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D, Google 

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|o^n ^flftow's #ii0lts^ Works. 


voih n. 

&tra &rira, No. luxh. 

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[Thtte vohants are issued by tht Early EngUth Text SoeUtt/ in 
ammgmnmt icith the Delegates of the Clarendon Press, who are 
puMisMng Mr. Maeaulay'i complete edition of the Poet Gower'a Wo^s, — 
French and Latin at wdl as English, — and have kindly eonmOed to 
the Early EngliA Text iSoeiety't taking the EngUth Works aeparttidy.'] 




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O. 0. MACAULAY, M.A., 



(CoKFUtro Amamtib, L18. V. 1971— Lib. Till; and Im Vraus or PxiffE.) 

'O gentile EDBlet«n«, a lol j'ewrita.' 





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Extra UnitB, No. lxzxii. 

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CoNFESsio Amantis:— 

Liber V (L i97i) i 

Liber VI 167 

Liber VII 333 

LlBER Vin 386 

In Praisb of Peace 4S1 

Notes '. , 495 

Glossary and Index of Proper Names ■ . . ■ 5SS 

Index to the Notes 651 

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I, L igBr./orone naJon 

11,1. 9349, /or well itad wel 

15, note on I. 3873. jbr B, nod SB, 
>■ 35? '■ gaaa./ii- well fwrf wel 
>. 57, L 4068, /or both rtadbottle 
>■ 967 '■ S504,/'"- ware mu/war 
>■ 97i 1' 5540</"' luste nin/Iust 

104, i. STT./d' leTM r«iJ Ictlres 

III, notes on 11. 6030, 6046, yiir Add, rtnd SAdA, 

113, L 6ii4,^r parte f»i<^ part 

116, L 6915, ybr escaped read ascaped 

119, note on L 6313, jferAdBTA irorfSAdBTa 

139, I, 6433* trad Forthi I. 6431* rtad daies 

193, 1. 6406 ^margin), fiir ohtinn- nriu/ optinu-. 

131, 1. 6s4i,^crBfte rtadciRit 

i43> I' 7169*, jbr don rnii/do 

144, 1. 7181* mn/poverte 716a* nad undcTRng 

145, 1. 7308* rtaj Sacrilege 

170, L ii6,/>r verraliche mn/ vcrrailiche 
p. 178, 1. ^i^j/or Distruid r^d Destniid 
p, 180, note on I. 497 {iHatgin),jQr BA nad SBA 
p. aiB, 1. iB8a,>rscball mn/schal 
p. 340, note on I. a6a,for Nomans, F nad Nomaii 5. F 
p. 945, note on I. 451 nad J, SB, F 
p. 359, L 9S3 {margin), far aAtsse nadii esse 
p. 370, note on \. i393,/(>r eller)« m>i/elleO« 
p. 379, 1. i44S,/i/-whicbc rtad which 
p. 383, 1. 1871,/orWell warf Wel 

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(Liber Quintus). 

iii. Agros iungii agrit a^idus domibusque domosque, 
Passideai iotam sic quasi solus kumum. 
Solus et innumeros mulierum spiral amores, 
Vt sacra mitlefds sit siii culta Venus. 

Dame Avarice is noght soleiae, 
Which is of gold the Capiteine; 
Bot of hir Court in sondri wise 
After the Scole of hire aprise 
Sche hath of Servantz manyon, 
Wherof that Covoitise is on ; 
Which goth the large world aboute, 
To seche thavantages oute, 
Wher that he mai the profit winne 
To Avarice, and bringth it inne. 1980 

That one hald and that other draweth, 
Ther is no day which hem bedaweth, 
No mor the Sonne than the Mone, 
Whan ther is eny thing to done, 
And namely with Covoitise; 
For he stant out of al assisse. 
Of resonable mannes fare. P. 11, 194 

Wher he him to fare 

Z^Am wrsn ilL 4 tibi AH . . . B), AdBT 

1973 hii AH Bi 1976 mofpn cn^ditatis RCLBi 

1978 iMuuntage (>e auaota^) E . . . Bi, W )« vuiUges HHiXG 

1979 that oiH. RCLBi 1981 That on om. B And that oon Hi 
bald S, P bait A, B bahd J 1988 tolare S, F 

Hie Iractat coofes- 
sor auper ilia spede 
Auaricie, que Cupi- 
ditas dicitur, quain in 
amoris causa pertrac- 
tana Amanti super hoc 

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Upon his lucre and his heyete, 

The smale path, the large Strete, 1990 

The furlong and the longe Mile, 

Al is hot on for thilke while : 

And for that he is such on holde, 

Dame Avarice him hath withholde, 

As he which is the principal 

Outward, for he is overal^ 

A pourveour and an aspie. 

For riht as _of an hungri Pie 

The storve bestes ben awaited, 

Riht so is Covoitise afaited 1000 

To loke where he mai pourcha ce, 

For be his wille he wolde embrace 

Al that this wyde world beclippeth ; 

Bot evere he somwhat overhippeth, 

That he ne mai noghl aT fulfiUe 

The lustes of his gredi wille. 

Bot where it &lleth in a lond. 

That Covoitise in myhti hond 

Is set, it is ful hard to fiede; 

For thanne he takth non other hiede, aoio 

Bot that he mai pourchace and gete, 

His conscience hath al foryete. 

And not what thing it mai amonte 

That he schal afterward acompte. 

JBote as the Luce in his degre 

Of tho that lasse ben than he 

The fisshes griedeli devoureth, P. U. 195 

So that no water hem socoureth, 

Riht so no lawe mai rescowe 

Fro him that wol no riht allowe ; aoio 

For wher that such on is of myht. 

His will schal stonde in stede of riht. 

Thus be the men destruid fuloft^ 

Til that the grete god alofle 

Ayein so gret a covoitise 

Redresce it in his oghne wise : 

aooa he hii wilk vrolde AUHiE . . . Ba 

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And in ensaraple of alle tho 
I finde a tale write so, 
The which, for it is good to liere. 
Hierafterward thou schalt it hiere. 

Whan Rome stod in noble plit, 
Viigile, which was tho p grfi^ 
A Mirour made of his clei^ 
And sette it in the toune s ye 
Of piarbre on a piler withoute ; 
That thei be thritty Mile aboute 
Be daie and ek also be nyhte 
In that Mirour beholde mybte 
Here enerays, if eny were. 
With al here ordinance there, 
Which thei ayein the Cite caste : 
So that, whil thilke Miroiu laste, 
Ther was no lond which mihte achieve 
With werre Rome forto grieve; 
Wherof was gret envie tha 
And fell that ilke time so, 
That Rome hadde i 
Ayein Cartage, and stoden loi^e 
The tuo Cites upon debat 
Cartage sih the stronge asut 1050 

Of Rome in thilke Miiour stonde, 
And thoghte al prively to fonde 
To overthrowe it be som wyle. 
And Hanybal was thilke while 
The Prince and ledere of Cartage, 
Which hadde set al his corage 
Upon knihthod in such a wise. 
That he be worthi and be wise 
And be non othre was conseiled, 
Wherof the world is yit merveiled actio 

Of the maistries that be wrogbte 
Upon the marches whiche he sc^te. 

3030 thou Bchilt it] u |>oii •chtll BT 305osee|»HiXG sei^AH 
9057 koykthod S knhliod F kayhlliode AJ in] on E . . . Bt 

vp on A ao59 aon o)>re AJ, S, F non ci>er C, B 

contra mifnalea cu- 
pido3. Et narnit de 
Crasso Romutonim 
ImpenOore, qui tur- 

Vir^lii Rome fixiun 
eztiteral, dolou cir- 
cumuentiis cupiditate 
euertit ; vnde non 
solum 8ui ipsius per- 

Strange P. H. ig6 

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1 And fell in thilke time also. 

The king of Puile, which was tho, 
Thoghte ayein Rome to rebelle, 
Aiid thus was take the querele^ 
Hou to destniie this Mirour. 

or Rome tho was Emperoui 
Crassus, which was so coveitous, 
That he was eveie desirous 1070 

Of gold to gete the pilage ; 
Wherof that Puile and ek Cartage 
With Philosophres wise and grete 
Begunne of this matiere uete, 
And ate laste in this degre 
Tber weren Philosophres thre, 
To do this thing wbiche undertoke, P. U. 197 
And therupon thei with hem toke 
A gret tresor of gold in cophres, 
To Rome and thus these philisophres loSo 

Togedre in compainie wente, 
Bot noman wiste what thei mente. 
Whan thei to Rome come were. 
So prively thei duelte there, 
As thei that thoghten to deceive : 
Was non that mihte of hem gercdve^ 
Til thei in sondri stedes have 
Here gold under the ground b^rave 
In tuo tresors, that to beholde 
Thei scholden seme as thei were olde. logo 

And so forth tbanne upon a day 
Al openly in good arai 
To themperour thei hem presente, 
And tolden it was here entente 
To duellen under his servise. 
And he hem axeth in what wise ; 
And thei him tolde in such a plit, 
That ech of hem hadde a spirit, 
The which slepende a nyht appiereth 

aa68 tho] ^t E . . . Bi 0074 niaUer(«) to trete HiL, AdBT, W 

ao79 copbm AC, F coirea (coffres) J, SB 0098 ech AJ, B 

eche F 

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And hem be sondri dremes lereth iioo 

After the world that hath betid. 

Under the ground if oght be hid 

Of old tresor at eny throwe, 

They schull it in here swevenes knowe; 

And upon this condicioun, 

Thei sein, what gold under the toun 

Of Rome is bid, thei wole it finde, P. U. 198 

Ther scholde noght be left behinde, 

Be so that he the halvende) 

Hem grante, and he assenteth wel; *iio 

And thus cam deiph te forto duelle 

With Covoitise, as I thee telle. 

This Emperour bad Tedily 

That thei be lo^ed faste by 

Where he his c^bne body lay ; 

And whan it wasjLQiorwe day, 

That on of hem seith that he mette 

Wher he a gcJdhord scholde fette : 

Wherof diis Emperour was glad, 

And thenipon anon he t}ad iiio 

His Mynour s forto go and myne, 

And he himself of that covine 

Goth forth withal, and at bis bond 

The tresor redi there he fond. 

Where as thei seide it scholde be ; 

And who was thanne glad hot he? 

Upon that other dai secounde. 
Thei have an other goldhord founde, 
Which the seconde maister tok 
Upon his swevene and uodertok. »i3o 

And thus the sothe experience 
To themperour yaf such credence, 
That al his trist and al his fdth 
So sikerliche on hem he leith, 
Of that he fond him so relieved, 
That thei ben parfitli beUeved, 
As thogh thei were goddes thre. P. U. igg 

Nou herkne the soutilete. 
iioSbekftF 0114 bateby A, F ftstet^J.B 

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The thridde maister scholde mete, 
Which, as tbd seiden, was unme te 1140 

Above hem alle, and couthe most; 
And he withoute noise or best 
Al priveli . so as he wolde. 
Upon the morwe his swevene tolde 
To themperour riht in his Ere, 
And seide him that he wiste where 
A uesor was so plentivous 
Of gold and ek so precious 
Of jeueals and of jiche stones. 
That unto alle hise hors at ones 1150 

It were a charge sufficant. 
This lord upon this covenant 
Was glad, and axeth where it was. 
The maister seide, under the glas, 

And tolde him eke, as for the M^n 

He wolde ordeigne such engin. 

That thei the werk schuU undersette 

With Tymber, that withoute lette 

Men mai the tresor saufli delve. 

So that the Mirour be himselve 1160 

Withoute empeirement schal stonde: 

And this the maister upon honde 

Hath undertake in alle weie. 

This lord, which hadde his wit aweie 

And was with Covoitise blent, 

Anon therto yaf his assent ; 

And thus they myne forth withal, F. il. soo 

The timber set up overal, 

WherofUie Filer stod upriht ; 

Til it befell upon a nyht 1170 

These clerkes, whan thei were war 

Hou that the timber only bar 

The Filer, wher the Mirour stod, — 

Here sleihte noman understod, — 

Thei go be nyhte unto the Myne 

315a unto] it to 6T to A 3157 scholde (achuld Sec.) 

H . . . Bi, TA, W ai63 And >u9 A . . . B<, W At >is 

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With picb, with soulphre and with rosine, 

And whan the Cite was a slepe, 

A wylde ^ into the depe 

Th^ caste among the timberwerk. 

And so forth, whil the nyht was derk, iiSo 

Desguised in a povere aiai 

Thei passeden the toun er dai. 

And whan thei come upon an hell, 

Thei sihen bow the Miiour fell, 

Wherof thei maden joie ynowh, 

And ech of hem with other lowh. 

And seiden, ' Lo, what coveitise 

Mai do with hem that be nogbt wise ! ' 

And that was proved afterward, 

For every lond, to Romeward 1190 

Which badde be soubgit tofore. 

Whan this Mirour was so forlore 

And thei the wonder herde seie. 

Anon b^pinne dcsobeie 

With wenes upon every side; 

And thus hath Rome lost his pride 

And was defouled overal. P. 11. aoi 

For this I Ande of Hanybal, 

That he of Romeins in a dai, 

Whan he hem fond out of arai, atoo 

So gret a miUtUude slowh. 

That of goldringes, whiche be drowh 

Of gentil handes that ben dede, 

Buisshelles fulle tbre, I rede. 

He felde, and made a bregge also, 

That he mihte over Tibre go 

Upon the corps that dede were 

Of the Romeins, whiche he slowh there. 

Bot now to speke of the juise, 
The which afler the covoitise i»io 

Was take upon this Eroperour, 
For be destniide the Mirour; 

0177 « Blepe B, F aslepe AJ aaoa goldringes J E, S, F 

gold ringes A, B aaoB Of fe comuns E . . . Bt ()*> EC) Of |>e 

bomeini (1) H Of Robu^fiis W 

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'alc of Vikgil's It is a wonder foito hiere. 

'''""*"-l The Romeina maden a phaiere 

And sette here Emperour therinne, 

And seiden, for be wolde winne 

Of gold the superfluite, 

Of gold he schotde such plente 

Receive, til he seide JJft: 

And with gold, which thei faadden tho 

Buillende hot withinne a panne, 

Into his Mouth thei poure thanne. 

And thus the thurst of gold was que^nt, 

[Covetnse.] With gold which hadde ben atteignt. 

Confessor. Wherof, mi Sone, thou miht hiere, 

Whan Covoitise hath lost the stiere 
Of resonable govemance, P. U 

Ther ialleth ofte gret vengance. 
For ther mai be no worse thing 
Than Covoitise aboute a lung: 
If it in his persone b^ 
It doth the more advei^ite; 
And if it in bis conseil stonde. 
It bringth alday meschief to honde 
Of cqnamun barm ; and if it growe 
Withinne his court, it wol be knowe. 
For thanne schal the king be piled. 
The man which hath hise londes tiled, 
Awaiteth noght more redily 
The Hervest, than thei gredily 
Ne maken thanne warde and wa^die, 
Wher thei the profit mihten cacche: 
And yit fulofte it falleth so. 
As men mai sen among hem tbo, 
That he which most coveiteth 6iste 
Hath lest avantage ate laste. 
For wban fortune is therayein, 
Thogh be coveite, it is in vein ; 
The happes be noght alle liche. 
On is road povere, an other riche, 
The court to some doth profit, 
0906 the] his ZCBi, Ad 

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And some ben evere in o p lit ; 

And yit thei bothe aliche sore 

Covette, bot fortune is more 

Unto that_oj)art (avoraWe. 

And thc^h it be Doght resonable, 

This thing a man mai sen alday, P. IL : 

Wherof that I thee telle may 

A fair ensample in remembrance, 

Hou every man mot take bis chance 3 

Or of richesse or of poverte. 

Hou BO it stonde of the decerte, 

Hier is noght every thing aquit, 

For ofte a man mai se this yit, 

That who best doth, lest thonk scbal have ; 

It helpeth noght the world to crave, 

Which out of reule and of mesure 

Hath evere stonde in aventure 

Als wel in Court as elles where : 

And hou in olde daies there i 

It stod, so as the thinges felle, 

I thenke a tale foito telle. 

In a CroDique this I ledc 
Aboute a king, as moste nede, 
Ther was of knyhtes and squiers 
Giet route, and ek of Officers : 
Some of long time him hadden served, 
And thoghten that thei have deserved 
Avancement, and gon witho ute ; 
And some also ben of the route 1 

That comen bot a while agon, 
And thei avanced were anon. " 

These cdde men upon this thit^ 
So as thei dorste, ayein the king 
Among hemsetf compleignen ofte : 
Bot ther is nothing seid so softe, 
That it ne comth out ate laste ; P. il. ao4 

The king it wiste, and als so fasie, 

aa-fi margin eonim om. AUHi aaSS and rU so] anoD als B 
and >U (as) X, WHi 


Hie poni t Confessor 
exemplum contra U- 
los, qui in domibus 
Regumseruientes, pro 
conun cupiditatem 
promoti non existunt, 

fectu indiscrete nur- 

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As he which was of hih Prudence, 
He schop therfore an evidence 1390 

Of hem that pleignen in that cas. 
To knowe ia wbos defalte it was. 
And al withinne his oghne entente, 
That noman wiste what it mente, 
Anon he let tuo cofres make 
Of o semblance and of o make, 
So lich that no Jif^thilke throwe 
That on mai fro that other knowe : 
Thei were into his chambre bn^ht, 
Bot noman wot why thei be wroght, 1300 

And natheles the king hath bede 
That thei be set in prive stede. 
As he that was of wisdom sUh, 
Whan he therto his time sih, 
Al prively, that non it wiste, 
Hise (^hne hondes that kiste 
Of tin gold and of fin penie. 
The which out of his tiesorie 
Was Uke, anon he felde full ; 
That other cofre of straw and mult 1310 

With Stones memd he felde also. 
Thus be thei fulle boche tuo. 
So that erliche upon a day 
He bad withinne, ther he lay, 
Ther scholde be tofore his bed 
A b^d upset and faire spred ; 
And thanne^he let the cofres fette, P. ii. J105 
Upon the bord and dede hem sette. 
He knew the names wel of tho. 
The whiche ayein him grucche so, ajao 

Bothe of his chambre and of his halle, 
Anon and sende for hem alle. 
And seide to hem in this wise : 
' Ther schal noman bis happ despise ; 
I wot wel ye have longe served. 
And god wot what ye have deserved : 
Bot if it is alo np on me 
3991 ^ cas S ... A aa97 lich J, 5, F liche A, B 

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Of that ye unavanced be, 

Or cUes it Be^long on you, 

The sothe schal be proved nou. 

To stoppe with youre evele word. 

Lo hier tuo cofres on the bord : 

Ches which you list of bothe tuo ; 

And witeth wel that on of tho 

Is with tresor so full begon. 

That if ye happe therupon. 

Ye schull be riche men for evere. 

Now ches and tak which you is levere : 

Bot be wel war, er that ye take ; 

For of that on I undertake 

Ther is no maner good therinne, 

Wherof ye mihten profit winne. 

Now goth tc^edre of on assent 

And taketh youre avisement, 

For bot I you this dai avance, 

It stant upon youre <^hne chance 

Al only in defalte of grace : P. 

So schal be schewed in this place 

Upon you alle well afyn. 

That no defalte schal be myn.' 

Thei knelen alle and with o vois 

The king thei thonken of this chois : 

And after that thei up arise, 

And gon aside and hem avise, 

And ate laste thei acorde; 

Wherof her tale to recorde, 

To what issue thei be falle, 

A kniht schal speke for hem alle. 

He kneleth doun unto the king. 

And seith that thei upon this thing, 

Or forto winne or forto lese, 

Ben alle avised forto chese. 

Tho tok this kniht ajerde on honde, 

And goth there as the cofres stonde, 

And with assent of everichon 

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[Tal£ of m Bbs- 

NoCa hie de diuicii- 
rum Acddencia : i4h 
namt qu&liter Fre- 
dericus RonuuioruBi 
Imperator duos pau- 
peres audiuit liligmu- 


le potest di- 


He leith his yeide upon that on, 

And seith the king hou thitke same 

Thei chese in reguerdoun be name, 

And preith him that thei mote it have. 

The king, whfch wolde his honour save, 1370 

Whan he hath herd the commun vois, 

Hath gnmted hem here ogbne chois 

And tok hem therapon the keie. 

Bot for he woMe it were seJe 

What good thei have, as thei suppose. 

He bad anon the cofre unclose. 

Which was fiilfild with straw and Stones : P. ii. 007 

Thus be thei served al at ones. 

This king thanne in the same stede 

Anon that other cofre undede, tjSo 

Where as thei sihen gret richesse, 

Wei more than thei couthen gesse. 

' Lo,' seith the king, ' nou mai ye se 

That tber is no defalte in me; 

Forthi miself I wole aquyte, 

And bereth ye youre oghae wyte 

Of that fortune hath you refused.' 

Thus was this wise king excused, 

And thei lefte of here evele speche 

And mercy of here king beseche. 1390 

Somdiel to this matiere Uk 
I finde a tale, hou Frederik, 
Of Rome that time Emperour, 
Herde, as he wente, a gret clamour 
Of tuo b^igers upon the weie. 
That on of hem b^;an to seie, 
'Ha lord, wel mai the man be riche 
^Vhom that a king list forto riche.' 
That other saide nothing so, 
Bot, 'He is riche and wel bego, 1400 

To whom that god wole sende wele.' 
And thus thei maden wordes fele, 
Wherof this lord hath hiede nomet 
And dede hem bothe forto come 

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To the Paleis, wher he schal etg [Tau or the Bt&- 

And had ordeine for here mete ^'^rJ^sV" 

Tuo Pastes, whiche he let do make. P. U. ao8^, gij^,„gj^^pQ„ij 

A capoun in that on was bak^ paatellum sorte pre- 

And in that other forto winne °'*^'' 

or florins al that mai withinne 1410 

He let do pute a gret richesse; 

And evene aliche, as man mai gesse, 

Outirard thei were bothe tuo. 

This be^ffl T was comanded tho, 

He that~w&ich hield him to the king, 

That he ferst chese upon this tbiog : 

He sih hem, hot he felte hem noght, 

So that upon his oghne thoght 

He ches the Capoun and forsok 

That other, which his f^ tok. 1410 

Bot whanne he wiste hou that it ferde, 

He seide alowd, that men it herde, 

'Nou have I certeinly conceived 

That be mai Uhtly be deceived. 

That tiisteth unto mannes helpe; 

Bot wel is him whom god wol helpe, 

For he stant on the sike r side. 

Which elles scholde go liesidc: 

I se my fela wel T ep"^''"' i 

And I mot duelle stille povere.' 1430 

Thus spak this begger his entente, 
And povere he cam and povere he wente ; 
Of that he hath richesse sc^ht, 
His info rtune it wolde nt^ht. 
So mat it schewe ia sondri wise, 
Betwen fortune and covoidse 
The chance is cast upon a Dee ; P. U. aog 
Bot yit fulofte a man mai se 
Vnowe of suche natheles, 
Whiche evere pute hemself in ^ess 1440 

To gete hem good, and yit thei &ile. 

9405 margm sortc om. A . . . Bi a^ii He] And BT 9413 
nuinl ■ miD AMHi men WHi 9417 see> B 9433 he richesse 
(om. luth) E . . . Bi richesse be b*> Ad 

.coy Google 


And forto speke of this entaile 
Touchende of love in thi matiere, 
Mi goode Sone, as thou miht hiere, 
That riht as it with tho men stod 
■ Of jnfortune of worldes good, 
As thou hast herd me telle above, 
Ribt so fulofte it stant be love : 
Thogh thou coveite it everemore, 
Thou schak n<%ht have o diel the more, ns" 
Bot only that which thee is schape, 
The remenant is bot a jape. 
And natheles ynowe of tho 
Ther ben, that nou coveiten so, 
That where as thei a womman se. 
Ye ten or tuelve thogh ther be. 
The love is nou so unavised. 
That wber the beaute stant assised, 
The mannes herte anon is there, 
And rpuneth tales in hire Ere, 1460 

And seith hou that he loveth streite, 
And thus he set him to coveite. 
An hundred thogh he sibe aday. 
So wolde he more thanne he may; 
Bot for the grete covoitise 
Of sotie and of fol emprise 
In ech of hem he fint somwhat P. ii. sio 

That pleseth him, or this or that; 
Som on, for sche is whit of skin^^ 
Som^ on, for sche is noble of kin, j^jo 

Som on, for sche bath rod^ chieke, 
Som on, for that sche semeth mieke, 
Som on, for sche bath yben greie, 
Som on, for sche can lawhe and pleie, 
Som on, for sche is long and smal, 
Som on, for sche is lyte and tall, 
Som on, for sche is pale and blecbe, 
Som on, for sche is softe of speche, 
Som on, for that sche is camused, 
Som on, for sche hath n<%ht ben used, 14S0 
9453 ynowe] I trowe BT a^6s Bot] So BT 0477 Somon F 

.coy Google 


Som on, for sche can daunce and singe; 

So that som thing to his likinge 

He tint, and thogh nomore he fiele, 

Bot that sche hath a litet hielCj^ 

It is jnow that he therfoce 

Hire love, and thus an hundred score, 

Whil thei be newe, he wolde he hadde ; 

Whom he forsakth, sche schal be badd& 

The blinde man no colour demeth, 

But al is on, riht as him semeth; 

So hatfa bis lust no juggeroent, 

Whom covoidse of love blent 

Hiro thenfctb that to his covoitise 

Hou al the world ne roai sufiise. 

For be his wille he volde have alle, 

If that it mihte so be&lle : 

Thus is he commim as the Sd^te, P. U. an 

I sette nc^bt of his beyete. 

Mi Sone, hast thou such covoitise? 

Nai, fader, such love I despise, asm 

And whil I live schal don evere. 
For in good feith yit hadde I levere. 
Than to coveite in such a weie, 
To ben for evere til I deie 
As povere as Job, and loyele s, 
Outaken on, for haveles 
Hb thonke s ts noman alyve. 
For that a man scholde al unthiyve 
Ther oghte no wisman coveite. 
The lawe was noght set so streite : 1510 

Fonhi miself withal to save, 
Such on ther is I wolde hav^ 
And non of al these othre mo. 

Mi Sone, of that thou woldest so, 
I am n(%ht wroth, bot over this 
I wol tbee tellen hou it is. 
For ther be men, whiche otherwise, 

a^Ba to] of BT 0488 forsake]) Khe U b. 6T foraaketh he 

ihal be b. Hi 950a Hy fader G . . . Bi 0508 tbat] )«□ 

Obiuk) XG, B Jongh E . . . B> 9513 al A, S, F alle J, B 


,l,:et:,y Google 


[Covunsi OF Riht only for the covoitise 

^""*1 Of that thei sen a womman riche, 

Ther wol thei al here love affiche; ajw 

Noght for the beaute of hire face, 
Ne yit for vertu ne for grace, 
Which sche hath elles ribt ynowh, 
Bot for the Park and for the plowb. 
And other thing which therto longeth : 
For in non other vise hem longeth 
To love, bot thei profit finde ; P. U. flu 

And if the profit be behinde, 
Here love is erere lesse and lesse, 
For after that sche hath richesse, 1530 

Her love is of proporcion. 
If thou hast such condicion. 
Mi Sone, tell liht as it is. 
Confessio Amantii. Min holi fader, nay ywiss, 

Condicion such have I non. 
For irfis!!) fader, I love oon 
So wel with al myn hertes thoght, 
That certes, thc^h sche hadde nt^ht, 
And were as povere as Medea, 
Which was exiled for Creusa, 1540 

I wolde hir n<^ht the lasse love ; 
Ne tht^b sche were at hire above. 
As was the riche qwen Candace, 
Which to deserve love and grace 
To Alisandre, that was king, 
Yaf many a worthi riche thing, 
Or elles as Pantasilee, 
Which was the quen of Feminee, 
And gret richesse with hir nam. 
Whan sche for love of Hector cam 155* 

To Troie in rescousse of the toun, — 
I am of such condicion, 
That thogh mi ladi of hirselve 
Were also riche as suche tuelve, 
asafi bem <MR. RCBi heL as^oforj, PH> froAH...Bi. 

S...A,WM«gA 0546 Yaf|OfE.,.B) 0550 to Hector BT 
9551 •)«•] u AU . . . B*, Ad, W 

.coy Google 


I coutbe nogbt, thc^h it wer so, 
No betre 1ot« hir than I do. 
For I lore in bo pleia a wise, P. ii, 013 

That foito speke of cnveitise, 
As for poverte or for richesse 
Mi love is nouther mor ne lesse. 1560 

For in good feith I trowe this. 
So coveitous noman ther is, 
Forwhj and he mi ladi sihe, 
That he thurgh lolcioge of his yhe 
Ne scholde have such a s^k withinne, 
That for do gold be mihte winne 
He scholde noght hire love asterte, 
Bot if he lefie theie his herte ; 
Be so it were such a man, 
That coutbe SIcile of a wonunan. 1570 

For ther be men so ruide some, 
Whan thei among the wommen come, 
Thei gon under protecdouo, 
That love and his affecciomi 
Ne schal noght take hem be the slieve ; 
For thei ben out of that believe, 
Hem lusteth of no ladi chiere, 
Bot evere tbenken there and hiere 
Wher that here gold is in the cofre, 
And wol noa other love profre : 1580 

Bot who so wot what love amounteth 
And be resoun trewlicbe acompteth, 
Than mai he knowe and taken hiede 
That al the lust of wommanhiede, 
Which mai ben in a ladi &ce, 
Mi ladi hath, and ek of grace 
If men schuU yiven hire a pris, P. ii. 914 

Thei mai wel seie bon sche is wys 
And sobre and simple of contenance, 
3563 he] I (y) BT 0564 his] hir X ... Bi, T 0571 some] 

of some A . . . Bi, B 0573 protectioxii (1) F as^^ and] of B 

»579 ft gold is in her cofre AdBT her(e) Kold is in ber(e) E . . . Bi 
ther ... her Hi 9587 schulde E . . . Bi, W hire a pris BT&, F 
bir(e)apria(appris) AJMXERLB^W hereapriaC hec<e) apris 
Hi.Ad, H> 

.coy Google 


And al that to good governance 1590 

Belongeth of a worthi wiht 

Sche hath pleinli : for thilke nyht 

That sche was bore, as for the nones 

Nature sette in hire at ones 

Beaute with bounte so besein, 

That I mai wel afieime and seio, 

I sawh jat nevere creature 

Of comlihied and of feture 

In enj kinges regioun 

Be lich hire in comparisoun : a6oo 

And therto, as I have you told, 

Yit hath sche more a thousendfold 

or bounte, and schortU to telle, 

Sche is the pure hed and welle 

And Mirour and ensample of goode. 

Who so hir vertus understode, 

Me thcnkth it oughte ynow suffise 

Withouten other covoitise 

To tove such on and to serve. 

Which with hire chiere can deserve a6io 

To be beloved beire ywiss 

Than ache per cas that richest is 

And hath of gold a Milion. 

Such hath be myn opinion 

And evere schal : bot natheles 

I seie noght sche is haveles, 

That sche nys riche and wel at ese, P. ii. 215 

And hath ynow wherwith to plese 

Of worldes good whom that hire liste ; 

Bot o thii^ wolde I wel ye wiste, 3610 

That nevere for no worldes good 

Min herte unto wa^^ .hire stod, 

Bot only riht for pure love; 

That wot the hihe god above. 

Nou, fader, what seie ye theito? 

Mi Sone^ I seie it is wel do. 
For tak of this riht good believe. 

aS9i of] to AJHXG vnto HiE ... & m A 

7 ToU 

.coy Google 


What roan that wole himself relieve 

To love in eny other wise, 

He schal vel finde his coveitise 

Schal sore grieve him ate laste, 

For such a love mai noght laste. 

Bot nou, men sein, in oure daies 

Men maken bot a fewe assaies, 

Bot if the cause be richesse ; 

Fortiii the love is wel the lesse. 

And who that wolde ensamples telle, 

Be olde dales as thei felle, 

Than mihte a roan we! understonde 

Such love mai noght longe stonde. 

Now herkne, Sone, and thou schalt hiere 

A gret ensample of this matiere. 

To trete upon the cas of love. 
So as we tolden hiere above, 
I Rnde write a wonder thing. 
Of Puile whilom was a king, 
A man of hih complexioun P. ii 

And yong, hot his afTeccioun 
After the nature of his age 
Was yit nc^ht falle in his corage 
The lust of wommen forto knowe. 
So it betidde upon a throwe 
This lord felt into gret seknesse : 
Phisique hath don the besinesse 
Of sondri_cures manyon 
To make him hoi ; and therupon 
A worthi maister which ther was 
Yaf him conseil upon this cas. 
That if he wolde have parfit hele. 
He scholde with a womroan dde, 
A firetssh, a yong, a lusti wih^ 
To don him compaignie a nyht; 
For thanne he seide hfitt redily. 
That he schal be al hoi therby, 

. B>, W 0658 coDseil upon] to codmiI ii 

[Tau of toe King 

Hlc ponitexemplum 

rat de qnodam Regis 

Apulie Senesclulto, 

lAjo qui non sohim prop- 

.coy Google 


[Tale op rat King And Otherwise he kneu no cure. 

AMD His^SncwARD's jj^j^ ^^^ which stod iQ av?nture 

Of lif and deth, for medicine 
Assented was, and of coyine 
His Steward , whom he tristetb wel, 
He tok, and tolde him ererydel. »fi7» 

Hou that this maister badde seid : 
And tberupon he hath him preid 
And chafed upon his ligance. 
That be do make pwv eance 
Of such on as be covenable 
For his plesance and delitable ; 
And bad him, hou that evere it stod, P.ll. S17 
That he scbal ^>are for no good, 
For his will is nht wel to g^ie. 

The Steward seide he wolde assaie : 16S0 

Bot nou hierafter thou schalt wite, 
As I finde in the bokes write, 
What coveitise in love doth. 
This Steward, forto telle soth, 
Amonges jl^ the men alyve 
A lusti ladi hath to wyve, 
Which natheles for gold he tok 
And noght for love, as seith the bok. 
A ricbe Marchant of the lond 
Hir ^er was, and hire food '6yo 

So worthily, and such richesse 
Of worldes good and such largesse 
With hire he yaf in mariage. 
That only for thilke avantage 
Of good this Steward hath hire take, 
For lucre and noght for loves sake, 
And that was afterward wel seene; 
Nou herkne what it wolde meene. 
This Steward in his oghne herte 
•666 The B a6^t his maister E . . . B> a68a Che om. 

E . . . Bt B683 ■! the] aUe (aU) XE . . . Bi sego hji«] he 

hir(e) A ... B^ S ... A 
3694 f. Whan ^t ache was but of )ong age 

Bor (ood E . . . Bi (wu of L) 
0696 And lucre E . . . Bi 

.coy Google 


Sih that bis lord niai noght asterte 3700 [Tale of the Kimg 

His maladie, bot he have Wifb.1 

A lusti wornman him to save. 

And thoghte he wolde yive ynowh 

Of hiB tresoT ; wherof he drowh 

Gret coveitise into his mynde, 

And sette his honour fer behynde. 

Thus he, whom gold hath overaet, P. ii. 3i8 

Was trapped in his (^hne net ; 

The gold hath mad hise wittes lame, 

So that sechende his oghne schame 371a 

He rouneth in the kinges Ere, 

And seide him that he wiste where 

A gentile and a lusti on 

Tho was, and thider wolde he gon : 

Bot he mot yive yiftes grete ; 

For bot it be thurgh gret beyete 

Of gold, he seith, he schal n<%ht gpede. 

The king him bad upon the nede 

That take an hundred pound he scholde. 

And yive it where that he wolde, a^w 

Be so it were in worthi place : 

And thus to stonde in loves grace 

This king his gold hath abandouned. 

And whan this tale was full rouned, 

The Steward tok the gold and wente, 

Withinne his herte and many a wente 

Of coveitise thanne he caste, 

Wherof a poutpos ate laste 

Ayein love and ayein his riht 

He tok, and seide hou thilke nyht 1730 

His wif schal ligge be the king ; 

And goth thenkende up<») this thing 

Toward his In, til he cam horn 

Into the chambre, and thanne he nom 

His wif, and tolde hire al the cas. 

And ache, which red fw schame was, 

With bothe hire handes hath him preid P. U. 319 

•714 Ther wu RCLBt, W Wher wu E 9735 loMe J, S 

told A, B, F a737 hath him preid] to him pnide B with him p. T 

.coy Google 


'■ Knelende and in this vise seid, 

' That sche to reson and to s jdle 

In what thing that he bidde wile 1740 

Is redy forto don his heste, 

Bot this thing were noght honeste, 

That he for gold hire scholde selle. 

And he tho with bise wordes felle 

Forth with his gastty contienance 

Seith that sche schal don obeissance 

And folwe his will in every place ; 

And thus thurgh strengthe of bis manace 

Hir innocence is overlad, 

Wherof sche was so sore adrad 1750 

That sche his will mot nede obeie. 

And therupon was schape a weie, 

That he his c^hne wif be nybte 

Hath out of alle mennes sihte 

So piively that noo it wiste 

Broght to the king, which as him liste 

Mai do with hire what he wotde. 

For whan sche was thei a^ sche scholde, 

With him abedde under the cloth, 

The Steward tok his leve and goth 176a 

Into a chambre faste by; 

Bot hou he slep, that wot noght I, 

For he sih cause of jelousie. 

Bot he, which hath the compainie 
Of such a lusti on as sche, 
Him th<^hte that of his d^re 
Ther was noman so wel at ese : P. U. 330 

Sche doth al that sche mai to plese. 
So that his berte al hoi sche hadde ; 
And thus this king his joie ladde, 1770 

Til it was nyh upon the day. 
The Steward thanne wher sche lay 
Cam to the bedd, and in his wise 
Hath bede that sche scholde arise. 

3738 sc;de BT 374a bidde] didde AH 9759 a weie ISC, T 
aweie AJ, B, F 9761 faste by AJ, B fiuteby F 0771 nyh 

o>H.E...Bt 9773 Jii«wiseJR,BT,W 

.coy Google 


The king seith, 'tiny, sche schal noght go.' 
His Steward seide ayein, ' Noght so ; 
For sche mot gon er it be knove, 
And so I swot at thillce throwe, 
Whan I hire fette to you biere.' 
The king bis tale vol nc^ht hiere, 378a 

And seith faou that he hath hire boght, 
FoTtlii sche schal departe noght, 
Til he the brighte dail>eholde. 
And cawhte hire in htse annes folde. 
As he which liste foito pleie, 
And bad his Steward gon his weie, 
And so he dede ayein his wille. 
And thus bis wif abedde stille 
Lay with the king the longe nyht, 
Til that it was hih Sonne lyht ; 1790 

Bot who sche was he kneW nothing. 
Tho cam the Steward to the king 
And preide him that withoute schame 
In savinge of hire goode name 
He mybte leden hom ayein 
This lady, and bath told him plein 
Hou that it was his oghne wif. P. ii. aai 

The king his Ere unto this strif 
Hath leid, and whan that he it herde, 
Welnyh out of his wit he ferde, aSoo 

And seide, ' Ha, caitif most of alle, 
Wher was it evere er this befalle, 
That eny cokard in this wise 
Betgk his wif for coveitise? 
Thou hast bothe hire and me beguiled 
And ek thin c^hne astat reviled, 
Wherof that ^uxom unto thee 
Hierafter schal sche nevere be. 
For this avou to god I make. 
After this day if I thee take, iSio 

Thou schalt ben honged and todrawe. 

3776 The stinard BT Th«ward J seide do f'mg so B 

9779 hire Tette to] hire Tette vnlo C )ou fette vnto B 3780 wo(d(e} 
HiE . . . Bt, W 9793 ilutofff. AdB 

.coy Google 

HIS S-nwAttn's 


Nou loke anon thou be mthdrawe, 
So that I se thee neveremore.' 
This Steward thanne dradde him sore, 
With al the baste that he mai 
And fledde awei that same dai. 
And wis exiled out of londe. 

Lo, there a nyce boosebonde, 
Which thus hath lost his vif for evere ! 
Bot natbeles sche hadde a levere; t 

The king hire weddeth and honouretb, 
Wherof hire name sche socoureth, 
Which erst was lost thurgh coveitise 
or him, that ladd^ hire other wise, 
And hath himself also forlore. 

Mi Sone, be thou war tbenore, 
Wher thou schalt love in eay place, P. ii. •■ 
That thou no covoitise embra g^ 
The which is noght of lores ^nde. 
Bot for al that a man mai finde i 

Nou in this time of tbilke rage 
Ful gret desese in manage, 
Whan venym melleth with the Sucre. 
And marine is mad for lucre, 
Or for the lust or for the hele : 
What man that Bchal with''outher dele. 
He mai noght faile to repente . 

Mi fader, such is myn entente: 
Bot natheles good is to have, 
For good mai ohe time save a 

The love vrftich scholde elles spille. 
Bot god, which wot myn hertes wille, 
I dar wel take to witnesse, 
Yit was I nevere for richesse 
Beset with manage non; 
For al myn heite is upon on 
So frely, that in the persone 
Stant al my worldes joie al one : 
I axe nouther Park ne Plowh, 
38i6 )« same E . . . B), S . . . A, WH> 0836 outber] 

(o>ir} K ...Bt, AdBT, W «i)>cT A 

.coy Google 


If I hire hadde, it vere ynowh, 

Hii lov« scholde me suffise 

Withouten other coveitise. 

Lo now, mi &der, as of this, 

Touchende of me riht as it is, 

Mi schrifte I am beknowe plein ; 

And if ye wole oght elles sein, 

Of covoitise if ther be more P. li. 

In love, ag;^eth out the sore. 

iv. FaUtr* cum negueal propria vir fraude, subomai 

TesUt, at quad eis vera rtiorta Jidts. 
Siatt agros atfiidus dum gurril amans Tnulieres, 

Vult testes falsos falsus habere iitos. 
Nan sine vindicta periurus abiUt in etus 

Viiu, qui cordis intima citncta videt. 
Fallere periuro non est laud^mda puellam 

Gloria, set false condidonis opta. 

Mi Sone, thou schalt understonde 
Hou Coveitise hath yit on honde : 

In special tuo conseiloms. 
That ben also hise procurours. 
The ferst of hem is Palswitnesse, 
Which evere is redi to witnesse 
What thing his maister wol him hote : 
Ferjurie is the secounde hote, 
Which spareth noght to swere an oth, 
Thogh it be fals and god be wroth. 
That on schal falswitnesse bere, 
That other schal the thing forswere, 
Whan he is charged on the bok. 
So what with hepe and what with crok 
Thei make here" maister ofte winne 
And wol noght knowe what is sione 
»Bs6 woli](e) RCLBf, W 

LatmVmtsn.ainnA...CBt veroL vertaW ^lom.'B 
7 laadando E . . . Ba 

aB63 fent J, S, F fartte A ^63 margin npcr iDii] semprr 

de illis E . . . Bi 0866 PeriurieJ, F PcriureAC,B a^ margin 
Um cupiditatil EC causa cup. RLB> tam in cupiditate Hi 
flSGS be wroth] wroth AMHi 0879 hepe J, B, F faipe T hupc C 

Hie tracUl super 
illis Auaricie specie- 
bus, que faisum Teati- 
■noniuin et Periurium 

uencio tam in cupidi- 

causa sui desiderii 
propositum quamsepe 
fallaciter attingit. 

.coy Google 


> For coveitise^ and thus, men sain, 

Thei maken many a fols bargain. 
Ther mai no Jiewe querela arise 
In thiike queste and thilke assise, 
Where as thei tuo the poeple enforme; 
For thei kepe evere o maner fonne, »88o 

That upon gold here conscience P. U. 3S4 

Thei founde, and take here evidence; 
And thus with falswitnesse and othes 
Thei vinne hem mete and drinke and clothes. 

Riht so ther be, who that hem knewe, 
Of thes lovers ful many untrewe : 
Nou mai a womman iinde ynowe. 
That ech of hem, whan he schal wowe^ 
Anon he wole his band doun lein 
Upon a bok, and swere and sein 3890 

That he wole feith and trouthe beie ; 
And thus he profreth him to swere 
To serven evere til he die, 
And al is verai tricherie. 
For whan the sothe himselven trieth , 
The more he swerth, the more he lieth; 
Whan he his feith makth althe rmest, 
Than mai a womman ^uste him lest; 
For til he mai his will achieve. 
He is no lengere forto lieve. ajjoo 

Thus is the trouthe of love exiled. 
And many a good womman beguiled. 

And ek to speke of Falswitnesse, 
TTiere be nou many suche, I gesse, 
That lich unto the provisouis 
Thei make here prive procurours. 
To telle hou ther is such a man, 
Which is worthi to love and can 
Al that a good man scholde kunne ; 
So that with lesinge is beguime 191a 

The cause in which thei wole procede, P. li- aas 
And also siker as the crede 

0878 and] of BT b XE, W agoa lauom.B 0904 suche 

J, SB such A, F 0906 hire AR, F procurous B, F 

.coy Google 


Thei make of that thei knowen fals. 
And thus fulofte aboute the hals 
Love is of &lse men embraced ; 
Bot love which is so pourchaced 
Comth afierward to litel piis. 
Foithi, mi Sone, if thou be wis, 
Nou thou hast herd this evidence, 
Thou miht thin oghne conscience 
Oppose, if thou hast ben such on. 
Nai, god wot, &der, I am non, 
Ne nevere was ; for as men seith, 
Whan that a man schal make his (eitb, 
His hette and tunge moste acorde ; 
For if 30 be that thei discord e, 
Tbanne is be fals and elles noght: 
And I dar seie, as of my thoght. 
In love it is noght desc or dable 
Unto mi word, bot acordable. 
And in this wise, fader, I 
Mai riht wel swere and salv eW. 
That I mi ladi love wel. 
For that acordeth evetydel. 
It nedeth noght to mi sothsawe 
That I witnesse scholde drawe, 
Into this dai for nevere yit 
Ne mihte it sjnlc e into mi wit, 
"Diat I my consei l scholde seie 
To eny wiht, or me bewreie 
To secben help in such maner^ P. 

Bot only of mi ladi diere. 
And tbogh a thousend men it wiste. 
That I hire love, and thanne hem liste 
With me to swere and to witnesse, 
Vit were that no falswitnesse ; 
For I dar on this trouthe duelle, 
I love hire mor than I can telle. 
Thus am I, fader, gulteles. 

[Faur WiTMisa.] 

9933 mIucIj S, F Muelf AJ, B 
bewrde C, SB be wreie J, F by in 

9937 e 


.coy Google 

[Falsi WiTHEas.] 

Hie ponit ezem- 
plumdeillis,qui blauln 
testificantesamoris in- 

centem, muliebri vesti- 
tnm apparatu ,>3screns 
esse puellam inter Re- 
gis Lichomedis filias 


duxit. Et sic Achilles 
detepto Rege Glie sue 
Deidamie socia et cub- 
icularia eSectus super 
ipsan Pirnim genuit; 
qui pastes mire probi- 
talis miliciam assecu- 
tus niorteQi patrii 
apud TroiaiD in i 
xenen tirannice 


As ye have herd, and natheles 1950 

In yonre dom I put it al. 

Mi Sone, wite in special, 
It schal noght comunliche bile, 
Al thogh it for a time availe 
That FalswitneBse his cause spede, 
Upon the point of his falshiede 
It schal wel afterward bejcidj 
Wherof, so as it is betid, 
Ensample of suche thinges blinde 
In a Cronique write I finde. i960 

The Goddesse of the See Thetis, 
Sche hadde a Sone, and his name is 
Achilles, whom to kepe and warde, 
Whil he was yong, as into warde 
Sche tht^hte him salfly to betake, 
As sche which dradde for his sake 
or that was seid in gcophecie. 
That be at Troie scholde'die, 
Whan that the Cite was belein. 
Forthi, so as the bokes sein, i()7a 

Sche caste hire wit in sondri wise, P. li. 937 
Hou sche him mihte so desguise 
That noman scholde his bodi knowe : 
And so befell that ilke throwe, 
Whil that sche thoghte upon this dede, 
ThcT was a lung, which Lichomede 
Was bote, and be was wel b^on 
With faire dowhtres manyon, 
And duelte fer out in an yle. 
-^ou schalt thou biere a wonder wyle : 1980 
This queene, which the moder was 
Of Achilles, upon this cas 
Hire Sone, as he a Maiden wer«^ 
Let ^othen in the same gere 
Which longetb unto womroanhiede : 
And he was yong and tok non biede, 

■951 put AJ. S. F (t) putle C, BT 9964 as} and BT, Hi 

9966 ADdAH...Bi, W 9967in]ofBT 0975 thU] bis AMHiX 

.coy Google 


Bot soflreth al that sche him dede. 

Wherof sche hath hire wommen bede 

And charged be here othes alle, 

Hou so it afterward befaile, 

That thei discove re noght this thing, 

Bot feigne and make a knowleching, 

Upon the conseil which was nome, 

In every place wher thei come 

To telle and to witnesse this, 

Hou he here ladi dowhter k. 

And riht in such a tnaner wise 

Sche bad thei scbolde hire don servise. 

So that Achilles underfongeth 

As to a yong ladi belcmgeth 

Honour, servise and reverence. P. IL 

For Thetis with gret diligence 

Him bath so tawht and so alaited, 

That, hou so that it were awaited, 

With sobre and goodli contenance 

He schotde his wommanhiede Jiv^ce, 

That non the sotbe knowe myhte, 

Bot that in every mannes syhte 

He scholde seme a pure Maide. 

And in such wise as sche him saide, 

Achilles, which that ilke while 

Was yong, upon himself to smyle 

Began, whan be was so besein. 

And thus, after the bokes sein. 
With frette o£ Perle upon his hed, 
Al freissh betwen tlie whyt and red, 
As he which tho was tendre of Age, 
Stod the colour in his visage, 
That forto loke upon his cheke 
And sen his childly manere eke, 
He was a womman to beholde. 
And thanne his moder to him tolde. 
That sche him hadde so begon 
Be cause that sche thc^hte gon 
To Lichomede at thilke tyde, 
& hir(e)U4rHi...Bi, B,W(bereLG) soof lt]heS.. 

.coy Google 


i Wher that sche seide he scholde abyde 

Among hise dowhtres forto duelle. 

Achilles herde his moder telle, 
And wiste noght the cause why ; 
And natheles ful .huxomly 3030 

He was redy to that sche bad, P. ii. sag 

Wherof his moder was riht glad, 
To Lichomede and forth thei wente. 
And whan the king knew hire entente, 
And sih this yonge dowhter there. 
And that it cam unto his Ere 
Of such record, of such witnesse, 
He hadde riht a gret gladnesse 
Of that he bothe syh and herde, 
As he that wot noght hou it ferde 304© 

Upon the conseil of the nede. 
Bot for al that king Lichomede 
Hath toward him this dowhter take. 
And for Thetis bis moder sake 
He put hire into compainie 
To duelle with £>eidamie. 
His i^hne dowhter, the eldest^ 
The faireste and the comelieste 
Of alle hise doghtres whiche he hadde. 

Lo, thus Thetis the cause ladde, 3050 

And lefte there Achilles feigned, 
As he which hath himself restreigned 
In al that evere he mai and can 
Out of the maneie of a man, 
And tolc his_wommannysshe chiere, 
Wherof unto his beddefere 
Deidamie he hath be nyhte. 
Wber kinde wole htmselve riht e. 
After the Philosophies sein, 
Ther mai no wiht be therayein : 3060 

And that was thilke time seene. P. ii. 330 

3oa6 he] «cfae E, BT 303s hir B riht] ful E . . . Bi 3045 
put AJt S, F putle C, B 3046 wi> )«( Dedaime RCLBi 

3034 the om. AUGRLBi aUe (muer of nun) Hi 3058 wolde 


.coy Google 


The longe njrhtes hem betuene [ 

Nature, which mai noght forbere. 

Hath mad hem bothe forto jtere : 

Thei kessen ferst, and overmore 

The hibe weie of loves lore 

Thei gon, and al was don in dede, 

Wherof lost is the mayd enbede ; 

And that was afterward wel knowe. 

For it befell that ilke throwe 3070 

At Troie, wher the Si^e lay 
Upon the cause of Menelay 
And of his queene dame Heleine, 
The Gregois hadden mochel peine 
Alday to fihte and to assaile. 
Bot for thei mihten nogbt availe 
So nobte a Cite forto winne, 
A prive conseil thei beginne, 
In sondri wise wher thei trete ; 
And ate laste among the grete 3080 

Thei fellen unto this acord, 
That Protheus, of his record 
Which was an Astronomien 
And ek a gret Magicien, 
Scholde of his calcul acip n 
Seche after constcUacion, 
Hou thei the Cite mihten gete : 
And be, which badde m^ht foryete 
Of that belongeth to a clerk . 
His studi e sette upon this werk. 3090 

So longe his wit aboute he caste, P. 11. 031 

Til that he fond out ate laste, 
Bot if they hadden Achilles 
Here werre schal ben endeles. 
And over that he tolde faem ^ein 
In what manere he was besdn. 
And in what place he schal be founde ; 
So that withinne a litel stounde 
Ulixes forth with Diomede 
Upon this pouit to Lichomede 3100 

3090 hii werk E . . . ft^ A the werke W 

.coy Google 


> Agamenon tc^edie sente. 

Bot Ulixes, er he forth went^ 

Which was on of the moste wise, 

Ordeigoed hath in such & wise, 

That he the moste liche any, 

Whetof a womman mai be ^ay. 

With him hath take manyfold, 

And ovennore, as it is told. 

An harneis for a lusti kniht. 

Which burned was as Selver btyht, 3110 

Of swerd, of plate and elc of maile, 

As thogh he scholde to bataille, 

He tok also with him be Schipe. 

And thus togedre in felaschipe 

Forth gon this Diomede and he 

In hope til thei mihtea se 

The place where Achilles is. 

The wynd stod thanne noght amis, 
Bot erene topseilcole it blew, 
Til Ulixes the Marche knew, 3110 

Wher Licbomede his R^ne hadde. P. 11. aga 
The Stieresman so wel hem ladde. 
That thei ben comen sauf to londe, 
Wher thei gon out upon the stronde 
Into the_Buigh, wher that thei founde 
The king, and he which bath bcounde, 
Ulixes, dede the message. 
Bot the conseil of his corage, 
Why that he cam, he tolde noght, 
Bot unde methe he was bethoght 3130 

In what manere he roihte aspie 
Achilles fro Deidamie 
And fi^ these othre that ther were, 
Full many a lusd ladi there. 

Thei pleide hem there a day or tuo. 
And as it was fortuned so, 

31 10 burned as)«5iluer E. .. B> b. wu withs. W b. was of a. H> 
3119 topMilcol« ACL, SAd, FH> topseit cole (coole) HHiXG^Bi, 
BT top seUe cole A to pseilcole J to Pheilcole W to pleueU 
G^e A 

.coy Google 


It fell that time in such a. wise, [' 

To Bachus that a sacrifise 

Thes yonge ladys scbolden make ; 

And for the strange mennes sake, 3143 

That OHnen fro the Siege of Troie, 

Thei maden wd the more joie. 

Ther was Revel, ther was daunsinge, 

And ever; lif which coude singe 

Of lusti wommen in the route 

A freissh rarole hath sunge aboute; 

Bot for al this yit natheles 

The Grek? unknowe of Achilles 

So weren, that in no d^re 

Thei coudeo wite which was he, 31 so 

Ne be his vols, ne be his pas. P. il. S33 

Ulixes thatine upon this cas 

A thing of hih Prudent^ hath wroght : 

For thiike aray, which he hath broght 

To yive among the wommen there. 

He let do fetten al the gere 

Forth with a knihtes harneie eke, — 

In al a contre foito seke 

Men Echolden noght a fairer se, — 

And every thir^ in his degre 3160 

Endloi^ upon a bord he leide. 

To Lichomede and thanne he preide 

That every ladi chese scholde 

What thing of alle that sche wolde, 

And take it as he weie of yifle ; 

For thei hemself it scholde EchiftSf 

He seide, after here oghne wille. 

Achilles thanne stod noght stille: 
Whan he the bryhte helm behield, 
The swerd, the hauberk and the Schield, 3170 
His hertg fell therto anon ; 
Of all that othre wolde he non, 
The knihtes gere he tmderfbngeth, 

« At (Alle) liuti wommen AHHi A lualy womnun ECLBi 
ioea luui Ad )iat routa E . . . Bi 3159 tliia] )« BT 

ft contre} >e contre BTa 3169 the oa*. B 

.coy Google 


3 And thilke amy which that belongeth 

Unto the wommen he forsok. 
And in this wise, as seith the bok, 
Thei knowen thanne which he was: 
For he goth forth the grete pas 
Into the chambre wbae he lay ; 
Anon, and made no delay, 3'8« 

He armeth him in knyhtli wise, F. IL 934 

That bettre can noman devise, 
And as fortune scholde falle, 
He cam so forth tofore hem alle, 
As he which tho was glad ynowh. 
But Lichomede nothing lowh, 
Whan that he syb hou that it ferde. 
For thanne he wiste wel and berde. 
His dowhter hadde be foriein ; 
Bot that be was so oyersein, 319a 

The wonder overgoth his wit 
For in Cronique is write yit 
Thing which schal nevere be foryete, 
Hou that Achilles hath begete 
Pimis upon Deidamie, 
Wherof cam out the tricherie 
Of Falswitnesse, whan thei saide 
Hou that Achilles was a Maide. 
Bot that was nothing sene tho, 
For be is to the Si^e go jaoo 

Forth with Ulixe and Diomede. 

Lo, thus was proved in the dede 
And fulli spoke at thilke while: 
If o womman an other guUe, 
Wber is ther eny sikemesse? 
Whan Thetis, which was the goddesse, 
Deidamie hath so bejaped, 
I not hou it schal ben ascaped 
With tho wommen whos innocence 
Is nou alday thurgh such credence 3110 

Deceived ofte, as it is seene, P. ii. 095 

319a ID a Cnjnique AHHiRCLBi, AdA. H> 3197 thei]he X, BT 
3909 whos] wbkh AJfUiXG 3010 now a day X, B, WHi 

.coy Google 


With men that such untrouthe meene. 

For ihei ben slyhe in such a wise. 

That thei be sleihte and be queintise 

Of Falswitnesse bringen inne 

That doth hem ofte forto winne, 

Wher thei ben noght worthi therto. 

Forthi, my Sone, do noght so. [Perjury.] 

Mi fader, as of Falswitnesse Amans 

The trouthe and the matiere expresse, i»*o 

Touchende of Jove hou it hath ferd. 
As ye have told, I have well herd. 
Bot for ye seiden otherwise, 
Hou thilke vice of Covoitise 
Hath yit Perjurie of his acord. 
If that you list of som record 
To telle an other tale also 
In loves cause of time ago^ 
What thing it is to be forewore, 
I wolde preie you therfore, 3»jo 

Wherof I mihte ensample take. 

Mi goode Sone, and for tfci sake CoDfessor. 

Touchende of this I schal fulfille 
Thin axinge at thin oghne wille, 
And the matiere I schal declare, 
Hou the wommen deceived are, 
Whan thei so tendre herte bere, 
Of that thei hieren men so swere ; 
Bot whan it comth unto thassay, 
Thei finde it lals an other day : 3340 

As Jason dede to Medee, P. ii. 336 

Which stant yet of Auctorite 
In tokne and in memorial ; 
Wherof the tale in special 
la in the bok of Troie write, 
Which 1 schal do thee forto wite. 

In Grece whilom was a king. 
Of whom the fame and knowleching 
3313 Wher] l>er BT 3395 Periurie J, B, F Periure AC 

3937 heiUs XL, 5 ... & 3341 vnto B of T 3346 Who 

>at wol rede it ))er may wile E . . . B> 

.coy Google 

Tale of Jasoh and 

ponil exemplum con- 
Ira periuros. Et nar- 
nt qnaliler lason, 
priusqium ad iDsuIam 
Coldios pro aurcD vel- 
lere ibidem cooquest- 
■ndo transmearet, in 
amorem et roniugium 
Hede« Regis Othonia 
lilie iuramento finniua 

postea completo ne^o- 
cio, cum ipsam secuin 
nauigto in Greciam 
perduxisset, vbi ilia 
senectam p«tris suj 
Esonis , in floridam 
iuuentutem mirabili 
scienda reronnauit, 
ipse lason lidei sue 
ligarnenlo aliisque 
beneliciis poMposilts, 
dicUun Medeam pro 
quadam Creusa Regis 
Crcontis filia periunis 


Belev-eth yit, and Peleiis 
He hihte; bot it fell him thus, 
That his fortune hir whiei so ladde 
That he no child his (^hne hadde 
To r^en after his decess. 
He hadde a brother natheles, 
Whos rihte name was Eson, 
And he the worthi kniht Jason 
Begat, the which in every lond 
Alle othre passede of his bond 
In Armes, so that he the beste 
Was named and the worthieste, 
He soghte worschipe overal. 
Nou herkne, and I thee telle schal 
An aventure that he soghte, 
Which afterward ful dere he boghte. 

Ther was an yle, which C<rfchos 
Was cleped, and therof aros 
Gret speche in every lond aboute. 
That such merveile was non oute 
In al the wyde world nawhere . 
As tho was in that yle there. 
Ther was a Schiep^ as it was told, 
The which his flees bar al of gold, 
And so the goddes hadde it set. 
That it ne mihte awet be fet 
Be potter of no worldes wiht ; 
And yit fill many a woithi kniht 
It hadde assaied, as thei dorste, 
And evere it fell hem to the worste. 
Bot he, that wolde it noght forsake, 
Bot of his knyhthod undertake 
To do what thing therto belongeth. 
This woithi Jason, sore alongeth 
To se the strange regiouns 
And knowe the condiciouns 
Of othre Marches, where he wente ; 
And for that cause his hole entente 

3061 matgtH iltam aenecUm E . 
3081 >erto wbat Jiing; A . . . B> 

. B), BT ilia •eoecta HHi 

.coy Google 


He sette Colchos forto secbe, [ 

And therupon he made a speche 
To Peleiis his Em the king. 
And he wel paid was of that thit^; 3190 

And schop anon for his passage , 
And suche as were of his lignage, 
With othre knihtes wbiche he ches, 
With him he tok, and Hercules, 
Which full was of cbivalerie, 
With Jason wente in compaignie; 
And that was in the Monthe of Maii, 
Whan colde storm es. were away. 
The wynd was good, the Schip was yare, 
Thei tok here leve, and forth thei fare 3300 
Toward Colchos : bot on the weie P. ii. 338 
What hem befell is long to seie ; 
Hou LamedoQ the king of Troie, 
Which oghte wel have mad hem joie. 
Whan thei to reste a while bim preide, 
Out of bis lond he hem congeide ; 
And so fell the dissencion, 
Which after was destruccion 
Of that Cite, as men mai hiere : 
Bot that is noght to mi matiere. 3310 

Bot thus this wortbi folk Gregeis 
Fro that king, which was n<^t curteis, 
And fro his lond with Sail updrawe 
Thei wente hem forth, and n^ny a sawe 
Thei made and many a gret manace. 
Til ate laste into that place 
Which as thei soghte Uiei aryve, 
And striken Sail, and forth as biyve 
Thei sente unto the king and tolden 
Who weren ther and what thei wolden. 331a 
Oetes, which was tbanne king, 
3090 that] >is B 3395 vna fal AHHiXG 3300 tok (took) 

AJ, SB, F toke C, Ad, Hi (token leue Hi) 3304 have mad] 

to make BT 3306 But (Bot) orhis lond E . . . Bi 3311 this] 

fe B >eM X 3311 t gregeis (Gregeis): curteis J, S, F 

Grcgois (gregois) : curtois (courtoys) AC, B 3331 which (an ne 

,>ui) was >ek.E...Bi which was the k. Hi, W which was lw-k.X 

: .«:,yGoogle 


Whan that he herde this .tyding 
Of Jason, which was comen there, 
And of these othre, what thei were, 
He thoghte don hem gret woischipe: 
For thei anon come out of Schipe, 
And strawht unto the king thei wente, 
And be the tiond Jason he hente. 
And that was ate paleis gate, 
So fer the king cam on his gate 333a 

Toward Jason to don him chiere ; P. li. 339 
And he, whom lacketh no manere. 
Whan be the king sih in presence, 
Yaf him ayein such reverence 
As to a kinges stat belongeth. 
And thus the king him underfongeth. 
And Jason in his arm he cawhte, 
And forth into the halle be sQaKhte^ 
And tber they siete and spteke of thinges, 
And Jason tolde him tho tidinges, 3340 

Why he was come, and faire him preide 
To haste his time, and the kyng seide, 
'Jason, thou art a worthi kniht, 
Bot it lith in no mannes myht 
To don that thou art come foif.: 
Ther hath be many a kniht forlore 
Of that thei wolden it assaie.' 
Bot Jason wolde him noght esmaie. 
And seide, ' Of every worldes cure 
Fortune stant in aventure, 3350 

Per aunter wel, per aunter wo: 
Bot hou as evere that it go, 
It schal be with myn hond assai ed.' 
The king tho hield him noght wel paied. 
For he the Grekes sore dredde, 
In aunter, if Jason ne spedde. 
He mihte therof here a blarae ; 
For tho was al the worldes fame 
In Grece, as forto speke of Amies. 
Forthi he dredde him of his harmes, 3360 

3340 tbo] t« AH . . . Bt 

.coy Google 


And gati to preche hiro and to preie ; P. ii. 340 [Tai. 

Bot Jason wolde noght obeie, 

£ot seide he wolde his porpos holde 

For ought that eny man him tolde. 

The king, whan he thes wordes herde, 

And sih hou that this kniht ansuerde, 

Yit for he wolde make him glad, 

After Medea gon he bad. 

Which was his dowhter, and sche cam. 

And Jason, which good hiede nam, 3370 

Whan he hire sih, ayein hire gotb ; 

And sche, which was him nothing loth, 

Welcoroede him into that lond, '~' 

And softe tok him be the hond, 

And doun thei seten bothe same. 

Sche hadde herd spoke of his name 

And of his grete worthinesse ; 

Forthi sche gan hir yhe impresse 

Upon his face and his stature. 

And thoghte hou nevere creature 33S0 

Was so wel farende as was he. 

And Jason riht in such degie 

Ne mihte n<^ht with holde his lok, 

Bot so good hiede on hire he tok, 

That him ne th<^hte under the hevene 

Of iseaute sawh he nevere hir evene. 

With al that fell to wommanhiede. 

Thus ech of other token hiede, 

Thogh ther no word was of record ; 

Here hertes bothe of on acord 3390 

Ben set to love, bot as tho P. ii. 341 

Ther mihten be no wordes mo. 

The king made him gret joie and Teste, 

To alle bis men he yaf an heste, 

So as thei wolde his thonk deserve. 

That thei scholde alle Jason serve, 

Whil that he wolde there duelle. 

And thus the dai, schortly to telle, 

3376 spekeCn) AM . . . B., B, W 

.coy Google 


With maoye merthes thei despente, 
Til nybt wai come, and tho.thei wente, 3400 
Echon of other tolc his leve, 
Whan thd no lengere myhten leve, 
I not hou Jason that nyht slep, 
Bot wel I wot, that of the Schep, 
For which be cam into that yle, 
He thoghte bot a Utel nhyle ; 
Al was Medea that he thc^hte, 
So that in many a wise he soghte 
His Witt wakende er it was day, 
Som time yee, som time nay, 3410 

Som time thus, som time so. 
As he was stered to and fro 
Of love, and ek of his congueste 
As he was holde of his beheste. 
And thus he ros up be the morwe 
And tolc himself seint John to bwwe. 
And seide he wolde ferst beginne 
At love, and after forto winne 
The flees of gold, for which he com, 
And thus to him good herte he nom. m^o 

Medea ribt the same wise, P. 11. 34a 

Til dai cam that sche moste arise, 
Lay and bethoughte hire al the nyht, 
Hou scbe that noble wortbi kniht 
Be eny weie mihte wedde : 
And wel scbe wiste, if he ne spedde 
Of thing which be hadde undertake, 
Sche mihte birself no porpos take ; 
For if he deide of bis bataile, 
Sche moste thanne algate faile 3430 

To geten him, whan he were ded. 
Thus sche b^an to eette red 
And tome aboute hir wiltes alle. 
To loke hou that it mihte falle 
That sche with him hadde ajeisir 
To speke and telle of hir desir. 
And so it fell that same day 
-ise RCLBt, T, W 3437 fe ttaae day XE . . . &, BTa 

.coy Google 


That Jason with that suetemay ['. 

Togedre sete and hadden space 

To spelce, and he besoughte hir grace. 3440 

And sche his tale goodli herde. 

And afterward sche him ansuerde 

And leide, 'Jason, as thou wilt, 

Thou miht be sau( thou miht be spilt ; 

For wite wel that nevere man, 

Bot if he couthe that I can, 

Ne mihte that fortune achieve 

For which thou comst: bot as I lieve, 

If thou wolt holde covenant 

To love, of al the remenant 3450 

I schal Ihi lif and honour save, P. U. 043 

That thou the flees of gold scbalt have.' 

He seide, ' Al at youre oghne wille, 

Ma dame, I schal ti^jilx fulfills 

Youre heste, whil mi lif mai laste.' 

Thus longe be preide, and ate laste 

Sche gianteth, end behihte him this, 

That whan nyht comth and it time is, 

Sche wolde him sende certeinly 

Such on that scbolde him prively 3460 

Al one into hire ctiambre t^nge. 

He thonketh hire of that tidinge. 

For of that grace bim is begonne 

Him tbenkth alle othre tbinges wonne. 

The dai made ende and lost bis lybt. 
And comen waa the derke oybt, 
Which al the daies yhe blenle. 
Jason tok leve and forth be wente, 
And whan be cam out of the pres, 
He tok to conseil Hercules, 3470 

And tolde him hou it was bedd. 
And preide it scbolde wel ben bid, 
And that be wotde loke aboute, 
Therrtiles that he schal ben oute. 
Thus as he stod and htede nam, 

3440 he om. E . . . Bi 3463 lou U I. AYEC, S 347a 

And doubIiI >er of 1u> fro bim hid E . . . Bi ben wel UHiX 

.coy Google 


ID A Mayd en iiro Medea cam 

And to hir chambre Jason ledde, 

Wber that he fond redi to bedde 

The faireste and the wiseste eke ; 

And sche with simple chiere and meke, 3480 

Whan sche him sib, wax al aschamed. P. ii. 344 

Tho was here tale newe entamed ; 

For sikemesse of Mati^e 

Sche fette forth a riche yraage, 

Which was tigure of Jupiter, 

And Jason swor and seide tber, 

That also wiss god scholde him heipe, 

That if Medea dede biro heipc, 

That be his pourpos myhte winne, 

Thei scholde nevere parte atwinne, 3490 

Bot evere whil bim lasteth lif, 

He wolde hire holde for his wif. 

And with that word thei kisten bothe; 

And for thei scholden hem unclothe, 

Ther cam a Maide, and in bir wise 

Sche dede hem botbe full servise, 

Til tbat thei were in bedde naked : 

I wot that nyht was wel bewaked, 

Thei hadden bothe what thei wolde. 

And thanne of leisir sche him tolde, 3S00 

And gan fro point to point enforme 

Of his bataile and al the forme, 

Which as he scholde finde there, 

Whan he to thyle come were. 

Sche seide, at entre of the pas 
Hou Mais, which god of Armes was. 
Hath set tuo Oxen steme and stoute, 
Tbat caste fyr and flamme aboute 
Bothe at the mouth and ate nase, 
So that thei setten al on blase 351" 

What thing that passeth hem betwene : P. ii. S45 
And fortbermore upon the grene 
Tber goth the flees of gold to kepe 

3481 ischaned A, SB a Bchamed J, F 3483 hire Ule AJHXE 
3484 selte BT 349a departs AHXG 

.coy Google 


A Serpent, which inai nevere slepe. [ 

Thus who that evere scholde it wjnne, 

The fyr to slQi4i£-he mot b^nne, 

Which that the fierce bestes caste. 

And daunte he mot hem ate laste, 

So that he mai hem yoke and dryve ; 

And thenipon he mot as blyve jji* 

The Serpent witii such strengthe assaile. 

That he mai skn him be bataile ; 

Of which he mot the telh outdrawe, 

As it belongeth to that lawe. 

And thaniie he mot tho Oxen yoke, 

Til thei have with a plowh tobroke 

A j nrgh of lond, in which arowe 

The teth of thaddre he moste sowe, 

And therof schule arise knihtes 

Wei armed u£ at alle rihtes. 3530 

Of hem is n<^bt to taken hiede, 

For ech of hem in hastihiede 

Schal other slen with d ethes wounde : 

And thus whan thei ben leid to grounde, 

Than mot he to the goddes pieie. 

And go so forth and uke bis preie. 

Bot if he faile in eny wise 

Of that ye hiere me devise, 

Ther mai he set non other weie, 

That he ne moste algates deie. 3540 

' Nou have I told the peril al : P. li. 346 

I woll you tellen forth withal,' 

Quod Medea to Jason the, 

'That ye schul knowen er ye go, 

Ayein the venym and the iyi 

What scbal ben the recoveiir. 

Bot, Sire, for it is nyh day, 

Ariseth upv so that I may 

Delivere you what thing I have. 

That mai youre lif and honour save.' sfjo 

Thei weten bothe loth to rise, 

3517 the] >o ERC, 5BT 3533 detbea] htaty E . . . Bi 

3534 leid] bronght B 3545 and] of BT 

.coy Google 


Bot for thei weren bothe vise, 
Up tbei arisen ate laste : 
Jason his clothes on him caste 
And made him redi riht anon, 
And sche hir scberte dede upon 
And caste on hire a mantel clos, 
Withoute more and thanne aroe. 
. Tho tok sche forth a riche Tye 

Mad al of gold and of Ferrie, 3560 

Out of the which sche nam a Ring, 
The Ston was worth al other thing. 
Sche seide, whil he wolde it were, 
Ther myhte no peril him dere, 
In water mai it noght be dreynt, 
Wher as it comth the fyr is queynt, 
It daunteth elc the cruel beste, 
Ther may no qued that man areste, 
Wher so he be on See or lond, 
Which hath that ring upon his bond : 357a 

And over that sche gan to sein, P. 11. 247 

That if a man wol ben unsein, 
Witfainne bis bond bold clos the Ston, 
And he mai invisible gon. 
The Ring to Jason sche beuuhte. 
And so forth after sche him laubte 
What sacrifise he scholde make ; 
And gan out of hire cofre take 
Him thot^;hte an hevenely figure. 
Which al be channe and be conjure 3580 

Was wioght, and ek it was thuigb write 
With names, which he scholde wite, 
As sche him ^teu^te tho to rede ; 
And bad him, as he wolde spede, 
Withoute reste of eny while, 
Whan he were londed in that yle, 
He scholde make his sacrifise 
And rede bis carecte in the wise 
As sche him taubte, on knes doun bent, 
Thre sithes toward orient ; 3&9^ 

358a name RCLB^ T wbicta AJ, S, F whiche B 

.coy Google 


For so scholde he the goddes plese [' 

And wiDne himsetven mochel ese. 

And whanne he hadde it thries nid. 

To opne a buiste Bcbe him liad, 

Which sche ther tok him in present, 

And was full of such oignement, 

That ther was fyr ne venym non 

That scholde fastnen him upon. 

Whan that he were enoynt withal. 

Forthi sche tauhte him hou he schal 3600 

Enoignte his annes al aboute, P. U. 248 

And for he scholde nothing doute, 

Sche tok him thanne a maner glu, 

The which was of so gret vertu" 

That where a man it wolde caste, 

It scholde binde anon so faste 

That noman mihte it don aweie. 

And that sche bad be alle weie 

He scholde into the mouthes throw en 

Of tbo jyeie Oxen that fyr blowen, j6io 

Therof to stoppen the malice ; 

The glu schal serve of that office. 

And over that hir oignement, 

Hir Ring and hir enchantement 

Ayein the Serpent scholde him were, 

Til he him sle with swerd or spere : 

And thanne be may sauAiche ynowh 

His Oxen yoke into the plowb 

And the teth sowe in such a wise. 

Til he the knyhtes m arise, jSio 

And ech of other doun be leid 

In such nianere as I have seid. 

Lo, thus Medea for Jason 
OrdeigDcth, and preith thempon 
That he nothing foryete scbolde, 
And ek sche preith him that he wolde. 
Whan he hath alle his Annes don, 
To grounde knele and thoiike anon 

So sfci 3619 Buchfe) 

.coy Google 


The goddes, and so forth beese 

The flees of gold he scholde sese. 3630 

And whanne he hadde it sesed so, P. ii. 349 

That thanne he were sone ago 

Withouten eny tariynge. 

Whan this was seid, into wepinge 
Sche fell, as scfae that was th utgh n ome 
With love, and so fer overcome, 
That al hir world on him sche sette. 
Bol whan sche sih ther was no lette. 
That he mot nedes parte hire fro. 
Sche tok him in hire armes tuo, 3640 

An hundred time and gan him kisse, 
And seide, 'O, al mi worldes blisse, 
Mi trust, mi lust, mi Uf, min hele, 
To be thin bclpe in this querele 
I preie unto the goddes alle.' 
And with that word sche gan doun falie 
On swoune, and he hire uppe nam, 
And forth with that the Maiden cam, 
And thei to bedde anon hir brc^hte. 
And thanne Jason hire besc^hte, 3650 

And to hire seide in this manere: 
'Mi worthi lusti ladi dere, 
ConfOTteth you, for be my trouthe 
It schal noght fallen in mi slouthe 
That I ne wol thurghout fuUille 
Youre hestes at youre oghne wille. 
And yit I hope to you bringe 
Withinne a while such tidinge, 
The which schal make ous bothe game.' 

Bot for he wolde kepe hir name, 3660 

Whan that he wiste it was nyb dai, P. ii. ago 
He seide, 'A dteu, mi swete mai.' 
And forth with him he nam his gere, 
Which as sche hadde take him there. 
And. strauht unto bis chambre he wente. 
And goth to bedde and slep him hente, 

3647 Of swoune RCLBi, BT Idqc swone W uppe nam] vp 

tx) nan E . . . B> vpon name Hi 3665 be om. E . . . Bi, BT, W 

.coy Google 


And lay, that noman him awok, [1 

/ For Hercules hiede of him tok, 
Ti) it was undren hih and more. 
And thanne he gan to si ghe sore 3670 

And sodeinliche abreide of slep ; 
And thei that token of him keg^ 
His chamberleins, be sone there, 
And maden redi al his gere. 
And he aros and to the king 
He wente, and seide hou to that thing 
For which be cam he wolde go. 
The king theiof was wonder jf, 
And for he wolde him fain withdiawe, 
He tolde him many a dredful sawe, 3680 

Bot Jason wolde it noght record ^ 
And ate laste thei acorde. 
Whan that he wolde noght abide, 
A Bot was redy ate tyde. 
In which this worthi kniht of Grece 
Ful a imed up at every piece. 
To his bataile which belongeth, 
Tok OT£,on honde and sore him lrag«b, 
Til he the water passed were. 

Whan he cam to that yie there, 3*9* 

He set him on his knes doun aUauhti P. U. 251 
And his carecte, as he was tawht, 
He radde, and made his sacritise, 
And siththe enoignte him in that wise, 
As Medea him hadde bede ; 
And thanne aros up fro that stede, 
And with the glu the fyr he queynte. 
And anon after he atteinte 
The grete Serpent and him slowh. 
Bot erst he hadde sorwe ynowh, 3700 

Foi that Serpent made him travaile 

3668 of hem CL «d bim W 3669 vndern ERL, BT, H> 

Tndome X vndur CB^ W 3^' abreide] he breide £ . . . B), 

BT, H) 3678 wu wonder wo] )>aD -ma M vro YE . . . Bi, BTA 

36Sa ore on] oore in RLBt, A sore in EC, BT (And far> wdA all 
bis wej be fongc> X) 9G9r set AJ, S, F selte C, B 

.coy Google 


So harde and sore of his bataile. 

That nou he stod and nou he fell : 

For tonge time it so befell, 

That with his swerd ne with his spere 

He mihte noght that Serpent deie. 

He was so sdierded, al aboute, 

It hield all eggetol withoute, 

He was so mide and bard of skin, 

Ther mihte nothing go therin ; 3710 

Venym and fyr tc^edre he caste, 

That he Jason so sore ablaste, 

That if ne were his oignement, 

His Ring and his encbantement, 

Which Medea tolc him tofore, 

He hadde with that worm be lore ; 

Bot of vertu which therof cam 

Jason the Dragon overcam. 

And he anon the teth outdrouh. 

And sette his Oxen In a jlouh. j7»o 

With which he brak a piece of lond P. il. 953 

And .sieiL hem with his oghne bond. 

Tho mihte he gret merveile se: 

Of every toth in his degre 

Sprang up a kniht with spa« and schield. 

Of whiche anon riht in the field 

Echon slow other; and with that 

Jason Medea noght foryat, 

On bothe his knes he gan doun falle, 

And yaf thonk to the goddes alle. 3730 

The Flees he tok and goth to Bote, 

The Sonne echyneth bryhte and bote, 

The Flees of gold scbon forth withal, 

The water glistretb overal. 

Medea weptt and sigbeth ofle, 
And stod upon a Tour alolte: 
Al prively withinne .hirselve, 
Ther herde it nouther ten ne tuelve, 
Sche preide, and seide, ' O, god him spede, 

3705 ne] and BT, W 3706 >e serpent XB^ BT, W 31»«> 

hJB plough YE . . . Bi, BT the plogli W 

.coy Google 


The kniht which hatii mi mai de nhiede ! ' 3740 [1 

And ay sche loketh toward thyle. 

fiot whan sche sih withinne a while 

The Flees glistrende ayein the Sonne, 

Sche saide, 'Ha lord, now al is wonne, 

Mi kniht the field hath overcome ; 

Nou wolde god he were come ; 

Ha lord, jhat h e ne were ibnde ! ' ' 

Bot I dar take this on honde, , 

If that sche badde wynges tuo, 

Sche wolde have flowe unto him tho 3750 

Strawht ther he was into the Bot. P. U. 953 

The dai was clier, the Sonne hot, 
The Gregeis weren in gret doute, 
The whyle that here lord was oute: 
Thei wisten noght what scholde tyde, 
Bot waiten ^ere upon the tyde. 
To se what ende scholde falle. 
Ther stoden ek the nobles alle 
Forth with the comun of the toun; 
And as thei token up and doun, 3760 

Thei weren war withinne a throwe, 
Wher cam the b<rt, which thei wel knowe, 
And sihe hou Jason broghte his preie. 
And tho thei gonnen alle seie, 
And criden alle with o stevene, 
'Ha, wher was evere under the hevene 
So noble a knyht as Jason is?' 
And welnyh alle seiden this, 
That Jason was a faie kniht, 
For it was nevere of mannes miht 377a 

The Flees of gold so fbrto winne j 
And thus to t^ji.thei beginne. 
With that the king com forth anon. 
And sih the Flees, hou that it schon; 

3743 wban (when) AJC, B \riiuiHe F 3744 a (ha) lord al 

ii y woQoe (al ia wdddc) YE , . . B^ BTA ba lord al now is w. 
HH-XG 3747 on londe £ . . . Bi, BTA, W 3751 he am. AH 

3765 cried (criede) RCLBi, A 377a to talen] Ulea B of talen H 
ofUletHi totalkanW 

.coy Google 


D And whan Jason cam to the lond, 

The king hlmselve tok his bond 
And kist him, and gret joie him made. 
The Gregeis weren wonder glade, 
And of that thing riht merie hem thoghte, 
And forth with hem the Flees the! broghte, 3780 
And ech on other gan to ley he ; P. ii 354 

Bot wel was him that mihte neyhe, 
To se therof the proprete. 
And thus thei passen the cite 
And gon unto the Paleis straght. 
Medea, which foryat him naght, 
Was redy there, and seide anon, 
' Welcome, O worthi kniht Jason.' 
Sche wolde have kist him wonder ^yn^, 
Bot schame tornede hire agayn ; 3790 

It was noght the manere as tho, 
FoTthi sche dorste noght do so. 
Sche tok hire leve, and Jason wente 
Into his chambre, and sche him sente 
Hire Maide to sen hou he ferde ; 
The which whan that sche sih and herde, 
Hou that he hadde ^ku oute 
And that it stod wel al aboute, 
Sche tolde hire ladi what sche wiste, 
And sche for joie hire Maide kiste. 3S00 

The bathes weren thanne ataied, 
Withlierbes tempred and assaied. 
And Jason was unarmed sone 
And dede as it befell to done : 
Into his bath he wente anon 
And wyssh him clene as eny bon ; 
He tok a sopp, and oute he cam, 
And on his beste aray he nam, 
And kempde his hed, whan he was clad. 
And goth him forth al merie and glad 3810 
Riht strawht into the kinges balle. P. Ii. 355 
The king cam with his knihtes alle 

3791 u tho] also AH . . . Bi^ BT 3796 Khe] he Hi, BT 

3798 *I om. AHHi, HiW 

.coy Google 


And maden him glad welcomJnge ; [1 

And he hem tdde the tidinge 
Of this and that, hou it befell, 
Whan that he wan the schepes fell. 

Medea, whan sche was asent, 
Com sone to that parl^nent, 
And whan sche mihte Jason se, 
Was non so glad of alle as sche. jSii 

Ther was no joie forto seche, 
Of him mad every man a speche, 
Som man seide on, som man seide other ; 
Bot thogh he were goddes brother 
And mihte make fyr and thondei^ 
Ther mihte be nomore wonder 
Than was of him in that cite; 
Echon tauhte other, 'This is he. 
Which hath in his pouer withinne 
That al the world ne mihte winner 3S30 

Lo, bier the beste of alle goode.' 
Thus saiden thei that there stode. 
And ek that walkede up and doun, 
Bothe of the Court and of the toun-. 

The time of SoupcL cam anon, 
Thei wisshen and therto thei gon, 
Medea~was with Jason set: 
Tho was ther many a deynte fet 
And set tofore hem on the bord, 
Bot non so hking& as the word 3840 

Which was ther spoke among hem tuo, P. ii. 956 
So as thei dorste speke tho. 
Bot thc^h thei hadden litel space, 
Yit thei acorden in that place 
Hou Jaaon scholde come at nyht. 
Whan every torche and every liht 
Were oute, and thanne of other thinges 
Thei spieke aloud, i^ supposinges 
Of hem that stoden there aboute : 

3B14 the] ^ EC, B aSaa mad AJ, S, F made C, B 38a3> 
seide . . . seide AC, B seid , . . leide S, F seid . . . aeid J 
384] atom. E . . . Bt, BT 

.coy Google 


t> For love is everemore in doute, 3850 

tf that it be wisly governed 
Of hem that ben of love lerned. 

Wban al was don, that dissh and cuppe 
And cloth and bord and al was uppe, 
Thei waken whil hem lest to wake, 
And after that thei leve take 
And gon to bedde forte reste. 
And whan him thoghte for the beste. 
That eveiy man was faste aslepe, 
Jason, that wolde his time kepe, 3660 

Goth forth stalkende al prively 
Unto the chambre, and redely 
Ther was a Maide, which him kepte. 
Medea wok and nothing slepte, 
Bot natheles scbe was abedde, 
And be with alle haste him spedde 
And made him naked and al wann. 
Anon be tok hire in his arm : 
What nede is forto speke of ese ? 
Hem Ust ech other forto plese, 3B70 

So that thei badden joie ynow : P. U. 957 

And tho thei setten whanne and how 
That scbe with him awey schal stele. 
With wordes suche and othre fele 
Whan al was treted to an ende, 
Jason tok leve and gan fortli wende 
Unto his oughne chambre in pes ; 
Ther wiste it non bot Hercules. 

He slepte and ros whan it was time. 
And whanne it fell towardes prime, 3SS0 

He tok to him suche as he triste 
In secre, that non other wiste, 
And told hem of his conseil there, 
And seide that his wille were 
That thei to Schipe hadde alle thinge. 
So priveliche in thevenynge, 
That noman mihte here dede aspie 

3851 ff«rifitbeE. . . Bi, BT Butifhitb«W 3679 slepte] 

slep (sleep) YE, B 3883 bin AHiXR 

itizecy Google 


Bot tho that were of compaignie : [1 

For he woll go withoute leve, 
And lengere woll he noght beleve ; 3890 

Bot he ne wolde at thiike throwe 
The king or queene scholde it knowe. 
Thei saide, 'Al this schal wel be do:' 
And Jason tniste wel therto. 
Medea in the mene while. 
Which thoghte hir foder to beguile, 
The Tresor which hir fader hadde 
With hire al priveli scbe ladde, 
And with Jason at time set 
Awey sche stal and fond no let, 3900 

And str^ht sche goth hire unto schipe P. U. 858 
Of Grece with that felaschipe, 
And thei anon drowe up the Seil. 
And al that nyht this was TOnseij^ 
Bot eriy, whan the Sonne schon, 
Men syhe hou that thei were agon, 
And come unto the king and tolde: 
And be the sothe knowe wolde, 
And axeth where his dowhter was. 
Ther was no word bot Out, Alias ! 3910 

Sche was ago. The moder wepte, 
The fader as a wod man lepte. 
And gan the time fbrto yarie- 
And SWOT his oth he wol noght tarie, 
That with Caliphe and with galeie 
The same cours, the same weie, 
Which Jason tok, he wolde take, 
If that he mihte him overtake. 
To this thei seiden alle yee: 
Anon thei weren ate See, 3910 

And alle, as who seith, at a word 
Thei gon wittunn^ schipes bord. 
The Sail, goth up, and forth thei strauhte. 
Bot non espleit therof thei cauhte, 
And so thei tomen horn ayein, 
3888 in compaignie AH . . . B^ BT 3914 wolde (wold) 

M . . . Bi, BTA, WU> 

.coy Google 


For al that labour was in vein. 
Jason to Grece with his preie 
Goth thui^h the See the rihte weie : 
Whan he ther com and men it tolde, 
Thei maden joie yon^e and _olde^ WHo 

Eson, whan that he wiste of this, P. U. 359 
Hou that his Sone comen is, 
And hath achieved that he soughte 
And horn with him Medea broughte, 
In al the wyde world was non 
So glad a man as he was on. 
Togedre ben these lovers tho. 
Til that thei hadden sones tuo, 
Wherof thei weren bothe glade, 
And olde Eson gret joie made 3940 

To sen thencress of his iignage ; 
For he was of so gret an Age, 
That men awaiten every day. 
Whan that he scholde gon away. 
Jason, which sib his fader old, 
Upon Medea made him bcfld, 
Of .aB. magiqu e, which sche couthe, 
And preith hiie that his fader youthe 
Sche wolde make ayeinward newe : 
And sche, that was toward him trewe, 3950 

Behihte him that sche wolde it do, 
Whan that sche time sawh therto. 
Bot what sche dede in that matiere 
It is a wonder thing to hiere, 
Bot yit for the novellerie 
I thenlce tellen a partie. 
Nou quibus medi- Tbus it befell upon a nyht, 

Whan ther was noght bot sterreliht, 
iuucDtutis Sche was vanyssht riht as hir liste. 

That no wyht bot hirself it wiste, 3960 

And that was ate mydnyht lyde. P. it 860 

The world was stiHe on every side; 

3956 telle B gret partie B, W tellea it > puti A 3960 it 

wine] wiate CLBj, BT4 ne wiat^ MHiX 3969 in euery side 

E . . . B», BT 

seneciule decrepit 1 
sd sue iuuei 
dens MedCB rcduiil. 

.coy Google 


With open bed and fot al bare, H 

Hir^er Josprad sche gan to fare, 

Upon hir clothes gert sche was, 

Al specheles and on the gras 

Sche glod forth as an Addre doth ; 

Non otherwise sche ne goth, 

Til sche cam to the freissbe flod, 

And there a while sche withstod. 3970 

Thries sche tomed hire aboute, 

And tbiies ek sche gan doun loute 

And in the Sod sche wette hir her, 

And thries on the water ther 

Sche gaspeth with a drecchinge onde. 

And tho sche tok hir speche on honde. 

Ferst sche began to clepe and calle 

Up ward unto the sterres alle^ 

To Wynd, to Air, to See, to lond 

Sche preide, and ek hield up hir hond 39S0 

To Echates, and gan to crie, 

Which is goddesse of Sorcerie. 

Sche seide, ' Helpeth at this nede, 

And as ye maden me to spede, 

Whan Jason cam the Flees to seche, 

So help me nou, I you beseche.' 

With that sche loketh and was war, 

Doun fro the Sky ther cam a char, 

The which Dragouns. aboute drowe : 

And tho sche gan hir hed doun bowe, 3990 

And up sche ^h, and faire and wel P. ii. a6i 

Sche drof forth bothe char and whel 

Above in thair among the Skyes. . 

The lond of Crete and tho parties 

Sche soughte, and faste gan hire hye, 

And there upon the hulles hyhe 

Of Othrin and OlJmpe also, 

And ek of othre hulles mo, 

3964 Hir heed BT 3966 and on] vpon BT 3975 drecchinge 
honde J dreachiii((e) onde YXGEC. BTA drenching(e) hond(e) 
AHiRLBi dremcbinge honde H 3990 An F 399^ boUieJ 

by|«E, BTA but Hi 

.coy Google 


B Sche fond and gadreth herbes sujjts, 

Sche pulleth up som be the rote, 4000 

And manye with a knyf sche scherth, 

And alie^iino hir char sche berth. 

Thus whan sche hath the huUes sought, 

The flodes ther foryat sche nought, 

Eridian and Ampbrisos, 

Peneie and ek Spercheidos, 

To hem sche wente and tbei sche noro 

Bothe of the water and the fom, 

The sond and ek the smale stones, 

Whiche as sche chea out for the nones, 4010 

And of the rede See a part, 

That was behovelich to hiie art, 

Sche tok, and after that aboute 

Sche soughte sondri sedes oute 

In feldes and in many greves. 

And ek a pan sche tok of leres : 

Bot thing which mihte hire most availe 

Sche fond in Crete and in Thessaile. 

In ^aies and in nyhtes Nyne. 
With gret travaile and with gret pyne, 4010 

Sche was pourveid of every piece, P. 11. sGs 
And tometh homward into Grece. 
Before the gates of Eson 
Hir char sche let awai to gon, 
And tok out ferst that was therinne ; 
For tho sche th(^te to beginne 
Such thing as semeth impossible, 
And made hirselven invisible, 
As sche that was with Air enclosed 
And mihte of noman be desclosed. 4030 

Sche tok up turves of the lond 
Withoute helpe of mannes hond, 
Al heled, with the grene gras, 
Of which an Alter mad ther was 

4006 SpertheidoB XECBt, BT 4008 and of )ie All . . . Bi, 

BTAA, W 4000 To make wi( fia medicine B AW om. TA 

4004 His AHRC, T 4009 (lat wi> )« «ir YE . . . BiS BT ^wm 
wtfAJ^airA )«t wu of air XG 

.coy Google 


Unto Echates the goddesse [' 

Of art magiqu e and the maistresse^ 

And eft an other to Juvente, 

As sche which dede hir hole entente. 

Tho tok sche fieldwod e and vervejme. 

Of herbes ben noght betre tueine, 404a 

Of which anon withoute let 

These alters ben aboute sett 

Tuo sondrt puttes &ste by 

Sche made, and with that hastely 

A wether which was blak sche sloufa. 

And out therof the blod sche drouh 

And dede into the pettes tuo ; 

Warm melk sche putte also therto 

With hony meynd : and In such wise 

Sche gan to make hir sacrifice, 4050 

And cride and preide forth withal P. 11 363 

To Pluto the god infernal. 

And to the queene Praserpine. 

And so sche soghte out al thejine__. 

Of hem that longen to that craft, 

Behinde was no name lafi, 

And preide hem alle, as sche wel couthe, 

To giante Estm bis f^te youthe. 

This olde Eson broght forth was tho, 
Awei sche bad alle otbre go 4060 

Upon per il that mihte folle; 
And with diat word thei wenten alle, 
And l^en there hem tuo al one. 
And tho sche gan to gaspe and gone^ 
And made signes manyon, 
And seide hir wordes therupon ; 
So that with speltinge of hir channes 
Sche tok Eson in both hire armes. 
And made him forto slepe faste, 
And him upon hire hecbes caste. 4070 

The blake wether tho sche tok, 

4043 putte* AJ, B, F pettes S 4049 «>»] in Mich wiae] in sucb 
■ wise C in aach{t) wi»e BT ud such(e) wite RLB« 4067 And 
>an B And ]«t T 

.coy Google 


t> And hiewh the fleissh, as doth a cok; 

On either alter part sche leide, 
And with the channes that sche seide 
A (yr doun fro the Sky alyhte 
And made it forto brenne lyhte. 
Bot wban Medea sawk it brenne, 
Anon sche gan to sterte and renne 
The fyri aulters al aboute: 
TheT was no beste which gotb oute 
More wylde than sche semeth ther : F, U. 
Aboute hir schuldres hyng hir her, 
As thogh sche were oute of hir mynde 
And tomed in an other kynde. 
Tho lay ther certein wode cleft, 
Of which the pieces nou and eft 
Sche made hem in the pettes wete, 
And put hem in the fyri hete, 
And tok the brpn^ with al the Uase, 
And thries sche began to rase 
Aboute Eson, ther as he slepte; 
And eft with water, which sche kept^ 
Sche made a cercle aboute him tbries, 
And eft with fyr of sulphre twyes: 
Ful many an^other thing sche dede, 
Which is nogbt writen in this stede. 
Bot tho sche ran so up and doun, 
Sche made many a wonder soun, 
Somtime Uch unto the cock, 
Somtirae unto the Laverock, 
Somtime kadeth as a Hen, 
Somtime spekth as don the men: 
And riht so as hir jargoun strai^eth^ 
In sondri wise bir forme changeth, 
Sche semeth faie and no womman ; 
For with the craftes that sche can 
Sche was, as who seith, a goddesse. 
And what hir IJste, more or lesse, 
Sche dede, in bokes as we linde, 

4073 )« cook HiG, BT 4073 either] euery AH . . 

4o88putJ, S, F putteAC, B 4 106 fibrji A . . . GC 

.coy Google 


That passeth over manneskinde. 41 10 [Tale or Jason 

Bot who that wole of wondres hiere, P. ii 965 Medea.] 

What thing sche wrogbte in this matieie, 
To make an ende of that scbe gui, 
Such merveile herde nevere man. 

Apoin ted in the newe Mone, 
Whan it was time forto done, 
Sche sette a caldron on the fyr, 
In which was al the hole ^atir, 
Wheron the medicine stod. 
Of jus, of water and of blod, 4110 

And let it buile in such a plit, 
Til that sche sawh the spume «4iyt; 
And tho sche caate in rynde and rote, 
And sed and flour that was for bote, 
With many an herbe and many a ston, 
Wherof sche hath ther many on : 
And ek Cimpheius the Serpent 
To hire bath alle his scales lent, 
Chelidre hire yaf his addres skin. 
And sche to builen caste hem in; 4130 

A part «k of the homed Pule, 
The which men hiere on nyhtes boule; 
And of a Raven, which was told 
Of nyne hundred wynter old, 
Sche tok the bed with at the bile; 
And as 4he medicine it wile, 
Sche tok therafter the bouele 
Of the Seewolf, and for the hele 
Of £son, with a thousand mo 
Of thinges that sche hadde tho, 414a 

In that Caldroun togedre as blyve P. 11. a66 
Sche putte, and tok thanne of Olyve 
A drie branche hem with to stere. 
The which anon gan floure and here 
And waxe al freissb and grene ayein. 

4110 over] euei7ERLBi,W on j C oureX 4113 make] Uke 
ERCBi 4199 his] hir C, B 4137 theraAer] after E . . . B> 

her (hir) after BT 413S seefoul E, BTA sedewolf L 4140 

Uul] wbich E . . . B^ W 

.coy Google 


D Whan sche this vertu hadde sein, 

Sche let the leste drope of alle 
Upon the bare flor doun falle; 
Anon ther Bprong up flour and gras, 
Where as the drope falie was, 4150 

And woit anon al medne grene, 
So that it mihte wel be sene. 
■ Medea thanne knew and wiste 
Hir medicine is forto triste, 
And goth to Eson ther he hy. 
And tok a swerd was of jss^t^ 
With which a wounde upon his side 
Sche made, that therout mai slyde 
The blod withinne, which was old 
And sek and trouble and heble and cotd. 416a 
And the sche tok unto his us 
Of berbes al the beste jus, 
And poured it into bis wounde; 
That made his yeyne s fuUe and sounder 
And tho sche made his wounde clos, 
And tok his hand, and up he ros; 
And tho sche yaf bira drinke a drauhte, 
Of which bis youthe ayein he cauhtc^ 
His hed, his herte and his visage 
Lich unto twenty wynter Age; 4170 

Hise hore heres were away, P. 11. 267 

And lich unto the freisshe Mail, 
Whan passed ben the colde schoures, 
Ribt so recovereth he his flouree. 
Lo, what mihte eny man devise, 
A womman schewe in eny wise 
Mor hertly love in every stede, 
Than Medea to Jason dede? 
Ferst sche made him the flees to winne, 
And after that fro kithihe and kinne 4180 

With gret tresor with him sche stal, 
And to his fader forth withal 

4151 mede E . . . Bi 4159 be sene (aeene) AJ, B besenc S, F 
4160 uid fieble] Geble E, B, W 4161 int« (in to) AU . . . B> 

4177 cDj alede XGL, BA 

.coy Google 


His Elde hath torned into youthe. 
Which thing non other vomman coutbe : 
Bot hou it was to hire aqiiit. 
The remembrance duelleth yit. 

King Peleiis his Em was ded, 
Jason bar corone on his bed, 
Medea hath fulfild his wille: 
Bot whanne he scholde of ribt luUille 
The trouthe, which to hire afore 
He hadde in thyle of Colchos swore, 
Tho was Medea most deceived. 
For he an other hath received, 
Which dowhter was to king Creon, 
Creusa sche hihte, and thus Jason, 
As he that was to love untrewe, 
Medea lefte and tok a newe. 
Bot that was aA« sone aboght : 
Medea with hire ait hath wroght 
Of cloth of gold a mant el riche, P. i 

Which semeth worth a kii^esriche. 
And that was unto Creusa sent 
In name of yifte and of present, 
For Sosterhode hem was betuene; 
And whan that yonge fieissbe queene 
That mantel lappeth hire aboute. 
Anon therof the fyr sprong oute 
And brente hir botbe fleissh and bon. 
Tho cam Medea to Jason 
With botbe his Sones on hire hond, 
And seide, ' O thou of every lond 
The moste untrewe creature, 
Lo, this schal be thi forfeture,' 
With that sche bothe his Sones sloub 
Before his yhe, and he outdrouh 
His swerd and wold have slayn hir tho, 
Bot farewel, sche was ago 
Unto Pallas the Court above, 
Wher as sche pleigneth upon love, 
As sche that was with that goddesse, 

4917 wold C, SB, F wolde AJ 

D,j,i,:«^:,y Google 

[Tai. «r J««>» , 

AND Heux.] 

NoU qualiter aur- 
eum vdlus in partes 
inaule Cole bos primo 
deuenit. Athemas 
Rex Phileo habuit 
coniugem, ex qua 
Frixum et Hellen 
genuit: inortuaaulein 
FbUen AUienus Yno- 
nem Regis Cadmi fi- 
liam postea in vxorem 
duxit, que mart Ho- 
uerce djctos inlantes 
in lantum recollegit 
odium, quod finboa 
in mare proici penes 
Regcm procurauit. 
Vnde luDo compad- 
ena quendam Arietem 
grandem aureo vesti* 
turn velter« ad litus 


And he was left in gret destresse. 

Thus miht thou se what sorwe it doth 
To swere an oth which is nogbt soth^ 
In loves cause namely. 
Mi Sone, be wel war forthi, 
And kep that thou be noght forswore : 
For this, which I have told tofore, 
Ovide telleth evsiydel. 

Mi ^er, I may lieve it wel, 4130 

For I have herde it ofte seic P. il.369 

Hou Jason tok the flees aweie 
Fro Colchos, bot yit herde I noght 
Be whom it was ferst tbider broght. 
And for it were good to hiere, 
If that you liste at mi preiere 
To telle, I wolde you beseche. 

Mi Sone, who that wole it seche. 
In bokes he mai finde it write; 
And natheles, if thou wolt wite, 4140 

In the manere as thou hast preid 
I schal the telle hoa it is seid. 

The fame of thilke schepes fel^ 
Which in Colchos, as it befell, 
Was al of gold, schal nevere deie ; 
Wherof I thenlce for to seie 
Hou it cam ferst into that yie. 
Ther was a king in thilke whyle 
Towardes Grece, and Athemas 
The Cronique of his name was ; 4150 

And hadde a wif, which Pbilen hihte, 
Be whom, so as fortune it diht^ 
He hadde of children yonge tuo. 
Frixus the ferste was of tho, 
A knave child, riht fair withalle ; 
A dowhter ek, the which men calle 
Hellen, he hadde be this wif. 
Bot for ther mai no mannes lif 

4943 tch«pe felteB 495a mmgiii 
laautcm Hellen A . . . Bt.BT, FWH> 



Endure upon this Ertbe hiere, 

This worthi queene, as thou miht hiere, 4160 

Er that the children were of ^e, P. U. 370 

Tok of hire ende the passage, 

With giet worschipe and was borate. 

What thing it liketh god to have 
It is gret reson to ben his ; 
FoTthi this king, so as it is. 
With gret suArance it underfongeth : 
And afterward, as him belongeth, su 

Whan it was time foTto wedde, ^ 

A newe wif he tok to bedde, 4370 

Which Yno hihte and was a Mayde, 
And ek the dowhter, as men saide, 
or Cadme, which a king also 
Was holde in thilke daies tho. 
Whan Vno was the kinges make, 
Sche caste hou that sche mihte make 
These children to here lader lo^ie,. 
And schope a wyte ayein hem bothe, 
Which to the king was al unknowe. - 
A yeer or tuo sche let do sowe 4980 

The lond with sode whete aboute, 
Wherof no com mai springen oute ; 
And thus be sleyhte and be covine 
Aros the derthe and the femine 
Thurghout the lond in such a wise. 
So that the king a sacrifise 
Upon the point of this destresse 
To Ceres, which is the goddesse 
Of com , hath schape him forto yive, 
To loke if it mai be foryive, 4190 

The meschief which was in his lond. P. ii. 971 
Bot sche, which knew tofor the bond 
The circumstance of al this thing, 
Ayein the cominge of the kii^ 
Into the temple, hath schape so, 
4966 margm can aolo vellere A . , . Bi, B 4067 margin canilur 
YGE, BTaa anetar AMH.XRCLBi. S, FHt habetur W 4076 
Anon ache bEgan for to make E . . . Bi She kest anoDe howe she 
niyi;bt make W 4976 schope AJ, S, F schop (scboop) C, B 

[Tale of Phwius 

AN» Helli-I 
natantem deitinauil ; 

pueros apponj iussit. 
Quo bcio Aries super 
vndas regressua cum 
solo Frixo sibi ad- 
herente in Colchos 
appticuil, vbi luno 
dictum Arietem cum 
suo vellere, prout in 

= :,y Google 


Of hire acord that alle tho 

Whiche of the temple prestes were 

Have seid and full declared there 

Unto the king, bot if so be 

That he delivere the contre 4300 

Of Frixus and of Hellen bothe, 

With whom the goddes ben so wrothe. 

That whil tho children ben therinne, 

Such .tilthe schal noman beginne, 

Wherof to gete him eny corn. 

Thus was it seid, thus was it sworn 

Of all the Prestes that ther are ; 

And sche which causeth al this fare 

Seid elt therto what that sche wolde, 

And every man thanne after tolde 4310 

So as the queene hem hadde preid. 

The king, which hath his Ere leid. 
And Iteveth al that evere he herde, 
Unto here tale thus ansuerde. 
And seith that levere him is to chese 
Hise children bothe forto lese. 
Than him and al the remenant 
Of hem whiche are aportenant 
Unto the lond which he schal kepe : 
And bad his wif to take kepe 43»o 

In what manere is best to done, P. IL 37a 

That thei delivered weren sone 
Out of this world. And sche anon 
Tuo men ordeigneth forto gon; 
Bot ferst sche made hem forto swere 
That thei the children schoiden here 
Unto the See, that non it knowe, 
And hem therinne bothe tbrowe. 

The children to the See ben lad, 
Wher in the wise as Yno bad 4330 

These men be tedy forto do. 
Bot the goddesse which Juno 

4307 «ll S, F alle AJ, B 4309 seid AJ, B, F seide C 

431 1 hem lu)> preid B hath hem preide W 4331 it is AHHi 

4330 WherinJ, F 

.coy Google 


Is bote, appiereth in the stede, [ 

And hath unto the men forbede 

That thei the children nt^ht ne sle; 

Bot bad hem loke into the See 

And taken hiede of that thei sihen. 

Ther swam a Schep tofbre here yhen, 

Whos flees of burned gold was al ; 

And this goddesse forth withal 4340 

Comandeth that withoute lette 

Thei scholde anon these children sette 

Above upon this Schepes bak; 

And al was do, riht as sche spak, 

Wberof the men gon hom ayein. 

And fell so, as the bokes sein, 

Hellen tbe yonge Mayden tho. 

Which of the See was wo bego. 

For pure drede hire herte hath Iwe, 

That fro the Schep, which hath hire bore, 43^0 

As sche that was swounende .feint, P. il, 273 

Sche fell, and hath hirselve dreintj 

With Frixus and this Schep forth swam, 

Til he to thyle of Colchos cam. 

Where Juno the goddesse he fond, 

Which tok the Schep unto the lond. 

And sette it there in such a wise 

As thou tofore hast herd devise, 

Wberof cam after al the wo. 

Why Jason was forswore so 4360 

Unto Medee, as it is spoke. 

Mi fader, who that hath tobroke 
His trouihe, as ye have told above, 
He is n(^ht worthi forto love 
Ne be beloved, as me semeth : 
Bot every newe love quem eth 
To him which newefongel is. 
And natheles nou after this, 

4334 t>o men HiXGEC, B 4343 }e AHHiXGBi, A, W 

4349 was lore Hi . . . Bi 4351 As] And AH . . . Bi 4359 

hiraelf adreynt B 4361 was spoke HiZECLBi 4367 To him 


.coy Google 


If that you list to taken hJede 
Upon mi SchrJfte to piocede, 
In loves cause ayein the vice 
Of covoitise and Avarice 
What ther is more I wolde wite. 

Mi Sone, this I finde write, 
Ther is yit on of thilke ^ood^ 
Which only for the worides good, 
To make a Tresor of Mopeje. 
Put alle conscience aweie : 
Wherof in thi confession 
The name and the condicion 
I schal hierafterward declare, 
Which makth on riche, an other bare. 

P. 11. 874 

Hie tracUt de ilU 
specie Auaricie, que 
Vsurs dicitur, cuius 
creditor in pecunia 

plusquam situ de iure 
debetur iDCremeotum 
lucri aduigiet. 

V. Plus capit vsura iibi quam debetur, et illud 
Fraude colorata sepe latenter agit. 
Sic amor exctsnts quamsepe tuos vt auarus 
Spirai, et vmi'us tres capit ipse loco. 

Upon the bench sittende on hih 
With Avarice Usure I sih, 
Full clothed of his oghne suite, 
Which after gold makth cRace^nd suite 
With his bn>cours, that renne aboute 
Lich unto racches in a route. 
Such lucre is non above grounde. 
Which is nogbt of tho racches founde; 4390 
For wher thei se beyete sterte, 
That schal hem in no wise asterte, 
Bot thei it dryve into the net 
Of lucre, which Usure hath set. 
Usure with the riche duelleth, 
To al that evere he beith and selleth 
He bath ordeined of his sleyhte 
Mesure double and double weybte : 
_Ou tward he selleth be the lasse. 
And with the more he makth his tasse, 4foo 
Wherof his hous is full withinne. 

4369 7ou]>ouHiYBi, BT.WHi 4391 where )«bi}eteBterte EC 
wher euere >d be ]it ttert(e) HiXRLBi 4396 To] And Hi . . . Bt 

.coy Google 


He recchet h noght, be so he winne, 

Though that ther lese ten or tuelve: 

His love is al toward himselve 

And to non other, bot he se 

That he mai winne suche thre; 

For wher he schal oght yive or lene, P. ii. 275 

He wol ayeinward take a bene^ 

Ther he hath lent the smale pese. 

And riht so thei ben manye ofthese 4410 

Lovers, that thogh thei love a lyte, 

That scarsly wolde it weie a myie, 

Yit wolde thei have a pound again. 

As doth Usure in his bargain. 

Bot certes such usure unliche 

It falleth more unto the riche, 

Als wel of love as of beyete. 

Than unto hem that be noght grete, 

And, as who seith, ben simple and povere ; 

For sield en is whan thei recovere, 4410 

Bot if it be thurgh gret decerte. 

And natheles men se poverte 

With porsuite and continuance 

Fulofte make a gret chevance 

And take of love his avantage, 

Forth with the help of his brocage, 

That maken seme wher is noght 

And thus fulofte is tove boght 

For litel whatj. and mochel take, 

With false weyhtes that thei make. 443° 

Nou, Sone, of that I seide above 
Thou wost what Usure is of love : 
Tell me forthi what so thou wilt, 
If thou therof hast eny gilt. 

Mi fader, nay, for ought I hiere. 
For of tho pointz ye tolden hiere 
I wol you be mi trouthe assure, P. ii. 376 

44aa by so AUH.XRCLB>, B ao W 4411 Ibei] >ch« B 

44'3 wolde be HiXRCLBi 4493 of continiunCe BT ind 

contenuice LBi, WHi 44*5 bis om. AH . . . B( 4497 

wher it ia A . . . B>, FWEHi 


.coy Google 


Mi weyhte of love and mi mesure 

Hath be mor la^e and mor certein 

Than evere I tok of love ayein : 4440 

For so yit couthe I nevere of sleyhte, 

To take ayein be double weyhte 

Of love mor than I have yive. 

For als so wiss mot I be schrive 

And have remission of Sinne, 

As so yit couthe I nevere winne, 

Ne yit so mochel, soth to sein, 

That evere I mibte have half ayein 

Of so full love as I have lent : 

And if myn happ were so wel went, 4450 

That for the hole I mibte have half, 

Me thenkth I were a god deshalf. 

For where Usure wole Tiave double, 

Mi conscience is noght so trouble, 

I biede nevere as to my del 

Bot of the hole an halvendel ; 

That is non excess, as me thenketh. 

Bot natheles it me forthenketh ; 

For wel I wot that wol noght be, 

For every day the betre I se 4460 

That hou so evere I yive or lene 

Mi love in place ther I mene. 

For oght that evere I axe or crave, 

I can nothing ayein ward have. 

Bot yit for that I wol noght lete. 

What so befalle of mi beyete. 

That I ne schal hire yive and lene P. U. 377 

Mi love and al mi thoght so dene. 

That toward me schal nc^ht beleve. 

And if sche of hire goode leve 44^0 

Rewarde wol me noght again, 

I wot the laste of my bai^n 

Schal stonde upon so gret a lost, 

That I mai neveremor the cost 

Recovere in this world til 1 die. 

445a it were AH 446a tbef] )>al BT 4468 Hy pmifht 

and al 1117 loue BT Hi loue and al mi trew^ A 

.coy Google 


So that toHchende of this partie 

I mai me wel excuse and schal ; 

And forto speke forth withal, 

If eny brocour for me wente. 

That point cam nevere in myn entente : 44S0 

So that the more me meiseilleth, 

What thing it is mi ladi eilleth, 

That al myn herte and al my time 

Sche hath, and doth no betre bime. 

I hare herd seid that ih^ht is fre, 
And natheles in privete 
To you, mi fader, that ben hiere 
Min hole schrifte forto hiere, 
I dar min herte wel desclose. 
Toucbende usure, as I suppose, 4490 

Which as ye telle in love is used, 
Mi ladi mai n<^ht ben excused ; 
That for o tokinge of hire ye 
Min hole herte til I dye 
With al that evere I may and can 
Sche hath me wonne to hire man : 
Wherof, me thenkth, good reson wolde P. ii. 27$ 
That sche somdel rewarde scholde, 
And yive a part, ther sche hath al. 
I not what iaile hierafler schal, 4500 

Bot into nou yit dar I sein, 
Hire liste nevere yive ayein 
A goodli word in such a wise, 
Wherof min hope mihte arise. 
Mi grete love to compense. 
I not hou sche hire conscience 
Excuse wole of this usure; 
Be large weyhte and gret mesure 
Sche hath mi love, and I have noght 
Of that which I have diere boght, 4510 

And with myn herte I have it paid ; 
Bot al that is asyde laid, 
And I go loveles aboute. 

44BS »ein ((«<:) HXCLB^ W 
AJ, B, F 4507 uaure] mcanre BT 

.coy Google 


Hire oghte stonde in ful gret doute, 

Til sche ledresce such a sinne, 

That sche wgle al mi love winne 

And yifth me noght to livejij,: 

Noght~aIs so moche as 'grant mercy' 

Hir list to seie, of which I mihte 

Som of mi grete peine allyhte. 45*0 

Bot of this point, lo, thus I fare 

As he that paith for his chaffare, 

And beith it diere, and yit hath non, 

So mot he nedes povere gon : 

Thus beie I diere and have no love, 

That I ne mai noght come above 

To winne of love non encress. P. ii. 279 

Bot I me wole natheles 

Touchende usure of love aquite ; 

And if mi ladi be to wyte, 453a 

I preie to god such grace hir sende 

That sche be time it mot amende. 

Mi Sone, of that thou hast ansuerd 
Touchende Usure I have al herd, 
Hou thou of love hast wonne smale : 
Bot that thou tellest in thi tale 
And thi ladi theiof accusest, 
Me thenkth tho wordes thou misusest. 
For be thin oghne knowlechinge 
Thou seist hou sche for o lolcinge 4540 

Thin hole herte fro the tok : 
Sche mai be such, that hire o lok 
Is worth thin herte manyfold ; 
So hast thou wel thin herte sold. 
Whan thou hast that is more worth. 
And ek of that thou tellest forth, 
Hou that hire weyhte of love unevene 
Is unto thin, under the hevene 
Stod nevere in eyene that balance 
Which stant in loves governance. 4550 

Such is the statut of his lawe, 

4518 'Is so] Bis (u> X, Ad, WHi 4503 it om. B 4535 Thus bcie 
1 diere] 1 beye deere Hi . . . B> 4536 noght om. HiRCLBi, W 

.coy Google 


That thogb tbi love mOTe diawe 

And peise in the balance more, 

Thou raiht noght axe ayein therfore 

Of duete, bot al of grace. 

For love is lord in every place, 

Ther mai no lawe him justefie P 

Be reddour ne be compaignie, 

That he ne wole after his wille 

Whom that him Uketh spede or spille. 

To love a man mai wel beginne, 
Bot whether he schal lese or wtnne, 
That wot noman til ate laste : 
Forthi coveite noght to &ste. 
Mi Sone, bot abyd thin ende, 
Per cas al mai to goode wende. 
Bot that thou bast me told and said, 
Of o thing I am riht wel paid, 
That thou be sleyhte ne be guile 
Of no brocour hast otherwhile 
Engined love, for such dede 
Is sore venged, as I rede. 

Brocours of love that deceiven. 
No wonder is thogh thei receiven 
_Afler the wrong that thei decerven ; 
For whom as evere that thei serven 
And do plesance for a whyte, 
Yit ate laste here (^hne guile 
Upon here oghne bed descendeth, 
Which god of his vengance sendeth. 
As be ensample of time go 
A man mai finde it hath be so. 
It fell somtime, as it was sene, 
The hihe goddesse and the queene 
Juno tho hadde in compainie 
A Maiden full of tricherie ; 
For sche was evere in on acord P. ii. aSi 

j^ plum contra islos 
nuritos qui vltra id 
quod proprias habent 
vxorps ad noue vo- 

alios mulieres 9 
ilue lucrari 



qualiter luno vindic- 

decreuit, pro eo quod 
ipsa Eccho in huLus- 

456s >eende Hi ...Bi 4568 riht wel paid] welapajrd (appaied) 
Hi . . . Bt 4571 of suche dede BT 4574 thogh] of ERCBi 

if Hi 4576 ffro whom AH 4579 hire AJH 4586 margin 

decreuit, pro eo quod ipsa Eccho om. BT, H> 4387 on om. BT 

scoy Google 


Talk or Echo.] 
modi mulierum lucris 
adquirendii de con- 
silio mariti sui louis 
mcdi*trii extiterat. 


With Jupiter, that was hire lord, 
To gete him othre loves newe, 
Thurgh such brocage and was untrewe 
Al otherwise than him nedeth. 
Bot sche, which of no schame dredeth, 
With queinte wordes and with slyhe 
Blente in such wise hir lady yhe. 
As sche to whom that Juno triste, 
So that tberof sche nothing wiste. 
Bot so prive mai he nothing, 
That it ne comth to knowleching; 
Thing don upon the derke nyht 
Is after knowe on dates liht : 
So it befell, that ate laste 
Al that this slyhe maiden caste 
Was overcast and overthrowe. 
For as the sothe mot be knowe, 
To Juno was don undeistonde 
In what manere hir housebonde 
With fals brocage hath take usure 
Of love mor than his mesure, 
Whan he tok othre than his wi^ 
Wherof this mayden was gultif, 
Which hadde ben of his assent. 
And thus was al the game schent; 
Sche sofTreth him, as sche mot nede, 
Bot the brocouT of bis misdede, 
Sche which hir conseil yaf therto. 
On hire is the vengance do t 
For Juno with hire wordes hole, P 

This Maiden, which Eccho was bote, 
Reproveth and seith in this wise: 
' O traiteresse, of which servise 
Hast thou thin t^hne ladi served ! 
Thou hast gret peine wet deserved. 
That thou canst make n it so ^ueint^ 
Thi slyhe wordes forto peinte " '~ 
Towardes me, that am thi queene, 
Wherof thou madest me to wene 
4S95 that om. HHiXRCLBi, A, W 461s wa» om 

.coy Google 


That mjm housbonde trewe were, I 

Whan that he loveth elleswhere, 

Al be it so him nedeth noght. 

Bot upon thee it schat be boght, 4630 

Which art prive to tho doJnges, 

And me fulofte of thi lesinges 

Deceived bast: nou is the day 

That I thi while aquite may; 

And for thou hast to me con celed 

That my lord hath with othre deled, 

I schal thee sette in such a kende, 

That evere unto the worldes ende 

Al that thou hierest thou schalt telle, 

And clappe it out as doth a belle.' 4640 

And with that word sche was forschape^ 

Ther may no vois hire mouth ascape , 

What man that in the wodes crieth, 

Withoute faile Eccho replieth, 

And what word that him list to sein, 

The same word sche seith ayein. 

Thus sche, which whilom hadde leve P. ii. 9S3 

To duelle in chambre, mot beleve 

In wod^s and on helles bothe. 

For such brocage as wyves lothe, 4650 

Which doth here lordes hertes change 

And love in other place strange. 

Forthi, if evere it so befalle, 
That thou, mi Sone, amonges alle 
Be wedded man, hold that thou hast. 
For thanne al other love is wast. 
O wif schal wel to thee suftise, 
And thanne, if thou for covoitise 
Of love woldest axe more. 
Thou scholdest don ayein the lore 4660 

Of alle hem that trewe be. 

Mi fader, as in this degre 
My conscience is noght accused; 

4634 quite BT, W 464a vice BT 4643 in the wodes] 

cuere in wodes AM . . . Bt 4651 hcrte XEC, BT, W 4«sa 

pUcei XGLB., B 

.coy Google 

ilia specie Ausricie 
que ParcimoDia dicit- 
ur, cuius natura tenax 

cic porcionemaut deo 
aut bomia i bus parties - 
pare Dullatenus con- 


For I no such brocage have used, 
Wherof that lust of love is wonne. 
FoTthi spek forth, as ye begonne, 
Of Avarice upon mi schrifte. 

Mi Sone, I schal the branches _schiflg. 
Be ordre so as the! ben set, 
On whom no good is wel beset. 4670 

i. Pro verbis verba, munus firo munere reddi 
Convettil, -ot pondus equa statera gerat. 
Prcpterea cupido ntm dot sua dona Cupidc, 
Nam qui nulla serit, gramina nulla metet. 

Blinde Avaric e of his llgnage 
For conseil and for cousinage, 
To be withholde ayeiii largesse, ?■ U. 284 

Hath on, whos name is seid Ska rsnes se, 
The which is kepere of his hous. 
And is so thurghout ^veroiis. 
That he no good let out of honde ; 
Thc^h god himself it wolde fonde. 
Of yifte scholde he nothing have ; 
And if a man it wolde crave, 4680 

He moste thanne faile nede, 
Wher god himselve mai noght spede. 
And thus Skarsnesse in every place 
Be reson mai no thonk porchace, 
And natheles in his d^ee 
Above alle othre most prive 
With Avarice stant he this. 
For he govemeth that ther is 
In ecb astat of his office 

After the reule of thllke vice ; 4690 

He ukth, he kepth, he halt, he bint. 
That lihteie is to fie the flint 
Than gete of him in hard or neisshe 
Only the value of a reysshe 
Of good in helpings of an other, 
Noght thogh it were his oghne brother. 

.coy Google 


For in the cas of yjfte and lone 

Stant every man for him al one, 

Him thenkth of his unkindeschipe 

That him nedeth no felaschipe :~^ 4joo 

Be so the ba^e and be acorden, 

Him reccheth nc^ht what men recorden 

Of him, or it be evel or good. P. U. 385 

For al his trust is on his good, 

So that al one he fatleth ^e,~ 

Whan he best weneth stonde alofte, 

Als wel in love as other wise; 

For love is evere of som reprise 

To him that wole his love~hoI3e; 

Forthi, mi Sone, as thou art holde, 4710 

Toucbende of this tell me thi schrifle : 

Hast thou be scars or large of yifte 

Unto thi love, whom thou servest? 

For after that thou wel deservest 

Of yifte, thou miht be the bet ; 

For that good holde I wel beset, 

For why thou miht the betre iue; 

Thanne is no wisdom forto spare. 

For thus men sein, in every nede 

He was wys that ferst made mede ; 4J20 

For where as mede mai noght spede, 

I not what helpeth other dede : 

Fulofte he faileth of his game 

That wol with yd^j, hand reclame 

His hauk, as rnany a nyce doth. 

Forthi, mi Sone, tell me soth 

And sei the trouthe, if thou hast be 

Unto thy love or skars or fre. 

Mi fader, it hath stonde thus, Confessio Aauntii. 

That if the tresor of Cresus 4730 

And al the gold Octovien, 
Forth with the richesse Yndien 
Of Perles and of riche stones, P. U. 386 

Were al togedre myn at ones, 

4701 By (Bi) so AU . . . Bi, B (Be so G) 4717 whj F which 
A ... Bi, 5 ... A, KHiHi^ thi W 473a Dor wi)i S& 

.coy Google 


I sette it at nomore acompte 

Than wolde a bare straw amonte, 

To yive it hire al in a day, 

Be so that to that suete may 

I myhte like or more or lesse. 

And thus be cause of my scarsnesse 4^41 

Ye mai wel understonde and iTeve "" 

That I schal noght the worse achieve 

The pourpos which is in my thoght. 

Bot yit I yaf hir nevere noght, 

Ne therto dorste a profre^ make ; 

For wel I wot sche wol noght take, 

And yive wol sche noght also, 

She is eschu of bothe tuo. 

And this I trowe be the skile 

Towardes me, for sche ne wile 4751 

That I have eny cause of hope, 

Noght also mochel as a drope. 

Bot toward othre, as I mai se, 

Sche takth and yifth in such d^e, 

That as be weie of frendlihiede 

Sche can so kepe hir wommanhtede. 

That every man spekth of hir wel. 

Bot sche wole take of me no del, 

And yit sche wot wel that I wolde 

Yive and do bothe what I scholde 476( 

To plese n hire in al my myht : 

Be reson this wot every v^yht. 

For that mai be no weie asterte, P. ii. 285 

Ther sche is maister of the herte, 

Sche mot be maister of the good. 

For god wot wel that al my mod 

And al min herte and al mi thoght 

And al mi good, whil I have oght, 

Als freliche as god b^th it yive, 

It schal ben hires, while I live, 4771 

Riht as hir list hirself commande. 

So that it nedeth no demande, 

4738 By so AHX . . . Bi, B 4739 I myhte'] It m. AH . . . Bi 

b . . . A 474a That iE scluJ Hi . . . B> 4770 I schal BT 

.coy Google 


To axe of me if I be scars 
To love, for as to tho pars 
I wote ansuere and seie no. 

Mi Sone, that is riht wel do. 
For often tiroes of scarsnesse 
It hath be sen, that for the lesse 
Is lost the more, as thou schalt hiere 
A tale lich to this matiere. 


Skarsnesse and love acorden nevere. 
For every thing is wel the levere. 
Whan that a man hath boght it diere : 
And forte speke in this matiere. 
For sparinge of a litel cost 
Fulofte time a man hath lost 
The large cote for the hod. 
What man that scars is of his good 
And wol noght yive, he schal nc^ht take 
With yifte a man mai undertake 4790 ^ 

The hihe god to plese and queme, P 

With yifte a man the world mai deme ; ci 

For every creature bore, P. ii. fl88 

If thou him yive, is glad therfore, 
And every gladschipe, as I Ande, 
Is confort unto loves kinde 
And causeth ol^e a man to spede. 
So was he wys that ferst yaf mede, 
For mede kepeth love in house; 
Bot wher the men ben coveitouse 480a 

And sparen forto yive a part, 
Thei knowe noght Cupides art : 
For his fortune and his aprise 
Desdeigneth alle coveitise 
And hateth alle nygardie. 
And forto loke of this partie, y^' 
A soth ensample, hou it is ^%y^ 

I finde write of Babio ; 
Which hadde a love at his menage, 

Hie loquitur contra 
istca, qui Auaricii 
strict) larptatis bene- 
ficiuB) in otnoHs causa 
conTundunt. Et ponit 
exemplum, qualiter 
Croceus iargus ct bil> 
laris Babianem aua- 

amore Viole, que 

478a That man Hi ... E 
479a yifte am. HiRCLBi 

47S9 marsit Babiloaen A . 
480S Rabio A . . . B* 

.coy Google 


Ther was non fairere of hire age, 4 

And hihte Viola be name ; 
Which full of youthe and ful of game 
Was of hirself, and lai^e and fre, 
Bot such an other chinche as he 
Men wisten noght in al the lond, 
And hadde aliaited to his bond 
His servant, the which Spodius 
Was hote. And in this wise thus 
The wortdes good of sufgcnqe 
Was had, bot likinge and plesance, 4 

Of that belongeth to richesse 
Of love, sjgd in gret destresse ; 
So that this yonge lusty wyht P- ii. a 

Of thing which fell to loves riht 
Was evele served overal. 
That sche was wo bego withal. 
Til that Cupideand Venus eke 
A medicine for the seke 
Ordeigne wolden in this cas. 
So as fortune thanne was, 41 

Of love upon the destine 
It fell, Tiht as it scholde be, 
A freissh, a fre, a frendly man 
That noght of Avarice can. 
Which Croceus be name hihte, 
Toward this swete caste his sihte, 
And ther sche was cam in presence. 
Sche sih him large of his despence, 
And amorous and glad of chiere, 
So that hir liketh wel to hiere 4! 

The goodly wordes whiche he seide; 
And therupon of love he preide, 
Of love was al that he mente, 
To love and for sche scholde assente, 
He yaf hire yiftes evere among. 
Bot for men sein that mede is strong, 
It was wel seene at thilke tyde; 
4814 such OM.AHRCL 4817 SpondeuaHi,. . . Bi SpoHdiuB 
481a in (MM. RCBi 

.coy Google 


For as it scholde of ryht betyde, 

This Viola laj^sce hath take 

And the nygard sche hath forsake : 4850 

Of Babio sche wol no more. 

For he was giicchende everemore, 

Ther was with him non other faie P. U. ago 

Bot fotto prinche and forto spare, 

Of worldes muk to gete encress. 

So goth the wrecche. loveles, 

Bejaped for his Skarcete, 

And be that large was and ire 

And sette his herte to despende, 

This Croceus, the bowe bende, 4860 

Which Venus tok him forto holde, 

And schotte als ofte as evere he wolde. 

Lo, thus departeth love his lawe, 
That what man wol noght be felawe 
To yive and spende, as I thee telle, 
He is noght worthi forto duelle 
In loves court to be relieved. 
Forthi, my Sone, if I be lieved, 
Thou schalt be large of thi despence. 

Mi lader, in mi conscience 4870 

If ther be eny thing amis, 
I wol amende it after this, 
Toward mi love namely. 

Mi Sone, wel and redely 
Thou seist, so that wel paid withal 
I am, and forthere if I schal 
Unto thi schrifte specefie 
Of Avarices progenie 
What vice suieth after this. 
Thou schalt have wonder hou it is, 4S80 

Among the folk in eny regne 
That such a vice myhte r^^e. 
Which is comun at alle assaies, P- il. agi 

As men mai finde nou adaies. 

4851 Rabio A . . , 
(schet) JXERCB. 
4877 thil JriB HiE . . 

B< 4856 the] he AM 

4868 1] it BT >ou Hi . . . E 

4669 schetle 
4879 wold B 

.coy Google 

Hie loquitur super 
ilU ■borta specie Aua- 
ricie, que Ingratitudo 

dicionem Hon solum 


vii. Ctmcta crealura, dais tt qui cuncta ereauit, 
DamfnarU ingrati dicta qut facta viri. 
Non dolor alongt stat, quo sibi talis atnicam 
Traxit, H in fine deserit esse luam. 

The vice lik unto thejend^ 
Which nevere yit was mannes frend, 
And cleped is Unkinduch|pe, 
Of covine and of felaschipe 
With Avarice he is withholde. 
Him thenkth he scholde noght ben holde 4S90 
Unto the moder which him bar ; 
Of him mai nevere man be war, 
He wol noght knowe the merite, 
For that he wolde it noght aqujte ; 
Which in this world is mochel used, 
And fewe ben thecof excused. 
To telle of him is endeles, 
Bot this I seie natheles, 
Wher as this vice comth to Jonde, 
Tber takth noman bis thonk on bonde ; 4900 
Thogh he with alle his myhtes serve, 
He schal of him no thonk deser ve. 
He takth what eny man wol yive, 
Bot wliil he hath o day to hve. 
He wol nothir^ rewarde ayein ; 
He gniccheth forto yive o grein, 
Wher he hath take a heme full. 
That makth a kinde herte dull, 
To sette his trust in such frendschipe, P. II. 293 
Ther as he Ant no kindeschipe ; 4910 

And forto speke wordes pleine, 
Thus hiere I many a man compteigne, 
That nou on daies thou scbalt finde 
At nede fewe frendes kinde; 
What thou hast don for hem tofore, 
It is foryete, as it were lore. 
The bokes speken of this vice. 
And telle hou god of his justice, 
Laim Vfrsts vii. a dicU que SBT dicUque AJM, FW dictique 
(dicli que) HiE . . . Bi 3 alonse AJ, F a longe SB 

.coy Google 


Be weie of kinde and ek nature 
And evei7 lifissh creature, 
The lawe also, who that it kan, 
Thei dampnen an unkinde man. 

It is al on to seie unkinde 
As thing which don is ayein kinde, 
For it with kinde nevere stod 
A man to yelden evel for good. 
Foi who that wolde taken hede, 
A beste is glad of a good dede, 
And loveth thilke cieature 
A/tei^the lawe of his nature 
Which doth him ese. And fotto se 
Of this matiere Auctorite, 
Fulofte time it hath befalle ; 
Wherof a tale amonges alle, 
Which is of olde ensamplerie, 
I thenke forto speceiie^ " 

To speke of an unkinde man, 
I finde hou whilom Adrian, 
Of Rome which a gret lord was, P. ii. 

Upon a day as he per cas 
To wode in his hunting wente, 
It hapneth at a soudein wente, 
After his chace as he poursuleth, 
Thurgh happv the which noman eschuieth. 
He fell unwar into a pet, 
Wher that it mihte noght be let. 
The pet was dep and he fell lowe, 
That of his men non mybte knowe 
Wher he becam , for non was nyh, 
Which of his _fall the meschief syh. 
And thus al one ther he lay 
Clepende and criende al the day 
For socour and deliverance. 

4940 Kic dicit qiuliler 
bestie in suis beneti- 
ciis hominem ingra- 
tum naluraliter pre- 
cellunt. Et ponit ex- 
Cmplum de Adriano 
Rome Ceuatore, qui 
in quadom Foresta ve- 
nacionibus insistcns, 
dum predam perse- 
queretur, i n CUternam 
protundam nescia fa- 
inilia corruit : vbi su- 
penieniens quidam 
pauper nomJDe Bar- 

1950 dus, immiMa corduta, 
putans hanunem ex- 
traxisse. primo Sinte- 
am eztraxit. secundo 
SerpcDtem, terck> A- 

4990 Dampnen ^ nkinde creature Hi , ■ . Bi (DaiDpncth HiBi) 
lifisah S, F liuiash BT liuynge AJM, A liQich (livelicb) WH> 
49»l who that it kanl >at it can AH by {«t I can Hi . . . Bt 4935 
oMe AJ, S, F old C, B 494a at] )iat X£CL6> Jial at HiR 

4944 the om. Hi . . . Bi, BA 

.coy Google 

drianum, qui paupe- 
rem despiciens aliqutd 
ei pro benefacio red- 
derc recuBibat. Set 
tamSerpensquam Si- 
mea graluita beneuo- 
lencia ipsuDl singulis 
don is BuEGcienter re- 


Til ayein Eve it fell per chance, 

A wKiTe^er it began to nyht^ 

A povere m^, which Bardus hihte, 

Cam forth walkende with his asse, 

And hadde gadred him a ^asse 

Of grene stickes and of dreie 

To selle, who that wolde heia beie, 4960 

As he which hadde no liflode, 

Bot whanne he myhte such a lode 

To toune with his Asse carie. 

And as it fell him forto tarie 

That like time nyh the pet, 

And hath the tnisse &ste knet, 

He herde a vois, which cride dimme, 

And he his Ere to the brimme 

Hath leid, and herde it was a man, P. ii. 394 

Which seide, 'Ha, help hier Adrian, 411^0 

And I wol yiven half mi good.' 

The povere man this understod. 
As he that wolde gladly winne, 
And to this lord which was withinne 
He spak and seide, ' If I thee save, 
What sikemesse schal I have 
Of covenant, that afterward 
Thou wolt me yive such reward 
As thou behihtest nou tofore ? ' 

That other hath his othes gwore 4980 

Be hevene and be the goddes alle, 
If that it myhte so befalle 
That he out of the pet him broghte, 
Of all the ^oodfia whiche he i^ht e 
He schal have evene halvendel. 

This Bardus seide he wolde wel; 
And with this word his Asse anon 
He let untnisse, and therupon 
Doun goth the corde into the pet, 
To which he hath at ende knet 4990 

4959 'I'atgin ipium] insuper iptum AM 4981 the] >o B out. T 
4984 all S, F alle AJ, B 4989 L put : knvt AHC pit : knit 

H.XRLB1, Ad, W 

.coy Google 


A .staf^ wherby, be seide, he wolde | 

That Adrian bim scbolde bolde. 

