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ENGLISH TABLE GLASS 



NEWNES' LIBRARY OF 




THE APPLIED ARTS 



Frontispiece 



PLATE I 




EIGHTEENTH CENTURY GLASSES. 
Typical Examples of the Five Main Groups 

- 3 - Air Twist Stem. 

2 " lnhes> l ' Baluster Stem. Height, 6| inches, 

i ein< Hei ^ ht ' 6 ^ inches ' 5 ' Cut Stem. 

J inches. Height, 6 inches. 



ENGLISH 

TAB LE 

GLASS 







XO N > O 

GEORGE NE,WNES LIMITED 

JbuftoEBMbra Jgreefr iJ*fycmd; W?G. 

3STB^T YOR.K. 
CHARLES SCBLlBNEBlS SOKS 



I \ 




574.3 



MARY BATE 

You planted the seed 

So the blossom's your own : 
Be it flower, be it weed 
You planted the seed, 
If it please you to read 

You will see how i?s grown 
You planted the seed. 

So the blossom's your own ! 



CONTENTS 



CHAPTER PAGE 

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS ix 

I. INTRODUCTORY AND PREFATORY i 

II. GLASSES OF THE SIXTEENTH AND SEVENTEENTH 

CENTURIES 20 

III. EIGHTEENTH-CENTURY GLASSES : THEIR NUMBER 

AND CLASSIFICATION 24 

IV. WINE GLASSES : BALUSTER STEMS AND PLAIN STEMS 33 
V. WINE GLASSES: AIR-TWIST STEMS .... 39 

VI. WINE GLASSES: OPAQUE WHITE AND COLOURED 

TWISTS COLOURED GLASSES CUT STEMS . . 48 

VII. ALE GLASSES AND OTHER TALL PIECES ... 58 
VIII. GOBLETS, RUMMERS, CIDER, DRAM, AND SPIRIT 

GLASSES 65 

IX. CANDLESTICKS, DECANTERS, SWEETMEAT GLASSES, 

TRAILED PIECES, ETC 74 

X. METHODS OF DECORATION 81 

XI. FRAUDS, FAKES, AND FORGERIES : FOREIGN GLASS . 88 

XII. INSCRIBED AND HISTORIC GLASSES .... 96 

INDEX 123 



b vii 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

With the exception of the four glasses figured on Plate LI, which 
are forgeries, all the illustrations without initials after their 
number in this list are from the collection of the author. The 
initials indicating ownership are to be read as follows : 

F.W.A. = Major F. W. Allan. 

B.M. = British Museum. 

J.T.C. = Mr. J. T. Cater, 

p. = Dr. Perry. 

R.P. = Mrs. Rees Price. 

PLATE TO FACE PAGE 

I. Eighteenth Century Glasses ; Typical Examples of the 
five main groups: No. i, Baluster Stem; No. 2, 
Plain Stem; No. 3, Air Twist Stem; No. 4, 
White Twist Stem ; No. 5, Cut Stem Frontispiece 

ii. English Drinking Glass, A.D. 1586. Made in London 

by Jacob Verzelini B.M. 22 

in. Wine Glasses, Group I, Baluster Stems, Nos. 6, 7, 8, 

9 10 -32 

iv. Wine Glasses, Group I, Baluster Stems, Nos. u, 

I2R.P., ISR.P 33 

v. Wine Glasses, Group I, Baluster Stems, Nos. I4R.P., 

15, 16 . ... .34 

vi. Wine Glasses, Group I, Baluster Stems with Domed 

Feet, Nos. 17, i8R.P., 19, 20R.P., 2iR.p. . . 35 
vn. Wine Glasses, Group II, Plain Stems, Nos. 22, 23 R.P., 

24, 25, 26 ... . .36 

ix 



ENGLISH TABLE GLASS 

PLATE TO FACE PAGE 

viii. Wine Glasses, Group II, Plain Stems, Nos. 27, 28, 

29, 3o> 3i R - p - -37 

ix. Wine Glasses, Group II, Plain Stems with Domed 

Feet, Nos. 32 R.P., 33, 34*.?-, 35 3& 

x. Wine Glasses, Group II A, Incised Twist Stems, Nos. 

36, 37i38R.P-, 39 R - P - 39 

xi. Wine Glasses, Group III, Air Twist Stems, Drawn, 

Nos. 40, 41 R.P., 42 R.P., 43 R.P., 44R.P. . . 40 
xii. Wine Glasses, Group III, Air Twist Stems, Drawn, 

Nos. 45 R.P., 46 R.P., 47, 48 R.P 41 

xin. Wine Glasses, Group III, Air Twist Stems, Drawn, 

Nos. 49R.P., 50, SIR.P., 52R.P 42 

xiv. Wine Glasses, Group III, Air Twist Stems, Drawn, 

Nos. 53, 54, 55, 56, 57 . . .43 

xv. Wine Glasses, Group III, Air Twist Stems, Drawn, 
and with Domed Feet, Nos. 58R.P., 59, 60, 

61 R.P., 62 R.P. . 44 

xvi. Wine Glasses, Group III A, Air Twist Stems, not 

Drawn, Nos. 63R.P., 64R.P., 65R.P., 66 . . 44 
xvn. Wine Glasses, Group III A, Air Twist Stems, not 

Drawn, Nos. 67 R.P., 68 R.P., 69 R.P., 70 R.P., 7 1 R.P. 45 
xvni. Wine Glasses, Group III A, Air Twist Stems, not 

Drawn, Nos. 72, 73, 74R.P., 75 R.P., 76 . .46 
xix. Wine Glasses, Group III A, Air Twist Stems, not 
Drawn, Nos. 77 R.P., 78 R.P. ; Group III B, Mixed 
Twist Stems, not Drawn, 79, 80, 8 1 . . . 47 
xx. Wine Glasses, Group IV, White Twist Stems, Nos. 

82R.P., 83, 84R.P., 85R.P. . . . .48 
xxi. Wine Glasses, Group IV, White Twist Stems, Nos. 

86, 87R.P., 88R.P., 89, 90 50 

xxn. Wine Glasses, Group IV, White Twist Stems, Nos. 

91, 92 R.P., 93, 94, 95 51 

xxiii. Wine Glasses, Group IV, White Twist Stems, Nos. 

96, 97 R.P., 98, 99, 100 ... .52 

X 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

PLATE TO FACE PAGE 

xxiv. Wine Glasses, Group IVA, Coloured Twist Stems, 

Nos. 101 R.P., 102, 103, 104, 105 . . . 54 
xxv. Wine Glasses, Group V, Cut Stems, Nos. 106, 

107, 108, 109, no 55 

xxvi. Wine Glasses, Group V, Cut Stems, Nos. in, 

H2R.P., HSR.?., H4R.P., 115 . . .56 
xxvii. Ale Glasses, etc., Baluster Stems, Nos. 116, 

H7R.P., 118 58 

xxvin. Ale Glasses, etc., Plain and Air Twist Stems, 

Nos. 119, 120, 121 60 

xxix. Ale Glasses, etc., Air Twist and White Twist 

Stems, Nos. 122 R.P., 123, 124 R.P. . . .61 
xxx. Ale Glasses, etc., Air Twist and Cut Stems, Nos. 

I25R.P., I26R.P., 127 62 

xxxi. Goblet, Baluster Stem, No. 128 . . . . 64 
xxxn. Goblet, Baluster Stem, No. 129 . . .65 
XXXIIL Goblet, Drawn Stem, No. 130; Liqueur Glass, 

Drawn Stem, No. 131 66 

xxxiv. Rummers, Four Types of Stems Plain Stem, No. 
132; Air Twist Stem, No. 133; White Twist 
Stem, No. 134; Cut Stem, No. I35R.P. . . 67 
xxxv. Two Handled Cup, No. 136; Rummers, Nos. 

I37R.P., 138 68 

xxxvi. Rummers, etc., Nos. 139, I4OR.P., I4IR.P. . . 69 
xxxvn. Mugs or Tankards, Nos. 142 R.P., I43R.P., 144 . 70 
xxxvui. Yard of Ale Glass, No. 145, and Dram Glasses, 

Nos. I46R.P., 147, 148, 149 . . . .71 
xxxix. Dram and Spirit Glasses, Nos. 150, 151, 152, 

i53 !54, 155 R-P-. 156 ..... 72 
XL. Dram and Spirit Glasses, Nos. 157, 158, 159, 160, 

161, 162, 163, 164 73 

XLI. Candlesticks, Nos. 165 R.P., i66R.P., 167 R.P. . 74 

XLII. Toddy Fillers, Nos. 168, 169; Decanter, No. 170 . 75 

XLIII. Decanters, etc., Nos. 171, 172 J.T.C., 173 . . 76 

xi 



ENGLISH TABLE GLASS 

PLATE TO FACE PAGE 

XLIV. Sweetmeat Glasses, Nos. 174, 175, 176 . . 77 
XLV. Sweetmeat Glasses, Nos. 177 R.P., 178 R.P., 

179 R- p 78 

XLVI. Sweetmeat Glass, No. i8oR.p.; Bell with trailed 

decoration, No. 181 79 

XLVII. Covered Bowl with trailed decoration, No. 

182 R.P 80 

XLVIII. Porringer with trailed decoration, No. 183 . . 81 
XLIX. Methods of Decoration, Nos. i84R.p., i85R.p., 

i86R.P., 187, 188, 189, 190, 191, 192 . . 82 
L. Glasses decorated by means of fluoric acid, Nos. 

I93B.M., 194 B.M 86 

LI. Forgeries, Nos. 195, 196, 197, 198 ... 89 
LII. ^Inscribed Glasses bearing Jacobite mottoes and 

emblems, Nos. 200 p., 201, 202 ... 98 
LIII. Inscribed Glasses bearing Jacobite mottoes and 

emblems, Nos. 203R.P., 204R.P., 205 R.P. . . 100 
LIV. Inscribed Glasses bearing Jacobite mottoes and 

emblems, Nos. 206 B.M., 207, 208 . . . 101 

LV. Inscribed Glasses bearing Jacobite mottoes and 

emblems, Nos. 209B.M., 210, 211 R.P. . . 102 
LVI. Inscribed Glasses bearing Jacobite and loyal mottoes 

and emblems, Nos. 2I2R.P., 2I3B.M., 214 . 104 
LVII. Inscribed Glasses bearing loyal and patriotic 

emblems, Nos. 215, 216, 217, 218 . . . 106 
LVIII. Inscribed Glasses commemorating national heroes, 

etc., Nos. 219 R.P., 220, 221 .... io8 
LIX. Inscribed Glasses commemorating national heroes, 

etc., Nos. 222, 223 R.P., 224 .... 109 
LX. Inscribed Glasses bearing political and social 
mottoes, etc., Nos. 225, 226R.P., 227J.T.C., 228, 

229B.M., 230F.W.A IIO 

LXI. Inscribed Glasses bearing social mottoes and 

toasts, Nos. 231, 232, 233, 234, 235 F.W.A. . 112 

xii 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

PLATE TO FACE PAGE 

LXII. Inscribed Glasses bearing the arms and motto of 

The Turners' Company of London, No. 236 . 113 

LXIII. Inscribed Glasses bearing social mottoes and 

emblems, Nos. 237 R.P., 238, 239, 240 R.P. . 114 

LXIV. Inscribed Glasses bearing social and naval mottoes 

and emblems, Nos. 241, 24211.?., 24311.?. . . 116 

LXV. Inscribed Glasses bearing naval toasts and designs, 

Nos. 244, 245, 246, 247 .R.P . . . .117 

LXVI. Inscribed Glasses bearing owners' names and al- 
lusive designs, Nos. 248, 249B.M., 250, 251 . 118 

LXVII. Inscribed Glasses bearing pictorial emblems and 

mottoes, Nos. 252, 253, 254 . . . .120 



ERRATA 

The Drinking Glass on Plate II is not numbered. 
No. 199 does not appear, but no illustration has been actually 
omitted. 



Xlll 




ENGLISH TABLE GLASS 

THE FIRST CHAPTER 

INTRODUCTORY AND PREFATORY 

LD English glass which to all 
intents and purposes is the glass 
of the eighteenth century has 
many interesting features and 
individual beauties. It lacks, 
as a whole, the fragile delicacy and the in- 
finite variety of manipulation that characterize 
the products of the Venetian glass-houses ; 
it is not marked by the florid decoration of 
enamels and gilding that is so typical of 
German work, nor do we find the English 
makers producing those lofty pieces, elaborately 
designed and somewhat redundantly engraved, 
that one associates with the Low Countries ; 
but, as a whole, the glass vessels of the 
eighteenth century in England (and more 
particularly the drinking vessels) possess in 
their variety and their simplicity an interest 
which, though less clamant than that of their 

B I 



ENGLISH TABLE GLASS 

foreign congeners, is very real and very 
lasting. 

And, apart from their intrinsic beauty and 
merit, they have for collectors of moderate 
means the advantage of being obtainable at 
a comparatively small cost. It is true that 
the last fifteen or twenty years have seen the 
prices asked by dealers increase by a hundred 
per cent, in response to the revived interest 
displayed in them by connoisseurs ; and it 
is to be feared that these prices are not yet 
at their highest. But English glasses are 
still within the means of the buyer who 
cannot afford the porcelain of Chelsea or 
Worcester, of the lover of the art of a dead 
century to whom the silver of Paul Lamerie, 
or the miniatures of Richard Cosway, are 
things enviously to be foregone because of the 
unholy cost of them in the markets of the 
opulent. 

It is for such friends of the arts of 
their own country as these that this book 
increasing has been undertaken, in the 
interest of expectation that some of those 
who feel the individuality of 
our English drinking glasses, respond to 
their charm, and care to possess them, may 
be interested in the experience and the 

2 



INTRODUCTORY AND PREFATORY 

conclusions of a fellow-collector. That there 
is an increasing number of these there is no 
doubt ; the artistic magazines (as well as the 
more " shoppy " periodicals) have recognized 
this fact, and have done much to foster the 
growth of this appreciation ; and this renewed 
interest in the artistic products of the dead 
craftsmen of our own country is very pleasant 
to observe, and very welcome. For it can 
scarcely be denied that we have recently been 
rather apt, in the increasing recognition 
accorded to the art of others the enamels 
of Japan and the terra-cottas of Tanagra, 
the lace of Flanders and the porcelain of 
Meissen to overlook or dismiss slightingly 
the claims of our own simpler relics of the 
past. 

Thomas Carlyle, that old philistine, 
defamed the dead years when he said of the 
eighteenth century that it was TheWonder . 
" massed up in our minds as a fui Eighteenth 
disastrous, wrecked inanity, not Centur y- 
useful to dwell upon ; " and it was reserved 
for a later historian to sound a truer note of 
characterization in speaking of that " century, 
so admirable and yet so ridiculous, so amus- 
ing, so instructive, so irritating, and so con- 
temptible, so paradoxical and contradictory, 

3 



ENGLISH TABLE GLASS 

so provokingly clever, and so engagingly 
wicked." To-day that fascinating period, 
that cycle of mingled sincerity and artificiality, 
is receiving its true meed of appreciation, and 
is recognized as a time of golden fruition in 
the arts. English pictures of the period, and 
the contemporary miniatures and mezzotints, 
are rightly acknowledged as unsurpassed in 
their own way; the furniture, the porcelain, 
and the silver of that date are esteemed at 
their real value; and it is surely not too 
much to expect that the work of the crafts- 
men, who wrought in a more fragile, but not 
less beautiful material, and who produced the 
glass of the same period, should receive a 
little attention. 

It is true that it is not possible, as it is in 
the case of silver and porcelain, to attribute 
any particular piece to an individual artist, 
or even to a recognized place of manufacture. 
The fragility of these little objects is mocked 
by the enduring strength of silver, their 
simplicity by the elaborate decoration possible 
to porcelain ; but they have a charm all their 
own, nevertheless. The native quaintness 
and solid dignity of the forms of these 
English glasses, as well as the beautiful 
pellucidity of the material itself, would alone 
4 



INTRODUCTORY AND PREFATORY 

constitute reasons for admiration, were there 
not the additional fact to be borne in mind 
that the untutored good taste of the unknown 
craftsmen who made these modest vessels, 
for use and not for ornament, saved them 
from the meretricious extravagances and 
decorative falsities that characterize a good 
deal of the work of the designers of furniture, 
silver, and china ; just as the inherent ten- 
dency of molten glass to fall into simple and 
perfect forms assisted very largely to prevent 
any attempt at the production of types either 
fussy, bizarre, or grotesque. 

For my own part, my attention was 
first drawn to the English glasses of the 
eighteenth century when I was Beginningof 
shown some while on a visit to the Author's 
a beautiful old Georgian house Collection - 
in Mid-Sussex. Here the fine old ale glasses, 
the interesting glass spoons with coloured 
twists in the handles, the quaint " wrythen " 
glasses for cordial waters, the simple wine 
glasses of brilliant metal, were family relics, 
most of them having been brought from the 
old haunted house at Pevensey, that was 
built by Andrew Borde (Merry Andrew), the 
physician to King Henry VIII, and inhabited 
by the forebears of my hostess almost ever 

5 



ENGLISH TABLE GLASS 

since. These charmed me at the time, and 
on subsequent visits my interest in them 
did not diminish, indeed, it rather increased ; 
and it always seemed to me that one of the 
quaintest of all was the old " drawn" glass, 
dating back to the middle of the eighteenth 
century, which was traditionally used, year 
in and year out, by the old folk on Good 
Friday. On this day, as the time between 
the morning and afternoon services was but 
brief, exhausted nature was sustained by each 
member of the family partaking of a mouth- 
ful of gingerbread and this glass full of gin. 
Later, when the elder daughter of the house 
was persuaded to assume control of my 
collection as well as of myself, she brought 
this glass with her to add to my cabinet, and 
to be treasured as the fons et origo of my 
hobby. 

But before this happened, I had settled 
in Bath, and there, in the country that 
"TheAccre- owned Bristol as its commercial 
tion Fever." capital, I found these quaint and 
beautiful glasses fairly plentiful. Gradually 
I bought examples, and though for a long 
time I could frame no sequence for them, 
they were very charming objects to possess. 
And then the beauty of the material, the 
6 



INTRODUCTORY AND PREFATORY 

delight that glass has for its lovers, began to 
take possession of me ; and a piece or two of 
Venetian, some Dutch examples, a specimen 
of the Spanish, began to appear on my 
shelves, until I was brought up with a round 
turn by my good friend Mr. Drane, of Cardiff. 
He said, " I observe in you the symptoms 
of the ' the accretion fever/ the desire of 
acquiring, vaguely and without plan, for the 
mere sake of possession. You have neither 
money nor opportunity to form a collection of 
European glass ; if you work on these lines 
you will never even get a representative group 
of English wine glasses. Drop the foreign 
gentry, and confine your energies to those of 
our own land. It is better far to have the 
best collection of English glass, or, at any 
rate, a collection in which every piece means 
something and fits into its place, than a mere 
meaningless aggregation, lacking coherence 
or antiquarian value." 

This was very sound advice, and luckily 
I followed it. I am not, nor shall I ever be, 
the owner of the finest cabinet of English 
glasses ; but I do possess a collection in which 
every piece fits into its place, and bears a 
relation to its neighbour, while illustrating 
some point of development or fashion. 

7 



ENGLISH TABLE GLASS 

All growth is interesting, and all change, 
whether in the direction of development or 

hion f reac ti n ) an d few things are 

change,' and more attractive to the student of 

Development. past days than the prO g ress> t h e 

fluctuations, and the vagaries of fashion 
as illustrated in the changing forms and 
materials of household utensils. In trac- 
ing, for instance, the development of that 
simple object, the spoon, from the days of the 
fourth Edward to those of the fourth William, 
it is possible to see the influence of politics 
and religion, as well as the natural growth 
and evolution of the spoon itself. Here is 
the early " diamond point " that tops the 
shaft, changed later into the national acorn ; 
here is the " slip-end " or so-called " Puritan " 
spoon, lacking the patron saint or apostle 
beloved in earlier days. Close by can be seen 
the fashion that came in with Charles II, 
supplemented by the one that followed with 
the Hanoverians; here a provincial maker, 
ignorant or conservative, continues to work 
by the old patterns long after they are out of 
fashion in London ; there some innovator, 
greatly daring, shows the first step towards a 
new style. 

All this, and much more, can be clearly 
8 



INTRODUCTORY AND PREFATORY 

seen in such a collection of spoons as Mr. 
Drane himself possesses. Something similar, 
though of course less chronologically exact, 
and extending through a shorter period of 
time, may be observed in a series of the drink- 
ing glasses of the eighteenth century. It was 
not evident to me, as I said before, in the 
early days of my collecting, and for a long 
time I was working more or less in the dark, 
for there was not a single published volume, 
or even a magazine article, on the subject of 
my hobby. But slowly I evolved rules for 
my own guidance, learning a little from each 
piece that I acquired, and experiencing the 
great pleasure of seeing a sequence gradually 
arise, a series develop in which it became 
possible to see the gaps, to learn what to 
search for, and to fit the missing link when 
found. 

And then came a chance notice of the 
comprehensive volume which was in prepara- 
tion by Mr. Albert Hartshorne, 

T^ o A i , Mr. Albert 

F.S.A., and consequent corre- Hartshorne 
spondence, and later personal and Ms 

^ J.L iA Monograph. 

acquaintance with the gentleman 
who has made himself the admitted authority 
on the subject of English glasses. It is 
pleasant to me to think that I was able to 

c 9 



ENGLISH TABLE GLASS 

assist Mr. Hartshorne with a few original 
observations and discoveries ; it is still more 
pleasant to look back and recollect the in- 
variable and unfailing courtesy and kindness 
with which he freely communicated to a be- 
ginner facts and deductions, information and 
advice, from his store of abounding knowledge 
and experience. His monumental volume, 
11 Old English Glasses " (Arnold, 1897), must 
long remain, by reason of its elaborate com- 
pleteness, the great authority on the subject ; 
any such handbook as the present can but be 
an introduction to his encyclopaedic treatment 
of the matter in all its ramifications ; and those 
collectors who desire to learn the history of 
the craft of glass-making, and who wish for 
fuller information about our own English 
examples than I have space to convey, should 
consult Mr. Hartshorne's pages. 

I have already spoken of the pleasure I 
derived from the growth of my small collec- 

Artisticand ^ on J ^ e enjoyment obtained 
Human from the simple beauty of some, 

iterest. o f 



others ; and the interest inseparable from the 
evolution of a series, the elucidation of little 
problems, and the development of a coherent 
story. This interest was, of course, both 
10 






INTRODUCTORY AND PREFATORY 

artistic and antiquarian, but as yet the charm 
of the personal and individual was absent, 
though soon to appear. There is always to a 
thoughtful mind a curious fascination about 
those relics of the past that seem to touch, 
however faintly, the chord of human feeling, 
that seem to bear with them some suggestion, 
however slight, of the personality of the long 
dead men and women who possessed and 
cherished them in the bygone years. And 
gradually glasses came to my hand, frail relics 
of creed, or character, or emotion, which were 
eloquent of the ardent humanity of our pre- 
decessors, each with a tale to tell, each de- 
manding hospitality and harbourage, and each 
affording either a vivid flash of insight or a 
half-veiled glimpse into the minds, the habits, 
and the identities of our ancestors. 

What is more touching than constancy 
to a long-lost cause ? What more rancorous 
than political hatred ? From this glass, with 
its pathetic motto " Redeat" some Jacobite 
drank, in secret and silence, to " the King 
over the water ; " on this goblet we read 
the toast of " WILKES AND LIBERTY " daily 
pledged by some friend of freedom. And how 
human is our good old English sportsman 
TOM SHORTER, who has his name inscribed on 

ii 



ENGLISH TABLE GLASS 

PLATE TO FACE PAGE 

vin. Wine Glasses, Group II, Plain Stems, Nos. 27, 28, 

29, 3 3i R - p - -37 

ix. Wine Glasses, Group II, Plain Stems with Domed 

Feet, Nos. 32 R.P., 33, 34*.?-, 35 3& 

x. Wine Glasses, Group II A, Incised Twist Stems, Nos. 

3 6 37, 38R.P-, 39 R - P - 39 

xi. Wine Glasses, Group III, Air Twist Stems, Drawn, 

NOS. 40, 41 R.P., 42 R.P., 43 R.P., 44R.P. . . 40 

xn. Wine Glasses, Group III, Air Twist Stems, Drawn, 

Nos. 45R.P., 46R.P., 47, 48R.P 41 

xin. Wine Glasses, Group III, Air Twist Stems, Drawn, 

Nos. 49R.P., 50, SIR.P., 52R.P 42 

xiv. Wine Glasses, Group III, Air Twist Stems, Drawn, 

Nos. 53, 54, 55, 56, 57 . . .43 

xv. Wine Glasses, Group III, Air Twist Stems, Drawn, 

and with Domed Feet, Nos. 58 R. p., 59, 60, 

61 R.P., 62 R.P. . . . . . . . 44 

xvi. Wine Glasses, Group III A, Air Twist Stems, not 

Drawn, Nos. 63R.P., 64R.P., 65 R.P., 66 . . 44 
xvii. Wine Glasses, Group III A, Air Twist Stems, not 

Drawn, Nos. 67 R.P.,68R.p.,69R.p.,7oR.p.,7i R.P. 45 
xvin. Wine Glasses, Group III A, Air Twist Stems, not 

Drawn, Nos. 72, 73, 74R.P., 75 R.P., 76 . .46 
xix. Wine Glasses, Group III A, Air Twist Stems, not 

Drawn, Nos. 77 R.P., 78 R.P. ; Group III B, Mixed 

Twist Stems, not Drawn, 79, 80, 81 . . -47 
xx. Wine Glasses, Group IV, White Twist Stems, Nos. 

