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APPS, Ph D., LL.D. T. E. PAGE, LiTT.D. W. H. D. HOUSE, Litt.D. 















This is^ I believe, tlie first attempt at an English 
translation of the 'Enquiry into Plants.' That it 
should be found entirely satisfactory is not to be 
expected, since the translator is not, as he should be, 
a botanist ; moreover, in the present state at least 
of the text, the Greek of Theophrastus is sometimes 
singularly elusive. I should never have undertaken 
such a responsibility without the encouragement of 
that veteran student of plant-lore the Rev. Canon 
EUacombe, who first suggested that I should make 
the attempt and introduced me to the book. It is a 
great grief that he did not live to see the completion 
of the work which he set me. If I had thought 
it essential that a translator of Theophrastus should 
himself grapple with the difficulties of identifying 
the jilants which he mentions, I must have declined 
a task which has otherwise proved quite onerous 
enough. However the kindness and the expert 
knowledge of Sir William Thiselton-Dyer came to 
my rescue ; to him I not only owe gratitude for 
constant help throughout ; the-identifications in the 
Index of Plants are entirely his work, compared 
with which the compilation of the Index itself was 



but mechanical labour. And he has greatly increased 
my debt and the reader's by reading the proofs of 
my translation and of the Index. This is perhaps 
the place to add a note on the translation of the 
plant-names in the text : — where possible, I have 
given an English equivalent, though I am conscious 
that such names as ' Christ's thorn,' ' Michaelmas 
daisy ' must read oddly in a translation of a work 
written 300 years before Christ; to print. Linnean 
binary names would have been at least equally 
incongruous. Where an English name was not 
obvious, although the plant is British or known in 
British gardens, I have usually consulted Britten 
and Holland's Dictionary of Plant-names. Where 
no English equivalent could be found, i.e. chiefly 
where the plant is not either British or familiar in 
this country, I have either transliterated the Greek 
name (as amkhidria) or given a literal rendering of it 
in inverted commas (as ' foxbrush ' for d\u)7r€'Koupos) ; 
but the derivation of Greek plant-names being often 
obscure, I have not used this device unless the 
meaning seemed to be beyond question. In some 
cases it has been necessary to preserve the Greek 
name and to give the English name after it in 
brackets. This seemed desii-able wherever the author 
has apparently used more than one name for the 
same plant, the explanation doubtless being that he 
was drawing on different local authorities; thus Kcpacros 
and Xafcapv; both probably represent 'bird-cherry,' 
the latter being the Macedonian name for the tree. 



Apart from this reason, in a few places (as 3.8.2 ; 
3.10.3.) it seemed necessary to give both the Greek 
and the English name in order to bring out some 
particular jwint. On the other hand one Greek 
name often covers several plants, e.g. Xwro's ; in such 
cases I hope that a reference to the Index will make 
all clear. Inverted commas indicate that the render- 
ing is a literal translation of the Greek word ; the 
identification of the plant will be found in the Index. 
Thus (f>e\\68pv<: is rendered ' cork-oak,' though ' holm- 
oak ' would be the correct rendering, — cork-oak (quer- 
cus Suber) being what Theophrastus calls <^eXA.o?, 
which is accordingly rendered cork-oak without 
commas. As to the spelling of proper names, con- 
sistency without pedantry seems unattainable. One 
cannot write names such as Arcadia or Alexander 
otherwise than as they are commonly written ; but 
I cannot bring myself to Latinise a Greek name if it 
can be helped, wherefore I have simply transliterated 
the less familiar names ; the line drawn must of 
course be arbitrary. 

The te.xt jjrinted is in the main that of Wimmer's 
second edition (see Introd. p. xiv). The textual notes 
are not intended as a complete apparatus criticus ; 
to provide a satisfactory apparatus it would probably 
be necessary to collate the manuscripts afresh. I have 
had to be content with giving Wimmer's statements 
as to MS. authority ; this I have done wherever any 
question of interpretation dep^ded on the reading ; 
but I have not thought it necessary to record mere 


variations of spelling. Where the textual notes go 
beyond bare citation of the readings of the MSS., Aid., 
Gaza, and Pliny, it is usually because I have there 
departed from Wimmer's text. The references to 
Pliny will, I hope, be found fairly complete. I am 
indebted for most of them to Schneider, but I have 
verified these and all other references. 

I venture to hope that this translation, with its 
references and Index of Plants, may assist some 
competent scholar-botanist to "produce an edition 
worthy of the author. 

Besides those already mentioned I have to thank 
also my friends Professor D'Arcy Thompson, C.B., 
Litt.D. of Dundee, Mr. A. W. Hill of Kew, Mr. E. A. 
Bowles for help of various kinds, and the Rev. F. W, 
Galpin for his learned exposition of a passage which 
otherwise would have been dark indeed to me — the 
description of the manufacture of the reed mouth- 
pieces of wood-wind instruments in Book I V. Sir John 
Sandys, Public Orator of Cambridge University, was 
good enough to give me valuable help in matters of 



Bibliography and Abbreviations used 
A. Textual Authorities 

WiMMER divides the authorities on which the text 
of the TTfpl (fivrojp laropia is based into three classes: — 

First Class : 

U. Codex Urbinas : in the Vatican. Collated by 
Bekker and Amati ; far the best extant 
MS., but evidently founded on a much 
corrupted copy. See note on 9. 8. 1. 

Pg. Codex Parisiensis : at Paris. Contains con- 
siderable excerpts ; evidently founded on a 
good MS. ; considered by Wimmer second 
only in authority to U. 

(Of other collections of excerpts may 
be mentioned one at Munich, called after 

md Class : 
M (Mj, Nf.,). Codices Medicei : at Florence. 
Agree so closely that they may be re- 
garded as a single MS. ; considered by 
Wimmer much inferior to U, but of higher 
authority than Aid. 


P. Codex Parisiensis : at Paris. Considered by 
Wimmer somewhat inferior to M and V, 
and more on a level with Aid. 

mP. Margin of the above. A note in the MS. 
states that the marginal notes are not scholia, 
but valine leclio7ies aut emendationes. 

V. Codex Vindobonensis : at Vienna. Contains 
the first five books and two chapters of the 
sixth ; closely resembles M in style and 

Third Class : 

Aid. Editio Aldina : the editio princeps, printed 
at Venice H95-8. Believed by Wimmer 
to be founded on a single MS., and that 
an inferior one to those enumerated above, 
and also to that used by Gaza. Its readings 
seem often to show signs of a deliberate 
attempt to produce a smooth text : hence 
the value of this edition as witness to an 
independent MS. authority is much im- 

(Bas. Editio Basiliensis : printed at Bale, 1541. 
A careful copy of Aid., in which a number 
of printer's errors are corrected and a few 
new ones iiitroduced (Wimmer). 

Cam. Editio Camotiana (or Aldina minor, altera) : 
printed at Venice, 1552. Also copied from 
Aid., but less carefully corrected than Bas. ; 
the editor Camotius, in a few passages. 


altered the text to accord with Gaza's 
The Latin version of Theodore Gaza,^ the 
Greek refugee : first printed at Treviso 
(Tarvisiuni) in 1483. A wonderful work 
for the time at which it appeared. Its 
present value is due to the fact that the 
translation was made from a different MS. 
to any now known. Unfortunately how- 
ever this does not seem to have been a 
better text than that on which the Aldine 
edition was based. Moreover Gaza did not 
stick to his authoi'ity, but adopted freely 
Pliny's versions of Theophrastus, emending 
where he could not follow Pliny. There 
ai'e several editions of Gaza's work : thus 
G.Par.G.Bas. indicate respectively editions pub- 
lished at Paris in 1529 and at Bale in 1534 
and 1550. Wimmer has no doubt that the 
Tarvisian is the earliest edition, and he 
gives its readings, whereas Schneider often 
took those of G.Bas. 

Vin.Vo.Cod.Cas. indicate readings which Schnei- 
der believed to have MS. authority, but 
which are really anonymous emendations 
from the margins of MSS. used by his pre- 
decessors, and all, in Wimmer's opinion 

See Sandys, History of Classical ScJiolarship, ii. p. 62, etc. 


traceable to Gaza's version. Schneider's 
so-called Codex Casauboni he knew, ac- 
cording to Wimmer, only from Hofmann's 

B. Editions 

H. Editio Heinsii, printed at Leyden, 1613 : founded 
on Cam. and very carelessly printed, repeating 
the misprints of that edition and adding many 
others. In the preface Daniel Heins ^ pretends 
to have had access to a critical edition and to a 
Heidelberg MS. ; this claim appears to be en- 
tirely fictitious. The book indeed contains what 
Wimmer calls a farrago emendationum ; he remarks 
that ' all the good things in it Heinsius owed 
to the wit of others, while all its faults and 
follies we owe to Heinsius.' Schneider calls it 
editio omnium jjessima. 

Bod. Editio Bodaei (viz. of Joannes Bodaeus a 
Stapel), printed at Amsterdam, 1644. The text 
of Heinsius is closely followed ; the margin con- 
tains a number of emendations taken from the 
margin of Bas. and from Scaliger, Robertus Con- 
stantinus, and Salmasius, with a few due to the 
editor himself. The commentary, according to 
Sir William Thiselton-Dyer, is ' botanically 
monumental and fundamental.' 

' See Sandys, op. cif. p. 313 etc. 


Stackhouse, Oxford, 1813: a prettily printed 
edition with some illustrations ; text founded on 
Aid. The editor seems to have been a fair 
botanist, but an indifferent scholar, though occa- 
sionally he hits on a certain emendation. The 
notes are short and generally of slight value. 
The book is however of interest, as being appa- 
rently the only work on the ' Enquiry ' hitherto 
published in England. 

J. G. Schneider (and Linck), Leipzig : vols, 
i.-iv. published in 1818, vol. v. in 1821 ; contains 
also the Trcpl atrtwi/ and the fragments, and a re- 
print of Gaza's version (corrected). The fifth, 
or supplementary, volume, written during the 
author's last illness, takes account of the Codex 
Urbinas, which, unfortunately for Schneider, 
did not become known till his edition was 
finished. It is remarkable in how manv places 
he anticipated by acute emendation the readings 
of U. The fifth volume also gives an account of 
criticisms of the earlier volumes by the eminent 
Greek Adamantios Koraes ^ and Kurt Sprengel. 
This is a monumental edition, despite the ver- 
bosity of the notes, somewhat careless references 
and reproduction of the MSS. readings, and an 
imperfect comprehension of the compressed 
style of Theophrastus, which leads to a good 
deal of wild emendation or rewriting of the 
text. For the first time we find an attempt at 
See Sandys, op. cit. iii. pp. 361 foil. 




providing a critical text, founded not on the 
Aldine edition, but on comparison of the manu- 
scripts then known ; the Medicean and Viennese 
had been collated a few years before by J. Th. 
Schneider. We find also full use made of the 
ancient authors, Athenaeus, Plutarch, Pliny, 
Dioscorides, Nicander, Galen, etc., who quoted or 
adapted passages of Theophrastus, and copious 
references, often illuminating, to those who 
illustrate him, as Varro, Columella, Palladius, 
Aelian, the Geoponica. 

Spr. Kurt Sprengel, Halle, 1822. This is not an 
edition of the text, but a copious commentary 
with German translation. Sprengel was a better 
botanist than scholar ; Wimmer speaks dis- 
paragingly of his knowledge of Greek and of 
the translation. (See note prefixed to the 
Index of Plants.) 

W. Fr. Wimmer: (1) An edition with introduction, 
analysis, critical notes, and Sprengel's identi- 
fications of the plant-names ; Breslau, 1842. 

(2) A further revised text with new Latin 
translation, apparatus criticus, and full indices ; 
the Index Plantarum gives the identifications of 
Sprengel and Fraas ; Didot Library, Paris, n.d. 

(3) A repi'int of this text in Teubner's series, 

These three books are an indispensable supplement 
to Schneider's great work. The notes in the edition of 


1842 are in the main critical, but the editor's remarks 
on the interpretation of thorny passages are often 
extremely acute, and always worth attention. The 
mass of material collected by Schneider is put into 
an accessible form. Wimmer is far more conservative 
in textual criticism than Schneider, and has a better 
appreciation of Theophrastus' elliptical and some- 
what peculiar idiom, though some of his emendations 
appear to rest on little basis. A collation of the 
Paris MSS. (P and P,) was made for Wimmer; for 
the readings of U and M he relied on Schneider, 
who, in his fifth volume, had compared U with 
Bodaeus' edition. A fresh collation of the rather 
exiguous manuscript authorities is perhaps required 
before anything like a definitive text can be pro- 
\ided. Wimmer's Latin translation is not very- 
helpful, since it slurs the difficulties : the Didot 
edition, in which it appears, is disfigured with 
numerous misprints. 

(Sandys' History of Classical Scholarship (ii. p. 380) 
mentions ti-anslations into Latin and Italian by 
Bandini ; of this work 1 know nothing.) 

C. Other Commentators 

Seal. J. C. Scaliger : Commenlarii et animadversiones on 
the TTcpi ^vroji' la-Topia posthumously published 
by his son Sylvius at Leyden, 1584. (He also 
WTote a commentary on the Trepi atriwr, which 
was edited by Robertus Constantinus and pub- 



lished at Geneva in 1566.) The most accurate 
and brilliant scholar who has contributed to the 
elucidation of Theophrastus. 

R.Const. Robertus Constantinus (see above). Added 
notes of his own, many of them valuable, which 
are given with Scaliger's in Bodaeus' edition. 

Salm. Salmasius (Claude de Saumaise). Made many 
happy corrections of Theophrastus' text in his 
Exercitationes Plinianae. 

Palm. Jacobus Palmerius (Jacques de Paulmier). 
His Exercitationes in optimos auctores Graecos 
(Leyden, 1668) contain a certain number of 
acute emendations ; Wimmer considers that he 
had a good understanding of Theophrastus' 

Meurs. Johannes Meursius (Jan de Meurs). Author 
of some critical notes on Theophrastus pub- 
lished at Leyden in 1640; also of a book on 

Dalec. Jean Jacques D'Alechamps : the botanist. 
Author of Histona plantarum universalis, Lyons, 
1587, and editor of Pliny's Natural History. 

Mold. J. J. P. Moldenhauer. Author of Tentanien 
in Historiam pkmtarum Theophrasti, Hamburg, 
1791. This book, which I have not been able 
to see and know only from Wimmer's citations, 
contains, according to him, very valuable notes 
on the extremely difficult Introduction to the 
' Historia ' (Book I. chaps, i.-ii.). 


II. — Theophrastus' Life and Works 

Such information as we possess concerning the 
life of Theophrastus comes mainly from Diogenes 
Laertius' Lives of the Philosophers, compiled at least 
four hundred years after Theophrastus' death ; it is 
given therefore here for what it may be worth ; 
there is no intrinsic improbability in most of what 
Diogenes records. 

He was born in 370 b.c. at Eresos in Lesbos ; at 
an early age he went to Athens and there became a 
pupil of Plato, ^t may be surmised that it Avas from 
him that he first learnt the importance of that 
principle of classification which runs through all his 
extant works, including even the brochure known as 
the ' Characters ' (if it is rightly ascribed to him), 
and which is ordinarily considered as characteristic 
of the teaching of his second master AristotIe7\ But 
in Plato's own later speculations classification had a 
very imjxtrtant place, since it was by grouping things 
in their ' natural kinds ' that, according to his later 
metaphysic, men were to arrive at an adumbration 
of the ' ideal forms ' of which these kinds are the 
phenomenal counterpart, and which constitute the 
world of reality. QV'hether Theophrastus gathered 
tlie principle of classification from Plato or from his 
fellow-pupil Aristotle, it appears in his hands to 
have been for the first time systematically applied 
the vegetable wor^ Throughout his botanical 




works the constant implied question is ' What is its 
difference ? ' , ' What is its essential nature ? ', viz. ' What 
are the characteristic features in virtue of which a 
plant may be distinguished from other plants, and 
which make up its own ' nature ' or essential 
character ? 

Theophrastus appears to have been only Aristotle's 
junior by fifteen years. On Plato's death he became 
Aristotle's pupil, but, the difference in age not being 
very great, he and his second master appear to have 
been on practically equal terms. We are assured 
that Aristotle was deeply attached to his friend ; 
while as earnest of an equally deep attachment on 
the other side Theophrastus took Aristotle's son 
under his particular care after his father's death. 
Ai-istotle died at the age of sixty-three, leaving to 
his favourite pupil his books, including the auto- 
graphs of his own works, and his garden in the 
grounds of the Lyceum. The first of these bequests, 
if the information is correct, is of great historical 
importance ; it may well be that we owe to 
Theophrastus the publication of some at least of 
his master's voluminous works. And as to the 
garden it is evident that it was here that the first 
systematic botanist made many of the observations 
which are i*ecorded in his botanical works. Diogenes 
has preserved his will, and there is nothing in the 
terms of this interesting document to suggest that 
it is not authentic. Of special interest is the 
provision made for the maintenance of the garden ; 


it is bequeathed to certain specified friends and to 
those who will spend their time with them in learn- 
ing and philosophy ; the testator is to be buried 
in it without extravagant expense, a custodian is 
apjx)inted, and provision is made for the emancipa- 
tion of various gardeners, so soon as they have 
earned their freedom by long enough service. 

According to Diogenes Theophrastus died at the 
age of eighty-five. He is made indeed to say in the 
probably spurious Preface to the ' Characters ' that he 
is writing in his ninety-ninth year; while St. Jerome's 
Chronicle asserts that he lived to the age of 107. 
Accepting Diogenes' date, we may take it that he 
died about 285 b.c. ; it is said that he complained 
that *' we die just when we are beginning to live." 
His life must indeed have been a remarkably full 
and interesting one, when we consider that he 
enjoyed the personal friendship of two such men as 
Plato and Aristotle, and that he had witnessed the 
whole of the careers of Philip and Alexander of 
Macedon. To Alexander indeed he was directly 
indebted ; the great conqueror had not been for 
nothing the pupil of the encyclopaedic Aristotle. 
He took with him to the East scientifically trained 
observers, the results of whose obser^^ations were at 
Tlieophrastus' disposal. Hence it is that his de- 
s^criptions of plants are not limited to the flora of 
(jreece and the Levant ; to the reports of Alexander's 
followers he owed his accounts of such plants as the 
( otton-plant, banyan, pepper, cinnamon, myrrh and 

6 2 


frankincense. It has been a subject of some con- 
troversy whence he derived his accounts of plants 
whose habitat was nearer home. Kirchner^ in an 
able tract, combats the contention of Sprengel that 
his observations even of the Greek flora were not 
made at first hand. Now at this period the Peri- 
patetic School must have been a very important 
educational institution ; Diogenes says that under 
Theophrastus it immbered two thousand pupils. 
Moreover we may fairly assume that Alexander, from 
his connexion with Aristotle, was interested in it, 
while we are told that at a later time Demetrius 
Phalereus assisted it financially. May we not hazard 
and guess that a number of the students were ap- 
propriately employed in the collection of facts and 
observations ? The assumption that a number of 
' travelling students ' were so employed Avould at all 
events explain certain references in Theophrastus' 
botanical works. He says constantly 'The Maced- 
onians say,' ' The men of Mount Ida say ' and so 
forth. Now it seems hardly probable that he is 
quoting from written treatises by Macedonian or 
Idaean writers. It is at least a plausible suggestion 
that in such references he is referring to reports of 
the districts in question contributed by students 
of the school. In that case ' The Macedonians say ' 
would mean ' This is what our representative was 
told in Macedonia.' It is further noticeable that 
the tense used is sometimes past, e.g. ' The men of 
Mount Ida said ' ; an obvious explanation of this is 


supplied by the above conjecture. It is even possible 
that in one place (3. 12. i.) the name of one of these 
students has been preserved. 

Theophrastus, like his master, was a very volu- 
mmous writer; Diogenes gives a list of 227 treatises 
from his pen, covering most topics of human interest, 
as Religion, Politics, Ethics, Education, Rhetoric, 
Mathematics, Astronomy, Logic, Meteorology and 
other natural sciences. His oratorical works enjoyed 
a high reputation in antiquity. Diogenes attributes 
to him ten works on Rhetoric, of which one On Style 
was known to Cicero, who adopted from it the 
classification of styles into the ' grand,' the ' plain,' 
and the ' intermediate.' ^ Of one or two other lost 
works we have some knowledge. Thus the substance 
of an essay on Piety is preserved in Porphyry de 
Abstinentia.^ The principal works still extant are 
the nine books of the Enquiry into Plants, and the 
six books on the Causes of Plants ; these seem to be 
complete. We have also considerable fragments of 
treatises entitled : — of Sense-perception and objects 
of Sense, of Stones, of Fire, of Odours, of Winds, of 
W^eather-Signs, of Weariness, of Dizziness, of Sweat, 
Metaphysics, besides a number of unassigned excerpts. 
The style of these works, as of the botanical books, 
suggests that, as in the case of Aristotle, what we 
jjossess consists of notes for lectures or notes taken 
of lectures. There is no literary charm ; the sen- 

1 Sandys, i. p. 99. 

' Bemays, Theophrastus, 1866. 


tences are mostly compressed and highly elliptical, 
to the point sometimes of obscurity. It follows that 
translation, as with Aristotle, must be to some extent 
paraphrase. The thirty sketches of ' Characters ' 
ascribed to Theophrastus, which have found many 
imitators, and which are well known in this country 
through Sir R. Jebb's brilliant translation, stand on 
a quite different footing ; the object of this curious 
and amusing work is discussed in Sir R. Jebb's 
Introduction and in the more recent edition of 
Edmonds and Austen. Well may Aristotle, as we 
are assured, have commended his pupil's diligence. 
It is said that, when he retired from the headship of 
the school, he handed it over to Theophrastus. We 
are further told that the latter was once prosecuted 
for impiety, but the attack failed ; also that he was 
once banished from Athens for a year, it does not 
appear under what circumstances. He was con- 
sidered an attractive and lively lecturer. Diogenes' 
sketch ends with the quotation of some sayings 
attributed to him, of which the most noteworthy 
are ' Nothing costs us so dear as the waste of time,' 
' One had better trust an unbridled horse than 
an undigested harangue.' He was followed to 
his grave, which we may hope was, in accordance 
with his own wish, in some peaceful corner of the 
Lyceum garden, by a great assemblage of his fellow 


The principal references in the notes are to the 
following ancient authors : — 

ApoUonius, Historia Mi^acidorum. 

Aristotle. Bekker, Berlin, 1831. 

Arrian. Hercher (Teubner). 

Athena«us. Dindorf, Leipzig, 1827. 

Columella, de re nistica. Schneider, Leipzig, 1794. 


Pedanius Dioscurides, de materia medica. Well- 

mann, Berlin, 1907. 
Geoponica. Beckh (Teubner), 1895. 
Nicander, Theriaca. Schneider, Leipzig, 1816. 
Palladius, de re rustica. Schneider, Leipzig, 1795. 
Pausanias. Schubart (Teubner), Leipzig, 1881. 
Plinius, NaturaUs Historia. Ma3hoff (Teubner), 

1887. (Reference by book and section.) 
Plutarch. Hercher (Teubner), Leipzig, 1872. 
Scylax, Periplui. Vossius, Amsterdam, 1639. 






Introductory : How plants are to be classified ; ditfieulty 
of defining what are the essential ' parts ' of a plant, 
especially if plants are assumed to correspond to 

animals 3 

The essential parts of plants, and the materials of which 

they are made 9 

Definitions of the various classes into which plants may 

be divided 23 

Exact classification impracticable : other possible bases 

of classification 27 

Dififerences as to appearance and habitat 29 

Characteristic difi'erences in the parts of plants, whether 

general, special, or seen in qualities and properties 33 

Differences as to qualities and properties 37 

Further 'special' differences 39 

IMfferences in root 41 

Of trees (principally) and their characteristic special 

differences : as to knots 55 

As to habit 61 

As to shedding of leaves 63 

Differences in leaves 69 

Composition of the various parts of a plant 77 

Differences in seeds 79 




Differences in taste 85 

Differences in flowers 89 

Differences in fruits 97 

General differences (affecting the whole plant) .... 99 



Of the ways in which trees and plants originate. In- 
stances of degeneration from seed 105 

Effects of situation, climate, tendance 115 

Of spontaneous changes in the character of trees, and 

of certain marvels 119 

Of spontaneous and other changes in other plants . . . 123 

Of methods of propagation, with notes on cultivation . 127 
Of the propagation of the date-palm ; of palms in 

general • 133 

Further notes on the propagation of trees 145 

Of the cultivation of trees 145 

Of remedies for tlie shedding of the fruit : caprification 151 



Of the ways in which wild trees originate 159 

Of tlie differences between wild and cultivated trees . 165 
Of mountain trees : of the differences found in wild trees 171 
Of the times of budding and fruiting of M'ild, as com- 
pared with cultivated, trees 179 

Of the seasons of budding 185 

Of the comparative rate of growth in trees, and of the 

length of their roots 191 

Of the effects of cutting down the whole or part of a tree 197 
Of other things borne by trees besides their leaves 

flowers and fruit 199 

Of * male ' and ' female ' in trees : the oak as an example 

of this and other differences 203 




Of the differences in firs 211 

Of beech, yew, hop-hornbeam, lime 221 

Of maple and ash 227 

Of cornelian cherry, cornel, 'cedars,' medlar, thorns, 

sorb . . . . ' 233 

Of bird-cherry, elder, willow • . 243 

Of elm, poplars, alder, [semyda, bladder-senna] .... 249 

Of filbert, terebinth, box, krataigos 253 

Of certain other oaks, arbutus, andrachne, wig-tree . . 259 
Of cork-oak, Icobitta, koloitia, and of certain other 

trees peculiar to particular localities 265 

Of the differences in various shrubs— buckthorn, withy, 

Christ's thoni, bramble, sumach, ivy, smilax, 

[spindle- tree] 269 



Of the importance of position and climate 287 

Of the trees special to Egj'pt, and of the carob .... 291 

Of the trees and shrubs special to Libya 303 

Of the trees and herbs special to Asia 309 

Of the plants special to northern regions 323 

Ctf the aquatic plants of the Mediterranean 329 

Of the aquatic plants of the 'outer sea' {i.e. Atlantic, 

Persian (iulf , etc. ) 337 

Of the plants of rivers, marshes, and lakes, especially 

in Egypt 345 

C>f the plants peculiar to the lake of Orchomenos (Lake 

Copals), especially its reeds, and of reeds in general 361 

Of rushes 379 

Of the length or shortness of the life of plants, and the 

causes 383 

Of diseases and injuries done by weather conditions . . 391 
Of the effects on trees of removing bark, head, heart- 
wood, roots, etc. ; of various causes of death . . . 405 






Of the seasons of cutting 417 

Of the wood of silver-fir and fir 421 

Of the effects on timber of climate 427 

Of knots and ' coiling ' in timber 429 

Of differences in the texture of different woods .... 431 

Of diff'erences in timber as to hardness and heaviness . 4.39 

Of diff'erences in the keeping quality of timber .... 441 
Which kinds of wood are easy and which hard to work. 

Of the core and its eff'ects 445 

Which woods can best support weight 451 

Of the woods best suited for the carpenter's various 



Of the woods used in ship-building 455 

Of the woods used in house-building 459 

Of the uses of the wood of particular trees 459 

Of the localities in which the best timber grows . . 463 
Of the uses of various woods in making fire : charcoal, 

fuel, fire-sticks 467 




I. T(ov (f>VTa)V TU'i Bia(f)opa<; koX rrjv aXkrjv 
<j)va-iv XrjTTTeov Kara re ra fieprj koX ra irddr) /cal 
ra(; y€V€crei<i Kot tov<; ySiow ■i]dr] yap koX 7rpd^€i<i 
ovK €-)(ovai,v wairep ra ^coa. elal S' al fiev Kara 
Trjv yevecnv Kal ra TrdOr) Kal tou9 ^iOv<i evOewprj- 
Torepai Kal paov<i, al he Kara ra /xe'/j?; TrXeiou? 
e-)(ovat rroLKiXia^. avro yap rovro irpoirov ov^ 
lKav(o<; d(f)(opiaTat ra iroia Sel fieprj Kal fir] jxeprj 
KaXelv, dW e^et Tiva diropiav. 
2 To piev ovv fxepo<; are eK rr}^ ISia'i <^vcreo)<; ov del 
BoKel Siafieveiv rj aTrXw? •;7 orav yevrjrai, KaOdrrep 
iv rot<i ^(ooi<i ra varepov yevrjaop^eva, irXrjv ei ri 

^ TO, ins. Sch., om. Ald.H. 

^ irddr], a more general word than Swdfifis, 'virtues': 
cf. 1. 5. 4 ; 8. 4. 2 ; it seems to mean here something like 
' behaviour,' in relation to environment. Instances of wdOri 
are given 4. 2. 11 ; 4. 14. 6. 

3 fXovffi conj. H.; €x<"'<'^«' W. with Aid. 


IF^Of thk Parts of Plants and their Ck)MPOSiTio>-. 
Of Classificatios. 



Introductory: How plants are to he classified; difficulty 
of defining ivhat are the essential ^parts' of a plant 
especially if plants are assumed to correspond to animals. 

I. In considering the distinctive characters of 
plants and their nature generally one must take 
into account their ^ parts, their qualities,^ the 
ways in which their life originates, and the course 
which it follows in each case : (conduct and actixities 
we do not find in them, as we do in animals). Now 
the differences in the way in which their life origin- 
ates, in their qualities and in their life-history are com- 
paratively easy to observe and are simpler, while 
those shewn ^ in their ' parts ' present more com- 
plexity. Indeed it has not even been satisfactorily 
determined what ought and what ought not to be 
called 'parts,' and some difficulty is involved in 
making the distinction. 

Now it appears that by a ' part,' seeing that it is 
something which belongs to the plant's characteristic 
nature, we mean something which is permanent either 
absolutely or when once it has appeared (like those 
|iarts of animals which remain for a time undeveloped) 


Sia voaov r) yrjpa^ r) 7n]pa>aiv airo^aXKeraL. twv 
8' iv TOi<; ^fTOi? evia roiavr ecrTtv &crr' eTrereiov 
e'xeLV Tr)v ovaiav, olov dv6o<; ^pvov (jivWop 
Kap'TTO'i, d7r\c!)<i oa-q, irpo roiv Kupiroiv 7) afia 
ytverai rol<; Kapirol^' ere Be avTOf 6 /SXatrro?* 
alel yap iiric^vaiv Xafi^dvei to. hevhpa Kar 
iviavrov 6fioi(o^ ev re Tol<i dvco koX iv Toi<i irepl 
rd<i pl^a<i' cocTTC, el [lev rt? ravra Oijcrei p-eprj, ro 
T€ irXrjdo'i d6pi(TT0v earai xal ovSeirore to avro 
T(t)v fiopicov' el S' av /xr) fiepyj, crv/j,^7]creTai, St' mv 
reketa ylveraL Koi (paiverai, ravra /xrj elvai ixepyy 
^aardvovra yap koI OdWovra koI Kapirov 
€'X,ovra irdvra KaWico koI reXeiorepa koI BoKel 
Kal eariv. al fiev ovv drropiai, a'xehov elcnv 

Td^^a Be ov')( ofiolcot; diravra ^Tjrrjreov oijre 
iv Tot<? aA,Xoi9 ov0^ 6 era 7r/309 rrjv yevecnv, 
avrd re rd yevv(i>fieva /neprj dereov olov rov'i 
Kap7rov<i. ovBe yap rd e/n^pva rwv ^docov. el 
Be iv rfi wpa oyfrei rovro ye KaXKiarov, 

^ i.e. the male inflorescence of some trees ; tlie term is 
of course wider than ' catkin.' 
* i.e. flower, catkin, leaf, fruit, shoot. 


— pennanent, that is, unless it be lost by disease, age 
or mutilation. However some of the parts of plants 
are such that their existence is limited to a year, for 
instance, flower, ' catkin,' ^ leaf, fruit, in fact all 
those parts which are antecedent to the fruit or else 
apf>ear along with it. Also the new shoot itself must 
be included \^■ith these ; for trees always make fresh 
growth everj' year alike in the parts above ground 
and in those which pertain to the roots. So that if 
one sets these ^ down as ' parts,' the number of parts 
vdll be indeterminate and constantly changing ; 
if on the other hand these are not to be called 
' parts,' the result will be that things which are 
essential if the plant is to reach its perfection, and 
which are its conspicuous features, are nevertheless 
not ' parts ' ; for any plant always appears to be, as 
indeed it is, more comely and more perfect when it 
makes new growth, blooms, and bears fruit. Such, 
we may say, are the difficulties involved in defining 
a 'part.' 

But perhaps we should not expect to find in 
plants a complete correspondence with animals 
in regard to those things which concern repro- 
duction any more than in other respects ; and so 
we should reckon as ' ]iarts ' even those things 
to which the plant gives birth, for instance their 
fruits, although ^ we do not so reckon the unborn 
young of animals. (However, if such ^ a product seems 
fairest to the eye, because the plant is tlien in its 
prime, we can draw no inference from this in 

3 ohZt yap : ovSi seems to mean no more than oh (c/. neque 
enim = non tnim) ; yap refers back to the beginning of the §. 

* fv Tjj Sipa oiJ/e( T>jvr6 y^ I conj. ; rp 5po o'^fi r6 ye vulg. 
W. ; TovTo, i.e. flower or fruit. 


ovSev arj^elov, eirel koI rcov ^cocov evOevel ra 

TloWa he koI ra fiepr] kut eviavrov avo- 
^dWei, Kadairep oi re €\a(jioi ra Kepara Kai 
ra (f)(/)\€vovra ra Trrepa Koi rplx"^^ TerpaTToBa- 
axTT ovSev aroirov aXXo)<; re koL 6p,oiov ov rm 

(f)vW0^0\€LV TO TTOlOo^. 

'^aavrco<i K ovSe ra irpo'S rrjv <^eveaiv' iirel Kal 
iv rol<i ^(ooc<; ra fiev avveKriKrerai ra S' arro- 
Kadaiperai Kaddirep aWorpia t?)? cf>v(xea)<;. eoiKe 
Be TrapaTrX-tjaiox; Kal ra rrepl rr)v ^Xdarrjaiv 
ex^iv. r) 'yap rot /3\da-r7}(n<; yeveaecof Xf^piv earl 
rrj^ re\eia^. 

"0X0)9 he KaOdrrep eliTOfiev ovhe irdvra 
op,oi(t)<i Kal eirl rwv ^docov XrjTrreov. hi o Kal 6 
dpL6p.o<i dopiaro^' rravraxv J^P ^aarrjriKov 
are Kal iravraxq ^o)V. cocrre ravra jxev ovrw^ 
VTToXrjTrreov ov fiovov el<i ra vvv dWa Kac roiv 
fieWovrcov xApiv ocra yap /ir) olov re d(f)o- 
fioiovv Trepiepyov to 7Xt%ecr^at 7rdvr<o<;, iva /nrj 
Kal rrjv oiKeiav diro^dXKwixev decopiav. rj he 
laropia rSiv <^vrS)v eanv 0)9 dTr\Si<; elirelv 17 Kara 

1 fvBfvfi conj. Sch., evOfTii UMVAld. i.e. we do not 
argue from the fact that animals are at their handsomest 
in the breeding season that the young is therefore ' part ' of 
the animal. 

2 Lit. ' which are in holes,' in allusion to the well-known 
belief that animals (especially birds) which are out of sight 
in the winter are hiding in holes ; the text is supported by 
[Arist.] de plantis 1. 3, the author of which had evidently 
read this passage ; but possibly some such words as raj re 
(^oAiSos /coi have dropped out after (puKivovra. 


support of our argument, since even among animals 
those that are with young are at their best.^) 

Again many plants shed their parts every year, 
even as stags shed their horns/ birds which hiber- 
nate 2 their feathers, four-footed beasts their hair : 
so that it is not strange that the parts of plants 
should not be permanent, especially as what thus 
occurs in animals and the shedding of leaves in 
plants are analogous processes. 

In like manner the parts concerned with repro- 
duction are not permanent in plants ; for even 
in animals there are things which are separated 
from the parent when the young is born, and 
there are other things-^ which are cleansed away, 
as though neither of these belonged to the animal's 
essential nature. And so too it appears to be with 
the growth of plants ; for of course groA\i:h leads up 
to reproduction as the completion of the process.* 

And in general, as we have said, we must not assume 
that in all respects there is complete correspondence 
between plants and animals. And that is why the 
number also of parts is indeterminate ; for a plant has 
the power of groA^-th in all its parts, inasmuch as it 
has life in all its parts. Wherefore we should assume 
the truth to be as I have said, not only in regard to 
the matters now before us, but in view also of those 
which will come before us presently ; for it is waste 
of time to take great pains to make comparisons 
where that is impossible, and in so doing we may 
lose sight also of our proper subject of enquiry. 
The enquiry into plants, to put it generally, may 

* i.e. the embryo is not the only thing derived from the 
parent animal which is not a 'part' of it ; there is also the 
food-supply produced with the young, and the after-birth. 

*cf.C.P. 1. 11.8. 


ra e^o) /jbopia koI ttjv oXrjv [xopf^rjv r) Kara to, 
ivT6<;, axTTrep eVt tmv ^comv to, e/c tmv avaro/xcov. 

5 ArjTTTeov S' iv avTOt<; iroid re iracnv vTrdp^ei 
ravrd koX irdia cSia Kud* eKaarov <yevo<i, en 8e 
TOiV avTOiv TTola ofioia' \eyco S olov <f}vX\ov pL^a 
<}>\oi6<i. ov Sel Se ovSe tovto XavOdveiv et ri kut 
dvaXoylav decoprjreov, Mcnrep iirl tcov ^cocov, rrjV 
dva(f)opap 7rotovfMevov<i BrjXov on Trpo^ ra ifi- 
<f)€pearaTa koI TeXeiorara. koX aTrXw? he oaa 

t5)V ev (f)VT0l<i d<]>0/J,OL(OT€OV T& ev T0t9 ^(O0l<i, &)? 

dv Tt9 T&i 7' dvdXoyov d^ofioioi. raina /jLcv ovv 
hioopicrOai rov rpoirov rovrov. 

6 At he Twv fiepcov 8ta(f>opal cr^eSov ci)9 tutto) 
Xa^eZv elcnv ev rpiaiv, rj rat rd fiev e%eti' 
TO. he firj, KaOdrrep ^vXXa koI Kapirov, rj ra 
fjLT} ofxoia fxrjSe icra, rj rplrov rm fir) o/iot(»9. 
rovrfou he rj jxev dvofioiorr]^ opi^erai a^VH'^'^'' 
Xpd>fian TTVKPorTjn /juavonjn rpaxvrrjn Xecorrjn 
Kol TOt<? dXXoL<i irddeaiv, en he oaat hia(popal 
rojv ^(yXoiV. rj he dviaorrjt; inrepo'Xrj kov eXXel-^et 
Kara TrXrjOo'i rj /neyedo'?. tw? S' elTrelv rvirw 

^ A very obscure sentence ; so W. renders the MSS. text. 
^ i.e. 'inequality' might include ' unlikeness.' 


either take account of the external parts and the 
form of the plant generally, or else of their internal 
parts : the latter method corresfKjnds to the study of 
animals by dissection. 

Further we must consider which parts belong to 
all plants alike, which are peculiar to some one 
kind, and which of those which belong to all alike 
are themselves alike in all cases ; for instance, leaves 
roots bark. And again, if in some cases analogy 
ought to be considered (for instance, an analogy 
presented by animals), we must keep this also iu 
view ; and in that case we must of course make the 
closest resemblances and the most perfectly de- 
veloped examples our standard ; ^ and, finally, the 
ways in which the parts of plants are affected must be 
compared to the corresponding effects in the case of 
animals, so far as one can in any given case find an 
analogy for comparison. So let these definitions 

The egsentiai parts of plants^ and the materials of which 
they are made. 

Now the differences in regard to parts, to take 
a general view, are of three kinds : either one plant 
may possess them and anotlier not (for instance, 
leaves and fruit), or Ld one plant they may be unlike 
in appearance or size to those of another, or, thirdly, 
they may be differently arranged. Now the unlike- 
ness between them is seen in form, colour, closeness of 
aiTangement or its opposite, roughness or its opposite, 
and the other qualities ; and agaiu there are the 
various differences of flavour. The inequality is seen 
ir excess or defect as to number or size, or, to speak 
gt,'nerally, -all the above-mentioned differences too 


KcLKelva iravra kuO^ virepoxvv koI eWei'^friv to 

7 yap ixaXkov koI rjTrov VTrepo')(r] koX eXkei'^L'i' to 
he firj 6fiOiO}<; Tjj diaet Sia^epet' Xeyoo 8' olov to 
Tov<i KapTTOv<; TO, fiev eirdvw to, 8' inroKara) tmv 
<f)vW(t)v e%6ty Kol avTOV tov SevSpov to, fiev i^ 
aKpov TO, 5e i/c tmv TrXajicov, evia he koI ck tov 
<TTe\e')(pv<i, olov rj AlyvTrTLU crvKdfiivo<i, Kol oaa hrj 
Kal VTTO yrjf; (ftepei Kapirov, olov r) re dpa'X^ihva kuv 
TO ev AljuTTTq) KaXovfxevov oviyyov, Kal el ra fiev 
€')(ei fiiax*^^ "^^ he /ji)j. Kal eVt twv avdecov ofioLQ)<}' 
TO, fjbev ydp irepl avTov tov Kapirov Ta he aWax;. 
6X(o<; he to t% 0ecr€(o<i ev tovtoc^ Kal Tol^i (f)vWot<i 
Kal ev Tol<i ySXacTTOt? XrjTTTeov. 

8 Aia(f)epec he evia Kal Ty Ta^ei- to, puev &)? 
eTvxe, Trj<i 8' eXaxT;? ol kXcovc^ kot dXKriXov^ 
eKaTepwOev tmv he Kal ol o^oi St' ccrov re Kal 
KaT dpidfiov t(Toi, KaOdirep tmv Tpio^cov. 

"0(7X6 TO,^ fxev hia(f)opd'i eK tovtcov XrjTTTeov e^ 
o)v Kal 7) 6\r] /jiop<f)r) avvhrjXovTai Kad^ eKacTTOV. 

9 Aura he to, fiepr] hiapid/Mrjaa/xevov^ TreipaTeov 
irepl eKacTTOV Xeyeiv. ecrTt he vr/jcora fiev Kal 
fxeytcTTa Kal kolvcl tmv irXe'KXTWv Tohe, pi^a 
KavXb<; aKpeficbv KXdho<;, eh a hieXoiT av Tif 

' rf. C.P. 5. 1. 9. 

2 cf. 1. 6. 11. T. extends the term Kapit6s so as to 
include any succulent edible part of a plant. 