Bot it was tbo per chance falle, 

Into that pet was also falle 

An Ape, which at thilke thiowe, 

WhaD that the corde cam doun lowe, 

Al sodeinii tberto he skipte 

And it in botbe hise annes clipte. 

And Bardus with bis Asse anon P. ii. 995 

Him hath updrawe, and he is gon. 5000 

But wban be sib it was an Ape, 

He wende al badde ben a jape 

Of Jaiede, and sore him dradde: 

And Adrian eftsone gradde 

For help, and cride and preide faste. 

And he eflsone his corde caste; 

Bot whan it cam unto the grounde, 

A gret Serpent it hatb bewounde, 

The which Bardus anon up drouh. 

And thanne him thoghte wel ynoub, joio 

It was fantosme, bot yit he berde 

The vois, and he tberto ansuerde, 

'What wiht art tbou in goddes name?' 

'I am,' quod Adrian, 'the same, 
Whos good thou schalt have evene half.' 
Quod Bardus, 'Thanne a goddes half 
The thridde time assaie I schal ' ; 
And caste his corde forth withal 
Into the pet, and whan it cam 
To bim, this lord of Rome it nam, 5010 

And tberupon him hath adresced. 
And with his hand fulofte blessedl, 
And thanne be bad to Bardus hSle. 
And he, which understod his tale, 
Eetwen him and his Asse al softe 
Hath drawe and set him up alofte 

4994 ^e pit (put ftc.) Hi . . . Bi, Ad, W 5003 aore] for AH 

be W 5011 fantosme, bot yit] fantasme (fantome) >at BTA 

fantMine and jit L ftuitwie but be jit W 5091 him hath adreaced] 

>o him ha> dresced HiXRCLBi 5035 al softe] alofte B tofle W 


.coy Google 


» Withouten hann al esely. 

He seith noght ones 'giant merci,' 

Bot strauh te turn forth to the cite, P. il. 296 

And let this povere Bardus be. 503a 

And natbeles this simple man 

His coveiiant, so as he can. 

Hath axed ; and that other seide, 

If so be that be him umbreide 

Of oght that bath be speke or do. 

It scha] hen venged on him so. 

That biro were betre to be ded. 

And he can tho non other red, 

But on his asae ayein he caste 

His trusse, and hieth homwaid feste : 5040 

And whan that he^m hom to bedde, 

He tolde his wif hou that he spedde. 

Bot finaly to spelce oght more 

Unto this lord he dradde him sore. 

So that a word ne dorste he sein : 

And thus upcm the morwe ayein, 

In the manere as I recorde, 

Forth with his Asse and with his corde 

To gadre wod^ as he dede er, 

He goth ; and whan that be cam .ner 5050 

Unto the place where he wolde, 

He hath his Ape anon beholde, 

Which hadde gadred al aboute 

Of stickes hiere and there a route. 

And leide hem redy to hia hond,~ 

Wherof he made his ^se and ^.nd^ 

Fro dai to dai and in this wise 

This Ape profreth his servise. 

So that he hadde of wode ynouh. P. 11. 297 

Upon a time and as he droah sofio 

Toward the wode, he sib besjrde 

The grete gastli Serpent glyd^ 

Til that sche cam in his presence, 

5034 [f it so be >at he vpbrcyde (vmbreide) BT 5035 speke F 
nsl spoke 5045 o word HiC, BT one word A, W 5051 Ihe 
am. AH 5054 aioute F 

Dy Google 


And in hir kinde a reverence 

Sche hath him do, and forth withal 

A Ston moT briht than a cristall 

Out of hir mouth tofore his weie 

Sche let doun taUe, and wente awete, 

For that he schal noght ben adrad. 

Tho was this povere Bardus glad, 5070 

Thonkende god, and to the Ston 

He goth and takth it up anon. 

And hath gret wonder in his wit 

Hou that the beste him hath aquit, 

Wher that the mannes Sone hath ^ed, 

For whom he hadde most travailed. 

Bot al he putte in goddes hond. 

And tometh hom, and what he fond 

Unto his wif he hath it schewed ; 

And thei, that weren bothe lewed, 5080 

Acorden that he scholde it selle. 

And he no lengere wolde duelle, 

Bot forth anon upon the tale 
The Ston he profreth to the sale ; 
And riht as he himself it sette. 
The jueler anon forth fette 
The gold and made his paiement, 
Therof was no delaiement. 

Thus whan this Ston was boght and sold, P. ii. agS 
Homward with joie manyfold 5090 

This Bardus goth ; and whan he cam 
Hom to his hous and that he nam 
His gold out of his Purs, withinne 
He fond his Ston also therinne, 
Wherof for joie his herte pleide. 
Unto his wif and thus he seide, 
' Lo, hier my gold, lo, bier mi Ston ! ' 
His wif hath wonder therapon, 
And axeth him hou that mai be. 
'Nou be mi trouthe 1 not^' quod be, fioo 

'Bot I dar swere upon a bok, 
5064 a OM. HiRCLBi 5071 Tbonkende] ToucbynRc 

AHiR (Thonkinge m nu. C) 

.coy Google 


That to my Maichant I it tok, 

And he it hadde whan I wente : 

So knowe 1 iK^ht to what entente 

It is nou bier, bot it be grace. 

Forthi tomoiwe in other place 

I wole it fonde forto selle, 

And if it wol noght with him duelle, 

Bot CTepe into mi purs ayein, 

Than dar I saufly swere and sein, siio 

It is the vertu of the Ston.' 

The morwe cam, and be is gon 
To secbe aboute in other stede 
His Ston to selle, and be so dede, 
And lefte it with his chapman there. 
Bot whan that be cam elleswhere. 
In presence of his wif at bom. 
Out of his Purs and that he nom 
His gold, he fond his Ston withal : P. U. sgg 
And thus it fell him overal, 5 no 

Where be it solde in sondri place. 
Such was the fortune and the grace. 
Bot so wel may nothing ben bidd, 
That it nys ate laste kidd : 
This fame goth aboute Rome 
So feifOTtb, that the wordes come 
To themperour Justinian ; 
And be let sende for the man. 
And axede bim hou that it was. 
And Baidus tolde bim at the cas, 5130 

Hou that the worm and ek the beste, 
Althogh thei maden no bebeste. 
His travail badden wel aquit; 
Bot he which badde a mannes wit, 
And made bis covenant be mouthe 
And swor tberto al that be couthe 
To parte and yiven half his good, 
Sioa Th«t lo] Voto B 5105 bot it be ^race] but it be bi gr«ee 

AM but be goddii grace d 5111 the om, AM ' 5114 so he 

dede AdBTA, W 5195 al aboute HtXRCL sia8 |iat man 

H. . . . B. 5130 him om. BT 5131 ek (eek) AJC, BT eke F 
5.34 •manne.] mannes XE,B 

.coy Google 


Hath nou fotyete hou that it stod, 
As he which wol no troutbe holde. 

This Emperour al that he tolde sMo 

Hath herd, and thilke unlcindenesse 
He seide he wolde himself redresse. 
And thus in court of juggement 
This Adrian was thanne assent, 
And the querele in audience 
Declared was in the presence 
Of themperour and manji mo ; 
Wherof was mochel speche the 
And gret wondringe among the press. P. ii. 300 
Bot ate laste natheles Si5<> 

For the paitie which hath pleigned 
The lawe hath diemed and ordeigned 
Be hem that were avised wel, 
That he schal have the halvendel 
Thurghout of Adrianes good. 
And thus of thilke unkinde blod 
Stant the memoiie into this day, 
Wherof that every wysman may 
Ensamplen him, and take in mynde 
What schame it is to ben unkinde ; 6^60 

Ayein the which reson debateth, 
And every creature it hateth. 

Forthi, mi Sone, in thin office 
I rede fle that ilke vice. 
For riht as the Cronique seith 
Of Adrian, hou he his feith 
Foryat for worldes covoitise, 
Fulofte in such a maner wise 
Of lovers nou a man mai se 
Full manye that unkinde be: 5170 

For wel behote and evele laste 
That is here lif; for ate laste. 
Whan that thei have here wille do, 
Here love is after sone ago. 
What seist thou, Sone, to this cas? 

5145 And in )« AH And Ibo the Hi 5157 the] in AU . . . B> 
5158 cnyAK s'SS hemAHGRLBi 

.coy Google 


Mi fader, I vol seie Helas, 
That evere such a man was bore, 
Which whan he hath his trouthe suore 
And hath of love what he wolde, P. ii. 301 

That he at eny time scholde 5180 

Evere after in his herte finde 
To falsen and to ben unkinde. 
Bot, fader, as touchende of me, 
I mai noght stonde in that degre ; 
For I tok nevere of love why, 
That I ne mai wel go therby 
And do my profit elles where, 
For eny sped I finde there, 
I dar wel thenken al aboute, 
Bot I ne dar noght speke it oute; 5190 

And if I dorste, I wolde pleigne, 
That sche for whom I soffre peine 
And love hir evere aliche bote, 
That nouther yive ne behote 
In j^wardinge of mi servise 
It list hire in no maner wise. 
I wot noght say that sche is kinde, 
And forto .sai sche is unktnde. 
That dar I nt^ht ; bot god above. 
Which demeth every herte of love, sioo 

He wot that on myn c^hne side 
Schat non unkindeschipe abide : 
If it schal with mi ladi duelle, 
Therof dar I nomore telle. 
Nou, goode fader, as it is. 
Tell me what thenketh yon of this. 

Mi Sone, of that unkindeschipe, 
The which toward thi ladischipe 
Thou pleignest, for sche wol thee nt^ht, P. ii. 303 
Thou art to blamen of that thoght. s'"o 

For it mai be that Ihi desir, 
Thogh it brenne evere as doth the fyr, 
Per cas to hire honour missit, 

ay om. AH 5199 bot] by (be) BT for W $004 • 

\M . . . B> 5910 >y Jnuglit BT 

.coy Google 


Or elles time com noght yit, 

Which standt upon thi destine : 

Forthi, mi Sonei I rede thee, 

Thenk wel, what evere the befalle ; 

Tor notnan hath his lustes alle. 

Bot as thou toldest me before 

That thou to love art noght forswore, 5130 

And hast don non unlundenesse, 

Thou miht therof thi grace blesse : 

And lef n oght that continuance; 

For ther mai be no such grevance 

To love, as is unkind eschipe. 

Wherof to kepe thi worschipe, 

So as these olde bokes tale, 

I schal thee telle a redi tale : 

Nou herkne and be wel war therby, 

For I wol telle it openly. 5130 

Mynos, as telleth the Poete, 
The which whilom was king of Crete, 
A Sone hadde and Androchee 
He hihte : and so befell that he 
Unto Athenes forto lere 
Was send, and so he bar him there, 
For that he was of Iiih lignage. 
Such pride he tok in his corage. 
That he foryeten hath the Scoles, P. ii. 303 
And in riote among the foles 5140 

He dede manye thinges wrongc; 
And useth thiike lif so longe, 
Til ate laste of that he wroghte 
He fond the meschief which he soghte, 
Wherof it fell that he was slain. 
His fader, which it herde sain, 
Was wroth, and al that evere he mihte, 
Of men of Armes be him dighte 
A strong pouer, and forth he wente 
Sais siindt S, F stant AC, B itBndc> J tbi] >e Hi . . . Bf 

5995 ffor loue Hi . . . Bi 5336 bar AJC, BT bareS.F 593-7 mur^n 
auOViItuB] fultDB BT 5039 margai vlncit Hi . . . Bi 5343 vaed 
AH...Bi,W 5a48dighteF iibtt AJ tmJ so also in \. $35^ 

contra virus amori 
ingralos. Et narral 
qualiter These us Cad- 
mi filius, consilio suf- 
fultus Adriagne Regis 
Mynos fiUe, in domo 
que laborinlbus dici- 
tur Minotaunini vicit; 
vnde Theseus Adri- 
an e sponsalia certis- 
siiD e promillens ipsam 
vna cum Fedra sorore 
SUB a Creta seeum nS' 
uigio duiit. Set sla- 
tim postea obiito gra- 
(itudinia beneScio A- 
driagnam ipsum sai- 
uantem in insula Chid 
apretam poat tergum 
rdiquit ; el Fedram 
Atbenis sibi sponsa- 
tam ingntut corona- 

.CD, Google 


Unto Athenys, where he btente 5*3° 

The pleine centre al aboute : 

The Cites stode of him in doute, 

As thei that no defence hadde 

Ayein the pouer which he ladde. 
Egeits, which was there Icing, 

His conseil tot upon this thing, 

For he was thanne in the Cite : 

So that of pes into tretee 

Betwen Mynos and Egeus 

Thei felle, and ben acorded thns ; 5'^ 

That king Mynos fro yer to yeere 

Receive scbal, as thou scbalt here. 

Out of Athenys for tiuage 

Of men that were of mybd Age 

Fersones nyne, of whiche he scbal 

His wille don in special 

For vengance of his Sones deth. 

Non other grace ther ne geth, 

Bot forto take the juise ; P. li- 30+ 

And that' was don in such a wise, s*l° 

Which stod upon a wonder cas. 

For thilke time so it was, 

Wherof that men yit rede and singe. 

King Mynos hadde in his kepinge 

A cruel Monstre, as seith the geste : 

For he was half man and half beste, 

And Minotaurus he was hole, 

Which was begete in a riote 

Upon Fasiphe, his oghne wil, 

Whil he was oute upon the strif S'Bo 

Of thilke grete Siege at Troie. 

Bot sche, which lost hath alle joie. 

Whan that sche syh this Monstre bore, 

Bad men orddgne anon theifore : 

And fell that ilke time thus, 

Ther was a Clerk, on Dedalus, 

Which hadde ben of hire assent 
■Ate Hu . . Bi, T sa^^ And] Of B 5»8i of Troie 

. . A, W saSa lost hatb] k>st(e) Hi . . . B« hath lo*t W 

.coy Google 


Of ihal hir world was so miswent j 

And be made of his oghne wit, 

Wherof the remembrance is yit, 5190 

For Minotaure such an bous, 

Which was so strange and merveilous, 

That what man that withinne wente, 

Ther was so many a sondri woite, 

That he ne scholde noght come oute, 

But gon amased al aboute. 

And in this hous to loke and warde 

Was Minotanros put in warde. 

That what Uf that therinne cam, P.U. 305 

Or man or beste, he overcam aoo 

And slow, and fedde him therupon ; 

And in this wise many on 

Out of Athenys for truage 

Devoured weren in that rage. 

For every yeer thei schope hem so, 

Thei of Athenys, er thei go 

Toward that ilke wofuU chance, 

As it was set in ordinance. 

Upon fortune here lot thei caste ; 

Til that Theseiis ate last^ Ejio 

Which was the kinges Sone there, 

Amoi^es othre that ther were 

In tbilke yeer, as it befell. 

The lot upon his chance fdl. 

He was a worthi kniht witballe; 

And whan he sib this chance falle. 

He ferde as thogh he tok non biede, 

Bot al that evere he mihte spiede, 

With him and with his felaschipe 

Forth into Crete he gotb be Schipe; 5310 

Wher that the king Mynos he soghte, 

And^rqfrerti all that. he him oghte 

Upon the point of here acord. 

5088 worid] lord BT 5399 therinne] euer inne Hi . . . Bi 

530a many AC, B manye (muiie) S, F nranie J 530B As] And 
X . . . Bi 5316 thia] hU L, BT 5331 the king] to king 

E . . . Bi kyoge (om. the) X 

.coy Google 


s This fiteme king, this cruel lord 

Tok every day on of the Nyne, 
And put him to the disdpline 
Of Minotaure, to be devoured ; 
Bot Theseiis was so favoured. 
That he was kept til ate laste. P. ii. 306 

And in the meene while he caste 5330 

What thing him were best to do : 
And fell that Adriagne tho. 
Which was the donhter of Mynos, 
And badde herd the worthi 1^ 
Of Theseiis and of his myhtj 
And syh he was a lusti kniht. 
Hire hole herte on him sche leide, 
And he also of love hir preide, 
So ferfoith that thei were a) on. 
And sche ordeigneth thanne anon 1^340 

In what manere he scholde him save, 
And schop so that sche dede him have 
A clue of Jhred, of which withinne 
Ferst ate dore he schal beginne 
With him to take that on ende, 
That whan he wolde ayeinward wende. 
He mihte go the same weie. 
And over this, so as I seie. 
Of pich sche tok him a pelote, 
The which he scholde into the throte sjso 

Of Minotaure caste rihte : 
Such wepne also for him sche dighte. 
That he be reson mai noght faile 
To make an ende of his bataile ; 
For sche him tawhte in sondri wise. 
Til he was knowe of thiike emprise, 
Hou he this beste schulde quelle. 
And thus, Bchort tale forto telle. 
So as this Maide him hadde tawbt, P. ii. 307 

53*6 put AJ,S,F pmteCBT 5341 sche schold B, W sche 

wolde T 5346 ayeinward] a^ein Hi . . . Bi 5349 tok (took) 

AJCSB tokeF 53S7Houhe]How)«theAHiRCLB> How 

>ai H 5359 >e maide AH . . . B> 

.coy Google 


Theseus with this Monstre fawht, 5360 | 

Smot of bis hed, the which he nam. 

And be the thred, so as he cam. 

He goth ayein, til he were oute. 

The was gret wonder al aboute : 

Mynos the fribut hath released. 

And so was al the werre cessed 

Betwen Athene and hem of Crete. 

Bot now to speke ctf thilke suete, 
Whos beante was withoute wane. 
This faire Maiden Adriane, 537° 

Whan that sche sib Theseiis sound . 
Was nevere yit upon the ground 
A gladder wyht than sche was tho. 
Theseus duelte a dai or tuo 
Wher that Mynos gret chiere him dede : 
Theseus in a prive stede 
Hath with this Maiden spcAe and rouned, 
That sche to him was abandouned 
In al that evere that sche couthe, 
So that of thilke lusty youtbe 5380 

Al priveiy betwen hem tweie 
The ferste flour he t(A aweie. 
For he so faire tho behihte 
That evere, wbil he live mihte. 
He scholde hire take for bis wi^ 
And as his oghne hertes lif 
He scholde hire love and trouthe here ; 
And sche, which mihte noght foibere, 
So sore loveth him ayein, . P. li. 308 

That what as evere he wolde sein 5390 

With al hire herte sche believeih. 
And thus his pourpos he achieveth. 
So that assured of his trouthe 
With him sche wente, and that was routhe . 

Fedra hire yonger Sostei eke, 
A lusti Maide, a sobre, a meke, 
Fulfild of alle curtesie, 
5364 So was B gret em. AH wonder AC, BT woadre 

J. S, F 537a >ia grmiiKl S . . . A 5387 wold(e) BT 

.coy Google 


9 For So stcThode and compainie 

Of love, which was hem betueoe, 

To sen hire Soster mad a queene, 5400 

Hire fader lefte and forth sche wente 

With him, which al his ferste entente 

Foryat wittiinne a litel throwe, 

So that it was al overthrowe, 

Whan sche best wende it scholde stonde. 

The Schip was blowe fro the londe, 

Wherin that thei seilend e were ; 

This Adriagne hath mochel fere 

Of that the wynd so loude bleUj 

As sche which of the See ne kneu, 5410 

And preide forto reste a whyle. 

And so fell that upon an yle, 

Which Chyo hihte, thei ben drive, 

Where he to hire his leve hath yive 

That sche schal londe and take hire reste. 

Bot that was nothing for the beste : 

For whan sche was to londe brogbt, 

Sche, which that time th<^hte noght 

Bot alle trouthe, and tok no kepe, P. il. 309 

Hath leid hire soht forto slepe, 5410 

As sche which longe hath ben forwacched ; 

Bot certes sche was evele macched 

And fer from alle loves kinde ; 

For more than the beste unkinde 

Theseus, which no trouthe kept^ 

Whil that this yonge ladi slepte, 

Fullild of his unkindeschipe 

Hath al foryete the goodschipe 

Which Adriane him hadde do, 

And bad unto the Schipmen tho 5430 

Hale up the seil and noght abyde. 

And forth he gotb the same tyde 

Toward Athene, and hire alonde 

He lefle, which lay nyh the stronde 

54tif. And so rdl )«( vpoo u ife 

Th«i were wind driue wi^inne ■ while Hi . . . 8t 
(driueainawhilcL) 5437 hi*] alle B 543i)scliipiiiui Hi. . . Bi, W 

.coy Google 


Slepende, til that sche awok . 
Bot whan that sche cast up liire iok 
Toward the stronde and sih no wyht, 
Hire herte was so sore aflyh t, 
That sche ne wiste what to thinke, 
Bot drouh hire to the water brinke, ^^^a 

Wher sche behield the See at large. 
Sche sih no Schip, sche sih no barge 
Als ferfoith as sche mihte kenne : 
' Ha lord,' sche seide, ' which a Senne, 
As al the world schal after hiere, 
Upon this woful womnian hiere 
This worthi kniht hath don and wroght ! 
I wende I hadde his love boght. 
And so deserved ate nede, P. ii. 310 

Whan that he stod upon his drede, 5450 

And ek the love be me behihte. 
It is gret wonder hou be mihte 
Towardes me nou ben unkind^ 
And so to lete out of his mynde 
Thing which he seide his oghne mouth. 
Bot after this whan it is couth 
And drawe into the worldes fame, 
It schal ben hindringe of his name : 
For wel he wot and so wot I, 
He yaf his trouthe bodilj, 5460 

That he myn honour scholde kepe.' 
And with that word sche gan to wepe, 
And sorweth more than ynouh : 
Hire faire tresces sche todrouh, 
And with hirself tok such a strif. 
That sche betwen the deth and lif 
Swounende lay fulofte among. 
And al was this on him along, 
Which was to love unkinde so, 
Wherof the wrong schal everemo 5470 

5438 afrihl (a fri|At &c.) A . . . B* (un^ E), W 5449 it ■! 

nede HiXRCLBi 5456 ia] wu HiE . . . Bi 5457 into] to 

S.,.a 5464 trcsccB AC treaseBBT Irescess J, S, F 5465 

wi^ hir adue (self) took ■ strif Hi . . . Bi wi)i hlrseU' sche took such 
a s. B 5466 betw«ii(e) tle> Hi . . . Bi 5467 lajr] weepe (wep) BT 

.coy Google 


Stonde in Cronique of Temembrance. 

And ek it asfeeth a vengance 

To ben unkinde in loves cas. 

So as Tbeseiis tbanne was, 

Al thogh he were a noble kniht ; 

For he the lawe of loves riht 

Forfeted hath in alle weie, 

That Adriagne he putte aweie, 

Which was a gret unkinde dede : P. il. 3U 

And after this, so as I rede, 54^ 

Fedra, the which hir Soster is, 

He tok in stede of hire, and this 

Fel afterward to mochel teene. 

For thiike vice of which I meene, 

Unkindeschipe, where it feUeth, 

The trouthe of mannes herte it palleth, 

That he can no good dede aquite : 

So mai he stonde of no merite 

Towardes god, and ek also 

Men clepen him the worldes fo; 5490 

For he notnore than the fend 

Unto non other man is fiend, 

Bot al toward himself al one. 

Forthi, mi Sone, in thi persone 

This vice above alle othre fle. 

Mi fader, as ye techen me, 
I thenke don in this matiere. 
Bot over this nou wolde I hiere, 
Wherof I schal me schryve more. 

Mi goode Sone, and for thi lore, ssoa 

After the reule of coveitise 
I schal the proprete devise 
Of every vice by and by. 
Mou herkne and be wel ware tberby. 

. Vifitut ex clara res tolUt luce Rapina, 
Floris et inuita virgine mella capit. 

In the lignage of Avarice, 
Mi Sone, yit ther is a vice, 

^480 aAcr )iat S . . . A 5500 u br BT 

.coy Google 



P. U. 312 [Rav:se.] 

Rapina nuncupalur, 

cuius mater exCarcio 

ipsatn *d deaeruicn- 

jjio dum magnatum curiis 

His rihte name it is Ravine, 

Which hath a route of his covine. 

Ravine among the maistres duelleth, 

And vrith his servantz, as men telleth, 

Extorcion is nou wilhholde : 

Ravine of othre mennes folde 

Malcth his larder and paieth noght ; 

For wher as evere it mai be sc^ht, 

In his hous ther scbal nothing lacke, 

And that fulofte abytb the packe 

Of povere men that duelle aboute. 

Thus stant the comun poeple in doute. 

Which can do non amendement ; 

For whanne him faileth paiement, ss»« 

Ravine makth non other skile, 

Bot takth be strengthe what he wile. 

So ben ther in the same wise 
Lovers, as I thee schal devise, 
That whan nt^ht elles mai availe. 
Anon with strengthe the! assaile 
And gete of love the sesine, 
Whan thei se time, be Ravine. 

Forthi, mi Sone, schrif thee bier, Confessor. 

If thou hast ben a R aviner 5530 

Of love. 

Certes, fader, no : Amans. 

For I mi ladi love so. 
That thogh I were as was Pompeie, 
That al the world me wolde obeie, 
Or elles such as Alisandre, 
I wolde ni^ht do such a skjauiukt; 
It is no good man, which so doth. P. ii. 313 

In good feith, Sone, thou seist soth : Conlessor. 

For he that wole of pourveance 
Be such a weie his luste avance, js4° 

5507 it om. AH , . . Bi (fxafi E) 5510 seniant Hi . . . B> 

5520 ^i failen Hi . . . B> he faileth W 5533 what] a] ^at B 

5594 thee schal] scbal H . . . Bi achal )<e A, W 5597 seline BT 
5533 Udi love] loue desire Hi . . . Bi 5533 That] ffor BT 

wu om. Hi ... B) 5539 wolde Hi . , . Bt 

.coy Google 



[:ausa raptores. Et 
narrat qualiter Pan- 
dion Rex AthenBrum 



nam, hsbuil. Prof- 
ile autem Tereo Reg! 
Tracie dcsponsala, 
contigit quod cumTe- 

vxoris sue Philome- 
nam de Athenis in 
Traciaro sororie visi. 
lacionis causa MCum 
quadam vice |>erdu- 
ceret, in concupiscen- 
ciam Philomene tanta 
seueritale in itinere 
dilapaus est, quod ipse 
non solum sue vioien- 
CIS rapine virgin itatem 
eius appresait, set et 
ipsiuslinguam, ne fac- 
tum detegerct, forpice 
mutulauit. Vnde in 
perpetue tnemorie 
Croaicam tanti rapto- 

ordioe dii postea vin- 


He schal it after sore abie, 
Bot if these olde ensamples lie. 

Nou, goode fader, tell me on, 
So as ye cunne manyon, 
Touchende of love in this matiere. 

Nou list, mi Sone, and thou schalt hiere. 
So as it hath befalle er this, 
In loves cause hou that it is 
A man to take be Ravine 
The preie which is femeline. sss* 

Ther was a real noble king. 
And riche of alle worldes thing, 
Which of his propre enheritance 
Athenes hadde in governance, 
And who so thenke thenipon. 
His name was king Pandion. 
Tuo douhtres hadde he be his wi^ 
The whiche he lovede as his lif; 
The ferste douhter Progne hiht^ 
And the secounde, as sche wel mihte, 5560 

Was cleped faire Philomene, 
To whom fell after mochel tene. 
The fader of his pourveance 
His doughter Progne wolde avance. 
And yaf hire unto manage 
A worthi king of hih lignage, 
A noble kniht eke of his hond, P. ii. 314 

So was he kid in every lend, 
Of Trace he hihte Tereiis ; 
The cle^ Ovide teileth thus. ss?o 

This Tereiis his wif horn ladde, 
A lusti lif with hire he hadde; 
Til it befell upon a tyde, 
i. This Progne, as sche lay him besyde, 

Bethoughte bir hou it mihte be 
That sche hir Soster myhte se, 

5546 lust AHCL listne & 5557 tna';gin duas Alias om. B 

5SS9 margin Terco A . . , Bi 5560 wel om. HiE . . . B 5561 

margin cum om. A , , . Bi 55<^ margin sororis A . , . Bt, B, W 

.CD, Google 


And to hir lord hir will sche seide, [ 

With goodly wordes and him preide 

That sche to hire mihte go: 

And ir it liked him noght so, sjSo 

That thanne he wolde himselve wende, 

Or elles be som other sende, 

Which mihte hire diere Soster griete, 

And schape hou that thej mihten miete. 

Hir lord anon to that he herde "" 

Yaf his acord, and thus ansuerde : 

'I wole,' he seide, 'for thi sake 

The weie after thi Soster take 

Miself, and bringe hire, if I may,' 

And sche with that, there as he lay, 5590 

Began him in hire armes clippe, 

And kist him with hir softe lippe, 

And seide, ' Sire, grant mercy.' 

And he sone after was redy. 

And tok his leve forto go; 

In son time dede he sa 

This Tereiis goth forth to Schipe P. U. 315 
With him and with his felaschipe; 
Be See the lihte cours he nam, 
Into the contre til be cam, 5600 

Wher Philomene was duellinge, 
And of hir Soster the tidinge 
He tolde, and tho thei weren glade, 
And mochel joie of him thei made. 
The fader and the moder bothe 
To leve here doubter weren lothe, 
Bot if thei weren in presence ; 
And natbeles at reverence 
Of him, that wolde himself travaile, 
Thei wolden nc^ht he scholde faile 5610 

Of that be preide, and yive hire leve : 
And sche, that wolde nc^ht beleve, 

5590 >che lay XGBi, S . . . A, W 5593 kist SB, F kystc 

<kistel AJ 5597 to] by ^be) A . . . Bi 5600 Vnto B 

5610 noght om, AM S*" Of M J«y preyde T And >At Jwi 


.coy Google 


] In alle haste made hire yare 

Toward hir Soster forto fare, 
With Tereiis and forth sche wente. 
And be with a) his hole entente. 
Whan sche was fro hir frendes go, 
Assoteth of hire lore so, 
His yhe myhle he noght withholde. 
That he ne moste on hir beholde; 5610 

And with the sihte he gan desire, 
And sette bis oghne herte on fyre; 
And fyr, whan it to tow aprocheth. 
To him anon the strengthe aorocheth. 
Til with his hete it be devoured. 
The tow ne mai noght be socoured. 
And so that tirant ji^viner, F. ii. 316 

Whan that sche was in his pouer, 
And he therto sawh time and place. 
As he that lost hath alle grace, 5630 

Foryat he was a ^e<jijed man, 
And in a rage on hire he ran, 
Riht as a wolf which takth his preie. 
And sche b^an to crie and prae, 
'O fader, o mi moder dierc^ 
Nou help I ' fiot thei ne mihte it hiere. 
And sche was oT to litel myht 
Defense ayein so ruide a knybt 
To make, whanne he was so wod 
That be no reson understod, 5C40 

Bot hield hire under in such wise. 
That sche ne myhte noght arise, 
Bot lay oppressed and desesed, 
As if a goshauk hadde sesed 
A brid, which dorste n{^bt for fere 
Remue: and thus this tirant there 
Beraft hire such thing as men sein 
Mai neveremor be yolde ayeio, 
And that was the virginite: 
Of such Ravine it was pite. 6^5^ 

S6at he om. BT 563a a fyre XC, B 5637 th«t] t* BT 

5633 whkfa] tlu^ Hi, BT om. H, W se^e fi A this] )« M 

.coy Google 


Boi whan sche to hirselven com, | 

And of hir meschief hiede nom, 
And knew hou that sche was no maide, 
With wofull herte thus sche saide : 
' thou of alle men the worste, 
Wher was ther evere man that dorste 
Do such a dede as thou bast do? P. ii. 317 
That dai schal fatle, I hope so, 
That I schal telle out al mi fille, 
And with mi specbe I schal fiilfille 5660 

The wyde world in brede and tengthe. 
That thou hast do to me be strei^he, 
If I among the poeple dudle, 
Unto the poeple I schal it telle; 
And if I be withinne wall 
Of Stones closed, thanne I schal 
Unto the Stones clepe and crie, 
And tellen hem thi felonie; 
And if I to the wodes wende, 
Ther schal I tellen tale and ende, 5670 

And crie it to the briddes oute, 
That thei schul hiere it al aboute. 
For I so loude i t schal reherce, 
That my vois schal the hevene perce, 
That it schal soune in goddes Ere. 
Ha, false man, where is thi fere? 
0_mor cruel than eny beste, 
Hou hast thou holden thi beheste 
Which thou unto my Soster madest? 
O thou, which alle love ungladest, 5(80 

And art ensample of alle untreve, 
Nou wolde god mi Soster knewe. 
Of thin _untrouthe, hou that it stod I ' 
And he thaiTas^a Lyon wod 
With bise jnhappi handes stronge 

5667 po ttone* EC 5670 tale] al BT 

5671 f. And ait it to briddes «1 aboute 

How (ou bast ilo to ne ^urghoutc Hi . . . Bt 
(to )« briddea R} 5678 How scbalt AH . . . Bi End hai W 

.coy Google 


[Tai^ or Tereus.] Hire cauhte be the tresses longe, 

With whiche he bond ther bothe hire amies, P. U. 3i( 

That was a fieble dede of amies, 

And to the grounde anon hire caste, 

And out he clippeth also faste s6gc 

Hire tunge with a peire scheres. 

So what with blod and what with teies 

Out of hire yhe and of hir mouth, 

He made hire faire face uncouth : 

Sche lay swounende unto the detb, 

Ther was unethes eny breth; 

Bot ;it whan he hire tunge refle, 

A litel part therof belefte, 

Bot sche with al no word mai so une, 

Bot chitre and as a brid jargoune. S7oc 

And natheles that wode hound 

Hir bodi hent up fro the ground, 

And sente hir there as be his wille 

Sche scholde abyde in prison stille 

For everemo: bot nou tak hiede 

What after fell of this misdede, 

Whanne al this meschief was befalle, 
This Tereus, that foule him folic. 
Unto his centre horn he t^hj 
And whan he com his paleis nyh, 5710 

His wif al redi there him kepte. 
Whan he hir sih, anon he wepte, 
And that he dede for deceite. 
For sche began to axe him streite, 
'Wher is mi Soster?' And he seide 
That sche was ded ; and Progne abreide. 
As sche that was a wofull wif, P. 11. 319 

And stod i>etuen hire deth and lif. 
Of that sche herde such tidingei 
Bot for sche sih hire lord wepii^;e, 57*0 

She wende noght bot alle trouthe, 
And hadde wel the more routhe. 
The Perles weren tho forsake 
To hire, and blake clothes take; 
5719 Of] And BT 

.coy Google 


As scbe that was gentil and kinde, 

In wotschipe of hir Sostres my nde 

Sche made a riche enterement, 

For sche fond non amendement 

To syghen or to sobbe more : 

So was ther guile under the p;ore. 5730 

Nou leve we this king and queene. 
And tome ayein to Fhilomene, 
As I began to tellen erst. 
Whan sche cam into prigo n ferst, 
It tboghte a kinges doubter strange 
To maken so soudein a change 
Fro welthe unto so grete a wo ; 
And sche began to thenke tho, 
Tbf^h sche be mouthe nothing preide, 
Withinne hir herte thus sche seide : 5740 

' O thou, alny^bty. Jupiter, 
That hihe sist and lokest fer. 
Thou solTrest many a wrong doin^t^ 
And yit it is noght thi willinge. 
To thee ther mai nothing ben hid. 
Thou wost hou it is me betid : 
I wolde I hadde ni^ht be bore, P. li. 330 

For tbanne I hadde noght forlore 
Mi speche and mi virginite. 
Bot, goode lord, al is in thee, 3750 

Whan thou therof wolt do vengance 
And scbape mi dehverance.* 
And evere among this ladi wepte. 
And thoghte that scbe nevere kepte 
To ben a worldes womman more. 
And that sche wissheth everemore. 
Bot otte unto hir Soster diere 
Hire herte spekth in this manere, 
And seide, ' Ha, Soster, if ye knewe 
Of myn astat, ye wolde rewe, 5760 

I trowe, and my deliverance 

5737 wele vnw E, B wel^e ioto HHiC grele A, S, F gret 

JC, B 5740 and >ii3 C 5743 wrongful >iiig X . . . Bi 

wonderfull Ihyng Hi 5748 hadde 1 S...A 

.coy Google 


Ye wolde schape, and do vengance 

On him that is so fals a man : 

And natheles, so as I can, 

I wol you sende som tokninge, 

Wherof je schul have knowlechinge 

Of thing I wot, that schal you lothe. 

The which you toucheth and me bothe.' 

And tho withinne a whyle als tyt 

Sche waf a cloth of gelk al whyt 577 

With letres and ymagerie, 

In which was al the felonJe, 

Which Tereiis to hire hath do; 

And tappede it togedre tho 

And sette hir signet thenipon 

And sende it unto Prc^e anon. 

The messager which fonh it bar, P. ii. 3s 

What it amonteth is noght war; 

And natheles to Progne he goth 

And prively takth hire the cloth, J7S 

And wente ayein TJht as he cam. 

The court of him non hiede nam. 

Whan Progne of Philomene herde, 
Sche wolde luiowe faou that it ferde. 
And o^ne th that the man hath broght, 
And wot therby what hath be wrt^ht 
And what meschief th^ is be&lle. 
Injwoune tho sche gan doun falle. 
And ,efte aros and gan to stonde, 
And eft sche takth the cloth on honde, 579 
Behield the lettres and thym^es ; 
Bot ate laste, ' Of suche oultrages,' 
Sche seith, 'wepinge is noght the bote;' 
And swerth, if that sche live mote. 
It schal be venged otherwise. 
And with that sche gan hire avise 
Hou ferst sche mihte unto hire wlnne 
Hir Soster, that noman withinne, 
Bot only tfaei that were suore, 
5765 wold(e) HiECBt, W 5769 tyt (tit) AC, SB lyd J, 

S773 hidde (bad) do Hi ... Bi 5774 l^pe> B 

.coy Google 


It scholde knowe, and schop therfore jSoa | 

That Tcreiis nothing it wiste ; 

And yit riht aa hirselven liste, 

Hir Soster was delivered sone 

Out of prison, and be the mone 

To Progne sche was broght be nyhte. 

Whan ech of other hadde a sihte, 
In chambre, ther thei were al one, P. li. 339 
Thei maden many a pitous mone ; 
Bot Progne most of sorwe made, 
Which sihe hir Soster pale and fade 5810 

And specheles and deshonoured, 
Of that sche hadde be defloured ; 
And ek upon hir lord sche thoghte, 
Of that he so untreuly wroghte 
And hadde his espousaile broke. 
Sche makth a vou it schal be wroke, 
And with that word sche kneleth doun 
Wepinge in gret devoctoun ; 
Unto Cupide and to Venus 
Sche preide, and seide thanne thus : 5810 

' O ye, to whom nothing _asterte 
Of love mai, for every herte 
Ye knowe, as ye that ben above 
The god and the goddesse of love ; 
Ye witen wel that evere yit 
With al mi will and al my wit, 
Sith ferst ye schopen me to wedde, 
That I lay with mi lord abedde, 
I have be trewe in mi d^e, 
And evere thoghte forto be, 5830 

And nevere love in other place, 
Bot al only the king of Trac^ 
Which is mi lord and I his wif. 
Bot nou alias this wofull strifl 
That I him thus ayeinward finde 
The most untrewe and most unkinde 

580a riht om. Hi . . . B< 5S07 ther] wher Mi . . . B> 

5810 sihe AJ, S, F sih C, B 5B16 a vov (a vbu) J, H, F 

avow AC, B 

.coy Google 


That evere in ladi armes lay. P. ii. 333 

And wel I wot that he ne may 

Amende his wrong, it is so gret ; 

For he to lytel of me letj,. 5840 

\Vhan he myn oughne Soster tok. 

And me that am his wif forsok.' 

Lo, thus to Venus and Cupide 
Sche preide, and furtheimor sche cride 
Unto AppoUo the hiheste, 
And seide, ' O myghti god of leste, 
Thou do vengance of this debat 
Mi Soster and al hire astat 
Thou woEt, and hou sche hath forlore 
Hir maidenhod, and I therfore $850 

In al the world schal bere a blame 
Of that mi Soster hath a schame, 
That Tereiis to hire I sente : 
And wel thou wost that tnyn entente 
Was al for worschipe and for goode. 
O lord, that yifst the lives fode 
To every wyht, I prei thee hiere 
Thes wofull Sostres that ben hiere, 
And let ous nogbt to the ben lothe ; 
We ben thin oghne wommen bothe.' 5860 

Thus pleigneth Progne and axeth wreche, 
And thc^h hire Soster lacke speche, 
To him that alle thinges wot 
Hire sorwe is noght the lasse hot : 
Bot be that thanne had herd hem tuo, 
Him oughte have sorwed everemo 
For sorwe which was hem betuene. P. ii. 334 
With signes pleigneth Philomene, 
And Prf^ne selth, ' It schal be wreke, 
That al the world therof schal speke." 5870 

And Progne tho seknesse feigneth, 
Wherof unto hir lord sche pleigneth, 
And preith sche moste hire chambres kepe, 
And as hir liketb wake and slepe. 
5837 ladu (ladyes) Hi . . . Bi 5859 noeht] ncuer Hi . , . Bi 

5873 chambre HiXELBi, AdBTi.W 

.coy Google 


And he hire granteth to be so; L' 

And thus togedre ben thei tuo, 

That wolde him bot a litel good. 

Nou herk hierafter hou it stod 

Of wofull auntres that befelle : 

Thes Sostres, that ben bothe felle, — 5880 

And that was noght on hem along, 

Bot onliche on the grete wrong 

Which Tereiis hem hadde do, — 

Thei schopen forto venge hem tho. 

This Tereiis be Progne his wif 
A Sone hath, which as his lif 
He loveth, and Ithis he hihte : 
His moder wiste wel sche mihte 
Do Tereiis no more grief 
Than sle this child, which was so lief, J890 
Thus sche, that was, as who seith, ma4 
Of wo, which hath hir overlad, 
Withoute ipsihte of moderhede 
Foryat pite and loste drede, 
And in hir chambre prively 
This child withouten noise or cry 
Sche _slpu, and hieu him al to pieces : P. ii. 335 
And after with diverse spieces 
The fleissh, whan it was so toheewe, 
Sche takth, and makth therof a sewe, 5900 

With which the fader at his mete 
Was served, til he hadde him etc; 
That he ne wiste hou that it stod, 
Bot thus his oughne fleissh and blod 
Himself devoureth ayein Icinde, 
As he that was tofore unkinde. 
And thanne, er that he were arise. 
For that he scholde ben agrise, 
To schewen him the child was ded, 
This Philomene tok the hed S9'o 

Betwen tuo disshes, and al wrothe 

5818 herkoe (berken) LB., BTd, W 5880 The AJMHiXRLBs 
Tho EC 5S89 To . . . grieue Hi . . . Bj 5890 Jat w»s so 

.coy Google 


.] Tho comen forth the Sostres bothe. 

And setten it upon the bord 
And Progne tho began the word. 
And seide, ' O werete of alle wJck^ 
Of conscience whom no pricke 
Mai stere, lo, what thou hast do! 
I^ hier ben nou we Sostres tuo; 
O Raviner, lo hier thi preie, 
With whom so falsliche on the weie 5930 

Thou hast thi tirannTg wroght. 
Lo, nou it is somdel aboght, 
And bet it schal, for of thi dede 
The world schal evere singe and rede 
In Temembrance of thi de&me : 
For thou to love hast do such schame, 
That it schal nevere be foryete,' P. ii. 336 

With that he sterte up fro the mete, 
And schof the bord unto the flor, 
And cauhte a swerd anon and suor 5930 

That thei scholde of his handes dye. 
And thei unto the goddes crie 
B^unne with so loude a stevene, 
That thei were herd unto the hevene; 
And in a twinclinge o f an yhe 
The goddes, that the meschlef syhe, 
Here formes changen alle thre. 
Echon of hem in his d^re 
Was torned into briddes kinde; 
Diverseliche, as men mai finde, 59^ 

After thastat that thei were inne. 
Here formes were set atwinne. 
And as it telleth in the tale, 
The ferst into a nyhtingale 
Was schape, and thaT was Philomene, 
Which in the wynter is nc^ht sene. 
For tbanne ben the leves falle 

5918 hier ben nou we] here be we now J nowe we ber be W 
Jiere ben we U hier (here) ben now (om, we) Hi ... Bi 5935 re- 
menbrance F 5939 in to H.ECLBt. BTa, H. 5936 AI sodeinly 
J»t men it syhe Hi . . . Bi ■ 5944 |« nighting»le XECLBi 

.coy Google 


And naked ben the buisshes alle. [Taue of Tekeus.] 

For after that sche was a brid, 

Hir will was evere to ben hid, !9io 

And forto duelle in prive place. 

That noman scholde sen hir face 

For schame, which mai noght be lassed, 

Of thing that was tofore passed, 

Whan diat sche loste hir maidenhiede : 

For evere upon hir wommanhiede, 

Th<^h that the goddes wolde hire change, P. li. 397 

Sche thenkth, and is the more strange, 

And halt hir dos the wyntres day. 

Bot whan the wynter goth away, 596a 

And that Nature the goddesse 

Wole of hir oughne fre largesse 

With herbes and with floures bothe 

The _feldes and the giedw es clothe. 

And ek the wodes and the greves, 

Ben heled al with grene leres. 

So that a brid hire hyde mai, 

Betwen Averil and March and Maii, 

Sche that the wynter hield hir dos, 

For pure schame and n{^bt aros, 5970 

Whan that sche seth the bowes thikke. 

And that ther is no bare sticke, 

Bot al is hid with leves grene. 

To wode comth this Philomene 

And maktb hir ferste yeres flyht ; 

Wher as sche singeth day and nyht, 

And in hir song al openly 

Sche makth hir pleignte and seith, 'O why, 

O why ne were I yit a maide?' 

For so these olde wise saide, 59S0 

Which understoden what sche mente, 

Hire notes ben of such entente. 

5938 Sche thenkth] Scbe was Hi . . . B> 596a tarchesse F 

5966 ■]] and AH , , . L om. Bi 5971 sih (atg;h &c.) 

E. AdBT, WHi saw & (sct> S) 5974 \n PhUomene H> . . . Bi 

3977 openly"! priuely Hi . . . Bi 5979 O why] Why BT 5981 
Which AJ, S, F Whiche B 

.coy Google 


] And ek thei aeide hou in hir song 

Sche makth gret joie and tnerthe among, 

And seith, < Ha, nou I am a brid, 

Ha, nou mi face mat ben hid : 

Thogh I have lost mi Maidenhede, P. ii. 328 

Schal noman se my chekes rede.' 

Thus medleth sche with joie wo 

And with hir some merthe also, 5990 

So that of loves maladie 

Sche makth diverse melodie, 

And seith love is a wofull blisse, 

A wisdom which can noman wisse, 

A lusti Severe, a wounde softe : 

This note sche reherceth ofte 

To hem whiche understonde hir tale. 

Nou have I of this nyhtingale, 

Which erst was cleped Philomene, 

Told al that evere I wolde mene, 6000 

Bothe of hir forme and of hir note, 

Wberof men mai the storie note. 

And of hir Soster Pr<^e I finde, 
Hou sche was tomed out of kinde 
Into a Swalwe swift of winge^ 
Which ek in wynter lith swounynge, 
Ther as sche mai nothing be seneT 
Bot whan the world is woxe grene 
And comen is the Somertide, 
Than fleth sche forth and ginth to chide, 6010 
And chitreth out in htr langage 
What fatshod is in manage, 
And telleth in a maner speche 
Of Tereus the Spousebreche. 
Sche wol noght^ih the wodes duelle, 
For sche wolde openliche telle; 
And ek for that sche was a spouse, P. U. 329 
Among the folk sche comth to house, 
To do thes wyv es understonde 

6008 world] woode B word T 6011 dutreti (dwterelh) 

AHHi chater (chateren) YXG . . . Bi 6oia falshod A, S, F 

lalsfaode JC, B 6016 wol C, B 6019 to vndentonde HiE . . . Bi 

.coy Google 


The falshod of hire housebonde, 
That thei of hem be war also, 
For ther ben manye untrewe of tho. 
Thus ben the Sostres briddcs bothe, 
And ben toward the men so lothe. 
That thei ne wole of pure schame 
Unto no tnannes band be tame; 
For evere it duelletb in here mynde 
Of that tbei founde a man unkinde, 
And that was false Tereus. 
If such on be amonges ous 
I not, bot his condicion 
Men sein in every region 
Withinne toune and ek withoute 
Nou regneth comunliche aboute. 
And natheles in remembrance 
I wol declare what vengance 
The goddes hadden him ordeined, 
Of that the Sostres hadden pleigned : 
For anon after he was changed 
And from his c^hne kinde stranged, 
A lappewincke mad he was, 
And thus he hoppeth on the gras. 
And on his bed ther stant upriht 
A creste in tokne he was a kniht; 
And yit unto this dai men seith, 
A lappewincke hath lore his feith 
And is the brid falseste of alle. 

^ewar, mi Sone, er thee so felle ; 
For if thou be of such covine, 
To gete of love be Ravine 
Tbi lust, it mai thee falle thus, 
As it befell of Tereus. 

Mi fader, goddes forebode ! 

6oao [Tale or Tereus.] 

6o9o fabhod A, F falshodeJ.SB folshedeC hire] here (her^ 
MiERL, Ada, FHi 6oa6 no om. AH, Ad >e X, W 6049 

inHiE...Bi fio44 hewaslofsBT 6046 The L A . . . B), 

AdA, WHi 6048 Beww F Be war AJC, SB 605a lo Tereus 
BT 6°S3 goddes forebode] nay god it fort>ede X . . . B> nay 

god for bede Hi (goddes toAoie AJ H, AdT, WHi) 

.coy Google 

[Tali or Tirius.] 

Hie loquitur super 
ilia Cupidiutis specie 
quBm furlum vocsat, 
cuius Hiniatri alicuius 
legis otTensant non me- 

cRim quam aljter. 


Me were levere be fortrode 

With wilde hors and be todrawe, 

Er I a]rein love and bis lane 

Dede eny thing or loude or stille, 

Which were noght mi ladi wille. 

Men sein that every love hath drede ; 

So folweth it that I hire drede, 6060 

For I hire love, and who so dredeth. 

To plese bis love and serve him nedelh. 

Thus mai ye Icnowen be this skile 

That no Ravine don I wile 

Ayein bir will be such a weie; 

Hot while I live, I wol obeie 

Abidinge on hire courtesie. 

If eny merci wolde bir plie. 

Forthi, mi fader, as of this 

I wot noght I have don amis : 6070 

Bot furthermore I you beseche, 

Som other point that ye me teche. 

And axeth forth, if ther be aubt. 

That I mai be the betre taubt. 

. KuiU vt ex ipeliis grandt guamsepe tumullu. 
Quo graditur populus, latro psrurget Her. 
Sic amor, ex casu poterit quo carpere predam, P, 11. 331 
Si locus est aptus, cetera nulla timet. 

Whan CoTOitise in povere astat 
Stant with himself upon debat 
Thui^h bcke of his misgoveraance, 
That he unto his sustienance 
Ne can non other weie finde 
To gete him good, thanne as the blinde, 60S0 
Which seth noght what schal after falle, 
That like vice which men calle 
Of Robberie, he takth on bonde ; 
" Wherof be water and be londe 

Of thing which othre men beswinke 

6054 be fortrede (for trede) HiXECLBi to be trede R 6059 

louer(e) AH . . . B< 6076 himseluen (himself) in d. Hi . . . Bi 

6084 water AC, B watre J, S, F 

.coy Google 


He get bim doth and mete and drinke. 

Him reccheth noght what he beginne, 

Thu^ thefte so that he mai winne : 

Foithi to maken his pourchas 

He hth awaitende on the . pas , 6090 

And what thing that he seth ther passe, 

He takth his part, or more or lasse, 

If it be worthi to be take 

He can the ^ckes wel ransake. 

So prively berth non aboute 

His gold, that he ne tint it oute, 

Or other juel, what it be ; 

He takth it as his proprete. 

In wodes and in feldes eke 

Thus Rohberie goth to seke, 6100 

Wher as he mai bis pourpos finde. 

And riht so in the same kinde, 
My goode Sone, as thoo miht hiere, F. U. 333 
To speke of love in the matiere 
And make a verrai resemblatice, 
4 Riht as a thief makth his chevance 

And robbeth mennes good aboute 
In wode and field, wher he goth oute. 
So be ther of these lovers some, 
In wylde stedes wher thei come 6110 

And finden there a womman able, 
And therto place covenabl^ 
Withoute lere, er that thei fare, 
Thei Uke a parte of that chaffare : 
Yee, though sche were a Scheperdesse, 
Yit wol the Jord of wantounesse 
Assaie, althogh sche be unmete, 
For other mennes good is swete. 
Bot therof wot nothing the wif 
At horn, which loveth as hir lif eiio 

Hir lord, and sitt. alday wisshinge 
After hir lordes horn comynge : 
Bot whan that he comth hom at eve, 

loi pourchu S . . . A 6ia3M]orAHRCL heere Hi am.E 
owTldeer wfaer]}crAH 6ti4hit<e)clMa'areHi...Bi >ich.H 

,i,:«:,y Google 



Hie loquitur contra 
istos in Bmoris causa 
predones, qui cum in 
cendam aspirant, for- 

opeiatur. Et namit 
quod cum Neptunua 
quamdain virgincm 
nomine Comicem so- 
lain iuita mare deam- 
bulantem opprimere 
suo furto voluissct, 
supenienieos Pallas 
ipsam e manibus ciua 
virginilate seruata 
gracius liberauit. 


Anon be makth his wif beleve, 

For sche noght elles scholde knowe: 

He telth hire hou his hunte hath blowe. 

And hou his houndes have wel mnne, 

And hou ther schon a merre Sunne, 

And hou his haulces fl owen wel ; 

Bot he wol telle her nevere a diel 

Hou he to love untrewe was, 

Of that he robhede in the pas, 

And tok his lust under the gchawe P. ii 

Ayein love and ayein his lawe. 

Which thing, mi Sone, I thee forbede. 
For it is an ungoodly dede. 
For who that takth be Robberie 
His love, he mai noght justefie 
His cause, and so fulofte sithe 
For ones that he hath be blithe. 
He schal ben after sory thries. 
Ensample of suche Robberies 
I finde write, as thou schalt hiere, 
Acordende unto this matjere. 

I rede hou whilom was a Maide, 
The faireste, as Ovide saide, 
Which was in hire time tho; 
And sche was of the chambre also 
Of Pallas, which is the goddesse 
And wif to Marte, of whom proucsse 
Is yove to these worthi knihtes. 
For he is of so grete mihtes. 
That he governedi the bataille ; 
Withouten him may noght availe 
The stronge bond, bot he it helpe; 
Ther mai no knyht of armes ^elp^ 
Bot he feihte under his banere. 
Bot nou to speke of mi matier^ 
This &ire, freisshe, lusti raai, 
Al one as sche wente on a dai 
Upon the stronde forto pleie, 
6151 >u AH )« HiXGRBi }o EC matgm cum om. 

.coy Google 


Ther cam Neptunus in the weie. 

Which hath the See in governance ; P. ii. 334 

And in his herte such plesance 

He tok, whan he this Maide sih, 

That at his herte aros on hih, 

For he so sodeinliche unwar 

Behield the beaute that sche bar. 

And caste anon withinne his herte 

That sche him schal no weie asterte, 6iyo 

Bot if he take in avantage 

Fro thiike maide som pilage, 

Noght of the broches ne the Ringes, 

Bot of some othre smale thinges 

He th<^hte ^ite^ er that sche wente ; 

And hire in bothc hise annes hente, 

And putte his hond toward the cofre, 

Wher forto robbe he made a profre, 

That lusti tresor forto stele, 

Which passeth othre goodes fele 61S0 

And cleped is the maiileabfid^ 

Which is the flour of wommanhede. 

This Maiden, which Comix be name 

Was bote, dredende alle schame, 

Sih that sche mihte noght debate, 

And wel sche wiste he wolde algate 

Fulfille his lust of Robberie, 

Anon began to wepe and crie. 

And seide, '0 Pallas, noble queene, 

Scheu nou thi myht and let be sene, 6190 

To kepe and save myn honour: 

Help, that I Icsc noght mi flour, 

Which nou under thi keie is loke.' P. U. 335 

That word was noght so sone spoke. 

Whan Pallas schop recoverir_ 

After the will and the desir 

Of hire, which a Maiden was. 

And sodeinliche upon this cas 

616a Hepdmua AHiR, BT, Hi 6167 at> sod.] al sod. Hi . . . Bi 
6178 Wherfor(e) to AB., A Whenrf to Hi Where to BT, W 
619a and] td F lete it be AH 

.coy Google 

[Tal£ ofCalisiona.] 

Hie ponit eiem- 
plum contni iuos in 
causa rirginilatia lese 

quod cum Caliatona 
l.ichaontU miro' pul- 

vir^nitalem Diane 
conMTuandanl castU' 
!iimavouisset,etin Sil- 
UBDique Tege* dicilur 
inter al iasib idem Nim- 
phas moratunun >e 


Out of hire wfiBimanisshe kinde 
Into a briddes like I finde 
Sclie was tnnsformed forth withal, 
So that Neptunus nothing stal 
Of such thing as be wolde have stole. 
With fetherea hlake as eny cole 
Out of hise armea in a throwe 
Sche flih before his yhe a Crowe; 
Which was to hire a more delit, 
To kepe hire maidenhede whit 
Under the wede of fethers hlake, 
In Perles whyte than forsake 
That no lif mai restore ayein. 
Bot thus Neptune his herte in vein 
Hath upon Robberie sett; 
The bridd is dowe and he was let, 
The faire Maide him hath escaped, 
Wherof for evere he was bejaped 
And scorned of that he hath lore. 
Mi Sone, be thou war therfore 
That thou no maidenhode stele, 
Wherof men sen deseses fele 
Aldai befalle in sondri wise; 
So as I schal thee yit devise 
An other tale thenipon, 
Which fell be olde dales gon. 

King Licbaon upon his wif P. 

A dowhter hadde, a goodly lif, 
A clene Maide of worthi fame, 
Calistona whos rihte name 
Was cleped, and of many a lord 
Sche was besoght, bot hire acord 
To love myhte noman winne, 
As sche which hath no lust therinne ; 
Bot swor within ne hir herte and saide 
That sche wolde evere ben a Maide. 
Wherof to kepe hireself in pes. 

6313 Haide] nay Mi . . . 
him W 6334 wol B 

him hath] is hini S . 

.coy Google 


With sucbe as Amadriades 

Were cleped, wodemaydes, tho. 

And with the Nimphes ek also 

Upon the spring of freisshe welles 

Sche schop to duelle and nagher elles. 

And thus cam this Calistona 

Into the wode of Tegea, 

Wher sche virginite behihte 

Unto Diane, and therlo plibte 

Her tTouthe iq>on the bowes grene, 

To kepe hir maidenhode dene. 

^Vhich afterward upon a day 

Was privelicbe stole away ; 

For Jupiter thurgh bis queintise 

From hire it tok in such a wise, 6150 

That sodeinliche forth withal 

Hire wombe aros and sche toswal, 

So that it mibte n<^bt ben bidd. 

And therupon it is b etidd, 

Diane, which it herde telle, F. U. 337 

In prive place unto a welle 

With Nimphes al a compainie 

Was come, and in a ragerie 

Sche seide that scbe bathe wolde, 

And bad that every maide scholde 6160 

With hire al naked batbe also. 

And tho b«^n the prive wo, 

Calistona wax red for scbame; 

Bot thei that knewe noght the game. 

To whom no such thing was be&lle. 

Anon thei made hem naked alle. 

As thei that nothing wolden hyde : 

Bot sche withdrouh hire evere asyde. 

And natbeles into the flod, 

Wher that Diane hirselve stod, 6170 

Sche tb<^te come unaperceived. 

Bot theraf scbe was al deceived ; 

For whan sche cam a litel nyb, 

6939 mtn^ qucDdam] quern B 6956 in to A . . . Bi, W 

6937 al a] alle AH al <pc (alle tbe) H<E . . . Bi £967 bydc AM 

[Talk of Calistona. ] 
tr&nstulissct, lapiter 

subtili fiirto eurripi- 
ens, quendun filium, 
qui postea Archas 

eius pulcritudiQcm in 
vTse turpissinie defor- 
roiuiem subito trans- 

.coy Google 


;i And that Diane hire wombe syh, 

Sche seide, 'Awey, thou foule beste, 

For thin astat is noght honeste 

This chaste water forto touche; 

For thou hast take such a touche. 

Which nevere raai ben hoi ayein.' 

And thus goth sche which was forlein 6iSo 

With schame, and fro the Nimphes fledde, 

Til whanne that nature hire spedde, 

That of a Sone, which Archas 

Was named, sche delivered was. 

And tho Juno, which was the wif P. U. 338 

Of Jupiter, wroth and Jiastif, 

In pourpos forto do vengance 

Cam forth upon this ilke chance. 

And to Calistona sche spak, 

And sette upon hir many a Jak, 6190 

And seide, 'Ha, nou thou art atake. 

That thou thi werk myht noght forsake. 

Ha, thou ungoodlich ypocn'te, 

Hou thou art gretly forto wyte I 

Bot nou thou schalt ful sore abie 

That like stehhe and micherie. 

Which thou hast bothe uke and do ; 

Wherof thi fader Lichao 

Schal noght be glad, whan he it wot, 

Of that his dowhter was so hot, 6300 

That sche hath t»oke hire chaste avou. 

Bot I thee schal chastise nou ; 

Thi grete beaute schal be toraed, 

Thurgh which that thou host be mistomed, 

Thi large frount, thin yhen greie , 

I schal hem change in other weie. 

And al the feture of thi (ace 

In such a wise I schal deface, 

That every man thee schal forbere.' 

With that the liknesse of a bere 631a 

Sche tok and was forschape anon. 

6aS9 h« AdBT 6993 vngoodlich JC, SB, F vngoodliche A 

6396 ormicheiye B 630a cbistie EC 6304 that om. AH, Ad 

.coy Google 


Withinne a time and therupon V 

Befell that with a bowe on honde, 
To bunte and gamen forto fonde, 
Into that wode goth to pleie P. 11. 339 

Hir Sone Arcbas, and in his weie 
It hapneth that this here cam. 
And whan that sche good hiede nam, 
Wher that he stod under the bowh, 
Sche kneu him wel and to him drouh ; 6310 
For tht^h sche badde hire fonoft lore, 
The love was noght lost therfore 
Which kinde hath set under his lawe. 
Whan sche under the wodesschawe 
Hire child behield, sche was so glad, 
That sche with bothe hire armes sprad. 
As thogh sche were in wommanhiede. 
Toward him cam, and tok non hiede 
Of that be bar a bowc bent. 
And he with that an Arwe bath hent fijjo 

And gan to teise it in his bowe, 
As he that can non other knone, 
Bot that it was a beste wylde. 
Dot Jupiter, which wolde gclj^lds. 
The Moder and the Sone also, 
Ordeineth for hem bothe so, 
That thei for evere were save. 

Bot thus, mi Sone, thou myht have 
Ensample, hou that it is to fle 
To robbe the vii^nite 6340 

Of a yong innocent aweie: 
And overthis be other weie, 
In olde bokes as I rede. 
Such Robbeiie is forto drede, 
And nameliche of thilke good P. il. 340 

Which every womman that is good 
Desireth forto kepe and bolde, 

6313 in hoDd« X, AdBTA 6317 tutppe|>E, AdBTA hipped W 
631S he YEC, AdBT £319 a bough Hi ... Ba, A 6394 

wodesschawe AJ, F woode schaweC,BT 6336 ao] tuo E, B 

too W 6341 ■ weie F 

.E or CAUaTONA,] 

.CD, Google 

! Tale or Calistoma, ] 

Hie loquitur de v[r- 
ginitads commenda- 
cione, vbi dicit quod 
nuper Imperatores ob 
tanti status diBniCRlem 
vi:;ginibus cedebtnl 

Hie loquitur, quar- 
ter Phyri DU3,iuuenuDt 
Rome pulcherrimus, 

seruaret virgiDitatcm, 
ambos oculos eniens 
vuJtus lui decorem 
abhominabilem con- 


As whilom was be daies olde. 
For if thou se mi tale wel 
Of that was tho, thou miht somdiel 
Of old ensample taken hiede, 
HoQ that the flour of maidenhiede 
Was thilke time bolde in pris. 
And so it was, and so it is. 
And so it schal for evere stonde : 
And for thou schalt it understonde, 
Nou herkne a ule next suiende, 
Hou maidenbod is to commende. 

:. Vi Rosa de spinis spimta prtualet orta, 
Et liliijlores cesfiitt plura valmt. 
Sic H6i virginilas camis sponsalia vincit, 
Etemcs fslui que sine lobe faril. 

Of Rome among the gestes olde 
I finde hou that Valerie tolde 
That what man tho was Emperour 
Of Rome, he scbolde don honour 
To the virgine, and in the weie, 
Wher he hire mette, he scholde obeie 
In worscbipe of virginite, 
Which tho was of gret dignite. 
N<^ht onliche of the wommen tho, 
Bot of the chaste men also 
It was commended overa] ; 
And forto speke in special 
Touchende of men, ensample I finde, P. i 

Phyryns, which was of mannes kinde 
Above alle othre the faireste 
Of Rome and ek the comelieste, 
That wel was hire which him mihte 
Beholde and have of bim a sihte. 
'" Thus was he tempted ofte sore; 

6331 olde enumples AdBT, W 

LoHh Vrrsts x. om. ktn and ins. lattr S . . . A (iiw. Aw* A) 

6361 That whilom was an emp. HiE That whilom J>er wa 

XRCLBi )>a/ what man was fo emp. A 6363 and ii 

AMR in LB. 6364 margin aedebaDt HiRCLBi 63 

a AdBT 6367 wooman H. . . . B., W 6373 Phirus 

.coy Google 


Bot for he wolde be nomore [Vibgiiiitv.] 

Among the wommen so coveited . 

The beaute of his face streiled 63S0 

He hath, and threste out botbe hise yhen, 

That alle wommen whiche him syhen 

Thanne afterward, of him ne roghte ; 

And thus his paidehiede he boghte. 

So mai I prove wel forthi. 

Above alle othre under the Sky, 

Who that the vertus wolde peise , 

Vii^nite is forto preise. 

Which, as thapocalips recordetb, 

To Crist in hevene best acordeth. 6390 

So mai it schewe wel therfore. 

As I have told it hier tofoie, 

In hevene and ek in Erthe also 

It is accept to bothe tuo*. 

And if I schal more over this 
Declare what this vertu is, 
I finde write upon this thing 

* Out of his llessb a man to live 
Gregoire hath this ensample yive, [„ (.me prefer 

And seith it schal rather be told orneni viuere jwcius 

, ■ , . . , r M viU anrelica quam 

Lich to an Angel manyfold, hunuuuiMt. 

Than to the lif of mannes kinde. P. il 349 
Ther is no reson forto finde, 6400* 

Bot only thurgh the grace above. 
In flessh withoute flesshly love 
A roan to live chaste hiere: 
And natheles a man mai hiere 
Of suche that have ben er this, 
And yit ther ben ; bot for it is 
A vertu which is sielde wonne, 
Now I this matiere have begonne, 

63^8 be am. AH 6381 threste] put B 6383 bimj il B 

6387 f. That maidenhode ii forto preise 

Who )^at >e vertuB wolde peise S . . . AA 
6390 Huirgin Hti secuntur aKnam quocunque ierit S& 
6395'-6438*Onfy«i SAdBTAA Tlutixt htrtfotlowa?/ 6396*ff. 
niar^n In came — est ottt. B ^^39^* Lich BT Liche S 

.CD, Google 

fCHASTmr or 
Hie loquitur quali- 

pcralor, cum ipse 
octogenariua plures 
prouincias Romano 


Of Valentinian the king 

And Emperaur be thilke daies, 

A worthi knyht at alle assaJes, 

Hon he withoute Manage 

Was of an hundred wynter Age, 

Hie loquitur quali- 
ter Valentinianua Im- 
perator, cum ipse 
octogenarius plures 

trouincias Romano 
nperio belliger sub- 

I thenhe tellen ovennore, 

Which is, mi Sone, for thi lore, 6410* 

If that the list to taken hiede. 

[. Vi Rcsa de spinis sptneto preualet orta, 
Kt lilii flares cespite plura vaJent, 
Sic sibi virginitai camis spotuaiia vincil, 
Etemos fettti que sine labt parit. 

To trete upon the maidenhiede, 
The bok seith that a raannes lif 
Upon knyhthode in werre and strif 
Is sett among hise enemys: 
The frele fieissh, whos nature is 
Ai redy forto spome and falle, 
The ferste foman is of alle ; 
For thilke werre is redi ai, 
It werre th nyht, it werreth dai, 6410' 

So that a man hath nevere reste. 
For thi is thilke knyht the beste, 
Thui^h myht and grace of goddes sonde 
Which that bataille ntai withstonde: 
Wherof yit duelleth the memoire 
Of hem that whilom the victaire 
Of thilke dedly werre hadden ; 
The Jiih prouesse which thei ladden, 
Wherof the Soule stod amended, P. il. 343 

Upon this erthe is yit commended. 6430' 

An Emperour be olde dayes 
Ther was, and he at alle assaies 
A worthi knyht was of his bond, 
Ther was non such in al the lond ; 

LaHn ytrsia x. tKatrieJ ttflir 6tia* SAdBT aft*r6^t^^ A 

6413* book BT bokeS fxiiij^ Milicia— temin Ba om. Sa 

6437* dedly ^T dcdely S £499* stood BT atode S 6430* 

w jit 5& it is AdBTA 

.coy Google 


And hfldde ben a worthi kniht 

Bothe of his lawe and of his myht. 

Bot whan men volde his dedes peise 

And bis luiyhtbode of Annes preise, 

Of that he dede with his hondes, 

Whan he the kinges and the londes 

To his subjeccion put under, 

Of al tliat pris bath be no wonder, 6*10 " 

For he it'sette of non acompte, 

And seide al that may noght amonte 

Ayeins point which he hath nome, 

That be his fleissh bath overcome : 

He was a viigine, as he seide ; P. it 344 

On that batailie bis pris he leide. (fi^s°') 

Lo nou, my Sone, avise thee. 

Vee, fader, al this wel mai be, 
Bot if alle othre dede so. 
The world of men were sone go : 64J0 

And in the lawe a man mai flnde, 
Hou god to man be weie of kinde 
Hath set the wcffld to multgjilie ; 
And who that wol bimjustefie, 
It is ynouh to do the lawe. 
And natbeles youre goode sawe 
Is good to kepe, who so may, 
I wol noght theiayein seie nay. 

Mi Sone, take it as I seie; 
If maidenhod be take aweie 6430 

Witboute lawes ordinance, 

Bot yit for al his vasselage 

He stod unw eddeaal' Jiis age, 

And in Cronique as it is told. 

He was an hundred wynter old. 

Bot whan men wolde etc. {as 6405 ft.) 

6408 ■a(l]of AdBT 6409 put AJ, S, F putt« B 6418 M7 
fader Hi ... Bi, Ad mil wel AUEC, 5 , . . AA 15439 take AJ. 
F tak SB 

6436* stood BT stode S margin contra .sue om. B 

I per 

Imperio beUiger sub- 
iuj;asset, dixit sc su| 
omnia ma^ gaudi 
de eo, quod contra sue 
camis concupiscenci- 
■m victoriam obtinu. 

iugasKt, diz it se au per 
omnia nugis gauderc 
de CO quod contra sue 
camia concupiscen- 

isset ; nam et ipse virgo 
omnibus diebus vitc 
sue castiisimus per- 

.CD, Google 


It mai nt^ht failen of vengance. 

And if thou wolt the sothe wite, 

Behold a tale vhidi is write, 

Hou that the King Agameoon, 

Whan be the Cite of Lesbon 

Hath wonne, a Maiden ther he fond, 

Which was the faireste of the Lond 

In thillce time that men wiste. 

He tok of hire what him liste 6440 

Of thing which was most precious, 

Wherof that sche was dangerous. 

This faire Maiden cleped is 

Criseide, douhter of Crisis, 

Which was that time in special P. ii. 345 

Of thilke temple principal, 

Wher Phebus hadde his sacriiice. 

So was it wel the more vice. 

Agamenon was thanne in weie 

To Troieward, and tok aweie 6450 

This Maiden, which he with him ladde, 

So grete a lust in hire he hadde. 

Bot Phebus, which hath gret desd eign 

Of that his Maiden was foilein, 

Anon as he to Troie cam, 

Vengance upon this dede he nam 

And sende a comun pestilence. 

Thei sc^hten thanne here evidence 

And maden calculadon. 

To knowe in what condition 6460 

This deth cam in so sodeinly ; 

And ate laste redyly 

The cause and^etThe man thei founde: 

And forth withal the same stounde 

Agamenon opposed was. 

Which hath beknowen al the cas (6500*) 

Of the folie which he wroghte. 

6444 Crueid(c) )« doughter AdBTA (Criseide dowhter S~' 
64sa grete AJ.S.F eretC, BT 646r in] hem AXC . . . Bi hym 
HHi 6463 he founde RCLBi be f. E 6465 a^wMd 

AM . . . Bt {mtpl E) 

.coy Google 


And therupon mercy thei soghte 

Toward the god in aondri wise 

With preiere and with sacrifise, 6470 

The Maide and hom ayein thei sendo, 

And yive hire good ynouh to spende 

For evere whil sche scholde live : 

And thus the Senne was foryive 

And al the pestilence cessed. P. 11. 346 

Lo, what it is to ben encressed 
Of love which is evele wonne. 
It were betre nc^ht b^onne 
Than take a thing witboute leve, 
Which thou most after nedes leve, 6480 

And yit have malgre forth withal. 
Forthi to robben overal 
In loves cause if thou be^nne, 
I not what ese thou schalt winne. 
Mi Sone, be wel war of this, 
For thus of Robberie it is. 

Mi fader, youre ensamplerie 
In loves cause of Robberie 
I have it riht wel understonde. 
Bot overthis, hou so it stonde, 6490 

Vit wolde I wite of youre apnse 
What thing is more of Covoitise. 

xi. IiuidioKdo iaienj ientpm rimatur et koram 
Fur, quiius occuUo tempore furta parai. 
Sic amor insidiis vacat, vt lub tegmine ludos 
Premiere furiiuoi noete fauente queat. 

With Covoitise yit I finde 
A Servant of the same kinde. 
Which Stelthe is bote, and Mecherie 
With him is evere in compainie. 

647r Biaide and] nayden (maide) Hi , . . Bt. AdBT, W 
;afAM...B., T, Wtgiave) 

6486 r. My fader so I wole I wis 

But now [wi}>} ;our ensamplerie Hi . . ■ Bi 
i.wi> am. all txapi E) 

LaHtt Vtrttt xi. i ad horam E, B a tempora AdBT 
Hi . . . B> 

ilia Cupiditatis specie, 
que secrelun laU^' 

.CD, Google 


cinium dicitur, cuius 
natura custode reruin 
nesdenle ea que cupil 
tam per diem qaam 
per nociem absque 
atrepitu clanculo fur- 


Of whom if I schal telle soth, 

He stalketh, as a Pocok doth, 

And takth his preie so corer t, 

That noman wot it in apert 6500 

For whan he wot the lord from home, P. li. 34^ 

Than wol he stalke aboute and rome; 

And what thing he fint in his weie, 

Whan that he seth the men aweie, 

He stelth it and golh forth withal. 

That Iherof noman knowe schal. 

And ek fulofte he goth a nyht 

Withoute Mone or sterrclibt, 

And with his aaft the dore unpjkgb, 

And takth therinne what bira liketh: 6510 

And if the dore be so schet, 

That he be of his entre let. 

He wole in ate wyndou crepe, 

And whil the lord is laste aslepe, 

He stelth what thing as him best list. 

And goth his weie er it be wist. {*Ss5o*) 

Fulofte also be lyhte of day 

Yit wole he stele and make assay ; 

Under the cole his bond he put, 

Til he the mannes Purs have cut, 6510 

And rifleth that he iint therinne. 

And thus he auntreth him to winne. 

And berth an horn and noght ne bloweth, 

For noman of his conseil knoweth ; 

What he mai gete of his Michinge, 

It is alj>i.le under thejringe. 

And as an hound that goth to folde 

And hath ther taken what he wolde, 

His mouth upon the gras he wypeth, 

And so with feigned chiere him slypeth, 6530 

That what as evere of schep he strangle, P. li. 348 

Ther is noman therof schal j^angle. 

As forto knowen who it dede; 

Riht so doth Stelthe in every stede. 

649!;i tmngih custodire A . . . B> 6501 at homi 

6518 wold(e) Hi . . . Bi 6533 Aa] And AdBT, H> 


.coy Google 


Where as him list his preie take. 

He can so wel his cause make 

And so wel feigne and so wel ^lose. 

That ther ne schal noman suppose, 

Bot that he were an innocent, 

And thus a mannes yhe he blent : 6540 

So that this crafte I mai remene 

Withouten help of enj mene. 

Ther be lov^s of that degre, [Stealth ofLovkbs.] 

Which al here lust in privete, 
As who seith, geten al be Stelthe, 
And ofte atteignen to gret welthe 
As for the time that it tasteth. 
For love awaiteth evere and casteth 
Hou he raai stele and cacche his preie, 
Whan he therto mai finde a wete : 6550 

For be it nyht or be it day. 
He takth his part, whan that he may, 
And if he mai nomore do, 
Yit wol he stele a cuss or tuo. 

Mi Sone, what seist thou therto? Confewor. 

Tell if thou dedest evere so. 

Mi tader, hou ? 

Mi Sone, thus, — 
If thou hast stpleQ eny cuss 
Or other thing which therto longeth, 
For noman suche thieves hpi^eth : 6560 

Tell on forthi and sei the trouthe. P. it 349 

Mi fader, nay, and that is routhe, Confenio Amanlis. 

For be mi will I am a thief; 
Bot sche that is to me most lief, 
Yit dorste I nevere in privete 
Noght ones take hire be the kne, ((i6oo*) 

To stele of hire or this or that, 
And if I dorste, I wot wel what: 
And natheles, bot if I lie, 
Be Stelthe ne be Robberie 6570 

Of love, which fell in mi thoght, 
To hire dede I nevere noght. 
«H7 And for AdBT, W 

.coy Google 


] Bot as men sein, wher herte is fiuled, 

Ther scbal no castel l bea assailed; 
Bot thc^h I badde hertes ten, 
And were als strong as alle men, 
If I be nogbt royn oghne man 
And dar noght usen that I can, 
I mai miielve noght tecovere .^ 
Thogh I be nevere man so povere, 6580 

I bere an herte and hiic it is, 
So that me faileth wit in tiiis, 
Hou that I scholde of m^ n acoid 
The servant lede ayetn the lord: 
For if mi fot wolde awher go. 
Or that min hand wotde elles do, 
Whan that myn herte is therayeln. 
The remenant is al in vein. 
And thus me lacketh alle wele. 
And yit ne dar I nothing stele 659a 

Of thing which longeth unto love : P. ii. 350 
And ek it is so hyh above, 
I mai no^t wel therto areche, 
Bot if so be at time of speche, 
Ful selde if thanne I stele may 
A word or tuo and go my way. 
Betwen hire hih astat and me 
Comparison ther mai non be, 
So that I liele and wel I wot, 
Al is to hevy and to hot 6600 

To sette on hond withoute leve: 
And thus I mot algate leve 
To stele that I mai n<%ht take, 
And in this wise I mot forsake 
To ben a thief aydn mi wille 
Of thing which I mai ne^ht fullille. 
For that Serpent irtiich nevere slepte 
The flees of gold so wel ne kepte , 

In Colchos, as the tale is tdd, 
That mi ladi a thousendfold 6(ito 

Nys betre yemed and bewaked, 
6585 wolde AJ, SB wold C, F 6597 Iiih A. F hibe B bye J 

.coy Google 


Whe r sche be clothed or be naked. t- 

To kepe hir bodi nyht and day, 

Sche hath a wardein redi ay, 

Which is ao wonderful a wyht, 

That him ne mai no mannes myht (*6so') 

With swerd ne with no wepne daunte, 

Ne with no sleihte of charme enchaunte, 

^Vherof he mihte be mad tame, 

And Dange r is his rihte name ; G690 

Which under l ock and under keie, P. il. 351 

That noman mai it stele aweie. 

Hath at the Tresor underfonge 

That unto love mai belonge. 

The teste lokinge of hire yhe 

Mai nt^ht be stole, if he it syhe ; 

And who so gnicchcth for so lyte, 

He wolde sone sette a wyte 

On him that wolde stele ro(H«. 

And that me griereth wonder sore, 6(30 

For this ^orerbe is evere newe. 

That stronge lokes maken trewe 

Of hem that wolden stele and pyke : 

For so wel can ther noman jly^** 

Be him ne be non other mene. 

To whom Danger wot yive or lene 

Of that tresor he hath to kepe. 

So thogh I wolde stalke and crepe, 

And wayte on ere and ek on morwe, 

Of Danger schal I nothing J>qrw^ 6640 

And stele I wot wel may I noght : 

And thus I am riht wel bethoght, 

Whil Darker stant in his office. 

Of Stelthe, which ye clepe a vice, 

I schal be gultif neveremo. 

Therfore I wolde he were ago 

So fer that I nevere of him herde, 

Hou so that afterward it ferde : 

6617 no om. HiE . . . Bi, H> 6 

6641 I wot wel nuj 1] wel ne may I 1 
wel I aai A 

.coy Google 


[Stealth OF Lovers.] For thanne I mihte yit per cas 

Of love make som pourcbas 6650 

Be Sielthe or be som other weie, P. ii 353 
lliat nou fi6 me slant fer aweie. 
Bot, fader, as ye tolde above, 
Hou Stelthe goth a nyht for love, 
I mai noght wel that point forsake, 
That ofte times I ne wake 
On nyhtes, whan that othre slepe ; 
Bot hou, I prei you taketh kepe. 
Whan I am loged in such wise 
That I be nyhte mai arise, 6660 

At som wyndqw e and loken oute 
And se the housinge al aboute, 
So that I mai the chambre knowe 
In which mi ladi, as I trowe, 
Lyth in hir bed and slepeth softe, 
Thanne is myo herte a thief fulofte ; (6700*) 
For there I stonde to beholde 
The longe nyhtes that ben colde. 
And thenke on hire that lylh there. 
And thanne I wisshe that I were 6670 

Ala wys as was Nectanabus 
Or elles as was Protbeiis, 
That couthen bothe of nigrornaunce 
In what liknesse, in what jgrnblaiioce, 
Riht as hem liste, hemself transforme : 
For if I were of such a forme, 
I seie thanne I wolde fie 
Into the chambre forto se 
If eny grace wolde &Ile, 

So that I mihte under the palle «6Ba 

Som thing of love pyk e and stele. P. IL 355 
And thus I thenke thoghtes fele. 
And thogh therof nothing be soth, 
Yit ese as for a lime it doth : 
Bot ate laste whanne I fjnde 
That I am falle into roy mynde, 
6653 tolde) me told« AH 6659 such a wise MHiE . . . B>, W 

6667 lo] snd S . . . & 6678 the] hire (hir) X...Bi,B ber« U< 

.coy Google 


And se that I have stonde tonge 

And have no profit underfonge, 

Than stalke I to mi bedd withinne. 

And this is al that evere I winne 6690 

Of love, whanne I walke on nyht : 

Mi will is good, bot of mi myht 

Me lacketh bothe and of mi grace; 

For what so that mi thoght embrace, 

Yit have I noght the betre ferd. 

Mi fader, lo, nou have ye herd 

What I be Stelthe of love have do. 

And hou mi will hath be therto : 

If I be worthi to penance 

I put it on your ordinance. fi7oo 

Mi Sone, of Stelthe I the behiete, 
Thogh it be for a time swete. 
At ende it doth bot litel good, 
As be ensample hou that it stod 
Whilom, I mai thee telle nou. 

I preie you, fader, sei me hou. 

Mi Sone, of him which goth be daie 
Be weie of Stelthe to assaie, 
In loves cause and takth his preie, 
Ovide seide as I schal seie, 6710 

And in his Methamor he tolde P. il. 354 

A tale, which is good to holde. 

The Poete upon this matiere 
Of Stelthe wrot in this manere. 
Venus, which hath this lawe in honde 
Of thing which mai noght be withstonde, (6750') Hie in 
As sche which the tresor to warde 
Of love hath withinne hir warde, 
Phebum to love hath so constieigned, 
That he withoute leste is peined 
With al bis herte to coveite "' 

6694 whoBoAdBT )K>ght ()ioaght! C, SB )aghte(|!autil«^ AJ, F 
6697 ba doo AH kan do A 670a put AJ, S, F pulte B 

it on^ it in HiECL me in Bi 6706 tel E, B 6715 his lawe 

AHX...Bi hire lawe Hi )« Uwe S.. .& 6717 margin it die] 
die Ht . . . Bi de nocte B 6719 Phebiu Hi . . , B> 

[Stcalth of Lovers.] 


super iito Lalrocinio 
qucHl de die contigit 
ponil exemplum. El 
narrat quod, cum 
Leuchotoe Orchami 
filia in cameris sub 
arts matris custodia 


.coy Google 

virgiDis pudiciciain 
matre nescia deflora- 
uit: vnde ipsa inpreg- 
natairatua pater flliam 
suam ad sepeliendum 
viuun effodit ; ex 
cuius tuinulo florem, 
queiil Solsequium vo- 
cant. dicunt tuDccon- 
sequenter primitus 


A Maiden, which was warded streyte 
Withinne chambre and kept so ctos, 
That selden was whan sche desclos 
Goth with hir moder forto pleie. 
Leucbotoe, so as men seie, 
This Maiden hihte, and Orchamus 
Hir fader was ; and befell thus. 
This doughter, that was kept so deere, 
And hadde be fro yer to yeere 6730 

Under hir moder discipline 
A dene Maide and a Virgine, 
Upon the whos nativite 
Of comelihiede and of beaute 
NatureEath set al that sche may, 
That lich unto the fresshfi Maii, 
Which othre monthes of the yeer 
^Sy pnnn tpi-h^ so withoute pier 
Was of this Maiden the feture. 
Wherof Phebus out of mesure 6740 

Hire loveth, and on every syde P. il. 355 

Avaiteth, if so mai betyde. 
That he thurgh eny sleihte myhte 
Hire lusti maidenhod nnrihu i^, 
The which were al his worldes welthe. 
And thus lurkende upon his stelthe 
In his await so longe he lai. 
Til it befell upon a dai. 
That he thurghout hir chambre wall 
Cam in al sodeinliche, and stall 6750 

That thing which was to him so lief. 
Bot wo the while, he was a thief I 
For Venus, which was enemie 
Of tbilke loves mi cherie , 
Discorereth al the pleine cas 
To Clymene, which thanne was 

6706 tHatgiti autre Descia] matre HiRCLBi matre nesciente X, B 
DcacieDte matre E ^31 margin quem om. AHHiE . . . Ba 

6739 margin nunc Hi ■ . • Bi <iT43 if om. All 6746 thus 

om. AH 6751 wbicb] )at A . . . Bi om. W 6756 How it 

befell and how it WM Hi . . . B> 

.coy Google 


Toward Phebus his concubine. 

And sche to lette the covine 

Of thiike love, dedli wroth 

To plcigne upon this Maide golh, 6760 

And tolde hire fader hou it stod ; 

Wherof for sorwe welnyh wod 

Unto hire moder thus he saide : 

' Lo, what it is to Icepe a Maide ! 

To Phebus dar I nothing speke, 

Bot upon hire I schal be wreke, (6800*) 

So that these Maidens after this 

Mow take ensample, what it is 

To soffre her maidenhed be stole, 

Wherof that sche the deth schal thole' 6770 

And bad with that do make a pet, P. ii. 356 

Wherinne he hath his doubter set, 

As he that wol no pite have, 

So that sche was al quik begrave 

And deide anon in his presence. 

Bot Phebus, for the reverence 

Of that sche hadde be his love. 

Hath wroght thurgh his pouer above. 

That sche sprong up out of the molde 

Into a flour was named goldc, 6780 

Which gtant governed of the Sonne. 

And thus whan love is evele wonne, 

Fulofte it comth to repentaile. 

Mi fader, that is no mervaile. 
Whan that the conseil is bewreid. 
Bot ofte time love hath pleid 
And stole many a prive game. 
Which nevere yit cam into blame, 
Whan that the thinges weren hidde. 
Bot in youre tale, as it betidde, 6790 

Venus discoverede al the cas. 
And ek also brod dai it was, 
Whan Phebusliicli a Stelthe wroghte, 

6766 it schal S . . . A 6768 Mow AC, S, F Howe J, B 

6769 hir(e) AJK, WH. 6771 do make J, SA, FHi to make 

AH,A<18T,V» go nuke Hi . . . B> 

.coy Google 

[Tau of Hercules 

Hie ponit exem- 
plum super eodem 
quod de nocte conCigit. 

Hercules cum Eole in 
quadam spelunca no- 
bili, Thopbis dicta, 
sub moate Thymolo, 
vbi silua Bachi est, ho- 
spicici pemoctarunt. 

e Her- 

cule fureri posset. 
Ct cum ad lectum 
Herculis muliebri pal- 
pata v«Bte ei cmu per- 
uenisKt, putans Eo- 
ien fuiase, cubiculum 
nudo corpora ingre- 


Wherof the Maide in blame he broghte, 

That afterward sche was so lore, 

Bot for ye seiden nou tofore 

Hou stelthe of lore goth be nyhte, 

And doth hise thinges out of syhte, 

Therof me liste also to hiere 

A tale lich to the matiere, 6800 

Wherof I niyhte cnsample take. P> ii. 357 

Mi goode Sone, and for tbi sake, 
So as it fell be daies olde. 
And so as the Poete it tolde, 
Upon the nyhtes micherie 
Nou herkne a tale of Poesie. 

The myhtieste of alle men 

Whan Hercules with Eolen, 

Which was the love of his corage, 

Togedre upon a Pelrin^e 6Sto 

Towardes Rome scholden go. 

It fell hem be the weie so, 

That thei upon a dai a Cave 

Withinne a roche foundenliave, 

Which was real and glorious 

And of Entaile ciiriouSj (6S50*) 

fie name and Thophis it was bote. 

The Sonne schon tho wonder bote, 

As it was in the Somer tyde; 

This Hercules, which be his syde 6810 

Hath Eolen his love there. 

Whan thei at thiike cave were. 

He seide it thoghte him for the beste 

That sche hire for the bete reste 

Al thitke day and thiike nyht; 

And sche, that was a lusti wyht. 

It liketh hire al that he seide : 

And thus thei duelle there and pleide 

The longe dai. And so befell, 
6795 he AdBT 680a and om. B 6803 bifdl AH, Ad, H> 

6811 Toward XRCLBi Towarde Hi 6616 margai seclia 

ARCLBi 6891 S Am /OS/ a JAt/'(ll.68at-7aoo) 6&»^ margin 

voluntalem AH 

.coy Google 


This Cave was under the hell 

Of Tymolus, which was begrowe 

With vines, and at thilke throws 

Faunus with Saba the goddesse, 

Be whom the large witdernesse 

In thilke time stod governed, 

Weere in a place, as I am lemed, 

Nyh by, which Bachus wode hihte. 

This Faunus tok a gret msihte 

Of Eolen, that was so nyh ; 

For whan that he hire beaute syh, 

Out of his wit he was assoted. 

And in his herte it hath so noted. 

That he forsok the Nimphes alle, 

And seide he wolde, bou so it falle, 

Assaie an other forto winne; 

So that his hertes thoght withinne 

He sette and caste hou that he myhte 

Of love pyke awey be nyhte 

That he be daie in other wise 

To stele mibte noght suffise : 

And therupon his time he waiteth. 

Nou tak good htede hou love aiaitetb 
Him which withal is overcome. 
Faire Eolen, whan sche was come 
With Hercules into the Cave, 
Sche seide him that sche wolde have 
Hise clothes of and hires bothe. 
That ech of hem scholde other clothe. 
And al was do riht as sche bad, 
He hath hire in hise clothes clad 

6830 [Tale ok Hbhcdlks 
p. 11. 358 . •"" F«-"»0 

Hercules nunibus 
apprehensuin ipsum 
..... _... ,.. fortjter 



I efTectus 

requieuit, vbi Saba 
cum Nimphis siluesiri- 
bus supenieniens ip- 
sum sic inusum deri- 


8636 Weere r Were AC, B Wlier{e) JG 6839 so o«. 

HiXRCLBi him E 6846 berte HiRCLBi 

For 6848-6851 X Aaa— 

ThM he by dsye in o>er stede 

Sbr oi^te fat he hs^ prayde and bede 

To stele wyjte noujt tuffite 

Be)K>ujte hifM Jm a no^r wiK 

And )vr vpon hb time awaite)) 
6856 him (w<. A . . . Bi 6657 hire AH, B 6B58 That] 

And AH ... Bi 

.coy Google 


And caste on hire his ^lioa, P. il 359 

Which of the Skyn of a Leoun 

Was mad, as he upon the weie 

It slotih, and overthis to pleie 

Sche tok his grete Mace also 

And knet it at hir gerdil tho. {6900*) 

So was sche lich the man arraied, 

And Hercules thanne hath assaied 

To clotben htm in hire array : 

And thus thei jape forth the dai, 6Sjo 

Til that her Sonper redy were. 

And whan thei hadden souped there, 

Thei schopen hem to gon to reste; 

And as it thoghte hem for the heste, 

Thei bede, as for that ilke nyht, 

Tuo sondri beddes to he dyht, 

For thei togedre li^e nolde. 

Be cause that thei offre wolde 

Upon the morwe here sacrifice. 

The serrantz deden here office 6880 

And sondH beddes made anon, 

Wherin that thei to reste gon 

Ech be himself in sondri place. 

Faire Eole hath set the Mace 

Beside hire beddes bed above, 

And with the clothes of hire love 

Sche helede al hire bed aboute ; 

And he, which hadde of nothing doute, 

Hire wympel wond aboute his cheke, 

Hire kertell and hire mantel eke 6B90 

Abro d upon his bed he spredde. P. IL 360 

And thus thei slepen bothe abeddej 

And what of travail, what of wyn, 

The servantz lich to drunke Swyn 

Begunne forto rpute^ &ste. 

This Faunus, which his Steltbe caste, 
Was thanne come to the Cave, 
And fond thei weren alle save 
6867 the man] to man Hi . . . Bi 68S3 Ech AJC. B Eche F 

hemseir B 6B95 BeginDe H> . . . Bt (uc^ C), AdBT 

.coy Google 


Withoute noise, and in he wente. 
The derke nyht his sihte blente, 
And yit it happeth him to go 
Where Eolen abedde tho 
Was leid al one for to slepe ; 
Bot for he wolde take kepe 
Whos bed it was, he made assai. 
And of the Leoun, where it lay, 
The Cote he fond, and ek he fieleth 
The Mace, and thanne his herte kieleth, 
That there dorste he noght abyde, 
Bot stalketfa upon every side - 
And soghte aboute with his hond, 
That other bedd til that he fond, 
Wher lai bewympled a visage. 
Tho was he glad in his corage, 
For he hir kertell fond also 
And ek hir mantell bothe tuo 
Bespred upon the bed alofte. 
He made him naked thanne, and softe 
Into the bedd unwar he crepte, 
Wher Hercules that time slepte. 
And wende wel it were sche ; 
And thus in stede of Eole 
Anon he profreth him to love. 
But he, which felle a man above. 
This Hercules, him threw to grounde 
So sore, that thei have him founde 
Liggende there upon the morwe; 
And tho was noght a litel sorwe, 
That Faunus of himselve made, 
Bot elles thei were alle glade 
And lowhen him to scorne aboute : 
Saba with Nimphis al a route 
Cam doun to loke hou tTia'the ferde. 
And whan that thei the sothe herde. 
He was bejaped overal. 
Mi Sone, be thou" war withal 
rew C, B Jirewe AJ, F 693a a route J, B, F 


P. U. 361 

.coy Google 


To seche suche mecheries, 

Bot if (bou have the betre aspies, 

In aunter if the so betyde 

As Paunus dede thiike tyde, 6940 

Wherof thou miht be schamed so. 

Min holi fader, certes na 
Bot if I hadde riht good leve, 
Such mecherie I thenke leve: 
Mi feinte herte wol noght serve; 
For ina)^ wolde I noght deserve 
In thiike place wher I love. 
Bot for ye totden bier above 
Of Covoitise and his pilage, 
If ther be more of that lignage, 6950 

Which toucheth to mi scbrifte, I preie P. ii. 36a 
That ye therof me wolde seie, 
So that I mai the vice eschuie. 

Mi Sone, if I be order suie 
The vices, as thei stonde arowe, 
Of Covoitise thou scfaalt knowe 
Ther is yit on, which is the laste ; 
In whom ther mai no vertu laste. 
For he with god himself debateth, 
Wherof that al the hevene him hateth. 6950 

Hie traclst super 
vliiroa Cupidiutis 
specie, que Sacrile- 
gium dicta est, cuius 
furtum e» que altis- 
simo sanctiRcanlur 
bona depredasseccle- 
sie tantum spoliis in- 

ii. Sacrilegus ionium fitrio loia sacra prophanatj 
Vt sibi sunt agri, sic domus alma del. 
Ntc locus est, in guo non temptat amans quod amatur, 
Et que posse nequit carpere, velU capit. 
The hihe god, which alle goode 
Pourveied hath for mannes fode 
Of clothes and of mete and drinke, 
Bad Adam that he scholde swinke 
To geten him his sustienance; ~ 
And ek he sette an ordinance 
Upon the lawe of Mo'ises, 
That though a man be haveles, 
Vit schal he noght ^ thefte stele. 
Bot nou adaies ther ben ^e, 
«954 Mi om. AdBT 6955 on rowe HiRCLBi 6967 . 



.coy Google 


That wol no labour undertake, 

Bot what thei maj be Stelthe take 

Thei holde it sikerlicbe wonne. 

And thus the lawe is overronne, 

Which god hath set, and namely 

With hem that so untrewely 

The goodes robbe of holi cherche. 

The thefte which thei thanne werche P, ii. 363 

Be name is cleped Sacrilegge, 

Ayein the whom I thenke al^ge.* 1S9S0 

Of his condicion to telle. 

Which lifleth bothe bok and belle, 

So forth with al the remenant 

• Upon the point! as we ben taught 
Stant sacril^e, and elles nought. 

The firste point is for to seye. 
Whan that a thief schal stele aweye 
The holy thing from holy place. 

The secounde is, if he pouichace 7010* 

By wey of thefte jinhgly thing. 
Which he upon his knowleching 
Fro holy place aweie took. 

The thridde point, as seith the book, 
Is such as, wher as evere it be, 
In woode, in feld or in Cite, 
Schal no man stele by no wise 
That halwed is to the servise 
Of god which alle thinges wot. 
But ther is nouther cold ne hot, 7030* 

Which he for god or man wol spare, 
So that the body may wel fare ; 
And that he may the world aschape. 
The hevene him ihenkth is but a jape : 
And thus, the sothe for to telle, 
He rifleth bothe book and belle, 
So forth with al, etc. (as 6983 ff.) 

70is*-7036* Only in AdBTA (mX A) S k> ktrt Jffidnu, but iHJ not 
conlam Ou passagt, TtxifitUotcsB Tois'f.toghl: naghiT 7005* 
ciurcTeuerB 7034* jieiike)! B thinkth T 703e*rilletbT ruyQe>B 

.coy Google 


To goddes hous appourtenant, 
Wher that he scholde bidde his bede, 
He doth his thefte in holi stede, 
And takth what thing he tint theriiuie; P. ii.364 
For whan he seih that he mai winne, 
He wondeth for no cursednesse, 
That he ne brekth the holinesse 6990 

And doth to god no reverence ; 
For he hath lost his conscience. 
That though the Prest thetfore curse, 
seilh he fareth nogbt the wurse. 
And forto speke it otherwise, 
What man that lasseth (he franchise (7050*) 
And takth of holi cherche his preie, 
I not what bedes he schal preie. 
Whan he fro god, which hath yive al. 
The Pourpartie in special, jooo 

Which unto Crist himself is due, 
Benymtb, he mai noght wel eschue 
The peine comende afterward ; 
For he bath mad his foreward 
With Sacrilegge foito duelle, 
Which hath bis heritage in belle. 
And if we rede of tholde lawe, 
I finde write, in thiike dawe 
Of Princes hou ther weren thre 
Coupable sore in this degre. 7010 

That on of hem was cleped thus. 
The proude king Antiochus; 
That other Nabuzardan hihte. 
Which of his crualte behyhte 
The temple to destruie and waste, 
And so he dede in alle haste ; 
The thridde, which was afler schamed, P. li. 365 
Was Nabugodonosor named, 

6994wurwA, F worse JC,B ^ool S nsumts 7007(7o6i*j 
matgin SBAA kmit htn Hie tracUt piecipue de tribus sacrilegis, 
qaorum vnus fiiit Antiochus, alter NabuzanUa, lercius Nabugodonosor. 
(precipue out. A) 7008 Uwe AdfiT 7009 bou out. Hi . . . Bi 

701a sore] alle Hi . . , Bi 

.coy Google 


And he Jerusalem putte under, 

Of Sacritegge and many a wonder 7010 

There in the holi temple he wroghte, 

Which Baltazai his heir aboghte, 

Whan Mane, Techel, Phares write 

Was on the wal, as thou miht wite, 

So as the bibje it hath declared. 

Bot for al that it is noght spared 

Yit nou aday, that men ne j)ile. 

And maken arf pinient and skJIe 

To Sacrii^^ as it belongeth. 

For what man that ther after longstb. 7030 

He takth non hiede what he doth.* 

And ribt so, forto telle soth, 
In loves cause if I schal trete, 

* And if a man schal telle soth. 
Of guile and of soubtilite 
Is non so slyh in his degre 
To feigne a thing for his beyete. 
As is this vice of which I trete. 7090' 

He can so priveliche pyke, 
He can so wel hise wordes slyke 
To putte awey suspecioun, 
That in his £x?"sacioiui. 
Ther schal noman defalte finde. 
And thus fulofte men be blinde, 
That stonden of his word deceived, 
Er his queintise be perceived. 
Bot natheles' yit otherwhile, P. 11. 366 

For al his sleybte and al his guile, 7100* 

or that he wolde his werk forsake, 
He is atteint and overtake ; 
Wberof thou schalt a tale rede, 
In Rome as it befell in dede. 

Toaa (7076*) margiH Nota de scriptani in pariele tempore Regit 
BaltaMT, que fuit nuoe, techel, phara SBa (script* B) Toas il out. 
Hi . . . Bi 

7ciB6*-7aiii* Only in SAdBTAA Ttxt km /dlUmi S 7100" 

sleyhte Sa stdlie AdBT 7104* inx oMt. BT 

.coy Google 


Ther ben of suche snuUe and grete : 

If thei DO l eisir fynden elles, 

Thei wol noght wonden for the belles, 

[Tai^ or Ldcius iun> 

Hie loquitur de illis 
q u i lanuU coascieDdi 
Sacrilegium sibi licerc 
finguQL Et uarrat 
quod, cum quidam 
Lucius dericuB faino- 
sus et Imperatori Do- 
lus deum suum Apol- 
linem in lemplo Rome 
de aaulo 9uo, pallio 
et burba aurea spolias- 
set, ipse tandem ap- 

Erehenaus et coram 
nperatore accusatus 
taliter se eicusando 
ait: 'Anulum a deo 
recepi, quia ipse digi- 
ts protenso ex sua 
lirgitate anulum hunc 
gradose michi optu- 
lit; pallium ex lamine 

tuli, quia aurum max- 
ime ponderosum el 
fri{^dum naturaliter 
conaistit, vnde uec in 
estate propter pondus 
nee in yeme propter 
rrigu3 ad del vestes 
vtile fuit ; bartwm ab 
eo depoaui, quia ip- 
sum patri suo assimi- 

Apollo, qui ante ip- 

absque barba iuvenis 
apparuit. Et sic ea 
que gessi non ex fur- 
to set honestate pro- 
cessisse manifeste de- 

Er Rome cam to t^e 
Of Cristes feith, it fell per chance, 
Cesar, which the was Emperour, 
Him liste forto don honour 
Unto the temple Apollinis, 
And made an yniage upon this, yiio* 

The which was cleped Apollo. 
Was non so riche in Rome tho; 
Of plate of gold a^^^ he hadde, 
The which his brest al overspradde ; 
Of gold also withoute faile 
His mantell was of large entaile, 
Beset with perrie a! aboute, 
Forthriht he strawhte liis finger, oute, 
Upon the which be hadde a ryng. 
To sen it was a riche thing, 7110* 

A fin Carbuncle for the nones, 
Most precious of alle Stones, 

And fell that time in Rome thus : 
Ther was a clerk, on Lucius, 
A Coiirtepur, a famous man. 
Of every witt somwhat he can, 
Outake that bim lacketh reule 
His oghne astat to guide and reule; 
How so it stod of his spelclnge, P. 11. 367 

He was nogbt wys in bis doinge. 7'3o' 

Bot every not ate laste 
Mot nedes falle and mai noght laste : 
After the meede of his decerte, 
So fell this clerk into poverte 
And wiste noght bow forto ryse; 
Wherof in many a sondri wyse 

^191* charboDcle AdT charbocle B 7106* margM bartwm 

ab eo] barbam a deo BA (HtiirfTn om. AdT) 7198* margin 

volui] nolui BA 7199* tttargin qui ante — tempio tan, B 

7139* margin set twiiestatc] sed ex honestate BA 

.coy Google 


Ne thogh thei sen the Prest at 
That wol thei leten overjrasse. 
If that thei Rnde here love there, 

He caste his wittes hier and ther. 

He loketb nyh, he loketh fer, 

Til on a time that he com 

Into the temple, and hiede he nom 

Wher that the god Apollo stod. 

He sih the richesse and the good, 

And thf^bte he wolde be som weie 

The tresor pyke and stele aweie ; 

And tbenipon so slyhly wn^hte, 

That his pourpos aboute he broghte, 

And wente awey unaparceived. 

Thus hath (he man his god deceived, 

His ryng, his mantell and his Jjeerd, 

As be which nothing was a feerd, 

Al prively with him he bar: 

And whan the wardeins weren yiar 

Of that here god despuiled was, 

Hem thogbte it was a wonder cas, 

How that a man for eny wele 

Durste in so holy place stele. 

And namely so gret a thing. 

This tale cam unto the king. 

And was tburgh spoken ovend : 

Bot forto knowe in special 

What maner man hath do the dede, 

Tbei soghten help upon the nede 

And maden calculacioun, 

Wherof be demonstracioun 

The man was founds with the good. 

In juggement and whan be stood. 

The king hath a:fed of him thus: 

'Sey, thou UDsely Lucius, 

Whi hast thou don this sacrilege?' 

P. U. 368 


7i40*he(nf>. AdBTA 
(a ferd) SB •fcrd T 
gret BT grete 5 

7148* the] he S 7150* " feerd 

7156* Durste BT Duist S 7157* 

.coy Google 


Thei stonde and tellen in hire Ere, 
And axe of god non other grace, 
Whyl thei ben in that hoU place; 

P. ii. 370 

' Mi lord, if I the cause allege,' 
Quod he ayein, 'me thenketh this, 
That I have do nothii^ amis. 
Thre pointz ther ben whiche I have do, 
Wherof the fcrste point slant so, 
That I the ryng have take aweie. 
As unto that this wole I seie: 
Whan I the god behJeld aboute, 
I sih how he his bond strawhte oute 
And profred me the ryng to yive ; 
And I, which wolde gladly live 
Out of povert of his largMse, 
It underfeng, so that I gesse, 
As therof I am noght to wyte. 
And evermore I wol me quite , 
Of gold that I the mantell tok : 
Gold in his kinde, as seith the bok, 
Is hevy bothe and cold also ; 
And for that it was hevy so. 
Me thoghte it was no gamement 
Unto the god conveni^t, 
To clothen him the somer tide; 
I thoghte upon that other side 
How gold is cold, and such a cloth 
Be resoun oghte to be loth 
In wynter time for the chele. 
And thus thenkende thoghtes fele. 
As I myn yhe aboute caste. 
His large beerd thanne ate laste 
I syh, and thoghte anon tberfore 
How that his fader him before, jt 

Which stod upon the same place, 
Was beerdles with a yongly face : 
And in such wise as ye have herd 
7i76'AsTnto)iatSA VqIo |i>t AdTA Voto )iat point B ^t 
o( S& ^urgh BT ^ro Ad 7103* And ... am I AdBTA 

P. 11369 

.coy Google 


Bot er thei gtm som avantage 

Ther wol thei have, and som pllage 

Of goodii word or of behest^ 

Or elles thei take ate leste 

Out of hir hand or ring or g)ov^ 

So nyh the wedw thei wol lov^ 

As who seith sche schal iK^ht foiyete, 

Nou I this tokne d hire have gete : 7050 

Thus halwe thei the bihe feste. 

Such thefte mal no cbeiche^areite^ 

For al is levefiil that hem IJketh, 

To whom that ellea it misliketh. 

And ek riht in the selve kinde 

In grete Cites men mai finde 

This lusd folk, that make it gay. 

And waite upon the haliday : 

In cherches and in Menstres eke 

Thei gon the wommen forto aeke, 7060 

And wher that such on goth aboute, 

Tofore the faiieste of the routCt 

Wher as thei sitten alle arewe, 

Ther wol he most hia bodi schewe, 

His croket kembd and tberon set 

A Nouche with a chapetet, 

Or elles on of giene leves, 

Which late com out of the greves, 

Al for he scboMe seme frdsah. 

And thus he k>keth on the Oeissh, 7070 

1 tok awey the Sones berd, |' 

For that his fader hadde non, 

To make h«D liche, and biar upon 

I axe forto boi excused.* 

Lo thus, wher Sacrilq;e is used, 
A man can fagne his (xHtscience; 
And riht upon such evidence 7aio* 

In loves cause, &c. {as 7033 ff.) 

7048 lore] houe G, AdBTA 1053 l«aefiil AJ, S, F leaful C 

licfiil B 7iyjci the fleiath] hU 0. AdBTA 

7«cH* took BT tc^ S 

.coy Google 


[Sacriligi or Riht as an hauk which hath a sihte P. ii. 371 

And as he were of foierie, 
He scheweth him tofore here yhe 
In holi place wher tbei sitte, 
Al forto make here hertes flitte. 
His yhe nawher wole abyde, 
Bot loke and^nejon every syde 
On hire and hire, as him best lyketh : 
And otherwhil e among he syketh ; 7080 

Thenkth on of hem, ' That was for me,' 
And so ther thenken tuo or thre, 
And yit he loveth non of alle, 
Bot wher as evere his chance &lle. 
And natheles to seie a soth, 
The cause why that be so doth 
Is forto stele an herte or tuo, 
Out of the cherche er that he go : 
And as I seide it hter above, 
A] is that ^acrilege of love ; 7090 

For wel mai be he stelth away 
That he nevere after jelde may. 
Tell me forthi, my Sone, anon, 
Hast thou do Sacrilege, or non, 
As I have said in this manere? 
Confessio Amintii. Mi fader, as of this matiere 

I wole you tellen redely 
What I have do; bot trewely 
I mai excuse min entente, 
That nevere I yit to cherche wente 7100 

In such manere as ye me schryve^ P. U. 373 
For no womman that is on lyve. 
The cause why I have it laft 
Mai be for I unto that craft 
Am nothing able so to stele, 
Thi^h ther be wommm noght so fele. 
Bot yit wol I noght seie this, 
Whan I am ther ml ladi is. 

7078 preie (preyl AUHi 

7094 do] be CL 7106 nogfbt] 

.coy Google 


In whom lith b olly mi quereie, 
And sche to dierche or to chapele ;iio 

Wol go to matins or to mess^— 
That time I waite wel and gesse. 
To cherche I come and there I stondc, 
And thc^h I take a bok on honde, 
Mi contienance is on the bok, 
Bot toward hire is at my lok; 
And if so falle that I preie 
Unto nu god, and somwKaT seie 
Of Paternoster or of Crede, 
Al is for that I wolde spede, 71J0 

So that mi bede in boli cherche 
Ther mihte som miracle werche {73«>') 

Mi ladi berte forto cbaui^e, 
Which evere hath be to me so strange. 
So that al mi derocion 
And al mi contemplacion 
With al min herte and mi corage 
Is only set on hire ymage ; 
And evere I waite upon the tyde. 
If sche loke eny thing asyde, 71J0 

That I me mai of hire avise, F, U. 373 

Anon I am with covoitise 
So smite, that me were hef 
To ben in boli cherche a thief; 
Bot noght to stele a vestement, 
For that is notblt^ mi talent, 
Bot I wold stele, if that I mihte, 
A glad word or a goodly syhte; 
And evere mi service I profre. 
And namly whan sche wol gon offie, 7140 

For thanne I lede hire, if I may, 
For somwhat wolde I stele away. 
Whan I becligge hire (m the wast, 
Yit ate leste I stele a tast, 
And otherwbile 'grant mercy' 
Sche seith, and so winne I therby 
7119 or of] of a AH 7194 to me ha)> be ttrenge Hi . . . Bi, W 
7i3tonbtreA...B« onhereHi 7i37woldC,S, F woldeAJ,B 

itizecy Google 


-BOK or A lusti jQUch. a good word eVe, 

"'■-' Bot al the remenant to aeke 

Is fh} mi pourpos wond^ fenr. 

So mai I sete^ as I seide er, 7150 

In holy cherche if that I wowe, 

My conscience it wolde allows 

Be so that ug amendement 

I mihte upte asajgnemen t 

Wher forto spede in other place: 

Such Sacril^e I hDld« a gracQ. 

And thus, mi fader, soth to sei^ 

In cherche riht as in the weie. 

If I mihte oght of love take^ 

Such hansell have I noght fortahe. 7160 

Bot finali I m^ ctmfesse, P> iL 374 

Th«r is in m? non holinesM, 

tVhil 1 hire se in ^y stede; 

And yit, for oght that evere I dede, 

No Sacrilege of hir? 1 tok, 

Bot if it were of word 01 lokt 

Or elles if that I hit jreddj^ 

Whan I toward ofTringe^hir ledde, 

Tate therof what I take may, 

For elles bere I noght away; 7170 

For tht^h I wolde oght ellea have, 

Alle othre thinges ben so save (735^*) 

And kept with such a privilege,^ 

That I mai do no Sacrilege. 

God wot mi wille natbeles, 

Thogh I mot nedes kepe pea 

And malgre myn so let it pass^ 

Mi will therto is noght the la$se. 

If I mihte other wise awgig, 

Forthi, mi fader, I you preie, 7180 

Tell what you thenketh therupon, 

If I therof have gult or non. 

715B I wolde AdBTA 7160 I om. AHR 71^3 eny] holf 

5. .. AA 7166 as It were Hi . . . Bi jifl werej 7179 ">] 

to AM 7177 ao] tone Hi . . . Bi itBi je >eaken AH 

ion |)«nken ILXRCL yethinBethW 

.coy Google 


Thi »il^ mi Sone, is forto blame, 
The remenatit is bot a game, 
That I have herd the telle aa yit. 
Bot tak this lore into thi wit, 
That alte thing bath time and stede, 
The cherche serveth for the bede, 
The chamBre is of an other sgeche. 
Bot if tBoa wistest of the weche, 7190 

Hou Sacrilege it hath aboght, P. ii. 375 

Thou woldest betre ben bethoght; 
And f<« thou schalt the more amende, 
A tale I wole on the despe nde. 

To alle men, as who seith, knowe [' 

It is, and in the world thu^h blowe, 
Hou that of Tioie Lamedon 
To Hercules and to Jasoun, 
Whan toward Colchos out of Grece 
Be See saileode upon a piece 
Of lond of Troie reste preide, — 
Bot he hem wrathfulli c^igeide : 
And for thei founde him bo vilein, 
Whan thei come into Grece ayein, 
With pouer that thei gete myhte 
Towardes Troie thei hem dyhte, 
And ther thei token such vengance, 
WhCTof slant yit the remembrance; 
For thei destmide kit^ and al. 
And leften bot the brente wal. 
The Grecs of Troiens many slowe 
And pnsonei|_thei toke ynowe, 
Among the whiche ther was on, 
The kinges doughter Lamedon, 
Esiona, that faire thing. 
Which unto Thelamon the king 
Be Hercules and be thassent 
Of al the hole parlement 

7194 on^lwolHi...CBi on^wolIL 7«o3)Miirj>Rfamoniin* P 
7005 margin vniuersB BT vniuersun A . . . Bi 7006 margin 

caimlMUA...Bi 7ao« Uie] tn AH . . . B* 7015 UuU] )« Hi . . . Bi 


Hie in unoril causa 

culo ponit exemplum. 
Et narrat, pro eo quod 
^ Paris Priiini Regis li- 
lius Hdenam Henelai 
viorem io quadam 
Grecie insula a tcmpJo 
Veneris Sac rilegusab- 
duxil, ilia Troie Cuno- 
ti wima obaidio per 

divulgata prccipue 
causabaUir. Ita quod 
huiusmodi Sacrileg- 
iiun non solum ad 

n ad perpetuam vrbis 
desoUcionent vindlcte 
romitem miaistnibat. 

.CD, Google 


Was at his wille yove and granted. 

And thus hath Grece Troie danted, }»o 

And bom thei tome in such manere : P. ii. 376 

Bot after this nou schalt thou biere (7400*) 

The cause why this tale I telle, 

Upon the chances that befelle. 

King I^medon, which deide thus, 
He hadde a Sone, on Friamus, 
Which was n(%ht thilke time at horn ; 
Bot whan he herde of this, he com,* 
And fond hou the Cite was Mle, 
Which he b^an anon to walle 7130 

And made ther a cite newe, 
That thei whiche othre londes knewe 
Tho seiden, that of lym and Ston 
In al the world so bir was non. 
And on that o side of the toun 
The king let maken Ylioun, 
That hibe Tour, that stronge place, 
Which was adrad of no manace 
Of quarel nor of non engin ; 
And th<^h men wolde make a Myn, 7140 

No mannes craft it mihte aproche, 
For it was sett upon a roche. 
The walles of the toon aboute. 
Hem stod of al the world no doute, 
And after the proporciqn 
Sex gates weren of the toun 
Of such a fonne, of such entaile, 
That hem to se was gret mervaile: 
The diches weren brode and depe, 
A fewe men it mihte kepe 7150 

From al the world, as semeth tho, P. U. 377 
Bot if the goddes weren fo. 
Gret jresse unto that cite drouh, 
So that ther was of poeple ynouh, 
Of Burgeis that therinne duellen ; 
Ther mai no mannes tunge tellen 

93 ^ tale Hi . . . Bt 7^ maken] make an B 

.coy Google 


Hou that cite was liche of good. (1 

Whan al was mad and al wel stod. 

King Priamus tho him bethc^hte 

What thei of Grece whilom wr<^hte, 7360 

And what was of her swerd devoured. 

And hou his Soster deshonoured 

With Thelamon awey was lad : 

And so tbenkende he wax unglad. 

And sette anon a parlement, 

To which the lordes were assent. 

In many a wise ther was spoke, 

Hou that thei mihten ben awroke, 

Bot ate laste natbeles 

Thei seiden alle, 'Acord and pes.' 7^70 

To setten either part in reste 

It thoghte hem thanne for the beste (;45o*) 

With resonable ameadement ; 

And thus was Anthenor forth sent 

To axe Esionam ayein 

And witen what thei wolden sein. 

So passetfa he the See be barge 

To Grece forto seie his charge, 

The which he seide redely 

Unto the lordes by and by: 7180 

Bot where he spak in Grece aboute, P. U. 378 

He herde noght bot wordes stoute, 

And nameliche of Thelamon ; 

The maiden wolde he noght forgon. 

He seide, for no maner thing, 

And bad him gon horn to his king, 

For there gat he non amende 

For oght he couthe do or sende. 
This Anthenor ayein goth bom 

Unto his king, and whan he rom, 7190 

He tolde in Grece of that he herde. 

And hou that Thelamon ansuerde, 

^as^ of good] and good JHi, AdBTA 7364 yo )>enkende he B 

ya >«iiking he GC he (enking he HiZRLBi he >enldng )nis £ 
^ar}l eaei7 AdBT 7074 Antenor F 7075 Eaiomi Hi . . . Bt, T 
7977 be large Ad b; gixce AU 

.coy Google 


> And hou thei were at here ab ove, 

That thei wol nouther pes ne love, 
Bot every man schal don his beste. 
Bot for men sein that nyht hath reste. 
The king bethoghte him al that nyht, 
And erlt, whan the dai was lyht, 
He tok conseil of tiiis matiere ; 
And thei acorde in this manere, 730a 

That he withouten eny lette 
A certein time scbolde sette 
Of Parlement to ben avised : 
And in the wise it was devised. 
Of parlement he sette a day, 
And that was in the Monthe of Maii. 
This Priamus hadde in his ^bte. 
A wif; and Hecuba Eche byhte, 
Be whom that time ek hadde he 
Of Sonea fyve, and douhties thre 73" 

Besiden hem, and thritty mo, P. 11. 379 

And weren knyhtes alle tho, 
Bot nt^t upon his wif b^;ete, 
Bot eUes where he myhte hem gete 
Of wommen whiche he hadde knowe ; 
Such was the world at thilke throwe ; 
So that he was of children riche, 
As therof was noman his liche. 

Of Parlement the dai was come, 
Ther ben the trades alle and some ; 7310 

Tho was pr onounced and ^pomposedj 
And al the cause hem was desclosed, (7&00*) 
Hou AnthenoT in Grece ferde. 
Thei seten alle stille and herde. 
And tho spak every man aboute : 
Ther was al^ed many a doute, 
And many a proud word spoke also ; 
Bot for the moste pert as tho 

7091 that] )« S . . . A 7303 i, two Ums em. AdBT 731 1 hem] 

tao (loo) Hi . . . Bi 7318 bis] bim Hi . . . Bi, B, W 73B7 And 

a proud word AHHiXRCL AndproudewordesB) 73B& as tho] 
aUo AdBT 

.coy Google 


Thei wisten noght what was the beste, [' 

Or forto wene or forto reste. 7330 

Bot he that was withoute fere, 

Hector, among the Jorde s .there 

His tale toide in such a wise, 

And seide, ' Lordes, je ben wise, 

Ye luiowen this als wel as I, 

Above all otbre most woithi 

Stant nou in Grece the manhode 

Of wonhlnesse and of knihthode ; 

For who so Wole it wel agrope, 

To hem belongeth al Euirope, 7340 

Which is the Uiridde fffi^ evene P. U. 380 

or al the world under the hevene ; 

And we be bot or folk a fewe. 

So were it reson forto schewe 

The peril, er we Me ihrinne.; 

Betre is to leve, than b^nne 

Thing which as mai nc^ht ben achieved ; 

He is noght wys that fint him grieved, 

And doth 90 that his grief be more ; 

For who that loketh al tofore 7350 

And wol noght se what is behinde. 

He mai fultrfte hise harmes finde : 

Wick? is to fltryre and have the wgrse- 

We have encheson forto corse. 

This wot I wel, and forto hate 

The Greks; bot er that we debate 

With hem that ben of sach a myht. 

It is ful good that every wiht 

Be of himself riht wel bethoght. 

Bot as for me this seie I noght ; 7360 

For while that mi lif wol stonde. 

If that ye taken werre on honde, 

Falle it to beste or to the werste, 

I schal miselven be the ferste 

To grieven hem, what evere I may. 

733S >U S, F alle AJ, B 7344 forto Kbewe] forto ewhewe 

(for tMcfaewe 4c.) H. . . . Bi 7383 «■ to werale JXERCL, Hi 

falle it to wente HiBi 

.coy Google 


Q I wol noght ones seie nay 

To thing which that youTe conseil demeth, 

For unto me wel more it quemeth 

The werre cedes than the pes; 

Bot this I seie natheles, 7370 

As me belongeth forlo seie. P. U. 3S1 

Nou schape ye the beste weie.' (7Si«'') 

Whan Hector hath seid his avis, 
Next after him tho spak Paris, 
Which was his brother, and alleide 
What him best thogbte, and thus he seide : 
' Str^n g_thing it is to.soffre wrong, 
Atid suffre _s chame is more strong, 
Bot we have sufired bothe too; 
And for a) that yit have we do 73S0 

What so we mihte to reforme 
The pes, whan we in such a forme 
Sente Anthenor, as ye wel knowe. 
And (hei here grete wordes blowe 
Upon herjvrongful dedes eke; 
And who that'w^e himself noght m eke 
To pes, and list no reson take, 
Men sein reson him wol forsake: 
For in the multitude of men 
Is noght the strengthe, for with ten 7390 

It hath be sen in trew querele 
Ayein an hundred false dele. 
And had the betre of goddes grace. 
This hath l»falle in many place; 
And if it like unto you alle, 
I wole assaie, hou so it falle, 
Cure enemis if I mai grieve ; 
For I have cawht a gret believe 
Upon a point I wol declare. 

This ender day, as I gan fare 7400 

To hunte unto the grete hert, P. li. 383 

Which was tofore myn houndes stert, 

7389 This wrong and schBme iii beUre forme Hi . . . Bi (The 
wrong X) 7388 wol (wil) him Hi . . . Bi, W 7391 Irew F 

trewe AJC, SB I400 ende er dai A 

.CD, Google 


And every man went on his syde [ 

Him to poursuie, and I to lyde^ 

Began the chace, and soth to seie, 

Withinne a while out of mi weie 

I rod, and nyste where I was. 

And slep me cauhte, and on the gras 

Beside a welle I lay me doun 

To slepe, and in a visioun 7410 

To me the god Mercuric cam ; 

Goddesses thre with him he nam, 

Minerve, Venus and Juno, 

And in his hond an Appel tho 

He hield of gold with lettres write : 

And this he dede me to wite, 

Hou that thei putt hem upon me, 

That to the faireste of hem thre 

Of gold that Appel scholde I yive. 

With ech of hem tho was I schrive, j^xo 

And echon faire me behihte; 

Bot Venus sdde, if that sche mihte (7600*) 

That Appel of mi yifte gete, 

Sche wolde it neveremor fbryete, 

And seide hou that in Grece lend 

Sche wolde bringe unto myn hond 

Of al this Erthe the faireste ; 

So that me thoghte it for the beste. 

To hire and yaf that Appel tha 

Thus hope I wel, if that I go, 7430 

That sche for me wol so ordeine, P. U. 383 

That thei matiere forto pleigne 

Schul have, er that I come aycin. 

Nou have ye herd that I wol sein : 

Sey ye what slant in youre avis,' 

And every man tho seide his, 

And sundri causes thei recorde, 

Bot ate laste thei acorde 

That Paris scbal to Grece wende, 

1403 went AC, S, F wente J, BT 7405 the] to AdBT 

74to a viaioun HXGCLBi, A, FWH> ■uisioun (BviBioii «tc.) AJH.ER, 
SAdBT 74i7puttA,S,F putteJC,B 7419 that] t>« AH 

.coy Google 


And thus the parlement tok ende. 7449 

Cassandra, whan sche herde of this, 
The which to Paris Soster is, 
AnoD sche gan to wepe_ and weitfeL. 
And seide, 'AlUs, what mai ous eile? 
Fortune with hire bllnde whiet 
Ne wol noght lete ous stonde wel : 
For this I dar wel undertake, 
That if Paris his weie take, 
As it is seid that he fichal do. 
We ben for evere thanne jindo.' 74S« 

This, which Cassandre thanne hihte, 
In al the world as it berth sihte, 
In bokes as men (inde write. 
Is that Sibille of whom ye wite. 
That ftile men ^t clepen s^e. 
Whan that sche wiste of this viage, 
Hou Paris schal to Grece fare, 
No womman mihte worse &re 
Ne sorwe more than sche dede; 
And riht so in the same stede 7460 

Ferde Helenus, which was bir brother, P. ii. 384 
Of prophede and such an other : 
And al was holde bot a jape, 
So that the pourpos which was schape. 
Or were hem lief or were hem loth. 
Was holde, and into Grece goth 
This Paris with bis retenance.. 
And as it fell upon big chance, 
Of Grece he londeth in an yle. 
And him was told the same whyle 7470 

Of folk which he began to freyne, 
Tho was in thyle queene Heleyne, (7*50') 

And ek of contres there aboute 
Of ladis many a lusti route, 
With mochel worthi poeple also. 
And why thei comen theder tho, 
The cause stod in such a wis«^ — 

7441 Cassandre Hi . . . Bi 7464 the om. AH . . . B> 

7470 >«t Mine XRCLBt, T 

.coy Google 


For worscbipe and for sacrifiae 

That thei to Venus wolden make, 

As tha tofore hadde undertake, 7 

Some of good will, some of bebeste, 

For thanne was hire hihe feste 

Witbinne a temple which was tbere. 

Whan Paris wista what thd were, 
AnoD he schop his ordinance 
To gon and doa bis obeissance 
To Venus on hire bob day, 
And dede upon his beste aray. 
With gret richeese he him behongetb. 
As it to such a lord beloi^etb, 7. 

He was noght armed natheles, P. U. 3 

Bot as it were in lond of pes, 
And thus he goth forth out of Schipe 
And takth with bim bis felascbipe: 
In such manere as I you seie 
Unto the temple he hield hit weie. 

Tydinge, which goth overal 
To grete and smale, forth withal 
Com to the queenea Ere and tolde 
Hou Paris com, and that be woldfl 71 

Do sacrifisc to Venus: 
And whan ache herde telle thus, 
She thogbtCi hou that it evere be. 
That scbe wole bim abyde and te. 

Forth ocHnth Paris with glad visage 
Into the temple ob pelrinage, 
Wher unto Venus the goddeese 
He yifUi and oflfretb gret ricbes««, 
And preith bir that ^ preie wolde. 
And thanne aside he gan bebolde, 71 

And sib wher that this ladi stod ; 
And be forth in his freisshe mod 
Goth tber scbe was and made bir chiere, 
As he wel coutbe iq bis maneiCi 
That of his wordes such plesance 
Sche tok, that al hire aqueintaoce, 
7304 vnlde ArdB 1510 oa side Hi ... Ik (MoVt E) 

.coy Google 


Als ferfotth as the herte lay, 

He stal er that be wente away. 

So gotb he forth and tok his leve, 

And thoghte, anon as it was eve, 7510 

He wolde don his Sacrilegge, P. U. 386 

That many a man it scholde ab^ge. (7700*) 
Whan he to Schipe ayein was come. 

To him be bath his conseil nome, 

And al devised the matiere 

In such a wise as thou schalt biere. 

Withinne nybt a] prively 

His men be wameth by and by, 

That thei be redy armed sone 

FoT certein thing which was to done: 7530 

And thei anon ben redi alle, 

And ech on other gan to calle, 

And went hem out upon the stronde 

And tok a pourpos tber alonde 

Of what thing that thei wolden do, 

Toward the temple and forth thei go. 

So fell it, of devocion 

Heleine in contempladon 

With many an other worth! wiht 

Was in the temple and wok al nybt, 7s4° 

To bidde and preie unto thymage 

Of Venus, as was tbanne usage ; 

So that Paris riht as him liste 

Into the temple, er thei it wiste. 

Com with bis men al sodeinly, 

And alte at ones sette ascry 

In hem whiche in the temple were. 

For tho was mochel poeple there; 

Bot of defense was no bote, 

So soffren thei that sofire mote. 7g!;o 

Paris unto the queene wente, P. U. 387 

And hire in bothe hise armes hente 

With him and with his felaschipe. 

And forth thei here hire unto Schipe. 
)3weDtA,SB,F weoteJC ']535thatom.AH...Bi ']54iuDto] 
...Bi 7544it(»M.Hi...Bi ^554 la to AU...B«,WH> loA 

.coy Google 


Up golh the Seil and forth thei wente, [l 

And such a wjnd fortune hem sente, 

Til thai the ^ene of Troie cauhte ; 

Where out of Schipe anon thei strauhte 

And gon hem foith toward the toun, 

The which cam with processioun . 7560 

Ayein Paris to sen his preie. 

And every man b^an to seie 

To Paris and his felaschipe 

Ai that thei couthen of worschipe; 

Was non so lite) man in Troie, 

That he ne made merthe and joie 

Of that Paris hath wonne Heleine. 

Bot al that merthe is sorwe and peine 

To Helenus and to Cassaundre; 

For thei it token schame and sklaundre 7570 

And lost of al the comun grace, 

That Paris out of holi place {775i>*) 

Be Stelthe hath take a mannes wif, 

Wherof that he schal lese his lif 

And many a worthi man therto, 

And ai the Cite be fordo. 

Which nevere schal be mad ayein. 

And so it fell, riht as thei sein, 

The Sacrilege which he wraghte 

Was cause why the Gregois soughte 7580 

Unto the toun and it beleie, P. il. 388 

And wolden nevere parte aweie. 

Til wtjat be sleibte and what be strengthe 

Thei hadde it wonne in brede and lengthe, 

And brent and slayn that was withinne. 

Now se, mi Sone, which a sinne 

Is Sacril^e in holy stede: 

Be war therfore and bidd thi bed^ 

And do nothing in holy cherche, 

Bot that thou miht be reson werche. 7590 

And ek tak hiede of Achilles, 
Whan he unto his lore ches 
Polixena, that was also 

7570 tok«D] hdden S . . . A 

.coy Google 


In holi temple of Appolto, 

Which was the cause why he dyde 

And al his lust was J^d asyde. 

And Troilus upon Criseide 
Also bis ferste love leide 
In holi place, and hou it ferde. 
As who seith, al the world it herde; 7600 

Forsalce h« was for Dioiaede, 
Such was of love his lasts raede. 

Forthi, mi Sone, I wolde rede. 
Be this ensample as thou myht rede, 
Sech elles, wber thou wolt, thi grace, 
And jgacthe wel in holi place 
What thou to love do or speke^ 
In aunter if it so be vrreke 
As thou hast herd me told before. 
And tak good hiede also therfore 7610 

Upon what fonne, of Avarice P. 11. 389 

Mor than of eny other rice, 
I have divided in parties 
The branches, whiche of compainies 
Thurghout the world in general 
Ben nou the leders overal, 
Of Covoitise and of Perjure, 
Of fals brocage and of Usure, 
Of Slutrsnesse and Unkindeschipe, 
Which nevere drouh to felaschipe, 76*0 

Of Robberie and privi Stelthe, 
Which don is foe the worldcs welthe, (7800*) 
Of Ravine and of Sa^rilqcge, 
Which mtkth the conscience agregge ; 
Altbogh it mai richcsse attetgne. 
It jgure,th, hot it schal noght greine 
Unto the fruit of ribtwisnesse. 
Bot who that wolde do iaigesse 
Upon the reule as it is yive. 
So myhle a man in troathe live 7630 

7603 oflust (lu3te)Hi...Bi 7604 Imtom.B 7611 what] >e 
AdBTthatW 7619 Skarnesie F 7031 uxl of H . . . Bt, T 

7630 to troupe AUKiXRCIA bytrouJwE 

.coy Google 

opposiluDi Auaride 


Toward hia god, and ek also 
Toward the world, for bothe tuo 
I^argess e awaiteth &s belongeth. 
To neither pait that he ne wroii.gfith4 
He Icepth himself, he kepth his frendes, 
So stant he sauf to bothe hise endes, 
That he excedeth no mesure, 
So wel he can himself mesure : 
Wherof, mi Sone, thou schalt wite, 
So as the Fhilosophre hath write. 

. Prodegus et fiarats duo sunt extrama,que iofgutV.Vi.ZQO [!*■ 
Est Aorum medius, pUbis in ore ionut. 

Betwen the tuo ntremites 
Of vice stant the propretes Nota hicdevi 

Ofvertu, and to p^veit so ^^^ 

Tak Avaric e and tak also 
Th, vice of Prodeiplite ; i'^^.^Tct 

Betwen hem Liberahte, ipeciiliter coniistit. 

Which is the vertu of Lai^^esse, 
Stant and governeth his noblesse. 
For tbo tuo vices in discord 
Stonde evere, as I finde of record ; 7650 

So that betwen here tuo debat 
Lai^esse reuleth his astat. 
For in such wise as Avarice, 
As I tofore have told -the vice, 
Thurgh streit holdinge and thurgh skarsnesse 
Stant in contraire to Largesse, 
Riht so stant Prodegalite 
Revers, bot noght in such degre. 
For so as Avarice spareth, 
And forto kepe hia tresor careth, 7660 

That other al bis oghne and more 
Ayein the wise mannes lore 
Yiflh and despendeth hiere and there. 
So that him reccheth nevere where. 
While he mai borwe, he wot despende, 
7634 pM-tie (pirty) Jat he wronged AM . . . 6t 
Lalm Vtraa ziii. i extrema qiw C, B estrenwqiM J, F 

.coy Google 


> Til ate laste he seith, ' I wetide ' ; 

Bot that is spoken al to iate, 
For thanne is poverte ate gate 
And Ukth him erene be the slieve, P. U. 391 
For erst wol he no wisdom liev^. . 7670 

And riht as Avarice is Sinne, 
Thai wolde his tresor kepe and winne, (ySso*) 
Riht so is Prod^alite: 
Bot of Larger in his degre, 
Which erene stant betwen the tuo, 
The hihe god and man also 
The vertu ech of hem commend eth. 
For be himselven ferst amendeth. 
That overal his name spredetb, 
And to alle otbre, where it nedeth, 7680 

He yifth his good in such a wise, 
That he maktb many a man aris^ 
Which eltes scholde folte lowe. 
Largesce mai noght ben unknowe; 
For what lond that he r^neth inne, 
It mai noght faile forto winne 
TbuTgh his decerte love and grace, 
Wher it schal faile in other place. 

And thus betwen tomoche and lyte 
Largesce, which is n^t to wyte, 7690 

Halt evere forth the middel wete : 
Bot who that tome wole aweie 
Fro that to Pipdegalite, 
Anon he lest the proprete 
Of vertu and goth to the vice ; 
For in such wise as Avarice 
Lest for scarsnesse his goode name, 
Riht so that other is to blame. 
Which thu^h his wast mesure excedeth, P. li. 393 
For noman wot what harm that bredeth. 7700 
Bot mochel joie ther betydeth, 

7689 tomoche E, S, F to moche AJ, BT tuo (two) moche . 
Hi . . . Bi {*xafii E) the moche W 7694 lost AH . . . B( 

{ixapl E) loseth W leuetb A 77m it brede|i A . . . Bi 

7701-7746 Forfy-nx Imu om. S . . . A («u. A) 

.coy Google 


Wher that Ui^esse an herte guydeth : 

For his mesure is so governed, 

That he to bothe partz is lemed, 

To god and to the world also. 

He doth reson to bothe tuo. 

The povere folk of his almesse 

Relieved ben in the destresse 

Of thurst, of hunger and of cold ; 

The yifte of him was nevete sold, 7; 

Bot frely yive, and natheles 

The myhti god of his encress_ 

Rewardeth him of double grace ; 

The hevene he doth him to pourchace 

And yifth him ek the worldes good : 

And thus the Cot^for the hod 

Largesse takth, and yit no'Smne 

He doth, hou so that evere he winne. 

What man hath bors men yive him bfit^ 
And who non hath of him no fors, ;; 

For he mai thanne on fote go; 
The world hath evere stonde sa 
Bot forto lolcen of the tweie, 
A man to go the siker weie, 
Betre is to yive than to take : 
With yifte a man mai frendes make, 
Bot who that Ukth or gret or smal, P. il 31 
He takth a charge forth withal, 
And stant n<%ht fre til it I 
So forto deme in mannes wit. 
It helpeth more a man to have 
His ogbne good, than taito crave 
or othre men and make him bounde, 
Wher elles he mai stonde unbounde. 

