(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Children's Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "The enlightened despotism of the eithteenth century: Charles III in Spain .."

Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2008 with funding from 

Microsoft Corporation 



http://www.archive.org/details/enlighteneddespoOOschorich 



THE EITLIOHTEITED DESPOTISM OP THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY 
CH/J^LES III III SPAIN. 



THESIS 
PRESENTED TO THE PACUIiTY OF ARTS AND SCIENCES 
CORNELL UNIVERSITY 
FOR THE DEGREE OF 

BACHELOR OF ARTS 
BY 



HEl-IRY SCHOEIiLBIOPF 



ITHACA, N. Y. 
1902. 



CHAPTER I. PREPARATIOII ?'0R CrOVRRI":i.^;!TT 



M11731 



ii 



BIBLICCfRAPHY, 



COITTENTS 



Page 
iil 



CHAPTER II. NARRATIVE 0? HIS REIGH 



14 



CHATTER III. Ar^MIlTISTRATION AJTD LEGISLATION 



27 



CHAPTER IV. INDUSTRIES AND AXrRICULTURE. 



43 



CHAPTER V. PUBLIC WORKS 



60 



CHAPTER VI. FINAITCE AITD TA.XATION 



69 



CHAJ'TER VII. COIUIERCE AND COLONIES 



84 



CHAPTER VIII. EDUCATIONAL RE?ORNS A'^-^ ONApiTIES 



96 



CHAPTER IX. THE JESUITS AND THE INQUISITION 



11^ 



CHAPTER X. PERSONAL CHARACTER 07 CHAPLES III 



130 



i 



;« 



lit 



riBLIOGRAPJ-TY. 

Becattini, Abbe Franeesoo . Storia del regno di Carlo III di 

Borbone, Re di Spagna. Venice ; 1790. Contains a 

good account of Charles' rule in Italy. Cited as 
Becattini. 

Bourgoing, Jean Francois. Tableau de l*Espagne moderne . 

4th edition. Paris : 1806. 3 vols. An excellent 
account of the conditions in Spain during and after 
Charles* reign. Cited as Bourg. 

Carayon, P. Auguste. Charles III et les je suites c.e ses 

etats. Paris ; 1866. An exceedingly bitter denuncia* 
tion of the expulsion of the Jesuits, by one of their 
number. Cited as Carayon. 

Clarke, The F.ev . Edward. Letters concerning the Spanish na- 
tion. London : 1763. Written by chaplain of Lord 
Bristol's embassy from 1760-61. Interesting general 
account of conditions in Spain at that time. 

Colmeiro Manuel. Historia de la Bconomica politica en Espana 
Vol. III. Madrid : 1866. Contains some matter 



i^ 



dealing with the econo.^ic conditions of the time. Of 
no especial importance. 

Colletta, General Pietro. The Kingdom of Naples, 1754-1825. 
Translated by Susan Horner. London : 1858. The best 
authority for Charles* rule in Naples. 

Coxe, Filliam. I.Iemoirs of the Kings of Spain of the House of 
Bourbon. 2nd edition. 5 volumes. London : 1815. 
Excellent nari^ative account of this reign. Pifth 
volume contains Statement of Florida Blanca and a sta- 
tistical account of the army and navy. 

Dalrymple, TIajor Filliam. Travels through Spain in 1774. 
London : 1777. A rather prejudiced account of the 
conditions in Spain. Not of much value. 

Danvila y Collado, Manuel. Reinado de Carlos III, published 
under the direction of Canovas del Castillo. Madrid : 
1893. 6 volumes. A complete account of this reign, 
v/ith nearly evelry decree and edict of importance either 
quoted or referred to. Covers practically everything 
contained in the other v.-orks of this period. Cited as 
D. y C. 



VI 



Diercks, Dr. Gustav. Gesohiohte J^paniens von der frflhesten 

Zeiten bis zur Cregenwalrt. 2 volu7!ies. Perlin : 1895, 
Vol. II contains an excellent account of the reign of 
Charles III. Best short narrative I have seen. 

Ferrer del Fio, Antonio. Kistoria del reinado de Carlos III. 
4 volumes. 1856. Moderately useful, but not always 
reliable . 

Lafuente, D. Modesto. Historia general Espana. Madrid : 

1869. 15 voliimes. Vols. X and ZI deal with reign of 
Charles III. Mainly narrative. 

Muriel, D. Andres. Translation of Coxe's Bourbon Kings, with 
excellent additional chapters on the naterial improve- 
ment due to Charles. Paris : 1827. 

Gobierno del Senor Fey Don Carlos by sane author. 
T^adrid : 1839. Contains "Instructions" for Junta at 
time of its establishment. Quite useful. 

Tov^-nshend, Joseph. A. journey through Spain in the years 1786 
and 1787. 3 volumes. 2nd edition. London : 1792. 

An excellent account of agricultural, commercial and 
industrial conditions of those times. 



vl 



White, Joseph Blanco. Pseud., Don Leucedio Doblado . Letters 
from Spain. London : 1822. Contains a very good 
accoimt of the abuses of the edAicational system. 
Cited as Dohlado. 



W3 e p i t u e<! a t f, u it. > . i u ud S?>€i n i f • " t' «i 1 1 ^^rn 



CHAPTER I . 

tnfi 1!: ^^ Of 

PREPARA.TIOIT Ti'OR GOVRRITI lENT . 

leer- +-. h ^ '.1 e C *r»**'i^ >.■ f ' ' ' * 

The influence of Elizabeth Parnese on the career of 
her son Charles can easily be traced through all the period of 
his Italian rule. He^ v/arlike spirit impressed itself on her 
son^s character and this accounts for his somewhat inconsistent 
attitude in later years when, as King of Spain, he turned 
aside from the path of reform and plunged into disastrous wars 
against' the greatest sea power of his time, only to gratify 
a desire for mi lit airy glory or to uphold a family tradition. 
His Italian dominions v/ere won by the sword and had therefore 
to be defended ; but Spain's salvation lay in peace and the 

regeneration of its people, who had been riained by wars and 

the victorv o ^r \ 

conquest. 

Charles of Bourbon, as he was known in his Italian 

dominions, was born in the year 1716, being the first-born 

r *■ .-. ■■ • 
of Philip's second marriage v/ith Elizabeth Parnese. His 

mother, who was intensely ambitious for her own sons, in- 
trigued and plotted to obtain for them independent kingdoms. 

•-.riiards 
She succeeded in obtaining for Charles the ducal crowns of 

Tuscany and Parma and when the War of the Polish Succession 
began in 1735, Elizabeth seized this pretext to invade Austrian 
dominions and' to obtain Naples for her elder son. Charles 



. noi:*- 1 



.y<\'-i^ 



.nt^ 



-riifirt n$sd bp. 



a-^ 



■iX'xes 



nii i 



■31 






sane** 



was placed at the head of the combined Spanish and Italian^^^ 
army, though under the direction of the Count de Montemar.-r- 

In this contest for the crowns af Maples and Sicily, 
the imperial troops were [generally worsted and on June 15th of 
't"h'e' year 1734 the Infant Cherles published the decree of 
Philip V, whereby the latter ceded his "ancient and newly re- 
covered rights to the Sicilies, united into one independent 

kln'gfom, to his son Charles, born of his happy nuptials vfith --■: •''•- 

1 
"Elizabeth Parnese." The new king caused himself to be pro- 
claimed, Charles, by the grace of God, King of the Two Sicilies 
and Jerusalem, Infant of Spain, Duke o" "Parma, Piacenza and -t 
Castro, and heredetary Grand Prince of Tuscan^/. He also is- 
sued an edict, summoning all the barond of the kingdom to 
'sisrear allegiance' to the government, within a given time, threat- 
ening defaiflters with punishjnent i. "'But the two kingdoms for 
which Charles had been striving had not yet been won, though , 
the victory of Bitorito by Montemar, on May 26, 1734, had . 
caused the Austrians to abandon all hope of regaining Naples. 
Various fortresses surrendered to the Spaniards and by the 
Vattle of 'Parrik' in Italy waf^ ^'IHost totally destroyed so that 
Charles could now turn his attention to SicilJ^,. . For its 
conquest Charles sent over a vSpanish army of fourteen thousand 
'men under the command of the Duke de ''ontemar. The Spaniards 
Vere v/ell received by the Sicilian peoples and after hearing 

'l. Colletta, Vol. I, p. 43. 



rteilec^T LniaqS 



;3V/ 



xO rl^dX en; 



:i »r'T 



TB'^f?; 



r*oV «>'"''■♦' 



V-Stttq" 



OO .1 



the news of the "Einpire's losses in Naples, Lombardy and Oer- 
many, they submitted to an inevitable fate, and the dominion ^ 
of Charles was immediately universally established. Charles 
was officially crowned at Palermo on June 3, 1735, and acoora^qv. 
panied with all the ceremonies and grandeur of former coro- - ,g 
nations, he received the homage and oath of fealty from the 
people. The feasting and distributing of presents was more 
lavish than it had ever been before and it was thus that Charles 
of Bourbon, even at the beginning of his reign, endeared him- ,. 
self to his Neapolitan subjects. * n';,,rTpr-;' "^♦^^i.m 
i'aif.n The conditions of the kingdom 6f the Two Sicilies at 
the time of Charles* accession is best described in the words 
of the Italian author, Golletta. He says : "At the time of the 
arrival of King Charles of Bourbon, the Apostolic See clained 
supremacy over kings and kingdoms, as arrogantly as in the 
times of Crregory VII, but as its moral influence had diminished, 
this was only supported by the number of ecclesiastics and by 
their inordinate wealth. The temporal power of the Chi^rch was 
as strong as ever ; religious faith as great or greater than 
formerly, but faith in the ministers of religion and the pontiff 
weakened ; the feudal sF.stem entire, but the feudal system 
contemptible in the eyes of the people ; there was no army and 
the civil administration was fraudulent and full of errors .^. 
the finances were exhausted, poor at the present moment, and 

1, Colletta, Vol. I, p. 47. 



X 

-mojj£- .Dili? tCc • no Of .xjiiio a^v/ 

9di mot^ ^c*JBe1: "^o rft^o f^hb Tjrrao/i erf? firvteu^ t3noi:tBn 

snow. ai<\u «.?n9as' 'jhs ^fiid'afc-; . • . 

Jf^rfO ^Bfi^t gjyrd:' ins lOtdd s^»d "£€>▼» bi»; SitvBl 

-tnirr b5-.*tB9r.n9 ^r^nien ?. tr' Jo Hrttnrrt??ocf 6ir(:t :?J3 fte'/B ,ao^i?.rorT to 

u- 2ot:?afjie?^I«Ju9 lo ' 

nail': ';{jiaftaa .lu^fi'Q'i;^ f'.^" i:-i4i ,feijiui§' < sb 

; 3-i©TT9 to liift j^nfs >nt»lr 9«w uoi 



.1 



with ^he prospeot of becoming still poorer ; the codes of law 
were confused, and the tribunals filled with a vast assemblage 
of intrtgiil'ftg'and corrupt lav/yers ; though the Neapolitans - 
were slaves to many prejudices, they were opposed to the fallen 
government and desirous; of better. Therefore, necessity, the 
opinions" and' defelres of the people, a hew dynasty, and the • - 
interests of the new king, as v.^ell as the genius of the age, 
all invited reforms." ^ 

'"' The above summary furnishes an excellent * idea of the 
conditions existing at the commencement of Charles* Italian 
reign and vill help to give the reader a just appreciation of 
the great difficulties he and his ministers overcame in their 
efforts to inaugurate needed reforms. enc, 

«rroi: Charles* first act of s6vereign power was the ap- 
pointment of Tanucci as Ilinister of justice and it was said ' ' 
that this wise choice was made because on one occasion, when 
a Spanish soldier had committed a crime and had sought refuge 
in a church, Tanucci, who v/as then a professor at Pisa, sup- 
ported the royal authority against the claims of the Tuscan 
clergy. 2 '-^^^ ' " in^^-'^eTv 

Tanvicci, who had had an excellent legal training, 
was the man best fitted for the undertaking of instituting 
reforms in the newly ac luired kingdom. The chief disorders 
of the State were due to the defects in the codes and tribu- 



1. Colletta, Vol, I, p. 28. 

2. Beccatini, Vol. II, p. 1(?51. 



I'l -^ »:.•' r ffiff< ^ i p «.» 4 • 

Its It ^J 



<\B as 



r •j5«?iXnpEff/> "tc 



f o r«< r- r»< 






O r, i«<f /-> 



*Va». Ro •* f tr 












n&XI' 



■;.: ' ■"•f -' 



'ff rtsfn «ff-:^ ri^'w 



'•IfeW ^* 



.Ic'^I 



.V ,h; 



nals, but owing to the sj^'Stem of absolutism by which law;s were 
tift it wtto t'i ''^%9 reB'c j> -■- ^-'- ■ ^ '"'-" 

made in forms of decrees and pragmatics, instead of drawing 

1 

up a regular Code no regular system v/as adopted. Colletta 

says : "The civil jurisprudence underwent no change. .Altera- 

tions were made in the cri^ninal lav/s, bu"*" • dictated f:>r special 

occasions, and in a spirit of indignation aroused by the fre-^ 

quency or barbarity of crimes. A due proportion between the 

act and the punishment was not preserved, so that an equitable 

and judicious scale of punishment v/as wanting. Trials for 

civil causes were slightly imp.roy^edy: but the discussion was 

always confused, and it wax necessary for the solution of 

doubtful points to refer to the authority of the Sovereign ; 

while all the arbitrary acts of the Viceriagal Crovernment, the 

appointments of Ministri Aggiunti and rimedii legalii were 

continued. The supreme Council of State was abolished, while 

the other tribunals remained ^s before, because the king haxi , 

promised that they shouls not be changed. The system of 

trial for criminal offences was in no- way improved, while the 

Inquisitorial system, the Scivani, tsrture, paid proofs, ar- 
--t CO'- • J ■.r.if^c; 

bitrarir sentences and the interference of the prince 

2 
still continued." These facts vs given by the Italian au- 
thor seem quite accurate for ev^n as great a worshipper of 

of vnarl.or' cif>.v>i \>? ^^^iii^y^^: 

o 
Charles III es Danvila can only say this much for Charles' 

a 

reforms in legislation : "The penal system was about the same 

••••>.^«> — — — -• — — -.>.••••._ — _ — ••— • 

i^ally re-:, iS'HrrjQ i-*"- -'^ *' 

1. Colle'ta, Vol. I, p. 52. 

2. Ibid, Vol. I, 52. 

3. D. y C, Vol. I, p. 142. 



ij'-lVf/ av/iiJ. i;J 



t&Ifiri 



■ ■of) 



-j'lsc-i.'i .9: 



' : ii^i-^-a 



•:i f f 01 B n ■■ : i V E -T Ti x hr ' 



'ii'.O JC> 



9l . i>e tl»evn&aeio 









J rTr>X?>f9VO' 



""'••', { •'X)Jfci ,-ir»i f J.I'' 






ainT0l:8T 



•-• » 



as it was in the rest of "Europe. Torture, although hot pro- 
scribed by the law of 1731, was not amplified and v/hen it was 
abolished in 1789 it existed in the Whole of Europe with the 
exception of England. The judldial dual disappeared before 
it did in France, and the judiciary colleges, and the Supreme 

Tribunal of revision were founded in ITaples." The mitigation 

cr*-. . 

of the la s in Naples v/as undoubtedly retarded by the criminal 

tendencies of the people ; for it had been found necessary be- 

cause of the frequency of murders with the aid of poisonsi,* to 

establish a Junta of Poisons '^o try such cases. 

i 

The reforms instituted for the 'development of trade 
and industries were of the most enlightened and beneficial 
nature. Charles made peace with the Ottoman Empire by means 
of which his commerce was free from' the attacks of the Barbary 
pirates ; he concluded treaties of commerce and navigation 
with Sweden, Denmark and Holland, while renewing the old ones 

with ^'^rance, England and Spain. He appointed consuls, wherev- 

he ^v all-j^r^ '-in:/ pr«j ^o iate- ^.' -'v >hf ■r.-»Avi-.is 
er he thought that there might be openings for trade and drew 

up a code for their jurisdiction. He also appointed a commer- 
cial tribunal which decided all questions of commerce. A 
sanitary commission and bankruptcy regulations were' other fruits 
of Charles* desire for the welfare of his people. Colletta, 
says : "Had those legislative enactments, which now exist in a 
variety of ^instructions and pragmatic sanctions, been meth- 
odically registered in one book, we should have a full and «om- 

plete coinmercial code, and mi<-^ht have boasted of having been 
i, Vol. I, 



-0*Tq tort 



sm9"ic f^'- 



lqijli 



riexiode 



8*x©w fioislvei !<; imii/diiT 



» ;-■■ 7. o ;,' ^ ■ 



oi '#en.o?,l"0€f lo hts s*rf^ n-'-iw 



. ■^. ''•iR'-- J ^O'fR 



Jfe i J : ■ ^ n 8 cf tjfus h& :. Inm ? s c 



v^STb rjiic 



oslr. 



s f? -' ' '':>.r J oft , e i <f o e-cf s i '-^ t 

toy 'jHS liul e BVbH ^ii.fOftB ©w fjfac' 



ytB 



injsB 






f 



1 

half a oentury in advance cf the other states of Europe." A 
naval college v/as built and a body of pilots was formed. With 
the same desire to increase commerce, Charles allowed the Jews, 
mho had been banished by Charles V, to reenter his kingdom and 
gave them all the privileges of citizenship. In consequence 
of these regulations, the commerce grev and foreign ships :- 
crowded the Neapolitan ports, though the mercantile system of 
economy, with a '.1 its fallacies, having been adopted by ri, grant- 
Charles, the good effect of some of his measures was counter- 
acted by the stringent rules adopted to prevent the exportation 
of money*i trivial offenc«^s ^'^ -; leaiascical state havinji 
bet?n aefi Charles married Amalia Dalburga, daughter of Freder- 
ick Augustus of Poland, in the year 1738 and in commemoration 
of the event he founded the order of San Januarius, which was 
said to have ftad statutes more worthy of a congi*egation of 
monks than an order of knighthood. * ♦^r.l>^!'.n«l 
oalldd '-■ In spite of the religious nature of Charles, however, 
he did not allow any prejudices to interfere with the reforms 
of ecclesiastical matters in his kingdom. The quarrel t-ith 
the papacy which began during the war «gainst Austria was 
eagerly pressed. By promises and threats Charles persuaded- 
Clement to read the Bull of Investitut^e by which he proclaimed 
the king as Charles VII, a name which was never adopted. 
In 1739 Charles proposed a concordat to the Pope ; but Clement 
died shortly afterwards, leaving this new demand to the care 
o^,M/«r... '-^^^^-f T,. r.- -jietto:- .-_,,-- - - .- - - - - - - - - 

1. Colletta, Vol. I, p. 53. 






aasailvi*?; 



Sri bfid Oifw 



\jcf beiqofef? na 






• H"n 






--- •vr,'^-a-- 



;«?i-.-c,4. 



r-.ci r'.i • t i-p -" ■" • ■ cj r T C4 rr 'I t>.-f.r- 






fjr:u''{' 



Ti?/^t5 yCVi rT 



of his successor, Benedict XIV. The new concordat was finally 
gran^.ed in 1741 and gave to Charles the right to subject the 
ancient possessions of the Church to a tax :of one half thard 
amount paid by the laity, and all later acquisitions were to 
pay the whole. The census of the state Y/as "-o separate the 
lay property, which had either been intentionally or by mis-d 
taJke confounded with the patrimony of the clergy. The number 
of the franchises was reduced and the permanent exemption, grant- 
ed to privileged persons, revoked. The right of asylum was 
limited to the churches, and even then only in the case ofin«d 
slight and trivial offences. The ecclesiastical state having 
been defined, and personal immunities reduced, the right of 
episcopal jurisdiction was circumscribed, the secular juris- 
diction proportionablg extended, and in order to limit the ^d 
number of priests, the difficulties of ordination and the dis- 
cipline of the clergy were increased. A tribunal v/as formed 
called the Misto, because composed of both ecclesiastical and 
lay judges, to decide those disputes arising from the Concor-n 
dat. With' the Concordat as a basis, Charles checked and, in 
some instances, destroyed the preponderant influence of the 
clergy and, in order to ascertain the taxable property belong- 
ing to the clergy, he took a census which, .though deficient^-ds 
because of fraud, was a step toward equity in the levying of 
taxes. sTir.dii wns miilt far tne ^o*^ it«xfts 

"Elizabeth Farnese, desiring to obtain a kingdom or 
sovereignty for her second Son, Don Philip, encouraged her 



[linn tX #Bw $B Irto (MOi^ 



'^ f '.. - 






. \9o srfT . ©1( 












'^ .> I', --X i : iJ 



. Q 



t-»ci 1 o r 



©bio ni hna ,fe9i>ne-*x.9 ijJriRnc jif) 

,r-+ r, r.. noii"enxbto to ae '^ '■'■•' r"''^ Arir»ttr^ 

^ns iB J£rf8RlX8<^i OJH rfC^Odt© b^fiOqfWOU '^PfJBO^<^ tO^P.t^^ ©i^"* fSflllBJ 






lo niobjniJl b nifi^c 



ifjl'iiiJ»h 



, }' A V ft ♦ 



reri be^ijiyjojns fqiIlrf<T ftoC efioa feii^dse tsrf fol v;fnsl©"«:9Voe 



9 



husbadd, Philip V, to assert his claims to the throne of Tus-.: 
cany and when the Emperor, Chailes VI, died in 1740 , the 
Spanish rulers thought that their opportunities had come and 
invaded Italy wit^i a large army. Charles of Bourbon sent a 
Neapolitan army of twelve thousand men to aid the Spaniards, 
but upon the threat of the English Commodore Martin to bombard 
Naples unless they remained neutral he withdrew his troops. 
After the Spaniards had been this weakened, the Austrians at- 
tempted to reconquer Naples, but after many minotr skirmishes 
the Austrian army under Lobkowitz was defeated by the combined 
array of Spaniards and Feapolitans and Charles was again able 
to turn his attention ^o the arts of peace and to the reforms 
which the vy-ar had interrupted .1 UffV- -'• ^•'-1vnv:,i * jr ?• aa-^ 
r Various monuments and public works were completed 

during this period, the most noted of which were the Mole, 
the Strada Marinell^ and the Strada Merzzellian. Tie also 
planned ^o build a magnificent villa near the city of Copo-di- 
Monte, but gave up the undertaking begause of the subterranean 
grottoes over which it was to be built. A magnificen "ihpater 
designed by ITedrano was another one of Charles* undertakings 
and was said to have been the most beautiful in Europe at that 
time. Charles also ori ered the construction of several roads 
and bridges, notably the one across the Volturna near Venafro. 
The regit studii v/as built for the poor of bdth sexes and 
served as a place of refuge for thousands of destitute indi- 
viduals. He built a magnificent castle near the city of 



f^fyiBtuBq? 0iii htM ot ttimi -/^wl Jo vi^rtB nK-^tionf.- 

?tBrf;^. i^b sqoPTJiaf ni Jifllti.sf "^-^ r,^.,.r ©v^^rf q^ bisa spir fins 

abffcrr I©*t9V&a to iipDx:*a«i^6ttc oaift asJiBiiO . <>nil * 

bne ar3xea rfttdrf to •sooq ^'•'' -' ' ^ n^-«f-'= iijjsn ©ri? 

It) ^iO' «i(i is4Kpf «i#8B» i^nau. . *Iii/d oH .altodblw 



10 

1 1 



Caserta and placed there an equestrian statue of himself. To 

water the gardens around this palace Charles huilt an aqueduct 

twentv-seven ipiles long, crossing the mountains of Tifative 

and the three wide valleys, and flowing in canals cut in the 
P^oi'le ttno t':u w vj tfto iaiag. 

rocks or carried over high and massive bridges. Colletta 

inter 

says : "If the inscriptions on the stones and the memory of 
war did not tell a different tale, this work, from its gradd- 

^t6U I, its f'tlVageci. '•' iu TImhI tO;-.;; v,s>-^ 6i 

eur and bold conception, might he attributed to the Roman 
perioa . " 

The most renowned of Charles of Bourbon's achieve- 

Olifist^lla, t':«? i- .h"'S eeineo ' 

mente were the excavations which he began at Pompeii and Her- 
culaneum. An academy v/as founded for the antiquities found 
in the buried cities. The colleges and Umlversities were 
reformed in several respects, though the ecclesiastical semi- 
naries were left under the control of the clergy. Though 
Charles tried hard to promote learning and the arts in his 
kingdom, the opposition of the clergy prevented/-his reforms 
from being general. The fondness which Charles had for tfee 
Chase led him to enact laws against poaching v/hich were too 
severe ; he instituted lotteries and lieenced gaming, though 
he abolished it later. He proscribed the society of free 



masons ^t ^he instigation of France and drove out the J< 

Sk'.iU i Ti C- fck > Wet.- r k' .L i- vi '^^ '■ <» 'i '' V ^:,ti : ^3 i .'■■ u ; " •'■■ei«' ^'JTt! #t*^ 1;^ tr* 



ews 
though he had invited them into his kingdom seven years ear- 



r.e 



lier. /This last step was due to the enmity which the people 

•'Mi.', ij n(j HI 'it 



1. Colletta, Vol. I, p. 86. 



01 



o' ' Qim tml' 



! O - ' 






8^001 



'ifcW 



T9jnoi> ftlorf f>rte tfire 



r 






s-^-:* 101. filled aelifi/fO sioidv i^^&mhrj-'^ ^^"^ 
—fu© BtBe"^ no^na fBofe^yriiH »irf q:' 



o r "Y (i n 



a« mtrf fSfSl Ba^r 15 
' '''rip- t JOffF *^f^ 



la 



displayed against that race, as well as the intrigues of a - 
Jesuit confessor J (An abortive attempt to introduce the In- 
quisition was frustrated by the tiirbuient opposition of the ^^ 
people and the wisdom of the fcing. .-an., •...;■- „w .,-■-: aa': ixi^a 
powerful The war v/hich had begun in 1740, had been waged inter- 
mittently until 1748, thoUf.;h the kingdom of Naples was not. the 
much affected by its ravages. The final treaty was signed at 
Aix-la-Chapelle and by it the second son of Elizabeth Farner:e, 
Don Philip, received the duchies of Parma, Biacenza and 
Guastella, the Spanish Queen Mother having thus gained her 
end.^0strlt,tion c >wf>r of tae pop* ♦ r 

a f'.tfHip Tamicci*s reforms of the feudal system were mostly 
in the v/ay of diminishing the judicial rights v/ithout touching 
the revenue, lands or other rights of the barons. The baro- 
nial courts were made subject to appeals and by diminishing 
the number of armed retainers, and laying down the rules for 
their punishment, Tanucci diiiiinished the baronial privileges. 
It was also decreed that the power of criminal jurisdiction - 
was never again to be granted upon renewal of investitures of- 
fiefs and that the rights of the community were inalienable by 
tdime. Charles tried to attract the feudal lords to his court 
and in that way relieve their vassals of their presence. In 
this, way the power of the nobles' was gradually weakened because 
of the extravagance incidental to court life. The third es- 
tate, which had until the time of Charles* arrival been oppresse 
by the clergy and the nobles, grew strong and it v^as from this 



11 



' v>>- JJV 



srfj 1o no I 



^i-VflT 



a on si^v/ 8 9iqBM 'to moftgnJ::^ e 



ic^isijjp 



'O^ft!^ 



Vi ii.tn*f xi*ns:*.^im 



■sl'^.ii.jr B-i&w nis;?avs Xj?bw©'3: 9/\:t Jo snnolsi a'iooi/ffeT 



:inimi -ryns sieeqqs ot .tj9(,a5; 



i{1 






Tftw s^tiuoo! lokn 



>«io«b oalB a*sw *I 



['iBci'J . 9fn&i 






■■.7 ^Q&bS 



12 



bodyi mostly compose^ .pf merchants and lawyers, that Charles 
drew his councillors. Of these Tanucci was the most 
famous, and his influence on the policy of Charles, both while 
h^, was in Italy and afterv/ards in Spain, v/as constant and ^ 
powerful at all times. A Spanish author says of this minis- 
ter : "This man of such exceptional abilities, who presa^jed the 
unity of Italy, yearned for since the time of Dante, and an^ 
nounced it a century before it was realized by the count of 
Cavour, and who understood the tv;o great necessities of his 
country, which consisted in the destruction of feudalism and:. d 
the restriction of the centralizing power of the pope, making 
a /oreign rule acceptable and planting the^j>Qwer ot Spain on 
Italian soil, was Bernardo Tanucci, who, as an Italian author 
truly said, does not represent the biography of a man, but rather 

the c§ftte|:^jora^p,jus i^ist;Qry^^,f,^.ta;Ly gi)d symbpl^izes the tj^n-. 

2 

dency of the eighteenth century." ,j..^j *-^^ ueci^'e^ w^^re 

The correspondence of Tanucci with Charles after he 
becaine king of Spain ^ives an adequate idea of the Tuscan law- 
yer's influence and ought therefore to be wol^thy of considera-a 
tion. , he 

The correspondence carried ^pn between the minister 

and his master was weekly and the letters were always writtin 

in Tanucci 's own handwriting^ The style was precise and short 

and of laconic eloquence. The councils embodied in his letters 

1 



1. Di B.. Tantcci. Duca di Lauria. 

2. D. y C., Vol. I, 138. 



J 



fcll/fw ffrod f 

/.iff lo asi 'ieis ■ , --'^ 



. i 



IS 



were clear and exhaustive and his form severe and respectful ; 
and what is most singular is the total absence of any correc- 
tions in any of his letters, giving proof of a clear under- 

t 1 . 1 

standing and easy comprehension of Y/hat he was -writing. 

There was nothing in Tanucci's letters which did not hear upon 

some iiTiportant matter ; nothing which did not come directly 

'"■y th»? d^ath o^ '-^rr''! fs-,^''^ >'" '•'■.i ''';'' o>jt i ',p.'-iiv^, *-^?> u"^o*ai 
to the point, and no thought v/hich did not inspire convic'-ion. 



"Each letter began by giving an account of the state of health 

enjoyed by the royal family ; then gave an account of all 

Don "^^nW^-- .. ■.. et^Ai'--^ <:^ P.-n ^M } I ■ * •? \y.--u....\-\ , "->il- !"^or 

the questions brought up in the vcouncil of regency and nearly 

' ' ' ■ . 

always ended by giving a surmary of the discoveries made in 

'•pail ' . 

Pompeii and Herculaneum. There was no detail which happened 

at the -^leapolitan court that": was not embodied in the letters 

and Tanucci was often compelled to seek the protection of 

0-:. tor 

Eharles because of his well known opposition to the Apostolic 
See and his report of the indiscretions of Ferdinand's life. 
All the difficult questions which Charles had to decide were 
submitted to Tanucci and no treferms v^ere ever instituted \vithotkt 

e" ■ "j : •; ■■ 

first consulting him. 

The experience which Charles had had in Italy helped 

I'e . -.e ! -'•♦^ •■■' ■ 

him to avoid many mistakes in Spain, while ^he reputation he 

had while ruler of T^aples preceded him Cto Spain, making him 

beloved by the people even before his arrival there. 
WHS (/;■ irt ^o^'f'" «' j* 

1. D. y e.. Vol. I, p. 142. 
■^e* Ibid, Vol. I, p. 142. . ^f , 



I 

ftoqii 'iBS^^ '-■'■'' ' 

ff #1 JB ed It o ■» « 4 'V o :in>. .. 

JAb 'to &£fiJtj^oa» f!« ^^ve3 ^6^l^t ; /J ;0"t ©rii ^d bevotiiJ^ 

sts^tsi V' tv»ifeoffftt* df^of! »«ir -'d*di 

. 8^1X R*?>nf?n4fw»** 1:o 8^toi:^©•r>>^il>fJl m^ •*'Toq9*t Ri/< brre es^ 

e'isv, .V .^^..^ v., ■'' aeiiBfiO ' , ; r-r.- 
bsc^y^i^^etti *x9vt) ©-isv/ amteteft on iyfiB iuawflBT oi bsi^^imdwa 

mid. js^nMi^m tHifiqB ocfif ml 3lii1,v b.-:f 



14 



■'■'■ re ■- 
ve 071 CHAPTER II. 5 

retpn li^ FAPRATIVK 0? HIS R?)iaN. ^•?' 

in churat' :s :::! 

p~ By the death of Ferdinand VI v/lthout issue, the crown 
of Spain devolved upon his half hrother, Charles of Naples. 
Charles abdicated his Italian throne in favor of his third son, 
Don Ferdinand, because of Don Philip's imbecility, while Don ^ 
Charles, the second son, became heir apparent to his father's 
Spanish dominions. 

After niakinp, these arrangements for his succession 
in Italy, Charles embarked for Barcelona, landing there in 
October, 1759. His reforms in Italy had given hiB the reputa- 
tion of being one of the foremest advocates of the ideas of 
enlightened despotism and his i^eception at Barcelona was one ^ 
of intense enthuslaam. The royal party m.ade its triumphal 
entry into T!adrid on the thirteenth of July, 1760 and the 
attitude of the Spanish people, even at this early date of th^**" 
reign, indicated the love and admiration which they felt for '-"• 
their sovereign. Charles was in the prj ^me of li fe when he 
cane to the Spanish throng, being in his forty-fifth year. He 
was of medium height, robust in constitution ; his skin was 
tanned by exposure to the wind and weather and his frugal 
habits were those of a bourgeois of his state. His joviality 
and good nature attracted every one toward him. In 1760 he 



jtoa b^l'-^^ Htfi to •? 



^•fe p.^ 






.>0 






"^feok^r^t ,rf^, t9'i 



6rl O&Ti nl 






.'llfcr 



t^ ■>.:?"?. a in la sivi^ 



w 



003 ftn* 



16 



lost his wife, Maria Ajnalia of Saxony, who had given him thir- 
t^efeti children. Charles refused to marry again and during 
this long period between his wife*s death and the end of his 
reign he led a truly puritan life. He v/as firm and tenacious 
in character, and some of his m.inisters complained of his ♦» 
stubbornness. He was not ^ver-brilliant, but capable of 
discerning the good or the evil in a man. He was a very re- 
ligious man ; but also possessed a broad, liberal spirit. His 
desire was to free the Spanish people of ecclesiastic influence 
and th destroy in the adr-'inistrative, economic and social or- 
ganization of Spain the dees seated abuses, sacred to the 
Spaniard because of their long duration. 

^eii • Charles retained most of his brother's ministers, 
though h€^ stccepted the resignation of Alva, allowing him to 
retain all his honors and rewards. 

ns"^: VTall, a talented and conscientious Irishman, was made 
the head of his ministry and, Squilac' , a low born Sicilian, 
shared the responsibility in the first stepd taken towards t 
the much needed reforms. The duke of Losada did not interfere 
much with foreign politics, hut confined himself to administra- 
tive duties. This ministry was mainly backed up by the "go- 
lilla** party, which was not so strong in nuj>ibers as in the high 
average tof intelligence of its members. The celebrated Cam- 
pomanes and Moruno, v/ho later became chief minister, were the 
leaders of this party. Orimaldi, a Genoese nobleman of re- 
markable diplomatic ability, was sent to Paris and there 



al 



"•ttdi arirf nsvts ^^^ ^^^ »vm 



:, ol 



3 if' "io fens 9ff^ bnf: -. . . 

. . ■ ^ , . .. :■ &i.^ ; ffer- 

«;,^i:iv/uj u;-Au: <:i^aj-:-i ia-Tii &ri- 



u 



achieved the famous Facte (ffe Pamille. He sfcoeeded Wall in 
1763 and marked his policy with a decided leaning toward ^ut 
prance. One English envoy described him as being "more French 
^than the French ^m^assadpr .'^ce^ty w«'S '-^,-n ir -rp^.^.j^ 

ji The renewal or affirmation of the Facte de Famille 
w€».s api:>arently aimed against England, though Charles expressly 
declare^ it to be an "pj'faijrf de coeyr, not an affaire poli- 
tiffue."!; oJ^t vas to be a defensi-e and offensive alliance be- 
tween the two Boulrbon houses, but it is herd to see how Spain 
could gain anything by such an agreement with France. Choi- 
seul*s joy at having achieved the treaty caused him to publish 
its contents before Spain was ready for it and Pitt promptly 
deolareg wiar against Spain. Wall, who was the only conti- 
nental statesman who seems to have had a true conception of o 
England's strength, strenuously opposed any conflict with that 
nation. JPrance*i premature step disgusted him. and only the 
impending crisis of a foreign war induced him ■'■o rem.ain in 
office. Portugal was asked to join the Bourbons as against 
England, but declared herrelf neutral. An invasion of allied 
troops under Aranda followed. England sent ten thousand men 
under Count Lippe to aid Portugal and these forces and the ap- 
proaching winter compelled Aranda to retire without having 
accomplished anything. The English under Admiral Porock - 
captured all of Spain's Y/est India possessions, taking Havana ^ 
after a desperate siege. Manilla in the Philippines was also 
taken by the English, but ransomed for four million dollars, 



SI 



4las9'£cix9 a^IierfO ifawoff"* tbcisl^rr^ jaa^c^x ©emife ^x^ii^- tr^':. 

