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Full text of "Engraved gems; their history and place in art, in which is embodied the author's former treatise, with extensive revisions and additions; reminiscences of travels in the pursuit and acquisition of engraved gems ... to which is added a descriptive list of the author's cabinet of gems, forming a compend of Greek and Roman classics and antiquities .."

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ENGRAVED GEMS 



THEIR HISTORY 



AN ELABORATE VIEW OF THEIR PLACE IN ART 



BY 

MAXWELL SOMMERYILLE 




miustratrti 



PHILADELPHIA 

PUBLISHED BY THE AUTHOR 

1889 



Copyright, 1889, 
BY MAXWELL SOMMERVILLE. 



ELECTROTYPED BY PRESS OF 

IBrstcott a f bomson. ^bil.iScIpbia. Sbttiiran * tfo., |lbiliit)tl()hra. 



ENGRAVED GEMS 



Their History and Place in Art 



IN WHICH IS EMBODIED 



THE AUTHOR'S FORMER TREATISE. WITH EXTENSIVE REVISIONS AND 

ADDITIONS; REMINISCENCES OF TRAVELS IN THE PURSUIT AND 

ACQUISITION OF ENGRAVED GEMS: ALSO INTERESTING 

rNCIDENTS OF THEIR SUBJECTS; 



TO WHICH IS ADDED 



A DESCRIPTIVE LIST UF THE AUTHOK'S CABINET OF GEMS 



A COMPEND OF GREEK AND KOMAN CLASSICS AND ANTIQUITIES 



ILLUSTRATED WITH lOO ORIGINAL DRAWINGS BY THE AUTHOR 
AND WITH OVER SCO FACSIMILES OF HIS GEMS 



PHILADELPHIA 
MAXWELL SOMMERVILLE 

1889 



TO 

MY CONSTANT COMPANION IN MANY CLIMES, 
MY DEAR WIFE, 

THIS TRIBUTE, MY LIFE'S LABOR, 

IS 
LOVINGLY DEDICATED. 

MAXWELL SOMMERVILLE. 



PREFACE. 



Little consideration has been bestowed upon Cameos and 
Intao-lios in tins Western World. With our increased oppor- 
tunities for intellectual culture and the enjoyment of art, the 
development of refined tastes and pursuits in this country has 
been marked bv the formation of many private collections. 

Impelled by the desire for acquisitions in manuscripts, 
armor, porcelains, enamels, engravings, etc., we have diligently 
searched the continent of our ancestors, and in the pursuit ot 
antique additions to our cabinets have even more earnestly 
penetrated the realms of Ranieses and Thothmes, Phidias and 
Praxiteles, Dioscorides and Theodorus of 8amos. These treas- 
ures, culled by various tastes, have each their devotees — zealous 
collectors of pottery, iridescent glass, ])orcelain, enamels, etc.; 
gleaners of etchings; enthusiasts in bronze, storing up relics 
of the altar, vessels, and vases, lunisehold gods, and even 
fragments of fragrant censers; collectors of inscriptions, auto- 
graphs, medals, and coins ; helping women, amateurs of lace, 
treasuring remnants of Doges' nicfhUa and chancel webs 
of Venetian handiwork, — each engrossed in their particular 
branch. 

I too have found a pleasant jiath leading to where are 
gathered stones — engraved stones, art-links in a carved chain 
reaching beyond that \\onderful stone book, the temple of 
Edfoo. 



8 PREFACE. 

]\Iv treasures are now placed on view at the Meti'opolitan 
]\hiseiira of Art, Central Park, New York. Many will cast 
only a passing glance. Pray, some of you come with me and 
see there is reason and pleasure in my pursuit. \\ c Avill walk 
n])()n the t'rundded ruins of hyg'one centuries; our retrospective 
view shall l)e where changing elements, rust, and age have 
S])ared hut traces t.i'i palaces and temples : we \\ ill stroll Ijcside 
a ra2)id stream until we reach a grove where I have oft tmnied 
in and found a ri(di re})ast : no shrines, no obelisks, no statues, 
naught Ijut these jirecious little stepping-stones, hy which we 
Avill cross the stream, and in the vale of antiquity, with these 
miniature luomuuents, study and enjoy the indelilde \)ov- 
traiture of ages. 

After Years of personal effort, and the opinions of savants 
in France, Germany, Italy, and Greece, I returned to this 
countrv sujiposing that my fund of information in regard to 
a numl)er of inscribed gems -was suiiiciently complete. How- 
ever, with the valuable aid of Dr. Isaac H. Hall, Gurator of 
the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, errors ha\ e been 
corrected and several very interesting inscriptions have been 
deciphered b\- him, revealing alike messages inun ancient 
time and pinxing his \\<indcrful power of disentangling gem- 
riddles. 

I would acknowledge valualde assistance in defining the 
substances on which the gems are engraved, from my triend 
Prof .Tosei)h Leidy of the University of Pennsylvania : other 
scientists are credited in the text for their im])ortant aid, which 
is here gratefidly acknowledged. 

:\iAXWELL som:\ieryille. 



S. W. cor. Seventh and Clieirv streets, 

Pmi.ADELI'llI.V. 




CONTENTS. 



PREFACE 

ExGRAVKD Gems: their Socrce and History 13 

Egyptian, 41.— Chaklean, Assyrian, and Balivloniaii Cylinders, 46. — Assyrian, 
Persian, and Sassanian Seals, 53.— Etruscan, 61.— Phoenician, 6.5.— Grecian, 
68.— Grfeeo-Eonian, 75. — Roman, 79.— Abra.xas, SO.— Byzantine, 84.— Chinese, 
88.— Aztec or Mexican, 89.— Night of Art, 90.— Renaissance, 100.— Succeeding 
Centuries, 105.— Retrospective, 107.— Religion on Stones, 110.— Animals and 
Birds, 115.— Historic Cameos, 118.— Mythological, 121. 

Reminiscences of Teavels 125 

The Story-Teller, 129.— Bazaars of Tangier, 138.— Three Amphoric, 144.— Portugal, 
148.— Eastward Ho! 153.— Naples. 157.— Egypt, 158.— Deserted Halls, 160.— 
The Old Potter, 169.— Memnonium, 173.— Assouan, 179.— Nile Cataract, 181.- 
An Enigma, 182.— Ostrich-feather Dealci-s, 190.— Aboo-Sirabel, 201.— Elephant- 
ine Island, 207.— Karnak and Thebes, 208.— Tombs of the Kings, 213.— Cairo, 
214.— Our Daoud, 210.— Harem Life, 226.— Whirling Dervishes, 233.— Suez 
Canal, 241.— Syria, 242.— Jerusjilem, 245.— Nazareth, 552.— Dama,scus, 261. 
— Baalbec, 264.— Mount Lebanon, 207.— Athens, 268.— Constantinople, 282.— 
Howling Dervishes, 292.— Bazias, 299.— Greek Shoes, 299.— General Dealers, 305. 

iNTERESTIXfi ISCIDESTS OF SUBJECTS OF EkgRAVED Ge.MS 329 

.Esoulapius and Telesphorus, 330.— Education of Bacchus, 332.— Statues of tlie Nile 
and Tiber, .-iSe.— Eleven Thousand Virgins, 340.— Carlberg Gypsies, 344.— 
Valankoff's Story, 347.— Belgium's Contribution, 355.— Astragalus, 363.— France, 
37 1. —Hilda's Tower, 379.— Abra.xas in Contrast with Christianity, 381.— 
Campagna and Oil-dealer, 382.- Rome, 393.— Lucius, tlie Golden Ass, 399. 

Celebrated Cameos of European Museums 421 

Fac-simile Letters from Eminent French Savants 

Catalogue Raisonxe of Engraved (Iems 

List of Illustrations 

Index 



433 
453 
775 

777 



ENGRAVED GEMS. 

THEIR SOURCE AND HISTORY. 




EXGRAVED GEMS. 



THEIR SOURCE AND HISTORY. 



Tj^NGRAVED GEMS come to u.s tlirougli centuries remote 
' ■* from our era, the c[uality ot" their execution approaching- 
perfection, and degenerating as in a geometrical progression 
repeating itself in reverse; advancing and improving in fineness 
up to nearlv the end of the tirst century, the century of Christ, 
and from the beginning of the second century retrograding to 
the base of mediocrity in the end of the fifth century. Tlic 
sixtli and seventh centuries, the Byzantine period, yielded a 
group of ])rincii)allv religious cameos, abundant and curious, 
to my taste of great interest. 

13 



14 ENGRAVED GEMS. 

This was succeeded by several Inuidred years, not of repose 
in the art, hut of wretched ignorance, wlien man ahnost ceased 
to create a connecting hnk in the liistory of the glyptic art. 
With rare exceptions, aU specimens of that time scarcely merit 
the designation of gems : it was a period that may he reason- 
ably identified as the night of art, when, alas! in the darkness 
blows were stricken which destroyed and reduced to fragments 
much that was ])recious and beautiful, and vandalism, contrilj- 
uting nothing that was fair, robbed us of a large part of our 
inheritance. 

The progression alluded to is, in my estimation, only a 
question of comparative beauty. If we seek for, or are capa- 
ble of appreciating, the most interesting, that which gives us 
historv, we must find it at the beginning of tliat progression — 
the era of the Babylonians — with its messages handed down to 
us on their wonderful cylinders. 

In collections of cameos, intaglios, seals, and other gems of 
relative completeness we usually find before us specimens of 
the handiwork of at least twenty centuries of ii/civori of all 
trrades of execution — ten centuries b. c. and ten centuries in 
the years known as a. n. Can any complete exhibit be made 
of house-construction, metallic or faience household vessels, or 
of tissues or woven materials, representative of those eras? 
Where are the weapons of the clnNalrons hosts of Agamem- 
non and Nero, their chariots, or any part of them; the trap- 
pings of horses or other beasts of burden ; the paraphernalia 
of their medicine-men and surgeons ? True, there exist a few 
surgical instruments in corroded bronze, Roman of the hrst, 
second, and third centuries a. d. Where can we see ancient 
pieces of their household fiu'nitnre ; their costumes of body, 
head, or feet ; their nuisical instruments, their agricultural and 



SOURCE AXD HISTORY. 15 

all other meclianical implements ? where the craft that floated 
on the ^Egean Sea, or even a spar of them? 

The avocatiiiii (ir profession of Cameo or Intag-lio engraver 
was one commanding high respect, because the profession was 
difficidt, retpiiring great talent and nuich skill. Tryphon on 
commission engraved for his sovereign a signet intaglio, a 
group of mythological divinities emulating with one another 
to laureate a figure representing his royal ])atron, and repre- 
senting him as the divinity of power over nearly all the then 
known eartli. The geni tinislicd, his sovereign was content; 
nothing could have gratitied him more than the thought that 
this superb work of art, cut in indestructible jacinth, should 
as his seal be handed down to all generations. He called the 
incisore to his presence, bestowed great honors on him, making 
him to be esteemed bv men who were almost heirs of royalty. 
How think von Trvplion was most honored ? His sovereign 
permitted him to engrave his signature, his name, uj)on the 
gem, and thus commemorate himself perpetually. 

In that day Polemon ^^as ajipreciating what,to-day, nineteen 
centuries later, I show you in my collection. 

It is probably well to define the objects. Cameos and Inta- 
glios, which are the subjects of the following treatise. 

A cameo is a raised figure or group cut upon a stone of one 
or more strata or layers, in one or many colors, thus producing 
a picture in relief. The word seems to be derived from camaut,^ 
which in Arabic signifies the hump of a camel. 

An intag-lio is a desijrn engraved en-crcn.r — cut out, sunken — 
to be best seen on its impress in wax or plaster ; intaglios were 
oriffinallv intended for seals. 

* Dictionnaire de la Conversation, etc. etc., ParLs, 1S53, p. 279. 



16 ENilltA VED UEMS. 

The iiit;ii;li()-('ntter iimst contiimtilh' coiisnlt iinpvessioiis, 
by wliicli means only lie can judge of tlic advancement and 
qualitv of liis work, wliilc on the cameo lie raises or lowers the 
materia] and sees continually the progress of his picture. 

]\Ian\- tine cameos in the collections of the National JJbrury 
and the l.ouvre at Paris, the Im])erial Cabinet of Vienna, the 
museums of Dresden, St. Peterslturg, and London, ai-e cut on 
stones of (tne color, amethysts, carnelians, emeralds, topaz, etc. 
etc., but most of them are upon sardon\ x, agate, chalcedonv- 
onvx, etc. etc. — .stones of manv bands or strata.' 

It is interesting' to observe with what skill engravers of 
cameos have arranged 'their subjects and availed themselves of 
maculated or spotted stones, emploving and distributing the.se 
irregularities and zones of C(dor in heightening and beautifving 
their effective pictures — using one stratinn for the diadem, 
others in succession for the hair, beard, di-apery, complexi<ni, 
profile, and, last, for the background; as in the cameo, Socrates 
about to take tlie poisonous draught, Xo. 1102, Case R Iv R, the 
artist has profited 1)V a colored spot in the stone and employed 
it to make the bowl; in the cameo No. oH, Case 1), the macu- 
lation is wonderfully utilized : the nymph is white, the satyr 
of dark grevish-red; Cupid's head and the tips of his wings 
are of a rich l>urnt-sienna tone, while the shrul)bery behind 
is of a reddish-brown ; in the Oriental chalcedony cameo 
of Pluflms guiding the chariot of the sun, No. 2, Case A, 
PIkcIius is of a flesh color which has paled imder the jiatina 
of age: the horses are marked as those in Guide's Aurora; 
wdiile the foiul^ or base of the cameo, held to the thiy, gives 
the golden glow of the sunlight; on the cameo set in a ring. 
No. 1()S2, Case P P P, the Pluvnix rises from brilliant l)laziiig 

' One in iiiv collection, Xo. 1U73, Case V P P, lias eight strata. 



SOURCE AND HISTORY. 17 

flames, also acquired by skilfully utiliziu-' the natural macula- 
tiou of the stone, wliich (.-vidcntly was selected tor the design. 
Again, the eanieo No. 698, Case Q Q, the I'allas of Troy, the 
owl with its feathery suit forming the head-tbess : observe its 
white beak, dark eyes, the phuuage of its head, deeper in color 
than that on its body and win-s. The laureation of emperors 
and of bacchanalian heads; the rose tint of health upon fair 
cheeks,— all these charming eflects are the result of artistic 
arrangement and utilization ..f the varied beauties presented 
bv nature in the agates and onyxes. 

Uur subject is engraved stones, not gold ornamentation; 
but as gems could not well be carried without some metallic 
setting, I will make this passing reference to rings, the principal 
means of displaying and wearing them. We meet with seal- 
i-ino-s amonff the relics of ancient Greece, and we know that six 
hundred rears b. c. rings in bronze, silver, and gold were almost 
in universal use. 

The fashion was first adopted by the Roman rulers as a con- 
venient means of preserving and employing their intaglios. At 
first their use was restricted to the emperors, who assumed the 
rio-ht of o-rautino' the distinction to others, for it was actually 
esteemed and given as a badge of nobility. The privilege was 
onlv oranted to men in authorit\-: ambassadors wore gold rings; 
it was part of their official regalia, as w ith cardinals in the pres- 
ent da\-. Senators, chief magistrates, and military officials 
next received the right: but in time it was extended to all the 
armv of the empire and to citizens, many of whom wore iron 
rin<'s and even to men who had been bondsmen: an interesting 
instance is that of the liberated slave Philogenis, whose seal 
will l)e found in my collection, Xo. 915, Case F F F. (See 
article Rome in "Interesting Incidents of Subjects," page 396). 

2 



18 ENGRAVED GEMS. 

TliiYvuiili the valued friendship of ^[. E(hiiond Le Bhmt, 
late president of rAcadeniie des Inserijjtion.s de Flnstitut de 
?\ance, I have been led to look with much interest on all the 
Clu-istian yenis, either such as 1 have found in a few of the 
national museums, in private cabinets, or such as I have myself 
actpiired. There are quite a number in the little museum of 
Ravenna, so seldom visited and Aet meriting observation and 
studv, especially for their imdonbtable Christian character. 
True, some of these gems are ornamented with I'ather ill-drawn 
and grotesque subjects — figured in a position of adoration or 
with the hands held together as in prayer, generally accom- 
panied bv two or more Greek crosses — the Holy Spirit ex- 
emplified bv the gentle dove ; palm branches, pastoral groups, 
or the significant lamb alone ; the good pastor tenderly bearing 
the lamb ttpon his shoulders or in his bosom, followed or 
surrounded bv others; figiu-es pressing a book to the bosom 
or heart, the sentiment being love for the manuscriiit Testament 
of life; a series of scenes from the incident in the life of Jonah 
— the banpie Avhence he was thrown, the great fish, Jonah 
expelled from the whale's mouth ; the monogram of Christ (see 
No. 583, Case II, obverse and reverse); the dove carrying the 
olive liranch (see Xo. 5S2, Case II); annilet — obverse anchor 
and fishes, reverse palm branches ; the sacrifice of Isaac by 
Abraham (see Xo. 7, Case A). 

One feature strongly marks this series of Christian gem- 
tokens: tlKHigh following so closely on the era of mythology, 
the emblems have not the slightest tinge of those superstitions : 
they may be very simple, but they are orthodox, and are im- 
bued with love of the newly-known ]\Iediator, our Saviour; 
there are also of this period many fine chalcedonies, amethysts, 
sards, etc., which have onlv for embellishment inscriptions of 



SOURCE AXD HISTORY. 19 

mottoes, as " (tu;ii(1 against iutcinpevaiice," "Be viji'ilant, rurb 
tli\' will :" also -with sentiinciits nt' kiml wishes for the New 
Year: other iiiscrilKMl stones i^iveii in troth, as " To thee with 
iiiv soul," or " M\' licaiitit'nl soiil," ami the t'l'ccjueiit iiKd/i hi Jcfic, 
afHanced liands. These wirh iniiinnerahle other syniliols of 
Christianity compose the suite known as Christian g-eins. 

The general suhjects of engraved stones set m rings will he 
given in their place. The character of the designs on rings 
worn hv the earK' ( 'hristians was peculiar to their lives and in 
conformity with the purity ami simplicity of their faith. In my 
collection are sufficient examples — fishes, doves, pahn-branclies, 
anchors, crosses, etc. etc. 

Among their designs was found nctthing savoring of glut- 
tony or the inebriating cui) : they were free from mythological 
fio-m'es; in a wortl. they were end)lems fitting the followers of 
tlie Immble Nazarene. 

From the eai-liest historic times we find evidences of a dis- 
position to adorn the human form, displayed in the most primi- 
tive apparel and donnciles of man. Though the decorative 
ornaments preserved to us from Assp'ia, Babylon, and Persia 
possess little beauty of design or finish, their value is en- 
hanced by their durability and the historic tidings they 
bring us. 

With the reign of Alexander our admiration is enlisted by 
the interesthig miniatures of regal and princely })ersonages; 
and under his successors by the more beautiful qualities in 
gem-subjects, representing senators, orators, and poets, mitil 
we meet with tbe earliest cameos, presenting portraits that can 
certainly be recognized; the Vienna cameo of Philadelphus and 
Arsinoe, and, b. c. loo, the heads of Demetrius Soter, king of 
Syria, and Laodice, his wife. 



20 ENGRAVED GEMS. 

Experience, ;unl the indestructible objects accumulatino- 
throu^li art-sources around tlieni, tauf>-ht men that the o-reater 
monuments — temples, tbrums, statues, inscriljed arches and 
colunnis — intended to record and ])eri)etuate tlie tbrms, fea- 
tures, and costumes of the races, were all subject to corrosion 
and the annilnlating force of vandalism. The fact that under 
these very ruins they unearthed the legacies of earlier genera- 
tions convinced them of this better means of ti-ansmitting to 
posterity their records. 

Anon came to light graven stones, lesser yet more endiuing 
monuments, luipretending gems long buried from view, veiled 
from admiration. Some were found with germs of corn guarded 
within the nuunmv's wra])])ing — to live again ! 

Among others, a stone with legilde inscription, which had 
for aa-es silentlv awaited the fulfilment of its mission, was 
raised from its l)ed of scoria, and as a vane i)ointed by prevail- 
in o- ^^•illd it led to yonder hill in Talaura of Pontus, -vA-here in 
rocky crevice lav the graven treasures of ^lithridates. There 
were hundreds of onyx vases, amulets, caskets; chalice and 
tankard: trappings for man and beast, for royal breasts; boots 
and stirrups, — all garnished with engraved gems. 

These rewards of diligent seekers passed into the possession 
of progressive rulers, who displayed them as models, cultiva- 
ting the tastes of the ])eople, giving special ]iatronage to gem- 
engravers; even beginners and inexperienced practitioners were 
encouraged. Tims a love for the art was fostered. Many be- 
came enamored with the jjursuit, and as the quality of execu- 
tion improved the demand increased; enmlation made some 
masters. Augustus reigned. The glyptic and all the finer arts 
rose to their sublimest apex. 

The Romans attracted and transported by concjuest the 



SOURCE AXD HISTORY. 21 

gi'eatest and purest works of art from Greece, Asia Elinor, and 
Egvj)t, ('Xi)ending- enormous sums to adorn the magnificent 
editices of the capital of their vast empire. 

For the skilled artists of the despoiled pro^'inces there was 
no alternative but to follow their works to the great art-centre 
of the world. They knew also that the galleries, libraries, and 
saloii.^ of tliese structures were to be sumptuously decorated 
with the classic achievements of excellent masters in pictures 
and sculptures in marble and bronze; and wherever they could 
be applied the meritorious works of gem-engravers Avere most 
in demand. 

Thus artisans from many nationalities worked harmoniously 
under the brilliant panoplv of art founded in the Eternal ("ity, 
around wliich all the world assemlded to stTidy. admire, and to 
create. 

Writers on this theme in tlie English language have con- 
tributed and indorsed the opinions of Eurojjcan glyptogi'aphers 
on the ancient engraved gems, with the accepted theories on 
their execution. The\' have inferred nnicli nnsterA- in regard 
to the means eniploved to ])ert'ect designs on materials so hard. 
It seems to me the superior residts achieved b\- the earlv gem- 
sculptors can be explained by simplv according the merit due 
to them. They laljored with infinite patience, and with ttntir- 
ing practice acquired the skill — not oidv that wliicli is di.s- 
plaved in form and featnre, but with eagle vision and svmpa- 
thetic ]iower thev infused sentiment into their sitbjects. It is 
under the privilege of sm-mise that I venture to print mv 
opinion : tlie human race has to some extent degenerated 
phj-sicallv in eighteen or twentv centuries. 

I claim to know Dioscorides, Pyrgoteles, and other great 



22 ENGRAVED GEMS. 

g'em-engravers of tlicir eva l)v reason of years of contact with 
their art-works: no one will doulit tli;it I was not there and 
never saw Dioscorith^s at his bench oi- lathe, as has l)een niv 
])leasure with eminent iiirisori^ of this centnry ; yet I modestly 
make the conjecture that he and his contein])oraries had far 
greater power of vision than is enjoyed Ijy any mortal eyes 
of the nineteenth centnry. 

I do not think thev j)Ossessed any secret of mechnnicnl art 
now lost. It is }nv impression tlicA' hnd iu;\cliiHer\', and that 
more effective than has been accredited to them. It is known 
that the potters wheel was nsed bv the ('hinese seven cen- 
turies 1!. ('., whence it passed into Egypt, thence into Greece, 
and later into all Southern Europe. The Etruscans availed 
themselves of this power by carrving the bidt directly from 
the perpendicular wheel to a horizontal sj)indle, in which they 
adjusted their drills Avitli which they made the cavities so 
distinctly visible in their unfinished scarabei and intaglios. 
The invention of the lathe is ascribed to Tlieodorus of Samos, 
B. c. <!<»(). History mentions the use of the drill by engravers 
in Pha'nicia, B. c. GOO. 

The Romans with this rotating force at their command, 
alreadv emploved in several branches of industry, applied it 
to a grinding disk of lironze or iron encrusted with sparks of 
iidamnnt, which, being ra])idly revolved, enabled them more 
(juicklv and practically to give the first form to the hard and 
otherwise intractalde substances u})ou which they were to 
engrave their (daborate designs — a more rapid ]>rocess than 
reducing the stone b\' rubbing it on a j>late of iron coated w'ith 
connidiiiii-(hist and oil, -which was also employed. The first 
di'aw ini;- was e\identl\' made with impleiiicnts similar to those 

' Years uf delijrhtt'ul intercoms^ witli tivt- of tlie Laiizi Fratelli at Kunie. 



SOURCE AXD HISTORY. 23 

still known In' the Romans as the Jxtttini'i and the jmllino or drill. 
I have frequently seen them among the antique bronze tools 
occasionally excavated in the Campagna and brouglit into 
Rome l)v the toi/f/i/Hiu, and said to he surgical instrinnents/ 

This was onlv hewing the block into shape: when the 
truh" artistic power was brouglit into requisition, the tine 
engi-aving of the features, hair, and other details, was exe- 
cuted witli iron or bronze gra\ers with points or blades made 
of corundum. Oriental ametlivst, and other hard minerals; 
thev were boMK done, as ]tv a wood-engraver of the present 
day.'- These fragments were ol)tained by breaking the minei'als 
to splinters with a hamnu^r. 

In regard to the fine polish so often referred to as evidence 
of antiquity, there are men to-day in Rome who can produce 
the same eftects, with lustre e([ualling those done in the bright- 
est days of the art, with this ditference : the modern polish is 
made on the completion of the work, while even unfinished 
anti(pu' intaglios possess that quality. 

From painters in oil coloi's, with binishes and canvas, we 
expect and receive greater results, but only in proportion to 
the facilities possessed Ijy them, and certainlv not so endur- 
ing. How few of them reach the staiulard of true art ! In 
this field the perfect man in art is he on whose mind stu(U- has 
impressed every feature of the sea, the sky, the land, and the 
lineaments of the dwellers thereon. He knows the sea, its 
restless briny water; the color, shape, and motion of the cloud, 
mist, spray, siirf, and waves; the storm-washed rock: the bark 
placidly and jovouslv borne on the tran([uil deep: tlie ship 

' E.tamine cameo, umloubtedly in first stale of execution. Xo. 182. Case L, t'lamliiis, in 
my collection. 

'Observe the emerald of Maximinus Pius, Xo. 9(J5, Case III, in my collection. 



24 ENGRAVED GEMS. 

tossed (in hillows 1)V a force he keeiil\' cini depict, lie jiictuvcs 
tlic vcrx wind: knows tlie cdldi-s neutralized by haze or sprav 
or deep salt wave ; here catches and depicts a strngglino' sun- 
heam; there feels and throws the ])idl of gray cloud and hlack- 
ening blue upon the waves that matlly shake a crnft : he shows 
the struggle: the mists arise, the spray beats down: men on 
deck, men aloft; frenzy everywhere; the scpiall goes ([uickh- 
bv : sunbeams striving to console: birds in fright and flight; 
dauchig masts, fluttering snils, ;nid (piivei-ing rojies, stretching 
out to the line of hope m the horizon. 

He notes all these full well, and, turning his thoughts 
inland, portrays a forest, great mountains, deep dells, a verdant 
meadow, blue sky, yellow blossoms, red cows,^ — nil seeming to 
live. He bids you hear the falling leaf, smell the rich pasture, 
hear the cattle low, the liirds sing ; enlists yom- interest in the 
boy who guards the herd; makes }'OU feel the effort of the 
hand that fells mi oak to cross the stream : heli)S you to see 
and admire nature. 

With the same pigments he grouits ])lebeinus, courtiers, and 
kings, maidens, mati'ons, and queens, husbandmen and war- 
riors; plodding tillers of the helil, enriching the clod with toil; 
men-at-arms clashing and crushing and wounding, staining the 
soil with gore; and in the quiet of his home doth he create 
these great cartoons, this master-ixiet, this true genius, this 
artist. We acknowledge his proficiency, yet he has many 
colors at his command and choice, and pencils to spread them 
where he will ujion his panel or his canvas. 

When we consider the difificidties with which the gem- 
sculptors had to contend, we should accoi-d to them a position 
foremost in the art of delineation, 'i'heir limited palette of 
colors was locked in the hard endirace of the stones, the strata 



SOURCE AND HISTORY. 25 

(if wliicli tlipv had to utilize in creating their pictures; and yet 
they knew and well portrayed the varied features of their 
fellow-men with all their emotional types and characters, — 

Eves that seem to see, g-lowing- with benevolence, genial 
witli mirth, twinkling Avith cunning, wavering with corruption, 
tiriu with tvranny; 

Cheeks cushioned with A'outli, dimpled with beauty, sunken 
with age or asceticism ; 

Brows with the breadth of dignity, sealed with the signet 
of intellect, roval with kingly ])Ower, frowning with brutality, 
gentle with womanly loveliness ; 

Lips smiling, almost speaking, uttering contempt, rigidly 
closed, taciturn ; 

Heads laureated with imperiid bands, Ijald with niuch 
philosophy, worn with deep thought, glowing with the inspi- 
ration of poetry ; 

Faces emotional with anger, scorn, joy, sorrow, mirth, 
divinity ; 

Forms living, moving,' thinking; 

Satyrs and forms grotesque with hilarity ; faces, only 
masks; dread Medusas, full of terror; Bacchanals, merrily 
lighted, with the juice of the grapes twined in their tresses; 

Symbols of wisdom, power, vigilance, subtlety, truth, 
eternity ; — 

All imwittingly bequeathed to us Ijy those patient minia- 
turists of physiognomy, \\1h( have given better models than 
ever Lavater has pencilled tor us. 

The Greek and Roman artists soixght the honor, not only 
by commissions, but volinitarily, of portraying their emperors, 

' Observe No. 253, Case O, in my cnllection, a cameo by Santarelli, 1797 A. D. Lean- 
der's head seems rising, actually moving, wiili the swell of Ibe wave or sea. 



26 ENGRAVED GEMS. 

covmcillors, and men of letters : suoli was their innate appre- 
ciation of poetr\' and ])]nlosop]iy, the\" emnlated one another 
in engraving caiiicos and intaghos of ^'irg•il, Plato, Aristides, 
Socrates, Arist<)tle, and others celebrated in the professions. 
Alexander the Great allowed onh* TAi-o-oteles to eno-rave his 
portrait on gems. 

It is wortliN' of I'cmark, the artists were so engrossed with 
their pleasure-giving work they finished every jiortinii of it with 
the care of masters liefore allowing it to pass from their hands. 

Through the glyptic art we are in ])ossession of the best 
illustrati(tns accompanying and handing down to us the tradi- 
tions of heath(Mi myth<dogv. Many of the gods in statuary 
were destro\ed b\' partisan disbelievers, but the hands of the 
destroying iconoclasts passed smootlily and sparingly over 
these little deities in polished st()ne : like the pocket reliquaries 
and folding altars of the Greek Church, these miniature idols 
were carried on the persons of their devotees and often worn 
as am^dets. 

"We can imagine that many of them were designed and 
engraved by faithful adherents, and weic tims indelibly in- 
scribed contemporaneously with, and IVom, tlie very minds 
which conceived and instituted the creeds, and that those Avho 
created Jupiter and duno, Ceres and Bacchus, Hercules and 
Deianira, Apollo, Isis, and Horus, had in tlieir synods or coun- 
cils gly])tic delineators wlio, with adamant, registered the grand 
ideals from the suggestions and dictations of tlieir sacerdotal 
creators. 

The antique })astes are especially interesting, not only from 
the fact that thev ])resent us with many curious mythological 
subjects, but tliey are specimens of a branch of early Roman 



SOUBCE AXD HISTORY. '27 

in(liistr\-. Thev wrre made in imitation of Oriental stones, of 
whi.li the supply was inadequate for the great demand of the 
tirst and second centimes, and also as a matter of economy, 
enabling many lovers of the art to possess examples in this 
cheaper artificial substance, when the same subjects on real 
India stones were commanding exorbitant jn-ices. 

Some of them are beautifully opalescent and iridescent. 
See in my collection Xos. llCC, Case U U U, Polynices, son of 
(Edipus; 1176, Case UUU, Endymion, the lover of Diana: and 
the Medusa, No. 1237, Case YYY, an. imitation sai)phire f.und 
at Cuma', on the hill of ]\Iomit Graurus, near Misenum : the 
cameo is covered with la\a, l>ut a fragment mounted on wire 
shows the sui)erl) coloi- of the original gem. See also Xos. 
1217, Case WWW: 12:):., Case YYY: 12(ili, Case Z Z Z, 
imitating respectively in color, 1217 hyacinth, 12:)r) pale ml )y, 
1209 sapphire. They were originally niailc in imitation ot the 
.stones niostlv in demand li\- the incisori, also stones in two and 
tlii-ee strata, variegated like the rarest onyxes or agates, and 
manv rubies, sapphires, chalcedonies, etc. etc. 

Tliis iridescence, though so beatitiful on the specimens of 
that uein-e. is onlv owing to chemical action on the paste gems 
durino- the centuries tliev have been buried in the earth, ilany 
interesting intaglios and cameos in enamel have with.stood the 
wear of ages, and are in better condition ; the imitations of red 
jasper are wonderful. 

Though the antique paste cameos and intaglios are largely 
reproductions of subjects also found engraved on ]netradura, 
we are indebtcil to this class of gems for many examples ot 
ancient cameos and intaglios which we would otherwise never 
have seen: in fact, from the rare beauty of some specimens in 
paste, I believe they never exi.sted in any other material : see 



28 ENGRAVED GEMS. 

cameo No. 1219, Case X X X, n figure of Victory with banner, 
trophies, prisoners, nnisical instruments, etc. etc.; and Xo. 1182, 
Case V V V, a superb cameo, Hebe presented by ^Mercury to 
Jupiter — the eagk', and behind tlie chair Juno and young 
Hercules: five figures are visible; also several groups in cameo 
\\itli liacchiis, Silenus, and their suites; and the intaglio Xo. 
1 1 :)2, Case V V V, The Fall of Phaethon. Exact pnuhictidiis of 
these subjects are not to be met w\x]\ m anv collection of gems 
on hard stones 1 liave ever seen. Many of niv most authentic 
aiiti(pu^ ])ast(' gems 1 have found set in bronze rings or frag- 
ments of them and in laro'e metallic settino-s with ornamental 
designs, Avliich nnist have served as l)rooclies or other orna- 
ments of costuiue. 

Manv intaglios in antique paste are representations in de- 
sign of ancient bronzes, of which we have no other ti'ace except 
their mention liv early historians. 

The most precious antique example in jiaste is the Portland 
Vase. It was discovered in the sixteenth century in a sar- 
cophagus within the monument of tlie Emperor Alexander 
Severns and his mother, Julia Manuva, on tlie Frascati road, 
about two miles and a half from Rome. It was long known as 
tlu^ Barberini Vase, having Itelonged to that family in Rome 
for two hundred years; thence it came to England in the last 
century, and after twice changing ownership, at the death of 
the Duchess of Portland, from wliom it takes its name, it was 
sold to the Duke of Marlborough, and is now in the Ih-itish 
Museum. It has been In-oken and mended. It is about ten 
inches high, and at the broadest part six iiu'lies in diameter. 
It was formed of paste, and afterward engraved. 

The paste is in imitation of onyx, in two strata, v^hite 
upon blue, of an amethyst tinge ; the figures are cut in relief 




PORTLAND VASE. 




PORTLAND VASE. 

(REVERSE.) 



SOURCE AND HISTORY. 33 

on tlie liu'liter colur, tlic liliic t'oriniuL;- the second jilane or 
backoTouml. 



'o' 



We know little ot' the Assyrian divinities thronu'li ancient 
niannscripts, yet we have volumes about their deities written on 
the cylinders of IJalix Ion and Nineveh. They were seldom in 
metallic inonntin,i;s, liut, heinn' [liercetl with lioles, were strung- 
on cords and worn on the wrist and neck. There is a host 
of occupants of the Assyrian lu^aven, witli Asshur, the supreme 
"od, Beltis ]\Iylitta, the m-eat mother, etc. etc., and on the seals, 
in sard and chalcedony, we have sacreil doves, lions, horses, 
etc., and a wiiiucd ladl, Xin, the i^'od of hunting-, etc.^ 

These intaL;ho seals were often used as locks ; the doors of 
Avine-cellars were secured h\- placing- a seal upon them. (Cylin- 
ders have also l)een made by several races of .South American 
Indians, and are still to be seen in Brazil. 

We have a, most interesting- and instructive illustration of the 
yalue of modern research among the relics of anticpiity in the 
fact that in l.So4, Sir Henry Kawlinson, in deciphering the 
inscriptions on sonu' cylinders found in the ruins of Um-Kir 
(the ancient Ur of the ( 'haldees), made historical discoveries in 
reo-ard to the last kiii"- of P)ab\ Ion that confirmed the truth of 
the book of Daniel, and harmonized discrepancies between 
Holy Scripture and profane history which up to that time bad 
been hopelessly irreconcilable.^ 



Among the bequests from Persia many gems are engraved 
on the hardest and most jjrecious stones: they present ns with 
portraits of their nionarchs, deities, legends, religious creeds, 

> See No. 50.3, Case D D. ' See Athmaum, Xo. 1377. 



34 ENGRAVED OEMS. 

and seals of office. Though rude, the}- are exceedingly mter- 
esting from then- antiquity and as being the achievements of a 
people so remote from the European centre of civilization. 



The red sands of the home of the Pharaohs have been un- 
tiring custodians of the history and theologx' on the temple-walls 
and colnnms of ant-lent Egypt. We have upon tlie scarabei, 
hi smaller and more condensed characters, biography and her- 
aldry more legible than many of the time-worn papyri. 

And the portraits of their deities are here more distinctly 
traced. Prominent among them is the god Anubis, of whom 
a myth relates: "Anubis Avas the son of Osiris and Nephthys, 
born after the death of his father." He is always represented 
with a dog's head. Isis l:)rought him u}) and made him her 
guard and companion, who thus performed to her the same 
service that dogs render to men. 

These ruder glyptic examples come to us Avith tidings from 
an age of idolatry, from people of peculiar civilization, earth's 
first architects, pioneers in art : they aid us essentially in 
forming the suliject of our historical picture. Though less 
attractive to the casual observer, they are very interesting 
and valuable. 

The l^truscaus were fond of decoration, and esjiecially of 
ornamental stones. They engraved many intaglios, among 
which Ave find every grade of Avorkmanship. 

The rude figures made bA" drilling a series of holes close 
to one another form a large proportion of the designs on 
scarabei; tliese are generally surrounded with a border re- 
sembling the impression of a twisted cord. .Many ot them 



SOURrE AND HTSTORY. 35 

are of a low ilegvee of merit. Tlie Etruscans, however, have 
ti-arismitted to us gxMiis of the hi^liest (.r(k'r. 

Tlieir representations of the anatouuoal development of 
human and animal forms are very bold. Their figures are 
muscular, and, to my feeling, are often posed in mmatural 
attitudes, the limbs assuming painfully angular positions. 
Wonderful action is at tunes portrayed: Diana exerting her 
nmseular arm and sinewy hand to di-aw the arrow into place, 
while the bow presents a corresponding resistance; it has 
power, and seems awaiting the moment when Diana shall let 
the messenger speed its way. 

Among their subjects may he noted charioteers driA-ing 
several horses abreast, gladiators and other combatants, muses, 
deities, and heroim-s, produced with the greatest fineness and 
delicacy of touch. 



The art of design descended from Asia Minor to the Greeks, 
and man\- of the most admiralde gems emanated from artists ot 
that natioiialitx- — not only tVoni Atlu-ns. but also from the prov- 
inces in the islands of the Archipelago and Sicdy. These are 
principallv intaglios, less deeply cut, but executed with unrivalled 
fineness. Their subjects, single figures and groups, with fabu- 
lous and ni\ thologioal themes, are exquisite conceptions and 
delicatelv traced. Their figures are represented with little or 
no draperv; in fact, for costume we must look to the work ol the 
Romans. These did not originally excel in the arts, but when 
the Greeks settled among them they proved apt scholars, anil 
were soon inspired by the mantle which thus fell upon them. 
Their gems partook of some of the Grecian character and 
qualities, though they always differed in manner of execution. 



36 EXfiEAVED GEMS. 

It is a si<jiiifioant tact that tliey frequently signed or in- 
scriVjed tlieir Roman names in (ireek cliaracters. 

Tln"ouo-liont the tirst and second <cutiu'ies art flourished 
and ontrivalleil otlier brandies of indnstry. It was applied 
to beautify every place and to a(hirn all things; even the 
termini, pedestals snrnioniited l)y the jnst god Terminus/ 
presiding over the division of lands, and the Avavside stones 
indicating distances, were carved and shaped with care, 
lest they should oft'end the luxurious eye (^f the sated 
monarch. 

With ( 'ommodus c(immen<'ed insensildv the decline in gem- 
engrravins:, thouiili for more tlian tiftv Acars, and until after 
]\Iaximinus I'ius, in the third centurv, we have many tine 
examples, executed with great care and fidelity, in portraiture. 
During the ensuhig hundred years, so great was the demand 
for personal decorations in military dis})lay that jewels, more 
easily and quickly cut and of more dazzling etfect, in a great 
measure supplanted the engraved gems. 

The rapidl\- increasing adherents to the Christian religion 
could not conscientiously bedeck themselves with the mytho- 
logical deities .comprising so large a proportion of the subjects 
on cameos. 

The barbaric races employed for ornamentation the current 
coin in silver and bronze. 

When the decadency of the other arts commenced, this, 
the gem-engraving, the most delicate and sensitive of the finer 
arts, was the flrst to give evidence of its deterioration. Observe 
the remains of the baths of Diocletian, whose beauty and 
masterly architecture are still to be seen in parts of the church 
of Sancta Maria degli Angeli in Rome, and then look at the 

' See No. 1352, Case N N N N, in my collection. 



SOURCE AXD HISTORY. 37 

silver and hvonze coin of the same emperor, and one can readily 
see lio\\" the engravers art had degenerated. 

If we wish to form a just appreciation of the quality of 
engraving- of any ancient people, let us examine their money, 
and we have the handiwork of then- gem-engravers, tor it was 
done by the same men. It is remarkable that just at tliis 
period, in quick succession, three important classes of engraved 
gems appeared, and were produced in great abundance. 

The Christian, giving rudely everything pertaining to the 
tesserse and neck-charms or talismans used or worn l)y that 
persectited sect ; the Byzantine, also peculiar and generally 
of a Clu-istian character, though distinct from the fonner ; the 
Abraxas gems, which have never been cherished for their 
beauty or artistic merit, but wliich are deeply interesting from 
the fact that they give us almost the only history we have of 
the superstitions engraved on tliem. 

The history of the art of o'em-engTavino- for ag-es after 
tliis is merely marked by an occasional miserable ])ro(luction, 
which only merits mention as somljn^ cLuids upoU which 
shine more Ijrilliantlv tlie beautiful g-ems of earlier and better 
epochs. 

There was no longer any demand for gems ; having few 
admirers, they were thrown aside ; many returned with archi- 
tectural debris to tlie bosom of tlie earth, not to reappear until 
an age of greater light and more worthy of their possession; 
some, however, were saved liy being set in vases, reliquaries, 
and other ecclesiastical paraplit-niaha i\>v the treasuries of 
sacristies in tlie churches. 

Having glanced at the general history of my suljject, we 
will now make a systematic reAnew of wliat has been accom- 
plished in tlie glyptic art, following, step by step, the progres- 



38 



EXdRA VED GEMS. 



sioii from tlie most ancient times tlironi:li varions nationalities 
and eras to tlie dawn of onr eentnry. 

Tluis far, we liave taken a cnrsory view of tlie source oi" 
the earlier engraved gems and gem-engi'avers known to glyj)- 
tologists. We will now regard tliem as closely as possible in 
their chronological order, commencing with those })eople whom 
we believe to have first carved decorative work on stones, either 
for ornamentation or for use as tokens, or who tirst contriliutinl 
to oiir iiilieritaiice objects wortli\' of being called gems. 

At times we shall inevitablv notice some nationalities before 
others who ^\•ere their contemporaneous workers, biit generally 
the ai-rangement will Ije found to form the ]irogression already 
alluded to, and Avhicli shall be known as classified epochs. 




EGYPTIAN. 



The work of the Egyptians was in keeping- witli tlie sim- 
plicitv of tlieii- lives and their peeuhar rehgion. Its st3'le is 
unquestionably marked: all engra\-ing from Egyptian hands 
is characteristic of that people, and not for a moment to be 
mistaken; every cartouch, e^•ery seal, every scarabeus, bears 
its distinctive character. It does not require a connoisseur to 
recognize or define it. Often engraved seals or gems appear 
in one form or another which one hesitates to distinctly classify 
as Sassaninn or Persian or Plux'nieian ; but all hieroglyphic 
amulets emanating from the land of Miriam bear tlie peculiar 
style and manner of execution of the denizens of the Nile. 

In the tombs of their kings and in many subterranean 
chambers and \aults we see l)eautiful i-urious historic;;! and 
biographical frescos and other mural |)aintings. Their pro- 
ficienc^' in drawing is to me a question : the most of their color 
pictures are Ijuried with their dead. To notice the Egyptians 
particularly as they are connected with glyptology we must 
view their scarabei. These are known in English as sacred 
beetles. The Zodiac is represented in three of their temples 
at Deiiderah, Esneh, and ET)ayr, and the sign of ("ancer on 
these Zodiacs is represented by the scaraljeus, which takes 
the place of the crab usually employed by other nationalities. 

In proportion to the raidv or wealth of tlieir possessors, they 
were carved on sard, amethyst, dialcedony, and' serpentine ; 
also on tenderer materials — steatite, schist, green, blue, and 
maculated stones ; the greater prt>portiou in vitrified terra-cotta 

41 



42 ENGRAVED GEMS. 

— many very beautiful in ivory, bound or mounted in silver 
rings and bracelets. (See No. 458, Case A A, in my collection.) 

There were artisans who engraved the larger funereal sca- 
rabei and kept them ready made on sale, so that in the event 
of a man dving unexpectedly in youtli or tin- prime of life 
■who had licit tliiuii^lit to ]n"epare for his sojourn in the tomli, his 
famih' I'cpaircd to these sho])s, and, clionsing a scarabeus to 
their taste or liking, purchased it; the engraver tlien added the 
name of tlie deceased, and tliey placed it under the wrappings 
of the nunumv. 

These traffickers also did a tliriving trade witli the living: 
many provided themselves in ad\ance. There was always a 
variety froui whicli to choose; the engraver had them for 
every taste. Tliey Avere inscribed with just such vo\\-s or 
wishes for tlie future and the repose or the enjoyment of the 
soul, or the commending of the soul to the })atronage and ])ro- 
teetion of some special god or deess, as tlie case miglit demand 
for a man or a woman. Often selections were given from tlie 
poetic devotional writings of their mentors, and frequently we 
meet with selections from the Book of the Dead. (See exam- 
ple. No. 1479, Case E E E E E, in my collection, where a tptota- 
tion from the thirtieth chapter is given.) 

It is remarkable how much in these inscriptions eoncerned 
the heart, wliicli thev believed indispensa1)le for tlie resurrec- 
tion. The inscription above referred to is full of pathos. The 
deceased — for so it is written — holds converse with his heart: 
"My heart, tliou that comest to me from mv motlier, rise not 
in judgment against me," etc. etc. On others we find fervid 
exhortations to the heart to lie firm, coupled with expressions 
of hope for great pleasures in the life about to be entered upon. 

Attached to tJie strange hieroglyphs forming these funereal 



EGYPTIAN. 43 

inscriptions was generally the name of the person for whom 
the scarabeiis was engraved, and sometimes his fatlu^r's name; 
that is, he was often inscribed as " son of .'" 

When a man ordered a scarabens, he nsnally carried it with 
liim to his sepnlchre, yet he no donbt sometimes lost it or had 
a finer one made: wliicli will. 1 think, account for tlic fact that 
often on a miimmv of the jilcbcian class we find a number of 
scarabei entirely dissimilar, and evidently not fitted to the 
social position of the subject. Quantities of them bearing in- 
sci-iptions of other dynasties than their own, the names of mon- 
archs, mottoes ; and invocations, were buried with the dead to use 
on their arrival at the portal of the new life, that desired and mys- 
terious haven at which they expected eventually to arrive. 

All Egyptian scarabei, in whatever material, bearing the 
hieroglyph of the hawk with a human lu-ad, have the same 
beautiful significaiu-e, the resurrection of the soul ; the wings 
also represent the spirit's power of rising to the tin-one of 
God: they are the members indicating that function, and sym- 
bolize that final flight, though they are generally closed upon 
the back. 

I have seen a more poetical form whereon the wings Avere 
represented as partially clipi)ed. This scarabens was evidently 
ordered by the man's family, and presented to him in token 
of love and that they woidd delay his departure for the realms 
of Osiris. It reminds us of the grand idea exjiressed by the 
ancient Greeks, who thus indicated that they kept Victory in 
their possession by clipping her ])lumes of flight. 

( )ur ai)petites are capricious, they are not always under our 
control, vet thev certainly can be cultivated. So also with our 
taste for art. A true appreciation of Egyptian art can only be 
acquired by earnest application, by long acquaintance with 



44 ENGRAVED GEMS. 

their subjects as delineated not only on their mural paintings, 
but especially in their engraved bequests as found on these 
scarabei and tlie larger, bolder cartouches of the great temples 
wliich remain to-day chiselled monuments of the tiding-s the-s' 
haye inscril)ed for posterity. 

After long inspection and close acquaintance I find a large 
proportion of their figures maryellously drawn, though yery 
peculiar, and awkward-looking perhaps, to those who know 
them not. 

Among the figures the most perfectly designed we can 
admire their birds — the vulture, signifying mother, maternity ; 
the goose, on the seal of a prince, signifying the son of a king ; 
the owl, in some positions signifying the preposition /// ,- the 
liawk, the name of llorus; a graceful heron with a ])ouch on 
its breast, also the soul: tlie beautifully-formed il)is on a 
support represents the god Thotli. 'flirir animals — the cow, 
Athor ; the jackal, Anubis ; the lioness, consecrated to Sek- 
het; and Nephthys, the sister of Isis and aid to that deessin her 
guardianship over the mummies, has a human face and is 
represented as weeping ^vith her liand to her brow. Royal 
personages and divinities artisticidly delineated and posed in 
many positions — especially the sitting figures with the knees 
drawn up, with various objects and inqdements in their hands 
— are most exquisitely done. 

There are beautiful sentiment and poetry in their adapta- 
tion of the sun as a figure, either at its rising or setting; tlieir 
references to its effulgence and to its diurnal resurrection are, 
again, unquestionable evidences of their belief in the final 
resurrection of the mortal frame ami of tlie reliabitation of the 
soul in its original tenement. 

Many hieroglyphs, though they are not very clear, at least 



EGYPTIAN. 



45 



prove their belief in retriliuticni liereafter or in an intermediate 
state. The recompense that thev looked for ^^as that they 
should be spared from " the second death :"' they prayed and 
hoped to live apiin and to enjoy life. 

The peaaltv they feared was *' the second death." We 
find inscriptions expressing" love for and trust in their ilivinities ; 
also the hope that Horus would protect and comfort them in 
the ^"ovag•e of transition. 

Through their glyptic productions we have added to our 
possessions . a more complete knowledge of their mythology 
and their theologv. 

We find shreds and examples of the costumes of the 
occupants of graves of other ancient nations: these garments 
were made, as now, that the l)ody might l)e decorously placed 
at rest. This we also tind in Egypt, the mummy-wrappings 
concealing and protecting the scarabei presenting this beautiful 
sentiment, indeed imique — a symbol that was worn in life, 
emblematic of its ephemeral tenure and of the ultimate resur- 
rection from death and the gi'ave ; a svmbol that accompanied 
its owner to the narrow home, not to ornament it, but, as a 
token of that tenant's belief that tliis would be only a brief 
occupancy ; a s}nibol ready to l)e \\(m-\\ when that tenant 
should enter on his resurrection into an eternal lease of joy in 
a world be^s'ond. 




CHALDEAN, ASSYRIAN, AND BABYLO- 
NIAN CYLINDERS. 



Cylinders are e\idently the oldest fonu of seals, tliougli it 
is believed that tlie art oriiiinated on sections of wooden reeds. 
We iind Chaldean c^•linders now more tlian thive thousand five 
hundred vears old. Two exanijjles — one described by M. de 
Clercq of France, and one l)y Mr. Phiches of the British Mu- 
seum — are of abotit ."iSOd r,. c. Others exist and are known 
whicli are believed to be e\en more ancient. 

The sifrnets of kings in the cvlindric form were incised in 
tlie linrder and nmre precious materials, such as chalcedony in 
several hues, tlie fairest those tinged with a sa])phire thit (though 
nut the most ancient), sards, carnelians. and occasionally beaiiti- 
ful reil jasper; hematite in abundance; serpentine and many 
softer stones, alabaster, steatite, etc. etc. 

It remains a question on what materials the impressions 
were made, though scientists have learned that the figures in 
relief on patties of pii)eclay fiiund so plentifully in Babylonia 
are the imprints of these cylinders. Yet collectors are at a 
loss to-day to make good results with wax, plaster of Paris, 

ov foil. 

Thouoli man\-, even a large ]iroporti(in of, cylinders are 
rudch- desio-ned and more coarseh executed, they are gener- 
all\ freelv, vigorouslx', and well drawn, evincing a high degree 
of talent. In m\ opinion, the anatomical drawings ot man 
and beast are unsurpassed in any age, es})ecially the contest 
between men and lions, where naturally the muscles are 
strongly developed and sliow pronnnently. 

i6 




BAKVLU.NIAN CVLINDEKS, THE ^uLKLi. oi UljIURV. 



CHALDEAN, ASSYPxIAX, AND BABYLOXTAN CYLINDERS. 49 

As bearers of messages from tliat remote period tlicy come 
more welcome to me than the fairest Greek or Roman inta- 
o-lios. With an iiiterestino- inctured and lettered cylinder in 

O O J. t 

mv liand I feel I have before me one of the keys to tlie most 
ancient fonntain-head of history ; in fact, my taste has grown 
and perhaps been intinenced ))y long association with such 
"•enrs, until I now often find more i)leasure in regarding a 
rude fragment of Ass^•rian work tlian I (Ud t\vent\' years ago 
when I sought only the beautiful. 

Mv fondness for tlie Bab\loHian cylinders is not only to be 
accounted for bv the fact that they are indelible manuscripts, 
lint there is a eharm to \\w in the sentiment of confidence 
expressed in their use of the impressions applied from tliem to 
juddic documents, doors, chests, etc. — the confidence tliat when 
those seals were attached no honorable nuni would enter or \n-\ 
within. The same idea is expi-essed in No. 1262, Case 7j7iZ, 
the Ilippogriff, which \vhen sealed upon a letter was considered 
the custodian of a secret. In a word, this impression was tlie 
lock, and the seal, the key, with wliich they closed their treas- 
iires. In fact, as lati- as the second century is. ('. we only begin 
to find anx'tliing like a lock and kev, and these rude and frail. 
I possess a collection of these ancient keys which came fronr 
the Strozzi familv, to which collj.H-tion dm-ing many years I 
have adde(l ;t nnmbt'V of specimens, tlu'ongh Avhich I have 
considered the measures for surety adopted by the ancients. 

The place of these Balivlonian cylinders in the history of 
art cannot be classed as decorative, for as they were originally 
used ordv as seals, and mostly business or official signets, they 
were not at that time worn to decorate the per.son, tliough they 
were worn on necklaces and bracelets by the ancient Greeks. 
I have seen and admired fifteen or twent}' cylinders strung 



50 



EXGRA VED GEMS. 



together, in the possession of mv ffiend Dr. Wilham Hayes 
AVard, the Assyriologist, of New York, when one day he came 
and showed them to nic; I tlionght, How hcautiful a neck- 
lace ! They were exceptionally charming examples, in car- 
nclian, jasper, white and pale blue chalcedony, amethyst, 
lapis lazuli, etc. 

It is with pleasiu-e I record the fact that we in America are 
rapidly acquiring- representative collections of these treasiu'es, 
and liojie tlie enterprise of the Babylonian Exploration Fund 
may be crowned a\ ith the success due to the energy of the 
learned men who have projected and organized the under- 
taking. 

The fact that Dr. A\'illiam Pepper, Provost of the University 
of Pennsylvania, has been untiring in his efforts for tliis cause, 
gives much promise of the early prosecution of the work, the 
intended accpiisition of many more interesting messages from 
ancient Assyria and Babylonia. 



^■« 



£i^ 




FEKSIAN AND SASSAXIAN SEAL?. 



ASSYRIAN, PERSIAIT, AND SASSANIAN 

SEALS. 



These seals ai-e recognizable hj their peculiar forms — gen- 
eralh' coiiical or splK-rical — ami by tlie distinctive character of 
their designs and ini-ision. The spherical seals are flattened on 
one side for the intaglio : all are pierced, so that they may l)e 
strung on a ribbon or leather cord; they were worn hanging 
on the breast. Those bearing the effigies of their proprietors 
are in a large proportion rudely cut i yet the portraits of mon- 
archs are usually tine intaglios, with oval-shaped heads and vis- 
ages, often with wavy hair and l)eards. There is inund a large 
series of subjects adopted In' their owners on account of their 
superstitious belief in their talisinanic \irtues — reiiresentations 
of animals considered sacred, siudi as the mouffion, resembling 
a large horned ram ; the gervoise, resembling a kangaroo ; and 
quite a seines of rudelv-drawn animals emblematic of vigilance, 
fidelity, courage, strength, etc. etc. Sometimes on seals as well 
as on cylinders a full-length figure is given in ^^hose costume 
there is a marked peculiarity of di-apery, the folds crossing the 
form. Thev are on a great variety of chalcedonies, sards, jas- 
pers, and otliev bemitiful stones of color, and make a very 
attractive display when clioice examples are formed into 
necklaces, as they frequently have been. 

The seals of these epochs, which seem to have superseded 
the cylinders, are found in several forms. 

Those of the Assyrians, dating- as far back as 1110 B.C., 
resemble in form the bells herdsmen hang upon their grazing 
cattle, that they may hear them when they have strayed ; they 



53 



54 ENGRAVED GEMS. 

are pierced and seldom have inscriptions; as, No. 1427, Plate 
39, and Nos. U41 to 1449, Case C C C C C. 

The Persian are of two forms — a cone whose sides are flat- 
tened and pierced, the engraved part presenting an oval flat 
face, as No. 1381, Plate 38; and again spherical, pierced; the 
side of the globe on which is the engraving has a flat round 
face, as No. 506, Plate 37. 

Those of the Sassanian or later Persian period are like unto 
the former in shape : they are, however, often ornamented on 
the convex surface, as No. 511, Plate 37, and No. 1383, Plate 
38, and contain inscriptions in the Pehlevi character or lan- 
guage. 

Naturally, they were employed on commercial and other 
documents, hut a single example will show how they were 
applied and the service they rendered at an earlier date. Imag- 
ine Theloparnos, an agriculturist, guarding his fruits and their 
juices, the wines of that day, in mounds covering a sub-cellar 
and shading it from tlie vivid rays of an Oriental sini ; the 
door closed with wax upon Avhich his seal had set an impress, 
that muler the jjrimitive code of his epoch rendered it seciu-e : 
no one in the community would break that seal ; as he would 
guard his honor and the respect of his fellows, so he would not 
tamper with that simple seal. Is this not a lesson to us to-day 
— the day of bolts and bars, and honorless men who Ijreak 
them with force ? I cannot better convey an idea of the use 
of these seals tlian l)v (pwting the following incident given by 
C. W. King, A. il., whose letters to me on tliis subject are 
treastu-ed: "Even after locks of some kind had come into 
general use (for Roman keys are plentiful enough), the good 
housekeeper made assurance doubly sure by putting his seal 
on the storeroom duor e\erv time he closed it. Tliis was the 



■ ASSYRIAN, PERSIAX, AND SASSAXIAN SEALS. 57 

duty of the mistress of tlic lioiise, for Vopisciis qiiotes, in 
illustriition of Aurelian's simjjle mode of life, tlmt he made 
his wife contimie to carrv tlie 'anmdus signetorius' ns when 
they were hoth in a private station. l)ioj>'enes Laertius, to put 
in the stronp-est huht the sim])h(it\' of Lae\'des the ])liilosopher, 
tells a storv that whenever he liad dccasidu to hrinii- anythinj^- 
out of his pnntrv, ;ifter sealinii' it \\\^ he used to throw tlie ring 
into it thrnUL;li a hole in tlic door, for fear liis servants sliould 
take it off his huiicr when asleep and tlierewith reseal tlie place 
after they had helpe(l themselves to the comestibles. But his 
servants, observing his sapient precaution, imitated his mode 
of procedure, invaded the ])antl•^" in all secnrit\", scaled the 
door again, and rei)laced the ring in the way shown them by 
their sagacious master." 

Is it not interesting to ha\'e these seals, real heii'looms of 
antiquitv — to understand their designs and to comprehend to a 
certain extent their inscriptions? 

The Sassanian intaglios were executed by a later ])eople of 
the sanu' Persian race. They seem to have been made less fre- 
quentlv with a view to securitv or as professional seals; they 
Avere more endjleniatic of religious belief, and were used as 
talismans — mystic guardians against evils, dangers, and acci- 
dents. Was it not a blessed condition of superstition t The 
bliss of their ignorance made them walk fearlessly through a 
world otlierwise a held of snares. 

It is easy to arrive at this conclusion, for we hud them in 
the form of anndets with h(des by which they could l)e attached 
either to a garment or suspended aroimd the neck. 

Though mv subject conci'rns engraved stones, I shall men- 
tion in this connection curious oval, delta-shaped, and round Per- 
sian anndets of this ])eriod in mv ])ossession, carefully cut in ca- 



58 ENGRAVED GEMS. 

boclion, not enyraved, often mounted in silver, bronze, and otlier 
metal.s, which were can'ied on the person as defenders against the 
inheritance of all men since Eve's hnsband made lis his heirs. 

Tlie Sassanian intaglios of the seventh century have gen- 
erallv inscriptions expressing religious sentiments, and often 
liierogh'phies : it is here we find the characters in the Pehlevi 
language, and, as in the Abraxas, an occasional Greek letter. 
The materials on wliich thev are engraved are in many cases 
beautiful and rai-e Oriental stones, though those in my collec- 
tion are in different colored jaspers, sards, carnelian, brown 
alabaster, and striated chalcedony. 





CO 

H 



ETEUSCAN. 



The Cdiintrv of the ancient Etruscans was north from the 
Tiber to the C'iininian Forest and the Tolfa Mountains. 

They have bequeatheil us a mass of yem.s, a hirg-e iirojior- 
tion in tlu- i'nrm of scarabei, and many really tine intaglios, 
^\hi(•ll were not onl\' used as seals, but served as decorations, 
both in finger-rings and as brooches for women. The Etrus- 
can tondis liave vielded many scarabei in mountings of virgin 
gold, sometimes the i)recious metal twisted, again corrugated; 
also some ornamental gold-work as brooches. The sard and 
chalcedony beetles usually have an engraved beaded margin, 
and were revolvalde, being set on a pi\(tt which was attached 
to a frame generalh' oval in form. I have one such lirooch in 
ancient In-onze with delicate ornamental gold-wire rigures inset, 
producing an effect rarely ec^uallcil in my opinion by tlie jewel- 
lers of an^■ modern nation. 

The Etruscan gl\ptic-work is i)eculiar, and muth ot it 
rude: for example, a warrior beside a horse, botli man and 
beast produced by a, series of cavities deeply drilled and 
connected by less deeply cut grooves. Many tine examples 
are exfpiisite in execution, but all are evidently irom the 
same i)eculiar schuul ; so much so that almost any intelligent 
observer of sucli objects, if given a hun(h-ed specimens of 
intaglios of various nationalities, would readily recognize and 
correctly select all the Etruscan intaglios therefrom. They 
are fouiul on sard, carnelian, chalcedony, amethyst, etc. etc. 

There are specimens of Etruscan intaglios known to have 



61 



62 



ENGRAVED GEMS. 



been cut seven hundred years b. c. wliidi crive evidence of an 
art-civilization liifildy advanced. Their subjects seldom coii- 
tniii more than two figures, as the field on whicli they are 
engraved is rather circuniscril)ed : Hercules in many attitudes, 
with club or bow or struggling with a lion ; his various labors; 
armorers, always forging ; Achilles and I'lysses in many posi- 
tions (see No. 530, Case F F) ; animals with their legs and 
horns distorted, so limited was the space on which to repre- 
sent a design with action. 

We find in their inscriptions some unique characters purely 
Etruscan, several ^^■lli(•h seem to luive been the source of Latin 
letters, and others resembling the Greek. 





e 

X 



"* , \i|it;"iiii,ifi !< { 



PHCENIOIAN. 



Herodotus sjieaks of the PhcEiiicians as a branch of tlie 
Semitic (ir Araiiucau nations; tlicy originally dwelt on the 
shores of the P^rvthrean Sea. They also occupied islands in 
the Persian Gidf, amony- others Aradus and Tvlns, where 
temples in Pluvnician architecture Avere found; and it is known 
that the Pli(enicians left these islands and colonized in the 
^Egean and Mediterranean seas before the time of Joshua, 
1444 B. c. 

Of the liomans and the Grecians we have their history 
through the writings of their own liistorians; and of the Egyp- 
tians, Ijv their monuments teeming with hierog-lyphics, history, 
and theology. Of the Phoenicians little is extant in writinsrs 
from their own people; we are dependent on what other nations 
have recorded — in fact, wliat we know of them may be termed 
tradition. The Pha-nicians were termed "the merchants of 
many isles." We can hardly say they cultivated the arts at 
home, for wherever the}- went, there the}' made their home ; 
on every island inhabited by them are found evidences of their 
industry as gem-cutter.s — intaglios, scarabei, and seals. I re- 
member how I was impressed on going ashore at Svra and 
"walking through its beautiful amphitheatral city of to-day, 
whose site had once known those very Phcenicians, examples 
of whose gems may be seen in Case G G of my collection. 

They emigrated as far west as Sardinia. Sardinia was 
originally called Sandaleotis, from its form, Avhich resembles 
a human foot or its imprint, where during centui-ies a mod- 



65 



66 ENGRAVED GEMS. 

erate liarvest has been reaped of gems emanating from tlieir 
handiwork. 

I'o a practised eye their work is distingnishable from that 
of other nations ; the touch, drawing, execution, and the dis- 
tinctive character of their subjects render them readily recog- 
nizable. Yet the symbolic characters are not entirely dis- 
tinctive, for they often clearly indicate imitation of Assyrian 
and P]gyptian work and design. For that reason it is often 
difficult to decide or classify gem-objects found in many of the 
islands colonized by them, from the very fact tliat in design 
they at times lack originality. 

Many of their subjects were emblematic of their religion — 
the source of light and heat, Baal the sun, altars and temples 
(see ring from Tharros in Sardinia, No. 559, Case G G). In 
regard to the great variety of emblems of deities found on 
their engraved gems, it has lieen remarked that every com- 
munity or city had its own gods, which became famous and 
recei\ed general adoration in that section by ha\ing liccn 
adopted and worshipped by some one or other of their dis- 
tinguished and honored men, and their families and followers 
becoming adherents of this worship, its renown quickly spread, 
was accepted, and registered on the stones forming their seals, 
talismans, and gems. 

'^riieir great variety may also be accounted foi- from the tiU't 
that the migratory Phoenicians, wherever they went, in what- 
ever island they settled, each separate colony imbued w'uh its 
sjiecial legends, set up monuments and altars to their peculiar 
shade of creed, and the character of their religious inscriptions 
was influenced bv the education they had received from tlieir 
leaders or teachers. After all, the principles of their idolatry 
were analogous with those of the nations of their epoch. 



PH CRN I CI AN. 



67 



They also engraved intaglios on iron and bronze ; tlieir 
scarabei are interesting, though less numerous than those ot 
nations coeval \\ itli tlit-iu. Their gems therefore hold an inter- 
estino- place, though thev have contriljuted little that is beauti- 
ful in the history of decorative art. 

The islands of the .Egeau Sea, and of the Mediterranean, 
were as pillars or piers to the vast bridge of civilization across 
which the Phtenicians emigrated, moving on favorable occasions 
in their frail crafts from island to island until at last rhey 
passed the strait now known as Gibraltar and created colonies 
on the shores of the great ocean, where they left types of their 
art-work and traces of their race which we to this day recog- 
nize in the brows and other features of their remote descend- 
ants. 




GRECIAlSr. 



Greece was the source of the finest and richest glyptic art- 
treasures in a decorative sense. Grecian intaghos are of superl) 
execution, of exquisite fineness and finisli. Tliis superiority 
can in a measure be accounted for by the encouragement the 
profession received from the nation, both from rulers and from 
the people. In proportion to the extended culti^■ati(ln of taste 
and the increased demand, tlie ranks of the iiicisori were 
repleted. Among so many contestants rivalry and emulation 
had a very happy effect in forming and creating artists Avho 
were indeed eminent, and whose works even to-day sparkle 
as jewel-gems in the diadem which crowns the history of their 
place in art. 

My impression is that no engravers of intaglios ever attained 
the same high point of excellence in execution throughout all 
the earlier centuries in which the art flourished ; yet I believe, 
as I have elsewhere remarked, that much of the work of Bene- 
detto Pistrucci, Calandrelli, Amastini, G. Pickler, Girometti, 
and others, in tlie close of the eighteenth nml the earlier 
years of the nineteenth century, compares favorably even 
with that of Satvralus, Dioscorides, or Pyrgoteles of ancient 
Greek renown. 

The fjem-euffravers of Greece were mostlv natives, though 
some came from Asiatic countries and worked profitably in 
the land of their choice, the then Paradise of sculpture. Evi- 
dence is seen of this emigration in certain Greek intaglios, 



68 



GRECIAN. 71 

whose peculiar designs and execution indicate that the artist 
was reared where cyhnder- and seal-work had influenced the 
formation of his manner or style. 

The general character of their sixbjects is a galaxy of 
mythological figures and groups and heads or miniatures on 
stone of deities, princes, and sovereigns. Many <^f the finer 
and most precious of their intaglios were wonderful in the 
deptli of their incision, while in their more minute cameos 
the figures were produced in very slight relief Their larger 
subjects in cameo are in conception and execution masterly, 
and command the sincere admiration they have universally 
received and well merited. 

The perfect finish, polish, and detail of tlieir choicest 
examples render them superior to the gems of any other 
people, eveii to nianv that come from Roman sources. 

It is often almost impossible intelligently to explain the 
difterence between the gems of the Greeks and the Romans ; 
such power of distinguishing one from the other is only to be 
gained by long observation and close study of the subject. 

The Greeks also used seals to close vaults, closets, caskets, 
etc. witli hard wax impressions as security against the designs 
of the prying and curious to meddle with their possessions; 
and it is an historical fact that unprincipled women, in whom 
the power of inciuisitiveness v,-as strongly developed, found 
artists to imitate these seals, and thus peered into what should 
have been unseen liy them. Yet some Grecian seals which 
I have seen were so cunningly devised and engraved with 
a complication of geometrical lines, which added to their 
artistic value, the fact that this means of fraud was rendered 
almost impossible. 

(For examples of Greek cameos see occasional specimens 



72 



ENGRAVED GEMS. 



in cases throughout the first alphabet ; and for Greek in- 
tagUos, see hkewise Case AAA, ami on to H H H. They ai-e 
distributed through eight cases. The finest is my intaglio by 
Dioscorides, No. 901, Case E E E.) 

Many objects have recently been discovered at IMyceui^e, 
among -which ai-e engraved gems bearing effigies of animals 
curiously and artistically drawn, and which by their Oriental 
style prove that the ancient Greeks, who bequeathed so much 
'to their successor-^, also inherited art-models from a people 
lOUO years b. c. 




GR^CO-EOMAN. 



During a long period of wars before the reign of Augustus, 
Greece, Asia Minor, and Egypt had been despoiled of their 
most sublime art-decorations. The classic artists of Greece, 
seeing their occupation at home in a measure gone, and long- 
insr to be affain suri-ounded bv the great works of their ancient 
masters, turned their thoughts to the Roman Empire and its 
art-encoiiraging rulers, with the hope of there renewing their 
fortunes by aiding in the embellishment of the capital of the 
world, so nuu-h was to l)e done ; and they left their native 
land to partake in the great work of the Western capital. 

They came from Greece to Rome expert in their profession, 
merely seeking the market of the world. There is nmch in 
the adage that a pi-ophet is better received in countries foreign 
to the land of his birth, yet we nmst confess there was a fine- 
ness in the execution of their engraved gems, especially their 
intaglios, which connnanded the admiration of the Romans, by 
whom thev were received as master-workmen. They were 
assiduous, painstaking, and adept. As regards their subjects, 
they came to their new field of labor iuid of art with the 
religious sentiments and mythological subjects of tlu-ir Grecian 
culture. They came, therefore, not as strangers, but liighly 
appreciated by all. 

There were skilled painters, sculptors, chisellers in l)ronze, 
and architects. They decorated the magnificent buildings, 
sumptuous palaces, majestic temples, forums, theatres, amj^hi- 
theatres, arches of triumph, thernue, and imposing sepulchres. 



7a 



76 ENGRAVED GEMS. 

All these structures needed, and thus received, the adornment 
of works by classic artists. 

These Greek emigrants were welcomed in their new home, 
and this day I hclicve we have profited hy this commingling 
of the artistic conceptions of these two races. 

With these men came the gem-engravers, and to their 
o-enius and the excellence of their productions and their co- 
operation Avith the Romans do we owe the beautiful examples 
that are to be seen to-day in the museums of the civilized 
world. 





iaiMA.v. 



ROMAN. 



All Romans born AA-ere Roman at heart: they had inherited 
knowledge, and even some style as incisori, from the Etruscans, 
yet they advocated Roman rules and practised art in the Roman 
manner. 

Especially, gem-engraving had its distinctive character until 
the exodus t'rom Greece brought them not diily cdinjianions, 
but art-masters, whom they intelligently appreciated, and recog- 
nized quickly the points in wliicli the new-comers excelled. 
They received with friendly sjjirit the talented Greeks who 
colonized among them ; they regarded with studious attention 
their woi'k ; they emulated them and strove to excel them in 
the grandeur of their subjects and fineness of execution ; and, 
diligently pursuing their course, Ave find them monopolizing 
the trade early in the first century. 

The general supply of engraved gems throughout the next 
two hundred and iifty years was from Roman sources purely, 
or from Greeks Avho had so thoi-onghly identified themselves 
with Roman interests and Roman citizenship that it is now 
difficult to draw the line of distinction. 

It is just to credit Rome with having made the greatest 
contribution of fair pictured gem-stones to the ancient gar- 
lands which decorate the history of art. 




79 



ABRAXAS. 



The veil which covers all history concerning' the mystical 
Gnostics, who began soon after the promnlgation of the religion 
of Christ and existed two or three centnries, renders the task of 
explaining many of their representations a difficult one. 

The legends engraved on their abundant amulets are almost 
inexplicable. Their gem-work, these talismans, are known as 
Abraxas. The fonnula of their secret worship, which mysteri- 
ously hid their meaning from even the followers of their own 
sect, was based on the two words — Mithras, MEI0PA2, and 
Abraxas, ABPAXA2. 

In the diagram below the kno^^'n values of Greek enumera- 
tion are given to each letter, and it is found that their sum 
gives the number of the days of the solar year : 

M— 40 
E— 5 
I— 10 

e— 9 

P— 100 
A— 1 
2—200 

365 liiiys. 365 days. 

They engraved on many of their gems the name of God, 
lACU, and represented him a ]ian-theus made up of the sym- 
bols of the four elements — the serpent, eagle, the human trunk, 
and a scourge — combining also many attributes of solar 
divinit}^ 

They were Pagans, Jews, and Christians, and we find in 

80 



A- 


- 1 


B- 


•> 


P- 


-100 


A- 


- 1 


X- 


- 60 


A- 


- 1 


2- 


-200 



ABRAXAS. 83 

their inexliaiistible inscriptions a series of emblems, Hebrew 
and Svriae, a\ hieli dimly show forth Christ the Son and Sun 
of Rio-hteousness witli AAONAI, and the seven Greek vowels 
svrabolic of the seven heavens. These Greek vowels have 
often amused me when I have shown an Abraxas talisman 
with loni;- inscription to some Greek scholar not acquainted 
with their o-ems, who would stumble when he reached the 
other characters. 

These engraved stones of tliis peculiar people are in basalt, 
hematite, red and gi-een jaspers, sard, and even beautiful chal- 
cedony-onyx. (See 561, Case H H, with a figure of Sabaon 
and raised inscription.) 

Thev were worn bv them as amulets or talismans; the 
persons wearing or carrying them did not understand the 
marks or inscriptions upon them; they were sacred tjijes of 
the mysteries of theii- religion or superstitious creed, and were 
only understood by their inventors and tlie Gnostic priests. 
Unlike the white stone refeiTed to in Revelation ii : 17, on 
Avhicli was engi-aved a name knoAMi only to the giver and the 
receiver, these Abraxas gems wert- unintelligible to the receiver; 
the owner wore them in blind l)elief. 



BYZANTINE. 



In the fourth century Constantine established the seat of 
the emph-e in Byzantium. He sAstematically despoiled Rome 
of what was easily transportable to embellish his favorite resi- 
dence, Constantinople. He established art-schools, and again 
artisans followed the prevailing tide. Tliis transient revival 
of the arts added Ijrilliance to his court, l)ut the arrest of the 
decline was only temporary. 

During the succeeding Byzantinian rule the whole empire, 
and especially Italy, was overrun and domiciled by hordes 
from barbarous nations, who, if we attriljute no worse motives, 
in their ignorance encouraged the incendiary and the despoiler, 
rejoicing in the destruction of the palatial edifices and historic 
monuments ; and thus the smaller objects of value were carried 
oif and scattered, and we now find them dispersed o\-er the 
continent of Europe. 

The decline in gem-engraving gradually became entire 
extinction in the fifth century in those countries where the 
cameos of the then known A\orld had been executed. The 
Byzantines seem to have profited by what proved to be a 
monopoly for them, and under Imperial patronage must have 
been industrious, judging from the scrijitural or religious cameos 
we find in such quantities bearing uncpiestionably the character 
of their work. 

I certainly admire and cherish what is beautiful and that 
which is representative of the greatest skill and the finest art- 
culture, yet there is to me an indescribable attraction in the 



Si 




BYZANTINE. 



BYZANTINE. 



87 



strange drinvin<4' and often gi'otesque designs of the Byzantines 
— tliose long mnscnlar arms witli awkward hands, yet so nat- 
ural ; meagre, graceless forms, questionahle in their anatom}-; 
sinewy legs with cJumsy joints ; feet distorted as by excessive 
jdodding; snd faces really full of grief; appealing counten- 
ances saying they sufter; figures of saintly women whose 
holiness depicts no courage ; trembling, shivering, spiritless 
madonnas, weird-featured and coarse-handed, grouped beneath 
a divinely-laden cross, and that L)i^•init^' a being grotesquely 
unlike our concejjtion, with lines upon his face that should 
have been labeled " beard." 

Side by side with this qiiaint array there are many engraved 
stones bearing unquestionably the Byzantine type whidi are in 
every sense beautiful gems — portraits of C'ln-ist whii-li, even 
with their peculiar rendering, have more divinit}- in them than 
many fairer cameos of earlier or of any other period (see No. 
575, Case 1 1). In that Oriental jasper Christ is portrayed as 
a loving, gentle, forgiving Redeemer : no droj) is there, and yet 
there are tears in tliose eyes. It is what the law of Moses had 
forbidden — a likeness of something in heaven, a portraiture of 
Divinity. 

Innumerable scenes and groups — the anniinciation of the 
angel Gabriel to the Virgin Mary ; the scene in the manger, 
the adoration, the crowning with thorns, Christ bearing his 
cross and showing to Thomas the wound in his side; in fact, 
every phase in the remarkable event which purchased eternal 
salvation for man. 




CHINESE. 



The g'lyptic work of the Cliinese is pi-incipally what is 
designated hasso-rUieco ; it is on nacre, bronze, jade, ame- 
th}-8t, and agahiiatoHte. What i)atience it must have required 
to cut those ornaments in jade for sceptres and oflicial swords ! 
Many pieces which we see only in museums have cost years 
of hxborious engraving. Jade has therefore been liehl by the 
Chinese as emblematic of all vii-tues. 

We have i-epresentations of change of costume on their 
porcelains and faience, but ver}- few specimens liave been 
preserved intact, and those insufficient to give us data farther 
back than the fourteenth century. 

They are said to be good copyists : all designs given to 
them for reproduction are copied very closeh', but in what we 
find on engraved stones there is the cachet of their nationality: 
it resendjles nothing else. Their work is mostlv in very low 
relief, save a few specimens in Cases L L, M M, and Y Y in my 
collection. 

Their pictured stones generallv represent hideous animals, 
birds, fruits, and views of Paradise, Avith figures of grotesque 
divinities. Their inscriptions are not incised, but are usually 
letters or characters in relief (see No. G4(l, Case L L). 

The exquisitelv IxMUtiful detiiils often exhibited bv them 
are surprising-, especially A\lien we consider the hardness of 
jade, the material principally employed by them. (8ee tine 
specimens in my cabinet of emerald, green, and black jade.) 



88 



AZTEC OE MEXICAN. 



Amoxg tlie existing relics of nations we find no examples 
of execution in stone-engraving more peculiar than in what is 
preserved of the work of the Aztecs or the ancient Mexicans, 
especially that done before the Conquest. Its character is so 
ci-ude and distinct that no close observer can for a moment 
be mistaken. I have met with Aztec engraved stones amono- 
Oriental gems also rude, yet there was that style which 
speaks to me as a silent l)ut sure indication of a class of 
ornamentation doubtless worn by that people whom Prescott 
and Kobertson have represented as decorated principally by 
gold, silver, and feather-Avork (see No. G59, Case N N). 

Large pieces, cameos of two and a half to tlu-ee inches in 
dimension, were Avorn by the Incas ns breast-ornaments, and 
are always pierced, showing that they were suspended (see 
Nos. 657 and 659, Case N N). 




89 



I^IGHT OF AET. 



The eras of art in tlic liistory of nations have been marked 
l)y the same rhanging- characteristics: hght has invariably been 
sncceeth'd Ijy darkness ; tliere are shadows ever following the 
bright rays of tlie sun. This day of imagery and sculpture, 
feeble at its dawn, radiant in its morning, powerful in the 
glory and effulgence of its meridian, faded as evening ad- 
vanced, di-ooped in the twilight, was at last veiled in the 
long period of decadence — the Middle Ages, the Night of Art. 

Throughout tliis period there was no regard for the artistic 
merit of the anticpie cameos, and yet they were highly valued 
from the fact that they ministered to the comfort of the 
superstitious. 

These same people, so credulous and so trusting in these 
t(dven-stones, by degrees formed themselves into groui^s, at 
first of two or three with ties of pious friendship; subse- 
quently these associations gradually increased in the numbers 
of their adherents until the "Towino- fanatic idea of closino- 
one's eyes on the sinful world was the incentive wliicli formed 
at first asylums, and so(tn after monasteries : and the monastic 
life became popular: wavering men, feeling themselves too 
weak to face the temptations of the world, resorted to these 
holy retreats and there sought God. Few reasonable men 
can be truly hajipy without occupation, and, hapjiilv for us, 
these recluses saw the importance and the historic interest 
of engraved gems: many of them were thus spared from loss 
and destruction. 

90 



NIGHT OF ART. 93 

The numerous orders of monks during this barbarous epoch 
collected all that possibly could be saved from the destroying 
avalanche, and with great diligence transcribed on parchment 
types of the existing literature. These bequests are interest- 
ing, and in many instances very curious records of antique 
lore. We are, however, best enabled to vie^v and conn)are the 
gems of the Republic and the Empire in tlie precious stores 
opened up to us by the excavation of sepulchres, vases, urns, 
etc. of those periods. 

The laborers in the limited field of nrt in tlie ^Middle Ages 
were the dwellers in monasteries. To them we are indebted 
for some rude fibres in the fabric with which this period of 
darkness is canopied ; they walked under it in tlie simplicity 
of monastic life ; and to us at least it conveys the lesson that 
man has forgotten so nuu-li, knows so little, and has so much 

to learn. 

Their legacies are the innumerable church pictures, and 
among other gifts the stiff, crudely-drawn illustrations which 
are said to illuminate (?) the margins of their manuscripts. 

In carving, their subjects were generally of a spiritual and 
devotional character, though some of them relieved the tedium 
of cloister-life by creating in hasso-rUievo on bone and ivory 
the most ludicrous and mirth-provoking designs. 

The subjects of the engraved gems of the eighth, ninth, 
tenth, and eleventh centuries are to a great extent unmeaning 
figures and heads — portraits of unknown personages, now and 
then reproductions of ancient Roman emperors and military 
heroes of historic renown, yet poorly rendered and bad in 
execution. 

There are also manj^ inexplicable subjects, portraying 
groups of three, four, tive, and six figures, evidently intended 



94 ENGRAVED GEMS. 

to commemorate events in history ; also, mythological proces- 
sions, both in rude intaglios and equally mediocre cameos, giv- 
ing triumphs of Silenus and Bacchus, portraying these heroes 
in forms the drawing of which would raise blushes on their 
cheeks could thev return to earth and be allowed to criticise 
their effigies. Silenus, even full of wine, Avould growl and 
remonstrate, pronouncing some of them absmxl misrepresenta- 
tions. 

Many of those connnemorating or representing incidents of 
the period coarsely delineated are riddles seldom to be under- 
stood or solved. This fact, to a true lover or admirer of sub- 
ject gems, is a cause of dissatisfaction, wliich, added to their 
miserable execution, detracts from their art value. I must, 
however, confess they have for me a great interest, if only 
on account of their contrast with the examples of Greek aud 
Roman glyptic art. 

There certainly were some meaning and intelligible repre- 
sentations of mythical or even actital events ; some love-scenes, 
betrothals, or refusals, and driving away of the wooing hero; 
but as these incidents or compositions have no connection with 
well-known historical facts or legends, and quantities of them 
not even of niylliological personages, they remain enigmas, and 
under that category, coupled with their poor execution, lack 
the interest of those wonderful historical gems of the earlier 
and purer ghptic school — three centuries b. v. nnd three cen- 
turies A. D. 

In this epoch, again, we find instances of the sensitiveness 
of the numismatic branch of the art of gem-engra-vnng, for the 
models of all pieces of money are intaglios, and thus far they 
are related to the glyptic art; and it has always been the first 
industry giving evidence of a decline. Reference to a few 



NIGHT OF ABT. 95 

examples in the money of these centuries will sustain my 
assertion. 

See the gold coins of King Sigibertus II., struck at ancient 
Marseilles — a sol d'or of the seventh centm-y ; 

The srold coins of Childericus II., sti'uck also at ancient 
3Iarseilles — a sol d'or of the seventh century ; 

The gold coins of Justinian II., Avith the portrait of the 
emperor standing, holding a cross, and on the reverse his 
bust, holding a globe surmounted by a cross — a sol d'or of 
the eighth century ; 

The gold (alloyed) coins known as friois, struck at the 
ancient city of Banuasac in tlie centre of France, ^\hh por- 
ti'ait of a sovereign, and on the reverse a chalice of the eighth 
centm-y ; 

The gold coins of Louis le Deboxnaire, son of Charle- 
magne, with the legend mvnvs divinvm — a sol d'or of the ninth 
century ; 

The srold coins of Grimoald de Bexevext, with the name 
of Charlemagne and doms car r"" — a sol d'or of the ninth 
century ; 

See the coin known as the foUis, of Constaktine X. PoR- 
phyrogJ:xJ;te, in bronze, of the tenth century ; 

The deniers, in silver, of Pope John IX., Avith the effigy 
of St. Peter, S. Petrus — tenth century; 

The gold coins, concave, of Alexis I. Comxexe, with ef- 
fio-ies of Christ seated, and reverse bust — a sol d'or of the 
eleventh century ; 

And the barbarously-designed coin (in base metal) struck 
at Laon, France, of Philippe Auguste, king of France, with 
his poi-ti-ait and that of the archbishop of Laon — eleventh cen- 
turA' : 



96 ENGRAVED GEMS. 

All these and many others are fair examples of the engraA^- 
ing of the epoch. 

We are amused and mstructed in viewing the pictorial 
records of these centm-ies : we nuist censure the self-aggran- 
dizement and jealous care which in those days hung as a veil 
between man and the free pursuit of learning and the know- 
ledge of the beautiful. The rest of the i)opulation were occu- 
pied in the cultivation of the ground or in the profes.sion of 
arms, giving to such occupations more attention than to edu- 
cation, literature, art, or science. 

