 484 

IKMIDA6E e em l tu de.tfaTery, bondage 3SB 

BOOTY— booty, apoU, pref 9N 

BOSDEB— border, edge, rim er brim, brink, mar- 

gin, verge* •••• 178 

TO BCttB— 10 penetrate, pieree, perforate, bore.. 488 
TO BODND— to booad, Ifanll, confine, clrnini- 

eerlbe, ifelrk'4 • 178 

BOUNDABY—boonde, boundary 177 

BOimDAEY-tenD,llmK,bo«ndary 177 

BOONDLFBrt IwwindJeei, aiikwiirtfd, nnHmlted, 

Inflnlia 17T 

BOUNDB-bo«ndB,bo«odaiy 177 


BBACE—coQple, brace, pdr 434 

TO BEATE-40 brara, defy, dare, rballenge.... 138 
BBAVSBT— fti8fiV7»cPVV>v*l8«r»88ll80tiy.. US 

I li mi t t iiMl, Sif t Ifcsw, - 881 



TO BREAK— <oMftk,iMk,iMid,lMr Ml 

IX) BREAK— to iMMk, bruiw, tqoane, poood, 

email SOI 

TO BRE AK— to break, bant, eraek,apUt 508 

BREAKER— WftTe, bUlow, rarie, braakar 351 

TO BR£EI>-to biMd, et^eodar 407 

BREED— raea, feneratioo, br^ 407 

BREEDING— aducatkm,iiMtnictioo,braadli«... i07 
BREEZE— breaae, gala, blaal, goat, ■torai, laoi- 

peal, hvnricana ^353 

BRIEF— alMrt, brief, eooelaa, aucdAei, mmmary S 

BRIOHT— clear, lucid, bright, Yhrld 470 

BRIGBTNE8S ) brigbtneH, loalra, aplaodour, 

BRILLIANCT5 brilliancy 474 

BRILLIANCY— radiance, briUiancy 475 

BRIM— border, edge, rim or brim, brink, margin, 

Teige 176 

TO BRINO-lo bring, ftlcb, cany 330 

BRINK— bolder, edge, rim or brim, brink, maigia, 

yaige ITS 

BRIBK-«ctiTe,brldi, agile, nimble 907 

BRITTLE-fragile,firail, brittle 508 

BROAD-large, wide, broad 340 

BROIL— quarrel, broil, feud, 9tthj ot fray 183 

TO BRUISE— to break, brulae, equeese, pound, 

cmrii 501 

BRUTAL— crud, inhuman, barbaroue, brutal, 

aaTage «.•••• 373 

BRUTE— animal, brute, beast 511 

TO BUD— tofproutjbnd 333 

BUFFOON-lbol, idiot, buiRwo 400 

TO BUILD— 10 build, erect, cooatruct 408 

TO BUILD-folbnnd, ground, rait, bttOd 408 

BULK— eixe, magnitude, greatnem, bulk 348 

BULKY— bulky, mamlTe or maaqr 348 

BURDEN— weight, burden, kMd 330 

BURDEN— freight, cargo, lading, load, buidan... 338 
BURDENSOME— heavy, burdeaaome, weighty, 

pooderoua ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 370 

BURIAL— burial, interment, aepultura.^ 84 

BURLESQUE— wit, humour, aatire, Irony, bui^ 

leeque 00 

BURNING— hot, lleiy, bundng^ ardent 475 

TO BURST— to break, bunt, crack, iplit 508 

BUSINESS— bualnen, ocmpatfcm, empkiyment, 

engagement, aTOcatkm 331 

BUSINESS h«Mineai,tnde,profemton,art 331 

BUSINESS bueinem, ofltoe, duty 331 

BUSINESS— aflblr, bttshiem, eoneem ,., 338 

BUBTLEr-buMle, tumult, uproar 8S0 

BUSY— acttre, busy, oOdoos S97 

BUTCHERY— «araaga, ilaaghtar, butcheiy, maa- 

aacre 510 

BUTT— mark, buu 440 

TO BUT— 10 buy, puichase, bargain, cheapen.. . 335 
BY-WORD— axkMB, maxim, apborlam, apopb- 

tbegB^ saying, ada«B, proterb, ^-woid, aaw 810 

CABAL-combhiatkm,eaba], pk)i,eaH|dney».. 480 
TO CAJOLE— to coax, wheedle, ciOol«i Ihwn.* . 585 
CALAMITY— calami^, dls ia ter, mMbrtuna, mia- 

chanee mishap 400 

io CALCULATE— toealailtls^eompnte,reekoii, 

CALENDAR raliirfar,! 

TO CALL-tocaO, bid, summon. Invite 480 

TO CALL— to cry, eiclaim, can 470 

TO CALL— to name, call 471 

CALLOUS— hard, caUoua, hardened, obdurate • . 373 

CALM— cahn, composed, collected. 388 

CALM— cahn, placid, serene 30| 

TO CALM— to appease, cahn, padiy, quiet, 

•ill 361 

CALM— peace, quiet, cahn, tranquillity 361 

TO CALUMNIATE-toasperse, detract, deftme, 

slander, cahmmlata 108 

CAN— may, can.... • 304 

TO CANC£L-«o abolish, abrogate, repeal, re- 
voke, anool, caitcel 847 

TO CANCEL— lo bk)t out, expunge, rase or erase, 

eflhce, cancel, obliterate 80 

CANDID— candid, open, sincere 430 

CANDID— frank, candkl. Ingenuous, free, open, 

plain 431 

OANONIZATION—beaiificatioo, canonisation.. 85 

CAPACIOUS— ample, spackHis, capackras 350 

CAPACIOUSNESS i ,....,^ . -.. . . »^ 

CAPACITY I "'•*'' niiirliii«i.-. IW 

CAPACITY— abflity, capacity 87 

CAPRICE— humour, caprice 388 

CAPRiaOUS-fendfril, faatastkal, whhMkal, 

capricious 385 

CAPTIOUS— captk>us, cross, peevish, petulant, 

ftetfrd SI8 

TO CAPTIVATEr— to charm, enchant^ ftaelnate, 

ammpturo, captivate 317 

TO C APTIVA TE— to enslave, captivate 318 

CAPTIVITY— confinement, Imprisonment, capti- 
vity 178 

CAPTURE— capture, seisure,prlae.... ......... 808 

CARCASS— body, eorpse, carean 510 

CARE— care, aolicltode, anxiety 485 

CARE— caro, concern, regard 485 

CARE— care, charge, management 485 

CARE— heed, care, atternkm 488 

CAREFUL— carefril, cantkHis, provident 485 

CAREFUL— attentive, careful 481 

CARBLESS-lndolent, supine, UMlesi, carelaak. 300 
CARELESS negligent, riwiim, careless, thought- 

less, heedlesB, inattentive 481 

TO CARESS-lo caress, ftmdie SH 

CAROO-freigbt, cargo, ladhig, kMd, burden.... 338 
CARNAGE— carnage, slaughter, butchery, atiaa- 

aacre 518 

CAROUSAL— feast, banquet, carousal, entertain- 
ment, treat 513 

TO CARP-Ho censure, carp, cava IB 

CARRIAGE-earriag^ gait, walk 108 

CARRUGB beha v l e nr, • 


TO CARRY-«o bring, fetch, earry. 

C ASB— eaaa, eause 

CASE siiuailoo, eondMo^ aiaiai 

1*8^ «•■•••••" 

CA8B— money, cash*. .•••...« 

TO OA0T-^ ease, throw, hull .... 
OASfr-*et, f», iaaei l pi l ow , < 


OAgPAL fccrtlitnhit, ImUmHiI, cmmI, uwttai- 

gent 1» 

OASUAL-oec«loaftl,aMMl 418 

CASUALTY >cchtont,contlntMiqr,cai—lty... ITS 

CATALOGUE-IK roll, catalogM, n|iM«r 460 

TO CATCH— lo lay or take bold o<;c»tclhieiaB^ 

natclmraimfiipe***- 837 

TO CAVIL— ID ceoniro, carp, carll lis 

CAVITT— opening, apertaie, caTity 409 

CAUSE— ca«, caon 9B0 

CAUSE can aa , l a ao o n , ipodva •.... 77 

TO CAUSE— Co caote, oeeaalon, create V4 

CAUTION— adoionltloA, warning, eautioB 103 

CAUTIOUS-carafbl, caatloaa, provident 425 

CAUTIOUS— cantkMta, wary, clreuaupeet 495 

TO CEASE— to eeaae, leave oil; dlicontlnae^deeiat 957 
TO CEDE— to give up, deliver, anrreoder, yield, 

eede, concede 949 

CELEBRATED— ftnoue, ealelirated, renowned, 

mortrloas 473 

CELESTTT— qalckiMai, awUlneae, llaetneaa, ce- 
lerity, rapidity, vdodty 989 

CELESTIAL— celeatlalflieaventy.. 81 

TO CE!fSURE— to eeoeare, anloMdvert, crlttdaa 111 

TO CEN8UEB— to accoae, censure Ill 

TO CENSUBE— to eeMore, carp^ cavn US 

TO CENSTBE— to blame, raprova, iepniaGli,Bp- 

brald,ceaaitre, condemn 110 

CEREMONIOUS— fcrmal, ceremoQfcwe. 994 

CEREMONY— A>nn, ceremony, rite, obeervanoe 88 

CERT AIN— certain, nre, eecore 8H 

CESSATION— ceaNtloo, atop, reat, intennlmloa 957 

TO CHAFE-to rob, clMfe, free, gan 300 

CHAGRIN^vezation, mortification, chagrin 199 

CHAIN— chain, fttter, band, shackle 917 

TO CHALLENGE— 10 brave, defy, dare, dial- 

toiga 198 

CHAMPION— combatant, champion 134 

CHANCE— chance, fbrtune, Ate 170 

CHANCE— chance, probabUity 170 

CHANCE-chance, hasard 170 

CHANCE-Mddent, chance 171 

TO CHANCE-lo happen, chance 171 

TO CHAN6E-to change, alter, vary 983 

It> CHANGE— to change, exchange, barter, aob- 

BCitute 991 

OklANGE— change, variation, vkWtode 988 

CHARACTER— character, letlflr 197 

CHARACrERp-<aat, torn, deaerlptlea, charaeter 487 

CHARACTER— character, repotatioa 439 

TO CHARACTERlZE-to mmut, iW»»«-ii»«n t ^ 

a^yle, entitle, deBignata,charaetiflaa. «n 

CHARGE— care, charge, 
CHARGE — attack, 

^^»*^ 118 

CHARGE-CO*, aipeoae,prfca,chniia. 438 

CHARGE-oOce, place, charge, ftiaetlon ng 

TO CHARGE-to accoae, chaige, fanpeach, ar- 

"•«" Ill 

OBARM-frace, charm ^^ 314 

CHARM pte M MH b y»7, dtUghl, 
rf> niAirM to ritum, *Th ti 

npt|u«ieapclvaio...* „ 317 

miAPw^^ iillhtflil llHIBhlg 313 

CHARMS-attractkma, aOurementa, cbaraM. .. . 818 

CHASE— forest, chaoe, park 971 

CHASE— bant, chase 971 

CHASM-breaeh, break, gap, chasm 501 

TO CHASTEN— 10 chasten, chastise 904 

CHASTITY-cbastlty, eoa Un enc e , modesty 918 

TO CHASTISE-to chasten, chastise 904 

TO CHAT— to babUe, Chatter, chat, prattle, prate 490 
CHATTELS— goodsi Aimltnre, chattels, movea- 
bles, eflbcis 390 

TO CHATT£R-to babble, chatter, chat, prattle, 

prate 450 

TO CHEAPEN — lo buy, purchase, bargain, 

cheapen • 335 

TO CHEAT— to cheat, defVaud, trick S95 

TO CHECK— to cheel^ curb, control 999 

TO CHECK— CD check, chide, reprimand, re- 
prove, rebuke 110 

TO CH£CK-to check, stop 958 

TO CHEER— to animate. Inspire, enliven, cheer, 

exhilarate 3» 

TO CHEER— to cheer, encourage, comfort 3J8 

CHEERFUL— cheerful, merry, sprightly, gay. ... 388 

CHEERFUI^-glad, pleased, Joy All, cheerful 383 

TO CHERISH— 40 noorisb, nurture, cherish 377 

TO CHERISH— to foater, cherish, harbour, hi- 

dulge 377 

TO CHIDE— to checki chide, reprimand, reprove, 

rebuke 110 

CHIEF— chief, principal, main 908 

CHIEF— chief, iMder, chieftain, bead 908 

CHIEFLY— cepedaUy, partlcalarly, principally. 

Chiefly 908 

CHIEFTAIN-chlef, leader, chieftain, bead 908 

CHILDISH-chUdtah, Inlbntlne 401 

CHILL-«hUI,coid 514 

TO CHOKE-to suflbcate, stifle, smother, choke 999 

CHOICE-optkm, choice 934 

CHOLER— anger, choler, rage, Airy 110 

TO CHOOSE— to choose, prefer SS3 

TO CHOOSE-lo chooee, pick, eelecl 934 

TO CHOOSE— to choose, elect 834 

CHRONICLES-aaecdotes, memofas, chronicles, 

aanals 488 

CHURCH— temple, church 88 

CIRCLE— circle, sphere, orb, gtobe 17S 

CIRCUl T -- clr e ttlt , tour, round 178 

TO CIRCULATE— to spread, dreulate, propa- 
gate, dlasemluate. 348 

TO (HRCUMSCRIBB-lo etrcmnserlbe, enelaaa 178 
TO CDtCUMSCRIBB— to boond, Omit, conflas^ 

circnmecrlba, laMiict ••••....••.••.•••.....• 178 
dRCUMSPECT-canUeos, wary, drenaMpeet.. 498 

CIRCUMSTAlfCl simmaamie, sjfitkm 178 

CaOUMSTANCB-lMldiBt, ftMt 179 

CmCUMSTAMTIAL circumstantial, partleo- 

Iar,mlMite.... 173 

TO CITE — loclte,qaole 480 

TO dTE-Hto dta, snansoa %• 480 

dVIL— civil, polite 118 

CIVIL --tivll, obMghn, eomplalsam 188 

CnnU TY— benefit, tevour, klndneai^ dvfflty. .. . 188 
CnauZATION^-coMyatSoB, eotaia, chrlBsa- 

Hon, refinement 108 

CLAIM— right, ctafaB,privilega 998 



CLAIM— ftiliilnii, dalm 

TO CLAIM— 10 Mk, or nk for, dalm, dtmawl. . i 
CLAMOROUa-kNid, Bolqr, higinooadiit, cte- 


CLAMOUS— aolMtcnr,oiilor7,cl«BO«r 

GLAMDESTINE— daadcftiM, HcroC 

TO CLASP— to ctaip, buf^ ciBbraM 

CLASS— cIsM, ordor, rask, difrit 

TO CLASS— to ctaM, wranfo, nuife 

CLEAR— aitpMeiit, Tlaible, dew, pUOa, olifkMit, 

tvktait, maoifcM ^ 

OLEARr-«lear, lucid, brigbt, Tivid 

CLEAXr-ftlr, clew 

TO CLEABr-to alMolTe, Mqiiit, cloar 

CLEABLT— clcftrif, dMnetly 

CLKARNESS— c lea mo M. peffipiwdty 

TO CLEAVK-to ftkk, detve, MllMra 

CLEMENCY— demencjr, lenity, mercy 

GLEROTMAN— clernrMM, parMO, priert, miiiie. 


CLEVER — derer, eklUhl, tspert, deiteroM^ 

TO dJMB— 10 ariM or rlM, novat, Mceod, climb, 

CLOAK-«kmk, made, Mind, veil 

TO CLOO— lodQff,kMid,eBetiBb«r 

CLOISTER— cloister, cooTent, mooaitery 

CLOSE— aeqiMl, doie 

CLOSE-ckwe, compact 

CLOSE— doM, near, nigii 

TO CLOSE— to doK, that 


TO CLOSE— 10 end, cloie,termloate 

CLOWN— coantfTmaa, peawwt, awaia, hind, n 


TO CLOT— eatidy, Mtiata, ilat, doy 

CLUMS Y a w ii wardydmaqr 

OOAI>JUTOR-«oUaac«e, partaei^ eoadQalor, i 

. OIO 

TO COALESCE-to add, Jofa, miita, coalcaee. 

CO ARSE— coana, roagh, rode 

COARSE— froai, coane 

TO COAX— to eoax, wheedle, c^JoK^wB 

TO COERCE— 10 eocice,metraiB 

COEVAL c o eval, coa i eii p oi ai y 

OOOBNT— cogent, tedUa^ Btroof 

TO COINCIDE— taaci«a,eoladde,eoncnr 


OQLI>-cod,eeld, frigid 


. an 

. 815 


. 416 
. 801 

. ioi 


TO CCMjLBCT— to gather, eolleet 

OOLLEu-i iBi>--<ahn, c om p oei d , oellected 

COLLECTION imi—My, aaeBmblagi, graop, 






COLLOQUY— coBvenatioa, dialogae, colloquy. 

TO COLOUR-toeoloar,dyc^tlBge,etain 


COLOURABLE eeieufatla,ipactoMi,oitendble, 

COLUMN-pHlar, cdnan. 
COMBAT-batde • 


COMBAT— eonikt,eoBBbat,conteBC.... MS 

TO COMBAT— to combat, oppow 134 

COMBATANT— combatant, cbampioo 134 

COMBINATION— aModation, combioatloa 4B8 

COMBINATION-combination, cabal, plot, con- 
spiracy 4gg 

TO COMBINE-to connect, eombioe, onile 41f 

TO COME— to come, arrive 301 

GOMEL Y— becoming, comdy,gr«cefol 313 

COMELY— graceful, comely, elegant. . . .\ 31g 

COBIFORT— er>mrurt, plearare \57 

TO COMFORT— to cheer, encourage, comfort. . . 390 

TO COMFORT— to console, solace, comfort 390 

COMICK ) Ungbable, ladtcrous, ridicutoas, co- 

COMICAL) mical or Comtek, droll 103 

COMMAND— command, order. Injunction, pia- 

ccpt, mandate les 

COMMANDING— commanding, imperative, in- 

pcrkms, aatboritative lOi 

TO COMMENCE— tobeg{n,C4 
TOCOMM£ND-to praise, < 

extol 130 

COMMENDABLE— laudable, praisewort.*iy, com- 
mendable m 

COMBIENSURATE — ^proportionate, adequate^ 

commeosurate 434 

COMMENT )™ark, observation, com- 

COMMENTARY { '"*"*' "***• commentary, 

J annotation 4SI 

COBffMERCE— Intercourse, communication, Mn- 

nezion, commerce... 333 

COMMERCE— trade, commerce, trafflck, dealing 333 

COMMERCIAL— mercantile, commercial 330 

COMMISERATION— sympaiby, commlaeratloo, 

compacdon, condolence 337 

TO COMMISSION— to commlmion, authorize, 

empower 180 

TO COMMIT— to eondgn, commit, intrust 415 

TO COMMIT— to perpetrate, commit 890 

COMMODIOUS— commodloas, convenient, suita- 
ble 4Vt 

COMMODITY— coawiodlty, goods, merchandise, 

ware 330 

COMMON— common, vulgar, ordinary, mean ... 383 
COMMONLY— commonly, generally, frequently, 

usually 30 

COMMONWEALTH — atate, realm, conunoa- 

wealth 180 

COMMOTION— commotion, disturbance 417 

TO COMMUNICATE-to communicaie, impart 480 
COMMUNICATION — Intercourse, oommunlca- 
tioo, connexion, commerce......... ......... 330 

OOMMUNICATTVE-com mnni cative, fl«e 487 

COMMUNION— communkm, converse 487 

COMMUNION— Loctrseupper,eackariit, eommo- 
nkm, sacrament*. ............. ...... ....... 83 

COMMUNITY— cemmonfty, society 487 

TO COMMUTE— to e achange, baiter, commute, 

tnick V 335 

COMPACT— agreeoeat, eoacraet, eovetiant, com- 
pact, baigahi 190 

OMff ACT— ekiae^ compact 060 

COMPANIO N aeeom p a ahn eat, companloii, con- 



OOMFAN Y Mi eu i b ly, conpuiy, neMlog, e(»- 

grefatkMi, pottament, diet, coacraH, oodtcb* 

tloa,«yBod}CoavooalkNi,oouaciI ..•• 490 

COMPANY— tnoctetioo, wdeqri ionpuy, pvtr 

nerahip***** « *• 48B 

OOBIPANY— bu4,ooiDpU7,«ftw,guif 4M 

OOllPANY-Moltty.Mmpaiqr • 467 

COUPANY— troop, eomiMiiy.* * 4n 

OOMPABIBON-cooipariKmieoiittMt.. ........ 135 

C0BlPABia01f--flliiiil«, rfmBICiHle, com p a ri wm. . Itt 

OOMPASBION-pliy, eoaipMrioo 388 

OOMPASeiON— ^jrmptUiy, ooouBlienukm, eoM- 

pmiow, condoleacc 397 

COIIPATIBLE-«»nptUMe, eootiiliiit Ifi3 

TO OOMPEL— to compel, Ibcee, oblige, neccnl- 

une Mft 

001iPBNSATION-«oBpeantloo, eatM^usUoo, 

WDends, leBraoemSoii, leeonpense, requital, 

reward • 438 

COMPETENT— compeleiit, fitted, quallAed IM 

COMPETITION — eonpetitioD, rivalry, enmla- 

tkw 131 

TO OOMPLAIN-loeeBiplaia,lmeBt,regrat... 488 
TO COMPLAIN— loeoaDplala,iMinnttr,replDe.. 408 

COMPLAINT— eomplaiDt, aeeaaatkm Ufi 

COMPLAISANCE^— cotaplaliance, condescen- 

■ton, detetaee . * ....• 900 

OOMPLAISANT'-cMI, obUfing, oomptetaant. . . 198 
COMPLAISANT— eovrteooe, eo«urtly, eomplal- 

■anc 198 

COMPUrrB-eooplele, perfect, flnliiied 987 

OOMPLETB-^wtaoie, entire, eonplete, total, bi- 

tegral tt8 

TO COMPLETE— 10 eoaiplet^ flaWi, terodnale 987 
UOMPLBnON— coBaooiiiiMlofl, eoopleiioii «... 887 

COMPLBX^^fompoiiad, eoBplei * 9l8 

COMPLEXITY ) eoaipledty,< 

OOBIPLICATION ( trictey 918 

COMPUANT^-«omplla]M,yteldli«,aobBiiMlve.. 151 
TO COMPLQIENT— to adulata, flaner, eonpli- 

ment ••••«■••••••••••*••«•••■••••-••••*•«••• 

TO COMPLY-to eonply, eonlbrai, yieM, fabnlt 180 
TO COMPLY— to aceede,eoiMeiit, eoniply,acqiii- 

ene, agree 151 

TO COMPOSB^Ho cooipaK, aetde 

TO OOMPOflE-to coiapo o ad, coaipoie 910 

TO COMPOSl^Mo Ibrm, conpoae, eontitiiie. 

COMPOggP-^coia p oae d ,gedit t 987 

OOMPOflElX^'calm, c oai p oee d , toKkt U ed 

COMPOVNB— eompottad, Mplai tl8 

TO COMPO CNI^Mo coBipoyad, compoae 910 

TO O0MPEBHBNI>— to eeoprlM^ ootopnbeBd, 

emWaee, eowtalD, tpflliMle»»«»» ••• 174 

TO COMPBBBEND-to eoMdfe, oodeialaBd, 

conprebeiid ••••••••••••••.•••••••••«.•••«• 74 

COMPJiKiiENSIVE— eonprebeuhre, ettetahre. 174 
TO COMPEHOfr-to eoaopriie, eonprebend, en- 

brMe,eoalaiB,lnel«de <<'<<< 174 

COMPUUgqif nmmlt, aiiup^Wutt » 

COMPUNCnON-tepeMaaee, peniiaaee, eootrl^ 

ttoB, ceMpiH icdoa, le ato f to 88 



TO COMPUTE-toeMkNfte,eonpQie,rait 439 

TO CONCEAL-toeoMeal,di9Miiiiae,dl«giiiie.. 518 

TO OONCEAl^-to eooeeal, hide, oaerete 518 

CONCEALMENT— concealment, eecregr •• 510 

TO CONCEDE— to give ap, ddlver, anrrender, 

yield, cede, eoooede.* 9CS 

CONCEIT— conceit, ftncy 90 

CONCEIT— pride, vanity, conceit < 180 

CONCEITED-<o|ilniated, opinlallve, conceited, 

egoiatlcal 108 

TO CONCEIVE— to coaeelve, apptebend, aup- 

poae, bnagloe 74 

TO CONCEIVE— to conceive, onderataad, com- 

piebend 74 

CONCEPTION— cooceptlen, notion *..». 75 

CONCCTnON— p er ce p t ion, Idea, conception, no- 
tion...* 78 

CONCEBN—adUr, buBlneee, concern 339 

CONCERN— care, concern, regard 495 

CONCERN— IntereM, concern 339 

TO CONCERN— to affbct, concern 339 

TO CONCERT— to concert, contrive, manage. .. 533 

TO CONCILIATE-to conciliate, reconcile 153 

CONCISE^-abovt, brief, cooclae, lummary, aae- 

clnct 988 

TO CONCLUDE-to cloae, flalab, conclude 988 

TO CONCLUDE UPON— to decide, determbie, 

conclude opon 993 

CONCLUSION— emekieion. Inference, deduction 78 
CON(ai«UBIVE— eoncluaive, deddve, convbidng 995 

CONCLUSIVE-fiaal,coneloalve.... 834 

CONCOMITANT— accompanhnent, companloa, 

concomitant • 403 

CONCORD— concord, harmony 155 

TO CONCUR^to agree, cobicide, concur 151 

CONCURRENCE— ament, consent, approbation, 
co n c mi e nce «....••.•.••...«. ...... .....••* 158 

CONCU8SION-«boek,concaarien 305 

TO CONDEMN— to blame, reprove, reproach, 

upbraid, ceosore, condemn 110 

TO CONDEMN— to reprobate, condemn 100 

TO OONDEMN^-toaeaienee,condeam,doom... 160 
CONDESCENSION— eomplainace, coodeaoen- 

alon, deference.. «...«..* 900 

CONDlTlON^artlele, condition, term 388 

CONDrnON-«onditlonf itatlon 980 

CONDITION- ehnatlon, condition, itate, predlea- 

ment* pligbt, case 978 

CONIXMjENCB sy mpat hy, compasrion, com- 
miseration, eoadoleaee 3S7 

TO CONDUCE— to condoee, contribato 188 

CONDUCT— behavleiir, conduct, carriage, deport- 
ment, demeanour*.* • 109 

TO CONDUCT-to conduct, guide, lead 101 

TO OONDUCT— to conduct, manage, dbect .... 101 
CONFEDERACY— nlllance, league, confederacy 409 
CONFBDKRATS'-tfly, eonfedarate, aeoompUoe 401 

TO CONFO^-toeoofer, bestow 187 

CONFBKBNGB— eonvenatlon, dlatogne, confe- 
rence, colloquy .••* 460 

TO CONFESS— to NhnowledgB, own, eonfeii, 

avow 449 

TO CONFIDB-toeeiMe,tiuat 414 

CCTfflDENC E nmn rw ito , eontden ci 415 



0U2VFIDENCE— bop*, vxpeewkmt trait, eooA- 

d«n€e 414 

CONFIDENT— eo«lldeat,docawtk«l,po«lllvt... 414 
lt> CONFINE-Ho bound, Umit, coofioe, circnm- 

■cribe, restrict 17B 

CONFINED— contraclad, confloed, nmrrow 177 

CONFINEMENT— coafloement, ImpriMMiiDeBt, 

capUvliy 17d 

TO CONFIRII— to conOnn, eorrobormie SS 

TO CONFIRM— 10 confinn, ertaUiati 885 

CONFLICT— eonflid, combat, coHtnt 148 

TO CONFORM— to comply, conform, yield, mib- 

mil 150 

CONFORMABLE— conformable, Bfreeable, milta- 

Me 153 

CONFORMATION— form, fifiife, conformation.. 883 
TO CONFOUND— to abash, confound, confuse. . 107 
TO CONFOUND— to boflle, defeat, dtoconcert, 

confound 143 

TO CONFOUND— to confound, confuse 881 

TO CONFOUND— to mix, mingle. Mend, con- 
found 884 

TO CONFRONT— to confront, face 148 

TO CONFUSE^-to confound, confuse 881 

TO CONFUSE— to abash, confound, conflise.... 107 

CONFUSED-indistinet, confused 883 

CONFUSION— confusion, disorder 888 

TO CONFUTE— io confote, refbte, oppugn, dis- 

prore 115 

TO CONGRATULATE— io felicitate, congrata- 
lil« 305 

{aawmbly, company, meet- 
convention, synod, coo- 
▼ocation, council 480 

CONJECTURE — conjecture, supposition, aur- 

mlse •••• — - 04 

TO CON JECTU RE-to guess, conjecture, divine OS 

CONJUNCTURE— conjuncture, crisis 173 

TO CONNECT— to connect, combine, unite 418 

CONNECTED— connected, related 410 

CONNEXION- intercoura^ mmmnnicatton, con- 
nexion, commerce 333 

TO CONaUER— to conquer, vaaquisb, eubdot, 

overeone, surmoont 144 

CONSANOUINITT-kindred, relationsfalp, aO- 

nity, consanguinity 407 

CONSCIENTIOUS— oonseienUoos, scrupulous.. 88 
CONSCIOUS— aware, on one*s guard, apprised, 

conscious 480 

TO BE CONSCIOUS-to foel, be sensible, con- 
scious 370 

TO CONSECRATE— to dedicate, devote, const- 
crate, hallow 88 

TO CONSENT— to cooNnt, permit, allow 156 

TO CONSENT— to aeoede, consent, comply, no- 

quiesce, agree 151 

CONSEN T as s en t, consent, approbation, concar- 

fence 156 

CONSEaUENCE— afibct, coMequence, result, Is- 
sue, event 800 

OONSEaUENCE — signification, avail, Impoit- 

^weIgb^lllOlllem 456 

CONSEQUENT SBbsaqnent,c 

rlor 878 

CONSEaUENTLT— naturally, consequently, in 

course, of course 878 

CONSEQUENTLY— therefore, consequendy, ac- 
cordingly , 874 

TO CONSIDER— to consider, reflect 76 

TO CONSIDER— to consider, regard 77 

CONSIDERATE— tbo(«biful, considerate, deli- 
berate 484 

CONSIDERATION— consideration, reason 77 

TO CONSIGN— to consign, commit, intrust..... 411 

CONSISTENT— compaUUe, consistent 151 

CONSISTENT— consonant, accordant, consistent 15S 

TO COXSOLE-to console, solace, comfort 356 

CONSONANT— consonant, accordant, consistent 151 
CONSPICUOUS— disUnguished, noted, cowpicu- 

ous, eminent, illustrious 47% 

CONSPICUOUS— prominent, conspicuous 474 

CONSPIRACY— combination, cabal, plot, c 


CONSTANCY— constancy, stabUity, i 

finnness .....^. 896 

CONSTANT— continual, perpetual, coMtaM ... . 86» 

CONSTANT— durable, constant 806 

CONSTERNATION— alarm, terrour, fright, con- 
sternation 80$ 

TO CONSTITUTE-to constitute, appoint, de- 
pute 814 

TO CONSTITUTE— 10 form, eompoae, consti- 

t ute... 806 

CONSTITUTION— frame, temper, temperament, 

consdtulion 38S 

CONSTITUTION— government, constitution . . . • 807 

CONSTRAINT— coostiaint,compulslon 88» 

CONSTRAINT— constraint, restraint, restrictioB 880 

CONSTRUCT— to build, erect, construct 408 

TO CONSULT— to consult, deliberate, debate. . 1 14 
TO CONSUME— to consume, destroy, waste.... 50S 
CONSUMMATION— consummation, completion 867 
CONSUMPTION— decay, decUne, consumption.. 366 

CONTACT— conuct, touch 180 

CONTAGION-contagion, hifection 180 

CONTAGIOUS-contagious, epidemical, pestilen- 
tial 180 

TO CONTAIN— to contain, hold 174 

TO CONTAIN— to comprise, comprehend, em- 
brace, contain, include 174 

TO CONTAMINATE — to contaminate, deflia, 

pollute, taint, corrupt 180 

TO CONTEMN— to contemn, d 

TO CONTEMPLATE— to contemplate, meditata, 

muse 76 

CONTEMPORARY— coeval, contemporary 807 

CONTEMPTIBLE » . ^.u. . ^ .m 

CONTEMPTUOUS I ««tempUble, contemptuous 108 

CONTEMPTUOUS— contemptuous, seoniAil, die* 

dalnfUl 108 

CONTEMPTIBLE-coatemptibla, deeplcaMe, pi- 

dAU 108 

TO CONTEND-to contend, strive, vie.*. 131 

TO CONTEND— to contend, contest, dispota.... Ill 
CONTENTION-coiUeiidon,«rifo 138 



strife * 

CONTENTMENT— «ODttiiUDent) MttofaetkNi 

CONTEST— eoofilctt oomlMt, contflit 

TO CONTEST— to eoutiiid, coniett, ditputo.. 
OONTI6UOUS-«Uac«n<f a^Joininffi 


CONTINENCE-cbMClty, conUamce, no^Mly* • S45 
CONTINGENCY — MddflM, caraalcjr, cooUa- 

feocy 17« 

CONTINGENT— Mckkntal, IncidMMy, CMoal, 

continfent « 173 

CONTINUAIr-conliDual, perpeiaml,ooiwtant... 965 

CONTINUAI«-coDUiraal,eoatiiUMd 966 

CONTINUANCE ) contioiutBM, diimtloo, eoa- 


CONTINUATION— conUnualioB, conltoakjr.... 966 

TO C0NTINUE-40 conUnue, remalo, tUf 963 

TO CONTINUE— to oontlmie, pwie vcf e i pefalM, 

puraue, pratecate 964 

CONTINUED— contiooal, coDtiiMMd 965 

CONTINUITY— coiitiiuiation, conUnnUf 966 

CONTRACT — flgreement, eootnict, covenant, 

eomiMiet, bargain 153 

TO CONTRACT— to abridge, eurtail, contract. . 178 
CONTRACTED— contracted, confined, narrow. . 177 
TO CONTRADICT— to contradict, oppoee, deny 113 

CONTRARY— advene, cootrary, opptMlte 135 

CONTRAST— compariion,oontraat 135 

TO CONTRIBUTE— to conduce, contribute .... 168 
TO CONTRIBUTE— lo minister, administer, con- 
tribute 167 

CONTRIBUTION— tax, duty, custom, toU, im- i 

post, tribute, contribution 168 

CONTRITION— repentance, penitence, contrition, 

compunction, remorse *. 88 

CONTRIVANCE— device, contrivance 633 

TO CONTRIVE— to contrive, devise, invent.... 539 
TO CONTRIVE— to concert, contrive, manage.. 533 

TO CONTROL— 4o ebecli, curb, control 9SS 

TO CONTROVERT— to controvert, dispute .... 114 
CONTUMACIOUS-obeUnate, stubborn, contu- 
macious, lieadstrong, beady 909 

CONTUMACY— contumacy, rebeUion 310 

CONTUMELY— reproach, contumely, obloquy. . 108 
TO CONVENE— to assemble, convene, convoke 400 
CON VENIENl'— commodions, convenient, sniu- 

ble 417 

CONVENT— cloister, convent, monastery 86 

CONVENTION— assembly, company, meeting, 
con g reg a tion, pariiament, diet, congress, con- 
vention, synod, convocation, council 400 

CONVERSATION— conversation, dialogue, con- 
ference, colloquy 400 

CONVERSE— communion, convene 487 

TO CONVER8E-to speak, talk, convene, die- 
course 490 

CONVER8IBLE— faceUons, convenible,>oettlar, 

pleasant, jocose 461 

CONVERT— convert, proselyte 86 

TO CONVEY— to bear^ carry, convoy, transport 330 

TO CONVCCT-to convict, detect, discover 445 

CONVlCT-crimloal, culprit, malefactor, (iekm, 

convict 1S3 

CONVICTION-comrlction, psnuaokNi 79 

CONVINCINO— conclusive, decisive, convhiclag S» 

CONVIVIAL-convivial, social, sociable 487 

CONVOCATION— assembly, company, meeting, 
coi^cgation, pariiament, diet, congresi, con- 
vention, synod, convocatkm, council 400 

TO CONVOKE-to assemble, convene, convoke 490 

COOL— cool, cold, frigid 514 

COOL— dispasslooate, cool 119 

OOPIOUS--plentiail, plcntaous, abundant, copi- 
ous, ample 841 

COPIOUSLY— largely, eoploosly, fiiUy 349 

COPY— copy, model, pattern, specimen 530 

TO COPY— to copy, traaaeribe 530 

TO COPY— to imitate, copy, counterfeit SS9 

OOaUET— coquet. Jilt SOS 

CORDIAL— hearty, warm, sineeie, cordial 431 

CORNER— comer, angle .'. 499 

wI^m!^}"^*"'""^*^''^* «• 

CORPOREAL— corporeal, material 510 

CORPSE— body, corpse, carcass 510 

CORPULENT— corpulent, stout, histy 511 

TO CORRECT— to amend, correct, reform, reo- 

tiOr, emend, improve, mend, better 901 

CORRECT— correct, accurate 908 

CORRECTION— correction, discipline, punish- 
ment 904 

CORRECTNESS-^Justneis, correctness 903 

CORRESPONDENT — correspondent, suitable, 

answerable JSS 

TO CORROBORATE— to confirm, corroborate.. 935 
TO CORRUPT— to contaminate, defile, poUute, 

taint, comipt 199 

To CORRUPT— to rot, putrefy, corrupt 504 

CORRUPTION— depravity, depravation, cornip- 

tlon 138 

COST— oost, exponsei price, charge 436 

COSTLY— valuable, precious, costly 437 

COVENANT — ^agreement, contract, covenant, 

compact, bargain 153 

TO COVER— to cover, hide 517 

COVER— cover, shelter, screen., 517 

COVERING— tegument, covering SIS 

TO COVET-^to desire, long for, hanker aAer, 

covet ISO 

COVBTOU8NE88— covetottsncss, cnpidity, ava- 
rice 169 

COUNCIL— assembly, company, meethig, congre- 
gation, parliament, diet, congress, convention, 

synod, convocathm, council 480 

COUNSEL— advice, counsel, Instnietion 194 

TO COUNT— (o calculate, compute, reckon, eonnt 

or account, number 433 

TO COUNTENANCE-lo encourage, sanction, 

countenance, support 310 

COUNTENANCE— (kce, countenance, visage... 479 
COUNTERFEIT— spurious, suppositions, coun- 
terfeit 599 

TO COUNTERFEIT— to hnitate, copy, counter- 
feit SB9 

COUNTRY— land, country 407 

COUNTRYMAN— counuyman, peasant, swain, 

hind, rueticiK, clown 330 

COUPLE— couple, brace» pair «.*..^ ..... 434 



COUSAOE— eoarafe, forthirie, ranlaUoii 140 

COURAGE— bravery, coarafe, TikMir 130 

COURSK-course, RMi pMMfe 975 

COURSE— way, road, roote or loat, eooiw 975 

COURSE— atrial, courae 975 

COURSE— waj, maoMr, natbod, noda, eoarae, 

meaofl 975 

COURTEOUS-aflkUe, coorteoiM 900 


COURTLY jcourtaouf,cooiplaiMiit,ooaiHjr.. 100 

TO CRACK— Co braak, bom, artekfipUt 509 

CRAFTY— cannlDf, crmfky, •obtie, ily, wily 539 

TO CRAVE— to befft baseecb, 1011011, entreat, eop- 

plicate. Implore, crave 158 

TO CREATE— to cause, occaiion, create 904 

TO CREATE— tajnake, fbnn, produce, create . . 909 

CREDIT— credit, favour, Influence 100 

CREDIT— belief, credit, tniM,lUtb 78 

CREDIT— name, reputation, repute, credit 479 

CREED— faitb, creed 70 

CREW— band, company, crew, gang 409 

CRIME— crime, vice, eln 199 

CRIME— crime, misdemeanour 199 

CRlMINAL-crimlnal, guilty 123 

CRIBUNAIr-eriminal, culprit, maleflictor, Mon, 

convict 193 

CRISIS— conjuncture, crisis 173 

CRITERION— criterion, standard 995 

CRITICISM— animadversion, criticism, stricture. 119 
TO CRITICISE— to censure, animadvert, crltl- 

clw lU 

CROOKED— awkward, croei, untoward, crooked, 

froward, perverse 315 

CROOKED— bent, curved, crooked,*awry 316 

CROSS— awkward, cross, untoward, crooked, fttH 

ward, perverse* •*•••••• ••..•........ 315 

CROSS— captious, cross, peevisb, petulant, fretftil 315 

CROWD— fflttlUtude, crowd, tbrong, swarm 404 

CRUEL— crad, Inbomao, barbarous, brutal, la- 

▼»€« 373 

CRUEL— bardheartcd, cruel, unmerciful, mercft- 

I«" 373 

TO CRUSH— to break, bruise, squeeae, pound, 

crusb 501 

TO CRUSH— to overwhebn, cniib 504 

CRUTCH— atafl; sdck, crutcb S30 

CRY— noise, cry, outcry, clamour 470 

TO CRY— to cry, weep 47D 

TO CRY— to cry, scream, sbriek 470 

TO CRY— to cry, exclaim, call 47U 

CULPABLE— culpable, fkulty 153 

CULPRIT— criminal, culprit, malefactor, (blon, 

convict 133 

CULTIVATION— cuhivatlon, Ullage, husbandry 337 
CULTIVATION ) calthratlon, cntture, civfliza- 

CULTURE 5 Uon, refinement 196 

CUNNING— art, cunning, deceit 521 

CUNNING— cunning, crafty, subtle, sly, wily . .. . 592 

CUPIDITY— covetousness, capldlty, avarice 100 

TO CURB-tocbeck, curb, control as 

TO CURE— to cure, beal, remedy sss 

CURE— cure, remedy 3Q5 

CURIOU&-«urloos, inqulslUve, prying n 

CtltRENT-«tr«a0,curTeM,tld« tS9 

CURSORY— cmaory, basiy, sli|M, dew riloi y .... Ml 
TOCURTAII^-leabrMia,cartail,coairaet.... ITS 

CURVED— bent, curved, eiookad.awiy 31t 

CUSTODY— katplaf, ewlody I7f 

CUSTOM casKwu, habit 30 

CUSTOM BMlowi, lbsbtoa,manaer,practica.... 30 
CUSTOM-«az, duly, costoa^ tall, Impeel, trtboM, 

DAILY— daUy, dkinial 900 

DAINTY-daiaty,delkMy 114 

DAMAOE-kias,daaBage,delrimBt 4N 

DAMAGE-t^Jury, damaga, hurt, barm, mlsehter 401 
DAMPNEBO Moiilaie, bomidity, damptMsa.... 5» 

DANGER-dangar, peril, baaaid 171 

TO DARE— to brave, dare, defy, chaDeBga 13S 

DARING— daring, bold 141 

DARK— dark, obscure, dim, aqrUCfffcMia 400 

DARK— opaque, dark 481 

TODART— losboot,dait 90f 

DATE— tiaM,park)d, age, data, era, epochs...... Ifl 

TO DAUB— la smear, daub SU 

TO DAUNT— to dismay, daunt, appal 300 

DAYS OF YORE— ibrmeriy, la times past, or 
old tlmea, days of yore, aaetantly or enrhM 

times 900 

DEAD— lifelaM, dead. Inanimate 390 

DEADLY-deadly, mortal, Iktal 371 

DEAL— deal, quantity, portkm 400 

DEALING— trade, coounarce, traflick, dealii«. . . 331 

DEARTH-acqrdty, dearth 99» 

DEATH— death, departure, decease, demisa 371 

TO DEBAR— to deprive, debar, abrMga 80O 

TO DEBASE— to abase, humble, degrade, debaae, 

dlegraca m 

TO DEBATE— to argue, dispute, debate IM 

TO DEBATE-coosult, deUberate, debate 11» 

TO DEBILITATE— to weaken, enftebia, debili- 
tate, enervate. Invalidate 9M 

DEBILITY— deMUty, ioflnnity, imbecility 307 

DEBT— debt, due fit 

DECAY— decay, decline, coosamplkm SM 

TO DECAY— to periih, die, decay 371 

DECEASE-death, departure, deceaaa, denlas .. 37] 

DECEIT— art, cunning, deceit 581 

DECEIT— deceit, deception 993 

DECEIT— deceit, duplicity, double-deaUi^ B3 

DECEIT— deceit, lyand, guOe 393 

DECEITFUL— (Ulactous, deceitful, ftaodulaat . B3 
TO DECEIVE— to deceive. Mode, Impoae upon OSt 

DECEIVER— deceiver, impostor 819 

DECENCY— decency, decorum 940 

DECENT— becomhig, decent, seemly, fit, ioHaUa MO 

DECEPTION— deceit, decepdoQ 90 

TO DECIDE— to deckle, determine, conchide 

upon 993 

DECIDED— decided, determined, resolute 994 

DECIDED-Kledded, decMve 994 

DECISION— decision, judgement, sentaaca 04 

DECISIVE-declded, decisive 9M 

DECISIVE— condaslve, dccistve, coBvlndag .... 90 



TODBOLAIM-todMWm,lBf«ltli 1€0 

TO DBCLAKS-«>tfialM«,piiMith, proclaim... < 
TO DSOLABB-t»«i|mH|d«lM«, tlgiiliy, tM- 

tifytixiw ••••••••••••• ••••••••••••• • ^ 

TO DKCLABB— 10 ikmowm, tnU^ dedaw.. 444 

TO DBCLABS-^pntai,4Mtara ^ 

PBCHW B it wy , dtcH— , toaw p HoB. 308 

TO DBOLDIS-lo fsflM, dwMiM, i^jeet, rapel, 


DIOOftUM— dMMcyideeoran 846 

TO HBOOT-i* •»«•, t«BpC MdMe, MdM, d*. 

••y -.- « 310 


TO DBCRT— lo dtepwBitt, 4ctnct| tminee, 6f 

|M«ciM6,digrad«,4eef7 105 

TO DBDIOATB— l*4MilMia,4tvoi0,cooMcnt«, 

iMOlow 89 

TO DraMTOB— lo4triTe,tnoe,dtdiiee 440 

TO DSMNTT-lotfaiaettMblraet 481 

mH)PCT10»— cwwlMloB, i ni wt i ii J t , dedroctkm. 78 

PMEP -^daad, iptoit, aclikiv— wt, ftat 905 

USED— MCiaiii MC, dead 904 

TO DEEM-lo tUak, Mppow, ImaflM, Mieve, 

d8«B 75 

TODBFACB-4odtlteec,disfl|M^dalbm 503 

TO D^AMB-lo MpMW, dMNWt, tlMder, d*- 

TO DBFBAT-Ho best, defiMt, overpower, root, 


TO DBFBAT-Ho bafle, defeat, diMoiieert, con- 


MPBCT— imperftelkw, defect, feult, viee . 


TO DEPBAT-40 defeat, feil, dlMppolat, fhw- 




PiyilCTlVK d ffe c U Te,deflrieat. 137 

TO PgFBWB-HO apologlae, de ft a d, J u n Hy, eicol- 

pate, ezcaae, pM 181 

TO BBTBHD— 10 defend, proleet,viBdfeate 179 

TODiraND-iofaaid, defend, watck 180 

DEFENDANT } ^ , , ... 

j^jpjjj^gl^ I defendant, defender 180 

Dn^mEB^-defender, adToeale, pleader 180 

TO DEFEB^^o delay, defer, poatpone^ pipenMl- 



. 190 

I, defenrfve . 


DEFILE— Co eoamninata, 

ta int 

BSFlCIBNT^-defeetlire, defldent. 
DEFOflTB-deantte, poaMte . .. . 

TO moiW-40 defeee, dWlfdie,defenn. 
TO BBFE AfFP-to diet, deftand, trtdt. .. 
to DBFT^Ho Isnve, defy, dB«, ebaUnie. 
tODEOBADB^Ho dlipvaci 
depradaie, J B f ridg , decry 





TO DE6RADE-lodiapata8e,darafaie,deBrade. 105 
TO OE6RADB-to knmble, bmniUate, d^rade. 14i 

DB6REE-«Iaai, Older, rank, degree 970 

DETTT— deity, divinity 81 

DEJECTION— d^eetlon, deprenien, aMiandioly 413 
TO DELAT-to delay, defer, poetpooe, procnMl- 

nate, prolonf, protract, retard 900 

DELEGATE— dele|at«t depnty 8M 

TO DELIBERATR-toeoaralt,ddlberaie,delkate 115 
DEUBEEATB-ChougMAil, eouUerate, deUbe- 

»«• 484 

DEUOAOY— dainty, delleaoy 314 

DEUOATE— fine, deUcnte, nice 314 

BteLI OHT— p lea wre , joy, delight, chann 304 

DEUGHTFUL-dcHflurul, dianninf 313 

TO DELINEATE — to paint, depict, dellneaie, 

■kelcb 838 

DELINaUENT— offender, ddinqoent 180 

TO DEUVEB-to ddlver, reecne, tave 840 

TO DELIVrat-lo five op, deUfcr, iwreoder, 

yield, cede, concede 848 


DELIVEBY { deliverance, deUvery 840 

TO DELUDE-to decdve, ddode, Inpoee npon. SU 
TO DELUOB-Ho overflow, inundate, ddoge ... 308 

D£LU8ION--fellacy, ddudon, Olndon 8S3 

TO DEMAND-to adc, or aafc for, dalm, demand 8» 

TO DEMAND-to demand, leqnlie 898 

DEMEANOUB— behaviour, conduct, carriage, de- 
portment, demeanour 188 

DEMISE-deatb, departure, decease, demlw . .. . 3n 
TO DEMOLISH— Co demdlah, raze, diamantle, 

destroy 505 

DEMON— devil, demon S8 

TO DEMONSTBATE— to prove, demonstrate, 

evince, manlfeM 444 

TO DEMUB— Co demur, hesitate, pause 00 

DEMUB— demur, doubt, hesltaUon.obJecUon.... 08 
TO DENOMINATE— to name, denominate, style, 

entitle, dedgoate, characterize 471 

DENOMINATION— name, appdlaUon, UUe, de- 
nomination 471 

TO DENOTE— to denote, signify, imply 450 

DENSE-thiclr, dense 331 

TO DEN Y— to contradict, oppose, deny I13 

TO DENT— to deny, reAise 838 

TO DENY-io deny, disown, disdalm, disavow. 113 
DEPAETURE— death, departure, decease, demise 371 

DEPARTURE— exit, departure 379 

DEPENDENCE— dependence, reliance 418 

TO DEPICT— to patot, depict, delineate, sketch. . 338 
TO DEPLORE-to bewail, bemoan, lament, de- 
plore 410 

DEPONENT-deponcnt, evidence, witness 445 

DEPORTMENT— behaviour, conduct, carriage, 

deprntment, demeanour igs 

DEPQg lTE- depodte, pledge, eacnrity 183 

DEPBAVITY ) depravity, depravation, cor- 

DEPBAVATION5 mption „... j88 

TO DBPBECIATI&-C0 dtaparaga, detract, tra- 

dn cg,depradate, degrade, deeiy 105 

lHBPBEDATI01f--depredstkm,R>bbery 505 

DSPtSflilON-'-d^eetloa, depreadon, mddn- 
^"*3r 413 



TO I>IPRIVB-tob«MTe,deprlTe,i«rip 905 

TO DEPRIVE-lo d«priv«, defav, abridft 906 

DEPTH-HlepUmvoAiDdUjr 890 

TO DEPUTE— lo constitute, appoint, dcpule.... 814 
DEPUTY— •mbaandor, «nvoy, pitnipotenftory, 

deputy SM 

DEPUTY-delegate, iepuur S14 

TO OERAMGE-lodliorder|derai«e,diMOoeert, 

diieompoie 9M 

DERANOEBIENT— dermogeoMnt, UMtaMj, Uam- 

ey|Biadne«, mania 981 

TO DE&IDE— to deride, mock, ridicule, taolar, 

rally 103 

TO DERIVE— to derive, trace, deduce 440. 

TO DEROGATE— to disparage, derogate, difrade 105 
TO DESCRIBE— to idate, recount, descrilw.... 40G 
DESCRIPTION— account, narratiye, deecription* 467 
D£SCRIPTION--«aet, turn, d«ee«ipck>n, diarae- 

ter 467 

TO DESCRY— to find, find out, diecovar, deeoy, 

«P3r 445 

TO DESERT— U> abandon, desert, Cbnake, reUn- 

qutsh 843 

TO DESERT— to aMieale, desert... 853 

DESERT— desert, nterit, worth .|.. 438 

DESERT— solitary, desert, deeolate 893 

TO DESIGN— to design, purpose, intend, mean.. 533 

DESIGN— design, plan, acheme, project 534 

TO DESIGNATE— to name, denominate, style, 

entitle, designate, cliaracteriM 471 

TO DESI&E-to beg, desire 15B 

TO DESIRE— to desire, wish, long for, kanker 

After, coret 150 

TO DESIST— to cease, leave ofl; desist, disooo- 

tinue 857 

DESOLATE— solitary, desert, desolate 863 

DESOLATION— ravage, desolation, devastation 506 
DESPAIRr-despair, desperation, despondency.... 413 
DESPATCH— lo hasten, accelerate, speed, eipe- 

dite, despatch 961 

DESPJBRATE-desperaie, hopeless 413 

DESPERATION— despair, despondency, despe- 
ration >...* 413 

DESPICABLE— contempUbte, despicable, piUful 108 
TO DESPISEi-lo contemn, despise, soom, dis- 
dain... 101 

DESPONDENCY-iievttir, jdapoodeiiey, despe- 
ration »..•• 413 

DESPOnCK— absolute, arbitrary, dcspotkk 168 

DESTIN ATlON-desUny, desltoalion 169 

TO DESTIN£-to allot, appoint, destine 100 

DESTINY-dotiny, fate, lot, doom 160 

DESTINY— destiny, destination. ...». J. 160 

DESTITUTE— hare, acanty, destitute. 850 

DESTITUTE— fonaken, forlom, destitute ...... 848 

TO DESTROY— to consume, destroy, waste .... 505 

TO DESTROY— todemoUsh, rase, dismanUe, de- 
stroy ,,...505 

DESTRUCTION— destrucUon,juin * 504 

DESTRUCTIVE — :desuuctive, minous^ perni- 
cious > 504 

DESULTORY— Aoiaory, hasty, dight, dseiiltoiy. 80 
TO DET ACH— lo separata, sever, disjoin, detach 481 
TO DETAIN-to hold, kcep^ detain, main 836 

TO DBTECT-Hoooftet, iilicl, JlwDifW 
TO DETER^Hodaler,diaoowais, 
TO DBTBRMIN£-to deeUa, 


TO DSTERBUNE-lo Ox, detsoBlM, settle, limit 

DETERMINED derided, dsisrml>sd, lesohNe. . 

TO DETEST— loakkor,delSBl, 

TO DETEST— lo hate, detest .. 




fkme, calumniate 

depreciate, degrade, decry 

DETRIMENT— disadvaMafs, lajnry, hwt, decil- 

ment, pr^lttdloe 


DEVASTATION-Hravage, dasolayon, devasta- 

TO DEVELOPS— to oalbM, unravel, dtvelope. . 
TO DEVIATE— iodeviate,wander,8werve,Biny 

TO DEVIATE— to digress, deviate 

DEVICE— device, oontrivaaea 

DEVIL- devil, demon..... 

TO DEVISE— to contrive, devise, invent 

TO DEVISE— to devise, bequeath 

DEVOID— empty, vacant, void, devoid 

TO DEVOTE-to addict, devote, apply 

TO DEVOT£-to dedicate, devote, nnneerine, 


DEVOUT— holy, pioua, devout, religious 

DEXTERITY— ahUity, dexterity, address 

DEXTEROUS-clever, skilful, expert, dextenma, 


DIALECT— langnage, tongue, speech, Idiom, dia- 


DIALOGUE— convenattoa, diatogue, conftreoee, 


TO DICTATE— to dictate, prescribe 

DICTATE— dictate, suggestioo 

DICTION— dictkw, style, phrase, p hras eology. .. 

DICTIONARY— dietlonary, encyctopsdla 

DICTIONARY— dictkmary, lexicon, vocabutary, 

gloesaiy, nomenclature 

TO DIE-todie, expire 

TO DIE— to perish, die, decay 

DIET— food, diet, regimen , 

DIET— amembly, company, meeting, e ongw g a- 

tioo, pariiament, diet, congress, conventloo, 

synod, convocation, cooucU 

TO DIFFER— to diflb*, vary, disagree, disssau .. 
DIFFERENCE— ^lUbrenceb variety, divenlty, 


DIFFERENCIB-iliflbiMiee, distinction 

DIFFERENCE— diflfersoce, dispute, altercalkm, 

quarrel ....• 

DIFFERENT— dilforent, distinct, aeparato 

DIFFERENT— dilfeteat, aeveraJ, dlven, sundry, 

various «.. 

DIFFERENT— diflbrent, unlike 

DIFFICULT-hard, dilBcuU, 
Dil^-flCULTIES— ^ifflcnUies, 

il^nhlet. ••■•••••*•••..*... 

















DirncrnLTr-dlAeiiltf^olMUele, impediment. S30 
DIFPICULTT— objaetlon, difficulty, exoepUon . . IIS 
DIFFIDENT— distnutlViI, Mitpicloas, diffident. . . 4J0 

DIFFIDBNT--modest, basfafttl, diffident 148 

DIFFUSE— dlflrttw, praliz 4«4 

TO DIFFUSE— to •pread, expand, diffiue 345 

TO DIGEST— to dispoM, arrange, digest S77 

DIGNIFIED — mogifterfal, majeatlck, autelj, 

pompons, augtnt, dignlfled 454 

DIGNITY— honour, dignity 4» 

DI6NITT— pride, haughtlneaa, loAiness, dignity. 100 

TO DI6RES&-40 dlgren, deviate 196 

TO DILATE— to dilate, expand 345 

DILATORY— slow, dilatory, tardy, tedious 360 

DILIGENT— active, diligent, Industrious, assidu- 
ous, laborious 896 

DILIGENT— diligent, expeditious, prompt 962 

DILIGENT— sedulous, diligent, assiduous 297 

DIM— dark, obscure, dim, mysterious 480 

TO DIMINISM-^to abate, lessen, diminish, de- 
crease 351 

DIMINUTIVE— little, small, diminutive 350 

DIOCE8S— bisboprick,dlocess 86 

TO DIRECT— to direct, dispose, regulate 191 

TO DIRECT— to conduct, manage, direct 191 

DIRECT— straight, right, direct 430 

DIRECTION— direction, address, superscription. 813 

DIRECnON— direction, Oder 313 

DIRECTLY— directly. Immediately, Instantly, In- 
stantaneously 883 

DISABILITY— Inability, dbabUity 00 

DISADVANTAGE— disadvantage, injury, hurt, 

detriment, prejudice 

DlSAPFECTION-disaffiscUon, disloyally 210 

TO DISAGREE— to diffirr, vary, disagree, dissent 138 

TO DISAPPEAR— to disappear, vanish 

TO DISAPPOINT— to defeat, foil, disappoint, 

fruArate 143 

DISAPPROBATION— displeasure, anger, disap- 

pvobalinn 118 

TO DISAPPROVE— to disapprove, dislike 120 

DISASTER— calamity, disaster, misfortune, mis- 
chance, mishap 406 

TO DISAVOW— to deny, disown, disclaim, dis- 
avow 113 

DISBELIEF— disbelief, unbelief. 79 

Tp DISCARD— to dismiss, discharge, dlacaid ... 254 
TO DISCERN— to perceive, discern, distinguish. 483 
DISCERNMENT— dificermnent, penetration, dis- 

ertmlrauion, Judgement 71 

TO DISCHARGE-to dismiss, diaebaige, discard 254 
DISCIPLINE— correction, discipline, punishment 904 

DISCIPLE-scholar, disciple, pupil 197 

TO DISCLAIM— deny, disown, disclaim, dis- 

»vow 113 

TO DISCLOSE— to publbh, promulgate, divulge, 

reveal, disclose 443 

TO DDCLOOE— to uncover, discover, disclose. . 444 
TO DISCOMPOSE— to disorder, derange, discon- 
cert, discompose S80 

TO DISOONCERT-to baffle, defeat, disconcert, 

confound 143 

TO DISCONCERT— to disorder, derange, diseon- 
CM,diRompoM 2m 

TO DISCONTlNUE-io eMM, totve vK, i 

tinue, desist 959 

DISCORD— dissension, contcntioa, discord, strllb U9 
TO DISCOVER- to convict, detect, discover... • 445 
TO DISCOVER— to diseover,manitet, declare.. 444 
TO DISCOVER— to find, find out, discover, espy, 

descry 445 

TO DlSCOVER^-lo find, find oat, discover, In- 
vent 440 

TO DISCOVER— to uncover, discover, dlackMe. . 444 
TO DlSCOURAOE-lo deter, discoarafe, dis- 
hearten S19 

TO DISCOURSE— 10 speak, talk, oonvene, dls- 

DISCREDTT— discredit, reproach, scandal, dis- 
grace 107 

DISCRETION— Judgement, discretion, prtulenee 40Q 
TO DISCRIMINATE— to distinguish, discrimi- 
nate 484 

DISCRIBflNATION— discernment, penetration, 

discrimination, Judgement 71 

TO DISCUSS— to discuss, examine '96 

DISDAIN— haughtineas, disdain, arrogance 101 

TO DISDAIN— to contemn, despise, scorn, disdain 101 
DISDAINFUL— contemptuous, scomAil, disdain- 

rVil 108 

DISEASE— disorder, disease, distemper, malady. 307 

DISEASED-skk, sickly, diseased, moriild 367 

TO DISENGAGE > to disei^age, disentangle, 

TO DISENTANGLE i extricate 918 

TO DISFIGURE-lo defece, dtoflgure, deform, . . 503 

DISGRACE— dishononr, dUgrace, shame 107 

DISGRACE — discredit, leproaeh, scandal, die- 
grace 107 

TO DISGRACE— to abase, humUe, degrade, die- 
grace, debase 106 

TO DISGUISE— to conceal, dissemble, disguise.. 910 

DISGUST— disgust, loathing, nausea ISO 

DISGUST — dislike, displeasure, dIssaUsfaction, 

distaste, disgust 117 

TO DISHEARTEN— to deter, discourage, dls- 

liearten 319 

DISHONEST-dlshonest, knavish 430 

DISHONOUR— dishonour, dUgrace, shame 107 

DISINCUNATION-dlsUke, dlslncHnation 118 

TO DISJOIN— to separate, sever, dl^oln, detach 491 

TO DISJOINT— fo disjoint, dismember 491 

DISLIKE— aversion, antipathy, dlsUke, hatred, 

repugnance 138 

TO DISLIKE-to disapprove, dislike 120 

DISLIKE — dislike, displeasure, dissatisfhction, 

distnste, disgust 117 

DISLIKE— dislike, disinclination 118 

DISLOYALTY— disaflfecrton, disloyalty 910 

DISMAL— dull, gloomy, sad, dismal 410 

TO DISMANTLE— to demolish, raxe, dismantle, 

destroy 505 

TO DISMAY— to dismay, daunt, appal 308 

TO DISMEMBER— to dtarjolnt, dismember 491 

TO DISMISS— 10 dismlii, discharge, discard... . 954 

DISORDER— confusion, disorder 989 

TO DISORI^R— to disorder, derange, disconcert, 

discompose 9BQ 

DiaORDERr^leocdcr, disease, dintmptr, malady 367 



Iniflnperalt.. .»«..».•...« 

TO DIBOWN-lo 4mf, dtoowa, dixWm, dl»- 

TO MaPARAqE—io dhpirm, ietraet, fwiiWi 
dtpraciatti di|nd«, dtery • 

TO DISPARAOfr-io diiptnce, 4erQftt«, 4«> 

MBPAEITT— diiptritj, laeqoalliy 

PMPAflBIONATE-miiM^oiiH, cool 

TO DIBPSD-lodli|nl,4li|Wii,iiii^M«,.. 

TO DI8PEN8£-loiltopeMe,dlttribQte 

TO DlgPEBSB-to d^tei, dinnwe, iti^pHi. 
TO DISPEKSS— to ipraad, Maaer, dlfprnt.. 

TO DI0PLAT-4O abow, tsbiUl, d^flmf 

TO DISPLBA8B-lodifpleMe,oAod,Tez... 
DIBPLKAWJItB-HlMllw, <iiplMww,( 


SfiPLEASUBE— displeMiire, aogcr, dtepprobft- 



TO DISPOBK-lo plaee, dt^MM, otter 


PlflPOSrriON-^ltaporiiioa, toapw 

DISPOSmON-HllqMvltkN), incUnatkm 


TO DISPROVE — lo coaAito, raAue, dlqvofei 

TO DISPUTE— 10 aifoe, dlipolt, dabato 

TO DISPUTE— 10 eoocoul, coot 

TO DISPUTE— to eontroTort, diapal«< 

TO DISPUTE— Co doubt, qoflKk 

TO DISPUTE— diAraoee, dlapote, •hamuioo, 


TO DISREGARD— to diarogard, "-cglect, allcht. . 
DISS ATI8FAGTI0N— dIaUko, dlaplaaawa, dtaa*. 

tiafbcUon, dlataate, diaguat 

TO DI88EBtBLE-to coocaaJ, diaaewble, di^pilaa 

DISSEMBLER— hypocrite, diaaembler 

DISSEMINATE— to apnad, drculato, piopagata^ 

DISSENSION— diaaeaaioiH oootanUoo, diaeoid . . 
TO DI8SENT-todiJfcr,aianr, diaacraa, dlaaant. 
DISSENTER— beretiek, ac.hi«naHcJr, aactariAo, 


', traatiaa, tract, 

DISSIMULATION— ataralatlon, 

TO DISSIPATE— to dia|ial,dla|iana,dlaaipMa.. Itf 

TO DIS3IP ATE-to apwd or afpand, waate, dia* 

alpate, aquander S44 

DIS80LUTS— looaa, vafiM, Mi, dJaanlnta, Ucaa- 

tiooa • S98 

DI8TANT-4bMQt, ibr, r«HMtt W» 

DISTASTE^lallka, dlaplaaaara, dlaaartaftfllton, 

dlalaite,diariat 117 

DtSTEMPER-dtetfdar, 4iaaM|, Mta4fi dlMMi- 

• far St7 

DI8TINGT-dUlbrent,dlatiiiet,aa|iarett. aft 

DISTINCnON-d U lbraac a , diattoctfcwi 9Bt 

DIBTINCTXON-or fbaUob, oTgoallqr. oT dla- 

tincikMi •.... 474 

DISTINCTLT-cleuty,dtaltMtif ^ 477 

TO ^'"^""'-"^ 1 iinhnilib. dbaita 
TO PUTlNOUiaH-io panaift,dlaom,d 

TO DISTINOVIBH-«aigMltaa,dlalli«idBli 








TO DISTORT— to twra, baad, i irK, wrii^ wwat, 

DDWRACTBD abaant, abatncted, dlvertad, db- 

DISTRESS— •dvanHir, dlatpaaa 

DDTRESS— diatnaa, aaxkty, Mcuiab, i«BK]r . . . 

TO DISTRESS-lo afflict, diitraaa,lroabla 

TO DISTRESS-to diatffcaa, banaa, parplex. ... 

TO DISTRIBUTE— to allot, aaaign, apportkn, 

TO DISTRIBUTE— to dlapanaa,dlatribata 

TO DISTRIBUTE-to divide, dlMribiita, alMra. . 

DISTRICT— diatrict, icfloo, inet,qaarter 

DISTRUSTFUL— diatniatftil,aiMplcloua, dittdaia 

TO DISTURB— to dlatnrb, iBtami|it 

TO DISTURB— to trouble, dlaturb, niolaal 

DISTURBANCE-comiBotton, dktarbaiiea 

TO DIVS-to plnufe, diTe 

TO DIVE INTO-Ho pry, aenitlitlae,dlTe Into .. 

DIYERS-dUbreitt, aevaral, dima, auDdfy, vari- 

DIVERSION— ttBoaaaant, antertatonaDt, divar- 

aloB, epovt, raereatioo, paatloM JM 

DIVERSTTT-dUlbraKe, Tariatj, madlaTt dlm- 

■«V Mi 

TO DIVERT-toaoiaaa,diveit,aotaitalB 3M 

DIVERTED-abaaB^ abatractod, divaitcd, db- 

tt«eted 484 

TO DIVID E— 10 dlvMe, aeparate, part 4B4 

TO DIVIDE-to divide, dl8Ulbate,aban 48S 

DIVINR-fodllke, divine, heavenly 00 

DIVINE— holy, aacred, divine 60 

DIVtNR ficclealaatick, divioe, thaokgiaa 00 

TO DrvmE-to goeH, co^Jactom, divbM OS 

DIVINmr— deity, divinity 81 

DIVI8ION-part,portioo,diviaioo,ahaia 48i 

DIURNAL-daUy,dianial SIB 

TO DIVULGE-to pnbliab, r-*">"^*^ divnlfa, 

TO DO— tonMke,do,act 904 

DOCILE— docile, tractable, ductile saO 

DOCTRINE— doctrine, pteeept, principle 80 

DOCTRINE > .- ,. . ,._ 

DOGMA J ••«•••» *i»«i Moat 00 

DOGMATlCAL-conildent, dogwatical, poaltiv*. 4U 

DOL EyUL — pitaooa, doleflU, woftil, niaftri 4I1 

DOMESTf CK-aenaot, d n oiaB H c k , dradoe, at- 

nlal IB 

DOMINEERING— lapHloai^ loidl|y, dnmin— ^ 

in(, ovailwarinf. .......••..••.• •.•••••...•. 100 

DOMtNlON-«aipira,i«lin,doaiiBl« m 

DOMINION-po««r, atnogth, lbna» Mthoriiy, 

DOMDnONB-^teffritoiy, ^ 

DONATION-tUt, pwaant, donatloa, banarbcUou 104 

DOOM-deaitey«lhte,lol,doQn MO 


TO DOOIi--<o ■■■HBCt, doaa, w iw n< . 
DOUBLE-DSALINO--4Meil, AipUdty, 


DOUBT iw>nr,<ooK>tril>tto»,ol(>ecitai 
TO DOUBT— tedMKVMrtioOidlqwli.... 


DOUBTFUL-^dmibCfU, doUoM, 


TO DOZE— lOfl66miiiimber,4oi 

TO DRAG— lo drmw, draft l>snl or bate, paU,tag^ 


TO DRAIN— 10 ipead, txteiMt, drain 

TO DRAW-todraw, drag, luwl or tele, piuek, 


TO DREAD— lo appralMad, Aar, diMd 

DREAD— «w«, revomct, drtad 

DRBADFUL-lterftU, dreadftU, fHi|litr«l, traaw- 




MtEA M d rei i, terorto. 


TO DRENCH— to kmK, 

DRIFT— laodeocjr, drift, Mopib ate 

DROLI/-laiifliabK ladkioiM, ridlealow, ami- 

cal or comkk, droO 

TO DROOP— to flag, droop, teagoWi, piM 

J^ pI^*^ J to IWI, drop, droop, ttok, wmMa. 

DROSS— drcfi, MdfaDant, droM, aeoB, iiAm ... . 
TO DROWSE-to rieepk 


jBARLT— 0D0R,eailj,k«CliMa. 

S TO EARN— to MqHn, okcata, gala, wia, oan. 
BASE— aaae, voki, ml, rapoM 

EAS Y taiy, ready 

EBUmnOW ■fcaMilioa, iifcifinBti, Dw- 




ECCENTRICK— ffartkalar, 


BOCLBBIASTICK wwlHliitlek, dhrl>^ 







BCSTAS Y e crta a y , raptora, muMpoit . 

EDOE-boider, adr, rka or Ma, hfiok, BaifK 

EDICT— dacraa, adiel, 

EDIFICJ ■dilao, 

EDUCATION— adacadoa, inotmeiloa, toaediag. 

TO EFFACE— to Molo«i,aiyaati^raM or araao. 



EFFECT— eObct, 

TO lurr jsCT— to araaaipliih, lawma, achto t a,ag' 

mtOWST— heavy, dnU, drowqr 300 

DROWS Y ■le t py,drowy, mh a n l flk 300 

DRUDG E m t a ot, doaMMlck, nuaial, diMft ^. 388 
DRUDGERY— work, labaw, toH, 
DRUNKENNESS jnlaitcaltai,. 

AtaatkNi .•••..•. 310 

DUBIOUS-doobcfU, duMoai^ aaaartaiB^ praea- 

itoilf 86 

HUCTILB doclla,lractabla,dactUa 360 

HU E deKdtta S17 

DULL haaty , daS, drowy 300 

DULL-iwipid, doll, flat S13 

OULL-doll,tfaaaiy,Md,dtatoal 410 

0ULL-«D|M,daB 401 

DUMB— iilaat, daa^K aMMa, 
DUPLICITY— daeeM, daplletty, 
DURABLE-^dnraMe, la«ii«, 
DURABLE— daraMa^ eoaaiant. 

DURATIO N da w U oa, Hbm 

DUTO TO^-dirtfal, okwtkmi, iMjinlW., 
DUTY— daiy,obligBtkMi 


EFFBCTIVE-aActlva, adkknt, cAetnal, a 
do aa ! 

EFFECA 1J | oodi,AmanirB^chaitali,tooi!aa> l a t , 
«dhMa..» { 

EFFECTUAL likUii^ adkknt, aAdoil, «•- 

EFFEMINATF fcaiato, fcahdaa, 


EFFI CACIOUS ) aflbdhpa, aAelaat, aflteaelaot, 

EFFORT— aodaarottr, eflbrt, aatrtloa. 
EFFORT— auaaipi, trial, aadaava 
EFFRONTERY— aodacUy, aAoatery, baidikaod 


EFFUSION— cOHtoo, ^alarton 



ElACUIiATlON ifflMlMi, ^aaiilailaii 

ELDSIt— ataian, aidK, aldar •... •••••• 

ELDERLY ihhr»y,and,ald 

ELECT— to ateoM^ilaet 

gf.iy^ ft fTT tiataftU,aato^,oi^ai 

TO BLEVATE-tolA,ratea,tfaal,alcvai%a 





TO EMAWATE-lo Hin, preeMi, IMM, ■print, 

TO BMBARRABS—lo enbarrMi, entanfle, per- 
plex 412 

EMBA&RAaSMENTS — dWBfUlei, embairui- 

menli, troublet 413 

TO £MBELLISH— to adorn, deoormte, embeltMi 500 
EMBLEM— figure, meuphor, nllegory, enMem, 

■jrmbol, type 531 

TO EMBOLDBN— to eMoorifle, embolden 319 

TO EMBRACE— to daap, bug, embrace 377 

TO EMBRACE— to comprleo, comprehend, em- 
brace, contain, Include 174 

EMBRYO— embryo, totue 510 

TO EMEND— to amend, correct, reftvm, rectify, 

e men d, improve, mend, better 901 

TO EMERGE— to rise, Imue, cmerff 80t 

EMERGENCY— exigency, emenency 173 

EMINENT— disUngiiialied, conapicoooa, noted, 

eminent, iliiMtrkNn 473 

EMISSARY— emimaiT, fpy 

TO EMIT— to emit, exhale, evaporate 501 

BMOLUMENT-gnIn, proa^ cmolumont, hicre.. 387 
EMOTION— agiution, emotion, tremoor, trcplda- 

tien 306 

EMPHASIS— etreee, Uraln, empharit, accent 991 

BMPIRE-mnpire, kingdom 180 

BMPIRB-emplre, reign, dominion 187 

TO EMPLOY— to employ, nee 306 

EMPLOYMENT— bnalneai, occupation, employ- 
mem, engagement, avocation 331 

TO EMPOWER— to commimion, aatborlie, em- 
power 180 

EMPTY— empty, vacant, void, devoid 343 

EMPTY— hollow, empty 344 

EMULATION— compeUtlon, emnlation, rivalry. 131 
TO BNCBANT— to charm, enchant, fbadnaie, 

enrapture, «apilvate 317 

TO ENCIRCLE— to surround, encompaas, eavi- 

ion, encircle 173 

TO ENCLaSB— loclrcamscribcencloae 175 

TO ENCLOSE-io enclose, include 174 

ENCOMIUM— enoiimium, eulogy, panegyrlck.... 130 
TO ENCOMPASS— to suriound, encompass, en- 
viron, encircle 175 

ENCOUNTER— attaclK, assault, encounter, onset, 

ehaige 110 

TO ENCOUNTER— to attack, aasail, assault, en- 
counter 116 

TO ENCOURAGE— to cheer, encounge, comfort 350 
TO ENCOURAGE— to encourage, animate. In- 

cite, impel, urge, stimulate. Instigate 311 

TO ENCOURAGE— to enoonrage, advance, pro- 
mote, prefbr, Ibrward 319 

TO ENCOURAGE-to encourage, embolden. ... 319 
TO ENCOURAGB-fo encourage, eoontenanee, 

eanction, support 310 

TO ENCROACH— to encroach. Intrench, lnvad^ 

Intrude, Infringe • 507 

TO ENCUMBER— to clog, lood, encumber 370 

BNCYOLOP^IH A— dictionary, eaeyolopMlU.. 463 

END— ahn, obiiect, end 394 

TO END— loend,claoe,terBfaMie 965 

EW D id,«tttmUy 965 

END~*4akn, aceonnt, rsMon, purpoM, end. ...... 

TO ENDEAVOUR— to attempt, trial, endeavour, 

TO ENDEAVOUR— to endeavour, aim, strive, 


ENDEAVOUR— endeavour, eflbrt, exertion 

ENDLESS— itemal, endless, everlasting 

TO ENDOW— invest, endow or endue 

ENDOWMENT— gift, endowment, ulent 

ENDURANCE— patience, endurance, resignation 
TO ENDURB^-to suilbr, bear, endure, support . . 
ENEMY— enemy, foe, adversary, opponent, auu- 

ENEROY— energy, force, vigour. 

TO ENERVATE* to weake . 

TO ENFEEBLE > tate, encnraie, hivalidale . . 

TO ENGAGE— 10 attract, allure. Invite, engage. . 

TO ENGAGE— to bind, engage, oMIge 

F«NOAOEMENT— battle, combat, engagement . . 
ENGAGEMENT ■ bus inc m , occupation, employ- 








ENJOYMENT-eiUoyment, (hiition, graUflcation 386 
ro ENLARGE— to enlarge, increase, extend.... 346 
TO ENUGHTBN— to Ulumlnate, lUumine, en- 
lighten 167 

TO ENLIST— to enrol, enlist or list, rogisler, re- 
cord .••.■....•.■••........•.•.■............ 606 

TO ENLIVEN— to anhnate, inspire, cheer, eii- 

Hven,exhllaratt 388 

ENMITY— enmity, nrtmoslty, bostilliy 138 

ENMITY— hatred, enmity, Ul-wlll, repugnance. . 137 
ENOftMOUS— enormous, huge, immense, vast . . 340 
ENORMOUS e n ormous, prodlgions, monstrous. 856 

ENOUGH— enough, suOelent 343 

ENRAPTURE— to charm, enchant, fhadnate, en- 
rapture, ceptivate 317 

TO ENR(Hj-4o enrol, enlist or list, reglsier, le- 
cord. .••.•••...•...•......••..•.•••••••«••• 606 

ENSAMPIfi-example, pattern, ensample 831 

TO ENSLAVE— to enslave, captlvaie 318 

TO BNBUE-to IbHow, saceeed, ewne 971 

TO BNTANOLB-io embarrass, entangle, per- 
plex 419 


ENGAGEMENT— promise, 

TO ENGENDER— to breed, engender 

TO ENGRAVE— to Imprint, impress, engrave. . . 

ENGRAVING— picture, print, engravlag 

TO ENGROSS— to abaorb, swallow up, Ingulf, 

ENTERPRlSE-ettempt, ttndertakir«, enterprise 380 
ENTERPRISING-enterprlsIng, adventurous ... 173 
TO ENTER UPON-to begin, < 


It, divert. 

ENTERTAINMEN T amn s tm e n t, diversion, en- 
tertainment, sport, rscfeaHon, pastime 301 

ENTBRTAPTMEN T fe ast, banqnst, cnraoaai, 
enlerulnment, trsat 513 

ENTHUSIAST snthusiast.ltoatklc, visionary.. 01 

TO ENTICE— to aflure, lempt, ssduee, entlee, 
decoy 316 

TO ENTICE^-to yiiiadw, ertlci^ prmii wpoa; Sl» 



ENTDtR-wbote, mukt, eoiMtte, 

TO ENTTTLE-lo nune, ilenoaUoate, «yte» «»• 

title, desi(nftt0, clMr«et«riBe 471 

TO SNTRAP— 10 toMtre, entrtp, entuif le, lo- 

TO ENTRBAT— <o teg, h t mwb , Mttdt, tatraat, 
■uppUMM, Implon ISB 

BNTRJBATT—prajrer, pediioB, nqorM, entraaty, 
Mlt,eraT« W 

ENTIOU8-iovldlO(M,eBTfcMM 900 

TO ENVIKON— CoiamMiiid,«neoiD|WM|eiivlroo, 


dtpnty 814 

ENVYH««l(MMj,eBTyi«Mvilcioa 3M 

EPHKMKBIl wkndT, alaiaiMefc, ephMoerii .. 434 

BPICUBE i m iaaliit, volMptuiy, i^cure 875 

SPIDEMICAI.-eMitacloai, epidcnieal, pemilm- 

timl 1« 

BPnrrLB-4eCMr, •pMIe 196 

BnTHET— •pillMl,«4)«etUre 4S0 

EPOOHA— time, p»io^ afe, data, era, epoete .. 907 
BdUABLE ) eqaai, tm, eqaaMe, lilM or oHke, 

EaUAL ( uolforai 435 

TO EUUIP— to fit, equip, prepare, quality 154 

SaUITABLE— (Ur, boaeM, equitable, reamiable 4m 

SaurrYHMtlea, equity S18 

EQUIVOCAL— ambifuoai, equivocal 987 

TO EOUIYOCATE— to evade, eqolvoeata, pro- 

ERA— line, period, afo, dale, era, epoeha 

TO ERADlCATE-to eradicate, eztirpata, estor- 

TO SRA8B— to kloc out, ezpuufe, race or eraee, 

oAce, cancel, obUteralo 

TO ERECT— to telld, erect, c ooe tr uct 

TO ERECT— 10 laelltole, e«aMieli, fiMod, erect. 
TO ERECT— to lift,raiee, erect, elevate, enlt... 

ERRAND— nieikNi, UMmfe, erraod 

ERROUR— erroor, HklMake, Uonder 

ERROI7R— erroor, (iittlt 

ERUDITION— knowledffek eoteuce, 

ERUPTIO N e r up tto o, ezplocioa 

TO B8CAPE-4oeBeape,elude, evade 

TO ESCHEW— Co avoid, eediew, elran, elude. .. 

TO ESCORT— to aceonpany, eeeort, wait on, al- 

ESPECIALLY wpeciaJly, partlcniaijy, princi- 
pally. cbMy 

TO ESPT— to Had, flod oat,diieover,eipy,deeevy 

ESSAY— attempt, trial, endeavour, maayt cdbrt. . 

ESS A Y— eeray, treatke, tract, d i rae r te t ioo 

ESSENTIAL — aeccMury, eipedieat, lentlal, 


TO E8TABLISH-lollz,eMtle,e«ablWi 

TO ESTABLI8H-40 laeHtuta, estaMW^ foUMi, 









ETERNAL tiernil, ladli, tvarlanfaif 

EUCHARIST— Lord*! topper, endiarlii, coaunu- 

EULOGY— encomhMD, eulogy, panegyrick 

TO EVADE— to evade, equivocate, p rav aifca ta. 

TO EVADE— 10 eicape, elude, evade 

TO EVAPORATE— 10 enit, exhale, evaporate. . 

EVASIO N efail o ii , ilim,e u >t a rftig e 

EVE N e q u al , even, equable, untftmn, Uke or 


EVEN— even, anooth, level, plain 

EVENT— event, inddeat, lecident, adventure, oe- 

currenee ••••.•....•••••■.•••••••••••.••••« • 

EVEN T e ve nt , inue, coneeqnenca 

EVER— alwaya, at aB timee, ever 

EVERLASTDfO— eternal, cnilew, everlaetlnf .. 

EVERY— an, eveiy, each 

EVIDENCE— deponeat, evidence, wbnew 

EVIDENCE— proof, teetimooy, evidence 

EVIDENT-'-apparent, vWhIe, clear, plain, obvl* 






EVIL— evil or m, nMbrtune, bam, mlRbler. .. . 


TO EVINCE— to argue, evinee, prove ^ 

TO EV lNCE— to prove, demonetrale, evfaice, ma- 




. 197 

ESTEEM— eeteen, leepect, regard 

TO ESTEEM— to value, prfaw, ert e em . 



TO ESTIMATE— 10 MlBiaia, eoBpaie,iiit • 


. 913 

. 497 

EXACT acc urat e, eiact, predee 

EXACT-exact, Bice, particular, punctual 

TO EXACT— to enet, eMort 

TO EXALT— to lift, praln, erect, elevata, exaH. 

EXAMINATION— examination, eearcb. Inquiry, 
reeeareh, tnveMigatkm, ecrutiny 

TO EXAMINE— to diecoM, examine 

TO EXAMINE— to examine, eeareb, explore.... 

EXAMPLE— axample, pattern, eaeample. 

EXAMPLE— example, precedent 

EXAMPLE— example, Inmance 

TO EXASPERATE— to aggravate, irritate, pro- 
voke, exaeperate, tantalise 

TO EXCEED ) to exceed, iurpem, tranecend, ex- 

TO EXCEL { eel, outdo 

gAUCLtLENOE— e xc e ll en c e, enperlorlty 

EXCEPT— heiddee, except 

EXCEPT— unlem, exaept 

EXCEPTION— ol^ection, dUBcoliy, exception . . . 

itXCI teri e x cem, euperiulty, redundancy 

EXCESSIVE— exceeeive, immoderate, intempe- 

TO EXCHANGE— to change, exchange, barter, 


conunute ..•...•*.•*...••.•...•••.•...■•*•• 
EXuHANOE Interchenge, exchange, l e clpi o cHy 
TO EXCITE— to awaken, axelta, provoke, rooee, 

itlr up *. 

TO EXCITE— to excite. Incite, provoke 

TO EXCLAIM— to e^r. exclahn, call 

TO EXCULPATE-40 apotaglae, deftnd.juetify, 

TO EXCULPATE— 4o exonerate, exculpate .... 
EXCURSION— excunion, ramble, lour. Jaunt, 

trip .% 

TO EZCUn-lo apotoflae, delbad, juMHy, mt- 














TO EXCUBK— 10 taeoM, 

SXCU8E— prauiiot, praoiukMi, praiezt, qcim* . CM 

BX£CRABLE-idMMnliiAble,deiMt«bto«tncfaMt 138 



«chi«Te MB 

TO EXECUTK-to •wcnie, Aim, ptrfonn 9W 

EXEMPT— fcMiOanpt MS 

SX£BIPnON-iwlTUflt«, prcrogitivt, tfinprtMi, 

taiiaunUj SBB 

TO EXERClSE-totXMdMipraBttet an 

TO EXERCISE i^^^^^^ ^ 

TO EXERT I '*"'* w»~v— »» 

EXERTION— «nd6«T0iir, fldbrt, MwrtkNi 381 

TO EXHALE— 10 «Dtt,ezlul«,tTaponu« SOI 

TO EXHAUST— to tpeod, ezlMiat, drain 944 

TO EXHIBIT— to five, preMOt, olfcr, exklbit ... 163 

TO EXHIBIT— to show, exhibit, dkipUijr 4» 

EXHIBITION— ebow, eshibitioo, wgireiMitittoa, 

•ifht, fpectacle.... 43B 

TO EXHILARATE-to anlflMte, iMpIra, cheer, 

enliven, ezhilmrete 3SS 

TO EXHORT— to exhort, perauade 318 

EXIGENCY— exlgepcy, emergency • Vn 

TO EXILE-tobuiiah,exUe, expel 905 

TO EXIST— tobe,exlit,iobtlat... 

TO EXIST— to exiit, Uve 

EXIT— exit, departure 379 

TO EXONERATE-Ho exonerate, aseo^pato 

TO EXPANI>-to dilate, expand 345 

TO EXPAND-to spread, expand, diAMe 345 

TO EXPECT— to await, wait for, look for, expect 411 
BXPECTATION— hope, expectation, 


EXPEDIENT— expedient, resooiee ... 

EXPEDIENT— expedient^ fit 418 

EXPEDIENT — neccwiiy, < 

requisite 417 

TO EXPEDITE— to hasten, acceleraie, speed, ex- 
pedite, despatch 981 

EXPEDrnOUS-dUifent, expeditiooe, prompt . . 988 

TO EXPEL— to IwniBh, exile, expel 905 

TO EXPEND— to spend or exprad, waste, dlMi- 

pate, eqoaader 344 

EXPENSE— cost, expense, price, chaife 438 

EXPERIENCE / experience, experiment, trial, 

EXPERIMENT ( proor,teit 319 

EXPERT— clOTer, sitilful, expert, dexterous, adrak 88 

TO EXPIATE— to atone for, expiato 87 

TO EXPI&E-to die, expire 371 

TO EXPLAIN— to explain, expound, interpret . . 437 
TO EXPLAIN— to explaio, Illustrate, ehiddaie*. 4SB 

BXPLANATION-deflnition, explanation 498 

EXPLANATORY i ^._.,.._ ^ , ,^ 

BXPUCIT I explBiatory,exi8lelt, exprem 490 

EXPLOIT— deed, exploit, achievement, foal. ... . 985 
TO EXPLORBf-^o e xsmine , ssa rch , explow . .. . 98 

EXPLOSION— eruption, exploaloB 501 

»XPOSEI>-mi^BCt,liatli^expoasd, ehmnleue . 148 
TO EXPOSTULATE— to OTpnstulato, mm^ 

strato 490 

TO EXPOUND-toaxplai^cxpemid, iMqpifU 4m 
^fgpg|gffl j 1 1 iyimv?*yL iffrittitt tiifMi r 1 1 1 1 1 1 490 



BXPRKBillVf rffiiflri 
TO EXPUNOK-to Mot oa^ 

•ran, eihee^ cai 
TO EXTEND— to reach, siMldi, attend ........ 80 

EXTENSIVg finmprtilMinilra, silanslii TJA 

EXTENT-Hmit, extant 117 

TO EXTENUATE— to aitemmSfpaMMa MB 

BXTERIOUm— outwaid, extomai, msriem 381 


ext erminato.... «»..«» 

EXT ERNA I^^mwaid, artsraal, extmlanr 381 

TO EXTIEPATE-Ho srailsalit < 

minato 888 

TO EXTOL-to praise, r n iiw iii i, ippimd, aitol 138 

TO EXTORT-to exact, extort 317 

EXTRANEOUS-extraneoni^ tirrinrfit. foralin 4m 
EXTRAORDINARY— axtmordinaty, rimeriislii 481 
BXTRAVAOANT-axtmnyat, predi|al, lavisi^ 

PN^o^ Mi 

EXTREMITY— end, extnmiQr • 

tricate •••.••••.••.•••••••.••••.•, us 

EXTRINSICK- e i tra neons, axirlasick, fonl^. . 437 

EXUBERANT— exaheraat,hixailanl..*. • 30 

TO EYE-tokMlK, tea, behold, view, eyn 488 

FABLE-foUe, tale, novel, rananca....^ 481 

FABRlCK-ediAee,slraetni%fobrick... 488 

TO FABRIOATE-to iBVM^Mp^ftnM,fobfl- 
cate,fo^ie 8Q8 

FABRICAT10N-5etion,fohiiealioB,fotashood.. 888 

TO FACS-to consent, tea .». MB 

FACE— foce, front.... 4M 

FACE— foce, connlmmnee, viNp • 4M 

FACETIOUS — foootioQS, f isislbls^ plMnM, 

Jocular, Jocose 881 

FACILIT Y e asa ,o asin ssBb llthtn sM,ihcility.... 383 

FACT— ciroimstanoa, incident, foeu...... nt 

FACTION— Ibction, party 908 

FACTIOUS foct io M ,soditioM 908 

FACTOR-foetor, aint. 8Q8 

FACULTY-«bi!it]r,focnlt3r, talent 88 

TO FAIL-to foil, foa sho^^be ieisisnt W 

FAILING-imperfoetloa, wwalrnsm, ftailtf , AB- 
ing» foible. •.••••• • 194 

^S^}*^-^*"^ « 

FAILURE— foiloin,miscarrlats,abe«tioQ. W 

FAILURE-laaotvenc7, Aihin, binbtipny 198 

FAINT-foint,lMtaid 308 

FAIR— fair, clanra********. •..•••••••«.••*••••• 4W 

FAIR-4yr,lmMit,e«aitable^raaB0HMi....... 499 

FAIT H b s Uef ,tnMt,aMdit,fohli..>. — n 

FAixlt ifahb, deed •••••«« ••••*.••»••« ••«••••• 9B 

FAITH— foith,idriltr ••«••.*«•—•«« 818 

FAlTMFUl foUbfaUtwsly. 819 

FAmnimfl foiihism, ■■fotthfai at 

FArrmiis fonbiiw,! 



TO FALL-to flOl, drop, droop, idtik, laMMe. .. . 
TO FALL 8HOKT-«DMi,IUlaiKMt,bcdefleleM IflS 
FALLACIOUS-IUtaeloai, deedtflil, ftMdoleot 593 

F ALLAOT— aateey, dahiiloa, niiMkNi I 

FAL8EHOOI>--aetkm,flairicttfoo,fUnliood.... I 

5^J;^^'^}^intratl^ftdMllood.fkhh^Il6... 588 

TOFALTn telwilim,ftHir,glMMBtr,mimr 97 

FAMB-HhoM, Mptfatioa, roMwa 471 

FAM B i W DO, ffeport, nnaowf , IwMMy 47S 

FAMIUAB-ftM, ftmilter Ml 

FAMmAEITT icqMliUMiBO, ftalttwlty, tntt- 

maqr 195 

FAMILT-*ftiiUl7,lHMiai,llBM80,raoo.. 495 

FAMOUl fkmomt ctlobriHd, ranowud, fflw- 

IriMM. 473 

FANATICK—cmhwilMt, ttotkk, Tiriontry. .. . 91 
FAlfOIFITL-fiMelAil, fkataotteal, wUniieal, ok 

FANCT-*<eoQMtt, AuKj 99 

FAHCY fcacy, inwigtinrtoa 73 

FANTASTICAL-AMWIfiil, AummUmI, whliMi- 

al,etpfkloai - ^^ 

FAft-diil«M,ikr,i«aiole S88 

FAEB-An^provMon 513 


«arapc«r»,e«pclvat0..... 317 

FA81flON-'««lonl, fiuhioo, ■muunt, piMltoo . . 399 
OF FAgHtON-cr AiUoo, ofqMliqr, ofdtaltno' 

tiMi 474 

TO FABHI(»f— CO Ibim, teUon, Hoold, riApe 993 

FAaT-«hMliMiMO«teC 87 

TO F AflTBN— to fii, ftalM, otlck 
FAtTlDIOUS-telldtow, MiiMim 

FATAL d ood ly ,»Oftrt,fctal Sn 

FATE— dHMM, IbmiM, AM 170 

FATB d w day, ftle, tot, doon 
FAT1CH7B— Atlfoo, wMriaMi, 
FAVOP B > a n flt,ftrroBr,kia<to<M,dviiliy.... 196 

FATOURp-<radit,lhTMr,liifliiiB00 190 

FATOUB^-fTWO, tkvov ttO 

FAVOITBABLB-anwBaUi, pR»pMoai, iMpi- 

elOM 190 

FAULT >lMnMi,dofeet,fc>te 197 

^AULT-<ato«r,iMrti m 

FA0LT— iBperlMoii, doAet, ftelt, ^ce 194 

TAVLTY'-eiapM^, tMtf .«... 193 

TO FAWN— to«MX, wbeedte, otfoli, ftiini.... 915 

TO FBABp-40 tppriiMd, ftf , dwd 997 

FBABFUL-alMd, taffW, tlaoimii, iMd 307 

FBABFITL-teriU, dreMUW, MglNAil, tramm- 

doM»terrlMe,MrrlAek,liorriMe,lMnM 306 

FBARLBaS-boM, f««len, liMrapid, uiMlwttod 996 

TO PEI6N-lofelcn*Pv«trad. 1 

TO FEIGN— to lBT«iit, felfD, fruBO, Ihbikato, 

TO FELICITATE— to fUkltoto, c 
FEUCnT—lMppiiMOT, felkity, b 

beatitudo.; 394 

FELLOWSHIP— ftUowsMp, society 489 

FBLON— criaiiiial, oilprit, nalotector, Moo, eoo- 

Tict 199 


P2^Qj^j^2 5 ^^'"'"^ ^^■'*^*^ ^^''^"**>>**0 ^^^ 

FENCE— ftnoo, guard, nearly.. 181 


FBROdOUB— ftvodooo, fltrce, ttrago 374 

FERRYMAN-^watonnon, boatman, fenymam. . . 937 

FERTILE— Tenile, frttltAil, pralUkk 341 

FERVOUB— fervour, ardoor..'. 479 

FESnVAL-lbam teUval, bolyday 95 

FESTIVITT-ISeatlylty.iDlrtli 399 

1^ FETCH— to brtaf, llMcb, carry 339 

FETTER— cbaiB, fetter, band, aliackle 917 

FEUD— qvarral, broil, feud, atOray or fVay.. 133 

FICTION— fietloo, (kbrteatlon, fiUeebood 598 

FlCnnOUS-artfiil, artttkial, Actidoae OU 

FIDELTTT— fUtli, fldelity 419 

FIERCE— feroekKM, fleroe, iavafa 374 

PIERT—boc, ilery, baralof, ardent 479 

FI6URB — flfora, toet^hor, alleryT* enMcai, 

iyaibol,type 581 

FIGURE— ibm, fifoxe, conformatkm 983 

FILTHY— naaly,flltby,fiMil.. 519 

FINAL-final, eooetadve 984 

FINAL— laet, lateit, final, nlUnato 970 

TO JSS OCT I •°"^'»'"**~~''»~» *• 
TO FIND % to find, find out, dlioow, eipy, 

TO FIND OUT) dOKry 4a 

TO FIND FAULT WITH-to find ftolt with, 

blaBe,olieetto IIB 

FINE— beautUbl, floe, baadeone, ptetty Sia 

FINE-fln«,del!cate,niee 314 

FINE— fine, aralct, penalty, fbrftitare 904 

F»E88£-«rtiflee,tricli,fineaw,atntaia 981 

FINICAL-fiakal,ipr«ee,ft>ppWi 389 

TO FINI8H— tocloee,finiili,eoadade ...* 989 

TOFINISH-toeonplece,flaleb,teiaBloato 987 

FINITE-Anite,llnilted 178 

FIRB-llif,lMM,wanMk,|lov. 40$ 

FIRlf-liard,fiini,aoild 373 

FIRBf-fina, fixed, 8olid,«aMe 998 

FIRlf— atrong, firn, roboat, itnrdy 971 

FIRMNBa a com ta My,atabmty,a 

FBA8T— ftaat, banquet, atroiiMi, entartafauaent, 

FEAST— «Ba«,ftMlnd,lMiyday 

FEAT — deed, exploit, aeUeveoMnt, Ibok . 


, 86 

fo FEBL-HoiMibeaeMlllt, 
FEEUN Q iU llHi 



FIT— At, apl, meet * 

FfT-expedlent, fit 

Frr-keeOBrinf, decent, aeendy, fit, euliablB . . 

TO FIT— to fit, eijulp, prepare, qualUy 

TO FTT-to fit, eatt, adapt, aeeomnodaie. 


FriTED co w pe to Bl , fitted, qualified. 

TO FIX-toflx,lheton,ailek 

TO FIX— toflx,eaiUe,c 



••• 3I9^T0 FIX— tofis, 



FIXED— Ann, find, nlldtilalit*.* • 

TO FLAG— fofltf, droop, tanfoMitplM 366 

PLAOmOUS 1 heinoM, llacraat,ilifltkraa,mlio- 



FLABE > flame, bteaCi flaib, flare, gtera •• 47e 

FliASH ) 

FLAT-flM^tevil 4SS 

FLAT--4iMlpM,tfoll,flM 513 

TO FLATTEE-co adatetc, flatter, eonpHoMM i 
FLATTERER— flaiterar,i]rcopliant,panMite.... i 

FL A v6UR--taMe, flavour, reUriHasToar 518 

FLAW— blemWi,«talii,apoC,apeek, flaw IS7 

FLEETING— IraMleBt, traailtoix, fleeting, tem- 
porary 3fl7 

FLEETNESfl— qalekMai,ewmBeBi, fl eet n em , ce- 
lerity, rapMt^,iveloeH]r 1 

FLEXIBLE— flexible, pHaMe, pNaat, aupple 380 

FUGEmNEflS-nghtaem, terltjr, fllglKliiem, to- 

latllity, gkldlnem 300 

FLIMS Y eu p ei fl e ial, ttiallew, fltoey 457 

TO FLOURISH— to flouriah,tkrlTe, praeper.... 305 
TO FLOW— to arlee, proceed, lame, eprliig, flow, 

emanate SOI 

TO FLOW— to flow, itieam, gmh 398 

TO FLUCTUATE-toeerople, >e BUate, flnctoate, 

waver 07 

FLUn>-fliild,Hqald.» 391 

TO FLUTTER— to palphato, flatter, pant, gaip 305 
FOE eaemy, Ibe, adveiaary, opponen t, antafo* 

nlit 134 

FtglTIB enibiyw, flatoe 510 

FOIBLB-impeiftctkm, weaknem, tk»SHj, (Ulinf, 

IbiMe m 

TO FOIL-to defeat, foil, diaappoint, fhiatrale .. 143 

FULKS-people,peraoiii,rolka 405 

TO FOLLOW— to follow, ■iiceeed,eoeiie 971 

TO FOLLOW— to follow, pnrane 971 

TO FOLLOW— to follow, Imflato 530 

FOLLOWER— follower, adbeient, partlan 410 

FOLLT— folly, foolery 400 

FON1>-«fltoionate, kind, fond 379 

FOND— amorona^ loving, fond 378 

FOND-ladnlgent, fond 3» 

TO FONDLE— to earem, fondle 377 

FOOD food, diet, rfghnea 514 

FOOL-4bol, kUot, bnflbon 400 

FOOLERY— folly, foolery 400 

FOOLHARDY— foollmrdy, a d ven t wou a, raA... . 311 
FOOLISH— Irrational, foolM^ abend, prepoaie- 

row 01 

FOOLI8H-eimple,iilly,foolWi 401 

FOOTBTEP-marfc, traea, veetlge, footaiep, track 448 

FOPPI8B-anlcal,ipmce, foppieh 366 

TO FORBBAR-toabrtala,foibear,re(Ma 944 

TO FORBID-to flirbld, prohibit. Interdict 9n 

FOBECA8TMbreriglit,foretboQglit, forecMt, pm- 

roedltallon 3Qt 

FORCE— energy, foree, vlfow 339 

FORCE— power, otiengtb, flNrca, aotborKy, domi- 
nion 1 

FORCE— foi«e, vkdenee 919 

FORCE— «traia, eprain, atiam, forea 991 

TO FORC£-to compel, fom, obflft, MOMttalt 919 

FORCIBLB— eognt, forclble,Mfnag..«#..^«.«.. 99 
TO FOREBODE— to angnr, ptemfe, ftitode, be- 
token, portrad *4. 04 

FORECAST— foreiigbt, foretbooghl, | 

FOREFATHERS— forefalhert, progenttoia, aa- 

F0RE6O— toglve ap, abandon, rerign,foieio... 9IS 
FOREGOING— antecedent, preceding, fortgolag, 

prevkMM, anterior, prtor, former 979 

FOREIGN— eztraneooa, cztrioilck, foreign 437 

FOREIGNER— otrangar, foreigner, alien 380 

FORERUNNER— forerunner, precurmr, memen 

ger, harbinger 9IS 

FORBSIGRT-foreright, foretho««ht, foiecaM, 

FOREST— foreit, chnee, park 

TO FORBTEL— to foretel, predict, propheqr, 


FORETHOUOHT-foreeight, foi«thoi«ht, fore- 

caat« premeditation 

FORFEITURB— One, mulct, penalty, forfehare. • 
TO FORGE— to Invent, feign, frame, fabricate, 


FOR6ETFULNESS— forgetfulneea, obUvkm.... 
TO FORGIVE— to forgive, pardon, abeolve, remit 

FORLORN— formken, foriom, deeUtoto 

FORM— form, figure, confonnation 

FORM— form, ceremoay, right, obeervanee 

TO FORM— to make, form, produce, creato 

TO FORM— to form, faebioo, mould, shape ..... 

TO FORM— to form, compoee,conetltnto 

FORMAL— formal, ceremonioaB 

FORMER— antecedent, preceding, foregoing, pre- 









FORMERLY— formerly, intlmmpaetorohltiaMB, 
in days of yore, anciently, or anciem times*. 

FORMIDABLE-formidable, dreadful, terrible, 

TO FORSAKE-to abandon, deaert, forsake, ra- 

FORSAKEN— forsaken, foriom, desUluto 

TO FORSWEAR— to forswear, peijure, sabora. 
TO FORTIFY— to strengthen, fortify, tnvigorato 
FORTITUDE— courage, fortltHde, resolution.... 
FORTUITOUS I fortunate, lucky, fiNtaltoua, 

FORTUNATE \ prosperous, successful 

FORTUNATE-happy, fortunate 

FORTUNE-ehance, fortune, foto 

FORWARD— onward, forward, progressive 

TO FORWARD— to encourage, advance, pro- 
mote, prefor, forward 

TO FOSTER— to foater, cherish, harbour. Indulge 

FOUL-nasty, filthy, foul 

TO FOUND— to found, ground, i«et,buiki 

TO FOUND-to institute, establish, found, erect. 

FOUNDATION— foundation, ground, baUs 

FOUNTAIN— spring, founiabi, source 


FRAGILE— fragile, fVall, brittle 

FRAGRANCE— emell, eeent, odour, perfome^ fra- 

















FBAME— frame, tanper, t etn p era m e n t, eomaui- 
tkm J 

TO FRAMB-Ho Invent, Mgnt frame, fUiricnie, 
fofje .••••••»•••*•••••••••••••••••••••••••• 1 

ntANK—Aank, enoiM, totw ino ui , free, open, 


FIAT— qonrral, broil, feud, aAnj or fVtj 

ntAUDULENT— Mlackmi,dcceltAil,ftsiidt*Dt 

FREAK— ftenk, wblm 

FREE— eoramonicatiTe, firee 

FREE— Ihmk, enndldifcigeiiWNM, Dree, open, plain 

FREE— frae, enmpc 

FREE-ftee, Hberal.... 

FREB^flree, (kmUlnr 

TO FEEE-to fVce, eel ftee, dethw, dHlbente. . 


FREIGHT— IVelfht, cnrfo, Mine, lend, burden.. 
TO FREaUENT— to fkequeoi, raMrt to, bnont. . 
FREiiUENTLT— «omaiool J, fenerellf, aenaOy, 













FRBdUENTLT— often, fteqnenlly ! 

FRESH— ftcah, new, novel, raoent, nodera 

TO FRET-40 rob, etanfo, frac, gen 

FRETFUL— captkNH, ciom, peerWi, peloUat, 

flretAil 315 

FRIENDLT-WBknhie, Mendty 378 

FRIENDEHIP-lovn, flienpiblp 380 

FRI610-«ool,eold, frigid $14 

FRIOH T ni nra a, tenoor, IHgiN, eooMemntloo. . 308 

TO FRlGHTEIf-lofHflitcn,lntUnldMo 307 


FRIVOLOUS-trifltaf, Iririnl, pettr. Mvolrn^ 


FRONT— Ibce, front 

FROWARD— nwkwnrd, cram, MMowwd, crook- 
ed, frownidypefvene** •••••••••«••••••««•• 

FRUOALITT— econemjr, ftvfalKjr, pnnlmooy.. 

F RUITF PL-feTttio, ihiitfol, praUflrk 

FRUmO M en j oym e nt, ftnltlon, frattteatioa. . . 

FRUITLE8S— vtin, IndftetanI, finltlem 

FRDSTRATTB-lo detet, foil, dle^ipolnt, Itan- 
traie , 

TO FULFIL— to cieeaie,faMI,peribrm.... 

TO FULFIL-^ fbUU, nccompWri^ lealiie. 

TO FULFIL-lolieep,obeerve, AilOl 


FULNBaO— A il n em, plentaide 



FURIOUS-v i olen t , fltttooi, boi m ero ne, impetn- 


FURNISH— m pitnrtde, 

piocwn, ftirnWi, eopplf . . 300 

FUR Y—modnem^ phreney, rate, Any 

FURT— nofer, ckoler, rage, lluy 

FUTn.E trimHi trhrM, IHvoim^ tetUe.. 

. »1 
. 110 


TO GAIN— to get, gnin, obtain, proeovn, 308 

TO GAIN— to neqoira, obtain, pin, wm, earn... 308 

GAIT— carriage, gait, walk lOt 

GALE-breene, gale, blast, gnet, etonn, tempert, 

bnmcane 383 

TO GALL-to rob, eha(b, fret, gaU 30O 


GALLANT-«allaat, bean, ipark 38t 

GALLANTRY— bravery, courage, vakwr, gal- 

Iwttfy ISO 

GAMBOL— AoUck, gambol, prank 308 

GAME-play, gam^ aport 384 

GANG— band, company, craw, gang 408 

GAP— breaeb, break, gap, cbam 801 

TO GAPE— to gape, etare, gaae 470 

GARRULOUS-tolkatlve, kMinackKW, garrakwi. 480 

TO GASP— to palpitaiOk flntier, paat, gasp 308 

TO GATHER-to gntker, collect »4 

GAUDY— ehowy, gaudy, gay 4S3 

GAY— dieerfal, merry, epriglHIy, gay 380 

GAY-«liowy,gaady,gay... 438 

TO GAZE— to gape, etare, gaae 479 

GEN DE B gen d er , ee« 818 

GENERAL— general, oniveiaal 30 

GEN ERALLY— commonly , generally, freqaenOy, 

Ofluaily 398 

GENERATION geoeratkm,ne 870 

GENERATION— men, generatkm, breed 40? 

GENEROUS-beneadent, bonntlfol, boanteoae, 

munlflcent, geaerow, liberal 188 

GENIUS lntelkxf,genliia, talent 87 

GENIUS— tame, 8ia<M 70 

GENTEEL-pome,polirind, reined, genteel*... 109 

GENTILE geniBe, heel hen, pagan 488 

GENTLE gentle, tame 8Q8 

GENTLE— eoA, mild, gentle, meek 380 

GENUINE-lntrioeiek, real, gminhie, naUva.... . 439 


TO GET— to get, gain, obtain, procora 308 

GHASTLY— bldeooB, ghaiUy,ritoi Vi^ 478 

GHOST— viekm, apparltkm, phantom, epeetra, 

gboet 479 

GH08TLY-«piritno«ie,Bplilted,ipMtnal,gbeelly 88 

TOOIBB-toeona;glbe,Jeer,oMer 104 

GIDDINBSS-Ugbtacm, levity, 81ghllnem, vdaH- 

lUy, gkklinem..... 389 

GIFT— 8lft, preeeat, donatian, beneAetkw 184 

GIFT— gift, endowmeat, talent 87 

TO GIVE-to give, grant, beeiow, allow.. 188 

TO GrVE-4ogive,aBbid,ipara 188 

TO GIVE— to give, praaentioAr, exhibit 188 

TO GIVE UF-to give np^ deliver, e miend er , 

yield, cede, concede 949 

TO GIVE UP— togivenp, abandon^ rBrign,lbngo 981 

GLAD-giad, pleaeed. Joyful, cheerfttl 388 

OLADNEaS joy, gledaem, arinh. 308 

TO GLANCE AT— toglaMeat,alUidata 387 

GLANCS-took, glance 489 

GLANOB-gUmpae, gtanca 387 

GLAR B 8 a m e , blMB,8aeb,8are^g|ara 478 

TO GLARB-to ehioe, 8lltier, glare, epnikli, m- 



GLARDfQ giirtMt *«■*<■< ^^ 

GLBAM— gleMmllawMr, ngr, btMi 479 

TO OLIDK-torilp,ittde,glid« »3 

aUMMER-gleMii, gUwDer, raj, beui 479 

QUMP8E— gllmpM, gteoee VJ 

TO GUTTEB^-io riilM, gUlMr, gtave, ■pvlclei 

radiaca «• 

OLOBB— eircia, aphefa, Mb, globa 175 

OLOB£-flluto,Ml MO 

OLOOM-tloom,haaTiiiaai 4ld 

OLOOMT— dttll,|looaqrtM4,«aBMl 410 

OLOOMT-flooaiy, aoUaa, aoraaa, i fl i a i riek . . . 411 

OLORT-gtory, iMNMir <tfO 

TO 6L01T— to glory, boMt, ▼aunt. flW 

TO OLOBS— 10 gloaa, TWAlab, palUMa US 

OLOSSAir— dleUooarr, kskoo, ghMMty, to- 

cabulary, n oaaa c ia tur a •• 404 

OLOWr-Ora, liatti, trarartb, glow 475 

TO OLUT—to aatkiy, aatkita, gtat, cloy 381 

GODUKK iodHke,dlvtoa,he«vao<y 00 

OODLT-fodly, rigblaona 00 

«OLD-^gold, goldaa. 514 

QOOD— good, goodnaaa a»7 

qOOD g ood, h a n ail i ady aai ag e * 107 

GOOD.HUMOUB ) ^ ^ ^ ,^ 
QOOD-NATURB { l«»'»«ttt««i •«»«-»o«oar. . 388 

flOOPNgSS-good, goodaaai 307 

GOOD orFIOE-baoalh,aanriaa,goodoaca.... 100 
GOODS— aonoodlty, fooda, ■arcbaadJaa, intra 830 
OOODB goodi, f^\'ni/ivn, rtiaMola, MOToaMaa, af 

facta 330 

GOOD 6 g ooda, po aaaai l o n a, ptapctty 340 

TO GOVBaM-logovarmnria,ragatela 906 

OOVBRNKENT gwcraaiet, admlnjarallna. . 907 
GO VEBNMKNT— goTamaaat, coaatitatioa .... 907 

OBmACS— graoa,(avoar 190 

OKACK-grMa, ckarai 314 

ORACBFUL-kacoaBtBg,ooaM(7,graeafal 313 

ORACETUL gra ea fcl , comely, dagant 315 

OBACIOUS-frMioMiMarUftil, klod 357 

omANI>-graM,grmod,aaUlaia 4Sf 

GRAND aoMc, gmnd 454 

6RANDBUR-gruMlawr,MgaiAeaiioa 454 

TO GRANT— lo adoiH, aBow, granc 157 

TOGRANT^-loglTa,graM,kaaiow,allaw lOi 

TO GRABP— Co lay or taka bold of; caieb, aalsa, 

awleb, giMp,grlpa m 

GRA'iwruL accapt ab ia, grataAiI, walcoaM.... 934 
GRATIFICATIO N a iOuyi a im fhridom gratM- 

eatkm 30g 

TO GRATIl T-toaatia<y,plaMa,gramy 383 

GRATITUDB— ibaakfUaaa, pwOna^B 441 

GRATUITOUS-grataltooa, vohiatary... 441 

GRATUITY— giaialiy, l a e a iap aaaa. 440 

ORAVl p aya, aattooa, aolaaa. 308 

WtAVE aa ba r , gmf OR 

GRAYS-pava,loMb,aapalckra 500 

ORAVrrr— w«lgbc, baavlMai, graTKy 909 

ORBAT-iraa^lMi%blg S« 

GREAT— gnat, gmad, 


GR BBDINB aB-ayldHy, 

GSIKP— aflletlaM, griai; aonpow . • • #• • 

GRgVANCg g ri ar aaoa , barfcblp. 48S 

TO GRIEVE— to griaTe,iDoore,laoiaBt ........ 409 

GRIEVBD-aoriTi griaired, burt 419 

GRIM— hktooua, gbanly, grioi, grlaly 478 

TO GRIPE-io lay or taka boM of; catcb, aeiaa, 

aoatcb, graap, grlpa 937 

TO GRIPE— to praai, aquaaie, placb, gripa 99 

GRISLY— bldaoai,gbaMly,griaB,grialy 478 

TO GROAN— to groao,nioaB 41t 

GROSS— groaa, coaraa 901 

GROSao^roaa, total 988 

TO GROUND— to foond, ground, reat,baikl 488 

GROUND— TouDdatioo, groaad, baiia 488 

GROUP— aoMBiUy, aaaa wM a g i, group, coOaciioB 400 

TO GROW— to becoma, grow 948 

TO GROW— to hi crea ae, grow 347 

GRUDGE— maUce, rancour, nplta,gnidga,piq[aa.. 381 
TO GUARANTEE— 10 goaraaiae, ba aaciarlty, ba 

raapooalMe, warrant 183 

GUARD-^anca, guard, aacurity 188 

TO GUARD— to guard, dafted, watch 188 

GUARD— guard, aanUoal , U8 

GUARD— guard, guardian 181 

TO GUARD AGAINST-to guard avdnat,taka 

baad let 

GUARDIAN— guard, guardian m 

TO GUES S t o guaw, conlectnra, divlna 88 

GUEST— giiaat,vMtar or vMtant 401 

TO GUIDE— to laad,coiidact,gulda I9I 

GUIDE— guide, rula SIS 

GUILE— dacait, fkaud, guUa an 

GUILTLESS— guUtlaaa, fainocaat, banalaaa 198 

GUILTY— criminal, guUty igg 

OUIBE-fulae, babit. ,. «• 

GULF— golf, abya 401 

TO GUSB— to flow, atrean, guab 398 

GUST— breast, gala, blaal, gn«, '«orn^ tempart, 

borrkana • 309 

HABIT-«oBlOiiihbablt.... 389 

HABIT— gaiaa, babit as 

TO HALR-to draw, drag, baal or bait, pull, tug, 

pUick 308 

TO HALLOW— 10 dadieata,aaoaaonta,balow.. 89 
HANDSOME— baaaUfbl, tea, baadaooM, piMr 8I> 
TO HANKER AFT£R-to.deriia,wlab,lQngtir, 

bankar after, covet 159 

TO HAPPEN— to bappan,chaBaa HI 

HAPPINESS-bapp to aai, Mldty, bHia, Mawa d 

naaa,baatUiida 384 

BAPPINESS-welHniag, praaperlty, bappiaaa, 

welfkra • 380 

HAPPY— bappf,iMtoBala... 384 

HARANGUE— addreaB,apaaab, baraagua, c 
TO HARA8S-todlBlreaa,b«raai,parplax. 
TO HARASS— to waary, tire, Jada, I 
HAEMNGER Owaraaaar, praomaor, i 

barUagar SIS 

BARBOUR-barboar,baven,port. 518 

TO HARBOUR->HobMbow,aballar,lodga OT 

TO HARBOUH-lo Ibaiar, ahertab, harbour, hi- 

dniga..... m 

HARD-baid,flnD,aolld STB 

HARD-haid>bafdf,lMiartli, Mnftilhig 9H 



HABD ) biffd, 


BA&D-HEAKTED— Ui4-kean«d< ctmI, 

elAilf nwreUMt * 

HAKDINE88 { or 

HARDLY bn O f ^ wemcdf 

HARDSHIP— frtevanea, hariiblp. 



HARM— ItOnji dantfe, lM»t, bann, 






-oaotMunf, 1 
HARMONY— eoneord, ] 
HARSH— hwih, ron^ wtmr% riforoM, Hen • 

TO HASTEN— to iMMteD, anrielfMB, ipetd, «p»- 

dhOtde^Mldi 981 

TO HASTEN— Co bMin, hairy 281 

HASTIN BB O imIuh w , taowrtty, 

HEAVINB8S-««l|te, haatiiMiii^ r«v)iy 
HEAVY— kMvy, 
HEAVY— iMAvy, 



HEED— teod, can, 

TO HEIGHTEN— 10 kalchm,raiaa,as»vat«-* 3 
HEINOUS— MWMH, flafrant, fligltiBM, atio>- 

dOM i 

TO HELP-io biip, MriM, aid, aaceow, leileTa. . ] 

HERESY— iMlarodoxy, harMBT 

■BRETICK-^-^MMCkk, KhiMMtklE,aefllaiiaa or 


TO HESITATE*-4o hfiliita, fakar, 

TO HEttiTATB— la avapla, 

HASTY— ewaory, 

HASTY— aagiy, yawioaata, taaiyf IrMdMa 119 

TOHATE-lokaia,delMl .....<...•... 137 

HATBFC7L-4iataAil,4Nllow. 137 

HATRED a ftialD o , aatipailqri diatka, kaliad, 

rfafoaaea. ••••••••••*•••.•■■■••••••• 136 

HATR£]>-tatred,aMBiij,IIMrtt,iaMOW 1S7 

TO HAVK-lo hava, poMM 07 

HAVEN— bartenr, havea, port « 518 

HAUGHTINESS— IMM^MIMM, arrafaaea, dia- 

data • ..<..••.. m 


digatly « ....* 

HAUGHTY-teaslit7,Jiigii,U8li-irtMled 101 

TO HAUL— lodrair, diaf, kaal or kaJa^ plack, 

I»«,taf - 

TO HAUNT— to fra^aant, rant MS ham 

HAZARD-daafar, parll, baaard 171 

HAZARD-diaaea,lMaaid HO 

TOHAZARD-«oliaaafd,rlik,VMC«ia 171 

HEAI>-chM;ieadw,eIilalMa,lMad «.... tO$ 

HEADSTRONG ) otailaata,coBtaaMoiaaa,aCBh. 
HEADY i bon^ h MldH f oa ^, haady.... 888 

TO HBAI«-to eore, baal, raaady sss 

HEALTHY— feeaRhy, 

HESITATION-demttr, doobc, harftatloa, otjaa- 

HETERODOXY hafodoiy, harMif . 
HIMWN— aaorac, 

TO HIDE— ioeQBeaal,hida,aac aia. ••....... 

TO HIDE— <o mrw, hUa 


HIDEOUS-faideoua, ghaflt]7,8rtB«Bililr'-'** 
HIOH-Ush, tan, lofty «.<< 

S^frMmDEDl>»*»«^'y»"«^ '»^"»*»^- 
H16H«OUNDINO-load, aoli 


. 519 
. SIS 

. «e 


. m 

. «71 


JoHaltiy, Jolltty,\ , 

HIND-aontiyaiaD, paaaai, MralB, hlad,atow% 

HEALTHY— aooBd, aaaa, baaMhy . 
TO HEAFL.40 baam plla, I 

TO HEARXSN-ioattead,]M0fc«,IMM...... 


HEARTY— hearty, warB^riacan,caNtal 

HEAT-ire, heat, waiBMb, How *...*. 

HBATHBN-ieitiile,healheB,paini »... 

TO HBAVB-iollft, heave, hetot. 

TO HEAVE— 10 heave, awel ^ 

HEAVENLY flf Walial, heavwdy 

HEAVENLY-foditha, dNfaa, ha a tart f 





TO HINDERr-ia Mader, pnTeM, ohrtraet, iai- 
pcde 1 

TO raNDBRr-lo hiader, ilop i 

TO HINDER— to retard, hiadec.... ! 

TO HDfT-to aHoda, rafcr. Mat, I 

TO HINT-*lohiat,anac 

HIRE— altovaac^ ttHifeai, aalaiy, wafaib *^ 

PV 184 

HIRRI « INO v e ae l, aaareeaary, hJrettm 3M 

JO Hn^-toleal,hl^ltrike...., 14S 

TO HOARD— 10 treaaora, hoard 341 

TO H(HST-iallft,haava,hQltt. 384 

TO HOLD-«oeootalo,bold.. 174 

TO HOLD-iohold,kaa|HdeCalB,ielaia tM 

TO HOLD-40 hoU, aee^ 
TO HOLD-ta hold, aappoit, I 

HOLLOW— hoUoVfeBBiily 

BOLY-holy, piooa, devoat, raHghma 


HOLYDAY— feaat, fteUval, holyday. 
RONEST-IWr, baoaal, aqailabla, 
HONSST-aiBoare, haaaal, troa, plaia 
K)NEBTY honaaly, 

. 344 


malglitniMa, |nuU||, la- 




BO'S^]"'^''''^ *" 

HONOUR— ftoty, honow 489 

HONOUR-honour, dignity 4» 

TO HONOUR— CO boaoor, tey c woe e, rafpaet. .. . 4ff7 

HOFfi— bope, expMUtkM, tniit, eoofidMca 414 

HOPELESa-denierate, boptlcM 41S 

; fewftiUdrwdnil, flriftatftil, terriblo, 
trMMndoas, Iffrifick, honrlUe, 

horrid »6 

HOer-fumy, hoit 1*1 

HOSTILE-adTene, iotmlcal, taortik, repagiuuit 135 

HOSTILITY— onmity, MloKMlty, bottiUty 135 

HOT— Iwt, Aery, bnrnlnc, wdeot 475 

HOUSE— (iunUy,boiiw,UiiMg«frMe ^^ 

HOWEVER-bowerer, yet,iievwtbetoii,notwitb- 

■UadlBS S51 

HUE-eokNir,bae«UDt «• 

TO HUG— toclMp,biif,6mbr«ct 377 

HU6E-«oennoi», bags, laynenM, vaM 319 

SSH^E I ■»-"»• ""--»• *" 

HUMANTTT— bencTolciiee, benignity, bomnnSty, 
kindnen, tendemMi - 165 

TO BUMBLE— to nboM, bumUo, dagmde, dia- 
graee,debaw 100 

HUMBLE— baraUe, lowly, low 147 

HUMBLE— hamUe, modest, mbmlMlve 147 

'^ ^H!I^H^«^ ! to bumble, hiimmale,d©grade 146 

HUMIDITY— moisture, biimldity,dainpDeai 515 

HUMOUR— liquid, liquor, Juice, bumour 35B 

HUMOUR— humour, temper, mood 387 

HUMOUR— bumour, cnpriee 380 

HUMOUR— wit, bumour, eaUre, Irony, barleeqne OH 

TO HUMOUR— to qualify, temper, bumour T 

HUNT— bunt, ebase 871 

TO HURL-40 can, tbrow, burl 304 

HURRICANE-breeie, gale, Ua^ gust, tempest, 

slorm, borrleane : 

TO HURRY-40 basien, burry 961 

HURT— injury, damage, hurt, barm, mlecWef. « . 

HUBT-«>rry, grieved, hurt 418 

HURT-dtoadrantage, injury, hurt, pKjodice, de- 

tnment •••••••• •••••••••••••••••••••••••••• 

HURTFUL— hurtAil, pemidoos, noxious, nol- 

ILL-tedty.iO 1S7 

ILLrrERATE-4gnoraM, iUtente, unlearned, 

unlettered MT 

ILLNESS sickness, litoess, indtspnsitinn 367 



TO ILLUMINE ) lighten 

ILLUSION— AUacy, del 

TO ILLUSTRATE— to copiaia, ilbislrate, efaMi- 

ILLUSTRIOUS-dlsUngaisbed, noted, conspictt. 

ous, eminent, Uluatrious 471 

ILLUSTRIOUS-flunoos, celebrated, renowned, 

iUusttioua 473 

ILL-WILL-rbatred, enmity, ill-will, rancour.... 137 

IMAGE-ttkeness, picture, image, effigy 53t 

IMAGINARY-ideal, imaginary 73 

IMAOINATION-(bncy,imaginatk>n 7* 

IMAGINATION— idea, thought, Im ag inat i o n.... 73 
TO IMAGINE-to conceive, apprehend, soppose, 


TO IMAGINE-lo tUnk, ioppose, hnagtne, bo- 

lieve,decm 71 

IMBECILITY— deblUty,inflrmity,imbecUily.... 367 

TO IMITATE— to follow, imitate 530 

TO IMITATE— to Imiute, copy, countetfeU . .. . S» 
TO IMITATE— to hnitaie, mimiek, mock, ape. . 880 
IMMATERIAL— unimportant, iaslgniflcant, im- 
material, inconsiderable 451 

IMMATERIAL— incorporeal, unbodied, bnmate- 

rial, spiritual - 66 

IMMEDIATELY— directly, immediately, instan- 
taneously. Instantly MB 

IMMENSK-enormooB, huge, immense, vast.... 849 
IMMINENT— imBdnent,impiMiding,threatentag. 409 
IMMODERATE— excessive, immoderate, iatea»- 

perate »« 

IMMODEST— indecent, inu»odest,indeIlcale.... 9C7 
IMMODEST— immodest, hnpudent, shametees. . . 9f7 
IMMUNITY— privUege, prerogaUve, exemptioa, 

immunity • 9M 

TO IMPAIR— to Impair, injurs 406 

TO IMPART— to communicate, hnpnct 486 

IMPASSABLE— imperrkras, hnpaasaUe, hwe- 


HUSBANDMAN— fbrmer, husbandman, agricul- 
turist 330 

HUSBANDRY— cultivation, tUtage, husbandry.. 337 
HYPOCRITE— bypoerke, dissembler 500 

IDEA— idea, thought, imaginatkm 73 

IDEA— pereeptioo, idea, conception, ttotioa 75 

IDEAL-kieal, imaginary 73 

IDIOM-language, tongue, speech, Wkwj, dialect 463 

IDIOT— fool. Idiot, buffoon '••• <00 

IDLE-idle.laxy, Indolent «W 

IDLE— idle, leisnre, Tacant 8» 

IDLE-idle,valn «0 

IGNOMINY— intomy, Ignominy, opprobrium.... 108 
IGNORANT— ignorant, iUKerate, unlearned, un- 



TO IMPEACH-to accuse, chaifs, impeach, ar- 
raign 1" 

TO IMPEDB-to hinder, prevent. Impede, ob- 
struct " *66 

IMPEDIMENT— difltoulty. Impediment, obstacle. S90 

TO IMPEL— to actuate, impel, Induce 308 

TO IMPEL— to encourage, anima|e, incite, impel, 

urge, stimulate, insiigste 311 

IMPENDING— immineot, impending, threatening 405 
IMPERATIVE— commanding, Imperative, fanpa- 

I rious, autboriutive 185 

IMPERFECTION— imperfectkm, defect, fbuk, 

I vtoe »* 

IMPERFECTION— ImperfectkHi, weakness, fail- 

1 log, fVaiUy, foible 1»4 

IMPERIOUS— commanding, imperative, imperi- 
ous, authoritative 185 

IMPERIOUS— imperious, tohlly, overtiearing, do- 
mineering IB* 




IBlPBETlllSinV4nip8itlMiit, rade, wney, hn- 

paiteDt, loMleiit 900 

IMPBRVIOUS-Unpmrvloat, impMMMe, toaoeM- 

•ible 835 

IMPETUOUS— Ttolent, ftuloiM, boiMerooi, Tebe- 

ment, Inpeoioas SIO 

DfPIOUa— irrellgioai, pro/kne, impkMM 9S 

IMPLACABLK-lniptaeable, imralaBtiiif , retoal- 

l«n, toeiorable 381 

TO UCPLAKIT— to tmplant, Ingraft, Ineulcat*, 

liMtU, innue 440 

TO IMPUCATE— to Implicate, involve S18 

TO niPLORE-to beg, beeeecb, eoUcit, oitremt, 

•appUcate, implore, crave 156 

TO IMPLY— to denote, algniry, Imply 450 

IMPO&T — iilgnlflcallon, weaning, lenae, Im- 

poft 456 

IMPORTANCE— elgniAcaUon, avail, Importaoee, 

coneeqnenoe, weight, moment 456 

QCPORTUNATE — ^praialng, importunate, ur- 
gent 158 

nfPOfiTUNITT— eollcitatlon, importunity 158 

TO IMPOSE UPON-lo deceive, delude, impoae 

Qpon 589 

IMPOST— tax, doty, eoatom, impost, toU, tribute, 

contribution 168 

IMPOSTOR— deceiver, impoetor 5» 

IMPRECATION— malediction, curw, execration, 

Imprecation^ anathema 89 

TO IMPRESS— to imprint, impreei, engrave.... 450 
IMPRESSION— mark, print, imprenloo, atamp. . 440 
TO IMPRINT— to imprint, impreas engrave.... 450 
IMPRISONMENT— coofloemeot, Impriaonment, 

captivity 178 

TO IMPROPRIATE— to appropriate, impropriate S31 
TO IMPROVE— to amend, correct, reform, rec- 
tify, emend, improve, mend, better 901 

IMPROVEMENT— progren, improvement, profi- 
ciency 901 

IMPUDENCE— amiraoce, impudence 415 

IMPUDENT— immodeet. Impudent, shameleai... 9<7 
IMPUDENT— impertinent, rude, saucy, impudent, 

insolent SOO 

TO IMPUGN— to impugn, attack 116 

TO IMPITTE— to ascribe, attribute, impute 939 

INABILTTT— Inability, disability 60 

INACCESSIBLE— Impervious, impassable, inac- 
cessible S35 

INACTIVE— Inactive, Inert, laay, sk>Uiful, slug- 

gteh 398 

INADEaUATE— incapable, Insufflcient, Incom- 
petent, inadequate 60 

INADVERTENCY— inadvertency, overslgbt, In- 

attemlon 433 

INANIMATE— lifelen, de«I, inanimate 356 

INANITY— vacancy, vacuity, faianfty 344 

INATTENTION— inadvertency, overdgbt, Inat. 

tentlon 433 

INATTENTIVE— negligent, remiss, thoughtless, 
careless, heedless, inattentive 494 

Sbred/''*"*^*»*^»'»»«^"»^ "^ 

CNCAPABLE— Incapable, InsulBdent, incompe- 
tent, inadequate 69 

I NCE88ANTLY— inoessattly, WKeaslBgly, vnte- 
teirvptedly, without intermission 957 

INCIDENT— circumstance, lacldenc, Ibet. ..... . 179 

INCIDENT— event, ioddent, aoddoU, adventare, 
occurrence 179 

INCIDENTAIr-«ocideotal, faicidental, casual, 
contingent 179 

TO INCITE— to encourage, animate, taKile, lio- 
pel, urge, stknnlate. Instigate 311 

TO INCITE— to excite, incUe, provoke 309 

mCUNATION— Mtachment, allectton, Inclina- 
tion , 379 

INCLINATION— bent, bias, Indioalion, prepoe> 
sesrion 159 

INCUNATION— disposition, iodination 388 

INCLINATION— lacllnation, teudenqy, propen- • 
sity, proneness 160 

TO INCLINE— to lean, indlne, bend 159 

TO INCLUDE— 10 enclose, indude 174 

TO INCLUDE— to comprise, comprehend, em- 
brace, contain, include 174 

INCOHERENT ) inconsistent. Incongruous, lo- 

INCONGRUOUS5 coherent 153 

INCOMPETENT— Incapable, insufficient, incom- 
petent, inadequate 69 

INCONSIDERABLE— unimportant, immaterial, 
insignificant, inconsiderable ^ 457 

INCONSISTENT— inconsistent, incongruous, la- 
coherent 153 

INCONTROVERTIBLE— indubitable, unques- 
tionable, indisputable, undeniable, incontro- 
vertible, irrefragable 114 

TO INCONVENIENCE— to inconvenlenoe, an- 
noy, molest • 417 

INCORPOREAL— Incorporeal, unbodied, iama- 
terlal, spiritual 66 

IN COURSE— naturally, in course, consequently, 
of course S7| 

TO INCREASE— to enlarge, increase, extend... 348 

TO INCREASE— to increase, grow 347 

INCREASE— increase, addition, accession, aug- 
mentation 347 

INCREDULITY— unbelief, infiddiiy, Incredu- 
lity 79 

TO INCULCATE— to implant, ingraft, inculcate, 
Instil, infuse 440 

INCURSION— invasion, incursion, irruption, la- 
foad 506 

WDELfcA^ } *^'***^ »«»«odest, indelicate. . 347 

TO INDICATE— to show, point out, aiark, Indl- 
«*• 451 

INDICATION— mark, sign, note^ symptom, token, 
indication 447 

INDIFFERENCE^lndifiference, apathy, Inseosl. 
biUty „ 375 

INDIFFERENT— indifferent, unconcerned, re- 
gardless .* 37$ 

INDIGENCE— poverty. Indigence, want, need, 
penufy 840 

INDIGENOUS— natal, native, indigenous 496 

INDIGNATION-anger, reseotiaeut, wrath, Ire, 
Indignation « ii§ 

INDICNTTY indignity, Inaull m 



INGlifUOOT ftwlr, 




WDWrnfCfT i«dlrt«c<,c<mlbwd..» 
INDITIDUAL-pMlMlw, tadHMoal. 