-'tioq siisHfl jwi :^on ^Tueoo 9£> e'^iB'tl^is* ne ad o^ ^l !iftrr«Ia': j 
-srf sanfiilf» ^TtarfS-f^^O' fyns ii'ianf?1r»b b erf c asw .*l "♦9;/pi' 
nlBct?. wof{ :--j-c.o urt ln^jfT ax Ji; ''^"'' ,ri9BjJorl £iO(^itisoE or:* '>^^ ^'- •^■* 

^i^qmoT'i t^i^bps Jt.iot Tjb8©T jjjsvr niaqf?- stolid airiio.iiu. 
-^tinoo vino dri't e«w orfw ,Iifj" . :ifiq8 c^aniBas ti? ijsjb 

10 nottqa^UQU ©wf^ /? barf svar^ a:^ armsa orfw nBiaa8^fl.^8 Xatnea 

9f{* ^Irro l>n« m iff bs-'sriaeib <|«^s ©ta^BCi©* '' jftfii^ .n'oJtc^sn 

boillB 'io norasvni rtA .la^xfifen 'tXefttarf be^^A^e'h ;*ji^ « c? 

-qe 9r(+ bne ae^io't f»aerfi bfiB la^tr^f'^o ^ uif. 

3nt VBff •*worf:?'iw afi:f€»t ot dbnaiA bsIXaqnc. >30tq 

ylooTO*? IsfimM T9bfiff iieiij^n^ ^^^'^^ . -royae 

osCb 3«w 2 9niqqtltrf^ ©ff:f ni slllrt^ . i^ s it>-:tlB 

»sfsIXof» notlllrn •itjol tcrt b9?fto«n :9jLc 



. *■ 



16 



only two million Qf which were ever paid. Spain attaoked the 
Portuguese colonies in South America and too> Sacramento, but 
was ready to listen to Lord Bute's overtures of peace at the 
end of the year 1762. A treaty was made in London in Pebru-^ 
ary, 1763, hy which England got most of ■trance's Asiatic pos- 
sessions, also those in America and Africa. Spain returned 
Minorca, surrendered Florida, gave up logging rights on the 
coast of Campeachy and fishing rights on the coast of New- 
foundland. ilKgla^id -gave up Havana and 'Manilla. 
i^f+er Thus Charles* first war against England ended de- 
cidedly in the latter;!^* favor and justified Wall's apprehen- 
sions of such an encounter. After the treaty between the 
three pov,ers had been signed, Y^all obtained his release from 
office b:/ feigning partial blindness. Grimaldi was chosen to 
succeed him and directed the department of foreign affairs 
until 1776. Squillaci was his rival for influence with the 
king and it was he who drew up the reforms for the domestic 
administration of Spain and devided a means for checking the -j . 
corruption and dishonesty rampant in the colonies. The ap- 
pointment of Grimalci encouraged Choiseul, and perhaps right- 
fully so, to boast of his powerful influence in Spain for the 
Italian had been one of his disciples while in Paris. 
l Squilaci as Minister oftthe Interior began his re- 

forms at h(^me by issuing an edict against the prevalent custom 
of v/earing large slouch hats and long black cloaks in such a 
manner as to conceal the features of the wearer, thus making 



31 



srf;f no 






•tlw f 



:-£ lol Isvit aiif fiif¥ IroBlI 






is 



the deteotion of armed oriminals.;a difficul*-. task. The cler- 
gy v/as against hin because of his v/ell known anti -clerical 
sentiments and the nobility because of his attempt to teduce 
the numoer of large landed estates. This foreigner was made 
the scapegoat for every evil that had arisen and on March 23, 
1766, Madrid broke out in open revolt. Everybody v/ore the 
objectionable garb and the populace demanded the death of 
Squilaci . His house was sacked and he went into hiding. 
The "V^alloon Guards bravely defended the royal residence and * 
after 'three days the rebellion was put down. Ananda had been 
called upon to restore order and Squilaci was sent to Venice 
as Spanish ambassador. Aranda had an enormous amount of in- 
fluence with the Tapani sh people and had distinguished himself 
both as a soldier and as a statesman. He had been sent to 
Portugal and to Italy on martial errands and was a true repre- 
sehtative of a proud race. He was nade president of Castile 
and secured the obedience of the people so that Charles con- 
sented to return from Aranjuez, whither he had fled, to I'adrid. 
Araricta was as original in character as he Vvas in appearance. 
He was dark skinned, had a large, hooked nose and steel gray 
eyes ; a toothless mouth completed his homely but not repulsive 
appear'ance. 'T(e was a non-believing philosopher and Epicurean 
In tendency. The king upon one occasion declared that he vms 



more stubborn than an Aragonese mule. 

The year after the so-calle 

,_i », .■. >-. ,^ 
planned and executed the suppression of the Jesuit order in 



The year after the so-called Squilaci riots, Aranda 



81 



iisji'isi j-iziiij rr</ofL?j li^'a ?.i. - -.'a n^i.i rani- • ':§ 

^ovbet i*nea 

t?*a si?¥ ijuXiJupCi bus i^L'io <**to-ee\ o:f iiuqij Dailso 

-nx 1o . as 

'■ .! ,. . ■ h^riy. . ,. .. ^ ._. 

-3- ' abnQi*r© iBt-ffsr oH 

a i ^ r« i>- : o ' i - > --^ ^)T> ?^ r{5 l-u no i " ^nnts J. n 



19 



Spain. This novenent against the Souif»ty began . inrPortugal 
and France, nut up to the tine of the rio's, Charles had given 
no evidence of any enmity against an; religious order. I*: r.^r 
seems that the events of 1766 changed his politics in this 
respect and his growing suspicion of the followers of Loyola 
was being skilfully fostered by the school of anti-clerical 
reformers. No efforts were spared by these to brii;g on 

>1flro downfall of this h^i^ed order. Evidence of a vast conspir- 
acy against the Bourbon faT^ily was produced, or rather nanufac- 

• tured, and the rebellion of the previous ^ear was declared to 
"have been "-he worh of the Jesuits. In sfi^e uf the strenuous 

iremons trance of Clenent XIII Charles signed the decree which 
banished every Jesuit from his lands. Arhnda was ready to 
carry out his knig*s wishes and arr?tnged natters so skilfully 

cthat::'tlie people knew nothing about the expulsion of the Society 
until It had been accomplished. All Jesuit property was con- 
fiscated by the state, and they were sent to the papal doain- 
ions, only to be turned away and compelled to endure untold, 
miseries and hardships, sailing from port to port in order th 
find some place where they might be allowed to land. 

While Spain was thus Ov^cupied with its affairs at 
home, Prance tried its best to draw Charles into another con- 
flict with England. Choiseul cedec Louisiana to Spain in 
176" and urged Aranda to sieze the Falkland Islands. 3uca- 
rell, the governor of ?uenos Ayres, carried out this attack and 
drove the Enrlish from those barren lands in 1770. Another 



:iBvly^ b«fn' H'^lnai^O 



baa 



^. ll'. ^ ill '. 



.Cilfiff'-J 

W0 13 



ff-v r 



•ftaAT 



-t irrarro J 



P. hr^* to IlBlnwob J*^"^ 






<-. r4»v « .-w\ <i 



fkK-f tf> ^t't^ 



'^/>jl:ri>{« 03 «T«»-*+fj! 



s»i a in mun 



,IW<iX9 -^'- ..V 



. , r f r-T + .A ?> ;.,ro 



Ufrasl J.iA 
-niftoh iB'iJSi arl;? o:f ^nsa eiew "^©rl^ />n** ,' 

d* •• •■)' 'to'i ow ^'iU I 

ni ntijqS o^ sfustaftroJ ^'*'o«>j Mr^^ l 



■ffBO 



■'^.■^P-J»1*T 



>f( 



cile-J 



war with England was nov/ immanent, but the downfall of Choi- 
seul caused the withdrav/al of Prance, leaving Spain to face 
England alone. Aranda saw ^.he hopelessness of such a con-. 
flicfc and apologized for the act of war committed by one of 
his governors. As a result of this fiasco, Aranda was com- 
pelled to resign and Canpomanes succeeded him, while he was 
made ambassador to Prance. In the mean time Monino, after- 
wards the Count Florida Branca, had persuafled Clement XIV to 
issue ^-he bull abolishing the Jesuit order. This was a r,i^ee.t 
diplomatic victory and Monina was eventually chosen to succeed 
Grimaldi as foreign minister. During the term of his admin- 
istration, Aranda had made great changes in social and economic 
conditions. , He had diminished the powers of the clergy and 
especially those of the Inquisition. He established the first 
census in 1768 by which Spain was said to have 9,152,992 in- 
Habit^ts., With his encouragement Don Fable Antonia Olavide 
established his settlements of Bavarian peasants in the Sierra 
Morena in 1767. These colonists, brought over by one Colonel 
T;hLurri,egel had been entirely assimilated by the native popula- 
tion as early as 1834. 

Campo' anes v;ho was next in rank to Grimaldi continued 
tjie domestic reforms of Aranda and earned for himself a repu- 
tition in Spain similar to that held by Adam Smith in England 
and by Turgot in Prance. He was respected for his integrity, 
the breadth of his views and for his superior intelligence. 

The reorganization of the army instituted by Aranda 



02 



• to I 








0^ jt OS fiia<rS 


, Boff.H' 




... r 


-no^ s fj^ifa 1-G ' 


. ci :.' j. r^-.^^ji : 




X» .'- 


ao -d bf 


tisif J 


lol beai 


■ i>its io 






o^ VIX > uoO *»r^t »f)T««w 

vs>e^7} ^ 8J?W Si{;?r ,-iiib-ii ■ > •.>.'>; o-ji.1'.^ il0(f« X.'WCJ i^D.. f^Mbrtj. 

oLriuuQoQ htie is^jOB nt a©3H«wfo tfien^ ebfim barf fib:"TB*xA , -- - 
:?8*tM mid i»6fl«xJffe:*3e -'H .fft)i:^ir:xi;i^0l ®.ii ^ .rl;* ^iilBij&qe© 

IwtoIoO -Mtc' '' "••.-0 -^••'■}A.f0^d ,8;tsiiiMi L..> -«.. r*:,-- ,^ ^^^^^ 

I 8/3 'Cif!^e 8. 

:^"r s tl^&tnid tot b^nifje &n« t '^.Q*i jI&h 



21 



was soon put to a test in a small v/ar in Africa v/ith Moors in 
1775. A peace was made favorable to the Spaniards, but the 
next year another expedition off 22,000 wen under an Irishman, 
O'Reilly, was disastrously beaten. O'Reilly was nearly mobbed 
when he returned to Spain, and Grimaldi was allov/ed to resign 
hie position as Secretary of State and named Florida Blanca as 
his successor. 

Monino,who was an adherent of Grimald^'jhad been the 
head of the "golilla" party. He was the son. of a notary and 
had worked* his v/ay up in the admini rtratife and political 
hierarchies, finally securing the ambassadojyship to Rome. 
There he distinguished himself as a most astute diplomat. He 
was of a cold and reserved temperament ; of a methodical mind 
and possessed of a cautious, though c'espotic nature. His 
enemies called him "the old fox/" He inaugurated an indepen- 
dent foreign policy and refused to follow Prance blindly ad 
Orimaldi seems to have done. He profited by the American war 

by regaining Florida and Minorca ; though he failed to secure 

? r V, e ;:; r : 

Gibraltar. He allied Spain v/ith Portugal, made an advantageeus 

cOEmercial treaty with England and put an end to the raids of *< 
the Barbary Corsairs. He rei^ignized the ability and v/orth of 
Campomanes, though he disliked him personally, thereby show- 
ing himself to be a truly great man. 

Wlien Florida Blanca became Secretary of State, the 
great Pombal was occupied with the extension of Portuguese ter- 
ritory in America, and this at Spain*s expense. He invaded 



'■1 n r.''! Si 



f .r;-r^r- 



-noqfo.TJ. Mr: 5n.t »K " . xol Mo s.^''*'' mlrf ftsXIsj 89ime/i9 

■f)"f.Cf^ ^urxC*^'' WOflO*!: 0^ f>4?.<f1: rr-riici 



"/■ c, C\ •* ) . r • c: rt . • ••• ! r f . ^ . 



;.rf-. r'.,-.M 



lOw bits vi lii^'a f).'^^ b0s .aiifts'ioO •^•tiJdtB# ©.ij" 

.ft r i^' - ' ! ** f 

'J-'"* ,©.-*0:''-! 1o ••?;• "»v'5 ©-ft 



22 



Buenos Ayres and the '"'paniards retaliated by seizing Saoremento 
j-^^^^4,,the island of Santa Catalina off Rio Janeiro. This little 
g^, was was brought to an end in 1777 by the death of Joseph I of 

Portugal and the dismissal of Tombal by Maria France sea, the 
^^ new Queen, who had no special regard for the man who had 

plotted to deprive hfr of her throne. She was tlie neice of 
3r, Charles III ano after adjusting the difficulties in Brazil, 

the treaty of Pardo was made between the two peninsular king- 
jji doms in 1778. The treaties of 1777 and 1778 with Portugal 
•p^ were considered by Florida Blanca to have been the most im- 
portant achievei/ients of his ministry. In 1776 the Inquisition 
rjiade its last effort to assert its judicial powers by an -ou4- 
*-y rageous attack on Olavide for the crine of non-belief and Vol- 
f^^. t aire ism. The great philanthrope and econoriist was condemned 
fj^ to imprisonment after suffering many indignities but was final- 
^o ly pardoned by the king. 

These ttr^' '^^^ recognition, by Prance, of the Ajierican insurgents 
^j in 1778 had been the cause of declaration of war by England 
c;-^ against France. Prance asked that in pursuance of the Pacte 
jl^jr de,r^ar!ulle, Spain Should join her against the English and thus 
pX check their steadily increasing power ; while England tried to 
>j, prevent, this by pointing out the evil effects a suv^cessful 
gi rebellion in the English colonies would have in the adjaceht 
^Y Spanish colonies of America. Aranda, who was then ambassador 
^. to Prance, v/as for war ; the king did not li]fo the English and 
j_^ wished to regain Gibraltar ; but Florida Blanca was cautious and 
in 1779 he offered to mediate between France and England. 



:2 



bsri uffw asm sjIj lol -ja on i)sr( c ^eup wen 

-(nx Jdvji-! an J nsfso sv:-r; o:^ ;.^jafij;-- s.ox'iQJ.'-i ^ stqw 

-IcV hnxj l£iX-Sa-aoi: to snx'iw e^:- =iO'l ii.oxvi^lO uo z-loq:j::m awos,:. '^ 
-Ixjitn a/5V/ :*jLf^ asi + ln'^ir-.n J vnsn •'ininsttfre 'iR^'^r-* ■♦r'Ttnoai-frrrr t o^t 

:^nBi3n?r v^cf 'tjBv/ "ro nor •^B-rfi.f job tc 9Sf;ej pr'* need *>Brf 8VYI ni 



^ 



This offer was soornfullj^ rejected by the latter power and Charles 
followed with a declat'ation of war. The true reasons for this 
step were a deep-seated feeling of resentment on the part of the - 
Spanish people ; dissatisfaction with the treaty of London in 
1763, and because of the affair of the Falkland Islands in 1770. 
£. The Spanish and French fleets were united at Cadiz for 
an invasion of England and though nearly twice as atrong as Rod- 
ney's Channel Fleet they did not dare ctttack him and at length 
sickness ano storms compelled them to seek shelter in Brest. 
There were also a number of schemes advanced to bring about an 
uprising in Ireland, but these also failed. The siege of Gibral- 
tar was raised by Rodney in January, 1780, by defeating and cap- 
turing the fleet of Longard. The Spaniards, on the other hand, 
had captured Florida, Campeachy and Mobile in America. Lord 
North now made overtures of peace with the cession of Gibraltar 
as a basis, but demanding Porto Rico, Oran, and Oman in return. ' 
These terms were not acceptable to Spain, hostilities were con- 
tinued vigor, a fleet under Cordova and Gaston capturing a fleet 
of richly laden transports off the Azores. Charles also sent aid 
in money and supplies to the American insurgents ; while Florida 
Blanca formulated the doctrine embodied in the armed neutrality, 
by which England practically stood alone against continental 
Europe. The idea propounded was the right of neutral s^ips to 
enter belligernet ports while no effective blockade is being main- 
tained and when they are not carrying contraband of wnr. Eng- 
land was not inclined to the arrangement which was clearly aimed 



ss 



3i f.:? tot. artose^i siin^-eiiS . tbw *^o ff^t+t^tef j ><»woIIo1 

sr^;t Jo f^Bq 9fi^ no ^ndci^rtdeb. •^n.:s^z,a~^->■^ ■ *^. 

ni notnod Tlq v, tBxrp , insqB 

-boH as gncxc^B »«e soiw:> •:.r*t.r T ^o roiaavnt ns 

.mix'^S'i ni nB«!0 bni? eHBtO tOaiH otio^ gnll^ffBRi&f) -"ut : 3B 

ij ^Iteslo f On 80W hnBi 



24 



against her supremacy on the sea. The Spaniards then attacked 
Minorca which v/as "Heins defended by General Murray with a small, 
but determined body of men, CFteheral Cullen, a very able sol- 
dier, conducted the sie£;e and finally gained possession of the 
^CfMb'fl^ "of Saint Philip In February, 1783, granting to Murray 
and his brave men the privilege of marching out with all the 
honors of war. Rodney defeated De Orasse in the Eadt Indies, 
"1i1ie¥'eby pii^^in^'t^idse Spanish' possessions once" more at the" 
mercy of the English. «as :n 

Spain and France had agreed to stand together in 
"friaking a treaty of peace, but before the failure of the great ' 
siege at Gibraltar France entered into degdJtiations with Eng- 
land contrary to her agreement. Spain then on her own account 
began to make overtures for peace to England, but her demands 
were exorbitant. Charles wantef^ Minorca, Florida, the Babama 
Islands, evacuation of all the British settlements oiS the Gulf 
of i^exico, a share in the fisheries of Newfoundland, and final- 
ly the cession of Gibraltar, but this was while the great attack 
was being prepared. In return he offered Oran and a vague 
promise to favor England's tvade in Spain. The English min- 
istry said that they v/ould not consider any proposal comprising 
the cession of Gibraltar as the people were deterfcined to re- 
tain it at all costs, because of Elliot's glorious defence. 
Aranda carried on the negotiations and Franklin supported him 
in his demand for Gibraltar. The crafty American diplomat 
declared that England had no more right to the possession of 



•*s its "^.stitaqB srfT 

I Htm ts t^&iw vfiiTW>/[ Ir 



,i?uO ; «; !ii : ts J s? 



"lot elcfe x**^^ 6 ,H$J '3*«i,l0r 

JOB nwo "i^rf fl© nsrit nisqS . tnemoBigB i8ff oj* ^•ja*t#aoa bnel 

•i if?r{ turf tfonel^ftS &^ 9jBeti xqJ. Bsnfif^tte^v. cf 



-^ fit 11^ bn« t onfiltowol^/BK "to a.^ 

.eatetsb e.f/oli^Gl'il ':»*^0Jt.rM "^^ 
mm bacttoqq.cj:^ ail. tit 



■ iff tlif 

Bfxjlosb 



25 



Gibraltar than did . Spain to Portsmouth. The two countries 
finally came to terms and a definite treaty was signed , at, . 
Paris in January, 17o3. This vras, for Spain, the most advan- 
tageous treaty since that of St. Quentin. By this treaty of 
Paris or Versailles Charles received Florida aiid Minorca, ,^ 
while all other conquests v/ere restored. The Bourbons were 
jubilant, but while Prance was aliaost insolvent, Spain had 
added 3520,000,000 ta^^lts public debt on account of this war. 
of his While the war against England was beinr: carried on 
a rebelliori, headed by an Inoa chieftain, had broken out in-,.- 
Peru. These tumults were suppressed at a great cost, bu"^ ^vere 
never formidable. The English pointed to these troubles as 
the natural sequence bt Spain's attitude toward the "English 
colonies in Anerica, but the Spaniards declared that the trou-., 
ble began before^.th^-^ Airier icans had obtained their independence. 
;, 'c f,r.,. Florida Blanca attempted to encourage commerce by 
treaties and in 1782 sent a "Frenchman, onee Buiigny, to Con- 
stantinople to negotiate a favorable treaty with the Sultan. 
The Algerian and Tunisian pirates were brought to time by means 
of well conducted punitive expeditions and a treaty was made by 
which piracy in the Mediterranean vas stopped so that the 
coasts of Valencia again became populated and prosperous. 
By the marriage of his eldest daughter to John, the heir ap- 
parent to the Portuguese throne, Charles secured a family union 
by which he hoped to insupe peace in the Peninsula. Toward 
the end of his reign the Facte de Famille becai^e troublesome 



:oaiM afet^ol^ b«viBo»:i a»i*iaffD aelliBaieV *iq eiis«I 

.:ti.-:! nit::o t. xu-'ViuSiix vSOi^aife ^ijA' t.jn&i^ 8lxnV w«d e-ttisj^iiiwc 
.•saw aiifd^ %a :?nwGoa« no :^rfftf) oilcfuq ati or^ 000,000t0S5 bsbbs 

ii. tuo a^:>loi£f Jb«xi tnJ:&JT:»irfa BoaS ix» x^ ifsbfiarf ,Jioiiiaa9i b 
..i,.irr }. b':fe**"Ow *.i>Xf*x^ ^'^ , * '^^fi*lS "td fajaaiipear Ist 

-xioO Q^ i^n^iliwEC ttijo tOBrnffonf rsa SQVi ai h&x^bbi^ 

•:aiia;« id feiitti- uct Jil^ifiu'cd &':8^ ss^&'iX^ iiiix;:xn.;x' .>ae iisi'ie^XA i>iiX' 
:cf sJbfcsm 3.8W. '^iBs-^tcf 6 0fi6 Bflo i:;t ibscfx® ©y.f -qj lisw to 

liotnxj ^'liniBl r b^^Ttijaa ael'if^riO ^sno'irfcf dE' tnencB^ 

Dl^WOi .BlUt^iUiXi^ iXi. 9^X5Siq '^^li"^: iwxa=v ^^^1 

3moadXd«oi? 6; (B^ed sXiiauiM ^ irflo 



26 



to Charles. Prance, disturbed by internal troubles, tried to 
direct public attention at home by aggression abroad and natur- 
ally looJ^ed *-o Spain as her ally. Charles tiPied to avoid 
ail foreign entanglements and refused to join France, Austria 
and Prussia. His latter days v/ere embittered by the intrigues 
against his interest carried on by his son, the king of Na- 
ples, with Catherine of Russia«r<;k, in tri-* 

Various changes for the bettering of the condition 
of his people marked the end of Charles* reign. Aranda was 
beginning to intrigue against Florida Blanca and with the aid 
of O'Reilly and the nobles he finally brought about his resig- 
nation in the subsequent reign. 

:■ :'••• l."F-r. * In ■ 1788 the king's health v^as beginning to fail and 
the death of his daughter-in-law in childbirth closely followed 
by that of his favorite son, Don Gabriel, hurried on the good 
king's end. He died, after a short illness, on December 
fourteenth at the age of seventy-three »«^uii,. <: 
eentv •^.-'•rol skfr.pert-: 

■', to • 



.T,<;n' ^. M 



-i^j^tsn fone hBt oieee 

s«u3iifni ft/ft ^4 fedTceifttrfmo :' tsl siH .<!rT<r bfiB 

. -, i J .. . J 6n X 1 9^ff t » f »■ : iw , a el q 

'':■l■^:■''^ i-' 'i;\> F jo'tfi vllBnili erf a»ldoa *jff^t hn 'sJI'O 1:0 

locfm^udG a. alii tT ^ idilii t.D&i '^ni-i 



27 



, , CHAPTER III. 

4v,^j,.*«f4*. ADMINISTRATION AND LEGISLATION. 



"The absolute and unlimited possession of power con- 
centrated without reserve or check, in the hands of a single 
man, no matter whether the use he puts it to is for good or for 
evil, is despotism." Montesquieu calls a country free v/hen 
the legislative, judicial and executive rodies are distinct, 
,J^fL .these are confused there is despotism. The government of 
England was considered, by him, to be a popular one. The' 
barriers to despotism are the^ laws and customs of .the state, 
which is a moral barrier, and also the privileged classes, and 
finally religion. With the exception of England, the Protest- 
ant Netherlands and, the cantons of Switzerland,., ^11 the coun- 
tries of Christendom were ruled despotically during the eight- 
eenth century. The right of absolute control asserted by these 
,sovereigns was almost Invariably based upon the divine princi- 
pie and this was found to be the most convenient argument on 
which to base such claim.6 . 

The genesis, of Spanish political institutions has bean 
one almost exactly the reverse to that of England, where repre- 
sentative government was the outcome of long struggles against 
the absolutism of the rulers, while in Spain the control passed 
from the people into "he hands of the king. Under the Roman 



■liR B ■:' efft ft: 3o 

ant Off f nam 

( orjB max :i»xii 

-rr/' ; ■ ■■ 



28 



"Empire independent municipal governments existed all over the 
Peninsula. The Goths introduced elective national councils 
and from these were developed the Cortex, The clergy, though^' Ir 
influential, had no special privileges in these councils, and 
the municipalities, by means of deputies, really controlled fr- 
these legislative bodies. After the battle of Oaudelet in 
714 the Moors held sv.'a> in the Peninsula for 778 years and 
each province made its own laws and ran its own affairs during 
that period of ^subjugation . It was at this period that the <- 
clergy began to control the Cortes because of the martial occu- 
pation of the lay population and this ascendancy has continued 
1(,p.J:^e cJiar act eristic ot Spanish £;overnment since those days of- 
Mohammedan rule "n the Peninsula. The king had no influence 
whatever in the election of deputies and no one in the pay of 
I'PXalty was allowed tQ represent the people for fear that they 
might not act in the interest of their constituents. The 
bodies of the deputies were inviolable and troops could hot 
approachthe pl^pe .of .meeting of the Cortes. The oath of of- 
fice was sworn to the people and not to the king. Up to the 
time of the Austrian dynasty tlis was an effective check upon 
royal prerogative and Spain could boast of a truly represen- - . 
tative government. The Justicia -mayor of those times was a 
sort of supreme court which defined the king's prerogative and 
acted as an intermediary between the people and the crov/n. 
"Thus the first period of Spanish history is that of popular 

control and all a*- tempts to usurp the power were repressed. 

1 . 



t> ''"* *I*r''0 i i 



c.j. ^ ^iii.i t. o - ;J ::* ■ X 






O . i J^ U i 






-)0d 'ftvid'. 






s>iqo»q 9ft^ "^ 
frf* fv* rrTJ . ' ^! ir '•.-^■^ of fo 



J ■. X V U 



ojj y 



' P.+ 



29 



The crown, s^rrong and respected, generally knew how *-o respect 
national institutions and how to submit to the wishes of the i.- 
people. The kings did not believe that they compromised their 
dignity by a noble deference to the wi£h€t of the people and 
understood that the freedom of the deputies was the best safe- 
guard for the throne." ,»-.... .... r.^? r. throne . 

The second period begins v/ith the conquest of the 
Moors and contrary to the accepted opinion v/as not one of 
prosperity. There were three teasons for this, namely^: the 
Inquisition, the v/ars of Charles V and the riches of America. 
pv,,. - . From the conquest of Granada to the war of independ- 
ence absolutism reigned in Spain. The house of Bourbon accen- 
tuated the policy of concent -ation and modelled the Spanish 
after the French form of governemnt. The kings concentrated 
all power in their hands and cut it off from the nobles and the 
people by relying on their fanaticism and the influence of the 
clergy. The kings believed that they held their crown by 
right divine and assumed all powers of governm.ent independently 
of all social elements. They exercised legislative faculties 
either directly or by means of organisms created by them, by 
rueans of pragmatics, decrees or edicts. Justice was directly 
administered or delegated to corregidors. Alcaldes, courts, 
chanceries or audiences. The executive functions v/ere exer- 
cised by corporations or funct ionsried named by the king, who 
often assigned judicial as v/ell as administrative duties to the 

1. Marliani, Hist., Introduction. 



drfi lO 88/13 tw 91^' 

-Ji:) ■: bse Lnot^im'. bib ar^R 

brfQ el^oeq e' e^ab eid^^ to 

e.i;^ to -TOO e: - f boi- tojf^a 

i^ldon ^ii'S mitt tlo #1 t^e i^ftjl abaB/( L'b 

ti . ''^fli 0rf^ oris (delcJttiSim^l ttfii** fto '--fft!!*^' 

- it3.\y *^'tt».v ci^«j'^-i vSi^iUi ^ vVJt '■UJ«3/C^' • ' 



30 



same body. 

When Charles III oar:ie to throne the influence of the 

ultra-montane party had already been partially ci^rbed and he 

made i"- his task to bring the clerical population under the 

absolute control of the crovn. At that time the Spanish 

tLei^le h ad two vene rated dogma s,— religion and the t hr one, a nd 

his policj^ v/as to strengthen ^he throne and to difect it toward 

the prosperity of the people at the expense of Rome. 

5:ili eir 

Charles* early efforts v. ere principally directed 

towQrd the curtailment of those ecclesiastic powers and influ- 

e 
ences and he directed his corregidors to be on the lookout 

that the clergy should not usurp the royal jurisdiction. By . 

decrees and proclamations Charles confined the powers of the 

Pope to purely ecclesiastic, that is to say, spiritual matters. 

Absolutists declared that al3 temporal questions were to be 

decioed by the kin^^ alone, while the ultra-montanfe party upheld 

the supremacy of Rom.e . These tv/o parties struggled against 

each other until the triumph of the absolu'^ists was signalized 

by the expulsion of the Je suite. 

The Cortes was no longer ealled to assemble ex- 
honor ccnn"t 
cepting to swear the oath of allegiance when a new riler came 

to the throne. This, hov/ever, v as only a formality and the 

only other recognition vvhich this body received from royalty 

was in the somewhat absurd custom of attachin.p: a clause to 



1. Bourg., Vol. I, Chapter III. 



fit'-'" O.* Zi^.''^ P.tf lf?fTT 

ui3 ii — ^tftrtev o 

b*T£. : £ •tu©" fine 9rf: rT9T-*"n o* syTv^ \5jtfo~ 3irf 

* !g»*i»ir anoi\tiji>up Ir r rloacfA 

.'7. -^•* fvrtF. vt ^ [Rrrtr!*^ «? •'ylrtn e ." . <!Jt 

iaweXo 3 r>ffiri to mo i^w 



51 



royal decrees and pragmatics which declared that "they would 
have the same force as if they had hper published b^ the assem- 
bly of the Cortes." Up to the time of the death of Charles 
III the Cortes had been convol- ed on only ^bo occasione during 
that century and then the letters of conve>cation were sent to 
all the grandees and all the titulos of Castile ; all the prel- 
ates and all ^he cities which had the right to a seat in that 
body. The two first classes represented the nobles ; the 
third all the clergy, and the cities v/ere represented by their 
sheriffs. The Cortes of the entire kingdom had not been as- 
sembled since 1713 when Philip V convoked them in order to have 
troii/^-L* '*to<^rr ^n^ ■ ' p^)er3i of -^ 

them ratify his pragmatic sanction. The Cortes of the sepa- 
rate kingdoms and principali'^ies were sometiries consulted when 

the question of naturalij^.ing a foreigner came up, but even 
w<^' ;■ ; str-- 

then their members communicated only be letter, without assem- 
bling. There was, hov^ever, a sort of standing committee 
which was called the "Deputies of tlie Kingdom" v/hose original 
duty it had been to watch the administration of a tax known as 
millones and who were eight in number i; but Alberoni had tal:en 
away this function so that nothing remained but the titular 
honor connected wit|i the position. These deputies of the king- 
dom were elected every six years ; Castile being represented 
by six v/hile Catalonia and !^ajorca,and Valencia and Aragon had 
one deputy between them. The king used this committee to an- 
nounce a new tax whiwh he chose to impose and in t?iis way the 
nation seemed "^ o possess what looked like a shadow of a Gortes, 



Li: 



a'-^I^Sf[!) to i-tBe 



r 






I a0 »oT 



fta.r(* '^nr 



r< ? 



■ !■? « '"^ 



.n ow.-* 9ffT . rbod 



9-^- 



:9f)to nl O' 



^ V qillrf^f rrsriw ^XVX ejrrls b'^Xdrnae 



r.9V9 -^Jid ,qfj smflj isn^ietoT: ,«s <\nfsXXfiHj;tan lo 



tofbrf 



3^. 



but fell even short of that. f ir: u!.e ata.''n!cr.t ci r : .s 

The three provinces of Biscay, Navarre, under the :^n 
name of kingdom, and the principality of the Asturias were ^t 
separate states which had neither eastom houses nor intendants. 
All the rest of the monarchy was divided into twenty-six prov- 
inces, twenty-two being of the crown of Castile, e.nd four of*er 
the crown of Aragon, Each of these twenty-six provinces, ~iw. 
differing widely in area, had their intendant. There was .^ 
still .another division of the Peninsula for military purposes. 
There were thirteen governments, of which twelve v/ere con- ' ' 
trolled by officers with the title: of captains-general of the 
province ; but the commander of Navarre was called Vice-roy. 
The divisions by which the deputies of the kingdom were chosen 
were the most important administrative units, though the mod6s« 
of .^^administration employed in the kingdoms of Castile afid 
Aragon differed wictely. This lack of uniform.ity dated from, 
the time of the j union of those two kingdoms. is 

lowered 5 5'rom this it can be seen that there v/as practically 
no check to the king's authority. The councils were the or- 
gans of his will and his ministers to the agents. Until the 
formation of a regular cabinet by Florida Blanca in 1787, the -- 
king worked aepalrately with each minister, though under diffi- 
G-.ulit circumstances he would unite in council in order to secure 
■y^^^p combined advice. The achievement v/hich Florida Blanca ^i 
considered to be one of the greatest of his administration was 
this founding o-"" a regular cabinet and he devotes considerable. 



9T9W syixuuaA 9ii:f Ig v;.;' £IJ3qiaiIi'£^i 9riu briB ,no.b^iji to dman 
"iu 'xuo't bn--^ t^lliafeO 'to tied owc?-^i-tfiew't ,aBjni. 

-fTOj 9t9W 9vl' crfw to , ^.■*n.<»mrrt9vo:q rtd© ' *=»W 9t9rfT 

.T^Oi-9oi¥ b&IIiiu 3rjw jir^iBva?! to 'XQufiisitiLioj ©nl J"iid i a^iUvotq 

moit bate 5 ■^tir-nolxa?; to ^loel afrfT .vl^filw hj^tatttb fto^BiA 



.aniofogni:' 






-10 erft 919W eXfjnwoj &rfT . l-i ml 

9rf;f e'^SVX .71 fijrfaX.^i fibtioX«=r -aidej tnliSc\&^ a to noXc^^iiif'iot 



33 



space to enumerating its advantages in the Statement of his 
administration. A ra'^her significant paragraph is the one in 
which the great r^inister defende feis creation against its most 
ahgerous calumnlat6rs. ' He sa\^s, "According to malicious' cen- 
sors the junta is nothing but an invention to control the free 
choice of the sovereign and a contrivance by which the -minister 
of state may appropriate th^ authority or every department and 
dictate to his colleagues. Will not your Majesty have more 
persons of merit, from whom, to riake your choice, should some ® 
candidate be recomm.ended by the Junta who' di^ not occur to the 
Secretary ? Will rot your Majesty acquire more certain in- 
formation, by hearing the opinion of different ministers, 
Whether against some of the candidates there rr-ay be any objec- 

r ■ 

tion, or v^hether there may be nore aptitude and ability in some 
than in others ? Sire, let ue undeceive ourselves. ThAse 
who diminish their authority by this investigation, are we,' ■^'*^' 
the ministers and out dependents, and in proportion as.-^burs is 
lowered, that of your Majesty rises. This is tlie truth and 
the rest is a mere pretenee of the ambitious, to facilitate 
their ov/n views, by communicating with a single person, or '^» 
with the subaltern, v;hom they may deceive or gairtv^^-^'The minis- 
ter of state remains under control, as well as the affairs 
which are pointed out by the royal decree ; and thus, far from 
augmenting his authority, as is pretended by unjust censurers,*- 
he diminishes it." This article shows better than anything 
else how jealously the prerogative of the king was guarded and 



9:; -^Of! %il> od^ 8 tint, eil 'ebl^mia 

,t r v^ G 9 vfti at f?-:t i^'f ''l^t"!: -''^ 

><I^ 3i «iffT .r. :ta9(;j3^ *ii/&v to f beiewoX 

s*e + tIio*5 ot |« j;o i .t i cfma eif:^ to *^9n9*o*f^ %t**« ^ «1 "♦•j^*** 9*ft 

,.3id^uaneo iairt'^*-^ ^^ f)«bae:*'ef<i ax sis fi 
Sni/lt^riQ fT0/{t Tested ^Xai.^tf 



54 

that the strongest argument against a minister or against an 
instituffion v/as that the pov/er of the king was curtailed by 
their existence. According to Florida Blanca's plan there 
were to be six ministers with the ?:inlster of state or foreign 
affairs at" their head/ ^" There was th.en, the r-^inister of 
foreign affairs, who was also called the first secretary of the 
state ; the minister of Y^ar, who presided at the council of 
v/ar and reported to the king ; the minister of marine, who 
worked without a council ; t'^e minister of finance v.'hQse office 
wasj.united with that of general superintendent of finance ; 
the minister of the Indies, who had united under him all the 
civil, military, ecclesiastic and economic government of 
Spanish America and was only responsible to *he council of the 
Indies of which he was generally president ; lastly there vAas 
the minister of grace and justice v;ho had control of every- 
thing which pertained to magistracj^ and to ecclesiastic affairs. 
Charles III*s government was characterized by its stability 
for it was said that : "v/hen the prince had accorded his con- 
fidence, incapacity, poor success, nothing could make him with- 
draw it. His miniF.ters v/ere nearly certain to die in office, 

and this security did not tend in the least to increase their 

1 
activity." In the twenty-nine years of his reign Charles had 

buf- three different ministers of fetate, two of whom. Wall and - 

Orlmaldi, retired voluntarily, vrhile *-he third survived the king. 