Senec conseileth in this wise, Senec*. 

,...,„.,,. , ]r '™ no" «uBt^™,.L, ,-,. 

And seith, Bot if thi good suinse vt rebua tui« suSciu. 

Unto the liking of thi wiUe, 
Withdrawn thi lust and hold the stille, 
And be to thi good sufficant.' 
7735 matgm Bcaciui— accipere om. A . . . Bi 
•cdpere] ac-pere F 

n Bufficiant, fac 

U 2 

.coy Google 


[PRODiGALiry AKD ' FoF that thuig IS appouiteiiant 7740 

Labcess.] -p^ trouthe aod causeth to be fre 

Apostolus. Ordi. After the reule of charite, 

acipaa!"^' '""^^ " Which feist beginneth of himselre. 

For if thou jichest othre tuelve, 
Wberof thou scbalt tbiself be povere, 
I not what thonk tbou miht recovete. 
Whil that a man bath good to yive, 
With grete routes he nui live 
And hath his fVendes overal, 
And everich of him telle schal, 77S0 

Therwhile he hath bis fuUe pack^ 
Thei seie, ' A good fejawe ia Jacke ' ; 
Bot wbanne it failetb ate laste, 
Anon liis pris tbei overcaate, 
For thanne is Iher non other lawe 
Bot, ' Jacke was a good felawe.' 
Whan thei him povere and nedy se, P. U. 394 
Thei lete him passe and farwel he; 
Al that be wende of ^mpainis 
Is thanne tomed to folie. 7760 

[Pkodigautv op Bot nou to speke in other kinde 

IJJVBIW.] Qj j^^^ ^ ^^ j^ ^^^^^ g^^ 

That wher thei come in eveiy route 

Thei caste and waste her love aboute, 

Til al here time is overgon, 

And thanne have tbei love non: 

For who that loveth overal, 

It is no reson that he schal (7900*) 

Of love have eny proprete. 

Forthi, mi Sone, avise thee 7770 

If thou of love hast be to large, 

For such a man is noght to diarge : 

And if it so be that tbou hast 

Despended al thi time in wast 

And set thi love in sondri place. 

Though thou the substance of thi grace 

Tj^a margin Apiia A AmplusHiCRC AmpliusBi Ambro»>uX 
7751 The whil J, W ]»t wUl C (Al t>e while he hath his pak A) 
7766 non] gon AM 

.coy Google 


Lese ate laste, it is no vonder ; 

For he that put himselven under, 

As who seith, comun ovenl, 

He lest the love special 7780 

Of eny on, if sche be wyi ; 

For love schal noght bere his pris 

Be reson, whanne it passeth on. 

So have I sen ful many on, 

That were of love wel at ese, 

Whiche after felle in gret desese 

Thuigh wast of love, that thei spente P. ii. 395 

In sondri places wber thei wente. 

Riht so, mi Sone, I axe of thee 
If thou with Prodegalite 7793 

Hast bier and ther thi love wasted. 

Mi fader, nay; bot I have tasted 
In many a place as I have go, 
And yit lore I nevere on of tho, 
Bot forto drive forth the dal 
For lieveth wel, myn herte is ay 
Withoute mo for everemore 
Al upon on, for I nomore 
Desire bot hire love al one : 
So make I many a prive mone, 7B00 

For wel I fiele I have despended 
Mi longe lore and noght amended 
Mi sped, for oght I finde yh. 
If this be wast to youre wit 
Of love, and Frodegalit^ 
Nou, goode fader, demeth ye : 
Bot of o thing I wol me schryve, 
That I schal for no love thiyve, 
Bot if hirself me wot relieve. 

Mi Sor>e, that I mai wel lieve : 7S10 

And natheles me semeth so, 
For oght that thou hast yit misdo 
Of time which thou hast despended. 
It mai with grace ben amended. 
^^S^ lene (kd) nuaty on Hi ... B> 7804 to) vnio E, B 

7B09 wol me AdBT, W me wolde II 

.coy Google 


For thing which mai be worth the cost 
Per chaunce is nouther wast ne lost ; 
For what thing slant on aventiire, F. U. 396 
That can no worldes creature (795°*) 

Telle in certein hou it schaL wende, 
Til he tberof mai sen an ende. jSia 

So that I not as yit therfore 
If thou, mi Sone, bast wonne or lore : 
For ofte time, as it is sene, 
Wban Somer hath lost al his grene 
And b with Wynter wast and bare. 
That him is left nothing to spare, 
Al is recovered in a throwe; 
The colde wyndes overblowe, 
And stille be the schaipe schoures, 
And Boudeinliche ayein his floures 7S30 

The Somer hapnetb and is ricbe : 
And so per cas thi graces liche. 
Mi Sone, th<^h thou be nou povere 
Of love, yit thou miht recovere. 
Mi fader, certes grant merci : 
Ye have me tawbt so redeli, 
That evere whil 1 live schal 
The betre I mai be ,22£. "ithal 
Of thing which ye have seid er this. 
Bot ovennore hou that it is, 784a 

Toward mi schrifte as it beloi^eth, 
To wite of othre pointz me longeth ; 
Wherof that ye me wolden teche 
With al myn berte I you beseche. 

ExpUclt Liber Qtiintus. 

78i7mauentureAH...B(,W 7819 TeUe JC, SB TeUA,F 

7ft>3 tymea AdBTA ^8»g Killed S . . . A 7840 euennore 

HiXRB,, BA, W 

.coy Google 



Indpit Liber Sextos 

i. Est gula que nosimm maculauit prima partnletn P. iii. 1 
Ex vetito porno, quo dolet omm's homo. 
Hec agit vf corpus anime contraria spirat, 
Q^o caro fit crassa, spiritus atque macer. 
Inius et txterius si que virtulis haietUur, 

Potiius ebrietas conuiciata ruit. 
Afersa sopore, labris, que Backus inebriat hospes, 
ImUgnata Venus ojcula raro premit. 
The grete Senn g original. 

Which every man in general 

Upon his berthe hath envenymeiJi 

In Faiadis it was mystymed : 

Whan Adam of thilke Appel bot. 

His snete morscel was to hot, 

Which dedly made the mankinde. 

And in the bokes as I finde, 

This vice, which so out of rule 

Hath sette ous alle, is cleped Gule; 

Of which the branches ben so grete, 

That of hem alle I wol noght trete, 

Bot only as touchende of tuo 

I thenke speke and of no mo; 

Wherof the ferste is E^onkeschipe, 

Which berth the cuppe felaschipe. 

Ful many a wonder doth this vice, 

He can make of a wisman nyce. 

And of a fool, that him schal seme 

That he can al the lawe deme, 

And yiven every juggement 

Which longeth to the firmament 

Bothe of the stene an^^fTBe'mone ; 

10 xtte AJC, S, F set BT 13 tuo] taa E 

Hk ill sexto libi-u 
lo capital) vicio quod 

et dc eiusdem duabuii 
solum modospeciebua, 
videlicet Ebrietate ei 
Deliocia, ex quibus 
humane concupiacen- 
o cieoblcctamenlumha- 

.CD, Google 


[Drunkenness.] And thus he makth a gret cleik sone 

Of him that is a lewed man. 
Ther is nothing which be ne can, 
Whil he hath Dronkeschipe on honde, 
He knowth the See, he knowth the stronde, 
He is a noble man of armes, 
And yit no strengtbe is in his armes ; 
Tber he was strong ynouh tofore. 
With Dronkeschipe it is forlM*, 
And al is changed his astat, 
And wext anon so fieble and mat , 
That he mai nouther go ne come, 
Bot al togedre him is benom e 
The pouer bothe of bond and fot. 
So that algate abide he mot 
And alle hise wittes be foryet. 
The which is to him such a letj 
That he wot nevere what be doth, P. iii. 

Ne which is fals, ne which is soth, 
Ne which is dai, ne which is nyht, 
And for the time be knowth no wyht, 
That he ne wot so moche as this, 
What maner thing himselven is, 
Oi he be man, or be be beste. 
That holde I dht a sori feste, 
Whan he that reson understod 
So soudeinh'cbe is woxe wod. 
Or elles licb the dede roan, 
Which nouther go ne speke can. 
Thus ofte he is to bedde broght, 
Bot where he lith yit wot he noght, 
Til he arise upon the morwe ; 
And thanne he seith, '0, which a sorwe 
It is a man be drinkelesl' 
So that haUdmnke in such a res 
With dreie mouth he sterte him uppe. 
And seith, 'Nou batiks (a the cuppe.' 

34 wi 

exlBT.F wezitj wi 

ex>A wexcK i 

14 AsforAdBTA 

57 "mi 

«n be] for to be AdBT 

t, man to be JBt, A 

59 sterte AJ, 

S, F ! 


.CD, Google 


That made him lese his wit at eve 

Is thanoe a inorwe al his beleve ; 

The cuppe is al that evere him pleteth, 

And also that him most deseseth ; 

It is the cup pe whom he serveti, 

Which alle cares fro him kerveth 

And alle bales to him bringeth : 

Id joie he wepth, in SOTwe he singeth, 

For Dronkeschipe is so divers. 

It may no whyle stonde in vers^ 70 

He diinkth the wyn, bot ate laste P. Ui. 4 

The wyn drynktfa him and bint him faste, 

And leith him drunke be the wal, 

As him which is his bonde_thral 

And al in his subjeccioo. 

And lich to such condicion, 
As forto speke it other wise, 
It falleth that the moste wise 
Ben otherwhile of love adoted, 
And so bewhaped and assote d, Go 

or drunke men that nevere yit 
Was Don, which half so loste his wit 
Of drinke, as thei of such thing do 
Which cleped is the jolif so.; 
And waxen of here oghne thoght 
So drunke, that thei knowe nog^t . 
What reson is, or more or lesse. 
Such is the kinde of that aieknesse. 
And that is noght for lacke of brain, 
Bot love is of so gret a main, 90 

That nhere he taktb an herte on honde, 
Ther mai nothing his miht withstonde: 
The wise Salomon was nome. 
And stronge Sampson overcome, 
The knihtli David him ne mihte 
Rescoue, that he with the sihte 
Of Bersabee ne was bestad, 
Virgile also was overlad, 

f Hi . . . Bt 6g ffro F 79 doted AdBT 86 )«i ne 
« . . . B. {tAX^ GE) >ei knewe J 

.coy Google 

Confesaio Ainanti% 


And Aristotle was put under. 
Fortfai, mi Sone, it is no wonder 
If thou be dmnke of love among, 
Which is above alle othre strong : 
And if so is that thou so be, 
Tell me thi Schrifte in privite ; 
It is no schame of such a thew 
A yong man to be dronkelew. 
Of such Phisique I can a part. 
And as me semeth be that art, 
Thou scholdest be Phisonomie 
Be schapen to that maladie 
Of lovedrunke, and that is routhe. 

Ha, holi fader, al is trouthe 
lliat ye me telle ; I am bekno we 
That I with love am so bethrowe, 
And al myn herte is so thurgh sunke, 
That I am yfiiTillir'" drunke, 
And yit I mai bothe speke and go. 
Bot I am overcome so, 
And tomed fro miself so clene^ 
That ofte I wot noght what I mene ; 
So that exci^n I ne mai 
Min herte, fro the ferste day 
That I cam to mi ladi kith the, 
I W4S yit sobre nevere sithtlie. 
Wher I hire se or se hire noght. 
With musinge of min oghne thoght. 
Of love, which min herte assaileth, 
So drunke I am, that mi wit faileth 
And al mi brain is over torned. 
And mi manere so mistorned. 
That I foryete al that I can 
And stonde lich a mased man ; 
That ofte, whanne I scholde pleie, 
It makth me drawe out of the wete 
In soulein place be miselve. 
As doth a jabourer to delve. 
Which can no gentil mannes chere ; 
lot IfJOfERCBi Thou)«X 

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Or elles as a lewed Frere, 
Whan be is put to his penance, 
Riht so lese I mi contienance. 
And if il nedes so betyde, 
That I in compaini* abyde, 
Wher as I moste ,daunce and singe 
The hovedance and carolinge, 
Or forto^'o the newefot, 
I mai noght wel heve up mi fot. 
If that sche be noght in the weie ; 
For thanne is a) mi merthe aweie. 
And waxe anon of thoght so full, 
Wherof mi limes ben so dull, 
I mai unethes gon the pas. 
For thus it is and eveie was, 
Whanne I on suche thoghtes muse. 
The lust and merthe that men use. 
Whan I se noght mi ladi byme, 
Al is foryete for the time 
So ferfoith that mi wittes changen 
And alle lustes fro me strangen, 
That tbei seie alle trewely, 
And swere, that it am noght I. 
For as the man which ofle diinketh, 
With win that in his sblinac sinketh 
Wext drunke and witles for a throwe, 
Riht so mi lust is overthrowe, 
And of myn c^hne tht^ht so mat 
I wexe, that to myn asut 
Ther is no lime wol me serve, 
Bot as a drunke man I swerve, 
And sufire such a Passion, 
That men have gret comp assion. 
And everich be himself merveilleth 
What thing it is that me so'eilleth. 
Such is the manere of mi wo 
Which time that I am hire fro, 

1^5 newefot S, F Uu rtat newe foot (fot) 151 a pas 
tsa euer(e)itwMAdBT i6a IimHiXERC 

The AH ... Bi 179 so oat. Hi ... B> 

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Til eft ayein that I hire se. 

Bot tbanne it were a nycete 

To telle you hou that I fere : 

For whanne I mai upon hire atare, 

Hire woromanhede^ hire gentilessc, 

Myn herte is full of such gladneese, iSo 

That overpasseth so mi wit, 

That I wot nevere where it sit, 

Bot am fio drunken of that sihte, 

Me thenktb that for the time I mihte 

Riht sterte thurgh the hole wall ; 

And thanne I mai wd, if I schal, 

Bothe sii^e and daunce and lepe aboule, 

And holde f orth the lusti route. 

Bot natheles it falletb so 

Fulofte, that I fro hire go 190 

Ne mai, bot as it were a^stake, P. iii. 8 

I stonde avisement to take 

And loke upon hire laire face; 

That for the while out of the place 

For al the world ne myhte I wende. 

Such lust comth thanne into mi mende, 

So that witboute mete or drinke, 

Of lusti thoughtes whiche I thinke 

Me thenkth I mihte stonden evere ; 

And so it were to me levere 200 

Than such a sihte forto leve, 

If that sche wolde yif me leve 

To have so mochel of mi wille. 

And thug thenkende I stonde stille 

Withoute blenchinge of myn yhe, 

Riht as me thoghte that I syhe 

Of Paradis the moste joie: 

And so therwhile I me rejoi^ 

Into myn berte a gret desir, 

The which is hotae than the fyr, no 

Al soudeinliche upon me renneth, 

That al mi tHoght withinne brenneth, 

A aoa }if A, F )jne J, B 

I . .. Bi (I OMt. C} 909 Vnto AdBT 

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And am ao ferforth Dvercome, 

That I not where I sm become; 

So that among the hetes stronge 

In stede of drinke I . undeifonge 

A tboght 90 swete in mi corag^ 

That nevere Pyment ne vemage 

Was half so swete Forto drioke. 

For as I wolde, thanne I tbinke no 

As tho^ I were at myn above, P. iU. 9 

For so thurgh dninke I am of love, 

That al that mi sotye demeth 

Is sotb, as thanne it to me semeth. 

And wbyle I mai tho tboghtes kepe, 

He tbenktb as th(^ I were aslepe 

And that I were in goddes bann ; 

Bot whanne I se myn oghne hann, 

And that I soudeinliche awake 

Out of my thought, and hiede take ijo 

Hou that the sothe slant in dede, 

Thanne is mi sekemesse in drede 

And joie totned into wo. 

So that the hete is al ago 

Of such sotie as I was inne. 

And thanne ayeinward I beginne 

To take of love a newe jjiUQt 

The which me grieveth altberworst. 

For thanne comth tbe blanche fiev ere. 

With cbele and makth roe so to chievere, 140 

And so it coldeth at myn herte. 

That wonder is hou I asterte. 

In such a point that I ne deie : 

For certes ther was nevere keie 

Ne frosen ys upon tbe wal 

More inly cold than I am al. 

And thus sofire I the bote chele, 

Which passeth othre peines fele; 

In cold I brenne and frese in hete : 

And thanne I drinke a bit^ swete 150 

915 ^ hetes ST )o hertei B 03s I <m. AH 041 at] 

al (alle) HiE, SAdTA 049 hou] {wt AH 

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With dreie lippe and yhen nete. P. ili. lo 

Lo, thus I tempre mi diete. 
And take a drauhte of such rele^ 
That al mi wit is hertetes, 
And al myn herte, thcr it sit. 
Is, as who seith, withoute wit; 
So that to prove it be reson 
In makinge of comparison 
Ther mai no difTerence be 
Betwen a drunke man and ine. 160 

Bot al the worste of evetychon 
Is evere that I tburste in on; 
The more that myn herte drinketh, 
The more I may ; so that me thinketh, 
My thurst schal nevere ben aqueint. 
God schilde that I be noght dreint 
Of such a su^rfluitf :. 
For wel 1 fiele in mi degre 
That al mi wit is overcast, 
Wherof I am the more agast, 170 

That in defaulte of ladisc hipc 
Per chance in such a diiinkeschipe 
I mai be ded er I be war. 
For certes, fader, this I dar 
Beknowe and in mi schrifte telle : 
Bot I a drauhte have of that welle, 
In which mi deth is and mi lif, 
Mi joie is tomed into stri^ 
That sobie scbal I nevere wortbe, 
Bot as a dranke man forworthe; 380 

So that in londe where I fare P. iii. 11 

The lust is lore of mi welfare, 
As he that mai no bote finde. 
Bot this me thenkth a wonder kinde, 
As I am dninke of that I drinke, 
So am I ek for falte of drinke ; 
Of which I finde no reles: 
Bot if I myhte natheles 
a6a ^ruste H, A tni*t(c) AdBT, W aBt wher >at AHG, Hi 

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Of such a drinke as I coveite, 
So as me liste, have o receite, 
I scholde assobre and fare wel. 
Bot so fortune upon hire whiel 
On hih me deigneth nc^ht to sette, 
For everemore I finde a lette ; 
The botelef is noght mi frend. 
Which hath the keie be the bend ; 
I mai wel wisshe and that is wast, 
For wel I wot, so freissh a tast, 
Bot if mi grace be the more, 
I schal assaie neveremore. 
Thus am I drunke of that I se. 
For tastinge is defended me, 
And I can noght miselven stanche : 
So that, mi fader, of this branche 
I am gultif, to telle trouthe. 

Mi Sone, that me thenketh routhe ; 
Foi Ipvedrunke is the meschief 
Above alle othre the most chief. 
If he no lusti thoght assaie. 
Which mai his son thurst allaie : 
As for the time yit it |issfiUi P. ii 

To him which other joie misseth. 
Forthi, mi Sone, aboven alle 
Thenk wel, hou so it the befiille. 
And kep thi wittes that thou hast, 
And let hem noght be drunke in wast : 
Bot natheles ther k no wybt 
That mai withstonde loves miht 
Bot why the cause is, as I finde, 
Of that ther is diverse kinde 
Of lovedrunke, why men pleigneth 
After the court which al ordeigneth, 
I wol the tellen the manere j 
Nou lest, mi Sone, and thou scbalt hiere. 

For the fortune of every chance 
After the goddes pourveance 
To man it groweth from above, 
097 *c' '"''• A" • ■ • B> 

duin PoeUm, qualilcr 

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s Two 

in 9UO celario lupiter 
duo dole* babet, qao- 
rum primum liquoris 
dulcissimi, secuoduni 
amarissimi plenuni 
consistit, ita quod ille 
cui fataUest prosperi- 
tas de dulci potabit, 
alter vero, cui aduer- 
sabitur, poculum gu3- 
(abit amanun. 


So that the sped of every love 
Is scbape there, er it befalle. 
For Jupiter aboven alle, 
Which is of goddes soverejn, 
Hath in his celier, as men sein, 
Tuo tonnes fuUe of love drinke, 
That maken many an berte sinke 
And many an heite also to flete, 
Or of the soure or of the swete. 
That on is full of such piment . 
Which passeth all entendement 
Of mannes witt, if he it taste, 
And inaktb a jolif herte in haste ; 
That other biter as the g alle. 
Which makth a mannes "Eerte palle. 

Whos drunkeschipe is a siekoesse 

Thui^h fidinge of the biternesse. 

Cupide is boteler of bothe, 

Which to the here and to the lothe 

Yifth of the swete and of the soure. 

That some lawhe, and some loure. 

Bot for so jnocbe as he blind is, 

Fulolte time he goth amis 35a 

And takth the badde for the goode, 

Which hindreth many a mannes fode 

Withoute cause, and forthreth eke. 

So be ther some of love seke^ 

Whtche oghte of reson to ben hole. 

And some comen to the dole 

In bapp and as herosetve legte 

Drinke und.eserv^ of the beste- 

And thus this blinde Boteler 

Yifth of the trouble in stede of cler 360 

And ek the cler in stede of trouble : 

Lo, hou he can the hertes trouble, 

And makth men drunke al upon chaunce 

399 be falle JHiERBt, BT 339 caste AdBT, Hi 354 of >c 
seke AH . . . Bt 357 In iape AH 358 vnserued AH, W 

363 drinke al HiX, AdBT dninken (_om. al] E all (pm. dninke) B^ 
dronke and W 

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Withoute lawe of governance. 

ir he drawe or the swete tonne, 

Thanne is the sorwe al orerronne 

Of lovedrunke, and schalt noght greven 

So to be drunken every even. 

For al is thanne bot a game. 

Bot whanne it is noght of the same. 

And he the biter tonne draweth, P. iii 

Such dninkeschipe an herte ^naweth 

And fiebleth al a mannes thoght, 

That betre htm were have dninke noght 

And al his bred have eten dreie ; 

For thanne he lest his lusti weie 

With dninkeschipe, and wot noght whider 

To go, the weies ben so slider, 

In which he mai per cas so falle, 

That he schal breke his wittes alle. 

And in this wise men be drunke 

After the drink that thei have drunke : 

Bot alle drinken noght alike, 

For som schal singe and som schal syke. 

So that it me nothing merveilleth. 

Mi Sone, of love that thee eilleth ; 

For wel I knowe be thi tale, 

That thou hast drunken of the duale, 

Which biter is, til god the sende 

Such grace that thou miht amende. 

Bot, Sone, thou schalt bidde and preie 
In such a wise as I schal seie, 
That thou the lusti welle atteigne 
Thi wofuU thurstes to restreigne 
Of love, and taste the swetnessej 
As Bachus dede in his distresse, 
Whan bodiliche thurst him hente 
In strange londes where he wente. 
This Bachus Sone of Jupiter 

367 Of louedrunke and achalt FK Of louedmnke and schal J, 
SAdBT, W Oriouedriiike and schal AM ... B», A Of loue drunken 
and sbal Hj 376 lest J. B, F lesli A leescji C 379 which A, B, F 
whichej 38a thsltmi. AdBT 387 IwelAJH I wol(c) H....B1 

.coy Google 


[PRAVEEt. Bacchus 

L-nti precibus adquiri- 
tur. Etnarrat in ex- 
em plum quod, cum 
Bachu9 de quodam 
bello ab oriente repa- 
trians in quibusdam 
Lubie partibua alicu- 
ius generis potuin non 
precibus, apparuit ei 
Aries, qui terrain pede 
pcrcusait, statimque 


ii[ ; et si 


Was bote, and as he wente fer 400 

Be bis fodr^ assignement P. UL 15 

To make a werre in Orient, 

And gret pouer with bim be ladde. 

So that the heiere bond he hadde 

And vicloiie of bis enemys, 

And tometh homward with his pris, 

In such a centre which was dreie 

A meschier fell upon the weie. 

As he rod with bis compainie 

Nyh to the strondes of Lubie, 410 

Ther myhte thei no drinke finde 

Of water nor of other kinde, 

So that himself and al bis host 

Were of defalte of drinke almost 

Distniid, and thanne Eacbus preide 

To Jupiter, and thus be seide : 

'O hihe fader, that sest al. 

To whom is reson that I schal 

Beseche and preie in every nede. 

Behold, mi fader, and tak hiede 410 

This wofull thurst that we ben inne 

To staunche, and grante ous forto winne. 

And sauf unto the centre fare, 

Wher that cure lusti loves are 

Waitende upon our« bom cominge.' 

And with the vois of his preiynge, 

Which herd was to the goddes hihe, 

He syh anon tofore his ybe 

A wether, which the ground bath spomed ; 

And~wher he hath it overtomed, " ~ 430 

Ther sprang a welle freissh and cler, P. ill. 16 

Wberof bis oghne boteler 

After the lustes of his wille 

Was every man to drinke his fille. 

And for this ilke grete grace 

Bachus upon the same place 

40B the] l-ei.F 409 rtiargiti concusait A . . . Bi 414 for 

defaute Hi ... C, A, H> in debute Bi, W 431 wofull] foule 

AdBT 434 Was] 3*f Hi . . . Bt 

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A riche temple let a rere. 

Which evere scholde stonde there 

To thursti men in remembrance. 

Forthi, mi Sone, after this chance 440 

It sit thee wel to taken hiede 
So forto preie upon thi nede, 
As Bachus preide for the welle ; 
And thenk, as thou hast herd me telle, 
Hou grace he gradde and grace be hadde. 
He was no fol that ferst so radde, 
For selden get a domb man lood : 
Tak that proverb e, and understond 
That wordes IJeiTof vertu grete, 
Forthi to speke thou ne lete, 450 

And axe and prei erii and late 
Thi thurst to quenche, and thenk algate, 
The boteler which berth the keie 
Is blind, as thou hast herd me seie ; 
And if it mihte so betyde, 
That he upon the blinde side 
Per cas the swete tonne antuhte. 
Than schalt thou have a lusti drauhte 
And waxe of lovedrunke sobre. 
And thus I rede thou assobre 460 

Thin herte in hope of such a grace ; P. Ui. 17 
For drunkeschipe in every place, 
To whether side that it tome, 
Doth harm and makth a man to sporne 
And ofte falle in such a wise, 
Wher he per cas mai noght arise. 

And forto loke in evidence 
Upon the sothe CKperience, 
So as it hath befalle er this, 
In every mannes mouth it is 
Hou Tristram was of love d^unke 
With Bele Ysolde, whan thei dninke 
The drink which Brangwein hem betok, 
Er that king Marc his Eem hire tok 

Hie de a: 

etaleponUex«nip]un . 
470 qualitcr TriMnns ot> 
potum, quem Brang- 
weyne in naui ei por- 
r«xil, de amore Bele 
Isolde incbriatus ex< 


443 >e cede AM . . . Bi 463 i (I) torn 

fat AdBT, W 470 matgin ad potum Hi . . 

469 So 

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[Marriace of PlRI- 

H ic de peri cutis ebn- 
ctBtis causa in amarc 
coDtingeiitibus narrat 
quod, cum Pirothous 
illam puicfaerimam 
Ypotaciam in vxorem 
duceret, quosdam qui 
Centauri vocabantur 
inter alios vicinoi ad 
nupcias inuiUiut ; qui 
vino imbuti , noue nupte 
rormositatem aspid- 
entes, duplici ebrietate 
msanierunt, ila quod 
ipsi subito salientes 
a meosa Ipotaciam a 
Pirothoomarito suo in 
impetu rapnernnt. 


To wyve, as it was after knowe. 

And ek, mi Sone, if thou wolt knowe. 

As it hath fallen oveimore 

In loves cause, and what is more 

Of drunkeschipe forte drede, 

As it whilom befell in dede, 4''o 

Wherof thou miht the betre eschuie 

Of drunke men that thou ne suie 

The compaignie in no manere, 

A gret ensample thou schalt hiere. 

This finde I write in Poesie 
Of thilke faire Ipotacie, 
Of whos beaute ther as sche was 
Spak every man, — and fell per cas. 
That Pirotoiis go him spedde, 
That he to wyve hire scbolde wedde, 490 

Wherof that be gret joie made. F. lit 18 

And for he wolde his love glade, 
Ayein the day of marine 
Be mouthe bothe and be message 
Hise frendes to the feste he preide, 
With gret worschipe and, as men seide, 
He hath this yonge ladi spoused. 
And whan that thei were alle housed, 
And set and served ate mete, 
Ther was no wyn which mai be gete, joo 

That theT ne was plente ynouh : 
Bot Bachus thilke tonne drouh, 
Wherof be weie of drunkeschipe 
The greteste of the felaschipe 
Were oute of reson overtake ; 
And Venus, which hath also take 
The cause most in special, 
Hath yove hem drinke forth withal 
Of thilke cuppe which exciteth 
The lust wherinne a man deliteth : 510 

48S margin contigeirtibus F 495 feale AJ, B fest C, F 

497 margoi in otn. Hi . . . Bt, Ba, W 500 be gete] begete 

(.bigele) AX, SAdTA ^oa )oue B, F jeue A )iuc J, C 

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And thus be double weie drunke, 

Of lust that like fyri funke 

Hath mad hem, as who seith, halfwode, 

That thei no reson understode, 

Ne to non other thing thei syhen, 

Bot hire, which tofore here yhen 

Was wedded thilke same day. 

That freisshe wif, that lusti May, 

On hire it was al that thei thoghten. 

And so fetforth here lustes soghten, 

That thei the whiche named were P. 

Centauri, ate feste there 

Of on assent, of on acord 

This yonge wif malgre hire lord 

In such a rage awei forth ladden, 

As thei whiche non insihte hadden 

Bot only to her druoke fare, 

Which many a man hath mad misfore 

In love als wel as other weie. 

Wherof, if I schal more seie 

Upon the nature of the vice, 

Of custume and of excercice 

The mannes grace hou it fordoth, 

A tale, which was whilom soth. 

Of fooles that so drunken were, 

I schal reherce unto thine Ere. 

I rede in a Cronique thus 
Of Galba and of Vitellus, 
The whiche of Spaigne bothe were 
The greteste of alle othre there. 
And bothe of o condicion 
After the disposicion 
Of glotonie and drunkeschipe. 
That was a sori felaschipe : 
For this thou tnibt wel understonde, 
That man mai wel noght longe stonde 
Which is wyndninke of comun us ; 

Hie loqiu'turspecia- 
litcr contra vkiuni 
j4a illorum, qui niiniB po- 
tacioDC quasi ex con- 
suetudine ebriosi effi- 
duntur. Etna^rat ez- 
emplum de Galba et 
Vllello, qui poientes 
ia Hispania principes 
(ueniQt, act ipii cotl- 
dian« ebrietatia poti> 
bua asaueti, tanta vi- 
cinis intuktunt enor- 

513 halfwode S, F halfwode (woode) A), B 519 Oa] Of B 

531 )iis vice A , . . Bt, S . . . A 543 and of Hi ... Bi, W 

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miH, quod [andem tolo 
conclamante populo 
pens sentencie capi- 
IbUs in COS iudicialiter 
diffinitaest iquipriuv 
qium morerentur, vt 
penam mortis alleuia- 
rent, spontanea vini 
cbrietale sopiti, quasi 
porci seniimortui gla- 


For he hath lore the vertus, 

Wheraf reson him scholde clothe; 

And that was scene upon hem bothe. 550 

Men sein ther is non evidence, P> iii. 30 ' 

Wherof to knowe a difieience 

Betwen the drunken and the wode. 

For thei be nevere nouther goode; 

For wher that wyn doth wit aweie, 

Wisdom bath lost the rihte weie, 

That he no maner vice diedeth; 

Nomore than a blind man thredeth 

His nedle be the Sonnes lyht, 

Nomore is reson tbanne of myht, 560 

Whan he with drunkeschipe is blent 

And in this point thei weren schent, 

This Galba bothe and ek Vitelle, 

Upon the cause as I schal telle, 

Wherof good is to taken hiede. 

For thei tuo thurgh her drunkenhiede 

Of witles excitacioun 

Oppresse de^l the nacion 

Of Spaigne ; for of fool usance.. 

Which don was of continuance 570 

Of hem, whiche alday drunken were, 

Ther was no wif ne maiden there, 

What so thei were, or faire or foule, 

Whom thei ne token to defoule, 

Wherof the lond was often wo : 

And ek in othre thinges mo 

Thei wroghten many a sondri wrong. 

Bot hou so that the dai be long, 

The derke nyht comth ate laste : 

God wolde noght thei scholden laste, 580 

And schop the lawe in such a wise, P. Ui. 31 

That thei thurgh dom to the juise 

Be dampned forto be forlore, 

550 Hiargin que tandem AM coclamaDte F 554 neuere 

AJ, T neuer C, SB, F 556 margiH perierunl A .. . B. 

559 Sonne HiE, B, W (sonne bright) 569 of fool] a fool AH ... C 
■ foulB. or foul Ad offoliA 

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Bot thei, that hadden ben tofore 
Enclin to alle drunkenesse, — 
Here ende thanne bar witnesse ; 
For thei in hope to Bfisnagp 
The peine of deth, upon the r^e 
That thei the lasse scholden liele, 
Of wyn let fil le full a Miele, 
And dronken til so was befeUe 
That thei her strengthes losten alle 
Withouten wit of eny brain ; 
And thus thei ben halfdede slain. 
That hem ne grievelh bot a lyte. 

Mi Sone, if thou be forto wyte 
In eny point which I have seid, 
Wherof thi wittes ben uQteid^ 
I rede clepe hem horn ayein. 

I schal do, fader, as ye sein, 
Als ferfoTth as I mai suifise : 
Bot wel I wot that in no wise 
The dmnkeschipe of love aweie 
I mai remue be no weie, 
It stant noght upon my fortune. 
Bot if you liste to comune 
Of the seconde Glotonie, 
Which cleped is Delicacie, 
Wherof ye spieken hier tofore, 
Besecbe I wolde you therfore. 

Mi Sone, as of that ilke vice, P. i 

Which of alle othre is the Norrice, 
And stant upon the retenue 
Of Venus, so as it is due, 
The proprete hou that it faretb 
The bok hierafter nou dectareth. 

ii. DelicU cum diuiciis sunt iura poUntum, 
In guibus orta Venus excitat era gule. 
Non sunt delicie tales, que corpora pascunt. 
Ex quibus impleius gaudia venter agit, 

590 Glle fill] fu)6IIe(futlUle)H.XRCB* fulle H SUeW 
1 rede )<e HiERCB^ Ad 1 rede \oh X (I rede >e U «vr.) 

.coy Google 


specie Gule que Deli- 
CBCia nuncupatur, cu- 
ius mollicies voluptu- 

precipuc pcrtentibus 
queque complacencia 
corporaliler miDistrat, 


Quilt computus amor maiori munere gaudet, 
Cum data deitciis mens in amanU satur. 

Of this chapi trg. in which we trete 
There is yit on of such diete. 
To which no povere roai atteigne ; 
For al is Past of paindemein e 
And sondri wyn and sondri drinke, 
Wherof that he wole ete and drinke : 
Hise cokes ben for him affaited. 
So that his body is awaited, 
That him schal lacke no delit, 
Als ferTorth as his appetit 
Sutlicetb to the metes bote. 
Wherof this lusti vice is bote 
Of Guk the Delicacie, 
Which al the hole piogenie 
Of lusti folk bath undertake 
To feede, whil that he mai take 
Ricbesses wherof to be founde : 
Of Abstinence be wot no bounde, 
To what profit it scholde serve. 
And yit phisique of his conserve 
Maktb many a restauracioun P. 

Unto his recreacioun, 
Which wolde be to Venus lief. 
Thus for the point of bis relief 
The coc which schal bis mete arraie, 
Bot be the betre his moutb assaie, 
His lordes thonk schal ofte lese, 
£r he be served to the ^lese: 
For thet mai lacke noght so lyte, 
That he ne fint anon a wyte ; 
For bot his lust be fully served, 
Tber hath no wiht his tbonk deserved. 
And yit for mannes sustenance. 
To kepe and bolde in governance. 


Ijihn Vtrats iL 6 fatur Hi . . . Bt, B 

630 is Put of] bis past of AJ is paat(e) as BT his past is Ad 
691 msfjvi molliciis A. . . Bi 633 mof^fiqucique AMHiXBi, W 

633 Richesae AMHi, Hi Riches W 647 For tot] But if AdBT 

.coy Google 



To him that wote his hele gete [Delicacv.] 

Is non so good as comun mete : 
For who that loketh on the bokes. 
It seith, confeccion of cokes, 
A man him scholde wel avise 
Hou he it toke and in what wise. 
For who that usetb that he knoweth, 
Ful selden seknesse on him groweth, 
And who that useth metes strange, 
Though his nature empeire and change 660 

It js no wonder, lieve Sone, 
Whan that he doth ayein his wone; 

For in Phisique this I finde, Philosophua. Con 

Usage is the seconde kinde. ^^;^"''° "' """" "' 

And riht^Bo changeth his astat P. iii. 34 [Love- Delicacy 1 

He that of love is dehcat : 
For though he hadde to his hond 
The tjeste wif of al the lond, 
Or the faireste love of alie, 
Yit wolde his heite on othre &lle G70 

And thenke hem mor delicious 
Than he hath in his oghne hous : 
Men sein it is nou ofte so ; 
Avise hem wel, thei that so do. 
And forto speke in other weie, 
Fulofte time I have herd seie. 
That he which hath no love achieved. 
Him thenkth that he is nogbt relieved, 
Tht^h that his ladi make him chiere, 
So as sche mai in good manere 6S0 

Hir honour and hir name save, 
Bot he the surplus mihte have. 
Nothing withstondende hire astat, 
Of love more delicat 
He set hire chiere at no delit, 

653 who that] who so AH . . . Bi 664 Vsance A . . . Bi 

^5-9^ i"^' i*/^ ii46SAdBT&A T/its4 tofits pmaid /itmatk 1. g6$ 
Vsage is )ie seconde kinde 
In loue ala wel as ot>er weie, Sec. 
673 nou om. All 681 His honour AM 

.coy Google 

Confessio Amant 


Bot he have al his appetit. 

Mi Sone, if it be with thee so, 
Tell me. 

Myn holi fader, no : 
For delicat in such a wise 
Of love, as ye to me devise, 
Ne was 1 nevere yit gultif; 
For if I hadde such a wif 
As ye speke of, what scholde I more? 
For thanne I wolde neveremore 
For lust of eny wommanhiede P 

Myn herte upon non other fiede ; 
And if I dede, it were a wast 
Bot al withoute such repast 
Of lust, as ye me tolde above, 
Of wif, or yit of other love, 
I faste, and mai no fode gete ; 
So that for lacke of deinte met^ 
Of which an herte mai be fedd, 
I go fastende to my bedd. 
Bot myhte I geten, as ye tolde, 
So mochel that roi ladi wolde 
Me fede with hir glad semblant, 
Though me lacke al the lemenant, 
Yit scholde I somdel ben ^beched^ 
And for the time wel refreched. 
Bot certes, fader, sche ne doth; 
For in good feith, to telle soth, 
I trowe, thogh I scholde sterve, 
Sche wolde noght hire yhe swerve, 
Min herte with o goodly lok 
To fede, and thus for such a cok 
I mai go fastinge everemo : 
Bot if so is that eny wo 
Mai fede a mannes herte wel, 
Therof I have at every meel 
Of plente more than ynowh ; 
Bot that is of himself so towh. 

666 But if BT 
ono goodly A 

Its a goodly JHiRCB>, AdBT, Hi a gladly W 

.coy Google 


Mi stomac mai it noght defie. 

Lo, such is the delicacie 

Of love, which myn herte fedeth ; P. ill. 26 

Thus have I lacke of that me nedeth. 

Bot for al this yit natheles 
I seie noght I am gylteles, 
That I somdel am delicat : 
For elles were 1 fulli mat, 730 

Bot if that I som lusti stounde 
Of confort and of ese founde, 
To take of love som lepast ; 
For th<^h I with the fulle tast 
The lust of love mai noght fiele, 
Min hunger otherwise I kiele 
Of smale tustes whiche 1 pike, 
And for a time yit thei like ; 
If that ye wisten what I mene. 

NoQ, goode Sone, schrif thee clene 740 

CM" suche deyntes as ben goode, 
Wherof thou takst thin hertes fode. 

Mi fader, I you schal reherce, 
Hou that mi fodes ben diverse, 
So as thei fallen in degre. 
O fiedinge is of that I se, 
An other is of that 1 here, 
The thridde, as I schal tellen here, 
It groweth of min oghne thoght : 
And elks scholde I live noght ; 750 

For whom that ^lleth fode of herte, 
He mai noght wel the deth asterte. 

Of sihte is al mi ferste fode, 
Thurgh which myn yhe of alle goode 
Hath that to him is acordant, P. iii. a? ^] 

A lusti fode sufGcant. 
Whan that I go toward the place 
Wher I schal se my ladi face, 
Min yhe, which is loth to (aste, 
Beginth to hungre anon so faste, 76a 

734 ful paait AH 746 Of fieding(e) AH, AdA, H> If fedinK(e) 
Hi . . . Bi (not G) Tho fedyog W ^51 of herte] u)d berte AJM 

,[LovK. Delicacy.] 

Confessio Amantis. 

.CD, Google 


[LovB-DtLicAcvO That him thenkth of on houre thre, 

Til I ther come and he hire se : 
And thanne after his appetit 
He takth a fode of such delit, 
That him non other deynte nedeth. 
Of sondri sihtes he him fedeth : 
He setb hire face of such colour, 
That freisshere is than eny flour, 
He seth hire front is large and plein 
Withoute fronce of eny grein. 
He seth hire yhen lich an hevene, 
He seth hire nase strauht and evene, 
He seth hire rode upon the cheke, 
He seth hire rede lippes eke, 
Hire chyn acordeth to the face, 
Al that he seth is full of grace. 
He seth hire necke rpun^ and dene, 
Therinne mai no bon be sene. 
He seth hire handes &ire and whyte ; 
For al this thing without wyte 
He mai se naked ate teste, 
So is it wel the more feste 
And wel the mor Delicacie 
Unto the fiedinge of myn yhe. 
He seth hire schapt he forth withal, P. 
Hire bodi round, hire middel smal. 
So wel b^on with good^arfay, 
Which passeth al the lust of Maii, 
Whan he is most with softe schoures 
Ful clothed in his lusti floures. 
With suche sihtes by and by 
Min yhe is .fed; bot finaly, 
Whan he the port and the manere 
Seth of hire wommanysshe chere. 
Than hath he such delice on honde, 
Him thenkth he mihte stille stonde, 
' And that he hath ful sufGcance 
Of lillode and of sustienance 
763 he hire] to hir(e) AdBT 784 myn] his AM . 

785 schapj-e S, F Ar raS scbape (sduppe Sit.) 

.coy Google 


As to his part for everemo. 
And if it thoghte alle othre so, Soo 

Fro thenne wolde he nevere wende, 
Bot there unto the worldes ende 
He wolde abyde, if that he mihte, 
And fieden him upon the syhte. 
For thogh I mihte stonden ay 
Into the time of domesday. 
And loke upon hire evere in on, 
Yit whanne I scholde fro hire gon, 
Min yhe wotde, as thogh he faste, 
Ben hungerstop/en al so faste, ftio 

Til efte ayein that he hire syhe. 
Such is the nature of myn yhe : 
Ther is no lust so deintefull, 
Of which a man schal noght be ftiU, 
Of that the stomac underfongeth, P. lU. 39 

Bot evere in on myn yhe longetb : 
For loke hou that a goshauk tireth. 
Riht so doth he, whan that he pireth 
And joteth on hire wommanhiede ; 
For he mai nevere full! fiede 810 

His lust, bot evere aliche sore 
Him hungreth, so that he the more 
Desireth to be fed algate : 
And thus myn yhe is mad the gate, 
Thurgh which the deyntes of my thoght 
Of lust ben to myn herte broght. 
Riht as myn yhe with his lok 
Is to myn herte a lusti coc 
Of loves fode delicat, 

Kiht so myn Ere in his astat, 830 

Wher as myn yhe mai noght serve, ' 

Can wel myn hertes thonk deserve 
And fieden him fro day to day 
With suche deyntes as he may. 
For thus it is, that overal, 
Wher as 1 come in special, 
I mai hiere of mi ladi ptis ; 

Ba7 Paragraph at L S30 in MSS. 

.coy Google 


I hiere on seith that sche is wys, 
An other seith that sche is good, 
And som men sein, of worthi blod 
That sche is come, and is also 
So fair, that nawher is non so; 
And som men preise hire goodii chieie : 
Thus every thing that I mai hiere, 
Which souneth to mi ladi goode. P. 

Is to myn Ere a lusti foode. 
And ek min Ere hath over this 
A deynte feste, whan so is 
That I mai hiere hirselve speke; 
For thanne anon mi faste I breke 
On suche wordes as sche seith. 
That full of trouthe and full of feith 
Tbei ben, and of so good desport, 
That to myn Ere gret confort 
Thei don, as thei that ben delices. 
For al the metes and the spices. 
That eny Lombard couthe make, 
Ne be so lusti forto take 
Ne so ferforth restauratif, 
I seie as for myn oghne lif, 
As ben the wordes of hire mouth : 
For as the wyndes of the South 
Ben most of alle debonaire. 
So whan hir list to speke faire, 
The vertu of hire goodly speche 
Is ve rraily myn hertes leche. 
And if it so befalle among, 
That sche carole upon a song. 
Whan I it hiere I am so fedd, 
That I am fro miself so ledd, 
As thogh I were in paradis; 
For certes, as to myn avis, 
Whan I here of hir vois the stevene, 
Me thenkth it is a blisse of hevene. 
And ek in other wise also P. 

838 Milh] seie MC, AdA, W (say) 841 19 also] at 

AdBT 856 and alt(e) >e spice* H . . . Bi, W 

.coy Google 


Fiilofte time it faUeth so, 
Min Ere with a good pitance 
Is fedd of redinge of romance 
or Ydoine and of Amaidas, 
That whilom weren in mi cas, 
And eke of othre many a score, 
That loveden longe er I was bore. 
For whan I of here loves rede, 
Min Ere with the tale I fede; 
And with the lust of here hJ stoire 
Somtime I diawe into memoire 
Hon sorwe mai noght evere laste ; 
And so comth hope in ate laste, 
Whan I non other fode knowe. 
And that enduretb hot a throwe, 
Riht as it were a cherie f^te; 
Bot forto compten ate teste. 
As for the while ^it it eseth 
And somde) of myn herte appeseth : 
For what thing to myn Ere spreedeth. 
Which is plesant, somdel it feedeth 
With wofdes suche as he mai gete 
Mi lust, in stede of other mete. 

Lo thus, mi fader, as I seie. 
Of lust the which myn yhe hath seie, 
And ek of that myn Ere hath herd, 
Futol^e I have the betre ferd. 
And tho tuo bringen in the Chridde, 
The which hath in myn herte amidde 
His place take, to arraie 
The lusti fode, which assaie 
I mot ; and nameliche on nyhtes, 
Whan that me lacketh alle sihtes. 
And that myn heringe is aweie, 
Thanne is he redy in the weie 
Mi reresouper forto make, 
Of which myn hertes fode I take. 

This lusti cokes name is hote 

Sga for Ucomplen B 899 u I >e s«ye B 

)K>ughtea B om, AdT Aode Bi 


P.m. 3a 

D,3,i,:«.„ Google- 



Thc^ht, which hath evere hise pottes hote 

Of love buillende on the fyr 

With fantasie and with desir, 

Of whiche er this fulofte he fedde 

Min herte, whanne I was abedde; 

And thanne he set upon my bord 

Bothe every syhte and every word 

Of lust, which I have herd oc sein. 

Bot yit is noght mi feste al plein, 

Bot al of woldes and of wisshea, 

Tberof have I my fulle disshes, 

Bot as of iielinge and of tast, 

Yit mihte I nevere have o repast 

And thus, as I have seid afom, 

I licke hony o n the thaui, 

And as who seith, upon the bridel 

I chiewe, so that al is ydel 

As in effect the fode I have. 

Bot as a man that wolde him save, 

Whan he is sek, be medicine, 

Riht so of love the famine 

I fonde in al that evere I mai F. iii 

To fiede and diyve forth the day, 

Til I mai have the grete feste, 

Which al myn hunger myhte areste. 

Lo suche ben mi lustes thre ; 
Of that I thenke and hiere and se 
I take of love my fiedinge 
Withoute Jastinge or fielinge : 
And as the Plover doth of Eir 
I live, and am in good espeir 
That for no such delicacie 
I trowe I do no glotonie. 
And natheles to youre avis, 
Min holi fader, that be wis, 
I lecomande myn astat 
Of that I have be delicat. 

Mi Sone, I understonde wel 
fora AdBT 938 on] of EBi, AdBT 946 I 

.coy Google 


That thou hast told hier everydel, [Love-Dilicacv.] 

And as me thenkcth be thi tale, 

It ben delices wonder sitiale, 

Wherof thou takst thi loves fode. 

Bot, Sone, if that thou understode 

What is to ben j elicio us. 

Thou woldest noght be curious 

Upon the lust of thin astat 

To ben to sore delicat, 960 

Wherof that thou reson excede : 

For in the bokes thou myht rede, 

If mannes wisdom schal be suied. 

It oghte wel to ben eschuied 

In love als wel as other weie ; P. iU. 34 

For, as these holi bokes seie, [Delicacy. 

The bodety delices alle Delicie corporis nil i- 

In every point, hoa so the! folle, Unt aduersus animam. 

Unto the Soute don grievance. 

And forto take in remembrance, 970 

A tale acordant unto this. 

Which of gret understondinge_ is 

To mannes soule resonable, 

I thenke telle, and is no fable. 

Of Cristes word, who wole it rede, 
Hou that this vice is forto drede 
In thevangile it telleth plein, 
Which mot algate be certein. 
For Crist himself it berth witnesse. 
And chogh the clerk and the clergesse 
In latin tunge it rede and singe, 
Yit for the more knoule chinge 
Of trouthe, which is good to wite, 
I schal declare as it is write 
In Engleissh, for thus it began. 

Crist seith : ' Ther was a riche man, 
A raihti lord of gret astat. 
And he was ek so delicat 

Afltt 964 Als wel be reson as be kinde etc (1149 ff.) SAdBTAA 
973 To] In AH . . . Bi 979iHa);^g:estaB 988eekhew>sC A 

[Dives AND Lazauus.] 

Hicponil exemplum 
conlra istos delicalos. 
Et naiTst de dilute et 
Lazaro, quoruni gestus 
o in euangelio Lucas 
' euidencius dcscrilnt. 

.coy Google 


] Of his clothing, that everyday 

Of pourpre and bisse he made him gay, 990 

And eet and drank therto his fille 

After the lustes of his wille, 

As he which al stod in delice 

And tok non hiede of thilke vice. 

And as it scholde so betyde, P. ill. 35 

A povere lazre upon a tyde 

Cam to the gate and axed mete: 

Bot there mihte he nothing gete 

His dedly hunger fono stanche ; 

For he, which hadde his fulle^panche 1000 

Of alle lustes ate bord, 

Ne deign eth noght to speke a word, 

Onliche a Crumme forto yive, 

Wherof the povere myhte live 

Upon the yifte of his almesse. 

Thus lai this povere in gret destresse 

Acold and hungred ate gate. 

Fro which he mihte go no gate, 

So was he wofullj besein. 

And as these holi bokes sein, loio 

The houndes coroen fro the halte, 

Wher that this sike man was falle. 

And as he lay ther forto die. 

The woundes of his maladie 

Thei Jicken forto don him ese. 

Bot he was full of such deses^ 

That he mai noght the deth eschape ; 

Bot as it was that time schape, 

The Soule fro the bodi passeth, 

And he whom nothing overpasseth, loto 

The hihe god, up to the hevene 

Him tok, wher he hath set him evene 

In Habrahammes barm on hyh, 

Wher he the hevene joie ayh 

993 As] And AdBT stood al Hi . . . Bi, Ad, W 998 he] be 
AHXRB) 1004 W^ P- S ■ " A io°6 |>e p. S . . . A 1008 
ffbr AdBT toio th«s«] pe AH . . . Bi, Hi 1093 Habiibanmes 
J, F mf Abni)uiiies(Abraham8&c.)i ao 1039, 1046, 1073 

.coy Google 


And hadde al that he have wolde. P. iU. 36 [I 

And fell, as it befalle scholde, 
This riche man the same throwe 
With soudein deth was overthrowe, 
And forth withouten eny wente 
Into the belle straght he wente; tojo 

The fend into the fyr him drouh, 
Wher that he hadde peine ynouh 
Of flamme which that evere brenneth. 
And as his jrhe aboute renneth. 
Toward^ the hevene he cast his lok, 
Wher that he syh and hiede tok 
Hou Lazar set was in his Se _. 
Als fen as evere he mihte se 
With Habraham ; and thanne he preide 
Unto the Patriarch, and seide: 1040 

" Send Lazar doun fro thilke Sete, 
And do ttiat he his finger vete 
In water, so that he mat droppe 
Upon my tunge, forto stoppe 
The grete hete in which I brenne." 
Bot Habraham answerde thenne 
And seide to him in this wise : 
" Mi Sone, thou thee miht avise 
And take into thi remembrance 
Hou Lazar hadde gret penance, 1050 

Whyl he was in that other lif, 
Bot thou in al thi lust jolif 
The bodily delices soghtest: 
FoTthi, so as thou thanne wroghtest, 
Nou schalt thou take thi reward P.ili.37 

Of dedly peine hieraf^erward 
In belle, which schal evere laste ; 
And this Lazar nou ate laste 
The worldes peine is overronne. 
In hev«ie and hath hts lif begonne 1060 

Of joie, which is endeles. 

1097 the] jUatii B> 1030 Vnlo )ic helle BT In to Iielle 

J RBi, A, W 1048 matpu Solomon. Qui obturat aures suas 

ad clamorem p«up«nim, ipse clanaUt et non exandietnr SBTA 

.coy Google 


Bot that thou preidest oatheles, 

That I scbal Laaai to the sende 

With water on his finger ende. 

Thin bote tunge forte jcielc, 

Thou schak no suche graces iiele ; 

For to tbfU foule place of Sinne, 

For evexe in which thou schalt ben inne, 

Cotntb DOn out of this place tbider, 

Ne non of you mai conten hider ; 1070 

Thus be yee parted nou atub." 

The jicJie. ayeinward ciide tho : 
" O Habiaham, ^the it so is, 
That Lazar mai do^ do me this 
Which I have axed in thk place, 
I wolde preie an other grace. 
For I have yit of_brethien fyve. 
That with mi fader ben alyve 
Togedre dueUende in on hous ; 
To whom, as thou art giacious, loSo 

I preie that thou woldest sende 
Lazar, so that be mihte wende 
To warne hem hou the world is went, 
That afterward thei be noght scbent 
Of suche peines as I drye. P. iii. 38 

Lo, this I pKie and this I crie, 
Now I mof noght miself amende." 

The Patriarch anon suiende 
To his preiere ansuerde nay ; 
And seide him hou that everyday 109a 

His brethren mihten knowe and hiete 
Of Moises on Erthe hiere 
And of prophetes othre mo, 
What hem was best. And he seith no; 
Bot if ther mihte a man aryse 
Fro deth to lyve in such a wise. 
To tellen hem hou that it were. 
He seide hou thanne of pure fere 
Thei scholden wel be war therby. 

1089 his] lu (this) Hi, AdBTd ,his S) 

.coy Google 


Quod Habraham: "Nay sikerly; iioo[i 

For if thei nou wol noght obde 
To suche as tecben hem the weie, 
And alday preche and aldajr telle 
Hou that it stant of hevene and helle, 
Thei wol rn^t tbanne taken hiede, 
Tbogb it befelle so in dede 
That eny ded man were arered. 
To ben of him no betre lered 
Than of an other man alyve."' 

If thou, mi Sone, canst descryve mo 

Tbis tale, as Crist himself it totde, 
Tbou schalt have cause to beholde, 
To se so gret an evidence, 
Wberof the sotbe experience 
Hath schewed op«iUche at ye, P. iii. 39 

That bodili delicacie 
Of him wbicb yevetb non almesse 
Scbal after falle in gret destresse. 
And tbat was sene upon tbe riche : 
For he ne wotde unto his liche tiio 

A Cnimme yiven of his bred, 
Thanne afterward, wban he was ded, 
A drope of water him was werned. 
Tbus mai a mannes wit be lerned 
Of hem that so delices taken ; 
Whan thei with deth ben overtaken. 
That erst was swete is thanne sour. 
Bot be tbat is a governour 
Of woitdes good, if he be wys, 
Withinne his bene he set no pris irjo 

Of al tbe worid, and yit be useth 
The good, tbat be nothing refuseth, 
Aa he wbidi lord is of tbe thinges. 
The Nouches and the ricbe ringes, 
Tbe doth of gold and the Penie 
He takth, and yit delicade 

1 100 Habraham JX, F mt Abnhamuo 5 wold;e) H, B, W 

■ 107 Than eny AHi ThemenyH (p.tu.) 1109 of lyue X . . . Bi, 
Ad, Hi onliu«A iita beholde JHiRBi . 

.coy Google 

cacia Neronis. qui 
L'orponlibus deliciia 
magis adherens spirit- 
ilia gaudia minus ab' 


He leveth, thogh he were al this. 

The heste mete that thei is 

He ett, and dtinkth the beste drinke ; 

Bol hou that evere he ele or drinke, 114° 

Delicacie he put aweie. 

As he which gotb the rihte weie 

Noght only forto fiede and clothe 

His bodi, hot his soule bothe. 

Bot thei that uken otherwise P. UL 4c 

Here lustes, ben none of the wise ; 

And that whilom was schewed eke, 

If thou these olde bokes seke, 

Als wel be reson as be kinde, 

Of olde ensample as men mai finde. iis' 

What man that wotde him wd avise, 
Uelicacie is to despise, 
Whan kinde acordeth noght withal ; 
Wherof ensample in special 
Of Nero whilom mai be told. 
Which ayein kinde manyfold 
Hise lustes tok, til ate laste 
That god him wolde al overcaste; 
Of whom the Cronique is so plein, 
Me list nomore of him to sein. 116 

And natheles for glc^taaie 
Of bodili Delicacie, 
To knowe his stomak hou it ferde, 
Of that noman tofore herde, 
Which he withinue himself bethoghte, 
A wonder soubtJl thing he wroghte. 

Thre men upon eleccioun 

^//rr 1146 SAaSTAA haiM lAt fillomug aix lints {ptmUmg Iht hii 
iH^i.),ttndaitHinstrlllupiaaagt665-g6^. ThtttxthtniaUtalo/S:- 

The world so Tull of vanile, 
That Doman lak|> of reson hicde 
Or forto do^ or forto fiede, 
Bot kl is sett VDlo >e vice 
To newe and changen his delice. 
And riht so etc. (as £65 ff.) 
1 151 Thai DUD X . . . Bt (ho/ G>, W 1155 mmijih minus out. 

.coy Google 


Of age and of cotnplejtioun 
Lich to himself be alle weie 
He tok towardes him to pleie, 
And ete and drinlte als wel as he. 
Therof was no diversite; 
For every day whan that thei eete, 
Tofore his oghne bord thei seete, 
And of such mete as he was served, 
Althogh thei hadde it noght deserved, 
Thei token service of the same. 1 

Bot afterward al thitke game 
Was into wofull emest tomed ; 
For whan thei weren thus sojorned, 
Withinne a time at after mete 
Nero, which hadde nc^ht foryete 
The lustes of his frele astat. 
As he which al was delical. 
To knowe thilke experience, 
The men let come in his presence : 
And to that on the same tyde, 
A courser that he scholde tyde. 
Into the feld, anon he bad; 
Wherof this man was wonder glad, 
And goth to ^'ke and jyance aboute. 
That other, whil that he was oute, 
He leide upon his bedd to slepe: 
The thridde, which he wolde kepe 
Withinne his chambre, fake and softe 
He goth now doun nou up fulofte, 
Walkende a pass, that he ne slepte, 
Til he which on the courser lepte 
Was come fro the fiebl ayein. 
Nero thanne, as the bokes sein. 
These men doth taken alle thre 
And slouh htm, for he wolde se 
The whos stomak was best defied : 
And whanne he hath the sothe tryed, 
He fond that he which goth the pass 
Defyed best of alle was, 

iiSe let C, BT lete AJ, 5, F 

.coy Google 


Which afterward he usede ay. P. iii. 43 

And thus what thing unto his pay 
Was most picsant, he lefte non : 
With every lust he was begon, mo 

.Wherof the bodi myhte ^lade, 
For he non abstinence made; 
Bot most above alle erthli thinges 
Of wommen unto the lilcinges 
Nero sette al his hole herte, 
For that lust scholde him nogfat asterte. 
Whan that the thuret of love him cawhte, 
Wber that him list be tok a drauhte. 
He sparetb nouther wif tie maide, 
That such an other, as men saide, mo 

In al this world was nevere yit. 
He was so drunke in al his wit 
Thurgh sondri lustes whiche he tok, 
That evere, whil ther is a bok, 
Of Nero men schul rede and singe 
Unto the worldes knowlechinge. 
Mi goode Sone, as thou hast herd. 

For evere yit it hath so ferd, 

Delicacie in loves cas 

Withoute reson is and was; 1130 

For wber that love his herte set. 

Him thenkth it myhte be no bet ; 

And thogh it be noght fulli mete, 

The lust of love is evere swete, 
Lo, thus togedre of felaschipe 

Delicacie and dninkescbipe, 

Wherof reson stant out of herre, F. ill. 43 . 

Have mad full ^uiny a wisman erre 

In loves cause roost of alle : 

For thanne hou so that evere it falle, 1)40 

Wit can no reson understonde, 

fiot let the governance stonde 

To Will, which thanne wext so wylde, 

That he can noght himselve ^lixlde 

1 009 non] anon EC, AdBT 
As)K>ughAdT Thogh W 

1030 it ii AH . . . Bi 1933 Al >ough B 

.coy Google 


Fro no peri], hot out of feere 

The weie he secheth hiere and there, 

Him lecheth noght upon what syde: 

For oftetime he goth ^^pi^fi. 

And doth such thing withoute drede, 

Wherof him (%hte wel to diede. 1150 

Bot whan that love assoteth sore, 

It passetb alle mennes lore ; 

What lust it is that he ordeigneth, 

Ther is no mannes miht restreigneth, 

And of the godd takth he pon hiede : 

Bot laweles withoute drede. 

His pourpos for he wolde achieve 

Ayeins the pointz of the believe, 

He tempteth hevene and erthe and helle, 

Hieraflerward as I schal telle. 1160 

iii. Dum stirtiulaiur amor, quicguid iubet orta voiuptas, 

Audit ft aggreditur, nulla timenda iiment. 
Omne guod astra gueunt herbarum siue potestoi, 

Seu vigor in/erm, singula iemptat amans. 
Quad neguit ipie deo midiantt parare sinistrum, 

Demonis hoe magica credulus arte parat. 
Sic sibi non curat ad opus que reda ftndit, 

Dummodo nudatam prendtre posjil auem. 

Who dar do thing which love ne dar 7 P. iii. 44 
To love is every lawc unwar, 
Bot to the lawes of his heste 
The fiasch, the foul, the man, the beste 
Of al the worldes kinde louteth. 
For love is he which nothing douteth ; 
In mannes herte where he sit. 
He compteth nr^ht toward his wit 
The wo nomore than the wele. 
No mor the hete than the chele, 1170 

No mor the wete than the dreie. 
No mor to live than to deie, 

1945 ■»>] \* Bi, AdBT |iBt U ias4 is] u A . . . Bi las; wol(e) 
AHi . . . B. 1367 he] it G, B marpn SortLlegio SBT&A Sacrilegio 
AX . . . Bi, FHi sacrile^ Hi sacri legis H (LmHh om. J, 
Ad, W) 


Hie incut qutiitcr 
Ebrietas el Delicacia 
omnis pudicicie con- 
trarium iosCigantes 
inter alia sd camilis 
coDcupiscenci« pro- 
mocionem Sortilegio 

.coy Google 

NoU de Auctonim 
necDon et de libronim 
tarn nalunlis quam 
execrabilis magice 
no minibus. 


So that tofore ne behinde 

He seth nothing, hot as the blinde 

Withoute insyhte of his corage 

He doth merveilles in his rage. 

To what thing that he wole him drawe, 

Ther is no god, ther is no lane, 

Of whom that he takth eny hiede ; 

Bot as BaiaTd the blinde Jtede, 

Til he falle in the dich amidde. 

He goth ther noman wole him bidde ; 

He stant so ferforth out of reule, 

Ther is no wit that mai him reule. 

And thus to telle of him in soth, 

Ful many a wonder thing he doth. 

That were betre to be laft, 

Among the whiche is vncchecraft. 

That som men clepen Sorcerie^ 

Which forto winne his druerie 

With many a circumstance he useth, P. 

Ther is no point which he refuseth. 

The craft which that Saturnus fond. 
To make prickes in the Sond, 
That Geomance cleped is, 
Fulofte he useth it amis; 
And of the flod his Ydromance, 
And of the fyr the Piromance, 
With questions echon of tho 

He tempteth ofte, and ek also 

Aeremance in juggement 

To love he bringth of his assent : 

For these craftes, as I finde, 

A man mai do be weie of kinde. 

Be so it be to good entente. 

Bot he goth al an other wente ; 

For rathere er he scholde faile, 

With Nigromance he wole assaile 

To maike SI? Tncantacioun 

With hot subfumigacioun. 

som men] aomme (some &c.) A , . . Bi 109 

t BT 1094 pikkes AdBTA 

.coy Google 


Thiike art which Spatula is bote. 

And used is of comun rote 

Among Faiens, with that craft ek 

Of which is Auctor Thosz the Grek, 

He worcheth m^ and .go. be rowe : 

Raz£j^ is noght to him unknowe, 

Ne Salomones Candarie, 

His Ydeac, his Eutonye ; 

The figure and the bok withat 

Of Balamuz, and of Ghenbal 1310 

The Seal, and therupon thymage P. lii. 46 

Of Thebith, for his avantage 

He takth, and somwhat of Gibieie, 

Which heJEljch is to this matiere. 

Babilla with hire Sones sevene, 

Which hath renonced to the hevene, 

With Cernes bothe square and rounde. 

He traceth ofte upon the grounde, 

Makende bis invocacioun ; 

And foT full enformacioun 133a 

The Scole which Honorius 

Wrot, he poursuieth : and to, thus 

Magique he useth forto winne 

His love, and spareth for no Sinne. 

And over that of bis Sotie, 

Ribt as he secheth Sorcerie 

Of hem that ben Magiciens, 

Riht so of the Naturiens 

Upon the Sterres from above 

His weie be secheth unto love, 1340 

Als fer as he hem understondeth. 

In many a sondry wise be fondeth : 

He makth ymage, he makth sculpture, 

He makth writinge, he makth figure, 

He makth his calculacions. 

He makth his demonstracions ; 

His houres of Astrooomte. 

He kepeth as for that partie 

131a of] to AM 131'; Ne] The B 1319 and] oT B 

1330 Cbenb*) Bi, Sa Geulwl AH GIcdIsII H> Thenballe W 

.coy Google 


Which longeth to thinspeccton 

Of love and his &ffeccton ; 1350 

He wolde into the helle seche P. Hi. 47 

The jlev£l_himselve to besecbe, 

IT that he viste forto spede, 

To gete of love his lusti mede : 

Wber that he hath his herte set, 

He bede nevere fore bet 

Ne wite of other hevene more. 

Mi Sone, if thou of such a lore 
Hast ben er this, I red thee leve. 

Min hoh fader, be youre leve is6j 

Of al that ye have spoken hiere 
Which toucheth unto this matiere, 
To telle soth riht as I wene, 
I wot noght o word what ye mene. 
I wol n<^ht seie, if that I couthe. 
That I nol^e in mi lusti youthe 
Benethe in helle and ek above 
To winne with mi ladi love 
Don al that evere that I mihte ; 
For therof have I non indhte 1370 

Wher afterward that I become, 
To that I wonne and overcome 
Hire love, which I most coveite. 

Mi Sone, that goth wonder streite : 
For this I mai wel telle soth, 
Ther is noman the which so doth. 
For al the craft that he can caste, 
That he nabeith it ate laste. 
For often he that wol beguile 
Is guiled with the same guile, i.itSo 

And thus the guilour is bruited ; P. iil. 46 
As I finde in a bok compiled 
To this matiere an old histoire. 
The which comth nou to mi memoire, 
And is of gret essamplerie 
Ayein the vice of Sorcerie, 
Wherof non ende mai be good. 
1359 red S, F rede AJC, B 

.coy Google 


Bot hou whilom therof it stod, 
A tale which is good to knoWe 
To thee, mi Sone, I schal ^knowe. 1390 

Among hem whiche at Troie were, , 
Uluxes ate Siege there 
Was on be Dame in special ; 
Of whom yit the memorial 
Abit, for whyl ther is a mouth. 
For evere his name schal be couth. 
He was a worthi knyht and king 
And clerk knowende of every thing; 
He was a gret reihorien, 

He was a gret magicien ; 1400 

Of TuUius the retho rique, 
Of king Zorastes the magique, 
Of Tholome thastronomiej 
Of Piato the PhilosophJe, 
Of Daniel the slepi dremes," 
Of Neptune ek the water stremes, 
Of Salomon and the proverbes, 
Of Macer al the strengthe of herbes, 
And the PhisJque of Ypocras, 
And lich unto Pictagoras 1410 

Of .Sui^er ie he knew the cures. P. lid. 49 

Bot somwhat of his aveotures. 
Which schal to mi matiere acorde, 
To thee^ mi Sone, I wol recorde. 

This king, of which thou hast herd sein, 
Fro Troie as he goth hom ayein 
Be Schipe, he fond the See divers, 
With many a wyndi storm revers. 
Bot he thurgh wisdom that he schapeth 
Ful many a gret peril ascapeth, 1430 

Of whiche I thenke tellen on, 
Hou that malgre the nedie and ston 
Wynddrive he was al soudeinly 
Upon the strondes of Cilly, 
1388 whilom how (lerof AMX . , . B» hou aamtyme f. J 
51 whiche SB which AJC, F 

ITale of 

Nots contra istos ob 
anioris causam soiti- 
legos : vbi narrst in 
exempluiD quod, CUm 
Vluxes a subuersione 

uigio voluisset, ipsum 
in Insula Cilly, viri ilia 
«xpertisaima maga 
Domine Circes regna- 
uit, contigit applicu- 
issc ; quem vt in sui 
amoris concupiscen- 
ciam exardescerel, 
Circes omnibus suis 
incantacionibus vin- 
cerc conabatur. V- 
luxcB lamen magica 
potencior ipum in 
amore subegit, ex qua 
filium nomine Thelo- 
gonum genu it, qui 
postea patrem luum 
interfeciliet sic contra 
Gdei naturam genitua 
contra generacionis 
■utCuram palricidium 
operatus eat. 

.coy Google 


[Tale of Wher that he moste abyde a whyle. 

Tt^R^uO "^"^ queenes weren in that yle 

Calipsa named and Circes ; 
And whan they herde hou Uluxes 
' Is londed ther upon the ryve, 
For him thei senden als so blive. 1430 

With him suche as he wolde he nam 
And to the court to hem he cam. 
Thes queenes were as tuo goddesses 
Of Art magique Sorceresses, 
That what lora comth to that rivage, 
Thei make him love in such a rage 
And upon hem assote so, 
That thei . wol have, er that he go, 
Al that he hath of worldes good. 
Uluxes wel this understod, 1440 

Thei couthe moche, he couthe more ; P. iii. 50 
Thei schape and caste ayein him sore 
And wroghte many a soutil_wyle, 
Bot yit thei mihte him noght b^uile. 
Bot of the men of his navJe 
Thei tuo forschope a gret partie, 
Mai non of hem withstonde here hestes ; 
Som part thei schopen into bestes, 
Som part thei schopen into foules. 
To bere s, tJeres, Apes, oule^ 1450 

Or elles be som other weie ; 
Ther myhte hem nothing desobei^ 
Such craft thei hadde above kinde. 
Bot that Art couthe thei noght iinde. 
Of which Uluxes was deceived, 
That he ne hath hem alle weyve^ 
And br<^ht hem into such a jote, 
That upon him thei bothe assote; 
And thurgh the science of his art 
He tok of heiD so wel his part, 1460 

That he b^at Circes with childe. 
He kepte him sobre and made hem wilde, 

143a or h«m AdBT 1437 Aod] Tlut AH , . . Bt (not G) 

144a Bchope S . , , A 1444 And jit All . . . Bi 

.coy Google 


He sette himselve so above, (Taie of 

That with here good and with here love, TbiesomosO 

Who that therof he lief or loth, 
Al quit into his Schip he goth. 
Circes toswo lle hothe sides 
He lede, and waiteth on the tjdes, 
And straght thurghout the salte fom^ 
He taklh his cours and comth him horn, 1470 
Where as he fond Penolope ; P. ill. 51 

A betre wif ther mai non be. 
And yit ther ben ynowhe of goode. 
Bot who hir goodschipe understode 
Fro ferst that sche wiOiods^tok, 
Hou many loves sche forsolc 
And hou sche bar hire al aboute, 
Ther whiles that hire lord was oute. 
He mihte make a gret avant 
Amonges al the remenant 1480 

That sche was on_,of al the beste. 
Wei myhte he sette his herte in reste, 
This king, whan he hir fond in hele; 
For as he couthe in wisdom dele, 
So couthe sche in wommanhiede ; 
And whan sche syh withoute drede 
Hire lord upon his oghne ground, 
That he was come sauf and ^sound. 
In al this world ne mihte be 
A gladdere womman than was sche. 1490 

The fome, which mai noght ben hidd, 
Thurghout the lond is sone kidd, 
Here king is come hom ayein : 
Ther mai noman the liille sein, 
Hou that thei weren alle glade, 
So mochel joie of him thei made. 
The presens every day be newfj], 
He was with yiftes al besnewed ; 
The poeple was of him so glad. 
That thogh non other man hem bad, 1500 

1401 WM om. AdBT 1489 >e 

.coy Google 

^Tam of 

Oracius. Omola 
aunt hominum temii 
pendencia filo. 


Taillage upon hemself thei sette, P. ill. 53 

And as it were of pure dette 

Thei yeve here goodes to the king : 

This nas a glad bom welcomvng. 

Thus bath Utuxes what he wolde, 

His wif was such as sche be scholde. 

His poeple was to him sot^t. 

Him lacketh nothing of delit. 

Bot fortune is of such a sleyhte, 
That whan a man is most on heyhte, 1510 

Sche makth him rathest forto falle : 
Ther wot noman what schal be&Ue, 
The happes over mannes hed 
fien honged with a tpndre thred. 
That proved was on Uluxes; 
For whan he was most in his pes, 
Fortune gan to make him werre 
And selte his wetthe al out of herre. 
Upon a dai as he was merie, 
As thogh ther mihte him nothing derie, ijio 
Whan nyht was come, he goth to bedde, 
With step and bothe his yhen fedde. 
And while he slepte, he mette a swevene : 
Him tbogbte he syh a stature evene, 
Which brihtere than the sonne schon ; 
A man it semeth was it non, 
Bot yit it was as in figure 
Most lich to mannyssh creature, 
Bot as of beaute hevenelicb 
It was most to an Angel lich : igjo 

And thus beiwen angel and man P. lU. 53 

Beholden it this Icing began, 
And such a lust tok of the sihte, 
That foin he wolde, if that he mihte, 
The forme of that figure embrace ; 
And goth him forth toward the place, 
Wher he sih that ymage tho. 

1310 on]orAHG, H> in z 
pea AdBTA (in his pes S) 
h« AH 1534 statue A . 

3513 mat^iH Omitu T, F 1516 in 
IS18 al (MM. AdBT 1500 th«r] 

Bi, B 1536 t«t pUce BT 

.coy Google 


And takth it in his Armes tuo. 

And it embraceth him ayein 

And to the king thus gan it sein : 1540 

'Uluxes, understond wel this, 

The tokne of oure aqueintance is 

Hierafterward to mochel tene : 

The love that is ous betuene, 

Of that we nou such joie make, 

That on of ous the deth schal take, 

Whan time comth of destine ; 

It may non other wise be.' 

Uluxes tho began to preie 

That this figure wolde him seie 1559 

What wyht he is that seith him so. 

This wyht upon a spere tho 

A penset which was wel begon^ 

Embrouded, scheweth him anon : 

Thre fisshes alle of o colour 

In manere as it were a tour 

Upon the pensel were wroght 

Uluxes kneu this tokne n<%ht, 

And preith to wite in som partie 

What thing it myhte signefie, 1560 

' A signe it is,' the wyht ansuerde, P. Ui. 54 

' Of an Empire : ' and forth he ferde 

Al sodeinly, whan he that scide. 

Uluxes out of slep abreide. 
And that was riht ayein the day, 
That lengere slepen he ne may. 
Men sein, a man hath knowleching 
Save of himself of alle thing ; 
His oghne chance nomaji knoweth, 
Bot as fortune it on him throweth : 11170 

Was nevere yit so wys a clerk, 
Which mihte knowe al goddes werk, 
Ne the secret which god hath set 
Ayein a man mai noght be let. 
Uluxes, thogh that he be wys, 

1567 Mif SBT marxm Hulti mulu aciunt AHiXGECLBi 

L«ft<i om. JUR, AdB, W 

.coy Google 


With a] his wit in his avis, 

The mor that he his swevene acompteth, 

The lasse he wot what it amonteth : 

For al his calculacion, 

He seth no demonstracion 

AI pleinly forto knowe an ende ; 

Bot natheles hou so it wende. 

He dradde him of his oghne Sone- 

That makth him wel the more astone. 

And schop therfore anon withal, 

So that withiime castel wall 

Thelamachum his Sone he scbette, 

And upon him strong warde he sette. 

The sothe furthere he ne knew, 

Til that fortune him ovenhreu; 

fiot natheles for sikemesse, P. IJ 

Whcr that he mihte wite and gcsse^ 

A place strengest in his lond, 

Ther let he make of lym and sond 

A jstrenglh£,where he wolde duelle; 

Was nevere man yit herde telle 

Of such an other as it was. 

And forto strengthe him in that cas, 

Of al his lond the sekereste 

Of servantz and the gorthieste. 

To kepen him wtthinne warde, 

He sette his bodi forto warde; 

And made such an ordinance, 

For love ne for aqueinunce, 

That were it erly, were it late, 

Thei scholde lete in ate gate 

No maner man, what so betydde, 

Bot if so were himself it bidde. 

Bot al that myhte him nc^ht availe, 
For whom fortune wole assaile, 
Ther mai be non such resistence. 
Which mihte make a man defence; 

1581 As S . . . A 1598 |« cas JU, A t« cu A 

He] His F He charged hem >ei scholde harde Hi ... B 

wirde E) 

.coy Google 


Al that schal be mot falle algate. I 

This Circes, which I spak of late, 
On whom Uluxes hath begete 
A child, thogh he it have foryete, 
Whan time com, as it was wone, 
Sche was delivered of a Sone, 
Which cleped is Thelc^nus. 
This child, whan he was bore thus, i6]o 

Aboute his moder to ful age, P. ill, 56 

That he can reson and langage, 
In good astat was drawe forth : 
And whan he was so mochel worth 
To stonden in a mannes stede, 
Circes his moder hath him bede 
That he schal to his fader go, 
And tolde him al togedre tho 
What man he was that him begat. 
And whan Thelogonus of that 1G30 

Was war and hath liil knowleching 
Hou that his fader was a king, 
He preith his moder faire this, 
To go wher that his fader is ; 
And sche him granteth that he schal. 
And made him redi forth withal. 
It was that time such usance. 
That every man the conoiscance 
Of his contre bar in his hond, 
Whan he wente into strange lond; iti^o 

And thus was every man therfore 
Wei knowe, wher that he was bore : 
For espiaile and mistrowinges 
They dede thanne suche thinges, 
That every man mai other knowe. 
So it befell that ilke throwe 
Thelogonus as in this cas; 
Of his contre the signe was 
Thre flashes, whiche he scholde here 
Upon the penon of a spere : 1650 

1631 hath] had (hadde) AM . . . Bt, W 1645 mihte (might) 

.coy Google 


And wban that he was thus arraied F. )ii. 57 

And hath his hameis al assaied, 

That he was redy everydel, 

His moder bad him farewe l, 

And setde hJm that he scholde swJthe 

His fader griete a thousand sithe. 

Thelogonus his moder kiste 
And tok his leve, and wher he wiste 
His fader was, the weie nam, 
Til he unto Nachaie cam, 1S60 

Which of that lond the chief Cite 
Was cleped, and ther axeth he 
Wher was the king and hou he ferde. 
And whan that he the sothe herde, 
Wher that the king Uluxes was, 
Al one upon his hors gret pas 
He rod him forth, and in his hond 
He bar the signal of his lond 
With fisshes thre, as I have told ; 
And thus he wente unto that hold, 1670 

Wher that his oghne fader duelleth. 
The cause why he comth he telleth 
Unto the kepers of the gate, 
And wolde have comen in therate, 
Bot schortli thej him setde nay : 
And he als faire as evere he may 
Besoghte and tolde hem ofte this, 
Hou that the king his fader is; 
Bot they with jnx>ude wordes grete 
B^unne to manace and threte, 1680 

Bot he go fro the gate faste, P. iil. 58 

Thei wolde him take and sette faste. 
Fro wordes unto strokes thus 
Thei felle, and so Thelogonus 
Was sore hurt and welnyh ded ; 
Bot with his scharpe speres hed 
He makth defence, hou so it falle, 
And wan the gate upon hem alle. 
And hath slain of the beste fyve ; 
1669 Which A 1680 and to I^Tte JH.CBi, A, WK 

.coy Google 


And thei ascriden ah so biyve 1690 

Thui^hout the castell al aboute. 

On every syde men come oute, 
Wherof the kinges herte afflihte, 
And he with al the haste he mihte 
A spere cauhte and out he goth, 
As he that was nyh wod for wroth. 
He sih the gates ful of blod, 
Thelogonus and wher he stod 
He sih also, bot he ne knew 
What man it was, and to him threw i^oo 

His Spere, and he sterte out asyde. 
Bot destine, which schal betide. 
Befell that itke time so, 
Thelt^onus knew nothing tho 
What man it was that to htm caste. 
And while his oghne spere laste. 
With al the signe therupon 
He caste unto the king anon. 
And smot him with a dedly wounde. 
Uluxes fell anon to grounde; 1710 

Tho every man, ' The king ! the king ! ' P. iii. 59 
Began to crie, and of this thing 
Thelogonus, which sih the cas, 
On knes he fell and seide, ' Helas I 
I have min oghne fader slain; 
Nou wolde I deie wonder fain. 
Nou sle me who that evere wile, 
For certes it is riht good skile,' 
He crith, be wepth, he seith therfore, 
'Helas, that evere was I bore, 1720 

That this unbappt destine 
So wofulli comth in be me!' 
This king, which yit hath lif ynouh. 
His herte ayetn to him he drouh, 
And to that vois an Ere he leide 

1691 al om. AH 1695 out] foi^ Hi, AdBT 1696 nyh] 

HghlAdBT forwrotli]BDdwro)iAM. . , B. ((amjM C), W wro(iT 
for wor(i J 1700 and] but AdBT 1716 I woWe AUX . . . Bj 

1718 good akile] and akile S . . . AA 

.coy Google 


And understod al that he seide. 

And gan to speke, and seide on hih, 

'Bring me this man.' And whan he sih 

Thelogonus, his thoght he sette 

Upon the swevene which he mette, 17J0 

And axeth that he myhte se 

His spere, on which the fisshes thre 

He sih upon a ^ei^eL wroght 

Tho wiste he wel it faileth noght, 

And badd him that he telle scholde 

Fro whenne he cam and what he wolde. 

Thelogonus in sorghe and wo 
So as he mihte tolde tho 
Unto Uluxes al the cas, 

Hou that Circes his moder was, 174a 

And so forth seide him everydel, P. iii 60 

Hou that his moder gret him wel, 
And in what wise sche him sente. 
Tho wiste Uluxes what it mente, 
And tok him in hise Armes softe. 
And al .bledende he kest him ofte, 
And seide, 'Sone, whil I live, 
This infortune I thee foryive.' 
After his other Sone in haste 
He sende, and he be^n him haste 1750 

And cam unto his fader tjit. 
Bot whan he sih him in such plit. 
He wolde have ronne upon that other 
Anon, and slain his oghne brother, 
Ne hadde be that Uluxes 
Betwen hem made acord and pes. 
And to his heir Thelamachus 
He bad that he Thel(^onus 
With al his pouer scholde kepe, 
Til he were of his woundes depe 1760 

Al hoi, and thanne he scholde him yive 
Lond wher upon he mihte live, 
Thelamachus, whan he this herde, 
'733 )« P«"set G, B 1735 badd S badA, B bed J badde F 

1746 keat J, SB, F k«ste T luste AC 

.coy Google 


Unto his fader he ansuerde 

And seide be wolde don his wille. 

So duelle thei tc^edre stille, 

These brethren, and the bder sterveth. 

Lo, wherof Sorcerie serveth. 
Tburgh Sorcerie his lust he wan, 
Thurgh Sorcerie his wo b^ao, 
Thurgh SiHcerie his love he ches, I 

Thurgh Sorcerie his lif he les ; 
The child was gete in Sorcerie, 
The which dede al this felonie : 
Thing which was ayein kynde wroght 
UnkJndeliche it was aboght ; 
The chiM his oghne fader slowh. 
That was unkindeschipe ynowh. 
Forthi tak hiede hou that it is, 
So forto winne love amis, 
Which endeth al his joie in wo : 
For of this Ait I finde also. 
That hath be do for loves sake, 
Wherof thou miht ensample take, 
A gret Cronique imperial. 
Which evere into memorial 
Among the men, hot] so it wende, 
Schal duelle to the worldes ende. 

The hihe creatour of thinges, 
Which is the king of alle kinges, 
Ful many a wonder worldes chance 
Let slyden under his sufiirance ; 
Ther wot noman the cause why, 
Bot he the which is almyhty. 
And that was- proved whilom thus. 
Whan that the king Nectanabus, 
Which hadde Egipte forto lede, — 
fiot for he sih tofor the dede 
Thurgh magique of his Sorcerie, 
Wherof he couthe a gret partie, 

plum super codeni, 
qitaliter Nectansbus 
ab Egipto in Macedon- 
iam fugitiuus, Olimpi- 
adcm Philippi Regis 
ibidem tunc absentis 
vzorcm arte magica 
decipiena, cum ipsa 
concubuil, Dugnum- 
queexea Alexandcutn 
sortilegus gcnuil : qui 
nalua, postea cum ad 
o erudiendum »ub cus- 
lodia Keclanabi com- 

1186 into] in A.. 

.coy Google 

mendatus fuisset, ip- 
sum Neclanabum 

dine cuiusdam turns 
in fossam profundam 


Hise enemys to him comende, P. iii, 6a 

Fro whom he mihte him noght defende, 
Out of his oghne lond he fledde; 
And iD the wise as he him dredde 
It fell, for al his wicchecraft. 
So that Egipte him was beraft, 
And he desguised fledde aweie 
Be schipe, and hieid the rihte weie 
To Macedoine, wher that he 
Aryveth ate chief Cite. :8io 

Thre yomen of his chambre there 
Al only forto serve him were. 
The whiche he trusteth wonder wel, 
For thei were trewe as eny stJel j 
And hapneth that thei with him ladde 
Part of the teste good he hadde. 
Thei take Ic^iginge in the toun 
After the disposicion 
Wher as him thoghte best to duelle ; 
He axeth thanne and herde telle i8jo 

Hou that the king was oute go 
Upon a wene he hadde tho ; 
But in that Cite thanne was 
The queene, which Olimpias 
Was hole, and with soUempn ete 
The feste of hir nativite. 
As it befell, was thanne holde ; 
And for hire list to be beholde 
And preised of the poeple aboute, 
Sche schop hir forto riden oute 1S30 

At after mete al openly. P. iii. 63 

Anon were alle men redy. 
And that was in the monthe of Maii, 
This lusti queene in good arrai 
Was set upon a Mule^whyt : 
To sen it was a gret delit 
The joie that the cite made ; 
With freisshe thinges and with glade 
1806 margin exi pro BT 1815 thei] be B 1817 toke 

(took &C.) A . . . Bt tSaS to behotde (be holde) H>, AdTB 

.coy Google 


The noble toun was al behonged, 
And every wiht was sore alonged 
To se this lusti ladi ryde. 
Ther was gret merthe on alle syde ; 
Wher as sche passeth be the strete, 
Ther was ful many a tymber bete 
And many a maide CELfolende: 
And thus thuighout the toun pleiende 
This queene unto a pleine rod, 
Wher that sche h oved and abod 
To se diverse game pleie, 
The lusti folk jouste and Joumei^j 
And so forth every other man, 
Which pleie couthe, his pley began, 
To ptese with this noble queene. 
Neclanabus cam to the grene 
Amonges othre and drouh him nyh. 
Bot whan that he this ladi sih 
And of hir beaute hiede tok, 
He couthe noght withdrawe his lok 
To se nc^ht elles in the field, 
Bot stod and only hire behield. 
Of his clothinge and of his gere P. i 

He was unlich alle othre there, 
So that it bapneth ate laste, 
The queene on him hire yhe caste. 
And knew that he was strange anon : 
Bot he behield hire evere in on 
Withoute hlenchinge of his chere. 
Sche tok good hiede of his manere, 
And wondreth why he dede so, 
And bad men scholde for him go. 
He cam and dede hire reverence. 
And sche him axeth in dlence_ 
Fro whenne he cam and what he wolde. 
And he with sobre wordes tolde. 
And seith, 'Ma dame, a clerk I am, 
To you and in message I cam. 
The which I mai noght tellen hiere; 
1847 ).e pleine AdBT 1875 And] He AdBT 

.coy Google 


Bot if it liketh you to hiere, 

It mot be seid al prively, 

Wher non schall be bot ye and I.' 1880 

Thus for the time he tok hia leve. 

The dai goth forth til it was eve, 

That eveiy man mot lete his werk ; 

And sche thoghte evere upon this clerk, 

What thii^ it is he wolde mene: 

And in this wise abod the queene, 

And passeth over thiike nyht, 

Til it was on the morwe liht. 

Sche sende for him, and he com, 

With him his Astellabre he nom, 1890 

Which was of fin gold precious P. iii. 65 

With pointz and cercles merveilous ; 

And ek the hevenely figuies 

Wit^ht in a bok ful of petntures 

He tok this ladi forto schewe, 

And tolde of ech of hem be rewe 

The cours and the condicion. 

And sche with gret affeccion 

Sat stille and herde what he wolde; 

And thus whan he sih time, he tolde, 1900 

And feigneth with hise wordes wise 

A tale, and seith in such a wise: 

' Ma dame, bot a while ago, 
Wher I was in Egipte tho. 
And radde in scole of this science. 
It fell into mi conscience 
That I unto the temple wente. 
And ther with at myn hole entente 
As I mi sacrifice dede. 

On of the goddes hath me bede ijio 

That I you wame prively. 
So that ye make you redy, 
And that ye be nothing agast ; 
For he such love hath to you cast. 
That ye schul ben his oghne diere, 

1879 al] so S . . . A 18S3 leue R, AdBT 

.coy Google 


And be schal be your beddefiere, [Taw o 

Til ye conceive and be with childe.' Nictakab. 

And with that word sche wax al m ylde, 
And somdel red becam for schame, 
And axeth him that goddes name, 1930 

Which so wot don hire compainie. P. iii. 66 
And he seide, 'Amos of Lubie.' 
And sche seith, 'That mai I nt^ht lieve, 
Bot if I sihe a betre jrieve^ 
'Ma dame,' quod Nectanabus, 
' In tokne that it schal be thus, 
This nyht for enformacion 
Ye schut have an avijion^ 
That Amos schal to you appiere, 
To schewe and teche in what manere 1930 

The thing schal afterward befalle. 
Ve oghten wel aboven alle 
To make joie of such a lord ; 
For whan ye ben of on acord. 
He schal a Sone of you begete, 
Which with his swerd schal winne and gete 
The wyde world in lengthe and brede ; 
Alle erthli kinges schuU him drede, 
And in such wise, I you behote. 
The god of erthe he schal be bote.' 1S140 

' If this be soth,' tho quod the queene, 
' This nyht, thou seist, it schal be sene. 
And if it falle into mi grace. 
Of god Amos that I pourchace 
To take of him so gret worschipe, 
I wol do thee such ladischipe, 
Wherof thou schalt for everemo 
Be riche.' And he hir thonketh tho, 
And tok his leve and forth he wente. 
Sche wiste litel what he mente, 1950 

For it was guile and Sorcerie, P. Ill, 67 

At that sche tok for Prophecie. 
Nectanabus thurghout the day, 

I thing] king B 1939 such AJC, B suche S, F 

Digitizecoy Google 


Whan he cam horn wher as he lay, 
His chambre be himselve tok, 
And overtorneth many a bok, 
And thurgh the craft of Artemage 
Of yex he forgeth an ymage. 
He Joketh his equacions 
And ek the constellacions, 
He loketh the conjunccions, 
He loketh the recepcions, 
His signe, bis houre, his ascendent, 
And drawth foimne of his assent : 
The name of queene Olimpias 
In thiike ymage write was 
Amiddes in the firont above. 
And thus to winne his lust of love 
Nectanabus this werk hath diht ; 
And whan it cam withinne nyht, 
That every wyht is falle aslepe, 
He thoghte he wolde his time kepe, 
As he which hath his houre apointed. 
And thanne ferst he hath enoignted 
With sondri hetbes that figure, 
And thenipon he gan conjure, 
So that thuTgh his enchantement 
This ladi, which was innocent 
And wiste nothing of this guile, 
Jdette, as sche slepte thiike while, 
Hou fro the hevene cam a lyht, 1 

Which al hir chambre made lyht; 
And as sche loketh to and fro, 
Sche sih, hir thoghte, a dragoun tho, 
Whos scherdes schynen as the Sonne, 
And hath his softe pas begonne 
With al the chiere that he may 
Toward the bedd ther as sche lay, 
Til he cam to the beddes side. 
And sche lai stitle and nothing cride, 
For he dede alle his thinges fah-e 
And was courteis and debonaire : 
■954 wh«r)iat A. . .Bi(£)Tf^/E) ther as W 

.coy Google 


And as he stod hire fasteby. 
His forme he changeth sodejnly, 
And the figure of man he'nom, 
To hire and into bedde he com, 
And such thing there of love he wroghte, 
Wherof, so as hire thanne thoghte, 
Thui^h likinge of this god Amos 
With childe anon hire wombe aros, jooo 

And sche was wonder glad witlwl. 
Nectanabus, which causeth al 
Of this metrede the substance, 
Whan he sih time, his nigromance 
He stinte and nothing more seide 
Of his carecte, and sche abreide 
Out of hir slep, and heveth wel 
That it is soth thanne everydel 
Of that this clerk hire hadde told. 
And was the gladdere manyfold joio 

In hope of such a glad metrede, P. iii. 6g 

Which after schal befalle in dede. 
Sche longeth sore after the dai, 
That sche hir swevene telle raai 
To this guilour in privete, 
Which kneu it als so wel as sche: 
And natheles on morwe sone 
Sche lefte alte other thing to done. 
And for him sende, and al the cas 
Sche tolde him pleinly as it was, loio 

And seide hou thanne wel sche wiste 
That sche his wordes mihte triste, 
For sche fond hire Avisioun 
Riht after the condicion 
Which he hire hadde told tofore; 
And preide him hertely therfore 
That he hire holde covenant 
So forth of al the remenant, 
That sche may thui^h his ordinance 
Toward the god do such plesance, 1030 

1993 fasteby J. F iksle by AC, SB 1996 he om. AdBT aoi6 
Is (as) wel XCLBi, A (T), WK 0030 Towardes CTowar(i)god AdBT 

.coy Google 


That sche wakende myhte him kepe 

In such wise as sche mette aslepe. 

And he, that couthe of guile ynouh, 

Whan he this herde, of joie he louh, 

And seith, 'Ma dame, it schal be do. 

Bot this I wame you therto : 

This nyht, whan that he comth to pleie. 

That ther be no lif in the weie 

Bot I, that schal at his hkinge 

Ordeine so for his cominge, 1040 

That ye ne schull noght of him faile. P. iU. 70 

For this, ma dame, I you consaite, 

That ye it kepe so prive, 

That no wiht elles bot we thre 

Have knowlechinge hou that it is ; 

For elles mthte it fare amis, 

If ye dede oght that scholde him grieve.' 

And thus he makth hire to believe, 

And feigneth under guile feith : 

Bot natheles al that he seith lojo 

Sche troweth ; and ayein the nyht 

Sche hath withinne hire charobre dyht, 

Wher as this guilour faste by 

Upon this god schal prively 

Awaite, as he makth hire to wene: 

And thus this noble gentil queene, 

Whan sche most tnisteth, was deceived. 

The nyht com, and the chambre is weyved. 
Nectanabus hath take bis place. 
And whan he sih the time and space, 2060 

Thurgh the deceipte of his magique 
He putte him out of mannes like, 
And of a dragoun tok the forme. 
As he which wolde him al conforme 
To that sche sih in swevene er this; 

0041 )e schol (Bchul) not of him AdA ye ne ahalle of 
him Hi 1 ne schal of him AH 0046 mihte AJ. S 

miht F m^ht C, B 0055 end he inak|i BT and nakef 

Ad ao6i the om. AH . . , B^ A ao6a putte AC, B 

put J, F 

.coy Google 


And thus to chambre come he is. 

The queene lay abedde and sih. 

And hopeth evere, as he com nyh, 

That he god of Lubye were, 

So hath sche wcl the lasse fere. 1070 

Bot for he wolde hire more assure, P. iil- 71 

Yit eft he changeth his figure. 

And of a wether the liknesse 

He tok, in signe of his noblesse 

With large homes for the nones : 

Of fin gold and of riche stones 

A corone on his hed he bar, 

And soudeinly, er sche was war. 

As he which alle guile can. 

His forme he torneth into man, loSo 

And cam to bedde, and sche lai stille, 

Wher as sche soffreth al his wille, 

As sche which wende noght misdo. 

Bot natheles it hapneth so, 

Altht^h sche were in part deceived, 

Yit for al that sche hath conceived 

The worthieste of alle kiththe, 

Which evere was tofore or siththe 

Of conqueste and chivalerie; 

So that thurgh guile and Sorcerie 10^ 

Ther was that noble knyht begunne. 

Which al the world hath after wunne. 

Thus fell the thing which falle scholde, 

Nectanabus hath that he wolde ; 

With guile he hath his love sped, 

With guile he cam into the bed, 

With guile he goth him out ayein : 

He was a schrewed chamberlein, 

So to beguile a worthi queene, 

And that on him was after scene. noo 

Bot natheles the thing is do ; P. iii. 7a 

This false god was sone go, 

3071 wolde AJ, SB wold F 3063 nogtit misdo om. B 

3089 ind of cbeiulerie (chiualrie &c.) AM . . . Bi, Ada, W 3091 

that] )« All 

.coy Google 


With his deceipte and hield him clos. 
Til moTwe cam, that he aros. 

And tho, whan time and leisir was. 
The queene tolde him al the cas. 
As sche that guile non supposeth ; 
And of tuo pointz sche him opposeth. 
On was, if that this god nomore 
Wol come ayein, and overmore, »iro 

Hon sche schal stonden in acord 
With king Philippe hire oghne lord, 
Whan he comth horn and seth hire grone. 
' Ma dame,* he seith, ' let me alone i " 
As for the god I undertake 
That whan it Hketh you to take 
His compaignie at eny throwe, 
If I a day tofore it knowe. 
He schal be with you on the nyht ; 
And he is wel of such a myht mo 

To kepe you from alle blame. 
Forthi conforte you, ma dame, 
Ther schal non other cause be,' 
Thus tok he leve and fonh goth he, 
And tho began he forte muse 
Hou he the queene mJhte excuse 
Toward the king of that is felle ; 
And fond a craft amonges alle, 
Thuigh which he hath a See foul daunted. 
With his magique and so enchaunted, 2130 

That he flyh forth, whan it was nyht, P. ilL 73 
Unto the kinges tente riht, 
Wher that he lay amidde his host : 
And whanne he was aslepe most, 
With that the See foul to him broghte 
And othre charmes, whiche he wroghte 
At horn withinne his chambre stJlle, 
The king he torneth at his wille. 
And makth him forto dreme and se 
The dragoun and the privete 1140 

Which was betuen him and the queene. 
3136 Ano^r channe Hi . . . Bi 3141 hem B, K 

.coy Google 


And over that he made him vene 

In swevene, hou that the god Amos, 

Whan he up fro the queene aros, 

Tok forth a ring, wherinne a ston 

Was set, and grave thenipon 

A Sonne, in which, whan he cam nyh, 

A leoun with a swerd he sih ; 

And with that pri^ptf, ag he tho mette, 

Upon the queenes wombe he sette J150 

A Seal, and goth him forth his weie. 

With that the swevene wente aweie. 

And tho began the king awake 

And s^heth for his wyves sake, 

Wher as he lay withinne his tente. 

And hath gret wonder what it mente. 

With that he hasteth him to ryse 
Anon, and sende after the wise, 
Among the whiche ther was on, 
A clerc, his name is Amphion: ii6a 

Whan he the kinges swevene herde, P. ill. 74 
What it betokneth he ansuerde. 
And seith, 'So siker as the lif, 
A god hath leie be thi wif. 
And gete a Sone, which schal winne 
The world and al that is withinne. 
As leon is the king of bestes. 
So schal the world obeie his hestes, 
Which with his swerd schal al be wonne, 
Als ferr as schyneth eny Sonne.' 1170 

The king was doubtif of this dom ; 
Bot natheles, whan that he com 
Ayein into his oghne lond, 
His wif with childe gret be fond. 
He mihte noght himselve stieie, 
That he ne made hire bevy chiere ; 
Bot he which couthe of alle sorwe, 
Nectanabus, upon the morwe 
ThuTgh the deceipte and nigiomance 

9145 t«r inne AdBT 9149 tho] m AdBT 9155 Wher fat 

AM . . . 9i ais6 what] t>^ AH 

.coy Google 


Tok of a dragoun the semblance, 3180 

And wher the king sat in his halle, 

Com in nunpcnde among hem alle 

With such a noise and such a rore, 

That thei agast were also sore 

As thogh thei scholde deie anon. 

And natheles he grieveth non, 

Bot goth toward the deyss on hJh; 

And whan he cam the queene nyh, 

He Etinte his noise, and in his wise 

To hire he profreth his servise, 1190 

And lei^h his hed upon hire harm ; P. ill, 75 

And sche with goodly chiere hire arm 

Aboute his necke ayeinward leide, 

And thus the queene with him pleide 

In sihte of alle men aboute. 

And ate laste he gan to loute 

And obeissance unto hire make. 

As he that wolde his lere take; 

And sodeinty his lothly forme 

Into an Egle he gan transforme, uoo 

And flyh and sette him on a raile ; 

Wherof the king hath gret mervaile, 

For there he pnineth him and piketh. 

As doth an hauk whan him wel Itketh, 

And after that himself he schok, 

Wherof that al the halle guok, 

As it a terremote were ; 

Thei seiden alle, god was there : 

In such a res and forth he flyh. 

The king, which al this wonder syh, mo 
Whan he cam to his charobre alone. 
Unto the queene he made his rhone 
And of foryivenesse hir preide ; 
For thanne he knew wel, as he seide, 
Sche was with childe with a godd. 
Thus was the king withoute rodd 
Chastised, and the queene excused 
Of that sche hadde ben accused. 

.coy Google 


And for the gretere evidence, 

Yit after that in the presence jiio 

Of king Philipp and othre mo, P. iii. 76 

Whan thei ride in the fieldes tho, 

A Pfaesant cam before here yhe. 

The which anon as thei hire syhe, 

Fleendejet an ey doun falle. 

And it tobrak tofoire hem atle : 

And as th«i token therof kepe, 

Thei syhe out of the schelle crepe 

A litel Serpent on the ground. 

Which rampeth al aboute round, 3130 

And in ayein it wolde have wonne, 

Bot foB the brennynge of the Sonne 

It mihte nc^t, and so it deide. 

And thenipon the clerkes seide, 

'As the Serpent, whan it was oute. 

Went envirouR the schelle aboute 

And mihte noght tome in ayeui. 

So schal it fallen in certein : 

This child the world schal eriTirone, 

And above alle the corone 1^40 

Him schal befalle, and in yong Age 

He schal desire in his corage, 

Whan al the world is in his bond, 

To torn ayein into the lond 

Wher he was bore, and in his weie 

Homward he schal with puisfln. deie.' 

The king, which al this sih and herde, 
Fro that dai forth, hou so it ferde, 
His jalousie . bath al fotyete. 
Bot he which bath the child b^ete, 1150 

Nectanabus, in privete P. Ui. 77 

The time of his nativite 
Upon the constellacioun 
Awaitetb, and relacion 
Makth to the queene hou sche schal do, 

aaaebifore (bifom&c.) H ...Bi afore (aforn) A, W 0031 he 

wolde AdBT 9944 vnto AdBT 3947 sih (sigh, seyh) A, SB 

sihe F are J 9355 schal] had Hi, AdBT 

.coy Google 


And every houre apointeth so. 

That no minut therof was lore. 

So that ia due time is bore 

This child, and fonh with thenipon 

Ther felle wondres many on 

Of terremote universiel : 

The Sonne tok colour of stiel 

And loste his lyht, the wyndes blewe, 

And manye strengthes overthrewe ; 

The Sec his propre kinde changeth. 

And at the world his forme strangeth ; 

The thonder with his fyri levene 

So cruel was upon the hevene, 

That every erthlt creature 

Tho thoghte his lif in aventure. 

The tempeste ate laste cesseth, 

The child is kept, his age encresseth, 

And Alisandre his name is bote, 

To whom Calistre and Aristote 

To techen him Philosophie 

Entenden, and Astronomie, 

With othre thinges whicbe he couthe 

Also, to teche him in his youthe 

Nectanabus tok upon honde. 

Bot every man mai understonde, 
Of Sorcerie hou that it wende, I 

It wole himselve prove at ende, 
And namely forto beguile 
A lady, which withoute guile 
Supposeth trouthe al that sche hiereth : 
Bot often he that evele stieieth 
His Schip is dreynt therinne amidde ; 
And in this cas riht so betidde. 
Nectanabus upon a nyht, 
Whan it was fair and steire lyht, 
This yonge lord ladde up on hih 
Above a tour, wher as he sih 
The sterres suche as he acompteth, 
And seith what ech of hem amonteth, 
0357 10 om. B 

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As thogb he knewe of alle thii^; 

Bot yit hath he no knowleching 

What schal unto himself befalle. 

Whan he hath told his woides alle, 

This yonge lord thanne him opposeth, 

And axeth if that he_supgoseth j^oo 

What deth he schal himselve deie. 

He seith, ' Or fortune is aweie 

And every sterre hath lost his wone, 

Or elles of myn oghne Sone 

I schal be slain, I mai noght fle.' 

Thoghte AUsandre in privete, 

' Hierof this olde dotard lieth ' : 

And er that other oght aspieth, 

At Eodeinliche his olde bone% 

He schof over the wal at ones, jjio 

And seith him, ' Ly doun there apart : P. ili. 79 

Wherof nou serveth al thin art ? 

Thou knene alle othre mennes chance 

And of thiself hast ignorance : 

That thou hast seid amonges alle 

Of thi peraone, is noght befalle.' 

Nectanabus, which hath his deth, 
Yit while him lasteth lif and breth. 
To AJisandre he spak and seide 
That he with wrong blame on him leide; jjio 
Fro point to point and al the cas 
He tolde, hou he his Sone was. 
Tho he, which sory was ynowh, 
Out of the dich his fader drouh, 
And tolde his moder hou it ferde 
In conseil ; and whan sche it herde 
And kneu the toknes whiche he tolde, 
Sche nyste what sche seie schotde, 
Bot stod abayssht as for the while 
Of his magiqtie and al the guile. 1330 

Sche thc^hte hou that sche was deceived, 

3399 appose)) AHGBt, W 3301 achQld(e) SAdBT 3303 

h»sl F 3314 of HiGEC, S . . . 4, W if AJMXRLB,, FK 

9331 that om. AH . . . Bt, WK 

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NoU qualiler Rex 
Zorastes. statim cum 


That sche hath of a man conceived, 
And wende a god it hadde be. 
Bot natheles in such degre, 
So as sche mJhte hire honour save, 
Sche schop the body was b^rave. 

And thus Nectanabus aboghte 
llie Sorcerie which he wioghte : 
Thogh he upon the creatures 
Thurgb his carectes and figures 1340 

The maistrig and the pouer hadde, P. Ul. 80 
His creatour to nogbt him ladde, 
Ayein whos lawe his craft he useth, 
Whan he for lust his god refuseth, 
And tok him to the dieules craft. 
Lo, what profit him is belaft : 
That thing thurgh which he wende have stonde, 
Ferst him exilede out of londe 
Which was his (%hne, and from a king 
Made him to ben an underhng ; 3350 

And .sjththen to deceive a queene, 
That tometh him to mochel teene; 
Thui^h lust of love he gat him hate, 
That ende couthe he noght abate. 
His olde sleyhtes whiche he caste, 
Yonge Alisaundre hem overcaste, 
His fader, which him misbegat, 
He slouh, a gret mishap was that ; 
Bot for o mis an other mys 
Was yolde, and so fulofte it is ; 1360 

Nectanabus ' his craft miswente, 
So it misfell him er he wente. 
I not what helpeth that dergie 
Which makth a man to do folie, 
And namehche of nigromance, 
Which stant upon the mescreance. 

And forto se more evidence^ 
Zorastes, which thexperience 
Of Art magique ferst forth drouh, 

3345 dieules S, F dieueles A deueles J, B 
CHughte B 9357 S has lost a lM/a^^-n\. 60. 

8355 ' 

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Anon as he was bore, he louh, 
Which tokne was of wo suinge : 1 

For of his oghne controvinge 
He fond magique and tauhte it forth; 
Bot al that was him litel worth, 
For of Surrie a woithi king 
Him slou, and that was his endyng. 
Bot yit thurgh him this crafl is used, 
And he thurgh al the world accused, 
Foe it schal neveie wel achieve 
' That stant noght ribt with the believe : 

Bot lich to woUe is evele sponne, 
. Who lest himself hath litel wonne. 
An ende proveth every thing. 
Saiil, which was of Juys king. 
Up peine of deth forbad this art, 
And yit he tok therof his part. 
The Phitonesse in Samarie 
Yaf him conseil be Sorceries 
Which after fell to mochd aorwe. 
For he was slain upon the morwe. 1390 

To conne moche thii^ it hdpeth, 
Bot of to mochel noman yelpeth : 
So forto loke on every side, 
M^que mai nc^t wel betyde. 
Forthi, my Sone, I wolde rede 
That thou of these ensamples drede, 
That for no lust of erthli love 
Thou seche so to come above, 
Wherof as in the worldes wonder 
Thou schalt for evere be put under. j^oo 

Mi goode fader, grant mercy, F. lli. 83 

For evere I schal be war therby : 
Of love what me so befalle. 
Such Sorcerte aboven alle 
Fro this dai forth I schal escbuie, 

3376 thit om. AH 3363 Aa ende BT, F And ende AJHERL, 
Ad, K And^ndeCL And the ende Hi And sende X The ende 
B>, W At ende A 3385 margiH Nota de Saule et Pb. om. AM, A 
3403 ao me A . . . Bt, AdA euer me W 

\l nucerctur, gaudiu 
nugno risit; in quo 
prenoalicum doloris 
subsequentis signuin 
figuralntur : nam et 
ipse detestabilis ma- 
gice primus fuit inuen- 
tor, quern poslea Rex 
Surrie dira morte tru- 
cidauit. et sic opus 
(^nrium coasump- 


Nota de Saule 

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That so ne vol I noght poursuie 

Mi lust of love forlo seche. 

Bot this I wolde you beseche, 

Beside that me stant of love, 

As I you herde speke above 1410 

Hou Alisandre was betawht 

To Aristotle, and so wel tawht 

Of al that to a king belongeth, 

Wherof min herte sore longeth 

To wite what it wolde mene. 

For be reson I wolde wene 

That if I herde of thinges strange, 

Yit for a time it scholde change 

Mi peine, and ligse me somdiel. 

Mi goode Sone, thou seist wel. 2420 

Fot wisdom, hou that evere it stonde. 
To him that can it understonde 
Doth gret profit in sondri wise; 
Bot louchende of so hih aprise, 
Which is noght unto Venus knowe, 
I mai it noght miselve knowe, 
Which of hir court am al forthdrawe 
And can nothing bot of hir lawe. 
Bot natheles to knowe more 
Als wel as thou me longeth sore ; 1430 

And for it helpeth to comune, P. iii. 83 

Al ben thei noght to me comune. 
The scoles of Philosophic, 
Yit thenke I forto specefie, 
In boke as it is comprehended, 
Wherof thou mihtest ben amended. 
For th(^h I be noght al cunnynge 
Upon the forme of this w rytynge, 
Som part therof yit have I herd. 
In this matiere hou it hath ferd. 1440 

Explicit Liber Sextus. 

lut B 8433 Philophie P 9435 bokes AdBT, W 

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Incipit Liber Septimus. P. iii. 84 

i. Omnibus in causis salens doctrina salutem [ 

Conseguitur, ntc habei gui's nisi doc/us opem. 

Naturam superat doctrina, viro guod el crlus 
Ingenii docilis non dedit, ipsa dabit. 

Non ita discretus hominum per climaia regnai, 
Quin, magis vi sapiat, indiget ipse scale. 

I Gekius the prest of love, 
Mi Sone, as thou hast preid above 
That I the Scole schal ^^^laie 
Of Aristotle "anS ek the fare 
Of Alisandre, hou he was tauht, 
I am somdel therof <JestrauJit; 
For it is noght to the matiere 
Of love, why we sitten hiere 
To schtyve, so as Venus bad. 
Bot natheles, for it is glad, 
So as thou seist, for thin aprise 
To hiere of suche thinges wise, 
Wherof thou rayht the time lisse, 
So as I can, I schal the wisse : 
For wisdom is at every throwe 
Above alle other thing to knowe 
In loves cause and elleswhere. 
Forthi, my Sone, unto thin Ere, 
Though it be noght in the registre 
Of Venus, yit of that Calistre" 
And Aristotle whylom write 
To Alisandre, thou sclialt wite. 
Bot for the lores l^n diverse, 

13 Jri time AdBTi, K (>« tyme* lane C) 15 d 

Quia omnts doc- 
Irina bona humano 
regimini salutem con- 
fert, in hoc septimo 
libro ad instanciam 
Amantis languid! in- 
tendit Genius illam 
ex qua Philosophi et 
Aslrologi philosophic 
doctrinam Regem 
Alexandnim imbue- 
runt, secundum aii- 
10 quid declarare, Di- 
uidil enim philoso- 
pbiun in tres partes, 
quarum prima Theo- 

p jji e- quanim condicionibus 
" subsequenter per sin- 
gula tractabil . 

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I thenke ferst to the reherce 
The nature of Fhilosophie, 
Which Aristotle of his cle^e, 
Wys and expert in the sciences, 
Declareth thilke intelligences, 
As of thre pqintz in principal. 

Wherof the ferste in special 30 

Is Theorique, which is grounded 
On him which al the world hath founded, 
Which comprehendeth al the lore. 

And forto loken overmore, 
Next of sciences the seconde 
Is Rethorique, whos faconde 
Above alle othre is eloquent: 
To telle a tale in ju^ement 
So wel can noman speke as he. 

The laste science of the thre 40 

It is Practique, whos o(iBce_ 
The vertu tryet h fro the vice, 
And techeth upon goode thewes 
To fle the compaignie of schrewM, 
Which slant in disposicion P. Ui. S6 

Of mannes free eleccion. 
Practique enformeth ek the reule, 
Hou that a worthi king schal reule 
His Realme bothe in werre and pes. 

Lo, thus danz Aristotiles 30 

These thre sciences hath divided 
And the nature also decided. 
Wherof that ech of hem schal serve. 

The ferste, which is the conserve 
And kepere of the remnant, 
As that which is most sufScant 
And chief of the Philospi^uer 
If I therof schal specefie 
So as the Philosophre tolde, 
Nou herkne, and kep that thou it holde. 6a 

as mutier AdBT 36 Declared AdBT 39 thre] )>e Hi, 

AdBT, W 5« And J»t AM . . . Bi 

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ii. Prima ereatoreM dot scire iciet, 

Qui caput agnoscit, suffidt illud ei. 
Piura viros quandoque iuuat nescire, set illud 
Qfiod videt expedient, sobrius ilk saptt. 
Of Theori que principal 

The Philosophre in special 

The propretees bath detennined, 

As thilke which is enlumined 

or wisdom and of hih prudence 

Above alle othre in his science : 

And slant departed upon tlve, 

The feiste of which in his degie 

Is cleped in Fhilosophie 

The science of Theolc^e, 

That other named is Phisique, P. 111. 87 

The thridde is seid Matheniatique. 
Theologie is thst science 

Which unto man yiflb evidence 

Of thing which is noght bodely, 

Wherof men knowe redely 

The hihe ahnyhti Trinite, 

Which is o god in unite 

Withouten ende and beginnynge 

And creatour of alle thingy, So 

Of hevene, of erthe and ek of helle. 

Wbero^ as olde bokes telle, 

The Philosophre in his resoun 

Wrot upon this conclusioun, 

And of his wrytinge in a clause 

He clepeth god the ferste rause. 

Which of himself is thilke good, 

Withoute whom nothing is good. 

Of which that every creature 

Hath his beinge and his nature. 

After the beinge of the thinges 

Ther ben thre formes of beinges : 

Thing which b^;an and ende schal, 

Latin Vtrsts ii, a capil AdBT, W 
87 n thUke] )a iike Hi . . . B> B9 S fwnm€i 


ma parte Philowphie, 
que Theorica dicilur, 
cuius natura triptki 
dotata est sciencia, 
scilicet Theologia, Phi ' 
sica et Mathematica ; 
set primo illam partem 
Theologie declarabit. 

Nota quod triplex 
dicituressencia : Pri- 
ma temporanea, que 
iacipit el deainit, Se- 

=ci>y Google 


cunda perpeiua, que 

incipit et non deainft, 
Tercia aempitema. 


That thing is cleped temporal ; 
Ther is also be other weie 
Thing which began and scbal noght deie, 
As Soules, that ben spiritiel, 
Here beinge is [)erpetuel: 
Bot ther is on above the Sonne, 
Whos lime nevere was begonne, 100 

And endeles schal evere be; P. iU. 88 

That is the god, whos mageste 
Alle othre thinges schal goveme, 
And bis beinge is sempiteme . 
The god, to whom that al honour 
Belongeth, he is creatqur. 
And othre ben hise creatures : 
The god commandeth the natures 
That thei to him obeien alle; 
AVitbouten him, what so belalle, no 

Her myht is non, and he mai al : 
The god was evere and evere schal, 
And thei begonne of his assent ; 
The times alle be present 
To god, to hem and alle unknowe, 
Bot what him liketh that thei knowe : 
Thus botbe an angel and a man. 
The whiche of al that god began 
Be chief, obeien goddes myht, 
And he stant endeles upriht. no 

To this science ben prive 
The clerlces of divinite, 
The whiche unto the poeple prechen 
The fettb of holi cherche and techen, 
\Vhich in som cas upon believe 
Stant more than thei conne prieve 
Be weie of Argument sensible : 
Bot natheles^t Is credible, 
And doth a man gret meede have, 
To him that thenkth himself to save. tjo 

Theologis in such a wise * P. Ui. 8g 

108 The godl And he B TfaeT He Ad 109 That] And AdBT 
[9 By chief AH... C,W )«cheefL 

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Of hih science and hih aprise 
Above alle othre slant unlike. 
And is the feretc of Theorique. 

Phisigi^e is after the secounde, 
Thurgh which the Philosophre hath founde 
To techen sondri knowlechinges 
Upon the bodiliche .thinges. 
or man, of beste, of herbe, of ston. 
Of tisscb, of foughlj of everyehon 
That ben of bodely substance. 
The nature and the circumstance 
Thurgh this science it is ful sogdt, 
Which vaileth and which vaileth noght. 

The thridde point of Theorique, 
Which cleped is Matjiejnatiiiue) 
Devided is in sondri wise 
And stant upon diverse aprise. 
The ferste of whiche is Arsmetique, 
And the secounde is seid Musique, 
The thridde is ek Geometrie, 
Also the ferthe Astronomie. 

Of Arsmetique the matiere 
Is that of which a man mai liere 
What Algori sme in nombre amontetb. 
Whan that the wise man acomptelh 
Afler the formel proprete 
Of Algorismes Abece : 
Be which multiplicacioun 
Is mad and diminucioun : 

Of somroes be thexperience P. UI. i 

Of this Art and of this science. 

The seconde of Mathematique, 
Which is the science of Musique, 
That techeth upon Armonie 
A man to make melodie 
Be vois and soun of instrument 
Thu^IT notes of acordement, 
The whiche men pronounce al^f, 
Nou scharpe notes 'and nou softe, i 

i6i experience It ... Bt, A 

Nota de secunda 
parte Theorice, que 
Phisica dicitur. 


Nota dc tercia parte 

Theorice, que Mathe- 

conditio quatuor in 

ae conlinet iatelligen- 

cias, scilicet Amneli- 

cam, Husicam, Ge- 

secunda pan Artis 
Hathcmatice dicilur. 

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Nota de tercia spe- 
quam Geometriam vo- 


Nou hihe notes and nou lowe, 

As be the gamma a man mai knowe, 

Which techeth the prokcion 

Of note and the condicion. 

Mathematique of his science 
Hath yit the thridde iotsUisencc 
Full of wisdom and of dergie 
And cleped is Geometrie, 
Thurgh which a -man hath thilke sleyhte, 
Of lengthe, of brede, of depthe, of heyhte i8o 
To knowe the proporcipn 
Be venai calculacion 
Of this science : and in this wise 
These olde Philosophres wise, 
Of al this worldes erthe round, 
Hou lai^, hou jhikke was the ground, 
Controeveden thexperience ; 
The cercle and the circumference 
Of every thing unto the hevene 
Thei setten point and mesure evene. 190 

Mathematique above therthe P. iii. 91 

Of hyh science hath yit the ferthe, 
Which spekth upon Astronomie 
And techeth of the sterres hihe, 
Beginnynge upward fro the mone. 
Bot ferst, as it was forto done. 
This Aristotle in other thing 
Unto this wOTthi yonge king 
The kinde of every element 
Which stant under the firmament, aoo 

Hou it is mad and in what wise, 
Fro' point to point he gan devise. 

I. Quatuor omnipotens elementa creauil origo, 
Quatuor et venti partibus or a daiai. 
Nostragut quadrupliei compUxio sorie creatur, 
Ccrpore iieque suo stat variaius homo. 

Tofore the creacion 
Of eny worldes stacion, 

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Of hevene, of erthe, or eke of helle, 

So as these olde bokes telle. 

As soun tofore the so;^ is set 

And yit thei ben togedre knet, 

Riht so the hihe pourveance 

Tho hadde under his ordinance no 

A gret substance, a gret matiere. 

Of which he wolde in his manere 

These pthre thinges make and forme. 

For yit withouten eny fonne 

Was that matiere univ ersal, 

Which hihte Ylem in special. 

Of Ylem, as I am enfonned, P. lli. ga 

These elementz ben mad and formed. 

Of Ylem element! they bote 

After the Scole of Aristote, no 

Of whiche if more I schal reberce, 

Foure elementz ther ben diverse. 

The ferste of hem men erthe calle, 
Which is the lowest of hem alle, 
And in bis forme is schape round, 
Substancial, strong, sadd and sound, 
As that which mad is sufficant 
To bere Up al the remenant. 
For as the point in a compas 
Stant evene amiddes, riht so was 130 

This erthe set and schal abyde. 
That it may swerve to no side, 
And hath his centre after the lawe 
Of kinde, and to that centre drawe 
Desireth every worldes thing, 
If ther ne were no lettyng. 

Above therthe keptb his bounde 
The water, which is the secounde 
Of elementz, and al withoute 
It environeth therthe aboute. 140 

Bot as it scheweth, n(^ht forthi 
This soubtil water myhtely, 

et singulis proprii 

quodque nal 

&c.) DC AHHiXGEL >er^ (om. 

036 ther ne] >er^ (the ertlie 
le} C er>e ne R Imtom.'W 

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Th(^h it be of himselve sofle, 

The strengthe of therthe perceth ofte ; 

For riht as veines ben of blod 

In man, riht so the nater flod 

Therthe of his cours makth ful of veines, P. til 

Als wel the helles as the pleines. 

And that a man may sen at ye, 

For wher the huUes ben most hyhe, 

Ther mai men welle stremes finde: 

So proveth it be weie of kindc 

The water heyher than the lond. 

And over this nou understond, 
Air. is the thridde of elementz, 
Of whos kinde his aspirementz 
Takth every lifissh creature, 
The which schal upon erthe endure: 
For as the iissh, if it be dreie, 
Mot in defaute of water deie, 
Riht so withouten Air on lyve 
No man ne beste myhte thr yve, 
The which is mad of fleissh and bon ; 
There is out^ of alle non. 

This Air in Periferies thre 
Divided is of such degre, 
Benethe is on and on amidde, 
To whiche above is set the thridde: 
And upon the divisions 
There ben diverse impressions 
Of moist and ek of ^rye also, 
Whiche of the Sonne bothe tuo 
Ben drawe and haled upon hy. 
And maken doudes in the Sky, 
As schewed is at mannes sihte ; 
Wherof be day and ek be nyhte 
After the times of the yer P. Ui 

Among ous upon Erthe hei 
In sondii wise thinges falle. 

The ferste PenTerie of alle 

357 lyfliche AH Uueliche W lif icbe Hi ftsache A 
36a Nomaiu, F 369 tlie om. AH 375 And B 

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Engendreth Myst and overmore 
The dewes and the Frostes hore. 
After thilke intersticion 
In which thei take impression. 

Fro the seconde, as bolces sein, 
The mois te dropes of the reyn 
Descenden imo Middilerth^, 
And tempreth it to sed and Erthe, 
And doth to springe grass and Hour. 
And ofte also the grete schour 190 

Out of such place it mai be take, 
That it the fonne schal forsake 
Of reyn, and into snow be tomed; 
And ek it mai be so sojomed 
In sondri places up alofie, 
That into hail it toraeth ofle. 

The thridde of thair after the lawe 
Thurgh such matiere as up is drawe 
Of dieie thing, as it is ofte. 
Among the cloudes upon lofte, 300 

And is so clos, it may noght oute, — 
Thanne is it chased sore aboute, 
Til it to fyr and leyt be folle, 
And thanne it brekth the cloudes alle, 
The whiche of so gret noyse craken, 
That thei thejeerful thonder maken. 
The thonderstrok smit er it Icyte, P. ill. 95 
And yit men sen the fyr and leyte, 
The thonderstrok er that men liiere : 
So mai it wel he proeved hiere 310 

In thing which schewed is fro feer, 
A mannes yhe is there nerr 
Thanne is the soun to mannes Ere. 
And natheles it is gret feere 
Bothe of the strok and of the fyr, 
Of which is no recoverir 
In place wher that thei descends, 
Bot if god wolde his grace sende. 
398 ii Tpdrawe (vp drawe) C, AdBT, W 30a vpon alofte AH 

vp RlolU T, A 303 bcMe HiEC, SAdB, W 

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Four Elemekts.] 
Notahic qualilerlg- 

Acre diMurrere vide- 
mus, secundum varUs 
■pparende ronnis va- 

quorumprimua Assub, 
secundiu Ca^ m- 
liens, terciuB Eges et 
quartus Daaliia libris 
Philosophorum nun- 
cupatua eat. 


And forto speken over this, 
In this partie of thair it is 
That men fulofte sen be nyhte 
The fyr in sondri fonne alyhte. 
Somtime the fyrdrake it semeth, 
And so the tewed poeple it demeth; 
Somtime it semeth as it were 
A Sterre, which that glydeth there : 
Bot it is nouther of the tuo, 
The Philosophre telleth so, 
And seith that of impressions 
ThuTgh diverse eicalacioos 
Upon the cause and the matiere 
Men sen diverse forme appiere 
Of fyr, the which hath sondri name- 

Assub, he seith, is thilke same, 
The which in sondry place is founde, 
Whanne it is ^le doun to grounde. 
So as the fyr it bath aneled, P 

Lich unto slym which is congeled. 

Of exalacion I finde 
Fyr kinled of the fame kinde, 
Bot it is of an other fonne ; 
Whero^ if that I schal confonne 
The figure unto that it is. 
These olde clerkes tellen this, 
That it is Hk a Ggt skippende. 
And for that it is such seniende. 
It hatte Capra saliens. 

And ek these Astronomiens 
An other ^ also, be nyhte 
Which scheweth him to mannes syhte, 
Thei clepen Eges, the which brenneth 
Lik to the corrant fyr that renneth 
Upon a corde, as thou bast sein. 

319 mai^m hie om. A . . . Bi, B, W (Nol> hk om. A) 393 lyry 
drake E, BT 330 eialtadouna AH 336 bUe doun 

to %c.'] doun (downe) to )>« gr. (om. falle) AH . . . Bi faUe 
doun to I e grounde J, T, W (thre grooode T) 

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Whan it with poudre is so besein | 

Of Sulphre and othre thinges mo, 

Ther is an other fyr also, 
Which semeth to a mannes yhe 
Be nyhtes time as thogh ther flyhe 
A dragon brennende in the Sky, 
And that is cleped proprely 360 

Daaly, wherof men sein fulofte, 
' Lo, wher the fyri drake alofle 
Fleth up in thairl' and so thei demen. 
Bot why the fyres suche semen 
Of sondri fonnes to beholde, 
The wise Philosophre totde. 
So as tofbre it hath ben herd. P. iii. 97 

Lo thus, my Sone, hou it bath ferd : 
Of Ail the due proprete 

In sondri wise thou myht se, 370 

And hou under the firmament 
It is ek the thridde element, 
Which environeth bothe tuc^ 
The water and the lond alsa 

And forto tellen overtbis 
Of elementz which the ferthe is, '^ 

That is the fyr in his degre, 
Which environeth thother thre 
And is withoute moist al dr^e. 
Bot lest nou what seith the clergie; 380 

For upon hem that I have seid 
The creatour hath set and leid 
The kinde and the complexion 
Of alle mennes nacion. 
Foure elementz sondri ther be^ 
Lich unto whiche of that degre 
Among the men ther ben also 
Complexions foure and nomo, 
Wherof the Philosophre treteth, 
That he nothing behinde letetb, 390 

And seith hou that thei ben diverse , 

361 nail]) Hi Baaly CL 365 fonne AdBT 36B hou it 

om. Ad T it B 374 aimi(,t) AUXGERCBi 

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NoU hie qualiter 
Kcundun Datura n 
quatuor elenentonim 
quatuor in hunano 
corpore comi^exi- 
ones, scilicet Haleii- 
colia,Fleuma, Sanguis 
et Colera, nalura liter 
constituuntur : vnde 
primo de Halencolia 
dicendum eat. 

So as I schal to thee reherse. 

He which nalureth every kinde, 

The myhti god, so as I finde, 

Of man, which is his creatuie, 

Hath so devided the nature, 

That non til other nel acordeth : P. iii 

And be the cause it so discordeth, 

The hf which iieleth the seknesse 

Mai stonde upon no sekemesse. 
Of therthe, which is cold and drye, 

The kinde of man Malencolie 

Is cteped, and that is the ferste, 

The most ungoodlich and the werste ; 

For unto loves werk on nyht 

Him lacketh bothe will and myht : 

No wonder is, in lusty place 

Of lore though he lese grace. 

What man hath that complexion, 

Full of ymaginacion 

Of dredes and of wrathful thoghtes, 

He fiet himselven al to noghtes. 
The water, which is moyste and cold, 

Makth lleume, which is manyfold 

Foryetel, _slou and w ery sone 

Of every thing which is to done : 
He is of kinde sutBcant 
To holde love his covenant, 
Bot that him lacketh appetit. 
Which longeth unto such delit. 

What man that takth his kinde of thair, 
He schal be lyht, he schal be fair, 
For his complexion is blood. 
Of alle ther is non so good, 
For he hath bothe will and myht 
To plese and paie love bis riht : 
Wher as he bath love undertake, P. lU. 

Wrong is if that he be forsake: 
The fyr of his condicion 
13 The CL Be AdT 499 (jt] fersl B fir> Ad 

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Appropreth the complexion 
Which in a man is Colre bote, 
Whos propretes ben dreie and hole : 
It maktb a man ben enginous 
And swift of fote and ek irous; 
Of contek and folhastifnesse 
He hath a riht gret bcsinesse, 
To thenke of love and litel may : 
Though he behote wet a day, 
On nyht whan that be wole assaie, 
He may ful evele his dette paie. 

After the kinde of thelement. 
Thus stant a mannes kinde yenf , 
As touch en de his complexion. 
Upon sondri division 
Of dreie, of moiste, of chele, of hete. 
And ech of hem his (%hne sete 
Appropred hath wltbinne a inan. 
And ferst to telle as I began, 

The Sglen is to Malencolie 
Assigned for herbergerie : 

The moiste fleume with his cold 
Hath in the lunges for his hold 
Ordeined him a propre stede. 
To duelle ther as he is bede : 

To the Sanguin complexion 
Nature of hire inspeccion 
A propre hous hath in the livere E 
For his duellinge mad delivere ; 

The dreie Colre with bis hete 
Be weie of kinde his propre sete 
Hath in the galle, whcr he duelleth, 
So as the Philosophre telleth. 

Nou over this is forto wite. 
As it is in Phisi^ue write 
Of Ijv^e, of lun^e, of galle, of splcn, 

438 be bote AJUH.XL, MT&, K 445 chele] cc>ld(e) AM . . . Bi 

NqU qusliter qua- 
tuor complcxiones 
qusluor in homine 
habitaciones diuisim 

PulmQ domus Fleu- 

Fel domus Colere. 

Nota dc StoDiaclio, 
qui vna cum nliiscordi 
speculius deseruil. 

J,S, B, F domns est ACBi &c. 
margin cordi om. AH . . 

451 ]K (wld AdBT 

456 his AdBT hyse X 464 

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[The Fouk Cem- Tbei alle unto the herte ben 

FLEXIONS or AM.] Scrvaiitz, and ech in his office 

Entendeth to don him service, 
As he which is chief lord above. 
The livere makth him'forto love, 
The lunge yifth him weie of speche, 
The gatle serveth to do wreche. 
The Splen doth him to lawhe and pleie, 
Whan al unclennesse is aweie: 
Lo, thus hath ech of hem his dede. . 
And to sustienen hem and fede 
In time of recreadon, 
Nature hath in creacion 
The Stomach for a comun Coc 
Ordeined, so as seith the boo. 
The Stomach coc is for the balle. 
And builleth mete for hem alle, 
To make hem myghty forto serve 
The herte, that he schal noght sterve : 
For a^~a lung in his Empire 
Above alle othre is lord and Sire, 
So is the herte prindj»l, P. I 

To whom reson in special 
Is yove as for the governance. 
[Tii( Soui. OF Uan.] And thus nature his pourveance 

Hath mad for man to liven hiere ; 
Bot jod, which hath the Soule diere, 
Hath formed it in other wise. 
That can noman pleinli devise; 
Bot as the clerkes ous enforme^ 
That licb to god it hath a forme, 
Thui^h which figure and which liknesse 
The Soule bath many an hyh noblesse 
Appropred to his ogbne kinde. 
Bot ofte hir wittes be mad blinde 
Al onUche of this iike point. 
That hir abydinge is conjoint 

469 chief (HH. Hi . . . Bi (is chief om. R) 47S increacioun 

AM . . . Bi, W 460 Ordeine> AH> . . . Bi Ordeyne H 

483 forto] to AH 49a baih] )At All . . . Bi 

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Forth with the bodi foito duelle : [ 

That on desireth toward helle, 

That other upward to the hevene; 

So schul thei nevere stonde in evene, 

Bot if the Aeissh be overcome 

And that the Soule have holi nome 

The governance, and that is selde, 

Whil that the fleissh him mai bewelde. 510 

Al eithli thing which god b^an 

Was only mad to serve man ; 

Bot he the Souie al only made 

Himselven forto serve and glade. 

Alle othre bestes that men finde 

Thei serve unto here oghne kinde, 

Bot to reson the Soule serveth ; P. lii- los 

Wherof the man his thonlt deserveth 

And get him with hise werkes goode 

The perdurable lyres foode. , jjo 

Of what matiere it schal be told, 
A tale lyketh tnanyfold 
The betre, if it be spoke plein : 
Thus thinke I forto tome ayein 
And telle plenerly therfore 
Of therthe, wherof nou tofore 
I spak, and of the water eke. 
So as these olde clerkes spieke, 
And sette proprely the bounde 
After the forme of Mappemounde, 530 

Thurgh which the ground be pourparties 
Departed is in thre parties. 
That is Asie, Aufrique, Europe, 
The whicbe under the hevene gope, 
Als ferr as streccheth eny ground, 
Begripeth al this Erthe round. 
Bot after that the hihe wrieche 
The water weies let out seche 

50S haj, AHHi, AdBTA, WK 510 fleisBh(e} Dwy H1XRCLB1 

aeiEsh m»y him E 501 be told JGC, B belaid (bitoldj A, S, P 

535 priuely AJM pleinlj Bi 538 bookea B 

[The Division at- 

THE Earth.] 
Hie loquitur vlle- 
rius d e diuisianeTerrc 
que post diluuiuni 
tribus filiis Hoe in tres 
partes, scilicet Asiam, 
ABTricam et Europam 

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And overgo the belles hye, 

Which every kJnde made dye 540 

That upon Middelerthe stod, 

Outake Noe and his blod, 

His Sones and his doughtres thre, 

Thei were sauf and so was he ; — ■ 

Here names who that redejjhter- 

Sem, Cam, Japhet the brethren hihte ; — 

And whanne thilke almyhty bond P. lii. 103 

Withdrouh the water fro the lond, 

And al the rage was aweie, 

And Erthe was the mannes weie, 550 

The Sones thre, of whiche I tolde, 

Riht after that hemselve wolde, 

This world departe thei begonne. 

Asie, which lay to the Sonne 
Upon the Marche of orient, 
Was graunted be comun assent 
To Sem, which was the Sone eldeste ; 
For that partie was the beste 
And double as moche as othre tuo. 
And was that time bounded so; 560 

Wher as the flod which men Nil calleth 
Depaiteth fro his cours and foUeth 
Into the See Alexandrine, 
Ther taklh Asie ferst s eisJne 
Toward the West, and over this 
Of Canahim wher the flod is 
Into the grete See rennende, 
Fro that into the worldes ende 
Estward, Asie it is algates, 
Til that men come unto the gates 5^0 

Of Paradis, and there ho. 
And schortly for to speke it so, 
Of Orient in general 
Withinne his bounde Asie hath al. 
I- And thanne upon that other syde 

541 Hiddeleite (iniddeler)ie) J, S, F myddd er^AC B 546 
Cam AJ, F Cham C, SB 559 himsdue AJH 575 margin 

Aufrica AJC, F ABnca SB 

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Westward, as it Tell thJlke tyde, 

The brother which was bote Cham P. iii, 104 

Upon his part Aufrique nam. 