» T. does not consider that Kaptcos was necessarily ante- 
ceded by a flower. 


are included under excess and^defect : for the ' more ' 
md the ' less ' are the same thing as excess and 
defect, whereas ' differently arranged ' implies a 
difference of position ; for instance, the fruit may 
be above or below the leaves,' and, as to position on 
the tree itself, the fruit ma\' grow on the apex of it 
3r on the side brandies, and in some cases even on 
the trunk, as in the sycamore ; while some plants 
igain even bear their fruit underground, for in- 
stance arakhidna ^ and the plant called in Egypt 
uingon ; again in some plants the fruit has a stalk, in 
;ome it has none. There is a like difference in the 
loral organs : in some cases they actually surround 
the fruit, in others they are differently placed ^ : in 
fact it is in regard to the fruit, the leaves, and the shoots 
that the question of position has to be considered. 

Or again there are differences as to s}Tnmetry ^ : 
in some cases the arrangement is irregular, while the 
branches of the silver-fir are arranged opposite one 
•mother ; and in some cases the branches are at 
ecjual distances apart, and correspond in number, as 
where they are in three rows.^ 

Wherefore the differences between plants must 
be observ ed in these particulars, since taken together 
they shew forth the general character of each plant. 

But, before we attempt to speak about each, we 
must make a list of the parts themselves. Now the 
primary and most important parts, which are also 
common to most, are these — root, stem, branch, twig ; 
these are the parts into which we might divide the 
plant, regarding them as members,^ corresponding to 

* Plin. 16. 122. 5 i.e. ternate. 

' i.e. if we wished to make an anatomical division. fjifXrj 
Boaj. Sch. cf. 1. 2. 7 ; nfpv Aid. 



atairep eh fiiXr], KaOaTrep eVi tmv ^axov. eKacrrov 
re yap avopLOiov koX i^ airdvTOiv Tovroiv ra 6\a. 

"Ea-Tt Se pil^a fiev Bl' ov rrjv Tpo^rjv eTrd'yerai., 
Kav\b<i Se 619 (fieperai. KavXov he Xejco to virep 
yrj'i 7r6(fiVK0<i e'^' ev' rovro <yap kolvotutov 6fiol(o<; 
e7reT€L0i<i koI 'x^povloK, o eVl rcov hevhpcov 
KoXeiTai (TTe\e')(^o<i' aKpepiovaf; he tov<; inro 
rovrov a')(i^ofievov'i, ov<i evioL KoXovcriv o^ov^. 
Kkdhov he TO ^\d(TT7)fMa to eK tovtcov e'^' ev, olov 
fidXtcTTa TO i'TTeTeiov. 

Kat ravTa jxev oiKeioTepa tmv hivhpcov. 

10 6 he KavXo'i, Mcnrep eiprjTai, KoivoTepa' e-^^ei 
he ov irdvTa ovhe tovtov, olov evia tmv ttolw- 
hSiv. TO, 8' e%6i /tiey ovk del he aXX' eTrereiov, 
Koi OCT a ')(povid>Tepa Tai<; pl^at<;. oXw? he 
7ro\v'X,ovv TO ipVTOv Kol TTOLKiKov Kol ')(a\eTrov 
elirecv KaOoXov arj/xelov he to fiy/hev elvai Kotvov 
Xa^elv o Trdcriv vTrdpxei, /caddirep rot? ^(ooc<; 

11 (TTOfia Kol KotXia. to, he dvakoyla TuvTa to, h' 
dWov TpoTTOv. ovTe <ydp pi^av irdvT e%et ovTe Kav- 
Xov ovTe uKpe/xova ovt€ KX-dhov ovTe (f>vWov ovt€ 
dv9o<i ovTe KapiTOV out av (p<,oibv rj firJTpav tj lva<i rj 
(f)\e^a<i, olov p,VKr)<; vhvov ev TovTOi<i he rj ovaia 
Kal ev TOt<i TOiovTOi^' dWa puaXicTTa TavTa 

^ i.e. before it begins to divide. ^ Qr ' knots.' 

s e*' conj. W.; v<p' P2l'3Ald. 

"* xpoviiirepa conj. Sell.; xP'"'"^'''€poj' Ald.H. 

° ava^oyta conj. Sell. ; avaAoyia UAld. H. 


the members of animals : for eacli of these is distinct 
in character from the rest, and together they make 
up the whole. 

The root is that by which the plant draws its 
nourishment, the stem that to which it is con- 
ducted. And by the ' stem ' I mean that part 
which grows above ground and is single ^ ; for that 
is the part which occurs most generally both in 
amiuals and in long-lived plants ; and in the case 
of trees it is called the 'trunk.' By 'branches' 
I mean the parts which split off from the stem and 
are called by some 'boughs.'- By 'twig' I mean 
the growth which springs from the branch regarded 
as a single whole,^ and especially such an annual 

Now these parts belong more particularly to 
tfees. The stem however, as has been said, is more 
general, though not all plants possess even this, 
for instance, some herbaceous plants are stemless ; 
others again have it, not permanently, but as an 
annual growth, including some whose roots live bevond 
tlie year.* In fact your plant is a thing various and 
manifold, and so it is difficult to describe in general 
terms : in proof whereof we have the fact that we 
cinnot here seize on any universal character which 
is common to all, as a mouth and a stomach are com- 
mon to all animals ; whereas in plants some characters 
are the same in all, merely in the sense that all 
have analogous ^ characters, while others correspond 
otherwise. For not all plants have root, stem, branch, 
t-vig, leaf, flower or fruit, or again bark, core, fibres 
or veins ; for instance, fungi and truffles ; and yet 
these and such like characters belong to a plant's 
essential nature. However, as has been said, these 



vTrdp'X^et, KaOdirep ecprjTai, Tol<i SevSpoL^; KUKeivcav 
olK€i6Tepo<; 6 p,epi,a/x6<i- tt/jo? a koX rrjv dva<f)opcLv 
TMV dWwv TTotelcrOat Slkulov. 
12 2%68oi/ Be /cal T<z? aX\a<; fjbop^a<i eKaarwv 
ravra Siaarj/uLatvei. Bta<p€povai yap TrXrjOei tc3 


rrjTi KOi TO) 60' €V rj et? TrXeteo o-)(i^€(r6ai Kol 
T0t9 aXX,oL<i T0t9 6/j,0L0i<;. eart Be k'/caarov t5>v 
elprjfievcov ovx 6fioio/j,€p€<i' Xiyo) Be ovx ofioio- 
fiep€<i OTt eK Tcov avTMv fxev oriovv fi€po<i crvy- 
Keirat t?}? pt^^?9 koI rov crreXep^of?, aW' ov 
Xeyerat (ne\e')(0'i to Xrjijjdev dXka fiopiov, to? 
iv Tot9 T(t)v ^(o(ov jxeXeaiv eartv. eV rwv avTcov fiev 
yap OTiovv t% KV')]firi<; rj tov dyKcovo<i, ovx 
6/x(ovvfiov Be Kaddirep aap^ Kal oarovv, dXX'' 
dvdovvfiov ovBe Br) tmv dXXcov ovBevb<i oaa jjlovo- 
eiBrj tS)v opyaviKwv dirdvTOiv yap twv roiovrwv 
dvcovvfia rd fiepr]. rcbv Be ttoXvslBwv oyvofMacrfieva 
KaOdirep ttoBo'? x^eipo'i /ce(f>aX't]<i, olov BdKTvXo^ 
pU 6<f)daX/M6<i. Kal rd /lev /xeyiara jxepri a^^Bov 
ravrd eariv. 

II. "AXXa Be i^ o)v rav'ra (f)Xotb<; ^vXov fiiJTpa, 
oaa e%e4 ixrjTpav. Trdvra 5' ofioiofiepr}. xal rd 
Tovrwv Be en irporepa Kal e^ mv ravra, vypov t? 

1 There is no exact English equivalent for bfxoioixepes, 
which denotes a whole composed of parts, each of which is, 
as it were, a miniature of the whole, cf. Arist. H.A. 1. 1. 

2 i.e. any part taken of flesh or bone may be called 
' flesh' or ' bone.' 

3 e.g. bark ; cf.\. 2. 1. * e.g. fruit. 


ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS, I. i. ii-ii. i 

characters belong especially to trees, and our 
classification of characters belongs more particularly 
to these ; and it is right to make these the standard 
in treating of the others. 

Trees moreover shew forth fairly well the other 
features also which distinguish plants; for they exhibit 
differences in the number or fewness of these which 
they possess, as to the closeness or openness of their 
growth, as to their being single or divided, and in 
other like respects. Moreover each of the characters 
mentioned is not '^composed of like parts ' ^ ; by 
which I mean that though any given part of the root 
or trunk is composed of the same elements as the 
v/hole, yet the part so taken is not itself called 
'trunk,' but "^a portion of a trunk.' The case is the 
same with the members of an animal's body; to 
wit, any part of the leg or arm is composed of the 
same elements as the whole, yet it does not bear the 
same name (as it does in the case of Hesh or bone ~) ; 
it has no special name. Nor again have subdivisions 
of any of those other organic parts^ which are uniform 
special names, subdivisions of all such being nameless. 
But the subdivisions of those parts * which are 
compound have names, as have those of the foot, 
hand, and head, for instance, toe, finger, nose or eye. 
Such then are the largest ^ parts of the plant. 

II. Again there are the things of which such parts 
are com]M)sed, namely bark, wood, and core (in the 
case of those plants which have it <^), and these are 
all ' composed of like jmrts.' Further there are 
the things which are even prior to these, from which 

* i.e the ' compound' parts. 

^ ^v\ov nirpa conj. W. from G. n.T]Tpa ^v\oy MSS. ; 
l'j\ou, gffa conj. W. ; liiAa, rj otra Ald.H. 



(f)\e-\Jr adp^- ap)(al yap avTur irXrjv et Tf9 \eyoi 
ra? Twp (TroL')(ei(i}v hwdfieLq, avrat Se KOival irdv- 
Tcov. rj jxev ovv ovata koI tj oXrj (f)V(Ti<i iv rovTOtf. 
"AWa S' eurlv axnrep eTrireta fieprj rd irpb^ 
rr)v KapiroTOKiav, olov (f>vXkov dvdo<i /itcr^o?* 
rovro S' iarlv c5 avvTjprrjTac Trpo? to (pvrbv rb 
(jivWov Kol 6 Kapiro'i' en Se [eXt^] ^pvov, oh 
virdpxet, fcal eirl irdai aTrepixa rb rov Kapirov' 
Kapirb^ S' ecTTt to a-vyKeifxevov airepixa fxerd rov 
TrepiKapnlov. irapd he ravra evicov tBia drra, 
Kaddrrep rj Kr)Kl<; Bpub<; Koi rj eki^ d/j,7re\ov. 

2 Kal rot^ fiev hevhpeaiv ecrrtv ovrco'i StaXa^elv. 
roL<i S" eTTereioi'; SrjXov &)? dtravra eTrereia' 
fxexpt yctp T(bv Kap-rrSiv r] (pvaa. ocra Brj eVereto- 
Kapira kol ocra hieri^ei, Kaddirep aeXivov Kal aW' 
drra, Kal oaa Se TrXelco j^povov e%ef, rovTOi<i 
diracn Kal 6 Kav\b<; aKoXovOijcrei Kara Xoyov 
orav yap a7repp,o(popetv /u,eWQ)cn, rore eKKavXov- 
(TLv, 609 €V€Ka rov a7repfiaro<; ovrcov rSiv KavX&v. 

Tavra fxev ovv ravry Birjpr]aOa). rSiV Be dpri 
elprjfxevcov fiepcov Treipareov eKaarov elirelv rl 
eanv to? iv rinrw Xeyovra<;. 

8 To /u,ev ovv vypbv (ftavepov o Brj KoXovcri riv€<i 
a7rXw9 ev diraaiv oirov, wairep Kal M.evearQ)p, ol 

^ ohaia conj. Sch. (but he retracted it) ; ffwovtria MSS. (?) 

'^ This definition is quoted by Hesych. s.v. yutVxos. 

^ ? cm. e'Ai|, which is mentioned below. 

^ rh ffvyKiifievov ffvep/na, lit. 'the compound seed,' i.e. as 
many seeds as are contained in one irepiKapiriov. 

i6 . 


they are derived — sap, fibre, veins, flesh : for these 
are elementary substances — unless one should prefer 
to call them the active principles of the elements ; 
and they are common to all the parts of the plant. 
Thus the essence ^ and entire material of plants 
consist in these. 

Again there are other as it were annual parts, 
which help towards the production of the fruit, as 
leaf, flower, stalk (that is, the part by which the 
leaf and the fruit are attached to the plant),'- and 
again tendril ,3 ' catkin ' (in those plants that have 
them). And in all cases there is the seed which 
belongs to the fruit : by ' fruit ' is meant the seed 
or seeds,'* together with the seed-vessel. Besides 
these there are in some cases jieculiar parts, such 
as the gall in the oak, or the tendril in the vine. 

In the case of trees we may thus distinguish the 
annual parts, while it is plain that in annual plants all 
the jiarts are annual : for the end of their being is 
attained when the fruit is produced. And with 
those plants which bear fruit annually, those which 
take two years (such as celerj' and certain others *) 
and those which have fruit on them for a longer time 
— with all these the stem will corres[X)nd to the 
plant's length of life : for plants develop a stem at 
whatever time they are about to bear seed, seeing 
that the stem exists for the sake of the seed. 

Let this suffice for the definition of these parts : 
and now we must endeavour to say what each of the 
parts just mentioned is, giving a general and typical 

The sap is obvious : some call it simply in all cases 
•juice,' as does Menestor'' among others : others, in 

I\ * cf. 7. 1.2 and .3. ^ A Pvthagorean philosopher of Svbaris. 
I VOL. I. C 


S' iv jjiev TOt? aXkoL<i av(ovvfji,a)<; iv 8e tktlv ottov 
KoX ev oKXoi'i hcbKpvov. lv€<; Be /cal ^Xe/Se? «a^' 
avra fiev avcovufia rfi Be o^iolott^ti, jJieTaXa^^d- 
vovcrc TOiv ev TOi'i ^o)oi<i fiopioiv. e^^i 8e tcro)? 
Kal aX\.a<; 8ia(f)opa<; koX ravra koI 0X009 to tmv 
<^VTOiv jevo'i' TToXv^ovv yap atcnrep elp^Kafiev. 
aXX^ eirel Bia tmv yvwpip^wTepcov fieTaSicoKeiv Bel 
TO, ayvcopiCTTa, 'yv(opip,(OTepa Be ra fiei^co Kal ifi- 
(pavfj rfi alcrdijaei, Br]Xov ore Kaddirep ixf) tjyrjrai 

4 jrepl rovTcov XeKreov eirava^opav yap e^Ofjuev 
roiv dXXcov 7rpb<; ravra peXP'' '^oaov Kal 7rw9 
eKaara p^ere^^i rr]<; op.oiorrjro'i. elXr}p,pevcov Be 
roiv (xepSiv [xerd ravra XrjTrreov rd<{ rovrcav 
Bia(f)opd<i' ovrco<i yap dp,a Kal 77 ovaia cfyavepd 
Kal 77 oXt) rS)v yevoiv 7rpo<i dXXrjXa Bi,d<rracn<i. 

'H fiev ovv rwv fieyicrrcov (T'xeBov etprjraf Xeyco 
S' olov pL^rj(i KavXov rSiv dXXcov at yap Bwdfjuefi 
Kal o)v xdpiv CKaarov varepov prjOijcrovrai. i^ 
oav yap Kal ravra Kal rd dXXa avyKeirai 
TTeipareov elrrelv dp^ap.evov'i diro rS)v Trpclorcov. 

Upoora Be ean to vypov Kal 6epp,6v' dirav yap 
<^vrov ex^i' rivd vyporrjra Kal Oepfiorrjra ctv/jl- 
(pvrov Marrep Kal ^a>ov, a>v viroXeiTTovrayv yiverai 
yr)pa<i Kal (fiOtcn<i, reXei(o<i Be vTroXcTrovroov ddva- 

5 T09 Kal avavcra. ev fiev ovv rol<i irXeiaroif; dvco- 

^ Lit. ' muscles and veins.' 

^ i.e. the analogy with animals is probably imperfect, but 
is useful so far as it goes. 

^ 1. 1. 10. * e.g. the root, as such. 

^ e.g. the different forms which roots assume, 



the case of some plants give it no special name, while 
in some they call it 'juice,' and in others "^gum.' 
Fibre and ' veins ' ^ have no special names in relation 
to plants, but, because of the resemblance, borrow 
the names of the corresponding })arts of animals. - It 
may be however that, not only these things, but the 
world of plants generally, exhibits also other differ- 
ences as compared with animals : for, as we have 
said,2 the world of plants is manifold. However, 
since it is by the help of the better known that we 
must pursue the unknown, and better known are the 
things which are larger and plainer to our senses, 
it is clear that it is right to speak of these things in 
the way indicated : for then in dealing with the 
less known things we shall be making these better 
known things our standard, and shall ask how far and 
in what manner comparison is possible in each case. 
And when we have taken the parts,* we must next 
take the differences which they exhibit,^ for thus 
will their essential nature become plain, and at the 
same time the general differences between one kind 
of plant and another. 

Now the nature of the most important parts has 
been indicated already, that is, such parts as the 
root, the stem, and the rest : their functions and the 
reasons for which each of them exists will be set forth 
presently. For we must endeavour to state of what 
these, as well as the rest, are composed, starting from 
their elementary constituents. 

First come moisture and warmth : for everj- plant, 
like every animal, has a certain amount of moisture 
and warmth which essentially belong to it ; and, if 
these fall short, age and decay, while, if they fail 
altogether, death and withering ensue. Now in 



vv/xo<; 7] L"yp6ri)<;, ev ivioi<i Se oovofuicrfjievT] KaOdnep 
eiprjrai. to aurb Se koI eVt tmv ^(ocov inrdpy^er 
fiovTj <yap r/ tmv evaiixwv vypoTrj^i MVo/JLacrrai, Bt 
o Kol Strjp^-jTai TT/Jo? TOVTO (nepTjaei' to, iiev <ydp 
dvatfxa rd 8' evaifia XiyeTai.. ev ri fiev ovv tovto 
TO p,epo<i KoX TO TOVTW avvr]pTrjfj.€vov Oep/Jiov. 

"AWa B' r}B7] €T€pa tmv eVro?, d kuO' eavTa ^iv 
iaTLV dvcovvfjLa, Bid Be ttjv 6/jiowTrjTa aTreiKa^eTai 
Tot9 T(bv ^(ocov fioploi^. exovat ydp axxTrep lva<i' 
o ecTTi crvve'xe'i koX cr^tcrTOi' Kol e7rl,fir)Ke<;, dirapa- 
^XaaTov Be koL d/SXaaTov. eTC Be (f)\€,8a<i. avTUt 
Be Td fiev dXka elalv ofjcoLai Ty ivi, fiei^ovi Be koX 
iraxuTepai koI irapa^XdaTa^ exovaai koI vypo- 
TtjTa. €Tt ^vXop Kol adp^. Td jxev ydp e%et 
adpKa Td Be ^vXov. ecTTL Be to fiev ^vXov o"%tcr- 
Tov, r] Be crdp^ TravTi) BiaipeiTai Marrep yrj Kai 
oaa yrj<i' fieTa^v Be jiveTat lvb<; Kal ^Xe^o<i' 
(f)av€pd Be r) (f)vai,<; avTf]<; ev dX\oi<i re /cal ev rot? 
T(ov ireptKapTrifov Bepfiacn. ^Xoio'i Be /cal /xrJTpa 
Kvpi(o<i fiev XeycTUi, Bel Be avTd Kal tA Xoya 
Btopiaai. (f)Xoib<i fxev ovv eVrt to ea^ciTov Kal 
Xoypio-Tbv Tov vTroKeifievov crcofx,aTo<i. fxrjTpa Be 
TO fieTa^if TOV ^vXov, Tp'iTOV dirb tov (j)Xoiov olov 
ev Tol<; 6aT0t<; fjbveX6<;. KaXovat Be Ttye? toOto 

1 irXetoTois cony Mold.; -irpirois Ald.H. ^ 1. 1. 3. 

•' a.wap<i0\a(TTov con]. R. Const. ; d7ropa;8ArjTO)' UMVAld. 
^ €Ti Si conj. W.; fx"" Aid. ^ Fibre. 

^ i.e. can be split in one direction. 
'' e.g. an unripe walnut. 


most 1 plants the moisture has no special name, but 
in some it has such a name, as has been said - : and 
this also holds good of animals : for it is only the 
moisture of those which have blood which has 
received a name ; wherefore we distinguish animals 
by the presence or absence of blood, calling some 
•animals with blood,' others 'bloodless.' Moisture 
then is one essential ' jiart,' and so is warmth, which 
is closely connected with it. 

There are also other internal characters, which in 
themselves have no special name, but, because of 
their resemblance, have names analogous to those of 
the parts of animals. Thus plants have what 
corresponds to muscle ; and this quasi-muscle is 
continuous, fissile, long : moreover no other growth 
starts from it either branching from the side ^ or 
in continuation of it. Again ^ plants have veins : 
these in other respects resemble the ' muscle,' ^ but 
they are longer and thicker, and have side-growths 
and contain moisture. Then there are wood and 
flesh : for some plants have flesh, some wood. Wood 
is fissile,^ while flesh can be broken up in any 
direction, like earth and things made of earth : it is 
intermediate between fibre and veins, its nature being 
clearly seen especially in the outer covering' of 
seed-vessels. Bark and core are properly so called,^ 
yet they too must be defined. Bark then is the 
outside, and is separable from the substance which it 
covers. Core is that which forms the middle of the 
wood, being third ^ in order from the bark, and 
•corresponding to the marrow in bones. Some call this 
oart the ' heart,' others call it ' heart-wood ' : some 

* i.e. not by analogy with animals, like ' muscle,' ' veins,' 
flesh.' 5 Reckoning inclusively. 


KapStav, 01 S' ivrepicovrjv evioL he to evro<i t^9 
fj.7]rpa<i avrr)<i KapSlav, ol Se fiveXov. 

To. p.ev ovv fjbopia (y^eZov icm roaavra. cru7- 
KCirai he to, varepov e'/c tmv irpoTepcov ^vXov 
fiev e^ IvM Kul vypov, koX evia aapKo'i' ^vkovrai 
yap (TKXrjpvvofjLevr], olov ev Tol<i cfiOivi^i, koI vdp- 
0>]^t Kol et rt dWo eK^vXovrai, Mairep al TOiv 
pa(f)aviBo)v pi^ar fxrjrpa Be i^ vypov kol aapKO'i' 
(fiXoio^; Se 6 fiev Ti9 eV irdvTwv tS)v Tpcwv, olov 6 
T^9 8pvo<i Koi alyeipov koI diriov 6 Se r?}? d/j,- 
TTeXov i^ vypov koX lv6<i' 6 8e tov (peWov etc 
aapKO'i Koi vypov, irdXiv Be etc rovrcov avvOera 
rd idLeyiara koI irpSira prjOevra KadairepaveX 
/xiXr], irKi-jV ovk eV rwv avTwv TrdvTa ovBe axrav- 
T&)9 dWd Bta(f)op(0<;. 

J^iXrj/jbfjievoiV Se vdvrwv tcov fiopUov ct)9 elirelv 
Ta9 TOVTCov 8ia(f)opd<i ireLpareov aTroBiSovai koI 
Ta9 oXcov TOiV hevBpwv kol (f)VTCov ovcriwi. 

III. 'Evret he av/jb^aivet cra(f)eaTepav elvat ttjv 
fidarjaiv hiaipovfievcov Kara ethr], Ka\S)<i e%6t 
TovTo TToielv i(f)^ &v evhe'x^eTai. Trpcora he ian 
Koi fieyiara koi cr%eSoi; v(f oiv Trdvr rj rd 
7r\ei(XTa ireptex^rai rdhe, hivhpov dd/jivo<i (f)pv- 
yavov TToa. 

Aevhpov p,ev ovv ian to diro pi^tj'i P'OVoaTe\e')(e<i 

' (ptWov conj. H. ; (pvWov UVP2P3Ald. ; (t>v\\od M. 

^ i.e. root, stem, branch, twig : cf. 1. 1. 9. 

^ ffaipeffrepav conj. W. ; ffa<p4ffrepov Aid. 

* el^t) here = yivri ; (f. 6. 1 . 2. u. 

5 vivr' fi conj. Sell, after G ; irivrv UMVAld. 

ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS, I. ii. 6-111. i 

again call only the inner part of the core itself 
the 'heart,' while others distinguish this as the 
' marrow.' 

Here then we have a fairly complete list of the 
'parts,' and those last named are composed of the first 
'parts' ; wood is made of fibre and sap, and in some 
cases of flesh also; for the flesh hardens and turns to 
wood, for instance in palms ferula and in other 
plants in which a turning to wood takes place, as in 
the roots of radishes. Core is made of moisture and 
flesh : bark in some cases of all three constituents, 
as in the oak black poplar and pear ; while the 
bark of the vine is made of sap and fibre, and that 
of the cork-oak ^ of flesh and sap. Moreover out of 
these constituents are made the most important 
parts,- those which 1 mentioned first, and which may 
be called ' members ' : however not all of them are 
made of the same constituents, nor in the same 
proportion, but the constituents are combined in 
various ways. 

Having now, we may say, taken all the parts, we 
must endeavour to give the differences between them 
and the essential characters of trees and plants taken 
as wholes. 

Definitions of the various classes into which plants may be 

III. Now since our study becomes more illumin- 
ating 3 if we distinguish different kinds,* it is well to 
follow this plan where it is possible. The first and 
most important classes, those which comprise all 
or nearly all * plants, are tree, shrub, under-shrub, 

A tree is a thing wliich springs from the root with 



'TTokvKXahov o^coTov ovK evaiToXvTov, olov iXda 
(TVKTj a/i7r€Xo9* Od/j,vo<; Se to avro pl^rf<i ttoXv- 
KXaSov, olov ^dro<; iTa\iovpo<;. (fipvyavov 8e to 
diro pi^r}<; 7roXvo-Te/V6%e<? koi iroXvKkahov olov 
KoX Ovjx^pa KOI Tnjyavov. irba 6e to cltto p'ltpr]'^ 
(jivXko<p6pov irpolov acrTeXe^e?, ov 6 Kavk6<i airep- 
fio(f>6po<;, olov 6 alra koX ra \d')(^ava. 

2 Aei he Toy? 6pov<i ovrw<i diroBexeaOat koX Xa/x- 
^dveiv o)? TVTTtp Kol errrl to irdv Xeyo/xevov^' evia 
yap iaco<; eiraXXdrreiv So^eie, rd 8e Kol irapd ttjv 
dycoyrjv dXXoioTepa yiveadai kol iK/3aCveiv ti}? 
(pvaeQ)<;, olov fiaXaxv ^e et? i/i/ro? dvayofiivr] 
Kol aTToSevSpov/jLevT)' a-vfi/SaLvei yap rovro Kal 
OVK iv TToXXft) 'X^povrp aXX' iv e^ rj kind jjbrjcnv, 
axTTe /jii]Ko<i Kal 7rd')(o<i Sopariatov ylvecrdai, hi o 
Kal ^aKTrjpLai^i avTat<} ')(^p(ovTai, irXeiovo'i he XP^' 
vov ytvojxevov Kara Xoyov r) d-Trohoai^' Ofxoiwi 
he Kal eirl row revrXtov Kal yap ravra Xa/x^dvei 
pbeyedo<i' ei-i he ixdXXov dyvoi Kal o TraXlovpo^ 
Kai o KiTro<;, wad^ ojxoXoyovixevw^ ravTa ylverat 

3 hevcpa' Kat rot Oafxvcohr} ye ecniv. 6 he fivppivof; 
jjbh dvaKaO aLpbfxevo'^ eKOapLvovTai Kal r) rjpaKXeo)- 
TLKT] Kapva. hoKel he avrrj ye Kal rbv Kaprrov 
^eXrico Kal irXeia) (pepeiv idv pd^hov<i Ti? id 

^ ediJivos . . . ir-hyavov. W.'s text transposes, without 
alteration, the definitions of Bdfivos and (ppvyauov as given 
in U. (ppvyavov he rh airh piCris Kal noXvareXex^^ " "' Tro\vK\aSoi' 
oTov Bdros iraXiovpos, Aid. So also M, but with a lacuna 
marked before (ppvyai'ov and a note that the definition of 
Odfxvos is wanting, (ppvyauov Ss rh airh fti^v^ ^al iroKvffreAexes 
Kal Tro\vK\aSov oTov Kal ydfJ.$pri Kal irriyavov. Odixvos Se airh l>(Cr}s 
woXiKXaSov oTov Bdros traKiovpos U. So also very nearly PiPj. 
G gives to edfxvo! (frutex) the definition assigned in U to 
(ppvyavov [suffnitex) and the other definition is wanting. 


a single stem, having knots and several branches, 
and it cannot easily be uprooted ; for instance, olive 
fig vine. 'A shrub is a thing which rises from the 
root with many branches ; for instance, bramble 
Christ's thorn. An under-shrub is a thing which 
rises from the root with many stems as well as many 
branches ; for instance, savor}' - rue. A herb is a 
thing which comes up from the root with its leaves 
and has no main stem, and the seed is borne on the 
stem ; for instance, corn and pot-herbs. 

These definitions however must be taken and 
accepted as applying generally and on the whole. For 
in the case of some plants it might seem that our de- 
finitions overlap ; and some under cultivation appear 
to become different and depart from their essential 
nature, for instance, mallow ^ when it grows tall and 
becomes tree-like. For this comes to pass in no long 
time, not more than six or seven months, so that in 
length and -thickness the plant becomes as great as a 
spear, and men accordingly use it as a walking-stick, 
and after a longer period the result of cultivation is 
proportionately greater. So too is it with the beets ; 
they also increase in stature under cultivation, and so 
still more do chaste-tree Christ's thorn ivy, so that, 
as is generally admitted, these become trees, and yet 
tiiey belong to the class of shrubs. On the other 
hand the myrtle, unless it is pruned, turns into a 
slirub, and so does filbert * : indeed this last appears 
to bear better and more abundant fruit, if one leaves 

Kote that W.'s transposition gives koI . . . kuI the proper 
fcrce; § 4 shews that the typical (ppvyavov in T.'s view was 

- Ovfi^pa conj. W.; ydfi0i>ri MSS. But the first <col being 
n eaningless, W. also suggests aiav/xfipioy for icat ■yd.u.&pti. 
« cf. Plin. 19. 62. * cf. 3. 15, 1. 



TrX-etof? ft)9 tt}? (})vcreco<i dafivooBovi ovar}<i. ov 
fiovo(7Te\€')(€<i S' av So^eiev ov8^ rj /jbijXea ouS' rj 
pota ovB Tj aTTLo^ elvai, ouS' oXw? oaa 7rapa^\a- 
(TTTjTiKa aTTo Tb)V pi^oov aWu TTJ dycoyp TOiavra 
irapaipov/xevoyv tmv aXXtov. evia he koI eaxrc 
TToXva- TeXe'XT) Sia XenrorrjTa, KadaTrep poav 
p,r]\eav eS)(7L he koI Ta9 €Xda<i K07rdSa<; Kol Ta<; 

Td'^a S' CIV Ti<; ^airj koI o\(o<; lueyeOei Kol fj,i- 
KpoTTjTi Siaipereov elvai, to, he ia-)(vi Kal da-deveia 


yap (f>puyav(oha)v Kal Xa^avcohcov evia fiovo- 
areXe'xri Kal olov hevhpov (fivacv 6')(pvra yuverai, 
KaOdnrep pdtpavo^ injyavov, odev Kal KaXoval 
Tiv€<; TO, TOiavra hevhpokd'^ava, rd re \a)(avd)hri 
Trdvra rj rd TrXeiara orav eyKarafxetvr] Xa/x^dvei 
nvdq coarrep dKp€fi6va<; Kal yiverat ro oXov ev 
(T')(riiJbari hevhpcohec ttXtjv oXiyo^povLwrepa. 

Aid hi) ravra Mcrirep Xeyojjiev ovk aKpi^oXoyr}- 
reov ru) opay dXXd ra> rinro) XrjTrreov rov<i 
d(j>opi,cr/j,ov';' eVet Kal rd<; hcai-pecrei<i o/xoico'i, olov 
r)p,epo)v dypicov, Kaprro^opoav aKdpiTcov, dvdo^opcov 
dvavOwv, deicpvXXcov (jivXXo^oXcov. rd [xev yap 
dypia Kal rjixepa irapd rrjv dyoiyrjv elvai hoKcl' 
irdv yap Kal dypiov Kal ijfiepov (p-t]aiv "Ittttcov 
yiveaOai rvy)(dvov rj pbrj rvy^dvov depaireia'i. 

^ i.e. so that the tree comes to look like a shrub from the 
growth of fresh shoots after cutting, cf. 2 6. 12 ; 2. 7. 2. 
^ pa.(\)avos conj. Bod. from (i ; ^a(pav\s Aid. 

* cf. 3. 2. 2. The Ionian philosopher. See Zeller, Pre- 
Socratic Philosophy (Eng. trans.), 1. 281 f. 

* Ka\ add. W. ; so G. 

^ ^ conj. Sch, ; koI UAld.Cam.Bas.H. 



a good many of its branches untouched, since it is by 
nature like a shrub. Again neither the apple nor the 
pomegranate nor the pear would seem to be a tree of 
a single stem, nor indeed any of the trees which have 
side stems from the roots, but they acquire the char- 
acter of a tree when the other stems are removed. 
However some trees men even leave with their 
numerous stems because of their slendemess, for in- 
stance, the pomegranate and the apple, and they 
leave the stems of the olive and the fig cut short.^ 

Exact cl'issification impracticable: other 2^0-^ble bases oj 

Indeed it might be suggested that we should 
classify in some cases simply by size, and in some 
cases by comparative robustness or length of life. 
For of under-shrubs and those of the pot-herb 
class some have only one stem and come as it were 
to have the character of a tree, such as cabbaore^ 
and rue : wherefore some call these 'tree-herbs'; and 
in fact all or most of the pot-herb class, when 
they have been long in the ground, acquire a sort 
of branches, and the whole plant comes to have a 
tree-like shape, though it is shorter lived than a tree. 

For these reasons then, as we are saAnng, one 
must not make a too precise definition ; we should 
make our definitions typical. For we must make 
our distinctions too on the same principle, as 
those between wild and cultivated plants, fruit- 
bearing and fruitless, flowering and flowerless, 
evergreen and deciduous. Thus the distinction 
between wild and cultivated seems to be due 
simply to cultivation, since, as Hippon ^ remarks, 
any plant may be either* wild or cultivated ac- 
cording as it receives or ^ does not receive attention. 



UKapira he koX KcipTTi/jia koI dv6o(f)opa KoX dvavOrj 
irapa rov<i roTrovt; koI tov depa top Trepiexovra' 
rov avTov Be rpoTTov koL (f)vWo^6\a Koi dei- 
(f)v\'Ka. TTepl yap 'KkecfiavTivrjv ovSe Ta<; d/xireXov^ 
ovSe ra<i crvKag (f)acn (pvWo^oXelv. 

'AXX' o/i<w9 Toiavra hiaLpereov e%6t yap ri tt}? 
^vcrea}^ KOivov 6p,oiw<i ev BevSpoi^ Kal ddpivoi^ Kal 
T0t9 (f)pvyaviKoc<; Kal iroLcoSecrLV' virep mv kol Ta9 
alria^ orav xt? Xeyrj Trepl iravTcov KOipfj SfjXov on 
XeKTeov ov)(^ opi^ovra KaO^ eKaarov evXoyov Se 
Kal ravra^ KOiva<i elvai rrdvTWV. d/j,a he Kal 
(paiveral riva e'^^eiv (jjuaiKrjv Siacjiopdv evOi)^ eVt 
rcbv dypiwv Kal twv rjfiepcov, etirep evia fiij ovva- 
rai ^rfv wcnrep rd yewpyovp^eva /xt/S' oXw? Six^Tai 
Oepaireiav dXkd xeipco yiverat, Kaddirep iXdrr) 
TrevKt] KrfKaaTpov Kal dirXM'i oaa ■yjrvxpov^ roirovi 
^iXel Kal xf-ovf^hea, waavTW'i he Kal roiv ^pvyavi- 
KMV Kal TTOioohcbv, olov Kd'TTTTapi'? Kal depp.o<;. 
rjp.6pov he Kal dypiov hiKatov KoXelv dva^epovra 
'irpo<i T€ ravra Kal 6Xco<; 7rpo9 to 7jp,ep(OTaT0V' [6 
8' dv6pco7ro<i 77 p,6vov rj p,dXiara i]p,epov.] 

TV. ^avepal he Kal Kar avrd^i ra? p-op<j>d<i al 
hia(f)opal TMV oXcov re Kal fiopiav, olov Xeyto 

1 a.v06<popa Kol avavOri conj. Sch. from G : Kapir6(popa &v6-n 
P^Ald. - cf. 1. 9. 5 ; Plin. 16. 81. 

^ Totavra 'Conj. W. ; Siaiperfov conj. Sch.; tois avrots 
atpereov Aid. The sense seems to be : Though these 
' secondary ' distinctions are not entirely satisfactory, yet 
(if we look to the causes of different characters), they are 
indispensable, since they are due to causes which affect all 
the four classes of our ' primary ' distinction. 

* i.e. we must take the extreme cases. 

5 i.e. plants which entirely refuse cultivation. 


ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS, I. hi. 5-iv. i 

Again the distinctions between fruitless and fruit- 
bearing,! flowering and flowerless, seem to be due 
to position and the climate of the district. And 
so too with the distinction between deciduous and 
evergreen, ^fhus they say that in the district of 
Elephantine neither vines nor figs lose their leaves. 

Nevertheless we are bound to use such dis- 
tinctions.^ For there is a certain common character 
alike in trees, shrubs, under-shrubs, and herbs. 
Wherefore, when one mentions the causes also, 
one must take account of all alike, not gi^'ing 
separate definitions for each class, it being reasonable 
to suppose that the causes too are common to all. 
.\nd in fact there seems to be some natural difference 
from the first in the case of wild and cultivated, 
seeing that some plants cannot live under the 
conditions of those grown in cultivated ground, 
and do not submit to cultivation at all, but de- 
teriorate under it ; for inst^xnce, silver-fir fir holly, 
and in general those which affect cold snowy 
country ; and the same is also true of some of the 
imder-shrubs and herbs, such as caper and lupin. 
Now in using the terms ' cultivated ' and ' wild ' 
' we must make these ^ on the one hand our standard, 
and on the other that which is in the truest sense ^ 
'cultivated.' "Now Man, if he is not the only 
thing to which this name is strictly appropriate, is at 
least that to which it most applies. 

yb Differences as to appearance and habitat. 

\Wiy. Again the differences, both between the plants 

F5 wholes and between their parts, may be seen in 

SXtiJS TpJ)s rh. ? TToos rb oXais conj. St. 
i, 5' &v0panros . . . ?ififpov. I have bracketed this clause, 
^vhich seems to be an irrelevant gloss. 



/xey€Oo<i KoX jJiLKporri'i, (TK\,r)p6T>]<i ixakaKorrj'i, 
Xeiorr]^ r pa')(yTrj^ , ^Xolov ^vWcov twv dWcov, 
o-ttXco? evfJ,opcf)La koI Svafjbop^ta TL<i, en he koI 
KaWiKapTTia koX KaKOKapiria. TrXetw p^ev yap 
SoKet ra a<ypta (pepeiv, coairep a^pa<i k6tlvo<;, koX- 
Xtft) Be Ta r)p,epa koX tou? 'xyXov'i he avTov<i 
<y\vKVTepov<; kuI rjSiov^; koL to okov ct)9 elireiv 
evKpdrov<? p,aWov. 

AvTUi re Br) (pvcriKal TLve'i coairep eiprjrai Bia- 
(f>opai, Kol en Br] pdWov tmv uKapTrcov koX Kapiro- 
(p6po)v Kol (f)vXko^6\(ov Koi dei<f)vWa>v koX oaa 
aXka TOiavra. ttclvtoov Be XrjTTTeov del koI ra? 
KUTO, Tovf TOTTOVi' ov yap ovS* olop re icco^ 
aXX(W9. at Be roiavrai Bo^atev av yeviKov rtva 
TTOielv ywpiapov, olov evvBpwv kuI 'xepaaicov, Mcnrep 
eVi TMv ^Q)(ov. eart yap evta roiv (f)VT(ov a ov 
BvvaTat p^rj ev vyput ^rjv Bi^prjrai Be aWo kut 
dWo yevo<i tmv vypcov, cocrre ra fiev ev reXpuicn 
ra Be ev \[p,vai'i rh S' ev 7TOTap.ol<i rd Be /cal ev 
avrfj rf] OaXdrrrj ^veaOai, rd p,ev ekdrrw Kal ev 
rfj Trap rjpuv rd Be pei^co irepl rrjv epvdpdv. evca 
Be atairepel Kadvypa Kal eXeia, KaOdirep Irea Kal 
irXdravo'?, rd Be ovk ev vBari Bvvdp,€va ^rjv ovB' 
oXa)9 dWd BicoKOvra rou<i ^r}pov<; roirovi' rcov B' 
eXarrovcov eariv a Kal rot"? alyta\ov<i. 

^ Kar avras ras conj. Sch. ; Kal rd r' avrai tAj U ; Kara 
ravras ras MVAld. 

2 irdvrwv . . . tJttous, text perhaps defective. 
^ i.e. as to locality. •* c/. 4. 7. 1. 



the appearance itself ^ of the plant. I mean differences 
such as those in size, hardness, smoothness or their 
opposites, as seen in bark, leaves, and the other 
j)arts ; also, in general, differences as to comeliness 
or its opposite and as to the production of good or of 
inferior fruit. For the wild kinds appear to bear 
more fruit, for instance, the wild pear and wild olive, 
but the cultivated plants better fruit, having even 
flavours which are sweeter and pleasanter and in 
general better blended, if one may so say. 

These then as has been said, are differences of 
natural chai-acter, as it were, and still more so are 
those between fruitless and fruitful, deciduous and 
evergreen plants, and the like. But with all the 
differences in all these cases we must take into 
account the locality ,2 and indeed it is hardly possible 
to do otherwise. Such ^ differences would seem to 
give us a kind of division into classes, for instance, 
between that of aquatic plants and that of plants of 
the dry land, corresponding to the division which we 
make in the case of animals. For there are some 
plants which cannot live except in wet ; and again 
these are distinguished from one another by their 
fondness for different kinds of wetness ; so that some 
grow in marshes, others in lakes, others in rivers, 
others even in the sea, smaller ones in our own 
sea, larger ones in the Red Sea.* Some again, one 
may say, are lovers of very wet places,^ or plants 
of the marshes, such as the willow and the plane. 
Others again cannot live at all ^ in water, but seek 
out dry places ; and of the smaller sorts there are 
some that prefer the shore. 