82R.P., 83, 84R.P., 85R.P 48 

xxi. Wine Glasses, Group IV, White Twist Stems, Nos. 

86, 87R.P., 88R.P., 89, 90 50 

xxn. Wine Glasses, Group IV, White Twist Stems, Nos. 

91, 92 R.P., 93, 94, 95 . . 51 

xxiii. Wine Glasses, Group IV, White Twist Stems, Nos. 

96, 97 R.P., 98, 99, 100 52 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

PLATE TO FACE PAGE 

xxiv. Wine Glasses, Group IVA, Coloured Twist Stems, 

Nos. 101 R.P., 102, 103, 104, 105 . . .54 
xxv. Wine Glasses, Group V, Cut Stems, Nos. 106, 

107, 108, 109, no 55 

xxvi. Wine Glasses, Group V, Cut Stems, Nos. in, 

H2R.P., H3R.P., H4R.P., 115 . . .56 
xxvii. Ale Glasses, etc., Baluster Stems, Nos. 116, 

H7R.P., 118 58 

xxviii. Ale Glasses, etc., Plain and Air Twist Stems, 

NOS. 119, I2O, 121 ...... 60 

xxix. Ale Glasses, etc., Air Twist and White Twist 

Stems, Nos. 122 R. P., 123, 124 R. P. . . .61 
xxx. Ale Glasses, etc., Air Twist and Cut Stems, Nos. 

I25R.P., I26R.P., 127 62 

xxxi. Goblet, Baluster Stem, No. 128 . .. . .64 
xxxn. Goblet, Baluster Stem, No. 129 . . . .65 
xxxiii. Goblet, Drawn Stem, No. 130; Liqueur Glass, 

Drawn Stem, No. 131 66 

xxxiv. Rummers, Four Types of Stems Plain Stem, No. 
132; Air Twist Stem, No. 133; White Twist 
Stem, No. 134; Cut Stem, No. 135 R.P. . . 67 
xxxv. Two Handled Cup, No. 136; Rummers, Nos. 

I37R.P., 138 68 

Rummers, etc., Nos. 139, I4OR.P., I4IR.P. . . 69 
Mugs or Tankards, Nos. 142 R.P., 143 R.P., 144 . 70 
Yard of Ale Glass, No. 145, and Dram Glasses, 

Nos. I46R.P., 147, 148, 149 . . . 7i 
xxxix. Dram and Spirit Glasses, Nos. 150, 151, 152, 

153*154, 155 R-P-, 156 72 

XL. Dram and Spirit Glasses, Nos. 157, 158, 159, 160, 

161, 162, 163, 164 73 

XLI. Candlesticks, Nos. 165 R.P., i66R.P., 167 R.P. . 74 

XLII. Toddy Fillers, Nos. 168, 169 ; Decanter, No. 170 . 75 

XLIII. Decanters, etc., Nos. 171, 172 J.T.C., 173 . . 76 

xi 



ENGLISH TABLE GLASS 

PLATE TO FACE PAGE 

XLIV. Sweetmeat Glasses, Nos. 174, 175, 176 . . 77 
XLV. Sweetmeat Glasses, Nos. 177 R. p., 178 R.P., 

179 R- p 78 

XLVI. Sweetmeat Glass, No. i8oR.p.; Bell with trailed 

decoration, No. 181 79 

XLVII. Covered Bowl with trailed decoration, No. 

182 R.P 80 

XLVIII. Porringer with trailed decoration, No. 183 . . 81 
XLIX. Methods of Decoration, Nos. i84R.p., i85R.p., 

i86R.P., 187, 188, 189, 190, 191, 192 . . 82 
L. Glasses decorated by means of fluoric acid, Nos. 

I93B.M., 194 B.M 86 

LI. Forgeries, Nos. 195, 196, 197, 198 . . . 89 
LII. ^Inscribed Glasses bearing Jacobite mottoes and 

emblems, Nos. 200 p., 201, 202 ... 98 
LIU. Inscribed Glasses bearing Jacobite mottoes and 

emblems, Nos. 203R.P., 204R.P., 205 R.P. . . 100 
LIV. Inscribed Glasses bearing Jacobite mottoes and 

emblems, Nos. 206 B.M., 207, 208 . . . 101 

LV. Inscribed Glasses bearing Jacobite mottoes and 

emblems, Nos. 209 B.M., 210, 211 R.P. . . 102 
LVI. Inscribed Glasses bearing Jacobite and loyal mottoes 

and emblems, Nos. 2I2R.P., 2I3B.M., 214 . 104 
LVII. Inscribed Glasses bearing loyal and patriotic 

emblems, Nos. 215, 216, 217, 218 . . .106 
LVIII. Inscribed Glasses commemorating national heroes, 

etc., Nos. 219 R.P., 220, 221 .... 108 
LIX. Inscribed Glasses commemorating national heroes, 

etc., Nos. 222, 223 R.P., 224 .... 109 
LX. Inscribed Glasses bearing political and social 
mottoes, etc., Nos. 225, 226R.P., 227J.T.C., 228, 

229B.M., 230F.W.A IIO 

LXI. Inscribed Glasses bearing social mottoes and 

toasts, Nos. 231, 232, 233, 234, 235 F.W.A. . 112 

xii 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

PLATE TO FACE PAGE 

LXII. Inscribed Glasses bearing the arms and motto of 

The Turners' Company of London, No. 236 . 113 

LXIII. Inscribed Glasses bearing social mottoes and 

emblems, Nos. 237 R.P., 238, 239, 240 R.P. . 114 

LXIV. Inscribed Glasses bearing social and naval mottoes 

and emblems, Nos. 241, 24211.?., 243 R.P. . .116 
LXV. Inscribed Glasses bearing naval toasts and designs, 

Nos. 244, 245, 246, 247 .R.P . . . -117 

LXVI. Inscribed Glasses bearing owners' names and al- 
lusive designs, Nos. 248, 2496.*!., 250, 251 . 118 

LXVII. Inscribed Glasses bearing pictorial emblems and 

mottoes, Nos. 252, 253, 254 . . . .120 



ERRATA 

The Drinking Glass on Plate II is not numbered. 
No. 199 does not appear, but no illustration has been actually 
omitted. 



Xlll 




ENGLISH TABLE GLASS 

THE FIRST CHAPTER 

INTRODUCTORY AND PREFATORY 

LD English glass which to all 
intents and purposes is the glass 
of the eighteenth century has 
many interesting features and 
individual beauties. It lacks, 
as a whole, the fragile delicacy and the in- 
finite variety of manipulation that characterize 
the products of the Venetian glass-houses; 
it is not marked by the florid decoration of 
enamels and gilding that is so typical of 
German work, nor do we find the English 
makers producing those lofty pieces, elaborately 
designed and somewhat redundantly engraved, 
that one associates with the Low Countries ; 
but, as a whole, the glass vessels of the 
eighteenth century in England (and more 
particularly the drinking vessels) possess in 
their variety and their simplicity an interest 
which, though less clamant than that of their 

B I 



ENGLISH TABLE GLASS 

foreign congeners, is very real and very 
lasting. 

And, apart from their intrinsic beauty and 
merit, they have for collectors of moderate 
means the advantage of being obtainable at 
a comparatively small cost. It is true that 
the last fifteen or twenty years have seen the 
prices asked by dealers increase by a hundred 
per cent, in response to the revived interest 
displayed in them by connoisseurs ; and it 
is to be feared that these prices are not yet 
at their highest. But English glasses are 
still within the means of the buyer who 
cannot afford the porcelain of Chelsea or 
Worcester, of the lover of the art of a dead 
century to whom the silver of Paul Lamerie, 
or the miniatures of Richard Cosway, are 
things enviously to be foregone because of the 
unholy cost of them in the markets of the 
opulent. 

It is for such friends of the arts of 
their own country as these that this book 
increasing has been undertaken, in the 
interest of expectation that some of those 
who feel the individuality of 
our English drinking glasses, respond to 
their charm, and care to possess them, may 
be interested in the experience and the 

2 



INTRODUCTORY AND PREFATORY 

conclusions of a fellow-collector. That there 
is an increasing number of these there is no 
doubt ; the artistic magazines (as well as the 
more " shoppy " periodicals) have recognized 
this fact, and have done much to foster the 
growth of this appreciation ; and this renewed 
interest in the artistic products of the dead 
craftsmen of our own country is very pleasant 
to observe, and very welcome. For it can 
scarcely be denied that we have recently been 
rather apt, in the increasing recognition 
accorded to the art of others the enamels 
of Japan and the terra-cottas of Tanagra, 
the lace of Flanders and the porcelain of 
Meissen to overlook or dismiss slightingly 
the claims of our own simpler relics of the 
past. 

Thomas Carlyle, that old philistine, 
defamed the dead years when he said of the 
eighteenth century that it was The Wonder- 
" massed up in our minds as a fui Eighteenth 
disastrous, wrecked inanity, not Centur y* 
useful to dwell upon ; " and it was reserved 
for a later historian to sound a truer note of 
characterization in speaking of that " century, 
so admirable and yet so ridiculous, so amus- 
ing, so instructive, so irritating, and so con- 
temptible, so paradoxical and contradictory, 

3 



ENGLISH TABLE GLASS 

so provokingly clever, and so engagingly 
wicked." To-day that fascinating period, 
that cycle of mingled sincerity and artificiality, 
is receiving its true meed of appreciation, and 
is recognized as a time of golden fruition in 
the arts. English pictures of the period, and 
the contemporary miniatures and mezzotints, 
are rightly acknowledged as unsurpassed in 
their own way; the furniture, the porcelain, 
and the silver of that date are esteemed at 
their real value; and it is surely not too 
much to expect that the work of the crafts- 
men, who wrought in a more fragile, but not 
less beautiful material, and who produced the 
glass of the same period, should receive a 
little attention. 

It is true that it is not possible, as it is in 
the case of silver and porcelain, to attribute 
any particular piece to an individual artist, 
or even to a recognized place of manufacture. 
The fragility of these little objects is mocked 
by the enduring strength of silver, their 
simplicity by the elaborate decoration possible 
to porcelain ; but they have a charm all their 
own, nevertheless. The native quaintness 
and solid dignity of the forms of these 
English glasses, as well as the beautiful 
pellucidity of the material itself, would alone 
4 



INTRODUCTORY AND PREFATORY 

constitute reasons for admiration, were there 
not the additional fact to be borne in mind 
that the untutored good taste of the unknown 
craftsmen who made these modest vessels, 
for use and not for ornament, saved them 
from the meretricious extravagances and 
decorative falsities that characterize a good 
deal of the work of the designers of furniture, 
silver, and china ; just as the inherent ten- 
dency of molten glass to fall into simple and 
perfect forms assisted very largely to prevent 
any attempt at the production of types either 
fussy, bizarre, or grotesque. 

For my own part, my attention was 
first drawn to the English glasses of the 
eighteenth century when I was Beginningol 
shown some while on a visit to the Author's 
a beautiful old Georgian house Collection - 
in Mid-Sussex. Here the fine old ale glasses, 
the interesting glass spoons with coloured 
twists in the handles, the quaint " wrythen " 
glasses for cordial waters, the simple wine 
glasses of brilliant metal, were family relics, 
most of them having been brought from the 
old haunted house at Pevensey, that was 
built by Andrew Borde (Merry Andrew), the 
physician to King Henry VIII, and inhabited 
by the forebears of my hostess almost ever 

5 



ENGLISH TABLE GLASS 

since. These charmed me at the time, and 
on subsequent visits my interest in them 
did not diminish, indeed, it rather increased ; 
and it always seemed to me that one of the 
quaintest of all was the old " drawn" glass, 
dating back to the middle of the eighteenth 
century, which was traditionally used, year 
in and year out, by the old folk on Good 
Friday. On this day, as the time between 
the morning and afternoon services was but 
brief, exhausted nature was sustained by each 
member of the family partaking of a mouth- 
ful of gingerbread and this glass full of gin. 
Later, when the elder daughter of the house 
was persuaded to assume control of my 
collection as well as of myself, she brought 
this glass with her to add to my cabinet, and 
to be treasured as the fons et origo of my 
hobby. 

But before this happened, I had settled 
in Bath, and there, in the country that 
"TheAccre- owned Bristol as its commercial 
tion Fever." capital, I found these quaint and 
beautiful glasses fairly plentiful. Gradually 
I bought examples, and though for a long 
time I could frame no sequence for them, 
they were very charming objects to possess. 
And then the beauty of the material, the 
6 



INTRODUCTORY AND PREFATORY 

delight that glass has for its lovers, began to 
take possession of me ; and a piece or two of 
Venetian, some Dutch examples, a specimen 
of the Spanish, began to appear on my 
shelves, until I was brought up with a round 
turn by my good friend Mr. Drane, of Cardiff. 
He said, " I observe in you the symptoms 
of the ' the accretion fever/ the desire of 
acquiring, vaguely and without plan, for the 
mere sake of possession. You have neither 
money nor opportunity to form a collection of 
European glass ; if you work on these lines 
you will never even get a representative group 
of English wine glasses. Drop the foreign 
gentry, and confine your energies to those of 
our own land. It is better far to have the 
best collection of English glass, or, at any 
rate, a collection in which every piece means 
something and fits into its place, than a mere 
meaningless aggregation, lacking coherence 
or antiquarian value." 

This was very sound advice, and luckily 
I followed it. I am not, nor shall I ever be, 
the owner of the finest cabinet of English 
glasses ; but I do possess a collection in which 
every piece fits into its place, and bears a 
relation to its neighbour, while illustrating 
some point of development or fashion. 

7 



ENGLISH TABLE GLASS 

All growth is interesting, and all change, 
whether in the direction of development or 

Fashion ^ reac ti n ) an d few things are 

change,' and more attractive to the student of 

Development. past days than the progress> the 

fluctuations, and the vagaries of fashion 
as illustrated in the changing forms and 
materials of household utensils. In trac- 
ing, for instance, the development of that 
simple object, the spoon, from the days of the 
fourth Edward to those of the fourth William, 
it is possible to see the influence of politics 
and religion, as well as the natural growth 
and evolution of the spoon itself. Here is 
the early " diamond point " that tops the 
shaft, changed later into the national acorn ; 
here is the " slip-end " or so-called " Puritan " 
spoon, lacking the patron saint or apostle 
beloved in earlier days. Close by can be seen 
the fashion that came in with Charles II, 
supplemented by the one that followed with 
the Hanoverians ; here a provincial maker, 
ignorant or conservative, continues to work 
by the old patterns long after they are out of 
fashion in London ; there some innovator, 
greatly daring, shows the first step towards a 
new style. 

All this, and much more, can be clearly 
8 



INTRODUCTORY AND PREFATORY 

seen in such a collection of spoons as Mr. 
Drane himself possesses. Something similar, 
though of course less chronologically exact, 
and extending through a shorter period of 
time, may be observed in a series of the drink- 
ing glasses of the eighteenth century. It was 
not evident to me, as I said before, in the 
early days of my collecting, and for a long 
time I was working more or less in the dark, 
for there was not a single published volume, 
or even a magazine article, on the subject of 
my hobby. But slowly I evolved rules for 
my own guidance, learning a little from each 
piece that I acquired, and experiencing the 
great pleasure of seeing a sequence gradually 
arise, a series develop in which it became 
possible to see the gaps, to learn what to 
search for, and to fit the missing link when 
found. 

And then came a chance notice of the 
comprehensive volume which was in prepara- 
tion by Mr. Albert Hartshorne, 

r* o A j Mr - Albert 

F.S.A., and consequent corre- Hartshorne 
spondence, and later personal and his 

j.1 a.i_ A.I Monograph. 

acquaintance with the gentleman 
who has made himself the admitted authority 
on the subject of English glasses. It is 
pleasant to me to think that I was able to 

c 9 



ENGLISH TABLE GLASS 

assist Mr. Hartshorne with a few original 
observations and discoveries ; it is still more 
pleasant to look back and recollect the in- 
variable and unfailing courtesy and kindness 
with which he freely communicated to a be- 
ginner facts and deductions, information and 
advice, from his store of abounding knowledge 
and experience. His monumental volume, 
" Old English Glasses " (Arnold, 1897), must 
long remain, by reason of its elaborate com- 
pleteness, the great authority on the subject ; 
any such handbook as the present can but be 
an introduction to his encyclopaedic treatment 
of the matter in all its ramifications ; and those 
collectors who desire to learn the history of 
the craft of glass-making, and who wish for 
fuller information about our own English 
examples than I have space to convey, should 
consult Mr. Hartshorne's pages. 

I have already spoken of the pleasure I 
derived from the growth of my small collec- 

Artisticand ^ on ! ^ e enjoyment obtained 

Human from the simple beauty of some, 

and the quaint originality of 

others ; and the interest inseparable from the 

evolution of a series, the elucidation of little 

problems, and the development of a coherent 

story. This interest was, of course, both 

10 



INTRODUCTORY AND PREFATORY 

artistic and antiquarian, but as yet the charm 
of the personal and individual was absent, 
though soon to appear. There is always to a 
thoughtful mind a curious fascination about 
those relics of the past that seem to touch, 
however faintly, the chord of human feeling, 
that seem to bear with them some suggestion, 
however slight, of the personality of the long 
dead men and women who possessed and 
cherished them in the bygone years. And 
gradually glasses came to my hand, frail relics 
of creed, or character, or emotion, which were 
eloquent of the ardent humanity of our pre- 
decessors, each with a tale to tell, each de- 
manding hospitality and harbourage, and each 
affording either a vivid flash of insight or a 
half-veiled glimpse into the minds, the habits, 
and the identities of our ancestors. 

What is more touching than constancy 
to a long-lost cause ? What more rancorous 
than political hatred ? From this glass, with 
its pathetic motto " Redeat" some Jacobite 
drank, in secret and silence, to " the King 
over the water ; " on this goblet we read 
the toast of " WILKES AND LIBERTY " daily 
pledged by some friend of freedom. And how 
human is our good old English sportsman 
TOM SHORTER, who has his name inscribed on 

ii 



ENGLISH TABLE GLASS 

his favourite glass, together with the pictured 
representation of himself " a-chasing the red 
deer " with horse and hound across the hills 
and combes of Exmoor; while what a tale, 
maybe of lifelong devotion, maybe of fleeting 
love, lies hidden in the name of some " dear, 
dead lady," some reigning toast, scratched 
with a diamond on the bowl of this other gob- 
let. Here " TRAFALGAR " is commemorated ; 
here the square and compasses tell of mysteries 
Masonic ; here Admiral Byng, hanging from 
a gibbet, is falsely stated to have deserved 
"THE COWARD'S REWARD;" and so the tale 
might be continued. But sufficient has been 
said to show that, beyond the antiquarian 
value and the decorative charm of these old 
glasses, one finds in many the added interest 
always attaching to mementoes of deep feeling, 
to those slight and fragile objects, apparently 
foredoomed to early destruction, that have out- 
lasted the often mighty and moving emotions 
of which they were but the passing outcome. 

And over and above the pleasure that my 

Collectors gl asses themselves have given 

and Friends: me, there is the memory of the 

singer W ' friendships they have brought 

and the delightful recollections 

associated with the acquisition of many of 

12 



INTRODUCTORY AND PREFATORY 

them. It would be out of place to speak of 
i all these here, even in a volume which is 
frankly of a personal (or rather a " first- 
personal") character, but allusion to one or 
two will, I am sure, be pardoned. 

Early in the days of my collecting I came 
to know the late Mr. J. W. Singer, of Frome, 
the doyen of glass collectors and the kindest 
of friends. He had at that time, I fancy, 
ceased to collect very actively; but my 
enthusiasm revivified his own, and he once 
more began to seek for additions to his 
already large collection (it ultimately ex- 
ceeded seven hundred), some few being 
acquired from myself, others direct from the 
dealers a method very different from that 
of his early days. He has often told me 
how, as young men, he and a friend would 
take a pony-trap and drive round the country, 
inquiring at likely cottages if any old glasses 
"like that" (and they showed a specimen) 
| were to be had. Often, of course, there was 
I nothing ; but often, too, excellent examples 
\ were acquired for a trifle ; while sometimes 
j the cottagers' glasses were but a memory, 
as in the case of the old lady who answered 
their inquiry with the provoking statement, 
" Law bless thee, zur I us had one o' they wi* 

13 



ENGLISH TABLE GLASS 

a blue stem so long's my arm, but I broke en 
up wi' a hammer and put en down rats'-hole ! " 
To my hobby I am also indebted for many 
other pleasant acquaintances and friends. 
I confess that some of these owed to me 
their inoculation with the virus of the same 
collecting mania that I myself was a victim 
to (but they never seem to bear malice !) ; 
others, while immune from this particular 
form of the fever, viewed my own state with 
sympathy, and even fostered the progress of 
the malady by the gift of specimens. Many 
of the finest pieces I have I owe to the 
kindness of friends who have discovered, in 
travelling, examples not known to me; and 
these I mark in a certain way. It is a good 
habit to note on a small adhesive label on 
every piece the catalogue number, the date 
and place of acquisition, and the cost (the 
latter can be expressed by a private mark) ; 
and this I always do unless I forget ! But 
my price-cypher had no letter that stood for 
a gift, so I was driven to invent a symbol, 
with the consequence that all these presents 
from my very good friends (I do not forget to 
mark them) bear this emblem, C?, in acknow- 
ledgment of the kind and generous hearts 
that have thus sought to give me pleasure. 



INTRODUCTORY AND PREFATORY 

When, some years ago, my work called me 
from Bath to Glasgow, I received in my new 
home no welcome more pleasant than that of 
Mrs. Rees Price, in whose cabinet of English 
glasses I found a collection much 
more numerous and varied than 



my own. From Mr. and Mrs. tion and 
Rees Price I have received many 
tokens of friendship, but none that I value 
more than the very kind permission accorded 
me to draw with entire freedom on their 
examples for any photographs I needed for 
the illustration of this book ; and I have not 
included more specimens from that source 
simply because the limits set by my pub- 
lishers forbade the preparation of any more 
illustrations. 

The mutual enthusiasm and the friendly 
and sympathetic rivalry between Mrs. Rees 
Price and myself still continue, and I hope 
will last for many years to come. My cabinet 
is the richer by her kindness ; hers has a 
few additional specimens which might not 
be in her possession but for the good fortune 
which threw them in my way ; and, though 
each has gaps not yet filled, the two collec- 
tions taken together comprise a very adequate 
j representation of the English glasses of the 

15 



ENGLISH TABLE GLASS 

eighteenth century. It is for this reason (and 
the consequent simplification of the trouble- 
some business of photographing the examples 
chosen for reproduction) that I have practi- 
cally confined my illustrations to specimens 
chosen from Mrs. Rees Price's series and 
my own. 

All glass collectors are good fellows, as 
a matter of course ; and I am sure that 
The iiiustra- other collections would have been 
tions. placed at my service had I asked 

the favour. And I almost wish I had done 
so, if only to afford one more evidence of 
the kindly feeling and true courtesy induced 
by the cult of the same hobby. As it is, 
the owner of every glass illustrated is credited 
with the possession of the example in ques- 
tion, and I would beg all who have thus 
helped me to accept my sincere thanks. 

In a volume such as this, in which an 
attempt is made to afford some slight guide 
to other collectors by the setting forth of 
one's individual experiences and conclusions, 
the illustrations must be of paramount im- 
portance. There is, of course, no method 
of learning the characteristics of any class 
of art objects at all comparable to that of 
personal inspection and handling ; free access 
16 



INTRODUCTORY AND PREFATORY 

to a fairly complete collection is the one 
desirable thing whether the collection be 
pewter or porcelain, enamels or ivories 
free access and the friendly talk of the 
collector. No book can take the place of 
this ; but good photographic illustrations 
give a very fair idea of the appearance of 
the originals, and the author can endeavour 
to talk to his readers just as he would to 
a crony to whom he was displaying his 
treasures. And so I have assumed the post 
of guide, and, having taken the collections 
of Mrs. R ; ees Price and myself as being 
together fairly complete and representative, 
have selected with extreme care a thoroughly 
full and representative set of examples to 
be photographed for this volume, and have 
supplemented those when necessary from a 
few other sources. 

The specimens thus illustrated in the first 
half of the volume will be found to make 
a series that lacks very few links, 

. - , . . ., , , I Typical and 

and with their aid, and that of individual 
the appended observations, it Exam P les - 
should be possible for the beginner to place 
any piece he may find. Should he come 
across any examples professedly of the 
eighteenth century, the prototypes of which 

D 17 



ENGLISH TABLE GLASS 

are not figured in these pages, he will do 
well to regard them with extreme caution; 
to treat them with suspicion even if he does 
not reject them ; though at the same time 
it must be remembered that entire complete- 
ness and finality in cataloguing the glasses 
of this period has not yet been attained. 

The examples illustrated in the second 
portion of the book have been selected on 
other grounds than the presentation of a 
historic sequence ; they have been chosen 
because of their personal interest and their 
individual appeal. They are very interesting 
in themselves, and they will afford some guide 
as to the type of piece the industrious col- 
lector may hope, with good luck, to discover. 
It is, of course, in this group that the most 
elaborate and successful forgeries are pro- 
duced ; but of frauds, fakes, and spurious 
pieces there will be something to be said at 
a later stage. 