Japbet Europe tbo tok he. 

Thus parten the! the wotld on tbre. 5S0 

Bot yit Iher ben of londes fele 

In Occident as for the chele, 

In orient as for the hete, 

Which of the poeple be forlete 

As lond desert that is unable. 

For it mai nc^ht ben habitable. 

The water eke bath sondri bounde. 
After the lond wher it is founde, 
And takth his name of thiike londes 
Wher that it renneth on the strondes: 590 

Bot thiike See which hath no wane . 
Is cleped the gret Occeane, 
Out of the which arise and come 
The hyhe flodes alle and some; 
Is non so litel welle spring, 
Which ther ne takth his beginning. 
And lich a man that haleth breth 
Be weie of kinde, so it gcth 
Out of the See and in ayein, 
The water, as the bokes sein. 600 

Of Element! the propretes 
Hou that they stonden be degres, 
As I have told, nou myht thou hiere, 
Mi goode Sone, al the matiere 
Of Erthe, of water, Air and fyr. 
And for thou saist that thi desir " 

Is forto witen overraore P. iii. 105 

The forme of Aristotles lore, 
He seith in his entendement. 
That yit ther is an Element 610 

Above the foure, and is the fijle. 
Set of the hibe goddes yifte. 
The which that Qrbis cleped is. 

Nota de mari quod 
magnum OcccanuDl 

Nota hie secundum 
pbilosophumde quinto 
EIemciito,quod omnia 
Bub celo creaCa infra 
■uum ambitum conti- 
net, cui nomen Orbis 
spedaliter appropria- 

578 Vnto S . . . 4 
balcth] lakkej) AdBTA 

584 Which AJC, F Wbicbe SB 

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Hie loquitur deAr- 
tis U otheautice q uarta 
specie, que Aatrono- 
■nia nuncupaUest, cui 
eciam Astrologia aocia 

primodeseplem plan- 

incipiendo ■ luna seor- 
9uni tractare inlcndiL 


And thempon he telleth this, 

Th&t as the schelle hoi and sound 

Encloseth al aboute round 

What thing withinne an £y belongeth, 

Riht so this Orbis undeflongeth 

These elementz alle everycbon. 

Which I have spoke of on and on. 6jo 

Bot overthis nou tak good hiede. 
Mi Sone, for I wol precede 
To speke upon Mal hematique . 
Which grounded is on Theorique. 
The science of Astronomic 
I thinke forto specefie, 
Withoute which, to telle plein, 
Alle othre science is in vein 
Toward the scole of erthli thinges : 
For as an Egle with his winges 630 

Fleth above alle that men finde. 
So doth this science in his kinde. 

. Le£^ planetamm magis inferiora reguntur, 
Ista ut inierdum regula fallit opus. 
Vir mediante deo sapiens dominabitur aslris. 
Fata ntc immerilo quid Houitaiis agunt. 

Benethe upon this Erthe hiere P. ill. 106 
Of alle thinges the niatiere, 
As tellen ous the! that ben lemed, 
Of thing above it stant governed, 
That is to sein of the Planetes. 
The cheles bothe and ek the hetes. 
The chances of the world also, 
That we fortune clepen so, 64a 

Among the mennes nacion 
Al is thurgb constellacion, 
Wberof that som man hath the wele. 
And som man bath deseses fele 
In love als wel as othre thinges ; 

630 Which AJ, S. F WhicheB SatgoodJC, SB EoodeA, F 
63S Alle o>re AJ, 5, F All« (Al) ojier EC, B 
Latin Vtrsta iv. 4 quod Hi . . . Bi, B quis T 

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The Stat of lealmes and of kinges 

In time of pes, in time of werre 

It is conceived of the Sterre : 

And thus seith the naturien 

Which is an Astronomien, 650 

Bat the divin seith otherwise, 

That if men weien goode and wise 

And plesant unto the godhede, 

Thei scholden noght the sterres drede ; 

For o man, if him wel befalle, 

Is more worth than ben thei alle 

Towardes him that weldeth al. 

Bot yit the lawe original, 

Which he bath set in the natures. 

Mot worchen in the creatures, 660 

That therof mai be non obstacle, 

Bot if it stonde upon miracl e 

Thurgh preiere of som holy man. P. ill. 107 

And forthi, so as I began 

To speke upon Astronomic, 

As it is write in the clergie. 

To telle bou the planetes fare, 

Som part I thenke to declare. 

Mi Sone, unto thin Audience. 

Astronomie is the science 670 

Of wisdom and of hih connynge. 
Which makth a man have knowlechinge 
Of Sterres in the firmament, 
Figure, cercle and moevement 
Of ech of hem in sondri pbce. 
And what betwen hem is of space, 
Hou so thei moeve or stonde iaste, 
Al this it telleth to the laste. 

Assembled with Astronomie 
Is ek that ilke Astrolt^ie, 68a 

The which in juggementz acomptetb 
Theffect, what every sterre ainonteth. 
And hou thei causen many a wonder 
To tbo climau that stonde hem under. 
a knowcchiitge F 684 tho] >e JXGL, AdBTA, K ^o S) 

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..] And forto telle it more plein. 

These olde philosophres sein 
That Orbis, which I spak of err. 
Is that which we fro therthe a ferr 
Beholde, and (iTmament it calle, 
In which the sterres stonden alle, ■ 690 

Amor% the whiche in special 
Planetes seine principal 

I'her ben, that mannes sihte demeth, P. ill. 108 
Bot thorizonte, as to ous senieth. 
And also ther ben si^.e. tuelve, 
AVhiche have hercercles be hemselve 
Compassed in the zodiaque, 
In which thei have here places take. 
And as thei stonden in degre, 
Here cefcles more or lasse b^ 700 

Mad after the proporcion 
Of therthe, whos"c6ndicion 
Is set to be the foundement 
To sustiene up the firmament. 
And be this skile a man mai knowe, 
The more that thei stonden lowe, 
The more ben the ccrcles lasse; 
That causeth why that ^me passe 
Here due cours tofore an other. 
Bot nou, mi lieve dere brother, 710 

As thou desirest forto wite 
\Vhat I finde in the bokes write, 
To telle of the planetes sevene, 
Hou that thei stonde upon the hevene 
And in what point that thei ben inne, 
Tak hiede, for I wol beginne, 
So as the Philoso[)hre t&uhte 
To Alisandre and it betauhte, 
\Vherof that he was fulli Uwht 
Of wisdom, which was him betawht. 71a 

Benethe idle othie stant the Mone, 

665 Pamgr. in HSS 0/686 G94 Bot f-orizonle FWK Be (By) 

Jnrizonte SAdBTAA But (Bot) zoriionte AMYXGERCB. Bot 
fiorughoul (^urgfa out &c.) JUiL 71J it Uwhte (tauchte) A . . . Bi 

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The which hath with the See to done : [The Planets.] 

Of llodes hihe and ebbes lowe P. ill. 109 Nof« hie de prima 

Upon his change it schal be knowe ; nor Lima "did lur.'" ' 

And every fissh which hath a schelle 

Mot in his governance duelle, 

To wexe and wane in his degre, 

As be the Mone a man mai se ; 

And al that stant upon the grounde 

Of his moisture it mot be founde. 730 

Alle othre sterres, as men Onde, 

Be scbynende of here oghne kinde 

Outake only the monelyht, 

Which is noght of himselve bright, 

Bot as he Ukth it of the Sonne. 

And yit he hath noght al fulwonne 

His lyht, that he nys soradiel derk ; 

Bot what the letCe is of that werk 

In Ahna^este it telleth this : 

The Mones cercle so lowe is, 740 

Wherof the Sonne out of his stage 

Ne seth him noght with full visage, 

For he is with the ground beschaded, 

So that the Mone is somdiel faded 

And may nc^ht fully schyne der. 

Bot what man under his pouer 

Is bore, he schal his places change 

And seche manye londes strange : 

And as of this condicion 

The Mones disposicion 
Upon the lond of Alemaigne 
Is set, and ek upon Bretaigne, 
Which nou is cleped Engelond ; P. i 

For thei travaile in every lond. 
Of the Planetes the secounde 
Above the Mone hath take his bounde, 
Mercurie, and his nature is this. 
That under him who that bore is, 
In boke he schal be studious 
And in wrytinge curious, 
734MluUbekiiowe SA.FK 736 fulwonne FK fM/Mw 


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And slouh and lustles to travaile 
In thing which elles myhte availe : 
He loveth ese, he lovetb reste, 
So is he noght the vorthieste ; 
Bot yit with somdiel besinesse 
His herte is set upon richesse. 
And as in this condicion, 
ThelTect and disposicion 
or this Flanete and of his chance 
Is most in Burgoigne and in France. 

Neitt to Mercuric, as wol befalle, 
Slant that Planete which men calle 
Venus, whos ciMistellacion 
Govemeth al the nadon 
Of lovers, wher thei spiede or non, 
Of whiche I trowe thou be on : 
Bot whiderward thin happes wende, 
Schal this planete schewe at ende, 
As it hath do to many mo, 
To some wel, to some wo. 
And natheles of this Planete 
The moite part is softe and swete ; 
For who that therof ukth his bertbe, P. 
He schal desire joie and mertbe, 
Oentil, courteis and debonaire, 
To speke his wordes softe and bire, 
Such schal be be be weie of kinde. 
And overal wher he may finde 
Plesance of love, his herte bowetb 
With al his myht and there he woweth. 
He is so ferforth Amourous, 
He not what thing is vicious 
Touchende love, for that lawe 
Ther roai no maner man withdrawe, 
The which venerien is bore 
Be ^eie. of kinde, and therefore 
Venus of love the goddesse 
is cleped: bot of wantounesse 
769 and om. AHHiXGR 798 

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The climat of hir lecherie [Thi Planets.] 

Is most commun in Lombardie. 800 

Next unto this Planete of love Nou de Sde, qui 

The brighte Sonne slant above, '"'^1° pl"net«nim 

,,„ .,..,.. , , , residens Aaironim 

Which IS the hindrere of the nyht principaiuni obtinei. 

And forthrere of the daies lyht. 
As he which is the worldes ^e, 
Thurgh whom the lusti compaignle 
Of follies be the morwe singe, 
The freisshe floures sprede and springe, 
The hihe tre the ground beschadeth^ 
And every mannes herte gladeth. 810 

And for it is the hed Planete, 
Hou that he sitteth in his sete. 
Of what richesse, of what nohleie, P. iii. ii3 
These bokes telle, and thus thei seie. ' 

Of gold glistrende Spoke and whiel Nou de curru Solis 

The Sonne bfs carte hath (aire and wiel, necnon "^^s/""" 

In which he sitt, and is coroned 
With brighte stones environed; 
Of whiche if that I speke schal, 
Ther be tofore in special S»o 

Set in the front of his corone 
Thre Stones, whiche no persone 
Hath upon Eithe, and the ferste is 
Be name cleped Licuchis ; 
That othre tuo be cleped thus, 
Astrices and Ceramius, 
In his corone also behinde, 
Be olde bokes as I finde, 
Ther ben of worthi Stones thre 
Set ech of hem in his degre : 830 

Wherof a Cristall is that on, 
Which that conme is set upon ; 
The seconde is an Adamant ; 
The thridde is noble and avenant, 
Which cleped is Ydriades. 
And over this yit natheles 
Upon the sydes of the werk. 

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After the wrytinge of the clerk, 

Ther sitten fyve Stones mo : 

The smaragdine is on of tho, S40 

Jaspis and~Elitropius 

And Dendides and Jacinctus. 

Lo, thus the corone is beset, P. iii. 113 

Wherof it schyneth wel the bet; 

And in such wise his h'ht to sprede 

Sit with his Diademe on hede 

The Sonne schynende in his carte. 

And forto lede him sw ith^ and smarte 

After the bryhte daies lawe, 

Ther ben ordeined forto drawe 850 

Foure hors his Q har and him withal, 

Wherof the names telle I scbal : 

Eritheiis the ferste is bote. 

The which is red and schyneth bote, 

The seconde Acteos the bryhte, 

Lampes the thridde coursier hihte. 

And Fhilc^us is the ferthe, 

That bringen lyht unto this erthe. 

And gon so swift upon the hevene. 

In foure and twenty houres evene 860 

The carte with the bryhte Sonne 

Thei drawe, so that oyerronne 

Thei have under the cercles hihe 

AI Middelerthe in such an hye. 

And thus the Sonne is overal 

The chief Planete imperial. 

Above him and benethe him thre: 

And thus betwen hem r^neth he. 

As he that hath the middel place 

Among the Sevene, and of his fece 870 

Be glade alle erthly creatures, 

And taken after the natures 

Here ese and recreacion. P. ill. 114 

And in his constellacion 

Who that is bore in special. 

Of good will and of liberal 

He schal be founde in alle plac^ 

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And also stonde in mochel grace [Thk 

Toward the lordes forto serve 

And gret profit and thonk deserve. Ua 

And over that it causeth yit 

A man to be soubtil of wit 

To worche in gold, and to be wys 

In every thing which is of pris. 

Bot forto speken in what cost 

Of al this erthe he regneth most 

As for wisdom, it is in Grece, 

Wher is apropred thilke spiece. 

Mars the Planete batoillous Nou 

Next to the Sonne glorious 890 g!^"""' 

Above slant, and doth mervaiies 
Upon the fortune of batailes. 
The conquerours be daies olde 
Were unto this planete holde : 
Bot who that his nativite 
Hath take upon the proprete 
Of Martes disposicioitn 
Be weie of constellacioun, 
He schal be fiera and folhastif 
And desirous of werre and strif, 900 

Bot forto telle redely 
In what climat most comunly 
That this planete hath his effect, P. iU. 115 

Seid is that he bath his aspect 
Upon the holi lond so cast^ " 
That there is no pes stedefasL 

Above Mars upon the hevene, Nota de 

The sexte Planete of the sevene, ".*'"i 9"* 

Slant Jupiter the delicat, """^' 

Which causeth pes and no debat g,o 

For he is cleped that Planete 
Which of his kinde softe and swete 
Attempreth al that to him longeth; 
And whom this planete underfongeth , 

To stonde upon his r^ment, 
He schal be joeke. and pacient 
911 that} )« AHHiG, AdBT, W 

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: septinu plane- 


And fortunat to Marchandie 
And lusti to delicacie 
Id every thing which he scfaal do. 
This Jupiter is cause also 
Of the science of lyhte werkes, 
And in this wise tellen clerkes 
He is the Planete of delices. 
' Bot in Egipte of his offices 
He r^neth most in special : 
For ther be lustes overal 
Of al that to this lif befalleth ; 
For ther no stormy weder falleth. 
Which myhte grieve man or beste. 
And ek the lond is so ho neste 
That it is plentevous and plein, 
Ther is non ydel ground in vein ; 
And upon such felicite P 

Stant Jupiter in his degre. 

The heyeste and aboven alle 
Stant that planete which men calle 
Satumus, whos complexion 
Ts'cdtd, and his condicion 
Causetb malice and crualte 
To him the whos nativite 
Is set under his governance. 
For alle hise werkes ben grevance 
And enemy to manres hele, 
In what d^re that he schal dele. 
His climat is in Orient, 
Wher that he is most violent 

Of the Planetes by and by, 
Hou that thei stonde upon the Sky, 
Fto pointy to point as thou myht hiere, 
Was Alisandre mad to liere. 
Bot overthis touchende his lore. 
Of thing that thei him tawhte more 
Upon the ;co1es of cletgie 
Now herkne the Philosophic. 

933 vpon] whan AM 935^^ margm De Kplima— d 

DiH. B 936 [e AH . . . Bi, AdA 

.coy Google 


He which departeth dai fro nyht. 
That on derk and that other l^ht. 
Of sevene daies made a weke, 
A Mont h e oTToure wekes eke 
He hath ordeigned in his lawe. 
Of Monthes tuelve and ek forthdrawe 
He hath also the longe yeer. 
And as he sette of his pouer 
Acordant to the daies sevene 
Plaoetes Sevene upon the hevraie, 
As thou tofore hast herd devise. 
To speke riht in such a wise, 
To every Monthe be bimselre 
Upon the hevene of Sign es tuelve 
He hath after his Ordinal 
Assigned on in special, 
^Vherof, so as I schal rehersen, 
The tydes of the yer diversea 
Bot pleinly forto make it knowe 
Hou that the Signe s sitte arowe, 
Ech after other be degre 
In substance and in pro prete 
The zodiaque comprehendeth 
Withinne his cercle, as it ap[»endeth. 

The ferste of whiche natheles 
Be name is deped Arie s, 
Which lich a wether of sta ture 
Resembled is in his figure. 
And as it seith in Almageste, 
Of Sterres tuelve upon this beste 
Ben set, wherof in his degre 
The wombe bath tuo, the heved hath thre, 
The Tail hath sevene, and in this wise, 
As thou myht hiere me divise, 
Stant Aries, which ho.t and drje- 
Is of himself, and In partte 

[The Signs,] 
PostquEun dictum 
est de vii, Planetis. 
quibiiB singuli septi- 
mane dies singulariler 
ittituIanCur.d icen dum 
est iam de xii. Signis, 
960 per que xii. Menses 
Anni variistemporibus 
effectus varios asse- 

p. Ui. 117 

nota hic de primo 

Signo, quod Aries 

9«>dicitnr, cni Mensis 

Hardi specialiter ap- 

propriatua est 

Quo deus in primo 
prodnxit adessecreala. 


956 bryhl (bright) 5 ... A 969 margfn asaequilur HiE . . . Bi 

assenintur X 976 as it] and it E, AdBT it XL 979-989 Fmir 
Hhis om. B 983 margin adesse HiXGECR, 5BA, W {Lai. om, 

JH, AdT) 984 >e b«»te AH . . . Bt lu*br«stW 


.coy Google 


The Signs.] He IS the receipte and the hous P. iii. Ii8 

Of myhty Mars the bataillous. 
And oveiTOore^ek, as I finde. 
The creatour of alle kinde 
Upon this Signe ferst began 
The worid, whan that he made man. 
And of this constellacioun 
The venay operacioun 
Availeth, if a man therinne 
The pourpos of his werk beginne ; looo 

For thanne he hath of proprete 
Good sped and gret fetidte. 

The tuelve Monthes of the yeer 
Attitled under the pouer 
Of these tuelve Si^jira stonde ; 
Wherof that thou schalt understonde 
This Aries on of the tuelve 
Hath March attitled for himselve, 
Whan every bridd schal chese his make, 
And every neddre and every Snake roio 

And every Reptil which mai moeve, 
His myht assaieth forto proeve, 
To crepen out ayein the Sonne, 
Whan 'Ver his Seson hath begonne. 
Secundum Signum Taurus the scconde after this 

Quo prius occulus Unto a ^ole, is dreie and cold; 

inueniihertavUiB. And as itli in bokes told, 

He is the hous appourtienant P. 111. 119 

To Venus, somdiel descordan t. loao 

This Bole is ek with sterres set, 

Thui^h whiche he hath hise homes knet 

Unto the tail of Aries, 

So is he noght Iher sterreles. 

Upon his brest ek eyhtetiene 

He hath, and ek, as~it is sene. 

Upon his tail stonde othre tuo. 

iM7 0UtofAdBT And of W 1017 iSom. AdBT 1019 

hous of AH loa^ tuo] moo (mo) AH . , . Bt 

itizecy Google 


His Monthe assigned ek also 
Is AveriJ, which of bis schouTes 
^inistreth weie unto the floures. 

The thridde signe is Gemini, 
Which is figured redely 
Lich to tuotwinnes of mankinde, 
That naked stonde; and as I finde, 
Tbei be with Sterres wel bego : 
The heved hatb part of thiike tuo 
That schyne upon the boles tail, 
So be tbei bothe of o parail ; 
But on the wombe of Gemini 
Ben fyve sterres noght forthi, 
And ek upon the feet be tweie, 
So as these olde bokes seie, 
That wise Tholomeiis wrot. 
His progre Monthe wel I wot 
Assjgned is the lusti ^lai^ 
Whanne every brid upon his lay 
Among the grien e leves singeth, P. 

And love of his pointure stingeth 
After the lawes of nature 
The youthe of every creature. 

CanceT after the reule and space 
Of Signes halt the fenhe place. 
Like to the crabbe he hath semblance. 
And hath unto his retienance 
Sextiene stenres, wherof ten, i 
So as these olde wise men 
Descrive, he berth on him tofore, 
And in the middel tuo be bore, 
And foure he bath upon his ende. 
Thus goth he stened in his kende. 
And of himself is moiste and cold, 
And is the propre hous and bold 
Which appartieneth to the Mone, 

Quartum Signum 
Cancer dieilur, cuius 
Hensis lunius est. 

Quu bleat pnilis 

to33 of o ^de HiERCBi of kynde XL 
1058 be bore] bifore (before) AdBT 

.coy Google 

bexUim Sigaum 
Virgo dicilur, cuius 

Mensis Augustus eat. 
Quo vacuaU prius 

pubes replet horrea 


And doth what longeth him to done. 
The Monthe of _[um unto this Stgne 
Thou schalt after die Teule asslgne. 

The fifte Signe is Leo hole, 
Whos kinde is schape dreie and hote. 
In whom the Sonne hath herbei^ge. 
And the semUance of his ymage 1070 

Is a leoun, which in baillie 
Of sterres bath his pourjnrtie: 
The foure, which as Ganger hath 
Upon his ende, Leo ^th 
Upon his heved, and thanne nest P. Ul. lai 
He hath ek foure upon his brest, 
And on upon his tail behinde, 
In olde bokes as we finde. 
His piopre Monthe is Juyl be name, 
In which men pleien many a game. loSo 

After Leo Vireo the nexte 
Of Signes cleped is the sexte, 
Wherof the figure is a Maide ; 
And as the Philosophre saide, 
Sche is the welthe and the nsinge, 
The lust, the joie and the likinge 
Unto Mercuri c : and soth to seie 
Sche is with sterres wel beseie, 
Wherof Leo hath lent hire on. 
Which sit on hih hir heved upon, logo 

Hire wombe hath fyve, hir feet also 
Have other fyve : and overmo 
Touchende as of complexion. 
Be ^indly disposicton 
Of drei e and cold this Maiden is. 
And forto tellen over this 
Hir Monthe, thou schalt understonde. 
Whan every feld hath corn in honde 
And many a man his bak hath phed, 

1079 HoDthc om. B 1093 cold om. AdBT 1100 Augit 

applied T, F August appUed A . . . Bi ((m>^ E), SAdA, WK 
August pljred E, B 

.coy Google 

Unto this Signe is Augst applied. 

After Virgo to reknen evene 
Libra sit in the nombre of sevene, 
Which hath figure and resemblance F. i 
Unto a man which a balance 
Berth in his bond as forto ?:eie: 
In boke and as it mai be seie, 
Diverse stenes to hisa longeth, 
Wherof on hevede he underfongeth 
Ferst thre, and ek his wombe hath tuo, 
And doun benethe eighte otbre mo. 
This Signe is hot and moiste bothe. 
The whiche thinges be noght lothe 
Unto Venus, so that alofte 
Sche resteth in his hous fulofte, 
And ek Satumus often hyed 
Is in this Signe and magnefied. 
His propre Monthe is seid Septembre, 
Which yifth men cause t o remembre. 
If eny Sor be left behinde 
Of thing which grieve mai to kinde. 

Among the S^es upon heighte 
The Signe which is nombre d eighte 
Is Scorpio, which as feloun 
Figured is a Scorpioun. 
Bot for al that yit natheles 
Is Scorpio noght steireles; 
For Libra gianteth him his ende 
Of eighte stenes, wher he wende, 
The whiche upon his heved assised 
He berth, and ek ther ben divised 
Upon his wombe sterres thre, P. 11 

And eighte upon his tail hath he. 
Which of his kinde is moiste and cold 
And unbehovely manyfold; 
He harmeth Venus and empeireth, 
Bot Mars unto his hous repeireth, 
Bot war whan thei togedre duetlen. 
1116 this] |« AUHiZGRLBi 

o [The Signs.] 

Septimum Sign urn 

Libra dicitur, cuius 


B Viuca quo Bachum 

pressB liquore col it. 

OcUuum Signum 
Scorpio dicilur, cuius 
Hensis OctolMr est. 

Flori busexclusisye- 
mia qui ianitor extal. 

.coy Google 


E Sighs.] 

Nonum signum Sa- 
gittarius dicitur, cuius 
Mensis Nouember esL 

Quo mu stain bibnlo 
linqnit sua nomina 


His propre Monthe is, as men tellen, 
Octobre, which bringth the kalende 
Of wynter, that comth next suiende. 

The nynthe Signe in nombie also, 
Which folweth after Scorpio, 
Is cleped Sagittarius, 
The whos figure is marked thus, 
A Monstre with a bowe on honde: 
On whom that sondri sterres stonde, 
Thiike eighte of wbiche I spak tofore. 
The whiche upon the tail ben bore 
Of Scorpio, the heved al (aire 
Bespreden of the Sagittaire; 
And eighte of othre stonden evene 
Upon his wombe, and othre sevene 
Ther stonde upon his tail behinde. 
And he is hot and dreie of kinde : 
To Jupiter his hous is fre, 
Bot to Mercurie in his degre. 
For thei ben aoght of on assent. 
He worcheth gret empeirement. 
This Signe hath of his proprete P. ij 

A Monthe, which of duete 
Alter the sesoun that befalleth 
The Plowed Oxe in wynter stalleth ; 
And fyr into the halle he bringeth. 
And thiike drinke of which men singeth. 
He tometh must into the wyn; 
Thanne is the lard£L of the sw^nj 
That is tioYsmbre which I meene, 
Whan that the lef hath lost his greene. 

The tenthe Signe dreie and cold, 
The which is Capricomus told, 
Unto a Got hath resemblance; 
For whos love and whos aqueintance 
Withinne hise houses to sojome 
It liketh wel unto Satome, 
Bot to the Mone it liketh noght, 

1M8T0 -.boreAMX...L To...1oieB 

1163 he] ii A,. 

.coy Google 


For no profit is there wr<^ht [The Signs.] 

This Signe as of his proprete 

Upon (lis heved hath sterres thre, 

And ek upon his wombe tuo, 

And tweie upon his tail also. uSo 

Decemb re after the yeeres forme. 

So as the bokes ous enforme, 

With daies schorte and nyhtes longe 

This like Signe hath underfonge. 

Of tho that sitte upon the hevene Vndecimuni Signum 

Of Signe, m fte nombre dlevene ter.tSrit 

Aquarius hath take his place, P. iii. 125 Quo lanus vulium 

And slant wel in Satomes grace, annuon" "'""'''^' '" 

Which duelleth in his herbergage, 
Bot to the Sonne he doth oultrage. 1190 

This Signe is verraily resembled 
Lich to a man which halt assembled 
In eyther hand a water spoute, 
Wherof the stremes rennen oute. 
He is of kinde moiste and hot, 
And he that of the sterres wot 
Seith that he hath of sterres tuo 
Upon his heved, and ben of tho 
That Capricorn hath on his ende; 
And as the bokes maken m ende , i:oo 

That Tholomeus made himselve, 
He hath ek on his wombe tuelve, 
And tweie upon his ende stonde. 
Thou schalt also this understonde. 
The frosti colde Janever, 
Whan comen is the newe yeer, 
That Janus with his double face 
In his chaiere hath take his place 
And loketh upon bothe sides, 
Somdiel toward the wynter tydes, mo 

Somdiel toward the yeer suiende, 
That is the Monthe belongende 
Unto this Signe, and of his dole 

1181 i. fomiM . . . enfonses AdBT 

.coy Google 


[The Sichs.] 

Duodecimum Sig- 
num Piscis djcitur, 
cuius Hensis Februa- 

He yifth the ferste Primerole. 

The tuelfthe, which is jast of alle P. ili. 126 
Of Signes, FJscis men it calle, 
The which, as telleth the scripture, 
Berth of tuo fisshes the figure. 
So is he cold and jnoiste of klnde, 
And ek with sterres, as I iinde, mo 

Beset in sondri wise, as thus : 
Tuo of his ende Aquarius 
Hath lent unto his heved, and tuo 
This Signe hath of his oghne also 
Upon his wombe, and over this 
Upon his ende also tber is 
A nomhre of ^f^go^ sterres bryghte, 
Which is to sen a wonder sighte. 
Toward this Signe into his hous 
Comth Jupiter the glorious, 1130 

And Venus ek with him acordeth 
To duellen, as the bok recordeth. 
The Monthe unto this Signe ordeined 
Is Febnier, which is bereined, 
And with londflodes in his rage 
At Fordes letteth the passage. y 

Nou hast thou herd the proprete 
Of Signes, hot in his degre 
Albumazar yit over this 

Seith, so as therthe parted is 1J40 

In foure, riht so ben divised 
The Signes tuelve and stonde assised. 
That ech of hem for his partie 
Hath his climat to justefie. 
Wherof the ferste regim ent P. lii. 127 

Toward the part of Orient 
From Antioche and that contre 
Governed is of Signes thre, 
That is Cancer, Virgo, JLeo: 
And toward Occident also 1150 

From Armenie, as I am lemed. 

1333 unto] and to B 

taa9 hia signe AdBT 

.coy Google 


Of Cajttkorn it slant governed, 

Of Pisces and Aquarius : 

And after hem I finde thus. 

Southward from Atisandre forth 

Tho Signes whiche most ben worth 

In governance of that doaire. 

Libra thei ben and Saeittaire 

With S corpio, which is conjoin t 

With hem to stonde upon that point : i 

Constantinople the Cite, 

So as the bokes tellen me, 

The laste of this division 

Slant untoward Septemtrion, 

Wher as be weie of pourveance 

Hath _Aries .the governance 

Forth with Taurus and Gemini. 

Thus ben the Signes propreli 

Divided, as it is reherced, 

Wherof the londes ben diyersed. i 

Lo thus, mi Sone, as thou myht hiere, 
Was Alisandre mad to liere 
Of hem that weren for his lore. 
But nou to lolcen overmore, 
Of otTire sterres hou thei fare P. iii. 

I thenke hierafler to declare. 
So as king Altsandre in youthe 
Of him that suche thinges couthe 
Enformed was tofore his yhe 
Be nyhte upon the sterres hihe. i 

Upon sondri creacion 
Stant sondri ogeraciojj, 
Som worcheth this, som worcheth that ; 
Thefyr is hot in his astat 
And brenneth what he roai atteigne. 
The wate^ mai the ^r restreigne, 
The which is cold and moist also. 
Of other thing it farth riht so 
■360 )>c point AH . . . Bi ia6i Constaotyn noble |e 

HjXERCL Constantjne fe noble cite Bt t366 Ariea ha|) Hi .. 

laSo faihe] sjhe (My«} BT 1387 moist AJ, S, F rooiite )i 

[TheFiftieh Stabs.] 

Ipse luuCDem 

stellU vna cum e>nim 
lapidibus et herbis, 
que ad arlis niBgice 

D,3,l,zec:,y Google 

prima stelU v. 
lur Aldeboran, c 
lapis Carbunculu: 
herba Anabulla e< 

Secunda Stella vo- 
CBtur Clota seu Pli- 

ades, cuius lapis 
Crislallum «t herba 
Fcni cuius est. 


Upon this erthe among ous here; 
And forto speke in this manere, 
Upon the hevene, as men mai finde, 
The sterres ben of sondri kinde 
And worchen manye sondri tbinges 
To ous, that ben here underlinges. 
Among the whiche forth withal 
Nectanabus in special, 
Which was an Astronomien 
And ek a gret Magician, 
And undertake hath thiike »nprise 
To Alisandre in bis aprise 
As of Mt^que naturel 
To knowe, enformeth him somdel 
Of certein jKna what thei mene ; 
Of whiche, he seith, ther ben fifiene. 
And sondrily to everich on P 

A gras beiongeth and a Ston, 
Wherof men worcben many a wonder 
To sette thing bothe up and under. 

To telle riht as be b^an. 
The ferste sterre Aldeboran, 
The cliereste and the moste of alle, 
Be rihte name men tt calle; 
Which lich is of condicion 
To (laiSj^ and of complexion 
To Venus, and hath therupon 
Carbun culum his propre Ston : 
rtisTi erbe is Anabulla named, 
Which is of gret vertu proclamed. 

The seconde is noght vertules ; 
Clota or elles Pliades 
It hatte, and of the mones kinde 
He is, and also this I tinde, 
He lakth of Mars complexion : 
And lich to such condicion 
His Ston appropred is CristalJ, 
And ek bis herbe in special 
The vertuous Fenele it is. 
1321 IshetEcAH JtluUtetbA inon)ie* BT mai 

.coy Google 


The thridde, which comth after this. 
Is hote Algol the clere rede, 
Which of Salome, as I may rede, 
His kinde takth, and ek of Jove 
Complexion to his behove. 
His propre Ston is Dyamant, 
Which is to him most acordant; 
His herbe, which is him betake, P. ii 

Is hote Elebonim the blake. 

So as it falleth upon l ot. 
The ferthe sterre is Alhatot, 
Which in the wise as 1 seide er 
Of Satorne and of Jupiter 
Hath take his kinde; and tbenipon 
The Saphir is his propre Ston, 
Mamibium his herbe also, 
I'he vhiche acorden botfae tuo. 

And Canis maipr in bis like 
The fifte sterre is of Magique, 
The whos kinde is venerien, 
As seith this Astronomien. 
His propre Ston is seid Berille, 
Bot forto worcbe and to fulfille 
Thing which to this science falleth, 
Ther is an herbe which men calleth 
Saveine, and that behoveth nede 
To him that wole his pourpos spede. 

The sexte suiende after this 
Be name Canis minor is ; 
The which sterre is Mercurial 
Be weie of kinde, and forth withal. 
As it is writen in the carte, 
Complexion he takth of Mart*. 
His Ston and herbe, as seith the Scole, 
Ben Achates and Primerole. 

The sefnthe sterre in special 
Of this science is Anal, 
Which sondri nature underfongeth. P. i 
1346 margin BcrUlia A . , , B», W 1361 as (le scole (pm. seiih) 
AUHiXRLB* after ]« acole E (as set> )>e scale JGC) 

tTHcFimsH Stars.] 
Tercia Stella voca- 
r Algol, cuius lapis 

Quarta Stella voca- 
tur Alhaiot, cuius 
lapis Saphirus et her- 
bs Mamibjum est. 

Quinta Stella voca- 
tur Canis maior, cuius 
lapis Berillus et her- 
ba Savina est. 

Sexta Stella vacatur 
Canis roiuor, cuius 
lapis Achateset herba 

Primula est 

Seplima Stella vo- 
catur Arial, cuius lapis 
Gorgonia et facrba 
T CelidoDia est. 

.coy Google 

OcUua Stella voca- 
tur Ala Carui, cuius 
lapis Honochinus et 
herba Lapacia est. 


The Ston which propre unto him longeth, 

G orgon z a proprely it hihte: 

His berbe also, which he schal rihte 

Upon the yorchJnge as I mene, 

Is Celidoine freissh and grene. 1370 

Stene Ala Corvi^upon heibte 
Hath take his place in nombre of eighte, 
Wbich of his kinde mot parfome 
The will of ^laxte and of Satoroe : 
To wbom Lapacja the grete 
Is berbe, bot of no beyete; 
His Ston is Honochinus hole, 
Thurgh which men worchen gretjjfllg^ 

The nynthe sterre faire and wel 
Be name is bote Alaeze^ 13S0 

Which takth his propre kinde thus 
Bothe of Mercurie and of Venus. 
His Ston is the grene Amyraude, 
To whom is yoven many a laude: 
Salge is his berbe appourtenant 
Aboven al tbe remenant. 

The tenthe steire is Alma reth, 
Which upon lif and upon deth 
Thurgh kinde of Jupiter and l^M 
He doth wbat longeth to bis part. 1390 

His Ston is Jaspe, and of Planteiiie 
He hath bis lierbe sovereine. 

The sterre ellefthe is V enen as, 
The wbos nature is as it was 
Take of Venus and of tbe Mone, P. Hi. iga 
In thing -which he hath forto done. 
Of Adam ant is that perrie 
In which he wotcheth his maistne ; 
Tbilke herbe also wbicb him befalleth, 
Cicorea the bok it calleth. 1400 

11* . ^Ipheta in the nombre si^ 

"• And is the twelftlyL sterre yit; 

1373 nvugm Honochinus am. AH 13S3 grene] grete 

B,W 1393 e1Ier)«JC, S, F dlet>e A elleue)ie B 1400 him 
ca1le)> R, AdBT 

.coy Google 


Of gcorpio which is governed, 
And takth his kittde, as I am lemed; 
And hath his vertu in the Ston 
Which cleped is Topazion: 
His herbe propre is Rosmarine, 
Which schapen is for his covine. 

Of these sterres, whiche I mene, 
Cor Scorpionis is thiitiene; 
The whos nature Martand Jove 
Have yoven unto his behove. 
His herbe is Aristologie, 
Which folweth his Astronomie : 
The Ston which that this steixe alloweth. 
Is Sardis, which unto him boweth. 

The sterre which stant next the laste, 
Nature on him this name caste 
And clepeth him Botercadent ; 
Which of his kinde obedient 
Is to Mercuric and to Venus. 
His Ston is seid Crisolitus, 
His herbe is cleped Satureie, 
So as these olde bokes seie. 

Bot nou the laste sterre of aHe P. ii 
The tail ^f Scorp_io men calle, 
Which to Merciirie and to Satome 
Be weie of kinde mot retome 
After the preparacion 
Of due constellacion. 
The Calcedoine unto him longeth, 
Which for his Ston he underfongeth ; 
Of Majorane bis herbe is grounded. 
Thus have I seid hou thej be founded, 
Of every sterre in special. 
Which bath his herbe and Ston withal, 
As Hermes in bis bokes olde 
Witnesse berth of that I tolde. 

[THEFimeH Stars.] 

lapis TopBiion et her- 

Terci'adecima stel- 

la voeatur Cor Scor- 

* pionis, cuius lapis 

Sardis «l herba Aris- 

. tologia est. 

Quartadedna Stel- 
la voeatur Boterca- 
litus et berba Satureia 

■ 133 Quinladecima Stel- 
la voeatur Cauda Scor- 
pionis, cuius lapis 
Calcedonia et herba 

1404 "targat Topixioo Hi . . . Bi 
Hi . . . CBi to paxione L 
astrologia) A . . . Bt, BA, H) 
UHiE, Ba, Hi 

1406 Tc^nxion (topaxione) 

1413 margin Astrologi* 

1413 Astrologie (astrolope) 

.coy Google 

pre ceteris studiosius 
inlendentes Ijbros 
super hoc distinctis 
nominibus composue- 


The science of Astronomie, 
Which principal is of clergie 
To dieme betwen wo and wel 
In thinges that be naturel, 
Thei hadde a gret travail on bonde 
That made it ferst ben understonde ; 
And thei also whiche overmore 
Here studie sette upon this lore, 
Thei weren gracious and wys 
And worthi forto bere a pris. 
And rfhom it liketh forto wite 
Of hem that this science write, 
On of the ferste which it wrot 
After Noe, it was Nembrot, 
To his disciple Ychonithon 
And made a bok forth theiupon 
The which M^aster cleped was. 
An other Auctor in this cas 
Is Arachel, the which men note ; 
His bok is Abbategnyh hote. 
Danz Tholome is noght the leste, 
Which makth the bok of Almageste ; 
And Alfraganus doth the same, 
Whos bok is Chatemuz be name. 
Gebuz and Alpetragus eke 
Of Planisperie, which men seke, 
The bokes made : and over this 
Ful many a worthi clerc ther is, 
That writen upon this clergie 
The bokes of Altemetrie, 
Planemetrie and ek aUo, 
Whiche as belongen bothe tuo, 
So as thei ben naturiens, 
Unto these Astronomiens. 
Hen sein that Habraham was on ; 
Bot whether that he wrot or non, 
That finde I noght; and MoVses 
Ek was an other : hot Hermes 

'445 which AJ, S, F whiche B 
1473 HabrtJuun JX, F rw' Abrmbam 

1464 palineatrie Hi . . . 

.coy Google 


Above alle othre in this science 

He hadde a gret expetience; 

Thurgh him was many a sterre assised, 

Whos bokes yit ben auctorized. 

I maj noght knowen alle tho 

That writen in the time Iho 

Of this science ; bot I finde, 

Of jugement be weie of kinde 

That in o point ibei alle acorden ; P. 

Of sterre s whiche thei recorden 

That men mai sen upon the hevene, 

Tber ben a thousend sterres evene 

And tuo and twenty, to the syhte 

Whiche aren of hemsetf so bryhte, 

That men mai diem e what thei be. 

The nature and the proprete. 

Nou hast thou herd, in which a wise 
These noble Philosophres wise 
Enfornieden this yonge king, 
And made him have a knowleching 
Of thing which ferst to the partie 
Belongeth of Philosophie, 
Which Th eon que cleped is, 
As thou tofbre hast herd er this. 
Bot nou to speke of the secounde. 
Which Aristotle hath also founde, 
And techelh hou to speke foire. 
Which is a thing full necessaire 
To CQDtrejeise the ^jance, 
Wher lacketh other suflicance. 

', CompoHli pulcra lermoHu verba plactrt 
Principio poltruni, vrrague Jlne placent. 
fierba, lapis, sermo. Ma sunt virtule repUla, 
Vis tamen ex verbi pondtre plura ftuit. 
Above alle erthli creatures 
The hifae makere of natures 

1477 lliis] his AdBT 141 

1493 such a wise HHiCL, T, H> 
UHh Virstt V. 

. aren] been (ben) A . . . B., W 
, Bt, B 4 pukre AdBT 

.coy Google 


cunda parte Philoso- 

Retharica bcundos 
efficiL Loquilureciun 
de etuadem diubus 
speciebus, scilicet 
GramniBticaet Logics, 
qiiarum doclrina Re- 
thor sua verba peror- 


The wor d to man hath yove alone, 
So that the speche of his persone, 
Or forto lese or forto winne, 
'11)6 hertes thoght which is withinne 
Mai schewe, what it woide mene; 
And that is noghwhere ellCB sene 
Of kinde with non other beste. 
So scholde he be the more honeste. 
To whom god yaf so gret a yifte, 
And loke wel that he ne schifte 
Hise wordes to no wicked us ; 
For wor d the techer of veitds 
Is cleped in Philoso phic. 
Wherof touchende this partie^ 
Is Rethorique the science 
Appropred to the reverence 
Of wordes that ben resonable : 
And for this art schal be vailable 
With goodii wordes forto Uke, 
It hath Gramaire, it hath Logiqe, 
That serven bothe unto the speche. 
Gramaire ferste hath forto teche 
To speke upon congniite: 
Logique hath eke in bis d^re 
Betwen the trouihe and the falsbode 
The pleine wordes forto schode. 
So that nothing schal go beside. 
That he the riht ne schal decide, 
Wherof full many a gret debat 
Reformed is to good astat, 
And pes sustiened up aloft6 
With esy wordes and with softe, 
Wher strengihe scholde lete it falle. 1 
The Philosophre amonges alle 
Forthi commendeth this science, 
Which hath the reule of eloquence. 

In Slon and gras vertu ther is, 
Hot yit the bokes tellen' this, 
:me A, S, F ferat Cflrat) JQ B 15 

.coy Google 


That word above alle erthli ihinges 
Is vertuous in his doinges, 
Wher so it be to evele or goode. 
For if the wordes semeti goode 
And ben wel spoke at mannes Ere, 
Whan that ther is no trouthe there, 
Tbei don fulofte gret deceipte ; 
For whan the word to the conceipte 
Descoideth in so double a wise, 
Such Reth orique is to despise 
In every place, and forto drede. 
For of Uluxes thus I rede, 
As in the bolt of Troie is founde. 
His eloquence and his facounde 
Of goodly wordes whiche he tolde, 
Hatb mad that Antbenor him solde 
The toun, which he with tresoun wan. 
Word hatb b^uiled many a man ; 
With word the wilde beste is daunted. 
With word the Serpent is enchaunted, 
Of word among the men of Armes 
Ben wounde^ heeled with the charmes, 
Wher lacketh other medicine; 
Word hatb under his discipline 
Of Sorcerie the karectes. P. 

The wordes ben of sondri secte s, 
Of evele and eke of goode also ; 
The wordes maken frend of fo. 
And fo of Trend, and pes of werre, 
And werre of pes, and out of herre 
The word this worldes cause e ntriketh. 
And reconsilet h whan bim liketh. 
The word under the coupe of hevene 
Set every thing or odde or evencj 
With word the hibe god is plesed, 
With word the wordes ben appesed. 
The soAe word the loude ^jUeth; 
Wher lacketh good, the word fulfiUeth, 
To make amendes for the wrong; 
1574 and fo A . . . B(, AdT 1577 >e worldes A . . . 

.coy Google 

lulii in cau» Catelinc 
contra Cillenum et 
alios tunc vrbis Rome 


AV'han wordes medlen with the song, 
It doth plesance wel the more. 
Bot forto loke upon the lore 
Hou Tullius his Rethorique 
ComjKtneth, ther a man mai pike 
Hou that he schal hise wordes sette, 
Hou he schat lose, hou he schal knette, 
And in what wise he schal pronounce 
His tale _g]ei]i, wit houte frounce. 
Wherof ensample if thou wolt seche, 
Tak hiede and red whilom the speche 
Of Julius and Cithero, 
Which consu l was of Rome tho, 
Of Catoun eke and of Cillene, 
Behold the wordes hem betwene, 
Whan the tresoun of Cateline P. it 

Descoevered was, and the covine 
Of hem that were of his assent 
Was knowe and spoke in parlemeni, 
And axed hou and in what wise 
Men scholde don hem to juise. 
Cillenus ferst his tale tolde. 
To trouthe and as he was beholde, 
The comun profit forto save, 
He seide hou tresoun scholde have 
A cruel deth; and thus thei spieke. 
The Consul bothe and Catoun eke, 
And seiden that for such a wrot^ 
Ther mai no peine he to strong. 
Bot Julius with wordes wise 
His tale tolde al otherwise, 
As he which wolde her deth resp ite, 
And fondeth hou he mihte excite 
The jugges thurgh his eloquence 
Fro deth to tome the sentence 
And sette here hertes to pite. 
Nou tolden thei, nou tolde he: 

15SB fu lore A . . . Bi 1589 bis] H AdBT 

(Taak) AC, SB Take J, F 1597 and of AHR 

men A me H 1619 iugge AdBT 

.coy Google 


Thei spieken plein after the Jawe, 

Bot he the wordes of his sawe 

Colourelh in an other weie 

Spekende, and thus betnen the tweie, 

To trete upon this ju^ement, 

Made ech of hem his Argument. 

\Vherof the tales forto hiere, 

Ther mai a man the Scole here 1630 

Of Rethoriqes eloquences, P. Hi. 140 

Which is the secounde of sciences 

Touchende to Fhilosophie ; 

Wherof a man schal j^iistifie 

Hise wordes in disputeisoun, 

And knette upon conclusioun 

His Argument in such a forme, 

Which mai the pleine trouthe enforme 

And the soubtil cautele abate, 

Which every trewman schal debate. 1640 

vi. PracHca qitemque staium pars tercia Pkilosophie 
Ad regimen recU duett in orbe vie: 
Set quanto motor Rex est, tanto magis ipsiim 
Hec scola concemit, qua sua regna regai. 

The ferste, which is Theotique, 
And the secounde Rethorique, 
Sciences of Philosophic, 
I have hem told as in partie, 
So as the Philosophre it tolde 
To Alisandre : and nou I wolde 
Telle of the thridde what it is. 
The which Practique cleped is. 

Practique stant upon thre thinges 
Toward the governance of kinges; lOjo 

Wherof the ferst Etique is named, 
The whos science stant proclamed 
To teche of vertu thilke reule, 

1640 trewwan AC, S, F trewe nun B 

Latin Vtrstn vi. 4 Hec FKHiHagd Ex A . . . Bi, S . . . AA, W 
regit BTA gcrit Ad 
1651 ferat AJ, S, F ferste (fiiale) C, B 

Hie iracUtdclcrcia 
parte Philosophic, que 
Practi ca voca liir . cui us 

Policia, quarum doc- 
trina rcgia ma^sCas 
in suo regimine ad 
honoris magnificen- 
dam per singula diri- 

.coy Google 


.cTicj Hou that a king himself schal reule 

Of his moral condicion 
With worth! disposicion 

Of good livii^ in his persone, P. iii. 141 

Which is the chief of his corone. 
It makth a king also to leme 
Hou he his bodi schal governe, i65o 

Hou he schal wake, hou he schal slepe, 
Hou that he schal his hele kepe 
In mete, in drinke, in clothinge eke : 
Ther is no wisdom forto seke 
As for the reule of his persone, 
The which' that this science al one 
Ne techeth as be weie of kinde. 
That ther is nothing left behinde. 

That other point which to Practique 
Belongeth is Iconomique, 1670 

Which techeth thilke honestete 
Thurgh which a king in his d^e 
His wif and child schal reule and guie, 
So forth with al the companie 
Which in his houshold schal abyde, 
And his astat on every syde 
In such raanere forto lede, 
That he his houshold ne mislede. 

Practique hath yit the thridde aprise, 
Which techeth hou and in what wise 16110 

Thurgh hih pourveied ordinance 
A king schal sette in governance 
His R^lme, and that is Policie, 
Which longeth unto Regalie 
In time of weire, in ITme of pes, 
To worschipe and to good encress 
Of clerk, of kniht and of Marchant, P. Ill 143 
And so foith of the remenant 
Of al the comun poeple aboute, 
Withinne Burgh and ek withoute, 1690 

1666 [h«t om. AH . . . Bt 1670 Belonged to Icon- AH . . . Ri 

1671 hon«ste H . . . Bi {txttfl C), SA, WHi 1681 hih] his B 

jSaa at] at AdBT 1690 eek C, B eke (eeke) A, F 

.coy Google 


Of hem that ben Artificieis, 
Whiche usen craftes and mestiers, 
Whos Art is cleped Mechanique. 
And though thej ben noght alle like, 
Yit natheles, hou so it falle, 
O lawe mot goveme hem aile. 
Or that thei lese or that thei winne, 
After thastat that thei ben inne. 

1^, thus this worthi yonge king 
Was fulli tauht of every thing, 
Which mibte yive entendement 
Of good jeglt and good regiment 
To such a worthi Prince as be. 
Bot of veixay necessite 
The Pbilosophre him hath betake 
Fyf^igt^ whiche he bath undertake 
To kepe and holde in observance, 
As for the worthi governance 
Which tongeth to his Regalie, 
After the reule of Policie. 


vii. Moribus ontatus regit hie qui regna modemii, 
Cercius expictat eeftra Jittura poli. 

Jil quia veridica virtus supereminet Minrs, 
fiegis ai ore boni fabula nulla sonai. 
To every man behoveth lore, 

Bot to noman belongeth more 

Hian to a king, which hath to lede P. Hi. 143 

The poeple ; for of his kinghede 

He mai hem bothe save and spille. 

And for it stant upon his wille, 

It sit him wel to ben avised, 

And the vertus whiche are. assissed 

Unto a kinges Regiment, 

To take in his entendement : 

Wherof to tellen, as thei stonde, 

Hierafterward nou woll 1 fonde. 

1695 hou om. AH 169S |>e ataat (sUte) AUBi. W |k: esUte K 
711 behoveth] bilonKe> X, AdBT t^iB are] been Iben) A . . . 

Hie KGUDduin Poli- 
ci«m timctarc iotcndit 
precipue super quia- 
que regularum Articu- 
lis. que ad Prtncipis 
Regimen obsenunde 
special iu« exinunt. 
quarum prima Veritas 
nuneupatur. Perquam 
veridicus fit senno 
Regis ad omnes. 

.CD, Google 


(Truth.] Among the vertus on is chief. 

And that is jr oulhe, which is lief 
To god and ek to man also. 
And for it hath ben evere SO, 
Tawhte Aristotle, as he wel couthe, 
To Alisandre, hou in his youthe 
He scholde of tiouthe thilke grace 
With al his hole herte embrace, 1730 

So that his word be trewe and plein. 
Toward the world and so certein 
That in him be no double speche: 
For if men scholde trouthe seche 
And founde it noght withinne a king, 
It were an unsittende thing. 
The word is tokne of that withinne, 
Ther schal a worthi king beginne 
To kepe his tunge and to be trewe, 
So schal bis pris ben evere newe. 1740 

Avise him every man tofore, 
And be wel war, er he be swore, 
For afterward it is to late, P. ill. 144 

If that be wole his word debate. 
For as a king in special 
Above all othre is principal 
Of his pouer, so scholde he be 
Most vertuous in his degrej 
And that mai wel be signefied 
Be his corone and specified. 1750 

Nota super hiia que The gold betokneth excellence, 

RegisdesiB- ^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^^ jjg„ jjjjjj reverence 

As to here liege soverein. 
The Stones, as the bokes sein, 
Commended ben in treble wise: 
Ferst thei ben harde, and thilke assisse 
Betokneth in a king Constance, 
So that ther schal no variance 
Be founde in his condicion ; 
And also be descripcion 1760 

1744 wolde B 1749 be wel A . . . Bi (fxafi Hi welbe) 

1751 margm Nota—desiEiuintur om. R, B, Ha 

.coy Google 


The vertu which is in the stones 

A verrai SJgne is for the nones 

Of that a king schal ben honeste 

And holde trcwiy his beheste 

Of thing which longeth to kinghed^.; 

The bryhte colour, as I rede. 

Which in the stones is schynende, 

Is in figure betoknende 

The Cronique of this worldes fame. 

Which stant upon his goode name. 

The cercle which is round aboute 

Is tokne of al the lond withoute, 

Which stant under his Gerarchie, P, 

That he it schal wel kepe and guye. 

And for that trouthe, hou so it falle, 
Is the Tcrtu soverein of alle, 
That longeth unto regimen^ 
A tale, which is evident 
or trouthe in comendadoun, 
Toward thin enfonnacion, 
Mi Sone, hierafter thou schalt hiere 
Of a Cronique in this matiere. 

As the Cronique it doth reherce, 
A Sold^ whilom was of Perce, 
Which Daires hihte, and Ytaspis 
His fader was; and soth it is 
That tbuigh wisdom and hih prudence 
Mor than for eny reverence 
Of his ]ignage as be descente 
The r^ne of thilke empire he hente ; 
And as he was tiimselve wys, 
The wisenien he hield in pris 
And sc^hte hem oute on every side, 
That toward him thei scholde abide. 
Among the whiche thre ther were 
That most service unto him bCTC, 
1769 his worldes Hi . . . Bi 1770 goode om. AM 1789 as] 

and A . . . B> 1791 And for he AH . . . Bi 1793 wisemen 

S, F wise men AJC, B 1793 on] in AM ... C of L 1795 

Margin a«s«rit B 

[King, Wine, Woman 
AND Truth.] 
Hie narrat, qu>]iler 
Darius filius Ytaspis 
Soldanus Pcrcic a Iri- 
bus suis CubicuUriis, 
quorum oomina Ar- 
paghes, Hanachaz et 
Zorolwbel dicta sunl, 

179'' singillatim inlerroga- 
uit, vtnim Rex aut 

ioris fortiCudinis vim 
obtineret : ipsis vero 
varia opinione re- 
spondentibus, Zoro- 
babel vliimus asseruil 
quod muiier sui amo- 

.CD, Google 

Regis quam vini po- 
tenciam excellit. Ad- 
didit insuper pro Gn>]i 
concluaione djceiu, 
quod Veritas super 

responsio ccleris Uu- 
dabilior acceptabalur. 


As thei which in his chambre lyben 

And al his conseil herde and syhen. 

Here names ben of strange note, 

Arpaghes was the ferste hote, iSoo 

And Manachaz was the secounde, 

Zorohabel, as it is founde 

In the Cronique, was the thridde. P. iii. 146 

This Soldan, what so him betidde, 

To hem he triste most of alle, 

Whftrof the cas is so befalle : 

This lord, which hath conceiptes depe, 

Upon a nyht whan he hath Heipc, 

As he which hath his nit despoeed, 

Touchende a point hem hath opposed. iSio 

The kinges question was this ; 
Ctf thinges thre which strengest is. 
The wyn, the womman or the king : 
And that thei schoMe upon this thing 
Of here ansuere avised be, 
He yaf hem fuKi daies thre, 
And hath behote hetn be his feith 
That who the beste reson seith, 
He schal resceive a worthi mede. 

Upon this thing thei token hiede i8jo 

And stoden in desputeison. 
That be diverse opinion 
Of Aigumentz that thei have holde 
Arpf^hes ferst his tale tolde, 
And seide hou that the strengthe of kinges 
Is myhtiest_pf alle thinges. 
For king hath pouer over man. 
And man is he which reson can, 
As he which is of his nature 
The moste noSle creature iSjo 

Of alle tho that god hath wrc^ht : 
And be that skile it semeth noght. 
He seith, that eny erthly thing P. iU. 147 

IJ97 which A, F whicheB iSoo Arpaphei AHHiXCLB: 

Arches R 1805 he tri«e] |«l tiTst(c) All be tnistelh A 

1815 insBuere F 

.coy Google 


Mai be so myhty as a king. [ 

A king mai spille, a king mai save, 

A king mai make of lord a knave 

And of a knave a lord also : 

The pouer of a king stant so, 

That he the lawes joverpa^thj 

What he wol make lasse, be lasseth, 1S40 

What he wol make more , he mpreth ; 

And as the gentil faucon |oreth. 

He fleth, that noman him red^meth; 

Dot he al one alle othre tameth, 

And sunt himself of lave fre. 

Lo, thus a kinges myht, seitb be. 

So as bis reson can argue, 

Is strengest and of most value. 

Bot Manachaz seide otherwise, 
That wyn is of the more emprise; iSjo 

And that be scheweth be this weie. 
The wyn fulofie takth aweie 
The reson fro the mannes herte; 
The wyn can make a krepel sterte. 
And a delJvere man unwelde ; 
It maktb a blind man to behelde. 
And a bryht yhed seme derk; 
It maktb a lewed man a clerk. 
And fro the clerkes the cleigie 
It takth aweie, and couardie iS5o 

It torneth into hardiesse; 
Of Avarice it makth largesse. 
The wyn makth ek the goode blod, P. 111. 148 
In which the Soule which is good 
Hath chosen hire a resting place, 
Wbii that the lif bir wole embrace. 
And be this skile Manachas 
Ansuered batb upon this cas. 
And seith that Wfyn be weie of kinde 
Is thing which mai the bertes binde iSja 

Well more than the regalie. 

Zorobabel for his partie 
G af]ord3alon]E,AdBT, W 1848 t« S, FW a AC. fi 

.coy Google 

NoM hk d 

le vigore 

amoris, qui i 

inter Ci- 

rum Regem Penarum 

et Apemen 


miam \faiui 

! Regis 



Unte tota Cu 

ria expe- 



Seide, as htm thoghte for the beste, 

That wommen ben the myhtieste. 

The king and the vinour also 

Of wommen comen bothe tuo ; 

And ek he seide hou that manhede 

Thu^h strengthe unto the woramanhede 

Of love, wher he wole or non, 

Obeie schal; and thenipon, iSSo 

To scbewe of wommen the maistrie, 

A tale which he syh with yhe 

As for ensample he tolde this, — 

Hou Apemen, of Besazis 
Which dowhter was, in the paleis 
Sittende upon his hihe dgis. 
Whan he was hotest in his ire 
Toward the grete of his empire, 
Cirus the king tirant sche tok. 
And only with hire goodly lok 1S90 

Sche made him debonaire and meke, 
And be the chyn and be the cheke 
Sche luggeth him riht as hir liste, P. ill. 149 
That nou sche japeth, nou sche kiste, 
And doth with 'him what evere hir liketh; 
Whan that sche loureth, thanne he siketh, 
And whan sche gladeth, he is glad : 
And thus this king was overlad 
With hire which his lemman was. 
Among the men is no solas, 1900 

If that ther be no womman there ; 
For hot if that the wommen were. 
This worldes joie were aweie : 
Thuigh hem men finden out the weie 
To knihthode and to worldes fame; 
Thei make a man to drede scbame. 
And honour forto be desired : 
Thurgh the beaute of hem is fyred 
The Dart of which Cupide throweth, 
Wherof the jolif peine groweth, 1910 

1883 I sib AdBT 1883 And for AU 1884 of Besa;<is 

HiXRCBi and Besaxit L 1903 >e wominan J, BT 

.coy Google 


Which al the world hath under fote. 
A womman is the mannes bote. 
His lif, his deih, his wo, bis wet ; 
And this thing mai be schewed wel, 
Hou that wommen ben goode and kinde, 
For in ensample this I finde. 

Whan that the duk Ametus lay [Tale of ALcians.] 

Sek in his bedd, that every day Nou de iideliiatc 

Men waiten whan he scholde deie, ^l^V^k^'frn^r, " 

spontanee subegit. 

Alceste his wif goth forto preie, 1930 marium suum 

As sche which wolde thonk deserve, ^ll^;.™".'!™ 

With Sacrifice unto Minerve, 
To wite ansuere of the goddesse P. iii. 150 

Hou that hir lord of his seknesse, 
Wherof he was so wo besein, 
Recovere myhie his hele ayein. 
Lo, thus sche cride and thus sche preide, 
Til ate laste a vois hir seide. 
That if sche wolde for his sake 
The maladie solfre and take, igjo 

And deie birself, he scholde live. 
Of this ansuere Alceste hath yive 
Unto Minerve gret th onkinge, 
So that hir deth and his livinge 
Sche ches with al hire hole entente, 
And thus acorded horn sche wente. 
Into the chambre and whan sche cam, 
Hire bousebonde anon sche nam 
In botbe hire Arines and him kiste. 
And spak unto him what hire listcj 1940 

And therupon withinne a tbrowe 
This goode wif was overthrowe 
And deide, and he was hool in haste. 
So mai a man be reson taste^ 
Hou next after the god above 
The trouthe of wommen and the love, 
In whom that alle grace is founde. 
Is myhtiest upon this grounde 
And most behovely manyfold. 
■93a Of] And H, AdBT 194a The A . . . B> 

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Lo, thus ZoTobabel hath told 1950 

The tale of his opinion : 
Bot for final conclusion 

What strengest is of erthli Ihinges, P, lii. 151 
The nyn, the wommen or the kinges, 
He seith that trouthe above hem alle 
Is myhtiest, hou evere it falle. 
The trouthe, hou so it evere come, 
Mai for nothing ben overcome ; 
It mai wel soffire for a throwe, 
Bot ate laste it scbal be knowe. i960 

The proverbe is, who that is trewe, 
Him schal his while nevere rewe ; 
For hou so that the cause wende, 
The trouthe is schameles ate ende, 
Bot what thi[^ that is uoutheles. 
It mai noght wel be schameles, 
And schame hindreth every wyht: 
So proveth it, ther is no royht 
Withoute trouthe in no degre. 
And thus for trouthe of his decre 1970 

Zorobabel was most commended, 
Wherof the question was ended. 
And he resceived hath his mede 
For trouthe, which to mannes nede 
Is most behoveliche overaL 
Fortht was trouthe in special 
The ferste point in observance 
Betake unto the governance 
Of AUsandre^ as it is seid: 
For therupon the ground is leid i<fSo 

Of every kinges r^menC, 
As thing which most convenient 
Is forto sette a king in evene P. ill. i$3 

Bothe in this world and ek in hevene. 


viji. Aisii Auarida, nt tangai regia eorda, 
Eiui enim tpeliit excoriatur Mumus. 

1976 the Dttf. J, AdBT iqBo Utenipon} vpoo AM 

LatU Vtrati viU. a Eiiu FKHiUagd ml Cuius 

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Fama eoUt largum volittats per secula Regem^ 
Dona tatHett lietiis sunt moderoMda modii. 

Next after trouthe the secounde, 
In Policie as it is founde. 
Which serveth to the worldes fame 
In worschipe of a kinges name, 
Laiyesse i t is, whos privilegge 
Ther mai non Avarice abregge. 
The worldes good was ferst comunej^ 
Bot afterward upon fortune 
Was thiike comun profit cessed : 
For whan the poeple stod encresced ^| 

And the lignages KQ;ten_grete, 
Anon for singulier beyete 
Drouh every man to his partie ; 
Wherof cam in the ferste envie 
With gret debat and werres slronge. 
And laste among the men so longe, looo 

Til noman wiste who was who, 
Ne which was Trend ne which was fo. 
Til ate laste in every lond 
Withinne hemself the poeple fond 
That it was good to make a king, 
Which mihte appese n al this thing 
And yive riht to the Ugnages 
In partinge of here herit^es 
And ek of al here other good ; P. lil. 153 

And thus above hem alle stod ioio 

The king upon his Regalie, 
As he which hath to justiRe 
The worldes good fro, covoitise. 
So sit it wel in alle wise 
A king betwen the more and lesse 
To sette his herte upon largesse 
Toward himself and ek also 
Toward his poeple ; and if n<^ht so. 
That is to sein, if that he be 

Hie tracUt de regie 
maiestatia secunda 
Policia, quam Aris- 
totiles krsitatem vo- 
cal : cuius virlute non 
^'iV solum propulsaU A- 
uaricia Regis nonten 
magnificun) cxtollitur, 
set ct aui subditi omni 

axL'ia iocundiores elfi- 

1993 MMiXBf subditi cnni; snbdidonQM((subdicionuiH) A. . 
1015 bitweiic (belwen) more AH . . . B4 A, WHi 

.coy Google 

NoU. super hoc 
andrum exemplili- 

Regis Chaldeorum. 


Toward himselven large and fre zoio 

And of his poeple uke and pile, 
Lai^esse be no weie of skile 
It mai be seid, bot Avarice, 
Which in a king is a gret vice. 

A king behov eth. ek to fle 
The vice of Prodeg alite, 
That he mesure in his ex pence 
So kepe, that of indigence 
He mai be sauf: for who that nedeth, 
In al his werk the worse he spedeth. tajo 

As Aristotle upon Chaldee 
Ensample of gret Auctorite 
Unto king Allsandre tauhte 
Of thilke folk that were unsauhle 
Toward here king for his pilage : 
Wheiof he bad, in his corage 
That he unto thre pointz entende, 
Wher that he wolde his good despende. 
Ferst scholde he loke, hou that it stod, P. iii. 154 
That al were of his oghne good 1040 

The yiftes whiche he wolde yive; 
So myhte he wel the betre live : 
And ek he moste taken hiede 
If ther be cause of eny nede, 
Which <%hle forto be defended, 
Er that his goodes be despended t 
He mot ek, as it is be&lle, 
Amonges olhre thinges alle 
Se the decertes of his men ; 
And after that thei ben of ken lojo 

And of astat and of merite. 
He schal hem largeliche aquite, 
Or for the werre. or for the pes. 
That non honour falle in descres, 
Which mihte torne into defame, 
Bot that he kepe bis goode name, 
So that he be noght holde unkinde. 
For in Cronique a tale I finde, 
ind pile] no pile AH 0043 Paragr, lurt J, SB, F Sec 

.coy Google 


Which spekth somdiel of this matiere, 
Hierafterwanj as thou schalt hiere. io<io 

In Rome, to poursuie his nht, yi; 

Ther was a worth i povere kniht, 
Which cam al one forto sein 
His cause, when the court was plein, 
Wber Julius was in presence. 
And for him lacketh of despenc^ 
Ther was with him non advocat 
To make ^e_ for his astat 
Bot thogh him lacke forto plede, P. iii. 155 
Him lacketh nothing of manhede; 1070 

He wiste wel his pours was pnvere, 
Bot yit he thoghte his riht recovere. 
And openly poverte alleide. 
To themperour and thus he seide: 
' O Julius, lord of the lawe, 
Behcdd, mi cons eil is withdrawe 
For lacke of gold '. do thin office 
After the lawes of justice : 
Help that I hadde conseil hiere 
Upon the trouthe of mi matiere.' aoGo 

And Julius with that anon 
Assigned him a woRbi on, 
Bot he himself no word ne spak. 
This kniht was wroth and fond a )ak 
In themperour, and seide thus : 
'O thou unkinde Julius, 
Whan thou in thi bataille were 
Up in Aufiique, and I was there, 
Mi myht for thi rescousse I dede 
And putte noman in my stede, 1090 

Thou wost what woundes ther I hadde : 
Bot hier I finde thee so badde, 
That thee ne liste speke o won! 
Thin oghne mouth, nor of thin herd 

9067 margiH reuelare AH om, C 9077 do] to Hi ... Bt, AdBT 
J07S l>we AM . . . Bi, AdBT 0093 list (Inste) to HiEBi, 



t Knig 


Hie secundum ges- 
ta lulii exempluTn 
ponit. quiliter Rex 
suonim militum. quos 
probos agnaucril, in- 
digenciam largitatis 
sue beneficiis releunre 

.coy Google 

Hie ponit eiem- 
plum de Rege An- 
tigotio, qualiler dona 


To yive a florin me to hdpe. 
Hou scholde I thanne me beyeipe 
Fro this dai forth of thi largesse, 
Whan such a gret unkindenesse 
Is founde in such a lord as thou ?' P. iii. 156 
This Julius knew wel ^noa ^,. jioo 

That al was soth which he him lotde ; 
And for he wolde noght ben holde 
Unkinde, he tok his cause on honde. 
And as it were of goddes sonde, 
He yaf him good ynouh to spende 
For evere into his lives ende. 
And thus scholde every worthi king 
Take of his knihtes knowleching. 
Whan that he syh thai hadden nede. 
For every service axeth mede: ma 

Bot othre, whiche have noght deserved 
Thurgh veitu, bot of japes served, 
A king schal noght deserve grace, 
Thogh he be lat^e in such a place. 

It sit wel every king to have 
pUcrecion, whan men him crave, 
So that he mai his yifte wite : 
Wherof I finde a tale write, 
Hou Cinichus a povere kniht 
A Somme which was over myh t 11 to 

Preide of his king Antigonus. 
The king ansuerde to him thus, 
And seide hou such a yifle passeth 
His povere astat: and thanne he lasseth, 
And axeth bot a litel peny, 
If that the king wol yive him eny. 
The king ansueide, it was to smal 
For him, which was a lord real ; 
To yive a man so litel thing P. Ui. 157 

It were unworschipe in a king. njo 

Be this ensample a king mai lere 

ato6 volo Hi . . . Bi, AdBT 
which] Iwt AH . . . B> 

aiaa king om. AH 

.coy Google 


That forto yive is in manere : 

For if a king his tresor lasseth 

Withoute honour and thonkles passeth, 

Whan he himself wol so beguile, 

I not who schal compleigne his nhile, 

Ne who be rihte him schal relieve. 

Bot natheles this I believe, 

To heipe with his oghne lond 

Behoveth every man his hond : 

To sette upon necessite ; 

And ek his kinges realte 

Mot every Hege man i;;nn forte , 

With good and bodi to supporte, 

Whan thei se cause resonable : 

For who that is noghc entendable 

To holde upriht his kinges name. 

Him oghle forto be to blame. 

Of Policie and overmore 
To speke in this matiere more, 
So as the Philosophre tolde, 
A king after the reule is holde 
To modifle and to adresce 
Hise ylRes upon such largesce 
That he mesure noght excede : 
For if a king falle into nede, 
It causeth ofte sondrl thinges 
Whiche are ungoodly to the kinges. 
What man wol noght himself mesure, P. iU, 
Men sen fulofte that mesure 
Him hath forsake : and so doth he 
Tliat useth Prodegalite, 
Which is the moder of poverte, 
Wherof the londes ben deserte ; 
And namely whan thiike vice 
Aboute a king sunt in office 
And hath witbholde of his partie 
The covoitouse flaterie. 

Nota hie quod Re* 
gius status a suis 
lidelibus omni (auore 
support an dus est. 

P Kwos.] 

Nota bic secundum 
Aristotilem, qualiter 
Principum Pn>degali- 
tas paupertatem in- 
ducit communem. 


ai4o BiloDge^ AdBT 
secundum Aristotilem om. S 
3158 been (ben) A . . . Bi 

150 margin Nota— AristotiJem om. Ba 
a>55 mar£iM Senecs] Salomon B 

.CD, Google 


Nota qualiter in 
principum curiU adu- 
iatores triplici graui- 
tate offendunt. 


Which many a worthi king deceiveth, 
Et he the fallas aperceiveth 
Of hem that serven to the glose. 
For thei that cunnen plese and glose, 
Ben, as men tellen, the norrices 
Unto the fostringe of the vices, 
Wherof fulofte natheles 
A king is blamed gulteles. 

A Fhilosophre, as thou schalt hiere, 
Spak to a king of this matiere. 
And seide him wel hou that flatours 
Coupable were of thre errours. 

1. On was toward the goddes hihe, 

That weren wrothe of that thei sihe 
The meschief which befalle scholde 
Of that the false flatour tolde. 

» Toward the king an other was, 

Whan thei be sleihte and be fallas 
Of feigned wordes make him wene 
That blak is whyt and blew is grene 
Touchende of his condition : P. 

For whanne he doth extorcio n 
With manye an other vice mo. 
Men schal nt^ht finden on of tho 
To groucche or speke therayein, 
Bot holden up his oil and sein 
That al is wel, what evere he doth ; 
And thus of fals thei maken soth, 
So that here kinges yhe is blent 
And wot not hou the world is went. 

•- The thridde errour is hann comune. 

With which the poeple mot commune 
Of wronges that thei bringen inne : 
And thus thei worchen treble sinne. 
That ben flatours aboute a king. 
Ther myhte be no worse thing 
Aboute a kinges regalie, 
Thanne is the vice of flaterie. 

0198 DOt A, F noght S nought J, B 3199 matg 

coDtra populum otn. B, W 

.CD, Google 


And natheles it hath ben used, 
That it was nevere yit refused 
As forto speke in court real ; 
For there it is most special, 
And mai noght longe be forbore. 
Bot whan this vice of hem is bore, 
That scholden the verCus forthbringe, 
And trouthe is tomed to lesinge, 
It is, as who seith, ayein kinde, 
Wherof an old eosample I finde. 

Among these othre tales wise 
Of Philosophres, in this wise 
I rede, how whilom tuo ther were, P. liJ 
And to the Scole forto lere , 
Unto Athenes fro Cartage 
Here frendes, whan thei were of Age, 
Hem sende; and ther thei stoden longe, 
Til thei such lore have underfonge. 
That in here time thei surmonCe 
Alle othre men, that to acompte . 
Of hem was tho the grete fame. 
The ferste of hem his rihte name 
Was Diogenes thanne hote, 
In whom was founde no riote : 
His felaw Arisippus hyhte, 
Which mochel couthe and mochel myhte. 
Bot ate laste, soth to sein, 
Thei bothe tornen liom ayein 
Unto Cartage and scole lete. 
This Diogenes no beyete 

3319 ff. "'O'S^ Hie 'CODtra — deberes] Hie loquitur super eodem, 
et nmrrat quod, cum Dlogeno et ArUippus philosophi a scolis 
Alhcminim ad CartagiDem, vode orti fueraDt, reuertiasenl, Ari- 
si[7Ut curie principis aui (amiliaris adhcait, Diageues vero in quodam 
mansiunculo *uo studio vacaos pcrmaosit Et contlgit quod, cum 
ipse quodam die ad finem orti (ortus 5) sni super ripam herbas quas 
elegerat (eligerat S; ad olen lauassct, Euperuenit ci casu Arisippus, 
dixitquc ei, ' O Diof^nes, certe ai Principi tuo placere scires, tu ad 
olera lua lauanda dod indigeres.' Cui ille respondit, 'O Ariaippe, certe 
si tu olcra toa lauare scires, te in blaodiciis et aduladonibu* principi 
tuo seruire itoii oporlereL' SBAA (_Lat. om. AdT) 

l6o Hie contra vanitates 
adulanlum loquitur, 

'""el narrat quod cum 
Arisippus de Carta- 
gine Philosophus sco- 
le studium relinquena 
sui Principis otncquio 
in magnis adulacio. 
nib us pre ceteris ca- 
rior Bssistebal, acci- 
dil vt ipse quodam 
die Diogenen Philo- 
sophum nupersocium 

ribus quam sciencia 
probalissimum, berths 
ad olera sua coUeetas 
'3° Uuantem ei casu ad 
ripam inuenit : cui ait. 
' O Diogenes, vere si 
tu sicul et ego Prin- 
cipi [uo placere scires, 
huiusmodi herbas aut 
coltigcre aut lauare 
libi minime indigereL' 
Cui atler respondit, 

.coy Google 




' O Arisippe, certe et 
31 tuMcutetegoolera 
tua coUlgere et latutre 
3cires,priiicipcin [uuin 
iutem blandiri niilb- 


Of worldes good or lasse or more 

Ne soghte for his longe lore, 

Bot tok him only forto duelle 

At horn ; and as the bokes telle, nio 

His hous was nyh to the rivere 

Besyde a breggCj as thou schalt hiere. 

Ther duelletlT'lie to take his reste, 

So as it thoghte him for the beste, 

To .gtudie^iti his Philosophie, 

As he which wolde so t jgfie. 

The worldes pompe on every syde. 

Bot Arisippe his bok aside 
Hath leid, and to the court he wenle, P. ill. 161 
Wher many a wyle and many a wentg, 1150 
With flaterie and wordes softe 
He caste, and hath compassed ofte 
Hou he his Prince myhte plese ; 
And in this wise he gat him ese 
Of vein honour and worldes good. 
The londes reule upon him stod. 
The king of him was wonder glad, 
And all was do, what thing he bad, 
Bothe in the court and ek withoute. 
With flaterie he br<^bte aboute zitio 

His pourpos of the worldes werk, 
Which was ayein the stat of clerk, 
So that Philosophie he lefte 
And to richesse himself uplefte : 
Lo, thus hadde Arisippe his wHle. 

Bot Dic^enes duelte stille 
At home and loked on his bok : 
He soghte nogbt the worldes .crok. 
For vein honour ne for richesse, 
Bot all his hertes besinesse 1170 

He sette to be vertuous ; 
And thus withinne his oghne hous 
He liveth to the sufficance 
Of his havinge. And fell per chance, 
3343 and uk> B 9951 and] and wi)i AH, A 3069 


.coy Google 


This Dit^ene upon a day, [ 

And that was in the Monthe of May, 

Whan that these herbes ben holsome, 

He walketh forto gadre some 

In his gardin, of whiche his Routes P. iU. i63 

He thoghte have, and thus aboutes nSo 

VVhanne he hath gadred what him hketh, 

He satte him thanne doun and pykethj 

And wvssh his herbes in the flod 

Upon the which his gardin stod, 

Nyh to the bregge, as I tolde _er. 

And hapneth, whil he sitteth ther, 

Cam Arisippes be the strete 

With manye hors and routes grete. 

And straght unto the bregge he rod, 

Wher that he hoved and abod; jjgo 

For as he caste his yhe nyh, 

His felaw Dit^ene he syh, 

And what he dede he syh also, 

Wherof he seide to him so : 

'O Dic^ne, god thee spede. 
It were certes litel nede 
To sitte there and wortes pyke, 
If thou thi Prince couthest lyke, 
So as I can in my degre.' 

' Arisippe,' ayein quod he, 1300 

' If that thou fouthist, so as I, 
Thi wortes pyke, trewely 
It were als htel nede or lasse. 
That thou so worldly wolt compasse 
With flaterie forto serve, 
Wherof thou thenkest to deserve 
Thi princes thonk, and to pourchace 
Hou thou myht stonden in bis grace, 
For getinge of a htel good. P. ill. 163 

If thou wolt take into thi mod 1310 

Reson, thou myht be reson deeme 
That so thi prince forto queeme 
183 satte S,F Bate W aat J, AdBT sitle (sit) AUHiXGC 
: (set) ERLBi, A, Hi 3394 so] >o GLB>, AdBT, W 

.coy Google 

li Danle vo- 


Is noght to resoa acordant, 
Bot it is gretly descordant 
Unto the Scoles of Athene.' 
Lo, thus ansuerde Diogene 
Ayein the clerkes flaterie. 

Bot yit men sen tbessamplerie 
Of Arisippe is wel received, 
And thilke of Diogene is weyved. 2i*o 

Office in court and gold in cofre 
Is noil, men sein, the philosophre 
Which hath the worschipe in the halle ; 
Bot flaterie passeth alle 
In chambre, whom the court avanceth ; 
For upon thilke lot it chanceth 
To be beloved nou aday. 

* I not if it be ye or nay, 
Bot as the comun vois it telleth ; 
Bot wber that flaterie duelleth 1330 
In eny lond under the Sonne, 
Ther is ful many a thing b^onne 

* I not if it be ye or nay. 
How Dante the poete answerde 

To a ftatour, the tale I herde. 1350* 

Upon a strif bitwen hem tuo 

He seide him, ' Ther ben many mo 

Of thy servantes than of myne. 

For the poete of his covyne 

Hath non that wol him clothe and fede, 

But a flatour may reule and lede 

A king with al his lond aboute.' P. IIL 164 

So stant the wise man in doute 

Of hem that to folie drawe : 

For such is now the newe lawe, 3340* 

And as the comune vois it telleth, 

Wher now that flaterie duelleth 

In every lond etc. (as 3331 if.) 

3316 sein B sayne W 9309 Bot] And AdBTA 9330 Bot 

wher] And wber AH . . . Bi Wber now AdBTA 9331 eueryAdBT 

93a9*-9340* only in AdBTA {not SA) 033a* seid T sayd B 

.coy Google 


Which were betre to be left; 
That hath be schewed nou and eft.. 

Bot if a Prince wolde him reule 
Of the R omeins after the reule, 
In thilke time as it was used, 
This vice scholde be refused, 
Wherof the Princes ben assoted. 
Bot wher the pleine trouthe is noted, 
Ther may a Prince wel conceive, 
That he schal nogbt himself deceive, 
Of that he hiereth wordes pleine ; 
For him thar noght be reson pleigne, 
That warned is er him be wo. 
And that was fully proeved tho. 
Whan Rome was the worldes chief. 
The Sothseiere tho vras lief. 
Which wolde noght the trouthe spare, 
Bot with hise wordes pleine and bare 
To Themperour hise sothes tolde. 
As in Cionique is yit withholde, 
Hierafterward as thou schalt hiere 
Acordende unto this matiere. 

To se this olde ensamplerie, 
That whilom was no flaterie 
Toward the Princes wel I finde; 
Wherof so as it comth to mynde. 
Mi Sone, a tale unto thin Ere, 
Whtl that the woithi princes were 
At Rome, I thenke forto tellen. 
For whan the chances so befellen 

P. ill. 165 [The Rohan Tm- 

H>c 1 

eodem, qualiter nuper 
Romanorum Impera- 

(or, cum ipse trium- 
phatar in hostes a 
o bello Rome rediret, 
tres sibi laudes in aig- 
num sui triumphi 
prccipue debebantur : 

3335 bin wolde S. .. A,W 3337 mow. AU . .. Bi(/xci//C) 
8353 is yil] it is C, AdBT 0357 ff. margin Hie narral — adueTSttHlur} 
Hie eciam contra vicium aduUcionis ponit exemplum ; et narrat 
quod, cum nuper Romanomm impenilor contra suos hosics victoriam 
optinuisset, et cum palnui triampbi (triumphe S) in vrbem redire 
debuisset, ne ipsum inanis glorie altitudo supereztolleret, licitum fuit 
pro illo die quod vnusquisquc peiora que sue condidonis agnosceret 
in mures suas apercius exclamaret, vt aic gaudium cum dolore com* 
pesceret, et adulantum voces, sique fuersnt, pro tninimo computaret. 
SBOA (,Ul. SfR. AdT) 

.coy Google 


sccundo tunica lovis 
pro tunc indueretur, 
lercio sui capliui pro- 

ambularenl. Set ne 
(anti honoris adulacio 
eius animum in su- 
perbiam cxtoUerel, 
qui dam tcuira lingu 

cumi sedebat, qui 

cibui improperando 
ei dijtii, ' Notheos,' 
bocest nosce teipsum, 
'quia si bodieTortuna 
tibi prospera fueiit, 
eras forte versa rota 
mutabitis aduenabj- 


I'hat eny Emperour as tho 

Vicloire hadde upon his fo, 

And so forth cam to Rome ayeJn, 

Of jTsble honour he was certein, 

Wherof that he was magnefied. 

The ferste, as it is specefied, 

Was, whan he cam at thilke tyde, 

The Chan in which he schoMe ryde 

Foure whyte Stiedes scholden drawe ; 

Of Jupiter be thiike lawe 

The Cote he scholde were also ; 

^soners ek scholden go 
Endlong the Charr on eyther bond, 
And alle the no bles, of the lond 
Tofore and after with him come 
Kidende and brc^hten him to Rome, 
In thonk of his chivalerie 
And for non other flaterie. 13S0 

And that was schewed forth withal ; 
Wher he sat in his Charr real, 
Beside htm was a Ribald set, 
Which hadde hise wordes so beset, 
To themperour in al his gloJre P. iii. 166 

He seide, 'Tak into memoire. 
For al this pompe and al this pride 
Let no justice gon aside, (3400*) 

Bot know thiseU', what so befalle. 
For men sen ofle time falle 9390 

Thing which men wende siker stonde: 
Thogh thou victoire have nou on honde, 
Fortune mai noght stonde alway; 
The whiel per chance an other day 
Mai tome, and thou myht overthrowe ; 
Ther lasteth nothing bot a throwe.' 
With these wordes and with mo 
This Ribald, which sat with him tho. 
To Themperour his tale tolde ; 

3363 eny om. AH 3376 of looDd A 3377 margiH fortanata 
A . . . B> 3378 margiH liierit] fuit Bi unl Hi ... L 3379 

margin forte om. AH tokne 5 ... & 0384 word(e) AUXLBi 

.coy Google 


And ovennor what evere he wolde. 
Or were it evel or were it good, 
So plainly as the trouthe stod. 
He spareth noght, hot spekth it oute ; 
And so myhte every man aboute 
The day of that soleinpnete 
His tale telle als wel as he 
To Themperour al openly. 
And al was this the cause why ; 
That whil he stod in that noblesse, 
He scholde his vanite represse 
With suche wordes as he herde. 

Lo nou, hou thiike time it ferde 
Toward so bib a worthi lord : 
For this I finde ek of record, 
Which the Cronique bath auctorized. P. iii. 167 
What Emperour was entronized. 
The ferste day of his corone, 
Wher he was in his real Throne 
And hield his feste in the paleis 
Sittende upon his hihe deis 
With al the lust that mai be gete, 
Whan he was gladdest at his mete, 
And every menstral hadde pleid. 
And every Disour hadde seid 
What most was plesant to his Ere, 
Than ate laste comen there 
Hise Macons, for thei scholden crave 
Wher that he wolde be begrave. 
And of what Ston his sepulture 
Thei scholden make, and what sculpture 1430 
He wolde ordeine therupon. 

Tho was ther flaterie non 

3409 that] bis B a4ia it om. J, AdBT 3414 ff. mttrgin 

Hie eciun— reprimeret] Hie ponit ezemplum super eodem ; et narrat 
quod eodem die quo imperator intronizktus in palado suo i^io ad 
conuiuium in maiori leticia ledisset, miDlstri sui sculplores coram 
ipso procederent alta voce diccDtes, 'O imperator, die nobii cuius 
(orme et vbi turobam sculpture lue (ademus,' vt aic morie remorsus 
huius vite blandiciaa obtemperaret SBAA but procederent SBA {Lai. 
om. AdT) 0404 Disour] Gestour AM . . . Bi 0418 be am. AM 

Hie eciam coatra 
■dulacionem scribit 
quod primo die quo 
nuper Imperator in- 


:iit, dc 

quail lapide sue se- 
pulture tumulum fa- 
bricarent; vtsicfutu- 
ram mortem com- 
memoniDS vanitates 
huius aeculi transilo- 
rias faciliua reprime- 

.coy Google 

'a AXBWER.] 

er b[U gesiB 


pis aliU sapienciores 
apparere vellent, 
quandoque tamen si- 
mulate sapiencie talia 
commttlunt, per que 
ceteris stulciores in 
fine comprolxnlur. 


The worthi princes to bejape ; 

The thing was other wise schape 

With good conseil; and otherwise 

Thei were hegjsdx^ thanne wise, 

And understoden nel and knewen. 

Whan suche softe wyndes blewen 

Of flaterie into here Ere, 

Thei setten nc^bt here hertes there; 1440 

Bot whan thei herden wordes feigned, 

The pleine trouthe it hath desdeigned 

Of hem that weren so discrete. 

So tok the flatour no beyete 

Of bim that was his prince tho : P. ill. 168 

And forto proven it is so, 

A tale which befell in dede , 

In a Cronique of Rome I. rede. 

Cesar upon his real throne 
Wher that he sat in his persone mo 

And was byest in al his pris, 
A man, which wolde make him wys. 
Fell doun knelende in bis presence. 
And dede him such a reverence, 
As thogh the bihe god it were : 
Men hadden gret mervaille there 
Of the worschipe which he dede. 
This man aros fro thilke stede, 
And forth with al the same tyde 
He goth him up and be bis side 3460 

He set him doun as^pific and pier, 
And seide, ' If thou that sittest hier 
Art god, which alle thinges myht, 
Thanne have I do worschipe ariht 
As to the god ; and other wise, 
If thou be noght of thilke assisse, 
Bot art a man such as am I, 
Than mai I sitte faste by, 

9434 thing] king Ba, AdBT 3444 Tho took AdB Sto cok T 

0460 be om, AH 3461 as] and A 9464 da worschipe] 

worichiped AdBT 

.coy Google 


For we be^bothen of o kinde.' 

Cesar ansuerde and seide, ' O blinde, 1470 
Thou art a fol, it is wel sene 
Upon thiself: for if thou wene 
I be a god, thou dost amys 
To sitte wher thou sest god' is; 
And if I be a man, also P. lit. 169 

Thou hast a gret folic do, 
Whan thou to such on as schal deie 
The worschipe of thi god aweie 
Hast yoven so unworthely. 
Thus inai I prove redely, 3480 

Thou art noght wys.' And thei that herde 
Hou wysly that the king ansuerde. 
It was to hem a newe lore; 
Wherof thei dradden him the more. 
And brogbten nothing to his Ere, 
Bot if i( trouthe and reson were. 
So be ther manye, in such a wise 
That feignen wordes to be wise, ('5«o*) 

And al is venay flaterie 
To him which can it wel aspie. 1490 

The kinde flatour can noght love | 

Bot forto bringe himself above ; 
For hou that evere his maister &re, 
So that himself stonde out of care, 
Him reccheth noght : and thus fulofle 
Deceived ben with wordes softe 
The kinges that ben innocent 
Wherof as for chastiement 
The wise Philosophre seide. 
What king that so his tresor leide 3500 

Upon such folk, he hath the lesse. 
And yit ne doth he no largesse, 
Bot harmeth with his oghne hond 
Himself and ek his (^hne lond, 
And that be many a sondri weie. P. 111. 170 
Wherof if that a man schal sde. 
As forto speke in general, 
34«9bo}«(batl))All.. .Bt,AdBA,W ^^^ it cm. AM. A 

[CAtSAR's Answer.] 

Nota. qualitcr isti 
circa Principem adu- 
latores podus a Curia 

:pelli, quam ad regie 

.coy Google 

H ic loquitur vlterius 
deconsilio odulintum, 
quorum fabulis priu- 
cipis aurcs o rea n irate 

pere n«quiunt. El 
narrat exemplum de 
Rege Achab, qui pro 
CO quod ipse prophe- 
cits Gddis M tehee 
recusauit blandiciis- 
que adulantis Zede- 
ctiie adhesil, Rex 
Side Benedab in caw- 
po bellator ipsum di- 
ulno iudick) deuictum 


Wher such thing falleth overal 

That eny king himself misreule, 

The Philosophre upon his reule as'= 

In special a cause sette. 

Which is and evere hath be the lette 

In governance aboute a king 

Upon the meschief of the thing, 

And that, he seith, is Flatejie. 

Wherof tofore as in partie 

What vice it is I have declared ; 

For who that hath his wit .bewared 

Upon a flatour to beUeve, 

Whan that he weneth best achieve 151a 

His goode world, it is most fro. 

And forto proeven it is so 

Ensamples ther ben manyon, 

Of whiche if thou wolt knowen on, 

It is behovely forto hiere 

What whilom fell in this matiere. 

Among the kinges in the bible 
I iinde a tale, and is credible^ 
Of him that whilom Achab hihte, 
Which hadde al Irahel to rihte; 15^0 

Bot who that couthe^glose softe 
And flatre, suche he sette alofte 
In gret astat and made hem riche ; 
Bot thei that spteken wordes liche 
To trouthe and wolde it noght forbere, P. Hi. 171 
For hem was non astat to here. 
The court of suche tok non hiede. 
Til ate laste upon a nede, 
That Benedab king of Surie 
Of Irahel a gret partie, 154c 

Which Rarooth Galaath was bote. 
Hath sesed ; and of that riote 
He tok conseil in sondri wise, 
Bot noght of hem that weren wise. 

D Itahel (Irael) J, S, FK rat Israel 9536 margin adulili: 

Bi 0540 InOiel (Inel) AJ, S, FK ntt Israel 

.coy Google 


And natheles upon this cas 

To strengthen him, for Josaphas, 

Which thanne was king of Judee, 

He sende fotto come, as he 

Which thurgh frendschipe and_alliaEce_ 

Was next to him of aqueintance; 

For JoTam Sone of Josaphath 

Achabbes dowhter wedded hath, 

Which hihte faire Godelie. 

And thus cam into Samarie 

King Josaphat, and he fond there 

The king Achab : and whan thei were 

Togedre spekende of this thing, 

This Josaphat seith to the king, 

Hou that he wolde gladly hiere 

Som trew prophete in this inatiere. 

That he his conseil myhte yive 

To what point that it schal be drive. 

And in that time so befell, 
Ther was such on in Irahel, 
Which sette him a] to flaterie, P. 

And he was cleped Sedechie; 
And after him Achab hath sent ; 
And he at his comandement 
Tofore him cam, and be a sleyhte 
He hath upon his heved on heyhte 
Tuo large homes set of bras. 
As he which al a ilatour was, 
And goth rampen de as a leoun 
And caste hise homes up and doun, 
And bad men ben of good espeir. 
For as the homes percen their, 
He seith, withoute resistence. 
So wiste he wel of his science 
That Benedab is desconfit 
Whan Sedechie upon this plit 
Hath told this tale to his lord. 
Anon thee were of his acord 
Prophetes false manye mo 
9546 fro BT 9560 trew S, F trewe AC, B 956a [ a 

.coy Google 


] To here up oil, and alle tho 

1 AfTermen that which he hath told, 

Wherof the king Achab was bold 
And yaf hem yiftea al aboute. 
But Josaphat was in gret doute, (tfioo*) 

And hield f antos m^al that he herde, 
Preiende Achab, hou so it ferde, ijgo 

If ther were eny other man. 
The which of prophecie can, 
To hiere him speke er that thei gon. 
Quod Achab thanne, ' Ther is on, 
A brothell, which Micheas bihte ; P. iii. 173 
Bot he ne comth noght in my sihte, 
For he hath longe in prison lein. 
Him liketh nevere yit to sein 
A goodly word to mi plesance ; 
And natheles at thin instance 1600 

He schal come oute, and thanne he may 
Seie as he seide many day; 
For yit he seide nevere wel.' 
Tho Josaphat began somdel 
To gladen him in hope of trouthe, 
Andl>ad withouten eny slouthe 
That men him scholden fette anon. 
And thei that weren for him gon, 
Whan that thei comen wher he was, 
Thei tolden unto Micheas 3610 

The manere hou that Sedechie 
Declared hath his prophecie; 
And therupon thei preie him faire 
That he wol seie no contraire, 
Wherof the king mai be desplesed, 
For so schal every man ben esed. 
And he mai heipe himselve also. 

Micheas upon trouthe tho 
His herte sette, and to hem seith, 
Al that belongetb to bis feith itiio 

And of non other feigned thing, 

3594 Ther ii on] is )>er non B is ^ron T 0598 liked S . . . A, W 
3609 ^ S . . . & 0619 him AHX . . . Bi, K 

.coy Google 


That wol he telle unto his king, [ 

Als fer as god hath yove him grace. 

Thus cam this prophete into place 

Wher he the tinges wille herde ; P. 111. 174 

And he therto anon ansuerde, 

And seide unto him in this wise : 

' Mi hege lord, for mi servise, 

Which trewe hath stonden evere yit, 

Thou hast me with prisone aquit; , 1S30 

Bot for al that I schal noght glose 

Of trouthe als fer as I suppose ; 

And as touchende of this bataille, 

Thou schalt noght of the sothe faile. 

For if it like thee to hiere, 

As I am tauht in that matiere, 

Thou miht it understonde sone ; 

Bot what is afterward to done 

Avise thee, for this I sih. 

I was tofor the throne on hih, 1640 

Wher al the world me thogbte stod, 

And there 1 herde and understod 

The vois of god with wordes .cliere_ 

Axende, and seide in this manere : 

" In what thing mai I best b^uile 

The king AchabP" And for a while 

Upon this point thei spieken faste. 

Tho seide a spirit ate laste, 

" I underuke this emprise." 

And god him axeth in what wise. 1650 

" I schal," quod he, " deceive and lye 

With flaterende prophecie 

In suche mgiube& as he lieveth." 

And he which alle thing achieveth 

Bad him go forth and don riht so. P. Ui. 175 

And over this I sih also 

The noble peple of Irahel 

Dispers as Schep upon an hell, 

0699 bis] te Hi, S... A 0633 Cbia] |i S . . . A 9637 miht 

(might) JC, B ■i]ibteA,S,F 0641 S /las losi (m> iMvts {M 36^l- 
3004) 0657 Irahd (Inwl) J, FK mt Israel 

.coy Google 


Withoute a Jtepere unairaied r 

And as thei wente aboute astraied, 366 

I herde a vois unto hem sein, " 

"Goth hom into your hous ayein, 

Til I for you have betre ordeigned.'" 

Quod Sedechie, 'Thou hast feigned 
This tale in angringe of the king.' 
And in a wratbthe upon this thing 
He smot Michee upon the cheke ; 
The king him hath rebu ked eke, 
And erery man upon him cride ; 
Thus was he scbent on every side, l6^< 

Ayein and into prison lad, 
For so the king himselve bad. 
The trouthe myhte noght ben herd; 
Bot afterward as it hath ferd. 
The dede proveth his entente : 
Achab to the bataille wente, 
Wher Benedab fbr al his Scbeld 
Him slouh, so that upon the feld 
His poeple goth aboute astray. 
Bot god, which alle thinges may, i68( 

So doth that thei no meschief have ; 
Here king was ded and thei ben save, 
And hom ayein in goddes pes 
Thei wente, and al was foundeje? 
That Sedechie hath seid tofore. P. iii. 176 

So sit it wel a king therfore 
To loven hem that trouthe mene ; 
For ate laste it wol be sene (aroo*] 

That flatede is nothing worth. 
Bot nou to mi matiere forth, 1690 

As forto speken overmore 
After the Philosophres lore. 
The thridde point of Policie 
I thenke forto specifie. 

\x. Propter Iransgrtssos leget statutmtur in orbe, 
Ul viuanl iusti Regis honore viri. 
3689 flatering AdBT 0691 eaemwrc JU, B fotthermore W 

.coy Google 


Lex tine iustieia populum sui principis vntbra 
Deuiat, vl rectum mma vidibit iter. 

What is a lond wher men ben none 7 
What ben the men whiche are al one 
Withoute a kinges governance? 
What is a king in his hgance, 
Wher that ther is no lawe in londe? 
What is to take lawe on honde, 
Bot if the jug^es weren trewe? 
These olde worldes with the newe 
Who that wol take in evidence, 
Ther mai he se thexperience. 
What thing it is to kepe lawe, 
Thui^h which the wronges hen withdrawe 
And rihtwisnesse stant commended, 
Wherof the regnes ben amended. 
For wher the lawe mai comune 
The lordes forth with the commune, 
Ech hath his propre duete; P. ill. 

And ek the kinges realte 
Of bothe his worschipe underfongeth, 
To his astat as it belongeth. 
Which of his hihe northinesse 
Hath to goveme rihtwisnesse, 
As he which schal the lawe guide. 
And natheles upon som side 
His pouer stant above the lawe, 
To yive bothe and to withdrawe 
The forfet of a mannes lif; 
But thii^es whiche are excessif 
Ayein the lawe, he schal n<^ht do 
For love ne for hate also. 

The myhtes of a king ben grete, 
Bot yit a worthi king schal lete 
Of wrong to don, al that he myhte ; 
For he which schal the poeple ry hte, 
It sit wel to his r^alie 
That he himself ferst justefie 
a69BiHar^regiDiiius]ReEisAH, BT,FW Ugit Hi . . . Bi 
regU & (LmL om. J, Ad, K) 3710 lorde AHt lorde> H 

Hie tractat de ter- 

Principum re|;i- 


cuius condicio le^ibus 
'J°° incomjpta vnicuique 
quod suum «st equo 
pandere dUlribuit. 

Imperatoriam ma- 

.CD, Google 


rie».] Towardes god in his degre: 

For his astat is elles fre 
Toward alle othre in bis persone. 
Save only to the god a) one, 
Which wol himself a king chastise, 
Wher that non other mai suffise. 
So were It good to taken hiede 
That ferst a king his oghne dede 
Betwen the vertu and the vice 
Redresce, and thanne of his justice 1740 

So sette in evene the balance P. Ui. 178 

Towardes Othre in governance. 
That to the povere and to the riche 
Hise lawcs myhten stonde hche, 
He schal excepte no persone. 
Bot for he mai noght al him one 
In sondrt places do justice, 
fie schal of his real office 
With wys considcradon 

"Ordeigne his deputacion 3750 

Of suche jugges as ben lerned, 
So that his poeple be governed 
Be hem that trewe ben and wise. 
For if the lawe of covoitise 
Be set upon a jugges bond, 
Wo is the poeple of thilke lond, 
For wrong mai noght himselven hyde : 
Bot elles on that other side. 
If lawe stonde with the riht, 
The poeple is glad and stant upriht. 2760 

Wher as the lawe is resonable, 
The comun poeple stant menable, 
And if the lawe torne amis, 
The poeple also mistomed is. 

rHjuiHiH.] And in ensample of this matiere 

Of Maximin a man mai hiere. 
Of Rome which was Emperour, 

3747 do] lo AM 3750 diapuUcioun AM . . . Bi 97*3 tnenibic 
AXG, FW nocuable (mouesble &c.] HiE, AdBT, K meuable (!) 

.coy Google 


That whanne he made a govern our 

Be weie of substitucion 

Of Province or of region. 

He wolde ferst ^quere his nam^ 

And let it openly proclame 

AVhat man he vere, or evel or good. 

And Upon that his name stod 

Enclin to vertu or to vice, 

So wolde he sette him in office, 

Or elles putte him al aweie. 

Thus hield the lawe his rihte weie, 

Which fond no let o f covoitise : 

The world stod than upon the wise. 

As be ensample thou rayht Tede; 

And hold it in thi mynde, I rede. 

In a Cronique I finde thus, 
Hou that Gayus Fabricius, 
\Vhich whilom was C onsu l of Rome, 
Be whom the lawes 2ed_e_and come, 
Whan the Sampnites to him broghte 
A somme of gold, and him besoghte 
To don hem favour in the hwe, 
Toward the gold he gan him drawe, 
Wherof in alle mennes lok 
A part up in his hond he tok. 
Which to his mouth in alle haste 
He putte, it forto smelle and taste, 
And to his yhe and to his Ere, 
Bot he ne fond no confort there : 
And thanne he gan it to despise. 
And tolde unto hem in this wise: 
'I not what is with gold to thryve. 
Whan non of all my wittes fyve 
Fynt savour ne delit therinne. 
So is it bot a nyce Sinne 
. Of gold to ben to covoitous ; 
Bot he is riche and glorious, 

S775 Enclynd (Enclioed] Mi . . . Bi, W »n 

All . . . Bt 3794 puite AC, B pot F 




1 alicuius pro- 

uincie custodem sibj 

'' '* subslituere volebal, 

P. iii. 179 primo dc sui nominis 

lain I procit 

facta ipaius condic 
nem diligencius 


de iudicibus incorrup- 

tis. £t nuratqualitcr 

') Gayus Fabricius nu per 

Rome Consul Bunim a 
Sampnilibus aibi ob- 

quod nobilius est au- 
ruiD possidenles doiti- 
inio subiug:ar«, quam 
ex auri cupiditate do- 
Diiiiii libertatem amii- 

P. UJ. 180 

.coy Google 


[Gaius Fabricius.] Wfaich hath in his snbjeccioD 

Tho men whiche in possession 
Ben riche of gold, and be this skile ; 
For he mai aldai whan he wile. 
Or be hem lieve or l>e hem lothe. 
Justice don upon hem bothe.' aSio 

Lo, thus he seide, and with that word 
He threw tofore hem on the bord 
The gold out of his hond anon. 
And seide hem that he wolde non : 
So that he kepte his liberie 
To do justice and equite, 
Withoute lucre of such richesse. 

Ther be nou few* of suche, I gesse j 
For it was thilke times used, 
ThM every jugge was refused i8»o 

Which was noght trend to comun riht; 
Bot the! that wolden stonde upribt 
For trouthe only to do justice 
Preferr fid. were in thilke office 
To deme and jugge commun lawe : 
Which nou, men sein, is al withdrawe. 
To sette a lawe and kepe it noght 
Ther is no comun profit soght; 
Bot above alle natheles 

The lawe, which is mad for pes, iSjo 

Is good to kepe for the beste, P. iU. i8i 

For that set alle men in reste. 

The rihtful Emperour Conrade 
To kepe pes such lawe made, 
That noD withinne the cite 
In d^orbance^ of unite 
Dorste ones moeven a matiere. 
For in his time, as thou myht hiere, 
What point that was for lawe set 
It schotde for no gold be let, 384a 

To what persone that it were. 

[The Empcror 


Hie oarrat deiuiti- 
cb nuperConradi Im- 
peratoHi, cuiua tem- 
pore alicuius r«ueren- 
cin persone, aljquaseu 
precum inteniencioae 
quacunque vel auri 
redempcione, legum 
Slatuta commutari seu 
redimi nullateniu pa- 

3606 whiche AJ, B which C, F 
gon E 0840 good AdBT 

a8t4 non] anon HCBi (^ ni 

.coy Google 


And this broghte in the comun fere, 
Why every man the lawe dradde, 
For iher was non which favour hadde. 

So as these aide bokes sein, 
I Imde write hou a_Roinein, 
Which Consul was of the Pretoire, 
Whos name was Carmidotoire, 
He sette a iawe for the pes, 
That non, hot he be wepneles, 1850 

Schal come into the conseil bous. 
And elles as malicious 
He schal ben of the lawe ded. 
To that statut and to that red 
Acorden alle it schal be so, 
For certein cause which was tho : 
Nou lest what fell therafter sone. 
This Consul hadde forto done, 
And was into the feldes ride; 
And thei him hadden longe abide, i860 

That lordes of the conseil were, P. HI. i8a 

And for him sende, and he cam there • 

With swerd begert, and hath foryete. 
Til he was in the conseil ^te, 
Was non of hem that made speche. 
Til he himself it wolde seche, 
And fond out the defalte himselve; 
And thanne he seide unto the tuelve, 
Whiche of the Senat weren wise, 
'I have deserved the juise, as^o 

In haste that it were do.' 
And thei him seiden alle no ; 
For wel thei wiste it was no vice. 
Whan he ne thoghte ho malice, 
Bot onliche of a litel slouthe : 
And thus thei leften as for routhe 

Nota exemplum de 
constanciaiudicU; vbi 
narrat de CRRnidotiro 
Rome nuper Consule, 
qui cum sui statuti le- 
geoi nescius offendia- 
set, Romanique super 
hoc p«nBni sibi remit- 
tere votuissent, ipse 
propria manu, via nul- 
lus alius ID ipsumvin- 
dez fuit, sui criminiii 

3850 1 That eueiy n 

That come in 

aSsT lest] heer (here) AM . , 

igerd (I gerde See.) AH . . . Bi 

.coy Google 

Kotaquod falsi iudi- 

endi sunt. Narrat 
enim qualiter Cinibi- 
ses Rex Persarum 
quendam iudicem cor- 
ruptum ejtcoriari vi- 
cathedrBin iudicialem 
operiri canslituit: ita 
quod liliua 3uua super* 
patris pell cm postea 
pro tribunali cessums 
iudicii equilaiem eui- 
dencius m 


To do justice upon his gilt, 

For that he scholde noght be spilt. 

And vrhanne he sih the maner hou 

Thei woldc him save, he made avou 3SS0 

With manfull herte, and thus he seide, 

That Rome scholde nevere abreide 

His heires, whan he were of daw e, 

That here Ancestre brak the lawe. 

Forthi, er that thei weren war, 

Forth with the same swerd he bar 

The statut of his lawe he kepte, 

So that al Rome his deth bewepte. (»9t»*) 

In other place also I rede, 
Wher that a jugge his t^hne dede 2890 

Ne wol n<^ht venee of lawe broke, P. lii, 183 
The king it hath himselven wioke. 
The grete king which Cambises 
Was bote, a jugge laweles 
He fond, and into remembrance 
He dede upon him such vengance : 
Out of his skyn he was bedain 
Al .quyk^ and in that wise slain. 
So that his skyn was schape al meete, 
And nayled on the same seete 1900 

AVher that his Sone scholde sitte. 
A vise him, if he wolde flitte 
The lawe for the coveitise, 
Ther sih he redi his juise. 

Thus in defalte of other jugge 
The king mot otherwhile jugge, 
To holden up the rihte lawe. " 
And forto speke of tholde dawe. 
To uke ensample of that was tho, 
I finde a tale write also, 1910 

Hou that a worth! prince is holde 
The lawes of his lend to holde, 
Ferst for the hihe goddes sake. 
And ek for that him is beuke 

3887 he om. B 390a rpon Hi , , , Bi (0889 -3916 tun. R) 

.coy Google 


The poeple forto guide and lede, 
^\'hich is the charge of his kinghede. 

In a Cronique I rede thus 
Of the ^ihtful Ligurgius, 
^Vhich of Athenis Prince was, 
Hou he the lawe in every cas, 
Wherof he scholde his poeple reule, P. 
Hath set upon so good a reule, 
In al this world that cite non 
or lawe was so wel begon 
Forth with the trouthe of governance. 
Ther was among hem no distance, 
Bot every man hath his encress; 
Ther was withoute werre pes, 
^Vithou^e envie love stod ; 
Richesse upon the comun good 
And noght upon the singuler 
Ordeigned was, and the pouer 
Of hem thai weren in astat 
Was sauf : wherof upon debat 
Ther stod nothing, so that in reste 
Mihte every man his herte reste. 

And whan this noble rihtful king 
Sih hou it ferde of al this thing, 
Wherof the poeple stod in ese, 
He, which for evere wolde plese 
The hihe god, whos thonk he soghte, 
A wonder thing thanne him bethoghte. 
And schop if that it myhte be, 
Hou that his lawe in the cite 
Mihte afterward for evere laste. 
And therupon his wit he caste 
What thing him were best to feigne. 
That he his pourpos myhte atteigne. 

A Parlement and thus be sette, 
His wisdom wher that he besette 
In audience of grete and smale, P 

Ui. 184 statuentes illain con- 
seruant, set vt com- 
mune bonum adauge- 
ant, propriam faculta- 

narrat (|iiod, cum Li- 
gurgius Athenarum 
princeps subditossuos 
in omni prosperitalis 
habundanciadiviles el 
vnanimes congniis 
legibus rtare fecisset, 
volens ad vtilitatem 
rei publics leges illas 
^* firmius obseruari, per- 
egre proficisci se fin- 

, lum soiempne a legiis 

■uis subhBcrormaexe- 
git. quod ipsi vsque in 
rerfilum auum leges 
suas nullatenus in- 
fringerent; quibus iu- 
ratis peregrinacionem 
suam in exilium abs- 
que reditu pro per- 
petuo dele^uit. 


3990 Htargin quJOM. BT a^a6inargm subditossuos om. A. . 
3938 mmrgm delegatur BT 0951 uid om. A (^ m.) 

.coy Google 


3 And in this wise he tolde his tale : 

' God wot, and so ye witen alle, 
Hierafterward hou so it falle, 
Yit into now my vill hath be 
To do justice and equite 
In foithiinge of comun profit ; 
Such hath ben evere my delit. 
Bot of thing I am beknowe, 
The which mi will is that ye knowe : 1960 

The lawe which I tok on honde, 
Was altogedre of goddes sonde 
And nothing of myn oghne wit ; 
So mot it nede endure yit. 
And schal do lengere, if ye wile. 
For I wol telle you the skile ; 
The god Mercurius and no man 
He hath me tawht al that I can 
Of suche lawes as I made, 
# Wherof that ye ben alle glade; 1970 

It was the god and nothing I, 
Which dede al this, and nou forthi 
He bath comanded of his grace 
That I schal come into a place 
Which is XqsIE, '*"' '"^ *" y'*> 
Wher I mot tarie for a while, 
With him to speke, as be hath bede. 
For as he seith, in thilke stede 
He schal me suche thinges telle, 
That evere, whyl the world schal duelle, 19S0 
Athenis schal the betre fare. P. Ui. 186 

Bot ferst, er that I thider fare. 
For that I wolde that mi lawe 
Amonges you ne be withdrawe 
Ther why leg that I schal ben oute, 
Forthi to setten out of doute 
Bothe you and me, this wol I preie, 
That ye me wolde assure and seie (3«°o') 

With such an oth as I wol take, 
9967 no nun JC, B noman A, F 0977 u] and AdBT 

39S9 )e wol AdBT 1 wold A 

.coy Google 


That ech of you schal undertake 1990 [ 

Mi lawes forto kepe and holde.' 
Thei seiden alle that thei wolde. 
And tberupon thei swore here oth. 
That fro the time that he goth, 
Til he to hem be come ayein, 
Thei scholde hise lawes wel and plein 
In every point kepe and Ailfille. 
Thus hath Ligurgius his wille. 
And tok his leve and forth he wente. 
Bot lest nou wel to what entente 3000 

Of rihtwisnesse he dede so : 
For after that he was ago, 
He schop him nevere to be founde; 
So that Athenis, which was bounde, 
Nevere after scholde be relessed^ 
Ne thilke goode tawe cessed. 
Which was for comun profit set. 
And in this wise he hath it knetj 
He, which the comun profit soghte, 
The king, his c^hne astat ne n^bte ; 3010 

To do profit to the comune, F. ill. 187 

He tok of exil^ the fortune, 
And lefte of Prince thilke office 
Only for love and for justice, 
Thurgh which he thoghte, if that he myhte. 
For evere after his deth to rihte 
The cite which was him betake. 
Wherof men oghte ensample take 
The goode lawes to avance 
With hem which under governance 3010 

The lawes have forto kepe; 
For who that wolde take kepe 
Of hem that ferst the lawes founde, 
Als fer as lasteth eny bounde 
Of lond, here names yit ben knowe ; 
And if it like thee to knowe 

iwere Hi ... B^ Ad, WK 3000 leM] heer (here) 

Ba 3003 scbop (scboop) AJC, B acbope F 3005 

I Soao which AC, 5, F wbich« B 

.coy Google 

legws primi 


Some of here names hou thei stonde, 
Nou herkne and thou schalt understonde. 
[Tke First Law- Of every bienfet the merite 

^""^■^ The god himself it wol aquite; 

And ek fulofte it falleth so. 
The world it wole aquite also, 
, aliquorum nonii- Bot that mai noght beti svenejiche : 

"" sp^i"'™' eo" The god he yifth the heveneriche, 

memorat. * ■' - - - — ' 

The world yifth only bot a name, 
Which $tant upon the goode fame 
Of hero that don the goode dede. 
And in this wise double mede 
Resceiven thei that don wel hiere ; 
Wherof if that thee list to hiere 
After the fame as it is .tLls<^e, P. iii 

Ther myht thou wel the sothe knowe, 
Hou thiike honeste besinesse 
Of hem that ferst for rihtwjsnesse 
Among the men the lawes made, 
Mai nevere upon this erthe jade. 
For evere, whil ther is a tunge, 
Here name schal be rad and sunge 
And holde in the Cronique write; 
So that the men it scholden wite, 
To speke good, as thei wel oghten, 
Of hem that ferst the kwes soghten 
In foithringe of the worldes pes. 
Unto Ihebreua. was Moises 
The ferste, and to thegipciens 
Mercurius, and to Troiens 
Ferst was Neuma Pompilius, 
To Athenes I.igurgius 
Yaf ferst the lawe, and to Gr^ois 
Foroneiis hath thiike vols, 
And Romulus to the Romeins. 
For suche men that ben vileins 
The lawe in such a wise ordeigneth, 
That what man to the lawe pleigneth, 

3040 to om. A . . . CBi 3060 h«dde AdBT 3063 

JC, SB suche A, F 

.coy Google 


Be so the jugge stonde upriht, I 

He schal be served of his riht. 

And so ferforth it is befalle 

That lawe is come among ous alle : 

God Ueve it mole wel ben holde, 

As every king therto is holde ; 3070 

For thing which is of kingee set, P. iil. 189 

With kinges oghte it noght be let. 

What king of lawe takth no kepe. 

Be lawe he mai no regne kepe. 

Do lawe awey, what is a king? 

Wher is the riht of eny thing, 

If that ther be no lawe in londe ? 

This oghte a king wel understonde, 

As he which is to lawe swore, 

That if the lawe be forbore 3080 

Withouten execucioun, 

It inakth a lond lorne up so doun. 

Which is unto the king a jclandre. 

Forthi unto king Alisandre • 

The wise Fhilosophre bad, 

That he himselve ferst be lad 

Of lawe, and forth thanne overal 

So do justice 'in general, {310°') 

That al the wyde lond aboute 

The justice of his lawe doute, 301)0 

And thanne schal he stonde in reste. 

For therto lawe is am the beste 

Above alte other erthly thing, 

To make a hege drede his king. 

Bot hou a king schal gete him love 

Toward the hihe god above, 

And ek among the men in erthe. 

This nexte point, which is the ferthe 

Of Aristotles lore, it techeth : 

Wherof who that the Scole secheth, 3100 

What Policie that it is P. Ul. igo 

The bok reberceth after this. 

3086 he lid AH, A be bad B( 3088 To do Hi . . . Bi 

.coy Google 



1 Principuni regimi- 
nia Poticia, que Pietas 
dicta est ; per quam 
Principcs erga popu- 
lutn roisericordes cf- 
fecti misericord i am al- 
timimi gracilis conae- 


;. Nil racioms haiens vbi velle tirannica regaa 

StriHgit, amor populi trattsiet exul ibi. 

Set Pietas, regnum que conseruabit in euum, 

Nott tanlum populo, set placet ilia dee. 

It nedeth noght that I delate 

The pris which preised is algate, 

And hath Ijen evere and evere schal, 

Wherof to speke in special. 

It is the vertu of Pije, 

Thurgh wliich the hihe mageste 

Was stered, whan his Sone alyhte, 

And in pile the world to rihte 3 no 

Tok of the Maide fleissh and blod. 

Pite was cause of thilke good, 

Wherof that we ben alle save : 

Wei c^hte a man Pite to have 

And the vertu to sette in pris, 

Whan he himself which is al wys 

Hath schewed why it schal be preised. 

Pite may noght be coQterpeised 

Of tirannie with no peis ; 

For Pite makth a king courteis ' 3110 

Bothe in his word and in his dede. 
It sit wel every liege drede 

His king and to his heste obeie, 

And riht so be the same weie 

It sit a king to be pitous 

Toward his poeple and gracious 

Upon the reule of governance, P. lii. igi 

So that he worche no vengance, 

Which niai he cleped crualte. 

Justice which doth equite 3130 

Is dredfull, for he noman spaieth ; 

Bot in tlie lond wher Pite fareth 

The king mai nevere faile of love. 

For Pite thurgh the grace above, 

So as the Pfailosophre ailermeth, 

LaliM Vtrst* X. a vin Hi . . . Bi 

3110 mat^» graciosius Hi . . . Bi, W giaa margin No(o F 

»«. AC, B 3135 Pbilosophre] holy book BTA 

.coy Google 


His regne in good astat confenneth.' 

Thus seide whilom Constantin : 
' What Emperour that is encUn 

'Thapostle James in this wise 
Seith, what man scholde do juise, 
And hath not pile forth with al, 
The doom of him which demeth at 
He may himself fulsore drede, 
That him schal lakke upon the nede 
To fynde pite, whan he wolde : 
For who that pite wol biholde,— 
It is a poynt of Cristes lore. 
And for to lokcn overmore, 
It is bihovely, as we fynde, 
To resoun and to lawe of kynde. 

Cassodre in his apprise telleth, 
'The regne is sauf, wher pite duetleth.' 

And Tutlius his tale avoweth, 
And seith, ' What king to pite boweth 
And with pite stant overcome, 
He bath that schield of grace nome, 
Which to the kinges yifth victoire.' P. 

Of Alisandre in his histoire 
I rede how he a wonhi knight 
Of sodein wraththe and nought of right 
Forjugged hath, and he appeletb. 
And with that word the king quereleth. 
And seith, 'Non is above me.' 
'That wot I wel my lord,' quoth he; 
' Fro thy lordschipe appele I nought, 
But fro thy wraththe in al my thought 
To thy pitee stant myn appeel. 
The king, which understod him wel, 
Of pure pite yaf him grace. 
And eek I rede in other place, 
Thus seide whilom etc {as 3137 ff.) 

3137-3163 Plactd ttfttr 3360* in S4 
3i49*-3l8>>* Only m BTa (Ad JtfSrdnit). TtxifiUoms B 
scholde] ^scbolde T 3163* Jris Ule T 


CoDsUntinus 1m 

perator ail : ' Vere » 

dominum esse com 

Cassodoms. Vbi 

rcgnat pieUs, consoti- 
datur regnum. 

Tullius. QuipieUte 
vincitur scutum vie. 

iii. iga 

Valerius narrat quod 
cum rei Alexander in 
ira sua quendam mjli- 
3170" *"" "orti condemp- 
naSMt, et ilie appel' 
lauil, dixit rex, ' In 
terra nuUus maior me 
est: ad quem ergo ap- 
pellaal' Respondit 
mites, ' Non a maies- 
tate lua, set a senten- 
cia ire tue tanlum ad 
pietatem tuam appel- 
lo.' Etaic rex pietate 
cordiam benignissime 

.CD, Google 


probat, qui seru 
pietstis se facit.' 

ipse aubditos sv 
lite pieUtis lauore ma- 
gis quBm austeritalis 
rigore regere, corum- 
que benevolenciam 
pociua qiuun dmorem 
penes se attractare 


cmplum prout Aris- 
totiiea Regi Alexan- 
dro nupcrrettuiil, de- 
ludeua pedester cum 
quodam pagano asi- 
num equitante per de- 




To Pite forto be servant, 
Of al the worldes remenant 
He is worth! to ben a lord.' 

In olde bokes of record 
This finde I write of essamptaire : 
Troian the worthi debonaire, 
Be whom that Rome stod governed, 
Upon a time as he was terned 
Of that he was to familier, 
He seide unto that conseiUer, 
That forto ben an Emperour 
His will wa» noght for vein honour, 
Ne yit for reddouL of justice ; 
Bot if he myhte in bis office 
Hise lordes and his poeple plese, 1 
Him thoghte it were a grettere ese 
With love here hertes to him drawe. 
Than with the drede of eny lawe. 
For whan a thing is do for doute, 
Fulofte it comth the worse aboute; 
Bot wher a king is Pietous, 
He is the more gracious, 
That mochel thrift him schal betyde, 
Which elles scholde tome aside." 

Of Pite forto speke plein, P. ili. 198, 1- 17 
^Vhich is with mercy wel besein, 

•To do pile support and grace, 
The Philosophre upon a place 
In his writinge of daies olde 
A tale of gret essample tolde iita* 

Unto the king of Macedoine : 
How betwen Kaire and Babeloine, 
Whan comen is the somer heete, 
It hapneih tuo men forlo meete, 

3149 ft. margin Truianiu— propoocbat om. BT 3143 This A, F 

Thus B 3148 conseilleir F 3159 pilous (pelous) JHiLBi, A, W 
piteous R piteuous X 

3»7*-336o* OhIji m SAdBTAA (Ad lirfidnn to 1, 3369*). Trxt 
foilou-sB 3319* belwcDC S 

.CD, Google 


Fulofte he wole himselve peine 
To kepe an other fro the peine : 
For Charite the moder is 
Of PTte, which nothing amis 
Can soflre, if he it mai amende. 

As thet scbolde entren in a pas, 
Wher that the wyldemesse was. 
And as they wenten forth spekende 
Under the large wodes code, 
That o man axeth of that other : 
' What man art thou, mi lieve brother ? 
Which is thi creance and thi feith?' 

' I am paien,' that other seith, 
'And be the lawe which I use 
I schal noght in mi feith refuse 
To loten alle men alich^ F. 

The porere bothe and ek the riche : 
Whftn thei ben glade I schal "be glad. 
And sori whan thei ben.b^tadj 
So schal I live in unite 
With every man in his degre. 
For riht as to miself I wolde, 
Riht so toward alle othre I scholde 
Be gracious and debooatre. 
Thus have I told thee sofie and &ire 
Mi feith, mi lawe, and mi a^ance; 
And if thee list for aqueintance, 
Now tell what manei man thou art' 
And he ansuerde upon his part : 

*I am a Jew, and be mi lawe 
I schal to noman be felawe 
To kepe him tiowthe in word ne dede, 
Bot if he be wiihoute drede 
A venai Jew riht as am I : 
For elles I mai trewelj 


[Talb or CoDRui.] 
Not! bic de Princi- 
pia piotale erga popu- 
lum, vbi ourat quod, 
cum Codnia Rex Athe- 
■urum contra Doren- 
cet bdlum gerere de- 

[Taix or THB Jew 

AKD TBI Pagan.] 

sertuin itinerando tp- 

sum de secta et fide 

gault. Qui respondent 
ait: > Paganus sum et 
• Bdes mea hec eal, vt 
omnea vnoanlmo dili- 
gua et penes viium- 
quemquc tempore ne- 
cessitatis pJetatem pro 

Cuiludeus: 'Pennitte 

m me ergo, qui lussatus 

' '9< itiDeredeGcio,aliquan- 
tulum equitare. et tu 
respectu pielatis ob 

pedibus pro tempore 
incedis.' EtiUfactum 
est, vode postea paga- 
3130* nui infra breue lassa- 
tua atino suo reatitui 
aludeopoatutauit. At 
illeait: 'Nequaquam: 

illi qui sectam meam 

turn abaque pietate 
prouocare deb^.' Et 
hiia dictia aaellum 
veloci pa^u cocgit, et 
paganum a dorao illu- 
sum reliquit. Quod 
videna paganua in ter- 
ramdotena corniit, ex- 
3)40* tensaque in celum 
manibui aummam iua- 
ticiaminuocabat Post- 
que a terra exurgens, 
cum pauliiper deam- 
bulaaaet, reapexil in 


3000* art] ar)) S saaa* maigin pietatem om. B 39^3* "lorg- 
excerciam S 3908* marg. pro tempore om. BT 3931* matg. 

aainnm sibi reUJtui BTA 3030* I om. BT 3034* iiarg. nocumen- 
tunS nocumentaB 3349* And T. 3044* mai;. quadun valle BT 

.coy Google 


[Talk or CoDRua.] 
beret, coDsulto prins 
AppoUine respoDsum 
duobus, videlicet aut 
seipsuro in prelio in- 
terfici et populum au- 
ura saluftri, aul popu- 
lum iDterfici et se 
saluum fieri, eljgere 

[Tale or thi Jew 


It sit to every man livende I'l" 

To be Pitous, bot non so wel 

As to a king, which on the whiel (sajo') 

Fortune hath set aboven alle: 

For in a king, if so befalle 

That his Pite be ferme and stable, 

To al the lond it is vailable 

Jlereve him bothe lif and good/ 
The paien herde and understod, 
And thoghle it was a wonder lawe. 
And thus upon here sondri sawe 
TaUcende bothe forth thei wente. 

The dai was hoot, the sonne brente, 3150' 
The paien rod upon anasse^ 
And of his catelLmore and lasse 
With him a riche truss^ he ladde. 
The Jew, which al untrowthe hadde. 
And wente upon his feet beside, P. iii. 195 

Betht^hte him how he mihte ride ; 
And with his wordes jlibe^and wise 
Unto the paien in this wise 
He seide: 'O, now it schal be seene 
What thing it is thou woldest meene : 3160* 
For if thi lawe be certein 
As thou hast told, I dar wel sein. 
Thou wolt beholde mi destresse^ 
Which am so full of werinessc. 
That I ne mai unethe go, 
And let me ride a Myle or tuo. 
So that I mai mi bodt ese.' 
The paien wolde him n<^ht desplese 
Of that he spak, bot in pite 
It list him forto knowe and se S'Jo* 

The pleignte which that other made ; 
And for he wolde his hette glade, 
He lihte and made him nothing strange. 

3174 iTitaoAM 3i76margmae]seipsuiDBT, Hi eligereom. BT 
3951* tHarfiM a/Irr decreuit B adds ct cum omm sut cordis iiMiino 
deo graau cfft 30156* Bo)K]ghte S 3a<^* viinc>ei T 

.coy Google 


Only thurgh grace of his persone ; P. lli. 199 [Tau of Codrus.] 

For the Pile of him al one opoHeret Superquo 

Mu al the hrge realms .ave. piSi^Sf.t SS^ 

So sit it wel a icing to have 3180 quamproprii corporis 

Pile ; fo, thf, VUei,. told., SL'SfSS.r: 

And seide hou that be daies otde (33S0*) sic bellum H^rediena 

Cod™, which .a. in his degre !Smm^""° "' 

Thus was thet made a newe change, ITal« or ™b Jkw 

_ . . , , , „ ■*!«> rut Pagan.] 

The paien goth, the Jew alone 

Was sett upon his asse softe: 

So gon thei forth cai|iende foste 

Of this and that, til ate laste 

The paien mihte go nomore, 

And preide unto the Jew therfore 3180* 

To sufire him ride a litel while. 

The Jew, which thoghte him to beguile, 

AnoD rod forth the grete gas, 

And to the paien in this cas 

He seide, ' Thou hast do thi riht, P. iU. 196 

Of that thou haddest me behihl 

To do socour upon mi nede; 

And that acordeth to the dede, 

As thou ait to the lawe holde. 

And in such wise as I thee tolde, 3190* 

I thenke also for mi paitie 

Upon the lawe of Juene 

To woTche and do mi diiete. 

Thin asse schal go forth with me 

With al thi good, which I have sesed ; 

And that I wot thou art desesed, 

I am riht glad and noght mispaid.' 

And whanne he hath these wordes said, 

In alle haste he rod aweie. 

This paien wot non other weie, 3300* 

Bot on the ground he kneleth evene, 

His handes up unto the hevene. 

And seide, 'O hihe soth^stoesse, 

3083* rod] fo> T 3093* luerie 

.coy Google 


[Talk of Codrus.] King of Athenis the cite, 

A werre he hadde ayein Dorrence : 

And fotto take his evidence 

What schal beWle of the bataille, 

He thoghte he wolde him ferst consaJlle 

With AppoUo, in ^om he triste ; 

Thurgh whos ansuere this he wiste, 3190 

(Taie of the Jew That lovest alle rihtwisncsse, 

AND THE PaOAN.] y^j^ j(,j ^^^ [^,^ J apj^le ; 

Behold and deme mi querele, 

With humble berte I thee beeeche ; 

The mercy bothe and ek the wreche 

I sette al in thi juggeraent' 

And thus upon his marrement 3310' 

This paien hath made his preiere : 

And than he ros with drery chiere. 

And goth him forth, and in his gate^ 

He caste his yhe aboute algate, 

The Jew if that he mihte se. P. 111. 197 

Bot foe a time it mai nt^ht be ; 

Til ate laste ayein the nyht, 

So as god wotde, he wente ariht, 

As he which hield the hihe wde, 

And thanne he sih in a valleie 33*0* 

Wher that the Jew liggende was, 

Al blodi ded upon the gras, 

Which sUangled_was of a leoun. 

And as he lokede up and doun, 

He fond his asse foste by 

Forth with his hameis redely 

Al hoi and 90und, as he it lefte, 

Whan that the Jew it him berefte: 

Wherof he thonketh god knelende. 

Lo, thus a man mai knowe at ende, 3330* 
How the ptous pite deservetb. 
For what man that to pite serveth, 

3186 hUlMM. AH KD w 

3305* dom (doom) AdBT dome S 33ti* Buck SAdBAA 

mad T 3319* wban B 3307* hoi BT hole SAd 

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Of tuo pointz that he myble chese, [Tale of Codrus.] 

Or that he wolde his body leae {3390*) 

And in bataille himselTe deie, 

Or elles the seconde weie, 

To sen his poeple desconfit. 

Bot he, which Pite hath pailit 

Upon the point of his beheve, 

y As Aristotle it berth witnesse, [ 

God schal hise fooroen so repre sse, 
That thei schul ay stonde under foote. 
Pite, men sein, is thilke roote 
Wherof the vertus springen alle : 
What tnfortune that befalte 
In eny lend, lacke of pite 
Is cause of thilke adversite ; 3340* 

And that aldai mai schewe at yhe, 
Wbo that the world dtscretly sybe. 
Good is that every man theifote 
Take hiede of that is seid tofore ; 
For of this tale and othre ynowhe P. ^^ 198 
These noble princes whilom drowhe 
Here evidence and here aprise. 
As men mai finde in many a wise. 
Who that these olde bokes rede : 
And thc^h thei ben in erthe dede, 3350* 

Here goode name may noght deie 
For Pite, which thei wolde obeie, 
To do the dedes of mercy. 
And who thb tale redily 
Remembre, as Aristotle it tolde, 
He mai the will of god beholde 
Upon the point as it was ended, 
Wherof that pite stod commended, 
Which is to charite felawe, 
As thei that kepen bothe o lawe. ii^" 

3339* lond AdBT londe S 334a* ditcrMely S 3348' 

DIID7 wise AdB AJttr gsfitfi ins. 3i37-$ltia SA nal proatd 

.coy Google 


[Tale or Codros.] 

Hie poDit uem- 
plum de vjdodMi 
Principis pieUte ergs 
Bdueraarios suos. £t 
n amt quod , cum Potn- 
peius Romanorum Im- 
peralor RegemArme- 

i n bdio victum cepisset, 
captumque vinculis 
alligatum Rome tenu- 
iaset, tiraanidis ira- 
cundie atunulos posl- 
poneus, pietitis man- 
sue I udinem operatus 
esL Dixit enim quod 
iiobilius est Reg;em 
facere quam depo- 
nere: super quo dic- 
tum Regent absque vlla 
rcdempoione non so- 
lum a vinculisatooluit, 
set sd sui regni cul- 
meii gratuita voluntate 
coronatum restiluil. 


The poeple thc^hte to relieve, 

And ches himselve to be ded. 

Wher is nou such an other bed, 3100 

Which wolde for the l^iaes dye? 

And natheles in som partie (34^*) 

It oghte a kinges herte steie, 

That he hise liege men forbeie. 

And ek toward hise enemis 

Fulofte he may deserve pris, 

To Uke of Pile remembrance, P. ili. boo 

Wher that he myhte do vengance : 

For whanne a king bath the victoire, 

And thanne he drawe into memoire 3110 

To do Pile in stede of wreche. 

He mai noght laile of thilke specbe 

Wherof arist the worldes fame, 

To yive a Prince a worthi name. 

I rede hou whilom that Pompeie, 
To whom that Rome moste obeie, 
A werre hadde in jeu partJe 
Ayein the king of Ermenie, 
Which of long time him hadde grieved. 
Bot ate laste it was achieved 31*0 

That he this king desconfit hadde, 
And forth with him to Rome ladde 
As Prisoner, wher many a <&y 
In son plit and povere he lay, 
The corone of his heved deposed, 
Witbinne walles faste enclosed ; 
And with ful gret bumilite 
He soBTreth his adversite. 
Pompeie sih bis padence 

And tok pite with conscience, 313* 

So that upon his hihe deis 
Tofore al Rome in his Paleis, 
As he that wolde upon him rewe. 
Let yive him his corone newe 

319B Uioghte lo relieve] of his byleeue AH 3018 id Ennonie AH 
3995 on his heed B 3033 rnar;gm restuit F 

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And his astat al full and plein [Poiipeiiis and thc 

Restoreth of his regne ayein, '^""' °' A""""*-! 

And sdde it was mote goodly thing P. ill. aoi 

To make than undon a king, 

To him which pouer hadde of bothe. 

Thus thei, that weren longe wrothe, 314a 

Acoiden hem to final pes; 

And yit justice natheles 

Was kept and in nothing o ffended ; 

Wherof Pompeie was comended. 

Ther mai no king himself excuse, 

Bot if justice he kepe and use. 

Which for teschuie cmalte 

He mot attempre with Pite. 
Of crualte the felonie [Cru«ltt.] 

Engendred is of tiiannie, 3150 

Ayein the whos condicion 

God is himself the champion, (145^*) 

Whos stiengthe mai noman withstonde. 

Foi evere yit it hath so stonde, 

That god a tirant overladde ; 

Bot wher Pite the r^ne ladde, 

Ther roihte no foitune laste 

Which was grevous, bot ate laste 

The god himself it hath redresced. 

Pite is thiike vertu blessed 3160 

Which nevere let his Maister falle ; 

Bot crualte, thogh it so falle 

That it mai regne for a throwe, 

God wole it schal ben overthrowe : 

Wherof ensamples ben ynowhe 

Of hem that thiike mere] drowhe. 
Of crualte I rede thus -. P. IIL aoa [Crikltv or 

Whan the tirant Leoncius Uoimus.1 

Was to therapire of Rome arrived, "■« 'oquiiuf cntni 

Fro which he hath with strengthe prived 3170 pa<ita['"'priiicipatim 
The pietOUS Justinian, otxinentes in imquiu- 

3935 and Ril AH . . . Bi 3044 wu] is )it S . . . A 3970 

witb]>eXGERL byHi noBi 3371 pitoui(petowi) HHiXLBi, 
&. WHi piteuoui AdT tnmrgin in dm. Hi . . . Bi, BTa 

.coy Google 

I sue malicia glori- 

I fraudulen- 
Eer expulit, set vt ipse 
inhabilis ad rcgnum 
in aapectu piebis efli' 
ceretur, naao et tabris 
Hbscisis, ipsum liran- 
nice mululauit. Deus 
lamen. qui super om- 
nia pius est, Tiberio 
supcnieniente vna 
cum adiutorio Tertiel- 
lis Bulgarie Regis, 
lustinianum intcr- 
fecto Leoncio ad im- 
perinrareslitui miseri- 
cord iter procurauiL 


Hie loquitur vlterius 
de crude] itate Siculi 
tininni, necnon et de 
Berillo eiusdem Con- 
siliorio, qui ad tor- 
mentum populi qucn- 
dam taurum eneum 
tiranniCB coniectura 
TabHcariconstituit; in 
quo tamen ipse prior, 
proprio crimine illud 
cxigente, vsque ad aui 
interitus expiracio- 
nem iudicitlJter tor- 


As he which was a crael man, 
His j^se of and his lippes bothe 
He kutt^ for he wolde him lothe 
Unto the poeple and make i Hiable. 
Bot he which is a1 merciabtfi. 
The hihe god, ordeigneth so. 
That he withinne a time also, 
Whan he was strengest in his ire. 
Was schoven out of his empire. 
Tiberius the pouei hadde, 
And Rome after his will he ladde. 
And for Leonce in such a wise 
Ordeigneth, that he tok juise 
Of nase and lippes bothe tuo. 
For that he dede an other so, 
Which more worthi was than he. 
Lo, which a fall bath crualte, 
And Fite was set up ayein ; 
For after that the bokes sein, 
Therbellis king of Bulgarie 
With helpe of his chivalerie 
Justinian hath unprisoned 
And to thempire ayein coroned. 