* i.e. though not actually living in water. 

" ovS' o\(os conj. W.; iv tSutois Ald.H. Minime G. 


Ov /j,r]v ciXXa Kot tovtwv ei ri<; aKpijSoXo- 
yeccrdat OeXoi, to, [xev av evpoi /coiva koI axTTrep 
dficpL^ia, /caOdirep p,vpiKr]v Ireav KXrjdpav, ra Se 
KUL ro)v opoXojov/xevcov 'X^epaaCoiv ire^vKOTa Trore 
ev rfi daXdrrrf ^lovv, ^oiviKa a-KiXXav dvQkpiKov. 
cCKXa ra roiavra koI 6Xco<; to ovtco aKoireiv ovk 
oiKeiw^ earl a-Koirelv ovhe yap ov8^ rj <pvai<i ov- 
T&)9 ouS' ev T0i9 TotovToi<; e^et to avw^Kolov. ra<i 
p,ev ovv 8iaipecret(; koI oX(W9 ttjv laTopiav tmv <j)V- 
tS>v ovto) XrjTTTeov. {airavTa S' ovv Koi TavTa koI 
Ta aXXa oLOiaei KadaTrep ecprjTai Taif re twv 
oXtov pop(f)at<i Kol Tal<i tmv popuov 8ia(})opal<i, rj 
T(p e'xeiv TO, 8e p,rj e%eti', y tm TrXetci) to, S' 
iXaTTco, rj tw dvop.oi(a^ rj oaoi TpoTTOi Sc^prjvTai 
nrpoTepov. oiKeiov 8e t'cr<»9 koI rov'i tottov^ avp- 
TrapaXap^dvecv ev oh cKaaTa irecjiVKev rj p,rj 
7r€(f)VK€ ylveaOai. peydXrj yap Kal avTrj 8ia(popd 

KUL OV-X^ ijKlCTTa OlKeLU TMV <f)VTCi)V 8l.d TO (TUVrjp- 

Ttjadat T^ yfj Kal prj diroXeXvadai KaOd^rep 
TO, fwa.] 

V. HeipaTeov 8' elirelv Td<; KUTa piepo^ 8ia- 
<^opa<s 0)9 av KadoXov XeyovTWi irpcoTov kuI koivm<{, 

1 eeKoi conj. Sell.; SeAej Ald.H. 

^ evpoi conj. Sell. ; e'vprj Aid. ; fvpr) H. 

^ Presumably as being sometimes found on the shore below 
high-water mark. 

* a-navra . . . ^a>a. This passage seems not to belong 

° rpoiroi conj. Sch. ; tottoi UMVAld. 



However, if one should wish 1 to be precise, one 
Avould find - that even of these some are impartial 
and as it were am))hibious, such as tamarisk willow 
alder, and that others even of those which are 
admitted to be plants of the dry land sometimes live 
in the sea,^ as palm squill asphodel. But to con- 
sider all these exceptions and, in general, to consider 
in such a mamier is not the right way to proceed. 
For in such matters too nature certainly does not 
thus go by any hard and fast law. Our distinctions 
therefore and the study of plants in general must be 
understood accordingly. * To return — these plants 
as well as all others will be found to differ, as has 
Ijeen said, both in the shape of the whole and 
in the differences between the parts, either as to 
Jiaving or not having certain parts, or as to having 
a greater or less number of parts, or as to having 
them differently arranged, or because of other dif- 
ferences ^ such as we have already mentioned. And 
it is perhaps also proper to take into account the 
situation in which each plant naturally grows or 
does not grow. For this is an important distinc- 
tion, and specially characteristic of plants, because 
they are united to the ground and not free from 
it like animals. 

Characteristic differences in the parts of plants, whether 
general, special, or seen in qualities and properties. 

V. Next we must try to give the differences as 
to particular parts, in the first instance speaking 
])roadly of those of a general character/ and then 

'' i.e. those which divide plants into large classes (e.g. 
tivergreen and deciduous). 



eXja KaO" eKaa-rov, varepov eVt irXelov wairep 

"EcTTi Be ra fxev opOo^vrj koL fiaKpoareXixv 
KaOdirep iXdri] ttcvkt] Kvirdpi'no'i, ra Se (tko- 
Xicorepa koI ^pa'xyaT€\e')(7] olov irea crvKrj potd, 
KoX Kara izdyo'i he koX XeirroTi^Ta ofMovto^. 
Kol TTokLV TCb fjL€v fxovoareXexv to, Se iroiXv- 
(TT6Xe^>7" Tovjo Se ravrb rpoTrov nvd kol t& 
7rapa^\acTTr]TtKd rj dirapd^Xaara elvar Kot 
TroXvKXaS-r] kol oXiyoKXaSa Kaddirep 6 (f)otvL^, 
Kul iv avTol<i TovTOi<i en Kara la'xyv rj Tra^o? ■^ 
2 Tci'i roLavTa<i Sca(f)opd<;. TrdXiv rd fxev Xeirro- 
(p\oia, Kadd-nep hd^vq (f)i\vpa, rd Se 'jraxv^^oca, 
Kadd.irep 8pv<;, en rd puev \ei6(f)Xoia, /caOdrrep 
p^rjXea avK-fj, rd Be Tpa')(y<^\oia, Kaddirep dypia 
Bpv'i (f>€X\o<i (})oivi,^. Trdvra Be vea p,ev ovra 
\€io(f)Xoi6T€pa, diTO'yripdaKovTa Be Tpaxv(f)\oi6- 
repa, evia Be koX f)r]^[<f)\oia, KaOdirep a/x7reXo9, rd 
Be KOL 0)9 TrepLTriTTTeiv, olov dv8pd')(Xr] firjXea 
KOfiapo'i. ecTTL Be koL tmv p.ev (TapK(oBri<; 6 (j)Xoi,6<i, 
olov (fieWov Bpv6<i alyetpov rcbv Be IvcoBr}^ kol 
d(TapK0<i 6//-otct)9 BevBpwv koX dd/xvcov kol eTrereirov, 
olov dp.ireKov KoXdpov rrvpoii. Kal tcov fiev 
7ro\v\o7ro<i, olov <^ikvpa<; eXarr]'; dfiTreXov \ivo- 
airdprov Kpofivcov, rcov Be /jLovoXotto^, olov a-VKrj^ 

^ i.e. taking account of differences "in qualities, etc. See 
§ 4, but the order in which the three kinds of ' differences ' 
are discussed is not that which is here given ; the second is 
taken first and resumed at 6. 1, the third begins at 5. 4, the 
first at 14. 4. 

2 ravTh conj. Sch. ; ahrh UMVPAld. 

•* Tpaxv<p\oi6Tipa conj. H. from G ; ■iraxv<\). UMAld. 
cf. Plin. 16. 126. 



of special differences between individual kinds ; and 
after that we must t^ike a wider range, making as it 
were a fresh survey.^ 

Some plants grow straight up and have tall stems, 
as silver-fir fir cypress ; some are by comparison 
crooked and have short stems, as willow fig pome- 
granate ; and there are like differences as to degree 
of thickness. Again some have a single stem, others 
many stems ; and this difference corresponds - more 
or less to that between those which have side- 
growths and those which have none, or that between 
those which have many branches and those wliich 
have few, such as the date-palm. And in these 
very instances we have also differences in strength 
thickness and the like. Again some have thin 
Ijark, such as bay and lime ; others have a thick 
Ijark, such as the oak. And again some have 
smooth bark, as apple and fig ; others rough bark, 
as 'wild oak' (Valonia oak) cork-oak and date-palm. 
However all plants when young have smoother 
bark, which gets rougher ^ as they get older; and- 
some have cracked bark,* as the vine ; and in some 
<;ases it readily drops off, as in andrachne apple ^ 
and arbutus. And again of some the bark is fleshy, 
as in cork-oak oak poplar ; while in others it is 
fibrous and not fleshy ; and this applies alike to trees 
shrubs and annual plants, for instance to vines 
reeds and wheat. Again in some the bark has more 
than one layer, as in lime silver-fir vine Spanish 
broom <* onions " ; while in some it consists of only 

* h^i(p\oia conj. St.; l,iCl<poia (?)U; ^iC^^Aoia P.; K<»- 
oKoia PoAld. <•/. 4. 15. 2, Plin. I.e. 

' /iTjAs'a conj. H. Steph., etc.; j^Xeta lIMPAld.; trhXeia 
}\V. cf. Plin. I.e. 

' G appears to have read xlpou, o-wdprov. ' cf. 5. 1, 6. 



KoXdfiov atpa<i. Kara filv 8r] Toi)^ (p\oiov<: iv 
TovToa at Sia(})opaL 

Tmv Be ^vkoiv avroiv /cat 6\co<; tmv kuvXcov ol 
fj,€V elat crapK(o8ei<;, olov 8pvo<i avKrj<i, koX tmv 
ekaTTovcav pdjxvov t6vt\ov Kcoveiov ol Se dcrap/coL, 
Kaddirep KeSpov Xwrov KVirapiTTOv. koX ol fiev 
lvQ)8ei<i' rd jdp rrj<i iXdrr}^ koI tov ^oivtKO<i ^lika 
TOtavra- rd Be diva, Kaddnep Trj<i avKrj<;. oocrav- 
T6)? Se Kol rd fiev ^Xe^coBr) rd 8' d(f)Xe^a. irepl 
Be rd (ppvyaviKd koI OafivooBrj koI oXct)9 rd vXrj- 
fiaTa Kol dX\a<; tl<; dv \d,8oi Bia(f)opd^' 6 fiev 
rydp KdXafw; <yovaT6iBe^, 6 Be ^dro^ kol 6 
7raXiovpo<; aKavdcoBr}. r] Be rv^rj Kol evca twv 
eKeiwv rj Xifivaicov 6fjioico<i dBidt^paKra fcal OfiaXrj, 
KudaTrep axoivof. 6 Be rov KVireipov /cal /3outo- 
fiov Kav\o<i ofMaXoT'ijrd riva e%ei Trapd rovTov<;' 
en Be /xaXXov Ifcro)? 6 rov puvK^jro^. 

Avrai fxev Br) Bo^aiev dv i^ wv rj crvv6e(Ti<;. al 
Be Kara rd TrdOrj Kal ra? BvvdfJ,eL<; olov o-kXt)- 
p6rri<i fiaXaKort}^ 'yXi(T')(p6rri(; Kpavp6rrj<; <ttvkv6- 
rrj<i> ixavorrj^; /cov<p6rr]<i ^apvri]^ Kal oaa dXXa 
roiavra' rj fiev yap irea Kal 'xXwpov evffv Kovtpov, 
axTTrep 6 0eXXo9, ?; Be ttv^o^ Kal r] e^€vo<i ovBe 
avavOevra. Kal rd fiev (X'xi^erac, Kaddirep rd t^? 

^ fid/xvov conj. W. ; Odfivov P2 ; ^aXdvov Ald.H. 

'^ Kwveiov conj. Sch.; Kwviov Ald.U (corrected to Kwvtiou). 
cf. 7. 6. 4. 

' 5e ^iVa conj. fcJcfi from G.: Sc ^Iva U; Se navd Aid. ; 
06 . . . ra M. 

■* vXiijuMTa conj. Sch. (a general term including shrubs, 
under-s'hrubs, etc. cf. 1. 6. 7 ; 1. 10. 6) ; KK-h/xara, Aid. 



one coat, as in fig reed darnel. Such are the 
respects in which bark differs. 

Next of the woods themselves and of stems 
generally some are fleshy, as in oak and fig, and, 
among lesser plants, in buckthorn ' beet hemlock ^ ; 
while some are not fleshy, for instance, prickly cedar 
nettle-tree cypress. Again some are fibrous, for of 
this character is the wood of the silver-fir and the 
date-palm ; while some are not fibroas,^ as in the 
fig. In like manner some are full of ' veins,' others 
veinless. Further in shrubby plants and under- 
shrubs and in woody plants ^ in general one might 
find other differences : thus the reed is jointed, 
while the bramble and Christ's thorn have thorns on 
the wood. Bulrush and some of the marsh or pond 
plants are in like manner'' without joints and smooth, 
like the rush ; and the stem of galingale and sedge 
has a certain smoothness beyond those just men- 
tioned ; and still more perhaps has that of the 

Differences as to qtialities and properties. 

These then would seem to be the diflerences in 
the parts which make up the plant. Those which 
belong to the qualities ^ and properties are such as 
hardness or softness, toughness or brittleness, close- 
ness or openness of texture, lightness or heaviness, 
and the like. For willow-wood is light from the 
first, even when it is green, and so is that of the 
cork-oak ; but box and ebony are not light even 
when dried. Some woods again can be split,'^ such 

' bfioiais, sense doubtful ; on'xvvfioiv conj. W, 
" xd^Tj, rf. 1. 1. 1 n. 

' fX'C*''^"' conj. W. ; <rxt(r0(VTa UMVAld. ; ffX'<TTd H. : 
nssiles G. 



eA,aTi/9, ra he evdpavara fidWov, olov to, t^9 
iXda<;. koI ra fiev ao^a, olov ra rrj'i aKrrj^, ra he 
o^cohrj, olov ra Tr]<i 7r€VKr)<; koI eXuTrj^;. 

Aet he Koi ra? Toiavra<; vTroXa/ji^dvetv t^9 
<f>V(r€co<i. eucrxtCTOV fiev jap rj iXdrr) ra> evdv- 
TTopeiv, evOpavarov he 7) e\da hia to (tkoXlov koI 
aKXrjpov. evKa/jLTTTOv he r) (f>i\vpa koL oaa dWa 
hid TO 'y\la')(^pav e^eiv rrjv vypoTTjra. ^api) he r} 
jxev TTvfo? Koi 7] ej3evo<i on irvKvd, -q he hpv<i on 
yecohe^. oiaavTa)<; he koI rd dWa Trdvra nrpof 
Trjv (f)vcnv ttw? dvdjerai. 

VI. Aia^epovcTi he koI ral<i pbrjTpaL^' irpcorov 
fiev el evia e%et 17 fit) e%et, KaOdrrrep Tive^ cf^aacv 
dWa re koX rrjv uktijv errena koI ev avroc'i 
Tot9 e'xpvcn' TMV /xev jdp ecrn crapKcohrji; rcov 
he ^vXcohrj'i twv he vfjLev(ohr}<i. kuI <japK(ohr]^ 
fjbev olov dfiTTeXov avKrj'i /ji,7)Xea<i poidf d.KTrj'i 
vdp07}KO<;. ^vX(M)h7]<; he Trlrvo'i iXdTr)<i 7revKi]<i, 
KoX fJbdXtaTa avrr} hid to €vhaho<i elvat, tovtcov 
S' eVi (TKXrjpoTepai /cat iruKvoTepai KpaveLa<i 
irpivov hpvo<i KVTtaov avKa/uLtvov e^evov Xcotov. 

Aia^epovai he avTal Kal Tol<; '^(^pcofiaa'r 
fxeXaivai ydp t?}9 e^evov Kal Trj<i hpv6<i, r)v KaXovai 
fxeXdvhpvov. diraaai he (XKXijpoTepai Kal Kpavpo- 

^ i.e. break across the grain. fijdpava-ra mP ; Adpavcrra 
VF Aid.; fragilia G. cf. 5. 5, Plin. 16. 186. 
2 i-o^a conj. Palm, from G ; Ao|a UPAld. 
^ i.a. across the grain. ^ (/. 5. 6. 2. * cf. 5. 1. 4. 
^ T. appears not to agree as to elder : see below. 



as that of the silver-fir, while others are rather break- 
able/ such as the wood of the olive. Again some 
are without knots/- as the stems of elder, others 
have knots, as those of fir and silver-fir. 

Now such differences also must be ascribed to the 
essential character of the plant : for the reason why 
the wood of silver-fir is easily split is that the 
grain is straight, while the reason why olive-wood is 
easily broken ^ is that it is crooked and hard. Lime- 
wood and some other Moods on the other hand are 
easily bent because their sap is viscid.* Boxwood 
and ebony are heavy because the grain is close, and 
oak because it contains mineral matter.^ In like 
manner the other peculiarities too can in some way 
be referred to the essential character. 

Further 'special' diffennces. 

VI. Again there are differences in the ' core ' : in 
the first place according as plants have any or have 
none, as some say ^ is the case with elder among other 
things ; and in the second place there are differences 
between those which have it, since in different plants 
it is res|>ectively fleshy, woody, or membranous ; 
fleshy, as in vine fig apple pomegranate elder ferula ; 
woody, as in Aleppo pine silver-fir fir ; in the last- 
named " especially so, because it is resinous.- Harder 
again and closer than these is the core of dog-wood 
kermes-oak oak laburnum mulberry ebony nettle- 

The cores in themselves also differ in colour ; for 

that of ebony and oak is black, and in fact in 

the oak it is called • oak-black ' ; and in all these the 

core is harder and more brittle than the ordinary 

'' aurri conj. Sch.; avri} UAld.; avrrj MV ; ovt^j Po. 



repai rwv ^vXcov 8i o koI oy% vTrofievovcn 
Kafnrrjv. fxavoTepai he ai fiev at S" ov. v/jiev(o- 
§649 5' eV fiev TOt? 8iv8poL<i ovk elaiv rj cT'irdviOL, 
iv he Tol<i 9afivu)hecn koL oXco'i rol<i vXtj/xaaiv 
olov Kokdixo) re koL vapOtiKi koI Tol<i toiovtoi^ 
elalv. e%ei he ttjv fxrjrpav ra fiev fieydXrjv koI 
(fyavepdv, &)? nrplvo^ hpv^ koX roKXa Trpoeipt]- 
fxeva, rd 5' d(f)avearepav, olov eXda ttu^o?* oii 
yap eariv dcpcopLO-fxevrjv ovrco Xa^elv, dWd Kac 
(^aai Tive<i ov Kara to /xecrov aXXd Kara ro irdv 
e-y^etv Mare p,r) elvai ronrov uipi,a \xevov' hi o /cat 
evia ovh^ av ho^ecev oXca e')(eLV' eiTel Kal rod 
(f>oi,viKO<i ovhefiia (paCverai hia^opd Kar ovhev. 

3 Aia(f)€pov(Ti, he Kal ral<i pL^aL<i. rd fxev yap 
TToXvppLga Kal p.aKp6ppi,^a, KaOdirep avKrj hpv'i 
irXdravci' edv yap e^foo't' rorrov, e<f) oaovovv 
7rpoep'X,ovrat. rd he oXiyoppi^a, KaOdirep poid 
firjXea' rd he p.ov6ppi^a, KaOdirep eXdrrj rrevKrf 
fxovoppc^a he ovrco'i, on, filav fieydXrjv rrjv et9 
^d6o<i e'^ei fiiKpd'? he avro ravrr]^ rrXeiov^. e')(ov(n 
he Kal r5)V fir) /j,ovoppi^cov evta rrjv e'/c rov fieaov 
fieylanjv Kal Kard ^d6ov<;, loairep ujuvyhaXi]' 
iXda he jxiKpdv ravrrjv ra? he dXXa<; p,el^ov<i Kal 
0)9 KeKapKtvoyp.eva<i. en he rcov fxev 7ra')(^eiat 
fxdXXov rMv he dvcofiaXel'i, Kaddirep hd(f3vr]<i eXda^' 

4 rcov he jracrat XeTrrai, Kaddrrep d/nTreXov. hca- 
<f)epovai he Kal Xecorrjri Kal rpax^JTijri Kal ttvkvo- 
rrjri. irdvrcov ydp ai pi^ai fiavorepai roiv avw, 

^ yiavo'Tfipa.i . . . oS : text can hardly be sound, but sense is 
clear. ^ j- (, homogeneous. =* Plin. 16. 127. 

* 3. 6. 4 seems to give a different account. 
- ' cf. a P. 3. 23. 5, and icapKivdihi^s G.P. 1. 12. 3 ; 3. 21. 5. 



wood ; and for this reason the core of these trees can 
not be bent. Again the core differs in closeness 
of texture. 1 A membranous core is not common 
in trees, if indeed it is found at all ; but it is found 
in shrubby plants and woody plants generally, as in 
reed ferula and the like. Again in some the core is 
large and conspicuous, as in kermes-oak oak and 
the other trees mentioned above ; while in others it 
is less conspicuous, as in olive and box. For in these 
trees one cannot find it isolated, but, as some say, it 
is not found in the middle of the stem, being diffused 
throughout, so tliat it has no separate place ; and for 
this reason some trees might be thought to have no 
core at all ; in fact in the date-palm the wood is 
alike throughout.- 

Differences in root. 

2 Again plants differ in their roots, some having 
many long roots, as fig oak plane ; for the roots of 
these, if they have room, run to any length. Others 
.igain have few i-oots, as pomegranate and apple, 
others a single root, as silver-fir and fir ; these have 
a single root in the sense that they have one long 
one * which runs deep, and a number of small ones 
branching from this. Even in some of those which 
have more than a single root the middle root is the 
largest and goes deep, for instance, in the almond ; 
in the olive this central root is small, while the 
others are larger and, as it were, spread out crab- 
wise.^ Again the roots of some are mostly stout, of 
some of various degrees of stoutness, as those of 
bay and olive ; and of some they are all slender, 
as those of the vine. Roots also differ in degree 
of smoothness and in density. For the roots of all 


irvKvoTepai he oKKai aWcov koI ^vXfoBecrrepai' 
Kol at fxev IvooBei^, ft>9 ai rfj<i iXdrr]^, al he aapK- 
(o8ei<; /xdWov, axnrep al t?}? 8pv6<;, al 8e olov 
6^(oSei<i Kal Ovcravoihea, (aairep al t?}? iXda^- 
TOVTo Be on rd<i Xevrra? Kal fxtKpa<i 7ro'\Xa<i 
e')(ov(Ti Kal d0p6a<i' iirel Trdaau ye Kal ravra^i 
dnocfivovaiv aTTO tcou /xeydXcov aW' 01^)^ 6fioi(o<i 
ddp6a<i Kal 7roWd<;. 

"EcTTt Be Kal TO, fxev ^aOvppi^a, KaOdirep Bpv<i, 
TO, S' eTTiTroXaioppc^a, KaOdirep e\da poid firjXea 
KvirdpiTTO'i. €TL Be al fiev evOelat Kal ofxaXeh, 
al Be (TKoXial Kal irapaXXdrrovcrat' tovto yap 
ov jMovov (TVfi^aivei Bid TOv<i tottovi; t& fir) 
evoBelv dXXd Kal rr)<i ^vae(o<> avri]<i ecrriv, wairep 
eirl T)]<i Bd(f)V7)<; Kal t?}? iXda^' rj Be crvKrj Kal rd 
roiavra o-KoXiovrai Bid to fir) evoBelv. 

5 "A-iraaai, S' efifirjrpoi KaOdirep Kal rd areXe')(rj 
Kal ol aKpefiovd' Kal evXoyov aTTo Tr]<; dpxV'>' 
elal Be Kal al fiev 7rapa^XacrT>]TiKal el<; to dv(o, 
KaOdirep dfiireXov p6a<i, al Be aTrapd^acrroi, 
KaOdirep eXdrt)<i KVirapirTOV irevKr)^. al avral 
Be Biacfiopal Kal rwv (ppvyaviKMV Kal rwv ttoicoBmv 
Kal TOiv aXXfov TrXrfv el oXtw? evia fir) e^ei, 
KaOdirep vBvov fivKrj<i Tre^t? Kcpavviov. rd fiev 
iroXvppi^a KaOdirep irvp6<i Ti(j}r) KpiOtj, irdv to 
rotovTo, KaOdirep elKa^ovcrai<i- rd 8' oXcyoppi^a 

6 KaOdirep rd jdehpoird. a')(^eBov Be Kal rwv Xa-^^av- 
wBoiv rd irXelara povoppi^a, olov pd(f)avo<} 

^ irefis Kfpavviov : ttv^os Kpdviov UMVAld. ; ireCis conj. Sch. 
from Athen. 2. 59 ; Kipawiov conj. W. cf. Plin. 3. 36 and 37, 
Juv. 5. 117. '^ elKa^ovixats : word corrupt; so UMVAld. 

■^ Plin. 19. 98. 



plants are less dense than the parts above ground, 
but the density varies in different kinds, as also does 
the woodiness. Some are fibrous, as those of the 
silver-fir, some fleshier, as those of the oak, some are 
as it were branched and tassel-like, as those of the 
olive ; and this is because they have a large number 
of fine small roots close together ; for all in fact pro- 
duce these from their large roots, but the}' are not 
so closely matted nor so numerous in some cases as 
in others. 

Again some plants are dee|>rooting, as the oak, 
and some have surface roots, as olive pomegranate 
apple cypress. Again some roots are straight and 
imiform, others crooked and crossing one another. 
For this comes to pass not merely on account of the 
situation because they cannot find a straight course ; 
it may also belong to the natural character of the 
plant, as in the bay and the olive ; while the fig and 
such like become crooked because they can not find 
a straight course. 

All roots have core, just as the stems and branches 
do, Avhich is to be expected, as all these parts are 
made of the same materials. Some roots again have 
side-growths shooting upwards, as those of the vine 
find pomegranate, while some have no side-growth, 
as those of silver-fir cvpress and fir. The same 
cHfferences are found in imder-shrubs and herbaceous 
j)lants and the rest, except that some have no roots 
at all, as truffle mushroom buUfist ^ ' thunder-truffle.' 
(3thers have numerous roots, as wheat one-seeded 
"ivheat barley and all plants of like nature, for 
instance,- .... Some have few roots, as legu- 
minous plants. ° And in general most of the pot- 
lierbs have single roots, as cabbage beet celery 



T€Vt\ov aeXivov XaTra^o?* irXrjv evia Kol airn- 
(pvdSa^ e%et /x6ydXa<;, olov to aekivov koX to 
revTXov' koI 009 av Kara \6you ravra ^aOvppt^- 
orepa rwv BevSpcov. elal 8e rcov piev aapK(oSei<;, 
KaOdirep pa^avlBo'i joyjvXiSo'i dpov Kpo/cov 
TMV he ^vXdoSei'i, olov cu^co/mov &)/c//ioy Kal tmv 
dypicov Be tmv TrXeLaroov, oawv pbi] ev9v<i TrXetoi/? 
Kol o-)(i^6pLevai, Kaddirep irvpov Kpidf]<; koI rrj^i 
KoXov puevT)'^ 7r6a<;. avrrj <ydp ev Tot9 eirereloL'^ kol 
iv rol<i TTomSecriv r] 8ia<f)opd rcov pi^cov ware ra? 
pbev ev6v<; a')(i^e(x6aL TrXeiov; ovaa<i kol d/zaXet?, 
Twv Se dWfov pilav rj Svo Ta<i fxeyiara^ kol aX,Xa<; 


"OX(c<i he 7rXeiov<i at 8ia(f)opal tcov pt^cov ev 
Tot'i vXtjpLaai Kol Xay^avdtheaiv elal yap al jxlv 
^vX(o8€i<i, waTrep al rod wKipLOV al he o-apKcohetf, 
coaTrep al rod revrXov Kal ert hrj p,aXXov rov 
dpov Kal da^oheXov Kal KpoKov al he waiTep 
eK ^Xoiov Kal crapKO'i, cocrirep al roiv pa(f)avihcov Kal 
ryoyyi>Xih(ov' al he yovarcahei^, wairep at r6)v KoXd- 
p^cov Kal dypdiareoov Kal et ri KaXap.whe<i, Kal piovai 
hi) avrai r) pdXiaO^ 6p,oiai rol<; virep yi]<;' wairep 
yap KdXa/xoi elcriv eppL^cof^evoc Tat? Xerrrac^;. al 
he Xe7rvpd)hei<i rj (jiXoicohei';, olov a'i re ri)'; (TKiXXr]<; 
Kal rov l3oXl3ov Kal en Kpop,vov Kal ro)v rovroi<i 
opboicov. alel yap ecrri Trepiaipelv avrcov. 

Jldvra he rd roiavra hoKet KaOdirep hvo ykvr\ 
pi^fbv e'xeiv rol<; he Kal oXcos rd KeffyaXo^aprj 
Kal Kardppi^a irdvra' rrjv re aapKoohrj ravrtjv 

^ The same term being applied to ' herbaceous ' plants in 
general. ^ piin_ jg, gg. 



monk's rhubarb ; but some have large side-roots, as 
celery and beet, and in proportion to their size these 
root deeper than trees. Again of some the roots are 
tieshy, as in radish turnip cuckoo-pint crocus ; of 
some they are woody, as in rocket and basil. And 
so with most wild plants, except those Avhose roots 
are to start with numerous and much divided, as 
those of wheat barley and the plant specially ^ called 
' grass.' For in annual and herbaceous plants this is 
the difference between the roots: — Some are more 
numerous and uniform and much divided to start 
Avith, but the others have one or two specially large 
roots and others springing from them. 

To speak generally, the differences in roots are 
more numerous in shrubby plants and pot-herbs ; 
- for some are woody, as those of basil, some fleshy, as 
those of beet, and still more those of cuckoo-pint 
asphodel and crocus ; some again are made, as it 
were, of bark and flesh, as those of radishes and 
turnips ; some have joints, as those of reeds and 
dog's tooth grass and of am-thing of a reedy charac- 
ter ; and these roots alone, or more than any others, 
resemble the parts above ground ; they are in fact 
like ^ reeds fastened in the ground by their fine roots. 
Some again have scales or a kind of bark, as those of 
squill and purse-tassels, and also of onion and things 
like these. In all these it is jiossible to strip oft 
a coat. 

Now all such plants, seem, as it were, to have two 
kinds of root ; and so, in the opinion of some, this is 
true generally of all plants Avhich have a sohd 'head'* 
and send out roots from it downwards. These have, 

» i.e. the main root is a sort of repetition of the part 
above ground. * i.e. bulb, corm, rhizome, etc 



KoX <f)\oi(o8i], Kaddrrep ?) aKtWa, koI Ta<; dirb 
TavTr]<i aTTOTTe^vKVia^' ou yap XeTrror^jn Koi irayy- 
rr]TL Sia^epovcri jxovov, Mcnrep at tmv SevSpav koX 
ra)V Xa^dvcov, dX)C dWoiov ej(ovarL to <yevo<i. 
€K(f)av€crrdTr) S" 57877 77 re rov dpov kol 7) rov kv- 
Treipov rj /xev yap 'na')(eia koI Xela koI aapKcoSj)^, 
rj 8e XeTTTT) koI lv(ioS7]<;. SiOTvep dTropjjcreiev dv 
Ti'i el pL^a<i Ta? Toiavra<i Oereov fi fiev yap Kara 
7779 Bo^aiev dv, y Be vTrevavrtai^ e')(pvaL rah 
dXXai^ ovK dv Bo^acev. rj fiev yap pi^a Xcttto- 
repa tt/oo? to iroppw Kal del avvo^vi' ?) Be rcov 
cTKiXXfbv Kal TMV ^oX^Siv Kal TMV dpcov dvd- 

"Eri S" al /xev dXXai Kara to irXdyiov dcpidac 
pi^af, al Be tmv ctklXXmv Kal t5)v ^oX^oov ouk 
d(f>tdcnv' ovBe twv crKopoBtov Kal tmv Kpopuvcov. 
6X(o<i Be ye ev ravrai? al Kara fxeaov Ik Tr]<; 
Ke(paXr]<i r/pTr^p^vac (patvovTai pl^ai Kal rpecfiov- 
Tai. TovTo 8' Mcnrep Kvpa rj Kap7r6<i, oOev Kal 01 
iyyeoTOKa XeyovTe<i ov /ca/cw9" eVt Be tmv dXXcov 
TOLOVTO p,ev ovBev eariv eirel Be irXelov 77 (pvai^i 
rj Kara pi^av TavTr) diTOpiav e^^t" to yap Brj 
irdv Xeyeiv to Kara yrj<; pl^av ovk opdov Kal yap 
dv 6 KavX6<i Tov /3oX^ov Kal 6 rod yrjOvov Kal 

ras conj. Sch. ; r^s Ald.H. ; rijv . . . airoirf(pvKv7av ¥. 
2 aW' a\\o7ov ex"""'' conj. St.; uWa \e7ov exoyrts PMV 
Aid.; a\\o7ov e'x- niBas.mP from G; aW' aX\o7ov exovcrat 
conj. Seal. ^ cf. 4. 10. 5. 

Kal dei Aid. ; M Kal conj. W. ^ pijn, 19, 99. 

cf. the definition of ' root,' 1. 1. 9. 

iyye6T0Ka Kf-yovres conj. W. ; Cj. ri tSiv eyyeorSKwv 
TovToiv yiviffis in Athenaeus' citation of this passage (2. 60) ; 



that is to sajj this fleshy or bark-hke root. Hke squill, 
as well as the ^ roots which grow from this. For 
tliese roots not only differ in degree of stoutness, 
like those of trees and pot-herbs ; they are of quite 
distinct classes. ^ This is at once quite evident in 
cuckoo-pint and galingale/ the root being in the one 
case thick smooth and fleshy, in the other thin and 
fibrous. Wherefore we might question if such roots 
should be called ^ roots ' ; inasmuch as they are under 
ground they would seem to be roots, but, inasmuch 
as they are of opposite character to other roots, they 
Mould not. For your root gets slenderer as it gets 
longer and tapers continuously * to a point ; but the 
so-called root of squill purse-tassels and cuckoo-pint 
does just the opposite. 

Again, while the others send out roots at the 
sides, this is not the case ^ with squill and purse- 
tassels, nor yet with garlic and onion. In general 
in these plants the roots which are attached to 
tlie ' head ' in the middle appear to be real roots 
and receive nourishment,*' and this • head ' is, as 
it were, an embryo or fruit ; M-herefore those who 
c.ill such plants ' plants which reproduce them- 
selves imderground ' " give a fair account of them. 
In other kinds of plants there is nothing of this 
sort.^ But a difficult question is raised, since here 
tlie ' root ' has a character which goes beyond what 
one associates with roots. For it is not right to call 
al that which is underground 'root,' since in that 
case the stalk ^ of purse-tassels and that of long 
onion and in general any part which is under- 

eiTeo-j oiaaAeyoi-Tfs U ; (v re roh oaTois aKtyovres MV (omit- 
ting T€) Aid. (omitting tois). 

* Totovro /xiv ovSev conj, W. ; tovto ixev MSS. 

* &I' 6 Kav\6s conj. St.; avaKuvXos Aid. 



o\co<t ocra Kara ^ddovi icrrlv e'irjaav av pC^ai, 
Kal TO vBvov Se Kal o KaXovai rtve'i acryiov Kal 
TO ouiyyov KUi eo tl aXko vTrojetov ea-TiV oiv 
ovSev ecTTL pi^a' 8vvdfj,€i <ydp Bel (fiva-iKfj Siaipelv 

Kal OV TOTTft). 

10 Tdxoi Be TOVTO /jL€V opOm Xeyerai, pl^a Be ovBev 
TjTTov iaTiv dWd Bi.a(f)opd Tt? avT')j tmv pi^&v, 
ware rrjv puev Tiva roiavTTjv elvai rrjv Be TOiavrtjv 
Kal rpe(pea0ai ttjv erepav inrb t^? erepa^. Kairoi 
Kal avral at aapKdoBei'i eoiKacnv eXKeiv. ra? 
yovv TMV dpcov Trpo tov /BXaardvecv arpecpova-i 
Kal ylyvovjai fi€L^ou<i Kco\v6p,evai BiajSrjvaL irpo^ 
TTjV /SXdcrTrjcriv. eTrel on ye Trdvrcov tmv tolov- 
Tcov r) ^v(Ti.<; eirl to kutco fidXXov perrei (fyavepov 
01 fiev yap KavXol Kal oX&)9 rd dvco ^paj^ea Kal 
dadevrj, rd Be Kdrco fieydXa Kal TToXXd Kal 
l(T')(ypd ov [xovov eirl twv elprjpLevcov dXXd Kal eVt 
KaXdfMov Kal dypd)artBo<; Kal oXo)<; ocra KaXafxcoBrj 
Kal TOvroL<; o/xota. Kal ocra Brj vapOtjKcoBr), Kal 
TOvro)v pl^ai fxeydXai Kal aapKd)BeL<i. 

11 rioX,A,a Be Kal roiv ttolwBmv e^^t roiaina^ pl^a<i, 
olov airdXa^ KpoKo^ Kal to TrepBiKiov KaXovjievov 
Kal yap tovto Tra^eta? re Aral irXeiovi e^et ra? 
pi^a<; 7} (pvXXa' KaXetTai Be irepBiKLov Bid to tou? 
irepBiKa'^ eyKvXUaOai Kal opvTreiv. 6ixoi(o<; Be 

1 $deovs conj. Sch. ; fidOos Aid. 

^ Koi h W. after U ; koI om. Aid. ; G omits also rh before 
oijiyyov, making the three plants synonymous. The passage 
is cited by Athen., I.e., with considerable variation. 

* ToiavTr]v conj. St.; T0(TavT7]v MSS. 

* i.e. the fleshy root (tubei', etc.). 

•' i.e. the fibrous root (root proper). 



ground ^ would be a root, and so would the tiniffle, 
the plant which 2 some call puff-ball, the iiingon, and 
all other underground plants. Whereas none of these 
is a root ; for we must base our definition on natural 
function and not on position. 

However it rasLj be that this is a true account and 
yet that such things are roots no less ; but in that 
case we distinguish two different kinds of root, one 
being of this character ^ and the other of the other, 
and the one* getting its nourishment from the 
other ^ ; though the fleshy roots too themselves seem 
to draw nourishment. At all events men invert ^ the 
roots of cuckoo-pint before it shoots, and so they 
become larger by being prevented from pushing' 
through to make a shoot. For it is evident that the 
nature of all such plants is to turn downwards for 
choice ; for the stems and the upper parts generally 
are short and weak, while the underground parts 
are large numerous and strong, and that, not only in 
the instances given, but in reeds dog's-tooth grass 
and in general in all plants of a reedy character and 
those like them. Those too which resemble ferula ^ 
have large fleshy roots. 

^Many herbaceous plants likewise have such roots, 
as colchicum '^^ crocus and the plant called ' par- 
tridge-plant ' ; for this too has thick roots which are 
more numerous than its leaves. ^^ (It is called the 
' partridge-plant ' because partridges roll in it and 
grub it up.) So too with the plant called in Egjpt 

^ arpi(povai conj. Sch.; Tp4<povffi MVAld.; cf. 7. 12. 2. 

" 5iaj87jvat conj. W. ; Stadeivai UMV. 

** i.e. have a hollow stem (umbelliferous plants, more or 
less). 9 Plin. 19. 99. 

^* o-TaA.a| UMV; o(rw<iAa| mBas. : perhaps corrupt. 
" Plin. 21. 102. 



Kol TO iv AlyvTTTq) KoKovfievov ovlyyov' to, fiev 
yap (pvWa jxeyaXa koX 6 ^\a(no<i avTOv y8/oa%i;9, 
rj Se pL^a fia/cpa Kai iajiv Mcnrep 6 KUpiro'^. 
Stacfjepec re Kal eaOierai, koI avWeyovai Be orav 
12 o TroTafio<; arro^r) arpe^ovTe<i Ta9 ^(o\ov<i. (pave- 
poiiTara he koX TrXeicrTrjv e^ovra tt/jo? to, aXka 
Sia(popav TO alXcfitov Kal r) KaXovfxivTj puayvhapt,'^' 
dp^orepcov yap tovtwv Kal uTTavTcov rcov rocovrcov 
iv Tat<i pi^aa p,aKXov rj (f)vai<;. ravra p.ev ovv 
ravTr} XrjTTTea. 

"Eviai 8e Tcov pc^MV Trkeiw ho^aiev av e'xeiv 
Sia(f)opav irapa ra^ elpr]p,eva<;' olov aX re rrj<i apa- 
'^iSvTj'i Kal rov opoiov tS apuKW' (pepovac yap 
dfxcfeoTepat Kapirov ovk ekdrrco rov dvw Kal fiiav 
fxev pi^av to dpaKoohe<i tovto iTaj(e'i'CLV e^^t ttjv 
Kara ^ddov<i, rd'i S' a\Xa<i ecf oov 6 Kapiro^ 
\€7rT0Tepa<i Kal eir aKpw [/cat] o-^t^ofieva<i ttoX- 
\a')(ri' (piXel Se p,d\i(TTa %&)/3ta to, vcpafi/xa- (pvX- 
Xov Se ovherepov e%et rovruyv ov8^ op,oia rot<{ 
<pvXXoi<;, dXX oicnrep dp(f)i,Kap7ra pdXXov eaTiv o 
Kal (paiveraL Oavpdaiov. al fiev ovv (f>vaei<i 

Kal 8vvdp,et<i Toaavra<i e')(ovaL Siacpopd^. 

VII. Av^dvea-Oai Se irdvrwv Sokovctiv al pi^ai 
TTporepov TOiV dvw Kal yap (pverai el<; ^ddo<i' 
ovSepLca 8e KadrjKei irXiov r) oaov 6 ijXio'i icpiKvel- 
raf TO yap deppiov ro yevvoiv ov /jltjv dXXd 

^ oijiyyov mBas.H. ; ovCrov MV; ov'irov Aid.; cf. 1. 1. 7 ; 
Plin. 21. 88 {oetum). 

^ /j.eyd\a : text doubtful (W. ). 

^ Sm^e'pei : text doubtful (Sch.). 

* (TTpftpovTes ras l3di\ovs conj. Coraes ; atecpovTes 0a>ixovs 
UMVAld. s ^^ ins. Sch. 


ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS, I. vi. ii-vii. i 

iiingon ^; for its leaves are large- and its shoots short, 
while the root is long and is, as it were, the fruit. 
It is an excellent thing ^ and is eaten ; men gather 
it when the river goes down by turning the clods> 
But the plants which afford the most conspicuous 
instances and shew the greatest difference as com- 
pared with others are silphium and the plant called 
magydaris ; the character of both of these and of all 
sucli plants is especially shewn in ^ their roots. Such 
is the account to be given of these plants. 

Again some roots would seem to shew a gi-eater 
difference ^ than those mentioned, for instance, those 
of arakhidna,'' and of a plant ^ which resembles 
arakos. For both of these bear a fruit underground 
which is as large as the fruit above ground, and this 
arakos-\\\i.e^ plant has one thick root, namely, the 
one which runs deep, while the others which bear 
the ' fruit ' are slenderer and branch ^"^ in many 
directions at the tip. It is specially fond of sandy 
ground. Neither of these plants has a leaf nor 
anj-thing resembling a leaf, but they bear, as it 
were, two kinds of fruit instead, which seems sur- 
prising. So many then are the differences shewn 
in the characters and functions of roots. 

VII. The roots of all plants seem to grow earlier 
than the parts above ground (for growth does take 
place downwards ^^). But no root goes down further 
than the sun reaches, since it is the heat which 
induces growth. Nevertheless the nature of the sod, 

^ i.e. to be even more abnormal: Sia<l>opav conj. Sch. ; 
Sia<!>opa\ Aid. • Plin. 21. 89. 