All the illustrations (except some two or 
three as noted) are rather less than half the 

Method of hei S ht of the originals; for pur- 
Photograph- poses of comparison the size of 
mg Glasses. evei y pj ece has been given below 

its presentment. 

As to the method of photographing, I 
have made many experiments, and have come 
18 



INTRODUCTORY AND PREFATORY 

to the conclusion that none is so satisfactory 
as that employed to produce most of the figures 
in this book. I block up completely the 
middle light of a bay window, leaving the 
side lights clear, and about three feet in front 
of the centre light I place on a paper-covered 
surface the pieces to be taken, so that the light 
proceeds from behind the glasses on each 
side, and the illumination is even on both 
sides. By these means the best definition of 
any engraving on the bowl is secured, and 
each piece is clearly outlined against the dark 
background. Sometimes it pays, as in the 
case of the Jacobite glass (No. 200), to fill the 
bowl with a dark fluid to obtain the necessary 
definition of an inscription, but this is not, as 
a rule, desirable. There may be better ways 
of photographing glass, but I have seen no 
results produced by top, side, or front lights 
equal to those obtained by the illumination of 

the specimen from behind. 

/** + 

And now, after what has been, I fear, a 
sadly unconventional introductory chapter, 
I will take up my role of guide, and will 
embark upon an endeavour to present to my 
readers a coherent account of the glasses of 
the eighteenth century. Ladies and gentlemen, 
I crave your indulgence and your attention. 

19 



THE SECOND CHAPTER 

GLASSES OF THE SIXTEENTH 
AND SEVENTEENTH CENTURIES 




N a volume such as this it is 
impossible to devote space, how- 
ever much one would like to do 
so, to any history of the craft of 
glass-making in England. Our 
concern is rather with the actual glasses 
themselves ; and of actual pieces which can be 
definitely assigned to English glass-houses 
prior to the closing years of the seventeenth 
century there are so few that it is almost 
hopeless to search for them, though they may 
as well be recorded here. 

Mr. Hartshorne mentions three examples 
which may fairly be claimed as having been 
En Hsh made in London in the reign of 

Elizabethan Good Queen Bess by one Jacob 
Glasses. Verzelini, a Venetian, who worked 
in Crutched Friars under a patent for twenty- 
one years from December 15, 1575. One of 
these is known as Queen Elizabeth's glass, 
and is preserved in its leather case in the 
Royal collections at Windsor Castle ; and 
another is the cylindrical glass tankard with 
silver and enamel mounts, preserved in the 
20 



THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY 

British Museum, the heraldry of which clearly 
shows that it belonged to William Cecil, Lord 
Burleigh. The third is the most interesting 
of the group, and is now also in the British 
Museum, by the courtesy of whose officials 
I am able to give two photographs of it 
(Plate II). It is a goblet covered with an 
elaborate decoration of scrolls and conven- 
tional ornamentation, which, with the inscrip- 
tion, has been executed with the diamond- 
point. The motto " IN : GOD : is : AL : MI : 
TRVST " runs round the middle of the bowl, 
while in panels above are the date, 1586, and 
the initials G and S linked with a knot, the 
latter appearing twice. It is 5 inches high, 
and Mr. Hartshorne's attribution of it to 
Verzelini is, I think, incontrovertible. 

It is always unsafe to express a decided 
opinion that any object of antiquity is unique, 
and it is not impossible that other Another 
glasses by Verzelini may be dis- Piece by 
covered. One, at any rate, has 
been found since Mr. Hartshorne's book was 
published, and was sent to a well-known 
London auction room for sale. It was a more 
important piece than the British Museum 
specimen, being 8 inches high, but was un- 
doubtedly decorated by the same craftsman. 

21 



ENGLISH TABLE GLASS 

It bore the date 1584 (two years earlier than 
the other), and while the motto running 
round the upper part of the bowl this time- 
was the same, letter for letter, the linked 
initials were M and W. But this splendid 
example was discovered only to be destroyed. 
It met with an accident at the auctioneers' 
rooms, being literally shattered to fragments, 
and I believe that the eminent firm who 
were entrusted with it paid the owner the 
rather extravagant reserve placed upon it, so 
terminating the history of one of the very 
few English Elizabeth examples extant. 

Perhaps some collector who is searching 
for glasses of the eighteenth century may find 
yet another of the sixteenth, or, at any rate, 
one that purports to be of that date; but 
any such trouvaille must be regarded with 
extreme caution, for it has been suggested 
to me that the forger may be turning his 
unwelcome attention in this direction. 

Of the work of the " gentlemen glass- 
makers," immigrants from Normandy and 
Lorraine, who also set up glass- 
Glass of the houses in Elizabethan times, no 

Centu teenth re ^ c can ^ e trace d ; nor is there 

any extant example which can be 

noted as the product of the various factories 

22 




8* 



. 

wffi 



THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY 

established in the earlier years of the seven- 
teenth century under patents granted to Sir 
Jerome Bowes, Sir Edward Zouche, Sir 
Robert Mansel, and others. From the Duke 
of Buckingham's furnaces at Greenwich, where 
Venetian workmen were doubtless employed, 
the well-known " Royal Oak " glass probably 
came, and this may therefore be described 
as one of the few seventeenth-century pieces 
known. It is a square-shaped goblet, the 
bowl of which is elaborately decorated with 
a diamond-point, the decorations consisting 
of portraits of Charles II and his Queen, an 
oak tree bearing a medallion of the King, 
and a scroll inscribed " THE ROYAL OAK," 
and the date 1663. The metal is pale greenish 
brown, thin, very light, and devoid of bril- 
liancy, lacking altogether the clear pellucid 
quality and the greater weight which half a 
dozen years later were to distinguish the 
native products from others made to English 
designs and requirements, and sent from 
Venice to the order of John Greene, citizen 
and glass-seller of London. 

It is with these English rivals of the 
Venetian glasses, pieces dating from some- 
where between 1680 and 1700, that we prac- 
tically begin our native series. 

23 



THE THIRD CHAPTER 

EIGHTEENTH-CENTURY GLASSES 

THEIR NUMBER AND CLASSIFICATION 




HERE is one of Charles 
Dickens' inimitable characters 
was not his immortal name 
Wemmick ? to whose lumi- 
nously deductive mind the sight 
of a church immediately suggested the 
necessity for a wedding; and similarly it 
would seem that the mere existence of a 
glass was, to our ancestors of the eighteenth 
century, at once a provocation and an induce- 
ment to use it an attitude of mind admirably 
crystallized by the inscription on a glass 
belonging to Mrs. Rees Price, which pro- 
claims itself (full or empty) as " BIBENDI 



RATIO." 



This habitual over-indulgence and in- 
sobriety has passed into history as one of 

Eighteenth- the features of the e P ch - It 

Century was a vice confined to no par- 
ticular class ; our Royal Princes 
were topers, and ministers of the Crown were 
not unaccustomed to the sight of two majestic 
24 



THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY 

figures in the Speaker's chair, where in sober 
moments they saw but one ; and it is little 
wonder that men of a lower class continually 
" drank of the ale of Southwarke, and drank 
of the ale of Chepe," bemusing themselves 
without stint or stay. This undue liking 
for good liquor, so unhappily prevalent at 
that time in our country, was possibly one 
reason why so many glasses were made ; 
the other, of course, was the increasing refine- 
ment and desire for luxury, which gradually 
pervaded those classes of society which 
previously had been content with a much 
coarser and ruder mode of life. 

It is certain that in the eighteenth century 
drinking-glasses must have existed in their 
thousands, or there could not be, after the 
lapse of so many decades, such a number still 
extant. Prior to A.D. 1700, we know that 
comparatively little glass was made in our 
country, but about that date its manufacture 
seems to have greatly increased, for in A.D. 
1696, Hough ton (in his " Letters for the 
Improvement of Trade and Husbandry") 
records that there were eighty-eight glass- 
houses in England, at no fewer than twenty- 
seven of which the clear flint glass, so 
characteristically English, was made. From 

E 25 



ENGLISH TABLE GLASS 

this time on glass of the finest quality was 
freely produced here, and the series of 
examples we have to consider may be taken 
to extend from A.D. 1690 to A.D. 1810, after 
which date our English glasses ceased to 
have decorative merit or individual value. 

As a method of classification of the 
glasses of this period, it seems to me that 
Method of f ar the best plan is to make 
Classification. use o f t h e five main groups into 
which the specimens themselves naturally 
fall when arranged according to the character- 
istics of their stems, especially as these 
groups coincide with the chronological 
sequence. Mr. Hartshorne supplements this 
with a more elaborate classification by the 
shapes of the bowls, while dividing the 
glasses as a whole into two main groups 
the finer and the coarser (or tavern) examples. 
But though I am reluctant to discard the 
system of so eminent an authority, I fancy 
that the student will find that the stem 
classification alone is simpler and quite 
adequate. Indeed, the persistence of certain 
bowl-forms, right through the periods of 
development of at least three (and sometimes 
four) types of stems, seems to me to vitiate 
completely the utility of a classification by 
26 



METHOD OF CLASSIFICATION 

bowls, which of necessity cannot be either 
chronological or evolutionary. 

This arrangement by stems applies equally 
to goblets, tall ale glasses, small spirit 
glasses, and wine glasses, but as the latter 
are the most numerous, and form the com- 
pletest series, I naturally commence with 
them. 

The stems of these glasses, then, obviously 
fall into five groups, and these are illustrated 
in the frontispiece from good, The Fiye 
simple, typical pieces. No. i Groups of 
may be called the Baluster Stem* stems - 
No. 2 the Plain Stem, No. 3 the Air-twist 
Stem, No. 4 the White-twist Stem, No. 5 
the Cut Stem. This is the chronological 
order of their appearance, and though all five 
groups had their side issues, so to speak, 
their offshoots and varieties, each was a real 
development from its predecessor, and every 
glass of the period will fall into one of these 
five classes. Of course it is not to be assumed 
that these five divisions succeeded each other 
without overlapping ; indeed, the reverse is 

* Mr. Hartshorne sometimes calls these "moulded," a 
term which seems likely to lead to confusion. They were 
not made in a mould, though some few of them show 
designs impressed from a stamp. 

27 



ENGLISH TABLE GLASS 

quite the case. Cut stems appeared probably 
as early as A.D. 1760, while air-twists did 
not die out till after that date; and plain 
stems naturally showed great persistence, as 
being more simply made and more moderate 
in cost than the elaborate twist. Neverthe- 
less, taking the glass of the century as a 
whole, these are found to be the five great 
successive groups. 

Of the types of bowls and their varieties 
something will be said presently ; in the 
The Three niean time it may be well to 
Classes of devote a little attention to the 
Feeti feet, which are as characteristic 

and as important as the stems, though there 
are but three main divisions. In the first 
and earliest group, the under edge of the foot 
is turned or folded back on itself all round, 
the fold being anything between a quarter 
and a half an inch wide ; while in the centre, 
the place where the workman's pontil was 
snapped off when the glass was completed, 
shows as a rough and sharp-edged ex- 
crescence, which, once seen, cannot fail to be 
recognized. This folded foot is to be found 
almost invariably associated with baluster 
stems (e.g. Nos. 6 to 12), generally with plain 
stems (as in Nos. 22 to 30), sometimes with 
28 



STEMS AND FEET 

air-twists (see No. 58), and I had almost 
said never with white twists or cut stems. 
But a few weeks before these lines were 
written I acquired an example of a glass 
with a white twist and a folded foot (No. 
91) and Mrs. Rees Price another; and this 
fact conveys one more warning if one were 
necessary- as to the unwisdom of saying 
that a certain thing " does not exist." The 
folded foot, therefore, possibly continued in 
occasional use to about A.D. 1670, but simply 
as a relic of a bygone fashion of manufacture. 
In feet of the second class the fold has 
been abandoned, but the rough pontil mark is 
retained ; while in the third this The Pontil 
excrescence has been polished Mark. 
away on the wheel, leaving a very smooth 
saucer-shaped depression. The second group 
perhaps dates from A.D. 1740 (an exact date 
is impossible to fix), and lasted, at any rate, 
up to 1830, if not later ; while the advent of 
the last development, following the use of 
the cutting-wheel on the stems (Group V), 
practically coincides with the end of the 
eighteenth century, and if found on any 
other than the cut stem-glasses, is almost 
sufficient to make the amateur reject the piece 
as spurious. 

29 



ENGLISH TABLE GLASS 

These feet are either conical or domed, 
the latter being much the more uncommon 
form ; and while the shallow cone, or normal 
foot (as will be seen from the illustrations), 
lasted all through the century, the domed 
variety is only found in association with 
baluster (Plate VI), plain (Plate IX), and, very 
rarely, air-twist (Plate XV) stems. The 
stunted goblets, smaller at the lip than at the 
base of the bowl, with poor white twists set 
upon domed feet, belong to the Low Countries. 

It is always unwise to endeavour to im- 
prove on any system of nomenclature or 
Bowl Types identification that has become 
and Nomen- currently accepted, unless, of 
ciature. course, it is crassly imperfect; 

and Mr. Hartshorne has evolved so adequate 
a series of names for the different bowl types 
that it would be both unwise and ungracious 
to make any attempt to supersede it. But 
I have ventured to supplement his list with 
a few names which I use myself to distinguish 
varieties, so that the final catalogue of normal 
forms runs as follows : 

Drawn, e.g. Nos. 23 and 40. 

Bell, Nos. 50, 51, and 52. 

Waisted Bell, Nos. 37, 38, and 49. 

Straight-sided, Nos. 24 and 25. 
30 



BOWLS AND THEIR TYPES 

Straight-sided rectangular, Nos. 26, 54, 
and 71. 

Ovoid, No. 57. 

Ogee, Nos. 27, 28, 97, and 99. 

Lipped Ogee, Nos. 81 and 100. 

Double Ogee, Nos. 72 and 73. 

Waisted, Nos. 77 and 78. 

These different types of bowls are not 
confined to wine glasses, for it will be seen 
from the plates that the bowls of ale glasses, 
rummers, and dram glasses fall into the same 
groups, varying from their smaller congeners 
in dimensions but not ih design. Vessels 
without a stem, mugs, tankards, and tumblers, 
describe themselves, and need no such classi- 
fication as wine and ale glasses ; and flutes, 
yards, and other more or less fantastic forms 
do not seem to call for inclusion or descrip- 
tion at this point. 

There will be occasion for some further 
remarks on most of these types as we come 
upon examples of each in reviewing the series 
as a whole ; but we may note here the ten- 
dency in most of them to expansion of the 
lip, so that when the glass is filled the wine 
offers a comparatively large surface to the 
air. The% capacity of such glasses as No. 72 
(double ogee), No. 90 (waisted), and No. 59 



ENGLISH TABLE GLASS 

(bell), is very small ; was the top made wide 
so that the bouquet of each glassful should 
be more diffused and more adequately pre- 
sented to the palate of the connoisseur who 
was to partake of it ? 



PLATE 




WINE GLASSES. 

6. Height, 6| inches. 
8. Height, 6f inches. 



: GROUP SI. 
10. Height, 6 inches. 



BALUSTER STEMS. 

7. Height, 6f- inches. 
9. Height, 6f inches 



PLATE IV 




WINE GLASSES. GROUP I. BALUSTER STEMS. 

11. Height, 71 inches. 12. Height, ;| inches. 13. Height, 7 T inches. 



THE FOURTH CHAPTER 

WINE GLASSES 

BALUSTER STEMS AND PLAIN STEMS 




HE earliest glasses of the series, 
those which may approximately 
be said to date from A.D. 1680 
onwards, are very heavy and 
lumpy, and far more odd than 
beautiful ; and yet I confess that I have for 
them a particular partiality. * These great 
masses of clear and brilliant metal Qroup f . 
at any rate possess character ; and Baluster 
though the bowls are of such stems ' 
varied and out-of-the-way forms as to defy 
inclusion in any system of classification, 
they consort fitly with the quaintly designed 
stems, the whole (to me, at any rate) pos- 
sessing something of impressiveness and 
something of sturdy dignity. 

In the series illustrated on Plates III, IV, 
V, and VI, the extreme thickness of the bases 
of some of the bowls and the prevalence of 
irregular bubbles of air (the so-called " tears ") 
in the stems of the majority should be noted. 
These latter are not accidents, but constitute 
the earliest form of stem adornment. Later 

F 33 



ENGLISH TABLE GLASS 

they develop into the air-twists, and in some 
cases they are large enough to enclose a coin. 
The presence of this coin (by the way) does 
not prove that the glass was made in the 
year of its mintage (it may be much later) ; 
it only proves that it cannot be earlier. 

The only notable tendency to ornament 
in these glasses is exemplified in No. 10, a 
piece in which we may see on the shoulders 
of the stem small stars impressed in relief. 
Other like designs are similarly used, and 
in the second half of this book a glass 
bearing an inscription thus applied will be 
figured. 

Notice should also be taken of the group 
in Plate VI of glasses of this period (some- 
where between A.D. 1690 and A.D. 1740) with 
the domed feet already alluded to, the effect 
of which in these specimens is very pleasant ; 
and a gradual refinement of outline and 
detail as the series develops also deserves 
attention. 

There is no clear line of demarcation 
between Groups I and II, for the heavy 
Group ii : baluster stem glasses figured and 
Plain stems. no ted above merged gradually 
into a simpler and lighter type. No. 63, 
for instance (associated with a later group 
34 



PLATE V 




WINE GLASSES. GROUP I. 



BALUSTER STEMS 



14. Height, 6| inches. 15. Height, ;f inches. 16. Height, 6? inches. 



PLATE VI 




WINE GLASSES. 

BALUSTER 

20. Height, 6 inches. 
19. Height, 63 inches. 



STEMS WITH DOMED 



GROUP I. 
FEET. 



21. Height, 6| inches. 



17. Height, 6 inches. 

18. Height, 6$ inches. 



WINE GLASSES 

because of a comparison to be made when 
that series is reached), might equally justly, 
or even preferably, be classed as a baluster- 
stem type ; but when we come to such pieces 
as No. 25 and No. 28 there can be no doubt 
as to what class they fall into. The folded 
foot is the almost invariable accompaniment 
of the plain stem, though sometimes, as in 
the pieces figured in Plate 9, the domed foot 
occurs, and the metal of many of these 
examples is of a faintly darker tint than that 
of the earlier and more massive pieces ; but 
I do not know that any particular deduction 
can be drawn from this little fact. 

No. 23 has been selected for illustration 
because its stem shows a very long and 
slender form of the " tear," the development 
from which of the simplest air twist is not 
difficult to see; others, in their knops and 
swellings on the stem, foreshadow the advent 
of the more elaborately formed stems that 
were to succeed them, No. 25, for instance, 
with its " high-shouldered'' form to me a 
very pleasing type. Possibly the earliest of 
this group is No. 27, with the curious hollow 
in the stem, almost too large to be called 
a " tear ; " while No. 30, showing a very 
characteristic engraved border, comes late, 

35 



ENGLISH TABLE GLASS 

although it possesses the folded foot ; and 
perhaps latest of all is No. 31, with its par- 
ticularly beautiful decoration of the natural 
rose in bloom (evidently cut by an artist and 
a master of his craft), which affords a sharp 
contrast to the simple convention for the same 
flower to be seen on Nos. 26, 27, and 29, the 
latter being a very frequent type to be found 
over a long series of years. 

In this group we find the erratic bowl 
forms of earlier days replaced by certain of 
the accepted and permanent types. No. 2, 
the bell, is a type of bowl largely employed 
in the Low Countries (especially at a slightly 
later date in conjunction with white twists) ; 
while No. 24, the straight-sided, exhibits, on 
the other hand, a shape particularly English 
and very persistent, which is found up to the 
very end of the century ; No. 28, the single 
ogee, is a form which it has been suggested 
was largely made at Bristol ; and No. 23, the 
simple drawn form, is the forerunner of a 
very long series of glasses, many of great 
beauty and merit. 

On an earlier page I have spoken of 
branches and offshoots from the main line 
of development, some of which are puzzling 
and difficult to place properly; and I now 

36 



PLATE VII 




WINE GLASSES. 

22. Height, 5! inches. 
24. Height, 6| inches. 



GROUP II. 
Height, 6 inches. 



PLAIN STEMS. 

23. Height, 6J inches. 
25. Height, 6| inches. 



PLATE VIII 




WINE GLASSES. 



GROUP II. 



PLAIN STEMS. 



28. Height, 5| inches. 2 _ H - ht fil : nr u p . 29. Height, 5! inches. 
30. Height, 5 i inches. 27< >lei g ht > *>* inches. 81> Height> 5 inches> 



WINE GLASSES 

come to one of these little problems, in the 
shape of the early glasses which show on 
the outside of the stem an incised Qroup n a . 
twist. Three of these are figured stems with 
on Plate X, and it would not Incised Twist ' 
have been difficult to include others ; indeed, 
Nos. 39 and 205 present this characteristic 
also, as does a comparatively short glass of 
the drawn form which is in my possession. 
But Nos. 39 and 205 must be clearly distin- 
guished from the others, both as to date and 
metal, the latter showing a dark tinge (dis- 
tinctly blue as contrasted with the normal 
white basic hue) and a certain streaky and 
bubbly consistency quite different from the 
usual clear colourless glass ; while on Nos. 
36, 37, and 38, the incised grooves are much 
further apart than on the others named. 

No. 39 and its congeners are compara- 
tively late, belonging to the middle of the 
century ; but Nos. 36 and 38 are undoubtedly 
old, showing the folded foot and other signs 
of age (as does a similar piece in the cabinet 
of Mr. J. W. Singer). No. 37 is perhaps 
not so early, and has no fold ; but I have yet 
another piece of this very form and metal, 
with a drawn air-twist stem, which does 
exhibit the folded foot. Does this imply 

37 



ENGLISH TABLE GLASS 

that these glasses, uncommon as they are 
now, were made over a short period of years 
during which the fold went out of fashion? 
Did they all, with their characteristic twist, 
the curious waisted form of the bell bowl, 
and their dark metal, emanate from one early 
glass-house? Inasmuch as all the pieces I 
know were found in the west of England, I 
am inclined to think this suggestion not an 
impossible one. 

Their method of manufacture was obvi- 
ously as follows : a short stem would, while 
soft, be impressed lengthwise with parallel 
grooves ; this would then be attached to the 
bowl, drawn out, and, during this process of 
lengthening, would be twisted, producing not 
only the outside spiral indentation, but also 
the thinness of the centre of the stems, which 
is quite noticeable in Nos. 36 and 38. 



PLATE IX 




WINE GLASSES. GROUP II. 

PLAIN STEMS WITH DOMED FEET. 

Height, 7| inches. Height, 6| inches. 34 . Height, 6 f inches. 



PLATE X 




WINE GLASSES. GROUP HA. INCISED TWIST STEMS. 
36. Heigh,, 6 inches. .-ches. 33 He;ght> 6 inches . 



. 




THE FIFTH CHAPTER 

WINE GLASSES 

AIR-TWIST STEMS 

N some respects the glasses illus- 
trated in Plates XI to XIX are 
the most beautiful of our Eng- 
lish pieces, as they are in many 
ways the most characteristic. 
They possess a brilliance of metal which is 
enhanced by the silvery brightness of the 
spirals in the stems ; their forms, Q roup m . 
being those naturally evolved Air Twists: 
from the simple and legitimate Drawn - 
use of the material, are almost, without ex- 
ception, graceful and refined ; and the design 
and decoration of both bowls and stems 
leave little to criticize. 

The air-twist stems fall into two groups : 
the first comprising those in which the stem 
was made in one piece with the bowl, being 
drawn from it in the process of manufacture, 
as is the case with the plain stems ; the 
second consisting of the glasses which were 
made in three parts bowl, stem, and foot. 

In the second case the stems were first 
made in rods of some length, which were cut 
up into shorter pieces, each suitable for the 

39 



ENGLISH TABLE GLASS 

stem of a glass, and the bowls and feet were 
welded to them ; in the first group the twist 
Method of was formed by the workman in- 
Manufacture. troducing into the base of a 
partially made bowl small bubbles of air or 
" tears " (cf. No. 85), which, when prolonged 
and twisted, gave the charming effect exem- 
plified in No. 42 to take a simple case in 
which the effect is practically that of two 
such elongated " tears " as the one in No. 23, 
to which a spiral form has been communi- 
cated by twisting. No. 60 in Plate XV is 
another early and easily analyzed example. 

These air twists are typically English ; 
they were greatly in vogue, and their popu- 
larity lasted for a long time, probably at least 
as late as A.D. 1780; and they are generally 
associated with feet of the normal type pos- 
sessing rough pontil marks. But Nos. 60, 
61, and 62 exhibit domed feet, being pro- 
bably the latest examples of this type we 
have ; and No. 57, a singularly graceful and 
pure form, has the foot of the third type 
(with the pontil mark polished off), from 
which it may be concluded that it belongs 
to quite the end of the century. 

The simple drawn form exemplified in 
Nos. 40 and 42, 43 and 44, with their varieties 
40 



PLATE XI 




WINE GLASSES. GROUP III. 

AIR TWIST STEMS-DRAWN. 