The foregoing view of these art-bequests is given prin- 
cipally in connection with the qualities, exemplified by the 
gem-engraving of the epoch. The major portion of the col- 
ored illuminated manuscripts of the eighth, ninth, tenth, and 
eleventh centuries is referred to as corresponding most exactly 
wath the rude glyptic productions of the same pei-iod ; and it 
is to be imderstood that what is crude I attribute to the 
monastic pencils. 

Italy was the cradle of the art of illumination on missals 
and manuscripts, but its force and perfection were developed 
later in France and Flanders. Spain has produced the most 
mediocre examples ; those of Germany do not concern us at 
this moment. 

In the missals from the eighth to the eleventh century, 
inclusive (see examples in the museum at Laon, France, and 
ill the Bibliotheque Rationale, Paris), we find the rude, 
crudely drawn colored illuminations alluded to. The more 
prominent subjects are Adam and Eve in the garden of Para- 
dise, and, for variety, in difterent scenes in the garden, smelling 
and culling the flowers: walking with their Divine Creator; the 



NIGHT OF ART. 97 

Serpent in the tree. Eve oflfers tlie apple to Adam ; Adam 
accepts and partakes of the forbidden fruit ; an angel banishes 
them from the garden ; and so on throughont the whole gene- 
alogy as recited in Holy Writ, these characters having as ad- 
juncts in ornamentation ([ueer fishes, chimeras, and other 
strange animals, butterflies, serpents, lions, birds, insects, and 
flowers unknoAvn to botanists of our day. 

These stift", crudely-drawn colored illuminations, executed 
in monasteries, I have represented in my picture and employed 
as a cloud, my object being that they may serve as a foil, a 
contrasting mass of shadow, on Avhicli should shine out more 
brilliantly the early Greek and Roman glyptic art, and again 
as a background before which should sparkle the succeeding 
and greater refinement of those productions pencilled, painted, 
or engraved for us by our more immediate ancestors of the 
Renaissance School. 

These rude illuminations on the margins of the manuscripts 
of these monastic contributors Avere in keeping with the gem- 
engraving of that i)eriod, the eighth to the eleventh centuries, 
which I have denoted as the Night of Art. 

It cannot be denied that there were bright intervals in that 
era of comparative art-darkness, and in the U\o or three suc- 
ceeding centuries, when men, mi trammelled b}' the bonds of 
monasticism, produced superior work. At eventide of many 
days of labor the under sides of the cloud had golden linings 
and silver edges. 

The pencils that produced these finer eff'ects, those jewels 
of the twilight, were guided by freemen, who, though living 
among the sleeping, were so imbued with religioiis art that 
their works pictured a glow of light whose genial rays are 
to-day still reflected on truly appreciative minds. 

7 



98 ENGRAVED GEMS. 

I recognize the greater illuminators of monastic manuscripts 
as the exceptional lights of that period, who wove some bright 
threads into the art-web that has been preserved for us, and 
which to-day illumines in a measure the history of an epoch 
that was so cold and mediocre in gem-engraving. 

So much were some of the cloistered illuminators infatu- 
ated with their art-occupation that it was enthroned in their 
thoughts even during their limited hours of re})Ose, when 
visions furnished them with the hajipiest types wliicli adorned 
the work of the succeeding day. They knew nt»t Eve, nor 
did they hold converse with her daughters; they had no living 
models for Mar}^, Sarah, Hagar, or Rebecca. Although they 
were the predecessors of Fra Angelica, they, like him, had 
"manifestations" of what they knew not in their monastic life 
— di'eams of angelic faces and of forms endowed with holy 
countenances — which on their awakening they so marvellously 
depicted on panel or on jiarchment. 

As a rule, a\ hen an illuminated mamiscript presents itself 
possessing suj)erior art-cpialitie.s, connoisseurs easily recognize 
that it is of a later period, and tluit it was made by an artist 
unshackled, living at large in the busy worhl, having models 
everywhere around him ; not by an anchorite or a monk: these 
latter seldom signed their works, and are therefore not indi- 
vidually known to us. 

Of the later and more truly artistic illuminated MSS. we 
have bright exann)les in the Avorks of ]\Iemling of Bruges, 
who in 1490 painted a missal for Pope Alexander \\. which 
is exquisitely drawn and colored, and in whicli is to be found 
the Pentecost, with eleven lovely-faced figures in varied cos- 
tumes ; the Crucitixion, seven or eight figui'es ; Saint Veronica, 
holding the cloth bearing the imprint of our Saviour's face ; 



NIGHT OF ART. 



99 



and the breviary of Cardinal Griniani, a marvellons production 
now at Venice. 

The vieAv of these relics of cloister art convinces iis that 
they of the Dark Ages did not contribute the truly beautiful. 
Yet shadows pass with " time and the hour." — Nig-lit is passing 
— comes the g-rav — comes the dawn — comes the morning- lio-ht. 
Creatures that at evening ceased their song, tune now their 
pipes and sing again ; thev chant anon the requiem of the 
Xight of Art : and A'et anon tliev sing the coming of the 
light. They celebrate at last, with hope, the renewing of all 
things beautiful in art. ********* 
* * * * The orb of day gilds the horizon ; man be- 
holds the aurora of the approaching day. 




THE RENAISSANCE. 



As a child becomes restless with the consciousness of com- 
ing day before it full}' awakes from sleep, man, Aveary of this 
nio-ht of io-norance and the atmosphere of barbarism, fretful 
on his couch under the yoke of tyranny, striving to shake 
it otf while yet enveloped by the shades of error, rose up 
to seek an element he knew not, a light he di-eamed would 
come. 

He burst tlie cords that bound his strength; he pierced 
the clouds Avhich dulled his vision, and, leaving his prison- 
house, reached forth his fearless arm, and, })ushing aside the 
sombre folds of the long inten-ening veil, peered into the 
outer world of progress, and in the gray gloom he descried 
a distant terrace. With rapid strides, through fuiTOws of 
popular prejudice and cinders of past magnificence, over 
crumbled arch and fallen pillar, frieze, and pediment, he sped 
his wav, nor flag-o-ed nor halted till, the summit reached, he 
stood and gazed with earnest look out into the coming time ; 
he beheld in the vista before him many streams flowing into 
the sea of the future. In the horizon gleamed again the omen 
of coming day; it was the harbinger of a new birtli. 

The light of tnitli flasheil upon his mind, discovering to 
him his freed intellect : unlike the denizens of the earlier age 
of luxury and repletion, he stood a thinking man, refreshed, 
invigorated, and ready for work ; and quickly he applied him- 
self; called forth his kinsmen; his voice was heard throughout 
the land ; men awoke everywhere and wrought in the ateliers 

100 




JJ.VN.-*^'^^ 



THE KENAISSANCE. 



THE BENAISSANCE. lOH 

of tlie new life. Through tlie air eanie strains as of niusir 
from creaking of timber, cracking of stone, the carol of the 
painter, hammer and anvil, — plashing oar, Avheel and shaft, 
mallet and chisel — the ordtorlo of the Renaissance. 

With this aAvakening came another influx of skilled artisans 
intii Itah', not to compete, as before, in the great established 
art-market of the world : now they came in response to appeals 
for master-workmen — came to instruct, to encourage the new 
Ijirth, to lead the drowsy ones out into the full light of day — 
the day of a rising constellation in which once more shone 
brilliantly a meritorious school of gem-engravers. 



Though Germany, France, and other nations shared in the 
work, Italy guarded the cradle of the Renaissance, and as a 
faitliful, loving parent watched the developing features of the 
youth, which grew apace, reading there the promise of a groov- 
ing power that was destined to lead future generations to excel- 
lence and prosperity. 

She reared the budding plants, sai)lings of the grove 
whose branches were to yield refreshing fruits to all who 
asked, whose timber was to give keel, hull, sjjars, and masts 
to commerce: thence came the little crafts that crossed the 
unknown deep and spied our Western shores. 

Italy accomplished the first great work of this period l)y 
furnishino- models for l)Oth industrial and fine arts, infusing 
vitality into other nations. The influential families of the 
Medici and Farnese, Popes Leo X. and Paul III., many car- 
dinals and nobles, were instrumental in the revival of gem- 
encravino- ; especially Lorenzo d']\Iedici contributed to its re- 
development and growth by inducing artists to devote them- 



104 ENGRAVED GEMS. 

selves to its practice and bestowing on them his Hberal 
patronage. 

The vigorons manner of artists of this period is so marked 
that even in the repro(hicti()U of anticpTe (k-signs a connoisseur 
can recognize their pecuhar style. Their original w<irks are 
highly meritorii)us, attaining a great degree of excellence. 
Many rose to eminence ; some, not content with rising in the 
firmament of the dawning effulgence, aspired to positions in 
the bright constellation of tame. 

Examjdes equalling the finest productions of the earlier 
Roman epoch can be ^-iewed in the Uffizi Grallery at Floi-ence. 

Engraved gems were again applied l)y the wealthy in the 
embellishment of costumes, armor, military etpiipments, inlay- 
ing and embossing of ^-ases, drinking-cups, tankards, etc. The 
multiplicitv of gems needed to meet these demands produced 
a scarcitv in the supply of lieautiful India stones, and led to 
the vise of the conch, wliich also presented several strata in 
different colors, but which, as the material is tender, easily cut, 
and subject to in)ur\' from abrasion, never acquired the same 
intrinsic value. Some of these are very curious, rendering 
effective portraits of Oriental complexion, aged heads, white eye- 
brows, and flowing beards. (See Nos. 824 and S42, Case Z Z.) 




SUCCEEDING CENTUEIES. 



Thus constant oncouvagenient was given to tliis In-ani-h 
of art-industry throughout the fifteenth and part ()f the six- 
teenth century; but after the death of tlie Emperor Charles 
v., in looS, recurred another period of decline. Private and 
royal accumulations of art-works were again the victims ot 
depredation ; cabinets and museums were pillaged and scat- 
tered bv military marauders as one after another the great 
cities of the continent of Europe were besieged and conquered. 

The glyptic of all the arts was the most easily atlected by 
the changing fortunes of nations. 

These circumstances compelled artists to give their attention 
more particularly to church architecture, to the jiroduction of 
large devotional Ijasso-rilievos for the altar, and sculptm-ed 
figures, which, though rej^resenting sacred subjects, were often 
too voluptuous in form and lacking the essential (qualities ot 

true art. 

In the eighteenth century gem-engraving received fresh 
impetus ; new practitioners Avere enrolled from CTcrmany, Eng- 
land, and France. 

Some of these resided many j-ears in England, pursuing 
their profession assiduously and profitably. In this period 
quantities of intaglios and cameos were reproduced from the 
most salable antique subjects. To supply the wants of enthusi- 
astic amateurs frauds were freely committed by close imitation 
and the insertion of signatures of celebrated Greek and Roman 

106 



106 ENGRAVED GEMS. 

engravers, tliougli the age produced artists of the highest abihty 
and lionor. 

The works of Natter, Guar, Sirk-tti, I'iclder, SantarelH, 
and others conic to us so directly from their liands that we 
feel they almost belong to our day, and we think of them as 
of acquaintances. 

These artists, ^\ itli others of their time, have already been 
noticed, comparing their work with that of the ancient 
Greeks {q. v.). 

During the latter part of the eighteenth century and the 
commencement of tlu^ nineteenth, monarchs and noblemen in- 
dulged in making collections of gems to such an extent that 
the list of patrons increased competition, and fabulous prices 
wei-e obtained from such buyers as the Empress Catherine II. of 
Russia, the Prince Frederick of Prussia, the Duke of Orleans, 
George III., the Empress Josephine of France, and many of 
the English nobility, among others the Dukes of Devonshire 
and Marlborough. 





EETEOSPEOTIYE. 



To-day we have much to enjoy as we sitrvey the gems of 
the various epochs. The multifarious types that have been 
o-athei-ed in thirtv centuries meet our view, grouped in the 
tableau of engraved gems. 

Our attention is drawn, with interest, to each sentiment 
expressed, feature defined, or emotion portrayed. We study 
the diversified qualities — the fineness or freedom of touch, 
ingenious eflects, delicate lines, choice attitudes, gi-aceful 
forms, force, spirit, and tenderness — which characterize these 
monuments of patience. 

Let us partake of the glyptic banquet before us. The 
feast charms the eye and is food for much intellectual enjoy- 
ment. How daintily the repast is spread! Tables from the 
Acropolis; ti'enchers of chalcedony; vessels of agate and jasper; 
covers of turquoise ; cups of carnelian, rich in colors, Avrouglit 
from nature's treasury of stone; fiiiits unblemished through 
cycles of frost; fiowers udorless, yet choice as when they 

107 



108 ENGRAVED GEMS. 

decked Zeiiobia's l)r(»w ; drapery of every hue, plebeian, 
sacerdotal, imperial ; grapes of garnet and amethj^st ; apples 
of onyx, the scion of a brook-/ lim])id topaz; the day-thit of 
the zenith nestling in the bosom of the sapphire ; nectar in 
crystal of l)crvl; perennial verdure living- in emerald; chryso- 
lite, entire and perfect, fit to make another world ; - the hue 
of wine dropping from jacinth; the dove's life-current mirrored 
in ruby — an entertainment regaling the most refined tastes with 
viands beautiful and enduring. 



The engraved gems rescued from the torrent, ebbing and 
flowing with the fluctuating fortunes of ages, garnered by suc- 
cessive generations, enrich the traditional viaduct traversing 
the morass of man\' centuries. Some Ijlocks are less beautiful 
tlian others in the structure, 1)ut on them we have founded 
our first footholds, and from them we mount to the work that 
embellishes the great Etruscan arches. P^ven when we revel 
on the finely-pencilled coping-stones of the Greek and Roman 
e])ochs, or admire the ornate abutments of the Renaissance, we 
should revert with pleasure to the earlier, riuler contributions 
in the foundations, and we can find pleasure in viewing and 
studying every part. 

' Many of the finer stones adapted to gem-engraving have been broken away from tlieir 
rocky beds and bronght down Ijy moinitain streams iintil, rolled and washed in brocks, they 
appear as pebbles. In most Enropean gem-catalognes a large projiortion of the stones are 
noted as being cut from BRECflA or pebbles. 

' Othdlo, Act v., Scene 2: 'If Heaven would make me snoli another world of one entire 
and perfect clirysolite, I'd not have sold her for it." The chrysolite, or peridot, is seldom 
cut as a gem, being softer than chrysoberyl, but I have seen it in Italy. Some years ago, 
when making researches on tliis subject in the BibliothequeNationale at Paris, I met with 
a paper on gem-stones liy Kobert Dingley, Esq., in Phil. Trciitttuclions, 1747, in which he 
also mentions the chry.solite having been used for gem-engraving. 



RETROSPECTIVE. 



100 



The builder's stones are graven ; the footway is of pictured 
pebbles, miniatures, amulets, and seals, reflecting lineaments 
and traces of the history of entombed generations. Their 
inscriptions reveal to us the impress of ancient, mediaeval, 
and modern art. 




EELIGION ON STOK^ES. 



We have found here unquestionably information not to be 
obtained from any other source. If ancient engraved stones 
had never been unearthed or found, we would have been 
ignorant to-day of much that is interesting and important 
concerning the historic chain which now connects lis with 
the traditions of men in the incipiency of art thousands of 
years before the era of manuscripts. 

"We hold and esteem the Holy Bible not only as our guide 
and as the book of God's laws, but also as one of the most per- 
fect compends of the history of the world from all known time. 
The earliest mention of the profession oi' gem-cutting is in 
the thirty -first chapter of Exodus, from the first to the fifth 
verse, inclusive : 

"And the Lord spake unto Moses, saying, See, I have called 
hv name Bezaleel the son of Uri, the son of Hur, of the tribe 
of Judah : an<l I have filled him with the spirit of God, in 
wisdom, and in understanding, and in knowledge, and in all 
manner of workmanship, to devise i-unning works, to work 
in gold, and in silver, and in brass, and in cutting of stones, 
to set them," etc., "and to work in all manner of workman- 
ship." This commission was for the Jews to adorn the ark 
of the testimony and to attach to tlie Esod a part of the 
vestiture of the gr;ui<l sacerdotal of the Israelites. Our ob- 
servation of this branch of art has been strictly in accordance 
with my title. 

We have regarded almost solely all these beautiful stones 



no 



RELIGION ON STONES. Ill 

in the liglit of art, ^^itli a view of considering their compai'ative 
art-merits ; yet I have always seen in tlieir history another and 
somewhat important phase, at least to me an interesting one : 
that is, their connection with the traditions, legends, and annals 
of religion. We find on them tenets of paganism, mysticism, 
mythology, and the Cln-istian religion — symbols, dogmas, and 
pictnred revelations of creeds of many nations and of people 
almost otherwise unknown — what may indeed be classified as 
religious stone-literature. 

Skilful utilization of the colored strata and maculation of 
onyxes and agates depict fire and water as objects of adora- 
tion ; altars rendered sacred by their inscriptions, each with 
its patron god upon it i»r hovering near; characters there 
inscribed telling to whose service they were dedicated — now 
to a supreme being beloved, though aliseut; again, to a deity 
adored, though unseen. 

Every tribe seems to have had a Father above, though 
we do not meet with the vague superscription, " To the un- 
known God." 

Uu every side objects of A'eneration : the heavens; in- 
numerable mention of deities dwelling therein ; plenteous 
aspirations and ajjpeals to their clemency, forbearance, and 
protection. 

These talismanic gems, whenever they are religiously in- 
scribed, I treasure as tablets of faith — a faith which, though 
often erroneously placed, was fervent and abiding as it was 
indelibh' registered. 

Eambling in many strange countries, seeing palaces, cos- 
tumes, men, and manners, this subject, paramount to them 
all, has often received my attention — a theme the most pre- 
cious to the scattered races of the human family, their religion. 



112 ENGRAVED GEMS. 

It is worthy of remark that so large a projiortion of the 
intaghos and seals were of a religious character. 

The ancient residents near tlie sea and on all the frontier 
of Asia Minor had tlieir relio-ious token-g-ems. 

Remarks have often been made by Christians in my hear- 
ing, inferring that it was surprising men could have believed 
in these gods or in such theories and dogmas, and expressing 
astonishment that they could have trusted in these talismans 
or hoped for l)enetits from them. Many sneer at the absurd 
codes of mythological religion : yes, let us call it so : that is 
what it was for these people ; they knew not our God, had 
never heard of (nu- divine Master. 

Until the revelation of Christ to us, man naturally had to 
Iciok sonu'wliere for refuge for his soul; he had to clino- to 
some imseen hand, lest he should fall. 

Did it ever occm- to you luiw modem Christianity is? 
These pagans, of whose religions we have so many little 
stone monuments, were all anterior to that revelation. 

Christians of to-day, reflect : all these heathen, as you no 
doubt esteem them, ^^ere earnest in the j)erfonnance of their 
duties, their prayers, their adoration, and their sacrifices — 
many of them more devout than some of us under the liolit 
of the nineteenth century. 

True, these religions were the inventions of men, tlie out- 
come of tlu' longings and Aearnings of sympathetic men for 
a superior guiding and jn-otecting power — Deity, if you will 
allow it — to which to turn and in which to hope. 

They worshipped faithfully, adored sincerely, obeyed im- 
plicitly, lived simple lives in keejjing with their primitive 
faith. Was it not reasonable, this worship of a people Avho 
had no divine revelation ? Was it not beautiful I Can you 



RELIGION ON STONES. 113 

not even now see something- to adniii-e in devotional exercises 
held in God's open air, turning- in adoration myriads of 
earnest eyes upon the iSan, "the beauty and the glory of the 
da}'," devoutly praising from the heart the majesty and jjower 
of the Supreme Being, the Maker and the Ruler of this benign 
lights Their principal fete, on whieh they all assembled joy- 
fullv and gratefully to bow before the glorious orb, was on 
the same day ^^•(' lune accepted as the anniversary of the 
birth of Christ our Redeemer. 

And so it was with those who venerated and carried 
engraved euiblems of those incouiprehensible elements, Fire 
and Water. 

As symbolic of the inscrutable j)owcr the Parsees keep a 
flauie constantly burning- njion an altar iu the inner temple ; 
so sacred is it that only the higher jiriests set apart for that 
service can enter therein ; yet through their mediation thou- 
sands participate in the ceremony and enjoy the consolations 
of its power — a Ibrce of terriljle destructibility, yet with the 
genial phase ^^■hich couiforts and contributes to the nourish- 
ment of man. This form of worship originated in Persia, 
and when its disciples emigrated and distributed themselves 
throughout many countries and islands of India and the 
shores of the neighboring seas, th<'\' carefully carried the 
sacred fire with tlieni ; and it Is believed it has never ceased 
to burn during many centuries. 

Even to this day many of these ol)jects in stone are treas- 

lU'ed and valued bv men and women in secluded villages in 

the East; they hold and guiu-d them as religious heirlooms. I 

have bartered with them siiccessfully, and have bought their 

bracelets, iinger-rings, and nose-rings; yet so highly have these 

sacred talismans been esteemed that those Avliich I most 
s 



114 ENGRAVED GEMS. 

desired have rarely and only with difficulty been obtained 
from their superstitiovis possessors. 

In the two or three centuries succeeding the advent of 
Christ the Abraxas flourished and engraved the mass of 
religious mystic talismans (ah'eady described in their place 
in this book). Their priests or pastors, in the term accepted 
bv us, prepared these amulets, engraving upon them attributes 
and svmbols of the ]\Iost High ; they taught their followers 
to wear them close to their hearts, these reminders of their 
heavenly Father, these rude glyptic lights that kept them 
nearer to God. I do not, cannot, find it absurd. When you 
have considered this subject as no^v presented, you will per- 
haps view with new interest these devotional tokens, after 
many years of travel and research brought together and 
classified in my cabinet. 





AXIMALS AND BIRDS. 



We have seen liow laro-e a proportion of the subjects on 
ancient gems were nivthologieal, how extended was the cLiss 
of rehgious and of Christian subjects ; we have noted the 
loved i)ortraits of sovereigns, statesmen, philosophers, physi- 
cians, and poets. 

There remains a series worthy of notice — those intaglios 
and cameos worn as amulets on which Avere engraved innum- 
erable animals, birds, fishes, and even insects. 

As the families of the nobility chose the insignia which 
entered into the cpiarterings of their escutcheons, so the an- 
cients according to their superstitions or their tastes chose 
some pati-on animal or liird for an emblem and caused it to 
be eno-raved on their talisiuaiis: and these symbols were cher- 
ished Avith what might almost be termed religious fervency. 

They were used as amulets, protecting the wearers against 
accident and repelling danger. There Avas almost a pharma- 
copoeia of gems, Avith solace for every trouble of mind and a 
remedy for every disease. 

A dolphin, the mariner's friend, on sard or carnelian, was 
an emblem Avoru Ija' fishermen and protected them from the 



llo 



116 ENGRAVED GEMS. 

attacks of sharks or other voracious fishes. They also carried 
with equal reliance the same design in antique paste. (See 
No. 1232, Case XXX.) 

The eagle of Jupiter is symbolic of his power, although 
it was subservient to him. This no doubt accounts for its 
appropriation in heraldry by so^•ereigns from all times. 

The raven, tlie friend of Apollo ; the parrot, a loquacious 
inebriate, is often an attendant on Bacchus. 

The aringa, a tish of the Adriatic Sea, represented on the 
talisman No. 128, Case H, was worn by women on account 
of its being the symbol of fruitfulness ; it deposits many thou- 
sand esgs each "S'ear. 

Certain insects, arachnids, and reptiles were enq^loyed as 
symbols, because they were supposed to protect man in each 
case from the enemv thereon delineated. 

A scorpion on a transparent stone was an amulet against 
the sting of the arachnid. 

As the scorpion inflicts a painful sting, the spider a venom- 
ous bite, and a varietv of flies make dang-erous ao-o-ression on 
the human form, their images engraved on stones were believed 
to shield the wearer from the ills due to attacks from corre- 
sponding insects. 

One of the most minute insects employed as a talisman is 
the ant, symbolic of industrv. 

The peacock frequentlv appears on gems; naturallv, no 
one would have had it as an emblem of vanitv, in which sense 
it is generally accepted in modern times, Init it was revered as 
the ftworite of Juno. 

Tlie owl : ^Minerva's head is at times draped with an owl ; 
its t-onnection with ]\Iinerva is that it is symbolic of profound 
meditation. (See No. 698, Case Q Q.) 



AXLMALS AXD BIBDS. 117 

Tlie beautiful storks occur frequently on engraved gems : 
they were so abundant in Asia Minor and in the l.vzantine 
Emj/n-e that husbandmen sought to frighten them away; j^et 
in otlier lands tliey were almost adored. In modern Fiinen, 
and generally in Scandinavia, storks building their nests on 
the roofs of houses in the countrv are welcomed as brins'ing' 
children for the household, and are cared for with a credulity 
ec|ualling pagan superstition. 

Prof C. W. King, in his Ai/tiqitr Geni.'^, savs that the frog 
found a jdace in Christian synd)olism as the most expressive 
image of the resuirection of the body, because frogs, like the 
serpents after their winter interment, emerge from their hid- 
ing-places and renew their youth l)y casting their slough. 

Many fariu- and house-companions figure in the series : a 
clog, fidelity : a cock, A-igilance : a turtle, alwavs at home ; a 
snail, there is no hurry; a sheep, humilitv; a lamb, innocence; 
a horse, patience and endurance ; a dove, harmless, the Holy 
Spirit : a lion, majesty and force ; a serpent, wisdom, and, with 
its tail in mouth, eternity: a serpent was dften represented on 
the stone above the fireplace in Roman kitchens ; a ram was 
significant of tlie Xundine sacrifices made weekh" to Jupiter; 
a lion and a goat driven by Cupid, the ])ower of love : he 
guides not oidy the lascividus, Init the strong. (See No. 290, 
Case R.) 





HISTOEIC CAMEOS. 



A LARGE class of ancieiit gems were historical ; fine exam- 
ples may be found in the suite from No. 132G, G G G G, to 
No. 1351, MM MM, inclusive. ^ 

This series of cameos (with the exception of two numbers, 
1327 and 1330, representing the East and the AVest) are all 
works of the most able artists of the epoch of Trajan, and are 
now esteemed in Rome as works of the highest merit. 

They portray the jileasures of the hunting-expeditions, the 
wars, and other incidents in tlie Hfe of Trajan. 

These cameos were the subjects of the basso-rilievos which 
ornamented a triumphal arch erected in honor of Trajan. 

In the reign of the Emperor Constantine the Romans 
despoiled tliis monument of all these subjects tributary to 
Trajan, and adorned with them the ai'ch which they then 
built for Constantine. 

It was said in those davs no emperor liad ever equalled 
Constantine in building up the Empire, and therefore they did 
not hesitate to dismantle a monument of his ])redecessor. (See 
detailed description in catalogue raisonne of Greek and Roman 



118 



HISTORIC CAMEOS. 119 

Classics and 3Iythology, p. 7ol.) Mention should also be made 
of the cameo, No. 207, Case P, Coriolauus visited by his moth- 
er Yetui-ia and his Avife Yohimnia. His original name was 
Marcius, but on account of his ^alor in a contest against 
the Volscians he was suruamed Coriolauus. In the time of 
a famine he was impeached for his opinions in regard to tlie 
distribution of corn received from Sicily : he was condemned 
to exile. He now went over to the • Volscians, and became 
o-eneral of their ariiiv, and successfullv attacked the Romans; 
they, fearing him. made advances to him and ofiered the 
restoration of all his property and franchises; he resisted all 
theii- propositions. It was not until his mother and wife came 
to him that he could be induced to relent; their prayers and 
tears, however, moved him; he then retired with his army, 
but passed the remainder of his life with the Volscians, who had 
honored him for his valor and not from fear. The guard with 
a shield at the right is a Volscian, and he at the left is a Roman. 

Observe also the cameo No. 153, Case J, an allocution of 
Marcus Aurelius before the Prpetorian Guai-d: the guard are 
not onlv known by their costume, but by the banner which 
is marked S. C. {Senafus Cousultiim). 

No incidents in ancient history are more interesting or 
more dramatic than the episodes in the life and career of 
fair Cleopatra; one of the most vivid to my fancy's recol- 
lection is the scene of her fatal giving up of that romantic 
life as depicted on the beautiful turquoise cameo — No. 346, 
Case T. 

It is well understood that all the cameos concerning Christ 
are truly hi.-^torical. Also No. 968, Case III, Horatius de- 
fending the bridge. The bridge was on the Tiber at Rome : 
Horatius was fighting the Etruscans ; the Romans were obliged 



120 EXanA VED GEMS. 

to destroy their end of tlie bridy-e, avIu-ii Iloratius witli liis 
horse swam back. 

True, we have liistorv through classic Latin sources of the 
most impoi'tant events of tlie first and second centuries. Yet 
these portraitures on stone, executed in tlie very epochs, add 
certainly great interest to the records of these times. The 
subjects on stone in my collection embraced within the Nos. 
1326-1351 above alluded to mirror to us more faithfully, more 
vividly, scenes in the lives of several Roman emperors than 
anv manuscript possibly could have done. 

We have Trajan as emperor, judge, and warrior. We see 
him engaged in conflict, we admire him victorious, we rejoice 
in his happv return to Rome on several occasions ; in his 
triumphant reception both by the people and the army, and 
in the arches erected as souvenirs of his prowess ; in his dig- 
nified reception of the son of the king of the Armenians, and 
in his condescension in restoring their kingdom ; in several 
of his expeditions against the Dacians, and in his happy 
escape from the plot of Decebalus. We have instances of his 
public charities delicately depicted in cameo : his religious 
sacrifices ; his exploits as a hunter oi manv wild animals, the 
boar and the lion included, are exemplified. We have several 
beautiful groups with emperors delivering allocutions before 
the cohorts of their armies, senators, and other dignitaries ; 
also the important cameo No. l.'US, the 1riumj)hant entry of 
Titus A e.spasianus into Jerusalem, whereon twenty-two figures 
are visible, and cameo No. 1341', the exit from Jerusalem of 
his \dctorious army, on which nineteen figures are seen ; also 
the groups of Jewish prisoners. 

All these pages in m\ stone l)ook are certainly interesting 
additions to ancient historv. 



MYTHOLOGICAL. 



We have another riclily ilhistrated category, of antique 
gems, both cameos and intaghos. Tln'ongh their possession 
we liave become heirs to the most thorough knowledge of 
mythology. Hundreds of distinct specimens may be gathered 
from gly]:)tic Avork centuries before Christ, and arranged so 
as to form several genealogical trees. In mythology there is 
not one single ancestor of all, as in the biblical historv, Avhere 
Adam is honored with being our original and oidv progenitor, 
and equally censured with being the testator of our legacy 
of all human ills. The myriad bigamist ancestors of the 
countless mythological beings pictured on ancient gems have 
created and bequeathed to us numerous lamilies of celestial 
and terrestrial divinities, denizens of earth, air, and water. 
Like the royal families of our sphere, there was nnich inter- 
marriage of close relatives, many of theii- offspring bearing 
for a while the forms of animals, birds, and anon reptiles ; 
some of their descendants were even metamorphosed in those 
ti'opical climes into trees, under whose cooling umbrage other 
scions were l)orn and commenced their adventurous career. 

These poetical conceptions were the mvtliological fore- 
runners of the simpler, i)urer, diviner religion which Avas 
eventually given to man. A close observer may find in 
these legendaiy myths antetypes of the omnipotent God- 
head now revealed to us and in which is our sure hope 
and trust. 

121 



122 



ENGRAVED GEMS. 



Life is so precious and xei so little apportioned to each 
of lis ! I have given much time to the acquisition of gems 
and the investigation <>f this interesting subject. How can I 
be repaid ? Can there be found some thinking ones who will 
read carefully this treatise ? Then may I hope that an interest 
will be awakened in my subject, and many ma)' enjoy years 
of pleasant research. 




Bacchus and Ariadne. (Iteduced.) 
See gem, Plate 99. 



REMINISCENCES OF TRAVELS 



PURSUIT AND THE ACQUISITION 



ENGRAVED GEMS. 




REMINISCENCES OF TRAVELS 



IN THE PURSUIT AND THE ACQUISITION OF ENGRAVED GEMS. 



These stones have not been found at or near my American 
home, nor many of them in the great cities of Europe, but 
have been gathered in lands foreign to that in which I spent 
my yoiith and in places remote from the beaten track of 
ordinarv travel. ]\Iany of them have amusing histories, and 
there are curious incidents connected Avith the search for and 
acquisition of them. Having been an earnest, enthusiastic 
collector, interesting memories are mine concerning a large 
proportion of my collection. 

The zeal with which I have sought and followed up certain 
engraved gems which eventually came into my possession can 
perhaps be more clearlv expressed by noting the desire I long 
had to look upon a constellation which can only be seen when 
one reaches the country adjoining Abyssinia. When travelling 



125 



126 



REMIXISCEXCES OF TRAVELS. 



in a southerly direction, week after week at night, I asked my 
dragoman (in many respects my tutor) if it was yet visible. 
"Patience!" was his oft-repeated reply. At last, one silent 
evening in Ethiopia he led me forward on my boat, my home 
for the time ; he then guided my eye to a starry cross low 
witliiu the southern horizon ; it was the long-sought constel- 
lation of the "Southern Cross," and with gratification I invol- 
untarily exclaimed, "I have seen it! at last I have seen it!" 
Precisely so have I felt after seeking some special gem which, 
having seen or heard of for a moment, before I could be- 
come its possessor had changed ownership, domicile, and even 
country. When, in after years, I again heard of it, found and 
secured it, almost invariably I would return to my lodging to 
enjoy doubly its beauty and the thought that it was mine ! 

When living in ^lorocco I used to go to the Soho, a great 
market-place without the city of Tangier, Avhere multitudes 
of trades-people congregated on tw(i days in the week, com- 
ing from the city and from a distance, both to buy and to sell 
their merchandise. I would announce through my dragoman 
that on the next market-day I woidd be there and ready to 
buA- fine and antifpie jewels and gems. Thus have I added 
to iny store. 




THE STOEY-TELLER. 



I REME5IBER well Oil (1116 occasion wandering from the city 
of Tangier to the ontskirts of the desert ; it was evening. I 
soon found vdiat I sought, a caravan of Arabs with their camels 
laden with Oriental merchandise; it was the hour of repose 
and diversion. Tlie caravan was at rest : it was a picturesque 
assemblv, the faithful humpbacked creatures of burden deployed 
in oToups and in ranks, each with his saddle-racks stacked 
behind him as the arms of a regiment in Invouac, with necks 
and heads outstretched upon the sand, now and again turning 
their stupid faces and eyes as if looking for some one sure to 
come; and when at last a picturesque grizzly-bearded liadji 
in a waAworn turban began to stir in a great wooden basket 
the husk porridge of prickly shrubs, refuse vegetables, and 
savor)' fragments from the shrivelled stems of the date-bearing 
palms, the nostrils of the camels, so carefully closed in the 
hot sand-blasts of the desert, Avere now distended, conscious 
through their keen sense of smell that nourishment was being 
prepared for them. Another aged camp-follower with melon- 
seeds and lentils slipped quietly about selling small measures 
to the assembled Arabs, and from a terra-cotta amphora or jug 
a beverage of sweetened watei- weakly flavored with sinrituous 
mastique. Though alcoholic drinks are contrary to the pre- 
cepts of the Koran, I have seen many Arabs indulge in this 
cold grog. The amphora-bearer served his clients noiselessly, 
for Abdallah, who was not to be disturbed, was already standing 



129 



130 REMINISCENCES OF TRAVELS. 

in his place and the i'antasia of the eveninji;- was al)ont to com- 
mence with a ne\y story. During a h;)no- jom-ney across the 
desert there is a i)osition lield Ijy one man, the story-teller ; 
it is a post of honor, for of all that multitude lie only who has 
proved that he has the power to gain his comrades' ears and 
hearts can attain the office of story-teller. 

On that lovely African evening stood the professional story- 
teller, Abdallah am Bahi, almost surrounded by the reclining 
Arabs. The ]dacid features of his remarkable countenance, not 
yet aroused In- his professional emotions, were already warmed 
from the reddened glimmer of the sunken sun; his earnest eyes 
spoke in concert with his voice as he commenced his romance ; 
he was soon himself absorbed in his discourse ; it was wonder- 
ful to see how he held his audience spellbound, while he re- 
lated to them how the liero Aclimet el Zoria with shrill-toned 
voice was crying " Allalm akbar, ashadu, an la ilalia ill allah," 
thus calling to evening- prayers from the minaret of the village 
mosque — how his intoning was suddenlv interrupted when he 
discovered that his darling inamorata, Fatima, had been carried 
off by Eeiss Ali Sheriffe, a Bedouin captain. 

Our story-teller Abdallah at this point gesticulated Avildly, 
beating the air, striking his body with vehemence, tearing 
away the kufiyeh which formed his turban, and pulling 
franticall}' at the lock of hair which shoidd have been left for 
the Prophet of God; so vividly he impersonated the jealous 
rage of the hero Achmet el Zoria that tire seemed to flash from 
myriads of e}-es. The Arabs now sat cross-legged as in an am- 
phitheatre around him, fingering the thirty-three beads of their 
lavmen rosaries, yet giving him their rapt attention. Abdallah's 
stirring recital now aroused them, and nunn- who were in the 
act of lighting ant)ther chibouque cast tlie tire to the ground, 




ACH-MET EL ZOBIA CALLIXU TO PRAYERS. 



THE STORYTELLER. 133 

so wronoht up mcvc tliey in tlie romance ; tliey ton ruthlessly 
niiturhaniMl or threw oft' their tarbooshes from their Mussulman 
heads, and exclaimed with one another, " Bismillah er raliimir 
rahmani" ("In the name of" God the Merciful"), and in another 
breath they cried, " Down with Reiss AH Sherifte !" With 
outstretched arms Abdallah Ijade them be still and attend the 
sequence of his story. There was now a greater proof of 
the j)ower witli wliicli he held them : as a summer wind be- 
comes a breeze, and then a calm, so that multitude, swayed 
li\- tlic story-teller's mandate, resumed in a moment their 
riveted attention to his narrative. — Achmet el Zoria lost no 
time : he had seen the abductor already leaving the town and 
taking to the desert ; he knew it also from his cousin Mahomet 
Sadouin, who hastily mounted to the minaret to warn him, 
having just returned from a distant oasis AA'hence he hail drawn 
great skins of sweet water ; after a moment's counsel a substi- 
tute was installed to finish the call to prayers; Achmet and 
Mahomet hastened their descent, and, tpiickly unloading the 
water-skins Avliere they were before the mosque-door, Achmet 
Avas soon seated on his cousin's steed, and, qiiitting the town, 
peered out into tlie desert t(t discover the course tlie enemy 
had taken. It is now an hour since Ali left ; the horse seems 
to know his errand, and with a faithful interest in liis rider's 
cause speeds his way, i)huiging and flying- as did 3Iazeppa. 
He comes in view of two figures, one of whom seems to be 
the peace-breaker, the brigand lover. lie gains upon his track, 
though now tlirougli depths of sand he can but plod; he draws 
near, ;nid, to his chagrin, discovers tlie |)artv he has pursued to be 
a trader and his aged mother on tlieir wa}' to Tetuan. Achmet 
and his horse took breath and courage, although tliis had been 
the liour of the evening mirage on the heated sands; at this 



134 REMINISCENCES OF TRAVELS. 

moment the mist lifted, and, in the direction of Arxillo, Achmet 
descried clearly the Pluto who had crossed the path of his 
love. The faithful steed seemed also to see them and to 
understand the error : ^\•ith renewed energy he ceased to plod, 
for now some miles of a\ ild camel's sage served them well ; its 
roots ffivinff a firmer foothold, steed and man soon overtook 
the real abductor. Before Achmet reached him Ali Sheriffe 
was dismounted, and, having placed Fatima in the rear and 
his beast of burden tin his haunches, used him as a breastwork 
of defence ; the contest without firearms was of short duration. 
Achmet, with the loaded baton with which anon he beat the 
bells upon the minaret, proceeded to serve a series of heavy 
blows, which brouglit otlier peals of music from panting Ali's 
head, who with Fatima had all this time been wending his 
way upon an ungainly camel.' Soon Achmet felled him on 
the sand : leaving him there as he would have left a jackal, 
he returned to the village. 

As our stor\-teller described the flight of the abductor, 
and Achmet in pursuit, the Arabs' eyes also Avere peering 
out into the dim evening haze on the desert : they were 
following the flight of romance, as 'twere a living steed 
and earnest chase ; and when Achmet, thanks to the faitliful 
beast, overtook the runaway, again in their excitement they 
renewed their cries with arms in air and voices shrill ; they 
showed how they enjoved the bringing to the dust of liatfled 
Ali. 

The narrative brought hapitily back Achmet with Fatima, 
who vowed, the rescue o'er, she loved him fondly, and would 
always more and more. Joyous denouement ! 

Abdallah ceased to .speak, his story told, yet still lie held 

' Camels are the usual means of transport ; holies are a luxury in Morocco. 



THE STORY-TELLER. 135 

them as in a magnetic spell, t'or lie luul a\ niuglit himself into 
a state of ecstasy, in whicli condition lie preached the morti- 
fying of the ilesh, his sincerity proved by his actions, he per- 
forming the most astonishing contortions of his sinewy frame 
as he sprang- in air and jumped about the space of sand cov- 
ered by his carpet, before which stood the copper brazier which 
the camel-dri\ers nsed for lighting their pi])es. A group of 
Arabs from a neigliboring village now added nnxsic to the scene 
by strumming on rude stringed citterns and the beating of tam- 
bourines or tum-tnms ; these strains were evidentlv for the 
audience; they soothed not Abdallah, who approached with 
fury the brazier, and, taking bright embers of liurning char- 
coal ^^•ith his tingers, ])laced them bravely in his mouth, fear- 
lessly crushed tliem between his teeth, and swallowed them ; 
again and again he returned to the tire and took coal after 
coal of niby hue : one could see sjiarks, and even flames, 
issuing from his mouth as his breath gave a current of air to 
his burning aliment. lie then produced a coarse gauze bag, 
from A\hich he drew two or three screeching insects in form 
like a humble-bee, opened tl)em with his long finger-nails, 
dropped their entrails into a hollowed gourd cuj) of water, 
and set it on a stake driven in the sand, and for half an 
hour proceeded with other antics. He then displayed the 
gourd, when lo ! it was tilled with little wriggling white 
serpents three or more indies in length, which raised their 
forms out of the '\^•ater and seemed to be regarding the new 
world. 

He next unfolded a rudelv-woven camers-hair haick or 
blanket, which he took from a basket, and aroused three 
larger serpent companions, who evidentlv were of age and 
well acquainted with their master, for at the sonnd of his 



136 REMINISCENCES OF TRAVELS. 

voice and the siglit of a banil)on wand tliey stO(i(| erect in 
air, only restina' on the last sections of tlieir tails, and at his 
commands, '■'■ ShcnKildl," or " Yciiiiutil" they turned their heads 
full to the right or to the left, Ixtwed one at a time, then 
altogether, and in the same order opened Avide their months, 
and afterward performed many antics, resting on his shoulders 
or even hanffinsf by their tails from his band)oo \\ and. One 
could not say, "How cruel!" for the snakes appeared to 
be as nmch pleased as the Bedouins who assisted with their 
applause. There was to me no doubt they were enjoying 
the weird music, for whenever the motley orchestra ceased 
playing for a moment these reptiles seemed to cast a look 
of reproach that wav, and drooped their enamelled heads. 
After thus entertaining his auditors, Abdallah sank exhausted 
on the earth ; he had succeeded, he liad gained their atten- 
tion ; they had listened, looked, and appreciated ; Abdallah 
was satisfied. 

Give me A'our hearing, listen and look with me a while, aid 
nie to raise this lantern of art before you. These engraved 
gems are bright as pearls, and reflect interesting light on the 
history of art. They come to us from almost all historic time. 
Some of them existed thousands of years before Christ's advent; 
some were worn l)y damsels and others by emancipated slaves 
centuries before the Ivonian Empire ; many were buried in 
the tombs of the Pharaohs ; and precious seals which gave 
legal value to documents during the ancient reigns of the 
Assyrian kings. 

These tangible relics are now presented to }-our consid- 
eration. We have no ancient garments, nor furniture, nor 
habitable structures of those epochs ; our interest is in these 
minute monuments uf those ancient peoples, and tidings 



THE STORY-TELLER. 



137 



from tliem in the loriu of inscriptions are in our posses- 
sion t()-(lav. 

Tlie camels sleep ; we must leave Abdallah ; the hour 
warns me that I must retrace mv steps if I would re-enter 
the Medinah Ijefurt- tlie cldsinii" oi the gates for tlie night. 




THE BAZAAES OF TAXGIER. 



Within the (•it\' of Tangier the bazaars are more Oriental 
in their t-spe than tliose of cities farther East ; the shambles 
opening- on tlie pnbHc square are more airy, and locomotion 
is more practicable. The ensemble was to me a pleasing picture: 
piles and hang-ing- masses of carpet : rugs of Moorish and of 
Persian make, rich in their blended colors and harmonious in 
their designs ; glittering copper wares, artistic in form and 
decoration : pungent spices, whose aromatic fragrance pervades 
the air ; Arabescpie wooden wares, embellished with yellow, 
red, and green designs, set with lacquer ; articles of luxury 
and necessity for nourishment and for ornamentation ; jewelry 
for ears, noses, necks, arms, and lingers ; eatable birds, alive 
in nets and cages. In the Medinah some of the stalls in the 
bazaars are the smallest I have ever seen — only a few feet 
square, just large enough for their sombre ])roprietors as they 
sit cross-leffo'ed to rcacli anv and everv thino' on the shelves, 
with onlv the trouljle of turnins: round without risins' from 
their indolent position. Dates are the commodity of whicli, 
after all, tlie most are sold. 

In the narrow, tortuous passages where there is nuu'li traffic 
it is difficult to thread one's way and push through the throng 
of motley dealers, camels, asses, and donkeys. The right of 
way seems to belou"- to these mounted tradesmen ; one is 
startled b\- tlieir cries to "Make wav !" the shouting of itin- 
erant peddlers, and tlie moaning of camels. 

The tobacco-merchants are tlie most picturesque-looking 



138 




CONTENTMENT— THE -MERCHANT OF PISTACHIO-NCTS, TANGIER. 



THE BAZAARS OF TANGIER. 



143 



men — all in white, cleanly, and neat in costume; their sales of 
tobacco by the tierce and ham|)er are important, and they form 
a striking- contrast to the many retailers of fruits, l^eans, melon- 
seeds, nuts, and the like. Just at the corner, near the ste})s 
of a white mosque, 1 noticed an old Moor sitting with all the 
dignity of an im})ortant merchant smoking his chibouque, yet 
all his apparent stock in trade was about two quarts of pis- 
tachio-nuts, which he sold from a metallic measure holdina: 
not more than two ounces ; he was an exemplitication of 
contentment. 



^yfe^-^l^w 




THE THEEE AMPHORA. 



The strangest feature of all was to he seen in a sequestered 
alcove, where, on a space made tenantable by the construc- 
tion of a booth somewhat in the nomadic architecture of the 
Bedouins — a rude skeleton frame of light portable scantling, 
the ends or joints lashed together witli thick cords of red 
leather, the roof and sides covered \\ith coarse porous blan- 
kets, dark Ijrown in hue, liand-woven, with yellow and green 
borders as in Arabia, of goat's hair, jungle-grasses, and refuse 
wool; a dozen or more low lounges or stretchers of wooden 
frame covered with matting of plaited rushes; the iiiterior 
concealed horn the gaze of the curious by a portiere or curtain 
of equally primitive loom-work; the front or outer apartment 
the office and dispensary of the seer-fakir of the desert. The 
entire establishment or booth is approached through a narrow 
nassao-e leading between two stalls on the main corridor of the 
bazaar. 

The seer-fakir, like any other charlatan, spoke iininternqit- 
edh', plying his ]n-ofession with varying success; he cried witli 
every Itreath, '' Sciiki ! scnio ! wlio wants .sciiia ."" ("Heaven! 
wlio wants heaven?") "Here are consolations for tliis life, 
forgetfulness of the past, enjoyment of the present, ;ind dreams 
of the future ! Behold them in these three amphorae decocted 
from blessed herbs from the hidden grottoes of the Bou S'lilia 
River ! Wilt thou forget the trials of the past ? drink of the 
first, Embareh.^ Wilt thou revel in tlie possible pleasures of 

' Yesterduy, in Arabic. 
144 



S 

s 




THE THREE AMPHORAE. 147 

the present? drink of tlie second, Eu-nnliar-deli/ Wilt tlioii 
ill thy dreams pierce the veil that closes futurity to thy view ? 
drink of the third, Bukra."'" These potions are all draughts 
iiiducinji' sleej), hut innocuous, not dani;erous in moderate 
doses. It was surprising to me how mauv jiaid their pias- 
tres and ^vent in to enjoy, to sleep, to forget, and to dream. 
For each recruit an attendant prepares lights and serves a 
nargileh, carefully removing- it as the man falls asleep. 

I know something of the ecstasy enjoyed by the use of 
the third potion, for I had a friend who tried it and described 
his sensations to me. It is well to have lieen pleased with the 
past, to be delighted with the jiresent, to hope for the future, 
and to take no potions. 

Punctually at 11 a. m. I was at the rendezvous in the bazaar 
to atteml to and receive whatever might be oftered in response 
to my ajipeal of the other dav. My success is a matter of 
satisfacti(,)n to me even at this remote day, and among others 
I treasure \n\ Lucius, and finding the incident of its subject 
so entertaining, it will be given under the head of " Interesting- 
Incidents of Subjects." With the gem 1 had acquired, my 
Lucius, safe in an inner pocket, I left the mosques and the 
white houses and the golden sun of ^lorocco that so gener- 
ously unveils its visage there, and looking to the sea I sought 
other lands, other people, and other gems. 

' To-dav. ' Tu-mono\v. Tliis latter contains some hasheesh. 




PORTUGAL. 



For nearly tliirty years I liave enjo^-ed the friendship of 
an old Franciscan monk, Frater Arsacius, in the monastery 
of that order in ]\Iiunch, who during twelve years was a mis- 
sionary in the West of the United States, where we had nuitual 
friends in Cincinnati. At liis instigation I added to my search 
for gems that of souvenirs for his monastery ; naturally, these 
objects were alwavs of a religious character — small ancient 
artistic altar-pieces or relics of shrines scattered over many 
countries whilom denizened l:)y the Latin race. 

When in Lisbon searching for gems in the Rua Aurea, "the 
street of gold," a friendly antiquary told me I might tind some- 
thing of interest at a dealer's close to the church and monastery 
of St. Jeronimos, founded a. d. 1500, at Belem on the Tagus. 
We drove out there, and after a courteous reception and agree- 
able visit came away with an old chiselled cross which long 
since has been domiciled in the Bavarian monasterv. I re- 
tained for myself a gold and 1)ronze tigure of our Saviour 
crucitied, of the sixteentli century, wdth grccu patina of bronze 
on many parts of the gold. I learned from an nndoubted 
source that this was taken fmni tlu- 'i'ibcr at R(inK', and came 
to its possessor through an antiquary who followed closely the 
works on the banks of the Tiber. . I also ol^tained many thino-s 
from the laborers (see No. 123, Case 11). To those interested 
in sculpture note the sarcoi)hagi of Dom ^lanuel and his Queen 
Catherine, and rilievo of the architect Potassi. 



148 




THE ANTIQUARY— ST. JEEOXIJIOS, BELEM, PORTUGAL. 



> 

so 

1-3 
is 



O 
PS 

O 
B 
S 
c» 

O 



B3 
O 



^ 

H 




EASTWARD HO! 



The sentimental crv of liread-winnevs lias been "Westward 
ho!" since Coluinlms proved tliere was a continent there rich 
in spices, gokl, hard woods, etc.; g-enerations of fortune-seekers 
turned to the New World, and we are their descendants : but 
for art and evidences of the greater civilizations that have made 
the Avorld's artdiistorv we nuist return to the East; and now, 
with that motive, we eml)ark upon the l)eautiful vet treacherous 
Mediterranean. Recollections of our adieu at Lisbon are still 
in our hearts as w^e stroll through the streets of Cadiz : another 
dav brings us to Algeciras and Gibraltar. Little in the ()rder 
of gems there except a few heirlooms in private families, as 
such too highly appraised to be reasonaljly accpiired. 



On with like results to ]\Ialaga, where we indulge in grapes 
and their juices : ^"alencia, we remember thy oranges ; Tar- 
ragona, treasuring on its old altars rejiousse in silver and in 
gold; Barcelona, a city of to-day: and Marseilles, with its 
docks and commerce; Cannes, on the (inlf de la Xapoule, 
with the islands of Lerins, St. Marguerite, and St. Honorat ; 
Xice, l)iiou cradle of sunshine, fragrant Howers, and fashion, 
has frcMpuoitlv addeil to my cabinet good specimens ; Sardinia, 
from wliose Tharos (see No. 559, Case G G) onward, east, 
touching at ])oints of interest on shore and on islands. At one 
])ort not far from Messina, which for evident reasons shall not 
be more clearlv indicated, for years I dealt with one who cer- 



153 



154 



REMINISCENCES OF TRAVELS. 



tainly proved that success in almost any pursuit ilepeuds on 
energy and enterprise ; it is well understood, wiih a share of 
intellectiial capacity. This man was terribly deformed: all 
his limbs and even his features were t\\isted and shrivelled; 
yet he managed to travel and to Ijring- tog'ether many inter- 
esting antiquities, and from his treasures I have made frequent 
acquisitions. 



-^^^^■-^*-;-%^ 



_^feS-fe. 




-^sf «r i 



"7" 



NAPLES. 

Naples ! thou ;irt in tliysolf a great cameo, in liig-li relief, 
on many strata, marulated from Fontana Medina to Castle 
Sant' Elmo, thine eyes looking to the islands of the sea, thine 
ears charmed l)v the myriad voices of thv people, thy nostrils 
breathing the perfume of flowers, tin' li[is welcoming the 
strangers that gaze u})<)n thy Ijeauties, tin' brow crowned bv 
Sante ^lartino, thy shoulders and anns stretching out from 
Posilipo to Portici, thv face, bv dav radi;nit under thv Xea- 
politan sun, at niglit anon reflecting the gorgeous volcanic light 
of thy \'esuvius, anon ablaze with thv carnival-beacons. 

Naples has Ijeen generous to me, and Pompeii has vielded 
ancient gems, though it has been ordained that thev shall not 
go forth from thence. 

Athens! ever the proud seat of the Acrf>polis, cradle and 
shrine of Grecian art, dismantled as thou art, I greet thee in 
passing — will iiutc .ill th\' beauties in their place. 

Stromb(di's toi'clilight is mirrored in the heavens; God- 
given Pharos! thou markcst well our course, (-)ur automaton 
craft speeds on my errand, seeking another light. 




157 



EGYPT. 

Before the break of day, under a starless, dark niglit-sk}^, 
in November, ISliD, I saw from Bab-el-Arab the welcome 
flash of the beacon-light, and the bright morning found me 
gem-prospecting at the gates of the golden sands of Cleo- 
patra's realm, the seaport city of Dinocrates and xllexander, 
now Alexandria; from thence the iron way brought me to 
Cairo, where, having completed my arrangements and engaged 
my jmsoiiiiel witli the aid of my dragoman, Eimice Ali, I 
was soon floating in my own temporary home, a citizen of the 
Nile. 

The question whether Egyptians have a natural love of art 
was soon answered in some measure by the following incident, 
at least as regards mv retinue of servants and sailors : 

Having spent some time at Boulak making a choice, I rented 
a dahabeah and furnished it to my taste : it Avas all white, with- 
out any ornamentation ; so for some days I amused m^'self b}' 
decorating it with ornamental painting, principally the facade 
of the dwi'lUng-part of the boat facing the front, where I 
painted a series of desert scenes with temples, pyramids, and 
fertile palm-groves. It is reasonable to suppose that these 
pictures would have been somewhat better executed could I 
have prevailed upon those good fellows to keep their heads 
from between me and my work ; there are times when one 
can see almost through a stone ; hoAvever, I finished them 
sufficiently well, as it proved, for, like a travelling panorama, 
they were visited and admired dm-ing our three or four months' 

158 



EGYPT. 



159 



journey in as many coinitries 1)v the kindred and friends of 
my captain and drag'omaii, \\lK)m it was my agreeable duty 
to entertain at various points on the voyage. 

There is no intention of relating the history of the Nile 
voyage ; only such details will lie given as will enable the 
reader to follow me to those points lia\dng some connection 
Avitli my subject, or such incidents as are not of the order 
usiially found in such books. 

Having a prosperous wind, our lateen sail drawing us -well 
toward the south, I acquiesced in the request of my captain, 
wlio did not wish to sto]) that I might shoot some of the 
myriad ducks. " Let us use the breeze when Allah gives it," 
said he. However, the wind falling as we neared the port 
from which is the route to Memphis, Ave went ashore at that 
point for the tirst time. 




DESERTED HALLS. 



In the remains of sul)terranean structures and passages 
^\liieli I have seen and explored near Memphis I have learned 
something of the ancient rites \\liit'li were there exemphtied 
and practised. 

The candidate, after due and very long and strict prepara- 
tion, started with his guide through a long tunnelled corridor, 
or, to bring the scene of his initiation more vividly before 
von, it may be remarked that 1 ]ia\e in these countries more 
than once investigated these subterranean passages. Like the 
candidate of ancient times, I entered and passed with my guides 
into one of these very subterranean galleries, and after pi'o- 
srressinff what seemed to me to 1)e aljout an eiii'hth of a mile 
we reached a chasm or great well seemingly of profound depth. 
Here the candidate's courage was tested : he was instructed 
to descend; if he was sufticiently courageous, all went well 
with him, otherwise he was compelled to return to whence he 
came and foi'ego the completion of his nnudi-desired initia- 
tion. ( >f course 1 met with no greater di.scomfort than tlie too 
frequent enc(Uinter with tlie mnnerous vampires and largi 
bats that were continuouslv scooping between the torches and 
iu\' head; at the bottom of this chasm \\ t- t'utercd another 
corridor, and after a while mv guides gave me to understand 
that I nmst be carried on a seat formed by tlieir united 
shonlders. When well thus seated we soon arrived at one 
of the most interesting points the candidate had to encounter 
in the ceremony : it was here that he arrived at a pool or 



e 



160 



DESERTED HALLS. IRl 

stream of water which in ohl tiuies he liad to swim, but my 
cicerones, mv men-horses, waded bravely into the water. I 
sav "bravelv," but u}M)n reflection think they AA'ere not valor- 
ous, l)ut cnnnin;^- t'ellinvs with designino- heads. I acknowledge 
feeling unpleasantly, tor when we arrived at about the middle 
of the pool tlie\' stopped and demanded tlie purchase of some 
articles of auticjuiTv — scarabei or something of that sort; then 
the torches looked at me, and I looked at the torches, and the 
ghostlv lonelv chamber and the running cold water, perched 
on their shoulders with ni}- legs in air, I felt that these guides 
were \qv\ nearly masters of the situation. I, however, did 
not accede to their propositions, and all went well. Here the 
candidate was forced to swim witli the hope of entering an 
enticing portal on the other side, but the rings which had 
the appearance of oifering him the means of landing at the 
beautiful door \\ere illusi\e. It is said that he was almost 
sure to fall again into the water, Init that if he courageously 
kept his holil, that door would soon open to him, and after 
mounting the stairway beyond, he would Ije in the presence 
of the master and his wardens and priests, and would be 
found wortln- to receive the coveted degree. The door is no 
longer there, but I sa^^- the entrance and beyond into the 
great chamber. 

This part of the series of apartments which were excavated 
and constracted for the mystic rites is said to have been 
very imposing, and when peopled with the great officers and 
brethren of the rites an-ayed in their official robes and insig- 
nia, it must have been indeed splendid; yet it was to me a 
scene in all its associations painfully sad ; I coidd not longer 
stay. 

Thev who in their day had ruled with power here, the 
11 



162 REMINISCENCES OF TRAVELS. 

plebeians too wlio lived ujioii tlieir smiles, liad joinefl the 
grand cortege, upon the river of lime lind silently floated 
awav from tlicsc chambers of mystery; all departed now, 
gone bevond the great water to rest with Amnion l\a, the 
king of the gods, to gaze for ever on Osiris, the prince of 
eternity. K\en the hoh' ])riests, -who anon, as they adminis- 
tered and conferred the rites in these sacred precincts, seemed 
to l)e parts of the massive structure — they too had gone down 
the causeAvav to the imuKirtalitv bevond. 'I'heir hres Iiad 
ceased to Imni, their liglits Jiad jialed and fled, their pomp 
and rites shone no more here : 1 ^^•as indeed iilone. The 
loathsome tenants, bats and vampires, warned me 'twas not 
my temple ; I, the intruder in unfltting })lace, retraced my 
steps through these weird passages, and, emerging from the 
oiiter tunnel, stood ii])0u the site of old Memphis. 

Memphis, the ancient palatial city of the white wall, the 
very stones of whose edifices have centuries since been carried 
away to build other mansions, where now one walks on mil- 
lions of fragments of ])otterv, morsels of terra-cotta almost 
shapeless now, once cunningly-formed vases and household 
utensils pictured and glazed and enamelled, now the dusty 
mementoes of that city through whose streets one could have 
walked from noon until simset ere the Nile was reached, 
accompanied on every side by the art-monuments which 
guarded and emiched the wav. 

It is interesting to remark all that remains of the grandeur 
of this once popidous plain now sleeps in the tombs of the Acrop- 
olis of Sakkara, and Ibr ^\•ell-])reserved and abounding inscrip- 
tions the tombs of some thousands of A})is bulls are especially 
to be studied and admired. 



DESERTED HALLS. 163 

On retuniini;- to the daliabeah we found all tliin;^s elianged 
— the sails furled and eight of the sailors seated with great 
heavy oars ready to row ; we then understood why Iveiss Ali 
wanted to jn'oiit l»v yesterday's breeze. 1 notieed that as the 
sailors rowed they sang " E-li-sa !" Tlie tradition is that Xoah 
when l)uildiiig the ark warned the people, who all mocked him, 
except one pious woman nameil -Elisa, who believed and asked 
Noah to notify her when the ark would be ready and she 
would go with him. Noah, however, with a press of business 
forgot her, Ijut the next morning, rememljering her, he returned 
with the ark and found her alone on the dry sunnnit of a hill 
near her house. Seeing that Allah had kept her dr}-, Noah 
always respected her as one of God's chosen handmaids. So 
the Egyptian sailors to this day sing "E-li-sa!" believhig that 
Allah will help them as lie did this woman. 

Near Roda again went ashore with my gun, accompanied 
by two servants, Slieemy and Mahmood, both hunters and 
knowing the ground ; I shot some becasse, pigeons, and gim- 
reah. li\ attention was called to a species of bird until then 
miknown to me, the hoopoe (Uptqm Epnps), a Ijird of North- 
ern Africa; has a tuft on the head which can be raised or 
depressed at will, the subject of many tales and legends; 
utters the sound of "Oop! oop!" called by the natives "IL:>op! 
h(.(.p!"' Eunice, learned in the Koran, related that these birds 
were res])ected by the Arabs because Solomon, sitting on his 
regal carpet of green silk or marching under the burning rays 
of the sun, was protected by an army of these birds flying 
over him and his immediate attendants, thus forming a canopy 
and grateful shade. 

After visiting the bazaars of Sioot or Assioot and making 
several purchases, we crossed to El Worta, where we anchored, 



VU REMINISCENCES OF TRAVELS. 

the head wind being- too strong for us to advance. Profiting' 
by the occasion, I went ashore to luuit, and noticing- a great 
ant-liill, Eunice, tnie Mahometan, always ready with incidents 
from the Koran, related to me the following- legend : Solomon 
not only knew all animals and birds, but understood their 
speech. A lion who passed a certain ])oint every night on his 
way to drink water in the Nile disturbed a large colony of 
ants, breaking their hills : they decided to do nothing until 
they had consulted Solomon, who told them he would warn 
the lion to desist or abide the consequences. The lion laughed 
and scorned the little ants; then Solomon gave tlie ants per- 
mission to revenge themselves: they made three deep pits 
close to their hills ; at night the lion came and fell in head 
foremost and tail uj) : in this predicament the ants fell upon 
him in full force, and, entering his intestines, .soon destroyed 
him. Solomon had already had an interview with the ants 
when en route for Mecca. " And his armies were gathered 
together unto Solomon, consisting of g-enii and men and birds, 
and they were led in distinct bands, until they came unto the 
valley of ants. And an ant, seeing the hosts approaching, said, 
' O ants, enter ye into your habitations, lest Solomon and his 
army tread you under foot ;iiid jierceive it not.' And Solomon 
smiled, laughing at her words, and said, ' O Lord, excite me 
that 1 mav be thankful for thy favor wherewith thou hast 
favored me and my parents, and that 1 may do that which is 
right and well-pleasing unto thee ; and introduce me, tln'ough 
thy mercy, into Paradise, among thy servants the righteous.'" 

Solomon was supposed to possess and wear a seal on mIucIi 
was engraved the name of God, ^^•hicll gave him also power 
over demons. 

Looking to either shore, much game tempted me to order 




o 



D 
O 




g 

O 



3 



THE OLD POTTER. Ifi9 

mv captain to lav-to, tliat I nii<ilit add sonK'tliinfj to our larder; 
but wisliiuti- to reach a good stopping-place by evening-, we 
kept on our course until we moored at Girgeli, and the folloAv- 
ing day made an early start on donkeys for Abvdus, where 
many interesting hours were spent studying the arcliitecture 
and decorations of the walls of the palace of Sethi and Ram- 
eses the Great and the temple of Osiiis, Avhose walls are other 
examples of Egypt's great cabinets of what may be termed 
vast glyptic treasures, those wonderful legends inscribed in 
hieroglyphics and basso-rilievos. I obtained impressions by 
attaching large sheets of coarse gray bibulous paper thoroughly 
wet on the stone and then patting it with a large brush. The 
plate, Sculpture of Abydus, is one of the most interesting. 



In the Ijazaar.s of Girgeh I found several old rings (see No. 
1097, Case Q Q Q), and near Keneh bought a nose-ring from 
a woman who was drawing water in an amphora. When the 
bargain was made she removed the ring from her nose, and, 
washing it in the Nile, I pocketed it. 

When at Keneh I visited thoroughly the busy hovels known 
as fiictories of pottery. A superior quality of clay is found in 
a ravine near the town. There was one old man who particu- 
larly interested me, and who took the trouble to entertain me 
by operating with his old lathe : and as I ling-ered long with 
him I saw him form six very pretty vessels of varied shapes 
which I sketched on the spot. His lathe was the interesting 
feature to me, very primitive in design and construction. The 
almost vertical shaft had its base in a socket set in a hole in the 
ground beneath him, turned rapidly abo\ e liis bench or table. 



170 SEMINISCENCES OF TRAVELS. 

receiving its motion from liis feet, as indicated in mv sketch 
made at the moment of my visit. 

I have always contended that my opinion on this question 
is Avortli something until some ancient Eg\ptian rises from his 
luummv-case to refute or contradict it. I re])eat that in tliis 
primitive tuniiiig-latlic (wliicli we know was used hv the ( "hi- 
nese b. c. TOO) we have evidence of the existence of a machine 
equally ca})al)le of drilling, cutting, and of engraving l)y com- 
mmiirating its rapid rotary motion to the copper disks, whidi 
have been found in abundance, and which some numismatists 
have kept on account of their curious resemblance to ancient 
Chinese mone\' : tiiCN' have a square hole in tlie centre witli a 
raised shoulder on its contour. These disks wei-e charged witli 
particles of Oriental ametliyst, as such grains of sand have 
been found buried in tlie corroded copper and covered with 
tlie waxen patina of age. 

On tlie other side of the Nile we visited the temple of 
Dendcrah: it is another example of the tact mentioniMl Ijy me 
in reg-ard to architecture in tlie reign of Diocletian : w hen 
there is a decline in art, tlie first and most sensitive brancli 
is that of stone engraving and kindred sculpture. In Kgyjit 
there was such a deterioration in the era of the construction 
of the temple of Denderah: it was not yet one of arcliitecture; 
it was the eiiiiraved emliellishmeiit, tlie intau'lios and basso- 
rilievo hieroglyphics, which were less artistically executed ; 
the temple is in its portico, coluniiis, and proportions equal 
to those of earlic^r jieriods. 

l)et\veen Keneh and Thebes we knew when we \vere ap- 
proaching the land of the Copts, for many of their jieople 
came sAvimming for a mile at least around our dahabeah. Out 
on tlie great river tliev swim with their legs and one arm, 




THE OLD POTTER AT KKXEII. 



THE MEMNONIUM. 173 

and with the other hand hold up their money-boxes asking 
for charit}- for their convents. 

We found Httle to see of the ancient town, for Diocletian 
had punished its rel)elhon against his authority by its ahnost 
utter destruction by his minions ; there are remains of an old 
wall and a pillar of 'i'hothmes III. 

After reflections during my voyages in Egypt, I have come 
to a conclusion perhaps never conceived by those who have 
not seen the ruins, and in many instances almost perfect re- 
mains, of that interesting country. Diocletian, and a host of 
others who were vandals, have slept with these ruins for cen- 
turies ; it is easy to attribute all this destruction to them ; yet 
through ancient Latin historians we learn enough to \\arrant 
us in deciding, even at this remote day, that much of the 
destruction can rightfully be attributed to earthquakes, which 
■were local in their points of devastation, else why should we 
tind three temples precisely of the same order and dynasty, 
or at least of the same epoch — two thrown to the ground and 
engulfed in it, while the third, within a thousand yards' dis- 
tance of the spot, standing in almost its original grandeur? 
Eusebius believed that the destruction of the monuments of 
Thebes was caused by an earthquake within the first cen- 
tury 13. c. 



It is remarkable how one in such distant lands will often 
meet with incidents which remind him of home. When walk- 
ino- in the irreat vaulted chambers of the Menmonium we were 
apin-oached by a swarthy personage, tall and well made ; we 
could see just how well that individual was constructed, for 
the only textile apparel was a scarf at the loins, which, had it 



174 REMINISCENCES OF TRAVELS. 

not been for a veil of beard on the face, nili;lit liave caused 
some difficulty in my ronscientidusly now declaring- to you 
it was a man. 

This man reminded me turcilily of certain diiiiiitaries in 
chivalrous orders, chapters, and encan^Hnents in America. In 
seeing him my thoughts reverted to home, because he was 
so thoroughly decorated. Perhaps you ask already Ikhv he 
attached his insignia, liaving so little apparel That did not 
baffle him: he liad his decorations strung on the reddened 
sinews of a crocodile's ham-strings which were fastened nnmnd 
his neck. Among his medals, which 1 of course examined and 
admired, there was the silvered cover of a pomatum-pot with 
a bear's head in ndief and in raised letters "Jules llauel, 
Philadelphia;" also the lid of a small-sized tin-box, its bright 
metallic edge still bearing the label of "]\Iason's Challenge 
Blacking." That brought me home too, for I remember when 
a vouth seeing millions of those little yellow labels repre- 
senting a negro jjoy dancing with joy on seeing his figure 
reflected in a polished boot. He had also several really 
pretty medals ; one of them was that of Gallipot's Corn Salve, 
Boulevard de Strasbourg, Paris; a gilded jeton souvenir of 
the opening of the Suez Canal : and two United States nickel 
coins, a three- and a five-cent piece: most of these objects 
naturally were thrown away or lost l)y American tourists on 
the Nile, and this dark brother had thus gained these great 
distinctions. The display hung glittering oii his ])lacid breast 
or hid it, and he seemed just as tickled as many of our com- 
patriots do when they are staggering under the load of metal 
that adorns them on festive occasions in New York, I'hila- 
delphia, and Washington. 




OUR DECORATED NL'BIAN— MEMXOXIUM. 




ESSEII. 



ASSOUAX. 179 

At Luxor, Mustapha Aga, consul to Great Britain and tlie 
U. 8. A., entertained us with chibouques and dancino-o-irls, 
and presented me witli an Egyptian idol: these idols are 
found about tlic mimnnies of rich men ; and are also found 
in numbers in i)r(inortion to the retiinu- of each, one beino- 
deposited for each servant owned bv the deceased. 

At Esneh visited the temple where the lotus hsh was wor- 
shipped ; strolled ill tlie bazaar and bought three gems and 
an antique bronze seal. The crew baked bread here, a per- 
formance which T watched with interest, and can testifv that 
they exposed it longer to the rays of the sun than to the heat 
of the oven. 

At Edfoo, without the usual preparations of our Ijoat for a 
long stop, we saw with great interest its temples, particularly 
the one so long encumbered m itli iiri\;itc residences, but thirtv 
year.s since cleared out and mvW uortliv of careful ins|)ection. 
Its deitv was Hor Hat, the aod svmbolized bv a wiin'vd "lolie; 
it is rich in hieroglyphics and other (inianientatioii. The inter- 
])retation of many of the cartouches and other Inscriptions has 
unveiled much historic infoi-marion. 



At Assouan there was no necessity of our visiting tlie citv 
bazaar, tor the .shore whei-e we had iiKxired soon became a 
country tair enlivened bv music and gn in])s of venders of 
necklaces, bracelets, Idin-fiinges ; strange costumes in leather 
cut in strijis and trimmed witli various colored little .shells, 
ostrich feathers, and eggs; ebony clubs, amulets, scarabei, and 
other antiquities. "We. however, talked through the town 
several times during the week we were moored at its hos- 
pitable shore. The shops, booths, fakir shows, and dancino-- 



ISO REMINISCENCES OF TRAVELS. 

girls produce one of tlie most varied and amusinor pictures 
of any Nile cit\'. 



Though hundreds of niv renders have perlin])S seen and 
gone through the cataract, this is the ])lace for luv mention 
of our j(MU'nev up and through: as this Ijook has nianv word- 
pictures, this one may be added, even if never framed in the 
appreciation of all \\\\ readers. It might l>e classed a rock- 
waterscape, for the journey is accomplished l)v a force of 
Nubian natives (in our case one hmidred and ninet\'-eight in 
nundier, for Sindbad the Sailor was harder to move than Alad- 
din ever was), who enact a scene that might l)e denominated 
Bedlam as they pass the great cords from rock to rock, some 
obeying, and all giving orders at the top of theii- voices; they 
dive into the water and swim from one boulder to a.nother like 
the sea-lions in the Jardin d'Acclimatation at Paris, and grapple 
and tug and pull manfully at tiie ropes like fishermen in tlie 
unstable sands of Scheveningen ; nor were mv ()wn Arab 
sailors idle the while: they aided in ])ropelling the dahabcah 
in a theoretic way, taking their turns, two or three at a time, 
to retire, and, kneeling upon their straw mats, to m'ge by 
earnest prayer tlieir great Prophet to give us good speed. 

Some things are said to go better with nuisic : the noise 
these throngs of Nubians make to incite one another to aid in 
the ascent of our craft is of a school of nuisic which, tlumgh 
haj)])y in its effects on savage breasts, is as Wagner's symplu)- 
nies are to those wlio cannot appreciate them; yet it makes 
them g"0. A parrot is ])roud of tlu' chatter he makes, aiul 
surely these amphil)ious fellows are vain, for as thev rise to 
the surface of the water and scream, the\- al\\a\s turn their 



THE CATARACT. 



181 



eyes to patrons on the boat they are drawing, seeming to say, 
" "Was not that tyeeli-kateer — very good f 

Tliev have one ver\' bml liahit, known in these times also 
in America: invariablv when thev get the vessel into very 
tin-l)ulent, ra})i(l water abont two-thirds of the way np, they 
feel that x\\e\ are needed, and they strike, not as hard perhaps 
as a coal-miner; l)nt the l)low comes, and we or our dragoman 
have to capitulate, and wlien they have conquered us by break- 
ing their contract, they attack the swift waters with a will, and 
soon the upper stream is reached. 

Do thev stop to dry themselves often f No, not that day 
until thev have gained the quiet water above and are paid ; 
then their towel, the sun ever in the heavens, chases the water 
from their bronzed forms, and they lie down to smoke and 
have their mastique and dates and lentils. We came to still 
water and to new fields of interest. 




AI^ EXIGMA. 



From time to tiiiu% viewing temples iuid other ruins in 
Egvpt, I noticed small scraps of paper here and tliere with 
wliat seemed to me ahnost mysterious letters: they certainly 
were Roman capitals; sometimes there would be only two 
together, ER-RT ; again, several of two letters, as EW-IC- 
ES-CA-N(^, with a lonely H and a T. Once, standing on 
wliat pro^•ed to be modern egg-shells, I saw among their 
debris the following more formidable arra}- : E — PR-RAL- 

AMF.- W Y() : they seemed to have some association 

with mv life. I resorted to the expedient practised in the 
Academ^- of Inscriptions at Paris, and, having no blackboard, 
marked u[) all these letters or syllables of dismembered words 
on a large card, and, essaying an interpretation of the proli- 
lem, only succeeded in making the miintelligible words, 
NEWICESORE PRUBLBYYOTA, with which result T was 
dissatisfied, and correctly so, as the sequel ^\ill show. (,)n 1 
went, the mvster^' boiling, till on this day of the Cataract, 
when we had pist anchored otl" the island of Phila% I hurried 
ashore alone and sped mv ■^^•a^", anxious to see the remains 
of Ptolemv's temple of Isis : when, nearing several large frag- 
ments of a stone pediment jutting out before me, evidently 
concealing something living, I knew it, for beyond and above 
the ed"'es of the stone fragments T plainlv sa^^' human white 
hands, and above those hands more of these Roman letters ; 
still, no complete word was visible: YO-ES and ER again; 
but as 1 advanced and my vision took in \\hat was be}'ond 



1S2 



AX EXIGMA. 187 

the stone, the .mystery wa,s unravelled : the hands were those 
of a jiarty of Americans, some of wlioni were friends from 
New Yi irk and Philadelphia. The enigma Avas solved : the 
black letters, the only ones I had been able to see, were parts 
of the titles of journals read bv the denizens on the Hudson, 
the Delaware, the ^lississippi, and the Nile ; in fact, by all the 
world : they were The New York Herald, The New York World, 
TIic North Atiirrirdii, The Press, and Ilic I'ldjlic Lcd/jer of Phil- 
adel])hia. Fnuu that moment these scraps of paper with their 
disconnected characters were gems to be cherished in my heart 
as welcome talismans from home. 

After adieus to American friends and friend Phihe, we were 
soon sailing in view of groves of date-bearhig palms, Um- 
bareka, Gertassie, and Kalabshee. Moored this night on the 
eastern shore, and slept, or woke, to the barking all night of a 
pack of jackals. 



Steadv sailing for several days. Coming on deck one 
morning, I found the cook seated on the deck, between his 
knees a deep heavy wooden bowl containing the roasted coti'ee, 
which he ground by turning rapidly in every du-ection a heavy 
wooden beam rounded at the l()\'\-er end and suspended by a 
rope from the yard-arm — a "^ery jn'actical coffee-mill. This 
night we made fast on the right bank of the Nile at the station 
of two government watchmen, and about 3 a. jr. these men tell 
asleep, and their dog jumped aboard our Ijoat, and before he 
was discovereil b\- the sailor on guard had entered the pantry 
and drank up all our milk. 



188 REMINISCENCES OF TRAVELS 

It is almost a misfortune for a traveller in Xubia or Etlii- 
o\n\\ to be known to be a physician : my father was one, 
and in young manhood I studied anatomy and something of 
therapeutics. Pearly in this voyage one of m}' servants had 
intiamed eyes: he becaiu(' better after some simple treatment 
from me. The result of this was that whenever we laid-to 
at a town or village on tlie 1)anks of the Nile, my crew would 
announce the advent of the already-lovi-d plivsician, and 
swarms of sipialid Arabs of every age and sex were led to 
me with every condition of diseased eyes. I treated them all 
tenderly, niv principal methoil being to prcscril)e cleanliness. 
In that country women Ijear children, too many children — so 
manv that when thcA', the mothers, are obliged to work in the 
lentil-fields or are making mud bricks and walls, their children 
lie sleeping in the sun, seemingly under the protection of the 
flies ; and while the flies perform their dut\' tliev roost on the 
children's eyes. I certainh^ have seen hundreds of these little 
sufferers with at least thirty or forty of these insects on tlu-ir eyes. 
Thus \\wx passively and patientlv suffer in infancy. Among 
the great number thus inocidated witli disease a small propor- 
tion "'o throutih life without lieholdino' its beauties. A reason- 
able mission-work would be to visit these people, kindly guard 
these g'ems of vision, and the record of such benevolence would 
adorn a Christian cal)inet Avith memories of services rendered 
to the great Master. How incomprehensible is contentment ! 
Experience and facts prove that often those in palaces and 
luxurious homes know it not: fortune cannot al\va\'s command 
it : the wealthy at times feel they would ])refer a [jlainer lot 
did it promise them that prize, conti'utment. It is tbund in 
those primitive communes; it rests upon meagre, l)ronzed, 
labor-worn brows; it is known and enjoyed in those realms 



CONTENTMENT. 



189 



of sqiinlor. The myriads of lionses or hovels are all of hard- 
c'liuil iiiud ; cooking is doiiu by suusliine flavored with a taste 
of fire. To-ilay's porridge is enjoyed with a toiler's appetite, 
and little thouglit is given to to-morrow's lentils. In the 
Chunli nt' England these people are ineluded in the category 
of heathen ; 1 have lived witli them, studied them, have spoken 
with them, and believe they have not been foi-gotten bv onr 
heavenlv Father, and that tlie\- will evcntuallv sit down i-an- 
somed in his kinii'doni. 




THE OSTRICH-FEATHER DEALERS. 



Passing Kalabshee and Dencloor, Dakkt-li and Kortee, we 
proceeded on tlie eastern shore of the Nile to ]\Iaharraker. At 
this point in Ethiopia, Eunice, knowing mv pursiut, urged me 
several times to make an excursion to a small settlement on an 
oasis in the desert, where he thought I would be likelv to tind 
somethiui!' of interest for mv cabinet. Haviuo- acceded to his 
suggestion, a messenger was sent a day in advance announcing- 
our intended visit. The necessarv arrangements made, I need 
hardlv state that we started on a glorious morning, for every 
day is sure to be beautiful at tliat .season. Kunice liad an 
micle near where wt' had made fast our dahabeah, \\ho oftered 
me a dromedary, but, having given my body a trial of that 
sort of going, my stomach now spake to me in warning words 
of counsel: and there we went upon gentle donkeys, which 
seemed to close their nostrils, leaving barelv breathing-room, 
as we left the narrow belt of fertile and irrigated land which 
skirts the Nile and strode across the golden sand of the desert. 
(I bottled some of this sand, and have it now beside me, long 
years aft<'r the event.) 

One does not expect much of interest on a desert where 
there is almost nothing to see save sand and scattered Ijranches 
of sage clinging to barrenness, peering with their dull gray 
eves into the azure ^\here silentlv fiv the denizens of sjxace. 
A scientist might give you a chapter on the atmosphere, its 
rarity, piirity, elasticity, softness, the inspiration one feels as 
the lungs are soothed and refreshed bv its limpid breezes. I 
say " limpid," for water is seldom so pure; one is impressed 



190 



THE OSTRICH-FEATHER DEALERS. 191 

with tlie greater scope of vision ; all seems to be at rest ; there 
is peace ; the very migratory birds look down with a friendly 
passing salutation, as though they'd give you tidings of the 
watered grove, our destination. 

The iirst lialt was t(ir a few iiiiiuitcs onlv at the ruins of an 
ancient town •• whost' n;nne has perished from the eartli." and 
of which little remains abuve its foundations: we made some 
supei-hcial excavations with my iron-j)ointed staff, onlv to find 
a few old coins whose inscriptions were obliterated, and one 
small metallic ring, so much consumed that although still in 
my possession it is kept only as a souvenir, not included in mv 
cabinet. Again in saddle and descending the slope from which 
this town had once commanded a xiew of the vallev of the 
Nile, we espied in the distance a herd of gazelles (Aritilope 
dorcas) passing across the direction of our route, and we noticed 
that as each one arrived at what seemed to be a momid he 
would very gracefully leap over it until all had passed: when 
we reached the spot we found the skeleton of a camel and of a 
man near by. The teeth of the man were so beautifully white 
and complete I felt tempted to carry them awav with me, but 
on touching them with mv staff they crumbled to du.^^t : their 
beauty is remend)ered to this day. At noon we halted, having 
found a spot fitting for the enjoyment of a slight repast — how 
delicious there! Dinner at home mav l)e a very good dinner; 
to me it is never more: that hnu-h in the shadow of a few 
rudelv-grouped boulders on the sand was a feast ; onlv such 
an appetite can be enjo\ed vmder similar cirrumstances. Our 
approach in another hour to the oasis was announced by the 
snorting of our animals, who, perceiving the odor of vegeta- 
tion, hastened their pace : and great was our surprise on ap- 
proaching our destination to find it surrounded by water, so 



192 REMIXISCEXCES OF TRAVELS. 

tluit we were compelled to raise our legs in air for a iiionient 
while oiu' sure-looted bearers oarrieil us across, liuT imt until 
tliev liad stopped midway and copiously partaken of the water. 
FinalK- arrived, the settlement proved to be very clean and 
( )ricntal-lo(dviny — snowy-white buildings relieved by yellow 
and L;r(^(*n lines of ornamentation glittering under a tro})ical 
sun. The dwellings and shops had some pretension to ^lor- 
esque arc]iit<M'ture, with here and there a picturesque minaret 
raising in religious silence its sacred head against the deep 
azure of that Egvptian skv, the tableaii heightened l)y the 
turbaned heads, the kufiyeh, and varied costume of such mer- 
chants as came through curiosity from their bazaars to see the 
new-comers. These men are experts in ostrich-feathers, in 
which thev deal largely, combining with the occupation, how- 
ever, that of anticiuary, for all the camel-drivers of the caravans 
bring manv curios with them from strange countries which 
they traverse in tlieir long connnercial jonrnevs. My drago- 
man conducted us to the residence and bazaar of liis friend, 
the largest dealer in the settlement, one of course with whom 
he was interested. They having been advised of our visit, the 
family with their employes came without and beyond the 
threshold to i-eceive us with true Oriental courtesy : the scene 
should liave been preserved l)y reflection or an instantaneous 
photographic plate. Its details are in the camera where my 
brain treasures many fair ])ictures of the ])ast. The charming 
cordiality of their reception on this oasis of the desert was as 
when Saiiiucl received Snul: so this fomily came with friendly 
smiles and kind assurances of welcome. Nationalities dift'er in 
their manners, especially in the degrees of civility with which 
merchants receive their clients : in some countries he who is 
generally supposed to be tlie part} to gain by the transaction 



a 



O 







THE OSTRICH-FEATHER DEALERS. 195 

assumes haug-litilv tlie attitude of one about to make a conces- 
sion by filling- the buyer's orders, and even makes it apparent 
that his service or disiday of wares is condescension. How 
different and agreeable was the manner of these people ! We 
accepted their friendly invitation, and found ourselves in a series 
of vaulted apartments, the floors furnislied witli reed mats of 
curious Eastern workmanship, with here and there a Persian 
carpet. We were surrounded Ijy hundreds of hampers con- 
taining ostrich-feathers of many shades in Ijlack, gray, brown, 
and white, and in every quality, resting emljedded here, as yet 
unknown to admiration, some day to float ui)on the breeze and 
gayly dress the head of many a proud fair one in more civil- 
ized climes. They were piled u^ion narrow ledges against the 
walls and on i-acks on the floor, only leaving avenues tlu'ough 
which to walk and view the display. Though knowing it 
■vvas not polite to proceed immediately to business, I instructed 
Eunice to tell Abd-el-Suliman, the proprietor, I did not want 
to Iniy feathers by the bale or in quantity, only desiring a 
few as souvenirs. Nothing would deter these Orientals from 
serving us the usual entertainment, which was quite lavish, 
of fruits, coffee, sweetened gums, and chibouques, or nargil- 
ehs if preferred. I accepted a large amber-tuljed chibouque, 
such as we were now accustomed to use. Only after we had 
with patience conformed to all their customs were we allowed 
to make a selection of feathers, and at last the objects of my 
journey, the talismanic and other gems, were produced, Avith 
bronzes and tesserge, manuscripts, relics of every description, 
curious Mussulman rosaries, thirty-three beads in number, made 
of the pretty Abyssinian red beans with a black spot, known 
as karats ; they are the fruit of the kuara tree. The rosaries, 
representing thirty -tlu-ee attributes, are for lajnien : many 



196 REMINISCENCES OF TRAVELS. 

Ai'abs in caravan-life count their prayers by a number of 
pebbles always easily gathered in the sand en route. 