* tine-tare. See Index, App. (1). 
® apaKuSes conj. Sch. ; trapKuhfs Ald.G. 
^'^ Koi before ax^C- o™- Sch. from G. 
11 c/. G.P. 1. 12. 7. (cited by Vano, 1. 45. 3); 3. 3. 1. 



Tuvra fxeydXa avfx^dWeraL 7rpb<i ^aOvppi^lav 
Kol eTL fidXkov 7r/909 fxaKpoppc^iav, rj Tr}<; ')(a>pa<i 
(f)vai<; eav y Kovcprj kuI fiavrj koI evhioho<i' ev yap 
ral<i roiavTac(; iroppunepw kol p,ei^ov<i al av^rj- 
<rei9. <f>avepov 8e eVl tcov rj/nepoofidTcov eyovja 
yap vSo)p oirovovv BUiaiv d><i elirelv, eTreioav 6 
r67ro<i rj Kevo<; Ka\ /xrjSev to dvTLcnaTOVv. rjyovv 
iv Tft) AvKei(c rj TrXdravo^ 97 /card rbv o^eTov eVt 
via ovaa iirl rpel<i kuI rpidKovra 7r?7%ei9 d(f)r]K€v 
e')(pvaa tottov re d/na Kal Tpo(f)'^v. 

Ao^eie Se &)? eliretv r) avKTj fiaKpoppi^orarov 
elvai Kal oXto? Se [xaXkov rd jjuavd Kal evdvppt^a. 
nravTa he rd vecorepa rwv TraXaiMV, idv el<j aKfirjv 
rjKwaiv, 7]Sr] /SaOvppi^orepa Kal p^aKpoppi^orepa. 
av/xcjidivovart yap Kal al pi^ai tm aAXw crcofiaTC. 
irdvTwv he ofioio)^ ol 'xyXol rol^ (f)VTol<i hetvorepoi, 
Tot? he ft)? iiriTrav hi Kal ivicov TriKpal wv 01 
Kapirol y\vKet<;' al he Kal <f)ap/jLaKcoh€i<i' eviai S" 
€V(t)8ei,<;, wairep al T779 'lptho<;. 

^Ihla he pi^r)<; (f)V(ri<i Kal hvvapi<i r) ri]<i ^lvhiKrj<i 
(TVKr)^' diTO ydp rcov ^Xaaroov dipLrjai, p-exp^ ov 
dv avvd-yjrrj rfj yrj Kal pi^wOfj, Kal yiverat ire pi rb 
hevhpov kvkXw avvex^'i to rcov pi^wv ovx dirTo- 
fievov Tov crre\exov<i aXV d<f)€crT'r]K6<;. 

^ ravra before ^eyaAa om. W. 

^ rtfjifpoofiaTaiv conj. Sch.; TifiipuiraTcav UPgAld. : cf. C.P. 
5. 6. 8. 

^ bvovovv MSS. ; b-Koffovovv conj. W. from G, in quantum 
liheat. * ineiVav conj. Sch. ; iirf\ Kt^v UMVPAld. 

« Quoted by Varro, 1. 37. 5. 

^ ivl conj. Sch. ; vapa Pg ; irepi Aid. 

' <rvfi(p6lyovcri : avfjL^wvovffi conj. St. 



ii' it is light open and porous, contributes greatly ^ to 
deep rooting, and still more to the formation of long 
roots ; for in such soils growth goes further and is 
more Wgorous. This is evident in cultivated plants.^ 
For, provided that they have water, they run on, one 
may say, wherever it may be,^ whenever ^ the ground 
is unoccupied and there is no obstacle. * For instance 
the plane-tree by the watercourse in the Lyceum 
when it was still young sent out its roots a distance 
of^ thirty-three cubits, having both room and 

The fig would seem, one may say, to have the 
longest roots, and in general plants which have wood 
of loose texture and straight roots would seem to 
have these longer. Also young plants, provided that 
they have reached their prime, root deeper and have 
longer roots than old ones ; for the roots decay along 
with " the rest of the plant's body. And in all 
cases alike the juices of plants '^ are more powerful in 
the roots than in other parts, while in some cases 
they are extremely j>owerful ; wherefore the roots 
are bitter in some plants whose fruits are sweet ; 
some roots again are medicinal, and some are frag- 
rant, as those of the iris. 

The character and function of the roots of the 
'^ Indian fig' (banyan) are peculiar, for this plant sends 
out roots from the shoots till it has a hold on the 
ground ^ and roots again ; and so there comes to be 
a continuous circle of roots round the tree, not 
connected with the main stem but at a distance 
from it. 

* Tor? (pvrols Aid. ; rats pi(ais conj. W. from O : text pro- 
bably defective. 

' rp 7f conj. Seal from G ; itvk^ U; -rp irvKfi PoAld. 



TlapaTrXijcnov Be tovtm fiaWov he rpoTrov riva 
Oavfiaa-idoTepov et ti e/c rwv (f)vWa>v acfilrjcn pl^av, 
olov (f)a(Ti irepX ^Oirovvra iroidpiov elvai, o koI 
iaOUadal iariv rjSv. to yap av tmv Oepfxcov 
Oavfjiaarbv rjrrov, on av ev vXtj ^adela airapy 
Bieipei rrjv pi^av vpoq rrjv yrjv Kal ^Xaardvei Bia 
rrjV layyv. dXka Br) ra<i /xev roiv pi^cov Bia(J30- 

pas €K TOVTWV decoprjTeov. 

VIII. Twi' BevBpcov TO.? TOLavra<i dv Ti? Xd^oi 
Biacfiopd'i. eart yap rd /xev o^coBrj rd S' dvo^a 
Kal (pvaet Kal totto) Kara to fidWov Kal tjttov. 
dvo^a Be Xeyco ov-^ ware fxrj e'%etz/ oXw^ — ovBev 
yap TOiovro BevBpov, dXX^ etiTep, eirl rcov dXXo)v 
olov a')(plvo^ Tix^T) KV7reipo<; oXw? eirl rwv Xi/nvo)- 
Bmv — ttX-A,' twcTTe 6Xiyov<; e^eti/. (fivaei fj,ev olov 
dKTT) Bd<f)V7) crvKT] oXft>9 irdvra rd Xei6cj)Xoia Kal 
oaa KolXa Kal fxavd. o^oiBe'i Be eXda irevKT] 
K6rivo<i' TOVTWV Be rd p.ev ev iraXLaKioL'i Kal 
vr]ve/xoi<; Kal e^vBpot<i, rd Be ev evrjXioi'i Kal •^ei- 
p,epioL<i Kal TTvevfxarcoBeac Kal XeTTTOt? Kal ^r)poi'}' 
Ta p.ev ydp dvo^orepa, to. Be o^coBeaTepa twv 

1 Tj conj. W.; Tis MSS. ^ piju. 21. 104. 

3 c/ 8. 11. 8 ; Plin. 18. 133 and 134. 

* bieipei conj. Sch. ; Smipe? PgAld. ; cf. C.P. 2. 17. 7. 

^ oCos is the knot and the bough starting from it : c/. 
Arist. de iuv. et sen. 3. 

" cwl Twy conj. Coraes ; ^ t«v UM ; tittov (erased) P (iK 
Toiv marg. ) tittov Aid. 


ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS, I. vii. 3-viii. i 

Something similar to this, but even more surprising, 
occurs in those plants which ^ emit roots from their 
leaves, as they say does a certain herb - which grows 
about Opus, which is also sweet to taste. The 
peculiarity again of lupins ^ is less surprising, namely 
that, if the seed is dropped where the ground is 
thickly overgrown, it pushes * its root through to the 
earth and germinates because of its vigour. But 

we have said enough for study of the differences 
between roots. 

Of trees {principally) and their characteristic special differences: 
as to knots. 

VIII. One may take it that the following are 
the differences between trees : — Some have knots,^ 
more or less, others are more or less without them, 
whether from their natural character or because of 
their position. But, when I say 'without knots,' I 
do not mean that they have no knots at all (there is 
no tree like that, but, if it is true of any plants, it is 
only of *^ other kinds, such as rush bulrush" galingale 
and plants of the lake side ^ generally) but that they 
have few knots. Now this is the natural character 
of elder bay fig and all smooth-barked trees, and 
in general of those whose wood is hollow or of a 
loose texture. Olive fir and wild olive have knots ; 
and some of these grow in thickly shaded windless 
and wet places, some in sunny positions exposed to 
storms and winds,^ where the soil is light and dry ; 
for the number of knots varies between trees of the 

^ rv(pi} conj. Bod. ; Tiprj UAld.H. ; cf. 1. 5. 3. 

* €Ti r<av conj. W. ; et tj iirl tqjv Aid. 

* Tj'eu/iaTwSefft conj. Seal.; TrvfiaTw^iffi U; •Kvy^.arcctfa i 




ofioyevMV. oXo)? Be o^whearepa ra opeiva rwv 
ireSeivcov koI ra ^rjpa rwv ekeiwv. 

"Ert he Kara rrjv t^vreiav ra fiev irvicva dvo^a 
Kol 6p6d, ra 8e fiava oi^wZecrrepa Ka\ (TKoXtmrepa' 
avfi^ULvei yap &are ra fiev ev iraXLaKiw elvai ra 
8e iv evrjXiO). koI ra dppeva he roiv OijXetcov 
o^coBearepa iv oh iariv d/xcjxo, olov Kvirdpirro'i 
eXdrrj oarpvU fcpaveia' KaXovai ydp <yevo<; n 
dufkvKpaveiav' kuI ra djpia he rwv -^fiipcov, Kal 
a7r\w9 /cal ra virb ravrb <yevo<i, olov Korivo'i 
eX,da<; Kal epive6<} crvKr]<i koI d')(^pa<i diriov. rrdvra 
yap ravra o^coSearepw Kal 0)9 enl to ttoXv 
irdvra rd irvKvd rwv /xavMV Kal <ydp rd dppeva 
TTVKvorepa Kal rd dypia' 7r\r)v et re Sid ttvkvo- 
rrjra 7ravre\a)<i dvo^ov r) oXtyo^ov, olov Try^o? 


Et(Ti Be rwv jxev draKroc Kal 0)9 ervx^v ol 0^01, 
rwv Be rerayfievoi Kal ra Btaarrijfiari Kal rm 
rrXrjOet, KaOdirep e'iptjrat' Bi Kal ra^to^cora 
ravra KaXovaiv. roiv p,ev ydp olov Bi icrov rwv 
Be fiei^ov alel to 7rpb<i rw rrdyei. Kal rovro Kara 
Xoyov. orrep p^dXicrra evBrjfXov Kal ev rol'i Korl- 
vot<; Kal ev rol'i KaXdjioi^' ro ydp yovv Kaddirep 
6^o<;. Kal ol fiev Kar aXXr]Xov<i, warrep ol rwv 

1 Plin. 16. 125. M. 8. 1. 

' Tafio'^wTa eonj. W. ; a^ioKoywrara Aid.; cf. rafl(pv\\os, 
1. 10. 8. " Plin. 16. 122. 



same kind. And in general mountain trees have 
more knots than those of the plain, and those that 
grow in dry spots than those that grow in marshes. 

Again the way in which they are planted makes a 
difference in this respect ; those trees that grow close 
tx)gether are knotless and erect, those that grow far 
apart have more knots and a more crooked growth ; 
for it happens that the one class are in shade, the 
others in full sun. Again the ' male ' trees have 
more knots than the ' female ' in those trees in which 
both forms are found, as cy]>ress silver-fir hop-horn- 
beam cornelian cherry — for there is a kind called 
' female cornelian cheiTv ' (cornel) — and wild trees 
liave more knots than trees in cultivation : this is 
true both in general and when we compare those of 
the same kind, as the wild and cultivated forms of 
olive fig and pear. All these have more knots in the 
wild state ; and in general those of closer gro\^-th 
have this character more than those of open gro-wth ; 
for in fact tlie 'male' plants are of closer growth, 
and so are the wild ones ; except that in some cases, 
as in box and nettle-tree, owing to the closer growth 
there are no knots at all, or only a few. 

^ Again the knots of some trees are irregular and 
set at haphazard, while those of others are regular, 
alike in their distance apart and in their number, as 
lias been said - ; wherefore also they are called ' trees 
-^th regular knots.' ^ ■* For of some the knots are, 
i\s it were, at even distances, while in others the 
distance between them is greater at the thick end of 
the stem. And this proportion holds throughout. 
This is especially e\ident in the wild olive and in 
i-eeds — in which the joint corresponds to the knot in 
trees. Again some knots are opposite one another, 



KOTivcov, 01 S" ft)9 erv)(ev. ecrri, Se to, fxev Sio^a, ra 
he Tpio^a, TO. Se TrXetou? e')(0VTa' evta Se •nevrdo^d 
iaTi. KoX rrj'; fiev eXaTi/9 opdol koI ol o^oi Koi ol 

4 Kkdhoi axTirep e/iTreTTT/yoTe?, rcov Se dXkwv ov. Si* 
o Kol IcT'xypov rj i\drr]. ISiooTaTot 8e ol t^? 
pbrfKea^i' ojxolol yap Orjpiwv Trpoacovoi^;, eh p^ev 6 
juiyiaroq dWot Se Trepl avrov piKpol TrXetou?. 
elal Se twv o^cov ol pev rv(f)Xoi, ol 8e yovipoi. 
Xeyco Be TV(f)\ov<; d(j) mv p,r]8et<i /SXacrTo?. ovrot, 
Be fcal (ftvcrei koX irrjpcoaei, ylvovrai, orav r) p,r) 
\v9fi Koi eK^id^rjrai y) koL aTTOKOTrfj koX olov 
eiTLKavOel^ Trrjpcodf}' ylvovrat. Be paXkov ev TOt<? 
jcayecn rcov aKpepuovcov, evlcov Be koi iv roi^ 
areXe^eaiv. o\(o<i Be kol rov aTeXexov^ Koi rov 
KXdBov KaO^ av iiriKO'yjrr} r] eTTUepbr} Ti<i, 0^09 
yiveTai Kadairepavel Biatpoiv to ev koi ttolojv 
irepav dpyrp), etVe Blcl rrjv TrrjpcocrLV etre Bi dWrjp 
alriav ov yap Brj Kara <pvaiv to vtto rrj^ 

6 Aiel Be ev diracnv ol kXuBol (j>aivovraL ttoXvo- 
^orepoL Bid to pLrjiro) Tavd peaov Trpoa-rjv^rja-Oai, 
KaOdirep kuI t?}9 avKr)<; ol veo^XaaTOt Tpaxv- 
TaTOi Kal T^9 dpireXov Ta aKpa t&v kXt^p^utcov. 
ft)9 ydp o^o<; ev Tot9 dXXoi<i ovtq) koI 6(f)0aXp,o<; 

1 c/. 4. 4. 12. 2 piiu, 16 122. 

^ i.e. primary and secondary branches. 

* cf. 5. 2. 2. s Plin. 16. 124. 

® cf. Arist. de iuv. et sen. 3 ; Plin. 16. 125. 

■^ 8tov . . . ■jTr)pw6ri conj. W. ; i) orav y) ^tj Xuflp koI iK$ia.CvTai 
Kal 7] airoKOirr) Kal U ; 'drav tj f^i) \vd^ Kal eK^id(r]Tat f] airoKoirfi 
P ; ^^ (irav Aue?) Kal iK^ia(-nTai ^ olwokott^ kuI ol ov Pj ; 'drav ^ 
At)) KvB^ Kal iK^idCvrai /(«l f) awoKovfi Kal Ald.H. ; G differs 



as those of the wild olive, while others are set at 
random. Again some trees have double knots, some 
treble,^ some more at the same point ; some have as 
many as five. - In the silver-fir both the knots and 
the smaller branches ^ are set at right angles, as if 
they were stuck in, but in other trees they are not 
so. And that is why the silver-fir is such a strong 
tree.* Most peculiar ^ are the knots of the apple, for 
they are like the faces of wild animals ; there is one 
large knot, and a number of small ones round it. 
Again some knots are blind,^ others productive ; by 
' blind ' I mean those from which there is no growth. 
These come to be so either by nature or by mutilation, 
according as either the knot' is not free and so the 
shoot does not make its way out, or, a bough having 
been cut off, the place is mutilated, for example by 
burning. Such knots occur more commonly in the 
thicker boughs, and in some cases in the stem also. 
And in general, wherever one chops or cuts part of 
the stem or bough, a knot is formed, as though one 
thing were made thereby into two and a fresh 
growing point produced, the cause being the mutila- 
tion or some other such reason ; for the effect of such 
a blow cannot of course be ascribed to nature. 

Again in all trees the branches always seem to 
have more knots, because the intermediate parts ^ 
have not yet developed, just as the newly formed 
branches of the fig are the roughest,'^ and in the 
vine the highest ^"^ shoots. ^^ (For to the knot in other 

' i.e. the internodes ; till the branch is fully grown its 
knots are closer together, and so seem more numerous : ,u^ir« 
rava fifffov irpoffyiv^rjcTdai COnj. Sch. ; fjL-h-ru rava fjitaov irpoaKV- 
Cridai U ; /itjt' clvcl aiffov irpoaicvCf^ffdai MAld. ; fi^tror' avdfifffoy 
Tpoarfv^TJffdai P,. * i.e. have most knots. 

I*' i.e. youngest. " Plin. 16. 1-25. 



iv ajxTrekM koX iv KaXafitp yovv . . . ivioK; Be 
Kol olov KpdSat jLVOvrat, KaOdirep irrekea koI 
Spvl Kol fxd\i(TTa iv TrXardvqy iav Be iv rpax'^o-u 
KoX dvv8pot<i Kol TTvevfMareoBeai Kal iravreXSi^. 
TrdvTM^ Be 7rpo9 ry <yfj koI olov tj} K€<f)a\fj tov 
<rTeXe%0L'9 dTroyTjpaaKovrwv to irdOo^ tovto 

"EiVta Be Kol t(T%et T0v<i koKov pLevov<i vtto tivcov 
rj yoyypov^ rj to dvdXoyov, olov rj iXda- /cupico- 
TUTOV yap i-Trl TavTrj'i tovto TOvvojJia koI Trda')(eiv 
BoKel fjidXiaTa to elprj/xevov /caXovai S' evict 
TOVTO Trpifjivov ol Be KpoTOivvv ol Be aXXo ovo/xa. 
Tol<i Be evdeai koX fiovoppi^oi^i koX dirapa^Xa- 
cxTOif ov yiveTUL tovO' o\co<i rj tjttov' [(f)olvi^ Be 
irapa^XaaTTjTiKov] rj Be iXda koI 6 KOTiva 
KoX Ta<i ovXoTTjTa^ tSta9 e^ovac Ta<; iv toI^ 


IX. "EcTTt fiev ovv TO, fiev 009 ek fJir}K0<i av^rj- 
TLKa /jbdXia-T fj fiovov, olov iXdTrj ^olut^ Kvird- 
piTTO<i Kal oXg)9 tcl fiovocTTeXexv /^"^ ^Va fxrj 
TToXvppi^a /jiTjBe iroXvKXaBa- <r) Be ^oivi^ drrapa- 
^Xa(TT7]TiK6v'> TO, Be 6/j-ola tovtoi<; dva Xoyov 
Kal ek ^ddo<;. evia 8' evdv<i cr;^t^eTat, olov ■^ 

1 The opening of the description of the diseases of trees 
seems to have been lost. ^ KpdSai ; cf. G. P. 5. 1 . 3. 

^ TrdvTccs . . . ylverai conj. W.; ttcJctcos Se 6 Trphs ttj yy Kal 
otov T. K. <TT. anoyr)pdffK(uv rSiv Traxvrepoov ylverai Aid.; so U 
except waxvrepov, and M except iraxvrepos. 

* y6yypovs : cf. Hesych., s.vik ySyypos, Kpordivi). 

5 The word is otherwise unknown. 

^ l\rTov 7) 5e (\aa conj. W. ; ^rrov f) 5e <(>o7vi^ Ttdpa^Kaa- 
r}TiK6v v Sf ihda U ; so Aid. except itapa^^acrTiKSi'. The 


ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS, I. viii. 5-ix. i 

trees correspond the ' eye ' in the vine, the joint in 

the reed) ^ In some trees again there occurs, 

as it were, a diseased formation of small shoots,"- as 
in elm oak and especially in the plane ; and this is 
universal if they grow in rough waterless or windy 
sj)ots. Apart from any such cause ^ this affection 
occurs near the ground in what one may call the 
* head ' of the trunk, when the tree is getting old. 

Some trees agam have what are called by some 
' excrescences ' ^ (or something corresponding), as the 
olive ; for this name belongs most properly to that 
tree, and it seems most liable to the affection ; and 
some call it ' stump,' some Arotone,^ others have a 
different name for it. It does not occur, or only 
occurs to a less extent, in straight young trees, which 
have a single root and no side-growths. To the 
olive ^ also, both wild and cultivated, are peculiar 
certain thickenings ^ in the stem. 

Aa (o habit. 

IX. ^ Now those trees which grow chiefly or only ^ 
in the direction of their height are such as silver-fir 
date-palm cypress, and in general those which have 
a single stem and not many roots or branches (the 
date-palm, it may be added, has no side-growths at 
alP"). And trees like^^ these have also similar growth 
downwards. Some however divide from the first, 

note about the palm (^o»ri| 5* -rapaB^atTrririKoy) I have omitted 
as untrue as well as irrelevant ; possibly mth oxapa/3«. for 
trapaia. it belongs to the next section. 

" ovKir-nras conj. W.; KOiAoTTjras MSS. (?) Aid. 

8 Plin. 16. 125. 

^ IxaXiffT ^ novov conj. W. ; fxaKiffra fiava Ald.H. 

>» See 3. 8. 6. n. 

^^ Sfioia conj. Sch. ; dfxolas MSS. Sense hardly satisfactory. 



/j,7]\€a' TO, Be 7ro\vK\a8a koX fiei^o) rbv oyKov 
e')(6L rov avQ), KaOdrrep poa' ov firji) aXTC ovv 
fiijicrrd j€ av/M^dWeTai 7rp6<; eKaarov rj dywyrj 

Kol 6 TOTTO? Kal Tj TpO(f)'/j. CTTJ/jieiOV 8' QTt TOVTO, 

TTVKvd fiev ovra /xaKpa koL XeirTa jiverai,, fiava 
Se TTW^vrepa /cat ^pa-xyrepw koX eav fxev ev0v<i 
Tt9 dfjiif] T0U9 o^ovf; ^pax^ct) ^o,v he dvaKaOaipri 
fiaKpd, KaOdirep rj dp,7reXo<i. 

'Ikuvov 8e KUKeivo Trpo^ iricmv on koX tmv 
Xaxdvcov evia \ap,^dvei SevSpov (j')(rjp,a, KaOdirep 
ecTTO/Mev rrjv /jbaXd)(7]v koI to revrXov uTravra 
8' €V Tol<; olKeioL<i tottol'^ evav^rj . . . fcal to avro 
KdWiarov. iirel Kol rSiv o/xoyevcov dvo^orepa 
Koi fiei^w Kal KaXkio) ra iv Tot<i olKeioi<;, olov 
iXdrrj r] MaKeSovLKr) rrj^ Tiapvaaia^ koi tcov aX- 
Xoiv. diravra he ravra koX oXco9 rj vKrj tj dypia 
KaWicov Kal TrXeicov rov 6pov<i iv rol^; irpoa^o- 
p€Loi<; fj ev Toh irpo^; fjiearjpb^piav. 

"EcTTi he TCL fiev deL<pvWa ra he (pvXko- 
^oXa. T&v p,ev jj/xepcov delcpvXXa eXda (polvi.^ 
hd(f)vr) fiyppiva irevKT]^ tl yevo^ Kvndpnro'i' rS)v 
8' dypicov iXdTT] TrevKTj dpKevdo<i p,iXo<i Ovla Kal 
7]v 'A/j/caSe? KaXovat ^eXXohpvv (faXvpea Kehpo<i 
TTLTV^i dypia [xvpiKr] 7rv^o<i irplvo'i KrjXacTTpov 
(fiiXvKr] 6^vdKav6o<i d(f}dpKrj, ravra he (pverai 
irepl TOP "OXv/jbirov, dvhpd-xXr] Kofxapo'^ Tepp,iv6o<t 

^ olv marked as doubtful in U. '^ 1. 3. 2. 
* KoX rh avrh KaWiarov. Tho first part of the sentence to 
which these words belong is apparently lost (W.). 

^ i.e. the fir and other trees mentioned in the lost words. 

6 Plin. 16. 80. 

6 fil\os conj. Sch.; a-fiiXa^ PgAld.; c/, 3. 3. 3. 



such as apple ; some have many branches, and their 
greater mass of growth high up, as the pomegranate : 
however^ training position and cultivation chiefly 
contribute to all of these characters. In proof of 
which we have the fact that the same trees which, 
when growing close together, are tall and slender, 
when grown farther apart become stouter and 
shorter; and if we from the first let the branches 
grow fi-eely, the tree becomes short, whereas, if we 
prune them, it becomes tall, — for instance, the vine. 
This too is enough for proof that even some pot- 
herbs acquire the form of a tree, as we said ^ of 
mallow and beet. Indeed all things grow well in 
congenial places. . . .^ For even among those of the 
same kind those which grow in congenial places have 
less knots, and are taller and more comely : thus the 
silver-fir in Macedon is superior to other silver-firs, 
such as that of Parnassus. Not only is this true of 
all these,* but in general the wild woodland is more 
beautiful and vigorous on the north side of the 
raountain than on the south. 

As to shedding of leaves. 

Again some ^ trees are evergreen, some deciduous. 
Of cultivated trees, olive date-palm bay myrtle a 
kind of fir and cypress are evergreen, and among 
wild trees silver-fir fir Phoenician cedar yew ^ odorous 
cedar the tree which the Arcadians call ' cork-oak ' 
(holm-oak) mock-privet prickly cedar 'wild" pine' 
tamarisk box kermes-oak holly alaternus cotoneaster 
hybrid arbutus * (all of which grow about Olympus) 

■ aypla after xirus conj. Sch.; after mpivos UPAld.: c/. 
ofxapos conj. Bod. ; aiyapos UMV; oXvapos Aid. ; avvapos Pg. 



aypta Bd(f)vr}. SoKei S' ?; avhpd')(Xri Kol 6 Kofiapoi 
TO, fxev Kara) (pvWo^oXeiv to, Sk ea-^ara rwv 
aKpefiovoov dei(^vWa e^etv, im(f)veiv 8e del rov<; 

4 Tcot' fjiev ovv SevSpcou ravra. twv he dafivco- 
Soov ATiTTO? ^dTO<i pdfjLVO'i Kd\afio<; «e8/)t?* eari 
jdp Ti fiLKpov 01) SevBpovrai. tcov Se (ppuyavLK&v 
Kot 7roio)8a)v irrjyavov pd(f)avo<; pohmvla mvia 
d^poTOVOv djidpaKOV ep7rvWo<i oplyavov aeXivov 
liTTTOcreXLVov fxt^KOiv Kol TOiv dypiwv eiBr) TrXeio). 
Sia/jbivet Be koI tovtcov evia Tol<i uKpotf; to, Be 
dWa dTTo/SdWei olov oplyavov creXivov . . . €7ret 
Koi TO TTTiyavov KUKOvrai kol dWaTrerac. 

5 Udvra Be Kal tmv dWcov rd dei^vXKa arevo- 
^vXkorepa koX exovrd Tiva XiTraporrjTa koI 
evoahiav. evia S' ovk ovra rfj (jyvaei irapd top 
roTTOV ecTjlv deitpvXka, Kaddtrep eXex^V Tcpt rwy 
ev *^Xe(f>avTivr) kol Me/i^et* Karcorepw S' ev T(p 
AeXra puKpov irdvv ')(p6vov BtdXelTrei rod /xrj del 
fiXaardvetv. ev Kpijrr} Be Xeyerai nXdravov 
Tiva elvai ev rfj Voprvvaia rrpo^ "^VIV '^''^^ V ^^ 
(f>vXXo^oXei' fxvOoXoyova-i Be (09 virb ravrrj 
efiiyrj rfj Eu/Ocottj; o Zeuf ra? Be irXr^aia^ Trdaai; 
<f)vXXo^oXelv. ev Be Xv/3dpec Bpv<; ecrriv ev- 
avvoirro^ etc rrj<i TroXew? ^ ov <})vXXo^oXei' (f)aat, 

1 riin. 16. 80. 

* Some words probably missing (W.) which would explain 
the next two clauses. ^ Plin. 16. 82. * 1. 3. 5. 
5 Plin. 12. 11 ; Varro, 1. 7. 



andrachne arbutus terebinth 'wild bay' (oleander). 
Andrachne and arbutus seem to cast their lower 
leaves, but to keep those at the end of the twigs 
perennially, and to be always adding leafy twigs. 
These are the trees which are evergreen. 

^ Of shrubby plants these are evergreen : — ivy 
bramble buckthorn reed kedris (juniper) — for there 
is a small kind of kedros so called which does not 
grow into a tree. Among' under-shrubs and herba- 
ceous plants there are rue cabbage rose gilliflower 
southernwood sweet marjoram tufted thyme mar- 
joi'am celery alexanders poppy, and a good many 
more kinds of wild plants. However some of these 
too, while evergreen as to their top growths, shed 

their other leaves, as marjoram and celery 2 

lor rue too is injuriously affected and changes its 

3 And all the evergreen plants in the other classes 
too have narrower leaves and a cerfciin glossiness and 
fragrance. Some moreover which are not evergreen 
by nature become so because of their position, as 
Avas said * about the plants at Elephantine and 
Memphis, while lower down the Nile in the Delta 
there is but a very short period in which they are not 
raaking new leaves. It is said that in Crete ^ in the 
district of Gortyna there is a plane near a certain 
spring '^ which does not lose its leaves ; (indeed the 
story is that it was under '^ this tree that Zeus lay 
Afith Europa), while all the other plants in the 
neighbourhood shed their leaves. ^ At Sybaris there 
15 an oak within sight of the city which does not shed 

* xjryj conj. H. from G ; OK-nv^ UMVAld.; Kitvri V^', KpJivy 
T vxh conj. Hemsterhuis ; ^J Aid. « Plin. 16. 81. 

1^ 65 

|»OL. I. K 


Be ov j3\aa-rdv€iv avrrjv afxa ral<i aXXaif dWa 
fxera Kvva. Xiyerai Se kuI iv K.inrp(p 7r\dravo<; 
elvai ToiavT')]. 

^vWo^oXei Se iravra rov /j,€T07r(opov Kol jjbera 
TO fieTOTrcopov, irXrjv to fiev Sclttov to he ^paSv- 
Tepov MCTTe Kol Tov ^€ip.(bi>o<; eTTtXafi^dveiv. ovk 
dvdXoyot, Be al (f)vX\,o^o\iai. Tot^ ^XacrTrjaecnv, 
SiOTe TO. trpoTepov ^XaaTijaavTa rrpoTepov (f}v\- 
Xo^oXeiv, dX)C epia 7rp(o'i/3\a(TTel jnev ovBev Be 
•npoTepel TOiv dWwv, dXkd tivcov koI vcTTepei, 
KaOdirep rj dfivyBaXrj. 

Td Be oi^i^Xacnet fj,ev ovBev Be co? elireiv 
vcTTepel TOiV dWcov, wairep tj (TVKd[i,i,vo<i. BokcI Be 
Koi t) )((opa avfx^dWeaOai koX 6 Toiro'i 6 eviKfio<; 
7r/>09 TO Biafxeveiv. tcl yap iv T0i<i ^ripol<i kuI 
oX.&)9 \e7rToyeloi<i TrpoTepa (l)vX\o/3o\el koi to, 
Trpea^vTepa Be tcov vewv. evia Be koI irpo tov 
Tteirdvai tov Kapirov aTro/SdXXei to, (f)vXXa, KaOd- 
irep al oyjnat crvKul /cat d^pdBa. 

Tmv S' det(f)vXXo)v r) diro^oXri kuI rj avavai^ 
KUTo, iJbepo<i' ov yap Br] tuvto, alel Biafievet, dXXa 
TO, /xev iiri^XaaTdvei tcl S" dcf)avaiveTai. tovto 
Be irepl Tpoird'i /jbaXcaTa yiverat 6epivd<;. el Be 
TIVCOV Kal jxeT ^ApKTOvpov rj koI kut dXXr/v a>pav 
eTTia-KeTTTeov. Kal ra fiev Trepl Tr)v (pvXXo- 

l3o\iav ovT(o^ ^'%^'' 

1 Piin. 16. 82 and 83. 


its leaves, and they say that it does not come into 
leaf along with the others, but only after the rising 
of the dog-star. It is said that in Cyprus too there 
is a plane which has the same peculiarity. 

^ The fall of the leaves in all cases takes place in 
autumn or later, but it occurs later in some trees 
than in others, and even extends into the winter. 
However the fall of the leaf does not corres[K)nd to 
the growth of new leaves (in M-liich case those that 
come into leaf earlier would lose their leaves earlier), 
but some (such as the almond) which are early in 
coming into leaf are not earlier than the rest in 
losing their leaves, but are even comparatively 

^ Others again, such as the mulberry, come into 
leaf late, but are hardly at all later than the others 
in shedding their leaves. It appears also that position 
and a moist situation conduce to keeping the leaves 
late ; for those which grow in dry j)laces, and in 
general where the soil is light, shed their leaves 
earlier, and the older trees earlier than young ones. 
Some even cast their leaves before the Iruit is ripe, 
iis the late kinds of fig and pear. 

In those which are evergreen the shedding and 
^vithering of leaves take place by degrees ; for it is 
not the same * leaves which always persist, but fresh 
ones are growing while the old ones wither away. 
This happens chiefly about the summer solstice. 
Whether in some cases it occurs even after the rising 
of Arcturus or at a quite different season is matter for 
enquiry. So much for the shedding of leaves. 

- uffTcpercouj. H.; Sffrtpof UMYPAld. 

» Plin. 16. 84. 

* Tovra conj. Sch.; raura Aid. 



X. Ta Se (f>vX\a tcov fieu dWfov SevBpoyv ofxoia 
iravTOiv avTU €avTOi<;, t% 8e XevKT]^; Kal rov 


erepoa-'^tjfjLopa' ra /xev yap vea irepKJieprj ra 8e 
iraXaiorepa yoivoeiBr], koX et? toOto t] p,€rdo-Taai<i 
iravToov. rov Se kittov dvuTrakiv veov [xev 6vto<; 
iyycovtoifepa irpea^vrepov he TrepKpepecrrepa- p^era- 
^dXket yap Kal ovro'i. iSiov Be Kal to rfj eXda Kal 
TTj (piXvpa Kal rfj irreXea Kal ryXevKy avfi^alvov 
arpe(fieiv yap SoKOvacv ra virria p,erd rpo7rd<; 6epi- 
vd<;, Kal rovr(p yvcopi^ovcTLv on yeyeviqvrat rpoirai. 
2 irdvra Be rd <f)vXXa Bia(f)€pei Kara ra VTrria Kal rd 
TTpavr]. Kal rwv p.ev dXXcov rd virria TroKoBearepa 
Kal Xeiorepa- rd<; yap Iva^ Kal rd<; <f>Xe/3a<; ev 
T0t9 irpaveaiv e^ovaip, wairep r) %6ip <Ta dpOpa>' 
tt}? S' iXda^ XevKorepa Kal rjrrov X-em eviore 
Kal rd VTTria. irdvra Brj rj rd ye rrXelcrra CKcfyavr] 
e'xei rd virria Kal ravra ylverai tw 'tfxiw (pavepd. 
Kal (Trpecperai rd TroXXd 7rpo<; rov rjXiov Bi o Kal 
ov pdBiov elirelv orrorepov tt/oo? rw kXwvl pdXXov 
eariv -q puev ydp vTrrLorrj'? p.dXXov BoKei TTotelv ro 
Trpavh, r] Be <f)V(n<i ou;^ rjrrov ^ovXerai ro virriov, 
aXXcot re Kal 77 dvdKXaaa Bed rov ijXiov iBoi S' 

1 Plin. 16. 85. 

- Kol TOV KITTOV Koi TOV MSS. cf. PHii. I.c; Dlosc. 4. 164. 
Koi TOV kikIov TOV Kal conj. W. ; Galen, Lex. Hipp., gives 
kIkiov as a name for the root of KpoTtav. cf. C.P. 2. 16. 4. 

' i.e. not 'entire.' ' Young leaves' = leaves of the young tree. 

* This seems to contradict what has just been said. 

^ Ta &pepa add. Sch. from Plin. 16. 88, inciauras. cf. Arist. 
H.A, 1. 15, M'here Plin. (11. 274) renders UpOpa incisuras. 



Differences in leaves. 

X. ^ Now, while the leaves of all other trees are 
all alike in each tree, those of the abele ivy - and 
of the plant called kroton (castor-oil plant) are 
unhke one another and of different forms. Tlie 
young leaves in these are round, the old ones 
angular,^ and eventually all the leaves assume that 
form. On the other hand* in the ivy, when it is 
young, the leaves are somewhat angular, but when 
it is older, they become rounder : for in this plant 
too a^ change of form takes place. There is a 
peculiarity special to the olive lime elm and abele : 
their leaves appear to invert the upper surface after 
tlie summer solstice, and by this men know that the 
solstice is past. Now all leaves differ as to their 
upper and under surfaces ; and in most trees the 
upper surfaces are greener and smoother, as they 
have the fibres and veins in the under surfaces, even 
as the human hand has its ' lines,' ^ but even the upper 
surface of the leaf of the olive is sometimes whiter 
and less smooth.^ So all or most leaves display 
their upper surfaces, and it is these surfaces which 
are exposed to the light." Again most leaves turn 
towards the sun ; wherefore also it is not easy to say 
vhich surface is next to the twig^; for, while the 
way in which the upper surface is presented seems 
rather to make the under surface closer to it, yet 
nature desires equally that the upper surface should 
l:e the nearer, and this is specially seen in the 
turning back ^ of the leaf towards the sun. One 

^ ivloTt /col ri vxria conj. W. ; Xela oe koX to tov Ktrrov 
ilSS. A makeshift correction of an obscure passage. 
' c/. Plin. /.<-. ^ i.e. is the under one. 

® Whereby the under surface is exposetl to it : see above. 



civ T<9 oaa irvKva koI Kar aWifKa, KaOavep to, 
roiv fiuppivcov. 

Oiovrai Se TtV€<; koI rrjv Tpo(f)r)V rw vtttlo) Bia 
Tov ■TTpavov<i elvai, Bia to evLKfxov aeX tovto koX 
;T^i/oft)8e9 elvai, ov Ka\ci)<; XeyovTe^;. dWa tovto 
fiev i(Ta><i crvfi/3aLV€L %c«>/3k t?}? iSta? (f)va€a><; koI 
Sea TO fir) 6fiOLa)<; rjXiovaOai, r/ Se Tpo^rj 8ia tmv 
^Xe^Siv rj Ivbiv 6fM0i(0<i afxc^oTepoL^' ck daTepov S' 
et? daTepov ovk euXoyov firj e)(OvaL 7r6pov<; fii]8e 
^ddo<; Bi ov' dWd irepl fxev Tpo(^rj<i hid tlvcov 
eVepo? A,o709. 

A.ia(f)epov(Ti, Be koc to. (f>vWa nXeloai Bia- 
(f)opal<;' Ta /xev 'yap icxTi irXaTVCpvWa, Kaddirep 
a/x7reXo9 avKrj TrXdTavo^, Ta Be aTev6(f)vWa, 
KaOdirep iXaa poa p,vppLvo<;' Ta 8' Sicntep aKavOo- 
(f>vXXa, KaOdirep TrevKrj ttltv^; KeBpo<i' Ta S' olov 
aapKocpvXXa- tovto S' otl aapKa)Be<; e^ovai to 
(f)vXXov, olov KV7rdpi,TTo<; pbvpiKTj p,rfKea, tmv Be 
(ppvyaviKMV Kvecopo'i (TToi^rj kuI ttokoBmv dei^oaov 
TToXiov \tovto Be KOI 7rpb<i tou9 a7]Ta<i tou? ev 
TOi<i t/iart'ot? dyadov'^ Ta <ydp av tcov TevTXlcov 
rj pa(f)dv(av dXXov Tpoirov aapKcoBrj xal Ta TOiV 
injyavLoyv KaXovfievoov ev TrXaret yap Kal ovk ev 
CTTpoyyvXoTijTi to crapKwBe<i. kol tmv da/xvcoB(t)v 
Be ■)] /xvpiKt] aapKOihe-^ to (pvXXov e'^ei. evia Be 

1 cf. 1. 8. 3; 1. 10. 8; Plin, 16. 92. 

2 iK darepov 5' e/s conj. Sell, from G ; SI he dartpov fls with 
stop at IvHv Aid. 3 5«' ov I conj. ; 5i' S>v U. 

•• a,Kav06<pv\Aa conj. W. ; <Tirav6fv\\a UMAld.; aviicpvWa 
Po; cf. 3. 9. 5, wlience Sch. conj. Tpixo'<^uAAa : Plin. I.e. has 
capillata pino cedro. 

* fj.ri\(a probably corrupt ; omitted by Plin. I.e. 



may observe this in trees whose leaves are crowded 
and opposite,! such as those of myrtle. 

Some think that the nourishment too is conveyed to 
the upper surface through the under surface, because 
this surface always contains moisture and is downy, 
but they are mistaken. It may be that this is not 
due to the trees' special chai-acter, but to their not 
getting an equal amount of sunshine, though the 
nourishment conveyed through the veins or fibres 
is the same in both cases. That it should be con- 
veyed from one side to the other ^ is improbable, 
when there are no passages for it nor thickness for it 
to pass through.^ However it belongs to another 
part of the enquiry to discuss the means by which 
nourishment is conveyed. 

Again there are various other differences between 
leaves ; some trees are broad-leaved, as vine fig and 
plane, some narrow-leaved, as olive pomegranate 
myrtle. Some have, as it were, spinous'* leaves, 
as fir Aleppo pine prickly cedar ; some, as it were, 
fleshy leaves ; and this is because their leaves are of 
fleshv substance, as cypress tamarisk apple,^ among 
under-shrubs kneoros and stoibe, and among herba- 
ceous plants house-leek and hulwort. " This plant 
is good against moth in clothes. For the leaves of 
beet and cabbage are fleshy in another way, as are 
those of the various plants called rue ; for their fleshy 
character is seen in the flat instead of in the round.^ 
Among shrubby plants the tamarisk^ has fleshy 

* Prolmbly a gloss. 

^ Or ' solid,' sttch leaves being regarded as having, so to 
speak, three, and not two dimensions. arpofyvXos = ' thick- 
set ' in Arist. H.A. 9. 44. 