40. Height, 6f- inches. 42 H . , ,, . h 41. Height, 6| inches. 

43. Height, 61 inches. 42 ' Hei ^ ht ' 6 * lr es ' 44. Height, 7 inches. 




in 



WINE GLASSES 

of twist (each inviting close and careful 
examination), were succeeded by others. 
The bell bowl was a natural de- varieties and 
velopment, and a very interesting Types of 
variety the intermediate stage 
between the characteristic drawn form and 
the typical bell is figured in No. 41 ; while 
of the bell form proper, Nos. 48 and 50, 51 
and 52, are given as fine and representative 
examples. It is interesting to note how in 
No. 49, for instance, the twist starts in the 
bowl, and is uninterruptedly continued all 
down the stem ; and how in No. 51 a com- 
pressed neck causes a thinning of the air 
tubes, which becomes almost a complete 
elimination of them in No. 61 ; while in 
No. 52 and the following pieces, the spirals 
start below this neck. Examples exist, more 
marked in character even than No. 61, in 
which the formation of this neck has com- 
pressed the twist out of existence, leaving 
only a series of bubbles in the base of the 
bowl entirely separated from the threads in 
the stem. 

Drawn air twists are also found with 
straight-sided and straight-sided rectangular 
bowls (see Plate XIV) ; but I have never seen 
them associated with ogee or waisted bowls, 

G 41 



ENGLISH TABLE GLASS 

so whether these latter were made or not I 
cannot say. They appear, however, in the 
next group. 

I have already alluded to the varieties of 
the air twist, each of which possesses an in- 
varietiesof dividual charm, and so shall 
Twist and not dwell on them further; but 
stem ' before leaving this group, I 

must briefly call attention to the pleasing 
variety of the knops or swellings on the 
stems (see Plates XII, XIV, and XV), which 
afford a welcome relief to the severer lines 
of the plain ones ; and to the rare cable coil 
(which sometimes takes the form of a simple 
band or collar) placed round the shaft of 
No. 50. It has been suggested that these 
knops and collars were introduced to secure 
a safer grip of the glass for the gouty and 
otherwise unsteady fingers of habitual topers, 
but in view of the eighteenth-century fashion 
of holding and lifting the glass by the base, 
this seems doubtful. 

The difference between the method of 
making the glasses of this group and those 

Group in a: of the preceding class has 

Air Twists, been already noted, and when- 

awn ' ever a cursory examination of 

typical pieces from each is made, the points 

42 




H . 

, . 
I- 



bo 
'S 



PLATE XIV 




WINE GLASSES. GROUP III. AIR STEMS DRAWN. 

54. Height, 6 inches. - Q . , . A7 . , 57. Height, 5^ inches. 

55. Height; ,6l inches. 53. Height, 6^ inches. 56 . H ei|ht, 6| inches. 



WINE GLASSES 

of divergence cannot but be clear. But before 
turning to the added variety of bowls and 
twists to be found in this class, there are 
two glasses figured on Plate XVI which call 
for notice. The first is No. 65, which is 
more or less of a puzzle, and perhaps might 
just as correctly be included among the drawn 
twists, for the upper part of the stem was 
clearly made in that way ; but the half below 
the knop would seem to be a portion of a 
length of stem separately made, and fitted 
into the lower side of the bulb just as the 
drawn portion was welded into its upper side. 
That these two halves are not parts of the 
same shaft, but two separate pieces joined 
at the knop, is obvious, if only from their 
complete lack of accurate alignment. 

The other glass which is noteworthy is 
No. 64, and this piece must be alluded to 
for two reasons. The first is the Persistency 
curious perpetuation (possibly due of T yP e - 
to the innate conservatism of your British 
craftsman) of an earlier form a form which 
almost belongs to the group of baluster stems, 
as will be seen on comparison with No. 63, 
a glass clearly of the latter class. The second 
point is that this stem, though joined to the 
bowl by a "'collar," and not drawn from it, is 

43 



ENGLISH TABLE GLASS 

yet a drawn stem, being clearly made by that 
method in one piece with the foot : a fact 
quite evident if the figure be turned upside 
down, and the stem compared with those of 
No. 62 and its congeners. This " collar," by 
the way, is rather a prevalent feature of this 
group of glasses, and may be seen in Nos. 68, 
69, 174, and 236. 

It was obviously possible, when the stems 
were made separately, to evolve a greater 
Varieties of variety of twists and spirals than 
stem and when they were produced as part 
Bowl. Q f t ^ e k ow ] . an( j ti^ consequence 

is that the stems of this class are more 
elaborate than their forerunners, though it 
must be admitted that what was gained in 
richness in this way was often lost in beauty 
and suavity of outline and form. And it 
cannot fail to be noticed that, in addition to 
this increased richness of the stems, the bowls 
in this group are also more varied than in the 
preceding one. Though the drawn form is 
naturally absent, bells of two types are to be 
found, simple, as in No. 67 ; waisted, as in 
No. 68; while the straight-sided (No. 69), 
waisted (No. 78), single ogee (No. 80), the 
same, lipped (No. 81), and double ogee (the 
quaint and pretty shape so well exemplified 
44 



PLATE XV 




WINE GLASSES. GROUP III. 

AIR TWIST STEMS-DRAWN, AND WITH DOMED FEET. 

58. Height, 6| inches. ar . . , f ,, , 59. Height, 6 inches. 

61. Height! 6f inches, *>' Hei ^ ht ' 7 inches - 62. Hei|ht, 6| inches. 




H -r 

o 

It 



CO 






pL| f>! 

H 

VJ <u 



o 

B* 

CO *T 



M 



PLATELXVM 




WINE GLASSES. GROUP IIlA. 

AIR TWIST STEMS NOT DRAWN. 

67. Height, 6 inches. ftft u-crht A 3 inrV.p, 6a Height, 53. inches. 
70. Height, 6j- inches. 88. Height, 6| inches. 71 . Height, 6 inches. 



WINE GLASSES 

in No. 72), are all to be found. This is the 
first time this latter type appears among the 
illustrations to this book, but it exists with a 
plain stem of the character of No. 28, though 
neither Mrs. Rees Price nor I possess an 
example. 

In glasses with air-twist stems occur also 
the ornamentation of the bowl by shallow 
perpendicular grooves (No. 80), and by a sort 
of raised reticulation (No. 70), as well as by 
the engraving which has been familiar in the 
preceding sections. In this connection the 
patterns of the engraving are worth attention 
No. 62, a survival from earlier types ; 
No. 41, with its pretty conventional render- 
ing of a basket of flowers ; No. 52, with its 
rose and moth ; and Nos. 43 and 75 also, as 
excellent examples of their respective styles. 

With the next class of stems we come to 
one of those little intermediate links that are 
so interesting and so delightful Group HI b : 
to the student who is concerned Mixed Twists - 
with the evolution and fluctuation of design, 
for in the stems of mixed twists twists, that 
is, which combine air threads and opaque 
white threads we find the intermediate stage 
which fills the gap that would otherwise exist 
between the air twists proper and the white 

45 



ENGLISH TABLE GLASS 

spirals. They are very uncommon, are found 
only in glasses of a good type, and exhibit 
a charming effect which is quite their own. 
The three examples reproduced from my own 
collection illustrate their details quite well, 
and although it is impossible to secure in a 
photograph a really fine rendering of the 
variation of the threads, it will be noticed that 
in No. 79 a single silvery air thread runs 
like a streak of mercury down the inside of 
the white coil ; that in No. 80 the cluster of 
threads is composed of air twists, the alter- 
nating spiral and the centre thread being 
opaque white ; and that in No. 81 two white 
flat tapes alternate with two flat air-twists. 

Leaving now the great division of air- 
twist stems for that which comprises the 
Feet with opaque white spirals, there are 
Pontu Marks. two features that call for a final 
note : the pellucid white metal of which these 
pieces are made, and the almost invariable 
presence, in glasses with the air twist, of the 
second type of foot that with the pontil 
mark. I have already commented on this 
latter point (p. 40), and noted that No. 57 
has the polished foot, and I find that Mrs. 
Rees Price has two (not drawn) with the 
same feature ; but these pieces are only the 
46 



PLATE XVIII 




WINE GLASSES. GROUP IIlA. 

AIR TWIST STEMS NOT DRAWN. 

72. Height, 6 inches. . H pi<rht 6' inches 73. Height, 6 inches. 
75. Height, 6| inches. 74< Hei S nt > ^ incnes - 76. Height, 6 inches, 



PLATE XIX 




WINE GLASSES. GROUP IIlA. 

AIR TWIST STEMS NOT DRAWN. 

77. Height, 6 inche^ 78. Height, 6| inches. 

GROUP IIlR MIXED TWIST STEMS NOT DRAWN. 

80. Height, 6^ inches. 79. Height, ;> inches. 81. Height, 6 inches. 



WINE GLASSES 

exceptions that prove the rule, for there is no 
doubt in my own mind that they are belated 
survivals (reproductions, though not for- 
geries) belonging to quite the end of the 
eighteenth century, if not to the early years 
of the nineteenth. 



47 




THE SIXTH CHAPTER 

WINE GLASSES 

OPAQUE WHITE AND COLOURED TWISTS 

COLOURED GLASSES 

CUT STEMS 

T has been suggested that the 
glasses of the fourth group, 
those with opaque white spirals 
in the stems, may date from as 
early as A.D. 1745, and though 
no piece appears to exist which bears a date 
approximating to that, glasses of this type, 
Group IV: bearing dates from A.D. 1757 on- 
White Twists, wards, are known and recorded. 
It may perhaps be justifiably assumed that they 
were the vogue at about A.D. 1760, and that 
they lasted almost to the end of the century, 
the coloured twists which mark their latest 
stage of development appearing towards the 
end of their career, probably circa A.D. 1780. 
I cannot do better than quote Mr. Harts- 
Method of home's description of the way in 
Manufacture. w hich these stems were made. 
He says 

" A cylindrical pottery mould of about 3 inches high and 
2j inches wide was fitted around its interior circumference 

4 8 




WINE GLASSES. GROUP IV. WHITE TWIST STEMS. 
32. Height, 7 inches. Height. 6| inches. ^ Height; ? h 



WINE GLASSES 

with a series of opaque white glass canes, alternating with 
rods of the same size in plain glass to keep them an 
accurate distance apart, all being further retained in place 
by a little soft clay in the bottom of the mould. This 
receptacle and its contents were then heated up to the 
point when melted glass might be safely introduced into 
the wide space in the middle. The hot canes adhering to 
the molten metal, the whole was then withdrawn from the 
mould, re-heated in the furnace, and the canes drawn 
together at one end by the pincers ; the cylinder was now 
revolved and prolonged to the proper distance, and a 
twisted stem of the required thickness, of opaque white 
filagree, was the result. It is obvious that by varying the 
positions of the canes, opaque, coloured or plain, and 
manipulating as described, twisted rods of endless variety 
could be produced." 

These rods were cut up into suitable 
lengths, and on to each length the bowl and 
foot were welded ; so that it is obvious that 
in this group we find a method of construction 
entirely analogous to that employed with the 
air-twist stems of Group III A. 

Knowing the method of making these 
stems, it is clear that it would be exceedingly 
difficult, if not impossible, to Do Drawn 
employ in the production of a Opaque 
glass with a white twist stem the Twis 
method used to make the drawn glasses of 
earlier date ; but Mr. Hartshorne illustrates 
a very rare and interesting piece, analogous 
in design to No. 49, in which the white 

H 49 



ENGLISH TABLE GLASS 

threads show the same change from perpen- 
dicular in the base of the bowl to spiral in 
the stem, as in the drawn bell glasses. It 
simulates the effect of No. 49 exactly, whether 
it was made in the same way or not; and 
should the amateur discover one of these, it 
is a piece to acquire, if only because it affords 
an interesting problem. 

But though the " drawn " method of 
manufacture was not the method of the 
English or white twists, the drawn type of 
Dutch. glass was a popular one, and in 

Plate XX are a couple of examples (Nos. 82 
and 83), and in Plate XXI another (No. 86), 
of white twist glasses which follow the drawn 
form ; No. 83, by the way, being possibly 
rather a cordial water or spirit glass than a 
wine glass. Mr. Hartshorne is of opinion 
that these are all, without exception, the 
products of the Low Countries, and he places 
No. 84 in the same category ; but it is diffi- 
cult to see why every other type should be 
made in England (where the drawn air-twist 
glass was admittedly a favourite pattern, and 
where No. 84 can be almost absolutely 
matched in an air twist, cf. No. 48), and this 
not. No. 96, for example, is admittedly Eng- 
lish, and so is No. 95, and the difference 
50 



PLATE XXI 




WINE GLASSES. GROUP IV. WHITE TWIST STEMS. 

87. Height. 6i inches. 00 TT . , , , . , 88. Height, 6 inches. 
89. Height! 6| inches. 86 ' He 'S ht > 7l mches. 8a Hei | ht ; 6iinches . 



PLATE XXII 




WINE GLASSES. GROUP IV. WHITE TWIST STEMS. 

91. Height, 5! inches. rt _ . ^ 92. Height, si inches. 

93. Hei|ht, 6f inches. 5. Height, 7 | inches. Q ^ Height; 6| inches. 



WINE GLASSES 

between this last and Nos. 82 and 86, for in- 
stance, is simply one of degree and not of kind. 

Possibly we may conclude that this form, 
like the bell bowls illustrated in Nos. 84 and 
85, is common to both countries, and we may 
admit, at the same time, that it is extremely 
difficult to distinguish between the English 
pieces and the foreign ones. The Dutch 
glasses are often of good metal and true ring, 
with twists of white as fine as our own ; but 
others from Holland, less fine, are easily 
recognized, and will be alluded to later. 

With the smaller glasses figured on Plate 
XXI we come to pieces that are indubitably 
English, as are those illustrated Bowls: Ogee 
on Plates XX and XXIII. Here and straight- 
it will be better to turn to the sided< 
forms of the bowls, leaving the multiplicity of 
twists and spirals to speak for themselves. 
Every one of these bowl shapes has been 
already found associated with air-twists, though 
in this group the plain ogee (of which Nos. 97 
and 98 are such excellent examples) and the 
straight-sided are the most frequent. The 
ogee type is said to be largely the product 
of Bristol glass-houses, and this is not un- 
likely, for among the pieces coming from 
the west of England I have noticed many 



ENGLISH TABLE GLASS 

variants of this form, and many intermediate 
shapes insensibly merging into each other. 
Of the more strongly marked variants a few 
carefully selected examples are figured the 
waisted form (No. 89) and the lipped piece 
(No. 100, which shows a raised mesh-like 
decoration at the base) being handsome in 
their way ; while the piece with perpendicular 
corrugations (No. 99) is interesting to me 
personally, because it is the first glass I ever 
purchased. 

Some of the straight-sided glasses also 
show these perpendicular ripplings (some- 
times spirally twisted or " wry then "), which 
give a lightness and brilliance of effect quite 
pleasing (No. 93, for example) ; and these 
develop into flutings, as in No. 92, which 
flutings were repeated in the cut bowls of 
the glasses of the early nineteenth century ; 
while in rare cases we find two horizontal 
grooves (see No. 91) running round the bowl. 
This last type is not common, and it has 
been suggested that it emanates from a glass- 
house at Lynn or Norwich ; and as both 
Mrs. Rees Price's example and my own (each, 
by the way, showing the folded foot) came 
from that district, the conjecture may reason- 
ably be accepted. 
52 



PLATE XXIII 




WINE GLASSES. GROUP IV. WHITE TWIST STEMS. 

98. Height, 5 Jinche 
100. Height, 6 inches. 



97. Height, 51 inches. Qft . ,, ^ 5 , 98. Height, scinches 

80! Height, finches! W. Height, 7 f inches. 1OO Hei f rht 6 inches 



WINE GLASSES 

The waisted bowl (as No. 90) has already 
been noted among the air-twists, but this 
piece deserves a little attention, Bowls: other 
being quite charming in form and Shapes. 
decoration ; and the double ogee (No. 88) 
also occurs in Group III A. This double 
ogee form would at first sight seem to be a 
lipped development of the straight-sided glass, 
but No. 87 raises the interesting question as 
to whether it was not rather an offshoot of 
the drawn form. Whichever it may be, it 
is a pretty shape, and one that was used over 
a long period, occurring, as does the straight- 
sided rectangular (No. 102), with plain and 
air-twist stems, as well as with white spirals. 

No genuine piece with the white spiral, 
that I have ever seen, showed the pontil 
mark under the foot polished off, Feet with 
though some forgeries do ; and Pontil Marks. 
with the exception of No. 91, and another 
piece in Mrs. Rees Price's cabinet, none have 
the folded foot. The rough pontil mark 
under the foot may be taken as generic in 
the case of white and coloured twists. 

Coloured twists were the croup iv a: 
natural outcome of a desire for Coloured 
even more variety than could be 
achieved by the multiplicity and increased 

53 



ENGLISH TABLE GLASS 

intricacy of white spirals, but are compara- 
tively rare in English pieces. They were 
perhaps more made at Bristol than elsewhere, 
and those with a blue twist in the centre of the 
white (No. 103), or circling round the white 
centre (No. 104), almost certainly come from 
that city ; while the yellow and white (No. 
102) is also probably of the same fabrique. 
No. 101 is red and white something will 
be said later as to English spirals of this 
kind, as contrasted with those of the Low 
Countries; Mr. Singer's cabinet contains a 
specimen in which a twist very like No. 99 
occurs in pale lavender ; and No. 105 is a 
very handsome specimen showing twists of 
green, red, and white. Apart from the beauty 
of their spirals, which make delicious notes 
of colour when placed among their simpler 
congeners, they call for little comment. 

A word may be said here as to the 
coloured glasses of this epoch. They seem 
Coloured to be very rare ; Mr. Hartshorne 
Glasses. records half a dozen in sapphire 

blue (drawn and double ogee), which vary 
in no other detail from the types made in 
clear white glass ; and Mrs. Rees Price has 
one of later date with a gilt inscription. 
They all probably partook of the nature of 
54 



PLATE XXIV 




WINE GLASSES. GROUP IVA. COLOURED TWIST STEMS. 

101. Height, 6jf inches. 1O _ H ht M : nrllpc 102. Height,;6 inches. 
103. Height 6f inches. 105 ' Height, 6 inches. 1Q4> Height, 6| inches. 



PLATE XXV 




WINE GLASSES. 



GROUP V 



CUT STEMS. 



106 
100 



:. Height, si inches. inft H ht fi , .- h _ 107. Height, 5! inches. 
.. Height, 6 inches. 108 ' Height, 6 ff inches. na Heig - ht>6 i inche s. 



WINE GLASSES 

freaks, and, while doubtless interesting, do 
not form a link in the series. 

Later than these, early in the nineteenth 
century, we find the funnel-shaped examples 
(with and without cut flutes), which were 
made in apple green, and also in an atrocious 
yellow green, and which were apparently the 
precursors of the still more or less fashionable 
coloured bowls stuck on clear stems. 

About the fifth group of our eighteenth- 
century glasses, I have not so much to say ; 
and the illustrations speak for Group V: 
themselves. I am a little inclined Cut stems, 
to think that cutting was employed on other, 
and generally larger, objects bowls, jugs, 
and standing pieces, as well as salt-cellars 
for a good while before it was used on wine 
glasses ; and though we should expect to 
find the stems of simplest pattern on the 
earliest specimens of this class, I rather 
fancy that this is not always the case. The 
stem of No. 106, for instance, is much more 
elaborately cut than that of No. 107, while 
it is pretty clear, from the shape of the 
bowl and the style of the engraving of the 
pattern on it, that No. 106 is by a good 
deal the earlier piece. 

The earliest date occurring on a cut-stem 

55 



ENGLISH TABLE GLASS 

glass seems to be A.D. 1758, and assuming 
this to be the actual date of the specimen, 
it would appear to be among the very first 
of the series. Possibly No. 106 is not much 
later, but I expect that the majority of these 
pieces date between A.D. 1775 and A.D. 1800 ; 
the latest of all, those in which the foot 
is cut, as well as bowl and stem, and is thus 
given the form of a cinquefoil (Nos. 5 and 
1 08), belonging to quite the last years of the 
century. 

By this time our English makers were 
producing glass of the very finest quality, 

The Metal hard, c l ear > P ure an d lustrous, 

and the and the use of the wheel had 

Engraving. CQme to great p er f ec tion. The 

result is, as might be expected, that we find 
on the bowls of this series some very good 
examples of the cutter's and polisher's art 
almost like intaglios in their treatment 
ranging from the basket of flowers, the grape- 
vine pattern (No. in), the hop and barley 
(No. 127), and the queer landscape and figure 
subjects of quasi-Chinese design (No. 115), 
to such unusual pieces as No. 218, with the 
medallion of Britannia. With this use of 
the polishing wheel, as might be anticipated, 
the removal of the pontil mark became not 
56 



PLATE XXVI 




WINE GLASSES. 

111. Height, scinches. ,, 
114. Height, 6 inches. 11O> 



GROUP V. 



CUT STEMS. 



c inrh^ 112. Height, 5! inches. 
, 5 inches. 115 . Height, 6| inches. 



WINE GLASSES 

uncommon ; and while some of the pieces 
figured still retain that odd excrescence, in 
others it has been polished quite away. 

With these wine glasses, in some ways 
the climax of their makers' art and skill, 
our long series closes, and we End of the 
take leave of the eighteenth Series. 
century. Whether the poor taste of the 
Regent and the Regency, which acted so 
injuriously on so many of the artistic crafts 
of our land, was the cause of the subsequent 
decadence, I know not ; it is sufficient to 
observe that the pieces which succeeded to 
those we have been considering in the last 
three chapters lack the beauty and interest 
of the earlier series, and both because of 
the limits of the scope of this handbook, 
and because of their own want of character, 
they do not call for attention here. 



57 




THE SEVENTH CHAPTER 

ALE GLASSES AND OTHER TALL 
PIECES 

N Plates XXVII to XXX we 
find another set of glasses, 
analogous, so far as stem types 
are concerned, to the lengthy 
series of wine glasses that have 
just been considered, but lacking the great 
variety of bowl forms to be found in the 
smaller pieces. Some of these were ale 
glasses, and others were doubtless used for 
light wines ; and in the case of those which 
were not clearly allocated to the less costly 
brew by the engraving of the familiar hop 
and barley on the bowls, some doubt as to 
the actual class to which they belong is in- 
evitable :' probably they were used for either 
beverage indifferently. 

However, there can be little hesitation 
in setting down No. 116 as a wine glass, 

ASeventeenth- th U g h SO far aS desi g n is COn - 

Century cerned, it is fitly associated with 
Example. the f o n ow i ng pieces. This is an 

undoubted example of the English glass of 
the seventeenth century, and at the time that 
58 



PLATE XXVII 




ALE GLASSES, ETC. BALUSTER STEMS. 

116. Height, ;| inches. 
117. Height, ;f inches, 118. Height, ;f inches, 



ALE GLASSES 

it was made it is a little unlikely that ale 
would be drunk from anything but the metal 
tankard or the leather jack. But whether it 
was intended for ale or wine matters little ; it 
is the forerunner, so far as type and design, 
of the series of tall pieces which now come 
up for consideration. 

Earliest of these, belonging to quite the 
opening years of the eighteenth century, 
where it takes its place with such Baluster 
pieces of the baluster-stem type as stems and 
No. 10, is the second piece figured plain stems - 
on Plate XXVII (No. 117); and this piece, 
too, is just as likely to have been intended 
for wine as for ale; but the third example 
(No. 118) tells its own tale, bearing on its 
bowl the hop and barley to denote the honest 
home-brewed tipple to the use of which it 
was dedicated. Chronologically, this, too, 
comes pretty early in the century, and its 
companion piece is figured as No. 27. A 
little later comes No. 119, also showing the 
hop and barley, and exhibiting with its plain 
stem a clear affinity to Nos. 2 and 24 ; and 
with this we leave the specimens which 
possess the folded foot. 

A glass in the possession of a Brighton 
collector, with a plain stem of the type of 

59 



ENGLISH TABLE GLASS 

No. 28, and a tall bowl of the double ogee 
form, may have been used for wine, and No. 
1 20, with its handsome bell bowl, may have 
been designed for champagne ; while such tall 
examples as Nos. 86 and 96 may have served 
a similar purpose ; though I confess to being 
a little disinclined to bring forward any 
particular type of eighteenth-century glass 
as having been exclusively devoted to any 
individual wine. I am rather of opinion that 
with our ancestors the wine was the thing, 
and the glasses counted for little ; and if we 
allow that the specimens with small bowls 
would naturally be used for the sweeter and 
heavier vintages, and those with large and 
tall ones for the lighter wines, we are 
probably as near as we shall get to the actual 
facts. 

With the tall glasses belonging to the 
third and fourth stem groups we come to 

Air Twists and a few vei 7 fine pieces, such a 
white Twists, specimen as No. 121, with its 
richly decorated bowl and handsome knopped 
stem, being of the very highest quality, both 
as to metal and design. To this succeed 
such air-twist pieces as No. 122, closely allied 
to the single ogee wine glasses, and No. 123, 
the affinity of which to the straight-sided 
60 



PLATE XXVIII 




ALE GLASSES, ETC. PLAIN AND AIR TWIST STEMS. 

120. Height, 8^ inches. 
119. Height, ;| inches. 121. Height, ; inches. 



PLATE XXIX 




ALE GLASSES, ETC. 
AIR TWIST AND WHITE TWIST STEMS. 

123. Height, ;| inches. 
122. Height, ;| inches. 124. Height, 7 inches. 



ALE GLASSES 

ones is clear ; and then we pass on to the 
white twists, Nos. 124 and 125 and 126, of 
which nothing need be said now, though the 
distinctly unusual method of decoration of 
No. 125, the hop and barley being painted 
in a very thin enamel, will call for comment 
in a later chapter. 