1. Bourg., Tome I, p. 200. ^^i- 



<^ "f o .-J 4 r' a r ' , A 

1:v "? A •+ p, J, r,. ■ ,n9'' . o*39rl lie atli^'^tB 

; ^. to ^Iw^ns^nitijcj :sw 



35 



1 
* : ;. ^ The council of Castile is first in rank both as a 

tribunal and as a council of adnini F.tration, for it is the one 

and the other at the same time. As supreme tribunal, it has 

certain jurisdictions of its own, receives appeals from other .. 

tribunals and has the inspection of all .iii«--JBrior operations 

which interest the public v/elfare. civil 

1i-T;^err This sovereign council was composed of five chambers 

c 

or salas. , ,.^ ^^^ y,^^^ 

■ral ^^^ first sala de goblerno^ had nothing but adminis- 

,-trative functions. This chamber also sent appeals to the 

.second sala de gobierno or to the chamber of justice. 

The second sala de gobierno heard appeals sent to it 
by the other chamber and had charge of manufactures, bridfges 
and high-roads. ^ ^^,, 

of The third chamber was called the "sala de mil y quin- 
ientos" that is, sala of one thousand five hmndred, because 
those who appealed to this t)ody were compelled to deposit 
fifteen hundred ducats, wiiich they lost if the appeal were re- 
jected. *. 

have ^^® fourth chamber was called the "sala de justitia" 
and tried certain crises exclusively. 

The fifth chamber was called "la sala de provincia." 
It judged the appeals of all important cases, anri it tried all^ 
cases coming from, the two civil lieutenants of ''adrid and from 



1. Bourg., Tome I, Chapter XII. 
2 . Bourg . , Tome I , p . 3:S8 . 



9no 94^ ai .^:f 

anolta- 'i lie • " 



'Biti?8f/t ^5^ file 8** a/i^ bi^IlBj sew T:9dfi!»ritf ^^tvo'^ *i4'i 



■ ( 



".i3i jiiivoT 3X68 sX** beXiiSi) 

lie bBln:^ ^t bna laa^Bo 5«t^;fioqni?* XI » to «If 



Ji'l 



.IIX -r • :. .1 



^A 



the judgments in civil matters of the Alcaldes \de Cortes. 
These latter formed a sixth chamber known as the sala de los 
Alcaldes de casa y corte, v/hich may be compared to the French 
Tournelle. Madrid was divided into a certain number 6f quar- 
ters, at the head of each of which v.as an Alcalde de corte. 
He,: judged -in the first instance and concurrently with the civil 
lieutenants. The appeal from these decisions was made to the 
entire chamber de los Alcaldes de corte v/ho alone could hear 
an appeal in the first instance in criminal matters. It v/as 
only in extraordinary cases that appeals were carried to the 
Council of Castile. This Council was the only tribunal which 
recognized the grandees of Spain and all its members enjoyed 
the rifeht of committimus. 

-.,v4T*4. The corregidors were the provincial representatives 
of the iaing and received their orders through the Council of 
Castile as did also the intendants. The courfusion of these 
two offices caused the decree of ITovember 15, 1766, to be issued, 
l^ij; which the corregidors were to exercise all the functions of 
a police and judicial nature ; while the intend ar^ts were to 
'^^!i^,JfP-^^E^ 0- taxation and revenue. T?iese two officers 
were the direct intermediaries of the crown and constituttd the 
connecting link between the pcpple and royal councils. The 
province, during the ceign of Charles III, had lost much of the 
political importance that it had had in the early days of 
Spanish independence. The absolutism of this reign would not 
pe'rmft the provinces to hcve independent or sepatate governments, 
but on the contrary they were made to be the secondary organisms 



3?; 



. ?»itio'' 



r.'j 



•Tj?f?f< bl.f/Oj -^-rfcl:^ Or^^ ?5ttO..; ^?..)X^ 30l "^b T^'' ''•tltfte 

Sitif o:? b9£ ^)10W aleaqqa tflrf:^ 3«sso ^i 8t:fxr :Xno 

DD^otiis sT'ja'rnon sri IX5 bne ai^q'^ to 39s;.jrii;i?i snj D9Axn;aOJ9i 

lo -^'^ijD •.:j.'1£5 3 art? nx j^-iir, dij. ' e^*,,'. aau^: 

. : t'»von BiH't*::q'3e to ♦'^oftr: 

i •3''2xfli: liihnOjQa 'J. : HO n: yu 



57 



of. the central government and solely alloweed to carry out the 
dispositions made by it. The province v/as really 'he his- 
torical division of Spain and Golmeiro declares that "provin-^ 
cial government, in his estimation, was one of the deepest 
m.arks of the Spanish national character." The duties of the 
corregidors and intendants covered every branch of administra- 
tion and it was to them that the king looked for the successful 
working out of his syfetem of government. -'-'^ 

f^-f- r When Charles became king of Spain, the custom of 
electing candidates for municipal as v/ell as provincial offi- 
cers had died out and in place of i"*- a sysi-em of corrupt and 
venal practices had arisen. Offices were bought and sold 
or inherited regardless of merit and r/ere al\vays held by the 
nobility. These conditions served ^o strengthen the central- 
government, but robbed provincial as veil as municipal govern- 
ment of all vitality. The Alcaldes who reported to the cor- 
regidors or the intendants considered themselves to be appoint 
tees of the king and paid no attention to the welfare of the 
people so long as they could please him. The Alc^ildes majores 
generally presided at all the municipal meetings, though the 
corregidor would often perform "^his function in the residence 
citji or town. In the celebrated instruction to the corregi- 
dors issued in 1768 those officials were charged with the 



1. D. y C". , Vol. VI, p. 529. 
a?.. Ibid, Vol. VI, p. 96. 



v-; 



■*■ o r. 

. :;f&ntn'isvo3 ic r;s^3^{3 3iri to tl'C 3tiix" 
- o Xsljfitvrf. ^.p Iti^t ikhitri to' 

■?-i£voq.ifc; 90 or aGvi&e^;:3;ij ssT^oiarioo sii'aBune.'ai a;;J "xo 2ionijj9i 

3910 cprr: .-:^;MpjtA \^T ,rf»trf ^^b^I't ^1 ^ nrto >b^ 

3^.7 .o^.uoriT ,3.:_'!XTf-. s'n Ieqijm:jr. si,^ £l3 Vij na.oxaatq; -/iifiisasa 

9 t- nTi^ u&^iierii) eis^w aiiiijiflo aeon: ■ ^oid 



"duty of administering justice and were entrusted wit'' the 
care of -^he general interests of the nation and particularly 
those of the people. Thete existed nevertheless a great deal 
Of confusion of pov/ers and attributes, but the range of duties 

was so wide that it gave all control and annulled all local 

1 

power, which had lest vill Its importance." Charles III did, 

however, grant special privileges to the ^municipalities in the 
decree of March 5, 1766. Following, partially, the advice 
of Campomanes and Osirio, he created two offices for deputies 
elected by t'-e people and also one syndic. This change was. 
said to have \/6rked *-o the greatest advantage of the various 
towns and villages, because of the zeal of "^hose chosen for 
thpir merit alone. The increased interest shown in municipal 
eribellishments and improvements marked this change in the mode 
of administration and though Charles had acted only on the ad- 
vlfe Of his ministers and not upon his own convidtions he soon 
saw the advantages derived from popular interest in public 
affairs.^ 

For purposes of judicial administration, Spain was 
divided into two chanceries, that of Granada and that of Vala-~ 
dolid, having exclusive jurisdiction in certain matters in 
these districts. Appeals from judgments of these chanceries 
were only made when the appellant wished to incur the risk of 



Op ihr'. J^M^l^J-dt^ ' "J •■ ^. •_ 



J. ^i-1^ 



1. D. y C, Vol. VI, p. 9:^. 
1^. JBbid, Vol. VI, p. 99. 



v/ d 



I 
t,f>ib III a»J ".e$H3t*^ ieof 

^^ ■ asjitl!^© owt oscfsQty e/i tOitiaO \bnii aisriBntoqfriBO to 

tOt ti98 0i^j fmod^ to I a OS M:f to ^msa^^sd ,6933X1 Iv brm anwo:t 

iL-^ijtnjtw ftt i.VffOJi& cf8'i^&^'^'^i b9af?!&^4»^rt e -T « 'mols .titf>m tt«r^.* 

nooe ari anox*iikivao^^ itv/o s. <j to-i^ tnbm aicf . 

. atintliii 

'il art' liisctiej iii rtoi^^^tioax^twt ^vtt .Qtiob 



39 



appealing to the chamber of one thousand five hundred or in 
cases of denial of justice. All the criminal cases of the 
hildalgos were brought before these chanceries. Besides 
these chanceries there v/ere six Audiences^ v/ithout counting 
the tribunal of Navarre, called Royal Council. Each chancery 

r* )-i y \ r-. - 7..- :-■ . ■ , ' 

arid "each audience had a criminal chamber of last resott. 

Bourgoing says : "Por the rest, the limits of these 
different resorts are not sharply enough defined to prevent 
frequent conflicts of jurisdiction betv;een the diverse tribu- 
nals. While the Council of Castile lost no opportunity to 
increase its authority, the chanceries and audiences fought 
against this continually." The Supplica was a form of pro- 
cedure by which the sar-ie court revised its own judjment at 

±_^' X ■rf. ur-'' f\]t t^^ ](','-*- 

fh.e instance of the appellant. It vms owing to the labors of 
Aranda that the abuses growing frrm the custom of making the 
church a place of refuge for criminals, and also the interfer- 
ence in temporal matters by the clergy, was stopped. The 
Carnara was the great Chamber of the Council of Castile and was 
generally composed of tlie most ancient of the members of that 
body. It was the intimate council of the king and heard ques- 
tions of great i?nportance, as the Buocession of royalty and 
the processes between different cities. The judges of all 
tribunals were appointed by the king *'or by his appointees. 
On the whole, this system carried with it very little corrup- 
tion, though. the lowest class of notaries, known as "Escrivanos, 
Jiad a deserved reputation for rapacity and dishonesty. 



£oq<|o an ^aol eXldas" o.arft Can 

te ;tff ^Q 3-*t >delYdi.i*W' a art* , ^-rubej 

oalB ba0«»XBninaii'jj aiuilj 

lis 'to t s^"^ .29l;*ij :^«eTv: nodwd'scl aeaae j.^:f 

jTonsvifau!? 8b (twoaji ,a«i:^:^■c^Ofl to i. 

.'ita&fto.ialo fcflB ':.?ljfc*78T to; 



40 



The Spanish magistracy had a sort of hierarchy, at 
the head of which v/as :he Cajnara. Descending from this were 
graded the members of the Council, of the chanceries and the 
audiences, the Alcaldes de corte, the corregidors and finally 
the Alcaldes majores, in the order named. The Alcaldes ordi- 
nario tried petty cases and were euen robbed of this function 
when there was a corregidor or alcalde mag or in the village. 
He then became an alcalde pedanio who had arrests to make and 
had to carry out the orders of the corregidor. The nomina- . ^ai 
tion of the functionaries differed in different localities, 
but generally they were elected by the municijial bodies, though 
they might be chosen by lot or by the hidalgo, though the j. 
Council of Castile could exercise its right of nominating him 
if it chose. The corregidors and alcaldes majores were nomi- 
nated by the king through the Gamara. Camporaanes instituted 
reforms for this class of magistrates which increased their 
efficiency by increasing: their rewards. The corregidors in 
Madrid were appointed for life and were but officers of police 
and never lav/yers." "But in spi-^e of this complicated system 
of magistracy in Madrid, which frequently gave rise to conflicts 
of Jurisdiction, it nust be admitted that there are few capi- 
tals in Europe where the police are better organized, where 
there is more security of where crime escapes less often the 
severity of t]ie laws." 

^-;:,-- - njr '^■:' r hirtrTt- "i>r"" ------ ^.yrt ^ :,^' '. " " 

Yli^ r Bourg., Tome I, p. 350. 



0^ 



9^ffW cii:..? !^uiv a$a«e/ . -iBme'' axjw p. . ■. • 

- r r . r-, - 



41. 



Oharlea v It is hard, to say which oode of lav/s v;as follo-vved in 
Spain during Charles* reign. According to old decrees the use 
of the RomaTi code we.s ri£,^orously forhidden and yet many lawyers 
consulted it in order to be enlightened in different cases. 
Procedure was practiced according to Roman law, byt the only 
authentic laws were those embodied in codes published by 
ancient kings. The one in general use v/as the one knov/s as '^^ 
La ITovissima Recopilacion, published in 1567, which vms a col- 
lection of diverse ordinances of the kings of Spain issued from 
the earliest times to the time of Charles. The alleged at- 
tempt of Charles to drav- up a criminal code was only a propo- 
sition made by tbe Council of Castile to i»eform and revise the 
ancient criminal laws, some of v/hich v/ere objectionable, and 
this task had been assigned to a comm.ittee presided over by 
Campomanes. Torture had not been entirely abolished and one 
Castro wrote a book in its defence but was met with violent 
opposition. Canon lav^r ruled all ecclesiastic questions, but 
all a*-tfempts to bring temporal matters under i^s jurisdiction 
v/ere repressed. Aranda comm.anded all bishops and archbishops 
to prevent the publication of any and all papal bulls in Spanish 
without the apl^roval of the king. The Holy Office of the In- 
quisition was still pov^erful when Charles came to the throne 
and in 176S he issued a decree by which all the acts of this 
tribunal were subject to the revision of the king and also 
provided for ^he hearing of an author before his boo^ should 
be condemhed. But through the influence of his confessor. 



Ik 






to 

> * ft :", 'f ■♦ IT £3 



^ ■: -^ 9 9 '1 9 f) bi no ,i i^A 

.' ■■•'t^ *9'! ^"^'.r .•.i;^r;o'; 

as ?:wQr!. ■ ;w 9s.m- iiSiona^ ■• ^sit 

' rtl eXItfrf laqaq Ilfi hrrs ';'nB ^o jlldisq : wetq o:t 

^3ir{-* "^O Si OS 9rf-t III? 



t '^icj 2irl to tonswllnl erf 






^ 



Charles was persuaded to repeal this salutary law shortly af- 
terwards, and it was not until 1770 ^hat a second decree was 
issued by which the jurisdiction of the Inquisition v/as limited 
to crimes of heresy and apostasy and it was also provided that 
no subject of the king could be imprisoned by the Holy Office 
without his guilt being proven. , .,, 

In summing up the characteristics of the legislative 
and judicial institutions, it is apparent that the salient 
and predominant one is absolute and entire lack of system. 
Even the prench system, before the Revolution, presented no 
such complications as did that of Spain. This was due not 
only to the peculiar development of government iri the fenin- 
sula, but also tb' the fact that a number of kingdoms were u- 
nited under one. crovm, all of which had different institutions 
and, naturally, impressed some of their characteristics upon 
the national government. 

Charles* broad plan was to exercise his absolute 
pov/er to rid Spain of Church control and to destroy social, 
economic and administrative abuses v;hich had taken deep root 
in that country. He and his ministers believed that the wel- 
fare of the nation lay in abstblutism and Florida Blanca said : 
"No matter hov^ pressing the need, be careful not to call the 
Cortes for they would soon be our masters." 

'^'..r -'':(■ c\>] ^ 1-. ' tu ''i.> - '--^ -'r 

1. Bourg., Tome I, p. 205. 



on a; 

» ■ t ■. . ' ' V " -t [ t If -:5 •? i .rf t Kf o ii t i w 

-rtlne^ ari-t az tnerr;m9vo-^ to Ineniqolsvab Tr'iif;j^..7 erf? ot '^f'!0 

fVallBd 8-j«t«irti{ii air: 
X 



^ 



CHAPTER IV. 

IMi^USTRIES Kl^D AGRICULTURE. 



The reforms so generally instituted by Charled III 
for t'he benefit of industry and agriculture had begun during 
the peaceful reign of his half -"brother, Perdlnand' VI ; though 
the changes made v/ere not nearly as sv/eeping or as beneficial 
as those made by the younger brother. The increase of the na- 
tion-^s Y/ealth, especially with respect to agriculture, was one 
of the constant aims of Charles, and he tried both by substan- 
tial works and by a splendid example to encourage and foster 
a love for 'af^rfcultural pursuits. ' The "gardeBs which he, the 
Prince of the Asturias, and the Infant had planted and cared 
for with their own hands is a good example of the particular 
interest he tbblc in agriculture. Tn his famous Statement, 
Florida Blanca declares that agriculture is the first and m.ost 
secure source of subsistence of man and of the real prosperity 
and wealth of the people and that the works of the would as- 
tonish and surprise posterity. Spain, constantly exposed to 
droughts, could not hope to become agricultural until irriga- 
tion had been introduced in those province^ where the Infrequent 
rains made it impossible for the cultivator to reap the fruit 
of his labors. The minister then continues to enumerate the 



Ill fesinfiifO ^ff betwtt.tsni '^IXBi6»ft9a c olst 



I 

^'0 'jco 8jr 5.t3nOv 'to 

t yi'^ni u;'. -*■ 'i'i',' fvv o Ki '! J. vui'\i ^^■'' '■ 



44 



great irrigation v/orks undertaken during his ministry, but as 
they are all either described or mentioned in the chapter on 
public v/d)rks it .ill suffice to say that they were considered 
to be the the greatest works of their kind and in some instances 
comparable to those of the old Romans. Charles III did not 
confine his activities to the building of public works for the 
benefit of agriculture, b^it seeing that his people needed in- 
struction in the art of cultivating the soil so as to produce 
more abundantly, he established a school of agriculture at the 
royal residence of Aranjuez and according to Florida Blanca 
the good results were plainly visible, at the time he was 
writing his Statement. He says : "We see arid lands, to-day, 
covered with several million olive trees, other lands, which 
are m.ore fertile are set aside for the raising of cereals, and 
those which are situated on a low level, and therefore damp, 
are transformed into orchards or fields bearing mulberry trees, 
flax, hemp and all possible kinds of fruits and vegetables." 
After enum.erating many other advantages and improvements made at 
the royal agricultural college, he continues : "The great works 
which Your Majesty ordered me to execute in order to attain the 
highest degree of perfection and utility with respect to agri- 
culture, are and always will be an eternal monument of your 
solicitude for the progress and amelioration of the farms. 
Perfectly constructed wine and oil presses are used for the 

1. F. B., Statement. 



6#ii>«i 



^«eia 



ton f>: 



^IdB'f 



ia erf:* 



tlfjfi<^ 



-it>v&e 



It «^i 



TB 



9-:ttij 



45 



manufacture of those products, and they are stored in icimense 
barrels and vessels holding many thousand arrobas. All this 
is only a model, or rather a practical school of agriculture, 
where Your Majesty, as the first cultivator as well as the 
most experienced farmer in the agricultural industry, instructs 
your subjects in the profession, v/hich is without a question, 
the most necessary to the prosperity of the kingdom." If 
the above extracts se^m to be animated by self-interest or de- 
sire to flatter, it is easily seen from the decrees and edicts 
issued by Charles III that he did try to achieve these ends 
which his rninister said resulte.d b,e,cau^e, of^his reforms. 

The Most Catholic Kings fortified the liberty and 
proprietary rights of the peasants, but did not remove the 
crave obstacles which the Middle Ages had placed in the way 
of agricultural progress. In 1490 the people of Granada were 
forbidden to enclose their lands, nol'vwere they allowed to take 
the grass or. natural fruits, withoutv a , special permit from the 

J, I' .-• via. •. i. i 

king. All cattle and sheep were allowed to roam over the 
agricultural lands and the rights of the cultivator v/ere to- 
tally disregarded. Such was the state of affairs v/hen Charles 
III came to the throne and with him began the emancipation of 
agriculture from that destructive cu-rse, the Mesta. The Mesta 
was a guild or society composed of large landed ]?^,ppr4etors, 
monasteries or rich individuals who had banded themselves to- 

.1. F. B. »s Statement. 



[vr 



O'-'.e 9ff ^ 



'iT^V- 



4^ 



together for the purpose of protecting their distructive pas- 
ture-rights granted them during the Middle Ages. The right 
to drive their cattle or sheep through the country without ~ 
regard *"0 proprietary rights remained undisputed .until Campo- 
Aan^s and Floriaa''Biiftc^" a^taci^d this'gf§at evil. - -- ■ • ■ -' 
In the years 1766 and '67 the Council of Castile is- 
sued a statement of the causes of the decadence of agriculture 
and sugges^'ed' remedies for its betterment. Campomanes al'^6 
drew up plans for the improvement of the condition of the peas- 
antry and his first step was to limit the power of the Mesta. 
'feourgoing in' spealtihg' of this institution s4ys ": "This abuse 
does not only benefit the rich and powerful, but also promotes 
idleness and the short-sighted interest which causes the pas- 
turing of sheep to be preferred ^o the progresv? of agricul- 
ture." The unhappy province of Estremadura, which could 
easily support two million people, had only about one hundred 

thousand, this scarcity of inhabitants being attributed entire- 

2 

ly to the privileges which -^he Mesta enjoyed in "^his region. 

In 1778 decrees were issued to the people of the new settle- 
ments In the Sierra Morena permitting them to fence in their 
farms "so that the new settlements would not have to experience 
the evils which afflicted the rest of the kingdom. By the de- 
cree of April 29, 1788, the rights the fence in homestead lan(^s 
on which v/ere planted olive trees or vines v;as granted ^o the 

1 . Bourg . , I , p . 95 . 

2. Ibid, Vol. I, p. 95. 



Sil^ii erix .se. jfe-'flB 



.liVS J'j^'X i f. . ^iJHi^Ki fiji/XtOi 



ia 8«» 



u al 






iBi t>fc5©iciemoi-I ai e^fi^l &d^ 



47 



ovmers. Forests and trees were also to "be protected and the 
proprietor was to be allov/ed to enclose his land without hav- 
ing to obtain this privilege as a special concession. Al- 
though these reforms v/-pre not general In their resul-^s and men 
like Bourgolng and Townsend still perceived the bad effects of 
the pastoral privileges, a Spanish aut' or days : "Campomanes 
sts well as Florida Blanca and Jovellanos, Feallzed the good 
economic doctrine in this respect, and no one can deny that 
Ms good effect was initiated and proclaimed during the reign 
off Charles III." "The proprietary rights of the peas ant,*" i'-*^ 
if not established during the reign of Charles were at least 
recognized." -*'** 

vices r jp ^^^g year 17611 Charles abolished the octroi taxes 
^d''a^' to' afford greater : facility for t lie' "'nlarke ting of products 
His decree abolishing the tax on grain when transportf^d from 
one province to another was issued in 1766. JBanvila says that 
during tYiid'irei^n ''the'-p)riii(llLple of ffV6 tr¥(i^'in all the 
products of the soil was established '■^^•tfhe principle of ru- 
ral proprietary rights, and it had also been recognized that 

cultivation of the soil should be Bestricted only in so far as 

3 
1^ should be required for the public good." By these restric- 
tions the author meant such as *:he one made in the decree of 
February 13, 1785, "63^' which the Lake of Llano-Quarte was riot 

yr'' JT/ «"/*<:* i\ Vol. VI, p. 221. 

2. Ibid, Vol. VI, p. 224. 

3. Ibid, Vol. VI, p. 223. 



T^ 



-JA .fioJtaafjj! Ill 

nsr. bn» a^IweeT «w atniolQ^ ea^dt flQuorl^ 

l>©og >exiifi©w ,«onBll^vc ijbitoll ee 

:tai©i tfi 9*iew B&I*itifiO to n^,l9T or(:t nrfiiwfe be/fail'-fBtsn ■♦or? tt' 

. . fbOT-T to "ml"* -ot Y^-tiloBt> lef'^of^ bTOf* ?^s oa 

' 8VBS ftIJ:vnfl6(L .edV ^f/eai ft«w Ter^tons ot eaaivofq eao 

- u ' : ■ ' 1 i J ii X -f , L' 6 Its i: J. as r 2 ^ r; ii v/ v. 7 jwi.^u*iq 

'i^ tBt 08 'nl vino be.tjli*G9« '^>d Mttor^:i lion f)fft to r!Ci:*i?*r!*Iuj 

to 99ij0f5 dtit Gi 9b©n sno ofioi* 

tort «BW ^;ftBwO-ociJBlJ to ajfaJ 9rf:f rf;>trfw 'id ,a itsincfe'? 



.Xi=: 



46 



allowed to spread over the adjoining territories for purposes 
of irrigation as that had caused severe epidemics of fevers^n 
i.atural n;< The public graneries, where seed for sowing was s 
distributed, had been founded in the sixteenth century and ;b- 
Charles III, recognizing the value of these institutions, is- 
sued various decrees from 1761 *o 1788 to purify their admin- 
istration and in the last year of his reign conferred their c 
supervision on the corregidors. No land banks were estab-- 
lished, however, as was the case in most of the other European 
countries at this time. The protection of the rural districts 
was in the hands of a. sort of brotherhood, known as the Her- 
nanidad, v/hich was founded by the Cathdlic kings. The ser- , 
vices rendered by this body were of great value to the peop4.e 
and in order to increase their powers Charles issued a decree 
in 1762 limiting each '^OMn to one judge, one commissioner and 
one tax collector, so as to diminish the preponderant influence 
of the magistracy. The duties of these officers v/ere, the " 
prosecution of wrong-doers, the pretection of the rights of ,'~ 
peasants and the supervision of the collection of royal reven- 
ues. 

proprietor in order to remedy the decrease of the population in 
Spain, Charles ordered that a census be taiien by the various 
bishops and archbishops. The result of this first census, 
made in 1768, showed a popula-rion of 9,152,099 inhabit?:.nts, - 
and iPlorida Blanca, doubting the accuracy of this couriit, caused 
another to be taken in 1778 showing that there were 10,268,150 



i^ 



.::oso ituq to 






''*'* ^')9"^.> My .. 



'T^fOiJ ^/^ 






{ i sJi'V T7- 



a'-T . o^iii 1 jlf ©iif / ij'.' 






,8i,r8£[©j taiX r to r^iiJBi*" 



jqS 



hMB ^xfOffsM 



49 



inhabitants. Even previous to the firs"^ census, Charles had 
begun ^0 adopt means to increase his population by bther than 
natural nethocffs. The colonization of the Sierra Morena, a 
district which had hit?ierto been the haunt of thieves and rob- 
bers, had been the most notable of these attempts to increase 
- the population. By a royal decree of April 2, 1767, a Bava- 
rian colonel named Thurriegel v/as authorized to collect a lar£^e 
number of G-erman Catholics to settle in the ^ove named dis- 
trictv.'.jjln this way more than six thousand colonists of both 
sexes were brought into Spain and the wilderness was changed 
into (cultivated fields. Many Greek colonists came into 
Spain and the intendants and corregidors were told to report on 
the depopulated places of their districts and to suggest nieans 
by wh i ch t he evil m ight b e reined led * ns t e Vi * 9 i I f^ - ** ^ ■ - ^' 

Of the many impediments apposed to the development 
of agriculture, the tenure of land in mortmain was one of the 
mqst serious. There was aicivil and an ecclesiastic form of 
mor-tmain, the former being the result of inheritance by major- 
ats which corresponds to the practice of entail, and the latter 
by simrle ecclesiastic tenure. In the entailed lands the 
proprietors neglected to cultivate their fields, caring little 
whether or not tliey improved them ; while the Church property ^- 
w^ of nQ econQ;nic benefit to the kingdom. Headed by Campo- 
maties a- movement against this system of land tenure was inau- 
gurated and the question was brought up for discussion before 
the Council of Castile. Aft.er considering the question at 



^^ 



eeiiflfiO ^BUsaQo tail inl 

-cfoi jafi.fi a^v^i Uiil 584 n 4^ i . it^^aii) 

■ '/ aesma^XJl"* e>dl janij at-' ^w e&K93 

.hQih9m»t 9^^ 1 Itv9 sMc^ rfalriw ^cf 

on:* '10 eao i^om un^i ' 



50 



some length, it was decided by this body that since the lands 
of the clergy were the best cultivated and since the propri- 
etors of papal lands always treated their tenants iwi'^h crre'at 
kindness, "^he decadence of agriculture could ho' be traced to 
the ecclesiastical and feudal institutibon of land tenure. As 
f eiarly as 1760, however, Charles I'ssiie'd a deeYee by which he • 

defined the taxable lands of the clergy and in 1763 he forbadd^g 

1 
the further acqu-isition of land by the Church. On September 

25, 1770, a roual decree of the Council was I'sg'u^d, 't)i*ohIbltlng 
the city of Cordova from either selling or giving any property 
to a religious order and forbidding the notaries to transfer 
real 'estate tb' the Church, under pain of deprivation of office. 
The Icing also created societies, to which he offered prized s- 
to the author of the best essay against entails. All these — 
??ieasMres prepared the way for the final abolition of this «^ 
evil ?i'n_(3 it v/as only six months after Charles died that his 
son, Charles IV, forbade the founda^-ion of entails or the 
perpetuation of titles to real estate without the lisenne of • 
the king. tnis bo 

The industries of Spain had been the subject of many 
attempts at amelioration since the accession of the first '-^^'-^^ J 
Bourbon but the methods adopted, though well intentioned, were 
not, as a rule, successful. Louis XIV sent a large number 
of skilled workmen to Spain so as to introduce the industries 



1. D. y C, Vol. VI, p. 284. 

2. Ibid, Voi. VI, p. 285. 



0€ 



iz. ' bod Pi: , : 

sb»cfi©t t#i <r6Vi «i [ eld: " Mnitsb 

f 

aiiii ^Q cariSilodB ierWi arut lol' ''^fiw »f(* b«t«Q|qf$l«q eoiuaBsm 

S19W ,f)«5noxtn«!tnt iiev rf^tforft |f>t:Jq©b« eboii^ noriiwoS 

a&i-s^si;ii> fi sxf;* Vv); vT<s^T:ffii or* as 08 iii-ov. 



51 



and arts of Prance, but the results obtained by these methods 
Y;ere only temporary. Instead of introducing foreign workmen^'' 
Charles III tried ^o teach his own people the i. various arts 
and trades and in order to more easily accomplish this he 
limited the powers of the guilds and corporations, generally - 
]-:no"v\Ti as gremios. He also decreed that * he occupations and 
trades, which had previously been considered vile and degrading' 
by the nobility, could be practiced without causing the loss 
of casts, nor did it incapacitate them for holding municipal 
offices. In a decree of September 2, 1784, he made illegiti- 
'riacy no bar to the learninr of an art of trade. In 1768 the 
manufacture of soap was made free and in 1777 m.any other manu- 
factures were relieved of restrictions. In 1786 Charles es- 
tablished textile schools and one year later he Issued a decree 
"S^llowing textile factories to have as many rooms as they wanted. 

Danvila says : " 'Hhe freedom of manufactmres needed only to be 

1 
proclaimed as had that of agriculture and internal traffic." 

In spite of this rather sweeping statement of the Spanish his- 
torian we cannot help but doubt the existence of this boasted 
liberty for the days of monopolies and governmental enterprises 
Sad 'not ye-^ pa'^sed. In 1773 Charles gave to the g^lass factory 
of San lid^fonso the exclusive privilege of selling it0 pro- 
ducts within an area of twenty leagues in and around Madrid. 
The cloth factories of Guadalaxara and Brihue'ga h^d similar 



^1. ^i?.'*y'C,, Vol. VI, p. 236. 



LjftT r'vTu 



^Q^M 



■ uif^;^ c\* h^ ^'>•■ 



■ )'1B 

9 tew 



•II 



hffi-: 



v.i i»i £9:b'Xo a-* iJrfUi 3v*' :fi 



ta«jay 



iw &•. 



ic<^ 



A<J Ki ; •■•* -fr'^ '-.'-f f Piji'irf "sot f''9r' 



..? f P^'fJ"^ "fo^^ ^^i*p.r:■^ 



- T.J. ,£ ^'- 98 to ftt, ;i:'tl4> 

8.i^ 8dVX r . .1^ %© its «fi v>n "^afim 

I 

".jit'::. >:»fi£i n'iU^XiP^ttQa lo bHA-usbomiBljo%q 

-exrf ri,3xj:^q8 ©dj' to ■?n&Ke|^;fs ,^*ii.>^^»w« -le^ljBt atisf.t "^r- a-^f- ,-yT 

be;f3B0cr 3iiW to sjciQ^alxQ er(^ ^rfaoh ^tfrf flsiil ^OfiriJSo =j* asito^t 

towjst 5a4iXs *ri^ OJ bvb^ a^Iip'-''^ ^'^'~ >" -'' . >c.o-f:, .'.,■ hf.>.,f 

-p^q i: iXI&a '^ £>aoIivi'i<^ #wia4/X-> .'-«MI aiiS to 

. bi-ibiiM bxiiJonEfi baij, ax a«*i/fcfi^X. vtnsv ib 



62 



privileges as against the private manufacturers. Many benefi- 
cial reforms were maGe, howev r, and there can he no doubt that 
manufactures flourished as they never had before. In a decree 
of December 27, 1772, all manufactures of wool, flax or he) p 
were declared free of btll internal customs duties and an export 

of only tv/o and a half percent \.as to be charged, while raw 

end *' rf chir i 

material was to be charged with the full tax of fifteen per cent 

Another decree of April 6, 1775, permitted the free importa- 
tion of hemp and flax as well as the machines and tools for 
the spinning and weaving 'of these materials. By a royal 

decree of December 24, 1786, all the sales of hemp and flax 

libe- -•' -i--' 

in the province of Castile were freed from the alcabalas.and 

nh!-!rl<=" rpi'Hii' ;;On^:rc' 

the cientos. The decree of 1756, by which oaly the finest 

wool cloth was exempted from taxes, v/as so chcmged in 1777 as 
to include all the grades of manufacture. The manufacture 
of paper received substantial encouragement by concessions 
made in 1780. More privileges were granted to the cloth manu- 
facturers in 1781 and in 1786 roost of the Alcabalas and Cientos 
taxes on these products were abolished. "If all the protec- 
tive measures adopted by Charles were enumerated, the catalogue;.- 
would be very large, for it would be difficult to encounter 
an industry which did not merit the attention of the monarch; 
but those indicated will sufice for an understanding of the 
spirit and tendency of the measures adopted f4r the promotion 



1.. D. y €., Vol. VI, p. 237 
2. Ibid, Vol. VI, p. 



S3 



- - --- ^ /-* r- *C^ ^. I*,' ■ ■ 

- ^ 6 ;' u 'i'^i ?«;.'. u. j. , 1 1 " , i>'ai» gi i i y y :;? o i vv- 

DUi^Oi; ^vBTvJ ?.Si-?B;' qo|>S 8.e*XJJ8B90l Svict 



53 



1 

and protection of the national industries." Besides the 

■■• fV I' > ■ 

concessions made to private indiistries, Charles III tried, by 

his example, to teach the people new arts or new methods. He 

spent large sums in founding royal manufactures, such as the 

the lij:-?r- " -is 

cotton factory of Avila, the glass factory of San Idlefonso, 

and the china manufacture at Buen Retire. This last industry 
consumed large sums, but its products, though good enough for 
the royal palaces, did not prevent the importation of foreign 
ware. Danvila says in closing his chapter on the industries, 
"Charles III gave to the Spanish industry the protection and 
liberty which it needed to live, flourish and progress." 
Charles III was the first Spanish monarch to authorize and 
protect the use of a trade mark;-.. By a royal resolution of 
February 18, \111 ^ and by decrees issued by the Junta of Com- 
merce in the fallowing year, the affixing of labels on foreign 
goods and on those manufactured in Spain v/as provided for. 
In 1786 Charles decreed the adoption of trade marks by differ- 
ent firms, so thfet the quality might be known by the purchaser 

C sr 

and all those using false or misleading marks should be de- 
nounced to tjie justices so as to punish and correct this fraud. 
Colmeiro, in speaking of the industrial conditions 

under Charles HI I, says : "The principle of controlling in- 

4 

dustry gave v/ay to that o^f freedom as developed by Adam Smith"; 

-1. D. y C ., Vol. p. 238. 