* Hvpimj probably corrupt ; /i. was mentionerl just above, 
among trtts ; iptiKii conj. Dalec. 



KOI KaXafji6(f)v\\a, KaOaTrep o (polvi^ koI 6 Koi^ 
Koi ocra roiavra- ravra Be 009 /cad^ oXov elirelv 
ycoviocjivXXa' koL yap 6 KaXap,o<; kol 6 Kviretpo'? 
KoX 6 jBovTopo^ Koi ToXka he twi' \ifj.V(o8a)V 
ToiavTa' TTcivra 8e coarrep eK Svolv avvOera kol 
TO jxecrov olov rpoTTi'^, ov iv T0t9 aWoL<i pbeya^i 
TTopot; 6 fiea-of;. Siacpepovcri 8e /cal rot<i ^^(^i^/xaa-r 
ra ixev yap Trepicpeprj, KaOdirep ra Trj<i clttIov, to. 
he TTpofirjicecrjepa, KaBdirep ra t?}? /jbr]\ea<i' ra he 
eh o^v irporjKOVTa Kal TrapaKavdi^ovra, Kaddnrep 
ra rov /j-i\aKO<i. kuI ravra /xep d(T')(^iara' <rd he 
cr)(^iara> Kal olov TrpLOvcohr), KaOdirep ra rrj<; 
eXdrr]<; Kal ra T779 'nreplho'i' rpoirov he riva 
(j)(^L(Trd Kal rd tt}? dfiirekov, Kal ra rr](i avK7]<; 
he Mcnrep av elrroL ri<i KopcouoTTohcohT]. evia Be 
Kal evrofjidq e-)(ovra, KaOdirep rd rr]<; TTTeXf'a? Kal 
rd rrj^ '}ilpaK\€0)riKTJ<i Kal rd rf]<; hpv6<i. rd he 
Kal irapaKavOi^ovra Kal eK rov UKpov Kal eK rwv 
irXaycMv, olov rd t?79 irpivov Kal rd rrj<i hpvb^ 
Kal fiiXaKot; Kal ^drov Kal irdXiovpov Kal rd reov 
dWo)v. aKavOSihe^ he eK roiv aKpoov Kal ro ri]<i 
7r€VKrj<i Kal TTirva Kal e\drrj<i en he Kehpov Kal 
Kehpiho<;. ^vWuKavOov he 6\co<i iv fiev roc<; 
hevhpoi<i ovK eariv ovhev wv r)fjiei<i 'larfiev, ev he 
rol<i dWoL<i vXijfxaaLV eariv, olov r) re aKopva Kal 
r] hpvirU Kal 6 dKavo<i Kal a-^^ehov dirav rb rcov 
uKavcohoiv yevo<i' cocnrep ydp cf)vXkov earlv rj 
aKavOa ttcktiv el he p^rj (f)vWa Tf9 ravra drjo-ei, 

1 Plin. I.e. and 13. 80. ^ „i ^^ ^onj. W.; '6e^v Aid. H. 
3 TrapaKavQl^ovra <ion}. Sell.; TTapayievl^ovTaXJ'hlYAXd. 
* TO. 56 (Txtffra add. W, 



leaves. Some again have reedy leaves, as date-jwlm 
doum-palm and such like. But, generally speaking, 
the leaves of these end in a point ; for reeds galin- 
gale sedge and the leaves of otl-er marsh plants are 
of this character. ^ The leaves of all these are com- 
pounded of two parts, and the middle is like a keel, 
placed where in - other leaves is a large passage 
dividing the two halves. Leaves differ also in their 
shapes ; some are round, as those of pear, some 
rather oblong, as those of the apple ; some come to a 
sharp jx)int and have spinous projections^ at the 
side, as those of smilax. So far I have sjwken of 
undivided leaves ; but some are divided * and like 
a saw, as those of silver-fir and of fern. To a 
certain extent those of the vine are also divided, 
while those of the fig one might compare to a crow's 
foot." ^ Some leaves again have notches, as those of 
elm filbert and oak, others have spinous projections 
both at the tip and at the edges, as those of kermes- 
oak oak smilax bramble Christ's thoni and others. 
The leaf of fir Aleppo pine silver-fir and also of prickly 
cedar and kedris (juniper)" has a spinous point at 
the tip. Among other trees there is none that we 
know which has spines for leaves altogether, but it 
is so with other Moody plants, as akorna drypis pine- 
thistle and almost all the plants which belong to 
that class.^ For in all these spines, as it were, take 
the place of leaves, and, if one is not to reckon these 

' KopajvoroSaiSr) conj. Gesner. The fig-leaf is compared to a 
crow's foot. Pint, df defect, orac. 3; VKoXoirciSr) Aid., which 
word is applied to thorns by Diosc. * Plin. 16. 90. 

~ KeSplSos conj. Dalec. ; iceSplas MSS. cf. Plin. I.e., who 
seems to have read aypias. 

* aKavuSwy conj. \V., cf. 1. 13. 3; aKavOwSuv MSS.; aKav- 

duv Pg. 



(TVfjL^aivoi, av 6X(o<i a<puWa elvai, evioL<i he uKavOav 
fiev elvat. (f)uWov 8e oX&)9 ov/c e')(eiv, Kaddirep 6 

YldXiv S" on TO, jxev dfiia^a, KaOdirep ra t?}? 
cTKiX\r]<i Koi rou (3o\^ov, rd 5' e^ovra ixio-'xpv. 
Kol rd fiev fiaKpov, olov rj dfjbTreko'i koX 6 kitt6<;, 
rd 8e ^pa^vv /cal olov efXTre^vKora, Kaddrrep i\da 
Kol oy^ Mairep iirl t% likardvov koX dfXTriXov 
TTpoaijpTrjfievov. 8ia<f)opd oe Kol to /mt] e« tmp 
auTOiv elvai Trjv 7rp6a(f)vaiv, dWd T0t9 fi€V 
irXeiaroi^ i/c tmv K\dhu>v tok 8e koI eK tmv 
d/cp€fi6v(ov, rf]<; 8pvb<i 8e koI e/c rov areXexpvfi, 
TOiv 8e \a')(avu>8(i}v rol<i TroXXot? €vdv<i i/c T/79 
pl^r}^, olov Kpofivov (XK6p8ov Kixopiov, en 8e 
da^o8eXov (TKiX\.ti<; /BoX^ov aia-vpcyx^tov kol 
o\co<; rwv ^o\^(o8oiV' koI tovtcov 8e ovy(^ 7) TvpcoTi] 
jxovov €K(f)uaL<; dWa Kal 0X09 Kau\o<i d(j}vWov. 
evicov S' OTav jevrjTai, (f)vWa ecKO'i, olov 6 pi.8aKiV7}<i 
coKifiov aeXivov Kal roiv (nrrjpcov 6fiOLCo<i. e-^^ei 
S' evca rovTcov koI tov kuuXov elr dKavOi^ovra, 
0)9 r) 6pi8aKLvr] Kal rd (pvXXuKavda irdvra Kal 
TOW da/j,vo)8(bv 8e Kal en fidXXov, olov ^dro^: 

K.01V7] 8e 8ia(f)opd irdvTcov ofioico^ 8ev8p(ov Kal 
Tcov dXXcov on rd p,ev TroXucfyuXXa rd S' oXiyo- 
(f)vXXa. ft)9 S" eirl to irdv to. 7rXaTV(f)vXXa ra^i- 
(pvXXa, Kaddirep fiuppivo<;, rd S' uTaKTa Kal cl)? 
eVf^e, KaOdirep a'x^ehov rd TrXelara tmv dXXwv 

1 Plin. 16. 91. - eVl conj. W.; ^ Alcl.H. 

^ iviwv . . . eUSs. So Scb. explains : text probably de- 


EXQriRV INTO PLANTS, 1. x. 6-8 

as leaves, they would be entirely leafless, and some 
would have spines but no leaves at all, as asjwragus. 
1 Again there is the difference that some leaves 
have no leaf-stalk, as those of squill and purse- 
tassels, while others have a leaf-stalk. And some 
of the latter have a long leaf-stalk, as vine 
and ivv, some, as olive, a short one which grows, as 
it were, into the stem and is not simply attached to 
it, as it is in- plane and vine. Another difference is 
that the leaves do not in all cases grow from the 
same part, but, whereas in most trees they grow from 
the branches, in some they grow also from the twigs, 
and in the oak from the stem as well ; in most 
pot-herbs they grow directly from the root, as in 
onion garlic chicory, and also in asphodel squill 
purse-tassels Barbary-nut. and generally in plants 
of the same class as purse -tassels ; and in these 
not merely the original growth but the whole 
stidk is leafless. In some, when the stalk is pi'o- 
duced, the leaves may be expected to grow,3 as in 
lettuce basil celery, and in like manner in cereals. 
In some of these the stalk presently becomes spinous, 
as in lettuce and the whole class of plants with 
spinous leaves, and still more in shrubby plants, as 
bramble and Christ's thorn. 

* Another difference which is found in all trees 
alike and in other plants as well is that some have 
many, some few leaves. And in general those that 
have flat leaves-' have them in a regular series, as 
mvrtle, while in other instances the leaves are in no 
particular order, but set at random, as in most other 

* Plin. 16. 92. 

* r\aTv<f>v\\a UVP ; iroXvtpvWa conj. W. ; but irXaryTT/s is 
one of the ' differences ' given in the summary below. 



[-^f], 'iSiov Be eVi tmv \a-)(av(i)hoiv, olov Kpofivov 
jr]T€LOV, TO KOtXocfivWov. 

'A7rA,w9 5' al 8ia(J3opal tcov ^uXXwi/ tj fieyedet 
77 TrXrjdei 7) cT'X^rjfiari rj TrXarvrrjri y crrevoTrjri 
rj KOiXorrjTi rj rpa^uTyrt rj XeiorrjTi koX tw irap- 
aKavOi^eLV rj jirj. eVi 5e /cara t^v irpcxj^vcnv 
66 ev ij hi ov' TO fxev 66 ev, airo p't^rjq r) K\d8ov 
rj KavXov rj aKpe/xovo^;' rb he St ov, rj 8ia /xtcr%ou 
rj Bi" avrov Kal el Brj iroWa e'/c toO avrov. koI 
evia Kap7ro(f)6pa, jiera^v TrepieiXycfyora top /capirov, 
wcnrep rj ^AXe^avBpeia Bd(f)vrj iTTt(f)vW6Kap7ro<;. 

At /Mcv ovv Bia(f)opal tS)v (pvWcov KoivoTepw^ 
Trdaat etprjvrai koX o')(eB6v elcnv ev tovtoc<;. 

(XvyKcirai Be ra jiev e^ lvo<i koI <p\oLov koL 
(rapK6<;, olov ra rfj^ avKrj<i koI rrj<i d/xireXov, ra Be 
Mairep e^ lvo<; jiovov, olov rou /caXdfiov koI crirov. 
TO Be vypbv dirdvTWV kolvov diracn yap evv- 
7rdp)(^ec Kal TOvroi<i Kol Toi<; dXXot<; Tot? iirereioLfi 
\^jjiia')(^o<; dv6o<i Kapiro'i el tl aXXo^ judXXov Be Kal 
Tot9 firj e7r6Tetoi9' ovBev yap dvev rovrov. BokcI 
Be Kal TO)v iJiia')(03V rd jxev e'f IvSiV fiovov crvyKel- 
aOat, Kaddirep ra rou (tItov Kal rov KaXdfiov, rd 
8' eK TCOV avTMv, axTTrep ol KavXoL 

^ tS)V &\\a>v ^v MSS. ; tcov iroiaiSwy conj. W. -^v, at all 
events, cannot be right. ^ Plin. 19. 100. 

•* fi (mvSrrjri r) koi\6ti}Tl : SO (J ; ^ /coiAo'ttjti ^ (TTecf^rrjTi 
MSS. ■• i.e. petiolate. ^ i.e. sessile. 

® i.e. compound : et 5^ conj. W. : efSrj UMVAld. 

■^ The passage from here to the end of the chapter is a 



plants.! 2 It is peculiar to pot-herbs to have hollow 
leaves, as in onion and horn-onion. 

To sum up, the diflerences between leaves are 
shewn in size, number, shape, hollowness, in breadth,^ 
roughness and their opposites, and in the presence or 
absence of spinous projections ; also as to their 
attachment, according to the part from which they 
spring or the means by which they are attached ; 
the part from which they spring being the root or a 
branch or the stalk or a twig, while the means by 
which they are attached may be a leaf-stalk,^ or they 
may be attached directly ; ^ and there may be ^ 
several leaves attached by the same leaf-stalk. 
Further some leaves are fruit-bearing, enclosing the 
fruit between them, as the Alexandrian laurel, which 
has its fruit attached to the leaves. 

These are all the differences in leaves stated some- 
what generally, and this is a fairly complete list of 

Comjx)s!tion of the irtrions par-ts of a plant. 

' (Leaves are composed some of fibre bark and flesh, 
as those of the fig and vine, some, as it were, of 
fibre alone, as those of reeds and corn. But moisture 
is common to all, for it is found both in leaves and in 
the other annual parts,^ leaf-stalk, flower, fruit and so 
forth but more especially in the parts which are 
not annual ^ ; in fact no part is without it. Again it 
appears that some leaf-stalks are composed only of 
fibre, as those of corn and reeds, some of the same 
materials as the stalks. 

- uiffxos . . . 5a\o has no construction ; probably a (correct) 
gloss, taken from 1, 2, 1. 

^ i.e. while these are young, W. 



10 Tmv S' avOa>v ra fjuev ck (j)Xoiov koI ^XeySo? /cat 
aapKO'i, <ra 8' e/c aapKO'i> fiovov, olov ra iv /xea-at 
TOiV apu>v. 

'0/j,oi(t)<; Se Kol eVl tmv KapTTcov ol [xev lyap eK 
<TapKo<i Kal iv6<i, ol Se eK aapKo^ fiovov, ol Se Kal 
€K Bep/MiTO<; (TvyKeivrar to Be vypov aKoXovdel 
Kot TovTOL^. eK crapKo<; fiev koI lvo<; o rSiv 
KOKKVfjbTjXfov Kal aiKvwv, ef tVo9 Be koX 8eppaT0<i 
6 TMV avKa/jLLvcov Kal T^9 p6a<;. aWoc Be kut 
aWov rpoTTOV fxefiepiapbevoc. TrdvTcov Be &)? 
elirelv to fiev e^co (f)\oio<; to 8' eWo9 aap^ r(ov Be 
Kal rrvprjv.) 

XI. "Ea^arov S' iv airaai to cnrepfxa. rovro 
Be e^ov iv eavrw crvfi(f>vTov vjpov Kal Oepp-ov, 5>v 
iK\nr6vr(ov dyova, Kaddirep rd cod. Kal tmv /jlcp 
evOii TO airepp-a /juerd to irepiexov, olov ^OLVLKO<i 
Kapvov dfiv>yBd\ir]'i , ifKeifo Be tovtcov Ta ifiirepi- 
e^ovTa, ot)9 Ta tov <^oiviKO<i. tmv Be /xeTa^v adp^ 
Kal TTvprjv, Siairep i\da<; Kal KOKKVfirj\ea<; Kal 
eTepcov. evta Be Kal iv \o^a>, Ta S" iv v/xevi, Ta 
8' iv dyyelo), Ta Be Kal yvfivocnrepfia TeXeico^. 
2 'El* Xo/3a) fxev ov fxovov Ta eTrcTe/a, Kaddirep Ta 
'X^BpoTTa Kal eTepa trXeiw tmv dypicov, dWa Kal 
TMV BevBpwv evia, KaOdirep r/ Te Kepwvia, 'ijv Tive<; 
KaXovcrt (tvktjv AljuTTTLav, Kal rj KepKh Kal 17 
KoXoLTia irepl Anrdpav iv vp,evi S' evia tS>v 

1 T^ U ; tJ) Aid. 

^ ra 5' in irapKhs preserved only in niBas. ; oni. UMVPj. 
Sell, reads rh. 

=* Spa>i' conj. W.; aipw)/ MSS. * i.e. rind. 

5 Plin. 18. 53. « ov eonj. Sch.; oZv Ald.H. 


ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS, I. x. lo-xi. 2 

Of flowers some ^ are com|X)sed of bark veins and 
flesh, some of flesh only,^ as those in the middle of 

So too with fruits ; some are made of flesh and 
fibre, some of flesh alone, and some of skin * also. 
And moisture is necessarily found in these also. 
The fruit of plums and cucumbers is made of flesh 
and fibre, that of mulberries and jiomegranates of 
fibre and skin. The materials are differently distri- 
buted in different fruits, but of nearly all the outside 
is bark, the inside flesh, and this in some cases 
includes a stone.) 

Differences in seeds. 

XI. Last in all plants comes the seed. This possesses 
in itself natural moisture and warmth, and, if these 
fail, the seeds are sterile, like eggs in the like case. 
In some plants the seed comes immediately inside 
the envelope, as in date filbert almond (however, as 
in the case of the date, there may be more than one 
covering). In some cases again there is flesh and a 
stone between the envelope and th^ seed, as in olive 
plum and other fruits. Some seeds again are enclosed 
in a pod, some in a husk, some in a vessel, and some 
are completely naked. 

^ Enclosed in a pod are not ^ only the seeds Oi 
annual plants, as leguminous plants, and of con- 
siderable numbers of wild plants, but also those of 
certain trees, as the carob-tree (which some " call 
the ' Egj'ptian fig '), Judas-tree,® and the koloitiu ^ 
of the Liparae islands. In a husk are enclosed the 

" ^v Tivtt conj. St. from G ; Itvriya Ald.H. 

" Clearly not the KepKii (aspen) described 3. 14. 2. 

* Ko\on\a MSS. ; KoXovrfa conj. St., rf. 3. 17. 2 n. 



eTTeTeicov, Mcnrep 6 ttu/oo? Kal 6 Key^po^;' cocrauTtw? 
8e Kal evayyeioaTrep/jLara Kal yv/nvocTTTepfiaTa. 
ivayyeioaTripfiaTa fxev olov rj re /jLtJkoov Kal oaa 
/xrjKooviKa' to yap arjaafiov lSt,Q)T€pco<i- yvfivo- 
(TTrep/xara Be rwv re \aj(^dvu)V ttoWcl, KaOdrrrep 
dvqdov Kopiavvov avvrjaov Kvp,ivov fMcipaOov kuI 
3 €T€pa TrXeico. rcov 8e SevSpcov ovSev yv/jLVoa-irepfiov 
aXV rj aap^l TrepLe')(^op,evov rj KeXv^eaiv, ra p.ev 
8epfjLaTiK0i<;, wairep rj ^d\avo<i Kal ro ^v^oIkov, 
TO, Be ^vXcoBeatv, Mcnrep i) afjLvyBdXr} Kal rb 
Kapvov. ovBev Be ivayyeLocnreppiov, el fxrj ri<i rbv 
Kwvov dyyelov Orjcrei Bia to %ft)/3t^eo-^at tmv 

Avrd Be rd aireppbara tmv fxev evdv aapKooBr], 
KaOdirep oaa Kapvrjpd Kal ^aXavrjpd' twv Be ev 
TTvprjvi TO (TapKMBe<i ex^Tai, KadaTrep iXdaf Kal 
Ba(f}vlBo<i Kal dXXcov. tmv 6' ifnrvprjva povov rj 
TTvprjvcoBr) ye ^ Kal cocnrep ^rjpd, KaOdirep rd 
KvrjKcoBr] Kal Keyxpap,iBco8r] Kal TroXXd rS)V 
Xa')(avif]pS>v. ep^avearara Be rd rov <f>oiviKO<i' 
ovBe ydp KotXorrjra e;^ei rovro ovBepiav aXA,' 
oXov ^rjpov ov p.r]V a\A,' vyp6rr]<; Bij Tt? Kal 
depp,6r7j<; virdp^et B^Xov on Kal rovrw, Kaddirep 

^ fxriKwviKo. . . . rh yap conj. W. from G ; uriKwvr Kara "yap 

^ Kopiavvov &vvi}<Tov conj. Sell.; Kopiavvijaov UMAld.; ko- 
pivv7)aovY', cf. Plin. 19. 119. 

^ ^ K€\v<p€(nv conj. Sch., cf. C.P. 4. 1. 2 ; ^ 8* Kvixaaiv U; 
Plin. 15. 112, crusta teguntur glandes. * Plin. 15. 113. 



seeds of some annuals, as wheat and millet ; and 
in like manner some plants have their seeds in a 
vessel, some have them naked. In a vessel are 
those of the poppy and plants of the poppy kind ; * 
(the case of sesame however is somewhat peculiar), 
while many pot-herbs have their seeds naked, as 
dill coriander- anise cummin fennel and many 
othei-s. No tree has naked seeds, but either they 
are enclosed in flesh or in shells,' which are some- 
times of leathery nature, as the acorn and the sweet 
chestnut, sometimes woody, as almond and nut. 
Moreover no tree has its seeds in a vessel, unless one 
reckons a cone as a vessel, because it can be separated 
from the fruits. 

The actual seeds are in some cases fleshy in them- 
selves, as all those which resemble nuts or acorns ; 
* in some cases the fleshy part is contained in a stone, 
as in olive bay and others. The seeds in some 
plants again merely consist of a stone,^ or at least 
are of stone-like character, and are, as it were,*' dry ; 
for instance those of plants like sattlower millet and 
many pot-herbs. Most obviously of this character 
are those of the date," for they contain no cavity, 
but are throughout dry ^ ; — not but what there must 
be even in them some moisture and warmth, as we 
have said.^ 

* ffjLirvpTjva fxovov Jj irvp-nvuSri conj. Sell.; iv xvprjvi ix6vov ^ 
TtvpTivdiSet Aid. (P has itvpTiviibr]}. 

* I.e. no seed can reallv be without moisture ; c/. 1. 11. 1. 
7 (•/. a P. 5. 18. 4. 

* ^Vphy I conj. , as required by the next clause ; e^opdov PAld. ; 
t^oppov W. from Sch. conj. The germ in the date-stone is so 
small as to be undiscoverable, whence the stone seems to be 
homogeneous throughout, with no cavitv for the germ. 

9 1. 10. 9. 


4 Aia(f)epovcn Be fcal rep ra jxev aO poa fier 
aWrjXwv elvai, ra 8e BtecrrtoTa /cat (TT0i')(r}B6v, 
oiCFirep TO, T?^9 Ko\oKvvTr]<i Kal aiKva<i Kal rcov 
SevSpcov, 0)9 UepaLKpjq fjurjXea'i. Kal rSiv aOpocov 
ra fiev kvi Tivi irepte^eadai, KaOdirep ra ti}? p6a<i 
Kal rri<; airiov Kal /jLrjXea^; Kal rrj-i ap^ireKov Kal 
a-vKrj<i' TO, 8e /xer' uXXijXcov p,ev elvai, p,r} irepi- 
e'xeardai he v(j)^ ev6<{, wcnrep ra ara')(yr}pa rwv 
eTTereioiv, el p^rj ri<; delr) rov ard')(yv &>? 'Trepie')(pv' 
ovrco 8' earai Kal 6 ^6rpv<i Kal raWa ra 
^orpvcoSr) Kal oaa 8r) <J3ep€i 8i ev^ooiav Kal 
'X^oopa'i dperrjv d6poov<i rov<; Kaprrov^i, coairep ev 
%vpia (paal Kal aWoOi ra<; e\da^. 

5 'AXXa Kal aurr] 8oK€t ri<; elvai 8ia(f)opd rb ra 
p,ev d(f evo<{ p,iaj(pv Kal pid<i irpoa^vaew'i 
ddpoa yipeadai, KaOdirep eVt re roiv ^orpvrjpMv 
Kal ara')(^vr)pa)v etprjrai //.?; 7re/Jie%o/Aei/a koivw 
rtvt yLvecrdar rd 8e p,r} ytveaOai. eVei. Ka0^ 
eKacrrov je Xap^dvovri row arreppudraiv rj r&v 
ireptexovroyv I8iav dpxv^ ^xet rr}? rrpoa^vaeaxi, 
olov 7] re pd^ Kal rj poa Kal irdXiv 6 TTVpo^ Kal r} 
Kpidrj. i'jKiara S' dv 86^eiev rd rSiv pujXcov Kal 
rd rcov diricov, on avp^fravei re Kal TrepieiXtjirrai 
KaOdirep vpevi rivl 8epp,ariKa> irepl ov ro irepi- 

6 KapiTLOv dX\! 6p.o}<i Kal rovrcov eKacrrov I8iav 
dpxv^ ^'%^* '^^1' ^vaiv cfiavepcorara 8e rca 

^ ffToixn^iv conj. W.; o-xeSbi' Aid. 

^ kvi Tivi couj. Sch.; eV Ttvi Aid. ^ cf. Plin. 15. 15. 

* ai'TTj conj. Sch.; avrr) Aid. ^ rb conj. W.; rif Aid. 



Further seeds differ in that in some cases they are 
massed together, in others they ai-e separated and 
arranged in roAvs,^ as those of the gourd and 
bottle-gourd, and of some trees, such as the citron. 
Again of those that are massed together some differ 
in being contained in a single '^ case, as those of 
pomegranate pear apple vine and fig ; others in 
being closely associated together, yet not contained 
in a single case, as, among annuals, those which are 
in an ear — unless one regards the ear as a case. In 
that case the grape-cluster and other clustering fruits 
will come under the description, as well as all those 
plants which on account of good feeding or excellence 
of soil bear their fruits massed together,^ as they 
say the olive does in Syria and elsewhere. 

But this'* too seems to be a point of difference, 
that ^ some grow massed together from a single 
stalk and a single attachment, as has been said in 
the case of plants with clusters or ears whose seeds 
do not grow contained in one common case ; while 
others grow otherwise. For in these instances, if 
one takes each seed or case separately, it has its own 
special point of attachment, for instance each grape 
or pomegranate,"^ or again each grain of wheat or 
barley. This would seem to be least of all the case 
with the seeds of apples and }>eai-s, since " these 
touch one another ^ and are enclosed in a sort of 
skin-like membrane, outside which is the fruit-case.*^ 
However each of these too has its own peculiar 
point of attachment and character ; this is most 

' ^ T€ . . . ^6a. : text perliap.s defective ; f) re po| ^6rpvas 
Kol TTJs l>6as b xvpriv conj. Bod. 

' 2t« conj. Sch. ; Siri U; o-rot PM Aid. 
» cf. 8. 5. 2. » i.e. pulp. 



K€)(^oi)pl<Tdai ra Trj<i p6a<i' o yap Trvprjv e/cacTTO) 
irpocnre^vKev, ovx cocnrep rcov avKoov dS7]\a Sea 
TTjV vyporrjTa. koI yap tovto) e')(pvaL Sia(f>opav 
Kaiirep d/j,cf)6repa Trepie^o/xeva aapKcoSei rivl kul t5> 
TOVTO TrepieiXijcfioTi fiCTa tmv dWcov to, fiev yap 
776/31 €KaaTov e;^et irvprjva to crapKa)8e<; tovto to 
vypov, al 8e /c67%/9a/^t8e9 coaTrep kolvov tl iraaaL, 
Kaddirep Koi to yiyapTov koX o<ja top avTOV ex^i 
TpoTTOv. aXXd Ta<; fxev ToiavTUf; hia<^opd<i Ta%' 
dv Tt9 \dj3oL 7r\€iov<i' 0)v hei Td<; KvpiaTaTa^; Kol 
fidXiaTU T?79 (f)va€0)<; fxrj dyvoecv. 

XII. At Be KaTO, tov<; %i'Xoi'9 Kal to. a^W^Ta 
Koi Td<i 6\a<i fiop(f)d<; a-)(^e8ov (pavepal irdcnv, &(tt€ 
fir) SeiaOaL Xoyov TrXrjv toctovtov y OTi a')(rjixa 
ovBev TrepiKapTTiov evdvypafifiov ovSe y(ovLa<; e%et, 
Tcav Be x^Xcbv ol fxev elcriv olvcoBei^;, axnrep dfi- 
Trekov avKap-ivov jxvpTOV' ol 8' iXacoBei^i, uxnrep 
i\da<i Bd<^vrj<i Kapva<i dp,vyBa\rj<i 7revKr]<i nrtTVOf; 
eXaTT/?' ol Be /ieXtTwSet?, olov avKov (polviKO^ 
Bioa ^aXdvov ol Be Bpifxeh, olov opiydvov 6vfx/3pa<i 
KapBdfMOV vdirvoq- ol Be iriKpot, aavep d^lnvOiov 
icevTavpiov. Bia(f)epovac Be Kal rat? euwStat?, 
olov dvvrjcov K€BpiBo<i' evicav Be vBapel'i dv Bo^aiev, 
olov ol Tbiv KOKKvp.rfKeu>v ol Be o^et9, oicnrep powv 

' i.e. of the pulp. "^ rovrcf conj. Sch.; toCto Aid. 

» r})v om. St.: i.e. the seeds are arranged in compartments 
of the pulp. 


ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS, I. xi. 6-\ii. i 

obvious in the separation of the pomegranate seeds, 
for the stone is attached to each, and the connexion 
is not, as in figs, obscured by the moisture.^ For 
here ' too there is a difference, although in both 
cases the seeds are enclosed in a sort of fleshy 
substance, as well as in the case which encloses this 
and the other parts of the fruit. For in the pome- 
granate the stones have this moist fleshy substance 
enclosing each ^ separate stone ; but in the case of 
fig-seeds, as well as in that of grape stones and other 
plants which have the same arrangement, the same 
pulp is common to all.^ However one might find 
more such differences, and one should not ignore the 
most important of them, namely those which specially 
belong to the plant's natural character. 

Differences in fade. 

XII. The differences in taste, shape, and form as 
a whole are tolerably evident to all, so that they do 
not need explanation ; except that it should be 
stated that ^ the case containing the fruit is never 
right-lined in shape and never has angles. ^ Of 
tastes some are like wine, as those of vine mul- 
berr}' and myrtle : some are like olive-oil, as, besides 
olive itself, bay hazel almond fir Aleppo pine silver- 
fir ; some like honey, as tig date chestnut ; some are 
pungent, as marjoram savoiy cress mustard ; some 
are bitter, as wormwood centaury. Some also are 
remarkably fragrant, as anise and juniper"; of 
some the smell would seem to be insipid,- as in 
plums ; of others sharp, as in pomegranates and 

* i.e. the fniit is not diWded into compartments. 

* »At)v ^ roaovrov conj. W.; xXljv tovovtov ^ UMAId. 

« Plin. 19. 186; 15. 109. " cf. 1. 9. 4. « Lit. watery. 



Kol evlrov fJurfKcov. airdvrcov Se olv(oSei<i Koi tov<; 
ev TouTO) T(p yevet dereov aWoi Be ev aXXot,<; 
etSeatv virrep wv airdvrwv uKpi^earepov ev Tot<? 
irepl %fX,coi' prjreov, avrd<; re Ta<i lhea<i BtapiO/xov- 
fxevovi OTTocrai koX to.^ Trpo? aXX.rj\ov<i Bia<popd<; 
KoX ri'i rj eKaarov (f)vai<; Kol hvvaixL<i. 

"E;^et he kol rj tcov BevBpcov avrcov vyp6ri]<;, 
wairep e\exOv> Btd(f)opa ecBr)' r) p,ev yap icrriv 
ottwSt;?, Mcrirep rj tt)? cruKrjt; koX rr]<; pbrjKwvo<i' i) 
he 71 iTr(oBrj<;, olov iXdT7]<; 7rev/ci]<; tmv Kcovocpopwv' 
dWt] S' vBap7]<i, olov dfiTiiXov diriov p^rfkea^, Koi 
rct)v Xa'^avcoBcbv Be, olov aiKVOv koXokvvtt]^ dpiBa- 
Kivri<i' al Be [)]Br]\ BptpvTrjTd riva exovcn, Kaddirep 
7] Tou dvfxov Koi 6vfil3pa<;' al Be /cat evwBiav, 
wcTTTep al Tov aeXivov dvrjOou fiapddov Kal rcov 
roiovTwv. 0)9 8' dirkw'i eiTrelv diracrat Kara rrjv 
IBiav (pvaiv eKaarov BevBpov Kal ft)9 Ka6^ oXov 
elirelv (f)VT0V' irav yap e'X^L Kpdcriv riva Kal fil^tv 
IBiav, Tjirep oiKeia BrjXov on rvyxdvei rol<i viro- 
K€ifievoi<i Kap7rol<;' wv rot<; TrXeicrroL^ (Tvvep(j>alve- 
ral TL<i 6fj,oi6T7]<i ovK aKpi^rj'i ovBe aa(f))]<;- aXX" 
ev T049 7r€pcKap7rL0t<i' Bib fxdXXov Karepyaalav 
Xafi^dvei Kal Treylnv KaOapav Kal elXiKpivi] rj tov 

1 cf. a P. 6. 6. 4. 

^ T. is said to have written a treatise irtpi x^iJ-oiv. 
^ dirdSris. ottos is used specially of the juice of the fig 

^ fi^lKCDvos probably corrupt : it should be a tree. 



some kinds of apples. ^ But the smells even of 
those in this class must in all cases be called wine- 
like, though they differ in different kinds, on which 
matter we must speak more precisely, when we come 
to speak of flavours,- reckoning up the different 
kinds themselves, and stating what differences 
there are between them, and what is the natural 
character and property of each. 

Now the sap of the trees themselves assumes 
different kinds of tastes as was said ; sometimes it 
is milky,^ as that of the fig and poppy,^ some- 
times like pitch, as in silver-fir fir and the conifers ; 
sometimes it is insipid, as in vine |>ear and apple, 
as well as such pot-herbs as cucumber gourd 
lettuce ; while others'^ again have a certain pungency, 
such as the juice of thyme and savory ; others have 
a fragrance, such as the juices of celery dill fennel 
and the like. To speak generally, all saps corre- 
spond to the special character of the several trees, 
one might almost add, to that of each plant. For 
every plant has a certain temperament and com- 
position of its own, which "^ plainly belongs in a 
special sense to tiie fruits of each. And in niost of 
these is seen a sort of correspondence with the 
character of the plant as a wliole, which is not 
however exact nor obvious ; it is chiefly " in the fruit- 
cases* that it is seen, and that is why it is the 
character of the flavour which becomes more com- 
plete and matures into something separate and 

* I have bracketed ijBi) : ? a dittography of 01 St. 

• fi-wfp mBas.H ; tUfp MAld. 

^ aKK' fv . . . fiaWov MSS. (?) Ald.H ; yhp for 5jb conj. W,, 
omitting stop before it. 

' i.e. the pulp : so G. c/. 1. 11. 6. 



^i/XoO (f)vcri<;' Bet jap coairep to jxev vXrjv vno- 
Xa^eiv TO 8e elSo^i koI fj,op(f)7]v. 

"E;^6t Se avTCL to. a-Trepfxara Kol ol ^iTft)t'€9 ol 
TTepl aura 8ia(f)opav ro)V ')(^uX(ov. ft)9 8' aTrXaJ? 
elireiv arravra ra fjbopia tcov hevhpwv Kal (pvrcjv, 
olov pi^a Kav\o<i aKpep,c6v (jivWov Kapiro'?, e;^efc 
riva OLKeiorrjra 7Tpo<; ttjv oXr/v (pvatv, el koI 
TrapaWaTTec /card re Ta<; 6ap.a^ koI Tov<i ')(^v\ov<i, 
<09 ra jxev evoa/na /cal evcohrj ra S" aocr/xa Kal 
a-xyXa 7ravTe\co<i elvai tmv tov avrov /nopicov. 

^EvLcov yap evoafia ra avdiq jxaXkov rj to, 
(f)vWa, TMP Se dvaTrdXiv ra (f)vXXa p^aWov Kal 
OL K\Mve<i, cocTTrep tcov (Tre<^av(jC)pari,KS)V tcov 8e ol 
Kapirol' TCOV S' ouSeTepov ivicov S' at pC^ar tcov 
Be Tt nepo<i. 6fWico<i 8e Kal Kara rovf 'xyXov'i' to, 
fiev yap ^pcoTa to, 8' a/Spcora rvy')(^dv€i Kal iv 
^vWoL'i Kal irepLKapirloi'^. IhidoTaTov he to eirl 
Tri<i (f)t\vpa<;' TavT7]<; yap to, /j,ev (f>vX\.a yXvKea 
Kal TToWa TCOV ^cocov eaOiei, 6 he Kap7ro<i ovhevl 
^p(or6<i' errel to ye dvarraXiv ouSev OavfxaaTov, 
cocrre ra pbev cf)vWa p,7) iadUadac tol'9 he Kapirom 
ov jxovov v(p^ ri/LLcov dWa Kal viro tcov aWcov 
^cocov. dWd Kal irepl tovtov kol tmv aWcov 
TCOV ToiovTcov vcTTepov TTecpaTeov deoopelv to.^ 

XIII. NOv he ToaovTOV ecxTCO hfjXov, OTi Kara 
irdvTa TO. fiepr) irXeiovi elcrl 8ca(f>opal 7roA.Xa%w9" 

1 i.e. the pulp. '^ i.e. the flavour. 

* Sense : Every tree has a characteristic juice of its own, 
which is however specially recognisable in its fruit ; in the 
tree as a whole its character is not always apparent. Hence 
the importance of the flavour (which is seen in the fruit- 
pulp), since it is this which determines the specific character, 

ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS, I. xii. 2-xiii. i 

distinct ; in fact we must consider the one ^ as 
' matter,' the other - as ' form ' or specific character.^ 

Again the seeds themselves and the coats con- 
taining them have different flavours. And, to speak 
generally, all parts of trees and plants, as root stem 
branch leaf fruit, have a certain relationship to the 
character of the whole, even if* there is variation in 
scents and tastes, so that of the parts of the same 
plant some are fragrant and sweet to the taste, 
while others are entirely scentless and tasteless. 

For in some plants the flowers are more fragrant 
than the leaves, in others on the contrary it is 
rather the leaves and twigs which are fragrant, as in 
those used for garlands. In others again it is the 
fruits ; in others it is neither ^ of these parts, but, in 
some few cases, the root or some part of it. And 
so too with the flavours. Some leaves and some 
fruit-pulps are, and some are not good for food. 
^ Most peculiar is the case of the lime : the leaves 
of this are sweet, and many animals eat them, but 
the fruit no creature eats, (for, as to the contrary 
case, it would not be at all surprising that the leaves 
should not be eaten, while the fruits were eaten not 
only by us but by other animals). But concerning 
this and other such matters we must endeavour to 
consider the causes on some other occasion. 

Differences in flowers. 

XIII. For the present let so much be clear, that 
in all the parts of plants there are numerous differ- 

the pulp of fruit in general being, in Aristotelian language, 
the 'matter,' while the flavour is 'form.' cf. C.P. 6. 6. 6. 

* el Kol conj. Sch. ; ri 8f U ; €1 5f MVAld. 

* ovStrepov seems inaccurately used, as four parts have been 
mentioned. « cf. 3 10. 5 ; Plin 16. 65. 



eVei KoX TMV avOcov to, fxev icni ^(vowhri, KaOdrrrep 
TO T779 afiTTeXov kuI avKa/jbivov koI tov kittov- 
TO, Se ^vWooSr], KuOdvep djxvyhaX.rj'i ixtfKea<i 
diriov KOKKV/jirjXewi. /cat rd fxev fieyedo'i eyei, 
TO Be T?79 i\da<; ^i/XXwSe? ov dfxeyede^. 6/xouo<; 
Se Kal ev rol<i eTreTeioif koI iroidiheaL rd fiev 
(pvWooSr] rd Se ■)(yo(iihri. Travrcov 8e rd fiev Sl-^^poa 
rd he fiovo^poa. rd fiev rcov hevhpwv rd ye 
TToWd /xovoxpoa Kal XevKavdr}' fxovov ydp co? 
el-rrelv ro rr}? p6a<i (f)otviKOvv koI dfivySdXcov 
rivwv virepvOpov dXkov he ovhevo<i rwv rj/uLepcov 
ovre dvdSihe'i ovre hi')(^povv, dX)C et rivo'i rwv 
dypiwv, olov ro t//? i\drr)<i' KpoKivov yap ro 
ravrr]<; dv6o<i' Kol ocra hi] <f)aatv ev rfj e^oo Oa\- 
drrrj pohcov e%efi^ rrjv XP^^^- 

'Ry he roi<; eVeretot? ax^hov rd ye irXeiw 
roiavra koI hixpoa koX hiavOrj. Xeyco he hiavOe<i 
on erepov dv6o<i ev rw dvOei ex^t /card fieaov, 
axTTTcp ro pohov /cal ro Kpivov Kal ro lov ro jxeXav. 
evia he Kal ixov6(^vWa ^verat hiaypa(f)7jv exovra 
[xovov rSiv 7r\ei6vo)v, wairep ro rr)'^ taaioovr]<i- ov 
ydp Kex<'iipi'0'raL ravrrj<i ev rw dvdet ro (f)vX\.ov 
cKaarov ovhe hrj rov \eipiov ro Kara) /jbepof;, dX\a 
CK rcov aKpcov dTTO(f)V(Tei<i ycovicohei'i. crx(^hov he 
Kal ro rr}<; eKaa^ roiovrov earcv. 

Aia(})epei he Kal Kard rrjv eKcfyvaiv Kal Oecnv 
rd jxev ydp ex^t Trepl avrov rov Kapirov, olov dfi- 

^ i.e. petaloid. 

2 aypicev Aid. ; alricov U ; avTiwv MV ; iroyrlaiv coiij. W. 

^ i.e. corolla and stamens, etc. 

* i.e. are gamopetalov\s (or ganios^paloiis). 



ences shewn in a variety of ways. Thus of flowers 
some are downy, as that of the vine mulberry and 
ivy, some are ' leafy,' ^ as in almond apple pear 
plum. Again some of these flowers are conspicuous, 
while that of the olive, though it is ' leafy,' is incon- 
spicuous. Again it is in annual and herbaceous 
plants alike that we find some leafy, some downy. 
All plants again have flowers either of two colours or 
of one ; most of the flowers of trees are of one colour 
and white, that of the pomegranate being almost the 
only one which is red, while that of some almonds is 
reddish. The flower of no other cultivated trees is 
gay nor of two colours, though it may be so with 
some uncultivated^ trees, as with the flower of silver- 
fir, for its flower is of saffron colour ; and so with 
the flowers of those trees by the ocean which have, 
they say, the colour of roses. 

However, among annuals, most are of this charac- 
ter — their flowers are two-coloured and twofold. ^ I 
mean by ' twofold ' that the plant has another 
flower inside the flower, in the middle, as with rose 
lily violet. Some flowers again consist of a single 
'leaf,' ^ having merely an indication of more, as that 
of bindweed.^ For in the flower of this the separate 
' leaves ' are not distinct ; nor is it so in the lower 
part of the narcissus,'* but there are angular projec- 
tions '^ from the edges. And the flower of the olive 
is nearly of the same character. 