Last of this series comes the splendid 
piece figured as No. 127, a Bath find of my own, 
the companion to which was pur- 

... _ Cut Stems. 

chased in Bristol by Mrs. Rees 
Price. Their metal is of a clear pellucid bril- 
liancy, without any trace of the faintly blue 
tinge sometimes to be found in the glasses 
with plain stems ; and they exhibit the cul- 
mination of the powers of the glass cutter and 
polisher. They are not common, for by this 
time the tumbler was superseding the tall 
ale glass, and they are interesting because in 
them the long sequence draws to its close 
with a legitimate climax, a tour de force of 
metal and of workmanship. 

In the first half of the nineteenth century 
they were succeeded by glasses of the funnel- 
shaped type, exemplified in the tiny dram 
glass figured as No. 231, with long cut flutes 
down the side ; and I have a specimen 
which is inscribed "DISHER'S ALE," Disher 

61 



ENGLISH TABLE GLASS 

being, I believe, an Edinburgh brewer who 
was responsible for a special "ten-guinea" 
ale, which was said to be the strongest ever 
brewed. But this takes me beyond the 
definite bounds of my work. 

Along with this series of tall-stemmed ale 
glasses are to be found shorter pieces, in 

Smaller Ale sha P e lik ^ N S ' IO 9 and 2 49> 

Glasses and mostly plain stemmed, and almost 
Goblets. always engraved with the hop 

and barley. They lack distinction, and I 
have not thought it worth while to illustrate 
them, for every collector will drop across 
them at the beginning of his enterprise, and 
will readily recognize them for what they are. 

Next to these come the rare short- 
stemmed goblets, also bearing the familiar 
hop and barley, and, still smaller and rarer, 
the specimens which exactly resemble wine 
glasses, except that they are engraved with 
the same design as the last. These go 
back to the white twist period, at any rate, 
possibly earlier ; and were used for the 
strong old ale which was drawn from the 
cask and brought to table in special decanters 
like wine, to be but sparingly partaken of. 

Last of all the glasses employed in the 
consumption of ale or beer come the half-yards 
62 



PLATE XXX 




ALE GLASSES, ETC. 



AIR TWIST AND CUT STEMS. 



127. Height, ;| inches. 
126. Height, 7^ inches. 126. Height, ; inches. 



ALE GLASSES 

and yards, vessels of varying size and capa- 
city. The earliest mention of the Yards of Ale, 
latter seems to be in " Evelyn's etc * 
Diary," under the year 1685, where the diarist 
recounts how King James II was proclaimed 
at Bromley in Kent, His Majesty's health 
" being drunk in a flint glasse of a yard long." 
Half-yards, or glasses approximating to that 
height, which resemble elongated variations 
of No. 95, with a plain stem, may sometimes 
be found ; and a few glasses which can claim 
to be a yard long have survived the revelries 
of a century. These latter are of two forms 
those with feet, and those without ; the illus- 
trated imperfect specimen (No. 145) from my 
own cabinet belonging to the former class. 

Those without feet generally have a bulb 
at the base, otherwise resembling the one 
figured, and this bulb is supposed to render 
the emptying of them at one draught very 
difficult, the ale leaving the bulb with a rush 
and drenching the drinker. But, so far as 
I know, the difficulty is more imaginary than 
real ; at any rate, I have not found it at all 
impossible to empty with decorum the only 
one I ever had in my possession ! Being 
used as tests of skill at merry-makings and 
convivial assemblies, in which horse-play was 

63 



ENGLISH TABLE GLASS 

not an unknown factor, most of the many 
that must have existed have been destroyed, 
and they are now distinctly rare. 

Let me conclude with a warning. Should 
the collector find a yard glass engraved "A 
yard of ale is a dish for a king" let him 
not purchase it as antique ; it will be one 
of half a dozen made a few years ago to the 
order of an old friend of mine, who, being 
not unconnected with the brewing of good 
beer, wished to make a few presents to friends, 
and selected this distinctly unconventional 
form. 



PLATE XXXI 




GOBLET. BALUSTER STEM. 
128. Height, 9! inches. 



PLATE XXXII 




GOBLET. BALUSTER STEM. 
129. Height, 9^ inches. 



THE EIGHTH CHAPTER 

GOBLETS, RUMMERS, CIDER, 
DRAM, AND SPIRIT GLASSES 




ARALLEL to the two series to 
which attention has already been 
given, the wine glasses and the 
tall ale glasses, there runs a series, 
or rather two, of goblets. The firs t 
group consists of gigantic vessels containing 
any quantity from a quart up to three, and 
standing from ten to sixteen inches Glasses of 
high huge glasses which, if made Heroic size. 
for use at all, one would suppose could only 
have served for ceremonial purposes. The 
earlier pieces in my own collection, such as 
Nos. 128, 129, and 130, which approximate 
to ten inches in height, if used by a single 
person would certainly afford an abounding 
draught ; on the other hand, they may pos- 
sibly have served for loving-cups, though 
one associates this name with tall cups of 
silver rather than with vessels of glass : the 
later ones, in which the stem is quite short, 
and the capacity of the bowl even greater, 
might possibly have been used as punch- 
bowls. 

K 65 



ENGLISH TABLE GLASS 

Whatever their purpose, the sequence com- 
mences quite early in the century. No. 129 
may even be earlier than A.D. 1700; No. 128 
is not much later (the date of 1834 and the 
initials "R.sl.O" which this piece bears were 
added at least a century after it was made) ; 
and No. 130, though it does not possess the 
folded foot of the other two, is probably not 
much later than A.D. 1750. I have associated 
this piece with a tiny dram glass of the same 
shape, as affording rather an amusing con- 
trast and comparison. I also possess later 
examples, with ogee bowls, one showing an 
air-twist stem (Group III A), and the other 
a white spiral ; but it was not necessary to 
illustrate these; they correspond, except for 
size, to the wine glasses of the same groups. 

Another, of a still later date, holding about 
a pint and a half, and somewhat like No. 139 
in form, was given to me by a very kind old 
friend, as having been made to the order of a 
bibulous gentleman of old, who used it to 
keep within the letter of his physician's in- 
structions, when the medical man ordered 
him to drink only one glass of port at dinner ! 

These huge glasses are not very common, 
and the collector need not fear that his avail- 
able space will be curtailed if he acquires 
66 



PLATE XXXIII 




GOBLET. 
DRAWN STEM 



LIQUEUR GLASS. 
DRAWN STEM. 



130. Height, 9^ inches 



131. Height, 3! inches. 



GOBLETS AND RUMMERS 

them when he can. The possession of a 
few is desirable; their very size and bulk 
is impressive, they form admirable centres 
round which the smaller contemporary glasses 
may cluster, and their Herculean capacity 
leads the memory back with a smile to the 
days when an Englishman's draught, like 
that of the Dutchman famous in song, was 
" as deep as the rolling Zuyder Zee " ! 

Plate XXXIV is devoted to the illustration 
of specimens of the second group of goblets 
or rummers, those of normal size, Rummers of 
which show that the usual stem Four Types. 
sequence is to be found in this series as well 
as in the wine glasses and ale glasses. In 
my own cabinet there is also a piece of similar 
capacity of the baluster-stem period, but it 
was not necessary to reproduce this; nor is 
it necessary to say much more about these 
rummers and those illustrated in the next 
two plates, though one or two details call 
for note. 

It has been already pointed out that it is 
quite probable that the tall glasses described 
in the last chapter were used in- 

,. . . , t \. . Cider Glasses. 

discnminately for wine or strong 

ale ; and it is quite likely that these rummers 

were used for other liquors as well as for 



ENGLISH TABLE GLASS 

grog or toddy cider, for instance, or the less 
common perry. But whether the straight- 
sided rectangular pieces (No. 133, for example) 
were wholly and solely cider glasses, as has 
been suggested made for the first time in 
A.D. 1763 in support of the popular protest 
against a duty on this home-made beverage 
is to me very doubtful. Any glass which 
bears engraved on the bowl an apple-tree, 
or a border of apples and leaves, or a motto 
distinctly allusive to cider, may be fairly 
assigned to that favourite west-country tipple, 
which was so strong that it was taken in 
small glasses like wine (e.g. Nos. 225 and 
226) ; and it is a fact that one or two pieces 
so inscribed and decorated do belong to this 
straight-sided rectangular type. But I think 
this is most likely due to the fact that circa 
A.D. 1760 this was a fashionable shape (in 
Mr. Singer's collection are two bearing that 
date), so that it was really almost inevitable 
that on some glasses of this form should be 
recorded the farmer's protest against the 
obnoxious excise duties on cider and other 
liquors which roused him to revolt in A.D. 
1763. 

En passant the two-handled cup (No. 136), 
apparently based as to form on contemporary 
68 




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Q -S 

3 " 

Q s" 

Z , 

I 

N 



D ' 



MUGS AND TUMBLERS 

silver pieces, calls for a little attention, as 
being unusual ; and the quaint piece figured 
as No. 140, which is of later LaterPieces: 
date, was possibly made at Glas- Mugs and 
gow, and if so, is one of the Tumblers - 
comparatively few specimens definitely known 
to proceed from some individual glass-house. 
The square-footed type (No. 138), with bowls 
of varying fashions, belongs to about A.D. 
1775-80; and the mugs and tankards illus- 
trated come quite at the end of the series 
and the century, in some cases doubtless 
passing beyond A.D. 1800. 

With these I close the series of the larger 
vessels, illustrating few tumblers (Nos. 220, 
221, and 243), chiefly because, though they 
are a long series and occur all through 
the century, they naturally present no varia- 
tions in form, except that sometimes they 
assume the barrel shape. The date of any 
specimen may be approximately determined 
from the style of its decoration ; the two 
illustrated in Plate LVIII belong to within 
a year or two of A.D. 1780. 

The rather insignificant little glasses 
figured in Plates XXXVIII, Dram and 
XXXIX, and XL are some of Spirit Glasses, 
those which were devoted to aqua vitae, strong 

69 



ENGLISH TABLE GLASS 

waters, cordials, and liqueurs. As the saying 
is to-day in Scotland, they hold a "dram." 
If I had chosen to illustrate the whole series, 
it would have been possible to make clear 
in these short and dumpy little vessels the 
same sequence of stems, if not of bowls, as 
has already been established among the larger 
glasses ; but I thought this unnecessary, and 
have simply chosen for illustration a few 
varying types of the plainer makes. Doubt- 
less some of the taller pieces of small capacity 
were used for liqueurs (Nos. 42 and 74 are 
illustrations of this, and I possess another 
example from Braintree which closely re- 
sembles No. 3, but only holds a very small 
quantity) ; but the height and general appear- 
ance of these glasses naturally leads to their 
inclusion, as they have been placed here, 
among wine glasses, where, after all, they are 
more fully displayed. 

A curious little set of these glasses, 
obviously holding the most trifling quan- 
Friendsto tities of spirit, is reproduced in 

Temperance. Plate XXXVIII. No. I46comes 

quite early in the eighteenth century, No. 
147 probably belongs to the early years of 
the nineteenth, and the other two are inter- 
mediate. No. 147 was given to me by my 
70 




S 5 

o w 





<3J 

W 




SPIRIT GLASSES 

friend Mr. John Lane, who got it as a 
"Joey" glass from the Queen's Head at 
Box, near Bath, which was an old coaching- 
house. " Joeys " were fourpenny pieces, so 
called after Mr. Joseph Hume, M.P., at 
whose instance they were coined ; and these 
glasses were provided for the refreshment of 
the travellers on passing coaches, as holding 
four pennyworth of brandy. When filled, 
they present a normal appearance, the thick, 
heavy sides vanishing ; when emptied, the 
fraud is apparent both to eye and palate! 
Nos. 148 and 149 came from Carlisle, another 
great coaching focus ; and the good lady who 
sold them to me knew all about their decep- 
tive aspect when full, and as we talked of it 
she chuckled her joy (with the broadest Cum- 
berland burr) at " the waay we used to fool 
the poor Scoatch fowk ! " 

There is another uncommon type of glasses 
associated with the old coaching days, and 
though they quite possibly belong other 
to the nineteenth century, they Travellers' 
may be mentioned here. They 
are funnel-shaped glasses from four to six 
inches high, cut in flutes after the style of 
No. 231, but in place of the usual foot they 
have simply a small knob, so that they can 

71 



ENGLISH TABLE GLASS 

only stand upside down. On the coa< 
arriving at an inn for a change of horses, 
tray full of these would be brought out, tl 
passengers would seize one each, whi< 
would be filled from the various decante 
by the servant, they were emptied withoi 
delay, and the coach would roll on. The: 
glasses are not of frequent occurrence, M 
Hartshorne records some, and there ai 
specimens in Mr. Singer's collection ; but 
have never found one myself. 

Nos. 151 and 152 are Scotch pieces, tl 
former, like some other " firing " glasses hei 
figured (cf. Nos. 158 and 162), having a thic 
and massive base with which to knock o 
the table when applause was to be given t 
song, sentiment, or toast ; and the charmin 
little "thistle" glass, figured as No. 164, i 
also Scotch, and I have thought it well t 
include it as a genuine example of a freel 
imitated type, even though it possibly doe 
not belong quite to the eighteenth centurj 
The double glass, reproduced as No. 159, i 
curious ; the ogee piece (No. 162) is interest 
ing as being almost a facsimile of Benjami: 
Franklin's glass, now belonging to the His 
torical Society of Pennsylvania ; the littl 
barrels, Nos. 160 and 161 (with their congenei 
72 



PLATE XXXIX 




DRAM AND SPIRIT GLASSES. 



150. Height, finches. 

154 r Height, 3 inche 



;hes - UBHd&'Hteta 152. Height, finches. 
-'"- 155: Hdf hi! Ilncnes! 156. Height >4 i inches. 



PLATE- XL 




DRAM AND SPIRIT GLASSES. 



157. Height, 4! inches. 
16O. Height, ij inches. 
162. Height, 4! inches. 



158. Height, 3* inches 
164. Height, 4! inches 



159. Height, 4^ inche 
161. Height, if inche 
163. Height, 4! inche 



SPIRIT GLASSES 

No. 153), are quite quaint, though they come 
late; and lastly, No. 154 has been illus- 
trated, though with No. 156 it belongs circa 
A.D. 1820, because it shows the amazing per- 
sistency of a simple piece of decoration, that 
rough and highly conventional " rose " which 
may be observed (see Nos. 26 and 27) at 
least a hundred years earlier. 



73 




THE NINTH CHAPTER 

CANDLESTICKS, DECANTERS, 
SWEETMEAT GLASSES, 
TRAILED PIECES, ETC. 

ARALLEL to the long sequence 
of drinking glasses just described 
there run two other series of 
table utensils which were quite 
as much decorative as utilitarian, 
the sweetmeat glasses (of which more pre- 
sently) and the candlesticks. Good taste, 
Candlesticks : or perhaps I should say fastidious 
also a Series, taste, demands that complete 
harmony should pervade the furnishing and 
appurtenances of a table ; and so we find that 
of these latter quaint and graceful objects it 
is quite possible to collect a sequence as 
interesting as that of the concurrent wine 
glasses, and showing, for the most part, the 
same decorative characteristics and methods, 
the same typical stems, feet, and pontil 
marks. Early come big lumpy pieces (one 
massive example in my own possession, with 
the characteristic folded foot, and standing 
8 inches high, has a base no less than 
6 inches in diameter), and these are fol- 
lowed by such pretty examples as No. 165 
74 




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W 

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PLATE XLII 




TODDY FILLER. DECANTER. TODDY FILLER. 

168. Height, ;| inches. 170. Height, ii| inches. 169. Height, ;| inches. 



BOTTLES AND DECANTERS 

(consorting with plain stem glasses) ; No. 166, 
with its air twist; and No. 167, showing a 
well-cut stem and nozzle; while the inter- 
mediate white screw, though not illustrated 
here, is not uncommon. 

For the most part, the decanters which 
belong to the eighteenth century lack the 
beauty and the interest attaching Bottles and 
to the wine and other glasses ; Decanters. 
they do not extend over so long a period, 
nor do they exhibit the variety of form and 
decoration which, as we have seen, mark 
the drinking vessels. During the greater 
part of the eighteenth century wine was 
probably brought to the table in the well- 
known big-bellied black bottle, with its im- 
pressed seal ; and when, later, decanters of 
clear glass came into fashion, they were quite 
unassuming and simple in form. Plate XLII 
shows a fine example, of fairly early date, in 
my own cabinet, and Mrs. Rees Price has two 
similar pieces, each holding more than half a 
gallon. The date of these can be gauged 
fairly accurately from the characteristic festoons 
with which they are adorned. At a little 
later date decanters became more globular, 
sometimes having serrated ridges passing 
from base to top; at others bearing initials 

75 



ENGLISH TABLE GLASS 

and emblems, as in the case of the one in 
my collection which has the initials T. M. B. 
on one side, and on the other the shuttle and 
shears, which indicate that it once belonged 
to a weaver who was proud of his trade. 

Still later, about the end of the century, 
the type exemplified by the two examples 
figured in Plate XLIII came into vogue; the 
one (No. 171) inscribed "THE LAND WE LIVE 
IN," and showing perpendicular corrugations 
akin to those on such glasses as No. 93, 
being perhaps a little earlier than No. 172, 
which (according to the inscription on it) 
was " USED AT THE CORONATION OF GEORGE 

THE IV. IN WESTMINSTER HALL 1 9 JULY, 

1821." With this, and with the heavy and 
cumbrous cut specimens so frequently met 
with, we pass beyond the century. 

The two curious objects, Nos. 168 and 
169, figured on Plate XLII, are also (judging 
from the character of the cutting) 
1 probably of the early years of the 
nineteenth century; but they are included 
because they are not well known south of the 
Tweed, and because it is not impossible that 
earlier specimens may be found. They were 
used in place of the familiar ladle of the eigh- 
teenth century to fill glasses from the punch- 
76 



bjo 
' 



fli t"*lf 



SWEETMEAT GLASSES 

or toddy-bowl being inserted in the bowl 
until the bulb (which holds a glassful) was 
filled through the hole in its base, they could 
then be lifted with the thumb held at the top 
of the tube, and the toddy transferred to the 
glass simply by removing the thumb. 

With the handsome and finely designed 
pieces figured as Nos. 173 to 180, in which 
may be traced the same sequence sweetmeat 
(and the same characteristics Glasses, etc. 
as to feet and pontil marks) as have been 
noted in the wine glasses and candlesticks, 
I come to a group of vessels which per- 
sonally I find a little perplexing. Such 
specimens as Nos. 174, 175, 177, and 178 
are classed by Mr. Hartshorne as early 
champagne glasses ; while those which have 
a purfled or frilled edge to the lip (I regret 
that I cannot illustrate the excellent example 
in Mr. Singer's cabinet), and those which 
show a cut and van dyked edge (Nos. 176 
and 179) he calls sweetmeat glasses. This 
division may be quite correct; but if the 
earlier specimens of the obviously long and 
complete series were drinking glasses (e.g. 
Nos. 174 and 175), why do we never find 
examples of the cut-stem type which it would 
be possible to use to drink from ? 

77 



ENGLISH TABLE GLASS 

Let us, for example, consider those two 
pieces, Nos. 177 and 179 (Plate XLV), clearly 
one of the earliest and one of the latest of 
the sequence. From No. 177 it is possible, 
though not comfortable, to drink; in the 
case of No. 179 it is obviously out of the 
question. And my feeling is that neither 
were intended for drinking vessels, for the 
difference existing between these two speci- 
mens are solely those of fashion ; the one has 
descended from the other, mutatis mutandis 
they are the same thing, the analogy between 
them as to form and design is complete, and 
to me the deduction that they were made for 
one purpose seems to be not only justified 
but inevitable in short, that they were all 
sweetmeat glasses. 

But whether they were champagne glasses, 
or whether they were used for sweetmeats, 
they are handsome objects, with their almost 
constant domed feet sometimes ridged or 
corrugated, sometimes plain, sometimes cut 
their handsome stems and graceful bowls ; 
and one of the very finest I have ever seen is 
that figured as No. 180. This piece has one 
fault its foot is rather too small ; otherwise 
we cannot praise too highly the graceful dome 
of the foot, the well-made " collars " at the 
78 




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PLATE XLVI 




SWEETMEAT 
GLASS. 

180. Height, ;{ inches. 



BELL, WITH 
TRAILED DECORATION, 

181, Height, ;| inches. 



BOWLS AND PORRINGERS 

top and bottom of the stem, the twist con- 
sisting of a double blue thread that runs 
outside the white network in the stem, the 
fine sweep of the double ogee bowl, and the 
characteristically simple and effective network 
engraving. If the blue-twist wine glasses 
may be assigned to Bristol, this follows ; but 
wherever it was made it was the work of a 
master of his craft and its possibilities. 

The last group of glass vessels to be 
noticed in these pages comprises some mas- 
sive and stately pieces, bowls, 

J *j Pieces with 

porringers, covered cups, etc., Trailed 
which possess the common cha- Decoration. 
racteristic of being decorated in zigzag 
patterns with ridges or raised trails of glass. 
Typical examples are figured on Plates XLVI, 
XLVII, and XLVIII, and in these the 
various patterns of trailing are pretty com- 
pletely exemplified. 

Vessels of glass, as a rule, do not simulate 
the forms peculiar to those in other materials, 
though occasionally one finds a candlestick 
clearly copied from a metal one, or a 
cup (see No. 136) the design of which is 
based on an example in silver. But though 
I doubt if my two-handled porringer (Plate 
XLVIII) was made for use, or was intended 

79 



ENGLISH TABLE GLASS 

for any purpose beyond being displayed on 
a sideboard, it is interesting as being ob- 
viously based on the similar silver pieces of 
the seventeenth and early eighteenth cen- 
turies ; while to me it possesses the ad- 
ditional interest of bearing the mark of the 
original owner, some glass lover of a cen- 
tury and a half ago, at least, whose initials 
whatever his name was were the same 
as my own : a little coincidence that seems 
somehow to bridge the years, to link the 
present to a bygone age. 

Some of these pieces have deeply folded 
feet ; others, like those figured, have feet 
irregularly scolloped ; some have a very rough 
pontil mark ; the metal of many is deep in 
tone and heavy ; and all, I fancy, belong to 
the earlier forty years of the eighteenth cen- 
tury. The bell could have been used, and so 
could the jugs ; the bowls might be punch- 
bowls, and the covered cups might also serve 
some useful purpose ; but all the same, my 
conclusion is that they were "parade pieces," 
meant for display, were intended to gleam on 
the sideboard rather than to serve any utili- 
tarian purpose on the table. 



80 



PLATE XLVII 




COVERED BOWL, WITH TRAILED DECORATION. 
182. Height, ; inches. 



PLATE XLVIII 




PORRINGER. WITH TRAILED DECORATION. 
183. Height, ii| inches. 



THE TENTH CHAPTER 

METHODS OF DECORATION 




ROM the numerous examples of 
decorated bowls to be found 
among the examples reproduced 
in the plates, it is obvious that 
more methods than one were 
employed to give added richness to the ap- 
pearance of the glasses. Of the different 
flutings, grooves, and ribbings, examples 
have been illustrated, and need not be re- 
peated ; but it has been thought well to bring 
together in one illustration, for purposes of 
comparison, specimens of the other fashions 
of bowl decoration. 

Naturally engraving on the wheel was 
one of the earliest methods employed, and 
No. 187 exemplifies the effect, at varieties of 
once rich and simple, that could Engraving. 
easily be obtained by it, and shows the fre- 
quent conventional vine pattern in one of 
its many forms. (No. 184 shows the same 
method employed to render a rarer version of 
the same motive, the growing vine.) Later, 
as in No. 186, came the fashion of polishing 
part of the engraving to add lightness to the 

M 81 



ENGLISH TABLE GLASS 

effect ; and this was succeeded, quite towards 
the end of the century, by the entirely polished 
engraving so well seen in No. 189. 

The patterns themselves are not very 
numerous, but they show many variations, 
Some of the and some are curiously persistent. 
Patterns. The v j ne h as many forms, so has 
the rose, the latter ranging from the simple 
convention seen in No. 26 to the elaborate 
and naturalistic effects found in Nos. 31 and 
202. On other wine-glasses of different dates 
are to be found the sunflower, lily of the 
valley, forget-me-not, tulip, honeysuckle, and 
rose of Sharon ; while the hop and barley 
are naturally and appropriately placed on ale 
glasses. Then we also find butterflies, bees, 
moths, swans, and the curious hovering bird 
which may be traced from such early examples 
as No. 22 to quite late pieces like No. 139. 
Little landscapes, sometimes naturalistic, 
sometimes pseudo-Chinese in their conven- 
tion, are also to be found ; as are figure 
subjects, and the sporting scenes, coats-of- 
arms, ships, inscriptions, badges, and emblems 
to be spoken of in Chapter XII. These 
engravings, while usually placed on the bowls, 
are also to be found in the foot, as in the case 
of a Jacobite glass in the Singer collection, 
82 



PLATE XLIX 




184. 
187. 
190. 



METHODS OF DECORATION. 

185. Height, 3! inches. 186. 
188. 189. 

191. 192. 



METHODS OF DECORATION 

and two which belonged to Admiral Robert- 
son Macdonald, and even under the foot, as 
in No. 202 in my own cabinet, which bears 
beneath the base a beautifully engraved 
heraldic rose and leaves. Whether this posi- 
tion of these emblems has anything to do 
with the old-time fashion of holding and 
lifting glasses by the foot (and not by the 
stem, as we do to-day), I cannot say. 