DTDOLBNT— iBdoltBC, Mipliie, I 
I tPOOBifOfwtWBi lm> 

TOINDUOB-«o Mtute^laipt^iBdMt 308 

TOINDUB-Ho taTBiC, tndiM or endue IfJ 

TO mDULOB-lo fbiier, elMrW^ tndvlie, liv- 

kov 7n 

IMIWMHWT— IndBlnnf , fbod 978 

U f imgri fOUa— nctlfe, dniteat, In dum loui, m- 

WKy F EUT PAL-^rala, I ne fl b ct uel, ftidtleei... 


mwr-taMcttte, iMTt^ iKjr, riotbftd, dogfWi 
nnZOEABLB'-tinplaeable^ mueleaUBf t releot- 




Umi»lE88IBLr HMpeilrehlw, IneflkMe, mm- 

tmMe, iMipfeirfble 400 

IIIFAlfOU8^iiilkiiioue,fcaiidaloai 106 

INFAMT—liilkmy, IgDoailny, opprobrium 108 

mr ANTDf B-«hUdM^ inflwdoe 401 

UfFATUATlON— ^nrnkeoMM, InflUiutlon, In- 

.. 310 

. 1» 

PtFKEKHCJB con Blu ito n , deduction, inference.* 78 

BfFBHOini iicond, teeondary, laferionr S74 

OCFnaOUl^-inbJeet, iQbordiiMte, eabeerrSent, 

lotalow-** •••••• •••••• •••••• ••• 140 

UfFIUUlTT— QBbelier, Inildelhjr, Inciedalitj. . 79 
IHFUfn'r twindlMi, m fcOBBd e d, nnltaiited, 

, 177 

DIF nailTT- ^ebilHy, iailnnitf, labeeillty 
OfFLOBWCl cwdi t , Itefoar, 
mVLUSirOB— iBflMMe, eailioriiar, 

TO Ilfroilfr-4olBA)m,MikelmowB,aeipialot, 

TO nfFOEM-loialbr*, iMlrnet, tmth 
INFOmalAlfT-taftl^MUl^ tafbrmer. . . . 

liee, ndvtee ••••••• ••••••>•• 

INPSACnON— MHoffeoMat, InftneUon 
TO INPftlNOK-lo 





. 195 



TOIimaifOB-lolBfttaf*i^^*»i<n>W«"i** SOS 
llfFBnfBBMMWr lMftliyiiiil,iiiftnetloB.... 508 
TO 1NFU8B— ta lapit, 


llfGMIlOOT iniwiniiM, 

nlOBIfUn'l lifiiltlj , wH 79 

mOBWUOCT liiiiiM,lnwiuiu» 489 

TO INGULP— to nbeoib, ewattow a^ li«nU; e^ 

|w« ^ 

TO INHABIT-lo nMde, wolMn, dwell, ntkt$, 

INHUMAK— ervel, 

lyiMICAL edf W i i ^ Inlwlrel, 


imaurroUS-wlcked, naJoM, Inlvriloni, nete- 
riMie ] 

IN JUNCTION-- eoounnndi order, iqjnactloa, pi»> 
eept, owqflate ] 

INJUKT-dlndTUrtage, I^Jmy, bwt, duuimiiil, 




IN JUKT-li4ni7, dnnic^ Inrt, bUB, BlRUer. . 


INNATE— Inberent, inbred, Inborn, Innnie 

INNOCENT— goBtieei^ Innocent, harmleei 

INOFFENSIVE— vnoflkndinf, inoAmtre, bami- 

ICH 1 

INORDINATE— imgnltf, dleordeilj, talordlnaie, 



TO INauIRB— lOMiEjlaqairetqQeelloniinterro- 

INauiST— emninatioa, eenreb, inquiry, luTeetl- 
gatioB, r eee ifcb , eemtiny 

INaUIBlTIVE-cnrione, toquiiltiTe, prylnff .... 

INROAD— Invnilon, incnrrion, Irmption, Inrond 

INSANTrV— denngcflMnt, kiennity, lunacy, i 

INBENSIEILmr— Indlflhranee, apnlby, inecmh 

IN BEN g l BL B-bard, haiiy, 
INSIDE— inride, Interioar... 

INSIGHT— inelgbt, Impectlon 

INSIGNIFICANT — anlmportant, Inelgniflcant, 








TO INSINUATE— to lnelnaaie,bngrallato 

INSINUATION— inetnnation, leflectkm 

INSIFID—iMlpId, dun, flat 

TO INSIST— to inelM, permit 

TO INSNARE— Co Inenare, entnp, entangle, In- 

INSOLENT— impertinent, mde, eancy, inpodent, 


INSOLVENCY— Ineohrency, feUnre, bankruptcy 

INSPECnON-lMigbt, inqteetlon 







TO INSPI9B -40 anhnat^lnifirnienlNi, cheery 

nVBTANCB— «zampl^ 
INSTANT-lMtatt, nM 

. 531 





. «► 

maatif . 


TO m0TIL--lo lavlutt, iBgraft, UKolctti, teilil, 

inftite < 

TO IN8TITUTE-I0 kHlkiUe, maUUb, ttvad. 

rO INSTRUCT-HO tailbrm, 




IN8TEUMENT— iMtmoMiit, tool 
IHaOrriCgNT— in eaf hK 



lavineibK nMoaqoii^ 







INBUBXKCnON — lONiraelloo, Mdillao, nM- 
lfc »,itvoit 906 

INTB6EAL— wbole, eotlie, co mp l rtt, iultgril, 
tout 966 

IMTEGErrr— booeMj, uprightsMi, proUty, hh 
mri ty 417 

nrnSLLBOT— taUdleec, gentiM, tatet 67 

nrTELLBCTUAIr-HMBtal, laiaDeetaal 79 

INTELLIOBNCE-liifonBatloa, noClM, adilet, 

IirmP08ITiOlf-4aMifMllM,taMiptM«i.. 919 
TO INTBRPEBT — lo apMi, opoaid, iMw- 

prau ^ ^••—.. 4iy 


{■torrogftts ••••• • ••••• 99 

TO DfTBERUPT— lo«Mik,talHiipU 07 

IllTSRVAIr-4alflrTal,i«|ilii 9Br 





TO nrriMATR— to MM, I 

TO nmMIDATB-tofttfli>%l 
PtTOXICATIQW iMniliiMlni,^ 



INTRBPn>-teld, lteleH,telNpUi 
PfTRIOACY opwpliiHy, 


IWTR W BIC'R liU iMh k, wl, 

psratoiXi iMmAiatiuffi 


nOn^nOiu i, 

IliyitMPERATE ■fiiiMln,linf>iwolw,tafH 

pento* •••>•••••• ••••• 

INTEIIPBRATB-Imiatar, dimteljr, iaoNh 

T0D9TBND-H0 iiriffi, pvpoio, toaaad, n 

IKTENT J«"™»i"»»^ 

TO INTERCEDB-lo tatwcedo, JoHipow, i 


DITBRCHANGB— iolMcbun ' 
TO INTBROICT-lo Atbld, proUM^ immikt, 

niTBRBBT— lBt««C, coBCcn 

TO INTKRP£RB-«olMl«c6d6,taMtpoit,WMtt- 

Ma, lo urf— , Ml— edflo 


DfTERLOTEE— Intnidv, Mu ri op g 

TO OfTERIlEDDLB — to iMticeii, iMMffliit 



onnMEirr-taftai, I 

niTBRMiaBiON i—lioatHo^wim 

TOINTMtfOM totatowedo, 


TO fNTRUDB—to touiit, nMiait 
INTRUDSR-tolradtr, JMiriopf. . . 
TO INTRUBT— to rwiil|i, BnailT, 
TO IlfVADB-to«wnMl^l■l>HMk,tak 



TO DfVALIDATB-to wnkm, wfttfclt, 



TOmVBIQn moahlM, lit ilgli 



TO INySNT-toeoalihr«»4tflM,taf«M. BH 

TO PIVKWT--to 9n<oc 9n< oil, Jhctto, Itmm 449 
TO DfVSMT-to femM, Ma flaa 

TO INVERT— to o f WUMa , Ofwtkfow, 

TO INVSBT— to tovtol. OBdoe or 
IWVBgnCATIOW-oi— iM lto B, 

laqoky, Moreh, nmutk,mmiki9> 


TO OmTB-tocoBiMd,! 
TO nnJllDATR— to< 
IRAB O l DLn laff y ,! 

IRONT-fMtari% aiii% tatoVi I 




ntRATIONAL— trmdomil, fbotUi, alMiird, pre- 
poitttTom* • • • • •• •••••••••••••••••»••••••••• w 

IBREPRAOABLK-liidabltabiv, vnquaMlonable, 
IndlfliNitaUe, undeniable, IncootroTertible, ir- 
refytfBble 114 

IRRB6ULAE— hrreiular, dtaordeily, inordinate, 
iBten perate •••••«••*•••••*•«•••> •••« S84 

IRRELI6IOUB— trrcHftooa, profline, tmploui. ... S3 

lEREPftOACHABLE — blameleM, aDUemWied, 
trreproaeliaUe,oaapottedoripode« ISO 

TO IRRITATE— to aggraTate, irritate, provoke, 
exasperate, tantalise HI 

IRRUPTlON-^nTaiion, incanfcm, irruption, In- 
road 506 

ISSUE e ft ct, conaequence, remit, iawe, erent. . 900 

ISSUB—olbprtng, progeny, iMue 801 

TO IBSUE^-le arlee, proceed, laine, apring, flow, 
emanate 801 

TO JADB-^towewj, tire, jade, taaraa 380 

tom2*^{«»j-*^j«-~*« ••••« 

JAyNT*— enoralon, ramble, tour, trip, jaunt .... 903 

JEALOUST— jeakmajr, envy, mispicloB.. 3S0 

TO JEER— to«coir,gtbe,Jeer,neer 104 

TO JEST— to Jeat, joke. Bake game, sport 104 

JtI/r-«oquet, jlh SSS 

JOG08B ilheetioos, eonvetaaUe, pleasant, jo- 

JOCULARi eular, jocose 401 

lOCUND— Hvely, sprightly, Tivadoos, sportive, 

merry, jocund 380 

TO JOIN— to add, join, unite, coalesce 518 

TO JOKB— to jest, joke, make game, sport 104 

JOLLITT > mirth, merriment, joviality, jolHty, 

JOVtALlTYi hilarity 301 

JOURNEY— journey, travel, voyage 303 

JOY^^pleature, joy, dHigtot, charm 393 

JOYHo7i|tedne«i«lrth 303 

JOYFUL— glad, pleased, joyful, cheerful 303 

JUDGB^judge, umpire, arUter, arbitrator 211 

JUDQEBfENT— diseemment, penetratioo, diseri- 

mhiation, judgement 71 

JUDGEMENT— judgement, discretion, prudence 400 
JUDGEMENT— decision, judgement, sentence... CM 

JUDOEBiENT— sense, judgement 70 

JUICE— liquid, liquor, juice, humour 393 

JUST— right, just, proper 430 

JUSTICE— justice, equity flS 

TO JUSTIFY— to apokigiae, deibnd, justify, ex- 
culpate, excuse, plead 181 

XUSTNESSHuatnen, correctness 108 

JUVENILE— 9iDathfol,javenile,iraeril« i 401 

KEEN— acute, keen, shrewd 401 

KEEN-^liarp, acute, keen 403 

TO KEEP— to hold, keep, detain, retain 136 

TO KEEP— CO keep, preeerve, save 178 

TO KEEP-^o keep, observe, ftOftl «. 880 

KEVINO— keeping, custody 179 

TO KILL— 10 kin, murder, a m s Mi a a n , slay or 

slaughter 510 

KIND— aflhettooate, kind, food 370 

KINDu^^raeloas, roerdftd, kliid 387 

KINI>-Uiid,speelcs,soiC 480 

KINPNBSS-bcneit, Ikrav, kkidMM, tMkj- . 108 
KINDNESS-benevolence, benignity, hum«BlCf , 

kindness, tenderness 165 

KINDRED— kindred, rdatioasMp, affinity, con- 
sanguinity 407 

KlNDRBD-relation, relative, klnsaaan, kindred 406 

KINODOM-^empire, kingdom 180 

KINGLY— royal, regal, kingly 180 

KINSMAN— relatkm, relative, kinsman, kindred 400 

KNAVISH— dishonest, knavish 430 

TO KNOW— to know, be acquainted with 106 

KNOWLEDGE-knowMge, adenoe, leamteg, 
emdilkNk 106 

LABORIOUS-active, diligMt, ioduatrioas, asBi> 

duous,laborlons 806 

LABOUR— work, labour, toil, drudgery, task 388 

TO LABOUR— to labour, take paiaa or trouble, 

use endeavour...'. 308 

LABYRINTH— labyrinth, maae 403 

TO LACK— to waat, need, lack 347 

LADING-^4eight, cargo, lading, load, burden... 338 
TO LAG— to linger, tarry, kilter, lag, saunter. ... 861 

TO LAMENT— to comptein, lament, regiut 408 

TO LAMENT— 10 bewail, bemoan, lament, de- 

ptoro 410 

TO LAMENT— to grieve, mourn, lament 406 

LAND— land, country 407 

LANDSCAPE— view, prospect, landscape 470 

LANGUAGE— language, tongue, speech, idiom, 

dialect 463 

LANGUID— fUnt, languid 300 

TO LANGUISH— to flag, droop, languish, pine. . 368 

LARGE— great, large, big 340 

LARGE— large, wMe, broad 340 

LARGELY— largely, copiously, fully 348 

LASSITUDE— fbtigue, weariness, lasritnde 360 

LAST— last, latest, final, ultimate S70 

LASTING— durable, lasUng, permanent 866 

LASTLY lastly, at last, atlength 970 

LATENT— secret, hidden, latent, ooeolt, myste- 
rious 988 

LATEST— last, taieat, final, ultimate 970 

LAUDABLE— laudable, praiseworthy, oommend- 

«W« m 

TOrLAUGH AT- -to laugh at, ridicule 108 

LAUGHABLE— laughable, hMilcroos, ridkukws, 

comical or oomick, droll 103 

LAVISH— «xtravagaat, prodigal, lavish, proAM 948 

LAW— maxim, precept, rule, law 811 

LAWFUL-lawAil,l«ff>).lesltimate,lb:it 811 

LAX— kXMe, vague, lax, dissolute, Meentkms..... 890 
TO LAY OR TAKE HOLD OF— to layortaka 

hold or, cateh,asiae,8naieh,gnsp, gripe 837 

TO LA Y-Ho lie, lay 880 

LAZY— Idle, la^, indolent 898 

LAZY— InacUve, inert, lasy,8b)ChM,ahiggWi... 888 

TO LEAD— to lead, conduct, guide 101 

LEADER-eMer,leader,chleaaln,bead 886 

LBAOUB-alltaace, leagna, eoafodemcy 408 

LEAN— lean, meafre 511 

TO LSAN-to leu, ioclbM,beikl 130 

LEARNOra— kaowledga, sclMeSi laamiaf,4ni- 



LBAMfOi a IttH w , 

LEAVB-l6AT«,Ubert7,|Mr«l«loo,lleeaM S5 

TO LBAVE-lolMve,qnit,ralliiqtiMi S55 

TO LBAVB-lel,lMTe,Nftr «5 

TO LEAVB-lo lemv«, take 1mv«, bid ftrawfO 

or mSkn 959 

TO LEAVB OFF— to MMe, leavt oO; dteon- 

UmMjdeitot. 9SI 

LEAVINGS— iMTiflfi, ranwlni, rattckt 8SS 

L^i'^TB ! ^"^^ ^« '^'i--^ "Wii. ai 

LBIBURB-idle,lelMU«,VMUt 9B0 

LENIT Y — c lemeacy, l«riiy, merej SOB 

TO LESSEN— to ■bala, lenen, dimteiili, de- 

eresM 351 

TO LET— to let, iMTe, Mflbr 8SS 

LETHAR6ICK— ileepy, drowqr, tachuglek 300 

LETTER— eJiameier, letter.' 197 

LETTBB— letter, epMe IW 

LBTTEB8—lettei«,llleratitre, learning 196 

LEVEL— eren, nMotb, lerel, ptaia. 435 

LEVEL— flat, lerel 435 

TOLBVEL-toftlm,poiat,leTel 3M 

LEVITT— HghtncM, levitjr, fllglitinen, TolatlUty, 

glddtneM 390 

LEXICON— 4ktioov7, lexicon, voealralary, glor 

■try, noaiencUtnre 464 

LIABLB-Mlject, liable, ezpoMd,olMMxioai.... 146 
LIBER AL—beneikent, lioantlAil, boontaooa, mn- 

nllicent, generou, liberal >.«•*•••••••>••*••• 165 

LIBERAL— Dree, liberal 941 

TO LlBERATE-to frM, eet free, iMivar, Abe- 

rata 840 

LIBERTY— fteedom, nbeity f4S 

t!^« } '"'^ f*™"*"- •**'•"'*-••• «• 

LICENTIOUS-4ooie, rague, lax, dlnolate, Iken- 

done 856 

LICIT— lawfbl, legal, legitimate, tidt Sll 

LIE— antratb, fUeebood, fUtlty, lie 596 

TO LIB-tolle,la7 980 

LIFE-anlDiatSon,Hre,TlTacit]r,flplrtt 356 

LIFELESS-liftleei, dead. Inanimate 356 

TO LIFT— to nrt, beave, boiit 354 

TO LIFT— to lift, raiie, ereet, elevate, exalt 354 

LIORTNESS-case. easlMH, Ifghtneei, (bdUty. . 363 
LIGHTNESS— llgbUMM, levity, lllgbtiiieM, Tola- 

tilliy, gid<finea 390 

LIKE— equal, eTCO, equable, like, or alike, uni. 

Ibrm 435 

UKENESS^UkeneM, r ewmblance, rimllarlty or 

■Iranitade...* 539 

LIKENESS— likenew, irtetnre, image, efllgy 532 

LIKEWISE— alio, Itkewiae, too 9S3 

UMB— member, limb 511 

TO LIMIT— to bound, Ifanit, confine, reatrict, eir- 

eamtcribe 176 

TO LIMIT— to fix, determine, aettle, Umlt 997 

LIMIT— limit, extent 177 

LIMIT— term, limit, boondary 177 

LIMITED— finite, limited 178 

LINEAGE— AuDlly, bonae, nneage, race 40S 

TO LINGER— to linger, tarry, toltar, lag, aaonter 961 
UaUID-flald,llqiild 399 

uauoRJ*^""*"^'*^*^*'^'*"™^ '^ 

LI8T-Uit,roll,eatalogiia, ngtaiflr 418 

TO LIST-Ho enrol, cnllit or Hat, ngliler, record 4« 

TO LISTEN— to atiaiid,haafkao,llBten 40 

LISTLESS-indolent,aaplaa,li«leaa,earaleH... 300 

LITERATUWB-lettM*, Htentnia, learning 196 

LITTLB-Uttle, anal, diailmMiira 310 

TOLIVB-toextot,live 9tt 

LIVELIHOOD ^ "^••»*««'' >>^«»«» aubdatence, 
UVING { malnlenanee, aupport, aoato- 

( nance 830 

LIVELY— Ovaly, aprlgtatly, Ttracloaa, aportlve, 

merry, Jocond 360 


LIVING— Uving, benefice 830 

LOAD— freight, cargo, load, ladbig, burden 338 

LOAD — we ig h t , burden, load 370 

TO LOAD— to clog, load, encomber.^.... *...». 370 
LOATH— averae, unwilling, backward, loatb, re- 

hictant 130 

TO LOATH— to abhor, defeat, abombiate, toaUi 138 

LOATHING— diagoat, loathing, nanaea 190 

TO LODGE— to harbour, abeHer, lodge 517 

LODGINGS— lodgingi, apartmenta 400 

LOFTINESS— pride, haugbtioea^ loftioeaa, dig- 
nity 100 

LOFTY— high, tall, k>fty 355 

TO LOITER— to linger, tarry, loiter, lag, aaunter 961 

LONELY— alone, aoUtary, lonely 898 

TO LONG FOR— todeaire, long for, hanker after 150 

LOOK— air, mien, look 103 

LOOK— look, glance 48B 

TO LOOK— to k)ok,aeei behold, view, «ye 488 

TO LOOK-to look, appear 481 

LOOKER-ON — k)oker-on, apectator, beholder, 

TO LOOK FOR-to await, wait for, took ft>r, 

expect 415 

LOOSE— hioae, Tague, lax, dlaaoluto, Ucentioua. . 856 

LOOSE-alack, kxwe 856 

LOQUACIOUS— talkative, k)quack>tta,gamikMa 460 
LORDLY— imperioua, lordly, domineering, over- 
bearing 185 

LORD'S SUPPER— Loid*a aopper, commonkMi, 

encbariat, aacrament 88 

TO LOSE-to loae, mlaa 404 

LOSS— loaa, damage, detriment 404 

LOT— deatiny, Ate, k>t, doom ICO 


LOUD— knid, nolay.high-aoQiidiiig, damorooa... 471 

LOVE— affection, tove 378 

LOVB-4ove, frlendahip 380 

LOVELY— amiable, lovely, betoved 378 

LOVER— tover, anhor, wooer 389 

LOVING— amoroua, toving, ibnd ». 378 

LOW— humble, lowly, tew ,•.,. 147 

LOW— tew, mean, abject ,,..»..... 147 

TO LOWEIU-to reduce, lower 148 

LOWLY— humble, towly, tew U7 

LUCK Y— Ibrtnnate, hicky, p roaperooa, aueeuMAil 30$ 

LUCRE— gain, profit, entoloment, hicia 987 

LUDICROUS laughable, ludicroa% rtdleateaa^ 




U78TT— eorp«liM,«o«MMQr 



MADNEOO iMdniii,pliWMy,fin,flMy.^.... «1 
MACISTKBJAI ■■glmilal, Mi|eMkk, lUtdy, 

BoawMM. MM^dk^lM 4M 




TO MAIM-Ho mutiliM, 

MAIN— ehter, prlDdptl, nalD 


TO MAINTAIN— to hold, rapport, midBUin 



TO MAKB-to make, do, act 

TO MAKE— to nuke, form, prodoeo, cnilo« 
TO MAKE OAME-to JMK, Joko, owko 

. 998 


TO MAtE KNOWN-l» inform, BMko kMwa, 

•eqnaint, apprise IM 

MALADT-diMrd«r, diaeaM,dtaMmp«, malady 357 
MALEDICTION— maMUetloo, cotm, Impraea- 

tloo, •zeeratioQ, anatlMoia 8i 

MALBFACTOft-^cilmlnal, allpri^ maltfortor, 

Moa,eoavlet 10 

MALEVOLENT-OMlavolMit, maUdoM, amUr 

aanl SR 

MAIICE^-aiallea,raneo«r,apile,gnidft,plqiM.. SBl 
MALICIOUS imalevolant, maUdona, flulif 


TO MANAGE-to eooeart, eoatriTe, maaafa. .. . S33 

TO MANAGE-toeooduct, manage, dUaet 191 

MANAGBMBNT-care,diar|e, management... 4S5 

MANAOEMENT-^eeoBomy, management 161 

MANDATE— command, order, in|anctkm, pra- 

eept, mandate •*.•**••.**• > 18B 

MANFUL— manly, BMnAil 386 

TO MANGLE— to mutilate, malm, 
MANIA— derangement, tneanlty, lunacy, i 

aunla «1 

MANIFEST-appareat, TWble, clear, plain, ohvl- 

•nn, arldeat, manlfoet 478 

TO MANIFE8T— to dieeover, manlfoit, declare 444 
TO MANIFEST— to prove, demonetrale, evince, 


MANLT— oMnly, manAil 

MANNERr-atr, manner 

MANNElr- em tom, babH, manner, practice. 
MANNER— way, manner, method, moi 

MANNEBS—manaen, morale 193 

MARGIN— border, edge, rim or bthn, hrink, veqpi^ 

margia 176 

MARINE miftflom, marine^ naval, aamical 


, pril, Impimrini 

MARK-aufk, eign, MM^ I 

MARK-maili, badge, Migma 

MARK-«Mfk, bott 

TO MARK— to mark, mm^ noike.... 
TO MARK— to ihow, point oat, auik, 
MARRIAGE manr ii fe , weddii^ 
MARRIAG E me rTi ^e ,m a tri a w ny,widloB k 

. 837 
. 4«l 




, 419 



. 83 



MASK-ckmk, mtok, vail, bliad . 
MASBACRB-camage, I 

MASSnrE-balky, mamive or 
MASTER p eMBmo r ,pw 
MATERIALS-matler, I 

MATURE— ripe, matore 
MAXIM— aalom, maztoi 

eayiag, adage, proverb, byword, eaw «8 

MAUM maitm, precept, rale, law 9U 

MAT-may,can 384 


MEAGRE-lean, maegie 

MEAN-beee, Tile, mean 

MEAN— oomaiOB, vulgar, ordlaary,BMaa 383 

MEAN-low, meaa, al4ect 147 

MEAN-«ean,pitifol.eoidld 4U 

. 148 

TO MEAN— to deeign, pnrpoee, mean, iatend. . 
MEANING— dgniflcation, meaning, import, eei 
MEANS— way, meaner, method, atoda, courm, 

mcaiM.. ••*.•.•*•*•••••...•.•.•••..• •••.*•. ! 
MBCHANICK-aitlit, aitideer, atochanick, artl- 

ean ] 

TO MEDIATE— to lattede, laterpoae, medlaieb 

. 97S 


MEDIOCRITT— moderation, mediocrity 


MEDIU M m e a n, m edi( 

MEDLEY— dUbrenee, variety, dlvcrdty, aMdky S 
MEDLBT— arixtnie, I 

MEET— fit, apt, meet. 

Mis^i'lNO amenibly, company, i 

meetiag, paittameat, diet, oongrem, eonveo- 

MEETIN G m eeting, interview 


MELOD Y m elody, harmony, arwrdanea 

. lis 








M£NAC£-4lirMt,meiiMa 40S 

TO MEND— Co amend, cormi, rectuy, nfonD, 

•mend, improve, Bieiid, bett«r.. 901 

MENIAL ■er ffmtidomeetkk, menial, drudge... MB 

MENTAIr-mental, inteileetital n 

TO MBNTION-fo mentkw, notke 491 

MERCANTILE— mefcantUe, commerclel 330 

M^RCENAET— taireUof, mercenary, Tenal 330 

MERCHANT— trader, 
MERCHANDISE— ooaunodiljr, loodi, 

diae, ware 

MERCIFUL— graeloiis, merdftU, kind 3S7 

MERCILESa — hard-bearted, craei, anmerelftil, 

mercUem 373 

MERCT— clemency, nicrqr,lenlly 398 

iMERCY—pHy, mercy 398 

MERE-beie, mere «90 

MERIT— deaert, merit, woitli d» 

MERRIMENT— mirtli, merriment, Jovialily, hUft- 

rity, jollity 301 

MERRT— dwerfal, merry, qiriciitly, gay 380 

MERRT — llTdy, iprlghtly, Tl?adMi, aportife, 

merry, Jocund 380 

MBSSAGE-mlmlon, memge, errand 813 

MESSENGER— forerunner, preeuiaor,] 

barMnger 815 

TO METAMORPHOSE— ta traMflfora, neia- 

morpboee *....... 80 

METAPHOR — fifuie, metaphor^ •Oefnyi cb- 

lilero, symbol, type.. SU 

METHOD— order, method, rule 376 

METHOD— syitem, method 97S 

METHOD— way, manner, method, mode, eooise, 

meana • S7S 

MIEN— air, mien, look 103 

MIGHTT— powerful, potent, mlghly 187 

MILD-eoa, mild, gentle, meek 390 

MILTTART— martial, warlike^ mlUtaiy, aokUei^ 

nke 337 

TO MIMICK— to imitate, mlmlck, mock, ape... . 590 

MIND-eoal, mind 69 

TOMIND-to attend to, mind, regard, aotlee, 

MINDFUL— mInd/U, regardTul, 

TO MINGL E-to mix, i^|ngle. Mend, ceafcund.. 884 

MINI8TEE— clergyman, panon, pileil, aInlMr 85 

MIN ISTER— m inhtef, agent 815 

TO MINISTER— to mlalrtar, admirtrter, eontrl- 

bote.. 1«7 

MINUTB-drcnmetamial, partknlar, mlmne. .. . 173 
MIRACLE — wonder, miracle, umrNi, prodigy. 

MIRTH— totlTiiy, mirth 309 

MIRTHHoy,gIadneii, mirth 309 

MIRTH-mlrth, merriment, Jovialily, JoBUy, hiiik- 

rtV 301 

MIBCARRIAGE-ftltaie,mleeaiTiage, abortion.. 185 
MISOELL ANT— ffliztnre, medlqr, mtoeeBany . . . 864 
MISCHANCE — ealamlly, dleMUr, 

MI80HIEF-««flcr M, i 

MISCmEF-iaJnry, damagL.lwrt, harm, mieehlef 404 





MISERAW.E- OThapfy, 
MISBRLY-ftfarkkwa, ] 





MISTAK E er r o u r, Biletake, blunder 

MISUSE abum,mlenae 

TO MITIGATE— to allay, aooib, appeaae, mitl- 




TO MIX— to mix, mingle, Mend, confimnd. , 
MiXTUKE mlrtuie, medley, mlwellany.. 
TO MOAN— 10 groan, moan 

MOBILITr I P******* '*''''■**•"***• ""^^ 

TO MOCK— loderlde,Bock,rldieale,rally,banter 104 

TO MOCK— tobBltale,mlnrick,mod^ape 980 

MODE-Hvay, manner, method, mode, eoune, 

MODEL-eopy, model, pattern, apedmen . 530 

MODERATION-moderadon, medkwrUy 846 

MODERATION— modealy^ moderatkm, Mmpe- 

rana^ BObrlety 815 

MODERN— Aeab, aew,iK»?el, recent, modem... 809 

MODEST— humble, modeal,nubalaBtve 147 

MODE8T-modeat,bMhlU,diildeat 148 

MODE8TT— ehaatlty, eonttawnee, modeaty j45 

MODESTY— modealy, moderatkMi, temperance, 

aobrlaty 845 

MOlB-j-u nE niolaf are^ humidity, dampneaa .... 515 

TO MOLBBT-ta troubto, dlaturb, moteat 418 

TO MOLEST— to Ineonvenleace, annoy, moleat. . 417 
MOMENT— eignUlcatlon, avail. Importance, con- 

MONARCH-prlnee, I 

lat e 188 

MONASTBRT—cloleler,monaalery, convent.... 80 

MONET-flMaey,eaah 340 

MONSTER— wonder, miracle, marvel, prodigy. 

MONSTROU S e n or m o ui, monatro ua, ptod%k>ua 390 
MONUMENT— ■MBument, i 

MOOD— humour, temper, mood 387 

MORALS— mannera, motalf «. 193 

MORBID-aiek, alckly, d ia iaae d , morbid 307 

MOREOVER-beiidaa, moreover 851 

MOROS E g loomy, eullen,inoroae,aplenetfck... 411 

MORTAL-dead|y,lhtal, mortal 371 

MORTtnCATION^-wxatleo, ehagrtai, nortUI- 




MO nO W l OiitB , ■ n t— I Itl 

MOTIV E — CM Oit, ■odv, w Mo e 77 

MOnVS— prindpte, Motivt tl3 

TO MOULD— to (bm,&ibkw,Bioal4|ahaH<-«* »> 
TO MOUNT— CO artM or ilw, moaat, MMod, 



RB0B88ITY— oeeasloa, neciwliy.. 

NBCE881TT— BKMritjr, aetd 

KEBD— | i u f« ly ,ti 

TO MOURN— to grkT% Boorn, luneot 408 

MOURNFUL-noonifal, Md 410 

TO MOVE— loitir, movt. 301 

MOVEABLE8-foo^ AmUcaro, mtn v Mm, of- 

Acts 330 

MOVEMENT— motion, moTMMttt 301 

MOVING— aK>?ii«, 10601101, pMiwtiek 301 

MULCT— ABO, Balet, powltr, foriMtnra. 
MULTITUDE-«ttllllii4e, crowd, thraof , 
MUNIFICENT— beoefloBot, bottntiful or boviitt- 

ont, nunifieaot, geiMrouo, liberml 165 

TO MUaDER-to kill, mwder, MMMlatlo, atay 

orriMftitar 510 

TO MURMUR-to complalo, nmnMr, repiae .. . 400 

TO MUSE— to eootMviat** BedlOMt inwe 70 

TO MUSE— to think, rtflaet, woodor, MOM 70 

TO MUSTER— to mmmbMo, muMr, coOeet 480 

MUTE-^— iloot, doiDl>, nmlo, ap— ch l eM 4M 

TO MUTILATE-lo motilMo, BMin, Bmgle. . . 500 
MUTINOUS— tumultaoiM, turbulent, MdiUooi, 

mutinoot 908 

MUTUAL— motMl, redproenl 334 

MYSTERIOUS— daifc, obfeura, dim, myatorioas 480 
MYSTERIOUS-Merat, klddan, latent, oceult, 
myiteriooi «•••« 500 

TO NEBD-^o want, aitd,lack. . 


. 340 

. 346 


NAKED— bait, naked, nneovwad < 

TO NAME-ioname,eaU 

NAME-namt, appellatioa, title, deooiviaatloo. 
NAME— name, rtputatloa, repute, eredit.. 

TO NAME— to aame, denomlaala, ityle, eadtle, 

d eii gnat e, c li a ra cterlae 471 

TO NAME-40 nominate, name 471 

TO NAP— to deep, alumber, doae, drowae, nap. . 300 

NARRATION— reUtkm, redtal, nariatkm 

NARRATIVE-aecount, narrative, deeeriptlon. . 407 

NARROW— contracted, confined, narrow 177 

NARROW-«traicht,tnarrow 985 

NA8TT— naety, flltliy,fottl 515 

NATAL-natal, naUTe, iadlfenoue 400 

NATION— people, nation, 

NATIVE— Inlrimdck, real, ftnulne, native 437 

NATIVE— natal, native, indigenous. 


NATURALLY— naturally, la 

qoenlly, of comae 971 

NAVAL ) maritime, marine^ naval, oaaU- 

NAUTICALt cal 337 

NAUSEA-dligoit, loathinf, naueea 190 

NAUTICAL — BMritkne, nariae, naval, nau- 
tical sn 

NEAR— ckMe, near, nlgb. 

NECESSARIES-necemltiee, me iimiike 347 

NECESSARY— necMiiry, eipedient, iwiliil, 



^^*- 1 Wd. NECESSITY, NEED m 

NEFARIOUS-wlcked, n^fost. InlquitoM, aeili- 

rfcme I9i 

TO NEGLECT— to dlm|ard,rilght, neglect.... 493 

TO NEGLECT— 10 Biileet,oinH 493 

NEGLIGENT— aegUgeat, remlm, caretom, heed 

lea, tboughtlem, Inattentive 491 

TO NEGOTIATE— to negotiate, treat fiir or 

about, tnuMact 915 

NEIGHBOURHOOD nelghbonrhood, vicinity.. 409 
NEVERTHELESS how e ver , yet, neverthdcee, 

BoiwtihiiaBdiag 951 

NEW— rreri^ new, novel, recent, modem 908 

NEWS -newe, tiding!. 465 

NICE— exact, nice, partknlar 908 

NICE— Aoe, delicate, nice 314 

NIGGARDLY— avarkioue, miserly, parsimooi- 

as, niggardly lei 

NIGGARDLY— ecoMBkal, sparing, thriAy,sav- 

taig, niggardly ]6i 

NIGH— cleee, near, nigh 88S 

NIGHTLY— nightly, noctamal 908 

NIMBLE-acthre, brisk, agfie, nimble 987 

NOBL E ncMe, grand 454 

NOCTURNAL-nlghUy, nocturnal 908 

NOIS E no is s, cry, outcry, clamour 470 

NOISOBfE-hurtftd, pernicious, noxious, noisome 406 
NOISY— ktud, noisy, high-sounding, clamorous. . 471 
NOMENCLATURE-dictkwary, lexieoo, cata- 
kigue, vocabulary, gloesary, nomenclature.... 464 

TO NOMINATE— lo nominate, name 471 

NONCONFORMIST-faereiick, schlanatkk, see- 

tariaa, dissenter, nonconftmnlst 09 

NOTE— mark, sign, note, symptom, token, hMlica- 

tion 447 

NOTE— lamark, observation, comment, noti^ an- 
notation, commentary 451 

TO N0TB-40 mark, note, notice 450 

NOTED dis t ingui shed, conspicuous, noted, emi- 
nent, ilhisirious 473 

NOTED-noted, notorfcMM 473 

NOTICE— lnlbrmatloo,bitelligence,notke, advice 105 
TO NOTICE— to attend to, mind, regaid, heed. 

TO NOTICE— to mention, notice 451 

TO NOTICE— «e merit, note, noUce 490 

TO NOTICE— to notice, remark, observe 450 

NOTION— conception, notkm 7S 

NOTION— perception. Idea, conceptioo, notkm. . 7S 

NOTION— opinion, emUment, notkm 80 

NOTORIOUS— noted, notorious 473 

NO^r WITHSTANDIN G - h ow e fei , yet, nevcr- 

thetass, aotwithsiaading 9Sl 

NOVEL—lhble, tale, novel, romance 407 

NOVEL— fresh, new, novel, recent, modvn. .... 9M 



TO NOURISH— 10 BOorUi, wulaM% «b«Wi. .. . 3n 
NOXIOUS— taurtful, pemkioui, nojUout, nolaoiao 406 

NUMB— oumb, benumbed, torpid 37)1 

TO NUBIBBR— to calculate, compute, reckon, 

couQt or account, number 438 


NUMERICAL > nomeroue, nomeral, nnmerkal 9SB 


NUPTIALS— marriafe, wedding, nuptial! 83 

TO NURTURE— to nouilah, nurtora, cherieb... 377 

OBDURATE— hard, caUoui, hardened, obdurate 373 

OBEDIENT— duUfuI, obedient, reipecilUI 150 

OBEDIENT-obedient,aubaiiadTe,obeequioa8.. 140 

OBJECT— aim, otijecl, end 3S4 

OBJECT— object, subject 385 

TO 0BJECT-40 object, oppoee 119 

TO OBJECT TO— to find fault with, Uame, ob- 

Jcato lis 

OBJECTION— demur, doubt, heiitatioa, oldeo- 

tion M 

OBJECTION— obJecUon, difficulty, exception... 113 

OBLATION— ofleriiig, oblation 83 

OBLIGATION— duty, obligation ISO 

TO OBLIGE— to bind, oblige, engage 816 

TO OBLIGE— to compel, oblige, force, neceeri- 

tate 810 

OBLIGING— civil, obHging, complaiaant 190 

TO OBLITERATE— to blot out, expunge, nee 

or eraM, eflkce, cancel, obliterate 948 

OBLIVION— forgetfulnen, oblivion 73 

OBLONG— oblong, oval 350 

OBLOaUY— reproach, contumely, obk)quy 108 

OBNOXIOUS— obnoxious, ofibnaive 146 

OBNOXlOUS-mibJect, liable, expoeed, obnox- 
ious 146 

OBSCURE— dark, obscure, dim, mysterious 480 

TO OBSCURE— to eclipse, obscure 480 

OBSEQUIES— Aineral, obsequies 84 

OBSEQUIOUS-ohedient, submissive, obsequl- 

ous 140 

OBSERVANCE— form, ceremony, right, obsenr- 

ance 83 

OBSERVANCE— obeervation, observance 491 

OBSERVANT— mindful, regardful, observant... 490 

OBSERVATION— observation, obeervance 451 < 

OBSERVATION— remark, observation, note, an- 
notation, eomment, commentary 451 

TO OBSERVE— to keep, observe, fulfil 980 

TO OBSERVE— to notice, remark, observe 450 

TO OBSERVE— to observe, watch 483 

TO OBSERVE— to see, perceive, observe 483 

OBSERVER-tooker-on, spectator, beholder, ob- 
server ,.„. 4g2 

OBSOLEl*E— old, ancient, antiquated, antkine, 

old-fkshioned, obsolete 988 

OBSTACLE— dUIIculty,lmpedbnent, obstacle... 850 
OBSTINATE— obstinate, contumacious, heady, 

stobbom, headstrong , 309 

TO OBSTRUCT— to hinder, prevent, impede, 

obstruct SSB 

TO OBTAIN— to acquire, obtahi, gain, win, earn 306 

TO OBTAIN—to get, gain, obtain, procure 306 

TO OBTRUDE— to Intrude, obtrude 500 

TO OBV1ATE-Ioprafwl,ohvtai»,praeinde.... 990 
OBV10US~apparecl^ visible, clear, plain, obvi- 
ous, evident, nanlAst 478 

TO OCCASION-Ho caase, oceasloa, ereMe 904 

OCCASION— ooeasioB, opportunity 410 

OCCASION-oeeasioii, eiiBusHy 418 

OCCASIONAL— oeeaskmal, carnal 418 

OCCULT-eecla^ hidden, lateitf, otcult, mysta. 

rioos 930 


OCCUPATION [«*"I«^» occupation 938 

OCCUPATION— buslnesB, ^?r^pt!ion^ employ- 
ment, cngegMaent, avocation 331 

TO OCCUPY— to hold, oceupy, pawam 836 

OCCURRENCK-eveot, tncldeot, accldsM, ad- 

ventaie, occurrence |78 

ODD— paiticolar, singular, odd, strai^ie, eocen- 

Wck 38S 

ODD— odd, uneven 436 

ODIOUS-hateftil, odious 137 

ODOUR— smeU, seent, odour, perAuoe, ftagrance 511 
OP COURSE-HiatnraUy, in conise, eoasequsnUy, 

of coarse fig 

OFFENCE o fl bnce, trespass, tranegrsMioo, &!•• 

demeanour, misdeed, aflhwt 190 

TO OFF£NIX-todlsplsMe,oatod,v«x 117 

C^FENDER—oftnder, delinquent 190 

OFFENDING) ,^^. ^^^ 

OFFENSIVE ^o»w«»nf,oflbnslvt 1 

OFF£NSIV&-obnoxkNM,oibnlve 146 

TO OFFER— to give, ollbr, present, exhibit m 

TO OFFER— to offer, bid, tender, propose 107 

OFFERING— ofMng, oUation 83 

OFFICE— business, oAce,duty 331 

OFFICE— office, place, chaifB, fnnecioQ 338 

OFFICE— benedt, ssrviee, good, office 160 

OFFICIOUS a ct ive, buey,oflcioue S07 

OFFSPRING— offi^ring, progeny, tane 801 

OFTEN— often, fineqa«Blly 898 

OLD-elderly, aged, old 888 

OLD— oM, ancient, antkiue, antiquated, oid-lh- 

ehloned, obsoleie 368 

OLDER-senior, elder, older 800 

OLD-TIMES— formerly, in thnes past, old Umea 

or days of yore, aactenUy, or In andent thnes 890 

OMEN— omen, prognostick, pvesege 83 

TO OMrr— to neglect, omit 433 

ON ONE'S GUARI>-^ware,oooM'sgnaid,ap. 

prised, consdoas 439 

ONE J _._^ ^ 

onlyI**^"*"*^***^ *** 

ONSET — attack, Mnult, eoeountor, ebavge, 

OMBt iM 

ONWARD— onward, forward, nmgnsslio 968 

OPAaUE— opaq«e,dark.., 481 

OPEN— candid, open, slnesra 430 

OPEN— frank, candid, ingeiiDoos, fkee, open, plain 431 

OPENINd— opening, aperture, eavior 4QI. 

OPERATION— action, agency, operatloB 89f> 

OPERATION— work, opentipn aggf 

OPINIATED ]opiniatedoroplnlttlTe,eoiieel(- 

OPINUTIVSi edtegoteiad lOO 

OPINI0N-opbik»,fenthac«,MiiM 80 



OPPONIMT ■— II, iw, ■ < ! — I/ , 

— Ujoalit 194 

OPPORTUNITY— occMtai, cyporttmlty 418 

TO OPPOBE-^ •Mrtit, oiyow 194 

TO OPP06E-HocMimdiet,oppQn,taiy 113 

TO OPPOSE— to o^|«et,oppoM lli 

TO OPPOSE-Ho cpiiOM, iwH tbwact, widi- 

■cuid....« U4 

OPPOSITE— •dvtiw, MMtraiy, oppOiUt 13i 

OPPROBBIUM-iiiAHBy, %DOBlBjr, vpv^ i MUam 108 
TO OPPUGN— to Mnftito, refuto, dlipfov*, op- 


CTTION >ntai, choln S34 

OPULENCB-rlelwt, weakb, opulwc*, ■AtoMe 9«0 

ORAI/— veital,Toettl,om 

ORATION— Mldcai,apMeh,oralkm,hvMfM.. 401 
ORATORY eioouttoo, aioqatpct , ontonr, rlMto- 


ORB-ditle,oib,gloKiplM(« 175 

TO ORDAIN ) to appolat, orto, 

TO ORDER ) dmln 184 

ORDER-etato, order, nak.Otgiw. V7B 

ORDER— ONDiMBd, MPitr, I^Juaetlaa, praeepc, 

■wndato 18S 

ORDSR-dlrectioa, ordv 219 

ORDER— ordar, medtod, rate STB 

ORDER mcceMton, toriea, Qt6m> 971 

TO ORDERr-to plaM, dispow, ordir 978 

ORDINARY— oomiDoa,Tii]nr, ordioaiy, 

ORIPICB— orilM^ paribrtttoD 

ORIGIN {oriilii, 
ARI6INAL4 rta 
ORIGINAL— prioMiy, prialtlva, pritttee, orift- 

ul 874 


jtonrtMa, fttoftlB ^ SM 

40STENTATlON-dw«r,puadt,<MleMtttai.... 493 

OVAL-obknt, orwl 

OVER— abova, over, apoa,b«3Foad 978 

OVERBALANCE — to amtalaBe^ oativalfh, 

prepoDdaiato 908 

TO OVERBEAR— to oraibear, bear down, orcr- 

powar, ovarwbalm, aoUoa 144 

OVERBEARING— inparlooa, lofdly, domliiav- 

taif, ovarbaailiif 185 

TO OVEROOMB-tooollqttar,Taoqnld^aabdlla, 


TO OVERFLOW— to orarflow, tmiiidatoidaliifa 3n 
TO OVERHBAR^-to haar, haarkaa, orarbaar . . 488 
TO OVERPOW£Rr-to baat, dalbat, oratpoirar, 

root, Of erth f ow •..•• 143 

TO OVERPOWER — >to oraibear, otu po wa i, 


TO OVERRULE— o?arrala,Bopafaada ! 

OVSRRULINQ— piavalUBf, piavalaoc, pradoml- 

TO OVERRUN )to . . 


OVERSIGHT — toadtartaoeir, lutiemloii, orar- 

dg ht 493 

t^jmSIGHT- laapaaitot, afMt l <, aupafhneiid- 

aaea... .^ 213 

TO OVERTHROW— 4» baat, dalbat, off at poiPa , 

iOBi, o m tt iow la 

TO OV1IHR OW \ to wiKi , wif Ml, 

TO OVERWHELM — to ovaibaar, baar daws. 


TO OVERWHELM— to ovarwbata, 
OUTCRY aelw, arj, oatorx, rliwaar . 
TO OOTDO-to laeHi, aiaal, atp— ^ 

OUTLINES ■lMtch,ortltaaa 

TO OUTLIVB— tooatllva,tarTlTa.... 
OUTRAGE-aflkoM, iMdlt, oatraga. .. . 
OUTSIDE ■haw, 


OUTWARD ul w ai d,< 

TO OUTWEIGH— to ovartalaaaa, ptapondwato, 


OwNERr^oaMaMf, paopnatof, owaaf, 

PACE— paea, itop 

PACIFICK— paacaabla, paaeaAU, padSefc. 

PAG AN-entUa, beatbn, 

PAIN— palB, paaf, afM 

TO PAINT— to paiB^dapicl,dallMBto,ikalBll.. 

PAIR— aoapla, braaa, pair 

PALATE-palato, taato 

PALE p a la,palUd,waa 

TO PALUATB-toaitoBQatofpalttato 

TO PALLIATB-to|loai,f«nitah,palllato 

PALLID-pak, pallid, waa 

TO PAI^ITATB— to palphaia, floUar, paac, 


PANEGYRICK— aneoBBtaUB, aulogj, paMgyikk 


TO PANT— to palpUato, flottar, paac, gaip 

PARABLE— parable, aOifory 

PARADE— riwar, puadt, ortaatatioa 







TO PARDON— to Ibffira, pardon, abeoNa, tanit 

PARDONABLK-yaalal, pairionabla 

TO PARE— to peel, para 

PARLIAMENT — aieambljr, 

aoogregadoD, parlianaot, diet, 

venUoo, ajnod, ooovoeatloii, aoQBcIl 

PARSIMONIOUS-«Tarleloiia, mieerly, parrino- 

iiloiia, niggardly •• 

PARSIMON Y aeoDomy, frogaliij, panfanoay . . 
PARSON— davgynaa, paiaoo, prieet, Balnlitor... 

PART— part, dlTlikM,portk»,ibara 

PART— part, piaea, patch 

TO PART-^todhrlde,ieparato,part 

TO PARTAKE ) to partaka, riiare, partid- 


PARTICULARr-drcnaMtantlal, adaata, partlai- 


PARTICULAR-«zact, oka, partlealar, puia> 

taal 1 

PARTICULARF-partieolar, dogalar, aeaantrldf, 

odd,atraafa • ] 

PA RTIOUL ARr-partleBlar, ladlTldual • i 

P ARTICULAR-facnUar, ap paop il a to , patttrirtar 1 
PARTICULAR ^ieclal,ipadfleh,parttel8r».. 1 









FAETNBMWIP Mwnlirtw, wcMy, 

P ABTT— tetloB, pMiar • 
FAflBAO B wm , riMi | 
FAflBIQIfATM iipy, ] 

. «» 



. 110 

PATOB— pMt, ptoMi pateli 
FATIENCB— pall( 


fathiit pitiif, piwN< 

FATIBlCT--tefidld, pMl«l 
PAPPM ponr,pWfer.... 
TOFAU81 toi— 

.. aoi 

•IfBttlOM... M» 




.. 00 



/ poic B iWfi. pmcoftil. ptlflclt 

PBBPOBATIOIf ml^fmtantkm 4lt 

TO PBRFORIf— to eflket, prodoet, ptrfbna ttO 

TO PERPOElf-«o«lKal«,fltfai,pOTlbnB 9B6 

PBEFORMANCB — prodnctkn, woile, paribai- 

UM Mi 

PBB]K)EiaBSr-Mlor, plaj«r, ptHbnotr MS 

PBRFUMK-toHll, nent, odour, flafriaM^ pcr- 

ftuM ni 

FSSIL— daagor,kinfi,poril 171 

PBBIOD— MMBBOt, pnpotlikM, pvlod, phnn .. 464 
PfBIOD— UaM,poriod,age,dMt,tre,e|iocka.... S87 

TO PElIBH-4optrt*,dta|4wtj 971 

TO PEBJUBE— loflMnretr,piiJiir«,nboni.... Oi 
PBEMAlfEWT-^daiaM6,liidm,pwmiBWrt.... MS 
PBRMBMON-tere, Utertjr, pmMoi^ lIcoDM 8S9 
TO PERMIT— io admit, aUow, pimU, tolonia, 

■nftr 157 

TO PERMIT— to ooMtnt, penalt, allow 156 

PERNIGIOUB— deitroctlve,niiBOQf,p«nilekM».. 904 
PBRNiqoUE-luiftftd, wokMM, BotaoBe,penil- 



TO PERPETRATE— 10 pifpiiraie,eoaiBiit... 

PERPFTUAL— eootfaiMl, perpotaal, oooitaat. 

TO PERPLEX— 10 dittw, hiriw, parpli . . . 

TO PERPLET— IO tntanoM^ P«rplex» 

TO PERSEVERE i 10 oontiH 

TO PERSIST i ifat, puii «o^p«necatt«... 

TO PERSIST-loiuHponlrt 


PERHPlCUJTy- doinw, porapjcutty 

TO PER8UADE-to abort, panudo 

TO PERSUADE— 10 pffMOde, entko, pnnraJl 


FBWCRIOPi ■JOn—i kil,iayi 

rioii ^ tbrifty, 1 
PSHURT — pofwtjr, 

PEOPL E p toplo,Mtloa 404 

PEOPLE poopio, popaftoo, iMti, mobDHy 406 

PBOPLE-iptopli,pindCM,lblki 406 

TO PERCEIVB— 10 pmo^tn, dtetOH dtaite- 

folil i *® 

TO PERyia vM— tow%pMtolyo, ofcomrt 480 

FEBJUXtnON pwn4piioi,hko,cioawpiio«,MO- 

PEREMPTORT-porithro, ■b«)talek porqD p n» r l86 

PERFECT— eonpleio, pvlbet, floMMd. . 

PERFIDIOOW ftlthliw^i 

TO PERFORATB-to pmmie, j 

PERSUASION— coavletkM, ponoMloa .... 

WRTINEW T p a rtl oea t, niovaal 

PERVERSE— awkward, crooi, crookad, 
ward, fioward, poifviat .......*..••*%* 


. SIS 
. 70 


PESTILENTIAL— eoBiagioai^ apidmloalv pcuft- 

PETTnON— prajar, paiiiko, r t ou tit, aatiaatf , 


PBTTT— trttUag,triTial, pauj, fHvoloa% fittilo.. 
PETULANT— eapdoai^ eion, poeviiii, ftotfol, 

PHANTOM-^fWoB, appailtfoB, 




PHRAS E ■na fKiO t p ro p oi i tloo, parted, plwaw.. 
PHRASE idktIoD, phnaa, plnnolofr, 


PHRENSY madBMi, phreoay, lan^ fluy 

TO PICK— 10 ebooia, pick, adeet 

PICTURB— likMMHi pletura, laiafa, cOgy 


PICTURE— pletora, print, engravliic 

PIECE— part, pleea, patch 

TO PIERCE— 10 poDotrate, pierce, peribrata, boia 
TO PILE heap, pSe, accnamlate, 

PILLAGE rap lae , phwAw, pMafa 

PILLAR— pillar, cohona 

TO PINCH— to proai,eqaaeaa,ptai^fripa.. 

TO PINE— to flat, droop, laapilA, pioa 


PIQUE ■ailca, laneoor, ^ptte^ 8ra%*i P^^** 





prrEOl78-vllnw,MiM,wilW,nMM 4U 


PITIABLE Splt60W,pMable,pklAil 39B 


PITIFUL-ineam pklftd, MidM 411 

PrnPUL-contempitbte, dMpteafe 

PITY— phjr, compMiioo 

pmr— pltjr, laercy 

PLACE— office, place, charge, tawtloa 

PLACE place, ■ltnatkm,itttlen,p<wilhi«,p<t.. 978 

PLACE— place, ipoc, file «?P 

TO PLACfi-lo place, dbpoee, order 878 

TO PLACE— ID pot, place, lay, ael 

PLACID calm, placid, iwene 

PLAIN-appareot, TialUe, dear, plala, obrioui, 

evident, manireat 478 

PLAIN— eveo, nDootli, level, plain 435 

PLAIN — frank, candid, In fannooi, free, open, 

plain 431 

PLAIN— aincere, iMNMiC, tnie, plain 

PLAUDIT— applaoae, acclaiatton, plaodU 130 

PLAUSIBLE — cokraraMe, tpeclons, eate nriWe , 

plaoaible, feariMe 516 

PLAY— play, game, sport 384 

PLAYER— actor, player, perfbnner 

TO PLEAD-apolofiae, defend, JiMtMy, dcoae, 

ezcolpate, plead 181 

PLEADER— defender, advocate, pleader........ 180 

PLEASANT— agreeable, pleaaant, plemi ni 1S3 

PLEASANT— fecetknts, convertible, pleasant, jo 

cular, jocose 4M 

TO PLEASE— to sattsfy, please, gratliy 

PLEASED-glad, pleased, joyful, cheerAil 393 

PLEASING— agreeable, pleasant, pleasing 158 

PLEASURE— comfort, pleasare 3S7 

PLEASURE— pleasare, joy, deUght, charm 

PLEDGE— depoetie, pledge, seenrlty 183 

PLED6E-earne•^ pledge 184 

PLENIPOTENTIARY— ambaasador, plentpoteo- 

tiary,envoy, depaty S14 

PLENITUDE-Aihieas, pfenhnde Ml 

PLENTEOUS ) plentifbl, plent e oos , abondaat, 
PLENTIFUL 5 ooploos, aaople 341 

^^1^ I flexible, pUable, pliant, snpple 380 

PLIGHT— altaatlon, condition, state, predicament, 

plight, case 879 

PLOT— combination, cabal, plot, conspiracy 480 

TO PLUCK— to draw, drag, haol or hale, phidc, 

poll, tog 303 

PLUNDER— rapine, plunder, pillage 507 

TO PLUNGE-CO plunge, dive 3S3 

TO POINT— to afan, point, level 894 

TO POINT OUT— to show, point out, Indicate, 

mark 451 

TO POISE— to poise, bolaooe 370 

POISON-polsoo, venom 503 

polSb^^Jp^*^"^**^*'^'^''''^ "• 

POLITE-civD, poUte 198 

I?"^^ {potttfeaLpoUtlck 5U 

POLITICAL S ••«'«»» I"""* "" 

TO POIXUTB— to contaminate, defile, pollnle, 


POMPOUH m^lsteriBl, Bwjsailck, stalely, 
one, angnat, dignlaed.....**... •*•.... 
TO PONDER— CO think, reSeet, ponder, » 








POOR— poor, paapar 

POPULACE people, popnlnce, aMb, aoUliiy. 

PORT— barbonr, havan, pott 

TO PORTEND-^ aagw, ptesi«i 

token, portend 

PORTION— deal, qoaatky, portion. 
PORTION— part, dlvWon, povtioi^ 
POSITION — plaee, akaaiion, atadon, psaHiDn, 


POSITION— aetfcm, gestnre, gestlculatton, aal- 
tode, poatmre, position 

POSITION— tenet, position 

POSITIVE— aetaal, real, poeMve 

POSmVE—eonfldenC, dagmalkal, positive 

POSmVE-dellolte, positive 

POSITIVE— poetiive, ahsohMs, paramptoiy 


TO POSSESS— to bold, occupy, 

POSSBSSIONS-goods,poasssBlonB, property.... 340 

POSSESSOR— poaaessor, proprietor, onmer, maa- 
ter 9M 

POSSIBLE-possible, practicable, praetlcal 8M 

POST— place, slloaiioo, statkm, postHoa, poet. .. . 978 

POSTERIOR — sobae qu en t , conaequsnt, poala* 
rior SJ8 

TO POSTPONE— Co delay, defer, postpene, pro- 
crastinate, prokmg, protract, reurd 998 

POSTURE— aoUon, gestnre, gestlcniation, poa- 
ture, attitude, position 98S 

POTENT— powerfW, potent, mighty 187 

POTENTATE— prince, monarch, sovers lg n, po- 
tentate 188 

POVERTY— poverty. Indigence, want, penury, 
need 848 

TO POUND— CO break, bruise, oqoeene, poaod, 
crush * 901 

TO POUR— Co poor, spin,shed 3|8 

POWER— power, strength, force, authority, do- 
minion 188 

POWERFUL— powerful, potent, mighty 187 

PRACTICABLE j ... ., . , . . «^ 

PRACTICAL \ P*^^*' Pr^Ucable, practical 384 

PR ACTICB— custom, habit, manner, practice . . . 319 

TO PRACTISE— CO exercise, practise 3B 

TO PRAISE— to praise, commend, applaud, ex- 
tol 130 

PRAISE WORTHY— commendable, pralaewortfay, 

laudable 131 

PRANK— frollck, gambol, prank 30S 

TO PRATE ^ to babble, chatter, chat, prate, 

TOPRATTLEt prattle 49B 

PRAYER— prayer, pethioo, request, entreaty, 

suit 87 

PRECARIOX/S^ — doubtful, dubious, uncertain, 

precarioos 06 

PRECEDENCE— priority, preced ence , preference, 
pr e e mi ne n ce .........•.....*..•.....••••.• 9^R 

PRECBDEN T e ffi nn < e , pr a c si m 881 




PmBCEFT— ooBM— Id, oidw, UgancUoo, praeept, 

HMindf J8S 

PRECEPT— ttoctriM, prceqic, prtodpto 80 

PRECEPT— Huudomifeeeiil, nimaw 811 

PRECIOUS--TidiMMe,prMioM,coMl7 437 

PEECIPITANCY-Hrwliiiai, teoMri^, hMtbwM, 

pradpitaaej < 

PEECISE— •comae, eiael, praeiM 903 

TO PRECLUDB-lo prarcDi, obTfate, praclode SSO 
PEECU180E— fimnuAV, praeonor.iBMnfer, 

InrMoftr ^ 915 

PEEPICAMENT rffiiition^fwidltfcwi, mile, pre- 

dicaBiMt,piicbt,eMe 979 

TO P&EmCT-iolbralel, pndiet, pw n a o rt c aw > 

nmnhmB ^^ ,,,, 04 

PmBDOMINANT-preTaUiiif, pravalvtt, ww 

raliBf, pcedonlout 905 

PlE-Elt mBNCE- pdprity,pwc»diB<NHpt».eBii- 

Miie0| preflNwBco ••••«•••••••..»•.•..,.,, ,, 973 

PREFACE— prdada, prelliM 931 

TO PEEFER-lo dioow, pnCor 9X| 

TO PEEFEE-co eneoarafB, adruee, proneca, 

prafer, ibrwafd 319 

PREFEEABLS-allglble,prar«raiile 934 

PREFERENCE— priority, precadenca, pca-anl- 

naace, piateaoca •>••■■>>•••..•... 973 

PREJUPICE-bia«,pwjudica, ptapnawiailim lOO 

PREJUDICE-dtoadvaotaft, iojiny, bart, detrf- 


tory, iatradodonr 374 

PRELUDE-praloda, preteea 931 

TO PREMISE— to pramiae, pnaoiDa 93J 

PREMEIttTATION-iMvalfiM, ibmboufht, tan- 

caat, pfiaiMMHiaikm •....••«.,.... 309 

TOPREPARE-lofll,aqiiipkprapare,qiiattiy... 154 
PREPARATORY— pmloaa, praliaBliwiy, pvapa- 

ntofy, iacradoekify 974 

TO PREPONDERATE— toorariwIaMa, ptepoo- 

darala, outwaich , 906 

nEPOSEEBSlON— Waa, pfipoaataaluu, pmio- 

dloa 100 

PRPOeaEaMON-baiit, Mas, ftodiaaiion, pi*. 

pnnMrion 15B 

PREPOSTEROUS — trratlaay, JMUh abavd, 


TO PRE8UME-40 praMlM, I 

PRESUMING— iKcauiDpaTa, pnauaipCiiMn, pra- 

PRESUMFTION— arrofanea, pranmipcioa 931 

PRESUMPTIVE )pnaiimpciiFa,pvaMUDptiiOM, 

PRESUMPTUOUS t praaoiiilng 939 

PRETENCE— pralaaea, prctanakM, pfalaxt, as- 

CUM 99 

TO PRETEND-lo feign, pretend. ...• S» 

TO PRETEND-to aifeci, pretend 9» 

PRETENSION— pcetemlon, claim 8» 

PRETENSION 1 pracanea, pratanrioo, pniait, cx- 

PRETEXT ) ease 9V 

PRETTY— beaaUAU, flee, bandaone, pretty 313 

PREVAILING — pravalUag, mliag, omntUnc, 

pferaleDt, pfadominant 90S 

TO PREV ARICATE-to erade, equivoeate, pra- 

▼aricate SM 

TO PREVENT— CO hinder, prevent. Impede, ob- 

PREROOATIVE-pilviifa, pianfativt, 

nhy, asaoiptkw 9g8 

PRESAGE— OM, ptarafaliva, praai^ 13 

TO PRE8AOB-10 amnr, pr iai ^, forebode, ba- 

tokeo, portend 94 

TOPRE8CRIBE-loappotol,pnMrfba,«d^'.*. 184 

TOPRESCRIBE-codietata,praaeriba 184 

PRESCRIPTION— «8ata,eaalan,piMcripclon.. 994 
PRE8ENT-fl A, piaaant, donation, banefeeiloa. * 104 
TOPRESENT^-4ofl»e,o«r,prawiH,axblbtt... 163 

TO PRESENT-^ lniroduee,pnaant 163 

TOPRBSERVB-tokeep,pieatrva,aava ITO 

TO PRESERVE-to aata, apva, praaarva, pro- 

««« 179 

TO PRBBS-4opre«,8qoeeae,pinab, gripe 309 

PRESBIN H p i i ia g, fgiai,biH«t«9la.... 188 

TO PREVENT— to prevent, anticipate 989 

TO PREVENT— to prevent, obviate, preclude. . . 989 
PREVIOUS — antecedent, preceding, foregoing^ 

prevloua, anterior, prior, former 978 

PREVIOUS— pravkHiB, preUrainary, preparatoiy, 

lotrodnctoiy 974 

PREY— booty, ipoll,prqr 590 

PRICE— coat, azpenee, price, cbarge 436 

PRICE v a l u e, worth, rate, priee 430 

PRIDE-^iride, vanity, conoeit MM) 

PRIDE-pride,haaglitlaeai,loAineM, dignity.... 100 
PRIEST— clefgyman,parBon,prieM,mtaiiiler.... 88 
PRIMARY » primary, primldve, prirtlne, orlgl- 

PROftTIVEi nal 974 

PRINCE^-prinGa^ monarch* aovenign, potentate 188 

PRtNCIPAL-cUai; principal, main 900 

nUNCIPALLY— eepeclaUy, pattknlariy, princi- 
pally, chiefly 900 

PRlNCIPLE-doctrioe, precept, principle 80 

PRINCIPLE-prlneiple, motive 913 

PRINT— mark, print, lmprearion,aiamp 440 

PRINT— pletara, print, engraving 48o 

PRIORr-antecedent, preceding, foregoing, prevl- 

ooa, anterior, prior, A»mer 979 

PRIORITY— priority, p ra ced t e, pra^ninence, 

p re fer ence 973 

PRISTINE — prIflMay, primitive, priattee, origi- 
nal 974 

PRIVACY— privacy, retirement, awtarion 988 

PRIVILEGE— privilege, pcerogative, exemption, 

immonity • VS 

PRIVILfiG£-righ^ claim, privUega 998 

PRIZE— capture, eetarara, prixa 800 

TO PRIZE-to value, prise, eateem 430 

PROBABIIJTY*-«haace, probabiUty 170 

PROBITY— hooeaty, nprlgbtneai, Integrity, pro- 
bity 497 

TO PROCEED-to advance, proceed 301 

TO PROCEED— to ariae, proceed, iMoe, iprfaig^ 

ir,emanato*.. ••.... 991 

PROCEEDING-proceedii«, traniactlon 30 

PROCEEDING 1 „_,_.,^ „„,.^ ^^^^.^ ^ 
PROCESS j !*''**'••*""•» proM"i progrea^ .. 3a» 

PROCESSION— proGeaioo,trtin,ratiBaa 483 



TO PROCLAIM-4OBMoaM0,|liOCtalB,pdlM^ 

•dTcrtiM *..- 443 

TO PEOCLAm-'to ieetare, imUtab, praeteta.. 44S 
PROCLAMATlOII-decrae, •diet, produMtloii 443 
TO PROOEASTIir ATB-lo d«liy, ddbr, poM- 

poae,proeraatiiiale,pfoloiif,|itotract, retard.. itO 
TO PROCUBS— to get, gate, obttlii, proem..*. 396 
TO PROCURE-lo pvQvfde, pioeore, AubWi, 

wppiy *• 

PRODIOAL-tftravafHtt, protfgal, lavtab, pro- 
toe yet 

FRODIGIOUa eiwc m oae, prodlcloat, noMtfoae ] 
PRODIOT— wooder, miracle, marrel, pndigy, 

. 390 

PROPUOR-pro da e tl oa, pradoee, prodnet... 
TO PEODUCB-ID aflbrd, yield, prodoee .. 
TO PRODUCE— 10 eAet, produce, perferm. 
TO PRODUCB— to nake, ftmn, pro^hice, create SOS 

PROPCTCTIO W pi od u c U oB, perfbnaaace 

PROPANB-fanellslooi, proAM, impioM 08 

TO PROFB8B-toprotoe,deelan 448 

FEOPBSSION-lNietiieiB, trade, proAerion, art.. 331 

PBOFICIBNC Y p r ogrew, pro fl U en c y, tepiofe- 

meM 904 

PROFIT— adroatage, profit 

PROFIT— gala, profit, eaKhnaeatjIoero.. ...... 307 

PROFLIOATB-profllgate, abandooed, riprobote 840 

PROFUNDITY— depth, proAiadlty 

PROFUSE e rtra v eg aat, piodlgel, laTleb, proAMe 348 

PROFUSENBaS I ^- .^ «roft««— mi 

PROFUSION J pro''"***, proflieene- 30 

PROOENITORB Ibreftlhew, aneertora, paoge al - 

ton 880 

PROGENY— oAprIng, profMy,line ;.... 801 

PROONO»-rH/-ii^-«BeD, pria agi, pro ga p etl clt... 08 
TO PROONOSnOATE-lofoietel, prediet,prog. 

PROGRESS— proceedtaf, pinwiMi, progreee 333 

PROGRESS— pvogreei, proSdeaey, faBproveneat 8M 
PROGRESS » ptogWj progiaiAii, adyaace, 

PROGRESSION ) advaaeeoieat 80i 

PROGRESSIYE-OBwanl, Ibrward, pro gr ee il ye 308 
TOPROHIBir-to fiMMd, proldMt, interdict. 

PROO F eigau w m, fiMD ii , pioof. 7T 

PROOF-proar,evldenee,teBtlBioay 444 

PROOF-ezperteaee, exp er la iet, trial, proof, lert Sit 

PROP— itali; etay, prop, eapport SM 

TO PROPAGATE-to epeed, droolaie, propa- 
gate, dte^mteate 3tf 

PROPENSITY— lBeBaatloa,teodeBcy, p tooeaee i . 

PROPER-figbt,jae^ proper... 
PROPERTY— fooda, p i o pe ity, 

PROPERTY— quality, property, allribale SM 

PROPITIOUS-lbroarable, eaeplcloae, propMooe 190 
TO PROPHESY— 10 fcreiel, predkt, propheey, 
prognoellcata ...•...•••.••............••.•. 04 

PROPCHITION— rale, proportloa, ratio 43« 

PROPORTlO y ej f mn wtry, p io p o illu n 433 

PROPORTIONATE- pro porti o o a i e^ rinmMaaro 

TO PROPOSB-to ofilbr, Md, tender, propoea.... 107 

TO PROPOSE-to pvpoee, propoee 04 

PROPOSITION— eeoteoce, propoaMoa, period, 

PR<^1UETOR — poeweepr, p rop il elor , owaer, 

maeiar i 

TO PROROGUE— 4o prorogue, adjoara i 

TO PROBCRIBE-Co IbtWd, prohibit, iaterdkc, 

TO PROSECUTE— to cootiBae, pereevero, per- 
riet, puraue, proeecole*. ........ ..*.....*• -SOd 

PROSELYTE— convert, proeelyte 88 

PROSPECT— Tlew, eorrey, praapeet 470 

PROSPECT— view, praepeet, laadacape 479 

TO PROSPER-lo floariih, thrfTe, proeper 388 

PROSPERITY— weH-belag, weUhre^ proeperl^, 

PROJECTT-^eelga, plaa, eeheaM, pKifeet SS4 

PROUnCK— IbrtUe, fniilAir, prdMok 341 

PROLIX— dMViee, prolix 484 

TO PROIX)NG— 10 delay, deiv, poe tp oa e, pro- 

ntOMINENT— proBdneot, eone p lcaom 474 

PROMISCUOUS-promieeaooa, Indleerimiaata. . 884 

PROmSE— procDlee, engageoMBt, word 817 

TO PROMOTE— to emovaie, advance, pitanote, 

preftr, Ibrward .•....•••••........••....•%• 318 

PROMPT-diUieBt, espedttkNiii proiHit 808 

PROMPT-ieady, ap^ prompt 807 

TO PROIfULOATE-4opobiiri^ proauiIgaM^ di- 

valge, reraal, dledoee 443 



PROSPEROUS— fortanale, locky, p toepcro a e ^ 

TO PROTECr-to de ft ad, p r o t ee i , viadlcate... . TB 
TO PROTECT— 4o eave, epaia, preeerve, peoieci TB 
TO PROTEST— 10 ofibrm, ee rote i a i e, aMore, 

TO PROTRACT— to del^, deAr, poetpeoe, pro- 
croetloale, proleng, protract, retard 988 

TO PROVE— loai|ne,evlace,pr0f« 77 

TO PROVE~4o proro, d u m on a l ii l e , evlaee, ma- 
Bitat 444 

PROVERB— axiom, amzim, aphoricBH apopb- 
fhegm, eayiBg,adete, proverb, by-word, aaw 910 

TO PROVIDE— mptavidebproMre, fanirfi,eBp- 

ply a» 

PROVIDENCE provldeace,pradeBce 308 

PROVIDENT— caraM, caatloue, provMeot 488 

PROVISION— Ibre, prarMoB ^ 9D 

TO PROVOKE-4B aggraraie, irritate, provoke. 

TO PROVOKE— 10 awakaa, aadta, provoke, 

TO PROVOKE— 10 anUi, iadie, provoke 
PRUDENC E p ra de B M 
PRUDENCE wiedom, 

TO PRY— 10 fiyi 




PRYD fO uu l u <i ,M i |liH. ioq|rt<ttf> M 

TO PUBUBH— to aBBomiMk prootalnt«dT«llM, 

yyMtah • • ^^ 

TOPnBLIfiH--lod«tan,pabdirtHPioeliafli.... 4CI 
TO PUBLOaS-lo poblU^ pPOwdfUt, «vi||B| 

mMl,4toeioM. •• 40 

rUESIL»-9MllilU,jBvwllt,pa0ttt «n 

TO PULL-lo 4mw, dnf, kMl «r Ma^ poll, 


Pf7PII/-«lMlar, 4l«i|te, pnpU 
TO FUBGHAflB— to baj. 


TO PUSP08B-to 4Mifi, pwpow. iBMMl, I 
TO PUBPOffli ID pvpQia,vcopQM........ 

TO FUSflUB— loMlo«r,|iwia*. ». 

T0PUB8US— to oortliw, imie i at , |m 



TOPUT— topit,plM«»lif,nC 

rO PiniLEFT-*4ofot,piilMiy,cofnpl*. 


TO QUAXM to ifc«l M| lwAb,ri w i4de r ,qttlTW, 

qoAke •• • 2 


QUAL[FIXD-«Quptim,illtoi,qinlUM IM 

TO QUAUFT- to 111, w^p^ pnpwBi qoalUy*. 154 
rO anALIFT-40«ttltfy,tMNp«r, bamonr.... 368 
OF aOALITT-«r ftiWni, of qMlHr, of dli. 

llMthm 474 

qUA UTY n^tJUtft Vnp«t]f, 
aUAjnnT— dtol, iinantitj, poHlM... . 
aUARBSL-dtflbmet^ 4tapQto, viwral, 

tiM 131 

QUARSEL-oiHirel, brail, ftad,aft^r or ftir.. U3 
aUABTEE-diilrki,n|loii,tioet,fpwtor...... 4M 

auSBT » 

TO aUSBnON-todonbC, 

loftto ••«••••••••••••••••••••• ••••••••••••• i? 

OmCKNglW qirfflrof , mrlftMHi, i litoi to, 

CileriC7,iiVMH]r.«iiocil3r Ml 

OCll T <M^q«tBt,itot,wpflto.^. 3fli 

OPIBT-pooet, qal or, f o hn, teanqnlimy 381 

TO ainST-40 appitoo, ate. PMl^, «alaC «■ 961 

TO QI7IT-4olMtvo,4iilt,nllo4iyA 158 

TO QI7IVB»-to rinfc% trankK otaMflr, qdh 

[ qoegtioo, quay • 

TO QDOTK-4o«ltok«ioto. 

BACH ftmlly,! 

EA OB ro Mii 

TO RACK— toknok,iaelc,i«ii,toir.. 

EAMAWCf ra«Mfn,trl«MBy 



• f75 

. 801 


. U8 

TORAiax— tolM,mlM|toed,ilovato,«anlt... ] 
TO RALLT-40 derldt, OMOk, ridiwile, raOy, 

RAMBLB^^ O Maiiioo,mBiblo,toor,irip,janBC... lOt 

RAN00UB.-liaarad)€QBlt3r,UI'WUl,raM0W... 137 
BANOOUl Moltno, raaoow, apito, 8ni4i«i P<qM 8Bi 

TO EAHOB-to«lMi,vni«o,nB|t 177 

TO RAN6B-to wwte, ■tralli nunMOk n^ 

rauHfOBfO 118 

RANK--«loii,oritr,nuik,d0gKt 178 

TO RANSOM-toradtMHruMMi 448 

BAPACTOO n r opo c lo m , raTOBooo, vonekras.. S07 
BAPIDITY qnkinii,iiiliUwOi,l 

rity, npMliy, vdocky.. 
BAPINB-faptao, ptaadOT, 

RAPTUBB— «toto«]r, raptofo, troMport SIS 

BABB-HTvt, MOTM, riofoltr ISO 

TO lAHE to Mot oat, oipvafo, raw or eraoo, 

•flkeo,cunl,oUitonto , 918 

BASH Aiolhiriy, odfiftOMi, fh 8n 

BAgHNBTin iMliiitoi,taowrlcy, htoOiiMi, pred- 

pitaney 161 

BATB'-rata, proportkw, ratio 434 

BATB-^<a«, mto, niBwuioat 168 

B ATE— fataOk wortb, lato, prioa 498 

TO BATE— to oalfaMto, eonpoM^ rato* 431 

BATIO-rato, proportiop, latto 434 

BAT10NAL-«BlloMl,raMOMblo 7t 

BAVACnr garafi, itoolanwi, daraitoltoa 506 

TO BAVAOE— to oian|iiaail, ofarron, ravafo. . 507 
BAVBWOUS— rapadoaa, rat aa o u ik iForactooi. . . 507 

BAT— flMn,|llauMr,ray,baaaii 478 

TO BAZB^-todamoHi*, laaa, 4tanaBtla, dtolroy 505 

TOBBAOH-toiaacb,ili«tol^asMwl 948 

BBADT-OMy, naiy 383 

BBAD Y toa dy, apt, praoipt Vf 

BBAL ae f I, wal, poMLw 196 

BSAIj— loiriailBk, teoolaok fNl 4gt 

TO BBAUZB-to AiMI,aeeoaqdMi,nallae.... ttO 

BEAL M ■to t a . fartto,O Q nitooa#a alU i..... 180 

BEAIOW aigiiMtm, I'iaaoB, proof* 77 

BEA80N-caan,i«iKM,MOtivo 77 

BEAEOW 00Mldagallcu,rMaDa 77 

BBAEON— oaka, aeeooat, l aaaoa , pnipoae, and. . 538 
BEA80NABLB-Mr, hontot, oqoliaUa, reaooD- 

BBAEON AELE-ratiooal, fMBonaMo . 

, 71 


TO BE EOUN D-to wbound, wrarbarato, recon 305 
TO BEBUFE-^o t a lb to, datBaa, rtjoei, repel, 

TO BEBUKE— to eboek, cblda, reprUnand, lo- 

pro«a,rabaki UO 

TOBEOALL i toal!|ara^reeaiit,rMract,iaToka, 

TO BEOAEtI laeaO 117 

TO BEOAFITULATB-tofapaat,iMlto,fMapl- 



BEOEP T iwilp t,i ii ^l ii. 



TO RBCBVS-loulM^nMlMiMeaft. ta 

TO BECEIV1&-40 admit, reetiv* OS 

USQENT^ftMbyiitir, novel, neMCiawdani.... 968 

BBCEPnON— reoalpl, w wptioa tn 

RECIPROOAI^^natMl, raelpiocal SM 

KECIPROdTY— IntMctoaia, wchaim, iwlpio* 

clQr »4 

KBGITAL— ratetloo, raeiul, MmcioB 408 

TO RECITE— 10 repeat, leeUe, nliMive, ncapl- 

tataae 405 

TO RECKON— HO calculate, coapme, reekoih 

coaat or aoeovBt, Bwabw 4tt 

RBCKONINO accoOTt,bUI,feckoatiit OS 

. TO RECLAIlf-lo redabD, reform 

TO RECLINE— 10 radlBe, repoae 

TO RECOGNISE— 10 reeogDiM, KknowMge .. 44S 
TO RECOIL— to rebound, re?erberaie, leeoU ... 
RECOLLECTIO N m eawy, rememkraaee, re- 

folhutloi ii rwalalfw u MW 78 

RECOMPENS E e o w pa M a t io n, aa« 

itoton, r em q n e ratl o n , lee o aa p enee, requital* . 488 
RECOMPENSE-«i«iii|]r, reeoaa p e a e e . . . 

TO RECONCILE— to eoneiUate,reeoncUe 1S3 

TO RECORD— to enrol, enllai, record, regtam... 408 

RECORD— record, raftoier, atchiTe • 408 

TO RECOUNT— to relate, teeouot, daaeribe .... 408 
TO RECOVER— 10 recover, retrieve, repair, re- 
cruit 440 

RECOVERY— recovery, reato r atl— 448 

RECREATION— aaraeenMBt, catertaianMnt, dl- 

verrion, fport, lecreatloo, paaiinie 301 

TO RECRUIT— to recover, retrieve, repair, re- 

cmiC 440 

TO REOTtf- jr— to aa iiwd, eor r e e t, relbnn, lecti^y, 


RECTITUDE— reMltude, 
TO RBDEEH-lo redeem,! 

REDRESS— redrem, reUar aOS 

TO REDUCE— to ittduee, lower 148 

RBDUNDANCT — redandancQr, anperftdtr, ex- 

e«i ' aa 

TO REEL— to aligfar, real, totler 303 

TO REFER— to altnde, teftr, lUnt, aoomc 398 

TO REFERr-to reftr, relata, reaiiif l, mai< 398 

lEFINED-iiolita, paUahad, refined, leoteel Ifii 

REFINEMENT— CQltivatioo, dvilixatiott, refiae- 

■»>» 108 

TO REFLECT— to conaldar, reflect 76 

TO REFLECT — to tidnk, reflect, moaa, pon- 
der 70 

REFLECTION— I nal H B att oa, reflectloa 397 

TO REFORM— to amend, correct, reform, redUy, 

emend, Improve, mend, better 901 

TO REFORM— to reclaim, leform 968 

rSormationI'''^'^^'*™*'" ^ 

RBFRACTORT— QonUy, anfovenabla, reftne- 

tory 908 

TO REFRAIN— to abitain, forbear, lefrain 944 

TO REFRESB-4oi«vivek refteib, movMe, n- 

new, , 900 

REFUGE-«Viw>« t«A«Bi iMiar, retraat flU 

TO REFUSE— ID deny, reftve 933 

REFU8E-4rei^aad<pMM,dtQai^8eagi,iiAM .. flf 

TO RBFUSE-4oreAHa,da>llM,n|eai,npdi;ft- 

baff SB 

TO REFUTE-40 conf^ reAiM, o ppag n, dla- 

prove ii§ 

REOAL-reyal, lef^ kli«ly 100 

REGARD— care, concern, ragaid «S 

TO REGARD-lo attend ta,aand,lwed,ritaid.. 499 

TO RECARD— ta m i ai m, i m p i et , lefart mt 

TO REGARD— 10 condder, ragaid , 77 

TO REGARD— to rafor, reiam, f m p i et , regard. . . 398 
R£GARimJL-mindfol,ragaidfol,oteetvaat.... 480 
REGARDLESS— iadiArent, nneoncemed, re- 

g*rdlem 37S 

REGIMEN— food, diet, regimen Old 

REGIO N d i it f ict, region, qoarter 408 

TO REGISTER— to enrol, enllit, racard, raglMar 480 

REGlSTERr-record, regliter, archive 408 

REGISTER-*Ui^raH,catalogae,r«glM8r 408 

TO REGRET— to complain, laaMnl, regret 480 

TO REGULATE-m dtract, dhpoee, rapilate... m 

TO REGULATE— 10 govern, nile, rcgolato 900 

TO REHEARSE— to repeat, recite, retMarea, ra- 

capltulate ^gg 

REIGN— empire, reign, dominion 187 

TO REJECT-40 refoie, decline, reject, repel, n- 

boir sig 

REJOlNDER-anawer, reply, reader, reaponia 408 
TO RELATE— to refor, relate, rcapect, regard... 300 

TO RELATE— to relate, racovnt, dcacribe 408 

RELATED— connected, related 419 

RELATION— relatlan,recilal, narration 400 

RELATION ) relation, relative, Undrad, Idna- 

RELATIVE 5 man 400 

RELATIONSmP-kindrad, retnllBMtil|i,aflhlty, 

coneanguinity 497 

TO RELAX-40 relax, remit 988 

RELENTLESS— Implacable, wmeleniing, 1 alert 

lem^ Inexorable • sgt 

RELEVANT— pertlneat, relevaat 307 

RELIANCE— dependence, rellaaee 4]g 

RKLiCKS-leaviQge, remaina, reliclBB Kg 

RBLDEF'-Mdreee, relief. ggg 

TO REL IEVE -Ho aSeviate, reHave m 

TO RELOCVE-to belp, aailat, aid, aneconr, ra- 

Ueve ^ 

RELIGIOUS-My.pione, devout, raUgiooa..... 88 
TO RELINOUISIi-lo abandon, dmeit, foraake, 

rellnqpieh ffg 

TO RBLINCIUISH-to leave, quit, reHnqoleh . . 988 

RELISH— taate, flavour, retteb, aavonr sit 

RELUCTANT-avene, awlllta«, backward, re- 

hictant,kwth isg 

TO REBIAUf— to continae, remain, otay 908 

REMAINDER — rert, remainder, remnant, reel- 

<«>• - 998 

EBMAIN&-leavlngi,remalna, rendu 998 

R E M AR K— remark, ehaarv a tion, comment, note, 

annotatton, nommeiHary 4S1 

REMARKABLE-axtmoidkMfy, lemmkabli . .. ai 

TOREMARK-4onatiea,rammk,obaerve 498 

TO REMEDY-toenrcbeal, remedy 388 

REMEDY— eara, remedy 388 



tlMmBtA WC P MO — ami, mamrtti, n- 

menbraneer 500 


lectkm, remlnlfeeDca W 

REMlBS-HicfUtent, mlMiCaralcp, th owg l i t lew, 

lieedlCM,liwttenUT« *M 

TO REMIT— to IbiflTe, pwdon, b1no1v«, rank. . 87 

TO KEMIT-lonlu,i«roU 856 

JtEMNANT— nrt, ranaioder, reommit, mldiM. . 970 
TO RSMONSTEATE — to ezpostulatc, noMMi- 

■tnite 4B» 

SBMORSE — repentanca, pealtenoak coBtiltloo» 

enmpuncUon, reroorae ., 87 

REMOTEr-distant, f^, raisote i 

REMUNERATION— co m pe m ali o o, aa l i rf actkw, 
aoModi, raoiuawartnn, laoopipa w a, requital, 

reward ^ » <38 

TO REND— to break, raek,nnd,t«ar 901 

TO RENEW ) to revive, refredi, renovate, 

TO RENOVATE} renew 1 

TO RENOUNCE— to abandon, reeign, renounce, 

abdicate -. »43 

RENOWN— Tame, repotatlon, renown 472 

RENOWNED— AnMHif, celebrated, leoowned, U- 

liutrioua -* 473 

TO REPAIR— to recover, retrieve, repair, reemU 440 
REPARATION— reiioratkNi, KcatUnlion, repara- 
tion, aroendi «« 430 

REPARTEE-retort, repartee 461 

TO REPAY— to veitore, return, repay 430 

TO REPE AL-HO aboUal^ abrogate, repeal, annul, 

revoke, cancel , 947 

TO REPEAT— to repeat, recite, rebeane, recapi- 
tulate 40S 

TO REPEL-to reAMe, decline, riject,repel,rcbair 838 
RKPENTANCE-^t ep entanc e , pen H eo c e, eootrl- 

tion, CQmpanctkm, remorae 88 

REPETITION— lepeUtion, taatoMor 406 

TO REPINE— to complain, murmur, repine.. ... 400 

REPLY— aoewer, reply, r^foloder, leepooee 460 

REPORT— ftoie, report, nunour, heanaj 478 

REPOSE— eaaa, quiet, reeC,iepoee 388 

TO REPOSE— to recline, repoee. 363 

REPREHENSION— reprebeMion, reproof. 110 

REPRESENTATlON-ehow, exIrfUtion, wpte- 

eentatloa, elf bi, ipeetacle 418 

TO REPRESS— to rapvea,reetraln,aoppneB.... 821 

RBPRlEVB-teprieve t ieepile 8S7 

TO REPRIMAND-40 cbeek, eftide, veprimaad, 

reprove, leboke •••.. 110 

REPRISAL-reiaUatioo,repriMl 446 

RBPROACH — diKredll, reproach, eemidal, dle- 

frace • 167 

REPROACH— reproacb, cottnmelj, obkM|oy .... 108 
TO REPR0ACH-10 blame, reprove, lepfoaeh, 

apbraid,eeneare,eoademn lit 

REPROACHFUL— lepnmebAil, abuiive, ecmrrl- 

looe^ 100 

RKPRORATIH pieilpaie, ibmidinei, repro- 
bate^ 910 

TO REPROBATE-40 reprobate, eondemn...... 100 

RJgROOF— le p iebene to o, reproof 110 

TO REPROTB-^ chnk, cMde, teprlmnad, i«- 

. pro«e,.iebBk» » •..».. UO 


REPUGWANC tt w emloa, 

hatred, repofuanee 138 

REPUTATION— character, reputation 478 

REPUTATION— tfbme, repotatloo, renown 471 

REPUTATION )name, repntatioB, credit, re- 

REPUTE I pute 479 

REOUEST— prayer, petition, requeet, entreaty, 

eult 87 

TO REQUEST— to aek, beg, r e qu eet UT 

TO RSaUIRB-to demand, require 898 

REQUISITE— neoeemry, expedient, eeeeatial, re- 
quisite 417 

REQUITAL compeneatlon, eatlefbetlon, amen de ^ 

reBMnieratloo,recompenee, requital, reward.. 438 

REQUITAL— relribation, requital 440 

TO RESCUE— to deliver, reeeuCfeave 840 

RESEARCH— ezemlnaiion, eeareb, inquiry, re- 

Bearch,inveetifation,seratioy 06 

RESEMBLANCE— likmieee, reeemUance, rirat* 

larityoreimiUtude 631 

RESENTFUL— reeeatTul, revengeful, vbtdleUve 110 
RESENTMENT— anger, reeenunent, wrath, ke, 

Indignatkm 118 

RESERVATION > ^^^^^ ,...^,u« !•» 

RESERVE J««rve,reeervatlon 178 

TO RESERVE— 10 reeerve, reUln 176 

TO R£SlDE-to abide, eqloum, dweU, reekle> In- 
habit 863 

RESIDUE— rert, remainder, renmant, reeldue... 970 
TO RESIGN— to abandon, reeign, renounce, ab- 
dicate 843 

TO RESIGN— Co give up, abandon, forego, re- 
eign 813 

RESIGNATION-patlencei endnranee, reelgmi- 

tlon 140 

TO RESIST— 40 oppoee, wtthetand, thwart, r»- 

SlBC 115 

TO RESOLVE— to determine, reeolve.... 983 

TO RESOLVE— to solve, reeolve 9S4 

RESOLUTR-dedded, determhwd, rseotaie 9SN 

RESOLUTION-^conrege, fortitude, resolution... 140 
TO RESORT TO— tofl«(|oent,bannt,reBortto.. 401 

RESOURCB— expedient, resource S3S 

TO RESPECT— to esteem, respect, /egard 487 

TO RESP£CT-Ho honour, reverence, reepect. .. 497 
TO RESPECT— to refer, relate, respect, regard.. 396 
RESPECTFUL— dutilVil, obedient, respectftil. .. . ISO 

RESPITE— Interval, reeplte SS7 

RESPITE— reprieve, reeplte... 957 

RESPONSE— anewer, reply, rejoinder, reaponee 460 
EESPONSIBLE-'^answerable, neponslble, ae- 

countaMe, amenable*.. 183 

REST— ceesation, itopk rest, tntermlfeslon 867 

REST— ease, quiet, rest, repoee 369 

REST— reat, remainder, remnant, reMue 970 

TO REST— to found, ground, rest, build 496 

TO REST— to Btand, Slop, rest, stagnate 858 

RESTITUTION ) resmraHon, reetttudon, repa- 

RESTORATlONt ratkm, amende 430 

RESTORATION— fteovery, resteratlon 440 

T6 RESTORE— CO restore, return, repay 430 

TO RESTRAIN— to coerce, restrain... 990 

TO RESTRAIN— to repress^ retrain, wupp i cei . . « 891 


RESTEAINT-eoartralirt, 1 

TO RESTRICT— to boand, limit, 8oafiop,elrciaD- 


RIPiCULOWl liiigfcilli, 


RE8TRICnON~«oiMCniiit,rMlr«liit, MliletkMi 9» 
RESULT— •gtet, ooawq u e oc e, wwit, iwoe, •fwrt SM 

TO RETAIN— 10 bold, kMp,MaiB,filiilB • SW 

TO RETAIN— to raNnro,i«Colo 178 

RETALIATION w Ull1to a,itpriwJ 4« 

TO RBTARI>-todtloy,4rfw,po*poi».pwei»- 

tiMM,praloiif,prainet,nlM4 • M9 

TO RETARD— to rtUnl,iaiidK ^ 900 

RETINU E p ro iwri M i , >»hh M l l Mi I« 

TO RETIRB-u» raeadt, mvMt, niiro, wn i ^ 

withdrmw «l 

RETIREMENT— privMf, ndioMBt, leekHioa. . «B 

RETORT-Mloit, npoftoo «I 

TO RETRACT-lo ohjoni •«««. »•«»«. «^ 

▼olct,i«nU ••^ 

RBTREAT-.U7lum,Kfti0B,ilMlMr,n(not 518 

TO RETREAT— 10 raeadt, rattoat, reli««i wtt- 


RETRIBUTION— retributkw, rtquitol 440 

TO RETRIEVE— U> raooTer, rolrlere, repiUr, rt- 

eralt ? 

RBTROaPBCT— mraipeet, imrtew, Minroy 

TO RETURN— CO ralora, rotom, lopoy 4» 

TO RETURN— lo revert, return 387 

TO BEVBAL-lo publUi, pro» u lg «t e , divalgo, 

cereol, dleeloee 443 

TO REVENGB-to avei^e, reveoge, Tiiidieaie. . 11» 
REVENGEFUL weiOlflil,fevontefal,TtodlctifO 119 
TO REVERBERATE— to rebonixl, rerertMnto, 

neoH 3M 

TO REVERB ) to adora, reremoe, ▼««- 

TOREVERENCEI nle,rev«M. 811 

REVERENCEr-«we, reveraDce, droMl 307 

TO REVEEENCE-toliOMMU,refe«ee,iOipeet 4B7 

REVERIE— dream, reverie •! 

TO REVERSE— to oveitiii]i,overtluow,i«bvert, 

Invert, revene fiQ3 

TO REVERT— 10 revert, retura 397 

REVIEW— r ei r ee p e e l , review, enrvey 480 

REVIEW— nvieal, revirfoa, ravlew 480 

TO REVILE-^ revile, viUiy 108 

REVISION I '•''*^"^'*^''''*^ ^ 

TO REVIVE— to revive, Iefreil^ renovate, re- 
new «0 

TO REVOKE— to alitare, recant, retract, revfllM, 
reeaU «« 

TO REVOKE-io aboUehi aJuofate^ repeal^ re- 
voke, annni, cancel.... M7 

REVOLT— taMurreetiOD, eedltioo, rebelUoo, ro- 
voH «8 

REWARD— oompeneatioo, eatiefkction, amende, 
remuneration, reoompenee, requital, reward 438 

RHBTORICK— elocutkm, eloquence, oraiory, rbe- 
torlck 4m 

RICHES— ricbee, wealth, opuleoce, aflaeaoe.... 340 

RIDICULE— ridicule, eatlre, irony, lareaM 104 

TO RIDICULB— to laugh at, ridicule 

TO RIDICULE-to deride, mock, ridieule, lallf , 


RIGBT-etraight, rfckl,dhwt.. 

RIGHT-rlght, joiC, proper 

RIGBT-fliiM, cMm, pcivSefe . 
RlGHTBOUS-fOdiy, rigMeooB 


RlGOROUS-lmnb, nrngb, eevse^ rigoreae. 
«f». rhn, 

RIN1>-ekla, hide, peel, ilnd. 

RIPE— ripe, mature 

RIB B orig i n, original, rlee, aoaree. 


TO RIBB— loarieeorrlM, 

. sii 


TO RISK— 10 batfrd, veocnre, rWt. 

RTTB— Ibrm, eereonony, rito, 

RTVALRT— eompelition, eoralatkm, rivalry .... 

ROAD— way, road, roote or rout, eonrm. 

TO ROAM— to wander, itroll, ramble, rove, roam. 




R0BU8T— etrong, Arm, roboit, etnrdy 319 

ROLL— HM, catalogue, roli, regieler 408 

ROMANCE-lbMe, tale, novel, romance 407 

ROOM— epaoe, room 390 

TO ROT— to rot, putrefy, eofTUpt 9H 

ROTUNDITT— lovndnem, rotundity 39t 

TO ROVE— to wander, eiroH, ramble, rove, roam, 

range..... 108 

ROUaH-«br«pl, ragged, roogb 001 

ROUGH— «oam, rougb, rnde 001 

ROUGH— baieb, rough, eevere,r1goroae 880 

ROUNDN£8S-«owidneee, rotundity Sa 

ROUND— dpooit, tour, round ••••. ITS 

TO ROUSB-lo awafeen, eseito, provoke, rouee, 

iOtirup Olt 

TO ROUT-lo beat, detet, overpower, rout. 

overthrow 140 

ROUTE— way, road, roale or ioat,eenne STB 

ROVAL-teyal, regal, ktagly 180 

TO RUB-lorab,cha^fteC,can 300 

RUDE— ooaree, rough, rade •••.• 000 

RUDE— ImpertineBt, rede, eaaey, I 

RUEFUL— pMeoue, dolefbl, woAd, rwAd* 

RUGOBD a h fopt, ra i g id, rough 

RUIN— bonok pcMt, ruin 

RUIN— dertraetion, rate.^ 

RUINOUS— deetoueHae, rvtam 

RULE— order, enethod, rale. ,••... 


RULB metim, pMeep(,nla,law..... 
TO RULB-40 govern, rale, ngulato... 
RULING— provaHag, provaleat, laling, 

. 411 
. 001 

. 970 


RUMOUR— ftam, report, I 
RUPTURE— raplare, ftactaro, firaction . 

RUSTIOK uaaKijaia, I 




mtDt « 

SACRED— holy, nered, divine » 

BAD-don, gtooMTf Md« diMMl 410 

BAD-HDOonifiil^nd 410 

•AFE-Mfe,iBeai« • «« 000 

•AOACIOUal*"*^*'*^**'^"*'*^ ^* 

■AQACITY p— •inrtcwi.tnmiiMi, HOM^f*- 401 
■AILOF MmnaM, wn—a, mOoc, tailMr* » . OH 
■AL'ART-idlMrtBM, ■tfotod, Mteiy, wao«k 

hlmipay.... • i04 

■AKB-Mln, iMOttM, MMiM, pvpOM. cad 039 


J^^'«'''i«loU.«l«Utla.,f«tl«f «1 

TO 8ALUTS~U> aecort, Addiwi, ialttie. 401 

TO SANCTION— 10 co<istaB»iwe, nocUoB, rap- 
port "— »» 

»ANCTITY-boUnMi,«u»cttQr 88 

iANB-Maiid,«Q^beilUiy »0 

SANOUINART-Moodr, bloodHliinir, MOgiri. 

HW ^ 

TO SAf-co99p,andeniilM «» 

8APlENT--noe,npclM«i*MMt 401 

BARCASM-ffidkale, Htif«,if«iV,nreaMi 104 

TO SATIAT£--lo«tlify,«MUa», olotidoy.... 389 

BATlRB-fkHwilfl. wtira, Uony, mnma 104 

■ATlRE-wlt, luiBOor, atlra, ifoar, buriMqM 70 
SATlSPACnON— <o»p<— lion, MiMteSloa, 
amendf. imauiMntlMi, fmompmim, laqoUiri, 

rainurd... 438 

SATISFACTION— ooMMunMt, MtiiftctkM. ... 301 

TO SATispy-ioiiiwy,ptoMt,i«tuy 303 

TO SATIBFY-l* Mtlfiy, Mtiaic, glat,clof.... 383 
8AUC7— iaptrtioMl, rode, nocy, impodeol, te- 

iolent t 800 

SAVAGB-«nMl, iataoMa, batanNM, bniial, 

Mtafle 373 

BAVAOB— AffoekMM, fleree, ntrage * 374 

TO 8AVB— 10 ddhrw, meiM, Mre SM 

TO SAVE— 10 kMp,«tv«,priHnrt 118 

TO SAVE— lo wvrt, lygo, piMw r ^t, ptotwt 179 

SAVING— eeoDomtcal, itviiic, ipuini, tbriAy, po- 

DurioiM, nlnardljr 101 

TO SAUNT£R-tQ Upg«r, tarry, lolMr» aaumer, 

lof 981 

SAVOUR— taalB,'flanwr, reSah, lavoqr 019 

SAW, vtff BATINO. 

TO BAT-lo apeak, aay.taD 405 

SAYING— aiioin,iBafhn, apborlam, apophtlMgiB, 

aaarlof, adafa, prorarb, kj-word, aaw 910 

TO SCALE— to arise or riae, aaoimt, aananil, 

dtBiib,aeala 309 

SCANPAL-Hliaciadii, dkyace, reproach, acaadal 107 

S0ANDAL0US-4nfiuB0iw,acaiidakNia 108 

8CANTT— taca,aeani7,deatitata 910 

pCARCK-rare, acaree, atofolar 990 

SOARCELT-|iardly,aearcaly 3M 

PQARCiTT«Mai8lQr.davtfi 990 

TP SCA TTER-toyw^aaaitaf, ilipimi ..*. 344 
SCENT— aaiaD,aeaa«, odoar, parfiiBM, Ibfnnaa ill 
SCHRMB-deaifn, plan, apbap^ pi^iaoi. SOI 

SCHnMATICK-liaralkk, arhJMiHnk, 

rian, d J aiw l i r , aooeeafotailat. 08 

SCHOLAR-Kiiolar, dIaelpKpapU 197 

SCHOOL aalwol, aeademy 197 

SCIENCE— koowladgo, aeianee, leamiag, aradi' 

tkm 190 

T0 8COFP-loacofl;fibe,)Mri>>M« 104 

SCOPE tiaiiaey, drift, aeope, all 990 

TO SCORN— to eoaleaaa, deeptoa, aaara, dladala 101 
SCORNFUL— eoDleoiptaMia, aeoraOU, dfadalaftil US 

TO SCRBA]l-toery,aeraaM,ihrl6k 410 

TO SCREEN— to corer, ahaltar, acraan On 

SCRIBE— writer, pemnao, acribe 330 

TO SCRUPLE— to acrapte, haailalai watrar, ioe- 

toato 97 

SCRUPULOUS eoaaciaa t io ua, aerapolooa 08 

TO 8CRUTlNIZS-to pry, acratkilBa, dif« Into 90 
SCRUTINT— exaaBtaaiioB, aaarcb, laqalry, aa- 

•earcb, Inveatlgalioa, eemtloy 08 

SCUM— drcfi, aodlment, droaa, acam, raAiaa SIS 

SCURRILOUS— reproachful, abuaiTe, aeonrlkma MO 

SEAL aeal,ataMp 430 

SEAMAN— aeaaaaa, wataraiaa, aaUor, aiarlaar. . 397 
SEARCH— fyaartaatioa, aaarcb, taqolry, taiTaatl- 

gatloB, reeaareh, aemiioy 08 

TO SEARCH— to czamtat, aaak, aeareb, azplora 00 
SEASON ittoie, aeaaoa, tiaaaly, aeaaon- 

SEASONABLSt able 900 

TOSBCEDD-to Rceda, l a Ma a t , ledra, wttb^ * 

diaw,aaaada 9S3 

SECLUSION— priTacy, ratireoMat, aadualoa... 993 
TO SECOND— to aac<Md,aapport 39B 

SECOND I ^^^ MflMlllirr intkrigmr , 974 

SECONDARY S """^ "»«-»«7, •«« 

SECRECY— ooocaalmanf, aeeiacy 919 

SECRET— flairfaariaa, aaeral S99 

SECRBT-aaeret, lUddaa, laiant, oeeoli, aiyato- 

riooa OO 

TO SECRET»-toeoDcaal,bida,aa6Mto 919 

TO SECRETE ONE'S SELF-toabaeoad,al«al 

away, aecrato oaa'a aair ••• 900 

SECTARIAN ^ ''^*^_'!!|^^ 

SECTARY 1 |rt^'?r!Vr!T! 00 

SECULAR-«aealar. lampocal, worldly 00 

SBCURE-certalB, aora, aeoBM 300 

SECURE— aaft,aeeara 300 

8ECURITY-depoait0,pMfe,aaeartty 103 

SECURITY-Anea, fttaid, aaeority 183 

SEDATE— coaipoaad, aadala 997 

SEDIMENT-draia, aedlment, droaa, aeoB, raftiaa OlS 
SEDITION— iMorrectloa, aadkioa, rabalMoa, re- 

?oll. «8 

SBDITIOUS-lbetloaa,aeditkMi8. 000 

SEDmoUS-tniiroltBOua, tarbolaai, aadtHova, 

iBfiUnoaa •• 

TO 8BDUC»-to aUara, laalp^ aadoea, aanea, 

d««y »» 

SEDULO U S aed a looa,dUioaat, a aildaoBa 997 

TO SEB-tokN>k,aai,bebold,vifw,eya 488 

TO SB»-Hoaae, p aioal»a,B | aain 4» 

TO SEEK— to 8 W W >M . aai fc, aaa i a>,a«iie»i.... 99 

TOSEEM— tonani,appatr 483 

SBEMLY-beoQinlno. decaat, aain|y,0^ fOlloMa 910 


TOSnZE-loUyoruke bold of, ettch, Mte^ 

natemrssis gripe 

8SIZURE— captaie,Misai«,prtae..... 

TO SELECT— to ctoooto, pick, Mlea 

BELF-8UFPICIBNCY S ^.^.^Jft^;^^^ 
SELF-WILL 3 mmimiwiamKj 

BEMBLANCE-ahow, ouaskto appMiMM, Mm- 

SENIOR ■ealof,tMcf, older 

SENSATION ■nnlleiwit,M— iiion, pcfceplloo. . 

SENSE— eenee,Jodfement 

SENSE— ■icnificeUon, meaning, import, i 
SENSIBILITY— fettling, MMlMUty, 


TO BE SENSIBLE-io feel, ke 

SENSUALIST— eensuolbt, voUtpUHuy, eplenre. . 

BENTENCE-decMon, Judgement, eanteoee 

SENTENCE een tw ce, period, phraee, propoil- 


TO SENTENCE— 10 eenieooe, condemn, doom. . 

SENTENTIOUS— eenientloue, tenlimental 

SENTIENT— eeneible, tenaltiTe, eeotlent 

SENTIMENT— «etttiment,tenMticn, perception. . 

SENTIMENT— opinion, centiment, notion 

SENTIMENTAL— eententloue, eentlmental 

BENTlNEL-guerd, tentinel 

BETABATE— different, distinct, ■epnnte. ...... . 

TO SEPARATE-^ abctract, eeparate, dirtin- 



. dSS 









BHACriF elMln, 
RHADB \ ^^ 
BHA]K)W J"""^ 
TO SHAKE-to iimlm, ti em h le , riradder, qnlver, 


TO SHAKE-Ho sbeke, ngitnte, looe 

SHALLOW— eupefUcial, iImIIow, flimqr 

SHAME— diriionoar, dieirece, ihame 

TO SEPARATE— to divide, eepeemie, put 

TO BEPAflATE— to ee p nmte, eeeer, dk^oin, de* 


SEPULCHRE— grave, tomb, oepulebre 

SEPULTURE— borial, interment, ■epnlture 

BEaUEL— ieqoel, doee 

SERENE— calm, pladd, lerene 

8ERXES— eeriea,cotirae 

SERIES— cuceemion,eeriei, order 

BERKHJS— eager, eameet, aerloue 

SERIOUS grave, eerioue, eolemn 

SERVANT— eervant, domeetick, menial, dmdge 
BIOIVIOE— advantage, benefit, utili^, aervice, 

avail, nee 

SERVICE— benefit, tervioe, good ofllce 

BERVITUIHS— eervitude, elaverjr, bondage 

TO BET— to pat, place, la/, aet 

TO SET FREE— to ftee, aet ftee, deMver, Hbe- 



TO SHATE-lo fi»rm, IbaMon, mould, abape ... . 

TO SHARE-to divide, diatrib«te,ahare 

SHARE— part, diviaioo,pocUon,abare 

TO SHARE— to partake, partidpata, abate 

SHARP— abarp, acute, keen 

TO SHED— lo pour, apUl, abed 

SHELTER— asylum, reftige, ibelter, retreat. 

TO SHELTER— to cover, ahelter, acreen 

TO SHELTER— lo barbour, Aelter, b)dfe 

SHIF T e vaa ion, abift, aobterfuge 

TO SHINE — to abbke, glitter, aparitle, radiate, 


SHOCK— sbock, concuaalon 

SHOCKING— formidable, dreadful, abocklng, tn- 


TO SHOOT— to aboot,dait 

SHORT— abort, brief, concise, aocdnct, anmmary 
BflOW— ahow, ootalde, appearance, eemblanoe. . 
•BOW— abow, exbibitton, repieaentatlon, algbt, 

TO BBTTLB— to compoae, aeitto •.. 

TO 8ETTLE--to fii, determine, aeltle, limit . . . . 

TO 8E'rTLE-lofii,aettle,eatabtlab 

7*0 SEVER— to aeparate, aever, db»Jobi, de*aeb. . 
8EVERAL— dIBbrent, eeveral, divan, aondry, va- 

SEVER E a u ata r e,figid, eavera, rlgorona, a 
SEVERE— baiah, roogb, aeveaa, r 
BSVERE-ekrlet, aevere..... 



. 514 








SHOW— ebew, parade, oalentaikm 453 

TO SHOW— to abow, point out, mark, indicate. . 451 

TO SHOW— to abow, ezfaiblt,dtopla7 439 

SHOWT—ahowy, gaudy, gay 453 

SHREWD— acute, keen, abrewd 46t 

TO SHRIEK— to cry, acream,abriek 47B 

TO SHRINK— to apring,BUrt,atartle,ahrink.... 304 
TO SHUDDER— to abake, tremble, quiver, quake, 

TO SHUN-to avoid, 
TO SHUT— to ctoae, abut 

SICKNEBS-^ckneaa, illneaa, hidiapoattlon 

SIGHT— abow, eibibitbm, r ep n ee n ta tl o n , algbt. 




SIGN— mark, alga, note, ey ropt om, token, Indlca- 

^^^ ;algn..ignal 

SIGNAL 5^^^^ 

SIGNAL-aignal, memorable 

TO SIGNALIZE-Ho aignalisa, dMnguMi 

SIGNIFICANT-elgnlficant, ezpreaalve 

SIGNIFlCATION-aignificatSon, meaning, aenae, 


SIGNIFICATION — aigniflcatfcm, avaU, fanportr 

ance, oe nau q u enc e , moment, welgut* ......... 

TO 8IGNIF7-I0 denote, algnify, imply 

TO SIGNIFT— to eipreaa, declare, rigniiy, dtter, 


BILBNCB-eilenee, tadtumky 

SILEN T a H a nt , dumb^ mute, ap Hrb lam 


BDIILARrrT-ttkeneaa, raaawManei, almilarf^ 






SOBRIET Y Mo^i ny , mo^wttoB, tanperuee, 


gOjjj^mJeoerlvKiocK-eUbl. «T 

SO<H£TT— eoflunmltjr, toeletf 487 

SOOIBTr— lUknrriitiSMelety 480 

SOCIET Y mch tf ,eomfUiiy 487 

SOFT— floftfHiIld, gentle, meek 399 

TO SOIL— toeuiii,eoll,mlly,t»raWi 5J4 

TO SOJOURN— to aMde, ei^oitni, dwdt, rciMe, 

SmiLITUDE-likeMH, rewniMiiee, iimitariir 80BBR-«tatliMnt, eober, i 


flniPLB-elniple, iingit, ■tagatar. 
SniPLE-einple, ■My, Ibolteh. . . . 

81N-«riiiie,Tke,ehi MB 

SINCERE CMdkliCp— irtnefe 438 

SINCfiRB— bettrtjr, w»nn, rineere, eonUal 431 

BINCER C e inc e r e, honeet, true, plain 430 

8INGLE-«>lltanr, eole, ooly, eloCle 931 

•INOLE-ooe, single, only 951 

SSouLe}-»^--^ -»«-'" "» 

SINGULAR— rare, teaiee, lingular S90 


■uange 36S 

TO snVK— 4o Ml, dro|», droop, Binic, tumble..... 303 

8n*B—plac«, spot, lite 978 

SITUATION— cIrcnnManee, tltoatioo 173 

SITUATION— place, litaatlon, ■oUon, poaltion, 

poet 978 

SITUATION— aitnation, condition, itate, predica- 

nant, pligbt, case 970 

SIZE— dsa, magnitude, peatnen, builc 348 

TO SKETCH— to paint, depict, deUneaie, elcetdi 338 

SKETCH— •keteii,otttltnea 338 

SKILFU L de t er , ikiiftil, expert, adroit, dexler- 

•10 00 

SKIN— altin, lilde, peel, rind 518 

BLACK— tfack, loooe 956 

TO BLANDERr-«n mpetie, detract, deflune, ea- 

Inmnlate, olander 105 

SLAVERY B M I itnde, rinvery, bondage. 
SLAUGHTER— carnage, aiaoghter, 

butchery 910 

TO SLA Y— 10 liilt, murder, alay, anaMiaate .... 510 
TO SLEEP— 10 ileep, atumber, dote, drowae, nap 300 

SLEEP Y ■lc e py,drowey,ietliargicit 300 

SLENDER— thin, elender, tllght, riim 351 

TO 8LIDE-totllp,tlUe,gtide 

SLIGHT— cunory, baity, iHgbt, dewiHory 903 

^^{tbin,•lender.•llgb^•lim 351 

TO SLIGHT— lodlnwgard, neglect, liiglit 493 

TO SLIP-40 slip, tilde, glide 303 

SLOTHFUL— inaetlye. Inert, lazy, ilothM, ring- 

giab 906 

SLOW— elow, dilatory, tardy, tedkxia 

SLUGGISH— Inactive, inert, lasy, slolhfiil, tlug- 

glth 998 

TO SLUMBER— to aleep, idumber, dose, drowae, 

nap 300 

SLY— canning, crafty, rabtle, aly, wily 582 

SMALL— nttle, dlmlnutlTe, email 350 

TO SMEAR— 4o nnear, daub 515 

SMELL— ■netl, eccnt, odour, perftome, fhigrance 511 

SMOOTH— even, amooth, level, plain 435 

TO SMOTHER— CO iUile,aoppreM,tmotlwr 999 

TO SMOTHER-Mo ioflbeate, atifle, emoiber, 

Aolte 999 SPECIAL ape d al, epedflelt, particalar. ■ 

TO SNATCH— 10 lay or takalwld of, catch, aaixa, UpBdES-kind, ipedca, sort .« 

^graapigrlpf 937 8PE0inCK-4padal,eptdfldl,p«1tealv.. 

TO SOLACE— to cooiole, eolaee, eomlbrt 396 

SOLDIER-UKB-martial, military, aoldle^Uka, 

warlilte 337 

80LE-eoUtary,aole,only,aingle 951 

SOLEMN— grave, aerlona,aolema... 309 

TO SOLICIT— to beg, beeeecb, eoHcIt, entreat, 

auppllcaie, implore, crave 158 

80UCIT ATION-aoHdtation, importunity 198 

SOLICITUDE— care, amiety, aoUcitude 495 

SOLID-IIrm, flzed, aolld, alable 998 

SOUD— bard, firm, aoUd 373 

80LIl>-rabetantlal,aolid 379 

SOLITARY— alone, aoliiary, lonely 999 

SOUTARY-eolltary, aole, only, single 951 

SOLITARY— aoHtary,deeert,deaolate 993 

TO SOLVE— to iohre, reaolve 994 

SOME— aome, any 950 

SOON— aoon, early, betiroei 909 

TO SOOTH— to allay, aooth, appeaae, aamiage, 

mitigata 361 

S(HU)ID— mean, pitiftil, Bocdid 411 

SORROW— afllction, grief, Borrow 408 

SORRY— aorry, grieved, hurt 419 

SORT— kind, epedea, sort 486 

SOVEREIGN— prince, monarcl^ aovereign, po- 

tentata 188 

SOUL— eoul, mind 66 

SOUND— aound, aane, haaltby 386 

SOUND— aound, tone 511 

SOURCE— origin, original, riBB, Bouree 909 

SOURCE— aprlng, fountain, Bonree 353 

SPACE— Bpaee, room 850 

SPACIOUS— ample, BpaciouB, capadoua 390 

TO SPARE— to give, aflbrd,Bpara 163 

TO SPARE— to save, spare, preaerre, protect. ... 179 
SPARING— aoonomical, aaving, sparing, tbrifty, 

niggardly 161 

SPARK— gallant, beau, spark 381 

TO SPARKLE— to shine, gUlter, glare, sparkle, 

radiate 478 

TO SPEAK-to speak, say,teli 469 

TO SPEAK— to speak,talk, convene, diaeonrae.. 480 
TO SPEAK— to utter, speak, articulate, pro. 



8PS0IlfBN-«0|gr» iMlel, 

BPECTOUB— eotonnUe, BpteUtm, niHMllite, ite- 

■iUs, piMHifal* 6H 

8PECK— <item|[rii,iUin,ipot,fpMk,flaw ^ ]t7 

8P£CTACLS-«liow, ttUUtkNW wpwwttttoB, 

jrifht, ipeeude 4S 

8PE0T ATOR— lookeiHw, ipecUlor, beholderi e^ 

NtTBT 481 

BPECTRS-htWob, ■HMurltioa, pfcintMi, •ptetra, 

ghoft 479 

BPECULATION— ihtCHj, qitMlatiM M 

flPEfiCH— •ddraH,fpo«cli,buufiM,ot«tloa.... Ml 
SPEECH— teofmifs^ toogM, i 


aPBECHLEPIfl- dlMf.iumb, 

TO BPKBf>— 10 hMlM, aooQiWBtt, ipeid, 

dlte,defpftlch.... 9Sl 

TO BPENI>-HaipeBd,«iliaMC,4raiB. 944 

TO flPENIX— to ifwd or optad, waiU, cUhI- 

IMU0, tqaiiKler 344 

8PflERK-clrele,aplMrab orb, globe 175 

TO BPELL-lo pour, ipUJ, abed 340 

8PDUT-«iiaMlloo,Uft,TiTactt)riaplrtt 3M 

WnLITED-«piritw>ua,iplrited,iplilbial,fbo«tr M 
tFIBITU AI#-4oeorpoiwl, aabodtod, louBatorial, 

■ptritual at 

epntrrUAL >a|4ric«oiM,fplrii«d, gboMlf, ^il- 

I^ISrrUOCJsi rlUial « 

•PITE— maUee, noeoar, apUo, grndgt, pique. .. . 381 
SPLENDOUE-brigbOMaa, liMtn, aplendoiu^ bril- 

Heocjr 474 

■PLENPQUR apleedeot, 

tiek 411 

TO SPLIT— to break, bunt, CfMk,apUt «8 

BPOIL-booty.apoUfpray « 906 

SPONTANEOUBLT— wilUo^j, apoMueooatf, 

ToiiuitaiUy 18B 

SPORT— emaaement, diverafton, enfnrtilnawnt, 

aport, reenetloe, pMiinie 391 

SPORT— pity, game, aport 384 

TO SPORT— to Jeat, Joke, make gamed; apart.. 104 
SPORTIVE— Iveljr, aprlgbcty, THrackwa, aportlva, 

merry, jocond 380 

SPOT— plaee,apot, lite S78 

SPOT— Memlab, atain, apot, apeck, flaw 137 


TO SPOUT— Co apart, apoiii. 353 

SPRAIN— etratai, aprain, atieaa, force Sftl 

TO 8PREA]>-iaapread,aeatter,dteperw 344 

TO SPREAD— to apread, expand, dlffiMe 346 

TO SPREAD— to apread, circulate, propagateidia- 

aemlnato 315 

SPRIGHTLY— ebeerfnl, merry, aprigbil7,gaj... 389 
SPRIGHTLT-Ufety, aprlgMy, ffvadoua, aport- 

Ive, merry ..« « 389 

SPRING— epring, fiwotaln, aouree 353 

TO SPRING— 10 ariia^ proceed, lane, iprii^ flow, 

emanate 991 

TO SPRING-lo aprlng, atari, ataftle,aMak.... 394 

TO SPRlNKLE-loaprtakIc bedew SS3 

TO SPROUT— 10 aprout, bud 358, 

SPRUCB-flalvd, foppleb, epruee 386 

■rURIOU8-^vloai,inppQelikMa,eoaatailUl.. 399 

TO SPUR T l o api H ,apaK.. 

SP T eml aM f y,apy 

TO BOUANDERp^lB ifaid < 


SaUEAMISH— ftatidkMaba 

SQUEEZE— to break, bratae, aqneen, pouad. 

TO SaUEEZE-copMiB,aqnein,plaeh, gripe.. 388 
BTABIUTT — couatauqr, atabUHy, 

STASLE-firm, fixed, aoUd,atable..... 

STAFF atitr, aty, ptopi auppert. 

STAFF atafl; atlck, crutcb 

TO STAGGER— to atagger, reel, locter. 
TO STAGNATfi— 10 ataad, aiop, leat, 
STAIN— blemlah, atala, apot, apeck, flaw 
TO STAIN— to eotour, dye^ tlafa, atatai. . 
TO STAlN-4oataln,aoil,aany,taralab.. 

. 197 
> 519 

STAMP— mark, print, Impriion, alaa^ . 

TO STAMP— to aeal,atamp 

TO STANI^— to atand, atop, leat, atagnale. 
STANDARD— criterion, atandaid. ....... . 

TO STAREr-toatare,gape,gaxe 

STATE— eltuatkin, condl tton , atate, ptedkament, 

STATE atate, realm, commonweakb 

STATION— condition, atation 

STATION— place, aitnation, atation, poaltlon, poat 
STATELY-maglaUrial, mi4eatkk,8taie^,poBp- 

oua, augnat, dignified 

STAT— atafl; atay, anpport 

TO STAY— to continue, remain, atay 
STEADINESS— eoaatancy, atablUty, 





TO STEAL AWAY— Coabaoond,atealaway,a•- 

TO STEEP— to aoak,drencb,aieep 

STEP— pace, atep •...^. 

STERN— «nateM, rigid, aevere, rlgoroua, atem. • . 

STICK alaif, atick, crutch 

TO STICK-^ atiek, cleave, 

TO STICK— to fix, rboten,atlck 

TO STIFLE— 1o aUfle, anpprcai 

TO STIFLE— to BufiRwate, atifle, cboke^ mo- 

STIGMA-mark, badge, atigma 

TO STIMULATE-to encourage, antanate. In- 
die, impel, urge, atlmulate, Inadgale 

TO STILL— fo appeaae, cahn, pacl/y, quiet, aUO 

STIPEND— altowaiice, atipend, aalary, wagea^ 

TO STnU-to atlr, move 

TO STIR UF— to awakwi, exdte, provoke, ronae, 




STOCK— elock,aton 341 

STO P c e aa it ton, eiop^ leat, InlormlariBn 9S9 

TO STOP-to check, alop 9Si 

TO STOP-lo hinder, aiop .999 

TO STOP— le ataad, iiap^raataatngnaie. 9n 

8TORB-«Mk,8lQro 341 



0TOElC-%MiMk pi*, biMl, IM, 

hoRiMM W3 

STQET-UMedoM, morjttaim 4«7 

•TOUT— corpalwl,lai|y, MNU ill 

8TBAIN-«lraUHipnto,atNiihfiM«t SI 

wrBAUt--mx9m,mn^ owph M K * f»n*nt ttl 

■TRAIOBT-«i*ifM,riglM,<>>Mt.^ 430 

BTRATT— Mrail, aMfOW M6 

■TEANOB pMttoilT, tincalMr, odd,6ecMtriek, 

■crmBf* JW 

aTRANOEE-ftnBfer,fiM«lciMr,aUM a» 

8TEATAOEli-«rtUtoCi, trkk, teMM, ilralH*B 911 
TO 8TEA Y— to devlM6, waodv, •«««•, iiraj 19t 

BTREAM-MreuB, eamotiUde 8Sfi 

T0 8TKEAM— toAow,ilrMm,gBih 3a 

STRENOTH-pcnrer, ■mngtb, Ibrcci, anlliorUj, 

dmntokm 180 

ro ffTRENQTaBN— loiMiVtiMiHibftliy.liivl- 
fonte 378 

WRENUOUfl HrwiiOQi, bold 141 

8TRE88-ttnll^ ipnto, •tms fbreo ISl 

grBEOfl rtmi,itt«in,—iphMit,t<*nt... SSI 

TO 8TRST0H-40 iMcb, itnlcbi titttfd 318 

8TRICT— «lrtet,MV«ra SM 

STRICTUBE-MlnMifmlon, criOBfan, ftito- 

tore lis 

STRIFE— eootenUoo,atrlft ISS 

BTEIFE— ditienrion, conimUon, dtoeofi, itriib. . 133 

^8TRIKB-lobm,Ut,Mrik« 14S 

rO STRIP— «o bM«mv«, 4epriT«, ftrip. 

rOBTRIVE-toeoiimd,itrife,Tit 131 

ro STRIVE— to andMvoar, ftkB, mAttt ftrvf- 

gte m 

■TROKE-Mow.alroke MS 

TO STROLL— to waodor, ittoB, nMhIo, iov«i 

romiii,rangt 1S6 

STRONG— cogtBt, forcible, ilroqf 890 

STRONG— otroofiOniiviobinCiilai^ 31S 


■trlT^ 3S1 


boodftroog^ headjr 

VrUDT— •ttaitloo,applkatloa,iUid7 403 

BTUPID-MBpkl, dttU 401 

STURDY— 1110111, firm, robust, itanty 37S 

TO STUTTER — to hMltslo, foUor, 

■totlar ST 

STYLE— dletkMi, Mfle, pbnM, pbmeolQgjr 463 

TO STYLE— to name, deoomUmie^ ftyle, eaticki, 

derifnite, charactertoe 471 

SUAVITY— tuaTtty, nrbanltf • 108 

TO SUBDUE— to oooqner, i 

oveveome, rannooDt 144 

TO SUBDUE— to overbear, bear dovra, over- 
power, overwlMtBii,nibdiM 144 

TO SUBDUE-toeiit»et,aal»nate,iubdoe 14S 

SUBJECT— matter, BMlertalayiiiiyea. ». 

SUBJECT— ob|cct, Mbject 

SUBJECT-elll4ce^lIable,expoeed,obnoslow... 146 
SUBJECT— aulijeet, wbordinne^ Uteleiir, •■ 

eerfteol •...••.•.....• 

TO SUBJECl^-to eetject, ml^naii, wibiaa. .. . 140 
TO SUBJOIN-lo affix, aui^Qla, attftslH ibms.. 418 

TO SUBJUCATE-Ho itjill, irtjiiiata, a^hdne 145 

SUBLIME-great, fmad, awbllmi 4U 

SUBMISSIVIH cnmHaliil, yieMtag, MibmbidTe Ul 

SUBliI8SlVE-toBBble,mode«,BobmlHif« 147 

SUBMlSSIVE-^ibedlenl, eabmlBitve, obeequleua 140 

SUBMISSIVE fearive,eabmfaiive 140 

TO SUBMIT-toeempljr, yield, eubmlc IJO 

SUBORDINATE eeliJ>cl,eBbetdlnaH), lafttiov. 


TO SUBORN— to lbnwear,pe4«re,saboni 08 

SUBSEOUENT— eabaequeac , eooeeqaent, poete- 

rlor 818 

SUBSERVIENT aaljiot, ■elnrifcui.tofcriear, 

tvbeervleat. •....••• •... 146 

TO SUBSIDE-foeabiide, abate, knarmlt STl 

TO SUB8iST-to be,eaKe«biiit 8» 

SUBSISTENCE-UvelllMod, Uvtaf, i 

SUBSTANTIAL enhetantlal, lolid . 



SUBTERFUGE— evaaloa, •bid, labtarftige... 
SUBTLE-eowdnc, erafty, aobtle, aly, wtly. , 

TO SUBTRACT-«odedaiei,eabtract 

TO SUBVER T to owita ra, otewhm 

• 803 

TO SUCOEED-to foMow,iiweeed, eaeue 871 

SUCCESSFUL— I b rta naie, laeky, praaperoai,eiie- 


SUCCESSIVE iuepwrtee, alMraate 878 

SUCCINCT abort, brief, eeaeiN, eoeeloet, aom- 

TO SUCOOUR-toheip, 




', to- 


TO SUFFER-Ho let, leave, aaflbr SSO 

TO SUFFER— foeaSkr, bear, eBd«ie,aapport... 140 

SUFFICIENT— eaoagb, adBeiest 30 

TO SUFFOCATE— to aaSb«at«, iHfia, amotlier. 

SUFFRAG E ve t e^ anffiasi, voiee. .. 