But there are also differences in the way of growth 
and the position of the flower ; some plants have it 

» c/. C.P. 2. 18. 2 and 3 ; Plin. 21. 65. 
^ Xfipiov conj. Sch., i.e. narcissus, cf. 6. 6. 9 ; x*'P^<"' MSS. 
^ i.e. something resembling separate 'leaves' (petals or 


TreXo? iXdw 'J79 koI airo'rri'inovTa htarerpi^fieva 
^aiverai, koI tovto arj/xetov Xa^^dvovaiv el 
/caXw? aTnjvdijKev iav yap avyKavdrj rj ^pe'x^Ofj, 
avva7ro/3aX\€i rov Kapirov kol ov rerprj^evov 
jLyveTat' cryehov he kol ra iroXka rcov <dvdSiv> 
ev fjieatp to TreptKapTriov e%6f, Ta%a oe /cat, eir 
avTOV Tov Trepi/capiriov, KaOdrrep poa fieXea dirio'i 
KOKKV/MTjXea fivppivo<;, Kal tmv ye (ftpvyaviKWV 
poBoovla Kal ra ttoXXo, rwv aTe(})avcoTCKcov Karco 
yap viTo TO dv6o<i e%6fc to, aTrep/xara' (fiavepoi)- 
rarop Be eVt toO poBov Bia tov oyKov. evia Se 
Kal eir^ avTwv twv aTrep/xaTcov, oocnrep 6 aKavo^ 
Kal 6 KVYjKo^ Kal vavra ra aKavcoBrj' Kad^ eKaa- 
rov yap e%et to dvdo<i. o/noico^ Be Kal tmv 
iroLwBoiv evia, KaOdirep to avdepuov ev Be Tot? 
\axavr]pol<s Te (rLKVo<i Kal rj koXokvvttj Kal 7) 
acKva- irdvTa yap enl tmv KapirSiV eyei, Kal 
Trpocrav^avo/JLevcov eTTCfJievei to, dvOr] ttoXvv ^(^povov. 
4 "AWa Be IBiwripw^, olov 6 kltto^ Kal ?} avKd- 
fiivo^' ev avToU /xev yap e%et tol^ oXoti; irepi- 
KapirioL'i, ov fxrjv ovt€ eir' dKpot<i ovt iirl 
7repi,eiXrj(f)6ac KaG" eKaarov, aXk' ev Tol<i dvd 
fieaov el p,r} dpa ov avvBrfKa Bid to 'yvocoBe';. 

"Eart Be Kal dyova twv dvOwv evia, Kaddirep 
iirl TMV (TiKvoyv d eK twv aKpcov ^veTai rov kXi]- 

1 c/. 3. 16. 4. 2 Lacuna in text ; av6Siv I conj. 

' Tcixa Aid. ; Tiva W. after Sch. conj. 

■* Sttios conj. Bod.; &7J'os Ald.H. 

•' i.e. composites. 

' ffirepfxaToiy conj. Dalec. from G ; arofidroDV Aid. 

"^ St/co"os conj. W. ; S /capos UV. 

8 uKavudn conj. W.; iLvBiiSri Ald.H. r/. 1. 10. 6 ; 6. 4. 4. 



close above the fruit, as vine and olive ; in the latter, 
when the flowers drop ofF, they are seen to have a 
hole through them,i and this men take for a sign 
-whether the tree has blossomed well ; for if the 
flower is burnt up or sodden, it sheds the fruit along 
with itself, and so there is no hole through it. The 
majority of flowers ^ have the fruit-case in the middle 
of them, or, it may be,^ the flower is on the top of 
the fruit-case, as in pomegranate apple pear * plum 
and myrtle, and among under-shrubs, in the rose 
and in many of the coronary plants. For these have 
their seeds below, beneath the flower, and this is 
most obvious in the rose because of the size of the 
seed-vessel. In some cases ^ again the flower is on 
top of the actual seeds,"^ as in pine-thistle " safllower 
and all thistle-like ^ plants ; for these have a flower 
attached to each seed. So too with some herba- 
ceous plants, as anthemon, and among pot-herbs, with 
cucumber^ gourd and bottle-gourd; all these have 
their flowers attached on top of the fruits,^'' and the 
flowers persist for a long time while the fruits are 

In some other plants the attachment is peculiar, 
as in ivv and mulberry ; in these the flower is closely 
attached to the whole ^^ fruit-case ; it is not however 
set above it, nor in a seed-vessel that envelops each''^ 
separately, but it occurs in the middle part of the 
structure — except that in some cases it is not easily 
recognised because it is downy. 

13 Again some flowers are sterile, as in cucumbers 
those which grow at the ends of the shoot, and that 

* T6 a'lKvos conj. W. ; oirep aixvos UM ; 6 TrepaiKvos Aid. 
^° KapirSiv eonj. Sch. ; &Kpa>v Ald.H. 
" i.e. compound. ^- ovt' exl I conj. for oin-i. 

i=* cf. Arist. Probl. 20. 3. 



fiaTo<;, Sl KoX d^aipovcriv avrd' KcoXvei jdp rrjv 
Tov (TiKvov ^Xdarrjcnv. (f)aal Be Koi ri}? firjXea^ 
T?}? M.rjBiKrj^ oaa fiev e;^et tmp dvOSiv wcyrrep 
TjXaKcirrjv tlvo. 7r€(f)VKv2av eK fxicrov ravr eivat 
jovifia, oaa Be fit) e;\;ei ravr^ dyova. el Be /col eV 
dWov riv6<i ravra av/x^aivei twv dvOo^opav 
coo-re d'yovov dvOo'i (f)veiv eiVe Ke)(^ci)ptafievov ecre 
firj, (TKeTneov. eirel yev^] je evia koI dfiireXov koI 
p6a<; dBvvarei reXeoKapTrelv, dXXd fiexpi' tov 
dv6ov<i r) yepeaL<;. 

(TiveraL Be koL to ye t?}9 p6a<i dv6o<i ttoXv koX 
TTVKvov Kol 6Xco<i 6 6yK0<i TrXarv'^ wd-nep 6 riov 
poBoyv KdrcoOev S" erepoio^- olo<i Bicoro^: /ic/cpo^ 
bicnrep iKrerpa/jifievo'i 6 KVTivo<i e'X^cov rd ^etX?; 
^vxd>Bi].) ^ 

^^aal Be Tive<; Kol rdv ofjioyevoiv rd fxev dvdelv 
rd 8' ou, Kaddirep rdv (poivUcov rov fiev dppeva 
dvdelv TOV Be OrfKvv ovk dvdelv a\X' f^vdi) trpo- 
ipaiveiv TOV Kap'rvov. 

Ta fiev ovv tS> yevei rayra TOiavTrjv Trjv Bia- 

^ i.e. tlie pistil. 

2 i.e. as seen from above: koI o\o>v , . . poSuv describes the 
corolla, KarwOev . . . ^ux'^Sij the undeveloped ovary, including 
the adherent calyx. 

•* l)6Suiv conj. Bod. ; powv Aid. 

■* Karwdev . . . (jlvx^o^ I conj. ; 5' erepot St' &v ois niKphv 
w(Tvep eKT€Tpa/UjueVoj k6tivos ex'^" '"'* X^'^'J |Uux<<J57j UMVAld. 
(except that Aid. has dvco for x^^^V and fKrerpanixevoy : so 
also P, but The sentence explains incidentally 
why the pomegranate flower was called kvtivos (cf. 2. 6. 12 ; 
C.P. 1. 14. 4 ; 2. 9. 3 ; 2. 9. 9 ; Diosc. 1. 110 ; Plin. 23. 110 



is why men pluck them off, for they hinder the 
growth of the cucumber. And they say that in the 
citron those flowers which have a kind of distaff^ 
growing in the middle are fruitful, but those that 
have it not are sterile. And we must consider 
whether it occurs also in any other flowering plants 
that they produce sterile flowers, whether apart 
from the fertile flowers or not. For some kinds of 
vine and pomegranate certainly are unable to mature 
their firuit, and do not produce anything beyond the 

(The flower of the pomegranate is produced abun- 
dantly and is solid "^ : in general appearance it is a 
substantial structure with a flat top, like the flower 
of the rose ^ ; but,"* as seen from below, the inferior 
l^art of the flower is different-looking, being like a 
little two-eared jar turned on one side and having 
its rim indented.) 

Some say that even of plants of the same kind ^ 
some specimens flower while others do not ; for 
instance that the ' male ' date-palm flowers but the 
' female ' does not, but exhibits its fruit without any 
antecedent flower. 

Such "^ is the difference which we find between 

and 111), I.e. because it resembled a jcutoj (see LS. s.v.). T. 
chooses the particular form of jar called Siwtos, because the 
indentations between the sepals suggest this : \J. This is 

called itcTfTpafififvos, because the weight of the developing 
fruit causes it to take up at one stage a horizontal position, 
like a jar hing on its side ; x**^'? refers to the jar (for the 
plural c/. the use of ivrvyes), fLvx<^^V to the indentations in 
the calyx (a jar ha\-ing ordinarily an unindented rim). 

* ifjioytvwv Qon}. Sch.; ofLoioytvuv A\i{. 

* ravra roiavTrjv I conj. from G ; roiavra riiv UM ; 
ToiauTijc P. 



(f)opav e%ef, Kaddirep o\a)<; ocra fxrj ZvvaraL reXeo- 
fcapTrecv. i) he tov dvdov<i (f>vai.<i otl Trkeiovi e;\^et 
Bia^opa<; (jiavepbv eK tmv irpoeiprjp.evwv. 

XIV. Aiacjiepei 8e to, hevhpa koI roi<; tolovtol<; 
Kara ttjv KapTTOTOKiav ra /xev yap e'/c rcov vecov 
^Xacrrcov cfiepei ra S" eV t6)u evcov to, 8' e^ dfX(f)o- 
Tepoiv. eK fiev rcov vecov crvKr} d/j,7re\o<;' eK Be tmv 
evcov iXda poa p.T]\ea d/uLvySaXrj dmof; p,vppivo<; 
Kol a-)(ehov rd roiavra irdvra' e« Be rcov vewv 
idv dpa Ti (TV/x^fj Kvijaai koI dvOrjaai (jLverat 
yap Kal ravT eVtoi?, wairep koI tm pvppivw Kal 
pdXiaO^ CO? elirelv irepl rd<; ^\a(Trr)creL<i rd'i /xer' 
^ApKTOvpov) ov Bvvarui reXeovv «X,X' rjp^iyevrj 
(pOeiperar i^ dfi(f)OT€pa)V Be Kal tmv evcov Kal rcov 
vecov eo Tive<; dpa p,r)\eai rcov Bi(f>6pcov ?) et ri 
dXKo KdpTTipbov 'in Be 6 6\vv6o<i eKirerrcov Kal 
avKa cpepcov ck rcov vecov. 

^iBicordrrj Be r) eV rov CTeXe^ou? eK<f)vai<;, 
wairep rri<i ev Pdyvirrcp avKafiivov raurrjv ydp 
(paac (pepeiv €K rov ar€\e-^ov<;' ol Be ravrrj re Kal 
eK rcov dKpe/Movcov, coairep rt]v Kepcoviav avrrj ydp 
Kal eK rovrcov cf)epei ttXtjv ov ttoXvv KaXovai Be 
Kepcoviav dcft^ rj<; rd crvKa rd Alyinrrca KaXovfieva. 

^ ? i.e. that, like the 'female' date-palm, they have no 

^ toioCto iravra- fV 5e rSiv vewv iav &pa ti conj. W. ; TOiavTW 
irdvra yap e/c raiv evuiv eav Se &pa tj MSS. 

» cf. 3. 5. 4. 

* SifSpuv conj. Sell, from G ; Sta(p6pu)v UAld. 


ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS, I. xiii. 5-xiv. 2 

plants of the same kind ; and the like may be said ^ 
in general of those which cannot mature their fruit. 
And it is plain from what has been said that flowers 
shew many differences of character. 

Differences in fruits. 

XIV. Again as to the production of fruit trees 
differ in the folloAving respects. Some bear on their 
new shoots, some on last year's wood, some on both. 
Fig and \-ine bear on their new shoots ; on last year's 
wood olive pomegranate apple almond pear myrtle 
and almost all such trees. And, if any of these does * 
happen to conceive and to produce flowers on its new 
shoots, (for this does occur in some cases, as with 
myrtle, and especially, one may say, in the growth 
which is made at^er the rising of Arcturus) ^ it can 
not bring them to perfection, but they perish half- 
formed. Some apples again of the twice-bearing * 
kinds and certain other fruit-trees bear both on last 
year's wood and on the new shoots ; and so does the 
olynihos,^ which ripens its fruit as well as bearing figs 
on the new shoots. 

Most peculiar is the growtli of fruit direct from 
the stem, as in the sycamore ; for this, they say, 
bears fruit on the stem. Others say that it bears 
both in this way and "^ also on the branches, like the 
carob ; for the latter bears on the branches too, 
though not abundantly : (the name carob is given to 
the tree which produces what are called ' Egyptian 

' 6Xyydoi is not elsewhere used for a kind of fig: fri 5« 
rvKrf Tovs oXvvOous fK-rerTovaa, koI gvKa <t>fpovaa conj. Sch. 
somewhat drastically. 

• ravTTi T« Kol iK conj. W. ; ravTiji fiiy iK UMVAld. cf. 
4. 2. 4. 



€(TTi 8e Koi ra fiev aKpoKapira tS)v BevSpav koI 
oXw? T&v (f>VTa)v TO, 8e TrXajLOKapira ra S' dfjL(f)o- 
repca. TrXeico 5' uKpoKapira tmv dWav tj roiv 
SevSpcov, olov Toov re atrypcov ra aTa)(^vcoB7] koX 
Tcov Oa/jLvoyScov ipeiKrj koi aneipaLa koI dyvo<; koi 
dXk' uTTa Kol Twv \ax(tvooB(t)v rd Ke(jiaX6ppi^a. 
i^ dfXifiOTipcov 8e koI tmv SevSpcov evia koI twv 
Xaxci'VcoB&v, olov /SXcrov d8pd(pa^v<; pd<f)avo<;' 
errel kol iXda Troiei ttw? rovro, Kai (f)acrcv orav 
aKpov ivejKri cnj/jueiov ev^optwi elvai. dKpo- 
KapTro<i Be tto)? koi 6 (poipt^' irXrjv rovro ye koL 
aKpo^vXXov KOL dKpo^Xaarov 6Xw<i yap iv ra) 
dvco rrdv to ^coriKov. rd^ fxev ovv Kurd <rd> 

fMepr] 8ia(f>opd<i ireipareov ix rovrwv Oecopelv. 

At Be roiavrai rr]<i oX.-^? ovcria<; (patvovrar BrjXov 
on rd fiev rjfiepa rd S' dypia' kuI rd fxlv /cdpmfia 
rd S" uKapira' koI del^vXXa koX (f)vXXo^6Xa, 
KaOdirep eke')(dr], rd S' oX,&)9 d(pvXXa' koX rd jxev 
dvdrjriKd rd 5' dvavdrj' koX Trpcoi/SXaarrj Be koI 
irpcoi/capTra rd Be o'yjrL^aarr} koi osfrlKapTra' 
axravrwi Be Koi oaa iraparrXricna rovroi<;. Kai 
7ra)<? rd ye roiavra iv roi<; jxepecnv rj ovk dvev rwv 
jxepSiv eariv. aXV eKeivrj IBicordrr) Kai rpoirov riva 
jxeyicrrrj Bidara(Ti<;, ^irep Kai eVt rcov ^(ocov, on rd 
fiev evvBpa rd Be ')(epaala' Kai ydp rcov <pvrcov 

1 Plin. 16. 1J2. 

^ TovTO conj. Sch. ; tovtov UAld. ; tovtov M. 

' Tiadd. W.; cf. 1. 13. 1. 



figs '). ^ Again some trees, and gome plants in general, 
produce fruit at the top, others at the sides, others in 
both ways. But bearing fruit at the top is less 
common in trees than in other plants, as among 
grains in those which have an ear, among shrubby 
plants in heath privet chaste tree and certain others, 
and among pot-herbs in those with a bulbous 
root. Among plants which bear both on the top 
and at the sides are certain trees and certain pot- 
herbs, as blite orach cabbage. I say trees, since 
the olive does this too in a way, and they say that, 
when it bears at the top, it is a sign of fruitfulness. 
The date-palm too bears at the top, in a sense, but 
this 2 tree also has its leaves and shoots at the top ; 
indeed it is in the top that its whole activity is 
seen. Thus we must endeavour to study in the 

light of the instances mentioned the differences seen 
in the ^ various parts of the plant. 

General differences {affecting the ichole plant). 
But there appear to be the following differences 
which affect the plant's whole being : some are culti- 
vated, some wild ; some fruitful, some barren ; some 
evergreen, some deciduous, as was said, while some 
again have no leaves at all ; some are flowering plants, 
some flowerless; some are early, some late in producing 
their shoots and fruits ; and there are other differences 
similar to these. Now it may be said that ^ such 
differences are seen in the parts, or at least that 
particular parts are concerned in them. But the 
special, and in a way the most important distinction 
is one which may be seen in animals too, namely, 
that some are of the water, some of the land. For 

* KaL -Kws Tci ye toioCto conj. Sch. ; /cal irwv to. 76 Tuvra U ; 
*a2 rd ye roiavra Aid. 

H 2 


ecrri tl tolovtov yevo<i b ov Svvarat (f)vea9ai <iir}> 
iv vypo)' ra 8e (pverai, fiev, ov^ o/j.oia 8e aXXa 
X^i^pf^' rrdvTcov he roiv hevhpwv C09 aTrXw? elirelv 
Kol TMV (pVTMP etSrj vrXeto) rvyxavei Kad^ eKuarov 

4 yivo'i' (T'X^eSov yap ovBiv iartv cnrXovv a)OC oaa 
fjb€V Tjnepa Koi aypia Xeyerai Tavrrjv efi<^ave- 
aTaTTjv Kol ixeylaTrjv e^et BiacfiOpdv, olov avKr] 
ipive6<i, ekda Kortvof, dino'i d'^pd'i' oaa S' ev 
eKaripo) rovrcov Toi<i KapTToi<i re koi (f)vWoi<i /cal 
Tal<i aXXai<i fiopcf)ai<; re kol roi<; fiopLoi<;. dWd 
T03V fiev dypioav dvcovvfxa rd TrXeiara koX efiireipoi 
oXiyor T(ov Se rjfjbipcov koX otyvofiaafieva rd irXeia) 
Kal 7] al<j6'r](Ti<^ KoivoTepa' Xeyw S' olov dfnreXov 
(TVKrjf; 'p6a<; firjXea^ diriov hd<^vri<i pvpplvri<; tmv 
dXXwv 77 yap %/3^o-t<? ovcra kolvt] avvOecopelv 
iTOtel Td<i 8ia(f)opd<;. 

6 "I81-0V Se /cal TovT €(f) eKaTepcov rd fiev ydp 
dypia To5 dppevL Kal rw OrjXeL rj p,6voi<i rf fidXiara 
Biaipovcn, rd Se rjfiepa TrXeioaiv Iheai^. ecrri Se 
roiv [xev paov Xa^elv Kal Siapi,$p,rjcrai rd ecSrj, 
rcbv Se ')(aXe'iT(i>r€pov Sid rr)v iroXv^otav. 

'AXXd Srj rd<i p,ev rcov fiopLcov Sia(f)opd<; Kal roiV 
dXXatv ovcnoiv eK rovrcov rreipareov decopeiv. rrepl 
Se rcov yevecrecov fjuerd ravra XcKreov rovro ydp 
oocnrep €<j)€^r]<i roc<i elpT]fxevoi.<i eariv. 


of plants too there is a class -which cannot grow 
except ^ in moisture, while others will indeed grow 
on dry land, but they lose their character and are 
inferior. Again of all trees, one might almost sa}-, 
and of all plants there are several forms to each kind ; 
for hardly any kind contains but a single form. But 
the plants which are called respectively cultivated 
and wild shew this difference in the clearest and 
most emphatic way, for instance the cultivated and 
wild forms of fig olive and pear. In each of these 
I>airs there are differences in fruit and leaves, and in 
their forms and parts generally. But most of the 
wild kinds have no names and few know about them, 
while most of the cultivated kinds have received 
names - and they are more commonly observed ; I 
mean such plants as vine fig }x)megranate apple pear 
bay myrtle and so forth ; for, as many people make 
use of them, they are led also to study the differences. 

But there is this peculiarity as to the two classes 
respectively ; in the wild kinds men find only or 
chiefly the distinction of * male ' and ' female,' while 
in the cultivated sorts they recognise a number of 
distinguishing features. In the former case it is 
easy to mark and count up the different forms, in the 
latter it is harder because the points of difference are 

However we have said enough for study of the 
differences between parts and between general 
characters. We must now speak of the methods of 
growth, for this subject comes naturally after what 
has been said. 

1 ^i, add. W. 

^ ivofiafffttva to xAfitu conj. Sch. ; itvofiaafiivuv xXe/v Aid. 




I. At j€ve(T€i<i Tb)v hevhpwv KoX oXtw? rmv 
(fjvrcov rj avTOfiarai rj airo a7repfiaT0<i rj diro 
pL^r)<; rj airo 7rapaa7rdSo<i rj diro dKp€fjiovo<; rj 
diro k\(ov6<; rj dir' avrov rov ar€\i')(ov<i elcriv, rj 
en Tov ^v\ov KaTaKOTrivroq etV puKpd' koX 'yap 
ovT(o<i evia (fjverai. rovrcov 8e 77 fiev avr6piaTo<i 
TTpoiTr] Tt9, al Be dirb aTrepfiaro^; fcal pi^r}^ (pvai- 
Kcorarai So^aiev dv wcnrep 'yap avTO/MaTUt, /cal 
avrai' 8t Kal rot? dypioi'; VTrdp^ovaiv' al 8e 
dWai T€'Xvr}<; rj 8r) TrpoaLpeareco^. 
2 " Kiravra he ^XacndveL Kara riva tmv rpoTroyv 
TOVTcov, TO, 8e TToXkd Kara TrXetoi;?" iXda fiev 
yap 7rdvT0)<; (fiverat TrXrjv avro tov KXaivof ov 
yap Bvvarat Kara'7rr)yvvfievr}, Kaddirep rj avKrj 
rrj<; Kpd8r]<; Kal rj poa t?}? pd^Sov. Kairot (fiacri 
ye rive<i rjBr} Kal %a/)a«09 irayeiarj'i Kal irpo'i rov 
KiTTOv av/jb^iaxjat, Kal yevecrOai BevBpov dWd 
cndvLOV Ti TO roiovTOV Odrepa Be rd iroWd t?}<? 
<f)V(Tea)<i. avKrj Be tou? fiev aWov<; rpoirov^ 

^ evia (pverai conj. Sch.; aytt<pveTai Aid. 


Of Propagation, especially of Trees. 

Of the ways in which trees and plants originate. Instances of 
degeneration from seed. 

I. The ways in which trees and plants in general 
originate are these : — spontaneous growth, growth 
iTom seedj from a root, from a piece torn off, from a 
branch or twig, from the trunk itself; or again from 
small pieces into which the wood is cut up (for some 
trees can be produced ^ even in this manner). Of 
these methods spontaneous growth comes first, one 
may say, but growth from seed or root would seem 
most natural ; indeed these methods too may be 
called spontaneous ; wherefore they are found even 
in wild kinds, while the remaining methods depend 
on human skill or at least on human choice. 

However all plants sbni; in one or other of these 
ways, and most of them in more than one. Thus the 
olive is grown in all the ways mentioned, except 
iVom a twig ; for an olive-twig will not grow if it is 
set in the ground, as a fig or pomegranate will grow 
from their young shoots. Not but what some say 
that cases have been known in which, when a stake 
of olive-wood was planted to support ivy, it actually 
lived along with it and became a tree ; but such 
an instance is a rare exception, while the other 
methods of growth are in most cases the natural 
ones. The fig grows in all the ways mentioned, 



<f)veTai irdvra'i, diro Be t5>v Trpifivcov koX rwv 
^vKjcov ov (f>v€Tar firjXia Be kuI dino^ koX diro 
Tcov uKpefMovcov (TTTaviwi. ov fxrjv dXkd rd ye 
TToWd rj TrdvO^ ft)9 elirelv ivBix^aOat BokcI koX 
diTo TOVTWV, edv Xeloi koX veoi kuI evav^el<i wcnv. 
dWd (f)va-LK(i)T€pai iro)^ eKelvai' to Be ivBexo/J'evov 
a)<? Bvvarov XrjTrreov. 

"OXw^ yap oXiya to, diro tmv dv(o fidXXov 
^Xaa-rdvovTa Kol yevvcofieva, Kaddirep dpureXo'^ 
diTO ra)v KXrjfidrcov avrrj yap ovk dirb t^? 
irpfopa^ dXX^ aTTO tov KXi]/jbaTO<; (pverac, kuI el Brj 
ri TOiovTov erepov rj BevBpov r) (f)pvyavct)Se<;, oicnrep 
Bofcei TO re TTi^yavov Koi r) Icovia kuI to aiavfi- 
^piov Kal 6 ep7rvXXo<; Kal to eXeviov. KOivoTdTrj 
jxev ovv €(ttI irdcnv rf re diro Trj<i TrapacnrdBa kui 
dTTO aireppbaTO'^. diravra yap oaa e')(eL cnrepfiaTa 
Kal diro airepfiaTd yiveTac diro Be TrapaairdBo'i 
Kal TTjv Bd<pVT]v (fiacTiv, edv Ti? Ta epvr} TrapeXtov 
(fyvTeva-ij. Bel Be vTroppL^ov elvai fidXia-Ta ye to 
TrapacrTrdo/jLevov rj viroirpepivov. ov firjv dXXd Kac 
dvev TOVTov deXet ^Xaardveiv Kal poa Kal fxrjXea 
iapivrj' ^Xa(TTdvet Be Kal d/jivyBaXrj (pVTevopevrj. 
Kara TrXeiarov^ Be Tpoirovi 609 elirelv rj eXda 
^Xaa-Tdver Kal yap dirb tov crTeXe^oi"? Kai airo 
TOV Trpe/jbvov KaTaKOTVTop.evov Kal diro ttj'? pi^ri<i 
[Kal drro tov ^vXov] Kal dwb pd^Bov Kal xdpaKO<; 
coairep e'iprjTai,. twv S' dXXcov o /xvppivo'i' kul 
yap o5to9 diro twv ^vXcov Kal twv Trpe/iivcov 

^ TO. ye noWa iravB' conj. Sch.; f/ before vdvO' ins. St.; to. 
re iroWa irdve'' Aid. 

' ehav^tts conj. H ; av^tis UMVAld. 
^ OVK I conj. ; ovd' MSS. 



except from root-stock and cleft wood ; apple .and 
|>ear grow also from branches, but rarely. However 
it appears that most, if not practically all,^ trees may 
grow from branches, if these are smooth yomig and 
vigorous. 2 But the other methods, one may say, are 
more natural, and we must reckon what may 
occasionally occur as a mere possibility. 

In fact there are quite few plants which grow and 
are brought into being more easily from the upper 
parts, as the viae is grown from branches ; for this, 
though it cannot ^ be gro^vn from the * head,' * yet 
can be grown from the branch, as can all similar 
trees and under-shrubs, for instance, as it appears, 
nie gilliflower bergamot-mint tufted thyme cala- 
mint. So the commonest ways of growth with all 
plants are from a piece torn off or from seed ; for all 
plants that have seeds grow also from seed. And 
they say that the bay too grows ^ from a piece 
torn off, if one takes off the young shoots and plants 
them ; but it is necessary that the piece torn off 
should have part of the root or stock ^ attached to it. 
However the pomegranate and ' spring apple ' ^ will 
grow even without this, and a slip of almond ^ grows 
if it is planted. The olive grows, one may say, in 
more ways than any other plant ; it grows from a 
])iece of the trunk or of the stock,^ from the root, 
from a twig, and from a stake, as has been said.^** Of 
other plants the myrtle also can be propagated in 
several ways ; for this too grows from pieces of wood 

* -r papas, cf. Col. 3. 10. 1, capxU vitis vocat wpiipav. Sch. 
•estores the word, C.P. 3. 1-4. 7- 

» <•/. C.P. 1. 3. 2. « i.e. a ' heel' (Lat. jaema). 

7 «•/. C.P. 2. 11. 6 ; Athen. 3. 23. « cf. Geop. 10. 3. 9. 

' Kol arh Toil ^v\ou om. Julius Pontedeva on Varro 1. 39. 3 : 
i gloss on airb tov wpt/wov Karcuc. ^' 2. 1, 2. 



<f)V€rai. Bel 8e koI tovtov kuI t% iXda'i ra ^v\a 
Siaipeiv fir) eXdrrw airida/xiaLoyv koX tov ^Xoibv 
fiTf irepiaipeiv. 

Ta fxev ovv hevhpa ^aardvei koX yiverat Kara 
TOv<i elprjfievov^ Tp67rou<;' at yap i/xcfiVTeiai, Kal 
ol evo^6aXp.L(T[xol KaOdirep /it^et? tlv6<; elcnv 
rj KUT^ aXkov rpoirov yeviaei'i, irepl wv varepov 


II. Tmp Sk (ppvyavcoScov Kal ttolcoScov ra /lev 
TrXetara diro aireppaTO'i rj pi^f]^ to. Se kcu 
d/ji(f)OT€pco<;' evia he Kal diro rSiv l3\aaT0iv, loairep 
€ipi]Tac. poSoivla Se Kal Kpivwvla. KaraKoirevTCOv 
T(ov Kavkoiv, wcnrep Kal rj dypcocrri'i. (f)V€rai 8e 
7} KpLvwvia Kal rj poScovta Kal 6\ov tov KavXov 
reOevTo^. ISioyTdrrj Se r/ aTTO SaKpvov Kal yap 
ovro) BoKel to Kpivov (f)vea$ai, orav ^rjpavdfj to 
drroppvev. (f)acrl 8e Kal iirl rod ImroaeXivov' 
Kal yap rovro d(jiir]ai hdKpvov. (pverat Se ra 
Kal KdXapbO'i, idv rc<i Siarifivcov Ta? i]\aKdra<i 
7r\ayLa<; riOfj Kal KaraKpvylrrj Koirpw Kal yfj. 
lBL(o<i Se drro pl^nri [tw] (pveaOai Kal ra K€(j)a- 

TocrafTap^ft)9 Be ova-r](; ri]<i Bvvdp,eo3<; ra fxev 
iroWa rcov BevBpcov, wcrirep eX€-)(^dr) irporepov, ev 
irXeioaL rpoTroa <f)verai' evia Be drco (T'nepp,aro<i 

' (fKpvTfTai conj. R. Const.; ifji.<pv\fai (with erasures) U; 
eiJi.(t>v\ilai V; i/j.ipvKe'iaL Aid. 

2 2. 1. 3; cf. G.P. 1. 4. 4 and 6. 

3 i.e. bulbil, cf. 6. 6. 8 ; 9. 1. 4 ; G.P. 1. 4. 6 ; Plin 21. 24. 
* e'Trlconj. W. ; iirb PgAld. 

'^ Se T«s Kol Aid,; tis om. W. after Sch. 



and also from pieces of the stock. It is necessary 
however with this, as with the olive, to cut up the 
wood into pieces not less than a span long and not to 
strip off the bark. 

Trees then grow and come into being in the above- 
mentioned ways ; for as to methods of grafting ^ and 
inoculation, these are, as it were, combinations of 
different kinds of trees ; or at all events these are 
methods of growth of a quite different class and 
must be treated of at a later stage. 

II. Of under-shrubs and herbaceous plants the 
greater part grow from seed or a root, and some in 
both ways ; some of them also grow from cuttings, 
as has been said,"^ while roses and lilies grow from 
pieces of the stems, as also does dog's-tooth grass. 
Lilies and roses also grow when the whole stem is 
set. Most peculiar is the method of growth from an 
exudation ^ ; for it appears that the lily grows in 
this way too, when the exudation that has been 
produced has dried up. They say the same of* 
alexanders, for this too produces an exudation. 
There is a certain ^ reed also which grows if one cuts 
it in lengths from joint to joint and sets them ^ 
sideways, burying it in dung and soil. Again they 
say that plants whicli have a bulbous root are 
peculiar in their way of growing ' from the root. 

The capacity for growth being shewn in so many 
ways, most trees, as was said before,^ originate in 
several ways; but some come^ only from seed, as silver- 

6 cf. 1. 4. 4 ; Plin. 17. 145 ; Col. 4. 32. 2 ; T<ep conj. Sch.; 
% Aid.; ? 0p. 

'' i.e. bv" offset bulbs. Text probably defective; c;'. C.P. 
1. 4. 1. r4i\J; rbUMV. « 2. 1. 1. 

® (pverat I conj.; (p-qaiy itTTiv or (pauiv iariv MSS.; is <paaiv 
icrriv Aid. ; TrapayivfTat conj. W. 



<f>v€Tai fjuovov, olov iXdrr) irevKr] irirv^ o\ft)? irav 
TO Kwvo<^6pov' en 8e koI <^olvi^, irXrjv el apa iv 
^a^vXoiVL Kol airo rcov pd^hiov [eo?] ^acrl rive<i 
[xokeveiv. KVirdpiTTO^ 8e irapd jxev TOi<i dX\oi<i 
aTTO a7r€pfiaT0<;, iv K/ot^tj; Be kol diro rod areXi- 
Xov<i, olov eVt T^9 6peia<i iv Tdppa' irapd tovtoi<; 
<ydp iariv rj Kovpi^ofievrj Kvirdprna' avTij Be diro 
rrj<; T0fjL7]<i ^aardvei ndvra rpoTrov TepLvofxevq 
Kol diro <yr]<; kol aTTo tov /xeaov kol diro rov dvco- 
repw ^Xaardvet Be ivia'xpv kol diro rcov pi^oov 
(Tiravia)^ Be. 

3 Tlepl Be Bpvo<; dfKJua^rjTovaiv ol jjuev yap diro 
a'irepixar6<i (^aai p,6vov, ol Be koI diro pL^r]<i 
<y\i(T')(^pQ)<;- ol Be KoX dii avrov tov crre'kexov'i 
KOTrevTo<i. diro TrapaaTrdBof Be kcu pi^rj<i ovBev 
(pveTUL TOiv /JUT) napa^aaravovTcov. 

4 'AirdvTcov Be oacov TT\eiov<; al jeveaeif;, rj diro 
TTapaa-irdBo^ kol en pdXXov rj uTrb 7rapa(f)vdBo^ 
Ta%tcrT7/ KOL evav^T]<;, idv diro pi^rj<; 77 iTapa<^vd<i 
27. KOI rd fiev 0VTQ)<i rj oXo)<i dirb (pVTevTrjpicov 
"TrecpvTev/jLeva iravra BoKel tou? KapTTom i^o/xoiovv. 
oaa S' aTTO rov Kapirov rcov Bvva/xevwv /cat ovrw^ 
^aardveiv, diravO' &)<? elrrelv %et/3ft), rd Be koI 
o\(i)<i i^lararat rov yevov^, olov a/iTreXo? p^rfkea 
crvKTJ potd diTWi' e/c re yap t^9 Key')(pap,iBo<i ovBev 
yiverai yevo<; 0X0)9 rjpepov, dXfC rj eptve6<i rj 
dypia (JVKrj, Bia^epovaa 7roWdKi<i Kal rfj ^(^poia' 
Kal yap ix ixe\aivr]<i XevKrj Kal e/c \€vk7]<; jxeXaiva 

^ fioXcuetv conj. Sch. ; fiouXvetv MSS.; fxocrxevftv conj. R. 
Const, (c/. C.P. 1. 2 1). But cf. Hesych. s.v. fxo\eiftv. 
2 Plin. 16. 141. 2 eVJ conj. W.; rh UMVAld. 


fir fir Aleppo pine, and in general all those that bear 
cones : also the date-palm, except that in Babylon it 
may be that, as some say, they take cuttings ^ from 
it. The cypress in most regions grows from seed, 
but in Crete ^ from the trunk also, for instance in ^ 
the hill country about Tarra ; for there grows the 
cypress which they clip, and when cut it shoots in 
every p>ossible way, from the part which has been cut, 
from the groxmd, from the middle, and from the 
upper parts ; and occasionally, but rarely, it shoots 
from the roots also. 

About the oak accounts differ ; some say it only 
grows from seed, some from the root also, but not 
vigorously, others again that it grows from the trunk 
itself, when this is cut. But no tree grows from a 
piece torn off or from a root except those which 
make side-growths. 

However in all the trees which have several 
methods of originating the quickest method and that 
which promotes the most vigorous growth is from a 
])iece torn off, or still better from a sucker, if this is 
taken from the root. And, while all the trees which 
are propagated thus or by some kind of slip * seem to 
be alike in their fruits to the original tree, those raised 
from the fruit, where this method of growing is also 
jK)ssible, are nearly all inferior, while some quite lose 
ihe character of their kind, as vine apple fig pome- 
granate pear. As for the fig,^ no cultivated kind is 
raised from its seed, but either the ordinary wild fig 
or some wild kind is the result, and this often 
differs in colour from the parent ; a black fig gives a 

^ (pvrevTTipiov : a general term including vapa^vas and 

* c/. C.P.I. 9. 



fylverai' e/c re r'P]<i afnreXov Trj<t yevvata'i ayevvrj^' 
Kol 7roX,Xa«t9 erepov yevo';- ore 8e oXw? ovSev 
rjjiepov aXX dypiov eviore kol tolovtov ware fir) 
€K7r€rT€iv TOP KupTTov at S' ware fxr^he dSpvveiv 
aXXa fJ'€'X^pi rov avdrjaai fxovov acjiiKvetaOai. 

^vovrac 8e /cal e'/c rcou rrji^ e\da<i Trvpijvcov 
dypie\aio<;, Kal i/c rcav ri}<i p6a<i kokkwv raxv 
jXvKecov dyevvel'i, koX e/c rcov dirvprjvwv aKkr^pal, 
TToWaKi'i he KoX o^elai. rov avrov he rporrov 
Kol eK rcov diricov Kal e/c ra)v p,r]\eQ)v eK piev <ydp 
rMV dTTLOiv pbO')(drjpa rj d'^pd'i, eK he rcov pirjXecov 
•X^eipcov re ra> yevei Kal eK y\vKela<i o^eia, Kal eK 
crrpovdiov K.vh(ovio<i. ■)(eip(iiv he Kal 97 dpivyhaXr) 
Kal ra> %fA,« Kal rw aKXrjpd eK puiXaKrj'i' hi 
Kal av^rjdetcrav e<y Kevr pi^eiv KeXevovcnv, el he prj 
ro pioiyyevpa pueracjivreveiv 7roXXdKi<i. 

^elpcov he Kal rj hpv<i- diro yovv rr}<f ev Tlvppa 
TToXXol ^vrevcravre<; ovk ehvvavB' opoiav Troieiv. 
hd(f)vrjv he Kal p,vppivr]v hiacpepeiv irore (paaiv, co? 
iirl rb ttoXv S' e^iaraaOai, Kal ouhe ro ypcopia 
hiaaco^eiv, aX-V e^ epvOpov Kaprrov yLveaOai 
fieXaivav, Mcnrep Kal rrjv ev ^Avrdvhpoy 7roXXdKi<; 
he Kal rrjv KVirdpirrov eK OrfXeia^ dppeva. 
p,dXiara he rovrcov 6 (f)Oivi,^ hoKel hiapuevetv 
wairep elrrelv reXeioo^; rwv diro <nrepparo<i, Kal 
TrevKr] r) Koivocpopo^ Kal vrtTU? rj (f>d€ipo7roi6<i. 
ravra puev ovv ev rot<i •^p.epcofievoi'i. ev he roi<i 

(pvovrai conj. W. ; (pvrevovTai Ald.H. ; <p{ierat Vo.cod.Cas. 

■yKvKioiv conj. St. ; jKavKiuv UMVAld. 

cf. Athen. 3. 20 and 23. * cf. C.P. 1. 9. 1. 

In Lesbos ; cf. 3. 9. 5. « cf. C.P. 1. 9. 2. 


white, and conversely. Again the seed of an excel- 
lent vine produces a degenerate result, which is 
often of quite a diiferent kind ; and at times this is 
not a cultivated kind at all, but a wild one of such a 
character that it does not ripen its fruit ; with others 
again the result is that the seedlings do not even 
mature fruit, but only get as far as flowering. 

Again the stones of the olive give ^ a wild olive, 
and the seeds of a sweet pomegranate " give a 
degenerate kind, while the stoneless kind gives a 
hard sort and often an acid fruit. So also is it with 
seedlings of pears and apples ; pears give a poor sort 
of wild pears, apples produce an inferior kind which is 
acid instead of sweet ; quince produces wild quince.^ 
Almond again raised from seed is inferior in taste and 
in being hard instead of soft ; and this is why men * 
bid us graft on to the almond, even when it is fully 
grown, or, failing that, frequently plant the offsets. 

The oak also deteriorates from seed ; at least 
many persons having raised trees from acorns of the 
oak at Pyrrha* could not produce one like the 
parent tree. On the other hand they say that bay 
and myrtle sometimes improve by seeding, though 
usually they degenerate and do not even keep their 
colour, but red fruit gives black — as happened with 
the tree in Antandros ; and frequently seed of a 
' female ' cypress produces a * male ' tree. The date- 
palm seems to be about the most constant of these 
trees, when raised from seed, and also the ' cone- 
bearing pine ' ^ (stone-pine) and the ' lice-bearing 
pine.' ^ So much for degeneration in cultivated trees; 
among wild kinds it is plain that more in proportion 

' Plin. 16. 49. The 'lice' are the seeds which were eaten. 
cj. Hdt. 4. 109, (pdfiporpayfovat ; Theocr. 5. 49. 

vol.. I. I 


dypCoi<i S^Xov on irXeiw Kara \o<^6V to? taXVpO' 
fepoi^i' eTTel Odrepov y€ koI droirov, et 8r) %etyo&) 
kal iv €Keivoi<i koI o\&)9 ev tol<; atrh (Tirepfiaro'i 
fiovov el fir) Tt rfi Oepairela Svvavrai pera- 

Ata(j>epovaL Se koI tottol roTTwv koX dr)p depo<i' 
iviaxov yap eKtpepetv rj "xoipa Boxet rd op,oia, 
Kaddirep Kal iv ^iXlttttoii;' avdnraXiv oXiya Kal 
oXiyaxov Xap^dvetv pera^oXijv, ware e'/c a-irip- 
p,aro<i dypiov iroielv rjpepov rj e'/c %et/J0i'09 a7rX.<w9 
fiiXriov TovTo yap iirl Tr}<; p6a<i povov aKi^Koap-ev 
iv Alyvirro) Kal iv KiXiklo, avp^aiveiv iv 
KlyviTTw p,€v yap rrjv o^elav Kal (Tirapelaav Kal 
(f)VT€v0eiaav yXvKetav yivecrOai tto)? rj olvcoSrf 
trepl he 'ZoXov^ t^9 K.i\iKi,a<: jrepl iroTaphv rov 
Uivapov, ov rj pbd^n 'Jrpo^ Aapeiov iyevero, irdaat, 
ylvovrai aTrvprjvoi. 