In a Cronique I iinde also 
Of Siculus, which was ek so 
A cruel king lich the tempeste, 
The whom no Pite myhte areste, — 
He was the ferete, as bokes seie. 
Upon the See which fond G aleie 
And let hem make for the werre, — 
As he which al was out of bene 
Fro Pite and misericorde ; 
For therto couthe he noght acorde, 
Bot whom he myhte slen, he slouh. 
And therof was he glad ynouh. 


3374 margin in exemplum S . 
3379 of iii* ire A in his A 
339S To whom AH . . , Bt, 
matgiH tiranni ehm. A . . , B> 

. A 3376 >] is SAdBT is A 

I hie H margin in om. BT 

U Inue wbom W hon A 

.coy Google 


He hadde of conseil inanron, 

Amoi^ the whiche ther was on. 

Be nanne which Berillus hihte; 

And he bethi^hte him hou he myhte 3310 

Unto the tirant do likinge, 

And of his oghne ymaginynge 

Let forge and make a Bole of bras. 

And on the side cast ther was 

A Dore, wher a man mai inne, 

Whan he his peine schal beginne 

Tbuigh fyr, which that men putten under. 

And al this dede he for a wonder, 

That whanne a man for peine cride, 

The Bole of bras, which gapeth wyde j 3310 

It scholde seme as thogh it were 

A belwinge in a mannes Ere, 

And nc^ht the criinge of a man. 

Bot he which alle sleihtes can, 

The devel, that lith in belle fast. 

Him that this caste hath overcast, 

That for a trespas which he dede P. IIL 304 

He was putt in the same stede, 

And was himself the ferste of alle 

Which was into that peine falle 3330 

That he for othre men ordeigneih ; 

Ther was noman which him coropleigneth. 
Of tirannie and cnialte 

Be this ensample a king mai se, 

Himself and ek bis conseil bothe, 

Hou thei ben to mankinde lothe 

And to the god abhominable. 

Ensamples that ben concordable 

I finde of othre Princes mo, 

As tbou schalt hiere, of time go. 3340 

The grete tirant Dionys, 

Which mannes lif selte of no pris, 
3306 this caste] it cast B is cut Ad, Hi )iis made A . . . Ba 
3330 vnto AdBT lo A 333a which] >•! AM . . . Bi 3338 

couenable AH . . . R coueable L couable Bi (C difirt.) 3340 a^ 
Ca go) HiE, BA, WH> 334a of] at A . . . B< om. W 

.coy Google 



Nota hie de Dioai- 
»io tinnno, qui mire 
crudelitatia seueriute 
eciun boapiles suos 
>d deuorandum equis 
9ui9 Iribuit : cui Her- 
cules UDdem super- 

pium in impietate sua 

Not> hie de consi- 
mili Lichaonlis tiran- 
nia, qui rarnes homi- 
num hominibusiD suo 
hospicio ad vescen- 
duni dedit ; cuius for- 

leoi lupiter cocquans 
ipsum in lupumtrans- 


Unto his Hots fulofte he yaf 

The men in stede of corn and chaf, 

So that the hers of ihJlke stod 

Devoureden the mennes blod ; 

Til fortune ate laste cam. 

That Hercules him overcam, 

And he riht in the same wise 

Of this tirant tok the juise : 3150 

As he til othre men hath do, 

The same dbth be deide also, (ssf^*) 

That no Pite him hath socoured, 

Til he was of hise hors devoured. 

Of Lichaon also I hnde 
Hou he ayein the lawe of kinde 
Hise hostes slouh, and into mete P. Ui- 905 
He made her bodies to ben ete 
With othre men withinne his hous. 
Bot Jupiter the glorious, jjto 

Which was commoeved of this thing, 
Vengance upon this cruel king 
So tok, that he fro mannes forme 
Into a wolf him let transforme : 
And thus the crualte was kidd, 
Which of long time he hadde hidd; 
A wolf he was thanne openly. 
The whos nature prively 
He hadde in his condicion. 

And unto this conclusioun, jjja 

That tirannie is to despise, 
I finde ensample in sondri wise, 
And nameliche of hem fulofte, 
The whom fortune hath set alofte 
Upon the werres forto winne. 
Bot hou so that the wrong be^nne 
Of tirannie, it mai noght laste, 
Bot such as thei don ate laste 
To othre men, such on hem falleth ; 
For ayein suche Pite calleth 3380 

336a margm Inpiter om, BT 

.coy Google 


Vengance to the god above. 

For who that hath no tender love 

In savin ge of a inannes lif, 

He schal be founde so gultif^ 

That whanne he wolde mercy crave 

In time of nede, he schal non have. I 

Of the natures this I finde, P. ill. so6 

The fierce Leon in his kinde. 
Which goth raiQpende after his preie. 
If he a man linde in his weie, 3390 

He wole him slen, if he withstonde. 
Bot if the man coude understonde 
To falle anon hefore his face 
In signe of mercy and of grace, 
The Leon schal of his nature 
Restreigne his ire in such mesure, 
As thogh it were a beste tamed, 
And tome awey halfvinge aschamed, 
That he the man schal nothing grieve. 
Hou scholde than a Prince achieve 3400 

The worldes grace, if that he wolde 
Destruie a man whanne he is yolde (3^00*) 
And stant upon his mercy al? 
Bot forto speke in special, 
Ther have be suche and yit ther be 
Tirantz, whos hertes no pite 
Mai to no point of mercy plie. 
That thei upon her tirannie 
Ne gladen hem the men to sle ; 
And as the rages of the See 3410 

Ben unpitous in the tempeste, 
Riht BO mai no Pite areste 
Of cnialte the gret oultrage, 
Which the tirant in his corage 
Engendred hath : wherof I finde 
A tale, which comtb nou to mynde. 

I rede in olde bokes thus : P. 111. 007 

3387 nature ^ AdBT luiturea ftu AH . . . Bi 3397 i tuned 

AH ... B* 341a areMe] btne rette AH 

.coy Google 

Hie loquitur preci- 

iilos qui, cum in bello 
vincere possunt, hu- 
msDJ sanguinis efiusi- 
one salurmri nequiunt. 
£[ narratinexeiDplum 
de quodain Persaram 
Re^, cuius nomen 
Spertachus erat, qui 
pre ceteris tunc in 
Oriente beiUcosus et 
viccoriosus, quoscun- 
que glidio vincere 
potent, absque pieta- • 

Set tandem sub manu 
ThamoHs MarsegeU- 
nim Regine in bello 
captus. quod ■ diu 
quesivit, seueritatem 
pro seueritatefinaliter 
inuenit. Nam et ipsa 
quoddam vas de san- 
guine Persirum ple- 
num ante se aflerri 
decreuit, in quo caput 
tiranni vsque ad mor- 
tem mergens dixit : 
' O lirannorum crude- 
lissime, semper esuri- 
ens sanguincm sitiati ; 

tem sanguincm bibe.' 


Ther was a Duk, which Spertachus 

Men clepe, and was a werreiour, 

A cruel man, a conquerour 3410 

With strong pouer the which he ladde. 

For this condicion he hadde, 

That where hint hapneth the victoire. 

His lust and al bis moste gloire 

Was forto sle and nc^ht to save : 

O f rancoun w olde he no good have 

For savinge of a mannes lif, 

Bot al goth to the swerd and knyf, 

So lief him was the mannes blod. 

And natheles yit thus it stod, 3430 

So as fortune aboute wente, 

He fell riht heir as be ^sscente 

To Perse, and was coroned king. 

And whan the worschipe of this thing 

Was foUe, and he was king of Perse, 

If that thei weren ferst diverse. 

The tirannies whiche he wrogbte, 

A t housendfold welmore he s(%hte 

Thanne afterward to do malice. 

The god vengance ayein the vice 3440 

Hath schape: for upon a tyde. 

Whan he was faeihest in his Pride, 

In his rancour and in hts hete 

Ayein the queene of Marsagete, 

Which Thameris that time hihte, 

He made werre al that he myhte: 

And sche, which wolde hir lond ddende, P. ill. 3o8 

Hir oghne Sone ayein him send^ 

Which the defence hath undertake. 

Bot he desconfit was and take ; 3450 

And whan this king him hadde in hcmde. 

He wol no mercy understonde, (s^S^*) 

Bot dede him slen in his presence. 

3430 margm precipue om. A . . . Bi 
papned L 3409 to muines b. AH . . 
as by senle U alle by dtcscDt W 
(oflcrri G, W) 344a Til j»d S . . 

3403 hapned XERCBi 
3439 as he by sente A 

.coy Google 


The tidinge of this violence 
Whan it cam to the moder Ere, 
Sche sende anon ay wydewhere 
To suche frendes as sche hadde, 
A gret pouer til that sche ladde. 
In sondri wise and tho sche caste 
Hou sche this king mai overcaste; 3460 

And ate laste acorded was, 
That in the danger of a pass, 
Thui^h which this tirant scholde passe, 
Sche schop bis pouer to compasse 
With strengthe of men be such a weie 
That he schal n<^ht eschape aweie. 
And whan sche hadde thus ordet^ied, 
Sche hath bir <%hne bodi feigned. 
For feere as thc^h sche wolde flee 
Out of hir lond : and whan that he 34^0 

Hath herd hou that this ladi fledde, 
So faste after the chace he spedde. 
That he was founde out of array. 
For it betidde upon a day, 
Into the pas whanne be was lalle, 
Thembuisschementz tobrieken alle 
And him beclipte on every side, P. ill. aog 
That fle ne myhte he noght aside : 
So that thet weren dede and take 
Tuo hundred thousend for his sake, 3480 

That weren with him of his host. 
And thus was leid the grete bost 
Of him and of his tirannie : 
It halp no mercy forto crie 
To him which whilom dede non ; 
For he unto the queene anon 
Was broght, and whan that sche him sih. 
This word sche spak and seide on bih: 
' O man, which out of mannes kinde 

3454 dydinge AM 3464 hir;e) power Hi. BT4, W oueipasse 
AH 3465 With] Bj- AH . . . Bi 3476 tobrieken S, F 

tobreken (to breken) AJC, B 3483 of mt. AH 3484 no] not 

(noght) AH . . . Bi (mc^ E) 

.coy Google 


Reson of man hast left behinde 3490 

And lived worse than a beste. 
Whom Pite myhte noght areste, 
The mannes blod to schede, and spille 
Thou haddest nevere yil thi fille. 
Bot nou the laste time is come, 
That thi malice is overcome : 
As thou tit othre men hast do, 
Nou schal be do to thee riht so.' 
Tho bad this ladi that men scholde 
A vessel bringe, in which sche wotde 3500 

Se the vengance of his juise, 
Which sche began anon devise; (jfo©*) 

And tok the Princes whiche he ladde, 
Be whom his chief conseil he hadde, 
And whil hem lasteth enj bretb, 
Sche made hem blede to the deth 
Into the vessel wher it stod : P. ill. 310 

And whan it was fulfild of blod, 
Sche caste this tirant therinne, 
And seide him, 'Lo, thus myht thou wynne jjio 
The lustes of thin appetit. 
In blod was whilom tht deUt, 
Nou schalt thou drinken al thi fille.* 
And thus onliche of goddes wille. 
He which that wolde himselve sttange 
To Pite, fond mercy so strange. 
That he witboute grace is loie. 
So may it schewe wel tberfore 
That cnialte hath no good ende; 
Bot Pite, hou so that it wende, 35*0 

Makth that the god is meiciable, 
If thei be cause resonable 
Why that a king schal be pitous. 
Bot elles, if he be doubtous 
To slen in cause of rihtwisnesse, 
It mai be said no Pitousnesse, 
Bot it is Pusillamite, 
3505 C btm . . . bim AdBT, W 3510 him om. AH . . . B^ A 

35!«3 Why] Wif AdBT 

.coy Google 


Which every Prince scbolde fiee. 

For if Pite mesure excede, 

Kii^hode may ii<^ht wel procede 3530 

'fo do justice upon the riht : 

For it belongeth to a knyht 

Als gladly forte fihte as reste, 

To sette his liege poeple in reste, 

Whan that the wene upon hem falletb ; 

For thanne he mote, as it befalleth, 

Of his knyhthode as a Leon P. UL an 

Be to the poeple a champioun 

Withouten eny Pite feigned 

For if manhode be restreigned, 3540 

Or be it pes or be it werre, 

Justice goth al out of herre. 

So that knyhthode is set behinde. 

Of Aristotles lore I finde, 

A king schal make good visage, 

That noman knowe of his contge 

Bot al honour and worthinesse: 

For if a king schal upon gesse 

Withoute verrai cause drede, 

He mai be lich to that I lede; 3sjo 

And thogh that it be lich a foble, 

Thensample is good and resonable. (37G0*) 

As it "be olde daies fdl, r 

I rede whilom that an bell 

Up in the londes of Archade 

A wonder dredful noise made; 

For so it fell that ilke day, 

This hell on his childinge lay, 

And whan the throwes on him come, 

His noise lich the day of dome 

Was ferfull in a mannes tbt^ht 

Of thing which that thei sibe noght, 

Bot wel thei herden al aboute 

The noise, of which thei were in doute, 
3530 KnighUMde R, B, W 3551 }tygfi il be lich to a 

)«Kht it be Uch a fable 11 3556 And wonder dredTul DOise i 

Hie loquitur secun- 
dam PbiloBophum, 
dicens quod aicul non 
decel Prindp«3 tinin- 
□io impeluositate 
case crudeles, ita nee 
decet timorosa pusil- 
. lanimiute euc vecor- 

.CD, Google 

Nola blc secun- 
dum Oracium de mug- 
natiimo Yacide et pu- 
sillanime Thereite. 


As thei that wenden to be lore 

Of thing which thanne was unbore. 

The necT this hell was upon chance P. Ul- sia 

To taken his deliverance, 

The more unbuxom liche he cride; 

And every roan was fledd aside, 3570 

For drede and lefle his oghne hous : 

And ate laste it was a Mous, 

The which was bore and to norrice 

Betake; and tho thei hield hem nyce, 

For thei withoute cause dradde. 

Thus if a king his herte ladde 
With every thing that he schal hiere, 
Fulofte he scholde chai^ his chiere 
And upon fantasie drede. 
Whan that ther is no cause of drede. 3580 

Orace to his Prince tolde. 
That him were levere that he wolde 
Upon knihthode Achillem suie 
In time of weire, thanne eschuie, 
So as Tereites dede at Troie. 
Achilles al his hole joie 
Sette upon Armes forto fihte ; 
Tersites soghte al that he myhte 
Unanned forto stonde in reste : 
Bot of the tuo it was the beste 3590 

That Achilles upon the nede 
Hath do, wherof his knyhtlihiede 
Is yit coroended overal. 

King Salomon in special 
Seith, as ther is a time of pes. 
So is a time natheles 

Of wene, in which a Prince algate P. Hi. 013 
Schal for the comun riht debate 
And for his c^ne worscbipe eke. 
Bot it behoveth noght to seke 3600 

3574 hield (heeld) A, S, F heelde (helde) C, B belden J 
357S causa F 3589 and reste AH . , . Bi 359s wber of ^t 

hi* knisbthede H> ... fit wlier of Ids knyhthede AH, Ad&, Hi 
(knythlihiede F) 

.coy Google 


Only the werre for worschtpe, 

Bot to the riht of his lordschipe. 

Which he is holde to defende, 

Mote e very worthi Prince entende. 

Betwen the simplesce of Pite 

And the folhaste of cnialte, 

Wher stant the verray hardiesce, 

Ther mote a king his herte adiesce, 

Whanne it is time to forsake, 

And whan time is also to take 3610 

The dedly werres upon honde, 

That he schal for no drede wonde. 

If rihtwisnesse be withal. 

For god is myhty oveial 

To forthren every mannes trowthe, 

Bot it be tburgh his ogbne slowtbe; 

And namely the kinges nede 

It mai nogbt faile forto spede. 

For he stant one for hem alle; 

So mote it wel the betre Me 3<io 

And wel the more god ftivoureth, 

Whan he the comun ribt socoureth. 

And foito se the sothe in dede, 

Behold the bible and thou myht tede 

Of giete ensamples manyon, 

Wherof that I wol tellen 00. 

Upon a time as it befell, P. iU. 214 [Stor' 

Ayein Judee and Irabel 
Whan sondri kinges come were 
In pourpos to destruie there 3630 Hici 

The poeple which god kepte tho, — bellum 

And stod in thilke daies so, timerc debet 

That Gedeon, which scholde lede 
The goddes folk, tok him to re^g. 
And sende in al the lond aboute. 
Til he assembled hath a route 
With thritti ,tbousend of defence, 

ijualiter dux 
Gedeon cum soils 
tricentis viris quia- 
que Reges, scilicet 
Hadianitarum, Ama- 
lechitarum, AmouUa- 
nim, AmoTMnun et 

3607 hardinesw R, AdBTA, W 3615 forliere (for^re, ri>r|>«r) 

AH ... B* Cfor)« X) 3638 Inhd (Ind) J,S,F mt Janet 

.coy Google 

n eicercilu, qui ad 
Ixizx'* Hitia numera- 
tus est, gracia coope- 
rante diuina, victorj- 


[Story of Gideon.] To fihte and make resistencc 

lebuseonim, cum eo- Aycin the whkhe hem wolde assaille : 

And natheles that o bataille 
Of thre that weren enemys 
Was double mor than was al his.; 
Wherof that Gedeon him dradde, 
That he so litel poeple hadde. 
Bot he which alle thing mai helpe, 
Wher that ther lacketh mannes helpe, 
To Gedeon his Angel sente, 
And bad, er that he forther wente, 
AI openly that he do crie 
That eveiy man in his partie 
Which wolde after his oghne wille 
In his delice abide stille 
At horn in eny maner wise, 
For pouTchas or for covoitise. 
For lust of love or lacke of herte, 
He scholde noght aboute stert e, 
Bot holde him stille at horn in pes : T 
Wherof upon the morwe he les 
Wei twenty thousend men anij^mo, 
The whiche after the cri ben go. 
Thus was with him bot only left 
The thridde part, and yit god eft 
His Angel sende and seide this 
To Gedeon : ' If it so is 
That I thin help schal undertake, 
Thou schalt yit lasse poeple take. 
Be whom mi will is that thou spede. 
Forthi totnflTEfe tak good hiede, 
Unto the flod whan ye be come, 
What man that hath the water nome 
Up in his bond and lapeth so. 
To thi part ches out alle tho ; 
And him which wery is to swinke, 
Upon bis wombe and lith to drinke, 


3639 heoi L, S 
3641 thre] tbu 
out om. AdBT 


A he A . . . CBi, A, FVfKMMgd 

3653 <ielit(e) Hi . . . Bt, W 367a 

.coy Google 


FoTsak and put hem alle aweie. P 

For I am myhti alle weie, 

Wher as me list myn help to schewe 

In goode men, thogh thei ben fewe.' 

This GedeoQ awaiteth wel, 
Upon the morwe and everydel, 36S0 

As god him bad, riht so he dede. 
And thus ther leften in that stede 
With him thre hundred and nomo, 
The remenant was al ago: 
Wherof that Gedeon merveileth, 
And thenipon with god conseileth, 
Pleignende as ferforth as he dar. P. iii- ai6 
And god, which wolde he were war 
That he schal spede upon his riht, 
Hath bede him go the same nyht 3690 

And take a man with him, to hiere 
What schal be spoke in his matere 
Among the helhen enemis ; 
So mai he be the more wys, 
What atienvard him schal befalle. 

This Gedeon amorces alle 
Phara, to whom he triste most, 
Be nyhte tok toward thilke host, 
Which logged was in a valleie. 
To hiere what thei wolden seie; 37C0. 

Upon his fot and as he ferde, 
Tuo Sarazins spetcende he herde. (39««*) 

Quod on, 'Argd mi swevene ariht. 
Which I mette in mi slep to nyht. 

Me thoghte I sih a barli cake, 
Which &o the Hull his weie hath take, 
And cam rqUende doun at ones; 
And as it were for the nones. 
Forth in his cours so as it ran, 
The kinges tente of Madian, 3710 

3677 iny lust AH 36S3 aanta JC, S, F no nio(o) A, B 

3688 which] )iat AH , . . Bi 3689 scholde AdBT 3699 his] 

Jos AH ... B*, AdBTA, Hagd 3701 he ferde) aferde AH 

3704 slep] lweueii(e) AH ... L (slep G) 

.coy Google 


I-] Of Amalech, of Amoreie, 

Of Amon and of Jebuseie, 
And many an other tente mo 
With gret noise, as me thoghte tho. 
It threw to grounds and overcaste, 
And al this host so sore agaste 
That I awpk .for pure drede,' P. Jii. aij 

' This swevene can I we! arede,' 
Quod Ihother Sarazin anon : 
'The barli cake is Gedeon, 3720 

Which fro the hell doun sodeinly 
Schal come and sette such asci^ . 
Upon the kinges and ous bothe, 
That it schal to ous alle lothe : 
For in such drede he schal ous bringe, 
That if we hadden flyht of wyi^;e, 
The weie on fote in desespeir 
We schotden levc and flen in their, 
For ther schal nothing him withstonde.' 

Whan Gedeon hath understonde 3730 

This tale, he thonketh god of al, 
And priveliche ayein be stal, 
So that no hf him hath perceived. 
And thanne be hath fulti conceived 
That he schal spede ; and therupon 
The nyht suiende he schop to gon 
This multitude to assaile. 
Nou scbalt thou hiere a gret mervaile, 
With what voisdie that he wr<^hte. 
The litel poeple which he brogbte, 3740 

Was non of hem that he ne hath 
A jot, of erthe, in which he tath 
A lyht brennende in a kressette, 
And ech of hem ek a trompette 
Bar in his other bond beside; 
And thus upon the nyhtes tyde 
Duk Gedeon, whan it was derk, P. ill. 318 

Ordeinetb him unto his werk, 
3716 hia host E, B, Hagd 3797 despeir AJMHiRLBi, 

AdBTA, W 3738 schuUen B 3748 bia] )iU HiG, Ba 

.coy Google 


And paiteth thanne his folk in thre, [Sto 

And chargeth hem that thei ne fie, 3750 

■ And Uwhte hem hou they scjiolde ascrie 
Alle in o vois per c ompaiti;n ie. (wjo') 

And what word ek tbei scholden Bpeke, 
And hou thei scholde here pottes breke 
Echoti with other, whan thei herde 
That he himselve ferst so ferde ; 
For whan thei come into the stede, 
He bad hem do riht as he dede. 
And thus stalkende forth a pas 
This noble Duk, whan time was, 3760 

His pot tobrak and loude ascride, 
And tho thei breke on every side. 
The tromp e was noght forto seke ; 
He blew, and so thei blewen eke 
With such a noise among hem alle. 
As thogh the hevene scholde falle. 
The hull unto here vois ansuerde, 
This host in the valleie it herde, 
And sih hou that the hell alyhte ; 
So what of hieringe and of sihte, 37J0 

Thei cawhten such a sodein feere. 
That non of hem belefte there : 
The tentes hole thei forsoke. 
That thei non other good ne toke, 
Bot only with here bodi bare 
Thei fledde, as doth the wylde Hare. , 
And evere upon the hull thei blewe, P. Ul. aig 
Til that thei sihe time, and knewe 
That thei be fled upon the rage; 
And whan thei wiste here avantage, 37S0 

Thei felle anon unto the chace. 

Thus myht thou sen hou goddes grace 
Unto the goode men availeth ; 
But elles ofle time it faileth 
To suche as be noght wel disposed. 
This tale nedeth noght foe glosed^ 

3753 per] )« AdBT JaJr L 3763 forto] |>o to AH Bi 

to W 3773 bole J, S, F holly AC, B 

.coy Google 

[StoBv Of Gideon.] 

Hie die it quod vbi 
et quaodo causa el 
tempus requirtint, 
princeps illos aub po- 

tcsute sua, quoa iusti- 
cie adueraarioa agno- 
ueril, occidcre de iure 


For it is openliche schewed 

Thai god to hem that ben wel .thewed_ 

Hath yove and granted the victoire -. 

So that thensaniple of this bistoire 3790 

Is good for every king to holde ; 

Ferst in himself that he bebolde 

If he be good of his livii^e, 

And that the folk which be schal bringe 

Be good also, for thanne he may 

Be glad of many a merie day, 

In what as evere he hath to done. 

For he which sit above the Mone 

And alle thing mai spille and spede, 

In every cause, in every nede 3800 

His goode king so wel adresceth. 

That aUe his fomen he represseth, (40^*) 

So that ther mai noman him dere ; 

And ats so wel he can forbere, 

And soSre a wickid king to falle 

In hondes of his fomen alle. 

Nou forthennore if I schal sein P. iii. sao 
Of my matiere, and tome ayein 
To speke of justice and Pile 
After the reule of realte, 3810 

This mai a king wel understonde, 
Knihthode mot ben take on honde. 
Whan that it slant upon the nede : 
He schal no.nhtftil cause drede, 
Nomore of werre thanne of pes, 
If be wol slonde blameles; 
For such a cause a king mai have 
That betre him is to sle than save, 
Wherof thou mybt ensample flnde. 
The hihe tnakere of mankinde 3^10 

Be Samuel to Saiil bad, 
That he schal nothing ben adrad 
Ayein king Agag forto fihte; 

3797 what }«l AH . , . Bi 3800 in] and AH . . . RLBi 

3819 mylit (might) AC, B myhte (nihie) J, S, F 

.coy Google 


For this the godhede htm behihte. 

That Agag schal ben overcome : 

And whan it is so ferfoith come, 

That Saul hath him desconfit, 

The god bad make no respit, 

That he ne scholde him slen anon. 

Bot Sail] let it overgon 

And dede noght the goddes heste: 

For Agag made gret beheste 

Of rancoun which he wolde yive, 

King Saiil sofireth him to live 

And feigneth pite forth withal. 

Bot he ^ich seth and knoweth al, 

The hihe god, of that he feigneth P 

To Samuel upon him pleigneth, 

And sende him word, for that he lefte 

Of Agag that he ne berefte 

The lif, he schal noght only dye 

Himself, bot fro his r^i;alie 

He schal be put for everemo,^ 

Noght he, bot ek his heir also, 

That it schal nevere come ayein. 

Thus myht thou se the sothe plein, 
That of tomoche and of tolyte 
Upon the Princes slant the wyte. 
Bot evere it was a kii^es nht 
To do the dedes of a knyht ; 
For in the handes of a kii^ 
The deth and lif is ol o thing 
After the lawes of justice. 
To slen it is a dedly vice, 
Bot if a man the deth deserve ; 
And if a king the lif preserve 
Of him which oghte forto dye, 
He suieth noght thensampleiie 
Which in the bible is evident : 
Hou David in his testament, 
Whan he no lengere myhte live. 
Unto his Sone in cha^ hath yive 
3854 flen (fie) 5A 3861 Don F 

[David and Joa».] 
Hie lurrat vlleriut 
super eodem, qiulilcr 
Dauid ID extremis ius- 
ticie causi vt loab 
iSco °«^i<lerctur absque Vi- 
la remis^one Alio suo 
Salomoni iniunxil. 

.coy Google 

.1. Jo«. 

Hie didl quod po- 
bene regere super 
omnia Principi Uuds- 
bUius est. £t narrat 
in exemplum qualiter, 
pro eo quod Sidomon, 
vl populuin bene re- 
ger«t, ab altmimo 
sapienciam Bpecialiua 
postulauit, omnia bo- 
na pariter cum ilia sibi 


That he Joab schal slen algate ; 

And whan David was gon his gate, 

The yonge wise Salomon 

His &der beste dede anon. 

And slouh Joab in such a wise, P. iii. 333 

That tbei that herden the juise 

Evere after dradden him the more, 

And god was ek wel paid therfore, 31170 

That he so wolde his \iene plye 

The lawes forto justefie. 

And yit he kepte forth withal 

Pite, so as a Prince schal, 

That he no tirannie wroghte; 

He fond the wisdom which he soghte, 

And was so rihtful "i^thf'ti 

That al his lif he stod in pes, 

That be no dedly werres badde. 

For every man his wisdom dradde. ■ 3S80 

And as he was himselve wys, 

Riht so the wortbi men of pris 

He hath of his conseil withholde ; 

For that is every Prince holde, 

To make of suche his retenue 

Whiche wise ben, and to remue 

The foles: for ther is nothing 

Which mai be betre aboute a king, 

Than conseil, which is the substance 

Of all a kinges governance. 3890 

In Salomon a man mai see 
What thing of most necessite 
Unto a worth! kii^ belongeth. 
Whan he his kingdom underfongetb, 
God JMd him chese what he wolde. 
And seide him that he have scholde 
What he wolde axe, as of o thing, P. iii. 333 
And he, which was a newe king, 
Forth therupon his bone preide 
To god, and in this wise he seide: 3900 

'0 king, be whom that I schal regne. 

.coy Google 

Hie didt secundum 
Salomonem, quod re- 
gie maiesMlis imperi- 


Yif me wisdom, that I my regne, (4(oo*)[Solomon'bWisi>om.1 

Forth with thi poeple which I have, habundanciusaduene- 

To thin honour mai kepti and aave.' 
Whan Salotn,on his bone hath ^xed. 
The god of that which he hath axed 
Was tiht wel paid, and granteth sone 
Noght al only that he his bone 
Schal have of that, bot of richesse, 
Of hele, of pes, of hih noblesse, 391a 

Forth with wisdom at his axingeSi_ 
Which stant above alle othre thinges. 
fiot what king wole his T^:ne save, 
Ferst him behoveth forto have 
After the god and his believe 
Such conseil which is to believe, 
Fulfild of trouthe and rihtwisnesse : ^ 

Bot above alle in his noblesse 
Betwen the reddour and pile 
A king schal do such equite 3910 

And sette the balance in evene, 
So that the hihe god in hevene 
And al the poeple of his nobleie 
Loange unto his name seie. 
For most above all erthli good, 
Wher that a king himself is good 
It helpeth, for in other weie P. iii. 334 

If so be that a king forsueie, 
Fulofte er this it hath Ee sein, 
The comun poeple is overlein 
And hath the kinges Senne aboght, 
Al thogh the poeple agulte noght. 
Of that the king his god misserveth, 
I'he poeple takth that he descerveth 
Hier in this world, bot ellcswhere 
I not hou it schal stonde there. 
Forthi good is a king to triste 
Ferst to himself, as he ne wiste 
Non other help bot god alone; 

390a I my regne] I may regne C, W 1 regne AdT ii 
HiE in ne regne XRLBi 3903 thi] )« AHC 

.coy Google 


Hie dc Lucio Iinpe- 
ratore excmplum pO' 
nit, qualiEer Princeps 

secretis consiliariis 
sapienter iauestigBTc 
debet; et si quid in 
dexterani conuertat. 


So schal the retile of his persone 3940 

Withinne himself thurgh ^^rovidence 
Ben of the betre conscience. 
And forto finde ensample of this, 
A tale I rede, and soth it is. 

In a Cronique it telleth thus: 
The king of Rome Lucius 
Withinne his chambre upon a nyht 
The Stewaid- of bis hous, a knyht, 
Forth with his Chamberlein also, 
To conseil badde botbe tuo, 3950 

And stoden be the Chiroinee 
Togedie spekende alle thre. (415''*) 

And happeth that the kinges fol 
Sat be the fyr upon a stol, 
As he that with his isabil pleide, 
Bot yit he herde althat the! seide, 
And therof token thei non hiede. P. UL 335 
The king hem axeth what to rede 
Of such matiere as cam to mouthe, 
And thei him tolden as thei couthe. 3960 

Whan al was spoke of that thei mente, 
The king with al his hole entente 
Tbanne ate laste hem axeth this, 
What king men telten that he is : 
Among the folk touchende his name, 
Or be it jris, or be it blame, 
Riht after that thei herden sein. 
He bad hem forto telle it plein. 
That tbei no point of soth forbere, 
Be thilke feith that thei bim here. 3970 

The Steward fcrst upon this thing 
Yaf bis ansuere unto the king 
And th(%hte jlose in this matiere. 
And seide, als fer as he can hiere, 
His name is good and honourable: 
Thus was the Stieward favorable. 
That he the trouthe plein ne tolde. 
The king thanne axeth, as he scholde, 

.coy Google 


The Chamberlein of his avis. [Thi 

And he, that was soubtil and wys, 3980 

And somdiel thoghte upon his feith. 

Him tolde hou al the poeple seith 

That if his conseil were trewe, 

Thei wisle thanne wel and knewe 

That of himself he scholde be 

A woTthi king in his degre: 

And thus the conseil he accuseth P. 111. 3s6 

In partie, and the king excuseth. 
The fol, which hetde of al the cas 

That time, as goddes wille was, 3990 

Sih that thei seiden noght ynowh. 

And hem to skorn e_ bothe lowh, 

And to the king he seide tho : 

' Sire king, if that it were so, 

Of wisdom in thin oghne mod 

That thou thiselven were good, 

Thi conseil scholde n<^ht be badde.' 

The king tbeiof merveiUe.hadde, 

Whan that a fol so wisly spak, 

And of himself fond out the lack 400a 

Wiihinne his oghne conscience: 

And thus the foles evidence, (4>«>*) 

Which was of goddes grace enspired, 

Makth that good conseil was desired. 

He putte awey the vicious 

And tok to him the vertuous; 

The wrongful lawes ben amended, 

The londes good is wel despended. 

The poeple was noroore oppressed,- 

And thus stod every thing redressed. 4010 

For where a king is propre wys, 

And hath suche as himselven is 

Of his conseil, it mai noght faile 

Th^ every thing ne schal availe : 

The vices thanne gon aweie. 

And every vertu holt his weie; 
3984 wel >aime AUHi, AdA wel Oaa al W 39S9 al of >i9 BT 
of al >is Ad al tbia W 3990 Wbat tjme B 4004 that} f e AdBT 

.coy Google 

Hie didlquod Se- 
niores magis experti 
ad Principis consili- 
um admiltendi pocius 
exislunt. Et narrat 
qualHer, pro eo quod 
Robou SaJomonia 
iilius el heres senium 
sennonibus reounci- 
ans dicta iuuenum pre- 
elegit, de xii. Iribubus 
Israel a dominio suo 
X. penitus amisit, el 
sic cum duabus tan- 
tummodo illuaus post- 
ea regnauit. 


Wherof the hihe god is plesed, P. iii. avj 

And al the londes folk is esed. 

For if the coroun poeple crie, 

And tbanne a king list nt^ht to plie 4010 

To hiere what the clamour wolde. 

And otherwise thanne he scholde 

Desdeigneth forto don hem grace. 

It hath be sen in many place, 

Ther hath befalle gret contraire; 

And that I finde of ensajnplaire. 

After the deth of Salomon, 
Whan thilke wise king was gon, 
And Roboas in his persone 
Receive scholde the corone, 4030 

The poeple upon a Pariement 
Avised were of on assent, 
And alle unto the king thei preiden. 
With comun vois and thus thei seiden : 

'Oure li^e lord, we thee beseche 
That thou receive oure hmnble speche 
And grante ous that which reson wile, 
Or of thi grace or of thi skile. 
Thi fader, wbil he was alyve 
And mybte bothe grante and eryve, 4040 

Upon the werkes whiche he badde 
The comun poeple streite ladde: 
Whan he the temple made newe, 
Thing which men nevere afore knewe 
He broghte up thanne of his taiilagej_ 
And al was under the visage 
Of werkes whiche he rnaSTlho. P. iii. aaS 

£ot nou it is befalle so, 
That al is mad, riht as he seide. 
And he was riche whan he deide; 4050 

So that it is no maner nede. 
If thou therof wolt taken hiede, (4150*) 

4oao thanne] >at A ... bi 4031 (« pariement AM 4037 

which JM Hi . . . Bi, BT, W t"t Ad 4044 lo fore (tofore) 

AM . . . Bi, W 

.coy Google 


To pilen of the poeple more, fFottv or 

Which long time hath be grieved sore. RsHOBOAii.] 

And in this wise a3 we thee seie, 

With tendre herte we thee preie 

That thou relesse thilke dette, 

Which upon ous thi fader sette. 

And if thee like to don so, 

We ben thi men for everemo, v>6o 

To gon and comen at thin heste.' 

The lung, which herde this requests, 
Seith that he wole ben avised, 
And hath therof a time assised ; 
And in the while as he him th<^hte 
Upon this thing, conseil he aoghte 
And ferst the wise knyhCes olde, 
To whom that he his tale tolde, 

Conseilen him in this manere; DeconsiUoSenium 

That he with love and with glad chiere 4070 
Foryive and grante al that is axed 
Of that his feder hadde taxed ; 
For 50 he mai his regne achieve 
With thing which schal him litel grieve. 

The king hem herde and overpasseth, 
And with these othre his wit compasseth. 
That yonge were and nothing wise. P. iii. aag 
And thei these olde men despise. 

And seiden : ' Sire, it schal be schame De consilio iuue- 

For evere unto thi worthi name, 4080 """"■ 

If thou ne kepe nogbt the ribt, 
Whil thou art in thi yonge myht, 
Which that thin olde fader gat. 
Bot seie unto the poeple plat, 
That whil thou livest in thi lond, 
The leste finger of thin bond 
It schal be strengere overal 
Than was thi fadres bodi al. 
And this also schal be thi tale, 
If he hem smot with roddes smale, 4C90 

With Scorpions thou schalt hem smyte ; 
4081 >i Oy) lightHHiL, Ba 4091 him AM 

.coy Google 


And wher thi fader tok a lyte,_ 
Thou thenkst to take moclier more. 
Thus schalt thou make hem drede sore 
The grete herte of thi corage, 
So forto holde hem in servage .' 

This yonge king him hath conformed 
To don as he was last enformed, 
Which was to him his undoinge : 
For whan it cam to the spekinge, 4100 

He hath the yonge conseil hdde, 
That he the same wordes tolde (*3<»*) 

Of al the poeple in audience; 
And whan thei herden the sentence 
Of his malice and the manace, 
Anon tofore his oghne face 
Thei have him oulneli refused P. iU. 330 

And with ful gret rep roef accused. 
So thei isegunne forto jaxe. 
That he was fain himself to save; ^iio 

For as the wilde wode rage 
Of wyndes makth the See salxagCt 
And that was calm hringth into wawe, 
So for defalte of grace and lawe 
This poeple is stered al at ones 
And forth thei gon out of hise wones ; 
So that of the lignages tuelve 
Tuo tribes only be hemselve 
With him abiden and nomo : 
So were thei for everemo 41 to 

Of no retom withoute espeir 
Departed fro the ri htftill heir. 
Al Irahel with comun vois 
A king upon here c^hne chois 
Among hemself anon thei make. 
And have here yonge lord forsake; 
A povere knyht Jeroboas 
Thei toke, and lefte Roboas, 

4093 a lyte S alyle (olite) AJC, B, F 4093 )«nkest take B 

411S isoifi. FWK 4133 Al Irahel (Irael) J, S, FK Al Israhel 

U>nu:l&c.)AM...Bi, W Of larael G, AdBT 

.coy Google 


Which rihtfull heir was be descente. 

Lo, thus the yonge cause wente : 4130 

For that the conseil was noght good, 
The regne fro the rihtfull blodL 
Evere afterward divided was. 
So mai it proven be this cas 
That yong conseil, which is to warm. 
Er men be war doth ofte harm. 
Old age for the conseil serveth, P. Ui. asi 

And lusti youthe his thonk deserveth 
Upon the travail which he doth; 
And bothe, forte seie a soth, 4140 

fie sondri cause forto have, 
If that he wole his regne save, 
A king behoveth every day. 
That on can and that other mai, 
Be so the king hem bothe reule, 
For eUes al goth out of reule. 

And upon this matiere also T 

A question betwen the tuo 
Thus writen in a bok I fond; 
Wher it be betre for the lond 4150 ^ 

A king himselve to be wys. 
And so to here his oghne pris, U3Bo*) ^ 

And that his consail be noght good, ci 

Or other wise if it so stod, '] 

A king if he be vicious 
And his conseil be vertuous. 
It is ansuerd in such a wise, 
That betre it is that thei be wise 
Be whom that the conseil schal gon. 
For thei be manye, and he is on; 4160 

And rathere schal an one man 
With fals conseil, for oght he can, 
From his wisdom be mad to faile, 
Thaime he al one scholde hem atle 
fto vices into vertu change. 
For that is wel the more strange. 

n regno conueni- 
encius foret principem 

] bue-oon (on&&]AH . 

4161 oonly (ooly) 

.coy Google 

Nota adhuc pred- 
pue de principis erga 
SU09 subditoa -debita 
pietate. Legitjrenjm 
qualiter Authonius a 
Cipione exempli fica- 
tus dixit, <]uod nuUIet 
vnum de populo sibi 
commisso vinun salua- 
re, quam centum ex 
hoatibus alien i^nis 
in bello perdere. 


Forthi the lond mai wel be glad, P. iU. 332 
Whos king with good conseil is lad, 
Which set bitn unto rihtwisnesse. 
So that his hihe worthinesse 4170 

Betwen the reddour and Fite 
Doth mercy forth with equite. 
A king is holden overal 
To Pile, hot in special 
To hem wheT be is most J^holde ; 
Thei scbolde his Pite most betioide 
That ben the Lieg« of his loud. 
For thei ben evere under his bond 
After the goddes ordinaunce 
To stonde upon his governance. 4180 

Of themperour Anthonius 
I finde bou that be seide thus, 
That levere hira were forto save 
Oon of bis lieges than to have 
Of enemis a thousend dede. 
And this he lemede, as-I rede, 
Of Cipio, which badde be 
Consul of Kome. And thus to se 
Diverse ensampjes bou thei stonde, 
A king which hath the charge on honde 4190 
The comun poeple to governe. 
If that he wole, he mai wel lerae. 
Is non so good to the plesance 
Of god, as is good governance ; 
And every governance is due 
To Pite : thus I mai argue 
That Pite is the foundemeni P. iii. 233 

Of every hinges regiment, 
If it be medled with justice. 
Thei tuo remuen alle vice, 4100 

And ben of vertu most vailable 
To make a kinges regne stahlSj. (««>•) 

Lo, thus the foure pointz tofore. 
In governance as thei ben bore, 

ot] and AM ... Bi 4:83 How him were leuere AdBT 

londred AH . . . Bi 4186 Jus AdBT, W "4194 goodjgod P 

.coy Google 


Of trouthe ferst and of krgesse, 
Of Fite fonh with rihtwisnesse, 
I have hem told ; and over this ' 
The fifle point, so as it is 
Set of the reule of Policie, 
Wherof a king schal modeRe^ 
The fleisschly lustes of nature, 
Nou thenk I telle of such inesure. 
That bothe kinde schal be served 
And ek the lawe of god ( 

xi. Corporis ei mentis regem decet omttis kotustas, 
Nominis vt /amam nulla libido ntat, 
Omm quod est hominis effenunat ilia voluptas. 
Sit nisi magnanimi cordis, vt obslet ei. 
The Madle is mad for the feroele, 
Bot where as on desireth fele, 
That nedeth noght be weie of kiade : 
For whan a man mai redy finde 
His oghne wif, what scholde he seche 
In strange places to beseche 4110 

To borwe an other mannes plouh, 
Whan he hath geere good ynpuh 
ABaited at his oghne heste, P. ill. 934 

And is to him wel more honeste 
Than other thing which is unknowe ? 
Foithi scholde every good man knowe 
And thenke, hou that in mariage 
His trouthe plight lith in morgage, 
Which if he bieke, it is falsbode, 
And that descordeth to manhode, 4130 

And nameljr toward the grete, 
Wherof the bokes alle trcte ; 
So as the Philosophre techeth 
To Alisandre, and him betecheth 
The lore hou that he schal mesure 
His bodi, so that no mesure 
Of fleisshl^ lust he scholde excede. 
4So8 fetste (firet fte.) AM . . . Bi fiat Ad 4919 yeok C, 5, F 

^ke AJ, B 4338 Koodj at home S . . . A 

Hie tmctat secun- 
dum Aristotelem de 
quints prindpum re- 
giminia Policia, que 
Castitatem concern it, 
cuius honestaa iinpu- 
dicicie motus obtetn- 
peraqs Ian] corporis 
quain anime mundi- 
ciam special ius pre- 


.coy Google 

NoU de doctrina 
Arislotilis, qualiter 
Vrincepa, vt animi sui 
iocundiuiem 'prouo- 
eel, nulieres fonnoua 
crebro aspicere debet. 
Caueat lamen, ne 
mens voluptuosa lor- 
pescen* ex carnJs fra- 


And tbus forth if I schal procede, 

The fifte point, as I seide er, 

is chastete, which sielde wher 4140 

Comth nou adaies into place; 

And natheles, hot it be grace 

Above alle othre in special. 

Is non that chaste inai ben all. 

Bot yit a kinges hihe astat, 

Which of his ordre as a prelat 

Schal ben enoignt and seintefied, 

He mot be more magnefied 

For dignet^of his corone, 

Than scholde an other low persone, 4350 

Which is n<^ht of so hih emposc; 

Therfore a Prince him scholde avise, (+«5»') 

Er that he fell e in such note, P. iii. 235 

And namely that he nassote 

To change for the wommanbede 

The worthinesse of his manhede. 

Of Aristotle I have wel lad, 
Hou he to Alisandre bad, 
That forto gladen his corage 
He schal bebolde the visage 4^60 

Of wommen, whan that thei ben laire. 
Bot yit he set an essamplaire, 
His bodi so to guide and reule, 
That he ne passe noght the reule, 
Wherof that he himself beguile. 
For in the womman is no guile 
Of that a man himself bewhapeth ; 
Whan he his oghne wit bejapeth, 
I can the wommen wel excuse : 
Bot what man wole upon hem muse 4170 

After the fool impression 
Of his ymagihacioun, 
Withinne himself the fyr he bloweth, 
Wherof the womman nothing knoweth, 

4939 Grste {fciM &c) Hi . . . B>, W fist(e) H, Ad 4s^s hihe 

■hye)AJC,S,F hib B 436aaetA.S, F setteC, B 4"66 

n AH . . . B>, W 4069 womnuui J, AdBT, W 

.coy Google 


So mai sche nothing be to wyte. 

For if a man himself excite 

To drenche, and wol it noght forbere, 

The water scha) no blame bere. 

What mai the gold, thogh men coveite? 

If that a man wol lore streite. 

The womman hath him nothing bounde ; 

If he his oghne herte Wflundfit. 

Sche mai noght lette the folie ; P. ili. 

And thogh so felle of compainie 

That he mybt eny thing pourchace, 

Yit makth a man the feme chace. 

The womman fleth and he poursuieth : 

So that be weie of skile it suieth, 

The man is cause, hou so befalle, 

That he fulofte sithe is falle 

Wher that he mai noght wel aryse. 

And natlieles ful manye wise 

Befoled have hemself er this, 

As nou adaies yit it is 

Among the men and evere was, 

The stronge is fieblest in this cas. 

It sit a man be weie of kinde 

To love, hot it is nc^bt kinde 

A man for love his wit to lese : 

For if the Monthe of Juil schal frese 

And that Decembre schal ben hot, 

The yeer mistometh, wel I wot. (4 

To sen a man fro his astat 

Thurgh his sotie effeminat. 

And leve that a man schal do. 

It is as Hose above the Scho,, 

To man which oghte nc^ht ben used. 

Bot yit the world hath ofte accused 

Ful grete Princes of this dede, 

Hou thei for love hemself mislede, 

Wherof manhode stod behinde, 

Of olde ensamples as I finde. 

^77 it DM. AdBTA (tfw S) 4319 I] men S . . . A 

Aa 3 

.coy Google 



Hie ponit ezem- 
plum quiUiter, pro eo 
quod Sarduia PaUus 
Assiriorum Princeps 
effemiiutus sue coa- 
cupisccDcie torporem 
quasi ex consuetudine 
idbibebat. b Barbaro 
Rege Medorum super 
hoc insidiantc in sui 
fcmoris maiori volup- 
tate aubitis mutacio- 
nibus eilinclus est. 


Nota qualiter 


These olde gestes tellen thus, P, iii. 237 

That whilom Sardana Fallus, 
Which hield al hoi in his empire 
The grete kingdom of Assire, 
Was thurgh the slouthe of his corage 
Falle into tfaiike fyri rage 
Of love, which the men assoteth^ 
Wherof himself he so rioteth, 4310 

And wax so ferforth womannyssh^ 
That ayein kinde, as if a fissh 
Abide wolde upon the lond, 
In wommen such a lust he fond, 
That he duelte evere in chambre stille, 
And only wroghte after the wille 
Of wommen, so as he was bedc, 
That selden whanne in other stede 
If that he wolde wenden oute. 
To sen hou that it stod aboute. 4330 

Bot ther he keste and there he pleide, 
Thei taw h ten him a Las to breide, 
And weve a Pours, and to enfile 
A Perle ; and fell that ilke while, 
On Barbaras the Prince of Mede 
Sih hou this king in womnianhede 
Was falle fro chivalerie. 
And gat him help and compaignie. 
And wroghte so, that ate laste 
This king out of hia regne he caste, 4340 

Which was undon for everemo : 
And yit men speken of him so, 
That it is schame forto hiere. P. iii. B38 

Forthi to love is in manere., 
1. King David hadde many a love, 

» Bot natheles alwey above 

I* Knyhtbode he kepte in such a wise. 

That for no fleisshli covoitise 

4314 Serdanapallua E, A, W 4316 marg. Sardanapallus ER, A, W 
4317 mof;. mulieri A . . . Bi (cxo^f E) 4391 wai^ (wue>, wexe|>> 
A... B>, A, W 4333 »«rj'. voluplali Hi ... Bi 4331 fwras... 
>eruAH 4336 how] at Jw king AULBi how>ek. Hi . . . C 

.coy Google 



Of lust to ligge in ladi armes 
He lefte nt^ht the lust of armes. 
For where a Prince hise lustes suieth, 
That he the werre noght poursuietb, 
Whan it is time to ben armed. 
His contre stant fulofte harmed, _ 
Whan thenemis ben woxe bolde, 
That thei defence non beholde. 
Ful many a lond bath so be lore, 
As men mai rede of time afore 
Of hem that so here eses sogbten. 
Which after tbei full diere aboghten. 

To mochel esc is nothing worth, 

For that set every vice forth 

And every vertu put abaj^ 

Wherof priss tometb into lak, 

As in Cronique I mai reherse : 

Which telleth hou the king of Perse, 

That Cirus hihte, a werre hadde 

Ayein a poeple which he dradde, 

Of a contre which Liddos bihte ; 

Bot yit for <^ht that he do mihte 

As in bataille upon the werre, 

He badde of hem alwey the werre. 

And whan he sib and wiste it wel, 

That be be strengtbe wan no del, 

Thanne ate laste he caste a wyle 

This worth) poeple to b^uile, 

And tok with hem a feigned pes. 

Which scbolde lasten endeles, 

So as be seide in wordes wise, 

Bot he thogbte at in other wise. 

For it belidd upon the cas, 

Whan that this poeple in reste was, 

Thei token eses manyfold ; 

And worldes ese, as it is told, 

4337 many JC, SB maoje A, F 4363 thai] it AH ... Bi 

4365 margm viuatur AH vincit W 43^7 tHargtH mirum Hi • ■ • Bi 

437a marg. sUbilire A ... Eh 4375 fiarg. tempore B>, BT 43]S 

matg. indefenbilei F 4381 betidd S, F betidde AC, B be tid J 

Hie loquitur quali- 
ter regnuin luciuie 
voluptadbus deditum 
de facili vincilur. EC 
poDil eiemplum de 
Ciro Rege Per3«rum, 

nio9 sibique in bello 
aduervntea nuUo mo- 

; do V in cere potuit, 

«7» cum ipsi, uindem p.! 
ct3 tracutum dissimi- 
lans concordiam fina- 
P, iU. 339 per quo Liddi poslea 
per aliquod lempus 
armis insoliti sub pa- 
cia torpore voluputi- 
Cinu percipiena in 
eoa annatus subiu 
imiit, ipaosque inde- 
fencibiles vincens sub 
imperio tributarios 

.CD, Google 

Nota hie qunliter 
fau bellica luiua in- 
fortuiut. Et nuTst 
quod cum Rex Ama- 
lech Hebreis sibi in- 
sultantibus resistere 
nequiil, consilio Ba- 
lum mulieres regni 
sui pulcherrinua in 
tastni Hebreonim 
misit ; qui ab ipeis 
I'oniaminati graciam 
statim atniserunt. Et 
sic ab Amalech deuic- 
ti in mi^^ multitudi- 
ne gladio ceciderunl. 


Be weie of kinde is the norrice 
Of eveiy lust which toucheth vice. 
Thus whan thei were in lustes falle. 
The wenes ben foryeten alle; 
^Vas non which wolde the worschipe 
Of Armes, bot in idelschigc 4390 

Thei putten besinesse aweie 
And token hem to daunce and pleie; 
Bot most above alle othre thiiiges 
Thei token hem to the hkinges 
Of fleysshljF lust, that chastete 
Received was in no degre, 
Bot every man doth what him liste. 
And whan the king of Perse it wiste. 
That thei unto folie entenden, 
With his pouer, whan tbei lest wenden, 4400 
Mor sodeinly than doth the thunder 
He cam, for evere and put hem under. (46oo*) 
And thus hath lecherie lore P. ill. 940 

The lond, which hadde be tofore 
The beste of hem that were tho. 
And in the bible I tinde also 
A tele lich unto this thing, 
Hou Amalech the paien kit^, 
Whan that he myhte be no weie 
Defende his lond and putte aweie 4410 

The worthi poeple of Irael, 
This Sarazin, as it befell, 
Thurgh the conseil of Balaam 
A route of faire wommen nam, 
That lusti were and yonge of Age, 
And bad hem gon to the ligoage 
Of these Hebreus : and fonh thei wente 
With yhen greye and lapwes bente 
And wel arraied eveiych on ; 
And whan thei come were anon 4410 

4395 DeySBly F 4403 put AJ. S, F putte C, B 440S margin 
hie om. BT 4411 Irad (Iraliel) J, S, FK nal Israel 441S 

of]ongag«B 44islf. maisMcontaminati— ceciderunt]cDntaininali 
sunt (dhi. graciam — cecidenlnt} BT 

.coy Google 


Among t hebreus, jras_non insihte,. - -" 

Bot cacche who that caccEe^myhte, 

And ech or hem hJse lustes soghte, 

Whiche after thei full diere boghte. 

For grace anon be^an to hWe, 

Tliat whan thei comen to bataJUe 

Thanne afterward, in sori plit 

Thei were take and disconfit, 

So that withinne a litel ihrowe 

The myht of hem was overthrowe, 443° 

That whilom were wont to stonde. 

Til Phinees the cause on honde 

Hath uke, this vengance laste, P. Ui S41 

Bot thanne it cessede ate laste. 

For god was paid of that he dede : 

For wher he fond upon a stede 

A couple which misferde so, 

'I'hurghout he smot hem bothe tuo. 

And let hem ligge in mennes yhe; 

Wherof alle othre whiche hem sihe 4+10 

Ensamplede hem upon the dede, 

And preiden unto the godhiede 

Here olde Sennes to amende: 

And he, which wolde hfs mercy sende, 

Restorede hem to newe grace. 

Thus mai it schewe in sondri place. 
Of chastete hou the clennesse . 
Acordeth to the worthinesse 
Of men of Aimes overal ; 
Ijot most of alle in special 445° 

This vertu to a king belongeth. 
For upon his fortune it hongeth {^^i^*) 

Of that his lond schal spade or spille. 
Forthi bot if a king his wille 
Fro lustes of his lleissh restreigne, 
Ayein himself he makth a treigne. 
Into the which if that he slyde. 
Him were betre go be syde. 
For every man mai understonde, 
4494 abm^hte UHiGE, AdBA 4435 s<xl «-■ ^ 

.coy Google 


R ic loq uil ur q ubI i Cer 
Prindpum irregulata 
votupUs COS B semiu 
recta multocicns de- 
uiare compellit. Et 
narrat exempium de 
Salnmone, qui ex sue 
cam is concupncencia 
victus muliemm blan- 
dimentil in sui scan- 
dal um deos alienos 
col ere presumebat. 


Hou for a time that it stonde, 446a 

It is a son lust to Ijrke, 

Whos ende maktb a man to syke 

And tometh joies into sorwe. P. lii- 942 

The brihte Sonne be the morwe 

Beschyneth noght the derke nyht, 

The lusti youthe of mannes myht, 

In Age bot it stonde wel, 

Mistorneth al the laste whiel. 

That every worthi Prince is holde 
Withinne himself himself beholde, 4470 

To se the stat of his persone, 
And thenke hou ther be joies none 
Upon this Erthe mad to laste. 
And hou the fleissh schal ate laste 
The lustes of this lif forsake, 
Him <^hte a gret ensample take 
Of Salomon, whos appetit 
Was holy set upon delit. 
To take of wommen the plesance : 
So that upon his ignorance 44S0 

The wyde world merveileth yit, 
That he, which alle mennes wit 
In thilke time hath overpassed. 
With fleisshly lustes was so tassed, 
That he which ladde under the lawe 
The poeple of god, himself withdrawe 
He hath fro god in such a wise, 
That he worschipe and sacriiise 
For sondii love in sondri stede 
Unto the false goddes dede. 4490 

This was the wise ecclesiaste, 
The fame of whom schal evere laste, 
That he the myhti god forsok, P. ill. 243 

Ayein the lawe whanne he tok 
Hise wyves and hise concubines 
Of hem that weren Sarazines, 
For whiche he dede iidohtrie. 

4471 tast>t(}«astate)AdBT 449aofwhichB om. Ad 

.coy Google 


For this I rede of his sotie : 

Sche of Sidoyne so bim ladde. 
That he knelende hise armes spradde 45o« 

To Astrathen with gret humblesse, 
Which of hire lond was the goddesse : U700*) 

And sche that was a Moabite 
So ferforth made him to delite 
Thurgh lust, which al his wit devoureih, 
That he Chamos hire god honoureth. 

An other Amonyte also 
With love him hath assoted so, 
Hire god Moloch that with encense 
He sacreth, and doth reverence 4jio 

In such a wise as sche him bad. 
Thus was the wiseste overlad 
With blinde lustes wbiche he soghle ; 
Bot he it afterward abc^hte. 

For Achias Selgait^ 
Which was praphete, er his decess, 
Whil he was in hise lustes alle, 
Betokneth what schal after falle. 
For on a day, whan that he mette 
Jeroboam the knyht, he giette 4510 

And bad him that he scholde abyde. 
To biere what him schal betyde. 
And forth withal Achias caste P. iii. 344 

His man te ll of, and also faste 
He kut it into pieces twelve, 
Wherof tuo partz toward himselve 
He kepte, and al the remenant, 
As god bath set his covenant, 
He tok unto Jeroboas, 

Of Nabal which the Sone was 4530 

And of the kinges court a knyht : 
And seide him, 'Such is goddes myht. 
As thou hast sen departed hiere 
Mi mantell, riht in such manere 
After the deth of Salomon 
God bath ordeigned theiupon, 
4Sas km (.kuW) AJC, S, F cutte B 45a6 towwd] vnto AdBT 

[Evil Eiavpli or 


De filia Regis Ci- 


De filia Regis A- 

[Division of h,s 


NoU hie qualiter 
Achias propheCa, in 
lignum quod regnum 
post mortem Saloma- 
nil ob eius peccatum 
a Buo herede diminu- 
eretur, pallium suum 
in xii. partes addit, 
vnde X. partes leroboe 
lilio Nabal, qui regnat- 
urus postei successii, 
precepto dei tribuit. 

.CD, Google 


[Division of his This r^;ne thanne he schal divide : 

K,NCDo».l ^Vl,j^.(, time thou schalt ek abide, 

And upon that jivisio n 

The regne as in proporcion 454a 

As thou hast of mi mantell lake. 
Thou schalt receive, I undertake. 
And thus the Sons schat abie 
The lustes and the lecherie 
Of him which nou his fader is.' 

So forto taken hiede of this, 
It sit a king wel to be chaste, 
For elles he mai lihtly waste 
Himself and ek his regne bothe, 
And that oghte every king to lothe. 4550 

O, which a Senne violent, 
Wherof so wys a king was schent, {«7S<»*) 

That the vengance in his persone P. iii. 945 
Was n<^ht ynouh to take al one, 
Bot afterward, whan he was passed, 
It hath his heritage lassed. 
As I more openli tofore 
The tale tolde. And thus therfore 

Aristotiics. OAlex- The Philosophre upon this thing 

.U^riLand conseileth to a king, 4560 

That he the surfet of luxure 

Schal tempre and reule of such mesure, 

Which be to kinde sufficant 

And ek to reson acordant, 

^o that the lustes ignorance 

Be cause of no misgovemance, 

Thurgh which that he be overthrowe, 

As he that wol no reson knowe. 

For bot a mannes wit be s werved, 

\Vhan kinde is dueliche served, 4570 

It oghte of reson to suffise ; 

For if it falle him otherwise. 

He mai tho lustes sore drede. 

4557 f. As more ... is to]d AdB As more . . . lolde T 4559 

margin AristotJIes am. B 4573 UDe Hi . . . Bi Tulle AH 

4573 thoj Jw Hi . . . Bi, AdA, W 



For of Anthonie thus I rede, 
Which of Severus was the Sone, 
That he his lif of comun wone " 

Yaf holy unto thilke vice, 
And ofte time he was so nyce, 
Wherof nature hire hath compleigned 
Unto the god, which hath desdeigned asSo 

The werkes whiche Antonie wroghte 
or lust, whicbe he ful sore aboghte : 
For god his forfet hath so wroke P. ill. 946 
That in Cronique it is yit spoke. 
Bot forto take remembrance 
Of special misgovemance 
Thui^h covoitise and injustice 
Forth with the remenant of vice. 
And namehche of lecherie, 
I finde write a gret partie 4590 

AVithinne a tale, as thou schalt hiere, 
AVhich is ihensample of this matiere- 


De voluptuoso An- 


So as these olde gestes sein, 
The praude tirannyssh Romein 
Tarquinus, which was thanne king 
And wroghte many a wrongful thing, 
Of Sones hadde manyon. 
Among the whiche Arrons was on, 
Lich to his fader of maneres ; 
So that withinne a fewe yeres 
With tresoun and with tirannie 
Thei wonne of lond a gret partie, 
And token hiede of no justice. 
Which due was to here office 
Upon the reule of governance ; 
Bot al that evere was plesance 
Unto the fleisshes lust thei toke. 
And fell so, that thei undertoke 
A werre, which was n<^ht achieved, 

4S74 Antbonie AJ, F Anton[e S antoigne B 4581 Antonie 
AntluHiie A Anloine J, B, F 4595 margin nuper Rome] ron 

nuper BT nup/r A om. H 

quino nuper Rome Im- 
pern lore, nee n on etde 
eiusdeni filio nomine 
AiTona, qui omni vici- 
orum varielale repleli 
tam in homines qium 
in mulieres innumera 
scelem perpetnirunt : 
set specialiter super 
/,(._„•, hiiique contra Gabi- 
^* °° I no» fraudulenler ope- 


.coy Google 


AND His Bot ofte time it hadde hem grieved, 4fi"> 

"""^■^ Ayein a folk which thanne hihte 

The Gabiens : and al be nyhte 
This Arrons, whan he was at hom P. iii. 247 
In Rome, a prive place he nom 
Withinne a chambie, and bet hiraselve 
And made him woundes ten or tuelve 
Upon the bak, as it was sene ; 
And so forth with bise hurtes _grene 
In al the haste that he may 
He rod, and cam that other day 4610 

Unto Gabie the Cite, 
And in he wente: and whan that he 
Was knowe, anon the gates s<;tiett& 
The lordes alle upon hJro jetle 
With ^Bwe. swerdes upon honde. 
This Arrons wolde hem noght withstonde, 
Bot seide, 'I am hier at your wille, 
Als_lief it is that ye me spille, 
As if myn oghne fader dede.' 
And forthwith in the same stede 4630 

He preide hem tliat thei wolde se, 
And scbewede hem in what degre 
His fader and hise brethren bothe, 
Whiche, as he seide, weren wrothe. 
Him hadde ^tw and reviled, 
For evere and out of Rome exiled. 
And thus he made hem to believe, 
And seide, if that he myhte achieve 
His pouTpos, it schal wel be ^olde. 
Be so that thei him helpe wolde. 4640 

Whan that the lordes hadde sein 
Hon wofuUy he was besein, 
Thei token Pite of his grief; P, Ul. 048 

Bot yit it was hem wonder lief 
That Rome him hadde exiled so. 
These Gabiens be conseil tho 
Upon the goddes made him swere, 
46ioheliaddeAH... B> 46iia]))e LBi.A om. AH, T 4606 
jreinejIiiieAclBT 4641 WhMi]x:1i>rd<»AH 4646TbeBt, AdBT 

.coy Google 


That he to hem schal trouthe bere [Tarquin 

And strengthen hem with al his myht ; ^^ ' 

And thei also him have behiht 4650 

To helpen hira in his querele. 
Thei schopen thanne for his hele (4^5°*) 

That he was bathed and eooigtit, 
Til that he was in lusti point ; 
And what he wolde thanne he hadde. 
That he al hoi the cite ladde 
Riht as he wolde himself divise. 
And thanne he thoghte him in what wise 
He myhte his tirannie schewe; 
And to his conseil tolt a schrewe, 4660 

Whom to his fader forth he sente 
In his message, and he tho wente, 
And preide bis fader forto seie 
Be his avis, and finde a weie, 
Hou they the cite myhten winne, 
Whil that he stod so wel therinne. 
And whan the messager was come 
To Rome, and hath in conseil nome 
The king, it fell per chance so 
That thei were in a gardin tho, 4670 

This messager forth with the king. 
And whanne he hndde Cold the thing 
In what manere that it stod, P. ill. 249 

And that Tarquinus understod 
Be the message hou that it ferde. 
Anon he tok in honde a yerde. 
And in the gardin as theigon, 
The lilie croppes on and on, 
Wher that thei weren sprongen oute. 
He smot of, as thei stode aboute, 46S0 

And seide unto the messager : 
' Lo, this thing, which I do oou bier, 
Schal ben in stede of thin ansuere; 
And in this wise as I me bere, 
Thou schalt unto mi Sone telle.' 
And he no lengere wolde duelle, 
4663 pa he AdBT 

.coy Google 


I AND HIS Bot tok his leve and goth withal 

"""^^ Unto his lord, and told him al, 

Hou that his fader hadde do. 
Whan Arrons herde him telle so, 4690 

Anon he wiste what it mente, 
And therto selte al his entente, 
Til he thurgh fraude and tricherie 
The rrinces hefdes of Gabie 
Hath smiten^ of, and al was wonne: 
His fader cam tofore the Sonne 
Into the toun with the RomeinSj 
And tok and slowh the citezeins 
Withoute reson or pite. 

That he ne spareth no d^re. 4700 

And for the sped of this conqueste 
He let do make a riche feste (49^*) 

With a sollempne Sacrifise P. iil. 250 

In Phebiis temple; and in this wise 
Whan the Romeins assembled were, 
In presence of hem alle there, 
Upon thaller whan al was diht 
And that the fyres were alyht, 
From under thalter sodeinly 
An hidous Serpent openly 4710 

Cam out and hath devoured al 
The Sacrifice, and ek withal 
The fyres queynt, and forth anon, 
So as he cam, so is he gon 
Into the depe ground ayein. 
And every man b^an to sein, 
' Ha lord, what mai this signefie ? ' 
And therupon thei preie and crie 
To Phebus, that thei mihten knowe 
The cause: and he the same throwe 4710 

With gastly vois, that alle it herde. 
The Romeins in this wise ansuerde, 
And seide hou for the wikkidnesse 
Of Pride and of unrihtwisnesse, 
That Tarquin and his Sone hath do, 
4668 told C, SB, F tolde A 

.coy Google 


The Sacrifice is wasted so, [ 

Which myhte noght ben acceptable 

Upon such Senne abhominable. 

And over that yit he hem wisseth, 

And seith that which of hem ferst kisseth 4730 

His moder . he schal take wneche 

Upon the wrong : and of that speche 

Thei ben withinne here hertes glade, P. iii. 351 

Thogh thei outward no semblant made. 

Ther was a knyht which Brutus hihte, 

And he with al the baste he myhte 

To grounde fell and therthe kiste, 

Bot non of hem the cause wiste, 

Bot wenden that he hadde sporned 

Per chance, and so was overtomed. 47^0 

Bot Brutus al an other mente ; 

For he knew wel in his entente ' 

Hou therthe of every mannes kinde 

Is Moder : bot thei weren blinde. 

And sihen noght so fer as he. 

Bot whan thei leften the Cite 

And comen hom to Rome ayein, 

Thanne every man which was Romein 

And moder hath, to hire he bende^ 

And keste, and ech of hem thus wende 4750 

To be the ferste upon the chance, 

Of Tarquin forto do vengance, (4950*) 

So as thei hetden Phebus sein. 

Bot every time hath his certeinj_ 
So moste it nedes thanne abide, 
Til afterward Upon a tyde 
Tarquinus made unskilfully 
A werre, which was fasteby 
Ayein a toun with walles stronge 
Which Ardea was cleped longe. 
And caste a Siege theraboute, 
That ther mai noman passen oute. 

Hie naiTHt quod. 
cum Tarquinus in ob- 
aidione Ciuitatis Ar- 
dec, vt cam destruerct, 

47'** filiua eius Romam sc- 
creto adiens in domo 
Collatini hospiutiis 
est; vbi de node illam 

4737 ground F 
4746 the] J«l S . . 

tiierth«]>erh«AdBT |>ercOer)HiYXG£RC,A 
A 4754 Panfgrf^ m MSS. al 4757 

.coy Google 

[The Rape of 


castiuiouun dominam 
Lucreciam ymaginata 
fraude vi oppressit : 
vnde ill* pre dolore 
martua.ipsecum Tar- . 
quino patre suo tola 
conclanumte Roma in 
perpetuum exilium 
delegati sunL 


So il bcfeU upon a nyht, P. iil as* 

Arrons, which badde his souper diht, 

A part of the chivalerie 

With him to soype^ in compaignie 

Hath bede : and whan thei comen were 

And selen at the souper there. 

Among here othre wordes glade 

Arrons a gret spekinge made, 4T7<» 

Who hadde tho the beste wif 

Of Rome : and ther began a strif, 

For Arrons selth he hath the beste. 

So jangle thei withoute reste, 

Til atelaste on Collatin, 

A worthi knyht, and was_cousin 

To Arrons, seide him in this wise ; 

'It is,' quod he, 'of non emprise 

To speke a word, bot of the dede, 

Therof it is to taken hiede. 4780 

Anon forthi this same tyde 

Lep on thin hors and let ous ryde: 

So mai we knowe bothe tuo 

Unwarli what oure wyves do, 

And that schal be a trewe assay.' 

This Arrons seith noght ones nay : 

On horse bak anon thei lepte 

In such manere, and nothing slepte, 

Ridende forth til that thei come 

Al prively withinne Rome ; 479° 

In strange pFace and doun thei lihte, 

And take a chambre, and out of sihte 

Thei be de^uised for a throwe, P. iU. a53 

So that no Ilf hem scholde knowe. 

And to the paleis ferst thei soghte, 

To se what thing this ladi wroghte 

Of which Arrons niade his avant : 

And ihei hire sihe of glad semblant, 

Al fiill of merthes and of hordes ; 

Bot among alle hire othre wordes 4800 

4779 ther] )iiif B 4780 Wher of (Whcrof) AdBT, K 4795 

Iheom. A 4796 ^ ladjes B JwsladisAd >i*e lady <s <nu*i/) T 

.coy Google 


Sche spsk noght of hire hpusebp.qde. 

And whan thei hadde al understonde (900°*) 

Of thillce place what hem liste, 

Thei gon hem forth, that non it wiste, 

fieside thilke gate of bras, 

Collacea which cleped was, 

Wher Collatin hath his duellinge. 

Ther founden thei at horn sittinge 

Lucrece his wif, al environed 

With wommen, whiche are abandoned 4810 

To werche, and sche wroghte ek withal. 

And bad hem haste, and seith, 'It schal 

Be for mi housebondes were. 

Which with his swerd and with his spere 

Lith at the Siege in gret desese. 

And if it scholde him noght displese, 

Nou wolde god I hadde him hiere ; 

For certes til that I mai hiere 

Som good tidinge of his asut, 

Min herte is evere upon debat. 4810 

For so as alle men witnesse. 

He is of such an haidiesse, 

That he can noght himselve spare, P. UL 954 

And that is at my moste care, 

Whan thei the walles schulle assaile. 

Bot if mi jffissha myhte avails 

I wolde it weie a groundles pet, 

Be so the Si^e were unknet^ 

And I myn housebonde sibe.' 

With that the water in hire yhe 4830 

Aros, that sche ne myhte it stoppe, 

And as men sen the dew bedroppe 

The leves and the floures eke^ 

Riht so upon hire whyle cheke 

The wofuU salte teres felle. 

Whan Collatin hath herd hire telle 

The menynge of hire trewe herte, 

4803 him AXGCR 4B10 were X, AdBT 481a Mide B 

4S14 swerd] schidd (sbelde) Hi, B 4833 scbulde (scholde) H, 

AdBT 4839 dewe droRpe AH, W 


.coy Google 


Anon with that to hire he sterte, 

And seide, 'Lo, mi goode diere, 

Nou is he come to you hiere, 4840 

That ye most loven, as ye sein.' 

And sche with goodly chiere ayein 

Beclipte him in hire annes smale, 

And the colour, which erst was pale. 

To Beaute thanne was restored, 

So that it myhte n<^ht be mored . 

The kinges Sone, which was nyit. 
And of this lady herde and syh 
The thinges as thei ben befalle, 
The lesoun of hise wittes alle 4S50 

Hath lost; for love upon his part 
Cam thanne, and of his fyri dart (5050*) 

With such a wounde him hath thuighsmite, P. iii 355 
That he mot nedes fiele and wite 
Of thilke blinde maladie, 
To which no cure of Surgerie 
Can helpe. Bot yit natheles 
At thilke time he hield his pes. 
That he no contienance made, 
Bot openly with wordes glade, 4S60 

So as he couthe in his manere. 
He spak and made frendly chiere, 
Til it was time forto go. 
And Collatin with him also 
His leve tok, so that be nyhte 
With al the haste that thei myhte 
Thei riden to the Si^e ayein. 
Bot Arrons was so wo besein 
With thoghtes whiche upon him runne, 
That he al be the brode Sunne 4870 

To hedde goth, noght forto reste, 
Bot forto thenke upon the beste 
And the faireste forth withal, 
That evere he syh or evere schal, 
So as him thoghte in his corage, 
Where he pourtreieth hire ymage : 
Ferst the fetures of hir &c^ 

.coy Google 


In which nature hadde alle grace [The Rap« or 

Of wQDuiiaiily beaute beset, 

So that it myhte noght be bet; 4880 

And hou hir yelwe her visa tiesced 
And bire atir so wel adresced, 
And hou sche spak, and hou sche wtoghte, P. Ui. 356 
And bou sche wepte, al this he thoghte, 
That he foryeten hath no del, 
Bot al it liketb him so wel, 
That in the word nor in the dede 
Hire lacketh noght of wommanhiede. 
And thus this tirannysshe knybt 
Was soupled, bol noght half ariht, 4890 

For he non other hiede tok, 
Bot that he myhte be som crok^ 
Altht^h it were ayein hire wille. 
The lustes of his fleissh fullille ; 
Which love was n<^ht resonable, 
FoT where honour is lemuable, 
It oghte wel to ben avised. 
Bot he, which hath his lust aasised 
With melled love and tirannie. 
Hath founde upon his tricherie 4900. 

A weie which he thenkth to holde. 

And seith, 'Fortune unto the bolde (5 too*) Aiidacesfortunalu 

Is favorable forto helpe.' ""■ 

And thus withinne himself to yelpe, 
As he which was a wylde man, 
Upon his treson be b^an : 
And up he sterte, and forth be wente 
On horsebak, bot his entente 
Ther knew no wiht, and thus he nam 
The nexte weie, til he cam 4910 

Unto Collacea the gate 
Of Rome, and it was somdiel late, 
Riht evene upon the Sonne set, P. lii. 957 

As he which hadde schape his net 
Hire innocence to betra^pe. 
4880 let GEC,AdBT 48Sihir(MH.B ber;e)H>XR 4B86liked 
SAdBT 4&S7.iDtbede(le]iDdedeAlCXL3> 4914 And beAdBT 
B b a 

.coy Google 


And as it scholde tho mishappe , 
Als priveliche as evere he myhte 
He rod, and of bis hors alyhte 
Tofore Collatines Ii^ 

And al frendliche he goth him in, 4910 

As he that was cousin of house. 
And sche, which is the goode spouse, 
Luciece, whan that sche him sih, 
With goodli chiere drowh him nyh. 
As sche which al honour supposeth, 
And him, so as sche dar, opposeth 
Hou it stod of hire housebonde. 
And he tho dede hire understonde 
With tales feigned in his wise, 
Riht as he wolde himself devise, 4930 

Wherof he myhte hire herte glade, 
That sche the betre chiere made, 
Whan sche the glade wordes herde, 
Hou that hire housebonde ferde. 
And thus the trouthe was deceived 
With slih _ tresoun, which was received 
To hire which mente aJle goode ; 
For as the festes thanne stode, 
His Souper was ryht wel arraied. 
Bot yit he hath no word assaied 4940 

To speke of love in no d^e ; 
Bot with covert soubtiUte 
His frendly speches he afiaitetb, P. 111. 358 
And as the Tigre his time awaiteth 
In hope forto cacche his pieie. 
Whan that the hordes were aweie 
And thei have souped in the halle, 
He seith that slep is on him iaile. 
And preith he moste go to bedde ; 
And sche with alle haste spedde, 49sa 

So as hire thc^hte it was to done, 
That every thing was redi sone. (515°*) 

Sche hroghte him to his chambre tho 
4918 he lighte AdBT 4900 be om. AdBT 4939 )iis wise 

AdBT 494a he om. AH 4944 the on. AM • Hi 

.coy Google 


And tot hire lev^ and forth is go 
Into hire oghne chambre.^j 
As sche that wende certeinly 
Have had a frend, and badde a fo, 
Wherof fell after mochel wo. 

This tirant, th(^h he lyhe softe, 
Out of his bed aros fiilofte. 
And goth aboute, and leide his Ere 
To herkne, til that alle were 
To bedde gon and stepten faste. 
And thanne upon himself he caste 
A mantell, and his swerd al naked 
He tok in honde; and sche unwaked 
Abedde lay, but what sche mette, 
God wot ; for he the Dore u nschette 
So prively that non it herde, 
The softe pas a nd forth he ferde 
Unto the bed wher that sche slepte, 
Al sodeinliche and in he crepte, 
And hire in bothe his Armes tok. F. ill. 
With that this worthi wif awok, 
Which tburgh tendresce . of wommanhiede 
Hire vois hath lost for pure drede, 
That o word speke sche ne dar: 
And ek he bad hir to be war, 
For if sche made noise or cry. 
He seide, his swerd lay faste by 
To slen hire and hire folk aboute. 
And thus he broghte hire berte in doute, 
That lich a L^mb whanne it is sesed 
In wolves mouth, so was desesed 
Lucrece, which he naked fond : 
Wherof sche swounede in his hood, 
And, as who seith, lay ded of^ressed. 
And he, which al him hadde adresced 
To lust, tok thanne what him liste. 
And goth his wey, that non it wiste, 
Into his oghne chambre ayein, 
And clepede up his chamberlein, 
497t IntoAdBT 

.coy Google 


And made him redi forto ryde. 

And thus this lecherouse pride 

To horse lepte and forth he rod ; 

And scbe, which in hire bed abod, 

Whan that sche wiste he was agon, 

Sche clepede after hht anon 

And up aros long er the day, 

And caste awey hire freissh aray, 5000 

As sche which hath the world forsake, 

And tok upon the clothes blake : (s'oo*) 

And evere upon continuinge, P. ill. 360 

Riht as men sen a welle springe, 

With yhen fulle of wofiill teres, 

Hire her hangende aboute hire Eres, 

Sche wepte, and noman wiste why. 

Bot yit among full pitously 

Sche preide that thei nolden drecche 

Hire housebonde forto fecche 5010 

Forth with hire fader ek also. 

Thus be thei comen bothe tuo, 
And Brutus cam with Collatin, 
Which to Lucrece was cousin, 
And in thei wenten alle thie 
To chambre, wher thei myhten se 
The wofulleste upon this Molde, 
Which wepte as sche to water scholde. 
The chambre Dore anon was stoke. 
£1 thei have oght unto hire spoke ; 5010 

Thei sihe hire clothes al desguised. 
And bou sche hath hirself despised. 
Hire her hangende unkemd aboute, 
Bot natheles sche gan to loute 
And knele unto hire housebonde ; 
And he, which fain wotde understonde 
The cause why sche ferde so. 
With softe wordes axeth tho, 
' What mai you be, mi goode swete ? ' 
And sche, which thoghte hirself unmete 5030 
And the lest worth of wommen alle, 
Hire wofiill chiere let doun falte 

.coy Google 


hame and couthe unnetbes 
And thei therof good hiede toke, 
And preiden hire in alle weie 
That sche ne spare forto seie 
Unto bir frendes what hire eileth, 
Why sche so sore hirself beweileth, 
And what the sothe wdde mene. 
And sche, which hath hiie sorwes^ene, 5040 
Hire wo to telle thanne assaieth, 
Bot tendre schame hire word dela ieth , 
That soDdri rimes as sche mintfe^ 
To speke, upon the point sche stinte. 
And thei hire bidden evere in on 
To telle forth, and thenipon, 
Whan that sche sih sche moste nede, 
Hire tale betwen schame and drede 
Sche totde, noght withoute peine. 
And he, which welde hire wo restreigne, 5050 
Hire hoasebonde, a sory man, 
Conforteth hire al that he can, (s'jo*) 

And swor, and ek hire hdti botbe. 
That thei with hire be noght wrothe 
Of that is don ajrein hire wille ; 
And preiden hire to be stille, 
For thei to hire have al foryive. 
Bot sche, which thoghte noght to live. 
Of hem wol no foryivenesse. 
And seide, of thillce wicke^ufiSK 5060 

Which was unto hire bodi wn^ht, 
Al were it so sche inyhre it noght, 
Nevere afterward the world ne schal P. iii. a6a 
Reproeven hire ; and forth withal, 
Er eny roan therof be war, 
A naked swerd, the which sche bar 
Withinne hire Mantel priveli, 
Betwen hire hondes sodeinly 
Sche tok, and thurgh hire herte it throng. 
And fell to grounde, and evere among, 5070 
Whan that sche fell, so as sche myhte, 
5043 C minte . . . sUote J, SB, F menu . . . itcnte AEC 

.coy Google 


Upr of Hire clothes with hire hand Bche rihte, 

^"^'■^ That noman dounwaid fro the kne 

Scholde eny thing of hire se : 
Thus lay this wif honestd^ 
Althc^h she deide wofutly. 

Tho was no sorwe forto seke: 
Hire housebonde, hire lader eke 
Aswoune upon the hodi felle; 
Tber niai no mannes tunge telle 50S0 

In which anguisshe that thei were. 
Bot Brutus, which was with hem there, 
Toward himself his berte kepte. 
And to Lucrece anon he lepte, 
The blodi swerd and pulleth oute, 
And swor the goddes al aboute' 
That he therof schal do vengance. 
And sche tho made a contienance, 
Hire dedlich yhe and ate laste 
In tbonkinge as it were up caste, 5090 

And so behield him in the wise, 
Whil sche to loke mai sufSse. 
And Brutus with a manlich herte P. itl. 263 
Hire housebonde hath mad up sterte 
Forth with hire fader ek also 
In alle haste, and seide bem tho 
That thei anon withoute lette 
A Beere for the body fette ; 
Luciece and therupon bledende 
He leide, and so forth out criende jioo 

He goth into the Market place 
Of Rome : and in a litel space {s3«>*) 

Thurgh cry the cite was assembled, 
And every mannes herte is treinUed^ 
Whan thei the sothe herde of the cas. 
And therupon the conseil was 
Take of the grete and of the smale. 
And Brutus tolde hem al the tale ; 
And thus cam into remembrance 

.coy Google 


Of Senne the continuance, 51 lo 

Which Anons hadde do tofore, 

And ek, long time er be was bore, 

Of that his fadre hadde do 

The wrong cam into place tho ; 

So that the comun clamour tolde 

The newe schame of Sennes olde. 

And al the toun bf^an to crie, 

'Awey, awey the tirannie 

Of lecherie and covoitise I ' 

And ate laste in such a wise 5110 

The foder in the same while 

Forth with his Sone thei exile. 

And taken betre governance. P. iii. 964 

Bot yit an other remembrance 

That cihtwisnesse and lecherie 

Acorden n<%ht in compaignie 

With him that hath the lawe on honde, 

That mai a man wel understonde. 

As be a 'talc thou shalt wite. 

Of olde ensample as it is write. stjo 

At Rome whan that Apius, 

Whos other name is Claudius, 

Was govemour of the cite, 

Ther fell a wonder thing to se 

Touchende a gentil Maide, as thus, 

Whom Livius Virginius 

Begeten hadde upon bis wif: 

Men seiden that so fair a lif 

As sche was noght in al the toun. 

This fame, which goth up and doun, 

To Claudius cam in bis Er^ 

Wherof his thoght anon was there. 

Which al his herte hath set afyie. 

That he b^an the flour desire 

Which longeth unto may denhedcj 
5113 fadre S, F bder AJC, B 5130 aide easunple C, F old 
(odd) ensample AJ, B olde eiuampleaSA 5133 tMorgaiaaper 

eodem oin. B 5135 and ^ FWKHsgd 5140 imugm tunc 


[Tali of Virginia.] 

super eodem, qualiler 
Uuius Viif^inius dun 
excerdlut Romano- 
nun vnicam filiam pul- 
quodam nobili viro 
nomine Ilido, vt ip- 
sain In vxorem duce- 
ret, finalitercoQcorda- 
, , ,_ uit Set interim Ap- 
perator vi i^nisfomio- 
sitatera, vt earn vio- 
laret, concupiscens, 
occosionesquibua r 
trimoniuin impedi 

apprebendere posset, 

.CD, Google 


[Tale or Vibgidia.] 
subdola conspiradone 
fieri coniectauil. Et 
cum propoiitiun sui 
desiderii productiafal- 
sis teslibus in iudicio 
Imperator lubere de- 
buisset, pater tunc ib- 
idem preseni extracti> 
gladio filie sue pectus 
mortal i vulnere per 
medium transfodtt, di- 
cens: 'Malo michi de 
Glia mea virginem ha- 
bere mortuam, quam 
i n sui scandalum mere- 


And sende, if that he myhte spede 

The blinde lustes of his wille. 

Bot that thing mai he noght fulfille, 

For sche atod upon Manage; 

A worthi kniht of gret lignage, 5150 

Ilicius which thanne hihte, 

Acoided in hire fedef sihte (sJSo') 

Was, that he scholde his doubter wedde. P.iU. 065 

Bot er the cause fully spedde, 

Hire fader, which in Romanie 

The ledinge of chivalerie 

In governance hath undertake, 

Upon a werre which was take 

Goth out with al the strengthe he hadde 

Of men of Annes whiche he ladde: 5>^ 

So was the manage left, 

And stod upon acord til eft. 

The king, which herde telle of this, 
Hou that this Maide ordeigned is 
To Manage, tboghte an other. 
And hadde thilke time aTTrother, 
Which Marchus Claudius was bote, 
And was a man of sucb note 
Riht as the king himselve was: 
Thei tuo togedre upon this cas J170 

In conseil founden out this weie, 
That Marchus Claudius schal seie 
Hou sche be weie of covenant 
To his service appourtenant 
Was hoi, and to non other man ; 
And therapon he seith he can 
In every point witnesse take. 
So that sche schal it noght forsake. 
Whan that thei hadden schape so, 
After the lawe which was tho, 5'8o 

Whil that hir &der was absent. 
Sche was somouned and assent 
To come in presence of the king P. iii. »66 
5161 >is Haruge SBTA 5171 )« weie GBt, S . . . A siSa 

somoHDcd (fir somfMoned] AJ, F somoned C, SB 

.CD, Google 


And stonde in ansuere of this thing. [' 

Hire frendes wJsten alle wel 

That it was falshed everydel, 

And comen to the king and seiden. 

Upon the comun lawe and preiden, 

So as this noble w<xthi knyht 

Hir fader for the comun riht jigo 

In thiike time, as was befalle, 

Lai for the profit o( hero alle 

Upon the wylde feldes armed, 

That he ne scholde nogbt ben harmed 

Ne schamed, whil that be were oute; 

And thus thei preiden al aboute. 

For al the clamour that he herde, 
The king upon his lust ansuerde, 
And yaf hem only daies tuo 
Of jespit. ; for he wende tho, s*«> 

That in so schorte a time appiere 
Hire fader mihte in no manere. (54»*) 

Bot as theiof he was deceived ; 
For Livius hadde al conceived 
The pourpos of the king tofore, 
So that to Rome ayein therfore 
In alle haste he cam ridende. 
And leAe upon the field li^ende 
His host, til that he come ayein. 
And thus this wortfai capitein 5110 

Appiereth redi at his day, 
Wher al that evere reson may 
Be lawe in audience he doth, P. lU. 367 

So that his dowhter upon soth 
Of that Marchus hire hadde accused 
He hath tofore the court excused. 

The king, which sib his pourpos faile, 
And that no sleihte mihte availe, 
Encombred of his lustes blinde 
The lawe tometh out of kinde, jitci 

5184 atood (stode) Hi . . . Bi sunteW saoi schorte J, S, P 

Kliort AC, B 5006 And ^tnig^te to be >er fettare Hi . . . Bi 

5S30 torned AH . . . Bi 

.coy Google 


ViRciKiA.] And half in wiatbthe as thogh it were, 

In presence of hem alle there 
Deceived of concupiscence 
Yaf for his brother the sentence, 
And bad him that he scbolde sese 
This Maide and make him wel at ese ; 
Bot al withinne his oghne entente 
He wiste hou that the cause wente, 
Of that his brother hath the wyte 
He was himselven forto wyte. 5130 

Bot thus this maiden hadde wrong, 
Which was upon the king along, 
Bot ayein him was non Appg L 
And that the feder wiste wel : 
Wherof upon the tirannie, 
That for the lust of Lecberie 
His doubter scholde be deceived, 
And that Ilicius was weyved 
Untrew ly fro the Mariage, 
Riht as a Leon in his rage, 5140 

Which of no drede set acompte 
And not what pile scholde amounte, 
A naked swerd he puUeth oute, P. iii. a68 

The which amonges al the route 
He threste thurgh his dowhter side. 
And al alowd this word he cride: 
' Lo, take hire ther, thou wrongfull king, 
For me is levere upon this thing 
To be the fader of a Maide, 
Thogh scbe be ded, than if men saide siso 
That in hir lif scbe were schamed 
And I therof were evele named.' (s45o*) 

Tho bad the king men scbolde areste 
His bodi, bot of thilke heste, 
Lich to the chaced wylde boi, 
The houndes whan he fieleth sor, 
Tothrowetb and goth forth his weie, 
In such a wise forto seie 

5939 fro] for J, AdBT 5047 take (tMfce) AC, S, F tak J, B 

5051 Hchimed ALH, A 

.coy Google 


This worth! kniht with swerd on honde [Tal 

His weie made, and thei him yonde , 5J60 

That non of hem his strokes kej>te ; 

And thus upon his bore he lepte, " 

And with his swerd droppende of blod, 

The which withinne his douhter stod. 

He cam ttaer as the pouer was 

Of Rome, and tolde hem al the cas, 

And seide hem that the! mybtea liere 

Upon the wrong of his matiere, 

That betre it were to redreace 

At horn the grete unrihtwisnesse, 5170 

Than forto werre in strange place 

And lese at hom here oghne grace. 

For thus stant every mannes lif P. ill. a6g 

In jeupartie for his wif 

Or for his dowhter, if thei be 

Passende an other of beaute. 

Of this merveile which thei sibe 
So ap parant tofore here yhe, 
Of that the king him hath misbore, 
Here othes thei have alle swore ^iSo 

That thei wol stonde be the riht. 
And thus of on acord upriht^ 
To Rome at ones hom ayein 
Thei tome, and schortly forto sein, 
This tiiannye cam to mouthe, 
And every man seith what he couthe, 
So that the prive tricherie, 
Which set was upon lecherie, 
Cam openly to mannes Ere; 
And that br<%hte in the comtin feere, 5190 

That every man the peril dradde 
Of him that so hem overladde. 
Foithi, er that it worse falle, 
Thurgh comun conseil of hem alle - 

5963 Al wiLb ... of blood T Al w;)> . . . al blod B Wit> . . . al 

blode Ad 5967 Mide AJ, SB seid F 5068 t^is AHBi 

5»75 And for AdBT Or of W 5379 ht^ bim AM, W 5093 
ffor Jey B 

.coy Google 


[Tale or Viroikia.] 

modo Hatrimoniuni, 
cuius status Sacramen ■ 
turn, quasi continen- 
ciatn equiperans, eci- 
am honeste delecU- 
cionis regitnine mo- 
derari debet. El nar- 
rat in exempluin, qua- 
liter pro CO quod illi 
vii."'" viri, qui Sarre 
Raguelis filie mogis 
propter concupiscen- 
ciam quam propter 
matriinoDium volup- 
tiiose nupseniDt, vnua 
post alium omnes pri* 
ma nocle a deoione 
Asmodeo singillatiin 


Thei have here wrongful! king deposed, 

And bem in whom it was supposed 

The conseil stod of his ledinge^ 

Be lawe unto the dom thei bringe, 

Wher thei receiven the penance 

That longeth to such governance. 5300 

And thus thunchaste was chastised, 

Wherof thei myhte ben avised (ssoo*) 

That scholden afterward goveme, P. Ui. 370 

And be this evidence leme, 

Hou it is good a kit^ escbuie 

The lust of vice and vertu suie. 

To make an ende in this paitle. 
Which toucheth to the Policie 
Of Chastite in special, 

As foT conclusion final 5310 

That evety lust is to eschue 
Be gret ensample I mai argue : 
Hou in Rages a toun of Mede 
Ther was a Mayde, and as I rede, 
Sarra sche bihte, and Raguel 
Hir fader was ; and so befell. 
Of bodi bothe and of visage 
Was non so fair of the lignage, 
To seche among bem alle, as sche; 
Wherof the riche of the cite, 5310 

Of lusti folk that couden love, 
Assoted were upon hire love, 
And asken hire forto wedde. 
On was which ate laste spedde, 
Bot that was more for likinge, 
To have his lust, than for weddinge, 
As he withinne his herte caste. 
Which himrepentetb ate laste. 
For so it fell the ferste nyht, 
That whanne he was to bedde dyht, 5330 

As he which nothing god hesecheth 
Bot al only hise lustes secheth, 
5337 withinne] which in AdBT 

.CD, Google 


Abedde er he was fully warn P. Ui. a-ji [Tos 

And wolde have take hire in his Arm, 

Asmod, which was a /end^of belle, 

And serveth, as the bokes telle, 

To temp te a man of such a wise. 

Was re(^ there, and thilke emprise, 

Which he hath set upon delit. 

He vengeth thanne in such a plit, 5340 

That he his necke hath writhe atuo. 

This yonge wif was sory tho, 

Which wiste nothing what it mente; 

And natheles yit thus it wente 

Noght only of this ferste man, 

Bot after, riht as he began, 

Sexe otbre of hire housebondes 

Asmod hath take into hise bondes, 

So that tbei alle abedde deiden. 

Whan thei her hand toward hir leiden, 535a 

Noght for the lawe of Manage, 

Bot for that ilke fyri lage (S55°*) 

In which that thei the lawe excede : 

For who that wolde taken hiede 

What after fell in this matiere, 

Tber mihte he wel the sothe hiere. 

Whan sche was wedded to Thobie, 

And Raphael in compainie 

Hath tawht him hou to ben boneste, 

Asmod wan noght at thilke feste, ^jGo 

And yit Thobie his wille hadde ; 

For he his lust so goodly ladde. 

That bothe lawe and kinde is served, P. Ui 372 

Wherof he hath himself preserved, 

That be fell noght in the sentence. 

O which an open evidence 

Of this ensample a man mai se, 

That whan litdnge in the degre 

5336 serued B 5337 in such CRBi 5341 wri]>e AJC, SB 

writ> F S34S of] Tor AdBT 5348 hi*e bondes J, S, FK 

his bondM Hi . . . Bi, AdTBA, WHagd hondea (pm. his) AH 
5366 Of which AdBT, W O such Hi 

.coy Google 


triTY.] Of Manage mai forsueie, 

Wei oghte him thanne in other weie 5370 

Of lust to be the betre avised. 

For god the lawes hatb assissed 

Als wel to reson as to kinde, 

Bot he the bestes wolde biode 

Only to lawes of nature, 

Bot to the mannes creature 

G43d yaf bim reson forth withal, 

Wherof that be nature scbal 

Upon the causes modefiet. 
Its. That be schal do no lecherie, 53S0 

And yit be scbal hise lustes have. 

So ben the lawes bothe save 

And every thing put out of sclandre ; 

As whilom to king Alisandre 

The wise Philosophre tawhte, 

Whan he his ferste lore cawhte, 

Noght only upon g hastete, 

Bot upon alle honestete ; 

Wherof a king himself mai taste, 

Hou trewe, hou large, hou joust, hou chaste 5390 

Him oghte of reson forto be, 

Forth with the vertu of Pite, 

Thuigh which be mai gret thonk deserve P.iii. 973 

Toward his godd, that be preserve 

Him and his poeple in alle welthe 

Of pes, richesse, honour and heltbe 

Hier in this world and elles eke. 
essor. Mi Sone, as we tofore spieke 

In schrifte, so as thou me seidest. 

And for thin ese, as thou me preidest, 5400 

Thi love throghes forto lisse. 

That I thee wolde telle and wisse (s^oo*) 

The forme of Aristotles lore, 

I have it seid, and somdiel more 

Of othre ensamples, to assaie 

If I thi peines mybte allaie 

5379 cause AdBT 538a mar;. NoU A, F otH.C,B 53S3 putAJ. 
SB pit F S3B8 boDCtte Hi ... Bi, A, WK $3^ the om. AH 

.coy Google 


Thu^h eny thit^ that I can seie, [Chas 

Do wey, mi fader, I you preie : Am. 

Of that ye have unto me told 
I thonke you a thousendfold. 5410 

The tales sounen in myn Ere, 
Bot yit myn herte is elleswhere, 
I mai miselve noght restreigne, 
That I nam eveie in loves peine : 
Such lore couthe I nevere gete, 
Which myhte make me foryete 

point, bot if so were I slepte, 
That I my tydes ay ne kepte 

To thenke of love and of his lawe ; 

That herte can I ni^ht witbdrawe. 5410 

Forthi, my goode fader diere, 

Lef al and speke of my matiere 

Touchende of love, as we begonne : P. ill. 974 

If that ther be oght overronne 

Or (^ht foryete or left behinde 

Which falleth unto loves kinde, 

Wherof it nedetb to be schrive, 

Nou axeth, so that whil I live 

1 myhte amende that is jays.. 

Mi goode diere Sone, yis. 5430 

Thi schrifte foito make plein, 
Ther is yit more forto sein 
Of love which is unavised. 
Bot for thou scbalt be wel avised 
Unto thi schrifte as it belongeth, 
A point which upon love hongeth 
And is the laste of alle tho, 
I wol thee telle, and thanne ho. 

Explicit Liber Septimus. 

5407 wbicb I AdBT 541 1 iaiaen F 5417 S ktaUaltwo 

Itatns (5417— viii. 336) 5433 atom. Hi . . . Bi,AdBT 5406 in 
to (into) AUBi 

.coy Google 



PoBtqiuun ad i nstan- 
ciam Anumtis conressi 
Confessor Genius su- 
per htU que Ariwo- 
tiles Regem Alexan- 
alianim Cronicarnnl 
exemplis serfose tract- 
suit, ism vltimo in isto 
octauo volumine ad 
conressionem in amo- 

tractare proponit su- 
per hoc. quod nonnulli 
primordia naturead li- 
bilum voluplume < 
sequentes, nulki hu- 
mane radonU arbitrio 
seu ecclede legum ' 
posicione a suis ' 
cessibus debiterefKD- 
antur. Vnde quate- 
nus amorem concemit 
Amantis consciendam 
pro finali sue confes- 
sionis materia Geoius 

Indpit Liber Octavus. 

i. Quejauet ad vicium vetus hec modo regula confert, P. iii.375 
Ntc nouus econtra gut docet ordo placet. 
Ctcus amor duduit rumdum sua lumitia cefiit. 
Quo Venus imponlum deuia fallil iter. 

The myhti god, which unbegunne 
Stant of himself and hath beguDne 
Alle othre thinges at his wille. 
The hevene him liste to fulfille 
Of alle joie, where as he 
Sit inthronized in his See, 
And hath hise Angles him to serve, 
Suche as him liketh to preserve, 
So that tbei mowe noght forsueie : 
fiot Lucifer he putte aweie, 10 

With al the route apostazied 
Of hem that ben to him allied, 
Whicbe out of hevene into the helle 
From Angles into fendes felle; 
Wher that ther is no joie of lyht, 
Bot more derk than eny nyht 
The peine schal ben endeles ; P. UL 376 

And yit of fyres natheles 
Ther is ptente, bot thei ben blake, 
Wherof no syhte mai be take. lo 

Thus whan the thinges ben befalle, 
That Luciferes court was falle 
Wher dedly Pride hem hatb conveied, 
Anon forthwith it was pourveied 
Thurgh him which alle thinges may ; 
13 the MM. All ... Bi, AdBTAA, W 

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He made Adam the sexte day 

In Paradis, and to his make 

Him liketb Eve also to make, 

And bad hem cresce and multiplie. 

For of the mannes Progenie, 

Which of the womman schal be bore, 

The nombre of Angles which was lore, 

Whan thei out fro the _blisse felle, 

He thc^hte to restore, and felle 

In hevene thilke holy place 

Which stod tho voide_upon his grace. 

Bot as it is wel wiste and knoire, 

Adam and Eve bot a throwe. 

So as it scholde of bem betyde. 

In Faradis at thilke tyde 

Ne duelten, and the cause why. 

Write in the bok of Genesi, 

As who seith, alle men have herd, 

Hou Raphael the fyri swerd 

In honde tok and drof hem oute, 

To gete here lyves fode aboute 

Upon this wofull Erthe hiere. P. 

Metodre seith to this matiere. 

As he be revetacion 

It hadde upon avision, 

Hou that Adam and Eve also 

Viipnes comen bothe tuo 

Into the world and were aschamed, 

Til that nature hem hath reclamed^ 

To love, and tauht hem thilke lore, 

That ferst thei keste, and overmore 

Thei don that is to kinde due, 

Wherof thei badden fair issue. 

A Sone was the ferste of alle. 

And Chain be name thei him calle ; 

Abel was after the secounde, 

And in the geste as it is founde, 

Nature so the cause ladde, 

37 wisM AJ, F wUt C, B 48 his A 60 C 

Chaym (Ci^iii) Hi . . . Bi, AdBT, W 

.coy Google 


Tuo douhtres ek Dame Eve hadde, 
The ferste cleped Calmana 
Was, and that other Delbora. 
IarriageO Thus was manldnde to beginne; 

Forth! that time Jt was no Sinne 
The Soster forto take hire brother, 
Whan that ther was of chois DOti Other : 70 

To Chain was Calmana betake, 
And Delborara hath Abel take. 
In whom was gete natheles 
Of worldes folk the ferste encres. 
Men sein that nede hath no lawe, 
And so it was be tbilke dawe 
And laste into the Secounde Age, P. iU. 378 
Til that the grete water rage, 
Of Noe which was seid the flod. 
The world, which thanne in Senne stod, 80 
Hath dreint, cnitake l yves Eyhte. 
Tho was mankinde of litel weyhte ; 
Sem, Cham, Japhet, of these thre. 
That ben the Sones of Noe, 
The world of mannes nadon 
Into multiplicacion 
Was tbo restored newe ayein 
So ferforth, as the bokes sein, 
That of hem thre and here issue 
Ther was so Urge a retenue, 90 

Of naciouns seventy and tuo; 
In sondri place ech on of tbo 
The wyde world have enhabited. 
Bot as nature h«n hath excited, 
Thei token thanne litel hiede, 
The brother of the Sosterhiede 
To wedde wyves, til it cam 
Into the time of Habraham. 
Whan the thridde Age was begunne. 
The nede tho was oveminne, 100 

7iChamAJH Cluyin(Cayn)Hi . ..Bi,AdBT,W la Delbora 
Hi...B<(Debon)E),A,W 71 into A, FW vntoCLBi, B 79 
theoM.A 98H«braluunJ,FK rwlAbnhaQi ioawM>aAllL 

.coy Google 


For ther was poeple ynouh in londe : [LawsopW 

Thaone ate ferate it cam to honde, 

That SosEerhode of maiiage 

Was tomed into ^ousinagej 

So that after the rihte lyne 

The Cousin weddeth the cousine. 

For Habraham, er that he deide, P. iii. 979 

This charge upon his servant leide, 

To him and in this vise spak, 

That he his Sone Isaac no 

Do wedde for no worldes good, 

Bot only to his oghne blod: 

Wherof thb Servant, as he bad, 

Whan he was ded, his Sone hath lad 

To Bathuel, wher he Rebecke 

Hath wedded with the whyte necke; 

For sche, he wiste wel and syh, 

Was to the child cousine nyh. 
And thus as Habraham hath tawht, 

Whan Isaac was god betawht^ no 

His Sone Jacob dede also, 

And of Laban the dowhtres tuo, 

Which was his Em, he tok to wyre, 

And gat upon hem in his lyve, 

Of hire ferst which hihte Lie, 
Sex Sones of his Progenie, 
And of Rachel tuo Sones eke : 
The remenant was forto seke, 
That is to sein of foure mo, 
Wherof he gat on Bala tuo, 130 

And of Zelpha be hadde ek tweie. 
And these tuelve, as I thee seie, 
Thurgh providence of god himselve 
Ben seid the Patriarkes tuelve; 
Of whom, as afterward befell, 
The Jfihpa tuelve of Irahel 
Engendred were, and ben the same P. iii. 980 
That of Hebreus tho hadden name. 
Which of Sibrede in allianc e 
i tribuB UHiCBi, Ta, W Ir>)id (Irael) J, FK nU Israd 

.coy Google 


For evere kepten thiike usance 140 

Most comunly, til Ciist was bore. 

Bot afterward it was fortxHe 

Amonges ous that ben baptized; 

For of the lawe ca nonized 

The Pope hath bede to the men, 

That non schal wedden of his ken 

Ne the seconde ne the thridde. 

Bot thogh that holy cherche it bidde, 

So to restieigne Manage, 

Ther ben yit upon loves Rage tjo 

Full manye of suche nou aday 

That taken wher thei take may. 

For love, which is unbesein 

Of alle reson, as men sein, 

ThUTgb sotie and thurgh nycete^ 

Of his voluptuosite 

He spareth no condicion 

Of ken ne yit jdigion, 

Bot as a cpck;_ among' the Hennes, 

Or as a Stalon in the Fennes, 160 

Which goth amonges al the Stod, 

Riht so can he nomore good, 

Bot takth what thit^ comth next to honde. 

Mi Sone, tbou schalt undeTstonde, 
That such delit is forto blame. 
Forthi if thou hast be the same 
To love in eny such manere, P- ill- aSi 

Tell forth tberof and schrif thee biere. 

Mi fader, nay, god wot the sothe, 
Mi feire is noght of such a bothe, 170 

So wylde a man yit was I nevere. 
That of mi ken or lief or levere 
Me liste love in such a wise : 
And ek I not for what emprise 
I scholde assote upon a Nonne, 
For thogh I badde hir love wonne. 
It myhte into no pris amonte, 
ide Hi . . . Bt, AdBT 148 it om. GC, BA 170 in such 

177 InybleAU 

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So therof sette I non acompte. 

Ye mai wel axe of this and that, 

Bot sothli forto telle plat, iSo 

In at this world ther is bot on 

The which myn hene hath pverg on ; 

I am toward alle othre fre. 

Full wel, mi Sone, nou I see 
Thi word slant evere upon o place, 
Bot yit therof tbou hast a grace, 
That thou thee myht so wel excuse 
Of love such as som men use, 
So as I spak of now tofore. 
For al such time of love is lore, 190 

And lich unto the bitterswete; 
For thogh it thenke a man ferst swete. 
He schal wel lielen ate laste 
That it is_ sour and may noght laste. 
For as a morsell envenimed. 
So hath such love his lust mistimed,. 
And grete ensamples manyon P. 111. aSa 

A man mai finde therupon. 

At Rome ferst if we b^nne, 
Ther schal I finde hou of this sinne 100 

An Emperour was forto blame, 
Gayus Caligula be name, 
Which of bis oghne Sostres thre 
Berefte the virginite : 
And whanne he hadde hem so forlein, 
As he the which was al vilein, 
He dede hem out of londe exile. 
Bot afterward withinne a while 
God hath beraft him in his ire 
His lif and ek his large empire : 
And thus for likinge of a throwe si 

For evere his lust was overthrowe. "^ 

Of this sotie also I finde, 

185 The AH, W t8S Nich AJ, B sucbe F aoj so 

ft. AdBT 910 margin impuac cm. BT, W inpunllum £ 

la margin priiuuit] preliauit Hi ■ . . B> 

[ La wg or H ARDiACE.] 

Hie loquitur contra 
ilios, quos Venus sui 
deaiderii feruore in- 
flamnuiisitM inccstuo- 
sos efficit,vtnequepra- 
priis Sororiinis par- 

Gsyus C«li- 

virgines coitu illicito 
apressit, deus tanti 
scelerii peccatum im- 

P punenonferens.ipsmn 
noD aalutn ab imperio 

dice priuauil. 

.CD, Google 


. exemphini «uper co- 
de n, qiuJiterAinonli- 
Itua Dauid fatui amoris 
concupiscenCM pre- 
Thamar a sue viixini- 


Amon his Soster ayein Itinde, 

Which hihte Thamar, he Jorlay ; 

Bot be that lust an other day 

Ab^hte, whan that Absolon 

His oghne brother thetupon, 

Of that he badde his Soster schent, 

Tok of that Senne vengement >to 

And slowb him with bis oghne bond : 

And thus thunkinde unkinde fond. 

And forto se more of this thing, 
The bible makth a knowleching, 
Wherof thou miht take evidence 
Upon the sothe experience. 
Whan Lothes wif was overg^ P. ili. 383 

And schape into the salte Ston, 
As it is spoke into this day, 
Be bothe hise dowhtres thanne he lay, 130 

With childe and made hem bothe grete. 
Til that nature hem wolde lete. 
And SO the cause aboute ladde 
That ech of hem a Sohe hadde, 
Moab the ferste, and the seconde 
Amon, of whiche, as it is founde. 
Cam afterward to gret encres 
Tuo nacions : and natheles, 
For that the stockes were ungoode. 
The branches mihten nc^ht' Be goode ; 140 

For of the false Moabites 
Forth with the strengthe of Amonites, 
Of that thei weren ferst misgete, 
The poeple of god was ofte upsete 
In Irahel and in Judee, 
As in the biblea man mai se. 

Lo thus, my Sone, as I thee seie, 
Thou miht thiselre be beseie 
Of that thou hast of othre herd : 

098 vnto HCL, BT 931 and inade] be made AM . . . Bi, 

AdTB 337 gret AC, B grete F 039 not (nought) goode 

AH...B), AdBT 345 lrabelMMLi36 

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For evere yit it hath so Terd, 
Of loves lust if so befalle 
That it in other place falle 
Than it is of the lawe set, 
He which his love hath so beset 
Mote afterward repenie him sore. 
And every man is othres lore; 
Of that befell in time er this 
The present time which now is 
May ben enformed hou it stod, 
And take that him thenketh good, 
And leve that vhich is noght so. 
Bot forto loke of time go, 
Hou lust of love excedeih lawe, 
It oghte forto be withdrawe ; 
For every man it scholde drede, 
And nameliche in his Sihred e, 
Which tometh ofte to vengance: 
Wherof a tale in remembrance. 
Which is a long process to hiere, 
I thenke forto tellen hiere. 

P. ill. a84 

I. Otuniius est eommunii amor, set et i; 

Qui faeit excesius, non reputaiur arnam, 
Sors lamen vnde Venus aitraclat corda, videre 

Que radonis erunt, ho» radon* stmt. 

Of a Cronique in daies gon, 
The which is cleped Pantheon, 
In loves cause I rede thus, 
Hou that the grete Antiochus, 
Of whom that Antioche tok 
His ferste name, as seith the bok, 
Was coupled to a noble queene. 
And hadde a dowhter hem betwene-. 
Bot such fortune cam to honde, 
That deth, which no king mai withstonde, 
Bot every lif it mote obeie, 
This woTthi queene tok aweie. 

Hie loquitur adhuc 
contra incestuosoE «- 
man turn coitus. £t 

plum de ma^o Rege 
Antiocho, qui vxore 
niortu« propriun Pli- 
ant violauit : et quia 
filie HatrimoDiiun pe- 
nes alios impedire vo- 
iuit, taJe ab eo exiit 
edictum, quod si quia 
eam iu viorem pete- 
380 ret, nisi ipse prius quod- 
dam probleniB ques- 
tionis, quam ips« Rex 
proposuerttt,v- — 

36a ago AU . . . Bt, AdBTA a8o matgin 
. . Bi, BT {L^Jom. Ada, W> 

.coy Google 

soluerel, capital! sen- 

per quo veaiens tan- 
dem discretus iuuenis 
princeps Tyri Appol- 
inus questionem sal- 
uit ; nee tuoen Gliatn 
habere potuit, set Rex 
ter hoc in mortis odium 
recollegit Vnde Ap- 
polinus a <acie Regis 
fugiuns, quamplure, 
prout inferius intitu. 
lantur. propter amo- 
rempericla passu est. 


The king, which made mochel mone, P. lli. 085 

Tho stod, as who seith, al him one 

Withoute wif, bot natheles 

His doghter, which was piereles 

Of beaute, duelte aboute him stJIle. 

Bot whanne a man hath welthe at wille, 

The fleissh is frele and falleth ofte, 

And that this maide tendre and softe, 190 

Which in hire fadres chambres duelte, 

Withinne a time wtste and felte: 

For liktnge and concupiscence 

Withoute insihte of conscience 

The fader so with lustes blente. 

That he caste al bis hole entente 

His c^hne doghter forto spille. 

This king hath leisir at his wille 

With strengtbe, and wbanne he time sih, 

This yonge maiden he forlih : 300 

And sche was tendre and full of drede, 

Sche coutbe noght hir Maidenhede 

Defende, and thus scl)e hath forlore 

The flour which sche hath longe bore. 

It helpeth ni^ht althogh sche wepe, 

For thei that scholde hir bodi kepe 

Of wommen were absent as thanne ; 

And thus this maiden goth to manne. 

The wylde fader thus devoureth 

His oghne fleissh, which non socoureth, 310 

And that was cause of mochel care. 

Bot after this unklnde fare 

Out of the chambre goth the king, P. iii. 386 

And sche lay stille, and of this thing, 

Withinne biiself such sorghe made, 

Ther was no wiht that mibte hir glade, 

For feere of tbiike horrible vice. 

With that cam inne the Norrice 

Which fro (^ildhode hire hadde kept, 

S91 chambre (chamber) HHiXEC, AdBTO, WK 993 and] of 

AH . . . Bi, AdBT agS The king Hi . . . B>, AdBT 310 

which (HM.B 

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And axeth if sche badde slept, jio 

And why hire chiere was unglad- 

Bot sche, which hath ben overlad 

Of that sche myhte noght be wreke. 

For schame couthe unethes speke; 

And natheles mercy sche preide 

With wepende yhe and thus sche seide: 

' Helas, mi Soster, waileway, 

That evere I sih this iike day I 

Thing which mi Ixidi ferst begat 

Into this world, onliche that 330 

Mi worldes worschipe hath bereft' 

With that sche swouneth now and eft, 

And evere wissheth after deth. 

So that welnyh hire lacketh breth. 

That other, which hire wordes herde. 

In confortinge of hire ansuerde. 

To lette hire fadres fol desir 

Sche wiste no recoverir : 

Whan thing is do, ther is no bote, 

So suRren thei that suffre-rootej 340 

Ther was non other which it wiste. 

Thus hath this king al that him hste 

Of his likinge and his plesance, P. iil. 387 

And laste in such continuance. 

And such delit he tok therinne. 

Him thoghte that it was no Sinne; 

And sche dorste him nothing withseie. 

Bot feme, which gotb every weie. 
To sondry regnes al aboute 
The grete beaute telleth oute 350 

Of such a maide of hih parage : 
So that for love of manage 
The worthi Princes come and sende. 
As thei the whiche al honour wende. 
And knewe nothing hou it stod. 
The fader, whanne he understod. 
That thei his dowhter thus besoghte, 

337 5 nsumta 354 the om. AdBT, W 355 bow ^t 

H> . . . Bi, AdB 

.coy Google 

De aduentu Appol- 
ini in Antiochiam, vbi 
ipse filiam Regis An- 
tiochi in vxorem pos- 


With al his wit he caste and thoghte 

Hou that he myhte finde a lette; 

And such a Statu t-thanne he sette, 360 

And in this wise his lawe he taxeth, 

Th^ what man that his doghter axeth, 

Bot if he couthe his question 

Assoite upon sufmesl Jmx. 

Of certein thinges that befelle, 

The whiche he wolde unto him telle, 

He scholde in certein lese his hed. 

And thus ther weren manye ded, 

Here hevedes stondende on the gate. 

Till ate laste longe and late, 370 

For lacke of ansuere in the wise, 

The remenant that weren wise 

Eschuieden to make assay. P. ill. sSS 

Til it befell upon a day 
Appolinus the Prince of Tyr, 
Which hath to love a gret desir, 
As he which in his hihe mod 
Was likende of his hote blod, 
A yong, afreissh, a lusti knyht, 
As he lai musende on a nyht 380 

Of the tidinges whiche he herde. 
He thoghte assaie hou that it ferde. 
He was with worthi compainie 
Arraied, and with good navie 
To schipe he goth, the wynd him dryveth, 
And seileth, til that he anyveth: 
Sauf in the port of Antioche 
He londeth, and goth to aproche 
The kinges Court and his presence. 
Of every naturel science, 390 

Which eny clerk him couthe teche. 
He couthe ynowh, and in his speche 
Of wordes he was eloquent ; 
And whanne he sih the king present. 
He preith he moste his dowhter have. 
B;hte (soaghte) A . . . CBt, SAdTB (In ■) wile he bim be 
36a that om. BTA, W 371 H wim EBt, Ba 

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The king ayein began to crave, 
And tolde him the condicion, 
Hou ferst unto his question 
He mote ansuere and faile noght, 
Or with his heved it schal be boght ; 
And he him azeth what it was. 

The king declareth him the cas 
With sturne lok and sturdi chiere, P. 
To him and seide in this manere : 
'With fetonte I am upbwcj 
I ete and have it nogtit forbore 
Mi modres fleissb, whos housebonde 
Mi fader forto seche I fonde, 
Which is the Sone ek of my wif. 
Hierof I am inquisitif; 
And who that can mi tale save, 
A! quyt he schal my doghter have ; 
Of his ansuere and if he iaile, 
He schal be ded withoute faile. 
Forthi my Sone,' quod the king, 
'Be wel avised of this thing, 
Which hath thi lif in jeupartie.' 

Appolinus for his partie, 
Whan he this question hath herd, 
Unto the king he hath ansuerd 
And hath leheised on and on 
The pointz, and seide thenipon : 
'The question which thou hast spoke, 
If thou wolt that it be unloke, 
It toucheth al the privete 
Betwen thin oghne child and thee. 
And stant al bol upon you tuo.' 

The king was wonder sory tho. 
And thoghte, if that he seide it oute. 
Than were he schamed al aboute. 
With slihe wordea and with felle 
He seith, 'Mi Sone, I schal thee telle, 

403 *turae F Meme A, SB lok] word B 416 of aC F 

419 this] )al AdBT the Bi aoS margiH Indignacio— Appolini 

om, SA IflS alto IMt margaial ttotta follomng Jown to L loao) 

Questio Regis An- 
. 98g t'*"^""- 

Indignacio Anliochi 
su per responsione Ap- 

.coy Google 


Though that thou be of litel wit, P.Ui.sgo 
It is no gret merreJle as yit, 
Thin age mai it noght suffise : 
Bot loke we] thou noght despise 
Thin oghne lif; for of my grace 
Of thretty daies fulte a space 
I grante thee, to ben avised.' 
>- And thus with leve and time assised 440 

This yonge Prince forth he wente. 
And understod wel what it mente, 
Withinne his herte as he was lered, 
That forto malcen him afered 
The king his time hath so deslaied. 
Wberof he dradde and was esmaied, 
Of treson that he deie scholde. 
For he the king his sothe tolde; 
And sodeinly the nyhtes tyde. 
That more wolde he noght abide, 450 

Al prively his barge he hente 
And hom ayein to Tyr he wente: 
And in his oghne wit he seide 
For drede, if he the king bewreide, 
He knew so wel the kinges herte, 
That deth ne scholde he noght asterte, 
"Hie king him wolde so poursuie. 
Bot he, that wolde his deth eschuie, 
And knew al this tofor the bond, 
Forsake he thoghte his oghne lond, 460 

That there wolde he noght abyde ; 
For wel he knew that on som syde 
This tirant of his felonie P. Ui. 391 

Be som manere of tricherie 
To grieve his bodi wot noght leve. 
li Forthi withoute take leve, 

'■ Als priveliche as evere he myhte. 

He goth him to the See be nybte 
In Schipes that be wliete laden : 
443 his om. B 446 eimaied JEC, S, FK anuied (amayed) 

AMHiXGRLB., AdBT dimuied A, W 469 tyde AMX, W 

467 margtH mare out, F as evere he] as he Hi ... Bi, Ad as \ey BT 
469 Id] Her(e) AdBTA be] ben wi> AdBTAA, W 

D,3,l,zec:,y Google 


Here ukel redy tho thei inaden 

And hale up Seil and forth thei fare. 

Bot forto tellen of the care 

That thei of Tyr begonne tho, 

Whan that thei wiste he was ago, 

It is a Fite forto hiere. 

They losten lust, they tosten chiere, 

Thei toke upon hem such penaunce, 

Ther was no song, ther was no daunce, 

Bot every menhe and roelodie 

To hem was thanne a maladie ; 

For unlust of that aventure 

Ther was noman which tok tonsure, 

In doelful clothes thei hem clothe, 

The bathes and the Stwes bothe 

Thei schetten in be every weie ; 

There was no lif which leste pleie 

Ne take of eny joie kepe, 

Bot for here li^e lord to wepe ; 

And every wybt seide as he couthe, 

' Helas, the lusti flour of youthe. 

Our Prince, oure heved, our govemour, 

Thurgh whom we stoden in honour, 

Withoute the comun assent P. U 

Thus sodeinliche is fro ous went 1 ' 

Such was the clamour of hem alle. 

Bot se we now what is befalle 
Upon the ferste tale plein. 
And tome we therto ayein. 
Antiochus the grete Sire, 
Which full of rancour and of ire 
His herte berth, so as ye herde. 
Of that this Prince of Tyr ansuerde. 
He hadde a feloun bacheler, 
Which was his prive consailer. 
And Taliait be name he bihte: 

Not* qualiter Tha- 
liulus Hi]cs,vtAppol- 
inumveneno intoxica- 
ret, lb Antiocho in 
Tynim misaus, ipso 
itndem non inuentv 
500 Antiocfaiam rediiL 

41t hale up] halet' AH . . . Bi, AdBTA 463 deeirul (delefut) 

AHL, W deedful (dedful) Hi . . . CB., AdTA dedly B 49a 

stonden Bi, AdBTA, WK 496 ttiargtH Nota om. A ... Bi, BT 

{Lai. cm. SAdA) 505 Taliait F TtaUut AJ, SB 

.coy Google 

Qoaliter Appolious 
in portu Thirds appli- 
cuil, vbi in hospick) 
cuiusdam ma^i vin 
nomine Str«agu1ionia 
hospitatus esl. 


The king a strong puison him dihte 

Withinne a buiste and gold therto, 

In alle haste and bad him go 

Stranht unto Tyr, and for no cost 

Ne spare he, til he badde lost 510 

The Prince which he wolde spille. 

And whan the king hath seid his wille. 

This Taliart in a Galeie 

With aile haste he tok his weie : 

The wynd was good, he saileth bl^ve, 

Til he tok lond upon thejyve 

Of Tyr, and forth with al anon 

Into the Burgh he gan to gon, 

And tok his In and bod a throwe. 

Bot for he wolde noght be knowe, 510 

Desguised thanne he goth him oute ; 

He sih the yepinge al aboute. 

And axeth what the cause was, P. iii. 393 

And tbei him tolden al the cas, 

How sodeinii the Prince is go. 

And whan he sih Chat it was so, 

And that his labour was in vein. 

Anon he tometh horn ayeia, 

And to the king, whan he cam nyh, 

He tolde of that he herde and syb, 530 

Hou that the Prince of Tyr is fled, 

So was he come ayein unsped. 

The king was sori for a while, 

Bot whan he sih that with no wyle 

He myhte achieve his crualte. 

He stinte his wraththe and let him be. 

Bot over this now forto telle 
Of aventures that befelle 
Unto this Prince of whom I tolde, 
He hath his rihte cours forth holde 540 

Be Ston and nedl^ til he cam 
To Tharse, and there his lond he nam. 
A BuiS^is riche of gold and fee 

510 spare he FK r/sl spare 
535 He] His F 539 which B 

.coy Google 


Was thiike time in that cite, 

Which cleped was Stiangulio, 

His wif was Dionise also : 

This yonge Prince, as seith the bok, 

With hem his herbeigage tok; 

And it befell that Cite so 

Before time and thanne also, .igo 

Thiugh strong f^mjne which hem ladde 

Was non that eny whete badde. 

Appolinus, whan that he herde P. ill. 394 

liie meschtef, hou the cite ferde, 

Al freliche of his oghne yifte 

His whete, amoi^ hem forto schifte^. 

The which be Schipe he hadde bro^it. 

He yaf, and tok of hem riht noght. 

Bot sithen ferst this world began, 

Was nevere yit to such a man 56a 

Mor joie mad than thei him made : 

For thei were alle of him so glade, 

That thei for evere in remembruice 

Made a figure in resemblance 

Of him, and in the comun place 

Thei sette him up, so that his (ace 

Mihte every maner man beholde. 

So as the cite was beholde; 

It was of jatoun overgilt: 

Thus hath he noght his yifte spilt. 570 

Upon a time with his route 

This lord to pleie goth him oute, 

And in his weie of Tyr he mette 

A man, the which on knees him grette, " 

And Hellican be name he hihte, 

Which preide his lord to have ir!»ihte_ 

Upon himself, and seide him thus, 

Hou that the grete Antiocbus 
548 him Hi, AdBT JSS wbu (when) AJC, B whanne S, F 

56s the om. AH HiXRL, Ad * B 566 him FWK it ACLBt, B 
56S So u] So t>at AH . . . Bi (So u G) 571 > ronts AH . . . 

B>, AdBT 573 tnargat prenunciauit B preminuit H 574 

the whkh on knees] which on hia kneei E, B which on knees 

•,' Dd 

Qualiler Hellic«nus 
ciuiaTyriTharatm ve- 
njeos Appoiinum de 
inaidiis Aniiocbi pre- 

.coy Google 

Qualiter Appolious 
portum Thams relln- 
quens, cum ipse per 
mare nauigio sccurio- 
rem que3iuit,aupenie- 
niente tempesute na- 
uis cum omnibus pre' 
ter ipsum solum in 
eadem contentis iuxta 
Pentapolim periclita- 


Awaiteth if he mihte him spille. 

That other thoghte and hield him slille, 580 

And thonked him of his wamynge, 

And bad him telle no tidinge^ 

Whan he to Tyr cam hom ayein, P. Ui. 895 

That he in Tharse him hadde sein. 
Fortune hath evere be muable^ 

And mai no while stonde stable: 

For now it hiheth, now it j oweth, 

Now slant upriht, now overthroweth, 

Now full of blisse and now of bale , 

As in the tellinge of mi tale 59° 

Hierafterward a man mai Here, 

Which is gret routhe forto hiere. 

This lord, which wolde don his beste, 

Withinne himself hath litel reste, 

And thoghte he wolde his place change 

And seche a contre more stnmge. 

Of Tharsiens his leve anon 

He tok, and is to Schipe gon : 

His cours he nam with Sell iipdrawe, 

Where as fortune doth the lawe, 600 

And scheweCh, as I schal reherse, 

How scbe was to this lord diverse, 

The which upon the See sche ferketh. 

The wynd aros, the weder derketb, 

It blew and made such tempeste, 

Non ancber mai the schip areste, 

Which hath tobroken al his gere; 

The Schipmen stode in such a feere. 

Was non that myhte himself jissios, 

Bot evere awaite upon the lere, *io 

Whan that thei scholde drenche at ones. 

Thar was ynowh withinne wo nes . 

Of wepinge and of sorghe ^o ; P. UL S96 

This yonge king maktb mochel wo 

So forto se the Schip tiavaile : 

Bot al that myhte him noght availe; 

no] for no Hi£ . 
in temDg(e) Hi . . 

59a As in tdling(e) AH, AdT 
598 ygonB 

.coy Google 


The mast t obrak, the Seil torof. 
The Schip upon the wawes drof, 
Til that thei sihe a londes cooste. 
Tho made avou the leste and moste, 
Be so tbei myhteo come alonde; 
Bot be which hath the See on honde, 
Neptunus, wolde noght acorde, 
Bot altobroke cab le and coide, 
Er thei to tonde myhte aproche, 
The Scbip toctef upon a roche, 
And al goth doun into the depe. 
Bot he that alle thing mai kepe 
Unto this lord was meiciable, 
And bn^hte him sauT upon a table, 
Which to the lond him hath upbore ; 
The remenant was al forlore, 
Wherof he made mochel mone. 

Thus was this yonge lord him one, 
Al naked in a povere plit: 
His colour, which whilom was whyt. 
Was thanne of water fade and pale. 
And ek be was so sore acale 
That he wiste of himself no bote, 
It halp him nothing forto mote <S4<> 

To gete ayein that he hath lore. 
Bot scbe which hath his deth forbore, 
Fortune, thogh sche wol noght yelpe, P. lil. 397 
Al sodeinly hath sent him heipe, 
Whanne him tht^hte alle grace aweie; 
Ther cam a £i;stf;s iu the weie. 
And sih a man ther naked stonde, 
And whan that he hath understonde 
The cause, he hath of him gret routhe. 
And onliche of his poveie trouthe 6jo 

Of suche clothes as he hadde 
With gret Fite this lord he cladde. 

6aoBvou (avow)A, B, F a vaw(« vou) J,S, K 604 aJtobroke 
A, S, P allobrokeC, B alto broke J 633 Therof (Ther of ) 

A...Bi,AdBT WhereloreW 635a<»H.AHR 636 was 

whilom All . . . B^ AdBT waa som lyme J 


nudua super lilus iac- 
tatMtur.vbi quidampis- 
cator ipsuro suo coUo- 
bio vealiens ad vrbem 
Pentapolim direxiL 

.coy Google 


And he him thonketh as he scholdd 

And seith bim that it schat be yolde, 

If evere he gete his stat ajrein, 

And pretde that he wolde him sein 

If nyh were en^ toun for him. 

He sdde, 'Yee^ Pentapolim, 

Wher bothe king and qoeene duellen.' 

Whanne he this tale herde tellen, 660 

He gladeth him and gan besecbe 

That be the weie him wolde teche: 

And be bim taybte ; and forth he wcnte 

And preide god with good entente 

To sende him joie after his sorwe. 

It was noght passed yit Midmorwe, 
Whan thiderward his weie he nam, 
Wher aone upon the Non be cam. 
He eet such as he roybte gete, 
And forth anon, whan he badde ete, 670 

He gotb to se the toon aboute, 
And cam tber as he fond a route 
Of yooge lueti men withalle ; P. ill. agS 

And as it scholde tho be&lle, 
That day was set of such assisse, 
That thei scholde in the londes guise. 
As be herde of the poeple seie, ' 
Here comunjpune thanne pleie; 
And crid was that thei scholden come 
Unto the gamen alle and some S80 

Of hem that ben delivere and wyhte, 
To do such maistrie as thei myhte. 
Thei made hem naked as thei scholde. 
For so that ilke game wolde, 
As it was tho custume and us, 
Amonges hem was no refus: 
The flour of al the toun was there 
And of the court also ther were, 
And that was in a large place 

667 Than (Thanne) All , , . Bi, AdBT afterward B 677 Aa 

was herd AdBT 680 game HHi, AdBTA, W gamis X 685 

As] And AH... B>, AdBT tho]t>eHi...Bt,AdBT,WK om-A 

.coy Google 


Riht evene afore the kinges face, 690 

Which Artestrathes thanne hihte. "'"'-' 

The pley was i^d riht in his sihte. 
And who most voidii was of dede 
Receive he scholde a certein mede 
And in the cite bere a pris. 
AppoliDUB, which war and wys QiuUter Appolinus 

• Of evo, guoe couthe .»_e,.te ISiS^Stl'S 

He tboghte assaie, bou so it wende, nun hanonfice recep- 

And fell among hem into game : "" '■'• 

And there he wan him such a name, 700 

So as the king himself acompteth 
That he alle othre men sunnonteth, 
And bai the pris above hem alle. P. ill. 1199 
The king bad that into hfs halle 
At Souper time he schal be broght; 
And be cam thanne and lefte it noght, 
Withoute compaignie al one: 
Was non so semlich of persone^ 
Of visage and of limes bothe. 
If that he hadde what to clothe. 710 

At Soupertime natheles 
The king amiddes al the pres 
Let depe him up among hem alle, 
And bad bis Mareschall of halle 
To setten him in such d^re 
That he upon him myhte se. 
The king was sone set and served, 
And h^ which hath his pris deserved 
After the kinges oghne word, 
Was mad beginne a Middel bord, 710 

That bothe king and queene him sihe. 
He sat and caste aboute his yhe 
And sih the lordes in astat. 
And with himself wax in debat 
Thenkende what he hadde lore, 

697 maigin aula A , , . Bi, BT 703 schuldc (Kholde) 

AdBT, W 714 hit HHreschal of b. J, S, FK hU Hardial 

ofhiab.AU...CBt,BT his nurKbal of the h. A, W )« Harchal 
o(ha b. Ad (U. 704-714 out, L) 718 badde B 

.coy Google 

Qualiter Appolinus 
in cena recumbcDS 
nichil comedil.set do- 
lorosovullu, submisso 
capite, ingemiscebat ; 
qui tandem a filia 
Regis confortatua cy- 
Iharam plectens cunc- 
tis audicDlibua citha- 
risando vltramodiim 


And such a some he tok theribre, 
That he sat evere stille and thoghte, 
As he which of no mete roghte. 

The king behield his ^evynesse, 
And of his grete gentillesse 730 

His doghter, which was fair and good 
And ate bord before him stod, 
As it was thilke time usage, P. lli. 300 

He bad to gon on his message 
And fonde forto make him glad. 
And sche dede as hire fader bad, 
And goth to him the sofle pas 
And axeth whenne and what he was, 
And preith he scholde his tboghtes leve. 
He seith, 'Ma Dame, be your leve 740 

Mi name is bote Appolinus, 
And of mi richesse it is thus. 
Upon the See I have it lore. 
Tbe contre wher as I was boie, 
Wher that my lond is and mi rente, 
I lefte at Tyr, whan that I wente : 
The worschipe of this worldes aghte. 
Unto the god ther I betaghte,' 
And thus togedre as thei tuo speeke, 
The teres ninne be his cheeke. 750 

The king, which therof tok good kepe, 
Hath gret File to sen him wepe, 
And for his doghter sende ayein, 
And preide hir faire and gan to sein 
That sche no lengere wotde drecche, 
Bot that sche wolde anon forth fecche 
Hire harpe and don al that sche can 
To glade with that sory man. 
And sche to don hir fader heste 760 

Hir harpe fette, and in the feste 
Upon a Chaier which thei fette 
Hirself next to this roan sche sette: 

733 margin mazjine ingemiscebal A . . . B>, BT {Latin om. SAdA) 
747 of I"" worldes aghte J, Sa, FWK Jier of (feror) which I aughle 
AM . . . Bi, AdBT 748 I Jerfe) Hi . . . Bi, AdBT 

.coy Google 


With harpe bothe and elc with raoutbe P. lil. 301 

To him sche dede al that sche couthe 

To make him chiere, and evere he siketh, 

And sche him axeth hou him liketh. 

' Ma dame, certes wel,' he seide, 

' Bot if ye the mesure pleide 

Which, if you list, I scbal you liere, 

It were a glad thing foito hiere.' 770 

' Ha, lieve sire,' tho quod sche, 

'Now tak the harpe and let me se 

Of what mesure that ye mene.' 

Tho preith the king, tho preith the queene, 

Forth with the lordes alle arewe, 

That he som merthe wolde schewe ; 

He takth the Harpe and in his wise 

He tempreth, and of such assise 

SJngende he barpeth forth withal, 

That as a vois celestial 7S0 

Hem thoghte it souneth in here Ere, 

As th<^h that he an Angel were. 

Thei gladen of his melodie, 

Bot most of all the compainie 

The kinges d<^hter, which it herde, 

And thoghte ek hou that he ansuerde. 

Whan that he was of hire opposed, 

Withinne hir herte hath wel supposed 

That he is of gret gentitesse. 

Hise dedes ben therof witnesse ;go 

Forth with the wisdom of his lore ; 

It nedeth noght to seche more, 

He myhte noght have such tnanere, P. Hi. 303 

Of gentjl £lod bot if he were. 

Whanne he hath harped al his fiUe, 

The kinges heste to fulfille, 

Awey goth dissh, awey goth cuppe, 

Doun goth the bord, the cloth was uppe, 

Thei risen and gon out of halle. 

77a tMk)> (Uke)>) AH 789 he] it AH. . . Bi, AdBT 786 hou 
th«t] offBt AHi . , . B., AdBT fat H howe W 787 he was] 

it was Hi ... Bi, AdBT 

.coy Google 

Qiuliter filut Regis 
Appolinum omato ap- 
paralu vcstiri fedt, et 
ipse ad puelle doctri- 
nam in quampluribus 
ramiliariter intendc' 
bat : vnde placsta 


The king his chambeileiii let calle, Soo 

And bad that he be alle weie 
A cbambre for this man pourveie. 
Which nyh his oghne cbambie be. 
' It scbal be do, mi lord,' quod he. 
Appolinua of whom I mene 
The tok his leve of king and queaie 
And of the worthi Maide also. 
Which preide unto hir &der tho, 
That scbe myhte of that yonge man 
Of tho sciences irtiiche he can Sio 

His lore have; and in this wise 
The king hir granteth his aprise. 
So that himself therto assente. 
Thus was acorded er thd wente. 
That be with al that evere he may 
This yonge faiie freisshe May 
Of that he couthe scholde enfonne ; 
And fiili assent ed in this forme 
Thei token leve as for that nyht. 