There were flacons and jugs in many forms ; amber mouth- 
pieces carved and inlaid with iibrous metal ; enamel and nacre 
ornamentation for chibouques and other pipes ; little faience 
pots prettilv glazed with enamelled patterns, the unique de- 
signs and work of a village in the Fayura, cunningly formed 
to appear generously proportioned, but holding only the twen- 
tieth part of their volume, sealed and covered with a coarse 
serpent's skin, some with orange and others with gi-een scales. 
They contain a fluid wax obtained by exposing to the torrid 
rays of the sun the leaves and petals of an African lily spread 
on beeswax : the odor is more intense than attar of roses and 
readilv susceptible to dilution. A variety of water and coffee 
ser\-ices, with chalice and paten, cups and bowls in beaten 
copper, in brass, and in bronze, with arabesque chased embel- 
lishment, — had we not been sure that the source of all these 
wares was in the south and the east, about and beyond the 
Fayum, we would have said how Persian some of them ap- 
peared. In my librar}' to-day I see in memory's mirror so 
many vessels and vases of this and other bazaars Avhich are 
not here because the}' were too cumbersome to l)ring away on 
such an expedition ; and this ftict has often consoled me Avlien 
I thought how easily all specimens of engi-aved gems can be 
carried could they onlv be found and obtained within any 
reasonable limits. 

It does not suffice to speak passably well tlie beautiful 
language of these good people ; one must know how to deal 
with them, never to permit the tradesmen to perceive for a 
moment that one is eager to possess what he actually desires. 
I observe rather at first anything else, perhaps the hilt of a 



THE OSTRICH-FEATHER DEALERS. 197 

prophet's sword, or the bronze mountings from some Abys- 
sinian princess's cradle, or Ben Ibde's night-lamp (which, when 
day sinking in the west failed to light his tent, shed its mel- 
low liglit on the manuscript he was illuminating to guide future 
pilgrims more surely in the way of ]\Iahomet and to that proph- 
et's God). 

Between-times I was considering the seals and other o-ems 
distributed throughout the mass of olyects displayed : when 
almost everything' else had been examined, I quickly de- 
manded in their own language what value they placed upon 
such things as I wanted, and, paying the price finally agreed 
upon, always remembered to give some showy trinkets to the 
subaltern attendants as backsheesh. Abd-el-Suliman now in- 
quired of me if I had visited the Dervishes in Cairo. Having 
assured him that I had seen both tlie dancing and howling 
commiuiities, he ixrged me to call on his friend Sheikh Hassan- 
el-Belett at the Persian monastery at Helmeea, where I would 
be likely to find some mystic or Gnostic gems. For introduc- 
tion he simply gave me a scrap of paper on AAhich he made 
with India ink, the imprint of his Arabic seal : many Arabs 
never sign their names, always using their signet seal. Our 
departure was then effected after many salutations and greet- 
ings. We were not really through yet, for on coming out we 
were surroimded by a group of Arab boys and girls, vc\\o had 
lingered near awaiting another opportunity of seemg a sheikh 
from America : true, there was more costume on our backs to 
inspect, for they were about as God had made them, only some 
of their heads were decked with the red tarbooshe, or an 
emma ; the ffirls had necklaces of one kind or another and 
bracelets. Thev were, however, verv iniobtrasive in their 
inspection ; their countenances rather expressed admiration 



198 REMINISCENCES OF TRAVELS. 

and respect : after a few nioiuents' delay we were enabled to 
proceed to the courtyard, where Ave had left onr animals. My 
legs were soon once more in air, the precious water passed, 
and not until we had strode on our sandy way to where the 
minarets were fading from our \\v\y did I regard my precious 
accpxisitions; then involuntarily exclaimed, "I have them! they 
are mine !" (See No. 7, Case A.) 

The pleasure of such a moment baffles description ; it was , 
to me a moment of conquest.^ Titus as he came out of Jeru- 
salem rejoiced in his booty :^ sucli was my enthusiasm and 
satisfaction, though it was a peaceable mercantile acquisition. 



On returning to tlie dahabeah at night I found the crew 
enjoyhig a fantasia — that is, an innocent jollification : the deck 
was gaylv hung with colored lanterns, and by turns, in duos, 
trios, and quartets, they gave their weird music. 1 innnedi- 
ately ordered a servant to prepare sherbet for them ; all my 
crew were very steady, sober men. Soon lieyond this })oint 
the desert comes very near to tlie river and affects the tem- 
perature : we found intense heat, laid-to, and went ashore to 
repose in a beautiful palm-grove. Seeing some gray clouds, 
I asked if we might hope for rain. Phmice rejjlied, " Never," 
and, pointing to the Nile, " that is the rain Allah hath pro- 
vided for us.'' It is truly powerful rain, for the brighter the 
niii'lit the <>reater tlie fall of water in dew : we had always 
to see before dusk that all books, garments, cushions, etc, etc. 
were housed, else thev would have been soaked. Under the 
tender skies of this coHntrx I often .seemed to .see, as on a 

' See tlie elosiug words of M. KdiiioiKl Le LSIant's speecli bel'oie I'liistitut de France, 
page C65. 

■' .See Xo. 1349, Case 11 M M M. 




I 



c 
z 



s 

c 



ii>i''sc-. * i' 



ABOO-SUIBEL. 201 

cameo, the marked forms of the camels in relief upon the 
bright stratum given hy the evening horizon. 

After Sabooa, " tlie mountain of the seven stories," we had 
to contend for several miles with a strong current. Malkeh, 
Korosko, Amada, and made fast for some days at Derr. "We 
were presented to the governor of Xuhia by his nephew, whom 
I knew already ; the governor was very attentive. He enter- 
tained us several times, and seemed pleased Avith his visits to 
US on board ; before our departure he presented me with two 
rings and one to my wife, now in my collection. (See Abys- 
sinian case.) 

(^m- journev continued to Ijeyond the second cataract ; re- 
turning, we stopped at Wadee Halfeh. It being the year 
after Sir Samuel Baker's last expedition, I saw one of his small 
steamers in the cataract. 

In the desert beyond Wadee Halfeh we were approached 
by dealers in pebbles of sard and carnelian, such as are em- 
ployed bv incisori for making intaglios. 



On our descent of the river we visited the rock-temple of 
Aboo-Simbel : one might almost describe it as decorated with 
great cameos. 

Voyaging in lands the most remote from home, at the most 
unexpected moments I have often encountered some traveller 
who to mv surprise A\ould prove to be a friend of mutual 
friends or a conn-ade of tlie Grand Army of the Republic. 
Immediately, as }-ou may well imagine, there existed a bond 
of friendship, a tie. On the Desert of Sahara I had this pleas- 
ant experience, and there I was not alone, but was almost 



202 REMIXISCEXCES OF TRAVELS. 

at home. Here our point of attraction and our temple was tlie 
rock-liewii shrine of Aboo-Simbel. We stood in reverence 
in the gohlen sands, many of whose particles had with time 
worn awav from thosi- old potentates in stone, and we were 
impressed with the sentiment that we were meetin*;- in the 
realm where sleeps Thothmes. The monolith hewn into his 
effio'v seemed to be scrutinizing us, and seemed to demand, 
" Whv this intrusion?" We modestly assured him that it 
was onlv the jovous meeting of comrades from America : he 
seemed to know aliout as much of that place as the average 
living Egyptian. It is not every day one meets a comrade 
of the G. A. li. in Xubia ; so we put a colon to gazing: — and 
withdrew to refreshment. I had my own boat near by on the 
Nile — mv house, with many of the comforts, and some more 
than I have in my American home. We had no electricity 
except in the atmosphere, though I often had lizards in my 
bed at night : thev were beautiful creatures, yet I concluded 
to dispense ■with them. Kgypt — that is, those pro^nnces of it 
floating on the dahabeahs of winter visitors — is a land of hos- 
pitality, so that when we came aboard there was no necessity 
of o-ivintj' anv special connnands ; mv dragoman and the ser- 
vants knew that this comrade was to be entertained; and he ?rrt.s. 
As we neared the close of the repast, after we had partaken of 
several beverages (as is the custom on these floating ])rovinces), 
Ave drank some toasts, and I'm not sure if we didn't get the 
regiments mixed somehoA^' ; A\"e were so glad to be t\\o ot us 
that we doubled things up a little. There were game birds of 
two or three varieties on the table, of my own .shooting, 
and Barl>arv dates. Nobody was forgotten, beginning with 
George G. Meade Post, No. 1, G. A. R., Philadelphia. My 
comrade was a passenger on a steamboat l}ing near, and at 



ELEPHANTINE ISLAND. 207 

evenin<T he was forced to leave. It lias been my pleasure to 
meet many comrades of the G. A. R. in various covmtries of 
Europe. 

We are now descending the Nile ; he}-ond Dakkeh there is 
another temple similar to Aboo-Simbel — Gerf-Hassayn — only 
Gerf has a portico or area Ijuilt in front of the rock-excava- 
tion: it was the abode of the deity Pthali. "the Lord of truth;" 
here, as at Aboo-Simbel, there are great sitting figures. 

After some hunting and shooting of crocodiles from sand- 
forts which we built on the bars, we arrived again at the 
cataract, this time to descend, which we accomplished with 
an additional force of two pilots and their assistants : a course 
has been hewn through the rocks and Ijoulders on the eastern 
shore. The descent is exciting and considered dangerous : 
many families disembark and go around and down l)y land ; 
we decided to see it all. There was much to see and hear 
from our old screaming friends as we plunged at fearful rate 
through and with the terrific torrent: '\\ith the aid of many 
pravers and ejaculations to their Prophet, and close attention 
to the helm, of equal importance, we arrived at the still-Avater 
level below, mooring at the Elephantine Island. After view- 
ino- the o-ranite arch of Alexander and a temi)le ancientlv used 
in the worship of Chnubis, a patron deity of the cataract and 
of inundations, we rested at Assotian, and continued our voy- 
age down the river to the north, stopping at Kom (3mbo for 
the temple of Ptolemy Philometor ; to Silsileh, with its ancient 
quan-ies and grottoes ; to Edfoo, tlie ancient Apollinopolis 
Magna ; here again remained two days stud}'ing the temple, 
in my estimation one of the most important in Eg}-pt. Seeing 
Edfoo and the temple of Osiris at Abydus and Denderah with 



208 REMINISCENCES OF TRAVELS. 

their miles of intaglios was deeply interesting. In tact, what is 
Egypt! An albnni of indelible inscriptions recording the biog- 
raphy, and the religious and secular history of dynasties whose 
sovereigns have slept already for thousands of years — open 
volumes of records graven upon shrines that have endmvd 
through ages, whose artists basked in Egypt's generous sun 
long- before the revelation of Christ. 



Now returned to Karnak and Thebes, our l)oat in camp 
attire, we emplo}'ed much of our time in exploration of the 
Tombs of the Kings, the most complete storehouses of ancient 
Egyptian mural paintings and galleries of sculpture in all the 
land. Not to inform the reader, but to give facts, these tombs 
were hidden dee]) in ravines, and are even now difficult of 
access : one enters by a talus, a gradual walled descent, and 
in many instances by steep stairw^ays froin twenty to thirty 
feet in length, which conduct to passages diverging and lead- 
ing in various directions to the mortuary chambers. The walls 
of both corridors and compartments are decorated with })aint- 
ings of processions, representations of mechanical operations ; 
even all that pertained to the culinary service and science of 
a kitchen is there delineated — the preparation of the viands, 
the making of bread; warriors and all their accoutrements; 
barges or canoes, the sailors, the cordage and ajijiliances for 
putting the same in sailing onh-r; household furniture and 
objects of luxury; baskets of fruits; animals, beasts of burden, 
birds and domestic fowls ; royal personages, official recejitions, 
allocutions, and invocations from potentates and by plebeians ; 
innumerable divinities — Osiris, Athoi*, Horus, Isis, Pthali, Anu- 
bis, etc., to whom e\ery class of mortality are appealing and 



TOMBS OF THE KIXGS. 



213 



making salutations. A peculiar featuiv of these drawing's is 
that the}' are almost always in profile. Is it not signiticant 
that although these di<>nitaries were hiilden awav in the rockv 
depth.s and sealed in sucli massive masonry, thev have long 
since been found and ruthlesslv removed from their rov.d rest- 
ing-places, and the gems and scarabei which thev had thought 
to present on an-iAing at the portal of Paradise are long since 
scattered over the museums of the world .' 

Several visits of adieu to Karnak, and again we floated 
on our wav. Passing Keneh, I waved a kind thought to my 
ceramic friend, and took a glimpse at Denderali's temple stand- 
ing out against the i)ahn trees and the bright horizon. Below 
Girgeh went ashore, and al)Out half a mile back from the 
Nile ascended some steep rocks prospecting, and was finally 
rewarded, for on making an aperture in some loose debris of 
limestone lai-ge enough to permit me to enter some tombs, 
among the ashes and remains, with the aid of my pocket 
wax-lio-ht, I foimd a necklace and several vitrified fiy-ures, 
which are esteemed by me as more interesting than if I had 
bought them. • 

Alternate breeze and calm, with ^•isits to the pyramids at 
Dabshoor, Sakkara, Aboo-Seer, Aboo-Roash, and the great one 
at Geezeh, and soon our lateen sail was hauled down at 
Bonlak and we were aji'ain in Cairo. 




CAIPtO-THE BAZAARS. 



Once more in tlie great city, where costume more varied 
tliuu ill the provinces, quaint manners and customs, attractive 
displays of merchandise, aiTest the eye of all w lio walk abroad. 
To me the most pleasing and ciirioiis are those shops without 
windows or doors, those myriad scenes in (Oriental bazaars, 
each avemie narrow and the way throughout them often tor- 
tuous, gaiidy in color and decoration, peopled with strangely- 
clothed beings — a great cycloramic picture, beholding which 
I am bewildered, forgetting that it is I who am progressing. I 
seem to see it all pass before me as a dream, a vast pictiu'e in 
colors, studded with strange yet familiar figoires. Am I not 
with Aladdin? I breathe and see a peculiar atmosphere \\irliin 
the bazaars, where many nargilehs add their odorous fumes 
to the dim hazv li^ht. The direct rays of the sun are inter- 
cepted Ijy large screens of India matting, wliich are strung 
across from w(K)den frames twenty-five or thirty feet above, 
which re-echo tlie cries of camel-drivers, donkey-boys, run- 
ning auctioneers, itinerant venders of pottery, and the unintel- 
lio'ible remonstrances of animals beino: urwd to advance when 
the way is too thronged. I see many A\aking sleepers : Abou 
Hassan has silks, end)roidered cloths, kufiyehs ; he seems ever 
attending the famous merchant of Moussul — not. to entertain 
him nor to l)id him sup witli him as of yore, Init to secm^e his 
share in the purchases to be made of silks and tissue and cloths 
of gold. Others, like Sultan Zeyn, dreaming so deejdy they 
scarcely seem conscious of the turmoil or of the din and 



211 



CAIRO— THE BAZAARS. 215 

bustle of the throng-. In an hour's ranihU' one meets Haroun 
el Raschid, his viziers, and liis attendants ; all the Oriental 
myths I have known in story greet me or elbow me in this 
heterogeneous assemblage. Rich dealers, struggling trades- 
men, and indigent hawkers, many old friends of whose doings 
and sayings Ave have read, are here ; I see them living and 
moving; I hear tln^r voices, and recognize Ala<ldin, Doubau 
the Fisherman, and Sindbad the Sailor. Sindbad on land is 
easily recognized : you'll find him on a donkey in the bazaar, 
for whenever he comes from a cruise at sea the height of his 
ambition is to be in the saddle, although he sits less at his ease 
than when astride a yard-arm. 

Many of these shops are so small that they resemble merely 
closets without doors ; yet all are attractive — even the Bab-in- 
Nasr, where second-hand costumes are sold at auction : it is 
indeed a curious lot of toggery in every shade anil color, for 
such is the garb of many classes of men, especially the drago- 
mans and men in public occupations, not uniformed, that when 
some of them have presented themselves Ijefore me rig-ged 
out in their best on a fete-daj' I could not lielp thinking their 
make-up ridicidous. Imagine an emerald-green vest with em- 
broidered red buttons and full-riowiu"- silk sleeves of a lig-hter 
tone, with pantaloons, almost skirts, also of gaudy color, the 
turban finished off" with a rich golden-hued kufiveh — all such 
outfits to be had second-hand, somewhat subdued in tone by 
age and service, but still often giving the wearer the look of 
a flamingo. 

About noon I repair to the thickest of the tray. It seems 
more and more a dream to me, my transportation is so com- 
plete: how came I here? I hear voices not speaking to me, and 
now one Aladdin fastens his Oriental eyes on mine ; he addresses 



216 



REMINISCENCES OF TRAVELS. 



me with an Arabic blessing, liolding- out a furi(^nslv cliiselled 
lamp to me, whose flameless wick touclies mv hand. I am 
conscious of the hurry and bustle around me, am ill at ease, 
yet that voice holds me spellbound: I nuTst yield and go 
nearer. He has divined the object of my search, and, beckon- 
ing me to stand close, he opens an old cofiPer, like a tt)y trunk, 
fashioned with curiously endjossed red, yellow, and green 
leather, studd(^d with silver seals and ancient coins. He bids 
me look within : we bargain, and after the half of his demands 
are counted on a tray I find myself rewarded for my %'isit; 
and to-dav, when regarding those scarabei, that talisman and 
ring, I breathe at times another and another breath of thanks 
to the antiquary of Gohargyeh. (See No. 456, Case A A.) 

I did not weary, thoitgh you may, of this wonderland, and 
witli nn' returning steps cast manv glances at those within the 
stalls, heard their appeals and their numberless responses and 
salutations. 

The condjination of these strange sounds was to me a 
symphony : though retreating, I listened, found it enchanting, 
soothing, where many go reluctantl}' and come away with a 
sense of relief 





O 

c 



OUR DAOUD. 



Alt. this time I was accompanied by a little Nubian l)oy 
■Nvlioni we bronyht with lis from Derr : he was a bright, inter- 
estinof little fellow. When we first received him in Xubia he 
was, like his companions, as he had come into tliis beautiful 
world ; nothing superfluous there save a twisted silver ring- 
on his thumb. My wife soon had two shirts (himces in Arabic) 
of thick cotton cloth made for him, covering him from chin to 
heels ; an emma, a warp of snowy-^^•hite porous nuislin coiled 
around a red skull-cap, turbaned his head, crowning a brow 
Avhich mantled a sweet loving face, and completed the picture 
of our Daoud. No, not quite completed, for the life of that 
little being of the desert shone out of two bright gems, those 
earnest eyes, which as thev turned from one marvel after 
another in the new \\orld would ever find a moment to rest 
on mine, saying, "Thanks, kind master; may Allah protect 
thee !" 

It was very amusing to see his joy and pride in being so 
an-aved : he was so intelligent that, having studied the Arabic 
lano'uao'e with a French method, I learned daily by his chat- 
tering lessons to speak more fluently. He had winning ways, 
a lovelv character: his attention and appreciation were remark- 
able when being instructed and entertain('<l ; his gratitude was 
shown bv the tender gaze with wliich, without words, he 
eloquently said, " How I thank you, fair Sittah !" when look- 
ino- into mv wife's fiice, with whom lie was at all times when 
in mv absence he was needt-d as a companion. When walking 



2iy 



220 REMIXISCENCES OF TRAVELS!. 

on some camel-patli beside a grove of date-ljearing palm ti-ees 
liis quick perception and ol)servation of all that wa enconntered 
was proved by one negative action. We say " negative," be- 
cause, inasmuch as he sought to call our attention to all that 
was lovely and bright and interesting and beautiful, and said, 
"Shouf sittah! shouf sittah !" (" 8ee, dear lady— see. Lady 
Sonnnerville, that is all for you"), so he forbade by a gesture 
the obser^-ation of what was ugly, uncomely, and disagreeable 
in nature or in the mien or persons of the withered and de- 
formed who crossed our path or would have ])assed into oiir 
view had his precaution not intercepted all such sights when 
possible. On meeting a squalid woman \^ith little costume 
other than her greasy braided hair, up would go his little 
bronzed hands and turn my ^^•ife's face gently in another 
direction : so pure was the sentiment that we always respected 
these his mandates, and looked the way he bade us to. Must 
I confess ? Yes, I sometimes peeped a little on sixch occasions, 
for all curiosity is not centred in woman ; man cannot help it ; 
he looks at times at objects and scenes when perhaps for his 
peace of mind it would have l)een better had a little mentor 
like unto our Daoud turned his eyes and thoughts to light and 
goodness and purity. 

Monuments have lieen forgotten, witty words of friends 
■who often enriched those days cannot now be recalled, but the 
charming traits of our Daond are as the limpid Huid in a road- 
side spring ; with winter or with drought it lua}' subside, retire 
from view ; there are times each year when it wells up and 
comes again in all its beauty and force. We have learned 
much from books and from our jjastors, liut in my storehouse 
are garnered sermons preached in simplicity by that little out- 
cast Nubian bov. When 1 sought to shoot the running, leap- 










H 
H 






O 



OVR DAOUD. 223 

ins: came or l)rouolit with well-aimed shot o-inn-eah or becassine 
to ground, he screamed with jdeasure and approval, "Amelican, 
tyeeb, tyeeb kateer;" but when with pencil and note-book I 
registered some interesting cartouch inscription, hearing a sigh 
from him and looking at his lowered brow, 1 knew, I read there, 
a kind of wonder that spoke disparagement of my occupa- 
tion : he seemed to say, " How can yon Avaste your time on 
these carved stones ? I've seen them from my birtli, yet have 
they never spoken to me as do the flowers and birds. Come, 
let us to the verdant spots by water that we may live our lives : 
master, hhoiiaf/ch, come, that we may l)e happy." 

Often I would close my interesting work and go to live 
■with my dark companion, AA'hose darker eyes and younger 
vision would ever find among the niins and the sand the 
fairest pebbles of precious .sard, just the material a lapidary 
pi-efers to grave his seals. 

When our dahabeah was moored near the shallow water 
with a plank leading to the bank, he would improve such 
occasions at intervals by going to the shore and washing his 
change of garments, and there iipon his knees in some little 
cove he'd work industriously washing out the dust from his 
kamees, striving to make it as clean as his little guileless 
heart; then he would give one look at the garment and one 
look at the soap and the water, and then two loving glances 
at us to know if we were still there, and ever so until, tlie work 
accomplished, losing not another moiuent, he skipped aboard, 
as he would sav, to learn something from the Sittah, but as 
we felt to gladden our day. He could correct us at times or 
inform us. AVhen we were showing hini some illustrated book 
or journal, the pictures were all right and he had much to 
say about them; but the printed letters, they were wrong — 



224 REMINISCENCES OF TRAVELS. 

" Mafish tyeeb" — and tluMi he would take liis pointed bnndjoo 
pen and on a i)aper block he would make Arabic characters, 
just such as a snipe makes on tlie sandy shore, and with 
knowing look he'd explain to ns that they were something 
intelligible. He ignored the necessity of his learning our 
language, but felt that to perfect the medium of understand- 
ing between my wife and him she should lie taught. It was 
amusing to see him by the hour teaching my Avife Arabic. 
She woixld touch her ears, nose, chin, eyes, hands, and other 
members of the body and features ; then he Avould touch 
the same feature, giving tlie Arabic word. One day my Avife 
touched a fan ; he immediatel}' pronounced the Avord in 
Arabic, and AA-aited for my AA'ife to repeat it : she finding it 
difficult, said, " Brugaree-garugoo-garee." It Avould have done 
your hearts good to have heard the shouts and peals or screams 
of laughter he gaA-e as he ran out of the salon to the prom- 
enade deck to regain his equilibrium ; and such scenes Avere 
daily on that floating school-house. 

When he came into the hotel at Caii-o, the first great 
house he had ever seen, and AAlien he approached the mar- 
ble stairAvay, he looked to me to knoAV AA'hat that might be ; 
and Avhen I .shoAved him hoAv to ascend, and in my room 
removed from safe-keeping my black silk hat and ])laced 
it on my head, his eyes opened AA'ider than they did at 
the Pyramids, and as Ave passed through the bazaars I 
frequently noticed that he looked at my cylinder hat, and 
then at the people around lis to see if they too Avere ob- 
serA'ing it. 

Thus Ave sauntered for hours together in this land of 
marvels. The bazaars Avere greater Avonders to his }oung 
head tlum to me, for this was his first life in the great 



OUR DAOUD. 



225 



citv. We were miitually vcvv liappy. With pain I record 
his early loss, for when withtiut me on a boat he fell into the 
Nile and was dro%A'ned. Good-bye for ever, dear Daoud! — 
no, not for ever. 




15 



HAREM LIFE. 



This out-of-door life can he seen l)y any one who makes 
the journey to Cairo, hut there are ec^ually interesting- ])hases 
of xVrah hfe in the private families which are inaccessihle. 

Just here an oi)i)ortunity presented itself, rarely occurring 
to an American or European, of seeing-, throug-li the eyes of a 
ladv, the interior life of the harem of a rich Arab in Cairo. 
The lady's husband, who held a consular po.sition in anotlier 
countrA-, had repaired to Egypt to palliate by its gentler climate 
the suffering- caused by impaired health. They had the entree 
and acquaintance of a circle of the better Egyptian society, 
and among others of the family of Ben Sadi Adouin, who sym- 
pathized with tlie ladv in all those trying days. In the course 
of some months her husband's health failed and he died; 
the second morning- of her widowhood the family sent a press- 
ing invitation for her to come and spend the day with them 
during the embalmment of the remains : she accepted the 
veiy opportune and kind offer, and was accompanied in their 
carriage bv a eunuch, a strapping large black fellow over six 
feet in height, who on arriving at the house motioned her to 
sit down in the reception-i'oom, and -wlio uidiu-ed and removed 
her black satin boots, placing- instead a pair of blue velvet 
slippers embroidered Avith pearls. She was then received by 
the wives of the harem, three in number : they were very kind 
and attentive: one of the tii'st questions they asked of lier Avas, 
"How many wives had your husliand?" "One," she truthfully 
r('j)lied. "Oh how sad! What a pitv !" tliey all exclaimed; 



220 




HOUSE OF THE HAREM. 



HAREM LIFE. 229 

"vi)U tlien liave no one wlio can properly share your sorrow" 
and comfort you." They seemed to feel niuih more under 
the ciroumstanees the dutv of amusino- her, and did everything- 
in their power to divert her attention from the sad event. A 
dwarf lackey now brought in coffee, sweet cakes, and dry 
dates. Thev then examined all her clothing minutely, evin- 
cing curiositv at the number of skirts, and displayed their 
wardrobes for her inspection, begging her to choose a costume 
as a souvenir; wliich she, however, declined, though she has 
since re^Tetted it. 'rhe\" exhibited their iewels, sitting on 
cushions upon Persian rugs before mirrors as they ari-ayed 
themselves with curiously-wrought necklaces, ear-rings, and 
Oriental tiaras and other ornaments for the hair; their hand- 
mirrors were of ancient polished bronze metal, bordered A\ith 
modern frames richly enamelled. 

Wlion the voice of a murieb from a neighboring minaret 
called to prayers, they all retired to various rooms separated 
only bv Persian portieres from the divan salon, and after })er- 
formins' their ablutions knelt, and Avith the Tisual ritualistic 
genuflections performed their devotions : at times they called 
her to see some passing Oriental scene in the street below ; 
tliis was onlv to be observed through small latticed peeping- 
apertures in tlie well-obscured balcony pecidiar to private 
houses in that country. ToAAard evening a repast was served 
by another eunuch, wIki ])laeed tlie large repousse salver 
before the elder wife : it an as well i-harged with ^-iands, fruits, 
and liqueurs of mastic and arak. The wife who presided at 
this part of the entertainment proceeded to tear a savory and 
tender fowl to pieces witli lier hands, and on removing morsels 
of the white meat she, enveloping them in rice, raised tliem 
to the mouth of mv huK' friend and fed her as one does a 



230 



REMINISCENCED OF TRAVELS. 



loved cliild. Tlie repast was followed by a siesta, oiip of the 
wives fingering a species of mandolin giving sootliing yet at 
times emotional strains. The furniture and embellishment of 
the rooms afforded much that was well worth seeing : several 
etageres in red and iniH-\^-o()d were depositories of the finest 
and most unique Egvptian antiquities — such lironzes, curious in 
model and rich in patina, as can be seen only in tlie entailed 
possession of tlie older and richer Egyptian families. The 
cx)llection of scaral)ei alone was marvellous ; the majority of 
them were in transparent stones. 

The day's entertainment, though for one so sad, closed by 
the appearance of three dancing-girls, one alternately strum- 
ming on a rude stringed instrument and thrumming a tam- 
bourine : we were afterward ourselves entertained in a private 
house with a like performance. Tliey pressed my lady friend 
to guard the slippers as a souvenir of their hospitality, which 
she did: at evening thev sent her home loaded with assurances 
of blessing's from Allah and kind wishes, witli Avliich the Arabic 
language is so rejtlete. 



:■■.;'■■■'■ '.vlvvvl IT^IWr 





o 



a 
E 

X 

■< 

X 

OS 

5 



fa 
c 



o 
o 

Bi 

o 

H 

w 
o 

w 

02 



WHIELI^'G DERVISHES. 



Ox mv vetnni to Cairo in March, 1S70, I took an early 
occasion to luuit out Slu'ikli Hajee Hassan-el-Belett ; as it 
happened, liis Iji-otlier, Haleel-el-Belett, had been in my retinue 
several months. It was therefore easily an-anged, and early 
one afternoon I went with Eunice Ali, my dragoman, to Hel- 
meea to the ancient Persian monastery' of Whirling Dervishes 
to seek some glyptic enrichment of my collection from the 
little cabinet of Sheikh Hassau-el-Belett, as Abd-el-Suliman 
had directed me to do when at his ostrich-feather bazaar in 
the desert. After some formalities and detention I was shown 
into the presence of the patriarchal sheikh, ^\ll(l was taking- 
coffee. His costume was unlike that of the rest of the com- 
nnxnitv — a large and amply-flowing robe of some cashmere 
material in faded green doubled with a dark thin lining: his 
taj or turban of the same color, conical, and laid in ]jlaits ; he 
had a chain of Oriental metal and fabrication, uu which was 
hung an oval medal which he told me he had procm-ed from 
an Indiaman at 3Iecca. 

He received me very unostentatiously ; indeed, was very 
friendly ; nor do 1 measure liis kind attention by the quality 
of his coffee, Avhich I was forced to quafi" while I smoked a 
chibouque and was looking over the room loailed everywhere 
with antiquities: l>ut my attention was chiefly given to the 
sraudy lizards, which iiLiAcd at hide-and-seek on the variety 

' Many educated Arabs understand llie Pei-siau language, and all learned Tniks 

speak it. 

233 



234 



IiEMIXISCE^X'ES OF TRAVELS. 



(if Cacttts opniit'id wliicli gavniHlied and enlivened four deep- 
silled windows. I observed tlieiu with curiosity, expecting to 
see some injury done to the delicate flowers ; but, though sau- 
rian reptiles, they were not vandals ; each bud and blossom, 
those altars to Flora, were sacredly respected ; though at times 






m 










% ;rfi;p;p 









THE patriarch's CACTUS AND LIZAKDS. 

a troop of five or six would gallop over tliein, not a petal fell, 
not a leaf was blemished. Thev revelled in tlie perfume of 
the orchid-like flowers, though \\hat the}' imljiljed ^\as imper- 
ceptible, so redolent was the air \\ ith their fragrance, Avliich 
sweetlv jiervadcd the apartment. The bases of tlie window- 



WHIRLIXG DERVISHES. 235 

niches were arranged with a good disphiy of large fragments 
of minerals, so that the crevices formed hiding-places and 
habitations for these pretty creatures. Being an admirer of 
either kingdom, I was trying to decide which merited the 
crown — the animal was so gorgeons in his attire, so vivacious, 
so winning hi his ways; the flower so gentle, so modest, so 
beautiful, its odor so delicate, so enticing ; and this helped me 
in mv decision. From whence this odor? Somethino- wliis- 
pered, through the smoke rising from Hajee el-Belett's nar- 
gileh, "It comes from the soul." Then rendered I this verdict: 
"The flower is the fairer, and gossamer shall be the texture 
of its crown, that naught may Aveigh upon a soul with such 
pure emanations." 

The sheikh, who had been busy giraig orders and receiv- 
ing j^apers requiring his seal, now turned to me with a sleepy 
countenance, relieved by a friendl}' smile : " So vou've been 
jnaking the acquaintance of my little friends ? I am glad to 
see you are interested. God hath taught me that I have nnich 
to leani from the meanest of his creatures. We dervishes 
are so shut out from the world I believe we are not under- 
stood nor charitably esteemed : we have received throuoh 
divine revelation instructions to follow this wav to the pres- 
ence of the eternal Master, and, though many of the pale- 
visaged have chosen another route, the flower tells me we 
shall meet in eternity. Ilast thou ever understood true char- 
ity ? The sentiment I have breathed, that is charity." 

After listening respectfully, I changed the conversation In- 
asking him to shoAV me ■\\hat he possessed in the glyptic art. 
lie then laiil out before me several cabalistic stones eng-raved 
with Gnostic emblems, and two not engraved, talismans bound 
in silver, to be seen in n\\ collection in case marked Abys- 



2:36 EEMINISCENCEsS OF TRAVELS. 

siiiian. I hastened soinewliat this piirchase, for, aUhough it 
was gratifying to my curiosity to have such friendly inter- 
course with the sheildi, knowing tlie hoiu- for tlie evening 
services of the monastery was drawing near, I was desirous 
of again seeing tlieir remarkabhi ])erformance. Fortunately, 
mv visit being accomplished, the sheikh asked me to attend 
divine service: having accepted his kin<l invitation, he sent an 
acohte to jdace me in the gallery, where I witnessed the cere- 
monv of this peculiar jwople, which is performed in an enclos- 
ure about twenty-five feet in diameter, somewhat resembling 
a modern city circus-ring. My seat in the gallery was opposite 
the entrance to the circle, so that when the sheikh with two 
attendants entered and slowly settled down upon his Persian 
carpet, he was directly before me ; he was soon followed by 
the dervishes clad in long felt gowns falling in folds about 
their ankles. Each saluted the patriarchal sheikh and retired 
to the side of the arena. From the gallery opposite me came 
strains of music from two or three simple instrmnents, string, 
reed, and parchment, reminding me of Thebes, Assouan, and 
Wadee Halfeh, bnt accompanied by a devotional song of 
praise to the ^Most High. After a prater by the superior and 
a procession several times around the enclosure, one after an- 
other, silently and ovidentlv devotionally, the dervishes com- 
menced to move and twirl around the arena, looking at no 
one. They gradually worked themselves into a state of frenzy 
or ecstasy until all else seemed forgotten. These sincere yet 
fanatic devotees seek thus, with the iidierent desire of the 
human race, religious consolation, striving for the peace of 
the soul, as thcv ha\e learned from Ibull Arabi, l)y exciting 
their whole nervous system until they become oblivious to 
this sinful wuild and more spiritually ju-esent with Allah. 



WHIRLING DERVISHES. 237 

Tliey really seem in their ecstasy to be holding- communion 
with hoi}' spirits, and their countenances evince a sense of 
the foretaste of the other, better, and (>nl\- life Avorth living, 
in the presence of Allah. Their bodies are now whirling 
dizzily liefore us, their spirits are temporarily transported. 
Eemember, the dervishes are monastic Mahometans, and, 
ridiculous as seem these their forms of worship, there is 
nmch in their religion that is beautiful, it is so rich, deep, 
even sublime, so many odes of adoration to their and our 
Divine Master. Think of their many titles or l)eautiful names 
with which they address God, ninetv-nine in rnunber, and, if 
we add one not included in the Koran list, '' 1 am that God 
beyond whom there is no other," ^ we will have just one huiv 
di-ed endeai-ing appellations in their rosary alone ; and there 
are myriads more, from Allah, God ; Es Salam, the SaAioiu- : 
El Mutakebbir, tlie Giver of greatness ; El Bassit, the Re- 
joicer of hearts: El Mazill, the God who looks down on all 
things; Es Semee, the Hearer; El Lateef, the Gracious; El 
Mujeeb, the acceptor of prayers ; El Vedood, the Loving : El 
Ka3'yoom, the Everlasting ; to Es 8aboor, the patient. These 
few illustrations are selected from their replete code of adora- 
tions ; it is interesting to observe how devoutly and fre(piently 
they employ them, continually changing the form. Five times 
dailv they wash and pray: I have had them for months in 
my employ, and have seen, when in caravan-life, and when 
water was too scarce to be used for such a purpose, many 
of nn- faithful servants employing the permitted substitute 
for water, rubbing their arms and limbs with the flat l)asaltic 
stone which is careful!}' guarded on such a journey. While 
making these reflections I had for some moments closed mx 

' J. P. Brown's Oriental Spirilucdism. 



238 REMINISCENCES OF TRAVELS 

eyes uu the wliirliug tiguix-s before me, a sin-Lt wearying to 
the bram if ]on;^• oljserved. When their human frames could 
no longer support this exertion, in proportion to their endur- 
ance one after another gradually subsided from this state of 
exaltation, and, sinking to the ground on the side of the arena, 
seemed in silent prayer to be coranutning w\x\i the Holy Spirit, 
thus brought in nearer contact. 

In an hour all had thus accomplished their devotions, and 
at a signal given by the superior a dooi' was opened in the 
side of the arena beneath my gallery, and soon there was 
enacted a ceremony even more strange than what we had 
just seen, exhibiting a wonderful phase of superstition or 
perhaps mind-power. A motley groufj of picturesquely cos- 
tumed men, women, and cliildren came meekly and rever- 
ently within the enclosure ; tlie sick and halt and blind were 
then i)resented one at a time before the patriarchal sheikh, 
who rose and pressed his thumbs on the temples, foreheads, 
eyes, and breasts of the credulous multitude, after which as 
many as could be accommodated were laid in compact rows 
on sheepskins before the carpet of the sheikh, who then \)yo- 
ceeded to walk slowly over their bodies, passing his right foot 
from breast to feet of all the subjects, who afterward rose 
seemingly full of hope. What folly to be wise ! The at- 
tendant dervishes then l)rought i)ackages of underclothing 
and other garments before the patriarchal sheikh, who patientlv 
opened them out and l)reathe(l on evei'\" piece. Such Avere 
the people, I said to myself, who felt reliance in mystic gems, 
and, clutching jny talismans safely in my pocket, I turned mv 
back upon the holv ])lace, with a thought of gratitude to Abd- 
el-Suliman who in the oasis in the desert had thought to pass 
me on to this patriarchal sheikh. 



liiili" i -t .11 



"If 







SUEZ CANAL. 



241 



We now participated or assisted at several festivals and 
their out-door-ceremonies, when I again saw snake-charmers, 
story-tellers, and itinerant fakirs while attending the completion 
of my camping outtit for Syria, which for sanitary reasons I had 
ordered to be made of entirely new material. Quitting now 
the metropolis of the land of the Pharaohs, I too left uiv bless- 
ing, ■\\-ith a praj'er for Egypt that God may }-et exalt this 
oppressed people ! Our course was across the desert from 
Heliopolis to the just-opened Suez Canal, through which we 
passed. 




16 



SYRIA. 

From Port Said T)y Russian steamer to Joppa, at iiKire 
than a mile from land tlie air Avas cliarged with the delicious 
odor of the orange- and lemon-hlossonis. We made safelv 
in a small boat the dangerous passage between the inner rocks 
of the roadstead. 

"While everything was being put in order, and horses and 
mules procured, v.e lodged in an old h(itel on a height above 
the house of Simon the Tanner. The iloorinq- of one of mv 
rooms where I was reading Avas settled, leaving an aperture 
of several inches below the surbase. Several times during 
mv stav a strange-looking animal entered the room by this 
crevice: it was in bod v like a large brownish-grav toad, witli 
a shrivelled ag-ed face almost human, or at least with tliose 
semi-human featiu'es often seen in the monkey tribe. Each 
time he sat there for some minutes staring at me, and exam- 
ining me with a look that seemed to say, "And who are you?" 
I wonder to this dav aa'Iio lie was. 



Fhiall\-, T obtained twelve horses and miiles to carry the 
camping equipage. To have fresh saddle-horses Avith which 
to change in case of fatigue or accident, I secured several 
Persian horses and three grooms of the same nationality, Avith 
all of AA'liom I was A^ery well satisfied. Riding by day in 
sunshine and in rain, sleeping at night in tents, on to Randeh 



242 



H 

SI 






c 



t3 




JERUSALEM. 245 

and to Bab el-Wadi, wliere in my dining-room-tent we first made 
the acqnaintance of scorpions, discovering- two of these Arach- 
nida jumping- behind mv camp-stool. 




The third day we pitched onr tents npon the ]\rount of 
Ohves outside Jerusalem. This ancient city has often Ijeen 
pictured in sacred poetry as typical of the throne of the 
Creator and Redeemer — heaven : though still interesting-, it is 
far from being Jerusalem the Golden ; that precious quality 
has been alloyed. Jasper glows not now upon its bulwarks, 
its streets blaze not with emeralds, no longer the sardius and 
the topaz there unite their ravs, nor are its walls crowned 
with priceless amethyst. The modern Jerusalem is interesting 
in its ensemble : even had it not the imparalleled attraction 
of having been the arena of frequent scenes in our Saviour's 
career ou earth, and so closely associated with his final suffer- 
ings and sacrifice, yet it would reasonably rank among the 
most beautifully situated and curiously constructed walled 
cities of the East, located on a series of undulating hills, 
with fortified towers wherever these spurs cause an angle in 
the ramparts. 

For entry and exit to the city its walls are still pierced 
by five gates ; two or three others, the Gate of Herod and the 
Eternal Gate, have been closed during the past century. Some 
of them, especially the Golden Gate, have ornamental arches 
and capped columns. Those through which we passed on the 



246 REMIXISCENCES OF TRAVELS. 

occasion of mv last two visits were the Daiuiiscus on tlie nortli, 
the St. Stephen's on the east — wliich we nst'd prin<-ipally, being- 
encamped \i\ tlie Garden of Clethsemane — the Africans on the 
south, the Zion on tlie ridge of Zion, and tlie Hebron or Yafa 
Gate on the west. There is also one interesting old gateway 
within the city ; it is that of the palace of the Kniglits of St. 
John, interesting to Crusaders and to Knights Templars who 
have perpetuated tlie order. Baldwin II. also founded an 
asylum of Knights Templars in part of the Christian Temjile 
of the Resurrection built on the ruins of the ancient Mosque 
el-Aksa. There are sections of the city, beautiful in their archi- 
tecture, naturally Oriental in style — elevated gardens, owing 
to the undulating character of the ground supported by 
walls and terraced ; surmounted by mosques and minarets 
with glittering metallic roofs and brightly-colored tiles, en- 
riched bv the morning sun and glowing- with the reflection of 
declining day, \\\X\i the mosque of Omar, the cathedral, and 
Holy Sepulchre, Mahometanism and Christianity alike con- 
tributing to the beauty and intei-est of tlie scene. Few g-ems 
could be found, only some Crusaders' rings and seals. (See 
mv collection.) 

Among other objects visited the Rock of ^Moriah, or Jla- 
homet's Rock, which is said to l)e suspended in air ; the Fran- 
ciscan monastery, adjoining the Holy Sepulchre ; called on 
the superior, with whom I had already made a voyage at sea; 
found him very hospitable ; he gave me a relic for the Bava- 
rian monk my friend Arsacius. A small company of us then 
descended with lanterns a shaft which liad been sunk by an 
engineering partv, and inspected some remains of the foun- 
dation-stones of Solomon's temple; I brought away with me 
some specimens of the stone as souvenirs, fragments of which 



o 
o 
3 

o 







JERUSALEM. 249 

have been since mounted in rings, pins, etc. for friends ; tombs 
of Hezekiali, Jehoshaphat, Absalom, David, etc. 

The churches, mosques, and ruins witliiu the city are to 
some extent what one sees in otlier Eastern cities, but the 
population is so heterogeneous that to me a daily stroll to 
the Joppa Gate Mas my greatest pleasiu'e. 

In ancient Jerusalem probably the chief interest was cen- 
tred within tlie city, the temple, and its market-places and the 
rendezvous of skilled artisans. To-day a sacred halo rests 
upon the Church of the Holy Sepidchre ; ordinary' sight-seers 
are attracted by the monuments, costumes, and shops of the 
Mahometans in the city ; but to ray taste it is in the vicinity 
of and outside the Joppa Gate that one sees the most interest- 
ing phases : there you may find a vestige of the ancient com- 
merce. In old times the merchants came from Tyre and 8idon 
and the delta of tlie Nile: now the venders are from tlie 
vicinity, but the buyers are from every nation of modern 
Europe ; in fact, of the world. True, the prevailing language 
is the Arabic, but if attention is paid one will hear a large 
proportion of Russian, German, Greek, English, Italian spoken, 
and see a variety of people even of the very country, but with 
the diffei'ences of tribes — tall of stature and meagre, short and 
brawny, fair complexions and olive, brown, bronze, and black 
— all jabbering- together. Of all picturesque gatherings, the 
Jerusalem market at the thresliold of the Holy City is to me 
the most entertaining. 

And now the general routine of excursions to Jericho, 
crusliing- myriads of locusts on the way ; the Jordan, Dead 
Sea, where are found some ear-rings in bitumen of a rude 
order of art, etc. etc.: bv hig-hwav and bvwav, gTOves and 
grottoes, villages and towns, we turned to the north, ever 



250 JiEMI^^ISCEXCES OF TRAVELS. 

seekiiiff material for the structure that has Ijeen mv hfe's 
labor. 



When encamped at Nabulus my field of exploration was 
indeed a curious one — not in the cases or on the shelves of 
an antiquar)''s shop, now I selected the objects of my search 
on the heads, necks, and arms of the women who flocked to 
mv encampment. It is said that many of these women carry 
thus on their persons all the dower or fortune they posses.s — 
old silver coins, with here and there a scarabeus or Assyrian 
seid — and tliey will trade this dower, hoping- of course to im- 
prove it. Occasionally they will cede such objects if offered 
something of g-reater value or more to their fancy : one should 
be supplied for such traffic witli gaudy trinkets in real gold ; 
they will trv it with their teeth. I have found it very difficult 
to bargain witli tliem. (For an Assj-rian cylinder see No. 402, 
Case C C.) 

The servants one generally has on the.se expeditions are 
often very civil and wonderfully efficient. At the close of 
everv evening's dinner Eunice mv dragoman would ask it the 
moment was ])ropitious for Haleel my cook to make Ins daily 
visit: on being permitted to enter Haleel would approach with a 
respectful salaam and ask how we were pleased with the menu 
and its service : "Hhoiiaffeh, Entom mahsout eu-uahar-iJch .*"' (" Is 
my lord content to-day !") On giving him a smile and assur- 
ance of our satisfiiction, he woxdd add kind wi.shes for the wel- 
fare of madame, employing expressions in which the Arabic 
language is so replete, and then lie would gracefully retire, 
alwavs keeping us in view until he Avas without the tent ; and 
this ceremonv closed for the occasion. The stove on ^hich 
he cooked for us was in itself a curiosity. It was simpl}- l)ut 



13 



O 
O 



z 

a 
a 

G 



B 
?0 



O 




NAZARETH. 255 

ingeniously made of slieet iron in the form of a cylinder, 
perforated with many holes, and was supjiorted when in use 
by a pliant X — X trestle ; thus plenty of draft could be had 
by the aid of a ])ahn-leaf fan, and it was readily packed on a 
mule with other kitchen utensils. 



At Nazareth a young girl, with the usual counsel of several 
bystanders, at first demanded in exchange for a gem, a diamond 
ring from my wife's finger, but I obtained it finally for gold. 
So also I visited the tresses of swarthy maidens on the shores 
of the Sea of Galilee and of the curly-locked Tiberians at the 
village beside the lake. (See Xo. 562, Case H H ; see also 
plaster impression of each side.) 

While crossing the moimtainous country beyond Tiberias 
in a narrow defile A\e saw many thistles. Ali, the Persian 
attendant whom I em]:)loyed to l)e alwavs beside my wife 
when she was in the saddle, would reach into the undergrowth 
and pluck several stalks at a time, peel them and ofter them 
to us, instructing us to alisorb the juice ; the cool and refresh- 
ing draught was delicious. There are quite a munljer of way- 
side plants grc^wn and used as salads which in America, though 
growing plentifulh', are comparatively unkno\^■n. 

We now descended into the plain, visited Joseph's Well, 
Safed, Meis el-Jebel, Tell el-Kady, Banias with its peculiar 
architecture : the huts of the agricultural po])ulation have 
nearly all of them a lookout, a room built upon four beams 
towering above the house, so that a ">\atch ma}' be kept on 
the immense fields of lentils and beans. 

At the sources of the Jordan, at Kefr Hauwar, our encamp- 
ment was beautifulh' situated in a g-len Ija' the brook and shel- 



256 



REMTXISCEXCES OF TRAVELS. 



tered from tlie great winds from snow-clad 3Ioimt Hermon ; 
sweet sleep, perfect rest, with morning snn, wakened by the 
cuckoo's plaintive note. As we journeyed north the out- 
standing- sentinels prepared my vision for the grander sight : 
I looked up and beyond the morning haze, convinced that 
God hath made all things well. Though at last gazing in 
reality upon the great mountain, I saw through fancy's lens 
the hoaiy head of Hermon, the "white-haired, unapproach- 
able," set as a gem against that azure Syrian sky, and invol- 
untarily said, " Tliou art mine to-day, and thou shalt be mine 
for ever in the cabinet of my recollections." 




DAMASCUS. 



Noonday of the morrow our tents were moored in the 
garden of a private estate in Damascus. ]My route-dragoman, 
Ah (whom I had brouglit with me in addition to Elunice), had 
arranged bv jxist in advance for tliis ground Iving between 
the rivers Al)ana' and Pharpar. The mule-drivers Avith our 
camp-higgage alwavs preceded us, and by rougher though 
more dhect paths reached our destination, and had e\"erA- 
thing set in readiness for our arrival. The cook even always 
had his fire ready. And so we lost no time on arriving in 
Damascus: after a lunch of red-legged jmrtridgcs which 
abound in Syria, with Avater-cresses from the cool spring of 
Ed du-Iveh, with biscuits and pistachio-nuts. Ave proceeded 
to mingle Avitli the throngs of this truly Oriental city, peer- 
ing into their mosques, and inevitably led by the multitude 
into the great baza^irs, Avhere, lingering inA^oluntarily for hours, 
Ave shopped and visited the various artiticers and ti-adesmen, 
the Avorkers in bronze and the shops of the noisy copper- 
smiths, Avhere are dispLiAed those richly-hammered decora- 
tions on CAvers, chalices, boAA'ls, and trays. Every object, if 
possible, is made more holy by sacred inscriptions in raised 
letters, generally sentences from the Koran. Without noticing 
Avhat branch of trade Ave Avere folloAving, our eyes neA-er Avea- 
ried Avith seeing shaAvls, embroideries, costumes, Damascus 
blades, pearl-Avork, amber pipe-stems, kufiyehs, embroidered 
table-coA'ers, abaAehs : many of these cloaks ai-e from Bagdad ; 

' ^ciw called Barrada. 



261 



262 REMINISCEXCES OF TL'AVELS. 

gaudy scarfs A\itli long tang-led silk tVingcs; and Joseph's 
jackets: at least, they have not t'e\V('r cdlors; innumerable 
objects of antiquity, embracing also coins and engraved gems. 
These latter being paramount with me, you must expect me to 
dwell more fully on that feature of this Oriental Kermesse. 

Some of the most peculiar dealers in anticpie gems are 
perhaps the hajees in the bazaars of Damascus: these men 
have made ])ilgrimages, more ^\ith a view of commerce than 
of beneiiting their souls. That was not a question of much 
import to me : I sought to enrich my cabinet, to accomplish 
which -with a travelled x\rab, at any figure short of exhorbit- 
ance, requires some study of their character and experience 
in their manner of dealing. In many instances they did not 
conceal their satisfaction in receiving my Indlion for their 
gems, vet I estimate mv pleasure in many of these acquisi- 
tions to have been greater than theirs. (See No. 404, Case 
X; No. 505, Case DD.) 

During oiu- stay we one day received an invitation from 
Effendi Ambia, the wealthy proprietor of our cam})ing-ground, 
to visit his estaljlishment in his private ptdace, ^^ liich archi- 
tecturally resembled such villas as one sees in Pompeii, every 
part arranged on the ground-floor, where one could be at his 
ease during the great heat A\'hicli prevails the greater part of 
tlie year. The furnitin-e A\as Arabesque and Grecian in style, 
the centre saloon luning a pictui-esqu<' fountain \\hose watei's 
fell into a large white limestone basin, constantly nourishing 
beautiful plants that spread their fragrant l)lossoms on the cool- 
ing water, A\'hich mirrored the gorgeous plumage of several 
tropical l)ii-ds, which as they fluttered over its lin^pid surface 
sang to those sweet flowers hymns of })leasui-e and of grati- 
tude : in this sentiment we joined them, and after viewing the 



DAMASCUS. 



263 



rare family collection of arabesque silverware and chalices in 
amber and ag-ate and bronze, with many sincere expressions 
of our appreciation we withdrew to our simpler temporary 
abode. 



IMy pursuit has at times been like to that of an explorer 
crossing a great continent through territory until now un- 
known or even unljroken by the iron way of civilization : he 
mnst and Avill encounter impediments to his progress, often 
those broad, shallow, but swiftly-rumiing streams Avliich for- 
tunately provide by the course of their currents a passage- 
way of ton-ent-wom stones. Once started, he nuist press on 
from one foothold to another. So in my voyages in the pursuit 
of glyptic acquisitions I never seemed to have arrived at the 
end of m}^ journey, always seeing another stone beyond me. 
The enthusiasm which impels a collector is like the deceiving 
thirst of an inebriate ; each draught only increases the desire 
for another, and thus urged on from post to post, changing 
scene, climate, and nationalities, ever other men and manners, 



on we must go. 



''■''"'If": 




BAAL BEG. 



Ttie wooden stag's nre once more withdrawn, our canvas 
lionie rolled up and consigned to the mute companions of my 
expedition ; glad to progress, yet storing to the last kind 
memories of our sojourn on the banks of Abana and I'har- 
pai-, we depart from Damascus ^\•ith regret, which is soon, 
however, changed to new pleasures as we camp beside the 
Temple of the 8un in the Acropolis of Baalbec ■\\ithin the 
cvflopean wall — davs of wonder again as we view these tem- 
ples so astonishing- in their architecture and constructed of 
such enormous monoliths, artistically chiselled stones, but none 
for mv cabinet. To those conversant wdth ancient history the 
siu'roundings of ever\' fallen column where Romans held sway 
give mementoes of great men that stood there in their day. 
Ruined forums and temples are the monuments also of cruel 
actions: though these walls of "the Temple of the Sun" no 
longer resound with the deep voices of those who there per- 
formed the ordinances, they silenth' record that here stood, 
before Diocletian, (ielasinus the ])oor (*hristian convert, for- 
merly an actor, and that by that emperLir s order he was there 
stoned to death. 

Here, as in all these great ruins of temples, were men pass- 
ing in and out of the otherwise deserted courts or loitering by 
chiselled monoliths, pursuing the precarious occupation of itin- 
ei'ant antiquaries, offering for sale principally Assyrian seals, 
amulets, and ancient coins. 

Other days of desert and mountain-climbing in sunshine 



2()4 




GATE OF THE TEMPLE OF THE SUX, BAALBEC. 



MOUNT LEBANON. 267 

and in cliillino- cloud, tlic Lebanon, its cedars, snow; sleeping 
in a wayside stone refuge which we metamorphosed into a 
pahxce ^^ itli our camp-furniture and Persian carpets ; tlie final 
descent ; the freezing haze dissolving, withdraws the curtain 
and discloses to our view Beyrout upon the sea, and on that 
sea we tossed to Cyprus ; and from its salt pyramids set out 
upon our way toward the islands of the ^Egean Sea; at Ehodes 
another day, passing, on our arri\al, into the harhor between 
the two great pedestals in massive masonrv which are lielieved 
to have been built upon the original foundations of the ijreat 
Colossus. 

The Colossus of Chares was seventy cubits high. The 
Colossus was a marvel Iniilt of Ijronze from the spoils of 
Demetrius Poliorcetes, said to have held a beacon-light in its 
hand which lighted the way to the ships which ])assed be- 
tween its legs. It AAiis thrown down by an earthquake 224 
B. c, and it is Ixdieved that a thousand years later many of 
its fragments were recovered and again melted and formed 
into engines of war. 

Thence, by Patmos, Samos, and Chios to Smyrna in Asia 
Minor, with its bazaars of antiquities and of slaves (at that 
time). 

While at its shops I sought some of its renowned fio-s, 
thinking they would be better in their home, bat Avas always 
answered, "Our best have been exported to America and 
En";land." 





r^t-'^'aV 



^£A:^i^:^^>::^^^^£^ 




ATHENS. 



Thexce l)y Syni to tliree-harborod Pira?us, the water-portal 
of Athens. Ill the Aeropohs at xVtliens I a^'ain experienced 
the .same regret a.s at Baalbec : the Lirye and magnificent 
basso-rihevos could not be added to my ca]>inet, even for a 
consideration, as can the smaller gems. While in .Vthens I 
was ill a (|uaiidar\' huw to economize mv time. I wanted to 
be uj), and would be down — that is, down in tlie city searching 
and selecting portable sulijects — and yet conld not willingly 
separate myself from the stud^• of those su}jerb basso-rilievos 
on the white slabs above in the Acropolis, where the memory 
of the sleeping masters called me to the Parthenon, once the 
g-orgeons throne, now the desecrated tomb, of the chrysele- 
phantine goddess Minerva. Phidias sleejjs with the fruits of 
his lab(u-; their mingled a.slies beckonetl me to the sacred site 

268 



> 

a 



c 




A THENS. 275 

where taste and love of art chained me throu<ih h^iifr days of 
tender hght. 

Everv ruin still beautiful in the wreck of its once perfect 
art-decoration — the Doric teni2)le of Minerva, the Parthenon, 
the Hecatompedon, the Ionic temples of Erechtheus and Mi- 
nerva Polias, the cell of Pandrosos, the Doric portiio of Augus- 
tus, the octagon Tower of the Winds, all ridi in reliefs, cap 
and frieze, architi'ave, entablature, pediment, all pictured ; what 
myriads of nuises, warriors afoot and on horse and in chariots, 
armed with bows and spears and Vittamarian mallets ; striving 
men, toiling womeii ; water-carriers seeming to stagger with 
their load, coming through twenty centuries bearing their am- 
phortE on their shoulders, arms and hands guarding tlie equi- 
librium ; sturd^' and agile frames partially draped in mantles 
of Athenian mode, falling from shoulder and from cincture ; 
satyrs and n\-mphs, centaurs and lapithte, caryatides; G^^dipus 
and the Sphinx;^ masks, gorgon and scenic; Bacchus and 
his tiger ; Jupiter Ammon ; Medusa ; adventures with tlie Tyr- 
rhenian pirates ; the historic procession of the Panathenaea ; 
Apollo with harp in snow}- marble, who, could Galatea give 
bi'eath and life, would touch again tliose strings and music 
would be added to the charm ; children bearing fruits and 
flowers and game ; pastoral scenes, horned c-attle, Indls and 
kine with their attendants; the plumed denizens of air and 
tinny ones from water, dolphins half human. 

These illustrations are given on the accompanying cuts, with 
the thouo-ht that l)asso-rilievos designed ami chiselled centuries 
before the Gra?co-Roman epoch Avere often the models for 
much that we find in gem-engraving. Those also (page 268) 
from tlie great temple at Baalbec : I have long since believed 

'.See No. SoS, C:ise B B B, <3^ilipiis ami ilic Si'liiii.x. 



276 REMINISCENCES OF TRAVELS 

that some of the o-em-masks, bearded and scenic, were copied 
from the ornamentation of these tempk-s. There certainly 
exist triumphal arelies whose pictm-ed embellishments were 
first created on cameos. 

The temple of Minerva Parthenon was almost entire in the 
time of the 3I(Mlici family, and yet in one century vandalism 
reduced it to its present condition: in the last two centm'ies 
since 1686 almost nothinfi' has been injured, but much has 
been carried off, and can be seen and studied in the British 
Museum and at the Louvre at Paris. Nature has added some- 
thing- in modern times, for I remarked t\\o large nests with 
storks, a bird so picturesque Avhen perched on his temporary 
home. 

In viewing these beautiful edifices so richly adorned with 
basso- and alto-rilievos, I am convinced that what there is ad- 
mirable in Roman architecture was accom})lished at least 
with the counsel and aid of the Greek colonists, the pupils 
of Phidias, Callicrates, Ictinus, and C'allimachus,^ also the 
master-designers and descendants; of Alexander, the liberal 
patron and princely builder of the most perfect examples of 
ancient art and architecture. If so beautiful in this ruined 
condition, what nuist they have been in the day of their full 
perfection ! 

As they were at the time of my visit, tliey seemed to speak 
to me and plead with me to avail myself of every possible 
moment to cultivate their acquaintance, to study their sublime 
art-forms, that their beauties might be domiciled in my memory, 
while their substance was daily before my vision, so that when 
time and oceans should divide us I could vividly recall them 
in art-loving recollections. 

1 Calllinacluis, tlic- iiiVL-iUur of the Corintliian column (see No. 691, Case P P). 



A TEENS. 



281 



While in the Acropohs looking- on these miisterpieces a 
consciousness came over nie that I was Ijreathing: the atmo- 
sphere of their creators — that I was with them, held converse 
with them. Look at the antithesis : below, in the city, I ^Aas 
with soulless merchants of gems, men in plaited white petti- 
coats, who for gold would part Avith such cameos and in- 
taglios as No. 1,' Case A; Xo. 127, Case H; Nos. \)0\ and 
908, Case EEE; No. 913, Case FFF; No. 947, Case 
H H H. It is on such occasions, if ever, one feels a de- 
sire to be ubiquitous, as wdien for the same evening hour 
at times we are invited to an intellectual entertainment per- 
fectly in accord with our literary tastes, and in another quarter 
to a dinner, a repast of meats. Let us confess, though there is 
a stmggle, Bacchiis and a good digestion do sometimes win 
US to the banquet. 

Adieu, Hellenic scenes ! Change — a beautiful sea studded 
with picturesque islands and many sails ; the Dardanelles and 
]\Ln-inora bring us to the altar-seat of the 3Ioslems. 

' Xo. 1, P.allas ; Xo. 127, .Jupiter, Juno, and Minerva, the three principal divinities of 
the C'apitoliuni ; Xo. 901, an indubitalile specimen of tlie workmanship of the renowned 
Dioscorides; Xo. 908, Bereeyutia; Xo. 913, Ptolemy Philadeli>hus and Arsiuoe; Xo. 947, 
Diomedes. 




COlSrSTANTINOPLE. 



Coming now \\ itliin the Golden Horn, exchanging tent-hfe 
and saihng npon seas for a comfortable Turkish hotel (kept 
bv a Greek and an Englislinian), after repose and reflections 
on scenes fading in the soutli, we set about visiting our Turk- 
ish friends and tlieir curious city. Sunshine and balmy atmo- 
sphere made my walks in those hilly streets and byways a 
pleasant occupation : it was amusing for a while when my 
Avav was impeded by many animals reclining just where one 
would jjlace his feet, but as it was a custom of the country 
I soon learned to respect them too, and joined in protecting 
them bv stejijiing out of my com-se rather than obtrude, 
although they \\ere almost as plenty as prayer-books in a 
parsonage. I join a numerous corps of scribblers by thus 
chronicling the canine feature of Constantinople. fleeting 
them harnessed to little wagons was only what is every\\here 
seen in German\-: it was their democratic manner which im- 
pressed me witli tlie tliought that, absolute though this go\- 
ernment may be, here certainly were freedom and comfort for 
a race I have loved all my life, and among whom I have 
found uuniv faithful companions and examples of moral cha- 
racter which one might profitably consider and imitate. In 
making this tril)ute to the canine race only a tithe of my 
indebtedness is being discharged. We are recompensed by 
finding the multitude of human beings Ave meet more con- 
siderate; they are of smidry nationalities and in many cos- 
tumes. The manners of the Turks are characterized b}- greater 

2S2 



CONSTANTINOPLE. 283 

refinement than their coreho-ioni.sts of the Nile: the^• are more 
conscientious and faithful in the observance of their rehgious 
ceremonies and duties ; tliey are an example to us, and are 
kind and dignified in their manner witJi strangers. 

In view of a pecidiar feature of construction of houses, 
Constantinople might be known as the citv of windows — win- 
dows out of which gaze a retinue of servants, each one of 
whom will inf(n-m himself of your character before he will 
accept a position in yotir household. It was not long before 
Saint Sopliia loomed up before us. This sacred monument 
has been in the varied phases of its existence the wonder of 
the world for more than fifteen centuries: constructed b^- the 
labor of thousands of mechanics, probably no sacred edifice 
in the world has given employment to so vast an arm^- of 
artificers; many of its precious colunms in jasper, basalt, and 
other hard stones were contributed Ijy the temples of Baalbec, 
Ephesus, Egypt, and Greece. 

The smoke and dust and grime of ages ha^-e mellowed 
what was glaring in parts of the interior decorations, and the 
harmony thus created gives to its sacred precincts a grandeur 
\\liich can l>est be understood by a thoroughlv appreciative 
lover of ancient art. Its nmown and those qualities Mhiuli 
sustain its celebrity attracted me earlv in mv vi.sit and ab- 
sorbed my first attention. It was also |)leasing to me to 
observe the earnest wor.shippers coming alone and in groups 
ever to that shrine where their ancestors had so often pleaded 
with the Prophet, and who had bidden them follow in their 
steps. Having well regarded all its beauty and the manv 
devotees i)rostrate on their straw mats, I hurriedlv left others 
at their devotions, and strode again in the busy, noisy 
streets. 



284 EEMIXISCEXCES OF TRAVELS. 

One in liis walks sees many I'elics of lirick structiu-es 
erected in as mam' centuries, each liaving- some piece of 
stone with a distinctive type of its epoch, some of them 
even bearino- frag-ments of termini and cohnnns wliicli were 
inscribed and once fitted for hinds, temples, and palaces in 
empires bvgone, and which now seem to have reached their 
final resting-place. 

AVe meet also a class of beings — not men — equally pale 
and corpulent as the eunuchs of the palace of the king of 
Babyhm/ 

We soon left the bright day again, for my attendant, Atanus, 
reminded me that woidd we visit the Howling Dervishes we 
should go at once, tliat we might have time for making some 
acquisitions before the hour of prayer. One such establish- 
ment resembles ver}- closely another. I was first presented 
to the Sheikh Abd-el-Salam-Feraga, a dignified man of stately 
appearance, whose full long auburn beard almost concealed a 
fibula curiously wrought in silver with five scarabei forming 
a Greek cross : he replied on my asking its origin that he had 
found it in Abyssinia when a trader in tliat country and before 
he had entered this order. In manv DcrNisli coinmunities at 
the time of initiation all metallic substances are removed from 
the candidate, yet I have often seen the sheikhs with some 
antique ornament on the breast with which to fasten the upper 
folds of the ecclesiastical garment. Most of the mystic talis- 
mans in his possession were Mussulman relics, which I could 
not prevail on him to part with even for shining gold, but have 
always rejoiced in two acquisitions, the jasper gem No. 522, 
Case E E, Artaxerxes, with Persian incision on the reverse, 
and No. 573, Case II II, the hematite mystic Abraxas amulet, 

' 2 Kings XX : 18. 




55 

O 



O 

o 



CONSTANTINOPLE. 287 

witli l)otli flat and convex .sides, cliarfiod with fine work. After 
some further attention.s from liim he left me, promising to send 
for me in time for the evening service. While attending his 
sumiiKius I walked in one of the corridors, on who.se walls 
were attached a strange collection of pictures — portraits of 
past sheikhs, scenes of religious ceremonies, miraculous cures, 
battles, Avith representations of heavenly interposition, tin-or- 
able to the Mussulman cause, illuminated ])orti(>ns of the 
Koran, and views of several positions of the celebrated Rock 
of ^loriah, revered by Mussulmans because it is believed that 
the rock they exhibit under the mosque is suspended in tlie 
air, and also because Mahomet in taking pos.ses.sion of Jeru- 
salem built over it the Mosque Kubbet al-Sakhra, " The 
Dome of the Rock;" also an old pahiting of the miraculous 
transportation of the Virgin Mary's house to Corfu, afterward 
to Loretto (see my gem No. 268, Case P); and on either side 
of a grilled niche containing a liurning lamp were two })ic- 
tures, "The Battle of Samarkand" and "The Fall of the White 
Bird " (l)efore the capitulation of Samarkand, Sheikh Hassan 
Biihadiu' saw a white Ijird fall from a height to the ground : 
this was believed to be a favorable omen for the JLussulman 
cause); and just below this a curious religious drawing repre- 
senting a special breath of God conveyed to the Virgin ]\Iary : 
this the .source of her concejjtion. Thus we have the innnacu- 
late conception, from Mussulman origin, centuries before the edict 
of the Ecumenical Council of Pius IX. While thus em[iloved 
I was accosted by a dervish wrapped in liis outer cloak, one 
of the community : our recognition Avas simultaneous. He 
was Yusef Suliman ; we journeyed together when in search 
of gems. I had made one of my most strange adventures, 
travelling several days with a caravan of pilgrims en route 



288 REMINISCENCES OF TRAVELS. 

for Mecca, where they were to dehver the sacred carpet. 
Many of the parts or strips of this covering are made in 
Turkey, and after being completed and lined in the suburbs 
of Cairo, the carpet is dedicated, and delivered with great 
ceremony to the pilgrims who escort and carry it, with the 
greatest pomp and pride, on the pilgrimage. He remembered 
and spoke of all the Arabs I had known at that time — one 
Shemshee among others, who, he told me, had returned to 
Palmyi-a. Shemshee was a most picturesqiie-looking wan- 
derer, in whose make-up nature combined largely with the 
odd trappings which formed his outfit : he was a striking 
nomadic character; he had shown me on the desert three 
gems from Palmyra — a Sphinx, a mounted warrior with Per- 
sian inscription, and a horned moufflon, Persian seal (see No. 
1382, Case S S S S); he would not part with all of theiu, how- 
ever, and now the others are in England. Yusef's loquacity 
was evidence of his pleasure at again seeing me ; a glance at 
him showed me he had been advanced in the fraternity since 
our last meeting, or that he had changed to another order, 
for now he was fingering a full rosary of ninety-nine beads, 
the number of the divine attributes already referred to : when 
last I saw him he had one with sixty-six. From time to time 
he would press his hand upon the palenk tucked under his 
girdle, made from the wool of his initiatory sheep, expressing 
his satisfaction with his profession and resignation to privation, 
and faith in Rooh Ullah, Christ, as an intercessor. He ad- 
dressed me as Ya Mahhboubi (my dear friend), and I profited 
by the opportunity and listened attentively to all he told me, 
his saheh (friend) — much that occurred in his spiritual history, 
even his initiation. As the ]\Iooreed, the one about to be 
received, he had brought a sheep, which had been sacrificed 




SHEMSHEE, THE CARAVAX-FOLLOWER. 



CONST A NTINOPLE. 



291 



at the entrance to the house, its liesh eaten by the neophytes ; 
on being led into the presence of the sheikh he made his 
ablution ; then, seated on tlie floor opposite the sheikh, with 
whom he clasped hands, the iing-ers of his right hand closed 
and pressed firmly into the palm thereof, their thumbs erect : 
the sheikh then closed in like manner his fingers, taking the 
Mooreed's thumb closely in the palm of his hand ; thus placed, 
he took the oath and obligation, expressing his thorough re- 
pentance for all sins, and asking forgiveness of El Kebeer, 
God the Great. In like manner he replied to a regular cate- 
chism, the substance of which was to establish to a certainty 
his faith in all the dogmas of the great and noble Prophet, 
and assm-ance that he would never swerve from any of the 
duties imposed by the founder of the order ; at the conclusion 
he embraced the hand of the sheikh, etc. etc. 

Yusef Suliman never in all this narration employed the 
form of the first person, always saying Yusef did so and so. 
Every careful Avriter discards as much as possible the expres- 
sion I, often turning a phrase very skilfully to avoid its use. 
Did these authors ever reflect or realize that this habit comes 
from Mussulman teachers, whose sheikhs have taught that 
none should say I but God, as all things emanate from him ? 
Islamism teaches that the frequent use of I is foolishness 
and presumption. 




HOWLING DERVISHES. 



The sheikh now sent for me, and had nio conducted to a 
temple very simihir to the one described in nn' account of the 
dervishes at Cairo. The ceremony differs only in that instead 
of whirlino;- around tliey jump and sliout or howl out tlieir 
prayers — earnest prayers, by the way; for, although to a 
stranger's ear, the ceremony appears to be anything but devo- 
tional, they are indeed crying to God and to his Prophet in 
most earnest, ecstatic prayers, beseeching God to jnirify them, 
to bless them, to bestow his favor, to protect them here, to 
have mercv on all the faithful, addressing their divine Master 
with a thousand endearing titles, calling also upon Mahomet 
their Prophet to intercede for them. Since I have lived with 
Mahometans and have learned so much from them, I contend 
that there is at least great beauty and sentiment in tlie thought 
that they esteem themselves richer in grace and more favoi'ed 
than other sects, because God in his infinite mercy has given 
them Maliomet to lead them through Christ to their heavenly 
Father. 

After seeing a number of miracles performed on the sick 
and suffering credulous human beings who presented them- 
selves before tlie patriarchal sheikh, wearv of these emotional 
scenes, Atanus and I gladly witluh-ew, and, clianging air and 
scene, we were again observers of Stamboul street-life, loiter- 
ing for nioments before the coffee-houses, with no desire to 
share in their festivities further than what one's ears and eager 

2U2 



51 
> 
iS! 
> 
> 



> 



o 




CONSTANTINOPLE. 295 

eyes drank in ; tlie quota f)f fumes wliich we involuntarilv 
inlialed from myriad steaming cups, chibouques, and nargilehs, 
which charged the atmosphere; and the monotonous strains 
of rude music, the symphonies of tlie Arabic race, which, fall- 
ing weirdly on our tutored ears, were charmino- in the anti- 
thesis : the xerx recollection of these strang-e tones o'ives ns 
by contrast a greater appreciation of the purer and entrancing 
melodies peculiar to our higher civilization ; numerous street- 
merchants lurking around these cafes ; venders of rice patties, 
sugared fruit-gum ; bearers of cooling drinks in terra-cotta 
jars, flavored as in Morocco ; men balancing for hours racks 
on which hang straws charged with pieces of various fruits, 
glazed by being dipped in boiling sugar ; others selling 
birds'-nests of sweetened shreds of angelica paste with 
honeyed almonds for eggs ; fruit-dealers and melon-seed 
merchants, — all picturesque in their costumes and seemingly 
contented in their avocations. One novelt-s' after another 
brought US into the quarter of the bazaars : we entered 
there, not with the hope of finding as fine a market as 
Cairo or Damascus, yet it was highly gratifying to me. 
Atanns had an eye to business, and we were soon in the 
thick of the fray. 

It would be difficult to describe the connnodities as they 
rolled before my vision, presenting themselves in masses as 
the ciimulative clouds in an evening sky — bronzes and gilded 
wares ; stuffs brilliant with garlands ; cushions, embroideries ; 
slippers by the metre, six pairs for little feet on that measure ; 
old faience, porcelain, and Turkish tiles of great beauty; gaudy 
Oriental costumes from vaivode' to bashi" — several of my piir- 
chases were characteristic costumes ; false pearls, rubies, and 

' A governor. ' A barber. 



296 REMINISCENCES OF TRAVELS. 

enamels tliat will not wash ; deceitful fJarniis of attar of roses 
appearing to hold a drarhni, yet so skilfidly formed tliat in 
reality they barely contain live drops, and that diluted tno 
hundred per cent.; India merchants, some of whose wares were 
of the finer quality, such as rich gold repousse-work in brooches 
and bracelets ; vases, bowls, jjlates, jewel-caskets, and numer- 
ous vessels in lacquered Cashmere wares, half Indian and half 
Persian in decoration; scarfs, shawls, and sword-tassels, — every- 
thing impregnated with what to the habitues of the bazaars 
is aroma. It may be aromatic, but to my olfactories it w^as 
a heavy odor of gum benzoin pervading every breath of air 
and impairing the purity and elasticity of the otherwise lovely 
atmosphere coming from the Sea of Marmora. All this was 
very enjoyable for a few days, but when it was once known 
to a certain class of volunteer and enqiloj-ed agents that I 
was a buyer of seals and talismans, it ^^•as both amusing and 
annoying to me ; for in whatever shamble I was dealing, 
there were always two or three of these fellows hanging on, 
trying from without to catch my eye and to lead me to 
some other and, according to them, better dealer. At times 
— now long years after these events — comes to my heart 
the wish that I coidd be for some hours a day among these 
Orientals and searching in those rich sources of engraved 
gems. 

There was one, a seal which I brought away as a souvenir 
of the Mosque of Saint Sophia, where its inscription is also 
engraved and can be read in gilded letters on a benitier. This 
is the text and the translation: "Wash (out) your transgres- 
sions, and not your face only (or alone)." 



BAZIAS— GREEK SHOES. 



299 



Tliis journey was extended to tlie countries lying on the 
Black Sea, and afterward, when ascending- the Danube from 
Varna, throug-h Roumania and Rouinelia, at Bazias the customs- 
inspectors came aboard our steamboat and into my state- 
room, where they ransacked my luggag-e ; the respect for 
antique engraved gems in the custom-houses of most nations 
is remarkable ; here not a gem or other antique object 
was disturbed, but they fell upon a curious pair of red 
morocco Greek shoes with a pompon on each toe ; they par- 




- ^ «- »SiLt,j^ 



^ -^^\:ii.V*K--^ SCMK ^A\.\-- 



MY GlIEKK SHOKS. 



leyed for some time among themselves, and finally decided 
to take them ashore. A friend of mine Avho had tlie curiosity 
to see Avhat the)' did told me they walked some distance and 
took them into a bureau, where they had another parley over 
them ; then weighed them, and a clerk tilled out a large 
blank, which was brought to me on the l)oat with the shoes : 
it Avas a permit to pass through their countr\' with them on 
the ])ayment in their money of what would have amounted 



300 



REMINISCENCES OF TRAVELS 



to about eight cents American monev, \'\liicli sum was 
ordei'ed to be restored to me on the presentation of the 
shoes and tlie ducument at tlie other frontier on mv exit 
from the conutrv. I liave that document vet. Tliis leads 
me into some notice of general dealers in antiquities through- 
out Europe. 





WW 





Magyar kir. vamliivnlal 




Ilafcfiirkonyv 
An'ijcgyzukiiiiyv 



IS^-ikevi / 

jclcson : 



Sz. vamnyugta. 

C/ lio h del C^(:fyf ^ urakoi^ 




vilt arukert 




^UC<. 



lajsdom szeriiit 

IjclioZfltali vim 
kivitcli vam . 
atszallilasi vain 
niazsalasi dij 
czcdulaiaiiz 
jiccscdlij . 
raklafter 
vampoMek 
doliiryetigtiielyi dij 



Ervciiycs a lialarszeli kcrilletbcn 
— kcrcsztiil 

en 

-^ ora alatt, cs 

a bclvamviJcken ~ 

-rr Iccndo 



fogyaszfasi ado . 
kozscgi adopotlek 



kcrcsztiil 
szallitasra 




Szoros szumadiis ala eso rakt 
Vam. 



Wile 

. 14. sz. d^f/l'-f^ ^ 16 minta a Livatalos yusil 



Lclizctctt 
illctekck 

iVt fkr. 




/oJ 



Z 



ishoz. 



NO DUTY ON ENGRAVED GEMS ; CUSTOM-HOUSE RECEIPT FOR DUTIES ON GREEK SHOES. 




< 



•J 



K 
O 






3 






GENERAL DEALEES. 



Continual search for engraved stones tln-oughout Europe 
and other lands, and freciuent rehitions witli tliose who make 
tlie sale of gems a profession, give a tine opportunity for any 
observant collector to study certain phases of character ; and, 
though he may not start out a physiognomist, he will soon 
know Avliat to expect of his man when he has seen him and 
heard him speak. Much is also accomplished by correspond- 
ence after acquaintance and confidence are established : the 
gem-merchants send drawings, photographs, and even tlie 
stones, on approval by registered post. 

Annually for nearly twenty years I have bent my steps 
to an old theatre in an older city near the Adriatic Sea, and, 
mounting a labyrinth of ladders and stairs to a little apart- 
ment above the wings of the stage, I have had pleasant and 
remunerative intercourse with a man who by day follo-ws the 
profession of lapidary: assuring himself long ago that in me 
he had a regular customer, he has from time to time made 
excursions through out-of-the-way districts, and I have profited 
by becoming the possessor of almost all his acquisitions.^ 



Nor can I forget a tinge of romance in the errand which 
led me many winters to a point on the main road between 

' See in my colleftion, No. 577, Case I I : not only is this engraved Byzantine licail of 
Christ interesting, but tlie siiecimen of green jade is rare; in the Museum of the Louvre at 
Paris they have nothing so fine in green jade. 

20 305 



;!Oii liEMTNISCENCES OF TRAVELS. 

Naples and Baia", wliere, to spare the horses, I woukl leave 
them and cliiiib by a ravine over a rough path on loose masses 
of scoria and between Imge blocks of broken lava, that liad come 
upon the scene long- since the early Greek emigrants rested 
tliere on their Avay to their art-labor in Rome — this was my 
nearer wa\' to the chm-ch of Saint Proculo at Pozznoli — when, 
taking a tortuous passage cut in old tufa, I mounted a winding 
stairwav in a tower against the church to a, modest apartment, 
to make mv visit to its pious and genial tenant, a man of 
medium stature, meagre frame : a pure emotional countenance 
enthroned his Italian face, lips trained to holy speech, serious 
eves beneath a spiritu;d brow, which were brightened liv his 
enthusiasm as a collector of ancient Greek and Roman objects 
of antiquitv. He was the cure of Saint Proculo, ministering 
to a charge whose parishioners were laborers in the tufa, and 
scoria deposited here by many volcanic upheavals, vinevard 
employes and agriculturists, who, ever turning up the soil or 
making excavations, fomid l)uried fragments of treasures and 
ornaments of a race coeval with the Pompeiians. 

As is generall}' the case, the peasantry of these countries 
sell all their findings to their spiritual advisei', who thus adds 
to his very meagre support by dealing in these objects, and is 
the village antiquai'\'. From tlie very fact that his business 
affairs grew out of. relations with those who came to him in 
his sacred calling, this man was not mercenarv, not even mer- 
cantile, in his wavs : when once he knew me, his whole heart 
seemed warmed in sym})athetic interest in my pursuit; lie 
A^ould take jdeasure in showing me his little museum, not 
Avholly with the thought of selling, but from the love of his 
■occupation. In fact, the pleasure was mutual : he saw how 
sincerely I Avas interested, and he would discourse on one 



GENERAL DEALERS. 309 

piece after another,^ takin<i' now t'roin an old metallic coffer 
a Grecian terra-cotta laiii[) witli three diverging Ijranches, the 
aperture in the centre where the main receptacle for the oil 
was covered by an ornamental caj), on which was an elaborate 
representation of Troy, its towers, l)ulwarks, and other points 
of defence, on the l)ranclies the trenches and appliances of the 
attacking- forces in and about their sies'e-works ; or a bronze 
hand-mirror on the back of which was eng-raved in deep lines 
the Ciimaean Sibvl, who like all Sib\ls was believed to be a 
stainless, heaven-given being not c^uite deity, l)ut one coun- 
selled of God — which is the derivative signification of the 
word : she, having audience with divinity, was deemed fit to 
plead with divine power: througlumt all religions the same 
prevailing principle of a mediator. 

He also showed and sold me an antique amber necklace 
which one of his ]iarisliioners had dug up on the site of Cunune; 
it was found in a tomb built of corrugated tiles of terra-cotta. 
(I liad already seen, in making a walking excursion from Kome 
to the ancient tomb of Tor di Qinto and the \'illa Livia, some 
workmen making an excavation for a railwav, and wliile tliere 
saw tlieni micovcr and open just such tombs of terra-cotta 
tiles, wliich contained, among some remains of human bones, 
several coins and a few bronze articles; one piece, on which 
was a gilded mitred head, fell into my possession for a con- 
sideration.) This Cuma\an relic, in such good condition in 
the museum of the cure, interested me from the very foct that 
it liad been jireserved in the peculiar tomb already described, 
and is now in niv collection — Xo. 1324, Case E E E E. Friend 
Cure, I would \\i]lini;l\- lav aside mv i)en this brioht morning- 

' This cure was so a<;i'eealile tliat my wile williugly aucompanied me ou tliese visits, and 
fuiiiiJ much interest in him and liis sister. 



310 BEMINISCEXCES OF TRAVELS. 

and have an hour with a on and voiir treasures, hut distance 
and the great waters bid nie attend. 



There is a popuhir and erroneoiis impression in the minds 
of travellers in Europe that the public or state nniseums are 
the best and only collections worth seeing: in several cases, 
to my knowledge, the contrary is the case, because many 
museums are made up of things given to them, and, though 
subsidized by some governments, the}' cannot afford nor do 
they seek a\ ith the same ardor that actuates and impels private 
connoisseurs and rich amateurs. This was the case with one 
princely antiquary, formerly in the Via del Babuino at Rome. 
His Avas indeed a museum — gems, statuary, paintings, bronzes, 
enamels ; and all of the highest order, arranged witli the 
ffreatest ffood taste in a series of rooms forininjr an L on 
the ]?a1)uino, and at five minutes' distance a succursal, \\liere 
could be seen an important gallery of antique statuary, and 
within an enclosure to jirotect it one of the grandest ancient 
mosaic pavements, in several colors, rivalling and su])eri(ir to 
most examples in the state museums of Italy, P'rance, Ger- 
nianA", and Austria. 



Though cosmopolitan in m)' habits and views, I have my 
pi'eferences for certain nationalities. With the turbaned Ori- 
entals tliere is at times a tone of indifference in their manner 
which renders it far less pleasurable to trade witli tliem: in- 
deed, often after coming ^\■ith some friend of theirs a great 
distance, I would have to coax the too serene Mussidiuan to 



flEXEBAL DEALERS. :U1 

display liis gems wlu'U lie did Inisiness in apartments, altliough 
all the time he was anxious to sell them. " He had them, yes," 
but "(■(•uldn'tl come some other dayf This is their policy ; 
they know my time is limited, that I have come from afar in 
search of these objects, and they intentionally force me into 
the ])osition of one greatly in need of their merchandise : and, 
thus i)laced, I have the option of buying at unreasonable prices 
or going without. It nuist be understood this is when seeking 
some special address given to me ; but, as is elsewhere re- 
inark(Ml, when s]iopi)ing in the bazaars and agents of these 
very men see me and solicit my patronage, then it is different: 
I am then in the desirable position. They are not so agreeable 
in these matters as are the French, the Italians, and men of 
Scandinavia, Finland, and Russia. 

The Persians, Tartars, and Indiamen with whom I have 
bartered in the galleries of the annual ftiir at Nijni-Novgorod 
are more enterprising, and always ready to come to terms if 
possible. I have, however, Ijeen convinced that these men 
are dealers only ; in fact, they are merchants, without the 
slightest love, or even idea, of the subjects engraved on the 
gems they have brought from afar, to sell like so many pounds 
of rare spices that should conunand a profit: that was their 
only thought. It is inferred, or one would suppose, that anv 
man avIio had travelled on foot and in saddle more than a 
thousand miles in company or in possession of fifteen or twenty 
interesting engraved gems would have some desire to make 
their acquaintance, or know something aboiit them, or feel 
some regret at parting with them, as would a Frenchman, an 
Italian, or a German. 

The fair at Nijni-Novgorod is held on a strip of land be- 
tween the Volga and the (Jka rivers. Much of my time was 



312 REMINISCENCES OF TRAVELS 

spent at the l)azaar at the g-overnor s liouse about the centre 
of the fair, where precious stones and curios from Bokhara 
and minerals from Sil)eria are exposed for sale, and I had 
some dealino's with a dignified and aoreeable Persian, Mirza 
Petros Khan, from whom I houj^ht several stones and one 
Persian seal. (See No. 500, Case D D.) 

Here also, when it was known that I was a buyer, roufj-h- 
bearded, fur-dressed, greasy, wild-looking men would follow 
me, and call me aside to turn oiit the curious antique contents 
of their deep dirtv jiantaloon pockets. I have a gem in my 
collection which, whenever I look at it, to this day wafts the 
odor of a greasy Tartar; and vet in my memory there is a 
friendly tie between me and the one who has sold me an 
interesting- gem. Sometimes, but rarely, he has been a man 
of feeling : once with pathos one said to the geni as he was 
handing it over to me, "Adieu, <dd friend; T regret the neces- 
sity which forces me to ])art with thee, and yet I reconcile 
myself with the thought that thou shalt be in such good 
company." 