2. Ibid, Vol. VI, p. 240. 

3. Ibid, Vol. VI, p. 242. , 

4. Colmeiro, Vol. II, p. 356. 



T T T ■-> -, r ' , 

^i '^ 8 6 rf^cra , J0l:t;rf 

<■■•''■ c 



•'t/fjnoj 



^irie 9sx\ ot rfotfinon rielnBqR JtB-xit srt:^ sew 

. Irrr TO e 

*Bgv* . i ,ioV , . 



54 



l^j^l^^.he continues at, another point that since the time of Philip 
V there had not been a single writer of note who advocated 
free trade. Colbert was the model statesman for the Spaniards 
of the eighteenth century and their great aim was to follow 
the lines of his policy. r'-'i <■ 

The regulation of mines \7as another task undertaken 
by Charles. In the year 1783 the Junta general de Commercio, 
Modeda y Minas, upon an application for a license to discover 
mines, made by a citizen of Valencia, issued a decree by which 
it was made a law not to grant licenses of that kind to indi- 
viduals, because of the abuses v/hich arose therefrom. By a 
royal decree of August 15, 1765, in recognition of the growing 
importance of coal, variois advantages were granted to the ^ 
owners of the coal mine of Villanenva del Rio. "The ordi- 
nances for mines, the considerable reduction of the price of 
quicksilver and the propagation of the natural sciences in 
Spain to such a degree, that when hardly a year had passed af- 
ter^ the death of Charles III, his august successor was able to 
declare the products of the coal mines to be free and also to 
emancipate its traffic both by land and by sea, affirming the ^ 
fundamental principles on which was to rest all modern legisla- 

C 

tion." :;Rtini/es, ' 

r/riv I'Tt^ The influence of the gremios, which were guilds or 
corporations formed for the protection of various trades or 

~ii.""ain<.e~t (•?» v©f,.*.-: - - - <-'-r --------- 

1. D. y C, Vol. VI, p. 520. 

2. Ibid, Vol. VI, p. 522. 



G I." .jiitaixtla ,«»» ^cf bns brtei tod alltstcf 8*1: #isqJt;)n8m9 



.0 



55 



industries, v/as greatly weakened during the reign of Charles 

III. These institutions v/ere a great . hindrance to all 

material development and naturally drew upon themselves the 

attacks of all enlightened men of thcbse times. All trades 

were tinder the absolute control of their respective guilds and 

the most stringent rules governed the members. The marquis 

of "Ensenada had attempted to reform tlie gremios bpt public 

opinion was against this. The Count of Campomanes attacked 

guild organizations, and although other authors defended them, 

they could not prevent Jovellanos from censuring them and 

proclaiming the liberty of arts and trades, which prevailed in 

the end, following the example of countries which were the 
bec^iustp or trteir nvper: •, , incjCESe th-^ 

most enlightened and progressive. The most important guild 

in Spain was the one in Madrid, known as the Ginco Gremios 

mayores, which besides having many monopolies, did nearly all 
to tnci^f , .p.s. Tm^ *^ir.«.t potj . unded i*-- npajii 

of the banking business before the foundation of the Bank of 

§an Carlos. Instead of promoting the industries and procur- 
ing work for the Spaniards in the factories, the Cinco OrFmios 
mayores. constituted a large commercial association, which only 

cared for its own interests, disturbing with its large capital 

2 

both the foreign and internal comjnerce." The Spanish author 

u r *: ■ . e ! ' ft V -in e 5^ c i v^ 
then continues, "As soon as Charles decreed the liberty of 

agriculture and industrial pursuits, the guilds lost their 
raison d'etre , and the spirit of control and monopoly, charac- 
teristic since the beginning of their legal existence, gave way 
to the principles of economic liberty, which has contributed so 

1. D. y C, Vol. VI, p. 245. 

2. Ibid, Vo] .V.I, p. 243. 



X-j 0.' ■■..> itf'iin; c. . . r. TI 

a ' - tit bsnuc^ : ila« Xi^ ^o a^Hi^^^Q 

bfia abXiu^ 9\rt^a9qa8i tidff^t to loi^nou »twXo8(fa ^ :!3\f 

>ialjg&iO oofiiO d/f-t 8b nwoini t'>-t'«^«M nl eno ©r(;t ai^w r^tQqP^ cii 






56 



much to the prosperity of' the nation. This result was solely 

• to ^- e r 1 ve t! '« *;rt» a t « i> v ' • e r i' ni . '■ - - *- 

due to the econoinio policy initiated during the reign with 

which v;e are dealing." 

As characteristics of the changes wrought hy Charles 
Ill and his ministers may be taken the founding of the numerous 
economic societies in nearly all the larger cities of the king- 
dom. These societies were composed of the best and most en- 

The royj. • 
lightened subjects of the kingdom, whether laymen oi* ecclesi- 

astics. The encouragement given these creations of liberalism 

by the government is a good proof of the sincerity of Charles 
entlrdlv v.ith tn^ ■ wf i, ."pref^d 

III in his desire for the welfare of his people. The clergy 

because of their superior talents did. much to increase the 

usefulness of these societies, though the nobility having been 

aroused from their long period of idleness gave great prestige 

to those institutions. The first society founded in Spain 

was that known as the Sociedad Bascongada, being composed of 

■jn of C^. '^e I ecjpjc .vnc ?(.■ c! Blnii- 

people of that province. Iti August of the year 1765, this 

society received the;, approbation of the king and Peha Florida 

who had shov/n great zeal in the promotion of this enterpi'ise 
port art re^, ^icn t*.^ t>\at of Jul:' 9, IV ■ the 

was nominated its ftrst president. In 1766 he published an 

essay of the Basque Society, dedicated to the king, in which 

he enum.erated the , objects of the society. Besides dwelling 
tier.. The or<-^Mii»Tf •••* , 1779, v/'.\':..h fcrhade the Ir- 

on the necessity of encouraging agriculture and on the facili- 
ties offered by the Basque provinces, '^he author discoursed 

on various agricultural topics, as pell as the planting of 

i. , VI, 

trees. His second memoir deals with commerce and industry 



3 a 



fsi 



<'.r It r-i 



• afn^i 



xnw 












'. i 



i 'liii-J\ 9A^ -^ ^auv"; 



»f{;t to ftoltsffo'i 






as bsfl.'iiioi;^ en cjcjVI nl 

djiffvr ni »^ii bs:fejll>«b ,^2t9too8 ©upaBft aft;t lo ^jaaas 



j« '- t-f; ; no Dii 






:;j3B^ 



(3 'J sn: .1. ji y. y u'i'^ lUiiU J 



57 



and the necessity of uniting the latter with agriculture in or- 
der to derive the greatest benefit. The third memoir deals 
with public sanitation and the ravages of small-pox at Azcoitia 
Jn the years 1762 and 1763 ; and lastly Florida Pena wrote on 
domestic econony and incidentally described a pnuematic machine 
for the preservation of meat. The Improvements wrought by'"' 
this society in the educational system are described in another 
chapter. The royal ordinance authorizing the establishment 
of this society, dated April 8, 1765,decl8t?ed expressly : "that 
the purpose of these meetings v/as very laudable, conforming"' 
entirely with the maxime which the king is trying to spread 
among his subjects for the progress of arts and sciences. His 
Majesty would even like to see that the example set by the no- 
bles of the Basque province would be imitated by those of en- 
other provinces of the kingdom, by causing to be established 

2 
societies which v/oulc be equally useful to the state." At the 

suggestion of Campomanes the people of Madrid founded a simi- 
lar society in 1776 and as all the princes of the royal family 
became members it soon possessed, great influence. Many im- : e 
portant measures, such as that of July 9, 1778, forbidding the 
importation of hats, gloves, stockings or sashes for men and 
other manufactured articles v/ere proposed by the vadrid socie- 
ties. The ordinance of March 24, 1779, v/hlch forbade the im- 
portation of all kinds of wearing apparel, etc., as well as 



1. Muriel, Vol. VI, p. 105. 

2. Ibid, Vol. VI, p. 106. 



Iseig 9"fu 9vln»b o«t 19 b 



va 



3l»9i) tlofrten; inirrt ^^ .tt"t«n 

^ntiiv»Bm jJt;fsmdJjfW| s be<fiiac9*i ^^Ilatnobi^rti bits two«au# oicfaemob 

tfiSfivfalldetae Si 5itori*U' 'itJbto Xsvot srfT .i9:tqsrfy 






■an 



• -r^i 1 n n i-" Ci' 



or'-> -Vi^T- 



to 9;:. 






•lit -A '' . *afc»i3a ^iiiJ o:f Iyl98w /li ,^iji©ij08 

-imis s b#bn«ot bttbsM "^o ^Iqosq 9ff.t RarremoqmB.O lo noltaft-^^i/a 

-'i .doatj-wlliii -'A>^'*ri> be&a^^soq ffooci ,tl ^-iwrimwht 9ii}fi;>ed 

erl^ ..'l*xol ,BVVI ,6 ^iXUt *to tarf? a® rfons ee9i>iaiJ9ifr trtfiiioq 

fvf^. y....-, -*.'\ ,^er{3kf'. %o a;'^'*': t ■ t ■••f^ * . 

-nti 9ri:f 9bJ8cfnot ^^\A^ t^'^^"'^ t*'S rf^'fr -bio srfT ,-::ei.:f 



Is If 



56 



that of March 18, 1763, declaring the trade of a tanner, black- 
smith, tailor, shoe-maker, etc., compatible with nobility, were 
suggested by the patriotic societies. The Council charged 
these bodies v/ith examination of the regulations and corpo- 
rations of the merchants and of the hospitals. In the memoirs 
of the Madrid society every topic of agriculture, industry and 
commerce was discussed ard prizes v/ere given to those who 
offered the best solutions for the various problems. Care 
was taken to introduce all the best economic works of foreign 
countries and all sorts of weaving and spinning machines were t 
imported. The government and the individuals of the society 
contributed large sums of money to found a loan bank where poor 
wome-n mit^ht obtain the means to buy raw materials for this 
spinning and weaving. The societies founded by the most en- 
lightened women of the nation were mainly active in educational 
branches, though by their resolution to wear nothing that was 
manufactured outside of Spain they are entitled to credit as 
having aided the industries. The pairriotic society of Madrid 
had imitators in nearly every large town and in 1787 there v/ere 
as many as fifty-four. In conclusion it might he said that 
these economic societies ought not to be judged so much by what 
they did (which was by no means insignificant) , hut rather 
by the tendency of the times v/hich they indicated. For it 
showed that Charles III saw that after all the welfare of the 

1. D. y C, Voi. VI, p. 108. 



-ocjiuw one ^iiGxd-«34.:jj^s-i i^i :ox;:6aini^.c;;> .iJi^ esxjOOcJ saynr 

aTXoiJSfn srfi ill . iIa:^itiQQii ©rft t<^ ^a «|j!Bff;n«R! aiii to a«ojfe*Bi 

btia v'l.tafibnt , ,9*iiitI'Jjl*i^B to jigo* ^^T9V9 vtstjoM fet^'^sM erf:* 1o 

•w- 

Y;),«ijoa 9x1) tfO aleu&ivibeii ©/fit knn Jarniat&voisi Bd'i .bstioqml 
tool 9'i9r{v/ Tirfsj^f ffGol B firtaoT ut vqnom to Sftma e^lfll bectir'^tTcfaoj 

lijnii "^3 j»rh9 •" t «^.vt-*".53 'l/iiara -'-"raw rfo c^an ^rf+ lo nefffo^? h9n?>:^^f'■JtI 

oa .^tbeia o^ feelti:tns dts ^©niit nit )ta:fjJO bQt^cfa':Jljjnfln 

©low 9tdfii. ti:>TX at biija nwuj s^isx i*xs^va a ni a-ionti^^iri r^/i 

*Sffw >^d rio.iriv< (jR &S3bjLr{> sd o.t ♦on: fn'^rro r.^oM '^i^op. jf^cnoj^ 989rft 
■ ;' , (;*lt8ji'txn.;§i3al 3.i«idir. ^. jx,iV/; i>XD ywU 



.3( 



59 



people lay in their own efforts and that he could only direct 
them into the right channels. 

PUBiaC \90RKB. 

^.one c"t,',er -' - p,Tve.leBt ev..- ' "^ra^'-i J=^i'- etv:..:.4.. - - ; t- ^ne the 

eral leek oi tr tsti^n teciliti^s *fhiih mad* ir ter- 

{;rovinclal tr^oe elr^^- The r'^ re so Vad 

it* 1760 • "her tooo rr&ducte voux.. it .riij:? ported 

tr^^vei by carria, es vivr &li»!OSJt 
r.own. Evt/f f f» .lt*'"P aa I7br fr>^/.*r ^ovlrxiiil ti 

v-«i V r^riOV'ed i; Ai^h. t,yju that vf.e cc:i>.::^'S oa irec t-ri^'je ccvxci 

cd untiJ ru«^d^ had beer pu^ into cordltion 

fit fijr wagon *rvr,fc^ort. 

Charj.-fc> ill fruiij :.t.e re.yiLrai^ii C'3' i.i^ leigr. ^>tuwiaci 
. .'■ defect ar:(' has e«,riivr inirUt5*-.^rs, r;ot&t)i. 
.. il^M Li a-id C-rimti'^ri, -Mp^-rfd tc improve ^he corcitiortr 

t:! r */ . tLavicuG una rgr t^ived "'le 

entire rev*^^ue derivcc. i'ro' i.«il tax- T..i& wo\ to 

■^en 1 
Ar c « r f* V v i. e r c 1 1^ - 

Fver: *h**«p "$ portiL>'; , 



ea 



rto hj 



60 



r »' » • CHAP i&R V. f Fj{ jU-'^'tn'!' 

n uf i^art, yl tl PUBLIC WORKS. ,, j,; Cau: ^, ^^i.. ixa^rv, 
the Bf to th« 

^Isc^. . Next to the oppressive system of taxation and cus- 
.tome duties the greexest evil of Spanish economic life was the 
general lack of transportation facilities which made inter- o?- 
provincial trade^ almost irnpossibla. The roads were so bad. 
in 1760 that grain and other food products could be transported 
only by beasts of burden and travel by carriages was almost 
unknown. "HJyen as late as 176^ j^hen the prpyinc,4.al #ouanes 
were removed it was said that the benefi*:s of free trade could 
not be appreciated until the roads had been put into condition 

fit for wagon, tjrai^sporj..^ ......yv ei -' ^..- ..... 

-®re ©r^ Charles III from the beginning of his reign studied 
to remedy this defect and his earlier ministers, notably 
Sq^j^llg^^^j and, Crr^malc.i, att«Bipted to improye^the conditions 
of internal communications and for this purpose received the 
entire revenue derived from the salt tax. This amounted to 
about 150, 000 ^OUQds annually and in h^s Memorial Florida Blanea 
points oi^t that in the nineteen years prior to his administra- 
tion "only ten leagues were completed of the road betv/een 
Aranjuez and Valencia, the same nuriber in that of Barcelona, 
about three from Corunna, and less than one in the road to An- 
dalusia. Fven these scanty portions, those of the royal 



OS 



Jbsd o« fttsw a.(:>aoi en'T . slfixseoqmi taomla ©b*^' ' r • : .,< rr-^-r-^r 

ba^ioqacatt arJ ^Isjoa a^taaboiq i>ool T9ff.:fo hna aiai^ ^axj^ G^VI fix 

taomls ?5»w se !ijJtii»j )jrf l^rati hns nebiJjtf to a:taa©€j x^ \;Xno 

8f>rteiiOB Isi^filvotq sfK't nmiw <5dVI 8a s^al sf? iiev:! . rnvorrXnir 

oi^joa afMiitf- esft 1o Q'ttQnsd 9dt ifasi^ biaa saw cfl b«vofa©i ataw 

noitibaoo o^ni -^uq need feerf 3i)60i »r(^ liin.y bactaijatqqe ad *0n 

. j-ioqanai^ nogaw toI ■^r'^ 
Jbeibw^a n^l^i aid to 3.atanx§ed adc^ moit Til asIteriO 

3noitit>KOj erfc*' svotqpii o^ ba:?q(fia^^s ti-^^&f^^tO b«a x^^jb i" ^ '■"^^'^ 

ar{i beviej-Hi Qsoqatrq elri^f lot beta anoxia oinumiHO^i lantejai 

0? "^etfiwonia airiT .xait d'lao tdt l»&viTa& ©wnavat aii^na 

30n>jXH J3oiTLOl'S latiomsM aid nl bne iJLl$ucui& abnuoq nnn^n?,r wro's 

-/i^.t«i.'ilfBbB aid o;t *ioi'iq aia©^ naatsitin edi' nx ^a^i ^.vaioq 

nea fcTed biio-i 0d:t to ba^0l<if!ioj f^-re* wt^uj^ael iij;»t ^XnO* noii 

li^^ftol^jiar to Jed.t nl 'tsdiaan '^"^- 5 f^^ : .'<.. r-,ir r-,fT.^ ,.»•;* fr?.r«t^A 

-nA ot' b30t 9dt ni enu nadt 5%-itl 'on fao'ti »a' oo'a 

Xa^oi sd-f to 9eoif:t ,eiojt*-!toq ^: . tajiXab 



61 



residencies, and those of the passes of Guaderrania and Santander, 
constructed in the ~"ormer reign, were so negiected as to be 
almost impracticaile . The neighboring occupants had taken 
possession of part of the ground destined for that of St. Andero; 
the saine thing had happened in regard to the road in Navarre, 

Biscay, Alava and Guipuscoa, which those provinces had them- 

1 
selves undertaken ." 

In the nine years of Florida Blanca*s adndnistration 

all the roads which had been neglected were repaired, as were 

2 
all drains and bridges. During that peiord more than 195 

leagues of road were constructed, and raore than 200 were re- 
paired. Besides this 322 bridges v.^ere erected and 46 repaired ; 

3 

ami nore than 1049 drains were built. A new regulation was ^ 

issued by which a laborer was assigned to each league of road, 
with a superintendent for every eight. Forty-nine houses 
were erected to serve as shelter to travellers in case of acci- 
dent. "Inns, post-houses, hermitages, large churches and 

even towns have been built in proper places, that there may be 

4 
convenient habitations on all roads." 

The greatest achievements in the line of road build- 
ing were the roads over the pass of the Sierra Iforena, thfet of 
Puerta de Cadina, the road to Carthagena ; the road from 



^u F. B. »s Statement. 

2. D. y C. 

3. F. B.*s Statement. 

4. Ibid. 



id 



-£fl©fi;t barf c9aiit^o*sq ^p,<iKf n')tKw ^ fto.^pirqluO fens -^^'^kTA ,/«•>» f?r 

'^ . rid:rfjsi'if>baw aevlea 

'*#* ♦tew OOS as'''t ^lofi O'lr , -^'^^c^iH^tp -c^w bdoi «9l 

bfiB. 3 «jri >tjjfi ^ e^*«B i , e d^a s^ f roK - vt ; rrnf •• , - ! « 

-bXli/cf btiCii 10 9«iX 9ff v^Mjb tesitffftt^ sff? 

tiiont b»oi Fj . !ti»0 i brtO «b H^ti^is^ 






J3 
&2 



Antiquera to Malaga, and the road to Oalicia from Astorga." 

The road through the Sierra !!orena v/as said to be admired by 

i ' >-out d^:. '." hur 
all foreigners who tr^^velled over it because of its breadth"^ 

and solidity. Florida Blanca thinks it worth mentioning in 
his Statement that a diligence had been established between 
Cadiz and the capital as a proof of the improvement of the 
roads of the kingdom. A regular stage line was also estab- 
lished between Bayonne and Madrid, with inns at regular inter- 
vals of a day's journey. The expense of these undertakings 
in the way of road building amounted to upward of 1, 078,125 
pounds and since the tax on f^alt only produced 348,000 pounds 
in nine year^, upv/ards of 650,000 pounds had to be raised by 
some other means than crown taxes. Various ecclesiastics and 
econom^ic societies as v-ell as generous individuals contributed 
largely to this rreat v;ork both in money and in labor. After 
the postal service had been made to prodiice revenue, Florida 
Blanca used the profits to maintain the ways of transportation, 
though he was greatly censured for putting this money to that 
lase since the public debt or rather the debts of the crown 
still remained unpaid.^ Against this charge the minister 
urges the comparative benefits of good roads as against the pay- 
ment of debts acquired in former reigns. 

Florida Blanca claims to have reduced the cost of 
building a league of roed from 50,000 pounds to about 17,000 



1. D. y C, Vol. VI, p. 515. 

2. F. B. »s Statement. 



:2d 



eril 16 .:* o-iqmi eds to lot ' iqsu erit bus sibeO. 



: -J : . i. i r- X I < .; > r» i . c> rt: 



.' :1- . jbari 8bHi/oq 000, Odi Jo abiav/qsj ,^1*38^^ ©nin 

r^q 9jff ^8filB3fl 8s ab^ot booa 10 e;f|t8n9ff evitstsqmo asartu 

'to cfaoj Brlc b^;)i'.fl>iii 8Vr. n 

000, VX ^twocfa o.t abm/oq 000, Oo feo^^ a^c 



b6 



pounds ani says that this is due to "the extraordinary activity 
and intelligence of zealous r^agistrates and their dependents, 
or to that of certain worthy patriots, who, without any o*:her 
pay or reward than what they expect from heaven, quit ^li^ir 
own business, Ihe pleasure and comforts of their families, to 
Expose themselves to the fatigue and the rigors of the seasons, 
in order to superintend, the execution of the works." _ 

Charles III believed not only in the hecessity of 
good roads for the advancement of industries but also tried to 
develop canals for purposes of irrigation as ^^ell as navigation. 
"Spain, "says Florida Blanca in his Statement , "always exposed to 
drought, cannot become agricultural, unless irrigation be sub- 
stituted to sujiply the rain which is v;anting in most of the 
provinces.^ that the peasant may obtain the fruit of his il-eborsf 

The canal of Aragon, a tremendous v.'ork, was begun in 

the reign of Charles I but the difficulties were too great foir 

the engineers of those days and Charles III was the firs', ruler 

to resume work on approxima^^ely the same plan as it had been 

begun in the sixteenth century. A royal decree of February 
Er 

28, 1788 authorized the Frenchman D. Augmstin Badin to continue 
the canal as far as Quinto. Various difficulties compelled the 
company which had undertaken the work to give it up in 1772, 
and in 1778 a junta was created for the purpose of continuing 
this work and £>. Ramon Pignatelli, canon of Saragossa, v;as 

i. ., Vo: 

1. F. B., Statement. 



58 






^e^ti- 



tSnoaBSa 9fft ^o 



to a:to'iiiio 



fxd 



III ?s$i-ifijr(0 



'ao<|x» e^jswA -»m9^6:fc^ «i: :;;neIH »i)jt-ioI'5 a^ise" ,niJ8qB" 



:t[Oc»*X I airi lo 



;5>>' « . 






-i^;!/;-: -o 



t 8EW III 8»Ii:i 



-fOW '^ 



si/nxinoj ot nib«$I ni^at^jjA .G 



>!dSX'!Sl. 






has iitov 



64 



placed at the heac? of this new corporation with full povrer to 

direct all its dete^ils. Muriel says "that this undertaking 

2 

reminds one of the greatness of those of the Romans** and the 

idea was to establish water comunication hetv/een the Atlantic 
and the T^editerrancan "by usin£: the river Ubro . At the time 
of Charles' -death in I:7»88 navigation ^'as possible as fy.r as 
Valc'egurriana. The canal was not finished until 1790 and it 
Yras then navigable for barges of 100 tons burden an'" ii*rigated 
5^8,342 'acres of laricT so thalf 'its^ prfce rose fron 2 pounds to 
70 pounds an acre and in years of famine in Castile grain could 
be sent from Aragon where formerly there was hardl^^ enough for 
home oorisump^^on . Th'(f ca'rial of 1ffaust-f^%gts a tributary to 
that of Aragon formed by building a mole diagonally across the 
river Ebro . It watered 16,695 acres of land and was placed 
untfer^'the care of ^he CroWn W tne'^^eS'fte 'of Tausti in 1780. 
The canal of Tortosa v/as under governrnent care and was built 
to the port of Los Alfaques in order to avoid a trip on the sea 
It also served to irrigate lands v;hich until then had been 
arid because of the lack of rain. 

The canal of Urgel was begun in the reign of Charles 
I "^ut liad since been neglected. '' Florida Blanca issuect an 
ordinance in 1786 for its improvement. The canal of Mazanares 
was a very old project and v/as planned to unite Madrid with 

1. D. y C, Vol. VI, p. 510. 

2. Muriel, Vol. VI, p. 147. 



eri;* Dan "aiiiicu:! - i9it;Jii9t3 er' ' ;ai(a9T 

3t» list 84J 9j.ai35oq «9w noicT • i3i;^,i '.u : ' . 

ti bns 0'-' . infii'^ 

OJ a.L->iijjaq ^ i.\Qi't ii^oi 9^iiq aJi JBri.;? o<^ "'to ss-xja Sii-^,cS 

4"ilt;>'l -'.c-v/ ■in.'^ '-)-r*i> iffoniii'. oiioT to iBftBJ srfT 
nbe<j' b>?Xi i£6»o* lij-ajy iii>i.'l¥ atiaaX ©v^s^xtii u* l>avi©a o: 

1IJ3 beua&i fiandl?! Box'ioi" . • n&^d 3jiii ^ 



.01 



65 



Guadalquivir, establishing in that v/ay communioation by v/ater 
betv/een Madrid and SevilJe and was begun with the funds fur- 
nished by the Bank of San Carlos. The canal of Castile was 
first thought of in the reign of Ferdinanr' VI and had as its 
object irrigation of the arid districts of that province. It 
was never finished, howevey, and no direct benefits resulted, 
from it. wr • t 

The storage of v/ater for the purpose of irrigation 
was practiced as early as the sixteenth century and the reser- 
voir of Tibi, constructed by the celebrated Herrera, ferti- 
lized 9250 acres of orchard land in the vicinity off Alicanti. 
In the reigh of Charles III Florida Blanca was struck by the ; 
advantages of this work and began the building of two great 
reservoirs in the fertile territory of Lorca in the kingdom of 
Murcia. The thickness of the oikes was 150 feet and the 
height v/as planned to be 210 feet, holding 72 millions of cubic 
feet of v^ater. More than eight million reals were expended 
on these works, andiLlauSado declared ''^^hat these so-called res- 
ervoirs of Puantes were the greatest v/orks of their kind in 
"Europe. In 1802 the dikes of these reservoirs broke, causing 

the death of 608 and damage amounting to about one million 

2 

t)ounds. The districts benefited by the irrigation supplied 

by the reservoirs produced dne hundred times as much as before. 
Charles also built a ^oad and aqueduct to Aguilas and estab-, 



1. P. B., Statement. 

2. D. y C, Vol. VI, p. 514. 

3. Muriel, Vol. V.I, p. 288. 



aa 



'^t oar 3S.7 ri^,>ah ^>r:t to r^ap^n^jf-^^ ?ifT .Bij-rrjM 






66 



lished a tovz-n of 400 people constructing the houses, building 

1 
churches and the necessary public buildings. Ke also built 

the town of Almuradiel in the Campo Nuevo of Andalusia and turned 
the surroundinr country of arid waste into a fertile gardeW.. 
Florida Blance in his Statement, in closing his paragrajih on 
canals and irrigation, calls the king's attention tbv the fact 
that all the expenses of his undertaicings were derived from 
other sources than the regular revenues of the crown. 
«cr* * The fact that Charles III, or rather Plorida Blanca, 
could find the means to carry on these great works of public 
utility is all the more remarkable when we consider that the 
treasury was burdened hot only with debts of preceding reigns 
but that Charles w&s also engaged in most expensive wars, 
twice against Great Britain, against Portugal and finally 
against Alge^irfi and that these wars were a burden sufficient 
in themselves to lay the entire resourced of a kingdom like 
Spain. But Charles did not confine his im.provements to works 
of only economic value for m.unicipal v/orks were zealously car- 
ried on both by the government and the citizens of the various 
towns themselves. Madrid, naturally, became the first object 
of experiment in more modern ideas of cleanliness and beauty. 
Considerable sums were devoted to the broadening and paving 
of the greatly dilapidated streets. "The spacious and hand- 
i.scme entrances, roads, end walks, of the great gate of Alcala, 

1. P. B., Statement. 



dd 



I 



os'i .00^ lo fiw^. 



II 






r->^*-^'^ *?b|<10i.'^ -rSd^l to tii:I 301 ..:w ..i;.. , J«il &GT 

oi 3Jt*f©w +fi«ts o>jer:d' no '\ittBa o^ s Mwoo 

Itiviiq baa ; ^oti '/«i> .^13^ er LcfsieMenoO 

- baaui ha d a jjo i j ej ix« oiH ' . a t » »•- i qr 1 li) : I i q di^ /«rftf . Xo 



ftiX8s>I.A lo etis^i taf^r^a ^' 



t^^arii^T*'*-'^ <a.-rt'>;H 



67 



that of the bridge of Segovia, thki of AntOcha, f-6#^fds Valen- 
cia* the oommunications betv/een these f:ates and that of Toledo, 
have been formed, to the, inmieasurable benefit of the oapital, 
with the funds Y/hich your^riajesty has ordered me to employ *to 
this end." A rather remarkable though ;:' undoubtedly a most 
useful institution was the founding of a washing-place in 
Madrid, for the v/asher- women, who were until then exposed to 
the extreme rigor,- of the seasons. This shelter provided for 
more thali five hundi-ed places so that it was lar; e enough for 
all the washer-women of the oapi*al. The botanical gardens 
of Madrid were founded both for purposed of instruction as 
well as for beautifying the city. In Toledo the government 
granted considerable aids for the iriprovement of the streets, 
entrances, roads and walks. The citizens formed beautiful 
terraces, repaired the ancient walls and bridges and erected ~ 
statues presented by the king. Burgos received statues of '■- 
the most celebrated rulers of Castile and in Saragossa a rike 
v/as built in order to prevent the overflowing of the rivers. 
In Malaga, the works of the river Guadal Medina ^ prevented the 
flooding. of t>.at i^ltir. This port was also cleaned and houses, 
walks e.nd ornaments were built, as were also the two ro<idsof 
Antequera and Velez and the famous aqueduct. Florida Blanca, 
in his statement, gives ■ reat credit to the two brothers, the 
marquis of Sonora and Don Micheal the Oalvey, ci"*-izens of 



1. D. y C. , Vol. VI, p. 532. 

2. Ibid, Vol. VI, p. 552. 



va 



*iot bebivotq i9tX9ff« ciriT *aaoaB» oati 9radi*x9 erf:* 

lot il^iwoat 8si«i afliw li ta/fl oa asdAIq be-tJ^awrf svxl rt-?-^* ^^-n : 

.aa«fn[JS,^ Is«iX0«to4 ariT .Isitqeo «r{i tc vz-ts/iBSiy 9ii;J . XXjs 

3B soicJaen^ani to (^tjaoqiuq TiotiiJ*od bftbauol 9tew biibsM^lfo 

^■a^^^tSQ. 9rft to ;fi»daT9VQ'X4i.i-t »fii TO't abis oicJji^Xd&iotK;,; beJ-nfng 

to 86w-iil'^ b97i9j9i ao^tyS l:i- mli x<i t>a7n9a«i%q aeiJi^'i^^s 

s,U a aaac csi briJ» dXttaeQ tc j9ia^'f0X««> ^faofiiaiS? 

'.aTovit e/i* to :antwolt'«^vo ©jrfdt ^i^tevf^-tq . o;J* n^li'jo -^f ^ritr- nc>;/ 

exit bs^nsvetq teai?^0H Xsr^ajj© t^vXt mii to a>Cio I 

,3aayoii baa harmeij a^ia sis* tioq airiH . , ij t«f(f to.salJbooXt 

toeli^ox awt ssii oaXe eiaw ajis ,txiv^'' «»^ > r i;+$f9n«n^o bff« ai^flaw 

^BJ•^£l'< ttijlipXH . j^ibSK/p^ st-UOfiiL- iHiii s9j;^V bftjft fiieapetnA 

■ 9/il tSLi^dt&^d oyfi arit o .-j i^js ^ tneme "fir*'3 airf ni 



.S 



68 



Malaga, who labored v^-ith unspeakable zeal and activity to 
rromote these undertakings, to find means for executing them, 
and to encourage industry, commerce and agriculture. In 
Barcelona v^ere erected various v/orks to ornament the streets 
and also to widen them. Pampeluna was improved by the pa- 
triotism and zeal of its inhabitants, while in Segovia the 
bishop 'and fill 6co^6ii^lc ^^odiety carried on most of the public 
improveri'ents, ei'vays, of course, encouraged by the king. In 
Mure i a great walls were erected to prevent floods and the 
Iflrig greatly ai'Ted in the building of other usefttl works: 
The streets were paved and widened in Vdladolid, Palencia, ^ 
Toro, Zamora, Seville and other cities through the aid fur- 
nished by the ci^bisrri V ' ' ^ • ' . ^«^^ ^*'-l74V .. 

This brief summary will furnish a fair idea of the 
magnitude of Charles* work in the im.provement of public prop- 
erty and , according' to a great Spanish author, it is impossiDle 
to visit a single province without encountering proofs of the 
king's interest in public prosperity. 



1. D. y C, Vol. VI, p. 5:^3. 

«jallf. ttttt tc V- 

/ 

^ i n) in thft wny t" 



X. 



-3<| ©jd,' aew jl; . lerr^ n a^. pels i)rtJ3 

jiXd; '.on ai;>. o^i.^tlLej \it&xjoa jinsufiojs ns J3n^- qonBid 

. cj-.-I'M'.: iifldajj *ieii^o Ic; i^ax.oiiiJa pnz ai os: Xi^ ^CXJiisia anx^i 

,siyct3Xfl3. t ti i)9nQl)iw bna foavsq stew atee-x^a erfT 

-tUi hie 9^:* rfr.jjotrfct jjet-'-lj '?9ri:^o ftna ollivsa efiiotns^'? eO-foT 

.xwQ^j axil '4 a .fianaxn 

-qoicf oildu'i to .t!-i3fKe^/oiq?iii Qdt rii :>(iow 'salisrfD to shis^ inr.si'A 
sX-ii^i^Qfica ax ii ,-ic/ii:!jj)i Xi3|.aijqt. v*39i^ « or ^uxJo-roa^StDaa 'c^ia 



69 



tT"S f".c 1 V?' • ^^ 5 . 

CKAFTKR VI. 
*-.i.^(^r<^Pr^ rrr-n* FINANCE AND TAXATION. ,000 : 

c-OPT> {:■:<. The finances of Spain were under the control of a 
council knows as Conseco Real de Hacienda. This council of 
finance was divided into different chambers as vas the Coun- 
cil of Castile. The sala de govierno, sala de justitia, the 
sala de nillones and the sala de la unica contribucion v/~ere 
the four divisions during the reign of Charles III. There 
were three directors general who controlled all the customs 
officials and tax collectors, for after 1747 -taxes were no 
longer farmed ou"*-, excepting in a few special cases of which 
mention v/ill be made at another pomnt . .^oih 

r rri'^'he sala de unica contribuccion was founded in 1749 
for the rmrpose of administ.ering a single tax which was to 
take the place of the various provinaial taxes. It was said 
that rjiore than thirty thousand people were employed in this 
chamber. Bourgoing says that no definite results had been 
achieved by this body, though Florida Blanca in his statement 
calls attention to various reforms made during his adrini stra- 
ti on in the way of simplifying the system of taxation, 
cc- The revenues were generally divided into two classes: 



1. Mostly taken from Bourgoing, Vol. II. 

2. Bourg., Vol. II, p. 5. 



.1 

B Iq ionisiQa mil' ^9&iI^ 9T. -jitfiai. 