Sometimes these engraved patterns were 
oil gilt, and a very rich effect was thereby 
produced; No. 210, for instance, Gilding and 
shows a few traces of this, while Enamel. 
No. 237, which is practically in its pristine 
condition, exemplifies this somewhat unusual 
method still better. Other gilt decorations 
were burnished, the gold being applied to the 
surface of the glass without any engraving, 
and lightly fixed ; and of this method Mr. 
Singer's cabinet contains a fine example, the 
bowl of a rummer being almost covered with 
trails of vine; while No. 192, though less 
important as to size, also exemplifies quite 
well this fashion of decoration. 

The white enamelled decoration sometimes 
found on these glasses is of two kinds. In 
the first (see No. 190) the designs are painted 
with considerable " body" and density ; in the 

83 



ENGLISH TABLE GLASS 

other (of which No. 188 is a fine example), 
the enamel consists of the merest film, most 
delicately applied, the necessary outlines and 
veinings being attained by the employment 
of a needle to remove the film in the 
manner of an etcher. Both methods are rare, 
and the latter is the less common indeed, 
it seems only to be employed on ale glasses 
to render the hop and barley pattern ; while 
in the coarser enamel we find the familiar 
scrolls, festoons, and vine leaves, as well as 
very quaint and interesting sporting scenes, 
hunting, shooting, skating, etc. It is possible 
that these enamelled glasses may have been 
made in Bristol, where white opaque glass 
bottles and other vessels were made and 
decorated in colours. 

In many cases where the design on an 
inscribed glass has been executed on the 

Diamond- whed > the accompanying inscrip- 
point tion has been written with the 

Engravings, diamond-point (see No. 245) ; in 
other examples the whole design has been so 
engraved. Mrs. Rees Price has a large glass 
so treated, with a view of a vessel at sea, a 
cliff, and a fort, freely and sketchily handled ; 
and the elaborate lettering of No. 224, and 
the coat-of-arms (Arundell ?) reproduced rather 



METHODS OF DECORATION 

more than half size for the sake of clearness, 
as No. 191 (from a bowl), afford further 
examples of this particular fashion of decora- 
tion. It is a fashion that dates from the 
earliest times, and is found in all countries; 
the Elizabethan example figured in Plate II is 
so decorated, and doubtless earlier examples 
could be found ; while it is not yet, I believe, 
extinct. Mrs. Rees Price has two late goblets 
so engraved, covered with military and sport- 
ing emblems, coats-of-arms, etc., and I possess 
one obviously from the same hand, which 
bears amid a multiplicity of designs a poem 
by Burns and an inscription stating that it 
was " presented to Mrs. Rogers by J. Crofts, 
2nd Life Guards," as well as the engraver's 
signature, "J. Wickenden 1853." 

It is almost an unknown thing for the 
craftsman to sign his work on decorated 
English glasses. The names of the executants 
of these quaint designs have perished, and 
we can now identify none of the users 
of the wheel and the diamond-point, except 
Giles of York, who worked in both styles 
about A.D. 1756, and Felix Foster, who 
wielded the diamond-point at the same 
date. Of these the lineal artistic descendant, 
however debased his style, was J. Wickenden. 

85 



ENGLISH TABLE GLASS 

The English glass engravers of the eigh- 
teenth century were not, as a rule, artists, 
Fluoric Acid though many were highly trained 
Etching;. craftsmen ; but there was one set 
of workers who devoted themselves to the 
decoration of glasses who were possessed of 
true and remarkable artistic talent, as well 
as of unrivalled deftness and skill in the 
manipulation of their peculiar process. These 
were the creators of the delicate designs, 
etched by means of fluoric acid, upon the 
bowls of such examples as Nos. 193 and 194. 
Beautifully drawn, exquisitely faint and clear, 
resembling nothing so much as a film of mist 
blown upon the surface of the bowl, they are 
the most beautiful decorations, I think, ever 
used on any glasses. 

This art, originating probably in Germany, 
had many practitioners there and in the Low 
Countries, whose names do not here concern 
us. It is not at all improbable that it was 
also employed in this country, though less 
extensively than in its place of origin; and 
No. 185, a quaint little glass thus decorated 
with a landscape, bears every evidence of 
being English, both in manufacture and 
ornament. This specimen, by the way, is 
said to have belonged to George III ; and 
86 



PLATE L 




GLASSES DECORATED BY MEANS OF FLUORIC ACID. 
. Height, log inches. 194. Height, 8| inches. 



METHODS OF DECORATION 

there seems to be no reason to doubt the 
attribution. English names also occur among 
these workers in fluoric acid. Greenwood, 
sometimes included among the Dutch artists, 
is responsible for the fine example figured 
as No. 193, and Adams (another distinctly 
English name) was the decorator of a glass 
I have noted, which bears on its bowl Bacchus 
and his vine, with the suggestive inscription, 
" May we never want its fruit." 

The custom of marking the black " big- 
bellied bottles" of the eighteenth century with 
the date, name, or arms of the impressed 
owner, impressed on a glass seal Seals. 
stuck on the side of the bottle, is known 
to all collectors ; and Mr. Hartshorne records 
one wine glass (with a white twist stem) thus 
decorated on each side of the bowl with an 
impressed coat-of-arms. It is a very rare 
example ; and with this method of decoration, 
known so far only by this solitary instance, 
this chapter fitly closes. 










THE ELEVENTH CHAPTER 

FRAUDS, FAKES, AND FORGERIES : 
FOREIGN GLASS 

T is very difficult to convey, by any 
written description, the difference 
between a genuine product of 
antiquity, in any genre, and its 
modern imitation ; and in the 
case of glass it is particularly far from easy. 
But there are a few general characteristics 
which may be mentioned for the guidance 
of collectors, though there is no real equip- 
ment for the discrimination of the spurious, 
save experience and the instinct which 
comes of the handling of many examples. 

The foot of a glass is naturally the first 
thing that a collector looks at, and a pretty 
Feet and ^ u ^ description of the varieties 
their charac- found in genuine pieces is given 

teristics. j n Chapter IH A glass which 

lacks the pontil mark, purporting to belong 
to any other group than that with the cut 
stems, should almost invariably be rejected ; 
though here a certain amount of discrimina- 
tion must be exercised, because of the ex- 
istence of certain glasses which may be 
88 



FRAUDS AND FORGERIES 

described as survivals or replacements. Mrs. 
Rees Price has two specimens with air-twist 
stems (not drawn), the bowls of which bear the 
Hanoverian emblem of the white horse, with 
the motto " LIBERTY" (cf. No. 215), and in 
these pieces the pontil mark has been polished 
off. But all the same, there is no reason 
to doubt their authenticity, and they were 
possibly made very late in the eighteenth 
century to complete a set by replacing earlier 
glasses unfortunately broken. Other ex- 
amples have come under my notice, but this 
will suffice to illustrate the point. 

The form of the foot on genuine pieces 
is also notable ; they are almost always 
large (the diameter being at least of the bowl) 
to ensure stability, and when not domed, 
are generally markedly conical in form. 
This has been well described as " having a 
high instep" the characteristic of a glass 
of long descent, as well as of a lady of lofty 
pedigree ! Look for a moment at No. 24, 
and then turn to No. 197 ; the latter pseudo- 
Jacobite specimen is the modern forger's 
product, and exemplifies at once his lack of 
skill in making an air twist, and his failure 
to achieve the proper foot it is flat and 
thin, and lacks the pontil mark. 

N 89 



ENGLISH TABLE GLASS 

It need scarcely be added that when the 
collector finds a piece, the foot of which never 
had a pontil mark, he should at once reject 
it. Those glasses in which the under side 
of the foot is of waxy smoothness (not 
polished) are rank impostures, and are not 
infrequently found of the type of No. 195. 
Sometimes the bowls of these particular 
fabrications are gilt ; at other times they are 
enamelled or engraved (this one is dated 
1714!), but once seen and identified for 
what they are, they will always be known. 

Any glasses in which the spiral in the 
stem runs the reverse way to the normal 
stems and may be considered spurious, and 
Spirals. so ma y pieces in which poor blue 

or red threads are found with no white 
interspersed, as well as examples in which 
the red or green threads are supplemented 
by white twists irregularly and imperfectly 
formed. These at present seem to be chiefly 
produced with bell bowls, but other types 
may be found. In the air twists, as in the 
white ones, the forger is often unequal to 
the production of a satisfactory imitation ; 
but in the cut stems he is quite capable of 
rivalling the work of a century ago, and 
such pieces as No. 198 are made in large 
90 



FRAUDS AND FORGERIES 

quantities, and are often sold with intent to 
deceive. Here the stem does not rise from 
the base quite correctly, and while the cutting 
and engraving are excellently imitated from 
the old pieces, the sides of the bowl are 
about double the thickness of those in 
genuine examples. 

In the course of the preceding chapters 
little variations in the metal of different types 
of glasses have been noted as far Metal and 
as possible, and as far as could "Ring." 
be conveyed in written words ; but only slight 
allusion has been made to the "ring" of 
all good English pieces. If a glass, on being 
tapped or flicked with the finger-nail, fails 
to give a clear, true ring, it must be regarded 
with extreme suspicion it is probably either 
spurious or the inferior product of some Low 
Country glass-house. And if the metal is too 
clear and brilliant, that also gives cause for 
grave suspicion ; but this latter is a matter 
that can often only be settled by actual com- 
parison with undoubted pieces of the style 
and reputed date of the dubious example. 

A wicked person, whose name I mercifully 
withhold, once submitted No. 196 to my 
inspection as a very fine " Williamite" glass, 
recently sent him. Its form, as will be 



ENGLISH TABLE GLASS 

It need scarcely be added that when the 
collector finds a piece, the foot of which never 
had a pontil mark, he should at once reject 
it. Those glasses in which the under side 
of the foot is of waxy smoothness (not 
polished) are rank impostures, and are not 
infrequently found of the type of No. 195. 
Sometimes the bowls of these particular 
fabrications are gilt ; at other times they are 
enamelled or engraved (this one is dated 
1714!), but once seen and identified for 
what they are, they will always be known. 

Any glasses in which the spiral in the 
stem runs the reverse way to the normal 
stems and may be considered spurious, and 
Spirals. so ma y pieces in which poor blue 

or red threads are found with no white 
interspersed, as well as examples in which 
the red or green threads are supplemented 
by white twists irregularly and imperfectly 
formed. These at present seem to be chiefly 
produced with bell bowls, but other types 
may be found. In the air twists, as in the 
white ones, the forger is often unequal to 
the production of a satisfactory imitation ; 
but in the cut stems he is quite capable of 
rivalling the work of a century ago, and 
such pieces as No. 198 are made in large 
90 



FRAUDS AND FORGERIES 

quantities, and are often sold with intent to 
deceive. Here the stem does not rise from 
the base quite correctly, and while the cutting 
and engraving are excellently imitated from 
the old pieces, the sides of the bowl are 
about double the thickness of those in 
genuine examples. 

In the course of the preceding chapters 
little variations in the metal of different types 
of glasses have been noted as far Metal and 
as possible, and as far as could "Ring." 
be conveyed in written words ; but only slight 
allusion has been made to the "ring" of 
all good English pieces. If a glass, on being 
tapped or flicked with the finger-nail, fails 
to give a clear, true ring, it must be regarded 
with extreme suspicion it is probably either 
spurious or the inferior product of some Low 
Country glass-house. And if the metal is too 
clear and brilliant, that also gives cause for 
grave suspicion ; but this latter is a matter 
that can often only be settled by actual com- 
parison with undoubted pieces of the style 
and reputed date of the dubious example. 

A wicked person, whose name I mercifully 
withhold, once submitted No. 196 to my 
inspection as a very fine " Williamite" glass, 
recently sent him. Its form, as will be 



ENGLISH TABLE GLASS 

seen, is a little unusual, but scarcely ab- 
normal ; it rings beautifully ; the engraving 
is just what one would expect to find ; the 
foot, while scarcely so "high in the instep" 
as might be anticipated, yet bears the right 
fold and pontil mark; and yet for some 
reason, when I handled it, I was not satis- 
fied. I could not say why; it all seemed 
correct, and, though my instinct made me 
doubt it, I could not condemn it until I 
placed it among others. Then the abso- 
lute colourless clarity of the glass became 
apparent, and I told my friend that if he 
had not already bought it, he would be well 
advised to return it. Then the unhappy 
man confessed that it was an absolute copy 
of a genuine piece, made to his order by a 
well-known firm of glass-blowers, and further 
treated by himself in one or two apparently 
trivial but essential details (not necessary to 
repeat here), so as to simulate the original 
absolutely ! Luckily for my reputation as 
a judge of glasses, the appearance of the old 
metal could not be imitated ; but even to a 
keen eye the copy was so accurate as to 
deceive in every detail but that. 

This is an unusual instance, but I tell the 
tale to point once more the moral, that in the 
92 



PITFALLS AND PROBLEMS 

last resort in glass as in china and pictures 
the cultured eye and the connoisseur's in- 
stinct are the only safe guides. 

There are various other circumstances 
which may induce doubt in the mind of a 
collector, and one curious case Pitfaiisand 
may be illustrated from No. 128, Problems. 
and from a piece presenting similar features 
in Mrs. Rees Price's collection. This latter 
is an air-twist (drawn) glass, dating approxi- 
mately from A.D. 1755, but bearing an in- 
scription written with a diamond in later years 
of the nineteenth century ; the former, though 
a glass of about A.D. 1725, is similarly in- 
scribed, "jR.sl.O. 1834." In each case, of 
course, the inscription has been placed on an 
early and genuine glass, and might lead to a 
misapprehension of the true character of the 
specimen if its characteristics were not well 
marked ; and even more puzzling and 
troublesome are the instances, of which I 
know a few, in which eighteenth-century 
glasses profess to commemorate seventeenth- 
century historical events. 

In these particular cases, the inscriptions 
have been placed on the bowls without any 
fraudulent idea. There was some reason 
for them, apart from any desire to create a 

93 



ENGLISH TABLE GLASS 

spurious antique; but it is easy to see how 
simple a matter it would be for the forger 
or the faker to take a genuine glass and add 
to it some emblem or design which (if genuine 
and contemporary) would greatly increase the 
interest and value of the specimen. This 
form of deception is one to be most carefully 
guarded against, and every inscribed glass 
demands very complete examination before 
it is accepted. 

However, these instances of misleading 
inscriptions are uncommon, and the more 
Foreign frequent problems are presented 

Glasses. by those glasses which might 

equally justly be attributed either to England 
or to Holland. Some of the Dutch glasses, 
being produced in the same way as the Eng- 
lish ones, and to similar designs, naturally 
bear a great resemblance to our own, and are 
really very hard to distinguish from them. 
Particularly is this the case with some glasses 
with bell bowls and white twist stems ; others 
are easily differentiated by reason of their 
weak twists, the poor colour of the threads (the 
white being bluish, and not dense and true 
milk-and-water compared to the milk-white 
of good pieces), and the lightness of the metal 
and the almost straw-colour pervading it. 
94 



PITFALLS AND PROBLEMS 

In brief, then, a would-be buyer of any 
glass should study the type and details of the 
foot, examine the craftsmanship 
and structure of the stem, con- 
sider the colour and density of the twist, test 
the ring of the bowl and the colour of the 
metal, and regard with care the niceties of 
the decoration engraving, enamelling, or 
gilding. Should he find an example which 
puzzles him, though he cannot pronounce it 
spurious, it does no harm to purchase. A 
"problem piece" is always interesting and 
always valuable. If it turns out to be a fraud 
or a fake, the collector has learnt the lesson 
it conveys; if it should be a rare or un- 
usual specimen of genuine character, his col- 
lection is all the stronger, his judgment the 
sounder, and his knowledge the wider. 

Finally Caveat Emptor. 



95 




THE TWELFTH CHAPTER 

INSCRIBED AND HISTORIC 
GLASSES 

N an earlier chapter it has been 
pointed out that, in addition to 
the artistic value of the indi- 
vidual specimens, and the anti- 
quarian interest of the several 
series into which these glasses fall, there 
clings to many examples a sentiment more 
intimate and personal, sometimes by reason 
of the inscriptions or emblems engraved 
upon them, sometimes on account of the 
known history of the particular piece in 
question. To treat at large on these inscribed 
and historic pieces, which strike a note at 
once curiously human and strangely familiar 
to attempt to formulate for them, as for 
their less uncommon congeners, a succession 
and a classification would demand far more 
space than is at my disposal, and could not, 
after all, lead to very much profit. For 
while, in some cases, the symbols and in- 
scriptions which adorn these glasses have 
reference to a cult or a creed, which permits 
of their being grouped together, the charm 
96 



INSCRIBED GLASSES 

of many lies in their individuality and their 
entire lack of association with others. Pos- 
sibly, under these circumstances, the simplest 
and most useful chapter that can be com- 
piled in this connection, will be one contain- 
ing some slight account of the examples 
actually illustrated in Plates LII to LXVII, 
as they stand loosely associated according to 
some central idea; and it may be just as 
well not to wander overmuch into a con- 
sideration of others that are known to exist, 
but simply to use those reproduced as indi- 
cations of what the diligent collector may 
expect to find, once in a way, if his luck is 
good. Such a chapter will necessarily be 
somewhat disconnected and disjointed, but 
this is, I fear, inevitable. 

In the whole history of Britain the most 
romantic family is that of the Stuarts, the 
kingly race whose vicissitudes jacobitism 
of fortune and vagaries of per- and its R elics - 
sonality are as remarkable as the amazing 
sentiment of loyalty that they seem to have 
been always able to inspire ; and there 
is perhaps no more pathetic chapter, even 
in their records, than that devoted to their 
ill-omened attempts to regain the crowns 
they had lost. How far, at any rate after 

o 97 



ENGLISH TABLE GLASS 

A.D. 1715, the Jacobite faith was anything 
more than a sentiment, cannot be discussec 
here ; or what chances there might have beer 
of the ultimate triumph of the cause, hac 
its leaders been in any way worthy of the 
devotion lavished on them. But it is wel 
known that the cause of the white rose hac 
very many staunch adherents, and that ever 
among the ranks of the Hanoverians then 
were those who looked, with a sympathy onl) 
half veiled, on their neighbours who dranl 
to "the king over the water." It was ir 
the north and west of England, and in the 
marches of Wales (not to speak of the high- 
lands of Scotland), that the tradition was lon 
cherished ; and it is from the English coun- 
ties, thus loyal to old memories, that mos: 
of the glasses which bear Jacobite emblems 
come : frail mementoes of a long-lost cause 
which have outlasted by many scores o 
years the devotion of its followers and the 
fascination of its leaders. To them, as tc 
all other relics of dead days and forgotten 
hopes, there clings a feeling of gentle melan- 
choly ; they bring us memories of gallanl 
gentlemen to whom they crystallized a life's 
ideal, and they are eloquent of that tenacious 
and affectionate fidelity that even the mosl 
98 



PLATE LI I 




INSCRIBED GLASSES, BEARING JACOBITE MOTTOES 

AND EMBLEMS. 
201. Height, 6 inches. 200. 202. Height, 6f inches. 



INSCRIBED GLASSES 

worthless of the fickle Stuarts could always 
command. 

Most of the Jacobite glasses are memorials 
of the second attempt to regain the throne 
of Britain, the famous " forty- The Two 
five ; " but there are a few which Rebellions. 
have reference to that of A.D. 1715, and No. 
200 is an example of this group. As will be 
seen, it bears (executed with the diamond) 
the cypher of the " Old Pretender/ 1 I.R. 
beneath a crown, and within a beautiful 
border two verses of the Jacobite song, 
" God save the King," which was afterwards 
paraphrased into the Hanoverian National 
Anthem. The second verse runs thus 

God Bliss the Prince of Wales, 
The True born Prince of Wales, 

Sent us by Thee. 
Grant us one favour more, 
The King for to Restore, 
As Thou hast done before, 

The Familie. 

Mr. Albert Hartshorne, in his elaborate 
and most interesting chapter on Jacobite 
glasses, records six others of this type, and 
as these are all in the possession of families 
who treasure them, there is but little chance 
of the amateur finding one ; still, there is 
always the possibility of one turning up, 

99 



ENGLISH TABLE GLASS 

and the knowledge of the rarity of a desired 
example is the collector's strongest incentive. 
The fervour of the Jacobites was largely 
kept alive by means of private associations 
Jacobite of gentlemen, such as the famous 

Clubs. Cycle Club ; " and judging from 

the number of emblem-bearing glasses that 
survive, there must, undoubtedly, have been 
many of these associations. Their glasses 
bore various symbols and mottoes, but there 
is a generic likeness running through them 
all, from such simple and early pieces as 
No. 20 1, with its rose, two buds, and stem, to 
such elaborate examples as those which bore 
portraits of " Bonnie Prince Charlie/' Virgilian 
quotations allusive to the cause, or such 
quaint and beautiful emblems as the stricken 
tree putting forth branches with the motto 
Revirescit. All these were frankly and com- 
pletely incriminating had they come within 
the official ken of the Government ; but there 
are others in which the allusions were veiled, 
and which we should not know for Jacobite 
had we not examples indubitably pertaining to 
that cult, to which their resemblance is clear. 
Such is No. 202, with its natural roses on 
the bowl and the heraldic rose and leaves 
beautifully engraved under the foot, a rare 
ioo 



PLATE LI 1 1 




INSCRIBED GLASSES, BEARING JACOBITE MOTTOES 

AND EMBLEMS. 
I 

204. Height, 6| inches. 203. Height, ; inches. 205. Height,^ inches. 



PLATE LIV 




INSCRIBED GLASSES, BEARING JACOBITE MOTTOES 
AND EMBLEMS. 

207. Height, 7|,inches. 206. Height, 8| inches. 208. Height, 6||inches. 



INSCRIBED GLASSES 

and early piece, two of which I found in 
Bristol. Glasses like this, and such pieces 
as Nos. 210 and 211, which bear badges not 
undeniably Jacobite, might have been used 
by the more discreet adherents to the cause, 
such as the cunning wit who was reproached 
for not praying for the king, and answered, 
" For the King I do pray, but I do not 
think it necessary to tell God who is the 
King." 

We know that the creed of Jacobitism 
(however much it may have degenerated from 
a living force into a mere tradition) flourished 
through a long series of years ; and this dura- 
tion of its vitality is reflected in the extended 
sequence of the glasses that bear the emblems. 
Starting with the plain-stemmed pieces of 
early date, allusive to the rising of 1715, we 
find air twists, an occasional outside twist 
(No. 205), white twists, and cut stems ; while 
the list is closed by glasses of the types which 
belong to the very end of the eighteenth 
century. Very few of these glasses are im- 
mediately contemporary with the moving 
events of the struggle; nearly all of them 
belong to the years after 1745, and stand 
to-day as records of an unceasing adherence 
to a gradually dying cause. 

101 



ENGLISH TABLE GLASS 

The most important are probably the 
portrait glasses, which fall naturally into two 
Portrait groups, those which bear the pre- 

oiasses. sentment of the " Old Pretender," 

and those showing the likeness of his son, 
11 Bonnie Prince Charlie." Of the former 
class is No. 206, with the mottoes " COG- 
NOSCUNT ME MET " and " PREMIUM VIRTUTIS," 
a glass which is purely commemorative: of 
the latter Nos. 203 and 209 are types. 
No. 203 bears, in addition to \hzpseudo like- 
ness of the " Young Pretender," the rose and 
thistle with the Jacobite star and the Cycle 
motto, " Fiat" ; while 209 is decorated with 
flags, military emblems, and the motto "AB 
OBICE MAJOR," as well as with the portrait in 
a panel. This, with its cut stem and elaborate 
engraving, is not improbably as late as 
A.D. 1788, and must accordingly be con- 
sidered a personal memorial of Prince Charles 
Edward, made at a time when Jacobitism 
had ceased to be anything but a legend. 

Much more frequent than the examples 
which are adorned with portraits are those 
other Mottoes which bear the simple emblems 
and Emblems. anc j their accompanying " word." 
Of these the star and the motto, "Fiat" 
associated with the national badges of the 
102 



PLATE LV 




INSCRIBED GLASSES, BEARING JACOBITE MOTTOES 
AND EMBLEMS. 

210. Height, 5! incher. 209. Height, ; inches. 211. Height, 5! inches. 



INSCRIBED GLASSES 

rose and the thistle, have been mentioned as 
being Jacobite badges ; but other "words" and 
emblems also occur " Redeat" for instance 
(as on No. 208), bears an obvious reference 
to the hoped-for return of the king ; and 
" RADIAT " (as on No. 212), a pursuing variant 
of this, being possibly allusive to the shining 
star of the creed. Rarer are " AUDENTIOR 
IBO," "TURNO TEMPUS ERIT," "GOD BLESS 

THE PRINCE," and " REDDAS INCOLUMEM " ; 

and all these mottoes are to be found asso- 
ciated with differing selections and arrange- 
ments of the emblems. 

The badges on No. 204, for instance, are 
the natural rose, the star, and the forget-me- 
not (a simple and beautiful piece of sym- 
bolism) ; on Nos. 205 and 207 are found 
the rose and the oak-leaf; on No. 208 the 
rose and the star; on Nos. 210 and 211 
the rose and the thistle ; and on No. 212 the 
royal arms of Great Britain. Whether the 
oak-leaf is allusive to the adventure of King 
Charles II in the Royal Oak, a part of the 
Stuart cult, is not certain ; it may be so, or 
it might equally justly be suggested that 
English Jacobites used the oak-leaf and 
Scottish ones the thistle ; the rose (as gene- 
rally represented) with two buds being 

103 



ENGLISH TABLE GLASS 

supposed to symbolise King James II and 
the Old and Young Pretenders. 