EvXoyov Se Kal €c Tf? rov irap ■^p,cov <j)OiviKa 
(jiVTCvoL iv ^a^vXcovi, Kapiripov re yiveadai Kal 
i^opoiovaOai to?9 e'/cet. rov avrov Se rporrov Kal 
et ri<i eripa TrpoadXXrjXov e%et Kapirov roirw' 
Kpeurrcov yap ovra rrj<i ipyaaia<i Kal ri]<; Oepa- 
ireia^. cqpelov 5' ort peracpepopsva ruKeiOev 
aKapira rd he Kal oXa)<i d^Xacrrrj yiver ai. 

M.era^dXXei he Kal rfj rpocjifj Kal hid rrjv 

^ i.e. that they should improve from seed. 

^ Whereas wild trees are produced only from seed. 

^ i.e. improve a degenerate seedling. 

* hnkws : ? om. Sch. « cf. C.P.I. 9. 2. 



degenerate from seed, since the parent trees are 
stronger. For tlie contrary ^ would be very strange, 
seeing that degenerate forms are found even in 
cultivated trees,^ and among these only in those 
which are raised from seed. (As a general rule these 
are degenerate, though men may in some cases effect 
a change ^ by cultivation). 

Effects of sit nation, climate, tendance. 

Again differences in situation and climate affect the 
result. In some places, as at Philippi, the soil seems 
to produce plants which resemble their parent ; on 
the other hand a few kinds in some few places seem 
to undergo a change, so that wild seed gives a 
cultivated form, or a poor form one actually better.* 
We have heard that this occurs, but only with the 
pomegranate, in Egypt ^ and Cilicia ; in Egypt a tree 
of the acid kind both from seeds and from cuttings 
produces one whose fruit has a sort of sweet taste,^ 
while about Soli in Cilicia near the river Pinaros 
(where the battle with Darius was fought) all those 
l)omegranates raised from seed are without stones. 

If anyone were to plant our palm at Babylon, it is 
reasonable to expect that it would become fruitful 
and like the palms of that country. And so would it 
be with any other country which has fruits that are 
congenial to that particular locality ; for the locality ^ 
is more important than cultivation and tendance. 
A proof of this is the fact that things transplanted 
thence become unfruitful, and in some cases refuse 
to grow altogether. 

There are also modifications due to feeding ^ and 

" Or ' wine-like.' Cited by ApoUon, Hist. Mir. 43. 

"^ oStoi conj. W. ; ainhi Aid. 

* Tp Tpo<p^ conj. W. ; t^s Tpo<^7js UMVAld. 

I 2 


aWrjv eTTifj^eXeiav, ol<i koX to a'^piov €^r]fJ,€povTai 
Kol avTcov Se rcov rj/nipcov evia aTraypiovTac, olov 
poa Kcu afivyhakrj. tjBt} Si Tive<; koL ck KpiOoiv 
dva(f)VvaL <^aai Trvpov'i koX e'/c irvpSiv Kpi6a<i koX 

10 eVt Tov avTov 7rvd/jbevo<i afi(f)oi. ravra jxev ovv 
009 fivdcoSecrrepa Sei he-xeaOai. fiera^dWec S' 
ovv rd /jLera^dWovra tov Tpoirov tovtov avTO- 
/xaTft)?' e^aWayfj Se ^(oopa^, waTrep iv AlyuTTTO) 
Kot J^iXiKia irepl TOiV pocov ecTrofjiev, ov8e 8td 
fjilav Oepaireiav. 

'ncrauTcwf he koX ottov tu fcdpiri/Ma aKapira 
<yiv€Tai, Kaddirep to Tripcriov to i^ AlyvTTTov koX 
6 (potvi^ iv TTJ 'EiWdSc KoX el Srj tc<; Ko/j,lcreie ttjv 
iv K.p'^Tr) Xeyofievrjv atyeipov. evioi Be ^aac Kal 
Tr]V orjv idv et? dXeeivov eXOrj a<p68pa tottov 
d/capTTOV ytvecrdai,' <f)vcrei. yap ylrv^pov. evXoyov 
8e djx^oTepa av ix^aiveiv kutu ra? ivavrici)crei<i, 
etirep fxtjS' 6\co<i evia (fiveadat deXet /xeTa/9a\- 
\ovTa Tov^ TOTTov;. Kol KaTu [xev Ta9 x^P^^ 
al ToiavTai p^eTa^oXaL 

11 Kara Be ttjv (pvTelav Ta diro tmv aTTepp,dT60v 
<f)VTev6p,€va, /caOdirep iXe'xP'r]' iravTOiat yap al 
i^aWayal Kal tovtcov. ttj OepaTrela Be pbeTa- 
^dXkei poa Kal dfivyBaXr)' poa p,ev Koirpov vetav 
Xa^ovaa Kal vBaT0<i irXrjOo^ pVTOV' dfMvySaXrj Be 
OTav nrdTToXov Ti? ivOfj, Kal to BdKpvov d(J3ai.pfj 
TO iiTLppeov irXeiw xpovov Kal ttjv dXXrjv diroBiBS) 

^ (Via aTraypiovrai oTov conj. W. ; (vta koI airopj? re ^6a UV; 
4. Koi awoprj TO. p6a M ; i. kol avoppel ra l>6a Aid. 
2 i.e. cultivation has nothing to do with it. 
' 2. 2. 7. * cf. 3. 3. 4. » Plin. 17. 242. 

^ i. e. improve, cf. 2. 2. 6 ad fin. 




attention of other kinds, which cause the wild to 
become cultivated, or again cause some cultivated 
kinds to go wild,i such as pomegranate and almond. 
Some say that wheat has been known to be produced 
from barley, and barley from wheat, or again both 
growing on the same stool ; but these accounts should 
be taken as fabulous. Anyhow those things which do 
change in this manner do so spontaneously,- and the 
alteration is due to a change of position (as we said ^ 
happens with pomegranates in Eg\-pt and Cilicia), 
and not to any particular method of cultivation. 

So too is it when fruit-bearing trees become un- 
fruitful, for instance the persion when moved from 
Egypt, the date-palm when planted in Hellas, or the 
tree which is called 'poplar' in Crete,'* if anyone 
should transplant it. ^ Some again say that the 
sorb becomes unfruitful if it comes into a very warm 
position, since it is by nature cold-loving. It is 
reasonable to suppose that both results follow because 
the natural circumstances are reversed, seeing that 
some things entirely refuse to grow when their place 
is changed. Such are the modifications due to 


As to those due to method of culture, the changes 
which occur in things grown from seed are as was 
said ; (for with things so grown also the changes are 
of all kinds). Under cultivation the pomegranate 
and the almond change character,*^ the pomegranate 
if it receives pig-manure ^ and a great deal of river 
water, the almond if one inserts a peg and ^ removes for 
some time the gum which exudes and gives the other 

^ cf. C.P. 2. 14. 2 ; 3. 9. 3 ; Plin. 17. 259 ; Col. 5. 10. 15 
and 16. 

8 cf. 2. 7. 6 ; C.P. 1. 17. 10 ; 2. 14. 1 ; Plin. 17. 2-52. 



12 Oepaireiav. a>(7avT(o<i Be BrjXov on koI oaa 
i^TjfiepovTai tmv w^ploiv rj aira'ypLOVTai, twv 
rjfjLepcov ra fiev yap Oepaireia ra S' adepairevaia 
fiera^aXker irXrjv et rt? \iyot fjbrjSe psra^oXrjv 
dXX iTrl8o(Tiv et9 to ^iXriov elvai koI '^eipov ov 
yap olov re rov kotivov iroieiv ekdav ov8e rrjv 
a-^ciBa TToielv dinov ovSe rbv ipiveov avKi]v. o 
yap enl rov Korivov (paal crv/M^alveiv, axxr eav 
TrepiKOTreU rrjv daXiav oXco<i /j,eTa(j)VT€vOfj (pepeiv 
(f)avXia<;, fieTaKivr]aL<f ti<; yiverai ov /jbeyuXrj. 
ravra fiev ovv 67roTepco<; Bet Xa^elv ovOev av 

III. (^aal 8' ovv avTO/JLarijv rtva yiveadai tmv 
rotovrcov fiera^oXtjv , ore fiev tcov Kapiroiv ore Be 
Kal oX&)9 avTMV twv BevBpcov, a kuI a-rjfjLela vofii- 
^ovcTLV at /jbdvTei<i' olov poav o^eiav yXvKelav 
e^eveyKelv Kal yXvKeiav o^etav Kal irdXtv aTrXw? 
avrd TO, BevBpa fieTa^dXXecv, uxxre i^ 6^eLa<; 
yXvKelav yiveadat Kal e'/c yXvKeia<i o^elav 'x^eipov 
Be TO ei9 yXvKelav pbera^dXXetv. Kal e^ epiveov 
(TVKrjv Kal €K avKrj^ epiveov ')(elpov Be to e'/c 
crvKr)<i. Kal e^ eXda<; kotivov Kal eK kotivov 
eXdav rjKicrTa Be tovto. irdXiv Be avKrjv eK 

^ TrepiKoirels conj. W. ; irepiaKoirreis \] ; irepj/cc^TrTTjs Aid. 

* (pavKlas conj. Salm. ; (paiXovi U ; 6a\os Aid. cf. Plin. 
16. 244. These olives produced little oil, but were valued 
for perfumery : see C.P. 6. 8. 3 and 5 ; de odor., 15. 

3 oh add. Salm.; om. MSS. (?) Ald.H. 


ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS, II. n. ii-iii. i 

attention required. In like manner plainly some wild 
things become cultivated and some cultivated things 
become wild : for the one kind of change is due to 
cultivation, the other to neglect : — however it might 
be said that this is not a change but a natural 
development towards a better or an inferior form ; 
(for that it is not possible to make a wild olive pear 
or fig into a cultivated olive pear or fig). As to that 
indeed which is said to occur in the case of the wild 
olive, that if the tree is transplanted with its top- 
growth entirely cut off,^ it produces ' coarse olives,' ^ 
this is no ^ very great change. However it can make 
no difference which way * one takes this. 

Of gpcntaneous changes in the character of trees, and of certain 

III. ^Apart from these changes it is said that in such 
plants there is a spontaneous kind of change, some- 
times of the fruit, sometimes of the tree itself as a 
whole, and soothsayers call such changes portents. For 
instance, an acid pomegranate, it is said, may produce 
sweet fruit, and conversely ; and again, in general, 
the tree itself sometimes undergoes a change, so that 
it becomes sweet® instead of acid, or the reverse 
happens. And the change to sweet is considered a 
worse portent. Again a wild fig may turn into a 
cultivated one, or the contrary change take place ; 
and the latter is a worse portent. So again a culti- 
vated olive may turn into a \sild one, or conversely, 
but the latter change is rare. So again a white fig 

* i.e. whether nature or man is said to cause the admitted 
change. * Plin. 17. 242. 

* i.e. all the fruit are now acid instead of sweet, or the 
reverse. Sch. brackets 4^ o^elas . . . o^eicw. 



XevKrj^ fiiXaivav koX e/c /jbe\aiV7)<i XevKrjv. 6fiol(o<i 
Be Tovro Kol eVt a/x7reXov. 

Kal ravTa fiev &)<? repara koI napa <^vaiv vtto- 
Xapb^dvovaiv oaa he avvrjOrj tmv toiovtcov ov8e 
6avp.d^ovaiv o\a><;' olov to tyjv KaTTvetov dp,'rre\ov 
Ka\ovp,evrjv koI gk p,e\avo<i j36Tpvo<; XevKov koX 
€K XevKOv fieXava (pepetv ovSe yap ol [jbdvTei<i to, 
Totavra KpivovaiV' eVel ovhe eKelva, irap oh 
7re(f)VK€V r) %ft)pa fxera^aXXeiv, oicxirep eXex^V 
irepl TJ79 poa'i iv AlyvTrro)- dXXa to ivTavOa 
davfiaarov, 8ia to fxcav p,6vov rj 8vo, Kal Tavra^ 
iv TO) TravTt 'x^povw (nravLWi. ov p,r]V aXX' elirep 
avix^aivei, [xaXXov iv rot? Kap7roi<i yiveadai. ttjv 
irapaXXayrjv rj iv oXoi<; T0i<i SevBpoi'i. 

EttcI Kal ToiavTrj rt? aTa^ia ytveTai irepl Tov<i 
Kapirov^' olov rjhr) iroTe crvKrj to, crvKa €(f)vaev iK 
Tov OTTcaOev tmv dpioov Kal poa Be Kal dfi7reXo<i 
iK Tcov (TTeXexfov, Kal dfX7reXo<i dvev (fjvXXcov Kap- 
TTov ijvejKev. iXda Be to, /nev (f)vXXa drre^aXe tov 
Be Kapirov i^rjvejKev' Kal ®€TTaXM too Ueicri- 
(TTpaTov yeveadai XeycTai- av/x^atvec Be Kal Bed 
XeLp.oiva<i TovTo Kal Bi dXXa<i alTta<; evia tmv 
BoKovvTcov elvat irapd Xojov ovk ovtcov Be- olov 
iXda TTOT diroKavdelcra TeXeco'i dve^XdaTrjaev 
oXr}, Kal avTT) Kal rj OaXia. iv Be Trj Bot&jTta 
/^--'^^prj-ajv TCOV ipvwv vtt' aTTeXe^wv irdXiv 

1 6irl conj. Sch.; s'l Ald.H. 

2 c/. G.P. 5. 3. 1 and 2 ; Arist. de gen. an. 4. 4 ; Hesych, 
s.v. Kairvias; Schol. ad Ar. Vesp. 151. s 2. 2. 7. 

* e'lKhs has perhaps dropped oat. Sch. 

s epiu>v conj. R. Const., cf. C.P. 5. 1. 7 and 8 ; 5. 2. 2 ; 
ipive&v PgAld. cf. also Athen. 3. 11. 


mav change into a black one. and conversely ; and 
similar changes occur in^ the vine. 

Now these changes they interpret as miraculous 
and contrary to nature ; but they do not even feel 
any surprise at the ordinary changes, for instance, 
when the ' smoky ' vine,^ as it is called, produces 
alike white grapes instead of black or black grapes 
instead of white. Of such changes the soothsayers 
t-ake no account, any more than they do of those 
instances in which the soil produces a natural change, 
as was said ^ of the pomegranate in Egypt. But it is 
surprising when such a change occurs in our own 
country, because there are only one or two instances 
and these separated by wide intervals of time. How- 
ever, if such changes occur, it is natural ^ that the 
variation should be rather in the trait than in the tree 
as a whole. In fact the following irregularity also 
occurs in fruits ; a fig-tree has been known to produce 
i^.s figs from behind the leaves,^ pomegranate and 
vines from the stem, while the vine has been known 
to bear fruit ^vithout leaves. The olive again has 
been known to lose its leaves and yet produce its 
fruit ; this is said to have happened to Thettalos, 
son of Pisistratus. This may be due to inclement 
weather ; and some changes, which seem to be 
abnormal, but are not really so, are due to other 
accidental causes ; ^ for instance, there was an olive 
that, after being completely burnt down, sprang up 
again entire, the tree and all its branches. And in 
Boeotia an olive whose young shoots " had been eaten 
off by locusts grew again : in this case however ^ the 

« c/. Hdt. 8. 55 ; Plin. 17. 241. 
'' 4pvwv cony Sch. ; ^p-ycov PoAld. ; KXiicavm\J. 
® i.e. the portent was not so great as in the other case 
quoted, as the tree itself bad not been destroyed. 


ave^\d<nrj(Te' ra S' olov atreiTeaev. rjKiara 8' 
('0-0)9 ra Toiavra arorra Bia to ^av€pa<i ^x^iv ra^ 
alrlat;, aWa jxaWov to /xt] e'/c tmv oIk€i,cov tottcov 
(pepeiv TOv<; KapTrov<i rj firj olKeiov;' koI [xaXiaTa 8' 
el T^? o\ri<i (pv(Tea)<; yiveTai, /xsTa^oX'^, Kaddirep 
i^ixOrj. Trepl fiev ovv to, SivBpa ToiavTai 

Tive<i elcn ixeTa^dXai. 

IV. Tmv he dWwv to re cnavpL^piov eh jxiv- 
6av SoKel fMera^dWeiv, iav firj KaTe^qTaL Ty 
depaTTeia, hi o koX fieracjiVTevovcn iroWaKi'i, koX 
6 'irvpo<i eh alpav. ravTU fiev ovv ev Toi<i hephpoLf; 
avTOfidTco<;, etirep yiveTai. rd 8' iv rot? eVeTetoi? 
hid irapaaKevr)<i' olov rj t/^t; kol r) ^eid yu-era- 
^dWovcriv eh irvpov idv iTTKrOeicai (rireipwvTai, 
KoX tout' ovk evOv<i dWd tm t/jito) erei. cr^eSoi' 
he irapaTrX^criov tovto ye Ta rd aireppuTa Kara 
Ta? xcop^'^ fieTa/SdWeiv p,eTa^dWei yap kuI 
TavTa Kad^ eKdaTrjv %(W/5ai' Kal crx^hov iv Tot ta(p 
Xpovfp Kal T) Ti(f>r]. fieTajSdWovai he /cat oi 
dypioL TTUpol Kal at KpiOal OepaTrevofievai Kal 
i^rjfiepovfMevai Kard tov laov XPovov. 

Kal TavTa fiev eoiKe %o>pa9 Te jxeTa^oXy Kal 
Oepaireia ylveaOat- Kal evia d/ji,(f)OTepoi<;, rd he Tjj 
Oepaireia p^ovov olov 'rrp6<; to rd ocTrpia pr) yive- 
aOai dTepdp,ova ^pe^avTa KeXevovaiv iv virpw 

^ o'lKelovs- /caiIconj.;o//c««oCTojUMV;oi/c«f&)sAld.H.;^oiAc<{Tas 
conj. W. 2 J. ins. gch. ^ 2. 3. 1. 

* cf. 6. 7. 2 ; Plin. 19. 176. 

* i.e. to prevent the change which cultivated soil induces. 

ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS, II. iii. 3-iv. 2 

shoots had, so to speak, only been shed. But after 
all such phenomena are perhaps far from strange, 
since the cause in each case is obvious ; rather is it 
strange that trees should bear fruit not at the places 
where it naturally forms, or else fruit which does not 
belong to the character^ of the tree. And most 
surprising of all is it when,^ as has been said,^ 
there is a change in the entire character of the 
tree. Such are the changes which occur in trees. 

Of spontantous and other changes in other plants. 

IV. ■* Of other plants it appears that bergamot-mint 
turns into cultivated mint, unless it is fixed by special 
attention ; and this is why men frequently transplant ^ 
it ; '^ so too wheat turns into darnel. Now in trees 
such changes, if they occur, are spontaneous, but in 
annual plants they are deliberately brought about : 
for instance, one-seeded wheat and rice-wheat change^ 
into wheat, if bruised before they are sown ; and 
this does not happen at once, but in the third year. 
This change resembles that produced in the seeds by 
difference of soil ^ ; for these grains vary according 
to the soil, and the change takes about the same 
time as that which occurs in one-seeded wheat. 
Again wild wheats and barleys also with tendance 
and cultivation change in a like period. 

These changes appear to be due to change of soil 
and cultivation, and in some cases the change is due 
to both, in others to cultivation alone ; for instance, 
in order that pulses may not become uncookable,^ 

" But see reff. under atpa in Index. 
' cf.C.P. 5. 6. 12; Plin. 18.93. 
* X^pau con j. St. ; Sipav Ald.H. 

8 orepa/itoj'a conj. W.; arepafwa UAld. c/. 8. 8. 6 and 7: 
C.P. 4. 7. 2 ; 4. 12. 1 and 8 ; Geop. 2. 35. 2 ; 2. 41. 



vvKTa rfj va-repala aTretpeip iv ^rjpa,' (fiaKov'i Mare 
dSpov<; <yiveadai cfivrevovaiv iv ^oXltco' tov^ 
epel3iv6ov<i he, oxne fiejdXovi, avTol<; rol<i Kekv- 
(f)€cn ^pe^avra aTreipevv. fierajSaXXovai 8e koI 
Kara Ta.9 &pa<i rov airopov 77/909 fcovcjiOTrjTa kol 
aXvTTiav olov idv ri<; roii'; opofSov^ iapivov'i 
crireipr] rpiaaXviroi 'ylvovrai, kol ov^ &>? ot fiero- 
TTcopivol j3apei<;. 

Tlverat 8e kol ev toi<; \a')(^dvoi<i ixera^oXr] 
8ia rrjv OepaTTeiav olov ro aeXivov, idv cnrapev 
KaraTTaTrjdf) koI KvXivSpcodfj, dvacpveadal (paaiv 
ovXov. fiera^dXXet Be kuI rrjv ')(^Mpav i^aXXdr- 
Tovra, Kaddirep koX rdXXa. koX rd /j,€V roiavra 
KOLvd Trdvrcov iartv. el 8e Kard riva Tnjpcoaiv rj 
d(j)aipecnv p,epov<i BevSpov djovov ylverai, /cadd- 
irep rd ^toa, tovto a/ceTrreov ovSev yovv (pavepov 
Kard ye rrjv Siatpeatv et? to irXeto) kol iXdrrw 
(pepeiv wdTvep KaKovp^evov, dXX' rj aTroXXvTat to 
oXov rj Siap^evov Kapiro^opel. to he 'yrjpa<; kolvt] 
Tf<? (jidopd irdcriv. 

"Atottov S' dv ho^eie fxdXXov el iv rot? ^coot? 
at TOtavTac peTa^oXal (})vaiKal kol TrXeiovi' koI 
jdp KUTa TUf; a>pa<; evia hoKel p^eTa^dXXeiv, a>a- 
irep 6 lepa^ koX eiro-^ Kal dXXa tmv 6p,oi(ov 
opvecav. kol KaTa ra? tmv tottcov dXXoi,coaei<i, 
axTirep 6 vhpo<; et? e')(^t'V ^r)paivop,eva)v TOiv Xt^d- 

^ vvKra I conj. ; vvkt\ MSS. 

2 iv fioXlrcfi conj. Milas. on Geop. 3. 27 ; efiffoKov UMV 
Aid. cf. G.P. 5. 6. 11 ; Col. 2. 10. 15; Plin. 18. 198. 

3 cf. G.P. 5. 6. 11 ; Oeop. 2. 3. 6. 

* a\virlav conj. Sch.; Si" aKvuias M ; 5i' aXv-niav Aid. 



men bid one moisten the seed in nitre for a night ^ 
and sow it in dry ground the next day. To make 
lentils vigorous they plant the seeds in dung ^ ; to 
make chick-peas large they bid one moisten the 
seed while still in the }x>ds,^ before sowing. Also 
the time of sowing makes differences which conduce 
to digestibility and harmlessness * : thus, if one sows 
vetches^ in spring, they become quite harmless and 
are not indigestible like those sown in autumn. 

Again in pot-herbs change is produced by culti- 
vation ; for instance, they say that,^ if celery seed 
is trodden and rolled in after so\%'ing, it comes up 
curly ; it also varies from change of soil, like other 
things. Such variations are common to all ; we must 
now consider whether a tree, like animals, becomes 
unproductive from mutilation or removal of a part. 
At all events it does not appear that division ' is an 
injury, as it were, which affects the amount of fruit 
j)roduced ; either the whole tree perishes, or else, 
if it survives,^ it bears fruit. Old age however is a 
cause which in all plants puts an end to life ^ 

It would seem more surprising if ^"^ the following 
changes occurred in animals naturally and frequently ; 
some animals do indeed seem to change according to 
the seasons, for instance, the hawk the hoojwe and 
other similar birds. So also changes in the nature 
of the ground produce changes in animals, for instance, 
the water-snake changes into a viper, if the marshes 

5 c/. Plin. 18. 139 ; Col. 2. 10. 34. 
« cj. C.P. 5.6.1; Geop. 12. 23. 2. 
" ye conj. Sch.; re Aid. 
* Stdfievov conj. Sch ; Sia/xevovra Aid. 
^ iSomething seems to have been lost at the end of § 3. 
^" ej ins. Sch. ; roiavrai may however mean ' the above- 
nentioned,' and refer to something which has been lost. 



Bcov. <f)avepa)TaTa Be koX Kara ra? yevea-ei'i evia, 
KoX /jbera^aXkei Bia irXeiovcov ^(ocov olov i/c 
KafjLTrrj'i ytverai '^(^pvaaXXl'i elr' e'/c ravrr}^ '^^XV' 
KoX eV dWcov S' earl tovto irKeiovoav, ovtev i<Tco<i 
aroTTOv, ovS' ofioiov to ^rjrovfievov. aX,\' ixelvo 
avfjL^aivei nrepl ra BevBpa koI oXft)9 iraaav ttjv 
vXrjv, waTrep iXe^Or] koI irporepov, oiorre avTOfid- 
T7}v fieTa^Xaardveiv p€Ta/3o\r]<i Tivo<i ryivo/ji,€vr)(; 
ix TMV ovpaviwv TOiavrT}<;. to, p,ev ovv irepi 

TO-? yevecrei<i koX peTa/3oXa<; gk rovrcov decopi-jreov. 

V. 'EttcI he Kol at ep'^aaiai koX al Oepairelai 
p^f^dXa avpu^aXXovrai, Kol en irporepov al 
ipvreiaL koI iroiovai pe<yaXa<; 8ia(f)opd<i, Xexreov 
fcal irepl tovtohv. 

Kat TTpMTOV irepl tmv cjivreicov. al fiev ovv 
wpat irporepov eLprjvTat Kaff" a? Bel. to, Be ^vto. 
Xap-^dveiv iceXevovaiv co? KuXXiara Kal i^ opotaf 
yrj'i et? 7]v p,eXXei<i (jiVTevecv, fj x^ipovo'i' tov<; Be 
<yvpov<i irpoopvTreiv a)9 irXelcTTOv 'x^povov /cat 
^advrepovi alel Kal roU eTrnroXaioppi^OTepofi. 

^ i.e. in the instance given the development of an insect 
exhibits, not one, but a series of changes from one creature 
to another. 

^ Whereas the metamorphoses mentioned above are inde- 
pendent of climatic conditions. 

* 5€ conj. W.; re Aid. 

♦ KiWiffra conj. W., cf. C.P. 3. 24. 1 ; rdx'ffra MVAld.; 
rh. X'^TO U. 



dry up. Most obvious are certain changes in regard 
to the way in which animals are produced, and such 
changes run through a series of creatures ^ ; thus a 
caterpillar changes into a chrysalis, and this in turn 
into the perfect insect; and the like occurs in a 
number of other cases. But there is hardly anything 
abnormal in this, nor is the change in plants, which 
is the subject of our enquiry, analogous to it. That 
kind of change occurs in trees and in all woodland 
plants generally, as was said before, and its effect is 
that, when a change of the required character occurs 
in the climatic conditions, a s[X)ntaneous change in 
the way of growth ensues.^ These instances must 
suffice for investigation of the ways in which plants 
are produced or modified. 

Of methods of propagation, xcith notes on cultivation. 

V. Since however methods of cultivation and ten- 
dance largely contribute, and, before these, methods 
of planting, and cause great differences, of these too 
we must speak. 

And first of methods of planting : as to the seasons, 
we have already stated at what seasons one should 
])lant. Further ^ we are told that the plants chosen 
should be the best possible,^ and should be taken 
from soil resembling that in which you are going to 
plant them, or else inferior ^ ; also the holes should 
\ye dug ^ as long as possible beforehand, and should 
always be deeper than the original holes, even for 
those whose roots do not run verj' deep. 

* i.e. the shift should be into better soil, if possible, cf. 
O.P. 3. 5. 2. 

6 yvpoi/s irpoopvTTtiv conj. R. Const.; -rvpovs ■Kpoaopv-nav 
\5MNA\A. cf.C.P.3.4.l. 



Aeyovai Be Tive<i ft)9 ovBefiia KarcoTepco BuKveirai 
TpiMV rj/jLtTTohlmv' Si o Kol iTTiTifjLcbai Tot^ iv 
fiei^ovL ^dOei (^vrevovaw ovk eoiKaai he opdoi^ 
\eyeiv eVl ttoWmv aW' iav fj ')((OfiaT0'^ e7n\d,8- 
rjrai ^aOeo^ rj kol ')(U)pa^ TOLavTrj<i rj koI tottov, 
TToXXw /xaKporepav oaOel to t^ <f)vcr€c ^aOvppi^ov. 
irevKrjv Se Tf9 ecprj fMeTa(f)VTevcov fiefiox^^^/^^vrjv 
fxei^o) rr)v pi^av e%€ii^ OKTaTrrj'xyv Ka'nrep ovx o^^*? 
i^aLpe6€Lcrr]<i dXX' aTroppayelarj^;. 

Ta Be (ftvTevT'^pca iav p-ev ivBexv^CLi viroppi^a, 
el Be /jui], Bet fiaXkov diro rcov kutco t] tmv avw 
Xapi^dveiv, ttXtjv d/xTreXov kol to, [xev ex^vra 
pi^at opda i/jb^dWeiv, to, Be jmi-j e^ovra vTro^dX- 
Xeiv rod (jivrevrrfplov oaov crTndafirjv rj puKpS) 
nrXeiov. evioi Be KeXevovcn koX rSiv viroppl^wv 
vTTO^dXXeiv, Tt,6evai, Be koX ttjv Oiaiv o/io/co? rjvirep 
elx^v iiTL roiv BevBpcov to, Trpocr/Boppa koI ra irpo'i 
€03 KOL TO, irpo'i p,e(T7]fi^piav. ocra Be eVSe^erat 

TMV (f)VT(OV KOL TTpop,0(7)(^eveiV' TU fiev eV aVTOiV 

TMV BevBpcov, olov eXda<; aTTLOv prfkea^; (TVKrj<i- to, 
S' d(f)aipovvTa<i, olov dpureXov TavTijv yap ovx 
olov re eir' avTij<i fioax^veiv. 

^Fidv Be p,r} vTToppi^a to, (f)vra p.7)B€ VTTOTrpefiva 

^ a\\' iav . . . TotovTov. eav fj fjikv aoo/xaTos M ; SO V, but ^ ; 
1) om. PAld.; x'^A"*'''''* H ; KevtifMuros for adfiaros and €vSi6Sov 
for fi Kol tSttov conj. W. x'^P"-^ refers to exposure, etc., 
r6irov (sc. toiovtov) to quality of soil : so G. 

''' Plin. 16. 129 ; Xen. Oec. 19. 3. » cf. C.P. 3. 6. 



Some say that no root goes down further than a 
foot and a half, and accordingly they blame those who 
plant deeper. However there are many instances 
in which it appears that what they say does not 
hold good : a plant which is naturally deep-rooting 
pushes much deeper if it finds either a deep mass 
of soil or a position which favours such growth or 
again the kind of ground which favoui'S it.^ In fact,^ 
a man once said that when he was transplanting a 
fir which he had uprooted with levers, he found that 
it had a root more than eight cubits long, though 
the whole of it had not been removed, but it was 
broken off. 

The slips for planting should be taken, if possible, 
with roots attached, or, failing that, from the lower ^ 
rather than from the higher parts of the tree, except 
in the case of the vine ; those that have roots should 
be set upright,^ while in the case of those which 
have none about ^ a handsbreadth or rather more ot 
the slip should be buried. Some say that part even 
of those which have roots should be buried, and that 
the jwsition ^ should be the same as that of the tree 
from which the slip was taken, facing north or east 
or south, as the case may be. With those plants 
with which it is possible, shoots from the boughs 
should also, they say, be planted, some being set on 
the trees themselves,^ as with olive pear apple and 
ng, but in other cases, as in that of the vine, they 
must be set separately, for that the ^'ine cannot be 
grafted on itself. * 

If the slips cannot be taken with root or stock 

* cf. C.P. 3. 6. 4 ; Xen. Oec. 19. 9. 

* Sffov conj. Sch.; ofov P.>AJd. 

« cf. C.P. 3. 5. 2. 7 i'.e. grafted. 



\afj,^dv€ii', KaOdirep Trj<i iXda<i, cf')(iaavrd re to 
^v\ov Kdrcodev koI XlOov ifi^aXovra (fyvreveiv 
ofioiw'i he KoX TT]^ e\da<i koX avKrjf; koX twv dX- 
Xcov. (f>VTev6Tat Se r] av/ci] koL edv ti<{ KpdBrjv 
Trax^lav d'no^vva'i a^vpa trairi, d)(pi ov dp 
CLTroXiTTr] fMiKpbv VTrep Tfj<i lyrj'i, eW avTrjf d/jb/jLOV 
^aXcbv dvwdev eTrf^cocrrj- koI lytvecrBai 8ij (^aai 
Kol KaXXioo ravra rd (pvrd, fiixp^ ov dv ■§ 

5 TiapairXTjaia kuI tcov dfiTreXayv, orav diro 
Tov TrarrdXov TrpooSoirocei yap 6 7rdTTaXo<i 
€KeiV(p ru> KXrjfiari Sid rrjv dadeveiav cjiv- 
revovacv ovrco /cat poav Kal dXXa rSiv BevSpcov. 
7} avKrj Be, edv ev aKiXXr] ^vrevOfj, duTTOv rrapa- 
ylverai Kal rjTTOv vtto (XKcoXrJKoov KareadUrai. 
oX&)9 Be ndv ev ctkIXXt) <f)vrev6p,€V0V ev^Xaare<; 
Kal ddrrov av^dverac. oaa Be eK tov (TTeXe')(ov^ 
Kal BiaKOTTTOfieva (f}VTeveTai, /carco TperrovTa Tr]v 
TOfMrjv Bel (f)VTeveiv, BiaKOTTTCiv Be fir] eXdTTCo 
aTTtOafxiaLcov, wairep eXe')(6r], Kal tov (f>Xoi6v 
Trpoaelvar ^veTai 8' eV tmv tocovtcov epvr]' ^Xa- 
aTavovToov S' del Trpoa'Xjoovvveiv, d-^^pc ou dv yevrj- 
Tai dpTLOV avTt] p,ev ovv t^s" eXda<i IBla Kal tov 
fivppivov, at 5' dXXat KoivoTepai trdcnv. 

6 " AptaTOv Be Kal pi^coaaaOai Kal <^vTeta^ fidXi- 
crra tt}? Tf^oucrJ?? rj (ruKrj. (f)VT€veiv Be p6a<i fiev 

^ T] before ttjs om. W. ^ re rh conj. W. ; r6 re MVP. 

3 Kal rris i\alas U ; iAdas MVP ; so W. 

* Plin. 17, 123. ' c/. C.P. 3. 12. 1. 

* c/. 7. 13. 4 ; C.P. 5. 6. 10 (where another bulb, ffxifos, is 
mentioned as being put to the same use) ; Athen. 3. 13 ; 
Plin. 17. 87. 



attached, as with the olive,^ they say that one must - 
split the wood at the lower end and plant with a 
stone on top ; and the fig and other trees must 
be treated in like manner with the olive.^ The fig * 
is also propagated by sharpening a stout shoot and 
driving it in with a hammer, till only a small piece of 
it is left above ground, and then piling sand above so 
as to earth it up ; and they say that the plants thus 
raised grow finer up to a certain age. 

Similar is the method used with vines, when they 
are propagated by the ' peg ' ^ method ; for the peg 
makes a passage for that sort of shoot on account of 
its weakness ; and in the same manner men plant the 
pomegranate and other trees. The fig progresses 
more quickly and is less eaten by grubs, if the cutting 
is set in a squill-bulb ^ ; in fact anything so planted is 
vigorous and grows faster. All those trees which are 
propagated by pieces cut from the stem should be 
planted with the cut part downwards,' and the 
pieces cut off should not be less than a handsbreadth in 
length, as Mas said,^ and the bark should be left on. 
From such pieces new shoots grow, and as they grow, 
one should keep on heaping up earth about them, 
till the tree becomes strong.^ This kind of propa- 
gation is peculiar to the olive and myrtle, while the 
others are more or less common to all trees. 

The fig is better than any other tree at striking 
i*oots, and will, more than any other tree, grow by 
any method of propagation. '^^ We are told that, 

' cj. Geop. 9. 11. 8. 

* 2. 5. 3, where however the method of propagation is 

' iipnov AlA.; ofnireKri conj. VV. {quoad satis corroboreiurG ; 
(lonec robur plania capiat Plin. 17. 124) ; 6.prireuv U ; Sotj 
■i»,v MV; ipri rdiv P^. " c/. C.P. 3. 7. 


Kol fivppivov^i Kal 8d(f)va<i 7rvKva<i KcXevovcri, firj 
irXeov hie(rTO)a-a<i rj ivvea TroSa^, firj\ea<i Be fiiKprp 
/la/cpoTepov, airiov^ he Kal 6'y)(ya<i ert, fxaWov, 
afivy8a\d<} Be Kal crvKca ttoXXw irXeov, o)(TavT(o<i 
Be Kal rrjv eXdav. TTOielaOai Be Kal 7rpo<i top 
TOTTov rd<i d7roard(7€i<i' ev yap Tot<; 6peivol<i eXdr- 
TOi'9 rj ev T0t9 'jreBeivoc'i. 

Meyiarov Be a)9 elirelv to ttjv irpocr^opov 
eKd(TT(p 'X^copav aTroBtBovaf rore yap evdevel 
fidXicTTa. 0)9 5' a7rXft)9 elirelv eXda fxev Kal auKfj 
Kal dyu-TreXo) rrjv ireBeivqv cf)aaiv olKeiordTrjv elvai, 
Tot9 Be aKpoBpvoi^ Ta9 vTTwpeia'i. XPV ^^ '^'^^ ^^ 
avToc<i T0t9 Ofioyevecn /xrj dyvoelv Td<i olKeia<;. ev 
TrXetcTTr] Be ft)9 ecTrelv Biacjjopd rd tmv dfjLTreXoov 
eariv oaa ydp ecm yr)<i elBrf, roaavrd Tive<i (f)acn 
Kal dp.iriXcov elvai. cfivrevo/xeva fiev ovv Kara 
^vaiv dyadd yiveadat irapd (pvcriv Be aKapira. 
ravra fxev ovv ocxxTrep Kotvd irdvrwv. 

VI. Tcoy Be (poivLKMv cBto<; r] (jivreta irapd 
raXXa Kal rj jierd ravTa Oepaireia. (pvrevovai, 
ydp TrXeiovi 6t9 ravrb rt6evT€<i Bvo KaTW Kal Bvo 
dvco6ev eTTiBovvTe^, irpavel'i Be irdvra^. rrjv ydp 
€K(f)vaiv ovK e/c tcov vtttlwv Kal kolXcov iroietrai, 
KaOdirep tiv€<; (j>a(Tiv, dXX^ eK rSiv dvco, Bi o Kal 
ev Ty eTTi^ev^ei tmv einriOep.e.vwv ov Bel irepiKa- 
Xvirreiv rd<i dp')(^d<; 06 ev r) eK(^vcn^' cftavepal 6' 

1 iKday conj. Bod. (c/. Plin. 17. 88) ; {>oihv UAkl.H. 
* iXoLTTOVt conj. Sell.; fKarrov Aid. 
^ i.e. apples pears plums, etc. 


in planting the pomegranate myrtle or bay, one 
should set two trees close together, not further 
than nine feet apart, apples a little further, j)ears and 
wild pears still further, almonds and figs further still, 
and in like manner the olive. ^ Again the distance 
apart must be regulated by the nature of the ground, 
being less - in hilly parts than in low ground. 

Most important of all, one may say. is it to assign 
to each the suitable soil ; for then is the tree most 
vigorous. Speaking generally, they say that low 
ground is most suitable for the olive fig and vine, 
and the lower slopes of hills for fruit trees.^ Nor 
should one fail to note what soil suits each variety 
even of those closely related. There is the greatest 
difference, one may say, between the different kinds of 
vine : for they say that there are as many kinds of vine 
as there are of soil. If they are planted as their 
nature requires, they turn out well, if otherwise, they 
are unfruitful. And these remarks apply almost 
equally to all trees. 

Of the propagation of the date-palm ; of palm* in general. 

VI. ■* The method of proj;»agating date-palms is 
peculiar and exceptional, as also is their subsequent 
cultivation. They plant several seeds together, 
putting two below and two above, which are fastened 
on ; but all face downwards.^ For germination starts 
not, as some say, from the ' reverse ' or hollow side,^ 
but from the part ' which is uppermost ; wherefore 
in joining on the seeds which are placed above one 
must not cover up the points from which the growth 

« Plin. 13. 32. 

'" i.e. with the grooved side downwards. 

^ i.e. the grooved side. " i.e. the round side. 



elcrl TOt<? ifjb'ireipoL'i. 8ia tovto 8' et? to avrb 
irXeLov; riOiacriv ojl atro rod €vb<; aa-dei'rji; r] 
(pvTeLa. TOVTOov Be at re pi^ai 7rp6<; aX\7]\a^ 
crv/joTrXiKovrai koX evdvq at irpwrai ^Xacnrjaei'^, 
ware ev ylvecrOat to o-reXe^o?. 

'H fjuev ovv airo tmv KapiTwv ^vreia roiavri] 
Ti9* Tj 8' a(ji aiiTOV, orav acpeXcoai ro avw ev 
(pirep 6 e7A:e0aXo9' d(f)aipov(TL Se oaov hiirrj-^v 
(TXio-avTe^ 8e tovto kutco Tideaai to vypov (f)tXel 
8e ^copav d\/j,(oBiy Si o kuI ottov fxr) Toiavrt] 
Tvyxdvei TrepnraTTOVo-iv a\a<; ol yecopyoi' tovto 
Se Set TToieiv /xr) Trepl avTa<i Ta<i pi^a<i a\V dirodev 
dirocTTrja-avTa TrepcTruTTeiv oaov r/fjiie/CTOV otl he 
ToiavTrjv ^rjTel 'X^copav KaKelvo TroiovvTai arffxelov 
TcavTa')(ov yap ottov TrXrjdo'i (potvLKoyv aX/icoSei? al 
')(^SipaL' Kal yap ev Ha/BvXcovt, (paaiv, ottov ol 
(f)oivi/ce<? 7re<f)VKaai, teal ev Ai^vrj Se Kal ev AlyviTTO) 
Kal ^oivIkt) Kal t^9 Xvpt,a<; 8e tt}? Koi\rj<;, ev y y 
ol 7T\€t(TT0i Tvy^avovaiv, ev Tptat fxovoi^ T07roi<i 
aXfMcoSeaiv elvai tou? 8vvafievov<; drja-avpi^ea-dai' 
Tov'i 8' ev Toh aX\ot<i ov Siafieveiv aXXd crrjiTeaOai,, 
'^Xwpov'i S' ■^Sel'i elvai Kal KaTavaXiaKetv ovtw. 