'^o r.f. ji!?oj ai.-^T .sbnaii^aH - r.. .tt -i^s^naO 3i3 awoctJi li^nwQu 

exit |,si:U^8;jt ,»i> »i&^ ^^ntBl^o^ »t>j|La^ s^fT .#I1^««0 lo I-t^ 

y-^ .III ri^lT'j.r.) to, n;^is» anoiaivtij xi#ol> arr* 

-J. I ^ .9w e9xe:fi VI^TI taits tot ,a-ro:*u9l^Os^ x«^ iwis aX^etjitto 
■ /{•^ ta a^BBo^ iiii;>'jqa w«l « nt : 'i-;>;c« v.r'*!/© b^tTiBt ts^noX 

bXa« 5,':?. -'I .aaxB.-? X/2ti»x;ivofxq ^^u^aXi^y 94:" ^;0 %^M «ri;* 

2 i rf r fi i > 9 ^4QXqai^ . §»•< ©w sl'io o q iiiiaa iXQii cf ^^ 1 1 irf d aarf t -- '^^ ' • -• 

3 

a99rf i}fiii 2*XwaeT s^tnlidi:) on &&dt a^i^^ 3nXoai*|oS 

irt^miiiB^Q eiri ni BjftijI^ fj&XtoXt rf^ttiO/ft I'iood aXrtt ^d b9V9iriu« 

.not^fiXfi:^ lo L:8J3^i3 eii:t^ax^lXX^iaia xo ^ifcs^ ^di ai noli 
3£*3fJBlj ow? o:tni bebkvih ^XXaisna^ s-xew asuiidvei srfT 

.11 .lov ,3ni.>S' .X 



YU 



namely the general and provinoial revenues. The first v-ere 
those derived from import and export duties and the inoome 
derived from monopolies of the crown. These general taxes 
increased from 960,000 pounds in 1785 to 1,200,000 pounds !»:•::; 
172!^, an increase due principally to the impetus given to 
commerce by ^he policy of so-called free trade. There were 
also special taxes on wool, cocoa, sug&.r and paper ^hichifr*:.-^?'. 
were considered to he general taxes. The salt monopoly gener- 
ally produced about 160,000 pounds, but was no*^ as oppressive 
or as bitterly opposed as vas the gabelle in Prance, for in- 
stance. The tobacco: monopoly was one of the greatest sources 
of income v/hich *-he crown possessed, for no other brand of 
tobacco could be "brought into the kingdom than that manufac- 
tured by the government. In spite of very strict la\/s, con- 
traband tobacco was constantly imported and sold at a much 
higher price than the regular brand. In 1776 this monopoly 
produced 870,000 pounds of revenue ; in 1776 more than 850,000; 
in 1784 730,000 pounds and in 1787 it rose to 1,290,000 because 
of the introduction of tobacco which had previously been sold 
only clandestinely. Other objects v/bich had been made govern- 
ment monopolies were lead, powder, playing cards, sealing-wax 
and stamped paper. ^- '^-•^•'^'^<. .^ *,,-..^»... 

<•; The provincial rents wei'e the most oppressive and 
■complicated in Europe, and though Charles made various attempts 

1. Rourg., Vol. II, p. 8. A 



0? 



nJt Bjbmjoq 000, 0'. :';uuu.i 000, OS-; : :on .oe^natjni 

r-fj.*-'- i^'i'^'i i;//; 'i83Wa ,lsJu.j.u«? ,iug// ;jy sexs:? IjEfij.sqa OaXs 

e-'TtriPi^y '■:*t -^or ae^v t'r- ^ : iffO'l C' ijorfs b-^o.^totT vIIb 

Trf- :«)rf'*o on "?o1: ♦boaee-^^-^T rrvoTj 3ff"* 'fjt'fw ^^rrooni ^o 
-JB' jnsr.1 $usi7. :iiinj mo»^i-'i ;yh: jJiii. rii^,gjju la srj jyxj'ju:" 

'^Ioqo:iorj aid* dVVI nl , :'::ij'::: Miiiy^Q-: anr aunj t>ji*:-: -^ynjiii 
;000,oa3 ^jiirii S'jom avvi nl ; ;ii®T0« 1® abnuoq OOOfOtS fef^uwrbo"5cq 

-at9\ro3 sbj3ff! n©9€f bsff ffotrfw a;ts^0itfO tSifrtO . ^^Xaai^adbxifsla ^Ifio 
:-csvr-3niIiJ98 jab'iso ?fri-^'slq'' ,*t%fcvroq ,bsel snsw sfDifo^OrtOfr* •♦ri^-i 



7i 



to improve the system he did. not achieve any sweeping reforms 
in this respect. The mi Hones v/epe a tax levied on wine, oil, 
meat, vinegar, candlea, etc. This tax was either levied di- 
rectly oy by taxing communities whic'p sold these articles from 
a general store-house. In order to compel people to buy at 
these places very stringent and offensive rules were adopted. 
The second provlntlal tax was known as the alcabala and cientos 
levied on all sales of personal or real property and amounting 
to fourteen per cent as a rule, but differing widely according 
to the tffiv/n or district. According to Ustarez the average 
amount of the tax ¥/as seven per cent. The alcabala was an 
exceedingly detrimental imposition for both comm.erce and in- 
dustry and was modified somewhat during the reign of Charles 

M p r- "■^ 

III. The tercias reales were taxes levied on ecclesiastical 
estates and though they produced 60,000 pounds it was thought ^■ 

that they would produce considerably more if less faith were 

con?' 

placed in the declaration of the ecclesiastic bureaus. A 

J. ». ^ 

tax on the commoners of the kingdom known as ordinary and 
extraordinary service v/as a substitute cfor the alcabala and 
was assessed by the courts. Lastly there v/ere the entry du- 
ties into Madrid which were a part of the crown revenue but 

l-'i r i77i, vniie ir J. Vc-^: vO^trx. 

were farmed out to the gremios. The provinces of the crown 
of Aragon were exempt from the alcabala but instead were to pay 
a fixed amount which was divided among the different cities 
and "^ov-ns who assessed their inhabitants according to the a- 
mount they were -required to pay. Aragon had the tercias reales 



IV 



r<T. '. t't' p, a r , r -^ *f ■ • ^ :> u 



r « a *f .Ci f n 



J?;>t1S 



3^ni 



f "♦• -\ c»»«r 



^el9s ilB no beivel 



> . t^ «r ^^ i J^ (a 



or r/t,. 



JDS i>*sew f^IUT 8vrx?: 

.^iV91 * 079W ^^i.^-! ««l^*t9^ '91'. ~ ' ■ ' ^ 



89 



j^teistae 
.■■mi msn^'^st i^wota ©rft to #i«»<| s 



r '■> ,-) r» •■' F» -f « 



72 



as well as the millones e.nr- all the provinces v/ere subject to 
the cruzada, a tax originally levied for the crusades, ana 
accepted in payment for indulgence^.. The pope lad granted 
the income from ^his source to -^he Most Catholic Kings and in 

1753 it was made a perpetual tax. The price of this bull 

tics *"'V" •''-'MJI'^e *-? ^': y'l^*^ •"■O"'" • (^ "ilk'.-?- 1 if <"-r*r 

was fixed at tv/enty«>one quartos and in 1776 its revenue am.ount- 

ed ^0 about 240,000 pounds. Ho Spanish Catholic could avoid 

pu.rchasing this dispensation without being susjiected of heresy 

and besides "^hat it gave him the right to eat eggs and drink 

milk on the days of fasting and during Lent, v/ith the permis- 

sion of his physician and confessor. The clergy was subject 

to two other taxes known as the subsidio and the excusado 

which v/ere farmed out to the gremios of Madrid and therefore 

produced mLTch less revenue than they might have done otherwise. 

One source of revenue which ought to have been very 
considerable and was only moderate, was the income from. America; 
but for a long time the expenses of governjnent absorbed nearly 
all the revenue and it was not until Oalvey's ministry that 
Mexico brought any returns as a result of t'le tobacco monopol^- . 

All the revenues of the kingdom amounted to 4,400,000 
pounds in 1776, while in 1784 they v/ere 6,r50,680 pounds. In 

the statement made by Serena, the minister 6f finance, the 

3 
revenues had failed to 6,162,950 pounds in 1767, though it is 



1. D. y C, Vol. VI, p. 270. 

2. Bourg., Vol. II, p. 20. 

3. Ibid, Vol. II, p. 24. 



f,d(.fa d"' 

!" ' ^-'-^ -^ r ■■'■ 
-:'ti«ociii ^un^vd*! sti BVVi ni ban aoo'iawp enu^f^i 'rt^sw:? ta- bexil 

■ ■■■"■)■ ■• .'/^ 
•■"» 

obB^iS^xQ »:i"*" /:»n« oxbxadu^B 9xf7 a« rrvrocx esxecf isn'cfo ow? oi 
^•t^v n©»'f 9VBff o? 7ri3{/o ri^isiw ^jltitsv-st iu ©jitroa enO 

. :/o\ ;- . to ■* ' 

nl .aonuoq 06b, 03 ^^^ .9T9w '<jfi>Ar :^6Vi ni 4>iinV ,3VVi nl abnwoq 




.OJ 



f- 



73 



np-t safe to accept these statements since prior to 1787 no 
regular budget had been issued. and wSerena was the first to 
issue a statement. 

.e€r.'_..- .^^'hgn Philip V died he left a debt of 7,500,CCC pounds 
and Ferdinand VI assembled a body of niinisters end ecclesias^,^ 
tics to decide as to whether he was liable for the debts of 
his father. ., This ■'was decided negatively, and i± jvas no 
until Charles came to the throng that any attempt to reimpurse 
the creditors was made. In 1762 he paid six per cent on the 
debts of Philip V and did so for five consecutive years. In. 
1767 the six per cent was reduced to four and the following 
year the king distributed 600,000 pounds among the crown's 
creditors ; but cifter 1769 the disastrous \ ar against England 
caused the cessation of all further payments. Toward the end 
of Charles* reign ^^he bills v,^ei*e offered for sale at twenty 
percent of their original value, though they were accepted in 
lieu of taxes at one time. Charles also attempted in 1785 
to make a loan of 180 million reals and agreed to take the 
debts of Philip V at their par value ; but ijp, spite of this 
apparent induceijient he could raise only tv^elve. million reals 
in two years. ,^^_ 

^ *, , The gremios of Madrid were the bankers of the govern- 
ment up to the time of the founding of the National Bank of 
San Carlos, received the constant support of the government and 
jiegotiated ItB-" loans in times of distress. But toward the end 
of the second war v/ith England it was so difficult to obtain 



eaaat 



on veVI c^ - 

iniijui U00,00r. 

to stff*< d^'-ixi afyw 8*5 ©!>i;)9b c- 

■' ^ '■'-... ■ Qci Die DIl^J 

' grtons 3b^tF;orT 000, OOa Ss-^^tj-dtTtatb '^nl:>r erf-" 

lins 9rf:f biewoT .atn^mXQq '^©rfiJtJj'l lis to nol^Bit89;i ©n 

::'n3w-* ;t« 9lB2 tot oBtelto 9TSW f;IIl ' asIisffO to 

S8VI o«Ia 39XtJ»rfD .§mlt dfio itja aaxisi- tl 

3i:ic: iQ s'Ji-iri nx tU',; ; 'so 

aldet at'iliim 9vl«=?\yt Yino eata^i bXwoa erf :fa95P9;j netaqiie 

.siB^: owt hi 
— msvo^i '::!-.■: . ;; ^. ,/' ^xi:r s'l; 

to ?Ia£?H laao xTJifl aif:f t- 
b.iy cfnanintevo^ e {SoItpO rtpR 



74 



nieriey from the Genoese and Dutch that Charles accepted the sug- 
gestion of several merchants and issued notes to the valse of 
19,800,000 pounds drawing four per cent interest and later re- 
deemable in specie up(I>n presentation at the national bank of ^' 
San Carlos. The first issue of these treasury notes was made 
in 1780 followed by similar issues in 1781 and 1782. All the 
issues combined drew an interest of 3,599,244 pounds and this 
being promptly paid at all times, the notes took the place of 
paper currency-. In 1785 and 1788 bonds were issued for the ■ 
construction of the canal of Tausti and the completion of the 
Aragon canal. The total value of the bond 6 i^suedrduring the 

reign of Charles III was 5,489,055 pounds, drawing en annual^!"' 

1 
interest of 219,562 pounds, usually four per cent. 

^^^ '^ To maintain the value of this currency Charles III 

decreed the establishment of the Bank of St. Charles or San ; 

Carlos in the year 1782. Its other objects v/ere to facilitate 

the construction of public works ; to discount foreign letters 

of exchange ; to pay the obligations incurred by ^he Spanish 

coutt e.t other courts and fimally to underta|te contracts for 

2 

the supply of the arm.y and navy. Desiring that the people 

should become interested in so useful an enterprise, they were 
invited to subscribe in shares of 20 pounds each. In this 
way 145,140 pounds were raised out of the 3 m.illions of pounds 
which represented the bank's capital. The lj:ing and his chil- 



1. D. y C, Vol. VI, p. 267. 

2. Ibid, Vol. VI, p. 272. 



^■\ 



•■. r r. .• , ■ 



I i-»C»V V/ . 



* fens al)n.uc j«?€6, 






o^stA 



3-., *-c. r r;>? I<^*r0'^ JSt^ ^ >0 f!Oi■ 

axri:f ni . 
a brill 



75 



dren subscribed liberally to the new enterprise as did many 
religious corporations and guilds. Hov/ever, in spite of the 
general enthusiasm manifested for this creation of the French- 
man Cabarrus, the bank had many detractors, among v/hom Mirabeau 
yf&s the nost relentless. He made it his special business to 
crvstallize a sentiment against this institution, but the first 
dividend of seven per cent, declared! in 1784, ^silenced even 
the loudest opponents. Whatever the evils of this bank may 
have been from the point of viev of the political economists, 
there can be no question about the services it rendered in 
saving the nation from financial ruin and the funds furnished 
by it for the various public works constituted a service v/hich 
would have justified such an undertaking. Its intim.ate con- 
nection with tTje crown was ':.he defect 'v^iach i-eully bsou^hl about 
its failure in the „ sub sequent, reign., But it could hardly be 
expected that it v/ould be otherv/ise under a rule of absolutism. 
In 1786 the shares paid seven per cent interest in specie and ::. 
in 1787 and 1789 f iy^, p^r. cent in the same currency. 

Florida Blanca, in his ptatement, defends the es- 
tablishment of the bank and. tries to show hov/ its foundation 
had prevented financial ruin. A.?ter reciting %lQ.e Repressing 
effect exercised by the repeated issues of bonds on the na- 
tion's credit, he says : "This was the situation of the mon- 
archy and these were the imminent risks of a national bank- 
ruptcy, v/hen I resolved to propose to Your Majesty tlie founda- 
tion of a hank, which while it obviated the total ruin of our 



el5^dt8irv?0'^5;irj feaf^iro' c»!':^ "^o 'aI, v "^o crtloc/^K'*- rrro'tT: rf9n"f fivp.rf 
rfulfiW t^iitv^f^P. 'A h».*:: 1 1 •tft'tO^; ?»-ft(>w jiicf-ff-" ?, ff "i t'/f^V ^ifT* "ToT" "^i: V;^ 

f^.B »lj8q ej leq iii&v«« blaq «9igria »ri^ d8^X Sl 

aolittsbnuoJ bH v/orf wqf)^ o. a^l^i bn.8 >(aad a* 

-fin €n\t uo , a ■. -^o Eftjj'i^fjX bsii»eq^^ ^rif X'i i>fesx^'i©XG «^8ll8 



76 



credit, might facilitate conimercial operations in general, 
particularly those of Spain, as is done in England, Holland 
and other countries conscious of their own interest." 

-'■To procure the increase in revenue Charles III ini- 
tiated the following reforms : he began by reducing public 
expenditures and salaries in Spain and America .y he exacted a 

payment of eight per cent on all monastic incomes ; he also 

requested gifts from the Church and borrowed money from the 

archbishops and bishops. Charles also made loans in foreign 

countries and issued the bonds mentioned above. The sale 

of gold in bars to Holland and the establishment of the royal 

lottery in America and Spain v/ere also sources of considerable 

revenue . The. tobacco revenue in Mexico and Peru and the tax 

on civil incomes v/ere methods by which the colonies were made 

to bring some returns. Fortunes Dt-ought from America to Spain 

were taxed heavily and to pay the debts of his fa*-her, Charles 

set aside the revenues from various ecclesiastic benefices and 

also those from the crown estates:. 

Florida Blanca, in ?iis Statement, describes at some 

length the evils of the tax known as the bolla and the plomos 

de Ramos,' which was a very high ta5C levied on all cloth sold 

in Catalonia. It took the place of the alcabala of Castile 

and was absurd in its complicated method of administration. 
r«V*?lll^«fj3 siM^fi i* V,.. -:,!,» V- /• • ,.•.....,.,.,♦.,; . „ , ^, 

when a merchant or a manufacturer sold a piece of cloth, no 
1. n. y C, Vol. VT, p. 270. 



bntsllo^ f'-,nr. :^ Jo 9r. .:■ • ,.'■•• ■ 

TI af^ l«xBrfO mmBvei rri ; jooiq oT^ 

o:a^ ^ . .ie Ic : ..^ 

fs- ..-^ c,,-^* t, 'i^'1^fp.f> c.;-'- ':?".-! "'fit' bl"o'?5 

S-lds'iSlJiofioj To 8s^'iu02 cslii 8'i9ii'' fU&q - jbnB jujii^fiiA rii ^t'^^'-^- 'J^ 
; b£m Dot nsv'^^c o !'" . euns-vsi 

.soTid.:ra9 i'lwo'Xj Qi:i>: moil seoi * ceXe 

hIo5 ritoi^ lie no b&lvbi x£.? .'-^jt*'! ^'xov b ^£\i rvjiri^f ,30f'ifi.4 9r> 

Gfi , Tirol J TO 9J&X1 ^ oioa 'loinj jBluner .orijinn e risiiw 



« V \ 



77 



matter how small, he v/as compelled to call a tax collector 
who stamped or sealed the remaining roll of cloth and thenw- 
collected fifteen per cent on the price of sale. To replace 
this irritating tax Florida Blanca regulated the customs du- 
ties so that all the provinces had the saine tariff and made 
it so as to afford protedtion to domestic industries, wijtrhdraw- 
ing the favors which certain nations, especially England and 
Holland, enjoyed. By these changes Florida Blanca claimed 
that not only the industries and agriculture greatly benefited 
but al60 that the customs revenues had risen from 600,000 . . 
pounds to 1,300,000 pounce's. The eame chapter of the Statement 
also contains a reference to a change in the tariff for ex- 
port, but nc^hing seems to have been done in this respect. 

The first step taken toward the diminution of the 
Alcabala and cientos was the removal of this imposition on 
manufactures sold at the factory and a reduction of two per cent 
on all other sales made in f^adrid, though Florida Blanca de- 
sired Charles to extend this change to the entire kingdom. 
In the places where the poor were accustomed to buy their pro- 
visions, ^he alcabala was reduced from fourteen per cent to 
eight percent in Andalusia and to five per cent in Castile. 
Florida tjiought that this reduction would not only greatly j 
benefit the industries and commerce, but also increase the 
revenues since it would not exasperate the people to such a 

1. F. B., Statement. 



vv 



-.nob nse4 ^visri gr iiiaeaa jifiiri^'O' 
-:- bMioI'^ ilaworft ti^-i^ f^i »^ il^ no 



78 



degree that they would buy as little as they could get along 
with. He also proposed an equivalent tax as had been advo- 



cated in the reign of Perdtinand VI. The alcabala for the 

• o«, *;t Vrse '^; iniA ..;f t • '■ r iviHi v';s*r 'le r o\- 

peasants was reduced to two, th' ee or four per cen'^ according 
to the qualify of their provisions and the alcabala on v/heat 

was removed entirely. The taxes known as millones also re- 

P r V • 5? V' T' J f %.. t \ *■ h «? fi ' i 1 1 c '"■ I lei ♦ ">■ v* - ^ .-' >■ ; g - 

ceived a considerable reduction, so that wine, meat, ainegar 

and oil became considerably cheaper. Special reductions were 

made in the tax on oil since it Vvas used very generally as a 
inciOin":-F, which neither '^'-:e z 3% v^yin"? of '^ h*i rror^r vlsn^it'-f 
staple food and because it was necessary to the manufacturers. 

To compensate for these reductions made for the benefit of the 

poorer classes, a tax was levied on private incom.es and though 
cent, wc^ijlr* lrc".-f^'.^f« > o' t ' vrv^. - e llkr 

amou6ting to only five per cent it excited the opposition of 
the proprietary wh6 seemed previously to hhve escaped the 
exactions of the alcabala tax. The argur ent used against 
this imposition was that it was new, but Florida Blanca de- 
clared that it was only a step toward the unica contribucion 

which had been projected during the reign of his brother and 
■ *o hv5ve f; rif- ■•t *: "■ c?e::'.r^:-r' Ps '^t:1'j sev$n. fi.'"ht, nl''"-'-; 

that it was practically like the equivalent tax of Catalonia, 
although the octroi and the reduced bolla still existed there. 

The octrois of Barcelona, C-ironna and Valencia were fixed at 

». Ci ;- r.nd t'.t* ^-:.ch f^cc r -sSj-^c *■ ive n^-ei^:^ ** 

eight per cent. The king had a ri^ht to impose the alcabala 
and cientos which amounted to fourteen per cent on all sales 
and also the millones and the income tax was only a shifting 
of the burden from the poor to the wealthier classes. Florida 
Blanca says on the subject of this revenue tax : "There ws'.s no 



-bvba nsad berf ae x©^ .^fn&lBvt/jpe na beeoqotiT osXs *«H .:{tiw 

2Hibiojoi3 ^nsj 'x-^q Ttjol ^o 9»^n^ tO'*- o:? r>^j>Jb9T saw o'nBajJsq 
;fB9ffw no filscffijl0 ©rf:* bns aefolairoff ilsrTrt td ^^ *il8fjp «rif of 
-<5-i osIb 3^'nGlilji! as nMrorrA 8 0:<pt ^vrfT . ;T -fj'fl-fns bSvomQi- ^e\w 

Slew aaolSouoBt I&tosqH .twiB&do ^jldBiabianoj sms^ed fJtdf bciB 

a ai£ Y-^is'J^ne'^ \:^9V bsaji asw tl sjrttn lio no xBt dif"^ rtf 9'ber^ 

. aidiuSoa'luaBdi exit oi -:ifiaa©jdn 3J5W ^i 9ai;B;>«c! dhb bool slqBJa 

-■aniB3i5 Jbssjj i^n^^iw^giB ©rJT . xb.^ slBdBolB '^^.t Td ^ftf^r•^"'* ii'^vV' 

-"9b soriBl3 Bfoltoi^ ^vd ,W9n BftW -fi .terf* b««^ «oi*iao »ml ai/l;f 

noiof/rfiitnou Bjinir fitl^ frtB^ot qsifi b vXno bb^ ti ^Bdt betslo 

bn& TiM^oid aiii 1:o n^isi 9fi;t snitifb bs^usto^"' '"^"^'^ '^f<^* r^iif'v 

tflifiolB^fiO to XB>^ j'neisvtupe sriJ^ 93ili -vjiiBot^oB-iq aaw ?x crartJ^ 

.sterit Jbo^aixs liicfa Bllod beji/bd-s bAS ttiB latoo sKt ji^gwoK^Xe 

•*B bextl ©'few BionaX^V bus. amio^f-n ,..af»o^«^:)-ferT -^o atoftfjo e'"^? 

sXi^dfiaXs erit Bsoqwi ot :tri|li b JbBfl sni-i 8-1T .ra^jj I's j ir.axs 

39lB8 IXs no ^ns;* -iftq ixes^^irol v rt»iri^/ ^^o^nsiu brts 

anit^lrfe s ^Xno sbw XB:^ <5mo;jfTl ©f(:*" bne s^irrontn pfr'tt osJb tins 

ibiiol'? .aeaselj teirf^lBs^v sr.T oj "ioo< yni.^r '' " 

on 3SW si^riT" : xa* sxxnevei atrf^ to taetd - svbr bowbJ P 



proprietor of & civil income who did not have to contribute, 
either directly or indirectly, to the above named alcabalas 
and cientos, at the time of their imposition, when he bought'^" 
merchandise in the markets. If then the proprietors of the 
civil revenues do not pay the nine per cent from v/hich ''•he 
provisions, subject to the m.illones, were exempted in the Cas- 
tiles and Andalusia, how could they have been burdened by the 
establishment of an equivalent tax of five per cent on the 
incomes, which neither the tax payers of the poorer classes 
Aiy^the consumers possess ? In the same way the alcabala on 
manufactures h^a^ing; been reduced to two, ^hree or four per 
cent, would increase the revenue of the proprietor in a like 
ratio because of the consequent chea|!>ness of the manufactures 
and agricultural products.'* In his Statement Florida Planca 
Ghows how the taxes had really been diminished even for the 
proprietors, for, sai'^s he, : "Is there a new tax when instead 
of the fourteen per cent of the alcahala which your majesty 
wotild have a right to demand imposes anly seven, eight, nine 
or ten by distributing this'tax bfetveen the peasants and the 
proprietors ; between the sellers and the purchasers ; between 
the poor and th»>rich according; to their respective means ? 
And yet all the complaints are -founded on *-hat fact. The ob- 
jection is only raised- ^.'*ainst this tax ■on' account 'of ^i'?J n6w- 
ftess. v^ince this five percent has been added to the two, 
three, four, five and even seven per cent, wi*th which some 
sales 



eT 



o x^ i .-? . J H w» 4. ij 



M^uod 9fi neriw ,noxti8oqftii 
9r.t to a*!ofoi 






'.IS 



-3»y 9ri:f nx bstqmexB ©tsw ,s9nollxiT! srf^ oc* ta^t^^J® ,anoiBivotq 



^•ttjd nssd f 



. 'tP.Ul'.: 



.0 Kss ' 

j?\7 e- ? r:S9 3?5 0^ s- • on 



3 9'I 



: *Drft to S3 9n$ser{j ^n©rrp9?3no.j 



^-^fJBJ 



v9 feSffB X a £cn lb 1199 d rllBBt berf S'5X»;t ©rf^t worf 8W(; 






n29v;-&.::! ; s'lBatJi'i jiu'-i 9"i: 
^ anfiom 9v*J::fi>6qp8i its 

-;/3n sv .:^xIL'OoJii no xa ■ 

,owt sfii oi bebl>fi nesrf aj&rf *n 

» m o a rr J t rfw .Hit. i ./ , .•: •1 ■> j '■': ':.> t n 9 v 



■ o 

>r{i tOB ^ooq ♦©lit 

:jO ©r"* lit- jhA 

vj 3 1 noi*u©{, 
9jnlfi 

.0 9-t.'^.t" 



80 



sales, which are very few, are char^fed, that tax has never 
risen to fourteen per cent which your majer^ty would generally 
have a right to impose. For most of the proclucts of manufac- 
ture and agricultare this contribution does not rise above 
six, or at the most above seven pei^tdnt, divided, as I have 
Said, among the proprietors, the peasants, '^he rich and the 
poor, although the latter are not so heavily burdened because 
they possess little property and because they contribute every- 
thing from their labor." The tax on those proprietors who 
'.live on ^heir estates, instead of living at the capitals, was 
reduced to two and one half per ce^t i^a order tO;. encourage in- 
dustry with that class. "I ; "" l-.st y^ur ■- 

From the Statement made by Florida Blanca ik can be 
feasily seen that the proprietors had until the establishment 
of the income tax escaped the oppressive alcabala and »:ii Hones 
•end that their opposition to the lower income tax was because 
of the shifting of the biirden onto their shoulders. The peas- 
^ants and poorer citizens were compelled to buy their provisions 
*t the public market and therefore could not escape the tax, 
"while the v;ealthy proprietor either pi'oduced his own necessaries 
ior' traded with his tenants who were quite as eager as he was 
i"to escape the exactions of the tax collectors. 

The cost of maintaining the Consejo de Ha^cianda was 
^Ortnous and "^he single sala de unlca contribuoion, though it 
had achieved no definite results, consumed 600,000 pounds an- 



Oo 



teven aerC xi^t .-tsrf* , he^4^«»rC5> ©fe ,we1: vt<»v «>tr .'f:>i'iw ^seXee 

• vodB ©ait ^ton asob ciO£^*;(H*''*noo 9T0Mi;fi>iT,>^ hne e^ut 

e3i/Ri>©^ b^W" « v«#f{ 08 tort e i'^c^ti^ c'xoo<I 

.8 3Bij cT^rid ri^iw ^:i^8tf& 

ije.cp i:»M ; iiwiiv 'ji^j^t , tt'iy : y iiquikSt .m\J -iftiil-i i.iv':^^ .39 

aonoi ' 13 slsci«al» avltiea^qqo ©rf;t .bot/3**8 9 xat &mooa. to 

rioiaivo-:q ix9/<:^ XW«I^ o^t balleqruoa stew 8nasiti«> leTooq J»ni' 

atiw Off «.« i[«^f |tJ3 s^xjjp 919W o: * tw b»fo«i:t 10 

iBbnei.-- . . .. ot^Bno') ■ ■- ' ' 

-riB abnuoq 000,008 bomj/anoa taili/ae ^^ 



it 



nu.ally in salaries anc' adrninistra*-ive expenses. Al.nough 
Charles III and his ministers redliz^cl' the great' evil o? the' 
system of taxation and seem to have reoogni^ea the true cause 
of its inefficiericvj the'reforms that were instituted were 



•■ X. 



rather half-hearted and narrow. r^vertheless the trend of the 
fiscal policy was changed and nroke down at least part of the 

insurmountable barriers to prosperity in the industries and 

r.u na^y. Charles trii J ♦•o • tr;e coat of 
commerce • " 

' The expenditures of ?pain increased in a measure 
proportional to her economic development. During the reign 
Of Philip they amounted to about 3,359,529 pounds ; to 3,779,183 
in*^the reign of Ferdiriand Vi ; and^ in*'i788, the last year of 
Charles* reign^ t'hey rose to a grand total of 8,161,713 pounds. 
According to Canga-Arguelles the expenditures which were 
1,342,275 pounds during the reign of Philip III rose to 
27,297,991 pounds during the reign of Charles III. The ex- 
penditures of the last year ' or the reign of Charles III con- 
sisted of the follov/ing items :-- Royal household, 747,621 
pounds ; secretaries of state, 82,444 pounds ; councils snd 
tribunals, 1,879,830 pounds ; pensions, 32,935 pounds ; embas- 

1 7. 

sadors and ministers, 85,720 pounds ; revards, 52,258 pounds ; 
secret expenditures, 46,208 pounds ; extraordinary expenses of 
th6'' treasury, '440,833 pounds ; paymasters of fhe 'treasury, 
Si&, 633 pounds ; debts of Phildip V, 6,187 pounds ; army,* , 



1. D 



. y"cf.%'vol. VI, p 



18 



I riJOr'tlA . F.V)arT'=>'T;x«» s^^t^B'f^^lriimhf! vine g9ii*?I.e'? ni x^^fi^^ 

91SW bsiuiiitftrri ®*I9W cfsif^ errnolarc ©rf^ ? ^aneJt jiltenx 8:fx ^ 

9fi;t la- (fidq :f«i3»i ^b nwob i^-Aond pes ^f*,-!it£fy 8«w cjiXoq iBdex'i 

. sjt amino o 
I 

t^ i*©'^ ^aal ©rit ,83 VI nl baB i IV bnsni. felts'^ lo n^iei 9rf.t ni 
.eftrtwc^ KIT, 1^1,8 T-c ie3'0:f b'^Blt'^ G*a?? ^ao^TY .-^'ilei •selierfO 

oJt dfioift III qi I ifi*! lo ugiei ^rit yiaixub tfrnvo* dVS^S^&^I 

-x« sr'T .TIT soJTerff) ^o n^ist $rf* -iniivb 2»7ftir€T lee^Ves.^S 

-noj H T- seii^n'.) 'to asisn: 9.nL? t^© TB©"^wSSi suit ic 8©'Xij:J'x. ana q 

IS8,VI»T ,6Io;1&aiJO/f IbyoH -*: emeti ?^niwoIIot »H^ t,-© bslel^s 

slion'JOo ; Rbnisoq I^M^eS© fS"*??*^' to «©fxfi*©ii>»8 ; al^niwq 

-a ^iFi'- ; o'-i.u"oq a€e,SC »snoJtanyq i s'jauu^- 058,eV8,i ^^slj-'cwitfl'"-' 



8d 



3,414,380 pounds ; intendarits and oofnmissloners, 44,445 pounds; 
charity, 48,100 pounds ; navy, 2,000,000 pounds ; loan banks, 
64,718 pounds ; interest on bonds, 575,466 pounds ; interest - 
on other debts, 430,619 pounds ; making the abov6" named total 
of 8,611,717 pounds, out of whioh 5,414,380 pounds were used 
for the ariny and navy. . The most important items of expense 
are, the public debt, the royal 'household expenses and the 
army and navy. Charles tried hard to reduce the cost of 
maintaining his court and established a Junta to see that the 
arount should not i increase. - iu^.. ;ii 

The necessities of war compelled Charles III to in- 
crease his army to a considerable extent. The num.ber of 
militia regiments was raised to forty-two and various compa- n- 
nies of urban m.ilitia were maintained. Charles III passed 
various ordinances for the improvement of the army ; disci- 
pline was restored and the army was placed on a respectable 
footing. The creation of schools of infantry, artillery, 
cavalry and the engineer corps vms a good proof of the inter- 
est Charles felt for his army. 

After the peace v/hich followed the disastrous war of 
1761, Spain had only about t^feirty-seven vesseld of the line 
and about thirty frigates. In 1770 there were fifty-one ships, 
ranging from ii2 to 58 guns ,^ twenty-two frigates besides a 
number of smaller vesseld, making one humdred and two vessels 

1. Muriel, Vol. VT, p. 141. 



J8 



,?^>in«d nsol ; a^rr : 000,000,.^ eVt^>?r! ; Bbntjoq 001 tB^ ,vf Ij^iiBrfy 

'-•-s; 9-xew 3*:>«x;oq OS^^ii^Ir^ja /fjtrfv e;o t'^i^'nuo'i VIVtIIdtS ^o 

bXoil 

olcffi "4 no lO^aei 5ew sfilq 



ft ovvjL nl 

.-.^ 3ftt?.?)cf 5?:'C*B:3i*T'i ow*-v5r!«;'. 'it motl: snti^nsf 



.1 . .lov , 



m 



in all. In 1774 Spain had. sixty-four ships of the line, 
eight of which were three-deckers, twenty-six frigates, nine 
shebecks and twenty-eight other vessels of less strength, mak- 
ing a total of one hundred and forty-two. In 1778 before the 
second war with "England, the Spanish fleet consisted of sixty- 
seven ships of the line, thirty-two frigates, besides other 
ships, in all numbering one hundred and sixty-three. The sup- 
port of this fleet demanded great sums of m^ney and was the 
cause of the financial difficulties in v/hich the government be- 
came involved previous to the founding of the national bank.* - 
with The finances of Spain during the reign of Charles IT I 
were hampered by the excessive burdens of the army anci navy and 
though the ministers of this reign tried to Improve fiscal con- 
ditions their remedies seem to have been only temporary and 
were in most cases applied rather timidly. ''"^ -^ 

policv w^l 



S8 



TMiB ^i*t;v o [rtt^t x£fJ^ asM *-' . a^ib&r'^t tt^t eriol-^tb 



r£^ d^ tw Iter' ]b£fO;;ea 

a ft } r Q.'f ■ 

-'i&dlflAia ii' 

•'---till. &ff-» ' 



m 



CHAPTER Aa I . « ?-^ ft f? •■ ' pi. ">' ; ? t 

of tte 'r- of t.hi«{ tex th*-- ad- 

Until the reign of Charles III -ihe restrictions on 
trade and corranerce were practicall-y prohibitive and as a re- , 
suit it was either carried on as a i-ionoiioly or by srnuggleFS. 
As early as 1760 Charles and his ministers began to devise 
projects by which they hoped to promote the commerce of Spain 
with Algiers, Tunis, the Levant and America. Departing from 
the principle of exaggerated protection initiated by Philip 
V Charles remove* the duty An many foreigh'Tnanufactures, cocoa 
and sugar, and re imposed them only in order to defray the ries 
expenses of the war with Oreat Britain. In 176,0 he also Vrik 
made a commercial treaty with England so that foreign commerce 
might be put on a more advantageous basis. The vacillating 
policy which Charles was following in these commercial reforms 

was more aiparent when in 1764 he prohibited absolutely the 

2 
exportation of silk called cabezas. Then again a year later 

he reverted to his original pian and proclaimed the abolition 
of internal customs duties on grain, so that i*- might be trans- 
ported from one province to another without an exorbitant tax 
which made exportation so expensive that one province would 



1. D. y C, Vol. VI, p. 245. 

2. Ibid, Vol. VI, p. 246. 



^3 



I 
moil 3ni;ti6q&a .fi;ijti9inA bnB toBv^l &ri* ,ai0£r? ,at8iaIA ri:Mw 

fiirl.* ^ail^b o^ labto fli xi«o fls®^^ l>9»o'^^?fnt»i bna «tBj|iia ban 

ORlis 9r[ OdVI ill .xiia^t^^a ^saiD rf-*^ ..^ *4Jt -lii**. e:«?^'^^^'T«e 

9jT9Hiraoy n^i»iol i»iU o^ bnsXsnST rf:flw vjifitb-ict iBij-isramoj c5 ©i>Bw 

3ia'iv> . r IiUut9[n!t}0j ©a^rit ni ^niwoiloT: aew .,._<.., jx{ '3 n'oirfv ■^^jtloi 
mit Y-ta-uIoecfe bs-tlc'irfoiq ©ri l-BTi nt n^riw ^rieisq B diora saw 

a 

ts^Bl ise-^i B aiB^fi n^rfT .aasadBj baJLIaa >IXia to nol^Btntoqx© 

-:iaB*i:f ©d -iijitra ''i tBrI- oa ,jKiij*:;3 ao ^^iiah suio^taw^ iBxri^vai l^ 
3CB;}' Jfnfitlcfioxs aa tjjorj^iw fejri.ton ftno raott fjattoq 



,-6t- . . ' 



86 



suffer' alb so fiitV v/ah^ M^^iTfe ' ei neighbor inc ohe had more food 
prodvicts than were needed for home consumption. '-The evils ^^ 
of this system were inestimable and it seems as if almost an:'^ 
other* country but Spain'' wdWlbf have' W^ ruined under so r;reat 
a burden. A.t the time of the abolition of this tax the ad- 
vantages of this reform were slow to be felt for the means of 
transportation were confined to be'a^tis of burden and the roads 
'end canals had not yet experienced the salutary measures of 
■?'lorida Planca. In the same year of 1765 Charles reaffirmed 
the law passed by Ferdinand VI hy which he forWd^' t'hfe efkporta- 
•tion of rags as being injurious to the paper industry and also 

eatablished so-called free trade between the island of Cuba, 

2 

the Windward Islands, and Spain. : ^'^ In 1767 a royal itecree was 

'issued which proclaimed internal free tra^^e in all necessaries 

3 

of life. "Since then, the liberty of internal commerce was 

a principle constantly guarded in Spain, in harmony with the 

iilGctrine upheld with respect to liberty of agriculture and of 

4 
'industry." 