My resoiirces have been many after yeai-s of travel, and 
by introductions from one to another a good list of acquaint- 
ances was formed in private families Avithin a circuit on the 
continent of Europe capable of l)eing -sisited oiu'e yearly. 
Venice was formerly a field rich in old families, from whom 
I have made many ]iurchases until little is left for acquisition. 
The same is true of most such resources throughout Italy. 
The plumed creature whose golden eggs I have so often 
gathered has not been destroyed; each year naturally dimin- 
ishes the sculptured supjdy. 

Among these acipiaintances Avere the families Lanzi, Ben- 



> 

c 






c 
c 




GENERAL DEALERS. 315 

civenga, Bessagio of Eome ; Zanetti of Venice ; Posenti of 
Fabriano ; Uabrielle, the did ballet-dancer of Naples; De 
Micliaelis of Turin ; and many others. 



Of one of these families, the Count of Zanetti of this gen- 
eration is my esteemed friend, from whom I have obtained 
many interesting" and valuable portions of his ancestors' treas- 
ures, although one hundred and tifty years have elapsed since 
they were collected by Antonio Maria Zanetti. 

Of this tamily the following- mention has been maile Ijv 
the Italian (uiistc Rosalba Carriera, so well known in France, 
in the " Jom'nal of lier Art- and (Vtnrt-life at Paris, 172U and 
1721," in Italian l)y Vianelli; she speaks frequently of Antonio 
Maria Zanetti, who Avas born in Venice February, 1680: "A 
scholarly writer, painter, and collector, an enthusiastic con- 
noisseur of g"ems, he formed a remarkable collection of cameos 
and intaglios, many of which are now in the Museum Correr 
at Venice." 

The house of Zanetti, a nuiseum of art, was in a measure 
a school for Rosalba, and there Zanetti received her with fra- 
ternal cordiality during many years of her youth. (Jrozat, be- 
.ing in Venice in 1715, persuaded Zanetti and Rosalba to come 
to Paris, promising them a reception of which their talents 
rendered tliem worthy, and holding out to them the induce- 
ment of viewing the wonderful pictures and other inestimable 
riches of tlie nmseums. Pelligrini, her brother-in-law, had also 
been called in 1719 to fresco the ceiling of the Bourse (the 
National Bank); })rotiting themselves by these circumstances, 
they passed on their tirst visit one )'ear in Paris ; Zanetti 
also visited London. 



316 EEMIXISCENCES OF TRAVELS. 

When Zanetti arrived in Paris the artists and principal 
amateui-s act-Drded liini a reception never to be forgotten ; he 
loved in after-life to reilect npon the testimonies of esteem 
which he had received from Crozat, and especially from Mari- 
etta, whom he always named his dearest of friends {a)>iinis 
(iilectissini/is). Zanetti was one of the few amatenrs honored 
Ijy Philip, duke of Orleans, the regent during the minority 
of Louis XY., Avho presented him with an elegantly bound 
copv of the edition Daphne et CJiloe, oniiunented with engrav- 
msrs made bv Audran from designs made bv the Prince of 
Orleans. Having a large fortune, he employed it in forming 
one of the richest cabinets that a private gentleman has ever 
owned in l^urope : his collection of engraved stones was de- 
scribed and publislied by Gori, Venice, 1758, hi folio, with 
eighty plates. A number of these yery gems are in my col- 
lection in Philadelphia, and the original leather cases lined 
with buckskin in which they were set for him. (See Nos. 
1348, 1349, 1350, 1351, Case :\1 M M M.) There are others 
of the same suite of Roman historical snl)jects identical in 
execution which had passed from Zanetti to another old 
family. T\venty-si.\ of them, in all, are now in my pos.ses- 
sion. He was, however, economical in all other expenses; 
during twenty-three years he kept at a great jjrice a nniti- 
lated gem, an Antinous ; it was of rare beauty. He said one 
day to Clement of Geneva, " If I could have found the other 
fragment and completed it, I would willingly have sold this 
house to possess it." Clement remarks: "The lionse was very 
handsome and connnodious : I remember it well, for I thought 
to die of cold there one day wlien he was showing me his 
cameos. During t\v(^) liours lie displayed them before me — 
this in the montli of .lauuar\- — and we were in a room with- 



GENERAL DEALERS. 317 

nut fire, as is the custom of the couutry. I said to Zanetti, 
'All tliese M'orks are very beautiful, liut I shall freeze in my 
admiration if you do not take j^ity on me ;' and what do vou 
think he did ? This is no caricature : he instructed a valet, 
who brought me some embers of wood-fire on a porcelain 
plate ; I felt like swallowing the coals. He Avas comfortable, 
warmed bv his enthusiasm." 

Writing to the Chevalier Gaburri at Florence (l-lth Octo- 
ber, 1730): 

"Your Lordship, the world is generally one half ready to 

sell, and the other to buy; and as one never knows to-day 

what may be oflered to-morrow, perhaps in these days there 

may come sales of cameos. I have put aside at this moment 

three thousand Roman ecus for this purpose, and pray you to 

notify me shoxdd any gems be oft'ered. Your Lordship jier- 

haps believes that the capital I have buried in my little 

museum exceeds my fortune, but having no wife nor chil- 

di-en, only nephews, I feel that I dare enjoy this incom])re- 

hensible pleasure. Je suis. 

"A. M. Zanetti." 

He terminated his long career, being still earnestly occu- 
pied in art pursuits, at about eighty -five years of age, \\lien 
he died, preserving his clear intellect initil the last breath. 



It is my pleasure here to add the name of C'ostantino 
Lanzi of Rome, "incisore," a man the most learned on the 
subject of engi-aved gems in Italy to-day, luuing traditional, 
theoretical, and practit'al knowledge of all that pertains to the 
art and to the profession. To him am I indeljted for the 
happiest and most profitable hours in the consideration and 



318 REMINISCENCES OF TRAVELS. 

study of this subject during many long- winters in the city 
of the Tiber. 

Tlie people of Poland are said to be oppressed : so have 
I been every time Ave have visited Warschan. l^hey are sure 
to divine a stranger's business, and if one is in a mood to 
accept advice at random, it abounds in the persons known in 
English as " touters." Yet these busybodies have served me 
to mv advantage at times. One amusing incident shall iind 
a place here. Having walked and visited various points in 
the city, always interesting, I turned my attention to gem- 
seeking, and in the Stare Miasto, the old town near the ruins 
of the ducal castle Massovia, mounted the stairs of several 
stories in a great tenement-house to visit an old acquaintance, 
a numismatist and collector of Scandinavian antiquities. Be- 
sides the objects belonging to his own subject and collection, 
he laid out before me a cameo in tunpioise measuring almost 
an inch and a half iu breadth, curious, almost to rudeness, in 
execution, Ijut very interesting in the details of its subject: he 
did not offer to sell it to me; in fact, when he knew that it 
pleased me he rendered my desire for its acquisition more keen 
by saying that the owner would not part with it unless several 
hundred roubles could l)e obtained for it. Would I make an 
(^fter ? This placing me in the Avrong position, 1 turneil to 
the investigation of other ol)jects. Several times during my 
visit he called in his valet to seek and hand to lis one case 
or another of strange coins, and thus closed our interview 
without n\\ having acquired the gem. A learned expert of 
the old book department of Hotel Di'ouot of Paris, for A^•hom 
I Avas seeking some wanting pages of illustrations for a book 
of his, on my reporting an offer made to me by Lacroix, 




3J 



GENERAL DEALERS. 321 

wrote on a slip of paper, "There is a time wlien demands 
reach a point at wliicli prudence warns us to wait :" with tliis 
maxim I waited. 

The same day, when passmg the bronze statue of Sigis- 
mund III. on the square of the royal castle, I noticed a man 
who had been ol)serving me closely for some time : he finallv 
beckoned to me, as I was then with my wife. On o-oino- to 
him he addressed me in the German language and made kno^^■n 
his business in a very straightforward story. He said: "You 
were this morning at the rooms of ]\Iikhailovsky ; von saw a 
turquoise gem; that stone does not belong to M. I have a 
friend who knows the owner; you .shall be conducted to this 
man, who in tiu-n will take you to the true possessor of that 
turquoise. My conditions are, that if ycni ])urchase the stone 
you will pay my friend three roubles for introducing vou." 
With little reflection I acquiesced ; the appointment was made 
for three p. m., and at a designated jjoint at the corner of the 
palace Pod-blakhon. After tinishing our drive about the city 
I repaired to my rendezvous, and with the man proceeded 
through some small streets to a busy square or place, Avhere 
he soon requested me to stop outside a (jemeinschdftUche eating- 
house. Determined to see my adventure through, I waited 
patiently ; the cause of the detention was afterward explained. 
In aljout twenty minutes he returned, and conducted me inside 
a busy restaurant thronged with hungry people, eating un- 
savory viands which wafted fumes of hot garlic into my 
unwilling mouth; another tive minutes' attendance, and he 
ushered me into the sanctum of the proprietress of the desired 
cameo. There she stood, veiled in clouds of steam which rose 
from the cooking which .she in liare arms was supei-intend- 
ing. Atter the necessary higgling and bartering, the turquoise 



21 



322 REMINISCENCES OF TRAVELS 

(havino- in tlie mean time been reclaimed and retnrned to its 
in-oprietress) was transferred to me: the dame avIio tlius parted 
with her inheritance, the agent, and your author were all sat- 
isfied. ;>[ikhailovsky's valet had informed his friend, and miTst 
have shared in the commission. The cameo, a curious old tur- 
quoise, is No. 330, Case T, and its subject, " Achilles parting 
with Deidameia and his son Neoptolemus." This turquoise has 
h ist its original bright blue color from age, as is the case with 
all in this collection. The arms and legs are cut entirely in 
relief; a straw can be passed under in several places. 

When the Grecian kings had decided to wage war against 
Trov, Agamemnon thought it important that Ulysses and 
Achilles should take part in the expedition. It Avas sus- 
pected that Achilles was concealed among the daughters of 
Lvcomedes: Palamedes was commissioned to seek out Acliil- 
les. Ulysses suggested a stratagem. He took a variety of 
ornaments for women and a shield and sword, and repaired 
as a peddler to the palace of the king of Scyros. A rare 
jewel attracted the attention of all the women except one, 
who examined closely the sword and shield. Suddenly Pal- 
amedes and his t-ompanions clashed their arms together, feign- 
ing an attack on the palace. All the women ran away, but 
Achilles, who had been attracted by the sword and shield, 
threw aside his disguise, seized tlu' anus, and assumed an 
attitude of defence. Having thus been discovered, Achilles, 
who lonoed for o-lor\', soon vielded to their entreaties and 
joined the princes. The cameo seems to represent Ulysses 
dragging awav Achilles, who takes leave of his son Neop- 
tolemus (who ten years later followed him to Troy) and of 
his beloved Deidameia, who blesses liim. The figures behind 
Deidameia seem to be her attendants. 




THE OLD-LADY ANTIQUARY AT KOSKILDE. 



GENERAL DEALERS. 32o 

^^laking- one of my ainiunl visits to an old dealer in his 
])nvate apartments in Copenhagen, he, having been advised 
of \n\ arrival in the city, among' other things displayed in 
his little mnseixm an intaglio in Egyptian jaspt-r \\\t\\ one 
of those strangely-drawn Christian fignres Avith large hands 
in till' attitnde of prayer, with two crosses ahove the head; 
on the back of the stone were two deep smooth caA-ities, 
into wliicli botli the parties, the giver and the receiver, had 
placed each a drop of their blood ; he who received and 
carried it in a ring had thus an amulet of friendship binding 
him ever in recollection of the giver. Another, a Greek 
cameo in inilpa di Fraucia ; the price demanded being exor- 
bitant, I concluded to wait. 

Two or three days after, on the Brede-Gade, I was ap- 
proached by Freijansen, a commissionnaire AA'honi I had at 
times employed to show me into the houses of private fami- 
lies having antique jewels and gems : he proposed nn- visiting 
a f\imilv he had found in another (piarter, and suggested if 
the distance would not deter me should we not go there 
together ? We took the rail, and were soon at Roskilde, 
the ancient cajjital of the kingdom of Denmark, where he 
conducted me to a quaint old house almost h'ing against 
the Cathedral of Roskilde, a short distance west of Copen- 
hagen. 

AVe were courteouslv received by an oltl lady, who, open- 
ing the descending door of an old family piece of furniture, 
a secretary in pear-wood, disclosed quite a collection of en- 
graved stones guarded in a number of large crx'stal glass 
tumblers peculiar to Denmark and Fiinen : after a few 
satisfactory selections the lady produced an old faded gi-een 
morocco case, and, lo ! the very gem I had seen the other 



326 



REMINISCENCES OF TRAVELS. 



day across the water was again l)ef()re me; tliis time, tlie 
price being reasonable, it was soon arranged ; the gem went 
into my pocket, and is now No. 157, Case J, its subject, "The 
grief of Achilles at the death of his friend Patroclus." 



.^^ 




INTERESTING INCIDENTS 



OF SUBJECTS OF 



ENGRAVED GEMS. 



\ 




INTERESTING INCIDENTS 



OF srUJECTS OF 



ENGRAVED GEMS. 



These engraved stones are not only attractive in tlie beauty 
of their execution and the comehness of the figures dehneated, 
but much pleasure is to be derived from the facts and romance 
discovered Ijy the research which interprets their meaning or 
exj^lains theiii. Thus, after hunting through folios of myth- 
ology or the anecdotes and metamorphoses of classical lore, 
often, Avhen at last finding my subject and recognizing its 
identity, I have been amused and rewarded by some enter- 
taining incident. 

These side pleasures in my branch of science are word- 
pictures ; they, like many gems in stone, may be interesting 
when laid beside one another. Witli this thousrht the followino- 
incidents are given. 



329 




^SCULAPIUS AJS^D TELESPHORUS. 

'TwixT the cradle and the sri'ave come many vicissitudes; 
few pass cliildhood without a pani;- ; youth and -voung- man- 
hood, though periods of vioor, are not exempt: there comes 
a time to every luuiian being when he needs that scientitic 
friend "the doctor" — not Doctor Daniel Dove, but one whose 
type we find so often graven on the ancient gems, -^sculapius, 
the learned and the loved physician. Tlie frequency of his 
symbolic eftigy proves how the profession was esteemed and 
his mythological services appreciated. 

From the ancients I have learned a happy thought : think 
me not vain ; it is given as niv own : 

^Esculapius, the })hysicia!i, came not alone ; he came when 
reasonably he could, hand in hand with hopeful Telesphorus, 
his yoimg and vigorous companion, the god of convalescence, 
in whose sanguine features were pictured trust, confidence, reli- 
ance — emotions in themselves happily inspiring the invalid 
with visions of restoration and of health. Men of tlie healiuir 

o 
3.30 



AESCULAPIUS AND TELESPHORUS. 331 

art, this is the lever <ift forg-otten, the remedy that slioukl be 
employed bv bringing the promise of Telesphorus to nerve the 
ailing one, to strike away the fevered chains, and through con- 
valescence come again to life and nsefulness. 

This eft'usion is prompted bv \n\ treasureil antique cameo. 
No. P)4, Case C, ^Esculapius and Telesphorus, worn and frac- 
tureil bv its long sojourn lieneatli the waters of the Tilier, 
whence it came into mv possession. Remark also the Greek 
cameo of Hippocrates with an inscription (see No. 10, Case A). 
On the obverse the portrait in high relief of Hippocrates, the 
celebi'ated ])hvsician of antiquitv, v.. c. 460, and on the reverse 
the emblem usually accompanying ^Eseulapius, the staff to 
which clings the serpent. This svndjol Avas employed because 
it was believed the serpent had the power of renovating 
itself. 




EDUCATION or BACCHUS. 

Supplying an article recently on schools for another pnh- 
lication, I recoonized the interest felt in this conntrv in that 
theme, and the importance of the subject was realized. Uf 
such instruction for the youny no examples have been found 
in glyptic art; yet one gem in my collection (Xo. 1"2'J1, Case 
B B B B) renders a faithful and amusing representation of a 
school under mythological tutors. The subject is the educa- 
tion of the "Infant Bacchus:" the cdllege-room a nook 
where nature cree})s witli vine and leaf and grass and ilow- 
ers ; benches and tables are ignored ; the youth's iirst book 
a bowl, and what he learns therefrom the flavor of the pun- 
p-ent wine, the same knoAvledge taught to him. as all his ances- 
tors had acquired it, in deep libations ; and of this lore there 
is reserve in skins near by, distended with then- charge of lib- 
eral grape-juice, waiting to add their force in his tuition. This 
system is a good one : tlie scion is not consigned to strange 
masters, to be kept in school beyond the liour or whipped or 
bullied on the bench by pensioned teachers. Paternal is his 
incloctrinatidH : liis mentor sits before liiiu on the sward, with 
loving hand su})ports tlie bowl, and guides his head that to 
his lips may come these first drops of learning ; he gives him 
juice of grapes newly pressed. (Bacchus found pleasure in 
crushing the wine-giving g-rapes, as he who draws the yellow 
gold from quartz.) The attendant mother and nymph with 
all their tenderness encourage the child in liis potations, and 
praise his assiduity, promising anon the l)roth which witli 

332 



EDUCATION OF BACCHUS. 335 

thoiig-litt'ul care tliey've made read}' in a basin on the 
tnrf. 

The spoon of large dimensions patiently awaits its turn to 
serve the prince, the heir-apparent to the king of all inebriates, 
more placidly than does the nrcliin his idaymate, who leans 
o'er the schoolmaster's shoulder smacking his lips and wishing 
he too could learn. 




STATUES OF THE NILE AND TIBER. 

There are several gems in my cabinet — the ^Eseulapius 
A\itli Telesplionxs, No. 34, Case C ; the water-worn Emperor's 
jxirtrait, formerly the property of General Bliicher, Xo. 113, 
Case G ; the beautiful fragment of Neptune, No. 56, Case D ; 
the large official Egyptian ring. No. 456, Case A A ; and the 
scpxare seal in In'onze found at Girgeli, No. 1097, Case Q Q Q 
— which have frequently drawn my thoughts to the colossal 
group of the Nile in the Vatican, and also the reclining statue 
of the Tiber. Do not think me audacious — this thought has 
often been mine : Could some one authorize me to model an 
addition to either of these masterpieces, I would append an 
attribute mithought of l)y the ancient sculptors who designed 
them, and that would be some representation of art-treasures, 
engi-aved and chiselled stones, which these great rivers have 
o-unrdcd tliroujjh centuries of vandalism in their hidden beds, 
washing them daily with cooling Hoods, and which happily 
are now and again rendered up to vis, a people truly appreciat- 
ing them, and receiving them not only as mementoes, but as 
precious tidings — messages from the masters of ancient art, 
who, alas! unlike their works, will not or cannot come to us 
again. These I feel to be attributes pertaining to these rivers, 
which liavc unwittingly stored so nnicli for us. 

Prof C. W. King of Cambridge University, England, writ- 
ing to me at Paris some years ago, concluded witli some lines 
in Latin, the sum of which was that in a litcrar}^ sense "the 
denizens of the Hudson and the Klioue are to-day drinking 

336 






i\t!i!' 

I [liiii 



0. 



,■11 ., . -.I'll ,-<ll ' ■ -, 




Wm 






STATUES OF THE XILE AXD TIBER. 



339 



together." (The reference is to his books being read in our 
new country and in the old.) 

To which add tliis thought of mine : Some of the ti-easures 
in my collection have been transported from their resting- 
places in the Nile and the Tiber to exist anew in this land 
of the Mississippi and the Delaware. 



-m 




ELEYEN THOUSAND VIRGINS. 



AVhex at Colop-ne viewing the Romanesque and Gothic 
iluircli of .St. Ursuhi, a commissionnaire of the town, aware 
of my pursuit, came to me and proposed he shoukl take me 
to see a collection of antiquities. "Agreed, when I have fin- 
ished with these bones," was my reply. The legend is tliat 
saintly Ursula set out with eleven thousand virgins to join 
the army of Maximus in Armorica. Taking the wnjng route, 
at Cologne they were set upon l»y tlie barbarian lluns and 
massacred. Here is the mausoleum of tliese virgins, eleven 
thousand, all full told, entombed or displaved in every sec- 
tion of this sacred place, beneath, around, above us, in cases, 
visible through dusty aged glass — some as they perished ; some, 
perhaps more virgin tlian the rest, are gilded and rest in cost- 
lier metallic cases. Turning from the weird scene, I joined 
the cicerone, ^^ho ^\•aited the while near bv, and as we started 
out, he said, ''You've had enougli of this; Til show you some- 
thing better now than bones." 

These guides do not take a stranger directly to the goal, lest 
he should too quickly learn the way : they lead and twist you 
round manv corners as they will. Tliis man conducted me by 
narrow wavs, not streets, in a directi(^)n I never since could 
find. 

However, we arrived at the musemn of an old Bavarian who 
had relics of the pencil and tlie chisel of one whose liones he 
in the ground of tlie cemetery of St. John at Nuremberg. My 
visit was employed in the inspection of etchings, carvings in 



340 



ELEVEN THOUSAND VIRGINS. 



343 



wood and bone, and basso-rilievos on stone. The purchase 
of No. 761, Case T T, the cameo of Raphael by Albrecht 
Diirer, signed b}' liini S 1514, completed the hour's pleasure. 
No, not quite, for now and then this Eaphael reminds me of 
those crooked lanes that brought me to its acquisition. Why 
rob this legend of its interest bv questioning if there was a 
virgin in this troupe whose name was Undecimilla ? 




CAELBERG GYPSIES. 



Ix the summer of 1875, wlit-n in the mirth uf Sweden, I 
was sti'olling one afternoon near the grounds of the royal 
palace at Carlberg. This group of buildings was originally 
erected by Karlson, a natural sdii df Charles IX.. early in the 
seventeenth century, but was brought to its present tine condi- 
tion by King Oscar, who that afternoon was entei-taining some 
guests. 

Tiring of ^^ewing the enjoyment of the royal part}- in the 
enclosed section of the palace-garden, a pleasure in which we 
could not further participate, we strayed through the jjark to 
the old round church Solna Kyrka, and thence followed a rap- 
idlv-running stream which flows through the forest into the 
Edsvick, until my attention was drawn to a curling column of 
smoke rising from a primitively arranged wood tire-place, with 
five black stones and as many crossed sticks, upon wliicli hung 
a great black pot : soon Ave came to the highway, near which, 
encamped against some moss-covered rocks just on the borders 
of a village near Ubuksdal, was a party of Cliingany, dark 
men of Zend, Himgarian gypsies: tliere were tifteen or 
eighteen in the band. For the moment the}- were not forag- 
ing nor pursuing any of their money-gaining avocations, but, 
in a picturesque group, listening to a story which was being 
related to them bv their vojvode or count, as the leader of 
gypsies is now generall}' known. All gypsies speak tolerably 
well man\- of tlie continental languages; in foct, they are 
linguists, their leaders speaking well five or six languages. 



344 



CARLBERG GYPSIES. 347 

Tliis count was speakino- German, so that I was enabled to 
reserve for my jom-nal some idea of his storv, whicli lie Avas 
telling as a falde is told, that its moi'al may serve as a prof- 
itable lesson. 

It appears tliat there had been some susioicion cast on the 
fraternity of having caused the sudden death of several sheep 
by sowing a dangerous drug in the pasture-field, witli a view 
to after-theft. His story was intended to warn the l)and lest 
they should get themselves expelled from the eountr\-. The 
following incidents are remembered of the count's narrative: 

Valankotf, a Caxu'asian, and o])ticiaii 1»\- j)rofes.sion, had 
distinguished liiniself 1)y jjreparing rare specimens of the 
Diatomacece and Desniid'ue for tlie microscope, and had thus 
access to many seats of learning in liis country, and princi- 
pally in the nortli, at ^loscow and St. Petersbiirg. 

One of the professors in Breslau, his adopted city, who 
had been in close intimacy with him, noticing that he had 
suddenly become melanclioly, determined to speak witli him 
on the subject: " Dear Valankoff, you seem troubled recently; 
you are not tlic same man — something must annoy you. Con- 
fide in me, my friend : ])erliaps I may comfort you." Val- 
ankofi' finally unbosomed himself; and this was 

VALANKOFF'S STORY. 
"Although by birth a Bagratide (^f Titlis in the Caucasus, 
the city of varied costumes of Asiatic character, 1 have spent 
much of jny life abroad. At the age of twenty-nine years, 
having nearly exhausted my resources for obtaining -new .speci- 
mens of the lower forms of life for microscopic sul)jects, and 
having tlie desire of travel. I quitted Tiflis and travelled 
through France, Ital\-, and finally Hungary, in search of in- 



348 INTERESTING INCIDENTS. 

finitesimal wonders, when, alas ! one da^', on a lone morass 
near Bazias on the Danube, while deeply engaged in reach- 
ing for material in the turljid water, I was captured and 
canned off by a band of gypsies, who, strange to say, became 
so interested in the wonders of niA' microscope that they spared 
my life. I used to take turbid drops of water, jjlace them on 
tlieir thumb-nails, and then, directing their thum1)s into the 
proper focus beneath the lenses, tell them to behold the living 
world they held. I would call them around me and exhibit 
vegetable fibres which to the naked eve were void of any 
special interest, yet when shown to them vmder the micro- 
scope seemed to be animal organizations with motions and 
life. 

" 'Thou art the prince of sorcerers,' said one of them, 'and 
shalt serve us with tliv science.' I could not escape, and, 
finding the romantic situation sufficiently to my taste, I de- 
cided to content myself until a more fiivorable opportunity 
should set me free. Months passed, and, having pleased them, 
they compelled me to become more fully one of them, which 
they accomplished by receiving me by due form and curious 
ceremony. After two vears they gave me as wife the beau- 
tiful daue'hter of tlieir head-man. After vears of wandering- 
life I was more tightly fettered, when they unanimously in- 
vested me with nil the autlioritv of count or leader of the 
band, and I saw startling adventures with them in many parts 
of the C'cmtinent, until, upon the death of my wife in Finland, 
I determined to escape, which I accomplished one night in 
August, 1837. Sailing out of Helsingfors on a trading vessel 
boimd for Dantzig, from thence I proceeded by stages to the 
village of ^Mochbern (^n the Wt'isthitz, within three miles of 
Breslau, which city 1 visited daily, and eventually resided 



CARLBERG GYPSIES. 351 

there, and by the renewal of my scientific i)iirsuits made 
many valuable friends among the professors of the university 
and other scientitic bodies, and, having- esteemed your friend- 
ship above all others, you shall now know why I appear so 
troubled. For some davs past I have noticed a company of 
gypsies encamped near the banks of the Oder, close to the 
village where I formerly resided. I have watched them, and 
fear that thev are about to ixillute the water in several wells 
within the city by casting dangerous drugs therein, in revenge 
for the manner in which they have been treated by the munici- 
pality of this city ; and my fears are confirmed, for last night, 
as 1 was strolling on the Rathhaus Platz near the Pillory, I 
saw two of them stealthily approach the great bronze drink- 
ing-fountain, Ijut, seeing they were observed, they slipped 
awa}'." 

In tine, Valankoff and his professor friend formed a com- 
mittee of vigilance. Several of the gypsies were caught in 
different cpiarters of the city, all having packages of some 
noxious drug ; two-thirds of the band were arrested and 
imprisoned. 

Havuig finished the story, the count or head-man added 
some serious counsel to the moral of the narrative, and be- 
sought them to maintain a better reputation, so that no such 
wickedness could be reasonably charged to any of his com- 
munity. The gypsies then proceeded to their various avoca- 
tions — the smith to the shoeing of horses, a number of which 
were Avaiting his attention ; the tinker to mend the villagers' 
pans ; and the foraging party set out to see \Ahat they might 
prey iipon. 

Two young men were phiv'ing on zithers for the comfort 
of the fortune-teller and sorceress, who sat in her wagon wait- 



3.52 INTERESTING INCIDENTS. 

ing for the credulous: slie was aided l)y lier daughter, an olive- 
complexioiu'd, 1 night-eyed, gaTi(lil}-(h'essed young woman of 
eighteen or nineteen years of aii'e, with silver rines iu her 
pierced ears, who was trying to entice some of the visitors 
to look, through her mother's eyes, into the mirror of fate or 
fortune. Knowing that the.se Hungarian gypsies frequently 
carry on the a^ttUirc of antiquary, I always yisit them, when 
possible, with the ho])e of making an acquisition ; so I man- 
aged to engage the attention of the damsel with pierced ears, 
and soon found she had quite a number of trinkets which she 
was willing to trade ; but on lier hand \\as an Etruscan ring 
which interested me, and I tried all in my power to buy it. 
We finally came to terms with one pro\ision, and that was if 
her mother the sorceress consented, which hap})ily for me she 
did. I counted out the ju-ice in kroner into her dirty hand, 
and received the ring, Avhich is now No. 531, Case F F, in my 
collection. 

Having accomplisheil this, we moved on, admiring the 
fruits and harvest-fields raised and cultured b)' the indus- 
trious Swedes. With my admiration came a thought of re- 
jxret that these dark men of Zend would fasten themselves 
like parasites on the district and its agricultural riches umil 
nothing more was within their reach; they then would re- 
commence their wanderings. 








< 



BELGIUM^S CONTRIBUTION^. 



Whex (lili,i;ently seeking specimens, at times tlie mention 
of some esjjeeially interesting gem has awakened a desire at 
least to see it; perhaps a drawing even is found; I enter on 
its pursuit, and tinall}', it may he in after years, suddenly, 
unexpectedly, it presents itself Many such instances can I 
record or rcmend^er. 

There was one French gentleman of my acquaintance who, 
known and honored liy his king, lived happily in France in 
the society of learned men, associates of the Academy of 
France; I had seen his small cabinet of stones, the inspec- 
tion and study of which as early as 1830 he had often en- 
joyed in the societ}- of Longperier and other savants of that 
time. Change came ; the monarchy fell ; Raubotin left his 
native land and found a refuge in the neutral kingdom of 
Belgium; it was my pleasure to find liim there; lie was aged, 
verffinsr on the close of life. I enioNcd tlie view of these 
rare stones, and, wliat was lietter for my coimtry, the inter- 
vieAV at an end, had induced him to part with a number of 
his collection ; they became mine. One I had years before 
sketched from an old l;)ook at Costantino Lanzi's at Rome, 
little thinking I should ever tind the original. It is a beau- 
tiful light sard, one and a quarter inches in breadth,^ repre- 
senting facetiou.sly two Genii — the Genius Astuzia, symbolic 
of knavery, and the Genius Ingenuita, symbolic of ingenu- 
ousness. 

'Xo. 1357, Case 00 00. 



355 



356 INTERESTING INCIDENTS. 

The Genius of Iiifjenuousness stands before his large bas- 
ket ]iea})ing full of oranges; he is startled b}- an apparition 
in the form of a bodiless head or mask as tall as he, the 1)eard 
toucliini;- the uround as it advances, of course concealing the 
Genius of Knavery: tlie mouth is open, and, instead of a 
tongue, a human arm and hand pmtrude and the liand i;-ath- 
ers the oranges. 

Also a charming antique camed' in the Avhite clinlcedonv- 
onyx, representing in the finest and most jninute execution 
"The propitiatory sacrifice preceding the departure of Ajax, 
Achilles, and Ulysses for the war of Ti-oy;" there are two 
sacerdotals — one in the act of pouring a libation, tlie other 
giving countenance to the ceremony h\ his presence. 

Also" one of tliose rare antiipie cameos in chalcedony- 
onyx with a tinge of sapphire, representing the vestal cus- 
todians of the Palladium. The Temple of Yesta, created by 
Numa Pompilius, was situated l)etween the Palatine and the 
Capitoline hills, not far from the temjde of the Penates ; there 
burned an eternal tire AAhich ^'esta had brought from Troy. 
The cameo gives a section of the portico of the temple ; the 
female figures represented are two A^estals seated, each bear- 
ing torches syndiolic of tlieir attendance on the altar wliere 
these virgin priestesses alternately guarde(l the perjietual hre. 
The Vestal on the riiiht presses to her breast the Palladium, 
the sacred image of ^linerva. This archaic effigv Mas taken 
by Diomedes from Troy ^ when that city was besieged; was 
carried thence to Lavinium, and afterward to Pome, where in 
this temple it was guarded by the Vestals, who with the })eople 
trusted that so long as they could safely hold it there, Rome 

' No. 1360, Case O O O O. » No. 282, Case Q. 

' See Interesting Incidents, Kome, page 395. 






Actual Size. 



BELGIUM'S CONTRIBUTION. 359 

was secvire. The male figure on the left is Jupiter Piste )r; 
the one on the right is probably Apollo, as he was believed 
to have been one of the Penates. 

Another is one of the most beautiful and interesting of all 
my treasures;' it is a cameo in maculated agate-onyx about 
one and an eighth inches broad representing "The Fall of 
Phaethon." A belt occupies the centre field of the gem, touch- 
ing the horizon ; ecliptic in form, for the line of the direction 
of the greater light-giving orb in its daily circuit indicates a 
course in that form. How often at sunrise or at evening have 
I imag-ined that the great orb was almost within my reach! 
The under or southern side of this belt is less lioldly indicated, 
giving the effect of roundness and of distance, while the upper 
northern section is given in higher relief. 

Throughout the belt are engraved the signs or characters 
of the Zodiac; these are exquisitely delineated. Among the 
sio-ns more easilv discerned are Taurus on the right, Aries, 
Pisces, Capriconms, Scorpio, Libra, Leo, and Gemini. In the 
upper field of the cameo are the planets, Boreas the nortli 
wind, and Jupiter with his eagle ; in the lower field is the 
river Po, the sea, the sisters, the poplars, and (Jygnus ; forming 
together the gem-illustration of the following legend: 

Phaethon, son of Helios'- and ( 'lymene, playing one day with 
Epaso, had a dispute. P.paso reproached Pluiethon, saying, 
"You are not the son of Helios, as you pretend." Phaethon, 
provoked, went to lami-nt with his mother Clymene, wdio coun- 
selled him to go to his father to inform himself more certainly. 
Phaethon entered into the palace of the Sun, and found his 
father seated on his throne brilliant with gold and gems. As 
soon as Apollo saw him enter and heard him, with benign 

' No 1309, Case O U O U. ^ Apollo. 



360 



INTERESTING INCIDENTS. 



countenance he swore to accord liini whatever mi(>-ht be his 
request, in evidence of his paternal affection. The presump- 
tuous son asked tliat he might be permitted to guide his father's 
chariot for tlie space of twent}--f( uir liours. Apollo remon- 
strated with him, but was powerless to dissuade him from 
his imprudent intention ; contrary to his better judgment, he 
finally consented and consigned his chariot to Pliaethon, after 
having instructed him in all that he shoidd do. Pliaethon had 
but begun his career on the horizon when the horses, becom- 
ing disobedient to the hand of their new condnctor, who was 
unable to check them, \^■ere soon unmanageable, and Pliaethon 
was thrown from tlie cliariot : he fell into the sea at the mouth 
of the river Po, and was drowned. 

The two sisters and Epaso grieved and wejit at his fatal 
misadventure ; their tears were changed into beads of amber ; 
the Heliadae, his sisters, who had aided him at his departure, 
wei'e metamorphosed into poplar trees, and his friend into a 
swan (Cygnus), Ijy \'\hich name he is known in the legend. 

All these incidents are engraved on the cameo, and are 
recognizable under a magnifving-glass. (See also antique 
paste intaglio, Xo. 11 'J2, Case V V V.) 





THE FALL OF PHAETHOX. 
(Ejilnrged.) 




ASTRAGALUS. 



Some years ago I left Rome late in the month of March : 
even in Venice and other northern Italian cities it was already 
too warm. AVe passed the j\Iont St. Gothard, and in a city 
mantled with snow I very unexpectedly met with several 
curious stones. One particularly comes into the category of 
gems that through tlie study and research necessary to unravel 
their history or meaning have led me into pleasant literary 
fields, where often, when seeking some special suhject, I found 
myself sun'ouuded by other interesting facts, and, engrossed 
l)v the recreation, was often suiiwised, when tlnough, to find 
tliat I liad gleaned from many sources sterling fiicts and fan- 
cies till then unknown. 

I never need ask, AYhat shall I read next ? I have hut to 
turn to any of a thousand gems and seek its historj" or sig- 
nificance with the assurance of being well rewarded. So this 
snowv dav in a mountain-town found me in possession of gem 
No. 948, Case H H H, a talismanic ring. I did not under- 
stand it wlien I fomid it : at first it appeared to be a seal 



303 



364 INTERESTING INCIDENTS. 

in four Semitic characters, perhaps Hebrew. Many a day I 
turned these tigures into every position, seeking every im- 
aginary form in hope of reveahng its secret, till, after seeing 
some urchins on the ground before a butcher-sliop jdaying 
a game with several small mutton-bones, I saw also the form 
of a bone on my seal, and, meeting Dr. Dresser, the learned 
archa?ologist, passing from the Roman Forum to the German 
College on the Capitoline Hill, where I was also going, I 
showed it to him, and he recognized the astragalus in four 
positions clearly detined. My pleasure can readily be imag- 
ined. I divined the whole fable of this talisman. 

The ancient possessor or he who designed it, ^\ith experi- 
ence in the primitive Roman game, had probably so reasoned 
with himself: "I hazard my money, one denarius after another, 
on the casting of this four-faced bone, with the risk that this 
or that face will turn u|) ; yet when I select for my venture 
the posterior face, lo ! the turn-up is the anterior, or vice versa. 
Now I make this good resolution : I'll have a talismanic stone, 
with a representation of the astragalus in its four positions, so 
that when the die is cast I shall have it however it may fall, 
and m"\' talisman shall keep me from further play." The game 
of alea or dice has often been considered the same as this, but 
the dice game was more complicated, four of the six-sided tali 
or tesserse being marked with spots, so that the sum of the 
numbers of sjiots on two opposite fiices always made seven, 
thus, ;;; and ; ; and •' — . 

But in the game used by the astragalizontes, as they were 
called, who played with the instep-bone, the chances were 
decided by the different faces as they presented themselves 
when thrown — the inferior or superior, the anterior or })os- 
terior, the only designation of the faces of the astragalus 




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O 
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PS 






ASTRAGALUS. 367 

being- its distinctive form in its various positions. A horn 
cup was sometimes used when this primitive game was played 
in tlie open air, but generally the two hands w^ere so adjusted 
together with tlie palms and fingers arched as to form a cavity 
in which the astragali were sliakeii and from which they were 
thrown. 



Would you see how it was done ?^ Turn with me your 
thoughts to Rome : do you know the Portico of Octavia, 
erected by Augustus and dedicated to his sister, wdiere a 
paved way passed over great gray flat stones to the Pescaria, 
the old marble-tabled fish-market ? Even so are the premises 
to-day : true, the pediment of the colonnade is crumbled, the 
ornate caps and several fluted colunms have gone to rest 
witli the multitude who daily thronged this market. Did you 
ever close your eyes in this nineteenth century to view more 
vividly some scene in ancient times ? I should like to show 
you one. Just on these very flat stones between the Portico 
and the Pescaria appeared daily one Demochares, a showman, 
trainer of animals, manager of a troupe of gladiators, and Avho 
had great numbers and varieties of beasts from all lands, which 
he kept as condemned criminals in living tombs. His profes- 
sion gave him already much excitement ; still, he Avanted recrea- 
tion ; his tents were in Trastevere, and for some hours each day 
he was glad to change the scene. His course led him over the 
Tiber by the Ponte Sisto, where he was usually joined bv Artos 
and Aristomenes. The trio sjTed their way to tlie Portico of 
Octavia, and, seating themselves in a corner against the flank- 
ing stones of its steps, in picturesque attitudes, as though posed 
for a tableau, they played astragalus. A diagram with five 

■ Romance by the author to ilhistrate tlie game. 



3G8 INTERESTING INCIDENTS. 

portions was drawn on the stones or gronnd, tViur tor tlie 
already mentiont'd positions, and one in case the astragalus 
fell on its end; the latter paid doulile and seldom occurred, 
whilst the other four paid even chances. The two or three 
seated there, with Deniochares ruling as banker, were not the 
only plavers ; in fact, they were seldom losers. In this case 
it was a preconcerted game for fleecing the passing idlers ; 
hence thev had selected this nook close upon such a well- 
trodden thoriuni'hfare, the lounyers from the cafes of the Thea- 
tre of Marcellus near hy, and those from the temples of Jupiter 
Stator and Juno, those en route for Trastevere ; and of the 
multitude repairing to the market a large proportion \vere 
sure to linger a while looking on at the game. To all of them 
was accorded the privilege of taking a I'isk with a few of their 
denarii, and thus almost daily this niinhle-tingered trio netted 
a considerable protit. The losses, divided among so many 
contributors, left few dissatisfied, and, as is well known, though 
the hazard was a losing one, it seemed only the more to impel 
the player to })ursue the phantom \\hich naively promises 
better another time. 

This talisman is mine. May we all profit by its salutary 
powers! In voutli ri.sk not the value of a single hair on chance; 
thou mayst want it in old age. 




« 



w 

D 



h" 

K 

w 

o 



FRANCE. 



Fkaxce lias vieldeil me sparingly of lit-r treasures. The 
oi-eat citv markets of the world are not the best sources whence 
such as we, can add unto our store: it is ratlicr in less-fre- 
quented paths, even to tliis day. tliat now and then one meets 
with objects of antique worrli Iiiddt-n and unappreciated. \et 
with the occasional dispersioir of household effects through 
change of fortune, age, or death these treasures ipiit their 
restina'-places to be disposed of l)eneath the soulless gavel of 
Hotel Drouot. Thus throu-li the saU- of the art-inheritances 
of an old fauiilv came to me the magniticeut antique cameo 
No. 127, Ca.se II. 

As the mass of religious pictures which hang upon the 
wall>. thougli not al\va\'s adorn, the countless sacred edifices 
throughout the Ea.steni world are expre.ssions of faith in the 
saints and martvrs there depicted, and are held up for men's 
reverence, so this cameo is one of those souxenirs ot the an- 
cient Eomans: it is tyjiical of the recognized religion whose 
earthlv entliroiienient was upon the Evantine and the Capi- 
toline hills. 'lliere are (counting the attendant birds) six 
figures on the gem; they are before the portico of the tem- 
ple huilt by Tarquinius on the Capitoline Ildl. Jupiter, king 
of Heaven, Protector of men — in fact, their heavenly Father 
— is represeuted as seated, thunderbolt in hand, symbidic of 
his power as Touans to connnand thunder and lightning au<l 
brino- them from the heavens at his will. He was also re- 
o-arded as the protector of both the internal and the foreign 
diplomacy of the state. Above his head the eagle, an imper- 



371 



372 INTERESTING INCIDENTS. 

sonation of liiinself. All birds were said to fly upon his 
errands. 

(_)u tlic left of tlic portico stands Juno, qneen of Heaven 
and patroness of women; she is attended by her favorite pea- 
cock. The conjugal rehition of Juno to Ju|)iter is indicated 
in this cameo — where she stands on the right — by her hand 
resting on Jupiter's shoukler. While her husband governed 
more particnlarlv the affairs of men and of state, Juno pre- 
sided especially over the domestic affairs of the household, 
in ^\lli(•ll naturally women were occupied. 

On the right of Jupiter stands his daughter Minerva, the 
third of the Capitoline divhiities, attended by her syndjolic 
bird, the owl, her messenger by night, ^\•ho with visage almost 
humiui looks wisely on the world. Miner^•a is represented with 
helmet and shield, because she ])rotected the military forces 
and was believed to send victory to those who sought her 
aright, and appointed fete-days for aged laborers and chil- 
dren. Not least among the lilessings of her earthly mis- 
sion were the hours of rest and diversion enjoyed by weary 
women and 1)v children freed on those occasions from all scho- 
lastic penalties. 

The partly-obliterated Greek inscription in raised letters 
announces them to be the sweet-loved principal gods. The 
ornamented cornice about the contour is characteristic of the 
gem-engraving of the age. Tlie cameo is Grajco-Romau. 



In the system of mythology there w;is a jierfect concep- 
tion of the primitive and fundamental princi2)les of legislation 
and government: the power was vested in a conJjined council 
of ruling divinities; all men looked to them, and in their super- 




o 

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a; 
c 



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FRANCE. 375 

stition were controlled l)y tliem ; emperors, senators, all states- 
men, leaders of the legions, all men-at-arms, consnlted their 
oracles and went to these gods in stone and bronze heseech- 
iny their protection and their blessing- ere they went to con- 
flict. j\Iaidens and women fell ]hA\>\\' their throne seeking 
their o-uidance and sn])p(>rt. It may therefore be reasonably 
snpposed that engraved gems of these proportions were more 
than sonvenirs: they ^^■ere loved images of the gods in whom 
these people trnsted, and on which they looked when imable 
to present themselves IjetVtre the great temple. 



From a like sonrce is No. 181, Case L, the cameo Canobns. 
Among the Egyptians, Canolnis or Canopns was \\orsliipped 
as the deity giving and controlling Immidity ; her blessings 
were bestowed by day throngh inundations of the great river, 
and by night from silent star-lit skies she gave copious showers 
of dew. It was not strange that men revered an element so 
potent and so accommodating. By day they tilled their iields, 
rearing the tender plants that sprung from latent seeds in fur- 
rows deep. Each daj-'s Avork o'er, on bended knees their 
evening prayers were raised to their Canobus; they fell to 
rest and sleep, and, waking with the rising day, tliey found 
each morn their answered jjrayers had given to all nature re- 
freshing dew, ripening and mellowing their lentils so quickly 
that thrice within each season they had i)lenteons crops to feed 
both man and beast and stc^-e away for times of need. 

Their jiriests, as they are wont to do, instructed the people 
to confide much of this praying to their care and to exalt the 
power of Canol)us, made images in terra-cotta like to the figure 
on ni)- cameo, filled them with water, and, stopping hidden 



376 INTERESTING INCIDENTS. 

apertures with wax, would call the peoph^ on Canobus's festal 
day to see her miraeidous power: a ([uickly-l)urnini>- tire of 
Avood was kindled; then the large effigv of Canobus was set 
upon the flames; the wax invisibly melting, the freed water 
com'sing through the Are extinguished it, ])roving to the peo- 
ple how great indeed was their Canobus. 



In the exquisite cameo No. IPioS, Case O O O O, Ariadne 
and Bacchiis, Ariadne is seated on the rooks of Dia, where 
Bacchus found her; at her feet is her panther. The male 
figure is Bacchus, bearing in his hand a thyrsus, his javelin 
with point in the form of a pine cone, his head wreathed with 
ivy and graj^e-leaves : his hand lovinglv jdaced on sad Ari- 
adne's shoulder, he is stimulated in his amour, \\hich is also 
indicated by the presence of Cupid. The animars skin and 
head Avhich drai)es his right arm is of the lascivious ram. 

Ariadne, here represented with a i)anther, emblematic of 
the princij)al and most important incident in her life, her love 
for Theseus, was the daughter of ^linos, king of Crete, and 
fell in love with Theseus when he went as one of the seven 
youths uhoni the Athenians were obliged to send every year, 
Avith seven maidens, to Crete to be devoured by the Minotaur. 
Ariadne ])rovided Theseus with a sword, with Avhich he slew 
tlic Minotaur, and witli a thread, which enal)led liiiu to find 
his Avay out of the lab\rint]i: and tlicv fled to the island ot 
Naxos (Dia), where Theseus, warnc(l }\\ a god in a dream, 
deserted her. IIapi)ilv, liacchus arrived opportunely from 
India: finding Ai-iadne in a state of grief and consternation, 
Avhich even added to her charming beauty, he quenched lier 
tears, consoled her, and made her his wife. 



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HILDA^S TOWEE. 



On a December afternoon in TJome, some years ago, the 
old church on a little piazza at tlie end of the Via Portoghesi, 
where stone angels are ever blowing their long trumpets, was 
the subject of a water-color drawing I had been painting; the 
lamp still burned in the glass-sheltered turret of "Hildas 
Tower." Already through the gray of declining day its rays 
of light penetrated an apartment whose entire front is open 
on the ground floor of a jioor shop, where, in portions of old 
Morgiana jars, were exposed for sale cast-otf fragments ot 
ornamental objects in bronze, glass, iron, and other metals in 
every conceivable variety and form. T had passed this bro- 
cantem-'s mine for years without e^■eu thinking of looking in ; 
but now I seemed impelled to enter, and, searching among 
the debris, was unexpectedly rewardcil, for deep in one of 
the cauldrons, that would have boiled had tilth and rust been 



379 



:!S0 



INTERESTING INCIDENTS. 



lire, I found a mass so encrusted ^\ itli ilirt and the tartar of 
ages that it was difficult to decide for a moment wliether it 
was some object carved in hone or really a stone such as I 
was seekins': hut, seeing that it was eno-raved in relief, and 
finding the price moderate, I carrieil it awav, an<l thus became 
possessed of a treasure, I'or after having it scoured it ])roved 
to lie an exquisitely Ijeautiful cameo of Jujiiter Serapis. It 
has since been admired by many connoisseurs : you have 
only to turn to No. 205, Case P, in my collection, and also 
enjov its beauty. 

I mav add that the late M. L. llirsch, the well-known Paris 
expert in all engraved A\-ork, was es2iecially impressed with the 
beautv of tliis cameo. 

This is another instance and proof of the fact that many 
interesting and beautiful specimens of anticjue geni-engraving 
liave been misplaced, lost, or overlooked, and we mav still 
hope to add to our possessions, not onlv from such uncomelv 
sources as the old ^Torgiana jar, but also fi-om the ruins of 
many forgotten cities which shall yet yield us their valualile 
quotas. 

The nmscunis of America may well make readv places to 
receive and store the treasures that assuredly will come from 
the dust of liviione centuries. 




ABRAXAS IN CONTRAST AVITH CHRIS- 
TIANITY. 



How touchingly simple were the representations of Christ 
as they were given to the early believers during the first tln-ee 
centuries alter his manitestation and sojourn on earth! Men's 
hearts were turned to liini through gena-pictures of the manger- 
cradled child Redeemer and of the sovereign Mediator on the 
cross — revered as the Son of God in his condescension, as the 
Son of man in his suft'erings. Yet in tliose very times the 
large sect of the Ahraxas, to whom he also was revealed, 
carried to their hearts in blind belief talismans bearing the 
image of their god, /.(^f7 — a pantheus with human trunk, eagle's 
head, and members symbolic of the foiu- elements ; the serpent 
also and the threatening scourge, as in the anmlet No. 573, 
Case H H. In one is illustrated the simplicity of truth and 
divinity, in contrast with the absurd complexity of error and 
superstition. 




3S1 




CAMPAGKA AIsD OIL-DEALER. 



We liless tlie various cliine.s that send lis luscious fruits 
\\h\i aroiiiatir iiiuns and u'euerous wiues ; so tui'U we now to 
tillers of the izround, who reap in many a hi-ld tlie ancient 
liarvests sown li\" artisans who decked themselves and all 
mankind with unneii stones. And tliese for years I found 
awaiting- me witli onu who dealt in country j)i'oduce and 
olive oils in an Italian cit\' 1)V the sea. 

Lln'ouj^'li ^■ears of trading' with the ri/ldJil' lie liad amassed 
these treasures in stone and antique paste. For potent gold 
he passed to my jjossession the fair gems Avhich these good 
people were ever tinding as thev ploughed the ground, little 
dreaming they were luiearthing this harvest for the Western 
World. 

]\Iy old friend, after our acquaintance had ripened witli 
years, became very liberal with me : if these j^easants came 
in when I was tliere he would kindly say, " Signor, look to 

' Peasants. 
382 



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CA3IPAGXA AXn OIL-DEALER. 387 

them; see if auything is there for you;" and, having once 
learned this medium of acquisition — never satisfied, " always 
to be blest" — I sought these villani on their way to market, 
within the city-gates near the Roman Forum and the Temple 
of Vesta, at the Campo du' Fiori, and by tlie tish-market, 
where often on a Wednesday, and always on Sunday, they 
congregated; then beyond the Avails at the hostelries just 
outside of Eome. They always had something antique stored 
away in pocket or in sack ; it was no offence to stop them 
and ask what antiquities had last been found. Not yet con- 
tent, I then strayed into the Campagna and sought them in 
their homes : the occupants of these poor tenements have con- 
tributed gems of historical value tliat now stand peerless in 
many a museum. I walked the country over, ever increas- 
ing my circuit, extending my investigations, finding the peo- 
ple always ready to respond and show me Avhat they had 
gathered. 

One familv related how they had found certain objects 
below the surface of a field which they were ridding of its 
deeply-grounded roots and aged trunks of olive trees, whose 
mvriad circling lines of demarcation declared the cycles they 
had o-rown and clung to earth. In extracting the nethermost 
roots of one tree that had stood there seven hundred years 
(De Candolle records one exceeding twenty-three feet in girth, 
the age being supposed to amount to seven centuries), they 
came upon some slabs or terra-cotta tiles laid carefully to- 
gether, forming a subterranean trough or chest; the upper 
tiles were carefully removed, exposing within the vault, among 
bones and ashes, several vessels in earthenware on which were 
drawn, in black, rude mythological figures ; a vase and mirror 
in bronze; bowls in glass now iridescent; and several rings 



388 INTERESTING INCIDENTS. 

of bronze and iron with gems of jjaste and sard imbedded 
in their rust and patina.' 

I held in n\\ liand one In'oken brick, whicli at its fracture 
disclosed an imprisoned piece of bronze: by breaking with 
care the liard tei'ra-cotta I removed therefrom a common ring 
Avith graven intaglio. It Avas probabl}' lost from the hand of 
the ancient moulder as he formed the mass, and thus unob- 
served it Avent into the kiln to be locked aAvay by tire until 
the daA' I brought it again to lioht. Thus I turned each 
faiTOAV, hunted in every crevice, looked beneath each clod, 
finding more pleasure than had it been a search for gold. 
And once it Avas niA' good fortune to i)ass a field, I had often 
crossed before, north of the Appian Way, Avhen an excavation 
Avas just commenced : I lingered there that day, and on the 
morroAv folloAved the Avork until the laborers exposed to vieAv 
a chiselled marble tomb, Avith protecting canopy intact, sup- 
ported by six small marble columns fluted and twisted in 
their form. 

The subjects of some of tlie fruits of these expeditions 
give the foUoAving incidents and legends : 

No. 858, Case B B B, an intaglio in sard, Oedipus and the 
Sphinx, ffidipus Avas the son of Laius of Thebes. An oracle 
had informed Laius that should he liaA'e a son, his fate Avoidd 
be to perish In' the hands of that son. Tlierefore, Avhen 
G^dipus was born his father pierced and tied his feet together, 
and left him exjjosed on Mount Cithasron ; the shepherd Avho 
found and released him named him ffidipus, on account of 
his sAvollen feet. When ffidipus attained young manhood, 
his attention Avas draAvn to the Sphinx Avhich came to his 

' See the remarks of M. Edmond Le Blaut before the Academy of Inscriptions, Paris, 
on m_v pursuit of these excavations. 






> 

O 
S 




CAMPAGXA AXD OIL-DEALER. 391 

country. TIk' Sphinx, which had a woman's head and the 
boclv of a' lioness, sat daily on a rock and gave riddles to 
the passers-by, and when they failed to guess cori'ectly she 
fell upon them and slew them. The Thebans liad ijroclaimed 
that w'hoever should deliver the country of this scourge should 
be made king. When <Edipus approaclied the Sphinx she 
gave this riddle: "A being which at times has four feet, two 
feet, and three feet, and only one voice : when it has mo.st 
feet it is weakest." Qi^dipus solved tlie riddle, saying, "It 
was man : in infancy upon all fours, in manhood erect upon 
two feet, and in old age supports his tottering two with a 
staff for the tliird." The Sphinx, enraged at the solution of 
the riddle, cast herself from the rock upon Qlldipus, but he 
slew the Sphinx and dbtaineil the kingdom of Thebes. 

No. 864, Case B B B, an intaglio in onyx, represents Ar- 
temisia, wife of Mausolus, king of ('aria, Asia Minor, with 
the cinders of her husband in a vase of gold. Artemisia's 
love for her husband was fervent, and her grief at his death 
was intense ; she caused a tomb to be erected for his ashes 
in the city of Halicarnassus, and called it Mausoleo, and from 
this fact is derived our word mausoleum. 

No. 11(36, Case U U U, an antique paste intaglio, Polynices, 
son of (Edi})us and Jocasta. After his father's banishment from 
Thebes, he assumed the government with his In-other l^teocles: 
they could not live hapi)ily sharing the power, and, ratlier 
than so continue, they agreed on one jjoint, and that was to 
meet in mortal combat, the victor to i-eign alone : alas ! they 
both fell fatally wounded. 

Xo. 11 90, Case V \' V, an antique paste intaglio, represent- 
ing Othryades, a Si)artan, who was sent with two hundred and 
ninety-nine others to I'ondjat \\ itli a like number ot the Argives. 



392 INTERESTING INCIDENTS. 

The strng-gle was for the possession of the throne and country 
of Thvrea ; his companions all perished. Othryades was also 
left for dead upon the gi'ound ; l)y lying close to earth until 
the enemy had left the held he alone escaped of all his host. 

No. 1229, Case XXX, an antique paste intaglio, Ulysses 
and Menelaus. Their mission to Troy was to influence the 
Trojans to release Helen and restore her treasures. 

No. 1236, Case XXX, an antique paste intaglio, represent- 
ing Orestes and his sister Electra, Electra had saved his life 
when his father Ag-amenuion was massacred bv ^Egisthus and 
Clytsemnestra. 

No. 1239, Case Y Y Y, an antique paste intaglio, represent- 
ing Victory : the wings of Victory are clipped ; the sentiment 
was, "Having Victory, let us thus keep her ever with us." 




ROME. 

Whex the she-wolf ceased to iKnirish and sheUer Romuhis 
and Remus, she was not asked to the great ceremony which 
followed quickly on that traditional guardianship. Nor has 
history given us tlie names of the aborigines who christened 
the embryo mistress of the world, Rome. 

Rome, within thy classic walls, amidst thv ruins, in thy 
rich remains, and with thv people, have I learned of gem- 
engraving many winters, and bright spots in my glyptic cab- 
inet ai'e set ^^ ith ]>recious gems whose subjects yield incidents 
unparalleled in interest. From antiquaries, priests, scholars, 
merchants, and peasantry I have gathered my fund of ro- 
mance. The following are a few of the paragraphs describing 
some of my harvest gleaned in that city : 

No. 848, Case A A A, an intaglio on onyx, ^neas escap- 
ing from burning Troy, carrying his lather Anchises on his 
shoulders, followed by the youth Ascanius his son. 

Xo. 870, Case C C C, an intaglio on sardonyx. This archaic 
intaglio, with Xo. 933, Case G Gr Gr, is one of the most curious 
and interesting not only of my collection, but of all intaglios 
ever found. It gives us the tradition of the namino- of the 
days of the week and portrays the gods of the seven days, 
to be understood as follows — more easil}' explained in French 
for evident reasons. Observing the impression. 

The first day at the left is Tp, Saturnus, Samedi — Saturday. 

The second and next figure is 3, Helios or Solis, Dimanche 
— Sunday. 

393 



394 INTERESTING INCIDENTS. 

The third and next Hgure is L, Lnna, Liindi — Monday. 

The fourtli and next tigure is M, ^lars, Mardi — Tuesday. 

The tifth and next tig'ure is M, Meirurius, Mercredi — Wed- 
nesday. 

The sixth and next figure is I, Jove or Jupiter, Jeitdi — 
Thursday. 

The seventli and next figure is V, Venus, Vcndrcdi — Friday. 

AVhere this tradition has been found in bronze or iron or 
gold it is often accompanied by an eighth figure, Tvxr;, Tuke (or 
Bonus Eventus), the day of good fortune. (See also No. 933, 
Case GGG.) 

I desire here to record kind attentions always received from 
Baron de Witfe and ]\[onsieur Victor Duruy, Minister of Pub- 
lic Instruction under the Empire, both members of ITnstitut 
de France, and the great surprise and pleasure e\"inced l)v 
them on viewing this stone in my possession. Thev have 
both published brochures on the subject, and declare these 
two gems to be miique. I have ceded to M. Duruy impres- 
sions frojn them, and he has described them in his History of 
Boman Antiquities. (See his letter page 449.) 

Xo. iS94, Case I) 1) I), an intaglio on amethyst, the Centaur 
Nessus carrying ofi" Deianira, ^vife of Ilercides, across the river 
Evenus : he was shot with an arrow poisoned with the Ijile of 
the Lernean Hydra. The Cupids are accessories, being sym- 
bolical of the Centaur's love. 

Xo. 900, Case E E E, an intaglio ring on sard, Hieronymus, 
after his first conqnest of Thebes, arriving with an animal for 
saci'ifice in honor of his success, as evinced l)v the trophies 
which are dis])layed. The altar is seen on the left, decorated 
with a garland. 

Xo. 912, Case E E E, an intaglio ring on sard, Hercules 



ROME. 395 

fio-htino- the Leraean Hvdra, the second of the twelve labors 
of Hercules. This monster ravaged the country of Lemse 
near Argos, and dwelt in a swamp near the well of Amymone : 
it \\ as formidable on account of its nine heads, the middle one 
of wliich was innnortal. Hercules cut off its heads with a club 
or a sickle, but in the place of each head he cut off two new 
ones grew tbrth each time, and a gigantic crab came to the 
assistance of the Hydra and wounded Hercules ; however, 
with the assistance of his faithful servant lolaus, he bmmed 
awav the heads of the Hydra, and buried the ninth or im- 
mortal one under a huge rock. Having thus conquered the 
monster, he poisoned his arrows with its bile, whence the 
wounds inflicted l)y them became incurable. 

Xo. 947, Case H H H, an intaglio on sard set in a ring, 
Diomedes stepping over the I'amparts of Troy in the act of 
carrving off the effigy of ilinerva. (See also No. 922, Case 
F F F.) 

When Diomedes arrived in the arx of Troy by a subter- 
raneous passage, he, with Odysseus, slew the guards and car- 
ried away the Palladium (the effigy of Minerva), as it was 
believed that Dium (Troy) could not be taken so long as the 
Palladium was within its Avails. 

When during the night the two heroes were returning to 
camp with their ])recious booty, Diomedes saw l)y his shadow 
that Odvsseus, who was walking- behind him, was drawing his 
sword to kill liini and thus secure to himself alone the honor of 
having taken the Palladium. Diomedes turned round, seized the 
sword of Odysseus, tied his hands, and thus drove him along 
before him into camp. This intaglio is also carefully engraved, 
giving the difficult full-front face very finely. 

No. 915, Case F F F, an intaglio ring on onyx, the seal of 



396 INTERESTING INCIDENTS. 

a liberated slave, is. c. 200. Philogenis was the slave of Lucius 
Ennius ; A\lien enfranchised by his master he was not only 
permitted to ])ossess a seal, but fi-mn the inscription thereon, 
PILOD. ENNI. Tv. L., we learn tliat he also combined part of 
his master's name witli his own, and this, his seal, reads, 
"Ennius Philogenis liberateil l)y his master, Lucius Ennius." 
It was written Pilogene in the archaic form. 

As this seal has been studied bv three of the most learned 
glyptic authorities of France, Germany, and Italy, I have 
thoiight it interesting to produce fac-similes of their autograph 
interpretations : 

PlJLOD ' E^Aff 'L^l: 



^ 



^^^ U°Co 



/ . 




4^ 



U^ S*C^e^^^ , 



PILCDENNI L L 







ROME. 3!17 

EMM I LLPILOD- 

Monsieur Adrien Longperier, of the Academie des Inscrip- 
tions de rinstitut de France at Paris, is deceased. 

Herr Doctor H. Dresser was of the Archpeological Insti- 
tute of Germany at Rome — is now recalled to the Miiseum 
at Berlin. 

II Commendatori Giovanni Battista de Rossi is well known 
by his archaeological researches in the antiquities of the Chris- 
tians at Rome. 

No. 203, Case M, a cameo on paragon. This interesting 
cameo, ha^■ing ten tigures, counting the birds, etc., has baffled 
many connoisseurs in their efforts to interpret its legend. The 
subject is mythological, and the following explanation (my 
own) is offered : 

The conception of this curious composition represents a 
group of m}thological characters associated with the amours 
and pleasures to which Jupiter abandoned himself after the pro- 
longed labor of having combated and conquered the Giants. 

Jupiter and Juno hold festival ; Jupiter, king of Heaven, , 
sits complacently in Paradise enthroned by clouds ; beside him 
the peacock, Juno's vain companion and symbol, spreads wide 
a canopy with his luxurious plumage. " This is a day," says 
the peacock, "to see and to be seen." On the left floats in air 
Ganymedes borne by his winged friend. 



398 



INTERESTING INCIDENTS. 



Ul)iqiiitoiis Jove, witli his >*e'f(iiid eagle self already on earth, 
chases tlie fair Antiope, wlio l)y her giant strides evinces that 
she would fain elude his grasp ; Danae, on the left, also hastens 
her pace, having- opportunely espied the fruit and flowers be- 
yond, being enriclied by tlie golden rain, l)v whicli transfor- 
mation Jupiter liad already ensnared her. On the right virgin 
Diana, di'eading the sight of men, fresh from the Aventine, ac- 
coutred for the chase, advances in a grove of trees, followed 
by Fauna Fatua, her second self; they approach Iris, \\ho, 
looking to the skies, wafts to the symbol of her mistress, the 
queenly Juno, salutations announcing the strife she has en- 
kindled here on earth. The laro-e eag'le l)elow is to indicate 
tlie presence of Jupiter. 





LUCIUS. 



On returnino- from the expedition in I\Iorocco, I determined 
to seek some interpretation of the subject of my principal 
acquisition, the intagho ring No. 923, Case F F F, and as an 
instance of the interesting resources afforded by tlie study ot 
gems will give its subject description here. Connoisseurs had 
frequently, on examining tliis stone, suggested that it was King 
Midas. I never was satisfied with this as its subject, on ac- 

399 



400 INTERESTING INCIDENTS. 

count of the hoofs on the ass, whereas Midas had liiiman feet 
and hands. I tlierefore sought my gem in antique books, 
when, finally meeting with Apuleius's romance, in Latin with 
French notes, of the metamorphosis of Lucius, was assm-ed 
that my gem was Lucius the Golden Ass and the t\\o broth- 
ers, servants of Thyasus of Corinth. A scene in the his- 
tory of Lucius is represented on this intaglio. The following, 
in my own language, is a concise narrative of the incidents 
pertaining to this subject, from recollections of its perusal in 
extenso some years ago in the Bibliotheque Nationale at Paris, 
including only his adventures during the time he was meta- 
morphosed into the ass : 

Lucius was born at Hymet on the isthmus of Corinth, 
and early sought a finished education in travel : he mentioned 
once walking for companionship with a man who had just left 
Socrates in a miserable plight, and described the philosopher as 
pale, thin, but defiant, clothed only in a poor mantle all tattered, 
having been robbed. Socrates had also left home and friends, 
and was mourned by his fjimily as dead. We will pass unno- 
ticed Lucius's many adventures and metamorphoses, until we find 
him a guest in the chateau of Milon at Nipote, in the company 
of Fotis, of \Ahom he was then enamoured. (Jne night Fotis, 
fastening the door, said, " Dear Lucius, I live in a house of 
nameless secrets, and I shall toll thee about my mistress Pam- 
phile, but I conjure thee to guard in eternal silence the secrets 
I am aboiit to reveal. My mistress Pamphile loves j^assion- 
ately young Beotien, and that she ma}' fiy to him she has 
prepared oils and powders and pomades ; at dusk this even- 
ing, by the application of these unguents, she will be trans- 
formed into a bii'd and will fly." 

At evening Fotis led Lucius, according to promise, to an 



LUCIUS. 401 

apartment adjoin inn- tluit of Pamphile, and afttT tlie laving 
on of tlic marvellous pomades, at first Pampliile'.s tender body 
was coated with down: she was evideiitlv chauH'inir : soon 
feathers richl\- <k'ekt'd the now tiedg-ed bii'd, whose arms he- 
came wings, and after a few moments' trial of licr force Pam- 
phile rose in air, tlew from her chamber, and sped her wav 
to her loved young Beotien. 

Lucius in grand astonishment could not for a moment 
realize what he had seen, yet as suddenly he was seized with 
a desire also to be so transformed, that he might extend his 
travels into the realms of space. Lucius seized the hands of 
Fotis, saying, " I supplicate thee; accord me for an instant a 
striking and precious proof of tin- love: give me of that 
pomade, that I may become one of thy most faithful slaves, 
and. Cupid-winged, I may fly beside my Venus." 

Lucius loved Fotis : he desired to be metamorphosed into 
a bird as powerful as the eagle, that he might become the 
fidelle messenger of Jupiter and fly throughout the grand 
expanse of the heavens, and thus l>e free to seek his Fotis: 
he would then Ijind himself in the long tresses of his Fotis, 
those bands of silken hair which ^^■ould enchain his existence. 
Upon reflection he said, " Tell me, what would I have to do 
to become again myself, again Lucius ?" 

"Be tranquil," rejilied Fotis; "my mistress has sho-\Mi me 
all her receipts for metamorphoses and for return to human 
form.'" Saying these woi-ds. she penetrated into the interior 
apartments, and, taking from a cofter a box, she handed it to 
Lucius : he covered it with kisses and raised his sincere prayers 
to Heaven that he might find this tndy happv favor to be 
able to soar in the air. He quickly disemban-assed himself 
of his clothing and eagerly plunged his haml into the box, 



402 INTERESTING INCIDENTS. 

took ;is iiincli of tlie pomade as lie could, ;nid fell to rubbing 
all liis l)()d\- and swiiiuini;- alternately his arms, seeking to imi- 
tate the motions of a bird. No down appeared, neither did 
feathers form, bnt the hair on his l)od\- stiffened and his skin 
became as leather, horribly hard; at the place of feet and 
hands hoofs were Ibrnied; there came behind a long tail ; his 
visage changed: his mouth and nostrils enlarged, his lips hang- 
ing, his ears crossed an<l stood out in a manner extraordinarv, 
and he had no arms with which to hold Fotis. He was soon 
■without hope: he had not become a bird; he was changed 
into an ass. As for Fotis, he could onl\- regard her with side- 
gl'auces from eves moist witli tears, and with his lower lip 
address a mute prayer silently asking her aid. When Fotis 
saw him in this condition lier face was struck with a look 
of despair. " I'nfortunate !" cried she: "lam lost! In my 
trouble and in my hurry I did not take care to observe the 
boxes, and their similarity deceived riie. But, dear Lucius, 
happily the remedy for this transformation is so simple: when 
onl\- thoii hast cheweil some I'oses thou wilt (piit this figure 
of an ass, and uw <lear Lm-ius will be restored anew to me. 
Oh, wliv did 1 not last evening, as is my habit, prepare some 
garlands? Thou wouldst then not have had to pass even this 
night in this uncomely form. lint \\itli the break of day 
to-morrow I will hasten and return to save tliee." Luciiis, 
thougli changed into a handsome and g'ood ass, still retained 
hmnan reason : after serioiis reflection he thought he might 
be revenged bv using his hoofs, but after second thought he 
])rndentl\' aliandoneil this determination, and, obeying the triste 
necessity of this adventure, he went to the stable and took his 
]dace beside his own honest lajrse and another ass. Lucius 
expected to be well and kindly received, but his horse and 



LUCIUS. 403 

the other ass, after looking;- at him with jeah»us regavd, coii- 
ferre*! witli (Uic another and tell n|Hin liini, kicking him turi- 
ouslv and driving him a\\a\' from the barley wldch he had 
placed there with his own hands tiie evenmg before for these 
monsters of ingratitude. Lucius tlien discovered in a uiche 
on tlie pillar which supported the roof of the stable a figure 
of a Deess plentifully decorated with garlands of fresh roses. 
He approached them, reinenibering their virtue, but the at- 
tendant beat him off with a stick: an instant after, brigands 
having rolilied the house of all its valuables, came and led 
out Lucius and the other animals and loaded the boot}- on 
their backs, and h\ force oi blows caused them to take the 
grand route mitil thev entered a solitary gorge. So he 
marched the uiglit, thinking how he might be relieved from 
so much misery. 

Not to leave our Lucius for ever in your recollections so 
hea^•il^' burdened, we will follow^ him through his trials and 
adventures. 

His own ass soon feigned fatigue, and, staggering near a 
ditch, fell down apparently exhausted and dying-. The bri- 
gands attacked him with blows with their batons; this onl}- 
caused him to raise his ears; so they left him to die and 
transferred his biu'den to the backs of Lucius and the horse. 
Twenty-four hours later thev arrived at the hidden grotto of 
the robbers ; bv evening two other parties of the same honor- 
able confederation arrived: a repast, music, and narrative made 
merry the hours of repose. A fair maiden, Carite, Avhom they 
had abducted on the eve of her marriage with Leonardo, was 
ffiven to the custodv of a faithful old woman, who })\ liei- 
maternal presence and care, gave to this robbers' den an at- 
mosphere of home. (Can there be a happ)' menwji: without 



404 INTERESTING INCIDENTS. 

a \v()iiKiii ?) To ciiliii tlic siirt'criiiiis of tlic niaidcii and to 
assiiaoc licr L;ri<'t tlic <il(l woman tried to interest lier liv the 
reeital of a tluillini:- rouiauce ut' a kinj^- and queen of a certain 
great city wlio liad three dangliters, all very beautiful: though 
the elder two possessed indisputable charms, the beauty of the 
younger one was so marvellous that human elo(pience failed 
to find terms ade([uately to express the admiration which was 
felt l)y all who saw her. The interest of her story lay in the 
fact that the younger daughter was first married, and that 
mysteriously, her noble lord ])lacing her in a magnificent 
palace within beautiful gardens, loading her with every 
luxury, but wishing her not to know his face nor to see 
her sisters. 

niie sisters did eventually Hud her out, and h\ degrees 
drew her into society, the wicked world, and sin, until her 
palace halls and flowered groves and gardens, with her hus- 
band's tender love, all were lost. 

This is a fable, and, l)elieving it may prove interesting, I 
have made the following very condensed translation of the 
moral : The certain city was the ^^ hole world : the king repi'e- 
sents God ; the queen, Matter ; the daughters, Flesh, Liberty, 
and the Soul. 

The youngest and most beautiful was named Ps^'che, which 
with Greeks signified the soul. She Avas more beautiful than 
the other sisters, because the Soul is superior to Liberty, and 
more noble than the Flesh. Psyche turned the hearts of men 
from near and far: the altars of Venus were neglected, her 
statues were no longer decorated with flowers. 

Venus could not brook this state of affairs; she was envi- 
ous of Psyche, and planned revenge. The younger sister's 
mysterious bridegroom, was Cupido, sent by Venus to break 



LUCIUS. 405 

the cliarin of Psvfhe bv eiirliainiiiL;' licr witli love. ( 'iijiiilo 
did not make known his identity to liis liride, lint tan<ilit her 
to estrange herself from her sisters, wliose (U^sires to visit 
her were onlv proin[)ted Ijy envy: Imt Psyc-he disregarded 
Ciipido's connsel, and, vain of the s|)h-n(h)rs of licr jialatial 
possessions, she received them, and soon, animated Ijy their 
dano-erous counsels, she wandered from virtue's refuge; the 
lamp of puritv, no long-er trinnued, burned with flickering 
flame that kindled a dangerous Are within her being, which 
stealthily eonsumeil her innocence and peace. Yet when the 
flames, ever augmenting, threatened all to wreck, still, im- 
pelled b\- her envious sisters, she sought with increasing- 
ardor those pleasures whicli eventually left only embers 
where all had lieen jjnrity and Virightness and lovely woman- 
hood. Nothing was spared to Psyche: lier riches, her gar- 
dens and hunting-grounds, her palace, were stripp(^d from her 
bv her oflended bridegroom, who left her exposed to myriad 
evils and the prev of a tlionsand dangers: thus \'enus was 
avenged. 

An amusing feature in the story is that Pucius, though 
metmnorphosed into his asinine form, ])reserved his humai 
intellect, and throughout the night listened to the story, at 
he says, from beginning to end, regretting he had no tablets 
to record such a. beautiful fable vrrhiithii ct literatim. 

The next da\- the brigands drove Lucius to another cave 
to load him again with iKiofy : knowing tliat he staggered 
already, they spoke together of killing him. Leaving him 
outside the cave with the old woman and Carite, they entered 
to seek in tlie recesses of llie cavern anotlun- charge of treas- 
ures. Lucius iiad listened, and, rnminating, he said to liim- 
self, "What dost tliou here, Liu'ius .' for wliat dost thou ut- 



1 
as 



400 INTERESTING INCIDENTS. 

tend.' Seest thou not tlmr >!i(iiil(lsr tIkmi full iVdui iuiv of 
these |ircci|jiccs, tliv tender liu(l\- would l)e hrukeu du the 
sharp rocks and th\" niendiei's dispersc'd.' ,Vrni tliAself with 
good resolution, profit li\' this opportiniitv, relieve tlivself ot' 
this old attendant. Dost thou tear her, halt' alive.' (Jive 
her a kick, if onh' with thv linipinii- foot, and lie free; re- 
membei' thv Fotis and be free." 

In another moment he started off, followed hv the old 
o'uarilian woman, who lirasped the loni;' rope of his halter 
and still held tenaciously, tliouiih quickl\- thrown to earth 
by vigorous kicks from Lucius. At this moment Carite, as if 
inspired, ran to his aid, and seizing the halter cord momited 
(piicklv on Lucius, giving him vigorous blows and flattering 
words until he was soon in a gallop. ( 'arite called him her 
dear animal, and bade him save her also, and promised him 
that should she arrive in securitv at her jiarents' estate and 
find refuge, his services should never Ije forgotten. "Dear 
animal," said she, "I will comb th\' locks and nourish thee 
and load thee with mv jewels: all that thou desirest to eat 
1 will dailv brins- thee in mv silk aiiron. I will have a "eni 
engraved commemorating this thv flight, which shall be treas- 
ured bv future generations of my family; it shall be known 
bv this title: 'The illustrious damsel saved from captivitx' b\- 
an a.ss ;' and postcn'itv, knowing that this is truth, will no 
longer doubt that I'hrvxus traversed the sea on a goat nor 
that Arion was .saved on the back of a dol}ihin : as we know 
that Jupiter appeared disguised in the form of a bidl, it is not 
impossible that under th\' figTU-e now, that of an ass. mav be 
concealed some man or e\'eu a i^od." 

Tliev were, ho\\e\'er, doomeil to disappointment: b\" the 
light of the moon a portion of the banel of robbers saw and 



LUCIUS. 407 

overtook tlioiii. Tlicv were reeondncted to the cavern, and 
a couiu-il was lield at wliieh it was urged that hoth the ass 
and ("arite slionhl ))e immolated. 

In late expeditions a nnmber of tlieir hand had been 
killed, and on tliis ver\' oceasion it was deciiled to acoept an 
addition to their t'oree in tlie ])erson of a large and line- 
looking man. lleiniis bv name, who presented himself in very 
dilapidated costume, and who related his marvellous exploits 
in Macedonia as a leader of brigands ; his re])utation Avas well 
known ti> them, and after hearing him thev received him 
among them and even (dected him as tlieii' captain. This 
Hi'nms pruveil to lie Tlepoleme, tlie h^ver and betrothed 
of Carite : he liad resorted to this stratagem, imjiersonating 
the cehdirated brigand, in the hojx' of rescuing his beloved 
fiancee. That night Tlepoleme celebrated his ap|)ointment as 
captain b\- giving tlie brigamls a ro\al feast: serving them 
hims(df, lie ])lied them witli wine, wliich iinalh he drugged: 
he tlien bound them all \\ itli cords, mounted liis ( 'ai'ite on the 
ass Lucius, and on arriving at their manor there was a grand 
fete and rejoicing. Tlepoleme returned with mauA' horses and 
Lucius to the cave, threw the brigands down tlie precipices, 
and carried off all the treasures. 

Tlepoleme and Carite were married, and Lucius was re- 
warded with every comfort as the lil)er;itor. Alas ! this was 
of short duration, for Tlepoleme Avas killed at a wild-boar 
hunt, and ( 'ai'ite did not long- survive him. 

Throughout this marvellous historv Lucius had many more 
adventures. At one time he was put u)) for sale at auction 
with other animals. Lucius, seeing that a certain Philebe 
had an idea of liuving him. showed himself ofi' to disadvan- 
tage, kicking furiously with both hind legs, hoping to disgust 



40.S TXTERESTTXa INCIDENTS. 

the woiild-lx' ])urcli;is('i- : \m\ in \;iiii: I'hili'lx' faiicitMl Lucius, 
;ni(I led liini n\vii\' anew to captiN ir\ ; tlieu tollow tlie adven- 
tures with riiil('l)e. 

To <iive all the details of the adventures of Lueius 
would make two larii'e volumes. It will lie luiderstood that 
this ver\' peculiar and auuisiui"' romance of Apuleius is 
o'iven as an examjjle of the resources foi- literarv amusement 
one may tind in becoming better acijuainted with the auti(iue 
gems. 

In a few words, therefore, subsequeutlv our ass Lucius 
was sold to a soldier, who in turn, being forced to obev his 
colonel, who had ordered him to carrv letters to Kome to the 
emperor, s(dd him for (deven deniei's (about >^LS()) to two 
bi-others — one an excellent cook, and the other a ])attissier — 
both servants of a grand seignior named Thvasus of Corinth. 
The cooks had man^" plats or dishes left from the repasts of 
their master, with poultrw fish, and all sorts of ragouts, ])as- 
try, l)iscuits, and comtitures : of an evening tliev went to the 
pnl)lic baths, and then Lucius, who now was not so nnu-h of 
an ass as to eat hay when such delicacies as he had fornierlv 
enjoyed \\ere freely to be had, regaled himself with chicken, 
fi.sli, pastry, etc. etc. 

The brothers soon noticed the loss of so manv \iauds. and 
finally one evening, in l('a\ing for tlie bath. the\- locked up 
the ])remises and remained peeping tln-ongh a large crevice 
in the dooi-. and thus discovered that it was the ass Lucius 
who had committed all the thefts. Thev could not be angrv, 
but were v<M-\- mncdi amazed. The seignior Thvasus rejoiced 
at a spectacle so uoncI : hiniscdf led Lucins into the dining- 
room, where he caused tlie ass to be served with all sorts of 
delicacies and placed him at the table, and, seeing that he 



LUCIUS. -109 

devoured those meats so eagerly, lie ordered his servants to 
till his ii-oldeii bowl with wine and offer that. 

The hall resounded with peals of lanuhter from all who 
saw him, for t1u'\' had railed all the household to beholil the 
surprising gormandizing of sm-h an aniuial. On seeing Lu- 
cius quaff the wine and smack his great lips, Thyasus said 
to the two brothers, " This is indeed remarkable. I nnist 
a})propriate this ass, and you shall have many times whatever 
he has cost von." He further ordered that Lucius should lie 
especially cared for. 

The steward to whose charge he was entrusted, desiring 
to please in all things the seignior, was very attentive and 
kind to Liu-ius. and taught him to sit at table, to stand erect 
upon his hind legs like a man. (This is the moment repre- 
sented on the intaglio No. il^o.) He also trained him to make 
signs with his head of apjiroval or disapproval of the food 
offered him, and to wink his eyes when he wanted to drink. 

Thyasus, who hail long intended to return to his own 
country, to ("orinth, where he had promised in the event of 
his visit to give a grand fete, now decided to make the jour- 
ney, and, though possessed of rolling phfetons and horses of 
Thessaly. ])referred the ass Lucius, and, after causing Inm to 
be dressed with new bridle, saddle, and trappings decked with 
silver and gold ornaments and inanv tinkling bells, thus 
mounted, Tlnasus returned "-avlv to his native province and 
town. 

So great became the wonder of the community on hear- 
ing of the astoni.shing ])erformances of the ass that Thyasus 
consented to make a public exhilntiou of him in the arena. 
As a numerous assembU' was gathei"ing in the amphitheatre, 
the introductorv performances had even conmieiiced, and dec- 



410 INTERESTING INCIDENTS. 

orntidiis of tlic tiilile \\itli viands, etc. wciv Ijoiiio- propavcd ; 
l>iil this iiut Ikmiil;' til tli<' likiiiii' of Lucius, wlio, fcariuj^- tliat 
all accident nii^lit lict'all luiii in a jiuMic cncdosurc, wlicfe wild 
animals were also to Ix' disjdaxcd, without niaii\' second 
tliouglits lie decidc(l to decaiu]), and, seeing;' that all tlie at- 
tendants were occu|)ied with the preparations, lie at lirst 
slowlx' moved outside the eiudosnre, and, Ix'iiiji' until no\\" 
unknown in the country, he was soon on liis wav : and once 
started lie increaseil liis speed, never stop])ing tintil lie arrived 
\cr\' much heated at the seashore, A\liere he rested on the sand 
for a while: he then walked into the surf and hathed super- 
stitiously his head seven times; then after pravmg- earnestlv 
to the Deessof heaxcn that his condition might lie improved 
and his human form restored, he took some repose on the 
sand. 

Wlien lialf awake he heheld an apparition; it was the 
Deess Diiii/d D'ufi/i/nti. This name was given to her after 
Minos had loved and pursued her till she leapt into the sea, 
■when she was saved by l)eing caught in a fisherman's net. In 
this character she was chiefly the go(hless of seafaring people, 
and as such was worshipped on the islands and coasts of the 
Mediterranean. She rose from the waves and addressed Lu- 
cius, telliuff him that she had loii"' heen troubled to see him 
in this uncomelv animal form. "I come to thee, Lucius; th\' 
prayers have touclie(l me. I am Nature, tlie mother of all 
things, the mistress of the elements, the source and origin of 
centiu'ies, the sovereign of divinities, the queen of souls, and 
first of the inhabitants of the liea\eiis. Listen to the orders 
which 1 shall give thee. 

"The day that will follow this night has been consecrated 
to me from all time: to-morrow my priests shall offer to me 



LUCIUS. 411 

tluMr festal oblations for mv Ijlessiiiti- on navijiatioii, when will 
lie ilcdicatod to iiic a new haniuo that lias not yet served, that 
1 mav (luiet tlie waves, and tliat it may p) joyonsly on the 
great deep witliout feai', tliat the tempests of winter may not 
harm it. Attend this fete ^^ ith devotion and with a tranquil 
spirit. ^ly hi<>-h priest will eome followinii' my instruetions : 
he will approach ine durini;- the eeremony with a wreath of 
roses attache<l to his sistre, Avhich he will carry hi liis right 
hand. I tell thee, Lucius, toUow the crowd, and approach with 
confidence in mv kind intentions, and when thou art near to 
the hi,i;h ])riest incline thy head as tlunigh thou wouldst kiss 
his hand; tlien, Lucius, eat of the roses. Liimediately tliou 
shalt commence to shed tliine animal coat, and thou shalt 
relinquish that loathsome form." 

When Diana Dictvnna had declared all her instructions to 
tlie ass, she disappeared, and, full of consternation, jo}', and 
admiration at the beneficence manifesteil 1)y this potent Deess, 
Lucius went and bathed himself again in the sea, all his 
thoughts occupied with the sovereign orders received. 

As the coming sun dispelled the i)ower of night, all the 
api)roaches to the scene of the iVte were thronged with gay 
pleasure-seekers : there was joy depicted on the countenances 
of all; even Lucius smiled, and it seemed to him that other 
animals looked happy ; it was a beautiful return of spring. 
The procession commenced to move. It was a throng of 
di\erselv-costumed men and ^^■omen, each one following his 
own taste or inclination in making liis toilet: all occupations 
and trades were represented, from the jdiilosopher seeking to 
learn something to the fishermen carrying their ruddy-colored 
nets. Li the midst of this joyous and pleasure-seeking people 
with queenh- pomp advanced the protecting Deess: she was 



412 lyTERESTIXG TXCWEXTS. 