TO SUGGEST— to aDade, n^i Mat, i 

TO SUGGEST— to hliil, wiQOiBl, faiUmate, toelntt- 

SUGGEgriON-dklam, a ii MM U w i 184 

SUIT— prayer, pctMoa, refoeat, enlt 87 

TO SUIT— 10 afrea, aeeord, aatt. 198 

TO S Urr-to fit, a^^k,adap^ accemmodatc 154 

SUITABLE— beeomlaf, decent, eceady, caltaMe, 

fit 810 

SUlTA ItT.E eoiiformahle,ayeeablc,aoitable... 188 
ttU j-f ABL F c i ew ai odle aa, eeavew l e a t, etiltahle. . 417 
SUITABLE iwiaapiiadaat, aBeiiwible,eultahle 130 

SUITO R lover , enitor, wooe r 380 

SULLEN— iloomy, ■ aO iw, moreea , aplaaetl cb . . . . 411 

TO SULLY— 10 atabHeeS,aally,tamWi 514 

SOMMARY— alioit, brief, ooaeiee, eaeelMt, aam- 

TO SUlOION-le eaU, bM, ■ 





SUP£ftFICIAIr-«iinvMftl,dMlow,««Mif ...* 457 

SUPERFICIES— MuikeeiMptrflclM 487 

BUPE&PLUITY—esceM, superfluity, radanduicf M3 
8CJPEBINTENDENCT — insfMctlon, ovMriibc, 

■uperiiOendfeocy tl3 

BUPERlOBrrr— e»c«ltenf , ■opertorlty 974 

0UPEK8CR1PTION — dire6li(m, MipwKrt|iCion, 

•ddfMf «13 

TO SUPERSEDE— to overrate, Hipwnde S06 

SUPINE— iBduI«l^euplBe,llfllle»,canle•i 300 

SUPPLE— flexible, pliua,Mipple 900 

TO SUPPLICATE— to beg, be i ee ch, eolicil, en- 

trtat, mippllette, Uniitore, enve 158 

TO SUPPLY— to provide, procure, ftindeh, eop- 

piy »» 

SUPPORT— livetibood, living, ei i bilt t e n ce, eap- 

poit, nistenanee 930 

SUPPORT— etali; May, eupport S38 

TO SUPPORT— to comueBuee, eiaetton, eup- 

port 810 

TO SUPPORT— lo iMld, maintAlo, eupport. 937 

TO SUPPORT— to eeeond, eupport 365 

TO SUPPORT— lo Buffer, beer, eodure, eupport.. 140 
TO SUPPORT— to enstein,eutiport,meiDtalii.... S38 
TO SUPPOSE— to conceive, apprehend, eoppoee, 

Iroegine 74 

TO SUPPOSE— to think, Mippoee, Imagine, deem, 

believe 75 

SUPPOSITION— coiUecture, nppoeition, eunniee M 
SUPPOSITIOUS— epurlune, eoppoeitioue, coub- 

terfeit 589 

TO SUPPRESS— lo repreee, reecrafci, euppren . . 991 
TO SUPPRESS— to etiile,euppreeB,eaiolher.... 9SS 

SURE— certain, iure, Mcure 308 

SURFACE— «irftee,euperaciee 457 

SURGE<— wave, billow, eurge, breaker 3S3 

SURMISE— conjecture, euppoelUoo, ennnlee 94 

TO SURMOUNT— 10 conquer, vanquish, eubdue, 

overcome, eurmount 144 

TO SURPASS— to exceed, excel, outdo, eurpaii 973 
SURPRISE— wonder, adailratkm, iurpitoe, aelo- 

nbhuient,amaxement 403 

TO SURRENDER— io give op, deliver, yieM, 

eurrender, cede, concede 949 

TO SURROUND— to eurr3UBd,eocompoBe, envi- 
ron, encircle. 175 

SURVEY— feiroapect, review, eurvey 480 

SURVEY— view, eurvey, proepecl 479 

TO SURVIVE— to ouUlve, eurvive 940 

SUBCEPTIBILITT— ftellng,eeoslbUlty, susceptl- 

bility 378 

SUSPENSE— dcub^ Mwpenee 05 

SUSPICION— Jealousy, envy, auepMon 389 

SUSPICIOUS-dlstruetful, euspidoue, diflklent . . 410 
TO SUSTAIN— «o susuin, eupport, maintain ... 938 
SUSTENANCE— livdibooJ, living, eubelstenee, 

support, fustenaace 939 

SWAIN— countryman, p eas a nt, swain, hind, n»- 

tick, down 336 

TO SWALLOW UP— 10 absorb, swalkm op, 

eogroee 508 

BWARM— multitude, crowd, throng, swarm 494 

SWAY— influence, authority, aecendaaey,aw«f.. 188 
TO SW£LL-ta heave, swell ^.. 354 

TO SWKRVm-4o devhua, n ■■to, ■wwra.sttay 198 
SWIFTNE S S q u lckiiess, s w Uto ess, fl is f ssi , ce- 
lerity, rapidity, velocity 918 

SYCOPHANT— flatlcfer,syeophaai,parasHe.... 588 
SYMBOL — flgure, ■w i aphof, aB egor y , e wh l spi, 

symbol, type 5n 

SYMMETRY symmetry, propnrthm 4» 

SYMPATBY-sysapalhy, compamkm, commlse- 

SYMPTOM— mark, eign, note, sy mp tom, tokea, 
iRdwetkm. 447 

SYNOD— sescmMy, company, meeting, c ongre ga - 
tkw, parllameoc, diet, eoogrsss, eonvent l oB, 
qrnod, convocation, council 488 

SYSTEM-eyslem, method 939 

TACFTURNrrY-eHence, tacltnmhy 464 

TO TAINT-to contaariaate, deflle, polhite, cor- 
rupt, taint 198 

TO TAKE— lo take, receive, accept 933 

TO TAKE HBED — to guard agalnet, lo lake 

heed m 

TO TAKE HOLD 0P-40 lay or take hold of, 

catch, seise, snatch, grasp, gripe 937 

TO TAKE LEAVK-^ leave, take leave, bM 

fbreweU 9S5 

TO TAKE PAINS — to labour, lake paiiw or 

trouble, use endeavour 3i8 

TALE— Ikfale, ule, novel, romance 487 

TALE— anecdote, slory, tale 487 

TALENT-flKuhy, abUHy, talent 88 

TALENT— gift, endowment, talent 87 

TALENT— tnteOect, genius, talent 87 

TO TALK— to speak, talk, converse, dieeooise. . 459 
TALKATIVE— talkative, kN|uadotts,ganruh>oa.. 486 

TALL-high, tall, tofty 355 

TAME-fcntle, tame 388 

TO TANTALIZE — to aggravate. Irritate, pro- 
voke, exasperate, tantallae l9l 

TO TANTALIZE-Ho tease, vex, Uont, torment, 

tantalise 191 

TARDY— slow, dilatory, tardy, tedious 908 

TO TARNISH— to stain, soU, sufly, tarnldi 514 

TO TARRY— 40 linger, Urry, totter, lag, eaunter 961 
TARTNESS-Hicrimony, tartnem, asperity, harsh- 
ness 383 

TASK— work, labour, toll, drudgery, task 388 

TASTE— palate, taste 519 

TASTE— taste, flevour, relish, savour 519 

TASTE— taste, genius ?8 

TO TAUNT— to tease, vex, Uunt, tantslixe, toi^ 

ment 181 

TAUTOLOGY— repetition, tautology 468 

TAX— tsx, duty, custom, toll, Impost, tribute, con- 
tribution 168 

TAX— tax, rate, assemment 168 

TO TEACH— to inform, teach, instract 104 

TO TEAR— to break, rack, rend, tear 501 

TO TEASE— 10 tease, vex, taunt, tantalise, tor- 
ment •• 191 

TEDIOUS-ilow, dllatoty, tardy, tedloae. 908 

TEDIOUS— wearisome, tiresome, tadloae 989 

TBOUMBNT— tegument, covering 518 

TO TBLL-Ho apeak, ■■y, tea • 408 



TEIIERIT7-HMluMM| ttmuitft pnclplUBKy . . 983 

TEMPBE—ditpcMltion, temper 387 

TEBIPSR— frime, temper, temperament, eooeil- 

tutlon 388 

TEBIPER— taumoar, temper, mood ^ . 387 

TO TEMPER— to qualify, temper, bomoar 388 

TEMPERAMENT— IhuDe, temper, temperament, 

conatitutlon 388 

TEMPERAMENT— tempefiment, temperatiue.. 888 
TEMPERANCE— modeetj, moderati on , lemper- 

aaoe, eolNlety 915 


pa«te M4 

TEMPERATUR£-cemperament,lemperatiire.. 388 
TEMPEST— breeze, gale, l>laet, guat, aloim, tem- 
pest, hunlcaoe 353 

TEMPLE— temp(e,churcli 88 

TEMPORALr-eecttlar, temporal, worldly 90 

TEMPORARY— temporary, traoaient, tranaitory, 

fl««Iiif 987 

TEMPOR1ZDK3— temporixinff,tlmeeerTiBf 987 

TO TEMPT-to allvre, tempt, eediice, entiee, de- 
coy 319 

TO TEMPT— to try, tempt 319 

TENDENCY— Inciination, tendency, propeoiity, 

pronenem MO 

TEN DENCY— tendency, drift, icope, aim 385 

TO TENDER— to ofbr, bid, tender, propoee 167 

TENDERNESS — benevolence, benifnily, hn- 

maalty, kiadnem, tendemeM 165 

TENET— doctrine, precept, tenet.... 80 

TENET— tenet, poeitioo 80 

TERM— article, condition, term 335 

TERM— term, limit, boondary 177 

TERM— word, term, eipremloa 469 

TO TEEMINATE--40 complete^ flnlali, teml- 

»•«• 987 

TO TERMINATE— to end, doee, terminate 985 

TERRIBLE— formidable, dreadAii, itaoelLli«, ter- 
rible 806 

TERRIBLE i ^*^*^^<''«*<'''>^^'^^»1* terrible, 
TERRIFICK i •'«n«Mlooe. lerrilkk, horrible, 

f horrid 306 

TERRITORY— territory, dominion 180 

TERROUR — alarm, terrour, fright, conHema- 

t»<w> 305 

TEST— experience, experiment, Uial, proof, teet». 319 

TESTAMENT— wUI, testament 164 

TO TESTIFY— to expreei, declare, algnl/y, ten- 

lify, utter 455 

TESTIMONY— proof, evidence, testimony 444 

THANKFULKESS—lhankfUnesB, gratitude.... 441 
THEOLOGIAN— eccleiiasUck, diTine, theologian 80 

THEORY— theory, speculation 80 

THEREFORE— therefore, coneeqoenUy, accord- 

*nf»y 974 

THICK— thick, dense 351 

THlN-thln, Blender, slight, elUn 351 

TO THINK— to think, reflect, ponder, muse 7B 

TO THINK-to think, suppose, hnagine, believe, 

deem 75 

THOUGHT— Idea, thought, imagination 73 

THOUGHTFUL— thoughtful, 
berate , 

THOUGHTLESS — oagHgent, remiss, cmelem, 

thoughtless, heedloM, inattentive 4B4 

THRBAT^-thrsai, menace 4K 

THRBATENINO-lmmiBent, Impending, threal- 

•oi^m 405 

THRIFT Y ec ono m i cal, savteg, sparing, thrifty, 

penorioos, ninardly I6t 

TO THRIVE-to floortah, prosper, thrive 395 

THRONG— mnititnde. crowd, throng, nwarm. ... 494 

TO THROW— to cast, throw, buri 304 

TO THWART— to oppose, rcslsi, withstand, 

thwart..... 119 

TIDE— stream, currant, tide 399 

TIDINGS— newa, tidli^B. 465 

TO TIE-to bind, tie 9I6 

TlLLAGE-ottitivadoQ, tUlaga, husbandry 337 

TIME-d«ratkM,tlme 906 

TIME— thne,eeason,tiaMly, seasonable 966 

TIME— time, period, age, dale, era, epocha 997 

TIMELY— time, season, thndy, ssMonable 986 

TIMES PAST— formerly. In former Umea, tknea 
past or days of yore, anciently or in ancient 

«ta>«^ 900 

TIMESERVING— lemporistag, timeservh^ 967 


TIMOROUS 1 '^' ''^^*^^ ^B^'^t thnorous. ... 307 

TO TINGE— to colour, dye, tii^, stain 516 

TINT— caloor, hoe, tint 516 

TO TIRE— 10 weary, tkre. Jade, haram 309 

TIRESOMK-wcariaouM,tirsaome, tedious 309 

TITLE— name, appeOaUon, title, deoomlnatloa.. 471 

TOIL— woric,laboar, toil, drudgery, task an 

TOKEN— mark, sign, note, symptom, Indlcatloa, 

token 447 

TO TOLERATB-to admit, allow, permit, suffer, 

tolerate 157 

TOLL— tax, custom, duty, toll, impoet, tribute, 

CQBtributioa 16L 

TOMB— grave, tomb, sepulchre 500 

TONB-eound, tone 511 

TONGUE-tangnafe, tongue, speech, Idhwi, dhi- 

>«t 463 

TOO-alM>,Ukewise,too 953 

POOL— inslrament, tool 309 

TORMENT— torment, torture 408 

TO TORMENT— to tease, vex, taunt, taniallae, 

torment 191 

TORPID— numb, benumbed, torpid 879 

TORTURE-tormeot, torture..... 408 

TO TOSS— to shake, agitate, toee 304 

TOTAL— groes, total 988 

TOTAL-whole, entb«, complete, total, integral 988 

TO TOTTER-to stagger, reel, totter 303 

TOUCH— contact, tooeh 199 

TOURn-dreuIt, tour, round 175 

TOUR— excursion, ramUe, tour, trip, Jannt 309 

TO TRACE— to derive, trace, deduce 449 


TRACK J "*"'^» ^^^^^ ▼eatlge, footstep, track. . . 448 

TRACT— essay, treatise, tract, dieaertatfcw a9 

TRACT— district, region, tract, quarter 498 

TRACTABLE-docBe, tractable, ductile 906 

TRAD E bue i nisi^ trade, pro n wri u n, art 331 

T&ADB-mada, rm m m % t mfl l ik, d en lla j 988 



TRADWMAN }««^.«aw««««Ie«M... 335 

TO TRADUCE— to 4kpuH«i ileliMl, tradooe, 

&ttimciam,&t§n^6&crf H» 

TRAFFICK— cradc,eoauMro8,traack,de«llBf.. 333 

TRAIN— proetHioo, trttla,raUiMM 403 

TRAITOROUS— €rMclMraat,Crailo(OM^ ueiion 

■bto 9M 

TRANaUILLTTir-iMMC, qolM, Mhn, tHMqatt- 

Ilty 3a 

TO TRANSACT— 10 MtfoiUla, trait Ibroraboat, 

traanct 813 

TRANSACTION— proeeMloff, 

tranaooad, ootdo 973 

TO TRANSCRIBK-io eopf , iraawrtbe 530 

TO TRANSFIGURE ) to tramflfiu*, traaafbnn, 

TO TRANSFORM S ■MunrphoM 86 

TO TRANSGRESS-lo lafrioftk viotets, trua- 

fTMi • SOB 

TRANSGRESSION— oAoee, tinpiM, traMgrw 

■ioo, aiHHtooMMMMir, mMaad, aflhMt ISO 

TRANSIENT )tenpormnr, trwMlent, tnunl. 

TRANSITORY) torj, SwUoff J87 

TRANSPARENT— pellacU, trftoqivfot 477 

TO TRANSPORT— lo bear, carry, convey, trana- 

port 330 

TRANSPORT ecuaaf, rapture, trampofft...... 318 

TRAVEL-^}oaraejr, travel, iroyaft 309 

TREACHBROUS-4UlUe«, peiiUkme, treaehe- 

TREACHEROUS-loiidkNM, treadieroM 

TREACHEROUS i treaclMrMM, traMoroaa, tiea- 

TROUBLm dWIf nki, 

TROOBLESOM>-tfmiMwB«e, Mkmm, ven- 

lioaa i 

TO TRUCK— 40 OTrtiante, bacttr, track, eoai- 




TO TREASURE-<o treavirc, board 341 

TREAT— 4baat, baoqoet, ca r o u eal , enlartalaaMiit, 

treat 513 

TO TREAT FOR OR ABOUT — la Mfotiata, 

treat ftw or about, traaaaet 915 

TREATISE— enay, treatJee, traet, iiittatloa. . 389 

TREATMENT— UeetOMnt, VMfe 300 

TO TREMBLE — to abake, trenble, dMdier, 

qnlver, qnake 805 

TREMBLING— trenbHnc, iraaMMir, ttepUattoa. . 306 
TREMENDOUS-«Barftil, dieadAil, frlftitAil, tre- 

■MadoM, tariMai terrMok, horrible, lierrki* • > 800 
TREMOUR I affttatkm, esMtkia, trepMatioa, 

TREPIDATION) treaMMir 308 

TREMOUR itreanbUof, treaioar, treplda- 


TRESPASS— <iflbnee, treepaai, triaagrMilun, aila. 

deaiaanoar, nriadeed, aflboat 190 

TRIAL-aUempt, trial, endeavoar, eaay, eA>rt. . 890 
TRIAL— eiperienee, eiperliaent, trial, proof, teat 319 
TRIBUTE— tax, eaMon, duty, loll, Innwat, tri- 

bote, oeacribatioa 108 

TEICK— aitMce, trkk, flneaw, mata fem 991 

TO TRICK— CO cheat, defraad, trick 995. 

TRIFLING ) trMlQf, trivial, petty, Mvoloaa, Ah 

TRIVIAL I tlla 457 

TRIP-^Maialoaf raanble, loafi trip, Jaaai* •••••. 309 

TROO P Ho o p, eoa^yaay 408 

TO TROUBL»-<oa«el,dtalMiii,tioghle 408 

yOTROPBLJi ioiwwkle,dhiai^aQlwt 419 

'IK.VK a l ii c iaie, h oaea i , tree, plate 430 

TRUST-beUef, credit, traM, fUth 78 

TRUST— hope, ezpeetaUoa,tnMt,coafideBee.... 414 

TO TRUST— to eoellde, traet 414 

TRUSTY— Mtbiklftrwly 418 

TRUTH— tralh, veradty 988 

TO TRY— to try, teaipt 319 

TO TUO— lodraw,dra8tlMleorhanl,pttll,plack, 

tof 383 

TO TUMBLE— to Ml, drop, droop, afaik, tumble 303 

TUMID-tmgM, tnedd, boaibartlck 484 

TUMULT— bnalie, tuaialt, uproar 980 

TUMULTUARY i uunuliuoua. tumultuary 908 

TUMULTUOUS * »-"'"«"»~i «"»»»"»7 »« 

TUMULTUOUS i tuarakuow, turbaleat, aedi- 


TURGID-turfId, tumid, I 

TURN-cait,tttra,deacriptloa, character 487 

TURN-tura, beat 818 

TO TURN-to tura, bead, twlat, diMort, witaf, 

wreat, wreach • 816 

TO ?S^ { *» «»'^ "'"^ ""^ ^'^ *»«" »>• 
TO TWIST-lo tun, bead, twin, dtalort, witBf, 

wreat, wreach 316 

TYPE— Hfure, metaphor, aflefoiy, emMeuk, ayoh 

bol,type SSI 

TYRANNICAL-abaoluie, aibhrary, tyrionleal 184 

ULTIMATE-lait,lateat,fiB«l,u)thBaie 990 

UMPIRE— judge, uaipire, arbiter, arbltiator...*. 9U 

UNBELIEF-dUbelief, uabeHer 79 

UNBELIEF— utabeNef, taifldcUty, laereduHty. ... 79 
UNBLEMnHED-btameleie, Irreproachable, na- 

blemlahed,ttoapottedorapocleaa 198 

UNBODIED— lacorporcal, uubodled,l 

UNBOUNDED-honadleBB, uobooodcd, lufinlte, 

onUrolted 177 

UNCEASINGLY— laceaaaatly, uneeaalo|ly, ub- 

Interraptedly, without IntermMoa 937 

UNCERTAIN— doubtAil, dubkma, uncertain, pre- 

cerkwB 88 

UNCONCERNED— Indtflbrent, uaconceraed, re* 

^rdleii 374 

UNCONQUERABLE— Invincible, Inaoperable, 

unconquerable, ineurmounuble 145 

TO TTNCOVER— 10 uncover, dieoover, diackiae. . 444 

UNCOYERBD— bare, naked, uncovered 948 

UNDAUNTBD-hoM, feaikaa, undaunted, tetre- 

pid 308 

UNDENIABLE-4adubltable, unqueatkmabte, la- 

dlapotable, undeniable, IneoatrovertMe, trr^ 

frafable IM 

UNDER— under, bdow, beneath 979 

TO UNDERMINE— to aap, undenala** 909 

TO UNDERSTAND— to conceive, comprehend, 





■ i i iii ii a i n, 




, «7 

. no 



UNFAITHFUL-IUtlilMp alkkhM Oi 

imFBBLINO-teid, iMfdr, wUMiof, iMMriUt 374 
TO UNFOLD-lDMibid,MK»f#, ^n ii pt .... US 
UMGOVESNABLft-HUtfolf , i^finittH, n- 

UNHAPP7— vBteppf, 
UHlFOKIf-^qiMl, flvw, 


lininntrinl. laeomtdtntbte.... 

TO UNITS-to add, Join, QKlM, 
TO UNTTB— «ocoHMet,eoiaMM,Mili 
UNIVBUAIr-fMni, oivwnl..... 
UMJUST— wklMd, o^Jut, iali|iiilo«», 
UNLESS—onlea, eietpt . 
UNLIU-^llibraM, MlikM 
UMLDflTED— toondleif, 




UlfMEKCIFUL— harA-]Mwltd,cnMl,«MMMlAilr 

aw jBJIeM... >.>... • 





TO UWEAVaL-io wifcM, iMiinl, difilope. .. tM 

OmPLY mmtmtf, 




fctonUAtd, iMponei, ipiUliM ] 

UKBTEADY iiailiiMwiMi, 

miTGWABD^wkwMi, ^ 

WHS) nrowiM| ipwwM.***.. •••••.••••( 
UJITJUJTII-iiatralli, ftlieiiood, Mrftf, lit. 

. SIS 

ditWiijLIN q -.- a yw w , 

CVWOETHY— onroitlijr, wortMtw >< 
TO nPBEAm.«tobtaaM,npfOf%f 


PnrflAl >aitto,w— it, 

UBBAKITy-«l«alt]r,Mmf4tf 198 

TO UmOB-io WMoonge, udewlc, loclto, tiin»l, 

ar|«, Mlntttela, liHtigM* 3ii 

UEGEN T pTMrt Bt , orfent, Inpomnnat IS8 

USAOB-anf^«MCoai,prMerflpiloa S»4 

UBAOE— trMtaMBi, «nf« SW 

USE ><y MH t c, bntit, vlHItf , mttIm, arall, 

TO USB— «o eiaplof , QM 


OgPALL Y — eoB M MwJ y , geaenlly, ft«qiMBtlr, 

«o«liy J 

TO U8URP-to arprapiteie, oMrp, ftmgfttei w- 

UTILmr— Hhmtage, bnaft, ntllltf, nrrlee^ 
aTBll,an sss 

TO DTTBR-to ezpraii, dcctare, tlgnUy, teMliy, 
«tt»... 4SS 

TO UTTBB-to vtttr, apetk, artleolate, pro* 

VACANC Y T aea a fly , vaeslty, Inaaltf 314 

VACAirr--«niiC]r,TaoaBt,Told,deTold SO 

▼ACANT— Mia, vaeaat, Maura 800 

VACUITY— raeanejr, TaeaHy, tnanlty 344 

VAQU B l ooae,Tataa,la»,4iw>let<,»artloqi.. S90 

VAIN-Mla, Tate S90 

VAIN—vaia, todkecual, fInrilleH 910 

VAI^Uft biafaiji cooiayBi TalooT} faUantry . • 130 

VALUABLB-rakHbte, pradooa, coadf 4S7 

VALUE— value, wortk, lata, pfka 4M 

TO VALUB-to valoa, prtoe, mutm 4M 

TO VANIBH— todteppaartYaaWi 4B| 

VANITY-^;;irM«,Taiiity,eoiieait.... IQO 

TO VAWqU MB tocoaqaar,vaiqaldHiobdBe^ 
oraivQBM, annMNiBt.. ............ •••.••.••• 144 

VARIATiOlf thafw, ▼aitatioa, Tktaitada .... MS 

VARIATION » ^ . _._ 

VARIBTY-«ftraKe, Tartaty, ihren^f, madlajr SHI 
VABIOUn dlflhwat, tevaral, dhran, 1 

TO VAENlflB— to gkMi, TarnWi, palliata 515 

TO VAIT— todwua, altar, vary ffS 

TO VAKY— to ilBbr, Taxy, dlngraa, diMaat .... 13S 
▼ A^^^'^iiOfaMva, 011361 vast, fnmMOM. *..•>«.. 340 

T O VAUNT— to glofy, fcoan, vanat 9H 

VBHSMBNT-^vMaBf, Ihriooi, b o late ro m, Teha- 

Bwnt, Inpetoooa fif 

VBIL-«toak,BM*,Uliid,Tail 5I6 

VBLOCITY— qaiekBHi, ■wtftaen, BaeiaaM, ccl»- 

ffity, fapUiijr, TfllocJty .......\ BBS 

VB NAL T w y, tograanary, MwHag ..,., 330 

TO VENERATB-to adora, lareranee, vaaarate^ 

VBNIAIf— Tcaial, pardooaMa mi 

VENOIv^*polKNi, trawm *.«..........••>.••»••, 9O8 

TO VBNTUSB— tohaaard,TaiiCora,rlrtc 171 

VERACITY— tnrtb, veradtjr aM 

VBRBAIi— varM^TDeal,oral 433 

VBRO B b ord er, edge, rim or brim, brink, ma^ 

^l^''*f> 17B 

VBBT19B-Mfk,tfMa,viBl%B,ft>oMcp^traek.. 44S 



TO VEX-4odl9ptoaM,vet,oftod U7 

TO VEX*--to IMM, vex, taoat, taatiljewi tof- 

raent • l«l 

VEXATION— vexaUoo, mortUkatloa, ciMgHn. . . Ill 
YBXATIOUS— tfooMeMMMi itk m m ; vtntiout 413 

V1CE-H:riine. vice, fin 1» 

VICE—UoperftcUoa, defbet, IkHlt, Ttoe IM 

VIGINITT— ndgbbourtaood^Tidaity 496 

VICIS8ITUDE-€lMU«e, TwtotkM, vktailtiide... 9B3 

TO VIB-lo contend, ■lriv«,Tto 131 

VtEW-^vieWttonreXtpnMpaet 479 

VIEW— rteir, protpeet,Uadae«p« ...-...• 479 

TO VIEW— to look, we, behold, Ttew.ey* 489 

VIGILANT— wmkefnl, watchful, Tigiluit 483 

VIGOUR— enerfj, fiKce, rifour 372 

VILE— hue, meea, vile 148 

TO VILIFY— to revile, vUlfy 108 

TO VINDICATE— to MMrt, BMiatAlB, vtodleeie 441 
TO VINDICATE— to «ireiiie,revente, vliidlcate 119 
TO VINDICATE— CO defend, pratMt,iriQdicate.. 179 
VINDICTIVE— reeentful, revenceAil, vindictive 119 
TO VIOL ATE-to tofrlive, vMste, traiMgren . . 506 

VIOLENCE-foree, violence ftl9 

VIOLENT — violent, furlooa, boliCefoae, vehe- 
ment, Impetuone 4 819 

VISAGE— fnce, counlennnce, vieege 479 

VISIBLE— ap^ent, visible, clear, plain, obvkMU, 

evident, manlfbit 478 

VISION — ^viekMi, apparition, phamom, ipectre, 

gboet 479 

VISIONARY-enthiMiaM,fluiatick,viiioaar7.... 91 
VISITANT > _, ._^ . ... ^, 

VISITER |n«*.^««>^vlriter 491 

VIVACIOUS— lively, ■prigfailx, vivaclone, merry, 

epoitive. Jocund 369 

VIVACITY— animation, life, vivacity, epirit.... 3S0 

VIVID-clear, ludd, bright, vivid 478 

VOCABULARY— dictioBary,lexioon, vocabulary, 

gloenry, nomenclature 404 

VOCAL— verbal, vocal, oral 409 

VOICE— vote, enl&ate, voice 409 

VOID— empty, vacant, void, devoid..* 343 

VOLATILITY— Ugbtiieec, levity, flightinen, vo- 

latili^r, giddlnem 380 

VOLUNTARILY— wilHofly, voluntarily, epoota- 

neooily 159 

VOLUNTARY— gratnltoua, voluntary 441 

VOLUPTUARY— eencnaliit, voluptoary, epicure 374 
VORACIOUS— tapaclouB,raveDoue,voiaclont.. 507 

VOTE— vote, eu&age, voice 488 

TO VOUCH— to affirm, Mi e v ci a te, amure, vouch, 

aver, proteit ^ 441 

VOYAGE— journey, travel, voyage 302 

VULGAR— common, vulgar, onUnary, mean.... 388 

W AOEtf— aUowaaee, etipeDd, salary, wages, hire, 


TO WAFT FOR— to await or wait for, look for, ' 

expect 415 

TO WATT ON— Co accompany, aseoit, attend, 

Walton 493 

WAKEFUL-wakeful, watehftU, vigilaat 483 

WALK— carriage, gait, walk 198 

WAN-^^ale, pallid, wan 

TO WANDER-^ i s i l i H, 

««3r • 

TO WANDBR.'io wander, a 

roam, range 188 

WANT-'povwty, ladlgeaee, want, need, penary MO 

TO WANT— CO want, need, lack 347 

WARE— oogMnodlty, goods, nMrchandlse, ware. . 838 
WARLIKE-martial, nUlitary, warlike, eoMler- 

Hke 83T 

WARM— hearty, warai, sincere, cofdiel 411 

WARMTH— Ate, heal, warmth, gtow 475 

WARNING— admonitioo, warning, cautioB 193 

TO WARRANT-CO guarantee, be sscurky, bo 

reepoasible, warram 183 

WARY— cautious, wary, dreumspoet 4SS 

TO WA8TE-to spend, expend, waste, die#ale, 

squander... 344 

TO WASTE— to consume, destroy, waste 305 

TO WATCH— CO guard, delbnd, watch 180 

TO WATCH— CO observe, watch 483 

WATCHFUL— wakeAil, watchful, vigUaat. 483 

WATERMAN-eeaaMn, waterman, saikir/aBarl- r . 

ner, boatman, ferryman '.... 837 

WAVE— wave, billow, suige, breaker 888 

TO WAVER— rto scruple, hesitale, Oaauate, 

waver • 97 

WAVERING— undetermined, unsettled, waver> 

Ing, unsteady * 885 

WAY — way, manner, DkeOiod, mode, couise, 

means TIS 

WAY— wsy, road, route, course 275 

WEAK— weak, feeMe, hiarm 888 

TO WEAKEN— to weaken, enfeeble, debllitaie, 

enervate, invalidate 888 

WEAKNESS — Imperfecthm, weakness, ftaHty, 

feBloi, IbiMe IM 

WEALTH-riches, wealth, opulence, ailuence. . Sff 

WEAPONS— aims, wsapoos 141 

WEARINESS— fetigue, wearinem, lassitode .... 388 
WEARISOME— wearisome, dresoroe, tedioas. ^ 389 

TO WEARY— CO weary, tire. Jade, haram 308 

WEDOINC-'marrlage, wedding, nuptials 8$ 

WEDIXX7K— marriage, matrimony ,.wedlock.... 84 

TO WEEP— Co cry, weep 4T9 

WEIGHT— eigalflcation, avail, iasportanoe^ con- 
sequence, weight, moment «.'4S8 

WEIGHT— weight, heaviness, gravity .'389 

WEIGHT— weight, burden, load 379 

WEIGHTY— heavy, tond eas om e, weighty, pon- 
derous 879 

WELL-BEING— weU-beiag, weUkre, prosperity, , 

happtnem 380 

WELCOME— acceptable, grateAil, weteome. . . . . 83| 
WELFARE-^well-belng, weUbra^ prosperity, hap* 

TO WHEEDLE — to coax, wheedle, cajole, 

fewn aa 

WHIM— Areak, whim 884 

WHIMSICAL-feadful, feniartical, whtanrieali 

capriciooe » 385 

TO WHIRL— to turn, wind, whW, twtri, writhe 810 

WHOLE-all, whole S9k 

WBOLE-^whole, complete, total, Integral, en- 
tire - 888 


WHOLESOllB-iiMltliT, wbotaomei nlaMoiw, 

nluury • 3<* 

WICKED— tad, evUfWkkMl 1*7 

WICK£I>— wicked, aiOust, lnlqulttMi% Mfariooa 198 

WIDB-l«|e, broad, wide M» 

WILL— win, testaiuent 164 

TO WILL-io win, whh 1» 

WILLINOLT— wtUlnglr, volimUrlly, ipoiitaiid- 

OUfllf 1» 

WILT— eunnlnf, cnfty, nbtle, ilj, wUy i 

TO WIN— to Mqalre, obuin, gain, win, earn. .. . 396 
TO WIND— CO turn, wind, whirt, twirl, wrltbe. . 316 

WISDOM— wtodon, prudence 400 

TO WIBH — 10 dedre, wlali, banker aOer, tong 

.., Jbf 1» 

TO WISH-towiU,wiall 150 

Wrr— intenulty, wit 70 

WIT— wit, kumour, ealire, irony, Imrleeqiie. .. . . 60 
TO WITH DRA W— to recede, retreat, withdraw, 

retire, aeoede SS3 

TO WITHSTAND— to oppoae, redit, wtthitand, 

Uiwart 114 

% oeaainfly, unlnlemipledly, without inlermli- 

•lon 8S7 

WTTNBSS-deponent, OTldence, witneai 445 

WOFUL-plteoua, doleAil, woftil, nieAil 4J1 

WONDER— wonder, admlratkM, eurprlae, a«o- 

niahnent, amazement 403 

WONDER— wonder, miracle^ manrel, nooater, 

Ijrodlgjr 403 

WOOER— lover, mltor, wooer 380 

.. S17 

WORD— prombe, engagement, word 

WORIV>-word,term,expreai>ion 4dt 

WORK— work, t%bour, toil, drudgery, tadc 398 

WORK— producMon, performance, work 380 

WORK— work, operation 398 

WORLDLY— eecular, temporal, worldly 00 

TO WORSHIP— to adore, wonhip 81 

WORTH— deeert, merit, worth 438 

WORTH— value, worth, rate, price 436 

WORTULESS-onworthy, worthlen 437 

TO WRANGLE-io jangle, jar, wrai^le 134 

WRATH— anger, reaentment, wrath, iiidignatloB, 

ire 119 

TO WRENCH ) lo turn, bend, twiit, wring, dia- 

TO WREST ) tort, wreat, wrench 116 

WRETCHED— unhappy, niiaerable, wretched... 419 
TO WRING— to turn, bend, twiat, diatort, wring, 

wreM, wrench 816 

WRITER^writer, penman, acribe 336 

WRITER— writer, author 336 

TO WRITHE— to turn, wind, whiri,twlri, writhe 316 
WRONG— Injuatice, injury, wrong 9J9 

YET— however, yet, nerertheteai, notwlthatand- 

in^ 951 

TO YIELD— to allurd, proda?e, yield 330 

TO YIELD-to bear, yield 830 

TO YIELD— to comply, conform, yield, aobmlt.. 150 
TO YIELD— to give up, deliver, eurrender, yield, 

cede, concede 949 

YIELDING— compliant, yielding, aubmlaaive. .. . ISO 
YOUTHFUL— yoathful, Juvenile, puerile 401 



Triib terms, or the equivalent! to tbem, bare been 
employed by all civilized nationa to designate that part 
ofhoman nature which is distinct (iom matter. The 
S0uL however, ftom the Germin «««<0, Ax. and the 
Greek Uw, to live, like the amma of the Latin, whieh 
comes from the Greek &»<fi*c, wind or breath, to repre- 
•ented to our minds by the subtilest or most ethereal of 
sensible objects, namely, breath or spirit, and denotes 
properly the quickening or vital principlie. Mind, oo 
the contrary, (torn the Greek fthof^ which sicniOes 
strength, is that sort of power which is closely allied to, 
and in a great measure dependant upon, corporeal or- 
ganization: the A>rmer is, therefore, the Immortal, and 
the latter the mortal, part of us ; the former connects 
us with angds, the latter whh brutes ; in thto latter we 
distinguish nothing but the power of receiving impres- 
sions from external objects, which we call ideas, and 
which we have in common with the brutes. 

There are minute phUoeopheta, who, from their ex- 
treme anxiety after truth, deny that we possess any 
thing more than what this poor composition of flesh and 
Idood can give iis ; and yet, methiiiks, sound philosophy 
would teach us that we ought to prove the truth of one 
position, before we assert the flUsehood of its opposite ; 
and consequently, that If we deny that we have any 
thing but what to material in us, we ought Arst to prove 
that the material is sufHcient to produce the reasoning 
fkcultv of man. Now it is upon thto very Impossibility 
of finding any thing in matter as an adequatecansefor 
the production of the stntf, that it to conceived to be an 
entirely distinct principle. If we had only the mind, 
that is, an aggregate of ideas or sensible images, such as 
to posniesscd Dv the brutes, it would be no dimcnltr to 
conceive of this as purely material, since the act of re- 
ceiving bnages is but a pMsi ve act, suited to the inactive 
property of matter: but when the goul turns in upon 
Itself, and creates for Itself by abstractioi^ combination, 
and deduction, a world of new objects. It proves Itself 
to be the roost active of all principles in the universe ; 
It then positively acts upon matter instead of being 
acted upon by it. 

But not to lose sight of the distinction drawn between 
the words ioul and mind, I simply wish to show that 
the vulgar and the philosophical use of these terms alt»< 
gether accord, andfare both founded on the true nature 
of things. Poets and philosophers speak of the stfiif in 
the same strain, as the active and living principle ; 
Man's goHl In a perpetual motion flows. 
And to no outward cause that motion owes. 

In bashAil coyness, or in maiden pride. 
The soft reuim conceal'd. save when it stole 
In side-long glances (W>m her downcast eyes, 
Or from tier swelling ionl in stifled stohs. 


* The soul conttoto of many (heukles, as the under 
tundtng, and the will, with all the senses, both outward 
and Inward ; speak more philosophically, tb^^md 
can exert herself in many dUKveat ways of acticMP- 
Adoison. The ancients, though unaided by the Ught of 
divine lavelation, yet represented the soul as a distinct 
principle. The nyche of the Greeks, which was the 
name they gave to the hnman smI, was ftigned to be 
oneof their tncorporeal or celestial beings. The sn^sui 
of the Latins was taken prectoelv hi the mo«tonj sense 
et the M«f, by which It was distinguished from thm 
mimmsotmM. Thus the emperowr Adrian to said on 

hto dying bed to have addrMnd hto amd In wordi whkli 
cleariy denote what 1m tbooght of Ua lodepeodeot 

Animula vagula, blandula, 
Qua auDC abiUs in kiea t 
Elospes comesque corporto, 
PaWdula, rigida, aadola, 
Nee (ut soles) dabto jocaS 
The aitei being coMidered aa aa attrlbttU to the SMf, 
is takeo semetimes for oae fiMolty, and sometimes for 
another; as for the understanding, when we say a 
person tonot in hto right aimd; 
I am a very foolish, fond old man ; 
I fear I am not In my perftct au'iid.— Shakspb^ki. 
Sometimea for the inteUeetnal power; 
I thought the ecemal awui 
Had made m nMai«n.->DRTDBii» 
Or for the tnteOectual capacity ; 

We say that learning *s endlea^ and Uame fota 
For not allowing life a kinger date. 
He did the utmost bounds of knowledge find, 
He found them not so large aa was hto si^iid. 


Or for the Imagination or conception ; * In the judgment 
of Aristotle and Bacon, the true poet forma hto Imi- 
tations of nature after a model of Ideal perfoetinn, 
which perhaps has no eztotenee but in htoown aimd.*— 

Soaietlmea the word 9dni la employed to denote 
the operations of the thhikiog focuhy, the thoughts or 

The ambhraons god. 
In these mysterfooa words hto mtitd expreai*d, 
Borne trutM revealed, in terms involved the rest 
The earth was not of mv sitiii 
If you suppose, as fiiaring yon. It liiook. 

Or the win, choice, determhiatlon, as In the colhMiulal 
phrase to have a mind to do a thing ; * AU the aign- 
ments to a good life win be very inslgnlficaat to a man 
that hath a mind to be wicked, when remission of sine 
may be had on such cheap terms.*— Tilmjtsoii. • Our 
qmndon is, whether aU be sin which to done without 
direction by Scripture, and not whether the Israelites did 
at any thne amiss by foDowing their own wimdt withoiu 
asking counsel of God.*— Hookbb. 

Sometimes It stands for the memory, aa hi the flk 
mUiar expresskma to can to mmd, pot In mind^ itc. i 
*The king knows their disposition; a smaU touch will 
put him In wdnd of them.*— Bacon. 

These, and more than I to stiii^ can bring, 
Menalcas has not yet forgot to sing.*— Drydbk. 
•They wUl put him in mind of hto own waking ' 
thoughts, ere these dreams bad as yet made their Uu- 
presSons on hto ftmcy.'— AxTBaBuaT. 
A wholesome tow, Uroe out of mind ; 
Had been conflrm*a by fote's decree.'— Swirr. 
Lastly, the mind to considered as the seat of all the 
fticulties ; ' Every fticulty to adisthict taste in the mind^ 
and hath otiticcto accommodated to Ito proper relish.*— 
AnmsoN. And atoo of the passions or alftctlons; 

E'en ftom the body's purity, the mind 
Receiver a secret sympathelick aid.— Tbomsok. . 



•TUiwor4,bdac often OMd for tbe tral giTtaf 
life, ii attribuied aboitvelf to wdnwm, whan we wj 
thatihey ueoTadtotractad mnul, toMeod ofa brok«a 
MadenuodUig ; wblcb wonl wund wo om also fbr 
opinkm, u I urn of Uiis or that wtind; and aoBMtimot 
Ibr oian'f ooodlUooi or TlrtiMa, as bo la of an bnoort 
M^ijOraDunofaJiMtauW; aoiiMtlineifbralltetkm, 
■a I do tMi for my mimd'* laka,' Jic— Ralbiob. 

The «•«<, bdnc Um better put of a man, to takao for 
die man*a sdf, aa Horace aaja. In alluiioa to bit fHend 
YlifU, *Bl aerrea anlmv dlmtdlam mea :* benoe tbe 
term la figuratively extended In Ita application to denote 
a homan betng ; 'Tbe moral la ibe case o€ ererj sMii 
oTiM.*— L*BsT«iui«B. Iti8arepabllcli;tbereareinit 
a bundled borgeola, and about a tbou8andsM(i«; 'Tbe 
poor seal sat itotintbyasyeanmre tree.*— HB^garaAaa. 
Or tbe individual In teneral ; 

Jotaivoioea, all jrelhing seals. Tebirda 
Tbat ilnglac up to heaven-gate aaceod 
BearoB your winfi, and In jrour nocea, Ua oraiaa. 


Alao wbat la excellent, tbe eaantlal or principal part of 
a tblng, the aplrit ; *Tbonanii, of this neat world both 
9ft and seal.*— MiLToa. *He baa the very §0»i of 
bounty/— Bb > gara * a a. 

There is aome seal of foodneaa bitblBfi evil, 
Would Bwn obaarvlnpy dlatU It out— BBAxarBAEB. 



Jhssrpsrsar, from csrpas, abody, marka the quality of 

BoCbewnglnf totbebody, or having any properties In 

eomoKm with U : bmMM denotes tbe atate of being 

without tbe body, or not en c loeed In u body ; a thing 

BMy therefore be fticsi y srse l without being mitsdisrf; 

but not aiei vrrsd ; the soul of ntan h l a s siy s r sa /, but 

■ot Bwlsdisd, during his natural Kfo; 

Th* Tiffrftff^ aplrit fliea 

And lodfas where It Ugbta In man or beast 

In€tf9T9a la used ia regard to Uviag things parti- 
eolarly by way of compnriaou, with MtTsrsal or numan 

Of aenae, whereby they hear, see, hmO, loneh, taut. 
Tasting, concoct, digest, assimilate. 

Hence we apeak of mcerTerMl agency, or <n«srpsrs«l 
agents, in leteenoe to such belnfi as are supposed to act 
In this world without tbe help of the body; > Sense and 
pereeptioo must neceemrily proceed from some <acet^ 
/MMi substance witbta us.^— Bbmtlbt. But ^nsie- 
IstmI ia applied to inanimate objects ; 

O thou great arbiter of life and death, 

Nature's InmuMrtal, immMUriml sun ! 

Thy call I foOow to the land unknown.— Toubo. 

Men are cefyereei aa roen,spiriti are inctrforetl; the 
body is tbe sMCmel part of man, tbe eoul his mmm- 
IstmI part: whatever external object acts upon the 
senses Is sMtsrisI; buttheactkinof themindonltseir, 
and in results aie all MMM«<«rtal ; the earth, eun, moon, 
kc are termed mtiUinal ; but tbe impieasioiM which 
tbey make on the mind, that la, our Ideas of them, are 

The fa csr ^ sre al and f wi sf wist have ahvaysa rela- 
tive sense; the spMtMlli that which Is poeltive: Qod 
ki a tfiriuui^ not properly an inft uw t ml nor rai 
rtel being: tbe angels are Ukewiae designated, In 
ral, as tbe twiritmal Inhabitants of Heaven ; * All crea- 
tures, as w«l fpirituMl as eer7#r«al, declare their abeo- 
lu:e dependance upon tbe tint author of all beings, tbe 
only self«xistent God.'— BairrLBT. Althougta, when 
spoken of in regard to men, they may be denominated 

Thus larsfyersal spMla to amaUeat forma 
Reduced their shapiM Inunense.— MitToa. 

The epithet tpiHiuMi has, however, been improperly 
or flguratlvely applied to objects In the sense of tamo- 
Isrtol; 'Echo Is a great argument of the sptrtlael 
esse nc s of sounds; for ifit were e«rp«r«al, tbe reper- 
eussipn shooM be created by like InHrameals with the 
odglnal aouad.*— Baoob. 

Mric««M signlllee bavtaf tbe j|rMl eeparalsd ftosi 
the gross particles of the budy, after tbe manner of 
«]HrU«MMUquori; ' Tbe «^«rttee«s and benign ssatier 
most apt for generation.'— Sicmi •» Old .^^Fs. Sfiriui 
kt applicable to the animal spiritt of either men or 
brutes ; a person or a horse may be niriui; and also 
In a moral application in Che ssnse of vivacious, or cal- 
culated to rouee the writ; *I>rydeo*B translation of 
VirBUisnobleaBd«rtr«C«d.*— Pora. What is ««trdMl 
is slier tbe manner of a firit: and what IsfftMfly is 
like a #*••(; although originally the same in meaa^ig, 
tbe former being derived ^^ '^ ' • ^ 

I from the Latin sptrttM, and 
B /«w(, and bow fignilylBg 
; twMT have acquired a diaa^ 

ng d 
the latter from the 

whatlsnot , ^, , 

ofappUcation. ^trte««lo^ects are distinguished 

' Isbetiwthaa 


j\. Hence it is that tbe word s^trOnel is opposed 
to tM temporal ; ' She loves them aa her tpintmmi 


SneraUy from tboaeoj'seoee; ' VifBlnity 
B married Ufe, not that it is more holy, I 
a freedom from cares, an opportunity to spend j 
emptoymeola.*— Tatumi (jyef|rX,rv- 

lo tli 

children, and tbmr le ver en ce her aa their afiritmai 
mother, with an ailbction fbr above that of the fondeat 
friend.*— Law. 

Thou art r e vere n d, 

Touching thy irpjrilBal AmctkHi, not t^nib. 


Gktstlf b more iaBnediateiy oppoaed to the carnal 
or tbe secular, and is therefore a term o€ more soimia 
Import than s^mtaal; ' Tbe grace of the Mmt is much 
more precious than woridly benellts, and our gk^sUg 
evils of greater importance than barm wbkb the body 
foeleth.'— HooEBR. *TOdeuy ntetbefAMClyeomfoit 
of my chaplains seems a greater barbanty than ki evar 
need by Christiaoi.*— K. CBABtBa. 


VmiitrtUMMmg being the Saxon word, b em p hiyed 
to describe a fooiUlar and easjr operatkm of the nund la 

distinct ideas of thinfSL /iu««set, wbteb b of 

IvatkNi, Is employed to Bwrk the same opera- 
tkw In regard to higher and more abstruse objecta. The 
maitrtttmiimg applies to the first exerdse of the ra- 
tional powers : it Is therefore aptly sahl of children and 
savaeee that they employ their wUtrtUmimra on the 
simple objects of perception : a child nene bis wniar- 
tUMiing to distinguish the dlmeniloos of ol^)ecis, or 
to apply the right names to the thlnp tbat come before 
his notke ; * By wnierttmmdiMf I mean that foculty 
whereby we are enabled to apprehend the oljifecti of 
knowledge, generale aa well as particulars, abeeot 
things aa well as present, and to Judge of their truth or 
AMiood, good or evil.'— Wiuums. 

InUUtL^ being a matured state of the mmder»tmm4- 
ing. Is most properly applied to the effiHti of tboee who 
have their powera In fob vigour : vre speak of taidar- 
atmndhtf aathe characteristick distinction between man 
and brute ; *Tbe lisbt within as is (since the foU) be- 
comedarlmem; andthei(tuf«rst«iMlMf,that8bottkl be 
eyee to tbe blind foculty of the wiU. Is blind itseli:*— 
South. But human beings are dbiinguished from 
each other by the measure of their tfi»t«KM(; * All those 
arts and inventions which vulgar minds gaze at, the 
lngenk>ns purrae, and all admire, are but tbe rellcks of 
an inteUeet defaoad with sin ano time.'- Soirra. We 
may expect the youngest children to empk^ an 
ttanUng acoorriing - -^ 
have of nsing tbeir 

forming disi 
Latin dierivi 

ling to tbe opportunities which they 
^ lieir senaea ; one is gratified In saeitmi. 
great intdUei In youth. 

IniMmst and tnUUigenee are derived from the sama 
word ; but imtMstt deecrlbee the power itaeU; and m- 
laUi>mc« the exerciee of that power: the mlsUsd may 
baJildden, but tbe intaUigtnet bringi it to light; 
Silent as the eeatatick bUm 
Of aoula, that by imtMigmtf converae.— Otwat. 

Hence we speak of imUtUgnue aa displayed in tha 
countenance of a child whose looks evince tbat be has 
exerted bis tntWIaet, and thereby proved that It extala. 
Hence It arises that tbe word iiumigeiu* has been em- 
ployed in the sense of knowledge or Information, be- 
eaasathaaaaiathaexiraBftdiaortetsll^'MMS.* wa 



nrait know by mMm of tnumfmu^ ; bot we may be 
ignormnt wltb a great itaare of nttelleei. 

Underttmimimg and imUUigtnct admit of oompariion 
Id tbe mwe of acquaintance between two or more per- 
h other*! viewe, and a ooneequent bar- 

■oiM as to each < 

mony and oooeeil ; but the former term is applied to 
the ordhiarir concerm of life, and tJie barnKuiious in- 
teroourse of men, u- in the phrase to be on terms of a 
aood «jubrs(aiidhi^; * He hoped the loyalty of his sub- 
joos would concur with him in the p res er ving a good 
umieraUutdiMf bet w een him and his subiecu.*— Ci.a- 
RBHDOir. huMigenetf on the otlier hand, is particu- 
larly appUcabie to persons who, being obliged to co- 
operate at a distance fhmi each other, bold a c 

of Information, or get lo umdtratmnd each other by 
means of mutual iniormatioo ; ' It was perceived that 
there had not been in the Catholicks so much foreslgbt 
as to provide that tru« nOeUijfenee might pass between 
them of what was done.*— Hooaxa. 
Let an the passages 

Be well secured, that no inLdUgtnf 

May pass between the prince and them.— Dmham. 

InUlUett in Latin imUlUettu, fkom nil«/iif», to on- 
dersiand, signifying the gift of understanding, as op- 
posed to mere instinct or Impulse, is here the generick 
t«rm, as it taicludes in Its own meaning that ofthe two 
others : tliere cannot be^sanw or uUmt without tnte^ 
Uet; bat there may be intelUei witiiout gmhu or 
taimU: a man of nuMut distinguishes himself flfom 
the common herd of mankind, by the acuteoess of his 
observation, the accuracy of liis Judgement, the origin- 
ality of his conceptions, and other peculiar attributes 
of mental power jVcmu, tai Latin ^mtas, fhmi /tfiM, 
to be bom, lignlfybig that which is peculiarly Bom 
with us, is a particular bent ofthe inulUct^ which dis- 
tinguisbes a man from every other tn^UUlii:.t ; r* t, 
imh tnm rdAoyrov and taUntmf^^ n crpf h oim ' <- 
ceeding one hundred pounds, is new tiDplr»rid in ilie 
figuraiTve language of our Saviour tfa ihni p^inlcuLv 
Biodtts or modification of the inuUeU, iivJiicb \a uf 
practical utility to the possessor. hOfiUct miac^a\*m 
runs through a fbmily, and becomta u it wvre nn Im> 
redltary portion : gtnimM is not of »n cnnimunicnbl'v a 
e; It iitha-- '-"'"-" ' 

I that tone ofthe think in a Ucaliy ■wh\t\x m 
altogether Individual In Itscharat r.T ; fi Jj dpikm^ to 
every thing artificial, aoouired, dn ira^itaiuJiil^ or (nrl- 
dantal; it is a pure spark of the l>j^iri(.- flaiuf. whlrb 
raises tbe possessor above all his i< Mnv inortaii ; \\ m 
not expanded, like tii<eU«c<, to many ot^U; Uit iaixs 
very nature it is eontracted within a very short space ; 
and, like the rays of the sun, when concentrated within 
a fbeuB, it gains In strength what It kises In expansion. 
We conMder iutslUet as it generally respecu specu- 
lation and abstraction ; bot genius as It respects tbe 
operations ofthe Imaginatkm ; talent as it reqiects the 
exercise or acquirements of the mind. Aroanoft»<«^ 
leU may be a good writer ; but it requires a gennu 
for poetry to be a poet, a gemhu for painting to be 
a psiinter, a gemiM* for sculpture to be a statuary, and 
the like: it requires a talent to leara languages; It 
requires a talent for the stage lo be a good actor; some 
have a talent for imitation, others a taleiu, for humour. 
IntelUcty in its strict sense. Is seen only In a mature 
state ; genim* or u/ml may be discovered In lu earliest 
dawn : we speak in general of the intelleet of a man 
only ; bat we may speak of the genim* or uisnl of a 
youth; inteUeet qualifies a person for conversation, 
and aflbrds him great enjoyment ; * There was a select 
■et. supposed to be distinguished by superiority of ta- 
telieeUy who always pamed tbe evening together.'— 
JoHMSOR. Oemnu qualifies a person for tbe most ex- 
alted eflbrts of the human mind ; * Thomson thinks in 
a pecoliar train, and always thinks as a man ofgeniue.* 
WoHnsoK. T^ent qualifies a mrson for the active 
duties and employments of life; 'It Is commonly 
thought that the sagacity of these fkthers (the Jesuits) 
in discovering the talent of a young student, has not a 
little eoatribated to the figure whkh their order has 
made In the workL'— Budobll. 

ffift and endowment both refer to the act of giving 
and endawingt and of course include the klea of somi 

thing given, and sometblog reeelved : tbe wotA taleni 
conveys no such collateral Idea. When we qieak of a 
gift^ we refer in our minds to a giver; 

But Heaven Its gifta not all at once bestows, 

Theee years with wisdom crowns, with action those. 


When we speak of an emdewwuntt we refor In our 
minds to the receiver; * A brute arrives at a point of 
perfection that be can never pass ; in a few years ha 
has all the endawmente he is capable of.'— AomsoR. 
When we speak of a talent («. InteUeet) we only think 
of its Intrinsick quality or worth : ' Mr. Locke has an 
admirable reflection upon the dUKsrence of wit and 
Judgement, whereby he endeavoun to show tbe reason 
why they are not always the taleuU of the same per* 
son.*— AoDisoR. 

The gift is either supernatural or nataral ; the ea- 
iawment Is only naturaL The primitive Christians 
received various gifie through the Inspiration of the 
Holy Spirit, as the g\ft of tongues, the gift of healing. 
^. There are some men who have a peculiar gift or 
utterance ; beauty of person, and corporral agUity, are 
endewmente with which some are peculiarly Invested. 

The word gift excludes the Idea of any thing ac- 
quired by etertion: It Is that which Is communicated 
to us altogether Independent of ourselves, and enablea 
us to arrive at that perfectioa in any art which eookl 
not be attained in any other way. Speech is deno 
minated a general gift^ inasmuch as it is given to the 
whole human race in distinction fkom the brates ; but 
the gift of utterance Is a peculiar gift granted to in- 
dividuals, in distinction fVom others, which may be 
exerted ror the benefit of mankind. EndewmenUf 
though Inherent in us, are not independent of exer- 
tions ; they are qualities which admit of Improvement 
by being used ; they are in fbet the gifu of nature, 
whteh serve to adom and elevate the possessor, when 
empfoyed for a good purpose. T^alente are either na- 
tural or acquired, or In some measure of a mixed na- 
ture ; thev denote powers without specifying the source 
fh>m which they proceed : a man may have a talent 
for musick, for drawing, for n^mlckry, and the like ; 
but this talent may be the fhtit of practice and experi- 
ence, as much as of nature. 

It is dear from the above that aa endamunt is a 
gift^ bat a gift is not always an endowment; and that 
a talent may also be either Agiftor an endowment, but 
that it is fkequently dtatinctlVtNn both. A gift or a 
talent Is applicable to corporeal as well as qiirltual 
actions; an endowwunt Is applicable to corporeal or 
mental qualities. To write a superlour band Is a gift^ 
Inasmuch «s it Is supposed to be unattainable by any 
force of application and instruction; it is a (aim/, 
inasmuch as It Is a power or property worth our pos- 
session; but it is never an endowmenL On the other 
hand, courace, discernment^ a strong hnaginatkm, and 
the like, are both gifte and endotemente ; and when the 
intellectual endowment displays Itself in any creative 
form, as in the case of pocoy, musick, or any art, so as 
to produce that which Is valued and esteemed, it 
becomes a talent to the possessor. 


jfMily, in French habHitd, Latin kaHUtaa, wmta 
ftom ahu, habile, kabilie^ and kabeo to have, because 
poss essi on and power are inseparable. C^oaty, In 
French eapadti, Latin eapaeitae^ from eapaz and 
eafie to receive, marks the abstract quali^ of being 
able to receive or bold. 

AhUitf Is to capacity as the genus to tbe species. 
JSbUttjf eompreliends the newer of dofaig in genera^ 
without spedfylns the quafiiy or degree ; cepoctty is a 
particular kind of oMItty. 

AHHtf may be either physical or mental, ei^astfv, 
when said or persons. Is mental only ; ' Riches are of 
no use, if sickness taketh f^om us the ahilitff of en- 
joying them.'— Swift. * In what I have done, I have 
rather g^ven a proof of my wllllngnew and desire, than 
of my abiUtf to do him (Shakspeare) Justice.*— Pora. 

AkiUtf respects action, «apaet«y respects thought. 
AkUitf always supposes something able to be done; 
* 1 look upon an able statesman out of business like a 
huge whale, that win endeavour to overturn the ship 
unless he has an empty cask to play with.*— Stkklb. 
Capacity Is a mental eodowmtnt, and always suppoMS 



mmething ready m receive or hold ; 'The ol>)eet it too 
big for our caj»«ct/y, when we would compreliend tbe 
circumference of m world.*— Apdwoh. Hence we My 
an abU coromaudor ; an able staiesinan ; a man of a 
capacious mind ; a great capacity of thought. 

JIbility is in no wise limited in ita extent; it uray \»t 
■mall or great; 

Of singing thou hast got the reputation. 

Good Thyrsis; mine I yield to thy ability. 

My heart doth seelc another estimation. — Siowkt. 

Capacity of itself always implies a positive and supe- 
riour degree of power ; ' Sir Francis Bacon's capacity 
seemed to have grasped all that was revealed in boolm 
before.*— HrauKs. Although it may be modified by 
epithets to denote different degrees ; a boy of capacity 
will have the advantage over bis school-lellows, parti- 
cularly if he be clasded with those of a dull capacity. 
A person may be able to write a letter, who is not capa- 
ble of writing a boolc ; *■ St. Paul requireth learning in 
presbyters, yea, such learning as doth enable them to 
exhort in doctrine which is sound, and to disprove 
them ttiat gainsay it. What measure of abilitji in such 
thina shall serve to maie men capable of that Itind 
of office he doth not determine.*— HooKxa. 

Abilities, when used in the plural only, is confined to 
the signification of mental endowments, and compre- 
hends the operations of thought in general ; * As fur me, 
my abilities, if ever I bad any, are not what they 
were.'— ArrxaBURY. Capacity, on the other hand, is 
that peculiar endowment, that enlargement of under- 
■tandlng. that exaiui the possessor above the rest of 
mankind: * We sometimes repine at the narrow limits 
prescribed to human capacity'— BrnxTrim. Many men 
nave the abilities for managing the concerns of others, 
who would not have the capacity for conducting a con- 
cern of their own. We should not judge highly of tiiat 
man's abilities who could only mar the plans of others, 
but had no capacity for conceiving and proposing any 
thing better in their stead. 

A vivid imagination, a retentive memory, an exube- 
rant flow of language, are abilities which may be suc- 
cessfully employed in attracting popular applause; 
* I grieve that our senate is dwindled into a school ot 
rhctorick, where men rise to display their abilities rather 
than to deliberate.' — Sir W. Jonks. But that capaeitv 
which embraces a auestion in all its bearings, which 
surveys with a discrunuiating eye the mixed multitude 
of objects that demand atteniTon, which is accompanied 
with coolness in reflecting, readiness in combining, 
quickness in inventing, firmness in deciding, pnunptl- 
tude in action, and penetration in discerning, that is the 
capacity to direct a state, which is the gift of but few; 
*An lierotck poem requires the accomplishment of some 
extraordinarv undertaking, which requires the duty of 
a soldier, and the capacity and prudence of a general.' 
— DayoKif. 


The common idea of power Is what renders these 
words vynonymous. 

Ability, as in the preceding article, signifies that 
which may be derived either from circumstances or 
otherwise : faculty, in Latin faeultas, changed from 
faciUtas facility, which signifies doableoest, or th*; 
property of being able to do or bring about eflbcts, is a 

Eower derived from nature ; • The vital facility is that 
y which life is preserved and the ordinary functions 
of speech preserved ; and the animal faculty is what 
conaucts the operations of the mind.' — Quincy. The 
faculty is a permanent possession ; it is held by a certain 
tenure : tlie ability is an incidental possession ; it ia 
whatever we have while we have it at our disposal, 
but it may vary in degree and quality with times, per- 
sons, and circumstances; * Ability to tench by sermons 
Is a grace which God doth bestow on them whom he 
maketh suflicient for the commendable discharge of 
their duty.*— Hookbr. The powers of seeing and 
hearing are/ocititMs ; health, stren^, and fortune are 
abilities. The faculty Is some spectflck power which is 
directed to one single object ; it Is the power of acting 
according to a given form ; 

No fhiit our palate courts, or flow*r our smelly 
But on its fragrant bosom nations dwell ; 
All formed with prover faculties to share 
The daily bounties of their Maker'a care.— Jan vhs. 

The ability is In general the power of dohif ; Iha 
faeultf therefore might, In the strict aense. be ooa- 
sidered as a species of mbHity; ^Uuman akility Is aa 
unequal match for the violent and unforeseen vicissi- 
tudes of the world.* — BLAia. 

A man uses ttw faeulUej' with which lie is endowed, 
he gives according to his o^iiitf . 

Fiaeultf and talent both owe tlielr being to natttre ; 
but the faculty may be either physical or mental ; the 
talent is altogether mental : the faculty of speech and 
the ratkmal faculty are the grand marks of disclnctkm 
between man and the bnite; 'Season is a noMe 
faculty, and when kept within Us proper sphere, and 
applied to useful purposes, proves a means of exalting 
human creatures almost to the rank of su periour beings!* 
— Bkattik. The talent of mimickry, of dramatick 
acting, and of imitation in general, Is what diatinguiahes 
one man from the other; 

*Tls not, indeed, my talent to engage 
In loay trifles, or to swell my page 
With wind and noise.— Day dbm. 

These terms are all used in the plural, agreeably to 
the above explanation ; the abilities Include, in the 
aggregate, whatever a man Is able to do • hence we 
speak of a man's abilities In speaking, writing, learn- 
ing, and tlte like ; the facuUits incluc^ all the endow- 
ments of body and mind, which are the inherent pro- 
perties of the being, as when we roeak of a mao*a 
reuining tils faculties, or having his faculties Im- 
paired : talents are the particular endowments of the 
mind, which belong to the IndivMual; hence we aajr, 
ttie talents which are requisite for a minister of state 
are diflarcnt from tboae which qualify a man for being 
a Judge. 


T^Aiiiifr Is berc^ a* In ih« prinrriliji^ nriirj4r4, tho | 
rkk ittm: dfitrr^tf^ Ksjfn the Abbe tiUMik,* rtvptmslhv 
mnnnL-r uf laeeminf tliirign • iin liit rrutliihuical Am Llll» 
of (icrrnrrnLrig sjiutfij'it: a4firssa mffn tu ili« awt^of 
mcuhi Ln fXKtiUus t it BignlficA pm^tis tltth ijiu4« of 
addFMt or uT jiianafliE^ qne^s n<df; 4*At*Hi^ tai 
oMrfMM afc t>ii( \n raci modes of ntbiUty. 

I^fitrrtty, in LaLlii drztmtoM, eoitics tro^ndtr trr^ the 
rlglK liaital, tiet'iiise that it Lfi iliv iintubor dhkI rutH (bt 
iet lervu* Kki^kuiixML Dntrriiy umy b«f MJSiU trird ^ ^ H is 
Wl^lom, try iyixnn evading frttm pt'tlls, was turfind 
railifr into a littieritw lodellvef LtuM.iir fruiu i)aci|rjis 
Wlii^a Uxy tucaMjd brai, than into a prt^vuleitcr ta pre- 
Vrnt and r^Dirjvf them afar off-' — BA^aH- Addrrts is 
thf* iiflof naiurc; 'It Wft« iio sofjiter iltirV U>aii tiw 
CAuveyvd iiiin Jittt tckhd a juuntf in bid ul' jk> dtMirre^ 

ti^''" ^ ' "''*■■ '^vau oiii"i>i liiT oiLf iidniit.'^, ntiildJd hoc 

V. u Lo uiiijruive ihu ufiijuriunuy for the 

advancement of her fortune.— Srxc-rAToa. 

We may have ability to any degree (r. Ability)', * It 
Is not possible for our small party and small abUttf to 
extend their operations so far as to be much felt anioag 
such numbern.' — Cowpcr. But dexterity and address 
are positive degrees of ability ; * It is often observed that 
the race is won as much by the dexterity of the rider as 
by the vigour and fleetness of the animal.*— Earl or 
Batb. *I could produce innumerable instances from 
my own (rfiservation, of events imputed to the profound 
skill and address of a minister, which in reality were 
either mere efiecta of negligence, weakness, humour, or 
pride, or at best but tlie natural coiuae of things left to 
themsel ves.' — Swirr. 

To form a good government there roust be akility in 
the prince or his ministers ; address in those to whom 
the detail of operations is intrusted ; and dexterity in 
tb<ise to whom the execution of orders ia confided. 
With little o^tiitf and k>ng habit in transacUng busi- 
ness, we may acquire a dei^crity in despatching it, and 
address in living it whatever turn will best suit oar 

Ability enables ns to act with intelligence and con* 
ftdence ; dexterity lends an air of ease to every aetioa ; 
address supplies art and ingenuity in contrivance. To 
manage the whip with dexterity, to carry on aa Intrigue 
with address, to display some ability on the turf, wll 
raise a man high in the rank of tlie present fashionables. 

* Vide « Dexterity, adrcaae, hablUtd. 




Cf«Mr, In French Ugen^ Lattn laris llcfat, MenM to 
denote qutclrnew In thm mental faculty ; tkt^nl •ignlAet 
fyBof tkiU; and «&>/{ probably cornea fhNu the Latin 
•ct# to know ; expert^ in French ezperU, Latin txptrtusy 
participle of exptrior to learcb or try, stgnUiet aearcbed 
and tried ; iexter0u$^ in Latin itxter^ in Greek Jc^ircpdft 
tnm ii\Ui the rif ht hand, haa the meanins of clever, 
because the right hand la the moat fitted for action ; 
adroit, in French mdroiu, Latin adrtctus or rectut 
right or atraigbt, aignifloe the quality of doing ihinga in 
a right manner. 

Oevtr and tkiUkl are qoaUtlea of the mind ; expert, 
iexUroMSi and otfrott, refer to roodea of physical action. 
CUvenuMt regarda in general the readineaa to compre- 
hend; eitU the matuniy of the Judgement ; expertnets 
a Aicility In the use of thinga ; dezUriiff a mechanical 
ikcility in the performance of any work ; adroitnest 
the suitable moveroenta of the body. A person ia clever 
at drawing who ahowa a taate for it. and executes it 
well without mueh instruction ; he la ekilfnl in drawing 
If be understands it both in theory and practice ; he is 
expert in the use of the bow if he can use it with expe- 
dition and effect ; he is dexterona at any game when he 
goea through the roanoBuvres with celerity and an 
unerring hand; he is adroit if by a quick, sudden, and 
well-directed movement of his body, he effbcta the 
otfject he has In view. 

CUeemeee \n mental power employed In the ordi- 
nary concerns of life : a person is clever In business or 

My (Kends bade me welcome, but struck me oulte dumb, 
With tidings that Johnson and Burke would not come ; 
*« And I knew it." he cried, " both eternaUy fail, 
The one at the House, and the other with Thrale. 
But no matter ; I'll warrant we'll make up the party, 
With two ftill aa clever and t» times as hearty." 


8kitt Is both a mental and corporeal power, exerted 
4a mechankal operations and practical sciences: a 
Ahyalciaa, a lawyer, and an artist, are ekilful : one may 
nave a ekdl in divination, or a ekiU in palpUng. 
* There is nothinc more graceAU than to see the play 
•tand still for a few momenta, and the audience Kept 
In an agreeable auspenae, during the alienee of a skilful 
■actor.'— AomaoM. Kxpertneee and dexteritw require 
nore eorporoU than mental power exerted In minor 
arts and amaaementa; one is expert at throwing the 
■qaoit; dfxiarMU in the management of horses; 
O'er bar and shelf the watery path they sound, 
With dexVreus arm, sagacious of the ground ; 
Fearless they combat every hostile wind, 
Wheeling in many tracia with course inclln'd, 
Expert to moor whert tenouia line the road. 

(Be applied himself next to the coquette's heart, 
which he likewise laid open with great dexteritp.*— 
Addisom. Jldtreitneee Is altogether a corporeal ulent, 
emploved onlv as occasion may require : one Li »droit 
at eluding the blows aimed by an adversary ; * Use your- 
self to carve mdroit^ and genteelly.'— CHisTcaruLo. 
Clevemeee ia rather a natural gift; skill is elever- 
nete Improved by practice and extended knowledge ; 
exmertneee ia the efltet of long practice; dexterity 
arbea fhrni habit combined with agility ; cdreitneee ia 
a apecieaof dez£«rtf« arWng from a natocal agility and 
pliabiUty of body. 

fWaMaCy denotes the abaence of abaitw (v. Mility) 
in the moat general and abatract aense ; * It la not from 
HahiUtjf to <fiacover what they ought to do that men 
err In practice.*- Blaix. DieabiUty implies the ab- 
sence of a^flitf only in particular casea : the incAility 
Mea In the nature of^the thing, and la hremediable ; the 
dieaMitjf lies in the drcumatances, and may sometimes 
be removed ; weakness, whether physical or mental, 
will occasion an inabilibf to perform a task ; there Is a 
total iMkOitf in an infant to walk and act like an 
•dnh : a want of knowledge or of the requisite quali- 
fications may be a diMability; \n this manner mi- 
nority of age, or an objection to take certain oalha 
■ay be a dutkHUjf for oUing a pabliek oOcc; * Want 

of age ia a tegal dtfsUifif to eoatract a Mar- 
riage.*— BLAoxsTOMa. 


Inc^abUy that Is, net having cemaeUy (t). AMitf) ; 
ineuJUientj or not eisficieuty or net having wbat is iiif- 
JUient; ituompetenty or nat competent; areemptoyed 
either for persons or things: the Ant in a general, the 
last two in a spodflck sense : inadequnte or net adefumtt 
or eoualled, is applied more generally to things. 

Whenaman is said to be racajroMs, it characterises 
his whole mind ; * Were a human soul incavahle of 
fkrther enlarcementa, I could imagine it might HUI 
away inaensibly.* — AooisoM. If he be said to have 
inetificienef and ineemneteneft U reniects the parti- 
cular objects to which be has applied his power: he 
may be inenMeient or incemnetent for certain thinga i 
but he may have a eepaeitif for other things : the term 
ineapaeitf, therefore, Unifies a direct charge upon the 
understanding, which la not implied by the tnttifi- 
eieney miid ineen^eteney. An nieapacifyconaiati alto- 
gether of a phyncal defect: an tnenjflcieney and m* 
competency are Incidental defects : the former depend- 
ing upon the age, the condition, the acquisitions, moral 
qualities, and Uie like, of the individual ; the latter on 
the extent of his knowledge, and the nature of his 
studies ; where there is direct nwopacsiy, a person has 
no chance of making himself fit for any odlce or em- 
ployuient ; * It chiefly proceedeih from natural inceper 
city, and general indiBpoaition.*- Browm. Youth is 
naturally accompanied with inevfficienep to fill ala- 
tlona which belong to mature age, and to perform 
officea which require the exercise of Judgement : ' The 
minister's aptness, or ineuffieieney, otherwise than by 
reading, to instruct the flock, standelh in this olace as 
a stranger, with whom our Common Prayer nas no- 
thing to do.*— HooKRR. A young peison ie. therefore, 
still more ineempetent to fbrm a fixc<d opinion on any 
one subject, because he can have made hinuelf mas- 
ter of none ; * Laymen, with equal advamagea of 
parts, are not the moat incompete$U Judges of aacred 
thinga.*- Drvdbn. 

Ine^ahle la applied aometlmea to the moral cha- 
racter, to signify the absence of that which la bad ; 
ineufficient and incompetent alwaya convey the Idea 
of a deficiency in that which ia at leaat desirable : it 
ia an honour to a person to be tae«^a6^ of fklsehood, 
or incapable of doing an ungenerous action ; but to be 
insvfficient and incompetent are, at all events, qualitiea 
not to be boasted of, although they may not be expressly 
di»gracef\il. These terms are likewise apidicable to 
things, in which they preserve a similar distinction ; 
infidelity is incapable of afibrding a man any comfort ; 
when the means are inavfficient lot obtaining the enda. 
It la madnc^ to expect success ; it is a sad condition or 
humanity when a man's resources are ineempetent to 
supply him with the first necessaries of life. 

Inadequate ia relative in its signification, like ineuf- 
Jtcient and incompetent; but tlic relation Is dilTercnt 
A thing is insufficient which does not sufiice either for 
the wii«hc!i, the purpose*, or necevitlea, of any one. 
In particular or In general cases ; thus a quantity of 
materials may be insufficient for a particular building ; 
'The insufficiency of the light or nature is, by the 
light of Scripture, fully auppTied.'- Hoorir. /ncmi- 
petenty is an insuffideneii for general purposes, in things 
of the first necessity ; thus, an income may be incom- 
petent to enppott a family, or perform an office: ' Every 
speck doc9 not blind a man, nor does every Infirmity 
make one unable to discern, or incompetent to reprove, 
the grosser faults of others.* — Gov brum knt or thk 
ToNGUB. Inadequacy is still more particular, for It 
denotes any deficiency which Is measured by compa- 
rison with the object to which It refers ; thus, tha 
strength of an animal may be inadequate to the labour 
which is required, or a reward may be inadequate to 
the service; 'All the attainments possible In our pre- 
aent state are evidently inadequate to our capacities of 
enjoyment.'- JoHKsoN. 

int, like wisdom, according to its original. fVom 
KeUsen to know, signifies knowledge, but it has so 



extended Ite meBnlng m to tifBifV that fkcoMy of the 
mtiid bf which knowledge or truth ie perceived. The 
Ural property of wU, as an exertion of the inteUectnal 
fkcultv, la that it be apontaneous, and aa It were in- 
BtinctTve: laboured or forced wit ia no ml. Reflection 
and experlosce aupply ua with wladom ; atudf and 
labour aupply ua with learning ; but mit aeizee with 
an eagle eye that which eieapea the notice of the deep 
thinker, aiid eliclta Irutha whkh are in vain auugbt 
for with any aevere eflbrt: * fVit Ilea more in the aa- 
aemblage of Ideaa, and putting thoae together with 
qulckneai and variety.*— AoDiaoN. Ntmmur la a 
apeciea o( wit which flowa out of the kmattnr of a 

For Bure by wtt Sa chiefly meant 

Applying well what we invent : 

What kuMonr ia not, all the tribe 

Of logick-oaongera can deacribe: 

Here nature only acta her part, 

Unbelp'd by practice, boou, or art— Swirr. 
Witt B8 difltingulahed from ilimMir, may conaist of a 
aingle brilliant thought ; 

In a true piece of »i< all thinga muat be, 
Yet all thingB there agree.— Cowlst. 
Bat kumow mna In a vein ; it la not a itriklng, but an 
eauaUe and pleaalng flow of wtt; ' There is a kind 
or nature, a certain recularlty of thought, which must 
discover the writer (of kum0ur) to be a man of aenae 
at the aame time that he appeara altogether given up 
to caprice.'— AoDiaoH. Of thia deacr IpUon of »tt Mr. 
Addiaon haa given ua the naoat admirable specimens in 
his writinga, who knew beat how to explain what wit 
and kmMur were, and to illustrate them by hli practice. 
Huwuwr may likewise dbiplay itself in actions aa well 
aa worda, whereby it la more strikincly distinguished 
fyom wit, which displaya itidf only in the happy ex- 
pre9Bi<m of happy thooghts; * I cannot help remarking 
that richness, which often destroys both wtc and wia- 
dojn, yet seldom has power to remove that talent which 
we call hMtMMT. Mr. Wycherley showed his in hia laat 
eompliment paid to hla voung wife (whom he made 
promise, on nla dying bed, that ahe would not marry an 
old man again).*— Pops. 

Saftrs, (h>m aalgrj probably firom aoi and ira 
ahounding in anger, and traay, ttom the Greek tiputvia 
simulation and (Usslmulatioo, are personal and ceiiso 
rious sorts of »i( ; tlie first of which openly points at 
the olHect, and the second in a covert manner takes its 
aim ; ^ The ordinary subjects of «acir< are such as ex- 
cite the greatest indignation in the best tempers.*- 
AnmsoH. *■ In writings of humour, figurea are some- 
times used of ao delicate a nature, that it shall often 
happen that some people will aee things bi a direct con- 
trary senae to what the author, and the minority of the 
readen understand them : to such the most innocent 
irony may appear irrellglon.*— Oambrioos. BmT' 
letmu Is rather a specie of humour than direct wit, 
which conaistB in an assemblage of ideas extrava- 
gantly discordant ; ' One kind of burlesque represents 
mean peraona in the accoutrementa of heroes.* — 
AoDiso!!. The satire and irony are the moat ill-na- 
tured kindsof aptf ; AaWssgas stands in the towestrank. 

Taoto, In all probability from the Latin taUum and 
tango to touch, seems to designate the capacity to de- 
rive pleasure from an object by simply coming in con- 
tact with it ; ' This metaphor would not have been ao 
genei al had there not been a conformity between the 
mental ta*te and that sensitive tatte which gives a re- 
lish of every flavour.* — Addison. Oeniu* designatca 
tJie power we have fm accompliahing any object; 
' Taste consists in the power of Judging, fenius in the 
power of executing,*— Blair. He who derives parti- 
cular pleasure ftnm murick may be said to have a tasu 
for iniisick ; he who makes very great proficiency in the 
theory and practice of musick may be said to have a 
genius for it. Taste is in some degree an acquired 
faculty, or at least Is dependant on cultivation, as ahra 
on our other faculties, tor Its perfection ; * The cause 
of a wrong tasU is a defect of Judgement.*- Bctrki. 
Omius, from the Latin gigno to generate, is a perfectly 
ibiTural gift which rises to perfecuon by its own native 
st'eijzth ; the former bcloiiga to tlie criiick, and the lat- 
ter to the poet; 

'TIa whh oar Judgements as cor watdMi, mm 

Go Just alike, yet each believes hie own ; 

In poets aa true gonius ia rare. 

True tmsu aa seldom is the crltick's share.— Pon. 

It is obvious, therefore, that we may have a tasU 
without having jvh^m; but it would not be possible to 
have genius for a thing without having a tests for k : 
for nothing caa ao eflectually give a taste for any ao- 
complishment, aa the capacity to learn it, and the sua- 
ceptibilitv of all its beautiea, which circumataneas ar 
inseparable from genius. 


Both these terms Imply acuteneas of understanding, 
and diflisr mostly in the mode of displaying themaelvea. 
Ingenuity, in Latin ingenuaas, siniines literary flee- 
dom of birth, in distinction ftrom slavery, with which 
condition have been naturally associated nobleneas at 
character and richness in mental endowments, in 
whicli lauer sense it ia allied to wit. Ingenuity com- 
prehends invention ; wit comprehends knowledge. /■* 
genuHy displays itself in the mode of conducting aa 
argument ; ' Men were formerly won over to opinuwa. 
by the candour, sense, and ingenuity o( thoae who had 
the right on their side.'— Addison. Wit is mostly dis- 
played in aptness of expression and lllustratioo ; * Whao 
I broke loose from that great body of wrliera, who have 
employed their wit and parts In mopagatiiif vice and 
irreliafon. I did not question but I should be treated as 
an odd kind of fellow.*— Addison. One la ingeniomo 
in matters either of art or science ; one is witty only 
in matters of sentiment : things may, therefore, be m- 
gonious, but not witty; wUty, but not tngsnious, or both 
^itty and ingenious. A mechanical inventkmj or any 
ordinary contrivance, is ingenious but not wttty; an 
ingenious, not a wiUy solution of a difficulty ; a flash 
of wit, not a flaah of ingenuity; a witty humour, a 
wttty conversation ; not an ingenious humour or con- 
veraation : on the other hand, a conceit is mfsmew, 
as it is the ftiiit of one's own mUid ; it Is wtttu, aa H 
contahu point, and sirikea on the nndsfBtanunc of 

Sense, from the Latin sensus and sentio to feel or 
perceive, signifies in general the faculty of feeling eor> 
poreally, or perceiving mentally ; in the first case It is 
allied to feelio; (o. Feeling), in the second it la synony- 
mous with judgemsnt, which is a special operation of 
the mind. * Tue sense is that primitive portion of the 
understanding which renders an account of things 
through the medium of the senses; 
Then Is the soul a nature, which contains 
The power of sense within a greater power. 

And the judgement, that portion of the reason which 
selects or rejects ftom this account. The sense b, ao 
to speak, the reporter which collecta the deuila, and 
exposes the fticu ; the Judgement Is the judge that 

passes sentence upon tnem. According to the strict 
import of the terms, the judgemsnt depends upon tt- 
eenee, and varies with it in degree. He who haa i 

import of the I 

tenee, and varies wiu ii u 

eense, has no judgement ; and he who lo 

\ooen judgement: since sous supptteathe knowledge 

of things, and judgement pronounces upon them, it la 

evident that there must be sense before there caa ba 


On the other hand, sense, when taken to denote the 
mental faulty of perceiving, may be so distinguished 
(iomjudgement, that there may be sense witiHMljudge- 
ment, and judgement without eense; sense Is th« 
faculty of percdving in general ; it ia applied to ab- 
stract science OS well as general knowledge ijudgewunt 
ia the faculty of determining either In matters of prac- 
tice or theory. It is the lot of many, therefore, to have 
sense in matten of theory, who have no Judgment in 
matters of practice, while others, on the contrary, 
who have nothing above common sense, will have a 
soundness of judgement that is not to be surpassed 

Nay, further, it is possible for a man to have good 
sense, and yet not a solid judgement: as they an 
both natural faculties, men are gifted with them ai 

* Vide Riband : «< Sena, jugament ** 



vailoariynirithetnyoaMrfteiiltf. Bygoodtmut 
a IBM !■ enaliled to dlnarn. u It wtn intuitively, tliat 
wliicta requires anoUier of lees tem$9 to ponder over 

Tbertt*« eometlilng pievioiia ev*n to tatis : 'tii ««im«, 
Good »t%»«; wliicb only !• the gift of hemv'n, 
And, though no Kience, felriy worth the seven ; 
A light within youmlf you must perceive. 
Jonee and Le Notre have it not to give.~Fora. 

By a mMd jvdgewunt a man ia enabled to avoid thoee 
•rroun in conduct, which one of a weak imigmaU ii 
alwayt fUling into ; • In aU inatancea, where our ex- 
perience of the past has been extensive and uniform, 
WixJMdgtment cooceminK the fbture amounts to moral 

certainty .'—BiATTis. There is, however, this dis- 
tinction between aai»9 ^ad judgnunt^ timi the deficien- 
cies of tiM former may be supplied by diligence and 
attention; but a defect in the latter is to be supplied 
by no eflbrts of one*s own. A man may improve his 
s«iMe in proportion as he has the means of infor- 
maUon ; but a weakness ofjudgnuutt is an irreme- 
diable evIL 

When employed as epithets, the term anuOU and 
judicious serve still more clearly to distinguish the two 
primitives. A writer or a speaker is said to be tenri- 
kU; 'I have been tired with accounts fh>m ttmaibU 
men, fhmished with matters of Act, which have liap- 
pened within their own knowledge.'— A nnisoir. A 
mend, or an adviser, to be jwdidauM; * Your observa- 
tions are wojudiei^uMA wish you had not bnen so sparing 
of them.'— Sin W. Jonss. The ««iwe displays itself 
In the conveisatlon, or the communication of one's 
Ideas; thejtutfSMiil in the propriety of one's actions. 
A twfuikU man may be an entertaining companion ; 
but a judUwuM man, in any post of command, is an 
Inestimable treasure. SennbU remarks are always 
calculated to please and interest »mui^U people; /«i- 
dicMKs measures have a sterling value in themselves, 
that Is appreciated accordii^ to the importance of the 
oi^ect. Hence, it Is obvious, that to be §»nsiiU Is a 
desirable thing; but to htjndicionM is an indispensable 


Diaunmnkt expresses the Judgement or power of 
diMuntimg. which, fVom the Latin diaeemv.w dis and 
csms, signifies to kx>k at apart, so as to iorm a true 
estlmaie of things ; ptnstraium denotes the act oi 
power of jfeneiratingt fh>m ptnetrtUey in Latin pens- 
trmtus^ participle of ^racero and venttM, within, signi- 
fVing to see into the Interiour ; duteriwtiMati^n denotes 
the act or power of d<sa-nii«iia<tiif', from diteriwunaUt 
In LMtin di§crimmaiu*t participle of dtscrmtiM, to 
make a dUferenoe; Judgement dienotes the power of 
jMdgnur, from in^fs* In Latin jwdie*^ compounded of 
jna and dic«, sijpiirring to pronounce right. 

The first three or these terms do not express dUferent 
powers, but diflferent modes of the same power; 
namely, the power of seeing intellectually, or exerting 
the intellectual sight. 

Dittenmtmt Is not so powerftil a mode of hitellee- 
tual vision as penetration; the former Is a common 
fbculiy, the latter Is a higher degree of the same 
Acuhy ; it b the power of seeing quickly, and seeing 
In spite of all that Intercepts the sight, and keeps the 
object out of view : a man of ccnnmon diseemment dis- 

cerns characters which are not concealed by any par- 

" * disguise ; * Great part of the country was aban- 

1 to the moils of the soldiers, who, not tmTibl^ng 


themselves to dMccm between a suUectaua a n E«L 
while their liberty lasted, made IndUnrenth |ir<hiM of 
both.*— HATWAan. A man of ^cnstrsti^j in \hh u,be 
deceived by any artifice, however thorou^^My rjo^iked 
or secured, even from suspicion; 'He ii sm sN^^v to 
dedde as be b quick to appreiiend, calmh Qn<i «jr Ji iie- 
ratdy weighing every opposite reason that ii otlernid, 
and tracing it with a most Judicious perutratmit:^ 
Mblm OTH {Letters of PU$tf). 

Dieeenmeut and peneirmtMon serve for the discovery 
of Individoal thinp by their outward marks ; dieertmi- 
notion is empkiyed in the discovery of diflbrencea 
between two or more objects ; the former ennsists of 
afanple observation, the latter eombines also com- 
Hoet n m nt aad pmUratiom an gntt aids 

afanple c 

towards dieeHminotion: he wHo can dtscam tba 
springs of human actk»n, or penolrou the views of 
men, will be most fitted Ibr beoriminoting between 
the characters of di/Raent men; ' Perhaps there is no 
character through aU Bhakspeare drawn with mora 
spirit and Just dieeHmhuUion than Bhyhxk's.'— 

Although jndgement derives much assistance from 
the three former operations, it is a totally distinct 
power L the furuicf unly discover the things that are; 
it nets on citein^l objects by seeing them: tlM latter 
ii crHiivp ; w (witduces bv deduction frmm that which 
psjwai Inwardly-" The fonner are speeulatlve; they 
arc dlriwtod u> ihdt which is to be known, and are 
condoed to nr««iii objects; they serve to discover 
tniili or fuF^elaood, perfections and defeOk motives 
aiirj pnUMEs- tVr I u^er is practical; it is directed to 
thai wiucit i;k iv Lu: done, and extends fas views to the 
fbture; it marks the relations and connexions of 
things: U foresees their consequences and eflbcts: <I 
k)ve him, I confess, extremely ; but my afibction does 
by no means prejudice my nids^esMnt.')— MaLMora 
{Letters of Plimv), 

Of diecemmentt we say that fa Is clear; fa serves to 
remove all obscurity and confusion: of vmetroiMa, 
we say that fa is acute ; fa pierces every veU whkh 
fUsehood draws before truth, and prevents us from 
being deceived: of diserMuastMa, we say that fa is 
nice ; fa renders our ideas accurate, and serves to pre- 
vent us from confounding objects : of jndgewMmt, we 
say that it is solkl or sound ; fa renders the conduct 
prudent, and prevents us from committing mliffaKfft, 
or involving one's self in embarrasnnenta. 

When the qoestk>n is to estimate the real qualltlea 
of either peraons or thinp, we exercise dwcsmsuat; 

Cool age advances venerably wise, 

Turns on all hands fas deep dueeming «yea.~Pora. 
When fa is required to lay open that which art or 
cunnfaig has concealed, we must exercise ponotroHon ; 
* A penotratien faito the abstruse diflkulties and dapiim 
of modem algebra and fluxions, is not worth the 
labour of those who design either of the three learned 
professkms.'— Watts. When the qoesdon Is to de- 
termine the proportions and degrees of qualities in per- 
sons or things, we must use discriwunation; * A satire 
shoukl expose nothing but what is corrigible, ind 
make a doe dioerimination between those who areL 
and those who are not, proper oltjecti of it.*— Aontsoa. 
When caUed upon to take any step, or act any part, 
we must employ the judgement ; *Jndgementj a cooland 
slow fliculty, attends not a man in the rapture of poed- 
cal composition.*— DaiiMis. Diseemment Is more or 
lem Indlraensable for every man in private or public 
station ; he who has tlie most promiscuous dealings 
with men, has the greatest need of fa : penstrmtion Is 
of peculiar importance for princes and statesmen : die- 
ertminmtion is of great utility for commanders, and 
all who have the power of dlstributfaig rewards and 
ponishmenU:/«4^«aMf»C is an absolute requisite for atl 
to whom the execution or management «r oenci 


Are both derived from the same Latin word mtio, 
reason, which, from ratus and reer, to thtaik, simiflea 
the thinking fkcaltv. 

ReasonoUe signifies accordant with reason ; rmtionol 
signifies having reason in it : the former is more com- 
monlv applied in the sense of right reason. proprie^r« 
or fairness : the latter Is emptoyed In the ori^nai sense 
of the word reason : hence we term a man reasonmkU 
who acts according to the principles of right reason : 
and a being racume/, who is possiessed of the rationml 
or rsssoaia^ fricutty, in distinction from the brutes. It 
is to be lamented that there are much fewer remsonakto 
than there are ro/aoaoi creatures. The same distinction 
exists between them when aoplied to things ; * A law 
may be reasonakU in itself, although a man does not 
aUow it, or does not know the reason of the lawgi vera.' 
— Bwirr. * The evidence which is aflTorded for a Aituie 
state is suflicient for a misonol ground of oonducL'— 


• Vide Abbe Olraid: ".Piscememen^ Jugemeot*' 



Then !■ tbe mbm diffcrence be t ww n wtmUal and 
imttllMltnU as becwaen «Ir4 and inttlUU : tbe mind 
comprehendi tiie thlnUBf fteullr In goneral with an 
Ita operatiooi ; the lalcUtcC indudea only that part of 
It whleh oonalalB In ondenuadinf and Judfemaot : 
wuntal is therefore oppoaed to corporeal ; iuUUeetual 
teoppoaedtoaenaaalorpbyikal: •wnxaieiertkmaare 
not to be expected from all ; imuUeetmal ei^oyaieati 
fUl to the lot of comparatively few. 

Objects, pleaaurea, pains, operattooa, gifts, Jcc are 
denominated wuitUl; 'To collea and reposHe ihe 
various foma of things is fkr the most pleasing part 
ot tasaxoi oecupatioo.*~JoiiMOR. 8aii)ects. conver- 
aatino, puraolts, and the lilte, are eMitled inteltteHtrnt ; 
Man *• more divine, tlie master of all these, 
Lord of the wide world, and wide wat*ry seas, 
Endued with intellectual sense and soul. 

It Is not always easy to distinguish our ment^d pleasures 
fium those corporeal pleasures which we ei^y in com- 
mon with the brutes ; the latter are however greatly 
heightened by the former in whatever degree they are 
blended: in a socieQr of well-Informed persons the con- 
versation will turn principally on mteliectual subjects. 


Memory, in Latin 

Oreelt iivi$/iMy 

and uvdoftai^ comes, in all probability, (h>m ulvoi, the 
nind, because wuwurjf is the principal fkculty or the 

mind; rewumbrancet ftom the verb remember^ con- 
tracted from re and wiemerp, to bring back to tbe mind, 
is a verbal substantive, denoting tbe exercise of that 
Otculty ; receUeetion^ from recoWscL, compounded of re 
and cellectj signifies eeUeeting again, i. e. carefully, 
and from difikrent quarters by an effort of the mewutry ; 
r e m i n i ee em eet in Latin remui*e*niim^ from reminieeer 
and m«ai^, is the bringing back to the mind what was 
there before. 

Memerf la the power of recalling images once made 
on the mind ; rtmemkranee, recollection, and reminie- 
Mwce, are opeiations or ezehlons of this power, which 
T in their r^ 

The sMRMry is a power which exerts itself either in- 
dependently of the will, or in conformity with the will ; 
but all the other terms express the acts of conscious 
agents, and consequently are more or less connected 
with the wilL In dreams the memory exerts itself, but 
we should not sav that we have then any r«m«iii^raiiee 
or recoUeetien of objects. 

Retmembrmmee is tiie exerciao of mewtorf In a con- 
acious agent ; it is the calling a thing back to tbe mind 
which has lieen there before, but has passed away ; 
Forgetfuiness is necessary to re«i«Ni^aMc«.'— John- 
son. This may be tbe effect of repetition or habit, as 
In the case of a clilld who remembere his lesson aAer 
having learned it several times ; or of a horw who 
rememkere the road which he has been continually 
passing; or it may be the effect o( associauon and cir- 
cumstances, by which images are casually brought 
back to the mind, as happens to Intelligent beings con- 
tinually as they exercise their thinking faculties ; 
Remember thee! 
Ah, thou poor ghost, while vumory holds a seat 
In this distracted globe. — SHiUCspKARa. 

In these cases remembrance is an involuntary act ; 
for things return to the mind iiefore one is aware of it. 
as in the case of one who hears a particular name, and 
remembere that he has to call on a person of the same 
name ; or of one who, on seeing a partlcalar tree, 
remembere all the circumstances of his youth which 
were connected with a similar tree. 

hrmembranee is however likewise a voluntary act, 
and the consequence of a direct detmnination, as in 
the case of a child who strives to remember what it has 
been told by its parent ; or of a friend who rewumbere 
Ihe hour of meeting another friend in conseouence 
of the interest which it has excited in his mind : nay 

Indeed experience leaches us that scarcely any thins 
in ordinary cases Is more under the subservience of 
Ihe will than the mewury ; for it is now become almost 
a maxim to say, that one may rcMuwiber whatever one 

The power of sn aigi y . tai t 

that power in the act of rsMMB*«mi/, aie i 

in oomoMNK tliough in different degrees, by man and 
brute ; but re e ell ^ t i on and reminiecence are exerdsee 
of the memory that are connected with tlie higher 
flu:ulties of man, his judgement and undersUuHUng. 
To remember is to call to mind that which has once 
been presented to the mind ; but to reeelUet is to 
remember afresh, to remember what has been remuwe- 
bercd before. Rewumbrance busies Itself with objects 
that are at band ; rtcoUeetien carries us back to dls- 
tan( periods : simple remeenbrance is engaged in things 
that have but just leA the mind, which are more or 
less easUy to be recalled, and more or less faithfully to 
be represented ; but recollection tries to retrace the 
faint images of things that have been so kmg uitfhought 
of as to be almost obliterated from the memory. In this 
manner we are said to remember in one half hour what 
was told us in the preceding half hour, or to rewtember 
what passes fVom one dav to another ; but we reeoUeet 
the Incidents of childhood ; we recollect what happened 
in our native place aAer many yean' absence from IL 
The remembrance is that homely every-day exercise of 
tbe memory which renders It of essential service hi the 
acquirement of knowledge, or in the performance <^ 
one's duties ; *■ Memory may be assisted by method, 
and the decays of knowledge repaired by suted times 
ot recollection.*— ionvion. The recollection is that ex- 
alted exercise of the memory which affords us the purest 
of eiifoymentSj and serves the noblest of purpopes ; the 
recollection of all the minute incidents of childhood is 
a more sincere pleasure than any which the present 
moment can allord. 

Reminiecence, if it deserve any notice as a word of 
English use, is altogether an abstract exercise of the 
memory, which is employed on purely intellectual Ueaa 
in distinction from those which are awakened by sen- 
sible objects ; the mathematician makes use of remi- 
nieeence in deducing unknown truths from those which 
he already knows ; * Reminiecence is tbe retrieving a 
thing at present forgot, or conAisedly remembered^ by 
setting tlie mind to hunt over all its notions.* — Soctth. 

Reminiscence among the disciples of Socrates was 
Uie remembrance of things purely intellectual, or of 
that natural knowledge which the souls had had l>efore 
their union with the bridy ; while the memory was 
exercised u|H>n sensible thin^, or that knowledge which 
was acquired through the medium of the senses : there- 
fore the Latins said that rcminiecentia belonged exclu- 
sively to man, because it was purely intellectual, but 
that memory was common to all animals, because It 
was merely the depot of the senses ; but this diMinc- 
tlon, from what lias been before observed, is only pre- 
served as it respects tlie meaning of reminteeemcs. 

Memory is a generic term, as has been nln»df 
shown : it include:* the common idea of reviving former 
imprtsfiuiid, but does not qualify the nature of tbe 
ideas revived: the term is however extended in itc 
application to sienily not merely a power, but also a 
seat or resting place, as is likewise remembrance and 
recollection; but stiU with this difference, that tha 
mewunj is spacious, and contains every thing; tbe 
remembrance and recollection are partial, and compre- 
hend only passing events : we treasure up knowledge 
in our memory ; the occurrences of the preceding year 
are still fresh in our remembrance or recollection. 

ForgetftUneae characterizes tlie person, or that which 
is personal ; oblivion Ihe state of tJie tiling : the former 
refers to him who forgete ; • I have read In ancient 
authors invitations to lay aside care and anxiety, and 
give a loose to that pleasing forgetfulneee wliereia 
men put off their characters uf business.'— Stkblb. 
The latter to that which ie forgotten; 
O'er all the rest, an undistinguished crew. 
Her wing of deepest shade oblivion drew. — Falconse. 

We blame a person for his forgetfnlweee ; but we aome- 
times bury things in oblivion, 

Fancy, considered as a power, simply brings tlie ob- 
ject to tbe mind, or maVes it appear, from the Latin 
pAoaUsM, and the Greek ^rraoiti and ^r^, to 



ofnlv «fnploy« itself about tbin|;s without refardioj^ 

their nature; but the imaginmUon alms at tracing a 

reaemtklance, and gsttlng a true copf ; 

And as imM^m*iwn bodies forth 

The fbrms of things unknown, the poet's pen 

Turns them to shape.— Sbaxspkars. 

The fanef conseauently forms combinations, either 

real or unreal, as chance may direct ; but the {wtagma- 

(iVn is seldomer led astray. The faiuf is busy in 

dreams, or when the mind is in a disordered sute ; 

*■ There was a certain lady of thin airy shape, who 

was very active in this solemnltv: her name was 

/'«Mcy.*— Addison. But the iwtagnuitwn is supposed 

to act when the intellectual powers are in Aill play. 

The fmnep is employed on Ught and trivial objects, 

which are present to the senses; tbeiwufinationwtMn 

above all worldly objects, and carries us from the world 

of matter into the work! of spirits, from time present 

to tlie lime to come. A milliner or mantua-maker may 

employ her /«Mf in ttie decoraikms of a cap or gown ; 

PhlkMophy ! I say, and call it He ; 

For whatsoe'er the painter's /aaey be, 

It a male virtue seems to me.— CowLCTi 

But the poet's imagination depicts every tbii^ grand, 

every thing bold, and every thing remote ; * whatever 

be his subject, Milton never fails to fill the iwutgina- 

(tax.*— J0HN80!«. 

Although Mr. Addison has thought proper, for hb 
convenience, to use the words /aacy and imagination 
promiscuoudy when writing on thift subject, yet the 
distinction, as above pointd out, has been observed 
both in fsmiliar discourse and in writing. We say 
that we fanqff not that we imagin*^ that we see or 
bear soroethinf ; tlM pleasures of tiie imagination^ not 
of the/aneif. 


/J«C In Latin tdec, Greek uiia^ signifies the form or 
Image of an object, fttmi uSki to see, that is, the thing 
seen in the mind. Thought literally signifies the thii^ 
thought^ and imagination the thing iwugginei. 

The tdea to the simple representation of an object; 
the thought to the reflectkm; and tlie tiiMf^a4ilt>» to 
the combination of ideas: we have ideas of the 
nin, the moon, and all material objects; we have 
thoughts on moral subjects; we have imaginations 
drawn fnnn the ideas already existing In the mind. 
The ideas areformed ; they are the rude materials with 
whkh the thinhing Acuity exerts Itself: the thoughts 
arise In the mind by means of association, or recur 
in the mind by the power of the memory ; they are 
the materiato with which the thinking faculty employs 
Itself: the imaginations are created by the mind's re- 
action on Itself; they are the materiato with which the 
undemanding seeks to enrich Itself. 

The word idea to not only the most general in sense. 
but the most universal ki application; thought and 
iwtagination are particular terms used only In con- 
nexion with the agent thinking or imagining. AH 
these words have therefore a dtotlnct office. In which 
they cannot properly be confounded with each other. 
Idea to used In all cases for the mental representation, 
abstractediv from the a^nt that represents them : hence 
ideas are either clear or distinct : ideas are atuched to 
words; ideas are analyzed, confounded, and the like; 
In which cases the word thought could not be sufasti- 
tnted ; Bvery one finds that many of the ideas which 
he d«dred to retain have slipped away Irretrievably.* 
— >loH]f SON. The thought bcionn only to thinking and 
rational beings : the brutes may oe said to have ideas^ 
but not thoughts : hence thoughts are either mean, fine, 
grovelling, or saUlme, accoiding to the nature of the 
mind in which they exist: 

The warring passions, and tnmoltnoiis tJiougkis 
That rage within thee!— Rows. 

Hence we say with more proprie^, lo Indulge a 
thought^ than to indulge an idea; to express one's 
thoughts^ rather than one's ideas^ on anv subject : 
although the latter term idea, on account of Itscompre- 
lieosive use, may witboat vtoUttloo of any exptess rale 

be indifibrentlv eaplojed 
thought; but the former ten 
lose Its characteristic meanli 

term does DU oa ibto account 

The imagination to not only the fruit of tMoughtf bat 
of peculiar thought: the thought may be another's: 
the imagination Is one's own : the thought occuis and 
recurs;ltcomesanditgoes; It toreuinedorrc>jectedat 
the pleasure of the tAtjUny being : the imagination l» 
framed by special desire ; It to chertobed with the par^ 
tiality of a parent for its ofipring. The thomghU ai« 
busied with the surrounding objects; theimagtnationM 
are emptoyed on distant and strange objecto ; hence the 
thoughts are denominated sober, chaste, and the like ; 
the iHM^mat*tm«.wlkl and extravagant The thoughts 
engage the mind as circumstances chre rise to them ; 
th^ are always supposed to have a foandation In some 
thing: the imaginations^ on the other hand, are often 
the mere fruit of a disordered brain; they are always 
regarded as unsubstantial, if not unreal ; they Pn- 
quently owe their origin to the suggestions of the appe- 
tites and pasrions; wnence tbey are termed the imagi- 
nations of the heart: ^Difl^ent cllmatfie produce in 
men, by a dififerent mixture of the humours, a diflkrent 
and unequal eooiae of imaginations and | 

— T«1»LB. 


Ideal does not strictly adhere to the sense of its pri 
mitive idea (v. Idea) : the idea to the representation of 
a real obiect in the mind- but uitfo/ signifies belonging to 
the idea independent of the realitv or the external oblecL 
Imaginary preserves the signification of Its primitive 
imagination (v. Flaneu, also v. /dsa), as denottng what 
to created by the mind itself. 

The idsal to not directly opposed to, but abstraded 
from, the reality; ^There to not, perhaps, in all the 
stores o( ideal anguish, a thought more pidnfol than 
the consciousness of having propagated corruption.' 
— JoHNsoM. The tsis^sry, on the other hand, to di- 
rectly opposed to the reality ; it to the unreal thtag 
formed by the imagination t ' Superiour beings know 
well the vanity of those tsia^»a«ry perfections that 
swell the heart of man.* — Addison. Ideal happiness 
to the happiness which to formed in the mind, without 
having any direct and actual prototype in nature ; but 
it may, neverthdess, be something possible to be real 
ized ; it may be above nature, but not in direct contrar 
diction to It : the imaginarf to that which to opposite tQ 
some positive exiting reality ; the pleasure which % 
lunatic derives from the conceit of belog a king to alto- 
gether imaginary. 

The inherent^ from henoo tostkk, denotes a 

nent quality or property, as opposed to that which to 
adventitious and transilcMry. Inbred denotes that pro- 
pertv which to derived principally from habit or by % 
gradual process, as opposed to the one acquired by 
actual elKtrts. Inborn denotes that which is purely 
natural, in oppositkm to the artificial. Inherent to in 
its sense the most general ; for what to inbred and 
inborn to naturally inherent; but all to not inbred and 
inborn whkh Is inherent. Inanimate ot>)ects have 
inherent properties ; but the inbred and ij^om exist 
only In that which receives life; solidity to an inherent^ 
but not an inbred or inborn property of matter: a tova 
of truth k an inborn property of the human mind : It 
to consequently taAsrsnl, in as much aa nothing can 
totally destroy it; 

When my new mind had no infrislon known, 

Thou gav'st so deep a tincture of thine own, 

That ever since I vainly try 

To wash away th' inhormU dye.— Cowlby. 

That which to ta^r«i2 is bred or nurtured in us from our 
birth ; hence, nkewtoe, the properties of animato are 
inbred in them, in as much as they are derived through 
the medium or the breed of which the parent partakes ; 
that whteh to inborn to simply bom In us: a property 
may be JuAont, but not inbred; it cannot, however, be 
inbred and not inborn. Habits which are ingrafted 
Into the natural dtopositlon are properly inbred; whence 
the vulgar proverb that * what to bred in the bone wll| 
1 never be out of tbt fleab;' to denote the influeoct 



which paml* bav« OB the chancttn of tbdr chUdrea, 
both phyiAcaUy and monUf ; 

Bat be, my inirti enemy, 

Forth ino*d, braodliliiiig bb flital dart. 

Madetodettroy; 1 fled, and cry'd out death! 


Propensltiea, on the other hand, which are totally hide- 
|ieodeot of educatioo or external drcnnutancea, are 
properly tiiWr», as an imk^m love of freedom ; 
Despair, and secret shame, and consdons thonghl 
or t»b9rn worth, his lab'ring sAil oppreas'd. 


Ink0m and tfmiaCs, fVom the Latin ««<«« bom, are 
precisely the same in meaning, yet they dilfer somewhat 
inappUcaiion. Poetry and the grave style have adopted 
inkom; pbiloeopby has adopted nmmU: genius is 
inb0m in some men ; nobleness is m^ra in others : 
there is an m^tfm talent in some men to command, and 
an iii^#ra fitness in otbors to obey. Mr. Locke and his 
followers are pleased to say, there is no such thing as 
immau ideas; and if they only mean that there are no 
sensible impressions on the soul, until It is acted upon 
by external objects, they may be right: but if they mean 
to say that there are no imhom characters or powers in 
the snul, which predispose it for the reception of certain 
Impresdons, they contradict the experience of the 
learned and the unlearned in all ages, who believe, and 
that from close observation on themselves and others, 
that man has, from his birth, not only the general cha- 
racter, which belongs to him In conunon with his 
species, but also those peculiar characterlsticks which 
(UstittguiBh individuals ttom their earliest infkncy : all 
these characters or characterlsticks are, therefore, not 
supposed to be produced, but elicited, by circumstances ; 
and the ideas, which are bat the sensible forms that the 
soul assumes In its connexion with the body, are, on 
that account, In vulgar language termed taaals; 
Grant these Inventions of the crafty priest, 
Tet such Inventions never could subdst. 
Unless some glimmerinp of a ftiture stale 
Were with the mind coeval and mnmU, 


I nam*d them as they nasi*d, and undemood 

Their nature, with sucn knowledge (Sod Indued 

My sudden snrreAsiwiMi.— Miltok. 
Omceiwingt which is a process of nature. Is <^tai slow 
and gradual, as to cmcmm a design ; *Thls man ttm- 
ctived the duke's death, but what was the motive ot. 
that felonious conception Is in the ckMids.*— Woltok. 
What Is cMCMMiL Is conclusive or at least deter- 
minate ; * A state or innocence and happiness is so 
remote (Wnd all that we have ever seen, that ahhough 
we can easily e^nctivt It is possible, yet our specula 
tlons upon It must be general and conrond.*— Jobrsok. 
What Is appreikmied may be dubious or Indetermi- 
nate: hence the term tffrtktmi Is taken In the sense 
of fear; 

NoChta^li a misery, 

Unless our weakness tfprtkmi It so. 
Ommve and s^pprstoi^ are exercises of the nnder 
standing; »upp0§0 and ms^ms of the imaglnalloo : 
but the former commonly rests on some ground of 
reality, the latter mav be the mere oflbpring of the 
brain. Smpp9$e is used in opposition to positive know- 
ledge ; no person ncpf—a that, of which be Is posi- 
tively informed: 'It can scarce be sa^peMd that the 
mind is more vigorous when we sleep, than when we 
are awake.'— Hawkbswoetb. Jwufhu Is employed 
for that which, in all probability, does not exist; we 
shall not iwtmgtnt what Is evident and undenia b le; 
'The Earl of Kl vers did not ms/ras there could exist, 
In a human form, a mother that would ruin her own 
son without enriching herself.'— JoHVSoa (I.<f« ^4 




To eencstoe, fWMB the LaUn eend^i*, or ee« and e^* 
to put together, is to put an Image umther in the 
mind, or to form an idea ; to apprehend^ from sjvre- 
Amis to lay hold to seise with the understanding ; 
to $Mpp0»e, in French »itpp«««r, Latin m^j»*«iu, perfect 
of tuppono^ or $itb and poiu to put one thing In the 

eaoe of another. Is to have one thiitf in one's mind in 
lu of another; to mm^'m, in French isMfiMr, 
Latin MMftM, from MM/o an image, signifies to reflect 
as an Image or phantom in the mind. 

Gni«av«, In the strict seuse of the word. Is the 
generick, the others the necifick terms: since In ^pv- 
ktmdimg^ iwugiming^ and npposm^f we always csi»- 
Mie«orformanidea,butnoteie«Mr«d; thedUwrence 
consists in the mode and object of the action : we 
eoneene o€ thlnfi as proper or improper, and Just or 
ui^iust, right or wrong, good or bad, this Is an act of the 
ludgeroent; ' Cnemve of things clearly and distinctly in 

These terms indicate the intellectnal operatlone of 
forming ideas, that is, ideas of the complex kind In dl^ 
tinction from the simple Ideas formed by the act of 
perception. To e^neew^ Is to put together In the 
mind ; to tmdarsCsni, Is to stand nnder, or near to the 
mind ; to eeawreAsiui. ftom the Latin e^m or caai and 
prtkeHi0 to take, signifies to seiie or embrace in the 

their own natures : c«iie«*v« of things completely in all 

nprdienslvely in 

; c*neei9« of things 

their own parts; c0nc«ive of things com| 

all their properties and relations; c*m 

extensively in all their kinds: wueiv of thingiorderly, 

or in a proper method.'— Watts. We •pprtkend the 

meaning of another; this Is by the power of shnple 


Tet this I apprtkend not, why to those 
Among whom God wiU deign to dweN on earth 
80 many and so various laws are given.— Miltov. 
JSpprtktnMn Is considered bv logicians as the flrat 
power or operation of the mind being employed on the 
simpleat objects ; ' Simple aaprtkauia* denotes no 
more than the soul's naked intellection of an object, 
without either composition or deduction.'— Glanvillb. 
Conenmng is applied to obiects of any magnitude 
which are not above the stretch of human power; 
O, what avails me now that honour high 
To have cmteeiv^i of God,or that salute 
BaU highly (avoQr'd, among womeo blest.->MuTo«. 

Grae«p<*SB Is the simplest operation of the three; 
when we ctmemiM we may have but one Idea, when 
we mmderttmmd or c«mprthmd we have all the Ideae 
whkh the sttb)ect Is oapable of presenting. We can- 
not unierttmii or e^wiprekmd without emueivinf ; 
but we may often cmutiv that which we neither im- 
ier$tumi nor evnkprtkmi; 'Whatever they cannot 
immediately cnenve tbev consider as too high to be 
reached, or too extensive to be ces^prolsMM.*— 


That which we cannot e0ne9i9§ Is to ns nothing; 
but the cMMipttMt of it gives It an existence, at leeat 
in our minds ; but rnndtrtUmdinf or cesiprrt— dty 
is not essential 10 the belief of a thing's existence. So 
kmg as we have reasons snflkient to eomMhMatldng aa 
pcMsibU or probable. It Is not necessary either to undtr- 
§tmHd or eon^rtUnd them In order to anthorlae our be> 
lief. The mysteries of our holy rellgkm are objecta of 
emutptitmy but not of eesipr«*«m«i>» ; 

Our finite knowledge caimot etmprtktmi 

The principles of an abounded sway.— Sbiblbt. 
yfteomteiv that a thing may be done without miisr- 
tUmding how It Is done; we ceacs^ that a thing may 
extat without evmprtktmdhif the nature of its exlsl- 
ence. We contrive clearty, trndtrttvU fiiDy, cMnpre- 
A«md minutely. 

Comteption la a species of invention ; It Is the fhiit 
of the mind's operation within Itself; ' If, by a nwre 
noUe and more adequate ctmctpHam that be coosldersd 
as wit which la at once natural and new, that whkh, 
though not obvious. Is, upon its first production, ac- 
knowledged to be just; If It be that, which he that 
never found it, wonders how be missed ; to wit of 
this kind the metapbyskal poets have sekfom risen.*— 
JoBMSON. UndtraUmdmg and ctmpf^ektmtimi are eoH 
ployed solely on external objects ; we wndertUmd and 
comprthtnd that which actually exists before us, and 
presents itself to our observation ; * Swift pays no court 
10 thepaastons; he excites neither surprise nor adnl- 



ittioii ; he ahrayi mniirttamds Mnaetf; tod hit read- 


•ri alwtyt mndtrttmmd blm.*— Johrion. Ogncenring 
!■ the ofikce of the Imaf inatloo, u well m the J( ' 

i3i the reaanniog faculUee exduaivdf . 

• CMMtvra/ to employed wltb renrd to mauen of 
UMe, to arraugeoienta, designe, and project! ; mtdtr- 
aUmdiug to employed on famlUar objects which |ve- 
aent themselvei to the ordinary dtocourae and buatnea 
of man ; tfmprtkmding refpecia principle!. leMOoa, 
and ipeculairve knowledge In general. The artist 
e0ncezvs* a deslsn, and he wlio wlU execute it nuist 
M»d0r»Umd It; the poet cMMfvs* that which to grand 
and sublime, and he who will ei^oy tlie perusal of hto 
cMiMpCtMU must have refinement of mind, and ca- 
pacity to e0w»frtlUmd the grand and sublime. The 
builder €mu€ivu plans, the scliolar mmdtr»umd$ lan- 
guages^ the metapbyaician cestyrffAsiid* subtle qoea- 

A ready e^nufti^n supplies us with a stodc of Ideas 
on all subjects ; a quick underttmnding catches the 
latentkMM of others with half a word ; a penetrating 
mind e0m»rekemd$ the abstrusett points. There are 
human brtngs Involved in such profound ignorance, 
that they oaanot owcwbs of the OMMt ordinary things 
that exist in civilized life: there are those who, though 
akiw at mmi'^tundimf words, will be quick at imdtr- 
HamdiMg looks and signs: and there are others who, 
though dull at etwuivimg or tmitrtitMdimg common 
natten, wiU liave a power for tnkfrtt umim g the 
abstmsef parts of the mathematics, 


Ontftitnuy fWMn cMcciM (o. TV e»mc0h*\ signifles 
llM thing esnestved; MtMn, in French mum. Latin 
iieti*, fromiMCiu partidple of mmco Io know, stgniOes 
the tidng known. 

(Senception to the mlnd*s own work, what it pietores 
la Itself from the exercise of Its own powers ; ' Wonto 
signify not immediately and primely things themselves, 
but tlie tsnctptwnM or the mind copceming tilings.'— 
Boirm. AVcmw to the r ep r ese ntation of o^ects as 
they are drawn from observation: *The story of 
Telemacbtts to formed altngether In the spirit of 
Homer, and will give an unlearned reader a notion of 
Uwt great poet's manner of writing.'— Adouom. Cm* 
ttpti&nt are the fhiit of the imagination ; * It to natural 
for the imaginations of men who lead their lives in too 
solitary a manner to prey upon themselves, and form 
fh>m their own eoneeptimu beings and thingi which 
have no place in nature.'— SraaLa. Abttoiu are the 
result of reflection and experience ; * Considering that 
the happiness of the other worid to to be the happlnen 
of the whole man. who can question, but there to an 
Infinite varietv in those pleasures we are speaking of 1 
Revelation. Hkewiso. very much oonflrms thto notion 
B ilUforent views it gives usof our future hap- 
u'— Addison. Conetptions are formed ; notions 
are entertained. Gnic<:p(t«iw are either grand or mean, 
gross or sublime, either clear or indistinct, crude or 
distinct ; im^^mu are either true or fUse, Just or absurd. 
Intellectual culture serves to elevate the eonesptiono; 
the extenston of knowledge serves to correct and refine 
the notiontt 

Some heathen phikisopbersbad an indtotfnct eoneep- 
tionct the Deity, whose attributes and character are 
imfolded to us in hto revetotion : tlie Ignorant have 
often false nptiono of their duty and obligattons to 
their superiours. Tlie unenlightened express their grass 
and crude eonesptiono of a Superiour Being by some 
material and visible object: the vulgar notion of 
ghosts and spirits to not entirely bantolied fh>m the 
most cultivated parte of England. 

Porcoption e x press es either the act of noruiving or 
the Impression produced by that act; in thto latter 
asnse It to analocoos to an idea (v. Idta], The im- 
pression of an object that to present to us is termed a 
forctption; Uie revival of that impression, when the 
object to removed, to an id—. A combination oOdoas 
Wf which any image to preaented to the mind to a eon- 

• Vide Abbe Oitard: *'Eoieiidre, oomprendre, con- 

coption («. TV eon^rtkond) ; the aaaodatlon of two or 
more idooOf so as to constitute it adedsion, to a notion* 
Ptreoptiono are clear or confused, accordhig to the 
state of the sensible organs, and the portative fbculty ; 
idot arc fkint or vivid, vague or distinct, according to 
the nature of the poreeption , eoneoptiono are gross or 
refined according to the number and extern of <me*9 
id—» ; notiono are true or false, correct or incorrect, 
according to the extent of one's knowledge. The »«r- 
c^tion which we have of remote objects to sofhetimes 
so indistinct as to leave hardly any traces of the image 
on the mind ; we have in that case a poreeptiont but 

What can the fbodcst mother wish fbr more, 
Ev'n for her darling son, than aolid sense, 
Portoptiona clear, and flowing etoquenoe.— Wtihw. 
If we read the deeerlption of any ckijfitx^ we may havo 
an tdMof it ; but we need not have any immediato 
porxoption : the iden in thto case being complex, and 
formed of many images of which we have already had 
a porctption; * Imagination selects id—» from the 
treasures of remembrance.'— Johnson. 

If we present objects to our minds, according to dif 
fbrent Images which have already been impreseed, we 
are said to have a eoncopUon of them : in thto case, 
however, it to not necessary fbr the ob)ecto really to 
exist ; they may be the oflbpring of the mind's opera- 
tion within itself; * It to not a head that is filled with 
extravagant coneoptionM^ which to capable of fumirii- 
ing the world with diversions of tlus nature (fh>m 
humour).'— Addison. But with regard to notiono it to 
different, fbr tliey are formed respectlngobjects that do 
really exist, although perhaps the properties or circum- 
stances which we amgo to them are not real ; * Those 
notiono which are to be collected by reason, in opposi- 
tion to the senses, wlU seldom stand forward in the 
mind, but be treasured in the remoter repositories of 
the memory.'— Johnson. If I look at the moon, I 
have ft perception of it ; if it disappear from my sight, 
and the impression remains, I have an tVfca of it ; if an 
obiect, difirtrlog in shape and cokmr from that or any 
thine else which I may have seen, present Itself to my 
mind, it to a contention ; if of this moon I conceive 
that it to no bigcer than what It appears to my eve, thto 
to a notion^ which in the present instance, naapm an 
unreal property to a real ot^ecL 


To think, in Saxon Oraecx, German dteftss, ^c 
from the Hebrew |*^ to ruto or Judge, to the geneiick 
term. It expresses, in common with the otiier terms, 
the act of having a particular Idea in the mind ; but It 
to Indefinite as to the mode and the object of the 
action. To think may be the act of the understand- 
ing, or merely of the imngination : to enppooo and 
immgine are rather the acto o€ the imoginMtiontbMnof 
the understanding. To OiaJfc, that to. to have any 
thought or opinion upon a subject, requires reflection ; 
it to the work of time ; 

If to ooooelve how any thing can be 
From riiape extracted, and locality. 
Is hard: what thinkyoa of the Dehy f-^aime. 
To n^poe* and tmagint may lie the acts of the bio- 
ment We think a thing right or wrong; we tnppoao 
it 10 be true orfUse; *It is absurd to smppose that 
while the relations. In which we stand to our fellow- 
creatures, naturally call forth certain sentimento and 
affections, there should be none to correspond to the 
first and greatest of all bdngs.'- Blair. We imagine 
it to be real or unreal To think is employed promto«) 
Cttoosly In regard to all objects, whether actually ex-, 
totinc or not: to #ii/|»s«« applies to those which are un- 
certain or precarious; ma/tiw, to thoae wliich are un-i 
real ; * How ridlculoua must It be to imtu[ine that tlM> 
clergy of England fkvour popery, when they cannot be 
ctorgymen without renouncing iu'-BavBEiDOK. Think 
and imagine are said of that which afSiCts the senses 
Immediately : tuppoee to only said of that which oc 
copies the mind. We think that we hear a noise as 
soon as the sound catches our attention; in certain 
Slates of the body or mind we imagine we hear noises 
which were never made : we thmk that a person will 
come to-day, because he has informed us that he in 
teadiiodo so; we t^ipMs that he wlu eDlBeto-d■y^ 



ftt a eenain boor, bwattie he came at tbt mme bour 

When applied to the event* and clrcumatances of 
life, to think may be applied to any time, past, present, 
or to come, or where no time ia expressed : to gu^pose 
ia more aptly applied to a future time ; and imagtne to 
a past or present Ume. We think that a person has 
done a thing, is doing it, or will do it ; we suppose 
that he will do it; we imagnu that he has done it^ or 
is doing it A person Oiaiv that be will die ; imagtnes 
that be Is in a dangerous way : we tkink that the 
weather will be fine to-day, we snpposs that the affiyr 
will be decided. 

In regard to moral points, in which case the word 
deem may be compared with the others; to think is a 
conclusion drawn from c«lain premises. I think that 
a man has acted wrong: to snppsst \i i^ take tip an 
Idea arbitrarily or at pleasure; v^« iiif^R mhui a 
supposed case, merely lor the sake of nTB^umcixt to 
inmgins is to take up an Idea by ac^ uli^mtt trr \a Jthimt 
any connexion with the trutbor reiiliiiy^ wc im^Mrms 
that a person is offended with us, t^ Jtiioui b«kEig ^ble 
to assign a aingle reason for the idea , istafffmarf bvi\M 
are even more numerous than thobn whkb ar^ J>-tl: 
to dccai is to form a ooodusion; ihkq^ sre dft^md 
hurtful or otherwise In conaequem^ ni f'W>r%tMJ<>n; 
* An empty house is by the players •lo...^ tlm uioat 
dreadful sign of popular disapprobation.*— Hawkxs- 

To tkink and bsKeve are both opposite to knowing 
or perceiving; but to tkink Is a more partial action 
than to believe : we tkink as the thing strikes us at 
tlie time ; we believe from a settled deduction : hence, it 
expresses much less to say that I tkink a person speaks 
the truth, than that I belisve that be speaks the truth ; 
For tbey can conquer who keUsve they can.— DaTDSir. 

I tkink, firom what I can recollect, that sucb and 
such were the words, is a vague mode of speech, not 
admissible In a court of law as positive evidence: the 
natural question which follows upon this Is, do you 
firmly believe iti to which, whoever can answer In the 
affirmative, with tlie appearance of sincerity, must be 
admitted as a testimony. Hence It arises, that the 
word can only be employed in matters that require but 
3itUe thought in order to come to a conclusion ; and 
ibelisve is applicable to things that must be admlued 
/Only on substantial evidence. We are at liberty to say 
.that I (AmJk, or I believe^ that the account is made out 
(right ; but we must say, that I *ettev«, not CAmJk, that 
^the Bible Is the word of God. 


TItnft, in Saxon tkineem, German denksn, dec, 
.comes from the Hebrew |*li to direct, rule, or judge: 
.reJUet, in Latin rtfiscto, signifies literally to bend 
.back, tliat Is, to bend the mind back on itself; ponder^ 
from pondus a weight, signifies to weigh ; muse, from 
.mnsa, a song, signifies to dwell upon with the imagi- 

To tkink Is a general and indefinite term ; to reJUel 
is a particular inode of thinking ; to ponder and muse 
are difiisrent modes of r^tuttng, the former on grave 
matters, tlie latter Ot\ mattera that interest either the 
afiections or the imagination : we tkink whenever we 
receive or recall an idea to the mind; but we r^fiect 
only by recalling, not one only, but many ideas : we 
tkink If we onlv suffer the ideas to revolve in succes- 
sion in the mind : but in reflecting we compare, com- 
bine, and Judge of those ideas which thus pass in the 
mind : we tkink. therefore, of things past, as they are 
pleasurable or otherwise ; we r^ct upon them as they 
are applicable to our present condition : we may tkink 
on things past, present, or to come ; we reJUet, ponder y 
and muse mostly on that which is past or prescnu 
The man tkinks on the days of his childhood, and 
wishes them back ; tlie child tkinks on ilie time when 
be shall be a man, and is impatient until It is come ; 
' No man was ever weary of tkinking, much leas of 
thinking that he had done well or virtuously.*— South. 
A man rejUcts on his past follies, and tries to profit 
bv experience ; ' Let men but relLeet upon their own 
observation, and consider Impartially with themselves 
how few in the worid tbey have known made better 
by age. '—South. One ponders (m any gerioua concern 
Uiat affects bia destiny; 

Stood on tbebfliiktirbflil, ud look*d ■irbU0^ 

Pond'ring liis voyage.— Miltom. 
One miuses on tlie bappy events of bis childhood; *I 
was sitting on a aofb one evening, after I had been 
caressed by Amurath, and my imagination Undied aa 



ConUmplmiey in Latin conUmplmtnSt participle of 
esfntssnplor, probably conies fkom tessplum tlie temple, 
that being the place most fitted for e^ntemplatisn. 
MediUts, In Latin mediftms^ participle of medit^, 
Is probably changed from sielttor. In Greek fttXcrdi^, 
to modulate, or attune the thou^na, aa sounds are har- 
monized. Muse Is derived from smwo, owing to the 
connexion between the harmony of a aot^, and tbe 
harmony of the thoughts In mmsing. 

Different species of reflection are marked by these 

We eeiU«at/»{ato what Is present or before our eyes ; 
we nuditau on what is past or abaent ; we muse oa 
what is present or past. 

The heavens, and all the works of the Creator, are 
objects of esntempUti^n ; ' I sincerely wish myself 
with you to esmUmpUAs the wonders of God in the 
firmament, rather than tbe madness of man on the 
earth.*— Pora. The ways of Providence are fit sub- 
jects for mediUHsm; ' But a very small part of tbe 
moments spent in msditatien on the past, produoe any 
reasonable caution or salutary sorrow.*— Jomnsom. 
One muses on the events or circumstances which have 
been Just passing. 

We may contemplate and meditate for the fbture, 
but never situs. In this case the two former terms 
have tbe sense of contriving or purposing : what is 
eoj^templattd to be done, is thought of more indla- 
tinctly than when it Is meditated to be done: many 
things are had in centemplatian which are never 
seriously nuditated upon ; * Life is the immediate gift 
of God. a right inherent by nature In every individual, 
and it begins in contemplatien of law as soon as an 
infknt Is able to stir in tlie mother's womb.*— Bla.c&- 
STORB. Between eemtempl^ng and meditating there 
is oflener a greater difference than between medUaUng 
and executing ; 

Thus plung'd in Ills and meditating more, 
The peopIe*s patience, tried, no longer bore 
The raging monster.— DavDiN. 
Contemplation may be a temporary action directed 
to a single object ; ' There Is not any property or cir- 
cumstances of my being that I contemplate with more 
joy than my immortality.* — BaaXKLKT. Meditating 
is a permanent and serious action directed le severu 
ol^ects; ^Meditate till you make some act of piety 
upon the occasion of what you meditate^ oither get some 
new arguments ainiinst sin, or some new encourage- 
ment to virtue.*— Tatlok. Musing is partial and un- 
important : meditation is a religious duty. It cannot 
be neglected without injury to a person's spiritual im- 
provement; musing is a temporary employment of tbe 
mind on the ordinary concerns of life, as they ha^^n 
to excite an Interest for tbe time ; 

Musing as wont on this and that. 
Such trifles as I know not what— Fauicis. 
Contemplative and musing, as epithets, have a 
strong analogy to each other. 

Contemplative is a habit of the mind ; musing Is a 
particular state of the mind. A person may have a 
contemplative turn, or be in a musing mood. 


Consider, in French eonsiderer, Latin eenstdere, 
a factative, from consido to sit down, sonifies to 
make to settle in the mind. Refiect, in Latin refUcU, 
compounded of r« znAJUcto, signifies to turn back, w 
upon itself, after the manner of the mind. 

The operation of thought is expressed by these two 
words, but it varies in llie circumstancest of^^tbe action. 

€>tnsideTation Ls employed for practical purposes, 
rtfiecHon for matters or speculation or mural improve- 
ment. Common objects call for consideration ; the 
workings of the mind itself, or objects purely spiritual, 
occupy r^lectien. It is necessary to consider what ia 



pR}pertobe4loiM,b«ftraw«ttkeMyfitp; *ItM6nM 
MaMary, In Uia choice of penoM for grettar enplo/- 
tuent«, to eo—ider tbdr bodies aa wall as tbelr miMto, 
and ages and bealtb as well aa tbeir abililies.*— Tbm- 
PLB. It is consistent with our natures, as raUooal 
beings, to r^/Uu on whM we are, what we ought to be, 
and wtiat we shall be; 'Whoever r^Uets fVeqnentJj 
r his own duration, will mid oot 
I k not more permanent than his 

on the uncertainty of his own duration, will mid oot 
that the state of otheii ' 

own.*— JOBMSOM. 

Without eon9id4ftU% we shall naturally oommlt 
the m<«t flagrant erroia ; without rsisctvsn we shall 
never understand our duty to our Maker, oar neigli- 
bour, and ourselvea. 


TV e^nMidtr (o. 7b eomnder) signifies to take a view 
of a thing in the mbid, which Is the result of thought; 
lo rtgard Is literally to look back upon, from the 
French regvrdtr^ that Is. re and fardtr^ to keep or 
WBlchf which is derived Irom the old German wakrtn 
to see, of which there are still traces in the words 
bnoakm to guard against, martin to wait, and the 
English to be overs of. 