External commerce was the subject of profound study 

on the part of Florida Blanca and tlie Marquis de Senora and 

in the year 1778 free trade v/ith the colonies was declared ; 

though as early as 1764 Charles had attacked the monopoly of 

<^he galleons by establishing a regular line of vessels leaving 

9---- - -----------_._-- 

1. Huriel, Vol. Vl, p. 143. 

2. D. y Q., Vol. VI, p . 247. 

3. Ibid. '^'-^ • ^ 

4. Ibid. 



56 



food eiom bsrf eno ^aliodrfalsn b slirlw tasw ©ctjjloadk- .Tub 

-be f^riS xaS aiff;t to rioi:tiiod« srit lo ^mi^ ©rid -\ .nsbiu-^f 8 
to ariH'^'^)"! srff 'toiT' *l9l erf 0"f woT^' A'jfi.v' (•tolai sIjI ]^i^\^*n^\f 

1© aafwea^em ^istulBS ©/!:? beoftfttiaqx© i'«'^ ^on ftsri slBctsj bns 

<Q a.'! &^ii(i^Q"i Bff cf4)iriw x^f IV iwisnlbTS'^ \;d Jbeaseq w«I 9d;t 
03l5 has v^:^siJb^x .^ 'Ot auottut^-t sni«d afc> s^i 16 nol* 

jBdwD to bnslai d/ff iidcwjta^ »h«'t;t «8Tt bellBJ--^^ n.^.-??> r f^f-tr r« 

SI 

lo bnfl ^n.utXj;j>tiaB to >j^i9dtl o* 4';>8f<|adT K,tijr bXsrfqu suiiJaob 

•^btfts bns/oto^q to to^t^^J^* ^df &tsw ^o*i^nmQj lBnf9txI^ 

bis 6ioae5J sb aiifp-tfiM 9-:.^ bnM awneXH fibitoXl to i^neq drtcf no 

; -be-tsX jBb agw av^tnoloj srC^ ri^i^f <**^^»?''t 09it 6VVX *f«otr <4ff* mI 

to ^:Xoqo^ora oriit 6d?f^Bt;t6 bfirf aeitariO ^dVl qb ^Xi«6 as d^^odi 

j^ftfvsftX al9?jp!9v td drttX -ffiXfisB^it fi :'^itld8iXds^aa t<* a«09XXB5 ejit 



1 ,1 



oo 



Corunna for Cuba and Porto Rico at intervals of one month. 
This decree of 1778 was called "Ordinance on the free coiimierce 
with the colonies? but the term* free* was only a relative one, 
for the freedom consisted only in allowin^:, the courts of 
Seville, Cartagena, Alicanti, Barcelona, Corunna and Oijon 
to carry on trade with the Indies of which Cadiz until then 
had had the monopol: . The same decree destroyed the monopoly 
of the galleons and treasure fleets so that in the sam.e year 
of 1778 Cadiz sent out 66 vessels, Corunna 26, Barcelona 23, 
Malaga 34, Santander 13 and Alicanti 13, of a total value of 
500,000 pounds. A little later the privilege of trading v/ith 
the colonies vf«.s extended to the rest of the Spanish ports 
with the exception of the BB-'^qve provinces and Biscay v.hich 

preferred to retain their old privileges and the profits of an 

2 

interloping trade to those of a regular comjnerce. New Spain 

did not enjoy these trade privileges until 1786 and the amount 
of merchandise v/hich could then be sent there was not to ex- 
ceed six thousand tons. The good effects of this ordinance 
v/ere far reaching and v/ere quickly felt. In less than ten 
years the exportation of foreign merchandise had/been trebled 
and domestic exportation had increased to five times its former 
dimensions.' The importations into America increased from 
160,000 to nearly 3,000,000 pounds and the exportations to 



1. Muriel, Vol. VI, p. 170. 

2. Ibid, Vol. VI, p. 168? 

3. Ibid, Vol. VI, p. 169. 



.^■"'. 



'■-0 e^'i i-YQli.. ;xaauv moDe- ' -lux 

lor* fit-!./ xib«D r^jjt-^'w to ^eihnl erll r{;?i> rto v*rt.ej o* 

IK «ao^: 

e^S enoIgjffiQ jc-v' 13'^nwioO ,'3l92'i9\'" 33 Jtjo .^n^;". stheO 3VVI to 

/i-sq triLir.Te.+ iai »J[;t?iI A ^:>.>:il'l • 000,006 

?^j'ti=*«" t'''To Ht-^'^l to «.1o9tt9 0003 9rrT .ano:? f>aB^"0'-*t xls hfefo 

;idw afini4 iisai nl .tXet ^^iijiyj^ d!X*W bag $,■ ' ^*i -Xiri a^idv/ 









B7 



1 
Europe from 620,000 to 8,000,000. All the maratime provinces 

of Spain were greatly beneficed by this lav and commeroe re- 
ceived a great impetus. Catalonia became very prosperous 
because of these privileges and its present commercial suprema- 

''ty'"(^'':tes from 1778, Louisiana, Florida and Trinidad were 
given special trade privileges and consequently experienced 
considerable prosperity in their industries and commerce. 
T^exico was placed on a better economic footing by receiving 
a market for tobacco, wheat and sugar cane, v/hile Buenos Ayres 
exported salt -cod «nd wheat to Spain, thus procuring not only 

V'good market but also giving the Spaniards an opportunity to 
free themselves from the humiliating dependency upon the Eng- 
lish for their great staple fish-food. The lav/ forbidding 
foreigners trading with the Indies to come v/ithin twenty 
leagues of the peninsula was repealed by Charles. One great 
disadvantage under which '^he Spaniards labored in their 
struggle for com.mercial prosperity "was ^:he scarci'^y of good' 
sailors so -^hat much of the carrying trade was in *"he hands of 
foreigners. 

One of the principal reasons for the establislmient 
of free trade v.'ith colonies was the desire on the part of 
Charles and his ministers to entourage the exportation of the 
home manufactures and it was for f^is purpose that various 
woolen and cotton goods were exem:pted from duties for ten years, 

- > i:t-a' ^li^ ;_• i J. I^ '.l^- _ _ _ _ . _ . _ _ _ . . . 

1. Muriel, Vol. VI, p. 171. 



a0ot 



» ' A 



iOOeO^; 






■'.J 



ao^r^A F.orfOM^i ©iiriw esneo 



: ;tB»rlw ,oaoadoT "T 



-•Ifts be 



? noqt? \:on8biie<jefc' moil asvlssr 



^ r 



sjs.r i' LiS'i^o^'i 



lo abnaff jjn r ai a> 



to ffoi/ft! ;tBfft oe etoIlBB 



'^ -I stC 






:oioj 



BBtt IO 



i «J lUvt 



jOW 



B& 



while foreign mantifactures, Y/ines, oil and brandy were ex- 
cluded froyn the Indies. The same ordinance decreed that all 
vessels loaded entirely v^ith domestic products should he ex- 
empted from one third of the export duty and all colonial 

products as cotton, sugar, cochineal, Indigo, coffee, copper 

2 
and quinine Twere to be entirely free from export duty. Gold 

was taxed five per cent and silver ten, v/hich rate was later 

reduced to two and five and one-hplf per cent respectively. 

The exportation of gold in any form and silver in bars, as 

well as threaded cotton and building wood to foreign countries 

v/as absolutely forbidden. The absurd customs duties, levied 

according to the size of the article, were abolished and an 

3 
ad valorem tax wa» fixed. 

The main objections raised by opponents of free trade 
with the colonies were dictated by self-interest and came iflitify free 
Cadiz vvhich had been shorn of the monopply. It was argued 
that the contraband trade had increased under the new system 
and that it was cheaper for a foreign nation to trade with 
colonies than it was for Spain since the rpofits of the con- 
traband trade were so great &s to make almost any risk prefer- 
able to legitimate trade ; but since the revenues from, the 

customs diities were doubled this argument had very little 

4 
weight. Still the contraband trade was a great obstacle to 

1. Bourg., Vol. II, p. 195. 

2. Ibid, Vol. II, p. 195. 
5. Ibid, Vol. VI, p. 197. 
4. P. B., Statement. 






Ifilaaloj XXa htm ^cJi; 






i n-^l . Ttlififf 






i -l' >'.♦•• f «i 









r.c.'^T- 






— *. a*^ e>'*n -Jri r 



,*g(jiQj[k< •J-* .J ill r\ ♦ j^ tJ 4i;f(i,»T\i ( , ,•> t^nti.T f»FA 



eld:fii fTev- ; >«XdiiOv) ft-se./ eel 



7 , r i.V . U r .'f T 



8$ 



making the colonies a reliable source of revenue. The high 
duties levied on foreign goods toward the latter part of 
Charles* reign ge.ve foreigners so great an advantage "^hat the 
Spamiards could in no v/ay compete with them in supplying the 
colonies . It was absolutellr impossible to guard the coast' of 
so vast a possession as the Spaniards had in Ar'erica and 
Bourgoing figured that the Spaniards paid twenty-eight per" '■ 
cent duty on foreign articles before selling them to the '■** 
colonies, v^hile the foreigner paid abo&'t 'df bur ipef c'ent'export 
and four per cent insurance premium, against risks. This gave 
^he foreigner an advantage of twentv-two per cent so that it 
v/ai quite natural that the colonists shouJ.d prefer to trade 
with them.. The islands along the Aj:qerican coast were used as 
entrepots for contraband goods and this illicit trade "was car- 
ried on^Hs'Si^th'^y^'We colon is'ts'as^'ty'^or&igfeef's* '^-■^^'^^' ^ 
^' The colonies both in Am.erica and in India' viere under 
the control of the Council of the Indies, which was chosen by 
the king and divided into adninistrative and judicial chaml)ers 
'as was the Council of Castile. The Marquis of Senora ifas at 
the head of this council during Florida Bianca»s administration 
and it vras he who first proposed the plan of granting free 
trade v/ith colonies. He had previously been vice-roy of 
Mexico and his experience there gave him an insight into "'."he 
needs of the colonies. Curiouslv enough Mexico was the last 

1. Bourg., Vol. II, p. 209. 



?o *tf?.q tB*tFji Mf b-rswol aboo to bstvnl sstctrrb 

erfi ran- 8g£«j:i:3v,n£; n.s .:t.'.'t)'!3 oa a-ion^xt^-iu: 9V33 ngx-'i : ' -i^i'iiiriD 
8ii:t 3nt)ii<Ifiua ai mud^ j^jtw 'jaw on nil bluoti Hhtait 

to ts#?oj on-t ^-!'■gf^«> of 9* cfia^orfmi ^I ?:?fjlcsni? rj/r/"- .:M . aslnolou 

9VS3 BlriT .asisti taatsge nuiitfdtGf aonfiijuanl icio^ 

aj8 bdaii 91©,/ tafjou nuax'i&f'iA erf.t ^nola 8tfcy«i«I .isisiicf rftlw 

- cA.i ;^, ; V fi^ss'it ^i;iilll aldf hem sboo^ baedstttio.i '^ot a,+ ocTft^*rt« 



90 



Of the provinces in America to receive free trade in 1786 and 
then restrictions were placed on the trade so that only six ' 
thousand tons of merchandise were allowed to enter that coun- 
try «ach year. "-? --^. > v.-:,.:on, v-".'.'''^ 
i; Charles* policy, in all matters affecting coranerce, 
was rathf^r for promotion of industrial prosperity than for^"- 
conmerce proper. The duties imposed on foreign goods show a 
desire to build up a market in the colonies for Spanish pro- • 
ducts. The king; and his ministers seem.ed to have forgotten^ 
that since m.ost of the m.erchandise had to be brought from, other 
countries bec-^use it was nct?jTianufactu.red at all in Spain a 
tax of six per cent would have placed the Spaniard on about 
an equal footing with the interloping foreigner. In looking 
at tlie ordinances and decrees of Charles we can find only two 
which purposed to advance commerce at the apparent expense 
of industries. Those 7fete"'f.'he decree of 1765 for internal 
free trade and possibly the one of 1778 proclaiming free trade 
with the Indies and particularly in the concessions made to 
Florida and Louisiana. Trade with other European nations was 
if anything discouraged since tt was thought that the only 
things Spain could receive were manufactured goods in place of 
their raw materials, as wool and hemp. Both export and import 
taxes were charged and formalities attendant upon customs 
regulations were extremely burdensome. Boujrgoing says that 



1. Bourg., Vol. II, p. 218. 



0^ 



leri^a mof'\ td^uoid act o.^ berf sQlbn.^-Kc Lq .tfeom, ^yai*- 

B nieqcl ni lis :fa baic/ioaluxiBci^ on a/iw Si 9 a9i*i^aM0j 

I«aid;*nJ: tot adVI to a5»t;ja& 84<t »^«w dao4T .aati^aiti 
9bfs*t:^ 3»tl a^xcIi^XaP1^ 3VV1 to eno ^i;? ;^J,tfJLBSQ^q i^fifi 9i>6Tcf esTl 



.8. 



91 



"it is above all in respect to foreign commerce that Spain 

1 
plays an inactive part." Ke excepts Barcelona in this judg- 
ment of Spanish coirimercial activity, saying that its exports 
consisted mainly of silk, cloth, cotton, v/ines and brandies 
and its greatest article of iinport was the salt-cod v/hich the 
Enfilish caught off the Newfoundland coast. The English re- 
ceived more than three million pounds annually for this com- 
merce, although various attempts to substitute this fish with 
some other kind had been made. The French writer remarks on 
•the singularity of a heretic nation supplying a Catholic na- 
Ltion v/ith the article of food v/hich was generally prepared 
with salt taken from Spain and caught in v.aters first dis- 

r- 
C 

covered by tlie Spaniards. 

The slave-trade \;hich had been granted as a monopoly 

to the English by the treaty of Utrecht was given to a Span^- 
vish company when that monopoly expired. This Spanish company 

had its entrepot at Porto Rico and when in 1780 its franchise 

came to an end the government of Spain undertook to carry on 

this trade itself. For that purpose it acquired from Portugal 
tthe two islands of Ferdinando Po and Annobon when the treaty of 

peace was made in 1778. Bourgoing says that *hese islands v/ere 
, poorly situated for this traffic and that the Spaniards did 

not possess the proper ^vessels for carrying slaves, nor did 
•^ithey have surgeons who understood the diseases of the negro. 



1. Bourg., Vol. II, p. 175. 

2. Ibid, Vol. II, p. 175. 

3. Ibid, Vol. II, p. 249. 



V .^ ..^ ^v "J. 



aaJtrfi^OB-rt g.ti Ot3'?X, ni n«rfw ixn^ ojtH otto*! t-a cfoq 
Y-B»'i^ eri? rterfw 7«ifJOftnA baa c 
fox a 70 fi ,a^v«Ici jfjni\"int0;>t toPt »I 



^ 



Later contracts were let '^•o foreigners to furnish a certain 
number of slaves annually so that the colonies might receive 
an adequate supplv . ■ . 

Various commercial companies had been founded prior 
to Charles* reign and as a rule v/ere short-lived. The most 
famous of these^ devotecpi "to European commerce, were those of 
Aragon, Saragossa, Granada, Sevilla, Toledo and Burgos, all 
of which had become extinct as early as 1784. The grem.ios 
gr guildp had ^t first revfiy^d aU concesgions^j^n. Jhe ivay, of 
commercial monopolies, but v/it'n the formation of the Caraccas 
com-pany their influence decreased. Campomanes and J. vellanos 
attacked these corPorayioj:is,aji^ in tHat way caused the. monopoly 
Of trade with the Indies to be taken from the Cinao gremios 
mayores, the most profitable guilds in Spain.'^ The Caraccas 
ViOmpsny.v.'as fou^de^ in 1723 and,. in 17^2 had 12 large trading ' 
vessels, Iflk; ships to guard the coasts and employed 2800 seamen. 
But its lack of judgment in importing too much cocoa from 1770 
to 111 A reduced its profits to a larre (degree and when in ..^.^ 
1780 Rodney captured one of its treasure-ships it received a - 
blow from which i^ never recovered. ^y'r>. -"'o 

, ,, ^ The fgrmation of a Philippine company had been pra- 
posed as early as 1757), but the distance and d;angers of a sea 
voyage to these islands prevented the plans from meeting with 
any degree qf success. In 1767 Musquiez, the minister of 



1. Colmeiro, Vol. II, p. 457. 

2. D. y C, Vol. VI, p. 242. 



3f? 






'r>9ft3i 



9'i 9 >. 



i«^vii r 



t<j<fmc;ri 



-If erfO ot 



^l><:f bBH rf ^i ifW' ^ 



loltq bs'^nifot n99d barf asirtfiq 

'lis ,a03TJ/a bnar bfr^lcT ^nliiv-y 
X 

.^ anox«fe#6noj lis !j^1rl<a;>o-^ * -^tt tfi bBff sMiua -jo 
aisooteiBO 9fl:f lo ftottBiTTtol ©f{^'i*.tlw JtirtJ fa^il-: .-ioiefTifnoo 

aolffTS't^ o^ntO fir':* n'.cil rtd>lB;f 9d (y& fesif^nl e rw ebB'x^f 'io 

3D ^ffT .nteqS ni febXirj^S sItfB:* tto^q taom sdt ,a9io^:i?rr 

^nlBfif^ dgtBl Sf bsff 2BVI fti bnj» B2VI nl bebm/e^ 8»w ^rtbqriuv. 

t>VTI moVl fiCToO-j f^jf/rf oot 3nl aut to :?CobI ail .tucT 

nl ne.ffw .in 99T38*b 9;1bI e W 'iiti:*to*tq ait ft'^j^fifta-f''*^'^''"' r*^ 

3 hevts^ifii ft aitrfs-stcfaasii aft '*to 9no b :bo5i OdYi 

89a e to 3Tdar:^.b h.ie e;>n9:talb '^K ; TV! af0 ^lt»^ aB b^soq 

to Tts^tainirrr srf* ,setjjpefcrM VBV ■ ■T . i-.^^. 



Ta^ .q t 



oV ,0 



9S 



finance, conceived the project of founding a company composed 
of Frenchmen and Spaniards and Choiseul tn ought he might com- 
bine this company with his "East India Company arid' therefore 
encouraged its foundation. But this first plan failed and 
was only revived in 1785, by d'Estaing and the Prince of Has- 
^ftt-^t'e|en^-lho having visited the Philippines on "a trip around 
the world proposed to found a post for trade with China there a 
and he offered to subjugate the Moro pirates who were costing 
the Spaniards 20,000 pounds annually. This proposition was 
coldly received by the Spaniards and then abandoned. The 
matter v/as, however, brought up again in 1784 when a junta' 
presided over by'OalVe^,'' the Marquis of Se'nora, 'w^s appointed 
to found a Philippine trading company. It was proposed that 
the capital should be 8,000,000 dollars q^f which the ^ank of 
San Carlos Was fo talce on6 si'xth. Cabarrue, the founder of 
that bank, was the one who procured the iKecessary funds ?nd 
he divided the capital into 32,000 shares of 250 dollars each. 
The king and his family invested larfje" suifi's in the new enter- 
prise and great enthusiasm v/as manifested by the merchants of 
Madrid and other cities. The Cinco Oremios of Madrid, v^ho 
had controlled this trade previously opi^'osed 'the n^w company 
and refused to take any of its shares, but hurriedly sent out 
a ship of their own. Unfavorable weather compelled it to 
return and the ship and cargo were finally sold to the company. 






1. Bourg., Vol. II, p. 256, 

2. Ibid. 



5G 



F)9Roqf!T0j vnaqmc . :, ^ejfiJB rril 

9to*iei»rf^ 'one ^^fwqmoO ^Ibnl isA^'A ai/I il.*iw '>ini^; 
"^:tf3 h^iidrf rtsXq ^atll: 'ai/f:f ^xi^ sftnuc -Tjsiuojns 

a sidff* tin "Iw s^ oliow erfl 

«j^»v fioi^laoqoTq al/f^ .vlfBjtnins afJUiioq 000,02 ctb-xnifiaqS erfd" 

.-^©rfi hssoqcrrq eew :fl . 'i:nsqttO j :iqqtllrf^ 

^Bff ^r<f:* rUtfSur to ^.tsflob 000,000 < , .. 

.rfjJ9 a'fsXio'b 03^ to asisifB Cfbo, . .i^* -i»^ 

-TS^ne W9n srlt nf sMis ^;;.^3X &<j;t«8V'tl vXiriflSt ziri ban anx:?i sriT 
•Jo atrnpffjrren v ' 'b9:?ad^n*^'n g'BW mr. 

orfw ,bt'tfoen to soime*xO qj,\x " .aaiJx^ 

•:nB imoo -^nft srHit bsaoqqb tlp-uoivd'sq 9bBti 3Jl:fi 

o^'tl ^^^^f9qff(iDo t^rf^fj . ^ 

.^^a^qprtoj €>fij ocf bJtba 'cIlBrfit a-rs'.v oaias> h'a& tms n-uJuSi 



94 



The sailing route v/as charged so that the vessels returned, by 
v/ay of the Cape of Good Hope instead of Cape Hern as had here- 
tofore been the custom. The Dutch tried to prevent this but 
Florida Blanca gained his point through diplomatic channels 
and considers this advant-j.ge worthy cf mention in his cele- 
brated Statement. The first vessel which v/as sent out had 
been loaded with tea and muslin and the cargo did not sell for 



many ;;ears. Two vessels returned to Cadiz in 1787 and the 

r cent. The 
company continued with varying'; success until the year 1805 



profits of the trip amounted to more than fifty per c 



when it was reorganized, but was finally abolished in 1G54. 

Mirabeau attacked the founders of the Philippine Company with 
■ V. T'Tit' V t A r i ?j" 4' r i r f- 

all his well known ardor and his books ofi the subject of the 

national bank of San Carlos and this company were prohibitediin 

3 
Spain by a royal decree of July 9, 1785. ^Hiatever evils 
to r,BS7 ' 

;this company may have represented to the economist, there can 
be no doubt that by its foundation new fields for commerce were 
opened to the Spaniards and the possessions iii the far East 
came into closer touch v/ith the metropolis. 

Commerce was regulated by various commercial ordi- 
nances based, qo the Ordenanzas de Bilbao. In 1782, in the 
same decree establishing the bank of San Carlos, the endorse- 
.ment. of drafts v/as regulated so that a proper and efficient 



1. P. B., Statement. 
.2. D. y C, Vol. VI, p. 278. 
;3. Ibid, Vol. VI, p. 279. 



^G 



-919/1 J&jirf ae o'f ^>0 to ©o 

jE^rf -f'o ■*r{'--ip. ?..'^tr K,if''v/ f^:;?.">.'^,v .tft-ffl- ArfT . w*nsr<'^<*-*n h^.^ftT-^' 

-rolllso :c)a px • ^ »--»^v L>aj* .li^^^*^ ^^^ ^^^, ^--^ '^^'^ 






n 



system of credit v/as established. A royal decree of June 22, 
1775, Fi"t)vid'?d for the election of deputies of commerce who 
were to draw up lists of raerchants in their tovms and also 

report all vagrants. A decree of Decem]per 24," 1774, required 

2 

that all books should be kept in Spanish. The circular of 

February 3, 1787, coimnahtfecT all lookouts and watchmen to notify 
the nearest military garrison in case of a v/rcck so that only 

those engaged in life-saving could approach the v/recked vesse^-y 

.-„>., \ . ■■■A 

thus preventing the plundering of wreckage. All these acts t.r 

were later united into a code of commerce, which became quite 

celebrated throughout 'Europe.'^ 

15 ; i »rj^g commercial marine experienced a considerable in- 
crease and according to Coxe the number of vessels which en- 
tered Cadiz during the six years ending in 177'6 was 984, and had 
increased to 1,867 in the sane term of years ending' in 1788. 
In Alicanti the number had risen from 722 to 2,187 ;~ in Malaga 
from 641 to 1,059 and in Barcelona from 401 to 749.'* 

"'■^' In surveying the changes made for the benefit of 
commerce during the reign of Charles III, it is necessary to 
remember the heavy burdens which had been imposed by his pre- 
decessors and that that which seemed like emancipation of 
trade for those times would now Te considered equal to a very 
high protective system. 

-..r!Ui..J. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ 

1. D. y C, Vol. VI, p. 541. 

2. Ibid, Vol. ^I, p. 542. 

3. Ibid, Vol. VI, p. 542. 

4. Coxe, 2nd Append. 



^B1 ■ . 

c -• 'iii^ cV\l .v: -:\IJA':) cItSS'i XiS aXlJ" ^nJLIiJD XXCijJ D3'T^J 
lo til9n&ff eiii tol: sbeni 8 9§nsrfu 
0* "T^^oSooo.T " :. .ITT s^jitPrf! -)f Bri" 

\:i6v fi o^ iBJLjpa i)9iobJt8no:) © f wc 

.at; 



. f. 



96 



in r.us*. a*-- CHAPTER VIII. 

- EDUCATIONAL REFORMS AJ^TD CHARITIES. 

1 
Co■rlr.^ll The Bourbon dynasty perceived the necessity of re- 
forming the system of education prevalent in Spain at the 
beginning of the eighteenth century/knd such men as Macanaz, 
Camjillo and Ensenada were the first to ^;ttack the system and 
;to institute reforms. The benedictine monk, Peijoo, from the 
obscurity; of his cell attacked the vices which had taken iroot 
in all institutions of learning and though prosecuted by the 
clergy, through the Inquisition, he paved the v/ay for the 
'sweeping reforms made by Charles III. vfno n 
f »-#w)f<»,-? Instruction was divided ihto, primary, secondary and 
superior branches. The Church controlled all education until 
'the formation of the brotherhood or Hermanidad of San Casiano 
which examined all candidates for teaching in primary schools 
and in that way the clergy was deprived of some influence in 
'this branch. In 1743 Philip V conceded the same privileges 
to those teachers as were enjoyed by the masters of the liberal 
arts and confirmed the i)rivilege of the Hermanidad to examine 
candidates and to appoint inspectors to visit the different 
-schools. *. ^ 

- - - CK , -i/c. v.. '^ ,--------------- 

1. D. y C, Vol. VI, p. 289. 

2. D. y C, Vol. VI, p. 290. All the decrees and edicts are 

taken from the same work. 



^Q 






91B a#dlbe biiH aeeto&i> &rft IIA .0'. 



97 



..In the franchise given to the tov/ns of the Sierra 
Morena in Chapter seventy-four it is stated "that all the 
children must attend grammar school and that one of these 
should be established in each district for the different towns 
in it." The school v/as to be situated near a church and the 
Council of Castile declared in a decree of June 11, 1771 that 
"the education of the youth by grammar school teachers is one 
and ever the principiM branch of the administration of the govi» 
ernment of the state." All candidates for teaching were 
examined by the San Casiano brotherhood. The teachers of 
girls had to be examined on questions of doctrine by an eccle- 
siastic board. The text-books used in the primary schools 
were decreet! by the Council and on December 22, 1780 the same 
body abolished the brotherhood of San Casiano and in its place 
created an academic college with the object "to promote the 
perfect education of the youth and -a. i. instruction dn the rudi- 
ments of the Catholic faith throughout the kingdom ; also 
the rules for v/orking, the exercise of virtue and the noble 
art of reading, writing and figuring ; to cultivate men from "•- - 
their infancy to the first steps in their intelligence until - - 
they have grown capable of progress in virtue, sciences and 
the arts ; the preservation and increase of religion and the 
more interesting branch of the ciuil ana economic government 

1. D. y C, Vol. VI, p. 292. - - 



TU 



aet-TiJ lg sno :r£ini' -Jiii; looiiaa 'taffid^iS :>ri9:fri3 Jaxita n9i:jX^nj 

•iaii^r iVvi ^ ■" 70 38'ia^i> t ^^Blj^bo ijll:!:a.B'J to iijnjJoO 

eno ei at^rij^©^ ioorfoe .'/ ©iiif to rtotSBouhti Bd^^ 

oniBs dii;f OSVi ,,s:si n© no Jiue li;>mxoO srit ic<J b96To©l> eisw 

T'L' ©ctsvx^Ij/j oi ; ;«^/TJtiff3i1: baa ;jai:^i:"rw tgniJbast lo t'ts 

:^flW!iat»v,08 alff?Ofii6^a# ntiB it... tes-xe^tifi ©ion 



. I 



98 



(l)f the state." The Collegio Academioo, a sort of normal 
school, was established by a decree of the Council and no 
teacher could obtain a position unless he had graduated from 
this institution or from one of its tv/enty-four branches. 
No school was to be under the same roof with a tavern, not 
even if there was a separate entrance. Teachers had also 
to study grammar and orthography in the Royal Academy of the 
Language and the read and learn the Christian doctrines. No 
person was allowed to teach who could not prove the purity of 

o ?, J 

his blood and and show that he had good habits and had led a 
decent life. By the royal deq^ree of May 11, 1785 v/ere estab- 
lished in !!adrid three schools for girls. It also recommended 
the establishment of such schoo3.s in the larger cities of the 
kingdom. From these various decrees it can be seen that 
Charles III laid great stress on primary education and as 
*late as May 15, 1788 he issued a decree charging his Corregi- 
dors to see that the teachers in primary schools should dis- 
charge their duties as provided for by the decrees. 

r. -, 

Secondary instruction-^ was directed more toward edu- 
cating and strengthening the body and the mind than toward in- 
struction and the course of studies was confused with primary 
education' and higher education, being supposed to represent a 
sort of intermediary course in preparation for a career'. It 
generally comprised Latin and philosophy and often embraced 



Pi ■ 



i. D. y C, Vol. V.I, p. 294. 



30 



.ton ,T^f»vB!^ t' f^^^iw loon . ^•.' loorfdr^ 

J b#i/eex *ll sevi , 

-oih bli.x.r{« aloodop. \:iBml\ 



. >h ; 



99 



subjects taught by the faculty of Arts. There were as many 
Latin as grammar schools and Philip iv and later Ferdinand VI 
confined the former to tov/ns having corregidors, intendants or 
alcaldes majores. In the decree of January 19, 1770 Charles 
III organized secondary education in Spain. He gave the Jes- 
uit college in Madrid, known as Collegio Imperial, to the in- 
stitution known as Reales estudios de San Isidore, founded by 
Philip IV in 1625 and he reestablished the chairs of Latin, 
poetry, rhetoric, Greek, Oriental languages, mathematics, phil- 
osophy, natural lav/ and ecclesiastic discipline. This school 
had a director who assigned the duties to the various masters, 
but he could make no change in the courses of instruction with- 
out consulting the faculty. To attain the highest possible 
perfection there were to take place competitive examinations 
within six months, at which the competitors v/ere to offer three 
public exercises before four examiners and two ministers of 
the Council, v/ho would grade the contestants according to 
merit and submit their decisions to the Council who would then 
recommend to the king the appointments for certain chairs. 
The Council controlled the faculty of San Isidoro and passed 
upon all appointments and courses of instruction. 

Charles III also tried to interest the clergy in this 
revival of education and in a decree of August 14, 1768 he 
commanded the Council of Trent to build seminaries in all of 
the large towns and cities. The convents vacated by the ex- 
pulsion of their orders were generally turned into schools and 



-rii 9d^ o.t ,Ii.-li^- -fill ot.-3©XIo-- -^on:>[ tbiihsM rtl ©isell 

-rluiv rolf j'Jt^anl tc a->2*i7cj 3;f v-'j err erlsr^ hluco 9i^ 

ijXdiaaoti aa&ii^xil &^^j ru • Xw;>CX 9- 

riQ'^* fX :'T.7 Grrvr fKjf^i/.D ^,;^:^ o.-^ p,f-;otR fji^f. •rlf)/'.-^ t{m^u?. f.rff. 

..-;•. ^^ij 4Xa>o"' . ;^»a£Ui:t!^- ■■ 

to ila ni sf^lT'ifiiirnea Miucf o^ :' To ItotissoO ^ifit^xoo 

-X9 Oft J ;,i'j ifOC&jLv iitneviiQ^ &nt • ae ' "^ 



1.00 



seminaries and certain taxes were set aside to pay the salaries 
of the professors. If the seminaries v/ere to be for the secu- 
lar clergy they were to be controlled by the archbishops and 
bishops, under royal patronage ; but under no circumstances ..> 
were they to be under control of the order-s. All directors ^ 
were to be appointed by the king upon recommendation of the 
Camara and the prelates. The chairs were to be assigned by 
competition under the supervision of the diocesans. Grafjimar, 
rhetoric, geometry and arts, beinfj necessary and indispensible 
to all classes of youth, were taught in these schools. The 
bishoprics v/ere under the controi of the imperial government, 
but the Council; decided all questions of policy, es-^eci 
th*^ r,v7 By the expulsion of the Jesutts, Spain lost her most 
efficient body of educators and in order to replace theiii the 
-seminary of Cindad Rodrigp, was founded in 1769, but was in- e 
corporated with the University of Salamanca in 1777. In 1771 
D. J^ay Alonso Cann founded the seminary of Segorbe which v/as 
^later incorporated into the University of Valencia. The 
bishop D. Juan de Luelmo founded in Logrono in 1776 :he seminary 
of Calahorra, taking the college abandoned by the Jesuits. 
Many more such seminaries v/ere founded, encouraged by the sup- 
port given by the crown and the clergy. 