\)Y('r9d(.'d In' a curps (if l)eautit'ul Aiiunii' \voiiifn dressed in 
white, (■aiT\ iuL;- \ ariuus enildenis in tlieir liaiids: tlie\ liad 
crowns (it spriiiLi' Hdwevs im tlieir licads, and ntliers ■with 
wliich thev strewe(l tlie rdUte nil wliicli tlie sacred trdiipe 
shduld pass: the\' liad luirrdrs on their shduhh-rs. in -wliich 
J>iana Dictxiina coidd see those passing;' in trout df lier and 
those cdiniiiL:' trdiii lieliind: dtliers luid i\(ii'\" cduihs and 
sweetlv-sceiited liHes witli Avhicli to deck tlie tresses df the 
queen of divim'ties: whilst others sprinkle(l. drop ])V dro]). 
Lefore her feet fraiiranf liahiis and precious oils. Then fol- 
lowed p'reat nnnd)ers of torchnieii and laiiiji-bearers that had 
niarclied the in<iht coming- from afar: men with visao-es 
half hhudc and half ^'(31(1 ; <me with a doo-'s head: another 
marchinii' with ]ii'(iud step bearinfi' on his shoulders a fio-ure 
of a cow standinjj;- erect on its hind le.us, also typical of the 
deit\' ; ])riests carrxini;' sniuIkiIs — amoUL;' others, one with a 
lieantifulK' wronjiht casket cdutaiuini:', safely encdosed, the se- 
crets and the mysteries of their religion patiently inscrihed 
on iiarchment : followinL:' hiui, an acoK'te ])ressinii' to his 
liosoui the adorable iuiai^e of the sovereign dixinity, which 
was in the form of neither bird nor beast, neither of man, luit 
venerable from its singidaritA". Bv the excellence of its con- 
strnctiou it marked the subliuiit\' of tlie religion, and signiiieil 
that its iu\'steries should be hidden in prdfduud silence: it was 
a !i'dlden \ase (if be;nitiful workmanship on whicli were en- 
o-raved the mar\(dldus hiero<>-lvi)liics oi' the Kizvptians. 

At last ap]irdache(l the faxurable nidinent promised b\- the 
powerful Deess: the high priest advanced :is Diana Hictynna 
had predicte(l ; he carrie(l that whi(li should ndiexe Lucius 
of all his nusfortunes. The crown of roses was there: it was 
indeed a crown for Lncius, for by it, after having supported so 



•A 




LUCIUS. 415 

niucli lal)or and escapcMl s(i many pci'ils, lie was now to come 
off victorious over the enemy of fortune wlio had sii long per- 
secuted him. 

Although seized witli a sensation of extraordinarA- jov, 
Lucius advanced calmly: fearing lest by the al)rui)t approach 
of such an anhnal he might trouble the order of the cere- 
monies of the fete, he advanced respectfully through that sea 
of people, who amiably made the jtassnge free for him. 

As soon as the priest saw Lucius, he remembered the ))re- 
monition he had received that niyht in a dream, and was evi- 
dently pleased tc» see that events were transpiring as Diana 
had amiounceil to him: he sto})ped for a moment seized with 
admiration, then voluntarilv apjiroacheil Lucius with the crown 
which he held in his hand. With trembling heart Lucius 
tasted and devoured the fresh red roses with aviditv : innne- 
diately he experienced the effect promised by Diana ; he was 
conscious that his animal form was chano-in<;. That ruiin-ed 
hairiness fell from him: he did indeed shed his coat; his skin, 
which had been thick and hard, became tender and delicate; 
liis horny hoofs l)ecame feet with toes; his hands ceased to 
be feet and were restored to their functions; his neck short- 
ened: his head and face assnmed a human shape: his long- 
ears diminished and returned to their original state ; his great 
teeth once more resembled those of men; and that long ngly 
tail, of Avliich he was always ashamed, disappeared entirely. 

Every one was struck with admiration : the ])ious adored 
the manifest power of the great Diana, Act as in a dream 
they raised their arms to heaven and praiseil the beneficent 
Deess. 

Lucius, overwhelmed with the excess of his y>\\ at first 
remained silent, not having the force to open his mouth, al- 



416 IXTERESTIXa LX<TnEXTS. 

tlumgli tile f;icult\' (if spcTcli was ivston-il tn liim. IK' did 
Hot l<ii()\\ lidw nr wlici'c til Ix'tiin (ir li\" \\liat expressions siifti- 
cieiitK' diiiiiilicfl lie cmild express his p-ntitiide t(i the deity. 

For a ninnuMit tlie high priest remained speechless, so 
greatl\' \\as lie impressed: he tlieu commanded one of the 
ministers to lav off" liis outer garment of white and clothe 
Lucius. When the otlicer had obeyed his command, the high 
priest regarded Lucius witli a face Aviiereon joy was inscribed, 
and thus addressed him: "After all the pains that thou hast 
suft'ered, after manv rude assaults of turtune, thou art set 
free. The tempests are calmed: thou hast arrived in a port 
of repose: after all the faidts and failings of thy life thou 
art brought into the presence of that ha])py estate Avhicli one 
enjovs when life is consecrated to religion; thou art deliv- 
ered from all tin' misfortunes. Consecrate thyself to the ser- 
vice of this god, and with a visage in accordance witli that 
pure garment join with those who are devoted to the cause 
and worsliiii of Diana, and thou shalt with fuller pleasure 
enjov tliv lil)erty." 

After these words the iirocession moved on, Lucius march- 
ing amongst the }iriests and ministers: he was observed on 
all sides. When the cortege arrived at the seashore, just at 
the point where Luciiis had slept the previous night, the high 
priest conducted the ceremonv of consecrating the new ship 
to the Deess Diana Dict^"nna: its sides were richly decorated 
with curious Egyptian characters painted in enduring colors, 
which had been ])urified by an ardent torch, and all the nml- 
titude emulated one another in casting tlieir ornaments and 
precious offerings into the vessel. ^Mien the beautiful craft 
was thus charged its sails were unfurled, and a propitious 
breeze Avafted it soon be}'ond the hoi'izon. The jjeople then 



LUCIUS. 417 

returned with the priests to the temple and replaced all the 
imag-es and sacred vases ; the names of the niemljers of the 
society of the hoh' temple were then called, and th« high 
priest pronounced an allocution, calling from Heaven bless- 
ings and prosperity on the emperor, the senate, the chevaliers, 
and all the Roman people. The ceremonies were then de- 
clared acconi]dished, and all were requested to retire. 

Lucius remained with his eyes riveted on the holy image 
of the goddess that relieved him from all his misfortunes, 
and his renown spread throughout all the land. His parents, 
domestics, and slaves, so soon as they could assure them- 
selves of the thought that Lucius, so long mourned as dead, 
was living, cast aside their sorrow and came with joy and 
Avith presents to welcome the man whom Diana Dictynna 
had rescued from Lderno. 

After a stipulated time Lucius was consecrated to the holy 
priesthood of Diana : he always replied to those whose curi- 
ositv caused them to ask what he learned and saw in the 
hidden mysteries of the inner life of the temple, " The voice 
that should reveal them to you, and even the ears that should 
listen to the recital of tliese holy secrets, should receive the 
merited doom of such blasphemous indiscretion." 

This is the incident of intaglio No. 923. The response 
from Lucius when questioned about the secrets and mys- 
teries of the inner temple reminds us of the gems of the 
Abraxas pei-iod, Avhicli it is known were received by the peo- 
ple from their priests with confidence in their unintelligible 
designs or talismanic powers. They, like Lucius, believed 
that no questions were to be asked. 

These gems are more interesting to me from the fact that 
thev bear on their faces mysteries that never can be fully 

27 



418 INTERESTING INCIDENTS. 

revealed — eno-raved sentiments that were only tally compre- 
hensible to the priests that in sincerity inscribed them, and 
thereon indited ])rayers and symbols which they religiously 
believed woulil kcc[) their people nearer to God, truer to one 
another and to their nation. 

The Triune God whom now we know and adore, and in 
whom is all our trust, was not yet t'ullv revealed to them. It 
is to be understood that the scenes in the romance of Lucius 
are descriptive of a sect existing centuries before the advent 
of Clmst and the Abraxas. 




PLATE A. 




THE AGATE OF TIBEKIUS ; ALSO KNOWX AS THE APOTHEOSIS OF AUGUSTUS. 



THE CELEBRATED CAMEOS OF 
EUROPEAN MUSEUMS. 



Thts far, all gems spoken of or from which we have inci- 
dents are from my own collection. 

It still remains for us to give a glance at some of the most 
celebrated cameos extant or in the museums of Europe. True, 
manv of them are well known hy fireside travellers, who liave 
seen all the treasures of tlie world through the medium of illus- 
tx-ated books. 

The interpretations of these subjects are my own. 

First Plate, A. The gem known as the great cameo of the 
Saiiite CJuqx'Ue,^ the agate of Tiberius, the Apotheosis of Au- 
gustus, and for a long time thought to l)e the trium])h of 
Joseph over Pharaoh. 

" This precious cameo was carried from Constantinople to 
Saint Louis, and from Louis it passed into the hands of Charles 
v., wlio ])laced it in the Sainte ChiqicUv of his palace ; at tliat 
time it was still considered to represent Josepli triumphing over 
Pharaoli."'' 

The stone measures 12f- inches high by 10^ inches wide. 
It is in three strata; the entire field is occui)ied by the design 
and contains twenty-two figures. 

The following is mv own idea of the cameo : Tiberius, with 
the bearing of a mighty ruler, leans with the left hand upon 

' Tlie engraving is from a drawing made expressly fnr tliis treatise, after a photograph 
of the gem. 

' Dicllonnaire iPune Suciele tie Saranl.<, etc., p. 279, Bibliotlieiiiie Xationale, Paris. 

421 



422 INTERESTING INCIDENTS. 

the staff of empire : in the right Iiolds a crooked baton, the 
Htnns, witli whicli to divide the expanse of tlie heavens; he 
is hiureated, as is also liis motlier, Livia (the widow of An- 
gustus), who is seated beside him on tlie throne; she im])er- 
sonates Hertha, tlie goddess of the earth among the ancient 
Germans, and is significant of the recent Roman conquests 
over that country ; in her hand is a sprig -with fruit resem- 
bling the pomegranate. The skin of the sacred goat, Amal- 
thea, the well-known decoration of the ^Egis, the breast-shield 
in contests, is now, in token of peace, upon the lap of Tiberius ; 
it hangs as drapery upon the sitting form of the emperor, v^\\o 
otherwise Avould be the only nude figure in the group. Ger- 
manicus (so called and known from his military exploits in 
Germany), clad in helmet, aljolla, and girdle of mail, with 
shield, stands erect before his jealous uncle, and, though con- 
scious of the motives of Tiberius in sendino- him on the ex- 
pedition, signifies his willingness to depart for Asia. 

Germanicus seems to be pushing away with his shield the 
arm of Antonia (his mother), who looks to him, wishing to 
dissuade him from returning so liastiK' to tlie field; he })resses 
his helmet more firmly in place. Behind him is his wife, 
Ag-rippina, holding a scroll, and his sou Caligula in armor, 
who stands u])on an efiigy significant of the enemv his ^•outh- 
ful ardor hopes to subjxigate. 

Behind the throne the warrior in armor who in an attitude 
of exultation holds forth his right hand and arm is supposed to 
be Drusus, the brother-in-law of Germanicus; his wife, Livilla, 
sister of Germanicus, is seated on a chair of state ornamented 
with sphinxes;' at her feet is a figure in Eastern costume 
bowed with soi-row, and probably representing the conquered 

' Several similar cliairs have been excavated at Pomijeii. 



PLATE B. 




THE CORONATION OF AtGUSTUS. 



CELEBRATED CAMEOS OF EUROPEAN MUSEUMS. 425 

province of Diicia supiilicating- military intervention and assist- 
ance. Remark the ditierence between the sentiment here ex- 
pressed and the complete lielplessness and despair of the gmup 
of captives beh)\v the central snbject. 

In reo-ard to the u-n»up occupying the upper field, the third 
division of this gem, the Apotheosis of Atigustus, I make the 
lV)llo\ving suggestions: Augustus, leaving his empire on this 
earth, mounts swiftly to Paradise, borne by the winged horse 
Pegasus, who is lovingly led by an angel ; he is awarded with 
a reception befitting his terrestrial rank. 

The Queen of Heaven, with vestal drapery, diadem, and 
sceptre, awaits him. A celestial attendant bearing a globe 
approaches liim with this emblem of the new world into which 
he is about to enter: and his future career is symbolically 
shown to liim in the mirror of the new life held in his view 
by one of the heavenly host. 

Second Plate, B. In the Imperial Cabinet of Austria at 
Vienna is another, on sardonyx, in three strata. This precious 
monument is attributed to Dioscorides; its dimensions are 9 
bv 8 inches. 

" It Avas forciblv taken by Philippe le Bel from its hiding- 
place in Jerusalem, and presented l)y him to the Abbaye de 
Poissy, from \\iience it was stolen during the religious Avars 
of the sixteenth century, and then came into the possession 
of the Erajieror Rudolph II."' 

On the throne sits Livia as the goddess Roma, and the 
Emperor Augustus : above him is his horoscope, Capricorn, 
under which sign he was born. Behind him is a group of 
figures personifying his happy reign; Cybele, with tuiTeted 
beretto, is placing a crown upon the head of Augustus. In 

' Dictionnaire dune Societe des Savants, etc., Bibliotheque Rationale, Paris. 



426 INTERESTING INCIDENTS. 

front of tlie throne the emperor's stepson, Tiberius, steps from 
a victoriously-drawn cliariot to report to the emperor the 
rebelHon of the I'annonian and Illyrian provinces (G-0 a. d.). 
Near the chariot stands young Germanicus. 

In the lower tableau a military legion erects a token of 
victory over the weejjing Pannonians and the enchained Danu- 
bians ; prisoners are dragged along by tlie Roman allies.' 

Third Plate, C. The celebrated Tazza Farnese of Naples.-' 
It stands in a revolving frame near the north window of the 
gem-room of the Neapolitan Museum. It is a beautiful saucer, 
embellished with cameos outside and inside; measures C,}, inches 
in diameter and 1 inch in depth. 

It apears to have been executed before the middle of the 
second century a. h.. as it resembles in several characteristics 
cameos representing emperors and tlie events of tliat period. 

On the under part, the outside, in low relief, is a liead of 
^ledusa, and on the inside a group of seven persons and an 
allegorical representation of the Nile. EgA-pt is personated 
by the female in the foreground seated on a sphinx ; on the 
left Nilus, the deity of the river, with a cornucopia svmbolical 
of the fruitfulness produced by its inundations; on the right 
are two females representing the pi-o\inces of tlie siuux-es of 
the Nile, one drinking its water, the otlier regarding the svm- 
bol of its plenitude. In the centre, erect, in the Idoom of liis 
}Oung manhood, stands Antinous, whom the deilied ri\er has 
taken unto himself — twice a favorite. The figures overliead 
are perhaps the sj)irits of the Kliamseen, the wind which 
blows fifty days. 

' Tliis description is a tianslatidii of ihe one sold, with a photograph full size of tlie 
gem, bv the government in the Imperial Koyal Mint at Vienna. The engraving is from 
tlie same source. 

' The engraving is from the drawing sold at the .Mnseum of Xaples. 



PLATE C.-l. 





FRONT VIEW OF TAZZA FARNESE. 



PLATE C— 2. 




1 




BACK VIEW OF TAZZA FARNESE.-MEDl'SA. 



CELEBRATED CAMEOS OF EUROPEAN MUSEUMS. 431 

The annexed enyraving (page 432), >;ai(l to be from an 
antique cameo of Christ, is given a\ ith Httle eontidence in tlie 
authenticity of the gem, but on account of the beautiful de- 
scription accompanying a copy I saw in IMunich some years 
ago, of whicli the following is a translation : 

"This picture is taken from a cameo cut on emerald b^- tlie 
order of the Emperor Tiberius. In tlie fifteenth century it was 
taken out of the treasury-vault at Constantinople and deliv- 
ered by the emperor of the Turks to Po])e Innocent YIII. as 
a ransom for his brother, at that time a prisoner in the hands 
of the Christians. The following- extract, as a proof of the 
genuineness of the })orti-ait, is translated from the Latin of a 
contemporaneous historian : 

" Publius Lentulus, at that time viceroy in Judea, wrote 
to the Senate and to the Roman people as follows: 

" 'There has appeared in these days a very virtuous man 
by the name of Jesus Christ, who stdl lives among us, and is 
looked upon by the heathen as a prophet of trutli, but called 
by his own followers the Son of God. He raises the dead 
and cures all kinds of diseases. A man of somewhat larae 
and imposing figure and very venerable appearance, so that 
all who see him are compelled to love as well as fear him. 
His liair has the color of a very ripe hazel-mit, down to the 
ears almost smooth, from thence downward slightly curled in 
waves over his shoidders, and of a more Oriental color; it is 
parted in the centre, after the manner of the Nazarenes. His 
forehead is open and smooth; his face without freckles or 
wrinkles, beautiful, and agreeably red; nose and mouth are 
formed so that no fault can be found with either; the beard 
is rather full, corresponding well in color with the hair, not of 
great length; his eyes are gray, clear, and full of life. 



432 



INTERESTING INCIDENTS. 



'"His body is well-formed iUid straight, his hands and 
arms finely proportioned. In censuring- he is dreadful; in 
reasoning, friendly and engaging; in discourse, moderate — 
wisdom and modesty l:)lended ^^it]l dignity. No one recol- 
lects ever seeing him laugh, hut many have seen him weej). 
"'A man whose personal beauty excels all human crea- 
tures.' " 




The following- are tac-siiuiles of autogTupli letters from 
members of tlie Academy of Inscriptions of the Institute 
and of the National 3Iiiscums of France and of Rome, to 
all of whom for years past the author has been greatly 
indebted, both for valuable information and for cordial in- 
terest in his pursuits. 

These letters are reproduced here, in token of his sincere 

gratitude. 

M. S. 

Paris, October, 1SS8. 

433 



Les planches siiivantes contiennent des fac-similes de 
lettres autographes adresses a I'auteur par des membres 
de I'Academie des Inscriptions, par des Conservateurs des 
Musees Nationaux de France et de Rome. 

Pendant plusieurs ainiees il a regu de leur obligeance 
des renseignenients importants. 

II les prie d'agreer I'expression de sa reconnaissance. 

M. S. 

Paris, Ociobre, 1SS8. 

4.'io 



BIBLIOTHEqUE ^y^ 

L'lNSTITUT NATIONAL /^ , CW 




DE FRANCK 



im^ I 



.).^^j^^ ^C^ 



J .i.^^'*-'*?- 









/ 






de \ 



ISEJ^UA-AaTO 



DIRECTION 

DES 

A^USEES NATIONAUX 










BIBLIOTHEOUE (^'^ / , ^ 

D E 



L'.INSTITUT NATIONAL 

DE FRANCE 









Cy^, .,3.2. -.-t.^O^ c"/^,./^A- 
7 'i^cX^(!,^/!'iy 















'''i/'iJ^—i-xr'-^^.T^ , ey-'Je.Jn_a.J^ y^L^^, 




^ U'^.pia//^. y'irH, I'irt,, Cor yfLIL^ /'/U/>m'mt^ V- 

^tu., /i/II^'7>7,t«rr7'<i /i(^., '^^/j^, n.y^il, 



CJM'^ '" />/'-"^^ " 5^ '?-««^_ 






AVhen this letter was written liy Monsieur Clermont Oannean he was Mcmbre 
Cnrrespnndinil ; a lew weeks hiter, a vacancy occnrrins;, he was elected Menilire ile 
rAcadeniie iles Inscrijitiuns et Kelles-Lettres dc I'lnstitnt de Krance. 



BIBLIOTHEQUE S^^.-d^ /^ O C.HyS^YcfS"^ 

D E 

L'lNSTlTUT NATIONAL 

DE FRANCE 



OlliiO-'^^ 



JHcL ^ /A"^^ V^^^ ^y^^^C^^ 






( ^.fuyi^ifit 






6/5 



y-^t/i-u) 



jii^?t^ cyict \roc^ ^^y ^-^^ v-^-./i'c- wi^ 

V(j^^ iM^O-KT-ci yyLcrnJfi^ vf^f^i^ (^^^^^-e^-t 



^^^ ^ ^-^^.V^/ 



^^ 



^Z^^aKi4<^*:*»^ 



M,^^^>-Tr 







c^'y.u^^ZZ^ ^>^^^^^ ^,.^^:;;:«e> 'S'^ ^,^-w^>»^^^e. 






/? 






^ , ^ ^^^.. ,^^.--/ -^/-^/ 



L-^^A-c-i? 






CATALOrrlTE RAISONNE 



SOMMERTILLE COLLECTIOX 



EXGEAVED C^E^IS 

A DESCRIPTIVE LIST OV CAMEOS, IXTACI.IOS, SEALS, 
PINGS, A.Ml'LETS, TALISMAN'S, Etc. 



A COMPEND OF GRP^EK AND ROMAN MYTHOLOGY 



CLASSICAL HISTORY 




ILLUSTRATED WITH 103 PLATE PAGES REPRESENTING 309 GEMS 



^fAXWELL 80MMERYILLE 



ISS'J 



Copyright, 1888, 
BY MAXVVEL-L SOMM ERVILLE. 



PREFACE. 



The Caljinet of Engraved Gems embraced in this catalor/uc raisonne 
has been collected during many years of travel in Europe, Africa, and 
Asia Miuor. 

It is esteemed by the possessor as a private collection of curious 
glvptie art, with exanijiles of Egyj)tian, Assyrian and liabylonian, Per- 
sian, iSassanian, Etruscan, Phoenician, Greek, Graico-Roman, Roman, 
Abraxas or Gnostic, Christian, Byzantine, Chinese, Aztec or Mexican, 
The Night of Art, Cinc[ue-cento or Renaissance, Antique Paste, Ani- 
mals and Birds, Classics, History, ]Mythok)gy, etc., etc., engraved on — 



Agahnatolite, 

Agate, 

Agate-Onyx, 

Alabaster, 

Amazon Stone, 

Anibei", 

Amethyst, 

Antique Paste, 

Aqua-marine (Beryl 

Basalt, 

Black Jade, 

Black Serjientiue, 

Bronze, 

Carnelian, 



Ceragate-Onyx, 
Chalcedony, 
Chalcedony-Onyx, 
Ejryptian .Jasper, 
Emerald, 
Garnet, 
Gijld, 

(xiay Argillite, 
, Green Jade, 
Heliotrope, 
Hematite, 
Iceland Jasper, 
Jacinth, 
Jade, 



Jasper, 
Jasper-Onyx, 
Labradorite, 
Lapis Lazuli, 
Maculated Argilla, 
Malachite, 
Nacre, 
Xephrite, 
Olisidiaii, 
Onyx, 

Oriental .Tas]ier, 
Paragon or Touch- 
stone, 
Pebbles, 



Plasma of Emerald, 

Porphyry, 

Eed Calcite, 

Rock Crystal, 

Ruby, 

Sapphire, 

Sard, 

Sardonyx, 

Serpentine, 

Solenhofen Stone, 

Spar, 

Steatite, 

Topaz, 

Turquoise, etc. 



The numbers accompanying the illustrations on each Plate i-efer to 
the corresponding numbers in the catalogue rainonne, where the names 
and descriptions of the gems may be found. 

455 



SOMMERVILLE l OLI.ECTK IN 



PLATE 1. 







MISCELLANEOUS GREEK' ANTi RdMAX CAMEOS. 



SOM.MICIIVII.LE i;i>l.l.KC|-|llN. 



PLATE 2. 




1(1 oljvcrse. 



10 reverse. 



MISCEI.LANKOUS GREEK AND HUMAN CAMEO?. 



SOMMERVILLE COLLECTION. 







MISCELLAXEorS GREEK AN"D ROMAN CAMEOS. 



SOMMERVILLE COLLECTION. 



PLATE 4. 




7EB£AaJ?\oHW' 





-r^^^^^^^ 


■^ 


i 




^^^^^^^^H 


El 


. 




^^^^^^^K 
^^^^^^m 


■9 


^ 






^ 


A 




Wr^ 


r 






^KT' 






-.;^^H 


E-J^^' 


-J 


g 


j 
1 




' |H 


^^^B 




^^iflp^ 


^■^ 






S4 







MISCELLANEOUS GREEK ANT) ROMAN CAMEOS. 



SOMMERVILLE COLLECTION. 



PLATE 5. 






MISCELLANEOUS CREEK AND ROMAN CAMEO* 



SOMMERVILLE COLLECTION. 




64 




MISCELLANEOUS GUEKK AND ROMAN CAMEOS. 



SOMMERVILLE COI.I-ECTION. 




MISCELLANEOUS GREEK AND ROMAX CAMEOS. 



SOMMERVILLE COLLECTION. 



PLATE 8. 








MISCELLASEorS GREEK AND ROMAN CAMEOS. 



SOMMKUVll.M-: Cdl.LIXTION. 





MISCELI.ANEIJLS GREEK AXD ROMAN CAMEOS. 



SOMMERVII.I.E COI.LErTins. 



PLATE 10. 








mN If np/vEE-t^^ 



MISCELLANEOUS GREEK AND ROMAN CAMEOS. 



^( iM M Ki: VI r.i-K 1 1 iM.i:< tion-. 



PLATE 11. 






MISCELLANEOUS liKKEK ANIi KDMAN TAMEOS 



SOMMERVILLE COLLECTION. 



PLATE 12. 





MlSCELL.iXEOrS GREEK AND lioMAN CAMEO.S. 



SOMMERVILLE COLLECTION. 



PLATE 13. 




MISCELL.A.XEOUS GREEK AXD ROMAS CAMEO.S. 



S(i.MMi:U\'II,I.K lOI.I.K'TION. 








MlSCELI.AXEors (iHEEK AXl) KciMAN CAMEOS. 



SOMiMERVILLE COLLECTION. 



PLATE 15. 







MISCELL.\NF.OIS (;REEK .\NT) ROMAN (AMEOS. 



.<()MMERV1LLE COLLECTIOX. 



PLATE Ifi. 








MI.SCELLANEillS OREEK AXD ROMAN CAMEOS 



SOMMERVILI.E COLLECTION. 



PLATE 17 




MISCELLANEOUS GREEK AND ROMAN CAMEOS. 



SOMMEKVU.l.l': COLl.ECTIOX. 





MISCELLANEOUS GREEK AXU IU)MAN CAMEOS. 



SOMMERVILLE COLLECTION. 



PLATE I'.l. 







MISCELLANEOUS GREEK AND ROMAN CAMEOS. 



SOMMERVILLE COLLECTION. 



PLATE 20. 






MISCELLAXEOl? GREEK AND ROMAN CAMEOS. 



SOMMERVILLE COLLECTION. 



PLATE n. 






407 




MLSCEI.LANEOCS GREEK AND ROMAN CAMEOS. 



SOMMEK VlLl.K I OI.LECTION. 



PLATE 22. 




Obverse. JiH Revei>e. 



Ml.<rELL.\NEOr.* liKEEK AMI ROMAX I AMEO.«. 



;;OMMERVn,I-E COLLECTION. 



PLATE 






4rK 



MLSCELLANEOI-S fiREEK AND ROMAN CAMEOS. 



SOMMEEVILLE COLLECTION. 



PLATE 24. 




MISCELLANEOU.S GREEK AND ROMAN CAMEO.'!. 



SOMMERVILLE COLLECTION. 



PLATE 25. 





V^ 




430 



^'--»»'1 



u 



(^■' 





434 


y^^ 


^ 


r 


^^^m\ 









MISCELLANEOUS GREEK AND ROMAN CAMEOS. 



SdMMKKVILLK COLLECTION. 



PLATE 2f;. 







-^':V 



inPfl 



4Sfl rvverst'. 





EGYPTIAN. 



SOMMKRVILI-E COLI.KCTIUN. 




i 



m 



^ 







mi 




1465 




l-UiU 



EGYPTIAN. 



SOMMEKVILLE COLLECTION. 



I'LATK US. 




EGYPTIAN. 



r^OMMERVILLE COLLECTION. 



PLATE 29. 



1 



^■ 





IMPRESSIONS OF B.VKYLONIAN ANli PHOENICIAX CYLIXDEKS. 



?0MME1;VI1.LE roLLEtTlON. 



PLATE Sn. 







IMPRESSIONS (JF ASSYRIAN AND BABYLOXIAX CYLINDERS. 



SOMMERVILLE COLLECTION. 



t'LATE »1. 




136fi 



^f'l^^ 



1367 







\ 


BRi^F-^al^P^ 




■ % 



\ __ .__. 




1369 



IMPRESSIONS or ASSYiaAX, BABVLOXIAX AND CYPEIAX CYLINDERS. 



SOMMEKVILLE COLLECTION. 



PLATE 32. 



.0 




Jr 







IMPRESSIONS UF li.\BYLO.NI AN CYLINDERS. 



SOMMEl;VII,LE COI.I.KCTION. 



I-LATE 




IMPRESSIONS OF ASSYRIAN. PERSIAN AND BABYr.ONIAN CYLINDERS. 



SOMMERVILLE COLLECTION. 



PLATE 34. 






r 



IMPRESSIONS OF PERSI.4N, HITTITE AND BABYLONIAN CYLINDERS* 



SOMMKKVIl.I.K ruI.I.ECTIOX. 




HU', 





IMI'i;K.-;SIOXS OF HITTITK ANI> BAHYLONIAN' ('YLISDEK.- 



S( IM M Kl;Vl l,I,K ( ■( H.LKt^TK )N. 



I'LATE 30. 



*/ 



''^^r . /-. 



J 



'9*^-,^ 



^ 



mm -*i 



«s ' V, 






IK 



?-|.- 





IMI'RKSfilOX? OF A.SSYBIAN, HITTITE AXU BAKYI.dNIAN <;YLI.NDEI{S. 



SOMMKKVII.I.i; lOLLKiTION. 



PLATE 37. 




1412 











IMPKESSIOXS OF PERSIAN AXD BABYLONIAN CYLINDERS. 



SOMMEUVILI-E COLLECTION. 



PLATE SS. 







IMPRESSIONS OF ASSYRIAN" ANI' HAKYI.ONIAN l YITNUKKS 



SOM MEKVI r.LE COLl.KCTION. 



I'LATE ;«>. 




A.<t-VKIAN SKAI,.-- 



soMMKKVII.l.K ClIM.KrTION. 





501 




^^^jfTr^Miri 









PERSIAN AND SAPSAN'IAN SF.AI^. 



tiOMMERVll.LE COLLECTION 



l-LATE 4L 




1:{S0 





13S3 





■Sim 







PERSIAN AND SASSANTAN SEALS. 



SOMMERVILI.E COLLECTION. 



PLATE 42 




PERSIAN, SASSAXIAN AND ASSYRIAN SEALS. 



SOMMERVILLE COLLECTION. 



PLATE 43. 




SASSANIAN SEALS AND INTAGLIOS. 



SOMMERVILLE COLLECTION. 



I'LATE 44. 




ENTRUSCAN INTAGLIOS. 



SOMMERVILLE COLLECTION. 



PLATE 15 




ETRUSCAN TNTA(;L1<)S 



SOMMERVILLE COLLECTION. 



PLATE 46. 









WM 1 



.5.50 





PHOENICIAN SCARABEI AND INTAULIOS. 



SOMMERVILLE COLLECTION. 



PLATE I". 











PHOENICIAN SCARABEI AND INTAGLIOS. 



!<OMMERVILLfc: COLI.ECTION 





ntil obverse. 



■'tiU reverse. 




^"L^- 




■VW o>t verse. 



568 reverse. 




0^j^m^ 



ABRAXAS OK GNOSTIC GEMS. 



SOMMERVII.LE COLLECTION. 



PLATE 4'.l. 




143'2 obverse. 







m 



I-lo'2 reverse. 




M 



Iff 




563 





14;>4 nbverse. 



14:{4 reverse. 



ABR.\X.\^i OK GNOSTIC OEMS. 



SOMMEKVILLE COLLECTION. 



PIJVTE M. 





074 oliVtirsc. 



3}^-fr 



iffln^,: 







5*V4 obverse. 



5fi4 reverse. 





573 reverse. 



ABRAXAS OK (iNOSTIC GEMS. 



SOMMERVILLE COLLECTION. 



PLATE 5L 




BYZANTINE CHRIST. 



SOMMERVILLE COLLECTION. 



PLATE 52. 





593 





NIC.HT OF ART. 



SOMMEBVILLE COLLECTION. 



PLATE 53. 







(iuy 








I 



RENAISSANCE— MEDICIS PERIOD. 



;-O.MMEKVII,I.E rOLLEI'TIDX. 



Hl.ATE 54. 





MO obverse. 




CHIN'E.SE 



WMMERVII.LB COLLECTION. 



PLATE V,. 




CHINESE. 



SOMMERVILLE COLLECTION. 



PLATE nii. 




6(13 




AZTEC— MEXICAN. 



SOMMERVILLE COLLECTIOS. 



PLATE 57. 




AZTEC— MEXICAN. 



bOMMERVII.1 F i(il I KCTION. 



PLATE ^<. 










AZTEC— MEXIl AN. 



i^OMMERVILLE COLLECTION. 



I'l.ATK r.9. 







itio <ii»versf. 






!HvT reverse. 






608 obverse. 



ti(ts reverse. 



>IIS(!:i.I..\NE(ll'S CA.MEO.S ANTl INT.^(;].U).<. 



SOMMEKVILI.F. COLLECTION. 



PLATE Wl. 




MISCELLAXEm'S CAMEOS AND INTAiil.IOS. 



SOMMKKVII.I.E ((lI.I.KITION. 



I'l.ATE I'.l. 







MISCELLANEOUS OKEEK ANIi lIiiMAN CAMEOS. 



SO.MMEKVILI.E I'DI.LECTIOX. 




MIJiCELI.AXKorS «REEK A.NIl l;t).MA.\ CAMEOS. 



SOMMKKVII.I.K rdl.l.KcTION. 



I'LATK i;x. 








■ 



wMi^nFm' 




mMim^ m^-^^-i'^ • 




MISCELLAXEOIS CAMEOS. 



SO.MMEKVILI.K COLLECTION. 



PLATE 64. 




MISCELLANEOUS CAMEOS. 



SOMMERVILLE COLLECTION. 



PLATE B5 




MISCELLANEOUS GREEK AND R05IAN CAMEOS. 



SOMMERVILLE COLLECTION. 



PLATE Wl. 




m 



f) 



ii'T^' 








'- t 



'ti-1 



m 









8a!) 






lis 



miscellaneous; hreek and Roman intaglios 



SOMMEKVILLE COLLECTION. 




MISCELLANEOUS HKEEK ANJi KONL\N INTACLIOS. 



SOMMEKVILI.E fOLLF.CTION 



PLATE 68. 



jSJA 



'M' 



■ if 










W 



MISCELLANEOUS GREEK AND ROMAN INTAGLIOS. 



SOMMEKVILLE COLLECTION. 



PLATE iV.l. 







«r.s 






U. 



MISCELLAXEOCS CREEK AXD ROMAN INTAGLIOS. 



SOMMERVILLE COLLECTION. 



PLATE 70. 








»f^ 






P^-0' 

"^^i- 








MLSCELLANEOUS GREEK AND ROMAN INTAtiLIOS. 



SOMMERVILLE COLLECTION. 



PLATE 71. 




MISCELLANEOUS GREEK AND ROMAN TNTACLIOS. 



SOMMERVILLE COLLE<;TION. 



PLATE 72. 




MISCELLAXEOrS IXTA<;LIO RINGS. 



SOMMERVILLE COLLECTION. 



PLATE 73. 




MISCELLANEOUS INTAGLIO KINGS. 



SOMMERVILLE COLLECTION. 



PLATE 74. 




MISCELL.^XEOrS IXT.iCLIO KINCS. 



SOMMERVILLE COLLEOTION. 



PLATE 7S. 




MISCELLANEOUS ISTAGUO RINGS. 



.SOMMERVILLE COLLECTION. 



PLATE 76. 






924 










9.51 








MIS('ELL.\NEOUS IXTAGLIO RINGS. 



SOMMERVIl-I.E COLLFCTION. 




AN'TIQI'E PASTES. 



-ilMMEKVII.LE COLLECTION. 



I'LATK 78. 







ANTUil'E PASTES. 



80MMERV1LLE COLLECTION. 



PLATE 79. 




ANTIQUE PASTES. 



SOMMERVILLE COLLECTION. 



PLATE 80. 






.<O.MMi;i;VII.I.E COLI-ECTION. 



I'l.ATE SI. 






]2!H 



S(lMMKl;VII,I.E (OILECTIOX. 



PI.ATK S2. 






AMBERS. 



SOMMERVILI.E COLLECTION. 



PLATE 83. 





l:!2.") 
Reduced to one-quarter the original size. 



CAMEO RING AND LARGE ANTIQUE. 



SOiM.MERVII.I.K COLLKCTION. 



PLATE SJ. 




1327 




HISTORICAL CAMEOS. 



SOMMERVII.LE COLLECTION. 



[•LATE 85. 





HISTORICAL C.\MEOS. 



POMMERVILLE COLLECTION". 




HISTORICAL CAMEOS 



SOMMERVII.LE COLLECTION. 



PLATE S7. 




Hls^TORICAL CAMEOS. 



SOM.MEKVII.LE COLLECTION. 



FLATE XS. 




133S 




HISTORICAL CAMEftS. 



SOMMERVILLE COLLECTION. 



PLATE 8!l. 




HISTORICAL CAMEOS. 



SOMMERVILLE COLLECTION. 



I'LATE 90. 





HISTORICAL CAMEOS. 



SOMMKKVn.LE COLLECTION. 




1*42 




HISTORICAL CAMEOS. 



SOMMERVII.LE CULLECTION. 



PLATE il2. 




l:?4S 




HISTORICAL CAMEOS, 



SOMMERVIU.K COLLEI TION 



PLATE 9S. 




HISTORICAL CAMEOS. 



SOMMERVn>LE COLLErTION. 




i:i47 




134S 



HISTORICAL CAMEOS. 



SOMMERVILLE COLLECTION. 



PLATE 95. 





HISTORICAL CAMEOS. 



SOMMERVILLE COLLECTION. 



PLATE %. 




HISTORICAL CAMEOS. 



SOMMERVILLE COLLECTION. 



PLATE 97. 









MIS(ELL.\N?:or.S CAMEOS. 



SOMMKRVIM.E cdl.I.WTION. 



PLATE !«. 





1357 
Enlarged four tiraes. 



MISCELLAXEOVS CAMEOS. 



SOMMERVILLE COLLECTION. 



PLATE 1)9. 




ML«CELLANEOUS CAMEOS. 



SOMMERVILLE COLLECTION. 



PLATE 100. 




MISCELLANEOU.* CAMEO.S. 



SOMMERVILI.E COLLECTION. 



PLATE 101. 




REPRODrCTION OF THE HAPSBURG GEMS. 



POMMEKVII-LE COLLECTION' 





REPRODUCTION OF THE HAPPBrRCi GEMS. 



SO.MMERVILI.E COLLECTION. 




REPKODrCTION IIF THK HAPSBIRIt (iEMS 



SOMMERVILLE COLLECTION. 



PLATE 1(M. 




1.1 II 
.\«'t!liil size I. 



.Ill'ITKH .KOroiHl- 



JIPITER yEGIOCHUS. 



The engraving on Plate 104 represents one of the ten important and 
remarkable antique cameos that have been preserved from the fir.-t and 
second centuries a. d. 

The subject of this cameo is Jupiter ^-Egiochus : it is engraved on a ehrys- 
opnise of remarkaljle dimensions, being 1(57 millimeters in height by 130 
millimeters in breadth. It is of the close of the epoch of Marcus Aurelius or 
the earlier years of the reign of C'omniodus. The style is that of the Grteeo- 
Roman art. The work is very beautiful for that epoch, and there rests in 
this head of the master of the gods an accent of grandeur in which one feels 
the reflection of the original (ireek of the better centuries imitated here by 
the engraver of the Roman age. 

Wlu\t gives a considerable merit to the cameo here rcproducrd in connec- 
tion with its size — which is extraordinary — is the extreme rarity of the repre- 
sentation wliicli it oHi'rs us. One has known until now^ iiut two monuments 
where the image of the iiust of Jupiter reunites the two attrilmtcs, ordinai-ily 
separated, of the crown of oak-leaves binding the hair and of the ^Egis — viz. 
the famous cameo Zulian found in Ephesus and preserved in tiie Bibliotheque 
Saint Marc at Venice, and the other cameo, whose origin is unknown, and 
wliich is only known by a plaster reproduction by Cades (Improute gemmarie, 
dame I. A, Xo. 17). On the last stone the head of the god is represented 
in profile turned toward the left, wjiile on the cameo Zulian it presents full 
face, as in this Jupiter ^Egiochus ; and the relationship of representations 
which one and the other offers is singularly close. 

On the monuments of art the crown of oak-leaves is the exclusive and 
characteristic attribute of the Dodonian Zeus of Epirus, and when one finds 
it binding the head of the king of Olympus on the moneys of other countries, 
one can accept it as a certain indication of affiliation between the local cult 
and the old Pelasgic religion of Dodona. Such is the case of the Jupiter 
crowned with oak-leaves which the Thessalians have represented on their 
medals, and also of Sagalassos of Pisidia. 

The jEgis does not appear until now to have been counted among the 
ordinary attributes of Ju])iter of Dodona. We do not see it on the monu- 
ments which belong most positively to his worship. ]Many erudites have 
therefore thought of some particular and local form of Zeus explaining the 
representations which unite the crown of oak-leaves to the Mg\s. As Vis- 
conti has remarked, the Homeric poems attribute on two occasions in formal 
terms the crown of oak-leaves to Zeus ^Egiochus : 

Eiffav I)—' aiY'.iiyniit J;oc —£/ji/.a/./J: crij^tu ii; 

' Iliml., E, (i93. » UUul. Z, (iO. 

662® 



«62** SOMMERVILLE COLLECTION. 

There certainly waf^ eiiough in tiiese expressions of the poet Homer to 
authorize the artist to reunite in the figure of the god the two attributes of 
the crown of oak-leaves and the -<Egis, without any necessity of allusion to a 
particular cult. 

It is an interesting circumstance, which merits particular attention, that 
the cameo Zulian coming from Ephesus and this Jujjiter ^Egiochus are cer- 
tainly of the workmanship of Asia ^Minor. 

The stone is maculated in a peculiar manner, which in my opinion rather 
augments the interest of the gem, for it enables us to locate the source of the 
chrysoprase. This Jupiter Jigiochus is engraved on a stone of two strata, 
the base of mellow green chrysoprase, which is more intense in color at the 
extreme back. The features, hair, and beard are on a thick stratum of chal- 
cedony with macuiations in several places, centrally brown or dark-red sur- 
rounded bv a green zone ; on the hair, beard, and breast other spots less 
markeil are of the hue of burnt sienna. There are brownish ])atches or clouds 
on the surface at the back of the stone, which has never been jwlished. From 
these macuiations and patches or chtuds Dr. Joseph Lei<ly of the University 
of Pennsylvania expresses the opinion that this stone was obtained from the 
heliotrope locality of India — India from whose mines the gem-engravers of the 
ancient school obtained the most unique minerals on which to elaborate their 
grand designs. 

The jEgis, which is here thrown over the left shoulder, is formed, like the 
tortoise-shell, in overlapping sections. 

Kai'lv in this century the cameo above described made part of the cele- 
brated Xorthwick Collection of England ; afterward it was acquired by a 
wealthy connoisseur in France, and later passed into the possessi(m of M. 
Feuardent, Paris, when, with his permission, an engraving of it appeared, with 
five quarto ])ages of text an<l notes, in the (jitzelte archio/nf/i(jue, Paris, 1.S77, 
edited by Baron J. De Witte, Membre de ITnstitut, and Franfois Lenormant. 
Profe.sseur d'Areheologie jires la Bibliotbwiue Nationale. That descriptive 
and argumentative article on the antique gem Jupiter ^Egiochus is from the 
pen of M. Francois Lenormant, with the collaboration of ^I. Adrien Long- 
perier. 

M. Adrien Longperier, the distinguished glyptologist and savant of the 
Institut de France, some thirty years ago made a study of this gem, and 
seriously contemplated its acquisition for France; he urged the Fi-ench 
Government to authorize its purchase tor the collection in the Salle des 
Pierres gravees in the Bildiotheque Nationale, Paris, or for the Museum of the 
Louvre. Several other museums also negotiated for its purchase, but. the 
late owner being firm in his demand, the price caused them to delay, and now 
it lielnugs to America, being part of my collection. 



SOMMERVILLE COLLECTION. 




GREEK AND ROMAN CAMEOS. 

CASE A. 

1. Sardimij.r — Pallas, the Greek Jliiierva. This stoue lias suffered from 

fire, yet is still beautiful. 

2. iSardonp- — Phoebus Guiding the Chariot of the Sun. Beautiful, rare 

Oriental stone. 

3. A(/nte-Oiii/.i-—The Ferryman of Christ, 8t. Christopher. The legend of 

our Saviour being carried over the water. 

4. Sardonyx — Meleager and Atalanta dancing. 

5. Oriental Jaxper — Father, Son, and Holy Spirit ; three faces ; Aljiha and 

Omega. The attendant angel's wings are so displayed iu lines as to 
form A, Alpha, and on the tiara can be seen fl. Omega. 

6. A/jaie-Oni/.r — Faustina Senior. 

F.iiistina Senior, wile uf Antuninus Pius ami .sister of .Elius L'n'.sar — a beaiilil'iil 
but ))rl^Higate wouuui. Xotwithstautliug the irregularities of her life, her liusliaud 
loaded her with honors, and after her death established, in commemoration of her, 
a hospital for the education of deserving young women. 

7. Yfillow Marble — The Sacrifice of Isaac by Abraham. 

It is of the fourtli century .\. ii. The gold luounting is Merovingian, of the sixth 
or seventh century a. h. C)n ii can lie seen .\brahani, Isaac, the NiKE, or heavenly 
?,n 66.S 



664 



SOMMERVILLE COLLECTION. 



recognition of victory, and the propitiatory ram. A highly interesting and unique 
piece, being in the style of work I'oinid on sarcophagi of tliat epoch. In May, ISSl, 
I exhibited it before tlie Acadeuiie des Inscriptions de I'lnstitiit de France, wlien a 
notice in tlie official jonrnal of France gave me credit for having found it. (.See M. 
Edmond Le Blant's address. From a photograph made from the stone by Mr. P. 
Diijardin, Rue Vavin, Paris, by the electric light, and jiroduced at the request of 
Me.ssrs. Ernest Kenan and Edmond Le Blant of I'lnstitut de France.) 

The remai-k.-< on the opposite page (665) were made before tlie Aead- 
emie des Inscriptions de ITnstitut de France by M. Edmond Le Bhmt, 
ex-President, on the 27th of" May, 1881. 

The note on page 666 is an autograph second notice by M. Edmond 
Le Blant, on the gem, " The Sacrifice of Isaac by Abraham." 




I always remember the pleasure evinced by II Commendatori Giovanni 
Battista de Rossi of Rome on viewing this Christian cameo of the time 
of Constantinc. This slight record of his services faintly expresses my 
appreciation of the privilege of occasionally conversing with, and con- 
sulting on my subject, one so learned and genial. 



JOURNAL OFFIdEL DE LA REPUBLIQUE FRANOAISB 

ACABEJflES ET CORPS SIVAAIS 

acadMib des inscriptions 

XI BSLLES-LGTTRES 



Siance du 27 mai 188f. 



PRESIEENCE DE M. PA\'ET DE COURTEIIXE 

M. Edmoud Le Blant. M, Maxwell 
Sommerville, de Philadelphie, me charge 
de presenter un voluma intitule : Engra- 
ved gems; their place in the history of arl. 
Le livre contieut d'abard un interessanfc 
travail sur la glyptique des anciens, puis 
le catalogue illustr^ d'une grande et belle 
coUectiou de cam^es, d'intailles, de pdtes 
de Terre chri^tiens et paiens, collection 
formge par I'auteur lui-meme. C'est sur- 
tout i Rome, et ea suivant les fouilles 
avec perseverance, que M. Sommervilla 
a pu r^unir una serie4mportante de ty- 
pes dont plusieurs feraient rhonneur 
d'un. grand musee. 

A cote d'cEuvres d'un art plus parfait, 
on me permettra de signaler, au point de 
vue special de mes etudes; un petit cam^e 
da marbre figurant la moitie d'une noix 
et sur le plan duquel sa detache la scena 
da sacrifice d'Abraham, ex^cutS au qua- 
trieme siecle, dans nn style absolument 
identique ii celui des sarcophages clirS- 
liens. C'est, pour M. Maxwell Sommer- 
ville, une vraie'conquete que d'avoirje- 
trouvd cei bbjet unique, vu autrefois par 
Boldetti, qui en. avait' donn§ una copia 
tres-informe. 



■ The series referred to by M. Le Blant was only two cases of my collection, containing 
sixteen or eighteen stones. 

665 



Autograph second notice on the gem, " The Sacrifice of Isaac hy 
Abraham." 



u [K*. n»«, c»M^»i'^'^^ n>;it4,,m, «a.->rve^^ 



666 



GREEK AXI) BOMAX CAMEOS. 667 

8. Maculated Oriental Ja.^per- Ac/ate — A Greek Musical Mask, with flute. 

9. Oni/j: — Minerva, Roman, with a mask on tlie helmet. 

10. Maculated Sardorn/x — Greek, double. Obverse. Hippocrates. Eeverse, 

The Serpent on a Staff, the symbol of J>sculapius. The inscription is 
innoKPATHi AAPiliAinN &n& am, wliere AQa is abbreviated for 
AnArjNAini: '"Hippocrates of the Larisseans to the Dodonian Zeus " 
(or Jupiter). 

11. Onyx — The Sacrifice (^della Fecundita). A man and his wife making a 

sacrifice to Priapus that they may have an offspring. 

2sotice eight objects of interest : the husband, wile. Priapus, the aUar, the fire, the 
serpent, the tree, and the liead of the htscivious ram. The serpent is the genius loci. 

CASE B. 

12. Oialcedony-Oiii/x — Venus caressing Ganymedes, and instructing him for 

the high destiny to which ht: was calicil. 

The beautiful adolescent holds his finger to his lips, a symbol of timidity. Zeus 
(Jupiter I. nearly concealed by the outspread wings of his eagle, is abnut to carry 
Ganymedes oft' from earth, not being himself observed. Ganymedes has a hunter's 
cap, which he carries on his left arm, a sign of his Phrygian origin ; the vase at his 
feet is a symbol of the functions he is about to fulfil : he became cupbearer to Zeus. 

13. Chalcedony- Onyx — Plighted Hands, from an ancient betrothal ring. 

14. Chulcedony — Homer. 

15. Chalcedony- Onyx — Hadrian and Sabina. See Hadrian, No. 21. 

Sabina. wife of Hadrian and daagliler of Matidia, a good empress. She was en- 
rolled among the gods after her decease. \6y\ fine cameo. 

16. Chalcedony- On yx—Yoxmg Geta, brother of Caracalla, twenty-fourth Etn- 

peror of Rome. 

17. Lapis Z«3»//— Gordianus Pius III., thirty-tifth Emperor of Rome, \. d. 

2.38-244. 
The populace esteemed him highly, and, though but fifteen years of age, of fine 
form and appearance, they proclaimed hira emperor. By the conspiracy of Philip 
the Arabian, who sought to raise himself from the generalship, he was assassinated. 

18. Oialcedony-Onyx — Domitian, eleventh Emperor of Rome. 

19. Turquoise — A Mask. 

20. Sardonyx — Hercules, with the lion's skin. 

21. Chalcedony- Onyx — Hadrian, fourteenth Emperor of Rome. 

The first Boman emperor who wore a beard : he let it grow to hide the marks 
from smallpox. 

22. Green Jasper — 'Vespasian, ninth Emperor of Rome; laureated with gold. 

23. Agate-Onyx — Head of Jove. 



668 SOMMERVILLE COLLECTION. 

24. Maculated Chalcedony- Onyx — Hercules. Ob^orve the beautiful colored spots. 

25. Sardonyx — The Tambour-Player. 

26. Sardonyx — Child's Head (Cinque-cento). 

27. Janper-Agate — A Scenic Mask. 

28. Cha!cfdony-Onyx — Heliogabalus, or Elagabalus, twenty-eighth Emperor 

of Rome, in sacerdotal costume. 

29. Sardonyx — Claudius, fourth Emj)eror of Rome. 

30. Chalcedony-Onyx — Drusus, brother of Tiberius and father of Germanicus. 

31. Chalcedony- Onyx — Pyrrhus, King of Ei)irus. 

32. Jasper — Dido, Princess of Tyre in Phujnicia ; she afterward founded 

Carthage. 

33. Pale Onyx — Caracalla in Youth. 

CASE C. 

34. Onyx — .ffisculapius and Telesphorus. 

jEsculapiiis the loved physician and Telesphorus. Telesphorus — tliat is, the cora- 
pletiug — signifies "convalescence," '' the genius of recovery." A companion of ^Escu- 
lapius, a hoy, generally represented standing heside jEsculapius. Telesplioriis is 
clothed in an extraordinary garment : it is a mantle that covers his entire hody to 
the knees, inchiding a species of capuchin protecting the iiead ; his arms do not 
appear. This modest hahit of the god of convalescence seems to infer that those 
who are recovering from an illness should be extremely regular in their lives and 
should keep themselves well covered. 

Telesphorus is therefore another god of medicine, properly that of couvalescence ; 
he was greatly lionored at Pergamos. He is always represented as a youth, and in 
comparison with Hygeia aud ^Esculapius he seems only au infant. Telesphorus is 
sometimes represented at the side of Hercules, the group giving the god of force witli 
that of convalescence and health. Tiie gilt restoration was made by myself after an 
old engraving iu a Roman collection. 

35. Onyx — A Moor. 

36. Sardonyx — A Philosopher. 

37. Chalcedony- Onyx — Diana in a Chariot. 

38. Chalcedony-Onyx — Plautius Hypsoeus Decianus, consul and colleague of 

^milius Mamcrciiius. b. c. 47-"i. 

39. Onyx— A Nubian. 

40. Agate-Onyx — Socrates; three strata, cut in the third century. 

41. Green Jasper — Cleopatra, on a cuneiform stone. This stone has been used 

by an Oriental worker in gold ornaments as a burnisher, as can be seen 
liy e.xamining closely the edges. 



GREEK AND ROMAN CAMEOS. 669 

It is related tliat when Mark Antony gave Cleopatra a snpper on one of liis sliips, 
he had it expensively decorated with flowers and grapes, lie himself heing dressed as 
Bacolins and the shi]) illuminated. A sliort time after Cleopatra invited Mark An- 
tony to eat a salad with her. While they were eating it she said, "This .salad cost 
more than all your decorations." .She had worn in her ears a pair of pearls which 
were unequalled in the world for size and beauty. One of these she had taken and 
dissolved in the vinegar with which she had dressed the salad. 

42. Clialcedony—A Figure representing a Conquered City; also people in 

bondage. 

43. Chalredoii ij- Onyx — Minerva. 

44. Sardonyx— kvLgMsX-as and Livia, the emperor caricatured as a faun. 

Notice the ear and hair. 

45. Sard — Infant Bacchus on Horseback, with a goat's skin. 

46. Chalcedony-Onyx — Julius Csesar. 

47. Agate-Onyx — Pallas. 

48. Onyx — Three Heads, a mitre and two turbans. 

49. Siberian Jasper — Hercules. 

50. Agate — Commodus, eighteenth Emperor of Rome, son of the Emperor 

Marcus Aurelius. 

He was very extravagant and cruel. His chief delight was in horses; in guiding 
and managing them he thought himself unrivalled. He believed himself the equal 
of Hercules in strength, and drove about the streets of Rome naked, with the skiu of 
a lion and a club, causing himself to be called the Roman Hercules. He had also a 
passionate love for fighting with the gladiators, and had even decided to exhibit him- 
self in a public combat with them on the occasion of a grand spectacle which lie 
intended one dav to give in the amphitheatre, when he would be proclaimed chief 
of the gladiators. His friend Marcia, who was iiiucli attached to him, and to whom 
he confided this resolution, disapproved it, and made him reflect how indecorous it 
would be and wanting in dignity for a Roman emperor to expose himself, mixing in 
public with the dregs of the people; at which representation he was extremely indig- 
nant, and drove her from him with scorn, determining in his heart to take her life, 
together with that of several senators, whose sentence he had already signed upon a 
tablet of prepareil wax. At the head of the list stood the lady's name. By a strange 
coincidence, she saw the list in the hands of a boy who was playing with it and had 
found it in the bed of the emperor. 8he took it from his hands, read it, and, greatly 
terrified, ran with it to the senators who were condemned to death with her. With 
one consent they agreed to kill him. She told them that the habit of the emperor 
was to go every morning to the bath, and then to repose a while in his bed, where 
was usually carried him a cup of wine, after which he slept. They then resolved to 
poison this wine. Thus it was done, and he drank it, but, by a strange fatality, after 
some houi-s. being of a strong temperament, he threw it off his stomach. Then all 
was consternation and despair among the conspirators, exclaiming, " Now we are dead 
men !" but with haste they callcil Ateleta Narcissus, who suffocated the emperor with 
two fingers grasping the throat, and thus liberated Kome from one of her most bloody 
masters. 



fi70 SOMMERVILLE COLLECTION. 

51. Chalcedoiiii-Oiiij.r — A Divinity, with clevotfc- iiiiplorini;- his jirotectioii. A 

very tine ami interesting cameo. 

52. Sunloni/.r — Masaniello. 

53. A r/af e—Tnara, King of Troy. 

54. Oin/x — Jupiter. 

CASE D. 

55. Sitrdoiii/.f — The Three Graces. Fragment of an antique cameo, of the 

second century a. d. 

56. Canicliiiii — Fragment of a Inist of Neptune, found in tlie Tilier. 

57. Iceland Jaxpcr — Nude Figure of a Woman Drinking. \'ery curious 

cameo. (See anotlier, No. 608, Case JJ.) 

58. 0////.r— Hercules. 

5i). Mtciihifal Ariittc-Oiiij.r — Nymph sleeping, Satyr, and Amor or Cupid. 
Vase and shruhl)ery fine t'xamplc <if utilization of tiie niacuiated stime. 

60. Siinloiiij.i- — Xenocrates, tlic Greek j)hihisopher, '• tlie man of true benev- 

olence." A very fine cameo. 

61. Oiiij.i- — Antique ))ortrait of Alexander Severus. twenty-ninth Emperor of 

Koine. 

(12. (JiKirtz — A curioiis pehlile with Hue cameo portrait of Agrippina, tiiurth 
wife of Claudius. 

6o. Ui'd Jdxj/rr — Athene, with alibreviated Greek inscription (ui the obverse, 
also (in the reverse. 

Obverse- On the lieliiK't AO[HXn]. 



liQ/EEifTOrsiEri 



( )ln-erse. lievurse. 

Legeiul about the liead ; 2M[TPXH] 4'U[K.iI.A] .\EB[EJ02] K.\[APOi:] 




GREEK AND ROMAN CAMEOS. 671 

EP[ETPIA] .\AA[Ki:] TE[Oi:] .MT[KAA1I] KnA[04'S2X] E*[E20S] nPI[HXH] 
MTOX[Mli:Oi:j MIA[HTOi:]— Smyrna. Plioc*a, Lebetlos, Klaros. Eretria, Chalcis, 
Tens, Mycale, Coloplicm, Kpliesus, I'riene. Mvonnesiis, Miletus. 

Reverse: AQP[OX] | EKTOY AH.M[02I]0T | TAX IQNIKQN | nOAE[QX] EIS 
TOXEN] AEBEA[ni] XAOX TOT ] KAAP[IXOT] AOOA | AQXOS— Gift fniin llie 
league of tlie Ionian cities to the shrine of the Clarean ,\pollo in Lebedos. 

64. Chaketloinj — Odenathus, and Zenobia Queen of Palmyra. 

6"). Chalcedony- Onyx — Personification of the conquered Province of Dacia. 

CASE E. 

66. Thill Mdcnkited Red Ar/ati — The goat Amalthea, one of whose horns Zeus 
afterward irave to the thuiL'hters of Melisseus. 

6". <SV(/v/ — Incognito. 

68. Carndliiii Oinj.r — Incognito. 

69. ChalcedijiDj—Vavt of an Antique Betrothal Amulet, or cylinder (Maui in 

Ffdt; or Hand-in-hand ). 

7(1. Malachite — Diana in a Biga. 

71. Onyx — A Priestess in Sacerdotal Robes. 

72. Chalcedony-Ony.c — Tranquillina, wife of Gordianus Pius III. 

73. Tcneni — A Faun. 

74. Agate-Ony.v — Incognito. 

7-j. A'jnte — Drusus, brother of Tiberius. 

76. Pale Oiijj.r — Hertha. the goddess of the Earth. 

77. Sardonyx — Sappho, the Greek poetess, one of the two great leaders of the 

^olian school. 

78. Carnelinn Onyx — Young Germanicus, son of Nero Claudius Drusus, 

B. c. 15 

79. Pale Sardonyx — A Faun, 

80. Chalcedony- Onyx — Geta, 

81. Green Jasper — A Bacchanal, 

82. Chalcedony- Onyx — Julia, daughter of Titus. 

Julia, daughter of Titus by an Oriental woman, Berenice, with whom Titus 
lived when making war in Judea. This Berenice is the woman mentioned several 
times in Acts xxv. and xxvi. 

83. Chalcedony — Medusa (Cin(|ue-cento). 

84. Onyx — Nerva, twelfth Emperor of Rome, a. d. 96-98. Fine cameo. 



672 SOMMERVILLE COLLECTION. 

He was sixty-three years old at tlie time of liis becoming emperor, anil lacked 
the energy needed for the times. He was a good man and a patriot, and, witlioiit 
regard to his own kin, took measures to secure the succession to Trajan, then at the 
liead of tlie array in Germany. 

85. Onyx — An Ecclesiastic of the Sixteenth Century. 

80. At/ati'-Ony.c — Socrates, the Atheuiuu iihilusopher, B. c. 469. 

87. Onij.i- — A Vestal. 

88. Chalce(Jo)iy-Oiiijx — Zeno, founder of the Stoic philosophy. 

89. Clialcedony-Oiiyx — Alexander Severus, twenty-ninth Emperor of Rome, 

A. D. 222-235, pi-ochiimed emperor tliroiigh the infiueuee of Julia 

Mi&sa. 

He bnilt tlie Circus Agonale, which was where now is the Piazza Xavona; Iiere 
the marine and naval forces held their exercises in boats adapted to the depth of 
water. Tlicre were places for the spectators, as in the Colosseum. Severus noticed, 
in the combats of the gladiators in the Colo-^^senm, that one of the soldiers, a Goth, 
by name Maximinus, was more robust than the others and conquered in the contests. 
He advanced him and made him a general, and when Maximinus found his power 
so great he rewarded Alexander Severus by assassinating him and his mother, Julia 
Manuca. 

90. Chii/tr<loiii/-Oinjx — Trajan, thirteenth Emperor of Rome, A. D. 98-117. 

One of the greatest and best of the Kojuan emperors. He was a man of majes- 
tic appearance. He conquered the Dacians and Partliians, and descended the Tigris 
to the Persian Gulf. The Column of Trajan at Kome contains sculptures represent- 
ing his Dacian exploits. At the triumph accorded to him lie exhibited games for 
one hundred and twenty-three days. In these games eleven thousand animals and 
ten thousand gladiators slaughtered each other for the amu.sement of the Roman pop- 
ulace. Trajan built several of the great Roman roads, also the Forum Trajanum in 
Rome, in which stood the Column of Trajan. Several distinguished writers liveil in 
his reign — Tacitus, Pliny the Younger, Plutarcli, Suetonius, and Kpictctus. 

91. Onyx — Isis, the Egyptian divinity. Siiined Tkkesa Tai.axi F. 

92. Onyx — Heliogabalus, twenty-eighth Emperor of Rome, a. d. 218-222. 

He was proclaimed emperor by the influence of Julia Mu'sa ami ilie old Car- 
acalla party. He was born in the Orient. When a child he was dedicated as gran<l 
liigh priest of the Sun, and when proclaimed emperor he brought to Rome the deity 
Eliogabalo and commenced the functions aixl worship. 

CASE F. 

93. Eijypthtn Jaxjirr — Caracalla, twenty-fourth Emperor of Rome. 

94. Mdfachitc — A Cretan Nymph leading the goat Amalthea to tlie altar of 

Jupiter. 

According to .some traditions, Amalthea is the goat which suckled Zeus (Jupiter). 
The legend is that Zeus broke off one of the horns of the goat .\maltheii, and gave it 



GREEK AND ROMAN CAMEOS. 673 

to the d;uis;litei-s of Mellsseiis, ami endowed it with tlie wonderl'iil power ol" becom- 
ing filled with whatever the possessor uiight wish. This is the origin of the horn 
of plenty or eorniicopia. 

95. C7if(/fr(/o/(_(/-0/(//.c— Sappho, the Greek poote.-^s, a native of Mityleiie. 

96. Aqate — Hannibal, the Carthaginian general. The .shield is (iruanieiited 

with a horse, the symbol of Carthage. 

97. Chnhrdoini—Heai of Ceres, goddess of the Earth. 

98. SanloDij.r — Incognito. 

99. Sard — Claudius, fourth I-]niperor of Rome. Very fine. 

100. Pii/e Siirdoiii/x — Julia Paula, wife of Heliogabalus. 

101. Sard— A Scenic Mask. An antique of tlie first century. 

102. Af/ate — Bust of the Empress Maria Theresa of Austria. A modern cameo. 

cut during lier life. 
10?). Snrdoinjx — Chloris, wife of Zcjihyrus, goddess of Flowers. 

104. Oinj.c — Tiberius, secoixl Emperor of Rome. 

105. O/ii/.c — Caracalla, twenty-fourth Emperor of Rome. 

10<}. <S((/(^)////,c— Balbinus, tliirty-fourth Emperor of Rome, A. d. 238. 

Proelainicil emperor by the combined legions, and was associated with Pnpienns, 
and remained in Kome to protect the seat of the Empire while Piiiiienns went to w^ar. 
He was assassinated by the discontented guards. 

107. Sm-doiujx — .ffilius Caesar, tidoptcd by the Emperor Hadrian, who allowed 

him to ttike tlie title of C'tesar. 

108. Pale Sardo)iij.c— Julia., daugliter of Augustus and wife of Marcus Agrippa. 

CASE G. 

109. Orieiddl Simloin/.r—lhe Emperor Trajan, with Victory driving him in a 

ipiadriga. 

Notice the horses. A valual)Ie and beantifnl antique cameo. 

110. Oiii/.i- — Lysimachus. 

111. Chalcedony- Oiiy.v—Yenus. 

112. Yclloiv J«.s^)pr- 0/).'/.i-— Cleopatra, with the Asp. 

113. Alabmtcr — A Cameo. Too worn for recognition. 

Found in the Tiber. Once the property of Marshal Bliicher, as evidenced by 
the certificate held by the collector. 

114. Chalcedoinj- On ifx—tleTCules with his Club. 

115. Sardonyx — Petrarch's Laura. 



074 SOMMERVILLE COLLECTION. 

"Like tlie love ofAbehinl and Ilelnise, tlie Inve cif Petnnvli t'oi- Laura lias been 
tlie fonnilalion of that immortality which their memorv enjoys. In no other respect, 
however, were the two ca.ses alike, for the love of Petrarch wa.s free from every trace 
of that carnalism wliich tainted tlie aflections of Abclard and Heloise.'' 

110. Clidlci'donii-Oinjx — Livia, wife of Augustus. 

Remark the pale-green color of the garment covering the head. 

117. Miinilfdi'd A;/iit( — Caius Gracchus. Ivai-e stone. 

118. Surdoinj.i: — Marciana Augusta, sister of Tiajitii ami mother of Matiilia. 
llil. Sitnloiii/.f — Cicero. 

12ft. Cm-'il — Jupiter Serapis. 

121. Oiii/.r — An Oriental Female. A fuU-leiigtli nude fiirure. 

Notice the natural liesh color of the stratum in which the tigiu'e is cut. 

122. Pale Sarduiii/x—As^SLsiB, and Pericles. 

CASE H. 

123. Oiii/.f — Hadrian, fourteenth Einperor of Rome. Fragment of a grand 

anti'jiie cameo. 

124. Oiii/.r — Double cameo, Egyptian. A jeweled Sittah on the obverse, and 

the Lotus-plant on the rever.se. 

12.5. Sardonyx — Diogenes the Cynic in his tub. 

Ale.\ander the Great, it is related, said to him, "I am Alexander the Great," to 
wliich the cynic replied, " I am Diogenes the Cynic." Alexander then asked whether 
he could oblige him in any way, and received ior answer, "Yes, you can stand ont of 
the sunshine." He wore coarse clothing, always had his baton, lived on very simple 
food, and argued that man needed no luxuries to be truly happy. 

120. Chulcedoiiy-Onijx — Urania, one of the Nine Muses — Astronomy. 

127. Affide-Onyx — Jupiter, Juno with her Peacock, and Minerva, (iiainl 
antique cameo. 

The (Jreek inscription is cnrions. being in relief; T. r.WKEPOTEPQX | GES2X — 
"Of the Sweeter Deities" (T. probably for TL'Xi. 

This cameo is typical of the recognized religion whose earthly enthronement 
was upon the Kvantiue and the Capitoline hills. There are (counting the attendant 
birds) six figures on the gem; they are before the portico of the temple liuilt by Tar- 
ijuinius on the Capitoline Hill. Jupiter, King of heaven, protector of man — in fact, 
their heavenly Father — is represented seated, thunderbolt in hand, symbolic of his 
power to command thunder and lightning and bring them from the lieavens at his 
will, lie wa.s also regarded as the protector of both the internal and the foreign 
diplomaiy of the stale. Above his head the eagle, an impersonation of himself. All 
birds were said to fly upon his errands. 

On the left of the portico stands Jiino. Queen of hi-aven and patroness of women ; 
she is attended by her favorite peacock. The conjugal relation of Juno to Jupiter is 



GREEK AND ROMAN CAMEOS. 675 

indicated in this cameo, where she stands on the right, liv her hand resting on Jupi- 
ter's shoulder. Wliile her husband governed more partictihirly tlie aH'airs of men 
and of state, Juno presided especially over tlie domestic allliirs of the houscliold, in 
which naturally women were occupied. 

On the right of Jupiter stands his daughter Minerva, the third of llic ('a|iitoline 
divinities, attended by lier symbolic bird, the owl, her messenger by night, who with 
visage almost human looks wisely on the world. Minerva is represented with liel- 
niet and shield, because she protected the military forces and was lielieved to send 
victory to those who sought her aright, and appointed ffte-days for aged laborers 
and children. Not least among the blessings of her earthly mission were the hours 
of rest and diversion enjoyed by weary women, and by children freed on tliese occa- 
sions from all scholastic penalties. 

The partly-obliterated Greek inscription announces them to be "the Sweet 
Loved Principal Gods." The ornamented cornice about the contour is characteristic 
of the gem-engraving of the age. Tlie cameo is Grseco-Roman. 

12S. Chalcedony — An Amulet or Talisman cameo {Aimdeto delta Fecuiidlta e 
Propagaziotie). 

The symbol used is an "aringa," a fish ihnl in Italy deposits from thirty to forty 
thousand eggs annually. 

129. Chnlcedony-Oiii/.i—Snlla, the Dictator, b. c. 138. 

loO. Cli(dt'edoni/-Oiiij.v — Beautiful cameo of the sixteenth century. Pyrrhns in 
the guise of Cupid detaining lii.-^ father, Achilles, \vh<i lias been called 
to the Trojan war. 

The otlier figures are Deidameia, the mother of I'yrrhns, and her sisters, the 
daughters of Lycomedes, King of (he Dolopians. Pyrrlius was al.so called Neoptol- 
emus. The cameo has been broken and parlialJy restored. 

."^ee rude cameo in turquoise, No. 330. 

131. A(/atc — Septimius Severus, twenty-third Emperor of Rome. 



CASE I. 

132. Alabaster — A Persian Shah. 

133. Onyx — Cupid Guiding a Biga. 

134. Sardonyx — Plato, the comic Athenian jioet, B. v. 429-348. 

135. Aif ate- Onyx — Livia, widow of Augu.«tus. 

136. Agate — An Intaglio, lioughtof Mirza Petro.s Khan, Persian commissioner 

to Vienna Exhibition, 1873. 

137. Onyx — A Greek cameo. Dajankee (also known as Daiokes or Deiokas), 

a Persian prince seven centuries b. c. He was the founder of the 
empire. 

138. Chalcedony- Onyx — Cicero. 



676 



SOMMERVILLE COLLECTION. 



139. Agate — Hercules. 

140. Onyx — Chimera. Vitv fine. 

141. Amethijd — A Scenic Mask. AnticiiR', of the earlier^t Roman period. 

142. Agaie-Oiuj.c — Attalus, King of Pergamos, b. c. 241-197. 

A patron of literature ami the arts. 

14o. Agate Otujx — Augustus, first Emperor of Rome, b. c. 63-a. n. 14. 

After the assassination of his uncle, Jnlius C'ssar, he united m illi Antony and 
Lepidus to overthrow the conspirators and to form a second triumvirate over the 
whole Roman world. Augustus managed to rid himself successively of Antony and 
Lepidus, and thenceforth reignetl supreme. His reign was long and prosperous, and 
was distinguished by its patronage of arts and letters. 

144. Sardonyx — A Bacchante crowned, witli a mask. 

I A'). Agate — Hercules. 

146. Carnellan — Intaglio. Antique, bought of ]\Iirza Petros Khan, Persian 

commissioner to the Vienna JDxhibition, 1873. 

147. Carnelian — Cincinnatus preparing to Take the Field. 
14.S. Onyx — Livia. 

CASE J. 

149. Egyptian Jntiper — A Castellated Head, representing on tlie oljverse the 
head of C'ybele. 




It is surrounded hy an in.^cription giving the names of cities in the Ionian Con- 
federacy, as follows: i:.MTP[XA] *fl[K.\I.\] KA[AP02] i:p[ETPIA] XA[AKIi:] 



GREEK AND HUMAN CAMEOS. 



677 



TE[Oi:] MT[KAAn] AE[BEAOi:] K0A[(1<M2N] E*[E20S] nP[inNH] MTON 
[SIISOS] MIA[HTOi:]— Smyrna, Phoca-a, Klaros. Eretria, Chalcis, Teos, Mycale, 
Lebedos, Colophon, Ephesiis, Priene, Myonnesus, Miletus. 
The inscription on the reverse is in alibreviated Oreek : 



y 



^-T^ii^i^. 



mNfcnpAr 



The inscription in full would read as follows: AiiP[ON] | EK TOT AHM[OSIOT] 
TDN I U2XIK[i2N] riOAE[S2X] EIS | TON EN lMTPX[ni] | XAOX TOT \ OMHP 
[lOT] — Gift from the league of the Ionian cities to the Temple of the Homerion in 
Smyrna. 

The above rendering and ex|)lanatiou is from my friend, Dr. Isaac II. Hall, 
Curator of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, and, although it diflers 
slightlv from my own, I give it the preference, and express many thanks to that 
scholar for his aid. 

150. Ef/iipfian Ja.-'pcr — Represents Antoninus Pius and his Genius supplicating 

the deitv Sperauza on the inauguration of a military expedition. ]\Ii- 
nerva on tlie right. 
See also Xo. 51, Case C, a smaller gem — very similar, though a pliiloso|iher 
occupies the place of Minerva. 

151. Pale Sardoni/x — Homer, with inscription. 

This stone has eleven strata, the two most remarkable being those the color ot 
the yelk of an egg. I obtained this through Marselli from a Turk who during the 
late war found it in the palace of Abdul Assiz, who conniiitted suicide. 

152. Sardoiiy.r — Septimius Severus, twenty-third Em2)eror of Rome, a. d. 146- 

211. 

Though proverbially severe, as his name indicates, he was one of tlie greatest 
of the Roman emperors, and held important military commands under the emperors 
Marcus Aurelius and Commodus, and at the deatli of Pertiua.\, A. D. 193. became 
emperor. He commanded at the siege of Byzantium, and is noted for the terrible 



678 SOMMERVILLE COLLECTION. 

severity witli wliicli he punished that city for its prolonged resistance. He made 
brilliant conquests in the East— Selencia, Babylonia, Armenia, Palestine, and Egypt. 
He also attacked the Caledonians in liritain, and bnilt the faiiions Roman wall 
across the northern part of the island. He die<l at York, poisoned by his two sons, 
C'arar;illa and tJeta. 

15.3. Onyx — Marcus Aurelius, sixteenth Emperor of Rome. 

An allocntion of Marcus Anrelins before the Praetorian Guard : tlieir banners are 
inscribed S. C. (Sennlnx Consulliim). Very fine and interesting cameo. A basso-rilievo 
having much resemblance to this can still be seen on the ancient Arch of Constantine 
at Rome. 

154. Chalcedoiuj- Oni/.r — Socrates. 

155. Ch(ifcf'fh))iii-Oi)i/.r — Hercules and Deianira. 

Tlie subject of this cameo remained in doubt to me for a long lime, on account 
of the child in the oak tree. 

156. Onyx — Hebe, pourinj; out the ambrosial draught to Hercules. 

157. CIi'ilcnloin/-()jii/x—T:h.e Grief of Achilles at the Death of his friend Pa- 

troclus. A (ireek cameo. 



CASE K. 

All the sulijects in this case are of the animal kingdom. (See " Animals 
and Birds," page 115.^) 

158. Amethijdine Quarts — A Stag Reposing. A similar one is in the Musee de 

Cluny, Pari.s. 

159. Onyx — An Eagle. 

160. Sardonyx — An Eagle. 

161. Jasper-Onyx — A Lion Devouring a Horse. Fine stone. 

162. Sard — Langoaste, a shell-fish of the Mediterranean Sea, resembling a 

lobster. 

163. White .4^0/^— Ostrich. 

164. Sardunyx~A Lion. 

165. Chalceduny-Onyx — A Horse. 

The Greeks adored and carried gems representing a horse, in memory of the 
stratagem practised by Ulysses at the siege of Troy, when he caused a wooden liorse 
to be made in wliicb he and arms were transported by night into the city of Troy. 

166. Onyx — A Dog. 

167. Onyx — A Dog. 

168. Onyx — A Dog Reposing. 

Kii). 0)1'/.)- — A Lioness. Beautiful utilization of color of the stone. 



GREEK AND ROM AX CAMEOS. 679 

170. Onyx — Wild Boars, the animals which first taught man to plough the 

earth. 

171. Pale ScmJ— K'QviW. 

172. Green Jasper — A Horse. IiitaL'lio. 

178. Pale Sardonyx — A Cock, svinhul uf vigilance, as it announces the coming 
day. 

1732. Chitlcedony-Oityx — A Lion (Cinque-centu). 

174. Carnelian — A Horse's Head. 

175. Sard — A Monkey's Head. 

176. Alabaster — A Lion's Head, with a red tongue. 

177. Omjx — Two Domestic Cats. 

178. Agate — A Stag (Cinque-cento). 

1711. Sard — Fine Antique Cameo of an Animal. 

The introduction of sculptured anin]als upon stones of Konian rings was derived 
from tlie Egvjnians. 

180. Chalcedony- Onyx — Two Camels (Cinque-ceuto) 

CASE L. 

181. Maculated Sardonyx — The Goddess Canobus, tlie divine source in nature 

of humidity. Grand cameo. 

The Egyptians represented lier with a human liead surmounting a vase of water: 
she was considered the enemy of fire, and was adored by the tliirsty and weary. Tra- 
dition states that the priests of Cauobus, to prove lier potency, announced that she 
could destroy fire, and made a large image iu terra-eotta filled with water: in the 
base of the image-vase were secreted holes which were cunningly stopped with wax, 
so that until the miracle was exhibited no water was visible. A fire of quick-burn- 
ing wood was then kindled, and the deity Canobus was held or set closely on the fire : 
the wax melted, and naturally the water extinguished the tire, and victorious Can- 
obus, as she was proclaimed, was adored as the greater power, having conquered the 
fire. In the Bibliotheque Xationale at Paris there is a large vase of this deity in a 
beautiful state of preservation ; als(] several in the British Museum. 

182. Oriental Sardonyx — Claudius, fourth Emperor of Eome. 

Tliis cameo was cut iu tlie first century, in the epoch of Claudius. I believe this 
to have been cut by fragments of corundum. 

183. Sardonyx — Mercury. Curious red spot.s. 

184. Agate — 'Valerianus Senior, forty-fciuith Emperor of Rome, .\. d. 244. 

An able man, proclaimed emperor by ilie ."^enate and the army. A great per- 
secutor of the Christians. Made >var against iSapor, King of Persia. The Romans 
had conquered the Persians when Sapor asked for an armistice and that \'alerianus 
31 



680 SOMMERVILLE COLLECTION. 

should come witli liis generals and arrange the terms of peace. lie then ent-inlcd 
them with a powerful force, and liekl \'alei'ianus ten years a prisoner, and made liim 
dailv kneel down while he mounted his horse. Valerianus died of chagrin. Then 
Sapor flayed Valerianus and jirepared and stufled his skin, and put it in the palace 
as a souvenir of a Konian emperor prisoner. 

185. Onyx — Marcus Aurelius, sixteenth Emperor of Kome. 

With Lucius \'eriis was appointed the successor of Antoninus Pins. He was a 
Stoic and a philosopher. He made war in Germany and in the East, and sent out 
his associate, Lucius Verus, to Armenia, where Lucius Verus died of apoplexy. 
From this time ^L1rcus Aurelins remained sole emperor — about eight years. 

186. Agutc — Lucius Junius Brutus. 

187. Chalcedony — ^Plato, the Greek philosopher and poet. Two butterfly wings, 

emblematic of the beauty and gayety of his verses. 

188. Onyx — Chimera, four heads. 

189. 0«(/.e— Dante. 

190. Af/ate — Incognito (Cinque-cento). 

191. Pale 0» (/.(•— Pallas. 
19ii. Pale Onyx — Maecenas. 

193. Jacinth — Ptolemy XII., King of Egypt. A rare stone. 

By the will of his father, Ptolemy Auletes, who died B. c. 51, Ptolemy and his 
sister, the brilliant and fascinating Cleopatra, were married and made joint occupants 
of the throne. The brother died B. c. 47, and Cleopatra was left alone to practise 
her charms, first on Cicsar, and then on Antony. 

194. Onyx — Matidia, niece of Trajan. 

195. Lapis Lazidi — Oriental King. Crown surmounting turlian. 

196. Chalcedony- Onyx — Virgil, the Latin poet. 

197. Sardonyx — Augustus, first Emperor of Rome, and Livia, his wife. 

Livia, wife of Augustus and empress, a very able and ambitions woman, beau- 
tiful and beloved by Augustus. Before being married to him she was the wife of 
Tiberius Claudius Nero, by whom she had a sim, Tiberins. Augustus compelled the 
first husband to divorce Livia, and then married her. Xo son w.ts born to her of 
Augustus, but Tilierius, her son liy the first marriage, became emperor. 

198. Chalcedony- Onyx — Lysimachus, without the horn of Jupiter Amnion. 

199. Sardonyx — Nerva, twelfth Emperor of Rome. 

200. Pale Sardonyx^Sci'pio Africanus, so ctilled on account of his concpiests 

in Africa. He destroyed Carthage. 

201. Sardonyx— Olivia.. 

202. »ird— Juno. 



GREEK AND ROMAN CAMEOS. 681 

CASE M. 
All the subjects in this case are mythological. 

203. Paragon or Toitchdone, employed by jewellere to prove the quality of gold. 

This interesting cameo, having ten figures, counting tlie Iiirds, etc., has baffled 
many connoisseurs in their efforts to interpret its legend. The subject is mvtliolog- 
ical, and tlie following explanation (my own I is offered; 

The conception of this curious composition represents a group of mythoUigical 
characters associated with the amours antl pleasures to which Jupiter abandoned 
himself after the prolonged lalior of having oondiated and conquered the Giants. 

.Jupiter and .Juno hold festival; .Jupiter, King of heaven, sits complacently in 
Paradise enthroned by clouds; beside him the peacock, Juno's vain companion and 
symbol, spreads wide a canopy witli liis lu-turious plumage. "This is a day," says 
tlie peacock, '"to see and to be seen." On tlie left floats in air Oanymedes borne by 
his winged friend. 

Ubiquitous Jove, witli liis second eagle-self already on earth, chases the fair 
Antiope. who by her giant strides evinces that she would fain elude his gras]i ; Danae 
on the left also hastens her pace, having opportunely espied the fruit and flowers 
beyond being enriched by the golden rain, liy which transforniation .Jupiter had 
already ensnared her. On the right, virgin Diana, dreading the sight of men, fresh 
from the Aventine, accoutred for the chase, advances in a grove of trees, followed by 
Fauna Fatua, her second self: they approach Iris, who, looking to the skies, wafts to 
llie symbol of her mistress, the queenly Jinio, salutations annoimcing the strife she 
has enkindled here on earth. The large eagle below is to indicate the presence of 
Jupiter. 

204. Pale Sardoiu/.r—'KeTeviles. 

205. Onyx — A Bassarid. 

206. Chalcedony- Onyx — Diana. 

207. Pade, unclassified — The Hermaphrodite. 

208. Agate- Onyx — lole, beloved of Hercules. 

209. Chalcedony- Onyx — Venus. 

210. Chalcedony- Onyx — Apollo. 

211. ir/uVe Chalcedony — Medusa (Cinque-cento). 

212. Onyx — Jove Serapides. An antiijue cameo, a splendid work. 

213. Sardonyx — Hercules with the Lion's Skin. The setting and the diamond 

sparks are niediseval and nidc. 

214. Sardonyx — Ajax, son of Telamon, second only to Achilles in bravery. 

In a contest for the armor of Achilles, Ulysses conquered him, and this caused 
his death. Beautiful cameo. 

215. Sardonyx — Thyia, one of Dionysus' suite, with the mask of Jledusa. 

216. Agate — Minerva. 



682 SOMMERVILLE COLLECTION. 

217. Onyx — A Bacchante. 

218. Sardonyx — Bust of a Faun, with a tiger-skin. Beautiful stone. 

219. Agate- Onyx — lole, daughter of Eurytus, married to Hyllus, son of Her- 

cule.s. 

220. Sardonyx — Jupiter. 

221. Onyx — Profile of Medusa, generally given in full face. 

222. Agiite-Omix — Lena, ijacchante, with a goat's head on her .shoulder. Beau- 

tiful niaculation in the upper stratum. 

223. Onyx — Chimera. 

224. Pale Sardonyx — Minerva. 

225. A (fate — Minerva. 

226. Onyx — Minerva, a Caprice. Helmet, licad, and breast ornamented with 

masks. Very tine. 

227. Mandated Red Calcite — Jupiter, surnamed Maxinius. (From the collec- 

tion of Vannutelli, a celebrated Roman advocate, who had a fine 
cabinet.) 

CASE N. 

228. Oriental Green J«.-i/)fc— Justinian, surnamed the Great, Emperor of Con- 

stantinople, A. D. ■527-">(>>, husband of the beautiful actress Theodora. 

229. Rich Red Jasper — Aristides, a Greek philosopher. 
2o0. Onyx — Livia, wife of Augustus. 

231. Sardonyx — Hercules with the Lion's Skin. 

232. Agate — Brennus, general of the .'-icnonian Gauls, B. C. 390. He defeated 

the Romans at the Allia and took Rome. 

233. Agate — Psyche. 

23-1. Chalcedony — Antoninus Pius, fifteenth Emperor of Rome. 

235. Agate-Onyx — Bellerophon, catching the " winged horse Pegasus" drink- 

ing at the well of Peirene. Pegasus, son of ]Medusa by Poseidon. 

236. Sardonyx — Apollo. 

237. Amethyst — Medusa. 

238. Pale Onyx — Incognito. 

239. Chalcedony- Onyx — Incognito. Fine head. 

240. 0»y.r— Pallas. 

241. Chalcedony- Onyx— "Plato, the Greek philosopher. 



GREEK AND ROMAN CAMEOS. 683 

CASE O. 

242. Oriental Cha/ccdony, tinged with Sapphire hue — Meleager, wild-l'diir 

hunting in the wilds of Calydon. Interesting antique eanico. 

243. Agate— A Moor. 

244. Sardonyx — Incognito. 

24.5. Agate — Incognito. A fine stone. 

246. Lapi.i Lazuli — A Faun (Cinque-cento). 

247. Agate- Onyx — Cicero, the Roman orator. 

248. Carnelian — Geta, In-other of Caracalk, twenty-fourth Emperor of Rome. 

249. Agate- Onyx — Hercules. 

250. Onyx — Crispina, wife of Conimodus. 

251. Sardonyx — Julia, daughter of Titus. 

252. Sardonyx — Galba, sixth Emperor of Rome. 

253. Onyx — Leander. Cut by Santarelli. 

254. Gold — ^Sledal jiortrait of Gio. Antonio Santarelli, who cut the cameo of 

Leander, above. I bought this of one of his descendants. 

255. Agate-Onyx — Gallienus, forty -fifth Emperor of Rome, a. d. 200-268, the 

son of Valerianus Senior. 