And wbanne it was amorwe lybt, 810 

Unto this yonge man of Tyr 
Of clothes and of good atir 
With gold and SelvgL to despende P. iii 303 
This worthi yonge lady sende : 
^ And thus sche made him wel at ese, 

And he with al that he can plese 
Hire serveth wel and iaire ayein. 
He tawhte hir til sche was f gtein 
Of Haipe, of Citole and of Rote, 
With many a tun and many a. note S30 

Upon Musique, upon mesure, 
And of hire Harpe the temprure 
He tawhte hire ek, as he wel couthe. 
Bot as men sein that (tdt is youtbe. 
With leisii and continuance 
This Mayde fell upon a chance, 

809 that] >e Hi . . . Bi, AdBT 617 he scholde AdB aa^ 

Hire] He AdBT 899 of Citole] dtolc B and citole K 830 tun] 
timeX, B 

.coy Google 


That lore bath mad him a querele 
Ayein hire youtbe freissh and frele, 
That malgie v\im Bche wole or noght, 
Sche mot with al hire hertes thoght 840 

To love and to his lawe obeie ; 
And that sche schal ful sore abeie. 
For sche wot nevere what it is, 
Bot evere among sche fieleth this : 
Thenkende upon this man of Tyr, 
Hire herte is hot as eny fyr. 
And otherwhile it is acale; 
Now is sche red, nou is sche pale 
Riht after the condicion 

Of hire ymaginadon ; S50 

Bot eveie among hire tht^htes alle, 
Sche thoghte, what so mai be&lle, 
Or that sche lawhe, or that sche wepe, P. ill. 304 
Sche wotde hire goode name kepe 
For feere of wommanysshe schame. 
Bot what in erpest and in game, 
Sche stant for love in such a plit, 
That sche hath lost al appetit 
Of mete, of drinke, of nyhtes reste, 
As sche that not what is the heite; S60 

Bot forto thenken al hir fille 
Sche hield hire ofte times stille 
WithJnne hir chambre, and goth noght oute : 
The king was of hire lif in doute, 
Which wiste nothing what it mente. 
Bot fell a time, as he out wente 
To walke, of Princes Sones thre 
Ther come and felle to his kne ; 
And ech of hem in sondri wise 
Besc^hte and profreth his servise, 870 

So that he myhte his doghter have. 
The king, which wolde his honour save, 

839 wokle AdBT 845 Toucliing(e) AH . . . Bi, AdBTA 

S59 may so AHR 856 and in game] what in g;am« HE, B and 
whatiDEameCLBtiAdT 859 and drinke HCL, BT ofdrinkyngW 
860 that OM. AHHi e^a tiu(e) honour AJHi . . . L, AdBT 

Qualiter tres fiUi 
Prindpuin filiani Re- 
gis singiUatim in vx- 
orem suts supplicacio- 
nibuB postulanint. 

.CD, Google 

Qualiter filia Regis 
omnibus aliis relictis 


Seith sche is siek, and of that speche 
Tbo was no time to beseche; 
Bot ech of hem do make a bille 
He bad, and wryte his oghne wille, 
His name, his &der and his good ; 
And whan sche wiste hou that it stod. 
And hadde here billes oversein, 
Thei scholden have ansuere ayein. 
Of this conseil thei weren glad, 
And writen as the king hem bad, 
And evety man his <^hne bok P. i 

Into the kinges hond betok, 
And he it to his dowhter sende, 
And preide hir forto make an ende 
And wryte ayetn hire oghne bond, 
Riht as sche in hire berte fond. 
The billes weren wel received, 
Bot sche hath alle here loves weyved. 
And thoghte tho was time and space 
To put hire in hir fader grace, 
And wrot ayein and thus sche saide : 
'The schame which is in a Maide 
With speche dar noght ben unloke, 
Bot in writinge it mai be spoke; 
So wrjrte I to you, fader, thus : 
Bot if I have Appolinus, 
Of al this world, what so betyde, 
I wol non other man abide. 
And certes if I of him foile, 
I wot riht wel withoute faile 
Ye schuU for me be dowhteries.' 
This lettre cam, and ther was press 
Tofore the king, ther as he stod ; 
And whan that he it understod. 
He yaf hem ansuer by and by, 
Bot that was do SO prively, 
That non of othres conseil wiste. 
Thei toke her leve, and wber hem liste 
Thei wente forth upon here weie. 
S to nuke AdBT 893 put AJ, S, F putte C, 1 

.coy Google 

Qualiter Rex et 


The king ne wolde noght bewrde 
The conseil for no manei hihe, P. Ui. 306 

Bot soffreth til he time sihe : ~ gin«"'i'"'^mariUBiun 

And whan that he to chamhre is come, fi'ie sue cum Appolu 

He hath unto his conseil none 
This man of Tyi, and let him se 
The lettre and al the privete, 
The which his dowhter to him sente: 
And he his kne to grounde bente 990 

And thonketh him and hire also, 
And ei thei wenten thanne atuo, 
With good herte and with good corage 
Of fill! Love and full manage 
The king and he ben hoi acorded. 
And after, whanne it was recorded 
Unto the dowhter hou it stod. 
The yifte of at this worldes good 
Ne scholde have mad hir half so bl ythe ; 
And forth withal the king als .ssiihe, 930 

For he wol have hire good assent. 
Hath for the queene htr moder sent. 
The queene is come, and whan sche herde 
Of this matiere hou that it ferde, 
Sche syh debat, sche syh desese, 
Bot if sche volde hir dowhter plese. 
And is therto assented full. 
Which is a dede wonderfull, 
F« noman knew the sothe cas 
Bot he himself, what man he was ; 940 

And natheles, so as hem thoghte, 
Hise dedes to the sothe wrogbte 
That he was come of gentil blod : P. 111. 307 
Him lacketh noght bot worldes good. 
And as therof is no despeir. 
For sche schal ben hire fader heir, 
And he was able to governe. 
Thus wol thei n(%ht the love werne_ 
Of him and hire in none wise, 
woHdes A . , . Bi, AdT w6 ftdres (ftders) AM . . . Bj 

.coy Google 


filic Regis Dupoil, ct 
prima nocte cum ea 
concubiens if 

Quililer Ambacu- 
lores « Tyro in qua- 
darn naui Pentapolim 


Bot ther acorded thei dWise 950 

The day and time of Miriage. 

Wher love is lord of the corage, 
Him thenketh longe er that be spede ; 
Bot ate laste unto the dede 
The time is come, and in her wise 
With giet ^Srende and saaifise 
Thei wedde and make a riche feste, 
And eveiy thing which was honeste 
Withinnen house and ek withoute 
It was so don, that al aboute 960 

Of gret wOTschipe, of gret noUesie 
Ther aide many a man largesse 
Unto the lordes hihe and loude; 
The knyhtes that ben yonge and proude, 
Thei jouste ferst and after daunce. 
The day is go, the nyhtes chaunce 
Hath detied al the brybte Sonne ; 
This lord, which hath hii love wonne, 
Is go to bedde with his wif, 
Wher as thei ladde a lusti lif, 970 

And that was after somdel sene, 
For as thei pleiden hem betwen^ 
Thei gete a child betwen hem tuo, P. iii. 308 
To whom fell after mochel wo. 

Now have I told of the spousaHes. 
Bot forto speke of the niervailes 
Whiche afterward to hem befelle, 
" It is a wonder forto telle. 

It fell adai thei riden oute, 
The king and queene and al the route, 980 
To pleien hem upon the stronde, 
Wher as thei sen toward the londe 
A Schip sailende of gret array. 
To knowe what it mene may, 

950 Paragmpk hrr, F ther] al (aUe) AM . . . B., AdBT 

9^ which was] ]>al was W was Ad was riht AU . . . Bi, BT 
96landgrelAHHiE.. . Bi.BT andorgretX 96a many man 

AHiEC, AdBT many m«H X 970 lede B 975 spouulcB FK 

979 adai (aday) J, P • dai (a day) AC, SB 

.coy Google 


Til it be come thei abide ; [Apollohiith or 

Than sen thei itonde on every side, ^"^^ 

Endlong the scbipea bord to scbeve, 

Of Fenonceais a ricbe rewe. 

Thei axon when the schip is come : 

Fro Tyr, anon ansuerde some, 990 

And over this thei seidcn more 

The cause why thei comen fore 

Was forto secbe and fbrto finde 

Appolinus, which was of Idnde 

Her liege loid : and be appieretb, 

And of the tale which he hiereth 

He was ribt glad ; for thei bim folde, 

That for vengance, as god it wolde, 

Antiochus, as men mai wite, 

With tbondrc- and lyhtbnynge is foismite; tooo 

His doghter hath the same chaunce^ 

So be thei bothe in o balance; 

' Forthi, ou/e liege lord, wa seie P. iii. 309 

In name of al the lond, and pieie, 

That left al other thii% to done, 

It Uke you to come 9one 

And se jroiire o^me liege men 

With othie that ben of youre ken, 

That live in longtime and desir 

Til ye be come aydn to Tyr.' loio 

This tale after the king it hadde 

Pentapolim al oveiSEra^^Ci 

Tber was no joie forto secbe ; 

For every man it hadde in speche 

And seiden alle of on acord, 

'A worthi lung achal ben cure lord; 

That thoghte ous ferst an hevmesse 

Is schape ous now to gret gladnesse.' 

Thu^ gotb the tidinge overid. 

Bot nede he root, that nede scbal: loio Quaiiter AppoUno 

Appolinus his leve »k, cumvxoresMimpreg- 

rata a Penlapoti ver- 

To god and al the lond betok sua Tyrum nauiganii- 

994 WIS rWK is A ... Bi, S ... A lom forto sms'te AH 

1009 liuen in AH) . . . Bi, A4BT& 

.coy Google 


bus, contigit vxorem, 
mortto articulo uigiu- 
tiaUun, in n«ui Rliarn, 
que postea Thaisia 
vocabatur, parere. 

Qualiler Appolinns 
vxoris sue mortetn 


With al the poeple long and brod, 
That he no lenger there abod. 
The king and queene sonre made, 
Bot yit somdiel thei weren glade 
Of such tbii^ as thei herden tho : 
And thus betwen the wel and wo 
To Gchip be goth, his wif with childe, 
The which was evere j neke and pi ylde 
And wolde D<%ht depaite him fro, 
Such love was betwen hem tuo. 
Lichorida for hire office P. 

Was take, which was a Norrice, 
To wende with this yonge wif. 
To whom was schape a woful U£ 
Witbinne a time, as it betidde. 
Whan thei were in the See amidde, 
Out of the NoTth they sihe a cloude ; 
The stonn aros, the wyndes loude 
Thei blewen many a dredful blast. 
The wel kne was al overcast. 
The derke nyht the Sonne hath under, 
Tber was a gret tempeste of thunder : 
The Mone and ek the Steries bothe 
In blake cloudes thei hem clothe, 
Wherof here brihte lok thei hyde. 
This yonge ladi wepte and cride, 
To whom no confort myhte availe; 
Of childe scbe began travaile. 
Wher sche lay in a Caban dos : 
Hire wofiil lord fro hire aros, 
And that was longe er eny morwe. 
So that in anguisse and in sorwe 
Sche was delivered al be nyhte 
And ded in every mannes syhte; 
Bot natheles for al this wo 
A maide child was bore tho. 

Appohnus whan he this knew, 
For sorwe a swoune be overthrew, 

1034 lenserr F 1047 ber« (her) AC, SB hire J, P 

detde AdBT 1060 a swoune JC, SS, F 

.coy Google 


That noman wiste in him no Hf. 

And whanne he wok, he seide, 'Ha, wif, 

Mi lust, mi joie, my desir, P. ill. 311 

Mi welthe and my recoFcrir, 

Why schal I live, and thou schalt dye? 

Ha, thou fortune, I thee deffie, 

Nou hast thou do to roe thi werste . 

Ha, herte, why ne wolt thou berste. 

That forth with hire I myhte passe? 

Mi peines weren wel the lasse.' 1070 

In such wepinge and in such cry 

His dede wif, which lay him by, 

A thousend sithes he hire kiste; 

Was nevere man that sih ne wiste 

A sorwe unto his sorwe lich ; 

For evere among upon the lich 

He fell swounende, as he that soghte 

His <^hne deth, which he besoghte 

Unto the goddes alle above 

With many a pitous word of love ; 1080 

Bot suche wordes as tho were 

Yit herde nevere mannes Ere, 

Bot only thilke whiche he seide. 

The Maister Schipinan cam and preide 

With othre suche as be therinne, 

And sein that be mai nothing winne 

Ayein the deth, bot thei him rede. 

He be wel war and tak hiede, 

The See be weie of his nature 

Receive mai no creature 1090 

Withinne himself as forto holde. 

The which is ded : forthi thei wolde, 

As thei conseilen al aboute, P. iii. 31a 

The dede body casten cute. 

For betre it is, thei seiden alle, 

That it of hire so befalle. 

Than if thei scholden alle spille. 

io«6 »nd my desir AdBT, W and desir J 1069 it myhte 

FWK 1076 For evere] W« euer(e) AHi . , . Bi, AdBT Wa« 

.coy Google 



Qiuliler suadenti- 

bus naiitU corpus vx- 

quadam Cislaplumbo 
el ferro <d>tiisa que 
circumligtta Appoli- 
nliB cum magiio tbe- 
saurovnicum quadam 
litteia sub eius capite 
scripts recludi et in 
mare proici fecit 

Copia liltere Appo- 
lini capiti vxoris sue 


The king, which undentod here wiUe 
And knew here conseil that was trewe, 
Began ayein his sorwe newe iioo 

With pitous herte, and thus to seie : 
'It is al reson that ye pieie. 
I am,' quod fae, 'bot on al one. 
So wolde I no^t for mi peisone 
Tber felle such adreisite. 
Bot whan it mai no betre be, 
Doth tbanne thus upon my word, 
Let make a cofre strong of boid, 
That it be ftrm with Je_d and pich.' 
Anon was mad a cofre sich, mo 

Al redy broght unto hia hood ; 
And whanne fae sih and redy fond 
This cofre mad and wel endowed. 
The dede bodi was besowed 
In cloth of gold and leid therinne. 
And for he wolde unto hire winne 
Upon som cooste a Sepulture 
Under hire bered in arenture 
Of gold he leide Sommes grete 
And of jeueals a strong beyete mo 

Forth with a lettre, and seide thus: 

' I, king of Tyr Appollinus, 
Do alle maner men to wite, P. Hi. 313 

That hiere and se this lettre write, 
That belpelfis. withoute red 
Hier Uth a kii^es doghter ded : 
And who that happeth hir to finde, 
For charite tek in his raynde, 
And do so that scbe be begrave 
With this fresor, which he schal have,' 1130 
Thus whan the lettre was full spoke, 
Thei haue anon the cofre stoke, 
logS Latm htrt and at tiaa, 1141, 1151, 1304, 1373, ■4*4 o*"- ^ 
{up ft> 0099 om. A) ttoa margin obtusa qK(C,B obtosaqiwA, F 
1 106 marg. id man A . . . Bi, BT 1107 >is AdBT t t 10 sich (tjche, 
swiche)AJURBi,BA,W such(snche) HiXECL, SAdT.FK tiao 
ofjeuealsa1ofIeweles(Ieweb)AU...Bi,AdBT orUtelewelesaW 
iia8takAJ,S,F UkeC,B 1131 whaii(wlien)AJ,SB wluuMeF 

.coy Google 


And bounden it with yrai faste, 
That it may with the wawes laste, 
And stoppen it be such a weie. 
That it schal be witbinne dreie, 
So that no water myhte it grieve. 
And thus in hope and good believe 
Of that the corps schal wel aryve, 
Thei caste it over boid als blyve. 

The Schip forth on the wawes wente ; 
The prince hath changed his entente. 
And seith he wol nogbt come at Tyr 
As tbanne, bot al his desir 
Is ferst to seilen unto Tharee. 
The wynd y Storm began to skarse, 
The Sonne arist, the weder cliereth, 
The Schipman which behinde stiereth. 
Whan that he sih the wyndes saghte, 
Towardes Tharse bis cours be stragh te. _ 

Bot now to mi matiere ayein, 
To telle as olde bokes sein, 
This dede corps of which ye knowe P. L 
With wynd and water was forthrowe 
Now bier, now ther, til ate laste 
At Ephesim the See upcaste. 
The cofre and al that was therinne. 
Of gret merveile now beginne 
Mai biere who that sitteth stille ; 
That god wol save mai noght spille. 
Riht as the corps was throwe alonde, 
Ther cam walkende upon the stronde 
A wortbi clerc, a Surgien, 
And ek a gret Fhisicien, 
Of al chat lond the wisest on, 
Which hihte Maister Cerymon ; 
Tber were of his disciples some. 
This Maister to the Cofre is come, 
He peiseth ther was somwhat Jn, 
And bad hem here it to bis In, 
a This prince AJH, SA 1156 margin suum om. A . 

1168 the] )QS BA, W 

Qualiter Appolinus, 
vxoris sue corpore in 
mare proiecto, Tyrum 
relinqueos cursum 
suum versus Tluirsim 
nauigio dolens arri- 


dkte defuncte super 

litus apud Ephesim 
. 314 quidam medicus no- 
mine Cerymon cum 
aliquibus suis discipu- 
lis inuenit ; quod in 
bospicium suum por- 
tana et extra cisUm 
ponens, spiraculo vite 
in ea idhuc inuento, 
ipsam plene sanitali 

.CD, Google 


And goth himselve forth withal. 

Al that schal falle, felle schal ; 

They comen horn and tarie noght; 

This Corre is into chambre broght, 

Which that the! finde faste stoke, 

Bot thei with craft it have unloke. 

Tbei loken in, where as thei founde 

A bodi ded, which was bewounde 

In cloth of gold, as I setde er. 

The tresor elc thei founden ther iiso 

Forth with the lettre, which thei rede. 

And tho thei token betre hiede ; 

Unsowed was the bodi sone, P. ill. 315 

And he, which knew what is to done, 

This nobte clerk, with alle haste 

Began the veines forto tastCi, 

And sih hire Age was of youthe, 

And with the craftes whiche he couthe 

He soghte and fond a signe of lif. 

With that this vorthi kinges wif 1190 

Honestely thei token oute, 

And maden fyres al aboute ; 

Thei leide hire on a coucbe softe, 

And with a scheete warmed ofte 

Hire colde brest began to hete. 

Hire herte also to (lacke and bete. 

This Maister hath hire every joignt 

With certein oile and balsme enoignt, 

And puite a liquour in hire mouth, 

Which is to fewe cierkes couth, noo 

So tliat sche coevereth ate laste : 

And ferst hire yhen up sche caste, 

And whan sche more of strengthe cawhte. 

Hire Armes bothe forth sche strawhte, 

Hield up hire bond and pitously 

Sche spak and seide, ' Ha, wher am 1 7 

Where is my lord, what world is this ? ' 

1 1 78 was iwounde (I wouade dec.) AM . . . L waa Ibounde Bi lay 
ywounde AdBT 1184 which ... is] )«l . . . was AH . . . Bi, 

AdBT iao6 Ha om, HXR, AdBT, W 

.coy Google 


As scbe that wot n<^ht hou it is. ' 

Bot Cerymon the worthi leche 

Ansuerde anon upon hire speche mo 

And seith, 'Ma dame, yee ben biere, 

Where yee be sauf, as yee schal hiere 

Hierafterward ; forthi as nou P. lii. 316 

Mi conseil is, conforteth you : 

For iTusteth wel withoute faile, 

Ther is nothing which schal you faile, 

That c^hte of reson to be do.' 

Thus passen thei a day or tuo; 

Thei speke of nt^t as for an ende, 

Til sche began somdiel amende^ ujo 

And wiste hireselren what sche mente. 

Tho forto knowe hire hoi entente, 
This Maister axeth al the cas, 
Hou sche cam there and what sche was. 
' Hou I cam hiere wot I noght,' 
Quod sche, 'bot wel I am bethc^ht 
Of othre thinges al aboute ' : 
Fro point to point and tolde him oute 
Als ferf orthlj. as sche it wiste. 
And he hire tolde hou in a kiste 1130 

The See hire threw upon the lond, 
And what tresor with hire he fond. 
Which was al redy at hire wille, 
As he that schop htm to fulfille 
With al his myht what thing he scholde. 
Sche thonketh him that he so wolde, 
And al hire herte sche discloseth, 
And seith him wel that sche supposeth 
Hire lord be dreint, hir child also; 
So sih sche noght bot alle wo. 1140 

Wheiof as to the world nomore 
Ne wol sche tome, and preith therfore 
That in som temple of the Cite, P. iii. 317 

To kepe and holde hir chastete, 
Sche mihte among the wommen duelle. 
I aaa bol (bool) C, B, F hole ABi 1304 margin sacro] facto BT 
1040 sih] s«i)> AUL 


Qualiter Txor Ap- 
polini sanata dotnum 
retigionia peciit, vbi 
sacro velamine muni- 

.CD, Google 



Whan he this tale hJr herde teUe, 

He was riht glad, and made hire knowen 

That be a dowhter of his owen 

Hath, which he wol unto hir yive 

To serve, wbil tbei botbe liTe, 125° 

In stede of that which sche hath lost ; 

Al only at his <%hne cost 

Sche schal be lendred forth with hire. 

She seith, 'Grant mercy, lieve sire, 

(iod quite it you, ther I ne may.' 

And thus thei drive forth the day, 

Til time com that sche was hoi ; 

And tho thei take her conseil hoi, 

To schape upon good orditiance 

And make a worthi pourveance i:ea 

Ayein the day whan thei be veiled. 

And thus, whan that thei be conseiled. 

In blake clothes thei hem clothe. 

This lady and the dowhter botbe, 

And yolde hem to r eligion. 

The feste and the profession 

After the reule of that degre 

Was mad with gret solempnete, 

Where as Diane is seintefied ; 

Thus stant this lady justefied 117a 

In ordre wher sche thenkth to duelle. 

Bot now syeinward forto telle 
In what plit that hire lord stod inne: P.IU.31S 
He seileth, til that he may wiane 
The havene of Tharse, as I seide er ; 
And whanne he wa^ aryved ther, 
And it was thuigh the Cite knowe, 
Men myhte se withinne a throve, 
As who seith, al the toun at ones, 
That come ayein him for the nones, laSo 

To yiven him the reveraice. 
So glad thei were of his presence : 

lasa tmtom.B 1353 schal] ha|' AdBT 

AdBT, W i96o made AH. . . . B^ AdBT 
1977 And FW Tho ACLBi, B 

ia74 % 

.coy Google 


And thogh be were in his cor^e [Apohonius 

Desesed, yit with glad visage *"'■■' 

He made hem chiere, and to his In, 

Wher he whilom sojourned in, 

He goth him straght and was resceived. 

And whan the presse of poeple" is weived . 

He takth his hc^e unto him tho. 

And seith, 'Mi frend Strangulio, 1190 

• Lo, thus and thus it is befalle, 

And thou thiself art on of alle, 

Forth with thi wif, whiche I most triste. 

Forthi, if it you bothe liste, 

My dogbter Thaise be youre leve 

I thenke schal with you beleve 

As for a time; and thus I preie, 

■Tliat sche be kept be alle weie. 

And whan sche hath of age more, 

That sche be set to bokes lore. tjoo 

And this avou to god I make, 

That I schal nevere for hir sake 

Mi herd for no likinge schave, P. iil. 319 

Til it befalle that I have 

In covenable time of age 

Beset hire unto manage.' 

Thus thei acorde, and al is wel. 

And forto resten him somdel, 

As for a while he ther sojomelh, 

And thanne he taklh his leve and tometh 1310 

To Schipe, and goth him bom to Tyr, 

Wher every man with gret desir 

Awaiteth upon his comynge. 

Bet whan the Schip com in seilinge. 

And thci perceiven it is he, 

Was nevere yit in no cite 

Such joie mad as thei tho made; 

His bene also began to glade 

Of that he sih the poeple glad. 

Lo, thus fortune his hap hath lad; ijm 

■393 whiche A, 5, F which JC, B 1315 And parceiuen )>al it B 
1319 l^cFW bisACLBt, B 

.coy Google 


Qualiler Thaysis 

vna cum Philotenna 
Strangulionis et Dio- 

Irina imbuU est : set 
Thaisia PhUotcnnam 
precellens in odium 


In sondri wise he was travailed, 
Bot hou so evere he be assailed, 
His latere ende schal be good. 

And forto speke hou that it stod 
Of Thaise his doghter, wher sche duelleih, 
In Tharse, as the Cronique telleth, 
Sche was wel kept, sche was wel loked, 
Sche was wel tawht, sche was wel boked, 
So wel sche spedde bir in hire youlhe 
That sche of every wisdom couthe, i 

That forto seche in every lond 
So wys an other noman fond, 
Ne so wel tawht at mannes yhe. P. ilL ; 
Bot wo worthe evere fals envie ! 
For it befell that time so, 
A dowbter hath Strangulio, 
The which was cleped Philotenne: 
Bot iame, which wole evere renne, 
Cam al day to hir moder Ere, 
And seith, wher evere bir doghter were i 
With Thayse set in eny place, 
The comun vois, the comua grace 
Was al upon that other Maide, 
And of hir doghter noman saide. 
Who wroth but Dionise thanne? 
Hire th<%bte a thousend yer til wbanne 
Sche myhte ben of Thaise wreke 
Of that sche berde folk so speke. 
And fell that ilke same tyde. 
That ded was trewe Lychoride, 
Which hadde be servant to Thaise, 
So that sche was the worse at aise. 
For sche hath thanne no servjge 
Bot only thui^h this Dionise, 
Which was hire dedlicb Anemie 
Thurgh pure treson and envie. 
Sche, that of alle sorwe can, 
'llio spak unto hire bondeman, 
Which cleped was Theophilus, 

1334 worje J, F wor(i AC, SB 

.coy Google 


And made him swere in conseil thus, iit^ 

That he such time as sche him sette 

Schal come Thaise fono fette. 

And lede hire oute of alle sihte, P. lit 3tii 

Wher as noman hire heipe myhte, 

Upon the Stronde nyh the See, 

And there he schal this maiden sle. 

This cherles herte is in a traunce. 

As he which drad him of vengance 

Whan time comth an other day ; 

Bot yit dorste he noght seie nay, 1370 

Bot swor and Eeide he schal fulfille 

Hire hestes at hire oghne wille. 

The treson and the time is schape. 
So fell it that this cherles knape 
Hath lad this maiden ther he wolde 
Upon the Stronde, and what sche scholde 
Sche was adrad ; and he out breid.e 
A rusti swerd and to hir seide, 
'Thou schalt be ded.' 'Helas!' quod sche, 
'Why schal I so?' 'Lo thus,* quod he, 1380 
'Mi ladi Dionise hath bede, 
Thou schalt be moerdredin this stede.' 
This Maiden tho for feere schryhte. 
And for the tove of god almybte 
Sche preith that for a litet stounde 
Sche myhte knele upon the grounde, 
Toward the hevene forto crave, 
Hire wofuU Soule if sche mai save : 
And with this noise and with this cry. 
Out of a bai^e laste by, 1390 

Which hidd was ther on Scomerfare, 
Men sterten out and weren ware 
Of this feloun, and he to g o, P. ill. 33a 

And sche began to crie tho, 
1364 wher )«t AU . . . &, AdBT, W 1371 swcr(e) E . . . Bs, K 
sware X 1373 margin occideret A . . . Bi, BT 1374 cherliash 

(cheriische &c) Hi . . . Bt, AdBT, K 1375 wher{e) Hi . . . Bv. 

AdBTA, W 1378 rttargiit Pirate ibidem prope] Pirate ibidem 

A . . . Bj ibidem BT 1383 margm reddiderunt AM 1386 

|at Mhe AH . , . B(, AdBT 1389 and ^U cry A 

Qualilcr Dionisia 
Thaysim, vt occidere- 
tur, Theophilo ^eruo 
stio tradidit, qui cum 
noctanter longiua ab 
vrbe ipsam propc litus 
maris interficere pro- 
posuerat, Pirate ibi- 
dem prope ladtantes 



u Gar- 

ni ficis er[puerunt, ip- 
samque vsque Ciuita- 
tes, cuidam Leonino 
scortonim ibidem 
magiHro vendiderunl. 

.CD, Google 

Qualiter Leoninus 
ThaUim ad lupanar 
destiiuiuit, vbi dei 
graciapreuenU ipsiua 
virginitatcm nullus 
violare potuit. 


' Ha, mercy, help for goddes sake ! 

Into the barge thai hire take. 

As thieves scholde, and forth thei wente. 

Upon the See the wynd hem hente, 

And malgre wher thei volde or non, 

Tofor the weder forth thei gon, 

Ther halp no Seil, ther halp non Ore, 

Fors tonned and forblowen sore 

In giet peril so forth thei diyve, 

Til ate laste thei aryve 

At Mitelene the Cite. 

In havene sauf and whan thei be, 

The Maister Scbipman made him boun. 

And goth him out into the toun. 

And profreth Thaise forto selle. 

On Leonin it berde telle, 

Which Maister of the bordel was, 

And bad biro gon a redy pas 

To fetten hire, and forth he wente, 

And~lrfiaise out of his barge he heme, 

And to this bordeller hir solde. 

And he, that be hire body wolde 

Take avantage, let do crye, 

That what man wolde his lecherie 

Attempte upon hire maidenhede, 

LeLd oun the gold and he schal spede. 

And thus whan be hath end it oute 

In syhte of al the poeple aboute, 

He ladde hire to the bordel tho. P. ii 

No wonder is thogh sche be wo: 
Clos in a chambre be hireselve, 
Ech after other ten or tuelve 
Of yonge men to hire in wente ; 
Bot such a grace god hire sente. 
That for the sorwe which sche made 
Was non of hem which pouer hade 


1399 thei] acbeB 1413 fcccheii(fechei))AH,..Bi,AdB secbenT 
141S bir] he AH ... Bi, AdBTi 1416 And )at he by (be) Hi . . . Bi 
And )nt by AH 1403 Paragraph km in USS. i4»4 No 

wonder ^ough sche were wo B No wonder >ogb sche be no Ad 

.coy Google 


c To don hire eny vileinie. 
This Leonin let evere aspie, 
And waiteth after gret beyete; 
Bot al for nf^ht, sche was forlete, 
That mo men wolde thei nc^ht come. 
Whan he therof bath hiede nome, 
And Icnew that sche was yit a roaide, 
Unto his oghne man he saide, 
That he with strengthe ayein hire leve 
Tho scholde hir maidenhod bereve. 1440 

This man goth in, bot so it ferde, 
Whan he hire wofull pteintes herde 
And he therof hath take fcepe, 
Him liate betre forto wepe 
Than don <^ht elles to the game. 
And thus sche kepte hirself fro schame, 
And kneleth doun to tberthe and preide 
Unto this man, and thus sche seide : 
' If so be that thi maister wolde 
That I bis gold encresce scholde, 1450 

It mai noght lalle be this weie: 
Bot soffre me to go mi weie 
Out of this hous wher I am inne, P. Hi. 394 
And I schal make him forto winne 
In som place elles of the toun, 
Be so it be reljgio un. 
Wher that honeste wommen duelle. 
And thus thou myht thi maister telle. 
That whanne I have a cbambre there, 
Let him do crie ay wy^ where, 1460 

What lord that hath his dc^hter diere, 
And is in will that sche schal liere 
Of such a Scole that is trewe, 
I schal hire teche of thinges newe, 
Which as non other womman can 
In al this lond.' And tho^this man 

'435 nomen wolde fer noght come K nomen wolden (leer (Iwr) 
comeAH noaan (noiiuu])wolde]>er(e)come Hi...Bi,AdBT momen 
wolde ther none come W 1447 kneled BTa 1450 good BT 

1456 be ofrel. AM . . . Bt, BT 1465 Which >Bt AM . . . Bt, BT 

.coy Google 


Hire tale hath herd, he goth ayein, 

And tolde unto his maister plein 

That sche bath seid; and therupon. 

Whan than he sih beyete non ' 1470 

At the bordel be cause of hire, 

He bad his man to gon and spire 

A place wher sche myhte abyde, 

That he mai winne upon som side 

Be that sche can : bot ate leste 

Thus was sche sauf fro this tempeste. 

He hath hire fro the bordel take, 
Bot that was noght for goddes sake, 
Bot for the lucre, as sche hJm tolde. 
Now comen tho that comen wolde 1480 

Of wommen in her lusty youthe, 
To hiere and se what thing scbe couthe : 
Sche can the wisd om of a clerk, P. 111. 3^5 
Sche can of every iusti werk 
Which to a gentil womman longeth. 
And some of hem scbe underfongeth 
To the Citg ls and to the Harpe, 
And whom it liketh forto carpe 
Proverbes and demandes slyhe, 
An other such thei nevere syhe, 141)0 

Which that science so wel tawhte: 
Wberof scbe grete yiftes cawhte, 
That sche to Leonin bath wonne ; 
And thus hire name is so begonne 
Of sondri thinges that she tecbetb. 
That al the lond unto bir secbetb 
Of yonge wommen forto liere. 

Nou lete we this maiden hiere, 
And speke of Dionise ayein 
And of Theopbile the vilein, 1500 

Of whicbe I spak of nou tofore. 
Whan Thaise scholde have be forlore, 
This false cherl to his lady 
Whan he cam bom, al prively 

1484 «Dy AM . . . B>, B 
1503 margin configcDles F 

1476 fro] of AM . . . Bi, BT 
i5ooThcopbileAJC,T,F TheophilB 

.coy Google 

turn ad extra subdala 


He seith, ' Ma Dame, slain I have [Apouonius o 

This maide Thaise, and is begrave 
In prive place, as ye me bJede. 
Forthi, ma dame, taketh hiede connituenint. 

And kep conseil, hou so it stonde.' 
This fend, which this hath understonde, 1510 

Was glad, and weneth it be soth : 
Now herkne, hierafter hou sche doth. 
Sche wepth, sche sorweth, sche compleigneth, P. iii. 326 
And of sieknesse which sche feigneth 
Sche seith that Taise sodeinly 
fie nyhte is ded, 'as sche and I 
Tc^edre lyhen nyh my lord.' 
Sche was a womman of record, 
And al is lieved that sche seith; 
And forto yive a more fdth, 1510 

Hire housebonde and ek sche bothe 
In blake clothes thei hem clothe, 
And made a gret enterrementj 
And for the poeple schal he blent, 
Of Thaise as for the reinembiance. 
After th e real o lde usance 
A tumbe of latoun noble and riche 
AVith an ymage unto hir liche 
Liggende above therupon 

Thei made and sette it up anon. 1530 

Hire EpitafTe of good assisse 
Was write aboute, and in this wise 
It spak: '0 jee that this beholde, 
Lo, bier lith sche, the which was holde 
The faireste and the flour of alle, 
Whos name Thaisis men calle. 
The king of Tyr AppoUnus 
Hire fader was: now lith sche thus, 
Fourtiene yer sche was of Age, 

\Vhan deth hir tok to his viage.' 1540 

Thus was this false treson hi^d, 

1505 ich haue AM 1509 kepe|> BT isia Now se her 

after B Now hiere after T 1513 lorweth] ctieji BT 1583 

make BT d»«. W 1534 Ihe om. AM, A, W 

.coy Google 



Tyrum existeni ] 
liimeDtum fieri < 

Qualiter Appolinus 
post parliamentum 
Tharsira pro Thaise 
qua ibidem non in- 
venta abinilc navigio 


Which afterward was wyde kidd, 
.' As be the tale a man schal hiere. P. ili. 337 

Bot forto clare mi matiere, 
To Tyr I thenke tome ayein, 
And telle as the Croniqes sein. 
Whan that the king was comen hom, 
And bath left in the salte fom 
His wif, which he tnai noght foryete, 
For he som confort wolde gete, 1550 

He let somoune a parlement, 
To which the lordes were -asent ; 
And of the time he hath ben oute, 
He seth the thinges al aboute, 
And told hem ek hou he hath fare, 
Whil he was out of londe fare ; 
And preide hem alle to abyde, 
For he wolde at the same tyde 
Do schapc for his wyves mynde, 
As he that wol noght ben unkinde. 1560 

Solem pne was that ilke office, 
And nche was the sacrifice, 
The feste reali was holde : 
And therto was he wel beholde ; 
For such a wif as he hadde on 
In thilke dates was ther non. 

Whan this was do, thanne he him th<%hte 
Upon his doghter, and besoghte 
Suche of his lordes as he wolde, 
That the! with him to Tharse scholde, 1570 

To fette his dc^hter Taise there : 
And thei anon al redy were, 

To schip they gon and forth thei wente, P. ili. 328 
Til thei the havene of Tharse hente. 
They londe and faile of that thei seche 
Be coverture and sleyhte of speche : 
This false man Strangulio, 
And Dionise his wif also, 
That he the betre trowe niyhte, 

.B.,BT 1555 toIdA, B,F 

.coy Google 


Thd ladden him to have a sibte 
Wher that hir tombe was arraied. 
The lassa yit he was mispaied^ 
And natheles, so as he dorste, 
He curseth and seitb al the worsts 
Unto ftntune, as to the blinde, 
Which can no seker weie finde; 
For sche him neweth evere among, 
And medleth sorwe witli bis soi^. 
Bot sithe it mai no betre be, 

He thonketh god and forth goth he 
Seilende toward Tyr ayein. 
Bot sodeinly the wynd and reyn 
B^onne upon the See debate. 
So that he sofTre mot algate 
The lawe which Neptune ordeigneth ; 
Wherof fulofte time he pleigneth, 
And hield him wel the more esmaied 
Of that be bath tofore assaied. 
So that for pure sorwe and care, 
Of that he seth his world so iare, 1600 

The reste he lefte of his Caban, 
That for the conseil of noman 
Ayein tberinne he nolde come. P. ill. 389 

Bot hath benethe his place nome, 
Wher he wepende al one lay, 
Ther as be sib no lyht of day. 
And thus tofor the wynd thei dryve. 
Til tonge and late thei aryve 
With gret djstres^ce, as it was sene. 
Upon this toun of Mitelene, i6to 

Which was a noble cite tho. 
And hapneth thilke time so, 
The lordes bothe and the 
The hihe festes of Neptune 
Upon the stronde at the rivage. 
As it was custumme and usage, 
Sollempneliche thei besihe. 

o Qualiter Nauis Ap- 
polini veal is >giUU 
portum vrbis Hilclene 
in die quo feata Nep- 
tuni celebrare con- 
aueuenint appUcuit; 
set ipte pre dolore 
Thayais filiesue,q(uiin 
moituam repuUbat, in 
fundo nauis obscure 
iacena lumen videre 

.CD, Google 


Qua] iter Athena - 
goras vrbis Mitel«ne 
Princeps, nauim Ap- 
pollini inuestigans, ip- 

Qualiter precepto 
Principis, vt Appoli- 
num consolaretur, 
Thaiiis cuin cilhara 


Whan thei this strange vessel ayhe 
Come in, and hath his Seil avaled. 
The toun therof hath spoke and taled. 1610 

The lord which of the cite was, 
Whos name is Athenagoras, 
Was there, and seide he wolde se 
What Schip it is, and who thei be 
That ben therinne : and after sone, 
Whan that he sih it was to done. 
His barge was for him arraied, 
And he goth forth and hath assaied. 
He fond the Schip of gret Array, 
Bot what thing it amonte may, 1630 

He seth thei maden bevy chicre, 
Bot wel him thenkth be the manere 
That thei be worthi men of blod, P. Hi. 330 
And axeth of hem hou it stod ; 
And thei him tellen al the cas, 
Hou that here lord fordrive was. 
And what a sorwe that he made. 
Of which thei mai noman him glade. 
He preith that he here lord mai se, 
Bot thei him tolde it mai nc^ht be, 1640 

For he lith in so derk a place. 
That ther may no wiht sen his face : 
Bot for al that, thogh hem be loth, 
He fond the ladre and doun he goth. 
And to him spak, bot non ansuere 
Ayein of him ne mihte he bete 
For oght that he can don or sein ; 
And thus he goth him up ayein. 

Tho was ther spoke in many wise 
Amonges hem that weren wise, 1650 

Now this, now that, bot ate laste 
The wisdom of the toun this caste. 
That yonge Taise were asent. 
For if ther be amendement 

i6ai twt cite HiXELB), BT 1633 be] were B 1637 which a a. 
AM ... Bi, AdBT 1641 so] ]« AH 1646 here LBi, A, W 1649 
Paragrafkhtn ALB,, BT 0/1653 J, SAd.FW Tho] Thus A . . . Bt 

.coy Google 


To glade with this woful king, 

Sche can so moche of every thing. 

That sche schal gladen him anon. 

A Messager for hire is gon, 

And sche cam with hire Harpe on honde. 

And seide hem that sche wolde fonde 

Be alle weies that sche can, 

To glade with this soiy man. 

Bot what be was sche wiste noght, P. Ul< 

Bot al the Schip hire hath besoght 

That sche hire wit on him despende, 

In aunter if he myhte amende, 

And sein it schal be wel aquit. 

Whan sche hath undetstonden it, 

Sche goth hir doun, ther as he lay, 

Wher that sche hatpfiyi many a jay^ 

And lich an Angel sang withal ; 

Bot he nomore than the wal 

Tok hiede of eny thing he herde. 

And whan sche sih that he so ferde, 

Sche falleth with him into wordes, 

And telleth him of sondri iiaid?^^ 

And axeth him demandes strange, 

Wberof sche made his herte change, 

And to hire speche his Ere he leide 

And bath merveile of that sche seide. 

For in gTOvs[be.^nd in probleme 

Sche spak, and bad he scholde deme 

In many soubtil question : 

Bot he for no suggestioun 

Which toward bim sche coiithe stere. 

He wolde no^t o word ansuere, 

Bot as a madd roan ate laste 

His heved wepende awey he caste, 

And half in wrathtbe he bad hire go. 

Bot yit sche wolde nc^ht do so. 

And in the derke forth sche goth. 

Til sche him toucheth, and he wroth. 

1661 all(e) )« n 
■ AL3t, B, W 

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[Apollonius or And after hire with bis hood P. iii. 33s 

J He sroot : and thus whan scbe him fond 

Desesed, co urtaisly sche saide, 
'Avoi, mi lord, I am a Maide; 
And if ye wiste what I am, 
And out of what lignage I cam. 
Ye wolde noght be so salvage.' 
Qualii«r,sicutdeu£ With that he sobreth his corage 1700 

nam bu^t^^ecog- And put awey his hevy chiere. 

nouit. Bot of hem tuo a man mai liere 

What is to be so sibb of blod : 
Non wiste of other bou it stod. 
And yit the fader ate laste 
His berte upon this maide caste, 
That he hire loveth kindely, 
And yit he wiste nevere why, 
Bot al was knowe er that thei wente; 
For god, which wot here hoi entente, :7io 

Here bertes bothe anon desclosetb. 
This king unto this maide opposeth. 
And axeth ferst what was hire name. 
And wher scbe lerned al this game. 
And of what ken that sche was come. 
And scbe, that hath hise wordes nome, 
Ansuerth and seitb, ' My name is Thaise, 
That was som time wel at aise : 
In Tharse I was forthdrawe and fed, 
Ther lerned I, til I was sped, 1720 

Of that I can. Mi &der eke 
I not wher that I scbolde him seke; 
He was a king, men tolde me : P. 111. 333 

Mi Moder dreint was in the See.' 
Fro point to point al sche him tolde, 
That scbe hath longe in herte holde. 
And nevere dorste make bir mone 
Bot only to this lord al one, 
To whom hire berte can noght be\e. 
Tome it to wo, tome it to wele, 1730 

i7ioholB,F holeABi 1713 wuFW UALBt.B T715 

.coy Google' 


Tome it to good, tome it to hann. 
And he tho toke hire in his arm, 
Bot such a joie as he tho made 
Was nevere sen; thus be thei glade, 
That sory hadden be tofom. 
Fro this day forth fortune hath sworn 
To sette him upward on the whiel; 
So goth the world, now wo, now wel ; 
This king hath founde newe grace, 
So that out of his derke place 
He goth him up into the liht. 
And with him cam that swete wiht, 
His doghter Thaise, and forth anon 
Thei bothe into the Caban gon 
Which was ordeigned for the king. 
And ther he dede of a! his thing, 
And was arraiedj^ly: 

And out he cam al openly, 
Wher Athenagoras he fond. 
The which was lord of al the lond : 
He preith the king to come and se 
His castell bothe and his cite, 
And thus thei gon forth alle in.liere, P. 111. 334 
This king, this lord, this maiden diere. 
This lord tho made hem riche feste 
With every thii^ which was honeste, 
To plese with this vorthi king, 
Ther lacketh him no maner thing: 
Bot yit for al his noble array 
Wifles he was into that day, 
As he that yit was of yong Age ; 
So fell ther into his corage 
The lusti wo, the glade peine 
Of lore, which noman restreigne 
Yit nevere myhte as nou tofore. 
This lord thenkth al his world forlore, 
Bot if the king wol don him grace ; 

naa toke J, S, F tot (took) AEC, B 1750 {lat lond AJM, 

Sa 1754 maiden] doughter B 1756 which was )>o h. AM 

L761 of yong] Jong of E, B 

",• Ff 

Qualiter Athena- 
goras Appolinum de 
naui in hospiclum ho- 
1750 noriSce rccoltegit, el 
Thaisim, patre con- 
aencfenle, in vxorem 


.coy Google 

Qualiter Appolinus 

marito nauim ingredi- 
entes a Mitelena vs- 
que Tharaiiii curaum 
propoBuerunL Set 
Appolinus in somp- 
nis ammonitus versus 
Ephcsim, vt ibidem in 
tempi o Diane ucri- 
ficaret. velB per u.are 



He waiteth time, he waiteth place, 
Him th<^hte his herte wol tobreke, 
Til he mai to this tnaide speke 
And to hir fader ek also 
For manage : and it fell so. 
That al was do liht as be thoghte, 
His pourpos to an ende he broghte, 
Sche weddeth him as for hire lord ; 
Thus be thei alle of on acord. 

Whan al was do riht as thei wolde. 
The king unto his Sone totde 
Of Tharse thilke traiterie. 
And seide hou in his compaignie 
His doghter and himselven eke 
Schull go vengance forto seke. 
The Schipes were redy sone, P 

And whan thei sihe it was to done, 
Withoute lette of eny wente 
With Seil updrawe forth thei wente 
Towardes Tharse upon the tyde, 
Bot he that wot what scbat betide, 
The hihe god, which wolde him kepe, 
Whan that this king was faste aslepe. 
Be nyhtes time he bath him bede 
To seile into an other stede : 
To Ephesim he bad him drawe, 
And as it was that time lawe. 
He schal do there his sacrifise ; 
And ek he bad in alle wise 
That in the temple amonges alle 
His fortune, as it is befalle, 
Touchende his doghter and his wif 
He schal beknowe upon his lif. 
The king of this Avisioun 
Hath gret ymaginacioun, 
What thing it signefie may; 
And natheles, whan it was day, 
/He bad caste Ancher and abod ; / 

/And whil that he on Ancher rod, ' 

l^9o t« king JC 

ncher rod, / 
oHi..TB^'AdB, W 

.coy Google 


The wynd, which was tofore strange, 

Upon the point began to change, 

And torneth tbider as it scholde. 

The knew he wel that god it wolde, iSio 

And bad the Maister nialce him yare, 

Tofor the wynd for he wol fare 

To Ephesim, and so he dede. P. ill. 336 

And whanne he cam unto the stede 

Where as he scholde londe, he londeth 

With al the haste he may, and fondeth 

To schapen him be such a wise, 

That he may be the morwe arise 

And don af^ the mandement 

Of him which hath him thider sent. i8»o 

And in the wise that he thc^hte. 

Upon the morwe so he wroghte; 

His doghter and his Sone he nom, 

And forth unto the temple he com 

With a gret route in compaignie, 

Hise yiftes forto sacrifie. 

The citezeins tho herden seie 

Of such a Icing that cam to preie 

Unto Diane the godesse. 

And left at other besinesse, 1S30 

Thei comen thider forto se 

The king and the solempnete. 

With worthi knyhtes environed 
The king himself hath abandoned 
Into the temple in good entente. 
The dore is up, and he in wente, 
Wher as with gret devocioun ui 

or holi contemplacioun Si 

Withinne his herte he made his schrifte ; 
And after that a riche yifle 1S40 

He oflreth with gret reverCTice, 
And there in open Audience 
Of hem that stoden thanne aboute, P. Ul. 337 
He tolde bem and declareth oute 
t836faeiiiF iDheA...Bi,S... A.y/K. 184a euidenceAdBT 
1843 tbuuie abouie] »1 (tUle) •tK>ute AH . . . Bi, AdT )«r aboute B 

Qua! iter Appolfnus 
Ephesim in tempio 
Diuiesacrificans, vxo- 
remsusm ibidem vela- 

.CD, Google 



■Hius OF His hap, such as him is befalle, 

'^■^ Ther was nothing foryete of alle. 

His wif, as it was goddes grace, 
Which was profesed in the place, 
As sche that was Abbesse there. 
Unto his tale hath leid hire Ere : 
Sche knew the vols and the visage, 
For pure joie as in a rage 
/Sche strawhte unto him al at ones, 
And fell aswoune upon the stones, 
Wherof the temple flor was paved. 
Sche was anon with water laved, 
Til sche cam to hirself ayein, / 
And thanne sche b^an to sem : 
' Ha, blessed be the hihe sonde, 
That I mai se myn housebonde, 
That whilom he and I were on I ' 
The king with that knew hire anon. 
And tok hire in his Arm and kiste ; 
And al the toun thus sone it wiste. 
Tho was ther joie manyfold, 
For every man this tale hath told 
As for miracle, and were glade, 
Bot nevere man such joie made 
As doth the king, which hath his wif. 
And whan men herde hou that hir lif 
Was saved, and be whom it was, 
Thei wondren alle of such a cas : 
ThUTgh al the Lond aros the speche P. ill 
Of Maister Cerymon the leche - 
And of the cure which he dede. 
The king himself tho hath him bede, 
And ek this queene forth with him, 
That he the toun of Ephesim 
Wol leve and go wher as thei be. 
For nevere man of his d^e 
Hath do to hem so mochel good ; 
And he his profit understod, 
rows AH aawowen B 1861 That] Which AU . 
1877 ^ queene AM , . . Bi, AdBT 

.coy Google 


And granteth with hero forto wende. 
And thus thei maden there an ende, 
And token lere and gon to Schipe 
With a) the hole felaschipe. 

This king, which nou bath his desir, . 
Seith be wol hotde his cours to Tyr. ' 

Thei hadden wynd at wille tho, 
Willi topseilcole and forth they go, 1890 

And striken nevere, til thei come 
To Tyr, where as thei havene nome, 
And londen hem with mochel blisse. 
Tho was ther many a mowth to Idsse, 
Echon welcometh other hom, 
Bot whan the queen to londe com, 
And Thaise hir doghcer be hir side, 
The joie which was thiike tyde 
Ther mai no mannes tunge telle : 
I'hei seiden alle, ' Hier comth the welle 1900 
or alle ffommannysshe grace.' 
The king hath take his real place, 
The queene is into chambre go : P. ill. 339 
Ther was gret feste arraied Iho; 
Whan time was, thei gon to met^ 
Alle olde sorwes ben foryete, 
And gladen hem with joies oewe ; 
The descoloured pale hewe 
Is now become a rod^ cheke, 
Ther was no merthe forto seke, 1910 

Bot every man hath that be wolde; 

The king, as he wel couthe and scholde, 
Makth to bis poeple riht good chiere ; ^ 

And after sane, as thou schalt hiere, p 

A parlement he hath som moned, 
Wher he his doghter hatli coroned 
Forth with the lord of Mitelene, 
That on is king, that other queene : 
And thus the fadres ordinance 

1690 toi»ei](e) cole Hi . . . Bi, AdBTA, W 1893 havene] 

haueC,AdBT,W JiehBuexBi 1911 what he w. X . .. B., AdBT 
igiaB. margin Qualiler— fcdt am. Ba 

Qualiter Appolinus 
la cum vxore et (ilia 
utTIiyruin applicuit. 

.coy Google 


Quiliter Appdinus 
a Tyro per mare ver- 
sus TtuTsim iter arri- 
piens viodictuD coa tra 
Strangiilioiiem el Di- 
onbiaiD vxorem suam 
pro iniurja, quam ipsi 
ThaiiJ Rlie sue intule- 
runt, iudicialiterasse- 


This lond hath set in governance, 19*0 

And seide thanne he wolde wende 

To Tharse, forto make an ende 

Of that his doghter was .betraied. 

Tberof were alle men wel paied. 

And seide hou it was foito done : 

The Scbipes weren redi sone, 

And strong pouer with him he tok ; 

Up to the Slcy he caste his lok, 

And syh the wynd was covenable. 

Thei hale up Aiicber with the cable, igjo 
The Seil on hih, the Stiere in bonde, 
And seilen, til thei come alonde 
At Tharse nyh to the cite ; P. Ui. 340 

And whan thei wisten it was he. 
The toun bath don him reverence. 
He telleth hem the violence, 
Which the jretour Strangtilio 
And Dionise him hadde do 
Toucbende his dowhter, as yee herde ; 
And whan thei wiste hou that it ferde, 1940 
As he which pes and love soghte, 
Unto the toun this he besoghte, 
To don him riht in juggement. 
Anon thei were bothe asent 
With strengthe of men, and comen sone, 
And as hem thoghte it was to done, 
Atteint thei were be the lawe 
And diemed forto honge and^drawe,. 
And bient and with the wynd toblowe. 
That al the world it myhte knowe : 1950 

And upon this condicion 
The dom in execucion 
Was put anon witboute faile. 
And every man hath gret mervaile, 

i99olordB 1931 thanue])>atAlf ...Bi.AdBT 1904 Wher 
of tWberof) Hi . . . Bi, AdBT, W 1937 And F W A ACLBi. 

B 1998 Up to] Vpon AH . . . Bi, AdBT 1931 on bonde 

AH . . . Bi, AdBT, W 1939 he herde AH, W 1940 wi»le(n) 
how it AH ... Bi, AdBT, W 

.coy Google 



Pentapolim Rfge mor- 
tuo, ipside regno Epi- 
stolas super hoc Ap- 
polino direxerunt ^ 
vnde Appolinus vna 
cum vxore sua ibidem 
adu«nientes ad dccus 
imperii cum magno 
gaudio coronali sunt. 

Which herde lellen of this chance, [Ai 

And thonketh goddes pourveance, 

Which doth mercy forth with justice. 

Slain is the moerdrer^ and moerdri ce 

Thurgh verray (rowthe of rihtwisnesse, 

And thurgh mercy sauf is simplesse i960 

Of hire whom mercy preserveth ; 

Thus hath he wel that wel deserveth. 

Whan al this thing is don and ended, P. iii. 341 Qualiter Artestrate 
This king, which loved was and frended, 
A lettre hath, which cam to him 
Be Schipe fro PentapoUm, 
Be which the lond hath to him write, 
That he wolde understonde and wite 
Hou in good mynde and in good pes 
Ded is the king Artestrates, 1970 

Wherof thei alle of on acord 
Him preiden, as here liege lord, 
That he the lettre wel conceive 
And come his regne to receive, 
Which god hath yove him and fortune j 
And thus besoghte the commune 
Forth with the grete lordes alle. 
This kii^ sih how it was befalle, 
Fro Tharse and in prosperite 
He tok his leve of that Cite 1980 

And goth him into Schipe ayein : 
The wynd was good, the See was flein. 
Hem nedeth noght a Riff to slake. 
Til thei Fentapolim have take. 
The lond, which herde of that tidinge, 
Was wonder glad of his cominge ; 
He resteth him a day or tuo 
And tok his conseil to him ibo. 
And sette a time of Pariement, 
Wher al the lond of on assent 1990 

Forth with his wif hath him corouned, 

1967 In which AH . . . Bi, AdBT 1973 wil (wol) conceyue 

HiEL, W woI(e) resceyue AdBT 1978 ia beUle AdB, W 

was falle L 

.coy Google 


[Apollonius or Wher alle goode him was fuisouned. 

^'"■■' Lo, what it is to be wel ^Quoded: P. iii. 343 

For he hath ferst his love found ed 
Honesteliche as forto wedde, 
Honesteliche his love he spedde 
And hadde children with his wif, 
And as him liste he ladde his lif; 
And in ensample his lif was write. 
That alle lovers myhten wite jooo 

How ate laste it schal be sene 
Of love what thei wolden mene. 
For se now on that other side, 
Antiochus with al his Pride, 
Which sette his love unkindely . 
His ende he hadde al sodeinly, 
Set ayein kinde upon vengance. 
And for his lust hath his penance. 
ConressoradAman- Lo thus, mi Sone, myht thou Here 

""' What is to love in good manere, joio 

And what to love in other wise : 
The mede arist of the aervise ; 
Fortune, th<^h sche be noght stable, 
Yit at som time is favorable 
To hem that ben of love trewe. 
Bot certes it is forto rewe 
To se love ayein kinde falle, 
For that makth sore a man to falle. 
As thou myht of tofore rede. 
Fortbi, my Sone, I wolde rede lojo 

To lete al other love aweie, 
Bot if it be thurgh such a weie 
As love and reson wolde acorde. P. Ui. 343 
For elles, if that thou descorde. 
And take lust as doth a heste, 
Thi love mai noght ben honeste; 
For be no skile that I finde 

199a wBi him AH, A, W 1999 hii lif waa write A . . . Bi, 

S . . . A as it is write FWK IM06 fae hadde *J] he hadde J, 

Sa (had) hadde (had) AM . , . Bi, AdBT 0009 margm Confessor 
ad Amantem om. JEC, AdBT Confessor B>, A, W 

.coy Google 


Such lust is noght of loves kinde. 
Mi tader, bou so that it stonde, 
Youre tale is herd and understonde, 
As thing which worthi is to hier^ 
Of gret ensample and gret matiere, 
Wherofi my fader, god you quyte. 
Bot in this point miselT aquite 
I mat riht wel, that nevere yit 
I was assoted in my wit, 
Bot only in that worthi place 
Wher alle lust and alle grace 
Is set, if that danger ne were. 
Bot that is al my moste fere: 
1 not what ye fortune acompte, 
Bot what thii^ danger mai amonte 
I wot wel, for I have assaied; 
For whan myn herte is best arraied 
And I have al my wit thurghsoght 
Of love to beseche hire oght, 
For al that evere I sidle may, 
I am concluded with a nay : 
That o sillable hath overthrowe 
A thousend wordes on a rowe 
Of suche as I best speke can ; 
Thus am I bot a lewed man. 
Bot, fader, for ye ben a clerk 
Of love, and this matiere is derk, 
And I can evere leng the lasse, 
Bot yit I mai noght let it passe, 
Youre hole conseil I beseche. 
That ye me be som weie teche 
What is my beste, as for an ende. 

Mi Sone, unto the trouthe wende 
Now wol I for the love of thee. 
And lete alle othre tnifHes be. 

The more that the nede is hyh, 
The more it nedeth to be slyh 

ao4j (hile] sike AdBT 9056 let S, F lete AJ, B 

truffles AJC,S,F trifles {trifflo) L, B travailes W 


[The Lover re- 
quires COOMSEL.] 
Confessio Amantis, 
*'>i° pro finJi con- 
clusion e consifium 
Confessoris impelnit 


.CD, Google 



Hk super Amoris 
causa linila confes- 
sione, Conressor Ge- 
nius Amanii ea que 
aibi salubrius expedi- 
unt,asnoconsilio lina- 
IJtcr iniungit. 


To him which hath the nede on honde. 

I have wel herd and understonde, 

Mi Sone, al that thou hast me seid. 

And ek of that thou hast roe preid, 

Nou at this time that I scfaat 

As for conclusioun final lofo 

Conseile upon thi nede settei: 

So thenke I finaly to knette 

This cause, where it is tohroke. 

And make an ende of that is spoke. 

For I behihte thee that yifte 

Ferst whan thou come under my schrifte, 

That thogh I toward Venus were, 

Yit spak I suche wordes there, 

That for the Presthod which I have, 

Min ordre an3~min astat to save, jo8o 

I seide I wolde of myn office 

To vertu more than to vice 

Encline, and teche thee mi lore. P. Ui. 345 

Forthi to speken ovetmore 

Of love, which thee mai availe, 

Tak love where it mai ni^ht foile : 

For as of this which thou art inne, 

Be that thou seist it is a Sinne, 

And Sinne mai no pris deserve, 

Withoute pris and who schal serve, 1090 

I not what profit myhte availe. 

Thus folweth it, if thou travaile, 

Wher thou no profit hast ne pris, 

Thou an toward thiself unwis : 

And sett thou myhtest lust atteigne, 

Of every lust thende is a peine. 

And every peine is good to He ; 

So it is wonder thing to se, 

Why such a thing schal be desired. 

ao7t Conseile J, S, F Conseil (Counseil) AC, B 0073 Thi 

(_yy) cause A , . . Bi, S.,.& where] ^er B aoS6 ooght 

faile] auaile AH . . . Bi, AdBT {lint om. R) 3095 sett] ai|>e (dt', 
se>|ie &c.) JHxERLBi, AdBT, W sertein if A 0098 It U Hi, 

FK is it AJHX ... El, S ... A, W 

.coy Google 


The more that a Stock is fyred, *ioo 

The rathere into Aisshe it tometh; 

The fot which in the weie spometh 

Fulofte his heved hath overthrowe; 

Thus love is blind and can noght knowe 

Wher that he goth, til he be falle : 

Forthi, bot if it SO befalle 

With good conseil that he be lad, 

Him (%hte fono ben adrad. 

For conseil passeth alle thing 

To him which thenkth to ben a king; ano 

And every man foi his partie 

A kingdom hath to justefie, 

That is to sein his oghne dom^ P. iii, 346 

If he misreule that kingdom, 

He lest himself, and that is more 

Than if he loste Schip and Ore 

And al the worldes good withal : 

For what man that in special 

Hath noght himself, he hath noght elles, 

Nomor the perles than the schelles : juo 

Al is to him of o value: 

Thogh be badde at his retenue 

The wyde world riht as he wolde, 

Whan he his herte hath noght withholde 

Toward himself, al is in vein. 

And thus, my Sone, I wolde sein, 

As I seide er, that thou aryse, 

£r that thou falle in such a wise 

That thou ne mybt thiself rckevere ; 

For love, which that blind was evere, 1130 

Makth alle bis servantz blinde also. 

My Sone, and if thou have be so, 

Yit is it time to withdrawe, 

And set thin herte under that lawe. 

The which of reson is governed 

And noght of will And to be lemed, 

Ensamples thou hast many on 

3104 This BT Thi Ad And W 9106 so be befalle P 

3134 set AJ, S, F sette CLBi, B 

.coy Google 

[The CoNFEsaoM 

Hie loquiturde con- 
troucTsia, que inier 
Con ressorem et Aman- 
tem in fine confewia- 
nU vembatur. 


or now and ek of time gon, 

That every lust is bot a while; 

And who that nole himself b^iiile, 1140 

He may the rathere be deceived. 

Mi Sone, now thou hast conceived 

Somwhat of that I wolde mene ; P. Ui. 347 

Hierafterward it schal be sene 

If that thou lieve upon mi tore ; 

For I can do to thee nomore 

Bot teche thee the rihte weie : 

Now ches if thou wolt live 01 deie. 

Mi fader, so as I have herd 
Your tale, bot it were ansuerd, 2150 

I were mochel forto blame. 
Mi wo to you is bot a game, 
That fielen nogbt of that I fiele ; 
The fielinge of a mannes Hiele 
Mai noght be .likned_to the Herte : 
I mai noght, thogh I wolde, astert^ 
And ye be fre from al the peine 
Of lov^ wherof I me pleigne. 
It ia riht esi to comaunde ; 
The hert which fre goth on the launde a 160 
Not of an Oxe what him eileth ; 
It falletb ofle a man merveileth 
Of that he seth an other fare, 
Bot if he knewe himself the &re, 
And felt it as it is in soth, 
He scholde don riht as he doth, 
Or elles werse in his degre : 
For wel I wot, and so do ye, 
That love hath evere yit ben used. 
So mot I nedes ben excused. nyo 

Bo^ fader, if ye wolde thus 
Unto Cupide and to Venus 
Be frendlich toward mi querele, P. iii. 348 

So that myn herte were in hele 

3138 agon (s goon) HiRCB), AdBT, W 0153 That feelcn noghl 
of )«t (,0m. 1 fiete) A That feelen noght . be Ukned to )« ben« M 

.coy Google' 


Of love which is in mi briest, IThb Coitmovmsv.] 

I vot wel thanne a betie Piest 
Was nevere mad to my behove. 
Bot al the whiles that I hove 
In noncertein betwen the tuo, 
And not if I to wel or wo nSo 

Schal tome, that is al my drede, 
So that I not what is to rede. 
Bot for final conclusion 
I thenke a Supplicacion 
With pleine wordes and expresse 
Wryte unto Venus the goddesse. 
The which I preie you to bere 
And bringe ayein a good ansuere. 
Tho was betwen mi Prest and me 
Debat and gret perplexete : 1190 

Mi resoun understod him wel, 
And knew it was soth everydel 
That he hath seid, bot noght forthi 
Mi will hath nothing set therby. 
For lechinge of so wis a port. 
Is unto love of no desport; 
Yit myhte nevere man beholde 
Reson, wher love was withholde, 
Thei be noght of o governance. 
And thus we fellen in distance, 1100 

Mi Prest and I, bot I spak faire. 
And thurgh mi wordes debonaire 
Thanne ate laste we acorden, P. 111. 349 

So that he seith be wol recor4fia 
To speke and stonde upon mi syde 
To Venus bothe and to Cupide; 
And bad me wryte what I wolde, 
And seith me irewly that he scbolde 
Mi lettre bere unto the queene. 
And I sat doun upon the grene mo 

ai78 whHe AH . . . Bi, AdBT, W 9179 no certein AdBT 

Ihe] )>o AU aiSo if] wher AH . . . Bi, AdBT bfqs MchiDgc 
J, Sa, FWK touchynge (touching) AH ... B), AdBTA 0003 

>ei Oey) acorden AdBT 

.coy Google 

[The SupPLiCATtow.J 


Fill 61 1 of loves fantaste, 
And with the teres of myn ye 
In stede of enke I gan to wiyte 
The wordes wKiche I wolde endite 
Unto Cupide and to Venus, 
And in mi lettre I seide thus. 

cuiusdam Supplica- 
cionU, quam ex parte 
Amantis per manus 
Genii Sacerdotis sui 
Venus sibi porrectam 

The wofull peine of loves maladie, 
Ayein the which mai no phisique availe, 
Min herte hath so bewhaped with sotie. 
That wher so that I reste or I travaile, djo 
I finde it evere redy to assaile 
Mi resoun, which that can him noght defende : 
Thus seche I help, wheiof I mihte amende. 
Ferst to Nature if that I me comple^ne, 
Ther finde 1 hou that every creature 
5om time ayer hath love in his demeine, 
So that the htel wrenne in his mesure 
Hath yit of kinde a love under his cure ; 
And I bol on desire, of which I piisse : 
And thus, Iwt I, hath every kinde his blisse. lajo 
The resoun of my wit it overpasseth, P. Ui. 350 
Of that Nature techeth me the weie 
To love, and yit no certein sche compasseth 
Hou I schal spede, and thus betwen the tweie 
I stonde, and not if I schal live or deie. 
For thogh reson ayein my will debate, 
I mai noght fie, that I ne love algate. 
Upon miself is thilke tale come, 
Hou whilom Pan, which is the god of kinde, 
With love wrastlede and was overcome: 1140 
For evere I wrasde and evere I am behinde, 
That I no strengthe in al min herte finde, 
Wherof that I mai stonden eny throwe ; 
So fer mi wit with love is overttirowe. 

aat4 wol(e) AdBT oaao or I trauaile J, S, F Uu rtsi or 

inuaile aaaS a love] of loue AM . . . B^ BT (Hati love of 

kinde jit Ad) aa4o was] is AdBT 

.coy Google 


Whom nedeth help, he mot his helpe crave, [The SvcpLicAnoK.] 

Or helpeles he schal his nede spilte: 

Pleinly thurghs<^ht my wtttes alle I have, 

Bot non of hem can helpe after mi wille; 

And als so wel I mihte sitte stille, 

As preie unto mi lady eny helpe : t>5° 

Thus wot I noght wherof misetf to helpe. 

Unto the grete Jove and if I bidde, 

To do me grace of thilke swete tunne, 

Which under keie in his celier amidde 

Lith couched, that fortune is overrunne, 

Bot of the bitter cuppe I have begunne, 

I not hou ofte, and thus finde I no game ; 

For evere I axe and evere it is the same 

I se the world stonde evere upon eschange, P. iU. 351 

Nou wyndes loude, and nou the weder softe ; 3169 

I mai sen ek the grete mone change, 

And thing which nou is lowe is eft alofte; 

The dredfull wenes into pes fulofte 

Thei tome; and evere is Danger in o place, 

Which wol noght change his will to do me grace. 

Bot upon this the grete clerc Ovide, 

Of love whan he makth his remembrance, 

He seith ther is the blinde god Cupide, 

The which hath love under his governance, 

And in his hond with many a fyri lance 1170 

He woundeth ofte, ther he wol noght hele ; 

And that somdiel is cause of mi querele, 

Ovide ek seith that love to jarfome 

Stant in the hond of Venus the goddesse, 

Bot whan sche takth hir conseil with Satome, 

Ther is no grace, and in that time, I gesse. 

Began mi love, of which myn hevynesse 

Is now and evere schal, bot if I spede.: 

So wot I n<%ht miself what is to rede. „ 

3351 )dpe AdBTA aajl I fynde 

t S971 wherAdBT 

.coy Google 

[Thi Sufflication.] 

Venua, accepts Aman- 
tis SupplicBciane, in- 
dilaCe ad singula re- 


Forthi to you, Cupide and Venus bothe, iiSo 

With al raja faertes obeissance I preie, 

If ye were ate ferste time wrothe, 

Whan I began to love, as I you seie, 

Nou stynt, and do thJIke infortune aweie, 

So that Danger, which stant of retenue 

With my ladi, bis place mai remue. 

O thou Cupide, god of loves lawe, P. ill. 35s 

That with thi Dart brennende hast set afyre 

Min herte, do that wounde be withdrawe, 

Or yif me Salve such as I desire : 1190 

FoT Service in thi Court withouten hyre 

To me, which evere yit have kept thin heste, 

Mai neveie be to loves lawe boneste. 

thou, ^«id!g.Venus, loves queene, 
Withoute gult thou dost on me thi wreche ; 
Thou wost my peine is evere aliche grene 
For love, and yit I mai it noght areche : 
This wold I for my laste word beseche, 
That thou mi love aquite as I deserve, 

Oi elles do me pleinly forto sterve. 1300 

Whanne I this Supplicacioun 
With good deliberacioun, 
In such a wise as ye nou wite, 
Hadde after min entente write 
Unto Cupide and to Venus, 
This Prest which hihte Genius 
It tok on honde to presen te, 
On my message and forth he wente 
To Venus, forto wite hire wille. 
And I bod in the place stille, 1310 

And was there bot a litel while, 
Noght full the montanc e of a Mile, 
Whan I behteld and sodeinly 

1 sih wher Venus stod me by. 

So as I myhte, under a tre F. Ut. 353 

.coy Google 


To grounde I fell upon mi kne, [\ 

And prcide hire forto do me grace : ^^ 

Sche caste hire chiere upon mi face, 

And as it were halvinge a game 

Sche axeth me what is mi name. ijio 

'Ma dame,' I seide, 'John Gower.' 

'Now John,' quod sche, 'in my pouer 

Thou most as of thi love stonde ; 

For I thi bailie have understonde, 

In which to Cupide and to me 

Somdiel thou hast compteigned thee, 

And somdiel to Nature also. 

Bot that schal stonde among you tuo, 

For therof have I noght to done; 

For Nature is under the Mone ajjo 

Maistresse of every hves kinde, 

Bot if so be that sche mai finde 

Som holy man that wol withdrawe 

His kindly lust ayein hir lawe; 

Bot sielde whanne it Mleth so. 

For fewe men ther ben of th<^ 

Bot of these othre ynowe be, 

Whiche of here oghne nycete 

Ayein Nature and hire office 

Deliten hem in soodri vice, 1340 

Wherof that sche fiilofle hath pleigned, 

And ek my Court it bath desdeigned 

And evere schal ; for it receiveth 

Non such that kinde so deceiveth. 

For al onliche of gentil love P. Ul. 354 

Mi court slant alle courtz above 

And takth nt^ht into retcnue 

Bot thing which is to kinde due, 

For elles it schal be refused. 

Wherof I holde thee excused, aaso 

For it is manye daies gon. 

3319 agame AJMRL, AdT in game A 
is] was A . . , Bi, SBTa 
Hire B 

le W 

rcatreigDcd E 

0349 dnieigneil AHiXRLBi 

if] it AUXE . . . Bi, B a 

.coy Google 


J That thou amonges hem were on 

J Which of my court hast ben withholde ; 

So that the more I am behotde 
Of thi desese to commune, 
And to remue that fortune, 
Which manye daies hath the grieved. 
Bot if my conseil mai be lieved, 
Thou schalt ben esed er thou go 
Of thilke ynsely jolif wo, 23S0 

Wherof thou seist thin herte is fyred ; 
Bot as of that thou hast desired 
After the sentence of thi bille, 
Thou most therof don at my wille, 
And I therof me wole av i se. 
For be thou hoi, it schal sufSse : 
Mi medicine is noght to sieke 
For thee and for suche olde sieke, 
Noght al per chance as ye it wolden, 
Bot so as ye be reson scholden, ijjo 

Acordant unto loves kinde. 
For in the plit which I thee finde. 
So as mi court it bath awarded. 
Thou schalt be duely rewarded ; 
And if thou woldest more crave, P. lii. 355 

It is no riht that thou it have.' 

iii. Qui eupit id quod haiere nequit, sua Umpora perdit. 
Est vbi non posse, velle salute caret. 
Non estalis opus gelidis hirsuia capillii, 
Cutn calor abcessit, eguiperaiit hiemsj 
Sicut Aaiet if of us nan dot naiura Decembri, 

Nee poterit compar floribus esse lulum; 
Sic neque decrepita senium iuvenile Toluptat 

Floret in absequium, guod Venus ipsa petit. 
Conveniens igitur foret, vt quos cana senectus 
Attigit, vlterius corpora casta colant. (lo) 

3367 f. Two tinea otn. S . . . A (.ins. A) 9366 The which is 

holsom to >e seke Hi . . . Bi 
3369 f. Noght >1 BB |>ou desire woldest 

Bot so as ]iou be roouii scholdest S . . . & 
9371-3376 5m; Unis dm. 5 ... A 
Lalm Vtrstt iii. 8 obsequium] obseMum X . . . 

.coy Google 


Venus, which slant wilboute lawe 
In noncertein. bot as men drawe 
Of Rageman upon the chance, 
Sche leith no peis in the balance, 1380 

Bot as hir tyketh forto weie; 
The trewe man fuloile aweie 
Sche put, which hath hir grace bede. 
And set an untrewe in his stede. 
Lo, thus blindly the world sche diemeth 
In loves cause, as tom e siemeth : 
I not what othre men wol sein, 
Bot I algate am so besein. 
And stonde as on amonges alle 
Which am out of hir grace falle : 139a 

It nedeth take no witnesse, 
For sche which seid is the goddesse, 
To whether part of love it wende, 
Hath sett me for a final ende 
The point wherto that I schat holde. 
For whan sche hath me wel beholde, 
Halvynge of scorn, sche seide thus : P. ill. 356 
'Thou wost wel that I am Venus, 
Which al only my lustes seche; 
And wel I wot, thogh thou beseche 1400 

Mi love, lustes ben ther none, 
Whiche I mai take in thi persone ; 
For loves lust and lockes hore 
In chambre acorden neveremore. 
And thogh thou feigne a yong coiage, 
It scheweth wel be the visage 
That olde grisel is no fole: 
There ben fulmanye yeres stole 
With thee and with suche othre mo. 
That outward feignen youthe so 3410 

9379 ff. tuargM Hie in exemptum — redorgvit] ^'^ narrat qiuJiter 
indigiMta Venus, uDuitia languidi infinnitatem inspiciens, ne quid 
unplius in curia ana ■UeDiptare presunut, ipsum insuffidenlem Un- 
qaam pro raedidna pluribus exemplis exbortabalur S . . . AA 3386 
tome S, F to me AJC, B 9387 wolde Hi . . . Bt, AdBT 

3403 Hi loues AH, A Hy loue AdBT (Ad ttids wM this lim) 
9409 with om. All . . . Bi, BT 


cancupisce&ciain af- 
fectantes loquitur Ve- 
nus, huiusque A man- 
tis Coufesai supplica- 
ipsum pro eo quod 
senei et debilis est, 
multis exhortitcioni- 
bus insufficientem re- 

.coy Google 

[The CoHFANiis of 

QiuJiter super deri- 
soria Veneris eihor- 


And ben withinne of pore assay. 

Min bene wolde and I ne may 
Is nc^ht beloved nou adayes ; 

£t thou make eny suche assaies 

To love, and faile upon the fet, 

Betre is to make a beau retret'f 

For thogh thou myhtest love atteigne, 

Yit were it bot an ydel peine, 

Whan that thou art noght sufficant 

To holde love his covenant. »4io 

Forthi tak horn thin heite ayein, 

That thou travaile noght in vein, 

Wherof my Court may be deceived. 

I wot and have it wel conceived, 

Hou that thi will is good ynowh ; 

Bot mor behoveth to the plonh, 

Wherof the lacketh, as I trowe : P. ill 357 

So sitte it wel that thou beknowe 

Thi fieble astat, er thou iseginne 

Thing wher thou miht non ende winne. 9430 

What bargain scfaolde a man assaie, 

Whan that him lacketh forto paie? 

Mi Sone, if thou be wel bethoght. 

This toucheth thee ; fotyet it noght : 

The thing is lorned into was ; 

That which was whilom grene gras, 

Is welked hey at time now, 

Forthi mi conseil is that thou 

Remembre wel hou thou art old.' 
Whan Venus hath hir tale told, 1440 

And I bethoght was al aboute, 

Tho wiste I wel withoute doute, 

That ther was no recoverir; 

And as a man the tilase of fyr 

With water quencheth, so ferd I; 
0498 sitte AJC, F sit B 0433 if )«ii ^ wel be>out:)it (be 

>ou«;ht) X . . . Bi, BTA if that thou wel the be Ihouht Hi 0436 

The which AH . . . Bi. BTA (t«( whilom was fe grtae gru A) 
0437 M time now AH . . . B>, BTA 3441 Than I AM, BA 

Whan I Hi . . . B>, T 3443 And wisl(e) wel AH ... Bi, BTa 

344S ferd AJ, S, F ferde C, B 

.coy Google 


A cold me cawhte sodeinly, 

For sorwe that myn herte made 

Mi dedly face pale and fade 

Becam, and swoune I fell to grounde. 

And as I lay the same stounde, 

Ne fully quik ne fully ded. 

Me thoghte I sih tofor myn hed 

Cupide with his bo we bent, 

And lich unto a Parlement, 

Which were ordeigned for the nones, 

With him cam al the world at ones 

Of gentit folk that whilom were P. iii. 358 

Lovers, I sih hem alle there 

Forth with Cupide in sondri routes. 

Min yhe and as I caste aboutes, 3460 

To knowe among hem who was who, 

I sih wher lusty Youthe tho. 
As he which was a Capitein, 
Tofore alle othre upon the plein 
Stod with his route wel begon. 
Here hevedes kemptj and thcnipon 
Garlandes noght of o colour, 
Some of the lef, some of the flour, 
And some of grete Perles were ; 
The newe guis e of Beawme there, 1470 

With sondri thinges wel devised, 
I sih, wherof thei ben queintised. 
It was al lust that thei with ferde, 
Ther was no song that I ne herde, 
^Vhich unto love was touchende ; 
Of Pan and al that was likende 
As in Pipinge of melodie 
Was herd in thilke compaignie 
So lowde, that on every side 
It thoghte as al the hevene cride 148a 

In such acord and such a soun 
Of bombard and of clarion 
With Comerouse and Schallemele, 

Amanlum vari 
mis assialenctii: 
1450 spiciebal. 

9446 And cold AM 

0469 lint 01 

8476 w 

.coy Google 

De noiDinibus illo- 
rum nuper Amantum, 
qui tunc Amanti spas- 
mato, aliqui iuuenes, 
Bliqui senes, apparue- 
. runt. Senes autem 
precipue Um erga 
deum quam deam 
amoris pro sanitate 
Amantjs recupcranda 
muliiplicatis precibus 
misericorditer inala- 


That it was half a mannes hele 

So glad a noise forto hiere. 

And as me thoghte, in this manere 

Al freissh I syh hem springe and dance, P. iii. 359 

And do to love her entendance 

After the lust of youthes heste. 

Ther was ynowh of joie and Teste, 3490 

For evere among thei laghe and pleie, 

And putten care out of the weie^ 

That he with hem ne sat ne stod. 

And overthis I understod, 

So as myn Ere it myhte areche, 

The moste matJere of her speche 

Was al of knyhthod and of Arraes, 

And what it is to hgge in annes 

With love, whanne it is achieved. 

Ther was Tnstram, which was believed »s°° 
With bele Ysolde, and Lancelot ' """ 
Stod with Gunnore, and Galahot 
With his ladi, and as me thoghte, 
I syh wher Jason with him broghte 
His love, which that Cieusa hihte. 
And Hercules, which mochel myhte. 
Was ther berende his grete MacCj 
And most of alle in thiike place 
He geyne th him to make chiere 
With Eolen, which was him diere. J510 

Theseiis, thogh he were untrewe 
To love, as alle wommen knewe, 
Yit was he there natheles 
With Phedra, whom to love he ches : 
Of Grece ek ther was Thelamon, 
Which fro the kii^ Lamenedon 
At Troie his doghter refte aweie, P. Ui. 360 
Eseonen, as for his preie. 
Which take was whan Jason cam 
Fro Colchos, and the Cite nam ijio 

In vengance of the ferste bate ; 
That made hem after to debate, 
9497 It wma AH . . . Bi, BT 

.coy Google 


Whan Priamus the newe toun ( 

Hath road. And in avisioun 

Me thc^hte that I sih also 
Ector forth with his brethren tuo; 
Himse lf stod with Pantaselee, 
And next to him I myhte se, 
Wher Paris stod with faire Eleine, 
Which was his joie sovere Jne : jss" 

And Troilus stod with Ciiseide, 
Bot evere among, althogh he pleide, 
Be semblant he was hevy chiered, 
For Dioroede, as him was liered, 
Cleymeth to ben his parconner. 
And thus full roany a bacheler, 
A thousend mo than I can sein, 
With Yowthe I sih ther wel besein 
Forth with here loves glade and blithe. 

And some I sih whiche ofte sithe 1540 

Compleignen hem in other wise; 
Among the whiche I syh Narcise 
And Piramus, that sory were. 
The worthy Grek also was there, 
Achilles, which for love deide : 
Agamenon ek, as men seide, 
And Menelay the king also P. iil- 361 

I syh, with many an other roo, 
Which hadden be fortuned sore 
In loves cause. 

And overmore 1550 

Of wommen in the same cas, 
With hem I sih wher Dido was, 
Forsake which was wi^ Enee ; 
And Philiis ek I myhte see, 
Whom Demephon deceived hadde; 
And Adriagne hir sorwe ladde, 
For Theseiis hir Sostei tok 
And hire u nkindely forsok. 
I sih ther ek among the press 
Compleignende upon Hercules 1560 

9343 Priamus AH, B, W 

.coy Google 


His ferste love Deyanire, 

Which sette him aftenrard afyre : 

Medea was there ek and pleigneth 

Upon Jason, for that he feigneth, 

Withoute cause and tok a newe; 

Sche seide, ' Fy on alie untiewe ! ' 

I sih there ek Deydamie, 

Which hadde lost the compaignie 

Of Achilles, whan Diomede 

To Troie him fette upon the nede. 

Among these othre upon the grene 
I syh also the wofuU queene 
Qeopatras, which in a Cave 
With Seipentz hath birseir begrave 
Alquik, and so sche was totore, 
For sorwe of that sche hadde lore 
Antonye, which hii love hath be: P. iii. 
And forth with hire I sih Tisbee, 
Which on the scharpe swerdes p oint 
For love deide in sory point; 
And as myn Ere it myhte knowe, 
She seide, ' Wo worthe alle slowe ! ' 
The pleignte of Frogne and Philomene 
Ther herde I what it wolde tnene;, 
How Tereiis of his untrouthe 
Undede hem bothe, and that was routhe; 
And next to hem I sih Caoace, 
^Vhich for Machaire hir fader grace 
Hath lost, and deide in wofuU plit. 
And as I sih in my spirit^ 
Me thoghte amonges othre thus 
The doghter of king Priamus, 
Polixena, whom Firms slowh. 
Was there and made sorwe ynowh. 
As sche which deide gutteles 
For love, and yit was loveles. 
And forto take the desport, 
I sih there some of other port, 

3573 graue BT 9575 Alquik F Al quik AJ, SB, K 

twreF >er Clwf) AJC, B 

Digitize. :,,GOOtjlc 


And that was Circes and Calipse, [' 

That cowthen do the Mone gclipse, 2600 

Of men and change thejiknesses, 
Of Artmagique Sorc eresses ; 
Thei hielde in honde manyon, 
To love wher thei wolde or non. 

Bot above alle that ther were 
Of wommen I sih foure there, 
\Vhos name I herde most comended : P. ill. 363 
Be hem the Court stod al amended ; 
For wher thef comen in presence, 
Men deden hem the reverence, 1610 

As thogh they hadden he goddesses, 
Of al this world or Emperesses. 
And as me thoghte, an Ere I leide. 
And herde hou that these othre seide, 
'Lo, these ben the foure wyves, 
WhOB feith was proeved in her lyves : 
For in essampte of alle goode 
With Mariage so thei stode, 
That fame, which no gret thing hydeth, 
Vit in Cronique of hem abydeth.' 1610 

Penolope that on was bote, 
AVhom many a knyht hath loved bote, 
Whil that hire lord Ulixes lay 
Full many a yer and many a day 
Upon the grete Siege of Troie : 
Bot sche, which hath no worldes joie 
Bot only of hire housebonde, 
Whil that hir lord was out of londe, 
So wel hath kept hir wommanhiede, 
That al the world therof tok hiede, ifijo 

And nameliche of hero in Grece. 

That other womman was Lucrece, 
Wif to the Rsmaia Collatin ; 
And sche constreigned of Tarquin 
To tiling which was ayein hir wiUe, 
Sche wolde noght hirselven 4^1^. 
Bot deide only for drede of schame P. ill. 364 
»693 Vliutec BT 

.coy Google 


FANiEs OF In keping of hire goode name, 

^"^-J As sche which was on of the beste. 

The thridde wif was bote Alceste, 1S40 

Which whanne Ametus scholde dye 
Upon his grete m alady e. 
Sche preide unto the goddes so, 
That sche receyveth al the wo 
And deide htrself to yive him lif: 
Lo, if this were a noble wif. 

The ferlhe wif which I ther sih, 
I herde of hem that were nyh 
Hou sche was cleped Alcione, 
Which to Seyix hir lord al one 1650 

And to nomo hir body kepte; 
And whan sche sih him dreynt, sche lepte 
Into the wawes where he swam, 
And there a Sefoul sche becam. 
And with hire wenges him bespradde 
For love which to him sche hadde. 

Lo, these foure were tho 
Whiche I sih, as me thoghte tho, 
Among the grete compaJgnie 
Which Love hadde forto £uje : 1660 

Bot Youthe, which in special 
Of Loves Court was Mareschal, 
So besy was upon his lay, 
That he non hiede where I lay 
Hath take. And thanne, as I b^ield, 

Me thc^hte I sih upon the field, 
Where ^de cam a softe pas P. Hi 365 

Toward Venus, ther as sche was. 
With him gret compaignie he ladde, 
Bot noght so manye as Youthe hadde; i6ja 
The moste part were of gret Age, 
And that was sene in the visage, 

0646 Lo, if] S«e wher AH . . . Bi, BT 9650 Which Ceix 

{om. lo) B Which to seke X Which for lo ae W 0653 wawe 

A . . . B>, S . . . A 3656 which] J«t AM . . . Bi, BT 3664 

he lay X, BT {liiu om. A fi. m.) at-jo manye] fele AH . . . Bi, BT 
0673 here vis«ge AH . . . fii, BT 

.coy Google 


And nogbt forthi, so as thei myhte, | 

Thei made hem yongly to the sihte ; 
Bot yit herde I no pipe t here 
To make noise in mannes Ere, 
Bot the Musette I myhte knowe, 
For olde men which souneth lowe, 
With Harpe and Lute and with QJole*- 
The hovedance and the Carole, 1680 

In such a wise as love hath bede, 
A softe pas thei dance and trede; 
And with the wommen otherwhile 
With_sobre chier among thei smyle, 
For laghtre was ther non on hyh. 
And natheles full wel I syh 
That thei the more queinte it made 
For love, in whom thei weien glade. 
And there me tboghte I myhte se 
The king David with Bersabee, 1690 

And Salomon was nogbt witboute ; 
Passende an hundred on a route 
Of wyves and of QoncubiiifiS, 
Tue sses bothe and $arazuies. 
To him I sih alle ^tmdaat: 
I not if be was suffigint, 
Bot natheles for al his wit P. Ui. 3G6 

He was attached with that jujL, 
Which love with his bond enseleth, 
Fro whom non erthly man appeleth. a 700 

And overthis, as for a wonder, 
' With bis leon which he put under. 
With Dalida Sampson I knew, 
Whos love bis strengthe al pverthregL 

I syh there Aristotle also. 
Whom that the queene of.Grece so 
Hatb bridled, that in tbilke time 
9675 pipes AH . . . Bt, BT piper A 0676 ooiae] mer^ 

AH . . . Bt, BT 3678 $own«d AH . . . B<, BT 0694 lueuea 

eekAH Iuesbo]>e(Iewesboth} KW Iewes(Iue3&c.)eekHi. .. Bi, 
BT 9696 wher he wu AM wher(e) be were X...B,, BT 

if he were Hi, W 3701 no wonder B a^oa put AJ, F 

putle C, B 3706 so] also E, BT >o A 

.coy Google 


Sche made him such a Silogime, 

That he foryat al his logiqucj 

Ther was non art of his Practique, 1710 

Thurgh which it mihte ben excluded 

That he ne was fully concluded 

To love, and dede his obeJssance. 

And ek Vii^le of aqueintance 

I sib, wher he the Maiden preide, 

Which was the doghter, as men seide, 

Of themperour whilom of Rome ; 

SoTtes and Plato with him come, 

So dede Ovide the Poete. 

I thoghte thanne how love is swete, 1710 

Which hath so wise men redamedj 

And was miself the lasse aschamed, 

Or forto lese or forto winne 

In the meschief that I was inne: 

And thus I lay in hope of grace. 

And whan thei comen to the place 
Vfher Venus stod and I was falle, F. ill. 367 
These olde men with o vols alle 
To Venus preiden for my sake. 
And sche, that myhte n<^ht forsake 1730 

So gret a clamour as was there, 
Let Pite come ititb hire Ere ; 
And forth withal unto Cupide 
Sche preith that he upon his side 
Me wolde thurgh his grace sende 
Som confort, that I myhte amende, 
Upon the cas which is befalle. 
And thus for me thei preiden alle 
Of hem that weren olde aboute, 
And ek some of the yonge route, J740 

Of gentilesse and pure troutbe 
I herde hem telle it was gret routhe, 
That I withouten help so ferde. 
And thus me thoghte I lay and herde. 

Cupido, which mayjiurte and hele 
In loves cause, as for myn hele 

.coy Google 


Upon the point which him was preid 
Cam with Venus, wher I was leid 
Swounende upon the grene gras. 
And, as me thoghte, anon ther was 
On every side so grel presae, 
That every lif began to presse, 
I wot noght wel hou many score, 
Suche as I spak of now tofore. 
Lovers, that comen to beholde, 
Bot moat of hem that weren olde : 
Thei stoden there at thilke tyde, P. Ui. 368 
To se what ende schal betyde 
Upon the cure of my sotie. pi 

Tho mybte I hiere gret paitie 1760 

Spekende, and ech his oghne avis 
Hath told, on that, an other this ; 
Bot among alle this I herde, 
Thei weren wo that I so ferde. 
And seiden that for no note 
An old man scholde noght assote; 
For as thei tolden redeljr, 
Ther is in him no cause why, 
Bot if he wolde himself benyce ; 
So were he wel the more nyce. J770 

And thus desputen some of tho. 
And some seiden nothing so, 
Bot that the wylde loves rage 
In mannes Uf forberth non Age ; 
Whil ther is oyle forto fyre, 
The la mpe is lyhtly set afyre, 
And is fulhard er it be queynt, 
Bot only if it be som seint, 
Which god preserveth of his grace. 
And thus me thoghte, in sondri place 1780 

Of hem that walken up and doun 
Ther was diverse opinioun : 
And for a while so it laste. 
Til that Cupide to the taste, 
11769 benjrce J, S, FK be Eyce (by nice ftc.) AM . . . B>, BT4, W 
3775 margin Note LBt, F Note htat C am, A ... R, SBTa, WK 

Hie trecUt qualiter 
Cupido A mantis ae. 
nectute eonfracti vis- 
cera perscrutans, ig- 
nitasue concupiscencic 
lela ab eo penitua ex- 
quern Veaus 
poatea absque calore 
percipiens, vacuum 
reliquit: et sic tandem 
prouisB Senectus, ra- 

.CD, Google 


T Forth with his moder full avised, 

Hath determined and devised 
Unto what point he wol descende. P. Ul. 369 
And al this time I was li^ende 
Upon the ground tofore his yhen, 
And thei that my desese syhen 179a 

Supposen noght I scholde live; 
Bot he, which wolde thanne yive 
His grace, so as it mai be, 
This blinde god which mai noght se, 
Hath grope d til that he me fond ; 
And as he~pitte forth his hond 
Upon my body, wher I lay, 
Me thoghte a fyri Lancegay, 
Which whilom thurgh myn herte he caste. 
He puUeth oute, and also faste iSoo 

As this was do, Cupide nam 
His weie, I not where he becam, 
And so dede al the remenant 
Which unto him was entendant, 
Of hem that in Avision 
I hadde a revelacion. 

So as I tolde now tofore. 

Bot Venus wente noght therfore, 

Ne Genius, which e thilke time 

Abiden bothe faste byme. tSio 

And sche which mai the hertes bynde 

In loves cause and ek unbinde, 

Er I out of mi l3^nc£ aros, 

Venus, which hield a boiste clos, 

And wolde noght I scholde deie, 

Tok out mor cold than eny keie 

An pig neroent , and in such point P. UL 370 

Sche hath my wounded herte enoignt, 

My temples and my Reins also. 

And forth withal sche tok roe tho iSio 

A wonder Mirour forto liolde, 

9796 pitte F putte AJC, SB aSog wbichc 5, F which 

AJC, B 3G19 margiM Nota contra senei vohiptuowo, quoniin 

calor rcfrigescente natura eztmctus eat SBTa (oml A) 

.CD, Google 


In which sche bad me to beholde 

And taken hiede of that I syhe ; 

Wherinne anon myn hertes yhe 

I caste, and sih my colour fade, 

Myn yhen dymme and al unglad^ 

Mi chiekes thinne , and al my face 

With Elde t myhte se d efacCj 

So riveled and so wo besein, 

That ther was nothing full ne plein, 

I syh also myn heres hore. 

Mi will was tho to se nomore 

Outwith, for ther was no plesance ; 

Ahd'thanne into my remembrance 

I drowb myn olde daies passed, 

And as reson it hath compassed, 

I made a liknesse of misclve 

Unto the sondri Monthes twelve, 

Wherof the yeer in bis astat 

Is mad, and slant upon debat, 1S40 

That lich jiI_other non acordeth. 

For who the times wel recordeth. 

And thanne at ^a.rcb$ if he b^inne, 

Whan that the lusti yeer comth inne. 

Til Augst be passed and Septembre, 

Tbe myhty youthe he may remembre 

In which xhe yeer hath bis deduit P. ill. 37i 

Of gras, of lef, of flour, of fruit. 

Of corn and of tbe wyny grape. 

And afterward the time is schape 3S50 

To frost, to SnQvr, to Wind, to Rein, 

Til eft that ^are be come ayein : 

The Wynter wol no Somer knowe. 

The grene lef ts overthrowe, 

Tbe clothed erthe is thanne bare, 

Despuiled is the Someifare, 

0833 Outwi|> S&, FWK Out ni> AJM, TA Therwi)> (Th«r wi^) 
Hi . . . Bi On which B ^637 maigm equiperalur A equipatnr 

C, BT, F si848offlouroflefAM. ..CB. and fioure of lecf L 

3650 t>is time Hi . . . Bi aSjfi Somer&re S, F somer fare 


Quod status hominis 
HcDubus anni cqui- 

.CD, Google 


That erst was hete is thanne chele. 

And thus thenlcende thc^htes fele, 
I was out of mi swoune affraied , 
Wherof I sih my wittes straied, ]S6o 

And gan to clepe hem horn ayein. 
And whan Resoun it herde sein 
That loves! rage was aweie, 
He cam to me the rihte weie, 
And hath remued the sotie 
or thilke unwise fantasie, 
Wherof that I was wont to pleigne. 
So that of thilke Jyri peine 
I was mad sobre and bol ynowh. 

Venus behield me than and lowh, iS;o 

And axeth, as it were in game, 
What love was. And I for schame 
Ne wiste what I scholde ansuere; 
And nathetes I gan to sweie 
That be my trouthe I knew him aoght ; 
So ferr it was out of mi thoght, 
Riht as it hadde nevere be. P. iii. 379 

' Mi goode Sone,' tho quod sche, 
' Now at this time I lieve it wel, 
So goth the fortune of my whiel ; 1880 

Forthi mi conseil is thou leve.' 

'Ma dame,' I seide, 'be your levc, 
Ye witen wel, and so wot I, 
That I am unbehoyely 
Your Court fro this day forth to serve: 
And for I may no tbonk deserve, 
And also for I am refused, 
I preie you to ben excused. 
And natheles as for the lastc^ 
Wbil that my wittes with me laste, 1S90 

Touchende mi confession 
I axe an absolucioD. 
Of Genius, er that I go.' 

9660 slraied] fnyed AU . . . Bi 0885 fortb] for EC, BTA 

3889 for to laste BT 

.coy Google 


The Prest anon was redy tho, 
And seide^ ' Sone, as of thi schrifte 
Thou hast fill pardou n and foryifte ; 
Foryet it thou, and so wol I.' 

'Min holi fader, grant mercy,* 
Quod I to him, and to the queene 
I fell on knes upon the grene, 
And tok my leve forto wende. 
Bot sche, that wolde make an ende, 
As therto which I was most able, 
A Peire of Bedes blak as Sable 
Sche tok and heng my necke aboute ; 
Upon the gaudes al withoute 
Was write of gold, Por rtposer. P. U 

'Lo,' thus sche seide, 'John Gower, 
Now thou art ate laste _cast. 
This have I for thin ese cast, 
That thou nomore of love sieche. 
Bot my will is that fhou besieche 
And preie hierafter for the pes, 
And that thou make a plein reles 
To love, which takth litel hiede 
Of olde men upon the nede, 
Whan that the lustes ben aweie: 
Forthi to thee nys bot o weie, 
In which let reson be thi guide; 
For he may sone himself misguide, 
That seth n<^ht the peril tofore. 
Mi Sone, be wel war therfore, 
And kep the sentence of my lore 
And larig, thou mi Court nomore, 
Bot go ther vertu jnoral^ duelleth, 
Wher ben thi bokes, as jnen telleth, 
Whiche of long time thou hast write. 
For this I do thee wel to wile, 
If thou thin hele wolt pourchace. 
Thou miht noght make suite and chace. 

[Thi Absolutios.] 

9899 the otH. AM 3907 pur AH . . 

0995 moral vertu AH . . . Bi, W vertu mt 
ben |>e H, TA. Ther beu )« B 

3<, B, W pour H>, T 
u- S 0936 Wher 

.coy Google 


Wher that the_^Ltijg_is nought pern^^te; 
It were a thing uo resonable . 
A man to be so i)verseiej. 
Forthi tak hiede of that I seie ; 
For in the lawe of my comune 
We be noght schape to comune, 
Thiself and I, nevere after this. P. lii 

Now have y seid al that ther is 
Of love as for thi final ende : 
•Adieu, for y mot fro the wende.' 
And with that word al sodeinly, P. ii 

* Adieu, for I mot fro the wende. 

And gret wel Chaucer whan ye mete, J941* 
As mi disciple and mi poete : 
For in the floures of his youthe 
In sondri wise, as he wel couthe. 
Of Ditees and of songes glade, 
The whiche he for mi sake made, 
The lond fulfild is overal: 
Wherof to him in special 
Above alle othre I am most holde. 
For thi now in hise dales olde *9io* 

Thow schalt him telle this message, 
That he upon his latere age, 
To sette an ende of alle his werk, 
As he which is myn owne clerk, 
Do make his testament, of love. 
As thou hast do thi schrifte above, 
So that mi Court it mai recorde.' 

'Madame, I can me wel acorde,' 
Quod I, 'to telle as ye me bidde.' 
And with that word it so betidde, Z960* 

3931 p^TDHble J, SA, FK parnable W prouable (prouable) 
AH . . . B>, BTA 3938 Htrr biguis a nm hand in F and II. 9938- 

9966 art over an trasurt. 

9941* ff. This amctusion is IH first rectnsioncopUsotly, A . . . Bi &c. 
But IL a94i'-996i* alio in A. Alt variations from A art nottd. 
0949* rooost A 3953* eende A sl J V^fio* worid 

AHX belidde(bitidde)JUi£CBi by tjrdde (be tidde) AHRL 

Digitizer .y Google 


Endosid in a ^erred sky, 

Venus, which is the qweene of love, 

Was take in to hire place above, 

More wiste y nought wher sche becam. P. lii. 376 

And thus my leve of hire y nam, 

And forth with al the same tide 

Hire prest, which wolde nought abide, 

Or be me lief or be me loth. 
Out of my sighte f orth he goth, 
And y was left with outen helpe. 
So wiste I nought wher of to yelpe, 
Bot only that y hadde lore 
My time, and was sori ther fore. 
And thus bewhapid in my thought. 
Whan al was turnyd in to nought, 
I stod amasid for a while. 
And in my self y gan to smyle 
Thenkende uppon the bed is blake, 
And how they weren me betake, 
For that y schulde bidde and prele. 
And wbanne y sigh non othre weie 
Bot only that y was refusid. 
Unto the lif which y hadde usid 
I thoughte nevere tome ayein : 
And in this wise, soth to seyn, 
Homward a softe pas y wente, 
Wher that with al myn hoi entente 

P.m. 377 


Out of my sihte al sodeynly, 

Enclosed in a sterred sky. 

Up to the hevene Venus straghte. 

And I my rihte weie cawhte, 

Horn fro the wode and forth I wente, 

Wher as with al myn hole entente, 

0949 serred S 0945 wiste ST wist B, F 0946 hire 

(hir) BTa, WK here 5, F 9968 hoi B, F hole S 

3961* sihte (sighle) JR sfht (sight) AH Hi EC LBi >963*f. 

Biraghte : cawhte AH itrauhte : cauhte J stragb((e> : c>eht(e) RL 

•traughte : caughte EC 9964* righte (rihte^ JEC rihl (right) 

AHHiR 0965* HoomAH uidom.C a966>holeJ hooleAH 

H h 3 

.coy Google 

Hie in fioe libri 
honorilicos que virtu- 
osos lllustrissimi Prin- 
dpisdomiaiBut Regil 
Anglic Ricardi secun- 


Uppon the point that y am schryve 

I tbenke bidde vhil y live. 21,70 

iv. Farce precor, Criste, fiopulus quo gaudeai itte ; 
Anglia ne triste subeat, rex iumme, retiste. 
Corrigc quosque status, fragile! absotut renins,- 
Vtfde deo gratus vigeat locus iste beatus. 
He which withinne daies sevene 

This large world forth with the bevene 

Of his eternal providence 

Hath mad, and thilke ir^lligence 

In mannys soule resonable 

Hath schape to be perdurable, 

Wherof the man of his feture 

Above alle erthli creature 

Aftir the soule is immortal, 

Thus with mi bedes upon honde. 

For hem that trewe love fonde 

I tbenke bidde whil I lyve 

Upon the poynt which I am scbryve. i<(jo* 

iv.* Ad laudem Cristi, quern tu, virgo, fieperisli. 
Sit laus Ricardi, quern scepira colunt leopardi. 
Ad sua precepta compleui carmina cepia. 
Que Bruti nata legal Anglia perpetuala. 
He which withinne dayes sevene 

This lai^e world forth with the bevene 

Of his eternal providence 

Hath mad, and thilke intelligence 

In mannes soule resonable 

Enspired to himself semblable, 

Wherof the man of his feture 

Above alle erthly creature 

After the soule is immortal, 

3970 lieue F 9971 The J, B 0973 S. matgm Hie in anno 

— periclitabaiur Sa, FK om. BTA, W 
9967* £ hoonde ; foonde All 
LaHit Vtrats iv.* 3 ceptra AH 
3974* m«dj maadA a978*erJilyC eerl>liAM erJidyJILERLB. 

.coy Google 


To thilke lord in special, 
As he which is of alle thinges 
The creatour, and of the kynges 
Hath the fortunes uppon honde, 
His grace and mercy forte fonde 
Uppon my bare knes y preie, 
That he this lond in siker weie 
Wol sette uppon good governance. 
For if men takyn remembrance 
What is to live in unite, 
Ther ys no staat in his degree 
That noughte to desire pes, 
With outen which, it is no les, 
To seche and loke in to the laste, 
Ther may no worldes joye laste. 

Ferst forto loke the Clergie, 
Hem oughte wel to justefie 
Thing which belongith to here cure, 
As forto praie and to procure 
Oure pes toward the hevene above, 
And ek to sette reste and love 

39S0 [The Author na 
P iii a'7n ^°^ '"' State o 
f . m. 379 Enclakd.] 

To thilke lord in special. 
As he which is of alle thinges 
The creatour, and of the kinges 
Hath the fortunes upon honde, 
His grace and mercy forto fonde 
Upon mi bare knees I preye. 
That he my worthi king corveye, 
Richard by name the Secounde, 
In whom hath evere yit be founde 
Justice medled with pite, 
Largesce forth with charite. 
In his persone it mai be schewed 
What is a king to be wel thewed, 
Tnuchinge of pite namely : 

}o* [The Author fi 
cunctipotenlcm d 

0987 WolJ Wel S 
wordles F 

9983* t hoonde : foonde AM 
by founde H 

9989 liue BTa, W lieue S, FK 9994 
3987* be J 3988* byfoundc A 

.coy Google 


Amot^ ous on this erthe hJere. 
For if they wroughte in this manere 
Aftir the reule of charite, 
I hope that men schuldyn se 
This lond amende. 

And ovyr this, 
To seche and loke how that it is 
Toudiende of the chevalerie, 
Which forto loke, in som partie 
Is worthi forto be comendid. 
And in som part to ben amendid, 3010 

That of here large retenue P. !ii, 380 

The lond is ful of m^intenu?. 
Which causith that the comune right 
In fewe contrees stant upright 
^xtojciqun, contekt, ravine 
Withholde ben of that covyne^ 
Aldai men hierin gret compleignte 
Of the desease, of the constreignte, 
Wher of the poeple is sore oppressid t 

For he yit nevere unpitously 

Ayein the liges of his lond, 

For no defaute which he fond, 

Thurgh cruelte vengaunce soghte ; 

And thogh the worldes chaunce in broghte 

Of infortune gret debat, 

Yit was he not infortunat : 300a* 

For he which the fortune ladde, 

The hihe god, him pverspradde 

Of his Justice, and kepte him so, 

That his astat stood evere mo 

Sauf, as it oghte wel to be ; 

Lich to the Sonne in his degree. 

Which with the clowdes up alofte 

3005 f. Paragraph btgim And ouer fis S To seche FWK No 
Paragraph BT 3006 how {wif is B howe it is W 3013 

comune (commune) SBT, F comyn W 3015 contekt FK 

contect SBT Contelt W contek and Migd contel and A 

3995* r. loond : foond A 399^* inbrougbte JHi 3003' 

kepie ECBi kept AJMHiRL 3005' bee A 

.coy Google 


God graunte it mote be redressid. 
For of knyghthode thordre wolde 
That thei defende and kepe scholde 
The comun right and the fraunchise 
Of holy cherche in alle wise. 
So that no wiklce man it dere, 
And ther fore servith scheld and spere : 
Bot for it goth now other weie, 
Oure grace goth the more aweie. 

And forto lokyn ovyrmore, 
Wher of the poeple pleigneth sore, 3030 

Toward the lawis of oure lond, 
Men sein that trouthe hath broke his bond 
And with briicage is goon aweie, 
So that no man can se the weie 
Wher forto fynde rightwisnesse. 

And if men secbin sikernesse 
Uppon the lucre of marchandie, 
Compassement and tricherie 
Of singuler profit to wynne, 
Men seyn, is cause of mochil synne, 3040 

And namely of divisioun, P. lit. 3S1 

Which many a noble worthi toun 

Is derked and bischadewed ofte, « 

But hou so that it trowble in theirj 

The Sonne is evere briht and feir, 3010* 

Withinne himself and nt^ht empeired : 

Althogh the weder be despeired* 

The hed planete is not to wite. 

Mi worthi prince, of whom I write^ 

Thus slant he with himselve clier. 

And doth what lith in his power 

Not only bier at bom to seke 

3033 comun B, F coinune ST 3036 >er fore (|«rforc] FK 

>eror (|ier of) SBT&, W 3037 machandie F merchuidie S 

3008* bischadewed (bjshadewed) AHHiE by scbadewed (by 
schadowed} RCLBt bescbaded J 3t>09*BotJHi 3oii» 

Wi>inAM 3013* hed (hede)JH heed A beued HiE . . . B< 

3015* f. clicr 1 power J deer ; poweer A 3016* dooj) AM 

3017* only bier at horn to seke J oonly beer alboom losceke A 

.coy Google 


Fro welthe and fro prosperite 
Hath brought to gret adversite. 
So were it good to ben al on, 
For mechil grace ther uppon 
Unto the Citees schutde falle, 
Which m^hte availle to ous alle, 
If these astatz amendid were, 
So that the vertus stodyn there 3050 

And that the vices were aweie: 
Me thenkth y derate thanne seie, 
This londis grace schulde arise. 
Bot yit to loke in othre wise, 
Ther is a stat, as ye schul hiere, 
Above alle othre on crthe hiere, 
Which hath the lond in his balance : 
To him belongith the leiance 
Of Clerk, of k ny ght, of man of lawe ; 
Undir his bond al is forth drawe 3060 

The marchant and the laborer; 
So stant it al in his power 
Or forlo spille or forlo save. 
Bot though that he such power have, 
And that his myghtes ben so lai^e. 
He hath hem nought withouten charge, 
8*0 which that every kyng ys swore : 
So were it good that he ther fore 

Love and acord, but outward eke. 

As he that save his poeple wolde. 

So ben we alle wel beholde 3m*' 

To do service and obeyssaunce 

To him, which of his heyh suffraunce 

Hath many a gret debat appesed, 

3046 mechil F mekuU W mochil SBT 3054 p^re wise S, F 

o)>er w. BTa, WK 3060 is al B 3063 forto . . . forto S 

for to . . , forto F for to . . . for to BT 3066 wi}H>uteii F 

wi>oule SBT 

3ot8*acord JER acorde AC eekeAEC 3oao*beenAUC 
by hoide AH 3039* hihe H1RLB1 bie J 3003* s gret 

(«gret)JCL a grele (agrete) AMHi 4c. 

.coy Google 


First un .to rlghtwisnesse entende, 

Wherof that he hym self amende 3070 

Toward his god and leve vice, P. 111. 382 

Which is the chief of his office ; 

And aftir al the remenant 

He schal uppon his covenant 

Goveme and lede in such a wise, 

So that ther be no tirandise, 

Wherof that he his poeple grieve, 

Or ellis may he nought achieve 

That longith to his regalie. 

For if a kyng wol justifie 3080 

His lond and hem that beth withynne, 

First at hym self he mot begynne. 

To kepe and reule his owne astat, 

That in hym self be no debat 

Toward his god : for othre wise 

Ther may non erthly kyng suffise 

Of his kyngdom the folk to lede, 

Bot he the kyng of hevene drede. 

tor what kyng sett hym uppon pride 

And takth his lust on every side 3090 

And wil nought go the righte weie, 

Though god his grace caste aweie 

No wondir is, for ate laste * 

He schal wcl wice it mai nought laste, 

The pompe which he secheth here. 

To make his lige men ben esed ; 

Wherfore that his Croniqe schal 

For evere be memorial 

To the loenge of that he doth. 

For this wot every man in soth, 

What king that so desireth pes. 

He takth the weie which Crist ches : 3030" 

And who that Cristes weies sueth, 

3081 be). F ben (be) SBTa, WK 9085 ojire wue F o^rewi3eS 
o>erwiM BT olhir wyse W 3094 notut F BOghl S noughi B 

not T, W 

3oS4*beenA 3097*f.dcHi|i:«oo>AHR 3oag*f.pee3;cheesAHR 

.coy Google 


Bot what kyng that with humble chere 

Aftir the lawe of god eschuieth 

The vices, and the vertus suieth. 

His grace schal be sufBsant 

To goveme al the remenant jioo 

Which longith to his duite ; P. ill. 383 

So that in his prosperite 

The poeple schal nought ben oppressid, 

Wherof his name schal be blessid, 

For evere and be memorial. 

And now to speke as in iinal, 
Touchende that y undirtok 
In cngtesch forto make a book 

It proveth wel that he eschueth 

The vices and is vertuous, 

Wherof he mot be gracious 

Toward his god and a cceptab le. 

And so to make his regne stable. 

With al the wil t hat I mai yive 

I preie and schal wbil that I live, 

As I which in subjeccloun 

Stonde under the _£roteccioun^, J040* 

And mai miselven not beweldej 

What for seknesse and what for elde, 

Which I receyve of goddes grace. 

But thogh me lacke to purchace 

Mi kinges thonk as by decerte, 

Yit the Simplesce of mi porerte 

Unto the love of my Itgance 

Desireth forto do plesance : 

And for this cause in myn entente 

This povere bok heer I presente 3050* 

Unto his hihe worthinesse, 

Write of my simple besinesse, 

3098 vertu B 

3033" r, vertuows; grseiowsAM 3036* And fortoCBi roaske 
A 3040* Sloonde AH the] his J 3041* by welde AHHi 

3043* schencMe AMHiR 3045* be J 3050* bok J book AC 
305a* besinesse (bcsyneaae) JHiRL bbinesse A busynesse C 

.coy Google 


Which slant betwene emest and game, 

I have it maad as thiike same 

Which axe forto ben excusid, 

And that my bok be nought refusid 

Of lered men, whan thei it se, 

For lak of curiosite : 

For thiike scole of eloquence 

Belongith nought to my science, 

Uppon the forme of rethoriqe 

My wordis forto peinte and pike, 

As Tullius som ty me wrot. 

Bot this y knowe and this y wot, 

That y have do my trewe peyne 

With rude w otdis and with pteyne, 

In al that evere y couthe and myghte, 

This bok to write as y behighte. 

So as siknesse it soffre wolde ; 

And also for my daies olde, 

[The Book 

principia libri primi 
promisit se in amoris 
ouSR specialius trac- 
talurum. Concludil 

amoris delectacio 

est. Qui 

So as seknesse it suffre wolde. 

And in such wise as I fersC tolde, 

Whan I this bok began to make. 

In som partie it mai be take 

As for lo lawhe and forto pleye ; 

And forto loke in other weye, 

It mai be wisdom to the wise: 

So that somdel for good aprise 3060* 

And eek somdel for lust and game 

I have it mad, as thiike same 

Which axe forto ben excused. 

That I no Rethoriqe have used 

Upon the forme of eloquence, 

For that is not of mi science ; 

But I have do my trewe peyne 

With rude wordes and with pleyne 

3113 whaniie F 

3053* seeknesse (seknesse) J C scekeDesse<9ekenene&c.}AMHiR 
3055* book by gan to nuakc A 3056* by taake A 3osB* 

loolce A ao{rer AM 3060* f. somdeel A 3061* of game J 

306a* as AJM for H1XRCLB1 3063* becD A 

[The AiTTHOit iri 
sEtin Hts Book t 


.coy Google 



That y am feble and impotent, 

I wot nought how the world ys went. 

So preye y to my lordis alle 

Now in myn age, how so befalle, 3130 

That y mot stonden in here grace : P. iii. 384 

For though me lacke to purchace 

Here worthi thonk as by decerte, 

Yit the symplesse of my poverte 

Desireth forto do plesance 

To hem undir whos governance 

I hope siker to abide. 

But now uppon my laste tide 
That y this book have maad and write, 
My muse doth me forto wite, 3140 

And seith it schal be for my beste 
Fro this day forth to take reste, 
That y nomore of love make , 

To speke of thing which I have told. 

But now that I am feble and old, 3070* 

And to the worschipe of mi king 
In love above alle other thing 
That I this bok have mad and write, 
Mi Muse doth me forto wite 
That it is to me for the beste 
Fro this day forth to take reste. 
That 1 nomore of love make. 
But he which hath of love his make 
It sit him wel to singe and daunce. 
And do to love his entendance 3080* 

In songes bothe and in seyinges 
After [he lust of his pleyinges. 
For he hath that he wolde have : 
But where a man schal love crave 
And faile, it stant al otherwise. 

3131 raotST, W moleB, F 

3069* {. toold ! oold A 3070* Bot J 307"* oofer A 

3073* ^°^ A Sec. 3074* doo^ AM 3076* tuke A 3077* 
icrioue maakeA 3076* BotJ nuuikeA 3079* ailj 
eAMRCLB. 3084* Bot J 3085' fjoojierwbe A 

.coy Google 


^Vhich many an herte hath overtake, 

And ovyrturnyd as the blynde 

Fro reson in to lawe of kynde ; 

Wher as the wisdom goth aweie 

And can nought se the ryhle weie 

How to governe his oghne _estat, 

Bot everydai slant in debat 315a 

Withinne him self, and can nought leve. 

And thus forthy my final leve 

I take now for evere more, 

Withoute makynge any more, 

Of love and of his dedly hele, 

Which no_£hisici£n can hele. 

For bis nature is so divers, 

That it hath evere som travers 

Or of to moche or of to lite. 

That pleinly mai noman delite, 3160 

Bot if him faile or that 01 this. P. iij. 385 

Bot thilke love which that is 

Withinne a mannes herte affcrmed. 

And slant of charite confermed, 

In his proverbe seith the wise, 

Whan ^ame is best, is best to leve : 

And thus forthi my fynal leve, 

Withoulf giakjfn g eny more, 

I take now for evere more 3090* 

Of love and of his dedly hele, 

Which no phisicien can hele. 

For his nature is so divers, 

That it hath evere som travers 

Or of to moche or of to lite, 

That fully mai nOman delyte. 

But if him lacke or that or this. 

But thilke love which that is 

Withinne a mannes herte affermed, 

3147 Hand at F ihangta ogam 3150 euerydai F euery day 

SBT 3160 noman F no man SET 

3067' Whan game U beste A 3089* f. moore : moore A 

3091* f. heele : heele AH 3097* f. Bot J 

itizecy Google 


Lv Lovi,] Such love is goodly forto have. 

Such love mai the bodi save, 
Such love raai the soule amende. 
The hyhe god such love ous sende 
Forthwith the Temenant of grace ; 
So that above in thilke place 
Wher resteth love and alle pes, 
Dure joie mai ben endeles. 

Explidl isie liber, gut transeat, obsecro liber 
Vt sine Huore vigeat Uctoris in ore. 
Qui sedet in scannis celi det vt ista lokannis 
Perpe/uis annis stet pagina grata Britannis. 
Derbeie Comiti, recolunt guem laude peritt, 
Vade liber purus, sub eo requiesce fitturus. 

And stanl of chariie confermed, aioo* 

That love is of no repenta ile ; 

For it ne berth no contretaile, 

Which mai the conscience charge, 

But it is rather of descha^e, 

And meedful beer and overal. 

Forthi this love in special 

Is good for every man to holde. 

And who that resoun wol beholde, 

Al other lust is good to daunte: 

Which thii^ the hihe god us graunte arro* 

Forth with the remenant of grace 

So that of hevene in thilke place 

Wher resteth love and alle pes, 

Oure joye mai ben endeles. 

3169 abr)rwi)i F fforfi wi)> SBT 

Expucrr 5 r. Last two Huts om. AJCL 6 sub eo qiM recumbe S 

3104* Bot J 3106* love om. AH 3107* hoolde A 3108* 

wol byholde (bibolde) ARCL wil biholde Bi wel be bolde J wel 

bybolde M 3110* ous J 3113* pees AMC 3114* been 

endeleesAM >4/Mf m/AnieD HXERCLBi 

.coy Google 


Epittola super hnlus oposcnli sni complementum 
lohauai Gower a qnodam phUosopho transmiwa. 

Quam cinxere freta, Gowei, tua carmina leta 
Per loca discreta canit Anglia laude repleta. 
Cartninis Athleta, satirus, tJbi, siue Poeta, 
Sit laus completa quo gloria stat sine meta. 

Quia vnusquisque, prout a deo accepit, alila Impartirl 
tenetur, lohannes Gower auper blis que deuB sibi aen- 
snallter donanlt vUlicaciouls sue racloaem, dum tempus 
inatat, secundum allquid alleuiare cupiens, inter labores 
S et oda ad alionim notldam trea libroa -doctrine causa 
forma snbsequenti propterea composnit. 

Primus liber Galileo aermone editus in decern diuiditur 
partes, et tractans de vicils et virtutibus, necnon et de 
variis huius seculi gradlbus, vlam qua peccator trans- 
10 gressus ad sui creatoris agnicionem redire debet, recto 
tramite docere conatnr. Titulusqne libelli istius Speculum 
Heditantia nuncupatus est, 

Secnndua enlm Ilber aermone latino metrice compoaitns 

tractatdevarilsinfortunlls tempore Regis RicardlSecundi 

1 5 In Anglia contingentibns. Vnde non soltmi regnl proceres 

Epistola huiua operis sui AJECL buius opens vel opusculi sui 
XRBi huius opusculi A 

Quia vnusquisque iru. AJXERCLBi, BTA, E om. SA, Uagd 
(HHiG, Ad, WKHt di/idm at tht mJ) 

I Qvuia F a aensuaiiter] intellectuoliter A . . . Bi 3 dum 

teropus inatat om, BTA 4 tT. inter labores — composuit] trea prccipue 
tibros per ipsunt dum vizit doctrine causa compositos ad alionim 
notidam in lucem aeriose produxiL BTA 

8 f. necnon— gradibus om. BTA 9 B". viam— conatur] viam pre- 

cipue qua peccator in pcnitendo Cristi misericordiun assequi potent, 
tota mentis deuocione finaliter contemplatur BTA 11 Tituiuaque] 
titulus AX . . . B) Speculum homjnis A . . . B) Speculum 

13 B. Secundus enim liber, aeimone latino vernbus eiametri 
et pentamclri compoaitus, tractat auper illo mirabili euentu qui 
in Anglia (anglica J) tempore domini Regia Ricardi aecundi 
anno regni aui quarto contigil, quando aeniilea ruslici impetuoae 
coDtra nobilea et ingenuos regni insurrezemnl. Innocenciam tamen 

.coy Google 


et coountmes tormeota passi sont, set et Ipse cmdelluimns 
rex sola ex demeritis ab alto cormeDs in foneam qnam 
fecit fiaallter proiectus eat. Nomenque volumiius hulus 
Vox Clamaatis intitulatiir. 

Terciua iste liber qnl ob renerenciam strenoiwslnii domlni ji 
sul domlni Henrlcl de Lancaatria, tunc Derbele Comltis, 
Anglico sermone conficitnr, secondam Danielia propheci- 
am super huiua mnndi regnoram mntacione a tempore 
regis Habngodonosor vsqae nunc tempora distloguit. 
Tractat eciam secundum Arlstotllem super hiis qoibos ij 
rex Alexander tam in sul regimen qnam aliter eius dls- 
ciplina edoctus fnit. Principalis tamen hulus operls ma- 
teria BupCT amorem et infetnatas amantum passiones 
fundamentom habet. Nomenque sibi appropriatum Con- 
fessio Amantifl speclallter sortitus eat. 3: 

dicti domini Regis tunc minoris etalis causa inde excusabilem pro- 
nundans, culpas aliunde, ex quibus et non a Tortuna tatia inter 
homioes contingunt enonnta, euidencius declarat. Titulusque volu- 
minis huius, cuius ordo Septem cootinet paginas, Vox clamantii 

Secundus liber versibus eiamelri et pentametrl sermone latino 
componiCur, tractat de variis infortuniis tempore regis Ricardi 
secundi in Anglia muUipliciCer contingcntibus, vbi pro statu regni 
compositor deuocius eiorat. Nomenque voluminis huius, qai>d in 
seplem diuidilur partes. Vox clamaatis intitulatur BTA 

ao ff, Tercius iste liber (liber iste J} Anglico sermone in octo partes 
diuisus, qui ad instauciam serenissimi Principis dicti domini Regis 
Anglie Ricardi secundi conGcitur A . . . Bi Tercius isle 

liber qui in octo partes diuiaus ob reuerenciam stren. dont. sui dom. 
Henrici de Lane. Sec, BT 94 vsque in nunc T distingui B 

95 Ifectanabum et Aristolilem A . . . Bi a6 regimine X . . . Bt 

86 f. eiua disciplina— materia om. AX . . . Bi eorum disdplina Ac J 
a^ opens] libri J aS ff. super amorem et Bmactum condlciones 

fundamentum habet; vbi variarum Cronicarum historian] mque sen- 
tcncie, necnon Poetanun Philosophonimque scripture ad exemplum 
distincdus inseruatur. Nomenque presentis opusculi Con fessio 
Amantis specialiter intitulatur. A . . . B) (fiul all txapl J havt 6nem 
for sentencie). 30 specialiter om. A 

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EUcius Cristi, pu Rtx Henrict, Juisti, 
Qui bene venitti cum propria regiuz petisii; 
Tu mala vidsti fut boitit bona rtttitutsti, 
Et pofiula triili noua gaudia contribuisli. 
EU micki tpes lata quod adkue per te renouaia 
Sueeedenl fata veteri probitaie beata, 
Ett tibi nam grata graeia sponte data, 

woRTHi noble kyng, Henry the fertbe, 
In whom the glade fortune is be&lle 
The poeple to goveme uppon this erthe, 
God hath the chose in comfort of oue alle : 
The worschipe of this lond, which was doun falle, 
Now stant upriht thut^h grace of thi goodnesse, 
Which every man is holde forto blesse. 
The highe god of his justice allone 
The right which longeth to thi regalie 
Declared hath to stonde in thi persone, lo 

And more than god may no man justefie. 
Thi title is knowe uppon thin ancestrie, 
The londes folk hath ek thy riht affenned ; 
So stant thi regne of god and man confermed. 

Thi Uxl ii that (/ a* AfS. at Trntlhtm Halt (T)- VariaHoHs 
markid Th an Ihoat of Ike tofy m Ckatuti'e Workt, *i. 153a, 
fl". 975 v»-977. 

tfo mU in T lohan Gower vnto the wortby and noble kynge 
Henry the fourth Tb 

LoHh VertM placid al the tnd i^Uu fatmlh 

I O NoUe worthy kyng Tb 3 uppon this] here vpon Tb 

4 chosen Tb 8 hjghe Th bich T 

•,• I i 

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Ther is no man niai seie in other wise, 

That god himself ne hath thi riht declared, 

Whereof the lond is boun to thi servise. 

Which for defolte of help hath longe cared : 

Bot now ther is no mannes herte spared 

To love and serve and wirche thi plesance, ao 

And al is this thurgh godes pourveiance. 

In alle thing which is of god b^onne 

Ther folnith grace, if it be wel governed : 

Thus tellen thei whiche olde bookes conne, 

Whereof, my lord, y wot wel thow art lemed. 

Ajce of thi god, so schalt thou noght be wemed 

Of no reqweste which is resonable ; 

For god unto the goode is favorable. 

Kyng Salomon, which hadde at his axinge 

Of god what thing him was levest to crave, 30 

He ches wisdom unto the govemynge 

Of goddis folk, the whiche he wolde save : 

And as he ches it fd him forto have; 

For thurgh hts wit, whil that his r^ne laste, 

He gat him pees and reste unto the laste. 

Bot Alisaundre, as telleth his histoire, 

Unto the god besoghte in other wete, 

Of all the world to winne the victoire, 

So that undir his swerd it myht obeie. 

In werre he hadde al that he wolde preie, 4a 

The myghti god behigbt him that beheste, 

The world he wan, and had it of conqweste. 

Bot thogli it fel at thilke time so, 

That Alisandre his axinge hath achieved. 

This sinful world was al paiene tho. 

Was non which hath the hihe god believed : 

No wondir was thogh thilke world was grieved, 

Thogh a tiraunt his pourpos myhte winne ; 

Al was vengance and Jnfortune of sinne. 

16 thi] the Th 17 bouDde Th at this is Th goddes 

punwyaunce Th godespourvewace T 30 to om, Th 3: the 

om. Th 35 iiDto the] in to hia Th 36 his storie Th 4a he 
om. Tb 45 paynem Th 

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Bot now the feith of Crist is come a place j" 

Among the princes in this erthe hiere, 

It sit hem wel to do pite and grace; 

Bot yit it mot be tempred in manere : 

For as thei finden cause in the madere 

Uppon the point, what aftirward betide, 

The lawe of riht schal npght be ieid aside- 

So mai a kyng of werre the vtage 

Ordeigne and take, as he therto is holde, 

To cleime and axe his rightful heritage 

In alle places wber it is withholde: 60 

Bot other wise if god himsilve wolde 

AfTerme love and pes betwen the kynges, 

Pes is the beste above alle erthely thinges. 

Good is teschue werre, and natheles 

A kyng may make werre uppon his right, 

For of bataile the final ende is pees. 

Thus stant the lawe, that a worthi knygbt 

Uppon his trouthe may go to the light ; 

Bot if so were that he mygbte chese, 

Betre is the pees, of which may no man lese. }o 

{Sustene) pes ogbte every man alyve. 

First for to sette his liege lord in reste, 

And elc these othre men that thei ne stryve ; 

For so this world mai stonden ate beste. 

What kyng that wolde be the worthieste, 

The more he myghte oure dedly werre cesse. 

The more he schulde his worthinesse enciesse. 

Pes is the chief of al the worldes welth^ 

And to the heven it ledeth ek the weie; 

Pes is of soule and lif the mannes hetthe. So 

Of pestilence and doth the werre aweie. 

Mi liege lord, tak hiede of that y seie, 

If werre may be left, tak pes on honde, 

Which may noght be withoute goddis sonde. 

54 u ofH. Th 63 erthly Th 71 S pea (rrasun 

afiiT S) T To Btere peace Th eucriche on lyue Th 74 Unde 
may stande Tb 

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With pes slant every creature in teste; 

Witboute pes ther may no lif be glad : 

Above alle othre good pes is the beste, 

Pes hath himself whan werre is at bestad, 

The pes is sauf, the werre is evere adrad ; 

Fes is of alle charite the keie, 90 

Which hath the lif and soule forto weie. 

My liege lord, if that the list to seche 

The sothe essamples that the werre hath wroght, 

Thow schalc wiel hiere of wisemennes speche 

That dcdly werre tumeth into noght. 

For if these olde bokes be wel soght, 

Ther myght thou se what thing the werre hath do, 

Botbe of conqueste and conquerour alsa- 

For vein honour or for the worldes good 

Thei that whilom the stronge werres made, 100 

Wber be thei now? Bethenk wel in thi mod. 

The day is goon, the nyght is derk and fade, 

Her cnialte, which mad hem thanne glade, 

Thei sorwen now, and yit have noght the more; 

The blod is schad, which no man mai restore. 

The werre is modii of the wronges alle; 
It sleth the prest in holi chirche at masse, 
Forlith the maide and doth hire flour to latle. 
The werre makth the grete Citee lasse, 
And doth the lawe his reules overpasse. no 

There is no thing wherof meschef mai growe 
Which is noght caused of the werre, y trowe. 
The werre bringth in poverte at hise hieles, 
Wherof the comon poeple is sore grieved; 
The werre hath set his cart on thilke whieles 
Wher that fortune mai noght be believed. 
For whan men wene best to have achieved, 
Ful ofte it is a1 newe to beginne : 
The werre hath no thing silcec, thogh he witme. 

Bg eucr TTb 90 ■! TTh 93 tlut] wbmt 1h 96 yaoucht 

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Forthi, nay worthi prince, in Cristes halve, no 

As for a part whos feith thou hast to guide, 

Ley to this olde sor a newe salve, 

And do the weire awei, what so betide : 

Pourchace pea, and set it be thi side. 

And suffre noght thi poeple be devoured, 

So schal thi name evere after stonde honoured. 

If eny man be now or evere was 

Ayein the pes thi prere counseillour, 

Let god ben of thi counseil in this cas. 

And put awei the cruel weneiour. 130 

For god, which is of man the creatour. 

He wolde noght men slowe bis creature 

Withoute cause of dedly forfeture. 

Wher nedeth most, behoveth most to loke. 

Mi lord, how so thi wenes ben withoute, 

Of time passed who that hiede toke, 

Good were at hom to se riht wel aboute ; 

For everemor the werste is forto doute : 

Bot if thou myghtest parfit pes atteigne, 

Ther schulde be no cause forto pleigne. 140 

Aboute a kyng good counseil is to preise 

Above alle othre thinges most vailable; 

Bot yit a kyng withinne himself schal peise. 

And se the thinges that ben resonable. 

And ther uppon he schal his wittes stable 

Among the men to sette pes in evene, 

For love of him which is the kyng of hevene. 

Ha, wel is him that schedde nevere blod, 
Bot if it were in cause of rihtwisnesse : 
For if a kyng the peril undirstod, 150* 

What is to sle the poeple, thaone y gesse, 
The dedly werres and the hevynesse, 
Wherof the pes distourbid is ful ofte 
Schulde at som time cesse and wexe softe. 

MI tuM be Bjrde 11) laa LeyTh L«ie T 134 ■etie 

TTh it6 euer TTh 107 euer TTh 109 Lete T Lette 

Th 130 put Th pulte T 148 neuer TTh 

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O kyng fulfild of grace and of knyghthode, 

Remembre uppon this point for Cristes sake, 

If pes be profred unto thi manhode, 

Tbin honour sauf, let it noght be forsake. 

Though thou the wenes darst wel undirtake, 

AfUr reson yit tempre thi corage, 160 

For lich to pes ther is non avantage. 

My woTthi lord, thenk wel, how so befalle. 

Of thilke lore, as holi bokes seJn, 

Crist is the heved and we ben membres alle, 

Als wel the subgit as the sovereign : 

So sit it wel that charite be plein, 

Which unto god himselve most acordetb. 

So as the lore of Cristes word recordetb. 

In tholde lawe, er Crist himself was bore, 

Among the ten comandementz y rede i;o 

How that mansl^htie schulde be forbore ; 

Such was tbe will that time of the godhede : 

And aftirward, whanne Crist tok his manhede. 

Pes was the ferste thing he let do crie 

Ayein the worldes rancour and envie. 

And er Crist wente out of this erthe hiere, 

And stigh to hevene, he made his testament, 

Wher he beqwatb to his disciples there 

And yaf his pes, which is the foundement 

Of charite, wtthouten whos assent 180 

The worldes pes mai nevere wel be tried, 

Ne love kept, ne lawe justefied. 

The Jewes with the paiens hadden werre, 

Bot thei among bemself stode evere in pes : 

Whi schulde thanne oure pes stonde out of herre. 

Which Crist hath chose unto his oghne encres? 

For Crist is more than was Moises, 

And Crist hath set the parfit of the lawe. 

The which scholde in no wise be withdrawe. 

155 and knighthode Th 169 >enlce T thynke Th 165 the 

tubgit] be subiecte Th 173 But «ftenv>rd« 111 175 Ayeiut 

Th 177 BtighedTh iSineuerTTh 

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To yive ous pes was cause whi Crist dide ; 
Withoute pes may no thing stonde availed: 
Bot now a man mai sen on everi side 
How Cristes feitb is every dai assailed, 
With the Paiens destniid, and so bataJIed 
That for defalte of help and of defence 
Unethe hath Crist his dewe reverence. 

The righte feith to kepe of holy chirche 
The firste point is named of knyghthode, 
And everi man is holde forto wircbe 
Uppon the point which slant to his manhode. 
Bot now, helas, the fame is sprad so broode, 
That everi worthi man this thing compleigneth, 
And yit thei is no man which help ordeigneth. 
The worldes cause is waited overal, 
Ther ben the werres redi to the fulle ; 
Bot Cristes oghne cause in special, 
Thei ben the sweides and the speres duUe ; 
And with the sentence of the popes bulle, 
As forto do the folk paien obeie, 
The chirche is turned al an other weie. 
It is to wondre above a mannys wit 
Withoute werre how Cristes feith was wonne, 
And we that ben uppon this erthe yit 
Ne kepe it noght, as it was first b^onne. 
To every creature undir the sonne 
Crist bad himself how that we schulden preche, 
And to the folk his evangile teche. 
More light it is to kepe than to make; 
Bot that we founden mad tofore the hond 
We kepe noght, bot lete it lightly slake. 
The pes of Crist hath altobroke his bond, 
We reste ourselve and soeflrin every lond 
To slen ech other as thing undefendid : 
So slant the werre, and pes is nt^ht amendid. 

194 paynems Th aoo which] }at Th aoa worth! om. 

ao3 is there Th which] that Th aeg payne Th 

a] any Th ai6 how dm. Th atg the om. Th 

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Bot thogh the heved of holy chirche above 

Ne do noght al bis hole businesse 

Among the men to sette pes and love, 

These kynges oughten of here ri^tvisnesse 

Here oghne cause among hemsetf rediesse : 

Thogh Petres schip as now hath lost his stiere, 130 

It hth in hem that barge foito sdere. 

If holy cherche after the duete 

Of Cristes word ne be noght al avjrsed 

To make pes, acord and unite 

Among the kinges that ben now devised, 

Yit natheles the lawe stant assised 

Of mannys wit to be so resonable, 

Withoute that to stonde hemselve 5tabl& 

Of holy chirche we ben children alle, 

And every child is holden forto bowe 140 

Unto the modir, how that evere it faUe, 

Or elles he mot reson desalowe: 

And for that cause a knyght schal ferst avowe 

Tlie eight of holi chirche to defende, 

That no man schal the previlege oSende. 