There is more caution or thought In eonsidtring ; 
more personal Interest in regard^. A man may 
ctntider his reputation so as to be deterred ttom 
taking a particular step ; If he regards his reputation, 
this regard has a general influence on all he does. 
* The King had not, at that thne, one person about 
him o€ his council, who had the least eoruideroHen at 
his own honour, or friendship for those who sat at 
the behn of aflklrs, the Duke of Lennox excepted.'— 

If much you note him, 

You oflbnd him ; feed and regard him not. 


A similar distinction extsta between these words 
when not expressly personal : to eansidar a thing in a 
certain light, is lo take a steady view of it ; * I c#»- 
aider the soul of man as the rum of a glorious pile of 
buildings.*— 8t»I4e. To rtford a thing Is to view 
tt with a ceruin interest ; * 1 regard trade not only aa 
highly advantageous to the commonwealth in general, 
but as the most natural and likely method of making a 
man*s fortune.*— Bupoblu 


ConMidtration^ or that which enters Into a person's 
consideration, has a reference to the person consider- 
ing. Reason^ or that which Influences the reason. Is 
taken absolutely : tonaideratunu are therefore for the 
most port partial, as aflecting particular interests, or 
dependent on particular circumstances. ' He had been 
made general upon very partial, and not enough* de- 
Uberaied eanaidaratiane.' — CLAfeBNPON. 

Reae^ne on the contrary may be general, and vary 
according to the nature of the subject ; ' The reaeene 
assigned in a law of the 36lh year of Edward IIL for 
having pleas and Judcements in the English tongue, 
might have been urged for having the laws themselves 
in that language.'— Ttbwhitt. 

W hen applied to matters of practice the C0mndera- 
tian influences the particular actions of an individual 
or Individuals ; no c<meideratian of profit or emolument 
sbouM bidoce a person to forfeit his word; *He was 
obliged, antecedent to all other eamaiderationei to 
search an asylum.* — Drydbk. 

The reaean Influences a line of conduct ; the reaaama 
which men assign for their conduct are oftim aa abaurd 
as they are false ; 

I mask the boslneHS fh>m the common eye 
For sundry weighty rtostms.— Sbaupbarb. 

In the same manner, when applied to mattera of 
theory, the eemeideratian is that which enters into a 
man's consideration, or which he otfon to the consider- 
ation of others; 'The folly of ascribing temporal pun- 
ishments to any particular crimes, may appear from 
aeveral eaneideratiams.^—A^Dtaon. The rtaaem Is that 
which flows out of the nature of the thing ; * If it be 
natural, ought we not rather to conclude uiat there is 
some ground or reaaan for those fears, and that nature 
hath not planted them hi us lo no purpose 1*— Tn.- 



To argue, (rota the Latin arguo, and the Chreek 
ipffdi clear, signifies to make clear; to evimce. In Latin 
emnce, compounded of vineo to wreve or make out, and 
e forth, signifies to bring to light, to make to appear 
clear ; to prow, In French prouver. In Latin preba, 
from probue good, signifies to make good, or make to 
appear good. 

These terms In general convey the idea of evidenea, 
but with gradations : argue denotes the smallest degree, 
and prove the highest degree. To argue Is to serve 
as an Indication amounting to probability; to evinea 
denotes an Indication so clear as to remove doubt; lo 
prove marks an evidence so positive aa to produce con- 
viction. -,- / 

It argues a want of candour In any man to conceal 
circumstances in his statement which are any ways 
calculated to afl^ the subject In question; 'It Is not 
the being singular, but being singular for something, 
that argues either extraordinary endowments of nature 
or benevolent Intentions to mankind, which draws the 
admiration and esteem of the worid.'— Bbbkblbt. 
The tenour of a person's conversation may evince the 
refinement of his mind and the purity of his taste; 
'The nature of the soul itself, and partfcularly lia 
hnmaterlallty, has, I tUnk, been evineed almost to a 
demonstration.*— A DmsoN. When we see men sacri- 
ficing their peace of mind and even their Integrity of 
character to ambition, It proves to us how imoortant It 
is even in early life to check this natural, and In some 
measure laudude, but still insinuating and dangerous 

What object, what event the moon beneath, 

But argues or endears an after-scene 1 

To reason proves, or weds it to desire T— Tovr o 

^rguauut, from argue (v. Td argue), slgnlflea either 
the thing that argues, or that which is brought forward 
In arguing: reason, in French raison, Latin ratta, 
from ratus, participle of rear to think, signifies the 
thing thought or estUnated in tlie mind by the power 
of rtassm; proof, from to prove, signifies the thing that 

An argument serves for defence ; a reason for justi- 
fication; a proof for eonvictlon. .^rguutents are 
adduced in aupport of an hypothesis or proposition ; 
' When the arguments press equally on both sides ioi 
matters that are indidHupent to us, the safest method Ib 
to give up ourselves to neither.'- Adoisom. Rsasomo 
are assigned in matters of belief and practice ; 
The reasons, with his friend's experience join'd, 
Encourag'd much, but more dlsturb'd his mind. 

Proefs are collected to ascertain a feet ; 

One soul In both, whereof %ood proof 
This day aflbrds^— Miltok. 
Jlrguwtonts aro either stront or weak ; reasons sollif 
or friule ; >roo/« clear and positive, or vague and Inde- 
finite, we conAite an argument, overpower a reason f 
and invalidate a proof. Whoever wishes to defend 
Christianity will be in no want of arguments; ' Thls> 
before revebKion had enlishtened the world, was the 
very best argument for a future state.*— Attxrburt. 
The believer need never be at a loss to give a reasom 
for the hope that Is in him ; ' Virtue and vice are nol 
arbitrary things, but there is a natural and eternal 
reason for that goodness and virtue, and against 
vice and wickedness.*- Tillotsoh. Throughout the 
whole of Divine revelation there is no clroumstance 
that Is substantiated with such Irrefhigable proofs as 
the resurrection of our Saviour ; 

Are there (still more amaxing !) who resist 
The rising thought, who smother in its birth 
The glorious truth, who struggle to be brutes? 
Who fight the proofs of bnmortaUty ?— Youitq. 

Cause is supposed to signify originally the same aa 
case ; it means liowever now, bv distinction, the case 
or thing happening before another as Its cause; the 
reasonh the thing that acts on the reason or nnder- 
siandlnf; the mains, in French aisc(f, fhm the Latin 



ptftldple of wmm to movt, !■ tlwt wbkh 

Wingi'mto actioiL 

Ctewe reqwcta Uw Older and eonoezion of thlngi; 
rtMM the inovemeuta mod oper»tkMM of Um mlud; 
■MttoM the movemente of the mind and body. Oau€\M 
properly the generick ; reiwm and m»tiv are ipeciflck : 
every rttutn or mHiv Is a c««««, but every c«m»« Is 
Dot a TfBtm or m»tii>: 

OM«e ia lald of all Inanimate otifcGts; rtmM^n and 
WMtiv of ratkmal afeuia: whatever happens in the 
world, happens from some cmmm^ mediate or imme- 
diate; the primary or first fte of aU, Is God ; *The 
wise and learned among the venr heathens themselves, 
have all acknowledged some first c«m<, whereupon 
originally the being of all things dependeth, neither 
have th«r otherwise spoken of that eoiwc, than as an 
agent which, Icnowing what and why it worketh, 
obsorveth in working a most exact order or law.*— 
Hooaaa. Whatever opinions men hold, thev oucht to 
be able to assign a substantial rtaton for them ; * If we 
commemorate any mystery <^ our redemption, or arti- 
cle of our iUth, we ought to confirm our belief of it by 
consideringall those rvoseiu upon which it Is built.*— 
Nklson. For whatever men do thev ought to have a 
■ufiicient wi»tiv ; * Every principle that Is a wmUv to 
good actions ought to be encouraged.'— Addison. 

As the MMM gives birth to the eflbct, so does the 
reas#a give birth to the conclusion, and the sMtive gives 
Mrth to the action. Between canM and eflect there is 
a necessaiy connexion : whatever in the natural world 
Is capable of giving birth to ttootber thing Is an ade- 

Cut oflTthe eonsM, and the effiscts will cease, 
And all the moving madncM fttll to peace. 

But In the moral worM there is not a necessary con- 
nexion between reosMU and their results, or smCivm 
and their actions: the state of the agent's mind is not 
always such as to be acted upon according to the 
nature of thingi; every adequa te reassa will not be fol- 
lowed Iqr its natural conclusion, for every man will not 
believe who has r«a««af to believe, nor vield to the 
rM»0n» that would lead to a right belief: and every 
■Mltve will not be accompanied with its corresponding 
action, for V9txy man will not act who has a motive 
for acting, nor act In tlie manner in which his sMCtor* 
ought to dictate : the ctsm— of our diseases oHen lie as 
hidden as the rttMona of our opinions, and the wutwu 
for oar actlona. 


OraeiaWsm, (hNn eoncZad*, and the Latin coneUMdoy 
or CM and ctads to shut up, signifies literally the 
winding up of all arguments and reasoning; inference^ 
from taJTer, in Latin n^ere^ signifies what is brought 
In; d Hueti t*^ from deduct^ in Latin dedwUtu and 
dsdaes to bring out. signifies tlie bringing or drawing 
one thing from another. 

A e0ncluaion Is fUll and decisive; an inftrene* Is par- 
tial and Indecisive: a eonclution leaves the mind in no 
doubt or hesitation; it puts a stop to all farther rea- 

' Ton H>%h t| flm fbs rin^ l^tv 

fkU of rain ore 

pie departed, ssake some naefol Htftrtne** or i 
haw many there are left unmarried.*— Srtai^. W« 
rfadnci fhMn a combination of focts, infer^mces, and 
assertkNM, that a slory Is fkbricaied; *Tbere is a coo- 
sequence which seems very naturally dtduetkU from 
the foregoingooosiderations. If the scale of being rises 
by such a r^ular p rogr e ss so b^h as man, we may by 
a parity of reason suppose that it sHU p r oce ed s gradu- 
ally through those beings which are of a superior 
nature to him.'— Addison. Hasly c#ncliu<sa# betray 
a want of Jodmnent, or firmness of mind : contrary 
ntftrenet9 are nequently drawn fimm the same circum- 
stances to serve um purpose s <>€ party, and support a 
fkvourite position ; the ds dacfti is In such cases are aoC 
unfteqaently trtie when the ti^srsMss are Iklae. 


Bdief^ fVom believe^ In Saxon ftltfiah f^ 
crman gUmktn^ kilanhtt^ Ax. comes, in afi p 
from lief^ in German belitben to (dease, and the Latin 


I only deal bt rules of art, 
Such as are lawful, and Judge by 
Conclusion* of astrology.— HtTDiBRis. 
Inf«rtmcc» are special eonclutionM from particular cir- 
cumstances ; they serve as links In the cludn of reason- 
ing ; ' Though It may chance to be right in the eon- 
tluaion^ it !• yet nqjusl and mlsuken in the method of 
ii^femu€.*—Ouu(viLi.^. Conclunion in the logical 
aense Is the concluding proposition In a syllogism, 
drawn from the two others, which are called the pre- 
mises, and may each of them be infertnu*. 

OnelM$ion» are drawn from real fkcts, infermcet 
are drawn from the appearances of things , dednuions 
only from arguments or assertions. Concluaions are 
practical; tn/troneot ratloclnative ; dmUution* are 

We eondmdt ftom a person's conduct or dedarati<Mis 
what he intends to do, or leave undone ; 

He praises wine, and we eonelnd* ftom thence 

He uk'd his glass, on his own evidence. — Addison. 

We infor from the appearance of the cloads, or the 

IhkkMas of the atmosjpbere, that there wiU be a heavy 

liht it pleaseth, slanifying the pleasure or assent of the 
mind. Credit^ In French ertdu^ Latin crsd>(««, parti- 
ciple of credo, compounded of csr the heart, and d» to 
give, signifies also giving tlie heart TVasC Is con- 
nected with the old word (r»», in Saxon trmmimm, 
German trtmtnt old German tkrMvikn, CAmvsn, ^. to 
hold true, and probably firom the Greek 6dppKiv to have 
confidence, signifying to depend upon as true. /UU, 
In Latin jMm, firom JUo to confide, signifies also de- 
pendence upon as true. 

Bel^f Is the generick term, the oUprs speclfiek ; w« 
believe when we eredil and trutt, but not always «t«s 
vertd. Belief rests on no particular person or thing; 
but credit and trust rest on the authority of one or 
more Indlvidaals. Every thing is the subject of bditf 
which produces one's assent: the events of human Un 
are credited upon the authority of the narrator: the 
words, promises, or the integmy of Individuals are 
trusted: the power of persons and the virtue of thli^ 
are objects oifuitk. 

BeUef and credit are particular actlona, or aenH- 
menu: (nwt and /stU are permanent dispositions of 
the mind. Things are entitled to our bdisf; persons 
are entitled to our credit: but people repose a trust in 
others ; or have a faith in others. 

Our belief or unbeli^ Is not always regulated by oar 
reasoning (^ultieB, or the truth of things: w often 
believe from prejudice and ignorance, thl^ to be tnia 
which are very fklse ; 

Oh ! I've heard him talk 

Like the first-born child of love, when every word 

Spoke in bin eyes, and wept to be belisv'dj 

And all to ruin me.— SotrraiaN. 

With the bulk of mankind, assurance goes flurther 
than any thing else In obtaining credit : cross ikls»> 
hoods, pronounced with confidence, will be crsrfiHd 
sooner than plain truths told In an unvamlsbed style ; 

Oh ! I will credit my Scamandra's tears ! 

Nor think them dropa of chance like other women'a. 

There are no diuppolntments more severe than those 
which we feel on finding that we have trusted to mea 
of base principles ; 

Cspriclous man ! To good or ill Inconstant 
Too much to fear or trust is eqaal weaknesa. 


Ignorant people have commonly a more tmpllelt faith 
In any nostrum recommended to them bv persons of 
their own class, than In the proscriptions or professiooal 
men regularly educated; 

For faith repos'd on seas and on the flattering sky 
Thy naked corpse is doomed on shores unknown to lie. 


i?e/t«f, CrMe,and/stahaveareligloaB application, 
which credit has not Belief is simply an act of the 
understanding; trust and faith are active movim 
principles of the mind In which the heart Is eoncemoai 
Belief does not extend besrond an anent of the mind to 
any given proposition; trust and faith are lively sen- 
timents which Impd to actioo. Belief Is to trast and 
faiths as cause to effect: there may be bstitf withoot 
either trust or faith; bat there can be m trust or 



/cM wllkom M^f : w« heU§— thai tbere li a God, 
who to Um creator and praaenrer of all bto creatarea; 
we therefore trust in him for hia proteetloo of our^ 
•elvea: we6«l»«e«tfaatJeMieCbriat dlod fbrtbeeinaof 
men ; we have therefore fMtk in tito redeeming grace 
to save ua from oar aina. 

Delicto common to aOreligiona; ' The Epleoreana 
contented themaelvea with the denial of a Providence, 
aaaerting at the aame time the eitotenre of goda in 
general: becauae they would not ahock the common 
Mirf of mankind.'— AooiaoH. Tnut to peculiar to 
the MUvsr* hi'Bivine revdatioQ ; ' What can be a 
atronger motive to a Arm tnut and reliance on tlie 
uereiea of our Maker, than the giving ua lito Son to 
aulTer for ua t*— Aomaoir. Ftdtk to employed by dia- 
tincUon for the Chriatian fmitk ; * The faitk or peraua- 
aion of a Divine revelation to a Divine faiUL not only 
with reapect to the object of it, but likewiae in reapect 
of the author of it, which to the Divine Spirit*— Til- 
ifOraoN. BMef to puTdv apeculative; and trust and 
/astA are operative : the former operatea on the mind : 
the latter on the outward conduct Trust in God 
nrvea to diapel all anxioua concern about tlie foture. 
•* Faith,** aaya the Apoatle, "to dead without worka.** 
Theoriata aubatitate Mm/ for ftdtk ; enthuaiaata mla- 
talw paaaion for fmitM. True faitk muaC be grounded 
on a right Mi^f, and aooonpanbd with aright practice. 


FUtk («. BsUff) denoiea either the principle of 
tmatlng, or the thing tnialed : crtsd. from the Latin 
credo to believe, denoiea ttie tmng believed. 

Theae worda are Bynonymoua when taken for the 
thing traaled in or believed; butthey diflbrin thia, that 
fttttk baa alwaya a reference to the principle in the 
Bind ; erssd oiUv rcapecta tlie thing which to the object 
of fuitk : the former to likewiae taken generally and 
tndefloiielyi thrr bttpr punlrnlnirly and deftnltrTT, J^if- 
hinn nt -.1 * i»\" \if fmtii ; hvinr- •.■ - ly, 
tUrnr' friitk. or iri ado^^i irjf: s.ti . ;■ td. 
The holymnrtvr>^ h-li>-d for i^v ftutA, as ii i.< n, ^ ';>,iat 
Jeaua ; 'Bt V-iu\ riJtiriJLS tljut a. sUintt is at Rr?-r ji i^i i ried 
and received tuii^t iht^ favmjr of dnd, by a «niri. rr j^n>- 

l of llir^ f^fUHltaf* /aia.'— TlLHJTlOM. ilUOJ 

' t>» lit ' pf f '- 1 iiTio!^ wiU havt It* pecullnr crrtd. 
The Ctaurcb oi EnEl^nti boi mJopitd ttwt crrW wliieh 
it conaldeia u uinulntn< Uut pmL«t firiiKif»lr-f of 
Chriatian ftiihr * SuiipfiaLnf all the ^riit j-iuin of 
aiheifln wett fixmed Intna tiu^ i^rtrird, I %v.:uiii| L,iin 
aak whether U wmM n<ic n?«4<iijh««n initiiitfly pifaler 
meaaare of faith than any tut cif arttdsa wlikh they 
00 violently oppooe 1*.— AoniaoR. 

10 be of U 


Gvavteftaa, from eonvinet, denotea either the act of 
s^moimsinf or the aute of being esnvUusd ; fsrsumsion, 
which, f^Mn the Latin fsrsuadss, or suadeo^ and the 
Greek fif^ aweet, algnlflea to make thoroughly agree- 
able to the taate, ezpreaoea likewiae the act of p^ 
suading, or the ataie of being ptrsuadsd. 

What Cfswriness blnda; what psrsuadss attracta. 
We t»nomes by argument!; It to the underatanding 
which delerminea : weara^^rtiui^Mlbyentreatieaand 
pereonal Influence ; It to the imagination, the paaalona, 
or the will which deckto. Our etmnietism reapecta 
aolely mattera of belief or folth; * When therefore the 
Apoatle requlreth aMHty to esmmU bereticka, can we 
think he Judgeth It a thine unlawftil, and not rather 
needful, to uae the principal inatrument of their convic- 
tion^ the light of reamn.'— IIooKCR. Our ptrsuasion 
reapecta mattera of belief or practice ; * I ahould be glad 
If I could persuads him to write auch another critU|ae 
on any thing of mine, for when he condemna any of my 
poema, he makea the world have a better opinion of 
them.*— DaTnan. We are eonvinted that a thing to 
true or fatoe ; we unporsuodod that it toelther right or 
wrona, advamageooa or the contrary. A peraon will 
have half effected a thing who to eouviiutd that it to in 
hto power to eflbct it; he win be eaaily ^«r#Mdarf to do 
that which fkvoura htoown Iniereata. 

Ontvictiom reapeeto our moat important dutiea 
* Their wtodom to only of thto worhi, to put (Uae 
eokmra upon thinga, to can good evil, and evil good, 
agalnot the emtvictwu of their own conacleneea.* — 
Bwirr. Ptrvaanaii to ftvqttontly applied to matten of 

ladiflbrence: *Phnoelea*k beniy not only MrraaiM; 
but ao ptrsnadod that aU hearta muat jrlehL^— Sidivbt. 
The firat atap to true repentance to a thorough sonvie- 
(MM of the enormity of on. The cure of people*a make 
diea to aometimea promoted to a aurprtoina degree by 
their porsuasion of the efficacy of the remedy. 

Aa eonvictiou to the eflbct of aubetantial evidence. It 
to aolld and permanent in ita nature ; It cannot be ao 
eaailv changed and deceived ; persuasiou, depending on 
our feelinp, is influenced by eitemal ol^lecta. and ez- 
poaed to vartooa changea; It may vary both In the 
degree and In the ol^ect Comvietiom anawera in our 
mindatopoaitiTeeorttinty; MTMMwiea anawera to pro- 

The practical tratha of Chrtotlanity demand oor 
deepeat conviction ; * When men have aettled in them- 
aelvea a conviction that there to nothing honourable 
which to not accompanied with innocence; nothing 
mean but what has guilt in It; ricbee. pleaaurea, and 
honours wUl eaally kMe their charma, if they atand be- 
tween ua and our integrity .'—Sraata. Of the apecu- 
lative trutha of Cbrlatlanity we ought to have a rational 
porouusion: ' Let the mind be poaapaaed with the^«ru 
sumsion of immortal happlneaa annexed to the act, and 
there will be no want of candldatea to atruggte for the 
glorious prerogative.*— CoMaaaLANn. 

The conviction of the truth or iUsehood of that 
which we have been accuatomed to condemn or admire 
cannot be eflbcted without powerAil meana; but we 
mav be porsumded of the proprietv of a tbingto-day, 
which to-morrow we shall regard with Induibrence. 
We ouaht to be convinced of the propriety of avoiding 
every thing which can intcrfore with the good order or 
oodety; wemay beyartaaiadof the truthof a person*a 
narrative or not, according to the representation made 
to ua; we may be^araitadsd to poraue any atudy or lay 


UnMisf (v. Bclirf) reapeeto matters In general ; n^ 
dolilVf (twn Jtdes faithful, to unboli^ aa reajieeta Divine 
revelation ; inercdulitf to unbcU^m ordinary m 
Unbelief to taken in an indefinite and negative 
it to the want ot belief in any particular thing that may 
or may not be heUoved: n^ftdclitf to a more active auto 
of mind ; it auppoaes a violent and total rcjjection of that 
which ought to De beUovod : inerodmUtji to atoo an active 
state of mind, In which we oppooe a MmT to mattera 
that may be rejected. Unbolirf doea not of Itself con 
yw any reproachAil meaning; it depends upon the 
tiling dtobeltoved ; we may be unMiovers in indiflferent 
as well as the moat important mattera ; bat absolutdy 
taken it meana one who dlabelicvea aacred trutha; 
' Such a unlveraal acquaintance with thinga will keep 
you flrom an exceaa of credulity and wsJbelitf; L e. a 
readlneaa to believe or deny every thing at first hearing.' 
— WATTa. 'One geta by heart a catalogue of title 

and editiona ; and immediately, to E 
apicuoua, declarea that he to an unbeliovsr* — Anoisoif . 
hJidoUt^ to taken in the worM sense for a blind and 
senaeleaa perveiaity in reAiaing boUsf; * Belief nnd pro- 
fcaaion win apeak a Chriatian but very Iklntly, when 
thy convcraation proclalma thee an n(/ldel.'— -South 
hureduUtt to oAen a mark of wiadom, and not unAre- 
quently a mark of the contrary ; * I am not altogether 
iaureduious that there mav be auch candlea aa are made 
of aalamander*a wood, being a kind of mineral which 
whiteneth in the burning and conaumeth not'— Bacok. 
* The youth hears all the predictions of the aged with 
obstinate tacrMltt/itv.*— JonaaoN. The Jews are amAa- 
hevers in the mlaaion of our Saviour ; the Turlu are 
ii^def*, Inoamuch aa they do not believe in the Bibto; 
Detola and Athetott are likewiae itOUsUy inaamuch ao 
theyaet themaelvea up against Divine revelation; well- 
informed people are olwavs ra«radala«« of storleo 
respecting ghoato nnd apparltiona. 

nisbeti^f properly impllea the belioving that a thhig 
to not, or reAiaIng to believe that it to. Unbelief ex- 
preaaea properlv a belioving the contrary of what one 
baa believed before : diebelief to qualified aa to Ito nature 
by the thing disbelieved: 'The belief or disbdi^ of a 
thing doea not alter the nature of the thing.*— Tillot- 
aoM. Our diaM^r of the idle talea which are told by 



iMggus, If JaMtAed bf the ftaqoent datcetkm of iMr 
Iktoehood; * TbeaUicItt baa not fcund hit poM tenable, 
and If tbn«(bre retired into deiam, and a digbelie/ of 
revealed religion ooiy.*— Adoison. Our Saviour had 
compaMion oo Thomas for hie unb^irfy and gave him 
auch evidences of hia identity, as dlaoipaied every 
doubt ; * The oppoeitea to faith are ttuMief and credu- 
lity.'— TiLuoraoK. 


DoctrHuj in French doetrhf^ Latin ifadHaa, fhnn 
dtfMo to teach, aignifiea the thing unght ; prtcept, fh)m 
tlie Latin prgcipioj aignifiea the thing laid down ; and 
mrincipU, in French vrtncipe^ Latin frincijnnm^ slgni- 
flea the beginning of tliinga, tliat ia, their firat or origi- 
nal component parta. 

The doctriKe requirea a teacher ; the p reeept reqolrea 
a auperiour with authority ; the vWaeip/a reuulres only 
an illuatrator. The doetriMe la alwava framed \iy 
aonie one ; the precept \h enjoined or laid down by 
■ome one ; the prin^U Ilea In the thing itaelf. The 
ioc^ne ia compoeed of prineiplM ; the precept rests 
upon principle* or doetrtntM. Pythagoraa taught the 
ioctrin* of the metemfwyclioaia, and enjoined many 
pruepU on liia diacipiCa for the rcgnlation of their con- 
duct, particulariv tha» thev ahould abatain from eating 
animal food, and be only tilent hearera for the liral five 
yeara of their scholarabip: the former of theae rules 
depended upon tiie preceding iocirine of the aouPa 
traramigraiion to tlie bodiea of animala; the latter 
reeled on tiiat aimple principle of education, tlie entire 
devotion of the scholar to the maaier. 

We are said to believe in doctrine$:to obey pre- 
cept* I to imbibe or hold principles. The doUrine is 
that which enters into the composition of our fUth ; 
* To make new artidea of faith and doctrine no man 
thlnketh it lawful; new laws of govenunent what 
church or commonwealth is there which maketh not 
either alone time or other.'— Hoohr. 'This sedi- 
tious, unconstitutional doctrine of electing kin{^ is now 
publicMy taught, avowed, and printed.' — Durkk. The 
precept la that which ia recommended for practice ; 
^I^bagoraa'a first rule directs us to worship the gods, 
aa ia ordained by law, for that is the moat natural in- 
terpretation of the precept.*— A ddison. Both are the 
sobjecta of ratiooal assent, and suited only to the 
matured understanding : principle* are often admitted 
wiilMut examination; and imbibed aa frequently from 
observation and drcumatances, aa from any direct 
personal eflbrts ; children aa well aa men get prin- 
cipU* ; ' If we had the whole history of zeal, frtim the 
dajra of Cain to our times, we should see it filled with 
•o many scenes of slaughter and bloodshed, as would 
make a wise man very careHil not to suffer himself to 
be actuated by such a principle, when it regards mat- 
ters of (pinion and speculationz-'ADDisoii. 

The doctrine (v. Deetriwe) originates with the indi- 
vidual who teacbea, in application to all subjects ; the 
doctrine ia whatever la taught or recommended to the 
belief of othera ; the dogma^ from the Greek iSvua and 
ioKhi to think, signifies the thing thought, admitted, or 
taken for granted ; this lies with a body or number of 
individuals ; the tenets Uwn the Latin teneo to hold or 
maintain, idgnifles the thing held or maintained, and Is 
a species of principle (o. Doctrine) specifically main- 
tained in matters of opinion by persons in general. 

The doctrine rests on the auliiority of the individual 
by whom it is framed ; 

Unpractis'd he to fawn or seek for power 

By doctrine* fashion'd to the varying hour; 

Far other aims his heari had learn'd to prize, 

More skiU'd to raise the wretch'd, than to rise. 


The dogma natiB on the auttiority of tlie body by whom 

it is muntained ; ' Our poet was a stoick philosopher, 

Mid all tils moral sentences are drawn from Mm dogma* 

of that sect.'— DaTDBN. The tenet rests on its own 

Intriosick merits or demerits ; ' One of the puritanical 

t*mM* was the illegality of all gamea of chance.'— 

JomiaoN. Many of the doctrine* of our blessed 

Saviour are tield by faith in him ; they are aubjects of 

persuasion hf the exercise of our rational powers : the 

iogmu of tiie Romish church ore admitted by none 

but sneh as admit Its tnt horl ty : the UmH$ of rep^l»> 
licans, levellers, and freethinkers, have been uoblusli- 
ingly maintained both in publick and private. 

The tenet (v. Doctrine) Is the opinion which we 
bold in our own minds : the petition is that which we 
lay down for <Ahers. Our tenets may be hurtful, our 
poeition* false. He who gives up liis tenet* readily 
evinces an unstable mind; he wno argues on a false 
petition shows more tenacity and subtly than good 
sense. Tile tenet* of tiie difiRprent denorainations of 
Christians are scarcely to be known or distinguisbed ; 
ttiey often rest upon such trivial points; * The occa- 
sion of Luther's being first disgusted with tlie tenet* 
of tlie Romish church, is known to every one, tlie 
least conversant with history.' — RoBKaTsov. The 
po*ition* which an autiior lays down must be very 
definite and clear when he wishes to build upon them 
any theory or system ; ' To the position of TuUy, tliat 
If virtue could be seen, she must be loved, may be 
added, that if truth couki be heard, she must be 
obeyed.'— JoHMsoN. 

Thoory^ tcxsm the Greek BtdopMi to behokl, and sjrsca 
lotion, from the Latin tpeador to watch for or espyt 
are both employed to express what is seen with tiie 
mind's eye. Tkeorp is the fruit of reflection. It serves 
the purposes of science ; fvactice will be incomplete 
wlien the theory Is false ; 

True piety without cessation tost 

By theories^ tlie practice past Is lost.— Dbxbam. 
^^Mletion belongs more to the imagination ; it has 
tlierefore less to do with realities : it Is tliat which can- 
not be reduced to practice, and can therefore never be 
brought to the test of experience ; ' In all these tilings 
being fully persuaded that what they did, it was obe- 
dience to the will of God, and that all men shonld do 
the like; there remained after tpeeulation practice 
w hereunto the whole world might be fVamed.'— 
HooKBR. Hence it arises that theory Is c<mtrasted 
sometimes with the practice to designate its insuA- 
ciency to render a man complete ; 

True Christianity depends on ftict, 

Religion is not <Ae^ry, but act- Haetb. 
And speculation is put for that which is Anciful Of 
unreal ; *■ Tiiis is a consideration nOt to be neglected or 
thought an iiidiflerent matter of mere tpecuUtion.'' — 
Lbslib. a general who is so only in theory will 
acquit himself miserably in the field; a religionist 
who is only so in speculation will make a wretched 


Opinion^ in Latin opinio from epinor^ and theCrreek 
iittvoiia, to think or judffe, is the work of the head ; 
sentiment^ fttiui eentio to feci. Is the work of the heart ; 
notion (vide Perception) Im a simple operation of the 
thinking faculty. 

We form opinions : we have sentiment* : we get 
notions. Opinions are formed on speculative matters ; 
they are the result of reading, experience, or reflec- 
tion : sentiments are entertained on matters of prac- 
tice ; they are the conso<iucnce of habits and circum- 
stance: notions are gathf;rcd upon sensible objects, 
and arise out of the casualtios of hearing and seeing. 
We have opinions on religion as respects its doctrines ; 
we have sentiments on religion as respects its practice 
and its preci^pis. The unity of the Godhead in the 
general sense, and the doctrine of the Trinity in tiie 
particular sense, are opinions ; honour and gratitude 
towards the Deity, the sense of our dependence upon 
him, and obligations to him, are sentiments. 

Opinions are more liable toerrour than sentiment*: 
the former depend upon knowledge, and must there- 
fore be inaccurate ; ttie latter depend rather upon in- 
stinct, and a well organized frame of mind ; * Time 
wears out the fictions of opinion^ and doth by degreea 
discover and unmask that fallacy of ungrounded per- 
suasions, but confirms the dicUtes and oentimont* of 
nature.*— WiLKiNs. /fetion* are still more liable to 
errourthaneitiier; they are tiie immatureddeciaionaol 



J mtaid OD Um appMruMiof tlitap: 

* Tbere it BoChlng made a more common ■al4«et of 
dlaeoone ibao nature and iu laws, and yel few agree 
in their notitn* about Ibeae words.*— Chbtnb. 

Tbe difference of opinion, amonf men, on the most 
important questions of human life, is a sufficient evi- 
dence that tile mind of man is very easily 1<h1 astrav 
in matters of opinion; *No, cousin, (said Henry Iv. 
when cbarfsd by tlie Dulce of Bouillon with liavinf 
changed liia religion) I have changed no religion, but 
an opinion,*— Hoy/%L. Whatever difference oC opi- 
nion there may be among Christians, there is but one 
ooniiment of love and good-will among those who fol- 
low the example of Christ, ratlwr than their own paa- 
slons; ' There are never great numbers in any nation 
who can raise a pleasing discourse from ttieir own 
«ocic of oeniimenU and images.'— Johnson. The no- 
Uono of a Deity are so imperfect among savages In 
general, that they seem to amount to little more than 
an indistinct idea of some superiour invisible agent ; 

* Behig we are at this time to speaic of the proper no- 
tion of tlie church, therefore I shall not look upon it as 
any more than ttie aons of men.*— Psuisoii. 

DnCy, fVom Don§ a God, signifies a divine person. 
Dvainitfy from divhtnty signiAes tbe drvnis essence or 
power : tlie dtitieo of the heathens had little of Hvi- 
wity In them ; * The first original of the drama was 
religious worship, consisting only of a chorus, which 
was nothing else but a hymn to a Deity.*— Addison. 
The Hmnitf of our Saviour is a ftindamental article In 
tiM Christian /kith; 

Why shrinks the sool 
Back on heraeif, and startles at destniction 1 
*Tia ttie dtenufy that stirs witliin Wb— Adoisor. 

OtUttial and komnonhf derive their difibrence in sig- 
nUkatioQ from their dUferent origin ; they both literally 
Imply belonging to heaven ; but tlie former, flrom the 
Latin emiutum^ signifies bekinging to the hoavon of 
heathens; the latter, which has its origin among be- 
lievers in the true God, has acquired a superiour sense, 
in regard to komoon as the habiution of the Almighty. 
Thto distinction la preuy faithfully observed in their 
appllcaiioo : eoUoUol is applied mostly in the natural 
sense of dtekemvono: ktmnonlf is employed more com- 
monly in a spiritual sense. Hence we speak of the 
eoUoUol pobe as dlatintulshed from the terrestrial, of 
tbe eoUodal bodies, of Olympun as the eoUttial abode 
of Jupiter, of the cOeoUtA deities; 
Twioa wam'd by the sslsstia/ mcsaenge r . 
The ploos prince arose, with hasty fear.— Ditdkjt. 
Unhappy son! (fkir Thetis thus replies, 
While tears toLMoiial trickle from her eyes.)— Pora. 
But on the other hand, of the komvonly habitation, of 
AMMaly Jovs or bliss, of AeavsM/y spirits and the like. 
There are doubtless manv cases in which coUttialtMij 
be used (br AeevMiy in the moral sense ; 
Thus having said, the hero bound his lirows 
With leafy branches, tiien perform'd his vows; 
Adoring first the genius of the place, 
Tbeo brtfa, the mother of the Asaesaiy raee. 

Bat there are cases in which kotnndf cannot so pro- 
perly be substituted by coiootiol ; ' As the k>ve of hea- 
ven makes one JUavsn/y, the love of virtue virtuous, 
so doth the k)ve of toe worid make one become 
worldly.*— SiDNKT. Heomenlf is frequently employed 
in the sense of superexceUent; 
But now he seia'd Briseis* A«c9*iiljr charms, 
And of my valour's prize defrauds my arms. — Popb. 
The poets have also availed themselves of the license 
to use eel Mti m l In a similar sense, as occasion might 


Ador$y in French adorer^ Latin odoro^ or ad and 

#re, slgnlflee Hterally to pray to. Worakipj in Sszon 

woortkocfpo, is contracted from vortkskip, implying 

either tbe object that Is worth, or the worth itseiri 


whence it baa beM enplayfd to darioMte tbe actkm 
of dohig suitable homage to tlie object which has worth, 
and, by a Just distinction, of paying homage to our 
Maker by religious rites. 

Jidorntion^ strictly speakinc. Is the service of the 
heart towards a Superiour Bebig, in which we ac- 
knowledm our dependence and obedience, by petition 
and thanksgiving: vorokip consists in the outward 
form of showhig reverence to some supposed superiour 
being. JIdormtion can with propriety be paid only to 
the one true God; *Menander says, that **God. the 
Lord and Father of ail things, is akme worthy of our 
humble adormtion, being at once the maker and giver 
of all bloBstpn." *— CuxaaaLANn. But wonh^ la 
oflered by heathens to stocks and stones; 
By reason, man a Godhead can diacern. 
But bow lie should be worokip'd cannot learn. 


We anay adsrv our Maker at aH thnes and in all 
places, whenever the heart is lifted up towards him ; 
but we woTokip him only at slated thnes, and accord- 
ing to certain rules ; * Solemn and serviceable worokim 
we name, for distinction sake,whatsoever belongetn 
to tbe church or publkk society of God, by way of 
external oiffrattoa.*- Hooaaa. » Outward signs arc but 
secondary in the act of adoration: and in olvine wor- 
okip there la often nothing exiinng but the outward 
form. We aeldoro adore witliout woroh^^ping ; but 
we too fl«quently worakip without adartrng. 

Adoration has been before eonaldered onlv In rela- 
tion to our Maker ; it is here employed In an improper 
and extended applicatioo to express, in the s tr ongest 
passible manner, the devotion of the mind towards 
sensible ol^ects: Reooranco^ in Latin rsvsrsnlsa, 
reverence or awe. Implies to sliow reverence, from 
mertor^ to stand in awe of: Fonerate^ in Latin v€n»- 
ratusi participle of venorar^ probably from aanara 
beauty, signifying to boM in very hiaii esteem for its 
superiour qualities : mare is another form of the same 

ItcTtrcwtt if *-t\nrd\f engaadend by the contempfai- 
tiim urmpi^hotH', u\ » being, whether of the Supreme 
Bf ing, m our i.rntrur, or any earthly being as our 
par^^zit It riiilVn^ liowever. fhmi adorationj in aa 
mijr]> {1^ U hii* a mkxtrire of fear arising from the con- 
sci4 i[!iEH^ e>r neAkni^^ and dependence, or of obliga- 
ticm fm {moun rr^^ rived; ''Tbe fear acceptable to 
GhI, i3 u HlinE frir, an awful ravaraneo of the Divine 
Nature, proceeding from a Just esteem for hia perfte- 
tions, which produces In us an Inclination to his ser- 
vice, and an unwillingness to offimd him.*- Rocbbs. 

To revere and venerate are applied only to human 
belnn, and that not so much from tbe relation we 
stand in to them, as from their characters and endow- 
ments ; on which account these two latter terms are 
applicable to inanimate as well as animate objects. 

Adoration in this case, as in tlie former, essentially 
requires no external form of expresskin : It is best 
expressed by tlie devotion of the indivioual to the 
service of him whom be adoree ; * ** There is no end 
of his greatness.*' Tbe most exalted creature lie has 
made is only capable of adoring it; none but himself 
can comprehend it*— Addison. Rovaraneing our 
Maker is altogether an Inward feellnc ; but reverencing 
oar parents indudes in it an outward exnreaalon of our 
aeniimenta by our deportment towards them ; 
The war protracted, and the alege delay'd. 
Were due to Hector's and this hero*8 hand. 
Both brave alike, and equal In command ; 
iEneas, not inferkmr In the field, 
In pious rtverenee to the gods excell'd.— Dbtdbn. 
Revering and venerating are confined to the breast of 
tbe Individual, but they may sometimes display them 
selves in suluble acts of homage. 

Good princes are fhnueuUy adored by their subjects: 
It Is a part of the Christian character to reverence our 
spiritual pastors and masters, as well as all temporal 
authorities ; * It seems to be remarkable that death in- 
creases our veneration for the good, and extenusiei 
our hatrpd of the bad.*— JonKSON. We ought to vote- 
rate all truly good men while living, and to revert 
their memories when they arc dead : 



And bad not men the hotry head rfM*'^, 
And boys paid rgvtrenet when a man appear* d, 
Boch must have died, though richer aklna tbejr wore, 
And nw more heaps of acoma in their atore. 


Offerimti ftom ^cr, and oUntimi^ tnm 9hUti» and 
thlmtuM or 4^U<ii«, come both (nm t^er* («. To tg*^) •' 
the former li however a term of much more feneral 
and fkmiliar use than the latter. Qfenmgo are both 
moral and reUgioin ; obUiimmy In the proper aenee, li 
reiigloua only; the money which la put inm the 
aacnunental plate la an ogmrinr ; the conseerated 
bread and wine at the aacramentla an •fticxt**. The 
tfgtring^ In a relifloua aense, !■ whatever one tgtr* as 
a gift by way of reverence to a tuperiour ; 

They are poUoted ogmimga^ more abhoir*d 

Than apoued liven in the aaalfice. 


The wtndt to beav*n the corHnff vapoaia bore, 
(TngrateAil of ring to ttie Imroortalpow're, 
Whose wrain bung heavy o*er the Trojan tow^ra. 

The o^Utkm. te the cferimg which li accompanied 
with some particular ceremony; 'Many conceive In 
the ohlatwn of Jephtha*a daughter, not a natural but 
a civil kind of death.*— Baown. The wise men made 
an o/erniir to our Saviour ; but not properly an sM*- 
ti»n ; the Jewish sacriAces, as in general aU religious 
aacrlflces, were In the proper sense MtMna. The 
term sMatiMi, In a figurative aeoae, may be as gene- 
tmlly applied as ogtrimg ; 
Ye mighty prineea, your •hUtUnu bring. 
And piqr due honours to your awful king.— Prrr. 
The kind oblvUem of a fkUing tearw— Dktdbji. 


Malediction^ (Vom mali and d(c«, aignUles a sajring 
111, that la. declaring an evil wish against a person : 
e«r«e, in Saxon kwrian^ comes in nil probabill^ Oom 
the Greek cvp^, to sanction or raUfy, signifying a bad 
wish declared upon oath, or in a solemn manner : im- 
pr0c«4tVm, ttom im and prteoy signifies a praying down 
evil upon a person : «x«crat»om, from the Latin ezs- 
eror^ that Is, i aaeria MeJiutrrs, aigntfios the same as to 
ezcororaunicate, with every form of solemn imprecm- 
Hon : antktmtu, in Greek AviOtua^ signifies a setting 
out, that la, a putting out of a religkms community by 
way of penance. 

The maUdiction, Is the most Indefinite and general 
term, signifying simply the declaration of evil: curst 
la a solemn demuiciation of evil : the former is em- 
ployed mostly by men ; the latter by God or man : the 
rest are species of the evrse pronounced only by man. 
The malediction is caused by simple anger : the eurtt 
Is occasioned by some grievous offence : men. In t^ie 
heat of their passions, will utter maledictiona against 
any object that otTends them ; * With many prait«a of 
bis good play, and numy maledictions on the power 
of chance, he took up the cards and threw them In the 
fire.*— Macksnsib. God pronounced a cvrss upon 
Adam, and all his posterity, aAer the fiUl ; 

But know, that ere your promls'd walls you build. 

My cvrsss shall severely be fulfill'd.— DaTDKM. 

The curse didSsn in the degree of evil proooimced 
or wished; the improaation and exoeraiton always 
Imply some positive great evil, and, hi fhct, aa much 
evil as can be conceived by man in his anger; *Thus 
either host theh' improcationo ioln*d.'— Pore. The 
anatkema respects the evil which Is pronounced ac- 
cording to the canon law, by which a man is not only 
put ont of the church, but held up as an object of 
oflfence. The malediction is altogether an unallowed 
expression of private resentment; the e«r«« was ad- 
mitted. In some cases, according to the Mosaic law: 
and that, as well as the giiafA#sia, at one time formed 
a part of the ecclesiastical discipline of the Christian 
church ; ' The bare anaiAemao of the church fall like 
so many kruta ftduuma upon the obstinate and scbis- 
maticai.*— Sorrn. Tlie imprecation formed a part of 
the heathcnbh ceremony of religion, whereby Uiry 

toToked tbe Dlr» to brtatf down enn avj 
heads of their enemies. They had dtflerenc 
of speech for dlArent occaskma, as to an eoomv OB hii 
departurp: 'Abeas nunquam redltuma.* Mela to- 
(brms us that the Abrantea, a peooteof AMca, uaed to 
salute the rising and setting sun after this manner. 

Tbe oxocration la alwaya the Infbrmal exprnastoB 
of the moat violent personal ancer; *I have seeo to 
Bedlam a man that has hekl up his hm la a postora 
of adoration towards heaven tu ntsar sa ssr l isas aad 
blasphemies.*— Strui. 

These words designate an edlfiee destined Ibr the 
exercise of rellgloo, bnt with collateral Ideas, which 
suflicienily distinguish them from each other. The 
tomplum of the Latin signified originally an open 
elevated spot marked out by the augun with tMr 
Utmmot or sacred wand, whence they couM beat survey 
the heavens on all sides ; tbe idea, therefore, of spa- 
cious, open, and elevated, enters Into ibe meaaing of 
this word hi tbe same manner as It doea in tbe Hebrew 
word ^yrif deH ved fVom S^H* which te the Arabick 
signifies great and lolty. The Greek m^, fkom ml^ 
to inhabit, signifiea a dwelling-place, and bydisdnctkm 
the dwelling-place of the Almighty, in which sense tbe 
Hebrew word Is also taken to denote tbe bigb aad 
holy placo where Jehovah peculiarly dwaUeib, otber- 
wise called the As/y Asovsm, Jehovah^ dweOiaf or 
resting-place; whence St. Paul calls oar bodies tbe 
temples of God when tbe spirit of God dweUetb In ml 
The Roman poets used the word ismplnsi in a slnlbkr 

CcrtI tonltraUa tenpte.— Lvcarr. (JJb. I) 

Qui templa call summa aoottn concuilt. 

Taaairr. (Am.) 
Contremuit templam magmuB Jovta althonantiB. 

The word ctsiyXc, therefore, strictly signifies a epadoas 
open place set apart for the pecuUar presence aad 
wofshlp of the Dlvhie Being, and Is applied with peon- 
Itarpropriety to tlie sacred edifices of the Jews. 

GUrcA, which, through the medium of tbe Saion 
eirce, cync, and tbe German Urcke. to derived fhim 
tbe Greek iropcax^, slgnliying literally what bekmied 
to K6pio{^ the Lord ; whence it became a word among 
the earliest Christians f^ tbe Lord's Supper, the 
Lord's day, tbe Lord's house, and also for an aaifinibly 
of the fklthfbl, and Is stiU used in the two latter mean- 
ings; * That cknrekes were consecrated unto none but 
the Lord only, the very general name chiefly doth saf- 
ficlently sbow ; ekmrck doth signify no other tbtaig 
than the Lord's house.*— Hookbr. * Tbe ekmrck being 
a aupernatural society, doth dilfer from natural ao* 
cieties in this ; that the persons unto whom we aaso- 
date oursdves in the one, are men simply considered 
as men : but they to whom we be joined in the Olber. 
are God, ancelis and holy men.'— Hooaia. The word 
eknrcA, having acquired a tpecifick meaning. Is never 
used by the poets, or In a general application like tbe 
word temale ; ' Here we have no temple but the wood, 
no a sse m bly but bom-heasts.'— SHAKsri^aB. On the 
other hand, It has a diversity of particular meanings ; 
being taken sometimes in the setwe of the ecclesiastical 
power in distinction from the state, sometimea for 
holy orders, ^. 


Dodicaity in Latin dedicates, participle firom dt and 
dies, signifies to set apart by a promlae ; demats^ In Latin 
dsvshw, participle from deosvss, signifies lo vow for 
an express purpose ; conseeratey in Latin csiwecrstes. 
fVom Mmseero or esm and Mere, aignlflea to make sacred 
by a special net ; kaiUw firom As^, or the Oemian 

heiUgy signifies to make holy. 
There hi something more po 
eofivthanlntbatofdsvstfiy'; but ieaaao than in that 

There hi aomethinf more poaitive in tbe act of dsdt- 

ot consecrating. 

To dedicau and devoU may be empkiyed In belli 
temporal and spiritual matters; to consecrate and ksd- 
Uw only in the spiritual sense: we may dodieata or 
deooU any tiling that is at our disposal to the service 


Vt ■UHIO «M(pM» I but tM nmflf ■• «w>|PMV7VW — M— ■ # ■" 

ngaid to mpeiioan, •ad tbe latter to penoos wtthout 
dMnctlooofniik: wdtdu^UtLboumtotbrnmn/km 
of God; 

Wun*d by the ner, to her oftoded oune 
We raiae and dtHemU thia wond'roua franiai 

Or we dMMC« oar time to the benefit of our frfteoda, or 
the reUef of the poor; *GUbert Wett aettled himaelf 
In a very pleasant house at Wlckham in Kent, where 
he dev0ted himaelf to piegr.*-^oBNsoH. We may 
4§di€ate or deooU ooraelvei to an ol^ect ; but the former 
alwaya Impliea a aolemn aetiing apart, springing ftom a 
aenae of duty ; the latter an entire application of one*a 
aelf from seal and afltetion ; in thte manner he who 
4e4icmtM himself to God abatracta himself from every 
objeet which is not immediately connected with the 
aervice of God ; he who dnott* himself to the ministnr 
pursuea it as the first ot^ectof his attention and regard: 
auch a itdiftwm of ouraelf is hardly oonsislent with 
oar otlMr duties as meoibers of society; but a d«»«tMm 
of one's powers, one's time, and one's Imowledge to 
the spread of religion among men is one of tbe moat 
honourable and sacred lUnds of dsM<»M. 

To cMM«cr«te is a species of formal rfsrffeetfen by 
▼irtoe of a religloas observance; it is applicable meetly 
toplaees and utings coiuecied with raU^oos works ; 
* The greatest conqueror in this holy nation did not only 
compoee the wotde of his divine odes, bat generally 
aet them to arasick hhnsdf : after wbloh hfi works, 
though they were c«M«cret«d to the tabernacle, became 
the national entertainment.*— Addison. HuUow is a 
apedes of informal e^mtscrmtiwm applied to the same 
oq)ecfs: the church is cMMcrotcd; particular days aw 

Without the walto a nitai*d tanpla standi, 
To Geres kaUnoed once.— Detdkii. 


#brsi in this sense re^ixrts Uie form or maimer of 
the actkm ; cermung^ In Lutn c^er^mmtuLt bt t^ujipoeed 
to signify the rites of €t!rep , rile^ In Latin rtftu. to 
probably changed from raii«j, vtfniry Ini; a ciiitDRi that 
n esteemed; ohaervmnte <>i^liW ilw ihiiit; iptp$*:rved. 

All these terms are eriFplMyrd wUh u-^nui vv rmrticu- 
lar modes of action in mil v^jfitiy y^rm U hAte the 
most general in its sen^x: md uppliratlinii 
riUy and »b»ervamee are psftkuJar kiJtiTii r.if 
suited to particular otcaubok Mhrth 
appUcatioo, respects all imdn nfacih. king, 

that are adopted by sot kiy m larti. I Dsao- 

tion of mb; csrw— ay liApctu iLw«.>m. .^ w* vuiward 
behaviour which are made the expressions of respect 
and deference; riu and »h»trvaMC4 are wppliea to 
national eeremoniu In matteri of religion. A certain 
form to requisite for the sake of order, method, and 
decorum, in every social matter, whether in aflklrs of 


their sentiments of regard and respect to each other, it 
will be necessary to preserve the csmMMMs of polite- 
Bess which have been established. Every country has 
adopted certain rite* founded upon ito peculiar relli^ous 
flUth, and prescribed certain oittrMwee* by which 
Individuate could make a publlck profession of their 
fklth. Administering oaths by the niMistrate to a ne- 
cessary /vtm In law ; * A kmg ubie and a square table, 
or seat aboot the walls, seem things of /nw, but are 
things of substance; for at a kuig table, a few at the 
upper end, in effect, sway all tbe business ; but in tbe 
other /mn. there to more use of the couinellors' opi- 
nions that sit lower.'— Bacon. K tosing the king's hand 
to a UTtmomjf practised at court ; 

And what have kings that privates have not too, 

Save ctrtwumif 7— BiLUurBAaa. 
Baptism to one riu of fathlation into the Christian 
church, and confirmation another; prayer, reading 
tbe Scriptures, and preaching are dilfbrent religious 

As respecto religion, the form to the ertabltohed prac- 
tice, comprehending the riu. ceremony, and obtervanee^ 
bat the word to mostly applied to that which to exter- 
■al, and suited for a community ; ' Ue who afflrmeth 

worid doth not thereby import thai all men must ne- 
cBsiartly speak one language; even ao the neoasriqf 
of polity and regimen u all churchea may be held 
wknoot hohUng any one certain form to be necessary 
in them all.'— Hoonea. The eertmiemm may be aaid 
either of an individual or a community ; the nfs to 
said only of a community: the ohoermamee^ more pro- 
perly of the Individual either in puMick or private. 
The MTMiMy of kneeling during the time of prayer to 
the moet becoming poature for a suppliant, whether la 
publick or private; 

Bring her up to the high altar, that abe oMiy 
Theaaered eeremmde* there partake^— SnaasK. 
Tbe dtodpHne of a Christian church eoDstoto In ito rtiM, 
to whkh every member, either aa a toyman or a prieatt 
to obliged to conform ; 
Live tboa to moom thy love's unhappy flue, 
To bear my mangled body fVom the foe. 
Or boy It back, and fun'ral rttos bestow.— Dsnaa. 
PubUek worship to an okoorvomco whkta no Chrtoiiaa 
tUnks htanseir at liberty to neglect; 'Incorporated 
mlnto will always foal some InellnatkM towards eacto- 
rtour acts and titual •ftMrocncst.*— JomaoM. 

It betrays either gross ignorance or wilftil imperti- 
nence. In the man who sets at noagbt any of tbe esta- 
bltohed forma of society, partlcolarly in rellglous mal- 
teia; *Yoa maydlacovertiibeaofmen wtthoutpoMcy, 
or towa, or clttoa, or any of tbe aria of life ; nut no 
where win yon find then whhoot aome form of reih 
gkn.'— Blair. When csrssiemss are too numcfoos, 
they destroy the ease of social intereoorse : but the 
of esmieiiy destroys all decency ;* Not 10 oae 
iss at all, to to teach others not to use them 
uad so diminlsb respect to bimsdfl*— Bacon. 
In publick wonhip tbe excess of cemneny to apt to ex- 
Ungutoh the warmth and spirit of devotioa; bat tbt 
want of cemneny deprives it of all anlmnity. 

again, a 
In public 


The Z.erd's I 



.Chrtotraaa, aa 

tbe sapper of our Lord ; i 
supper which he took with hto 
crucifixion. or thee 
conformably to bto 

read general 

In llieral lerBM 

either the laat aoleraa 


of that event wh kb 

has been obeerved by 

the profteors of Christianity; 'Te the worthy partl- 
dpattoQ of the LordTo rapfsr, there to bMUspeaieably 
required a soltaMe picparatfon.*— Sooth. "^ ' —'" 

to a term of peculiar use among the Roma 
from the Greek hxfS^ to !>▼• thanka, 
sonal adoration, by way of retumtaig thanka. o 
tutes in thdr estimation the chief part of the 
mony : *Thto ceremony of foaaUng behngs most pro- 
perly both to marriage and to tbe swAerisl, aa both of 
them have the nature of a eovenaaL'— Soora. Aa 
the aodal afibetfons are kept alive mostly by tbe cooh 
mon participation of meato, ao to brotheriy tove, the 
essence of Christian foUowshIp, cherished and warmed 
in the highest decree by tbe common partieipatkm la 
thto holy fesUval : hence, by dtodnction, it has been 
denominated the eommmiain ; * One woman he could 
not bring to the cMMmmien, and when he reproved 
or exhorted her, ahe only answered that she was no 
scholar.'— Johnson. As the vows which are mad« 
at tbe altar ot oar Lord are the moat solemn which a 
Christian can make, comprehending in them the entire 
devotion of himself to Christ, the general term oacror 
memty signi(ying an oath, has been employed by way 
of emphasto for thto ordinance ; • I could not have the 
conaent of the physicians to go to church yesterday ; 
I therefore received the holy omermment at home.'— 
JoHHSON. The Roman CathoUcks have employed 
the same term to six other ordUiances ; but the Pro- 
tesunts, who attach a similar degree of sacredness to 
no other than bapttom, annex this appeltotion only to 
these two. 


Marriaft^ from to taarry, denotes the act of sierrir- 
img; wedding and wiftiaU denote the ceremony of 
being married. As SMrry, In French flserrtsr, comes 
from the I^Un mariU to be joined to a male ; henc« 



nutrrUtn eowprtlwdt the ict oTeliooriBf and beiiif 
legally bound to a man or a woman: weddrng^ from 
totd. and the Teutonick iMltcm, to proinim or Betroth, 
implies the ceremony of w uutf img^ inaamucii as It ia 
Mnding u|K)n the partlea. J<rHptiaU comes (Vom the 
Latin nubg to vetC because the Roman ladles were 
veiled at the time of wtmrriage : lience the word has 
been put for the whole ceremony Itself. Marriage ia 
a aeneral term, which conveys no collateral meaning. 
Marriage is an Institution which, by those who have 
been Massed with the light of Divine revelation, has 
always been considered as sacred ; 

O (ktal maid ! tbv marriage Is endowM 
With Phrygian, Latian, and Batnllau blood. 

Weiimg has always a reference to the ceremony; 
with some persons, particularly among tiie lower orders 
of society, the day of their wedding is converted into 
a day of riot and InlCBipeTmnce ; ^ Ask any one liow 
he baa been employed to-day : he will tell you, per- 
haps, I have been at the ceremony of taking Uie manly 
robe : tills friend Invited me to a leedding ; that de- 
alred me to attend the bearing of bis cause.'— Mkl- 
MoTH (LeUera of PUwg), J^itptiaU may either be 
used in a general or particular import; among the 
Roman Catholicks in eogland It ia a praalce for them 
to have ibelx nmftiala solemnized by a priest of their 
own p^iwiaaion aa well as by the Frolostant detgy- 
Fh*d with disdain for Tumns dispeeseas^d. 
And the new awptiaU of the Trojan gucst.~DRTDtii. 


Marriag§ («. Mmrriage\ is oftener an act than a 
««ie; MoinaiMjr and wediock both describe states. 

Marriage ie taken in the sense of an act, when we 
speak of the laws of atcm'^e, the dfiy uf ium^i fr^j r- 
riage, the congratulations upon ohv't fanf-rta^'', a 
happy or unhappy marriage^ dec ; * Marriare if re- 
warded with some honooraole dlstlncrion« wUkh cili- 
bttcy ia forbidden to usurp.'— Jobhsoij. It ii inkdn In 
the sense vf a state, when we speak of tijt? plLruiii res 
or pains of moKriage; hot In this latter cutiCf Mi^iri- 
«M|r, which signifies a married life sErrih^ctr^ijy \\>m 
all agents or acting peraooa, ia prefera< ^e, 

to think of aMtTMumir, and to enter inio iIm ijuiy ai«ie 
of MotrtaiMBjr, are ezpresskoos founded upon the signi- 
fication of the term. Aa taairimem^ is derived fVom 
«Mt«r a mother, because Mcrrted women are in gene- 
ral mochera, h has particular reference to the domestick 
Slate of the two parties ; broils are but too frequenUy 
the fruits of sMtrisMMf , yet there are few cases in 
wMeh they night not be obvfaited bv the good sense 
of thoee who are engaged In them. Hasty marriages 
cannot be expected to produce happiness ; young peo- 
ple who are eager for matrimaof before they are fully 
aware of Its consequences will purchaee tlieir expe- 
rience at the expense of their peace ; * As k>ve generally 
pmdoees wuUrtmamf^ so It often happens that main- 
mcM produces love.*— Bpbctatdk. 

Wedlock is the oM English word for mMriwtemf, and 
is In consequence admitted In law, when one speaks 
of children born In teedUek: agreeably to its deriva- 
tion It has a reference to the bond of union which fol- 
lows the marriage : hence one speaks of living hap- 
pily in a state otwedUet, of being joined In holy wed' 
lock ; ' The men who wouM make good husbands, if 
they visit poblick phices. are fVlghled at wedhck and 
resolve to Uve shigle.*— Jobnsoh. 


Faneraty hi Latin /»»«», ia derived from fmnia a 
cord, because lighted cords, or torches, were carried 
before the bodies whkh were Interred by night ; the 
famtrat^ therefore, dcnotee the ordinary solemnity 
which attends the consignment of a body to the grave. LaUn «Mffa«, are both derived from 
Mftun-, whkh, In Its oooapuoad iense, stgnifios to per- 
form or execute ; they comprehend, therefore, fanaraU 
attended with more than ordinary solemnliy. 

We speak of the fkneral as the last sad office 
which we porform for a friend ; it Is accompanied by 
Bothhig bat by moaralng and Borrow ; 

That pioek*d my iMrvea^ tboie leader tfrinfioriA^ 

Which, phick'd a little more, wiU toll the beO 

That calls my few friends to my /mural.— Yoinra. 

We speak of the ekeeqaua as the tribute of respect 

which can be paid to the person of one who was high 

in station or publick esteem ; 

His body shall be royally faiterr'd. 
I will, mynelf, 

Be the chief mourner at Ms ^tssf niss.— DaTi>ur. 
The funeral^ by its frequency, becomes so familiar an 
object that it passes by unheeded ; the eheequies which 
are perfonned over the remains of the great, attract 
our notice from the pomp and grandeur with which 
Uiey are conducted. The funeral is performed for 
one immediately after his decease ; but the ebeeqaiea 
may be perfonned at any period afterward, and in 
this sense is not confined alone to the great ; 
Some in the flow'r-strewn grave the corpse have Iay*d, 
And annual ^aeqmea around it paid.— >)ainrNs. 


Burialy from frary, In Saxon Mrton, Urigam^ Ger- 
man kergeuy signifi^ in the original sense, to conceal. 
imUrmamt. from mter, compounded of m and Isrre, 
signifies the putting into the ground. SafuUare^ in 
Preach sqniicvrv, Latin aqniltera, from sqm/tKS, 
parttelple of aepelia to ftury, cooies from tap— a 
liedge, signiiying an encloeure, and probably likewise 
from the Hebrew n3Bf to put to rest, or In a stile 
of privacy. 

under kurial Is comprehended almnty the porpoee 
of the action ; under inlerment and atfuUmre^ the 
manner as well as the motive of the actiou. We kwry 
in order to conceal ; * Among our Saxoo anoeators, the 
dead bodies of such as were slain in the field were 
not laid in graves ; but lying upon the ground were 
covered with turves or clods of earth, and the more 
in reputation the persons had been, the greater and 
higher were the turves raised over their bodies. Tiiia 
some used to call biriging^ some beorging of the dead ; 
all being one thing though difierently pronounced, 
and from whence we yet reioiu our upeech of burying 
the dead, that is, hidbig the deaa.'— VaasTaoAH 
Interwunt and eepuUure are accompanied with reli- 
gious ceremonies. 

*jBicry is confined to no object or place ; we burp 
whatever we deposits in the earth, and wherever we 

When he liee along 
After your way hto tale pronounc'd, shall hay 
His reasons with his body.— Shakspbark. 
But interwunt and eepuUure respect only the bodlea 
of the deceased when deposited In a sacred phice. 
Burial requires that the object be concealed undo 
ground; interment may be used for depositing In 
vaults. Self-murderers are buried in the highways; 
Christians in geneial are buried in the churchyard ; 
If you have kindness lefr, there see me laid ; 
To bury decently the injur'd maid 
Is all the frivour.— Wallxk. 
The kings of England were formerly inUrred In Weil- 
mlnster Abbey ; 

His body shall be royallv interred, 
And the last funeral pomps adorn his hearse. 

Burial b a term In fhmlliar use ; tnterwunt servee 
frequently as a more elegant expreaskm ; 
But good JEaeoB ordered on the shore 
A stately tomb, whose top a trumpet bore; 
Thus was his friend interr'd^ and deathless flune 
Still to the kifry cape consigns hb name.— I>bt9B1I> 
Sepulture is an abstract term confined to parttenlat 
coses, as In speaking of the rights and privileges of 
etpuUwre ; 

Ah ! leave me not for Grecian dogs to tear, 
The common riles of eefulture bestow ; 
To sootii a father's and a mother's wo: 
Let their large glfls procure an urn at least. 
And Hector's ashes in his country rest.— Form. 

• Vide Trussler : ** Tb bury. Inter.** 


feUcioat tnport; hurf !■ vmi flcvntlvdy for ocbtr 

otriecMudporpoM. A man It nid to »«r« b' " 

wVe who riMM blmMlf oat from tiie world ; be 


to *«ry the taleot of whicb he maka ao iMe, or to A«rf 
In oUfvion wbat be does not with to call to mlud ; 
Thia is the w«y to make the eitv flat 
And hury aU, wbicb jet dietioedjr ranges 
In heaps and piles ofnifaid— SBAKsrsAas. 
Ikcsr is OB one oeeaskm applied 1^ Sbakapeare also 
•Q other olt^eels; 

The evil thst men do Ures after tbem, 
The good Is oft inttrnd with their bones. 



These are two acts emanating flom the pontlfleal 
antboritf , by wbicb the Pope decwres a person, whose 
Uft has been exempla r y and accompanied with mira- 
clet, as entitled to ei^oy eternal happiness after bis 
dsath, and detecmlafes la coasequeace the sort of woi^ 
ship which should be paid to him. 

Intheaa of hmtyicmtim the Pope pronoances only 
as a private peison, and uees Iris own autliority only 
la granting to oerttin persons, or to a religious order, 
Ihe privilege of ptyiog a particular worship to a btati- 

In the act of cmMttMtiMi, the Pope ipeakste a Judge 
after a Judiflsl eiamlnatioa oo the state, and decides 
Ihe sort ofwanhip which ought to be paid by the whole 

Futtt^ In Latin feHmm. or fubu^ changed m 
nobably from ftaim. vjtrim^ which, In an proba- 
bility, comes fttNn tne Greeic icplf, sacied, beeaase 
these days were kept sacred or vacant from ail secular 
labour: /esttnri and hMim^^ as the words thems el ves 
deiioie, nave precisely the same nwaning In tlieir ori- 
cinal sense, with this dlflbrence, that the ibmier derivei 
MB origin from heatheolsb supentitloo. the latter owee 
hs rise to the establishment of CtarbMianity in its r»- 

A /cMt, hi the Christian sense of the word, b ap- 
plied to every day, except Sondays. which are renrded 
as sacred, and ub se i ye d with particalar sotemiuQr ; a 
AsMsy, or, according to Us modern orthography, a 
h^Mimf^ to simply a day on which the ordinary busl- 
Bess to suspended: among the Roman CatboUcks, there 
are many days wlilch are kepi holy, and coasequently 
by them denomfaiated /»«<«, which In the EngliA 
reformed church are only obeerved asiktf/ideM, or days 
of exemption fhMnpubUck business; of thtodeeer|ptton 
are the Saints* dajv, on which the publick ofltoes are 
shut : on the other hand. Christmas, Easter, and Whit- 
suntide, are regarded in both cirarebes ntore as /eoste 

flMLrf. as a technical term, to applied only to certain 

First, I provide myself a nimble thing, 
To be my page, a varlet of all crafts ; 
Next, two new suits for fttu and gala days. 


A Mtdep to an indefinito term, it may be emptoyed 
Ibr any (uy or time In which there to a suspen«on of 
boainem: there are, therefbre, many ftatu where 
r, and many Midap§ where there 

irt ii " ' - . ... 

notbimt I 
caase ; it may be t slinpie, ordinary transactioo, the 

ihete are no JMmImv, and u 
are no /M«te ; a fimst to all 
has fnqoently nothing saa 

the harBMmy was betweea tlM MMaye and their attil^ 
butes (if 1 amy call them so), and whet a oonlbiioB 
wouU fbUow If Michaelmas^, for Insmaee, was 
not to be celebrated when stubble geeae are In theto 
higheat perfectlon.'—WAiJ^LB. A festwl to kept 
by mirth and feaUvMy : tome /«««to are /esttvmU^ as 
in the case of the carnival at Rome ; sobm ftHnatt 
MidMft^miB the catt of weddli^ aad p 

I fraboently 
^e ; it may 

iloiether sacred . 
aacred in It, not even in ita 

It happen*d on a i 

That to the green wood thade he took hto way. 

A fuUmal hat alwaya either a tacred or a terioni 
objject ; ' In so enlightened an age at tbe pretent, I 
ahall perhape be ridiculed If I bint, at my opinton, 
that tne obtervation of certain futivmi* to tomethinc 
more than a mere political inttiuition.'-'WALPOLX. A 
/fit to kept 1^ religious wonhip; a Midag to kept 

* Qimd: " Pottiflcidcwi, ftiMmlr****^ ** 

CUrgywwu altered fh>m cicrft, deriems. tignlAed 
aay one holding a regular odke, and Itf dittioctlon 
OM who held the holy odkoe ; Mram to either rhaiiged 
fkom ^trtea, that la, ky diatinctkm the pemn who 
aph t tu a ll y pu ai d at over a partoh, or ooatraeted fbom 
^tr td lif t f ; yrwt. In Oermaa, Ac pmrtcr, to cob- 
tractod ftom^r««fty<«r, in Greek mceAn'<aef,tigni(ying 
an elder who hokto tbe taoerdotal oAceTtt^ufCM-, In 
Latin anaifter, a tervant, from »•»«#, torn or infornr, 
tigniflet literally one who performt a tubordinaie odka, 
"^ " 'inlttmeaalr ' 

meaafaig, to aigaliy gene- 
rally one who oadaiea or perfbrms aa oOce. 

The woid deryyaiaB appUea to aneh aa are regularly 
bred according to the formsof the aattoaal rellirion, 
and applies to none else. Inthtoeensewespeakofthe 
EngliBb, the French, and Scotch citr/y, without dls> 
tinction; *Bya€lff*/yai«BlmeanoBoiiibolyorderB.*-> 
STaai.B. * To the time of Edward HL It to probable 
that the Freach and English taagaages aBbalaled to- 
gether throughout the kingdom: the higher orders, both 
of the elergf aad laity, speaking atoaost naiveiBaUy 
Freach ; the tower letalUBg the nae of their aalive 
t<mgue.'— Tf awBiTT. A wmntm to a apeciea of tUr- 
nwtmmy who raaka tbe higiiest In the three orders of 
uifortourcttrvf ; that Is, ^artsii, vicar, and curato; 
the /trten beiag a technical term for the rector, or him 
whohol^theUvIng: hi its technical eense it has now 
acquired a definite use ; but in general oonversatioB It 
to become almost a nickname. Tbe word dergfrnmn 
to always .substituted for 9tr««« In polite society. 
When prU$t respects theXhristiaa reMgloa it to a 
species of tlmrgi/mmm^ that to. one wlto to ordained to 
ofliciate at the attar in distinction from the deacon, who 
toooly an aittotant to tbejrrtMt. But the term frieH 
bat ukewite an extended meaning in refisrence to tucb 
at hold the tacerdotal character in any form of rdlgion, 
at the vrierft of the Jewt, or thote of tbe Greekt, Ro- 
mant, Indiant, and the like ; 'Call a man a ftwH^ or 
pmr»»n^ and yo« tet him in tomemen*t etteem ten de- 
greet below hto own tervant*— South. A traiitftr to 
one who actually or habitually oflk l atet. CUrgfwtm 
are therefore not alwaytttricUvainutitr*; nor are aU 
miuigtert cUrgjpunu If a cUrgymuoi ddegatet hto 
ftinottont altogether he to aot a aitnifttr ; nor to he 
who pretidet over a d l at en t in g congregation a dartf- 
aum. In tbe former cate, however, It would be invldtoot 
todeprtve the Utrgymmn of ths nasM of Mtm'tlcr of 
tbe go^tel, but te the latter case It to a mltoae of the 
term eUrgjpmmn to apply it to any abutter who doet 
not officiate according to the form of an et tablh hed 

With leave and honour enter our abodes, 
Ye sacred mhUiUn oimm and godt.— Pora. 

Bitkopriek. eompounded of KtAtp and riek or rtitk 
empire, ttoolflet the empire or government of a btobf^ 
DitcuB, In Greek ItUxMrn^ 

6f ir/w, tignifiet 

^(o^nrttf , co mp ou n d e d of iti \ 
idmlfuitration throughout. 

wordt detcribe the extent of an eptooopal 

juritdlctton; the flrtt with mlatton to tbe perMm who 
officiates, tbe second with relation to tbe cbaigs: 
There msy, tberefoae, be a K«*«!pf^dk, either where 
there are many ditetttM or no di#eatt; butacoonUng 
to the import of the term, there to property no ditcttt 
where there to BO M«A«|rridk. When the Jurisdiction 

to merely titular, as in countries where the CathoUek 
religion m not recognised, it to a ki$k»friek^ but not a 
di0est». On tbe other band, the b i »k§ pvi dt of Rome or 

that of an arehhtohoo eomprebeadt all the di t tftt t t t 
of thetubordinatebtobops. Hence it arises that when 
we speak of the ecdailaBtieal dtotrlbutloa of a country, 
w« term lbs dlvtok»iW«Jtoirr<dk#; bat when w« apeak 


imo m wmniim manber of H § M^ r itk§ * ow mar 
Eirtiy Mdiop TiiiCi hli iifMM, ooc bk »M*4if • 



▲o icclwiMtidk d«lt«i his title ftom tbeodkoe whieb 
he bean la tbe «0oUfM or chnrcb; edwiiueDd tkm- 
Urittm. (Una tbeir porsolt after, or eogMeflMOt in, 
itenMoraMltf/ieelinallets. An meUHastick i» coo- 
Meeted wltb an epiacopecy; a itivnu or t km l » gimm !■ 
not enentiallj connected with anjr form of cbufcli fo- 

An ^etUtimtHek need not in bia own peraoo perlbnn 
any oOce, altboogb be fiUa a etatlon : a tfMM not 
imiy fllto a station, but actoally Mrforma tbe oAoe of 
teacbinf ; a tke»UgiM neitber fiUi any partiettlar eta- 
tlon, nor diecbargee any spectflck duty, bat merely fol- 
low! tbe pursuit of itiidyinc tksoUn* An tceUtUaUdi 
ia not always a divMs, nor a tfmiM antcel««te«t«dk; a 
dimn» is always more or less a OmIs/mii, but eveiy 
tke»Ugimi Is not a dtvtM. 

Among the Roman OattaolieiB al monka, and In tbe 
Cbutebof Eaglaadtlievarioaadlgnitarieawtio perfonn 
tbe episecmal ftmetione, are entitled §eeUntlidts ; 
'Oar old EngUab monks seldom let aqy of tbeir Una 
depart in peace, wlio bad endsavoured lodiminisb tbe 
power or wealtb of wlileb tbe tecUfiMstuk* were in 
tliose times possessed.*— A ooisoa. Tbere are but few 
denominatioos of Christians wbo bare not appointed 
teachers wbo are called dmiws; *Norsbanidwellon 

our eicellence in metapbyiical specalai 
he that reads tbe works of our dimMs will easUy dla- 
cover bow for bnmaa sabcUiy bas been able to pene- 
trate.*— JoaasoR. Piuftams or writers on tkmsgf 
are peculiarly denominated tkmUgumt ; ^Ikwkedoo 
Ibat sermon (of Dr. Price's) as the pubUek declaration 
Af aman much eonneeted with Htetary caballen. in- 



OtoitUTt bi Prencb *cl4ttr«. ftom tbe word dot cloee, 
aigniflesa certain close place in a cwnvmtt or an enck>- 
aure of bousss for caiums, or in general a religious 
house ; ceneeat, flrom tlie Latin canveiUms^ a metting, 
and cmmoKko to come toeetber, signifies a religious as- 
sembly; «Mna«(«ry, In French moRMCirs, signifies a 
habitation for monks, from the Oreek fAvot alone. 

Tbe proper idea of elsMCsr iatbatof seduslon; tbe 

K per Idea of eoaemt is that of comnnmity : tlie proper 
I of a momMtUry is that of sulitude. One la shut 
■p In a cMster, put into a eenvsat, and retires to a 

Whoever wishes to take an absoime le«v« of tbe 
world, shuts hlmedf up in a eUisttr; 

■eme BoNtary flisifisr wU I ehooat, 
Aad tbere wlih holy vtiiiM MTeiauooi'd. 

Whoever wtsbea (o attach himself to a community 
that bas renounced all ooouneree with ttie world, aoes 
*Norwere tlie new abbots lem indus- 

trious to stock thsir a&mmU$ with foreianert.*-:-TTa- 
WHiTT. Whoever wishes to shun all numan inter- 

course retiree to a wtmuuUrp ; 
forswear the fon stream of tne 

I drove my suitor to 
world, and to live in a 
nook merely sMiuulidt*->aaAxanAaK. 

in the elffirtsr our liberty li sacrificed: intheceaecnt 
oar worldly hablta are renounced, and thoae of a regular 
religious eemmuaity being adopted, we submit to tbe 
yoke of estaNished orders ; inasMiuwCtryweimpoeea 
sort of vohintary exile npon ouvmlves ; we live with 
tbe view of living only to Ckid. 

In tbe anciem and true ateticttsriM, tbe members 
divided their time be t we en conte m plaiton and labour; 
but as populatioa increaaed, and towns multiplied, 
tunmtUrUt were, properly speaking, mcceeded by 

In ordinary discourse, eUititr b employed in an ab- 
BoHtte and indefinite manner: we speak of tbe eUisUr 
lodeaiguateaaiMuuC^ik state; aa entering a efouCer; 

•Vide Abbe Roobaod: »Clftltrey eonyeni, mo- 

batTiagoM'saelf faiacMsCir'; ] 
cations I 

» aro praciieed in a citiaUr: but tt is net tha 
thing when %re speak of tbe cMslsr of the Beaa> 
(Uctiaes and of their sMnestarf; or IheclsMlsroftha 


Omesrt. fhnn tlie Latin cemxrCe, signlflfla changed 
to sometliing bi conformity with the views of aaotlier; 
jrrsMlyt*, fh>m the Oreek Mo«^«r«(aad 
signiflrs come over to the side of another. 

Ctnewt is more extensive in its sense and apniiratfcm 
tliaa fT—tlfU : e^motrt in its Aill senee includes every 
etiange of opinion, without respect to the sulrieet; 
froaHfU in its strict sense refors only to changes hom 
one religions belief to another: there are many Mitesrf* 
to particular doctrines of Christianity, and fvUftm 
from the Pagan, Jewish, or Mahooiedan, to tlw Chrisuaa 
foith : lliere are political as well as religious eenesne, 
who could not with tbe same strict propriety be t erm e d 


GMosrftfMi to a more vohintarv aetthaa prssslytfsai ; 
it fmsnaif entirely fkom die nund of the agent, iada 
pendent xit foreign influence ; it enends not merely to 
the abstract or speculative oplnloos of tiM individual, 
but to tbe whole currem of bto feeUngi and spring or 
bis actkms : it is the etfinvanitm of tbe iMart and eoal. 
ProMdfHam la an outward act, which need not extend 
beyond tiie conformity (rf'one'a words and actkms to a 
eertoin rule: comeeert)m therefore atwqrs talum In a 
good sense: it bean on the foce of it ttie stamp of sin- 
cerity ; * A believer may be excused by the most liard- 
eaed atlielst for endeavouring to malce hfan a cenvsrl, 
because lie does it with an eye to both their interests.*— . 
AnDisoH. Pr0t9lfU to a term of more amblgooaa 
me an in g ; ttie frttljfU to oAen the creature and tool 
of a party; tlwre may be many/reM^rCes wliere thsia 
are no converts; * False teaclierB commonly make use 
of base, and k>w, and temporal conskleratfona, of littte 
tricks and devices, to make disciples and gain ^rsse- 

ifle«.*— TiLLOTSOM. 

The eanversitmot a sinner to tbe workof God*s grace, 
either by bto special interposition, or by ttie ordlnaty 
influence of his Holy Word on the heart; it to an act 
of great presumption, therefore, in those men wtio rest 
so strongly on their own particular modes and forms ia 
bringing about thto great work: thmr may without anjr 
l>reach of charity be suspected of rattier wisliing to 
make ptvd$u§ to their own party. 


TVan^lfvrs to to make to pan over lato another 
figure ; trtntftrm and meivrntrpkom to to put into 
anotlierfiMm: tiie former beiiig said mostly of s|rfritnal 
beings, and parttontorly to leforeoce to our Saviour; 
tiM other two terms bdng applied to that wliich Iwa a 


f/#nnat»ss to commonly applied to that wUch 

cliangce tta outward form ; in this manner a liarleqnta 
^l^mj/ersis himself toto aU kfaids of shapes and Uka- 

Sometldng you liave heard 
Of Hamlet*s lr«iur/srai«t<#« : so I call It, 
Shice not tlie exterlour, nor ttte Inward maa 
Resembles wiiat it waa.— SHAispaAaa. 

Sometimes Iw w e y ei tlie word to applied ta moral ob- 
jects ; * Can a good intention, or rather a very wicked 
one so miscalled, tr«u/9rsi perjury and hypocrtoy Into 
merit and perfoctfonr— South. JlUUmtr^mit to 
applied to tlie form internal as wen as external, that is, 
to the wliole nature ; to thto manner Ovid describes, 
among otbeis, tlie mil9M»nho»— of Narctosus into a 
floww, and Daptine toto a laurd : with the same idea 
we may speak of a nistlok being aisiesierpAMML bv 
the force of art, Intoa fine aentleman; * A lady's shift 
may be mitPamfiTfk«**d toto billets-doux, and come into 
tier poemssion a sec<md time.'— Aomsoii. Trmn^figyt- 
retMfi to ^Vequently taken fbr a painting of our flm- 
vioat*%trai^/M'mti»n: ' We baveof thtogentleoiaa 
a piece of thelraiK^re^elaM, which I think to held • 
worfcascon4 to none in the world.'— 9TixkP< 




Prwgert from the Latin prtc»^ and the Greek wapiL 

and &rx»|M4 to pray, li a feneral tenn, including the 
..^^ « — , ^ 

r apoUcation to aome peiwn for any 
Ikvoar to be granted ; ftHtwn^ tmafiu to aeek ; r«- 
fmut, ftom the Latin nptuitnM and re^nnv, or r«, 
and f««r0 to look after, or seek for with desire ; ««- 
iTMly, from the French ea and trailer, signifying to 
aa upon; «m«, from mm, in French tvim^ Latin 
MfauM- to IbUow after; denote diiferent modes of 
^reyir, varyinc in the circumstances of tJie action and 
the objieet acted upon. 

The f/rofimr is made more commonly to the Supreme 
Being; the pstttwn is made more generally to one's 
feltow-cMatures; we may, however, ^rt^ our IbUow- 
creaturss, and jMtitum our Creator : tlie frs^tr to made 
for every thing which la of the flna hnportance to us 
aa Hvlng beings; the petktum, is made for that which 
may satWy our deshres: hence our/rayer« to the Al- 
mighty respect all our circumstances as moral and 
teaponriUe ageata ; our ^etiCJMw respect the temporary 
cticumstaaeea of our present ezistenee. When the 
term jrroyer to applied to one's feUow-creatufes it car- 
fiaa with It the Idea of earnestness and submlashm; 
I to supposed a means to change 
we /ray; but pr«f«r to God doth 
not change him, batfito us to receive the things /r^isd 

Torture him with thy softness, 
Nortil] thy prayers are granted set him fVee. 

The ^efielM and rsraett are alike made to our feUow- 
creatures; but the ibrroer to a publick act, in which 
nanv express their wishes to the Supreme Authorfty ; 
the latter to an individttal act between men In their 
private relatioos; the people petition, the kUig or the 
parUament ; a school of boyv petitwn their master ; 
She takes 9«itCum«, and dtopenses laws, 
Hears and determines eveiy private cause. 


A chQd makes a r«fK«st to ita patent ; one friend 
nakea a rsfiMtc to another ; 
Thus spoke Uioneos ; the Trojan crew, 
With cries and damoure hto rtfuett renew. 

The rtftuH marks an eqoalhy, but the entretm de- 
floes no oonditkw ; it dUTers, however, from the former 
In the nature of the ol^ect and the mode of prefer- 
rtaig: the tvfiMrC to bat a simple ezpresrion ; the «»- 
CrMly to orient: the rsfUMtmay be made in uivlal 
matters; the tmtrtmtif to made in matters that deeply 
Interest the feeUngs : we make the request of a friend 
to lend a book ; we use every atfreaey in order to di- 
vert a penoo from the ponnoe which we think detrl- 
uental: one compUea with aref«Mt; one yields to 
BMreatiet. It was the dying rtfuegt of Socrates, that 
they wouU sacrifice a eock to .£scatapius ; RmuUm 
wo deaf to every mCrMify of hto friends, who wtotied 
him not to return to Carthage ;< Arguments, 
and promises were employed In order to i 
(the foUowers of Cortes).'— RosaaTsoN. 

The raic to a higher kind of vreyer, varying both in 
the nature of the subject, and^tbe character of the 

agent A 

tier UK 

There are too many nfottoBata wmetaa ii 
who M|r<cu their crfanes oo a gaUowa ; 

How sacred ought kinn* Uvea be held, 

When but the death of one 

I>emanda an empire's blood for eajpioXisa.— Ln. 

NeUhc^f a'C'vmtnt nor rr jrr .] i j .1 ti ris^fays neces8arll{y 
nNjiiirw run^^l>"i>^'"t«' cvun suifcriiic; from the oflbnder. 
Tlje i>asur!: «f l\w ^{tJicment Ait\yvniifii on the wtll of 
Uji.- Ini^lvt^iiiai wliD 1ia DtftMidett ; eld^i oftentimes the 
V'ord inipiii^^ wupiy in €<\n]vm\*?^nK eivenoroflhred for 
SriEitcLliinf . ' { wiimid curni^tJy tl^.^tr'i the story-ieller 
trj ccifiiidfrr, Lhat no wit or nninJi iir ilm end of a story 
cnii tihmf foi tlic liaif bouf thai Ijuj Lieen lost before 
ttirf^y rt ime a t k .^—Bts k li , i^iTi lau^i as are frequently 
niiuie hy menuMof pffr(unt\\v" '-'•ri^"> ''ellgious rites or 
KU oC pieiy. <}|jeiic^^ t n and man are 

so [ftuti mi' e4 4] ^ j/n4f rffvr by an .<■ ment of errour ; 

but fiih'tic^i^ la^ariia God rt:Lj . .^ ,.„ tpiatorf sacrl- 
flce^ whioJi yiir ^aHonf ha» berii ]>iT iised tomakeof 
hirafieir, thai wv, Uirouj^h Hidi, lurMlit become par- 
takrn^ ikt" t^L-rsirii |ji>. f:j-j,P.i.^jjj,, rtiireibre, in the 
'*■"■■ •■ ■ j.:^ Lbt) means to the 

end : aumnment is often obouned by an npiatum^ but 
there may be e:qnMti»na where there to no ototumanL 

^tnumtMt replaces in a state of frnrour ; ttmiuimi 
produces only a real or supposed azamptloa ftom sia 
and ito consequences. Among the Jews and heathena 
there was cspmOmi, hut no mtmemttu; nnder the 
Christian d to peaaatton there to atsnsaMst aa weU aa 

) sooth them 

gentleman pays his nut to a lady ; a coor- 

- >hia nut to the prince ; • Seldom or never to 

there much spoke, whenever any one comeitoprd^ 
a suU to another.*— South. 


^toM, or at one, signifles to be hi unity, at peace, 
cr good friendi; «zpMf«. in LaUn MjnstM, participle 
of expt0, eompoonded of ex and m0, siniiflea to put 
oat or make dear by an act of piety. 

Both these terms express a satisfactton for an of- 
fence ; but tne. to leneret, expiaU to particutojr. We 
may tone for a fhult by any species of sullbrlng ; we 
^Bptote a crime only by suffering a legal puntohment 
A femato often suiBclently atones for her vlolatloo of 
chastity by the misery she entaito oa beraelf ; 

O let tiie bkxNi. already spitt, atone 

Far the post czimei of cuia'd Laoowdon.— Datsui 

^betinenee to a general term, applicable to any oUecl 
from which we abstain ; foot to a species of absti- 
nence, namely, an abstaining from food ; * Fridays aw 
appointed by tiie Church as days of absiinenee; and 
CJood Friday as a day of /«#t.'— Tatlor. The gene- 
ral term to likewise used in the particular sense, to 
imply a partial abstinence fliom particular food ; but 
faet dgmfies an abstinence from food altogether; 'I 
am verily persuaded that if a whole people were to 
enter Into a course of abHinenee, and eat nothing but 
water grud for a fortnight, It wouM abate the rage and 
animosity of parties ;* ^ Such a faet would have the 
natural tendency to the nrocuiing of those ends for 
which a fast to prodalmed.'— ADi>iaoR. 


Forgive, compounded of tiie privative/n* and give: 
and pardon, in French i^ardmiiMr, compounded like- 
wise of the privative par or per and donner to give, 
botii signify not to give tiie puntohmeut tiiat to due, to 
relax from the rigour of Justice hi demanding retriou- 
doo. .Fbv>M to tiie fkmlliar term : iiardtm to adapted 
to the serious style. Indlviduato forgive each other 
personal oflbnces; they pardon oflences against tow 
and moiato: the former to an act of Christian cliarity • 
the latter an act of clemency : the former to an aa that 
to confined to no condition ; the latter to peculiarly the 
act of a superiour. He who has tiie right of bdnc 
offended liaa an opportunity of forgiving the oOeader; 

No more Achilles draws 
His conqu'ring sword in any woman's cause. 
The gods command me to forgive the past. 
But let thto first invasion be tiie last— Pops. 

Re who has tiie authority of punishing the ofltaca 
may pardon ; ' A behig who has nothhig to vordini In 
himself may reward every man aoeordlng to hto worka; 
but he whose very best actions must be seen with a 
grain of allowance, cannot be too mild, moderate, and 
/orWotiij\*— AnoisoH. Next to the prtndple of not 
takinc offence easily, that of /orjftvtfn^ real Inkiriea 
should be instilled into the Infont mind : It to the hapfiy 
prerogative of the monarch that he can extend ma 
aordon to all crimlnato, exeept to tiiow whoae Crimea 
have rendered them unworthy to live : they may be 
both used In retotion to our Maker, but whh a simitor 
dtotinction bi sense. God forgives the shw of hto 
creatures as a fatiier pitying hto children; he pard<m« 
ihdr sins as a Judge exiendins mercy to criuunato. aa 
ftira«tac5on«aientwitiiJurti«J. J^«««»™«.» 


^ Fmriamy when cowp ti ^ with remisHcm, to llie 
conaequence of odknoe ; It reqweit principally the per- 
w>n oflendlng ; it depends upon htm who la offended ; 
it produces recooeiUation when It Is slnoerHy granted 
and slocerely demanded. Remittwn Is the conse- 
quence of the crime ; it has more particular regard to 
the punishment; it to granted either by the prince or 
magistrate ; it arrests the execution of Justice ; 

With suppliant prayers their powers appease ; 

The soft Napean race will soon repent 

Their anger, and rtwat the puntohmenC— Ditpbk. 
RemUsimu lllie ^ar^Mu to oeculiarly appllcahto to the 
sinner with regard to his Maker. AbMlMtwn to taken 
la no other sense: it to the consequence of the fkult or 
the sin, and properiv concerns the state of the culprit ; 
It properly kxMens hlra from the tto with which he to 
bonna ; it to pronounced either by the chril judge or 
the eccleslasUcal minister : it re-establishes the accused 
or tlie penitent in the rights of Innocence ; 
Round Inhto urn the blended baUs he rolls, 
M99I0U the JuM, and dooms the guilty souls. 


Tbe^arAmofsbi oMlteratas that which to past, and 
rsslores the sinner to the Divine fkTour; it toncomised 
throughout Scripture to all mon on the condition of 
faith and repentance ; Ttmi»$i»n of sin only avertt the 
Divine vengeance, which otherwise would &I1 upon 
those who are guilty of it; it to granted peeullariy to 
Christians upon the ground of Christ's exptotory sacri- 
fice, which satisfies Divine Justice for all offences : ak- 
»0tuti0n of sin to the workofOod*s grace on the heart; 
It acta for the Allure as well as the past, by lessening 
the dominion of ^, and making those free who were 
before in bondage. The Roman Catholicks look upon 
mktolnii^n as the inunedlate act of the Pope, by virtue 
of hto sacred relationship to Christ ; but the Protestants 
look to Christ onlv as the dispenser of thto blessing to 
'ntoters idmply as OMssengera to dedare 

men* 1 

liviiie wiU to 1 

JZMsnlcnee. from re back, and pamtH to be aorry, 
■Ifnlfles h>oking back with sorrow on what one has 
done amiss; pemUeme*. from tho same source, signifies 
simply aorrow Ibr what to amias. ComtrUi0ti, fh>m 
esaters to rub together, or bruise as it were with sor- 
row ; cMBptciictiM, (tcm cempmntf to prick thorough- 
ly I and r«si#r«c, ftom rtmtrdto to have a gnawing 
pain ; all express modes of ptnitene* differing in de- 
gree and circumstance. 

. A«peiiUiice refisrs more to the chaMe of one's mind 
with regard to an object, and to properly confined to the 
time when thto change takes place; we therefore, 
strictly speaking, repent of a thing but once ; we may, 
however, have penitent* for the same thing all our 
livesL Repentamee may be fUt for trivial matters ; we 
may repent of going or not going, speaking or not 
speaking: penitence refers only to serious matters ; we 
•re penitent only for our alna. Erroura of Judgement 
will alwaya be attended with repentmue in a mind that 
tostrivlng to do right; there to no human being so per- 
fect but that, in the sight of God, he wU have occa- 
sion to be penitent for many acts of commission and 

Rqtentanee may be felt for errours which concern 
only ourselves, or at most offences against our fellow 
creatures ; penUenee^ and the other terms, are appli- 
cable only to ofiences against the moral and divine 
tew, that law which to engraven on the heart of every 
man. We may repent of not having made a bargain 
that we aAerward And wouM have been advantageous, 
or we may repent of having done any injury to our 
neighbour; but our pen*nee la awakened when we 
rriecc on our unworihiness or sinfulness In the right 
€t our Maker. Thto penitence to a general sentiment, 
which bekmgs to all men as oflending creatures; but 
amtritienj cempntutien^ and remeree are awakened 
by reflecting on partlcuUr odbnees : eetUritiem to a 
continued and severe sorrow, appropriate to one who 
has been in a continued state of peculiar sinfulness; 

Vide AbbeQlnid: **Abaolutioo, pardon, lemls- 

ess^imetisii to rathsr u oeeaatonal-, but Aarp fommr, 
provoked by a single oflfencefOr a momears reflection ; 
remeree may be temporary, but it to a still sharper 
pain awakened by some particular offence of pecunar 
magnitude and atrocity. Tlie prodigal son was a 
eentwite rinner; the brethren of Joseph fUt great eewe- 
ptnutien when they were carried back with thefa- sacks 
toE^pt; David was stmck with resiM-M for the mur- 
der or Uriah. 

These fbur terras depend not so much on the 
nieoAire of |uilt as on the sensibility of the offender. 
Whoever reflects most deeply 00 the enormity of sin, 
will be most sensible of rementmtte^ when he sees hto 
own liability to oflimd ; • This to the shiner's hard kit; 
that the same thing which makes him need r^entmnee, 
makes him also in danger of not obtaining it*— South 
In those who have most oflteded, and are oome to ■ 
sense of their own condition, peniteneewtil rise todeqi 
Heaven may forgive a crime to penitence^ 
For heaven can Judge If penitence be true.— DaTnaii. 
* Oentritien^ though It may melt, otwht not to sink, or 
overpower the heart of a Christian.^BLAHU There 
to no man so hardened that he will not some time or 
other fed eewtpum^ien for the crimes he has eomailt- 
ted ; * All men, even the naost depraved, are subject 
more or less to cempmnetiane of consdence.*— Buuft 
He who has the liveliest sense of the Divine goodness, 
will feel keen rewtoree whenever he reflects on map 
thing that he has done, by which he fean to have for 
felted the (kvour of so good a Being ; 

The heart. 
Picrc'd with a sharp remeree for guilt, dianMima 
The costly poverty of hecatombs, 
And offers the best sacrifice itself.— JpmT. 


Ceneeienlieue marks the quality of having a nlea 
ocNiscience; scntfmZons, that of having a scrupto. 
Congeienee, in Latin eonedentim, ttom eeneeiene. sig- 
nifies that by which a man becomes conscious to him- 
self of right and wrong. SempiA, In Latin ecrmpmlms, 
a little bard stone, signiffes that which gives pain to 
the mind, as the stone does to the foot in walking. 

Oeneeientieue to to eempuloue as a whole to a part 
A coneeientioue roan to so altogether ; a eentpuleue 
man may have only particular ecmpUe: the one is 
therefore always taken In a good sense ; and the other 
at least In an indifferent, if not a bad sense. 

A coneeientioue man ooea nothing to offend hto eon' 
eeience ; ' A coneeientioue person would rather distrust 
hto own Judgement than condemn hto species. He 
would say, I have observed without attention, or 
Judged upon erroneous maxims; I have trusted to 
profession when I ought to have attended to conduct* 
BntKK. — But n eerupnlene man has oAen hto eerupUe 
on trifling or minor points ; * Others by their weakness, 
and fbar, and scrttpaloKfiiMs. cannot Ailly satisfy their 
own thoughts.*— PrLLKR. The Pharisees were ecru- 

1 thought 
9U* witti 

ptUeut without being coneeientioue: we must there- 
fbre strive to be ceneeientieue whhout being over ecru- 
puloua; 'I have been so very eempuloue in thto 
particular, of not hurting any man's reputation, that I 
have forborne mentk>ning even such authors as I couki 
not name with honour.*— Anmsoir. 


Holineee, which comes fVom the northern ton guag e s, 
has altogether acquired a Christian signification ; It 
respects the life and temper of a Christian ; eenctitu^ 
which to derived fVom the Latin eanetue and eanette, 
to sanction, has merely a moral signification, which It 
derives Arom the eanction of human authority. 

HoUneee to to the mind of a man what sanctity to to 
hto exteriour ; with thto difference, that keUueee to a 
certain degree, ought to beking to every man profnaing 
Christianity ; but eanctity^ as it lies in the manners, 
the outward garb, and deportment, to becoming only to 
certain persons, and at certain times. 

HoUneee to a thing not to be affected ; it to that 
genuine characteristick of ChrlMianitv which to alto- 
gether spiritual, and cannot be oountericlted ; * Habitual 
preparation fbr the Sacrament consists in a perma 
Dent habit or priociQle of Aslmsfs.*— Soots, ^onstfiy, 


•n the oCher hand. Is ftooi In rery natare ezpoaed to 
fUMhood, and the least to be trusted ; wben it displays- 
Itself in individuals, either by the sorrowfulness of 
their looks, or the singular cut of their garments, or 
other singularltiea of action and gesture, it is of the 
most questionable nature ; but in one who performs 
the sacerdotal office, it is a useftil appendage to the 
solemnity of the scene, which excites a reverential 
regard to the individual In the mind of the t>ebolder, 
and the rooet exalted sentiments of that religion which 
he thus adonis bv his outward proflession; 'About an 
age ago it was the fasliion In England for every one 
that would be thought relMous, to throw as much 
•saceicy as possible into his lace.'— Addison. * It was 
an observation of tlie ancient Romans, that their em- 
pire had not increased more by the strength of their 
arms, than by the »a%etitf of their mannera.*— Ao- 


HoIm Is here taken In the sense of koUnets^ as In the 
preceding article ; pious, in Latin pnu, Is most proba- 
bably changed from dhu or dciu, signifying regard for 
the gods; devost, in Latin devotus, from devoveo to 
engage by a vow, signifies devoted or consecrated: 
r€lifi»u»t In Latin rtUgiosua, comes from rdigio and 
reit£0, to bind, because religion binds the mind, and 
pFodutea Ln It a fixed prljic1pT& 

A ^iiini? rt'gajil ut tho s^i,jTirtni* Dt^lnr tAEfpTo^i>d 
hy ail llici*: ?fliiln?t# ; but *j4y cnnvay* ifie tntm onn- 

{ir«{ieii»ivu [Jea; pi*»^* (inil drrmtt iltsigaMc rtK>at 
urvom {if m\n6: tiligioitii l* the fftort gcnefoi Jtnd 
ahriitct In iui Eigiilfication. A Aofy jn&rL ti In oil 
fMjpeCli h^nvcttly-mlndtrd; he ia tiMtP tit for titLi^en 
tbaa flarib: lu^ttmidm^ in wlmteYe; lin^rr-p ii ti pos- 
\ BlbBlmnji Uic tlKiuf Ills from ^ubJitiiiary f^hi'-iiis, 
I BxH them <in tiihiji^ Uint are t>lxiv»^ : k U iliet^'ir tre 

* ChriiMlan quality, whitb h aol to Ih; auained iu its 
full ptitf^iitm by liAiuiDJi bcin^. lo tlntit jirtswTit Ua- 
prrfbct stiiEe, aad ia anmuBble W sotM ta d wmh 
j;r«a[cr difgrt^ tlian by oUiera. Our Saviour IA4V a 
piFrlV"'fE [iiinrrn *fTh"J'"/.-^-^ ; Tjii* aprt^il'PS afto- him, .ind 
^„,.i„^;.ulo koiabt Aiitl tfiMxi iuca, U,;^ 1*. ^*«. «>«.; jf 
tiie ministry, have striven to imitate his example, by 
the holiness of their life and conversation : in such, 
however, as have exclusively devoted themselves to 
his service, tills holiness may shine brighter than In 
those who are entangled with the affairs of tlie worid ; 

* The holiest man, by conversing with the worid In- 
sensibly draws something of soli and taint fhnn It.*— 

Pious is a term more restricted in its signMcation, 
and consequently more extended in Its application, 
than hol^ : piety is not a virtue pecullsr to Christians, 
It is common to all believers in a Supreme Being ; It is 
the liomage of the heart and ttie aflections to a supe- 
rtour Being: fVom a similarity in the relationship 
between a heavenly and an earthly parent, derotedness 
of the mind has in both cases been denominated pietfi. 
Pietjf towards God naturally produces pietp towards 
parenu ; for the obedience of the heart, which gives 
rise to the virtue in the one, seems Instantly to dictate 
the exercise of it In the other. The difference between 
holiness and pietp is obvious fh>m this, that our Saviour 
and his apostles are characterized as hol^, but not 
piouSf because piety is swallowed up in haltness. On 
the other hand, Jew and Gentile, Christian and 
Heathen, are alike termed pious^ when they cannot be 
called holp, because pietp is not only a more practi- 
cable virtue, but because It Is more universally appli- 
cable to the dependant condition of man; * In every 
age the practice has prevailed of substituting certain 
appearances of piety in the, place of the great duties of 
humanity and mercy.'— Blaik. 

Devotion is a species of piety peculiar to the wor- 
ahipper ; It bespeaks that devotcdness of mind which 
displays itself hi the temple, when the individual 
•eems by his outward services solemnly to devou him- 
self, soul and body, to the service of his Maker: 

* Devotion expresses not so much the performance of 
any particular duty, as the spirit which must animate 
mil religions duties.'— Blair. Piety, therefore, lies in 
the heart, and may anpear externally ; but devotion 
does not properly exist except in an external ob- 
servance : a man piously resigns himself to the will of 
God, in the midst of his afflictions; ha pnqra ievpuUy 

In tiM bosnm of his flunlly; *Attata of tanparanea, 
sobriety, and justice, without devotion^ is a UMess In- 
sipid condition of virtue.' — Addisok. 

Religious is a term of less import than either of the 
other terms; It denotes little more than the simple 
existence of- religion, or a sense of religion in tlie 
mind : the religious man is so, more in his prineiplea 
than in his affections ; he is reUgious In his sentiments, 
in as much as he directs all his views according to the 
wtU of his Maker ; and he is religious in his conduct, 
in as much as he observes the outward formalities or 
homage that are due to his Maker. A My man ftta 
himself for a hiaher sute of existence, after which he 
is always aapiring ; a nious man has God in all hia 
thoughts, and seen to do his will ; a devout man benda 
himself in humble adoration and pays hb vows of 
prayer and thanksalvlng ; a religious man conforms 
In all things to what tha dietatea of hia eonaeienca 
require fltim him, as a responsiUe being, and a mem- 
ber of society. 

When applied to thfain they preserve a similar dis- 
tinction : we speak of the holy sacrament ; of u pious 

discourse, a pious ^aculatkin ; of a devout ezerciaak 
a devout air ; a religious sentiment, a retigioui life, a 
religious education, &c. 


Holy Is here, as in the fbrmer article, a term of 
higher import than either saered or dtv^as; saersd, in 
Latin saeer, is derived either firom the Gredc iy^ 
holy or edoi whole, perA?ct, and the Hebrew zacoA pure. 
Whatever Is most intimately connected with religion 
and religious worship, In Its inirest sute, Is hoty, is nn- 
hallowed by a mixture of Infertour objects. Is elevated 
in the greatest possible decree, so as to snk the nature 
of an infinitely perfect and exalted Being. Among the 
Jews, the holy of hoUos was that place which waa 
Intended to approach the nearest to the heavenly 
abode, consequently was preserved as much as possi- 
ble from all contamination with that which Is earthly: 
amona Christians, that religion or form of religion ia 
term^ holy, which is esteemed purest in its doctrine, 
discipline, and ceremonies, and is applied with equal 
propriety by tlie Roman Catholicks and the English 
Protestaou to that which they have in common ; ' To 
fit us for a due access to the holy Sacrament, we must 
add actual preparation to habitual.*— South. Upon 
this ground we speak of tlie church as a ho$y place, of 
the sacrament as the My sacrament, and the ordhiancea 
of the church as holy. 

Saered is less than holy ; the saered derives its sanc- 
tion from human institutions, and Is connected rather 
with our moral than our religious duties : what Is holy 
is aitofiether spiritual, and abstracted from the earthly ; 
what IS saered may be simply the human purified from 
what Is gross and corrupt: what is holy must be 
regarded with awe, and treated with every possible 
markof revorence; what Is «aer«d must not be violated 
nor infringed upon. The laws are saered, but not 
holy ; a man's word should be sacred, though not holy : 
for neither ot these thinfi is to be reverenced, but both 
are to be kept free from injury or external violence. 
The holy la not so much opposed to, as it Is set above 
every thing else ; the saered is opposed to the profane : 
the Scriptures are properly denominated holy, because 
they are tlie word of God, and the fruit of his Help 
Spirit; but other writings may be termed saered which 
appertain to religion. In distinction fVom the profane, 
which appertain only to worldly matters ; ' Common 
sense could tell tbero, that the good God could not be 
pleased with any thioc cruel, nor the most holy God 
with any thing filthy and unclean.'— South. * Religion 
properly consists in a reverential esteem of tmnga 
»acr«d.*— South. 

Divine is a term of even less Import than saered; It 
signifies either belonging to the Deity, or being like the 
Deity ; but ftoro the looseness 6f its application it has 
Inst in some respects the dignity of its meaning. The 
divine Is often contrasted with the human : but there 
are many human things which are denominated dnmis .* 
Milton's poem la entitled a dtvtas poem, not merely on 
account of the subject, but ttom the exalted manner In 
which tlie poet has treated his subject : what is divimo, 
tiierefore, may be so superlatively excellent as to be con- 
eetred of as naviag tiie stamp of inspiraOoB from tiit 


Deny, wbkh of oaanej BB}t itnMM _-_- 

Fro^the BboTe^pUnmUonof tlMM umni,UiaclMir 
thattberato a mua^idl^BRnce between ttaeoi, and 
vet that their reeemMaoce is lufBcleatly great for tbem 

fc beappUed to tbe ■"»• «**«?»■ J^'-JS^^L,^ 
Molv sSrit, and of l>t»tiM Inspiration; Inr thefirttof 
whZti oitbeta to undentood not «jM^&t ta i«p». 
humanrbat what ii a coMtiuient part of the Deity : by 

tbe Kcond la repfewmted merely in a ^n*^ ™>2Jf 
the iource of the Inspiration as coming from^eje^, 
andnotfhxnman; » Whenamanreetethandassureth 
Mms^f upon Dimm$ prolecUon, he nthereth a force 
and fldthwbieh human nature In itsdf eojild not 
obudnZ-BAOOiI. Bubjeeie are denominated either 
saertd or divnat, as when we speak of tttend poema, 
or^iMhymis: tservd here characterizes tbe suttfects 
StlMrpmm»,a^ those which are to be held tMcrtd; 
and dtimMdMigoaies the sobject of the hymns as not 
being ordinary or merely human ; it Is clear, therefore, 
that what Is Aolf Is in its very nature saeri* but not 
vice verad : and that what is kolg and socrad Is In its 
^^i *o*m; bat the rffein. to not always eliher 

k»Uf or tmered. 

OodUka bespeaks Its own meaning, as Uke Opd^dt 

afterthema^erof »oi; d<tniM> Latin dtoimwfhm 

divus or D0U0, signifies appwtalning to CM; b *- 

or *««wiJi*«, signifies like or appertaining to 

gmjiikt to a more expressive, but less eomi 

thaTSeSU; the formf to used only as an epithet of 
necullar praise for a partieular object; dtonu to gene^ 
iaUy empbyed for that which appertafcos toasupoiout 
bdng,hi^totlnctkmfh>m that which to human. Beae^ 
volenee to a ^mUOm property ; 

Bare he that made as with such large dtacoain^ 
Looking before and after, gave as not 
That capabiUly and/oiUfts reason. 
To rust in us unus*d.— BBAXsraiJLB. 
The DinM Image to stamped on the features of man, 
whence^ llurto caUedbTMllton *the human fMe 
DtvtiM.' * The benefit of nature's Itoht to not thoinht 
excluded as unneceaMuy, because ««» ne^S^ «' » 
dtwi« light to magnified.'— HooMR. Xhums to how- 
ivSft^uwtly SSl^ the poets for what to super- 


Of aU that see or read thy comedies, 
Whoever in those glasses looks may find 
The spots retum*d. or paces of hto mind; 
And Iqr the help of so dte^M an ait. 

tutu Ifj *!•« iBeii* v» ^i» ■■•w.i.ii »~- — ■"» 

At lelsoie View and di«« hto nobler part 


As Ovhu to opposed to human, » to Aj«»«ilf to 
earthly : the I>JraMBelng to a term of dtotinclion for 
the Creator ftom all otholidnff; tmt a AMWMifo belag 
denoles the angeto or Inhabltanto of ktmen. In dtotine^ 
UoB ChMn euthly belnp or the InhaMtanto of earth. 
A dnmu influence to to be souatat for only by prayer 
to the Olver of aU good thtofi; bat a »s«©«ilr tempa 
may be acquired by a Steady coipmptatUmof»sjjj»% 
thlnsi. and an abetractioa from those which are earthly, 
Tbe^tM will to tbe foundatkm of aU moral law and 


Instructed yoa*d explore 
ZHviM contrivance, and a God adore.— Bulckkom* 
AMMwIy Joys are tbe ftuUof aU oar iabooia in this 

catioii of ##dliasss, whidi tt tl».».i» ^-^ — gisr ~ 

kiijtier ormiud, iwtntily to deUghtln, but to mmyv 
iucli tiinitim-a : ^ The aamt c-Jiitt^ to mal^ holy in this 
ftfjr3il,iii relMkni lo ill *oihf pemooaeoolnindd mil, 
by a fval infuBCd Mnriiiy'-PiAaiow. RigkUoytnitM 
oa ihc oUicf kmitl wmptchend* CJinstiaii moraltiy, In 
diwtiiictiw ft^am tlJit of OiB lit^aUifisi or iuib«ltov#r ; a 
r^jtkuouM man Jcpc* nfkt, not onl j becwK H \m rigM^ 
bill tHSruuac u li aprp**blp lo thd wtll of hix Maker, bnd 
ilin e*iiEi)]iSe of hit Redetnu^ i rigktMugnu* *»*>>&«- 
fore tQ ir'^««"' ■* t*» *''*^ ^** ^ ^^^' J^}*}^^ 
KOif^pcV* WOT It UJ rednoe rasa lo the pnudpVu of lil* fifsi 
troBHon , thai k, to bo both good and wt«. Ou J anew- 
Mrs, ii necnwp were ckarty of this csplnion. He that 
iwBji ploua aiia iuii was rcckciiied a righUQUM mon, 
aodlinf^M aiid integrity was called nud attwutitea 
rfi-Alfoitfi**!** And in their oU SaiCMi TigkiC4Ji^ wm 

m^fl/-FKLTRA». The f«ilr mAH p'A^ tis ihe rrtnc- 
iLiflry and hy ttjavtm* with hii Muktr aiiiiiiiilmieit aU 
l\i,4 atrtTlioni %a Uie cbarvcUir of ttmi hcin^ wIujh* Jia 
vifirshlpB; wl»en to* leaves ihe ssJictusrj li* prwt^ Uw 
^cacy isT Li* goitmuM by hti rlglilefflM coovtrse wiUi 
hli fLllc»wH:itaturoe. It It easy bowerc? foriD€U lo 
mkijiak« a^ti lueaJi* for ilm &ia^ and to rest with godtt* 
n«* wHlioui rt/AiRfUTu**! as too mftui? are apt to do 
who acem to make ibcir wIkjIu duty lo coiiilnt ia «d 
atieation lo rUljiioiiB ot*er^'ance», mud lii ihe tridul- 
ireac4] of cxlravjigatit fcf lings ; V U tiaUi beep iht great 
rkilifiiof I he devil mvi iibliutranienta in all agiti to 
^[idi'fniliie rtllgioii, hy ri^akiiMj an iiiiliapliy aeparaiion 
mill dtvori?e betwCLni godltncsa and niorallty. Uai let 
111 iigiddcelve oiuMjivca. ilik wai alwaVH rellffhui, *Jid 
th^: coadlth lutjf oar iwo'l'laiic* wHb God. lo eiHSeavour 
tf^ be like Oflrf la tnirity aad b<illiKa% in justice and 
ri^Ai««™»*.'— Tiu-oxaoii. 


SfruUr in Uitin «r»iftrtjr, from jfr«l«n aa a(te or 
dJi i-inej of Lhiii't^tgniftcB bcJoniriiiij toiUiiCjOr tliia life; 
f/.rjii. I -T^ til Laliil ifW/HfliraJijr, frtiin {4«|iv4 tloH^, &lsrni- 
[jt^ Niitiiii; <*iily fot a litoe; ift(jri% aignUSea after Uie 
iiiaiuiuruf tJj*? ir£^^W- 

£$€idar li iivv^wtJ lo ecckiiartical tw apLrltual, !»*- 
flifraJ Slid B4rM/L are Dppt^si to aplr^UiaJ or t^l^rtjii]. 

ITfcc Ideas uf ine ip#W J, or the oulwapd object* atui 
purauitaof Uws udr^ii, in dlHtlncUon tkvm Uml whkh 
la act abijve Ibe worW, t* Iraptled In wminon liy all tbe 
Ivritiaj kill recnlur ii an LndifTennt triini apfilitabl*! m 
Uk' allowL"d [tkir«alla and cimctrnaof uien ; t^mpo^raJ, is 
iiMNl eiiher in an liidlffLrent or a bad «. iwe ; nnd 
varldi^ ujc*Uy in a bod aewee, QM cob uaated wkh ihingf 
of uirire value. ....... 

Tiifl office of a dergyman la eccJesiJWlical, litil tkat 
of a ic]iiJoiDi*atsr b aeeviar, whick iif freqatriily r^?siwl 
lis tli« aamfl kaadii^ 'Thii, In tevtral men'ti acii-iaa of 
into IIK ' -..^ . 

D tivil ' 

Reason, alas! Itdoesiiw»miivw wacu, . ,, 

But man, vain man! would with his diort-Un'd 

FttlMai the vast abyMofAscv«nlyJusike.-DETi>t]t 


C^mOv to a contraction of ^sdlOcs (o. MlOf); 
rtrUeoM signifies conformable to nif*< or truth. 

These epithets are both used In asplrltual sense, and 
cannot, wlthoat an indecorous aflbctation of rditfoo, 
be IntrodMsed Into any other discourse than that wlildi 
to properly spiritual. 0«tf<Ms«, in the strict sense, Is 
that outward deportment which characterlaes a hea^ 
wenly temper ; prayer, reeling of the Scripture pubUgt 
worship, and every idigkMB act, enten into the slgnil^ 

toimin>ii lUb, appertainuih unto morai ■ tn pnhWtk 
pfnllUck taculfir affttU*, Miito tivil wWotn.'— Hooi 
Thft ii|tper licnuwof paTLlariit'nt comdjumf tofdi 
rliiiaJ and urmpur^i . ^ There Ifl scorrji any of l„ 
dtrtis-lifHi ttiit pvtis good Iklil^ by i^ay of iiaihorHy ,. 
rta^jn, lo m>mn (lUtslioiia thai ajise also tetwt-wi ttm- 
fiin-ai di£nlut*,capfcsiilly w casei wherfilii eomc of our 
nt-tjfffihnaie ttmpQrtii llUts havL- [*rt ia iht coatrri- 
ver^y.'— eKLOM!*, n\rrld{^ luiefeai iiM a more pow- 
erful away iif*" i^'^ luiiuhi uf tli« ^rtrat huJk of uiam- 
kind, TJiJiii tliclr Hiiiriiual iiiiereau ; ^Cnaipan? Ihi; hap- 
pliH» nf tnt!T] and heasli no f»nhiir tlian it rt^ult* from 
(TflrW/v advautaBe!!i.'— Ai-rajtiiiRV. Wliocvi-r enters 
into tile holy uOice of Uie inloliitfy wllh merelj amdw 
vifWi of preferiii*?cit, clioosea a very uofil PHitce of 
wui' >] uhhh t ', ' Poiiie aa w nothi ng in wbit bss bwfl qdM 
In PranCij but a linn aftd tomperite eiiirtkMi of ftvedijo^ 
Ml coTwLittt'Bt *llh nioriiit and piely^ as to tiishe Ude- 
ficrviitB inii only of tim secidar anplauH; of dashing 
Maclilavdian |x*llticlaiiBi bqi to mnJie h a fit ihetne ftir 
all the devout ulHiitloUB of (UtCfwl elLmutiice/— Biiata 
A ttfoeagei pursuit afler£*wi/»f rcl advarttajpes and tfw 
par-si pltaiurca i^ tipt m dnivf the mind away ffoni iis 
r^ffflrd u? ihc**i ftbieJi are elertiil; 'Tlte uliiaiaie iHif- 
ikwf of ji«vetiuuciii ia tempirrAl^ and ihai of religion is 
i^iiini al ii iy\iinvm 7— J owh son. W'^rrf^f appiause w I Fl 
wt'kb very Ugkl when aM Iti the boiruiet aj;uliiit iii« 
rt[jruacl3t>foa(i'sowrjron»cUnce; ' JF>W:J;j lliiriBi ai« 
tff stub ^uaiitf 41 w k-siUi ut-Mi iHifiaiui.'^GJicivifcK 




The aUkmtinttj /maiickj and visioiurf have dto- 
ordered Unaginnttoai; bat the tmtkm»Uut to only 
aflectad lowardlT wUh aa extraordinary fervour, the 
/a«alicl( and vinemary betray that fervour by ■ome out- 
ward mark ; the fomier bv alngularttleB nf conduct, the 
latter by alnfolarltlee of doctrine. Fmnalicks and 
VMtMMfiM are therefore always more or lev muAu- 
MUatt; but 9MikiuiM»t» are not alwayi fnuHicka or 
vui0»miM, *Bv0w9caca2 among the Greek*, from h 
In and 0fli$ God, alfnuied those suppoaed to have, or 
pretending to have. Diving inspiration. FoMotiei were 
so eaUed among toe Latins, from /ana the tonples in 
ulilcit ihry spent nn eitrmordinazy ponkm or their 


\ llkeUM;/4t^pff4a^.J^Jr'LtM:f3fe^■ks, preicri'led 

1^ fetid iiiri^lratU!rti» ^Litriiij^ ihn inMiir ar4' of 

' tturcnieL^'Ci in miuLf t:KirEivn;ir:uit 


, I WI3 are profeiMore of b pure r«lifrlon, yet 
wefamoc boui u racm^vUcri item tluetitmva^&EicleB 

wi^> itHli>]fiir tiii;mc4:]viL>^ in KiirnHnj- iiraeLk^Ji undt r the 
kk» of hmuMfhi^ tl^cir Maker queI Ki-rJwmi'r. Tltiire 
aiv /«3UJi£4tf whcf irto/t-aea to b^ under riimordiMary 
tHilKEtcee of th« spint ; auiJ tlicre onr cn.tkTi *iAKii w h . we 

IdinuaUlkM Ihefi) f'^r lAktiu; a lH:!ie- 
idal 'p*n la die hw and vlrjnn wr^ic^ nf the 
thfBth. fjvipitfry Mgnlflei wii^petljr f^tie whi i ^k^^U in 
eitin«i that li| In uw preietidAd fenp^Amiici: ^f surier- 
otlHmf ot*l«ee»; a tpRfea of fli*iswFdurf-< wIk» fjuve 
RTJirufiK up in niorc iDuderJi llmi?*, Th* 1i?ader« of wcle 
are couiinrnily vi^imitrtt^y LnvtEic arti>|itcO Ihl:^ aniTice 
1o «BUililiiffa Uitik tupmattQH and duGlriucji nir«..i^L' iheir 
daLuded feJIowtfi ; Malioinet wiw one of I In ic- 

ecsful vifiirmaruj that ever pitTiaidtiiit u> iL: p|- 

ratioti; and «iti«e hb ilmir then; liavt^ bc^ti jl es, 

pttnkidarfjr in England, wtK> hnve raisK^J Mtiiiuu^ par- 
lies, bj having i-LCui^rw 10 tlie ujoe p:i|>t^if iii : 11 f t^is 
deM7l|ittiKii fv*&v ^vf t4j4d:nborf , Huntington^ nJid UtolIi^ rs. 
*" ■ > wtt# urlirlmaJly coiUliied to thbae who w-sre 

r nlt^oua TreiLZy, Bui llw staenl age hoa 

tniwlili Ibf imititCJtntly or /amstKij* !j3 1 

|lnn and aiiAfchy ;, ' TlH'y wtio wlJI noL beHf^Ti- that 

iNe phi kwQ|ih teal /uHaiiciLj who gut^ In tJkve ikiat- 

ji^Iiginn}, nr* uUeriy i^tromt of tiieii f ii — 

fii;RKi. KjifAurd't tft ft teim appJifd kn to 

avery otie who la Ailttl iif lUi an exiitirjrdNi -ee 

Af Ibrvonr; 

Her littla aoal If nviah'd, and so ponr'd 

Into k>oae ecstasies, that sheiapuieed 

Above herself, Maalck*s snOanML— Ceashaw. 

' £naiina«f« nretend that they have the gift of 
sropheey by dieams.'— PAorrr*s HanxsiooRArar. 
>w»sMry to a term applied lo one who deato In (kn- 
cUhl apeeulatkm; 'Tma account exceeded all theNoc- 

i or vuinmriu I have met with.*— Tuvikk. 
The former may sometimes be Innocent, if not lauda- 
ble, aeeocding to the nature of the object ; the latter to 
always ceosurable : the mOkuHati has mostly a warm 
heart; the vmanary has only a fknclAil head. The 
anUnsiast will moatly be on the side of virtue even 
though In an errour; the oMmumy pleads no cause but 
kto own. The mOkuHMMt siifibrs hto imagination to 
ftrilow hto heart ; the viMi&nmry makes his understand- 
,iag bend to hto Imagination. Although In matters of 
rengkm, mtAM»iasm shook! be cautfcMisly guarded 
agaiDat, yet we admire to see It roused In behalf of 
one*s country and on«*s friends ; ' Cherish true religion 
as preciously as you win. fly with abhorrence and 
contempt, superstltloo and ciifj|««ia«m.*— Chathajc. 
ntianariea^ whether In rellEton, politicks, or science, 
are dangerous as members of societv. and oflfenslve as 
campanlona ; ' The sons of Infiuny rldicute every thing 
as romantick that comes in competition with their pre- 
aent Interest, and treat thoae persons aa wi4m«H£» 
who dare stand np in a corrupt age, for what haa not 
las iannadiate reward jotned to it*— AoDiaon. 

Praaai, la Dntcb drval, itc cornea either fhnn the 
Oaiite *nn, a ilgbi, or the Gffoek ^pdMOt <^ <^Me, or aa 

probably ftom the word rsMB, ligBUyiBg lo 1 
In Hebrew Q^ to be agitated; rso«r«, to French 
r99«ri4^ like the English r«v«, comes from the Latin 
rsKM, signUying that which to wandering or Inco- 

Drsasu and rfvsrMt are alike opposed to the reality, 
and have their origin In the imagination; but the 
fbrmer commonly pass In sleep, and the latter when 
awake: the dmni may and doea commonly arise 
when the imagination to In a sound state ; the r«veri4 
to the flruit of a heated imagination ; * Rtmerf to when 
ideas float in our mind, without reflection or regard of 
the understanding.*— Loom. £>rtmm» come in the 
course of nature ; rwtrita are the eonaequence of a 
peculiar ferment. 

When the dremm to applied to the act of one that to 
awake, it admito of another distinction from reverie. 
They both designate what to confounded, but the 
drMsi to leas extravagant than the reverie. AmbitiouB 
men please themadves with dreasu of Aiture great- 
neaa ; enthusiasu debaae the puritv of the Chrtotlan 
religion by blending their own wild reveriee with the 
doctrinee of the Gospel. He who indulges hinMelf In 
Idle dremwu lays up a store of disappointment for him- 
self when he recovers hto reooUectkm, and flnds that 
It to nothing but a drMsi ; * Gay*a friends persuaded 
hhn to seU his share of South-sea stock, but he drsasMtf 
of dignity and splendour, and ooukl not bear to ohstniet 
hto own fortune.*— JoansoM. A love of singularity 
operadng on an ardent mind will too often Ind men 
to indulge in strange reveriee ; * I oontinoed to sit mo- 
tionless, with mv gres fixed upon the curtain, some 
momenta after it lell. When I was roused flma 
my reverie I fimnd myself almoat ak»e.*— Hawkis- 



/rrattMMl, conponnded of tr or m and ralas, signl- 
Abs contrary to reaaon, and to emploved to exprem the 
want of the fkcalty itself, or a deficiency in the exei^ 
cise of thto faculty ; feoUeh denotes the pervenion <^ 
thto fkculty ; eAevrd^ ftom ewrime. deaf, signifies that 
to which one would turn a dear ear: frepoeterema^ 
fkatawrm before and meet behind, signlfles literally that 
sMe fbremoat which to unnatural and oootraiy to oom- 
mon sense. 

IrraHemal to not so strong a term as feeUek: it to 
applicable more fteooentlv to the thtaig than to the 
penon, to the prtnciple than in ifw pr«tt*t4? ; * Tha 
B(h< irH^-T^jii frrtHhitihtf^ nn? ulc^jq^^iilR^r irfnUvnalj and 
r^iMifr.- ific Tijii?! tiirovn^nm cTiHluiUy t« tinbrsce 
th' ni.'— Anujiim. hnolisk on the Jttnitriry la com^ 
mriiily nppJicAblc to the pL-n^m aa wt^U um ihf th\n^ \ 
to iltr E^mcilctj rntJier tlian ihi: prEnclpb? ; ■ lli« sanHf 
weh rtifnnkn^ itcntknian loiik [!C£asir>n qt ttTiotber I 
to bttns h^^vihet niirlL of hla ftktr^iLs «Ji Wi;r« I 
to n Ja&hfk JiabiiisEy cLutoiti cif m^riirjifiii, la ordar m 
sbr>w tlkerti tfte vhnurdity ti/ rbe iinrike.— ADmaoit. 

tl]'' iynuy^n mind \a forined m b«lkve, kit not (o 
d( ' ' if an mfu n\ije^ fvtffhak wlw iitJikn blp 
et ison oa hin awn tn.t\ci&\ vnxmitrnvy of 

in ■ .41 lllumiitaiion. Faaiisky ahxMrd^ end 

|w-^ . .,, r. ,x-^ n^ ia di-yri-e ; a vlotaUon orcomnuin 
senni' IK inapiw^ hv tbejii aJl, but liw^ T9,ry aaconliag 
to ilie ilei^rru nf vkiteiice whlrh t> doo«£a tbft aodnr- 
stnrt^llri;?: faniiMk ia feppHed to any Uiloj^, however 
tnv inl, vfUMi in Ute «miilk«t depw Olfetidt out umlfff 
str.F,fl«riiiM th* conduct of children to ibflrcfori- on«ti 
fi"-lt*h, bni nMt aJhtvr4 mill m r t fo ei^F9utf, wNtdti Km 
sacit ii!3ly or Hnoiiki ililMgv iliftT ar^ oppTi#bd lu dfur 
jorli:' j»ji'(iiAi- \\ [n afr#Hr<f for ii man E<j j;»<>niuadi!! aiMi€licr 
tOdu lllHt whICb \w \n l"kt nirc:uiiJ<iliH*S1PHHlJd*»yfirt, 


But grant that thoae can cd&qner,thase can cheat, 
*Tto phraae ehewrd to call a villain great; 
Who wickedly to wise or madly brave 
la but the more a fiwi, the more a knave— Pops. 
It to prepMlsreas fbr a man to expoae hlmaelf to tha 
ridicuto of others, and then be angnr with thoae who 
will not treat him r ea p a ct fttlly ; *^ a prepeetereu» 
desire of things in themsdves Indlflerent men fiirego 
the ei^Joyment of that hamdness which thoae thliMi 
ara iaatnimimtal lo ohcalB.^— Bbbulst. 



Ai epiiheta to deaignale the rtijiriicT#*r nf ihr pewon, 
they seem to rise in decree: Uie irreltffntm* H negai- 
live ; the profane and mqrioiu iiffl pciidiim ; Ihe tni- 
ter being much stronger than Xi ir funuer- The fi^ui 
of the Latins, fromTr* and fAnumt t e. pntmt a/«M, 
far from the temple, were those ntji tn!il«iea> wbn w«fu 
not permitted to take any part Ui the surea myMerfes 
and rites, whence by a natural roiiwtitisiK* rbose who 
despised what was sacred. A It nii^ii wln^ are nut post- 
lively aauated by princlpleB o( r^ryi^lun Jirfl aT^ijeimu ; 
• An officer of the anny In Roniao Callwllclc Mimtrfe^ 
would be afraid to pass for an irrrligioHji iiielii if hr 
should be seen to go to bed wUltout rjOtfriii!; up Lit 
devotions.*— Addisoh. Who, II we LnrlcKle all sucii 
as diow a disregard to the outwaxd ohwrvniifcii of 
religion^ fbrm a too numermiji cliu^: prafamtif ui4 
im»t«ty are however of a still mon MiK>ufl tt&hjt**; 
they consist not In the mere akii^n*-!? nf rvnard lur nii 
gion, but in a poBittve conteiiifA of it an^ *3pf.a tml- 
rage against its laws ; the fmfane mun itntktM wbm l« 
sacred as if it were »r»/siM ; ' Th*se havp cavwd the 
weak to stumble and the profane tn blEwpTi^inflt *»ffieiid- 
Ing the one and hardening the ^ n tir r.' ^So eo n . W hat 
a believer holds In reverence, atid uet^fs with awe. In 
pronounced with an air of indlflbntm « li^vltj, Aj»d 
as a matter of oommon diseouTse, kry a »r^4ii# man ; 
he knowing no difference between ncrm ntd pn^fane ; 
but as the former may be coTiverted Into a wuff « tif 
•candal towards others- * Ply, yu pntfaM; If tioi^ 
draw near with awe.'— Yocufl- Tin* iiupiawt man h 
directly opposed to the piout m&n ; lliti rmriiifjr in l^lk-d 
with (^fiance and rebellion hanim\ h\* Alaker, aa lEi*^ 
latter is with love and fear; uv& Himipr clitm^, whtlr^ 
the latter prays; the former b bloated iviUi pride luid 
conceit: tms latter is Aill of Iruinilliy arid tiAt nbnm- 
meut: we have a picture of titc former in tivs tk'^llf^ 
and of the latter in the ssLnti' Wh^n a^plkid to 
things, the term irrtUgioms ^L^rrn^ lo Lm^ iNMiir.'vviint 
more positively opposed to ri'iiEjum an irrHi^umx 
book is not merely one in vfiikh m^^ a r^ rt^Uf ion, 
but that also which is detrimt:aiiU ut r^Uifm;!^ «nrh as 
skeptical or licentious writlim: ilie vrofittLi in ibim 
case is not alwavs a term of n^proiif h, hal \m cmpkiynl 
to distinguish what is expressly flplrltuat in lu? usture, 
from that which Is temporal : ihc Jiistnry of Miiona Ih 
lirv/ane, as distinguished ftont Lljri^A^roJ lil^tury ovn- 
tained in the Bible: the writiniz^ nf tiie hcallivns are 
altogether profane as distlnf;Ni.(kiird fruni the riHfml 
writings of Christians, or the Ij^'boirrs In iJlvin-j Reve- 
lation. On the other band, m li«n wc tpenk nf a jr^rt*- 
/«« sentiment, or a profane ji^he, pn»/*iii* ll|», niul 
the like, the sense Is personal aiid repromrbfiil ; ' No- 
thhsg is vrtf/oM that serveih bi holy thing*-— R«liur. 
imp%ouM is never applied but ta wimt lq ppnKMinl, and 
(n the very worst sense; an impkan* thaughi, nn ^4- 
j»(9M wish, or an impieme vimv are tlic fruit* of mi 
impione mind ; 

Love's great divinity mality maintnins 
Weak tmpioiu war wIlIj an immnrul G»d- 


Tertwe9r\M Saxon; perjnr'^ Is I*iiUrt; Uie iirejMM'- 
Oon/0r and »«r are both priimiive, and th^ wi^fiJi 
signify llteraify to swear conlmry \n tlw iruHi ; Unii i», 
liowever, not their only dlsiiiiction : in /arnmear ts 
Applied to all kinds of oaths; m pfrjurf. U ei]k|i)ij>'ed 
^nly for such oaths as have t»ii ndrnfiLiHtered by Uii> 
civil magistrate. ^ ^ ^ ^ 

A soldier foreweare himself whi* bn-aki hiN mth of 
alleciance by desertion ; and n stjiijun /ariw^ar^ hnn- 
eeir who takes an oath of aitogiance U; lila Majesly 
Which he afterward violates . 