It is not to be supposed that while the 
Jacobites proclaimed their disaffection on 
Hanoverian their glasses, their opponents in 
Glasses. power would refrain from some 

similar avowal of their political predilections ; 
and glasses bearing Royalist sentiments still 
remain as evidence of the feeling of the 
Hanoverian's supporters. That they are less 
numerous than the others may possibly be 
due to the fact that the victors, possessing 
the spoils, had less need of nursing their 
rancour than the strong minority whose creed 
was under a ban. But it is curious to note 
that Hanoverian glasses exist of an earlier 
date than any Jacobite examples; No. 214, 
for instance, which bears in relief on the 
upper part of the four-sided stem the words, 
" God save King George." This piece dates 
from the reign of King George I ; indeed, 
Mr. Hartshorne records a specimen of some- 
what similar type (though more elaborately 
decorated) which bears the date 1716. 

But the most fervid loyalty, or rather the 

The Orange- most aggressive opposition to 

men's Toast. t h e Stuart cause, was to be 

found in the north of Ireland, where the 

104 



PLATE LVI 




INSCRIBED GLASSES, BEARING JACOBITE AND 
LOYAL MOTTOES AND EMBLEMS. 

212. Height, 6f inches. 213. Height, 8f inches. 214. Height, 6| inches. 



INSCRIBED GLASSES 

renown of King William III is enshrined 
in the hearts of all Orangemen. No Orange 
glasses appear to exist which are of an earlier 
date than the middle of the eighteenth cen- 
tury, so that they, like the Jacobite examples, 
were tokens of an inherited creed rather than 
the outcome of contemporary events; but 
they are interesting as showing that along- 
side the placid loyalty of the Hanoverian 
party there existed a group of gentlemen of 
militant convictions as staunch to the memory 
of Dutch William as were the Jacobites 
to the side of the Stuarts. No. 213 is a 
Williamite glass bearing the inscription 
"THE IMORTAL MEMORY;" others read, "TO 

THE GLORIOUS MEMORY OF KING WILLIAM " 

words from the Orange toast which begins, 
" To the glorious, pious, and immortal 
memory of the great and good King William, 
who freed us from Pope and Popery, knavery 
and slavery, brass money and wooden shoes," 
and concludes, after much inconsequent verbi- 
age, with the hope that he who refuses the 
toast maybe " damned, crammed, and rammed 
down the great gun of Athlone." 

Among the more moderate men party 
rancour and dissension probably gave way 
gradually to national and patriotic ideals, 

P 105 




ENGLISH TABLE GLASS 

crystallizing round the established sove- 
Loyaity and reignty of the Guelphs, and this 
Patriotism. sentiment seems to have inspired 
the decoration of No. 215. Here the motto, 
" LIBERTY," is associated with the rose of 
England and the white horse of Hanover, 
and in the next example (No. 217) the national 
ideal of a united kingdom seems to be ex- 
pressed by the intertwined rose and thistle 
and the Union Jack (without the cross of 
St. Patrick) encircled by the motto of the 
Order of the Garter. Still another phase of 
political belief in a time of continuous Con- 
tinental warfare, that of peaceful patriotism, 
pure and simple, is probably responsible for the 
figure of Britannia bearing the olive branch, 
engraved with great skill on No. 218, and on a 
rummer of the same date in Mrs. Rees Price's 
cabinet. With these is naturally associated the 
decanter reproduced in Plate XLIII, bearing 
national emblems and the toast, " THE LAND 
WE LIVE IN," a sentiment with which few could 
be found to disagree. The other glass illus- 
trated in Plate LVII is associated with those 
of royalist and national inspiration, as it 
records the coronation of King George IV, 
bearing the date "JULY 19, 1821," and the 
picturesque figure of the King's Champion. 
1 06 



PLATE LVII 




INSCRIBED GLASSES, BEARING LOYAL AND 
PATRIOTIC EMBLEMS. 



215. Height, 6| inches, 



218. Height, 6| inches. 



INSCRIBED GLASSES 

In this connection it may be interesting 
to mention a monument of disloyalty, a 
tumbler formerly in the possession of an old 
friend of mine. It bore on one side the 
word " TINKER," and on the other the word 
" KING," and concealed in the ornaments 
below the latter were several slits, so that if 
the person drinking chose the Tinker as his 
toast the liquor arrived at its proper destina- 
tion, but if in loyal custom he toasted the 
King, the ale would pour through the perfora- 
tions, not only failing to reach his lips, but 
drenching him into the bargain. 

It is not a long step from devotion to the 
sentiment of national greatness to admiration 
of the men who were responsible Heroes 
for raising the country to the Naval and 
climax of victory; and this Militar ^ 
one might almost say adoration of the hero 
of the moment is found recorded on perish- 
able glass as well as the triple brass of 
more enduring memorials of a nation's love. 
Nelson's memory was not infrequently thus 
honoured ; some glasses bear his portrait, 
others his famous flagship the "Victory," and 
yet others (see No. 219) his funeral car and 
catafalque adorned with the name of his two 
great triumphs of "TRAFALGAR" and the 

107 



ENGLISH TABLE GLASS 

"NILE." The popular worship of another naval 
leader, Admiral Keppel, is evinced on No. 220, 
a tumbler which owes its origin to the wave 
of appreciation that passed over the country 
after his trial and acquittal in 1779; and as 
this gallant sailor was created a viscount in 
1782 this glass (obviously dating between 
those years) is valuable as a standard of 
style and decoration by which to fix the date 
of such examples as No. 221, bearing the 
same characteristic ornamentation. 

Yet another naval glass, that was once 
in my possession, and now rests in Mr. 
Singer's collection, bears round the rim 
the names " DUNCAN, ST. VINCENT, HOWE, 
NELSON," a relic of the admiration entertained 
by its unknown owner for the great leaders 
whose names are thus recorded. 

With all the British pride in the Navy, the 
claims of military memto recognition were not 
disregarded by the engravers of the period ; 
and while in the nineteenth century, "Welling- 
ton/or ever" was emblazoned over a sword, 
as in No. 222 (the bird of peace being engraved 
on the other side of the bowl), fifty years 
earlier our friends on the Continent were not 
neglected. Whoever drank from No. 223, or 
from a glass in my own cabinet similarly 
108 



PLATE LVIII 




INSCRIBED GLASSES, COMMEMORATING NATIONAL 

HEROES, 
>. Height, 3 inches. 219. Height, 8| inches. 221. Height, 3* inches. 



PLATE LIX 




INSCRIBED GLASSES, COMMEMORATING NATIONAL 

HEROES, ETC. 
Height, 7! inches. 222. Height, 4! inches. 224. Height, ;| inches. 



INSCRIBED GLASSES 

inscribed, pledged the great Frederick, King of 
Prussia, a sovereign whose popularity in this 
country dated from the battle of Rossbach, 
where he destroyed a French army, with the 
result that he was bonfired and belauded all 
over the kingdom as the " Protestant hero." 

An interesting example, with the curious 
inscription, " De Negotie, HnttO 1772," is 
figured as No. 224. It has been A Cryptic 
suggested that these words refer inscription. 
to the judgment delivered in that year in the 
case of the slave Somerset, who, after being 
arrested as a fugitive, was liberated by order 
of the Courts on the ground that a slave 
became a free man as soon as he stepped on 
British soil. This is probably a glass made 
in Bristol, a great Quaker centre, and a port 
nearly connected by ties of trade with the 
slave-holding provinces of America, and it 
is not unlikely that some member of the 
Society of Friends had the rummer engraved 
(by the diamond-point) with this inscription, 
commemorating a notable step in the anti- 
slavery crusade. 

The bitterness of political feeling all 
through the eighteenth century is well 
known, and the stubborn way in which 
Parliamentary elections were fought, with 

109 



ENGLISH TABLE GLASS 

lavish bribery and unscrupulous corruption, 

Political and * s a matter f history ; so that it 
Pariiamen- is little wonder that a few glasses 
tary ' still bear records of these heated 

contests. Nos. 225 and 226 are cider glasses ; 
both bear apple-trees on the bowl, and the 
former has also the motto " NO EXCISE," the 
farmer's protest against the taxation of his 
home-brewed drink, which has already been 
alluded to ; while No, 227, an interesting 
piece in the collection of Mr. J. T. Cater, 
commemorates the still unforgotten upheaval 
caused in the country by Wilkes and the 
famous No. 45 of his " North Briton/' This 
story need not be repeated here, and no com- 
ment need be made on No. 229, with the 
inscription " SIR i POLE FOR EVER/' probably 
a relic of some fiercely contested election ; 
while No. 228, a fragment of glass of a type 
somewhat resembling No. i, also bears an 
inscription referring to a Parliamentary elec- 
tion, which seems to have been a political 
cataclysm not mentioned in our histories. It 
reads " THE REVOLUTION OF 5Lowtb t Novemb r 
the ist, 1755," and is said to commemorate 
the triumph of a loyal and independent club 
in returning Mr. Thomas Tipping to Parlia- 
ment ; a change, doubtless, but one however 
no 



PLATE LX 




INSCRIBED GLASSES, BEARING POLITICAL AND 
SOCIAL MOTTOES, ETC. 

225. Height, 6| inches. 227. Height, 6| inches. 230. Height, 6| inches. 

226. Height, 6| inches. 228. Height, i J inches. 229. Height, 6f inches. 



INSCRIBED GLASSES 

complete which was only a " revolution/' so 
far as Louth itself was concerned. 

Comparatively few glasses of the eigh- 
teenth century bear inscriptions which relate 
to the highly convivial and bibu- convivial 
lous habits of the time ; possibly and Masonic. 
had the idea of thus perpetuating these 
characteristics occurred to any of the " three- 
bottle " heroes of old, they would have deemed 
the surviving glasses themselves quite as 
convincing to future generations as any 
record or inscription. But some few seem to 
have thought otherwise, and to have chosen 
to inscribe their favourite glasses with symbol 
or with sentiment embodying their roystering 
creed and custom. Of the glasses so treated, 
the first on my list is No. 230, an example 
reasonably accorded priority because of the 
unusual nature of the society it belonged to. 
Among the multiplicity of the Glasgow clubs 
of the eighteenth century (concerning which 
a large and thick octavo has been compiled) 
surely this body was unique, for it was 
indeed a " sober" club, and the members 
drank at their meetings nothing but water. 
This particular glass was the property of 
Alexander Allan, of Newhall, the " PROVOST 
ALLEN" of No. 235, and is now in the 

in 



ENGLISH TABLE GLASS 

possession of Major F. W. Allan, a leading 
light of Scottish Freemasonry, P.G.M. of 
his province, and a true exponent of the 
honourable principles of the craft. Fitly 
balancing No. 235 therefore, on Plate LXI, 
is an English masonic firing-glass, once the 
property of John Boulderson, of Falmouth ; 
while other masonic glasses are figured as 
Nos. 238 and 240, the latter bearing the 
name of " MOTHER KILWINNING," the lodge 
which, on the score of antiquity, obtains 
and is accorded precedence of all other 
Scottish lodges. 

How often from this quaint little example 
the toast of "King and Craft" has been 
Toasts and drunk with all the honours due, 
Sentiments. no man can sa y. Masonry has its 
social side, as well as its moral and benevolent 
purpose, and it is popularly believed that 
neither is neglected ; certainly this glass was 
made for use, and was used, as is evident 
from the fragment broken and replaced. 
Another Scottish specimen is No. 231, which 
bears the rather mysterious words, "THE 
BLACK FACE o'x " round the rim ; and 
balancing this is an English example 
(No. 232), on which associated with a 
figure of Mercury and other commercial 
112 



PLATE LXI 




INSCRIBED GLASSES, BEARING SOCIAL MOTTOES 

AND TOASTS. 

231. Height, "Clinches. 000 u , . , , 232. Height, 4^ inches. 
234. Height, 4 inches. 23S " Hei 8 ht - 7* inches - 23 5. Height, Jf inches. 



PLATE LXII 




INSCRIBED GLASS, BEARING THE ARMS AND 

MOTTO OF THE TURNERS' COMPANY 

OF LONDON. 

J. Height, 9! inches. 



INSCRIBED GLASSES 

emblems we find the sentiment, "As we 
travel through life may we live well on 
the road." Both these glasses probably 
belong to the early years of the nineteenth 
century, but it nevertheless seemed worth 
while to include them here. 

Some of the most interesting glasses 
inscribed with toasts are those which bear 
the names of ladies, reigning beauties who 
were the idols of their day and generation. 
Mr. Albert Hartshorne possesses one in- 
scribed, "Mrs. Walpole, June 2*jtk 1716," 
which doubtless comes into this class ; and 
No. 233 is not impossibly of the same 
character, bearing as it does the name 
"MRS. A. GOF." 

At Levens Hall is preserved a tall glass 
of the early years of the eighteenth century 
which Mr. Hartshorne described societies 
as " inscribed round the rim Hunts, and 

LEVENS HIGH CONSTABLE," and C1 " bS ' 

used time out of mind at the Radish Feast to 
drink the mysterious " Morocco/* and " Luck 
to Levens as long as the Kent flows." This 
is a ceremonial glass, and No. 236 would 
seem to fall into the same category a very 
handsome piece, elaborately engraved with 
the arms, crest, and motto of the Turners' 

Q H3 



ENGLISH TABLE GLASS 

Company of London. This may have been 
so decorated for an enthusiastic Turner, or 
it may have been a Master's cup, or even a 
loving-cup in any case, it brings to mind 
the quaint toast given at the Company's 
Livery Dinner : " The pretty maids, the 
merry wives, and the buxom widows of the 
Turners' Company." In this connection a 
passing allusion may be made to No. 243, 
a tumbler of much later date, which bears 
the arms of the Bakers' Company. 

The cheerful toper who inscribed on a 
glass possessed by Mrs. Rees Price, " IVine 
does wonders every day" was probably a 
sportsman of the old school, who would 
have delighted in the mighty goblet now in 
the same collection which bears (with a 
beautifully engraved vine pattern) a decidedly 
adipose figure of Bacchus astride a barrel 
with a goblet in each hand, and the trium- 
phant declaration, "JovE DECREED THE 

GRAPE SHOULD BLEED FOR ME." He might 

perhaps have been a member of the " Con- 
federate Hunt " (a Welsh club with lady 
patronesses, which, at any rate, existed from 
1754 to 1758), or possibly a follower of 
"THE FRIENDLY HUNT/' whose little glass 
is figured as No. 239 ; in any case, he would 
114 



PLATE LXIM 




INSCRIBED GLASSES, BEARING SOCIAL MOTTOES 
AND EMBLEMS. 



238. Height, 2i inches. jf } j^; 240. Height, 3 inches 



INSCRIBED GLASSES 

have found himself at home with the royster- 
ing gentlemen who are depicted (engraved 
and gilt) on No. 237, with their motto, 
" KEEP IT UP," or among the eccentric souls 
to whom the quaint symbols on No. 241 
had a meaning. To the observer of to-day 
the reason for the choice of a cat as the 
instrumentalist, and the bagpipe as the 
instrument, is far from clear; and the con- 
nection of this grotesque with the motto, 

" HONOUR AND FRIENDSHIP/' is Still leSS 

obvious. 

Glasses inscribed to naval heroes have 
already been alluded to; now we come to 
the cases in which the inscription ship and 
refers to the ship, and not par- Naval Glasses. 
ticularly to the man. The first of these to 
be illustrated is a very notable example 
(figured as No. 242), a tumbler on which 
are engraved the words, " Succefs to the 
BRITANNIA, EDM D ECCLESTON, 1774"; and 
this is a piece which is further interesting 
as still possessing the original cover. Other 
specimens of this same group are reproduced 
on Plate LXV, and one which always delights 
me is No. 247, inscribed " SUCCESS TO 
THE BRITISH FLEET, 1759 " (referring to 
Hawke's defeat of the French at Quiberon 



ENGLISH TABLE GLASS 

Bay, on November 20 of that year), and 
engraved with the quaintest old ships heaving 
and tossing on the oddest and curliest of 
waves, as well as a figure of Britannia 
analogous to that on No. 218. The tall 
glass figured as No. 244, which bears the 
toast, " Succefs to the Renown" (a name 
not unknown in the Navy), also possesses 
considerable interest ; but it is when we 
come to Nos. 245 and 246 that we are 
brought into touch with another phase of 
the eighteenth century, a custom long dead 
so far as Britain is concerned. The former, 
over the gallant ship in full sail with the 
long pennon, is inscribed, " Success to the 

EAGLE FRIGATE, JOHN KNILL COMMANDER," 

and it is puzzling to learn from the Navy 
Papers that during the eighteenth century 
no King's ship named the Eagle was under 
the command of a John Knill ; but the second 
piece, with its toast, " Success to the LYON 
Privateer/' gives the clue, and shows that 
these very charming examples are relics of the 
old days when privateering was a very lucra- 
tive speculation. Dampier, on one voyage, 
secured booty to the value of nearly ^200,000 ; 
and while we know nothing of the Eagle's 
record in this respect, we know at least that 
116 




C/5 

5; x 

o 

W c 



bo 



S 3 



PLATE LXV 




INSCRIBED GLASSES, BEARING NAVAL TOASTS 
AND DESIGNS. 



244. Height, 8 inches. 



247. Height, yj inches. 



INSCRIBED GLASSES 

she made more than one voyage, for other 
glasses exist in which she is toasted without 
her commander's name being stated. Bristol 
was a great privateering port ; in that city 
these glasses were bought and probably 
made ; and one is perhaps justified in con- 
cluding that they were Bristol vessels which 
were thus toasted. 

In few cases has the personal note a 
quainter and more abiding charm ; in few 
instances is the glass more re- Names of 
dolent of old times and old habits Owners. 
than in one or two of the pieces illustrated on 
Plate LXVI. The glass figured as No. 249, 
inscribed, " i. PADWICK DEAN," simply records 
the ownership of a forgotten worthy; but 
Nos. 248 (c. 1740) and 251 (of a later date) 
tell us something of his individual tastes ; 
for " P : TATE," the possessor (otherwise un- 
known to fame) of the former, was clearly 
a devotee of the fiddle, a jovial soul to whom 
melody and Malmsey were both delights ; 
while "TOM SHORTER/' whose counterfeit 
presentment is seen on his glass, hunt- 
ing the red deer with horse and hounds, 
was evidently one of the old Exmoor 
sportsmen, immortalized at least, while this 
glass endures on the frailest of materials. 

117 



ENGLISH TABLE GLASS 

Sometimes one finds simply the owner's cypher 
on a glass, sometimes his crest, sometimes 
even more elaborate marks of possession. 
No. 250, for instance, bears a quaintly en- 
graved coat-of-arms, and the words, " A-Sg r 
BECKfoRD," but this Beckford was not the 
millionaire collector and romancer of " Vathek" 
fame ; and I have a rummer with a cut stem 
inscribed " CHARLOTTE HAYWARD BORN MARCH 
THE 9, 1774," which (like a tumbler of later 
date in my cabinet, with an analogous in- 
scription) would seem to have taken the 
place of the more familiar " christening 
mug." 

Let me record a wine glass with a beau- 
tiful white spiral stem, on the bowl of which 
are engraved the words, " Brief Alderson 
to Ann Brooks." It seems a curious 
present for one lady to make another, and 
I wonder if the friendship were half as 
enduring as the glass. 

Let me conclude this section with a 
description of Nos. 252, 253, and 254, three 
Emblem of the most interesting pieces in 
Glasses. m y cabinet ; glasses of singularly 

fine metal, decorated with excellent engraving, 
which may possibly date from A.D. 1730. 
It will be seen that each bears a motto 
118 



PLATE LXVI 




INSCRIBED GLASSES, BEARING DIVERS NAMES 
AND ALLUSIVE DESIGNS. 



250. Height, 6* inches. 



INSCRIBED GLASSES 

associated with an emblem in a panel. To 
the representation of bees hovering over 
flowers is appended the line, "Hence we 
gather our Sweets!' "I elevate what I 
confume " relates to a heart tried by fire ; 
while the palm-tree growing on a rugged 
rock seems to say, "/ rife by difficulties." 
Each is what old Quarles called a "moral 
emblem," and the sentiment of all is un- 
impeachable ; but the man for whom these 
glasses were made had the brain of a subtle 
humorist under his periwig, for the mottoes 
not only refer to the pictured symbols, but 
also bear a less obvious relation to the glass, 
the wine, and the drinker. The first may be 
taken as the wine-lover's allusion to the sweets 
to be imbibed from the glass ; the second to 
the action of raising the glass in a toast ; 
while the third might surely be understood, 
without undue straining, as referring to the 
condition of the drinker after numerous and 
deep libations, and be read, "/ rise with 
difficulty!" 



My tale is told ; I fear, with many and 
great imperfections in the telling, but honestly 

119 



ENGLISH TABLE GLASS 

and to the best of my ability. If I have 
succeeded in conveying to my 
ory * readers some little information 
on the subject of a singularly interesting 
series of objects, I am content ; if I have 
suggested, however incompletely, something 
of the charm and fascination that our old 
glasses have for the seeing eye and the 
sympathetic mind, I am, indeed, more than 
satisfied. 

All glass is frail and brittle, and much 
that was worthy of the most careful preser- 
vation has already passed to destruction ; 
all the more does it behove all who care for 
relics of our ancestor's good taste, their 
creeds, their passions, and their personality, 
to cherish all that remain, eloquent as they 
are of memories of dead days, some proud, 
some sad, some foolish, but all intensely 
interesting. The man who destroys an old 
example destroys a fragment of history, the 
miscreant who attempts to forge one wrongs 
our forebears as well as ourselves, and the 
erring soul who places on a long-descended 
glass an inscription of to-day, is only a little 
less culpable, even when he writes with as apt 
an artificiality as the rhymester who scratched 
on an old rummer 
1 20 




</>' Js 

W o 

o .s 



O w 

I * 

< w 

w 

PQ 



Q ^j- 
W 5 
CQ bJD 

e 5 



INSCRIBED GLASSES 

In this old glass, in other times more debonair and gay 

Than our dull decent plodding hours that mock us as they 

pass, 

Wit lurked and flashed (though often drowned), and soitg 
and laughter lay 

In this old glass. 

What if the men who quaffed from it tJieir golden Hippocras 
Are but a mellow memory now, sans rhyme or roundelay ? 
Their jovial ghosts are with us still, though o'er them grows 
the grass. 

These bid us smile : and though the years our temples touch 

to grey, 
And though ambition's clarion call becomes but sounding 

brass, 

Old love endures, old wine is ours pledge me, old friend 
to-day, 

In this old glass. 



121 



INDEX 



ADAMS, an English glass decorator, 

8? 

Air-twist stems : ale glasses, 60- 
62 ; rummers, 67 ; " tears," or 
bubbles, in, 40; wine glasses, 
27, 28, 39, 40, 42-46 

Ale glasses : air-twist (Nos. 121- 
123, 125, 126), Plates xxviii, xxix, 
xxx, 60, 61, 62 ; baluster stems 
(Nos. 116-11 8), Plate xxvii, 58, 
59 ; cut stems (No. 127), Plate 
xxx, 62; plain stems (Nos. 119, 
120), Plate xxviii, 59, 60; white 
twist stems (No. 124), Plate xxix, 
61 ; smaller pieces like (Nos. 109, 
249), Plates xxv, Ixvi, 55, 62, 118 ; 
yard-pf-ale glass (No. 145), Plate 
xxxviii, 62, 63, 71 ; bulb at the 
base, its supposed object, 63 ; 
some modern reproductions, 64 ; 
interesting seventeenth-century 
ale glass (No. 116), Plate xxvii, 
58 ; specimens with folded foot, 
59; specimen in the possession 
of a Brighton collector, 59 ; fun- 
nel-shaped specimen on which 
is engraved " Disher's Ale," 61 

Allan, Alexander, of Newhall (the 
provost), alluded to, 1 1 1 

Allan, Major F. W., specimens 
belonging to (Nos. 230, 235), 
Plates Ix, Ixi, no, 112 

Arms : Arundell (?) (No. 191), Plate 
xlix, 82, 84 ; Bakers' Company 
(No. 243), Plate Ixiv, 114, 116; 
Turners' Company (No. 236), 
Plate Ixii, 113 ; royal arms (No. 
212), Plate Ivi, 104 

Athlone, the great gun of, alluded 
to, 105 



BAKERS' Company, of London, 
arms of the (No. 243), Plate Ixiv, 
114 



Baluster stems : ale glasses, 58, 
59 ; goblets, 64, 65 ; " tears," or 
bubbles, in,'33 ; wine glasses, 27, 

32-35 

Bath, city of, alluded to, 6, 15, 61 

Beckford, William, of Fonthill, 
alluded to, 118 

Bell, with trailed decoration (No. 
181), Plate xlvi, 79, 80 

" Bonnie Prince Charlie." See Ja- 
cobites 

Borde, Andrew (Merry Andrew), 
physician to Henry VIII, alluded 
to, 5 

Bottles. See Decanters 

Boulderson, John, of Falmouth, 
glass formerly belonging to (No. 
234), Plate Ixi, 112 

Bowes, Sir Jerome, an early glass- 
maker, alluded to, 23 

Bowl (covered), with trailed decora- 
tion (No. 182), Plate xlvii, 80 

Bowls, varieties and types of, 30, 
41 ; classification, 30, 31 ; ex- 
pansion of the lip, ib.j ogee 
from Bristol houses, 51 ; straight- 
sided, i&.j associated with air- 
twist stems, ib. 