Thus were it good to setten al in evene 

The worldes princes and the prelatz bothe, 

For love of him which is the king of hevene : 

And if men scholde a^ate wexe wrothe. 

The Sarazins, whiche unto Crist be lothe, 150 

Let men ben armed ayein hem to fighte; 

So mai the knyht his dede of armes rjghte. 

Uppon thre pointz stant Cristes pes oppressed ; 
Ferst holy cherche is in hirsilf divided, 
Which oughte of reson first to be redresced; 
fiot yit so highe a cause is noght decided. 
And thus, whan humble pacience is prided, 
The remenant, which that thei schulden reule, 
No wondir is though it stonde out of reule. 

337 men] people Th 038 him selfe Th 041 «ucr TTh 

351 ayenst Th 354 is otn. Th hersilf T her selie Th 

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Of that the hered is siek, the limes aken : tSo 

These regnes that to Cristes pes belongea 
For worldes good these dedly werres maken, 
Whiche helpeles as in balance hongen. 
, The heved above hem bath nogbt undirfongen 
To sette pes, hot every man sleeth other, 
And in this wise hath charite no brother. 
The two defaltes bringen in the thridde. 
Of mescreantz, that sen bow we debate, 
Betwen the two thei bllen in amidde, 
Wher now aldai thei linde an open gate. 170 

Lo, thus the dedly werre stant algate ; 
Bot evere y hope of King Henries grace 
That he it is which schal the pes embrace. 
My wortbi noble prince and kyng enoignt. 
Whom god hath of his grace so preserved. 
Behold and se the world uppon this point. 
As for thi part that Cristes pes be served : 
So schal thin bighe mede be deserved 
To him which id schal qwiten ate laste, 
For this lif hiere mai no while laste. 18a 

See Alisandre, Ector and Julius, 
See Macbabeu, David and Josue, 
See Charlemeine, Godefroi, Artbus, 
Fulfild of werre and of mortalite. 
Here fame abit, bot al is vanite; 
For deth, which hath the werres under fote. 
Hath mad an ende of which ther is no bote. 
So mai a man the sotbe wite and knowe. 
That pes is good for every king to have : 
The fortune of the werre is evere unknowe, ago 

Bot wher pes is, ther ben the marches save. 
That now is up, to morwe is under grave; 
The mighd god hath alle grace in honde. 
With outen him pes mai nought longe stonde. 

363 bdpplea T helplesse Th 069 Betwene TTh 076 

Bebolde TTh 983 Godlivy uid Artliiis Tfa aSS mij] 

miny Th 391 ben] ia Th 094 pe*] men Tb 

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Of the Tenetz to winne or lese a chace, 
Mai no lif wite er that the bal be ronne : 
AI stant in god, what thing men schal pourcbace, 
Thende is in him er that it be begonne. 
Men sein the wolle, whanne it is wel sponne, 
Doth that the cloth is strong and profitable, 300 
And elles it mai neveie be durable. 
The worldes chaunces uppon aventure 
Ben evere sett, bot thilke chaunce of pes 
Is so behoveli to the creature, 
That it above alle othre is piereles : 
Bot it mai noght be gete natheles 
Among the men to lasten eny while, 
Bot wher the berte is plein witboute guyle. 
The pes is as it were a sacrement 
Tofore the god, and schal with wordes pleine 310 

Withouten eny double entendcment 
Be treted, for the trouthe can noght feine: 
Bot if the men withinne heraself be veine. 
The substance of the pes may noght be trewe, 
Bot every dai it chaungetb uppon newe. 
Bot who that is of cbaiite parfit. 
He voideth alle sleightes feir aweie, 
And sett his word uppon the same plit, 
Wber that his berte hath founde a silcer weie : 
And thus whan conscience is tiewly weie, 310 

And that the pes be handlid with the wise. 
It schal abide and stonde in alle wise. 
Thapostle seith, ther mai no lif be good 
Which is noght grounded uppon chante. 
For charite ne schedde nevere blod, 
So hath the werre as ther no proprite : 
For thilke vertu which is seid pite 
With chante so ferforth is aqweinted, 
That in hire may no fals semblant be peinted. 

395 Off ifi>r Op) T 301 neuer TTli 305 Thai ii aboue 

al other peerles Th 306 begete Th gsi the pes] theae Th 

399 here T her Th 

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Cassodie, vhos writinge is auctorized, 
Seith, wher that pite reigneth, ther is grace, 
Thurgh which the pes hath al his welthe assised, 
So that of werre he dredeth no manace, 
Wher pite dwelleth, in the same place 
Ther mai no dedly cnielte sojora^ 
Wherof that merci schulde his weie tome. 
To se what pite forth with mercy doth. 
The croniqe is at Rome in thilke empire 
Of Constantin, which is a tale soth ; 
Whan him was levere his oghne detb desire 
Than do the yonge children to martire, 
Of cnialte he lafte the querele, 
Pite he wioghte and pite was his bele. 
For thilke mannes pite which he dede 
God was pitous and mad him hoi at al ; 
Silvestre cam, and in the same stede 
Yaf him baptisme first in special. 
Which dide awai the sinne original, 
And al his lepre it hath so purified, 
That bis pite for evere is magnified. 
Pite was cause whi this emperour 
Was hoi in bodi and in soule bothe, 
And Rome also was set in thilke honour 
Of Cristes feith, so that the lieve of lothe, 
Whiche hadden be with Crist tofore wrothe, 
Resceived weren unto Cristes lore : 
Thus schal pite be preised evermore. 

Hy worthi liege lord, Henri be name, 
Which Engelond hast to goveme and righte. 
Men oghten wel thi pite to proclame. 
Which openliche in al the worldes sighte 
Is schewed with the help of god almighte, 
To yive ous pes, which longe hath be debated, 
Wherof thi pris shal nevere ben abated. 

331 tber om. Th 336 wei T way Th 

3S« cuer TTfa 356 wer« TTh 

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My lord, in whom hath evere yit be founde 

Pite withoute spot of violence, 

Kep thilke pes aiwei withinne bounde, 

Which god hath planted in thi conscience : 

So schal the cronique of thi pacience 

Among the seintz be take into memoire jjo 

To the loenge of perdurable gIoir& 

And to thin enhli prii, so as y can, 

Which everi man is holde to commende, 

I, Gower, which am al thi Uege man. 

This lettre unto thin excellence y sende, 

As y which evere unto my lives ende 

Wol praie for the stat of thi persone 

In worschipe of thi sceptre and of thi throne. 

Noght only to my king of pes y write, 
Bot to these othre princes cristene all^ 3^0 

That ech of hem his c^hne herte endite. 
And see the werre er more meschief falle : 
Sette ek the rightful Pope uppon his stalle, 
Kep charite and draugh pite to honde, 
Maintene lawe, and so the pes schal stonde. 

Explicit carmen d« pacis commeodadone. qood ad 
laudem et memorlam sereoisaiiiil principia domlnl Regis 
Henrlci qttarti suns humilis orator lohaDnea Gower com- 
posnlt. Et otinc aequltiir eiristola In qua Idem loannes 
pro statu et aaluta dictl domiol sol apod altisaimom 
deooclns ezorat. 

Rbx celi deus et dominus, qui tempora solus 

Condidit, et solus condita cuncta r^t; 
Qui rerum causas ex se produxit et mum 

In se principium rebus inesse dedit; 
Qui dedit vt stabili motu consisteret orbis 
365 eu«rTTh 371 loenge] legende Th 37B andtliy 

throne Th 369 taor T 

EiPUOT 3 luls Tb 4 Et DUDc— «iont om. Th 

ltuti«do/At LattK Imts lAal Jbllow Th has hm tin Ian*' Z\w.tMS 
CrUtt — aponte dala.' tukicii in T sUiitd at th* btginmHg, and afttr thtst 
mlhoni a tnai, ' Henrici quarti — futura deus,' ftnAw Anu whith art 
writttn al Iht mJ qf 04 TmUham MS. 

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FinuE inetemum mobiliute sua ; 
Quique potens verbi produxit ad esse creata, 

Quique sue mentis l^e ligauit ea; 
Ipse caput regum, reges quo rectificantur, 

Te que tuum regnum, lex pie, queso, regat. lo 
Grata supenieniens te misit gracia nobis, 

Quo sine labe salus nulla perante fuit. 
Sic tuus aduentus noua gaudia sponte reduxit. 

Quo prius in luctu lacrima maior erat : 
Nos tua milicies pauidos releuauit ab ymo, 

Quos prius oppressit pendens Oinne malum : 
Ex probitate tua, quo mors latitabat in vmbra, 

Vita resurexit clara que i^na regit : 
Sic tua sors sortem mediante deo renouatam 

Sanat et emendat, que prius egra fuit. lo 

O pie rex, Cristum per te laudamus, et ipsum 

Qui tibi nos tribuit terra reuiua colit. 
Sancta sit ilia dies qua tu tibi regna petisti, 

Sanctus et ille deus qui tibi r^na dedit. 
Qui tibi prima tulit, confirmet regna futura, 

Quo poteris magno magnus bonore frui. 
Sit tibi progenies ita multiplicata per euum, 

Quod genus inde pium repleat omne solum. 
Quicquid in orbe boni fuerit, tibi summus ab alto 

Donet, vt in terris rex in bonore regas: 30 

Omne quod est turpe vacuum discedat, et omne 

Est quod honorificum det deus esse tuum. 
Consilium nullum, pie rex, te tangat iniquum, 

In quibus occultum scit deus esse dolum. 
Absit auaricia, ne tangat regia corda, 

Nee queat in teira proditor esse tua. 
Sic tua processus habeat fortuna perhennes, 
' Quo recolant laudes secula cuncta tuas : 
Nuper vt August! fuerant preconia Rome, 

Concinat in gestis Anglta leta tuis. 40 

O tibi, lex. euo detur, fortissime, nostro 

Semper honorata sceptra tenere manu : 
Stesita magnanimus quod, vbl tua regna gubernas, 

Terreat has partes hostica nulla mantis: 
10 Teque T 39 aofmil T 

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Augeat imperium tibi Cristus et augeat annos, 

Protegat et nostras aucta corona fores : 
Sit tibi pax finis, domito domineris in orbe, 

Cunctaque sint humeris inferiora tuis. 
Sic honor et virtus, taus, gloria, pax que potestas 

Te que tuum regnum magnificare queant, 50 

Cordis amore boni, pie rex, mea vota paraui; 

Corpore cum nequii, seruio mente tibi : 
Ergo tue laudi que tuo genuflexus honori 

Verba loco doni pauper habenda tuli. 
Est tamen ista mei, pie rex, sentencia verbi, 

Fine tui r^ni sint tibi regna poll. 

48 Cuncis que T 49 paique T 50 Teqje T 53 Uudique T 

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LIB. V. (continued) 

1980. F has a stop after 'Avarice,' but see note on L 3966. 

1962 ff. The meaning seems to be that they make no distinction of 
day or night when there is work of this kind to be done, 

2004. overhippetk, i.e. leaps over or omits something, so that he 
has not all that he desires. The word is used in Piers Plovmian, 
XV. 379, of omitting passages in the services of the Church, 

2015ff. Z^.MirourdelOmme,f,i.liS., 

' Sicomme le Luce en I'eauc gloute 
Du piscon la menuse toute, 
Qu'il presde luy verra noer, 
Ensi ly riches,' &c. 

20S1 ff. The tale of Virgil's Mirror is from the French prose Roman 
des Sept Sages, as published by Le Roux de Lincy. It might easily 
be shown that Gower did not follow either the French metrical version 
or the Latin Hiitoria Sepiem Sapienium. The English metrical 
version published by Weber is from a source similar to that of Gower's 
story, but it differs in some points. Gower seems to be responsible 
for the introduction of Carthage and Hannibal. 

2099. slepende a nyki, i.e. while they slept 

2101. Cp, Prol. 182. 

2115. ^^rr o^An^^Tf/K, i.e. 'he himself.' 

2150f. This point is omitted in the English metrical version. 

2157 f. The English metrical version is very similar, 'We schulle 
the ymage so undersette, That we ne schal hit nothing lette.' 

2168. That is, the timber having been set up. 

2196 ff. This about Hannibal is introduced here as if taken from 
a different source, ' For this 1 finde,' &c. 

2238 f. Cp. Mirour, 10651, 'Plus que gaigners son augst attent.' 

2273 ff. The tale of the Two Coffers is essentially the same story as 
that which we have in Boccaccio Decam. x. i, and essentially different 
from that which is told in Vit. Barlaam et Josaphat, cap. vi, as a 
sequel to the story of the Trump of Death. The stoiy which we have 
here and in Boccaccio is not at all connected with the idea of choosing 

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by the outward appearance. The cofTers are exactly alike, and the 
very point of the situation lies in the bet that the choice is a 
purely fortuitous one. The object was to show that they who com- 
pliuned were penons who had fortune against them, and that this 
was the cause of their having failed of reward, and not ^y neglect 
on the part of the Icing. I cannot say what the source was for 
Gower; certainly not Boccaccio, whose story is altogether different 
in its deUils. 

2391 ff. With this story may be compared that in the Gesta 
RttmaHontm, 109, where by a choice between three pasties, one con- 
taining money, a decision is come to as to whether it is God's will 
that a certain sum shall be restored to its owner, who is a miser. 

2476. tail, i.e. comely, elegant. 

2481. Cp. Chaucer, Cant. Talts, D 259. 

2507. His thonkts, 'of his own good will': cp. Chaucer, Cant, 
Talis, A i6z6, &c. 

2543 ff. See Hist. AUxandri Magm dt Preliis, f i, ed. Argent. 1489. 

2547 ff. Rom. de Troii, 23283 ff. 

2563. Cp.ii. 3035. 

2587. ■ If men shall estimate her value.' The reading of the text 
is also that of S. 

2643 ff. This story is to be found in the Roman des Sept Saga. 
Gower follows the same French prose version as before, 3031 ff 

2677. it stod. In this kind of expression the verb is usually 
subjunctive, as Prol. 481, i. 991, iv. 181, &c. 

2752. a -a/tie. This is also the reading of S. 

281511 A rather more violent displacement than usual ol the 
conjunction, 'And fled away with all the haste,' &c. Cp. L 3947. 

2835. heU seems here to mean 'profit,' in a woridly sense. 

2872. According to the New Engl, Did. this is the same as the 
Dutch 'heepe,' 'heep,' meaning a pruning-hook. 'As there is no 
cognate word in O. E., its appearance in Gower, and this apparently 
in a proverbial phrase, is not easy to account for.' In any case the 
phrase here seems equivalent to ' by hook or by crook.' 

2937, F has punctuation after ' dai,' but (his is dearly a case of the 
inverted order of the conjunction : q). note on ProL 155, and below on 

2961 ff. The story is probably taken from Statius, Ackill. i. 197 ff., 
where however it is told at much greater length. For Gower's 
acquaintance with the Achilleis, cp.iv. 1968 ff. 

3002 ff. Cp. AMU. i. 338 ff. 

3004 £ That is, howsoever his behaviour might be watched. 

8082. ProtkeUs. According to Statius, Ackill. i. 494 ff., Protesilaus 
rebuked Calchas for not having discovered Achilles, upon whicb 
Calchas revealed the truth. Perhaps the mention of Protesilaus 
suggested to Gower the idea of Proteus, of whom he had heard 
as one who could change hit form at will, see L 6673, and perhaps as 

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NOTES. Lib. V. 2391-3291 497 

baviag propbesied the biith and greatness of Achilles (Ovid, Melam. 
xi. 221 ff.). 

3119. lofistilcole, see note on viii. 1890. 

8138 f. C^.Achill.\.iii«. 

8247 ff. -The first part ofthesloiy of Jason and Medea (11. 3347-3936) 
is taken from Benoit (Rem. de Troie, 703-3063), and not from Guido, 
as may be easily shown by comparison of the texts. For example, 
Goido tells all the conditions of the enterprise, about the fire-breathing 
bulls, the serpent's teeth and so on, at the beginning of the story, 
whereas Benoit more dramatically introduces them into the instructions 
given to Jason by Medea (Rom. de Troie, 1337-1374, 1691-1748), and 
in this he is followed by Gower (3SoS""3S4'*)- Guido says nothing 
aboat the sleeplessness of the serpent {Rom. de Troie, i357f., Con/. 
Am. V. 3514), nor about repeating the charm ' contre orient ' {Rom. de 
Trme, 1700}, nor does he mention the thanksgiving which Jason is to 
offer up to the gods after his victory and before he takes the fleece 
(«o«. <iir«(>, 1735 t,Cw«/.v4m.v. 3636 ft). The sleep of Jason after 
leaving Medea is omitted by Guido {Rom. de Trete, 1755 ff., Conf. Am. 
V. 366s ff-)i and also the bath which he took after his adventure {Rom. 
de Troie, 1999, Con/. Am. v. 3801). There is no need to multiply 
instances, which will be observed by every careful reader. We have 
seen on other occasions that Gower prefers Benoit to Guido, and not 
without excellent reasons. Guido indeed makes this story even more 
prosaic than usual, and combines it with matter-of-fact discussions 
about the magic powers of Medea and the virtues of the various stones 
which she used. 

Gower, however, does not follow Benoit in a slavish manner. He 
omits or alters the details of the story very happily at times, and he 
adds much of his own. Thus he omits all mention of the evil motives 
of Peleus (or Pelias), and makes the proposal to seek the golden fleece 
come from Jason ; he passes over the story of the dispute .with 
Laomedon, which was necessary to the Roman de Troie, but not to the 
story of Jason taken separately ; he adds the discourse of Jason with 
Oeles on his arrival ; he omits the details about Medea's hair and eyes, 
her arms and her chin {Rom. de Troie, 1254 ff.), and dwells rather upon 
the feelings which the two lovers had for one another at first sight 
(3376 ff.). When they are together at night, it is Medea, according to 
our author, and not Jason, who suggests that it is time to rise and to 
speak of what has to be done (3547 ff.) ; and Gower adds the scene of 
parting (3634-3659), the description of Jason's return over the sea and 
of Medea's feelings meanwhile upon her tower, and the sending of 
the maid to inquire how he did. Finally, he much improves the story 
by making the flight take place at once, instead of prolonging Jason's 
stay for a month. 

Chaucer, who tells the story in a rather perfunctory manner, follows 
Guido (Leg, 0/ Good Women, 1396 ff.). 

8291. And schop anon, &c This might b« tmderstood of Peleus, 
%* Kk 

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who, according to the original story, gave orders for the building o( 
the ship ; but better perhaps of JasoD, ' Aud scbop ' for ' And he schop,' 
cp. 1. 4590 and vi. 1636. 

3376. herd spoke : cp. 4485, ' I have herd seid.' 

3388. That is, 'they took heed each of other.' For the plural verb 
cp. 3439- 

3416. That is, 'he took St. John as his pledge' of a good issue, 'he 
committed himself loihecareof St. John.* The expression was often used 
inconnexioQ with setting outonajoumey: cp.Cb&acei, Ceimp/.a/ Mari,g. 

3422. Cp.iv. 3273, vi. 2104. The expression invi. i63i f.,' to fulage. 
That he can reson and langage,' that is, ' till he is of full age and fcnowa 
reason, ' &c., is much of the same kind. 

S488. dedehim helpt. We must take this second 'heipe' as a sub- 
stantive, otherwise the rhyme would not be good. The rule is that 
words identical in form can only be combined in rhyme when they 
have some difference of meaning. 

3509. to ihyle. The idea was that the golden fleece was guarded in 
a small island adjacent to the larger ' isle of Colchos.' See Rom, de 
Troie, 1791 ff., 

'Dec li covient \ passer, 
Ou voille ou non, un bras de mer; 
Mis eslreiz est, ne dure mie 
Gaires plus de lieue et demic. 
De I'altre part est li isliax, 
Non mie gram, mis molt est biax.' 

S533. dethes wounde, 'deadly wound' : cp. iit. 3657, 'And smot him 
with a dethes wounde,' and also the genitives 'lyves' for 'living' 
and ' worldes' for 'worldly,' i. 1771, iv. 382, &c. 

8578. hold, i.e. let him hold: cp. viit. 1128, 142a 

3579 ff. According to Benoit Medea gave him first the magic 
figure, 'une figure Fete par art et par conjure' (cp. 3580), then the 
ointment and the ring, and after that a writing, the words of which he 
was to repeat three times when he came to the place. Gower changes 
the order of things, and combines the writing with the 'hevenely 
figure,' describing it as written over with names which he is to repeat 
in the manner mentioned. 

3632. That thanne he Wfre, &c, that is, she prayed that he would 

3654. ' It shall not be owing to any sloth of mine if I do not,' &c. 
3665 ff. ' Dedani son lit s'est tost cochiez 

Endormi sei en eslepas ; 

Car tot esteit de veiller las : 

Et quant i] ot doimi grant piece, 

Tant qu'il estoit ja halte tierce, 

Level s'est,' &c 7>tw>, I7s6ff. 
'undrenhih'is in the French 'halte tierce.' 

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NOTES. Lib. V. 3376-3971 499 

8681. recorde, ' take note of.' 

3688. The reading of X here, ' And forth with a11 his wey he fongeth,' 
is also that of GOAdi. 

8707. sckerded: perhaps the word is suggested by Benolt's ex- 
pression, ' Les cscherdes h^rice ' [Rom. de Troie, 1905), 

3711. A literal translation of Rom. de T^oie, 1906, 'Feu et venin 
gitot ensenble.' With the lines that follow cp. Rom. de Troie, 191 iff. 
3731 ff. The picturesque elements here are perhaps partly suggested 
by Rom. de Troie, 1869 ff. 

8747. That he ne were, expressing a wish : q). iv. 3414, ' Helas, 
that I nere of this lif,' equivalent to 'why ne were 1,' 1. 5979. 

8781 f. 'leyhe' seems to be modified in form for the sake of the 
rhyme, the usual form in Gower being ' lawhe.' 
3786. naght, in rhyme for 'noght ' : cp. ' awht,' ' auht,' i. 3770, v. 6073. 
3789. So Ovid, Metam. vii. I44fr., 

' Tu quoque viclorem complecti, barbara, velles, 
Obstitit incepto pudor,' &c., 
but it is also in Benott, Rom. dt Troie, 1991 i. 

8793 fr. The sending of the maid, with the pretty touch in 1. 3800, is 
an addition by Gower. 
3890. Cp.i. 1516. 

8904. this was conseil, 'this was a secret' ; cp. iii, 778, vi. 2336; so 

Chaucer, Cant. r<i/«, C 819, ' Shal it be conseil?" cp. D 966, £2431. 

3927 ff. Benott tells no more of Jason's life after his return to 

Greece, saying that Dares relates no more, and he does not wish to 

tell stories that may not be true, 'N'en velt fere acreire men^onge.' 

From this point then Gower follows Ovid, Metam, vii. 159-393, and it 

n^ust be imderstood that the illustrative quotations in the notes are fi:om 

this passage. 

3947. ' And prayed her that by the magic art which she knew,' &c. 

, For the order of words cp. 28 1 S f- 

3957 f. Ovid makes it full moon, 1. 180, but afterwards, L 188, says 
' Sidera sola micant' 

8962 ff. 'Egreditur tectis vestes induU rvcinctas, 

Nuda pedem, nudos humeri s infiisa capillos, 
Fertque vagos niediae per muta silentia noctis 
Incomitata gradua.' Metam. vii. 183 ff. 
The comparison to the adder in 1. 3967 is Gower's own. 

3966. F has a stop after ' specheles,' there being a natural tendency 
even in the beat copies to treat ' and ' or ' for ' as the beginning of a 
new clause ! so (to take examples from the fifth book only) v. 231, 410, 
444, 3318, 2937, 5096, in all which places F has apparently wrong 
punccualion in connexion with this kind of inverted order. 
8971 ff. 'Ter se convertit, ter sumptis flumine crinem 
Irroravit aquis, lemis ululatibus ora 
Solvit': 1891 


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S98I. The punctuation is that of F, but perhaps we oi^ht rather 

'Sche preide and ek hield up hir bond, 
To Echales and gan to eric* 
3986. htlp. For this use of the imperat. sing, (with ' belpetfa ' josl 
above) see Introduction, p. cxviii. 
8994. 'Sublimis rapitur, subiectaque Thessala Terope 

Despicit, et Creteis regionibus applicat angues:' 322 f. 
Gower very naturally understood this to mean that Medea visited 
Crete, and hence the confusion of geography. He could not be 
expected to know that Othrys and Olympus were mountains kA Thes- 
saly, and hence that the 'Creteis' or 'cretis' of his manuscript was 
probably a corruption, 
4D00f. 'et placitas partim radicc rcvellit, 

Partim succidit curvamme falcis ahenae.' 236 f. 

4005. Eridian,\.t. Apidanus. 

4006. 'Kecnon Peneus, necnon Spercheides undae 

Contribuere aliquid.' 23of. 

4011. iheredeSte. Perhaps Gower read 'rubnun mare 'for' refiuum 
mare' in Melam. vii. 3j8. 

4031 fT. 'statuitque aras e caespite binas, 

Dexteriore Hecates, at laeva parte luventae.' 240 f. 

4039, 'verbenis, silvaque inclnxit ^resti,' 242. Gower took 'silva 
agrestis' as Che name of a herb and ingeniously translated it into 
' fieldwode.' 

4052 f. ' Umbrarumque n^fat rapta cum coniuge regem,' 249, Our 
author is able to supply the names correctly. 

4064-4114. This picturesque passage is for the most part original. 

4127 ff. ' Nee defuit illic Squamea Cinyphii tenuis membrana chely- 
dri,' 27Z. Gower understood this to mean 'the scales of Cinyphias 
(or Cimphius) and the skin of Chelidrus.' 

4)34. 'novem comicis saecula passae,' 274. 

4137. Ovid speaks of the entrails of a werwolf, 'Ambigui prosecta 
lupi,' &c. 

4156, For omission of relative cp. I. 4205 and note on i. 10, 

4175 ff. The story here is only summarized by Ovid, Me/am. vii. 
394-401. Gower of course knew it from other sources. 

4219. 'intrat Palladias arces,' MetamMi.^^, This means Athens, 
but it is misunderstood by Gower. 

4251. Philrtt, i.e. Nephele. H^inus tells this story much as it is 
told here (except that it was the mother of the children who provided 
the ram), but he gives the name in its Latin form, as ' Nebula.' Note 
the mistake as to this name in the margin, appearing in all MSS. 
except Saa. 

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NOTES. Lib. V. 3981-4708 501 

4299 ff. Note the confosed construction of the sentence : cp. note on 

4391. The metaphor of hunting is still kept up : the gain which they 
pursue is started like a hare and driven into the net. 

4399. Outward, that is, when he gives things out, cp. 'withinne' 

4452. / were a goddeshaif. This seems to mean, '1 should be 
content,' that is, I should be ready to say ' In God's name let it be so.' 
For the expression cp. 1. 5016, 'Thanne a goddes half The thridde time 
assaie I schaL' In the New Engl. DicH^YaHV) it is said to be 
used ' to add emphasis to a petition, command, or expression of con- 
sent or resignation' : cp. Chaucer, Book of the Duchtss, 370, 757. 

4455. / biede nevere . . . Sot, ' I demand only.' In this expression 
'biede' and 'bidde' have been confused, as often. Thus we have 
' I bidde nevere a betre taxe,' i. 1556, ' That I ne bede nevere awake,' 
iv. 3905, in the latter of which 'bede' may be either pcet suhj. of 
'bidde,' or prcs. ind. equivalent to 'biede,' and vi. 1356, ' He bede 
nevere fare bet' where 'bede' is apparendy pret. subj. of bidde; while 
in the English Jiofn. of the Rose, 791, we have ' Ne bode I nevere 
thennes go,' in which ' bode ' must be pret. subj. of ' biede.' 

4465. lete : see note on i. 3365- 

4549 ff. Cp.i.43a'. 

4557 f. ' No law may control him either by severity or by mitdness.' 
For the use of ' compaignie ' in the sense of ' friendliness ' cp. i. 1478, 
and below, 1. 7759. 

4533 S. Ovid, Melam. iiL 363 ff., but the circumstances are somewhat 
modified to suit Gower's purpose. According to Ovid Echo's fault 
was that she talkM too much and diverted Juno's attention, and her 
punishment was that her speech was confined to a mere repetition of 
what she heard. Here the crime is rather that she cunnii^ly concealed 
in her speech what she ought to have told, and the punislitnent is that 
she is obliged to tell everything that comes to her ears. 

4590. 'And through such brocage he was untrue,' &c. For the 
omission of the pronoun see note on i. 1895. 

4623. maken it so gtieinie, 'be so cunning': cp. iv, Z314, where 
however ' queinte ' has a differeut meaning. 

4M2. hire mouth ascape, \. e. escape being repeated by her mouth. 

4661. The aspiration of 'hem,' so as to prevent elision, is very 
unusual : cp. Introduction, p. cxxv. 

4668 fC ' I shall arrange in their due order those branches of 
Avarice on which no wealth is well bestowed,' that is, those which make 
no return for what is bestowed upon them, viz. Usury and Ingratitude. 

4708. Qfsom reprice, Le. ' of some cost,' cp. i. 3414, 

' Which most is worth, and no reprise 
It takth ayein,' 
that is, it costs nothing. 

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4724. "with ydtl hand, 'with empty hand,' that is, without a lure. 
This seems to be the original meaning of the adjective : see New Eng, 
Did. ' idle.' 

4731. the gold Oclovien. The treasures of Oclovien (or Octavian) 
were proverbial r cp. Rom. de Troie, 1684 f, 
' Unqucs Oteviens de Rome 
Ne pot conquerre tel aveir,' 
and again 2 8 594, 

' Se li tresors Octoviena 
Fust lor, si lor donassent il.' 

The expression here seems to be in imitation of the French form 
without preposition, as in the latter of the above quotations. 

The French Roman d'Otkevien, found in the Bodleian MS. Hatton 
100, and reproduced in two English versions, has nothing to do with 
the treasures of Oclovien, for which see William of Malmesbury, Gesfa 
Regum, ii. § 169 f. The treasures were supposed to be buried at Rome 
or elsewhere, and several persons, especially the Pope Silvester 
(Gerberl), were said to have seen them, but not to have been permitted 
to cany them away. They appear also in the Roman des Sept Sages. 

4748. escku of. The adjective is used by Chaucer with ' to ' (or 'for 
to') and infin., Cant. Tales, E 1S12, I 971. We may note the spelling 
here with reference to Chaucer's rhyme in the former passage. 

4763. ' It may not by any means be avoided that,' &c. 

4774. as io Ihofiars, 'as regards those matters ' : ' pars ' is the French 
plural form, cp. Mirour, 7386, where apparently ' pars ' means 'duties.' 

4787. Cf>. 1. 77i6> where the saying has a different application. The 
proverb is here used of those who are, as we say, penny wise and 
pound foolish. In the other passage it is applied to the opposite case 
of gaining the coat for the hood, 

4808 IT. This story is founded on iii%sa-Q»iie&.ComediaBabionis,<iiat 
of those Latin elegiac poems in a quasi-dramatic form which were 
popular in the fourteenth century. Others of the same class are Gefa 
and Pamphilus. In the original, Vifila is Babio's step -daughter, with 
whom he is in love, and who is taken in marriage against his «rill by 
Croceus. The serving-man is Fodius, not Spodius, and most of the 
piece is concerned with an mtrigue between him and the wife of Babio. 
See Wright's Eariy Mysteries, p. 65. 

4889. comth to londe, 'appears'; cp. I. 18. 

492!. -aiko that it kan, that is, as any one who knows it will witness : 
cp. I. 4927, ' For, as any one who observes may know, a beast is,' &c 

4937 IT. This story, which is of Eastern origin, is told near the aid 
of the Sfeculum Stultorum (i.e. Bumellus), with which Gower was 
acquainted, as we know from the Vox Clamantis. The names thete 
are Bemardus and Dryanus, and the animals are three, a serpent, an 
ape, and a lion. A similar tale is told by Matthew Paris, under the 
year 1195, as related by King Richard I in order to recommend 

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NOTES. Lib. V. 4724-5360 503 

liberality in the cause of Christendom. In this the rich man is 
Vitalis, a Venetian, and the poor roan's name is not given. The 
animals in the pit arc a lion and a serpent. Vitalis thanks his 
deliverer, and appoints a lime for him to come to his palace in Venice 
and receive the promised rewardof half his goods; hut when he comes, 
he is lefused with contumely. The magic qualities of the gem which 
the serpent brings are not mentioned in the story of Vitalis. 

50!0f. So in the Sfeculum Sful/onim, 'Tunc iu Bemardus, 
Sathanae phantasmate lusum Se repuians, dixit,* £c. 

5022. blessed, i.e. crossed himself. This ceremony plays a consider- 
able part in the story of Vitalis, for by it be is preserved from the wild 
beasts while in the pit. 

5025. Bettven Mm and his Assr, that is, he and his ass together: 
cp. 1, 53G1. The expression is imitated from the French, cp. Aomun de 
Troie, 5837. 

5093. There is a stop after ' Purs,' no doubt rightly, in F. On the 
other hand the stop after ' wif in 1. 5096 must be wrong. 

5123 f. Cp. 4597 S. 

5215. standi. For this spelling cp. 'bidt,' iv. 1162. 

5281 ff. The outline of this story might have been got from Ovid 
and from Hyginus, FiA. 40-43, but several points of detail suggest 
a different source. These are, for example, the idea that the son of 
Minos went to Athens to study philosophy, the statement of the number 
of persons sent as a tribute to Minos, the incident of the ball of pitch given 
by Ariadne to Theseus to be used against the Minotaur, and the name of 
the island where Ariadne was deserted. In the first and third of these 
Gower agrees with Chaucer, Zf^wu/ of Good Women, 1894 If, but his 
story is apparently quite independent, so that in regard to these matters 
we must assume a common source: cp. L. Bech in Anglia, v. 337 fl*. 

asUlUlk the Poeti, The authority referred to here must be Ovid 
(cp. i. 3S6, ii. 131, V. 6713, 6S04, &c). He slightly mentions the death 
of Androgeus, Metain. vit, 458, and relates the war of Minos against 
Megara at some length (Mg/am, viiL I ff), very briefly summarising 
the remainder of the story. Chaucer follows Ovid more fully here, 
telling the story of Nisus, to which Gower does not think it necessary 

5248. dighU. This is the form of spelling here in S as well as F : 
so also in I. 5352. 

5264 f. Hyginus says seven persons each year : Chaucer seems to 
conceive it as one every third year. The usual account is seven youths 
and seven maidens either every year or once in nine years. 

5302. many on. Perhaps we should read ' manye on ' with S and F, 
as vii. 2191, ' manye an other.' 

5819. This expression occurs also in II. 5598 and 7553. 

5360. /aw^/. Elsewhere this verb has preterite 'foghte,' as iii. 
2651, iv. 309s, but the strong fonn'faught' is used by Chaucer, e-g. 
Cant. Tales, B 3519, and this in fact is the origmally correct form. 

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5413. Ckyo. Ovid says ' Dia,' that is Naxos. 

6507. HU riktt fiame: cp, Mirour, 409, 'par son droit noun Je 
roinommer Temptacioon,' 4243, 'Si ota noan par droit nommant,'&c. 
and other similar expressions. • 

5510. as men telieik : cp. L 6045, ' men seith.* 

5511. According to the margin Exionion is the nurM^r of Ravine. 
5550. /emeline,useA repeatedly both as adjective and as substantive 

in the Mirour dt POmme. 

5551 ff. The tale of Tereus is from Ovid, Metam. vi. 424-674, 
in some parts abbreviated and in others expanded, with good judge- 
ment usually in both cases, so that this is one of Gower's best- 
told tales. He omits the long account given by Ovid of the way in 
which Pandion was persuaded to allow Fhiloniela to accompany 
Tereus (^«/ 447-510), the incidents of the rescue of Philomela 
from her imprisonment, which no doubt he felt would be unintelligible to 
his readers (587-600), and many of the more shocking details con- 
nected with the death of Itys and the feast upon his flesh. On the 
other hand he has added the prayer and reflections of Philomene in her 
prison (II. 5734-5768), the prayers of the two sisters (5817-5860), the 
words of Progne to Tereus (5915-5927), and especially the reflections 
on the ni^tingale and the swallow at the end of the stoiy (5943-6039). 
This latter part is quite chaiactnistic of our author, and as usual it is 
prettily conceived. 

Chaucer, who tells the story in the Legend of Good Women, 3238- 
2393, was weary of it even from the beginning (2257 f.), and omits the 
conclusion altogether, either as too shocking or as not suiting with his 
design. So far as he goes, however, he follows Ovid more closely than 

S&55. See note on Prol. 460. 

6598. So also II. 5319, 7553- 

5623. Ovid's comparison is to fire catching dry straw and leaves, 
Metam. \\. 456 f. 

5643 ff. Ovid compares her stale after the deed was done to that of 
a lamb hurt by a wolf and still trembling, or a dove which has escaped 
wounded from a bird of prey (527-530). Here, on the other hand, the 
idea is of being held fast, so that she cannot move or escape ; while 
Chaucer, using the same similes as Ovid, applies the compariscm 
less appropriately to her fear of the violence yet to come. 

5651. Cp. Melam. vi. 531, ' Mox ubt mens rediit.' 

5663 IT. 'si copiadetur. 

In populos veniara ; si silvis clausa tenebor, 

Implebo silvas, et conscia saxa movebo.' Metam. vi. 545 fl". 

5670. I suspect the combination ' tale and ende ' may have arisen 
from some such phrase as 'to sette tale on ende' (or 'an ende'), 
meaning to begin a speech : see New Engl. Diet, under 'ende.' 

6376. where is thi fere t that is, ' where is thy fear of the gods ? ' 

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NOTES. Lib. V. S4I 3-6020 505 

We must not take 'fere' to the sense of 'companion' or 'equal,' 
because in that case it could not properly rhyme with ' Ere.' 

5690f. 'comprensam forcipe liogUiun 

Abstulit ense fero.' Me/am. vi. 556 f. 

Gower must be commended for omitting the tasteless lines which 
follow in Ovid about the severed tongue, and still more the shocking 
statement, which even Ovid accompanies with ' vis au£im credere,' of 
561 f. 

6709. /f A, preterite of 'ten,' from OE. 'Uon,' meaning ' draw,' and 

5724. The punctuation follows F, ' To hire ' meaning ' in her case,' 
cp. I. 4183, vii. 4937. It would suit the sense better perhaps to set the 
comma after ' forsake,' and to take 'To hire' with what follows; cp. 
note on L 3966, where it is shown that the punctuation of F is often 
wrong in such cases as this. 

6726. hir Seiires mynde, ' her sister's memory.' 

6780. gifile under the gore, that is, deceit concealed, as it were, under 
a cloak : cp. I. 6680. The expression ' under gore ' is common enough, 
meaning the same as ' under wede,' and this alliterative form looks 
like a proverbial expression. 

6784-5768. AU this is original 

6787. sogreit a wa: cp. 1. 6452, and see Introduction, p. ex. 

5778. ' nee scit quid tradat in illis,' Mefam. vi, s8a 

6793. ' Non est lacrimis hie, inquit, agendum, Sed ferro,' Metam. vi. 

5802 if. According to Ovid this was done under cover of a Bacchic 
festival (587 fF.j. 

6816-6860. This is all original. 

6810. tolytclofme hi: see note on 1. 1004. 

£891 ff. Gower does well in omitting the circumstances of this which 
Ovid gives (619-646), and in partially covering the horror of it by the 
excuse of madness, but there is one touch which ought to have been 
brought in, *Ah, quam Es similis palri 1 ' (631). 

6910 fT. Ovid says that Philomela threw the gory head into the 
father's face, and that Tereus endeavoured to vomit up that which he 
had eaten. Our author has shovm good taste in not following bim. 

5915 ff. This speech is not in Ovid. 

504S-6029. Nearly all this is Gower's own. Ovid only says, 
'Quarum petit altera silvas: Altera tecta subit' (668 f.). We have 
already observed upon our author's tendency to make additions of this 
symbolical kind to the stories which he takes from Ovid : see note 
on i. 3355. 

6020. The reading ' here ' is given both by S and F, but ' hire ' {' hir '), 
supported by AJMXGCBf, BT, W, seems to be required by the sense. 
She informs them of the ^eness of her husband, that they also may 
leam to beware <£. them, that ts of husbands. The combination of ' here ' 

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with the singular ' bousebonde,' meaning ' [heir husbands,' would be 
very harsh. 
6041 S. ' ll!e dolore suo, poenaeque cupidine velox, 

Vettitur in volucrem, cui stant in vcrlice cristae, 
Prominet immodicum pro longa cuspide rostrum, 
Nomen Epops volucri, facies armata videtur.' 

Metam. vl 671 ff. 
The lapwing is identified with the hoopoe because of its crest. In ihe 
TraitU, xii, where this story is shortly told, Tereus is changed into 
a ' hupe,' 

'Dont dieus lui ad en hupe tmnsfoim^ 
En signc qu'il fuist fals et avoltier," 
while at the same time in the Mirour, 8869 tf., Ihe ' hupe ' is repre- 
sented as the bird which tries to deceive those who search for its nest, 
a description which obviously belongs to the lapwing. 

6047, Cp. Chaucer, Pari. 0/ Foules, 347, 'The false lapwyng ftil of 
6058. goddes forebode: cp. Chaucer, Leg. of Good Wotnen, xa, 

'But goddes forbode but men schulde leve,' 
where the second form of text has 

' But god forhede but men sbulde leve.' 
We must take ' forebode ' as a substantive. 

6073. auhl: modified to suit the rhyme: so 'awht,' i. 3770, and 
'naght,' 1. 3786, rhyming with ' straght.' The regular forms for Gower 
are ' oght,' ' noght.' 

6145 tf. This is from Ovid, Metam. ii. 569-588. Gower has judici- 
ously kept it apart from the story of Coionis and the raven, told by 
him in the second book, with which it is combined in rather a con- 
fusing manner by Ovid. The story is somewhat expanded by Gower. 

6150. wifto Marte: cp. I2i4f. 

6169. And caste : cp. 1. 4590, and see note on i. 1895. 

6197. 'mota est pro virgine virgo, Auxiliumque tulit,' Metam, ii, 
S79t, but Ovid says nothing of any special prayer to Pallas for help, 
nor does he represent that Comix was before in attendance upon that 

6207 fT. This is original and characteristic of our author. 

6225 fT. This story is from Ovid, Metam. ii. 409-507, but Gower 
evidently knew it from other sources also, for the name Calistona (or 
CaUisto) is not given by Ovid, who calls her ' virgo Nonacrina ' and 
'Parrhasis.' Hyginus tells it in various forms, Fab. 177 and Poet. 
Astr. ii. a. 

6255, According to Ovid, Diana was quite ignorant of the fact, 
though the nymphs suspected iL 

6258. in a ragerie, that is ' in sport': cp. Chaucer, Out/. Tales, 

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NOTES. Lib. V, 6041-6488 507 

E 1847. and the use of the verb * rage,' e. g. i. 17^4 and Cant. Tales, 
A 3S7. 32?3. 3958. 

6275 ff. ' I piocul bine, dixit, nee sacros poUue fontes,' Melam, n. 464. 

6281. F has a stop after ' schame.' 

6291 ff. This address is mostly original : cp. Meiatn, ii. 471 ff. 

6384 ff. 'Arcuit omnipotens, pariterquc ipsosque nefasque 
Sustulit, et celeri raptos per inania venio 
Imposuit caeto vicinaque sidera fecit.' 

Mtiam. ii. 505 ff 

Latin Verses, x. The idea expressed is that though examples of vir- 
ginity can only be produced through marriage, yet virginity is nobler 
than marriage, as the flower of a rose is nobler than the stock from 
which it springs. Marriage, in fact, replenishes the earth, but virginity 
heaveo : cp. Trait, ii. 

6S59ff. Cp. Mirour, 171198"., where the saying is attributed to 
Jerome, who says in fact that precedence was given in the streets to 
the Vestal Virgins by the highest magistrates, and even by victors 
riding in the triumphal car {adv.Jevin. ii. 41). 

6372 ff. Cp. Mirour, 18301 ff. The anecdote is taken from Valerius 
Maximus, Mem. iv. 5, but the name in the original is 'Spurina,' and 
he does not thrust out his eyes, but merely destroys the beauty of his 
face. In the Mirour it is ' Coupa ses membres.* 

63SS ff. ' So may I prove that, if a man will weigh the virtues^ he 
will find that virginity is to be praised above all others.' The sentence 
is disordered for the sake of the rhymes ; cp. ii. 709 ff. 

6389. The quotation from the Apocalypse is given in the margin of 
Sa and Id Mirour, 17053 ff. The reference is to Rev. xiv. 4. 

6398 ff. This also appears in Mirour, 17089 ff., and Traitii, xvi. 
It may have been taken from the Epistola Valerii ad Rufinum. 

6402. The margin makes him ' octogenarius,' and so it b also in the 
Mirour and TraiiiJ, as well as in the Epistola Valerii- 

6435 ff. This shows more knowledge than could have been got from 
the Roman lie Troie. The story is told by Hyginus, Fai. I3I, but not 
exactly as we have it here. This ' Criseide doubter of Crisis ' should 
be distinguished from the Criseide daughter of Calchas (Briseida in 
the Roman de Troie), who is associated with Troilus, if it is worth 
while making distinctions where so much confiision prevails. 

6442. dangerous^ that is, 'grudging' or 'reluctant': cp. Chaucer, 
Cant. Tales, D 1090, and see note on i. 3443. 

6452. So grete a lust : cp. L 5737 and Introduction, p. ex. 

6498. as a Pocok doth. It is difficult to see the appropriateness of 
the comparison, for to 'stalke' is to go cautiously or secretly, and 
that is evidently the meaning here, so that any idea of display is out 
of the question. The peacock was supposed to be ashamed of its 

6395' ff. Cp. Mirour, 17067 and note. 

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ugly feet, cp. Mirour, 33459, "^(^ '" ^^ Secrttttm Stcretorum we 
actually have the expression ' humilis et obediens ul pavo,' translated by 
Lydgate (or Burgh) ' Meeke as a pecock.' Albertus Magnus says, ' Cum 
aspicitur ad so'em, decorem ostentat, et alio tempore occulta) quantum 
potent' {De Animadibus., 13). There seems to have been a notion 
that it was liable to have its pride humbled and to slink away ashamed. 

6S26. bile under the -unnge, that is, concealed, as a bird's head 
under ita wing : apparently proverbiaL 

6541. / mai remene . . . mene. This is apparently the reading of 
the MSS. The meaning of remene' is properly to bring back. It 
is used earlier, i. 379, with reference to the application of the teaching 
about vices generally to the case of love, and here it seems to have 
much the same sense. ' So that I may apply what has been said 
about this craft directly' ('Withouten help of eny mene') to the case 
of lovers, they being very evidently offenders in this way. 

6581. hire it is : but in 1. 4470, ' It schal ben hires.' 

6608ff. For the construction see note on i. 718. 

6620. Danger: see note on i. 2443. 

6634. sfyke: cp. 1. 7092*. 'He can so wel hise wordes slyke.' The 
word means properly to smoothe, hence Co flatter: cp.the modem 'sleek.' 

6635. Be him. Sec, i.e. by his own resources or by the help of any 

6636. To whom : see note on i. 771. 

6654. a nyht, i. e. by night, also written ' anyht,' iL 1857. 

6672, ProtheUs, that is Proteus t cp. note on 1. 3082. 

6674. in what likncsse, 'into any form whatsoever.' 

6680. under the pallt, ' in secret,' like ' under the gore,' 1. 5730. 

6713 ff. From Ovid, Metam. iv. 193-355, but with several changes. 
In the original story the Sun^od came to Leucothoe by night and 
in the form of her mother. Clytie (not Clymene) discovered the bet 
(without the aid of Venus) and told it to the fother; and it was an 
incxnse plant which grew from the place where Leucothoe was buried. 

6757. For the expression cp. iii. 3555, ' Achastus, which with Venus 
was Hire priest.' 

6779. This change into a flower which follows the sun is suggested 
by Metam. iv. 366 fF., where we are told that Clytie was changed 
into a heliotrope. Here it is a sun-flower apparently. 

6807(r. From Ovid, i^w//, ii. 30S-358. The 'mistress' of whom 
Ovid speaks is Omphale, but Gower supposed it to be lole. He gets 
'Thophis' as the name of the cave from a misunderstanding of L 317, 
and apparently he read 'Saba' for 'Lyda'in I. 356, out of which he 
has got his idea of a goddess Saba with attendant nymphs. This 
feature, though based on a mistake, is a decided improvement of the 
story, which is told by Cower in a spirited and humorous manner. 

6848 S. The reading of X in this passage is also that of GOAdi. 

6899. The punctuation is that of F. 

6932. aiarouie: so iv. 314J, cp. 1. 6257, 'al a compaiaic' 

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NOTES. Lib. V. 6526-7202 509 

7013. Cp. Mirour, ;i8i ff. 

7048. This is a nautical metaphor, ' so near the wind will they steer.' 
The verb ' love ' is the modem ' lutT,' meaning to briog a ship's head 
towards the wind. The substantive ' lof (genit. * loves') means in ME. 
a radder or some similar contrivance for turning the ship, and ' love ' here 
seems to mean simply to steer. The rhyme with 'glove' makes 'love' 
from ' lufian ' out of the qnestion, even if it gave a satisfactory sense. 

IWi. gon qffre. The ceremony of 'offering' after mass was one 
which involved a good deal of etiquette as regards precedence and so 
on, cp. Chaucer, Cant. Tales, A 449 ff., and ladies apparently were led 
up to the altar on these occasions by their cavaliers. 

7179, 'If I might manage in any other way,' like the expression 
' (I cannot) away with,' &c. 

7195 ff. The story comes no doubt from Benott, ^(»».(& Troie, 3851- 
4916, where it is told at much greater length. Guido does not differ 
much as regards the incidents related by Gower, but by comparing the 
two texts in some particular places we can tell without much difficulty 
which was Gowei^s source. For example, in the speech of Hector 
Benoit has, 

' Veez Europe que il ont, 
La tierce partie del mont, 
Oil sont li meillor chevalier.' 3791 ff, 

while Guido says, ' Nostis enim . , . lotam AfTricam et Europam hodic 
Grecis esse subiectam, quanta Greci multitudin'e mtlitum sunt suffulti,' 
&c See below, 7340 ff. 

The slory is told by Gower with good judgement, and he freely 
omits unnecessary details, as those of the mission of Antenor to Greece. 
The debate in Priam's parliament is shortened, and the speeches of 
Hector and Paris much improved. 

7197 ff. Cp.3303ff. 

7202. The sentence is broken off and resumed in a different form : 
see note* on i. 98. 

7015' ff. Cp. ^(rtwr, 7is6ff. 

70S3'. And thai, i. e. ' And provided that.' 

7092'. See note on 1. 6634. 

7105* ff. The tale is told also in the Mirour de POttime, 7093-7128. 
It is to be found in the Gesta RtmumoruM (which however is not 
dower's source), and in various other places. Cicero tells what is 
practically the same story of Dionysius of Syracuse {De Nat. Deorum, 
iii. 34), but the acts of sacrilege were committed by him in various 
places. The golden mantle was taken from the stame of Zeus at 
Olympia, and the beard from that of Aesculapius at Epidaurus, the 
justification in this latter case being that Apollo, the lather of Aescu- 
lapius, was always represented without a beard. Those who repeated 
the anecdote in the Middle Ages naturally missed this point. We may 
note that Dyonis is the name given in the Mirour. 

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7213 ff. Cp. Rom. dt Troie, VJTi ff. 

7285fr. TVwV, 3039 ff. Cower has judiciouslycut sbOTttbe 
architectural details. 

7275. Esionam : see note on L 67i9> 

7307. in it's yhte, ' in his possession.* For the substance of these 
lines cp. Rom. dt Troie, 2915-2950. 

7372. JirAfl/tfj'?, imperative, for jfAfl/rfA; so 'Sey ye' in 1. 7435. 

7377. Strong '^'".fi '■ e- a hard thing to bear. TTiis is apparently 
a translation of the French 'fort,' which was very comnionly used in 
the sense of 'difficult': see the examples in Godefroy's Dictionary, 
e.g. 'forte chose est de ;ou croire,' 'fors choses est a toi guerroier 
ancontre moi.' 

7390 ff. 'Ten men have been seen to deal with a hundred and to 
have had the better.' 

7400. Rom. de Troie, 384a, ' L'autrier k% kalendes de Mai," &c. 
The word * ender ' is an adjective meaning ' former,' originally perhaps 
an adverb. It is used only in the expressions 'ender day' and 'ender 
night.' The combination 'enderday' occurs in i. 98. 

7420. Rom. de Troie, 3889 f, 

' Cascune conseilla & mei 
Priv&ment et en segrei,' ftc. 

7451 ff. ForCassandraastheSibylcp.GodfreyofViterbc^i'fM/jifim, 
p.ai4(ed. 1584). 

7497 f. ■ Molt est isnele Renomm^, 

Savoir fist tost par la contr^e,' &c. 

Rom. de Troie, 4299 ff. 

7655 ff. The further incidents of the embarkation and of the voyage 
home, Rom. de Troie, 4505-4832, are omitted. 

7576 f. Cp. Rom. de Troie, 4867 ff. 

7591 ff. This incident is related in tlie Troie, I74S7ff'. The 
occasion was an anniversary celebration at the tomb of Hector, and 
though the temple of Apollo is not actually named here by Benott, it 
has been previously described at large as Hector's burial place. 

7597 ff. The scene in Chaucer's Troilus, i. 155 ff., is well known. 
He took it from Boccaccio. 

7612. In the treatment of Avarice Gower has departed entirely from 
the plan of fivefold division which he follows in the first three 
books, as throughout in the Mirour. In the sixth hook he deliberately 
declines to deal with more than two of the branches of Gule (vi. 12 f.), 
and the treatment of Lechery is also irregular. 

7651. h£re tuo debat, i. e. the strife of those two. 

7716. the Cote for the hod: that is, he gets a return lai^^ than the 
amount that he gave ; a different form of the expression from that 
which we have in L 4787. 

7719. hors : probably plural in both cases. 

7724. ' If a man will go by the safe way.' 

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NOTES. Lib. V. 7213— VI. 249 511 

7736 fF. This saying is not really quoted from Seneca, but froni 
Caecilius Balbus, Nug. Phil. -a. It must have been in Chaucer's 
mind when he wrote ' Suflice unto thy good, though it be smal,' that 
is, ' Adapt thy life to thy worldly fortune.' 

7830f. I take this to mean, 'And suddenly to meet his flowers the 
summer appear? and is rich.' For the meaning of ' hapneth ' see the 
examples in the New English Dictionary. 

7888. be war: written as one word in F and afterwards divided 
by a stroke. 


Latin Verses, i. 6. ruit seems to be transitive, ' casts down.' 

i. 7. Rather involved in order; 'on the lips which Bacchus intoxicates 
and which are plunged in sleep.' 

4. myslymed, 'unhappily produced.' In other places, as i. 320, 
iii. 3458, the word seems to mean to order or arrange wrongly. The 
OE^ ' mistlmian ' means to happen amiss. 

7. dedly, ' mortal,' i. e. subject to death. 

34. vert, ' he waxeth ' ; for the omission of the pronoun see note 
on i. 1895 and cp. U. 149, 313, 367, below. 

57. For the form of expresdon cp. i. 380, ii. 2437, and below, 1. 106. 

59. slerte is for 'steit,' pres. tense. 

70. in vers, that is ' in order.' The word ' vers ' is given in Gode- 
froy's Dictionary with the sense 'state,' 'situation'; e.g. Rom, de la Rose, 
9523 n-i 'Makment est changies Ii vers, 

Or Ii vient Ii gieus si divers, 
Qu'el ne puet ne n'ose joer,' 

71 f. Cp. Mirour, 8246f. 

84. the jolif wo : cp. i. 88, vii. 1910, and Balades, xii. 4, ' Si porte 
adcs le jolif mal sanz cure.' 

105, ofstuh a thew,' by suob a habit' (i.e. of love), to be taken with 
' dronkelcw,' 

144. hovedance, ' court dance ' : see New Eng. Dictionary. 

145. the newe/ol: written thus as one word in S and F: it must be 
regarded as the name of some dance. 

160, it am noghl I; cp. Chaucer, Leg, of G, IVomen, 314, 'sir, hit 
am I,' Cant. Tales, A 1736, &c. 

188. holde forth the luiti route: perhaps simply, 'continue to be 
with the merry company.' See ' forth ' in the Glossary. 

218. vemage : the same wine that is called ' gemache ' or ' gamacbe * 
in the Mirour de FOmme, ' vemaccia * in Italian, but whether a wine of 
Italy or Greece seems uncertain. 

221. at tnyn above : see note on iv. 914. 

289. /A<Wiw(f*r^M'«r^; cp. Chaucer, 7>£wVw/,i. 916, with Skeat'stiote. 

249. Cp. Chaucer, Troilus, \, 430, ' For bete of cold, for cold of hete, 

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253. of suck relet: this seems to men 'of such strength,' and 
' relais ' perhaps has a somewhat similar sense in Mirour, 3031, 
' C'cst droit qu'il sente le relais 
De la tempeste et de Torage.* 
As in the modern 'relay,' the idea of ceasing or of relaxation may be 
accompanied by the notion of fresh vigour tailing the place of ex- 
haustion, and so the word may stand simply for strength or freshness. 

If this explanation is not admissible, we must suppose that 'reles* 
means here the power of relaxing or dissolving, 
285 f. Cp. Rom. de la Rose, 4326 f., 

'C'est la soif qui tons jors est ivre, 
Yvrece qui de soif s'enyvre.' 
290. liste : perhaps pret, subjunctive ; so 1. 606, and 'leste,' 357. 
296. be the bend, i, e. ' by the band,' at his girdle. 
311 f. 'This for the time alleviates the pain for him who has no other 
joy.' ' As for the time yit ' means simply ' for the time,' cp. II. 738, 893. 
821. For 'men' with singular verb cp. ii. 659, v. 5510, 6045, vii. 
1353, and Chaucer, Cant. Tales, A 149, ic. 

SSOff. Cp.viii. 33528". and TraiHi, xv. 3. The poet referred to in 
the margin is pierhapa Homer, who is quoted in the Rom. de la Rose as 
authority for an arrangement somewhat similar to that described here : 
'Jupiter en toute saison 
A sor le suel de sa maison, 
Ce dit Omers, deus plains lonneaus ; 
Si n'est viex hons ne gar;onneaus, 
N'il n'est dame ne damoisele, 
Soit vielle ou jone, liude ou bele, 
Qui vie en ce monde re90)ve, 
Qui de ces deus tonneaus ne boive. 
C'est unc taveme planiire, 
Dont Fortune la tavemifere 

Trait aluine et piment en coupes ' flee. 6836 ff. {ed. Mfon). 
Gower has applied the idea especially to the subject of love, and has 
made Cupid die butler instead of Fortune. The basis in Homer is 

Soioi yap r( ni'doi naroKtiaTai cv Aiif oiiSd, ji.rjk. 

360. trouble is properly an adjective, cp. v. 4160. The corrupt 
reading ' chere ' for ' cler ' has hiiherto obscured the sense. 

399 tf. This story of Bacchus is told by Hyginus, PiwA ^jfr, ii, under 
the heading 'Aries.' 

437. a riche temple. This was the temple of Jupiter Ammon. 

439. ' To remind thirsty men' of the power of prayer. 

485 IT. The siory is from Ovid, Metam. xii. 210 ff. 

502 f. ihilke tonne drouh, wherof, &C., ' drew such wine for them 

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NOTES. Lib. VI. 255-728 513 

that by it,' &c See note on i. 771 &nd cp. U. 618 and 1349 of tbis 

5S7, I do not know what antbority is referred to. 

588. tm/fiti, ' set free,' so ' waDdcriog abroad.' 

609. The name of this second branch of Gluttony has not been 
mentioned before. 

682 f. ' so long as he has wealth by which he may be provided with 
the means.' For the use of ' founde ' cp. v. 3690 and Chaucer, Cani, 
Taies, C 537, 'How gret labour and cost is thee to fytide!' (addressing 
the beUy). 

Wi. for the point o/kis relief,' motAttta please him,' so below 'he 
is nogbt relieved,' I. 678. 

656. toke, subjunctive, * how he should take it.' 

662. After this line a coupld is inserted by Paul! from the Harleinn 
MS. 7184 (H.), 

' To take metes and drinkes newe, 
For it sbulde alwey eschewe.' 
The lines are nonsense and bare no metre. They come originally 
from K, the copyist of which apparently inserted tbem out of his own 
head, to fill up a space left by the accidental omission of two lines 
(645 f.) a little above in the same column. He was making his book 
conespond column for column with the copy, and therefore discovered 
his mistake when he reached the bottom, but did not care to draw 
attention to it by inserting what he had omitted. 

668. ' Physique ' is apparently meant for the Physics of Aristotle, 
and something very like this maxim is to be found there, but the 
quotation, ' Consuetudo est altera natura,' is actually taken fr^m the 
Sea-elum Secretorvm (ed. 1520, f. 3i), 

664. The transposition after this line of the passage 11 665-964, 
which occurs in MSS. of the second recension, is not accidental, as 
we see by the arrangements made afterwards for fitting in the passage 
(I. 1146). The object apparently was to lay down the principle 
' Delicie corporis militant aduersus animam,' illustrated by the parable 
of Dives and Laianis, before proceeding to ihe discussion of ' Deli- 
carie' in the case of love, and this is perhaps the more logical 
arrangement ; but the alteration, as it is made, involves breaking off 
the discussion here of the ill effects of change, and resuming it after 
an interval of nearly two hundred lines. 
674. AvUe hem wel, i. c. ' let them take good heed.' 
683. 'Without regard to her honour'; cp. £a/iM!«r, zxiL 4, 'Salvant 
toutdis I'estat de vostre honour.' 

709. abecked, from the French ' abechier,' to feed, used properly of 
feeding young birds. The word 'rcfrecbed' is conformed to it in 

728. The reading of Paul), 'I say I am nought gilieles,' just reverses 
the sense. Berthelette has the text right here. 

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IZ^.forafimeyit: cp.3ii,'As for the time yil,' and 893, ' As Tor 
the while yit.' 

770. 'Without wrinkle of any kind,' cp. Mirour, 10164, 'Car mouh 
furont de noble grejn'; or perhaps 'Without the smallest wrinkle,* 
'grein' being talcen to stand for the smallest quantity of a thing: 
cp. ii.33io- 

778. Cp. Chaucer, Book of the Ducktss, 939 ff, 

78S. sckaplke. For this form, which is given by S and F, cp. the 
word ' asepfie,' meaning ' creature ' or ' form,' which occurs repeatedly 
in the Ayenbils of Itavyl. 

800. 'And if it seemed so to aU others/ The person spoken of 
throughout this passage as ' he,' ' him,' is the eye of the lover. This 
seems (o itself to have sufficient sustenance by merely gazing on the 
beloved object, and if it seemed so to all others also, that is, to the other 
senses, the eye would never cease to feed upon the sight : but they, 
having other needs, compel it to turn away. 

809. as thogh he ftuU : the verb seems to be pret. subjunctive, as 
'syhe' down below, 

817. tirelh. This expresses the action of a &lcon pulling at its prey : 
cp. Chaucer, TroUus, i. 787, ' Whos stomak fbules tiren everemo.' 
The word is used in the same sense also in the Mirour, 7731. 

845. mi ladi goode, ' my lady's goodness.' 

857. Lombard cooks were celebrated, and there was a kind of p«stry 
called ' pain lumbard,' Mirour, 7S09. 

879. The romance of Ydoine and Amadas is one of those mentioned 
at the beginning of the Cursor Mundi. It has been published in the 
'Collection des pontes fran;ais du moyen jige' (ed. Hippeau, 1863). 
Amadas is the type of the lover who remains feithfol through every 
kind of trial. 

891. a ckerieftsie : cp. Prol. 454. It is an expression used for plea- 
sures that last but a short time : cp. Audelay's Poems (Percy Soc xiv) 
p. 33, 

'Hit fallus and fadys forth so doth a chere layre* 

(speaking of the glory of this world). 

893. Cp. 311, 738. 

897. he, i. e. my ear. 

908. me lathetk : the singular form is due perhaps to the use of the 
verb impersonally in many cases. 

961. excede, subjunctive, ' so as to go beyond reason.' 

986IT. This story furnishes a favourable example of our author's 
style and versification. It is told simply and clearly, and the v^se is 
not only smooth and easy, but carefully preserved from monotony by 
the breaking of the couplet very frequently at the pauses : see 986, 
998, 1006, 1010, 1016, &c. 

995. We have remarked already upon Gower's fatalism, iii. 1348, &c. 
Here we may refer also to U. 1026, 1613, 1703, for further indications 
of the same tendency. 

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NOTES. Lib. VI. 738-1314 515 

1059. is overronne, that is, ' has passed beyond.' 

1110. descryve, apparently ' understand,' 'discern,' perhaps by that 
confusion with 'descry' which is noted in the New Engl. Dictionary. 

1 149 f. These two lines are omitted without authority by Pauli. 

1176. That is, though they had rendered no services for which they 
ought to be so distinguished. 

1180. sajorned: the word is used in French especially of a horse 
kept in stable at rack and manger and refreshed for work : see Mirour, 

1216. ■ So that that ]deasure should not escape him.' 

1245. out offeert, ' nithout fear.' 

1862. unwar, here 'unknown': cp. Chaucer, Cant. Tales, B 427, 
' The unwar wo or harm that comib bebinde.' 

1295. Originally geomancy seems to have been performed, as 
suggested in this passage, by marks made in sand or earth, then by 
casual dots on paper: see the quotations under 'geomancy' in the 
New Engl. Dictionary. Gower here mentions the four recognized 
kinds of divination, by the elements of earth, water, fire, and air. 

1306 ff. It is practically certain that Gower was acquainted with the 
treatise ascribed to Albertus Magnus, called Speculum Astronomiae or 
De libris licitis ei illicitis (Alberti Magnt Opera^ v. 655 ff.), since he 
seems to follow it to a great extent not only here, but also in his list of 
ea% astronomers {vii, I449fr.). There are however some things here 
which he must have had from other sources ; for there is no mention in 
theabove.mentionedtreatiseof Spatula,' 'Babilla,"Cemea,"Honorius.' 

1312. comun rote, that is, apparently, ' common custom.' The word 
'rote' is used also below, I. 1457, where it appears to mean 'condition.' 
It must be thq same as that which appears In the phrase ' by rote,' and 
it is difficult to believe that it can be the French ' route,' as is usually 
said. The rhyme here and in 1. 1457, as well as those In Chaucer 
(with ' cote,' ' note 'J, show that the ' o ' had an open sound, aad this 
would be almost impossible from French 'ou.' The expression 'par 
routine' or 'par rotine' is given by Cotgrave as equivalent to the 
English ' by rote,' but I am not aware of any use of such an exiwession 
in French as early as the fourteenth century. Many tA the examples 
of the phrase 'by rote' seem to have to do with singing or church 
services (cp. Chaucer, Coat. Tales, B 1712, Piers Plawmans Credt, 
379), and Du Cange gives a quotation in which ' rotae ' seems to mean 
' chants ' or ' hymns ' (' rota,' 6). From such a sense as this the idea 
of a regular order of service, and thence of 'custom,' 'habit,' might 
without much difficulty arise. 

1314 ff. The following passage from the Spec. Asironomiae, cap. 10, 
gives most of the names and terms which occur in these tines : ' Ex libris 
vero Toz Graeci est liber de siationibus ad cultam Veneris, qui sic 
incipit: Commemoratio historiarum ... Ex libris autem Salomonis 
est liber de quatuor anulis, quem intitulat nominibus quatuor discipu* 
loruni suorum, qui sic incipit ; De arte eulonica et ideiea, &c Et liber 


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de nouem candariis . . . Et alios panius de sigillU ad djcmoniacos, 
qui sic indpit : Caput sigilli gendal tl tatuhil.' 

1816. Razet. 'Est autem unus liber magnus Raiielis, qui dicitur 
liber institulionum,' &c. In MS. Aahmole 1730 there is a letter to 
Dr. Richatd Napier from his nephew at Oxfwd, speaking of a book 
of Solomon in the University Library called Cephar RaxUl, that is, he 
explains, 'Angelas magnus secreti Creatoris,' of which he proposes 
to make a copy, having obtained means of entering the library at 
forbidden hours. Again, in MS. Ashmole 1790 there is a description 
of this book. 

1820. 'cui adiungiiuT liber Beleni de horantm opere,' Spec. Astrvn. 
p. 661. The scat of Gbenbal is the '»gillum genda],' mentioned in 
the former citation. 

1821 f. thymage OfTktbith. Thebith (or Thebit) stands for Thabet 
son of Corah, a distinguished Arabian mathematician, to whom were 
attributed certain works on astroli^y and nx^c that were cmtent in 
Latin. Thus we find Thebit lie imaginihts very commonly in 
MSS., and a Liber TTubit ben Corat de tribus imagiMtbtis magitig 
was printed in 1559 at Frankfort. In this latter book the author 
says, 'Exercentur quoque hae imagines in amore vel odio, si fuerit 
actor earum prouidus et sapiens in motibus coeli ad hoc utilibus.' 
Thebith is mentioned several times in the Spec. Astrtmomiae, e. g. 
p. 663, 'Super istis imaginibus reperitur unus libei Tbebith ebcn 
Chorath,' &c. We must take 'therupon' in I. lyii to mean 'more- 
over,' for it is not to be supposed that the image of Thebith was upon 
the seal of GhenbaL 

1838. The ' Naturiens * are those who pursue the methods of astro- 
logy, as opposed to those who practise necromancy (' nigromance ') or 
black magic 

1S56. Hk bede nmere: see note on v. 4435. 

1359. red, originally written 'rede' in F, but the final letter was 
afterwards erased. See Introduction, p. cxiv. 

1371f. The rhyme requires that 'become,' 'overcome' shall either 
be both present or both preterite (subjunctive), and ' wonne' seems to 
decide the matter for preterite. The only difficulty is 'have 1' for 
'hadde I' in L 1370, the latter being required also by the sense (for 
the reference is to the former time of youth), but not given by 
the MSS. ' So that 1 wonne ' means ' Provided that I won.' 

1391 ft. This story is from the Roman de Troie, 38571-28666, 
29629-30093. Guide does not differ as to the main points, but there 
are several details given by Gower from Benoit which are not found 
in Guide. In particular the ensign carried by Telegonus is men- 
tioned by Guido only in telling of the dream of Ulysses. Some of the 
passages which tend to show that Benoit was our author's authority 
are noted befow. 

1408. ai the siretigihe of herbes : a poem De Viribus Herbarum 
passed in the Middle Ages under the name of Macer. 

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NOTES. Lib. VI. 1316-1552 517 

1422. The mention of ' nedle and slon ' in this connexion is a rathci 
dmiDg anachronism, for which of course Gower is responsible. 

1424. ally. Benoit says ' lea isles d*0]oi,' and Guido ' in Eolidem 
insulam,' but Sicily has been mentioDed shortly before. 

1438 f. Cp. Rom. d« Treie, 38594 ff. Guido does not mention iL 

1441. 'S'el sot des an, il en sot plus," Sotn. d« Troie, 2B641. 

1445 flr. Bencrft says nothing of this, but the story of the adventures 
of Ulysses was lo some extent matter of common knowledge in the 
Middle Ages. Gower may have had it from Ovid, Metam, xiv. 377 ff. 
Guido says in a geneial way that Circe was in the habit of trans- 
forming those who resisted her power into beasts. 

1457. into such a roU, that is, ' into such a habit ' (or ' condition ') : 
see note on L 1313. 

' Et si 1i lesae les costei 
Toz pleins, ^o quit, de vif enfonU' 

1474. utuUrstode : subj., see note on FroL 460. 

1461. on cfal the besU, see note on iv. 3606. 

1518 f. margin. This quotation is not from Horace, but from Ovid, 
Pont. iv. 3. 35. Cp. Mirottr, 10948, where the same quotation occurs 
and is attributed as here to ' Orace.' 

1524. The form 'stature' is required by the toetre here, and is 
given by the best MSS. of the second and third recensions. In Prol. 
891, where 'statue' occurs, it it reduced to a monosyllable by elision, 
and so it is in Chaucer, Cani. Talts,Agy$, 1955. The forms ' statura,' 
' stature,' are found with this sense in the Latin aod Frendi of the 

1541 (I. ' Et si me disoit : Hulixes 

Saiches, ceste conjuncioni, 
Cist voloir, ceste asembloisons. 
Que de moi et de toi desirres, 
Ce sunt dolors et mortex ires.' 

Jlim. dt Troie, 39670 ff. 
The prediction, however, that one of the two would have his death 
by reason of their meeting comes later, 39699, whereas Guido 
combines the materials here much in the same way as Gower. 

1552 ff. This idea of a pennon embroidered with a device is Gower's 
own conception, constructed from the not very clear or satisfiictory 
account of the matter given by his authority here and later, 39819 ff. 
The fact is that Benoit did not understand the eiqn-esston used in the 
Latin book (the so-called 'Dictys Cretensis') which be was here 
following, the passage being probably corrupt in his copy, and conse- 
quently failed lo make it joielligible to his readers. The original state- 
ment(madewithrrference to theensigo carried afterwards byTelegonus) 
is, ' Ithacam veoit gerens manibns quoddam hastile, 1 

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maritiae ttuttiris osse armabatur, scilicet insigne insulae eius in qua 
gcnitus erat.' The meaning apparently is tha.t his spearhead was made 
of a sea-turtle's Ghell. Benott, in recounting the vision, says that the _ 
figure which appeared bore upon the steel head of his lance a crown 
worked of the bone of a sea-fish, 

' Portoit une coronne ovrfe 
P'os de poisson de mer sal^e.' 39687 f. 
Then afterwards, in telling of the departure of Telegonus to seek bis 
father, he says that, to show of what country he was, be bore on the 
top of his lance the sign of a sea-fish worked like a tower, 

' En semblance de tor ovr^.' 39833. 
Guido apparently was not able to make much of this, and after saying, 
in the account of the dream, that at the top of the lance there appeared 
■ quedam turricula tola ex piscibus artilidose composita ' (Bodl. MS. 
Laud 64s, with variants ' craticula,' MS. Add 365, ' curricula,' printed 
editions), he subsequently omitted mention of the recognisance. 
1561 f. A signe it is .. . Of an Empire. Benott has, 
' Que c'iert d'ampire conoissaikce 
Et si aperte demostnuice 
Que por ce seroient devis,' ftc 2969; fF., 
which may perhaps mean, ' that it was the cognisance of a kingdom 
and a sign that they should be divided.* In Guido, however, it is ' hoc 
est signum impie di»unccionis ' (MS. Laud 645 and printed text), 
or 'hoc est signum impii et disiunccionis' (MS. Add, 365). 
1567 f. Cp.3396ff. 

1608 ff. For the order of the clauses here cp. ii. 709, iv. 3520 ff, 
1622 ff. That, for ' Til that ' ; cp. iv, 3273, v. 3433. 
1636. ' And he made himself ready forthwith.' For the omission of 
the pronoun even where the subject is changed cp. v. 3391, 4590. 
Wil ff. Cp. Rom. de Trait, 39824 fT. Guid« says nothing about it 
1643. That is, ' to avoid espial and wrong suspicions.' 
1656. Rom. de Troie, 39801 f., 

'A Hulyites, qai fut ses drui, 
Mande par lui v. c. salui,' 
Guido says nothing about this. 

1660. Nachaie, a mistake for ' Acaie,' 

' Tant qu'il vini droit en Acaie ' ; 
and this again seems to be from ' Ithaca.' 

l^fih. and wtlnyh ded : cp. Rem. de Troie, 29906 f. Guido says only 
■ et ab illis est grauiier vulneratus.' 

1689. Gower has judiciously reduced the number from fifteen 
{Rem. de Troie, 39903). 

1696. /or v/reth, that is, ' by reason that he was wroth ' : see note on 
iv. 1 330. We can hardly take ' wroth ' as a substantive. 


NOTES. Lib. VI. 1561-1811 519 

1701. 'Se il ne fust un poi guenchii,' Rom. de Troie, 39939. 

1707. With al tht signe, 'together with the signe,' like the French 
' ove tout ' ; cp. Mirour 4 (note). 

1745 1 Rom. d» Troie, yxaa IT. Guido omits this. 

1769 ff. For this repetition cp. 309s ff. 

1785. The ' Cronique imperial ' is evidently the story itself, and not 
any particular book in which it is to be found. 

1789 ff. The authority which is mainly followed by our author for 
this story is the Anglo- Norman Roman de louie ChevaJerie, by Eustace 
(or Thomas) of Kent, The beginning of this, including all Chat we 
have to do with here, has been printed by M. Paul Meyer in his book 
on the Alexander romances, ' Bibliothique fran^aise du moyen age ' 
voL iv. pp. 195-216. Gower was acquainted, however, also with the 
Latin Historia Alexandri d» Preliis, and has made use of this in 
certain places, as (1) in the account of Philip's vision (2129-3170) 
where he probably found the French unintelligible, and (2) in the story 
of the death of Nectanabus {23S9 ff.), of which the Latin authority 
certainly gives the more satisfactory account. 

The following are some of the points in which Gower agrees with the 
Roman de toute Ckevalerie gainst the two Latin versions of the story, 
vii, the Hiiioria de Preliis and the Res Gestae Alexandri of Valerius : 
(1) the celebration by Olympias of the festival of her nativity, when 
she rides out on a white mule and is lirst seen by Nectanabus, 
II. 1833-1860; (3) the omission of the sealing of the queen's womb by 
Nectanabus, this being introduced only in Philip's vision ; (3) the 
question of the queen as to how she shall procure further interviews 
withlbegod,and the answer of Nectanabus, 11. 2109 ff.; (4) the circum- 
stances connected with the egg from which the serpent was hatched, 
II. 22i9ff. The English metrical Romance of Alexander, printed by 
Weber, is also taken from tbe Roman de toute Ckevalerie, and con- 
sequently the details of it are for the most part tbe same as those in 
Gower, It is certain, however, that Gower does not follow this. It 
would be quKe contrary to bis practice to follow an Ei^lish authority, 
and apart from this there are many small matters here in which 
he ^rees with the French as against the English, e.g. the name 
Nectanabus, which is Neptanabus in the English (Anectanabus in the 
Mist, de Preliis), the mention of the nativity of Olympias as the 
occasion of her festival, ' Grant feste tint la dame de sa nativity,' the 1 se 
of the word 'artentage,' 1. 1957, the incident of the dragon being changed 
into an eagle, I. 3300 ; and such points of correspondence as may seem 
to si^Egesl a connexion between the two English writers, as in II. 1844 f., 
3331 f., are also to be found in the French. The English alliterative 
Romance of Alexander follows the Mist, de Preliis, and consequently it 
agreeswiihGowerm the two passives which have been referred to above. 

1768. The sentence is broken off and finished in a different 
manner. See note on i. 98, and cp. vii. 3633. 

1811. Threyomen, Ac This is an addition by Gower. According to 

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the original stoiy Nectanabnt was aJone, and this woald eridendy be 
the better for bis pnrpose. 

1828. list. This may be present tense, 'it pleases.' Loss of the 
final e in the preterite would hardly occur except before a vowel : tee 
Introduction, p. cxv. The French original lays stress here on the 
extravagant desire that women have to display themselves. 

1881. At i^tr, i.e. 'After,' used especially of meals, cp. 1. itSi, and 
Chaucer, Com/. Tales, B 1445, F 9iS'at after diner,' E 1931 'At after 
mete,' F 303, [219 'At after soper,' f<M' which references, as for many 
others elsewhere, 1 am indebted to Prat Skeat's very useful Glossary. 

1844f. The French has 

' £ tymbres e tabours ont e leur corns com^,' 130, 
and later 

' Plus de mil dammsels ount le jur karoK, 14a 
The Enf^ish veruon of the second line, 

' There was maidenes carolying,' 
comes very near to Gower. 

1924. Bot if I tike, 'unless I should see,' pret. subj. 

1943 ff. This pn»nise is not in the French. 

1969 ff. The astrolt^cal terms in ttiese lines are due to Gower. The 
original says that Nectanabos laid the image in a bed with candles 
lighted round it, balbed it in the juice of certain herbs, and said his 
charms over it. 

1997. such thing. . . Wkerof: cp. IL sot, 3398. 

2005 f. 'Nectanabus idimc ses karectes fina.' 

2062. putte him. We should rather read ' put him ' with S and F : 
see Introduction, p. oivi. The French romance here grotesquely 
represents Nectanabus as making up a disguise for himself with a ram's 
head and a dragon's tail, which he joins togethtf with wax, ' e puis 
dedens se mist.' The Latin Hist, de Preliis says simply that he 
changed himself into a dragon. 

2074 ff. The French has. 

The punauation after 'tok' is that of F, but 1 suspect that 'in 
signe of his noblesse ' belongs really in sense to 3076 f., and refers 
rather to the crown than to the horns, in which case we ought to set 
a fiill stop after ' bar.' 

21IS. stth hire grette, that is, in child-bed. 

2128 ff. The French romance, following Valerius in the main, gives 
a rather confiised account of Philip's dream. Gower has turned fiom 
it'io the Historia de Preliis. 

2160. Amphion. The name t^parenily is got from ' Antifbn,' which 
occurs below in connexion with the incident of the pheasant's egg. 

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NOTES. Lib. VI. 1828-VII 521 

2182. rantpeiuU. The French has ' mult fierement rampant.' 

2L99 S. The ttansfonnatioa into an eagle is fouad in Valerius and 
the French romance, and not in the Hist. tUPrtUis. It may be noted, 
however, that the picturesque description which we have here of the 
eagle pruning himself and then shaking his feathers, so that the hall 
was moved as by an earthquake, is Gower's own. 

2219 IT. The Latin accounts say that a bird, according to Valerius 
a hen, came and laid an egg in Philip's lap as be sat in his haU. 
, The Rom. dt toute CkevaUrie makes the incident take place out in the 
fields, and the bird, as here, is a pheasant. The expression used, ' Un 
oef laissat chair sur les curs Pbclippun,' seems to mean that the egg 
was laid in Philip's lap. There is nothing about the beat of the sun in 
the Latin versions. 

2250 fC These lines refer to the precautions taken by Nectanabus to 
secure that tbe child shall be bom precisely at the right astrolc^icAl 
moment : cp. Rem. eU ttmie ChtvtUirie, 401-435. Gower has chosen 
to omit tbe details. 

2274. Calistre, \. e. Callistbenes, who was reputed to be the author of 
the history of Alexander which Valerius translated. 

2299 ff. The question of Alexander and the answer of Nectanabus is 
given as here in tbe Hist, de Prtliis. In Valerius and the French 
romaoce Alexander throws Nectanabus down merely in order to 
surprise bim,and the suggestion that Nectanabus knew that be should 
die by the bands of his son is not made till afterwards. 

23ti8. Zcrasles. The statement here about the laughter of Zoroaster 
at his birth is ultimately derived from Pliny, Hist. Nal. vii. 1$. It is 
repeated by Augustine, with the addition ' nee ei boni aliquid monstrosus 
risus ille portendit. Nam magicarum artium fiiisse pertiibetur in- 
ventor; quae quidem illi nee ad piaesentis vitae vanam felicitaiem 
contra suos inimicos prodesse potuenint; a Nino quippe rege As- 
syrioram, cum esse! ipse Bactrianorum, bello superatus est' (Dt Civ. 
Dei, joi. 14). 

2861. ' Like wool which is ill spun ' : cp. i. la 

2387. Phitonesse, cp. iv. 1937. 

2411. belawki To Aristotle, 'delivered over to Aristotle': 'betawht' 
is the past panic of 'beteche,' which occurs afterwards, vii. 4334, 
and in Chaucer, Cant. Tales, B 31 14, 'Now such a rym the devel 
I beteche.' 

2418. Yitforatimi: to be taken as one phrase; cp. 'fora wbileyit,' 
&c.,U.3li, ?38,893. 

The account ^ven in tbe earlier part of this book of the parts of 
Philosophy, that is, vS the objects of human knowledge, represents in 
its essentials the Aristotelian system. The division into ' Theorique,' 

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'Rethorique,' and 'Practique' is in effea the same as Aristotle's 
dassificatioo of knowledge as Theorelical, Poetical, and Practical, 
and the further division of 'Theorique' into Theology, Physics, and 
Mathematics, and of 'Practique' into Ethics, Economics, and Politics, 
is that which is made by Aristotle. The statement of Pauli and 
others that this part of Cover's work is ' very iilcely borrowed ' fiom 
the Secretum Secretoftmt is absolutely unfounded. This treatise 
is not in any sense an exposition of the Aristotelian philosophy, indeed 
it is largely made up of rules for diet and regimen with medical 
prescriptions. . Cower is indebted to it only in a slight degree, and 
princi[^Iy in two places, vii. 2014-2057, the discussion of Liberality 
in a king, and 32o7*-336o*, the tale of the Jew and the Pagan. 

The most important authority, however, for the earlier part of the 
seventh book has hitherto been overlooked. It is. the Triior <A 
Brunetto Latini. This book is very largely based upon Aristotle, with 
whose works Latini was exceptionally well acquainted, and it is from 
this that Gower takes his classification of the sciences, though in 
regard to the place of Rhetoric he does not quite agree with Latini, 
who brings it in und^ the head of ' Politique,' making Logic the third 
main branch of philosophy. Gower takes from the Trisor also many 
of his physical and geographical statements and bis reference to the 
debate on the conspiracy of Catiline. On the other band his astro- 
nomy is for the most part independent of the Trisor, and so also is 
his method of dealing with the principles of Government, under the 
five points of Policy. Brunetto Latini does not treat of politics gene- 
rally so much as of the practical rules to be observed by the Podestk 
of an Italian republic. It may be observed that Gower has drawn on 
the TV/jcralso in the sketch of general history given in the Prologue 
(IL 727-820). 1 refer to pages of the edition of Chabaille, 1863. 

26 ff. 'As to which Aristotle . . . declares the "intelligences" under 
three heads especially.' The meaning of 'intelligences' here and 
in I. 176, and of ' intelligencias ' in the margin, 1, 149, seems to be 
nearly the same as 'sciences,' that is to say, divisions or provinces of 
^/ 155. Algorismt. This stands properly for the decimal system of 
numeration, but the use of the word in the plural, 1, 158, shows that 
Gower did not use it in this sense only. The association of the word 
' Algorismes' below with the letters a, b, c (' Abece'} seems to suggest 
some kind of algebraical expression, but this is perhaps due to a mis- 
understanding by Gower of the word ' abaque' (or 'abake') in the 
Trisor, p. 6 ; * Et de ce sont li enseignement de I'abaquc et de 
I'augorisme.' / 

183 ff. ' Ce est la science par laquele 1: vii s^^ s'esforcierent par 
soutillece de geomelrie de trover la grandeur don ciel et de la terre, 
et la bautesce entre I'un et I'autre.' THior, pp. 6, 7. 

207 ff. Cp. Tr^sor, p. 15, 'Cele matiere de quoi ces choses furent 
formes les desvance de naissance, non mie de tens, autressi comme li 

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NOTES. Lib. VII. 26-389 533 

sons est devant le chant, . . . et neporquant andui sonC ensemble.' 
Cp. pp. 104, 105. 

216. Ylem, this is ' hyle ' (Gr, BXij), the Aristotelian term for matter. 
For what follows cp. Trhor, p. 105. 

245. This comparison of the movement of water within the earth to 
the circulation of blood in ibe veins, is taken from the Trisor, p. 115 : 
' autressi comme li sangs de I'ome qui s'espant par ses vaines, si que il 
encherche tout le cors amont et aval.' 

256 ff. Cp. Trisor, p. 1 17. 

265 fr. This which follows about the Air seems to be partly inde- 
pendent of the Trhor, and the word 'perifcrie' is not there used. 
Aristotle divides the atmosphere into two regions only, that of bt/u'e 
or moist vapour, corresponding to the first and second periferies 
here, and that of exhalation {avadufi/airic) or fiery vapour, correspond- 
ing to the third, Meteor, i. 3, 

283f. 'According to the condition under which they take their 
form.' 1 suppose the word ' intersticion ' 10 be taken from ' intersti- 
tium,' as used with a technical sense in astrology. Albumasar, for 
example, says, ' Quicquid in hoc mundo aascitnr et occidit ex quatuor 
elementis est compositum, iribus interstitiis educatum, scilicet prin* 
cipio, medio et fine, quae iria in ilia quatuor ducta duodecim pro- 
ducunt.' This is the cause, he says, why there are twelve signs of the 
zodiac, ' Praesunt siquidem haec signa quatuor elementis eorumque 
tribus inteistitiis.' He then explains that the first 'inlerstitium' of 
each element is that condition of it which is &vourable to production, 
growth and vigour, the second that which is stationary, and the third 
that which tends to decay and corruption, so that the word is almost 
equivalent to condition or quality. [Vincent of Beauvais, Spec. Nat. 
XV. 36.) 

302. Cp. Trisor, p. 119, 'mais li fors deboutemeni dou vent la 
destraint et chace si roidement que ele fent et passe lea nues et fait 
toner et espartir.' 

307 ff. Cp. Tr/si^, p. 120. 

323 ff. Trifor, p. lao, 'dont aucunes gens cuident que cc soit li 
dragons ou que ce soit une estele qui chiet.' What follows about 
' exhalations ' is not from the Trhor. 

334. Aisub. This word is used in Latin translations of Aristotle as 
an equivalent of ' steUa cadens.' 

339. exaiadon. This stands for fiery vapour only, originally a 
translation of Aristotle's ivaBvyiaait. 

351 ff. The names 'Eges' and 'Daaly' 0- 3^0' must be taken 
originally from Aristotle's expression doXol cal aXyts, which he says 
are names given by some people to various forms of fire in the sky. 
Meteor, i. 4. Our author simply repeated the terms after his authorities 
and without understanding them. In fact, ' Eges ' stands for the same 
as the ' Capra saliens ' of the preceding lines. 

380. The idea of the four complexions of man, corresponding to the 

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four elements, is not due to Aristotle, but we find it in the Trisor. Tlie 
application to matteis of love in 11. 393-44013 presumably Gower's own. 

405 f. Aristotle saya on the contrary, o\ fuXoyxo^"^ "X irXiHrrw 
Xayvoi tiaiv, Probl. 30. 

487. Te thenki. For this use of 'niay ' with the gerund cp. ii. 510, 
' I myhte Doght To sotTFc.' 

510. ' While the flesh has power to act,' that is during the life of the 

621 fF. For the geography which follows cp. Trisor, pp. 151-153- 

534. tfte kevent cope: cp. I. 1579, ' under the coupe of hevene,' where 
the spelling suggests the Latin ' cupa,* rather than ' capa,' as the origin 
of the wMd in this common phrase. The quality of the 'o' in Europe 
is perhaps doubtfuL 

586, Bigripetk: used here as plural, cp. 1.1107: 'caUeth' in 
1. 561 with ' men ' (indef.) as the subject is not a case of the same kind. 

515. who thai rede : subj., cp. Pr^ 46a 

559. That is, presumably, double as much as either of the other 
two: cp, Trisor,'^. ij2,'car Asietient bienl'unemoiti^de toutelatene.' 

S6& Canahint : a mistake for ' Tanaim ' (or * Tanain '), see Trisor, 
p. 152, where the extent of Asia is said to be from the mouths of the 
Nile and the 'Tanain' (i.e. the Don) as lar as the Ocean and 
the terrestrial Paradise. 

698 ff. Cp. Trisor, p. 115. 

597. Latini says that this is the explanation given by some people of 
the tides, but he adds that the astronomers do not agree with them 
{Tr/sor,p. 173). 

611. Aristotle does in fact male of alfilip a fifth element, of which the 
heaven and the heavenly bodies consist, but Gower takes this account 
of it and the name Orbis from the Trisor, p. 110, where also we find 
the comparison to the shell of an egg. 

652 ff. ' Sapiens dominabitur astris,' an opinion which is developed 
in the Vox Clamaniis, ii. 317 ff. 

694. Bot thoriionte, ' beyond the horiion ' : so perhaps in the first 
text of V. 3306, 'But of his lond' stood for 'Out (rfhis lond.' However, 
this use of ' but ' is not deariy established in Southern ME. and per- 
haps the reading of the second recension, ' Be thorizonte,' maybe right. 
As regards sense, one is much the same as the other : neither is very 
intelligible, unless ' thorizonte ' means the ecUptic. 

699. thri, that is the planets, not the signs. 

725 ff. Cp. Trisor, p. 141. 

881. is thai OK, Le. 'is one,' or 'is the first' 

858. The sun's horses are named by Fulgentius, iiythcl. ii, in the 
same order as we have here, ' Erythreus, Actseon, Lampos, Philogeua' 
They are said there to represent four divisions cj the day, Erythreus, 
for example, havbg his name frx>m the red light of morning, and 
Philogeus from the inclination of the sun towards the earth at evening. 
OviA gives a different set of names. 

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NOTES. Lib. VII. 406-12S9 535 

944. ' Id whatever d^ree he shall exercise his powers.' 

978. <triVii;^^mi/<r/A,'asi(i5litting,'Iit.'as it belongs' : cp.'appeDt,' 
Mir, 1535. 

979. naihtUt. This wwd is frequently used by Gower with no sense 
of opposition, meaning 'moreover' or something similar: cp. 1. 31, 
vii. 3877, &c 

988. It may be observed that (in sjHte of this reference and that in 
1. 1043) our author's statements about the number and arrangement of 
stars in the constellations of the sodiac do not at all correspond with 
those in the AlmagesL 

98S {aas^a). produxil ad esse, 'brought ftwth into existoice': the 
infinitive is often used as a substantive in Gower*s Latin : e.g. ProL 
Lai. Verses, iv. 4, v. 6. 

989. hot and drye. According to the astroli^ers, Aries, Leo, and 
Sagittarius preside over the element of fire, and are hot and dry by 
nature \ Taurus, Virgo, Capricomus over that of earth, beii% dry and 
cold ; Gemini, Libra, Aquarius preside over air, and are hot and moist; 
while Cancer, Scorpio, and Pisces are moist and cold, hanng 
dominion over water (Albumasar, cited by Vincent of Beauvais, Spec. 
Nat. XV. 36). 

991 f. Aries and Scorpio are the ' houses ' or ' mansions ' of Mars, 
Taurus and Libra <tf Venus, Gemini and Virgo of Mercury, Cancer of 
the Moon, Leo of the Sun, Sagittarius and Pisces of Jupiter, Capri- 
comus and Aquarius of Saturn. 

1021. somdiel descordani: the hot and moist Libra is mne In 
accordance with her nature : see 1 1 1 1 ff. 

1086f. Thb statement and the others like it below, 1073, 10S9, 
1 137, 1147, 1198, 1332, may be taleen to indicate that the division of 
the signs was very uncertain in our author's mind. It may be observed 
that the usual representation of Taurus in star-maps is with his head, 
not his tail, towards Gemini. 

1085. the risinge : that is to say, Virgo is the 'exaltation ' of Mer- 
cury, as well as one of his houses. 

1 100. For the sense of ' applied ' cp, v. 913. 

lllSf. Libra is the exaltation of Satum. 

1185. That is to say, Scorpio is the 'fell' of Venus, being the sign 
opposite to one of her houses, namely Taurus. 

1155 r. Sagittarius is a house of Jupiter, and it is opposite to Gemini, 
which is one of the houses of Mercury, 

1162. The PioToed Oxe, i.e. the ox that has ploughed the land. 

1166. Then the swine are killed and the larder, or bacon-tub, comes 

1 175. Capricorn is the ' fall ' of the Moon, being opposite to her bouse. 
Cancer, as the ne;tt s^ Aquarius is thai of the Sun, see 1. 1 190L 

1216. ' Piscis ' is the reading of the MSS. here in text and maigin, 
but 'Pisces' in 1, 1353, 

1229 ff. That is,Piscesisahouie of Jupiter and theexaltationctf Venus. 

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1289 ff. The reference is apparently to the Iniroductorium of Albu- 
masar, but the printed editions of this give an abbreviated text which 
does not help us here. A ftiUer translation of the original may be 
found in manuscript, e.g. MS. Digby 194, where something more or 
less corresponding to this may be found on f. 55, but the Arabic 
names of places make it difficult to follow. 

1281 ff. This account of the fifteen stars with their herbs and stones 
is taken br Gower from a treatise called ' Liber Hermetis de xv stellis 
et de XV lapidibus et de xv herbis, xv figuris,' &c., which may be found in 
several manuscripts, e.g. MSS. Ashmole34i (f. 123) and 1471 (f. i3ov°): 
cp. I. 1437, where Hermes is mentioned as the authority. Some infor- 
mation as to the names of the stars here mentioned may be found in 
Ideler's Untersuchungen iiber den Ursprutig tmd die Bedeutung der 
Sternnamen, 1809. 

1292 ff. ' Et scias quod stelle fixe habentfortunia et infoitunia quem- 
admodum et planete ' (Lik. Herm.). 
1317. 'anabulla sen titimallum.' 

1829. Algol, or Caput A^, the Arabic ' Ras el-gh61 ' (devil's head), 
in Perseus. 

1338. Alhaicl, probably for 'Alhaioc,' that is Capella, from the 
Arabic ' EU'aijftk.' 
1343. 'prassium sen mamibtuDt.' 
1345. Ceaiis motor, ' Alhabor,' i.e. Sinus. 
J356. Canii minor, ' Algomeiia,' i.e. Procyon. 
1362. PrimeroU: in the Liber Hermetis we have here 'solsecium, 
quam elitropiam vocanL* 

1364. Arial, apparently 'Cor Leonis,* i.e. Regulus. 
1367. Corgensa: 'gregonza' in MS. Ash. 341. 
1375. 'lappaciummaius.' 

1878. gret rioie : 'color huius niger est, faciens hominem iratum, 
animosum et audacem et mala cogitantem et maledicentem . . , , et 
faciens fugere demones et congregare.' 

1379 ff. 'Nona stella dicitur Atimet Alaaiel, ■ ... et est ex natura 
Veneris et Mercurii, et didtur stella pulchritutUnis el racionis,' &c. 
The name 'Atimet Alaazel' is from the Arabic 'El-simak el-a'ial,' 
that is the star which we call Spica. 
1885. Saige, Lat. 'saluia.' 

1387. 'Decima vero Stella Atimet Alramedi, et dicitur saltator, et 
est ex natura Martis et louis.' This is the Arabic ' El-sim&k el-rimih,' 
which we call Arcturus. 

1898. Veturuu : ' Vndecima stella dicitur Benenais et est postrema 
de ii stellis que sunt in cauda urse maioris.' In Arabic 'Banat 

1401. Alpheta, ' Elfetah,* from the Arabic ' El-fak'ah ' (the be^ar's 

dish), meanmg the constellation which we call the Northern Crown. 

Here the name stands for the principal star of that constellation. Gemma. 

1419. Botercadent. The Latin says ' Vultur cadens,* thai is perliaps 

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NOTES. Lib. VII. 1239-1706 527 

Vega ; but ' Boterc&dent ' would probably be a different star, namely 
that called in Arabic ' Batn-Kaitos ' or Whale's belly. 

1426. Tail of Scorpio: in the Latin ' Cauda Capricomi.' 

1449 fi! These names of the chief authors of the science of astronomy 
seem to be partly taken from the treatise called Speculum Astronamiat 
at De libris lUitis et ilUHlis, cap. ii. {Aiberli Magni Opera, v. 657) : 
cp. note on vi. 1311 ff. The passage is as follows, under the heading 
' De libris astronomicis antiquorum ' : * £x libris ergo qui post libros 
geometncos et aritbmeticos inueniuntur apud nos scripti super his, 
primus tempore compositkmis est liber quern edidit Nembroth gigas 
ad lohaihonem discipulum suum, qui sic incipit : Sphaera ceuli Sic, 
in quo est parum proficui et falsitates nonnullae, sed nihil est ibi contra 
fidem quod sciam. Sed quod de hac scientiavtiliusinuenitur, est liber 
Ptolemaei Pheludensis, qui dicitur Graece Megasti, Arabice Almagesti, 
. . . quod tamen in eo diligentiae causa dictum est prolixe, commode 
restringitur ab Azarchele Hlspano,qui dictus est Albategni inlibrosuo. 
. . . Voluitque Alpetragius corrigere principia. et suppositiones Ptole- 
maei,' &c. 

It would seem that, either owing to corruption of bis text or to 
misunderstanding, our author separated the name ' Megasti ' from its 
connexion with Ptolemy and the Almagest, and made of it a book 
called ' Megaster,' which he attributes to NembroL 

1461. Alfn^anus was author of a book called in Latin Rudimenta 

1576 f. outo/herre . . ,entriketk, that is, 'involves (this world) in 
perplexity, so that it is disordered.' 

1579. coupe of hevene, see note on I. 534. 

1595fF. The discussion in the Roman Senate on the fate of the 
accomplice* trf' Catiline is here taken as a model of rhetorical 
treatment. The idea is a happy one, but it is borrowed from the Trhor, 
where Latini, ailer laying down the rules of rhetoric, illustrates them 
(pp. 505-517) by a report and analysis of the speeches in this debate, 
as they are given by Sailust. The 'Cillenus' mentioned below is 
D. Junius Silanus, who as consul-designate gave his opinion first It 
is tolerably evident in this passage, as it is obvious in iv. 3647 ff., that 
Gower did not identify Tullius with Cicero, though Latini actually says, 
' Marcus Tulltus Cicero, cils meismes qui eneeigne I'arl de rectorique, 
estoit adonques consule de Rome.* 

1615 ff. Cp. Trisor, p. 509, 'niais Jules Cesar, qui autre chose 
pensoit, se torna as covertures et as moi dorez, porce que sa matiere 
estoit contraire,' &c 

1628. after the lawe. It may be observed as a matter of fact that 
the law was on the side of Caesar, and that this was his chief argument 
against the death penally. 

1706. Fyf point*. The Secretutn Secretorum recommends to rulers 
the virtues of Liberality, Wisdom, Chastity, Mercy, Truth, and after- 
wards of Justice, but there is no very systematic arrangement there, 

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nor in general does the treatment of the subject, except partly as 
regards Liberality, resemble Gower's. It has been already observed 
that the treatment of Politics in the Triior is altogether difierent 
from that which we have here. 

1783 ff. This story comes originally from 3 Esdras, ch. iii, iv. The 
names, however, of Arpaghes and Manachaz are not found in the 
tert of that book, and the story of Alcestis, which Zorobabel tells, is 
of course a later addition, made no doubt by our author. 

1809. ' Having his mtnd so disposed.* 

18S6. bditltU, an archaic form, used here for the rhyme. 

1684 ff. 3 Esdr. iv. 39, 'Videbam tamen Apemen filiam Beiacis, 
mirifid concubinam regis, sedentem iuxta regem ad dexteram,' &c. 

1961 1 ' He that is true shall never nje," or some such jingle. Cp. 
Shaksp. K.Jehn. v. 7, < Nought shall make us rue, 
If England to herself do rest but true.' 

Wffi.lasU, pret. 'lasted'; cp. ProL 672, iv. 2315. 

2017 fT. This seems to be suggested by a passage in the Secrttum 
Secrttontm. ' Reges sunt quattuor. Rex largus subditis et largus ^bi, 
Kex auarus subditis et auarus sibi, Rex auanis sibi et largus subditis, 
Rex lai^s sibi et auarus subditis.' This last is pronounced to be the 
worst, as the first is the best. 

2081 ffi This refers to a passage in the Secre/um Secretorum. 
(ed. 1520, f.8), which runs thus in the printed edition : 'Que fbit causa 
destructionis regni calculorum : vnde quia guperfluitas expensanim 
superat redditus ciuitatum, et sic deficientibus redditibus et expensis 
reges extenderunt manus suas ad res et redditus aliomm. Subditi 
ergo propter iniuriam damaueruot ad deum excclsum gloriosum, qui 
immittens ventum calidum afflixit eos vehementer, et insurrexit 
populns contra eos el nomina eorum penitus de term deleuerunt.' 

This is obviously corrupt, and it is evident that ' calculorum ' stands 
for a proper name, which Gower read 'Caldeorum,' as ft is in MS. 
Land 708. Other Bodleian MSS. to which 1 have referred give 
'Saldeorwn' (Bodley 181), 'cangulorum ' {Add. C. 12), 'singuhirum ' 
(Laud 645), ' Anglorum ' (Digby 170). 'Nonne' is the reading of the 
MSS. for 'vnde,' and it seems that 'Quefuit' &c. is also a question. 

2089. So in the Secretvm Seeretorum (shortly before the passage 
quoted above), ' Debes igitur dona dare iuxta posse tuum cum men- 
sura, hominibus indigentibus atque dignis.' 

20S0. often, here apparently 'of quality.' 

2061 ff. The basis of this story is to be found in Seneca, De 
Benefidis, v. 24, 'Causam dicebat apud divum lulium ex veteranis 
quidam,' &&, but there is no question there of an advocate ; the 
veteran simply gains his case by recalling his personal services. The 
story appears in a form more like that of Gower in the Gesta Rama- 
nerum, 87 (ed. Oesterley), but the name Julius is not there mentioned, 
only ' Quidam imperator.' It may be observed also in general, that 

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NOTES. Lib. VII. 1783-22ir 529 

though many stories are common to the Gesta Romanorum and the 
Confesiie Amaniis, there i$ no instance in which Gower can be proved 
to have used the Gata Romanorum as his authority. Indeed the tales 
are there so meagrely and badly told for the most part, that therft 
would be little temptation to turn to it if any other book were available. 

Such references as 'didtur in gestis Romanorum' are not to thia 
book but to Roman History. 

Hocdeve tells this story much as we have it here, in lus Regiment 
of Princes, iV}o«.,^.%. 

' Han ye forgote bow scbarp it with yow ferde, 
Whan ye were in the werrea of Asie ? 
Maffeith, your (if stood there in jupartie; 

And advocat ne sente I non to yow. 
But myself put in prees and for yow faght,' &c. 

211SfE This anecdote is perhaps taken from the Trdsor, where it 
occurs more appropriately as an example of hypocritical excuses for not 
giving, ' Li Maistres dit : Apris te garde de malicieus engin dc escon- 
dire, si comme fist le rois Antigonus, qui dist k un menestrier qui li 
demandoit un besant, que il demajidoit plus que k lui n'aferoit; et 
quant il U demanda un denier, il dist que rois ne devoit pas si povre- 
ment doner. Ci ot malicieus escondit ; car il li pooit bien doner nn 
besant, porce que il estoit rois, ou un denier, porce que il estoit 
menestrel. Mais Alixandres le fist mieulx ; car quant il dona une cit6 
k un home, cil li dist que il estoit de trop has afaire k avoir cit^; 
Alixandres li respondit : Je ne pren pas garde quel chose tu dois avoir, 
mais quel chose je doi doner' (p. 413). This may serve as a rather 
favourable example of Latini's style. 

2182. is in manure : cp. I. 4344- It seems to mean that the virtue 
of t^ving depends on the measure with which it is done : cp. Praise of 
Peace, 53. 

2189. To kelpe with ; cp. i. 453, 2173, il 383, &c 

2194. holden up his oil: cp. 1. 3SS4, 'To bere up oil.* The only 
other instance which I can quote of this expression is fi'om Trevisa's 
translaiion of the Polychronicon (Rolls' Series, vol. iii. p. 447, a refer- 
ence which 1 owe to Dr. Murray), 'There Alisaundre gan to boste 
. . . and a greet deel of hem that were at the feste hilde up the kynges 
oyl.' (In the Latin, 'magna convivancium parte assentiente.') In 
all these cases it is used of flatterers, and ' oil ' seems to stand in this 
phrase for 'pride 'or 'vainglory.' I am disposed to think it is simply 
the French ' oil,' meaning ' eye,' and getting its present sense from such 
Biblical expressions as 'oculi sublimiura deprimentur," 'oculos super- 
borum humiliabis,' 'oculos sublimes, linguam mendacem'; but I can 
quote no examples of this meaning in French. 

2217 ff. This story is based originally on an anecdote told by Valerius 
Maximus : ' Idem Syracusis, cum holera ei lavanti Aristippus dixisset, 
Si Dionysium adulari yelles, ista non esses, Immo, inquit, si tu ista 

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«sse velles, non adularere Dionysium' (Afem. iv. 3). It has been 
repeated often in a short form. 

2268. fie worldes crok, that is, the crooked way of the world. See 
the quotations in the New Ettgi. Dictionary under ' crook,' 11. 

2279. Jautes : see Godefroy's Dictionary, where an instance is quoted 
of the use of this word in a French version of this very stoiy. 

2302. F punctuates after ' pyke,' and no doubt rightly so. The word 
' trewely ' corresponds to the Latin ' cecte ' in the margin above. 

2355 ff. The Roman Triumph as here related was a commonplace of 
preachers and motalists, cp. Bromyard, Summa Praedicantium, T. v. 
36, ' Triumphus enim secundum Isidorum dicitur a tribus : quia trium- 
phator Romanus cum victoria versus civitatem veniens tres honores 
habere debuit,' Sic So 1. 2366, ' Of treble honour he was certein.' It is 
also in the Geita Romanorum, 30 (ed. Oesterley), but from neither <d 
these could Gower have got his 'Notheoa' (for r™fli aiavrir). 

2416 ff. This custom is spoken of in Hocdeve's Regtment of Princes 
with a marginal reference to the Vita lehannis EUemo^marii, where it 
is in fact mentioned (Migne, Patrol. voL 73, p. 354). 

2527 S. From I Kings xxii. It will be seen that the story is told 
rather freely as regards order of events, as if from memory. 

25S1 (margin), ergeatixale, used in a musical sense. 

2553. Godelie : the person meant is Atbaliah. 

2584. bere up oil : see note on 1. a 1 94. 

2660. oitraied. See New Engl. Diet, under ' astray,' verb and adv. 

2698 (margin). No manuscript here gives the reading 'regiminis,' 
sofar as 1 know; but it is required by the sense, and the reading 're^s' 
might easily arise from the abbreviation of ' regiminis,' as we 6nd it in 
some MSS. at I. 3106 (margin). Note that S is defective here, and J, 
Ad, K omit the Latin margin. A attempts an emendation. 

2726 f. lete Of -wrong I0 don, i, e. ' abstain from doing wrong.' 

2765 ff. From Godfrey of Vilerbo (in Monum. Oerm. Hist. xriL 
p. 169), ' Quando voluit rectores dare provinciis . . . nomina eorum 
ezaminabat in popuio, dicens : Si quia habet crimen contra eos, 
dicat et probet,' &c This passage is not contained in the earlier 
redactions of the Pantheon, and consequently we may conclude that 
Goirer's copy was one which contained the later additions : q). notes 
on 4181 ff. and viii. 171 ff. 

277L kis name, that is, his reputation : cp. 2774. 

2780. stod . . . upon, ' rested upon,' ' was guided by.' 

2783 ff. The saying by which this story is chaiacterized, ' malle locu> 
pletibus imperare quam ipsum fieri locupletem,' is more properly attri- 
buted to M'. Curius Dentatus {Valerius Maximus, Mem. iv. 3. 5): 
but Fabricius also rejected gifts sent him by the Samnites. 

2810. bothe ■ apparently both the men and their possessions. 

2883 ff. This is probably Conrad II, of whom Godfrey of Viterbo 
says 'nulli violatori pacis parcebat' 

2845 ff. Originally taken h^m Valerius Maximns, who tells it, 

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NOTES. Lib. VII. 2268-3201 531 

however, with reference to Charondas, the supposed legislator of Thurii 
(Mem. vi. s). 

2664. sete : apparently a strong past participle fonned from 'sette' 
by confusion with 'sitle'i cp.'upsete' rhyming with 'misgete,' viii. 244. 

S883. o/dawe: equivalent to 'of this lif,'iv. 3414. 

2889 ff. This is a story which we fold very often repeated (originally 

from Herodotus), e.g. Valerius Maximus, Mem. vi. 3, Gesia Roma' 

norum, ag (without mention of Cainbyses by name), Hoccleve's 

Regement of Princes, &c. In A we find added to the marginal Latin. 

* vnde versus, 

Sede sedens ista iudex inflexibilis sta, 
Sit tibi lucema lux, lex, peUisque paterna, 
Qua resides natus pro patre sponte datus. 
A manibus reuoces munus, ab aure preces.' 
It would seem that the last line should stand as the second. 

2902. Avise him, ' Let him consider.' 
fliiU, 'tum aside,' cp. iv. 314; but also intransitive, v. 7076. 

2917 fT. Another often repeated story. The Gesta Remancntm has 
it (169) withareference to TrogusPompeius (that is Justin, £/i/. iii. 3). 
Cower makes the city Athens instead of Sparta (cp. 3089), and the god 
Mercury instead of Apollo. 

3054 «. This list of legislators is from the Trhor, p. 34, hut the 
text which our author used seems to have been corrupt. The passage 
runs thus in the printed edition : ' Moyses fu li premiers qui bailla 
la loi as Hebreus ; et li rois Foroneus fu li premiers qui la bailla 
as Grezois ; Mercures as Egypciens, et Solon & eels de Athenes \ 
Ligurgus as Troyens ; Numa Pompilius, qui regna apr^ Romulus en 
Kome, et puis ses fiti, bailla et fist lois as Romains premierement,' &c. 
If we suppose ' Solon ' to have been omitted in the MS., the passage 
might rrad (with changes of punctuation) nearly as we have it in Gower. 

3092. on the teste Above alle other : cp. iv. 3606, &c. 

8137 ff. Cp. Mirourde tOmme, 13921, and see also ii.3204 IT. (margin). 

8144. Troian: so given in all MSS. for 'Traian.' So also in th« 
Mirour, ZZ168, and in Godfrey of Viterbo, Spec. Reg. ii. 14 (Man, 
Germ. Hist. xxii. p. 74). 

8181 fT. Valerius Maximus, Mem. v. 6: but he does not mention the 
Dorians as the enemy against whom Codrus fought However, the 
story was a common one : cp- Gesta Romanorvm, 41. 

8201. hmes : cp. Chaucer, Cant. Taies, A 3886. 

8149* f. The reference is to the Epistle of St, James ii. 13, ' ludi- 
cium enim sine misericordia illi qui non fecit misericordiam.' 

3157*. That is,' Blessedare the merciful, for iheyshallobtain mercy.' 

3161 *f. Cp. Mirour de rOmme, i39iSfF., where 1 he same is quoted. 

8163 * fT. Quoted also in the Mirour, 1 3925 ff., and there also attributed 
to Tullius, but I cannot give the reference. 
H m 3 

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3210. drawe : the change to subjunctive marks this sentence as 
really conditional. 

3215 ft Valerius Ma^iimus, Mem. v. 1. 9. 

3217. injmpariU,\. e. equally balanced, the result uncertain. 

8267 ff. Justinian II b described by Gibbon as a cniel tyrant, whose 
deposition by Leontius was fully deserved, and who, when restored 
by the help of Terbelis, took a ferocious vengeance on his oppKinents : 
' during the six years of his new reign, he considered the axe, the cord, 
and the mck as the only iusiruments of royally.' Nothing apparently 
could be less appropriate than the epithet 'pietous,' which Cower 
bestows upon him. 

3295 IT. This agab was a very common story : cp.GestaRoniaHorutn, 
48 (ed. Oesterlcy), Hocdeve tells it with a reference to Orosius, Urge- 
iitetU of Pritues, 3004 fF. Cower probably had it from Godfrey of 
Viterbo, i'a«/,4«i'«,p. 181 (ed. 1584), where Berillus is given for Perillus, 
as in our text. He takes ' Phalaris Siculus ' as the tyrant's name, and 
shortens it to Siculus. 

8802. I take the preceding three lines as a parenthesis, and this as 
following 1. 3298. 

3841. 'Dionys' is a mistake for Diomede, or rather Diomedes is 
confused with ^e tyrant Dionysius. 

8355 ft. Cp. Ovid, Meteati. i. 221 ff. 

8359. With othre men, \. e. ' by other men ' : cp. viii. 3553. 

3887 ff. This characteristic of the lion Is mentioned by Bninetto 
Latini, Tr/sor, p. 224. 

3417 IT. This story is told much as it appears in Justin, Epit. i. 8, 
and Orosius, Hisl. ii. 7, but the name Spertacbus (Spartachus) is 
apparently from Peter ComesCor (Migne, Patrol, vol. 198, p. 1471), 
who gives this as the name of Cyrus in bis boyhood. The same 

3207*ff. "Hie tale of the Jew and the Pagan is from the Secrtlum 
Secretorum, where it is told as a warning against trusting those who 
are not of our foitb. The differences are mainly as follows. No names 
of places are mentioned in the original ; the ' pagan ' is called ' magus 
orientalis,' and he rides a mule : the Jew is without provisions, and the 
Magian feeds him as well as allowing bun lo ride : the Jew is found not 
dead but thrown from the mule, with a broken leg and other injuries — 
there is no mention of a lion except in the entreaties of the Magian, 
'noli me derelinquere in deserto, ne forte inteifidar a leonibus.* The 
Magian is about to leave him to die, but the Jew pleads that he has 
acted only in accordance with his own law, and again appeals to the 
Magian to show him the mercy which his religion enjoins. Finally the 
Magian carries him away and ddivers him safely to his own people. 
Probably our author thought that this form of the story unduly sacrificed 
justice to mercy, and therefore he killed his Jew outright. 

3342* ff. Note the subjunctive after ' who (that) ' here and in IL 3349, 
3355 ; see note on Prol. 46a 

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NOTES. VII. 3210-4245 533 

authorfty may have supplied the name ' Maisagete,' for the histories 
named above call Tbamyris oaly ' queen of the Scythians ' ; but 
Comestor omits the details of the story. 

8418. The oanie 'Spertachus' is given in full by F in the Latin 
summary, I. 3436 (margin). In the Et^lish text the first syllable is 
abbreviated in most copies, but Ahas'Spartachus' and Ha 'Spertachus.' 
3539. PiUfHgtted'. cp. 1. 3835. 

8581. The reference should be 10 Juvenal, SeU. vin. 36g.E, 
' Malo pater tibi sit Thersites, dummodo tu sis 
Aeacidae similia, Vulcaniaque anna capessas, 
Quam te Thersilae similem geuuisset Achilles.' 
Gower has here taken the point out of the quotation to a gpeat extent, 
but it occurs in the Afirour, 23371 ff., in its proper form, though witli 
the same false reference. 
3627 ff. From the Book of Judges, ch. vii. 

8682. For the anacoluthon cp. iv. 3201, vi. 1798, and note oni. 98. 
8689. The reading of the second recension, ' hem,' seems clearly to 
be right here : ' against those who would assail them.' 

3640 ff. The meaning apparently is that each single division of the 
three which the enemy bad was twice as large as Gideon's whole army. 
The original text says nothing of the kind. 
3752, pef compaignie, ' together.' 
3820 It I Samuel XV. 
8860 ff. I Kings ii. 

3877. natheles, ' moreover ' : cp. 4342 and note on Prol. 39. 
3884. Ikai, for ' to that ' : cp. ProL 122. 
8891 ff. I Kings iii. 
4011. propre, i.e. 'in himself.' 
4027 S. I Kings xii. 

4144. can . . . mat, used in their original senses, the one implying 
knowledge and the other active power. 

4181 ff. The person meant is Antoninus Pius, of whom his biographer 
Capitolinus says that he loved peace 'eousque ut Scipionis sententiam 
frequentarit, qua ille dicebat, malle se unum civem servare quam mille 
hostes occidere' (Hist, August, ed. 1620, p. 20). Godfrey of Viterbo, 
in the text given by Waitz [Mon. Germ. Hist. xxii. pp. 75, 163), regularly 
calls him Antonius, and probably Gower bad the saymg from this 
source. It is one of the later additions to the Pantheon : cp, note on 
276s ff. 

4195, M due To Pile. This seems to mean ' is bound by duty ' to 
show mercy. 

4228. His trouthe pHghl, 'the engagement of his faith.' Here we 
have the word 'plight 'from OE.'pliht,' to be distinguished firom'plit.' 
4242. natheles : cp. L 3877. 

4245. iiAe : note the definite form after the possessive genitive, as 
after a possessive pronoun. 

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4284. ' ADd even if it should chance that he obtained any friendliness 
from her.' For the use of' compainie ' cp, V.4S58. 

4335. Bariarus ; more properly Arbaces, but ' Barbatus ' in the 
Pantheoni^. 165, ed. 15S4). 

4361 ff. Cp.Justin,£'^V.i.7,wherehowevertheexpedientissaidtohave 
been used (as related by Herodotus) after Cyrus had put down a revolt, 
4406ff. Numbers jtxv, 
4408. Amedech : Balak is meant. 

4464 fr. This means apparently that the later time of life will be as 
a dark night which is not illuminated by any sunshine of dawn ; but 
it is not very clearly expressed. 
4469 ff. 1 Kings xi. 

4515. That is, 'Ahijah the Shilonite,' called 'Ahias Silonites' in the 
Latin version. 

45&9ff'. (margin). The quotation is from the Secrelum StcreloruM : 
' O summe rex, studeas modis omnibus custodire et retioere calorem 
naturalem' (ed, 1520, f. 25 v"). 

45T4f, Caracalla, son of Sevenis, is here meant. His name was 
Aurelius Antoninus, and he is called Aurelius Antonius in the Paathton 
(Mon. Germ, ffisl. xxii. p. 166), Caracalla is called by Orosius 'omnibus 
hominibus libidine intemperantior, qui etiam novercam suam luiiam 
uxorem duxerit ' (Hist. vii. 18), and this character of him is repeated in 
the Panikeon. 

4593 ff. This story is from Ovid, Fasti, ii. 687-730. Gowei's 
rendering of it is remarkable for ease and simplicity of style: see 
especially II. 4667-4685, 4701-47 17. 

4598, Neither Aruns nor Sextus is mentioned by name in Ovid, who 
speaks only of ' Tarquinius iuvenis,' Gower gives to Aruns the place 
of Sextus throughout this and the following story. 
4623. schclte, intransitive, equivalent to 'were shut ': cp. iii. 1453- 
4701 ff. The sacrifice at which this portent occurred is here brought 
into connexion with the capture of Gabii, a construction which is not 
unnaturally suggested by Ovid's abrupt transition, 1. 711. 
47i8ff. 'Consulitur Phoebus. Sors est ita reddita: Matri 

Qui dederit princeps oscula, victor erit.' Faslij'u.jt^f. 
Ovid means that a message was sent to Delphi; but our author 
understands it differently. 
4739 f. 'Creditus offenso procubuisse pede'(73o). 
4754 ff. This again is from Ovid, where it occurs as a continuation 
of the last story, Fasti, 721-852. Chaucer, who tells this story in the 
, Legend of G. Women, i68off., also follows Ovid, and more closely 
than Gower, e.g. 1761 ff., 1805 ff., 1830 f, 
4757. unskiljuily, that is, ' unjustly,' without due ' skile ' or reason, 
4778 ff, 'Non opus est verbis, creditc rebus, ait' (734), 
4305 f. This is derived from a misunderstanding of FasH, ii. 785, 
'Accipit aerata iuvenem CoUatia porta.' 

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NOTES. Lib. VII. 4284-5408 535 

Cp. I. 491 1 below. Both Chaucer and Gower make the tragedy occui 
at Rome, though Chaucer professes to have Livy before him. 

4902. 'aiidentes forsve deusve iuvat.' 

4987. Ttf Aire: cp,v. 5724, It means here much the same as 'by her.' 

5062. tche mykte it noght, ' sche could not help it," 

5088fr. 'Ilia iacens ad verba oculos sine lumine mouit, 
Visaque concussa dicta probare coma.' Faiti, ii. 845 f^ 

5098 fT. This latter part isadded from othersources, perhaps from Livy. 

51S1 ff. Chaucer tells the story of Virginia as the Tale of the Doctor 
of Physic, professing to follow Livy, but actually taking his materials 
chiefly from the Roman de la Rose, 5613 ff., from which he transcribes 
also the reference to 'Titus Livius.' His siojy differs from that of Livy 
in many respects, and the changes are not at all for the better. For 
example, Chaucer does not mention the absence of Virginius in the 
camp, and he makes him kill his daughter at home and carry her head 
to Appius. Gower follows Livy, or some account drawn from Livy, 
without material alteration. It may be observed that Chaucer (fol- 
lowing the Rom. de la Rose) uses the name ' Apius ' alone for the ju(^, 
and 'Claudius' for the dcpiendent, while Gower names them more 
correcily ' Apius Claudius ' and ' Marchus Claudius.' On the subject 
generally reference may be made to Rumbaur's dissertation, Ceschickte 
von Appius und Virginia in der engl. LilUralur, Breslau, 1890. 

5136. Livius Virginius, a mistake for ' Lucius Virginius.' 

5151. Ilicius, that is, Icilius. 

5209. til that he come, ' till be should come,' the verb being pret. 

5254 ff. The sentence is irregular in construction, but intelligible 
and vigorous : * but as to that command, like the hunted wild boar, 
who when he feels the hounds hard upon him, throws them off on 
both sides and goes his way, so (we may say) this knight,' &c. The 
simile is due to Gower. 

5261. iepte, ' waited for.' 

5807 ff. From the Book of Tobit, ch. vi-viii. The moral of the story 
is given by vi. 17, where Raphael says to Tobias, ' Hi namque qui 
coniugium ita suscipiunt, ut Deum a se et a sua mcnte exdudant, et 
suae libidini ila vacent sicut equus el mulus, quibus non est intellectus, 
habet potestatem daemonium super eos.' This, however, is absent 
from the English version (which follows the LXX), as are also the 
precepts which follow, about nights to be spent in prayer by the newly 
married couple. The same is the case with the five precepts given to 
Sara by her parents, which are mentioned in the Mirour, 17701 ff. 

5390. This hue, written in F as follows, 

' Hov trewe ■ hou large ■ hou ioust ■ hov chaste,' 
is eikough to show that v and » ai« used indifferently in this kind of 
position ^ cp. mov^ : cou^, 5385 f. 

5408. Dowry, 'Have done': vee New Etigiisk Dictionary,' Ao,' 12. 

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We may suppose that our autiaor had some embaTTassment as 
regards the subject of his eighth book. It should properiy have dealt 
with the seventh Deadly Sin and its various branches, that is, as the 
Mirour de FOmme gives them, ' Fomicacioun,' ' Stuprc,' ' Avolttrie,' 
' Incest,* ' Foldelit.' Nearly all of these subjects, however, have 
already been treated of more or less fully, either in the fifth book, 
where branches of Avarice are spoken of with reference to the case of 
love, or in the seventh, under the head of Chastity as a point of Policy. 
Even the author's commendation of Virginity, which might well have 
been reserved for this place, and which would have been rather less 
incongruous at the end than in the middle of the shrift, has already 
been set forth in the fifth book. There remained only Incest, and of 
this unpromising subject he has made the best he could, first tracing out 
the gradual development of ibe moral (or rather the ecclesiastical) law 
with regard to it, and then making it an excuse for the Tale of 
ApoUonius {or Appolinus) of Tyre, which extends over the larger half 
of the book. The last thousand lines or so are occupied with the 
conclusion of the whole poem. 

86. upon his grace, that is, free for him to bestow on whom he would. 

44. Raphael is not named in Genesis, 

48. Metodre, that is, Methodius, in whose Revelatiotus it is written, 
' Sciendum namque est, exeuntes Adam et Evam de Paradiso virgines 
fuisse,' so that ' Into the world ' in I, 53 must mean from Paradise into 
the outer worid. 

62 fT. This is not found in Genesis, only 'genuitque filios el Glias,' 
but Methodius says that the sisters of Cain and Al>el were Calmana 
and Debora. 

110, For the hiatus cp. Mirour, 12341, 

IfiS. ne yit religioH. The seduction obooe who was a professed 
member of a religious order was usually accounted to be incest : cp. 
Mirour, 9085 fT. and 1. 175 below. 

170, ' I keep no such booth (or stall) at the fair,' that is, ' 1 do no 
such trade.' 

244. lipsete: see Introduction, p. cxix, and cp. vii. 3864, 

271 (T. Gower tells us here that he finds the story in the Pantkeon. 
That is true, no doubt : it is told there in the peculiar kind of verse 
with which Godfrey of Viterbo diversified his chronicle, and a most 
useful text of this particular story, showing the differences of three 
redactions, is given by S. Singer in his ApoUonius von Tyrus, 
Halle, 189s, pp. 153-177. There is ample evidence that Gower was 
acquainted with the Panihton, but it is not the case that he followed 
it in this story, as has been too readily assumed, Godfrey tells the 


NOTES. Lib. VIII. 36-271 537 

tale in a much abbreviated fonD, and Gower unquestionably foUowed 
mainly the Latin prose narrative which was commonly current, though 
he thought the Pantheon, as a grave historical authority, more fit to be 
dted. The very first sentence, with its reference, ' as seith the bok,' 
is enough to indicate this, but a. few more points may be mentioned 
here in which the story of the Pantheon difTers from Gower and from 
the prose Historia ApoilonU Tyrii. (1) Godfrey of Viterbo does not 
say what was the problem proposed by Antiochus, nor does he mention 
the period of thirty days. (3)Hegivesnodetai)5oftheflightofApoUonius 
or of the moumiog of his people, and he does not mention the incident 
of TaJiart (or Thaliarchus). (3) The name Pentapolim is not introduced. 
(4) There is no mention in the Pantheon of the wooing cf the daughter 
of Archistrates by three princes (or nobles) or of the bills which they 
wrote, (s) There is no mention of the nurse Lichorida being taken 
with Apolloniiis and his wife on shipboard, of the master of the ship 
insisting that the corpse should be thrown into the sea, oi of the name 
of the physician, Cerimon. (6) The Pantheon says nothing of the vow 
of ApoUonius in IL 1301-1306. (7) The name Theophilus is not given, 
(8) There is no mention of the tomb of Thaise (or Tharsia) being shown 
to ApoUonius. (9) In the Pantheon the punishment of Strangolio and 
Dionysia precedes the visit to Ephesus, and there is no mention of 
the dream which caused ApoUonius to sail to Ephesus. 

There are indeed some pobts in which Gower agrees with the 
Pantheon against the Historia, for example in maldng the princess 
ask for ApoUonius as her teacher on the very night of the banquet 
instead of the nest moming, and in representing that ApoUonius went 
to his kingdom after leaving his daughter at Tharsis (cp. £. Klebs, 
Die ErsSkiung von ApoUonius am Tyrvs, Berlin, 1899). Perhaps 
however the most marked correspondence is where Gower makes the 
wife of ApoUonius 'Abbesse' of Diana's temple (1. 1849)1 which is 
evidently from Godfrey's line, 'Sic apud Ephesios velut abbatissa 
moratuT ' : cp. also L 1 194 ' wanned ofle.' These are both antong the 
later additions to the Pantheon, and apparently were overkxdeed by 
Singer and Klebs when they pronounced that Cower probably knew 
only the earlier redaction : cp, notes on vii. 2765, 4181. 

The Latin prose narrative has been printed in Weheri Ofiera, ed. 
1682, pp. 681-704, and also in the Teubner series (ed. Riese, 1871, 
1893). It is a translation from a Greek original, as is sufficiently 
indicated by the Greek words that occur in it, and by the Greek 
customs which it refers ta or presui^»oses. Gower agrees with it 
pretty closely, but the story is not improved in his hands. It 
loses, of course, the Greek characteristics of which we have spoken, 
and several of the incidents are related by Gower in a less eBective 
manner than in the original. For example, in the scene near 
the beginning between Antiochus and ApoUonius, the king asks, 
' Nosti nuptiamm conditionem ? ' and the young man repUes, ' Novi et 
ad portam vidi,' to which there is nothing corresponding in Gower. 

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Again, at a later stage of the story, when the three young nobles send 
in their proposals to the daughter of Archistrates, the original story 
makes her reply in a note which declares that she will marry only 
' the sbip-wrecked man.' The king innocently inquires of the three 
young men which of them has suffered shipwreck, and finally hands 
the note to Apollonius to see if he can make anything of it. This is 
much better managed than by Gower. On the other hand our author 
has done well in dispensing with the rudeness and boastfiilness of 
Apollonius on the occasion when the king's daughter plays the harp at 
the feast, and also in modifying the scenes at the brothel and excluding 
Athenagoras from taking part in them. The quotations given in the 
following notes are made from the Bodleian MS. Laud 347, a good 
copy of the twelfth century, which has a form of text more nearly corre- 
sponding to that which Gower used than that of any of the printed 
editions, and by means of which we can account for the names Thaise 
and Philotenne. 

It can hardly be necessary to observe that the play of Perielfs, 
Prince of Tyre, had another source besides Gower, and especially as 
regards its fourth and fiDh acts. Marina is waylaid while going to 
visit the tomb of her old nurse, as in the original story, the scene 
of the pirates agrees more nearly with the original than with Cower, 
Lysimachus plays a part very like that which Gower took away 
firom Athenagoras, and the scene between Cleon and Dionyza (iv. 4) 
seems to be suggested by the original. The story was current in 
English prose, as is well known. 

386. And sHUtk : cp. v. 3291 and note. 

3S5. he meste, 'that he might,' 'ut sibi liceret,' a common use of 
the word in older English (see examples in Bosworth and Toller's 

405 ff. (margin). The riddle as given in the Laud MS. is, ' Seelere 
uehor. Matema carne uescor. Quero patrem meummatris mee uirum 
nxorismeefiliam, necinuenio.' Most copies have 'fratrem meum' for 
'patrem meum,' but Gower agrees with the Laud MS. I do not 
attempt a solution of it beyond that of Apollonius, which is, ' Quod 
dixisti seelere uehor, non es menlitus, ad te ipsum respice. Et quod 
dixisti matema came uescor, tiliam tuam intuere.' 

484. tke S/wes. For the spelling cp. ' Jwes,' v. 1713, 1808. 

536. This is by no means in accordance with the original. Antiochus 
exclaims on hearing of the flight of Apollonius, ' Fugere modo quidem 
piotest, effugere autem quandoque me minime potent,' and at once 
issues an edict, 'Quicunque mihi ApoUonium contemptorem regni 
mei uiuum adduxerit, quinquaginta talenta aiiri a me dabuntur ei : qui 
uero caput eius mihi optulerit, talentorum c receptor erit' {f. 205 v«), 
and he causes search to be made after him both by land and 
sea. The change made by Gower is not a happy one, for it takes away 
the motive for the flight from Tarsus, where Apollonius heard of this 

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NOTES. Lib. VIII. 386-767 539 

542 fr. In the original ApoUonius meets' Hellanicus' at once on 
landing, aad is informed by him of the proscription. He makes an 
offer to Strangulio to sell his wheat at cost price to the citizens, 
if they will conceal his presence among them. The money which he 
receives as the price of the wheat is expended by him in public beDefiCS 
to the state, and the citizens set up a statue of him standing in a 
two-horee chariot (biga), his right hand holding forth com and his 
left foot resting upon a bushel measure. 

603, /frietA,' conveys,' ftom OE.'fercian' : cp. Anglo-Saxon Chron. 
1009, Hi fercodon ¥a scipo efl to Lundenne' (quoted ia Bosworth 
and Toller's Dictionary). 

624. 'But with cable and cord broken asunder.. . the ship* Ac, past 
participle absolute, as ii. 791, viii. iS3a 

640. /orto mole To gete ayein. Apparently this means 'to wish 
to get again,' a meaning derived from the phmse 'so mot 1,' 
&c., expressing a wish. The infinitive is very unusual. For the 
genmd with 'to' which follows it cp. ii. 510, vii. 437, where we 
have this construction with 'mai,' 'mihte.' 

679. The account in the original story is here considetably different. 
Cower did not understand the Greek customs. ' Et dum cogitaret 
unde uite peteret auxilium, uidit puerum nudum per plateam currentem, 
oleo URctum, precinctum sabana, ferentem ludos iuueniles ad gym* 
nasium peninentes, maxima uoce dicentemi Audite ciues, audite 
peregrin!, liberi et ingenui, gymnasium patet. ApoUonius hoc audito 
exuens se tribunario ingreditur lauacnim, utitur liquore palladio ; et 
dum exercentes singulos intueretur, parem sibi querit et non inuenit. 
Subito Arcestraies rex toiius illius regionis cum turba famulorum 
ingressus est : dumque cum suis ad pile lusum exerceretur, uolente 
dec roiscuit se ApoUonius regi, et dum currenti susiulit pilam, subtili 
uetocitate percussam ludenti regi remisit ' &c. (f. 307 V). 

The story proceeds to say that the king, pleased with the skill of 
ApoUonius in the game of ball, accepted his services at the bath, and 
was rubbed down by him in a very pleasing manner. The result was 
an invitation to supper. 

Gower agrees here with the Pantheon in making the king a spectator 

691. Artalrathes. The name is Arcestrates in the Laud MS. 

706. hfu it ncgki, ' did not neglect it." 

720 f. 'Ingressus ApoUonius in triclinium, contra regem adsignato 
loco discubuit.' Gower apparently sets him at the head of the second 
table. For * beginne ' cp. Cani. Tales, ProL 52, with Skeat's note. 

767 ff. In the original all applaud the performance of the king's 
daughter except ApoUonius, who being asked by the king why he alone 
kept silence, replied, ' Bone rex, si permittis, dicam quod sentio : filia 
enim tua in artem musicam incidit, nam non didicit. Denique iube 
mihi tradi liram, et scies quod nescit * (f. 208 v"). Gower has toned 
this down to courtesy. 

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782. ' ita stetit ut onines discumbentes una cum rege non Apol- 
lonium sed ApoUinem estknaient.' 

866 fr. In the original this incident takes place when the king is in 
company with ApoUonius. The kti^ re[dies that his daughter has fallen 
ill from too much study, but he bids them each write his name and the 
sum of money which he is prepared to offer as dowry, and he sends 
the bills at once to the princess by the hand of ApoUonius. She reads 
them, and then asks whether be is not sorry that she is going to be 
married. He says, ' Immo gratulor,' and she replies, ' Si amares, 
doleres.* Then she writes a note, saying that she wishes to have 
' the shipwrecked man ' as her husband, adding ' Si miraris, pater, quod 
pudica uirgo tam inprudenter scripserim, scitote quia quod pudore 
indicare non potui, per ceram mandaui, que niborem non habeL' The 
king having read the note asks the young men which of them has been 
shipwrecked. One claims the distinction, but is promptly exposed by 
his companions, and the king hands the note to Apollonius, saying 
that he can make nothing .of it. Apollonius reads and blushes, and 
the king asks, ' Inuenisti naufragum ?' To which he replies discreetly, 
' Bone rex, si permittis, inueni.' The king at last understood, and 
dismissed the three young men, promising lo send for them when they 
were wanted. 

901 ft ' cui si me non tradideris, amiltis filiam tuam,* but this is 
ailerwards, in a personal interview. 

930 ff. There is no mention otthc queen in the original. The king 
calls his friends together and announces the marriage. The description 
of the wedding. Sec, 11. 952-974, is due to Gower. 

1003 flf. In the original story it is here announced to Apollonius that 
he has been elected king in succession to Antiochus ; but this was 
regarded by our author as an unnecessary complication, 

1037 fr. The details of the description are due to our author. 

1054 ff. So far as the original can be understood, it seems to say 
that the birth of the child was brought about by the storm and that 
the appearance of death in the mother took place afterwards, owing 
to a coagulation of the blood caused by the reiuni of fair weather. 

1059-1088. This is alt Gower, except 1076 f. 