False as thou art, and more itian fiil«p/Lrrf tfi^rn ! 

Not sprung fW>m noble b\otki, nor £oddaw bom : 

Why should I own 1 what wone Lave 1 ttf fear T 

A man perjures himself in a court of Uw wlio §vrtnn 
to the truth of that which he kn^tw* lo be falH! ; ' Tho 
common oath of the Scythiun wm by iIm? fword and 
the Are, for that they accounted ihaee two npecml 
divine powers which should work v^nnefttKie m ih^ 
•«5«r«r«.'— SFtHsaa. Ftfrtuftmr ie used oniy iti ibe 
proper saoM: perfwre nay N oaed fliurftUve^ witb 

Fi^ifjird t«p lovi-Tv* vows ; be wb4 4«Kitt hh iiiliUUi to 
wlieui Iw bfw plc^igc^ hLfl affbcilnti l>i a pcrjUFtd man; 
Ae BORfl, for *vcr Ittave tbla listpv)' "pJ"t!i^ I 
Fatptrjvd lovets iiave no mM^Wtuti iut^-^hmm. 
fbriwBflr uid pfr^«rt ■« tba acts t»r ic^dlviduals; 
<H^i»rjit fN>itj Uw LaUn nU»r»«fifi sifcnltii^ to make to 
fiffsmmar ." a ptrjurri man baa aU iho f ihlt upon hlm- 
s^f ; tnit be wbo )■ tminrMud abaiteB his guilt with tlio 

They Were n^^m^d , 
tialoolin and Donallii^iL, tbe ^ug> two soni, 
Are Btole aw^y and fled.— Sfljjcsraiat 


/>FPiL in old GeniiM i«/«A Sa^oft rferf, Welah 
diAftt^^ FreprJi ^iad^J«, Ilftllaii ^<4ri^i^, DuLLh iagfdel^ 
ijrerk ^i-i^aXaf^ from iviiW>>.t^* W> tracluce, slgnifles 
|yroprrty a calumnbtor, and b AlWKy« lakrn In the bad 
!Kiu«, For ihti tplrtt whtcti Inciigm lo evtJ, uid tempts 
ini?n tbrongb tlie riwdbim of tit*'ir €vil passions; 
dtinon^ ill Littn d^rmitn^ Greek {U{^i..»r. from Mw to 
know, liiifnitiie^ one kmj^wjng. that is, hnvlnf nreter 
natural kisftwletlie, and it URon etttier In i bad or 
ln>4>d scjue for the powar tbat acn wilhi^n uf and eon- 
LroM our sctioiiii. 

Sificf The dj-rit* la representiid M Vtic fnther of all 
wlckudj:ie9i,a^>ii4 bnv^ bevn c^^/nriffttid with the 
nnm? tliM fenda? kt« jironoundlntSon Iti f.imiliardls- 
cnuvtK (tlTeneivs to ibt* criii.!fieiicd em ; wliiio demon Is 
A term of inditft::reni EtpfiUcutkim, tbai is cj:>mmonly 
i^taMLithiied In itd ist«ad to drt^i^oute dtti^r n good Of an 
evil aplfiu 

Aiit^inig Jeir? and Cbfintiuns Hie iHrm d^^nim la taken 
dUvitvs U\ a bad seiiA; E>ijt Hmj Grf?trfc:i< H^d Romans 
uucler^tciiHl by the word dtemt^s nny ppint <jr genitti 
^ood or evil, but partlcuiaciy the good spirjE ot guardian 
ang^j], who wu supposed to acMifHitaiiy n man from 
Jdii birth. Sociatea pfiifeMsi to bi- afwavt under the 
dirtction of aoch a^drntin und bb ii[anj[ile has been 
f(»lluwed by oOict healhen pliiVf^sopricrs [mrticularlf 
tbc»e *>f the Platontet seeL lUtnc^ tJn' <ih of these 
itmw in ofdlnaiy dlKOUiWt the <iet>il l^» ing always 
cousiuIvr«l ns the wiperoaUiral Mem, \%l\o, by the 
divliic pcrmkwltjn, acta on the henfii nfi*] ininds of 
nifu; but 9 dmun la applM jsenerally and Indefinite 
Ln Lbe neii^ tifatiy spirit. Ttie ittpit U ^mil In prover- 
btfll dlfCrtUtii« to bo in siicb Onnifii as |h contrary to 
tlifl wtsh ; Uit; iffifti*ii of Jealnnsiy ia«ii(f to p*iasen the 
mind tbiu h nUof^eiUvT fs^ftu^ awny wiUt ifiat passion. 
Men wbo AVJib to bnve crwJii for uio*:e c-^'ncss thaA 
ihiev pifl«f^. msd to throw iltfi tond of em't off them- 
■Klves, flUribiitf? to ilie dffF*f a pflt|wtiiiiiJ i^Jideavour to 
dr^w ilitfirt into tbo eomiuiMlwn of crbuM; 'The 
eo^Hiiica we ar# to oonti'/td witli nrt nia men but 
liftr »£f .*— Ti L LOT! ON. Wherever the itr m,m of discord 
lius got adjnittan«;t there 1j a farewell m all the com- 
fort* of eoctni life; ' My fiood rfniwa, wlii> Mt at my 
liubt baml dminft ibe conne of this wlwite vMon, 
oba^rrlng In mn u l«uniliiB 'l*'alf* l*^ i<^1*^ ^'^^^^ glorious 
companyi told me he lil^bly appmfed of ibat generoui 
ardour with whlcli 1 B(it:m(»d irwisport'^d '— Addisoji. 


A kerftiik In itM? malr^taUle^ of *j?ret^ fu. Hetero- 
difz J , ilic fekiMm4tiik l» Uie autlior w promoter of 
3chLit%. the irciarian or Mrctniyia tbe iiic^inberof a 
jf^f ; ihc iiMifriitcr ie oue wIjo 4ijitfntt frmn the estab- 
lU^ment^ and Uii? m^ncomformitt one wliq does not 
cQwform. to U>c rBiabli#hns.?nt. A man is a heretick 
oaty for matte rs of faith and doctrine^ hut he is a 
sckifmdiick kti mAtirrii of dL^ct^skine and pr^ietice. T)M 
hrrvhck therefore it tiol aTwajB a jfifcurrr.u^ic*. nor the 
wcMi^naiick a Aereiiek. Whticver holds tlrt doctrines 
thai &TV romjijfm to the HoTisun {:';Lilii>JH:k and the 
feforniwl C tin relies, t* urYt a j^rriicJt In iIp<" Protestant 
Ktijn? of the word; nlthongh Ihj mny In rjmny outward 
foroialdlcn be a jcki^MAtkk. The Caliiiiuts are nol 
h<:rBti€ks^ tidt tlMi'V are a>r the nioit |inrt ffMj^atieks: 
on tin? citlier band, tTi*rre are many ni'^iMbers of the 
latabNahm^nt, who bold though thay tto not avow 
htTdiml notitma. 

• vy e Aliba Glmtd ; ^' Diable, dtm^Q ^ 

Cnthnlt^'h ChijTCli, or the whoJc body of Chrwri^i^ 
jK»ldiii( iJie Mime fuiadaaieDtaJ |Ktji<:Iiilt>9; * WIjpq a 
FAfusi uneii Lii# w«d 4er«iie** lie gmcrally jnennjt 
Proifswnla, when a rnifeslaiftt usee the word, hv 
triuzrmUy mean* ^ti>' fR^r*i>M wMuWy and cnowniioqaly 
ottKtnato hi rLjiittaiiieiitaJ errtmr>/— Wj^rra. Bin iht 
MAif^iaCffit fttal jf^cfarj^dit are corisidi^red; ai fiicli wilh 
ri«ftcil to |«rtir<*lflr cKtablUliGd ti£Mjj« or Litrmism^ 

*cUqo. Bod Uw *£A«flifliicA Iw an aieriL w(ni Rpiitii f(jr 
fitot^ir Ja Hii nwa liiduidtjol ca^iactiy : diie fectwi^ift 
dom mil eirtre«fX perftw-ni b pwtt he aicieiv bukl^ rt 
f million ; lie rtoM not divide miy tiling iiloWlf, hJir 
b^B|iifl ihat which i^ &in:ady rui or dMd'rd. TJi» 
M4£mfic4, thciefofie, lakes upon liiiiMtti thy iriiaN 
DKtni mpon^LbUiEy of iha tcJtUm ; bitl ihe ,fM£ai-rflt^ 
doa ODI n(«««n|y lalit^ bti active part in Ui« oh nAiire* 
ofhli. *«e whatever guili aiSacJuii lo fckitm aiiacij^'tf , 
ip Uw jcAuKAfia , he la A xiMnl&ry agc?uL wh^ nci^i 
rmra ah ftrror>e(ni!) priricipie, II nut ao itnciirlatiaa Umi 
ncr : ihe MtcttriitK at nficu an Involiicitiiry aavnl lif* 
rvlliiwi iliai it> which he hailic«-n iiiii|(feniafiy attached 
It ii poKibiQ, thereftirt, tn boi a frjiijfma/icJtt and rii>i a 
##£fdrtaB; u ilerj to he a f^ciiman, und uot a *rAjj- 
mHiii:&, Tho« pn3fc*?>r>d inrjTutHj^ni of Oni e^rabtiRii- 
tncai wto Bftfeci tliff iMk of evftos^Hcai, nnd wL^h to 

EnfiH EMion ihfl Church the pecEihAriTW of the Cfttvin 
lie* d^KrtrliiK-, and to higrKU iheir oivn mrwlf^ rtmJ 
IbniM juift itA dacipnne, ftfe jtAt^dtidtj, but not ae? 
UW«j ^ ' Th* MfkimmaiickA tiaintb i^ie awtf^t pcact; 
of our thurthZ—HoHTEL, On the oilicf liaud, tiuiii< 
wtoti by binli Biid cducaOoQ arg atlaciwi*! *fj a tect. aru 
fA-tdmaiir, hat Hot miw^yt ackitmaiitMi! : *ln tim 
htm Pie , if Sir t^amtid LiiJtPi one ofCi^imwiHi^B olficfr?. 
By Lief tith*Hfv<.(<i f^i rnucii of ibv chamrter of t/ie ttc- 
UrnTj, Uiai lie t^ Mkl lo liavt! writi^i tir iHjtj^uii liia poecn 
fcl Uii* linie.'— JoHFHoifp Ci>iie4.'iii:ientlyt idkAwmoii^i: 
i» a lurni of rai^rh tmtm n^pTvncli ihaii j«fairtA^. 

Tlte MfA.u7HAtn;k^ni\d ffctartart havK a reference in 
• ny «»mhlit<h^ bridy of Ciiri^tinn* {if any couniry ■ 
^j diitAnt^ h a t(?mi apptif alil^] ottiy t^> Lb*; irkhfthit ' 
*jiin of Great Urnaln, an^t t-arjoit rein Lion utily u^ 
11*1! eiulilkMJjed t.:(>Ufch of Eiiciatid : tt liickidcw iK>r 
oiiSy ^iit>m wlKi have IndtvidMFtKy aod p^r^rinnJIy >p- 
jumucfti the aoci/inufl of Un? iTinm h, bui ihono whn 
are iji a liaiti of rfiif^f of dirfcrtftice fioni ic. !>«- 
#<'»iif r^ itre not iiGc^wftFliy eilhef Fdu^rmattrls m a^c 
tmnmmftfoi Briiidh Euniaii CatbDlicks, an4 ilu: Privliy 
lvl«u fjf SqotlBjid. nre Jid diM^nUtrt, (Uthou|;li ilr*y 
w Ibi! revtxr«(^ of whal h utidbtEioad by itAumafici 
and ftetaritm: U k equaUy ctear thai a\] Mi:A*tmm.ti<ki 
and fFctarians are ni>L jBrijjfftacT-f, e>c?Bii.-w uvtiry q*ra 
lilMJii^ conim unity nf ChriBtl^ii«, ad ovtf ibo win id, 
li#ve iiDd jfuiividLinJi, or Ai^jjiiier lnodita of hiiiiviiluiili 
mmuf \\wum!\\4!9 tip aijainnt ihein; ilic torfli titt- 
tftitrr b^itt^ lit A cfcai meaiurf^ iwiliiiiraJ, it may bt' 
applj^l iiidivl(iua;]y i>r gft-nerally wiiliout convevhiE 
any irt4.'a of reprDflch ; ^Qf ihe di^'ffTttfnr, S^tiiVdid 


any 1..^. ,ti lK^„^.^^Ml.„, ,ji njc ftt/ifrmfrir^ i?vrn\ {iii} 
rjfji wtili lo infringe ijje toifccaiioti, but ha oppo*.'d 
Ih^^ir eiicti>stf hmr ntis/-^oiifi*ciK. The aune jouy be 
Mid of mtnt^Kfvrmitt, whlci* Im a nmn imcLai lerm, 
Jnrfo*l|Rj|} (jii[y such an do nni r«(/flftrt to mum t«ii- 
btifiht'il ftf II lit inn ni rt-Ji^sion ; * WaMi is at ieasf one t»f 
tha ffw poeie with ivhom yotiUi and ignornnrp uinj It 
•flfi-ly pEeJwed ; and hopny fvjti that rvAAL-t be, vehow^ 
jnJurf Is dti»p<w«t, by hi» verges or htfl nnw, by hoiiAtc 
hhn ig all liill hJi •onc&a/i-nwily^^oniTftoN, Coil- 
^qTiflfiily, ali menibeft of the Romitli rbiirch, or of 
Uw Kifli of IroUnnd. tire euiuded frtjtn Ihe isitniij^r 
of n^^tmfvrniiiUi- whUr. on the oih«!f hand, aii 
ElriiLMibf^rn Hibjpcij, aot ndbiTLnst^ to Uu^i^ txxu formi, 
luid ai Uie §a]i» tJme renouncing ibe ftfiiabtiphed fimu 
Of lli<'}r coonfTj, Qff of tlii* number, aimmi? wttotn mAy 
ho fri^k.>n«l Independent*, Prefhyi^^rlan?, Ba;Hi?is, 
Uuaiwrfli, Merr^idtiit^, anit ail rtther vath stct^ u hjivi 
DMii jbmiod *lnte ihij reftmnaUun. 

flttera4»tf, from tlie Grf*lt fnpwt and ^gfj]^ jijifnlfif* 
EiKjiiieror adlmiri*ii! d.ictrin*'^ kfrffy, from the iin^h 
a^pnrir a choice, vigni A«mi an ^iitniuji 4uk>ntod by indlvi- 
duaL ?lioice. 

• Tif be of a liijfereni jie^nuapi^ir^n ii A^t/*"o*fi?ry . lo 

* YMi? Rdutood 1 " HAcM^ue, bMrodoiA.'* 

have a fUik of one*! own to tovty; the UUr^itn 
characterizM the opinioiM Amned ; th« kerwwSuS- 
terizn the Individual fonning Um onlntonTt^BjS^ 
rodozf eztota indepeodenay and for it«elf ; • All wronc 
nociooa in religion are ranked under the general name 
ot heterodox.*— GoLDino. Tbe kerttm seu Itseir ud 
against others; * Meter odoziee, fkise doctrines, yea. 
and hgreeita.vMf be propagated by prayer as weU as 
preaching.'-Bui.L. As aiT dirtoion supposes errour 
cither on one side or on both, the wor& keterodoxv 
S^^JfTf^v*'* «PP"«* oolr to human opinions, and 
jrlctly In the sense of a false opinion, formed in dis- 
Unction from that which is better (bunded: but the 
rormer respects any opinions, important or otherwise ; 
ine latter refers only to matters of importance: the 
k^TMy is therefore a fundamental errour. There has 
Jeen mneh heterodoxy in the Chrtadan world at aU 
tS^ »nd among these have been heresiee denying 
the plainest and mo« serious troths which have beeiS 
icknowledged by the great body of Christian ainoe 
tue Apos t l es . 

An these terms eipress some token or sign of what 
tolo come ; eme%, in Latin jniw», probably comes from 
ihe Greek oioiuu to think, because It is what gives 
rise to much conjecture; prornoetiek, in Greek mor- 
i^rruDhr, ttom upoywSmcM, to know before, signUea the 
.^ign by which one Judges a thing before hand, because 
^frognmettek to rather a deduction by the use of the 
iiodersiaoding ; the nrooago to the sentfanent of jrrs- 
^aynv* <w «*>• thtof by which one preeagee. 

The MICH and nrognoetiek in both drawn from ex- 
Ternal obtecto ; the preeage to drawn from one's own 
feelings. The omem is drawn from objects that have 
connexion with the thhig they are made 

._^ ; It to the fruh of tbe imagination, and 

rests on supentition : the prognostiek, on the coniaiy, 
i« a sign which partakes in some degree of the quality 
of the thing denoted. Omens were drawn by the 
'leatheos from tbe flight of birds, or the entrails of 
^eaM; »Avee dant omina dira.^— Tibullub. And 
flentimes from diffimnt incidents; thus Ulyasee. 
'hen landed on hto native island, prayed to Junlt^ 

ihatjie would give him a double'sten by whicThe 
■ "~*^ '■" '-'•-- ^ .. . rmltted to slay the 

..light know that he should be permftwa lo siay ine 
-^uiiora of hto wife ; and when he heard the thunder. 

aad saw a maUsn supplicating the gods fai the temple 

he took these foresMiw thr* »-- -C— -^ * -^?^' 

proceed to p«t in execution 
t^wtefcre considered as a snpematunU'slfm sei 
pnttariiir purpose; * A sIgnaJ mmk stopp'd the 
Irtst.'— PoFB. ProgmoetUka, on the other ha 

icaiug tne gods in the temple, 
thM he should taumedtoiely 
ion hto design; the mmen was 
' ^-— iral sign sent Ibr a 

7— ~ — • ««^». r^wf^msftcmmf on ins ouier oand, are 
■iiscovered only bv as acquaintance with the oMecta 
ju which they extol, as the prognoelicke of a mortal 
blisease are known to none so weO as the physician : 
lu^tiT'ariS^' ^^ ****™ ** ««nP«t are beat known 

Though yonr prognottUke run too fest. 

They must be verified at last.— 3wirr. 
Ill an extended sense, the word omen to atoo applied to 
oiijccts which serve as a sign, or enable a person 
lit draw a rational inference, which brings it nearer lo 
sr-nee to the prognoetiek and the preeage: but the 
umen nay be used of that which toeitber good or bad. 
ihe prognoetiek mostly of that which to bad. It is 
iin MiM of our success, if we find those of whon we 
have to ask a favour in a good humour; • Hammond 
^vonld steal from hto feUows into places of hto privacy. 
tiTrjre to say his prayers, omene of hto future pacific 
ri rnper and eminent devotion.'--FBLL. The spirit of 
<Ji>wontentwhich pervades the countenances and die- 
' ' ^"'■•wB people to a prognoetiek of some popular 
^'rOimotion ; 

Careftil obaerverB 
By mnprogn»8ticke may foretell a shower.— Swirr. 
Presage, when signifying a senthnent, to commonly 
n I piled to what to unfevourable ; * I know but one way 
■M fortifying my soul against these gloomy preeages 
ti It to, by securing to myself the proiectkm ofthat 
h Ing wlio dtoposes of events.'— Annisoir. But when 

I .ken for that by which one ^ssa^w, H to understood 

I I vourably, or in an indifibrent sense. Tbe qntoknesB 
«i4 powen dtocoverable In a boy to semetimesavrs. 
J Vc of hto future greatness ; 

ENOUSfi STNOfmiEtr. 

Prmtf of ▼leUMry.^Mu.TOM. 

JSugmty In Freoch Mmgnrtrt Latin mugmrnmt eomet 
from •9i» a bird, aa an angary waa oHflnally, and at 
an timet, principally drawn ftom the sonf , tbe fllfht, 
or other actiona of birda. The tmgurtum of the 
Latins, and the oiAvivutt of the Greeks, was a species 
of divlnaiion practised 1^ the anfmrs, who professed 
to foretell events, either from the heavenly phenomena, 
from the chattering or flight of birds, ftom the sacred 
chickens, according to the manner of their eating their 
meat ; from qaadnipeds, such as wolves, foxes, goats, 
Ifcc. ; or, lasthr. from what they called the dirm^ or the 
accidents whlcb befeU persons, as sneezing, stumbling, 
apUling salt, or meeting particular ol;|ecU ; whence 1^ 
a natural extension in the meaning of the term. It has 
been used toiigniiy any eoi^Jecture respecting Aiturity. 
F m mg$, in French prdwMf^ ftom the Latin vr* and 
Mfifflobe instinctively wise, signUles to be thus wise 
•font what la to come ; forwi^de Is compomided of 
/9r«, and the Saxon Mtmmf and the English kid, to 
oObr or to declare, signliying to proooonce on Auuri^; 
MsJksm signlAes to serve as a token ; ^#rl«iM<,ln Laon 
ptrttnd^y compounded of ptr fat pro and (cmis, signi- 
nsp to set or show forth. 

To •ugw signlfles either to serve or make use <tf as 
9n tmgwrjf; to forked* and prttage Is to form a oon- 
oluslon in one's own mind : to h«ukem or porUmd Is to 
aerve as a sign. Persons or thina mugur m pngage ; 
persons ovlffortbodt ; things only httolun or portmd. 
Jtugwrimg la a calculation of soom) ftiture event. In 
which the imagination seems to be aa much concerned 
as the understMding: prtaging Is rather a ooncluskm 
or deducUoo of what mav bs from what Is ; it lies in 
the understanding more than In the Imagination : fov- 
hiding lies altogether in the imagination. Thinp are 
said to *0to*sii, which present natural stgna; thoaaav 
aaU to ^ortMui, which present extraordinaiy or super- 
Batural signs. 

It uHgnrt in for the prosperity of a country or a 
•tate when Its wealth has Increased so as to take away 
the ordinary stimulus to industry, and to Introduce an 
inordinate love of pleasnre ; ' There Is always an 
tmgwrjf to be taken of what a peaca Is likdy to be, 
firom the preliminary steps that are made to bring It 
about.'— Boan. We rmmge the Aiturt greatneas of 
a man ftom the indications which he gives of possess- 
ing an elevated character ; * An opinion has been kmg 
ecmcelved, that quickneai of invention, accuracy of 
judgement, or extent of lukowledge. appearing before 
the usual time, pruage a short liK.'--JoBRsoM. A 
distempered mind Is apt to ftrtboda every ill from the 
most trivial circumstances; *What conscience /0f«- 
ImIm, revelation veriAes, assuring us that a day b ap- 
pointed when God will render to every man according 
«o his works.*— Blaie. We see with pleasuro those 
actions In a child which betoken an higenuous temper ; 

AD more than common menacea an end: 

A Maze hetoknu brevity of lifo, 

As if bright emben should emit a flame.— Tomio. 
A mariner sees with pain tbe darkness of the sky 
which ^•rtead* a storm ; 

Bklird in the wbig*d inhabitants of the air, 

What auspices their notes and flights declare, 

O ! say— lor all religious rites portend 

A happy voyage and a prosp'rous end.— DaTDiir. 
The moralist vngwra no good to the morals of a nation 
from the lax discipline which prevails In the education 
of youth ; he preoagt* the hmb of independence to 
the minds of men in whom proper pcincl|Mes of subor- 
dination have not been early engendered. Men 
timtn f9robod0 the misfortunes which happen to 
bat they ctteaa fo r oiod t evUs which never com( 

Heaofaverbalc uBUimiilcall Miqffctorityioottt: 
wrornostieoU^ ftom the Greek vpeyivtfmw to kaOW 
beforehand, to bode or imailne to one's self befors 
hand, denotes the actkm of foeltng rather than speak 

Ingaf thina 

>bree«U II the most generalhi Hs 

In Its application ; we/ 

prodiet that which Is common or uncommon : propko- 
eUa are for the most part Important ; foretetting is an 
ordinary gift; one forotolU by a simple calculattoa or 

Above the rest, the sun, who never UeSj 
FsretsUs tbe change of waatbar in tbe sklea. 


To predict tni propheof are extraordtoary gifts ; ooa 
predieu either by a suporloor degree of intellhence, or 
by a supernatural power real or supposed ; * The con- 
sequences of suflMng the French to establish them- 
selves In Scotland, are prodUtod with great accuracv 
and discemmenL'— RoaBETsoN. * In Christ they all 
meet with an invincible evidence, as if they were not 
prodietionot but after retaikms ; and the penmen of 
them not prophets, but evangeUsts.'— South. Ona 
ptopkeowuf means of Insplratkm real or soppoaedi 
An ancient mmar promkooiod ftom bence^ 
» BehoM on Latlan sbocea a ftrelgB prinea 1** 

Men of dtaeemaiem and expertaiee easily /»rsitll tka 
events of undertakiitts wluch (Ul under their noHce. 
The priests among the heathena, like the as uolo gei a 
and conjurers of more modem times, pretended to srt- 
dia events that eflbcted nations and empires. The 
gift of propkoef was one among the number of tba 
supernatural gifts communicated to the prfaUliva 
Christians by the Holy Ghost * No argnmsnts made 
a stronasr impression on these Pann converts, than 
the predictions relating to our Savkour, In those oU 
propbetiek writings deposited among the hands of tba 
greatest enemies to Chrlstlanl^r.*— Adoison. 

Prediction as anoun Is employed for both the voba 
foretoU and prodiet ; It Is therefore a term of leas value 
thanproyAsey. We speak of a prediction being veri- 
fied, and a ^ropAaeyftiifilled: theyr«Met<eiwof ahna- 
nack-makets respecting the weather are as seidom 
verified as the jrrepAwiM of vidooarles and enthusiasiP 
are ftOfilled respecting the death of princes or tba 
aflUrs of governments. Toprof««sf»ealelsanactof 
the underMandlng; It Is guided 1^ outward s ymptu m a 
as a rule ; it is only stimulated and not guided wf out 
ward oliglects ; a physician prognooticmtoo the crisis of 
a disorder by the symptooM discoverable In the patient; 
c-Who that should view the small beginnings of soom 
persons oouki \moi^o» m prognooHcoto those vast In- 
creases of fortune that liavo afterward foUowed them. 



To foretdL, compounded oi fore and teU ; predict, 

flpom prm and dieo ; prophoof^ In French proDhetieer^ 

Latin frophetuo^ Greek iroo^rc^w, all •Isnlty to tell, 

expound, or declare what Is to happen, and convey tlie 


Coi^ectwrt^ in French Mi^sctars, Latin eonioctrnm^ 
ftxKn collide at con nodiodo to throw togeuier, sig- 
nifies the thing pot together or framed in the mind 
without design or foundation ; ompposUiont in French 
suppofition^ from ouppomo, compounded of ouk and 
pono to put in the place of a thing, signifies to put 
one's thoughts in the place of reality ; omrmise, com- 
pounded of our or saA and wuoe^ Latin mioous parti- 
ciple of mitto to send or put forth, baa an original 
meaning similar to the former. 

All these terms convey an idea of something in tba 
mind independent of the reality ; but Mi^aetare ia 
founded less on rational inference than onppooition ; 
and ourmioe leas than either ; any circumstance, how- 

ever trivial, may give rise to a coi^utwre ; some rea- 
sons are requinte to produce a onppooition; a parti- 
cular state of feeling or train of thinking may of Itself 

create Konrmioo. 

Although the same epithets are generally appUcalrfa 
toall these terms, vet we may with propriety aay that 
a conjecture Is idle; a onppooUion ftuse; a s«rsi«ss 

Con^ectwreo are employed on events, their rsusei. 
consequences, and contingencies ; * In the casting of 
lots, a man cannot, upon any ground of reason, bring 
the event so much as under cswjecturw.*— South. Bmp- 
position b concerned in speculative points; * This ia 


CMDraa iiilUlfMlliy ttpon mmmWm, tint if m 
betmektolmponlbletolMnbe.*— TiLLonoM. Sur- 
wiue ki employed on peraonal concerns; *To ^ go 
prlvmte tmrwuse* wberebv the thing ifl not made better 
or wotm: If jnat and allowable reaKma might lead 
them to do as they did, then are these censures fn»- 
trate.*— HooKSK. The secret measures of goremment 
give rise lo various um^tmret : all the mfpotitwu* 
which are formed respecting comets seem at present to 
lUl short of the truth : the behaviour of a person will 
often occasion a turmise respectinc his intoitions and 
proceedhigs, let them be ever so disguised. Antiqua- 
rians and etymologists deal much In c«njuture* ; they 
have ample scope afforded them for awsfrting what can 
be neither proved nor denied; * Persons of stadions 
and contemplative natures often entertain themselves 
with the history of past ages, or raise schemes and am- 
jectwrf upon futurity.*— Addison. Religionists are 
pinsed lohuUd many ttifftitiont of a doctrinal na- 
ture on the Scriptures, or, more properly, on their own 
partial and forced interpretations of the Scriptures ; 
'Even in that part which we have of Die journey to 
Canterbury, it will be necessary, in the following Re- 
view of Chaucer, to take notice of certain defects and 
Inconsistencies, which can onlv be accounted for upon 
the supfontUm that the work was never flnlsbed by 
tiie autnor.'— Ttbwbitt. It Is the part of prudence, 
as well as justice, not to exp r m any ntrmittt which 
we may enierufai, either as to the character or conduct 
of others, which may not redound to their credit ; 
* Any the least amrmite of neglect has raised an aver- 
sion In one man to another.'— -South. 


Cni^setarnif, to the same sense as before (vide Gni- 
jsctere), in nearly allied to guMsimg and Hvimimg ; 
gnets. In Saxon and Low German jisMn, is connectad 
with the word /Amc, and the German gtist^ Ac spirit* 
signifying the action of a spirit; dto^ fhnn the Latin 
ihrimu and Dtu» a God. signifies to tJiinIc and know 
as IndependenUy as a God. 

We Mnjeetars that which may be; *Whenwekxik 
upon such thinfi as equally may or may not be, human 

tason can then, at the best, but eonjeetmn what will 
be.*~Soirni. We guut that a thing actually Is or 

Incapable and shaUow famocents ! 

You eaonoC/MM who caused your fkther's death. 



Dwubtt in French d9MUrj Latfai daWto ftom AiMiw, 
comes fVom Mm and MvaCM,tn tlie i 

our firequentative dMt&t, s^^nlfying to have two opin- 
ions; fiMstte*, in Latin 9iM«tM,fhNnfii«r«, to Inquire, 
signifies to make a question or inquinr: dupnU* fkom 
the Latin ditpuU, or du asunder and^vte to think, rig- 
nifles Uterally to think differently. 

These terms express the act of the mind in staying 
Its decision. The daukt lies altogether In the mind; it 
is a less active fMIng tima queationing or duwuUng : 
by the former we merely suspend decision ; by the huter 

we actually demand proofb in order lo aailst as in de- 
ciding. We may dmtkt in silence ; we cannot miMtun 
or iufmU without expressing itdirectiv or indirectly. 

He who sumesto douku does It with caution; he 
wlx> makes a MMlson throws in difficulties with a 
oonfldenec. ^ 

of conf M enec. DauhU Insinuate themsdves 
into the mind oftentimes involuntarily on the part of the 
■estiMJ are always made with an express 
'e ituH in matters of general interest, oa 
I weU as eoounon snbjiMls; we putti tm 
mostly In ordinary flaatters tliat are of a personal inte- 
rest; duputimg Is no less personal than questio nin g, but 
the HtfmU respects tlie opinions or assertions of 
anotlier; the fuMtsM respects liis moral character or 
qualities; medamkt the truth of a poaltion ; * For my 
part I think the being ofaGod issonttle tobe dM^Csd: 
that I think It is aUnost the only truth we are sure of.* 
-^Anmsoii. We fusstisn the veracity of an anthor; 
Our business In the fMd of fight 
Is not to fusttien, but to prove our might— Pon. 
The existence of mermaids was d»itkui for a great 
length of time : but the testimony of creditaUe persons, 
who have lately seeix them, ought now to put It out oi 
all iauht. When the practkability of any plan Is fue9- 
(Musd, it is unnecessary to enter any fkrther into its 
merits. When tlie authority of the person Is disfnUd^ 
It Is in vain for him to offer his advice or opinion; 
Now I am sent, and am not to dUfuU 
My prince's orders, but to execute. 
The dmkt Is frequently eonllned to the taidlvidQal; 
Ml dMpirff r ' 

We em^ecture at the meaning of a person's actions ; 
we gwsMM that it Is a certain hour. The ematetwing 
is opposed to the fUn conviction of a thing; the /««•«- 
i$ig is opposed to tlie certain knowledge ot a thing; 

And these discoveries make us an confte 
That sublunary science is Iwt /iict«.— DaiOLUi. 

A chOd gu€t»t» at tliat portion of his lesson which he 
has not properly learned; a (kntlftil person employs 
toi^ectwre where he cannot draw any positive con- 

To fue»$ and cai^eetMre both Imply, fur the most 
part, the judging or forming an opinion without any 
grounds; but sometimes they are used for a Judgement 
on some grounds ; * One may guest by Plato's writings, 
that his meanlnc as to the infferiour deities, was, thai 
they who would nave them might, and they who would 
not might leave them alone; out that himself had a 
right opinion concerning the true God.*— Stilumo- 

Now hear the Grecian fhmd, and flrom this one 
C^jectmrt all the rest^-DETDxii. 

To gnus and es^eeiure are tiie natoral aets nf the 
mind: dMM, in its proper sense, is asupemaiural act; 
in thissenoc the heathens afftcted to divime that which 
was known only to an Omntocient Being; and Impos- 
tors in our time presuase to dnmM in mattera that are 
set above the reach of human oomprehenslon. The 
term kr however employed todenoie a spedesof /«w«. 
ing In dUlbrent matten, as to iMm$ the meaning of a 

Walking they talk*d, and fVuitiessIy iiinn*d 

What friend the priesiew by those words design*d. 


We liomkt whetlier we shall be able to succeed; we 
fusstism another's right to interfbra; we dispmls a per 
son's claim to any honour ; we iomkt whether a tUqg 
will answer tlie end proposed; we fussti^n the ntiU^ 
of any one making the attempt; we dispmis the juscioe 
of any legal sentence ; In this application of the terms 
pusti&n and disfU^ the former expresses a leas deci- 
sive Ibeling and actkm than the latter. 

There are many dsubtful cases In medicine, where 
the physician is at a kiss to dedde; there are many 
futstismahU measures proposed by those who are in or 
out of power which demand consideration. There are 
many dispnUkU points between man and man which 
cause much angry feeling and disposition; to dsukt 
every thing is more inimical to the cause of truth, than . 
the readiness to lielieve every thing ; a disposition to ' 
fussti^n whatever is said or done try others, is much 
more calculated to give offence than to prevent decep- 
tion. A disposition to dtsputt vrery thine another saya 
or does rsnders a person very unfit to be dealt witik 

The d^Mkt respects that which we shouhl believe ; the 
suspenss^ thxn the Latin suspensns and suspsndso to 
hang upon, has regard to tiiot which we wish to know 
or ascertain. Wc are in dauht for the want of evi- 
dence; we are In suspsnse for the want of certainty. 
The dsukt interrupts our progrem in the attainment of 
tmth: »Cotild nny rilffirulty have been proposed, the 
r^itjiicFij W'ouiii fiQ^ I t" '-ri ris early as the proposal ; it 
ctmid not liDvf hfl^J n<m- 1" s-atle Into doubL*---9ovm. 
The tAspfntr huiHfli-ft ua m the attainment of our 
objpetf, or ill nut nhoUve-i u* action: the former Is con- 
Dct:lnl printl^ialtj' wJrij ilir iindcrsUnding ; the latter 
tiiit uvoM Utfl tt<.v\ief; h \» ireqiiently a state between 
b'rpc aiul Tt'SF. wv bsvp mir dcmhts about things that 
IiBvt' iiD icsiJTiI m liime : 'G<4d is a wonderful clearer 
cf yht- uiHlf'rwlnnrihhe ; 1r divipates every d»uht and 
tff. ni p\K i II an IrrMtmfil '— A n in son. We are in suspense 
tilHKJt ihiitB^ il»'*i ftf*' if* li.i.rren in future, or that are 
aJxiul iti bt' tbiic ; * The tiutidle of hay on either aide 


J hii (dM ■«*« rfMht tni omU te the Mune pro- 
portkrojwouid keep bun In perpetual tntpeme,* — Addi- 
90H. Tboee are tbe leMt Inclined to ioukt who have 
the moet tboroogh knowleitee of a mibject; thoee are 
tbe leaat expoeed to tbe unpleasant feeling of 9u*f*n*« 
who confine their withes to tbe present; 

Ten days tbe propbet in suspetue remainM, 

Would no man*B fate pronounce ; at last ciHiatrainM 

Bv Itbacus, lie solemnly designed 

lae for tbe sacxifice.— Detdbm. 

Tbe dmib^fkl admits of doobc («. Dntbt, ttupente)': 
tbe tfii^tMM creates suspense. The tf tfnA^ni is said of 
tMngs in which we are required to hare an opinion ; 
tbe imbUus respects erents and things that must speak 
for tbemsehres. In doubtful cases it is sdviseable for 
a judge to lean to tbe side of mercy ; * In handling the 
rigbt of war. I am not wiUing to Intermix matter 
douktfkl with that wbkb to out of rfsnAt.*— Bacoh . 
While tbe tosue of a contest to imkiou*^ all Judgement 
of tbe parties, or of tbe case, must be carefully 
Hto utmost pow*r, with adverse pow^ oppoa*d 
In dubwut battle on tbe plains of bekv'n. 


ft to worthy of remark, bowerer, that doubtful and 
dubious^ being both derivations from tbe same Latin 
words diubito and dubiuM^ are or may be indifferently 
used in many instances, according as it may suit tbe 
verse or otherwise; 
The Greeks with slain Tlepolemus retir*d. 
Whose (kll Ulysses view'd with fUry flr'd ; 
Doubtful if Jove*s great son be should pursue. 
Or pour bto vengeance oo tbe Lycian crew.— Fori. 
* At tbe kiwer end of the room to to be a side-table for 
perMms of great fkme, but dmbiout existence ; such as 
Hercules, Theseus, iEneas, Achilles, Hector, and 
others.'— Swirr. 

Doubtful and dubious have always a relation to the 
parson forming tbe opinion on tbe subject in auestk>n ; 
wuortmim and srscartsiw are epithets wbich designate 
tbe qualities of tbe things themselves. Whatever to 
uncertain may fh»m that very circumstance be doubt- 
ful or dubiouo to those who attempt to determine upon 
tbem ; but they mav bedesignated for their uneorUiHtf 
without any regard to tbe opinions which they may 
give rise to. 

A person's coming mav be doubtfkl or mmeertain ; 
the length of bto stay to oAener described as uncertain 
than aa doubtful The doubtfkl to opposed to that on 
which we Ibrm a positive conclusion ; the itii£cru<a 
to that which to definite or prescribed. The efficacy 
of any medicine to doubtful; the manner of ito opera- 
tion may be utteerUiin. While our knowledge to limit- 
ed, we must expect to meet with many thinn that are 
doubtful; 'In doubtful eases reason still determines 
for tbe safbr ride; especially if the case be not only 
doubtful^ but also highlv concerning, and the venture 
be a soul, and an etnmity.*— South. As every thing 
in tbe world is exposed to change, and all that to future 
to enltrelv above our control, we must naturally ex- 
pect to find every thing mmstCs^ but what we see 
passing before us ; 

Near old Antandroa, and at Ida's fbot, 
1 he timber of tbe sacred grove we cut 
A nd buUd our fleeL uneertmin yet to find 
What place tbe goos for our repose asslgn'd. 


Prtcorioutf fnmi tbe Latin preeariuo and pr$tor to 
pray, signifies granted to entreaty, depending on tbe 
will or humour of another, whence it to applicable to 
whatever to obtained from others. Pruartouo is tbe 
highest specie! of nnceruinty, applied to such things as 
depend on future casualties in opposition to that 
which to fixed and determined by design. The wea- 
tlier to unetrtain ; tbe subsistence of a person who has 
no stated Income or source of living must be prtea- 
rious. It to uneortain what day a thing may take 
place, until it to determined; 'Man, without the pro- 
tcctloa of a superkmr Being, to secure of nothing that 

be eiOoya, and mntmimm of every tUBg ka hopas for.* 

— TiLLOTsoN. There to nothing more /r«e«r<s«s than 
what depends upon tbe favotir of statesmoi ; * Tbe 
frequent disappointments inckient to hunting induced 
men to esublish a permanent property in their flocka 
and herds, in order to susuin tliemaelves in a less jrrs> 

. Bij^cKSTOaB. 

The demwr^ the douht^ and tlie keoiUUon are here 
employed in the sense either of what causes demur^ 
doubly and hetiioUon^ or of tbe states of mind them- 
selves ; the objection^ fh>m ebjieiOf or ob and jacio to 
throw in the way, signifies what to thrown in tbe way 
ao as to stop our progress. 

Demurs are often in matters of deliberation ; doubt 
in regard to roatteri of fkct ; k eti UUion in matters of 
ordinary conduct; and 0lr;0eCMm« in matters of common 
consideration. It to the business of one who gives 
counsel to make demurs ; It to the business of the in- 
quirer to su0{eet doubt* ; it to the iMisiness of all occa- 
sionally to make a hesitation who are called upon to 
decide ; it to the busineaa of those to make objecUono 
whose opbiion is consulted. Artabanes maae many 
domurt to the proposed invasion of Greece by Xerxes ; 
' Certainly the highest and dearest concerns of a tem- 
poral life are innaitely less valuable than those of aa 
eternal ; and consequently ought, without any demur 
at all, to be sacrificed to them whenever they come In 
competition with them.* — South. Doubts have been 
suggested respecting tlie veracity of Herodotus as an 
htotorian ; 

Our doubt* are traitors. 
And make us lose, by fi*aring to attempt 
The good we oft inigbt win.—SuASsntAai. 
It to not proper to ask that which cannot be granted 
without keoilatiom; * A spirit of revenge makes htm 
cum tbe Grecians In tbe seventh book, when they 
ke*itat* to accept Hector's challenge.'— Pora. And 
it to not tlie part of an amiable disposition to make a 
hesitation in complying with a reasonable request : 
there are but fljw things which we either attempt to do 
or recommend to otbera that to not liaMe to some kind 
of an objection, 

A deswr stops the a4)astment of any ptan or tbe 
determination of any question : 

But with rejohiders and replies, 
Long bills, and answers stufTd with Ilea, 
Demur, imparlance, and assoign, 
Tbe parties ne'er coukl Issue Join.— Swirr 
A doubt interrupts tbe progress of tbe mind in eomiof 
to a state of satisfkctkm and certainty: they are both 
appMed to abstract questions or such as are of general 
interest ; ' Thto skeptical proceeding will make every 
sort of reasoning on every subject vsln and fHvokMis^ 
even that skeptical reasoning Itself which has per- 
suaded us to entertain a doubt concerning the a gre e 
ment of our perceptions.' — Bcaai. 

Hesitation and objection are more Individual and 
private in their nature. Hesitation lies moKtly in the 
state of the will ; objection to rather tbe ofbpring of 
tbe understanding. The hesitation interferes wltb 
the action ; ' If every man were wise and virtuous 
capable to discern the best use of time and resolute te 
practise it, it miitht be granted, I think, without he*it^ 
tion, that total liberty would be a blessing.'— Jobhson. 
The objection aflTects the measure or tbe mode of ac 
tion : * Lloyd was always raising ejection* and re 
moving tbem.'— JoBMSoM. 


Dsstttr, in French dtmomrer, L a t i n dsms r art, signHlee 
to keep back ; hesitate, in Latin kmsitetum, partkYple of 
hmsito, a fVequentative from hmro, stgnlfies. fiistto stick 
at one thing and then another; saass, In Lathi paasa, 
from the Greek ir«(». to cease, sonifies to make a stand. 

The Mea of stopping to common to these terms, la 
which signiflcatkMi to added some distinct oollaieral 
Idea fbr each : we ^ssntr fVom doubt or difBeulty ; we 
hesitat* from an undecided state of mind ; we pauo* 
from eircumttances. Demurring to tbe act of an equal : 
we dssiar in giving our assent; keeitating to often tbe 



•ctofanptrioiir; w k*$iUi$ IsghrlogoiireoiiMiit: 
wben a propositioo mppean to be u^JoM we d$mmr In 
■opportinf it on the ground <^ ft* inloatico; *ln order 
to banisli an evil out of the world tnat doe* not only 
produce great uneasiness to private persons, but lias 
abo a very bad Influence on the publick, I shall endea- 
vour to show the follv of itmurring* — Addisoii. 
Wben a request of a dubious nature is marie to us we 
hMitoU In complying with It ; * I want no sollcttatlona 
for me to comply where It would be ungenerous for me 
to refuse; for can I h$9itaU a moment to take upon 
myself the proieetkm of a daughter of CorrelllttsT*— 
If klmotb's Lrrraas or Pumr. Prudent people are 
most apt to d»mur; but people of a wavering temper 
are apt Xahentate: iemurring may be often unneces- 
sary, but it Is seldom injurious ; hesitating is mostly 
iqjurioas when It Is not necessarv * the former Is em- 
ployed in matters that admit or delay; the latttf In 
cases where Immediate decision Is requMte. 

Dewturring and ketiutingnn both employed as acta 
of the mind; ]^ausin£ Is an external action: wedeanir 
and henuu In determining ; we ^oaui Id apeaking or 
doing any thing ; 

Think, O thlnlL 
And ere thoa plunge Into the vast abyaa, 
Pause on^the verge awhile, look down and see 
Thy future mansion.— PoaTiua. 

To semfls (p. Canseimtious) simply keeps as flun 
deciding; the hesitation^ Uom the Latin A««tt«,fie- 
quentaUve of hmrto to stick, signliying to stick first at 
one thing and then another ; the waverings fVom the 
word ««««, signifying to move backward and forward 
like a wave; aod Jluetuatisn^ from the Latin JUutma a 
wave, an bespeak the variable stale of the mind : we 
serupU simply from motives of doubt as to the pro- 
priety of a thing ; we hesitau and wavsr flrom various 
motives, particularly such as aflbct our interests. 
Conscience produces sernptsSf fear produces hesitatum^ 
I producei 

^ ^._duces wavering: a pecson scnqtles lo do 

an action which may hurt his neighbour or oflimd his 
Maker; he hesitates to do a thing which he fears anay 
not prove advantageous to him ; he wavers In bis mind 
between goiM or suying, according as his inclinations 
impel him to the one or the other : a man who does not 
ser^tstomv or do as be pleases wBl be an oflbnslve 
companion. If not a dangerous member of society; 
* The Jacobins desire a change, and they will have h 
tf tbey can ; If they cannot have it by Encllsh cabal, 
tbgr will make no sortof tcrsi^fotohave h by thecabal 
of France.*— BuRKC. He who hesitates only when the 
tfeinf of good is proposed, evinces himself a worthless 
member of society; * The tords of the congregation did 
not kssitais a aMMsent whether they should employ 
their whole strength in one generous eflbrt to rescue 
thdr religion and liberty from fanpendhig destruction.* 
— RosERTSoN. He who wavers between his duty and 
his Incliaatioo, will seldom maintain a long or doubtful 
contest; 'It Is the greatest absurdity to be wavsring' 
and unsettled without ckwhig with that side which ap- 
pears the most safe and probable.'— Aodisoh. 

To /tfct«at« conveys the Idea of strong agHatfcm ; 
to waver, that of constant motkm backward and for- 
ward : when applied In the moral aeose, to Jhutmata 
designates the action of the spirits or the optnlona ; 
to waver la said only of the will or opinions: he who 
Is alternately merry and sad In quick succession is said 
to be Jluetuating ; or he who has many opinions In 
quick successton Is said to JtaetuaU; but he who can- 
not form an oplnioo, or come to a rcaolutioD, la said to 

*■ ftmetuatisns and waverings are both oppoaed to a 
manly character; but the former evinces the uncon- 
trolled Influence of the passions, the total want of that 
equanimity which characterizes the Christian; the 
latter denotes the want of fixed principle, or the n>ces- 
aary declslonof character: we can never nave occasion 
to Jbtetuate, If we never raise oar twpes and wishes 
beyond what Is attainable ; 

The tempter, but with show of seal and love 
To man, and Indignation at his wrong, 
New part puts on, and as to pasaion mov'd 
FtuctMfitsa diiturb'd.— MxLTOir. 

Waean never bawooeaakNitovflMr, If « _ _ 

feel what Is right,and resolve aevertoawarve ftom It: 
* Let a man, without trepidatfcai or umstring^ prooead 
hi disc har ging hia duty.'— Blahu 


Sasiuu algnlfiea the same as In iha preeadtaig 
article; /sltcr or /s«a«raaeaM to sigttliy to eoaBBalta 
/suit or blunder, or it asay ba a fkaqoeatativa of to Ml, 
slgntiying to stumMe; stammer^ ia the Teotonle sUas- 
awm, oooies moat probaUy from the Hebrew OHO 
to obstruct ; stnttsria bat a varlatloo of stasantsr. 

A defect in utterance to the idea which Is coaHwm In 
the sIgnlfkatloQ of an these terms: they difl^ either aa 
to the cause or the mode of the action. With rmrd 
to the cause, a hesitalisn resuhs from the stole of the 
mind, and an Interruptien In the train of thoughts; 
faltsr arises AtMn a perturbed sUto of feeling ; stammer 
and stutter arise either from an incidental ciream- 
stance, or more commonly from a physical defect in the 
organs of utterance. A peraonwoo toBOtlnthehabita 

of publick speaking, or of eoUecttaf hie tboofhts I 
a set fonn, will be apt to hesitate even in feaaular c 
versatton ; he who first addresses a poblkk aase mMy 

win be apt to /Bll«r. Chiklrao who irsl bntai to read 
wiU stammtr at hard worda : and one who has an 
bnpedlmentia hftsspeach wlfistattsr when haattompci 
to apeak in a harry. 

With regard to the naode or degret of the actioB, 
hssitate expremes less than falter: ttarnmm less than 

The sllifatosi diflkulty in attoriM words eonatlti 
a kss it atian ; a pause or the repeHnon of a word may 
be termed hssiiaiing; *To kxk with aoUc t t n de and 
speak wUh hesiut&n Is attainable atwUI; bat th« 
show of wisdom is ridiculous when there is nothing to 
cauae doubt, as that of vatoar when there Is nothing to 
be feared.*— JoHKSOR. To falter suppoaea a fellure 
in the voice aa weU aa the llpa when Uiey reAiae to do 
their oOee; 

And yet was f/fttf famltering tongoe of man, 

Ahnlghty Father f iUent In thy praise. 

Thy works themselvas would loiata general voice. 
Stamwuring and etmttaring are confined prtnclpaQy to ^ 
the uselem moving of the mouth ; 

Lagean Joke 
WDl 9tamm*ring tongoeaand alagg*ring feet produce. 

He whotlasMMTt bringa frnth aooods, hot not the righi 
soonds, without trlala and eflbrla: 1m who stattsra 
remains for soom tima In a atato or agitation wtthoot 
uttering a aoand. 


The ausstian Is the thh« called tai fusatiam, or that 
which is sought for by a ptsstisn ; fosryis hot a vari- 
ation of f««rt, from the verb fH«r« to aaek or Inqaira, 
edifying simply the thing so««ght for. 

QvMCiMu and fosHs* are both pat for the sake of 
obtaining an answer; but the former may be for a 
reaaonaUe or unreasoaaMe caoae; a fofry la moi^ • 
rational fueetian: kOeramay put auesUans from mere 
cariosity; learned man pat ptmsa for tba sake of 


Ask^ cornea from the Saxon asciaMy tow German 
eehen, esehen, German hsischsn^ Danish a^ir#, Ac 
which for the most part signify to wish for, and come 
from the Greek d(i^ to think worthy; whence this 
word In English has been emptoyed for an expresston 
of our wishes, for the purpose of obtaining what we 
want from others ; <iia»tr«, Latin iayatrs, compounded 
of in and f««r«, signifies to search after ; aussUan^ In 
Latin is a variation of the same word ; tnterragaie^ 
Laiin interregeiusy participle of iaterrega, com- 
pounded of inter and togs, signifies to ««A alternately, 
or an asking between dinbrent persons. 

We perform aU these actlona in order to get Infer* 


but we «*ft ft>r (eneral purpoMa of conve- 
«re infmir* from motivM or eurioelty ; we 

auesti0n mmI tiUtrvgaU from motives of diecreiion. 

To ask respects simply one tliiog ; to iiifiur« reqwcis 
auestiim and inUrrofoU is 

; to iiifiurs reqwcts 

s ; to questum and inUrr _ 

to oMk repeatedly, to exaiouie by questiooing and In< 

ooe or many subjects ; 

terronting , and in the laiier ease more auUtoritaiively 
tlianla ttie former. 

IndiAsrent people m»k of eaeh otbtr wbaterer they 
wish to know ; * Upon my makinw ber wbo it was, she 
told roe It was a veir grare elderly gentleman, but 
tliat she did not know his name.*— Addison. Leamefs 
mfmirt the re aso n s of things which are new to tlwm ; 
Tou have oA iunir'd 

AAar the shepherd that complained of love. 

Masters quesHon their serrantSi or parents tiieir chil- 
dren, when they wish to ascertain the real state of 
any case; 

But hark you, Kate, 

I must not beoeaibrth have yoo qutstiou me 

Whither I go.— SiuKsrKAac. 
llagi^ales mttrrtftie eriminals when they are 
lousht before them ; *■ Thomson was introduced to 
the Prince of Wales, and being gayly inUrrogaUd 
about the sute of his aflUrs, said, ^that they were in 
a more poetical posture than formerly.*' '—Johnson. 
It is very uncivil not to answer whatever is asked even 
by the meanest person : it is proper to satisfy every 
««f«>r|r, so as to remove doubt : quettion* are some- 
times so impertinent tliat tliey cannot with propriety 
be answered: interrogation* from unauihorlsed per- 
sona are Utile better than insults. To m»k and hutrro- 
gaU are always personal acts ; to iiMnurs and questimn 
are frequentlv applied to things, the former in the sense 
of seeking («. Kxaminntun^f and the latto- in that 
of doubting (o. 7s Doubt). 



Examination comes from the Latin examino and 
oxamen^ the beam by which the poise of the balance Is 
beld« because tiie judgement keeps itself as it were in 
a balance in examining ; eearekj In French ckereker. 
te a variation of seek and see ; inquiry signifies tlie 
same as in the preceding article ; regearik is an inten- 
sive of eearek ; imvetttgation, from the Latin veeti. 
ftufs, a track, signifles seeking by the tracks or foot- 
steps : servfiiiy, from the Latin ocrulor^ to search, and 
serututn^ lumber, signifies looking for among lumber 
and rul)bish« i. e. to ransack and turn over. 

Examination Is the most general of these terms. 
Which all ajree In expressing an active effort to Ami 
out Utnt which is unknown. The exa min a ti on is 
made either 1^ the aid of the senses or the under- 
standing, the body or the mind ; the seartk is princi- 
pally a physical action ; the myatrir is mostly Intel- 
leetual ; we examine a Aice or we examine a subject ; 
we search a house or a dictionarv ; we inquire into a 
matter. An examinatian Is made for the purpose of 
forming a Judgement ; the eearek is made for ascei^ 
taining a net ; the inquiry is made in order to arrive 
at truth. To examine a person, b either by means 
of questions to gst at his mind, or by means of looks 
to become acquainted with his person ; to eearch a 
parson is by corporeal contact to learn what he has 
about him. We examine ttie (batures of tlMse wlio 
interest us; officers of Justice eearek those wtio are 
sunected ; but, with the prepositions for or after, the 
verb search may be employed in a moral applk:ation ; 
* If you search purely for truth, It will be indiflfcrent to 
yon where you find it.*— BroosLL. Examinations and 
inquiries are both made by means of questions : but 
(he former is an official act for a speclfick end, the 
hitter is a private act for purposes of convenience or 
pleanire. Students undeifo examinations from their 
teachers: they pufbue tlielr inquiries for themselves. 

An examinatian or an inqvirp may be set on foot 
on any subject: but tlie examination is direct; it is 
the cettiiw of things before the view, corporeal or men- 
tal. In oriKT to obtain a conclusion ; * The body of man 
is such a subject as stands the utmost test of examina- 
t#tf».*— Addison. The inquiry is Indirect ; it is a cir- 
cfdtooB methoil of coming to the knowledge of what 
WM uol known before ; * Inquiries aflar lu»!>piiiess are 

not so necessary and oaeftil to mankind as the aiti of 
consolation.'— AnmsoN. Ttie student examines tim 
evidences of Cliristianity, tliat lie may strengthen hto 
own belief; the government institote an inquiry into 
the conduct of suqfects. A research is an inquiry Int9 
that which is remote ; an investigation \a a minute 
inquiry ; a seruttny is a strict examinaiion. Lfmtd 
men of inquisitive tempers make their researdkes Into 
To all inferioor animals His fiv*n 
T' enjoy the sute alkmed them by beav*n ; 
No vain resmarches e'er disturb tliehr rest— Jsmnia. 

Magistrates invesUgaU doubtibl and mysterious aUhlrs; 
physicians investigate the causes of diseases ; * We 
have divided natuial philosophy into the inveohgation 
of causes, and the produaioo of effects.'— Bacx>n. 
Men scrutinize the actions of those whcmi they hold 
in suspicion ; * Before I go to bed, I make a scrutiny 
what peccant humours have reigned in me that day.' 
— HowBLL. Acuteness and penetration are peculiany 
requisite in making reseosxkes ; patienee and perae- 
verance are the necenary qualifications of the investU 
gator; a quick discernment will ementially aid tUb 


These words are here considered as tliey designate 
the looking upon places or objects. In order to get 
acquainted with them. To examine (v. £xasmi«tieii) 
expresses less than to seek and search : amf these fesa 
than to explore^ whkh, from the Latin ex and j^oros^ 
signifies to burst forth, whether in laraentatnn or 

We examine objects that are near ; we see* thosa 
that are remote or not at hand ; s^arcA tiiose that ar« 
hidden or out of sight ; we explore tliose that are un- 
known or very distant The painter examines a land- 
scape in order to take a sketch oi' It ; 

Compare each phrase, examiru ev'ry line, 
Weigh ev'ry word, and ev'ry thought refine.— PoPB. 
One friend sseks another when they have parted \ 

t have a venturous fkiry, that shall seek 

The squirrel's hoard, aiid fetch thee thence new mitiu 


The botanist searches after curkms plants ; the inoui- 
sitivo traveller explores unknown r^ons ; the writer 
examinee the books from which he intends to draw 
his authorities ; * Men will took into our lives, and 
examine our actions, and inquire into our conversa- 
tions ; by these they will judge the truth and rMtUty 
of our profession.'- TiLLOTSoN. A person seaki aa 
opportunity to efibct a purpose ; 

Sweet peace, where doat thoa dwell t 
I humbly crave 
Let me once know, 
I sought thee hi a seeret cave, 
And ask'd If peace were there. — Hkebcet. 
The antiquarian searches every corner in which bt 
hopes to llnd a monument of antiquity ; 
Not thou , nor Ihey shaU s eareh the thoughts that loO 
Up in the dose recessas of my soul.— Pora. 
The dassick oxplores the learning and wisdom of the 
ancients ; 
Hector, he said, my courage bids me meet 
This high achievement, and explore the fleet.— P<«e. 

Discuss^ in Latin diseussus^ participle of diseuiio, 
signifies to shake asunder or to separate thoroughly so 
as to sec the whole composition ; examine has ttie same 
signification as In the preceding article, because ibe 
judgement holds the balance in eiamining. 

The intellectual operation expressed by these terms 
is applied to objects that cannot be immediately dis- 
cerned or understood, but they vary both in mode and 
degree. Discussion is altngeUier carried on by verbal 
and personal communication; examination proceeds 
by reading, reflection, and observation ; we often exa- 
mine therefore by discussion^ whteh is properly one 
mode of examination : a diecuseion Is always carried 
on by two or more persons ; an esamination may be 


carried OQ by me only: polttkkaveafreqiMiittlKMgli 
not always a pteamnt aubjeet of dueuMion in ■octal 
meetiop ; ' A country fellow dlatlngulahee himaeir a« 
Bucli In tbe dnirch-yafd as a chiaen does upon the 
ctaanfe; tbe wbole pariah politicks being generally 
du€m»sei in that plaice either after sennon or before 
the bell rings.*— Addisom. Complicated questions can- 
Bol be too thoroughly <x«aitii«d; * Bten follow their 
Incltn&Uons without exa«i<iuf»^ whether there be any 
principlea which they ought to form for regulating theur 
eooducL*— Buom. Ditauaitm serves for amuseoirnt 
rather than for any solid piirpoae ; the cause of truth 
addom derires any immediate benefit from it, although 
fhe minda of m«*n may become invigorated l»y a col- 
llsion of sentiment: exaaitnslisn la of great practical 
utility in the direction of our conduct: all decisions 
must be partial, uiijust, or imprudent, which are made 
without previous fxa wf na fi Vn. 


Fry is in all probability changed from prove, In tbe 
■ense of try ; «crxtmtz« comes from the Latin sermtor 
to search thoroughly («. Ezaminatitin) Hv expresses 
tbe physical action of going under water to the iMttom, 
and figuratively of searching to the bottom. 

Prj is uken In the Iwd sense of looking mote nar- 
rowly into things than one ought : senUtntzc and dive 
imto are employed in the good senae of searching things 
to the bottom. 

A person who jrnes looks Into that which does not 
belong to him ; and too narrowly also Into that wtilch 
may oelong to him ; it i.^ the consequence of a too 
eager curiosity or a busy, meddling temper : a person 
who tcrutinixes looks iiiio that wtuch is intentionally 
concealed from him ; it is an act of duty flowing out 
of his office : a perMm who divw penetrates into that 
which lies hidden very deep ; he is impelled to tbu 
action by the thirst of knowledge and a laudable 

A love of prfing Into tbe private affldrs of (hmilles 
makes a pen»n a troublesome neigtibour ; * I'be peace- 
able man never officiously seeks tu pry Into the secrets 
of others.*— Blaiu. It is the business of the magistrate 
10 senUmizc into all matters which afifect the good 
order of society ; * He who enters upon this tenUimy 
(into the depths of the mind) enters into a labyrinth.' 
— ^irra. There are sume mbids so imbued with a 
love of science that Ihey delight to dni <ato the secrets 
of nature; 

In man the more we dm, tbe more we secL 

Heav«n*s aignel stamping an immortal i 


CURIOUS, mauismvE, prying. 

CwriotUt in French eurieuxy Latin euriesut^ from 
gmrt care, signifying Aill of care ; inquititiv*^ In Latin 
m^m'CM, from mqvir€ to inquire or search into, 
■ignifles a disposition to investigate thoroughly; pry- 
ing signifies the disposition to ^ry, try, or sift to tbe 

The disposition to interest one's self In matters not 
of Immediate concern to one's self is the idea common 
to all these terms. 0»rw9itm)m directed to all ob)ects 
that can gratify ttie IncUnatiim, taste, or understand- 
ing: infui»itw0m—» to such things only aa satisfy tbe 

Tbe ernritm* person Interesta himself in an the 
works of nature and art; he Is eurieut to tryeflfects 
and examine causes: the infmUitiv peraoo endea- 
vours to add to his store of knowledge. OirMMitr em- 
ploys every means which fUla in its way fai order to 

procure gratification ; the 
powers or those of others to serve his nurpose ; inpd- 
sitntnest Is indulged onlv by means of verbal inquiry ; 
the infuitUivt person collecis all fh>m others. A tra- 
veller is curtsiw who examines every thing for him- 
■df; *8ir Franeis Bacon says, soone have been so 
cwHmu MB to remark the times and srasona, when the 
stroke of an envious eye la most elfcctually pemicioua.* 
— Stsblb. He is raeituttiM when he minutely ques- 
tions otben. Hpnntnenu* is thereftare lo euriotUy 
■a a part to the whole ; whoever is tmriou* will natu- 
raOy be nifvwittvs, and he who la imfnuitive la so 
tnm a species of cmri»aity; batinfuiHtivenstt may 

■a faDnoMr anie Ibr aBoral 
oUeeia: 'Cheeking our mf muiUv sottcitade about 
what the Ahnighty bath ooaeealed, let ua dillf«iUy 
Improve what he bath made known.*— Bijoa. 

CarsstM and imptiuitme may be both used In a bad 
*0io ; mn*f i> never used otherwise Ibaa la a bad 
sense, /afsantxes, as in tbe former ease, li a mode 
of curioMity, and pryta^ is a species of eager curMMfy. 
A enrinu person takea unaHowed means of learning 
that which he ought not to wish to know; an tiifnm- 
tive person puts many impertinent and troublnome 
questloiis; a prffing temper Is uneeasiag in its endea- 
vours to cet acquainted with tbe secrets of otben. 
CanoHty Is a fkult common to fbmales ; inquiaitiv- 
1US9 is most general among children ; aprfing temper 
belongs only to people of low character. 

A well-discipffaied mfasd checks tbe fliit rWnp of 
idle emrwity : children should be taught early to sup- 
press an inquisitive temper, which may so easily be- 
come burdensome to others : those who are of a^ry- 
ty temper are insensible to every tidng but the desire 


what lies hidden ; such a disposition ia 
pred by the unlicensed indulgence of ewis- 
«i<y in early life, which becomes a sort of passion in 
riper years : * By adhering tenaciously to his opinion, 
and exhibiting other instances of a^ryta^ disposition. 
Lord George SackvlUe had rendered himaelf disa- 
greeable to the commander-ln-chiefl'— SmolxjSt. 


CbneciC oomea Immediately ihmi tbe Latfai cmi* 
ceptUMj participle of eone^i» to conceive, or form la 
tbe mind ; femic$y in French yAaaCads, Latin fkam' 
tmei*, Greek ^yrodo, fh)m ^avr^ to make appear, 
and ^VM 10 appear. 

These terms equally express tbe working of tba 
imagination in iu distorted state; but esa««it denotes 
a much greater degree of distortion than /snry; what 
we e^nteit is prqxMterous ; what we/«iicy ta unreal, 
or only apparenL Conceit applies only to internal ob- 
jects ; it is mental in tbe operation and the result ; It ia 
a species of invention ; * Strong eonceitt like a new 
principle, carries all easily with it, when vet above 
coounon sense.*— Locks. Fancy is applied to ex- 
ternal ofa!iects,or whatever acta on tbe senses: nervoua 
people are subject to strange emueile; timid people 
/ancy they hear aounds, or see objecta In tbe dark 
which awaken terror 

Those who are ipt to canestt oftener cancsil that 
which is painful than otherwise; 

Some have been wounded with ssaestft, 
And died of mere opinion strait— Btmaa. 
OsnenCfof either that they are alwaya in daater Of 
dying, or that aU the world is their enemy. Tbera 
are however insane people who eaneeit themselves to 
be kings and queens ; and aome indeed who are not 
M Insi ... - 

called insane, who evneeit tbonaelvea very h 
while they know nothing, or very vhw and < 
while they are exposing themselves to perpetual ridl^ 
cule for their folly, or very handsome while the world 
calls them plain, or very peaceable while tbey are 
always quarrelling with tneir neighboura, or yttj 
humble while they are tenadoualy sticking fbr tbor 
own: it would be well if such csncstcs afforded a 
harmless pleasure to their authors, but unfortunately 
they only render them more offensive aad d^guslinf 
than tbey wouki otherwise be. 

Those who are apt to /aacy, never /easy aaj tbing 
to please themselves ; 

Desponding fbar, of fbeble fmuiee tM, 
Weak aad unaMnly, hMaaaa every power. 


They /dri^r that tbiags are too long or too abort, loo 
ihick m too tjiln, too doM or too hot, with a thouaand 
fyihvT faTtrkt squally trivial te their nature; thereby 
(iri>vin^ il'tut tlw slightest aberratioB of tbe mind Is a 
.-'-riaiiq r^ 11, und productive of evil. 

Wttim iftki^ik in reference to intellectaal objects, csii- 
ftHi in n^fMiiy In a bad sense ; * Nothing can be more 
pin^miv 1>ii3iv>e'^ible than for a man ** to be profitable to 
: t ' rinri cDrtaequently nothing can be nx>re absurd 
.^■^^. 10 r a nmn to cberlsb so irrational a eeneeU/— 
Anmsoir. But ftmev may be employed In a good 
; * My fHend, Sir Roger de Covcrley, told me 



rotlw day, tlMf h* iMd bMs rmdiag my mf» apon 
Wotmloiier Abbey, In wblch, saya be, there are a 
great maoy infeotoua/uMaM.*— Ahouoh. 


A (bndoeia (br one'a opinion beapeaki the opiniaud 
mau : a fond conceit of one'B aeir beapcakt the eon- 
fietted man : a fond attachment to one'B lelf beapealn 
the egoistical roan : a lilting for one»» wlf or one** own 
a evidenUy the common idea that runs throngh these 
terms ; they differ Ui tbe mode and in the object. 

An opiniated roan It not only fond of his own 
0pnion^ but fhU of his own ojfinion : he baa an opiniim 
no every ihiof, which is the best possible opinion, and 
la delivered therefore Oeelv to every one, that they 
may profit in forming tlieir own opinions ; * Down 
was be cast from all hte greatness, as it is pity but all 
auch politick opiniators shoald.*--SouTH. A conceited 
man has a conceit or an Idle, fond opinion of his own 
talent ; It Is not only high in compedllon with others, 
but it is so high as to be set above others. The eon- 
•eited man does not want to follow the ordinary means 
of acquiring knowledge : his conceit suggests to him 
that his talent will supply labour, application, reading 
and study, and every other contrivance which men 
have commonly employed fbr their improvement ; he 
sees by intulUon wbat another learns by experience 
and observation ; he knows In a day what others want 
years to acquire ; he leama of himself what others are 
contented to get by means of Instruction ; * No neat 
measure at a very difflcult crista can be pursued which 
Is DOC attended with some mischief; none but conceited 
prelendera in pablick business hold any other lan- 
guage.*— Bukkk Tbe egoistical man makes himself 
the darling theme of hb own contemplation ; be ad- 
mires and fovea himself to that degree that he can talk 
and think of nothing else ; his children, his house, his 
garden, his rooms, and the like, are the Incessant 
theme of hia conversation, and become bivaluaMe 
fh>m the mere circumstance of belonging to him; 
* To abow their particular aversion to speaking in the 
first peraon, the gentlemen of Port Boval branded 
thla form of wridng with the name of egotism.*— 

An opiniated man b the most nnfk (br conversa- 
tion, which only aflbrds pleasure by an alternate and 
equable communication of sentiment. A conceited 
man is the moat unfit for eo-operatlon, where a Junc- 
tion of talent and eflbrt to essential to bring thlriis to 
a conclusloo : an egoietieal man Is the roost unfit to 
be a companion or (Head, for he does not know how 
to vahie or like any thing out of himself. 

8etf-wiU signifies the will In one*s aelf : sd/'coneeit, 
eoneeit of one's self: self-svgicieney, svfficieney in 
one*s self. As charaeterlsiicks they come very near 
to each other, but that depravity of the will which 
refbaes to submit to any control either within or with- 
out la bom with a person, and to among the earliest 
Indications of character ; in some It Is less predomi- 
nant than in others, but If not early checked, it Is 
that defect in our natures which will always prevail ; 
se{feonceit la a vicious habH of the mind which Is 
auperinduccd on the original character; It in that 
which determines in matters of Judgement ; a se^- 
willed peraon thinka nothing of rl|^ or wrong : what- 
ever the Irapolae of the moment suggeats, to the raoUve 

To»t7f«l men 
The loJuitos that they themlelvea procured, 
If uat be their scboohnastoiB.— SBAKsncARK. 

The se\f-ceneeited person to always much concerned 
about right and wron«, but It to only that which he 
conceives to be right and wrong; * Nothing so haughty 
and assumlns as ignoranco, where self-conceit bids it 
set up for InfslHble.'— South. Sflf- sufficiency to a 
species of self-conceit appliiMl to action : as a 8e\f-con- 
eeiud iiersiin thinks of no opinion but his own ; a self- 
evident uerwn refViaes the assistance of every one In 
wEaiover he to called upoh to do ; 

There aafis in teJf-n^kismlL inapodanet 
Without experience, booesty, or aenae, 
Unknowing In her iotereat, trade, or laws, 
He rainiy undertakes hto eountiy^a eaiiae«--JaiiTn. 


Pride to In all probability eonoected with the wevd 
parade, and the Germaa praekt abow or aptenioar, 
aa it signifies thai hicb-fiown temper In a man wUeh 
makes him paint to bifloaelf every thing in blmself aa 
beautiful or splendid ; vaiuly, in Latin vamitiu* from 
vain and voiiais, to compounided of «« or naUe and 
moms, signifying exceeding emptinam ; eanteit slgnl- 
flea the same as ia the preceding article (a. Crasstl, 

The valuing of oDe*s aelf on the posacmion of any 
property to the Idea commoa to these terma, but they 
difiTer either in regard to the object or the manner of 
the action. Pride to the term of most extensive import 
and applkation, and comprabends in lis slgalflcatloa 
not on ly that of the other two tema, but ttkewlaa kleaa 
peculiar to itaelf. 

Pride to applicable to every ol^ect, good or bad, 
high or tow, small or great ; vamty to applicable only 
to amall obj«:is : jsrute to therefore good or bad : vaaaty 
to always bad, it is always emptinem or nothingness. 
A man to proud who values himself on the posaeasioQ 
of hto literary or scientiflck talent, on hto wealth, on hi* 
rank, on hto power, on hto acquirements, or hto aapa- 
riorlty over hto competitors ; be to vain of hto person, 
hto dress, hto walk, or any thing that to fVlvokMia» 
Pride to the inhereat quality In man ; and while It 
reste on noble objecta, it Is hto noblest characteristick ; 
voMty to the distortion of one^s nature flowing fh>m a 
vicious constltutioa or education : pride ahowa itaelf 
variously according to the nature of the object oa 
which it to fixed ; a noble pride seeks to display itaelf 
in all that can command the respect or admiration of 
mankind ; the pride of wealth, of power, or of ottier 
adventitious properties, comrooaly dlsplaya itself in an 
unseemly deportment towards others; voMilv ahowa 
Itself only by iu eagerness to eatch the notice or otiien : 
* Vanity makes men ridicukiaa, prids odioui, and am* 
bltion terrible.— Stsklb. 

*Tto an old maxim In the aehooto, 

That vomity *s the fbod of fbola.— Swinr. 

Pride (says Blair) makes us esteem ourselves : vamtg 
makes us desire tbe esteem of other*. But if pride w^ 
as I have before observed, self-esteem, or, which la 
nearly the same thing, self- valuation, it caaaot properly 
be said to make us esteem ourselves. Of vamitg I have 
already said tliat It makes us anxious for the notice and 
appUiuse of others ; but I cannot with Dr. Blair aay 
that it makes us desire the esteem of others, because 
esteem to too substantial a quality to be sought for by 
the vain. Besides, that which Dr. Blair seems to aasign 
aa a leading and characteristick ground of distinction 
between pride and vom'ty to only aa incidental pro- 
perty. A man to aaid lo be o«ta of hto cK>tbes, if ba 
gives Indications that he valuea hhuaelf upon them as a 
ground of distinction ; although he should not expressly 
seek to display himself to others. 

QmcaU u that species of self-valuation that rsspfcta 
one's talents only ; It is so fttrttoetefors closely allied to 
pride ; but a man to said to be proud of that which he 
really has, but to be cMcsttsd o? that which he really 
has not : a man may be proud to an excess, of roentti 
which he actuaOy possesaea; but when he \» conceited 
hto merits are all in hUown eameeit ; the latter to there- 
fore obviously founded on falsehood altogether ; * The 
s^f-ecneeit of the young to the great source of thoaa 
dangers to which they are exposed.*— Bi^a. 

Pride to here employed principally aa reapects the 
temper of the mind ; the other terma are employed 
either as respects tbe sentiment pf the odnd, or the ex- 
ternal beliavlour. 

Pride to here as before («. Pride) a generick termr 
haughtiness, or the spirit of being haughtu or high 
spi med (v. Haughty) ; tofUneee, or the spirit of being 

I lined up ; and dtgnitu, or the sense of worth or value, 
are btit modes orVr«f«. Prt^Uiasmuch asltconstota 
purely of aeif-estoem, to a poaiUve ee n ti me nt which one 


imycBfeitilBlndepaideiithro^otlwrpenom: It Met in 
4kB limoic raoMMtof Um dubuui liMitj umI mlm tw 
Haeir iMmeodbtf wUli oar tlfectioM and pttntOM ; k 
l«ouroom|MiiionlMriiigbt«ndby<Uy: tnpubUckorin 
private ; li |om wtih a Bian wberever Im toet^ and 
■laya wHh bim wiMie be eiaji ; h is a never-faUinff 
aource of ■atieft c ttonand ■etf-co mp lacennr under eveiy 
y liUiaUoii of ' 

circamstanee and fn every liuiaUoii of buman life. 
UmglUim$99 \b tbat mode of ^rid* which ■pringa out 
of one*! eomparifloo of ooe*e self with othera: the 
hmgkt9 naa dweltaonthe inferiority of others ; the 
^md Man in the strict sense dwelta on his owa pei^ 
ftelioos. L^fUtuas to a mode of wrids which raises 
the spirit above objects Moposed to be inferiour: itdoes 
WH set a man so much above others as above himself 
or that which concerns himself. Digniiw is a modeor 
]^rid$ which exalts the whole man. it to the entire con- 
•eiousness of what to becominf himself and due to 

^rtd« assmnes such a varletv of shapes, and piifs on 
flneb an Infinity of dtsruises, tiiat It to not easv always 
fo leeotatoe it at the first gUaee \ but an Uisipbt into 

hvama natvre wiU suflloe to eoovioce w that Ft to the 
■prtnn of aM Iwmaa actions. Whetiier we see a man 
mofo s si n g humility and self-abasement, or a stngutor 
degree of seiMebasement.or any degree of self-exalta- 
tioo, we may rest assnna titat lito own wrida or con- 
aelous self-lmpoitanee to not wounded by any such 
neasaras: but tiiat la all eases he to equally sthnnlated 
with the desire of giving himself in the eyes of others 
tlwt de aiee of Importaaoe to which in lito own eyes he 
Is entitiod ; *^ Every demonstraiioa of aa implacable 
raneour and aa untameable pride were tlie only en- 
couragements we received (from the regkkles) to tlie 
leatwal of our supplicationa.'~BiTmxs. Httgktmest 
la aa unbending species or mode of ftidt which does 
aoc sloop to any artifiees to obtain gratification ; but 
bompe to others to give it wlmt it Andes to be itodue ; 
' Frovoked by Edward*s kamgktmsttt even the pasdve 
BalM began to mutiny.*— RoaaETSoii. Ltftiwua wad 
4i|f«ttf are equally remote fhm any sulMle pliancy, but 
ttey are in no less degree exempt fhmi the unanriable 
eharaetaristlek of hmt^rkthuts which malces a man 
hear with oppresstva sway upon others. A l^y spirit 
-and ad^ifnicy of diaraaer preserve a man lYom yielding 
40 the eontamlnatioD of cratward objects, but leave hto 


wl»o inaults 

IliBeMng entirely free and unbiassed with 
respect to others ; * Waller deacribes Sacliartosa as a 
predominating beauty of Uftjf charms and imperious 
infiuence.*— JoBwsoN. * As soon ss Almagro luiew hto 
fhte to be inevitable, he met it with tlie digniif and for- 
tltode of a veteran/— RoanTSON. 

Aa rsspeciB the external behaviour, a kmagM^ ear 
rlage to mostly uubecomlng; a t^ftff tone to mostly 
JiMiflable, partleolarly as cireunHtances aiay requlrv; 
•ad a dynjted«ir to without qualification beoomi^ the 
man who pnmeaifs real dynt^. 


JSraufttAMM to the abatrmet qoality of haughty, aa In 
the preceding article ; Osdaim, from the French ds- 
iMfMT. or the privative da and digiuu worthy, slg- 
mfiwtmalring a thing 10 be worthless; ar r s j >sw <i <, firom 
«rr«f^aCe, or the Latia ar or «d rsf» lo Mk, iignlfleB 
clalmfaig or taking to one*s aelC 

HmrngUimut (savs Dr. Blair) to founded on the high 
opInioaweentertaJBofoafaelves; dt«d«<ii.oBtbelow 
oplntoawe have of othan ; arrsfcn««totbeffeauHof^ 
both, but if any tUng, more of the former than the 
latter. HmmgkiineM and di sd sia ara prsperly aeotl- 
ments of the mind, and arrogmue a mode of acting 
resulting from a state of mind ; there may therefore 
be AmtfAtMMM and di«d«ta which have not betrayed 
tttmsenres by any visible action ; but the senlimoit of 
arr»;f sacs to alwaye accompanied by Its corresponding 
action: the Acvfftip man to known by the air of supe- 
riority which be assumes; the dud«m/«l man by the 
contempt which he shows to others : the arro/aat man 
by hto lofry preteoslona. 

Mmughtinnt and mrragmme* are both vicious; they 
•re bttUt upon a false Idea of ounelves ; < The same 
kmigktiuu* that prompts the act of injustice will more 
■tronafy Inche Ito justlficatlon.'-^OBMsoK. *Torbu- 
lent, discontented men of quality. In proportloa as they 
■re pnfifed ap with personal pride and arrs/«iM«, 
'VMnliydespiBathttarowncider.*— BvEO. Ditd&m 

may be JusUfla Ma w h w w ofu h rt by whM 

a lady mast treat wUh dicdata the peiaoa 

her honour; but otherwise U to a highly 


Dhtot thou not think each vengeaaee arasl await 

The wretch that, with hto crimes alt fresh about hiai. 

Rushes, irreverent, unprepar*d, uncalTd, 

Into hto Maker's presence, throwinf back 

Wkh insolent di«dara hto choicest ^l-^oaTatm. 


Hamgktfft contracted fkom high-hearty, la Dutch 
hffUrtf, sinUOes literally bifdhsplrited, and like the 
word kigk^ b derived through tbe medium of the 
Northern languages, firom (he Hebrew ^ IK to be high. 

Hmgktf cbaracterixes mostly the outward behK* 
viour ; high respecto both the external behaviour, and 
the internal sentiment; kigk-wunded marks the senti- 
ment only, or the state of the mind. 

With r««ard to the outward behaviour, koMgktf to a 
stronger term than A^A ; a Aoa^iUy carriage Eespsaka 
not only a high opinion of one's self, but a strong mix- 
ture of contempt for others: a high carriage denotes 
simplva high opinion of one's self: htnghtmua to 
therefore always offensive, as It to burdensome to 
others ; but he»ghi may sometloMs be laudable In an 
much as it to juwce to one's self: onecan never give a 
command in a kmtgktff tone without malting othtta 
feel their faiferiorityln a painfol degree : we may some- 
times assume a iUif A tone ia order to sheller ourselvaa 
from insult. 

With regard to the sentiment of the mind, higk de- 
notes either a particular or an habitual sute ; high- 
minded to most commonly understood to designate an 
habitual slate: the former may be either good or bad 
according to circumstances; the latter to expressly in- 
consistent with Christian humiU ty. He to high whom 
virtue ennobles; hto h^ght to independent of adventl- 
tlotts circumstances, It becomes the poor ss well as the 
rich : be to properly high who to set above any meaa 
coaoescension; hi^HmndednesSf on the contrary. In- 
cludes in it a sel^complacency that rests upon one's 
peisoaal and incidental advantages rather than upon 
what to worthy of ourselves as rational agents. Supe- 
rlours are apt to indulge a hnnghtp temper wMch doea 
but excite the scorn and hatredof thoae who are com- 
peUed to endure it; 

Let gifts be to the mighty queen design'd, 
And malli^ with pray'is her haughtp mind. 

A high spirit to not always serviceable to one in depen- 
dent ctrcuinstances ; but when regulated by d i s cr e ti on, 
it enhancee the value of a man's character; *Who 
knows whether Indignation may not succeed to terrouf, 
and the revival of A^A sentiments, qmmlng away tha 
illusion of safbty pJrchaaed at the expense of gki«ir, 
may not drive us to a generous despair. —Burkb. No 
one can be A^A-ialiid«d without thinking better of 
himself, and woiae of others, than he ought to think ; 
'The wise will determine fh>m die gravity of the case; 
the irritable, Prom senstbiUtv to oppression ; the Aif A- 
wUnded fhmi disdain and IndlgnBtioaat abusive power 
in tmworthy hands.— 3i;ucs. 


CbaKsm, In LatIa ssa f aa w s, oemponnded of sea aad 
CMuae, toprobably changed fh>m tost^, and toderived 
fhNa tha Hebrew KDO h> pollute or render worthless, 
which to the eause of eanUmpt ; de*pi§»^ in Lathi 
de«p»c»#, compound of d« and «p«ei«, signifies to look 
down upon, which to a strong mark ofe^nUmft ; team^ 
varied from our word «A«rM, signifies stripped of all 
honours and exposed to dertolon, which situation to tha 
cause of $com: ditdsin has the same signification aa 
In the preceding articUt. 

The above elucidations sufllclently evince the feetlng 
towards others which gives birth to aU these actlona. 
But the feeling of contampt to not quite so strong as that 
of dt»pinngi nor UuU of despising so strong as those 
of «c«mtii/ and disdnning ; the latter of which ex- 
presses the strongest sentiment of alL Persona aia 
eeatesMsd for their moral qualities; they are dsspissd 
00 aecoaat of their omward * ^ * 


wiUi ft CliriiMitti'tflaipar 
cteraeur; f ' 


<Mlf , iMl or 

■ay be 

to penoBi, it DOC IneoaipfttMe 
r WMO luttly provoked ^ Uidr 
d»tpinmg it Aimiaiuy forMddeo end 
ed. YetlttoDolwaiaclioiirbutlneii 
to e^utmM olliera •■ to cenKmii Cbftt which ie «m»- 
t mmp M U; hot we ere doC eqaalhr at liberty to 4$»piM 
the pereoo. or any thiof befoogliic to the pereon, of 
aaolher. Whatever ipHnfi from the Dree wUl of ao 
other OMybe a eoMeet of cealM^pl; but the caeoaltiea 
orfortaneortbe^or Pn>Tklenee.whieh are alllce 
iadependent of peieonal maflt, ahouid never eipoee a 
peraoB to be 4§»fis*d, We oaay, however. cmUmm a 
peraoa for hie impotent malice, or d«ptM oim for hie 

Peraona are not Memed or d^»defa < d , bat thcv may 
be treated with «eer» or dUdmiu : they are both impfo- 
per eipreeriooi of ceafrapl or dtswiu ; Bttrn mariu 
the eenthDeot of a little, vain mind ; iitdmim of a 
bauglity and perverted Blind. A beantiflil woman 
loon with 9fm on tier whom ihe dupi—t for the 
want of thie natural gift The wealthy man treata 
with dttdcM liim whom he 4etpist$ for hit poverty. 
There ti nothing eicilee the e^nttmpt of mankind ao 
powerfully as a mixture of pride and meannem; * Ctm- 
Uwtfi and derlelon are hard words : but in what man- 
ner can one give advice to a youth in the purault and 
poaieieioo or eeneual pteaanree, or aflbrd pity to an oM 
man in the impotence and desire of enjoying them.*— 
^aaLi. A moment*a reflection wlO teach us the folly 
and wickedness of dMfpM^ another for that to wlikh 
by the wHI of Providence we may the next momem be 
exposed ourselves; *It Is seldom that the great or the 
wise suspect that they are clieated and «Mpi«ed.'— 
JoBRsoN. Thero are ailhr persons who wiU •cem to 
be seen in the company of such as have not an equal 
share of finery 

00 BMKh betow oiy •«•», I dare not kUl Ihee. 


And there are weak upatartaof fortune, who Hsi^in 
to kx>k at those who cannot meaaure purses with theok* 

Yet not for those, 
For what tlie potent victor in his rage 

Can else infUc^ do t rqwot or change. 
Though chaoc*d in outward lustre, that 


Andhigh<St2ifofrom aense of la}ur*d merit. 


In speaking of thinn Independently of others, or as 
imoaedlately coonecteid with ourMlves, all these terms 
may be someiimea employed in a good or an indifferent 

he praise 

When we mhImw a mean action, and Mem to con- 
eeal by fUeebood what we are called upon to acknow- 
ledge, we act the part of the gentleman as weU as the 
Christian ; * A man of spirit should cemtmm the 
of the ignorant'— SraBLi. And it is incoi 
with our infirm and dependent condition, that we 
ahouid fbel inclined to iupUt any thing that flills in 
our way ; 

Thflce happy they, beneath their northern skies, 
Who that worst 6ar, the fbar of death, 4t*r**«: 
Provoke approaching fhte, and bravely se«m 
I that Ufowbkh 


so soon return. 


Ifoehtasa are we at liberty to d<«ds«a to do any thing 
which our station requires; * It Is in some sort owing 
to the bounty of Providence that dudtdnimg a cheap 
and vulgar happlnees, they f^ame to themselves imagi- 
nary goods, in wMch there Is nothlngcan raise desire 
but the difRculnr of obtaining them.*--BBaKSLiT. We 
ought to think Mothing unworthy of us, nothing de- 
grulliM 10 us, but that which Is inconsistent with the 
will of Ood : there are, however, too many who afTect 
to d$$pi90 small fhvours aa not reaching their fkncied 
deserts, and others who dudom to receive any fkvour 
■t an, flwn mlataken Ideas of dependence and obligft> 

Virtue 4i»Uim$ to lend an ear 

X» tba vad piopl9*B K«M of light— F)M«ci8. 

Persons, or what is done by persons, may 
iHemftiH$ ct e0uUmptM0u$s but a thing w 


Theae teraw are very fkeqaandy, though veiy an 
neously, ooofbonded in common disoomee. 

C^ntmntikU is applied to the tMng deserving eei 
t0mft : (UnUwtptwtnt to that which is expressive of 
t0iUtmfU Persons, or what is done b 
be either e^ntewntikU or e0uUmptM0u$s 
onhr centssipf IMS. 

A production is cea r ssi pfrtf t; a sneer or hx>k Is «*•• 
Uwiptu0m»: *Silence,ora neg l i g ent indifference, pro- 
ceeds fW>m anger mixed with scorn, that shows an- 
other to be tltottght by you too etmiempUbU to be re- 
garded/— Anmsoa. * if y sister's principles in many 
particulars differ; but there has been always such a 
harmony between us that she seklom smilss upon those 
who have suffered me to peas with a centeaiptaese 
negligence.'— Hawumwobtb. 

0»nf«aiptiM« to not so strong as dc«*iMM« or pxts/kL 
A person may be ttmUmftAU for bis vanity or weak- 
ness ; but he to detpicmkU for his servility and base- 
ness of character ; he to pitiful for hto want of man- 
Ibiees and becoming spirit. A lie to at all times een- 
Umptiklc ; It to denicable when it is toM for purpoeee 
of nin or private Interest ; it to pitiful when aooom 
paded with indications of unmanly fbar. It to cen- 
UmpUbU to take credit to one's self for the good actioa 
one has not perfbrmed ; * Were every man persuaded 
fhmi how mean and k>w a principle this psssion (fhr 
flattoy) to derived, there can be no doubt but the 
person who should attempt to gratify it would then ba 
as camtemptiUe as he to now soccesshil.'— Stbklc. It 
to dtapicMhU to charge another with the fkults which 
we ourselves have coromitied ; * To put on an artlU 
part to obtain no other but an uqjust praise fhim the 
undiscerning to of all endeavours the most despieakUJ 
— 0TBBLB. It to pitiful to offend others, and then 
attempt to eereen oursdves fhim tJieIr resentment 
under any riielter which offers ; * There to sooietliing 
pit^fmllf mean in tlie inverted ambition of that man 
who can hope for annihilation, and please himself to 
think that Ms whole fabrick shall crumble into dust.*— 
Stbblb. It to eoaUmptibU for a man In a superioor 
BUtlon to borrow of tails inferioors ; it to duptemkU la 
him to forfeit hto wdrd; it topttOTnl in him to attempt 
to conceal aught by artifice. 


These epithets rise in sense l»y a regular gradation. 

Otntemptueu* to general, and applied to whatever 
can express conUmpt: teomful and ditdainfMl ara 
particular ; they apply only to outward marks: one to 
etmUmptuant who to fcem/ai or iiainnfMl^ but not 
vic6 vcred. 

Words, actions, and kx>ks are eonUmptmous ; k)oks, 
sneers, and gestures are scornful and iisdainfuL 

CnUou^tuomt expressions are alwajrs unJustlOable : 
whatever may be tne ecnUntpt which a person's con- 
duct deaerves, it to unbecoming in another to give him 
any indications of the sentiment be f^sels. Scornful 
and iiadmimful smiles are reeorted to by the weakecit or 
the worst or mankind ; * Prior never sacrifices accui acv 
to liaste, nor Indulges htanself in conUt^tmou* negli- 

Ece or impatient idleness.*— Jobnsoh. * As soon as 
via began to look round, and saw the vagabond 
MhtlUo who had ao k>ng abeented himsdf from her 
circle, she hx>ked tipon blm with that gtonce which 
in the language of^ aglets to called the teorvfuL*^ 
In vain he thus attempts her mind to move. 
With teats and prayers Kiki late repenting love ; 
DUdtdufiMy she looked, then turning round. 
She fix'a her eyes omnov'd upon the ground. 


Lmugkf through the medium of the Saxon Uakam^ 
old German loAoa, Greek ycXdw, comes ttom the He- 
tn«w pn^t with no variation in the meaning ; rtdK- 
cals, from Latin HdM, has the same original meaning. 
Both theee verbe are used liere in the Improper sense 
for iamgkttr, blended with more or lem of contempt: 



Mtt tiM Ibrav dkflayi Itnlf by the Mtnra] expnnlon 

' tbowf Itielf bf a Terbal ex- 

piettidn : the Ihrmer Is pnxlaced by a feeling ofinlitto, 
on observing the real or sapposi>d weakness of an- 
otlKr; the latter is produced by a strong senseof tlM 
alMurd or irrational in another: tlie former Is more im- 
medlalely directed to the person wlio has excited the 
feeling ; the latter is more commonly produced by the 
thing than by persons. We laufh at a person to his 
face; but we rUieuU his notions by writing or In the 
course of conversation; we Uugh at the individual; 
we rUiemU that which is maintained by one or many. 
It is better to Uu£k at the feavs of a child than to 
attempt to restrain tbembv violence, but it Is still better 
to overcome them if possible by the force of reason ; 

* Men UMgh «l one another's cosL'—Swift. RiHeule 
is not the test of truth ; he therefore who attempts to 
misuse It sgainst the cause of truth, will bring upon 
liimself the contempt of all mankind ; but folly can be 
MtBJhMl with no weapon so eAectual as ritticuU; 

* It Is easy for aman who sits idle at home and has no- 
body to please but himselC to ridkvU or censure the 
eommon mactioes of mankind.'— Johhsok. The {dil- 
losoptaer Deraocritns preferred to Uugk at the follies of 
men, nether than weep for ihem like HeracUtus ; infi- 
dels liave always employed ridieuU against Cbris- 
tianityf by which they have betrayed not only their 
want of argument, but their personal depravitv in 
Umgk^ where they ought to be moetserious. 


IsMgkahU signifies exdthig or fit to excite langkUr ; 
Imdicroua^ In Latin Imiietr or Iwiienu^ from <«tdH« a 
-game, signifies causing game or sport; rutteniMts ex- 
'Citing -or fit to excite tQmmU; eomieat, or omtcA, in 
Latin Msncits, ftom the Greek KVftuHa comechr, and 
K^u^ a village, because comedies were first performed 
In villages, signifies after the manner of comedy; 
iroU, In Piencb drflje, is doubtless connected with the 
German rolU a part, in the phrase dns rolU tpidem to 
jilur a trick or perform a part 

Either the direct actloo of ItmrlnUrat a correspond- 
ing sentiment Is included in the signlficatiim of all 
these terms : they differ pitocipalty In the cause which 
produces ttie Ibeung; the UtHghaJbU consists of objects 
Ui general whether perMnal or otherwise ; the Udi- 
cr»u» and ridieuUm* have more or less reference to 
that which Is personal. What Is Uughable may excite 
simple merriment Independently ouui personal refer- 
ence, unless we admit what Mr. flobbes, and after 
him Addison, have maintained of all laugktery that It 
•aprlngs from pride. But whlxrat eoterrag into this 
•ake question, I am inclined to distinguish between the 
UMgkabU whkh arisei finom the reflection of what is 
to our own advantage or pleasure, and that which 
«rlses from reflecting on what Is to the disadvantage of 
another. The droU tricks of a monkey, or the hu- 
morous stories of wit, are UufkabU from the nature 
of the thingi tbemselveB; without any apparent allu- 
sion, however remote, to any incttvldual but the one 
whose senses or mind Is gratified ; 

TbeyMl not show their teeth In way of smile, 

Though Nestor swear the Jest be UmghabU. 


The tmHermu and ridieiiUna are however species of 
the UMghaH9 which arise altogether ftom reflecting 
on that which is to the disadvantage of another. The 
ladtcrsvs lies mostly in the outward circumstances of 
the individual, or such as are exposed to view and 
serve as a show ; * The action of the theatre, though 
modem sutes esteem it but iMdierout unless it be latl- 
rleal and biting, was carefullv watched by the ancients 
that it might improve mankind in virtue.'— Baoom. 
Tlie ridiaduui applies to every thing personal, whe- 
ther external or uiteroal ; * hftUx fauptrtat has no- 
thing in it more Intolerable than this, that it renders 
men rid^«itf««.'— Soittb. The IniierouM does not 
Mmpiehend tliat which is so much to the desparage- 
meat of the Individual as the ridicmUiu; whatever 
there Is In oursdves which excites lougkUr in others, 
is accompanied in their minds with a sense of our in- 
forioriiy: and consequently the ludicrou* alwsys pro- 
duces tniB feeling; but only In a slight degree com I 
|wrod with the ridicuUuM, which awakens a positive] 

sense of eontempc Whoavar is In t hiUmvu ritu- 
atSon Is, let it be In ever so sasall a degree, pteeed in 
an inferlonr station, with regard to those by whom bo 
is thus viewed ; but lie wlio is rendered ridicmUmM la 
positively degraded. It Is possible, therefore, for a 
perH^ to be In Kludicr^u* situation without any kind 
of moral demerit, or the sHghtest depredation of liia 
moral character ; since that which renderslils rttuation 
Ivdiercm* te altogether independent of himself ; or it 
becomes IniicrwuM only in the eyes of Incompetent 
Judges. " Let an ambftssador," says BIr. Pope. ** speak 
thebest sense in the world, and deport himself in the 
most graceAil manner before a prince, yet if the tall of 
Us«hBt happen, as I have known It happen to a very 
wise man, to hang out behind, more peoipie will taMgh 
at that than attend to the other.'* This Is the <ii3t- 
crsits. The same can seldom be said of tlie n^tcn^sas; 
for as this springs from positive moral causes, it re- 
flects on the person to whom it attaches in a less ques- 
tionable shape, and produces positive disgrace. Per- 
sons very rarely appear ridi€ulou$ without being really 
so; and he who is really rt<ttc«J<ms Justly exches con- 

X>rsUand eesueol are In the proper sense applied to 
things which cause lmi#*ter, as when we speak of a 
droU stMy, or a cosumu incident, or a towdek song; 
A comiek subject loves an htunMe verse, 
Thyestes scorns a low and cssudk style. 

* In the Augustine age itself, notwithstanding the cen- 
sure of Horace, they preferred the low buflbonery and 
iroUtry of Plautus to the delicacy of Terence.*— 
Wartom. These epithets may be applied to the per- 
son, but not so as to reflect disadvantageously on tho 
Individual, like the pceceding terms. 


Da^is. compounded of de and the Latin rides; and 
riHeuUf from rtdM, both signliy to laugh at; siscJk, in 
French st^^iter, Dutch sMdken. Greek ^mm, signinea 
likewise to laugh at ; rallv is doubtless connected with 
rail, which is in all probaSility a contraction of revOs ; 
end banter is posnbly a corruption of the French 
dodnier tojest. 

Strong expressions of contempt are designated 1^ all 
these terms. 

i>erirtsiiand vMckery evince themselves by the onl- 
ward actions in general; ridicule constats more in 
words than actions; raUfing and bantering almost 
entirely in words. Deride ta not so strong a term as 
sMcJk, but much stronger than ridicuU. There to 
always a mixture of hostility in derision and moekerg; 
but ridicule is frequently unaccompanied with any 
personal feeling of displeasure. Derision is often 
deep, not loud ; It discovers itself In suppressed Isugbs, 
contemptuous sneers or gesticulations, and cutting ex- 
pressions: mockery lu^Btly noisy and outrageous ; it 
breaks forth in insultlVbuflbonery, and is sometimes 
accompanied with personal violence: the former con- 
sists of real but contemptuous laughter; the latter 
often of aiTected laughter and grimace. Derision and 
mockery are always personal ; ridicule may be directed 
to thiMs as well as persons. Derision and mockery 
are a direct attack on the individual, the latter stlU 
more so than the former; ridieuU to as oftfigkjjmd In 
writing as In personal Intercourse. 

Dension and mockery are practised by {arsons In 
any station; ridieuU to mostly used by equals. A 
person to derided and mocked for that which to oflbn- 
sive as well as apparently absurd or jextravagant; he 
to ridiculed for what to apparently ridiculous. Our 
Saviour was exposed both to tlie derision and mockery 
of his enemies: they derided him for what they dared 
to think lito false pretensions to a superfour roiasion: 
thev mockod him by planting a crown of thorns, ana 
acting the farce of royalty before him. 

Derision may be provoked hv ordinary circum- 
stances ; mockery by that which to extraordinary. 
When the prophet Elijah In hto holy seal mocked the 
false prophets of Bsal, or when the children mocked 
the prophet Elisha, the term deride would not have 
suited cither for the occasion or thp action; but two 
people may deride each other in their nngry dl^init*^ 
m unprincipled people may deride those whom they 


zmauBH snmeniaa. 

V6 ■Itofetlier ineomiMtlMe with dM ChriMlmn temper ; 
rUienlU}M juetUlable In certain caees, putkatarljr when 
It Ifl DOC penonal. When a man renden bimwlf an 
object of ierition^ U does not follow tbat anf one la 
JuaUfled In itridii^ him ; 

Satan bebdd their pUcht, 
And to bifl matfli thai In itri$ion caird : 
O flrienda, why come not on those victon piood 1 


Inaulta are not the means for coriectiac ftuiltt : ai«cft«ry 
la very seldom used bot for the giatlflcation of a malig- 
nant dlaposiUpn ; hence it is a stiong expiiailon when 
used Af uraUvely ; 
ImpeH*d with steps vnceasinf to pursue 
Borne fleeting good that mockt me with the view. 

Ahhough ridiefUe Is not the test of truth, ai 

not to be emnloyed in the place of argument, yet there 

are some foIUes too absurd to deserve more serious 


Want is the soora of every IboL 

And wit in rags is turn*d to rubctiZf.— Ortdbh. 
nmliM and kmUtTf Uke itrimm and sMdksryt Me 
alU}gether penonal acta, in which appUcaiioo they are 
very anakwous to ridicuU. BidicmU la the most gene- 
ral term of the three; we often rallp and haiUer by 
ridiculing. There Is more exposure In ridiculing; 
reproof In rallying ; and provocation in hanUring. A 
penmn may be ridiculed on account of bis eccentri- 
cities; he Is ruUied for his defects ; he Is hnnUred for 
accideuul drcumstances: the two former actions are 
often Justified by some substantial reason ; the lauer to 
an fiction as puerile as It to ui^usl, it to a contemptible 
species of mockery. Setfeoncelt and extravagant fol- 
lies are oftentimes best corrected by good-natured ridi- 
cule; a man may deserve sometimes to be rmlUcd for 
hto want of resolution ; 'The only piece of pleasantry 
in Paradtos Lost, to where the evU spirits are described 
as ruUjfing the angeto upon the success of their new 
invented artiUety.'--ADDisoM. Thoee who are of an 
lU-aatured turn of mhid wUl homUr others for their 
misfortunes, or their penonal defects, rather than not 
Bay something to their annoyance ; * As to your man- 
ner of behaving towards these unhappy young eentie- 
aaen (at College) you deaerlbe, leclt be manly and 
eamr ; if they bmUr your regularity, order, decency, 
and love of atudy, bmUr in return their ne^ect of lu' 


RidicuU signifies the same as fai the preceding arti- 
cle ; tatire and irenu have the same original meaning 
as given under the head of Wit; «areaM».from the 
Greek aapicaeitbsj and oapKl^Ut (torn ailp( fleah, signifiea 
literally to tear toe flesh. . 

RidicuU has simple laughter In it ; satire has a mix- 
ture of lU-nature or severltMCbe fonner to employed 
in matters of a shameless or wBlng nature, sometimes 
improperly on deserving objects ; * Nothing to a greater 
mark of a degenerate and vicious age than the com- 
mon ridicuU which passes on thto state of life (mar- 
riage).*— Addison, satire to employed either In per- 
sonal or grave matters ; * A man resento with more 
bittemeaB a sottrs upon hto abilities than hto practice.* 
— Hawkkswouth. iromy to disguised aatire; an 
ironial seems to praise that which be really means to 
conlemn ; * When Regan (hi King Lear) counseto him 
to ask her sister forgiveness, he faUs on hto knees and 
asks her with a striking kind of ircny how such sup- 
plicating language as thto beeometh hlm.*-^OBirsov. 
Sareom to bitter and personal aatire; all the others 
may be successfuUy and properly emploved to expose 
folly and vice; but sarcasm, which to the iodulcence 
only of personal resentment, Is never JosUflabie ; » The 
severity of thto sarca«si stung me with intolerable 
rage.'— Hawkssworth. 


Jett to in all probability abridged from geatiemUte, 

because the ancient mimicka usea much geaticulatian 

in. breaking their jcsfs on the company ; jeis, in Latin 

4»Mt, comaalQ aU jrobahiUty &om the HebrawpnSf 

to laugh; tosMJU/MsalgiitteshiraloailKetheBdb 
jectof game or ptay ; to amerl signifies here to apart 
with, or convert inu> a subject of amusement 

One^te in order to make others laugh ; one j«ikes 
in Older to please one's self The je«e to directed at 
the object ; the jaka to practised with the person or on 
the person. One attempts to make a thing iaughabis 
or rldicukMis by jeatinif about it, or treating it in a 

jeating manner ; one attempto to excite good humour 
in others, or hidulge It in one's self by Jeking wl' 
them. Jeata are therefore seldom harmless : jekaa i 


frequently allowable. The most serious subjea may 
bedegradcd by being turned Into a jest ; 
But those who aim at ridicule. 
Should fix upon some certain rule, 
Which fkirly hints they are in J'e#^— Awirr. 
Melancholy or dejection of the mind may be oonv^- 
nlently diqielled by %joke; 

How fond are men of rule and place. 
Who court it from the mean and base, 
They tove the cellar's vulgar jo4Ee, 
And lose their hours in ale and soooke.— Gat. 
Court footo and buflbons used formerly to break their 
jrfr T:~^n rv'^rv Bubject by which they thought to en- 
t" I ployers : those who know how to jaka 

V IT M Mie and discretion may contribute to the 

H'^rut ' mpany : to stoikf j'asic of to applicable 

OLi>^i I <»: toMolce a #p^(of or«]i0r<with,is 

si'j'i^ <L ■•■ ■ : IS in general, whether persons or things; 

b <iJi .M4 ^ iii;<iMyedlUiei'e«t in the bad sense of treating 
s OoiiL jn <rr iigbtly than it deserves; ' When Sam- 
M,,u'i, *-\*y wrre out, of a public magistrate he was 
nuuk II pi I Ij lit; *pori.'~Soxrm. 

To jtJtt cout\A» of words or corresponding signs ; it 
to peculiarly appropriate to one who acto a part : u> 
joke consists not only of words, but of simple actinna, 
which are caioulaied to produce mirth ; it to peculiar^ 
appUcable to the social intercourse of friends : to mais 
gaau ^ constoto more of laughter than any ; it haa 
not the ingenuity of the jMt, nor the good-nature of 
the>sA« ; it to the part of the fool wlio withes to make 
others appear what he himself really to : to ofori with 
or to maka apart afy consists not only of simple acttona, 
but of conduct ; it to the errour of a weak mind that 
does not know how to set a due value on any thing ; 
the fool Of aria with hto reputation, when he risks tSa 
loss of it for a bauble. 


Bu^ comes from the Greek ateAnru to derMe : fOe 
and jeer are connected with the word gabble and Jab- 
ber, denoting an unseemly mode of speech ; mser to 
OMinected with sneece and nose, the member by which 
anaarinjf to performed. 

Sceifing to a general terra for exprassing contempt ; 
we may acqf either by gibea^jeara^ or anaera ; or we 
may acog by opprobrious language and contemptuooa 
looks: to gibe, jf«er, and sumt, are personal acts ; " 

in it; 

and jeer consist of words addressed to an indivi- 
; the formar haa most of lU-nature and reproacli 

Where town and eonntiy vicars flock In tribes, 
Secur'd by numbers from the laymen's ^*«s.— Swift. 
The latter has more of ridicule or satire In it ; 
Midas, expos'd to all their j«0r«. 
Had lost hto art, and kept btoears^— Swirr. 
They are both, however, applied to the actions of 
vulgar people, who practise their coarae Jokea on each 

Shrewd feUowB and such arch wags! A tribe 
That meet for nothing but to gibe.—^waT. 
*■ That jeering demeanour to a quality of great oflbnee 
to othera, and danger towards a man's self.*— Loan 
WaxTwomTH. Seaff and eneer are directed either to 
persons or things as the object ; gibe and jeer only 
towards persons: «eq]f is taken only in the proper 
sense ; siiesr derives ib> meaning from the literal act 
of snsertv * the acofar speaks lightly of that which 
deserves serious attention ; 

The fop, with learning at defiance 
Scege at the pedant and the science.— Gat 
The suMTsr speaks either actually with t snosr, or as 



It WV0 hf tmplottliM wldi t matr; * Tben ts one 
■hort pusage ■till remaining (of Alexis the poK*i) 
wbleh coDTeye a tiuer at Pytluforas.*— Cent bkelajid. 
Tbe teofftn at reHgtoo aet at nangiit all thooghta of 
decorum, tbey openly avow tbe little eetimauon io 
wbkta tbey bold it ; tbe #iiMr«r« at religion are more 
■ly, but not leaf malignant; tbey wlah to treat religion 
witb contempt, but not to bring tbemielvea into tbe 
contempt tbey deeerve ; 

And tiueri aa laamedly aa tbey, 

like ftawlM o'er tbeir moraing tea^— Swirr. 


Disparage compounded of dis and p^rrngt^ IWnd 
par equal, agnifies to make unequal or betow wbat it 
ought to be; dttraU^ In Latin dttractumf participle 
of delrmkoj from d$ and trmko to draw down, aignioea 
to «C a tbing below Us leal value; trudmeey inXatin 
trmimeo or transdue^j signifies to carry fto«n one to 
•notber tbat wbicb is unfavourable; dtprtate^ from 
tbe Latin pretnm^ a price, signifies to bring down tbe 
price; dtgrMde^ compounded of dt and grmdt or g r M dm § 
a step, d^ree, signioes to bring adegree or step tower 
tbao one has been before ; decry signifies literally to 
cry down. 

Tbe idea of lowerliw tbe value of an object is com- 
mon to all tbeae wor<b, which differ in tbe clrcum- 
■lances and object of tbe action. Ditparagtment Is 
tbe most indcAnlte In tbe manner : daCroei and tradw 
are specifick in tbe forms by.wbicb an object is lowered : 
dupmrfmnenl reqieots tbe mental endbwnaents and 
^oaliflcationa: detract and traduce are said of the 
moral character ; tbe former, however, ina less spedflck 
manner than tbe latter. We dinarara a man's per- 
forroanee by speaking sligbtingiy or It; we detract 
tnm tbe mertii of a person by ascribing hia sticcess to 
ebance ; we tradmee nim by banding about tales that 
are unlbvoarable to his reputation : thus aotbors are 
apt to ditfarage tbe writings of their rivals; *It is a 
hard and nice subjeet fm a man to speak of himself; it 
grates his own heart to say any thing of diefaragawtent^ 
and the reader's ears to bear any thing of praise from 
Mm.' — CowLKT. A person may detract from the skill 
of another ; * I have very often been tempted to write 
Invectives upon those who have detracted flrom my 
works ; bat I kiok upon It as a peculiar happiness that 
I have always hindered my resentments ttom proceed- 
ing 10 this extremity.*— Addisok. Or he may tradnce 
him by relatioc scandalous reports ; ' Both Homer and 
Virgil had their compositions usurped by otbera; both 
were envied and traduced during their lives.'— Walsh. 

T^ ddapmrage^ detract^ and traduce^ can be applied 
only to persons, or tbat which is personal ; depreeiatCy 
degrade^ and d«ery, to whatever is an object or esteem ; 
we mepredata and degrade^ therefbre, thlncs as well aa 
peiaons, and decry things ; to depreciate to, however, 
not so strong a term as to degrade; for the language 
which is employed to depreciate wiU be mild compared 
with that used for degrading : we may depreciate an 
ol!)ect by impUcatkMi, or In indirect terms ; but harsh 
and unseemly epithets are empk^red fbr degrading: 
thus a roan may be said to depreciate human nature, 
who does not represent it as cnpable of Its true eleva- 
tion ; he degradee it who sinks It below tbe scale of 
rationality. We may depreciate or degrade an indi- 
▼idual, a language, and the like ; we deay measures 
and principles : the two fbrmer are an act of an indi- 
▼klual ; the latter is property the aet of many. Some 
men have sucb perrertea notions tbat they are alwavs 
depreciating whatever is esteemed excellent in the 
world ; * The business of our modish French authors 
is to depredate human nature, and consMer it under 
Its worst appearancea.'— Addis ON. They whose In- 
isrests have stMed all feelings of humanity, have d«- 
graded tbe poor Africans, in order to Justify tbe en- 
slaving of them; * A kenside certainly retained an unne- 
Msaaty and oatrageoos seal (br what be called and 
thought liberw; a zeal which sometimea disguises 
ftom tbe world an envious desire of plundering wealth, 
or degrading greatness.'— JoRnsoN. Political partl- 
■ans commonly decry the measures of one party, In 
order to exalt those of another; * Ignorant men are 
very auMect to deerf thoee beauties in a celebrated 
work which tbay have itoc eyes todlaoover.*— Advison. 


Dieparage and durrad* have the saoM roeantaig m 
given In the precetUng article; daregate^ tai Latin 
derogatue^ lYom deraga^ to repeal In port, sigiiifiee to 

employed, not as the act of per> 

take fh>m a thing. 
i>u««r«fe is here 

sons, but or things, in whteh case h Is allied to d 
gatcy but retains Its Indefinite and general sense aa 

B Derfoi 

Befbre: drcumstances may dieparage the i 
ances of a writer ; or they may derogau from the 
hoooars and dignities of an Individual : It wouM be a 
high dieparageaunt to an author to have h known 
tbat be had been guilty of plagiarism; it derogates 
ttom the dignfty of a magistrate to take piut in popular 
measurea. To d«frad« Is here, aa in the former case, 
a much strtMiger expresaioa than the other two : what- 
ever dieparagta or derogatee does but take away 
a part fVom the value ; but whatever degradee sinks 1%^ « 
many degrees in the estimation of thoseln whote eyes 
it is degraded ; to this Bsanner rehgioo is degraded by 
tbe tow arte of ita entbusiastkk professora; 'Of the 
mind that can deliberately pollute itself with Meal 
wkkednesB, fbr the sake of wMdiag the contagion in 
soototy, I wish not to conceal or excuse the depravl^. 
Such degradatiem of the digntar of feadns eanooc la 
contemplated but with grief and IndignatkMi.* 

son. Whatever may tend to the dieparagaaunt of a 
profemion, does injury to tbe cause of troth : 
diepa ra g amem t to phikieophy, that it < 

deify us.*— Glakvilui. Whatever deragatee 

*'Tls DC 

tbeillgnityofamaoin any oOoe Is apt to ( 
oAce Itself; * I think we may soy, without diragating 
from those wonderful performances (the Uiad and 
iEneid), that there is an anqnestkmable magalflcenea 
in every part of Paradise Lost, and Indeed a much 
greater than could have been formad apon any Pagu 
system**— AoDwon. 

'se, in Latin aepereney participle of aaperga to 
:le, signifies In a moral sense to stain with spota, 
•aU has the same signlfieatkm as given under tha 
head of disparage; defame^ in Latin defame. com> 
pounded of the privative de and/ssia (kme, signifies to 
deprive of repuuiion ; elandar is doubtless connected 
with the words Witr, enUa^ and «0tl. signifying to statn 
with some spot ; e^arnnxate^ from the Latin caiiiaiiiM, 
and the Hebrew O^O infkJBay, signifies to load with 

All these terms dcnqte an effort made to injure tba 
character by some representation. Aaperae and d»- 
eroce mark an indirect mlsrepresentailon ; defame^ 
slander^ and ealummate^ a positive assertion. 

To aeneree to to fix a stain on a moral character ; to 
detract IB to lessen iu merits and excellencies. Aeper- 
eione always imply something bad, real or supposed: 
detracUona are always founded on some supposed 
good in the object that to detracted: to d^ame la 
openly to advance some serious charge against tha 
character : to elandar to to expose tbe fbults of another 
In hto absence : to ealummiaU to to communicate W9- 
cretly, or otherwise, ctrcumstancea to the iqjury of 

^epereiona and detraetione are never poahive fUsa- 
boods, as they never amount to more than insinuations ; 
defamation to the puMlcfc communication of facts, whe- 
ther true or fhlse : slander involves the discussion ot 
moral qualities, and to consequently the declaration of 
an opinion as weU as the communication of a fba: 
ealumnf, on the other band, to a poshlve communica- 
tk>n of circumstances known by the narrator at the 
time to be 1k\we. Jleperaiena are the effect of malice 
and meanness ; they are the resource of the basest 
persons, insidiously to wound the characters of those 
whom they dare not openly attack: the most viituoua 
are exposed to tbe malignity of the aepereer; • It to 
certain, and observed by the wisest writers, that there 
are women who are not nicely chaste, and men not 
severely honest, In all fbmilies; therefore let thoaa 
who r ' ■ 

shaU I 

of envy : when a man to not dtoposed or able to foOow 
tbe axampla of auotber, ha strivci to dettaet ftom tha 

evereiy nonesi, in an inmiiia; uiereiorv m uioaa 
rbo may be apt to raise aepereione upon oura, pleaaa 
> give us an impartial account of their own, and wa 
hall be satisfied.'— Stsiui. Detraction to tm effihet 



BMrit of hif aetioM by qoMtfonlag tiM parity of hli 
mocivw : dinipguwhed penons aie Uw mai expowd 
to tbe evil tooguM of dstrmetort; ' Wb«t made tlwir 
mmixj the more ealertmining to all the rest of tbelr 
■ex wae, that in their detrmetwn from each other, nei- 
ther could fail upon temu which did not hit herself as 
much as her adversary.' — Steblb. D^mmation is tlie 
consequence of personal resentment, or a busy inter- 
ference with other men's allkirs ; it Is an uiunstiflable 
exposure of their errours or vices, which is often visited 
with the due vengeance of the law upon the nfleoder ; 
* What shall we say of the pleasure a man takes in a 
defatmsUrf abel t Is it not a heinous sin in the sight 
or God t*~ADDiso1l. Slam^ arises either ftom a 
mischievous temper, or a gossipping humour ; it is the 
resource of ignorant and vacant minds, who are in 
want of some serious occupation : the sUaUertr deals 
unmerciAiily with his neighbour, and speaks without 
regard to truth or fa la e hood ; 

SUmder^ that worst of poisons, ever finds 
An easy entrance to ignoble minds.— Hbrvct. 

Osfaamy Is tbe wont of aetloas, resulting tnm tbe 
wont <^ motives ; to li^)ure the reputation of another 
by the sacrifice of truth, is an accumulation of guilt 
whkh is liardly exceeded by any one in the whole 
catalogue of vices; 'The way to silence calnsmy, says 
Bias, is to be always exercised in such things as are 
praiseworthy.'— AomsoM. SUnd^rtn and caitMuu- 
MUr» are so near a-kin, that they are but too often 
found in the same person: it Is to be expected that 
wlien the tUmUrtr has exhausted all bis surmises and 
rensure upon his nelgbboar, be will not liesitate to 
M<tMMM(s him rather tlian remain silent. 

If I epeak stighUngly of my neighbour, and Insi- 
miate any tiling against tlie purity of his principles, or 
the rectitude of his oonduci. I a»pwn him : it he be 
a charitable man, and 1 ascribe his charities toaselfiah 
motive, or otiierwise take away from the merit of hte 
conduct, I am guilty of ittrictitm: if I publish any 
thing openly that i^lures his reputation, I am a d«- 

fimm^: if I communicate to others the reporto ttiat are 
circulation to his disadvantage, I am a «Um4trer : 
If I fkhricate any thing myself ana spread it abroad, I 


To &hM»t expres s e s the strongest degree of self-bn- 
millation, from the French akaiftr, to bring down or 
make tow, which is comoounded of the inieoslvesylla- 
l>le a or «^ and baisser rrom b^ low, in Latin hatis 
tbe base, wliich is the k>west part of a column. It is 
at present used principally in the Scripture language. 
<M> in a metaphorical style, to imply the laying aside all 
the high pretensiooB wtilch disti n guish us from our 
felk>w-creatures, the descending to a state compara- 
tively low and mean ; to kmMbU, in French kumilury 
from the Latin AmNi/M humble, and humus the ground, 
naturally marks a prostration to the ground, and figura- 
tively a lowering the thoughts and feelings. Accord- 
ing to the principtea of Chrirtianity whoever mbaseth 
hUnself shall be exalted, and according to the same 
principles whoever reflects on his own llttleiieos and 
unworthiness will daily kmmbU himself before hb 

To dtgradt (e. TV di$pmrag«)t signifies to k>wer In 
the estimation of others. It supposea already a state 
of elevation either in outward circumstances or in pub- 
lick opinion ; disgrae* is compounded of the privative 
dis and the noun graca or favour. To ditgraee pro- 
perly implies to put out of (kvoor, which is always at- 
tended more or less with circumstances of ig^mloy, 
and refiects contempt on the object ; dtbase is com- 
pounded of the intensive syllable d4 and the a4)ective 
kM*$j signifvlng to make very base or low. 

Tne modest man mbm»M himself by not Inslstinff oo 
tbe distinctions to which he may be Justlv entitled : 
the penitent man kuwtbtsa himself by conressiog his 
erroura; the man of rank dtgradet himself by a too 
familiar deportment with hi« Inferiours ; he dufrmeu 
himself by his mea nn ess and irregularities, and itbatca 
his character by bis vices. 

We can never be mbaatd by abasing oursdves, but 
we may be kmmbUd by unseasonable kumiUatiaiiay or 
topiaptr tosMtAom; w« maj bt dagrUtd hf de~ 

'Tb Immortality, *tis that akme 
Amid life's paina, mk—eaunUy ea 
The soul can comfort.— Totmo. 
My soolis justly kmmblU in the daat— Bow. 
It is neceasary to mkf those who will exalt them 
Ives; to kmmkU those who have lofty opinions of 
themselves : * If the mind be curbed and kwmbUd too 
much In children ; if their spirits be akued and broken 
much by too strict a band over them : they lose all 
their vigour and industry.'— Locu. Those who act 
inconsistently with their rank and station are fl«- 
quently diyrWsd ; but it b more common for ottiers to 
be uidustlv ditgrmdtd thiougb the envy and ill-will of 
their infertours; *It b very disingenuous to level the 
best of mankind with the worst, and for the fkolb of 
particnlars to dagrmde tbe whole species.'— Huobbc 
FoUy and wickedness bring dUgrmu on coorta, where 
the contrary ought to be found ; 
Tou'd think no foob dugraeed tbe former reign, 
Did not some grave examples still remaiuw— Pops. 
The misuse of things for inferiour purposes dtb— 
their value ; < It b a kind of taking God's name in 
vain, to d*ba$t religion with such frivoloua disputes.'— 

Of all these terms dsgrad* and dugrme* are tbe 
most neariy allied to each other; but toe former baa 
most regard to tbe external rank and oonditiw, the 
latter to the moral estimation and character. wW- 
ever is low and mean b dtgr^dimg for thooe who art 
not of mean condition ; whatever b immoral b dif 
frcc^ai to all, but most so to those who ou^ to know 
better. It b degrading for a nobleman to associate 
with prixe-fighteis and jockeys; it b disgrmc^ful tat 
him to countenance the violatioo of the laws, wliich 
be b bound to protect; it b digrmding for a clergyman 
to take part in tlM ordinary pleasures and occupatioea 
of m an kin d in general; ft b disgrme^ful for him to 
indulge in any levities; Domitlandirfraisd himself by 
tbe amusement which he choee of catching flies; he 
disgraetd himself by the cruelty which be mixed with 
hb meanness ; iting John of England dtgrmdsd himself 
by hb mean compliances to the pope and the barons, 
and disgruetd himself by many acts of Injustice and 

The higher the rank of the individual the greater hb 
dsgradati^n : tbe higher hb character, or tbe more 
sacred hb office, the greater hb durrtuu^ if he act in- 
consistently with ib dignlnr : but tnese terms are not 
confined to any rank of lUe ; there b that whbh b 
dtgrmding and dttrrmuful for every person, however 
low hb station ; wTien a man forfeits that which he 
owes to himself, and sacrilkes hb independence to hb 
vices, he dtgrmdet himself: * When a hero b to be 
pulled down and degraded It b best done in doggeieL* 
— Addisor. * So deploraMe b the dagrmdaiiam o( our 
nature, that whereas before we iKtre toe Image of God, 
we now only retain tbe image of men.'— Sootb. He 
wlio forfeits the good opinion of tliose who know him 
to dugrmcsdy and he who fklb to bestow oo an ol^ect 
thefovouror esteem which it b- entitled lo <fu/raMt 
it ; ' We may not so in any one kind admire her, that 
we dugraes her in any other ; but let all her waya 
be acoordinf unto thmr place and degree adored.'— 
UooKKR. But although toe term diagrmee when gene- 
rally applied b always taken in a bad sense, yet in re- 
gard to individuab it may be taken in an IndilTereBt 
sense ; It b possible to be ditgraetd^ or to lose the 
favour of a patron, through hb caprice, without any 
fault on the part of the dM^racsd person; *Pbilipsdled 
honoured and lamented, before any part of hb reputa- 
tion bad withered, and before hb patron St. John had 
disjtraced him.* 
Men are very liable to err in their judgemenb on 
bat b dtgrudtng and disgrae^ul ; but aU who a 
anxious to uphold tlie suti 

I who are 

what b dtgrudmg and disgrauful ; but i 
anxious to uphold tlie sutlon and character in which 
they have been placed, may safely observe thb rule, 
tliat nothing can be so degrading as tlie viobtion of 
truth and sincerity^ end nothing so dugrncrfui as a 
breech of moral rectitude or propriety. 



Ttan tMfma my bt enplojed wMi ■ iliBUar dto- 
tlnetion in regard to tblnp; ^tbiatia degraded wbkh 
fUlt any degree in the acale of general fwlmaiton ; 

All higher Iniowledge, in her pretence, fUls 

A ihing Is disgraced when it becoawa or ia made Je« 
lovely and dedrable than it was ; 
And where the valet with vloleti once were crowa'd, 
Mow IcnotQr bum and thoma diegraee the ground. 


bte; ttisadliMTaM to aidiooiboy to bt plaeed the 
lowest In his class ; which is heightened into shams if 

Mash Is an intensive of abassj signifying to abase 
thoroughly In spirit ; confovad and em^fmss are derived 
ftom different parts of the same Latin verb »a/nfunds. 

and ftB r^Ttlrfpip f, ^^ ^ " Wo Is compounded 
c'f r^ I To csmfewU and 

cfln/ji.i. l^..:l .i^;i!r; jit .j.. i.;. i.^ „,^lt together OT Into 
one ni\LKi wtjiii ou^hi to Lit! ikHum t; and figuratively, 
pi tt ta h«r« tfitien, Ut dernnet^ tNo thoughts in such 
manner ai ttisi tliey aniiu meln^ together. 

J3ka.»h e<jire«w more ibnn tiiftj\:wiidy and antfownd 
taon than i:«m/iEj«r Al■Bl^c cohcributes greatly to 
dicjiLwrfbt , wJiat t^ smldi^n And nuitccountable serves 
to c^fmumd; tuulifUlnisa and a variety of enaolloos 

The baiLf hty msLn Is abtuhtd when he is humbled in 
the eyei of uiti^nif or tLc fiiintfr ivhra he stands con- 
victed; 'If Petir woa m u£a.fA^if ^rhen Christ gave 
hita a look oiWr JiiD dcujat ; if there was so much 
dread in his looks when he was a prisoner ; how much 
greater will it be when he sits as a juike.*— South. 
The wicked man Is cot^fsttuded when his villany Is 
suddenly detected ; 

Alas! I am afraid they have awak'd, 

And 'tis not dode : th* attempt, and not the deed, 

Csi^f»unds us !— SsAUfBAac. 
A modest person may be confused In the presence of 
his superioun; *The various evils of disease and 
poverty, pain and sorrow, are frequently derived (hxn 
others: but shame and confusion are supposed to pro- 
ceed from ourselves, and to be incurred only by the 
mlaconduct which they furnish.*— HAWKSsWoaTH. 

^bash is always taken In a bad sense: neither the 
•com of fDobi, nor the taunts of the oppressor, will 
abash him who has a conscience void of ollence to- 
wards God and man. To be CM^/bmuted is not always 
the consequence of guilt: superstition and ignorance 
are liable to be confounded by extraoidioary pheno- 
mena ; and Providence sometimes thinks fit to con- 
found the wisdom of the wisest by signs and wooden, 
fkr above the reach of human comprehension. C^- 
fusion is at the best an infirmity more or less excusa- 
ble according to the nature of the cause: a steady 
mind and a dear head are not easily confused, but per- 
sons of quick sensibility cannot always preserve a 
perfect collection of thought in trying situatioos, and 
those who have any consciousness of guilt, and ara 
oot very hardened, will be soon thrown mto confusion 
by close interrogatorleB. 


Dishonour implies the stale of being without honour, 
w the tiling which does away honour ; disgrace signi- 
fies the sute of disgrace, or that which causes the dia- 
graee («. Jlbase) ; shams denotes either the feeling of 
bebig ashamed, or that which causes this feeling. 

Disgroes is more than dishonour^ and less than 
shams. The disgrace is applicable to those who are 
not sensible of the dishonour^ and the shame for those 
who are not sensible of the disgroes. The tender 
mind is alive to dishonour : those who yield to their 
passions, or are hardened In their vkioos counes, are 
alike Insensible to disgrace or shams. Dishonour is 
seldom the consequence of any ofibnce, or oflbnd with 
any intention of punishing ; it liei mostly in the con- 
sckMisness of the individual Disgrace and «AasM 
are the direct consequences of misconduct : but the 
Ibnner appliea to chvumstances of less importance 

than the latter ; eonsequenUy the feeling of being in 
disgrace Is not so strong as that of shame. A citizen 
feefii it a dishonour not to be chosen to thoae offices of 
trust and hoooor for which he considen hinuelf aligi- 

it brings him into punialunent; 
Like a dull actor now, 
I have forgot my part, and I am out 
Even to a full dwjrscs.— SHAKsrsAaa. 
* I was secretly concerned to see human nature la so 
much wretchedness and disgrace, but could noC Ibr* 
bear smilinc to hear Sir Roger advise the oM Woman 
to avoid ill oommunicationa with the devil.'— Ao- 


The fear of dishamour acts as a laudable stimulus to 
the discharge of one*s duty ; the fear of disgroes or 
shame serves to prevent the commisrion of vices <v 
crimes. A soldier feels It a dishonour not to be placed 
at the post of danger; 

'T is no dishonour for the biave to die.— DaToiw. 
But he is not always sufBdently alive to the disgrasa 
of belna punished, nor is he deferred firom Ids inegu- 
larities by the open sAasu to which he is sometimes pitt 
in the presence <^ his fellow-soldiers ; 
Where the immd theatres disclose ttie seeoa 
Which interwoven Brito'ns seem to raise. 
And show the triumph which their «A«si« dispiaya. 