Wlien the news came that his father was prisoner in Persia, Gallienns miglit 
liave gone witli a legion anil have tried to release his father, but for his own ambi- 
tion he ha<l himself iiroclaimed emperor. 

256. Sardonyx — Pallas. 

257. ^4//a^'— Augustus in Youth. 

258. Onyx — Pertinax, niueteentii Emperor of Rome. 

259. Oriental Onyx — Numa Pompilius. 

260. Agate-Onyx — Maecenas, the friend of Augustus and the arts. 

He liail a palace where now stands Santa Maria Maggiore. 

261. Jasper — A Bacchanal. 

262. Sardonyx — Chimera, witli four heads. 

CASE P. 

263. Onyx— A Satyr, showing teeth. 

264. Face of Chalcedony — Tiberius, second Emperor of Rome, .\. d. 14-37. A 

valuable fragment of an antique cameo cut in his epoch. Finished in 
plaster and gilded by the collector. 



684 SOMMEBVILLE COLLECTION. 

Was ailupteil by Augustus and succeeded him ; was noted for liis cruelty and 
licentiousness; his hms; reign is one of the darkest in Koman annals. Much of his 
time was spent in lascivious debauch in the island of Caprea;, while the afiairs of the 
Empire were left iu the liands of the Senate at Rome. 

265. ^^afe- 0»2/-i'— Jupiter Serapis. A sujierb antiijue cameo. (See "Hilda's 

Tower," page r,7!'.) 

266. Onyx — John the Baptist. A curious cameo. Examine closely inscriiition. 

267. Pale Sardonyx — Coriolaaus. His inother and wife beseeching him to raise 

the siege of R(jnie. On the left the Roman guard who accompanied liis 
inother, and on the right his own, the Volsciaii guard. Sujierb cameo. 
(See "Historic Cameos," page 119.) 

268. Onyx — The Miraculous Transportation of the Virgin Mary's House 

across the Adriatic Sea to Lorettu, where it now is visited within the 
magnificent Cathedral of Loretto by thousands of pilgrims annually. 

269. Onyx — Cicero. 

270. Affitte-Oni/x — The Annunciation. Superb cameo of the si.Kteenth century. 

Wonderful utilizatiim of the maculation iu the stone; when held to the light, an 
arcliway is seen between and beyond the Angel and Mary. 

271. Sardoni/x — Portrait of the Marquis de Lafayette, by one of the incisori 

of the close of the last century. 

CASE Q. 

272. Pale Oni/x — Priam asking Achilles for the Body of Hector. 

273. Sard — Jove. 

274. Sardonyx — Medusa, daughter of Phorcys and Ceto. 

275. Sardonyx — Plautilla, wife of Caracalla and daughter of the African Plau- 

tianus Fulviu^. 

276. Bed Fehhpar — A Jewish King. Cut in iiuitatinn ni' the antique l)y M. 

Sommerville. 

277. Onyx — A Divinity. Antiijuc fragment of first century. 

278. Onyx — Petrarch's Laura. 

279. Afjate-Onyx — Agrippina, daughter of Germanicus and Agrippina. 

She was daughter, sister, wife, and mother of an emperor. Her vices and her 
ambition rendered her famous. She married Crispus Passienus, twice consul, wliom 
she poisoned. She entered the capital on a car similar to a priest's offering-car, aud 
shared the imperial powers aud honors with Claudius. 

280. Garnet — A Scenic Mask, bearded. 

281. GarHe<— A Faun. 



GREEK AND ROMAN CAMEOS. 685 

282. Chalcedviii/, tinged with Sajyphire color — Vestal Virgins before their Tem- 

ple, guarding the Palladium, the saci-ed effigy of Minerva. (8ee " Bel- 
gium's Contribution," pace 3o(;.) 

283. Maculated Jasper — A Philosopher. 

284. Chalcedo)iy-OHij.i\ double gem — Obverse, An EmT^Tess, in relief. Reverse, 

Virgin and Child. Intuiilio. 

285. Amethy4 — Gordianus Africanus Junior, thirty-second Emperor of Rome. 

General ol' an African legion, pioelainied emperor, and recognized by the Konian 
Senate. lie was associated with his father in the empire. Died by assassination. 

286. Oiii/.c — Commodus, eighteenth Emperor of Rome. 

287. Alabadei — Female Head, with turreted crown, signifying a city. 

288. Chalcedony- Omj.r — Semele, afterward called Tliyone, mother of Dionysus 

(Bacchus;. 

CASE R. 

289. Chalcedoiui — Heliogabalus, twenty-eighth Emperor of Rome. Rare and 

beautiful cameo, giving the entire figure. 

The globe in his right hand is emblematic of the power then attributed to 
Roman emperors — a power governing, as was snpposed, the whole earth ; his left 
hand rests on the pointless sword, denoting that in keeping with the dignity of his 
imperial fnnctions he was not to execute, but to command. 

290. Hardonyx —The Power of Love : Cupid in a chariot drawn by a goat and 

a lion. 
"He drives not only the lascivions, but the strong." 

291. Siberian Labrador ite—Tnll Moon. 

292. Sardonyx — Aristides, a Greek philosopher. 

293. Snrf/oHy.r— Germanicus, nephew of Tiberius, and his wife Agrippina. 

.\grippina, danghtei" of Marcus .\grippa and wife of Germanicus, was distin- 
guished for her virtues and heroism, and shared all the dangers of her husbaml's 
campaigns. 

294. Sardoiiy.v—A Gladiator. 

295. Maculated Agate- Onyx— ?3.\\z.i. Beautiful stone ; notice color. 

296. Onyx — Marciana, si.ster of Trajan. 

297. Ony.t — Ptolemseiis. 

298. Chalcedony- O/; i/.c— Domitia. 

299. ^(/o/e- OHy.c— Phoebus in a Quadriga. 

300. Jasper — Roman Mask. 



686 SOMMERVILLE COLLECTION. 

301. Chalcedony-Oii p—GermanieviS. 

302. Chaleedo)iy-(Jnij.c — Lysimachus, general of Alexmuler and King of 

Thrace. 

303. Chalcedony- Onyx — Meleager, the wild-boar hunter. 

304. Affute-Ony.r—Aj&x, one of the League wlio made war on the Trojans. 

305. Pale Sardonyx— TortTait of a Gladiator, known as the Bustuarius. 

He soiislit to proiiitiate the shailes of llie distinguished dead bv bloody contests 
before tlieii- toinbs, and thought thus to pacify the infernal gods on their belialf. It 
was an ancient custom to sacrifice at tliose sepulclires captives taken in war, as ^Eneas 
did at tlie finieral-pyre of Pallas. The unfortunate prisoners often prostrated them- 
selves before the mortuary shrines of those they adored, anil wept, as did even Achilles 
at the funeral of Patroclus. (See No. 157, Case J.I 

This gem is a portrait, and does not represent tlie gladiator in the position as in 
the gem shown in my collection of 1877, which is not now in my possession. 

These funeral scenes were eventually converted into pompous spectacles of lu.\- 
urv and e.spen.se, and were celebrated, to the great delight of the people, in the forum 
and theatres, entirely forsaking the sepulchres, and were called " the gladiators' funeral 
rites for the souls." 

306. .SV(/v/o////.i'— Claudius Albinus, twenty-.sccond ]':ni|ieror of Konic, born at 

Adrumctuni in Africa. 

Had a valorous army, which SeptimiusSeverus feared, thinking he would [u-ove 
a competitiu- for the I'.niiiire. He resolved to make a friend of him, and flattered 
him by creating him Cicsar and adopting him to the Empire, at tlie same time cre- 
ating a war in order to keep him at a distance. But when Septimius Severus felt 
himself firm in the Empire, and had been recognized by the Senate and people of 
Eome, with a |>rele.\t of ilispleasure he caused Claudius Albinus to be destroyed in 
the war. 

307. Siinhniijx — Tiberius, second Emperor of Rome. 

CASE S. 

308. Sardonyx — Vespasianus, ninth Kniporor of Rome, A. I). 70-70. A remark- 

able cameo. 

He was born A. i). 9, reigned with great distincliou, and was one of the nol)lest 
of the Roman emperors. Unlike most of them, he lived plaiidy, as a private citizen, 
rather than as one po.ssessed of supreme power. I Ic was never ashamed of the mean- 
ness of Ills origin, and laughed at tlio.se who tiicd to make (iiU fi.r liim an illustrious 
liedigree. Receiving from a Parthian monarcli a letter, beginning " Arsaces, king 
of kings," he reiilied, "Flavins Vespasianus to .\r.saces, king of kings." The purity 
of his private life is s,aid to have done more to reforin the morals of Rome than all 
the laws which had ever been enacted. He is particularly noted for the siege of 
Jerusalem, liegun Ky him-i'lf and cpinpleted liy his snu Titus. 

309. Sardonyx — .ffisculapius, "the blameless ])hysici:in," scui of Apollo and 

t'oronis ; also, the god of the medical art. 



GREEK AND ROMAN CAMEOS. 687 

.310. Agate — Mercury. 

oil. Clialeeiloiiij-Oiii/.i- — Alexander of Macedonia. Cut by Santiurlli. (See 
medal portrait of the artist, }iu. 2o4, Case O.) 

312. Jiisper-Oiti/.f, with Marcasite — Vespasianus, niiitli Emperor of Rome. 

Tlie Konians, Cireeks, and Persians used sUmes niiitaiiiing marcasite I'ni- ciigraveil 
gems. 

313. Pa/e Af/afe-Oiii/.r — Lysimachus, a general under Alexander of !Maeedonia, 

and afterwaid King of Thrace. 

314. Oricntdf ClKiIi-cdoinj-Oinjx — Apollo. Very Kne. 
31.^. Oiiij.c — An Amazon, with Phrygian beretto. 
31(). Orienhd Surdoitijj: — Hercules. 

317. Agate-Onijx — Caligula, thinl Emperor of Rome. 

318. Topuz — Valerianus Junior, forty-.sixth Emperor of Rome, son of Gallienus. 

The party tliat Ijad lecugiiized liis power was diseontented, and liad liim assas- 
sinated. We find a representation of liis liead on coins and cameos. 

319. Chfdcedoiiij-iJiiijx — Satyr, witli the head of a goat. 

320. iSardoityx—'Ha.rs and Minerva. Fragment. 

321. Chalcedomj-Onijx — The Cymbal-player. Fragment. 

322. 0;(i!/.i-— Pallas. 

323. Red Jasper — Pergamos, in a mantle called the chlamys. 

324. 0/(//.i-— Tellus, the divinity of the Earth. 

325. Oririihd I'dlr tSardniiijx — Pupienus, thirty-third Emperor of Rome, A. n. 

238. 

Proclaimcil Ijy tlie combined legions to rei;;n with Ilalljinns. I'upicinis was a 
valorous soldier, and went to war while Balliiniis remained in Home to i>rotect the 
seat of the Kinpire. Assassinated liy the Praetorian (niard.s. 

32(i. Jasper-Oiiijx — Young Augustus, fir.st Emperor of Rome. 

327. Sdi-doiiijx — Trebonianus Gallus, forty-tir.sl Emperor of Rome. Beautiful 

stone. 

Reigned A. D. 251-254; purchased a disgraceful peace from the invading Goths, 
and was, with his son Volusianiis, put to death liy his own soldiers. 

328. Pale Onyx — Q,uintius Hostilianus, fortieth Emperor of Rome, the son of 

Trajan Decius. 

Created Caesar, and reigned with his father. We find coins and cameos of his 
reign. 

329. SardiDii/x — .ffilius Caesar, adojited bv the Emperor Hadrian, who allowed 

him to take the title of C;esar. 



688 SOMMERVILLE COLLECTION. 

CASE T. 
All the subjects in this case are enjiraved on tiinjuoise. 

330. A Carious Old Turquoise — Achilles iiaitiiii;- with Deidameia and his son 

Neoptolenuis or Pyrrhus. 

Deitlanieia was one of the daughters of Lycoiiiedes. King of the Dulopians. 

Tills tiir(jiioise iias h)st its original briglit bhie color from age, as is the case with 
all in this collection. The arms and legs are cut entirely in relief A straw can be 
passed inider in several places. When the (irecian kings had decided to wage war 
against Trov, Agamemnon thought it important that Ulysses and Achilles should 
take part in the e.xpedition. It was suspected that .\chilles was concealed among the 
daughters of Lycomedes. Palamedes was coniinis-iioned to seek liim out. Ulysses 
suggested a stratagem. He took a variety of ornaments for women and a shield and 
sword, and repaired as a peddler to the palace of the king of Scyros. A rare jewel 
attracted the attention of all the women e.xcept one, who e.xamined closely the sword 
anil shield. Suddenly, Palamedes and his companions clashed their arms together, 
feigrdng an attack on the palace. All the women ran away, but .\chilles, who had 
been attracted liy the sword and shield, threw aside his disguise, seized the arms, and 
assumed an attitude of defence. Having thus been discovered, Achilles, who longed 
for glory, soon yielded to their entreaties and joined the princes. 

The cameo seems to represent Ulysses dragging away .\chilles, who takes leave 
of his son Xeoptolemus (who ten veal's later followed him to Troy) and of his be- 
loved Deidameia, who liles^es him. The figures behind Deidameia seem to be her 
attendants. 

331. Turquoi-ie — Silenus and Bacchus. 

332. Turquoise — Cvipid. 

333. Turquoise — Apollo in his Chariot. 
834. Turquoise — Cupid and a Cock. 

335. Turquoise — Domitia, wife of Doniitian. 

336. Turquoise — Venus Offering a Sacrifice. 

337. Turquoise — Cupid at an Altar. 

338. Turquoise — Deianira, daughter of Althtea and wife- of Hercules. 

339. Turquoise — Cupid Disarmed by Venus. 

340. Turquoise — Cupid on a Dolphin. 

341. Turquoise — Venus and the Wounded Adonis. 

342. Turquoise — Cupid OfiFeriug a Libation to Venus. 

343. Turquoise — Leda, and Jupiter as a Swan. 

344. Turquoise — Plautilla, wife of Caracalla. 

345. TurquoUe — Medusa. 

346. Turquoise — The Death of Cleopatra. 



GREEK AND ROMAN CAMEOS. G89 

It will lie niitioeil tliis tnn|iii>ise has lost its original bright bine Cdlor by age, vet 
on the head and face "I' Cleoiiatra the <'olor is still pni-e and beaiitilid. 

:>47. Turquoise — A Naiad, preparing to pour a libatinn to a l""1; 'IVniiimis. 

o4S. Tiirquoi.^e — Cupid and the Car of Juno. 

349. Turquoise — Psyche and Juno's Peacock. 

350. Turquoise — Preparing to Pour a Libation on an Altar. 

351. Turquoise — Venus and Cupid. 

352. Turquoise — Virgil. 

353. Turquoise — Cupid Pouring a Libation on an Altar. 

354. Turquoise — Cupid in a Biga, drawn by Nereids and Tritons. 

355. Turquoise — Aquila Severus. 

She was the second wile of Heliogabakis and a vestal virgin. She objeeled to 

marry him because forbidden as a vestal virgin ; bnt Heliogabalns said, "I am priest 

of the Sini, and you are priestess of Yesta; we can marry, and must;" and they did. 

He lived with her a while, then repudiated her; took Annia Faustina, his third wife, 

. and finally took Aqnila Severus again for his fonrtli wife. 

356. Turquoise — Cupid Astride a Lion. 

CASE U. 

357. Sardonyx — Seneca the Philosopher, horn nt Corduba, Spain. 

He was in Kome during the earlier years of the reign of Augusttis. He was a 
man of prodigious memory, ]iowerfnl in his rhetoric and eloiiuence. He returned to 
his native country and passed many years of his married life there, but went again 
to Rome during the reign of Tiberiu,s, and died there. 

358. Black Agate — A Mask of a Satyr. 

359. Onyx — Hand pinching an Ear : " Don't forget me." 

A similar gem is in the Bibliotlieijue aX Ravenna. 

360. Jasper — Caligula, i^on of Gcrmanicus, third Emperor of Rome ; a tyrant. 
3C1. Chulcedoni/ — An Assyrian King. 

362. Arjaie — Incognito. 

363. Oni/.r — A Flute-player. 

364. Sardonij.r — One of Ceres' Suite. 

365. Bluish Clialcedoiiij— An Ethiopian, witli tnil)an. 

366. Sardonyx — Antinous, the favorite of Hadrian. 

367. Chalcedony — A True Portrait of the Holy Sudarium. 

368. Carnelian — Hercules. 



(;90 SOMMERVILLE COLLECTION. 

369. Macuhitiil Oiii/.r — Sappho, oiu' of the .Ei)liaii school of lyric jxietry. 

370. Sardoni/.v — Augustus, first Emperor of Rome. 

371. 0////.(— Paris of Troy. 

372. Jasper — Figure of a Shepherd. 

373. Sardoiu/.f — Trajan Decius, tliirty -eighth Emperor of Rome. 

Eorii ill the |iioviiHe iif Datiii, on tlio Diiiuilje. Proclaimed emiieror by his 
legions. \ great persecutor of the Christians. 

374. Oiit/.r — Jove. 

CASE V. 

37-"). Maculated Sardoiip- — Constantine, Emperor of Rome A. d. 306-337, son 
of Constantius Chlorus, a Dalmatiuii. 

His career wa.s marked by many important events. In ."UG .\. I)., after a long 
war against Maxentiiis, be finally conquered liini at the Ponte Milvio. Maxentins 
was ronted, and with many of his followers perished in the Tiber. Constantine 
founded the Roman city bearing his name— Constantinople. He erected it im tlie 
site of the ancient (ireek city of Byzantinm on the Ijosphonis. He was the jirst 
Christian emperor, and recognized the importance of Christianity. Reigned aliout 
thirty years. 

376. Lapis Lazuli — A Child's Head. 

377. Aqua-marine or Bt'i-ijl — ftuintus Herennius, thirty-ninth Emperor of Rome, 

son of Trajan Decius. 

Created (Ja'sar liy his father. We tiiid coins and cameos of his reign. 

375. I'ak Sardoiuj.i- — An Owl. The insignia of Minerva, usually on Athenian 

coin.s. 

3711. Chalfidaiiij-OKijx — lole. 

380. Sardoiii/.r — Antique Bearded Mask. 

351. Oiii/.r — Alexander Severus, twenty-ninth Emperor of Rome, anil his 

iiKitliir, Julia Mamsea. 

352. Chakrdonij-Oiiij.r — An Amazon, witii Plii-yuian beretto. 

383. Chalcedoinj-Oiiijx — Figure of Pan, tlie god of the Satyrs, playing on the 

Pandean pipes (Cinque-cento). 

384. J,7<(/e— Priam, King of Ti-oy. 

CASE W. 

385. Black Serpi'iitiiie — Pescennius Niger, twenty-first Emperor of Rome. 

He was governor of Syria during the latter end of the reign of Comniodiis, and 
on his death he was sainted emperor by the legions in the East, a. d. 193; bnt in 



GREEK AND ROMAN CAMEOS. 691 

the following year he was delealed and pnt to death by Septinuus Severus. He was 
frugal, temperate, and hardy in endurance of toil. 

386. Yellow Chalcedo)i>j — A Scenic Mask. Kinniiii. 

387. Pale Siirdoitij.r — ftueen Anne, of Great Britain. 

She sueceedetl William and Mary, and reigned from 1702 to 1714. 

388. Chalcedony- Oiuj.i- — Seniiramis. 

389. Oityx — A Bacchante. 

390. Egyptian Ja^jjer—lole, daugliter of Eurytus of Occhalia and beloved by- 

Hercules. 

391. Agate — Chimera. Wuman with a mar^k. 

392. Sard — Claudius, fourth Emperor of Rome. 

393. Ony.r — Incognito. 

394. Sardonyx— Oh\^j\>(\ A Female Head ; reverse. Head of a Pope. 

395. Pale Sardonyx — Commodus and Crispina. 

Crispina. wife of the Emperor Commodus. On account of intidelily to her hus- 
band she was banished to C'aprea', and then put to death. 

396. Sapphire — Vespasianus, ninth E^mperor of Rome, A. d. 70-79. A rare 

.stone. 

397. .S«n/o;(yx— Thyone, mother of Diimysu.s (Baeehus). 

398. ,SVnT/o».(/.c— Dionysus (Baeehus) in his Youth. 

399. OHi/.f— Caligula. 

400. Sardonyx— Livia, wife of Augustus. 

401. Sf(r(?o)(//.c— Lucius Verus, seventeenth Emperor of Rome. 

402. Agate- Onyx— Mark Antony, caricatured as a i^atyr, showing; that even in 

the glyptic art men took the liberty of earieatuiing those in power. 

403. ^jrafc— Matidia, niece of Trajan and mother of Sabina. 

CASE X. 

404. Siberian Ja»per, red and (/reci;— Priapus. 

This remarkable piece of Siberian jasper is a double cameo, the imrple-brown 
side representing Priapus, the green side a female Egyptian deity. It is mounted on 
a silver pedestal, and was intended as a household idol. 

40.5. Uni/x—A.n African Woman. 

406. Sardoniix — Jugurtha. 

407. 0/((/.t— Cleopatra and the Asp. 



692 SOMMERVILLE COLLECTION. 

408. <S{n-c/— Hercules. 

409. 0«i/.i— Geta. 

410. Pale Sardonyx — A Devotee. A very line cameo. Note open nioutli and 

teeth. 

411. Chalcedoiiij-Oiiyd — Greek Philosopher. 

412. Sard — .ffisculapius. 

41.". Sard — Silenus, son of Hermes and constant companion of Dionysus 
CBacclius). 

414. ChalcedoDi/ — Euryale, sister of ]Medusa. 

415. Sard — Crispina, wife of Commodus. 
41(3. Sardoni/.r — Minerva. 

417. Ar/ate-Oiii/.r — A Faun (Cinque-cento). 

418. Oriental Jn-yirr — Gordianus Africanus Senior, thirty-first Emperor of 

Rome. 

Gordianus Africanus Senior, Emperor of Rome, was of noble and wealthy fam- 
ily, was general of a legion in Africa, and on the deatli of Maxiniintis Pins was 
proclaimed emperor and recognized by the Koman Senate. 

419. Pale Sardoni/.r — Apollo. Notice flesh tint. 

420. 0;((/.i— Cupid. 

421. Sardoiiyx — Jupiter. Laureated. 

422. Chalcedony — Aristides. 

CASE Y. 

423. Bed Ja.y)cr-Ony.v — Satyr and Nymph. Superb cameo. Few museums 

possess a finer specimen of the glyptic art. 

424. Sardonyx — Constantine. Very fine cameo. 

425. Oriental Sardonyx — Pallas (^linerva). 

426. Agate-Onyx — Lucius Junius Brutus and Marcus Brutus. 

Lucius Junius has a beard ; Marcus is without a beard. 

427. Pale Mae.nlntrd Onyx — Hercules being Laureated before Minerva, to 

whom he is recountina: his exploits. (From tlie San Dunati collection ; 
Prince Demidoff's sale at Florence, JIarch, 1880.; 

428. Chalcedony — Figure of Victory Guiding a Biga. 

429. Pale Sanlonyx — Scenic Mask. Anticjue fragment of the first century. 

430. Chalcedony- Onyx — Young Hercules. Fine cameo. 



GREEK AND ROMAN CAMEOS. 693 

431. Dark Onyx — Deo Pan : the Pandean pipes hang on a branch. Cameo of 

the most exquisite fineness, cut by Gironietti and signed by him. 
Observe even the toe-nails. 

432. Pale Aimthijst — Young Augustus. 

433. Pale Oin/.r — Amor Victorious, mounted on a hurncd honsc. Cameo of the 

fifteenth century. 

434. Sard — Pluto carrying off Persephone to Hades. The flames are indi- 

cated at the riglit below. 

435. Chalcedony-Onyx — Mark Antony, one of the triumvirate witli Augustus 

and Lepidus. 

Mark .\iitony was associated with .Julius (';isu- in the overthrow of the Kepiib- 
lic, and afterward witli Cleopatra, and was tinally himself overthrown by Augustus. 

436. Clialccdony-Oiiy.i- — Caracalla, twenty-fourtli Emperor of Rome, a. d. 211- 

217, so called from the long Gaulish ttinic which he wore. 

He was a monster of cruelty. He joined his lirother Geta in iioisoning their 
father, the Emperor Severus, and afterward killed Geta, stabbing him in the very 
presence of his mother, to whom the latter had (fed fen- protection. Caracalla also 
erased the name of Cieta from the triumphal cohnnn on which it had been inscribed 
beside his own name and that of their father. This column, with traces of the 
erasure, may still be seen at Komc. The Baths of Caracalla were built (hiring his 
reign. 

CASE Z. 

437. Af/(ite — Septimius Severus, twenty-third Emperor of Rome, and Julia 

Domna. 

438. Chalcedony- Onyx— Scenic Mask. 

439. Coral — Maecenas, friend of Augustus. 

440. Onyx — Antinous, favorite of Hadrian. 

441. Chalcedony— Maumkin. (Cinque-cento). 

442. Agate-Onyx, double cameo — Olwerse, Domitia, wife of Domitian, eleventh 

Emperor of Rome, and daughter of Corlnilo, a general of Nero — a 
vain wonutn, fond of dres.s. Reverse, Psyche, wife of Amor. 

443. Onyx — Julius Caesar. 

444. SarrfoH!/-''— Volusianus, forty-second Emperor of Rome, son of the Em- 

peror Trebonianus Gallus. 

The latter on beginning his reign, A.v. 2-il, conferred on his son the title of 
Ca=sar, and in 2')2 the title of Augustus. Hence Volusianns is reckoned among 
the Roman emperors. Trebonianus and A'olusianns were overthrown and put to 
death A. D. 2o4. As rulers they were weak and wicked, and their brief joint reign 
is associated with little but what is cowardly and discreditable. They reiiealedly 



694 SOMMERVILLE COLLECTION. 

purchased an is^nominioiis peace from tlie Gotliic invaders of tlie Empire. Their 
reign is signalized also l>_v the breaking out, A. D. •2o2, of a dreadful pestilence which 
ravaged every part of the Empire for fifteen years. 

445. Sard— A Greek Philosopher. 

446. Omj.r — Nero, titUi Enii)cr(.)r of Ivmie. 

447. Cha/cedoiiij-Ony.r — Antoninus Pius, fifteenth Eiiijieror of Rome, in pontif- 

ical habit. Cut in the second century. 

448. Red Jasper — Liadumenianus, twenty-seventh Emperor of Rome. 

Marcus Oiiiliiis Antoninus Diadumenianus was son of the Emperor Macrinus. 
The latter on lieginning to reign. A. D. 217, conferred tlie title of C'a?sar on his son 
and associated him with himself in the government. On this account Diadumenianus 
is sometimes reckoned among the emperors, and in some of the medals issued liy him 
he is styled Augustus. Father and son, however, after less than a year, were over- 
thrown and put to death by Heliogabalus, A. I>. 218. 

449. SardiDti/x — Hippolytus, son of Theseus. 

Theseus afterward married Ph;i?dra. Phii-dra fell in love witli her stepson Hip- 
polytus, who rejected her ofter.s, wliereupon she accused him to his father of having 
attempted her dishonor. A similar incident is in (ienesis xxxix. 

450. Surdoiii/.r — Matidia, iiieee of Tnijau and duuLiliter of his sister Marciana. 

Antique. 

451. Sardonyx — .ffisop, the fabulist. 

Jisop, the father of fables and a contemporary of Solon, about B. c. 570. 

452. Sardonyx — Incognito. 

453. Sardonyx — Pius VII. 

454. Black Ar/atc — A Parthian Slave. 

455. Ony.r — Seneca, the Roman pliiloso})hcr. 



EGYPTIAN SCARABEI, SEALS, Etc. 

CASE A A. 

456. Vitrlfiid Pasii — A Royal Egyptian Seal. 

The hieroglyph in the lower field is Ileliopolis; the one at the right of the 
papyrus scroll is TI (to give); and the middle of the centre three is XEFEK 
(good). 

457. Green Enamel— An Egyptian Amulet, with a cartouche on each side. 
457^. Green Enamel— Tla-t Egyptian Amulet, with cartouche. 

458. Fine antique Egyptian Scarabeus in ivory, set in a silver ring. Tlie sil- 

ver ring is corroded froiu age. (From the cabinet of M. Demetrio, a 



EGYPTIAN SCARABEI, SEALS, ETC. 695 

Greek gentleman, who twenty years ago gave a large collection to 

Athens.) 
45!). A Scarabeus. 
400. A Scarabeus. 
4G1. A Large Funereal Scarabeus. 
4G'i. A Scarabeus. 
4(i:j. A Scarabeus. 

464. An Idol — known as the god Thot-Iljio-Cephale. 
46-5. A Scarabeus. 

466. The All-Seeing Eye. 

467. A Scarabeus — The legend of Tliothnies III.: "The good god, master of 

the world, who ajipears as the !Sun eternally." 

468. An Egyptian Deess, Ptah. 

469. A Scarabeus. 

470. A Scarabeus. 

471. A Large Funereal Scarabeus. 

472. A Scarabeus. 

473. Vitrified Terra-coUa — Horus, Isis, and Nephthys. 
4731. An Idol. 

474. Siird — An Idol. The Deess Thoueris, with the head of a lioness. 

CASE BB. 
47-"). A Large Scarabeus — Menophis III. and his wife Tai or Taia. 

476. A God. 

477. A Gray Scarabeus. 

47.S. An Idol, found by :M. 8. in a tond) in Egyjrt, Feb., 1870. 

479. Pale Green Scarabeus. 

4S0. Egyptian Talisman, engraved on both sides. 

C. Plaster Liuiression of Obverse oj Xo. 4SO—Thothmes III. 

D. Phster Impression of Reverse of No. IfSO. 

481. Scarabeus. 

482. Scarabeus. 
488. Egyptian SeaL 

32 



696 SOMMERVILLE COLLECTION. 

484. The All-seeing Eye, gilded. 

485. The Nileometer. 

486. Scarabeus. 

487. Scarabeus. 

488. Scarabeus, pale red and gray. 

489. Egyptian Talisman, engraved ou both sides. 

A. Plaster Lnpression of Xo. 4^9. B. Reverse, Thothmes III. 

490. Egyptian Idol, found by M. S. in a tomb in Upper Egypt, Jan., 1870. 

491. Scarabeus. 

(^Fur other Egyptian Scarabei see page 7(59.) 



ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN CYLINDERS. 

CASE CC. 

The learned Assyriologist, Dr. William Hayes Ward, late of the Cath- 
erine Lorillard Wolfe Babylonian Expedition, has earefiilly taken the 
measurements and given most of the detailed deseriptions of many of 
these cylinders. Others are by Messrs. Oppert, Lenorniant, and ^lenaut 
of the Aeademie des Inscriptions de I'ln.stitut de France at Paris, and 
the author. (For notes and descriptions by JI. ]SIenant, .see page 7(33.) 

492. Hemalilt — Babylonian Cylinder, slightly concave. Length, 0.028 m. ; 

diameter, 0.0135 m. 

A god with one arm drawn back, the otlier drawn across liis body and liolding a 
wand ; bearded, with a low ronnd hat, and a short robe reaching to his linees. Be- 
liind liini the crescent and the goddess Aa with liigh tnrban, both hands raised, long 
Honnced dress, and liair with a roll behind and a long quene down her back. Before 
the god a small kangaroo-like animal in a sitting postnre ; also a worshipper, bearded, 
in a low, round hat, with one hand raised in worship, and the other across his breast; 
wearing a long fringed robe. Behind him the snn-god .'^liamash, with foot lifted ou 
an animal ; on his head a square cap of feathers (?) ; in one hand he holds a crook, 
the other being across his breast ; the long robe covers one leg. Well cut with the 
corundum point, and well preserved. Circ. 1000 B. c. 

A. Planter Impression of No. 492. 

493. Hematite — Cylinder, lu-obaldy Phoenician, of a marked Egyptian type. 

Length, 0,019 m. ; diameter, 0.009 m. 

Within border-lines at the top and the bottom are two idculical human figures 
facing each otlier, bareheaded, with short liair, beardless, dressed in a plain robe 
fringed at the bottom and reaching to the ankles, with one hand raised liefore them, 
the fingers very long, the other hand held behind the body and holding a small 



ASSYRIA X AXD BABYLONIAN CYLINDERS. 697 

object. Between the two figures and under tlieir lifted luinds is the Egyptian crux 
ansata (anklii. Keliind the two figures is a sitting bird witli wing lifted over a slen- 
der undetermined oliject; also a beardless luinum figure with long heavy hair down 
his back, a idain robe reaeliing to the ankles, with one band lifted in wnrship before 
him, and the other behind his back ; also a star over a column and dots. Well cut 
with the point, and very slightly worn. Circ. 500 B. c. 

B. Plaster Impression of Nv. ^'Jo. 

4'J4. Dark- Green Serpentine — Babylonian Cylinder. Length, 0.027 m. ; (liani- 
eter, 0.015 lu. Somewhat runcave. 

A god with one hand drawn back, the other across his breast, in a short robe; 
behind him a goddess (.\a) in a long flounced robe and with the two hands lifted ; 
before him a worshipper in a long iloiniced (?) dress, with one hand lifted. Behind 
the latter figure are two long perpendicular lines and three lines of inscription. Cut 
with the point, and very badly worn. The lines liave been retouched by some un- 
skillful dealer. Circ. 1000 -loOO li. c. The name of the first line, Zikar Sin, is the 
only one vLsible. 

C Plaster Impression of No. 4''4- 

495. Chakedonij — Babylonian Cylinder, of tlie Second Empire, the lower thinl 

broken ottl Length of fragment, 0.026 m. ; diameter, 0.015 ni. ; end 

somewhat convex. 

A columnar fire-altar. Facing it on each side is a worshipper, bearded, in a low 
round hat, with long hair, both arms raised, Ills long, plain rt)be belted about his 
waist. Behind the worshippers a considerable vacant space, with only a single 
lozenge-shaped figure (^7f/f.?), coarsely wrought with the wheel ; in good condition, 
except for the loss of the lower third. Circ. 400-500 B. c. 

D. Plaster Impression of No. 4^5. 

496. r^i«7)-^2 Pe&6/e— Babylonian Cylinder. Length, 0.031 m.; diameter, 0.01 7 m.. 

slightly concave. 
A seated deity, beardless, bareheaded, holding up in one hand a vase. On each 
side of the deity is a line of archaic inscription. Facing the deity is a beardless 
woi-shipper in a long, plain robe, with one hand lifted in adoration. A second sim- 
ilar worshipper follows, and between the two are some indistinct small objects. Cut 
with the point, and nuieh worn. Circ. 2000 B.C. 

E. Plaster Impresnon of No. 4^*0. 

497. Hematite— Kittite Cylinder. Length. 0.023 m. ; diameter, 0.01 m. A 

border-line at the top and the bottom. 

The god Shamash, with a high pointed tiirl)an, in a long robe, with one bare leg 
lifted, holding a mace; before him a beardless worshipper in a low hat, in a robe 
reaching to the ankles, with one hand lifted in adoration ; a small figure of Zarpanit, 
naked, with hands crossed over her breast, with her face in profile (unusual). Under 
her a lion leaping upon an antelope; a winged griffin with one front foot lifted. 
Facing and apparently attacking the griffin a god in a high hat, naked except a short 
garment about his loins, holds up a weapon behind him in one hand, and with the 
other appears to seize one of the griffin's legs. Behind him is the small head of a 



698 SOMMEEVILLE COLLECTIOX. 

goat (?), resembling one of the Hitlite hieroglyphs. Wrought with both the jfoint 
and wheel, and in good preservation, (ire. (iUO b. c. 

F. Plader hnpresdon of No. 4^7. 

498. Hemaiitr — Babylonian Cylinder. Lriit;tli, <i. (>'_'■"> m. ; diaineter, 0.012 m. 

Very slightly concave. 

A god with one arm drawn back, holding a wand in the other hand, bearded, in 
a low hat, wearing a robe that reaches his knees; before hira the goddess Aa, with 
hands lifted, in a long flounced robe. Three lines of inscription. Wrought with the 
point, and in good condition, except that the figure of the goddess is considerably 
worn. Circ. 1000 B. c. 

G. Plaster Impremon of No. ^98. 

499. Bark- Green Serpentine — Babylonian (?) Cylinder. Length, O.tMi:! m. ; 

diameter, 0.029 m. A border-liue at the top and bottom. 

A seated god, with a two-horned headdress, one hand lifted each side of his 
head, beardless, in a long flounced dress; behind him a small figure in a flounced 
dress; before him a table or altar with four spreading legs; upon it, and between two 
lines, an antelope; a small walking figure and a scorpion (?) over a dotted heli.x, 
which is over two birds facing each other, with their long tails bending back over 
their heads in a lyre-shaped arrangement; then two standing figures in flounced 
robes reaching to their ankles, with one hand raised. Rudely wrought with the 
point, and the human figures are drawn out with very slim bodies. Not much worn. 
Date and origin unknown. (Compare Collection de Clercfi., C'alaloi/ue mithodiqm el 
raisomie, Plate IV., Fig. 28.) 




PEBSIAN AXD SASSAXTAX SEALS, ETC. C99 

Tliis interesting cylinder is inc-ontestably of tlie most ancient epoch of Cluililean 
art. I showed it to Monsieur Lenormant at a seance of the Academy of Inscri|itions 
at Paris: lie was much interested in it, and wrote the accompanying notice on it. On 
the preceding page I give a fae-simile of his autograph note on the cylinder. 

Nothing from my pen can add to the laurels won by this entlinsiastie and learned 
archieologist, hut this record expresses faintly the grateful memory in which I hold 
recollections of interviews with him in the Academie des Inscriptions de I'lnstitiit 
de France at Paris in ISSl, a few months before his decease. 
H. Plasfer Imprrsxioii of Xo. 499. 

(For other Assyrian and Babyldiiiaii Cylinders see pp. 755, 759.) 



PERSIAN AND SASSANIAN SEALS, Etc. 

CASE DD. 

500. Pule Sard — Intaglio Seal. Inscrii>tiou partly obliterated. 

A. Plaster Impression of Xo. MO. 

501. Hematite — Intaglio Seal. 

502. Plaster Imjjre.-^sioii uf Xo. oOl. 

503. Chalcedony — Intaglio Seal. A horned humpbacked ox. 

504. Plaster Impression of No. 503. 

505. P(de Sard — Intaglio Seal. 

Two figures, male and feuuile, witli two blades between tliem i'e.sembling the 
arms of a windmill. 

B. Plaster Impression of Xo. 505. 

506. Sard — Intaglio Seal. A ram. 

507. Plaster Impression of Xo. 500. 

508. Terra-cotta—Se3A. 

The human-faced bull, a synjbol of agriculture. Above, the baton of an augurer. 
At the left, the club of Hercules, symbolic of force; at the right, below, a sprig of 
grain. Of the epoch of Partlienope, the Grecian queen, who foimded a city where 
now stands Naples. 

509. Carneliiin — Intaglio. A Persian seal — a horned moiifHon. 

510. Plaster Impression of Xo. 500. 

511. Sard — Intaglio Seal. The inebriate parrot on a stand, with Pehlevi inscription. 

C. Plaster Impression of Xo. 511. 

512. Carnelian — Intaglio Seal. 

513. Pla-iter Impre.ixion of Xo. 51. J. 

(For further Assyrian and Persian Seals see pp. 758, 765, 768.) 



700 SOMMERVILLE COLLECTION. 

PERSIAN AND SASSANIAN INTAGLIOS AND 

TALISMANS. 

CASE EE. 

The inscrij)tions on niany of the 8assanian seals are in the Pehlevi 
or Pehhivi language, and date from the second to the sixth century a. u. 

514. Transposed to No. 1432, Case AAAAA. 

515. CarneVmii — A Wine-cellar Seal, with inscription. 

516. Brown Jimpei — An Amulet, with rude ornaraentation. 

517. Agate — A Winged Beetle. Symbol of the flight of life. 

518. Affate — A Scarabeus, with the sun and moon and an illegible inscription. 

C. Flaskr Iinpressioii of No. -JIS. 

519. Green Jasper — Sassanian. Two figures imploring a blessing from the 

goddess of Agriculture. 

D. Plaster Imjiremoii of No. 519. 

520. Sard — Intaglio Seal. Armored warrior, with inscription. 

E. Plaster Impression of No. 5M. 

521. Agate- On i/.v — A magic or cabalistic Talisman of the fourth century. 

The cliaracters Ml I T*»» are niimber.'i whose values give dates All = 84 ; / T = 
350. -x-s* are values unknown, probably three 10s or three 20s. This is the result 
of a study made by Longperier at the .\cadeniy of Inscriptions, Paris, May, 1881. 

F. Plaster Iinpre-'^sion of No. 521. 

522. Oriental Jasper — Artaxerxes, the founder of the dynasty of the Sassanidte. 

G. Pla.'ilcr Inijiression oj Rf verse of No. 522. 

523. Sard — Intaglio. Contest between a Lion and a Bull, with inscription in 

the Pehkvi language, fifth century a. i>. 
H. Plaster Iinjirr.fsion. of No. 52-J. 

524. Green Jasper — A Sassanian Seal, with characteristic portrait and in- 

scription. 

J. Plaster Impression of No. 52^. 

525. Red Jasper — An Amulet, with hieroglyphics. 
K. Plaster Impression oJ No. -i.'i. 

526. Brown Jasper — An Amulet, with rude embellishment or inscription. 



ETBUSCAN SEALS, SCARABEI, INTAGLIOS, AND RINGS. 701 

ETRUSCAN SEALS, SCARABEI, INTAGLIOS, AND 

RINGS. 

CASE FF. 

527. Agate — Intaglio. Warriors in Mortal Combat, with iii.stiiption. 

A. Plaster Impresdoa of No. 527. 

528. Chalcedony- On i/.r — An Etruscan Scarabeus, with intaglio. 

B. Pla-der Impret-sioa of No. oJS. 

529. Bronze — A Curious Etruscan Ring, having two locks. 

The first opens with a secret spring, and tlie second or inner hxk with a minute 
key. The sliank was also set free b_v a spring lock, so that it opened on a pivot hinge. 

530. Dark Sard — An Etruscan Scarabeus. Very fine. 

Achilles taking connsel from L'lvsses. 

C Plaster Impression of No. 5-30. 

531. Bronze, with gold alloy — The Sprig with Rose. 

This was an emblem often added to the intag!i<is of Rhodes. Bonght of an Ilini- 
garian gypsy in an encampment near Carlherg, north of Stockholm, Sweden. (See 
"Carlberg Gypsies," page 352.) 

D. Plaster Impression of No. 531. 

532. Carae^tan— Intaglio. Hercules in Repose beside a Stag. 

E. Plaster Impression of No. 532. 

533. Sard — An Intaglio, very curious. An aciial loconiotive with one wheel. 

Founil at Esneh. 

F. Plaster Impression of No. 5S3. 

534. Sard — A Talisman, pierced so that it could be worn on a cord. 

G. Plaster Impresxion of No. 5-J4- 

535. Sard — Incognito. The dog resembles the dogs of the nineteenth centiiiy. 
H. Plaster Impression of No. 535. 

536. Sard — Intaglio. An armorer. 
J. Plaster Impression of No. 536. 

537. Sard — An Etruscan Scarabeus. A horned luiU. 
K. Plaster Impression of No. ''-IT. 

538. Sard— An intaglio. A Devotee before a Shrine. Above, the symbol of 

divine recognition. 
L. Plaster Impression of No. 538. 

539. Sard — An Etruscan Scarabeus. 
M. Plaster Impression of No. 5-39. 



702 SOMMERVILLE COLLECTION. 

540. Sard — Intaglio. An Equilibrist managing Three Balls. 
N. Plaster Impression of No. 540. 

541. Sunl — Intaglio. A Trophy. Aicluiic. 
O. Plader Impvemon of No. '>Jfl. 

542. Sard — An Etruscan Scarabeus. A charioteer. 
P. Plaster Impression of No. oJfi. 

54-3. Chalcedonij-Oinj.r — Etruscan Ring, with scarabeus, found in an excava- 
tion near Cornetto. 
Q. Pla.'tter Impression of No. oJ^o. 

544. Sardoui/.c — Intaglio. Apollo with Harp. 



PHOENICIAN A:\IULETS, 8EALS, 8CAEABEI, Etc. 

CASE GG. 

To Ernest Reuan, the biographer of Clirist, "our divine Redeemer," 
whose example he has followed in all his relations in life, this expres- 
sion of my appreciation is rendered in gratitnde for information given 
at seances of tlie Academy of Inscriptions, Paris, in explanation of 
Christian and I'ha'nician gems. 
545. Basalt — Phoenician Scarabeus. Rare, large, and interesting. (From the 
Zanetti Collection, \'cnicc.) 

1 li;ive for many years had (lie pleasiu'e of tlie aci|uaintiuice of tlie family 
Zauetli of Venice. Tlieir ancestor, Antonio Maria Zanetti, born in Venice in 1680, 
was a great enthusia-st in art and made a valuable collection of gems ; many of lliem 
are in the Museum Correr at Venice, ami quite a number are now in my possession. 
(See some further notice of Zanetti in "(ieneral Dealers," page 315.) 

54(). A(/atc — An Amulet. (In the reverse is the serpent of Cadmus, coiled in 
repose. 

A. PlaMer Imprc»--<ioii if Nn. .5^6. 

547. Paste — KikIc and cuiions figure of a Bearded Priest. 

548. Sard — Intaglio. Archaic. The Siren Aglaophenie, who lived with 

Thelxiepeia on the islaiul of j\^nthemusa, off the coast of Italy. 

The shackles in her right hand were intended to bind Odysseus when charmed 
not only with the voices of the sirens, but also enchanted by the silver tones of tlieir 
trumpets; but, heeding the advice of Circe, Odysseus stopped his ears and those of 
his companions with wax until his boat was beyond their power. 

B. Plaster Imjwession of No. 5^8. 

549. Pale Gra;/ Onij.r — Scarabeus, with intaglio of a warrior — broken. 



ABBAXAS, GNOSTIC GEMS, ETC. 703 

550. Basalt — Phoenician Scarabeus, like 545. Beautiful and rare. (From the 

Zanetti Collection.) Phaniician scavabei are rare. 

551. Obsidian — A Phoenician Scarabeus, ^linerva. Archaic. 

C. Plii-sfer Imjjri-ssloii iif \(i. -'I'll. 

552. Onyx — An intairlio rinu, Minerva. Archaic. Has probal)ly been cut down 

from a scarabea^^, B. v. 300 years. 

D. Plader Iin2}re,<-<ioii of A'l^. -j-j.-!. 

553. S(tnlomj.i-—lnUvj\\o. A Winged Camel. 

E. Plaster Imj)irssioii of Xo. JJJ. 

554. Jasper — Intaglio. A Bull. 

F. Plaster Impression of Xu. 'loJ/.- 

555. Dark Sard — Intaglio. Archaic. Returning from the Vintage, 
(t. Plaster Inipri ssiiin iif Xu. -i-i-i. 

55(i. Onyx — Intaglio. The Flying Horse Pegasus. 

H. Plaster hnprexsian nf Xo. ■>-)(i. 

.557. Onyx — Intaglio. Minerva Protectrice. Archaic. 
J. Plaster Impre-'ision of Xo. 557. 

558. Basalt — Phoenician Scarabeus. Rare, large, and interesting, like 550. 

(From the Zanetti ( 'nlUMtion.) 

559. Basalt — Phoenician Scarabeus. King found in Sardinia, of the time of the 

Phoenician occupation of that island. 
A temple, hi tlie centre of wiiich is an altar with an idol stone. On the ped- 
iment is a solar disk, which probably was flanked by an nniMis; also on the base 
of the temple, at either side, were these ura?i ; the minute fitrnre above is a very beau- 
tifid Pegasus feeding. This rare Plujjnician relic was viewed with interest in the 
Academie des Inscriptions at I'aris in 1882. 
K. Plaster Impression of Xo. 550. 

560. Purphjry — Beautifully wrought on both sides. Two similar may be seen 

at the ]\Iiiseum in Bolouiia and two at the Louvre, Paris. 



ABRAXAS, GNOSTIC GEMS, Etc. 

CASE HH. 

.561. Basalt — Anubis. An amulet engraved on both sides and inscribed with 
Abraxas characters, unintelligible. 

A. Plaster Iinpres.<ion of Obverse of Xo. 561. 

B. Plaster Impression of Reverse of Xo. 561. 



704 SOMMERVILLE COLLECTION. 

562. Hematite — An Abraxas Seal, both sides insfriliL-il ; also an iiiscTijitinii 

around the edge. 
C". PImtfr Impre.-isioii of Obverse of Xo. 5G2. 

D. Plaxter Impremon of Reverse of Xo. 5G'2. 

563. Green Jasper — Intaglio. Abraxas. 

E. Pla.<itcr Inijirc-^sioii of Xo. 5G3. 

564. Green Jasper — A Talisman. 

On tlie (ibveise U tlie tigiire of Apollo and the Seiuitii' inscription, 
CCMe[C] CIAA[M] " Sun Eternal." 

On tlie reverse is — 

CTAAU^APl 
CAIXTAH^rO 
XNGBIC 

The third and last line is Chnubis. The inscription is evidently Gnostic and in- 
tended to be concealed. 

F. Plaster Impression of Obverse of Xo. 504. 

G. Plaster Impression of Reverse of Xo. 564. 

565. Transposed to Case A AAAA, No. 1431. 

566. Serpentine — Intaglio. Abraxas, with inscription. 
H. Plaster Impression of Xo. 500. 

567. A;/alc — Abraxas Intaglio Ring, with the sun. modii, stars, and inscription. 

A Cabalistic talisman of the third century, liistription, Vi-M. Nat- 
urally, the impression reads x\iih. 
J. Plaster Imjjression of No. 567. 

568. Green Jasper — Amulet, with inscriptions. 
K. Plaster Impression, of Obverse of No. 568. 
L. Pla.^ter Impression of Reverse of No. 56S. 

569. Carnelian Ony.v — A beautiful Abraxas Talisman. A Cnostic gem. Raised 

inscription, Sabaote, the name of a god worshipped by the Gnostics 
of the second century. 

570. Hematite — Intaglio. Obver.se, Minerva. Reverse, inscription. 
il. Pktster Impression of Obverse of No. 570. 

N. Plaster Impression of Reverse of No. 570. 

571. Agate — Abraxas. Intaglio ring. The winged horse Pegasus surrounded 

by frolicking boy.s. 
O. Plaster Impression of No. 571. 

572. Transposed to Case AAAAA, No. 1429. 



ABRAXAS, GNOSTIC GEMS, ETC. 705 

573. Hematite. A craiul piece (if great value. Intaglio-work equally dec- 

orating liotli c(invex and Hat f^ides. 

The central tigure on the convex side is thogotl I AW, a panthens made up of tlie 
four elements — the serpent, the eagle, the human trunk, and the scourge — comhining 
in himself manv attributes of the solar divinity. Even scholars, seeing these inscrip- 
tions for the first time, e.xclaim, "Oh, I see tliat is (rreek!" hut soon they are unde- 
ceived when with the Greek vowels they encounter the perplexing consonants and 
otlier characters so unintelligihle; in fact, tliese were only understood hy the priests, 
who inscribed them for tlieir superstitious followers. 

P. Plaster Imprcs.von of Coiive.v Side of No. oT-J. 

Q. Plaster Impre.^tsion of Flat or Reverse Side of Xo. 373. 

574. Red Jasper — Amulet. Obverse, the Gorgon Medusa. Reverse, long inscrip- 

tion in Greek — Abraxas : 

roprcj ANAAAcjcj 

NAXi/\A CINAAriU 

EVCOAAI MHTICTEVE 

oroYTAVp cetJCAN 

0VI0VAIC9 XNOVBI 

which should read : 

rOProN AXIAAEVC AAlOrOY TAYPOV 
lOYAIC eAN[ONTEC] AAAU CJCIN AA^ICJ 
MHT ICTEVECeCJCAN XNOVBI 

—"Gorgon, Achilles, the son of Ilalioges Tlnros, lulls; when they are dead, I say, 
may tliey be clothed and not be threatened by C'huubis!" "I say" is ecjuivalent to 
" I wish " or " I utter." 
R. & S. Gutta-percha Iinpres.<<ioiis of Obverse and Reverse of No. -574. 



BYZANTINE. 



CASE II. 

Byzantine and other cameos of the sixth century, all representing 
Christ our Saviour. 

575. Oriental Ja.<tper — Christ. Ityzaiitine, with ins^cription, sixth century A. d. 

576. Egyptian Jasper — A ring. The Crucifixion. Byzantine, with gold letters, 

sixth century A. d. 

577. Green Jade — Bvzantine of the sixth century. Christ, giving a benedic- 

tion with one hand and holding a nianuscrij)t in the other. 

It is in the style of Giovanni Zeniisces. This jade-stone is a remarkably beauti- 
ful specimen. Inscription, IC, abbreviation of lesons ; XC, abbreviation of Christos 
— Jesus Christvs. 



706 SOMMERVILLE COLLECTION. 

578. Sard — A ring. Christ Bearing the Cross. Six figures are vi.~il)le. 

579. Heliotrope — Head of Christ, crowiuil with tiioniri. 

The natural spots in this jasper sanguinaria are utilized to represent the blood 
from the thorns. 

580. Antique lied Enamel — Interesting Byzantine cameo. The Virgin Mary 

and Infant Jesus, with inserijition in raised letters, sixth century a. d. 

581. lioek Crij.4<d — Intaglio. Christ. A sacred church implement, used in 

the twelfth century, held out on the end of a baton to be kissed by tlie 
faithful. 

582. Nephrite — A Christian Talisman of the third century a. n. 

58-3. Sardonij.r — A Byzantine Head of Christ, both cameo and intaglio, with 
inscriptions on obverse and reverse. 

58-t. Antique Enaine/ — The Crucifixion. Early Byzantine. 

585. Egyptian Jasjn r — A curious Byzantine intaglio of Christ Crowned with 

Thorns, sixth century a. d. 

586. Heliotrope — Head of Christ. 

587. Heliotrope — Adoration of the Child Jesus. 

588. Acjate-Onijx — Head of Christ. 

589. Antique Red Enamel — Interesting Byzantine Cameo, about tlie seventh 

century. At tliis epoch one first finds Christ on the cro.ss. The in- 
scription in raised letters: IC, alibrcviation of Jesus; XC\ abbreviation 
of Christos — Jesu.s Christ. 

590. Sardonyx — A ring. Christ Praying in the Garden; the discij)les surround 

him. Above, in the upper field, is the approving XJhE. 



MACULATED PEUBLES, Etc. 

CASE JJ. 

All in this case are of the era of Art's Kight, the eighth, ninth, 
teiitli, and eleventh centuries. 

591. Turqaoise — Two Grotesque Heads. 

592. Agate — A Rude Carving, characteristic of the tenth century. 

59o. Agate — Rude Carving, cliaracteristic of the ninth century. A double 
head. 

594. Agate — A Rude Carving. 



MACULATED PEBBLES, ETC. 707 

595. Agate —Two Children. 

596. Af/afe — A Rude Carving. 

597. Aijiite — A Rude Head. 

598. Agate— A Rude Carving of a Bearded Head. 

599. Green Jaspet — A Head, in s;uir(lnt;il costume. 

600. Mottled Jasper — Scipio Africanus. 

601. Macidided Jasper— A Head, with sacerdotal (Irapery. 

602. Tiirqnokc — Juno, ftueen of Heaven. As sucli she wa.s worshipped at her 

temple on the Aventiiie at Rome. 

603. ^jfafe— Rude Carving, of the ninth century. 

604. Turquoise — A Rude Female Head and a Skull. 

605. Green Iceland Jasper — Rude Carving, of the ninth century. 

606. Maeulated Jasper— A Fury. 

607. Maculated Jaspei — A very curious Head in alto-rilievo. 

608. Green Iceland Jasper — Double cameo. Obverse, A Rude Head, in relief; 

reverse, Venus. Intaglio. 

CASE KK, 
All in this case are of the period of the Medici (Cinque-cento). 

609. 0/(//.c— The Ark of Noah. Setting of emeralds and pearls, of the six- 

teenth century. 

610. Cha/cedony-Ony.i—A Figure ahout to pour a Libation (Cinque-cento). 

611. ('lialcedony-On>i.r—At\a.s Bearing the Earth on his Shoulders. 

612. Carnelian—A Woman of the Cinque-cento. 

613. Chalcedony — An Angel's Head. 

614. Chalcedony- Onyx— Cvc^i^ on a Dolphin. 

615. Chalcedony- ()/((/.(■— Donna. 

616. CTa/ceffo/?;/- 0» .)/.<— The Mandoliniste. Rare. The three figures are rep- 

resented with hands. 

617. Chalcedony- Onyx — A Sacrifice. 

618. Sardonyx— A Head, with Olympian cap. 

619. Red Agatr—A Mask. 

620. Chalcedony- Omjx—Yenvis in a Biga, drawn by a lion and a leopard. 



708 SOMMERVILLE COLLECTION. 

621. Chalcedony- Oinj.v — Portrait of One of the Medici. 

622. Jasper Onyx — Female Head. 

623. Chalcedony- Onyx — A Woman. 

624. Chalcedony- Onyx — Abraham about to Sacrifice Isaac. 

625. Sardonyx — Artemisia, with a vase foiitaiiiing the ashes of her husband's 

body : she is at)out to drink of tlieni. 

626. Chalcedony— k Lady of the Medici Period, with costume and liaiid. 

627. Venetian Paste — Incognito. 

628. Pale 0«//.r— Cupid about to Drink. 

629. Onyx — Vulcan at the Forge, witii a C'vclni). 

630. Chalcedony- Ohi/x — Donna, of the ]\Iedici family. 

631. Oiii/x — One of the Medici Family. 

632. 0/(//.(— Psyche. 

633. 0/(//.<— Cupid with a Tibia. 

634. Chalcedony-Onyx — Donna of the Fifteenth Century. 

635. Pale Onyx — Cupid Bathing the Feet of a Nymph. 



CHINESE. 

CASE LL. 

636. Maculated Anjilla — Horse Frolicking. 

637. Yellow Argilla — A Grotesque Idol. 

638. Macidated Argilla — Horse in Repose. 

639. Nacre — Grotesque Animal Crowned. 

640. Jade— A Small Tablet of Chinese Workmanship.' 

Literal translation of eacli verse: 

1. Water walls (palisades) evening calm 

2. Willow bank opening feature fresh 

3. Green mountains thirty miles 

4. According to will observe the morning waves 

Ju SI O., fee. 

' The Rev. .lohn Stronacli, who for thirty years was a missionary in China, and wlio 
translated the Bible into C'liinese, seeing this stone one day, kindly gave me the above 
explanation. 



CHINESE. 



709 




^ 



2^^ 






% 






Obveree. 



Reverse. 



Free translation of each verse : 

1. Tlie evening wind blows calm over the water-fenced houses. 

2. The willow on the bank displays its renewed aspect. 

3. The green mountains stretch over thirty miles. 

4. As his will inclines him the spectator observes the morning waves. 

Poet's name, Ju si O. 

(i41. Xacn — Grotesque Animal Crowned. 

642. Black- Jdili' — Stag and Doe. Very rare sjiecimen. Procurt'd from the 
sale of the effects of a French consul to China fifty years ago. 

648. Pearl—An Idol. This is olitained by slippintr a leaden intaglio into the 
shell iif the livinfr Anadonfa in the rivers of China. 

(i44. Xacre — Grotesque Animal Crowned. 

645. Jade— A Boating Party passing between Wooded Islands, rrociued 

from the sale of the effects of a French consul to China fifty years ago. 



CASE MM. 

646. Jade— A Monkey. 

647. AgalmaioUte—A Chinese Figure. 

648. .4 »(f//( (/•-'— Grotesque Chinese Amulet. 

649. .4i»6<)— Fruit on a Branch. 

6-50. Maculated Arr/illa—A pastoral scene, Man with Horses. A Chinese 

cameo. 
6.")1. Amber — A Melon. 
652. Flint Pade—'EoTses Frolicking. 



710 SOMMERVILLE COLLECTION. 

653. Nacre — A Grotesque Animal Crowned. 

654. Flint Paste — Horses Frolicking. 



MEXICAN AND VANCOUVER ISLAND. 

CASE NN. 

655. Basalt — Specimen of rude but iiitere.<ting work by the aborigines of 

Vancouver Lslaml. 

656. Yellow Argilln — Mexican Idol. 

657. Rock Crystal — The Moon. Ornament worn in ancient Mexico on the 

breast of sovei-eigns. Unique and extremely rare. The French Gov- 
ernment owns one similar, but both points b:ive l)een broken off. 

658. Tt'r;v(-co/;((— Head, known as a t'iioluhui. 

659. Alabaster — Most interesting Group. Observe the headdre.sses of feathers ; 

such were still worn l)y the rulers and their suite in the time of the 
]Montezuiiias anterior to the Conquest. 

660. Terra-cotta — Head, known as a Cholulan. Presented liy Prof Josej))! 

Leidy. 

661. Chalreiloiii/ — Rude Full Face. On Mexican stones portraits are generally 

given in profile. 

662. Blcwk Arfi'tlla — Rude Mexican Amulet. Tiie hole by which it was sus- 

pended is partially broken away. 

663. Black Art/ilia — Mexican Idol. 

664. (ifiiartzite — Rude Head. Interesting on account of the very primitive 

execution. 



GREEK AND ROMAN CAMEOS. 

CASE OO. 

665. Sard — Beautiful example of the incident of Troy, .ffineas, carrying his 

aged father Anchises on his shoulders, accompanied by the young As- 
canius. They are leaving Troy in flames ; a boatman awaits them near 
the shore. 

666. Pale Onyx — Mercury, the son of Jupiter and JIaia : he is represented as 

a youth with wings on his sandals, talaria, and on his casque pctasus ; 
the caducens in his hand was a wand witli two serpents entwined. He 



GREEK AND ROMAN CAMEOS. 711 

was believed to he the most cunning of the gocU, having robbed Venus, 
Apollo, Mars, Neptune, and Vulean : the list of trophies thus acquired 
was a girdle, an arrow, a sword, a trident, and Vulcan's anvil. 

667. Sftrdoinjx — Jove. 

668. Cak Tufa — Cupid. Antique fragment dug up in the Canipagna. (From 

Depoletti's (.'ollection, Kome.) 

669. Amethifst — Dionysus (Bacchus). 

670. Chri/mprase — Lena (Bacchante). A fine specimen of ehrysoprase. 

671. Cufdl — Obverse, St. Michael and the Dragon. Reverse, The Resurrection 

(Cinijue-cento). 

672. Kirdoiii/x — Plautilla, wife of Caracalla, daughter of Plautianus, Senator 

of Rome. 
In consequeuce of the intrigues of her latlier, Plautilla was banished by her hus- 
band, and tinally put to death. 

673. Sard — Aristotle. 

Born at Stagira, in Macedonia, B.C. .384; he lived at Athens twenty years. 
Plato named liis house "The House of the Reader." 

674. Agate — Hygeia, goddess of Health. 

675. Yelloiv Chalcedony — Antique Roman Scenic Mask. 

676. Afjatc — A Negro. 

677. Sardoniix — Marcus Aurelius, sixteenth Emperor of Rome. 

678. Chalcedony- Onyx — Lysimachus. 

679. Cofal — Julia, daughter of Titus. 

680. Red Jasper — Antisthenes, a disciple of Socrates. Cameo with a hand. 

681. Sardonyx — Venus. 

CASE PP. 

682. Mandated >Sarrfon)/.T— Caracalla, twenty-fourth Emperor of Rome. 
68.3. Brnn-n Jaqier—k Skull. 

684. Lcipk Lazuli — Otho, seventh Emperor of Rome, grandson of Otho Sal- 
vius, an Etrurian. 

68-5. Onyx — Proserpine, daughter of Ceres. 

686. 0«!/.r— Apollo. 

687. Chalcedony-Onyx— k Bassarid. 

688. Oh!/j;— Raffaelle. 

33 



712 SOMMERVILLE COLLECTION. 

689. Pale Onyx — Jove Serapides. 

690. Oriental Chalcedony — Galba, .sixth Emperor of Rome. 

Serviiis Sulpioiiis Galba, born b. c. 3 ; early attracted the notice of Augustus ami 
Tiberiii's, both of wlmni jiretlicted his ultimate rise to the throne. He inherited large 
wealth, and being pos.se.s.sed of superior talents rose rajiidlv to distinction. He held 
numerous important offices under Caligula and Nero, and on the downfall of the lat- 
ter, A. D. 68, was, at the age of seventy-one, proclaimed emperor by his own troops 
and by the Praetorian Guard ; but, undertaking to reform the abuses of the latter, 
was deposed and slain by them after a reign of only seven months. 

691. Jaxper — Callimachus, inventor of the Corinthian capital. Inscription. 

692. Maculated Ai/ale — Philip the Arabian, thirty-sixth Emperor of Rome, 

and his wife, Otacillia. 

Marcus Julius Philippus was proclaimed emperor by the soldiers A. it. 24-1, and 
was killed before Verona, A. D. 249. According to Eusebhis and other ecclesiastical 
writers, he was a C'liristian, though not openly, the Empire being .still pagan. His 
reign is chietly known by the celebration I A. D. 248) of the thonsandth anniversary 
of the founding of Rome. The emperor on this occasion gave a series of grand fetes 
composed of chariot-races in the Circus Ma.ximus and combats of gladiators and wild 
beasts in the ('olosseum. The animals used for this purpose were of many and rare 
species, bronglit to Rome from all ipiarters of the world expressly for the purpose — 
lions, tigers, elephants, liyenas, hippopotami, panthers, etc., in great numbers. 

Otacillia Severa, wife of Philip the Arabian, it is said secretly professed the 
Christian religion with her husband, ahhough they ruled a pagan people. A good 
woman. 

693. Chalcedony- Onij.r — Julia Pia and her son Geta. 

694. Onyx — Tiberius. 

695. Onyx — Didius Julianus, twentieth f]mperor of Rome. 

At tlie death of the Emperor Pertinax, A. D. 193, he purchased the Empire at 
public sale of the Pnvtorian Guards. He did not pay tlie promised sum, and in two 
months was assa.ssinated. 

696. Carnelian — Pallas. 

697. Chalcedony — Pescennius Niger, twenty-first Emperor of Rome, a. d. 193. 

Proclaimed emperor by the legions in the East, but in the following year he was 
defeated and put to death by Septimius Severus. 

CASE QQ. 

698. Sardunyx — The Pallas of Troy, Minerva, the owl witli hi.s plumage form- 

ing the lieaddress. 

699. Bock Cry-ttal — Antique Head. Style, Egyptian. The only one I have 

ever found. 

700. Onyx — A Greek Philosopher (fragment). (Through Depoletti, from a 

Tuscan collection.) 



GREEK AND ROMAN CAMEOS. 713 

701. Chalcedony-Onyx — Trajan Decius, thirty -eighth Emperor of Rome, and 

liiif wife. 

702. Oriental Sardonyx — Faustina, wife of Marcus Aurelius, daughter of An- 

tuninus Piu?; and Faustina Senior, and, like her mother, beautiful and 
wanton. 

Her proflifjacy was so ojien and infomoiis that the continued affection of her 
husband is one of the marvels of history. 

703. Sardonyx — Geta, brother of Caracalla, twenty-fourth Emperor of Rome. 

704. Pule Onyx — Livia. 

705. Sard — Meleager, son of Neoptolemus. 

706. Agate — Psyche. 

707. Onyx— Raffaelle. 

708. Sardonyx — Faustina Junior. 

709. Chalcedony- Onyx — Germanicus, nephew of Tiberius. 

710. Onyx — Pilocrate or Philocrates. 

He is said in time of danger only to have trnsted in what surely could not liarm 
him. Tliis gem is one of a .series worn by ancient Romans; on which, instead of 
carrying the effigy of a divinity for their guardian patron, some hero's name was 
chosen and graven on the amidet. 

711. Lapis Lazuli — A Scenic Mask. 

712. Chulci'dony- Onyx — Minerva. 

713. Amazon-stone — Maximinus Pius, thirtieth Emperor of Rome. 

714. Oriental sSardonyx — Plotina, wife of Trajan, thirteenth Emperor of Rome. 

An exemplary woman and empress. Fine antique. 

715. Sardonyx — Antoninus Pius, fifteenth Emperor of Rome, a. d. loiS-Kil. 

Rare and beautiful cameo. 

Born near Lanuvium, from an early age he gave promise of his future worth. 
He was proconsul of the province of Asia. On his return to Rome lie lived with 
Hadrian, who adopted him. The Senate conferred upon him the title of Pius, or 
the "(hitifully affectionate," because he persuaded them to grant to his fiither, Ha- 
drian, the apotheosis which they had at first refused. 

716. Chalcedony- Onyx— Liwia. and Augustus. 

717. Chalcedony — A Greek Poetess. 

718. Chalcedony- Onyx — iEmilianus, forty-third Emperor of Rome. 

A general of a legion who on the death of Trebonianus Gallus and Volusianus 
was proclaimed emperor. He was of dissolute character, and the dissatisfied army 
had him assassinated. 

719. Pale Onyx— A Faun. 



714 SOMMERVILLE COLLECTION. 

CASE RR. 

720. Onyx, on a Tortoise-shell Box — Germanicus, nephew of Tiberius. 

Gennanicus Ciesar, though not emperor, is intimately associated in liistory with 
the earliest of the Desars. Born B. c. 15, he was adopted by his uncle Tiberius while 
Augustus was still emperor, and was raised at an early age to high honors. He was 
called " Germanicus " I'mra his brilliant victories over the Germans, and, being a great 
favorite with the soldiers, was urged by them, on the death of Augustus, A. D. 1-i, to 
make himself emperor. But he resisted their importunity, and succeeded in recon- 
ciling them to the new emperor, his uncle Tiberius. Tiberius in time became alarmed 
at the ever-growing power of his nephew in Germany and Gaul, aud A. D. 17, after 
giving liim a triumph in Rome, transferred him to the command of the eastern prov- 
inces of the Empire. At'ter many successes in Armenia and Egypt, Germanicus died 
A. D. 19, not without suspicion of having been poisoned. By his wife Agrippina, 
granddaughter of Augustus, Germanicus had nine children, among whom were the 
Emperor Caligula and Agrippina, the mother of the Emperor Xero. Germanicus 
was an author of some repute and wrote several poetical works. Portions of these 
still remain, the latest edition being that by Orilli, Zurich, 18)51. 

721. Onyx — Cupid. 

722. Pnle Sardonyx — Cicero, the Roman orator, b. c. 10(j. 
72o. Chakechiny-Onyx — A Bearded Mask. 

724. Onyx — Virgil. 

725. Pale Sanloni/x— 'Pins VII. 

726. Coral — A Bearded Scenic Mask. 

727. Onyx — Cincinnatus called to the Dictatorship. 

728. Sard — Zeno, founder of the Stoic philoisojjhy. 
72!t. Onyx — Incognito. 

730. Onyx — A Mimallone, one of tlie bacchantes who accompanied Dionysus 

on his expeditions. 

731. Agate-Onyx — Socrates, Greek pliilosopher. 

732. Pale Sard — Aristides. 

733. Sardonyx — A Philosopher. 

734. Maculated Jasper — Atreus, King of Mycenae. 

He is killing Pleisthenes, the son of Thyestes, in revenge for wrongs inflicted on 
him by Thyestes. ^Erope, his wife, is endeavoring to save the other child, Tantalus. 

73."). Onyx — Germanicus, nephew of Tiberius. 

736. Sardonyx — A Roman-African of Carthage. Tlie jiart of bis tostiinie vis- 

ible is the abolla, worn l\v the soldiers. 

737. Sardonyx — Archytas of Tarentum, philosopher aud mathematician, b. c. 

400." 



GREEK AND ROMAN CAMEOS. 715 

738. O111J.V — Diana, the goddess of Light. 
7o9. Chalcedony- Onyx — -Medusa, in profile. 

740. Agate-Onyx — Philammon, a Greek poet. 

CASE SS. 

741. Alnhader — Vitellius, eiglith Emperor of Rome. 

He was proclaimed bv Ids soldiers at Cologne on the death of Galba, A. D. 69, 
but reigned less than one year, being overthrown by Vespasian. The vices of \\ie\- 
lins made him a favorite with Tiberius, Caligula, and Nero, who loaded him with 
favors. His only talent seemed to be for eating and drinking, and his excesses in 
this line seem almost incredible. When the soldiers of ^'espasian approached Rome, 
Vitellius hid himself in a sewer, but the enraged populace found him, dragged him 
out, anil, after subjecting him to every kind of public ignominy, stabbed liim and 
threw his body into the Tiber. 

742. Onyx — A Bearded Mask. 

743. Agate — Medusa, set in a bronze brooch of the second century A. d. 

744. Gray Calcite — Epicurus. 

745. Sardonyx — Orbiana, wife of Alexander Severus. 

746. Agate — Hercules. 

747. Onyx — Marcus Junius Brutus. 

748. Sardonyx — Otho, .seventh Emperor of Rome. 

749. Jasper — Homer. 

750. Agate — A Parthian Slave. 

751. Chalcedony- Onyx — Nero, fifth Emperor of Rome. 

752. Chalcedony- Onyx — Livia, wife of Augustus. 

Beautiful macnlation of the first and third strata, whilst the middle or second 
stratum remains pure white and is utilized for the face. 

753. Chalcedony- Onyx — Hercules. 

754. Onyx — Geta, twenty-fiftli Emperor of Rome, brother of C'aracalla, by 

whom he was assassinated A. d. 212. 

755. Burnt Chalcedony — An Ethiopian Woman. 

CASE TT. 

756. Serpentine— Hiogenes. 

757. Burnt Chalcedony — A Nubian Woman. 

758. Gi-ay Argillite — Abraham and Sara. 



716 SOMMERVTLLE COLLECTION. 

Has been worn as an aiiuilet : tlie holes for the neckhaee are behind, as also the 
remains of an ancient Clirislian inscription — I'AX. 

759. Gray Alabastet — A Philosopher. 

760. Serpentine — A Philosopher. 

761. Solenliofeu Stone — A large double cameo: on the olivei'se, Raphael, l>y 

Alhreeht Diirer, 1514. 

762. Planter Iiiij)ns.<:iiiii. of Reverse of JVo. 761 — Albreclit Diirer, 1524. 

763. Rhone iV^i/e— Philip IV. of Spain. 

764. Qrmj Solenhofen Stone— Toitinit of Joanes Conradas, dated 1553. 

765. Rhone Pebble — Incognito. 

CASE UU. 

766. Red Calcile — A Faun. 

767. Serpentine — A Bearded Mask. 

768. A Cameo on a eounnoii pehlde. 

769. Red Calcile — A Gorgon Mask. 

770. Rhone Ai/^/e— Vitellius, eighth Emperor of Rome. 

771. Rhone Pebble — A Persian Head. 

772. Purple Calcile — Medusa. 

773. Rhone Pebble — St. John Preaching in the Wilderness, twelfth to thir- 

teenth century. 

774. Jasper Pebhk — An Amulet, with curious intaglio on the rever.se, with 

two profile face.s kis:<iiig, forming together a third face. 

775. PliiMcr Iiiijircxsion of Reverse of No. 774. 

776. Solciihofrii Sloiic — A Tablet, with an interesting Latin inscription. 

On the obverse: NON .SOI.VM NO | BIS NATI SVMVS | OUTVSIJVKNOSTRI | PAItTEM 
I'ATHIA SI I III VENDICAT PARTEM | PARENTES PARTEM AMICI — "Not alone for OH r- 

selves were we born ; and of onr birth our eonntry claims for itself a part, our parents 
a part, onr friends a part" (vendicat for vindicat) ; and on the reverse an inscription, 
MORTIS MORE.S OMNIBUS iEcjUALEs. This is one of those pecniiar ma.xims so often 
found in the Latin language, as it is employed in epitapiis. The simplest manner 
in which to present the various forms in which it can be translated is as follows : 

f manners 1 

"The -! '•""'"'"" • of Death •[ "^'^ ] equal for all." 
usage I IS ) 

[ law 
Death is here personified, as was Peace, Justice, Concord, etc. by the Romans. 

777. Plaster Inipressio)t of Reverse of No. 776. 



GREEK AND ROMAN CAMEOS. 717 

CASE VV. 

778. Pulpa di Fraiicia, a stone peculiar to France — Apollo. 

779. Pearl — A Bacchante. 

780. Agate- Oil y.i- — A Warrior with Shield and Lance. 

781. Sardo)nj.v — Julius Caesar, dictator b. c. 100-44. 

Assassinated in the Senate Chamber by Brutus, Cassius, and others after lie had 
almost reached the .supreme power. While in Egypt he had, by Cleopatra, a son 
called Cjesariou. 

782. Rhone Pebble — A Warrior with Dolphin Helmet. 

783. Red Calcite — A Mask. 

784. Composife Marble — Iacobvs. g. de carraeia. i. pat. d. : axxam gra- 

Doxico. vx. DVXIT. Expaiiiliiitr abbreviations: iacobv.s g[rimaldi?] 

DE CAREAHIA |[n] PAT[rIMOXIVm] ]>[(IMIXAM] ANXAM (JRADOXICO- 

[xEM?] vx[oiiEM] nvxiT — JacobiLs G[i-inialdi ?] ile ("arrara brought 
into hi.s paternal family (or estate), as a wife, the lady Anna Gradonieo. 

785. Red Calcite — Head of Agrippa. 

786. Alabaster Gypsum — Incognito. 

787. Oii>i.c — Julia, daughter of Augustus (not by Livia), wife of JIarcus 

Agrippa, grand admiral. 

She was too iirofligate, so Augustus put her on the island I'anuataria to keep 
her from the courtiers. 

788. Bark-red Calcite— A Scenic Mask. 

789. Yelloiv Calcite — Diogenes, the (ireek philosopher. Broken and repaired. 

790. Tenera — Aristides. 

791. Alabaster on Verd-AntiqueSeneca.. " Nou quam multa, sed quam mul- 

tum." 

CASE WW. 

792. This curious object in three substances is coiuposed of Soleuhofen stone, 

iron-wood, and shtte. Probably Minerva. 

793. Obsidian — A Scenic Mask, an amulet from a necklace of the second 

century. 

794. Obsidian— A Scenic Mask, an amulet from a necklace of the second 

century. 

795. Malach ite — Mercury. 

796. Chalcedony — Portrait, with the pallium or ermine cape. 



718 SOMMERVILLE COLLECTION. 

1%1. Egyptian Jasper — Incognito. 

798. Red Jasper — Pallas. 

799. Sar(lo)ii/x — Semiramis, the daugliter of tlie goddess of Dereeto of Ascaloii 

in Syria. 

Slie was deserted by Iiei' luntlier and brimglit up by the cliief sliejilierd of tlie 
royal lierds. by name Siiimias, from whom slie derived the name of Semirami-s. She 
was distingiiislied for lier bravery in the siege of Bactra. 81ie i)lanne<l an attack on 
the citadel, and with a few l>rave followers captnred it. 

800. Ar/afe — Incognito. Very fine : signed Wilgot. 

801. Sardonyx — Jupiter. 

802. Agate-Oiii/.i- —CloAone, a bacchante. 

803. Agate — Mercury. 

804. Obsidian — A Scenic Mask. Etliiojiian features. From a necklace of the 

second century. 

805. Sard — Hercules. 

806. Jasper — Frederick the Great. 

807. Onyx — Heliogabalus, twenty-eighth Emperor of Rome. 



T E X E R .E . 

CASE XX. 

808. Red Cakite — An Egyptian Priestess. 

809. Alabader—A. Warrior with Shield. 

810. Alabaster — Nero, tiftli Emperor of Rome, and Poppsea, his ■\vife. 

Poppa'a, wife of Otho, and afterward of Nero, was a beantifnl woman. She died 
in conserpience of a kick from Xero. 

811. Aliibasier — Julius Caesar. 

812. Ahibaster — Julia Mamsea, daughter of .Julia M:c.<a and motlier of Alex- 

ander Severn.-;. 

An excellent and learned woman. She gave a g I edncalicm to her son. Alex- 
ander Severns, and connsclled him in state affairs after 1* liecame emperor. Both 
she and her son are repnted to have been instriictcil liy the Christian iihilosojilier 
Origen, and to have been believers in Christ. 

813. Alabdder — Lysimachus, with (ireek signature, ItEJLt. 

814. Alabaster — Julius Caesar. 



TENER^. 71!) 



815. AlahaMer — Achilles. 

81 fi. Transferred to No. 825, Case ZZ. 



CHINESE. 



CASE YY. 
817. Jade— A Heron, Fruit, and Flowers. 

SIS. AguliiKitolite — "A merry old Chiiuiman was he." 
8U). Black Juclc—A. Bird with Rich Plumage. 



TENER^. 

CASE ZZ. 



820. A Woman (Cinque-cento). 

821. A Cowry, with cameo ornamentation — shell money. 

822. A Moor. 

823. Two Heads, in helmet and turban. 

824. A Bearded Head. 

825. Pa.-<fe—A Faun. 

826. Conchiglin — A Bearded Moor. 
fs27. A Bearded Head. 

828. Three remarkably dissimilar Heads, cut on the strata of one piece of 

conchiglia. 

829. Ci>}irhiriH<i — Jacob and Rachel. 

830. A Bearded Head. 

831. Zenobia and Odenathus of Palmyra. 

832. Romulus, Remus, and the She-Wolf. 

833. A Cowry, with cameo ornamentation — shell money. 

834. A Philosopher. 

835. CiiiK-liiiiliit — Mercury and a Nymph. 

836. A Wild-Boar Hunt. A specimen of carving in pearl. 

837. Mother-oJ- Pearl — A Landscape, with cow. 



720 SOMMERVILLE COLLECTION. 

838. Mother-of-Pearl — A Landscape, with cow. 

839. An Oriental Bearded Head. 

840. Coiichlgli<( — -A Bearded Moor. 

841. A Greek Philosopher. 

842. A Bearded Head. 



INTAGLIOS AND THEIR IMPRINTS. 

CASE AAA. 

843. Bofk Crystal — Portrait of Carlo Borromeo, cut abuut the close of the fif- 

teenth eentiu'v, and the pure gold mounting i.s also known to be of 
149.5 — about the time Columbus discovered America. Interesting 
specimen of work of that epoch. 

A. Plaster Lnpressiou of No. SlfS. 

844. Sard — A Juggler, keeping several disks in' suspension. The work is 

Etruscan. 

B. Plaster Lnpress'wn of No. SJf-i- 

845. CarneUan — Silenus on an Ass. Very fine. 

C. Planter Impression of No. 843. 

84(3. Sard — Helmeted Warrior. 

D. Pla-iter Impression of No. 8Jfi. 

847. Pale Sard — Incognito. 

E. Plasti'r Imjirissiiiii (f No. 8^7. 

848. Oiii/.r — .ffineas Escaping from Burning Troy, can ying his father Anchises 

on his siioulders, followed by the youth Ascanius, his .son. 

F. Plaster Liijircssioii of No. SJ^S. 

849. Tinted Crystal — Extremely fine intaglio. Amor and a Cock. 

G. Plaster Impression of No. SJ^O. 

8.50. Onij.i- — Peacocks, Juno's special favorites. 
H. J'taMer Impression of No. 850. 

8-51. Onij.r — A Bearded Mask. 

J. Pl<ister Impri'ssion if Na. 8'>1. 

852. Jacinth — The Flying Horse Pegasus. 
K. Plaster Impression of No. 852. 



INTAGLIOS AXD THEIR IMPRIXTH. 721 

853. Ccmteliuii — A Bacchanalian, pouring out a vase of wine on an animal's 

liead. 
L. PUister Impres-von of No. 853. 

854. CarneUan — Hylas. A youtli of the Argonautic Expedition who went for 

water, ami the Xvmphs, taken with love for him, pulled him into the 
spring. It is not stated what became of the dog. 
M. Gutta-perclia Iiiipre.i)slon of No. So4. 

855. CarneUan — Scipio .Smelianus, Roman eonsul b. c. 114. 
N. Plader Impreaxlon of No. S-J-J. 

CASE BBB. 

856. Bock C»-(/.*fnZ— Head of Christ, fifteenth eentury. 

A. Plasfer Impremon of No. S'/ii. 

857. Jasper — A magic or talisnmnie stone. Jupiter Serapis standing on the 

left, holding in his right hand le eroix misee, the baton or crook with a 
looped handle, as employed l)y the Egyptians, and behjw him at the 
right the bust of Isis. Greek inscription : 

cnA 
TAea/ 

To be read CnATAGuJ, "for a good deed" — /. e. in recognition of ben- 
efit; or, possiblv, ^jro hono pour bonlunr. 
Of great value, very interesting antique. .\ ciipy of it has been retained by 
Monsieur Kdnioml Le Blant, e.x-president of the Academie des Inscriptions de I'ln- 
stitnt de France, and director of tlie Archa?ological College of France in the Farnesi 
Palace at Rome, to whom I have been indebted through many years for valualjle 
friendship and information in Paris and in Home. 

B. Plaster Impre«!<ioii of No. So7. 

858. <SVu-c/ — Intaglio. (Edipus and the Sphinx. 

Gidipus was the son of Laius of Thebes, wlio was warned by an oracle that he 
would have a son who would turn his hand against his father. When Qidipus was 
born, his father pierced and tied his feet together and abandoned him ; a shephei-d 
found him, and on account of his swollen feet named him (JCdipus. When he became 
a vonth he encountered the Sphinx, knowing that should he conquer it he would be 
rewarded with a throne. The Sphinx gave him a riddle which he solved. The 
Sphinx, enraged, cast herself from her rocky pedestal, and was slain by CEdipns, who 
was proclaimed king of Thebes. (See "Campagna and Oil-dealer," page 388.) 

C. Plader Iinj)remon of No. S5S. 

859. Yellow Ja.-tper — Intaglio. Minerva. 

Presented l)y Dr. Joseph Leidy of the University of Pennsylvania. 

D. Plader Impresdon of No. S60. 



722 SOMMERVILLE COLLECTION. 

8G0. CarneUan — Intaglio. A Warrior Returning with Trophies of Armor. 

E. PliMter Imprefssloti of ]Vo. 860. 

861. Eld Jasjier — Intaglio. A Cock Striving with Cupid for a Bunch of Grapes. 

F. Plader Impresduii of Xu. SOI. 

862. Bed Jaaper — Intaglio. A Fawn Feeding from a Tree. 

G. P/iixfir Impression of No. 862. 

863. Cariie/i<(ii — Intaglio. Minerva, with embellished shield. 
H. Pla.der Iinpremion of No. 86d. 

864. Oiui-v — Intaglio. Artemisia, wife of !Mausolns, King of C'aria, Asia Minor, 

with the ashe.-; of her husband in a va.se of gold. 

Slu' huilt u tniiib in tlie city of Halicani;\ssLi.s and called it Mausoleo, lience tlie 
word " muusoleum." Tlii.s .stone has been injured b_v fire. 

J. Plaxter Impression of No. 864. 

865. Pale S(ird — An Etruscan intaglio. Dog, etc. 
K. Plaster Impression of No. 865. 

866. Sard — Wild Boar and Young. 
L. Plaster Imjiressioii if Na. S(:6. 

867. Chalcedony — The Oriental Sun. 
M. Plaster Impression of No. 867. 

868. Sardoiiijx — Helmeted Head of a Wallachian Soldier. 
N. Plaster Impression of No. SOS- 
CASK ccc. 

869. Jade — Triumph of Silenus. Eight figures are visilde. 

.'Siieniis is seated on an ass, his favorite means of transport. There is also some 
Abra.xas inscription. A superb specimen. 

A. Plaster Impression of No. 869. 

87(1. An Intaglio on Sardony.r. 

This archaic intaglio, with No. 933, Case GGG, is one of the most enrions and 
interesting, not only of my collection, but of all intaglios ever found. It gives us the 
tradition of the naming of the days of the week, to be iniderstood as follows, more 
easily explained in French for evident rea.sons. Observing the impression, 

The first day at the left is h, Saturnus, Snmrdi — Saturday. 

The second and ne.xt figure is 3, Helios or Solis, Dimunelie — Sunday. 

The third and next figure is L, Luna, Luncli — Monday. 

Tlie fourth and next figure is M, Mars, Mardi — Tuesday. 

The fifth and next figure is M, Jlercurius, Mercredi — Wednesday. 

The sixth and next figure is I, Jove or .Jupiter, Jeudi — Thursday. 

The seventh and next figure is V, Venus, Veiidredi — Friday. 



INTAGLIOS AND THEIR IMPRINTS. 723 

Wliere tliis tradition lias been found in bronze or iron or gold, it is often accom- 
panied by an eighth figure, Ivx'i (Tuke), or Bonus Eventus, " the day of good for- 
tune." (See also No. 933, Case GGG, and "Rome," page 393.) 