Around the various universities had grown up a lai'ge 
inumber of large and small colleges which were of greatest im- 
portance in the Spanish educational system. Of these col- 
leges those known as collegios majores were the most famous 



t . ;rt£5«9ooi6^rf^ 1:o fioleiir<6qi/8 &/S 7 fioi moo 

« insitfmevo?, Ifiii&qwi exit to ' ^^tuo^ ©lii ir^bflir 6*t©^ -aal1fqo^^ 

.>fjlioq to ftfioI*e9«p lie ba^bli>«*b fljnyoT^ **^* ^^tM 
^soia leri ;taoX nisqR ,arlija&T> edi to nolniiAlxs 9n:- xE 

- , . "^ffff {^^"tl ni bebiiiioT: 8B-W p;|i«i|>€>^ M^iit'^ ''■'^ ^'"^«"t'".^B 
IVVX nl . VVVI itt fijn/?fn£-' iv^ beci:;':jOHiOi> 

9f(T . B r on&XBV 'lit 'iiHa't»^%0§^ &'-'-' • * rtl h^^^^. v>-^, * ^^..^ 
renldse erf^' bVVi nl ono*t^oJ[ ni tsi^r n.il&uJ qB nflxit r0 tjofi«iu 

egiitl nwotTi hBf: eei^lsisviffir au^ltiiir 9^ 

-ftfi rfse^Bdig i.6 B'^pif /(^tf^w ass?;!.!. .. -4,-vfdrrf 

~Iou sasflt'tO ".mate^e Ifinpi:tauwi)© iU.i.mtj*ilS $>.i bjii^cr-iovj 

riirofftB*^ taom ©i-fl" 0f9w 30*10 :jI:^911oj aegeX 



ICl 



and most influential. There was one of thes,e .-coileefeS -^t . 
Salamanca ; ,oae at Oviedo ; one at Santiago ; one ,..at ValadO'-. 
lid ; one at Guenoa and one at Aloala all of which were founded 
during the fifteenth or early in the sixteenth century. These 
colleges had absolute autonomy and the most deep seated abuses 
had in consequence arisen. The favoritism shown without re- 
gard to merit and the dissensions which arose caused Charles 

» 

III to appoint Sr . Perez Bayer to inspect t'lese colleges to 
report on the abusej[ and suggest reforms therefor. By royal 
decrees of T^ebruary 15 and 22, 1771, Charles declared that tak- 
ing account of the ecadence, v/hich had been going on for more 
than a century in the universities and colleges, especially 
the majores, and to reestablish trieir old standards, their .v,>... 
constitutions should be revised, especially wi'nh regard to thcbse 
causes on the subject of prohibition of gambling and residence 
in the colleger. He also forbade the admission of anyone to a 
fellowship without special permission of the body of fellowx^^^-g 
nor should anyone be treated as a fellow even if he had spent 
seven or eight years in college. The crown was to administer 
the income of all the colleges and Charles III appointed regu- 
lar inspectors to watch the colleges. In the decrees of 
February 12 and April 12, 1777, the reqA,iirements for honors were 
indicated. Of these purity of blood was the most important, o 
but the awarding of fellowships was to be impartial and fair 
to rich and poor alike. A colle'giate term was not to be 
longer than eight years under any circumstances and the students 

W6?**:' 



L'li 



-oialBV' cfB ©no ; 0?^i5l:?nBR , 1 vO 4j or'pmBlBP 

ot r: otJ 0E . i d^l" . '.S ^nioqnff? o- III 

-Av^l ^Sit^i bdlBiti)^ n »«XtHffO tlVVI ^^V'.rfeillB C' . i^'i^i»c• 
9':^ori! *!EdT no barf liiltdw t^3^^Jnt9hx^J3 • arf^ to cfmiojj© s^^^ 

ti&Hv* ; -^a BXo ti^f^ YfBlldB.cfas^nf oct .ae'to(,Biu erf:? 

fi o.t afio^fi^ to fjoisfclrr^' lot oalB dH 

tH'/zoildt tt sMt t0 nOj e<T letc od-*i1ir ql'^svdlXst 

'D*8XnimX»B ot i^^jw fwotj silT .©gsXioi) i» tO navea 

- ; rf)' he^ntoqqQ III s^Xf^/IO Mfi A^seXiou afft 11b Yb ^0;>fft f^-i':* 

to a^sTofiil^ :'0f(# -.til •'ra»3.fiXIosf' sf^* -'r^j^Bt; ^^ .r.-i.7Uirr,.ic. . ■. t 

'T9W eionorf TCt 3:ffi<>mQfi*xpil*T QrfV , iS 2X \:ij^tr*td9'^' 

6cr ot :fon 3BW-HW9# o^si^^iXou ^^ >^q bxijn riyii Oo 

:5n9bL • bf!B 8 9;)ni HOX 



ic; 



of the oollegios majores were to he under the same ruX^s as,, 
those governing ■ the rest of the university. The defenders 
of the collegiales majores tried to influence the king through 
his confessor, Pr . Joaquin Eleta, but his influence -did not 
shake the former's resolution and as the fellowships of many 
of the colleges expired they were filled with students nomi- 
nated by the king. By a provision of the Council of May 23, 
1767 it was forbidden to teach the doctrines of regicide 
and tyrannicide against legitimate rulers. Various decrees 
were issued froii! 1768 to 1771 which prohibited the methods of 
the so-called Jesuit school and the use of its books for pur- 
poses of instruction. A royal decree of March 14, 1769 pro- 
vided that the director of feach university should be a nember 
of the Council of Castile. and that he should follov/ the "In- 
struccion" in all natters. The decree of September 6, 1776 
forbade the discussion of the privileges of the Crown and -a^,, 
censor was appointed to enforce this rule. In 1784 the censors 
v/ere told to watch that no utterances against either religion 
or the king should be made . 

V The University of Salamanca had always enjoyed spe- 
rcial privileges ; but the decrees of 1770 and 1771 defined its 
jurisdiction and provided that the rectors and councillors of 
i:the university should be elected biennially. By the degree 
rot September 20, 1771 the obligation to take the oath of "Obien- 
di Sectori in li«Litis et honestis" was imposed on all matricu- 
lated students. All students in colleges and seminaries 
were subject to all the laws, rules and re^iiulations of the 



."'♦f^^-*'•^fT'r s-r?: 



'i.,^'yj'iii:: ;^ni 



:W 1 :.Li^ V 



'^■^\,^'^ c;yj.i5i^'t» ! 






pact. 



f ?? T t''^;^?:^ a t? 3 .1 1 u y »n j 



•3«i- 






. a '■ t. i ; ■ 1 V : :■ 1 3 X : i ^^ -.■ x : fl a i iz Qji y r> i c.) j. hub 'i ■; ." ;jn e 



1Q 8 !>Offi* ©m ^r^.^ b©;ftdi r(a^q ri J i-4v XVVl o:" 88V t ftejtrasi 

^^^oor' 'Yat/ erf-^ .f^ns foo5o3 ^ir/3sT, f^elfso-'n 

noisil^ji 19X1^X9 teniii^B EeuiiB*iaJ"jJJ on zup:: nor^v/ oz cio:' 
sji n^nii^eft' Xt*'tl lhil- OYM lo osaia-bb arir ::jjo ; e 



i"!^ ifiXJ 






1C3 



Council of Castile and had to be regularly matriculated ..^ ^./Ic- 
cording to a decree of November 8, 1770, the clergy could re- 
ceive their bachelor's degree by talcing courses in their con- 
vents ; but, having abiised this concession, it was ordered on 
March 11, 1771, that the courses taken in seminaries, colleges 
or convents under the control of the clergy would not count 
toward any degree. The hours of study were regulated in a 
depyree of August 3, 1771 as were also the courses of study at 
the University of Saiamanca in 1786. The simultaneity ofi-ji,. 
cours^QS was prohibited by a decree in 1772 and by another de- 
cree of the same year no credit was to be given unless the 
student had renewed his matriculation each year. According to 
a decree of March 5, 1773, bachelors of arts trying for a high- 
er degree had to assist the various chairs in t4aching and 
the duration of the collegiate year was fixed by royal decree 
on November 18, 1785. It was to last f r jm October 18, to the 
day of San Juan in June. The courses of science, mathematics, 
philosophy, physics e.nd. other subjects as given in the semina*^ 
ry of the nobles at Madrid, Vergara, Valencia and San Isidore, „ 
were to be accepted by all the universities, according to a 
decree issued in 1785. By means of these numerous decrees, 
Charles III tried to build up a sjirstem of national education 
and he succeeded in at least rooting out many of the worst 
evils . 

The object of articles eight and nine in book eight 
of the Movissima Recopilacion was the establishment of grades 



?:3i 



■nuO^ Jon bliiC ;>i i* i>i'y Im iO*£'«^ii «•' 'lii Zi^UaViiO. 

to /.Udii&cfiurTtls'fefft .d6Vr ni «;j :^Jta«i*viftU erf: 

>0 melt ?R»I 0!* ^BW -^T ,^.8^1 iBi *fc>r{m©voF rro 
otohlpl nsR bfiB BljneiBV ,B•IB^^•seV• fbi ts ael^of!' ■erf?*- t 

. aXiva 
to 3foorf nt ^n^rp br 



1C4' 



in t?ie universities. The study of surgery received special 
attention on "^he part of Charles HI and in 178? he established 

a royal college of surgery at Madrid, under the immediate 

5 only reqv;! \if^.ter*fi da^x^''' - 

protection of the Council and independedt of the Tribunate 

Protomedicato and of the Junta of hospitals. In a royal de- 
cree of P'ebruary 24, 1787, the qualifications for graduation 
were fixed. There was a constant desire to draw up a plan 
for the general control of the universities and D. Pablo de 
Olavide submitted plans of reform to the University of Seville. 
No general plan was adopted, though in 1770 it was proposed 
that each university should outline a course of instruction. 
Though these attempts to establish a system seem to have failed, 
a Spanish author rightly says that : "The impulse was undoubted- 
ly given and the same universities of Salamanca, Alcala, O-ra- 
nada, and Valencia, made notable improveaents in their courses 
of study and ended by placing themselves at the head of that 

intellectual movement and progress, which constituted the most 

1 Bin fe 
glorious achievement of the reign of Charles." 

Prior to the reforms instituted by Charles, the edu- 
cational system of Spain was unquestionably as bad as a couple 
of centuries of ■ abuse could make it. 

Don Leucada Doblado gives an excellent account of 

2 

conditions then existing in Spain. The methods employed v;ere 

said to have been worthy of the thirteenth century. The study 



D. y C, Viai. IV, p.' 308. 
2. Doblado, p. 102. 



*0I 



e;^Btb9^lmi eff. E.y t^^i^t) ub TO 039 J.' 

-Qf; i^^'iu"^: B al .s,ii;-v xq2or: 10 Bjnxfti sr.r 'to 'ons oi-Bjxrjair.Ou o".'! 

o93'froo -rx'^- «■:* ni a.-^'ftBfibvontqr'rJ: 9l(fe:f0ff sbBn ^fiionelaV bnB ,Bben 

. -^x jIfiOo 9SUiB ->i^iJi 

910./ beYOi-iiro ajoii^ota &f^'r ".cu^qc: ru ;<.'a:-ai.x9 cfsnr snoxd'Xbnoy 



. ^u^ . 



1C5 



of Aristotelian philosophy was forbidden and. instead of that the 
inductive method of Bacon was taught. Three years of attend- 
ance in schools of logic, natural philos^ophy and metaphysics 
was the only requisite for a master's degree. Each university 
had three or four profe^ssors of divinity and as many for the 
courses in civil and canon iaw and i^iedicine. The six great 
colleges, or collBg^os majores formed the literary aristocra- ^ 
cy ; for none but those of untainted nob4.e blood v/ere elected 
to their fellowships. In order to insure against mistakes, 
one of the fellows went to the birthplaces of the parents and 
grandparents of the elected member and examined, on oath, from 
fifteen to thirty witnesses who had to sv/ear that the ancestry 
of the candidate had never been a menial servant, shop-keeper, 
a petty tradesman, a mechanic, and that neither he himself nor 
anj'- relative had ever been punished by the Inquisition nor had 
descended from Jews, Moors, Africans, Indians or Guauchos, the 
inhabitants of the Canaries. In this way the colleges v/ere 
backed by. the influence of all the great families of Spain and 
all the places of honor both at the bar and in the Church; were 
held by the collegians. Regular men of ability were kept in 
reserve for public literary competition and in that way the 
evil was somewhat disguised. The Marquis of Roda had been 
rejected because of a flaw in his title to purity of blood and 
therefore nursed a deep enmity against the collegios and also 
against the Jesuits. He succeeded in breaking up the exclu- 
siveness of the former, when he became a minister, by appointing 



+ 1-. .-T ■* n- - 






( 



xj97j9i9 919W booXd s^dofl netnxsJfw to se /d »non lo ; j 

ao . ,benioi8X8 &ns "fsdmein i)#:rael9 ©riJ to a^neieqbn 

•r '.■ ; ■' ; ■-;' '■ ■; ■,- ** 

■■•'■< ' , ' ' . . , ' 

bi3rf Ton noil' t^.il■(■nl ©'■'•* ':rf bei^^lnirq nsorf tevs ' .'■. 

31 9w 8936^1X0 J sri:* ^ew airfv nl . TB/iau en 3;?nfi:fi(tBiini 

Q'zu^:^^ nx Dxiii lac i^r iviivn xo i ' 

nl itqei eiew '::?lIlo'fi lo n&rt telirsaH « p,nBJts®-t-to^ ®rf^ Y^ bl9ri 
eri^t \ifiw cfBff;* ni t te7*).tll Jl.^-^• tea 91 

n99d jberf sboH lo stfij.... ' .' ' . - 

bnfi boolcf lo vcflTuq of 9icfiJ sxrf ni welt b 1q 8ei;aj9d b9ctj9t,9T 

'i:tnloqq» x<^ ,'^.9^axftim e 9fB^s(f sri nerfir ^i'^ 



1C6 



all the fellov/s to hir.h places in the Church and then filling: 

^ef b*ij*?LUK ^'r'K^ of 
their vacancies in the colleges with young men of no family. 

The older fellows disowned their successors, but the barriers 

'•■i,-u-r-- •■ in tir;- ■ ^■-;.u" . ■j^i'^r-i: the 

of exclusi^'eness remained down. The same authOF thought 

that the influence of fhe Inquisition was extremely bad and 

compared the conditions to those under which Galileo recanted 

his own discoveries. Major Dalrymple, in his Travels through 

-y, hoth f':< '^ i r 'f iV<*!7Cf? of 

Spain,* comments on the dilapidated condition^of the universi- 

2 

ties and lays it to the "king's despotic influence." Bur- 
going also speaks of the backwardness of learning and attrib- 
utes it to the lack o:^ rewards or encouragement for learning, 

the religious restraint and the wrong principles governing the 

3 

system of education. The expulsion of the Jesuits had left 

a vacancy which was hard to fill for the endowments derived 
from Jesuit property did not amount to enough to supply the 
chairs vacated by the members of the order with well paid pro- 
fessors. 

Charles III was the friend and protector of arts and 

r'ii^..iciK- 
sciences and passed various beneficial decrees in order to in- 

crease t":eir influence. Florida Blanca granted heredetary 

nobility to all :nen of letters and university professors and 

4 
exempted from military service all printers and book makers. 



1. Dob 1 ado, 

2 . Dal . , p . 7?) . 

3. Bourg., Vol. I, Chapter XI. 

4. D. y C, Vol. VI, p. 394. 



bOi 



TIfi 



-.'vyooiu awolibl i.i^bl^ w;(T 



lit n»ff:t hHB riatttfCO : 

. r ^rf?jt an ^tj t"t-i. 



irt r fT»Tri t. f 






arii \*Iqq;;8 o;f ffsuon© ocf ^HtJOfOB ion b^u ^in&quiq J^iuseL lautl 
- jiq bin Ji ciii-v T©bto ii sn'^ \id be^fe^jev 



fina sc-ie lo *o;?uev^oiq bnis brieiil sn'cf 8bv/ III asI-iB.iy 

-ni :9bio ni &eetoQb l&ijiJQaBd auoii&v begasq fme esorr^ioe 

bn3 8^0889'lo^q \vti8i9vini; biifi a-xeiJbi to a&ci IIb u;^ x^llidoa 



w8i95fsm /[ooff bai« aled'niiq IIb ejivrsr 



atqmsxs 



,obfciIdo<l .1 



loV 



t 



.S 



vt. 



1C7 



Various academies of science and letters v/ere founded during 
Charles* reign. Of these the Academy des beaux arts of San 
Perdinando was under Charles* special protection and he offered 
prizes to stimulate the interest in that branch. Besides the 
last named academy there was an Academy of Medicine ; econom- 
ic societies throughout the kingdom and a society for juris- 
prudence. In Madrid there were academ^ies of languages and 
history, both founded through the influence of Campteianes. 

Charles IT I recognized the importance of books in 
spreading enlightenment throughout the kingdom and he opened^ 
the libraries, belonging to the Jesuits before their expulsion, 
to the public. That ^of San Isidore contained 54,CC0 volumes 
in 1785. The time had passed, when the restriction placed 
on the publication of beoks made it more difficult to have them 
printed than to write tliem, for now the authors had only to 
obtain permission from the Council, the presidents of the au- 
diences or the corregidors of the kingdpm.. By the royal 
decree of April 20, 1773, the jurisdiction of the Inquisition 
was limited to books dealing solely v/ith religious or sacred 
questions. ^The^royal c!:ecree of December 19, 1761, charged 
the appraisers of books to notify the librarians of all books 
that v/ere placed on sale so that all the works that were pub7^ 
lished might find their way into the libraries. Laics were 
allowed to establish printing presses, according to the decree 

1. D. y C, Vol. VI _, p. 394. 






) Tehrti- aetw ofxtont bt^^'''" 






8^1 



.9i?0X 









• 000, J^f"^ bf 3hUl :o| .+ «rfT .t>lJ'^t;<T ^^f^ 

c . ' ~ i 

sn&dt i.D ©Torn Ji ©cam a?lo0d 1(. 

ft^ at0'^'"*tr6 "^-^'"^ von •to'! ,rf?edfl fti^lTw O"*^ nerfw be^rritq 

nc'i? hitfrifTl «)rC4 to "^oi:* J the! lift ^-^* t^TVI ,0S lifqA to weiosb 



Bts)9h Qdi 0^ gnlbtOijoB ,8sa8ei^ ^iMiSfAtq rigriJ 



f^iifoXie 



1C8 



of May 16, 1776 ; but corporations and privileged persons were 
Vbrbidden '>fb %6'''ft. Medical works T^feVe' not allowed ttf^r'^ 
I-'rinted without the approval of the president of the Proto- * 
medicato ; and the maps of the frontiers were subject to the 
revXis'i'br of trhe royal acWelnr d:f' Tif story .' On NoveinbBr 14, 
1762, all taxes on books were abolished, excepting that on 
books of general use for instruction, which were subject to 
'^Ue tax 'of the 't-ouric^Y. " "^hei 'Vbyal 'S^ci^s "cff 1764 and 1768 
made the copyright of the aulrhor heredetary if not held in 
mortmain. The decree of June 8, 1769, forbade the printing 
or "introductiori of any "Bulls, 'brife^i^s", or' oth^r' ddcum'ehts" frdin 
the court of Rome. Prelates and other members of the clergy 
could grant permission onlj'' to print books of religion or 
sanctity. Books could be introduced fi*om' dhV provfriue ah to 
another, but not from foreign countries into Spain without the 
license of the Council. The printing of Church literature 
was regulated by royal i^ecrees of Hay 1 and June 28, 1775, and 
on November 29 of the same yrar a decree was issued declaring 
that the official censor would hear the author of any boote and 
pass upon it after having done so. Accor(fing tb the decree 
of January 1, 1785, noi book could be sold before cne copy had been 
placed in the royal library and one in the Reales "Estudios de 
TTadrid. In 1787 the royal company of printers and book- 
binders was given the right to print all books on ecclesiastical 
matters and to reprint, without an ecclesiastical privilege, 
however, all those books which would be beneficial to the 



c 

•t^w jfalrTw ,noiifji/*f ot ««« len^n ajiood 

•to noi^lIST io aaCooirf In ota^i bluoy 

. ^}3r.lV'. .-'0 roil: ■ h«jo''^otvttl' !^^"ftJ 

fiiif^fj'ifiMJt ri;>"tijrr!) \o ;^dl*rtl'? . I . Tsjob ©ri* to e«n»jii 

■gsfije^ or?.* tf:* -O.-jbA . o: ^te :i • 

,6s©Itvtiq IajJ:;taBia©Ioo9 na cfworf.* t 

Ciff:f o.* lBloiJ.enB(i fid Muow r. , o/l 



1C9 



comiTieroe of the nation and to that of the oomrany. The tri- 
bunal of the Inquisition was charged with the duty of drawing 
up prohibitive and expurgal^ory indices of books, but the royal 
decree and d-^-cree of the Council issued ^n the 7th and 21st 
of June, 1767, respectively, forbade the publication of ail 
books injurious to the morals and customs of the people and . 
those which were seditious or injurious to the powers of the 
king or any other ruling princes. Two decrees of the Council 
issued on June 14 and 16, 176G, declared that the Holy Office 
should first hear the Catholic authors of a book before con-" 
demning it. The passages v/hin^ were offensive to religion or 
perverted the Christian morals were to be determined and ex- 
purgated so that a book was not to ^e prohibited entirely be- 
cause of a few harmful passages as had heretofore been thee- 
custom. All edicts of the Holy Office were subject to the 
approval of the king. Besides the encouragement of the publi- 
cation of books, which Charles III lent to authors and pub- 
lishers, he promoted the publication of periodicals and this. 
class of literature contributed much toward the extension of . 
learning during this reign. The same system of censureship 
was decreed as that exercised over the publication of books. 

The influence of the econonic societies .was not con- 
Tined to ameliorations in the industriaii system of Spain, but 
also served, to improve, to a large extent, the educational 
conditions. It was due to the efforts of the members of the 

Vasconada society that the seminary of Vergara was established, 
id, ' 

thus giving the you4;h of the nobility an opportunity to receive 



QOl 



JcXii mia ii4V iifi^ nD i>^;iiax aiaauo .i oaTtgorj 

-dwq bne atorii^uB ot iahl III eel'i ta.^oocf lo aoi;tBj 

lOvHOi 3119^X8 ©rf^r lisv/o^ r*;^>;a bac:«dX'J-a4>u d'Wf^B'ia-*^ rjasl;; 

qiiiaB-cuaxisa lo tced'a^a .scias 9X: ' .m^l^-i nlM gnii niaol 

.n>(oorf lo n J fito^ji f r^'-j.-r ?55:t •r'-^vn b^alotoxG *Bfi.t h'- b99'ij9b 3BW 

-npo ;roa .ai4v.v.J&fi^x-&lv>Q^ ^iu-^,oaujt :'- 

:fjjd ,(iiaqP. Ip a9iM\:a JBliw8A;|)rji 9r(^, fll aCToi.tBTBil9CTB tl 

, .i>eri « i XdB -* ae aaw B"t6a*x6ll lo ^iteii iirt • ; a V 

9Vi9j8T ocf" v:Mnt;:tToarrro nis ^'■tftllrfOT erf . ^ -^frivl^ sJlrff 



lie 



their education in Spain instead of having to go abroad. The 
Basque Society v/as the model for all similar institutions and 
Caniponanes persuaded other provinces to follow in the same 
footsteps. At the meetings of these societies papers and 
various topics, touching on the welfare of the country, were 
discussed and nearly all the most learned and progressive men 
of those times contributed in this way. Prizes v/ere dis- 
tributed annually for essays which dealt "frith the problems of 

the industrial conditions, and everybody tried to present plans 

1 
which would tend toward the betterment of popular education. 

One of the principal projects was the founding of patriotic 
schools for poor children, where they might be taught in all 
branches conforming to their station in life and especially 
the managem.ent of machines. The granting of a doctor *s de-, 
gree at the University of Alcala de Henares to Dona Maria Isi- 
dore Quintana Guzman y la Cerda, daughter of the Count of 
Onate, v/as the motive for the creation of the Soclecad de 
Damas for ladies. This institution had been approved by the 
king and was really a branch of the patriotic men's societies. 
Its members were mostly of the nobility and the Infantas also 

joined in the good work. Charles III believed in the educa- 

2 
tion of v/omen and it was only through his intercession that 

they v/ere allowed to participate in the inteiiettual progress 

which manifested Itself in the kingdom during this reign. The 



1. D, y C, Vol. VI/ p. 407. 

2. Ibid, Vol. VI, p. 411. 



^' '.-^ ■-'■* nit wollot of a^cjnirv ■ -ToqmsO 

^i. LiS ue q « i> D a^ • fl'i x.i ax u j i :r e c c > n i rai ol a q i^ a an jna.^ d 

-lei QLt^-V sfioO 0-^ p. f^'i nn fiK' tfb /JCsjIA "o ^-^i^i'^vinU s-ft .^n ss-fQ 
to -nxjoD art J 'x.o idrri,3i/0£) tii.b'ssCj isi \.ai^ aaawuxu^. siod 

- -..y :- ) 9-^-^ nr c-vVfrls.-^ Ill nfil'isdO .:;{'. o'.7 boo-?, sr '^onfot 



Ill 



Junta de JDarnas v/hlch began with fourteen women of the nobility 
soon increased its numbers rapidly, for membership v/as eagerly 
sought. This new societj'- worked zealously for the promoticn 
of learning, the foundation of schools and other matters which 
could be improved by their influence or v/ork. Women were no 
longer barred from the advantages of higher learning and they 
were given dfegrees and honors which had previously been re- 
served for men. Florida Blanca in his statement made in 1788, 
said that there were more than sixty patriotic societies most of 
which were endeavoring to aid, educate and awaken a desi*^e - 
' for work among the poorer classes ; they encouraged the arts, 
' agriculture and handicrafts, and they had established drafting 
■'schools, v/hich were of great importance for the progress of 
"^the arts and sciences. Besides giving academic degrees to 
women, Charles III allowed them to try teachers* examina^-icns, 
and ±t successful gave them certificates for teaching. Coxe 

says that the institution of these societies v/as one of the 

bv 
most profitable and one of the happiest conceptions which oc- 
curred to the eminent men of Charles* reign and a Spanish au- 

^ thor in speaking of the same subject sayr. that the intellectual 

life of the Spanish nation during the reign of Charles III was 

2 
regenerated, progressive and truly glorious. ■ oi 

As Charles III v/as a man of intense religious and*' 

moral conviction, it was only natural that the Church should be 



1. P. B. Statement. 

2. D. y C, Vol. VI, p. 412. 



ftn f,f ocfCfcr ^ri:^ "fr-'t vrp.rfolaes h: . . . 

on Slew n»«o'7 .3(to«r ia Buneulln it i#rir*^ v4 b»vc 

-©1 n89cf ^iau©lv»^q bsri rfyirfw e^toxicxi J>aii fiawiQS'B nevis o^sw 

,8eVI fli ©fc^iii 4ft©cti9ctB(f8 aXA at B&afslF^ j»b:fcT0l^ .nactr tol: bdvisa 

lo :^Rnr- Efti-.*»^j08 ^tfoti-teq xjtxia HJBlfJt Afon^ p,'"r?,\s' Tf^rrt tSf^"* '>tfts 

6;xa&i> a n©3ia«^ij A one o;JsdUbs this oc ^niiovssbiiG ©i8w ^ijliiw 

t^cfros 9ff<t basBii/o^n^ ^«xlit ; adgBsIo •jfeioocf ©riif srtOfrfli 5iiov/ lol 

Iw 3«i©-i;30-£q 9M;t Ttol ejnscfiuquii ^*SiS*'^:^ ^O siiw fi^>Xiiw ,aioorio3 

I 
3&ftTg9b oieflebeos anivi^ aei>is9e .ssoneija bna e^is ©ritf 

•,.j' .^iiiri^fi©"? -lot 89i«3ltiti8» CTSxl rlaasoows 3li bm> 

0.'? lo ©xi'j afjw a»i*8ia03 sasrii *io crolitwti^fent :aa 

-i>o dairfw anoitqsanou ^eaiqqsff aK:* T/) ©no bna^^I<f»:f'f*ft'iif"i' -r, ^^-^ 

-0s rfaxneqa a ofia n^iei *fi»iiaili) lo asm tftsnlmd sil^ Ow Dqiiajj 

a 'v/ TIT B9ii3xiO to naisi drfcf gnt^fi^^ r« .t •'Rr* rfs f r'fi<T?' ^ci^ J(: 

S 

btia auoxstlei i^ana^ai lo iiera s asw III Eeiifi/i!> eA 

;d hlrrorfs rCut'rrJD ertt ^^flfl;? XttiiJ- '^rt ^irra '.t;6w ^otvnoo i.«ton 



112 



given great privileges with regard to the spiritual life of 
hi.s ^i^i:ect,^ .^ , ,^, J^Q)4gl\ b,oth_Charles and his. ministers had adapt- 
ed the unswerving policy of making the Church subject to all 
the civil lav/a of the kingdon there wert; very few decrees is-' 
su,e4 which affected.. .,th^, religious rights aiid custome of the 
Spanish Church. He did, however, prohibit all those customs^, 
which were contrary to a true religioiAs sentiment, the mostc 
notable case being the suppression of the Auto sacramental, a 
sort of passion play, around which had grown up sacrellgious 
abuses. This occurred in 1765 and in 1760 a decree had for- 
bidden the practice of various abuses which accompanied the, 
processions of the Holy V/eek. By a decree of 1774, Charles 
forbade the beating of tambourines in the processions of the 
Sagrament oiC.San Justo ; in 1780 dance§ were |)rohibi ted in'. p> 
religious processions ; in 1787 all noises and disturbances 
during the nights of San Juan and San Pedro were forbidden. 
V/hen the Cortes was assembled in 1760, Charles III asked that 
body to defend with all their power the mystery? of the Immecu- 
late Conception and to declare the Virgin the patron of the 
nation. In 1771 Charles established the royal order of Charles 
III and exacted from its memhere the oath "''O live and die 
for our sacred, catholic, apostolic religion."^ The badge of 
this order had on its face an image of the Holy Virgin and the 
Junta of the Immaculate Conception was united with this order i 



1. D. y C ., Vol. VI, p . 444. 

2. Ibid, Vol. VI, p. 445. 



\11 



^du^ewo eeorf^ Xi»- .t id 111 o^<j t'lfivewori ,„ bil) el" . rij'Xi/rfO rial 
«i/oXatIe*iusa tjif nwoiQ, be/i 4i)Xriw brxiJOlfi t^iJXq noXaajsq ^© ^tTO« 

a©;>aBd«oi;f«ib haA aeaxon XIb V8VX fix ; anoiaaeuoiq sifoiailet 

.ri9i?Jbidi^l 9*t9# uxb©*! xibS bos aeu^I* afir '+ - -^^. ^^ - 
.^ir< :" b9?i»s ill aeXiBffO cOBVXjsX I^Xdmesai^ <4i*w eodioU ,8ficf 119x^(7 
-uoarxi:! 9fil lo 'Ci©;?a^« »rftf i9woq ilerfiXXa xi:fiw f>a9l9b ot ^i^orf 
8iJ4 \o n^ii^ii »ii^ al^TiXV wi** ©TtaXwai) c-^ ^--£5 aoX;tg9o£io ' 
a6X"wrfO It© ^9b^a X«YO!x •/i^ bsrieXXcffi^ae asX^i^xiO 4VJJC jil 

8iJb boB eviX oc^^ rf^Jso ^di anBdcnem a^i cffotl he4-i>j6*xe hne ITI 

S 
'^^- f'^bBd 9/rT '*.aoJ^exi9T yxXoto.v .: jOlXorl':*^, 5 






iia^ 



on March 21, 1779. In the "Instruoolon" given to the Junta 
of State in 1788., Charles makes it the firs-t; duty, pf that 
body to protect the Catholic faith and the promotion of good-- 

customs and the second article requires obedience to the Holy 

1 
See in all spiritual matters ; for though the king w^s not 

disposed to allow the Church to infringe upon his prerogative, 
he was unquestionably an orthodox Christian both in private i|' 
life and in his attitude as a sovereign. i-^.^i *^ ♦>,.. 

Florida Blanca showed himself to be a man of very .-.- 
advanced and enlightened ideas in the dispensing of charities. 
He sajrs that instead of encouraging professional mendicity, 
he established a regular system of ascertaining which of the - 
poor were desErving and which were simply professional beggars. 
Regular standing committees v/ere appointed to distribute the 
money granted b^- the king for charitable purposes or collected 
from generous individuals. A general Junta was appointed to 
supervise this work and special donations were made by the king 
?t© unfortunate individuals such as officers wives and orJ)lians, 
or those of magistrates^ who were too modest to make known their 
wantL Schools and places of refuge were established for. 
poor and abandoned girls and there were also opportunities 
given to boys to learn a trade for v/hich they seemed particu- 
larly fitted. Loan banks were established for poor women so 
that they might buy material for their work. Florida Blanca 



1. Crobierno, p. 107. 

2. F. B. »s Statement. 



fi Sasj L &di o* It® V i g. *•«© J: j o irtS a it f * srf* nl . ^' ^ '^ ' : r o 

&Br{3 to vcfwJb tain «^r<-t *i ss^ifim seltflliD VSST M.-t^.f?^ to 

,evit68o:i9iq fiXii rroq/J esnttlnl o* r(o*^ijifO srf^ woXIb 'of beeoqalb 
©Jffiviiq nir if;tort fiAiiaitrfO xoborl^io na x-i^<^iB(*oic*38wpnw asw 9rf 

.nsisTevoa fi as eb«tt.t^»' etrf rrt brte <9l:ll 
Y^ev lo nfiifl'B sd o^ llsamiri bsworfa ajneX^ ©jbliol'^ 

tX^ijibnsrn Isrioisfteloiq sff^3«'^>Jooitft to fossc^eni :^fir(^ e^ftS •^ 

9ri^Y'lo''/fjxxfw ?^niiicB;t-i908J3 to raSv^s^a tJ3Xi/3©i s bsrtalidjs^tsd srf 

.a'^Dierf Isrioxasdto'fq vlqi?ii8" 9iiw /^olHTifbrtfi sfllvtaasb eiew Toaq 

o^ oe^nioqqB a«w 8;*n«t I^Tsnag A .aXflUfelv^ibfii awo^fdnsg no'tl 

jHil orf^ '{d dfosm 8tew an xtBfiob Xsi^aqa ^flfl 3ii(iir alH:^ aeXv^-urfrp. 

,»ff»nt|td bna aevlw ataoltto aB rfyi/a eX^jjbivihni afttiiJi:i'*iotflii oS 

tliirid^ owonjl 93iBfli o;t ^adbOM oovt a^sw oriw |a9ts^^ai3«f!! ': to 

"TPOl: bs^ria tXdavtas eif^w ©^t/let to as^jfiXq ft«fl aXoorfjH -p-^nn.^ 

a 9iii fitft-itjqqo oaXe Qtftw 9t9/1^ bfl^ eiila beno^rrsdB brns looq 

-i;o£^-teq beind&e ^;»di rtjlrtw lol ebBid* ft n^esX a** a^otf oi" ndvig 

03 n^mow looq 'tot bsiiaxIdBJfae q^^at 'vt'nfut r^Rr>J . ^i^.-* * f^' 'rr«*« f 

aoaalE Bbi-JoX'i .:<fow 'tieri^ tot isiit/tam ^xj<f 5rt;^i.iT: varidt ^ai^i 



lUS 



also speaks of the evil of unorganized charity in ^he follow- 
ing words : "Sire, there are such great benefits derived by 
means of the hospitals and the committees that I cannot, under- 
stand how sensible persons misjudge thew. He who is charita- 
ble through these channels is conscious that his charity is 
not limited to purely personal compassion for an individual 
of some kin- or for his situation. He then gives necessarily 
for the love of Christ, thus raising a moral virtue to the 
sphere of those which ar^ truly Christian." Young girls were 
given doweries by me^ns of a loan bank established for that 
purpose and poor houses were established for nearly every 
large town. Florida Blanca gives great cre^Jitto the clergy 
for these works. and says that the bishops and other prelates 
submitted with good grace to the deduction of one third from 
their, reyecu^ . to.be applied toward p^iasjLonirjg, of j'persoQS cul- 
tivating the sciences and letters. 

The cause of charity, like that of education, had 
©a^y ^ble supporters. during this reign and one, of the most em^xiy 
ardent seems to have been the icing's minister himself. His 
views on the right methods of applying charity are worthy of 
even the most advanced writers of these times and are really 
remarkable for their breadth and enlightenment. 



MI 



-Bji'iijrij L-ix onw & , tsnj 8^jj(,3i.'n anQ£i9q eiax5n'j3 won Dn.id^s 

tTlhni ftfe^ •tot- notaaBqmoj iMrt^'^sr?)^ '^Istuq c ii ;ton 

Slit 0& BUftLV iBIOIff «^^^rtt«lBT «« td f»^Oi 

-. ,; /'tasn folr Mriail ©t^w a«;2fir«iC looq fofiB ea-oq-tuq 

y:*i'T9jrb Grit of f iheio &6f>*rn 8<*vt'«^: Borrj?.!"'' isbi'^ol'^; . nvA).* 97:i-rBl 
sej:'£rl9''»:q TeriJc Drt£ aqofiaid ©fl;t cr^nj a'^jsa bne. a^tiow 93»ricJ' -lal 
Rtoit b-riff^ 9fi^ To CEOE^awbdb s/fi- ot *bje^g foeog d&tm'iief Hindis a 

3iH ♦ xi68*iJtfr ib'*«xnxn 8'^nifli 9ff:f nji^&G &vsri or 2 . :iii»t'ii5 

lo v:iit*fow e^s \:^x-rBrio Sntxlqqfl to aboric^ .-^ii 9/f# no «wair 

':IIeft*r e*ie bfis aeaii^ ©»«fft to* s-r9:*'i-fw ?s«5:)rrHvbs tsot^ <^H* novs 

. ■trt©Hrte?'/i^^l>in9 una ricrDusii.; -u-t'/i^- -.-.i/^ y^ jj.j.i-.uirie'i 



116 



'- ^-ii*- CHAPTER IX. 

THE JESUITS AND THE INQUISITION. 

The most frequent accusation macTe against the Jes- 
uits so as to justify their expulsion from Spain v/as that they 
Jiad taP:en an important part in the risings of Madrid in March, 
1766, It is, therefore, quite important that an account of 
their expulsion should begin prior to or with that period. 