As epithets these terms likewise rise in sense, and ara 
disUnguiahed by other characteristkks ; a dishonourahU 
action Is that which violates the principles of honour ; 
a disgraceful action Is that which reflects disgrace ; a 
shamaful action Is that of which one ought to be ftiUy 
ashamsd : it is very dishonourahle for a man not to 
keep his word, or /br a soldier oot to maintain hH 

He did dishonourakle find 
Those artidts which did our state decrease. 
It Is verv disgraceful for a gentleman to associate with 
those who are his inferioura in station and education ; 
' Masters must correct their servants with gentlenesS| 
prudence, and mercy, not with upbraiding and dis- 
graceful language.*— TATUia {Holy Uvmg). It is 
very shameful tot a gentleman to use his rank and In- 
fluoice over the lower orders only to mislead them from 
their duty ; 

This all through that great prince's pride dkl (Ul, 
And came to shameful end.— Sransaa. 
A person Is likewise saM to be dishonomrahls who la 
disposed to bring dishonour upon himself; but thiim 
only are disgrauful or shameful: a dishonourable man 
renders himself an outcast among his equals ; he must 
then descend to his Inferiours, among whom he may 
become Ikmiliar with the disgraceful and the ehameful: 
men of cultivation are alive to what is dishonourable; 
men of all stations are alive to that which is for them 
disgraceful, or to that which Is in ilsdf ^Aosu/iti ; the 
sense of what Is dishonourable is to the superiour what 
the sense of the disgraceful is to the Inferiour; but the 
sense of what Is shamtful is independent of rank or 
staUon, and forms a part of that moral sense which Is 
Inherent in the breast of every rational creature. Who- 
ever therefore cherishes In himself a lively sense of 
what is dishonourable or disgraceful Is tolerably i 
thing that Is sAasK^ 

of never committing any tl 

discredit, disgrace, reproach, 
bcandaE. ' 

Discredit slcnifies the loss of credit; disgrace, the 

of grace, Ikvour, or esteem ; rmrso^ 
the thing that deserves to be reproached ; and scamdal 
for the thing that aives scandalot offence. 

The conduct of men in their various relations with 
each other may give rise to the unfevourable sentiment 
which is expressed in comaion by these terms. Thinp 
are saM to reflect discredit, or disgrace to bring reproach 
or ecandal, on the individual. These terms seem to 
rise in sense one upon the other : disgrace is a stronger 
term than discredit; reproach than disgrace; and 
scandtU than r^troacJk, 

Discredit interferes with a man*s credit or respecta- 
bility ; disgrace marks him oot as an object of unfli- 
vourable dlsUnctton ; reproach makes hbn a suldect of 
rsaraacVMconvenatloo ; scandal makes him an o 


ENGLISH snrNoinrMEa 

of oAooi or even abborreiie6. Atrenleritjrhiboorf, 
refularity In baMts or modes of Urtag , regolarity fa 
payments, are a ere^ to a fkmUj ; to it any devlarios 
fhMn thfti order to its dastrtdU : aa BMcat rectitude, 
kindness, charity, and benevoleace, serve to ensure tbe 
nod- will and esteem of men ; so do instances of nntinir 
dealing, cruelly, inbuokanity, and an unfeelinf temper, 
tend to tbe 4i$grmu of the offender: as a life of dis- 
tiniulsbed virtue or particular Instances of moral ex- 
cellence, may cause a man to be spoken of in strong 
terms of commendation ; so will flagrant atrocities or a 
course of immorality cause bis name and himself to be 
tbe general subjea of reproach : as the profession of a 
Cbrktian with a consistent practice is the greatest oi^ 
Bament which a man can put on : so is the profession 
with an inconsistent practice the greatest deformity 
thai can be witnessed ; it is calculated to bring a tcamdal 
on religion itself in the eyes of those Who do not know 
Md feel its incrinsick excellencies. 

Di»€r4iit depends much on the c h aracter, dreum- 
itaaces, and situation of those who ^uernUt and those 
who are ditertHud. Those who are in responsibie 
aituations, and have bad confidence reposed in them, 
must have a peculiar guard over their conduct not to 
bring iwcredtC on themselves: dis^sM depends on the 
temper of iq.en*s minds as well as coUaieral drcum- 
stances ; where a nke sense of moral propriety is pre- 
valent in any community, iugrmet inevitably attaches 
to a deviation fhnn good morals. it^rrooM and sccndoi 
refer more immediately to the nature of tbe actions than 
the character of tbe persons; the former being em- 
ployed in general matters ; the latter mostly In a relt- 
gions application: it is greatlv to tbe Htcrtdit of all 
beadsof poblick institutiona, when they aUow of abuses 
that interfere with the good order of the establishment, 
or divert it ftom ks original porpoae; "Tistheduty 
of every Christian to be concerned tbt tbe repatatkw 
or Mtcr^dit his Ufe may bring on his profession.*— 
BooBEs. » When a man is made up wholly of the dove 
without the least grain of the serpent in his composi- 
tion, be becomes ridiculous in many drcumstanc«« of 
his life, and very often di$eredit» bis bast actions.*— 
AnmsoN. In Sparta the slightest Intemperance re- 
flected great ditgrau on the ofitmder ; 

And be whose affluence dtsdaln'd a place, 
Bribed by a tiUe, makes it a disgrtce.—BKOWti. 
In the present age, when the views of men on Chris- 
tianity and iuduUes are so much more eoligbtened than 
they ever were, it is a rtproack to anv nation to con- 
4iau6 to tralBck In tbe blood of Its fellow-creatures ; 
* Tbe cruelty of Mary's persecution equalled the deeds 
of those tyrants who have been tbe reproach to human 
nature.*— EoBBETsoN. The blasphemous indecencies 
of which religious enthusiasts are guilty in the cxcem 
•f their leal is a Meandal to all sober-minded Christians ; 
His lustful orgies he enlarged 
Even to the hiU of acmmdal, by tbe grove 
Of Moloch homicide.— MiLTOM. 

hfmmaua, like infmmv (•. infamf), is applied to both 

I and things, 
only to thinp : a character is ti^eaisMS, or a transactioo 
is infammu; but a transaction only Is seoadaloM. 
Mamouc and seandalous are both said of that which 
is calculated to excite great dlmleasure in tbe minds of 
aU who bear it, and to degrade the olfendeis in tbe 
general estimation ; but the infamous seems to be that 
which produces greater publicity, and more general 
fvprehension, than the ceandaUnu, consequently Is that 
which is more serious in its nature, and a greater vio- 
lation of good morals. Manv of the leaders in the 
French revolution rendered themselves ii^amou* by 
their violence, their rapine, and their murders ; 'There 
Is no crime more infemoiu than the vWatJon of truth.' 
— JoHNsoK. The trick which was played upon the sub- 
scribers to the South Sea Company was a teandalout 
fVaud , • It is a very great, though sad and scandaUms 
truth, that rich men are esteemed and honoured, while 
the ways by which they grow rich are abhorred.*— 


JVMiyla(iieopporitetocood/«air; UconrfMaln 

aa IH name, a'stainetf name; w r s li i — i, a "Latin 
word, compounded o( op or ok and jirstniai, i 

nn evil report ; ^^nesilny , i 

tbe highest degree of reproach or stain. 

The idea of discredit or dligrace In tbe Mgbest poe- 
sible degree is conuoon to all these terms : but infam§ 
Is that which attaches more to tbe thli« than to tbe 
person ; igmomimff is thrown upon the pernm ; and m- 
pfokvi w m, Istlmnm npoa tbe agent rather than the 

The imfoMff causes dtber tbe person or thing to be 
111 spoken of by all; abhorrence or both Is exp re ssed by 
every mouth, and the ill report spreads fVom mouth to 
mouth: iywjrsifay cau ses unb name and the person to 
be held in contempt; and to become debased in the 
eyes of others : wpprohrnm causes the person to be 
spoken of in severe terms of reproach, and to be 
shunned as something polluted. The imfamji of a 
traitorous proceeding Is Increased by the addition pf 
ingratitude ; tbe ig m »m inf of a ooblick puniahmeut la 
increased by the w kko dn ea s of the oflender : •ppro- 
hrnm eometimes feUs upon the Innocent, when cir- 
cumstances seem toeonvkt them of guilt. 

hfmmt is bestowed by tbe publick voice; it does not 
bakmg to one nation or one age, but to every age: the 
tVasty of a base transaction|as the massacre of the 
Danes in England, or of the Hugonots In France, will 
be handed down to the latest posterity ; *The share of 

ntfmmm that Is likely to fkU to tbe lot of each individual 
in publick acta Is sbmU indeed.'— Buaue. Jgnvmhuf/ is 
ht on a person by the act of the maglatrate: the 


_ sentence of tbe law, and the Infliction of that 
sentence, exposes the name to publick scorn; ihtign^- 
sititf , however, seldom extends beyond the indivkfuals 
who are launediately concerned in It: every ^ 
man, however humble hisstation and narrow his SI 
would fein preserve his name (hxn being branded with 
the igntmxKf of either himself, or any of his (bmUy, 
auflering death on the galtows ; 

For strength (torn truth divided, and ftom Jutt, 
inaudable naught merits bat dispraise, 
And ^fn«suii|r.— MiLTOM. 
Opprohrhm Is the Judgement passed by the poblick; 
It is more sUent and even more confined than tbe infamy 
and the igmtwrn^: individuals are exposed to it ac- 
cording to the nature of the Impuutions under which 
they lie: every good man would be anxious to c 
the op pr ah rium of having forfeited bis Integrity; 
Nor he their outward onlv with the skins 

Of beasts, but inward r 

Opprohriouo^ with hie robe of rigbteonsMsa 

Arraykig, eover'd from bis fetber's sight. 



RniU, tmn the Latin viTw, signifies lo relleet npon 
a person, or retort unon him that which is vile: m 
vihff, signifies to make a thing vie, that Is, to set k 
forth as vile. ,. ^^ ,„ ^^^ 

TO r«rf(s Is a pewonal net, h Is addreased directly in 
the object of offence, and is addressed fer tbe purpoee oT 
making the person vile In his own eyes : tovtUft to an 
indireS attack which serves to make the ol^ect aapear 
vile in tbe eyes of others. R^^^^Jj^ on^r ^ ^ 
tor persons only are rtmUd; ^*i^ft^_^ 

roosUy of things, for things are often •tl^M. TortmiU 
Is contrary toall Chrtotian duty; H to commonly y 
eorted to by the most wortMesB, and pmetlaednpootiM 
most worthy; 
But chief he gloried with Ilcendoui atyle. 
To lash the great, and monarchs to rsviis.— Pofb. 
TO 9Uifv Is seblom jusdfiaMe; tor we cannot viUU 
without using Improper languafe; It Is ssldmn resorted 
to but for the gratification of Ul nature: 'There Is no- 

body so weak of Invention that 

little stories to wOift his enemy.'— Anwaon. 


jUpfMtk hns tha same signification ne^flvm* under 

rTjESw; eeammslir. from ««2»-A)*"l'%22f!2 

tumeo, sIgnlfleB to swell up ••««"? I •♦'•W.Jj^J 

and lifSr. sIgnlflM speaking against or to the die- 




Tbe Mm of fMMuCMiM or aofnr trMtmtiit of 
oUien It cominon to all these tenaa; but repromch it 
the geoenl, €0ntnmdff and oUoquf are the piarticular 
leniM. R«pr9mck la either deterred or UDdeeerred; 
the name of Puritan la applied aa a term of reproach 
to such as aflea greater purity than others; the name 
ofChrlstianisanaaMOf n(prMc4lnTttrluqr: bntrs- 
yrMdk lalien ahsoluielT ^ always suppoaad to ba onda- 
aarred, and to be Itaair a vice ; 

Has Ami rtfr—ek a prlrticie (Vom heaT*n t— Pops. 
Omtasicif is alwaya undMerrad; It ia the Insolent 
aweUlnc of a worthless person afUnst merit hi dis- 
tress ; our Saviour was exposed to the csatiuM/y of 
the Jews; *The royal captlvea followed in the train» 
amid iha horrid yells, and ftaotkk dances, and hi- 
Amoua ceateawJaes, of the furies of helL'— Bueks. 
ObUniff Is alwaya supposed to be deso^ed ; U Is ap- 
pUcahle to thoae whoaa conduct has rendered tbeia 
objects of leneral censure, and whose name therefore 
has abnost become a rnromclu A man who uses his 
power only to oppress those who are connected with 
Dim win naturally and deservedly bring upon hhnaelf 
mneh«Msfiqr; * Reasonable moderation hath freed us 
fhMU behig suliilect unto that kind of sAtefny, whereby 
as the church of Rome dith. under the colour of love 
towards those things whidi Me ha nn ks s, mahitahi ex- 
tremaly moat hurtful conuptloas; so we, pendrentuie 
■right be upbraided, that under colour of hatred to- 
wank thoae things that are cormpt, we are on the 
other side aatxtrema, even against ■Mstha iml aasordi- 
aanees.*— HooKBiu 

BaproMd^ml, when applied to the person, slgnifira 
Ibll of roptomckiu; when to the thing, desenring of 
* ■• aJkuaif Is only applied to the person, signl 
ir tbe maansr of s*«ss.* si ai'i iisasw it 
0emm a buflbon, la enmloyed aa an epithet efttber 




ritprssc*.* oHutvt H only applieo to 
tying aflsr tbe m aa n sr of s*«ss.* 
seurrc a bttflbon, la enmloyed aa ai . 
persons or thtafi, slgnilying Uilna saoTiAtly, or the 
language of a bnflboo. The ooodoct of a peiaon is 
r9fr—thf^ In aa much as U provokes or Is entitled to 
tbe r^prsscJbss of others; the language of a panon is 
nvrsseViU when It abounds ia rsfrrsacAss, or par^ 
taikes of the nature of a rtfroaek : a person ia mkuant 
who Indulges h im ssi f in stess or atastM language: 
Md he Is »emrritmu who adopts scarriltly or scvrrt- 
t0ma laogaage. 

When applied to the aame object, whether to the 
person or to the thing, they rise hi sense . the n^Mvoob- 
^ is lees than the «*«s^ and this than the seui^ 
Hfsas.* the rsprsacd^ la sometimes warranted by 
the proTttcatioa ; but the alasJvs and temrriUns are 
always unwarrantable : repnmkfmi langaage may be 
consisient with deceney and propriety or speech, but 
when the term is taken ahanhitriy, It is generally In the 
bad sense; * Honour teaches a man not to revenge a 
contumelious or reprome^fkl word, but to be above 
h.*— 8oirni. AkusitM and temrritnu language are 
I agalnat the lawa of good breeding, if not of 

o utf aa ts i 
morally ; 

Thus envy pleads a nat*ral cbUm 
To persecute the Muse's fbme. 
Our poets in all tfanes abusive, 
From Homer down to Pope Inclusive. 

* Let your mirth be ever void of all senm1»l|r and biting 
words to any man.*— 8ik UnMET Sidhbt. A parent 
may somstlmee find It necesnry to addrem an unruly 
eon in remr—eJtfml terms ; or one friend may adopt a 
repr^eaek/ul tone to another; none, however, but the 
fowest orders of men, and tlioae on^ when their angry 
passions are awakened, will descend to alkueive or 
scNrriioiw languafB. 


To rtfrohe^ which is a variation of refreaeh^ Is 
much stronger tban to condemn^ which bears the same 
general meaning as^ven under TV Blame; we always 
csndMim when we reprobmU^ but not vies e«r«d ; to 
TtfrobaU Is to cemi^mn in strong and reproachful lan- 
gaage. We reprakaU all measures which lend to sow 
discoid in soeiecy, and to loosen the ties by which men 
are bound to each other; •SimulaUon (according to 
my Lord Chesterfield) Is by do means to be reprebcUd 

•aadlegntesforehigrijiQr an wglai of wR.*— Mao* 
KSMzix. We umdemn all disrespectful language to- 
wards superiours ; 

I see the richt, and I approve It too; 

C&ndemn the wrong, and yet the wrong puisne. 

We niprs^dCs only the thhig ; we cendesni the person* 
also : any act of d is obed i ence in a child cannot be too 
strongly rspro^aisd; a parson must expect to be csis* 
dssuMtf when he involvee hlmaelf in embarrassments 
through his own imprudence. 


^tase, which tnm the Latin akmUr, signHykig t» 
injure by improperly using, is bsre taken In the meta- 
phorical appilcaiion for ill-treatment of persons ; mv«e- 
tive. from the Ladn tnssAs, signifies to bear upon or 
against. Harsh and unseemlv ceneure Is the idea 
comoaon to thcss terras; but the former to employed 
more properly against the penon, the huter against the 

Abu— to a d dit as e d to the tadividual, and mostly by 
word of mouth : tnvscttvc to communicated muetly hf 
writing. Abuee to dictated by aiiger, which throws off 
all constraint, snd violates aH decency: tnssetrM to 
dicuted by pa[rty spirit, or an intemperate warmth of 
fteHng in matters of opinhm. Abuee to always re- 
sorted to by the vulgar in their prfvaie quarreto: tM- 
uteti— to the ebuWikm of aaal and Hi-nature 

The mote rude and Ignorant the man, the mora 
liable he to to Indulge in abue*} * At an entertainment 
given by Pisislratus to some of hto intimates, Thm- 
sippus, a man of violent passion, and faillamcd with 
wine, took some oecasfon, not recorded, to break out 
into the most violent mbute and Insult.*— Cvmbkr- 
LAND. The more resHeas and oplnlated the par- 
tisan, whether in religion or politicks, the more reisdy 
he to to deal in Cassettes: *Thto to a true way or 
examlntaig a Hbel ; and wnen men eo n sidei that no 
man Hvbig thinks better of their heroes aad patrons for 
the panecyrick given them, none can think ibamsflvss 

lened by their tiiv«e<tvs.*— Btcklb. We must ex- 
pset to meet with ahu— from the vulgar whom we 
otfbnd ; and if we are in high stations, our conduct nriU 
draw forth inveetma fkom bnsybodtoa, whom qdeen 
has converted hMo oppositkmista. 


Declaimy in Latin declamOf that Is, de and eUais. 
signifies liteially to cry in a set form of words ; imeigk 
to taken in Uie same sense as given in the preceding 

To dsclenn to to speak either flir or against a person ; 
dscisMitfii/ to hi all cases a notoy khMl of oratory ; *It 
to usual for masters to make their Imys deeiaim on both 
sides of an argument.'— Swtrr. To immeitk slgniAM 
always to speak against the object ; in Ihtolattef apn^i- 
tlon publick men and publick measures are subiects K»r 
the deelamer; private individuate afford subjecu for 
ntveifkiug; the former to under the influence of partl- 
linionB or prqudices; the latter to the fruit of 
I reeentment or dtopteaaure : oatrlots (as ttiqr 

culafopinionB or prqudices; the latter to tJie fruit of 
personal reeentment or dtopteaaure : oatrlots (as ttiqr 
are called) are always dedaminf against the conduct 
of those ia power, or the suu of the nation ; and not 
unfrequently they profit by the opportunity of indulging 
their private pique by imneigkimg against partkular 

of the government who have diitappointed 
their expectations of advancement A deelaimer to 
noisy ; be Is a man of words ; he makes long snd loud 
speechee : * TuUy (was) a good orator, yet no good 
poet; Sailust, a good historiographer, but no good ds- 
ciaraur.'— FoTHxasT. An inveigker to virulent and 
personal: he enters into private details, snd often 
indulges ms malignant foetlngs under an aflbcied re- 
gard for morality; ' Ill-teropered and extravagant tii- 
ueetive* aftlnst papists, made by men, whoss persons 
wanting authoriiv, as much a« their speeches do rea- 
son, do nothing etoe but set an edge on our adversaries* 
sword.'— Jackton. Although both these words may 
l>e applied to moral objects, yet declamatiene are more 
directed towards the thing, and invecUvee against the 
person; *The grave Hiid the merry have equally 
tJiought themselves at liberty to concUide, either with 


fol^.*— JOBMfON. 

(Scarce were the flodn refreihM wtth momioc dew, 
When Damoo «retch*d beneetli an olive ahaoe, 
And wUdly atarlog upward, thus imngk'd 
Agninei the conacloua goda. ^Dkidkm. 


loT female 


BUm$^ In Fiench Maaur, probably from the Greek 
BsBXi^tfuit perfect of the T«ffb fiXdirm lo hurt, aignl- 
mng 10 deal hanhhr wKh ; r^ro9* cornea from the 
Latin nyi ata, which slfniflea the coDtrary of ^rwi«, 
to approve; r^r^meky in French r^riik^r. com- 
pounded of r« and prvdU, fr^xhnu near, aiffmllea to 
cast back upon a perMm; uphrmuL compounded of ^ 
or up9nt and krmii or kntdt alffniAea to hatch a(alnst 
one ; ctnture^ In French emwatr*, Latin cciuara, the 
eenaorship, or the oAce of eenaor : the cenanr being a 
Roman mafiatrate. who took cofmzanceof the morali 
and mannemof the people, and pualahed oObncea 
againat either: ge ad a ww , in French c#Kd«am«r, Latin 
€0ndmmm9t compounded of cen and damiM, from 
dcamwa, a kM or penally, algnlfiei to a en tenc e to 
aome penalty. 

The ezpreaakm of one*B dlMpprobatlon of a pctaon, 
or of that which he haa done, la the oommon idea In 
thealgniacatioaoftheaeterma; bat to Wmm expreaaoa 
lem than to rtprvfH, We aimply charge with a feult 
in kUmimg; but in rtfnvingy aereri^ ii mixed with 
the chaige. Rifweh expremee more than either; It 
ia to Mmu acrimonknialy. We need not beaitate to 
blame as occasion may require ; but it la proper to be 
cautions bow we deal out ntpra^ where toe neceadty 
of the case doea not Ailly warrant it; and it is highly 
autpable to r^fr9atk withoot the OKMt substantial 

To NosM and rtfrevt are the acts of a superkwr ; to 

rtfr9€tky gytr si'd , that of an eoual: 
ModMm leave the relative condition of the parties 
itadeOned. Masters hUmt or niprvvs their servants; 
parenta their children; friends and acquaintances 
rtfr^mtk and Mfkr u ii each other ; penons of all con- 
ditions may emuwn or be cfaMcred, con/Umn or be een- 
d4m»*dt aooocrling to circumstances. 

Blumt and rtft—f are dealt out oo every ordlnarjr 
occasion; rtgrreae* and upkrnd respect personal 
matters, and always that wMch alTecu the moral 
character ; ctntwr* and e^ndgmumtion are provoked by 
feults and mkKondua of dUferent descriptions. Every 
feult, however trivial, may expose a person to Moim, 
porticalarly if he perform any oAce for the vulgar, 
who are never contented; 
Chafe not thyself abottt the rabble*s censure: 
They NosM or praise, but as one leads the other. 


provoke c 

called In quescton; 

pwtkidutf ir hi! iMgrhy bt 

ours, however small, seem neces s a rily to 
can for n^rse/, and yet It is^ a mark of an hniierioin 

Intentional erroui 

temper to aubstitute rtfr—f In the place of admooi- 
tton, when the latter might possibly answer the pur- 
pose ; * In an termsof rtpvof^ when the sentence ap- 
pears to arise from personal hatred or passkm, It Is not 
then made the cause of mankind, but a misunder- 
standing between two peraons/— Stbblb. Thcra is 
nothing which provtAes a rtfr—ek socmer than ingra- 
tinide, although the ofltender Is not entitled to so much 
notice from the injured person ; 
The prince replies : * Ah cease, divinely fair. 
Nor add n^prMcAM to the wounds I bear.'— Pora. 

Mutual vmkrmiiinn commonly foUow between thone 
who have mutually contributed to th^ misfortunes ; 
Have we not known thee, slave! Of aO the host, 
The man who acts the least «9»rstds the most. 


The defective execu tion of a work Is calculated to 
draw down emumrt upon Its author, particularly if be 
betray a want of modesty; 
Though ten tiaus worse themselves, youll frequent 

Those who wtth ke en es t rage win csntws you.— Prrr. 

ThemlMoketof ageiMral,ora mtadscer of state, wU 

Thus they lo mutual accusation wacsol 

The ftiUtiem hours, but neither wM-ttmitmning, 

BUm$j Ttfr9ofy and np^raidni^, are olwaya ad- 
droaeddliectly to the individual in peraon; ryrnecA. 
CMMiire, and g—d o w astMa , are sometltnes totntntti 
through an indirect channel, or not addresMd at all to 
the party who Is the objectof them. When a master 
hlomtt his servant, or a parent ruf/w— bis child, or 
one friend «p^«td» another, be dbects his discourse to 
tdm 10 express his disapprobation. A man will always 
be Twftr^mchti, by his neighbours fer the vices he com- 
mits, however he may fency himself screened frv>m 
their observation ; * The very regret of being surpassed 
In any valuable quality, by a person of the same abili- 
ties with ourselves, will rtprooc* our own laziness, 
and even shame us into Imlutkm.*— Rooxas. Writers 
un»wrt each other in their publications; 

Men may mmmw thine (weakness) 
The gentler, if severely thou exaa not 
More strength from me, than in thyself was found. 


The conduct of individuals Is sometimes cendnmsd by 
the puUlck at large ; ' They who i^rove my conduct in 
this particular are much more numerous than those 
who ffsad»ww it.'— Stbctator. 

Blmm^ rtfftdi^ npkr^idy and eetuifMi, may be ap* 
plied to ourselves; reproof and etngurt are applied to 
others: we hlmmt ourselves for acts of Imprudence: 
our consciences rtpr^cck us for our weaknesses, and 
MfbrMd or cendesm us for our sins. 

Personal Mamc or censure is Implied by both those 
terms, but the former to much milder than th« latter. 
By rt^nkenti&n the personal indcpendoice to not so 
sensibly affected as in the case of rtmnej : pecjiloof 
aU ages and sutions whose condua to expueed to the 
investigation of others are liable to reprtknuioH ; hat 
chiUren only or such as are In a subordinate ca|«city 
ore exposed to rtfr—f. The r^rthtntitn amounts 
to Utile more than naming an unfavourable sentence 
upon the conduct of anottier ; * When a man feeto the 
r«fr9kem»ion of a friend, seconded by hto own heart, 
he to easily heated into resentment.*— Joimsoif. JU- 
^rM/addstothercprdtoiwwn an unfriendly addrem 
to the oflbnder : * There to an oblique way of reproof 
which takes off frvm the sharpnees of it.*— Stbxlb. 
The master of a scho(4 may be exposed to the rtpr^' 
ktn»i0n of the parents for any supposed impropriety: 
hto scholars aie subject to hto frequent rtpr*^. 

ak$ek derives its figurative signification from the 
cAcdHnsls, a movement in tlie gameof cheM. whereby 
one atops one*s adversary from making a furtoer move ; 
whence to cAack signifies to stop the course of a per- 
son, and en tbto occasion hy the exercise of authority ; 
ekide lain Saxon ctd«m probably connected wlthcyMe* 
to scold; rtpriwiund Is compounded of the privative 

SrHabto rtpri and monif, in Latin mendo to commend, 
gnlfytng not to commend ; reprvrs. In French re- 
wrcuwrilantin reproboy to compounded of the prlvatlv« 
syllable r« and proho, elgnliying to find the contrary of 
good, that to, to find bad, to blame ; rtMu to com- 
pounded of r* and kuke^ in French *•««*« the mouth, 
signifyinc to stop the mouth. 

The Idea of expressing one*s disapprobatioa of a 
person's conduct to common to aU these terms. 

A person to cheeked that be may not continue to do 
what to oflbnslve; he Is chidden for what he has done 
that he may not repeat h : impertinent and forward 
peonto require to be dUdisd, that they may not become 
intolerable ; 

I hate when vice can bolt her argnmenta. 

And virtue has oo tongue to cAedk her pride. 

Thougfatlem people are dUddsn when th^ give httrtftil 
proofrof tbdr canJessnew ; *What had be to do to 
ekide at met* — Smakstbaiik. 



Tm^unektekUhf aetlOM and looka, u well m 

But If ■cl«m*nNM Tile ptabeian row, 
Him wmni^r0^hteMtei^d, ortem^d with 

Tbcj trt ekiddem by words only: ■ timid penoo it 
easily cAedUd; the went eren of due eneourefeflBent 
will eenre lo damp hie reeolutloni the yoeof ere per- 
petually fUling Into Inegalaritiea whioh ie(;iiire to be 

Hie bouee wee known to all the vafrant train, 
He dUi their wauderinfi, bat relieved their pain. 


To €kMd$ marka a itronfer degree of difpleaaorethan 
r«prtai««d, and rtpriwuutd than repnnf* or rebuk* ; a 
peraon may cAtde or reprimmmd In annr, he rqtrovts 
and rebukt* with co(4neee: great oflencee call forth 
B or miataiea 

■ occaaion or require a 
rtprimand; *ThiaBort of language was very severely 
r^Hmamdtd by tlie Censor, who told the criminal 
** that he spoke In contempt of the court." '—Addison 
AMD Stkblb. Irregularities of conduct give rise to 
T€^r—f; * He who endeavours only the happiness of 
him whom he rt^wa^ will always have the tatisAc- 
tion of eillier obtaining or deserving kindnees.'— Jobn- 
eoN. Improprieties of behaviour demand rebukt; 
• With alTthe Infirmities of his disciples he cahnly 
bore ; and his rtkukes were mild wlien their provoca- 
tions were great*— Blaie. 

Ckidimg and rarimmmdiMf are empk>y ed for oAncea 
against the Individual, and in cases where tlie greatest 
disparity exists in the station of the parties; a child 
ia ekid by his parent; a servant is n;pnaM«d«d by Us 

Rarroving and rtMting have less to do with tlie 
relation or statton of the parties, than with the nature 
of the oflence : wisdom, age, and experience, or a spi- 
ritual mission, give authority to r*pr»v« or rtkuke theme 
wboee conduct has violated any law, human or divine : 
the prophet Nathan r^rmved king David for his 
liekious offimces otjalnst his Maker : our Saviour re- 
kuktd Peter (br bis presumptuous mode of speech. 

Accuse, in Latin asnwe, compounded of sc or ed 
and owe or emu* a cause or trial, signifies to bring to 
trial ; dUryv, from the word cmrgc a burden, sic nioee 
lo lay a burden ; is^mcA, in French M^yecA«r to hinder 

or dMurb, compounded of <ai or m and jms the foot, 
sicnifies to set one's foot or ooe*s self against an- 
other; mrrmigni compounded of cr or od and raifn 
or roM^s, MgniAes lo range, or set at tlie bar or a 

The Idea of asserting the guilt of another is common 
to these terms. Accm$9 in the proper senee Is applied 
parlkularly to Crimea, but it la also applied to every 
species of oflence ; cAer/« may be applied to crimes, 
but is used more commonly for breaches of moral con- 
duct; we ocowe a peiaon of murder; we ckatrg* him 
with dishonesty. 

Acaut is properly a Ibrmal action ; tkmrgt Is an in- 
formal action : criminals are acciutdy and their aecu$ar 
ticm la proved in a court of Judicature to be true or 
Mse; *The Countess of Hertford, demanding an au- 
dienee of the Queen, hiki before her the whole series 
of his mother's cruelty, and exp oeed the improbability 
of an ecotf sties, by which he was ekmrgwd with an 
intflot to commit a murder that couhl produce no ad- 
vaatMe.'— JoRRSOM (Ltf* •f &nrs#s). Any person 
may be Aargtd^ and the ckmrge may be either sub- 
stantiated or refbtedln the Judgement of a third per- 
son ; *Nor was this iTregularity the only thcrf whkh 
Lord Tyreonnel brought against him. HavTnc given 
him a collection of valuable books stamped with 
his own arms, be had the mortificatkMi to see them 
in a short time expoeed for sale.*— Jobmsom (Lift tif 

Jmpamek and arrmgn are both species of aceuaing ; 
the former In appUcwon to statesmen and state con- 
cerns, the latter In renrd to the general conduct or 
principles ; with this dUference, that he who iwipcadiM 
only aaserta the guilt, but does not determine it ; but 
fboee who errei^ also take upon themselves to de- 
ckle: itatesroen are imftaekU for misdemeanours In 

the adminkrtratkm of g o v ernm ent ; 'Aris t og h OB, with 
revengeful eunnhig, imp^Mcktd several courtiers and 
intimates of tlie nrrant'— CuMBaaLARn- Kinas mr' 
ruifn govemours of provinces and subordinate pnnoeat 
and in this manner kings are somftimes mrraignci be- 
fore mock uibunals : our Saviour was mrraifncd before 
Pilate ; and creatures in the madness of preeumptloB 
mrrmign their Creator ; * O the InciB r sssihle horrout 
that will seixe upon a poor sinner, wnea he stands itf 
rmtgnci at the bar of Divine Justtoe.*- 

To scenes (o. TV Jtceu$») is only to asse r t the gudt 
of another ; to c«»#«re («u TV Ctmsmr*) ie to take that 
guilt for granted. We uecmMc only to make known the 
o^noe, to provoke Inquiry ; we csnesrs in order to 
inflict a puniebmoit. An secseelies may be false or 
true ; a eesesrs mild or severe. It to extrwnely wrong 
to aecsM another without suibcient grounds ; * If the 
person eecMsd makelhhto limooeBce plainly to appear 
upon hto trial, the eecsser is Immediately put to an 
ignominioua death.'— Swirr. But still worse to ccm- 
mre him without the muel substantial grounds; * A 
statesman, who to poasce e d of real merit, should look 
upon hto political eencnrcrc with the same neglect that 
a good writer regards bto eriticka.'— Addisoh. 

Every one to at liberty to occsss another of olfcoces 
whtoh he knows him for a certainty tn have comoytted ; 
but none can cssesrs who ars not authorizsd by their 
age or station, .^csvsni^ to for the ONst part employed 
for pubUck ollbacee, or for private o&nces of much 
greater magnitude than thoee which call for ccsesrf ; 
* Mr. Locke mceman thoee of great negNaence who 
disoourse of moral things with the least obecurity in 
the ternie they make use of.*— Budoblu * If any 
man measure hto words by hto heart, and speak aa he 
thinks, and do not express more Uudness to every 
man than men usually have for any man, he can 
hardly escape the cessars of the want of breeding.*— 



To enumrt (v. TV Accuse) exp r ess e s less than lo 
eacsMdeertorcritsciM; one may always csssars when 
one ssTSisdvsrte or eritieiccc : eaiaiedMrf, In Latin 
esAssdverto, i.e. e«tsw« v«r(e«d, signifies to turn the 
mind towards an object, and, in thto case, with the view 
of ftndbig fkult whh It : to cHtieuc, from the Greek 
Kplvtt to Judge, signifies to pass a Jnugement upon aa- 

To c«seiir« and ostsisdesrf are both personal, the 
one direct, the other indirect; criticism m directed to 
things, and not to persons only. 

Csnsuriug consists In finding soose (knit real or snn- 
poeed ; it refors moetly to the conduct of Indlvidnale. 
Amimadoert conetots In soggMting some errour or im- 
propriety ; It refers mostly to matters of oplnkm and 
dispute ; criticism conetots In minuteiv exarolnlr^ the 
Intrlnsick characterlsticks, and appseeiating the merlte 
of each Individually, or the whoto collectively ; it reflva 
to matters of science and learning. 

To censMre requires no more than simple assertion : 
its Justice or propriety often resto on the authority of 
the individual : *Manv an author has been dejected at 
the cemsurc of one whom he has kioked upon as an 
Idiot'— Addison. ./fstsMdosrsiess require to be accen- 
panied with reasona; thoee who muimudvert on the 
proceedings or opinions of others must state some 
(rounds for their objections; • I wtoh, Sh. you would 
do us the fkvour to estsiedesrt (yequently upon the 
Iklse taste the town to in, with relation to the plays aa 
well as operas.*— Stskls. CriUdam to altogether argu- 
mentotlve and Illustrative : it Ukes nothing for granted. 
It analyses and decompoees, it compares and combines, 
It asserts and supports the assertions ; * It to ridiculous 
for any man to crttids* on the works of another, who 
has not distinguished himself by hto own perform- 
ances.* — A DDISOM. 

The oflloe of the caumrcr to the eas ies t and leael 
honourable of the three; h may be assumed by igno- 

rance and Impertinence, It may be uerformed 'for" the 
purpose of indulginc an angry or imperious temper. 
The task of amimadvcrtingm delicate; It may be re- 

sorted to for the Indulgence of an overweenmg seiT 
conceit. The oflke of a criUck to both arduous and 



hoaoonUa; ittainMlbelllMliyaayoMtneompeMBi 
Ibr the charfle wltboat ezpotinf Ml acrofUice tna fbUy 


Onuitr* hu tlM mom gsiMral iDMnlnc m chrtn Id 
the preoedtM artlelei («. TV wSmwm) : earv, in Latin 
carp*, tigiilAet to nluck ; ecoi/, in FreBeh emvilUrj 
In LaiUn «««rill«r, (Voai ecvilliMi a boUow roan, and 
MOM boUow, ilfnmea to ba onBound or omobatantial 
toipaa ch . 

To eauiot mpeeti positive erroun; to c«rp and 
€a»U have refard to what la uItUU or inaglnary : the 
Ibrmer Is employed ft»r enoun In penona ; the latter 
ibriuppoaeddenetainthinei. OnuwrM are frequently 
neceasary from thoee who have the authority to uae 
them ; a food father will emtmre his ehUdren when 
their convict Is emtwrmkU : but em«mr« may likewise 
beftequf'nilynnkutaiidlVhroious; * Fnua aconsckNis- 
ness of his own integrity, a man assumes force enough 
to d esp ise the UttleesasMT— of Ignorance and malice.'— 
BcDovLL. Carpimg' and camUimg are resorted to only 
to Indulge ill-Dature or sdf-oonceit ; whoever owee 
another a grudge will be moet dlspoeed to emrp at all he 
does In oner to lessen him In the esteem of others: 
thoee wIm coaiend more for victory than truth wUl be 
apt to cev»< when tb^ are at a losa for fUr argument; 
party poUlkiaBa emrp at the measures of administra' 
tlon ; *lt Is always thus wkh pedants; they will ever 
be cmrpimgt If a gentleman or man of honour puts pen 
to paper.*— ^niBLS. Infidels esetl at the evidences of 
Christianity, because they ate detoimined to disbe- 
lieve ; *Eovy and emml are the natural fruits of lasi- 
nem and ignoranoe, which waa probably the reason that 
In the heathen mytholoffy Moraus Is said to be tho son 
of Nox and Bomnas, of narkness and sleep.'— Aomsoii. 


Jlnimadver0i0n (o. TV Centwr*) Includes censure and 
reproof; eriticum Implies scrutiny and Judgement, 
woether for or against; and «tmf«r«, ftom the Latin 
striedtrs and tlnnfo to touch lightly upon, compre- 
hends a partial InveitigatiOQ mingled with censure. 
We sttisiedMrt on a pemon's opinions by contradkUng 
or conecting them; we crOaews a person's works by 
minutely and rationally eipostaig their Imperfections 
and beauties; we pass strielure* on puMiek measures 
by dssranting on them cuisortty, and censuring them 
parfti ff y. 

Animadver»i0iu are tdo personal to be Impartial ; 
eoaseQueody they are seldom just; they are moMly 
resorted to by thoee who want to bttUd up one system 
on the ndns of another ; but t^ term is sometimes 
employed in an indifierent sense ; * These thingi fall 
under a province von have paitlv pursued already, and 
therefore demand your «nhR«de«rnsii for the regu- 
lating so DoWe an entertainment as that of the stage.*— 
0TBKLB. Oritieum Is one of the most Imporunt and 
honourable departmenti of literature; a critic^ ousht 
jwUy to weigh the meritB and demerits of authors, but 
of the two his office Is rather to blame than to praise ; 
much less i^JurT will ooerue to the cause of literature 
from the severity than ftom the laxity of erUuum; 
* Just entieitm demands not only that every beauty or 
Uemlab be minutely pointed out hi Its diflerent degree 
and kind, but also that the reason and foundation of 
axeeUendes and fhoUs he accurately ascertained.'— 
WAaTOir. StrietMm are mostly the vehlclaB of party 
spleen ; likemost ephemeral productions, they are too 
suporfieial to beentltled to serious notice; but this term 
Is also used hi an Indifferent sense for cursory eritieal 
lemarks; * To the end of ooost plays I have added short 
9triUmr*9t containing a general censoie of Aulls or 
praise of excellence.*— Jobwsoii. 

Both diese temv are employed In regard to the eon- 
doct of others, bat the ceaqileMi, from the verb toeom- 
.1 . . !._» "yafltect 

talntagthefhctorWnglBgtopalslBiMt A«. 

msy be frivoloos; an accn»atwn fhlse. People la 
milMrdlnate stations should be careful to give no cause 
for cow^tanu ; * On this occasion (of an Interview with 
Addison), Pope made his eon^laiiU with f^iikneai and 
spirit, as a roan undeservedlv neglected and opposed.'— 
JoBHSON. The most guarded conduct will not protect 
any perMm ftom the nnjust mumamtitm* of the malevO' 
lent; * With tuiH enter distrust and discord, mutnal 
and stnbboin sslf-defenee.*— Jokiisoh. 


All these terms denote not simply fteHng, bat alM> 
expressing dtssatlsfaction with some person or thlnf . 
To find fault with signifies here to point out a ftiulL 
either hi some person or thing ; to blamt Is said only or 
the person ; oLjut is applied to the thing only : we /ad 
fault leitk a person for his behaviour; we Jlnd fault 
with our seat, our conveyance, and the like ; we klama 
a person for his temerttv or hb improvidence ; we 
obiett to a measure that Is proposed. We jind fauJU 
with or hlanu that which has been done; we o^'sd i» 
that which Is to be done. 

Finding fault Is a familiar action applied to matteia 
of personal convenience or taste ; bktme and object te, 
particularty the latter, are applied to serious objects. 
F^ndinf fault Is often the (hiit of a discontented 
temper : there are some whom nothing will please, and 
who are ever ready to jiad fault witM whatever comes 
In their way ; * Tragi-coroeoy you have yourself found 
foMlt with very juauy.*— Buookll. Blame is a matter 
of discretion ; we blame frequently in order to correct ; 
* It is a most certain rule in reason and moral phllosopby. 
that where there is no choice, there can be no blame.* 
— SucTH. Objecting to Is an aflhir either of caprice 
or necesdty ; some capriciously oijeet to that which la 
proposed to them merely fVom a spirit of tq^iposition ; 
others object to a thing from substantial reasons ; * Men 
In all (teuberations And ease to be of the negative ekle, 
to s^sd, and foretd difficulties.*— Bacox. 

To o^eety from ob and jocte to cast, Is to cast In the 
way ; toonoae Is to place in the way ; there Is, there- 
fore, very liltle original diflerence, except that casting Is 

•teMi, Is aMsUy made hi matters that personally 
the cttnptahiant; the secasottsa («. is .dccast) is 
of mattera hi general, but especially those of a moral 
nature. A cesMiaral is made for the sake of obtaining 

ledMis; an aeeusatMfi Is made for the sake of asoer- 

a more momentary and sudden proceeding, placing w a 
mere premeditated action ; which distinction, at tho 
same time, corresponds with the use of the terms in 
ordinary life : to objut to a thing is to propose or start 
something against it ; but to oppose it is to set one's self 
up steadily against it: one objects to ordinary matters 
that require no reflection ; one opposes matters that can 
for deliberation, and afford serious reasons for and 
against: a parent olgects to his child's learning the 
dassicks, or to his running about the streets ; he ovposeo 
bis marriage when he thinks the connexion or the cir- 
cumstances not desirable : we o^ect to a thing from 
our own particular fedings ; we oppose a thing because 
we judge It Improper; capricious or selfish people will 
object to every thing that comes across their own hu- 
mour ; •About this thne, an Archbishop of York 
objected to clerks (recommended to benefices bythe 
Pope), because they were Ignorant of English.*— Tra- 
wnrrr. Those who oppose think it necessary to assign, 
at least, a reason for their opposition ; 
♦T was of no purpose to oppose^ 
She 'd hear to no excuse In prose.— Swirr. 

The objection (e. Demur) is here general; It compre- 
hends both the difficultjf and the exception^ which are 
but species of the objection : the objection and the di^l- 
euUv are started ; the excqttion is made : the objection 
to a thing Is in general that which renders it less desi- 
rable; but the difficulty is that which renders It less 
practicable ; there Is an objection against every scheme 
which incurs a serious risk ; * I would not desire what 
you have written to be omitted, unless I had the merit 
of removing your oi^VerMm.'— Port. The want of 
means to begin, or resources to carry on a scheme, are 
•erious difficulties ; * In the examination of everv great 
and comfrcheaslve plan, such as that of Christianity, 

U0LI8H BnoamsEB. 

nu Ib npHMilM lo 

I ^Mbiifly CMMM porpltziiy la 
leitflMmM Itor inumwlmti- 
WMrulaly, ud the MoivMr^ 

wtthoM'fdeeMoB: Um 
tbe mind ; * Tbey Brirtak 
Itoi; ■paniloioaiiBlMk«c«rulaly, 


bilwcci tO — 

ip«eehlitb0^^M<iM,airfBolllwdMiiloo; uilJMt 
It to aftiar reArted.*— Baomi. 

Tbe #Wicf»wi Mid n wy ri i w fcolh 
9be Bond tcadeaqr, or manl tm m qin m tom of a tMaf; 
jf bo IHvohMM or MrkNM ; tho mh 

^MrtoQo: tfW4M#iMMi fi poiillvo: 

li ictativehr coMlda»d. tlMt H tho tUi« 
II ocbor thf ti , M MM food, and eonae- 
•M«<«dlo. O V w to>»u "o ■ a diw ia e rt aiw tp 
, . . tolbr the aioreoako of gottiiif rid of an oafifa- 
awat: tboie who do not wtiii to ghra ih i ai oi l yeo troa- 
Ue find an eaiy awttaod oTdiiongacbiK thaamlTOi, hf 
Buddnf Mttmna to ovary propoolttoa; 'Whoorar 
Biakat floeh okg^ctimu agatant aa hy p o ih erii, hath a 
rifht 10 be haora, let hit temper and geoioe be what it 
wU.*— BuBMBT. Lawyera make •xumHomB to chaigai 
whkh are loeMClmeo not aoflklentiy enbwant fat ed; 
* Whaa they deride our ceremonlee as vain and fHvo- 
loM, weie It hard to apply their cxojptlnu, even to thooe 
cHll eetoBoalee, whkh at the eonaattoa, tai parlia- 
BMBt,aodaU coarte of J a nic e , ara aeed.'-CBA»MaB. 
la al ei«i«Baieale eatatad taMo,lt lo aeeeaary tomake 

ascwfMM 10 the partloi, whenever there lo any thiag 
- " * , Mr ehvadera: thajMaeeat Fomia- 


iivery aljicffcart 
laadlag. whieh ttMy 



panoe, io wMhooi qaw- 

a apoeeh a^lnat aipee ch ; to «|iPMe, 


TtoaMMradtfel, IhHD tbe Latia cMfra and dufaah aia- 

a^eech; tOff^Me, In French 

, peHbtt of «!pp«a0fVom «p or o* 

"" — • — -ff^ or affunata 

poandad of d^ aa, aad at* or diM, aignlfying to aay na 
To aanlrad^c, aa iha oc^n of the word aaAdentiT 
depotea, la lo aet up aMertkm agalaat a aw rti o a , and fa 
ihaiafiMa a oioda of oppoaldoB, whether need in a gene, 
tal or a paittoalar a ppli fetl o n Logleiana caO thoae 
prapoaitioaa aaalradiclary which, IB all their terma, are 
BwatcoaMtetalyiypaaa d lo each other; aa 'AD roan 
waharar *NoaMaarellaiB.> A eMtlradwCira aeeea- 
aarilyaappaaaeaiwbalithoMfhBot neeeaMrilya per- 
aaaat, oapoaWoa ; a peiaoa aMy aniatemioaally m»- 
trrnHei hfaaaaU; aa la fteqaeatlF the caaa with Sara; 
Bad twa peraoaa aMy aaa<rad»cl each other wlthoat 

*The Jewa hold 
thai In faa mw o li hhl an ahnnld nwfiiarfii f nnr innthur, 
they wawyac boaad to believathe caaCrodictarp aeaer- 
ttona of boih«*'-~8oirTB. 

Bat althoofh mmrmikUng moat be mora or leaa 
verbal, yec, la aa aitanded application of tbe term, the 
aaafrartrrtga may be baplied la the actkm rather than 
In direet worda, aa when BMnon by hie good conduct 

ctmirUieU the alanden of fala eoemlea ; * Thera are 
many who are food of umJtrmHetmg the eonunoo re- 
portaoffcoM.'— Aaaiaoa. ia thla apdUeaHoB, caafra- 
" nfulahed from each 
I caatradietMB 
I totho worda 

I a a aaaa ara CMUiy inatingaiaBi 
So yacaariaa la peraooal dlmitCB 
tffMMm on^ aa ibr aa ralalaa 

afwMtMjOa the other hand, comprahenda not only the 
apirit of tha actkm, bat alao a great divaratly hi the 
■mde; ara may cawfradirf flmn nacemlty, or la aelf- 
defbiee; ara «pip«aa Ihan oonvictkm, or a leaa hoooar^ 
ableaatara; ara ita rr ad ipf by a direct negative; wa 
•p p aaa by awaaa of a rgume at or otherwiae. It la a 
braach of aoHteaem ever lo cMHradkt iMy ; It lea 
▼lolMioB of tha moral Uw 10 ^ppMa without the Bioac 

ASdpartof thafwii ■ Mu,m?^* 

To eaatradlct and to diap may be both eooMered as 

modoB of verbal oppoaltion, but one canlradHeto an aa* 

•ertkm, and doMca a (bet; the e^ntrmdktiwn fanpHea 

the aecung apooa penoB*)i antbority ar opialoa agalaat 



Itetof another; tbe daaMiaipNai tha Matntalalng a 
penon*B Terador la oppoit t ioB to the ehugea or inri* 
of oth e r a. Caalradfafiaf la commonly em 

{doyad in apecalatlTa matiera; *u a gwitleman la a 
Utile aineere In bla repreaentatlona, he laaore lo have a 
doaencamradictar*.*:— Swift. Denfimg In matten en 

penanal Intereat; *One of tbe company began to rallv 
him (an infldd) upon hia devotion on ahipboard, which 
tbe other dnued In ao high terms, that it produced tha 
lieoabothiidea,andeodedlnadoel.*~ABmaoM. JDa- 
aa^ may, however, be employed aa ardi aa aaa fr a 
itettng In the conrae of anmment ; bat we dniy tha 
general truth of the poeMon by eaacradklni^ the paitl- 
calar aaaertiona of the Individuals ;* In the Socratic wav 
of dl^mte, you acree to every thing your opponent a^ 
▼aacea: In the ArlatoteHc, you are still dmffhkg and 
•mUr^dUtimg aome part or other of what he aaya.*— 

When caafradlet itapecta other persona, it Is tt^ 
quently a mode of «ppo«it^ aa we may moat edbcta- 
aHy oppoM a peraon by etmtmdieting what be aaaeita} 
but contrMdiction doea not neceesarlly lro|dy 0^09^ 
tian; tbe ibrmer la almphr a mode of action, tbe latter 
compreheada both the actton and the apirit, with which 
it la dictated : we contrmdut from neceasity or In self* 
defence ; we oppMS, from conviction or some peiaonal 
feeling of a less hoooitrable nature. When we bear a 
friend unjustly charged of an offbnce, It is but reasona' 
Me to ecntradia tbe charge; oldeetloaable aMaaursa 
may call fbr tppoHti^Uy but It la aometiaMa prudent to 
abatain ftom mMt«f what we caaaot prevenc 

CtntrUia to llkewiae need hi denying what to laid 
looiie'a charge; but we amy d«ay without oanlradiet- 

if Immedlato nnanm. 

CbaCradietiM» toenpkiyed for eomethig othera; da- 
wfimf to need 10 clear oae'a aalf : we may caafradtel 
fotoeqr when we have not auAdent ground for saatra- 
dfatfnf ; and wa say dinp Juat^y whaa wa rabutan 


l>«ap (a. TV d«ay) approachea neareat to tbe aenaa 
ofdts0wn when applied lo peraons ; disown^ that is, not 
to own, OB the other hand, beam a strong analogy to 
dMiy when applied to thliMB. 

In the flrat case drayla aaid whh regard to one*)i 
kaowledae of or connenon with a person ; disowning 
on the other hand to a term of larger Import, Including 
the renunciation of all relationship or social tie : the 
former to said of thoao who are not related ; the latter 
of auch only aa are related. Peter denied our Saviour ; 
' We may d«ay God in all thoae acto that are morally 
good or evil ; thoae are the proper scenes in which we 
aet our confessions or denials of him.*— South. A 
parent can scarcely be Justlfled in disowning his child 
let hto vlcea be ever ao enormous; a child can never 
d u sw a Ita parent In any casa without violating tha 
BMat aacred duty. 

la the aecond caae dsap to said In regard to thlnp 
that concern others as well as ourselves ; disown only 
In regard to what todone by one*s self or that In which 
one to personally concerned. A person d«a>«« that 
there to any truth In tha lasBitlon of aaocher ; • Tha 
■art of Stradbrd poaiUvely diBMd the wor^*-<;LA 
BBBDoa. l i e d< sswaa all pait toi patton in any a^Jr ; 

Then ther who broCheiM boner elaim diMwa, 
Kipel thdr parenii, aad asarp tha throae. 

We may daap havhif seen a thing; we may disswn 
that we did It outaeivea Our veracity to often tha 
oalything Implicated in a dmtaZ; our guilt. Innocence 
or boBour are Implicated In what we disown. A w^i- 
Bern dsaics what to stated as a fbct; tha aoeoaed pan/ 
disomu what to laid to hto chane. 

A drnti^l to employed only for outward actions 0/ 
evaato; that which can be relaied m^y be denied: di^- 
•mnimg extends to whatever we can own or poaseat 
ara amy disown our foellnga, our name, our coiinex- 
looa, and the like. 

which are brought 
_ . . ; •HUkeZeno.any 

one shall walk about and yttda^ there to aay motion 
IB BBtare,fiirelytbat mb wb9 n B WUiud for Anti- 

wa may muown our leeungs, our name 
loM. and the like. 

ChrlstlaBs daw tb* charm whkl 
against the goepeloy Its eneimes; *Ii;i 



coDedt tliqr are dc 
■odecy of tbe livliif.*— Bbo 
ihe CMfTMf 

B hii pow*r iifMra, 
gaattoM known. 


be eonvkiad onto uw 

'-^BOWM. The MneUee f 

wliich tbef iMld as 


^ leet man ihoald qoili 

Be Biakee ttiat power to tiembUagi 


DiMJtnm •mi <<ffwn are both perwwal acta leipect- 
IM the hidlrMaal who la the agent: to iuetmim la to 
throw off a date, as to disown ia not to admit as ooe*s 
own; aa ciflMB, flmn the Lattai cloM*, algnlfiei lo de- 
elan wkh a load tone what we want at our own; to 
10 dJMlate ia with an equally knid or poiitive tone, to 
gtve op a cioMi : thia ia a more poiltlve act than to du. 
ewn, which may be perlbnaed by In el no a tion , or by tbe 
mere a huainlng to own. . . ^ 

He who feeta himaeir dhmeed by the actiooi that 
an done by hia natkm, or hk fkmily, wiO be ready to 
diMiam the very name which he bean fai commoo 
with the oObnding party ; 

I fhme.— Drtosm. 
An abaord pride ■ometimea impda men to dwaam their 
relatloiMhip to thoae who an beneath them in external 

The thtaM called Mb, with (.^ < 
And think It over«>id to porehai 

Han Priam*8 eon, Delphobua, he Ibond: 
He acarcely knew him, strivtaic to iuoMm 
Hli blotted form, and Uuehingto be known. 

An honHt mind win diMlalM aU right to nralK which 
Itlbelanottobelongtoltaelf: the fear of ridicule aome- 
Ihnea makea a man ditMM that which woold redound 
10 hli hoQoor: 'Very few among thoae who profen 
theamehree Chrliliana, dwcMm an concern for their 
aooli, driaowa the anthority, or rwioonoe theezpecta- 
Hona of the goopeL*— Rooaaa. _ 

Todi»aee»iatoaaM9tbatathtaigianol. The d<«a- 
vmmIIs a general dedaraiion; tbe dMual la a panlcu- 
lar aawrtkm; the former la made voluntarily and un- 
aaked for, the latter la always in dlrea anmrer to a 
aharge: we disavow In mattan of general intereat 
when truth only It concerned ; we dci^f In matten of 
peraonal IntereM when the character or fealingi are 

WhatladifovawWiageneranyiB soDportoT truth; 
what to dmicd may often be in direct violatioo of truth : 
an hooeet mind will always di$w0w whaterer has 
been erroneously attributed to It ; 'Dr. Solaoder dite- 
««w« some of those narrations (in Hawkesworth*s 
voysges), or at least declares them to be grosriy mlsre- 
preseniM.'— Bbattib. A timid person sometimes 
dmti§t what he knows to be true from a fear of tbe 
coiHMquenoes ; *Tbe king now dmM his knowledge 
of tbe cooaplraey agalnat Riszio, by public prodama- 
tiow.'— Aobbbtson. Many persons have ditwowad 
being the author of tbe leiten which an known under 
the name of Juniua ; the real authors who have dtnMl 
their concern in it (as doubtlem they bave) availed 
themaelvea of tbe aubierfoge,tbat since it was the allUr 
of several, do one bidivldBally could caU hfaaself tbe 

Oralr«o«r<, compounded of the Lathi cMfra and 
osris, dgnUea to torn i«afaiBt another hi discourse, or 
direct one's sslf against another. 

Di»fmi9^ in Latin dinmU^ fkom dia woAwiOa^ slgnl- 

fles Uieratty to think dUferently, or to call in question 

the opinkm of another, which is tbe senn that brings 

It In cloeest aUtance with amtnwHimg, 

To tmUrwtrt baa regard to speculative iioinia ; to 

Its reapeciB matten of feet : there la roc^rc of o^ijn »• 

1 in MnfreMrsy ; mon of doubt hi dirputing - 

;askeptlckdMMt««; ni« pifHiK^ 

tk subUmest truths of the Gospel bave b«tii ail <^n- 
imtrUd hi their turn by the self-auAcie&t tnqukri^r : 
•ThedeaMlisbini of Dunkirk was so eagtrly Ui>F-mf4 
on, and so warmly ceaCrsesrCcd, as had »!<• f*- i^-i^e 
produced a challenge.*— Buoobll. The ai-:-;:^-.^ 
of the Bible ttaalf hM been dimulsd by I 
Individoals; the ezhMoee of a God by sOU 
Now I am ant and am not lo disfmU 
If y priaeePBOiAn, hut to ettcuta^DBTOBi. 

Gmlrvvirty la wone than an unpaodtabla taA ; 
tastead of elicliii« truth, H doea bM expose tbe faianga 
of the partlea enmMl; * How eometh it to nam that 
we an so rent with mutual cooientiona. ana that the 
church Is so much troubled 1 Ifmen bad been wUliog 
to learn, aU these cMtrevsrms might bave died the 
very day they wen first brought forth.'— Hookkb. 
Ditpmtimg Is not so penonal, and ooosequenUy not so 
objjcctioBahle : we never ceiilr»e«r( any point without 
seriously and decidedly bitending lo oppoee tbe notk>oa 
of another; we may sometinies ditpnu a point for tbe 
sake of friendly argument, or the dealre of hiformation '.f 
theologlana and poHtlciaaa are tbe greatest tontrtvr- 
ntUaU ; it Is the buslnen of men in general to dit- 
Mle whatever ought not to be taken for granted; 
^ The earth Is now placed so conveniently that plants 
thrive and flooririi in It, and animals live; this Is 
matter of feet and beyond aU dM|nit«.'— Bkntiat. 
When dMputs la taken in the sense of verbally main- 
taining a point In opposltkm to another. It ceases to 
have that alUance to tbe word eeniraotrtt and cornea 
nearest to the asnn of argmt {v.Jirgue). 

Aida*tta*l« signifies admitting of no doubt (vide 
Dwnkt)] u»qtu$tUnakUt admitting of no ^ettwn 
(e. Dcuht); trndufutabU, admitting of no ditpuU 
iv. To controvert); MndeniabU^ not to be daiMd 
(v. To dmft dtoown); ineontrovertibUt not to be 
eomtrovorui («. TV comtrovert) ; irrofrmgokU^ (h>m 
froMgo to break, signifies not lo be kroken^ destroyed, 
or done away. These terms are all opposed to uncer- 
tahity ; but they do not hnply abeoluie certainty, for 
they aU ezpren the strong persuasion of a person's 
mind rether than tbe absolute nature of tbe thing : 
when a feet Is supported by such evidence as admits 
of no Und of doubt, it is termed nutmbUahU; * A full 
or a thin bouse wiU indmbiukljf express tbe sense of a 
majority.'— Hawkbsworth. When the truth of an 
aseertSon rests on the authority of a man whose cha- 
racter for integrity stands unimpeacbed, it is termed 
ttmfuoationahU authority; *Fnmi tbe un^uutioumkU 
documents and dictates of the hiw of nature, I shaU 
evince the obligation lying upon everv man to shovr 
gratitode.'— SouTB. When a thing Is believed to exist 
on tbe evidence of every man's senses, it is termed 
umdtnimbU; *8ottiid«iM'«*(«lsthe trutbofthis(viB.tha 
liaiilmns of our duty), that the scene of virtue is laid 
in our natural aversenem to things excellent.'— 
BooTB. When a sentiment has always been hebl as 
either true or felse, without dispute, It is termed indio- 
mrntakU; * Truth, knowhig tbe mdumUoM* chUm she 
has to an that is caUed reaeon. thinks it below her to 
ask that upon courte^ in which she can plead a pro- 
pcvty.*— BoirrB. When arguments bave never been 
controverted, they an termed mc«iifrevsrtai< ; ' Our 
disthietion most rest upon a steady adherence to tbe 
mcomtrovtrtibU rules of virtue.'— Bi^a. And when 
they bave never been satiafectorUy answered, tbsv an 
termed irrpfragokU ; * Then la none who walks so 
sorely, and upon such irrefirofoUe grounds of pru 
dence, aa be who la religious.*— Booth. 


To argue Is to adduce arguments or reasons In 
support of one's position : to dmU^ In Lathi duMtts, 
compounded of du and /ute, s^piifles to think dlflbr- 
ently, in an extended sense, to assert a dlflbrent opi- 
nion; to dtkau^ in French dedatfre, compounded of 
tbe intensive syllable do and hattro^ to beat or fight, 
algnifles to contend for and againM. 

To or/us la to defend one's self; diafuU to oppoee 
another ; to dokou Is to diofU in a formal maimer. 
To cr/us on a subject Is to explain the reasons or 
proofli In support of an assiilton ; to orgiu with a 
person is to dtfend a poaltion against him : to diofmU 
a thtaag Is to advance oldectlons sgainst a position ; to 
dUfnU with a peison Is to start ol^tlona against his 
poaltiooa, to attempt to raftite them ; a dokou is a di«- 
fmustiiom held by many. To orgiu doea not necea- 
sarlly auppoae a conviction on the part of tbe oirgrur. 
that what he defends Is true ; nor a real dlflbrence of 
opliilon in bis opponent; for some men have such an 



tteUnc propttricjribr an arpmmu, thst Umjt wfll 
attempt to prove what nobo^ denica; and in eome 
caaee tlie tenn targiu may be uaed In the eeilte of ad- 
docinf reaai>iu more for the parpoee of produeing 
mutual confirmatioQ and Uloitration of tmib tlian for 
the detection of fUsebood, or the qneetioniflg of opi- 

Of good and erU much tbey argued then.— Miltov. 
To ditpnu always euppbaes an oppoiition to tome pei^ 
eon, but DOC a aincere oppoalUon to the thing: fiw we 
mn dispMU that whieh we do not deny, toi toe sake 
of holding a ditfuU with one who is of dilferent sentt- 
»ents: to dshte presuDposea a muHitudtt of dashing 
r opposing opinions. Men of mtoy words argiis for 
te sake of talking : men of ready tonguea du»ttf« for 

^ ^ , . T ready tonguea dupttf« for 

the sake of victory: men in Parliament often debmu 
Ibr the sa^e of oppoeing the rtiling par^, or ftom any 
other motive than the love of truth. 
Jtrg u m tn tat i ^n is a dangerous propensity, and r 

dera a man an unpleasant comiianion in society : 

one riK>uld set such a value on nis opinions oa to ob- 
trude the defence of them on those who are uninter- 
ested in the question \ * PuMlck arguimr oft serves not 
only to exasperate the minds, but lo wBet tlie wits of 
hereticks.*— DacAT or PiBTT. />wr«t«tMa, as a seho- 
lastlck exercise, Is well fitted to exert the reasoning 
powers and awaken a spirit of inquiry; 
Thuf Rodmond, train*d by this unhallowM ciew, 
The sacred social paasioos never knew : 
Unkiird to argne. in diapnU yet loud, 
Bold without caotloo, without honours proud. 


Dskrtrayin PartlameM la by some converted into a 
trade; he who talks the toudesi, and makea the moat 
vehement opposition, expects the greatest applause; 
The murmur ceaa*d: then ftom his k>fty thtone 
The king bivokM the gods, and thus begun: 
1 wish, ye Latins, what ye now dtbaU 
Had been reaolv*d befbre it waa too late. 



T« eMualt, in French emsulur. Latin Mmmlto, ia • 
ftequentatlve of CMU11X0, signiiying to 
noh idikmn 

eoufse of eoodoct be shall poiane : the want of dsb 
bTtiimy whether in private or publick transactioiM, ia 
a more fru||(bl source of mischief than abnoat aay 


MM (a. TV •kjwet^ •fP—ti >■ the 
ying simptar to put hi the way; n 
riy to stand back, away from* or 

rvtMf, aignifiaa 
r JT- J^ away from; w against; miik 
jtmtd has the fbroe of r« In resist ; tkmaru Ikon 
tbeOerman f««r cross, signifies to come across. 

The action of settfaig one thing up Malnst another 
to^bvlouily expreaseirbv aU these terms, but they 
anner and the circoma' " 

. to deli*«ral«, in Vrenoh , , 

compounded of d« and litre, or likra a balance, slgnl- 
llea 10 weigh as in a balance. ^^ ^^ 

CentMitstiime always require two persona at least ; 
deliberatums require many, or only a man's sslf : an 
individual mav eenemU with one or many ; amembiiea 
commonly dOikermU: advke and faiformatlon 

dlflbr in the manner and the circomatances. To ., 
feee simply denotes the relaUve position of two oMecto, 
and when appUed to persons it does not necessarily 
imply any personal characteristick : we may ewpeee 
reason or fbrce to fbrce ; or tUngs may be etpeeei to 
Mcb other which are in an eppeeUe direcOon, as a 
house to a church. JtMirc Is always an act of more or 
less force when appUed to peiaooa; it Is mostly acul- 
pable action, as when men reeiet lawfU authority; 
reeieUmee la la Act always bad, unless In caae of 
actual self-detaice. C^^Mtlira may be made in any 
form, as when wa ep m eee a penon*s admittance into « 
houaebyonrperaonalefltons; orwe«fMMhis ' ' 
sion into a society by a declaration of our op 

gven and received in e^nntUmUene ; • Ulywea (aa 
omer tella xm) made a voyan to the regiona of the 
dead, to evnamk Tlresias bow he should return to his 
couBtry.*— AnnisoH. Doubts, dUBcultica, and oUec- 
tiooa, are started and removed In deiikenuiene: 
* Moloch declares himself abruptly for war, and ap- 
peals tnoeiaed with Ms compantoos for k)aing so much 
time as even to ieUkerate upon it*— Anntsow. We 
eomreuolcate and hear when we eenenh; we pause 
and hesitate when we ielHermU : those who have to 
«o-operate must frequently smmA together ; those 
wbobavessrkMS mearares to decide upon mnat coolly 

To dekate (v. Te argue) and to enewU equally mark 
»^«««»of pauaing or withboldina the dedsioi^whethcr 
!?!!!^*^5^""y- To iWdl« supposes ahraya 
!L??!?^3r of opinion; to dc<«*«rate supposes simp^ 

or oAriM their opintofls, it is natural to expect that 


witn htan in wholesome counsels to dMs£s 

What yet remalaa to safe the sbikiiv state. 

,_. Port. 

When anv Ml^eet oAiB that Is eorapHeated and qiiea- 
ttooaWe. fc eaMs for mature drf»sra£iir^ '^ 

The Jttdp can ne'er too hmg df<i»sr«te7 

IIi^iJf!!!!2#^*^ P*^®" gels such an ascendent 
In tha mind or any one, as to make him dWate which 

ReeteUmee is alwava a direct action, as when we reeiet 
an invading army by the sword, or we reeiet the evi- 
dence of our senses by denying our aasent ; or, in le- 
Uoion to thincB, when wood or any hard substance 
reeieu the violent e£Ebrts of steel or iron to make aa 

mthetmnd and tkwmt are modes otrteietMue appU. 
able onlv to conscious agenta. To wtO^taad ia nega- 
tive; it implies not to yield to any for^ agency: 
thus, a person witketamie the entreaties ofanother to 
comphr with a request To thwart is positive ; it is 
acUvdy to croas the wOl of another: thus, humour- 
•pme people are perpetually tkwartiug the wishes of 
those with whom they are in connexkm. Habitual 
eppeeitioH, whether in act or in nirit, is equally 
■enseless : none but conceited or turbulent people are 
guilty of it; "^^ 

■sault, so hlrii the tomnlt roee, 
I defond, aadwhile the Gieaka sMMs. 
Ofpeeiiieniete to governfflefit are dangerous members 
of society, and ate ever preaching up reeieUm/oe to 
constituted authorities ; 

To do an our sole delight 
As being the contrarv to his high wiU 
Whom we rartr t— Miltoiu 

• FMculariostanees of second sight have been given 
with such evidenee, as neither Bacon nor Boyle have 
been able to rsrift^-JoaasoH. It is a hamiy thfaw 
when a young bmb can wtttfUad the anureucoiiior 

For twice five days the good old seer tntketeed 
Th* intended treason, and was dumb to blood. 


Itiaapartof aChrlstSan's duty lo bear with patience 
thenntuward events of Hfo that tkwurt hia purposes : 
*The understanding and wiU never disagreed (b^ra 



Cenfmte and r0i<«. In Latin Mi0ile and rV^ ara 
compounded of sea against, r« privative, and/bto, ob- 
solete for mrgme. signifying to argue r— *— 

the contrary; dieprm 

to argue against or to argue 
mpounded of die prlvattve 

and vreve, signifies 10 prove tl , , „__„ , 

l^atn^PFVM, signifies to fight In Older to remove or 

Toeeufkte raspacta what is aigumantativa ; refute 
^N^Mls penonal ;d<9raM whatever is repraa;iiUd^ 
nlf«<I: ^ffptV* whatever la held or malatalnad. 

An argumwtt to enf^ by provtof Its follacy ; a 
charge is r^fStMed by proving ooa*a faaooaace; an 



MMlSoo if 4^j^r«o«i by pnydnff thai It If lUte ; a doe- 
trine la 9fpiugwt4 by a coum of reaaonlng. 

Pandoxea may ba eially confuted ; cataunnlee may 
be eeallir r^fuud; tbe marvelloua aod tncredlbie 
■loriea or trmvellen may be easily dufravtd; bereslea 
and Sceptical nottaoB ot^ to be flwiLriM^ 

Tbe pemteiouadoetrlneB of akepadui, though often 
€0nfuUdt are aa often advanced with tbe same degree 
ef aaanranoeby the ftee-thhiking, and I might aay the 
unthinking few who Imbibe their apUlt ; 

The learned do, by taraa, the leam*d eoitfmU^ 
Yet all depart onalter'd by dispute.— Orrib* 
It la the employment of ilbelUata to deal out their mall- 
ckNia aaperriona agalnat the ol^ecu of their malignity 
in a manner ao looae and Indirect as to preclude tbe 
poaribillty of rtfrntrnti^H ; * Philip of M acedon r^uUd 
by the force or gold all the wisdom of Athena.'— Ad- 
Bisoa. It would be a fhiitlesa and unthankful task to 
attempt to iisfrwt all the aiatemenla which are cir- 
culated in a common newspaper , 
Man*a feeUa raoe what iUs await ! 
Labour and penury, the racks of pain, 
IWaaaae, and aonrow's weeping train. 
And death, sad raftige fttxn the storm of fhtt, 
The fond complaint, my song ! diaprvvs, 
And Justify tbe lawa of Jove.— OoLuna. 
It la the duty of miniaten of the Goapel to oppMfn all 
doetrlnea that militate against the esiabtished (Uth of 
Chriatiana; * Ramua was one of the first cppugxers of 
the okl phlloaophy, who disturbed with innovatlona 
the quiet of the achooh.*— JomraoR 


To iwKfugn^ ftom the Latin m and jntfiie, signf (ying 
to flilit aaalnst, la qrnonvmoua with Mttaek only in re- 
gard to doetrlnea or oplnkona ; in which caae, to im- 
fugn aigniflaa to call in qneadon, or bring aigumenta 
against; to UtaOt is to oppoae with warmth. Skep- 
ticks aiifugn every opinion, however self-evident or 
well-grounded they may be : Infldeh make the moat 
indecent attaeh§ upon the BIMe, and all that la held 
sacred by the rest of the world. 

HewhOtaip«fiMmav i^x. -.1 .- jimceed in9imnt]ily 
andclrcultooaly towufcisxjuiMJ Hmi tAitiif»f oLbrm : he 
who aftasfta alwaya ffroi^Mjdi ^vkb nioTc ar tm \ lo- 
lenee. To imfugn \» ikji in-cEnEnrUy itkk^\ in a Nad 
aenae; wemayaoaaetiniriti %mpugti &b«urd dwtriTt'^ by 
a fblr train of reaaonlng : tu atnuLk w bJwhv* 4:-ii>ic- 
tlonaUe, either in the RK^le uf ihe wL\im\ nr iis ^pbj<^ 
or in both; It la a mc^!^ i>f prcirijwtitig orit^nfr cim- 
pfc>yed hi tbe cauae of fBljehi>xl iban (ruth : wljen 
there are no arguments wherewith to iwftfjTi a d.»- 
trine, it laeaay to airaeA it wiUi rtillciile add acurriJity. 



AtUekf In French oMomiar, changed from aUaeker^ 
In Latin aUoetim, partlctple of otlnift, signlflea to 
bring Into ckMO contact; aaaoO, aiaaa/i. In French 
csaailir, Latin aasifa'e, atsaltmt, compounded of at 
or ai and aalie, rignifiea to leap upon ; aiMMmter, In 
French rnc^ntre^ eompounded of «• or te and c#iilrc. 
In Latin eeiUra agalnat, signiflea to rim or oome 

JtttMk la the generick, the reatare apeeUIek larma. 
To attmck la to make an approach In order to do aome 
violence to the person ; to a$saU or aatamlt Is to make 
a sudden and vehemenc attack; to sn ssw al i r Is to 

; the attack of another. One attack* by ahnply 
oflbring violence without necessarily producing an ef- 
fect; one afaaOt by meansof missile weapona; one 
atsamiu by direct peraonal vlolenoe; one omcamitert 
by oppoaing violence to violence. 

Men and animals attack OTencamUtr; men only, In 
the literal senae, aataU or assault. Animals attack 
each other with the weapona nature haa beatowed upon 
them : * King Athelstan attacked another body of the 
Danes at sea near Bandwlch, sunk nine of thcar ships, 
and put the reat to flight.*— Hvmr. Tboae who pro- 
voke a multitude may expect to )»▼« their houses 
or windowa atMoUtd with atones, and their persons 

Bo when he saw Ma fl8tt*rte arte to fUl 
With greedy force he *gan the fbit I* aaoaO. 


And double death did wretched man invade, 
By steel a waaft w f , and by gold betray*d.— Drtsbr. 
It is ridicuknis to attempt to emcannter those who are 
superiour in strength and prowess ; * Putting themselves 
In order of battle, they etusamntercd their enemies.'— 

They are all used figuratively. Men otfadl wttb 
reproaches or censures ; they a««ail with abuse; they 
are atsauUed by temputions ; they ancsMMtar oppose 
tlon and difllcultles. A fever attack* ; horrid sorleka 
oMoil tbe ear ; dangers are «acM(Rt«red. The reputa- 
tions of men in puUlck life are often wantonly attack- 
ed; *Tbe women might possibly have carried Ihia 
Gotbick building higher, had not a ftunous monk, 
Thomas Conecte by name, attacked It with great seal 
and resolution.*— A doison. PuMfck men are astaUcd 
in every direetton by the murraun and complaints olj 
the discontented; 

Not truly penitent, but chief to try 

Her husband, how far urg'd bto patience bears, 

His virtue or weakness which way 10 a—aiL 


They often tncouater the obstacles which party apfaH 
throws in the way, without reapini any solid advan- 
tage to themaelvea ; 'It Is sufficient Uiat you are able to 
tntsumttr the temptations which now a**aitM you : 
when God sends trials he may send atr^igtL*— 
Tat LOR. 

An attack and a«««iilt (e. To attack) nmy be aaade 

r] an unreatstina ol^ect: emcawUtr^ onctt^ and 
g*^ require at Teaat two oppoaing parties. An 
attack may be slight or indirect; an a**aidt moat 
always be direct and mostly vigorous. An attack upon 
a town need not be attended with any h^ury to the 
walls or inhabitants ; but an av«aai/t is commonly con- 
ducted so as to eflbct its capture. Attack* are made 

by robben upon the person or property of another 

a9*aMU» upon the person only ; 

of diversion which has not been generally condemned, 

r property ol 
; *Tberels(] 

though it la produced by an aUadt upon thoaa who 
have not voluntarily entered the lists ; who find them- 
selves buflbtted in the dark, and have neither means 
of defence nor poaHMIItyof advantage.'— Ha wrrr- 
woRTH. *WedonotfindthemeekneasofalamblaR 
creature so armed for battle and aaaamlt as the Ikm.*- 

An tnesmnter generally reapeeta an unfiNmal eaaual 
meetfaig between aingle indivlduala ; Mwd and ckarga 
a recular aUack between contending armies ; amaatm 
employedftif the oommeneemem of the battle; ckmrga 
for an «aael( ftom a particular quarter. When knight- 
erraatry vraa in vogue, enemiMter* were perpetually 
taking jilBce between the knighta and their antagoniata, 
who often existed only In the hnagtaiatkm of the eona- 
baumta: muvwstar* were, however, aometlmea fleiee 
and bloody, when neither party would yMd to iht 
other whUe hehad the povrer of reaiatanoe; 
And such a ftown 
Each east at th* other, as when two black clouds, 
With heav'n*B artiUery fraught, come rattling on 
Hovering a spa^ till winds the signal Mow, 
To Join Uielr dark encMtater In mid air.— Miltow. 
Tbe French are said to make Impetuous Muet«, but 
not to withstand a continued attack with the same per- 
aeveranee and steadlnesa aa the Engliah ; 
Onttta in love aeem beat like thoae in war, 
Fierce, reaolute, and done with all the force.— Tatr. 
A ftiriona and well-dlrectad ckarg* tnm. the cavalry 
will aometimea decide the fortune of the day ; 
O my Aflloalo ! Fm all on flra ; 
My soul is up in anna, ready to ekarg*^ 
And bear amid the foe with conqu*rlng^troopa. 



jtggre**or^ fttmi the Latin aggre»9M*t participle of 

aggrtdior^ compounded of ag or ad^ and gredior to 



* i; MBmilmnt, tkom «M«tf, ia Freock «««««l«r, com* 

I of «« or Mi, and tmli^ to l^p upon, •ignifiei 
WW leaping up« or attackiog any one Tebemently. 

The cinvactfltMck idea of mggreaMT hi tbatof one 
foiag op 10 anocbcr iu a boMile manner, and tqr a aa- 
tHralexteaeloo of Uie eeoee eommenelng aa attack : 
Ika charactarklick Idea of •»MmUa»i Is dial.of ooeconi- 
Bl^tiflf aa act of violence on the penoo. 

An tgrwr ofibiB to do eo«e iiOary ehber \n 

; ilM ibnner ooauneocee a ifiepute, the latter 
cairka It on wltli a Tebement and direct attack. An 
mggr9$90r It UameaUf for givinf rlie to quarvele; 
* where one Is the aggrnsor^ and in panuanoe of bis 
lint attack kllto the other, the law soppoees the action, 
however Mddeo, to be malicioui.*— JeBMOii (I4f* ^ 
tlm—g»), Aa %fmAmt is culpable for the mischief 

What tar so fortified and barr'd 
Afalost the tunefiil force of vocal charms, 
Bat would with transport to such sweet s»st7eiie» 
Surrender Us attention 1— Mason. 
Were there no •ggrfvr* there would be no dis- 
^ ~ were there no assetfaals those disputes would 

An mggfattT maj be an s>r«7iif, or an M§mHant 
Bay he aa ^jTreiStfTibttt thef areas fkeqoeatljdlstlnet. 


DispUmse natorallv marks the contrary of pieasinc; 
aTsBd, from the Latin oftndo^ sifnifies to stumble In 
ttc way of; vex, In Latm mm, is a frequentative of 
vdU, slffnKying literally to toss up and down. 

These wordi eipress the act of causing a painfbl 

t in the miod by some Impropriety, real or 
J, on one's own part. DUpltte is not alwajrs 
Nled to that which personally concerns ouiselvee: 
iMMigfa qfend and v«x have always more or less of 
what M nenonal In them : a superkmr mav be tUt- 
pU—U with one who is under bis charge for tanproper 
hehaviour toward perMms In general ; 

Meantime Imperial Neptune heard the sound 
Of racing billows breaking on the tround ; 
Di§pU4ir4 and foaring for bis watV reign, 
Be rear*d his awAil head above the main. 

He win bei#«ad«lwith him for disrespectful behaviour 
toward himself, or neglect of his interests ; * The em- 
peror himself came running to the place In his armour, 
asverelv reproviag them of cowardice who bad for- 
■ahen the plaee, and crievooily tffdndsrf with them who 
had kept sock negUgent watch.*— Kmolles. What 
diayl— so has Issi r e g ard to what Is personal than what 
4f«Mls; a BuimjDsed Intention In the most barmleai act 
may cause offence, and oo the contraiy the most 
tftmikur action may not give ogmu where the Inten- 
uoo of the agent Is suroosed to be lood ; * Nathan's 
ftUe of the poor auw and his lamb bad so good an effeet 
as toconvev taisiroctkm to the earof a Idng without 
t g m iimg It^— AoMsaii. 

/MfplMMS respects «MMtly the Inward state of feelinff ; 
9§mi aad mb have most regard to the ootward cause 
wbkh provokes the foellng: a bmnoursome person aiay 
be dMgMMMd without any apparent cause ; bat a cap- 
tloos persoa wlU at least have some avowed trifle for 
wblchhelsitfMdsd. r«x expresses more than 0/<nid; 
It marks in foct freqoent eflbrts to s/sai, or the act of 
i^tnding ooder aggravated circumstances: we often 
UBlaaeaOonaUy ditpUiue or ^end ; but be who e«x«« 
has mostly that okifect in view in so doing : any Instance 
of neglect HapUatet ; any marked instance of neglect 
•g«ni$ ; anv aggravated Instance of nwlect vzef : the 
ftelinc of di9pGufur$ Is more pereepdbie and vivid than 
that of of nut ; but It Is kiss durable : the feeling of 9ex«- 
tisa Is is transitory as that of duplMMre. but stronger 
than either. Di»pUM$mr9 and vtathn betray tbera- 
•elveab/ an angry word or fook; tf/dmeedlsoovera Itself 
In the whole conduct : oor iinUatwrt \m unijustlflable 
when It exceeds the measure of another's foult; It Is a 
mark of great weakness to take ogence at trifles ; peraons 
of the greatest IrrlubUity are exposed to the most fte- 
quent MsraMsiis; *Do pooc Tom aome ebarlty, whom 

the fool fleiida«acs.*—8aAC8nAkB. ThaaiilMmsiisi/ 
an be angled to the action of oncoosdooa ag ent s oa the 
mind ; ^Foul sights do rather dugi/sass. ia that thi^ 
excite the memory of fool things, than In the lawnediaf 
objects. Therefore, In pteturea, those fool sights do aol 
oMch ^^mA*— Bacon. * Oroas slaa are plaialy aaaa, 

andeaalyavokledbypenooathatpcofoasp . 
the indtscraet and danfSfoos OSS of i n n oc en t and lawftd 
thinp, as it does not shock and ^mi oor eonacienoes^ 
ao It ia diOeoh to loaka paopla at all aaoalMa of tht 
danger of it.*— Law. 

These and a thoosand mix*d emotlona more^ 
From ever-changing views of good and in, 
Form'd infinitely variooa, vex the oiind 
With endlem storm.— Tbohsom. 

As epitheto they adult of a stmMardla ll aa tt eo; It la 
v«7 iUpUting to paients not to meat wkh the moat 
respeetl^ attentkMis ftom ehihben. whan they chra 
themcounael; andaochcooduetoothepartofehlMraa 
^castve to God : when wa meat with aa tf- 

Is htehly itf eastve to i 

/nutve olject, we do 
it: when we are trov 

most wisely lo torn away fk<i 

troubled with aeaatfiaa 
beat aad fialy remedy la patlenee. 


TiON, distasteTdisgust. 

l>if UJke algnlfies the opposMa to Mkii«, or beli« aNka 
toone*aaelforooe*8tasm; iiMpl«aMre,theop|MMlaio 
pleasure ; iUsaUtfttitm^ the opposite lo satlsnctkm ; 
disUsU and iitgmsty from the Lathi ftutut a tMCa, 
both signify the oppoaite to an agreeable taaie. 

INeJsAe and dteeati^acttea deoolB the feeHngor aaa- 
timent produced either by persona or thingi : digpUm- 
eare, that produced bv penooa mostly ; iisU$t$ aad 
Htjmgt^ that produced uy things only. 

In reptrd to parsons, HsUJU Is the sentiment of aqoals 
and persons unconnected ; dispUturo and disfatts- 
/scttem, of superioors, or soch as stand In some sort of 
relation to us. Strangers may foel a dwiOe upon seeing 
each other: parents or masters may fed ditpUmanreor 
diMot^faetion : the former sentiment is o cca sioned Inr 
their supposed foults In character; the latter by then 
supposed defective services. One dtslaftes a person for 
bis assumptloo, foquacity, or any thing not agreeable 
Inhismannen; *Thejealous man is not Indeed angry 
if you disUkt another; bat if yoo fiad thoee fooMB 
which are (bund In his own character, you discover not 
only voor d»eit4eof another butof himsdf.'— Admson. 
One to ditpUMtd witha person fbr hto carelessness, or 
any thiiv wrong la htoooMdoct; 'ThnlhifMlfialagsiif 
conscience suggest to the sinner some deep and dark 
maMgnlty oomained In guUt, whkh has drawn opoa 
hto bead such high dinUtwrt fkom heaven.*— Blais. 
One to du9Mi^/Ud with apeiaon oa account of thesmal 
quantity of work which he has done, or hto manner of 
doing It. Dinte*ntr« to awakened by whatever to 
done amiss : dtMotufmeti^n to caused bw what happena 
amiss or contrary to oar expeetatkm. According the 
word dissati^fmctum Is not confined to persons of a 
particular rank, but to the natura of the connexion 
which subsists between them. Whoever does not re- 
ceive what they think the m selves entitled to flrom an- 
other are d»»»Mti^/Ud. A servant vMy be dwMii^fUd 
with the treatment he meets with fmn hto maaier; 
and may be saM therefore to express die«a««iif«cfM«, 
though not dupleaeare; *ldonotUkeloseeaay thlM 
destroyed : any voM In society. It was therefore with 
no disappointment or diseotie/asfiea that my observa- 
tion did not present to me any tneoniglule vice In the 
noblesse of Prance.*— Buasa. 

In retard to tblnp, disUke to a eaaoal foeUng not 
arisiog from any speciflck cause. A ditsmiiMfmctmt to 
connected with our desires and expecmtlona; we 
ditWu the perfbrmanee of an aetor from one or amny 
causes, or from no apparent cauae; but wa are dueatat- 
jUd with hto performanee If It fUl abort of what we 
were led to expect. In oroer to leasaa the number 
of our di$Uku we ooabt to endeavoor not lo diMU 
whbout a cause ; aad la order to leasaa our di^gtig- 
/sctitm we ought to be moderate in our expeetatkm. 

DisWU, duu»t$, and dugvgt rtoe oa each other In 
their signlflcatkm. The d<etaets to more than the As- 
Wker and the dievHsl more than Iha dietaste. The 
diMtte to a partial foritag, qvfckly prodoaad aMl qolokly 



•fibiidtiic; the iutuu tea MUM IMInf, fradniBy 
produeed, and permanent In Ita dnratkNi : iitgyui It 
eitbertraniiloryorocberwlw; momentarily or gradaally 
produoad, but moncer than ettber of ttM two otbera. 

Caprice haaa grMt abara in our lilcea and disUkea; 
* Dryden'i disUk$ of the prieatbood la imputed br Lanf- 
baine, and I think by Brown, to a lepulaa which he 
enllbredwhenbeaollcitedoniinatlon.*— JoBifaoM. Dis- 
ioMU dependa upon tlie changea to wtilch the eonatitu- 
ffonphyalcallyand mentally la ezpoaed : * Becaoae true 
hlMory, through fteqoent aatlety and aimlUtuda of 
(blnga, worka a diatoateand mlqvialoa inthemindaof 
men, poeqr cheereth and reftetheth the aoul, chanting 
thina rare and varioua.*— Baoom. DUgiut owea ita 
origin to the nature of tblnga and their natural operation 
onthemindaofmen; 'Vice, Car vice ia n oc e a ia r y to be 
ahown, abould alwaya excite iitgutV'^ommwu. A 
ehild Ukea and asUUt bla pUnrthii^ without any ap- 
bareotcauaa for the change of aentiment: after a king 

paiaon will flnquently take a ditUtU to the 

the amuaamania whkh befora allbrdad him 

what to taMlecent or flkby to a natural 

food or 


ol^lect of iUMUii to eveiy peiaon whoae mind to not 

depraved. It to good to aupprem unfounded 4i$Wu» ; 

it to dUBcuU to overcome a atrong dutoMU ; It to ad- 

vlaabto to divert our attentkw from objecto calculated 



DisWtt to oppoaed to ttklng; 4uimcUnaii0n to the 
reverae of inclination. 

IXfltJUappliealowbatonebaaordoea: dMaelma- 
tiem only to what one doea: we ditKMt the thUig we 
have, or 4i$likt to do a thing; but wa are iisituiiiui 
only to do a thing. 

They ezpiaaa a almHar foaling, but dlflbrlng in da- 
nee. i>mBei«iia<«#ato butaamalldegreeofdMU*•; 
iMa«marinaomethlngeontrary; HsindmtUifn dom 
not amount to more than the abience of an Inellnatkm. 
None but a dlaobliging temper baa a tUsWU to comply 
with reaaonaMe requeato ; 

Bf unnuia riee with mix*d applanae, 

Juat aa tbey fovour or dutikt the cauae.— Dstobii. 

The moat obliging dlapodtkm may have an occaeiunal 
di§itulmaUon to comply with a particular reqoeat; 
*To be grave to a man*a mirth, or inattentive to hto 
diKOurae, argoea a HHtulinatitn. to be entertained by 

tlhn.'— 0TBSLB. 


I>itpUm$wr€ aignifiee the feeling of not being pleaaed 
with dther penona or thiop; tmg^r comae firom the 
Latin aa^ar vexation, and aafa to vex, which to com- 
pounded of an or ad againat, and a#a to act; di»«fpr0' 
#aUa» to the revarae of approbatton. 

Betweao dHpl6aa«r« and an^ar there to adiflfereoce 
both in the degree, the cauae, and the conaequence of 
the feeUna: 4i$pi—$wn to alwaya a aoftened and 
feotto fotfinf ; ai^ar to alwayi a harah feeling, and 
anmetimaa itoaa to igebemance and madneaa. Dit- 
ftstMr$ to alwaya produced bv aoana ad e qua te cauae, 
real or auppoaed : aafar may be pcavoked by every or 
anv cauae, aecotding to the temiwr of the individual ; 
* Han to the merriest apeeiee of the creation; all above 
or betow him are aerloua; he aeea thing! in a dilferent 
light Atun other helnga, and flnda hto mirth artoiog 
Irom ot^lecto that perhapa cauae aomething like pity or 
dupUctnf in a Uchar nature.*~ADnuoN. ZntpUa- 
9vrt to moatly aattoned with a ainipto verbal exprevkm; 
but aafar, unkai kept down with gsaat force, alwayi 
aeeka to return evU for evil ; 'From atigtr in iti foU 
Import, protracted into matovolence and exerted in re- 
venge, ariae many of tlie evlto to which the ttfe of man 
toexpoaed.*-JoBM80ii. DitpUuwf and iis appf^ m- 
liea am to be comparad in aa much aa they reMiect the 
conduct of tboaa who are under the directton of others: 
jitpifmn to an act of the will. It to an angry aentl- 
ment; 'T^venpeotanca may be wrought in the hearto 
of auch aa foar Ctod, and yet incur hto duptoaaar*, the 
deserved edbck whereof to eternal death.*— Hooua. 
X>M^ryra*a<taB to an act 4»f the JudfeaMnt, U to an 
oppoaha oplnkm; *The Oueen Re«ent*s brochera 
kJMW her aecret dta^ppraMtiaa Af ihe violent mea- 

aarea they ware driving on.*— RosntT8«B. Anyatili 
of aelf-wlll In a child to caknlated to exeha diaplsa- 
rars; a mtotaken choice in matrimony may pcodoea 
duavpre^atiMi in the parent 

DinUmtmre to alwaya pro du ce d by that which to 
already come to paas; duofprobaH^n may be felt upon 
that which to to take place : a maaler feeto duplaarara 
at the caretoameas of hto aarvant; a parent expreiaea 
hto di*approk«ti0n of hto aon*a propoaal to leave Ma 
aituatloa : it to aomeilmei prudent to check our dis- 
pUanrt; and moaUy pnident to expiaaa our 4i$- 
nfmvbuisn: the former cannot be ezpreaaed without 
inflicting pain ; the latter cannot be withheld when ra 
quired withoat the danger of mislaartlng. 

AMgtr haa the same original meaning aa In the pre- 
ceding article ; rttmitwmd. In Fkench rttnUimnUt 
from reaaenc^, to compounded of r« and trntir^ signi 
Qring to fod again, over and over, or for acontinuance; 
wrath and trs are derived from the aame source^ 
namely, wreO, bi Saxon wraO, and trs. In Latin it€ 
anger, Greek ^t contention, all which apring from the 
Hebrew n*in heat or anger; tadffnalian, In French 
•M, in - - . .. 

tnd^^mctaM. in Latin nuftriiaCta, from tadiifiiar, to 
thiiiK or Ael unworthy, marSa the strong foeUng which 
base conduct awakens in the mind. 

An impatient agitation against any one who acta 
contrary to our inclinationa or opinlona to the charae* 
terlstlck of all theae terms, itatsniawnl to less vivid 
than aajrer, and mmgtr than wrelj^ trw, or iMdignmtiam, 
Jtagtr to a sudden sentiment of displeaaure: rttmtr 
sMiU to a continued trngwr; wrmtk to a heigbtened 
sentiment of aafw, which to poetically expressed by 
the word tre. 

Jinger may be either a aelflah or a disinterested 

; it may be provoked by iiOorles done to oar- 
selves, or Injustice (£c»e to others : In thto latter sense 
of strong dlspleasttre God to tmrn with sinners, and 
good men may, to a certain degree, be an/nr with thoaa 
under their control, who act improperly; 'Moraliato 
have defined aa/«r to be a deaire of revenge for some 
injury offered.*— SraaLi. RtHmim«nt to a broodina 
sentiment, altogether artoing from a aenee of personal 
ii^ury ; it to associated with a dislike of the oflfender 
aa much as the offence, and to diminlsbe4 only by the 
infliction of pain in return ; in ila rise, progress, and 
elfoeta, It to alike oppoaed to tbe ChHsUan spirit; 
* Tbe temperately reveng eAil have tolwre to weigh the 
merito of the cauae, and thereby either to smother 
their secret rfentmenU, or to seek adequate re- 
pnratkms for the damagea they have sustained.*— 
STsaLX. Wrmtk and irtf are the sentiment of a aupa- 
riour towarda an inforiour, and when provoked by per. 
sonal ii^oriea diacoveia Itaelf by haughtiness and a 
vindictive temper; 

Achilles* wraO, to Greece tbe direftil spring 
Of woes unnumber*d, heavenly goddess diu. 

Aa a senthnent of diaplaaaure, wrmtk to nnJusUflable 
between man and man; but the wrmtk of God may 
be provoked by the peraeverlng impenitence of slnnera : 
the trs of a heathen god, according to tbe groas vtowa 
of Pagana, was but the wrmtk of man aaaoc i a t ed with 
greater power; it was altogether unconnected with 
moral displeasure ; tbe tame term to however applied 
atoo to the heroes and prtoces of antiquity; 
Tbe prophet spoke : when with a gloomy frown 
Tbe monarch started from hto shininf throne ; 
Black chotor fiU*d his breast that boird with trs, 
And from hto eye-balto flash'd the living Are.— Pon. 
Imdignaiion to a aentbnent awakened by the unworthy 
and atrocious conduct of others ; as it to exempt from 
personality, It to not irreconcilable with the temper of 
a Christian ; ' It to aurely not to be observed without 
imiignmtioiu that men may be found of minds mean 
enough to be satisfied with thto treatment; wretchea 
who are proud to obtain the privllegea of madmen.*— 
JouaoH. A warmth of constitation someHmea gi vea 
riae to aaUlea of mMgtr; but depravity of heart breeda 
rmmmtmmt: unbendii« pride to a great aoorce of 
wrmtk; but h^dignUimm flowa from • high sense of 
hom*ur and virtue. 




^fii^cr ilinillM the Mme as In the praeedliif ntieie ; 
ek0t«r^ hi FrsDch e«Mr«, Latin ekoUruj OreeE x«^^ 
eooMs tmm x^ ^>^ becauM the overflowing of the 
bOe la both the cause and cooaeqaence of ek^Ur; rug^, 
Sn French rag*^ Latin rmkiet madneaa, and r«M« to 
nve like a oiadman, cornea IVom the Hebnm 73*) to 
treml>le or shake with a violent madueaa; /nrf, In 
French /nm, Lathi fur^r^ comes probably fh>m /ere 
to carry away, because one Is carried or hurried fay the 
emotions of /nrv* 

These words oaTe a p wmes sl v e fiirce in their slgnl- 
fleation. CksUr expresses aomethinf mora sodden 
and Tiralent than eiysr ; rmg§ Is a Tebemeot ebuMI- 
tUmofmgmr:und/iarf\aUieMtemotrage, Jtngmr 
may be so stifled as not to discover itself qr any ott^ 
ward symptoms; tk&Ur Is discoverable by the pale- 
ness of the visage : rag* breaks forth into extravagant 

violent distortions ; fwrf takes away 
the use of the onderstandinc. 

Jhigtr is an inflrmity iocMeni to haman natara; H 
oacht, however, to be suppressed 00 all oc c as i ons ; 
* llie maxim which Perlander of Corinth, one of tha 
seven sara of Greece, left as a memorial of hie know- 
ledge and benevolence, waa ytfXev cpdni, be master of 
thy vartT. *— Jobnsoh. CkSur Is a malady too phyal- 
eal to be always corrected by reflectioo ; 
Must I give way toyoor rash eJMert 
Shall I be friglUed when a madman staraa t 

RMg9 and fiuy are distempers of the soul, whkh 
BolEing but religioa and tiie grace of God can cure ; 
Oppose not re^ while re^t is in its force, 
But give it way awhile and let it waste. 

Of this kind Is the furp to which many men give 


/bI, that is, fllled with the spirit or desire of rsvenfe; 
vtmdMCtec, flpom vindtce to avenge or rrrange,'slpil- 
flcs either given to revenge, or after the manner of 

JUttntfkl marks soMy the stale or temper of the 
mind, mrnkgifnl also extends to the action ; a persoo 
Is rt§ntful woo retains resentment In his mind with- 
out diecoverinc it In any thing hut his behavkNir; he 
Is rtwmg^fml u he displavs his feeling in any act of 
revenge or iqjurv toward the oflboder. Renntful 
V^ofltt are afl'e^ed with trifles; * Pope was as i-mmu- 
/«! of an imputation of the roundness of his back, as 
Marahal Luxembooig Is reported to have been 00 the 
sarcasm of Ktoa WBllam^— Ttbrs. A mng^ml 
ismper Is oAsatlmea not saikiled with a small portion 
ef revenge; 

If thy rtvmftful heart cannot foifivo, 
Lo! here I leod thee this sharp-pointed sword, 
Which hide hi this true breast— Sbakspbabb. 
JlseoM'^falis mostly said of the temper ortheperM»; 
bat 9im di €t w » or vindi€t iv €^ as it is sometimes writlen. 
Is said either of the person who Is prone to revenge or 
of the thing which serves the purpose of revengeor 
punishment: * Publkk revenges are for the moat part 
ibrtunace; but in private revenges It le not so. Findf- 
•Mtiv persons live the lift of witches, who, as tbc^ 
are misclilevous, so end they unlbrtuoate.'— Baoon^ 
* Suits are not reparative, but vindietive^ when they 
are com m enced against insolvent persons.'— Kbttlb- 


Jlwmgt^ rtv*ngtt and vinUcmUt all spring ftom the 
same source, namely, the Lathi OMdice, the Greek 
MtKj^o§tat, compounded of iv in and iUai Justice, sig- 
nifying to pronounce Justice or put Justice in fbrce. 

The idea common to theee terms ia that of takhig op 
aome one's taufB. 

To mtrngt Is to pnalA in behalf of another 
yiy Is to punish lor ooe> 

self; to mndicmU Is to de- 

ls grauoea omy wiio mmcang paia wunow 
speet of adf au ta ge ; *Bv a eontlnoed aarisa 
, thoagh apparently trmal gratlflcatloaa, tha 
often thoro u ghly corrupted, as by the eoBMnis* 

Tha wnsnp of a panon ase < 
hii righta are mnditrnttd 

The act of mMmgimg, thongh ailBiflsd whh the la 
fliction of pain, is oftenihnea an aiet of hnmanhy, and 
always an act of Justiee ; bom are the snfkrera bat 
such as merit it tot their opptesslon, while those are 
beneflted who are dependent fbr support : this is Hw 
act of God himself, who always eoeiiffes the o pptt as t d 
who took up to him ibr support; and it ought to be tha 
act of all his crsaturea, who are tavested w;th the 

The day sban coma, that great aew yi iy day. 
When Troy*s protid gkicles hi the dost sbaH lay. 


Jtsoays is the basest of aO acth»i,aBd the spirit of 
rsMNfs the most diametrically oppeead ta tha ChrMaa 
p r ln c ip le e of fetfhrlng i^fiirtes, and retaming good fcs 
evU; It le gratlted only with faifllctfaig pals withoac 

any proapeet of r ' — * - 

of tooee, tho«(' 

ston of any one of those'eaorBMoe erlmss whloh sprtag 
(mm great ambition, or great mwya**— *Blaib. fte- 
dKafimlsaaaetofgenerosltvaadhttmattltv; ttisiha 
prodoctiooof good without uielaflletloB of paia: iha 
dahno of the wMow and orphaa can §oi e ii s dfaatf s a 
fhMB thooe who have tha tfane, takat, or abUty, w 
take their cause Into their own hands: Baglaad eaa 
boast of many noble etedteeCere of tha rtahls of 
humanity, not excepting thoee which concern tM brma 
creation; * bOured or oppresssd by the woiM, tha good 
man tooks up to a Jodga who will afatf sals hie caaaa> 
— Blaie. 


JhtgwTf signifles either having mgmr, or jnaa to 
mmgtr; p—n&maU^ prone to the piUi^n or mtgwr; 
AeeCy, prone to e x eem of JUste ftom intemperatolbal- 
ing; treseiMs, able or ready to be made avrTi A'o* 
the Latin tfra anger. 

.Ongrf dendtea a partlcohtf stale or eowtloa of tha 
mind; ^essisMls and Aasif exprsas hablls of tha 
An ea^ry man Is In a stato of mmgtr; a jnw- 
or kmstif man la habitually prone to be ^ae- 
or Aeely. The mngrf has mm that la veha- 
oMnt and hnpetuous in It than the ptntmaU; tha 
AeeCy haa something lees vehemen^ but mora auddan 
and abrupt hi it than either. 

The ea^ry man Is not alwaya easily provoked, aor 
ready to retallato; but he often retalna his «v«r aatll 
the cause is r emoved; * It Is told by Prior, in a paaa- 
gyrlck on the Duke of Dorset, that his servania asad 
to put themwlves lif his way arheo be was eafry, ha- 
cause he was fure to recompense them for any fiidif- 
nitles whkh he made them sulfcr.*— Joaasoii. Tha 
pm»9i0mMt man Is qnlckly roused, eager to rqiay tha 
ollbnee, and Bpeedlly appeased by the uflletlon of pafai 
of arhich he aftorward probably repeals; *Thera Is la 
the worid a certain daas of mortals known, and coa- 
temedly kaowa by the naaie of y — siseete nsa, who 
fanagine themselvee eoUtled, tqr that dtstlnctloa, to ba 
provoked on every slight oac aa to a , *~>Jo»wsob. Tha 
Acsfy man la yery aoon o flb aded. bat not ready to 
oflbnd In return ; Ids eH|Ty aentlniaat spends Itself la 

ea^ry words; 

The Mag, who saw their aqoadroBB yet eBnov*d, 
With Aasty ardour thus the chlafb repiov'd.-PopB. 
Theae three tarma are aU amptoyed to denote a taan. 
porary or partial feeling ; irmteihU^ on the other head, 
b solely emptoved to denote tha temper, and Is applied 
to brutes as well as men; * We are here in the country 
aurroonded with bleeslngs and pleasures, without a^y 
occaiion of axercisiog our <rsMtM« fhc o ltle s.*~-Dfay 



Disma$ $i 9 i m t» Is taken aegadvaly, It marka BMraly 
the absence of passton ; Mel (e. CmI) Is taken poal- 
threlv, it marka an entire Ikeedom than paMlou 

Tboee who are prone to be passionate must leara to 
be M$pM9i0mmi$: those who are of a eesi las 
meat wis aot aaflbr Ibsir pasrtoM to be roan^. 


E1IOL18H cnrNonrjiEs. 

nt It !■ JM fot mn f tohe HtpM^- 
aionate In order to nyvid auflureto ; * As to ^imeoM 
tbe lady (Madune D'Aeler) has Inflnkely the better of 
tbe gentleman (M. de la Motte). Nolhlni can be uraie 
polite, <ft>pa««t9ii«(e, or aeoaible, tban hb manner of 
manafteg tbe dlapute.*— Pont. In the moment of 
danger our mfety often depende upon our eeeliuvt : 
* I eoncelved this poem, and cave looae to a degree or 
leaentmenl, which perhapa I ongbc not to have In- 
dulged, but which In a copUr hour I cannot alla|ethcr 
condemn.' — Cowpsm. 

To Uttiffrvw k not to approve, or to think not 
0ood : to disWb* Is not to like, or to Ihid unlike or on- 
soitanle to one'a wiahea. 

an act 

Che conduce of otiieis ; to ditUkt la altofocher a per- 
eoaal act. in whtah tbe feellnga of the individual are 
eoaaulted. It la a miauae of tiM Judgement to dwe^ 
fr9V0 where we need only HaUkt; * The poem (Saaii- 
a hftinntng and an end, which 

\aeffT0w la an act of the Judgement; diaWu \m 
Aoitbe wilL To epprwvt or 4uapfr0ve ia pecu- 
r the part of a lupenour, or one who deierminea 

Ariatotle hiauelf ceuld not have dUmprowdt but it 
most be allowed to want a middle.*— JoHRaon. It la 
a perverdon of tlie Judgement to diseppr^ve, becauae 
wediiWu; * The man of peace will bear with many 
wtioee opinlona or practieea 1m iislii$§f witiioat an 
open ana vtolent mpture.*— Blauu 


DUguit has the same ilgnlflcatlon aa given under 

(he head of DutikA, DismUMwre^ Itc ; UmtMmf tkt- 

niflea the propensity to Uatke an oMect; immm, In 

Latin neiwes, ftom the Greek vt^ a ahlp, properly de- 

Disgust is lesi than loalkingf and that tlian 
When applied to aemlble oQects we are diagnaud 
with dlitr we tooUU the meU of fbod If we have a 
slekly appetite ; we natutau medicine : and when 
applied metaphorically, we are di§tnuUdw\}h aflbcu- 
tkm ; 'An enumeration of exampTea to prove a poii- 
Hon which nobody denied, as it was from the begin- 
atag supertlttoas, mast quickly grow duguHing*-^ 
Johnson. We Utks the endearments of those who 

Thus winter ftUs, 
A heavy igkMm opprendve o'er the world, 
Throu^ nature*8 shedding influence malign, 
Tbe soul of man dies in him, IsoOtv life. 


We neitueate all the e^Joymeata of life, after having 
made aa intemperate use of tiiem, and discovered their 

Th* IrreaohiMe oil. 
So gentle late and Mandlahlng, taifkxkis 
Of rancid bile overflows : what tumuha iience, 
What horrors rise, were a ss s w s to relate. 



Qfnut Is here the general tern, slgnliying merely 
the act that ofendt^m runs oounier to something else. 

Offtnee ki properly IndeflnHe ; M meiely Impltas an 
ol>Ject without the least signiflcatlon of the nature of 
the object ; tr9$pu»» and trafugre$»ion have a positive 
reference to an object trtnata^ upon or trmugrttf 
ed ; tre^tus M contracted from trant and pM— that is 
apaaring beyond; and trmugrets from Iroiw and 
gresrua a foiag beyond. The tjffenee therefore which 
constitutes a treapau arises oat of the laws of pro- 
perty; a paaiing over or treading apon the propanr of 
another la a irtwpeta : tbe •Jtnca which «OBsUtntes a 
trafugruaion flows out of the laws of society In gene- 
ral which fis the boundaries of riaht and wrong ; who- 
ever therefore goes beyond or brealu through these 
bounds is guilly of a traajr/retma. Tht trapatt It 

laad or 

oflndlviAtals; irMntjvmHen ia a 

moral as wtD as polltleal evfl. Banters are 
i^pc to conmit CrMgisssst in the eafernefsaof their pur- 
suit ; the passkNH of men are perpetually mMead- 
ing them, and cauilag tliem to commit variona trens- 

Cttsiona ; tbe term Crsfpess la aometimea employed 
property as respects tune and otiier objecta; treas- 
grf»t9% Is always used in one onUbnn sense as re- 
spects rule and law ; we traijpass upon the thne or 
patlenoe of another ; 
Foislve the b ai baroyi tr a ^pa ss of my toafM. 

We Craasfvwis Hm moial or dvil taw; 
To whoia with aterarefard tbos Gabriel q«ke : 
Whv hast thou, Satan, broke the bounds preseiib'd 
To thy trtBMgvaaiima f — Mxltor. 

or aa 

Tbe ^fHkf Is either pohlkk or private ; 
mtaaMwr is property a private ^saes, althoufh impro- 
perly applied for an ogtmc* a^lnat publick law; the 
snsdssMMmMr stgnifles the wrong rf te n aasar ( 
•fbiiM in one's dcsissatfar acainst propriety : *Sni 
tauhs ia violatioo of a publick law are oompriaed u 
the naaie of siterfiMgeasar .'— BLACKsroNa. Theaiis- 
dMd Is always private. It signifies a wrong dstd, or a 
dMd which •fimds against one's duty. Uotoas and 
diaorderiy behavkMur In company are serious misdr 
siemoars ; every act of drunkenness, lying, fraud^ 
or hnmorallty ofevery kind, are miwd ta d i ; 

Fierce Aunine is voor tot, for this mudaed^ 

Reduc'd to grind tbe plates on which you ibed. 


Tlic' njKitrf Is ilmt which afleeu personi ot firlnd^ 
pIcH, roinniiiriftlf.ti or kkdiTlftuali, And k commlttf^ 
eitluN fJirtTiljf: of indUm tly aeainsl th^ pewon ; ' Slialil 
prifiv.hrntions and frivoluus ^ffnuet art tbi itiffft fn- 
qni!in caijBP^uf (tw^ulei "^BLAiftr An mffrfftLt ltaJu> 
feiift'T imncynaS s.u4 drtrect1|' bmuftht lawai q^siUiH 
tht frojit ftf the pikrilriilHr per&Dii ; * God msy fome 
tln^r nr otlj.«r lIiLidt ll tlw fxmcem uf IiIj juilice mud 

KHjilfiice lnc» to rvrelife tiic ^r«*.U {lut upon tli* 
vs ij^ iMao-'— ^iTTH' It Is ill pffii« Bfiilibst an- 
otlufr Id i^wak 4lsiapt< [fully r4 hlTEi In b)i Btwnce : 
It la an ^fWiaf 10 p4isb pfui LUii wltb violtdies ai^ 

OfencM are against either God or man ; tiie Cfvs- 
pa$9 Is always an ^sacs agafant man; the iraaJifrse- 
#tM is against the will of God or the laws of men ; 
the mtsdemBttnomr ia more parttcuiariy agalnat tbe 
eetablished order of society ; the attsdMd le an ^sass 
sgainst tbe Divine Law; tbe t^^mt Is an ^saes 
against good i 

Tbe 9§mdiKr is be who tgmU In any thiaf, dtbir 
by oommisstoa or omission ; * When any ^iftdw la 
preaented Into any of the eccleaiastkal courts be Is 
cited to appear there.*~BBVBRioaB. The ddrnfaait, 
from ddtafao tofkll, slgnifles properiy be who flulsby 
omission, but the term «Mteeii«a«y Is extended to a 
Ikllnre by the violation of a law; «TIm kllUag of a 
deeror boar, or even a hare, was p u nis h ed with the 
kMsof the deiiaf«MK*« eyes.*— HovB. Those who go 
into a wrong place are agtmdart; thoee vrho atay 
away when ttiey ought to go aro d«lnifa«att.> there 
are many •Wmitr§ a^lnst the Sabbath who \ 
violent amfopen breachea of decoram ; there are i 
mora d«(iaf«Mis who never attend a pabOokplaoe of 

Oftmdmg signifiee either actaalU pending or cal- 
culated tn •Weikd; tifgnnve slgnUles calculated to 
^^end at all nmei; a perron may be 9§gndimg in Ms 
manners to a partleular Individual, or oae an qgknding 
exprssskin on a parHoolar oeeaskm without aigr Impu- 
tation on Ms character ; 
And tho* th* •JSmdtiy part IMt mortal pafai, 
Tb* liiuBortal paHlta knowiedge dM mala. 


lafeefsMfMi It 



Uw^kmUmg 4e«olM tte act of not itf «iiini# ; in^ 
^IjNwiM Ite proiwity of not beinc diipoaed or apt to 
oBead\ hfVwUMtt Um property of Mag void of harm. 
UmmUmg exprenei therefore only a partial aute ; 
im^ftnnm« and hmrmU$» mark the diepoaltioo and cha- 
racter. A child la rmtgtmdimg at long as he doea no* 
thing to oflend othen ; Mt he may be ^•nsne if he 
dlicover an uaamiaUe temper, or has unpleasant man- 
ners ; * The tm^emdimt rogral Hule ones (of Prance) 
were not only condemned to languish fan soHtode and 
darkness, but their bodies left to perish with disease.*— 
SawAmn. A creature is nutgamve that has nothing 
in Itself thatcan ofltad; 

For drink, the grape 
BIw crashes, hufgennw musb— IIiltoji. 
That is harmies* which has neither tlie will nor the 
power to kmrm ; • When the disciple is questioned 
about the studies of his master, he makes report of 
some minute and Mrolous researdMs which are intro- 
duced only Ibr the purpose of raising a *cnniM« laaglL' 
— CcHBaaLAiiD. Domestiek aninmls are ftequently 
very tfn^awtM ; it is a great ireommendation of a 
imaek medicine to say that it Is JUnates. 

Tbeladi^fnfty, ftom the Latin difmtf worthT, signi- 
fying unworthy treatment, respects the feelrag and 
eondition of the person oinnded : tiM immiU (v. Jlf- 
/rMt) respects the temper of the oAnding party. We 
measure the fod^fnicy in our own mind; it depends 
upon tlie consciottsnea we ha?e of our own worth: 
we measure the Await by the disposition which is dla- 
eovered In anotiier to degrade aa. Fersons ia high 
stations are peeuuartyezpned to ttMb'iPitflMt.* persons 
InererystaUonmaybeezpoeedtonwKlte. The royal 
fkmily of France suflbred every jndifiuty which vul- 
gar rage could devise ; *TlM two cailqucs made Mon- 
teramas' oflleers prisonen, and mated them with 
great iiui^fiuly.'-HKoBBRTsov. Whenever people 
liarbour aatasasltieB towards each otiier, they are apt 
to dlseover them by oAnring Muralts wlaen tiKy hav atlie 
' " *Narvaes having learned tiiat Ooites 

was now advanced with a asMll body of man, < 
4ered this as an iM«ilc which merited inmiediate chaa- 

tlsemant.'— EaasaTsoii. htdigmtiM may 1 
l>e oflbred to persons of all ranks; but in this oaae it 
always eonalsts of move vtolanee than a simple mnrft; 
It would be an i nHimt^ to a person of any rank to be 
eompelled to do any oOea which bekmgs only to a 
beast of burden. 

It would be an tniigmtt to a feowla of any station 
•a be eompelled to aatpose her person ; on the other 
hand, aa nwnll doea not enand beyond an abnsiva 
azpramion, a tilumphaaft eontesBplaoaB look, or any 
ireaeh of eonrtaqr. 


4gmit In French ^mte^ firom the Latin od and 
/y«as, the forehead, signiies flying in the fhee of a 
neiBOo: intnit, in French <NMtt«, comes tnm the 
Latin tamfte to dance or leap upon. The tbrmer of 
theoe actions marks deflance, the hitter aeom and tri- 
umph ; 9mtragt Is compounded of oirt or niter and 
rcj'tfor e<«l«n«e,rignUyina an act of extreme violence. 

An ^front \m a niBnt of reproiirh Fhnwn In, tlie jnnh 
sence of filhers : U pif|iie« nnel inArtkl^rn : nn injuit Is 
an attack oiiule wiUi ifwrrtenc**; H irhiiia^ snd pfo- 
vokes: ^noittrflft eom1i4iws all liiat im oSL^mWn; tt 
wound! A ltd t trjitrea. An Inioitf mmi bn^c h of iM^ite 
nesB, or a warn of leapeBt wb<tre tt in due, ia an 
^frmt; 'The perwiii Ihiu condnci'^d, wtia wm Hon- 
tubal, Sf^'TiLeil mucti didttirhtsl, Jind ruuld not rorlKiar 
eotnplaii^iriit m ihi; Ivjnrd of the ,tfrMtt ha had rnet 
with aainrii; the Hmnan hliitrirlsnt' — Addiadm- An 
azprms niark of dlvmpeet, rariif^niiarll^ if cou^iled with 
nnyexa^mtX indieaUon of hotilFliy, ti an in^it: *It 
may VCfy tvnMnaa^iily ba ei^ctM thht th*; okl draw 
«pon tbttrddvri th& greatest pa it of tt^we nuutu 
wVA tbey mi mnzh LaiDcnt^ mid that ^e.^ Is r»j«iy 

ilrrs^jiHjd (hji when It k «i;i«tenptfU«!.*— JfrnwiuH 
Whtii ihe lu^ult brehkM fortb into pcnoiu) vh.tkdiii::4i u 
14 :Mi otitrae* ; -Thia U Um muiid of a r4»biiMt« 
iikaiii'A lUe , ik« c^oiit/iicti AtiUM wiwtn Ik !» ruiflviiv, 
^1 1] It hi liij virtuCt U^ ^ hmM virtue, o^tlgc^ hi ill lu' 4^- 
{:1m rse H[ Uie rf luin of reaA>ii. tit ipeujd t^ Uiue m 

Ca^iichUfl p^^K co4)Arue every iniboaat AaedAa 
JiLin nil qjpTvnf. V^b^n people a» In a ■tacs oC ««i^ 
iiifiM4iy, tti«y mf\t opportunities of cJferliit eaeti ollw 
ii^iUu. tutoiJcatfon or vfrt>liaal pasiioa ifa|Wl mfta vt 
ibd c^mm^jun ^f wuit^gu* 



^ggrtmoU^ tn Latin a^^nvatuF^ partklpJi of ag^ 
fT«*«, oampCKiikl^il of thu uiteiulve nytiAtklt; a^m aA 
HEul/vviw to make lieavjr , »ig^niftie«u> iiitlie yt^ry h^avy ; 
irritaU, in Lallti iJ^io^vj^^ paald o^e uf irrit^, i% hicli 
Ij a frequeuuiilve tnjiii i>«, il(iim4?9 m ctrkTr (iDi^Qr; 
prfrinj*^, in Krmch pi-i^ivdUf!^, Laun ^mjoii^^ cofn- 
t>r.Huid«HJ of jrm tbrdi, and «9«ri to call, AiKiutka la 
chrtUi'MEO or defj' ; utcj^frdf^r, Latiu tttu^fratu*^ 
\^n\c\\A^ of «f oji/^rfi, Is cotnpaiiiulnl of the iiiieiuive 
ij LJuiile ¥1 and afwer ic^u^hn iigiilfyirhf la innkp Ltkio^n 
txcetilini^Ly [i>n|li, tttt^udita, in Frer^h idTt^ji/^jj?, 
irr^iik myruAl£i^ii cuiun frnni ToMtat^t^ a kiiif of 
riuygis, wliL)^ uaviug uEfeiidixl vhv gc>d^ wiu dntlnrd 
^y way of |Hui(^Qiit?at [o itazKl up id Lis chin In Mttt^ 
wkUi a tree of fkir fhiM han|;lii|^ ovttrhJu head^brjih 
of wtiiUit BA tit att«[npt^ to aJlfty IiLl hurifcr sad 
Ihlr^t, Red frofTi biM toii^li ; wti^ncpto l^mts^lii* slgiih 
A«4 lo ves l>y t:ickMrLE faJrtf cireciafionft. 

All tJtesi' wonl*^ euxfJi y» firfltt nsfcr to the ^ 
nf the iidod^ and la £)iniLliar dltcourip Uiat alao t 
ttif s&irH! i4|ntflcalloa ^ liut (iUH-miaereap«li Ibsoql- 
ivjird cLrcninstaiKCa. 

The crinifl nf robbery Is a^jpavaei>id by any clirimt- 
Ri ancestor cfuclty ; whnt^^vtfr romrji]Lcro»Ll)f> ^lln^ 
iTTiiai^ ,- whaievfir iwaJitiii aiiipr prpro*cj; whnt- 
^t^i hMkel9c«iH ihta anger tEtn^i^riiniartly »ajptratoi; 
u lib^tever taii«ei hoiie« fu order lu fruAratu tliQW toaia- 

Au i^pcAfAitctf of uocoiic«m f^r th« ofleiic^ and lEn 
Conwfij 1143 tic ^ o^fraciiiff tilc? luUt of l)ie uffifider; 
* As if uniort! Iisd f>ot a>wu cvTlt enmieh hi life, wa 
are cDtiTlnuftlly addlni frlftf t*^ grttf, anA attgrAvatiT^ 
ihe i^mouian ciUjamtiy tiy our cnieT ireBLment of ono 
R noihe r/— A fttna r^u . A ^tnilti«{ ii r« h » jo jwi irri jdi«r 
h' li>ji^ contknunJ and i\^\v rtspesttid ; 40 al»n rvproHctifli 
and unkind trt'atrnent rmintrilie j^DUiid ; ' Wv irritntM 
ijiany of tilii (t\n\^ in Loudon ari muck hy hU l«ii#iii, 
thae'th^y wktlidn?w thdf cnniTitniikint/— Jokmou 
( /.i/f i^i/" Savage). Anffry word* pivpnk^^ nerlkuJatly 
when »fiokcn wlil^ an alx of deflqaiee ; * TW axdmarf- 
vertianti of cdiEcki Qr« coininoo^y $ueh ss may esaUy 
pt^atti>kt the fredntim wr^tnr u> HuAr qitjldknoB or 
rfc-ientmrniJ— JoHisiaji. When pfwoca 
mtdiliihed nnd varlfid they Ku^vae*; 
fptafdm^ r«'ni>iir« axamrvlH, or iMflaM 
JoiiNsoH. The veaOwr Iky Its Awaent e 
ialhcjt thow who depend upon it fW 
^ Can we iMnk that rcli«tr»n was dt^i^n^^d! only for a 
rontrndiction 10 natiirc; ari>d ivitJi Uie srvnldat and 
prnsi irriiiJoivaJ tynuiny In tlie world iotanialit* T— 

Wicked pcoptp a^ffrnv^a ibpir t7aiu«r«Hlofa hy 
vk]J*?nce: iuscfptib;^ and netirrjoi p«>pl« at* nioai 
ftsiirHy trriiated; pmud \nn.t^\t are quickly ^{^^tfd; 
b^^ri: and Aerjr peo|>l« nrn aQoii»t t^a^peraUd : tbmf 
wTm witth rm mncti^ and wWi foj tt engejlyi an 
otUiiiest (jtatoitzMt. 


7Va#r Ie mort pmbakly a fh?qii«ntBt1 vo of tear ; «« 
baj9 llie name iluntficailon atflvm undei the twad of 
diapltft^ : iannt tn iirf?hah]y contrticti^dfrom taiffoijie, 
tb« orir^nBLl lusaninis 'fif witich U i^irpdained lu (he prs- 
Gpdfiig arilclD : u^mtntt, fr^m Uie Laiin t^m^nttum 
and (f^it^Lii to ■iwiflti Iilini0(^ to five pain liy tw^a|^ 
or frifpjni. Tlie idea of act^ upon wUwn at> a* to 
pri:^luci: a painfull Hntimf*at 14 commnn (iv kU Lbe« 
l«rmi; tlK^ydlt^r tn Ui« iniHkof ijic actkm^ biuI in 
the dtri^rec uf Oif affli;;!. 



An thete letioM riw in Impoctanee ; to cmm eon- 
■ktt tn that which to mott trllllnf ; to tenMiU In that 
which la BHMt wriooa. We are Uaatd by a fij that 
buzsea In oar ean; we are vtx*d bj the careteaaneaa 
•ndatuptditToToaraervanta; we are tmimUd bf the 
vareaama of othera; we are UnUUud by the fUr 
proapecta which only preaent tbemaelvea lo diaappear 
again; we are t0rmtmud by the hnportonltiea of 
troubleaomebeggaia. It la the repetition of unpteaaa n t 
Uiflea which Uatts ; * Looiaa began to take a little 
mlacblevoiia pleaaore in fM#<v.*— Cithbbrlaiid. It 
la the croaaneaa and perverdty of ttdnp which ««s ; 
BtiU may the dog the wand*ring troops oooairain 
or ally ghoala, and vas the gaUty train-^DETOSJi. 
In thia aanae ttdnp may be aald flgnratively to be 



and proToUng behavioor whkh 

Sharp waa hia voice, which in the ahrilleat tone, 
Thua with liOarlo«ia UmmU attack tlM tluooe. 

It la the diaappointment of awakened eipectatkina 
which tMUaUtes; « When the maid (in Sparu) waa 
once aped, abe waa not auflbred to Untaliu the male 
part of the commonwealth.*— Addiboii. It la the lepe- 
titioo of grievoua trouMea which UrwunU ; * Truth 
exerting itself in the searching precepca of aelMenlal 
and mortiflcation la tormetUimg to Vtcioua minds.'— 
South. We may be Ua$td and tormented by tliat 
which prodocea bodily or mental pahi ; we are vexed^ 
UtmuJ^ and toaU/tzW only in the miud. Irritable 
and nerroua people are moateaailyt«c««d; captioua 
and fretfkil people are moat eaalty vexW or tmrnnttd; 
aangoine ana eager people are moat eaaily unulited : 
iu all theae caaea the Imagination or the bodily atate 
of the indlTlduai aerrea to iocreaae the pain : but per- 
aona art ffranararf by iuch thlnga aa Inflict poaitive 


Fnmti^nt algnlfiea either the act of vexing, or the (M- 
Ing of being vexed ; awr((/lca<>»a, tlie act of mortifv- 
Ing, or the IMing of being mortified; ekajrrin, la 
French cA^rtm, from ajj^rtr, and tlie Latin omt aharp, 
aigniflea a abarp feeling. 

~ -• - - froi 

'■ incUnatlona or paasions of men'; 

F*xmti0H aphnga from a variety of cauaea, acting 
mpleaaantly on toe IncUnatlona or paasions of men ; 
msrti^Uutitn la a atrons degree ofvmUwn^ which 

ariaea from particular drcumatancea acting on parti- 
cular paaalona : the loaa of a day>' pleaaure la a vtxa- 
(asa to one who ia eager for pleaaure; the loaa of a 
prise, or the circumatance of coming Into disgrace 
whtte we expected honour, la a m^rtUletiem lo an 
ambitloua peraon. Fnation ariaea principally from 
our wlahee and viewa being croeaed ; wt^rtifieatMn^ 
from our pride and adf-importance beiag hurt; ehmgrtn, 
from a mixture of the two ; disappointments are always 
attended with more or leaa of vextion^ according to 
tlie drcumatancea which give pain and trouble ; 'Po- 
verty la an evil complicated with so many circum- 
alancea of uneaalneM sikI vexatMn, that every man ia 
atadkMia to avoid it.'— Johmsom. An exposure of our 


log to I 

rty may be more or icasof a murti/Uativny accord- 
lag to the value which we set on wealth and gran- 
deur ; * I am martifisd by those compliments which 
were designed to encourage me. '— Popb. A refrisal of 
a request will produce more or less of ekmgrin as It is 
accompanied with circumstances more or leaa ai^rc^^ 
ing lo our pride ; * It waa your purpoae to balance my 
ekMfrm at the inconsiderable eflbot of that eamy, 1^ 
lepifisenilng that it obtafaied aome notice.*— Hiix. 

' Crim§ («. Omm) is lo taisdsaiMMar («. Qfracs), 
as the geBua to the apedea: a ansdasMaaeiir la in the 
tacbnleai aenae a minor crtais. Houaebraaking ia 
OBderaU clrennwtancea a eriwu; but ahopUfUng or 
pUftoing amounta only to a sii s rf<si < aws i ir. 

Oorpoieal punlahmenta are moat conunooly aaneiad 
ta arteta; pecuniary punlahmenta frequently to «^ 
diaiiaapaii. In the volgar nae of theae torma, mi*- 

not always algnUyinc I 
' atemorala 

ir diatlanlaMl ftMH cHaM,lgr 
avlol^Miof pohttek law,bitt 
only of private mbrali; In whlchaenae the tarm erim9 
impUea what ia done againat the atate ; 
No mais of tMne our preaent auflMnfi drawa, 
Not thou, but Heav*n'a diapoaing will the canae 

The aiia daa ia an aar ia that which ofltenda Indivlduala 
or email communltiea; ' I mention tlila for the aakeof 
aeveral rural aquirea, whoae reading doea not riae ao 
high aa to "the preaent atate of England,^' and who 

are often ua to uauip that precedency which by the 

their countnr M not due to them. Their want 

ich haa planted them in thia atation 

t cifuao tb^ sifidiBnaaiMt * 

hiwa of their coi 
of leaning, whkh 
may In aome 

CHSu, la Latin cranaa, Greek KfHitm* iignlflea a 
Jodgement, aenteoce, or puniahment : alao the cauae of 
the aenteoce or punishment, In which latter sense It Is 
here taken : vsea, in Latin vttcaai, from vtl« to avoid, 
aigniflea that which ought to be avoided : sta, In Saxon 
Swedlah ayn^ German a««4f«,old German 

Moito, aaate, Itc Latin aatUss, Greek ebnnK, fromtf^M* 
to hurt, aigntOea the thing tliat hurts : nu being of all 
thlnga the moat hurtAil. 

A eriwu ia a aocial ofltoce : a vie* la a peraooal 
olfence: every action which doea liUury to oihen, 
either Individually or coUecUvely, la a eriwu; that 
wlilch doea iojury to ouraelvea ia a viee, 

A eriwu conaiala in the violation of human lafw ; 
* The moat ignorant heathen iinowa and feela that, 
when he haa committed an unhiat and cruel action, be 
haa committed a eriwu and deaervea punishment.*— 
Blaie. Fiee conaiala in the violation of the moral 
law; *If a man makea hia vicet puMick, though they 
be such as seem principally to alfbct himself (as drunk- 
enneaa or the like), they then become, by the bad ex- 
ample th^ aet, of pemidoua eflfecta to aodety.'— 
BLACKaroHB. Sin eonalBta in the violation of the Di- 
vine law; 'Every aingle groaa act of tin ia much the 
aame thing to the conacienoe that a great blow or (kU 
la to the head ; It atuna and beceavea it of all uae of 
ita aenaea for a time.'— Soctb. fim, therefore, con- 
vtcs ; but there are many ataa 

wtilch are notcrtsM* nor vieee : crtsM* are tried n 
a human court, and punished agreeably to theaent en ea 
of the Jodae ; atcM and «mw are brought before the 
tribunal or the conaclence: the former are puniabedfai 
thia world, the latter will be punished in the world to 
cmne, by toe aentence of the Almighty: treason iaone 
of the moat atrooloua eriwuw: drunkenness one of the 
most dreadful Mcaa ; religkMM by pocrhgr one of the moat 
heinous M««. 

Ofiaa cannot be atoned for by repentance; aodety 
demands reparatkm for the ii^ury committed: vices 
continue 10 punish the oflbnder aa long aa they am che- 
rished: «<»« are pardoned throogh the atonement and 
mediation of our h i eaa e d R ed e e m er, on the aJmple co>- 
ditkm of aincere repentance. CHsms and ete«« disturb 
the peace and good order of aodety, they alfect men'a 
earthly happineaa only ; tin deatroys the aoul, both ft>r 
thia world and the world to cume: eriwus aometimee 
go unpunished ; but ein carries its own punishment 
with It : murderers who escape the ponishroeot due lo 
their eriwu* corouMwlv suffer the torments which at- 
tend the commission of such flagrant tint. Oinua ars 
particular acts; vice* are habitual acta of commisalon ; 
eiiu are acta of commiaaton or omission, habitual or 
particular : personal security, respect for the lawa, and 
regard forone'a moral character, operate to prevent the 
commiaaion of eriwut or vice* ; toe (bar of God detara 
from the commiaaion of ain. 