B. Plader Impremion of No. 8T0. 

871. »S'«re/ — Tarquinius, the Superb, di^tdveriiii;- a human head on the occasion 

of the t'()iin(latii)n-\vurk at the Capitoleuni. 

C. Plaster Impre-mon of No. S71. 

872. Green Jasper — Cheiron, the wi.sest and most just of all the Centaurs or 

Hippocentaurs ; friend and relative of Pelcus, father of Acliilies. 

lie was instructed by Apollo and Artemis, and renowned for his skill in hiintin;,', 
gymnastics, and even the art of propliecy. Inscription : placidis — coeant — i Ji jmitia. 

D. Plaster Impression of No. 87~. 

873. Amethijd — A Seal, with inscription. 

E. Plaster Impression of No. 873. 

874. Carnelian — Incognito. 

F. Plaster Impression of No. 874. 

875. Heliotrope — Silenus Instructing Bacchus. 

G. Plaster Intpres.-iiim if Nu. ■V,'"-7. 

870. Carnelian — A Philosopher Studying a Manuscript. 
H. Plaster Impression of No. 870. 

877. Pale Sard — Carita. 

J. Plaster Impre-ssion of No. 877. 

878. Sardoinjx — An Ancient Seal, with the inscription babylo. 

879. Carnelian — Ceres, by Pickler, and signed in Greek by him. 

The finest intaglio in ray collection. 
K. Plaster Impression of No. 879. 

880. Sard — An ancient gymnastic troupe. Nymphs Exercising. 
L. Plaster Imjjression of No. 880. 

881. Plasma of Emerald— ¥a,ith. 
M. Plaster Impression of No. 881. 

882. Sard — A fanciful antique seal. Insects, Birds, and Crocodiles. 
N. Plaster Impression of No. 882. 

883. Sard — A Figure of Victory. Archaic intaglio. 
O. Plaster Iiiijir's.tioii if No. 8S-J. 

884. Sard — Abundance. 

P. Gutta-percha Impression of No. 884. 



724 SOMMERVILLE COLLECTION. 

885. Emerald — Fortuna. 

Q. Pkuter Liijji-e-^--</(jii nf Xo. 8S5. 

886. Carnelkm — Cornucopia, the full horn of abundance. 
R. Plaster Impression of No. SS6. 

CASE DDD. 

887. Red Jasper — Protogenis, a conipdiaii of the .second century, with a nia>k, 

plavins: the character of ]Meleager, the wild-boar hunter. Engraved 
in his time. 

A. Plaster Impression of No. SS7. 

888. Yellow Chalcedoinj — Augustus, Mark Antony, and Lepidus. 

B. Plaster Impres^iaii (f Ni. S8S. 

889. Sapphire — A Scorpion. Intaglio. An amulet protecting the wearer from 

the sting of the living arachnid. 

C. Plaster Impression of No. SS9. 

890. Plasma of Emerald — Equita. Justice with the true balance. 

D. Plaster Impression if No. S'.iQ. 

891. Carnelian — Pomona Dropping Fruit. 

The Roman divinity of the fruit of trees, e;illed Ponionmi I'atrona. A special 
priest, muler tlie name of Flamen I'oinonalis, attended to her service. 

E. Plaster Imj)res.',ioii if No. SOI. 

892. Emerald — Ceres, with a stalk of wheat in hand. 

F. Plaster Impression of No. 893. 

893. Carnelian — fJroup of Silenus, a Bacchante, and a Candidate fur admis- 

sion to the Bacchic niy.steries. An intaglin. 

G. Pla-iter Imprrsssion of No. 89-1. 

894. Amethy.it — The Centaur Nessus carrying Leianira, wife of Hercules, 

across the river Evemis. An intaglio. 
Nessus was shot witli an arrow ]ioisnned with the bile of tlie Lernean Hydra. 
Tlie Cupids are accessories, being symbolical of tlie Centaur's love. 

H. Plaster Impression of No. 894. 

895. A Bare Pale Jarinth — The Genius of the Sun. Exijuisitely beautiful 

intaglio. 
J. Plaster Impression of No. 895. 

896. Green Ja.v;^/-— Intaglio. Psyche's Butterfly driving Juno's Peacock. 

K. Piaster Imj^ression of No. S96. 



GOLD niXGS—IXTAGLIOS. 725 

897. Cnrncliaa — Lucius Verus, seventeenth Emperor of Rome. 
L. Planter Impression of No. 897. 

898. Camc/iaii — Philammon, a Greek poet. 
j\I. Planter Impression of Xo. 898. 

899. Jacinth — Victory. Greek. 
N. Plaster Impression of Xo. 899. 



GOLD RINGS— INTAGLIOS. 

CASE EEE. 

900. Sard — Intaglio ring. Hieronymus, after his first conquest of Tliebes, 

arriving with an animal fur sacrifice in honor of his success, as evinced 
by the trophies which are dis23layed. The altar is seen on the left dec- 
orated with a garland. 

A. Plaster Impression of Xo. 900. 

901. Sard — Intaglio ring. A Bull. 

A magnificent incision by the renowned Dioscorides, a Greek gem-engraver of 
the time of the Emperor Angiistiis, whose portrait he engraved; wliich gem was 
used hy Augustus and several of liis successors as their signet. 

B. Plaster Impression of Xo. 901. 

902. Sard — Isis, the Egyptian goddess of the Earth and afterward of the 

Moon. 

Especially the patroness of the cultivation of wheat. 

C. Pla-iter Impression of Xo. 902. 

903. Carnelian — Pudicitia, a personification of Modesty, worshipped in Greece 

and at Rome. 

In the latter city women flocked to the two sanctuaries where this statue was 
enshrined, but no woman who had been married twice was allowed to touch it. 

T>. Plaster Impression of Xo. 903. 

904. Carnelian, with a film of white on the surface. This .style of intaglio, 

cut on a very thin stratum of white over a red or other thicker stratum, 
is called a nieolo. This one has suffered from fire. — The figure on the 
right with a bow is Diana (Luna) ; on the left is Apollo (the 8un). 
The star in the centre indicates that they ai"e deities of constellations. 
E. Plaster Impression of Xo. 904. 

905. Red Ja.->])er — Venus Verticordia, the goddess who turns the hearts of luen. 



726 SOMMERVILLE COLLECTION^. 

It will lie noticed that the cap on her head is like that of a man. There even 
was a bearded Venus. 

F. Plaster Lnprexsion of Xo. 90'>. 

906. Omj.i- — A frtiniiiLMit (if an antiiiiie Rdinaii iniii ring with onyx intaglio. 

The City of Kome, holding a tigure of Victory in Iter hand. Inter- 
esting antique. 

G. Plmter Lnpres^ioii of No. 000. 

907. Sard — Dissection of an Animal's Body after a Sacrifice. 
H. Plmter Intpression of Xo. -''f /". 

908. Jacinth — Cybele or Berecyntia, al^o known as M(tdre Montogrm, "the 

iniiuntain-iudther," also as Miidre Mai/iia, "great mother." 
Cybele is seated on her throne, and holds in her right hand a tambourine; two 
lions, one on either side of her throne. Observe the e.x<inisite fineness of the three 
ornamental turrets surmounting her castellated crown. The lion was sacred to the 
Mother of the tJods, because Cybele was the divinity of the earth and the lion was 
considered the most iiowerfid of all animals on earth. She is usually represented 
seated on a throne. I have a gem on wliich she is driving her lions in a chariot. 

J. Plaster Lnpression of No. 908. 

909. <S't(ii/— The Bonus Eventus, patron of agriculture. Rude but antique and 

interesting. 

The same subject may be seen in the centre figure of No. 930, Case GGG. 
K. Planter Lnpression of No. 909. 

910. Sard— A. Horse with Colt; Geese, Chickens, etc. Very fine intaglio. 
L. Plaster Lnpr&ssion of No. 910. 

911. Plasma of Emerald — Titus, tenth Emperor of Rome. 
M. Plmter Liipression of No. 911. 

912. (Sard— Hercules Fighting the Lernean Hydra, which had nine lieads— the 

second of the Twelve Labors of Hercules. (See " Rome," page 395.) 
N. Plaster Lnpression of No. 912. 

CASE FFF. 

913. >S«kZ— Ptolemaeus Philadelphus and Arsinoe, his wife. She was also his 

sister, b. c. 279. A Greek intaglio. 

A. Plaster Lnpress!o7i of No. 913. 

914. Ametkyst—Co-w and Calf. Exquisitely tine intaglio. 

B. Plaster Ltipresstnn of No. 914. 

915. 0;(^.c— Intaglio ring. The Seal of a liberated .slave, b. v. '200. 

Philogenis was the slave of Lucius Ennius. When enfranchised by his master. 



GOLD niXaS—TXTAGLTOS. 727 

he was permittwl ikiI only to possess a seal, but I'ldiii the insciii)tion thereon ( Pilod. 
KsNi. L. L.) we leain that lie also combined pait of his master's name witli his 
own; and this his seal reads " Kiniiiis Philogenis liberated bv Lucius Enniiis." It 
was written " Pilogene" in the arclniic form, i See '' Kotne," pa^e 390.) 
C Plii'^tfi' Iinpri'ssioii iij \o. 92o. 

1)1(). P<ile X(/«/— Vittimario. 

Amoni; the Rotnans of the secoml and tliird centuries tliis was an officer who 
superintended the sacrifices, especially those of the arena and the Colossenm ; he 
made ready the knives, water, and lire; he prepared the Christian victims, and after 
their agonies were terminated he removed their Ixidies. washed, and sprinkled them 
with Hour to cimceal the hideous wounds made by the wild animals. His costume 
was characterized by a lar.se and peculiar apron called the li'ii)ii.<, and he carried the 
baton of an executioner, which is over his shoiddcr. 

D. Phixtir linj)ri'>i><ii)ii nj Xa. ■''/'/. 

917. Si(nl — Hercules traiisportiiig the Erymanthiiiii boar from Mount Ery- 
maiithiLs to Kurystlifiis in Mycen;e — tlic fourth of the Twelve Labors 
of Hercules. 

llerciiles liail cliaseil the boar through deep snow until, weakened by fatigue, he 
c.iptured liini. 

E. Plaxtcr Impre%-tion of Xo. 917. 

91«. Siii-ddiKj.i- — Jupiter Toiians, with an effigy of Victory in his extended 
hand. 

F. Plasiijf Imprcx.iion of Xi. '-ilS. 

019. Red Jasper — Apollo, haviiiir eonniiered the serpent Pytlion, hiys a.side his 
arms, and regard.s Python suspended on a young olive tree. Beautiful 
intaglio. 

G. Pla4er Ii}ipri^--<--<iiiii nf Xa. I' Hi. 

920. Sard — Jupiter Serapis, seated on a throne; on either side Castor and Pol- 

lux. 

Oljserve the fineness of the drawing and execution, especially in the side figures 
and their horses. 

H. Plaster Impression of Xo. 9M. 

921. Sard — Adam and Eve, with the legend elai; | adba | kli (Syro-Hebraie 

in Konian letters), meaning " God [is] Father. [O] Father, luy God." 
J. Plaster Impression of Xo. 921. 

922. -S'-nv/— Liomedes Carrying off the Effigy of Minerva from Troy. 

It was thought Trov never could be completely mastered and taken until the 
efligy of Minerva, its patron, could be removed; heiue the expedition and the inci- 
dent of Diomedes. I (See Xo. 0-17.) This very antique intaglio, though so minute, i^ 
rendered with the fidl front face of Diomedes, which greatly augments its value. 

K. Plaster Impression of Xo. 9J2. 

34 



728 SOMMERVILLE COLLECTION. 

923. Macnhdrd Sard — Lucius the Golden Ass, with tlie two l)ri)thprs, si-rvnnts 

of Tliyu.'^us of Corinth. 

He i.s liere reiiresented wlien being instructed to staiul uiniglit liy one of (lie 
servajits of Thyasns. (See "Lucius," page 409.) 
L. P/nxter lmprt'.-<sio)i of Xo. 923. 

924. Cliiilct'doiNi, tiiii/ril uitli Sapjilun- Calar — Pompey, one of Julius C';es:tr's 

fir.«t triumvirate, consisting of Pompey, Crassus, ami Jiiliii.'^ C\esar. A 
ring from the collection of the late Professor Hoiiiilorf of ^Miinster. 
j\l. Planter Ln]tres!<i'on of No. 924. 

92.J. Sitrdiiinj.r — Trajan, thirteenth Emperor of Koine. 

This ring reminds nie how often and how much I luive heen indebted to the 
courteous attention of Monsieur Lavoix, conservateur adjoint of tlie Salle des Me 
dailies et Pierres gravees, in the Bibliotheqne Nationale, Paris— how freelv he has 
opened cases of valuable antique gems, enabling me to coinpaie and make researches. 

N. I'lader Lnpre.moii of No. 925. 

CASE GGG. 

026. Chalcedony-Ony.v — A Cameo. In relief and in intaglio: the outer .ser- 
pent is cameo, in relief; the cock, etc., in the centre, intaglio. 
The outer serpent is a Bisa swallowing his own tail — Kternity. Centre, a cock — 
Vigilance. And a Bazilisco, the serpent hatched liy a hen. 

A. Pluxter Imprexylon of No. 926. 

927. Agate-Onyx — Hyacinthus, the youngest son of .\niychis. a Spartan king. 

He was beautifully formed, and was accidentally killed by .Vpollo while playing 
the game of discus or quoits. 

B. P/a.'<tci- IiHpn'A^ion of No. 927. 

928. Pale Sard — Cybele, deity of the Earth, on a ilccoratcd car drawn by two 

elej^hants, with riders, etc. Sujjerbly Hue intaglio. 
In this car we also see the signification Kternity. Such cars were used for the 
fimerals of some of the Roman emperors. 

C Pluder Lnpre.moii of No. 928. 

929. Rock Crystal— Gem. 

D. Planter Lnpremon of No. 929. 

930. S<irdoiiy.r — The Private Seal of Qiiintus Julius or .hinins Insignis. 

The figures represent three protecting divinilics. On the left, .Jupiter seated, 
holding the asla or spear in one hand and in the other tlie jiatera. In the centre, Tuke, 
the Boii>u< KveiiUi!', holding a spear of grain in his right hand, and with the left hand 
piresenting the patera to Ceres, who is seated, having grain and fruit in her hand. A 
beautiful antique intaglio. Monsieur Longperier of TAcadcmie des Inscriptions, 
Paris, studied this gem with much interest shttrtly liefore his decease. 



GOLD RiyG>;^INTAGLTOS. 729 

Adrien Longperier was one of the greatest savants of France, vet in liis mien 
and bearing as unassuming as a child. Wiili pleasure I here note this tribute to his 
precious meniorv in gratitude tor wliat I so often learned in intercourse with him at 
the Academic during the last years of his life. I pos.sess his autographs and draw- 
ings made in the study of Abraxas, Pelilevi, and other gems. 

E. Pla.-<ter Iiiiprfsswn of Xii. 9S0. 

931. Sard — Take, the Bonux Eveidm, holdiuir in the ridit hand two ears of 

wheat, and in the left the patera. 

F. Hader Iiiijjremon of No. 931. 

932. Plasma of Emendd — Venus Victrix, whose worship was founded by 

Ciesar. 

G. Pla.<ter Impremon of No. 932. 

933. t'hakedoiiy, tinged with ScqijMre Color. 

This intaglio, like Xo. 870, Case CCC, gives the tradition of the names of the 
week ; that is, the deities from whom they were named. The three Itirger figures are 
the three Capitoliue divinities — .Jupiter, Juno, and Minerva. This is a highly 
interesting antitiue. The stone is beautiful on account of the pale saiii>hire tint 
which tinges the Oriental chalcedony. 

H. Planter Lii]tr)x.<io)t of Xo. 933. 

934. Garnet Cahochoii — A Bearded Mask, Ronian. 
J. Plaster Imj/rexgion of No. 934- 

935. Surd — Silenus. A fine antique intaglio. 
K. Plader Imjjrexxion of No. 935. 

93(j. Carnelian — Charon, pas.sing over the 8tyx in his hark to conduct the soids 
after deatli to Avernus. Ob.serve the bird in one hand and tlie flames 
in the other. 

A soul is represented converted into the form of a bird, which is already begin- 
ning to sufier the torment of eternal fire, as is seen by the burning Hames. Tiie fig- 
ures seated above are other souls, awaiting the return of eharon in order to be trans- 
ported to Averims. This is a unique Roman intaglio of the second century, and a 
highly interesting subject. 
L. Plader Iinj/rex.iion of No. 936. 

937. Sardony.r — Young Hercules. 
]\I. Plaster ImpresBion of No. 937. 

938. Sird — A Ceremony of the Ancient Jewish Church. 
X. Pladei- Impremion of No. 938. 

939. Sard — Demosthenes, tlie greatest of the Greek orators, about 380 b. f. A 

fragment re.-tored with gold. 
( ), Plaster Impre-mon of No. 939. 



730 SOMMERVILLE COLLECTIOX. 

CASE HHH. 

940. Sard — Meleager, the wild-boar luinter. 

Tlie little tigiire above is Luna (Diana) with two torches, the .protecting deity 
of Meleager. 

A. Plaster Iinpresxion of Xo. 940. 

941. Mother-oJ- Pearl — A Persian Archer's Ring, ii.-td in Persia and in all 

adjacent c(jiintries before fireaniis were introdtieed. 

It was worn on the riglit tluimb, and by it the cord was held until the moment 
when aim was taken ; then the bowstring was allowed to sli|i off. 

942. Chalcedoiiy-Oinj.i- — A Scarabeus. A dancing satyr with baton and Pan- 

dean pipes. 

B. Piaster Impres.iion of Xo. 94?. 

943. Carneliaii — The Wild Boar of Arcadia. 

C. Plaster Impression of Xo. 943. 

944. Oiii/.r — Young Hercules. 

D. Pla.'tter Impression of Xo. 944- 

94.5. Garnet Cabochon — A curious Christian intaglio of the fourth century — a 
cross for each century. 

E. Plaster Impre.-'x'toii of Xo. 94-j. 

946. Curnelian — Concordia. This stone has been iujuicd liy fire. 

F. Plaster Im]ires''i<iii of Xo. 94'J. 

947. Sard — Diomedes stepping over the ramparts of Troy in the act of carry- 

ing off the effigy of Minerva, the Palladium. (See fuller account in 
" Rome," page 395 ; also see No. 922, Case FFF.) 
ti. Plaster luipresslon of Xo. 94~. 

948. Chalcedony- Oiiy.v — A THing ptorte honheur. A mo.st interesting subject. 

The design represents a bone from the inste|i ol' (he hninan foot called the astrag- 
alus ; it is shown in four ]>ositions or faces — viz. the superior and inferior, the anterior 
and posterior. The ancient Romans played a game of hazard with these bones as 
with dice, whicli is the signification of the word '• astragalus." The original owner 
of this specimen probably said to himself, in playing astrag.ilus : "When I venture 
my drachniic on the anterior face, it is sure to fall on the wrong face, and rice, rersd 
when I take the superior face. Xow, I will have a talisman stone engraved, a puiie 
bonheni; representing all the four positions; then, wliichever way the astragalus falls, 
I shall at least have it on my amidet." (See .\stragalus, page 3G7.) 

I avail myself witli great pleasure of this opportunity to express my gratitude 
to my friend the learned archaeologist. Dr. Dresser, who so often has aided me in de- 
ciphering engrave<l gems and inscriptions. It was he who first discovered that all 
four positions of the astragalus were so represented. I have also a manuscript from 
liis hand on the ring of Lucius Philogenes, the liberated slave, No. 91.5, Case FFF. 

H. Plaster Impression of Xo. 948. 



GOLD RINGS— INTAGLIOS. 731 

949. Bronze — Ancient Bronze Astragalus, whicli lia.~ actually been used in play 

by the ancient Ki)nians. 
The tigiire nf the astiagahis is also found on the oncia in the time of Serviiis 
Tiilliiis, sixtli King of Rome. This one was kindly ceded to me in Fehriiarv, 1882, 
liv Dr. I)iesser, llien of the Cieiinan .\rcha?ological Society of Korae. 

9491. Aatique Piiste — An Astragalus. Ancient Roman. Rare. 

950. Amethyst — Tarquinius Superbus, .sun-iu-law of Servius TuUius. 

"Tarquinius Snperbus took the wealtliy town of Suessa Pometia, with the spoils 
of which he commenced the erection of the Capitol at Home, whicli his father had 
vowed. In digging for the foundations on what is now termed the t'apitolenm a 
human head was discovered beneath the earth, inidecayed and trickling with blood. 
Etruscan soothsayers expounded the prodigy as a sign that Rome was destined to 
become the head of the world.'' 

J. Piaster Iiiijjre«'iio)i of No. ff-JO. 

951. Chalcedony — Osiris, the principal P^gyptian divinity, husband of Isis. 

Unlike other gods, the worship of Osiris was universal throughout Egypt, where 
he was known as Hysiris. He is iiictured in the intaglio with many of his attributes 
and symbols. First, a.s the great progenitor, in his right hand the tiail of retribu- 
tion. On the right, the bull Kamut, and above it Cynocephales, symbol of the moon, 
a.s lie was believed to feel its influence as do the great watei-s; the Cliristians of the 
Middle Ages even gave liis liead to figures of St. Christopher, who carried our .Sa- 
viour over the water (in fact, I believe that is the derivation of the name Christopher 
— Christ-over). Below the bull is Moo, running water. On the left, above, a soul ; 
below that are flying scarabei, syuduilic of the resurrection of the soul ; also a flying 
heart, and his hiy or sceptre. 

K. Phi.<ti'r Iiiijire-i.-'ion of No. 0-jl. 

952. A(i(tt<:-Oii)j.r — Antiphates. the fisherman who tormented Ulysses when his 

boats were driven un the shore at Telepylos. He was also a ruler of 
a savage people. 
L. Plih^ter Impresdon of No. 95ii. 

953. Emerald — Victory Crowning a Trophy. Has l)een injured by fire. 
M. P/aster Imprrssiim nf Nc •''•'•''. 

954. Sard — A Biga drawn by a Lioness and a Goat. Very fine. 
N. Plaster lmj)re.<sion of No. 9-jJf. 

955. Ony.r — Ulysses consecrating himself at a shrine before entering the con- 

test for the hand of Penelope. 
0. Plaster Impre.<-v.on of No. 9od. 



732 SOMMERVILLE COLLECTIOX. 

GOLD EINGS— CAMEOS. 

" In times of sorrow the Kuiiian cliaiigeJ his gold lor iron and bronze rings, and when 
lie (lied his rings were often burnt with liis corpse. Kings were placed upon the statues of 
the deities and lieroes, and were put on or taken off according to the festival that was cel- 
ebrated. Konian rings were often of great value. Thus, that of the Empress Faustina is 
said to have cost the iuunense sum of ?200.0()0, and that of Uoiiiitia the still larger amuiuit 
of §300,000." 

CASE III. 

956. Oiii/.r — Ariosto, the Italian poet. 

957. Sardonyx — Hertha, godde.ss of tlie Earth. 

958. Sardoni/.v — Pyrrhus, KiiiK of Ejiini.s. 

959. Sard— A Slave of Aleppo. An Oriental gem. 

9()0. Af/a(e-Oni/x — Faustina, wife of Marcus Aurelius. 

9()1. Chalcedoii I/- Onyx — Homer, 

9(>2. Sardonyx — Hyacinthus, the Spartan beloved of Apollo. 

Zephyriis, jealous of Hyacinthus, drove the niioit of .\pollo with force against 
his heail, and killed him. From his blood sprang up the flower hyacinth. On the 
leaves were .il, AI. 

i)(i."]. Onyx — Lucius Varus, seveuteenth Emperor of Rome, a. d. I()l-l(i9. 

The colleague of Marcus Aurelius iu the ICmpire; was a dissolute man, and 
died suddenly at Alliuiun, iu the couulry of the Vcneti. 

9()4. Onyx — Vesta, godde^^.•< of the Hearth. 

9<i5. Kniendil — Maximinus Pius, thirtieth Emperor of Rome, a. n. •2o.'>-2;l'S. 
(ireek eameo, siiined. 

He was born in a village on the cnuliues of Thrace, and was patronized and 
advanced by Alexander Severus, and im the latter's death was proclaimed em]ieror. 
A valiant general, but cruel and brutal. The army and people were so dissatisfied 
that ihcy formed a ciwjiird and assassiualcil him. 

9()i!. Onyx — Ptolemy. 

I'loliMuy. or I'loleiiiMMis, sm-]iamcd I'liiladclphus, scjn of Mark Antony by Cle- 
opatra. .\fter the death of Antony, A. l>. 30, his life was s|)ared by .Vngustns at the 
intercession of .Tuba and Cleopatra, and he was brought up by Octavia with her own 
children. 

907. Aijate — A Warrior in a Biga, drawn i)y two camels. Victory tdnuit to 
erown Jiim. 

iid.s. Onyx — Horatius Defending the Bridge. 

The bridge was over the Tilicr at Rome; Hoi-aiius was fighting the Etruscans. 
The Romans were oliligcd lo destroy their end of thf bridge, when Horatius with his 
horse swam back. 



GOLD AND SILVER RINGS— CAMEOS. 733 

9(j9. Onyx — Maecenas. 

DTO. Onyx — Marcus Aurelius, i-ixteciith Emperor of Rome. 

ilTl. Riihy — A Child's Head. Uiii(|iif ami rare. 

A nibv in relief is seliloin to be iVmnd in any European collection. (See another, 
No. 109.5, Case QQ Q.I 

972. Onyx — A figure of Minerva. 

973. Chalcedony- Onyx — Petrarch. 

974. Chalcedony- Onyx — Virgil. 



GOLD AXD SILVER RINGS— CAMEOS. 

CASE JJJ. 

975. Affate — Deianira, wife of Hercules. 

970. Sardonyx — A Chimera. Tliree masks. 

977. Onyx — Psyche. 

97S. White Topaz — Augustus, first Emperor of Rome. A Eoniau cameo signed 
iu Greek. 

979. Sardonyx — Titus, tenth Emperor of Rome. 

980. Sardonyx — A Bacchante. 

981. Onyx — Medusa (Ciniiue-cento). 

982. Chakedony-OiiiiJ—tleAusa.. Set witli diamond sparks (Cimjue-eento). 

983. Sardonyx — Jove. Fine cameo. 

984. Pale Oni/x — Jupiter Serapis. 

985. Agafr — A Kalmuck. 

986. Chalcedony- Onyx — Jugurtha, King of Xumidia. 

987. Onyx— A Rude Round Bearded Head. 

988. Pale Onyx — Jupiter Serapis. 

989. Chalcedony- Onyx — A Medici fCinriue-cpiito). 

990. Chalcedony-Onyx — A Gorgon Mask. 

991. Chalcedony- Onyx — A Medici (Cimiue-cento). 

CASE KKK. 

992. Sardoniix — Chloris. a tii.ral divinity. 

993. Onyx — A Grotes(iue Head. 



734 SUMMER VILLE COLLECTION. 

994. Affcite — Ptolemseus Auletes, the Hute-phiytT, son of Fti)lfiii;L-iis Latliynis. 
99-'>. A(/ate — Domitian, eleventh Emperor of Koine. 
990. Pale Oiii/.t—Romei. 

997. Oin/.r — Marcus Agrippa, .*ou-in-law of Aut^ustus and srand admiral of 

the lloinan tleet. 

998. Chdlfnloiiji-Oiii/.r — Gordianus Pius III., thirty-tifth Empei-or of Kome. 

999. Oiii/.r — Diana in a Biga. 

1000. 6'rt/'/— Marcus Aurelius, .-sixteenth Empeior of Rome. 

1001. Oiiii-c — Maria Theresa of Austria. 

1002. .S(6crfo/M/.c— Titus, tenth Emperor of Rome, a. d. 79-.S1. 

Smreeileil Vesiiasian, and was oiii; nt [\w wuol illu,sli-i<iii.s ami lieneticent of 
the Kiiiiian eiiiperiivs. He is most ijartieiilarly known tor the siege and eapture 
of .lenisak'in, A. 1). 7(1. The Arch of Titns, erected in Koine in eoinmeinoration 
of this event, and slill slandiiin, contains scnlplnres of many of the sacred vessels 
lirnnnht l.y him fn»ii Ihc lcm|ile at .leiiisalem. During his reign the great erup- 
tion of N'cMivins .iciurivil which linricd llie cities Herculanenm and Pompeii, 
A. 11. 7'J. Titns com|iletcd ihe Culosseiim, which had been begun by his father; 
lie built also the IJallis of Titus. The dedication of these two edifices was cel- 
ebrated bv spectacles which lasted one hundred ilays and were marked with e.xtra- 
ordinarv siileudor. On one day alone five thousand wild animals are said to have 
been exhilMlcil. 

lOO;). Chnlci-dotiij — Ptolemy, Kiiii;- of lyuypt. 

1004. Ci(riir/liiii — Domitian, eleventh Eiii|ieiMr of Home, \. n. Sl-lKi. Sne- 
eeedod his lirotllef Titlls. 

rtomilian was alternately trilling and cruel, lie siieiit uiuch cpf his time catch- 
ing and killing llics. One day his beautiful wife Doiuitia eiilcicil his apartment, 
her hair clalioratcly dressed, with a Miiall stilclto stuck ihrongh il lor ornamental 
su|)porl. Unmiliau, seeing a lly upon her. slriick fir il, and in doing so deranged 
the headdri'ss: whereupon Dnmilia, cnram'il, seized the stilcllo and chased the 
emperor from rooni lo room, lie once invited a imiulier of senators to dinner, 
and when llicy were asscnililcd led lliciii into ail adjoining apartment hung in 
black, lit with candles, while all around the sides of the room were open cottins 
tiearing the names of the guests. 

loo.'i. Oiii/.i- — Tiberius, second I']inperor of Rome. 
1(M)(). .S'(r'/o////.r— Faustina. 

CASE LLL. 

1007. ( 'iKtlciihniii-Oiiij.r — Incognito. 
loos. Oiiij.r — A Bacchante. 
1009. Oiiijx—h. Faun. 



GOLD AND SILVER RIXGS— CAMEOS. 735 

]Ol(l. Red Jmper — Octavia, daughter of Claudius, touith Emperor of Rome. 

1011. Oiiijx—ka. Idiot. 

1012. Chalcedony- On i/.v — Trebonianus Gallus, forty-first Emiieror of Rome. 

1013. Sard — Numa Pompilius, second King of Rome, in sacerdntal edslunu-. 

1014. S((rdony.r — Melpomene, one i)f the Nine Muses, who presided over Trag- 

edy. Fine eaineo and beautiful stone. 

1015. Ftik Onyx — IncogEito. 

1016. A;/(itt — Marcus Aurelius in Youth, sixteenth Eni})eror of Rome. 

1017. (chalcedony- On y.r — A Bearded Mask. 

1018. Onyj—K Warrior with Shield. 
101!). Onyx — Jupiter Tonans. 

lt>20. Cltfikedonij-Onyx — Jupiter. 

1021. ^sardonyx — Zeno, a Greek philosopher. 

CASE MMM. 

1022. Onyx — A Turbaned Ethiopian. 

1023. Sardonyx — Hercules and lole. 

1024. Ci-nu/dfi' Onyx — A Warrior, with Medusa on his shield. Beautiful color. 

1025. Pa/e Sardonyx — Rhemetalces, King of Thrace. 
102(i. Onyx — Incognito. 

1027. ( 'lialcrdiiiiy — Medusa. 

1028. Pale Sardonyx — Domitian, eleventh Enjpcror of Rome. 

1029. Affdte-Onyx — Trebonianus Gallus, forty-first Emperor of Rome. 

KoHglit IViim tlie lariiily ('iippell;iri della CoUimba de Venezia, near relations 
of Pope tiregciry XVI.. to wlumi this ring formerly belongeil, and who gave it 
to one of the Cappellari della ('olnmba family. Kare and beautiful stone. 

lO^iO. Pair Onyx — Nero, fifth Enipenir nf Runie. 

1031. Onyx — Hadrian, Inurtienlli Ijii|Mi-(ir 111' liiiine, A. I). 117-138. 

He was liorn at Home, and occupied most of his reign travelling in all the 
Konian [irovinces— in Egypt, in ( iennany, Spain, etc., etc. ; then built Hadrian's 
villa at Tivoli, wlicre he had reproduced many of the fine works of art he had 
seen. At Bithynia he met young .Antinous, of beauty and fine form, and made 
liini his favorite, .\nlinous was drowned in llie Nile, and lladrian liuilt a temple 
to his memory at .Me.xandi'ia. 

1032. Agate — A Phrygian Amazon, 



736 SOMMERVILLE COLLECTION. 

1033. Oinjx — Virgil. Superb canico. Ex(|uisite natural color. 

1034. Pule 0»(/.i— Magdalen. 

1035. Chalcedony — Aristides. 

103(3. Chalcedoiiy-Oiiijx — Messalina, third wife (jf Chuiiliu^ — a bad, profligate 
woman. 

CASE NNN. 

1037. S'li-il — Meleager. 

1038. Agate — Claudius, fourth Eniperi;)r of Konie. 

1039. Cameo in Gold — Jupiter Serapis, Isis, and Horus. 

1040. 0/(//.r— Cupid. 

1041. Onyx — Alexander. 

11)42. Pale Siirdonij.v — Coraniodus, eiglitecnth Eiuix-ror of Rome. 

1043. Pule Surdoni/j- — Carlo Borromeo, of the .Medici family, nephew of Pope 

Pius IV.' 

1044. Surdoni/x — Amor, hi.s head decorated with flower.* and fruits. Beautiful 

stone and fine execution. Greek inscription on the surplice. 

104.'). Chaleedonij — Otho, seventh Einpei'or of Rome. 

104(). Eineruld — An Etruscan Scarabeus, broiien. 

1047. Emerald — A Sleeping Dog. 

1048. Alabaster in Two Sffata — Medusa. 

1049. Ja.fper — An African. 

lOoO. Onyx — A Roman Mask Crinque-cento). 
10.")1. Agate — Cleopatra. 

CASE OOO. 

1052. Sardonyx — A Mask of a Satyr. 

1053. Onyx — Lena, bacchante. 

1054. Pale Sardonyx — An Owl's Head. Notice the utilization of the stratifica- 

tion of the stone. 

1055. Onyx — A Superb Jove. 

1056. Sardonyx — ^sculapius. 

1057. Pale Sardonyx — Semele, a breviary ring of Pliili]i IT. of S]iain, with 

knobs or jioints, used to count prayers. 

1058. Pule Onyx — Macrinus, twenty-sixth Emperor of Rome, a. d. 217-218. 



GOLD AND BRONZE RINGS— CAMEOS. 737 

Jle was Imrn in ('iesarea in ^[al^•itania. On tlie assassination of Caracalla he 
was proclainit'il eiuiieror, reisneil a tew niontlis, and was assassinated liy tlie iViemls 
of Cai'acalla muler the intinence of Julia Miesa, the aunt of {'ara<'alla. 

1059. Sdnhiiiijx — Socrates and his Mask. 

li)()(). Chalcedonij — Lysimachus. 

1061. Chalcedony- Onyx — Una and the Lion. 

1062. Oivj.r — A Negress with Braided Hair. 

1063. Chalctdiiny-Uiiij.c — Hesiodus, a port of the Breotian scliool. 

1064. Sardonyx — A Wounded Gladiator. 

1065. Sardonyx — Olivia, a prie.stess. 

10()(). Clia/ndony-Onyx — Marcus Agrippa. gfaiiil ailiiiifal under Aiigiistu.s. 



GOLD AND BRONZE RINGS— CAMPZOS. 

CASE PPP. 

1067. Pale iSardoiiyx — Meleager, the wild-lioar hunter. 

His Iiunting expeditions led to open war. The Calydonians were always vic- 
torious so long as Meleager went out with tliein. 

1068. GoM — Exquisitely fine gokl Byzantine cloisonne Ring of the sixtli cen- 

tury A.T). Tlie inscrij)tion is M, abbreviation of MHTHP, mother; e, 
abbreviation of eeoy, Theou — •"mother of God." 
1060. Sardonyx — Seneca, the rhetorician. 

He was linrn at Cordova, in Spain, about B. c. Gl. He was at Rome in the 
early period of the power of Augustus, 

1070. Gold Bronze— A Satyr. 

1071. Sf(;v/— Cicero, the Roman orator. 

1 072. Chalcedony- Onyx — Ulysses. 

Ulysses was one of the leaders in the Trojan War; sometimes called "the mar- 
iner," on account of his skill in navigation and his long voyages with companions 
after the downfall of Troy. 

1073. Onyx of Sercn Strata — A Helmeted Warrior. Fine example of tlie util- 

ization of stratilieation in stones for trems. 

1074. Chalcedony-Onyx — Harpocrates, also called Horus Harpocrates. 

He was the god of Silence, and is said to have been born with liis finger on 
his mouth. In Egyjitian fable he was the god of the Sun. 

1075. An Antique Scenic Mask, (ireen color. One of the rarest gems in my 

eolleetioll. 



738 SOMMEB VILLE COLLECTION. 

107(1. Pule Ony.r — Maximinus Pius, tUirt'uth Eiupei-or of Rome. 
I(i77. (l(il<l — An Alliance or Matrimonial Ring, in anck'nt virgin irold. 

A belrulliiil liim was worn on the fourth tinger, called the golilen linger. The 
ancients, believing that the blood-ves.sel or vein, vena nalvalelhi, reached inore 
diiccily ibc heart, made this linger the seat of the golden band of alliance. 

107.S. (Jdlil — All iiiitiiiue Christian relic, a King of the third century .v. i>. 

1079. Pale .Sarf/o)(//.c— Sophocles, the Greek dramatist. 

1080. Pule Oiiij.r — Pertinax, nineteenth Eniperur of Koine, from January 1st to 

.Alairii -Jsth. .\. I). 193. 

lie was born in the province of (ienoa, and was proclaimed emperor after 
Commodiis; reigned two month.s and twenty-seven day.s. Was stabbed liy the 
Praetorian (Jnard becanse he desired reform, and wonld not pay nor give presents 
to the gnards. as diil the tyrannical emperors who had preceded him. 

1081. Chdlcrdoiiji-Oiii/.r — Susannah and the Elders. 

.Susannah in the bath, a beautifnl cameo of the fifteenth centnry. I From the 
Zanetti Collei-tion.l 

V)>>± Aijiite-Oiiij.r — Phoenix Rising from the Flames. PiohaMy a fragment 
of a large and iinjiortant cameo. 

1083. 0/((/.-— Cleopatra. 

1084. Sardiiin/.i- — Socrates. 

CASE QQQ. 

1085. Sardonyx — Citharistria. 

1086. Chalcedoiii/-Oiiii.f — Domitia, wife of the Emperor Domitian. 

1087. White Topaz — Aristides, sunuimed the Just on account of his inflexible 

integrity. ^ 

He was contemporaneous with Tbcmistodes, and died about B. c. 468. 

1088. Surd — Maecenas, the chief minister and friend of Augu.stus. 

He was enormonsly rich, and nsed his wealth freely in patronizing men of 
letters, particnlarly Horace and Virgil. 

1089. Af/afr-'hiii.r — Commodus, eighteenth Emjieror of Rome. 

1090. Onyx — A Bassarid, li-.irchaiite. 

1091. Pale <S'/;-(/— Offering a Libation to Bacchus. 

1092. Sardonyx — Hippocrates. One of the finest cameos in my cullectioii. 

He was the most celebrated physician of anliipiity ; born in the island of Cos 
abont li. r. 41)11. 

1093. Siberian Jasper — Claudius, fourth Emperor of Rome, hi-other of Ger- 

maniciis ami uncle of Caligula. 



GOLD RINGS— CAMEOS. 73!) 

He was in his nepliew's palace wlien tlie soldiers sought to assassinate liim. 
He was very nuioh tVighteneil, anil hi<l liiinself nniler the curtain of a palace door, 
where they found him trembling an<l powerless with fear. Through love for his 
brother, the deceased Germanicus, they carrieil Claudius out and showed him to 
the people, and lie was forthwith proclaimed emperor. He was not tyrannical, 
but weak, incapable, and timorous. After reigning thirteen years (A. D. 41-54), 
his wife, Agrippina, caused a pliysiciaii to administer poison to him, of which lie 
died. 

10!)4. S(u-<h,nij.v — Cupid Preparing a Sacrifice. A canieo of the tifteeiith t-eii- 
tiiiy. 

This stone is very curious. White chalcedony Hgures on a ruby-red stratum, 
yet, seen against the light, all white. 

1095. Ruby — Domitian, elevciitli Emperor of Rome. There are .six small 
holes pierced throUfzh this niliy by which it was attached to a gar- 
ment ill the first eeiittiry. 

1090. Eijijiitiiiii Jksjii r — A Bacchante, ornamented with grapes and leaves. 

10!»7. Braiize — Thothmes III. An Egyptian seal ring, fonnd liy the collector 
at Girgeh. 

ions. Chakedoiiij — A Curious Rude Head. 

1099. S(-irdoiiij.f — Hyacinthus. 



GOLD KINGS— CAMEOS. 

CASE RRR. 

1100. 6W;(/— A Satyr. 

1101. Oiii/.r — Cassander, King of Maeednnia. AVitlioiit the lion's skin. 

1102. Maculated Sardoni/x — Socrates tiliont to drink the hemlock ; the bowl is 

broken, lieantiftd stone. 

1103. Sardoinj.r, four 4riita — A Grotesque Mask, with fann's ears. 

1104. Sard-A(/ide — Servius Tullius, si.xth King of Jiome, b. c. 533. 

1105. Chalcedony-Onyx — A very curious Ring. 

A sainted ecclesiastical ; around his liead are five gold stars set into the onyx ; 
under his right arm an olive branch ; and supported between his body and left arm 
is a crucifix with our f>aviour criicilied. Although very minute, this can clearly 
be seen liv a practised eye. 

ll()(i. Oiiy.v — Hannibal, with a Greek signature. 

1107. Sarduiiyx — Marcus Agrippa, general under Augustus and grand admiral. 

1108. Siberian Jasper — Incognito. 



740 SOMMEBVILLE COLLECTION. 

noil. Sardoiiy.c — A Faun's Head. 

1110. Onyx — A Bacchante. Fine liead. 

1111. Chdh-edoinj-Oinjx — A fijiure of Victory as History. 

1112. Pah Onijx — The Emperor Augustus, in succnldtal (n- ])(mtifical veil, a 

portrait of his own timi.'. 

The eves, iiioulli, etc. etc. are cut witli a diamond point as with a graver. 
This fact was noted witli nuidi pleasure by the late Monsieur L. Hirscli, profes- 
sional e.xpert of Ko. 32 Rue Louis le Grand, Paris, to whose generous learning 
I have so often been indebted in defining or divining classical and mythological 
subjects on stones in my possession. 

lli;5. Cliiilceiloiiii-Omjx— St. John. Iluiiuii'k tlie beauty of the arm, with the 
twisted rope. 

1114. Ja.'iper-Oni/x — A Bacchanalian Figure, with ;i full eruehe aiul an empty 
wiue-skiu. 



ANTIQUE PASTES. 

CASE SSS. 
111-5. A Chrktian Amulet — A Palm Branch. Beautiful iridescence. 

1116. Antique Paste Intaglio— 'Ulinerva.. 

1117. Antique Paste Cameo — Medusa. 

lllJS. Antique Paste Iiituf/lio, color red jasper — Minerva. 
11 li.). Antique Paste Intaglio, color red jasper — Fortuna. 

1120. Antique Paste Intaglio, color ridnj — Prometheus. 

1121. Antique Paste Cameo, color sard — An Amulet with Two Heads. Has 

been worn on a necklace. 

1122. Antique Paste Cameo, color white, on deep sapphire J'ouit — A Bearded 

Mask. A fragment. 

1123. Antique Iridescent G'Aw,* Cameo — A Lion's Head. 

1124. Antique Paste — A beautiful intaglio of a Bacchanalian Head, only vis- 

ible to a practised eve. Fine iridescence. 

112.5. Antique Enamel — St. Marc in Prayer. A religious anmlet of the seveiitli 
century, with inscription : S. Marcvs. 

1126. Antique Iridescent Glass — The Sun between the Dioscuri, the sons of 
Jupiter — Castor and Polhix. 

Probably representing an emperor and liis twn sous, symliolized by tlieir patron 



ANTIQUE PASTES. 741 

ilivinities. y\. Longperier studied this gem, and made notes of it in llie Academic 
des Inscriptions, Paris, 1881. 

1127. Antique Paste Cameo, color of ruby — Medusa. A fruL'ment. 

1128. Antique Pade Cameo, white on deep sapphire fond — Livia, wife of Augus- 

tus. A fragment. 

112!l Antique Iridescent Glass — A Lion's Head. Beautiful iridescence. 

lloO. Antique Paste Intaglio — A Slave Imploring his Life of a Warrior. 

1131. Antique Iridescent Glass Cameo — Mercury. 

1132. Antique Paste, color sard — An Amulet with Two Heads. 



CASE TTT. 
1133. Antique Paste Cameo, color pale ruby — Minerva. 

llo-t. Antique Pa<te Intaglio — A Sea-Nymph, ridiuir a monster with a doljihius 
body ami tail. 

1135. Atitique Paste Intaglio — Ceres. Beautiful Oriental design. 

1136. Antique Enamel Cameo, color red jusper-oni/x — A Scenic Mask. 

1137. Antique Paste Intaglio, color ruby — Young Hercules. 

1138. Antique Paste Cameo, color tvhite on deep sapphire — A Faun's Head. A 

fragment. 

1139. Antique Paste Intaglio, color pale topaz — A Head and representation of a 

Ring. 

Probably worn as a medallion by a slave who had not the right to wear a 
ring. 

1140. Antique Paste Intaglio, color deep sard — A representation of Chariot- 

races; each quadriga has four horses abreast. Interesting. 

1141. Antique Paste Cameo, color amethi/4 — A Goat. 

1142. Antique Paste Intaglio, color pcde topaz — A Mask. Silvered iridescence. 

1143. Antique Paste Intaglio, color sard — A Bull. Exquisite iridescence. 

1144. Antique Paste Intaglio, color rich topaz — Hercules. Beautiful o-em. 

1 145. Antique Pade Cameo — Horus Harpocrates, said to have been born with 

his finger on his moutli, sinniticaut of silence, .<ecrecy, and niv.s- 
terv. 

1146. Antique Pade, color ruby — A 'Warrior on Horse. Fine iridescence. 

1147. Antique Paste, color lajiif lazuli; cameo once gilded — Neptune. (See Xo. 

56, Case D.) 



742 HOMMERVILLE COLLECTION. 

1148. Antique Paste Camfo — Africa. Tlie headdress is the skin of an ck'- 
phant's head. 

114!). Antique Pude Iiduij/ia, m/nr jjide «fn-(/— Woman Worshipping a Bird. 

1150. Antique Pude Cunieo — Medusa. Extraordinary iridescence. 

1151. Antique J'lftr Litiii/Ho, enlor pule ■■<unl — Hannibal. 

1152. Antique Pudr Intii;//iii — Dog and Cock Striving over a Bowl of Food. 

1153. Antique Pude LituijUo, color topuz — A Lion's Head. 

1154. Antiijue Paste Cameo — Bacchus and a Nymph. 

1155. Bronze Ring, u-itli AnfiijKe Pude Lituglio — Incognito. Finely cut. 

1156. Anti(jue Pude lului/lio, color saji/iliire unit enierulcl, driateil with wltite — 

The Emperor Prabo, with sceptre in hand; on his shield a minute 
intaglio of Pegasus nmuntcd. 

CASE UUU. 

1157. Antique Pude Cameo, color lujiix lu:iili, wliite und tojjuz — A curious Gor- 

gon Mask, with faun's ears. 

1158. Anti(jae Paste Cumro, color u-liHe on riihij J'luiij — Two Heads. 

1159. Antique Paste Cameo, in high relief — A Bearded Mask. 

1160. Antique Paste Intugho, color surd — The Genius of the Sun. 

1161. Antique Paste Cameo — Silenus, inebriated, seate<l on the ground, giving 

a cup of wine to his disci|)le Bacchus, and instructing him in the use 
of intoxicating beverages, tiiat he may in like manner educate the 
bacchanalians and supervise the preservation of life, maturity, etc., 
etc. The fiu'ure of a woman in the backgivjund is 8emele, mother of 
Dionysus or Bacchus. 

1162. Antique Paste Intaglio, color striated .-^urd — A Satyr. 

1163. Antique Paste Intuglin, color topaz — A Bacchante decorated with grape- 

leaves and fruit. 

1164. Antique Paste — A Scarabeus. Rare. 

1165. Antique Pade Intaglio, color sard— A Winged Sphinx. 

1166. Antique Paste Intaglio, color pule sard — Polynices, son of (Edipus and 

Jocasta. 

After his I'atlier's Higlit IVuiii Tliebes lie iiiulerlunk the goveriinient witli liis 
brother Eteocles. Tliey quarrelled, and decided the difficuUy liy single ccmtest. 
when they bcith fell. One of the finest aiitirine pa-sles. ."Splendid iridescence. 

1167. Antique Paste Intaglio, color rich .iard — A Crow on a branch of a tree. 



ANTIQUE PASTES. 743 

1168. Antique Paste Intaglio, color deep sard — Mercury. 

lUii). Antique Paste Intaglio — Vulcan Forging Armor. Striated and iridescent. 

1170. Antique Paste Cameo — A Bacchanalian. Fine delicate gray-green color. 

1171. Antique Iridescent Gla-is — A Mask. 

1172. Fruffinent of Antique Blue (rln.<s, with the signature of the manufacturer, 

Artas of Sidon, a Phoenician of the second century a. d., in both 
Greek and Latin. 

APTAC ARTAS [of] 

CIAU [NIOC]. SIDON 

1173. Antique Paste Intaglio — A Young Victorious Warrior, hanging his bow 

on the coUunn of victory ; Hercules and ^Minerva assist at this cer- 
emony. 

1 174. Antiqtie Paste Intaglio, color pale sai-d — Apollo. 

1175. Antique Paste Intaglio, color dark sard — Abundance. 

117(3. Antique Paste Intaglio, color pale sard — Endymion. the lover of Diana. 
Diana was enamored of him. Superb iridescence. 

1177. Antique Paste Intaglio — Cupid Hiding a Human-faced Horse. An 

antiijue bronze ring. 

1178. Antique Paste Intaglio, color topaz — Pegasus. 

1179. Antique Paste Intaglio, color pale sard — A Scenic Mask. 

1180. Antique Paste Intaglio, color ruby — A Vestal, with an effigy in her hand. 

Fine gem. 

1181. Antique Paste Cameo, color white on jxde ruby — Paris. 

CASE VVV. 

1182. Antique Paste Cameo — Hebe Presented by Mercury to Jupiter. The bird 

is the eagle of Jupiter Toiians : behind the chair is Juno and young 
Hercules. Superb cameo. Five figures are visilile. A fragment. 

1183. Antique Paste Cameo — A Satyr and Nymph. 

1184. Antique Paste Intaglio — A Bacchante rlecorated with fruit and flowers. 

1185. Antique Paste Cameo — Amor. Beautiful patina. 

1186. Antique Iridescent Glass— A Lion's Head. Second century: observe the 

beautiful color. 

1187. Antique Paste Intaglio — A Bacchante, full foce. Fine iridescence. 

1188. Antique Paste Intaglio — A Mask. Ring. Violet iridescence. 

35 



744 SOMMERVILLE COLLECTION. 

1189. Antique Paste Intaglio, striated in three colors — Pegasus. 

1190. Antique Pu!<te Intaglio, color pale sard — Othryades, :i Spartan, one of the 

three hundred selected to fight with three liundred Argives for the 
possession of Thyrea. 

Othi-v.ades was left for dead on tlie field, but of all that liost he alone escaped. 
Beautiful gem : observe the shield. 

1191. Antique Paste Intar/lio, color rich sard — Hercules. A fragment. 

1192. Antique Iridescent Glass Intaglio— The Fall of Phaethon, at the moment 

when tlie horf^e.-:; are becoming unmanageable. (.See Metamorphoses of 
Odd, book ii., and " Belgium's Contribution," page 359.) 

Phaetlion, desiring to guide or drive the chariot of the Sun during the twenty- 
four hours, praved his father to grant him this great favor. Helios, urged bv Cly- 
mene, and not wishing to disappoint his son, consented, but instructed him to 
maintain always the same direction, warning him that otherwise he might fall 
upon the plain, into a river, or the sea. Pliaethon drove with the ardor of youth, 
but n\is soon unable to check the horses, and lost all control ; he was thrown from 
the chariot, and fell into the sea at the emboucluire of the river Po. The figures 
on the intaglio below Phaethon represent the Ileliadic, the .sisters of Phaethon, 
who were metamorphosed into poplar trees. 

1193. Antiq^le Paste Intaglio, color pale sard — Achilles leaving his son Neop- 

tolemus, accomiianied by Ulysses. Fine gem. 

1194. Antique Iridescent Glass Cameo — A Grotesque Mask. 

1195. Antiqtte Paste Intaglio — A Bull Frolicking. 

1196. Antique Paste Intaglio — A Mask. Fragment of a bronze ring. (See 

another in onyx and iron in No. 906, Case P]EE.) 

1197. Antiqiie Paste Intaglio, color rubij — An Asiatic King. 

1198. Antique Paste Cameo — Cupid seeking Water to ftuench a Flame. 

1199. Antique Paste Intaglio, color sard — Neptune. 

1200. Antique Iridescent Glass — A Nymph's Head. Second century. 

CASE V/W\V. 

1201. Antique Paste Cameo, color ivhite on sapphire — Cleopatra Reclining. 

1202. A7itique Paste Cameo, color sard — A Mask. Spots of violet iridescence. 

1203. Fragment of a Paste Cameo, injured hij time and fire — Apollo. 

In front, lielow, the serpent Python. Other figures too worn to be recog- 
nizable. 

l'2i)4. Antique Paste Intaglio, color surd — A Faun Educating a Younger One. 
1205. Antique Iridescent Glass Cameo — A Rude Mask. 



ANTIQUE PASTES. 745 

1206. Antique Paste Cameo, color sapphire with patina — A beautiful Head of a 
Faim. 

1'207. Antique Pade Cameo, color sapphire — A Lion, emblem of power. Superb 
iridescence. 

1208. Antique Paste Intaglio, color ruby — Roma. Very fine. 

1209. Antique Iridescent Glas.-; — Venus on a Shell. 

1210. Antique Paste — An Oriental Dignitary, two faces. Beautiful patina and 

iridescence. 

1211. Antique Enamel Paste — An Egyptian, and characteristic face. Was 

found inlaid in a niuniniy-case. 

1212. Antique Paste Intaglio — A Btill. Rich iridescence. 
121o. Antique Iridescent Glass — Geta, brother of Caracalla. 

1214. Antique Pade Intaglio — Homer. 

1215. Antique Paste Intaglio — Ulysses and Penelope. Beautifully striated, 

emerald tint with iridescence. 

1216. Fragment of a Large Antique Paste Cameo — An Arm, with a fish in hand. 

1217. Antique Paste Cameo, color deep sard, with figure in relief — Mounted War- 

rior with Spear, attacked by a species of dragon. Fragment worn I)y 
time. 

1218. Antique Paste Intaglio, color lajji.i lazuli — Amor drawn in a quadriga by 

four goats. 

CASE XXX. 

1219. Antique Paste — A Warrior Returning with his Trophies. An important 

fragment of a large cameo covered with Ijlue enamel. 

On his sliield is the head of a bull. The one below is of a prisoner ; the 
small dragon's head is part of a iinisical instrument. Four or five centuries before 
Christ, when the warriors brought Ijack trophies, they were placed in the temple 
of Jupiter Feretrius. (Presented to me by Scalambrini, Eome.) 

1220. Antique Paste Cameo — An Angel's Head in Clouds. Fragment. 

1221. Antique Paste Intaglio — Apollo Guiding the Chariot of the Sun. Four 

horses. Very fine. 

1222. Antique Paste Cameo, color blue enamel on sard — Aurora in her Chariot. 

1223. Antique Paste Intaglio, color ruby — Genius of the Chase. 

1224. Antique Paste Intaglio — A Gladiator. 

1225. Fragment of an Antique Bronze Ring, with an antique paste cameo — 

Cupid. 



746 SOMMERVILLE COLLECTION. 

1226. Antique Pmic Iiii<ir/!i(> — An Ass and a Goat, feeding from a tree. 

I'I'Il. Antique Fade Cunva — A Very Grotesque Mask, with iriilesceiice. The 
patina gives it ahnost a metallic ajipearanee. 

1228. Antique Paste Intaglio, color pale sard — A Lion, eiiilik'in <if force. 

1229. Antique Paste Intaglio, color emerald — Ulysses and Menelaus. 

They went together to Troy to iiidute the Trojans to restore Helen and lier 
treasures. Beautifnl intaglio and iridescence. 

1230. Antique Paste Cameo, rich topaz tint — Medusa. 

1231. Antique Paste Intaglio — Swine. 
12.32. Antique Iridescent Glass — A Dolphin. 

1233. Antique Paste Intaglio — Wild Boar. 

1234. Antique Paste Intaglio — Gold ring. The Incident of Troy: .Eiiea.s 

e.scaping from burning Troy with his father Aiiehises on his shoul- 
ders ; Ascanius, his son. following. 

1235. Antique Paste Intaglio, color dark sard — -Castor. 

He was famous for liis skill in taming and managing horses. 

1236. Antique Paste Intaglio — Orestes and his Sister Electra, who saved his 

life when his father, Agameuniou, was niurdorcd by /Egisthus and 
Clytsemnestra. 

CASE YYY. 

1237. Antique Paste — Medusa. A fragment in antique paste; very indistinct 

from age; found at Cum:e imbedded in lava. Finished in plaster and 
tinted by the collector. 

If held to the light the beantifnl sapphire color can be seen where I have 
removed tlie lava. Also notice the rich bhie color of the small piece partially 
cleared of lavii, which I have broken from Xo. 1237 and snspended by a wire. 

Three Gorgons are mentioned : Stheno, Enryale, and Medii.sa, daughters of 
Phoroys and Ceto. They were frightful beings; instead of hair their heads 
were covered with hissing serpents, and they had wings, brazen claws, and enor- 
mous teeth. Medusa, who alone of her sisters was mortal, was at lirst a beautiful 
maiden, but her hair was changed into serpents by Athena, she having become the 
mother of Pegasus. Her head now became so fearful that every one who looked at 
it was changed into stone. This head of Medusa was often placed in the centre of 
shields and breastplates. 

1238. Antique Paste Intaglio, color rich sapphire — Minerva, seated leaning on 

her shield. Patina and iridescence. 

1239. Antique Paste Intaglio, color striated emenilil — Victory. 

The wings of Victory are clipped ; the sentiment was, " Having Victory, let 
VIS keep her with us." Beautiful iridescence. 



ANTIQUE PASTES. 747 

1240. Antique PaMe Cameo— The Infant Bacchus on a Goat. 

1241. Antique Pade Intarjlio — The Couch of Venus, nymph in attendance. 

1242. Antique Paste Cameo, in hit/It relief — Incognito. 

1243. Antique Paste Cameo — A Philosopher. Worn by time. 

1244. Antique PaMe Cameo — A Faun Caressing a Goat. 

1245. Antique Paste Cameo — Cupid and Psyche, two figure.?. Opalescent. 

1246. Antique Paste Cameo — Nymphs Bathing. Second century. 

1247. Antique Iridescent Glass — A Scenic Mask. 

1248. Antique Paste — A Boar Attacked hy a Lioness. An intaglio. 

Twii transverse sunken lines maybe observed in tliis intaglio; tbis is where 
the paste is worn away wilh centuries of time, because tlie colors in that part ren- 
dered it more perishable. 

1249. Antique Paste Cameo, pale green on red — A Bacchante. 

1250. Antique Paste Cameo, fine color — Evidently a Sacrifice. A fragment. 

1251. An Antique Fibula, bronze inlaid with gold ornamentation, containing an 

antique paste intaglio representing Romulus and Remus and the She- 
Wolf. Interesting. Of the second century a. d. 

1252. Antique Paste Cameo — A Sphinx, representing the Emperor Augustus. 

1253. A Paste of Antique Red Jasper— Sw^iter Tonans, seated, holding in his 

hand an effigy of the youthful Bacchus, his favorite bird at his feet. 
An exrpii.sitely fine intagli<i; also beautiful color and iridescence. 

1254. Antique Iridescent Glass — A Lion's Head. 

1255. Antique Paste Cameo, color white on pale rubi) — Silenus and Bacchus. 

1256. Antique Paste — A Greek Antique. Full face, yellow ground; fragment 

worn by time. 

1257. Antique Paste Cameo — A Goat. 

1258. Antique Paste Cameo — Livia, wife of Augustus. Remarkable colors. 

1259. Antique Paste Cameo — lole. 

1260. Antique Paste Intaglio, color rich sard — Hercules in Repose. Superb 

patina and iridescence. 

1261. Antique Paste Cameo, color ruby — Cupid on a Goat. 

CASE ZZZ. 

1262. Antique Paste Cameo, color sapphire — A Hippogriff. 

In ancient times the symbol of tlie cu.stodian of a secret, and so used as a seal 
on private manuscripts. Beautiful green patina and iridescence. 



748 SOMMERVILLE COLLECTION. 

1263. Antique Paste Cameo, color ii<hiic fi<jiu-e!t on pnle ruby fond — Apollo Guid- 

ing the Chariot of the Sun. 

1264. Antique Iridescent Glass — Medusa. 

1265. Antique Paste, bronze ring, of first century, intaglio — Orestes and Elec- 

tra, his sister. (See No. 1236.) 

1266. Antique Paste IntofjUo — A Winged Mask, in profile. 

1267. Antique Paste Intof/lio — A Chimera — an ostrich witli a liorse's heail and 

legs. 

1268. Antique Paste Inlar/lio — A Faun. Fine green iridescence. 

1269. Antique Paste Cameo, color sapphire — Two Masks, obverse and reverse; 

both patina and iridescence. 

1270. Antique Paste Intaglio — A Scenic Mask. 

1271. Antique Iridescent Glass — A Scenic Mask. 

1272. Antique Paste Intaglio — Two Peacocks at a Fountain. 

1273. Antique Enamel — Contest between an Eagle and a Serpent. 

1274. Antique Paste Litngliu — Aurora, her chariot drawn by four horses. Very 

minute and tine. 

1275. Aidique Paste Infiir/Iia, color inirrald sfriatrd witli black and white — A 

Devotional Figure Bowing before an Altar. 

1276. Antique Enamel — Symbolic Seal, tlic foot of Mercury pressing on a but- 

terfly. 

A butterfly the emblem of the soid. The soul, after death and quitting 
Charon's care, was conducted to Paradise oi- to Inferno. Mercury has wings on 
his feet, emblematic of the velocity with which he fulfils his errand to heaven or 
to tlie Inferno. 

1277. Antique Pasle Intaglio — A Chimera. Very ingenious. 

A helmet, embossed with a tiger attacking an elephant, mounted on his back, 
holding on with claws and teeth. Their tails form the descending lines of the 
crest of the helmet. I studied this for a long time, and so have other connois- 
seurs; at last I divined the subject as above. 

1278. Antique Paste Intaglio, color topaz — A Galleria, or ancient rowboat ; a 

dove .soaring above. 

1279. Antique Paste Cameo — Head of the Dead Christ. 

1280. Antique Paste Intaglio — A Bull. This scarabeus is pierced and has been 

worn as an amulet. 

1281. Antique Iridescent Glass Cameo — -A Grotesque Scenic Mask. 

1282. Antique Enamel — A Mask, witli hole for necklace. 



AMBERS. 749 

1283. Antique Paste Cameo, color sapphire — Two Masks, obverse and reverse. 

1284. Antique Paste Intaglio — Worshipping an Idol. 

1285. Antique Paste — Ceres. A very fine and beautiful intaglio. 

1286. Aniiqiit: Paste Seal — A Matrimonial Alliance. 

1287. Antique Paste Intaglio — Faith. Bronze rinu' of the first century. (See 

No. 881, Case CCC.) Very fine and minute. 

CASE AAA A. 

1288. Grand Cameo in Paste of Chalcedony — The Claudius Family. 

Claudius' full name was Nero Claudius Drusiis. Ou the left, his father, Tib. 
Claudius Nero, and his mother, Livia. On tlie right, Nero Claudius Drusiis and 
his wife Antonia. A superb gem. 



AMBERS. 

CASE BBBB. 

1289. Amber Cameo — Venus Lamenting over the Body of Adonis, wounded by 

the wild boar, that is running away. 

Curious rude work of the fourteenth century. (From the Possenti Collection 
of Fabriano.) 

1290. Amber Cameo — Venus with Adonis before the Chase. 

(_'urious work of the llnn-teeiith ceuturv. (From the Possenti Collection of 
Fabriano.) 

1291. Amber Cameo — The Education of the Infant Bacchus. 

This grand cameo of the si.xteenth centurv is one of the most remarkable; in 
fact, very few of its dimensions and quality e-tist. (See " Education of Bacchus," 

page .332.) 

1292. Amber Cameo — Jael, the wife of Heber the Kenite, striking the nail into 

Sisera's head after the battle of the plain of Zaanaim (Judges iv. 21). 

Curious work of the fourteenth century. I From the Possenti Collection of 
Fabriano.) 

1293. Amber Cameo — Cleopatra Dying from the Sting of the Asp. 

Also fourteenth centurv. (From the Possenti Collection of Fabriano.) 



CASE CCCC. 

1294. Amber Ca»ieo— Grand Duchess Alexandrina of Mecklenburg. 

1295. Amber Cameo — A Grotesque Head. 



750 SOMMERVILLE COLLECTION. 

1296. Amber Cameo — Grand Duke Paul of Mecklenburg. 

1297. Amber — Fire. An allegorical cameo of the sixteenth century. 

1298. Amber Otmeo — The Vintage, bringing in the grapes. Of the sixteenth 

century. 

1299. Amber — Air, an allegorical cameo of the sixteenth century. 

1300. Amber Cameo — Princess Marianne, \vife of Prince Frederick of the 

Netherlands. 

1301. Amber Cameo — Incognito. Worn by age. 

1302. Amber Litaglio — A House, Bridge, etc. Unique; of the fifteenth century. 

1303. Amber Cameo — ^Frederick the Great. A rude head. 

1304. Amber Cameo — Prince Frederick of the Netherlands. 

CASE DDDD. 

1305. Amber Cameo — Elizabeth of Prussia, as Crown Princess. 
130(5. Amber Cameo — -A Portrait, the head covered with mail. 

1307. Amber Cameo — Frederick William of Prussia, as Crown Prince. 

1308. Amber — Earth, an allegorical cameo of the sixteenth century. 

1309. Amber — Wine, an allegorical cameo of the sixteenth century. 

1310. Amber — Water, an allegorical cameo of the sixteenth century. 

1311. Amber — The Empress Charlotte of Russia. 

1312. Amber Cameo — A Child's Head. Of the sixteenth century. 

1313. Amber Cameo — Helmeted Bust of Achilles. 

1314. Amber Cameo — A Child's Head. Of the sixteenth century. 

1315. Amber — Prince William of Prussia. 

CASE EEEE. 

1316. Amber Cameo — Diana Conservatrice. 

1317. Amber Cameo — Power, sixteenth century. 

1318. Amber Camen — Ruin, sixteenth century. 

1319. Amber Camen — Faith, sixteenth century. 

1320. Amber Cameo — Agriculture. 

1321. Amber Cameo — Fidelity, sixteenth century. 



CAMEOS. 751 

1322. Amber Cameo — Maternity, sixteenth century. 

1.323. Amber Cameo — Hope, sixteenth century. 

1324. Amber — A Necklace, found in the ruins of Cunia\ on the hill of Mount 
flaurus. near Misenuni. Tliis ornament was probably cut b. v. 2U(J. 



CAMEOS. 
CASE FFFF. 



1325. Aiifirjue Oriental Alabaster — Jupiter Serapis. 

This remarkable cameo laid many years in tlie Depoletti Collection at Rome; 
no one woiilJ pay its price, and when at last it came into my possession its beanty 
was unrecognizable. It was thickly coated with a dark gray and black tartar, and 
tlie dust of more than two thousand years had settled into the engraved parts. 
Just before leaving Rome I decided to have it scoured with emery-powder by a 
lapidary. On account of the difficulty of removing from Rome valuable objects 
of antiquity, I was compelled to leave it with my friend, Costantino Lanzi, a 
Roman learned in the glyptic art and archa?ology. When this friend attended to 
the transportation of this cameo to me at Paris, his letter commenced with these 
words in Italian: "Finally, Jupiter, 'the best and most high' of the Esquiline 
Mount, after centuries of repose on his native hills has taken his flight for La 
(ialliii (France). May he arrive safely and prosperously in Lutetia (Paris)." I 
may add, Jupiter has now crossed the broad Atlantic, and has found an asylum 
on the continent of Quetzalcoatl. 

CASE GGGG. 

These cameos (No.?. 1326 to 13.51 ) were the subjects of basso- 
rilievos which once adorued a triuinjihal arch erected in honor of 
Trajan. In the reign of Constantine these subjects were removed 
and employed to ornament the new Arch of Constantine. 

This series of cameos, except two numbers, 1327 and 1330, "Tlie 
Orient" and "Tlie Occident," are all works of tlie most eminent artists 
of the epoch of Trajan. They represent the pleasures of the hunt, 
the wars, and other incidents in the life of Trajan. 

1326. Oriental Alabaster — Trajan. 

M. Ulpius Trajanus was Emperor of Rome from A. d. 98 to 117. 
Trajan receives the son of the King of Armenia, who supplicates him to make 
restitution of the kingdom. 

1327. Oriental Alabaster— The Orient, the East. 

1328. Oriental Alabaster — An Allocution of Trajan to the commandants of the 

cohorts of his army. 



752 SOMMERVILLE COLLECTION. 

CASE HHHH. 

i;329. Oriental Alabaster — Trajan giving a King to the Parthians. 
ISoO. Oriental Alnbaster—The Occident, the West. 

1331. Oriental Alabader — Trajan, accompanied by Annona and Pieta, returns 

conqueror of the Daciaus to Rome, and gives back to her the empire. 
Annona was tlie goddess of the provision for tlie year, especially snperintend- 
ing the harvests of fruits and grain ; Pieta, the goddess presiding over religion, 
as her name signifies. 

CASE II 1 1. 

1332. Oriental Alabaster — Decebalus, King of the Dacians. 

He instigates one of liis subjects, a pretended deserter, to go to Rome and assas- 
sinate the emperor. Tlie man is discovered, arrested, and conducted into the pres- 
ence of Trajan to be condemned. 

1333. Oriental Alabaster — Trajan Bestowing the Conciario — the distribution 

of grain to tlie peojile. 

1334. Oriental Alabaster — Trajan at the Hunt, killing a great bear. 

1335. Oriental Alabaster — Trajan making a Sacrifice to Silvanus. consisting of 

corn, meat, milk, wine, and pigs ; the ceremony is accomptinied by 
fumigation. 

CASE JJJJ. 

1336. Oriental Alabaster — The Sacrifice Suovetaurilius. 

This consisted in tlie oflering of an ox, a pig, and a ram. 

1337. Oriental Alabaster — The Via Trajana and the Triumphal Arch erected 

in that street by the Senate and the Roman people to the Em]ieror 
Trajan. The woman with a wheel in her hand represents the Via 
Trajana. 

1338. Oriental Alabaster — Trajan Sacrificing to Apollo. 

1339. Oriental Alabaster — Trajan Pursuing a Wild Boar. 

CASE KKKK. 

1340. Oriental Alabaster — Trajan Conquers the Dacians. 

1341. Oriental Alabaster — Trajan Charging on the Dacians, crushing and 

destroying them. 

1342. Oriental Alabaster — Trajan has Killed a Lion. 

1343. Oriental Alabaster — Trajan's Hunting Retinue, the servants who guarded 

his dogs and horses. 



MISCELLANEOrS CAMEOS. 753 

CASE LLLL. 

1344. Oriental Alabaster — Trajan Assaults the Dacians. 

1345. Oriental Alabaster — Trajan, viftorious, returns to the city, and is erovned 

by Roma and \'ictory. 

1346. Oriental Alabaster — Trajan, affixing tlie head of a wild boar to a tree as 

a votive ofiiring to Diana. 

1347. Oriental Alabaster — Trajan Offering a Sacrifice to Mars Vincitore. 

CASE MM MM. 

1348. Oriental Alabastir — The Triumphal Entry of Titus Vespasianus into 

Jerusalem. Twenty-two figures are visible on this cameo. (Fmni 
the Zanetti Collection, Venice.) 

1349. Oriental Alabaster — The Exit from Jerusalem, with the booty, of the vic- 

torious army of Titu.~ VesiKisianus. Nineteen figures are visible on 
this cameo. (From the Zanetti Collection.) 

1350. Oriental Alabaster — A Group of Jewish Prisoners. Their arms are pin- 

ioned. (From the Zanetti Collection.) 

1351. Oriental Alabaster— A Group of Jewish Prisoners. Their arms are 

bound behind them. (From the Zanetti Collection.) 



MISCELLANEOUS CAMEOS. 

CASE NNNN. 

1352. Onij-r — A Young Roman consulting the God Terminus. 

1353. Jasjjer-Ont/x — A Carthaginian Cameo, probably a representation of the 

^lemnonii. 

1354. Sardonyx — Hercules, seated, with club, lion's skin, and vigorous young 

tree, also emblematic of his power. 

1355. Chalceclonij-Onyx — A Eoman Bearded Mask. 

1356. &rcZo»i2/x— Claudius, fifth Emperor of Rome. 

CASE OOOO. 

1357. Sardonyx— The Two Genii, Astuzia and Ingenuita. 

The genius Astuzia is symbolic of knavery, and the genius Ingenuita is sym- 



754 SOMMERVILLE COLLECTION. 

bolic of ingenuousness. The genius of ingeuuo\isness stands before his large 
basket heaping full of oranges; he is startled by an ajiparltion in tlie form of a 
bodiless head ormask as tall as be, the beard, touching the ground as it advances, 
of course concealing the genius of knavery. Tlie mouth is open, and instead of a 
tongue a human arm and hand protrude, and the hand gathers the oranges. 

1358. Cli<ilr,<lonij-Onyx—'Bacch\xs and Ariadne, Cupid, and Ariadne's Panther. 

Ariadne has been deserted by Theseus; liacchus discovers her, and, placing 
his hand on her shoulder, promises to care for her. (See "France," page 37G.) 

1359. Micii/atnl Aijitte-Oinjx — The Fall of Phaethon, with the Zodiac. 

A belt occupies the centre field of the gem, touching the horizon, ecliptic in 
form, because the line of the direction of the rising sun appears to be a shorter 
diameter lliau that from north to south. How often at sunrise or at evening have 
1 inuigiueil that the great orb was almost within my reach ! The under or south- 
ern side of this belt is less boldly indicated, giving tlie etl'ect of roundness and of 
distance, while the upper northern section is given in higher relief. 

Throughout the belt are engraved the signs or cliaracters of the Zodiac; 
these are e.tcpiisitely delineated. Among the signs more easily discerned are 
Taurus on the right, Aries, Pisces, Capricornus, Scorpio, Libra, Leo, and Gemini. 
In the upper field of the cameo are the planets. Boreas tlie north wind, and Jupi- 
ter with his eagle ; in the lower field is the river Po, the sea, the sisters, the pop- 
lars, and (.'ygnus, forming together the gem illustration of the following legend: 

Phaethon, son of Helios (Apollo) and Clymene, playing one day with Epaso 
had a dispute. Epaso reproached Phaethon, saying, " You are not the son of 
Helios, a.s you pretend." Phaethon, provoked, went to lament with his mother, 
Clymene, who counselled him to go to his father to inform himself more certainly. 
Phaethon entered into the palace of the Sun, and found his father seated on his 
throne brilliant with gold .ind gems. As soon :is .\pollo saw him enter and heard 
him, with benign countenance he swore to accord biiii, in evidence of his paternal 
affection, wiiatever might be his request. 

The presumptuous son asked tliat he might be permitted to guide his father's 
chariot for the space of twenty-four hours. .Apollo remonstrated with him, but 
was powerless to dissuade him from his imprudent intention ; contrary to his better 
judgment, he finally consented, and consigned his chariot to Phaethon, after hav- 
ing instructed him in all that he sliould do. Phaethon had but begun his career 
on the horizon when the horses, becoming disobedient to the hand of their new 
conductor, who was unable to check them, were soon unmanageable, and Phaethon 
was thrown from the chariot; he fell into the sea at the mouth of the river Po, 
and was drowned. 

The two sisters and Epaso grieved and wept at his fatal misadventure; their 
tears were changed into beads of amber. The Heliada-, bis sisters, who had aided 
him at his departure, were metamorphosed into poplar trees, and his friend into a 
swan (Cygnus), by which name he is known in the legend. 

All these incidents are engraved on the cameo and are recognizable under a 
magnifying-glass. (See also antique paste intaglio. No. 1192, Case V VV.) 

1360. Chalci'duiii/-Oiii/.c — Ajax, Achilles, and Ulysses. A very fine antique. 

The propitiatory sacrifice preceding the ilcparlnre of .\iax, .\chilles, and Ulys- 
ses for the war of Troy. There are two sacerdotals — one in the act of pouring a 
libation, the other giving countenance to the ceremony by his presence. 



ASSYRIAN AND BABYLONIAN CYLINDERS. 755 

CASE PPPP. 

1361. Maculated <)inj.c — Desultor. 

This name was Kiven by the Greeks to a class of men who solved the mys- 
teries of the orjj;ies of Bacclius, which, however, were not to l)e made known to the 
people. They were also gamesters, taking risks on tlie chances of the race-conrse. 
It Wiis they who laiireated the victorious horses. 

1362. Onyx — A remarkable Jewish Head, subject incognito. 

1363. Surd — The Rape of Proserpine by Pluto. 

Meicnry is prol>ably introduced as guiding tlie horses or running before them, 
because he was sent by Jupiter to Erebus to persuade Pluto to let Proserpine come 
to the light. 

1364. Chalcedoiiij-Oinjx — Achilles causing Astyanax, son of Hector, to be 

thrown into the sea, regardless of the tears of his mother Andro- 
mache. 

1365. Pale Sard — Charming Laughing Faun, 



ASSYKIAN AND BABYLONIAN CYLINDERS. 

CASE QQQQ. 

1366. Chalcedony — Assyrian Cylinder. Length, 0.031 m. ; diameter, 0.015 in. 

A bearded deity, witii long hair, no headdress, with a short undergarment and 
a longer outer mbe; with one naked leg advanced; holds by each hand a griffin 
by the front leg. The griffins have a beardless human face, the wings of a Ijird, 
and the body of a lion. In the field is a tisb, a tcreic, and an object resendjling an 
eye under an eyebrow. Wrought with the point and wheel, and in excellent pres- 
ervation. Circ. 600 B. c. 

A. Plader Imjiremion of No. 1-306. 

1367. Hematitr — Babylonian Cylinder. Length, 0.017 in.; diameter, 0.008 m. 

Seated god, in a low hat and a long robe, with one hand lifted. Above his 
head is the crescent, and below is a small kangaroo-like animal. Before the god 
are two worshippers in long robes and with their hands folded across their breasts. 
Between them is a small object shaped like a chopping-knife, and below it a rod 
with a protuberance in the middle (balance?). Two lines of inscription, "Shamash 
Aa." ' Wrought with the jioint and but little worn ; but in later times some one 
has inscribed four deep dots with the drill. Circ. 1000 B. c. 

B. Plaster Impression of No. 1307. 

1368. Green Jasper — Babylonian Cylinder. Length, 0.0285 m. ; diameter, 

0.016 ni., sliglitly coneave. 

A seated bearded god in a low romid caji ami long flounced robe, holding in 
one hand a vase. Before him a female divine attendant, with a high-pointed tiara, 

' Aa, wife of Shamash. 



756 SOMMERVILLE COLLECTION. 

hair in a fold behind, and long flounced dress, with one hand lifted in adoration, 
leads by the hand a bareheaded human figure in a long fringed robe, with one 
hand lifted. Before the god is the sun within the crescent, and below it a bird 
like a crane. There are three lines of arcliaic inscription. Very finely wrought 
with the point, and in good condition, except that the inscription appears to have 
been purposely defaced. Circ. 2000 to 3000 b. c. 

C. Plaster Lnpixxxioti of No. 13tjS. 

1369. Hematite — Babylonian Cylinder, Lengtli, 0.025 m. ; diameter, 0.013 in., 

slightly concave. 

Figure with one hand drawn back, the other across the breast, beardless, bare- 
headed, in a robe reaching to the knee. Before him a worshipper in a low hat 
and a long robe, with one hand raised in adoration. A third figure, facing the 
other way, naked, with one hand lifted. Tliere are two lines of inscription, 
"Shama,sh Aa." The first two figures are wrought with the point. The first dif- 
fers from the ordinary representation of this god in being bareheaded and having 
no wand. The third figure is wrought with the wheel, and appears to be consid- 
erably later. In good preservation, but with Haws in the stone. Perhaps 700 to 
1000 B. c. 

D. Plicster Impression of No. 1309. 

1370. Serpentine — Cyprian (T) Cylinder. Lengtli, 0.02.5 m. ; diameter, 0.01 m. 

Three Iituunii figures, one of them in a long robe, the others in short robes; 
all of them, probably, with both hands lifted ; upright irregidar lines between 
them. Deeply and very rudely cut with the point, and in good condition. Per- 
haps 400 B. c. 

E. Plaster Impression of No. 1370. 

1371. Hematite — Babylonian Cylinder. Lenutli, 0.016 m. ; diameter, 0.012-5 m. 

The god Sliaiuasli, with one foot lifted, with a high-pointed turban, bearded, 
holding in one hand a notched weapon. Before him, a bearded worshipper, in 
a long robe and with a low round hat, presents a goat. Behind him, the goddess 
Aa, with high-pointed turban and flounced dress, with both hands raised. A col- 
umn, on which is a small naked man, .standing on his head. The crescent over a 
small naked dancing figm-e. A seated ape-like animal over a column. Wrought 
with the point and slightly worn. Circ. 1000 B. c. 

F. Plaster Impression of No. 1371. 

1372. i/e»if//(7f— Babylonian Cylinder. Lenutli. 0.019 m. ; diameter, 0.012 m, 

Seated god with two-horned tiara, bearded, flounced robe, with his feet resting 
on a goat, and with one hand extended. Above his hand is a crescent and a small 
animal. Before him stands a beardless deity in a two-horned tiara and a long robe, 
with hands across the breast and with a stream flowing from each shoulder. Behind 
this deity a human figure with a horned cap, one hand lifted, the other across the 
breast, in a short fringed robe. Tlien a vase over a rod with a protuberance in the 
middle (balance?!, and tlie goddess Aa, in a two-horned tiara and a long flounced 
robe, with both hands lifted. An upright serpent and an object like a rake or long 
comb. Cut with the point and in good condition. Circ. 1000 to 1.500 B. c. 

G. Plaster Impression of No. 1372. 



ASSYEIAX AND BABYLOXIAX CYLINDERS. 757 

CASE RRRR. 

1373. Henudite — Babylonian Cylinder. Length, 0.027 in. ; diameter, 0.014 m., 

slightly concave. 

A god with liand tlinnvn b.ick, holding in tlie otliei- a wand, in a low roniid 
cap and a short robe. Beliind him two lines of inscription, and a third line has 
been efi'aced. The large vacant space has been at a later time partly tilled witli a 
crescent, and the double zigzag (thunderbolt?) wrought with the wheel ; the earlier 
portion being wrought with the point, and in good condition. Circ. 1000 B. c. 

A. Plaster Impression of No. 1S7.3. 

1374. Hematite — Babylonian Cylinder. Length, 0.026 m. ; diameter, 0.014 m. 

A god w ilh one hand drawn back, low roinid cnp, and short robe. Before liim 
the goddess Aa, with both hands raised and in a long flounced robe. Between them 
a small bird, a crook, and a small goat. Behind the goddess a star over a column 
with a triangular top (fire-altar?). Zarpanit, naked, front view, with hands across 
her breast. Three line.s of inscription. Wrought with the point and in good con- 
dition, except for a slight flaw in the stone. Circ. 800 to 1000 B. c. 

B. Piaster Imjjre.moii of No. 1374. 

1375. Dark Serpentine — Babylonian Cylinder. Length, 0.025 m. ; diameter, 

0.013 m., slightly conrave. 

A seated deity, beardless, with a full chin, the hair looped up behind and tied 
with a knot, in a long fringed robe, with one hand e.xtended, apparently holding a 
low flat vase. Above the hand a star. Before the deity a standing figure with the 
same coiffure and dress, with one hand advanced and the other across the breast. 
There follow three identical figures with the same coifiiire and dress, and with 
both hands across the breast. Kxcellently cut « itli the point, and in perfect pres- 
ervation. Circ. 2000 B. c. 

C. Plaster Impression of No. 1375. 

137(3. Blaeh Serpentine — Babylonian Cylinder. Length, 0.035 m. ; diameter, 
0.023 m., concave. 

GLsdubar, naked except for a girdle, and in profile, with the usual three curls, 
attacks a bull (not a bufl^alo), seizing him by the neck and tail, lifting his foot on 
its back. Gisdubar repeated (but badly worn) attacks a lion in the same way. 
Finely cut with the point, and the lion somewhat worn, though not so much as the 
figure of Gisdubar attacking him. Circ. 2500 B. c. 

D. Pla.iter Impre-'^sion of No. 1376. 

1377. Chulcedoinj — Assyrian Cylinder. Length, 0.028 m. ; diameter, 0.014 
ru. 

Four-winged deity, holding with each band a griffin by the fore leg. The 
griffin seems to have a human head, two wings, and a lion's body. In the field a 
crescent and a fish i?i. Rudely wrouglit with the wheel and in good preservation, 
except that the ends are battered. Circ. 500 B. c. 

E. Plaster Impression of No. 1377. 



758 SOMMERVILLE COLLECTION. 

1378. ^ewaiife— Hittite Cylinder. Length, 0.018 ni. ; diameter, 0.0095 m. A 

border-line at the top and the bottom. 

Two .similar figures nalced, e.xcept for a girtlle, facing eacli other, hokling an 
oliject like a flag on a stafl' before them. Before each a small undetermined oljject. 
An ibex over a bird. Cut with the point, and in good condition. Circ. 600 B. c. 

F. Planter Impression of No. 1378. 

1379. ife)ua<('<e— Persian Cylinder. Length, 0.012 m. ; iliameter, 0.009 m. 

A sacred tree, with three curved branches on each si<le at the bottom and four 
at the top. On each side an iliex rampant, with head turned l)ack to see a lion 
which attacks him. A small undetermined object lietween the backs of the lions' 
heads. Well cut with the point, and in good condition. Circ. 500 B. c. 

G. Plaster Impression of No. 1379. 



PERSIAN SEALS. 

CASE SSSS. 

1380. Hnnatitc — Intaglio Seal. A gerboise, resembling a kangaroo, with short 

front legs and hairy tail. 

A. Plaster Impression of No. 1380. 

1381. C/if(/e«?o)i(/— Intaglio Seal. 

B. Plasii'r Iiiiprrsxiiin <f No. 1381. 

1382. Onyx — Intaglio Seal. A moufflon, a large horned animal resembling a 

ram. 

C. Plaster Impression of No. 1382. 

1383. Pale Sard — Intaglio Seal. 

D. Planter Impression of No. 1383. 

1384. Chakedoiiij — Intaglio Seal. 

E. Phistn- Imiiressiim of No. 1384. 

1385. Black Serpentine — Intaglio Seal. 

F. Pla.der Impression of No. 1385. 

1386. Carnelian — Intaglio Seal. 

G. Plaster Impression of No. 1386. 

1387. CAafcerfo;;//— Intaglio Seal. A moufflon, a large horned animal resem- 

bling a ram. 
H. Plaster Impression of No. 1387. 

1388. Chaleedoiii/ — Intaglio Seal. Another moufflon. 
1. Pla.ster Impression of No. 1388. 



ASSYETAX AXD BABYLOXIAX CYLIXDEES. 759 

CASE TTTT. 

Case TTTT aiul Case UUUU are reproductions in vitreous paste 
made in the iMtrhteenth century. (From tlie celebrated cameos in the 
Imperial Collection at Vienna.) 

1389. Livia. 

Io90. Augustus, Emperor of Rome. 

13!il. An Emperor, represented by a figure of Jupiter triumphant, prisoner, 
arnmr, anil tropliios. 

1392. Ptolemy Philadelphus and Arsinoe. 

CASE UUUU. 