In order to bring about the reforms contemplated by 
Charles III his ministers thought it necessary/ to begin by 
changing the manner of dress affected by the Spaniard. It 
usually consisted of an imme^nse hat, v/hich vss worn' in such a 
Y/ay as to conceal the face of its wearer ; and with this he 
generally wore a very long cleak Tr^hich likewise served to 
concesr-l the fori- and the fe^.tur-es. This mode r.f df ess 'made it 
ha^d for the police to detect assassins or robbers and to remedy 
this evil Charles III issued a decree forbidding the vearing 
of large hats ' df^'long clb'aks. The carrying out of this de- 
cree aroused the fury of the mob and it was directed solely 
against the minister of the interior, Squilacci, not only be- 
cause of the reforms, but also because of his forei^fh birth. 
The tailors, who were sent through Madrid to cut the coats to 
a proper length increased the already violent discontent and 
on Palm Sunday, Inarch 23, 1766, the mob, composed of the lovfer 



eii 



.i)Ol"XBq ^Qdt ci^iw to oi %oi'iq nl:%&6 biiJO:.& iiotafiu Sii^ 

-ed '/Ino ton ti^^j^HsJ: :if:lifi 

• fi^ild njiisiot 8tr^ to oawsasd OBi» #i;d e^ sauao 

l9'/>-0i srrt to b9so:fificytf:fOm exfi fbbX 



116 



classes, gathered in front of the royal palace, crying : "Long 
live the king I" and "Death to Squilacci I" All the street 
lanterns which had been introduced a little earlier were de- 
stroyed and the house of the Italian minister was sacked. 
The king agreed to withdraw the decree, but the people also 
demanded the banishment of Squilacci and the abolition of 
monopolies in the necessaries of life. The king granted these 
demands and also amnesty to "^he people, but the flight of 
Charles and his gfamily to Aranjuez, accompanied by Squilacci, 
cau.sed new tummlts to break out. This finally compelled the 
king to send his minister of the interior to Italy and Arand^a 
was made president of Castile, while Miguel Musquiez was made 
minister of finances. 

For 6.11 these disturbances, which can be traced to^yari- 
ous innovations instituted by Charles III and his ministers, 
= the religious orders v;ere blamed and especially the Jesuits. 
The spirit of enlightenment, which, had. come from Prance, and ,.^^ 
had been imbibed by the ministers appointed by Charles, found 1 
its most ardent opponents among the members of this society, 
who tried in every way to oppose the spreading of the doc- 
trines of the Prench encyclopaedists and free thinkers. Wall, 
'Grimaldi, Squilacci, the Duke of Alba, Roda and other influen- 
tial men had tried to persuade the king to take steps against 
the Jesuits, as had been done by Pombal in Portugal in 1759, 
and by Choiseul in Prance in 1764 ; but Charles seemed reluc- 
tant to attai;k so povrerful an arm of the Church as the Society 



11 



-eb 919W -reiXise eitJil 3 bs^ nt nosd berf rfjirfv^ e-?-i9>-tnBl 

.b9:4j63 aivw net' ' -'- aBiJ^f-"T - ' '" - - - -' ---^ -^otite 

osXs elqoeq 9xi^ :fwd t®-iJ*ofe «rf^ WBibriiiw ot besnaB aniM dKT 

lo flOJWXXocfB, erf:? bnfli lausXi^/fP tc ■*ri<^«!rff^i^e^ 9^^* ^sbrrsr'r'' 

ta 4"/^ t»Xqo9q a oaXe 

er' ' LXh.:nuj ciXeail aiilT , .iifo, vl8$'f" " ' ': 

•lA fma "<;Xe;tI c4 iQia^^ni 9ri>r "To fa^BXnf f>nes ot anisi 

sbBw 8tw selifpaifM X dX triw ,8Xxt8B0 lo :frr9.f)i8 9T<T ^bsm af^w 

- . ^OJBt^ 9Cf -ifij rfylriw ,3H jnBj'^uisib & 

,.''.T?5-*r^ h"!tni g2r{ bnB III '"0l-^,*;-rf0 -'.^ bs^ufits'ii En.olfnron:rtt ^uo 

,ii^iii^o\u 3^* TiXieiw/9q.a& Dim xj'jimiQ jiiaw s'laoia cijjui^ - 

bnB ,8anai^ motl amo;) Xisrl rtai ,lXn» lo iliiqs sxlT 

-oof) ©xij" 16 -jatbijaiqe diit 9ao!i.qo Oit xew. ^BVh 

jXIsT .KT^^Cnt'^'* i?9^1 ^no a:f,Bil3^^qoXj'^,^09 rJan?>'T^ :>:f 

,eeVX nx XB^.iJtto*I fii XBdBio^ ;%:i. ennb ^^f^ri f t'-'-'i ^-^ 

-j.L'Xsi bout998 asXlurfO ^wd ; i-aVI n 1 



117 



Jesuits and it was not until after the riots in Madrid that he 
appointed a Junta to consider the suppression of the society. 
The decision reached by the Jun^a culminated in 'ihe expulsion 
of the Jesuits ;0n April 2, 1767. The The execution of this 
decree v/as accomplished with the greatest secrecy and it was 
arrant^.ed so that it should be proclaimec' simultaneously in all 
the provinces of the empire and that it should be executed ' 
with the utmost dispatch. Fro?:i 4000 to 5000 Jesuits v^ere 
transported to tlie various ports and were then shipped to the 
papal dominions. The hardships endured by these exiles was 
certainly disproportionate to tlieir offences and cast a shadov/ 
over what v/as proclaimed to be an act of great enlightenment. 

Although the riots in Madrid, which o(fecurred in 
March 1766, have generally been considered to be the original 
cause of the expulsion of the Jesuits, it is quite apparent upon 
a more careful study of the subject that they were only inci- 
dents in "^he movement against the Jesuits and that the ministers 
of Spain and even Charles III himself really considered the 
above named distu.rbances only as fortunate pretexts to carry 
out. thiir general policy of enlightenment. The death of "^ 
Elizabeth Parnese, the Queen-mother, which occurred in 1766, 
is another incident which brought the anti-Jesuit rr^ovement 
nearer its goal, for it vvas well known that the respect and 
filial devotion which Charles bore his mother prevented him 
from taking any steps against the society which enjoyed her 
protection ; though Tanucci hB.6. unquestionably inspired him 



^Xi 



8#rf^'^ to no X .-^ jj o ^. A t! orfT er fT , T dT I , S I i*iqA • nfls>.A^ ins © L »/i :♦ t o 
Ilff r?l \:X?:*f09'nfffi«/mia ?t&mtfiiao*Tq sit Mworfw*^ l>t *Bfi:' oa be^^naits 

3iiw 3&jLi>:s sae.'i 'ij ny'u.fc:i9 8ilrf8jbtfir{ 9/fT ♦anoxairaob laqaq 

. vn^mna^ifSilna ^bS''::^^ Jo ^ob riB dcf ocf beacisl^jotq as^^ cfBrfvr levo 

iBnigito 9f{:f 9cr ot beta&laiioo rtsed '^Ils-Janea dvBil ,ddTi riuiBM 

-ijfu ilnu 9-..3.V -^9.v: :'sr,7 jj^tc^ifs sri:t to x*»w^a iulis-rfeo S'xo 

§/^t' ^g-I«^^ta^f^J -'.flcsT llsamli! Ill asit.a.-'O neve brta nrB-rfi Jo 
^i'i'iBj 0* 3;!..s:*;r^%vi QTBnJjrio'i se ""^infc) 3*:'jn:±3d'XJj;^8Xb b^m/s.^ jjswufc 

to rf^fBO^ 8f{T .:tfl9rane.tn?3lJrj© "to ^{olX^q Xetsxxsa tx* 
^oSVI :!i bstitiuoo rfolffw , :-fi«ewp 9rii ,e36i iBS-iI3 

nriri bailq?3nJt ^Xd9f!0t^afWL;|>itsr berf luJirn;- 



118 



with an unfriendly spirit against the followers of Loyola. 

- ^^A *• In order to appreciate the influence exercised over 
the king as against the Jesuits by using the Madrid riots as 
arguments, it is necessary that we examine the validity of the 
charge implicating the Society in the rising. 

The hatred of the foreigners, who predominated in ,^ . 
the king*s council, and the reforms instituted by them were 
unquestionably the chief sources of irritat4,^qp. . This is 
evidenced bvv^tvhe pamphlets and dogger^llverse circulated at 
that time. Nothing in them suggests that the Jesuits had 
anything to do with the movement, but all the venom of low 
satire and wit seems to bo directed against the despieeid for- 
eigners. The nuntio wrote to the cardinal Torregiani on ^^ 
April 2, 1769,, ^.^yin^ tha,t, the ,hat^.^^(^^ p^.j^. thp. fo,re,ig;^ers ,wa^5. 
the cause of t he disturbance and expressing f-ear because of a 
^belief, which was encouraged. That the clergy was connected y 
YfJ^p.. th^^^ tr.c^ublej^^ aj^d., that .s,qr:ie.,pa3rti,mAlar religious, ord,.er •:.,. 
ijiight be blamed for them. In a letter written by Arands' to 
'Roda on April 9, 1766, the wi'iter says that after a secret inves- 
jf^d^at^i^pn h^,,ha^ ,cpme to the conclusion tl^.at. the moving spirit 
of the riot was the presence of Squilacci. It was Tanucci 
who implicated the Jesuits, though at first he thought that the 
^rising was fomented by the lowest class of friars an^ that the 
order against long cloaks and slouch hats was the primary 



1. D. y C, Vol. Ill, p.ie. 



•X9V0 i>eeiyisHX9 ejnswiljii arfr^ s^sIj^^ 96*10 ^I 

nx foe ,v ^8T9r?:^J&'T0*t ^="1?? to ; bS'itBr! 9rfT 

its f>9?!?;lw;>rJ:j ee^a^'f I^n 7^^ol> bne . id &' -9 

srft #^jrlt fo«s fi-iriJitl to aa»|v!^^e»woi 9ii5" ttf fjelnamol eew ^niait 



.01 



110 



cause. In a letter to Losada he says that the riots re- 
sulted from suggestions made by some friars and that he did 
not hope for tranqmility of the people nntil the various or- 
ders had been driven out of the country. He also advised 
the most stringent measures against the inhabitants of Madrid 
and on June 10, 1766, he wrote to Losada that he was J)ersuaded 
that the clergy were the seciPet authors of sedition. Shertly 
aftervard in a letter to Azara, the Tuscan free -think r-r, he 
said : "The Jesuits are everywhere the same. They are sedi*^'- 
tious, enemies of all rulers and of nations, and public thieves. 

I do not knov: v/hy they wait in destroying the college of Loy- 

2 
Ola." In the same year he vrrote to Losada as follows : "The 

freeing of the country from the Jesuits should be considered 
carefully, but when this is once resolved, it should be car- 
ried out with precision and at a single instant throughout 
the kingdom." On December 9, Tanucci wrote to Losada,: "My^> 

desire is that the Jesuits should leave Madrid before the king 

4 
enters, that i6, as soon as they are expelled from Spain." 

The above extracts show the uncompromising attitude of Tanucci 

and upon considering the immense influence exercised by him 

over Charles it can hardly be denied that the primary motive 

for the expulsion of the Jesuits sprang from the mind of the 

political tutor of the king and that the riots of T'larch 23, 

- - - - - -■.!',: '■ir\%'r: - ~ - '^r-<_.Mm, .-^ n-.*' ^'- - - 'r '■ *- - - 

1. D. y C, Vol. HI, p. 13. 

2. Ibid, Vol. Ill, p. 14. 

3. Ibid, Vol. Ill, p. 15. 

4. Ibid, Vol. Ill, p. 16. 



01 [ 



fcltfocM lo atnBtirfBnfTi d 

oB^aoJtanoa erf bluo^le ii^i./aeo £>;': irto*?! ^.1-T lo snicjeit 

-tfij Sri Mr; Off 8 tt ,f>©vIoee?f eacxo at ai 

gnt:^ *ri^ ©Tcterf ^ttb«n eve»I Jbi^roria ^sttua^I, srf'tf ts/ 

srl^. To fanins 9ff.t rnoil ^neiqa ejxijs^^u a.aj lo aoxaxyqx: 
,52 fiy-ta'T to aloft od.t tad^ bnn ^n : 






120 



1766, were onlj^ opportune events v/hich offered the reforming 

^••unisters of f3harles the chance they h&ri been looking for to 

1 
bring abcu-^ the downfall of the hater' society. Danvila 

says : "The corresponoence of Tanueci "v/ith the ministers of 
"^-he king of Sp^in in 1766 was the mirror from whence was re- 
flected everything that v/as said or done in I!adrid against the 
Jesuits and there can be no doubt that the expulsion and the 
manner in which it was carried ou"^- sprang from the mind of 
the free-thinker, who, dtaring the period of a quarter of a cen- 
tury, had given Charles III his political education." 

By a decree- issued April 22, 1766, Aranda was com- 
manded to make secret inquiry as tb- leaders of the riots and 
as to the publifhers of the satires and pasquinades against" 
the members of the Council. He v/as also to find means by 
YvM^.ich he could prevent future risings and was *-o punish the 
leaders. But the satires and pamphlets continued to be cilrcu- 
lated and Ensen&da, who had been knov/n as a friend of the Jes- 
uits, the bishop of Cuenca and o'^hers were arrested. Accord- 
ing to Lafuente there was no ground for believing that Ensenada 
had in an: way been connected wi^h the revolt, -^ hough it was 
said that 'vivats* were uttered for him. on one or two occa- 
sions during the rioting. His only fault had been his friend- 
ship for the Society of Loyola, but Te.nucci said that he had 
alv/ays been in old intrigues and among other things had tried 

1. n. y C, Vol. Ill,, p. 16. 



OS^l 



oi Ti.^Iooi fried herf x^ti$ »«nflT ' bbS.^ -tim 

I 

gKt .■'p.frtR'-.B fU'fhft'T .Ti ano^ *¥o hies p.vt/ ^^Br'^ ■r>'nt.'f'^''r*tQV& bfr-^JBlJ. 

? >ii* mntt j^Btqs v-^i/o h»iti8» aev ;tl /luitfir ftl ten 

■n«';> fi' "to 't9.tifiifp « to fiotT«ia ftrf!* ^^rfitif^' .o-^y .'«:s>[r(i ;*-^^'^t grft 

-*fl50a vS XinqA bsiiasl «eije£y a ijF 

:?Baiogfi aai>sniwp«Bq hirt« ao*:i:we8 9ff^ lo aisii^^iXdifq &ri:^ o« sb 

' gnivails^ riot twii/o-tg oir! S0vf^'i9ff:f . 9;fnei/'LS%I o;J :^»;il 

"1: sirl n6 9f(' bBxi ifXyst ^Inc ai' Jb anoxE 

b»rf 9f! ^arit t> ii? 8 t ;> awjs'j f t^tS v»X o %ett "^c^ X ^»1 i» o? " i -. a 

bQltt bBjfl e^nM^ t^sri*© 3rfor[iB bne a^rj^ti^'tni i nsacT s^:sv.rls 



.ai 



121 



to have '^'erdinand VI establish a systey of government sifliilar 
^.0 that in England. None of the individuals v;ho had been 
arrestee* were convicted of any criine, though inquisitorial 
methods of procedure were used against them. The only proof 
of any connection whatsoever v/ith the revolt was furnished by 
one of the members of the persecuted Society. In September, 
1766, Francisco Xavier, provincial of the Company, wrote to 
one of the ministers of the king, that a fev/ of his subordi- 
nates had been concerned in some of the troubles, against the 
express wishes of their superior, but the offenders had been 
deprived of their office and otherwise severely, punished . The 
king wrote back "l-hat he had the utmost confidence in the pro- 
vincial and that ^he acts of a few of his subordinates v/ould 
be treated as those of individuals only and that the Company 
wouid not be blamed for it. This instance and the fact that 
a few Jesuits tried to calm the disturbed masses -by reasoning 
with them were the only indications of any connection whatso- 
ever v/ith the riots on the part of the Society of Jesus. 
The appearance of the Jesuit brothers caused shouts of "Long 
live the Jesuits," etc., to be uttered and that naturally helped 
to advertise their presence. The various decrees issued after 
March, 1766, shov; the tendency of the king and his m.inisters 
to fix, if possible, "-he responsibility upon the clergy. All 
the pamphlets and pasquinades issued were believed to have been 



1. D. y.C, Vol. Ill, p. 25. 



■no 



-af.T -'^.rf* -' ^K.j; TA-^h ftrfO :i 1 ^i Ofn:* f/ <Jff '' hirt-ff .Q;^ .trtiT* ''•jft'f Ar^'O'-T*' ■^rftl« 

tiioj '.:a« to e^oi 
■s-^'!-;- r,'i':;>.'!j J^/9a-iv)©b ajjolxs'- ^^'^T . ^=* vrT-»'-»-<|, f i^^-' 



-oad'jsriw n 
I 



122 



printed by the clergy and in April 1766 all such publications 
wei'B prohibited under pain of the severest penalties. Priests 
or any members of the clergy without any occupation \7ere told 
to leave the court and return to their churches or dioceses. 
In September of the same year a decree was issued prohibiting 
clergy from speaking against any royal personages or m.embers of 
the king*s councils. All investigations were made with a 
view to implicating the clergy and especially the Jesuits. 

A council, called Consejo extraordinario, v/as ap- 
pointed with the duties of investigating the riots of f^afirid 

2 
and preparing for the expulsion of the Jesuits. Its methods 

of procedure were inquisitorial ; boti-^ its members and the 
witnesses swore absolute secrecy in all matters and did not 
even allow the accused to have a hearing. Aranda was made 
president of this council which had thirteen members and was 
divided into two chambers, that of Justice and that of Con- 
science. In order to occupy this judicial body various accu- 
sations v/ere circulated against the Jesuits. It was said 
that satires and pasquinades were printed by the Society*s 
press and others declared that they had seen the Jesuits urging 

on the mob and had seen P.Isidro Lopez calling for Ensenada to 

3 
replace F5quilacci. It was also declared that Jesuits had 

encouraged riots with, offers of money and that they had held 

meetings for planning the assassination of the king. These 

absurd lies and the most convincing proof of the consciousness 

1. D. y C, Vol. Ill, p. 25. 

2. Ibid, Vol. Ill, p. o6. 

'Z. T 1. i J Tr -. t-rf 



123 



felt by *he rovernment of the v/ealoiess of its c^ise. 

On January 29, 1767, the Extraordinary Council sent 
a proposal of expiilsion of the Jesuits to the king, this docu- 
ment being divided in*:o tv/o parts. The first deals l7ith the le- 
gal consideration and justice of such:^a^ ptep and the second 
suggested the manner and conditions of expulsion. Among 
other terms it was provided that regulars of the Company 
should receive one hundred dollars and lay-brothers ninety 
dol]ars annually ; v/hile the novices y.^ere allowed to choose 
hetv/een remaining in Hpain or going v/ith their superiors. 
On February 27, Charles gave warrant to Aranda to carry outt 
t'^e recommendation of the Coiincil, leaving date and other de- 
tails to his discretion. The only co-operators chosen by 
A.randa v/ere Monino, Campomanes and Roda. The date fixed by 
these for the carry in,^ out of the decree war, ^pril 2 and the 
plans "-ere so secretly and carefully laid that no one excepting 
the four ministers, Tanucci, and, of course, the king knew of 
*:h.e impending blow to be sti'uck at the papacy. 

On March 30th Charles sent a short letter to the Popi 
declaring his inten(6ion to expel the Jesuits from his domin- 
ions. He also sent one to Tanucci at the sane time, but the 
effect of the two letters v;«s not the same on the tv/o recipi- 
ents. The Pope sent Charles a letter of earnest and sorrowful 

2 

appeal asking him to reconsider the step which he had taken. 



1, D . y 0. 

2. Ibid, Vol. VI, p. 57. 



n -; ■ 



I f»fii 



:iym 



124 



Charles* answer was respectful and dignified but he remained 
firri in his decision, declaring that the expulsion was a 

rovidential act and that no irionasteries or orders would be 
permitted to exist in this kingdom v/hich did not remodel their 
constitutions. He also said that no religious order was ne- 
cessary for the welfare of the Ohurch, and that he had acted 
solely for the benefit of his dominions. When Tanucci heard 
of the decree, he wrote to Gampomanes that the prosperity of 
Spain was assured and that she would soon rival England and 
Prance. He calls Aranda t'^e Hercules who had performed a 
super-hBtnan task. It is necessary to read the letters of 
Tanucci to comprehenfl the great satisfaction he felt when he 
received the letters from the king and his ministers. On 
April 8, he wrote to Rollari that he had congratulated his 
friend D. Manuel upon the expulsion of the Jesuits toward 
Wiiich end he had been working ^o hard. On April 21, Tanucci 
wrote a letter to Charles, asking him to suggest the expulsion 
of the Jesuits to the y.oung king of Haples. He declared that 
Jesuits v/ere hated in all Catliolic countries of the world. 

The Extraordinary Councils issued a report on April 
30, declaring that the part taken by the Jesuits in Madrid vms 
not the only charge against them. It v/as their spii^it of 
fanaticism and sedition, their false doctrines and their^ in- 
tolerable pride vvhich had characterized the body. This priffe 



l.D. y C, Vol. Ill, p. 45. 
2. Ibid, Vol. Ill, p. 48. 



liO 



harmed the nation and also its prosperity ; but contributed 
to the aggrandizement of the pretensions of Rome tov/ard uni- 
versal dominion, which can be seen in the partiality of 
cardinal Torregiani to sustain the power of the Company as 
against the king*s. 

in refusing to allov; the expelled Jesuits to land 
in the Papal States, thB'jPope thought that he would compel 
Charles to take then back ; but the Spanish king had made up 
his m.ind to bring about the extinction of the order and after 
having rid Spain of the curse, as he called it, he turned his 
attention to the Sicilies. On June 9, 1767, he wrote to 
Tanvicci that he felt uneas^r bece.use of the presence of the Jes- 
uits in Naples and he asked the minister to aid his son in 
accomplishing their expulsion. In the same letter he said : 
"I knov/ that the3-' (the Jesuits) are capable of anything and 
no one knows better than I do, having had experience. I 
grow more contented each day for having expelled them and see 
more and nore hoi7 necessary it was." 

The causes for the expulsion assigned by Charles 
III or rather by his ministers were couched in generalities 
and the king himself declared he would keep the charges as one 
of the secrets of his heart. Cara: on says that the only 
accusations against the Jesuits can be summed up in these words: 
The Spanish Jesuits have been accused of a multitude of v/icked 



1. D. y C, Vol. Ill, p. 58. 

2. Ibid, Vol. IIT, p. 67. 



126 



acts and crimes."^ The provision made against any statements 
made b; the Jesuits on "^he subject of their expulsion was an 
indication of fear of scrutiny which was felt by the Spanish 
I:ing. The charge that the Jesuits had questioned the legiti- 
macy of Charles' birth seems to have been invented solely to 
further the interests of the anti-Jesuitical party and v/as so 
absurd that it hardly could have influenced the king in any 
way. A. Spanish author says : "Elizabeth of P'arnese has been 
accused by history of having, driven Spain into various ruinous 
enterprises to advance the interests of her sons ; but no one 
has ever been so bold as to say that she stained her royal 
couch with the stigma of adultery ; and perhaps one of the rea- 
sons v/hich aided in the firm establishment of the ^>ourbon dy- 
nasty in Spain was the honorable dignity of the royal con- 
sorts of Philip V, Ferdinand Vi and Charles III."^ 

Swayed by the principles of advanced ': bought which 
caused Charles to decree the expulsion he intrigued., plotted 
and planned until he had achieved the total extinction of the 
Society. 

In concluding it might be well to repeat that the \ 
expulsion of the Jesuits was not due to their alleged ac ivity 
in the riots of Tadrid, or to their absurd slander against the 
ling's birth or any other trumped-up charge of the encyclo- 



1. Carayon, p. 40. 

2. D. y C, Vol. Ill, p. 82. 



127 



paedists ; but rather to the necessity of the abolition of an 
institution v/hich was against all the principles on v;hich the 
system of enlightened absolutism was based. 

Although Charles III was an intensely religious and 
pious man, it v/as entirely in conformity with his political 
principles to limit the powei' of the clergy, the Church and 
the Papacy, as nmch as possible. By means of the Jesuits, the 
Inquisition, its nuntios and the numerous papal bulls published 
prior to thts reign many of the privileges and rights of the 
crown had, to a large extent, been absorbed by the Church, 
especially those pertaining to the judicial department. It 
was against these evils that the enlightened ministers of Charles 
III fought most zealously and they succeeded in curbing the 
power of Rome in such a w^ay as to leave the supremacy of the 
crown unquestioned. 

The Inquisition had lost m.any of its early charac- 
teristics and its omnipotence had been checked during the reign 
of ?erdinand VI, w^hen the king interfered in the trial of 
■^eijoo. Wnen in 1760 the Holy oee forbade the publication of 
the work of Doctor Mesenghi, the tribunal of the Inquisition 
wanted to publish the brief condemning it ; but D, Rlcardo 
Wall ordered its publication to be suspinded. A pragmatic 
of January 18, 1762, commanded that no papal bull, brief or 
letter should be published before being submitted to the king 

1. D. y C, Vol. VI, p. 83. 



bB 



128 



for examina'tion. It was also decreed that all briefs or 
letters sent to individuals from Rome should first be passed 
upon by the Council, so as to determine whether or not the 
terms. of the Concordat were in any way infringed upon, whether 

the rights of the crown were prejudiced or whether the good 

. 1 

cmstOEis or the quiet of the country was in any ■'./ay endangered. 

All condemnations of books were made subject to royal revis- 
ion. The Indictments, m.ade by the Inguisition against Aranda, 
"'lorida Blanca, Campomanes, Roda and the bishops who had been 
members of the Council which considered the expulsion of the 
Jesuits, declarinji them to te the supporters of the modern 

philosophy and enemies of the Church, were suspended by the 

2 

crown. The trial of Olavide, the superintendent of the 

Sierra I'orena colonies, v/as the last notable attempt on the 
part of the Inquisition to assert its terrible prerogative of 
earlier times, and in that case Charles allowed the victim, to 
escape to "'"'ranee aft-r a comparatively light sentence had been 
imposed. In 1770 a decree v/as issued confining^ the juris- 
diction of the Inquisition to cases of apostasy and heresy, with- 
out the right of placing the king's subjects in prison before 
having heard them. A royal decree of June 16, 1768, forbade 
the condemnation of a bool: without previously having heard its 
author. Danvila concludes by saying : *'A11 these acts go to 
show that Charles III preferred to limit the jurisdiction of 



1. D. y C ., Vol. VI, p. 84. 

2. Ibid. 



,n J 



129 



the Koly Office, to softer itis harshness and rigors, and to 
convert its ancient omnipotence into laudible flexibility, 
rather than decree the suppression of -^he tribunal, v/hich, as 
the historian Lafuente recognized, would have clashed v/ith 
many of the interests, occupations and traditional customs of 
a large part of the clergy and a large part of thehpeople . " 

1. D. y C, Vol. VI, p. 86. 



130 



CHAPTER IX. 
PEPSOFAL CHARACTER 0? CHAPLEB III. 

The precominant ohare.oteristios of Charles III v/ere 
his good nature, his honesty, virtue anc" his tenacity or 
stubbornness, as his critics called it. His paternal rule 
while king of Naples had so endeared him to his Italian sub- 
jects that they considered it to be a national calamity when 
he left. His Spanish subjects became equally attached to 
their king and he made it his constant aim to procure their 
prosperity and to increase the glory of the nation. It is 
true that he made mistakes, especially in foreign politics, 
during his long reign ; but they were not due to any selfish 
desire for glory, but rather to reconquer territory which he 
thought rightfully belonged to his crown and virere a menace to 
the peace of his kingdom while in the hands of foreigners. 

Wlien Charles came to the Spanish throne, he was near- 
ly forty-four years old and, according to his ambassador in 
Paris, he v^as a little more that five feet tv/o inches in height, 
well built, very robust, tanned by the weather and had a large 
aquiline nose. His large nose was said to have marie a rather 
bad impression at first, but that was succeeded by a feeling 

1. D. y C, Vol. VI, p. 5. 



131 



which was quite the reverse upon further acquaint^snce . He 
was exceedingly cleanly and dressed so morlestly that it was 
hard to tell v/ho, in a royal, assembly, v/as the king. Charles 
was a man of scrupulously regular habits and vms so attached 
to his mode of life that anything that interfered with it 
would upset him. His love anr' affection ^'^or his fanily v/as 
constant and one of his finest traits. His matrimonial life 
was exempl-^jry and exceedingly happy. His virtue was famous 
and was the subject of considerable commedt ofi the part of 
contemporary writers, for continence among liings was rare. 
Charles had thirteen children by his v/ife Ilaria A.m.alia of Seixo- 
nj'" and his interest and love for these was second to that he 
bore his subjects. She king's refusal to marry again was said 
to have been due to his love for his first vdfe and his fear 
of creating difficulties in his succession. ^ 

Charles* experience in ITaples had made him unusually 
fit for the tasks of a ruler and his choice of ministers is the 
best proof of his administrative ability. His hatred of changes 
of any kind made him reluctant to discharge a minister once in 
office and this v/as unquestionably a great source of good, for 
it gave the enlightened official an opportunity to work out his 
reforms. The regard which Charles III felt for Justice in 
most matters is shown by his reluctance to ask for favors for 
his personal friends and Iluriel gives an instance where he 



1. D. y C, Vol. VI J p. 11. 



132 



expresses great joy v/hen a minister announces the appointment 
of one of his proteges to a position which the king had not 

cared to ask for, fearing lest he shoulr influence his ninis- 

1 
ters in their choice. The paternal rule which Charles exer- 
cised over his subjects is best illustrated by the degrees he 
issued and by his attitude at the time of the Madrid riots. 
He said at that time that his subjects were like children v/ho 
cried while being washed. The purity of his own life caused 
him to pass many lav/s regulating family relations and espe- 
cially those betv-een parents and children. In order to get 
a good idea of his character it is best to consider the opin- 
ions of the different historians of this reign and especially 
of the foreigners among these. Uanvila says : "It would be 
difficult to find anong the kings of that epoch, one who lived 
and reigned with more frugality and modesty and who lived more 

apatt from the temptations of the worlel and the danger which 

2 
courtly vanities and flatteries offer." A Prench author de- 
clares that Charles III v/as "simple in his manners, exemplary 
in the regularity of his private life and also as a prince, 
scrupiilously honest in his relations as a monarch, but until 
his death he paid a tribute, both by his acts and by his words, 
to superstition.""^ At another point this san:e author says : 
"Under Charles, Euterpe and Terpsichore ha^ lost their scep- 



1. Muriel, Vol. VI, p. 3. 

2. D. y C ., Vol. VI, p. 10. 

3. Bourg. , Vol. II, p. 14. 



133 



tre, Being more simple and riore uniforri in his tastes and in- 
different to profane pleasures, he had banished then from his 
surroundings and contented himself with the encouragetaent of 
the silent arts as well as the sciences. A stranger to love, 
and although good, he Wc^s almost insensible to friendship dur- 
ing the thirty years of his reign, with the possible excep- 
tions of that with the Marquis of Pquilacci, which came very 
near proving costly, and that v/ith the Italian valet de cham- 
bre, Pusi, who was only influential to a limited degree. He 
did not have a single favoirite, and protected by his devotion 
against the seduction of court life, he spent twenty-nine years 
of his life without a wife or a mistress, a unique instance, 
perhaps, in the history of kings. Libertinism had to disgu-ise 
itself it order to approach the throne unpunished, and there 
was never a less gallant court than that of Charles II IV 
Coxe thought that Charles had "great capacity, a prodigious 
memory and was a graceful conversationalist, speaking Spanish, 
Italian, and French with great fluency." He also says that 
he was unruffled under the most trying circumstances and never 
unduly elated over success. He was devoted to religion but 
n®ver subservient to his confessor or to Rom.e . The English 
traveller, Townsend, describes Charles III as follows : "The 
reigninp; m.onarch, Charles III, has never been considered as a 
man of more than common abilities, but all v'bo know him admire 

1. Bourg., Vol. I, p. 262. 



tliVOJ 



134 



the goodness of his heart ; and indeed it is impossible to look 
at him without reading distinctly the characters of benevo- 
lence and truth. As a man of principle, he esteems it his 
first duty to promote the happiness of the nation over which 
he reigns and if at any time his conduct has been inconsistent 
with his principles ; if he has contracted unnatural alliances, 
without either the pida of necessity or prospect of advantage ; 
if, in defence of a relation he has hastily engaged in var, 
it has always been from the goodness of his heart and from the 
influence of gratitude that he has erred. In choosing his 
ministers he consults only the good of his people, and it must 
be confessed that commonly he is well directed in hi[g choice." 

In spite of the good characteristics of Charles III 
as a man and his enlightened views as a ruler, he had a few 
faults which seemed, to say the least, inconsistent with his 
general attiture in regard to his subjects or to his private 
life. His superstition v/as perhaps the most striking of these 

efecfcs, especially when we consider the fact that he attacked 
the Church because of abuses arising mainly from the supersti- 

ions encouraged mainly by the lower orders of the clergy. 
Bourgoing speaks of one good instance of this v/eakness on the 
part of the king. In founding the order of Saint Januarius, 
he took as a device "in sanguine foedus", firmly believing in 
the liquefaction of the blood of the saint. V/hile at Naples 

1. Townsend, Vol. II, p. 264. 



135 



Bourgoing heard that when at one time this blood had coagulated 
Charles showed great conoern and immediately began to look 
for the cause of this change. It was found upon examination 
of the saint's tomb that a crack had opened in the partition 
which separated the body of the saint from, the vial containing 
the blood. Since tradition had it thafe in oKfder to obtain 
the liquefaction there should be no communication between the 
body and the blood of the daint, the people and the king firmly 
believed that this had been the cause of the coagulation and 

that after the tomb had been repaired the blood recovered its 

1 
miraculous properties. This is only one instance of Charles' 

primitive belief, but is typical of his weakness. The king 
was also in the habit of carrying with him the toys of his 
childhood and his valet de charabre would always change them 
from the pockets of one suit to those of another whenever 
Charles changed his dress. His affection for a certain tree 
caused him to deflect the superb road leading into Madrid, 
so t'-^at the tree would not be disturbed. The passion which 
Charles entertained for hunting was probably the greatest 
source of evil due ^o the king personally. The cost of fol- 
lowing his favorite pastime was enormous and besides that it 
had a bad influence upon the population around his estates 
since it gave them many opportunities to lay down their regular 
work in o^ler to drive game for the royal huntsmen. The 

1. T'^uriel, Vol. VI, p.2-w 



136 



Bourbon king's fondness for the chase caused him to commit real 
acts of injustice in the punishment of violations of the game- 
laws. In one case a peasant from the neighborhood of Madrid 
went into the royal preserves and took six or seven acorns, 
said to have been intended for food for his family. A guard 
who caugh'- the poor man arrested him and the case was brought 
before the king. *'Under an absolute ruler, excessively fond 
of the chase, the lav/s could hot be too severe on this point.** 
It was decided thAt the culprit should pay for his act by being 
confined in the dungeons of Centa for as many years as he had 
taken acorns and when the king was implored to commute this 
sentence he declared that "it was a terrible thing to deprive 
the poor little animals of their food." YJhen af er six years 
the unfortunate offender was allowed to have his freedom he 
ambushed and killed the guard who first arrested him, for v/hldh 
murder he was condemned to death ahd executed at Madrid. Such 
is the effect of an evil rule of despotism and it is quite 
clear that all the good derived from an enlightened biit des- 
potic government cannot compensate for this single act of 
injustice, so entirely against the laws of humanity and indi- 
vidual liberty. This constant desire on the part of the king 
to spend his time in pursuit of game v/as justified by some 
v/riters because it was said to have been necessary to divert 
the minds of Bourbons who had alv/ays shown a tendency tovvard 

L. . !!uriel, Vol. VI, p. 7. 



157 



melancholia and other forms of insanity. Coxe says of Charles' 
character : "His defects were few, but strongly marked, and 
among them we cannot .'pass over his love for the chase, or 
rather shooting, which degenerated into a ruling passion." 

Townsend estimated that the cost o£ one day's shooting v/hich 

2 

he attended amounted to three thousand pounds sterling. 

■^lorida Blanca, in his Statement, calls the king's attention 
to the evils of allowing a great number of people to leave their 
work in order to drive game for the royal party and gives his 
reason for his opposition. 

The faults of Charles III, though they may seem 
great in a man v/ho has always had a reputation for enlighten- 
ment, were not considered as such by his people, who thought 
that he was only exercising his prerogative. In spite of the 
occasional acts of injustice due to personal prejudice there 
was no Spanish ruler, since the days of Isabella, v/ho had won 
more completely the affection of his subjects than had Charles 
III. He died on December 14, 1788, his death having been 
hastened by that of his favorite son, Don Gabriel. The grief 
of the Spanish nation was profound and sincere for they real- 
ized that the one who had checked her downv/ard course, who had 
turned darkness into light and brought cirder out of chaos had 
left a splendid edifice unfinished, though apparently firmly 



1. Coxe, 1st ed . , Vol. Ill, p. 534. 

2. Townsend, Vol. II, p. 75. 



138 



founded. Subsequent events served to undo much of the good 
wrought by Charles III ; but his meinory continues to be revered 
as the great regenerator of the Spanish nation. 



*; 



w 




I^MHk 






YE 054Cc 



O