A eriwu alwavs iovolvea a violation of a law ; a vwa, 
whether in conduct or diaposition, alwava dimlnJahes 
moral excellence and involvea guilt; a «m alwaya anp* 
poaea aome perveraity of will In an accountable agent 
Chiklren may commit eriwu*^ but we majTtruat that 
In the divine mefcy they will not all bebnpwted to them 
aa tin*. Of vteaa, however, aa they are habitual, wa 
have no right to auppoae that any exception will ba 
made in the acconm of our stiis. 

Cvimn vary with timeaand countrlea; vie** mav ba 
more or leaa pernicious; but «ta la aa undiangeabtie hi 
ita nature aa the Being whom It oiftnds. " " 



tnd Ibffery tie cHwui in fingland, which in 
eoootrtes are either not known or not leianled : the 

9ie§ of ghmony !• not io dreadful as that of drunkem ., . 

imm; erenr «m as an offence anlnst an Infinitely good I because fVaud snd viUanv 
andwiseBeing, must always bear the same stamp of of every capital olltaee 
guilt and enormity. .. . . ~i 

By the alfecutlon of some writers in modem times, 
the word crtsM has been used In the singnlarto denote, 
In the slMtraet sense, a course of criminal conduct, but 
the Innovation Is not warranted by the necessity of the 
case, the word being used In the plural number, In that 
sense, as to be encouraged in the commission of crtfsMs, 
not of crime. 

Oimimul, from crisis, signifies belonging or relating 
to a crims; pdUf, from fmUf signifies having fmtt ; 
ruiU comes from the Geiman /«ft«ii topay, and jr«ll a 
Bne, debt, or from gmiU and*M»<«, according to Horae 
Tooke; 'Otutt is ge-wigled ^tM. guWd, guiU; the 
past participle of ge-wlgUan and to flndfvtft In any one, 
b to find that he has been guiUd, or as we now say, 
Uptiieit as wicked means witched or bewitched.*— 
(XkvsTMMw ^ PuHef.) 

CHsttaai respects the character of the oflence ;* True 
modesty avoids every thing that is man'iisi; flUse 
modesty everything that Is unftshionable.*— Anmsow. 
OmUtf respects the Ikct of committing the oflbnce, or 
more property the person committing It; 
Guilt heari appall'd with deeply troubled thought; 
And yet not always on the guiug head 
Descends the fated ttasb.— Thomson. 
The ermrasUfv of a person is estimated by all the cir- 
cumstances of his conduct which present themselves to 
observation; his guiU requires to be proved by evi- 
dence. The ertsiMsiity is not a matter of question, 
but of Judgement : the nuU is oOen doubtAil, if not po- 
BlUvely concealed. The hi^r the rank of a person, 
the greater his erimiiulUp if he does not observe an 
upright and trreprooctiable conduct; *If this perwve- 
rance In wrong often appertains to individuate, it much 
more frequently beiongs to publick bodies ; in them the 
disgrace of errour, or even the ensinuUtty of OMnduct, 
belongs to so many, tliat no one to ashamed of the part 
which beloiwB to himself.*— Watson. Where a num- 
ber of Individuate are concerned In any unlawful pro- 
ceeding, the dHRculty of attachingtbe guilt to the real 
oflbnder te greatly increased ; * When these two sre 
taken away, the possiblllnr ofgrnlt, and the possibility 
of innocence, what restramt can tlie belief or the creed 
lay upon any man ?*— Hammond. 

Ormmalitf attaches to the aider, abettor, or encou- 
lager ; but futtt, in the strict sense on! v, to the perpe- 
trator of what te bad. A person may therefore some- 
times be crminMl witbootteing guUtf. He who con- 
ceate the oflfences of another may, under certain clr- 
camatances, be more eriminal than the^ftjr person 
himself. On the other hand, we may be £uiUf with- 
out being en'mmoi ; the latter designates something 
positively bad, but the former te quslified by the object 
of thejnaU. Those only are denominated erimimU 
who oiftnd seriously, either against publick law or prl- 
▼ate morato; but a person may be said to bsfwiW 
either of the greatest or the smallest ofliinces. He who 
eontradlcti another abruptly In conversation te#i(«f» 
of a breach of politeness, but he te not erimnnaL 
OnRtaal Is moreover applied as an epithet to the 

tWnpdone;/-" ' ..•'r .... .. 

We common]. 

and views, as ■,. ■■n.iMM , wu% w* ufc iiviauu, uic mum, 
orthe conscience, as gutUjf. It te very ermtnal to sow 
diBscnston among men ; although; there are too many 
who frmn a busy temper are ^«»<ty of ihte ofitoce. 


All rtiew wrmi are employed fm a publtck offender ; 
m! fbe flrvt cdtiveys iii'> fnoru tJiiin ihin gtiiifral tdca; 
whit? t*n? otJiert coq>pr«?riend loni^ ivro^^ury Idea In 
liiHrripitkaiion : ^rtamtal [p. Crintimai, OuiUy^ i«a 
gi nf ral tifrm, and ihe r«i am profwrty H^ieel^fl of rr»- 
WMttlf; cn/^nf, from the ualLii fHfj^a,a^d preAm^tu 
tsken Sn fi faulty Btepillftj tlitf trfrtjiittf who Lb duettly 
^4r|M w-iUi tUi cmriirr^ - ifiaUf actor ^ mitipouuAeiKH 
tfca L^tin tssiut woi* dud/ufi^r, ■Jfnifiefl an flvil datf, 

tiwt te, one who does evn, la disiineuon from Mm Who 

does good : /elM, from /cieny. la Latte/slMte acapfial 

erim^ comes from the Orsek f^XAnt an Imposture, 

1 and vlUany are the prominent ftatutea 

tal ollbnce: Mastet, in Latin, eMvtclM, 

rtidple of ceavtaes to convince or prove, signifies OQt 

proved or found guilty. 

When we wish to speak in general of those who by 
ofifences against the laws or regulatioiiaof soeleiy have 
exposed themselves to puntehment, we denominala 
them criminaU; *If I attack the vicious, I shaU only 
set upon them In a body, and will not be provoked by 
the worst usage I can receive iVom odwrs, to make an 
ezampte of any particular eHaiAMl.*—AimuoN. When 
we consider persons as ahready brought beforo a tiibu 
nal, we caU them cm^riu ; 

The Jury then withdrew a moment, 
As if on weighty points to comment. 
And right or wrong resolved to save her, 
They gave a verdict In her favour. 
The tmlprit by escape grown bokl, 
Plllbrs alike from young and old^— Mooeb. 
When we consider men In regard to the moral turpi- 
tude of their character, as the promoters of evil rather 
than of good, we entitle them suUi/«c(er# ; 
For thtethe ««le/«eler goat was laid 
On Bacchus' altar, and nte forMt paid.— Dtaroair. 
When we consider men as oflhnding by the grosser vk>- 
latlons of the law. they aro termed /0lMU ; *He(£arl 
Ferrers) ezpressed some dtepleasure at being executed 
as a common /«^ exposed to the eyes of such amul- 
titude.*— Sm oLLaT. When we consider men as already 
under the sente n c e of the law, we denominate tlieffl 
Atteadsnce none shall need, nor trahi, whereoMM 
Are to behold the Ju<teement, but the judged ; 
Those two : the third best absent te coodemn'd 
Omvtei by flight, and rebel to all law. 
Conviction to the serpent none bekmgSL^MiLTOv. 
The panishmenis inflicted on eriminaU Taiy aeconl- 
ing to the nature of their crimes, and the spirit of the 
laws by which they are Judged: a guilQr conscience 
will give a man the air of a eulprit In the presence of 
those who have not authority lo be either hte accusers 
or Judges : it gratified the malice of the Jews to cause 
our blessed Saviour to be crucified between two «mIs- 
f actors: it te an important regulatkm In the internal 
economy of a prison, to have/«imu kept distinct from 
each other, particulariy if their crimes are of an atr<>- 
clous nature: It has not uuftequently happened, that 
when the sentence of the law has placeci eammeit in 
the towest state of degradation, their characters have 
undeifone ro entire a roformation, as to enable them to 
attain a hteher pitch of elevatkm than they had ev«r 
enjoyed before. 


CWyoftltf, In Latin em^oKlts, from sa^Ni a fknit or 
blame, signifies worthy of blame, fit to be blamed : 
/salty, from /salt, havinff /sails. 

We are evIlpahU from the commission of one/satt ; 
we are /sally from tlM number of /salts.* eulfobU \m 
a relative term ; /sally te absohite ; we are nipahU 
with regard to a superiour whose Intentions we have not 
frUfilled; we are /aalty whenever we commit any 
fndu. A master pronounces hte servant etdpakU for 
not having sttended to hte commands ; • In the com- 
mon business of life, we find the memory of one like 
that of another, and nonestly hnpute omissions not to 
involuntary forgetfolness, but eutpahU Inattention.*— 
Johnson. An indlflbrsnt person pronounces another 
nMfauUjf whose fauUs have come under hte notice; 
* In the consideration of human life the satirist never 
folb upon persons who are not glaringly /salto.'— 
Stsslb. It te possible therefore to be faMUif without 
being CTil^a^ltf, but not vtcs verad. 


OatZllM«, without /atll, te mora than nmoeeml: ht- 

noeanea^ from naeaa to hurt, extends no farther than the 

quality of not hurting by any direct act ; guiUUaa com- 

prohends the quality of not intending to hurt: it te 

KiBlble, therefore, lo be nmsesal without beiag#M«*- 
r, though not wUa vertd; he who wtebti tat the 



1 of aaoUMr !■ boC guSUUn^ ttoih h* mmf to 
imtmt of tht orime of murdtr. OtdliUtt mmm to 
tmud ft nao'i fenaral eoadUkw ; i wf wtf hit pftfU> 
oiSftr ooBdlHon: no maa te rOtiett la the df^M of 
Ood,roriiomftaliezampcfroaitiMguUtoriiji; watte 
iifty to iw i uema in tte rijln of men, or fam cw f of «M 
mch intonUonftl ofltoeM •■ rente Um obnoikMM lo 
OmUU»nM9 Wftfl tluil teppy 

Ab ! why alioald all mankind 
For one man*! Auilt tliaft fOtUu to condenaM, 
UguiUU»»7 But fttMu me wtet can procacd 
But all corrapt V-Uiltqm, 

hMcenM Is ttet i«latlf« or eomparative itate of per- 
Ibction which to attainable here on earth: tte higheat 
Mate of immoemut to an Ignorance of evil ; * Wtea Adam 
•eee tte eeveral ohAim of nature about Um, te ap. 
pean in a dtoocder or mi 

r mind Miitable to one wte had 
i hit teppineai.*— An- 

Omiiami to hi tte proper eenee applleahto only to 
tte condition of man ; and when appUed to thlnfii It 

But fton tte mountain*! graeqr ilde 

A finltfM« feaet 1 bring ; 
i eerip with ftuiti and herbi iopplled, 
And water from tte apring.— Goumm 

IwMouiU to equally appUcaUe to person or thinp ; a 
person to mnacaU wte has not committed any Injury, 
or has not any direct purpose to commit an li\|ury ; or 
a conversation to tira«e«iu which to ftee from what 
to tertAil. Innocent and hmrmlut both reeommend 
themselves as qualities negatively good; they deslg- 
Bale aa exemption either in tte persoo or thing ftom 
lillury, and diflkr only In regard lo tte natum of tte In- 
jury : tMMcsMS rsspscta moral lAjury, and km mlu§ 
phyrical iqjury : a person to maMSBf wte to ftee ikom 
moral fanpuri^ and wicked purposss; te to A sn w i sM 
if te teve not tte power or disposition to commit any 
Tiolence ; a diversion to innaemU which has nothing in 
it likely to corrupt tte morato ; * A man steukl endiea- 
vour to mate tte sphere of bto taasMiii pleasures as 
wide as possible, tbat te mav retire into them with 
■•ftty/-«-AnMsov. A game to hmnnUss which to not 
likely to inflia any woumi, or endanger tte tealth ; 

Full on tato breast tte Tn^an arrow Ml, 
9utterai<Ms bounded from tte plated steel. 



H^erfeetwn denotes either tte abstract quaHnr of 
iwaerfeetj or tte thing which eonslltuies It tmrntr/tt ; 
4^9U stipules that whtoh to deaeient or fiOls short, 
Aram tte LaUn ddlcts to All short :/<s«ft, from (hll, 
signifies that which faib ; me«, signifies Ite same as 
aniaimed under tte bead of Orimo. 

These terms are applied either to Mmns or things. 
An imperfteUon in a person arises from hto want of 
psr/aeUMi, and tte limnnl^ of hto nature; there to no 
one without some point of imptrftetion whtoh to ob- 
vious to others, if not to himself: te may strive to 
diminish it, although te cannot expect to get altogether 
rid of it: a lUfeaU a deviation from tte general con- 
stitution of man; Ittowtetmaytonaturaitotteman 
as an Individual, tot not natural to man as a species; 
In thb manner we may roeak of a d^eet in tte speech, 
or a ^/eel in temper. Tte /a«U and v<e« rise in de- 
gree and character above either of tte former terms; 
they teth reflect diigrace more or less on tte person 
pomesring them ; but tte fault always characterixes 
tte agent, and to said in relation to an individual : tte 
eic« characterlxes tte action, and may te oonsidere4 
abstractedly : hence we speak of a man's/B«ic« as the 
tilings we may condemn in him ; but we may speak of 
tte vtcM of drunkenness, lying, and tte like, without 
any iomiediate reference to anv one wte practises 
these vieet. When they are both employed for an hi- 
dividual, tteir distinctkin to obvious: the fnUt may 
lessen Ite amIablUtyor eiceU e nce of tte character; 
tte ews to a stain: a single act dflMroyt to purity, an 
habitual pncsSfie Is a poOBttoD. 

creatures, and became tte sMst mp^rfmt: and tnm 
our imptrftdion has artoea, also, a general is y sr / ss- 
ti&m tbrot^ihoat all Ite worto of creaikm. Tte wctd 

fsMsrfwiMt to ttoraljrs tte ssost unqnallfted term of 
all ; there may to i sy nf mHom In regard to our Maker ; 
or f hrre may b^ tiiipn/«ejim la regard to what wt 

coTicefcvfl t>r prrft^tum : &iid in vbn ciiM Lhe tftm 
■lukplv &oA ft>iwmVjf unplltw wMntcv^r fiika ihort la 
mny 6reree or mniintT ol ^rrff^titjn ■ 'hue {Hrmnl 
iUir) thai we, furvtin uli, mbu */^ tlH'irtFily iwprrfeti tr*S- 
tuf rr^ in Uie kinivcTM, afe the ouly bHJtf* ihiiL villH fmrt 
■ |J II w of imftrftftiim. ' — Sti t d i = Drffc I H A pcwii [ \ Ve 
dt^rt^r^if *4n/<»-/K(j<rn . H \m rMiiif]if> LnAh fci *pur ld*rfl* 
of prrffftwn or our |iArLifiiJbr l£ti4:rtiliiifi . rlnii, vin-va 
ma)' kfe n dcf*sl in lilt lumtrlBlifl of wliurli n ihtng Ls 
huuIp ; ijt A defrti In ilie iiinde iif DLLkliif U: ib^ ivrm 
i*ftrtt tifm«fvr, whHlxet tnkj of pcrtpnt m tiikuKi^ 
cbsraf icilxMi rBther U»e objvci Hiflin Ihe Mimt l 'TJito 
liiw Tiir« f>r ineii tulle s |4nkuJst piMmire In fltiditig 
s& eDiltiTTit rhwseu-r Irveiird to Tbtlr coodUkui hy a 
T^\nyT\ of la 4fJ»cU^ a lid keefi ihcnMidvc* jii ^CKiuUf- 
Ei&ni:«, tlitkUKli il^wy Kfe ej celled kii ■ iU>u««iid virtuf4, 
ii' U>fy t#Ekve tbai diey June in caionK^h wlih • |r**t 

ii^nst>ii *iiy on«/«H;j/— AhtiuoH- Faulty di» liie rji/i*?!- 
miiil, wb«u uJd of ih)rii», tJwa^t rrfcra la the ineni: 
lliui wc ifiiy uy tlKr« li s defect tn the ila**, of i «[«- 
feci ill the tpriii^ ; \>\ii iliere iii a /anil in UhI' workriimi- 
■hip, or a faith ifi itje puttlittf loflrtlMtr, si^d iJie like. 
Vuf^ with nfDrU lo tliifif»s f' pFt*(»ifriy s wriO'iui at 
rodk^J dtftti ■ the farmf.t Ui*t. jti I hi: cimfth;EiiiL>ih of 
till? whole, the (liccr loay liir In iJie parts - (hi* fr>riinMr 
Ikrt tn fTHtT'iuiJii*. the liti*?r lin tia tNe nj^ridi^nti ; theie 
may be a dt/eti ia Ite sbtLpo or make of a horse; but 
tte vice to said In regard to hto soundnem or unsound- 
ness, hto dodllty or taidodlity ;* I did myself tte tenour 
thto day to mate a visit lo a hidy of oualhy, wte to 
one of thoee wte are ever raiHiig at the vice§ of tte 
age.'— 0TBSI.B. 


Imptr/trHifn (p. Ittptrffctivij hft* aEnpndy b<etii con- 
' ■ aa LliHt whifh In liw mo#l eiwrnlrd veiwe 
Um.- nittriJ fterfcttitin of lusri ; tile t^rl are but 
of tmjrfr/fcfurtL, Varying in liefrtv ftfMt clncmur 
i; ^ Vitu Jlvt^ Jn A rvl|n of JiuniAn LnHrniity, 
where evtry i>n<' has tmptr/ettrt'nr.'—Ilnin^ WtoJt- 
9*$S to a p<jaltJvi> trul stroijf ileKriH- of Mmptrftiitont 
which toin'lKi«(>d to aUtogih ; it u wimt w€< do tuA s& 
necessarily l4M>k for, ami t]ii.<r^tt>rf' aiutlfii^uiAb^ tbe in- 
divblual wku ti Uabie to U; 'Tioc iuHy of allimlag 
oursdvus to delav what we know cannot Anally to 
es caped, to one or tte general wtdtm»$tM which, to a 
greater or km degree, prevail In every mind.*— Jobm- 
soa. Frattty to anotlier strong mode of tsqMv/scttMi 
which chatpcterlacs tte fraglUtv of man, but not of aU 
iJtoess la I 

.It didbn from i sse fc i fs s In reqieet to tte olis|eec 
A wtakm»§» lies more In tte Judgement or In ite senti' 
ment; /rsitty lies more In tte moral features of uk 
action; • There are drcumstaaces which every man 
nuMt know will prove tte oc ca si on s of calling forth 
fata latent /Votttisf.*— Blaie. It to a wtakntgt in a 
man to yield to tte pensaaslone of any one against hto 
better Judgement: It to a /rcOly to yiebl to intemper- 
ance or llUclt Indulgences. FkiUnMg and fmblu art 
tte smallest degrees of imper/ecUom to whkh tte 
human character to Uabto : we teve all our fntimgt la 
temper, and our fotkUt in our habits and our prepoa- 
semioos : and te, as Horace observes, to tte best wte 
has tte fewest ; * Never alk>w small fnUngt lo dwell 
on your attention so much as to defbce tte whoto of an 
aaoiabto chamoter.*— Blaw. * Witty aien teve sooBd- 
tlmes sense enough lo know tteir own /nMcs, and 
therefore they craftily shun tte attacte of aa aiga- 
ment.*^ Watts. For our tsiper/fctMns we must seek 
superlour aid : we must te most on our guard against 
those WMlmMses to which tte eoOnem or susecptibUlty 
of our minds may most ezpoes us, and against thoas 
fraOluM into which tte violeaoe of our evU pa mJ on e 
may farlM us : toward tte fmUngi and /•»!«« of 
others we may te indulgent, but itettM to anbUkMa 
" iaoursdvei. 




JUL io Prandi/ullJrv Ommii. Ac/UltM, HIm Um 
Old nil, eooMi uom tht Lfttin JtUm to d«otlT«, and 

fte H«braw '7B'' 

Inf. /W 

eUber the renlt of mIIom, or tlM iiait of UUngi 



I the rMah of I 

rtArta; aper* 

■M /Wl« bi bio imdortakliig: UU §kmrt dailfnatM 

penoB/diitf fJUrf III Mb ooleiilatloii, or In Ido uooont: 
Um tamo r«lltM«H of tbeoxpeeUttkMi: to*fd^M«w 

iMtfkioaljrtlMBiaieorqualltrof ofejeeti; a 

/oil In 

d^^ktral In good maaiMra. 

their bm endeavoun fbr want of knowing bow 

'I would nol wming^ugh but 
\Ulin tble point, when 


Efire, It ihall never c 


tbimtmet; or, If I 
my mirth oeasea to be 

10 be Innooent*— AoniioN. When our ezpectatlone 
are launoderate. It le not anrprialngif oar Micceai/slto 
timrt of our hopes and wianee: 'There !• not in 
optekM any thing more mvetenous fai nataie than 
tiMtinet tai aalmale, Whkii thai rina above rea 
and falls laAnitely tkmt of it'— AnDUOM. There la 
aothlng in which people dlecover themeelvei to be 
Biof^T^^biMii than In keeping ordlnaiyengagenwnte; 
While al eiaation ipeaka the pow*r divine, 
la it i^Mtmt to the main derign V-Jawiie, 
To /«a and *f dMsnt are bot h applieable to tfte 
c ha racteia ot awn ; ant the (bmer ie moatly eaBpioved 
fbr the noral eoodoet, the totter Ibr the ovtward bebar 
' noB a maa ie aald lo/cti to hto duty, to the 
of hie obMgattooa,to the parlbmaaee of a 

nvnntn, and the Uke ; but to be i' ' ^ " 

In attention to hla Meode, In hie i 


The/u^Aifw {tf. ru /4irj i»cs^;iik»( t(ie anltw, or ibe 
ii»ult ftf tin ncUon ; the U'ltmf li %ht luMt,or the 
liftbftual /i.*!itr* ; Ui^ fm-lvre ii «a^d of onv'i under' 
UJttng*^ ftj Ih inv p:ilni ivnyriJIy In which one fuU; 
'Tlh>u|;h mmm vloiaiUtnt nfiht pciUion af ricttu may 
perhipi be inipMLed lo lilm 4^Ctiar1nI.), thaaa afv m4M« 
tn bb iwCfiWA lo ih« h«?ii»ity of hli ■LluaUoa, than to 
mRyffula.Te in iJit^ iiii«BTtty of tiw priwUplw.*— ttcrxa. 
Tb» f^*^g !• «ld ^^r ""*'» *n«r»l chajacirr ' ' There 
|ji KArtely any/wlinjr r>f m\nd or body, whkh liiBtoad 
or prrditclfhf iAftmo an'l tUoc^ntcnt, Ju naturali f^l^'Cta, 
hai MM one ilra« or oth<?r pUdd«Kd t^«aity wtm On 
hope of pntoB,'-^<i bmiom, Tl»/eileti to optHwt'd lo 
ih* iw»^; the /■liiTiir io the perlbctton* T\w ixiep> 
cbam tDiut be prFpiLrrl fnr/dUiirfvtohlBipeeiiktlDaB: 
Hi* aiMjBHnAa ftar/ai/ifrf^ iu h|*fl^|*eto,lb« rp*uli Of 
wtifcb deiiends uunn continfemta mt *r« alww 
hum en etmtrol, wiLh om faiititfti Nmr^f r. Jit to 
woirivbat difTervTit ; we roust MVi-r tv^ wtknef) thai 
we ftte wUli<Hit timm^ not conteiitfi] ^^Itb Ifav m«e 

MiAire (n. TV/all) hae alwaya a teftrenoe to the 
agent and hlB deaipi ; aitfMafH^fe, that la, the eanying 
or gotog Wfong, to appiieahto to all eobtaaary eoneams, 
wtthoat te l to an ee to any pantoolar agent; eAertien, 
a«n the Laita e*eHer, to divlato ftom the riee, or to 
paH away before It be come to matnrlty, ie to the pao- 
per eeaae applied to the p rocew of animal nature, and 
m the ligatatlve eenie, to the thooghto and deatona 

which are conceived to the mtod. 

FkUwn Ie more deOnUe In Ito toll 
limited in Hi appiiratkm ; weepeakof the/eOiirMor 
tadivldaali, bvt of the mtsetrrUgm of nattone or 
thingi : thejTeilufe lefleeto on Che penonao lato eaBlte 
towaidi him aome eentlmeBt, ett her of co mpa i i l on, 
diepteaeQie, or the Hke; *He that attempto to ehow, 
howe v ei modeitly, tim/mOmm of a celebrated writer, 
^_- — ^ if rttato hto adrntowa L'-^ Joiiiieen . The 
I to oonaldered tooedy to letocton to the 
HMnan avento; *The m i § m if i mw9 of the 
great derigne of pitoeea are recorded to the hlBtaitoe of 
the vroild?— JoBNaon. The /eOnre of Xersto' expo- 
' I apen htaneetf ; but the eue- 

id, but are not eaclu d ed abo to a teuattve aenea 
B general application. /iM«lMac|r, Irom la prlva- 
^ and e«la# to pay, BlniUying not to pay, deaotee a 

epeelee of flufeafWa/e, tad la apptteatton a apealeaof 
faiku^ aa It appUea oaly to the deaignB of eonaetoua 
a g eo l B : but it doea not carry the ndnd back lo the 
agent, for we epeak of the a^^rtiea of a acheme arith 
aa liltte l a fc re nce to the Bchemer, es whe n we epeak of 
the aieearrMfw of an expedition ; * All alerlMn to 
fipom Inlinnlty and dafeot*--floirra. 

All theee terms are properlvoBBd in the mereantito 


tlve,! __ ^ . . 

Btote, namehr, the state or not being abto to pay what 
one owes; /situr*, ihm to/«a,slgaUles the aet of/sO- 
img to one^i builneBB, or a CBasBtton of bueineBS for 
want of meana to cany It on ; bmikrmpt€fj ftom the 
two words btmf rayls, or a broken bank, denotea the 
eflSwt of a /stlKTt, namely, the breaking up of the 
capital and credit by which a concern is upheld. The 
word hmikn^Hef owes its origin to the Italians, by 
whom it Is called kmis^rmtUt because originally the 
money-changers of Italy had beochee at which thqr 
conducted their business, and when any one of them 
/siM his bench was broken. These terms are seidoni 
confined to one person, or description of pereoas. Aa 
an tocapadty to pay debto Is very frequent among 
others bcBldeB men of busineeB, toMtosaey to said of 
any such persons ; a gentleman nmy dte In a state of 
iiuolveneff who does not leave eitoets suflkto n t to cover 

cmrriagt of military tateipileei to mieral are attrl- 
"^" - u or aome euch unto 

etoaasnta, or aome i 
he aAerttoa, to Ito 


untoward clr> 

Of sculpture, paint, intaglioe, books and coins. 
Thy breast, safacious prudence! eball connect 
With 01th and beggary, nor disdain to link 
Whh Hack toMfi>0Ncy.*-8Ba]rsTONB. 
Ahhongh/oilarf is here specifically taken for a/sifare 
to bull ntis, yet there may be a/otlvre In one particular 
undertaking without any direct nu0l9tmem : a tmUwf 
may Ukewfie only imply a temporary /suiirt m pay- 
menti or tt aMrlmphr an eatin/ettort of the concern ; 
'Tbegrtam the w6r»lt auan'i^T <'f unAt^ a*e fre^er 
of «nir«e tuust be the pofiiivr iiumbtr of /nlimr, 
wblle Ute BKft«f nrc aucc^iw is ^iJi fn tbl^ eetnt propoi^ 
Hon.'— Br KM! At B ^ottrvpffi H a le^l inuiix- 
tlun, which efltlfily dliflolvm tlK; Dnn undt^r w^jkh 

failuTt tn the full ejtlfnl ui the tcmi ; yet It d^tes not 
niL'reMariJy Irnply qji iTtAalvnt-nf ; fot ^iiie tnen may, 
to {:azMtfiiiii>ii»- fjf B t«inporJify/*iJiii«, Iw IH w com- 
mil aa BCL of hankntffitf, tidbaafij afkomrvd ciubled 
to filvn 9. r\j!1 4ivli!i.'nil tu all tbelr eFedtt^n, ; ^ K/ en 
art i'yt insot^tnt^ all pcrsnos who are in tog low e way 
Of di.^a13o|t lo be liAn^irupUi, or vka In a iDQTcantile iUite 
of Uff , Are dtsrhiif^cii fnniin all vulLf am4 impf iKtiiiiiFrjts* 
by ili'IJvc!rliii|; op nliV ihejr wtatt^w art^l rflwtt^—BLJifS- 
STo^tf. Bin froiii ihtj editfjc rtaiu of d^UUMioni whkh 
a b^nkrMpti'jf ir^volv^'j^ Jn it, rhis te^rru i* wrw^niriy laken 
for t]j«j imMl ho^\*:m *L»(o of wsiii ; 'Pkifclft KBiheietl 
to^t'lher a powir neither io mirnbef nor to hwrdinaii 
ciiFil^mptUilM \ hut In (tkfir rnrtunn to b« ftandt bi% 
hankrvfta^ and mo ay of th*^m ffiloin.*— BACAif. ll to 
aJ^i iiwHl flfuimcivtly; *3lf, If ynun tniEnd word fbr 
wufd wltli ino I bhall inrtke your wit Aanimj^^-^tuxB- 

Jvmnr. flam sfw to wander or go aetray, re^iaeto 
the aet ; AmU, ftom/sO, reepecta the agent: the srrsur 
may toy to the Jadaeroent, or In the eoodaet ; but the 
/salt Ueeto the wiU or Intention : the«rTVHr» of yonth 
miMtbe treated with todulgence: butthdr/salcr most 
on all accounts be corrected; emw Is said of that 
wMeh Is Individual and partial; 
Bold ie the task when sob)ects, grown too wise, 
Instroet a monarch where hto tmw llee.— Popb. 
Jhnllls said of that which is habitual ;• Other /svlfe 
" ' Itetton, and ehoukllf 

are not under the wito*s lurMI 

posslbto escape her observation, but Jeatonsv I 

ner particutoriylbr Its care.*— ApiMBoa. It Is 


in the teaaper of 

at auy thne ; it is %JktJt 
piemni who cannot restiato 




JDrfMr, M to the praoalhic mrtlcl«, mtfka the Mt of 
Wftndering, or the itate or betog goiie jMtray ; ft mitUk* 

itaiftklngftariaorirroiic; MiaMf«> to not improbsMj 
cbftoflftd ftora blind, ftodileiiUlei ftnv thing done bttodljr. 
Mirwmr in to unhremil wnee to the ftnerftl term. 
■Inoe erety devifttkm Ihun what to right In ntiooal 
afMti to lenned mmtrt which to itricttjr oppoMd to 
truth : mT0ttr to the lot Of humftnltT ; into whaterer 
we ftltempi to do or think «rr»«r will be Mue to creep: 
the term uierefore to of unlimited uoe ; the very men- 
tloo of it leminde ut of our condition : we hft?e «rr«ur« 
of Judgement; errevrf of cftlculatloo; «rrMr« of the 

of the heart; *Idolatnr may be 
looked upon aa an fnvurartolng from mtotaken devo- 
tion.*— Aimisoii. The other terms derignafe modes of 
r, which moeHy reftrlo the common concerns of 
; mitUJU to an «rrw«r of choice ; hhmUr an trrtw 
of action : children and careless people are most apt to 
1 that * •• •• - 

*It happened that the Una himself 

pasBsd through the gaOery during thto debate, and 
snOing at the mi»Uk« of the dervtoe, asked bim how 
he could posriUy be so dull as not to dtotlngulsh a 
palace ftom a caraTansary.'—ADMsoii. Ignorant, eon- 

*Pope aUowB that Dennto had delected one of those 
hbmdtn which ara called bulls.*— Jobiisoii. A mif^ 
UMm must be rectilled ; in commercial traaaactkms it 
may be of serioos consequence: a Mmdsr must be sst 
ripit; but hUmdtnra are not always to be set right ; 
and hUmimr» are frequently so ridiculous as only toes- 


Dmialij from the Latin dOTnw,and de e^o, signUlas 
lilsially to turn out of the way ; «ciid«r, hi German 
wsndtm, or waadifo, a ftequiBntative of w tmdm to 
turn, signifies to turn frequently ; Mp«nM, probably 
from the German sdtoM<f«ii to ramble, tekmtbm to 
soar, Jcc iignlfles to take an unsteady, wkle, and Indi- 
net course; «lrey to probably a change from nT0 to 

I a direet path ; wander in- 


i always su pp oses ^ 
chides no such idea. The act of dwwaKiy to com m only 
Ikuhy. that of waadmy to ladilftrent: the? may fle- 
qnently eichange slgnlfleailons; the former h^lng Jua- 
llfiabto by necessity; and the latter arising from an un- 
aleadlnem of mind. Dnimu to mosUy used in the 
moral acceptation : vender may be ussd in either 
•ense. A penon Jkuiatet from any plan or role laid 
dbwn; he wtndtn from the subjeet in whkh he to 
engaged. As no nUe can be lakl down which will not 
admit of an ezceptton. It to impossible but the wisest 
win find it neceamry In their moral conduct to dmscs 
occaslonaUy ; yet every wanton devurttea from an ee- 
tabllshed practice evinces a culpable temper on the 
part of the imitUr; * White we remain In thto lifo 
— are subjiect to innumerable temptations, which. 

^ to, win make us dtvitU from reason and 

'— SracTATOK. Those who wsnd w into the 
netaphysicks aft in great danger of losing 
j it to with them as with most wendsrsrs, 
that they spend their tfane at ben but idly ; 
Our aim to h a p p i ness ;*t to yours, *t to nJne; 
He said; 'ttotheiiuisuttof all that ttve, 
Tet ftw attahi it, if *t was e*er attahi'd ; 
But they the widest »Md«r from the mark. 
Who thro* the flow*ry paths of sauntering Joy 
Seek thto oof goddess*— AmMvnumn. 
To Mssrts to to dmrimu from that which one holds 
ligbt; lo siruir to to w an d er in the 
■Ma MNrvs from their duiyto 


ir enm^ with him wrought, 
I trathw— MiLTOii. 

The young sCref from the path of rscUtode to seek 

Why have IttrmiCi from pleasu r e M>d repoae. 
To seek a good each foveramenC bestows T 

Both hi the orifkml ai 


of the eidinaryeoonis: but 

d^ifVMt to need only in pwtkulir, ind diuitfe la gnerai 
cases. We Hgrtst only in a narrative whether writ- 
ten or spoken ; we Uvimu In actions aa weO as in 
wenls, in our eondoct as well as In writtngB. 

Digrf to mostly taken In a good or indiflbrent 
sense; *Thed^MneiuintheT«eofaTob,relatbig 
to Wocton and Bentley, must be confessed to discover 
want of knowledge or want of integrity.'— Jobnsom. 
Dtoimu In an induArent or bad sense; *A resolution 
was taken (by the antliorB of the Spectator) of courting 
general approbation by general topieks ; to thto practice 
they adhered with lew dmMtteiM.'— ^obnsom. A1- 
thou^ frequent difrsmeiM are fbulqr, yet occasionally 
it to necessary to difrsMforthe purposes of ezplana- 
tk»: every devMCtmto bad, whtehtonotsai ' 
by the necessity of circumstances. 


ITcnder signifies the same as in the article Deviate ; 
»troU Is probably aa Intensive of to rett, that to, to go 
In a planlem manner, roaiMe frnrn the Latin re and 
•wHie, to towalkbackward and forward: andreeeto 
probably a contraction of rmmkUj reesi to connected 
with our word reosi, space, slgnUying to go la a wide 
space, and the Hebrew Oil, to be violently moved 
backward and forward: reiyne, from the noun rtmgt^ 
a rank, row, or eztmded qiace, stoniflei to go over a 
great space, but within certain Ihnits. Ths Idea of 
fsing in an Irregular and free manner tooommon to al 
these I 

Of hnpto 

To wmMder to to go out of the path that has beea 
already marked out ; 

But for about thevwender from tlie grave 
Of him, whom hto ungentio fortune urg'd 
' linst hto own sad breast to lift the hand 
impkws violence.— Tbomson. 
nes w Mm itr ing may be an Invotontanr aetkmi 
a person may wmtdtr to a great distance, or for an In 
definite length of time ; In thto manner a person wen- 
40r€ who has lost himself hi a wood ; or It may be a 
planleM course; 

I wm go tose myseli; 
And wonder up and down to vtow thedly. 

ToefrelltoloaoUiafliedpathfbutefrieaiii^to avo 
luBiary action, limited at our discretion; thus, whene 
penon takea a walk, he sometimes etreile from on« 
path into anodier, as he ple a ses; * I found by the voice 
of my friend who walked by me, that we had insensibly 
efrelled bito the grove sacred to the widow.*— Anoi' 
eon. To rmthUU lo wander witliout any ol^Jeet, and 
with mors than ordinary irregularity : In 
he who seta out to take a walk, withom 
or thinking where he shatt go, rasit >ee aa 

irecto; ' I tlius resisted from pocket to pocket 

until the banning of the dvU wan.— Addisom. To 
reoe to to wcader In the same planlem manner, but to 
a wider eitent ; a fugithre who does not know his road, 
rsvee alwut tlie country inquest of sr 

Where to that knowtedge now, that rsgal tho 
With Just advice and tteely counsel fraught 
Where now, O Judge of farael, does It reee f 

To rMM to to weiider from the hnpulse of a dtooidered 
mind; In thto manner a lunatick who has broken k>oee 
may vam about the country; so likewise a peisoii 
who travete about, because he cannot rest In quiet at 
Imne, may also be said to reasi in quest of peace ; 
She kioks abroad, and prunes herself for flight, 
Like an unwilling Inmate kmgs to riMM 
FrtNtt thto dull earth, and seek her native home. 

ToraivetothecootraiyoflofeaBi; aatlie lacier iadi' 
cates a dtoordered stale of mind, the former faidlcates 
cempoe un and fiMdneas; we raiye within certain 
limito,as the hunter rav«s the fonat, the shepbsrd 
raufee the mountains ; 

The stag too shMled fr«n the held, where long 
He rev'd the branching monarch of the itoadea 
Before the tempest drives.— Tbomson. 



JiSS^tiJ^^^^ '^'^ from the wwd M«iM, 
llgnil^ Uiat wbfch caoMi blame; isfea •adfmuti 
teve tbe atune ligiiifleMfcM M glvea ^mSv tlMlM^^ 


theaaUior. .Tbere' 
in tbe ipriiip of l ^ 

!!fi^!£l!!*. i^^.^^^^*^^ ^"'^ • MtmuM m e nne 

2?^ amoM the */«»»A«, or rather, tbeiklee 
beaiiUee,or ourBn^ trafedy: I mean tiioae rarS. 
colar ■peecbei which are commonly known bjthe 
ISSSi'^?'^:^^?"***"* Th««wrie of nature may 
S2?2L^i!9^.i5juP"**^?P****J 'It ha. beeh 

and moral of choice.*— Hawus worth. The care- 
leeneai of the workman is eyioced by the/a»U« in tlM 
!?*?"f"P5^I'«' re«mtment which tffdScSr^ 
SLfi^*!? ** ^^^^ ""* bear a certain pri 
P?g*°° ^ oy .pride.'WoiiwoM. A M«iii£«A may be 
Mitor^ramedkMl than a dtfta ia corrected, or a famU 


irimia comes Immediately iW)m the French Mlia^ 
M.C^ J^ frlpro^'^'y in «n indirect manner ftom 
iSlS'ftSir^i^ fWht^w4lr#, oW French <i»teMrt, 
oomesfhNQ the Latin Ctv» to die ; m«t ia not imrno^ 
bably connected with th? word j^ Latln>^«i 

Si^5!!r7 1?°» to «««»»•• ■omethlnfextra- 
weeame Hebrew root ; jla». in Saxon MolL Aiect. 
02«JJV/«^iow OermanjlJk or i^laAAe, riJoto^S 

g^ »XjryM ttrtp ofland, or a itrlpe, a woontf inK 


|witDthethl«HMlfthatl.wMiitef. A book may 
be 4e/ecl»«, in cooseauence of ■ome leavee being 
«^«««t. A dsMdenew fa therefore often what coneti- 
tateiajWirt. Many ihingi, however, may be rfef«(^ 
without havinff any ddUuney, and vice •«r#d. What- 
evor te^nhapen, ami fUla, either In beauty or utility, 
ia drftetne; that which is wanted to make a thiv 
eompiete is d^^amt. It is a rf^wt In tbe eye whenU 
is so ooomoed that thius are not seen at tbdr proper 
JSS^ir .?'2!S*™*»^ the most pan, sets us upon 
n lerel ; If it renders us perlbct in one aceompUsh- 
meot, U |«nerally leaves ns d^ftetive in anoUier.'— 
Asmson. Tbeie is a di(/lewiM« in a tradenai^s ae- 
eouiM% when one shie fUis sboit of the other: Of 
"2!.i^f ^«W«e|rUi the speaker, there wiU not be 
wjOdem kttentioo and regardpaU to the thing spoken? 

■TMielther #i«<w. ^,^, ,,«e*#, nor j£S^^ 
•JT^fif ItLSS* f ***"., ««>• -«idlS. of appeal^ 
tticeisa»M»i. In works of art, the sUgbleM «m- 
nesB of eofcw, or warn of proportU, kiV^SS 
t^JSHiV^ «5denUy chara<^se themselve^ 
aatbat which is sapertfuoas and om of its place. A 

hard subttances, mostly constats of a Ikulty hiden- 

2il.K?liJJ«5i*^ V«eVor jUw, dlsflgnres. A 
«*rt»* Is lectiiled, a stam wiped out, a sprt or 4!psc* 

Things only are said to be drfteHoe; but penow 
mw be tena^McUnt either b atte^tton, ffgoS 
breeding, to civlUty, or whatever else the occaSon 
may require. That wWch is d«/art«« is mostuK 


JSl!iA 255??.*^ i*^ V» G«»w *«•» to probably 
connected with the Latin j»^«* worse, and the^ebrew 
9T to be ashamed ; toicked to probably chanfed 
^JS5^ 7 *e«.Wk«<, that to.,KS«5;dSM 
evU spirit : bad respects moral and physical qualitiea 
m general; wicktd only moral qualities ; ««a, to Ger^ 

2!S.ftilP2? ^ ^^"T ^'Pn pain, signifies that 
which to the prime cause of pain; evil therefore, to its 
fuU extent, comprehends both badutgs and wicktd- 

^S?^? ®?^'**'* ***• "•*« »n<l •endmeote of a 
rational betog to bad: food to bad when it dtoagreea 
w^th the conirttatlon; the airta»a<f which baTany 
thing in it dtoagreeable to the senses or hurtAil to the 
body; books are bad which only toflame the imattoa- 
don or the pasdons ; « Whatever we may pretend, as 
to our beUef, it to tbe strain of our actions that must 

llwse tms ate also employed flgnratively. Even 
d^^'^^'fr^' *• iS^pi^nSr^ral^ 
fi^ntiiLi^* *" ^^ rmauiioni 'It to impossible 
52^?^^™'*?^***'^ *" «n« anothcr'sVofks : 

SL!iri5ft?'^**P'******'^""''*rtue: there a^s^ 
ITSLiTS?^^. V.^ ®" ">« character of nations, 
as weU as of the todividnato who ara guUty of them ; 

__ By length of time, 

S!^?J"J?!3 'S^^ «^ committed crime ; 
But the pure ether of the soul remainsADmTMir. 

t^^miAjm !L^ ™^ ** removed by a course of 
good conduct, but a «t«6i to mostly todeUMe: it to bm 
grsM a prtvUege to have an i»MJi^2nqm^^ 

iZf S?hi5*J!S:r' Hii i • «tofortune ThlSet£ 
s^ of lad acdonsafflxedtoourname; *Thereare 
DMi^ who applaud themselvea fbr the singularity of 
ShL^SSS "T^. ^ tearched d£Sr?itt 


-^ «— "T" . ' " ■■ *»*^ wioiu oi our ncuons inat must 
■how whether our principles have been lood or bad,* 
—Blaxr. Whatever to wicked olfends tbe moral 
principles of a rational agent: any violation of the 
law to wicktdy as law to the support of human society • 

thewiUof GodandtheieeUngsofhuiMnlty; ^^ 
For when th* hnpenitent and wicktd di$^ 
Loaded with crimes and to&my; 
If any sense at that sad thne remaiiM, 
They fed aoMstog terroor, migh^^atoe. 


'Epab either moral or natural, and may be annlled to 
•▼•ry object that to contrary to good ; but thTterm to 
employed oolv for that which to to tlie highest degree 

And what your bounded view, which only saw 

A little part, deem'd «vt2, to no more ; 

The storms of wtotry thne wiU quickly pea. 

And one unbounded spring enciicto all.— Thoksom. 

^?*w!?^ ^ relation to persons, both refer to the 
morato, but M to more general than w^dM; a *«d 
°*" ^JP?? ^ho togenerally wanting to the pwform- 
ance of hto duty : a widked man to oie who to^aiit 
abto with actual violations of ti»e law, hnmaaer 
Divine; rach a one has anevil mind. A »«4l ctoi- 
racter to the consequence of humoral conduct; but no 

C£ ^it^J*'*'*''^ZSL^'^''t^ who'haanot 
bem guilty of some known and flagrant vleea: tlM 
indlaattoas of tbe best are sett at emto timta. 


- of *«d (V. 

Badhf, to the manner of *«d (v. Bad): 
Bwedtoh 01, leefaodick Oar, Dantoh tfl, ttli! 

, by Adelung, and with some degree of 

Mtto be a contraction of evil, but to spring fi 

Orel* eAA^ destructive, and eXX^ to dMw. 

These terms are both emptoyed to modify the 






l>9inMilir, from Ibe Latin frtatUaa ud rrmmu, ia 
OrMk M^^ Md <lM Hebraw jn U> be dimx^end, 
or put out of ttt flMaMWMd Snier, rfcnifyin| tlie 
qudltj of BOt briof itniglit ; imr m mt i mh » Lttin 


— m y<»»m, ia Lrtia < 


eoDtrary to the order of 

• An ttaeee teme are aaplM 

tbe act or maidnf d 

•atlB Mrr^plMi ctii aw^e, flrooi rwape 

to break, Biarka tke dtaonlQB aad daooaipiDeMoii of the 

oMeetawUeh are 
B, bat tbe term i»- 
yettycba t ar tarto f tbe tUof ae It le ; tbe teme d». 
jwcaatiMi ami Mmytfrn drrifBeie tbe maktaig or 
caudof k to be io: dyrae rt f tberelbte exelndei tbe 
Idea of aajr canee ; dtprm MtU n alwaya redsn oe to 
tbe eauae or external acency: hencewemayepeakof 
dyreetfty ae nataral, but we epeak of d tp rmvati on 
and cerniipCiM ae the leeah of drcamatancee: there 
ie a rfyreotty la man, wbleh nothing but the graee of 
God caa correct; *NolUnc can ehow greater dmravitf 
of andentamllng than to dellghi in the ihow when the 
reality is wantii^*— JoBaeoa. Tbe IntiodueUon of 
dheceoitv on the etage tends greatly to the dtprmaiian 
of morab; bad companytends to tbe camtptun of a 
young man*e morale ; * The eomtfium of our taate ie 
Mtof equal eonaequeace with the dijpravetiea of our 
virtoe.'— Waeton. 

Dtfrmrit§ or depravaiMn hnpUca crookedneee, or a 
dletortloo flom the regular coutm; tcrrt^tien iaipllee 
a dieeolation ae it were in the ooaaponent parte of 

Clceio ea^ that di;praett|r ie apnlicable only to the 
mind and heart ; but we eay a inrm^d taite, and 
dqrraaMi humoun in regard to the body. A itfTm—d 
taeto loathee common rood, and tona for that which 
ie unnatural and hurtAil. CorrMfttam le tbe natural 
by wlilch material enbetancee aredlaorgaii- 

In the flgoratiTe application of then terme thqr 
pree ei ve the eame eipiitAcatloa Dtfmit^ ie cha- 
racteriied hf being directly oppoeed to order, and an 
eetabBehed eyalem of thlnge; tvmmtiam marke the 
vitiation or epolliug of thiogi, and the ftnnent that 
leade to deetructlon. Defrmvitf tume things out of 
their ordinary courae ; e^rmption deetroys their caeen- 
tial qnalltleB. D«framtf ie a Ticlnoi state of tldngs. 
In Which all Is deranged and perrerted ; eamnticn is 
a Ttdous state of things, fai which an Is sullied and 

"nted. That which liA;pr««edkiees its proper man- 
_ of acHag and existing: * The d^roeatMn of hn- 
■MB win was foUowed by^adleorderof the harmony 
of nature.*— JoBiMoii. That wbleh Is etrrmptai kMee 
Ite virtue and ameaoe ; * We can dieeover that where 
there ie anlvereal Innocence, there will probably be 
nnlveisal happinees ; Ibr why should afflictions be per* 
Bitted to lanst beiage who are not hi danger of cer^ 
rwgUmi from blessings 1*— JoBMSoif . 

The force <^ Irregular propensities and dist e mpere d 
fanaginatlons produces a d^evcty of manners ; the 
Ibree of example and the dtssemination of bad prtnci- 
pies produce comtpHam. A Judgeroeot not eoond or 
right iedi;praved; a judgement debued by that which 
le vklons is etrrmpud. what is itprmvtd reqolm to 
baraibrBied: what is cerrapud requires to be porllled. 

"~ "' haa most regard to appan 

€0rrmptiam to tnternal ai 
^*' saya Cioero, ** are eemq 
lota of rSehas.** Port Boyal says tliat 

Infidsis to the wandering of a earrmpiai 
'-'-' Theee worde are by no m ea n e a 


is Its operatlaBa, bat fbttf tai in i 
Bwasps away every thing betea It Hke a tor- 
the latter InftMS ilaelf Into the BMcallhuie Ilka 



gben Bp 


BtaoMMB or repeiitloa, becaaee they rspreMBt two 

Satteotlmages: ooetodkateetbestatoof atUagvetv 

much ehaaged la tas snbstsace : the other the atato'of 

a thing very much op p oe e d to regularity. "Good 
God! (saya Maaillon the preacher), what a dreadAil 
aoeoimt will tbe rteh and powerfyjl have one day to 
give; stocajeshlw their owb sl aa, tfcay will have to 
aeconatbalbreTbaa §ok pobHek disorder, itoraetfy of 
BorBla.aiidtlMcMTMfcieBof the afel* PnbHckdie- 
Offdersbriag on Batarally dtaravtty of BMirals; and rias 
of vleloiM practieee BatuiBly give Urtb to cei r m piiam . 
Dt^ rmU f JM mo re or less opsn; it revolts the sober 
vpngjbt BBdemlaBdiag ; sem^iieB Is 

• VWe 

That is a di|prav<d stato of ntoralB la ^ 
groes vicee are openly pracHsad la deflaaee of att da> 
am; *The peatast dMkulnr that oecuie la ana- 
log his (8wift*s) eharacMr, Is to dieeover by what 
rm>iiyuf intellect he look deliglit la revolviag ideaa 
fVom which ahnoet every other mtod shrinks with die- 
BL*— JoBNsoB. Tlmt ia a csm y i stais of sodeiy 
which vice haa eeereily iMtaMBted toeeifhito an the 
prtaelplee and habits of BMB,aBd eoneealed in deiM>- 
aOty uBder the ftlr sn wblaar i af vktae aad heaoBr ; 
Peace ie tlie happy natural state of man; 
War his eemyliM, his disgrace.— TaoicsoM. 
Tbe manner* of savafea are most likely to be de- 
wrmMd; those of civUiaed nations to be — ri aa<, when 
luxurir and refinement are risen to an excessive pitch. 
Cannibal nations preeent us with the picture of huBMB 
iepr&mty; the Roman natkw, during the time of the 
emperors, aflbrds ua an example of ahnoet ualveml 

From the above ohaervatkMis, It is dear that dtp rm 
9itif ie best applied to tboee objects to which oomaMB 
usage baa annexed the epithets of right, reaular, fine, 
*c. ; and esrmptian to those which may be charae- 
terized by the epitiiets of sound, pore, tan ocent, or 
good. Hence we say rfyiiiiily or mind and earrjip' 
(M» of heart; d^mvitf of principle and eamptiam 
of sentiment or feeling : a dipravd character ; a eer- 
n^ example: aeermpthilnenee; 'No di^aotfyof 
the mind haa been more frequently or joady cen s ai ed 
than ingratitude.*— JoBaeoR. * I have remarked ia a 
IbnBer paper, that creduMtv Is the cobbbob failing of 
iBexperieneed vlrtaa, and that he who Is spontaneoasiy 
aBspteVoiis Bsay be justly cliaiged with radical mrmf 
tarn.'— JoBKSOM. 

In reference to the arte or bellee lettrea we eay either 
dmrtmUm or eerrvy tiM of taeie, because taato has lia 
rules, is Uable to be dieordered, Is or is aot conformahia 
to naiaral order, ie regular or irregular ; and oa tha 
other hand it may be so intermingled with sentimenia 
and fbellngi Ibreiga to lis own native purity ae to give 
U justly the title of csm^l. 

The last thing worthy of notice reepecting tlie tw* 
words dijpravtly and esm^CMn, is that tlM fbnaer la 
uaed for man in hie moral capacity ; but tbe latter for 
mania a political capacity: hence we epeak of huaMB 
depmitf/y but the emrrvfUem. of fovenunent ; 'The 
d^mritm of mankind is so easily disooverable, that 
BotMog but the deeert or the cell can exclude It from 
notice.*— JoamoR. * Every government, eay the poU- 
tlclaas. Is perpetually degenerafing toward < 
Iwa.'— JoBMBoa. 

WUJui (v. Bmi) 14 here tl]>? i^vt^nrk lertn : hutfvi- 
fe««, fttMn iate«>j unjust, tlsniAtti thai »p«¥iu ol 
wiekidmett wmct c^-m^jjia In vfrjttiLUnx tli« law of rfflii 
between man ami mnn ; wr/iirtcHj^ fKun lh« Lmin 
nrfa* wicked or stiDm In able, \m ihnt ^hklUx of vtek^d- 
U€s§ which coos1*ij> in vUAAiinm^i*; oHjfH »ftCTtd obU- 
gatlooB. The terjij itieked, bcFnf itiivfiMie^ u tam- 
monly applied in n mUtti'r va«« thnii tntyaiumjt : uid 
uufwiUut than nffan^ttM . it is lei^if^ m de^trlve 
another of Ida pr^p^rt^ miJawriiiijr, under aoy cLrcmiH 

loobaad: <* DaprBvatloii, eorrapdoo.**^ 

In the eormpced enrrenlB of this world, 

OflbBce*8 glMed hand may shove by jostfee ; 

And ofr *t is seen, the wieftMl priae ileeif 

Bays out the taw.— 4taAnnAaK. 
It la tatfvtiear If it be done by fraud and dxcoai- 
ventloo ; and nrfoHaus if it Involvee any brnch of 
trust, or Is In direct violation of any known taw : anv 
undue influence over anoUier, in tlie making of hia 
win, to the detriment of the rightfril heir, is raifMteas : 
* Loeulhis found that the province of Pontos liad 
fallen under great disorders and opprsssions from tha 
tfnlfatty of uaorsrs and pabHeaaa. — PsnaAvx. A ny 
onderband dealbug of a servant to defraud hla Biaeter 
la a^ar<Mw, or aay eonsplraev to defraud or IninBa 
others Is caMed ntfmrimu : * That onhallowed vfUany 


mi m m m Hf atlMiflti apoa Um pvuHior ovafwt.*- 


, in Latin cmXcmmmCw, puttoiple of 
I fhNB tlM Hebrew nOO to poUota ; 
4«U«,eoiDpouiuiedofi« and JA$ or v«<«, liffniliee to 
make rile ; ptUuU. in Latin pcUmt^^ paiticlple of 
ftUw»^ compounded ot pw and luo or /«»« to waali or 
dye, Mfnlllee lo iuAae thoroogMy ; taM<,ln Frendi 
Mat, participle of Uimdi^ in Latin tmg^ aigniflea to 
dya or atain ; mrrmpt^ ligniflfa tlie ■ame aa in tlie paa- 
cedlng article. 

OnUmin»U la not ao etrong aa ezpreeiioo aa d^fiM 
or fttuf; but It ia itroocer tban Uint ; tlieae tema 
are naed in tlie aenee of kdurfng purity: ttrruft ham 
tbe idea of deHnnring it. Whatever ia impure «•»- 
Umm*U§i wliat h groat and vUe in tlM natural aenae 
df/Uw and in tbe moral aenee poUmU*; what ia ooo- 
taglouaor infealoua eorrmpts; and wliat la c^m^lad 
nay UtU other tbings. Improper convereatlon or 
readily etmtawtinMtM tbe mind of youth; *The drop 
of water after ila progreai through all tbe channela of 
the atreetianot more eontmitiMttd with filth and dirt, 
than a tirople atory after It haa p aw ed through the 
Bootba of a few modem tale- bearers.'— Ha WKsa- 
woBTS. Lewdneea and obaceaityd^ the body and 
7«lliU« tbe mind; 
Wlien ftom tbe mountain topa with hideooa cry 
And datt'rlag wlage tbe hungry harpiea fly. 
They snatch the meat, d^/E/te^ aO they find. 
And parting leave a Joathsome stench behind. 


Her vlifln statue with their bloody handa 
PctkUtdf and proAm'd her holy banda.— DktvsIi. 
Looae company e&rrttpts the morals : * All 
Itet Ileentioua poems do, of all writings, 
not tbe heart*— Stbklb. The coming in contaa 
tritb a e0m^ui body Is suftcient togive titaint; 
Tour teeming ewea diall no strange meadows try, 
Nor fear a rot from tainlad company.— Detsbm. 
If young people be admitted to a promiscuous inter- 
course with aodety. th<^ must unavoidably wttnesa 
ol^lectt that are eakulated to emOaimaal* their thou^tts 
If not tlieir incOnations. They are thrown in the way 
of aedng the iipa of females d^fU^d with [the groast at 
Indecencies, and liearing or aeelng things which can- 
not be beard or seen wHboot pMuUng the soul : it 
cannot be surprising if after this tJieir principlea ara 
fimnd to be c^rmpM before they have reached the age 
•f matttifty. 


VomUeL Latin Co9taetu*t partklple of eMiMJW, 

compounoed of cea andxa^fa to toochlogetiier, ia £•- 

Unguiabed from tlia simple word te«e4, not so much in 

B aa in graaomatical eoaatraction ; the former ez- 
pressfaig estate, and reftrring to two bodies actually in 
Ihatstate ; the latter on the other hand Implying the 
abstract act of Uwekbug: we speak of things comln| 
or being in cnUmet^ but not of the etmUtt TnsCoad of 
tbei#Mc4of athiag: the polaon whioh comes from tbe 
poison-tree is so powerflil in lie nature, that it Is not 
BBcessary to coane in e—Uat with it in order lo feel Jta 
baaelbl influence; * We are attracted towards each 
other by general sympathy, but kept back from MMlact 
in private !niarast.*-^oBBao]i. Soma i nae ct s ara 
armed with stings so Incoaceivably abarp, that the 
amallast Umek poaiible ia aufiklanl to produce a puno- 
cme into the flesh: *Odeathl where is now thy sling 1 
O grave! where is thy victory 1 Wliere are the ter- 
nwra with which thou hast ao kmg afflrlgbted the 
natlonsl At the tonMoftbaDivfaie rod, thy visionary 
ImrroaiB ait fled.'— BiotB. 


Both these iBfOM imply the power of communicating 

aoasethlng bad, but caiOagUn^ from the I«atln verb 

a mrt a / atocowe in centnet, proceeda fttMn a simple 

•oveb; and A^esMan, from the Latin vaib inMeU or 

Inwardly, or having It 



. infbsed. 
Some tilings act more properly by eanl^iea, ochera 
by ^f^rtHm : the mora powarftti d ls e asm, aa tt»e plague 
or yriknr fever, arecommuntrated by eamUgion; they 
are tliefefore rte a o ailaa ln d •• nU ag i a m a; ttie leas viru- 
lent diaordeia, aa feven, cooaamptiona, and the Mica, 
are t a n ned ti ^ > rt i— a,aa thmr aia coawnnnlcated by 
the leas rapid procea of tV«c<*«»«* thealrtseeateftfaaa 
ortV>ct»aaa according to the same rule of distinction: 
wlwn heavily overcharged with noxious vapours and 
deadly disease, it is iusUy entitled canU^a^, but In 
ordinary ciaars j^fecUanM. In ttw figurative sense, vka 
is for the same obvious reaaoD termed eMita^JMM: *If 
I send my son abroad. It la acarcely poasUile to keep 
him from the retgalng etmiagion of rudeneaa.*— Lockb. 
Bad principles are^denomlnated htftetUuM ; 

But we who only do inftiaa, 

Tbe rage hi them like bould-lbaa, 

nr ia our example tliat Instils 

In them the tmf^ctim of our Qls.— Botlbk. 
Some young people, who are Amunate enough to sfam 
the cantayMa of Bad society , ara, perliapa, caught by the 
ti^actiaa of bad prindplaa, acting aa a alow polsaa on 
the moral conalitntkm. 


CtmUgintM signiflaB havlngaanC^ian (a. CtttUgitm); 
yrfdwatf af , in Latin tfiimmitne. Qiaak hn^^mt >hai is 
hi and i^jtat among the people, signiflaB uaiverMlly 
spread; aa » m *aft al, from ttw Latin Mslia the plagaa, 
alAUies navlag the plague, or a aimilar disorder. 

TlM caai^fsaaa appUea to that which ia capaUa of 
batog caught, aad ought not, therefore, lo ba touched; 
the cp<d«auea< to that which la aheady caiMht or circu- 
lated, and raquiree, tlierefoca, to be atoapad; theMs«»* 
UmtM to that which may breed an evil, and la, there- 
fore, to ba raoMvad: d i s ea s e s are aaaii^iaaaor tfi- 
damUsl; the air or breath ia ^«attl«n<M<. 

They roayaU be applied mocaUy or flguratlvaly in 

We endeavour to shun a caal^jaaa diaoider, that U 
may not come near us; we endeavour to purliy a /«ai»- 
Imtiml air, that it may not be inhaled to oar iidury; wa 
eadeavour lo provide againat tf ii $m ifl diaotdeia, liiat 
thev may not apread any forther. 
Ylcloua exampla ia §mtUgiam»; 
No fordgn food the teemhH ew«B aball fear. 
No touch oanlayriiaa apiaad lis iafloeacabefa. 
Certain foOlea or vkea of feefakm ara apidnncal la 
almoat every age; * Among aH the d i aeaaea of the mind, 
there ia not one more i^idMrteal or more pemleioua than 
the love of flattery.*— 0TBBLB. The breath of infldelitf 
ia MflttaMial * 

Caprlcloua^ wanlea, bold, and bratal hnc 
la meanly adfiah ; when reaiated, cmd ; 
And like the blaat of pwtUmHml winda, 
TainlB tlie aweet bloom of nature'a fldreat forma. 



Btaaiilaaa aigniflea lil«raily void of Maaia (a. TV 
hUmu); iirmr0€tkM$t that la, not aMa to be ra- 
praoeka (v.7b MaaM) ; miiyiai^ailad, that la, whfaont 
ktmtisk {9,Blmisk); anqwHUrf, that k, without jyaC 

BUmtUu la leaa than irrmr c ae kah h ; what ia 
blamtUts is simply free from »/aau, but that which ia 
irrwraacAaUa cannot be MaaMd, or have any r«!prMa 
attached ton. Itlsgoodtosay ofamanthatheleada 
mUttmOesB Ufa, but ft ia a high encomium lo say, that 
he leads an irr^tproaekaiU life: the former is but the 
negative prate of one who Is known only for hisbarm- 
lesaneaa; tbe latter is but positive comme n dation of 
a man who is well known for his integrity In the dif- 
ferent relatkma of aodaty ; 

The sire of Gods, aad aO th* ethereal train. 
On the warm limits of the flurthest main. 
Now mix with mortala, nor diadain to grace 
Tbefeasla of iEtMopia'a HtmeU$$ race.— Port. 


* Takt psrtieaisr eare that your uii 
irremr9tkabU kind.*— Blaia. 

UnkUwMkti and mup0tud are appUcaMe to many 
oli|}ecta. besides that of peretmal conduct ; and when 
ajiplied to thb, their orlfinal meaning milBeiently points 
out tljeir use in distinction from tlie two former. We 
may sav of a man that he has an irrefroaekakU or an 

Oat now those wMte mMkUm4»h*d manners, whence 
The flOiling poets look their golden age, 
Are found no more amid these iron times. 

But the good man, whose soul is pare, 
UnspoUML, regular, and fVee 
From all the ugly stains of lust and vlllany, 
Of mercy and of pardon sure, 
I<ooks through the darkness of the gloomy night, 
And sees the dawning of a glorkms day. 


Half, rev'rend priest ! To Phnbus* awfUI dome 
A suppthmt I from great Atrides come. 
Unransom'd here, receive the »poUe*» Atlr, 
Accept the hecatomb the Greeks prepare.— Pore. 

Praise comes fh>m the German frriten to vaTue, and 
our own word price^ signifying to give a value to a 
thing ; t^mmenA^ in Latin csaiaMiuio, compounded of 
turn and mando^ stgnifles to commit to the good opinion 
of othera; appUwd {;: JIfplmue) ; ext«l,tD Latin sx^ 
IsUtf, signiltos to lift up very higli. 

All these terms denote the act of eipressing appro- 
bation. The fraia* Is the most general and indefln ite ; 
k may rise to a high degree, but It generally Implies a 
kiwer degree : we praite a person cenerally ; we cssi- 
wumd him particularly : we prtdge lum for his diligence, 
sobriety, and the like ; we emnmend him for his per- 
formances, or for any particolar Instance of prudence 
or good conduct To applaud Is an ardent mode of 
pTMutng : we applaud a person for his noblenen of 
spirit: to extol is a reverential mode of praising; we 
OMtal a man for his heroick eifrioits. Praise Is confined 
to no station, though with most propriety bestowed by 
soperioara or equals: esmms n da ti on is the part of a 
superkMir; a parent eommsnds his chlk! for an act of 
charily : applause Is the act of many as well as of one : 
theatrical performances are the Sequent subjects of 

Kblick apptmuses : extol is the act of inferiours, who 
Diara thus deckledly their sansa of a penon*s supe- 

In the scale of significMkm eommend Mands the 
towest, and extol the highest ; we prows in stronger 
terms than we eommend : to apploudia toprsws inlood 
terms; to sxtslis to prows in strong terms; 

The servile rout thdr carcl\il Cesar prsws, 
Uim they ntol ; they worship hhn akme. 

He who expects praise will not be contented with 
simple eommsi^atioii : praise^ when sincere, and be- 
stowed by one whom we esteem, is truly gratifying : 
bat it is a dangerous glA for the receiver ; nappy that 
roan who has no occaston to repeat the acceptance 
of it; 

How happy them we find, 
Who know by merit to engage mankind, 
Pruis'd by each each tongue, by ev'ry heart bek>v*d. 
For virtuea |iractis'd,and for arte improved.— Jbmths. 
CrsMuwdsftsn is always sincere, and may be very 
beneficial by giving enoouragement ; *When school- 
boys write verse. It may indeed suggest an expectation 
of soonethlM better hereafter, but deserves not to be 
eommended for any real merit of their own.*--€owpsa. 
Applmuse is noisy ; It is tlie sentimentofttie multitude, 
who are continually changing ; 
While fhMn both benches, with redonbled sounds, 
Th* applause of k>rds ana coouioaers abounds. 



Applause, ttoax ttie Latin applauds^ signifies literally 

10 cuip tha haMs or stamp tlia ftai to a thing ; accla- 

Ns be of an 

, _ aerytagoadoafklHL 
These two words answer to the »!««#«« and swfssisMs 
of the Romans, which were dMinguisiied from each 
other in the same manner ; but the plausus was an 
artfbl way of moving the handa so aa to produce an 
harmonkms soond by way of t^ptmusot particularly in 

Datoa to thaatro, 
Cum tlM p/sMsns.— HoRACB. • 

In medto planaa, pUosus tunc arte carebaL— Ovid. 
Btantiaqoe in pUmsum tota thaatra ju vent 


The word pIcKsas was sometimes osed in the seose of 
a]^lause expressed by words; the aedamatio was an 
exprenlon by the voice only, but It was ehher a mark 
of npprobstion or disapprvibation ; favourable aeelmmtr 
tions were denominated laudationes et kona voU. Urn 
unfkvourable were ezseeratiomes et eonvieU. all which 
were expressed by a certain prescribed modulation of 
the voice. Plaudit^ or, as it was orlainally written, 
plaudiu^ is the imperative of ttie verb plaudo^ and was 
addressed by the actors to the spectators at the close of 
the performance by way of soliciting their applause ; 
81 plaosoris eges aulsa roanentis, et usque 
Beamri, donee cantor, vos piaudit e , dicat 


Hence the term pf so d i t d en otes a stogie act of lyplaass, 
but is now mostly emptoyed figuratively ; 
True wi<idom must our actkmsso direct 
Not anly tlie last plaudit to expect.— Dbnmam. 
These terms express a puMIck demonstratkm ; tha 
fbrmer by means of a noise with the hands or foet; tba 
latter by means of shouts and cries : the former beii^ 
employed as a testimony of approbatloo ; the latter oa 
a sanction, or an indfeation of respect. Aaastorkiaka 
foraap<aits«; a speaker looks for aeelamatiou. 

What a man does calls forth applmuse^ but the persoa 
himselfismostly received with aeclamatieme. Attha 
bustingB popular speeches meet with applause^ and 
fkvounte members are greeted with loud scc/asia(igns ; 
Amid the loud applmuses of the shore 
Gyas out8tripp*d the rest and sprang before. 
* When this iUuatrfcMia persoa (the duke of Maribo> 
rough) touched on the MMre, he was recdvad by the 
aeclamatioMS of the people.*— Stbblb. 


Eneomiuui^ in Greek iyicAiusvt signified a aet form 
of verKS, used fbr the purposes of praise ; ea^ogv. In 
Greek hXoyta^ f^xun c) and X^of , signifies well spoken, 
or a good word for any one ; vsne/yrtcA, In Greek 
smnvyvpccdf, from vif the whole, and Sy^s •» aa> 
semHy, signifies that which is spoken before an assem 
My, a solemn oratton. 

The idea of praise is common to all these terms: bat 
the ftnt seems more proiierly applied to the thing, or 
the unconscious ol>)ect ; the second to the person In 
general, or to the characters and actions of men In 
general; the third to the person of some particular indi- 
vidual : thus we bestow eneomtums upon any work of 
art, or production of genius, without reHnence to the 
per f ormer ; we besmw eulogies on the exploits of a 
hero, who Is of another age or country ; but we writo 
panegyrieks either In a direct address, or in dhect 
reference to the person who Is pemegfrized: the enco- 
stiitm Is produced by merit, real or supposed; tbeeulogw 
&«mi admiration of the person e ' ' ' 

may spring frcmi 

! person eulogiied; 

the pamegfHek may be mere flauery, resalting from 
servile dependence : great eneomiuwu have been paid 
by all persons to the oonstltatioo of Encland ; ' Oar 
lawyera are, wkh justke, copious In their encssitifsis 
on the common law.*— Blackstohb. Our naval and 
milliary heroes have received the eulogies of many 
besides their own countrymen : * Ballast wouM say oif 
Cato, "That he had rather be than appear good:** 
but Indeed this euhgium rose no higher than to an inof^ 
firosiveness.*— Stbblb. Authors of no mean reputa- 
tion liave condescended to deal out their pamegfrieka 
pretty fkedy in dedications to their patrons ; 
On me, when dunces are satirick, 
I take it lor a pausgfrick^Swvrt. 




X,cMi«*I«, ftom the Latio (Miio to pniM, is in ■eofB 
Ulerally prmimcortkif, that ia, vwtkf of iraify ot to 
to praised (v. 7^]rrau4); c nmtnd a U o ajgnatoa eoti- 
lloa to cywwfioirfgfKMii 

Laudable is used la a general appUeatioa ; «rat««- 
««rcaf and eawmemdabU are applied to individuals : 
tbinp are Umdable in themselves; they are fraua- 
worCAy or «MMMiU«A<« in this or that peraon. 

That which is ImmdakU to enUded to encoarafement 
and general ararotetion; an honest endeavour to be 
useful to one's family or one's self is at aU ttues Urn- 
dabUy and will ensure the sapport of all good people. 
What iMprmi s em art kf obtains the respect of all men : 
aa all have temputions lodo that which is wrong, the 
performance of one's duty to in all cases srotseaportAy ; 
but particularly so In those cases where ft opposes one's 
Interests and interferes with one's pleasures. What to 
eammendabU to not equally important with the two 
former ; it entitles a person only to a temporary or par- 
tial expression of good will and approbation : the per- 
formance of those minor and particular duties which 
belong to children and subonunate persona to in the 
proper sense commatdable. 

It to a lamdahle ambition to wish to excel in that 
which to good ; * Nothing to mwe UtudabU than an 
Inquiry after truth.* — Addison. It to very praisa- 
wwrtky In a child to assist its parent as occasion mav 
require ; ' Ridicule to generally made use of to laugh 
men out of virtue and good sense bv attacking even' 
thing fraitncortkf in human life.^— Addison. Si- 
lence IS eommmdabU in a young person when lie to 
reproved ; * Edmund Waller was bom to a verr ftdr 
estate by the parsimony or frugality of a wise father 
and mother, and be thought it so eammendabU an ad- 
▼antage that he resolved to bnprove it with hto utmost 
care *— Cijuiindon. 


(Jontmd, in Latin etmtmdot compounded of eon or 
contra and tenda to bend one's steps, signifies to exert 
one's self against any thing ; «trto«, in Dutch strereny 
low German «trevaN,hi|h German $treben^ to probably 
a flrequentative of the Latin gtrtpo to make a bustle; 
vu is probably changed from m«w, signil>lng to look 
at with the desire of excelling. 

Cratfii^ni^ requires two parties; ttrivo either one 
or two. There to no contending where there to not 
an opposition ; l>ut a person may ttrive by himself. 

Contend and ttrive AMta in the ob)ect as well as 
mode : we eontend for a prize ; we otrivo for the mas- 
tery : we contend verballv ; bat we never etrivo with- 
out an actual effort, and labour more or less severe. 
We may anUend with a person at a distance ; but 
tirimng requires the opponent, when there to one, to 
be present Opponents In matters of opinion contend 
for what they nuicy to be the truth ; sometimes they 
c<m/«jid for trifles; 

Mad as the seas and the winds, when boUi contend 
Which to the master<--SaAJisPSAmB. 

Combatants otrive to overcome their adversaries, either 
by dint of snperioar skill or strength. In contention 
the prominent idea to the mutual e&rts of two or more 
persons for the same ob^; but in etriving the pro- 
minent idea to the eflbrts of one to attain an object; 
hence the terms may sometimes be employed In one 
and the same connexion, and yei expreaiing these col- 
lateral ideas; 

Bfad aa the whids 
When for the empire of the main they strive. 


Contend to frequently used In a fignrativa sense, in 
application to things; otrivo very seldom. We con- 
tend with difficulties ; and in the spiritual application, 
we may be said to strive with the spirit. 

/ te has more of striving than contending In It ; we 
sirtre to excel when we vt«, but we do not strive witli 
any one ; there to no personal collision or opposition : 
those we vie with may be as ignorant of our persons 
aa our intentions. The term vi« to therefore frequently 
•ppHed to oaconsckms objects ; . 

upon the steps li 

Of elemental draaa, of mould'rlng «l«y. 
Vie with these charms Imprrial t 

BUaoN (on TVaU). 
Ffti^ to aa act of DO monenc, b«C Mntomding and 
strimng are always serkms actions: netghhoars oltea 
VM with each other Ui the finery and grandeur of their 
hooae, dress, and equipage. 

Competition^ flrora the Latin c i s ys C s, compoanded 
of COS! or cs« and ^«C0, signifies to sue or seek together, 
to seek for the same oMect; omuUtion, la Latin sam- 
latioy from ««i«(sr, and the Greek i^uXXm a eootcai, 
signifies the spirit of contending ; rtvairy, thm the 
Latin rtv«« the bank of a stream, rtgnifles the undi- 
vided or common enloyment of any stream which Is 
the natural source of discord. 

Competitien expresses the relation of a competitor, 
or the act of seeking the same objed; ssNiia^sift ex- 
presses a dispositioo of the mind toward particiibr 
ob)ecu ; rivairp expresses both the relatioa and tha 
dtoposltlon of a rival. JBswi / s li s w to lo competition aa 
the motive to the action ; emmUtion prndoces competi' 
tors, but it may exist without it ; * Of the anclenta 
enough remains to excite oar ommlateon aaddireet our 
endeavours.* — Jobnson. 

Competition and sanUatJsn have the same marks to 
distinguish them tnm rtvotrp. Competition and «■«- 
lotion have honour for their basto; rioolrp if but a 
deehe for selfish gratification. A competitor strives lo 
surpass by honest means ; he cannot succeed so well 
by any other ; * It cannot be doabted hot there to aa 
great a desire of gtoty In a ring of wrestlers or riidgml 
players as In any other more refined coesp^ition tat 
superiority.*— HcoHts. A rival to not bound by any 
principle ; he seeks to supplant by whatevCT means 
seem to promise soeoess; *Thoae, that have been 
raised by the imerest of some great minister, trample 
teps by whkh they rfoe, to rival htm in his 
, and at length step Into hto place.*— South. 

n Hafair compeMor and a generous rival are equally 
snosual and • - - ~ 


to merit socceai; rivalrv to contented with obtaining 
it; ' To be no man's rtval In love, or competitor in 
badness, to a character vihkh, if it doea not recom- 
mend you as it ought to benevolence among those 
whom yoa Hve with, yet has it certainlv thto efieO, 
that you do not stand so much in need of^ their appro- 
bation as if you aimed at more.*— Stbblb. Cow^eti- 
tors may sometinies become rtosi* In spirit, although 
Hvole will never become cempeUtere. 

It to (brther to be remarked, that comp e titio n sup- 
poses some actual efibrt for the attainment of a specifick 
object set in view : rivalry may consist of a continued 
wishing for and aiming at the same general end with- 
out necessarily comprehending the IdM of close action. 
Competitors are in the same line with each other; 
riveis may work toward the same point at a great dia- 
unce from each other. Literary priaes are the objects 
of competition among scholars ; * The priae of beauty 
was disputed tin you were seen, bat now all pretenders 
have withdrawn their claims ; there to no competition 
but Ibr the second nlace.*- Dbtdbn. The afihclkma 
of a female are the uojecl of rivale; 

Oh, k>ve ! thou sternly dost thv power maintain, 

And wilt not bear a rival In thy reign, 

Tyranto and thou all feUowshIp disdain.— Devobm 
WlUlam the Cooqneror and Harold were competitors 
tor the crown of England; iBneas and Tumos were 
rivals for the band of Lavlnia. In the games which 
were celebrated by iEneas tn honour of hto father 
Anchtoes, the naval competitore were the most eager 
in the contest Juno, Minerva, and Venus, were rival 
goddesses hi their pretenskws lo beauty. 

To contend signifies generally to strive one against 
another; to contest, from the Latin eonteetor^ to call 
one witness againt another ; and dieputot (rom dieputo 

a Vide Abbo Roubaud : •' Bmulatkm, rivalit^.** 

ir competstor and a generous mat are equally 
and i ncon sistent CompetUion animates to 
; rivalrf provokes hatred :• competition seeks 



to think diflTufentiy, or malntAiii ■ dUfinreBt opinion, 
are dllferent modes of eonUndiug, We may e^ntemd 
for or ditpnu a priae, but the latter la a blgber form of 
expfiMkNi, adapted u> the etyle of poetry ; 

t ma not tolangoWi oat my dare, 
Bat make the beat ezehaafe of Ufe for prake. 
Thle arm, thia lance, ean well HapuU the prlae 


We cannot eeatetC or iUfmU without cMiendm^, 
althottch we may t&tdtmd without eamUatimg or dw- 
pMtinf. To coaiMd laconfloed to the Idea of oetting 
one*! edf op agalnet another; to etmitt and iuvmU 
noet inehida eonM oldect cMK«9l«d or du|ni(«d. Con- 
Umi le applied to all matlert, either of peiaonal intereet 
or •peeulaiive opinioo : e^nUst alwaya to the former ; 
dUtpuU mostly to the latter. We c9tUnU with a per- 
son, and e«iilMt about a thing; 

Tls madaesi to ceatmd with strength Divlna 

0arlag the aressnt kmg and eventAd tmtUst between 
Bnfland and France, the English have etntendad with 
their enemies as sueoesifolly by land as bv sea. Tri- 
ttng mattsis may give rise to emUmtdrng; seiloas 
potets only am c^nUtUd. Obntmuigut are always 

i personally, and In general Terbally . »v>.- 
U»u are carried oo In diArent manners according to 
the nature of the object The parties themsehres 
mostly deckle e^ntmtwu; but e0mUsUd matters 
mostly depend upon others to decide. 

For want of an accommodating temper, men are 
freqoently evmUmiimf with each other about little 
points of convenience, advantage, or privilege, which 
they ought by mutual consent to share, or voluntarily 
to resign; 

Death and nature do contend about them 
Whether they live or die.— fiBA.xsnAfta. 
When seats In parliament or other posts of honour ars 
lo be obtafaied by suAages, rival eandidates eeniett 
their claims to publick approbatfon; * As the same 
causes had naany the same efibcts In the dUbrent 
countries of Europe, the several crowns either kMt or 
aoqoired authorltv, according to their difbrent success 
Id the cmImI.'— Humb. 

When we assert the right, and support thia OMertfoB 
with reasons, we e m Utnd for It; 

*T Is thus the spring of youth, the mora of lifo, 
Bears In our nundi the rival seeds of strife ; 
Then passion riots, reason then conUndSf 
And 00 the conquest every bliss depends. 

But we do not eealMt until we taice serious maasorm 
to obtain what we smKmmI Ihr ; 

The poor worm 
Shan prova her eontett vain. Llfo*8 little day 
Shall pass, and she Is gone. While I appear 
FlushM with the bloom of vouth through heav*n*s 
eternal year.— Masor (an 7V»c*). 
CS^thitf tt to dif^rn te ni apart to U)e whole: twopartiea 
iiMftnu co[b}»t]iMy; thi'y tiijfttnd indivlduallv. Each 
nrnfj^j fitt till owD oplnioii, which conuUites the 
di^pTiU^ Thm>tti«kai dtMftuUintw often tmiUnd with 
mcHra wamitli tljftti rfiHCrrtinh (at their fovourlte hy- 
ptCb^dp ; * Tli« aii^iifikpn tA^Jilrti atur author would «•»- 
Mtrndfrrt it lif Md not Un^ct a, li what persons have a 
righi to be Ab^y^d . '— Lrx K £ . With regard to clabns, 
ft k poBlMi; lo dtty^tf the f talm of another without 
mtitmdimg ft'F tt foF nurKlr» ; > Until any point Is de> 
tMS^Und m tie a Law, n rcmalM dujpaio*!* by any 


Though derived horn the preceding varba (v. TV 
cmlmd. HHv), have a dktfaict meanfawlB which they 
are analogoua. The common klea to tliem Is that or 
oppeslngons's self to another withan aagry hnnMMir. 

OrotoittM Is mostly occasioned by the desire of 
asekingoiie*lown. ^r^f^ springs flrom a quarrelsome 
temper. Oreedjr and envioaa people deal In e«iasiif«#ii, 
the mMr beoausa they are fearftil lest they should not 
get enough; the latter because they are foarful lest 
•then dwM fM too nneh ; 

With these ftNir mora of lesser taM 
And humMe raak, atten d an t came ; 
Hypocrisy with smIUng grace. 
And Impudence, with brazen fooe, 
CbatoaUiim bold, with hon lungs, 
And Blander, wMh her hundred tongoesL 

that are under no coatrol i 

Where bad tempi 

In frequent coUlsic 

sequence ; * A solid and suboiantial grsataess of soul 

looks down with a generous neglect on the ceasures 

applauses of the multitude, and places a waa bsj 

toe little noise and Urift or tooguea.'— AvMaoH. 

perpetual slfV* will be the c 
' anUal p 


Difer^ in Latin d^fero or dit and /wv, signifles to 
make bito two ; vtuyt In Latin varis to make varioua, 
frqm vmrus a spot or speckle, because that destroys the 
uimormity In the appearance of thinas; to disagru la 
literally not to agree ; and diseent. In Lilin diseeMtie oa 
die and eentiot is to think or fod apart or dlfikrently. 

Differ^ varji^ and diangree^ are appllcahl e either to 
penoosor things ; dieeent to parsons only. First as to 
persons ; to d(ger Is the most general and indeflnito 
term, the rest are but modes of di ger en e e : we may d^ger 
from any cause, or in any degree: we vary onlv i» 
small matters : thus pemns may difer or ««9|f In toair 
statements. There must be two at (east lo difer; ana 
there may be an Indefinite number: one may aarv. of 
an Indefinite number may nny; two or a ■pacldck 
number diaarne : thus two or more may difer ia an 
account which they give ; one person may varf at dlf» 
ferent times in tlie account wlucb he gives : and two 
particular indivMoals diengree : we may d^er hi matr 
iers of foctor specuJatloo ; weearyonly in matters oif 
foct ; we dieagree mostly in matters of speeulaiion. 
Hiatorians may d^erin the representation of an alTalr, 
and authors may diger In their views of a particular 
subject: narrators vary in certain drcumstances; two 
particular phltosophers diemgree in accounting for a 

TO dMivTM lathe act of oae man with another : U^ 
dieeent Is the act of one or more In relation to a com* 
munity ; thus two writers oo the same subject may 

and character. 

When applied to the ordinary transactions of Mfo^ 
iifereneee may exist merelv in opinion, or with a mixr 
tureof more or less acrimonious and discordant foellng ; 
varianeee arise ftora a coUlsioo of Interests; diemgre^ 
mente (torn asperity of humour ; dieeeneiene ftom o 
clashing of opinions; digeremcee may exist between 
nations, and may be settled by cool discussions ; * Tha 
ministers of the difilbrent potentates conferred and co»> 
fened : but the peace advanced so slowly, that spasdiet 
methods were round necessary, and Boliogbroke wat 
sent to Paris to adjust ^erencee with less formality.*— 
JoBMSON. When vartaaesf arise between neighbours, 
their paariooB often Interfore to prevent aocommo' 

Bow Btany bleed 
By BhamaAd wiom^e betwixt osaa and man. 


rather than airectkms, there will be aeeessarilv diem' 
greemenie; *On his arrival at Geneva, Oohlsmith was 
recommended as a travelling tutor to a young gentlsaM» 
who had been unexpectedly left a sum of money be m 
near relation. This connexion lasted but a short tuna : 
they dieegreed tai the south of France and partad.^— 
JoBHsoH. When many members of a community Imivo 
an equal liberty to express their oplnkms, there wiD 
necessarily bed- 



Forp . 

Let BOW your launaturf dieeen^ien coofs. 


In regard to thtags, dtfbr is said of two tU^s wUh 

reapect to each other ; aarw of one thiog lo iwspssl to 

Itself: thus two tempers d^ ttan aafi^athar* bmI a 

, panOD*a tamper varMsfkom.tima to tiBio. TMnfsddbr 

hen Carthage Shan contandtoa wortd wHh Bobm, 
ten Is your nme for foctkm and debate, 
r partial fovoor and permitted hate: 



ftt hiifi ay flEi iL thtfvarf ia HMt accMente : thus the 

Jfpfleni mm ifwcfefl nf thlnfn ^(fW from eath olbar, ind 
ihc i nd I V id 1 1 a la 1] f -?aeh niifit l*i L'd ry , ' We do iM>i i no ir 
in whAt K.x^m a Lid ieudincL c/jeihUe, n^id itoitsfore 
tiuinnt ivli wiiU i^iEkciMr^tu tn wliat ihuy rfj/er/— Johs- 
■o.N -TrAduaiid cu:>nMnGr?« uiigtst dr>ubUeM bi* stkll 
KflTvdr R thoiii<&iMl W4yi, out of whkh ifvuuiil aru^ dnjcJi 
bfancheflubnvrnntbctniouchcd'— Jijim^ojf. /j i/er 
la fe&id i>r every thinf |irumiKuoiiit^, tii^t diaafTtf \m 
Ohljr faid of uiili tlunis' ^^ might o^ree ; thiu twi> ir^oi 
^/itr from each tether by (fic cmim^ of EhhiRi, byt !W0 
iiiiioben ditagTte f^hlcb ute hiu^jidecl (o ogi^i^ ; ^Tlie 
•erenJ partd of ihv mma anLuiiLl differ |q tlicir quail- 

ilBil'— A ItfcDTB !f OT- 

Thut mSiid »nd bodjofLen wympul\ii%e 
Ii plain; lycli k Uiu union njiiure Uf« ; 
But t^Ktl B» often too Ihsf duajrfer^ 
Wblcb proved ttie mhiI'b (nif»crk}iir proReny. 

mrrEHENeE, di3pt;te, alt£rcatioa\ 


The Jiffvmce is thit on which one rflHVirti or ihe 
■taus of difTerlh^ (e. Fff diffr) ; Uw JiVpni* ihai on 
wli Jch on(; d lepu tm^ or the lu: L nf d^^ptitli] K :; di^rrc a f jd H, 
in LaLfD afi^rnfin and tUrrrfe, from ul:f^'-1it4 and ear 
tkiiolhtr mhirt, sripMiiriei fiprt^ln^ nnoiJicr np^nioii; 
^a^rre^ iTi FiciKli ^turtils, from Lhtt LaDn ^aeror to 
GOmpluQ, signifies KaTfng a comnlJihrl a^ilri^anLHh«r. 
Atl these lenna ore here taken in ilie g^riftnl sciiBe 
of a digtrt^^ on acrmo pcnicifSfU qut'stliMi ; ihe ti?nii di/- 
/ rrKri h Jmitc aj general anit ind4]flui(i3jui in tlifi former 
tMm C«. Tb d^rr^ Dury) : ft diffcTfftce^ ati Jistitigd Lulled 
iTDin tbe Mhierflt is Rtitteraliy uf a lew »:rlou!« and pcr- 
nnal kLbd i a ditpvte contLr^la not only af (uyfry ivr»i:d"i, 
'fltit Aiaeli in Wood and unKLnd otHcfe* ; an aMrrcijfinn 
li a wofdy itMptttt, ia vthlth digfrntc^ of opinion \m 
arawH &ut Lnu> a nmitiiudt; nf wnr^M on ^1 Kidea ; 
qmArvtt\3 ihe JUturt wrioiji^ ofnH difrrtntts, whivM lersds 
10 every iperlea of vUHf^hfti : the fiifftrtm;^ nmy »omc- 
llmw arijo fmm n ml«ntideTicLandlnf^» wblcb may be 
-^ifcsilv ro^iiaei! ; digrrffntta w^ldoiii ifrtiw to dUputtt 
T>ut liy the fanlt af both parilM; attertaiiont arlw 
mmtly from pertiiinrJoui iuihQr«nrB lo, and obiitniite 
defence of^ oiwj'a opUiiuns ; ^it^rrfj^ nio&Uy iiprbe fiv^ra 
Itijniies rcfti or «i[{ipot#ed : <fiJffrrfK4?t vul)»<i4i tHtwirf'n 
mm Imuiindltidunl or piibUfltcnEmrliy : ihpy rniiy bg 
Mrrlad on In a dijctt oi ilndirecl mnnricr ? 'Oi>el]i lem 
^igwrem&f* a^togii^tlicj' todiviiLf andc±»UEin^c Lh^we frci^ni 
one auDiii^r, whom Htich Bncii-nt aud sacred biaodrt 
un H« 1'— B L 4 1*. Dimp^fg and tfiifrrij jiW.» arc ni m^i ly 
c«ndocled In « direcl inaTinpr betwi*«n 1iiidivMLiali»^ ' I 
haveoftfn !>cen pka^iuL to ivuw diffnii^un Uie Eichniigt- 
adjitited iM-nvK'n an in habitant ufJnfjan aiidnn alder 
man of LonUt^n.'— Aodzjon. ' [n Iha Uoiu* n( Pcpim 
4be ^ill pftHei Uartiugh t2je same fori^fl aa In tlie iither 
'fcHme^ ami if r^j€-cled no more inult c ia takfitit btjt k 
pUB« rfuft «(Jm#i0to prevent ui^livcoiiiliiiraJfrfCflrjViH/ 
'''^LA c itrto HE. Quarr^ij tnay ariw be t ween nations 
ac Indlvidu&lsi, ancf be ^rrlc^ on by aria of ofT^nee 
dirccttyot Indirectly; 

■ would out ft ■ 
nded tbere nay be Kraet rnnUm- 
i the propoeer httmbry dedroa the 
«ed.'— Swirr. A correetioD of 

with whom ooele hi oaaMtloii iM«tt do rnmwih' 

•tnnon ; * At the thne the poem «re are now treittaic 

of was written, the iiMiiuMiu of the barone, who were 

then 90 many petty princes, ran very high.'— Aoonoii. 

A Umitatioo or one's desire to that which Is attainaMe 


* Because it ii 

f^sM aboot pri 

assistance of the learked-'^wirr. A correction of 

one's hnpatient and initaUe hwnour would check the 

profreesof d M c s r d; 

Bnt shall celesUal Hattrd never eease t 
*Tls better ended hi a tastinf peace.— Dstdmi. 
pUteMtUn tends not onhr to aUenate the minds df men 
from each other, but to dSssolTe thelrands of society ; 
Now Join your hands, and with your hands your hearti. 

Cntmtwn Is accompanied by anger, m-will, emry, and 
many evil oasslons ; « The aneients made ewuttmtwn the 
principle that reigned in the chaos at first, and then 
love: the one to express the divistons, and the other the 
union of aU parties in the middle and common bond.*— 
BDBRrr. Discard intemipts the pragrem of the kind 
aflections, and bars all tender Intercourse ; 
See what a scourge is laid upon your bale 
That heav'n finds means toKkOl your Joys with level 
And I. for wfaiking at your iUcorda too, 
Have lost a brace of loosmen.— Sbaufiarb. 
Where there is «tr<fe, there must be difesrrf; bafttbera 
may be dwMrd without §trif9 : ductd coosiste most 
hi the fheling; »trif9 consists most hi the outward ae- 
tion. ZNsMTdevtaweiitBelffaivailoaavrayt^hyloQto, 
words, or actions; 

Good Heav*n! what dire cAeti HmH dtii Otcmd 

flow.— DansM. 
Strips displays itself in words or acts of violence; 
Let men their days In seaeelem atiif^ employ, 
We hi eternal peace and constant Joy.— Pops. 
Discord is fktal to the happiness of flunlNes ; strife la 
the treateat enemy to peace between ne^bours : itt»- 
eortf arose between the goddesses on the apple being 
thrown Into the assembly; Homer commences 1A 
poem with the ttrif* that took iilaoe between Aga- 
memnon and AchHles. 

Dueard may arise from mere dtlftrenee of opfailon ; 
MtHfe Is in general occasioned by some matter of net- 
sonal Interest: discord hi the councils of a nation Is 
the ahnost certain forerunner of its ruin ; the common 
principles of politeness fbrUd strtfs among persoH of 
good breeding. 

t^nvex'd flTlth fwai-r^J^, ijndi^torbM \v\lh noleo. 
The OMiiitry king hi^ peaceful rentra t-nhyy. 


THttfntfOTit€vittentMifif,And <tn/(-, mirK the art or 
«tm# of dimentihs, nrciinncnilhtg and tftrLiHfip; dintord 
Aefjveallir M|mlfWsUon fro rnUie harrihnew prr>dLiced \n 
JTidfJcJt by ihecliwIlihK^f ivvo sTrliajpivvIiirli dn not aijlt 
wilfi each olber ; when^^, lin Iht moral senn?^ ihe 
chorda of the mtnd, wMcti eo4iJ« Into an urAoirableccl- 

A C4>lti4lmi of opLniona prodncei disttiuion ; a colli 
'flion of InTc^reais prmlnc^si mniiTtiUn ; a cMi'ltttiton of 
im mou r^ pnidiKn diJttia rd ( p, Ctfjt ttn tm n ^ A J< ive o C 
•one's own opimoiii cojnl))tied «titb n diHTegard Tor the 
-opiiHons of oilMfi^ fires rise to dinttitBtam: Hflfislmt^m 
la Ihe main wue of tonitntinn ; ond wi unKOverncd 
•fern per \%mi oi dtMeeri. 

I>i*4FnH«n ia pecoMnr to b(nJ3^ iw communities of 
Pif^n ; rontrmtitm Mid f^jjfor^to Individ uala. A Clinn 

. Is an active 
itin fries to n*, 
the passions, is a tamultuon 


QitarrsKp.Diferenes) Is the general and ordhiary 
term ; broil, femd, and A^cy, are particular terms; 
broit, from brawls is a noisy enarrel ; fsud, (torn the 
German /<JU0, and the English £f" 
quarrel; offraif or /V-sy, from the 
signifying the colUaion of 

The idea of a variance4ietweeQtwo parties Is eom- 
mon to these terms ; hut the former respects the com- 
plaints and charges which are reciprocally made; 
broil respects the conflision and entanglement which 
arises from a contenttop and collision of inteieets ; 
fond respects the hostillUes which arise out of the 
variance. There are quarrels where there are no 
broils^ and tbere are both where there are no feuds ^ 
but there are no broils and feuds without quarrels j 
the quarra Is not alwavs openly conducted b e twe en 
the parties ; It may sometimes be secret, and semefimea 
manifest itself only in a coolness of behafloar : tiie 
broil is a noisy kind of f«uirr«l. it always breaks out 
in loud, and mostly reproachnil language : ftud Is a 
deadly Kind of quarrel which Is heightened by mutual 
aggravations and Uisults. Quarrels are very lamenta- 
ble when they take place between members of the same 
fkmlly ; * The dhk or broad dagger, I am afraid, waa 
of more use In private quarrOs than in battles.*— 
JoHNsoK. Broils are very frequent among pfol|igp|a 

tlan temper of cooformuy to the generaJ wUl of ilwee and reatlesf people who live togetherv; 


BT*n btoglily JOM, who wllh mikm hrmUy 
Kartlif MM, »«d Iimt*ii. and Jove hlniMir turmoUf, 
At length atoo'd, ber frtiendlj pow'r iball Join 
To eberiah and advance tbeTrq)an Una.— DaToiR. 
F^udt were very feneral in former timet between dif- 
foreut fkmilleiof tiie noibility; *Ttie poet deaeribet 
(in tlie poem of Cbevv-Cbase) a battle occaslimed by 
ttie mutual ftudt which reigned in the fluniliee of an 
Siwliah and Scotch tiobieman.*— Addiion. 

A fiMrrelie Indefinite, both ae to the cause and the 
manner in which It if conducted; an ^f^ is a euddeo 
violent liind of quurrtl : a ptM/rtl may MibsiM be- 
tween two persons from a private diUbrence ; an ^fram 
always talies place between many upon some publick 
occasion: a aumrrU may be carried on merely by 
words ; an ajfrtag Is commonly conducted by acts of 
violeace: many angry words pass In a quarrel be- 
tween two hasty people; * The owarrsl between my 
friends did not ran so high as I find your accounts 
have made it.*— Stmbu. Many are wounded, if not 
killed In i^«y« when opposite parties meet ; * The 
provost of Edlnbuifii, his son, and several citizens of 
distinction, were lulled In the /ray.'— RoBsaTsoN. 

A verbal contention is expressed by all tliese terms, 
but with various modlflcations ; jangU seems to be an 
onomatopoeia, for h conveys t^ its own discordant 
sound an idea of the discordance which accompanies 
this kind of war of words; >ar and war are in all pro- 
bability but variations of each other, as also j*nfU 
and mttfU, There is \n jmkgling more of cross 
questions andperveise replies than direct dltferences 
of optnkm ; * Where the judicatories of the church 
were near an equality of the men on both sides, there 
were perpetual joMgimg* on both sides.'— BuaiiaT. 
ThomjmngU who are out of humour with each other: 
there is more of discordant feeling and opposition of 
opinion in Jarring : those who have no good will to 
each other will be sure lo^sr when they come In colli- 
sion ; and those who indulge themselves in jarrinf 
will soon convert alTection Into Ui will ; * There is no 
jar or contest between the dlfibrent gifts of the spirit.* 
—South. Married people mav destroy the good hu- 
mour of the company by iovitn/, but they destroy 
their domestick peace and felicity by Jamng. To 
wrangU is technically, what to jangU Is morally : 
those who dispute by a verbal opposition only are said 
to wrangU ; and the disputers who engage in this scho- 
lastick exercise are termed wranglers ; most disputa- 
tions amount to tittle more tiuui wrangles ; 
Peace, fhctioos monster ! bora to vex the slate, 
With wrangling talents form'd for foul debate. 

^ POPB. 

Camhatj from the French esaaottrtf to fight together. 
Is used figuratively in the same sense with regard tt> 
matters of opinion ; oppost^ in French oppossr^ Ladn 
mmvesMx perfect of opfano^ compounded of ab and pono 
to place one's self In the way, signifies to sec one's self 
up against another. 

Ca^at ti properly a species of anating ; one al- 
ways apposes In combaUing. though not vies versM. 
To combat is used in regard to speculative mauera; 
appose to regard to private and personal concerns as 
welt as mailers of opinion. A person's positions are 
coatbaUedy his interests or his measures are opposed. 
The Christian cowbats the erroneous doctrines of the 
infldel with no other weapon than that of argument; 
When fieroe temptation, seconded within 
By traitor appetite, and armed with darts 
Tempered In hell, invades the throbbing breast. 
To eambat may be glorious, and miccess 
Perhaps may crown us, but to fiy is safe.— Cowpbk. 
The sophist oppasas Christlantty with ridicule and 
misrepresentation ; 
Though various foes against the truth combine, 
Pride above all opposes her design.— Cowraa. 
The most laudable use to which knowledge can be 
eonverted Is to eoatbat errour wherever it presents it- 
self; but there are too many, particularly in the present 
day, wba employ the Uttle pittance of knowledge 


whkh they have eollaeted, to no better porpoae thaa t» 
op»ase every thiag that is good, and excite the sama 
spirit of oppasitian in others. 


OombaUntt from to combat^ marks any one that 
engages In a eambat ; champion^ hi French ekampimt, 
Saxon cemne. German kaimme^ signifies originally a 
soldier or fighter, from the Laitin campma a field of 

A eambatant fights for himself and for victory ; a 
ekaia^ian fights either for another, or in another's 
cause. The word combatant has always relation va 

some actual engagement ; champion may be employed 
for one readv to be engaged, or In tbo liabits or being 
engaged. The combatanU in the Olympic games used 

to contend for a prize ; the Roman gladiators were 
co m ba tan ts who fought for tlieir lives: when knight- 
errantry was in (kshlon there were champians of all 
descriptions, champions in behalf of distreased females, 
champions in behalf of the injured and oppressed, or 
champions in behalf of aggrieved princes. 

The mere act of fighting constiiutes a combatant ; 
the act of standing up in another's defence at a per- 
sonal risk, constiiutes the champion. Anhnals have 
their combats^ and consequenlly are combatants ; but 
they are seldum champions. In the present day there 
are fewer combatants than champions among men. 
We have champions for liberty, who are the least 
honourable and the most questionable members of the 
community; thoy mostiv contend for a shadow, and 
court persecution, in order to serve their own purposes 
of ainbition. Champions in the cause of Christianity 
are not less ennobled by the object for which they 
contend, tlian by the disinterestedness of their motives 
in contending ; they must expect in an infidel age, like 
the present; to be exposed to the derision and contempt 
of their self-sufficient opponents ; 'Conscious that I do 
not possess the strength, I shall not assume the impor- 
tance, of a champion^ aj)d as I am not of dignity 
enough to be angry, I shall keep my temper and my 
distance too, skirmishing like those insignificant gentry, 
who play the part of teasers in the Spanish bull-Aghta 
while bolder comUtatants engage him at the point of 
his horns.*— CuiuaaLAMO. 


£iiesiir, in Latin inimicnsy compounded of in priva- 
tive, and amicus a friend, signifies one that is un- 
friendly; focy in Saxon /aA, most probably flrom the old 
Teutonic jCoa to hate, signifies one that bears a hatred ; 
adoersary^ in Latin adi>trsariusy ttom adversus against, 
signifies one that takes part against another ; adversa' 
rtus In Latin was particniarly applied to one who con- 
tested a point in law with another ; opponent^ in Latin 
oppontnsy participle of oo;»oso or obpono to place in the 
way, signifies one pitted against another; antagonist^ 
in Greek dvroytiMsnof, compounded of dvW against, 
and ifiavP^oitai to contend, signifies one struggling 
against another. 

An enemy is not so formidable as a/»« ; the former 
may be reconciled, but the latter always retains a 
deadly hatred. An enemy may bo so in spirit, in 
action, or in relation ; a foe is always so in spirit, if 
ikM in action Ukewite : a man may be an enemy to 
himself, though not a foe. Those who are national or 
political enemies are often private friends, but a/oe is 
never any thins but a foe. A single act may create an 
enemy y but continued warfare creates a/oe. 

Enemies are either publick or private, collective or 
perMinal ; In the latter sense the word enemy b most 
analogous in signification to that of adversary ^ oppa- 
nenty antagonist. * Enemies seek to iniure each other 
commonly firom a sentiment of hatred ; the heart is 
alwajrs more or less implicated ; * Plutarch says very 
finely, that a man should not allow himself to hate 
"^ven his enemifs.* — Addison. Adversaries set up 
their claims, and frequently urge their pretensions with 
angry strife; but interest or contrariety of opinion 
more than sentiment stimulates to action ; ' Those dis- 
putants (the persecutors) convince their adversarisa 

• Vide Abbe Glrard: " Ennem) adveraahre, antago 



wMI % nrtoH eonmoBly called t pile of A«oca.'«> 
Amuom. OmmmmU nc ap dUferent partlai, and 
ti««t esdi other eometiiiiee with acrimony ; but their 
di flbreocei do ooc neoeatailly indude any thing per- 
•ooal; *The name of Boyle is indeed revered, but hia 
worin are ne^ected ; we are contented to know that 
ired bto om 

he conquered 

lis ojM^nenUt witliout inquiring what 
catils were produo^againat him.'— JoBiieoii. Anta- 
g0muU are a specie* of 9pponenU who are in actual 
engagement: emulation and direct exertion, but not 
anger, is concerned In making the amtagowut ; * 8lr 
Francis Bacon oheerves that a weU written book, com- 
pared wbh its rivals and aMtag9niaU, ie Uke Moses's 
serpent tliat immediately swallowed up those of tJie 
E^plians.*— AoDisoM. Kntmin make war, aim at 
destruction, and commit acts of personal violence: 
sdMTssries are contented with appropriating to them- 
Mlves some object of desire, or depriving their rival of 
It ; cupidity being the moving principle, and gain the 
ii^KX: vpmunts oppose each other systematically 
and perpetually ; eadi aims at being thought right in 
their d^wtes: tastes and opinions are commouly the 
sob|ects of debate, self-love oAener than a k>ve of 
truth is the moving principle : mUagvnitU engage in 
a triai^f strength ; victory is the end ; the loveof dis- 
tinctkM or superiority the moving principle ; the con- 
test may lie either in mental or physical exertion ; may 
aim at stiperlotity in a verbal dispute or in a manual 
combat There are nations whose subjects are bom 
mtmitt to those of a neighbouring nation: nothing 
evinces the radical corruption of any country aoore 
than when the poor man dares not show himself aa an 
adtm-fff to his rich neighbour without fearing to lose 
roorethaa he might gain : the amblUon of some men 
does not rise higher than that of being the opponent of 
minlslen: Scafiger and Petaviua among the French 
were great mUmgoniots in their day, as were Boyle 
aadBeatley MMi«lhe English; theHoratU and Cu 

liatii weie eqnaQy flunous antagoni$ts in their way. 

Emmp aod/M are likewise employed in a figurative 
aenae Ibr mocai obiJeeis : our passions are our ensauss, 
wbanindulged; anvy la a/ss to happiness. 


Emmity lies in the heart; it Is deep sod malignant 
aatsissitu, (h>m amsnis, a spirit, lies in the passions , 
Uis Herce and vindictive : Aesttlity, from hotti$ a po- 
litical enemy, Uea in the action; it Is mischievous and 

Enrnttp Is something permanent; animonlv is par- 
tial and transitory : in the feudal ages, when the dark- 
ness KDd ignorance of the times prevented the mild in- 
fluence or Christianity, enmities between particular 
fluniUes were handed down as an inheritance flrom 
fkther to .aon; in ttee states, pariy spirit engenders 
greater amiwtoeiliee than private dinutes. 

JEmiiif V Is altogether personal : Moetilitp mottfy re- 
fleets puUick measures, an^aMMtyrespecU either one or 
many indivkluals. Enmity often lies concealed in the 
heart; ontsiMiiy mostly betrays itself by some open 
act of koetilUf. He who cherishes enmitf towards 
another is his own greatest enerov ; 'In some instances, 
indeed, the emnOp of others candbt be avoided without 
a particlpadoii in their guilt; but then it is the enmitf 
or those with whom neither wisdom nor virtue can 
desire to sMociace.*— Jouksom. He who is guided by 
a spirit of animMttf Is unfit to have any command over 
otbeis; *I wiU never let my heart reproach me with 
iMving done any thing towards Increasing those ami- 
WieeiUlu that extinguish religion, deface government, 
and make « nation miserable.*— Adduon. He who 
proceeds to wanton koetilitf often provokes an enem v 
when he might have a friend : * Erasmus himself tiad, 
Itseems, the misfortune tofUl into the hands of a pariy 
of Troyans who laid on him with so many Mows and 
buffets, that be never forgot their koetUitiee to bb dying 
day.'— Adouoh. 

Mbooreey In French oiteree^ Latin •dmorene, parti- 
ciple of adcsrts, compounded of ad and venf^ stmifles 
turning towards or against; esntrsry, in French esn- 
traire, Latin esatrornitf, comes from eantra against ; 
0pp0$iUt \9 Latin 0pp0§iim$, parttelple of cppono, is 

eompoondedof •* and ^ms, sigiriiyfaig plaMd 4a 4ha 

jfdesrss respects the fMingi and InteseslsDf per- 
sons; centrmy regards their plans and purposes; ^r 
^Mite relates to the situation of psraoas and natttPe^ 

And as iBgieoo, when witfa heaiv*fi hestrova, 

Stood oppieiu In anns to mighty Jove.— DmTDBit. 
Ftartune Is sd ss r ss; an event turns out esalrary to whac 
was expected; sentlmeBts are eppeeiu to each other. 
An •ioeree wind conoes across our wishes and pur- 
ls; *■ The periodical winds which were then set hi 
re distinctly adoer— to the course which Pfauurro 
proposed to steer.*— RoBBRTsoM. Ac»iUr«rf windUes 
in an opposite dlreetloa; comlrsry winds are mostly 
o4»0r»e 10 some one who Is cmaing the oceaiK, sitosrss 
winds need not always be directly e^ntrmrff. 

Circumstances are soooeUmes so sdverse as to baflla 
the best concerted plans. Facts often prove directly 
emtrury to the representations given or them ; * As I 
should be loth to offer none Irat mstances of the abase 
of prosperity, I am happy in recollecting one very sin- 

Klar example of the conlrmrp sort*— Ccmbbblaiid. 
ople with eppoeite characters cannot be expected to 
act together with pleasure to eitlier party. Jidceree 
events Interrupt the peace of mind ; eonirarf accounts 
invalidate the testimony of a narration ; ^poeiie prin- 
ciples interrupt Uie harmony of sode^. 


CssiparMSB, fWmi Magyars, and the Latin cMipsM 
or com and par equal, signifies the puttinff together of 
things that ore equal ; cMitrsst, in French csfitra«l«r, 
Latin eontraeU or cemitra and ete to stand, or note to 
place against, signifies the pUuing of one thing oppoaita 
to auotber. 

Likeness in the qoaUty and difference In the degiaa 
are requisite for a e0mpmrio«n ; likeness in the degree 
and opposition in the quality are requisite for a c«m- 
irmet: thinn of the same cokrar are eompored; those 
of an opposite ookmr are contraeted.: i^owgtorieeei is 
made between two shades of red: a controit briwaeo 
Mack and white. 

CbsqrsrisoB is of a practical utility. It serves to aa- 
eertain the true relation of ol^eclB ; ssMlrasi Is of utilliy 
among poets, it serves to heighten the effect of opposite 
quahtlies: things are lazae or small kfcow^mioon: 
things are ma^fled or diminished bf eantraet : the 
value of a coin Is best learned bv comparing it with 
another of the same metal; *Tbey who are apt to 
remind us of tlieir ancestors only put us upon making 
eoMorieene to their own disadvantage.*— spkctatob. 

The genevosil^ of one person Is most strongly felt 
when eomtraoted with the meanness of another ; 
In k^vely eontraot to this glorious view, 
Calooly magnificent then will we turn 
To where the silver Thames first rural grows. 

Adperee signifies the same as in the preceding arti- 
cle : inimieoly from the Latin immiemo an enemy, sig- 
nifies belonging to an enemy ; which Is also the mean- 
ing of koetUOf (torn koetie an enemy ; repngninO^ In 
Latin repngneuu. from repugno. or re and pngno to 
fight agaUM, signifies waning with. 

jSdwrte may be applied to either persons or things ; 
imiwneiU and hootOe to persons or things peraonjil ; rs- 
pngnant to things only: a persoo Is adveree or a thing 
IS odterte to an object; a person, or what Is persooal. 
Is either immieal or heetile to an object; one thing la 
repmgnoMt to another. We are adveroe to a proposi- 
tion; or dreumstanees are odweroe to our advanee. 
ment ParthEansaretatsncai totheprnceedinpof go- 
vernment, And AMids to the possesson of power. Sla- 
very te r^ngnoMi to the mild temper of Christianity. 

Jdveree exfvesses simple dissent or opposition ; fst- 
mieal either sn acrlroonloiis spirit or a tendency to In- 
jure; koetiU a determined resistsnce ; repngnant a d|. 
rect relation of variance. Those who are advtree to 
sny undertaking will not be likely to use the endea- 
vours which are essential to ensure hs success ; ' Only 
two soldiers were killed on the side of Cortes, and two 
oOcars with fifleen priyatcs of the iHh>er0e f)iciipn.'^ 


zMQUsa umoHxyxa. 

I who ikmm, flvoi th* Mlabttrih 
nent, are <rIm<mI to ill ftmna, Its dJKipUiM, or 111 doo- 
tfte; «God halb iboini bimtelf to be fkTOuraWe to 
Ttrtue, and inimical to viee aod gulU.*— Blaul Many 
•n to iUtMf to tlM raNgkNM cotaUWuBcat of ibeAr 
couDtry atto aim at lia ■ubveiaioD; 

TlMD wttli a aarpte vdl ioTolve your eraa, 
Lmi AMlOf fhcaa blaM lJMncilllDe.-4>ftTMii. 
The nmnbrn whieli tt Inipnwi on tiM wandartaf and 
Ueentloat imaglaatioa la r^mgnmmt to tht tmuptr of 
tbek mlnda; *Tlie tiorAtaoc jurtodictkNi of the 
(Bcoieta) eederiankd oowts wore Ibonded on mazlaM 

rnmgnmu to Jufltloe.*->BoaB«Taoii. 
Blelnie« ia a^MTM to tbe tannn 
TbedlMBakMMlB the Ckriitlaa world an mMMMl to 

I ia a^MTM to tbe tan i iroveaMm of josth. 
aa IB the Ckriitlaa world are mMM -' - 
tiie intorerta of leHgioa, aod toMi to prodwe 
a_.^.. ^ •nriwfca/lotood 


tba fbmealer of AMfO* partiaa, and 
aoMid prteipla of cWUsMdcty. 

rtf rngn m rni to every 

Mvmrti (v. wtdverM), 


Ing tamed 

atalrat ( 

over afainit, denotei elnipiy oppoeition of tftuatlon ; 
mo9r»*^ from a and vtrnu^ ■IgolfyUit turned (Vom or 
away bom, denotei an active removal or separation 
ftom. Admmr99 Is therefore as applicable to inanimate 
as to animate ol^ts, omtm only to animate objects. 
When applied to consdotis agents miwrte refers to 
matters of Opinkm and senliaMBt, mvtrw to tboae af- 
Ibcdnc our feeUogs. We are advera* to that which 
we think wrong ; * Before yon were a tyrant I was 
your (Hend, and am now no otherwise your enemy 
than every Athenian most be who Is odvtrM to your 
on.*— OcMBBRLAKD. Wc arc aMTM to that 

which oppoaes oor lacMnatloBS, omr haMts. or our in- 
terests; 'Men relinquish ancient habits rfowly, and 
with reluctance. TMy are avervt to new ezperlmenta, 
and venture upon them with timidity.*— RoaaaTsoii. 
Sectarians profess to be advtrte to me doctrines and 
dtaclpline of tbe establishment, bat the greater part of 
them are sifll more nerst to tbe wholesome restraints 
whkh it Impoiei on thelmaghiatlon. 


.^MTsssinifles tbe same as in the preeeding article ; 
mnwiUing' Bterelly signifies not willing; baekwmrd, 
having the win in a backward direction ; Uaik or Uth, 
IVom to ImO, denotes the quality of loathing; rtlue- 
taat, from the Latin re and tucta to struggle, signifies 
struggling with the wUI against a thing. 

Jlvtne Is positive, it marks an actual sentiment ol 
dislike ; unwitUiig Is negative. It marks the absence of 
the will : bmckmard is a seatlment between the two. It 
marks the leaaiag of a wiU against a thing ; Umtk and 
rtl u et mm i BMffk Strang foslings of rnvtrtimt, Jtvernon 
is an bafaitaal sentiment; umwiUingttect and backwmrd- 
«<«« are mostly oocaakmal; laaaandrsiaetanlalwaya 

Awtrgimi miHt be conquered ; wimStingm— araat 
be reoMvad; b»ckmwr4mu9 most be counteracted, or 
urged forward; UmUdng and rduetame e must be over* 
powered. One who is avsrM to study will never have 
recouTM to books; but a child may be mmwiUin£ or 
bMcktsard to altaad to his lessons ftom partial motives, 
whteh the authority of tbe parent or master may cor- 
rect; he wbo Is iMtA to receive instructioawiU always 
/emain Ignorant; he who is rsiactaal In doing bis duty 
will always do It as a task. 

A miser Is aatrM to noUilng so much aa to parting 
with Ms aMncy ; 

Of nil the race of anImakL alone. 

The bees have common cttlea of their own ; 

But (what *a uKMastranse) their modest appedtai, 

A9trtc flfom Venus, fly the nuptial rites.— Dst^ii. 
The miser Is even amwtZlla/to provide himself with 
necessaries, but he is not backward in disposing of his 
money when he haa the prospect of geuing more ; 
I part with thee, 

As wretchaa that are doubtful of herea/Ver 

Part with their lives, unwilUng^ Uatk, and fearAU, 

And trembtti^ at Aiturity.- Rowa. 
• All oMh even the most depraved, are subject nore 

the pleasures of vkse.'— Bijoa. Friends are Uad to 
part who have had aaaay years' enioymeat in each 
other's aociety ; 

E'en thus two Mends eondemn'd 

Embrace, and kiss, and take tea thousand leawL 

Laatker a hundred limes to part than die. 


One is rsJaetaaf fai giving unpleasant advice; 
From better haUtatkma spum'd, 

ReluetaaU dost thou rove, 
Or grieve for Mendahip unrstam'd^ 

Or unregarded love 1— Goummitx. 

S people are av*rt$ to labour: thoee who are not 
are 9mmiUing to work ; aod thoee who are paid 
tan others are backward hi giving their services: 
every one is loath to give up a nvourile pursuit, and 
when compelled to k by circumstances they do it with 


Avarnan denotes the quallQr of being avene (vMo 
Apcrae)- antipatkff^ In French sntmetMe, Latin amti' 
patitia, C^reek dvrtirmOclaj compounded of ^br) «aiiM(, 
and wae€ta feeling, signifies a feelbif against ; JisUke, 
compounded of the privative iU» and liAs, signlflca not 
to like or be attached to : kairadj ia German kaaa, la 
supposed by Adelung to be connected with ktist bat, 
signifying heat of temper ; re^vgnamc, In Frenchr^i^ 
MOMe. Latin r«p«(fiMiUM and ri;p«yM, compounded of 
reand pmguo, siffilflea the rc iis tame of the fesMngs to 

Avertian ia in lis most Raeral sense tte geaerkk 
term to these and many other similar eipieseluus, In 
which ease it is opposed to attachment: the former 
denoting an alienation of the mind ftom an object ; tho 
latter a knitthag or binding of the mhid to obiMts: it 
ttas, however, more commonlv a partial acceptatloo, 
in which it is justly comparable with the above words. 
jtvarnamBnd salt voMy apply more properly to tbtap : 
diaUke and katrcd to persons ; repugnemce to acti<Mii^ 
that is, such actions as one is called upon to perform. 

Jtvertion and ant^atkff seem to be less depeodeat 
on tbe will, and to have theh^ origin in the tempoiunent 
or natural taste, partteulnrty the latter, whkh springs 
from causes that are not always visible ; and lies in the 
physical organization. Aiitipatkw Is In fact a natural 
meraion opposed to sympathy : datlikc and kaired are 
on the contrary voluntaij, and seem to have their root 
In the angry passions or the heart; the former Is less 
deep-rooted than tbe latter, aod Is commonly awakened 
by sllghler causes ; rqfugnancc is not an habitual and 
lasting sentiment, like the rest ; it Is a tranritory but 
strong dislike to what one is obliged to do. 

An unfitness in the temper to harmonize with an 
object produces av«r»ion : a contrariety In tne nature 
ofpartlcaiar persons and thinn occasions antipatkies, 
although some pretend that there are no such myste- 
rious IncongmitJes In nature, and that all antipatkiea 
are but averaimis eariy engendered by the Influence of 
foar and the workings of imagination ; but under this 
supposition we are still at a loa» to account for those 
singular efltets of ftar and imagination in some persons 
wluch do notdisoovertheroselvee in others: admerence 
In the character, habits, and manners, produces dtcUke : 
Injuries, quarrels, or more commonly the Influence of 
malignant passions, occasion katrtd: a contrariety to 
erne's moral sense, or one's humours, awakens rtp^ 

People of a quiet temper have an avertUm to dls- 

Gting or argumentation ; those of a gloomy temper 
ve an averHan to society ; * 1 cannot forbear men- 
th>ning a tribe of egotists, for whom I have always had 
a oKNtal av*r»iam ; I mean the authorsof memoirs who 
are never mentioned In any works but their own.'— 
AoDisoM. J9nt^atk i es mostly discover themselves in 
eariy 1Mb, and as soon aa the oMoct comes within the 
view of the person aflbcted ; ' There is one species of 
terrour which those wtio are unwilling to suflbr tba 
reproach of cowardice have wiaely dignified with the 
name of amUpatkf. A man has indeed no dr«id of 
hann ftom aa J asa et or a wormt hut h ia aaiy ai j>|rtunia 



> fkey MpRMeh hfaa.*— JoHinoii. 
MonortfURraBtsmiiiMntoin raMgkm or poHdeks, if 
■ot of aotable temper, ere apt to contract disUket to 
•ach oUier bv ftequeat irrltatioa in dlnourae; * Srerj 
man whom buaineai or cariosity bai thrown at laife 
imo tlM world, wiU recollect many instances of foodoess 
and dislike, which have forced themselves upon him 
without the intervention of his judgement.'— Johhsom. 
Wlien men of malianant tempers come in coIUsloo, 
DothlBg b«l ft dead^ katnd can eaane Aeoi their 
repeated and complicated afgressions towards each 
other ; ' One punishment tliat attends the lylnf and 
deceitAil peraoo is tlw katrtd of all those whom lie 
either has, or would have deceived. I do not say that 
a Christian can lawfully bate any one, and yet I afflyrm 
that some may very worthilv deserve to be Aotcd.*— 
SouTB. Any one who is under the influence of a mis- 
placed pride Is apt to fbel a repn^aue to acknowledge 
himself in an errour ; * In this dilemma Aristophanes 
conquered his repugiuMce, and determined upon pre- 
senting himself on the stage for the first time In his 
Hfe.*— CumamLAiiD. 

Jivrtiona produce an anxious desire for the removal 
of the obfect ditUksd: oMtipatkiu produce the most 
violent physical revulsion of the frame, and vehement 
recoiling from the object; persons have not unfre- 

Siuently been known to (hint away at the sight of insects 
or whom this amt^aikp has been conceived: diaUkes 
too oAen betray thetasefves by distant and uncourteous 
behaviour: katred assumes every form which Is Mack 
and horrtd : rqnurnanes does not make its appearance 
until called forth by the neceasily of the occasion. 

Amerntnt will never be so strong in a well-regulated 
mind, that they cannot be overcome when their cause 
is removed, or they are found to be ill-grounded ; some- 
times they lie in a vicious temperament formed by 
nature or habit, in which ease they will not easily be 
destroyed: aslothAUman will And a dUBculty In over- 
coming his moer$um to Ubour, or an Idle man his mer- 
»i9» to steady application. JtntipMtkiet may be Indulged 
or resisted : people of irritable temperaments, partku- 
larly females, are liable to them in a roost violeot de- 
gree ; butthoee who are ftiUy persuaded of their fallacy, 
may do much by the force of conviction to diminish 
their violence. Dulikes are often groundless, or have 
their origin in triflei, owing to the influence of caprice 
or humour : people of sense will be ashamed of them, 
and the true Christian will stifle ihem in their birth, 
lest they grow into the ffurmidable passion of katred. 
which strikes at the root of all peace : being a mental 
poison that Infuses its venom into all tne sinuosities of 
the heart, and pollutes the sources of human aflbction. 
XUfngnaMce ought always to be resisted whenever It 
prevents us from doing what either reason, honour, or 
duty require. 

Jtvr$wnM are appltcable to animals as wdl as men : 
dop have a particular astrnem to beggars, most pro- 
bably from their suspicious appearanceTln certain cases 
likewise we may speak of their aai^paOies , as in the hi- 
stanceof the dog and the cat: according to the achoolroen 
ther^ existed a*W) anlipaSkUt between certain phmts 
and vegeubles; but these are not borne out by fkcts 
snfllci<mtiy strong to warrant a belief of their eilstenoe. 
Dig like and kmtred are sometimes applied to thing*, but 
In a seuse less exceptionable than In the former case: 
dislike does not express so much as mernon^ and tnar- 
aien not so much 9m katred : we ought to have a kaired 
for vice and sin, an avertian to gossipplng and Idle 
talking, and a A«lil» to the (Hvolities of foabioiiahle tt^ 

HaU has the same signification as in the precedii^ 
article ; dUtet^ from detests or ^ and (Mter, slgnifiea 
m coll to witneis against The diflbrence between 
these two words consists more in sense than appUcatk>n. 
To kaU is a personal foeling directed toward the obfect 
independently of its qualities ; to detest is a feeling 
independent of the person, and altogether dependent 
upon the nature of the thing. What one kaies, one 
kaUs commonly on one's own aceount ; what one da- 
tssts^ one dstssts on account of the object : hence It is 
that one AfliM, but not dstette, the person who has done 
•n injury to one's self; and that one detests, rather than 
AcCM, the person who has done itdnries to others. Jo- 
•eph's brethren Aafed him because M wt 
Ihan they; 

And much he AaCsd all, 

hVhMb MftrtpomML 
bat BMst the kmL-^tmm 

We detest a traitor to his country because of tlie enor 
mity of his oflboce; 

Who dams think one thlnf, and aaocherielL 
My heart datests him as tbs fates of hcIL— Pon. 

In this connexion, to kaU Is always a bad passion : 
to dstetl always laodaUe: but when both are applied 
to inantowte olifeets, to Aotsis bod or good aeoorahig 
to dftwrnetances; lo detsH always retains its good 
meaning. When men kaU thinp because they inter- 
flm with their indulgeaces. as the wicked kate the 
light, it is a bad personal fooling, as in the former case ; 
but when good men are said to A«t« that which is bad, 
it Is a laudable foelfaig justified by the nature of the ob- 
ject. As this feeling la, however, so ckisely allied to 
detretatiam^ it la neoeasary fkrther to obaerve that kats, 
whether rightly or wrongly applied, seeks the injury or 
destruction of the object ; but detest Is confined simply 
to the shunning of the object, or thinktog of it with 
very neat pain. God kmtss sin, and on that aocoont 
punishes sinners ; consclentioua men detest all fraud, 
and therefore cautloualy avoid being concened in It 


Ifat^pd, ilgnifin Jiii^rAlTy thU oC ^lat which Is apt to 
eit\iv\atf*a; ^i&us, frvai ttie Lstta fftii lo Aete, boo 
th^ nfm sefw* ml|f1i3ji[Jf. 

T}te^ rrptthPt* Arc nzip^nyA] tn iipfnud to JOCh ottfOCli 
as produce rtmng tvpr^Jifin tn ihv mfnrt ; Irnt when em- 
plov^l ■■ they fotrtmnTiiv vr hjwiti fhinfiiar sub^eeti, 
thry intllcntf^ an Ufil'rirrr»miFi^vc<hcrtvPT>rc1n tliespMkcr. 
TIji* k*iefiil is ihMi wMdi ^ennrwiv^ kats ; but the 
sditULt (« iK4l ivlskcii iixakef ua kAlr/ui tO Othen. 
H'iUfHntpmp^tiy n\tpUt^ lo whnteipr vioLetes general 
priurtislfn nf TrK<>rrdJEir' . lyinji nnd hu cnrlns are Aal«/«2 
vlfCB : odnfuj> nppH*:^! u> sn'irh thi iipp n - alTrrL thelnterestR 

ot--<h>-<^^ nt^'l hio'L' ■■•'i^^'-H. iM'HH jiLihtdual; a tax 

thiLiu L-_:a pankufnily lumJ ru..1 unfii'^'Hy i> termed 
odious; or a meaoore of government that Is thoufht 
oppressive is denominated odisus. There is something 

particularly kat^nl in the 

of crtagiag qp«o* 

Let me be deemed the U«0ii caooe of aH, 
And snfibr, rathertban ssy poople fUL— Pom. 
Ifothing brought more odkm on King James than Ma 
attempts to introduce popery ; * Projecton and Inventon 
of new taxes being kaUfal to the people, seldom foU of 
bringing odium on their master.*— DAvan^irr. 


These terms aaree in this pmtieataMr, that tliose wim 
are under tlw InAoenee of saeh feeUnvi derive a plea* 
sure from the misfortune of others; but katndf («, 
Avorsian) expresses more than smmly, (v. Eustmf,) and 
this is more dmn ai will, which signlfles merely wUHoff 
ill or evil to another. Hatred Is not contented with 
merely wtsMng ill ro others, but derives its whole hap- 

piness from their misery or ^ 

contrary is limited In its oper at ions to particular drv 
cumsUnces: katredj on the other hand, is frequently 
confined to the f(Kellng of the individual ; but MMatty 
consists as much In the action as the foellM. He wlw 
Is pomessed with kmtred Is happy when the ol^eet of 
hi" patjcinn 1^ mf«*niMr!, and is miserable when he la 
hft^ipy; h\ix [III' katfT ^>> not alwavs instrumental in 
CA I k "1 ns ?■ L? ti tf m- ry 1 1 r 'te^i roying bis happiness : he who 
is LikiTairicd vtHh tmmitw. Is more active in disturbing 
thr^ TH'aee or lits rfl#my ; i^ut ofteoer displavs his temper 
in ETiHiive thmn tn rm^rcMt maiteia. Jti will, as the 
W'lrij anv^tf%. lies oni^ I" tb« ■*■<*> a"*! is so Indeflnlta 
hi ii* »if P>(&cMimi. ihM n admits of every coooelvahia 
dt«r««. WiMii tliR wiU Is evUly directed towards 
ancjUisr, In ««r K jitiia 1 1 4 degrse, it ooBstltotes all wOi: 
Ji,i«««iir, tn LattK raittinf^ from ramseo to grow stale^ 
siffn^ryine ttttimism. mii.tlness, is a speelea of bitter. 
de' p rnotpil rrtniify ihtii Oas lain so long in the mind 
as I*' bec'inie tiuLi^rDuiflily niXMTUpL 

ffat'-f'i ki nmai^i Hi tJove : the object tn boCh eaaia 
(M'?[ip4'^ tiie thoutfEics : the forroir tonpenti tlie pQ» 
se^jm . th« J alter detlg tit* him; 



Phflmietaa Dido raki tht growing •late, 
Who fled from Tyre to ■bun bor brocber*e ksU, 


JEmmly ie oppoeed to frieikUilp; tbe obiect In both 
cases interena the paMiioui : tbe fonner the bad, and 
tbe latter the good paeiloui or tbe a^ctkNie: tbe poe- 
•eaor to In both caeei bosy either in li^uriug or for- 
waidlug tbe cauie of him who It bit enemjf or friend ; 

Tbatepaoe the evil one afaetracted alood 
From obi own evil, and for tlie time remain*d 
Stupidly good, of mmitif diearm*d.— Miltov. 

m wiUla oppoaed to good will; it ie either a general 
or a particular feeling ; it embraces many or few, a 
siittle individaa] or the whole human race : he Is least 
unhappy who bears least ill will to others ; he is most 
happy who bears true good will to all ; he is neither 
happy or unbapi^y who is not possessed of tbe one or 
tbe other ; * For your servants neither use them so 
flunlliarly as to lose your reverence at their bands, nor 
so disdabiAiily as to purchase younelf their ill wilL*— 

There is a frulher distinction between these terms ; 
that hatred and ill wiU are ofteoer the fruit of a de- 
praved mind, than tbe consequence of any external 
provocation ; tnmitff and rmuomr^ on tbe contrary, are 
mostly produced by particular drcuoMtances of offence 
or commission ; the best of men are sometimes the 
oldects of ktrti on account of their very virtiiea, 
which have been unwittingly to themselves tbe causes 
of producing this evil paanon ; good advice, however 
Idndly aiven, may probably occasion iU will In the 
mind of him who Is not disposed to receive it klndlv ; 
an angnr word or a partv contest is frequentlv the 
causes of nmitu between irritable people, and of ran- 
cour between resentful and imperious pec^e; 

Ob lasting rtauaurl oh insatiate koto. 
To Plirygla*s monarch, and the Phrygian state. 