1089 flf. Apparently the meaning is that the sea will necessarily cast 
a dead body up on the shore, and therefore they must throw it out of 
the ship, otherwise the ship itself will be cast ashore with iL Hie 
Latin says only, ' nauis mortuum non suffert : iube ergo corpus in 
pelago mitti ' (tin v), 

1101, The punctuation is that of F. 

1128. iaiiitAis mynde, 'let him take thought': cp. v, 3S73, and 
L 1430 below. 

1165. tht wisest: cp. Introduction, p. cxi, 

II84ff. In the original it is not Cerimon himself, but a young 
disciple of his, who discovers the signs of life and takes measures for 
restoring her. She has already been laid upon the pyre, and he by 

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NOTES. Lib. VIII. 782-1393 541 

carefully lighting the four coiners of it (qi. I. 1193) succeeds in lique- 
fying the coagulated blood. Then he takes her in and wanns her with 
wool steeped in hot oil. 

1195. 'began' is singular, and the verbs 'hete/ 'flacke,* 'bete 'are 
used intransitively : ' to fladce ' means to flutter. 

1219. ' In short, they speak of nothing ' : ' as for an ende ' seems to 
mean the same as ' for end ' or ' for an end ' in later English : cp. 
New English Dictionary, ' end.' 

1248. This daughter is apparently an invention of Gower's, who 
perhaps misread the original, ' adhibitis amicis filiam sibi adoplauit,' 
that is, he adopted her as his daughter. 

1285. kii fn, 'his lodging,' in this case the house of Strangulio. 
Note the distinction made here by the capital letter between the 
substantive and the adverb : see Introduction, p. clix. 

1293. whiche: note the plural, referring to Strangulio and his wife. 

1295. The name here in the original is * Tharsia,' given to her by 
her father's suggestion from the name of the city, Tharsus, where she 
was left ; but the Laud MS. afterwards regularly calls her Thasia. 

I3I1 IT. This is not in accordance with the Latin prose story. He is 
there represented as telling Strangulio that he does not care, now that 
he has lost his wife, either to accept the offered kingdom or to return 
to his father- in-law, but intends to lead the life of a merchant. Here 
the expresMon is 'ignotas et longinquas petens Egypti regiones.' On 
tlft other hand the Pantheon makes him proceed to his kingdom, 
apparently Antioch. 

1337. Philotenne: the name in the Laud MS. is ' Philothemia,' but 
it is not distinguishable in writing from Philothenna. There is much 
variation as to this name in other copies. 

1349 ff. Much is made in the original story of the death of this nurs» 
and of the revelation which she made to Tharsia of her real parentage. 
Up to this time she had supposed herself to be the daughter of 
Strangulia The nurse suspected some evil, and advised Tharsia, if her 
supposed parents dealt ill with her, to go and take hold of the statue 
of her father in the market-place and appeal to the citizens for help. 
After her death Tharsia visited her tomb by the sea-shore every day, 
'et ibi manes parenlum suorum inuocabat' Here Theophilus lay in 
wait for her by order of Dionysiades. 

1374. ckeriei. This is the reading of the best copies of each 
recension : cp. ' lyves ' for ' livissh ' i. e. living, ' worldes ' for ' worldly/ 
'dethes ' for ' dedly,' iii. 2657, iv, 382, &c. 

1876. ivhat sche sckolde, that is, what should become of her. " 

1S91. Scomerfare. The first part of this word must be the French 
'escumerie,' meaning piracy: see Du Cange under 'escumator,' e.g. 
'des compaignons du pays de Bretaigne, qui ^taient venui d'Escu- 

1393. and he lo go, that is, 'and he proceeded to go,' a kind of 
historic infinitive : cp. Chaucer, Troilui, iu 1108, 'And she tolaughe,' 

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Ltg.of Good lVomen,6i3 ' And al his folk to go.' (In Piers Plovrntan, 
A. Prol. 33, 'And somine murtbes to make,' quoted by MaUner, it is 
more probable that ' to make ' is dependenl on ' chosen.') In addition 
to th^ instances we have the repeated use of 'to ga.' in Barbour's 
Bruce, e.g. viii, 351, be 263, which is much more probably to be 
explained in this way than as a compound verb. Cp. Skeat's Chaucer, 
vol. vi. p. 403, with C. Sloffel's note on Troiius, ii. i loS, which is there 

1410. The Laud MS. has 'leno leoninus nomine,' but many copies 
give no name. 

1420, Lei doun, ' let him tay down ' : cp. I. 1 12S. 

1423. There is an interesting touch in the original here which wonid 
not be intelligible to Gower. When Tharsia is led into the house, the 
character of which she does not know, she is bidden to do reverence 
to a statue of Priapus which stands in the entrance hall. She asks her 
master whether he is a native of Lampsacus, and he explains to her 
that his interest in this matter is not local but professional. 

1424 fT. There is much in the original about the visit of Athenagoras 
and of other persons, who are successively so far overcome by the tears 
and entreaties of Tarsia, as not only to spare her but to give her large 
sums of money, while at the same time they make a jest both of 
themselves and of one another for doing so. 

1451 £ The rhyme is saved from being an identical one by the 
adverbial use of ' weie ' in the second line, ' mi weie ' being equivalAit 

1513. In the original she is reproached by her husband for the deed, 
and this is the case in the play of Pericles also. 

1518. oj record, 'of good repute.' 

1534 f. Cp. Pericles, iv. 4, ' The fairest, sweetest, best lies here,' bui 
the rest of the epitaph compares unfavourably with Gower's. 

1567 ff. Here we have a curious lapse on the part of our author. 
He represents that the king had no sooner held his parliament and 
celebrated the sacrifice in memory of his wife, than he began 10 
prepare for his voyage to Tharsis. The story requires however that at 
least fourteen years should elapse, and this, according to the original 
narrative, has been spent by ApoUouius in travelling about as a 
merchant, a matter of which Gower says nothing. Probably the 
Panlkeon, which is not very clear on the matter, is responsible for the 

1587. ' For she is continually changing with regard to him.' 

1617. beHhe, 'attended to.' The use of this verb was not very 
' common in Gower's time except in the participle ' beseie,' ' besein.' 
The verb means (i) look, see; (z) look to, attend to, (3) provide, 
arrange : hence the participle is quite naturally used in the sense of 
'furnished,' 'provided,' and we have 'unbesein of,' 1. 153, for 'unpro- 
vided with.' It is usually explained by reference 10 its first sense, as 
having regard necessarily to appearance. 'Appearing in respect »rf 

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NOTES. Lib. VIH. 1410-1948 543 

dress, &&,' 'App>earing as to accomplishmenls, fumtshed* (so Ne^ 
English Dictionary)^ but it is more natural to take these meanings of 
the participle as from senses (2) (3) of the verb. It is doubtful 
whether even the phrase ' well besein ' used of personal appearance 
means anything but 'well furnished.' 

1636. fordrive, ' driven about ' by storms, actually and metaphori- 

1670 ff. Her song is given in the original; it is rather pretty, but 
very much corrupted in the manuscripts. It begins thus, 

' Per sordes gradior, sed sordis conscia non sum, 
Ut rosa in spinis nescit mucrone perirc,' &c. 
1681 ff. Several of her riddles are given in the original story and he 
succeeds in answering them all at once. One is this, 
* Longa feror uelox fonnose filia silue, 
Innumeris pariter comitum stipata caCemis : 
Curro uias multas, uestigia nulla relinquens.' 
The answer is ' Nauis.' 

She finally falls on his neck and embraces him, upon which he kicks 
her severely. She begins to lament, and incidentally lets him know 
her story. The suggestion contained in IL 170a ff,, of the mysterious 
influence of kinship, is Gower's own, and we find the same idea in the 
tale of Constance, iu 1361 f., 

' This child he loveth kindely, 
And yit be wot no cause why.' 
1830. 'And all other business having been left ' ; cp. ii. 791. 
1890. IVi/A topstiUolex cp. v. 3119, 

'Bot evenc topseilcole it blew." 
The word 'topseilcole' (written as one word in the best copies of 
each recension) does not seem to occur except in these two passages. 
It is evidently a technical term of the sea, and in both these passages 
it is used in connexion with a favourable wind, Morley quotes from 
Godefroy a use of the word 'cole' in French in a nautical sense, 'Se 
1 baiges eC alerent aux salandres, et en prisrent les xvii, et 
; eschapa, qui estoit a la cole.' Unfortunately, however, it is 
n what this means. The vessels in question were in port when 
they were attacked, and therefore 'a la cole' might reasonably mean 
with sails (or topsails) set, and so ready to start. A topsail breeze 
would be one which was fairly strong, but not too strong to allow of 
sailing under topsails, and this is rather the idea suggested by the two 
pass^es in Gower. 

It should be noted that in F and in some other MSS. there is a stop 
after the word ' topseilcole.' 

1948. /orlo hongt and drawe : the verbs are transitive, ' that men 
should hang and draw them' (Le. pluck out their bowels). 

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1983. This must mean apparently 'They had no need to take in 
a reef.' The use of 'slake 'with this meaning does not seem quite 
appropriate, but a sail or part of a sail is slackened in a certain sense 
when It is taken in, seeing that it is no longer subject to the pressure 
of the wind. 

2055. leng the lasie : cp. ill. 71, 'the leng the Jeire.' This foim of 
the comparative is usual in such phrases, as Chaucer, Cant. Taies, A 
3872, ' That ilke fhiit is ever leng the wers,' and perhaps also E €87, 
F 404, Compl. unto Pitt, 95, where the MSS. gives 'lenger.' The 
form 'leng' is the original comparative adverb of' long.' 

2077. toward Venus : cp. v. 6757. Here it means 'on the side of 

2095. sell, imperative, like 'set case,' i.e. 'suppose that.' The 
reading ' sith ' is certainly wrong. 

211s. his ogkne data. The word 'dom' is used here in special 
reference to ' kingdom' in the line above. 'Every man has a royal 
rule to exercise, that is the rule over himself.' 

2124 f. 'When be has not kept possession for himself of his own 

2165. And felt it : we have here the elision-apocope in the case of 
a preterite subjunctive. 

2194. Anth nothing set therby, ' accounted it as nothing.' 

2198. iDithkolde, 'kept' (in service). 

2212 f. Cp. iii. 398, Vox dam. ii. i. 

2217 IT. This ' Supplication ' is a finished and successful composition 
in its way, and it may make us desire that our author had written more 
of the same kind. The poem In Praise of Peace, which is written in 
the same metre and stanza, is too much on a political subject to give 
scope for poetical fancy. The nearest parallel in style is to be found 
in some of the author's French Balades. 

2245. Whom nedeth help, ' He to whom help is needful ' : cp. Prol. 
Soo, i 2446. 

2253 ff. Cp. vi. 33off. 

2259 S. Cp. Balades, m. 

2265. Danger : see note on i. 2443. 

2288. Cp. i. I43ff. 

2312. a Mile : cp. iv. 689. It means apparently the time that it 
takes to go a mile : cp. Chaucer, Astrol. \. 16, ' five of these d^res 
maken a milewey and thre mileweie maken an houre.' 

2319. a game, for ' agame ' ; cp. Chaucer, Trotlus, iii. 636, 648. 
More Dsually 'in game,' as 1. 3871. 

2841. fulofte hath pleigned : as for example in the Planctus Naturae 
of Alanus de Insulis. 

2365. ' And I will consider the matter ' : practically equivalent to 
a refusal of the petition, as in the form ' Le Roy s'avisera.' 

2367. is noght to sieke, ' is not wanting ' : cp. i. 914, ii. 44, &c. 

2878. ' In no security, but as men draw the chances of Ragman.' 

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NOTES. Lib. VIII. 1983-2450 545 

To understand this it is necessary to refer to compositions such as we 
fiitd in the Bodleian MSS., Fairfax 16, and Bodley 638, under the 
name of ' Ragman (or Ragmans) Rolie.' The particular specimen 
contained in these MSS. begins thus: 

' My ladyes and my maistresses echone, 
Lylce hit unto your humble wommanbede, 
Resave in gre of my sympill persone 
This rolle, which withouteu any drede 
Kyuge Ragman me bad [me] sowe in brede, 
And cristyned yt the meitiur at your chaunce. 
Drawith a strynge and that shal streighl yow lede 
Unto the veny path of your govemaunce.* 
After two inore stanzas about the uncertainty of Fortune and the 
chances of drawing veil or ill, there follows a disconnected series of 
twenty-two more, each giving a description of the personal appearance 
and character of a woman, in some cases complimentary and in others 
very much the revHse, usually in tbe form of an address to the lady 
hei%lf, e.g. 

' A smal conceyt may ryght enogh suffyae 
Of your beaute discripcion for to make ; 
For at on word ther kan no wyght devyse 
Oon that therof hath lasse, I undertake,' &c 

Apparently these stanzas are io be drawn for and then read out in 
order as they come, for the game ends with tbe last, 

' And sythen ye be so jocuade and so good. 
And ia the roUe last as in wrytynge, 
1 rede that this game ende in your hood.' 

Evidently the same kind of game niight be played by men with a view 
to their mistresses. It is much the same thing as the ' Chaunces of 
the Dyse,' where eadi stanza is connected with a certain throw made 
with three dice: cp. note on iv. 2791. The name 'Ragman Rolle' 
seems to be due to the disconnected character of the composition. 
2407. oldegrisel: cf.Ckaucer, To Scogem, %$ : ' grisel ' means grey 

2415. upon Ike fit, that is, when the time oomes for action. Tbe 
rhyme with' retret' shows that this is not tbe plural of 'fot ': moreover, 
that is elsewhere regularly spelt 'feet' by Gower. 

2428. siltt for 'sic' : cp. Introduction, p, cxiv, 

2435. tortud inlo was : the verb used as a substantive, cp. vi. 923. 

2450 fT. The situation here has some resemblance to that in the 
Prologue of the Legend of Good Women, where the author has a vision 
of the god of Love coming to him in a meadow, as he lies worshipping 
the daisy, accompanied by queen Alcestis, and followed first by the 
1 ladies of the Legend, and then by a vast multitude of other 

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women who had been tnie in love. The differences, however, are 
considerable. Here we have Venus and Cupid, the latter armed with 
a bow and blind {whereas Chaucer gives him two fiery darts and his 
'eyesight), with two companies of lovers, both men and women, mar- 
shalled by Youth and Eld as leaders ; and the colloquy with the poet 
has for its result to dismiss him with wounds healed from Love's 
service, as one who has earned his discha^e, while in the case of 
Chaucer it is a question of imposing penance for transgressions in 
the past and of enlisting him for ihe future as the servant of Lo«e. 
The conception of the god of Love appearing with a company of true 
lovers in attendance may be regarded as the common property of the 
poets of the time, and so also was the controversy between the fiower 
and the leaf (t. 246S), which Chaucer introduces as a thing familiar 
already to his readers. If our author had any particular model before 
him, it may quite as well have been the description in Froissart's 
Parous d' Amours (ed. Scbeler, 1. 39 f.) : 
' Lors regardai en une lande. 

Si vi une compagne grande 

De dames et de damoiselles 

Friches et jolies et belles, 

£t grant foison de damoiseaus 

Jolis et amoureus et beaus. 

"Dame," di jc, "puis je s^avoir 

Qui sont ceuls que puis U. veoir?" 

" Oil," dit ma dame de pris ; 

"Troillus y est et Paris, 

Qui Airent iil au roi Priant, 

£t cesti que tu vois riant, 

C'est Laiscelos tout pour certain," ' &Ct 

and she proceeds to enumerate the rest, including Tristram atid Yseult, 
Percival, Galehaus, Meiiador and Gawain, Helen, Hero, Polyxena, 
atid Medea with Jason, 

I do not doubt that Cower may have seen the Legend of Good 
Women, but it was not much his practice to borrow from contemporary 
poets of his own country, however free he might make with the 
literature of former times or of foreign landst 

2461. who vias loko : cp. vii. 2001. 

2468. Cp. Chaucer, Leg. of G. Women, 72, 188, &c. 

2470. the newe guise of Beawme, that is, the new fashions of dress, 
&c, introduced from Bohemia by the marriage of Richard II in 1383. 

2500 f- lehick was believed With belt Ysolde, ' who was accepted as 
a lover by Belle Isolde.' Apparently ' believed ' is here used in the 
primary sense of the verb, from which we have 'lief.' For the use <rf 
'with' cp. I. 2S53. We may note here that the spelling 'believe' is 
regular in Gower, ' ie ' representing ' f / 

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NOTES. Lib. VIII, 2461-2931 547 

2502. Gaiakot, i. e. Galah&lt, called by Mallory < the haut prince.' 

2504 ff. It may be noted that several of the lovers in the company 
of Youth arc impenitent in their former faithlessness, as Jason, 
Hercules and Theseus, while Medea, Deianira and Ariadne are left 
to complain by themselves. Troilus has recovered Cresaida, if only 
for a time. It is hard to say why Pyramus &iled of Thisbe's company, 
unless indeed she were unable to pardon his lateness (ep. 2582). 

2515ff. Cp. v. ?2i3fr. 

2553. witk Eiue: cp. vii. 3359 and 1. 2501. 

2573 ir. It is likely enough that this idea of Cleopatra's death 
may have been a reminiscence of the Legend of Good Women, 696 ff. 
Chaucer apparently got it from some such account as that quoted by 
Vincent of Beauvais from Hugh of Fleury, ' in mauscdeum odoribus 
refertum iuxia suum se coUocavit Antonium. Deinde admotis sibi 
serpentibus morte sopita est' Fronv this to tha idea of a grave full 
of serpents would not be a ditScult step. 

2582. Wowortht: cp. 1. 1334. 

2668. 1 take'lay' tomcan 'law,' i.e. ibe arrangement of bis company. 

2687. Cp. iv. 2314. 

2705 ff. An allusion to some such story as we have in the ' Lay 
d'Aristote' (Mton et Barbatan, iii, p. 96). 

2713. The punctuation follows F. 

27 14 ff. This refers to the well-known story of Virgil and the daughter 
of the Emperor, who left him suspended in a box from her window. 

2718. Sorlis. It is impossible that this can be for ' Socrates,' with 
whose name Gower waa quite well acquainted. Perhaps it stands for 
the well-lcnown ' Sortes Saoctorum ' (Virgilianae, &c.), personified here 
as a magician, and even figuring, in company with Virgil and the rest, 
as an elderly lover. 

2799. Cp. i. I43flr. 

2823. syhe, snbj., ' should see.' 

2828. deface: apparently intransitive, 'suffer defacement': cp. iv. 

2883. Outwitk, ' outwardly ' : so ' inwith ' often for ' within,' ' in- 
wardly.' Dr. Murray refers me to Orm. i. 165, 'utenn wij>|>,' and 
Haropole, PrieJi of Conscience, 6669, 'outwiih.' The best MSS. 
have a stop after ' Outwith.' 

2904. A Peire of Bedes ; the usual expression for a rosary : ep. 
Cant. Tales, ProL 158 f., 

* Of smal coral abonte hire arm she bar 

A peire of bedes gauded al with grene.' 

2926 f. That is the Speculum Hominis and the Vox Clamantis. 

29SL pemaile. The best MSS. have this, and it is obviously 

suitable to the sense : ' Do not pursue when the game cannot be 

caught.' From ' prendre ' Gowcr uses ' pemons,' ' pemetz,' &c, in the 


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2988. At this pdnt begins a. new hand in F, and for the rest of this 
kaf (f. 184) the text is written over an erasure (IL 5*938-2966). A note 
is written opposite 1. 3938 for the guidance of the scribe, 'now haue 
&c.' It may be noted that 1. 2940 has a. coloured inital A as for the 
beginning of a paragraph, and this apparently belongs to the origioal 
writing, whereas in the first recension MSS. the paragraph begins at 
1. 2941. The next leaf (f. iS;) is a substituted one, and the text is 
written stfll in the same hand. 

The orthography of the new hand, in which II. 2938-3146 are 
written, differs in some respects from the standard spelling which we 
have in the rest of the manuscript. The chief points of diRereoce are 
as follows : 

(l) -I'rf (-^rf) tennination almost always in the past participle, as 
enclosid, tumyd, hewfta^'il, blessid (but stemd), i)> frequently in the 
3rd pers. sing, of verbs, htlongip, ssruife, causip (but ssckefi, rtiitj>), 
and -in {-ya) in 3rd pers. pL, as takyn, stchtn, kitrin, ickttlifyn (also to 
lokyn). (2) -is {-ys) in the genit. sing, and in the plural of substanrives, 
as lottdis, mannys, iedis, lawii, viordis (but^t'iifirj, myghies). (3) -ir 
{•yr) termination, as aftir, ouyr, ttiondir (but siker). (4)y for i (/) in 
many cases, especially as the pronoun of the first person (once /), also 
yt (sometimes), Aym, ivipynne, (5) gk for h in such words as sigh, 
sighU, myghU, knyghihode. (6) ou for o in nought, brought, pough/e, 
&c. (7) consonants doubled in vppem and vowels in maad (also mad), 
bcok, goon. (8) separation oS words, as in to, un to, kym sel/,Per/ore, 
/ler vpon, wker of, "adp oultn. 

It may be observed that something of the same tendency is observ- 
able at this point in the Stafford MS., but the differences appear in 
a much less marked manner, and chiefly in the terminations -id, -ij>^ 
-is, -ir. S does not give y for /, ys for ii, nor mygkte, sigk, nought, 
oughle, vppon, per fore, &c 

2974 (margin), oral pro statu regni. This marks exactly the stage 
reached in the second of the three versions which we have of Gower's 
account of his own works (p. 480,) ' vbi pro statu regni compositor 
deuocius exorat.' The first completely excuses and the third utterly 
condemns the king, but the second makes no mention of him either 

2955 *. his testament of love. There is no reason to suppose that 
this is a reference to any particular work which Gower may have 
known that Chaucer had in hand. It may be a general suggestion 
that Chaucer should before his death compose some further work on 
love, which should serve as his last testimony (or last will and 
testament) on the subject, as the shrift of the present poem was our 
author's leave-taking. To assume that the poem referred to must be 
the Legend of Good Women, and to argue from this that the Confessio 
Amantis was written before the Legend was given to the public, 
would be very rash. It is not likely that Usk's Testament of Lave 
was known to Gower when he wrote this. 

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NOTES. Lib. VIII. 2938-3147 549 

for praise or blame, and that is the lioe taken in this form of the 

8012. mainttnue, that is, ' mainieoance ' of quarrels by the lords on 
behalf of their follower : c^.Mirtmr, 33733 ff., where the same subject 
is dealt with. 

3081. betk : sec lotrod. p. cxiv : but it is the reading of F only. 

3114. eurioHu, 'artful workmanship': cp. Chaucer^ CompUinte 
0/ Venus, 81. 

3147. Here, at the beginning off. 186, the hand in F changes ^ain 
and the rest of the manuscript, including the TraitU, the Latin ftoems 
and the author's account of his books, is written in the hand which 
we have in the first leaf of the Prologue. 

Explicit, 5 f. The fdlowing copies of the first recension contain 
these last two lines, XERBiCath. Of the rest MHiYGODAr.Ash. 
are imperfect at the end, Ni omits the Explicit altogether, and 1 have 
no note as regards this point about AdiPiQ. Of the seven which I 
note as having the ' Explicit ' in four lines only, three are of the revised 
and four of the unrevised group. All copies of the second and third 
recensions have the last two lines, except of course those that are 
impedect here. 

QUAU aNXERB FREiA, &c The ' philosopher ' who was the author 
of this epistle is no doubt responsible also for the lines 'Eneidos, 
Bucolis,' &C. (printed in the Roxb. ed> of the Vox CloMontis, p. 437), 
in which our author is compared to Virgil, the chief difference being 
that whereas Virgil had achieved fame in one language only, Gower had 
distinguished himself in three. The writer in that case also is ' quidam 
philosophus * (not ' quidam Philippus,' as he is called in the printe<l 

2991*. This quality of mercy, for which Richard is especially 
praised, seems to have been precisely the point in which he was 
afterwards most found wanting by our author, so that he finally earns 
the title of ' crudelissimus rex.' Matters had not gone so &r as this 
when the second form of epil<^;ue was substituted, in which these 
praises were simply omitted. Gower was then (in the fourteenth year 
of the reign) in a state of suspended judgement, expressed by the 
'orat pro statu regni* of 3974 (margin). The subsequent events, and 
especially the treatment of the duke of Gloucester and his friends, 
finally decided his opinions and his allegiance, as we may see in the 
Cronica Trifiertiia. 

3054* ff. SeeProl. 83'fr. 

8102'. tio caiUretaiU, ' no retribution ' afterwards : cp. Traitii, vii. 
3, ' De son mesfait porta le contretaille.' 

3104*. That is, it tends rather to set us free from evil consequences 
than to bring them upon us. 

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copy), and I suspect that he was the ' philosophical Strode' who is 
coupled with Gower in the dedication of Troilut. 

3. 'tibi 'belongs to the next line, 'slue satiras Peeta' being taken 

Quia vnusquisqxte, &c. The fbim here given is found in do 
manuscript of the C<w5/(rjrtffj4OT<jn/« except F and Hs (copied from F), 
though some other third recension copies, as W and K, may probably 
have contained it. We have it, however, also in two manuscripts t>f 
the Vox Ciamantit, the All Souls copy and that in the Hunterian 
Libtary at Glasgow. 

It should be noted that whereas the first recension manuscripts 
regularly contain the Latin account of the author's three books in 
immediate conneKion with the Con/etiio Amaniit, in the second recen- 
sion it is made to follow the TraitU, and SA, which do not contain the 
TraitU, omit this also, while in F it comes later still, fallowing the 
Latin Carmen de multipiici via'orum pestileneia, Thustheform which 
we have in Y must be regarded as later than the accompanying text of the 
Confessio Amanfis, from which it is separated in the MS. both by 
position and handwriting, and the words 'ab alto coirucns in foueam 
quam fecit finaliter proiectus est ' seem to indicate that it was written 
after the deposition of Richard 1 1. 

llf. 'Speculum hominis' in all copies of the first recension. 'Spe- 
culum meditanlis ' over an erasure in the Glasgow MS. of the V<rx 

25 ff. Note the omission here (of nine words which are necessary to 
the sense) in every first recension copy except J. Similarly below all 
except J have ' finem ' for ' sentencie,' obviously from a mistaken reading 
of a contraction (' fie '). These must be original errors, only removed 
by later revision, the first no doubt due to dropping a line. 


The text of this poem is taken from the manuscript at Trentham 
Hall belonging to the Duke of Sutherland, which contains also the 
Cinkante Baladts. Of this book a full description has been given in 
the Introduction to Gower's French Works, pp. Ixxix fif. The present 
poem is the first piece in the hook (IT. 5-10 v°), and is written in the 
same hand as the Baladts and TraiM, a hand which resembles that 
which appears in ff. 1S4, 185 of the Fairfax MS., though 1 should 
he^tate to say positively that it is the same. Evidently, however, the 
manuscript is contemporary with the author, and it gives us an excellent 
text of the poem. The date (tf its composition is doubtless the tirst 
year of king Henry IV, for the manuscript which contains it ends with 
some Latin lines (added in a different hand), in which the author 

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NOTES 551 

speaks of himself aa having become blind in the first year of king 
Henry IV and having entirely ceased to write in consequence of this. 

As a composition it is not without some merit. The style is 
dignified, and the author handles his verse in a craflsmanlike manner, 
combining a straightforward simplicity of language with a smooth flow 
of metre and a well-balanced stanza, the verse being preserved from 
monotony by variety of pause and caesura. Some stanzas are really 
impressive, as those which begin with 11. 99, 137, 148. The divisions 
of the poem, indicated in the MS. by larger coloured initials, have 
hitherto escaped the notice of editors. 

The poem was printed first in the collected edition of Ckaucer't 
JVoris, 1533, commonly called Thynne's edition (If. 375 vo-378), and 
reprinted from this in the succeeding folio editions of Chaucer (e.g. 
1561, f. 330 v", 1598, f. 330 v", 1603, £ 314). There was no attempt 
made in any of these to ascribe its authorship to Chaucer, Gower's 
name being always given as the author. It has been published also 
by J. Wright in his Politick Poems and Songs (Rolls' Series), the text 
being taken from the Trentham MS., and it has been included by 
Prof. Skeat in his interesting collection of poems which have been 
printed with Chaucer's works (Chaucerian and olher Pisces, pp. 205- 

Thynne followed a manuscript which gave a fair tact, but one much 
inferior to that of the Trentham copy, both in material correctness and 
in spelling, e. g. 

'Kyng Salomon whiche had at his askyng 
Of god I what thyng him was leuesl craue 
He chase wysedom vnto gouemyng 
Of goddes folke | the whiche he wolde sane 
And as he chase it fy) him for to haue 
For through his wytte while y' his reigne last 
He gate him peace and rest in to his last' 

All the material variations of Thynne are given in the critical notes, 
but not his differences of spelling. Wright's text is not to be trusted 
as a reproduction of the Trentham MS. He made several serious 
mistakes in ca[^ng from or collating it, and he has a good many 
trifiing inaccuracies of spelling. The fdlowing are his worst errors : 

1, 3 om. this 16 the/ur thi 71 To stere peace (following 

Thyntu) 108 om. doth tofalle for to falle 136 than for that 

173 But aftirwards aoiowi.worlhi ailany/ora 346[gOOd] 
seeming to imply that it is not in tht MS. 363 Which heliples 

378 reserved for deserved 289 man for king 29a [up] 306 
b^ete/or be gete 356 Resteined /or Resceived 363 deleated 
for debated 382 sese for see. In addition to these rather gross 
blunders, he has about a hundred smaller deviations from the manu- 
script which he professes to follow, as, for example, 7 for to /or 
forlo (and so afterwards) 16 him self ^himself [and so a/termards) 

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19 But 37 reqwest /or reqweste 39 might /v myht 56 sbal 
for schal 83 \fixt for left 84 mA for no^t 90 charitie,^ 
cbarite 98 Both /or Bothc 102 gone /or goon nygth^r 

nyght no dothe lis ] lao Grists 155 fulfilled 173 

wille i94destniied 319 made 354 Ffirst cbirche hersilf 
360 sick 380 life 287 made an end 319 found 355 Which 
383 meschiefe and a good many more. He also omits in a veiy 
misleading manner the last lines of the rubric which follows the poem, 
'Etnuncsequiturepistola'&c, as well as the ' epistle ' itself, ' Rex cell 
deus'; and be makes it appear that the lines 'Henrid quaiti' &c. 
follow at once, whereas they are at the end of the MS. and in 
a different band. 

I think it worib while to specify these instances because Wrighfa 
edition has been accepted by Prof. Skeat as an accurate reproductioti 
of a manuscript which is not generally accessible, and if no notice 
were taken bere of the readings given by Wright, it would still remain 
in doubt whether he or I represented the text more correctly. Espe- 
cially in the cases where Wright has bracketed a word as not occurring 
in the manuscript, it might be supposed that his positive testimony 
was to be preferred. 

Prof. Skeat has based his text on Thynne, making such alterations 
of spelling as seemed to him suitable, and giving the variants of 
Wrighfs edition as those of the Trentham MS. Misled by Wri^t, 
he bas accepted in his text the readings ' reserved ' in 1. 378, and ' cese ' 
in 1. 383. 

The text given by the Trentham MS. is apparently quite free from 
material error, except as regards the word erased in L 71, and the 
points of spelling which require correction are very few in number. 
The orthography is not quite in accordance with the standard spelling 
of the Faufax and Stafford MSS., and in some respects resembles that 
of the third hand of F, on which we have commented in the note on 
Confessio Amanfis, viii. 3938. Here however there is only a slight 
tendency to use i for t in weak terminations. We have distourind 
I J3, vndefentUd: ainendid 333 f., Aandlid 321, seegrin m,foliijip 33, 
goditisii,i4,itiannys2yj, but elsewhere almost always the usual fbrins, 
as affermed, cared, gouemed, aken, ledep, londes, mcmttts. On the 
other hand the -ir termination is used almost regularly, as vndir, 
wondir, aflir, modtr (but vnder 286), and there is a tendency also to 
substitute i for e in other places also, as first, chirche (also ferst, 
ckercke), wircJu, dide (348), proprite, but here for hire 108, 339, cp. 354. 
For / (pers. pronoun) we have regularly y ; gh usually for k in such 
words as right, myghti, knyght, light, high*, ttigk, but also rikt, 
rihtwisnesse, knyht; vppon for vpon, schulde but also sckolde. In 
addition to these points we may note the dropping of -« several times 
in titer, neuer, which hardly ever occurs in the Fairfax MS., and also 
in heuen 79, but we have also euere, neuere, heMttte, The -o of the 
weak preterite form is dropped before a vowel in myhf 39, bekigki 41, 


NOTES 553 

had ^i, mad 103, 345 : -t is inserted in some imperatives, as Leie 122, 
sette 134, ^i* 1 39, putte 130, >mifce 163, Beholde 276 (but /<r/ I $6, Ktp 
367, 384, draugk 384), As regards the use of/ and J the Trentham 
MS. agrees with F. 

There is no title in the manuscript, and Prof. Skeat calls the )X»em 
' The Praise of Peace,' a title suggested by Mr. E. W. B. Nichrfson. 
I have adopted a modification of this, ' To King Henry the Fourth 
in Praise of Peace,' expressing also the substance of that given by 

8ff. The threefold claim of Henry IV is given in this stanta, as in 
Chaucer's well-known Envoy, but the ' conquest ' is here represented 

50. a place, ' into place': cp. Conf. Antantis, v. 735, ' Hou suche 
goddes come aplace.' 

58. iwwujwr*,' in due measure': cp.C.wr/.i4»»aa/w,vii. 2132,4344. 

55. v/Jia/ aftirward betide, * whatever may happen afterwards.' 

71. The fi^t word of the line i» erased in the maausaipt, only the 
initial S being left, with a space iot five or six letters after it. The 
word which is suggested in the text is perhaps as likely as any other; 
for the form of it cp. ' Malntene,' 1. 385. Thynne's reading, ' To stere 
peace,' looks like a lame attempt on the part of a copyist to fill the gap. 

78 ff. Conf. Amanfit, iii. 2265 ff. 

89. I write regularly * cverc ' ' nevere ' in accordance with Gower's 
practice: so 126, 127, 148, 241, 301, 350, 365. 

90. atU charite. The MS. has ' al charite,' but the metre and the 
grammatical usage both require ' alle,' as- in 1. 293 and elsewhere. 

94. wisemtnnes : cp. ' wisemen,' Conf, Amantis, vii. 1792. 
106 ff. Cp. Conf. Aman/ii, iii. 2273 fil 
118. Conf Aman/is, iii. 2294 t 
115. Cp. Conf. Amantis, ProL 444. 

121. ' Whose faith thou faatt partly to guide.' 

122. I correct the imperative form 'Leie,' and also 'sette' 124, 
' Lete ' 129, ' putte' 130, 'thenke' 162, 'Beholde' 376, as contrary to 
Gower's practice and in several cases disturbing the metre. 

l&O. Strictly speaking, we ought to have the subjunctive, 'undirstode,' 
but the rhyme will not allow. 
155. So ProL 88 f., 

' The byhe god him hath proclamed 
Ful of knyhthode and alle grace.' 

157 f. ' Peace with honour ' was a fovourite thought of Gower's, 
' pax et honor' in the Vox Clamantis, vii. 1415. 
174. ' on earth peace, goodwill towards men.* 
177 ff, ' Peace I leave with you, my peace 1 give unto you.' 
204. wailed, ' attended to.' 
236. devised, ' divided ' : cp. Conf. Amcmti$, ii, 3264, 

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28617. 'nevertheless the law stands so reasonably established by 
man's wit, that they can stand firm without that ' (i.e. without the help 
of the Church). 

266. Cp. Prol. 795, ' The comun rybt hath no fetawe,' that is, none 
to lake its part, 

278 f. deserved To him. The reading is right. It means ' earned by 
service rendered to him ' : cp. Con/. Amantis, iv. 3S77, ' Thogh I no 
deth to the deserve.' 

281 ff. For the nine worthies see Caxton's Preface to MaUory's 
Mortt d" Arthur, 

295 f. The question of winning a ' chase ' at tennis is not one which 
is decided at once by the stroke that is made, but depends on later 

830 f. Cp. Coaf. Amantis, vii. 3161'. 

887 ff. Conf. Amantis, ii. 3187 ff. 

345. ata2, 'altogether.' 

354, the lieve o/lothe, ' they who were now loved but had before been 
hated ' (by God). 

856. I read ' weren ' for the metre. However the case may be with 
Chaucer, there is no instance elsewhere in Gower of elision prevented by 
caesura. The cases that have been quoted are all founded on misreadings. 

365 f. Cp. Con/. Amant.s, viii. 2988*, 

379, o/pes, ' with regard to peace." 

382. itethewerre, that is, 'look to the war': cp.ll. 137, 144, 381 ff. 
The reading ' sese' was invented by Wright. 

Rex CELi DEUS, &c. This piece is to a great extent an adaptation 
of the original version of Vox Clamantis, vi. cap. 18, as it stands in the 
Digby MS. The first eight lines are identically the same. Then 
follows in the Vox Clamantis, 

' Ipse meum iuuenem consenict supplico Regem,* &c. 
Of the remainder, as we have it here, II. 25 f., 31-33, 36-39, 4i f-i 4S-48 
correspond with slight variations to lines in Che Vox Clamantis version, 
but the arrangement of them is difTerent. 

10. Te gut tuum regnum, ' Thee and thy kingdom,* a quite common 
position of ' que ' in Goner's Latin. So below, 11. 49, 50, 53, and often 

35. So also Con/. Amantis, vii, a/^er 1. 1984. 

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1 HE general resembUiicc behvecD Goner and Chaucer in the natter of language makes 
a comparison of their English vocabularies almost ■ matter of course. Chaucer's word-list is 
naturally much more extensive than Gower's, not ooly on account of the superior genius of 
the writer, but also because of the greater extent and variety of his work, Gower's English 
work being less than half of Chaucer's in amouot, and consisting of verse only, while nearly 
a fourlh part of Chaucer's is prose. We find, however, that Gower has more Ihan sis 
hundred words which are not used by Chaucer. Most of these are comparatively new 
fonnations from French or Latin, but there is also among Ibem a fair sprinkling of old-estab- 
lished English words, some of which no doubt were (ailing into disuse. Such words are, for 
example : adryh, agble, anele, arecchc, nreche, arcre v., bejete, bysne, eldemoder, enderday, 
ferke, fotjifte, forlie, torworl>e, frede, jeme, gladschipe, goodscbipe, grede (gradde), gri]i, 
heveneriche, kingesriche, lere ( — loss), lich (" corpse), metrede, miele, mone (3'>, mull, orf, 
orped, rowe v. (= dawn), sawhl, skiere, spire v., qwusebreche, Jiannes, tome s., tote, tyh 
iprt/,), tyt adv., wow, yhtc, 

or the rest the following (among others) are words for which no aulhori^ earlier than 
Gower is cited in the Ntu EngUsh Didioiiaiy (A — I) : those for which Gower is the sole 
authority are printed in italics. 

abeche, a&lasir, abord, abroche aAi., accidence, agrnf*, akemelrie^ apostauiJ, apparantie, 
approbacion, artificier, aspirement, asaignement, asaobrt, assote v., astraied, attempte v., 
altitUd, a\'anl adv., avantantf, babe, batdemoine, batke v., baske, bass adj. (' base '), bedawc, 
Iwderke, befole ('befool'), belwinge, btlkrtm*, btwytnpUd, hienvenue, bombard, brothell, 
brygatilailli, calculacion, aJifht, carte (= writing), chacable, chace (at tennis), chance c, 
chevance, circumference, client, coist, cokard, cokerie ('cookery'), compense, conclave, con- 
cordable, congeJacion, congruite, contempt, contourbe, courbe a. and adj., decas, deiBcacion, 
delaiement, delate (— dilate), depoai., dtsdotadj., desclosec, desobeie, dcsobeissance, diapers, 
distillacion,(AMiiAji^drunkeBchipe, lAfu/n, cOeminat o^',, eloquent, enbrouderie ('embroidery'), 
eoclin, eacluyed, encourtined, enfile, enheritance, tnsampttrit, entendable, entendance, 
entendant, epilaphe, esmaie, espeir, espleit ('exploit'), exalacton, eicessif, excilacioun, 
rxaaimtttl, expectant, faie adj., fieverous, fixadoun, tlacke, folhaste, folhastiC, forcacche, 
forge s,, fonlornt»d, forsueie, forthrere (— furtherer), froise, gaigoage, gamme, genitals, 
godward, gule, hepe (~ hook), heraldic, hovedance, injustice, interruption, intentidon, 

Of these nearly half are used in the Engtiah of the present day. 

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For the renujnder of the alphabet I content myself with calliDg attention to the foUowine. 
without venturing on any statement about Iheir earlier use : 

juatificacion, liberal, liberalite, lien (•• bond), iagge, mathemktique, matrooe, mechaniqDe. 
mecherie, menable, oiinenJ, moevenient, multitude, obfiviou, obstinacie, occnpacton, 
original, passible, perfurie, philliberd (—filbert), piereles, pilage, pldntif m^r., potntnre, 
porle (— portliole), preparacJon, presage, presene, proclame, propheiesse, providence, 
purelie, raile a, recepcion, recreacion, relacion, renounce, repCil, resemblance, resUaratir, 
revelen, riff (~ reef of a sail), sale, salvage, schamebud, acisme, sculpture, seintefle, 
solucion, specifie, sprantlen,- spume, stacioii, studious, substitucion, supplante, supporte, 
tcnipnire. teneCz (^ tennis), terremote. tonsure, tmnspose, tronpette. 

In matters of vocabulary my obligations are first and principally to the Aiiw Eiigliik 
Didioitaty, then to PraC Skeat's Chaucer Glossary, to Stratmann's MuUli Engl, Ditliimaiy 
(ed. Bradleyl, and to UtAMviKiYs Dictionary of Ardmisma. With reference especially to Gower 
T may menlion the dissertation by G. Tiete (Breslau, 1SB9). 

The following Glossary is meant to include all the words used in Gower's English Works, 
with their various forms of spelling and (where necessary) of inHciion, accompaoicd vridi 
such references as are required for vertfication of the forms given and for illustration of the 
different uses and meanings of the words. As a rule, when a word occurs more than once, 
at least two references are given, but this statement does not apply to inOeiional forms. If a 
word presents any difficulty or is used iu a variety of meanings, the number of references is 
proportionally increased. A complete set of references is given for proper names. 

The Cot^t&sio Amanlis is referred to by P., i, it, iii, &c., P. standing for the Prolcf^c. and 
the Roman numerals for the successive boots. PP, stands for the poem tn Prais* of Peart. 
Word-forms which are not found in the Fairfax H5., or only in the latter part of it, which is 
written by a difiercnt hand, are sometimes enclosed in parentheses. These are also used 
occasionally to indicate variation of spelling : thus diBsanoioiui (-on) means that the word 
is spelt either with '-oun ' or '-on ' termination, irlur(e) indicates that ' wher' and 'where' are 
alternative forms. In all cases where ' y ' is used to represent ' },' that &ct is indicated by ' (j)' 
placed after the word when it occurs in its place, asbarete(;) 

The gTammatical abbreviations are, a. substantive, a. adjective, v. verb, s. a, verb active, 
V, n. verb neuter, v. n. h. verb active and neuter, 3 s, pns, 3rd person singular present tense, 
pnL past tense, pp. past participle, d*/. definite form of adjective, &c. 

In many cases an explanation is given of the meaning of words for the convenience of readers, 
:o their meaning or origin is admitted in the Glossaiy. 

Abbfttegnyh, vij. 1458. 

abbeMa, s. viii. 1S49, 

abbot, s. iL 3056. 

ab«08, vii. 158, a, b, c 

abeobe, v. a. vi. 709, feed. 

abedde, ativ. P. 60a, i. 1781, 2599^ 

abegge, v. a. iii. i8a8, v. 7522, pay for: 

abele, lee abTS. 

Abal, viii. 61,72. 

abewe, v.a.\. 3063, abase. 

abbomluabla, a. iL 3107, vii. 3337. 

atdda, abyde,n), v, n. i. 859, 1535, iS99, 
3909, 3201, iL 1501, PP. 385, wait, re- 
main ; V. a. iL 2594, 2636, iiL 1616, viiL 
900, wait for, endure : 3 t. prts. abtt, 
abitt, itL 201, 1658, />r</. abod, L 151, 

a, interj. iv. 3622, j« ba. 

a, an, indef. art. P. 18, 350, (^one) ii. 

1169, 1261. 
a(=Fr.k),tnadieu,alin, j^^adisu, af^n. 
a, in a day, a doun, a ferr, a game, 

a goddeshalf, a morwe, a nyht, a place, 

a swoune, see dai, doun, ferr, &c. 
Aaron, P. 437, ii. 3047. 
abaiastit, abayaaht,^. iv. 1331^ vi. 2329. 
abak, adv. iiL 481, vii. 4363, back. 
abandons, abandoune, v. a. P. 766, iL 

1596, 2772, V. 5378, viiL 1834, let go, 

give up, devote, 
abate, v. a. ii. 3171, vi. 2354, viL 1639; 

V, It. tabate, ii. 809. 

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impertU. atajd, iv, 1777, pp. abide, vii. 

&bU, ice ftbre. 

&blaata, v. a. pret. v. 37 iz, blew t^Hm. 

able, a. ii. 98, 3258, iv. 367, 3561. 

Abner, ii- 3087. 

tibatd,adv. ii. 113S, alongside (of a ship). 

ftbouto, adv. P. 367, I. 403, ii. 1337, 
Kbouton, i. 3529, aboutsB, vii. 2380, 
viii. 3460, round, round about ; oome 
aboute, brinBe a., i. 3629, ii. 1531, 
2283, iv. 61, 259 : prtp. iv. 1356. 

above, adv. P. 891, i. 467, 1610, i66cs 
3491, iv. i595,a]oft, at advantage, before 
this; bleraboTe, i. 1377; fromabore, 
i. 3278 : prep. i. 810, aboren, P. 971, i. 
2833: as suM. iv. 914, V. 3543, 7393, 
vi. 231, advantage. 

abregge, v. a. vii. 1990, cut short. 

abreid, s. iv. 5S8, start. 

abrelde, v. a. vii. s883, upbraid. 

at>reide, v. n. pret. i. 155, 2851, ii. 3241, 

abroohe, adv. v. 1677, abroach. 

abrod, 171^. iv. 3103, v. 6891, abroad. 

abeecoe, s. ii. 1321, 1647. 

abeent, a. iv. 1797, vii. 5181. 

AbaoloD, ii. 3093, viii. 317. 

abaoluoitnm (-aa), s. ii. 1317, iii. 596, 
viii. 3892. 

abattn^ioe, s. P. 337, vi. 634. 

abfe, able, v. a. ii. 3032, iii. 221, v. 5541, 
aboIe.iii. 306, %s.prts. abyth, v. 5516, 
abelth, vi. 1378, ^r^/. aboghte.ii. 3153, 
viii. in, pp. ab<^ht, i. 381, 2614; pay 
for : cp. abe^re. 

aoale, adv. viii. 638, 847, acold. 

aooept, a. V. 6394, acceptable. 

aooeiitable, a. vii, 4737, viii. 3035*. 

aooldenoe, j 

i. 3210 

'. 763, see Mates. 

aoeldle, s. iv. 539, sloih. 

aooioun, s. ii. 388. 

aooompte, aooord, see aoompte, aaatd. 

aoouae, v. a. P. 487, iii. 3377. 

aoouaement, s. ii. 1703. 

Aohab, vii. 2539ff.,^fffi'/. Aehabb^, vii. 

Aohaie, v. 1907. 
Aohaatua, iiL 2555. 
oobaten, vii. 1362, agate. 
Acheloni, iv. 3068. 
Aaheron, v. 11 10. 
Aohiav, vii 45i5fr. 
aobleve, v. a. P. 93, i. 103, 700, 1257, ii. 

1311, V. 1376, finish, attain to; to ben 

aohieTsd (■'to succeed), ii. 3360, cp. ii. 

3091 : V. n. ii. 373, V. 2043, succeed. 
Aobllles, ii. 2454, iii. 3642 AT., iv. 1694, 

1800, 19708*., 3i6i, V. 3963 If, 7591, 

viii. 3545, 3569, ace. AobUlem, vii. 3583. 
Aohilo, iii. 3566. 
Aoliitofbll, ii. 3090. 
Aols, ii. 131 fT. 
aoold, adv. iv. 347, vi. 1007. 
aoompte, t. ii. 1715, iv. 291, 1653, ae- 

oompto, iv. 1063, 3343, 
aoompte, v. a. iii. 1104, 3381, v. 3014 ; 

V. n. vii. 3336, tooompta, i. 650. 
aoord, s. P. 1034, i 849, 17S9, aooord, 

P. 85, iv. 3069 ; in aoord, i. 1 1 1 J 1 of 

tMa acoid, &c., i. 649, ii. 2536; tn on 

aoord, i. 2350. 
aoordable, a. v. 3930, in accord, 
aoordant, a. i. 455, 2436, iv. 1344 ; adv. 


1. 3371. 

aoordo, V. n. P. 358, 878, i- 388, ii. 105 ; 

thel ben aoorded, ii. 630, thua aoord- 

ed {pp. aisol.), i. 836; rtjl. i. 3386, vii. 

3241: 2s.prei.*ooTdM9t,uL30SB,pr(s. 

part. »oorHaD.d», ii. 1612, iii. 603: agree, 
aoordement, .r. vii. 168. 
aequlte, see aquite. 
aoroobe, v. a. iii. 1047, v. 5624, take 

hold of, gain, 
aote, s. P. 405. 
Aeteon, i. 336 ff. 
Aoteoi, viL 8^;. 
adales, adv. iii. 82S, at this time; now 

adalea, nou ade^ea, &c., P. 171, iv. 

1338, efi. 'on daies nou,' iv. 1731 : see 

also aAais- 
Adam, i. 3304, iv. 2224, v. 1707 ff., 6964, 

vi. 5, viii. 26 ff. 
adamant, s. vii. 833, 1397. 
aday, adv. v. 2463, now (nou) aday, i. 

655, iv. 2616, viii. 151, cp, a day, vii, 

438, now a day, ii. 444 ; cp. adalM. 
addre, see addre. 

adieu, viii. 3940, a dleu, ii. 2739, v. 3662. 
adoted,^. vi. 79, infatuated, 
adoun, adv. i. 3280, a douo, iv. 3710, v. 

adrad, a. 1. 157, 3748, h. 479, 3489. 
adreaoe, v. a. i. 1733, 3735, v. 1480, {refi.) 

V. 5021, adrene, iii. 3336, arrange, 

Adriagne, Adrlane, v. 5332 ff., viii. 

Adrian (1), P. 745. 
Adrian (3), v. 4938 S.,ggnit, Adilanes, 

V. 5155. 

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oAryh, adv. iv. 1330, aside, 
advwie, a. iv. ^403. 
adTorae, v. a. '». 1793, oppose, 
adversite.j. v. 2232, vii. 3340* 
advooat, s, viL 2067. 

vi, 1301, divination by 

afoite, see afftdte. 

afer, adv. v. 318, see forr. 

afored, a. i. 3124, iv. 600, a feerd, v. 

HfiUto, V. a. ii. 464, 285 1, iv. 3337, afclta, 

iv. 1157, V. 68;3, pp. afloltod, i, 1359, 

1671, a&ltad, V. 2000: prepare, train. 
affeooloUD (-on), s. i. 3858, vi. 1350, 

tliaffbooloun, P. 366, indination. 
aflbrme, v. a. P. 189, ii. 3938, iv. 3421, 

V. 783, confirm, estaUisb; v, n. v, 857, 

3S96, declare, affirm. 
afflolie, v.a. v. 2520. 
affile, V. a. i. 678, iii. 516. iv. 333". 

sharpen, prepare. 
afflyhte, afflUit«, aflibte, v. h. pre/. 

i. 2i8s, ii. 766, iv. 1438, 1536, was 

disturbed (with ^ricf, joy or fear), was 

afflicted; v. a. lii. 1422, pp. affllht, 

aflyht, ii. 1518, v. 5438. 
affirale, v. a., pp. affraled, iii. 57, iv. 

3400, viii. 3859, startle, fiighten. 
afitay, i. iv. 3068, fright. 
afire, adv. see aQrre. 
afore, prep. iii. 3547, v. 832 ; adv. 1. 973, 

afom, VI. 927. 
afote, adv. iv. 2095. 
after, prep. P. 11, 54. 637, I. 809, iv. 

1337, V, 1605, (aftir, viii. 2979 ff,), after, 

according to; at after mete, &c., vi. 

1181, 1831 : after that, after, (= ac- 
cording as) P. 544, 708, ii. 1586, iii. 

1074: adv. P. 634, i. 999, [aftJr, viii. 

3073), ther after, v. 7030. 
aftaroast, t. iv.904, late throw (of thedice). 
afterward, adv. P. 74, i. 757, iv. 865, 

{aftirward, PP. 55). 
atrii, adv. V. 3349, a fln, iv. 60, finally, 
n^re, ii. 149, 3392, v. 1485, afire, i. 1663. 
Agag, vii. 3833 ff. 
Agamenon, ii. 3453, iii. 1893 &., 3186, 

¥.3101,6435 ST., viii. 3546. 
agaate, v. a.iref. vii. n\^,pp. agaat, iii. 

420, iv. 2760, terrified, 
agaya, again, adv. v. 379°> 44i3i ^^ck ; 

cp. aTsln. 
age, s. i. 488, 779, 3229, iii. 1337, iv. 604, 

v.9oi,of age, iii. I943> v. 1359. 
aglita, s. viii. 747, posscsskia. 

ago, adv. iv. 943, cp. agon, ago, pp. 
agon, pp. P. 87s, 11. 1218, 2696, ago, P. 

31, iv. 3918, 3960, gone, past, 
agregge, v. n. v. 7624, grow heavy. 
agrUe, v. a. iii. 2160,^. agrlae, P. 596, 

V. 5908, terrify. 
agropOj V. a. andM.ii. 1356, 3814, V.385S, 

examine, discover, 
agulte, V. n. vii. 3932, do wrong. 

aiBBhe, t. viii. 31DI, ashes. 

ake, V. n. PP. 360, ache. 

akiela, v. n. iv. 2671, grow cool. 

al, all, aUe, a., sing, al the, al this, al 
hit, &c,P. 9S, 104, 13J, &c., aUhia, i. 
2291, all the, viii. 784, the Cite all, ii. 
3473 ; alle graoe, alle thing, alls nn- 
trowthe, alle hoate, alle wise, &c, P. 
89.433. i. 301. 747,925 f-,ii- 6*4, 1359. 
but al honour, i. 879, al untrowthe, 
ii. 1684, al Ertha, i. 3835, al Envie, ii. 
168 ; pi. all my, al the, aU tbeae, &c., 
iiL 123, iv. 2377,3165, V. 2685, 8[a,ftlle. 
P. 146, i. 992, 1481, 1930, 3677, alle 
otbre, P. 734. i. 666, al othr^ iv. 1 532 : 
as suisi. al, i. 2247, ii, 704, 1037, p/. 
alle, P. 836, i. 1443, upon alle, P, 125, 
ii. I [7, on all occasions, for al that, iv. 
1348, 2278, ep. vii. 3677, atal,PP. 345, 

oi^. al, P. 13,1.640, 856,1068, I145, ii. 
966, &c, all, ii. 608, V. 19^5, wi/A a. 
al Iraie, iv. 1344, al one, i. 351, 666, 
1526, ii. 2410, &C., (tp. alone), al him 
one, i. 3144, al only, ii. 133, iv. 3083, 
all thogb, iv. 369, al be It ao, iv. 3393, 
2920, al were there, iii. 2557, al nere 
it, V. 997. 

Ala Corrl, vii. 1371. 

Alaeael, vii. 1380. 

alarge, adv. iii. 2139. 

Albe, ii. 1655. 

Albert, P. 780. 

Alblnua, i. 2460. 

Albiimaaar, viL 123^. 

Aloeone, Alceoun, iv. 29297., 3131 ff., 
AloionOj viii. 3649. 

Aloerte, vii. i^ ff,, viii. 364a 

aloonomle, s. iv. 3459, 2578, alchemy. 

aldai, alday, adv. P. ij, 310, L 3753, iii. 
1178, aldai,ii. 1899. 

Aldeboran, vii. 1310, 

ale, s. iii. 433, 1626. 

alegge, jv« aUegfce, 

.coy Google 


.Uamalne, . 

P. 804, MtaoMiga*, 

AlenuuM, //. P. 810, thalemani, P. 831. 

Alaxondrine, a, vii. 563, of Alexaodiia. 

Alfraganua, vii. 1461. 

■UUUl, a^v. ii. joi. 

(UgAta, adv. P. 646, 894, L 1396, ii. 3637, 

algatoa, L 300, iii. 690, in any case, 

Algol, viL 1339. 
algorlame, t. vii. 155, 158. 
Alhiiot, vii. 1338. 
aUiell, inter}, iii. 1261. 
Rllche, olyohe, adv. P. 933, i. 1398, ii. 

3353, iii 68, iv. 2392, 3330, alloh, iv, 

2253, alike, vi. 3B3. 
Klihte, V. n., see alyhte. 
AliMndre, Aliwimdn, P. 693, ii. 1S41, 

2415, iii. 1227, 3366. 2440, V. 1454, 


3168*, 4234 tr., 5384, PP. 36, 44, 381. 
Allsandre. vii. 1355, Alezaadria. 
aUte, aUtol, see Ute, Utal. 
■llale, 11. a. vi. 310, vii. 5406, alleviate. 
aUaa, interj. v. 3910 : cp. helaa. 
Alle«, ii. 733, 1338 ff. 
AUe^e, alegge.v. a. v. 7336,j^n>/.allelde, 

i. I4S3, iii. 2155, iv. 1930, vii, 3073; v.n. 

V. 6980 ; allege, 
allewer, adv., see alway. 
allianoe, s. ii. 1184. vii, 3549, viii. 139. 
alllMl, a. viii. la. 
allovre, alowe, v. a. P. 154, i. 1383, 1590, 

ii. 539, iii, 1553, iv. 3383, V. 564, approve, 

allybte, v. a. v. 4530, lighten. 

AlmagMta, vii. 739, 983, 1460. 

AlmareUi, vii. 1387. 

AlmMne, ii. 2466. 

BlmeMs, s. P. 226, 743, i. 2935, ii. 1471, iii. 

3333, alms, good deed. 
AlmeuB, iii. 2564. 
almoat, adv. vi. 414. 
almjrhto, almihte, a. ii. 906, viii. 1384, 

(almj^to, PP. 362). 
almyhti, almyti^, a. P. 585, v. 1737, 

alofte, m/v. P. ^i, 1. 885, 3563, iii. 153, 

vii. 169, on high, aloiid. 
alonde, adv. ii. 2213, v. 3747. 
alone, a. or adv. i. S59, 1523, (allone, 

PP. 8} ; al one, see al. 
along, adv. iv. 381 7, along on me, on 

miaelf along, on ml will along, &c,iv. 

634, 953, 3818, v. 3337, 5881 f., long 

Ml, v. 3339. 

along*, V. H. V. 3283, pp. alomged, vi. 

1840, desire. 
alowd, aloud, adv. ii. 843, 1513, v. 

Alpetragoa, vii. 1463. 
Alpbeta, vii. 1401. 
Alphonae, i. 3393. 
nlqulb, a. viii. 3575, alive, 
ala, adv. P. J65, 1064, ala flute (at once), 

i. 414, ii. i367,alBBo&at«,&c, i. 1041, 

ii. 133, v. 3388: cp.tkimo,»M. 
alao, adv. P. 4, &c, ek also, i. 3305, &c., 

alio wel, i. 1^16 : cp. ala. 
altemetrle, s. vii. 1468. 
altar, s. v. 4034, aulter, v. 4079, (tbalter, 

vii. 4707). 
alther best, altherbeat, adv. i. 1931, iv. 

571, alther warot, i. 326. 
althermeat, adv. i. 3103, v. 2897. 
althartrewast, a. ii, 499. 
althenronit, adv. vi. 238. 
altdiogh, coMJ. P. 157, &c., aU tbogh, 

iv. 269. 
alto, adv. i, 241;, 
altobrttke, v. a., pp. aUobroke, viii. 624, 

PP. 331, break asunder, 
altogedre, adv. vii. 3963, cp. togedre. 
alw^, alwej, alwel, adv. P. 833, i. 

1840, iii, 1459, allawey, iv.2587. 

iv. 3002, pret. i. 3227, iii 2659, pp. 

olyht, v. 1782, come down, alight 
alyhta (2), v. a., fret, alyhte, v. 1670, 

pp. alyht, vii. 4708, light, givelight to ; 

V. n. vii. 3769, be lighted up. 
alyve, a. or adv. i. 3164, ii. 645, iv. 2169. 
am, art, &c., see be. 
Amadaa, vi. 879. 
Am»dri«dea,^/. v. 6336. 
amaiad, pp. i. 3030, a-maying. 
Amalatdi, (i) vii, 3711. 
Amaleoh, (3) vii. 4408, {for Balach). 
amaaed,^, iv.579,697, v.5396, (amaald, 

viii. 39S7). 
Amasoine, 1 v. 3166. 
amblaunt, {fres.p.) a.\i. 1506, amblande, 

iv. 1309, ambling. 
amende, s. v. 7367, pi. amandaa, v. 688, 

vii. 158s. 
amande, v. a. P. 183, 254, imperal. a- 

mende thee, i. 3934, god thiunande, 

i. 568, pp. amended, i. 1003, viii. 3608, 

(amandld, viii. 3010); v. n. i. 3431, 

3350, viiL 1666. 
amendement, s. P. 83, iii 3514, iv. 1768. 
viL 1917, viu. 3641. 

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amlddw, prep, or adv., the wode »- 

middes, &c., i. 112, 3819, amiddM In, 

iii. 2074, iv. 1349, unlddes of, iv. 2871, 

amldde, iv. 1673, 3498, viii. 1038, 

amldd, prep. i. 361. 
fimirall, s. ii. 1090. 
amis, ainys, adv. P. 48, L 1970. iii. 17, 

vii. 34?3- 
tanoaved, pp. iii. 497, iv. 861, moved. 
Amon son of Lot), viii. 336. 
Amon (kin?), iv. 1509. 
Amon (nation), vii. 3713. 
Amon (son of David), viii. 314. 
antong, prtp. P. 5, i. 669, amtniKes, P. 

40, i. 1373, among, during : among, 

adv. iv. 1209, V. 5984< evere among, j. 

3333, ■>■ i^9t &c., atwai aiaoag, iii. 

1459, meanwhile, at times. 
Antonltea, lee Amonyte. 
amonte, amounte, v. n, i. 3tit, iv. 391, 

1654, v. 1917, 2581, avail, mean. 
Amonyt«,vii.45o7,^/.Am<Hilt«s, viii. 242. 
Am.oreie, vii. 371 1. 
amorous, ameroua, a. i. 1414, iii. 74;, 

iv. 921, T. 58, amonrona, v. 1409, vii. 

amoTwe, adv. ii. 36j7i >v. 3194* amorvre 

day, V. 2116, cp. viii. 830, a morwe, ii. 

Amoa, vi. 1922 ff., (Jupiter) Ammon. 
Amphlon, vi. 3160. 
Amphlonw, iii. 2563. 
Ampbltrlon, ii. 3459 ff. 
Amphrlaoa, v. 4005. 
amyraude, j. vii. 1383, emerald. 

an,_^'on,' v. 496. 

anabulla, vii, 1317, (a herb). 

anceatrs, i. v. 1823, vii. 3884. 

anaestrle, s. PP. 13. 

anober, anker, ii. 1136, viii. €06, iSosf., 

AnohlBBB, iv. 79, V. 140a 
and, P. 3, 13, IS5, &c. 
Andragene, v. 1398. 
Andrew, v. 1907. 
Androohea, v. 5233. 
anele, v. a. vii. 337, melt 
anemie, see enemie. 
angal, *. P. 950, ii. 298, vi. 1530, p/. 

angUs, iii. 2356, angles, viii. 7ff. 
axiger, s. iii. 77 if., angre, iii. 379, //. 

angrea, iii. 380. 
angrellolie, adv. iii. 380. 
angrl,a. iii. 30, 378. 
angrlnge, t. vii. 2665. 

angulBBha,angiilaB«,f.vii.5o8i,viii. 1054. 

anlmalla. Lot. a. iv. 2542. 

anker, tee anoher. 

annuiad,/^. iv. 1346. 

anon, adv. P. 160, 626, i. 1130, aitiHi 

ryht, F. I033, anon forth, i. 3353, »a<m 

as, i. 471, 1362, iv. 2758. 
anotber, P. 968 ; see other, 
anauere, answere, 1/. n. i. 390, 1461. 

1658, 3 s. pres. anawertfa, i i9$i,fip- 

pi. anauei^, i. 3346. 
anauere, anawere, t. i. 1510, 1833, iii. 

2407, ansiier, viii. 907. 
Anthenor, i. 1095, 1124, v. 183; B., 7x74 

ff., vii. 1563. 
Anthonie, Antonle, vii. 4574 ff., (Cara- 

Anthontus, vii. 4181, Antoninus. 
Antioriot, v. 1807. 
Antlgonua, vii. 3131. 
Antioohe, vii. 1347, viii. 375, 387. 
Antioohus, V. 7013, viii. 374?., 3004. 
Antonye, viii. 2577, Marcus Antoniua. 
Anubua, i. 836?. 
any, see any. 

anyht, adv. ii. 3857, cp. a nyht. 
apart, adv. vi. 231 1. 
ape, V. 4995 ff., vi. 145a 
Apemen, vii. 1884. 
aparoeiTe, v. a. i. 960, ii. 983, 213S, 

apert, a. iv. 3305, open: In ap«t, ii. 

686, openly. 
Apla,v. istoflf. 
Apius, vii. 5131. 
aplaoe, adv. i. 1888, v. 735, a place, i. 

2377, iv. 2481, into place, 
apointe, appqlnte, v. a. ii. 791, iv. 373, 

169Z, V. 7o8,'4iiS. vi. 1973, reft. u. 3204, 

to ben apointed, i. zi6o; fix, resolve, 

Apollo, &c., see Appollo. 
aportenant, see appourtanant. 
apoatasled, a, viii. 11, rebellious, 
apoatlea, s. pi. iii. 3499, v. 1797, sing. 

thapostel, P. 434, 881. 
appaia, apaie, v. a. i. 3429, ii. 594, 1433, 

V. 146, pp. appaled, ii. 1433, please, 

appalle, v. ». iv. 3160^ grow faint, 
apparant, a. ii. 1320, 1552, vii. 5278. 
apparant, a. ii. 1711, heir apparent, 
apparantle, s. i. 636, appearance, 
apparenoe, see th^parenoe. 
appartlene, v. n. vii. 1063. 
appol, s. (i) V. 7414, vi. S> apple. 

.coy Google 


appel, J. (3), se« appeU. 

appele, v. n. vii. 3171*, 33oS*j viii. 2700, 

&ppelod,^. iii. 1 601, accused, 
appell, appel, s. ii. 3418, vii. 5333, kdwA, 

vii. 3177', appeal, 
appsnde, v. n. vii, 978, belong. 
appMe(n), v. a. P. 191, i. 1351, iii. 133. 

apprtit, J. iv. 3013, 3544, V, 357. 
applere, v. n. 1. B38, 1198, ii. 3337. 
applied, ;t^. i. S77. iv. 3607, v. 913, as- 
appoints, see apolote. 
Appollnua, viii. 37Sff. 
AppoUo, V.918, 1072,5845, 7594, vii. 3189, 

Apollo, V. 71 1 1 * ff., Apolllnla (gtnit.), 

V. 7109*. 
appourtenant, a. 11. 3508, iv. 64, 3131, v. 

1496, appourtlBnaat, vii. 1019, apor- 

tenaut, v. 43 1 S. 
apprlae, aprlK, s. i. 81, 393, iii. 37641 iv. 

3333, viiL 812, teaching, 
approbaolon, s. iv. 3519. 
appTopre, v. a. vii. 430^ pp. appropred, 

iv. 3333, vU. 499- 
aproohe, v. n. ii. 40, v. 5633 ; v. a. 111. 96, 

viii. 388, naprooho, iv. 1135. 
apropriaoiouii, s. ii. 3396. 
AquarluB, vii. 11878"-, i2S3- 
aquelnt, /^. vi. 365, quenched. 
aquelntanoe, .1. i. 3400, ii. ii78,iv.8s. 
aquelnte, v, refl. and n. ii. 3506, iv. 2313, 

pp. oquelnted, iv. 3 I37,(aqweiiited, PP. 

aQulte, aquyte, aoqiilte, v. a. 1. 1594, 

2773, UL 3578, iv. 967, v. 3385, set free, 

acquit ; i. 1054, remit ; iv. 195, satisfy ; 

iiL 3671, vii. 3030, requite; pp. aquit, 

iii. 3460, iv. 967, aoquited, i. 1054. 
•x.attv. ii. 3141, iv. 1413; 
Arabe, s. iv. 3627, Arabic (language). 
Araoliel, vii. I457> 
aral, araied, see arral, arraiad. 
ankWbto, pre/, u/arecche (0£. areecan), 

V. 1836, explain. 
Araxarathen, iv. 367$. 
Aroenne, Aroennua, iL 1333 fT., 1534. 
aroannlaiLm, s. iv. 3483. 
Arobado, iii. 3317, v. 1007, viL 3555. 
Arohaa, v. 6383. 
Ardea, vii. 4760 fT. 
areobe, {0£. arxcan), v. a. i. 3307, ii. 

666, V. 387, pret. araohte, vi. 457, 

attain, reach to ; v.n. i. 3034, iii. 3347, 

reach up, extend. 

arode, v. a. n. P. 601, v, 938, vii. 3703, 

pret. aradde, P. 626, i. 33S4 ; expkun, 

give explanation, 
arara, adv. iii. 1083, behind. 
arara, v. a. iv. 1938, vi. 437, 1 107, raise up. 
areata, v. a. i. 1644, ii. i63, 3745, iii. 609, 

delay, keep in check, arrest, 
areire, tee arowa. 
argtie, v. n. vii. 1847, 4196. 
ar8:uineat, s. iv. 1798, v. 7038, pt. arga- 

menta, vii. 1633, 
argum«Lten, v. n. P. 370. 
Aidal, vii. 1364. 
Ariaa, vii. 980 fT., 1366. 
arilit, adv. i, 3847, iL 734, iv. 3993. 
Arlon, P. 1054. 
ariae, aryae, v. n. P. 1041, i. 1909, iii. 

3503, 3 s. pres. ariat, P. 504, 545, ii. 474, 

pret. aroa, 1. 3957, pp. arlst, ii. 338, 

ariaa, v. 5907 ; v. a. (?) v. 1745. 
Arlatppna, Afialppa, AiiaippM, vii. 

3331 ff. 
Arlatarohua, iv, 3640. 
arlate, s. iii. 1334, iv. 1385, rising, 
ariatologls, s. vii. 1413, birthwort 
Arlatotle, Arlatota, AriatoUlaa, vi. 99, 

3374, 341 2, vii. 4ff., soff., 3333' fi; 3544, 

4257. S403. viii. 3705. 
arlvalla, arryvalle, J. iu I033,iv.94,l937. 
ariTO, see aiyra. 
arm, J. ii. 3486, iv. Ii4i,^ilarmaa, P,6o7, 

i. 913, ii. 3481. 
arme, v. a. v. ^iii,pp. armed, i. 1171, 

1998, iv. 1701, V. 3M6. 
Armene, v. 1397. 
Armenye, Armenia, iv. 1345, vii, 1351, 

Brmenle, viL 3218. 
armea, P. 313, i. 1413, 3538, v. 3637 

(feat of arms), men of armaa, ii. 399S, 

iv. 1635. 
(lal) armonlak, iv. 3480. 
armonie, s. vii. 165. 

arowe, arewa, adv. i. 35$, ii. 3038, V.695S. 
Arpaghaa, vii. iSootK 
arrai, array, aral, aray, s. i. 901, 3SI3, 

370s, iv. 1393- V. 1313,7488. 
arraie, arale, v, a, i. 1748, 3029, ii. 1836, 

vi. 641, array, prepare; arraled of (pro- 
vided with), ii. 3556. 
arriva, aMrjva, see Ktjv. 
Arrona, vii. 4598 fT. 
arryralle, see ariTaile. 
arametlque, s. vii, 149, arithmetic 
art, s. iv. 933, 3607. 
artemaga, s. vi, 1957, magic art. 
Artaatrathaa, Artaatrataa, viii. 691, 1970. 

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ArthUB, PP. 283. 

artiflolei', I. vii. 1691, 

artmogique, s. viii. 36c2. 

iirwo, s. ii. 2236, V. 1266, arrow. 

aryBe, see axiae. 

aryve, arivo, uTyve, (urivo, v. a. ii. 

717, 1905, bring to land ; v. n. iii. 1043, 

iv. 81, 1917, vii. 3369, come to land, 

as, P. 50, 60, 233, i. 847, ii. 2205, (=as if) 
i. 666, 135S, ii. 1047, aa it were, i. 1800, 
aa who eelth, P. 43, i. 1381 &c., aa he 
wMah &c., P. 186, 1020, i. 369, aa him 
which, iii. 1376, as of (as regards), 
P. 493, i. S57. 1969. "i- I479, « to, P- 
199, i. 300, iii. 2383, as forto, P. 31, i. 
107, 2379- »• tl">, ii. 213, iv. 375, aa in 
("in), i. 1707, 194a, aa be (>^be), i. 
1334, aa me thenJceth (=mc then keth), 
iv. 1649, ala . . . aa, P. 1064 : cfi. ala. 

aaoape, -v. a. i. 1552, 2882 (aaohape, v. 
7033 *)< eBohape, vi. 1017; v. n. i. 517, 
ii. 1982, iv. 2107, eaohape, vii. 3466. 

aacendent, s. vi. 1963. 

asohamed, a. i. 979, iv. 18S5. 

aaoria, v. n. vi. 1690, vii. 37S1, ""^ise a 

BBOiy, s. V. 7546, VII. 3723. 

aacnde, v. a., pret. aaente, :. 3138, pp. 
aaeut, i. 1493, 1743, aaaent, i. 3222, 
fent for. 

aalde, adv. P. 879, i. 1536, 2534, ii. I426, 
iv. 3512, Bsyda, v. 4512, gonaalda, vii. 
3388 (go wrong). 

ABle,vii. 533, 5S4fF. 

aahe, aaklnge, see axe, azinge. 

aalepe, adv. i. 1 180, ii. 835, roofae 
aslepe, ii. loSi, broght aalepa, iv. 

Aamod, vii. 5335 n. 

aapeot, s. i. 3009, vii. 904. 

aapidia, s. i. 463. 

aapie, s. i. 1172, ii. 1830, iii. 2087, v. 
1997, upon aapia, iv. 1473 : spy, 

aapie, v. a. i. 312, ii. 305, fp. a«pyd, iv. 
1858; V. n. ii. 100, 515, V. 675. pre'- 
aq>ide, ii. 135. 

aaplrement, .t. vii. 356, breathing. 

aaaale, v. a. i. io«o, 1758, 3038, iii. 647, 
1066 ; V. a. i. 3430, V. 3680 ; try, at- 
tempt, experience. 

aaaaile, aaaalUe, v. a. \. 1999, iii. I54> 
1904, the fbld a., ii. 1838, 2620 ; v. n. 
P. 737, V. 5526, vi. 1308 : attack, at- 

aaaay, asaai, t. i. 690, 791, ii. 3261, iiL 

717, V. 273, 4156, trial, proof; at alia 

eaaalaa, P. 173, ii. 2447, v. 4883, in 

every way. 
asse, J', i. 3348, iv. 3009, vii. 3351*. 
assemble, v. n. ii. 2621, iv. 1953, engage 

in battle, iii. 189, associate ttogether) ; 

V. a. ii. 1765, iii. 368, V. 686, 1772, 

gather together, join. 
aaaent, s. i. 1125, 3380, tliaaaent, ii. 

1479, of on aaaent, L 1494, of his a., 

i. 1744, to hliv a., i. 2623. 
asaente, v. n. ii. 2816, iii. 1976, iv. 348S, 

tfael ben aaaented, ii. 2539, cp, viiL 

aaalgne, v. a. i. 334, ii. 1337, iv. 371. 
aasignement, s. v. 7154, vi. 401, 
Asalre, v. 1541, vii. 4316. 
aaaiae, aaalBse, v. a. P. 66, i. 1468, 3050, 

ii. 636, iii. 1866, iv. 380, place, appoint, 

aaalaae, aastae, s. v. 78S, 1986, 2878, viiL 

778, thaaaiae, P. 148, order, condition, 

aasobre, v. n. vi. 391, grow sober; v. a. 

vi. 460, sober, 
aasoile, v. a. iii. 3570, viii. 364; v. m. 

/rf^aaaoilede, iii. 2556: absolve, solve 

(a question). 
aaaote, v. n. i. 508, 781, 2596, ii. 2369, 

behave foolishly, dote ; v. a. iv. 697, v. 

6841, vii. 4319, make foolish, besot, 
aaauage, v. n. i. 1438, iii. 1614 ; v. a. ii. 

330a, vi. 587. 
Aasub, vii. 334. 
aasure, aaaeure, v. a. ii. 903, 2013, 3467, 

iii. I773i 3203. iv. 3536, assure, sati^, 

betroth, pledge, 
aatat, eatat, s. P. 105, i. 599, 3764, iv. 

229, viii. 3149, thaatat, i. 2100, theatat, 

P. 202, eataU {>/.), v. 1849. 
aBtellabre,.j. vi. 1S90, astrolabe. 
asterta, v, a. i. 658, 722, 1934, 3381, iii. 

163, 340, 566, escape from, elude ; v. m. 

iv. 724, 1304, V. 808, 5831, escape, be 

avoided, v. 707, come to pass, 
aatone, v. n. vi. 1584, be at a loss, 
aatoned, a. P. 377. 
astraied./^. v. 145, vii. 3660, astray. 
Aatrathen, vii. 4501. 
aatray, adv. vii. 3679. 
Aatrioes, vii. 826. 
astrologle, i. vii. 680. 
aatronomle, s. iv. 3346, vi. 1347. 
. 3C«3, viL 348. 

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a'TBle, V. «. ii. 3353, v. 387, descend ; v. a. 

iii. 505, viii. 1619, lower, 
avanoe, v. a. i. 2653, ii. 16, 2589, iv. 3i 16, 

V. 3006, avannoo, iv. 37S0. 
avanoemmt, t. v. 3379. 
avant, adv. iii. 1082, in front. 
aTant, s. \. 2427, ii. 2952, boast, 
avantage, s. i. 1575, 2711, ii. 3158, iv. 

3358, thavantagM, v. 1978. 
avaDtaooe, s. i. 2399, boasting, 
avantarla, s. i. i^vj, avantarle, i. 243S, 

avaiite, see avaunte. 
aTarioe, P. 315, v. 8, 31 &c 
avaimte, avauta, v. refl. i. 2389, 2567, 

2655, 2961, boast (oneself), 
avenaot, a. vii. 834, comely, 
aventnire, s. P. 312, 619, i. 1416, ii. 360, 

3297, iii. 20t6, peril, ibojice, case ; put 

(Mtta) in aventur«, i. 3313, iv. 332, 

per (par) aveiiture, i. 1521, 2350, iv. 

avwoime, adv. ii. 1347, 3237, iv. 3632, 

aawoune, viii. 1060. 
asr^^i ^^^ aside, 
at, prep. P. 34, (= to) ii. 3648, iv. 914, 

(= by) V. 611 : ate, ii. 59, ate laate, P. 

369,7o3,atedeeB,i. 54, ate feats, i. 2501. 
atake,/^. v. 6291, overtaken. 
Athemaa (i), iii. 1764, 1807. 
Athemaa (z), v. 4249. 
Atheuagoras, viii. 1633, 1749. 
Athene, Athenes, AtheiiTB, Atbenla, 

iii. 1984, 2131, V. 5235, 5250 ff., 55S4, 

Vli. 2331, 2315,2919^,3058, 3184. 

Atblans, i. 434, Atlas. 

atlr, see a^r. 

AtropoB, iv. 3756. 

attaotie, v. a. viii. 3698, arrest. 

attelgne{n), v. a. i. 754, 1631, ii. 184, 

3553, prei. attelnte, v. 3698 ; v. n. i, 

26c)o, IV. 949, pp. attelgnt, v. 3334. 
a,tb^xii,pp. iii. 2213, v. 7102*, viii. 1947, 

attempre(n), v, a. i. 1354, iii. 236, 1857, 

iv. 2554- 
attempte, v. a. viii. 1419, try. 
attiUed, /^. v. S83, 1313, 1331, vii. 1004. 
atwlnne, adv. iii. 3750, v. 5943. 
at;wo, atuo, adv. iv. 431, v. 73. 
atyr, atlr, s. i. 1753, 1758, v. 41 18, prepara- 
tion, aitire. 
auetor, tee auotoor. 
auDtorlt«, s. i. Soo, iv. 3638, autorite, ii. 

auotoriaa, v. a. vii. 2415, vouch for ; pp. 

anotorlaed, vii. 1480, PP. 330, held in 

aootour, anotor, s. iv, 2412, v. 947, vi. 

1314, vii. 1456. 
audleiioe,.f.P. 452,1.3556, 3330, VII). 1842, 
audltour, t. v. 1919. 
Anfrique, V. 1195, vii. 533, 578, 3088. 
Angst, vii. iioo, viii. 3S45, August 
angurre, s. iv. 3404, augur, 
aubt, see ogbX. 
aulter, see alter, 
annter, s., In auntar if, P, 480, i. 189, ii. 

480, In annter forto, iii. 992, per 

aimter, v. 3351,//. anntrea, v. 5879; 

venture, adventure, 
auntre, v. n. iv. 339, rejl. v. 6522, venture. 
Aurora, iv. 319a 
autorite, see auotorlte. 
availe, v. n. P. 370, 1074, i. 1082, 3114, 

(av^le, P. 77*, aTaiUe, viii. 3048); 

V. a. iL 91, 365, V. 339, pp. availed, 

PP. 191. 

aTenturons, a. t. 1533. 
Averil, v. 5968, vii. 1039. 

'. 61, 4676, tbaTorons, v. 57, 

Avioen, iv. 2610. 

Avinoun, Ji 

a-rta, s. i. 501, iii. 1804, iv. 1333, v. 1303, 
avys, i. 1471, opinion, advice. 

aviae, v. a. i. 1736; v. n. iii. 1067, ob- 
serve ; re_fi. P. 520, i. 436, 748, 2680, ii. 
535, 790, viii. 3365, consider, beware; 
be aviaed, P. 65, i. 996, 1543, avlsed 
with, ii. 63s, {avyaed, PP. 333). 

aviaement, s. i, 3121, iii. 751, up avlse- 
ment, iv. 1003. 

avlBioun (-on), s. i. S45, ii. 3479, vi. 1938. 

avoi, inierj. viii. 1696. 

avou, f. i. 964, iii. ID14, iv. 1511, 1549, 
3133, promise; 

avouterie, .F. v. 873, 1045, 1164, adulter)^. 

avowe, V. a. i. 717, iv. 3438, v. 134, vii. 
3163*, PP. 343, declare, justi^, vow. 

A^TUoun, Avlnonn, P. 331, ii. 3001, 

await, s. iiu 955, iot6, v. 666, watch, 
ambush : tp. wait. 

awtdte, airi^te, v. a. i. 1360, 1672, ii. 
463, iii. 1 368, iv. 263, 808, V. 3004, waich 
for, attend to ; v. n. i. 907, ii. 3333, 3869, 
iv. 2119, V. 207, watch, wait. 

awake, v. a. i. S87, 1783, 2087, iv. 3228, 
V. 434, wake, keep awake ; v. n. ii. 2896, 
iv- 3905, pret. awok, i. lai, ii. 843, v. 
5435. vii. 3717. 

awarde, v. a. vui. 3373. 

= :,y Google 


ftwet«, adv, P. 133, 849. '• "'o *=■» 
aweye, i. 53i away, P. 1069, i. 1333. 
2473, awei, iii. 171 J, iv. 1377, away, 
awKl,ii. 1466, iii. 547,iv.ii86,v. 4034; 
Bolial nevere awale, iv. 3394, mylita 
noght awelfl, could not aviul, i. mo, 
qe. iii. 349, V. 7179. 

awelward, adv. 1. 141. 

awher, adv. \\. 393, v. 6585. 

awhile (•= a while), i. 1843, 2S10. 

awht, see ogbt. 

awroka, pp. v. 7368, aveoged. 

awry, adv, ii. 443. 

ax«, aako, v. a. P. 268, 960, i. 170, 694, 
I461, 3149, V. 5473, imptrat. axo, i. 
3344; V. n. i. 160, 881, 1875, ii. 1233, 
lii. 2747 ; ask, ask for, demand. 

axdtre, f. iii. 1309. 

axlnge, s. i. 1480. "■ 339. 'v. 3128, fil. 
Bxlngea, i. 3295, vii. 3911, aakiiig«, iv. 

ay, adv. ii. 39s, 3135, iv. 386, bI, v. 

ayoto (■i),prep. P. 679, 713, 1. 1137, 1141, 

1384, 3340, ii, 1438, aysina, v. 6413, 

against, contraiy 10, opposite, to meet ; 

ayein the day, i. 930, toward morning, 

cp. V. 4954, ayeln the dal, i. 351 1, with 

a view to the day. 
ayein, ayeyn (j), adv. P. 185, i. 861, I057, 

2090, iii. 1343, iv. 1137, again, back, in 

reply ; cp. agayn. 
ayeincomynga (j), s. iv. I03. 
ayelnword (3), adv. i. 1793, ii. 133. 
a-jer (}), adv. viiL 2336, in the year. 

babe, *. ii. 3238, iii. 33a 

Babel, P. 1019. 

babil, s. vii. 3955, bauhle. 

Babllla, vi. 1335. 

BabUolne, Babiloyxke, P. 665, 675, 681, 

i- 3955, iii. 3453, Babeloine, vi), 3312*. 
Babjo, V. 4808 tr., 4851. 
baoblte, v. a. ii. 411. 
bacbltlnge, bakbltdnge, s. ii. 451, 558, 

1605, 1609. 
baoheler, i. \, 3594, ^373, ii- 135, ^^58, 

iii. 1343, bachiUer, ii. 3658. 
BacbUB, V. 141, 166 If., loji, 1469, 3138, 

6837 (gem(.), Vi. 396 ff., S02. 

■--■- r. P.400, L3o69,ii.393,i65i, 
^ V 1-- ^ 

'• 1344- 


. 1013, 

bBdde,a. i.i246,ii.< 

assuisi.vl3si. ■ 
bagge, s. V. 83, 139, 4701. 
Balard, vi. 1380. 
baillea 9a, vi. 60. 
bailUe, t. P. 320, i. 783, ii. 1870, \ 

vii. 1071, charge, property, 
bait, s. iii. 956. 
bak, bakbltdnge, see baa 
bake, v. a. pp., v. 3408. 
bal, s. PP. 396. 
Bala, viii. 130. 
Balaam, vii. 4413. 
balade, s. i. 3709, 3737. 
BalajnuB, vi. 1320. 
balanoe, s. P. 541, i. 3, 43, ii. 1418, 3344, 

iii. 559, 2506, scales, danger, 
baldemolne, t. i. 1704, gentian, 
bale, s. iii. 1496, vi. 67, viii. 589. 
balke, V. H. iii. 515, see note. 
balame, J. viii. 1198. 
Baltaaar, P. 685, v. 7022. 
banere, s. ii 1835, iv. 3230, baoar, v. 

Bangor, ii. 90J. 
banke, s. P. 508, ii. 144, 730,^.baaolEea, 

iv. 2736. 
banne, v. a. iv. 877; v. n. iv. 3834, curse, 
bapteime, s. ii. 609, 899, 3470, v. 1779, 

(baptlame, PP. 347). 
baptised, j^. viii. 143. 
Barbarle, ii. 599, 613, 1173, 1181. 
BarbaruB, vii. 4335. 
Bardua, v. 4956 fF. 
bare, a. P. 9315^ i, 935. 
barelgne, a. iii. 3319, v. 834. 
bargain, s. v. 2876, 4414, viiL 3431, 
barge, s. P. 45*, 334, iL 1903. 
barli, as a. vii. 3705 S., of barley. 
barm, s. iii. ^03, vi. 337, bosom, 
bamage, s. li. 398s, baronage. 
baronle, i. P. 104. 
baake, v. refl. iii. 315, bathe. 
(baakle, v. refl. iii. 315, v. I.) 
baas, a. i. 1678, low. 
batallla, s. P. 314, i. 1081, iiL 3650, bab> 

alle, v. 3439. 
bataUle, v. n, iii. 1903 ; v. a. bataUa, PP. 

batoilloua, a. v. isti, vii. 889, warlike, 
bath, s. i. 1747, //. bathes, v. 3801, viiL 

bathe, v. n. i. 364, iii. 312; v. a. 11. 3206. 
Bathual, viii. 115. 
be, ben, v. P. 44, 65, 78, 147, I s. pres. 

am, P. 53, 3 s. art, i. 154, 3 j. la. 

.coy Google 


P. 4 ^ viii. 9990), w« ben, P. 3, b« 
W8,i. 22ia, 3/W.j*«j. Mn), P. 78&C., 
(both, viii. 3081), aro(ii), vil. 1490, 
1718, ar, iv. 1375, pret. wa«, P. 3, 2 s. 
were thou, iv. boa, pi. wero(n), P. 37, 
45, weere, v. 6836, -^mr, it. 3147, iubj. 
were, i. 1662, 3545, 3335, iv. 343,weero, 
iv. 1324, war, v. iiSi5,PP- bo(n), P. 58a ; 
be BO {that), i. 187, 1458, ii. 1177, be 
he ... be he, ii. 354. 

be, fir^. P. 36, i. 175, 761^ 794 Sec, be 
iLame, i. 806, be nyhte, 1. 833, be ma 
(in my case), i. 1963, be oauee that, ii. 
377i,(b7,v.703i'): <}*. by. 

bean, a., bean retret, viii. 3416. 

beaate, s. i. 771, 1837, ii. 123. 

Beawme, viii. 2470, Bohemia. 

bablede, v.a.pp. bebled, ii. 700^ iii, 1406, 
stain nith blood. 

beolippe, *. a. i. 1790, ii. 3550, iv. 2783, 
V. 3003, pp. beoUpC, i. 913, embrace. 

I. P. 303, 3 J. pret. beoom, i. 

933, 3967, becam, ii. I189, v. 4949, ipi. 

beoome, P. 738. 
bedawe, v. n, v. 1983, dawn, 
bedd, bed, s. i. 876, ii. 828, 856, to bedde, 

i, 1780, ii. 823, goth to bedde to, i. 

3604, beddea aide, ii. 833. 
beddefere, s. v. 3056, beddeSere, ri. 

1916, bedfellow, 
beddeabed, s. iii. 445. 
bade, s. P. 373, i. 667, ii. 1473, iii. 3148, 

iv. 3484, bedea, iv. 717, (bedla, viii. 

2959), pelreofbedea, viii. 2904: prayer, 

command, bead, 
bederke, v. a. i. ii6<^ 
badroppe, v. a, v'u. 4832, cover with 

beanUea, a. v. 7202*. 

beere, s. vii. 5098, bier. 

befitUe, V. n. P. 26, 501, i. 55, 1397, vii. 

655, prn. boftU, P. 703, i. 67, (b«a, P. 

3S'), 3 s. pres. mbj. bafUle, P. 6^*, 

■• >397t 3 '• pf'ff- ^^j- beftlle, iv. 

bafialn, v. a.pp. vii. 2897, flayed, 
befela, V. a. P. 300, vii. 4393. 
before, prep. i. 205^ ii. 1048, befbr, ii. 

S73 ; adu. i. I3i8, ii. 569, bafiira tyme, 

P. 848, befom, P. 843. 
^xtroae,pp. iL 1830. 
begert,^. vii. 3863. 
bagete, v. a., pret. begat, v. 90o,beyat (;), 

V. 1396, ^. bageta(n), iv. 3349, v. 3194, 


bagga, V. a. v. 1785*, buy : tp. bde. 

beggere, begger, s. L 3249, iv, 3349, v. 
2414,^/. beggei»,v. 3395. 

b^llime, V. a. n. P. 266, 659, 83s, i. »33i. 
begynne, P. 404, 3 j. prei. bagliith, 
vi. 760, pret. s. began, P. 667, 973, i. 
13, pi. begnnne, iii. 743, 1128, be- 
gonne, iv. 1045, pp. begonne, P. 688, iii. 
1260, begunne, 1. 1 138 ; be^nne ot, i. 
2550, 2562, began to, i. 1446; I am to 
beglnne, ii. 512, cp. iii. 1320, iv, 956. 

beginnyng(e), s. vii. 79, 1<A. 

1>W>, V. a., pp. bego(n), 1. s'S". 'v. 5S6- 
606, work upon, fiimish ; pp.witk adv. 
iii. 1157, vi. 1553, wel begonof, ii. 1323, 
wel b. with, iv. 1313, cf. v. 2335, wo 
bago(n),iv. 3394, v.4348, - 

begrave, v. a. i. 3348, pp. begrave, li. 
8S7, 3649, iv. 3 1 7 1 , bury ; ^. begrave, 
i. 3541, engraved. 

begrlpe, v. a. vii. J36, encompass. 

begrowe, pp. v. 6831, grown over. 

beguile, V. a. L 677, 705, ii. 651, iii. 3180, 
deceive, betray. 

behelde, see beholde, 

beheate, j. P. 81*, i. iioo, 1370, PP. 41, 
promise, assurance. 

beheta, behlete, bebihte, see bebota. '* 

behlnda, ^lebyaden, prep. i. 3069, ii. 483 : 
adv. i. 237, ii. 383, behynde, v. 2706. 

beholde(n), v. a. P. 35, 840, i. 199, &c 
(bitaolda, vii. 3156*), behelde, vii. 
1856, 3 s. pres. beholt, i. 3700, ii. 
3434, 3 s. pret. behleld, i. 414, v. S44I, 
beheld, ii. 1S33, pi. bahlelde, iv. 3090, 
pret. mbj. behelde, iv. 574, pt. behial- 
den, P. 360, imperat. behold, P. 5JI, ii. 

beholds,^, v. 94, vii. 4175, bound. 

behonge, v. a. v. 7489, vi. 1839. 

behote, V. a. n. inf. iv. 1834, I s. pres. 
bebole, i. 1333, 2678, behete.behlate, 
iv. 638, 3144, 3470, v. 6701, 3 s. behet, 
i- 1954, }pl- behote, ii. i(A^,pret. be- 
bihte, I. 1565, iii. 1014, iv. I5S5, v, 
1476,4979, ba^hta, v. 7014, (bahlghte, 
bebigb^ viii. 3134, PP. 41),^. behyht, 
behiht, i, 1694, vi). 3286* ; promise, as- 
sure, pronounce, dedicate. 

behove, s. P. 338, ii. 1674, vii. 1332, ad- 

behove, v. n. iii. 640, 1114, vii. 1711, 
2025, viii. 3436, behoveth node, vii. 
1353 : be needful, help, ought. 

behovdy (-U), a. i. 2393, iii. 1330, v. 1757, 
PP. 304, (bihovely, vii. 3159'), be- 

D,3,t,zec.y Google 


IioveUcIi(e), v, 4012, vii. 1975; proHt- 

able, helpfui. 
boie, w. a. ii, 3061, iii. 639, 3 s. pru. 

beltb, V. 4396, pret. boghte, ii. 2397, 

2735, iii. 380, pp. boght, iii. 894, zo66, 

buy, pay for, avenge ; cp. begge. 
belnge, s. vii. 90 fT. 
b^ape, V. a. \. 2363, ii. 24S9, iv. 900, v. 

3207, 6ai6, deceive, mock. 
b«kiiow«(ii), V. a. n. i, S93i isrfi. "■ 

275. vi. 1390, pp. beknowe(n), P. 1039, 

i. 550, V. 6466, imperat. 1>eknow, ii. 

883, make known, confess : I am be- 

knows, i. 550, 1940, X am bekaowe 

...thl«,ii. 236,^. V. 2855. 
Bel,v. JSS6f. 

Bele Ysolde, vi. 472, viii. 2501. 
b«lsve, V. rt. P. 10, i. 1516, ii. 2524, iv. 

28i6,^<!/.belafte,v. 5698, remain: is 

beleft, WM beleft, ii. 2569, 3458, is 

trelaft, vi. 3346. 
(balie), V. a., 3 pi. pret. bolele, v. 7581, 

pp. beleln, i, 1993, iii. 1757, 3046, iv. 

2147, besiege, 
believe, v. a. n. P. 284, i. 580, 1315, 

30I2, ii. 639, 2136, iii. 2223, viii. 2500, 

beleve, v. 6124; believe, believe in, 

belisTe, biliers, i. P. 91, i. 6^ 894, 

I3i6, ii. 3396, iii. 07,beleTe, vi. 62,>/. 

believeB, v. 74S, 95 1 ; belief, faith, 

belle, I. i, 1949, 2391, ii. 1728, iv. 346. 
beloke(n), j^. ii. 3393, iv. 3667, shut up. 
belongs, v. «. P. 67, 259, i. 691, 3345, 

2904, iv. 2293, 3307, {3 J. pres. be- 

longlth, viii. 2997 fT.), belong, be fitting, 
beloved, a. P. 38, i. 1920, v. 4365. 
Beliu, V. 1546, 1556. 
belw«, V. n. iv. 2113, bellow. 
belwinge, s. vii. 3323, bellowing. 
Belxebub, V. 1557. 
bemene, v. a. i. 1540, iii. 1983. 
benoh, s. v. 4383. 
bend, I. vi. 296, bond, 
bende, v. a. n., pret. bende, ii. 2235, ^i'- 

4749, PP- bent, iii. 449, viiL 2453. 
bene, s. v. 4408, bean. 
Banedab, vii. 2539 ff. 
benedidte, interj. i. 305. 
benefice, s. P. 316, pi. beneficBB, ii. 

beneiootm, s. iii. 939. 
benethe, adv. P. 931, i. 2527 ; prep. vii. 

benigae, c 


bente, vii. 4418, arched. 

ben7oe, *. refl. viii. 2769, befool (onoelf). 

beiiTme, v. a., 2, 3 s. pres, beny ' ' 
tvjrmth, iii. 1309, v. 7003,/^. I 
vi. 36, take away. 

beqwath, v. a. pret. PP. 178. 

berd, beerd, s. i. 2045, v. 7II3*, 7149*, 
viiL 1303, beard. 

bere, s. ii. 160, vi. 1450, bear. 

bere, v. a. P. 294, 492, i. 850, 3 s. pres. 
berth, 1. 467, iii. 1784, pret. s. b«r, P. 
908, i. 434, pi. bere, beere, i. 2795, iv. 
I323> 1376, vii. 1796, pret. subj. beer*, 
iv. 2749, pp. bore, i. 773, 2788, ii. 933, 
2635, boren, ii. 976, ybore, ii. 499 1 bar 
(berth) on hoaA, iii. 664, iv. 33, v. 546, 
berth an hond, v. 496. 

bereined,/^. i. 2915, vii. 1234. 

BereTiger, P. 780. 

bereve, *. a. P. 411, vii. 3245", pret. be- 
refte, P. 744, vii. 3840, beraft.v. 5647, 
pp. beraft, viii. 209. 

beried,/)^. iii. 293. 

berille, vii. 1349. 

BerUlua, vii. ^309. 

barke, v. n. n. 1796, 3 s. pret. bark, ii. 

beme, s. ii. 86, v. 4907, barn. 

Beraabee, vi. 97, viii. 2690. 

berate, v. n. viii. 106S. 

bertha, s. iv. 2231, v. 837. 

beaaat, s. v. 193a 

Baaaada, vii. 1884. 

beaohade.v. a. iv. 3207, vii. 743, 809; cp. 

beaohrewe, v. a. i. 1036, iii. 810, curse. 

beaohrewad, a. i. 640, iii. 4iSo, evil- 

beaohme, v. a. vii. 446;, shine u[>on. 

(be-ae), v. a., beallie, viiL 1617, 
look after, prepare : pp. beaeln, bsaeie, 
P. 559, i- 358, 3360, iv. 1384, wo beaeln, 
ii. 262, beaein of; iii. 1844, beaeln to, 
iv. iSo, provided, equipped, prepared. 

beaeohe, v. a. n. i. 589, 1339, 1985, 3174, 
3259 &c., bealeobe, viii. 2912, beaeke, 
ii. 960, V. 916, 1355 ; pret. beaoghte(n), 
i. 1808, 2640, ii. 108, 1212, 1483, V. 1459, 
besoughte, v. 3440, beaoughten {pi'), 
P. 198, j^. beaoght, v. 6230, imperai. 
beaeoh, i. 3937. 

beaeke, see beaeobe. 

beaeme, m. a. i. 2013, ii. 2935, iv. 745. 

beaatte, v. a. i. 3237, iv. 1482, pp. beset, 
i- 2538, 3736, ii. 3353, iv. 1567, V. 555, 
beaett, iv. 496, set, employ, bestow. 

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be«I, bow, a. ii. 1764. iv. 335. 509. 953- 

beside, b«ayde, prep. t. 3305, jii. 294, 
530, vii. 3243, beslden, v. 7311, beside, 
contrary to: adv. P. 446, Soi, ii. 60, 
1993, by (he side, Aside, as well : folle 
and go bealde, iv. z8£2, cp. v. 3428, vi. 
1348, vii. 4458. 

bMlm, V. reft. iv. 1183, 133a 

beslllohe, adv. i. 373, iv. 57, i23S, bwlly, 
iv. 2185. 

bMlneM«, s. i. 1130, ii. 460, 1074, iv. 
S13, viii. 3053*, bosyiiMM, P. 49*, 
blaineww, P. 63, (bUBinewo, PP. 336). 

beaUoMpe, f . iv. 1119. 

besnetred, /i^. i. 2044, vi. 149S. 

b«aowed,y^. viii. 1114, sewa up. 

betrprede, v. d. vii. ii50,/rv/.bMpnHlds, 
viii. 26SS, pp. beapr*d, v. 6917. 

bMt, a. i. 1525, the iMste, i. 768, pi. iii. 
500 i as subst. for tbe beate, to the 
beste, i. 997, 1748, 34S8, tbl beate, i. 
1603 : adv. best, P. 337, ii- 3676. 

bestad, ^. i. 1049, 2^84, ii. 69, 933, 
1 149, ill. 77, vii.3228*, situated, engaged, 

beetftUe, s. v. 331, 1022, cattle. 

beete, s. P. 909, j. 976, 2828, beast. 

beatere, v. refl. ii. 31915, viii. 609. 

beatlal, a. i. 3913. 

beatly, a. i. 3035. 

beatowe, v. a. iv. 2473. 

baewike, v. a. L 498, 760, deceive. 

beawlnke, v. a. v. 6085, ^, beawuilke, 
i. 2646, labour for. 

beayde, see bealde. 

bet, a. V. 47IJ: adv. \. 1976, asi4, iii. 
349, 3239 ; for bet fin- wen, iv. 673 : 
cp. betre. 

betake, v. a. iv. 1431, 3 s.pres. bet&kth, 
iii. \<fj%,pret. betok, iv. 3337, imperat. 
. betaketh, ii. 1036, pp. betake(Q), P. 
309, i. 80, vii. I33S, viii. 3960; give, 
deliver, commeod : betaken \pp-), v. 
743, taken. 

bete, V. a. n. P. 438, i. 11 55, ii. 3356, 
>Srrf. bet, iii. 997. vii. 461S. M bete(ii), 
iii. 974, V. i960, vii. 4635, beat. 

beteohe, v. a. vii. 4334, fret, batawhte, 
betauhte, betaghte, iii. 1941^ v. 357S, 
viii. 748, pp. betowht, vi. 2411, viii. 
I30, deliver. 

bethenke, v. a. h. PP. 101, pret. be- 
thoEhta,vi. ii65,y^.bethoKht,iv. 142, 
think of, remember ; refi. be him be- 
thoghte,!. 798,(;;^.i,3ii6,bethouehte 
blre, v. 3423 ; I am betboght, L 1367, 

this I am bethoght, iii. 1350, be- 
tboght, ii. 2906. 
Bethlnoia, v. 1 141. 
bethrowe, ^. vi. 114. 
betide, betyde, v. n, \. 149, 2265, iv. 

1024, 1779, 3 s. pres. betitt, ii. 1997, 

pret. betldde, betydde, ii. 3463, vi. 

1607, botldd, vii. 4381, pp. betid, P. 

183, V. 3IOI, betldd, iii. 473, v. 6354, 

happen, come to pass, 
betokue, v, a. P. 594, 628, i. 3888, ii. 

731, vii. i7S7ff-; w- «■ ii- 1804, vii. 

betrale, v. a. i. 1079, ii. 1181, viii. 1923. 
betrappe, v. a. iii. 1358, vii. 4915. 
betre, bettre, a. P. 353, i. 1556, 3434, iv. 

37 ; subst. the betre, v. 7393 ; adv. P. 

543, i. 720, the betre, i. 1543 : cp. bet. 
betwen, betuen, prep. P. 18, i. 2164, ii. 

411, 653, V, 5025, 5718, hem betwane 

(betuene), P. 790, 1000, v. 306a 1 adv. 

betivene, ii. 943. 
betyde, set betide, 
bewake, v, a. v. 3498, 661 1, watch, watch 

bewar, v. imptrai. (= be war), ii. 571, iii. 

1496, 1738, V. 6048. 
beware, v. a. P. 394, ii. 3066, 3359, iii. 

2219, vii. Z518, spend, employ, 
bewelle, v. refl. i. 972, iv. 395S. 
bewelde, v. reft. iii. 990, viL 510, viii. 

3041 *, have power over (oneself), 
bewepe, v. a. iv. 1565, vii. 3888. 
bewhape, v. a. vi. So, vii. 4267, viiL 3319, 

(pp. bewhapld, viii. 2955), bcwUder, 

bewounde, v. a.pp. v. 5008, viiL 1178. 

bewreie, v. a. n. 1530, v. 701, 2940, 
viii. 454, pp, bewrald, v. 6785, reveal, 

bewympled, /l^. v, 6913. 

bey^pe (3), v. reft. vii. 3096, boast (one- 

'>«y**'^ iiitp'''P- '- 434- 

bayete()), f. P. 304,784,!. 1 194, 3684, ii. 
3355. i*"' 1709. gain, property, posses- 

bible, s. P. 3S4, i- 2788, iv. i960, 2655, v. 
7035, vii. 3337, 3634, viii. 224. 

bldde, *. a. n. P. 458, i. t;84, 934, 1556, 
bldda hU bede, v. 6985, 3 s. pres. bit, 
i. 1310, iv. 1161, bldt, iv. 1163, 2802, 
prel. bad, P. 45*, i. 157, 1535, 3902, ii. 
1140, badd, vi. 1735, pi. bede, L 3048, 
iiL75o,blede,viii. 1507, ^rf/.w^y. bede, 
iv. 3905, vL 1356, imptrat. bldd, iv. 

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1434. V. 7S«8, pp. b«to, i. 813. 841, iiU 

I5$7, beden, 1. 3530; bid, command, 

invite, ask for, pray : cp. bi«da^ with 

■which bldde has been confused. 
biddings, J. l 3553. 
bide, 7/. n.,prel.\iod.,y'm. 519,3310, stay. 

3S65, command, demand: 1^. bidda. 
tden&lt, s. iii. 758, MenflBt, viL 3039. 
bleuvenue, s, ii. 1503. 
bile, s. iv, 3710, 3108, V. 6526. 
blUe-re, see believe, s. 
bills, s. viii. 875, 689, 2334, writing, 
blme, Me byme. 
blnda, bynde, v. a. n. i. 1633, v. 3606, 

viiL 281 1, 3 s. p. Mnt, vi. 72, pret. s. 

bcoid, V. 853, 5056, pi. boimden, v. 

151,^. bo»mde{n), i. 3538, iL 540, iii. 

blnhitdewe, v. a, viii. 3008* 

blsBohopricheB, s. pi. P. 3o3. 

bloM, s. vi. 990, fine linen. 

blto, V. n. ill. iig, prel. bot, vL 5. 

Blten, V. 1403. 

bitar, a. vi. 350, (j!^.blt«r,vi. 371, bitter, 

viii. 3356; the Utra (tu suist.), i. 

bitemesu, s. vi. ^44. 
bittarawata, s. viii. 191 ; ep, vi. 350. 
bind, blndd, s. nu 353, tv, 937. 
blak, a. iv. 1343, v. 4045, blaka, def. i. 

1 167, vec. iv. 2842, pi. iv. 3494. 
blame, J. i. 630,1017,3074, 3056; as a. i, 

blama(n),v.a.P.6o*,i. 3oS3,tob]ame(n), 

P. 538, i. 3054, V. S2JO. 
blMHwlaa, a. vii. 3816. 
bbuninge, s. v. 1455. 
bUmolie, a. f^/em.) vi. 339. 
blAM, V. n. iu 3949. 
blaaa, *■ v. 3510, 4089, viii. 3444. 
blast, s. i. IC69, 3411, iii. 419. 
bleobe, a. v. 3477, wan. 
blada, v. n. ii. 840, vL 1746. 
bleaohinge, s. vi. 205, 1S67. 
blenda, v. a.,j s.pres. blani, v. 2492, pret. 

blente, v. 3467, pp. blent, i. 1126, v. 

3165, blind, conceal. 
blease, v.a. i. 3418, v. 1238, (^.blaasld, 

viii. 3104) ; V, H. i, 620^ V. 5033, cross 

bleaaed, a. vii. 336a 

blewringa, s. iL 3^17, v. 1381. 

blsw,a. as suksi. iv. 1317, vii. ai88, bine. 

Mind, Wynd, a. i. 47, ii. 3$$, 759, v. 

980, bllnde, P. 139, def. i. 621, 3490, n. 

i823jl/.i,238,9a7,iii. 1465, v. 2959; tbe 

bllnda (blende), fUftt^j/. P. 536,1.3953. 

V. 536, cp. vii. 3470 : blind, deceitfi^ 
bUndlr, a^. viii. 3385. 
bllMe, s. i. 1771, V. 544, viii. 33. 
bUtlie,bl7tIia,«.ii.i8, 657, v.6140, viii. 939- 
UookM, s. pi. iii. 1033. 
Mod, s. L 2235, 3170, vi 840, vii. 4>33, 

blood, viL 433, 
blodi, a. P. 757, iii 1400, blody, ii. 86t. 
bl<iwa,v. a.n. P. 933, i 1065, 3133,3411, 

ii II33, 3134, V. 1818, j(r«/.blaw,Uea. 

i. 3143, iiu 1035, V. 5409, Mswlt, ii. 

3893, pi. blawe, vi. 3363, ^. blows, i. 

3398, IV. 735, vii 3041. 
blowlnga, s. iv. 3484. 
blytbe, JM blitlM. 
Urre, bllre, oiA/. iii. 1044, viii. 515, 

quiclcly; ala (■■) bljva, tv. 1854. v. 

3318, cp. vi. 1430: forthwith. 

boda, V. a. i. 3383, proclaim, 
bodi. body, s. P. 474, 99S. «- 977, P^- 

bodiea, iv. 1330, 3463. 
bodiU, bodily, bodalr, o. ii 3356, v. 193, 

1775, bodllielie, ii. 3344, vi. 397 : adv. 

bodily, ii 3969 («in person), iiu 767, 

bodely, iv. 97S. 
boiota, set bniata. 
bok,f. P. 18. il 868 (boofa, viii 3108), 

boo, viu 480, Inboke, iv. 978,;l/.bokM, 

P. 3, i. 24S8. 
boke, V. P. 51*, iv. 3664, viii 1338, 

record, write books, teach with books. 
bold, a. n. 1690, iii 1846, iv. 3193, pi. 

bolda, vii. 4355. 
bole, s. IV. 3II3, vii 1017, 3313, bull, 
bombard, s. viii. 3483, (a musical instiD- 

bon,j.i 1531, ii 3391, iii. 463, /Ul bona*, 

ii. 3303, vi. 3309. 
bond, s. ii 3113, iv. 894, pi. bondaa, P. 

503, ii. 3037, iv. 3105. 
bonde, a. vi. 74, botid (slave), 
bondwnan, s. viii. 1358. 
bone, .r. ii. 768, 1430, vii. 3899, petition, 

Boneflioo, Boq^Bb, ii 3940, 3950 ff. 

bor, s. vii 5355, boar. 

bord, s. i 2111, ii 689, iv. 400, viii. 730, 
pi. bordee, i. 2539, ii. 14261 iv. 3018, 
board, table ; iv. 1741, side (of a u>ip), 
■ohlpea bord, v. 3933, viii. 987, over 
bord, viii 114a 

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- 4799. ii- y»8, iv. 84;, v, 1710, fp. brtAe, P. 

6S3. n. 3394- 
bmme, v. a. n. P. 329, 1. 33^, ii. S, 23, 

iv. 830, 3 s. pret. br«nde, it. 9303, v. 

1 100, bronte, v. 1667, 3 pi- bmidea, 1. 

1 184. PP- bMnt, i. Z006, dtf. braite, v. 

7310, bum. 
brennynge, s, vi. 3332. 
bMT^j. P.4oa^i3. ^JW- 7 -J 

brert, s. P. 6fi7, 1. 6«, 1327, m. 30rt, 

V. i384,brle»t, vHi.'^i7S,breast,heart. 
Bratalgne, vii. 753. 
bretb, J. i. 119, 3137, ii. 530, iii. 289, iv. 

brewa, v. a. ii. 346, iii. 1626. 
BrexeldA,ii. 2455. 
brid, s. I. loi, 2703, bridd, i. 3088, pt. 

brlddM, i. tit, 1738. 
bridal, s. \. 1697, ii. 3009, iii. 1629, iv. 

1203, l»7d«l, iv. 1434. 
brldlfio, V. a. i. 2037, viii. 3707, 
briht, bryht, bright, a. v. 31 10, vii. 734, 

d^bryhta, v. 3169, brlghte, v. 3783, 

pi. brlhto, iv. 988, biTKhte, iii. 1039. 
bribte, bryhta, adv. v. 36, 3733, bryht, 

vii. 1857, eompar. brfhtere, brlbter«, 

iv. 1333% vi. 1525. 
brimme, s. v. 4968. 
bring*,*, a. P. 348, i. 1318, 1447, 3 s. 

prts. brijigth, P. 1082, prtt. brc^te, 

P. 760, ii. 1246, iv. 3951, broughte, v. 

^c)34,^.broght,P.633,i. 788, brought, 

lii. 604, imperat. bring, vi. 1738; 

bringenforth,iv. 3119, forth broghte, 

ii. 1346, broght aboute, iv. 3353. 
biingere, j. v. 345. 
brinks, s. i. 3310, 2980, iii. 1408. 
brooage, i. v. 341, 4426, 4590, viii. 3033. 
brooho, s. v. 6173, brooch, 
brooour, i. v. 4387 ff., 4573- 
brod, brood, s. ii. 3B3, v. 4375, brood, 
brod, a. iv. 3164, v. 6792, pi. brode, 1. 

1739, 1749, v. 1266, broad: aiu. v. 

1086, (broods, PP. 201). 
bnmd, s. v. 1485, 4089. 
brothsll, s. vii. 2595, worthless fellow. 
brothsr, s. P. lojo, i. 2071, PP. 266, 

genit. i. .2139, ii. 1197, iv. 3944, pi. 

brethren, v. 799, vi. k^?. 
brows, s. i. 1589, 1678, vii. 4418. 
bruatle, v. n. iv. 2732. 
Brut, P. 36*. 
bmtel, s. P. 877, brittle. 
Brutus, viL 4735 tf. 
bryd, J. i. 1788, bride. 
biTgantftlllft, t. P. 313, irregular troops. 

boid^ s. iii. 741, pi. bordea, 

viii. 1676, jest 
bordel, J. V. 1054, viii. I4iifr., brotfael. 
bordellsr, s. viii. 141 5. 
borwe, v. a. n. iv. 10, v. 6640, 7665. 
borwe, J., to borwe, iv. 774, 960, v. 3416. 
boat, J, iii. 208^, v. 3143, vii. 3483, boast, 
bot, s. P. 44*, I. i960, ii. 1108, bs bota, 

P. 40*, to bota, v. 3731 ; boat, 
bot, prep. viL 694, beyond ; conj. P. I3, 

56, 73 Ac, but, P. 63' f., 168, bot 

(- only), P. 4S4»i. 675, (- aniess) P. 

144. i- IS43. "■ 374, V. 473. ae . . . bot, 

i. 364, noght . . . bot, ii. 1587, bot it, 

P. 345, i- 441, 1546. bota (except), ii. 

3393, (but) V. 3015. 
bote, s. i. 28, 2233, ii. 3051, iv. 133, do 

bota, iL 3374, iii. 3373 : remedy, help, 
botaler, s. i. 3593, vi. 395 AT. 
Botaroadent, vii. 1419. 
bothe, s. viii. 170, booth, 
botha, a.pi. P. 159, i. 317, bothe tuo, P. 

1068, i. 851, bothan, i. 1S39, vii. 3469, 

oare herta bothe, iii. 147^, boths ftiac^ 

iii. 1471 ; ai adv. i. 1 106, iv. 1874. 
botma, s. i. 1961, bottom, 
bouele, s. v. 4137. 
boun, a. viii. 1407, PP. 17, ready, 
bounde, s, iv. 3506, vi. 634. 
bounde, v. a. Ii. 1754, vii. 560. 
bounte, s. V. 3595, goodness, 
bowe, s. i. 1967, ii. 151, 3234, 2956, iv. 

2983, bow. 
bowe, V. n. P. 153, i. 718, 1238, 1248, 

12S4, ii. 3225, iv. 1130, bow, bend, turn 

aside, submiL 
bowh, s. iv. 856, 1 33 1, pi. bowea, i. 2834, 

3902, bough. 
Bro^ffBUUia,//. v. 1453. 
brale, v. n. 1. 3037. ^ 

brain, s. i. 3568, iv. 107, bn^n, v. 1463. 
branohe, s. P. 346, iv. 3688, v. 1965, 

brannohe, L 3311. 
Branohua, i. 1438, 1456. 
Brangweln, vi, 473, 
braa, f. V. 610, i. 1087, iv. 336, 3473. 
breobe, s. v. 333. 
bred, s. ii. 1856, iii. 446. 
brade, s. iii. 1963, v. 5661, breadth. 
bteda, V. a. i. 543, iii. 1333, v. 7700, 
brelde, v. a. vii. 4333, braid, 
breide, v. a., pre/, iii. 1439, viii. 1377, 

bragge, s. v. 3305, vii. 3343, bridge, 
brake, v. a, P. 148, i. 1303, 1334, 1512 ; 

V. H. i. 1248, 1700, ii. 3008 : prel. brak, 



biyht, see briht. 

buck, s. iv. 1300, 1978. 

biiUlB, bulla, V. n. ili. 431, v. 1487, 

41Z1, pres. f). buUIende, v. 3221. 
buiosh, 5. i. 359, 2984, ii. 3356, biuBb, i. 

bulBBhelles, s.pL v. 3204. 
boiBHhemeDt, s. iii. 3089. 
buiata, bolste, f. V. 3594, viii. 507, 3814, 

Bulgarle, vii. 3291. 

buUe, r. ii. 2825, 2978, PP. 208, (pope's) 

barel, a. P. 52, simple. 
buTgelB, s- V. 72SSi ^"i- 543! ^'t'*""- 
buivh, s. P. 794i V. 3135, vii. 1690. 
Burgolgna, vii. 770. 

buraad, a. i. 3540, v. 31 10, 4339, polished, 
buxom, a. P. 153, v. 3807, obedient. 
buzoml7, ad-v. iii. 546, v. 3030. 

by, ad-v. i. 1803, iv. 1173, v. 4517, vii. 

4955i bi, iv. 397, by and by {in order), 

iii. 557, V. SS03, 7380, fute by, v. 298 : 

cf. bo, prep. 
byme, blme (=by me), ii. 3016, iii. 892 

(against me), 3703 (for me), iv. iiS3, 

1423 (to me}, 3369, V. 4484. 
bymia, a. ii. 771, blind. 

oaban, s. viii. 1051, 1601. 
cable, .F. i. ]o68, v. 443, viii. 634. 
oaoohe, v. a, iv. 3x83, pret, oawlit«, ii. 

I349i 1441< iii- 14^11 oauhte, v. 3934, 

pp. oawht, i. 16J4, 3277, oaght, ii. 

1746; I/. «. ii.3192. 
oadenoe, s. iv, 3414. 

Cadme, Cadmua, i. 339, iv. 2401 , v. 4273. 
cage, J. iv. 1191, 
oaltlf, s. i. 161, v. 2801. 
oake, J. vii. 3705 ff. 
Galoaa, i. 1085. 
oaloedoine, s. vii. 1431. 
oalolnaolon, i. iv. 3518. 
oaloulaolon (-onu), s. v. 30S5, 6459, 

Caldeo (country), P. 666, 717. v. 750,781, 

1593, Chaldse, vii. 3031; Caldee 

(language), iv. 2627, 
Caldoiu, p/. V. 787. 
oaldT<m, oaldxoun, s. v. 4117, 4141. 

Caleph, v. 1687. 

Galido7D«, iv. 2047. 

Caligula, viii. 302. 

oaliphe, s. (i), ii. 3549, caliph. 

oallpbe, s. [2), v. 391 S, (a kind of vessel). 

Callpsa, Calipse, vi. 1427, viii. 3599. 

CallAtoua, v. 6228 «. 

Calistre, vi. 3274, vii. 30. 

oalla, V. a. n. P. 136, i. 3459, 3146, ii. 

937, iii. 1436- 
oalm, a. vii. 4113. 
Calmana, viii. 6s, 71^ 
CalTua, P. 775. 
Cam, see Cham. 
CombiHas, P. 680, vii. 2893. 
oamelion, s. i. 3698. 
oamuBsd, a. v. 3479, flat-nosed, 
oaa, see oonns. 
Cauaoe, iii. 147 fT., viii. 3587. 
Cauahim, viL 566. 
Canoer, vii. 1051 fT., 1249, in Caoora, 

iv. 3342. 
Candaoe, v. 1571, 1575, 3543. 
Candalua, v. 1574. 
oaudarle, vi. 1317. 
oauele, s. i. 1704, cinnamon. 
Ganla maior, vii. 1345. 
Canlanduor, vii. 1356. 
oaiiolilnd,Mii- 3831, viii. 144, installed, 

appointed by canon. 
Capadooo, ii. 1332. 
CapaneuB, i. 1980. 
oaplteln, oapltaln, s. i. 1428, iii. 3421, 

vii. i2\o,fem. oapitelua, v. 1972. 
oapoun, s. v. 3408. 
Capra uUena, vii. 347. 
Caprioom, Caprioomua, iv. 3223, viu 

1170,1199, 1=53- 
oarbundle, s. i. 466, v. 7131*, oarbuu. 

oulum, vii. 1316. 
oardinal, .;. ii. 636, 2811, 3833. 
oare, j. L3516, iii. 1794,^/. caraa, iii. 299. 
oare, «. n. ii. 336, >. 1774, PP. iS, feel 

trouble, be distressed, 
oareote,!. i. 470, v.3588, vi. 2006, karaota, 

vii. 1571, charm, coDJura.tion. 
oarle, v. a. ii. 3648, iv. 3292, v. 1197. 
Cannente, iv. 3637. 
Carmidotolrs, vii. 3848. 
oarole, s. L 3730, v. 3146, karole, iv. 351, 

oarollea, pi. i. 27m. 
oarole, v. n. iv. 2779, vi. 868, 1845. 
oarolinge, s. iv. 1530, vi. 144. 
oarpe, v, n. vii. 3277*, converse; v. a. 

viii. 1488, utter. 
Cartage, iv. 61, v. 2048 ff., viu 3331, 2335. 

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OMTta, J. (i) P. 444. ii- 1974. iv. 987. 3233. 

vii. 8i6fr., (oitrt, PP. 11^), tba oarta 

wele, iii. 3074 ; car, dianot. 
oarte, s. (a) vii. 13S9, writing. 
oaa, s. P. 438, 746, i. 646, 3600, per ou, 

iv. 39, 1339, in oaa that, iv. 1917. 
CaaaAudra, Caaoandre, Cauaundre, v. 

7441, 7451.7569- 
Caaoodre, vii. 3161*, PP. 330, 
oaat, J-, ii. 2374. 
oaate, v, a. i. 40, 1322, 1 s. pres, oaate, 

i. 1965, oaat, iv. 560, 3 s. oast, i. 663, 

oastatii, iii. 80, pret. 

1575. 3IS9, ooat, i. 152, imperat. s. 

1. 438. ^'- oaatoth, i. ; ' '■ 

1666, viii. 2909, throw, defeat, conjec- 

3160, M 
w, defeat. 


719, ' 

1643, iv. 1108. 
ootel, s. V. 3^, oatell, vii. 3353*, goods. 
Catellne, vii. 1601. 
Catoim, vii. 1599, i6i3. 
oauaa, i. P. 16, 190, 905, i. 3437. whoa 

oauae, i. TO40 {for the sake of which), 

be thla o., i. 1053, be a that, ii. 343, 

2771, for o. o^ ii. 3285, bo o. 0% iii. 

1433. V. 1138 i bo oaueo {as conj.), iii. 

cause, V. a. P. 348, i. 1987, ii. 3078, iv. 

284s {3 s.pres. oaiufth, viii. 3013). 
oautole, t, vii. 1639, trick, 
cave, *. iv, 3991, v. 1573. 6813, viii. 

oedro, s. L 359. 
oelnte, s, iv. 857, girdle. . 
Celx, iv. 3928, Serix, viii. 3650. 
oelee, a. ii. 1953, secret (i. e. apt to keep 

oeleatlol, a. viii. 780. 

Geleatlii, ii. 3824. 

oelldolne, viL 1370. 

oelier, *. vi. 333, viii. 2354, cellar. 

CeUon, ii. 3350. 

oelleB, V. 1463. 

oendal, J. i. 1787. 

Gentaunis, iv. 1971?., i986,//.C0ntaurl, 

vi. S23. 

•entre, s. vii. 333. 
Cephalua, iv. 3189, 3253 ff. 
Coramlua, vii. S26. 
oerole, s. iv. 3337, v. 4093. 
Corerea, v. 1333, 1278, 1489, Cerea, v. 
1337, 4388. 

/. a, ii, 963. 

oorteln, a. 1.337, 1459, iv. 3919 (true), viii. 

S28, oertaln, iv. 2506, a certein man, 

i. 3130, iv. 435, oorteln thlngea, viii. 

365 ; as subsi. In oertein, i. 3215, ii. 

173S, V. 7819, In oertain, ii. 498. 
oertein, oertaln, s, P. 140, v. 200, vii, 

4754, certainty, fixed point, 
oerteinete, s. i. 48. 
oertelnlr, adv. il iill, iv. 180, oertein- 

llohe, iv. 942. 
oertea, adv. i. 138, 1295, iv. 1726. 
CeiTinon, viii. ii66ff., 1874. . 

Ceear, P. 714, v. 7107*, vii. 3449, V 

347a ^ 

oeaae, v. n. P. 1035, li. 3903, v. 1852 ; 

V. a. iv. 230, V. 5^66, PP. 76 : come to 

an end, retire ; bnng to an end. 
ohaoable, a. v. 1269. 
ohooe, s. i. 345, 2396, ii. 2634, iv. 19S9, 

(at tennb) PP. 295. 
ohaeed, see ohaae. 
ohaf, s. P. 844, ii. 85, 2127, iv. 1710. 
ohaSbre, s, v. 4532, 6114, merchandise, 
ohalera, s. P. 307, v. 3314, vii. i3o8, 

dhaler, viii. 763. 
Chain, viii. 60, 71. 
Choldee, see Coldee. 
oholk, J. P. 416, it. 2346. 
Cham, Com, iv. 3396, vii. 546, 577, viii. 

(dtomberere, s. 111. 826, iv. 1 193. . 
ohomberleln, s. ii. 726, 1233, iv. 2705. 
ohambre, j. i. 954. i737, 2S72. 2983. 
ChamoB, vii. 4J06. 
(ohampartie, iii. 1173. v. I) 
ohampion (-oun), s. vii. 3252, 3538. 
ohanoe, ohaunoe, s. P. 70, i. 1583, 1670, 

ii. 207, iii. 2720, iv. 722, 2792, p/. 

ohanoe^ vii. 3362, per (par) obaaoe, 

u. t644> iii- 3604. 
ohanoe, v. n. vii. 3336. 
ohonoellerle, s. v. 1931. 
change, s. vii. 3374*. 
ohonge, v. a. P. 119, 308, i. 2696, iv. 

1444, ohaunge, v. 7123 ; ».«,?, 32, 

628, 1. 3030, ohavince, PP. 315, 
ohapelet, s. v. 7066. 
ohapelle, ohapele, s. iv. 1 1 37, v, 7 1 10. 
ohapltre, s. v, 1959, vi. 617. 
ohapman, s. v. JiiSi pi- r' 

ohapDianhod(e), s. ii. 3067, iv. 3447, 
ohar, oharr, s. i. 3039 IT., iv. 1000, 1305, 

vii. SiLgrm't. oharea, iv. 1308, carriage, 

^arge, s. P. 301, 1 2823, ii. 1691, 2114, 

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iii. 173, iv. 149s, V. 836 ; no cduurge 

(no matter), ii. 1068, yttt In oluurg», iv. 

oborge, v. a. 1. 1333, 11. 1030, v. 7773, 

viii. 3103*, command, burden, trust ; iv. 

2343, btame. 
obarga, s. viii. 3066, duty, 
oharlte, s. P. 110, i. 2049, 3371, Chorlta, 

ii- 3i?3i ™. 3167, pi. ob«rlt«M, i. 3360. 
ohBfitouB, a. ii, 3339. 
oharke, v. n. iv. 3996, creak. 
Charlemeliie, P. 748, PP. 3S3, Chu-lea, 

P- 7Sa- 
oharme, s. v. 3580, 4067. 
obarr, see olutr. 
chartre, s. i. 3357. 
otuwe, V. a. vii. 303, pp. «luuMd, vii. 

oluwta, a. P. 338, i. 847, vii. 4344. 
ohaateUein, s. ii. 735. 
ohMteto, s. vii 4340, 5387, ohaatlto, P. 

ohavtie, v. a. 1. 3il7i 3900, 11. 38, punish, 

obaatiem.snt, s. vii. 3498. 

ohaMise, V. a. iv. 1343, vL 3217. 

oluMtlaliige, s. iv. 1376. 

obaatito, see ohastete. 

Ohatomux, vii. 1463. 

Chftuoer, viii. 2941*. 

ohauaoe, see ohaace. 

ohekv, s. i. 1680, iv. 185, 385, chieke, v. 
3471, viii. 3837, dieek. 

ohele, s. iii. 121, v. 7195*, vii. 638, chill. 

Chelidre, v. 4139. 

oheii«a,, v. 151, 681, chains. 

ahep, s., good obep, v. 1241. 

oberclie, s. P. 325, 346, &c., iii. 2375, 
(ohlr(^a,PP. io7,339),^mi/. tlieoh«r- 
ohe kele, P. 3iz, v. 1868,/tA olierohM, 
ii- 3477- 

ohera, see ohJers. 

cberle, see oblrle. 

oherl, s. iii. 1353, v. 148, viii. 13£7, 
ohsrles Icnape, viii. 1374. 

ohsBe, s. P. 416, ii. 3346, iii. 503, vi. 

olieM, V. a. ff. i. 1196, 1311, iBi9,pret. 
s. ohM, i. 3381, ii. 3457, pi. ohoM, 
P. 805, imperai. chra, i. 1829, pp. 
ahoM(n), i. 101, 3088, iv, 2091. 

ohMte, s. P. 315, iii. 4i7ff'., v. 541, con- 
tention (in words). 

diaranoe, s. v. 4424, 6106, profit 

chlda, ohyde, v. n. iii. 493, 534, 553, 
pp. chidd, iii. 474, 552. 

dhldingw, s. iii. 443, S^S- 

ohlef, a. ii. 3501, vi. 308, def. pi. tOtitt. 

V. 1 1 13. 

obief, s. P. 149, iii. 3365, chief thing ; ii. 
1778, iv. 4, leader. 

ohieka, see obxikn. 

ohiere, tsbvn, s. P. 155, i. I4t, 341, 
619, 1384, 3i73j ii. TOi, iii. 1081, iV. 
1408, chler, viii. 3684, face, ICMifcs, 
welcome: flrttndlf ohiers, i. 0423, 
harr e., i. 2871, 3148, fblgii«d &, i. 
734, cp. ii. 3061, tok o. on bonde, i. 
1767, make o., P. 155, ii. 2181, iv. 747, 
1 194, 'withonto Ifvea ohiere (i. e. life- 
less), V. 1501. 

oblered, a., h«vj dilerwl, viii. 3533. 

ohlavere, v. n. vi. 340, shiver. 

chlewa, v. n. iii. 1639, vi. 930. 

dhild, s. ii. 3206, 3258, ohylil, iv. 1843. 
1983, with ohilde, i. 916, ii. 919, e( 
ehllda, v. 1355,//. ohUdren, i. 9163, 
iu 3319. 

ehlldhode, s. a. 793, vin. 319, 

ofalldinge, s. \. 805, iv. 461, v. 839, child- 

ohlldly, a. v. 3030. 

ohlmlnee, s. vii. 3951, fire-place. 

ohin, obyn, s. i. 1682, vi. 775, vii. 1S92, 
unto the ofainne, ii. 3450, v. 372, 

ohlnohe, v. 4814, miser. 

ehlppea, s.pi, i. 1918. 

oblrle, oherle, s., etairle folie, P. 454, 
oherie foata, vi. 891. 

Chiro, iv. 197 1 fT. 

ebiCre, v, v. 5700, 6011, twitter. 

ohivalerie, s. P. 723, i. 784, 3463, ii. 
1836, iv. 1530, (ohevalarle, nii. 3007), 
cavalry, anny, prowess. 

ehivalarona, a. i. 1414, ii. 3^17, v. 653. 

eholB, s. i. 1837, ii. 3391, viii. 70. 

ohyme, v. n. iv. 347. 

Gbrmerie, iv. 3987. 

Chyo, V. 5413. 

Clooreo, vii. 1400. 

eilence, see ailcaioe. 

Clllena, Clllenn*, vii. 1599, 1607, Sib- 

Oillenua, v. 143, Silenus. 
Cilly, vi. 1434. 
Clmpheiua, v. 4137. 
CiniobuB, vii. zi 19. 
Clpto, vii. 4187. 

Olroea, vi. 1427, 1461 ff., viii. 3599. 
olroumfbrenoe, s. vii. 188. 
oiroumatanoe, s. ii. 619, iii. 3745, ^' 

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ollppa (2), V. a, V. 5690, cul. 

sloa, a. ii. 684 {M.), 1346, iv. 27115, in 

oloa,i. 1730: aSi.'n.i^, 3197, iiU769. 

iv. 133 1. 
oloM, v.a.\. I37S, iir. 2655, 3371, V. 340. 
alowt, s. i. 897. 
Clot«, vii. 1320. 
oloth, s. L 3II1, 2997, VI. IS34, 2431, 

2436, V. 383, 27S9, pi. oloth«s, iii. 695, 

iv. 1536. 
olothe(n), v. a. P. 466, i. 612, ii. 1377, 

pret. eUdde, viii. 653, pp. olothed, ii. 

302, 3271, &C., olad, iv. 27, 1306 ; refi. 

lii. 966 ; v.n. P. 317, iv. 3236 : dolhe ; 

be clothed. 
clotliliig(a], s. V. 314, vi. 989. 
Oloto, iv. 2762. 
oloude, t. iv. 3063, 331 1, v. 1668, viii. 

1039. {pl- olowdM, viii. 3007*). 
olowdy, oloudy, a. P. 925, iv. 2843. 
olu«, I. V. 5343. 

olTmbA, V. n. ii. 341, 1630, iv. 3726. 
Clyiaene, see Clemeiiee. 
ooo, 000k, He ook. 
Coohitum, v. ma 
Codriu, vii. 3183. 
ooev«re (i), see ootmw. 
ooovere (2), v. n. viiL i2ot, recover. 
ooltn, ooi>e, ooplira, s. P. 314, ii. 3357, 

V. 33, 3079- 
oolgn, s. V. 335, com. 
ooiena, V, a. iv. 2448, coin. 
oolM, s. i. 1734. 
ook (i), 000k, *. iv. 3003, v. 4099, viii. 

ook (2), 000, s. v. 4073, vi. 641, 716, pi. 

ookH, vi. 633, cook, 
ookard, s. v. 2803, tofA. 
ooksiis, t. iv. 2433. 
ookkel, oookei, v. 1881, 1SS4. 
oolblak, a. iii. 808. 
Colotkoa, V. 3265 ff., 4244, 4354, 66og, 

7199, viiL 2S3a 
oold, a. ii. 1966, drf. oolde, iv. 433, viL 

1305,//. oolde, iii. 399, iv. 405. 
oold, s. P. 977, i. 2431, iv. 1090. 
oolds, V. n, vi. 241, grow cold, 
oole, s. V. 6204, coaJ. 
GolliuMa, vii. 4806, 4911. 
oollaoioun, 3. iL 3328, iv. 1144, confer- 

ClropbanM, v. 1535, 1539. 

Cirua, P. 679, vii, 1889, 4367- 

olt, s. P. 836, city. 

oits, oltM, s. P. 106, 66s, ii- I344> ">- 

oitsMln, s. P. S43, 1. 1007, 11. f&o,/em. 

oiteselne, i. 1006. 
Clthero, iv. 2648, vii. 1597. 
oitole, viii. 829, 1487, 2679. 
ClvUs, ii. 83, the civil Uw. 
Ctello, i. 1841. V. 967, 973, 1379, Sicily. 
Ca»d7iiB, iv. 3407. 

olftmour, s. P. 514, v. 3394, viii. 2731. 
«Up«, s. iv. 347. 
ol*PPo. V, i. 3^91, V, 4640. 
olue, V. a. viiL 1544, declare, 
olarlmi, t. viii. 2482. 
OUudlna (Apius), vii. f ijsff. 
CUudlas (Marcbus), viL 5167?. 
cUum, s. vii. 85. 
olawtt, V. n. iv. 273;. 
(ol»), s.,pl. oles, i. 3994, iv. 1109, claws, 
ol«ima, see oleyme. 
OlemeoM, iv. 985, CljmMi*, v. 6756, 
ol«ne, a. ii. 3447 : aifv, i. 567, ii. 1413, vL 

119, cleene, iii. 2763. 
olumeMe, s. iv. 3S58, viL 4447. 
olenw, V. a. ii. 3463. 
GlMpatraa, viii. 2573. 
olepe, V, a. n. P. 126, 436, L 744i ii.849, 

3049, V. ijgoj prei. olepftdc, iv. S42, v. 

alar, see oli«r. 
olergMM, s. vi. 980, clergy : ep. Mireur, 

olargle, s. P. 381, 955, u. 3351, iv. 336, 

learning, clergy, 
olargonn, j. ii. 2850, 
olerk, olero, s. P. 53, i. 2274, iv. 334, 

pi. olwkea, P.