1393. Hadrian, Empemr of Rome. 

1394. Neptune and other Figures. 

1395. Cybele. 

1396. Augustus and the Deess Roma. 



AZTEC OR MEXICAN. 
CASE WW. 



1397. An Idol. 
1397}. A Cholulan. 

1398. An Enthroned Idol, with other symbols. 

1399. An Idol. 
1399J. A Cholulan. 



ASSYRIAN AXD BABYLOXIAX CYLIXDERS. 

CASE WWWW. 
1400. Hematite — Babylonian Cylinder. Length, 0.022 m. ; diameter, 0.011 m. 
Heabani, with luiiiian face and the body of a bull, holding a mace; the god- 
dess Aa in a floiniced dress and with both hands lifted ; a god with one hand 
drawn behind him and the otiier across his breast, in a short robe. Well wronght 
with the point, but a vacant space has been tilled later with a seated figure reversed, 
holding a wavy rod. In good condition, except for a hole made bv a flaw in the 
stone. Purchased in Constantinople. Circ. 1000 u. c. 

A. Gutta-percha Impression of Xo. I4OO. 
36 



760 SOMMERVILLE COLLECTION. 

1401. Li fiht -colored Hematite — Hittite Cylinder. Length, 0.010 m. ; dianiotcr. 

0.01 111. 

Witliin tlie usual bonier-lines is a tree iiiaile willi a stem, from the top of 
wliieli radiate eiglit straif;lit branches tipiied with knobs; around the stem a ninn- 
ber of .strai,i,'ht lines and semicircles. Faeini;: the tree on each side is a kneelin;,' 
ibe.x ; above them, a winged circle and the lozenge or ATt/f. Executed rudely and 
wholly with the wheel ; in perfect preservation. From Mardiu. Circ. -100 u. c. 

B. Giiiia-prrcha Lnpri'naioii of No. HOI. 

1402. Dark-Green Jii.-<jirr — Persian Cylinder. Length, 0.023 in.; diiinieter, 

0.0125 in. 

A sacred tree, and a god each side with its head turned back ; a sl;n'. Well 
wrought with the point iimi wheel, and in good condition, fire. oW) to oOO B. c. 

C. Gutta-peri-ha liiiprexxioii of No. I40'. 

1403. Hemafite — Babylonian Cylinder. Longtii, (l.l)r.l m. ; iliaiuetcr, 0.(11 m. 

The god, with one hand drawn back, the other across his breast, in a short 
robe; in front a Hgure in a flounced dress, with one hand across the lireasi, the 
other reaching forward ; the goddess Aa in a long Hounced dress and with both 
liands raised ; two lines of inscription. Wrought with the point ; somewhat worn, 
but clear. Brought from Constantinople. Circ. lUOO u. <j. 

D. Chdtn-perclm Lnprc^sion. of No. IJfiS. 

1404. Green Coiiijxirt Sluli- — Cylinder, ul unkiiowii origin. Length, 0.046 in.; 

diameter, 0.02 in. 

At one end an animal like a lion, with a head like a hipiiopolanms, threatens 
an ibex, which is upside down. The same device is repeated at the other end. In 
the middle are a star and a serpent. Very deeply cut with the point, and in per- 
fect condition. From Mosul. Date unknown. 

E. Gutta-percha Lnpression of No. l^O'f. 

1405. //-'(/('(//Vc— Babylonian Cylinder. Length, 0.018 m. ; diameter, 0.008 m. 

.\ short-skirled god holds an iprnamental trident; before him a short-skirted 
man, with one hand lifted in worship; star over scorpion; a long-skirted figure 
with both hands ai'ross the waist ; a crescent over a fire-altar ; two short lines of 
inscription. Cut witli the point, and in good condition. From Baghdad. Circ. 
1000 B. c. 

F. Gutla-pcreha Impression of No. 1405. 

1406. r/irrfoY?o»)/— Hittite Cylinder. Length, 0.025 m. ; diameter, 0.012 m. 

Within the usual border-lines appear two winged animals galloping, two fishes, 
a crescent, a star, and the lozenge or Krtic. Fairly engraved with the wheel, and in 
fair preservation, although the surface is somewhat rough. Circ. .500 B. c. 

G. Gntfii-prrcha Impression of No. I4OO. 

1407. Clear Cli'i/rr<lon;/—mttite Cylinder. liength, 0.026 m. ; diameter, 0.013 m. 

Within the usual border-lines are — a winged disk over two animals: a winged 
animal over an animal; a lozenge or.\"f(r; two concentric circles; a semicircle. 



ASSYRIAX AXD BABYLOXIAX CYLIXDERS. 761 

All executed riulelv with the wheel, and in excellent preservation. Brought from 
Mosul. C'irc. 500 B. c. 

11. Gutta-percha Impre<slon of Xo. 1407. 

CASE XXXX. 

1408. Hematite— mttite Cylinder. Length, 0.021 in. ; diameter, 0.0095 in. 

Within the usual Imrder-lines a man seated, holding a .staff; a lion rampant 
over a small animal ; a scorpion over two semicircles, one of which has a handle : 
a lozenge or Kreic. Wrought verv rudely and wholiy with the wheel ; in good pres- 
ervation, fire. 400 b. l'. 

A. Guttii-penha Iinpre-v<loa of Xu. I4OS. 

1409. Serpentine — Assyrian Cylinder. Leinrth, 0.026 111. ; diameter, 0.011 ni. 

A kneeling god shoots with a liow an advancing bidl ; crescent, star; the usual 
border-lines at top and bottom. Fairly and very deeply cut with the point ; in fair 
condition. Brought from Mosul. C'irc. 600 to 1000 B. c. 

B. Gutta-percha Impre-<-<ion of Xo. IJ/J'J. 

1410. Hematitt — Babylonian Cylinder. LciiL^h, (1.(121 in.; diameter, 0.011 111. 

The gwl Shamash with one foot lifted on an animal, holding a cimeter and an 
ornamental trident ; the goddess Aa in a long Hoiuiced dress and with both hands 
lifted; a worshipper with one hand lifted ; behind the god and facing him a man 
in a short skirt, with one hand across his waist, the other behind him. Wrought 
with the point, and unworn. Brought from Constantinople. C'irc. SOO to 1000 B. c. 

C. Gutta-percha Imprecision of Xo. 14 lU. 

1411. Onyx (with cein-^ of sard) — Assyrian Cylinder. Length, 0.0035 m. ; 

diameter, 0.014 m. 

Witinn border-lines are two winged sphinxes, one each side of a low .sacred 
tree; a star. Very rudely wrought with the wheel, in fairly good preservation. 
From Mardin. Circ. .500 b. c. 

D. Gutta-percha Impre-mon of Xu. 1411. 

1412. Soft, Mottled Serpentine — Babylonian Cylinder. Length, 0.02 m. ; diam- 

eter, 0.0165 m. 

A seated beardless deity, in a high two-horned hat and a flounced robe, with 
one hand raised. An attendant deity, in a high two-horned hat and a plain long 
dress, leads in a beardless, bareheaded worshipper in a tringed robe, with one hand 
raised in adoration. Fairly wrought with the point, and in fair condition. Ob- 
tained in Constantinople. Circ. 1000 to 1500 B. c. 

E. Gutta-percha Luj/re!<<ioii of Xo. 141~. 

1413. Lapi-i Lazuli — Babylonian Cylinder. Length, 0.025 m. : diameter, 

0.012 m. 

Seated bearded deity in a low round cap and a long robe; the sun in a cres- 
cent : facing the god a perst)nage with arms crossed, followed by the goddess .\a in 
a long fringed robe and with both hands lifted. There are three lines of inscrip- 



762 SOMMERVILLE COLLECTION. 

tion. Well cut with the point, but corrodeil, and two ileep holes anil one shallow 
one have been bnreil in the face, and two in the npjier end. Said to have been 
obtained from Jezireh. Circ. 1000 B. c. 

F. Gutta-]terchii Lnpn-snton of No. HIS. 

1414. Broivn Slate — Babylonian Cylinder. Length, 0.029 m.; diameter, 0.0145 m. 

A god witli haiul drawn liack, tlie other across his breast, in a short robe; a 
crescent over a monkey (?) ; a worshipper with one hand lifted ; an nncertain object 
over a tnrtle (?), which is over a fish ; two lines <jf inscription. Wrought with the 
point; badly worn. Kronght from Constaiilinnplc. Circ. lUOO B. c. 

G. Gulta-perclia Iinjin'x.iioii of No. L'flJf. 

CASE YYYY. 

1415. Strpeidinc — Babylonian Cylinder. Length, (t. (125 m. ; duimeter, 0.012 m. 

Seated god, lieardless, in a low ronnd cap and a long robe. Sun in the cre.s- 
cent. A beardless deity, in a high hat and a llomiced dress, leads by tlie hand a 
beardless worsliijjper, bareheaded, in a long simple robe, with one hand raised in 
adoration. There are two lines of suspicions inscription. Fairly wrought with 
the point, and in fair condition. Brought from Constantinople. Circ. 1000 to 
1500 B. c. 

A. Gutta-percha Liipre.-^-non of No. IJ^LJ. 

1416. Black Basalt (.^) — Cylinder, of unkiiDwn (irigiii. Length, 0.068 ni. ; diam- 

eter, 0.019 111. 

Seven quadrupeds impossible to identify; several other aninuds ; deep holes 
with rays; a group of nine dots. Very rudely wrought with the wheel, and in 
good preservation. Reported to have been brought from Baghdad. Age uncertain. 

B. Gidta-j)crcha Lnpres.sion of No. H16. 

1417. Dark Oivj.r — Persian Cylinder. Length, 0.02:1 m. ; diameter, 0.0115 m. 

Hero, with crenellated crown and Persian trouser-like robe, lifts a lion by the 
hind leg, and in the other hand holds a dagger; crescent ; vacant space. Wrought 
with the point and wheel, and in excellent preservation. Obtained in Constanti- 
nople. Circ. 300 to .500 B. c. 

C. Gutta-j)ercha Impre.f.non of No. IJill. 

1418. Cut from the Core or Heli.r of a Conch-shell — Babylonian Cylinder. 

Length, 0.029 ni. ; diameter, 0.015 in. 

Two lions, whose bodies cross each other, attack two ibexes ; a crescent ; a rod 
with a rhombic top; a crab (?). Rudely wrought with point and wheel, and in 
good condition. From Mosul. Circ. 1500 B. c. 

D. Gutta-percha, Lnpression of No. IJ^IS. 

1419. Reddish Serpeidiue — Either Assyrian or Hittite Cylinder. Length, 

0.024 111. ; diameter 0.011 m. 

On a chair a seated deity in a square cap, with one hand lifted, before a table 
with a crab (?) on it ; on the other side of the table a priest with one hand lifted ; 



ASSYRIAX AXD BABYLONIAN CYLINDERS. 70;J 

several wedges. Ratlier rudely cut with the i-ioint, and in fair preservation. From 
Mosul. Circ. 500 to 700 b. v. 

E. Gutta-percha Impression of No. IJ^IQ. 

1420. Made from the Core or Heliv of a C>iiifh-ylir/l — Babylonian Cylinder. 
Length, 0.0325 m. ; diameter, 0.019 in. 

A seateil god in a round cap, in a long llounced robe, holding a vase; a bare- 
headed attendant leads in a figure by the hand. The latter has a fringed robe, and 
both have their hair in a knot behind. Two other standing figures face the other 
way. Fairly wrought with the point, but badly corroded. From Baghdad. Circ. 
1500 B. c. 

F. Gutta-percha Iiiipresslon of No. lJt20. 



In the month of June, 1888, I was again at the .seances of 1" Acad- 
emic des Inscriptions de I'lnstitut de France at Paris, and there met 
IMonsieur J. Menant, merabre de I'lnstitut. He expressed a desire 
to see the prints from impressions of the foregoing cylinders, and on 
calling on nie took them with him to his home in Rouen ; three days 
later I received from him the fac.iimilr on p. 437 and the following 
notes on the aforesaid cylinders, which I have here translated : 

Plate 27 : 
402. VijUiidcr, Chaldean — Consecration of a Sacrifice. See Catalogue metho- 
dique et raisonne de la Collection de Clereq, Antiquith a.m/rieniies 
cyliitdres orieiitaia; etc., Plate XXI. Xo. 203. Also see Menant's 
Glyptique orientule, jiart 1, page 150. 

493. Cylinder, Chaldean — Religious Ceremony. Compare one of the person- 

ages, which resembles a skeleton, witli Piute XXIII. No. 239, of the 
catalogue of the Collection de Clerc(j. 

494. Cylindir, Chddean — Very much of the same character as No. 492. 

495. Subject unknown. 
Plate 28: 

49(i. Cylinder. Chaldean — Presentation of a Candidate for Initiation to a 
Divinity. See CataloLiiu' de Clereq, Plate IX. Xo. 84, and Menant's 
Glyptique orientale, part 1, page 213. 

497. Cylinder, Hittite — Of the highest interest. See Menant's Glyptique orien- 

tale, part 2, page 118. 

498. Cylinder, Chaldean — " Cylinder of Nu-nia-beni, son of Urnaniis, servant 

of Uginapini." See Menant's Gly/itique orientale, part 1, page 150. 
Also Catalogue de Clereq, Plate XX. 

499. Cylinder, Hittite — See Catalogue de Clereq, Plate IV. No. 98. 



7fi4 SOMMERVILLE COLLECTION. 

Plate 29: 
irieO. Cijllnder, Assyrian— ^e Catalogue tie Clerpq, Plate XXXII. Xo. 351. 

1367. Cylinder, ChaMean—" " " " XV. 

1368. Cyllnde); Chakhan—" " " " XX. 

1369. Cylinder, Chaldean— " " " " XXI. Xo. 202. 

1370. Cylinder, Chaldean—" " " " XVII. 

Plate 30: 

1371. Cylinder, Chaldean— See Cataloque rle Clercq, Plate XVII. Xo. 2-37. 

1372. Cyliadrr, Chaldean— " " " " XVII. 

1373. Cylinder. ( 'A'/A/r-///— Resembles Xo. 492. 

1374. Ci/liiider, CV/'f/r/'-'n;— Remarkable on account of tlio presence of a nude 

Deess. See MeiiantV Ghjptique orientalr, part 1, jiaj^e 174, and Cat- 
alojiue de CIitci, Plate XXIII. Xo. 221, etc. 
137"). Cylinder, Chaldean— Xt-ry remarkable, a:' it represents a scene not yet 
interpreted. 

Plate 31 : 

1376. Cylinder, Chaldean— A Combat of Gisdubar and Kea-bani with a Lion. 

Very beautiful, old. .See ^lenant's Clyptiijue orimtidr. part 2, paije 
84 ef seq. 

1377. Ci/linder, Assyrian — See Catalogue de Clerci], Plate XXX. Xo. 323. 

1378. Cyliiuh,: Hiltife. 

1379. Ci/lindir. Chalihan — See ^tenant's GlypHque nrientale. jiart 1, page 84. 

Pl.vfe 32: 

1400. Ci/liiider, Chaldean — Very interesting on account of the double ceremony. 

See Catalogue de C'lereq, Plates XX. and XXII. Xo. 211. 

1401. Cylinder, Assyrian — Subject unknown. 

1402. Cylinder, As.'^yrian. 

1403. Cylinder, Claddean—See Xo. 1369. 

Plate 33 : 

1404. Cylinder. Hitiite. 

140-J. Ci/liniler, Hittite — -Very interesting, on account <if tbe re-union of two 

different types. 
1406. Cylinder, Assyrian — See Catalogue de Clercq, I'latr I. Xo. 3. 
14tl7. Cylimler, Assyrian — " " " '" II. Xo. 16. 



SASSAXIAX, PEBSIAN, AND ASSYRIAN SEALS. 765 

Pi.ATi: :54: 
I4II.S. <'i//iii(ln\ AMi/ridii — See Catalogue de C'lercii, Plate I. No. 4. 
140!:). <'i/il,i<ln; A.'<s!/r!,i,i— " " " " XXIX. No. 304. 

1410. Ci/Zlndn; Cl„(l,l,„n—-' " " " XX. 

1411. Cylinder, Ai<.-iiji-i(iii — Very curious. See Cataloirue de ('leieq, Plate XXX. 

No. 317. 

Plate 3-5 : 

1412. C(iliii(lrr. ('lia/(lni)i — Of the highest interest on aeeount of the inseri])- 

tion. See Catalogue de Clerccj, Plate X. For e.xplauatioii of the 
scene, see tenant's G/iipliijiif oi-'ieiitnle, part 1, page \'1\). 

1413. Ci//iiHlii\ ('liiililniii — Al.<() interesting. See the same reference. 

1414. l'i/!iii<lir. Cliiifdciiii — See Catalogue de Clercq, Plate XX. 
HI."). Ci//lN<l<r, ('//<(/</'-,/,— See No. 1412. 

HK;. Ci//iii(ln\ Hiitilr. 

1417. Ci/lliidcr, I'lr^iini — See ]\renaiit"s (l/i/jitiipir orieiiUdf, part 2, page 155 ef 

seq., and Catalogue de Clercq, Plate XXIV. No. 3S2. 

Plate 36: 

1418. UiikiwH'ii. 

1419. t'li/iiidir. C/ia/deiin — See Menant's Ghqitiipw oriiiiiuli .Vay\- 1, page 50. 

142(1. L'ljlinder, i'luddrun — Very curious. See Catalogue de Clercf|, Plate 
" XVI. No. 129. 



SASSANIAN, PERSIAN, AND ASSYRIAN SEALS. 

CASE ZZZZ. 

1421. Oriental Af/atr — A Sassanian Seal, with iiisiription in Pehlevi. 

A. Guiiti-jierchti Iiiijiri^.-iion of No. 14-^1. 

1422. Hemfdite — A Sassanian Seal, with inscription. 

B. GKtt(i-j>ercIi(i Jinj/ri ssiim af No. lJfi,2. 

1423. Sard — Persian Seal, a lion, with inscription. 

C. Gidta-j)erch(i linpreitsion of No. IJ-fJ-J. 

1424. Chalcedony — A Persian Seal, a bull encircled by an emblem of Eter- 

nity. 

D. Gntta-perclia Litprefi^ion of No. IJf^i- 



766 SOMMERVILLE COLLECTION. 

1425. Maculated Sardonyx— A. Persian Seal, a winged horse witli worn Pelikvi 

inscription. 

E. Gutiu-perfha Iinjiresxion of Xo. IJfio. 

1426. Sard — Sassanian Seal, a chimera, a bird witii liunmu head and face. 

F. Chxtta-perclia Impression of No. 1426. 

1427. Chalcedomj — An Assyrian Seal. Incognito. 

G. Gidta-percha Impression of No. 14^7. 

1428. Chalcedony- Ony. I- — -A Persian Seal, rude head. 
H. Gutta-j)erclia Impression of No. lJf2S. 



ABRAXAS. 

CASE AAAAA. 

]My mention in the Prefoce of Dr. Isaac H. Hall's valuable aid 
refers to his explanation of these Abraxas inscriptions. 

1429. Chakedonij— Cameo Ring. A Gnostic adaptation of Amen-Ra's Pri- 

apean characteristic to Jupiter Serapis. 

The letters seem to form one of those Gnostic-trinity inscriptions wliere ZEVX 
(Jupiterl is one person, a'AHI (Hades or Plntoi another, and HAlOi iHeliosi tlie 
third. The inscription seems to be "To thee, Father Zeus, Earth, and Hades." 
They are tlnis addressed as tlie Gnostic Trinity. 

1430. Pale .Son?— Intaglio. 

Purely (inostic, containing mystic characters nnintelligible, and ivhich were 
prob.ibly not understood by tlie owner of the talisman. 

A. Gutta-perchii Imj/r'ssio/i of Obver.^e of No. 14-iO. 

B. Gidta-percha Impression of Rever.'te of No. H30. 
1 4:51 . Chalcedony- Onyx — Cameo. 

The head is Serapis ; the inscription appears to lie (Jreek, commencing at the 

intaglio symbol of e-t— , which is apparently the anchor cross. Beginning at the 

right of this, we liave mOJC MOVXIPEMNHMONEVEYKMVAI, wliich must be n05 

MOY XlAJlPE MNHMONEVE VKMYAI (01 for OE02. and the I fur Al in XAIPE) 

,,.,,„ , ' Hvkmvli 1 ,,, 

— O mv God, hail: Kememoer , ..,' :. ,- ! 

I 1 kmyh ' 

1432. Sardony.r — Talisman, set with turquoises anil carncliaii. witli inscription 
on both sides. 

Procured through an .Vrab from Abyssinia. On the obvei'se is an ibis stand- 
ing on a globe; its head is surrounded liy a rude representation of the rays of the 
sun, either emanating from the sacred bird or enveloping it in a halo of religious 
light. Surrounded by an inscription. 



ABRAXAS. 767 

The (iliverse reading (reversed, and beginning at top, left, after tlie two dots [;] ), 

A ANAGANABANAAKA ; AAKAANAK; 
is really A ANA.GANA, eANAAK A . A'AKAANAK 

where at the first two places in which A is snpplied, at *, consider tlie letter 
rejieated, or rather to be transferred to the place of the last ; also supply A at the 
end. The reading is then: "Mine fart) thou, I (am) thine; thine (ami I, thine." 
Tiie reverse reading (reversed) : 

AKAANAG I AGANAAKA, 
is really AKAANAG | AGANAAKA^ 
and in the first line we need to amend the last two letters by doubling tlie A. We 
then have, "Thine (am) I; (()) thou, | thou, I (am) thine;" all which, emenda- 
tions and rendering, are excellent Gnostic. 

C. Gutta-percha Impression of Obverse of No. 1432. 

D. Gutta-percha Impression of Reverse of Xo. 14-32. 

1433. Pale 5arc?— Intaglio. 

On the obverse, tlie side with a serpent whose tail is in his mouth, 

MAXE lOVCABA 
nGBHABAACOY 
MHOOPQMA 
ZHAIA0Y 

Then read i marking the division of words by perpendicular marks), 

maxe|ioy|caba 

ne|BHA]BAA|COY| 
MH|0|0POMA 

zhIaiaoy 

"May Jehovah Sabaoth Bel thy Baal fight, lest Orobazes escape." The whole 
gem would be a mi.xed-up luve-charm. The encircling ser|)ent and the other sym- 
bols are those of Anubis or Chnubis, but with other marks, "^ ZZ Z . These fig- 
ures are a star, whose symbolic use varies; ;he next is an infrequent symbol of 
Chnubis; and the three ?^?- are the well-known syndjol of Chnubis. 
On the reverse the reading is: 

aazom|icaa 

AinOAIN|HN| 

eteken|ka 

AAinOAlC 

[The lines of the gem are here kept; the perpendicular marks denote the divis- 
ions of the words.] It is good Greek, except lh:il the first word is either barbarous 
or an unused form. 

I take it to be from Aoigku, and render it, "King out (the name of) Kallipolis 
whom Kallipolis bore or brought forth." 

E. ct F. Gutta-percha Impression-f of Obverse and Reverse of Xo. 1433. 

1434. Black Basalt (f) — Abraxas Amulet, iiiscriijtion on both sides. 

On tlie obverse is an ibis with an altar and altai-sacrilicial implements. 



768 SOMMEBVILLE COLLECTION. 

3T1Y0 
On the reverse is lor EYniflTE I, "Cluuiliis is l,or lias been 

favorable." Tlie symbol below is that ol' Cliimbis. 

Li.& II. (iiittii-jjcrchii Jiiijirrs.-<in)tf of Obcerse and Heverse of Ko. 14-->4- 



AZTEC OR MEXICAX. 

CASE BBBBB. 

1435. Aldhaster — A Mexican Idol. 

14o((. Aldbasti'f — An Aztec Cylinder. 

14:!7. Aldhasttr — A Rude Mask. 

14o8. A/'ibasfer — A Grotesque Mask. 

1439. A Mexican Idol, (l-'rom the ^Mexican CoUoe-tiun of C'uunt de Waldeck.) 

1440. Alabaster — A Grotesque Mask. 



ASSYRIAX SEALS. 

CASE CCCCC. 

1441. SmoL-i/ Chalcednnij — Assyrian Seal. A female figure at an altar in adur- 

ation. The four-rayed s^tar. 

A. (hdta-perch(t Jin/irrs.iidii of Xo. l-^Jfl. 

1442. Chalcedony — Assyrian Seal. A priest bear! ng a tlainbeati before an altar. 

Probably one of the ordinary JMagi's seaL<, whieh generally repre.sent 
a lire-altar. 

B. Giittd-percha Lnpre.yxion of Xo. 14-'/^. 

1443. Sajijjhirinc — Assyrian Seal. ]!ear<liil li-nre uf a man with uplifted hand 

in adoration. The iiead and faee are of line exeetition. 

C. (intto-perehd Impreisaion of Xo. L'f-'f!. 

1444. I'lile-brounilxh Chnlccdoiuj — Assyrian Seal. A jiriest bi'I'ore an altar on 

which burns a lamp; also the erescent or new moon. 

D. (iiitt(i-j)i ri-lui Iinjire-ssiun of Xo. 1444- 

144o. J'k/i' Stipphiriiir — Assyrian Seal. Two standing worshi]iping figures 
faeing a I'andelaiira ; the eresecnt above. 

E. (lidta-pcrrliit liiijx-rsxion of Xo. 1445- 



EGYPTIAX SCAB ABEL TfW 

1446. Bmcnifh Clui/cctloiii/ — Assyrian Seal. Piii'st in adoiatioii, both liaiRl< 

raised before an altar: the crestriit. 

This, like the most of this series, is a seal of the common people. 

F. Gutta-percha Iinpressioft of .,Yo. IJ/JfO. 

1447. YdlowUh Clia/cf'donrj (injured by fire') — Assyrian Seal. Priest liefore a 

temple; an altar-piece of decoratiou, a series of balls, one resting on 
the other. 

See one somewhat similar on the lower stone on full page illustration of Plice- 
nic'ian, page 54. 

G. Gutta-percha Tmjtressioii of Ku. 14-t~- 

1448. Chalcedony hi Two Colore — Assyrian Seal. A priest before a candelabra 

surmounted by a seven-pointed sttir ; also a reiiresentation of a chair 
of state. 
H. Gutta-percha Iinpresxiori of Xo. 144S', 

1449. Quartz Pebble — Assyrian Seal. A seated ligure holding a disk in the 

liands ; crescent above. 
I. Gutta-percha Lupremon of No. mO. 



EGYPTIAN SCARABEI. 

CASE DDDDD. 

All the following searabei have been carefully examined bv "M. 
Paul Pierret, conservateur of the Egyptian jMuseuni of the Louvre, 
Paris. To him I have, for years, been indebted tiir niiich valualile 
instruction. (See his letter, jiage 4oit.) 

14.")0. -S'/paZ/Vp— Egyptian Scarabeus. TAI or TAIA, wife of AMENOPHIS 
III., eighteenth dynasty. 

14.')1. .S7c',^7e— Egyptian Scarabeus. TH0TH:MES III., of the eighteenth 
dynasty. 

145l!. Baked Earth, enamelled — Egyptian Scarabeus. The god BES, said to 
have been introduced into Egypt from Arabia; he is thought to 
resemble the Hindoo god Siva, and is given the character of a war- 
rior god. 

1453. Steatite — Egyptian Scarabeus. The inscription is finely executed : " Or 
Pt.\h Xefer." 

14.54. Steatite — Egyptian Scarabeus. PEPI I., of the sixth dynasty. 

1455. Steatite — Egyptian Scarabeus. The goose indicates the royal .son ; the 
name is not legible, but is that of a prince. 



770 SOMMERVILLE COLLECTION. 

1456. Baked Earth — Egyptian Scarabeoid. The in.~ciijition is a vow or wisli, 

and interesting: " M.v Khet Ni:b," wliiili, liberally construed, means, 
" May all things he right (or true)." 

1457. Compact Slate — Egyptian Scarabeus. A funereal scarabeus, on which 

the deceased, speaking, expresses hopes, continually repeated, that his 
soul may have a happy voyage, happy relief, and transport fnjm the 
inevitable transitory domain to which all are consigned. 

1458. -Sfe(//^'— Egyptian Scarabeoid. RA]\IESES II., of the nineteenth dy- 

nasty. On the reverse is inscribed, "The god Annnon has watchful- 
ness over all thy acts." 

1459. ,S/e«/(7f— Egyptian Scarabeus. TH0THME8 III., of the eighteenth 

dynasty: " K.\ ^Ien K.iPER." 

1460. ,««(<(7e— Egyptian Scarabeus. The legend is of THOTHME:^ III.: 

" Ra Men K.irEi:." The perpendicular incision, resembling a col- 
umn surmounted by a lotus-flower, signifies prosperity. (See No. 1464.) 

1461. Sleatile — Egyptian Scarabeus. The inscription e.xpresses a vow or wish : 

" NEi'Eit KnET Nki; "— " All things good (for thee) !"— a New Year's 
wish. 

1462. .Sy«/;//f— Egyptian Scarabeus. Of tine execution, whose meaning is 

hidden, as the liands of the little men are not jdincd togcthei- : when 
thus, the signification is twins. 

1463. J(«Z« (.i*)— Egyptian Scarabeus. Evidently the seal of a jeweller. We 

find the signs or hieroglyplis for "manufacturer," and "cif gold;" 
also, » - "in," and "the temple," Hat Khu. tOl signifies 

the horizon, ilountains and the rising sun are represented by this 
last liieriigly|ih. 

1464. Antique Paste, with iriilencence — Egyptian Scarabeus. Worn with time, 

yet in the centre the winged <li.-k, the sun pur.suing its course, is 
clearly discerned; also the coloiinette. a talismanic hieroglyph in the 
form of a colunm crowned with the lotus-fiower. It is often found on 
the necks of nuinimies, and signifies that which prospers and fionrishes 
— the symbol of prosperity. It is pmbably a seal of one of the later 
Pharaohs. 

1465. Ef/i/ptian Money, G'Aw.s— Obverse, Isis ; reverse, Serapis. 

1466. Ec/ijptian Money, Glasx^Ohverse, Serapis; reverse, Isis. 
1407. E'/'iptian Money, Gla-tif — A curious winged Bust. 

1468. Eejyjitiitn Money, Oliiss — A Bust of Isis. 



EGYPTIAN SCAR ABEL 771 

CASE EEEEE. 

1469. Steatite— 'Egyptian Scarabeus. Rare and interesting. This inscription 

is mytliologieal. Above is tlie banjue of the Sun, Ra Signor of Heli- 
opolis, represented by the hieroglypli of the city of Heliopolis. The 
obelisk below, with the god Ra and the dee.'w Ma — together, RAJIEN- 
MA — perhaps represents the prenuiiien of King SET I., second kins 
of the nineteenth dynasty. 

1470. Steatite — Egyptian Scarabeus. A man in adoration before Osiris, who 

is seated. 

1471. 6'fe«<(Ve— Egyptian Scarabeus. PEPI I., of the sixth dynasty. 

1472. Steatite— "Egyptian Scarabeus. THOTILMES III., of the eighteenth 

dynasty. " Ra Men K.\per." The sphinx represents the person 
of the king. Below is the figure of a fallen conipiered enemy. 

1473. Steatite — Egyptian Scarabeus. The god Bes adored by two monkeys. 

1474. Canieliaii — Egyptian Scarabeus. with original ancient silver mounting. 

This scaraixus was iirobalily engraved by a Greek dtiring the reign 
of the later Ptolemies, at an epoch when they employed foreign 
artists. It represents Isis seated, with the infiint Horus on her knees, 
and before an altar. The crescent also indicates the epoch, probaI)ly 
that of Cleopatra. 

1475. Steatite — Egyptian Scarabeus. Rare and interesting — Amnion in Thebes. 

The obelisk represents Amnion's name; the bird, an owl, here repre- 
sents the preposition " in ;" and Thebes is signified by the three figures 
below. Api, the sign for P, is not distinct, but the word is surely as 
above. We take this as an abbreviation. 

1476. Steatite — Egyptian Scarabeus, termeil "funereal." This is one of those 

scarabei which were buried with the dead, sometimes on the breast 
underneath the wrappings, and sometimes within the body of the 
mummy in the place of the heart. The heart was embalmed sep- 
aratelv in a vase, and placed under the protection of the genius Dua- 
oumautew. This doubtlessly was done because the heart was consid- 
ered indispensable for the resurrection, yet it could not be placed in 
the bodv until it had been upon the scales and had passed the judg- 
ment of Osiris. "When the sentence was favorable it was promised 
that " his heart shall be returned to its original cavity." The heart, 
the principle of exi.<tence and regeneration, was .symbolized bv the 
scarabeus. This is why texts relative to the heart were inscribed on 
funereal scarabei. On this scarabeus the deceased speaks, saying, " I 
hope that my soul shall speedily quit or rise from the regions infernal, 
and, reapi)earing on earth, may do all that pleases it." 



772 SOMMERYILLE COLLECTION. 

1477. Steatite — Egyptian Scarabeus. The god Bes. (.See No. 1452.) 

1478. Steatite — Egyptian Scarabeus. This .<c;irahuus !.•< mythological. At the 

left is the dee.ss Thoueris, in her left haiiil a ij/aive (a sword), a cut- 
ting arm of defence. The hieroglyi)h on the right seems to indicate 
Heliojiolis, though the figure on the summit of the shaft is not 
exactly as usually given ; below is the sign of Protection ; above is 
the barque of the Sun. 

1479. Dlalage — Egyptian Scarabeus. A funereal scarabeus, interesting from 

the fact tiiat the inscriptiou contains j)art of the thirtieth chapter of 
the Book of the Dead ; that is, the chapter concerning the heart. 
That nothing may be lost, I will tir.st render it in French, just as M. 
Pierret read it to me from the scarab, and tiien in other words for 
those who prefer English : " Mon camr (jui me vient de nia mere, nion 
cojur necessaire a mon existance sur terre ; ne te dresse pas contre moi 
parmi le.s divins chefs." — " My heart, which comes to me from my 
mother — my heart, necessary to my existence on earth, do not raise 
thy.self against me among or before the chief divinities." These 
were the superior gods, whom the Egyptians supposed to be in the 
immediate surrounding or presence of Isis. 

The remainder of the inscription is less legilile. On the first line 
is the name of Osiris Jam (all tiie dead had Osiris prefixed to their 
names) ; on the last line is the name of his father, which is indistinct: 
it was evidently the same as the name of a plant, and ending with ]\I, 

but cannot he defined ; that is, it is inscribed, " .son of ," 

and then tlie unintelligible name alluded to. 

1480. Dia/<if/e — Egyptian Scarabeus, containing a vow or wish, a vase repre- 

senting a libation. The sum of the rendering of the inscription is, 
" I dedicate my life to truth, and hope for cooling breezes and liba- 
tions." 

1481. Steatite — Egyptian Scarabeus. A'ery interesting. The seal of a royal 

scrilte, a general and chief of infantry, who.se name was 8eti. 

1482. Lead — Egyptian Coin of the century b. c. and first century A. d. Ob- 

verse, a standing figure of Isis, with the cruche in one hand and the 
sistre in the other ; reverse, Serapis. 

1483. Lead — Egyptian Coin, b. c. Obvense, Cynoccphalus, the symbolic genius 

of the god That; on his head is the disk of the Sun, and before him 
an altar ; reverse, bust of Serapis. 

1484. Lead — Egyptian Coin, a. d. Obverse, two sphinxes; reverse, the bust 

of Plijipocrates resting on a human foot. 

1485. Lead — Egyptian Coin. Obverse, Hippocrates on the ram ; reverse, Isis. 



IXDfAX AXD PERSIAX. 773 

HINDU DEITIES. 

A series of eugraved and carved stoues, from Jeypore, India. 

CASE FFFFF. 
1486. Alabaster — Tliu Hindu deity Lakshmana. 

CASE GGGGG. 
14S7. Alabaster — The Hiudu goddess Parvati. 

CASE HHHHH. 

1488. Alabaster — Hindu Deity, three figure.*, incognito. 

1489. Alabaster — The Hindu deity Dataturee. ur the three-headed or three- 

faced Siva. 

1490. Alabader — The Hiudu deity Ganpati. 

CASE mil. 

1491. Alabaster — The Hinchi deity Rama. 

1492. Alabaster — Tlie Hindu deity Matsya Avatar, \vith fish's tail. 

1493. Alabaster — Hindu Deity, incognito. 

CASE JJJJJ. 

1494. Block Alabaster — Tlie Hindu deity Hanuman. 

1495. Black Alabaster— Hindu, deity, The Holy Cow. 

1496. Black Alabaster — The Hiudu deity Ganpati. 



PERSIAX TALISMANS. 

CASE KKKKK. 

1497. Turquoise — A Talisman, a bird with Persian inscription. 

1498. Turquoise — A Talisman, richly inscribed, remarkable in size and beauty : 

extreme length, x.H centimetre.? ; extreme width, -5.7 centimetres. 

1499. Turquoise — A Talisman, with peculiar head-dress. 

1500. Turquoise — A Talisman, a sheep with good gilded Persian inscription. 



774 SOMMERVILLE COLLECTION. 

CASE MARKED ABYSSINIA. 

These are not engraved gems, liut, having some affinity to the subject, 
they are shown as curiosities. 

The silver rings were given to my wife and to me by the governor of 
Xubia. Tlie talismans from Abyssinia were obtained from an Aral). 

The necklace is composed of ancient pieces of Roman enamel and colored 
glass. 

The red karats, with a black spot in a delta arrangement, are from the 
kuara tree, and liear the name of karats because they are so uniform in 
weight ; they were long used for weighing precious stones, antl are said to 
be still employed for that purpose in Northern Africa. 



# • • 





FULL-PAGE ILLUSTRATIONS. 



PAGE 

Portrait nf the Author Frontispiece. 

Portland Vase 29 

Porthuul Vase (Keverse) 31 

Egyptian 40 

Babylonian Cylinders, The Source of 

History 47 

Persian and Sassanian Seals 52 

Sassanian 56 

Etruscan 60 

Phcpnician 64 

Greek and Roman Intaglio Rings ... 69 

Grjeco-Roman 74 

Roman 78 

Abraxas HI 

Byzantine 85 

Night of Art 91 

The Renaissance 101 

The Story -Teller 138 

Achmet El Zoria Calling to Prayers . . 131 
Tobacco Bazaar, Tangier ...".... 139 
Contentment — The Merchant of Pista- 
chio-nuts, Tangier 142 

The Tliree Amphorge, Tangier 145 

The Antiquary — St. Jeronimos, Belem, 

Portugal 149 

Bartering for Gems on the Ruad — The 

Old Tower of Belem, Portugal . . . 151 

"Naples, thou art a great Cameo" . 1.56 

Sculpture of Abydus 166 

Buying the Nose-Ring 16rt 

The Old Potter at Keneh 171 

Our Decorated Nubian — Memnonium . . 175 

Esneh 178 

Moored at the Island of Philae 183 

Haleel's Coffee Mill— Nile 186 

Ostrich-Feather Dealers — Oasis of the 

Desert 193 

Camels seen on the Horizon at evening . 200 

Aboo-Simbel 203 

The Sacred Bull of Abydus 206 

The Valley of the Tombs of the Kings . 209 

Girgeh 212 

" Our Daoud " 218 

"Our Daoud" washing his kamees in 

the Nile 222 

House of the Harem . . 227 

Reception-Room of the Patriarchal 

Sheikh, Cairo 232 

Suez Canal iu 1869 240 

Entering Joppa by the Roadstead . . - 243 

Mosque of Omar 247 

SOJIMERVILLE COLLECTION, Plates 1 to 103 . 

37 



Haleel Cooking at Nabulus — His Cylin- 
der Stove 

Nazareth Girls with coins and gems in 
their Head-dresses 

Approaching Mount Hermon 

Bazaar, Damascus 

Gate of the Temple of the Sun, Baalbec 

The Acropolis 

Bearers of Amphone 

Basso-rilicvos from the Parthenon 273, 27' 

Monastery Corridor, Constantinople . . 

Shenishee, the Caravan Follower . . , 

Bazaar and Cafe, Constantinople .. . 

Weighing my Greek Shoes at the Custom- 
House, Bazias 

No Duty on Engraved Gems: Custom- 
House receipt for duties on Greek 
Siloes 

The Antiquary, in a city by the Adriatic 
Sea over the wings of a Theatre . . 

The Cure of Saint Proculo . 

My Tartarand the Fairat Nijni-Novgorod 

Restaurant at Warschau 

The Old Lady Antiquary at Roskilde . . 

Education of Bacchus 

The Nile 

Eleven Thousand Virgins , . . . 

Camp of the Carlberg Gypsies, .Sweden . 

Rathhaus, Breslau 

He was Loved by his King 

Vestal Virgins, Ajax, .\chiHes, and Ulys- 

The Fall of Phaethon 

The Game of Astragalus— The Portico of 

Octavia and the Pescaria 

j A Favorite Haunt, Paris, Rue de Seine . 

Priest Showing the Power of the Deess 
Cauobus 

The Bric-a-brac .Shop near Hilda's Tower 

Peasantry on Sunday — Temple of Vesta, 
and St. Maria in Cosmedin 

Peasantry at the Roman Forum on Sun- 
day 

Drawing out the ancient Olive Tree near 
Rome 

Diana Dictynna . . ... .... 

The Agate tif Tiberius; also known as 
the Apotheosis of Augustus . . . . 

The Coronation of Augustus 

: Front View of Tazza Farnese 

I Back View of Tazza Farnese, Medusa 



254 



260 
265 
269 
271 
7,279 
286 
289 
293 

298 



301 



304 
307 
313 
320 
324 
333 
3.37 
341 
345 
.350 
354 



357 
361 



3(;(i 
370 



374 

378 



383 

386 



389 
413 

420 
424 
427 
429 
457 



ILLUSTRATIONS IN THE TEXT. 



PAGE 

Jupiter Sciapis 9 

Ornamental Head-piece 13 

Tlie Potter's Wliecl 38 

Egyjitian Scaralieus 45 

Babylunian Cylinder 50 

Sassanian Seal — Pehlevi Inscription . . 58 

Etruscan Scaralieus 6*2 

Phienician Searabeus 67 

Ptolemyeus and Arsinoc (Greek Intaglio) 72 

tireek Cameo 76 

Eomau Ring (Cameo) 79 

Abraxas Gem — (Amulet) 83 

Byzantine Gem 87 

Aztec or Mexican — ^ size f>f tbe original . 89 

(irotesiiue Heads (Nigbf of Art) .... 99 

Meleager and Atalanta Dancing (Cameo) 104 

(.'eres (Intaglio by G. Picklcr) 106 

Head-piece to Retrospective 107 

Odenatbus and Zenobia (Cameo) .... 109 

Prayer ill the (Jarden (Cameo rin.g) . . . 114 

Head-piece to .\nimals and Birds . . . ll."i 

Tail-piece to Animals and Birds .... 117 

Death of Cleopatra — (Cameo, Tunjuoise) 118 
Bacchus and Ariadne — (Cameo reduced in 

size) . . 122 

Head-piece to Reminiscences 125 

Arab Merchant 126 

The Amjdiora Bearer and Camp Follower 137 

Tobacco Merchants, Tangier 143 

The Dreamer 147 

Islands of Lcriiis, St. .Marguerite, and St. 

Honorat 154 

Stromboli 157 

Avenue of Sphinxes — ^Iem[this 159 

Nile Cataract at Assouan 181 

Nubian Hovel 189 

Egyptian Temples, Phila; 213 

Bazaar, Cairo 216 

Avenue of Palm Trees, " Daoud "' . . . 225 

Harem Lattice 230 

Patriarch's Cactus and Lizards 234 

Whirling Dervishes 241 

Scorpion 245 

Mount Hermon 256 

Bazaar, Damascus 263 

776 



PAGE 

Monolith— Baalbec 267 

Frieze — Parthenon, Athens ..... 268 

Ruins of Doric Temple 281 

Initiation Grip, Second Position ... 291 

Greek Shoes 299 

Kreutzer Pieces 300 

Grief of Achilles at the Death of Patro- 

elus 326 

Pyrrhus in the guise of Cupid detaining 

j Achilles 329 

I jEseulapius . . 330 

i Telesphorus, tlie God of Convalescence . 331 

Triumph of Bacchus 335 

AUegin-y— Transported Monuments . . . 339 

Albreeht Diirer's Raphael— (Cameo 1 . . 343 
Ring, Etruscan— Obtained from a Gypsv 

Girl ! 352 

Cicnii — Astuzia and Ingenuita (Cameo 

slightly enlarged) 360 

Astragalizontcs 363 

Talismanic King — Astragalus 368 

Jujiiter Serajiis 379 

"The iMorgiana .Tar" 380 

Alnaxas Gem, an .\mulet 381 

Peasantry on the Campagna, near Rome 382 

G^dipus and the Sphinx 392 

Jupiter, Jnuo, et al. (Mythological 

Cameo) ' .... 398 

Lucius— Intaglio, Enlarged from the 

original six times 399 

Lucius — Intaglio, Actual Size 418 

Head of Christ on Emerald— (A Myth) . 432 

Aspasia and Pericles (Cameo) 663 

The Sacrifice of Isaac by Abraham — 

(Cameo) 664 

[ Athene (Cameo, Obverse and Reverse) 670 

Cybele (Cameo, Obverse) 676 

Cybele (Cameo. Reverse) 67 



Chinese Taidet (Obverse and Rever.se 

Kuara Beans 774 

Pomona Drojiping Fruit 774 

Head-jiiece to List of Illustrations . . , 
Hanii Pinching an Ear — Don't Forget me 

Hiad-|iiece to Index 777 

Tail-piece to Index 783 



* 1.1 

776 





INDEX. 



[Gems mentioned iu tlie text are indicated in this Index by ilalia.] 



Abd-el-Silimas, 195, 19", 233 

238. 
Salam-Feraga. 2S-I. 
Abolla (CMStume). 71-1. 
Aboo-Simbel, rock-teniole, 201 

202. 

Abra.xas, SO, 114. 

amulet, 284. 

in contrast with Christianitv 
381. 
Abydus. 169, 207. 
Acro|joli.--. Athens, 268,281. 
.^milius .Mamercinus, 668. 
Aliens escaiiinii frum Troy, 393. 
.a;.scillai)iiis. 6BS. 

and Telesphorus, .S30. 336. 

Aijiile „/ Tibcrina. 421. 
AJn.r. Achillea, and Uiyfaet. ?,h&. 
Alexander the Great, 19, 26. 
Amastini (engraver). 6s. 
Am|ihorie. the Three. 144. 
Amulets, 26. 41. 57, 83. 114, 115. 
Animal subjects. 678, 679. 
Animals and Birds, 115. 
Annona (goddess), 752. 
Antinous, 735. 
-Antiquary at Belem, 148. 

at Rome. 310. 

at Riiskilde, 325. 
Ants, legend of the, 164. 
Anubis (deity), 34, 44, 20S. 
Ajiis bulls, tomb inscriptions. 

162. 
Arch of Constantino, 118. 

of Trajan, 118, 752. 
cameos of, 751. 

of Titus, 734. 
Astragalus, 363. 
Aur/iistm, Apnlherma of. 421. 

Coroniiti<nio/\i2b, 

portico of, 275. 

BAALBEr, Krixs OF, 264. 
Bab-in-Xasr, 215. 



BaccJiiia and An'adiie, 376, 754. 

ediiratio)! of, 332. 
Bannasac (city), 95. 
Barberini Vase, 28. 
Barlhelejny, Anatole de, letter 

of, 441. 
Baths of Car.ncalla, 693. 

of Diocletian. 36. 

of Titus, 734. 
•' Battle of Samareand," 287. 
Bazaars of Cairo, 214. 

of Constantinople, 295, 296. 

of Damascus. 261, 262. 

of Tangier, 138. 
Bazias, 299. 
Bibliotheque Xationale, I'aris. 

96, 108,1, 679. 
Blant, Edmond le. IS, 064, 665. 
721. 

letters of, 445. 066. 
" Book of the Dead." 42. 
Bottoni (implement). 23. 
Breccia (pebbles). 108,,. 
Bustuarius, the, 686. 
Butterfly, emblem of, 748. 



Cabinet, Imperial, Vienna, 

coins of. 16, 425. 
Caesarion, 717. 
Cafes, Const.antinople, 295. 
Cairo, 214. 

Colandrelli (engraver), 6S. 
Cameo, detinedr 15. 

engravers. 15. 16, 20, 21, 105. 
Cameos, collections, European, 
16. 

Greek. 71. 

historic. 1 18, 120. 

materials of. 16. 

of European museums, cele- 
brated. 421. 

of the Incas, 89. 1 

paste, antique, 27. 



Cameos, religious, Byzantine 

period, 1 3. 
Campagna and the oil-dealer, 

382. 
Campo de' Fiori, 3S7. 
Canal, Suez, 241. 
CmiobitB, 375, 679. 
Capital, Corinthian, inventor of, 

712. 
Capitoline divinities. 674. 
Carlberg Gypsies, 344. 
Carpet, sacred, 2SS. 
Carriera, Ros.alba, 315. 
Cartouches, 44. 
Cataract, the. 180. 
Cathedral of Loretto, 684. 

of Roskilde, 325. 
Cell of Pandrosus, 275. 
Ceremonies, religious, strange 

238. 
Ceremony of initiation, Moor- 

ee.l, 291. 
Chabouillet, A., letter of, 447. 
Christ, cameo of, 431. 
CiHudim, 23„, 739. 

family, names of, 749. 
Cleopatra, 669. 6S0. 
Clercq. .M. de, 46. 
Coin, silver and bronze, Roman, 

37. 
Coins, 8th to 11th centuries, U4, 

95. 
Colosseum, the, 734. 
Colossus of Chares. 267. 
Coramodus, 36, 669. 
Conch, engraving on. 104. 
Constantine, Emperor, 84, 690. 
Constantinople. 282. 
Coriolanus, 119, 684. 
Cornucopia, origin of. 673. 
Cuma?an .*ibyl. the, 309. 
Cylinder, Indian, South Amer- 
ica, 33. 
Cylinders, Assyrian, 46. 

777 



778 



IXDEX. 



Cylinders, Babylonian, 14, 33, 
4fi. 49. 
Chaldean, 46. 

DAMAScrs, 261. 

Daoud, our, 219. 

Days of the week, tradition, 

393, 722. 
Dealers, gem, Damascus, 262. 

general, 305-326. 
Deidameia, 675, 6S8. 
DeJtie?, Assyrian, 33. 

Egyptian, 34, 375. 

Phoenician, 66. 
Demetrius Soter tind Laodice, 19. 
Denderah, 41. 
Denicrs (coins), 95. 
Deserted halls, 100. 
Dingley, Robert, lOSji. 
Diogenes Laertius, 57. 
Dioscorides (engraver), 21, 22, 

OS, 72, 425. 725. 
Dogs of Constantinople, 2S2. 
" Dome of the Rock,' 287. 
Domitia, incident of, 734. 

ring of, 732. 
Dresser, Dr. H., 364, 397, 730, 

731. 
Drill, use of the, 22,23. 
Duruy. Victor, 394. 

Ictt'cr uf. 449. 
Dlirer, Albrecht, 716. 

E'Dayh, 41. 

Edfoo, 207. 

temples of, 179. 
Effendi Ambia, palace of, 262. 
Egypt, 15S. 
Egyptians, the, 41. 
Elephantine Island, 207. 
JSiidyniiou, 27. 
Engravers, gem, ancient, 20,21. 

cameo, skill of, 16, 21. 

and intaglio, avocation, 15. 

difficulties of delineation, 24, 
25. 

Greek, 6S. 

modern, 105. 

Roman. 20. 

of Asia Minor, 35. 

portraiture, 25, 26. 
Engraving, gem, ancient, me- 
chanical appliances, 22, 
23. 

Byzantine, 84. 

contrasted with coinage, 94, 
95. 

decline of, 36, 37, 105. 

revival of. 105. 

and painting compared, 23. 
Enigma, an, 1S2. 
Esneh, 41. 

temple at, 179. 
Etruscans, 22. 34, 61. 
E.xploration Fund, l!abyluni;in. 
50. 

Fair, Nijni Xovgorod, 311. 



"Fall of the White Bird," 2S7. 
Farnese family, 103. 
Faustina, ring of, 732. 
Fire, sacred, Parsee tem])le, 113. 
FoUis (coin), 95. 
Forum, Roman, 3S7. 
France, 371. 

Funeral cars, Roman, 728. 
rites for the souls, 686. 

Ganneau, Clermont, letter of, 

443. 
Garden of Gethsemiine, 246. 
Gates of Jerusalem, 245, 240. 
Gem-cutting, earliest, 110. 

setting, gold, 17. 
Gems, Abraxas, 37. 
Byzantine, 37. 
Chinese, materials, 88. 
Christian, 18, 19, 37,84, 111, 

115. 
Egyptian, subjects, 34. 
symbolism of. 43, 45. 
Etruscan, 34, 35, 61. 
Gnostic, 83. 
Grecian, 68-72. 
of Asia Minor, 35. 
paste, 26-28. 
Persian, 33. 
Phoenician, 65. 66. 
Renaissance, 103. 104. 
symbolic, 115-117. 
Gems, engraved, advance and 
decline, 13, 14. 
ancient polishing of, 23. 
preparation for engraving, 
22. 23. 
antiquity of, 13, 14. 
collectors of, European, 106. 
difficulties of delineation, 23, 

24. 
frauds in, 105. 
inscriptions of Christian, 18, 

19. 
personal ornaments, 19, 28. 
portraiture of. 25, 26. 
subjects, historic. 118-120. 
mythological, 121. 681. 
of seals, talismanic, 53. 
Sth to nth centuries, 93,94. 
Genii, tico, Antnzia and luge- 

viiito. 355. 
Gerf-Hassavn, temple of, 207. 
Geta, 693. 

Girometti (engraver), 68, 693. 
Gnostics, talismans of, 80. 
God, Mohammedan, titles, 237. 
Gorgons, three, the, 746. 
Grteco-Roman art, 75. 
Grecians, the, 3j, 68. 
Guay (engraver), 106. 

Hall, Dr. Isaac H., 677, 766. 
Harem Life, Cairo, 226. 
Harpocrates, 737, 741. 
Hassan-el-Belett, 233. 
heie presented hi/ Mercurij to 
Jupiter, 28. 



Hecatnmpedon. the, 275. 
Heindorf, Prof., 728. 
Heliogabalus, niarri:ige of, 689. 
Hieroglyphs, Egyptian, 44. 
Hilda's Tower, 379. 
Hijipocrates, 331, 738. 
Hippoffriff, 49, 747. 
Hirsch. L., 3S0. 740. 
Holy Sepulchre, church of, 246, 

249. 
Horus (deity). 44, 45, 208. 
Howling Dervishes, 284. 292. 
Hyacinth, derivation of, 732. 

Iconoclasts, 26. 
Immaculate Conception, Mus- 
sulman origin of, 287. 
Incisori, ancient, 14, 27, 68. 

modern, 22. 
Intaglio, defined, 15. 
Intaglios, Etruscan, 34. 
subjects of, 61, 62. 

Grecian, superiority of, 68. 

original purpose of, 15. 

paste, antique, 27. 

Pha^nieian, 67. 

Sassanian, 57, 58. 

and cameos, spurious, 105. 
Isis (deity), 44, 208. 

Jerusalem, 245. 

Joppa, 242. 

Jupiter Sernpis, 380, 761. 

Karnak, 208. 213. 

King, Prof. C.W., 54, 117, 336. 

Knights Templars, 246. 

Lacyhes, 57. 

Lanzi, Costantino, 317, 355, 751. 

Fratelli (engravers). 22h. 
Lapidary of the old theatre, 305. 
Lathe, Egyptian, 170. 

invention of, 22. 
Lavoix, M., 728. 
Leidv. Prof. Joseph, 710. 721. 
Leno'vmant, M., 696, 698, 699. 
Library, National, Paris, 16. 
Longperier, Adrien, 355, 397, 

728. 729. 741. 
Lucius, 147, 399-418. 
Lucius Verus, 680. 

Maculated stones, 16. 
1 Maecenas, 683, 738. 
Mausoleum, derivation of, 391, 

722 
Maxiwinus Pirn, 23», 36, 732. 
Medici, Lorenzo d', 103. 
Medusa, 27. 

tradition of, 746. 
Meleager, 737. 
Jlemnunium, the, 173. 
Memphis, 162. 
Menant. J., 696, 763. 

letter of, 437. 

notes on cylinders, 763. 
Mercury, wings of, emblem, 748. 



INDEX. 



779 



Minerva, efligjof, .395, 727,730. 
Mirza Petros Khan, 312, G75, 

07 B. 
Missals, illuminated. 93,90-08. 
Mithri dates, graven treasures 

of, 2(). 
Monasteries, origin uU 90. 
Monastery, Mohammedan, 2S7. 

Franciscan, 246. 
Mosque el-Aksa. 240. 

Kubbet al-Sakhra, 287. 

of Oniar, 2J6. 
Alount Hermon, 256. 

Lebanon. 267. 

of Olives, 245. 
Museum, British, 2S, 276, 679. 

Correr, Venice, 315. 

Dresden, 10. 

Imperial. Vienna. 10, 425. 

Laon, missals iu, 96. 

London, 16. 

Louvre, 16, 276. 

Naples, 426. 

Ravenna, IS. 

St. Petersburg. 16. 
Mnstapha Aga, 179. 
Mvcenie. recent discoveries, 72. 
Mythological, 121. 122. 
Mythology. Egyjitiiin. 3i. 

Roman, 372. 

traditions illustrated in glyp- 
tic art, 26. 

Nabuli's, 250. 

Naples, 157. 

Natter (engraver), 106. 

Nazareti), 255. 

Neoptolemus, 075, OSS. 

Nephthys (deity), 44. 

X'ptune, 336. 

Nerva, Emperor, 671, 672. 

Night of Art, 14,90-99. 

Nile, statue of, Vatican, 336. 

Numismatic art, 94-95. 

OcTAviA, portico of, 307. 

Odysseus, 702. 

(Edipns mid (he i'^phhw, 275, 

388, 721. 
Oppert, M., 696. 
letter of, 451-. 
■ Orestes ami Electra, 392. 740. 
0.siris (deity), 43, 207, 20S, 731. 
Ostrich-feather dealers. I90-19S. 
Ot/iri/adesy 391, 744. 

Paintings, miral, Egvptian, 

41, 208. 
Palladium, the, 350, 395. 085. 

vestal diHtodktua of, 350. 
Pal/fis of Troy, 17. 
Pallino (drill), 23. 
Parthenon, the, 268, 275. 
Parthenope, queen, 699. 
Pastes, antique. 26, 27. 
Pepper, Dr. William, 50. 
Pertinax. Emperor. 712, 738. 
Phtedra, 694. 



Phacthou, fid! of, 2S, 359. 744. 

754." 
PhiladelphitH ai\d Aritiuo'e, 19. 
Phila?, 182. 

Philippus, Marcus Julius, 712. 
Philogenis, seal of, 17, 396, 720. 
PJtf^bitti, 16. 

Phoenicians, the, 05-07. 
Phwitix, 16. 

Pickler, G. (engraver), 68, 106. 
Pierret, Paul, 769. 

letter of, 439. 
Pi eta (goddess), 752. 
Pietradura, 27. 
Pinches, Mr., 46. 
Pistrucci, Benedetto, 08. 
Polemon, signet of. 15. 
/'ofyHicet, Hon of iEdipns, 27, 

391, 742. ' 
Portland Vase. 2S. 
Portraits, cameo, early, 19, 25, 

26. 
Portugal, 148. 

Potter, old. Keneh. 169-171. 
Putter's wheel, use of, 22. 

Prisoners, dnrish, f/roiij) of, 310. 
Pthah (deity). 2U8. 
Ptolemy Auletes, 6S0. 
Pyramids, Egyptian. 213. 
pyrgoteles (engraver), 21, 26, 68. 

QuiNTUS Julius, seal of. 728. 

Raphael, 343. 
Rawlinson. Sir Henry. 33. 
Religion on stones, 1111-114. 
Renaissance, 100. 
Retrospective, 107. 
Ring, alli.ance, 738. 

nose, buying the, 169. 

Persian archer's, 730. 

talismanic, 364. 
Rings, ancient, 17. 

official, use of, 17. 

Roman, 732. 

subjects of, early Chri.-tian. 19. 
Rites, Egyptian, ancient, 160- 

162'. 
Rock, Mohammed's (Moriah), 

246, 287. 
Poinan,i/ouiifff consult iiir/ the god 

Terminus, 36ji. 
Romans, art of the, 20-22, 25. 
Rome, 393-398. 

art-centre of the world, 21. 
Rossi, il Commendatori G. B. 
de, 397. 664. 

letter of, 451. 

Sai.nte Chapelle, cameo of. 
421. 

Sancta Maria degli Angeli, 
church of, 36. 

Santarelli, Giu. Antonio (en- 
graver), 25». 106. 683. 

Sapor, King, incident of, 679, 
680. 

Sardinia, 65. 



Satyralus (engraver). 68. 
f?earabei, Egyptian, 34, 41-45. 
funereal, 42. 770-772. 

Etruscan, 34, 01. 

Phojnician, 67. 
Sculpture, loinb, Egyptian, 208. 
Seal Ring.*!, 17. 
Seals, Assyrian, 33, 53, 54. 

Egyptian, 41-45. 

Grecian, use of, 71, 

Persian. 53. 

Sassanian, 53. 

subjects and materials, 53, 
54. 

use of, 54. 
Sekhet (deity), 44. 
Shem^^hee, 288. 
Shoes, Greek, my, 299. 
Si/einm and Baevhim, 27. 
I Sirletti (engraver)j 106. 
I Soeniien, 10. 

I Solna Kyrka (church), 344. 

St. Jeronimos, church of, 14S. 
I St. John, Knights of, palace, 

246. 
I Proculo, cure of, 306. 
I Sophia, church of, 283. 
I Ursula, church, Cologne, 340. 
i Stones, polish on, ancient and 
I modern, 23. 

I Story-teller, the, 129-137. 
1 Stronach, Rev. John, 708. 

Strozzi family, keys of, 49. 
I Symbolisms, Gnostic, 80. 
I Syra, city of, 65. 

Syria, 242. 

Talismans, (inostic, 80, 83. 

sacred, 111, 112. 
Tozza Faniese, Naples, 426. 
Telesphorus. 330, 668. 
Temple at Abydus, 169. 207. 

nt Denderah. 170, 207, 213. 

of Ereehtheus, 275. 

of Isis, 1S2. 

of Jupiter FeretriiLS, 745. 

of Minerva, 275. 
Parthenon, 276 
Polins, 275. 

of Osiris, 207. 

of Vesta, 356, 3S7, 

of the Penates. 356. 

of the Resurrection. 246. 

of the Sun. Baalbec, 264, 275. 

Solomon's, 246. 
Temples, Egyptian, 179, 207. 
Thebes. 208. 

Theodorus of Samos, 22. 
Thoth (deitv), 44. 
Thothvies III., 169, 336. 
Tiber, statue of the, 336. 
Tiberius. 080, 684. 
Tuuibs of Jerusalem, 249. 

of the Kings. 213. 
Tower of the Winds, 275. 
Trajan, 120, 072. 
Triens (coins), 95. 
Tryphon (engraver), 15. 



780 



INDEX. 



Uffizi Gallery, Florence, 
104. 

Uh/e^ea (tint Mpiielaiis, '.'>*i2, 74f'>. 
Um-Kir, ruins of, 'i'i. 

Valankoff's story, ."47-:'iJl. 
Vjilerianus, senior, ineiiient of, 

679. 
Viinniitelli, 682. 



Vrspafiinnitey entnj into JrriiHti- 

Inn, 12(1, :','lfi. 
e.rit/riim JeniMiiliin, 12(1, :'.\I'k 
Vestals, ;»56. 
Viri,„y. 392, 746. 
Virgins, eleven tijous.inil, legend 

of, 34(1. 
Ward, Dr. Wm. Iliives, 00, 696. 



\\'<n-rit>r, mounlril, n-illi ttpfdvn, 
27. 
return hnj n-ilh liix trujihlen, 2S, 
W.lrscIliUl, 3 IS. 
Wiiiriing Dervishes, 233. 

VrsEF .SiLiMAN, 287, 2S8, 291. 

Zanetti <ollection, 315. 316, 



INDEX TO CATALOGUE RAISONNE. 



Abkaham about to vSacrifice 
Isaac, 70S. 

and Sara. 715. 
Abraxas. 760-7*18. 
Abumlanee, ~2?>, 74.^. 
Abyssinian Case, 774. 
Achilles. 675, 7H), 75(1. 754. 755. 

grief of, at the death uf Pa- 
trocliis. 67^. 

leaving Xeu|it')lenuis, 744. 

|,iarting with Oeidameia, 6SS. 
Aciain and E\e, 7li7. 
Adoration of the Child Jesus, 

706. 
^lius Cyesar, Cu?,, GST. 
^milianus, Emperor. 713. 
.^neas Escaping from Troy, 710, 

720, 746. 
^seulapius, 6S6, 692, 736. 

and Telesphorus, 66S. 
.^Esop, 694. 
Africa, 742. 
African, an, 736, 
Agriculture, 750. 
Agrippina, wife of Germanicus. 
6S5. 

wife of Claudius, 670, 684. 
Air, 750. 
Ajax, 681, 686. 

Achilles and Ulysses, 754. 
Alexander, 6S7, 7;ifi. 

Severus. 670. 672, 690. 
Alexnndrina, 749. 
Amalthea, 671. 672. 
Amazon, an, 687, 690, 735. 
Amor. 670, 736, 743, 745. 

and a CocU, 720. 

Victorious, 693. 
Amulets. 667. 671,694,700. 702, 

709, 710, 716, 740. 741. 
Angel's Head in Clouds, 745. 
Animals, 679, 708, 709. 710. 
Anne, Queen, 691. 
Annunciation, the, 684. 
Antinous, 6S9, 693. 
Antiphates, 731. 
Antisthencs. 711. 
Antoninus Pius, 677, 682. 694, 

713. 
Anubis, 703. 



Apollo. 681. 682, 687, 688, 692, 
702, 711, 717, 725, 727, 
743, 744, 745. 748. 

Aquila Severus, fiS9. 

Arudiytas of Tarentum, 714. 
I Ariosto, 732. 

Aristides. 682, 685, 692. 714, 717, 
! 736, 738. 

' Aristotle, 711. 
I Ark of Noah. 707. 
[ Arm, an, 745. 
I Artas of Sidon, 743.. 

Artaxerxes, 700. 

Artemisia, 70S, 722. 

Aspasia and Pericles, 674. 

Ass and a Goat, an, 746. 

Astragalus, the, 730. 7:'.l. 

Atlas bearing the Earth. 707. 

Athene (Illus.), 670. 

Atreus, 714. 

Attalus, 676. 

Augustus, 669, 676. 680, 683, 
687. 690, 693, 713, 724, 
733, 740. 759. 

Aurora, 745, 748. 

B.\rrHANALiAx. a, 721. 740, 743. 
Bacchanal, a, 671. 683. 
Bacchante, a, 676. 682, 691, 717, 

733, 734, 739, 740, 742, 

743. 747. 
Bacchus, 669. 73S. 742, 747. 
and Ariadne. 754. 
Infant, Education of the. 749. 
Balbinus, 673. 
Bassarid, a, 681. 711, 738. 
Beetle, winged. 700. 
Bellerophon. 682. 
Biga drawn bv a Lioness and a 

(ioat. 731. 
Bird with Rich Plumage, 719. 
Boars. 679. 722. 730, 746, 747. 
Boating Party passing between 

Wooded Islands. 709. 
Bonus Eventus. the. 726. 
Borroineo, Carlo, 720. 736, 
Brcnnus (genera!), 682. 
Brutus, Lucius Junius, and 

Marcus, 692. 
Marcus Junius, 715. 



Bull, a, 670, 703, 725. 741, 744, 
745, 74S. 

Caiis GnAccHTS. 674. 
Caligula, 687, 689. 691. 
Callimaohus, 712. 
Camel, wiuged, 703. 
Camels. Two. 679. 
Cameos, 673, 674, 728, 753. 
Canobus, Goddess, 679. 
Caracalia, 668, 672, 673, 693, 

711. 
Carita, 723. 

Carving, rude, 706, 707. 
Cassander, 739. 
Castor, 746. 
Cats, Domestic, 679. 
Centaur Nessus, 724. 
Ceremony of the Ancient Jewish 

Church. 729. 
Ceres, 673, 689, 723, 724, 728, 

741, 749. 
Chariot-races, 741. 
Charlotte, Empress, 750. 
Charon, 729. 
Cheiron (centaur). 723, 
Children, Two. 707. 
Chimera, 676, 680, 682, 683, 691, 

733, 748. 
Chinese Gems, 70S, 710. 
Chloris, 673, 733. 
Cholulan, a. 710. 759. 
Christ, 705. 706. 

Bearing the CrosF, 706. 

Crowned with Thorns, 706. 

Head of. 706, 721. 74s. 

Praying in the (iarden, 706. 
Christian intaglio. 730. 
Cicero, 674, 675, 683, 684, 714, 

737. 
Cincinnatus, 676, 714. 
Citharistria, 73S. 
Claudius. 668, 673,679,691,736, 
738, 753. 

Family, 749. 

Albinus, 686. 
Cleopatra, 668, 673, 688, 691, 
736, 738, 744, 749. 

Dying from the Sting uf the 
Asp, 749. 



INDEX. 



781 



Clodone, 71S. 

Cock. ;i. fiTi*. 

Striving with Cu|ii.l, 722. 

Coins. Egyptian, lead, 772. 

ComuioJus, B6'J, ti85, 736, 738. 
and Crispina, (591. 

Concordia, 730. 

Conquered Citv, 669. 

Constantine. 690, 692. 

Coriolanu?, 684. 

Cornucopia. 724. 

Couch of Venus. 747. 

Cow and Calf. 726. 

Cowry, a, 719. 

Crispina, 6S3, 691, 692. 

Crow, a, 742. 

Crucifi.xion, the, 705, 706. 

Cupids, 67.i, 6Sfi, 689, 692, 707, 
70S, 711, 714, 736, 739, 
743, 744, 746, 747. 

Cybele, 676, 726, 728, 759. 

Cylinder, Aztec, 768. 

Cylinders, Assyrian and Baby- 
lonian 696, 755, 759. 

Cymbal-player, 687. 

Dajankee, 675. 

Dante, 680. 

Days of the Week, tradition of 

naming, 722, 729. 
Decebaius, 752. 
Deianira, 678, 688, 724, 733. 
Demosthenes, 729. 
Deo Pan, 693. 
Desultor, 755. 
Devotee, a, 692, 701. 
Diadumenianus, 694. 
Diana, 668, 671, 681, 715, 725, 

734, 750. 
Dido, Princess, 668. 
Didius Julianus, Eni])eror, 712. 
Diogenes, 674, 715, 717. 
Diomedes carrying off the Effigy 

of Minerva, 727, 730. 
Dionysus, 691, 711. 
Dissection of an Animal's Body 

after Sacrifice, 726. 
Divinity, a, 670, 684. 
Dog, a,"678, 722, 736. 

and Cock Striving, 742. 
Dolphin, a, 746. 
Domitia, 685, 688, 693, 738. 
Domitian. 667, 734, 735, 739. 
Donna, 707, 708. 
Drusus, 668, 671. 

Eagle, an, 678. 

and Serpent, 748. 
Earth, 750. 
Ecclesiastic. 672. 
Egyjjtian, an, 745. 
Elizabeth of Prussia, 750. 
Emperor, an, 759. 
Empress, an. 685. 
Endymion, 743. 
Epicurus. 715. 
Equita, 724. 
Equilibrist, 702. 



Ethiopian, an, 689, 715, 735. 
Euryale, 692. 

Face, rude Mexican, 710. 
Faith, 723, 749, 750. 
Father, Son, and Spirit, 663. 
Ferryman of Christ, 663. 
Fauii, a. 671. 682, 683, 684, 692, 
713, 716, 719, 734, 740, 
744, 745, 748, 755. 

Caressing a Goat, 747. 
Faustina Junior, 713, 732. 

Senior, 663, 734. 
Fawn Feeding from a Tree, 722. 
Fidelity. 750. 

Figure Bowing before an Altar, 
Devotional, 748. 

Chinese, 709. 
Fire. 750. 

Flute-player, a. 689. 
Fortuna. 724. 740. 
Frederick. Prince, 750. 

the (ireat, 718, 750. 

William, 750. 
Fruit on a Branch. 709. 
Fury, a, 707. 

(tAi.ba. Emperor, 683, 712. 

(ialleria, a, 748. 

(Jallienus, 683. 

Ganymedes, Venus caressing, 

667. 
Genii, Two, the, 753. 
Genius of the Chase, 745. 

of the Sun, 724, 742. 
Germanicus. 671, 685, 686, 713, 

714. 
Geta, 667, 671, 683, 692, 712, 

713, 715, 745. 
Gladiator, a, 685, 686, 737, 745. 
Gnostic Gems, 703, 766. 
Goat, a, 741, 747. 
tjordianus Africanus .Junior, 

685. 
Senior. 692. 
Pius III., 667, 734. 
ttorgou Metlusa (amulet), 705. 
Greek .\ntique, a, 747. 
Group, Mexican, 7HL 

Hadrian. 667, 674. 735, 759. 
Hand Pinching an Ear, 689. 
Hannibal. 673, 739. 742. 
Harpocrates. 737, 741. 
Head, Antique. Egyptian, 712. 

Castellated, a (Illus.). 676. 
Heads, Angels*, 707, 745. 

beasts and birds, 679, 740, 741 , 

742, 743, 746, 747. 
human. 668, 669, 685, 690, 
691, 706, 707, 708, 710, 
716, 717, 719, 720, 721, 
722, 733, 739, 741, 742, 
748, 749, 755. 
mythological, 667, 673, 740, 
741, 744, 745. 
Hebe, 678. 

Presented to Jupiter, 743. 



Heliogabalus, 668, 672, 685, 718. 
Hercules. 667, 668, 669, 670, 
673, 676, 681, 682, 68.3, 
687, 689, 692, 701, 715, 
718, 727, 729, 730, 741, 
744, 747, 753. 
and I)eianira, 678. 
and lole, 735. 
Fighting the Hydra, 726. 
Laureated before Minerva, 
692. 
Hermaphrodite, the, 681. 
Heron, Fruit, and Flowers, 719. 
Hertha (goddess), 671, 732. 
j llesiodus, 737. 
Hieronymus, 725. 
Hippocrates, 667. 738. 
Hippogriff, a, 747. 
Hippolytus, 694. 
j Holy Sudarium, 689. 
Homer, 667,677, 715, 732, 734, 
745. 
I Hope, 751. 
Horatius Defending the Bridge, 

732. 
Horse, a, 678, 679, 70S. 
Frolicking, 70S, 709, 710. 
with Colt, Geese, etc., 726. 
.Horns, 695, 736. 
House. Bridge, etc., 750. 
Hunt, Wild-boar, 719. 
Hyacinthus, 728, 732, 739. 
I Hvgeia, 711. 
Hylas, 721. 

ImoT, an, 735. 

Idol. Worshipping an. 749. 

Idols, 695, 708, 709, 710, 759, 

768. 
Hindu, 773. 
Incognito, 671, 673, 680, 682, 

683, 689, 691, 694, 708, 

714, 716, 717, 718, 720, 

723, 734, 735, 739, 742, 

747. 750. 
Insects, Birds, Crocodiles, 723. 
Intaglios (bought of Mirza Pe- 

tros Khan), 675, 676. 
and Talismans, Persian and 

Sassanian, 700. 
Etrusean, 701. 
lole, 681. 682, 690, 691, 735, 747. 
Isis (goddess), 672, 725, 736. 

Jacob and Rachel, 719. 

Jael, 749. 

Joan es Con radas. Portrait of, 7 16. 

John the Baptist. 684. 

Jove, 667, 684, 690, 711, 733, 736. 

Serapides. 681, 712. 
Juggler, a, 720. 
Jugurtba. 691. 733. 
Julia, daughter of Augustus, 
673, 717. 

daughter of Titus, 671, 683, 
711. 

Dumna. 693. 

JIama;a, 690, 718. 



782 



/ 

INDEX. 



Julia Paula, 673. 

Pia and her son (ieta, 712. 
Julius Caisar, ()6'.t, Oll.'^., 717, 

718. 
Juno, 674, 680, 6S'.). 7117. 
Juiiitcr, 670, 682, 688, 6'.I2, 718, 
735, 743. 
Juno, anil Minerva, 674. 
Ma.\inuis, 682. 
Serapis, 674, 684, 721, 727, 

733, 736, 751. 
Tunans, 727, 735, 747. 
Justinian, GS2. 

Kalmuck, a, 733. 
Kings, 680, 684, 689, 744. 



Lady of the Metlici Period, 

Lafayette, Marquis de, 684. 

Landscajie, a, 7 19. 720. 

Langoaste, 678. 

Laura, Petrarch's, 673, 684. 

Leaniler, 683. 

Leda, and Juj>iter asaSwan 

Lena (bacchante), 682, 711, 

Lcpidus. 724. 

Libation, Pourin;;, i^^*^, 707 

Lion, a, 67S, 67!i. 745, 7-16, 

Devourin*^ a Hoiso, 078. 
Lioness, a, 678. 
Livia, 674, 675, 676, 680, 
691, 713, 715, 741, 
750. 

Augustus and, &iV^, 713. 
Love, Power of, 685. 
Lucius Junius Brutus, 680. 

the Golden .\ss, 728. 

Verus, 6111. 725, 732. 
Lysiuiachus, 673, 680, 686, 
711,718,737. 



70S. 



688. 
736. 



682, 
747, 



687 



M.KCE.NAs, 680, 683, 693, 733, 

738. 
Macrinus, Empei'or, 736. 
Magdalen, 736. 
Man with Horses, 700. 
Mandoliniste, tlje, 707. 
Mannikin, 6SI3. 
Marciana Augusta, 674, 686. 
Marcus Agrippa, 717, 734, 737, 

739. 
Aurelius, 678, 680, 711, 733, 

734, 735. 
j\Iaria Theresa, 673, 734. 
Marianne, Prince.'Js, 750. 
Mark Antony, 601, 693, 724. 
Mars and Minerva, 687. 
Masjvniello, 670. 
Masks. 607. 68.5, 689, 707, 716, 

717, 733, 736. 739, 741, 

742. 743, 744, 746, 748, 

749. 768. 
bearded, 690, 714, 715, 716, 

720, 720, 735, 736, 740, 

742, 753. 
scenic, 668, 673, 676, 684, 691, 

(592, 693, 711, 713. 714, 

717, 718, 737, 741, 743, 

747, 748. 



Maternity. 751. 
Matidia, 680, 691, 694. 
Matrimonial Alliance, 749. 
Maximinus Pius, 713, 732, 738. 
Medici, 70S, 733. 
Medusa, 671, 681, 682, 684, 688, 
715, 716, 733, 735, 736, 

740, 741, 742, 746, 748. 
Meleager, 683, 686, 730, 736, 

737. 

and Atalanta Dancing. 663. 

son of Neuptolemus. 713. 
Melon, a, 709. 
Melpomene, 735. 
Mercury, 670. 6S7, 710, 717, 718, 

741, 743. 

and a Nymph, 719. 
Messalina, 73b. 

Miraallone, a, 714. 

Minerva, 667, 669. 674. 681, 682, 
687, 692. 703, 704, 712, 
713, 717, 721, 722, 733. 
740, 741, 746. 

Monkey, a, 709. 

Moon, 685, 710. 

Moor, a, 668, 683, 719. 

Naiad, a, 689. 
Necklace, a, 751. 
Negress with Braided Hair, 737. 
Negro, a, 711. 

Neptune, 670, 741, 744, 759. 
Nero, 694, 715, 735. 
and Poppa?a. 718. 
Nerva, 671, 6s0. 
Nileometer, the. 696. 
Nubian, a, 668, 715. 
Numa Pompilius, 683, 735. 
Nvmph sleeping, 670. 
Nymphs. 672, 692, 719, 723,741, 

742, 743, 744, 747. 

Occident, the, 752. 

Octavia, 735, 

Odenathus and Zenobia, 671, 

719. 
(Edipus and the Sphinx, 721. 
Olivia, 680, 737. 
Orbiana, 715. 
Oriental Female, 674. 
Orestes and Electra, 746, 748. 
Orient, the, 751. 
Oriental Dignitary, 745. 
Osiris, 731. 
Ostrich, 678. 
Otacillia. 712. 

Otho, Emperor, 711, 715, 736. 
Othryades, 744. 
Owl, an, 690, 736. 

Pallas, 663, 669, 680. 682. 683, 

6S5, 6S7, 692, 712, 718. 
Palm Branch, a, 740. 
Pan, 690, 693. 

Paragon or Touchstone. 681. 
Paris, 690, 743. 
Parthian Slave, 694, 715. 
Paul, Grand Duke, 750. 



Peacocks, 720, 748. 

Pebble Cameo, 716. 

Pebbles, Maculated, 706. 

Pegasus, 682,703, 720, 743, 744. 

Pergauios, 687. 

Persian Archer's Ring, 730. 

Pertina.x, 683, 738. 

Pescennius Niger, 690, 712. 

Petrarch, 733. 

Phaethon, fall of, 744, 754. 

Pllitammon, 715, 725. 

Philip IV. of Spain, 716. 

the Arabian. 712. 
Philosopher, a, 668, 685, 714, 
716, 719, 723, 747. 

Greek, 602, 694. 712. 720. 
Pha'bus Guiding the Chariot of 
the Sun, 663. 

in a Qu.adriga, 685. 
Phwnix Risingfroui theFlames, 

738. 
Piloerate, 713. 
Pius VII., 694, 714. 
Plato. 675. 680, 682. 
Plautilla, 684, 688, 711. 
Plautius Hypsffius Decianus, 

668. 
Pliglitcd Hands, 667. 
Plotina, 713. 
Pluto carrying Persephone to 

Hades, 693. 
Poetess, Greek, 713. 
Polynices, 742. 

Pomona Dropping Fruit, 724. 
Pompey, 728. 
Portrait, a, 717. 750. 
Power, 750. 
Prabo, 742. 
Priam. 670, 690. 

asking .Achilles for the Body 
of Hector, 684. 
Priapus, 691. 
Priest. Bearded, 702. 
Priestess, a, 671, 718. 
Prisoners, Jewish, 753. 
Prometheus, 740. 
Proserpine, 711. 
Prot(»genis, 724. 
Province of Dacia, 671. 
Psyche, 682, 603, 708, 713, 733. 

and .luno's Peacock, 689. 
Psyche's Butterfly driving Ju- 
no's Peacock. 724. 
Ptolemivus, 685. 

.Auletes, 734. 
Ptoloiiiv, 680, 734. 

Philadclphus. 732. 

and .\rsinoc, 726, 759. 
Pudicitia, 725. 
Pupienus. 687. 
Pu-rhus. 668. 732. 

as Cupid, 675. 

QriNTCs HiiitK.NNii's, 690. 
Hostilianus, 687. 

Rapfaklle, 711, 713, 716. 
Rape of Proserpine, 755. 
Resurrection, the, 711. 



TXDEX. 



783 



Returning from the Vintage, 

70;;. 
Rheinetalces, 7-jO. 
King. Abraxas. Pegasus, 704. 

Alliance or iMatriitionial, 73S. 

Cabalistic Talisman, 704. 

Curious, 739. 

Cloisonne. 737. 

Gold. 3d Century. 738. 
Rings, Etruscan. 701. 
Roma, 745. 
Roman-African, 714. 
Roman, young, consulting the 

God Terminus, 753. 
Rome, city of. 72i). 
Romulus. Remus, and the She- 
Wolf. 71;*, 747. 
Ruin. 7oO. 

Sabina. wife of Hadrian, 667. - 
Sacrifice. 6l>7. 707, 747. 

of Isaac by Abraham, 663, 

Venus offering a. 6SS. 

Suovetaurilius. 752. 
Santarelli, Gio. Antonio. 683. 
Sappho, 671. 673. 690. 
Satyr, 670, 6S3, 687, 6S9, 736, 
737. 739, 742. 

and Xymph. 692, 743. 

Dancing (Searaheus), 730. 
Scarabei, Egyi)tian, 694, 769. 

Etruscan. 701. 

Phoenician. 702. 

Seals, etc.. Egyptian. G94-696. 
Scarabeus. a, 700, 736. 
Seipio ^Emilianus, 721. 

Africanus, 680, 707. 
Scorpion, a, 724, 
Seal of a Liberated Slave. 726. 

private, of Quintus Julius, 
728. 
Seals, 700. 704. 723, 748. 

Assvrian, 765. 768. 

Egyptian, 694-696. 

Etruscan. 701. 702. 

Persian, 699. 758, 765. 

Phoenician, 702. 

Sassanian, 699, 765. 
Sea-Xympli. 741. 
Semele, 685, 736. 
Semiramis, 691. 718. 
Seneca. 689, 694. 717. 737. 
Septimius Severn?. 675, 677, 693. 
Serpent on a Staff, the, 667. 
Servius Tullius, 739. 
Shah, Persian, a, 675. 
Shepherd. Figure of a, 690. 
Silenus, 692, 729, 742. 



Silenus, a Bacchante and a Can- 
didate, 724. 
and Bacchus, 688, 723, 747. 
I on an Ass. 720. 
I Triumph of, 722. 

Siren Aglaopheme. 702. 
' Sittah. 674. 
I Skull, 0, 711. 
Slave imjdoring his Life of a 
Warrior, 741. 
uf Aleppo. 732. 
Socrates, 668. 672. 078. 714. 737, 
i 738, 739. 

I Sophocles, 738. 
' Sjiliinx. a. 742. 747. 
Sjirig with Rose, the, 701. 
St. .fohn. 716. 740. 
Mark in Prayer, 740. 
I Miihael and the Dragon, 711. 
Stag. a. 67S. 679. 
and Due. 709. 
I Sulla the Dictator. 675. 
Sun between the Dioscuri. 740. 
Genius of the, 724, 742. 
Oriental, the. 722. 
Susannah and the Elders, 738. 
Swine, 746. 

Tablet, a. 708. 716. 
Talisman. .Abraxas, 704. 

Christian. 706. 

Egyptian. 695, 696. 

Gnostii-. 704. 
Talismans and Intaglios, Per- 
sian and Sassanian. 700. 

Persian. 773. 
Tambour-Player, 66S. 
Tarquinius the Sujjerb, 723, 731. 
Tellus, 6S7. 

Thothmes III.. 69.7. 696, 739. 
Thyia. 6^;l. 
Thyone. 691. 
Three Graces, the, 670. 
Tiberius. 673, 6S3, 686, 712. 

734. 
Titus, 726. 733, 734. 

Vespasianus. Exit of, from 
Jerusalem. 753. 
Titus, Triumphal Entry of, into 

Jerusalem, 753. 
Trajan, 672, 673, 728, 751, 752. 

Historical Cameos Represent- 
ing Incidents in the Life 
of Trajan, 751-753. 

Decius, 690, 713. 
TranquiUina. 671. 
Trebonianu< Gallus, 6S7, 735. 
Tuke. 729. 



Ulysses, 731, 737. 754, 

and Menelaus, 746. 

and Penelope, 745. 
Una and the Lion, 737. 
Urania, 674. 

Valerianls Junior, 687. 

Senior, 679. 
A'enus, 673, 681, 707. 711, 725, 
729. 745. 
and Cupid. 689. 
and the Wounded Adonis. 

688. 
Caressing tianymedes, 667. 
Lamenting over the Bodv of 

Adonis. 749. 
with Adonis before the Chase, 
749. 
Vespasian. 667. 
Vespasianus, 686, 687, 69L 
Vesta, 732. 
Vestal, a, 672. 743. 

Virgins before their Temple. 
685. 
Victorv, 692, 723, 725, 731, 740, 
746. 
Crowning a Trophy, 731. 
Vintage, the. 703, 75*0, 
Virgil, 680. 689. 714. 733, 736. 
Virgin and Child, ViS3. 

JIary and Infant Jesus. 706. 
Mary's House, Miraculous, 
Transportation of, 684. 
Vitellius, 715. 716. 
Vittimario. 727. 
Volusianus, 693. 
Vulcan, 70S, 743. 

Warrior, a, 717, 718. 720. 735, 
737, 741, 743, 745. 
in a Biga, 732. 
Returning with his Trophies, 
722, 745. 
Warriors in Mortal Combat, 
! 701. 

I Water, 750. 
: Wine. 750, 

■ William. Prince, of Prussia. 750. 
Woman, a. 691. 707, 708, 715, 
; 719. 

"Woman Drinking. ti70. 
[ Worshipping a Binl. 742. 

Xe.socrates, 1)70. 

Zeno, 672, 714, 7:5.i. 
1 Zenobia and Odenathus, 671, 
' 7T.I. 



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