These terms equally denote a sentiment of aversion : 
ahhor, in Latin alAtfrrw, compounded of ab from and 
korr«o to stiffen with borrour, signifies to start from, with 
a strong emotion of borrour; deleat (v. 7V*«t«,dsCe«(); 
a^«imKaf«,in Latin aAo«Miiatt(s,particinleof «*Miiii«r, 
compounded of ab from or agaiiMt. and«iimi«r to wish 
ill luck, signifles to hcrid In religious abhorrence, to 
detest in the highest possible degree ; foaO, in Saxon 
latkmj maj possibly be a variation of load, in the 
sense of overload, because it expresses the nausea 
whkb commonly attends an overloaded stomach. In 
the moral acceptation, it is a stroi^ figure of i^wech to 
mark the abhorrence and disgust which tbe right of 
ofllbnslve objects produces. 

What we abhor is repugnant to our moral fteUiupi ; 
what we det$9t contradicts our moral principle; what 

qual violenoe to our rdtgious and 
' t we loath acu upon us pbysi- 

•re abominate does 
moral sentiments ; 
caily and mentally. 

Inhumanity and cruelty are olitt^cts of abhorrmuo ; 
crimes and injustice of d e Utta ti on ; impiety and 

Cofkoenem of obomiHation; enormous oOendets of 

Tbe tender mind win «M«r what Is base and atro- 

Tbe lie that flatten I abhor the moetw— Cowns. 
The rigid moralist will dotoot every violent Infringe- 
ment on the rights of his ftUow creatures; 
This thirst of kindred blood my sons dotott. 


The conseientkNis man will a&eiiiMMts every breach 
of the Divine law; «The passion that is excited In the 
fkbleof the Sfc^k Kite Is terrour ; tbe object of which to 
the despair of him who perceives himself to be dying, 
and has reason Ie fear that hto very prayer to an abomt- 
nation,''— nAWMMnwotLTn. Tbeagonlxed mind loatho 
Che sigbtof every ofejeet which recaltoto itoreeoUeotion 
Che siAiJect of iti distress ; 

No costly lords the sumptuous bsnqneC deal. 
To make him loath hto vegetable meaL 


Bevolvlug In hto wobd tbe stem eouHMiid, 
He longs to fly, and ls«a« the channing land. 


Tbe chaste LncretiasMerrsd die pollution towMdi 
she had been exposed, and wouU have loathed the 
sight of the atrocious perpetrator: Brutus dstested tha 
oppression and tile oppressor. 

Tbe primitive idea of these terms, agreeable to their 
derivation, to that of badness in the highest degree; 
conveying by themselves the strongest signiflrsiion, 
and excluding the ne ce s si ty for every other modifyiqg 

The abominaUe thing excites aversion; the dateef- 
bio thing, hatred and revulsion; the exeerable thing, 
indignation and borrour. 

These sentlmeuts are expressed against what to 
abominable bv strong cifaculatkms, against what to do- 
teetable by animadversion and reprobation, and sgainsi 
what to esoorable by Imprecatioos and anathemas. 

In the ordinary acceputlon of these terms, they 
serve to mark a degree of excess in a very bad thing ; 
abowtinable expressing less than dotoetable^ and that 
less than execrable. Tiito gradati<m to sufficient)^ illus- 
trated Ui the following example. DIonvsius, the tyrant, 
having been informeid that a very aged woman orayed 
to the gods every day for hto preservation, and won- 
dering Uiat any of hto snbiecto snoukl be so Interested 
for hto safety. Inquired or thto woman respecting the 
motives of her conduct, to which she replied, " In my 
Infkncyl lived under an abominable prince, whose 
death I derired ; but when he perished, he was suc- 
ceeded by a detestable mant worse than himself. I 
oflbred up my vows for hto death also, which were In 
like manner answered; but we have rince had a 
worse tyrant than he. Thto ereerabte monster to 
yourself, whose life I have prayed for, lest, if it be 
possible, you should be succeeded bf one even more 

The exaggeration co n veyed by these exprpsskms has 
dven rise to their abuse in vulgar discourse, where 
Oiey are often employed indlflbrently to serve tbe hu- 
mour of the speaker ; *Thto abomme^le endeavour to 
suppress or lessen every thing that to pratoeworthy to 
as troquent among the men as among tbe women.*— 
Stbblb. * Notbtiur can atone for the want of m<h 
desty, without which beauty to ungracefril, and wit 
delestaftic*— Stbblb. 

All vote to leave that oxeorable shore, 
Polluted with tbebkiod of Polydore.— Detdbm. 


JBrovs, from the epithet brave (v. Brave), signifies to 
act the brave; defy^ hi French d^fUr, is probably 
chanted from defaire to undo, stonimng to make 
nothing or set at nought ; dare^ in Saxon dMrroa, 
dfrran^ Franconlan, ^c odwrren^ thorrtn, Greek 
Odppuv^ signifles to be bohl, or have the confidence to 
do a thing; ehaUonge to probably changed from the 
Greek koXIw to calf 

We^ovtf thhigs; we dare and ekaUenge persons; 
sons or tbdr actions: tbe saik»r ^ovm the 

wed^t , 

tempestuous ocean, and very often braoee death itself 
hi its most terriflck form; he dare* tbe enemy whom be 
meets lo the engagement; he d^fse aU hto bossthifi 
and vahi threats. 

Brane to somethnes used hi a bad sense; defy and 
dors commonly so. There to much fcUstfontempt and 
allteted indifference in braving; much Insolent re- 
slstaoce to authority In defying ; much provocatloa 
end afllhrnt In daring : a bad man braveo the scorn 
and reproach of all the world ; he d^ieo tbe threato of 
hto superloors to puntoh him; be daree them to exeit 
their power over him. 

Brave and defo are dtopesHlons of mind which dis- 
play themselves In the conduct; dare and chaiUnra 
are modes of action ; we brave a storm by meeting its 
violence, and bearing it down with miperlour force: we 
defy the malice of our enemies by pursuing that line of 
conduct which to most caknlated to increase Ito Mtter- 

• Vide Abbe Rouband*i Bynonyroes : ** Abomloabte, 
detestable, exeerable.'' 



MBS. 1V> hmvi^ eonvfjn the Idet of a dhect and pei^ 
•onal applicatkm of fbrce to force ; doping It carried 
on by a more indirect and circuitous mode of proce- 
dure: men krtme the dancera which threaten them 
with evil, aud in a flgurative application tUnfti are 
aaid to brave resistance ; ' Joining in prupo- union the 
amiable and the estimable qualities ^ one part of our 
character we shall resemble tlie flower that smiles in 
spring; in another the firmly-rooted tree, Ihat^avss 
the winter storm.'— Blaul Men d^ the angry win 
which opposes them ; 

The soul, secar'd In her existence, smlka 

At the drawn dagger, and d^fUt its point.— Addisom. 

To dors and ekaU«ng« are both direct and perscmal ; 
bttt the former consists either of actions, words, or looks ; 
the latter of words only. We dar^ a number of per- 
sons indefinitely ; we ekalUnge an individual, and very 
frequently by name. 

Daring arises from our contempt of others; ekal- 
lengiMg arises ttom a high opinion of ourselves : the 
fbrmer is mostly accompanied with unbecoming ex- 
pressions of disrespect as well as aggravation; the 
lauer is mostly divested of all angry personality. Me- 
tlitt the Tuscan dared Titus Manllus Torquatos, the 
•on of the Roman consul, to engage with him In eon- 
tradiction to his fiither's commands. Paris was per- 
suaded to ekaUenge Menelaus in order to terminate the 
Grecian war. 

We dare only to acts of violence : we ekattngt to 
any kind of contest In which the skill or power of the 
parties are to be tried. It is folly to dare one of supe- 
rinor strength If we are not prepared to meet with the 
just reward of our impertinence ; 

Troy sunk in flames I saw (nor eouU prevent), 
And Ilium from its old foundations rent- 
Rent like a mountain ash, which dar*d the winds, 
And stood the sturdy strokes of lab'rlng hinds. 

Whoever has a confidence in the Justice of his cause, 
needs not fear to challenge his opponent to a trial of 
their respective merits ; * The Platoe and Ciceros 
among the ancients ; the Bacons, Bovles, and Loekea, 
among our own countrymen, are all instances of what 
] have been saying, namely, that the greatest persons in 
all ages have conformed to the established reUglon of 
their country ; not to mention any of the divines, how- 
ever celebrated, since oar adversaries ekaUenge all 
those as men who have too much interest in th& case 
to be Impartial evidences.*— Budoell. 


Britrem iiennf«i tiiv- mv^Hioct quality of frroee, 
wbicli throu^ me nolltmi of trie northern languages 
eonm frtim LbaGieA ^pa^tlur the reward of vktory ; 
€4^itntt9^ in t^reneh mttri^ty frvoi eaifr. In Latin ear 
the hcttrtt which ^ the seat of eamrage; valour, In 
Fr«icli »mltnr^ Latin «4i4«r, fnrm valeo to be strong, 
stgnlfiA lijf dIsCinelinn flr^n^h of mind ; gaUantrv, 
from tits Gretk ara^Xai to aikiVii or make distingulshoi 

/j^fl^^rt/ M.=* 1., tf... :j,,^i - .-rallies In the mind : 
tile l:i[V:r J .._ ._^ -_^ ...^ aw-^n; the former on the 
physical temperament : the first Is a species of instinct : 
the second Is a virtue : a man Is brave In proportion as 
he Is without thought ; he has courage in proportion 
as he reasons or reflects. 

Bravery seems to be something Involuntary, a me- 
chanical movement that does not depend on one's self; 
eourofe requires conviction, and nthers strength try 
delay ; It Is a noble and lofty sentiment : the force of 
example, the charms of musick, the Airy and tnmult of 
banks, the de^peratkn of the conflict, will make 
cowards brave ; the eonrageou* man wants no other 
incentives than what his own mind suggests. 

Braverf is of uUllty only In the hour of attack or 
contest ; courage is of service at all times and under 
all circumstances : braeery Is of avail in overcoming 
the obstacle of the qnoment ; courage seeks to avert the 
distant evil that may possibly arrive. Bravery is a 
thing of the moment that is or is not, as circurostancea 
may favour ; It varies with the time and season : courage 
exists at all times and on aU occasloDs. The brme 

man who fearlessly mahei to the moafh of the eannon 
may tremble at his own shadow as he passes through a 
churchyard or turn pale at the sight of blood : the 
courageoue man smiles at imaginary dangers, and pre- 
pares to meet those that are real. 

It Is as possible for a man to have eourago without 
bruoory. as to have branory without courage : Cicero 
betrayed his want of *rev«r|r when be sought to shelter 
hisonlf agalnM the attacks of CataUne ; he displayed 
hIscMrsi's when he laid open the treasonable purposes 
of this conspirator to the whole senate, and charged 
him to his (kee with the crimes of whkhheknew him 
to be ffuUty. 

Valour is a higher quality than either bravory or 
courage, and seems to partake of the grand charaaer- 
Isticksor both ; It combines the fire of bravery with the 
delerminatioa and firmness of courage : bruvory is 
most fitted for the sohlier and all who receive orders ; 
courage Is most adapted for the general and all who 
give commands ; valour for the leader and framer of 
enterprises, and aU who carry great projects huo exe- 
cution: bruvory requires to be guided; courage la 
equally fitted to command or obey ; valour directs and 
executes. Bravory has most relation to danger; 
courage and valour include in them a particular re- 
ference to action : the brave man exposes himsdf ; the 
courageouo man advances to the scene of acticm which 
Is before him ; the vaUant man seeks for occasioot 
to act. 

Courage may be exercised hi ordinary cases; vaJofur 

iplaysltselfii ^ *" ' 


r most efibctually in the achievement of 

heroic exploiu. A consciousness of duty, a love of 
one's country, a zeal for the cause in which one is en- 
gaged, an ovet^ruling sense of religion, the dictates of 
a pure conscience, slways Inspire courage : an ardent 
thiisl for gfory, and an taisaUable ambition, render men 

The bravo man, when he Is wounded. Is proud of 
being so, and boasts of bis wounds ; the courageous 
man collects the strength which his wounds have left 
Mm, to pursue the object which he has in view ; the 
valiant man thinks less of the Ufe he is about to kiee, 
than of the glory which has escaped hUn. The bruva 
man, In the hour of victory, exults and triumphs : he 
discovers his joy in boisterous war shouts. 'Tbe cou- 
rageou* man forgets his success in order to profit by its 
advantages. The vaUant man Is stimulated by si 

to seek after new trophies. Bravory sinks after a 
defeat : courage may be damped for a moment, but Is 
never destroyed ; it Is ever ready to seize the first 0|h 
portunlty which ot^n to regahi the lost advantage : 
valour, when defeated on any occasion, seeks another 
in which more gfory is to be acquired. 

The three hundred Spartans who defonded th« 
Straits of Thermopyls were brmee; 

This brave man, with long resistance, 
HeM the combat doubtful.— Rows. 

Socrates drinking the hemlock. Regulus returning to 
Carthage, Titus tearing himself ftom the arms of the 
weepinc Berenice, Alfted the Great going Into the 
camp of the Danes, were courageouo ; 

"Oh ! When I see him arming for his honour, 
His country, and his gods, that martial fire 
That mounu his courage^ kindles even me. 


Hercules destrmring monsters, Fersens delivering An 
dromeda, Achilles running to the ramparts of Troy, 
and the knights of more modem date who have gone 
In quest of extraordinary adventures, are all entitled to 
the peculiar appellation of vaUunt ; 

True valour, friends, on virtue founded strong. 
Meets all events alike.— Mallbtt. 

OaUantry Is extraordinarv broivory, or Ironory oo 
extraordinary occasions, "rhe brave man goes wUl- 
Inrly where he is commanded ; the gallant man leads 
on with vigour to the attack. Bravery is common to 
vast numbers and whole nations ; gallantry is peculiar 
to individuals or particular bodies : the brave mar. 
bravely defends the poet assigned him ; the gallant 
man volunteers his services in cases of peculiar dan- 

Kr; a man may feel ashamed in not being consMered 
ave : he feels a pride In being looked upon as gaUmnU 
To call A hero brmo adds little or notliing to his cha. 



; 'The lr«M 
voce.*— Wn^MO 

Bot to entitto htan # «llMi 
glory b« tmt aequired ; 

Death to tbe wont ; a fkle wbkh all miwt try, 
And for our country *t ia a MIm to die. 
The gaUmu aao, though alaia In fight he he, 
Tai laavaa hie natioB laft, Ui chiMrM Ikve. 

We cannot apeak of a Britiib tar without 
of bravtrt; ofbiB ezplolte without thinking of gi 


CkwrMM$dMUk» theMmeaatntbepneedlngartt- 
ele; for5tud*. In French f0HUudt^ Latin fwrtUmd*, is 
tlM abetract noun flrom f^rtU ttroof ; r Ma m mtu n^ th>m 
<he verb ru9l90, mark* the habit of retplwhtg, 

Cmrf reqwcta actkm, f0ftHmd$ teqMda paadon: 
a man tm tvmtf to nwel danger, and/ntUuif to 
endure pain. 

Cumgt la that power of the miod which beart vp 
^aioM the evU that ie in promct; /ortiiiMb is that 
power which endnree the pain that to felt: the man of 
cearef e goes with the same ooolnen to the mouth of 
Ihe cannon, as the man of /erdrcai* underfoes the am- 
putatioo of a limb. 

Hofathi« Oocles dtoplayed hto Mwraff faideltodtag a 
bridge againat the whole army of the Etmecaos 

Calue Mucins dtoplayed ' -^ 

thrust hto hand into the 

yed no less fvrtitmU when he 
the fire in the presence of King 
him as much 1^ hto language as 

his aetton. 

Qrara^ seeoM to be more of a manly Tirtae ; /#rf^ 
fit to more dtotlngutobable as a feminine Tirtne : the 
ftrmer to at least most adapted to the male sex, who 
are called upon to act, and the latter to ftmalea, who 
are obHgcd to endure : a roan without cawrtf would 
be as 111 prqpared to discharge hto dutr in hto ialer- 
loourse with the wortd, as a woman without ftrUtmdM 
<would be to support herself under the complicated 
Arlatoof body and mind with which she to Uable to be 

We can make no pre te nsion s to cmiragt unless we 
-est aside every perscmal consMeration in the conduct 
we siMMild puraoe; * What can be more honourable 
(than to have sntrmf enough to eiecute the commands 
of reason and consdenoe t'^CoLLita. We cannot 
iboastof/ertttaitfwbere the sense of pain provokes a 
jnnmrar or any token of impatience: stooe Ulb to a 
xhequered scene, In which the prospect of one evil to 
jnoet eosunonly succeeded hy the actual ezto«ence of 
another. It to a nappy endowment to be able to ascend 
Ahe scaffold with fortUmd^t or to mount the breach 
4vlthcMtra/« as occasion may require ; 

With wonted fortitude she bore the smart. 

And not a groan cooftm'd her burning heart— Qat. 

•Reioivtltn to a minor species of towngt; It to 
tfi&mrage in the minor concerns of life : eeurs^s eompre- 
Jiends under It a spirit to advance ; ruolmt*on simply 
jnarks the will not to recede : we require cpurmge to 
•bear down all the obstacles which oppose themselves 
to us ; we require reoolution not to Vield to the Aist 
<di(llcultles that odfer : emwagt to an elevaled ' ' 
the human character which adorns the i 
retmlmtion to that coavnon quality of the mind which 
Js in perpetual reouest; the want of which degrades a 
man in the eyes of hto fellow-creaturss. Gmctsm com- 
prehends the absence of all fear, the disroaard of all 
personal convenience, the spirit to begin and the deter- 
jniiialtoa to pome what has been begun ; reaolmtiem 
consists of no more than the last quaoty of eears^ 
which respects the persistance In a conduct; 'The 
unusiiBl extension of my muscles on thto occasion 
made my (tee ache to such a degree, that nothing but 
an InvlnciMe melutitn and peneverance could nive 
prevented roe from falling back to my monosyHaMes.*— 
Addiion. Cowof to dtoplayed on the roost trying 
.occasions ; rttolntion to never put to any severe test; 
xnurtLg€ always supposes some danger to be encoun- 
tored ; ruolutimt may be exerted in merely encounter- 
ing oppositton and dliRcnhy : we have need of eoutmgt 
In opposing a formidable enemy ; we have need of 
4ii»sla£i9a Id tbe oanagiSBeat of a Muhbom wUL 


Jtmdseitft from 
■tin mmda* and 

rnudto to data, sfgnlfles Biferally tha 
quality of darlnc ; ^ratsry, compounded of ^, sa, or 
m, and >Vwn« a nee, stgnifles the standing Ihce to fhce; 
k^ r d ikw d or Aardtfasstf , fton AarAr or kird, slpilfles a 
capodiv to ;endure or stand the arant of dimcalties, 
opporfthm, or shame; Isfdwsss, IVom Md. In Saxoo 
i^aM, tola aB prohabUity changed flon baUL that to, 
uncovered, open-Arooted, without ittogiitoi', which art 
the characteitotkks of Mdacss. 

The Idea of dtoregarding what others regard to eoa»> 
mea to all these teram. . i a d swia wp liiiss amre than 
sfVwBlsrf : the first has asmsthlBg of vihiinee or 
d efianc e in it; the latier thai af eool ineeneeni: 

moreof detenDlnafioB,aad the seoead'moreof splitt 
and en t rn pr toe. JhUmeiig and ^frsa f sra are al w ega 
taken in a bad ssmo : AarM^S hi an iadifibrsM, V 
not a bad ssaas ; Mdasssl«ageod,beri,orfaidiAreat' 

• jtrndteiiff marha haaghttaem and leiasiltf 
knowledge withootJttiMce ought to be called 


rather than wtodom, so a miad prepared to meet danger, 
if excited by its own sege m ses and aot the BubBck 
food, deserves tiM name of sa rf a cii y rather man of 
fortiiude.*— Sthlb. M^firmUtrf to the want of al 
modesty, a totatsba ai elesenc a s; ^ I coald never fw bear 
to wish that while vtea to every day multlplykm 
sedoeeaMots, and stalking forth with more hardensl 
^ f raa f w f , virtue woald not withdraw the faifiueac e of 
her preeence.*— Jonaoii. g ai d i >«d iodleatosa firm 
resolution to meet consequences ; *I do not find any 
one so Aar^ at present as to deny that there are very 
great advaafagm hi the enjoyment of a plentinil for- 
tuBe.*->Boo«aLk Br fdaw denotea a spirit to com- 
mence aetfoo, or in a lem Ihvonrable s 

in one*s speech ; * A bold tongue and a 
e the qnallAeatioM of Draaees la V irgU.* 

Aa mdMeinu man speaks with a loftr 

tone, without respect and without refiection; Ma- 
haughty demeaaour makes hha forget what to due to 
htosuperiours. l / rsa tw y discove rs itself by aa t 
lent air ; a total uncoooem fbr tlie oplnioae of tl 
preeeat, and a dtoregard of aU the fbrms of dvtt so- 
cietr. A hmrdm man speaka with a 
which seems to brave the utaMst evil I 
flom what be says. A Mid man speaks without re- 
serve, undaunted by the qualKy, rank, or haaghllMea 
of thoee whom he addressss ; 

Bold In theeoondl boasd, 
Bat cantkms to the fiehl, he sbann'd the sword. 


It rsqulres aalsWly to assert (Use datans, or vindi- 
cate a lawlcn conduct In the prseenoeof a c eu eer s aad 
judges ; it requiree ^^wilsry to aek a Ibvour of tiM 
man whom one has bassly injured, or to essume a 
placid unconcerned air in the presence of those by 
Whom one has been oonvieted of flagrant atrocities ; 
It requires hsrdikood to assert as a positive fkct what 
to dubious or suspected tobe fUse; It requires Mdntoo 
to maintain the truth In spito of every da nger wMi 
which one to threatened, or to assert one's dahns in 
the presence of one's superlours. 

Jmdoeitg makes a man to be hated; butittoaol 
always such a base metal hi the esti m atio n of tha 

orld as It ought to be; it fVequently 

for »eldaM« when k to practissd with socoess. JMrsn- 
tmrf makes a man despised ; It to of too atoaa and vul- 
gar a stamp to meet with fraeralsanctloa: ittoo 
to all but those by whom it to piasilsed, as It i 
run counter to every principle and feeling of c 
honesty. ^ardOMd to a die on which a mai 
hto character for veracity: it serves the purpoee of 
disputanii, and fVequently brlnas a bmui through dUi- 
culties wMcb, with more deliberation and cauttoa, 
might have proved hto ruin. Boldneoo makes a man 
untveraally respected though not always betoved : a 
hold roan to a particular favourite with the (Ur sol 
lidlty pssses for folly, and ^eUasss or 

with whom thnidlty pssses for folly, 
course for great talent or aflne spirit. 
Audoeit^ to the charactertoUck of rebeto; ^fVwilwy 

«VideOlrai4: «* BardiMK, audace, eftontaito.** 



Hat of ?aidM ; k sriik m il to ■enrfceabtetoigpttemen 
9f tlM bar; hMtM9 li tndi t penwbld In every great 

Dming telflee bavkiff the eplrit to iforf ; bM 
hm the teme elgiiiflcatioD a* given under the head of 

These terme naj be both taken la a bad sene; bat 
dcrui^ much oftener than Md. In either case darAif 
uprcflna much more than bvU: he who It imrimg 
pmnAm reeietance, and courts danger; but the bold 
man is contented to overcome the reslstanee that la 
oflbed to hhn. A man mav be bold In the use of 
words only ; he most be daring In actloiw : a man Is 
bold In the defence of truth : *Boldnos» is the power 
to nealc or to do what we Intend without fear or dls- 
otder.*— Locks. A man is dern^ la military enter- 
prise ; 
Too dertag prince ! ahl whither doet thoo ran, 
Ah! too forsetna of thy wife and son.— Pora. 


8tmm9n»f i» Latin strMMnu, from the Oredt 
rmnbf undaunted, untamed, ftom yw i ^ sw to be witb- 
MtaUrehioreootrol; *#M. •• -*«da«^. ,^ ^ ,_^ 

atremmomt expresses much more than bold; boUmoto 
to a praaioent Idea, but it to only one Idea which 
enters into the signiflralioa of otromuunoio ; it com- 
bines Ukewtoe fearleanes% aeUvity, and ardour. An 
advocate in a cause may be flrsmMitf, or merely bold: 
In the former case be omits nothing that can be either 
said or done In fevour of the cause, he to always on 

the alert, he heeds no dlAcultles or danaer; but in the 

he only dtoplays hto spirit in the ui 
dedaratioB of hto seal 

latter case he 

dtoplays hto spirit in the undtogutoed 

Strtm»ouo supporters 


of uty opioion are always strongly coavinced of the 
truth of that which they support, and warmly Im- 
nrassed with a aenas ofitB imoortance; «WhUe the 

good weather continued, I suoUed about the country^ 
and made many otrommomo attempU to run awa/fram 
thto odious giddiness.'— Bbattib. But the bold sup- 
porter of an oplokm may be Impelled rather with the 
de^of abowlng hto MAieas than maintaining hto 

Fbrtnae befriends the Md^-DKYi 

Jinut f^HB the Latin mnuk, to now properly ased 
for iasiroments of oAnee, and never otherwise except 
Iqr a poeddc license of ersu for armour; butwsMMU, 
fhim the German va/m. may be used either for an 
instrument of oflbnce or defence. We sav lire anas, 
bat not Ore wo^ipono ; and loenono offensive or defen- 
sivet not ormo offensive or defensive, jtrwu likewise, 
agreeably to lt»orlglo, to eosployed for whatever to in- 
tentlonaUy made as an Instnunent of offence : woaponj 
according to Its ex te nded and Indefinite applicatioa, to 
empioyei for whatever may be accidentauy used for 
thto purpose: guns and swonto are always arsu; 

Louder, and yet more load, I hear th* alanna 
Of haman eiies dlsHnet and clashing arau. 


Btooea, and brtokHt*i ^^ pUehfbrki, may be ooea- 
ifonally »«^peM« ; 

The ery of Talbot serves om for a iwoid ; 
For I have loaded me whh many spolto^ 
Vslog no other wsapea than hto name. 



An arsqr to as organised bo^ of anasd men; a 

hoot, from bMtio an enemy, to properly a body of 

No more applause would on anbittoB wait, 
And laying waste the work! be counted cent; 
But one goodnatured act more praises gain. 
Than ana»M overthrown and thousands slain. 

Hoot has been extended in its appUeatkm aocealy i» 
bodtos, whether of men or angsto, that were assembled 
finr purposes of cffence, bat atoo in the iguiatlva seBsa- 
to whatever rises up to assail; 

He it was whose guile, 
Bcirr'd op with envy and revenge, deoeiv*d 
The mother of mankind, what thne hto pride 
Had cast hhn out of hsav'a with aU hto Am< 
Of rebel angslSd— Bf ilton. 
Tel trae It Is, survey we life around, 
Whole A^sto of ilto on every side are found . 



JBcttIt, in Vtmeh bmtmiUo, cornea from the L«li» 
latae, Hebrew l\2Jf to twist, signlfyinf a beating; 
eombit^ from the French eowtbrnUtOt 1. e. cmi or eum 
together, and battro to beat or figfat, signifies literally 
a battU one with the other; onf agemoiU signifies the 
act of being engaged or oecupiea In a contest. 

• ilatcl«H a general action requiring some prepara- 
tkm : eowtbui to only partleutor. and sometimes unex- 
pected. Thus the action whkn took place between 
the Carthaginians and the Romans, or Cvsar and 
Pompey, were ^afttot; but the actkm In which the 
Horatil and the Ourlatlt, decided the fate of Rome, 
as also many of the actions In whkh Hercules waa 
engaged, were eombau. The baiUe of Almanza was 
a decisive action between Philip of France and Charles 
of Austria, In their contest for the throne of Spain , 
in the combat between Menelaua and Paris, Homer 
very artfully describes the seasonable interference of 
Venus to save her fkvourite fh>m destruction ; ' The 
most curious reason of all (for the wager of battU) to 
given in the Bflrror, that It to aOowaMe upon warrant 
of the cowibat between David fbr thepeople of Israel 
of the one party, and GoUath for the PhiUstines of the 
<Mher party.'— BLAOKSTona. 

The word combot has more relation to the act of 
fighting than that of ^«Ml«, which to used with mora 
propriety simply to denominate the actkm. Inthe^auto 
between the Romans and Pyrrhus, King of Epinis^ 
the eombai was obstiaate and btoody ; the Romana 
seven times repulsed the enemy, and were as often re- 
pirised in thdr turn. In thto latter sense tngogemout 
and eomiot are analogous, but the former has a specifick 
relatton to the agents and parties ongofod, which to 
not Implied In the latter term. We speak of a person 
being preeent In an MLfaMMil; woonded In an «f 
gogomomt ; or having fougat desperately la an omgmgo- 
moiU: on the other hand'; to otkgmgo te a emokot; to 
challenge to single t^mhot: fmkaU are someiimea 
begun ny the aceldeatal meeting of avowed oppo- 
aents ; in such onmogommUa nothing to tbooght of bul 
tbsgratlAeatkm of revenge. 
Batiloo are fbught between armies only ; they are 

ShMdorlost: oowtbotoon eme r ed into between in- 
riduals, whether of the broie or human species, hi 
whkh they ssek to destroy or excel: omgogomomto m 
ooafiaed to no paiticalar me mb e r , only to such aa art 
omgagod: a general tngagomemt to sahl of an army 
when the whoto body to SN^Med; partial omgagomntt 
respect only anch as are fought by bhwII partlee or 
companies of an army. History to mostly occupied 

Where darknem and surprise made conquest cheap. 

Inthehlstoryof theOreeks and Romans, we have like- 
wise an account of the eesi*al« between men and wikl 
beasts, which Ibrmed their principal amusement ; 

An onnyto a limited body; a AMt may be unlimited, 
and to tbenfore generally considered a very large 

tte word araw apDltos only to that whkh has been 
formed bf the ratos of art for porpoan of war i 

HeM the oomkmt doubtf^— Rows. 

It to reported of the German women, that whenever 
their husbands went to bottle they osed to go Into th# 
thkkart of the Msi^ai to carry them pcovlsloBa ordrait 




thdr wouBdi; ind that MUMtiinM tbejr wouU take 
part in tbe enfogement; 'Tlw £roperor of Morocco 
commaiided hk principal offlcov, that if he died during 
the tnffagfmmttf they ifaould conceal his death Aroni 
the army.*— AsDuoM. The word etn^ul ta lUcewiee 
aometimee taken in a nwral application ; 'The rela- 
tion of event! becomei a moral lecture, when the 
e0mbat of hoAOur is rewanled with Tirtne.'— Hawksb- 



GM^Uct, in Latin Miiflwfaw, participle of ctnJUgo 
compounded of cvm and fUf^ in Greek ^Xf^ iBoTic 
for fkl^tt to flip or ttrike, signifies to strike against 
each other. This term is allied to combat and con/Uct 
In ttM sense of striving for the superiority ; but tliey 
difler both in the manner and spirit of ttie action. 

A c«i^UU lias more of vlolenoe in it than a eomhoL, 
and a comk^ than a ctmtett. 

A eoiiMiet and amhat. in the proper sense, are always 
attended with a personal attack ; cmtCsst consists mostly 
of n striving for porre crmninoii objrct. 

A £.;ji/i^t Jt^ lEii^fiiy >jiiif!uiiiary and desperate, it 
ariiK-i fiMin ti]<- urLdJ^ciplieieil ttpcraiionsof the badpaa- 
iJuiii^ a^li^lb^J«ny. Bud lifuLaJ ra«;L'; It seldom ends hi 
auy thiug l>Lji il«»micttMii : r custbuf Is often a matter 
of art And ii uial of ybiili ; k m&y be obstinate and last- 
in;;, ihuuih niu driMiaf 1r(un 4Jiy [K'rsoual resentment, 
aiul iDi^ALly terminates vthh the irdunph of one 
ai>4 tjiv dtlfini o( ihtt otl'tPf : h cifTittst is Intereste 
pf!:f9:iniiJ ; tioi^y otWn j^lit f be lu iijigry and even ma- 
llgaant AtnrlniRDts, but ia dqi ti^fiesurily associated 
wLih any bnd pajt^km \ Li «iids iu ilie advancement of 
€[if lit the injury cif thi^ atJicf. 

Tlje li^n, tiMs ti^«'f . kkiI oUiiiTrbcaiPt^oftlie forest, hare 
drcOiir^iiL wi^cts wbvnfivcr Ui«y nu'et; which seldom 
lermLoa^ but in the tlvalh of r/tae If not both of the 
: jt wimld N; wH( if irieuseof the word 
... a«Dnfln4^ t^>iZtulrri»M>:iiin] \uivi <<f the creation; but 
iheri iUkVii h&vn want amd part>' broils among men, 
which have occasioned cei^/Ucl« the moat horrible ana 
destructive that can be conceived ; 

It is my ftuher*s fhce. 
Whom In this em^Uet^ I unawares have kili'd. 


That cmhtUt have been mere trials of sldll is evinced 
by the comkau in the ancient games of the Greeks and 
Romans, as also in the jusu and tournaments of latCT 
date ; but In all applications of the term, it Implies a 
set en^agtimmU between two or more paxticular indi- 

Elsewhere he saw, where TroUus defied 
Achilles, an unequal evmhut Uled.—DaTDBN. 
CtnfaU are as varkNis as the pursuits and wishes of 
men : whatever is an object of desire for two parties 

nes the ground of a contut ; ambition, interest, 
and party-seal are always busy in (Umishing men with 
objects for a conUtt ; on the same around, the attain- 
ment of victory In a battle, or of any subordinate 
point during an engagement, become the object of e«m' 
u»t: * When the ships grappled together, and the con- 
U»t became OMKe steady and furioua, the example of 
the King and so many gallant nobles, who accompa- 
nied him, animated to such a degree the seamen and 
soldiers, that they maintained every where a superl- 
ority.'— Hums. 

In a figurative sense these terms are applied to the 
movements of the mind, the elements or whatever 
seems to oppose itself to another thing, in which sense 
they preserve tbe same analogy : vfc)lsnt passions have 
their emiJUef; ordinary desires their eombaU; mo- 
Uves their eonUsU : it Is tha poet'i part to describe the 
conJUei§ between pride and passion, rage and despair, 
in the breast of the disappohited lover ; • Happy Is the 
man who in the c«icCk( of desire between God and the 

1 oppose not only argument to argument but 
pleasure to pleasure.*— Blaui. Reason will seldom 
come oiT vIctorkNis in its tomhtt with arobitton. ava- 
rice, a k>ve of pleasure, or any predominant desire, 
unless aided by religion ; * The noble eomhel that, 'twixt 
Joy and sorrow, was fought In Paulina ! She had one 
eye declined for the loss of her husband, another ele- 
▼ated that the oracle was fiilfllled.*— SnAKSPBAaa. 
Where there is a conutt between the desire of foUow- 

ing one's will and a sense of propriet v, tbe voice of « 
prudent friend may be heard and heeded ; * Soon after- 
ward the death of the king fliniished a general subject 
for poetical MiU««t.'— Johnsor. 

Onfront^ from the Latin froiit a forehead, impliea 
to set /cm to face; and /ac«, from tlie noun/ae«, signi- 
fies to set the fact towards any object. The former of 
these terms is al wavs employed for two or more perw>ns 
with regard to each other ; the latter for a single Indi- 
vidual with regard to objects in generaL 

Witnesses are cM0viiied ; a person faces danger, or 
facta an enemy . when people give contrary evidence 
it is sometimes neccssaiy, in extra-judicial matters, to 
cat^frant them, In order to arrive at tbe truth ; 
Whereto serves mercy. 
But to eai^front the visage of ofi!ence ? 

The best test which a man can give of his courage, is 
to evince his readiness for facing bis enemy whenever 
the occasion requhres ; 

The rev'rend charioteer directs the course, 
And strains bis aged ann to lash the horse : 
Hector they face ; unknowing how to fear, 
Fierce he drove on.— Fopb. 


Bsaf, in Prenc)i haitre^ Latin hutuay comes fiiom the 
Hefaxew kabat to beat; Strike^ in Saxon ctn'can, Da- 
nish atricker^ tec. from the Latin atrietuMy participle 
of atringo to brush or sweep along, signifies literally to 
pass one thing along the surftice of another; 4it, In 
Latin ietua. participle of ie«, comes from tbe Hebrew 
naeat to strike. 

To beat Is to redouble Uo%vb; to atrike Is to give one 
single Mow ; but the bare touching in consequence of 
an eflbrt constitutes kitting. We never beat but with 
design, nor kit without an aim, but we may strike by 
accident. It is the pari of tiie strong to beat ; of tbe 
most vehement to atriha; of the most sure sighted to 

Notwithstanding tbe declamations of phiknophers as 
they are pleased to style themselves, the practice of 
beating cannot altogether be discarded from tlie mill, 
tary or scholastick discipline. Tbe master who alrikea 
his pupil hastily is oftener impelled by the force of pas- 
sion than of convktion. Hitting is the object and de- 
light of the marksman ; it is the utmost exertion of his 
skill to kit the exact point at which be aiuia. In an ex- 
tended application of these terais, heating Is, for the 
roost part, an act of passion, either from anger or sor- 

Young Sylvia beata her breast, and cries aloud 

For succour from the clownish neighbourhood, 

Striking Is an act of declston, as to atrika a btow ; 
Send thy arrows forth. 

Strike^ atrika these tyrants and avenge my tears. 


Hitting Is an act of design, as to kit a mark ; * No man 
b thought to become vkious by sacrificing the life of 
an animal to tbe jAeaaunoi kitting a mark. Jt is how- 
evercertain that by this act more happineas ia destroyed 
than produced.'— Hawbbsworth. 

Shw probably derives the meaning in which It ia 
here taken from the action of the wind, which it re- 
sembles when it is violent; atroke^ from the word 
atrikcy denotes the act of striking. 

Blow is used abstractedly to denote the efiTect of vio- 
lence ; atraka Is empk)yed relatively to the person pro- 
ducing that effect A blow may be received by the 
carelessness of the receiver, or by a pure accident ; 
' Tbe advance of the human mind towards any object 
of laudable pursuit may be compared to the progress 
of a body driven by a ftlow.*— Johhson. Streku are 
dealt out according to the design of the giver ; * Pene- 
trated to the heart with tbe recollection of his beha- 
viour, and the unmerited pardon he bad met with, 
Thrasyppus was proceeding to execute vengeance on 
himself; by rushing on his sword, when Pisistratus 
again interposed, and seizing bis band, stopped the 



«er#ftii'— CtntntlAin». CbD4reii mre alwmvt in tbe 
%r«y of gettliig kUwt in the coane of their play ; and 

of receiving strikes by wav of chattitement. 

A ft(a« may be civen with the hand, or with any DKi 
■ubMutce ; a stroks if ratlier a long drawn kUm giveo 

with a long inatrument, lilie a Mick. Blow* mav be 
given with the flat part of a iword, and ttrok** with a 

Blow if feidom ueed but In the proper tenee; ttrolu 
auoietlnief figuratively, af a strokt of death, or a ftroke 
of fortune: *Tbi8 declaration wu a »trok» which 
Evander had neither fldll to elude, nor force to lerift.* 



HMt Is here figuratively empkiyed in the aenfeof the 
former fection i dtftmt^ nom the French d^fmre^ im- 
pllefl to undo ; overpower^ to have the power over any 
one ; rmmt, from the French mottre tm daroute if to turn 
from one's route, and ovorikrmo to throw over or up* 
side down. 

B—t respects personal contests b et ween Individuals 
or parties ; dff«^ roniy es <i/ # i PT, and sofrtikrfw, are 
employed mosdy tm contests between numbers. A 
general Is he^Un in important engagements : he Is df- 
/Mlsd and may be rfnTcif In partial attacks ; he is ev«r> 
powrroi by numbers, and •vfrfibwn in set engage- 
ments. The English pride themselves on hotting their 
enemies by land as well as by sea. whenever they come 
to fair engagements, but the English are sometimes 4e- 
fomtod when they make too desperate attempts, and 
sometimes they are In danger of being overwowertd : 
thev have scaicely ever been romJUd or ovortkrown. 

To bemt is an indefinite term expressive of no parti- 
calar degree: the being hoaUm may be attended with 
neater or less damage. To be i^ooUi, is a specifick 
disadvantage, it is a fUlure In a partkular oi^ect of 
more or less importance. To be Mrcrf«w«rp4 is a posi- 
tive kMs; it is a kiss of the power of acting which may 
be of tonier or shorter duratkin : to be routed is a tem- 
porary dUudvantage ; a royA alters the rrato or course 
but does 

of proeeedinf , but does not disable : to be ovortkrown is 
the grearest of all mischieh, and is applicable only to 
great armies and great concerns, an ooorikrow com- 
monly decides the contest ; 

Boot Is a term which reflects more or less dishonour 
on the general or the army or on both ; 

Tumus, I know you think me not your fHend, 
Nor will I much with your belief contend \ 
I beg your greatness not to give the law 
In other rMlmt, but btoUn to withdraw. 


J>tf€oX if an IndUftrent term ; the best generals may 
sometimes be d^tmtod by circumstances which are 
above human control ; * Satan Oeqoently confesses tbe 
omnipotence of the Supreme Being, that being the per- 
fection be was forced to allow him. and the only con- 
sideration which could support his pride under tbe 

▼ative Ho and the verb MeinI, i 
away what has been appolntad. 

/>^M< and /(Ml are both applied to matters of eater- 
prise: but that may bedefoolsd which Iseoly plannertt 
and that b foiiod which is In the aa of belna exeeutedw 
What is r^ted is d^§mtod: what is ahned at or pur 
posed Is finttroud : what is calculated on Is dioo^ 
foHUed, The best concerted schemes may sometimes 
be easily d^fooMod : where art is employed against slm- 
pUdty the latter may be easily foOod : when we aha 
at what Is above our reach, we mupc be fruotrmtod im 
our eodeavoun : when our expectarions are extrava- 
gant, it seema to foUow of oouiae, that they wlU be 

Design or accident may tead to d^Ml, design only to 
/•tl, accident only to fruotrau or dumoint. The su- 
periour force of the enemv, or a combination of unto- 
ward events which are above the control of the com- 
mander, wlO serve to d^sat the best concerted plans of 
the best generals; *The very purposes of wantonness 
are doftmtod bv a carriage wnlch has so much bolduew.* 
—Stkblu. Men of upright minds can seldom /ril the 
deep laid schemes of knaves; * The devil haunui those 
uxMt where he hath greatest hopes of success: and is 
too eager and intent upon mischief to eamloy bis tlma 
and temptations where he hath been sooRon/eilfd.*— 
TiLLOTsoM. When we see that the perversity of mea 
Is liable to fimotrmU tbe kind Intentions of othen ia 
their behalf, it Is wiser toleave them to their fbUyj 
Let all the Tuscans, all th> Arcadians Join. 
Nor these nor those shaB/rasfrats my design. 
The cross accidents of human life are a fhthAil source 
of disappointmonto to those who sufifer themselves to 
be affected by them ; * It seems rational to hope that . 
minds qualified for great attainments should first en 
deavour their owi^ benefit. But this expectation, how 
ever plausible, has been very frequently dUffoiniod.* 




BoMo^ in French hoJUor^ fVom H^ an oz, slgniflea 

lead by the nose as an ox, that is, to amuse or disap 

point ; d^omt, in French ddfaiu participle of d^atrs, is 

uodedofthe prlvaiivedcand/«^ todo,signi- 

of his d#/Mt.'— Addison. Ovorpoworinf is 
coupled with no partkular honour to the winner, nor 
dls^ace to the loser ; superiour power is oftener the 
reralt of good fortone than of skill. Tbe bravest and 
finest troops may be»e«rpe»«red in cases which exceed 
human power ; * The veterans wbodefended the walls, 
were soon otorpoworod bv numbers.'— RoaBRTson. 
A romt b always disgraceful, oarticularly to the army ; 
It always arises from want of^firmness ; * Tbe ront (at 
tbe batUe of Pavia) now became unlverMi, and resist- 
ance ceased in almost every part but where the king 
was in person.'— RoBBETf ON. An ovortkrow b fktal 
rather than dishonourable ; It excites pity rather than 
contempt ; • Milton's subject b nbellloo against the Su- 
preme Being; raised by the highest order of created 
beings; the ovortkrow of their host b the pu ni sh m e n t 
of their crime.'— Johnson. 

To drfoat has the same meaning an given under the 
article To hoot; foU may probably come (Voni /atf/, 
and the Latin foUo to deceive, signi^ng to make to 
fUl ; fmatroiOy in Latin frtutrotuoy from /motra in 
vain, itignifles to make vain ; dudppoint^ from the pri- 

^ privative dc and /s^ to do, sicni- 

fVing to undo ; dioeoneort b compounded of the prlva- 
ave dts and cencsrt. signifyint to throw out of concert 
or harmony, to put into disorder; eo^fomnd^ in French 
SM^endrs, b compounded of cm and/endrs to melt or 
mix together In general disorder. 

When applied to the derangement of the mind or ra- 
tional facumea, haJjU and d^oot respect the powera of 
argumentj di oeone or t and ponfownd the thouchts and 
fedtaifs: hogU txfnmem less than doftu; dtoeoneeH 
less than eonfonmd: a person b kOifUd In argument 
who b for the time discomposed and silenced by the Ml- 
periour sdiiisss of hboppooeat: he bd«/Mt«d in argu- 
ment if hb opponent has altogether the advantage of 
him In strength of reasoning and JusLMsf of sentiment: 
a person to d«seMc«rl«d who kiees hb preface of mind 
fbr a moment, or hss hb IMIngs any way dbcom- 
posed; he b eonfomndod when the powen of thought 
and coosdoosness beeoroe torpid or vanish. 

A superiour command of language or a particular 
degree of effVontery will fluently enable one person 
VohoJUo another who b advocating the cause of truth ; 
' When the mind has brought Itself to close thbiking, it 
may go on roundly. Everv abstruse problem, every 
intrtcaie questicm will not *ajb, discourage, or break 
it.*— LocEB. IgiM)rance of tne subject, or a want of 
ability, may occasion a man to be ditfemUd by hb ad- 
versary, even when he b supportlD? a good cause ; 
• He that could withstand conscience b frighted at hi- 
fkmy, and shame prevaUs when reason b dtfooUd:-— 
JoBNNON. Assurance b requislto to prevent any one 
from being diaconeertod who b suddenly detected In any 
dbgraceAil proceeding ; *Sho looked hi tbe glass while 
she was speaking to me, and without anv conAisioa 
adjusted hertocker: she seemed rather pleased thaa 
dioeoneortod at being regarded whh earnestness.*— 
Hawkbswortb. HardenedeflhNilerysomeUraes keeps 
the daring villain fhm being eonfomuUd by any eveabs 
however awfhil; 'I could not help inquiring of tht 
clerks If they knew thb lady, and was greaito 



qr Md Me vllb M air of feeraqrOiAt 
■DB WMM my coimIii*8 mlalrwi.*— Hawkbswobth. 

Wbea applied to tke dermngeoieot of plam, »ajk 
•xpraMM leM Uiea d^tml; dtfemt leei then ctmfawU ; 
and dMCMccrC leas than aU. Obatiaacy, peneverance, 
afcUl, or art, *iV|iM - * 

force or vloleoce^Mt#; awkward 
mtctH; tbe vUtaUon of God e^r 
When wieked flMn etrive to obtain tbeir enda, 
it Is a happy thtag when their adrereariee have euffl- 
dent Aill and addieee to hafU all their aili, and eoA- 
dent power to d«/Mt all their prt^ecle; 
Now ibepberdt ! To yoor helpless cbaife be kind, 
BafU the raging year, and ftU their pens 
With food at wIlL-Tiioiisoii. 
* He finds himself naturally to dread a eoperioor Being, 
that can d^Mt all his designs and disappoint all hS 
hopes.*— TiLLOTBOR. Sometimes when our best eodea- 
▼ouie fail in our own behalf, the devicee of men are 
tmSmudH by the intcrpositloa of heaTen ; 

80 spake the Son of God; andSatan stood 
A while as mute, tamfmmML what to say. 

It freqneotly happens eren fai the eommon transactions 
of lift that the beet schemes are 4i99«mctrUi by the tri- 
▼id casualties of wfaid and weather ; * The King (Wil- 
Uam) infOTmed of these dangerous discontents hastened 
over to England: and by his pres e n ce , and thevigorous 
measures which he pursued, diseenesrCsd sB the 
achemee of the conspirators.*— Htnn. TheobeUnacy 
ofadisorder may A^Jktbeekillof thephysiciaB: tbe 
Imprudence of the patient may itf^t the object of his 
prescriptions: the unexpected arrivd of a supoiour 
may dtseeiwerc the unauthoriied plan of those who are 
subordinate: the miraculous destruction of his army 
€onj9wUti the project of tbe Kingof Asqrria. 

Grafusr, in French ceafucrir, Latin eea^Ktre, com- 
pounded of cea and fftmro^ fligniflee to seek or try to 
gdn an object; vaafrnM, in French vmnert^ Latin 
vtace, Greek (psr 
Hebrew njj to 

ejctemd. We t»%^[mn and sMreesM what makes M 

Eat resistance ; we miMm and twmo%;ia what is vio 
t and strong In its opposition : dislikes, atuchments, 
and feelings in general, either for or against, are cm- 
faerMl; unruly and tumultuous passions are to be 
niMaed; a man eowfiisrs himeelf ; 

Sptiagi fipom the silent seafusst of oumlves. 
HesaMast his splrU or hie paasloas; (Socrates and 
Marcus Aurellus are Instanees of men, who, by the 
strength of philoeophy having mkdmed thtAx paisifins, 
are celebrated for good husbands.'— SracTAToa. 

One conquer* by ordinary means and efforts ; one 
saMast bv extraordinary means. AnUpathies when 
cherished in early life are not easUy ctmqutrtd in riper 
yi-arji: rjiiiliinf; buta prvailtng Koeeof rr"~*-~ ---- 
jK^rjK Luni fiMir urGcMi. can ever 
11 H3s iind Eiropen^iUe 

It [vr| litres Tor tli« ciMet wt deicrminatkm and focca 
Ui »^erc9mt; natlmcv and pcnitrverance to 4 
rp'Tudkn uad prTponeninflS ore ovctcmm; wwi 
ftCiFrfrltfficulLic4 an 9urm»^nitd; 'Actuated by 
high {tBctaan, a ninn roiic«iv4^ %iml de^^pis, and 
mtr^ Fi tf aJM iOlc^llii^ Ln Uw eie>: u lion.'— Blaie. It too 
rr«|ueiHjy liiij,ipen« Uint r)jace wtio are eager to sosr* 

, can ever taAdas tbe rebeUioua 

w«dM, oooMS ftom the 
saMas, fkom tbe Ldin 

saMe. signlnss to give or put und( 
pounded of vvtr and msm, signiftee to come over or get 
the mastery over one: rarmMnU, in French «iirmmilsr, 
compounded of mr over and sieatsr to mount, signifies 
to rise above any one. 

Fersons or things are cMfaersd or saMasd; peraons 
only are vanfuisJud. An enemy or a country is eomr 
ftmd; a foe is eeafatsAsd ; people are tubimti. 

We cMfuer an enemy or a country by whatever 
means we gain the mastery over Um or it. Tbe idea 
of something gained is most predominant : ' He (Ethel- 
wolf) began hie reign with making a partition of his 
dominions, and delivering over to hweldest son Athel- 
stan, the new etmqwered provhiees of Essex, Kent, and 
Sumex.*- HuMB. We eea^auA him, when by fbrce 
we make him yield ; ' A few troops of the vaafvMAsd, 
had ^111 the courage to turn upon their pursuers.*— 
Hume. We saMas him by whatever meane we check 

\i\fAt iirfjiidteei^ \n ord^j lo tlupoee themselves for 
I'pifihtiin. iM\ intog 

Uw t<«r^^iiiiin or Tiiew Dpifihtnn. fM\ into greater erroum 

Noiiung truly great 

irbcied wi[i«frr Lfii difikulues have not 

«._u>«»i^ietl : it k Uic cLuLxucterisiick of genius to 

twrmowa every difliculty : Alexander conceived that be 
could overcowu nature betaeif, and Hannibd succeeded 
in this very point : there were scarcely any obstaclea 
which she oppoeed to him that he dldnot «anaea»i by 
prowess and perseverance. 

Whoever alms at Christian perfection must strive 
with God's assistance to e&ufMsr avarice, pride, and 
every inordinate propensity ; to mhius wrath, anger, 
lust, and every carnal appetite ; to wereeme tempta- 
tions, and to »urm0unt trids and impediments which 
obstruct bis course. 

To conquer and oesreesie may sometimes be indif- 

tai him the spirit of reslsunce : • The Danes, surprised 
to see an army of English, whom they considered as 
totally euMued^ and suU more astonished to bear that 
Alfred was at their head, made but a fdnt resistanoe.'— 
HcME. A Christian tries to conquer his eoemiee by 
kindness and generoeity ; a warriour tries to ^emquieh 
them in the field; a prudent monarch tries to eubdue 
hhi rebeiUoiM subjects by a due mixture of clemency 
and rigour. 

One may be ocafaisAsd la a single battle; one la 
eukdued only by the meet vkdenl and persevering oMa- 
suree. William the Firrt osmfusrsd England by o«a- 
quieking his rivd HaroM; after which be completdy 
saM«Mf the Engllab. . ^ 

Alexander having aanfuwAsd aO tbe enemies that 
opposed him, and saMasd ail the natkma with whom 
be warred, ftncled thai he had cenquerei the whole 
worid, and is said to have wept d the idea that there 
were no more worlds to eeafasr. 

In an extended and iBord applicdion these tenna are 
Marty dUed to sMreesM and sannMntf. Thdiscen- 
fasrsd and saMaed which la in the mind; thdisever- 
eeaw and samianiid which li eAUw 

ferentiy appUed to tbe same ol^ects ; but the former 
has dways a rei^reoce to the thing gained, the latter 
to the resistance which is opposed, hence we tdk of 
conquering a prejudice as far as we bring it under the 
power of the understanding ; we overcome it as far as 
we succeesfullv oppose its influence : this illustration 
will serve to snow the propriety of using these words 
distinctly in other cases where tbey cannot be used in- 

Equd success hdh set these champions hleh, 

And both resolv'd to conquer or to die. — Wa.llbr. 

Tbe patient mind by yielding overcosiM.- Phiups. 

To vanquiek in the mord application bears tiie 
same meanlna as in the proper application, signifying 
to overcome in a struggle or combat ; thus a person 
mav be said to be vanquieked by any ruUni passion 
which gets th^ better of his conscience ; ' There are 
two parts in our nature. Tbe inferiour part is sene- 
rdly much stronger, and has dwavs the start of rea- 
son ; which, if it were not aided w religion, would 
ahnost universaUy be v«afvi»iUd.*— BaaxaLET. 


To overhear is to bear one's self over another, that 
is, to make another bear one's weight ; 

Crowding on the last the first impel ; 

TUl overborne with weight tbe Cyprians fMI. 

TO bear 4ot9n is literally to bring down by bearing 
upon ; * The residue were so disordered as they could 
not conveniently fight or fly. and not only Jostled and 
bore down one anotlier, but in their confiMed tumbling 
back, brake a part of the avant-guard.'— Hatward. 
To evervomer Is to get tbe power over an object j 
< After the death of Crassos, Poropey found hlmsdf 
outwitted by Cesar ; he broke with him, overpowerei 
him in tbe senate, and caused ma^y ui^ust decrees to 
pass against him.*— Damaii. To overwkeim, fiom 
whelm or wheel, ftifnifies to turn one quite round an 
well aa over. 



WIMI aft it thitf wbtra 

Ptoe*d at Um hdm, 
A Ma of aome foul nouth or pen 
81mU •MnoyUlai.— JoatOM. 
To tmhdmt («. TV cvsfMr) li Ulcrally to bring or pat 
Notbtni coold have mMmW nature 
To eucb a lowuev, but bit unkind daugbten. 


A nuui 090r b **r» by carrying bimeeir taigbtr 
oUmcb, and patting to aileaoe thuee wbo nigbc 
an equality with bim ; an •Mi^Mrtv demeanoo f la 
moat conepieuooa in narrow eirelai where an indivi- 
dual, from certain caaual advantngee, afbote a euperi- 
ority over the members of the Mme eoouauoity. To 
k^mr damn is an act of greater violence : one k^mn 
dMTO oppoeitioo : it Is properly the opposing ftMce to 
ftNve, until one Bide yields : there rnvv be oocasloas In 
wMch btmrimg U»n la AOly Jastidable and laudable. 
Mr. PM was often compelled to ktmrdawnti tttetitomm 
party which thraaiened lo overturn the govermnent 
Ossr^Mf «r, as the term Implies, beloogi to the ezerdse 
of power wtiich may be either physical or moral : one 
may ba ss»rysw< r »d by another, who in a struggle geu 
him into his power ; or one may be •verfwerei in an 
argument, when the argument of 'one's antagonist Is 
■uch as to bring one to silence. One is ov^rhtme or 
h9rmt down by the exertion of Individuals; one is 
•v«ffw€rtd by the active eflbrts of individuals, or by 
the force of clrcumsUnces ; one is Po$rwkelm9d by 
circumstances or thiogi only : one Is •Mrftems by ao- 
oiharof soperiourinnuence; one is i«nu dnm tnr tlie 
firae of his attack ; one is svifpetPirsd by numbera» 
by entreaties, by looks, and the lilra: one is M«r- 
wktlm«d by the torrent of words, or the impetuoeity of 
the attack. In the moral or extended application «v«r- 
Aser and kemr dswa both imply force or violmice, but 
the latter even more than the former. One passion 
may be saki fo •osrfrsor another, or to sver^ear reason ; 
*Theduiyof fear, liiw that of other pamions, Is not to 
mr h $mr reason, but to amist it.*— Jomisoa. What- 
ever h^rt dnom carries aU before it ; 

Oontentloo like a hoiae 
Fall of high feedinc, madiv hath broken looae, 
And htar» dnm aO before binK— BaAKSPaAmB. 
O«srpet0«r and tverwIUim denote a partial soperl* 

ortar ; smMim denotes that wtiich Is permanent 
poeitlve : we may svsrpMMr or mot imkdm for • t 
or to a oertatai degree ; ' bot to snMas la to get an aniire 
and lasting superiority. O v t rp ^w m - ana m 

are said of what passes between persona nearly on a 

j but suMaitf is said of those who are, or may be, 
reduced to a low suia of iaforfc>rity : individuals or 
armioB are •vm-p^wertd or ovtrwUimtd; individoala 
or nations are twkdtui: we may be t v rpowtr t i in 
one engagement, and aivwftwtr our opponent in an- 
other ; we mav be •trwkUwkU by the ■uddennem and 
impetuosity of the attack, yet we may recover oar- 
selves so as to renew the attack ; but when we are 
mtbdwed all power of resistance Is gtme. 

To spT^ipsi, •MTwAsIsi, and suMiis, are applied 
either to the moral feelings or to the external rebuloiMi 
of things; but the two former are the ellbcts of exter- 
nal cireomstancea ; the latter foltows tsom the exercise 
of the reasoning powera: the tender feellngi are W9tr- 
pstfsrsd; or the senses may be • mrf m ^r td; *A1I 
coloars that are more lumbious (than green) svet^ 
^MMT and dlsiipato the aniaMl spirits which are em- 
ployed in sigtiL'—AoDisoM. The oUnd is 9vr»Mm$i 
wlth«hame,horrour, and other painful feelings; 'How 
trifling an apprehenetoo is the shame of bdng laughed 
at by fools, when compared with that everlasting 
shame and astonishment which shall tm^rwhtlm the 
sinner when he shall appear before the tribunal of 
Chrirt.'— Roaaas. 

Such hnplements of mischief as shall dash 

To pieces, and svmi - - 

Adverse.— llti^Toif. 
The unruly p aa sl ona ara snUnsd by the force of r^ll- 
gloos con t emplation, or the fortitude is sakiasd by 
_ For what avaDi 

Valonr or sireogth, though matchlem, qu^d with 

Whfii ah snMass y-MiLTON. 


A penon wtKf ba an sMfipsMreaL on acaing % dying 
friend, as to ba unable to speak; iw may ba so santw 
wAclsMd with grief; uponihe death of a near and dear 
relative, as to be unable to attend to Ida ordlnaiy avo- 
cations; the angnr passlona have been so completely 
nkdwtd by the influenoeof religion on the lieart, that 
instances have lieen Icnown of the most IrasdUe 
tempers being converted Into the most miU and for* 

ft ib rfn *, V. TV SMfnsr. 
To snft^ signtiying to maka sni^Mi la hero tht 

Think not, yoong warrioora, yoardfanlnlahM nana 
Shall k)se of lustre, by mk^aetmg rage 
To the cool dictates of experienced age.~I>BYPBV. 
Where there is no awe, there win ba no snl>cttMi. 

One nathmsa^^ufnles another: snJ^^tyetsandinldln 
are both empkMred with regard to nations tlmt are oesn- 
pelledto saMmt to tlie oonqneror: hot snl^^ayeis ei- 
pfCBses even aaora than ssMm. for k tanplles to bring 
into a stato of permanent sn bm lmk m ; whareaa to 
#n t dni nmy ba only a nominal aad t em pu i a ry auhiiae- 
tton. Casar nijitgatdi the Oaala, for he aada them 
softiteets to the Bomaa empire ; 

O fev*rlto virgin, that hast warmM tbebraast 

Whose sov'reign dictates niJbj%g§u tlie easL 

Alexander mWnsd tlie Indian aatkMiB,who Mvohcd 
aflar his departure; 

Thv son (nor isth* ap p o hkei aiaaon forj 

In Italy aaQ wafs a ue csm m war, 

TttI, after evary foe rabda'd, the eon 

Thriea throagh the algaa his annual nee aha! ran. 


InvhteiUi signifies not to be vanquisbad («. TV esn- 
fiMT) : mnconqwr^bU^ not to be conquered : inamftt- 
ahl$t not to be overcome: itu ur m cmnt tkUt not to ba 
surmounted. Persons or things are in the strict senaa 
invhuitU which can withstand all force, but aa in 
this sense nothing created can be termed imwincibUt 
the term b employed to exprem strongly whatever can 
withstand human force In general : on this groond tha 
Spaniards termed their Armada imvimeUiU: *Tha 
Americans believed at firM, that while cherfahed bv 
the parental beams of the sun, the Spaniards warn 
jnvracatf.*— RoanaTsoR. Tha quaUtles of tAe mind 
are termed Mi«sBfMr«ftfe when they are not to ba 
gained over or brought under the control of ooe*s own 
reason, -^ ' ' • •— - •■ •--^ 

Is with 

reason, or the Judgment of another: henee obstlnae¥ 
is with proprwty denominated wtcsiMnMraAIr which 
will ytefcl to no foreign Iniluenoe : *The mind of ao 
ungrateful penon li vmemtqnsrabU bv that which con- 
quers an thii«s else, even by fove itself.*— Sotrm. The 
particular disposition of the mind or tuita of thinking 
Is termed inntperabU^ taiasmttch as It baffles our reso- 
lution or wishes to have it ahered : an aventon b ra- 
9tipmr»U0 which no reasoning or endeavoar mi our 
own part can overcome ; * To this literary word (meta- 
nhyslcks) I have an intuptr^Ut aversion.'— Bsattub. 
ThhigB are denominated imsuwmammtmkts^ I n as m uc h aa 
they baflle ooe*s skill or eflbrts to nt over them, or pat 
than out of one*s way: an obstacto is nuarrsMvnlsklf 
which In the nature of things Is hremoveaMe ; *It li a 
melancholy reflection, that while one is plagued with 
aeqoahitnnee at thecomarof every street, real ftlands 
shouM be separated from each other by <a«nrmMraia*ls 
bars.'— OiBsoif. Some people have an in$Mp*rail0 
antipathy to certain anfanala; some persons are of so 
mooiest and timid a character, that the necessity of 
addreiaing strangers is with them an intnerthU ob 
Jection to Ming aaymiiiaioMia for their own adt»ii0» 



«; tlMdlAealttoiwbleiiOohimbulNidtoaiieoan- 

Mr in hit dinovery of Um New World, would bav« 

d nintnn#t(jU«M« to fto y mind len deitniiliMd 



SubjeUt In Latio mhjtelmt. pftrtkiple of »Ml!fiei0 or 
««* and laew to throw under, lifmflet thrown and 
cait under; «ii>artftm«£«, compounded of «Hi and ari«r, 
■IgnMteatobetDanorderlhatlflttnderothera; htftriour^ 
in Latin iitferi§r, comparative of i$tferu» low, which 
probahlf eouiee fram n^«re to caM Into, becauee we 
are can into placet that are low: subMrvienty com- 
pounded of mtk and ««rv»«, lifnUlei Mrving under 
aomethlnf else. 

Tbeee terme may eltber ezprea the relation of per- 
aona to peraooa, or of thiafi to peraona and thiufk 
AiJr;«ct in the fim case reapecta the ezercin of power; 
sniirdinMU ta aaid of the atation and olfice ; inftritmr^ 
either of a maa*a outward drcomatancei or of hia 
merita and qualificationa ; aubternmUof otte'a relative 
aervicaa to another, but mortly In a oad aenae. Ac- 
cording to the law of nature, a child should be nAjtct 
to hia parenta ; accordinc to the law <i( God and man 
h0 muat be tMbjtt to hia prince: 'Eaau waa never 
aiiiitt to Jacob, but founded a diatinct people, and 
lovemaBent. and waa himaeJf prince over them.*— 
Loc-KB. The good order of aociety cannot be rightly 
maintained unleaa tiiere be aometoact in a n^TinukU 
capacity ; * Whether dark preaagea of th« night pro- 
ceed from any latent power of the aoul, during her ab- 
atraetioo, or from any operation of ankoriimau apiriia, 
has been a dispute?— AonxaoN. Hen of inftrimtr 
talent have a part to act which, in the aggregate, ia of 
no ieaa importance than that which b ausuioed by 
men of the highest endowmenu ; 'A great person suls 
more byobliciiig hia inferiour than by diadaining him.* 
— SecTB. Hen of no principle or character wtll be 
moat nthtervient to the baae porpoaea of tboae who 
pay tbem beat ; * Wicked apiriia may, by their cunning, 
carnr fkrther in aaeeming confedeiacy or tvktervinef 
to the designs af a good angeL'— DaYOBJC It is the 
part of the prince to protect the tnbjecu and of the 
»nkj«ct to love and honour the prince ; it la the part of 
the exalted ta tiaat the tubordnuUe with indulgence ; 
and of the latter to ahow respect to those under whom 
ttey are placed ; ic ta the part of the auuerlour 10 inatnict, 
aaBM,afM encourage the tV*«riMir; it la the part of the 
latter to be willing to leain, ready to obey, and prompt 
to execute. It la not necessary for any one to act the 
d»rading part of being aubservient to another. 

In the second instance subject preaervis the same 
•enae aa before, particularly when it expresses the rela- 
tion of ihinp to persona ; tithorHnaU dcsignatea the 
degree of relative Importance between thUaga: ii^s- 
riowr dealgnatea every clrcumatance which can render 
Ihinga comparatively higher or lower; ttihtervitnt 
dealgnatea the relative uttlity of thlnp under certain 
clrcumatancee, but aeldom In the bad senae. All crea- 
turea are subject to man ; ' Contemplale the world as 
nhjtct to the Divine dominion.'— Btiaa. Mattera of 
gubordinatc consideration ought to be entirely set out 

of the Question, when any grand object Is to be ob- 
tained ; ' The Idea of pain In iu hlx best degree is much 
■tranger than the highest decree of pleasure, and pre- 
serves the same supvlority through all the tubordinatc 
gradationa.*— BuBKK. Things of ^Vcrftmr value must, 
necessarily sell for an infericw price ; ' I can myself 
remember the time when in respect of mualck our reign- 
ing taaie waa in mamrdegreea iitferiaurto the French.' 
— BoAmaBUKT, There ia nothing ao inaignificant 
but It may be made ta^acreistU to aome purpose; 
'Though a writer may be wrong bimaelf, he may 
chance to make hia errours titbstrvieia to the cause of 
truth.*— BtmKB. The word MuAJect when expressing 
the relation of things to thlnga has the meaning of 
Im^Is, aa in the ibltowing article. 


Subject is here considered aa exnreaaing the relation 
of things to thloga, in dtatiuctioo from U» algnification 
In the precading article : UubU, compounded of /is and 
tbUf sknlflaa ready to Ue near or Jle under ; $sp0*t ' 
In Lma sqiastdu, partlclpfe of i^p0iu,ec " 

of as and ^M«,algBiiMMC out, tec within dM slew or 
rmch : oSnaxi&ut, in Latin aMasivt, compounded of 
9k mnozia miacnief, algnifiea in the way of miachicr. 
Ail theae tmna are applied to thoae drcumaiaoeea in 
human life bv which we are af&cted IndependsoUy of 
our own choice. Direct necessity ia included in the 
teem tnbject; whatever we are obliged to auffer, that 
we are aut^ect to; we may apply remedlea to remove 
the evil, but oAen In vain ; * The devout man aapirea 
after aome prlnciplea of more perfect felicity, which 
aball HOC be mkjact %o change or decay.' — ^Blauu Li- 
mhU cooveya more the ideis of casuabiea; we maf 
wuSn that which we are iUklc to. but we may alao 
escape the evil If we are careftil ; ^The ainner la not 
only limkU to that dlaappointmeat of aucceaa which ao 
often fhiatraiea all the deaigna of men, but limlU to a 
dteappoiotmeot atlll more cruel, of being auccsasftol and 
mlaerable at once.'— Blauu KxptA ton^ny tha 
idea of a pa«ive atate Into which we mav be brought, 
eltber through our own meana or throuni the Inalni- 
mentality of others; we are «zy«««d to that whfeh wa 
are not in a condition to keep olf fVoni ouraalvea ; It la 
fluently not in our power to guard agaiut the evil; 
On the bare earth ei^09*d be Uea, 
With not a friend to close hia eyes.— Deyvbii. 
Obnoxious conveys the idea of a atate into which 
we have altogetlier brotwht ouraeivea; we may avoid 
bringing ouraeivea Into tm atate, but we cannot avoid 
the conaequeiicea which will enaua from being thoa 
involved ; 
And much he blanea the aaffaaitafhie mind, 
OAjmscmm to the charma of womankind.— Dbtmw. 
We are subject lo dlaeaae, or smtjoei to death; ttoia Is 
the Irrevocable law of our nature: tender people ara 
HahU to catch cold ; all peraona art ImAIs tu make 
mlatakea: a person Is txfssoA to Inanlta who provokea 
bred man : a i ' ' 

the anger of a k>w-l 

\ minisier somedmea 

renders himself thnmtious lo the people, that Is, put* 
hhnself In the way of their animosity. 

To nkjsct and sxpossy aa verba, are taken hi the 
aame aenae: a peraon sukjects himaelf lo Impertinent 
freedoma by deacending to indecent fkmlHartttea whb 
hia luferiours; 'If the vesaela yield, it tuJ^uU the 
peraonio all the inconveniences of an erroneous drcu- 
ladon.*— AaaoTBHOT. He sxposss bimaelf lo tha da- 
rlsion of his equals by an affecution of superiority ; 
Who here 
Will envy whom the higheat place tsposss 
FoveoMMt to stand agalnal tha Thttndev«r*a aim. 


OHoxisuSf ftom the Intenahre syllable ok and nax- 
ious, rignMies exceedingly aaxtaaa and causing olfcnce, 
or elae liable to olIiMice from athera by reaaon of Its 
n0xi0wsiuss: ^ensim aimiifiea atmply ItaiMe to give 
offtnce. Oknsxious ia, therefore^ a much more oonh 

Kehenaive term than cfsnsime; tot an ohisxisus man 
th suflera from others and causes suSbHugs to otheci : 
an skmsxious man la one whom oUufs seek to exclude ; 

an ofnsivs man mav posaiblv be endured; gross 
vices, or particularly odioos qualities, make a man sk- 
noxious ; * I must have leave to be graieAil to any one 
who serves me, IH bim be ever so oknoxious to any 
party.*— Pora. Rude manners and perversa tempera* 
. jnake men ^onshto; *Tbe un derstanding Is often 
'^wn by the will and the affeetkms from fixing ha 
contemplation on an offmsioe truth.'— Seinv. A man 
la ohnoxums to many, and ef^msifso to tndivkiuala: a 
man of tooae Jacobinical pitocipiea will be oknnwns 
to a aociety of toyallats; a cMfcl may make bimaelf 
^fim«^ to hia fManda. 

Humkls and kmnlUU aignif> to make luimMs or 
bring k)w; dsgrade has the aame ajgnWJflation aagiven 

Humble ia commonly uaed aa the act either of par- 
aona or things; a peraon muf ktsmbU himaelf or be 
may be kombUd : k umil imte ia emptoyed to characteriie 
thinga; a thing is k um i li ot in g or ma kumilUtiom, No 
man humbUs himaelf by the acknowledgrment of « 



D«n> liorroar wIsm ev'ry himui braaat, 
Thdr pride to kumhUd^ and tlieir few eonft«*d. 

It Is a great kwrnOiatimi for a perw>fi to be dc t 

on aooiBer for a living when be bai It In hia i o 

obtain it for bimseif; ' A long babit of Am a 

does not seem a very good preparative to mi d 

Tigorous sentiments.*— BoRKB. ToAiuaM<la g 

down to tbe ground ; It supposes a certain etJ u' ^ 

eltber creatM by tbe mind, or really existlni: in die 
outward circumstances: to degrade to to 1- 1 <i> ^n 
lower; It supposes steps for ascending or des j. 

He who to most elevated in hto own esteem may oe 
most kmwMed; misfortunes may kambU tbe proodast 
Tbe mistress of tbe world, tbe seat of empire, 
Tbe nurse of heroes, the delight of gods, 
That kmmbUd tbe proud tyiaaia of the earth. 

He who to most elevated in tbe esteem of others, may 
be the most degraded; envy to ever on tbe alert to 
degrade; *Wbo but a tyrant (a name expressive of 
every thing which can vitiate and degrade bumaa 
nature,) could think of seizini on the property of men 
Qoaceused and unbeurd T— BuaKS. A lesson In the 

■ebool of adversity hkumbling to one who has known 
noCblag but prosperity: terms of peace are Awmtf- 
aUmg: low vices are peculiarly degrading to a man 
of rank. 


HmmiU (v. HumkUt modeef) to here oompared with 

the other terms as it respects both penons and tbinga. 

A person to said to be AwnAlf on acooum of the state of 

hto mind ; be to said to be Uwlif and U» either on aa- 

t of hto mind or hto outward circumstances. An 

kmmUe person to so in hto principles and In hto ooodoet ; 
a Uwtf person to so In the lone of hto feelings, or In 
hto station and walk of life ; a low person to so either 
In hto sentimenta, in hto actions, or in hto rank and 

SamUihf should form a part of the character, aa It 
to opposed to arrogance and assumption ; It to most 
eonsisient with tbe fallibility of our nature ; 
Bleep to a god too proud to wait in palacea, 
And yet aoitooa^to loo as not to scorn 
Tbe meanest country cottages.— Cowlst. 
LewUneee should form a part of our temper, as It to 
opposed to an aspiring and lofbr mind ,* It to most con- 
■Ment with tbe temper of our Saviour, who was 

Where purple vMeto lurk. 
With aO the lowjy chUdren of the sha 

Tbe kmmtU and Uwh are always taken In a good 
sense ; but the Uw either In a bad or an Indiflkrent 

A Unelf man, whether as It respects hto mind 
or hto condition, to so without anv moral deb) 
but a man who to tew In his condition to likewise con- 

ceived to be <ow In bis habits and bis sentiments, 
which to being near akin to the vklooa. The same 
distinction to preserved in applying these terms to in- 
r spiritual ob' ' 

e or qiiritual objects. AnAKaiA/eroof,anAitaiA<« 
oflke. an httmbU station, are associated with the highest 
moral worth ; 

The example of the heavenly lark, 
Thy fellow poet, CJowley, mark J 
Above the snes let tbv prood musiek sound, 
Thy A«ai6i« nest build upon the ground. 


A few offlee, a Um situation, a Uw Mrtta, seem to ex- 

clode tbe idea of worth ; 

To be worst, 
Tbe loweetj most dejected thing of fortune 
Stands still fai esperance.— BHAXsrsAM. 

WtmMe. h) Latin kumilit low. comes from Ansiiis the 
ground, which to the lowest position; modeMt^ in Latin 
madesiaet from wtedue a measure, slgniflcs keeping a 
BMasore ; emkmieeivet in Latin stAmieene^ participle 
of tuSmitUf signifies pot under. 


These terms designate a taaqwr of Bind, the revwM 
of sel f-concelt or pride. The himbU to so with regardto 
ourselves or others: siedMty to that wbkh respects our- 
selves only : eubmieeheneee that which respects ochsn. 
A maiff Is kunMe (torn a sense of hto comparative Infe- 
rioriiy to others In point of statkm and outward dr- 
cumstanoes ; or be to kmrnble ftom a sense of hto Im- 
perfections, and a consciousness of not being what ha 
ought to be ; ' Li Gk)d*s holy boose, I prostrate myself 
in tbe kwmUeet and deeentest way of genuflection I 
can Imagine.*— HowK. A nuut to madeet in as mueh 
as be sets but llttto value on hto qnaliflcatk»s, aequlra* 
luents, and endowments ; 

Of boasting more than of a tomb afraid 

A soldier should be medael as a maU— Yotmo. 

Hwaiiitf to a painful sentiment ; for when It respeca* 
others it is coupled with fear, when It respects our own 
unwortbioess it to coupled with sorrow: medeetf to a 
peaceful sentiment ; it serves to keep the whole mind 
m due bounds. 

When kMtmilitf and modeetf Aam themselves In the 
outward conduct, tbe former bows itself down, the latter 
shrinks: aa kwmkte man gives freely to othevi fVom 
a sense of their desert: a madeel man demands nothing 
for himself from an unconsciousness of desert u 
Sodidoo itself to wudeet in tbe dawn, and 

only toleration mav be petitioned, where nothing less 
than empire to destgoed.*— South. 

Between kuwMe and euhiiietioe there to thto pro- 
minent feature of distinction, that tbe former marks a 
temper of mind, tbe latter a mode of action : the former 
to therefore often the cause of the latter, but not so 
always : we mav be saAsiMstvs because we are AasiUe ; 
but we may likewise be euhwueeive ftom fear, from 
interested motives, from necessi^, ftrom datjr, and the 
And potent R^ahs, who them s dva a praslda 
O'er realms of wkto extent! Bat here aaAadastvs 
Their bomafB pay ; alternate kings and slavaa I 


And on tbe other hand, we may be AacaiMs wtthoat 
being onAsnsstw, when we are not brought into con- 
nexion with others. A man to ktamble In hto < 

when he takes a review of htoslnftiloess: he to tub- 
sMsstM to a master whose dtopleasore he dreada. 

Aa kmmitUf may display Itself In tbe outward eon- 
duct. It approachea still nearer to emkmienve In appll. 
cation: hence we say an kmwMe air, and a eubwueeivt 
air ; the former to denote a man*s sense of hto own 
comparative littleness, tbe latter to lodteate hto mdi 
ness to submit to the willof another: a man therefora 
carries hto kemkle air about with him to all hto sopa> 
r lours, nay, indeed, to tbe world at larn ; but be puts on 
b)s ai^mieeive air onlv to the lodlvlaual who has the 

r of cootrolHng htm. Upon the i 

e principle, If 

power of control 

I kmrnHw ask a person's pardon, or Ami^lir'sollclt anv 
fovoor, I mean to express asense of my own nnworthl- 
ness, compared wttn tbe Individual addressed: but 
when a eoimseIk>r enkmieeiv^ or with emhaieeiem 
addre«cs a Judge on tbe bench, It implies hto wllUi^ 
ness to eubmit to the deetokm of the bench : or IT a 
person tf«»«n««tv«ly vteMs to the wishes of another. It 
to done with an air that bespeaks hto readineas to eon- 
form hto actions to a prescribed mle ; 

She should be kmrnkUj wbo would please; 
And she must suAr, who can tova.— Priob. 

Zsw («. 

ITiisiAle) to a mueh stronger term ihLii 

, for what to lew stands more dlieetif opposed to 
what to high, bat what to sm«» fa tatermedlale: smm^ 
In German jssMte, Jbc. oomes fkom the Latin c esi s w 
nie oooomon. Tbe Uw to applied only to a eertaln 
number or description ; but mMs, Hke eommon, to ap- 
plicable to tbe great bulk of manlrind. A man of Ins 
extraction folto hetow the ordinary level ; be toopposed 
to a nobleman; 

Had I been bom a servant, ny (sw Hfo 
Had steady stood (h>m all these miseries. 

A man of mtmm birth does not rise above the ordinary 
level : be to uiion a tevrl with the maimky ; 



For t to tlM mind that mskMtbe body rich T 
ADdM the MID brealu throofb the dmrkcal doudi, 
80 hooour'pMKth lathe au«M«t habU. 

When cmplojred to deelgnntc ehnracter, ther prew n re 
" ' ' , the lev ia that whka la poel- 

Tet aometiineB natlooe wU decltaM po Uw 

from virtue— MxLTOM. 
But the mtm h that which ia «NnparatiTely Um hi 
recard to the outward circumaiancea and relative con- 
dition of the individual. Swearing and dmnkenneai 
are low vieea; boxinf, codfelliai. and wtertling, are 
lewgaaMB; a nieplaced econoaqr b people of property 
ia MMm; a condeecension to tlKMC who are beneath na, 
for our own petty advantages, ia fuetrnwu*: * We fbst 
not to please men, nor to promote any Mfoa, worldly 
Interest.*—]>oa. A man is commonly Uw by 
birth, education, or habits ; but m»mmnet$ is a defect of 
nature which sinks a person in spite of every external 

The lays and irmii are qualities whether of the con- 
dition or the character : but dgeel Is a peculiar state 
Into wliicha man Is thrown: a man is in the course of 
Ihinp low ; be ia voluntarily m$€n and involuntarily 
ctjut; the word abf$ct^ from tlie Latin <Ujici» to cast 
down, signifying litmly brought very low. Lomutt 
discovers lUKaf In one's actions and seothnents ; the 
«M«ii and mbjeU ia one*s spirit ; the latter being much 
more powemil and oppreasive than the former: the 
mean man stoops in order to get: the aijtct man crawls 
h Older to submit : the lowest man will sometimes have 
a consciousness of what Is due to himself; he will even 
rise above his condition ; the Mean man sacrlAces his 
dignity to his convenience ; he is always below himself; 
the mijeU man altoaetber forgets tliat be has any dignity ; 
he is kept down by the p iess oro of adverse circom- 
■Caneea. The eoodlilnn of a servant iaiow ; hia man- 
neis. Us wordi, and hia habita, will be low; but by 
mod conduct he mav elevate liimself in his ^>here of 
HA: a nobleman is in station tlie reverse of low; but 
If he wW stoop to the artiflcea practised by the vulcar 
In order to carry a point, we denominate it wmr. If it 
he but trifling: otherwise it deserves a strong epithet 
The slave is, ra every sense of the word al^focf ; aa he 
js bereft of that Quality wlilch seta man above the 
brute, BO, in his actions, he evinces no hi^ier Inipalse 
than what guides brutes : whether a man he a slave to 
another's will or to any paseion. such aa (bar or saper- 
stitlun, he is equally said lobe el^oef; * There needa no 
more be said to eatol the ezc^enee and power of his 
(Waller's) wit, than thai it was of magnitude enough 
to cover a world of very treat faults, that Is, a narrow- 
ness In bis nature to the Jowest degree, an mljettmtt 
and want of courage, an insinuating and eervile flatter- 
ing,* JCC— Cl^AEKIIDOM. 

Reiuee Is to bring down, and f«»«r to make low or 
tower, which proves the close oonnezioQ of these words 
in tiMir i>riginal meaning ; It la, however, only in tMir 
improper application that they have anv fVirther con- 
nexion. Roduee ia used In the sense of lessen, when 
applied lo number, quantity, price, ice. : lowor Is used 
In the same sense when appUed lo price, demands, 
lerms, ttci the former, however, occurs In cases 
where circumstances as well as persons are concerned ; 
tbe latter only In cases where persons act : the price of 
com is rti»€od by means or importation : a peraoa 
lowort hia price or hia demand, when heflndithem too 
high. As a moral quality, the former is maeh strongor 
than the latter : a man is said to be rtiutod to an ab|ect 
ccoditton; hut to be lowered hi the es tim a tion of others, 
lo be rodmeod to a stau of slavery, to be lowtni in his 
own eyes ; ' Tlie refular metres then In use may be 
rsd«Md, 1 think, lo four.*— TrawBiTT. * It would he a 
nutter of astoniaiuueotto me, that any critic should be 
limod proof against the beautiea of Agamemnon so as 
to lower Its author to a comparlNQ with Bophodaaor 
EuripUea.'— CiTMaKELAMo. 


Bmm9^ In Pmieh hat low, ftom the Lathi hatta the 

foundation or towest part, ia the most directly opposed 

to the elevated ; viU, In French vO, Latin m{i«,Gr«ak 
^oiAof, worthless, or no account, is literally opfMsad 10 
the worthy ; aissii and midMu from the Latin siidiei^ 
signify modierate, not elevated, of little value. 

Ba9* to a atronger term than vile, and vile tba 
auaa. Base marks a high degree of moral torphnde: 
vile and sieoa denote In diflbrent degreea the want of 
an value or esteem. What Is hoKt excites our abhor- 
rence, what ia etie provokea disgust, what Is maam 
awakens c(»tempt Base Is opposed to magnanimous; 
01/e to noble ; aieaa to generooa. Ingratitude is haae ; 
it does violence to tiie best aflbctions of our nature : 
flattery is vile; it violates truth In thegroasest manner 
ibr tbe lowest purposes of gain ; coorpirances are awca 
which are derogatory to the rank or dignity of the Indl- 

Tbe *a«e character violatea the strongsst moral obli- 
gations ; the vile rharaiHar blends km and desplcaUe 
arts with his vices ; the wuom characto' acta Iboos- 
siatently with hia honour or resp ec ta bi lity. Depravity 
of mind dictates hatt conduct; towness of sentiimml 
or dispositioo ioada to vileneee ; a selfish temper an- 
gMiders weawseee. The schoolmaster of FiJerii wan 
guilty of tiie *««ee< treacherv in surrendering his help- 
less charge to the enemy ; the '' 

man general, Ihara- 

charge to the enemy ; 

fore, with true nobleneasof mind t 

malelhetor: sycophants are In the habita of praclWi^ 

evenr sieea artifice to obtain fhvowr. 
The more elevated a person's rank, tbe greater la hi» 

haatfuto who abuses his influence to the iajurii of 

those who repose confidence In him ; 

Scorns tlie haoo eaith and crowd below, 
And with a soaring wing still mounts on high. 

Tbe lower the rwik of the ImHvidoal, mid the men 

atrocious his conduct, the viler is his charaeiar; 

That all the petty kings 
'• ^'d be lile 

And worahiiHP'd be liie him and ddfV'd, 
Of courtly qrcophants and caitiflk vtM. 

GuASET West. 

The more respecta b le the station of the person, and th> 
more extended his wealth. thetreater Is his aieamissa 
a! > w he deaccmb to practices fitted only for his ktilh 
rioors; * There is hanfry a spirit upon earth aosMaaaMt 
contracted as to centre all regaros oa Ita own Inlanst 
exclusive of the rest of maoklnd.*— Bbekbut. 


JfodoHy In Latin aiodeetas, from wudao a measure, 
signifies setting a measure, and in this case setting a 
measure to one*s esUmaceof one'a self; haokful signU 
fies ready to be abaskod; d^Uent, from the Latin dtf- 
JUaordit prIvaUve, and /A to trust signifies literally 
not trusting, and in this case not trusting to one's self. 

Modootf to a habitor pihiciple of thenUnd ; Uo^fttt. 
fieee to a state of feeling : aiodeeCy to at all times be- 
coming; haol^fubuoo to only becomin| in females, or 

very young peisona, in the presence of their superiours : 
moitotf dboovers itself la the abeeoce of every thinf 
asnming, whether In look, word, or action i 

Her fhce, aa In anymph dlsplay*d 
A (hir fierce boy, or in a boy betray'd 
The Muahi^ beauties of aaiodeet maid. 


Baokfvhtota betrays Itadf bf a downcast look, and a 
tUnidaIr : a sio de et deportmem to always commenda- 
ble; aKuV^tompertonotdesirabto; *Mere*«sV«^ 
neee, without merit, to awkwardness.'— Annisoa. JM^ 
dtotjf does not necessarily discover Itself by any exter- 
nal mark ; hot ha$k/kbuio atorays shows Itaelf In the 
manner ; * A man truly siedest to as much so when ht 
to alone as In eompany.*— BimaciA. 

JUsdesiv to a proper distrust of uuia die a ; ^-fmrr 
to a culpable diatraat Jtfodsety, though oppoaed to aa- 
suranoe, to not Incompatible with a emfidence hi our- 
selves; dtf l d iafl e altogether nnmaEa a peiaoo, and die- 
quailfiea him for hto duty : a person to generally wodast 
In the display of hto talenta to othen ; but • dOldrai 
man cannot tarn hto talenta to their prcfwruae: *1>^ 
denes and presumption both artoa flmn the warn of 
knowing, or rather tadeavonrlng to know, oonetvea.* 
— Stbeub. 



PmisiMt la JjMtin pttiwu from pUwtj tnd tbe 
Greek Himm to eu/Eer, aignlfyUic diapoeed to Miller, is 
■MMtiy taken in tbe bad eenee of sulTetlng indicnity 
IWnb aaotber; »Mkwus*i90 (v. HwrnkU) ie raostiy uken 
la a |ood eenM for lubinittiag to aootber, or saflbinff 
oae*e self to be directed by aootlier; to be pmstiws 
therefore is lo bembwut«n>4 to an Improper degree. 

Wliea men auempc uoiustly ui euforoe obedience 
fhun a mere love of rule, it betrays a want of ptoper 
uirlt to be^a««iv«, or to submit quIvtJy to tbe impoei- 
ttoo; * I know ibat we are supposed (bv tbe French 
revolutlookts) a duU^ sluggish race, reudered pmsHv 
hy Hading our situation tolerable.'— Burkb. When 
■MB lawfully enforce obedience, it is none but tbe un- 
ruly and self-willed who will not be *uhmi$$ive ; 
He in delight 
Both of lier beaoty and ra^fllljr<j«e charms, 
flBil'4 with aapsrioor toTe.— Milton. 


Patimet appHes to any troubles or pains whatever, 
■nan or great; ruignrntion is employed only for thoee 
of great moment, in which our dearest Interests are 
coqcemed: paUtmu when compared with r€$ignaii»n 
Is somewliat negative ; it consists iu the abstaining 
ftom all complaint or indication of what one suffers : 
i^ttt TuignaiUim consists in a positive sentiment of con- 
formity to tbe exisiing circumstances, be they what 
ibey may. There are perpetual occurrences which are 
•apt lo harass tbe temper, unless one regards them with 
jMtienee ; * Though the duty of ptiencs and subjection, 
where man ea l ftr wreaafally, might possibly be of soom 
fliree in those times of darkness ; yet modem Chrls- 
tlaakyieaebes that then only men are bound to sulfer 
when Ibey are not able to rsslst*— South. Tbe mla- 
Ibitnnes of some men are of so calamitous a nature, 
that If Uiqr have not acquired tbe resiifaartM of Cbrls- 
tiaae. ibey moel inevitably eink under them ; * My mo- 
ther Is la that dispirited state of rtignmtuu which is 
tbe eflbet of a kmg life, and the loss of what Js dear to 


PmtimM applies only to the evUi that aetaally hang 
over us; but there Is a rss^^nciiMi connected with a 
Arm trust in Providence which extends its views to fix- 
inrity, and prepares us for the worst that may happen. 

As ^aiMiics lies in tlie jnanaer and temper of suAr- 
lag,and«ai«rM««intbeact: wemaybavesndumnM 
and not pmtitmu: for we may have much to mtdmr* 
and flo n ee q we nd y sndMrsnM ; but If we do not tmdmr* 
It with an eaey mind and without the disturbance of 
oar looks and words, we have not putitiu*: on the 
other hand we may bave^«<ara«« but not mdMrmmc*: 
for cnxfttimtf may be ezerdsed by momentary tri- 
fles, which are not sulBclently great or laatfng lo consti- 
tuiesaAvwMt * 

There was never yet philosopber 

That could smbirv the tooth-ache patlenfly. 


PutUmt eomes fton ^actsiw, tbe acUve partSelple of 
potior tosoffor ; pm$ai9€ comes from the/«««fv« parti- 
ciple of the seme verb ; hence tbe dtfforeoce between 
the words: pmtimi signifies suffering fWmi an aodvt 
priiieiple, a detemUnalkm to suffer ; pmsHftt signifies 
'^ ' for want of power to prevent 

always Oftken In an Indlf- 

oonaideredaa a weakaam, If not a vka; ItlithaMi 
during that ftom olben which we ought not to eDdma 


SMgmr^ in Latin #i|f«rs, compounded of nA and 
/«■•, sigiiifies bearing up or firm underuealh ; h—r In 
Saxon *«r<m, old German her^M^ Latin /on'*, and Be- 
brew M13 to creaie ; radsrc, la LaUn mimn, slanifles 
10 harden or be hardened; siqiiMrt, fhm tlie LaUn ««• 
and vvrts, signifies lo carry up or to cany from under- 
neath ourselves, or to receive the weight. 

To#i|f«r is a passive and lavolaatary act; it de- 
notes simply the belaff a receiver of evil ; it is therefbre 
the condition of our being: lo *Mr is positive and vo- 
luntary * It denotes tbe manner in wblsa we receive tbe 
eviL *Man.*eayBtbePsahDiai,*lsbonilo#i|f«rtiyae 
the sparks fly upwards;* benoe the neeeority forns to 
learn to *s«r all the numeroos and diversified evils to 
which we are obnoxious; * Let a maa be brought imo 
some such severe and Irvina situation as fixes the at- 
tention of the publkk on his behaviour. The flrstqoea* 
Hon which we pat coneeming him Is not, what does be 
•ngert but how does be h»mr It 1 If we Judge blm to 
led and firm, resigned to providance, and 
by conscious IntcpHy, hie characier risai, 

Tbe former, 

foreni or jnod sense: t)ie latter la an indifihrent or bad 
aanae. When physicaUy applied pmtimt dem>tas the 
att of reeeiviiw impressions ftom external aaenls: 
hichls the best — " -'^'rrr 

• Wheat, wbkhls the best sort of irain, of which the 
paresl bread Is aiade, Is ^oltnuof heat and cold.*— 
Rat. PmHm Implies tbe siato of being acted upon by 
^uneraal agenia.; 

Ulgh above tbe ground 

Theta' march was, and the pattiv air upbore 

Their nimble tread.— Milton. 
In tbe moral application tbe distinction b tbe same ; but 
ptiumcs Is always a virtue, as it signifies the sufMig 
quietly that which cannot be remedied ; as there are 
many MMb evils incident to our condition, it has been 
~"t one of tbe flrat CbriiiiaB duties: /aemMSM U 

and his miseries lessen in our view.* — Bioia. 

TO kmr is a single act of the resolotlon, and rsiatas 
only to common Ills ; we k^mr •disaapolotaienia and 
Is a eontioiied and jwwerfUl act of 

llastfng pains both of 
Bgcr-and coM ; we <»- 

body and mind ; we a$tdmrt hungcr-i 
imrt provocations and aggravatioas ; lijs a maaingor 
oursdves,by ourown act, inaensible to exteraal evils ; 
' How miserable bis state who is condemned to «ad«r« 
at once thenuifK>f guilt and tbe vexations of calamity.* 
— BLAia. The first objea of education should be to 
accustom children to kemr contradictions and crosses, 
that tbev may afterward be enabled to radart every 
trial and misery. 

To h4mr and enimn signify to reeeHre becomingly 
ibewelgblofwbalbelbllsoiirBelveB: to smmti sign!, 
flea to*ssr eilber our own or another^ evjQs ; fbrwe 
may cither ^fT- -* nT.rvp*T^/»^ ^r be tvyj^rrUd J>y 
Otiiiir^ : Lvii iiL iJii- laiij-r ra-Jif tt u hmr ffEim Mat t^^m^ 
citj tvJiich b wtthiu ouni^ved: but we subpart om^ 
sev<^ by fbrt-ign %\^, that Ja, by ]\m eooiulaik'/is fit 
reSiuiiin, i\w. tMrtictEPAllcm and condnkaco of rrifiiHla, 
aiiil lb' liku. As Ldc titnJf BiRy be rsrJy and !frivdUkl|y 
IniJ LH d I'l A/df colli, )]itb|;(!r, nnd poin^ uuill \i ti cinMed 
io ni4Hrt t'Vfii ticruciauA^ nfioDiefl:; so may Uk niind 
be t>riiLi4lii, fiuifi Uari^g the royglnicwM of othcNf 
to»ip<'ni wlUi c>nijaii|}ririy, ar tbeunirltAaaiitiicwM^ljIcb 
daLl> iCLur wlUi fkittleurc, la rnduTt tJnir nimi^aL *com 
an] ii^nivucjxUon wlikh fiLinian in t lice cdji tn^tiit . Iiut 
wljzirf.visr II p«i^»iin may k^ar oi ttidmrt uf fiemftpiiJ in- 
0Qik^<.'r4k'Eiee, ifjcEu ilfc *ufrn^s ari^uif rrtim ths 
WtMiritk^ #fl^i.'*€iirjii?ort}ie fniiii wltlcli by no elTtPrti of 
our • I 111' El vtt thall be (Jii^ibk^d itj t^ppc^i ; jn itucli qio- 
m« 111::, w »r fi-f.^l tlie unpC^utftlilc valutioT rcJIgkiri, wJiJuJi 
puii^ Ufa In pi:idea«|i>ii uf tUe luvua* QtMv^p^riing eveiy 
sublunary pain; 

With Inward conaolattonereoompena'd 

And oft <Mp ^ < i - i i d .— MiLToa. 

Tbe words Mffer and Mdnrs are sahl only of peiaoM 
aiKl perKNial matters; to *Mr and tvppvrt are said 
also of iblnfB, signifying to receive a weight : In tbia 
case they differ princinaiily in tbe dMraeof weight i«. 
celved. To Uor la said of any weight, large or small, 
and either of tbe whole or any parloftfie weight ; nmi 
P0rt la said of a great weight and tbe whole we^ 
The beams or the foundation »car tbe weight of a 
bonse ; but tbeplllaia upon which It is raised, or sgaiMI 
wUeb it laana,sivy#rf the weight. ^^ 


OMlUmt signifies ready to obey, and 0ukmU»iv tbe 
dlspoaitloa to subodt ; •^ssfinnw, in Latia •^smvAut, 
ftom 0k*efHm'2 or the Intensive 0k and mmm* to fM- 
tow, signifies foUowbig diligently, or with fiuewliy of 

One is cbtSitni to tbe command, »nbwd99h0 to the 
power or the wlU, Utsfuioms to the person. 0*iri^ 
CMS is always taken in a good sense : one ought always 
to be sis dfsaf where sftsdisnes Isdue: siJMMienli 
Mlativelygoad: itnMv,bowiv«r,bataidiflbv«acdrladi 



OM B^r be mihmUH— ftoKi IntereMMl modtM, or 
netniMM of spirit, whleh li a (me kind of $Mkmi**ie>% ; 
buttobeMiHMMtv«foreoaeelenoe nkeiathebounden 
doty of ■ Cbriilieo: •k00fiu0unu0» is never good; it 
M an c Iff e wive coooem altout ttie will at aaotber, 
which has always interest Ibr its eod. 

Oktditnee Is a course of conduct caaformable either 
to some spedflclc rule, or the e&press will of another: 
jMlwiitiea is often a jmsonal act, isunediatel j directed 
to the lodividuaL We show our «*«di0iiM to the law 
hy avoiding the breach of it; we show oor sls di'mct to 
the wlU or God, or of our parent, by making that wiU 
the rule of our nfb; * The e^arfiniM of men is to imi- 
tate the 4ktdimte$ of angels, and rational beinp on 
earth are to live unto Oodas rational beioci in heaven 
live unto him.*— Law. On the other hand we show 
»mkmi»9itm to the penon of the magistrate ; we adopt 
a tmkmmi90 deportment by a downcast took and a 
beat body; 

Her at his feet, aukmitHvt in distress, 
He thus witbpeaoeAil words upralsU— Miltom. 
Oheikne^ Is Ibuadsd upon principle, and cannot be 

In vain thou bidet me to forbear, 
Oto^mct wen rebeWoa here.— Cowlbt. 

MmkmUtUm is a partial bending to anodier, wUeh Is 
easily aflboted In our outward behaviour ; 

In aO niAsUfsisn and humility, 

York doth present himself unto your highness. 
The wnder<andlBg and the heart produce the 0te- 
dicacs ; but foree. or the oeoessUjr of circumstances, 
give rise to the nJbmisaiom, 

Ot«dMMc« and ««Asiw«i#meuppoee a restraint ononis i 
own will, In order to bring It into accordance with that 
<^ another ; but 9it$^Mi0u*n«$9 is the consulting the 
will or pleasure of another : we are •ttditnt fhwi a 
sense of right; 

What generous Greek, •itiitni to thy word, 

Shall mm an ambush, or shall lift the sword. 


Weare tM^wtUHv ftom a sense of necessltv ; * The 
natives (of Britain) disarmed, dispirited, and «it^im>- 
«tv«, had lost all deelre, and even idea, of their former 
liberty.'— HuMB. We are ohtequunu fhun a desire of 
aalnlng fkvour ; * Adore not so the rislocson, that you 
lorget the fhtlier, who raised you to this height ; nor be 
you so ' * ' -^ - -•-— -•- •- ' ' 

to the 
love of God 

rtsptetful to others besides oitr parents, bhbough la 
them e*«4t«iie« and re^pert are iu the highest degree and 
in the first case due; yet servants are enjoined to be 
obedient to ibelr masters, wives to their husbands, and 
subkcts to their king ; * The okediene* of children to 
their parents Is the basis of all government, and set forth 
as the measure nfthat obedience which we owe to thoae 
whom Providence has i^ced over as.*— Admson. 

Respectful is a term of still greater latitude than 
either, for ss the chsracters of men as much as their 
stations demand reepeet, there Is a reepectful deport* 
ment due towards every Buperiour ;* Let your behavioor 
towards vour superlours In dignl^, age, learning, or any 
distlnguishod excellence, be ftill ofreofct and defe- 


Dntffy as we see in the preceding ssetion. eooi 
altogether of what is right or due fVom one being to 
other ; obUgmtion^ from the Latin oblige to bind, sig- 
nifies the bond or neceerity which lies In the thing. 

All dutp depends upon moral obligation which sub- 
sIstB between man and man, or between man and his 
Maker ; In this abstract sense, therefore, there can be 
no dutff without a previotuebUgalion, and where there 
Is an obligation it Involves a <nuy ; but in the vulgar 
acceptation, dvCy Is applicable to the conduct of men In 
their various relatlmw ; obligation only to particular 
circumstances or modes of action : we have dmtie* \o 
perform as psrcnts and children, as husbands and 
wives, as rulers and subjects, as nelghboufs and citl- 

you so oboofimia to the father, that you give Just 

- '" "" neglect him.'— Bac< 

)hedinuo to his Will ; thev 
are coincident sentlmenu ihat reciprocally act on each 

to suspect that you neglect nim.'— Bacon. 
od Is followed W obedioneo to bis Will; 1 

other, so as to serve the cause of virtue : a tubmitnve 

conduct Is at the worst an invohintanr sacrifice of our 

I or necessities, the evil of 

which Is confined principally to the Individual who 

Independence to our feais < 

The ways of Heav'n, judg'd by a private I 
Is often what's our private interest. 
And therefore those who wouM that will obey 
Without their interest must their dair weigh. 

The debtor is under an «Mifat{en to dischar|{C debt; 
and he who has promised is under an obbgation to 
ftilfil his promise: a consrientious man, therefore, 
never loses sl^ of the obligatione which he has at diF 
ferent times to discharge; *No man can be under an 
obligation to believe any thing, who hath not sufllcient 
means whereby he may be assured that such a thing Is 
true.'— TiLLOTsoB. 

The daly is not so peremptorras the«Mif alt«« ; the 
obligation is not so lasting as the dutf . our aflbctloos 
Impel us to the discharge of daty ; Interest or necessity 
Impels as to the discharge of an obligation : It may 
therefore osmetimes happen that the man whom a sense 
ofdmtf cannot acmate to do that wUch fai right, will 
not be able to withstand the sft^f«<*M under which be 

makes the sacrifice ; but oboefutouonue Is a voluntary 
sacilfiee of all that is noble In man to base gain, the 
evil of which extends (br and wide: the oniwttoeivo 
man, however mean be may be in himself, does not 
contribute to the vices of ethers: but the oboofmoua 
man has no scope for his paltry talent, but anaoog the 
weak and wicked, whose weakness he profits by, and 
whose wickedness he encourages. 

DmiifM algBlfies fuU of asense of duty, or fuU of 
what MonfB to duty; obodtont^ ready lo obey; ro- 
gmoetful^ ftilT of respect. 

The obsdmu and rotpoctful are but modes of the 
dutifml : we may be duttftd without being either obe- 
dient or reepeetful ; but we are so for dutiful as we are 
either obedient or reapeetfui. Dutjf denotes what is 
diie (Vom one being to another ; It is Independent of all 
circumstances: obedienio and reopoa are relaUve dmtiae 
depending upon the character and statioii of IndlTi- 
; as we owe to ao one on earth so much as to our 
, we are said to be duti/^ to no earthly being 
; and In order to deserve the name oCduttfuL a 
child durii« the pwlod of his childhood, ought to make 
ft parent's will to be hla law, and at no future period 
ott|ht that will ever to be an obiect of Indiflbrence; 
•F^ one croal parent we meet wkh a thoomnd aada- 
/i^ chUdrao.'— Ammob. W« may N a^sdtait and 


The original meaning of comply and ffield will be 
exirfained under the h«ul of Recede ; conform^ com- 
pounded of eoa and/«rsi, signifies to put inm the same 
form ; eubmit, in Latin eubmittot compounded of eub 
and wutto^ sirnifies to put under, that Is to say, to put 
one's self under another person. 

Complimnee and eon/ormitif are voluntary ; fiolding 
and eubmi*ei»n are Involoniary. 

Cow^liamee Is aa act of the inclination : eonformitf 
nm act of the judgement : compliamee is aliogether op- 
tloaal ; we tomplf with a thing or not at pleasure: 
eotiformitf la Mnding on the conscience ; It relates to 
matters in which there Is a right and a wrong. Com- 
p<i«u«wlth the fashions and customs of those we live 
with is a natural propensity of the human mind that 
maybe mostly indulged without Impropriety; * I would 
not be thought in any part of this reloiion to reflect upon 
Slgnor Nicolini, who In acting this part only compUet 
with the wretched taste of his audience.'— Aodison. 
Oonformitf In religious matters, though not to be en- 
forced by human authority, Is not on that account less 
binding on the consciences of every member in the 
commuiUty ; the neglect of this duty on trivial grounds 
Involves In It the violation of more than one branch of 
the moral law ; * Being of a lay profcsrion, I humbly 
conform to the constituilons of the church end my 
spiritual superionrs, and I hold this obedience to be an 
acceptable sacrifice to God.*— Howbl. Complianeeo 
«M MMiaeciaesoulpable,bulceV'enn% at '«4M«lutha 




; 'TbetctioMtowliiebtlw 

we iiiM wbkh fiwMt 

otwnwl expectatiom. 

Cn^UsmM sod cM^tfrantif are prodnoed by no ez- 
iMMl actkm OD the mind : tbey flow epontaiieoaely 
fVom the wUI and uoderaUodiac: yiMing toaUogeCber 
tbe result of foreifnaceocy. We c^m^ with a wlab 
aeeoonaaitiskoown; it aoeorda with our feeUna ao 
todo. w« fMd to the entreatleB of othen; It it the* 
efltec of perauaeloOf a eoincraint upon the incUnatioD. 
We tt^fi/rm to the reculatioos of a commuoi^, It la a 
matter of dtocretioo; we yteM to the superiour Judge- 
meot or power of another, we have no choice or alter- 
■attve. We eMijify cheer Ailly; we c«V«rM willingly; 
we yicM reluctantly* 

To jfidd is to five way to another, either with one's 
win, ooe*s Judgement, or one*s outward coodua: nk- 
■litfiMi is the ^vlng npef one's self ahogether; Histhe 
mbslitutlon of another's will tot one's own. YieUUng 
Is partial ; we may yidd in one case or in one action, 
- though hot la anetber: nbmutien is general ; it in- 
cludes a system of conduct 

We yiald when we do not resist ; this may sometiroea 
Iw the act of a superiour: we submit only by adopting 
fhe measures and conduct proposed to us ; this is always 
the act of an Inforiour. titUmf may be produced by 
■Mans more or leas gentle, by entldng or Insinuating 
■rta,orby thefbreeofaigument; •ii*flu«tfi9ii is made 
only to power or positive force: one fieUU after a 
struggle; one mMU without resistance: we fMd to 
•niMlvcs or ethers; we nikwut to othen only : it Is s 

is to VMM either to the sumstions of others or 
our own inclinsttons to do that which our Judgemenui 
eondoaui4 It Is a ft>Uy to §nimit to the caprtoe of any 
one where there is not a moral obligation: ttlsobstinacy 
not to vmU when one's adversary has the advantage ; 
It Is rinAil not to nkmit to constituted authorities ; 
^There has been along dispute for precedency between 
the tragick and the herolck poets. Aristotle would have 
the latter fi«U the paat to the former, but Mr. Dryden 
and many others would never M^aiii to this decUoiL' 
— AnmsoR. 

A cheerftal eea^'aaes with the request of a Mead la 
tile aincereat proof of IHanddiip; 

Let the king meet tammUmnct In your looka, 
A ftee and ready ffWrfiy tohla wlahaa.— Rowb. 
The wlaeat and moat learned of men have ever been 
the readieat to ctfVorm to the general aense of the com- 
tnunlty in which they live ; 

Among mankind ao few there are 

Who will €0itf0rm to phUosopfaick Are.— Damaii . 

The harmony of social life Is firequently disturbed by 
the raluctaoee which men have to fisld to-each other ; 
* That yMldtiifiMts, whatever ibnadatlons It might lay 
to the disadvantage of posterity, was a specilck to 
preserve us In peace for his own time.*— Loan Bauwaz. 
The order of civil society is frequently destroyed by the 
want of proper smbmutitn to superlours ; ' Christian 
people mbmit themselves to c«v#rai«U« observances 
of the lawful and religious cooMtutlons of their spi- 
ritual rulers.*— Whtts. 


As epHhets (twn the pcecedtaig verbs, serve to desig- 
ame a prapensUy to the respective acttons mostly in ao 
aieesslve or improper degree. 

A c^mf UmU temper e^mpUM with evenr wish of 
another good or bad, 

Be silent and cM^^TMr; youll soon find 
Sir John without a medicine will be kind. 

A fUUbag temper leans to every opinion right or 
wrong; * A peac e able temper supposes yiMing and 
condescending manners.* — Bi^ia. A rubmiggne tem- 
per tuHdu to every demand, Just or unjust ; ' When 
force and violence and bard necessity have brought the 
yoke of servitude upon a people's neck, xdlgioa will 
supply them with a patient and aubmuHve spirit.* — 

A tvmpUmnt person wants command of fbding ; a 
fiddiuf person wants flxedneaa of principle; mmb- 
aiit«ie« peraoo wanta reaolntloo: a c^wji/iaaf dlspoai- 
tloo win be imposed upon by the selfish and uarea- 
ftxiaMt; afM«bv<)WMM(Niif iDoet onflt ft>r com 

to the egaertnas of tynmay. 



^sesds, In Latin acc sds, compo un ded of as or ad 
aodc«dstogooreoiDa,sigiiillss to comeorflditaitoa 
thing ; consent. In French emumttir^ Lattai ttn§tmli0, 
compounded or eea together and MtOw le Ibel, sigitffles 
to feel In unison with another ; ces^p^r comas probab^ 
fhMn the French —a yl a ii s, LatiB assipfasM, aign^ 
fyinc 10 be pleased Inuaiaoawtthaaother; sifiinfc 
in Freiieh acyMMesr, Latin acfakMs, fomponnded 
of scored and futfateo, sigalOas <o be eaqr about or 
contented wtth « thing; ^grtt, in French a#rdsr, li 
most probably derived fhw «be Latin gt 
word etmgrw0t signifying loneoord or suit 

We acc«d0 to what others propose to us by fUtaf 
in with their ideas : we cmumx* to what others wlan 
by authorising it: we c es y ip with what Is aaked of na 
1^ allowing It, or no| hindering It: we mtfuiuu in 
what is buteted by aceepting tt, and conftw min g toM: 
we afrss to what Is proposed bj admitting and em 

We oblect to thoee Ihingi to which we do not aMidt .* 
we refuse those things to which we do not esassal,ar 
with which we will not cntply : we oppose thoai 
things In which we will not mcpAuu : we oiapute thai 
to which we will not a^rss. 

To tctde is the unoonsirained action of an eqaal; 
it is a matter of discretion: osassaC and c es y ip sup- 
pose a degree of superiority, at leaM the power of pro- 
venting : they are acts of good nature or ctvIU^ ; a»- 
qtduee fanpUes a degree of submission, it Is a matter of 
prudence or necessity: afrse Indicates an aversion to 
disputes ; it respects the uumony of social InteroounN. 

Members of any community ought to be willing 10 
accede to what Is the general win of tbeir associates; 
* At laat persuaaioa, menaces, and the impending prea- 
aure of necesalty, conquered her virtue, and she se- 
ceded to the fVaud.*— CuMBBELAiro. Parenta should 
never be induced to content to any thing wUch maj 
prove iojorious to their chUdren ; 

My poverty, but not my will cMU«al«.—CtauxsraAms 
People ought not 10 eMRpiy hidlscrlminaieiy with what 
Is requeeted of them ; ' IncltBalion will at length ooma 
over to reason, though we can never fbrce reason lo 
etmflm with InclinatloB.'— AnmaoN. In aM matten 
of (Ullerence it la a happy otrBumstanee when tba 
parties wiU ac f ai ss c s in the Judgement of an umpha; 
*Thia we ou^ to aofatesce in, tliat the Bovereig a 
Being, the groat Author of Nature, baa In bbn an poa- 
alble perfeeHen.*— AnmsoN. D lf l br enc es will soon ba 
terminaled wbenthereisawHIhigneestos/ree; *We 
Infbnt as the orphan son of a dl» 

ngrmd to adopt the 
tant relatifm of our own 


npaiad with 

In the former section ngrec Is eom p aiad with _ 
that are employed only Ibrtbina; in the preeent caaa 
It is compared with words as tney 
sons only. 

Agree implies a general 
ee together and the Lathi raetde to fbU, Implies a' 
Ing In a certain point; emuemr^ fhm era togetiier, and 
emrre to run, Implies a ruanlng in the aaae eaurae, an 
acting together on the aame pandplee. 

4lTae denoiea aetata of raat; estfncMk and eencar a 
atate of motion, tither tosrarda or with another. 

A gr e e men t h either the voiuntaiy or Involuntary aet 
of persons in general ; eemciiente is tlie voluntary bat 
casual aa of^lndivlduals, iIm act ef one fultng into 
the opinion of another ; ceacaii t a es Is the faMenttonal 
positive aet of Indlvidaals ; it la the aetof onenuthor» 
tsiag the opbdona and meaaurea of another. 

Men of like education and temperament rngrm npon 
most subjects; 

Since an ngree^ who both with Judcement rand, 

'Tlatheaameaun, anddoeahiinsdur aucoeed. ' 

People cannot expect olhan lo r ein tiit with th«iy 

•Vide Abbe Girard: *'Conant|r, poqpliieer, nd- 
bercr, tomber d'acord. 



tdvoMom; 'Tben !■ 

DC perhapi uijr couple wImm dk^oMam aod relWi 

of lira are to perfectly liiiiilar uMuu their wills con 

■tantly coi»eid«,^—H^WKmnwoKTa. Tlie wiser part 
of manidiid are taclcwani in eoneurring In any 
■ebernea wblch are not warranted by experience; 
«Tbe plan iMlng tlHM eoocarted, and my eouin'a cmi- 
tmrrtHM obtained, k wae imiaedlaiely pfit la ezecv- 

ifaM. '— HaWKBB WOETB. 

Wben enneidt and oMcur are conildered In tbtir 
•ppHcatioB to tbtaA the tbrmer tnpNee simply meet- 
ing at a polnCi tbe lattar nmnlng towards a point ; tbe 
former seems to exclude tbe idea of deslfn, tbe latter 
•hat of chance : two sides of dUlbient triangleB $»im- 
vkiM when they are applied to each other so as to fUl 
on the same points; two iwwers ttmaw when they 
' etbesamfl 


both act so as to prodoce 

A findUmtu oT elreumstanoes Is 
striking ind singular that It can hardly be attributed 
to pore accident; *A e^tmeiimct of sentiment may 
eanly happen without any oomoranicatlon, since there 
are many oecasloos in which aB reasonable men will 
nearly iMalt alike.*— JoaNsow. A eonevrrmee of 
etooumstaneea, which seemed aO to be formed to com- 
bine, Is sometimes notwltlistanding purely casual; 
• Brntoeaee of aiatkm, greatness of dfoct, and all the 
Ibvouni of fortune, must mkcvt to place excellence In 
pubUck ▼lew.'--JoBjiaoN. 


Agrumnd signifies what is agreed to (v. To agret) ; 
€afntracty in French ceiUracte, from the Latin eontroc- 
IM, pardclple of amtrako to bring dose together or 
bind, signiAes the thing thus contracted or bound ; 
entMnU^ In French avaumUy Latin ccrnvntnu^ parti- 
ciple of MutMiiM to meet together at a point, siiptifles 
the point at which several meet, that is, the ttiiog 
agreed upon by many ; cowaact, in Latin cMq»actK«, 
pariiciple of eesmaii^o to 1>um1 close, signifies the thing 
to which people bind themselTes dose ; bmrfumt from 
fbe Welsh kargtm to contract or deal for, stgnifies the 
act of dealing, or the thing dealt for. 

An mg r §0w u i u is general, and appHes to tnAsactions 
af erery dea cr lpt i on, but particularty such as are made 
between single indlTiduus ; In cases where the other 
terms are not so applleable; a eontraet Is a binding 
mgrmmtiU between Indlvidoals; a simple ugrtmmau 
may be verbal, but a eantract must be written and 
legally executed: e«eM«iit and t^mpaet are cfrcs- 
msnte among communities ; the etmouant is eommonly 
a national and publick transaetloo ; the eomprnd re- 
apeets Individuals as memben of a eommunity, ot 
eommuniHes with each other: the Urgmin, in its 
er ssnse, la an m gr tam mt eoMy in matlen of 
e; iMit appHes flguraltveiy In the sane asnae to 
other objects. 

The simple consent of parties constitutes an mgrf- 
wumt ; a seal and signature are requisite for a c&nr 
Wmi : a solemn engagement on the one hand, and 
foHh In that engagement on the other hand, enter taito 
the nature of a etvmamt ; a tacit aease of mutual 
obligation in all the parties gives virtue to a compcet ; 
an asseni to stlfNiiated tenns of sale may form a 

Friends make an •grmmmt to meet at a certain 
time; *FrQg had given Bis word that lie would meet 
tbe ebove-montioned company at the Salutation, to 
talk of this iLrrennMU.'->ARBtrmiiOT (Hutorf •/ 
J0kn Bmit), Two tradesmen enter tolo a tpntrmet to 
carry on a joint trade ; *It is hnpoanible to see the long 
scrolls in which every ctmtrmet is included, with all 
their api<endafes of seals and ntlescattona, without 
wondering attbe depravity of tboee beings, who must 
ba reamiined from violation of promise, by such formal 
and publick evidenc«B.*--Joninoif. Tlie people of 
Bagland made a Mvcnenx with King Charles L enUlied 
the solemn covenant ; 

These flaahea of lAne fightning gave the sign 

Of e0»mmmU broke ; three peaii of thunder Join. 

in the soclacy of Free ma sons, every individual is 
bound tosecrecy by a solemn ecmpact ; * In the begin- 
alngs and flrat estabU^ment of speech, there was an 
Unftfldt ceayact among men, founded upon common 

It ioch andMeh irorisormofleib^ 
actkms or gestures, should be means or signs whereby 
they would exprem or convev their thoughts one to 
another.'— South. The trading part of the conuno- 
ntty are continually striking bm-gmiM» ; * We see men 
ftvquently dexterous and narp enough in making a 
*«r/am, who, if you reason with them about matten 
of religion, appear perfectly stupid.*— Locks. 

Tbe first two of these epithets approach so near in 
sense and appUcaiioo, that they can with propriety be 
used indifl^reiitly, the one for tbe other ; yet there Is 
an occasional dinermce which may be clearly defined ; 
the agr—dbU is that which agrees with or suits the 
character, temper, and feelings of a person : the plf 
i ' T^nt whfcn fileasr^ ; the pha^img tliat wLictl la 

4anr : iiCLppkc tyt iIm' #f»U!r««t etui Emvaii cj>armct«r 
ftmjr laik of pun^n^ ^grtsAhl* Ijouri, vr cnju^lrhg 
ugr^m^l* VK^ty, if tlwjM lu^iira w«rrf ^useA ^trft*- 
iJilv to their turn of mthil, cu tlim ««Ecil> v, liudii tuiu^ 
iheir lOAte; ^ To dlven irte, I toolt up i Vbluuic of 
BriBfcfptTBinf, wXiViti X <\t^is<*^ ru ti<9C my «^e 4ipos a 
T-nkPt LA Lhr iriLfieiJf Qt BJcharJ ihe Thrrd, wJikb filled 
irjy luiDkl wUh Oil t^gttti^U tk>rTuiir,^^^TJfCLiE+ The 
y<i»urj^ niLd ibe piy wUl ^Ti^tvr pLutM^nt mejety, 
vu uciiy «u4 DiLflb prevail, i»iilijibl« to U^e loue « 

PU*9miu the sun 

When fimt on this delightfol land he spreads 

His orient beama— Miltoh. 

A man Is agntabU who by a soft and eaiy addram 
contributes to the amusement of others ; a man Is 
plsoMtmt who to this softness adds aflkbUlty and com- 

PUanng marks a sentiment less vivid and dlstinctivn 
tlian either; 

Nor this atone t* indulge a vain delist, 
And make a pteunng praspect for toe sight. 


A^IsM^ voice baa aometUng In it which we like; 

-^ugruabU~ " '" '*" ~ "' 

leear. ApUatinMt 
and contentment; it satisfies us when we view it: a 


bU voice strikes with positive pleasure upon 
A pUatiMM countenance denotes tranquiUiljr 

pU%§«aU countenance bespeaks happinem ; it gratUlea 
the beholder, and invites him to behold. 


Agrm (e. TV agrf) is here used In appNeaflon to 
thinis In which It fai allied ; to accord, in French se- 
cfffwr, from the Latin chorda the string of a harp, 
rigniflea the same as to attune or foln in tune; and 
MHt, ftom the Latin «eeirtitf , participle of geqwar to 
foltow, signiflee to be in a line, in the order as it ought 

An agrmmnt between two tilings requires an en- 
tire samenesa; an accMtteuce supposes a considerable 
resemblance; a niuMnuM* ImpUes an aptitude to 

Opinions agrmi fteHngs aeeordy and tempore ntH. 

Two statements agrt which are in all remecis 
alike : that accord* with our foclings, which produces 
pleasurable seneatloos ; that omU$ our ta»tc, which we 
wish to adopt, or In adopting gives us pleasure. 

Where there is no agrtomtnt in the essentials of 
any two accounts, their authenticity may be greatly 
questioned : if a representation of any thing accord* 
with what has been stated from other quarters, It 
serves to corroborate : it is advisable that the ages and 
stations as well as tempera of the parties should be 
tnitahUy who look forward for happiness in a matri- 
monial connexton. 

Where there is no agreomgni of opinion, there can 
be no assimilation or habit; where there is no ac- 
cordance of sound, tliere can be no harmony ; when 
there Is no oaitabilitg of temper, there can be no co-ope- 

When opinions do not agiye^ men must agree to 
dlfller: the precepts of our Saviour accord with the 
tenderest as well as tbe noblest feelings of our nature : 
when the humoun and dlspoaittona of people do not 



tmk, thqrdo winly aoC to bare any taiacoane with 

The laiml and the myrtle iweets ajrr««.->DmTDBif. 
'Metre aide and is adapted to tbe memory ; it accord* 
to mosiclc, and it the vehicle of enUiusiasm.* — Ci'mukr- 
LAMD. ' Rollo followed, in tl>e partition of his states, 
tbe customs of the feudal law, which was then uni- 
versally estaMlsbed In the souUiem countries of Eu- 
rope, and which sutted the peculiar circuuistancet of 
the age.'— Huiuc. 


OnwsiMiU, ttom the Latin cm««imiw, participle of 
€9% and $0no to sound together, signifles to sound, or 
be, in unison or hannony ; mtirdmmty from acctrd (o. 
TV ^gr0€)^ signifles tbe quality of according ; con. 
aiitmUy flrmn the Latin etntiHena^ participle of csn- 
sift*, or esm and mto to place together, rignilles tbe 
qoallty of being able to stand in nnison together. 

ConMvnmnt Is employed in matters of representation ; 
aeetrdmnU in matters of opinion or sentiment; eoit- 
tUUmt in matters of conduct. A particular passage Is 
emu9mm»t with the whole tenour of the Scriptures; a 
particular accoum Is mcfrdant with all one bears and 
sees on a tul^ect ; a person's eondoct Is not always 
emaiMUnt wHh his station. 

The ewnaanmnee of the whole Scriptures, In tbe Old 
and New Teatamenta, with record to the character, 
dignity, and mission of our Blessed Savloar, has 
lusUy given birth to that form which constitutes the 
established religion of England: *Ourfoiih inthedls- 
eoverles of the Gospel will receive confirmation from 
dtaeemlng their e^nMnance with the natural senti- 
ments of the human hearL'— Blair. Tbe muardmne* 
of the nrofrtieclea respecting our Saviour with tbe 
itofbteMrtr "' • - . 

I Mrtb, life, and suflferlnn,are incontestable 
evidences of his being tlie true Messiah; *The dlf- 
forence of good and evil In actions is not founded on 
arbitrary opinions or insthations, but In tha nature of 
tillogs, and the nature of man ; it mceords with tbe 
nniverBal sense of the human raind.*--BLAiR. The 
emfisteiuf of a man*s practice with his profession is 
the only criterion of his sincerity ; 
Keep one emuistmt plan ttom end to end.— AomsoM. 
OmsMMMt la opposed lo dissonant; scesrdoMt to 
dhKordant ; etmnatent to Inconsistent. Oonavm^nee is 
not so positive a thing as eitlier aetardmmcs or e«n- 
aiHmeih which respect real erents, circumstances, 
and actions. C anf a mnei mostly serves to prove tbe 
truth of any thing, but iutanmtca doca not prove its 
lUsebood until it amounts to direct discardanee or m. 
eansutenew. Ttiere Is a ditaonanee in the accounts 
given liy tne four Evangelists of our Saviour, wliich 
serves to'prove the absence of an coOuslon and impos- 
tore, since there is neither ^ifMntasM nor tiMeMMtsncy 
In what tbey haT* related or omitted. 


Owi gtfisf» , la Latfai sswa7»rtii», particinie of eMk- 

ciiis; and ressncafe. In Latin rttmuUU^ Voth come 

from eoneUinm a council, denoting nnlQr and harmonjr. 

O n ciVisfs and raeaueiU are both eaoployed in tbe 

^ bat under diflbrent 

B of uniting men's aflbctions, I 


The emtcaUAar gels the good wiU and aflecttons for 
himself; the raciuiUr unites tbe aflbetkma of two 
persons to eaoh other. Tbe coneiUuUr may ehber 
gain new aflectiona, or regain those which are lost; 
the rteoneUer always renews afiections which bare 
been once lost. Tbe best means of concUiatiMg esteem 
ia by rtunuUing all that are at variance. 

CemeiUatt Is mostly employed for men In publick 
alatlona: *Tha preacher nwy eoforoe bis doctrines in 
tba style of antboriiv, for It is his profession to sammon 
Mankind to their daty; but an uncommissioned In- 
strocter win stady to etneOisie while he attempts to 
•orreet.'— CiTimaLAKD. ilceeiictl^ is tndiflbrentJy em- 
ployed for tboae In puWk:k or private staHons; 'He 
cBamaMnd) not onhr attahied Ms purpose of nniting 
distant partiea to each other, but, contrary to tbe usual 
flue of raeandUrt^ gained them to hhnself.'— Fkli» 
Men la power have sometimes the happy opportunity 
aTssa rWaN i y tba food will of tlma who are moat 

avene to their aatbority, and tiMM rsssagflay tiiea lo 
measures which would otherwise be odioas. 

K indues* and condescension serve to c— ctfistt; • 
IHeodly influence, or a weli-iimed exercise of authori- 
ty, is ollen successfully exerted in raemuilJMg'. Cam- 
cUimU is employed only for pereoos. or that which la 
perMNial ; but raeaneiUmgiaako employed In tlie swaa 
of brioging a peraon's tnoaghts or feellnp in uniaon 
with tlie things that he has imM Uked before, or might 
be expected aot to like : * It must be conib sse d abappy 
attachment, which can rsc#Mt/« the Lapla n de r to h» 
freeslag snows, and tlia Aftican to his saorcbing sun.* 
— CcMaaaLAJW. 

Omp&tibUt oonpounded of eesi or cion with, and 
^ottsr to aaflbr, signifles a fitness to be soffbred together ; 
ssMMStsiU, in Latin camaistm*^ participle of eatuisU^ 
compounded of osn and jmIs, to plaea, ligiiiflca tba 
fitness to be placed togetliar. 
CtmpmtiMHf has a prlnaipal reference to plana and 
sasures; tmaiatmef to character, coodnct, and sta* 
tloo. Every thing is cmm^aXikU with a plan which 
does not interrupt its prosecution ; every thing is cm- 
n$Ua^ wkh a peraon's station by wblch it is neither 
degraded nor elevated. It Is not c^mpatikU with tha 
good discipline of a school to aUow of foreign IntaDer. 
ence ; * Whatever Is meamjtBtikla with tbe highest dig. 
nity of our nature sboukl indeed be excluded Irom our 
conversation.*— UAWEBswoa-m. It is not eatuiatmU 
with the elevated and dignlfled ebaracter of a cleigy- 
mantoangan tai tbe oidioary pyssuits of otiier man ; 
'Truth is aTwaya emiauUMi with itaeU; and naadi 
nothing to lielp it out.'— Tuxotsom. 


/nsMulsCsiit, ftom sisCs to place, nlhrka tbe nnfitneai 
of being plaeed together ; imciM^Tttoiw, (h>m eenjme 
to suit, laarfcB tbe imsuitablenesi of one tbinc to an. 
otfier ; inftmramt, trook hm'm to sUek, marks me Inca- 
pacity of two things to coalesce or be united to each 

AKMsiftency attacbea eUber to tbe aatkns or aenU 
meats of man : huangmity attaches to the modes and 

aualities of things ; ineaktramcp to words or thooghts : 
lings are made tncontitUnt by an act of tbe wlU ; a 
man acts or thinks ineemntUntif^ according to bis own 
pleasure ; * Every Individual is so uneoual to himself 
that man seems to be tbe most wavering and imeam- 
MtKntbeing in tbe universe.'— Hoaaas. Hc&mgrwiiff 
depends upon tbe natnre of the tUnp; there is soaaa 
thing very mcas^nMitf la Mending tbe solemn and 
decent service of the eharch with the extravaniit rant 
of Methodis m ; 'The solemn introduction of the Pb<». 
nix, in the last scene of Sampson Agonistea, Is inttm 
rniau* to tbe personage to wliom It Is ascribed.*— 
JOHNSON. Inecheranee marits tlie want of coherenoa 
in that which ought to follow in a train ; extemporary 
efiUsions from tbe pulpit are often disiinguishea moot 
by their incoherence ; ^Be but a person in credit with 
the multitude, he shall be able to make rambUng tace- 
kerent stufiT pass for high rhetorick.'— Sotrro. 


Ca^f^rmmkU signifies able to eemfona (v. TV eesi* 
jMf ), uiat Is, having a sameness of form ; agrteahU, 
tbe quality of being able to agrte (e. T