Box, near Bath, the Queen's Head 
at, 71 

Braintree, an example from, 70 

Brighton, alluded to, 59 

Bristol, alluded to, 6, 79, 84, 101, 
109, 1 17 ; single ogee-bowl largely 
made at, 36, 51; coloured twists 
made at, 54 ; example of ale 
glass purchased at (No. 127), 
Plate xxx, 6 1 

Britannia, medallion of, on wine 
glass (No. 218), Plate Ivii, 56, 106 

British Museum, tankard which 
belonged to William Cecil, Lord 
Burleigh, at, 21 ; illustrations of 
specimens at, Plate ii, 22 ; (Nos. 
193, 194), Plate 1, 86; (No. 206), 
123 



ENGLISH TABLE GLASS 



British Museum continued. 

Plate liv, 101 ; (No. 209), Plate 

Iv, 102 ; (No. 213), Plate Ivi, 104 ; 

(No. 229), Plate Ix, no; (No. 

249), Plate Ixvi, 118 
Bromley, Kent, alluded to, 63 
Buckingham, Duke of, his furnaces 

at Greenwich, alluded to, 23 
Burleigh, William Cecil, Lord, his 

glass tankard at the British 

Museum, 21 
Burns, Robert, poem by, engraved 

on goblet, 85 
Byng, Admiral, commemorated on 

a glass, 12 

CANDLESTICKS, also a series, 74 ; 
(Nos. 165-167), Plate xli, ib. 

Carlisle, " Toey " glasses from (Nos. 
148, 149), Plate xxxviii, 71 

Carlyle, Thomas, quoted, 3 

Cater, Mr. J. T., specimens in his 
possession (No. 172), Plate xliii, 
76 ; (No. 227), Plate Ix, 1 10 

Charles II, description of seven- 
teenth-century goblet, with por- 
trait of, 23 ; alluded to, 8, 103 

Charles Edward, Prince. See Ja- 
cobites 

Cider glasses (Nos. 133, 225, 226), 
Plates xxxiv, Ix, 67, 68, no 

Classification : typical and indi- 
vidual examples, 17 ; method of, 
26; bowl types and nomencla- 
ture, 30 ; tendency to expansion 
of lip, 31 ; feet, three classes of, 
28 ; second class without fold 
but with pontil-mark, 29 ; third 
class, pontil-mark polished away, 
29 ; feet either conical or domed, 
30 ; domed feet only found in asso- 
ciation with baluster and rarely 
with air-twist stems, ib.; stems, 
five groups of, 27 ; air-twist, ib.; 
baluster, #./ cut stem, ib.; plain 
stem, ib.; white twist stem, ib.; 
types of bowls not confined to 
wine glasses, 31 ; vessels without 
stems, ib.; flutes, yards, etc., ib. 

124 



Clubs: Confederate Hunt, 114; 
Cycle, 100 ; Jacobite, 101 ; 
"Sober Club," in 

Coins enclosed in " tears," or bub- 
bles, 34 

Collecting, the growing taste for, 
2 ; possible to those of moderate 
means, ib.; beginning of the 
author's collection, 5 ; a fascina- 
ting pursuit to the thoughtful 
and artistic, 10, n ; warning 
concerning yard-of-ale glasses, 
64 ; forgeries, frauds, and fakes, 
1 8, 22, 53, 88-92, 95 ; pitfalls and 
problems, 93 

Collar, the, 42, 43, 78 ; a prevailing 
feature of air-twist stems, 44 

Coloured twist stems, 53 

Coloured wine glasses, their rarity, 
54 

Confederate Hunt Club, alluded to, 
114 

Cosway, Richard, alluded to, 2 

Covered cups intended more for 
display than use, 80 

Crofts, J., 2nd Life Guards, 85 

Crutched Friars, Jacob Verzelini's 
factory at, 20 

Cut stems : ale glasses, 62 ; rum- 
mers, 67 ; wine glasses, 27, 28, 



<? 5 ' 56 



ycle Club," a Jacobite asso- 
ciation, ico ; its motto, 102 



DAMPIER, CAPTAIN WILLIAM, 
alluded to, 116 

Decanters (Nos. 170, 172), Plates 
xlii, xliii, 75, 76 ; one used at the 
coronation of George IV, ib. 

Decoration : the eighteenth cen- 
tury, although under-rated, noted 
for its artistic productions, 4; 
the metal and the engraving, 56 ; 
probable effects of the Regency 
on artistic crafts, 57 ; hop and 
barley decoration on ale glasses 
(Nos. 1 1 8, 124, 125), Plates xxvii, 
xxix, xxx, 58, 59, 61, 62, 82, 84 ; 
the conventional rose, 73 ; some 



INDEX 



D ecoration continued. 
of the patterns, 82 ; methods 
(Nos. 184-192), Plate xlix, 82 ; 
varieties of engraving, 81 ; gild- 
ing and enamelling, 83 ; diamond- 
point engraving, 84 ; fluoric acid 
etching (Nos. 193, 194), Plate 1, 
86 ; Bacchus and his vine, 87, 
114; impressed seals, 87 

Dickens, Charles, alluded to, 24 

"Disher's Ale " inscribed on funnel- 
shaped glasses, 6 1 

Dram and spirit glasses (Nos. 150- 
164), Plates xxxix, xl, 69, 72, 73 ; 
a tiny specimen, 66 

Drane, Mr., of Cardiff, his advice 
to collectors, 7 ; his collection of 
spoons, 9 

Drawn glasses (Nos. 40-62), Plates 
xi-xv, 40-44; (Nos. 146-149), 
Plate xxxviii, 71 ; drawn stem 
goblets, 66 

Drinking glass made in London 
by Jacob Verzelini, Plate ii, 20- 
22 ; drinking glasses numerous 
in the eighteenth century, 25 

Drinking habits of the eighteenth 
century, 24 

Dutch artists and examples, alluded 
10,7,51,87,91,94 

"EAGLE," the, a supposed priva- 
teer, 116 

Edward IV, alluded to, 8 

Elizabeth, Queen, her glass at 
Windsor Castle, 20 

Elizabethan early English glasses, 20 

Emblems inscribed on glass (Nos. 
252, 253, 254), Plate Ixvii, 1 18-120 

Engraving, 56 ; varieties of, 81 ; 
patterns, 82 ; diamond-point, 84 ; 
Greenwood, 87 ; Wickenden, 85 

" Evelyn's Diary," yard - glasses 
mentioned in, 63 

Exmoor, alluded to, 12, 117 

FALMOUTH, alluded to, 112 
Fashion, change and development, 
an interesting study, 8 



Feet, three classes of wine glasses, 
28, 29 ; conical or domed, 30 ; 
their character on forgeries, 88, 
89 ; engraved upon underneath, 
83, loo ; folded feet on ale glasses, 
59 ; in pieces with trailed de- 
coration, 80 ; on goblets, 66 ; on 
wine glasses, 28, 35, 36-38, 51, 52 

Fluoric acid, decoration by means 
of, 86 

Foreign work compared with Eng- 
lish eighteenth-century glass, i ; 
not easily distinguished from 
English productions, 94 

Forgeries, frauds, and fakes, 18, 22 ; 
pontil-mark sometimes removed, 
53 ; feet and their characteris- 
tics, 88, 89 ; (Nos. 195-198), Plate 
li, 89 ; stems and spirals, 90 ; a 
so-called " Williamite " glass, 91 ; 
importance of noting colour of 
the metal, 92 ; pitfalls and pro- 
blems, 93 ; summary, 95 

Foster, Felix, an early decorator of 
glass, 85 

Franklin, Benjamin, his glass al- 
luded to, 72 

Frederick the Great, alluded to, 109 

French defeat at Rossbach, alluded 
to, 109 ; inscribed' glass com- 
memorating defeat by Admiral 
Hawkes (No. 247), Plate Ixv, 
115, 116, 117 

Frome, alluded to, 13 

GEORGE I, KING, alluded to, 104 
George III, King, decorated glass 
said to have belonged to (No. 
185), Plate xlix, 82, 86 
George IV, King, decanter used 
at his coronation (No. 172), Plate 
xliii, 76 ; glass recording his 
coronation (No. 216), Plate Ivii, 
106 

Germany, fluoric acid etching pro- 
bably originated in, 86 
Gilding and enamelling, 83 
Giles of York, an early decorator 
of glass, 85 

125 



ENGLISH TABLE GLASS 



Glasgow, alluded to, 15 ; rummer 
probably made in (No. 140), 
Plate xxxvi, 69 ; its clubs, 1 1 1 

Goblets : seventeenth-century speci- 
men with portraits of Charles II 
and his queen described, 23 ; 
stunted specimens from the Low 
Countries,3o; rare short-stemmed 
specimens, 62 ; with baluster 
stem (Nos. 128, 129), Plates 
xxxi, xxxii, 64, 65 ; of heroic 
size, ib.; drawn stem (No. 130), 
Plate xxxiii, 66 ; the folded foot 
on goblets, 66 ; glass of a bibu- 
lous patient, 66; specimen with 
poem by Burns engraved thereon, 

85 

Greene, John, glass-seller of Lon- 
don, alluded to, 23 

Greenwich, the Duke of Bucking- 
ham's furnace at, alluded to, 23 

Greenwood, an English decorator 
of glass (No. 193), Plate 1, 87 

Guelphs, the, alluded to, 106 

HANOVERIAN National Anthem, 
second verse of, 99 ; Hanoverian 
glasses, 104 

Hartshorne, Mr. Albert, F.S.A., 
his monograph on the subject, 
9, 10 ; his method of classifica- 
tion, 26, 27 (note) ; quoted, 48 ; 
alluded to, 20, 21, 30, 49, 50, 54, 
72,77,87,99> 104, 113 

Hawke, Admiral, his victory at 
Quiberon the subject of an in- 
scription (No. 247), Plate Ixv, 
115, 117 

Henry VIII, King, alluded to, 5 

Holland, alluded to, i, 36, 50, 51, 54, 
86, 94 ; stunted goblets from, 30 ; 
glass-house referred to, 91 

Hop and barley decoration, 58, 59, 
61, 62, 82, 84 

Houghton's "Letters for the Im- 
provement of Trade and Hus- 
bandry," referred to, 25 

Hume, Mr. Joseph, M.P., "Joeys" 
named after, 71 

126 



IMPRESSED seals, 87 

Incised twist stems, wine glasses, 
37,38 

Inscribed and historic glasses, 96 ; 
glasses bearing Jacobite mottoes 
and emblems (Nos. 200-214), 
Plates lii, 97, 98; liii. 100 ; liv, 
101 ; Iv, 102 ; Ivi, 104 ; Jacobite 
emblems and traditions long 
cherished, 98 ; most Jacobite 
glasses memorials of the " forty- 
five," 99; Hanoverian National 
Anthem, 99 ; rose decoration 
(Nos. 201, 202), Plate Ixii, 100; 
Jacobite clubs, 100 ; few speci- 
mens of Jacobite emblems im- 
mediately contemporary, 101 ; 
portrait glasses (Nos. 203, 206, 
209), Plates liii, liv, Iv, 100- 
102 ; Hanoverian glasses, 104 ; 
the Orangeman's Toast, 104 ; 
" Williamite " glass, 105; Orange 
glasses, 105 ; bearing loyal and 
patriotic mottoes and emblems 
(Nos. 215-218), Plate Ivii, 106; 
Tinker and King glass, 107 ; 
heroes, naval and military, com- 
memorated (Nos. 219-224), Plates 
Iviii, lix, 107-109 ; a cryptic 
inscription, 109; rummer com- 
memorating the anti - slavery 
crusade (No. 224), Plate lix, 
109 ; " The revolution of Lowth " 
(No. 228), Plate Ix, no; arms 
of the Turners' Company (No. 
236), Plate Ixii, 113, 114; arms 
of the Bakers' Company (No. 
243), Plate Ixiv, 114; political, 
naval, and social mottoes, etc., 
toasts and emblems (Nos. 225- 
243), Plates Ix, no; Ixi, 112; 
Ixiii, 114; Ixiv, 115, 1 16; bearing 
naval toasts and designs (Nos. 
244-247), Plate Ixv, 117; bear- 
ing divers names and allusive 
designs (Nos. 248-251), Plate Ixvi, 
118; bearing pictorial emblems 
and mottoes (Nos. 252-254), 
Plate Ixvii, 120 



INDEX 



Inscriptions,mottoes,etc.,on glasses, 
12,21,87,89,93,99-119 

JACOBITES, alluded to, n; speci- 
men of glass in Mr. Singer's 
collection, 82; their relics, 97; 
emblems and traditions, long 
cherished, 98 ; memorials of the 
" forty-five," 99 ; clubs, 100 ; em- 
blems and portraits, 101, 102 ; 
James Francis Edward, the " Old 
Pretender," 99, 102, 104 ; Charles 
Edward, "Bonnie Prince Char- 
lie "the "Young Pretender," 
loo, 102, 104; glasses inscribed 
with mottoes and emblems (Nos. 
200-214), Plates Hi, 98 ; liii, 100 ; 
liv, 101 ; Iv, 102 ; Ivi, 103, 104 

James II, King, alluded to, 104; 
his health drunk in a yard-glass, 

63 

" Joey " glasses, or friends to tem- 
perance (No. 147), Plate xxxviii, 
70,71 

KEPPEL, ADMIRAL, portrait and 

inscription (No. 220), Plate Iviii, 

108 
King and craft toast, alluded to, 

112 
Knill, John, commander of the 

Eagle frigate, alluded to, 1 16 

LAMERIE, PAUL, alluded to, 2 
Lane, Mr. John, alluded to, 71 
Levens Hall, eighteenth - century 

tall glass preserved at, 113 
Liqueur glasses, 70 (Nos. 42, 74, 

131), Plates xi, 40; xviii, 46; 

xxxiii, 66 
Lorraine, " gentlemen glassmakers " 

from, alluded to, 22 
i Louth, a recorded revolution at 

(No. 228), Plate Ix, no, in 
Low Countries. See Holland 
" Luck to Levens," the toast alluded 

to, 113 
Lynn, glass-house at, alluded to, 

52 



MACDONALD, ADMIRAL ROBERT- 
SON, glasses once in his posses- 
sion engraved under the foot, 83 

Mansel, Sir Robert, an early glass- 
maker, alluded to, 23 

Masonic and convivial inscriptions 
on glasses (Nos. 225-235, 237- 
243), Plates Ix, no; Ixi, 112; 
Ixiii, 114; Ixiv, 116 

Mercury, the figure of, inscribed 
on Scottish specimen (No. 232), 
Plate Ixi, 112 

Merry Andrew. See Borde 

Metal, 33, 39, 56; of forgeries, 91 ; 
colour of, 92 

Mixed twist stems, wine glasses, 45, 
47 

" Morocco," strong ale used at the 
annual Radish Feast at Levens 
Hall, 113 

Mugs, tankards, and tumblers (Nos. 
136, 138, 140, 142-144, 220, 221, 
243), Plates xxxv, 68 ; xxxvi, 69 ; 
xxxvii, 70; Iviii, 108; Ixiv, 116; 
tankard which belonged to Wil- 
liam Cecil, Lord Burleigh, at the 
British Museum, 21 

NATIONAL heroes, naval and 
military, recorded on glasses 
(Nos. 219-224), Plates Iviii, 107, 
108 ; lix, 109 

Navy and ships, inscriptions re- 
lating to (Nos. 242, 244-247), 
Plates Ixiv, 116 ; Ixv, 117 

Nelson, Lord, inscriptions relating 
to (No. 219), Plate Iviii, 107, 108 

Newhall, in 

Normandy, " gentlemen glass- 
makers " from, alluded to, 22 

Norwich glass-house, a type of 
bowl supposed to have been made 
at (No. 91), Plate xxii, 51, 52 

"OLD English Glasses," by Mr. 
Albert Hartshorne, alluded to, 10 

"Old Pretender," the. See Jaco- 
bites 

127 



ENGLISH TABLE GLASS 



"Orange" glasses and "Orange" 
toasts, 104, 105 



PENNSYLVANIA, the Historical 
Society of, Benjamin Franklin's 
glass alluded to, 72 

Perry, Dr., inscribed glass belong- 
ing to (No. 200), Plate lii, 98, 

99 
Pevensey, old haunted house at, 

alluded to, 5 
Photographing specimens, method 

of, 1 8, 19 
Plain stems : ale glasses, 59, 60 ; 

rummers, 67 ; "tears," or bubbles, 

in, 35 j wine glasses, 27, 34, 36- 

^Q 

Political and Parliamentary in- 
scriptions on glasses (Nos. 225- 
230), Plate Ix, no 

Pontil-mark on forgeries, 53 ; on 
trailed decoration pieces, 80 ; 
alluded to, 29, 40, 46, 53, 56, 88, 
89,92 

Porringer, two-handled, with trailed 
decoration (No. 183), Plate xlviii, 
79, 81 

Portraits engraved on glasses (Nos. 
203, 206, 209), Plates liii, 100; 
liv, 10 1 ; Iv, 102 

Price, Mr. Rees, 15 

Price, Mrs. Rees, her collection re- 
ferred to, 15-17, 24, 53, 75, 84, 
85, 89, 93, 1 06 ; specimens from 
her collection, Plates iv,33 ; v, 34 ; 
vi, 35 ; vii, 36 ; viii, 37 ; ix, 38 ; 
x, 39 ; xi, 40 ; xii, 41 ; xiii, 42 ; 
xv, 44 ; xvi, 44 ; xvii, 45 ; xviii, 
46 ; xix, 47 ; xx, 48 ; xxi, 50 ; 
xxii, 51; xxiii, 52; xxiv, 54; 
xxvi, 56 ; xxvii, 58 ; xxix, 61 ; 
xxx, 62 ; xxxiv, 67 ; xxxv, 68 ; 
xxxvi, 69 ; xxxvii, 70 ; xxxviii, 
71 ; xxxix, 72 ; xli, 74; xlv, 78 ; 
xlvi, 79 ; xlvii, 80 ; xlix, 82 ; liii, 
loo ; Iv, 102 ; Ivi, 104 ; Iviii, 108 ; 
lix, 109 ; Ix, no ; Ixiii, 114 ; Ixiv, 
116 



128 



QUARLES, FRANCIS, alluded to, 

119 
Queen's Head at Bath, alluded to, 

7i 
Quiberon Bay, Hawkes' defeat of 

the French at, commemorated, 

"5 

"RADISH FEAST," the Leven, 

alluded to, 113 
Rogers, Mrs., goblet presented to, 

85 
Rossbach, the battle of, alluded to, 

109 

" Royal Oak " glass, alluded to, 23 
Rummers, the four types of stem, 
67 ; plain stem (No. 132), Plate 
xxxiv, 67 ; air-twist stem (No. 
133), ib.s white twist stem (No. 
134), ib.; cut stem (No. 135), #./ 
example commemorating the 
anti-slavery crusade (No. 224), 
Plate lix, 109 

SEVENTEENTH century, English 
glass of the, 22 

Singer, Mr. J. W., his experiences 
of collecting, 12, 13 ; allusion to 
pieces in his collection, 37, 54, 
68, 72, 77, 82, 83, 108 

Slave trade, a memorial of the, 109 

Societies, hunts, and clubs, inscrip- 
tions relating to, 113 

Somerset, the slave, a notable judg- 
ment relating to, commemorated 
on an inscribed glass, 109 

Spanish example, alluded to, 7 

Spoon, the development of the, 8 ; 
Mr. Drane's collection of spoons 
alluded to, 9 

Spirit glasses. See Dram and 
Spirit glasses 

Stems : ale glasses, 59-62 ; coloured 
twist, 54 ; goblets, 62 ; rummers, 
67 ; wine-glasses, 27 ; stems and 
spirals on forgeries, 90 ; the five 
groups of, 27 ; Plate i (Frontis- 
piece} 



INDEX 



Sweetmeat glasses (Nos. 173-180), 
Plates xliii, 76 ; xliv, 77 ; xlv, 78 ; 
xlvi, 79 

TANKARDS. See Mugs 

"Tears," or bubbles, in baluster 
stems, Plates iii-vi, 32-36 ; in 
plain stems (No. 23), Plate vii, 
35, 36 ; in air-twist stems (Nos. 
42, 60, 85), Plates xi, xv, xx, 40, 
44,48 

"Tinker and King" glass, a test of 
loyalty, 107 

Tipping, Mr. Thomas, glass sup- 
posed to commemorate his elec- 
tion for Louth, no 

Toasts and sentiments inscribed on 
glasses (Nos. 237-240, 244-254), 
Plates Ixiii, 112, 114; Ixv, 117; 
Ixvi, 118 ; Ixvii, 120 

Toddy fillers (Nos. 168, 169), Plate 
xlii, 75, 76 

Trailed decoration pieces with, bell 
(No. 181), Plate xlvi, 79, 80; 
bowl (No. 182), Plate xlvii, 80 ; 
porringer (No. 183), Plate xlviii, 
81 

Travellers' glasses associated with 
the old coaching days (Nos. 146- 
164), Plates xxxviii, 71 ; xxxix, 
72 ; 3d, 73 

Turners' Company of London, in- 
scribed glass bearing the arms 
and motto of (No. 236), Plate 
Ixii, 113, 114 

Twist and stem, varieties of, 42 

Two-handled cup (No. 136), Plate 
xxxv, 68 

" VATHEK," alluded to, 118 
Venetian glass, alluded to, i, 7, 23 
Venice, productions of English de- 
sign made at, 23 

Verzelini, Jacob, a Venetian worker 
in glass, 20, 21 ; drinking glass 
made by, Plate ii, 22 ; destruction 
of a splendid example of his work, 
ib. 



WELLINGTON, DUKE OF, inscribed 
glass relating to (No. 222), Plate 
lix, 1 08 

" Wemmick," his method sugges- 
tive of the habits of the early 
users of glasses, 24 

White twist stems : ale glasses, 
6 1 ; rummers, 67 ; wine glasses, 
27, 48-52 

Wickenden, J., engraver on glass, 
alluded to, 85 

"Wilkes and Liberty," alluded to, 
ii ; inscription on glass (No. 227), 
Plate Ix, no; Wilkes and the 
" North Briton," ib. 

W'lliam III, King, alluded to, 105 

William IV, King, alluded to, 8 

" Williamite " glass (No. 213), Plate 
Ivi, 104, 105 ; a forgery detected, 

9i 

Windsor Castle, Queen Elizabeth's 
glass by Verzelini at, 20 

Wine glasses : air-twist, drawn 
(Nos. 40-57), Plates xi, xii, xiii, 
xiv, 40-43 ; Plate i (Frontispiece), 
27, 28 ; in some respects the most 
beautiful of English pieces, 39 ; 
fall into two groups, 39 ; method 
of manufacture, 40 ; their great 
popularity, ib. j air-twist, not 
drawn (Nos. 63-78), Plates xvi, 
42, 44 ; xvii, 45 ; xviii, 46 ; xix, 
47 ; persistency of type possibly 
due to conservatism of workmen, 
43 ; a puzzling specimen (No. 65), 
Plate xvi, 43 ; the " collar " a 
prevalent feature of (Nos. 68, 69), 
Plate xvii, 44, 45; (Nos. 174, 
236), Plates xliv, 77; Ixii, 113; 
varieties of stem and bowl, 44 ; 
ornamentation of bowl, 45 ; feet 
with pontil-marks, 46 ; air-twist, 
with domed feet (Nos. 58-62), 
Plate xv, 44 ; baluster stem (Nos. 
6-16), Plates i (Frontispiece} ; iii, 
27, 32 ; iv, 33 ; v, 34 ; coins en- 
closed in, 34 ; tendency to orna- 
ment in this type, ib.j bubbles, 
or " tears," 33 ; bowls, ogee and 

129 



ENGLISH TABLE GLASS 



Wine glasses continued. 
straight-sided, 51 ; associated 
with air-twist stems, ib. ; of other 
shape, 53 ; coloured twist stems 
(Nps. 101-105), Plate xxiv, 54; 
rarity of coloured glasses, ib.; 
cut stem (Nos. 106-115), Plates 
xxv, xxvi, 27, 28, 55, 56 ; cutting 
previously employed, probably 
on larger objects, 55 ; folded feet, 
incised twist stems with, probably 
produced at one early factory, 37, 
38 ; shown in examples presum- 
ably from Norwich, 52 ; folded 
feet (Nos. 6-12), Plates iii, 32 ; 
iv, 33 ; (Nos. 22-30), Plates vii, 
36 ; viii, 37 ; (Nos. 58, 91), Plates 
xv, 44; xxii, 51; incised twist 
stems, 37 ; method of manufac- 
ture, 38 ; (Nos. 36-39), Plate x, 
39 ; mixed twists, intermediate 
links between air twist and spiral, 
45 ; mixed twist not drawn (Nos. 



Wine glasses continued. 
79-81), Plate xix, 47 ; plain stems, 
34; generally accompanied by 
folded feet, 35 ; (Nos. 22-31), 
Plates vii, viii, 36, 37 ; Plate i 
{Frontispiece); plain, with domed 
feet (Nos. 32-35), Plate ix, 38 ; 
white twists, how manufactured, 
48, 49; method of production 
analogous to air-twist stems, 49 ; 
attributed to Dutch makers, 50 ; 
possibly common to both coun- 
tries, 51 ; (Nos. 82-100), Plates 
xx, 48 ; xxi, 50 ; xxii, 51 ; xxiii, 52 

YARD -OF -ALE glass. See Ale 

glasses 
" Young Pretender." See Jacobites 

ZOUCHE, SIR EDWARD, alluded to, 

23 
Zuyder Zee, the, alluded to, 67 



THE END 



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