^t\el 8e Kal vhpeiav acfioopa to SevSpov TTCpl 
8e Koirpov 8iap,(f)ia^r]T0V(riv' ol /xev yap ov ^aai 
')(^aipeiv lOOC ivavTKOTaTOV elvai, ol 8e Kal 
Xprjo-6ai Kal eirihoaLv TroWrjv iroielv. helv S' 
vSpeveiv ev /xaka Kara r^? KoiTpov, KaOdirep ol ev 

2 TOVTO . . . i>yp6v : I have inserted 5f, otherwise retaining 
the reading of Aid.; tovtov Karw Tideaai 5' evvypnv conj .W. 
c/. I'lin. 13. 36. to vyp6v, viz. the cut end. 

^ a.\fx(i5r) conj. W. ; afifidSt) P._jAld.H. 



is to come ; and these can be recognised by experts. 
And the reason why they set several together is that 
a plant that grows from one only is weak. The roots 
which grow from these seeds become entangled 
together and so do the first shoots from the very 
start, so that they combine to make a single stem. 

Such is the method of growing from the fruits. 
But propagation is also possible from the tree itself, 
by taking off the top, which contains the 'head.'^ 
They take off about two cubits' length, and, splitting 
it, set the moist end.- It likes a soil which contains 
salt ^ ; wherefore, where such soil is not available, 
the growers sprinkle salt al)out it ; and this must not 
be done about the actual roots : one must keep the 
salt some -svay off and sprinkle about a gallon. To 
shew that it seeks such a soil they offer the following 
proof; wherever date-palms grow abundantly, the 
soil is salt,^ both in Babylon, they say, where the tree 
is indigenous, in Libya in Eg}-pt and in Phoenicia ; 
while in Coele-Syria, where are ^ most palms, only in 
three districts, they say, where the soil is salt, are 
dates produced which can be stored ; those that grow 
in other districts do not keep, but rot, though when 
fresh they are sweet and men use ® them at that 

^ The tree is likewise very fond of irrigation ; as 
to dung there is a difference of opinion : some say 
that the date-palm does not like it, but that it is most 
injurious, others that it gladly accepts ^ it and makes 
good growth thereby, but plenty of water should be 

■* aA/ietf5ei» conj. W. ; afifidiSeis Ald.H. 

' 4v f y' oi conj. W.; Ti>' 'IvSoi U ; ^v "IvSoi MVAld. 

• KaravaXiffKeiv Aid.; KaravaXiTKeffdai conj.W. 

7 Plin. 13. 28. 

® Ka\ xp'?<''*«' conj. Sch.; KexpV<^Oat Aid.; ? k«x«'P'?<''^"'- 


'P68ft). TOVTo ixev ovv iina-KeTrreov' Xam^ fyap ol 
fjbev ovTa)<i ol 3' eKeivcd^; depaTrevovcriv, koX fxera 
fjLev TOV v8aT0<i mcfieXtfiov rj Koirpo'i avev he tovtov 
/3Xa^epd. orav he eviavaio^i yevijrai, jnera- 
(pvrevovcri koX twv dXcov avfiTrapa^aXkovcri, koI 
irakLv orav hieTrj^' ^(aipeL yap a(f)6Bpa tjj fiera- 


MeTa<f)VTevovai Be ol p,ev dWoi tov ^po<i' ol Be 
ev "Ba/SvXwvi irepl to aarpov, ore Ka\ o\a><; ol je 
TToXkol (^vrevovcTLV, &)9 Koi Trapayivofievov Kai 
av^avofjievov Odrrov. veov [xev 6vro<i ovx dirrov- 
rai, rrXrjv dvaBov(n rrjv ko/jCtjv, ottco'; opOo^vrj t' rj 
Kal al pd^Boi fir) dtraprSivrai. fxerd Be ravra 
irepcrifivovaiv, oirorav dBpo<i rjBr] lyevrjrai Kal 
'ird')(^o<i exv- diroXeiTrovat Be oaov aindafxrjv rwv 
pd^Bcov. (f>ep€i Be etw? pev dv -p veof aTrvprjvov rov 
Kapirov, p,erd Be rovro irvpr/vcoBr]. 

"AXXot Be rive<i Xeyovaiv co? oi ye Kara '%vpiav 
ovBep,iav Trpocrdyovcnv epyacriav aXX,' t) Bta- 
KadalpovaL Kal ein^pe'XpvaLv, im^Tjrelv Be p,dWov 
TO vaparialov vBcop rj to €k rod Ato?" elvai Be 
TToXi) roLovrov ev tw avXcovL ev m Kai ra ^otvi- 
Kocpvra rvyx^dvei, rov avXwva Be rovrov Xeyeiv 
rov<; Xvpov<; on Biareivei Btd ri]<i ^Apa^la^ H'^XP'' 
rrj<; epvdpd<i daXdacn]f; Kal 7roXXov<i (pdcTKeiv 
eXtfXvdevar rovrov Be ev rw KotXordrw 7re(f>v- 
KevaL T0U9 (f)OiviKa<i. ravra pev ovv Ta%' dp(f)o- 
repQ}<i dv ecrj' Kara yap rd<; 'x^copa^;, oxxirep Kal 

] cf. 7. 5. 1. 2 piin. 13. 37. 

''^ avfnrapaffdWovffi conj. Sell, from G ; avixirapaXajj-^avouffi 
UAld. " cf. Plin. 13. 38. 



given, after manuring, as the Rhodians use. This 
then is matter for enquiry ; it may be that there are 
two distinct methods of cultivation, and that dung, 
if accompanied by watering,^ is beneficial, though 
without it it is harmful. - When the tree is a year 
old, they transplant it and give plenty ^ of salt, and 
this treatment is repeated when it is two years old, 
for it delights greatly in being transplanted. 

* Most transplant in the spring, but the people of 
Babylon about the rising of the dog-star, and this is 
the time when most people propagate it, since it 
then germinates and grows more quickly. As long 
as it is young, they do not touch it, except that they 
tie up the foliage, so that it may grow straight ^ and 
the slender branches may not hang down." At a 
later stage they prune it, when it is more vigorous 
and has become a stout tree, leaving the slender 
branches only about a handsbreadth long. So long 
as it is young, it produces its fruit without a stone, 
but later on the fruit has a stone. 

However some say that the people of Syria use no 
cultivation, except cutting out wood and watering, also 
that the date-palm requires spring water rather than 
water from the skies ; and that such water is abundant 
in the valley in which are the palm-groves. And 
they add that the Syrians say that this vallev '' 
extends through Arabia to the Red Sea,^ and that 
many profess to have visited it,^ and that it is in the 
lowest part of it that the date-palms grow. Now 
both accounts may be true, for it is not strange that 

' 6p0o(pvri t' p conj. W. ; 6pBo<piriTai PqAM. 

* airapTuvTai conj. R. Const.; aTopOwyrai P.,MAld. 

* cf. Diod. 3. 41. 

* i.e. the Arabian Gulf. 

* i\Ti\v64yai Aid. ; SifKriKv94yai conj. W. 



avra ra SevSpa, Bca(f)€p€iv koX ra^ ipyaaia^ ovk 

Vevrj he twi' ^otvtKwv earl TrXetw npcorov fiev 
Kol Mairep iv /xeylaTr] htai^opa to /nev KapTrifiov 
TO 8e cLKaprrov, ef wv ol irepX ^a^vXwva ra? re 
K\Lva<i Koi ToXka axevr} iroiovvTai. eireiTa tS)V 
Kapirificov ol fiev appeva al he drjXeiar hiacfiepovai, 
he aX\i]\a>v, Kad' a 6 fiev dpprjv av9o<i irpcoTOV 
cf)ep€i eVt Tr]<i aTrdOrjf;, 17 he OrjXeia KapTTov evOi) 
liLKpbv. avTOiv he tmv Kapircov hiacfiopal TrA-etou?' 
ol fiev yap aTrvpTjvoc ol he fjuaXaKOiTV prjvoL' Ta^i 
-X^poia^ ol [xev XevKol ol he fx,ekave<i ol he ^avdoi' 
TO h' 6\ov OVK iXdrrco ')(pa)fjbaTd (^aaiv elvat tmv 
avKOiV ouS' <x7rXw9 to, <yei>rj' hta(jiepeiv he kol Kara 
TO, jxe'yeO'q Koi Kara rd cr'X^^fuiTa' koI yap (T(paL- 
poeihei<i eviovq maavel firjXa koi rd /jbeyedrj rrjXi- 
KOVTOv; ft)9 TGTTapa? et? tov 7rrj-)(^vv elvai, [eTrra 
Kal evTToSou?]* aWov<; he jxiKpov'^ r)XiKov<; epe- 
yStV^ou?. Kal Tot9 %v\ot9 he ttoXv hia(f>epovTa<;. 

K.pdrLaTOv he Kal tmv XevKwv Kal tmv fxeXdvwv 
TO jSacnXiKov KaXovfievov yevo<; ev eKarepw Kal 
fieyedei Kal dpeTrj' airdvia S' elvat TavTa Xeyovar 
(T'xehov yap ev jxovw tm ^aycoov ki^ttw tov 
iraXaiov irepl ^a^vXwva, ev Kutt/jw he thiov ri 
yevo<; (fyoiviKaiv earlv o ov ireiraivei, tov Kapirov, 
dXX^ &)/xo9 (OV r)hv<i a^ohpa Kal yXvKV<i icTTf ttjv 
he yXvKVTTjTa ihiav e%et. evLoi 8' ov fiovov hia- 

1 Plin. 13. 39. 

^ irpwTov conj. Sch. ; trpwros UMVAld. 

3 irrjxvv conj. R. Const, from Plin. 13. 45. and G, c/r Died. 
2. m- ffTcixv*- UMVAld. 

■* ewTo Kal einr6Sovs UMV : the words perhaps conceal a 



in different soils the methods of cultivation should 
differ, like the trees themselves. 

^ There are several kinds of palm. To begin with, 
to take first the most important difference ; — some 
are fruitful and some not ; and it is from this latter 
kind that the people of Babylon make their beds 
and other furniture. Again of the fruitful trees 
some are 'male,' others 'female'; and these differ 
from one another in that the ' male ' first ^ bears a 
flower on the sjwithe, while the ' female ' at once 
bears a small fruit. Again there are various differences 
in the fruits themselves ; some have no stones, others 
soft stones ; as to colour, some are white, some black, 
some yellow ; and in general they say that there is 
not less variety of colour and even of kind than in 
figs ; also that they differ in size and shape, some being 
round like apples and of such a size that four of them 
make up a cubit ^ in length, ... * while others are 
small,^ no bigger than chick-peas ; and that there is 
also much difference in flavour. 

The best kind alike in size and in quality, whether 
of the white or black variety, is that which in either 
form is called ' the royal palm ' ; but this, they say, 
is rare ; it grows hardly anywhere except in the 
park of the ancient Bagoas," near Babvlon. In 
Cyprus "^ there is a peculiar kind of palm which does 
not ripen its fruit, though, when it is unripe, it is 
very sweet and luscious, and this lusciousness is of a 
peculiar kind. Some palms again ^ differ not merely 

glos.s on TTTJxvv, e.g. th irijxwj 5uo iroSes (Salm.) ; om. G ; ivioTt 
Kal iirl Tr6Sa conj. W. * Plin. 13. 42. 

'^ Baytfov : Bdrrov MSS. corr. by R. Const, from Plin. 13. 
41. rov ira\aiov apparentl}' distinguishes this Bagoas from 
some more recent wearer of the name. 

" Plin. 13. 33. « Plin. 13. 28. 



(pepovai TOi^ Kap'irol<i aXXa Koi avro) ra> SevBpo) 
Kara re to p,rjKO<i koi rr)v aWrjv fiopcprjv' ov yap 
fieydXoi koi p,aKpol dWa ^pa')(el<;, en he Kapin- 
/jLcorepoi TMP dX\o)v koi Kap7ro(f)opovvT€<i ev9v<i 
Tpi€Tei<;' TToWol Be koI ovtoi Trepl J^virpov. etcrl 
Be KoX irepX ^vpiav koI irepl Atyvirrov (f)OLviKe<; 
o'i (f)epovcn rerpaerel^ koI trevTaeTel^ dvBpo/M7]Kei<i 


"}^repov 8' €Tt yevo^ ev Yivirpw, o koX to (fivWov 
ifkarvTepov e^et koi top Kapirov fiel^o) ttoWo) 
Koi lBt6/jLop(f)ov' fieyedet jxev rj\lKO<i poa tm (t^tj- 
fxa-TL Be irpofJbrjKri'i, ovk ev'xyXo'i Be wairep dXXoi 
aXA,' ojxoLO'i Ttti? p6ai<i, ware /xr) KaraBe^eaOai 
dWd Btafxacrrja-afxevovi eK^dWeiv. yevrj jxev ovv, 
Mairep etprjrai, iroWd. drjcravpt^eadat Be /jl6vov<; 
Bvvacrdai ^aai rwv ev %vpia rov<i ev t5) av\(ovi, 
rov<i 8' ev AlyuTTTO) koi Kvirpo) koI irapd TOt? 
dWoi<; ■)(X,copov'? dvaXicTKeaOai,. 

"EiTTi Be 6 (f)oivt^ CO? puev a7rX,w9 ecTrelv fiovo- 
crreXe'X^e'i koX fj,ovo(f)ve<i' ov firjv dXXd yivovrai 
TLve<i Kca Bi(f)vel<;, wairep ev A.lyvTn(p, KaOdirep 
BiKpoav exoVTe<i' to S' dvdcrrtj/jLa rov o-TeXe^ow? 
o.^' ov rj cr%t(Tt9 /cal 7revTd7rr]')(^v 77/309 dXXyjXa Be 
7rQ)9 lad^ovra. cfyacrl Be Koi TOv<i ev Kpi^ry 
TrXeiov^; elvai tou9 Bi(f)vei<;, eviov<; Be koI rpicpveU' 
ev Be Ty AaTrala riva koI irevraKecpaXov' ovk 
dXoyov yovv ev Tat<i evTpo(j)coTepai<i %&>/9af9 TrXetco 
ylveaOai rd roiavra Koi to oXov Be rd ciBt] irXeiw 
Kol rd<i Bt,a<^opd<i. 

1 '6noios conj. Bod.; bfjLolws UMVAld, ' c/. §5. 

^ Plin. 13. 38 ; c/. 4. 2. 7, where the name {KovKi6(popov) of 
this tree is given. 




m their fruits but in the character of the tree itself 
as to stature and general sha})e ; for instead of being 
large and tall they are low growing ; but these are 
more fruitful than the others, and they begin to bear 
as soon as they are three years old ; this kind too is 
common in Cyprus. Again in Syria and Egypt 
there are palms which bear when they are four or 
five years old, at which age they are the height of 
a man. 

There is yet another kind in Cyprus, which has 
broader leaves and a much larger fruit of peculiar 
shape ; in size it is as large as a pomegranate, in 
shape it is long ; it is not however juicy like others, 
but like^ a pomegranate, so that men do not 
swallow it, but chew it and then spit it out. Thus, 
as has been said, there are many kinds. The only 
dates that will keep, they say, are those which grow 
in the Valley 2 of Syria, while those that grow in 
Egj^pt Cyprus and else wli ere are used when fresh. 

The palm, speaking generally, has a single and 
simple stem ; however there are some with two 
stems, as in Egypt,^ which make a fork, as it were ; 
the length of the stem up to the point where it 
divides is as much as five cubits, and the two 
branches of the fork are about equal in length. They 
say that the palms in Crete more often than not 
have this double stem, and that some of them have 
three stems ; and that in Lapaia one with five heads 
has been known. It is after all not surprising* 
that in more fertile soils such instances should be 
commoner, and in general that more kinds and more 
variation should be found under such conditions. 

■• ovK &\oyov yovv conj. W. (ovk &\oyov h' Sch.) ; oii kuKus 
yovv Ald.MU (marked doubtful). 



10 "AWo 8e ri <yevo<i ia-rlv 6 (paai yLveaOat 
irXelarov nepl rrjv KWioiriav, o KaXovai KOiKa'i' 
ovTOi 8e da/jbvdi)8ei.<i, ov')(l ev rb crreA-e^o? e')(0VTe<i 
aWa TrXeto) koX iviore avvqprrifieva y^ky^pi tivo<; 
et9 ev, Ta9 Be pd^Sovf ov /j,aKpa<; [xev aX)C oaov 
'7rr]')(yaia<i , aWa \eia<i, eirl he tmv aKpcov rrjv 
Kofirjp. e-)(ovcn 8e koX to <f)vX\ov TrXarv koX wa- 
Trep e'/c Bvolv avyKclfievov iXa^t'O'Toiv. Kokol Be 
KoX rfi oyfrec (^aivovrav rov Be Kapirov koI ra axv- 
fxart Koi rw /xeyeOec Koi tm XvXw Bid(f)opov exovcrr 
crrpoyyvXcorepov yap Kol [xel^oi koi evcrro floor epov 
r]jTov Be yXvKvv. ireiraivovcn Be ev rpicrlv ereaiv 
w(Tr del Kapirov e%etj', €7riKara\a/ii^dvovTO(; 
Tov veov Tov evov rroiovcri Be koi dprov<; e^avrSyv 
irepl fiev ovv tovtcov eTnaKeirTeov. 

11 Ol Be 'xafxaippi^el'i Kokovpbevoi, tmv (J)oivlk(ov 
erepov rt <yevo<; iarlv (oairep op-covvfxov kol yap 
e^aip€OevTo<i rov eyKe(f>dXov ^(oai Kal K07revT€<; 
diro roiv pi^cov Trapa^XaaTdvovai. 8ia<pepovaL 
Be Kal TO) KapiT(o koI rol<i <f)vXXot<i' TrXarv yap 
Kal fiaXaKov e'xpvcn ro (pvXXov, Bi o koI TrXe- 
Kovatv i^ avrov rd<i re airvpiBa'i Kal rov<i 
^op/jiov<i- TToXXol Be Kal ev rfj Y.prjrr} yivovrat Kal 
ert, fxdXXov ev %iKeXia. ravra fxev ovv eVt 
rrXelov etprjrai t?}9 vrrodea-eco^. 

1 Plin. 13. 47. 

^ K6XKas conj. Salm. cf. 1. 10. 5, and the probable reading 
in Plin. I.e. 

^ avvr]prr}neva n^xp^ "^^"^^ *** *'' conj.W. ; avvqpri^nivas fitv 


'There is another kind which is said to be 
abundant in Ethiojiia, called the doum-palm ^ ; this 
is a shrubby tree, not having a single stem but 
several, which sometimes are joined together up to 
a certain point ^ ; and the leaf-stalks are not long,* 
only the length of a cubit, but they are plain,^ and 
the leafage is borne only at the tip. The leaf is 
broad and, as it were, made up of at least" two 
leaflets. This tree is fair to look upon, and its fruit 
in shape size and flavour differs from the date, 
being rounder larger and pleasanter to the taste, 
though not so luscious. It ripens in three years, so 
that there is always fruit on the tree, as the new 
fruit overtakes that of last year. And thev make 
bread out of it. These reports then call for 

^ The dwarf-palm, as it is called, is a distinct kind, 
having nothing but its name ** in common with other 
palms. For if the head is removed, it survives, 
.md, if it is cut down, it shoots again from the 
roots. It differs too in the fruit and leaves ; for 
::he leaf is broad and flexible, and so they weave 
their baskets and mats out of it. It is common in 
Crete and still more so in Sicily.^ However in 
-hese matters we have said more than our purpose 

els ev U; auvrjpTTjfifva fiexpi rivos tlffi Aid.; avin)(mtfji(vas fiey 

* fiiy ins. W. after Sch. (omitted above). 

' i.e. without leaflets, except at the tip. 

^ (KaxiffTotv Bas. ; iKaxiffruiv U. cf. Arist. Eth. X. 5. 3. 3, 
I'y eXaxiVrois Svaly. 

-> Plin. 13. 39. « For ificivvfioy cf. 9. 10. 1 n. 

" A dwarf palm is now abundant at Sehnunte : cf. Verg. 
Aen. 3. 705, jxilmosa Sdiniis. 



12 'El/ 8e Tat9 TMV aXkcov (j)VTeLai<; avdiraXiv 
TidevTai ra (pvrevTrjpia, KaOairep ro)v KXrjfxdroyv. 
ol fiev ovv ovdev Biuipepeiv (f)aalv rjKicna he eVt 
ro)v dfiTreXcov evioi Be poav SacrvveaOai koI 
aKid^eiv fidXXov tov Kapirov €ti Be rjrrov diro- 
^dXXeiv TOv<i KVTLVov<;. av/jb^aiveiv Be rovro (paai 
KoX enrl Tr)<i avKri<i' ov <yap diro^aXXeiV dvdiraXiv 
(pvrevOetaav, ert S' ev^arcorepav yiueaOar ovk 
diro^dXXeiv Be ovS' edv Ti<; diroKXdari ^vo/jLevr)<{ 
evdv<i TO aKpov. 

Ac fjiev ovv (fivrelat koi <y€vea-et<; ov rpoirov 
exovcri a')(eBov 009 rvirw irepiXa^elv etprjvraL. 

VII. Hepl Be T^9 epyaaLa<; koI Trj<; OepaTreiwi 
ra fiev eari kolvcl rd Be 'IBia kuO^ eKacrrov. kolvcl 
fxev 77 re aKairdvr] koX tj vBpeta koi tj Koirpwai^, 
en Be rj BiaKd6apcn<i koX dcpaipecn^ twv avoiv. 
Bia^epovcn Be t& fidXXov Kat rjrrov. ra p,ev 
(piXvBpa Koi (^CXoKoirpa rd S' ov\^ 6fioico<;, olov 77 
KvrrdpLTTO^, rjirep ov (piXoKOTrpov ovBe (piXvBpov, 
dXXd Kol aTToXXvcrOai (paaiv edv ye veav ovaav 
icbvBpevcoai ttoXXo). poa Be koI dfi7reXo<i (piXvBpa. 
avKTJ Be ev^XaaroTepa puev vBpevo/jbivr] tov Be 
KapiTov 'icr')(ei %etpa) irX'qv t^9 AaK(i)VLK7]<;' avTTj Be 

1 oj/ciiro\ji' conj. Sch.; TavdiraXiv Aid. c/. C.P. 2. 9. 4 ; 
Geop. 10. 45 ; Plin. 17. 84. 2 ^Zu ins. H. 

^ SaffvyecrOai : see LS. refF. s.v. Sa<rvs. 

" c/. C.P. 2. 9. 3. 

^ fvffarwTepav {i.e. ' more manageable '). The reference is 
to a method of keeping the tree dwarf (Bod.). Plin. I.e. has 


ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS, II. vi. 12-vii. i 

Further notes on the projxigation 0/ trees. 

To return to the other trees : — in propagating them 
they set the cuttings upside down,^ as with vine-shoots. 
Some however^ say that that makes no difference, 
and least of all in propagating the vine ; while others 
contend that the pomegranate thus projjagated has 
a bushier growth ^ and shades the fruit better, and 
also that it is then * less apt to shed the flower. This 
also occurs, they say, with the fig ; when it is set 
upside down, it does not shed its fruit, and it makes 
a more accessible ^ tree ; and it does not shed its fruit, 
even if one breaks off the top ^ as it begins to grow. 

Thus we have given a general sketch of what 
we find about methods of propagation, and of the 
ways in which these trees are reproduced. 

Of the cultivation of trees. 
VII. " As to cultivation and tendance some require- 
ments apply equally to all trees, some are peculiar to 
one. Those which apply equally to all are spade- 
work watering and manuring, and moreover pruning 
and removal of dead wood. But different trees differ 
in the degree. Some love moisture and manure, 
some not so much, as the cypress,^ which ^ is fond 
neither of manure nor of water, but actually dies, 
they say, if it is overwatered when young. But the 
pomegranate and vine are water-loving. The fig 
grows more vigorously if it is watered, but then its 
fruit is inferior, except in the case of the Laconian 
variety, which is water-loving. i" 

scansilem (so also G), which seems to be a rendering of €v0aT. 
ei/BaroTfpay U. 

* Th inpov conj. R. Const, after G ; rlv Kaprhy UMVPjAld. 

' Plin. 17. 246. « Plin. 17. 247. 

9 ?,Tr€p conj. W. from G ; 5<nrep Aid. >^ c/. C.P. 3. 6. 6. 

VOL. I. L 


AiaKaBaipea-Oat 8e iravra ^rjTer ySeXxto) yap 
roiv avcov acpaipov/jbevwv &a7rep oKkorpiwv, a kuI 
TO-? av^rj(TeL<i Kol ra? Tpo(fia<i efMiroBi^ei. Si' o 
Kul . . . orav 77 <yepdv8pvov 6\co<i kotttovctiv' rj <yap 
^Xda-TTja-i^ vea ylveraL rov SevSpov. 'n\ei(nrj<i he 
SiaKaOdpaecof; (prjaiv ^ AvSporicov heladai fivpptvov 
KOL ekdav oaa yap av ekdrra) KaTa\L7rr]<i, afxeivov 
^aaTtjcrei, Koi rov Kapirov olaei irXeiw irXrjv 
dfjLTreXov BrjXov orr ravrr) yap dvayKaiorepov 
Kal irpo^ ^Xdcrrrjcnv Kal tt/jo? evKapiriav. dirXw'i 
he Kal TavTr}v Kal rrjv dXXrjv Oepaiveiav nrpo'i ttjv 
IBiav (pvaiv eKdarqy irocrjreov. 

Aeccrdai Be (^rjcnv ^AvBporicov Kal Koirpov 
Spi/xvTdTTjf; Kal 7rXeiaTr]<i vBpeia<;, Mcnrep Kal jrj<; 
StaKaddpaecof;, iXdav Kal fivppivov Kal poav ov 
yap ex^iv ixrjTpav ov8e voarjfia Kara 7^9 ovSev 
cOOC eTreiSdv nraXaiov fj to SevSpov, aTTorepiveiv 
Belv rov<i dKpeix6va<; eirena to <TTeXep^09 depa- 
Treveiv Qyanepav e^ dp'>(i]<; (pvrevdev ovt(o 8e 
(pacTL TroXvx^povLOiTepa Kal la-xypoTara fivppivov 
elvai Kal eXdav. Tavra fxev ovv eiricTKet^aiT 

dv Tt9, Gb Kal fMT] rrravra dXXd irepi ye Trj<i 

'H he Koirpo'i ovre irdaiv 6fiOL(i)<i ov6^ r] avTt] 
irda-LV dpfjbOTTet' rd fxev yap 8pi/x€ia<i 8etrat rd 
S' rJTTOV rd 8e izavreXw'i Kov(f)i]<i. Bpi/jLvrdrr] Be 
rj rov dvOpMTTOV Kaddirep Kal ^aproBpa'i 
dpl(TT'}]v fiev ravrrjv elvai (prjcri, Bevrepav Be rrjv 
veiav, Tpirrjv Be aly6<i, rcTdpTijv Be irpo^dTov, 


Plin. 17. 248. 2 Name of tree missing. Sch. 

c/. C.P. 3. 10. 4. * TdiTri conj. W.; Tairns Aid. 


1 All trees require pruning ; for they are improved 
by removal of the dead wood, which is, as it were, a 
foreign body, and prevents growth and nourishment. 
Wherefore when the (tree) - becomes old, they cut 
off all its boughs : for then the tree breaks afresh. 
Androtion ^ says that the myrtle and olive need more 
pruning than any other trees ; for the smaller you 
leave them, the better they will grow, and they will 
bear better fruit. But the vine of course needs 
pruning even more ; for it is in the case of this tree * 
more necessary for promoting both growth and 
fruitfulness. However, speaking generally, both 
this and other kinds of tendance must be suited to 
the particular natural character in each case. 

Androtion further says that the olive the myrtle 
and the pomegranate require the most pungent 
manure and the heaviest watering, as well as the 
most thorough pruning, for that then they do not 
get ' softwood ' ^ nor any disease underground ; but 
when the tree is old, he adds, one should cut off the 
boughs, and then attend to the stem as though it 
were a tree just planted. Thus ^ treated they say 
that the mjTtle and olive are longer lived and 
verv' robust. These statements might be a subject 

for further enquiry, or, if not all of them, at least what 
is stated of the 'softwood.' 

Manure does not suit all alike, nor is the same 
manure equally good for all. Some need it pungent, 
some less so, some need it quite light. The most 
pungent is human dung : thus Chartodras ^ says 
that this is the best, pig-manure being second to it, 
goat-manure third, fourth that of sheep, fifth that of 

.e. efiFete sap-wood. * ovra> conj. W. ; ol Aid. 

' Name perhaps corrupt. 



TrefjLTTTTjv Se ^o6<i, eKrrjv 8e ttjv Xo^ovpoov. rj Be 
avpiMajiTL^ aXkrj koI aXkfo<;- 77 fj,ev yap aadeve- 
arepa ravrr)^ 1) Be KpeLTTcop. 

5 Trjv Be (TKaivdvrjv iracnv olovrai av/x(pepeiv, 
(oarrep koX rr)V oaKokcriv T049 eXdrrocriv evrpa- 
^earepa yap yiveadai. rpe(j)€iv Be Bo/cet Kol 6 fcovi- 
opTo<i evia Kal OaXXeiv TTOielv, olov top ^orpvv, Bi 
Kal vTTOKOVLOvat 7roWdKC<i' ol Be koI rd'i auKd<i 
vTrocrKdiTTOVcnv evda tovtov Bel. M.eyapot Be 
Kal roi)^ aiKVOvi Kal ra? KoXoKvvra^i, orav ol 
irrjaLai Trvevcraxn, crKdWovTe^ Kovioprovai Kal 
ovTco yXvKurepov^ Kal dnaXcoTepov^; iroiovaiv 
ovx vBpevovre^. tovto /nev ovv o/xoXoyovfievov. 
TTjv S" dfiTreXov ov (paai rive^ Beiv [rj] vnoKovleiv 
ouS' oX&)9 diTTecrOai 7r€pKd^ovTO<i rod ^6rpvo<i, 
dX\' eXirep OTav aTro/xeXavOfj. ol Be to oXov firjBe 
Tore TrXrjv oaov VTTOTiXat rrjv ^ordvrjv vnep fiev 
ovv TovToiv d/j,(bc(r^'r]Tovcnv. 

Q 'Eay Be ri fir] (pipy Kapirov dXX! eh ^Xdcrrrjcriv 
TpeTrrjrac, (T')(il^ov(7i rou aTeXexov; to Kara yrjv 
Kal Xidov evTideaa-iv 6iT0i<i dv payfj, Kal (pacn 
(f>epeLV. 6fjLol(o<i Be Kal edv ri<i tmv pc^cjv Ttva<; 
ireptTe/xr}, Bl Kal roiv dpnreXwv orav Tpaycoai 
TOVTO iroLovcn ra? e7n7roXr}<}. rwv Be avKcov 
7r/309 Tft) TrepLrefiveiv Kal re^pav TrepiTrdTTovai 
Kal KaTaa^d^ovai rd aTeXe')(7] Kal cpacri ^epeiv 
fiaXXov. dfxvyBaXfi Be Kal irdTraXov eyK6y^avTe<i 

1 Lit. ' bushy tails,' i.e. horses asses mules. 

* c/. G.P. 3. 16. 3. ' Se? ins. H ; so apparently G read. 

•* Serv vTTOKovUiv ov5' oKcDs conj. W. (so Sch., but keeping 
[fj] after Se7v) ; Selv ^ v-koklvkIv ou5' '6\a>s UMV; Sfiv ^ vttoko- 
viuv ^ tKus Aid. « Plin. 17. 253 and 254. 



oxen, and sixth that of beasts of burden.^ Litter 
manure is of different kinds and is applied in various 
ways : some kinds are weaker, some stronger. 

Spade-work is held to be beneficial to all trees, 
and also hoeing for the smaller ones, as they then 
become more vigorous. Even dust ^ is thought to 
fertilise some things and make them flourish, for 
instance the grape ; wherefore they often put dust to 
the roots of the vine. Some also dig in dust about 
the figs in places where it is deficient.^ In Megara, 
when the etesian winds are past, they cover the 
cucumber and gourd plants with dust by raking, and 
so make the fruits sweeter and tenderer by not 
watering. On this point there is general agreement. 
But some say that dust should not be put to the vine,* 
and that it should not be meddled ^\^th at all when 
the grape is turning, or, if at all, only when it has 
turned black. Some again say that even then nothing 
should be done except to pluck up the weeds. So 
on this f)oint there is a difference of opinion. 

* If a tree does not bear fruit but inclines to a 
leafy gro^vth, they split that part of the stem which 
is underground and insert a stone corresponding ^ to 
the crack thus made, and then, they say, it will bear. 
The same result follows, if one cuts off some of the 
roots, and accordingly they thus treat the surface 
roots of the vine when it runs to leaf In the case 
of figs, in addition to root-pruning,''^ they also sprinkle 
ashes about the tree, and make gashes in the stems, 
and then, they say, it bears better. ^ Into the almond 
tree they drive an iron peg, and, having thus made 

® irus hy ^Tf Aid.: so G ; ? S-rov; o-rms kvtuyri conj. W. 
cf. Geop. 5. 35. ^ Plin. I.e. 

« c/. 2. 2. 11 ; C.P. 1. 17. 10 ; 2. 14. 1 ; PUn. 7. 253. 



(Tihripovv orav rerpdvcoa-iv aWov dvT€fi^dWovai 
Bpvivov Kal rfj yfj KpvTTTOvcriv o koI KaXovcri 
rive<; KoXd^eiv ct)9 ii^pi^ov ro SevBpov. 

TavTov Se rovTo Kal eVt r^? diriov koI eV 
d\\(ov Tivh TTOLovaLV. iv ^ApKaBia Be koL 
€v6vv€iv KaXovai ttjv oav ttoXv yap to BevBpov 
TovTO irap avTot<i eari. Kai ^aaiv, orav rrdOr] 
TovTo, TO.? p,ev pJq <pepovaa<i (pipeiv xa? Be /jlt) 
irerTOVcra'i eKTreTjeiv Ka\a)<;. dfjbvyBaXrjv Be Kal 
eK TTLKpoLf; yiyveaOai yKvKelav, edv ti<; 7repiopv^a<; 
TO crTe\e;^09 Kal TiTpdva<; 6a ov re TraXacaTialov 
TO iravra'^odev diroppeov BdKpvov eirl ravTo ea 
Karappelv. tovto p,ev ovv av eh] Trpo? re to (f)epeiv 
dfMa Kal 7r/909 to evKapirelv. 

VIII. W.TTO^dWeL Be irpo rov Triylrai rov Kap- 
TTOV dfivyBaXrj p,rfKea poa diriof; Kal fidXtcrra Br) 
irdvTwv crvKT] Kal ^olvi^, 7rp6<; a Kal Td<i ^0T}6eLa<; 
^rjTOvar oOev Kal 6 epi,vaap,6<i' eK yap rS)V 
eKel Kpefj,avvvfx,evcov epivwv yjrijve'i eKBvofievoi Kare- 
adiovcn Kal inaivovcri, rd<; Kopv(f)d'i. Bia<f)epova-t 
Be Kal at 'xoipai mrpb<i Ta9 d'KojSoK.d'i' irepl yap 
^IraXiav ov (jtaatv diro^dWeiv, Bi o ovS" ipi- 

^ The operation being performed at the base of the tree, 
c/. §7. ^ iKirtTreiv conj. R. Const.; elan (Tretv VMAld. 

3 Plin. 17. 252. 

* rh iravraxoOev conj. W. ; itavTaxoOev rh MSS.; so ap- 
parently G. c/. G.P. 2. 14. 4. 

" ire'»|/OJ conj. Sch.; ^ri^^^^lxl. Aid. 

" iKel Kfiffiavi'vfj.evoiP ipivwv I conj. ; iKft Kpe^avvvfiivoiv Aid. : 
iiriKpe/j.aiJ.ei/aii' ipivuv conj. W. : but the present partic. is used 
G.P. 2. 9. 5. 


ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS, II. vii. 6-vm. i 

a hole, insert in its place a peg of oak-wood and 
buryit^ in the earth, and some call this 'punishing' 
the tree, since its luxuriance is thus chastened. 

Some do the same with the pear and with other 
trees. In x\rcadia they have a similar process which is 
called ' correcting ' the sorb (for that tree is com- 
mon in that country). And they say that under 
this treatment those trees that would not bear do 
so, and those that would not ripen their fruit now 
ripen ^ them well. ' It is also said that the almond 
becomes sweet, instead of bitter, if one digs round 
the stem and, having bored a hole about a palms- 
breadth, allows the gum which exudes from all 
sides * to flow down into it and collect. The object 
of this Avould be alike to make the tree bear and to 
improve the fruit. 

Of remedies fen- the shedding of the fruit : caprifcaiion. 

VIII. Trees which are apt to shed their fruit before 
ripening 5 it are almond apple jwmegranate pear 
and, above all, fig and date-palm ; and men try to 
find the suitable remedies for this. This is the 
reason for the process called ' caprification ' ; gall- 
insects come out of the wild figs which are hanging 
there,^ eat the tops of the cultivated figs and so 
make them swell. ''^ The shedding of the fruit differs 
according to the soil : in Italy * they say that it 
does not occur, and so they do not use caprification,^ 

' iriaivovffi MVAld. ; Stfipovffi conj.W. ? -rfxalvovat, ' ripen,' 
which is the word used in the parallel pass. C. P. 2. 9. 6, the 
object of the process being to cause the figs to dry. 

8 Plin. 15. 81. ' Italy ' means South Italy, cf. 4. 5. 5 and 
6 ; 5. 8. 1. 

• ipivdi^ovffiv conj. Bod. ; iptvovaiv Ald.H. 


vd^ovaiv ovS" iv Tot<; Kara^opeioL<i Kal XeTrro- 
yeioi^, olov eirl ^oXvkw rrj<i M.eyapiSo'i' ovSe rrjf; 
K-optvOla^ ev nai. toitoi';. 0)(TavTCO<i Se fcal r} 
TOiv Trvev/xdreov Kard(na(Ti<i' ^op€iOL<; yap paXkov 
rj voTLOi'i aTro^dWovai, kolv ■yjrv'X^poTepa Kal 
irXeloi yevrjrai pdWov 6tl S' avTWv rcov BevSpcov 
T) <^v(n<i' rd 'TTpfola yap diro^dWei, jd S' 6-\\na 
ovK cK^dWei, KaOdirep rj AaKcovcKTj Kal at dXXai. 
8i Kal OVK ipivd^ovai TavTa<i. ravra pev 

ovv ev T€ T0i9 TOTTOL'; Kal Tot9 ykvecn Kal rfj 
Karaardaet rov depo<i e%6t ra? Bca(f}opd<;. 

2 Ot 8e ■\}r7]V€<; eKSvovrai pev Ik tov epiveov, 
KaOdirep eoprjTar yivovTai S' e'/c r(ov K€y')(^papihaiv. 
o-rjpelov Se Xeyovaiv, on eTrecBdv cKSvofaiv ovk 
eveca-i K€y^papi8€<i. eKBvovrat Be ol ttoWoI 
€yKaTa\nr6vTe<i rj iroBa r) irrepov. yevo<i Be rt 
Kal erepov ecrri tmv ■\^r}v5)v, o KaXovcn KevTpiva<i' 
ovToi 8' dpyol KaOdirep Kr}(f>7Jve<;' Kal T0v<i elcrBvo- 
pevovi Twv erepwv Kreivovcnv avrol Be evairo- 
OvrjCTKOvaiv. eTraivovai Be pdXiara rSiV epivoov 
ra peXava ra €K tcov irer pmBwv '^copimv TroWa? 

J yap e%e£ Tavra KeyXpapiBa^. yiyvcoaKerat Be 
TO epivaapevov ra> epvdpov elvai Kal ttoikIXov Kal 
icrxypov TO S' dvepivacTTov XevKov Kal daOeve^' 
TTpocmdeacn Be Toi<i Beopevoc<} orav varj. ottov 
Be 7rXet(TT09 KOvtopr6<i, evravda TTXelcna Kal 

^ cf. 8. 2. 11. 

2 ^vxp^repa Kal nXeio) conj. Sch.; rex^orepa Kal irXflwv MV 
Aid. ; TfXpoTfpa Kol ir\fla> U. 

* irpcoto conj. Sch. from G ; irpHra Ald.H. 

* Plin. 17. 255 and 256. 

IE is it 1 

■QUIRY INTO PLANTS, II. viii. 1-3 

is it practised in places which face north nor in 
those with light soils, as at Phalvkos ^ in the 
Megarid, nor in certain parts of the district of 
Corinth. Also conditions as to wind make a differ- 
ence ; the fruit is shed more with northerly than 
with southerly winds, and this also happens more 
if the winds are cold and frequent.- Moreover the 
character of the tree itself makes a difference ; for 
some kinds, such as the Laconian and other such 
kinds, shed their early ^ figs but not the later 
ones. Wherefore caprification is not practised with 
these. Such are the changes to which the fig 

is subject in respect of locality kind and climatic 

* Now the gall-insects come, as has been said, out 
of the wild fig, and they are engendered from the 
seeds. The proof given of this is that, when they 
come out, there are no seeds left in the fruit ; and 
nost of them in coming out leave a leg or a wing 
behind. There is another kind of gall-insect which is 
called kentrines; these insects are sluggish, like drones, 
-.hey kill those of the other kind who are entering 
-he figs, and they themselves die in the fruit. The 
olack kind of wild fig which grows in rocky places 
is most commended for caprification, as these figs 
(Contain numerous seeds.^ A fig which has been 
subject to caprification is known bv being red and 
])arti-coloured and stout, while one which has not 
Ijeen so treated is pale and sickly. The treatment 
is applied to the trees which need it, after rain. 
The wild figs are most plentiful and most potent 

' i.e. and so should produce more gall-insects : iu C.P. 
:J. 9. 6 it is implied that the insect is produced by putrefac- 
' ion of the seeds of the wild tig. 



laXvpoTara ra ipiva jlverai. (paal Be ipbvd^eiv 
KoX TO TToXiov, oirorav avTa> KapTro<i y 7ro\v<i, koI 
Tov<i T7;9 TrreXea? KWpvKOVi' iyyiveTai yap koX iv 
TOVTOi<i drjplhC arra. Kvlire'i otuv iv rat? crvKai<i 
yivayvrai KareaOiovai Tov<i 'yjrrjva'i. clko^ he tovtov 
(paa-lv elvai tov<; KapKivovi irpoaTrepovav irpo^; 
yap tovtov; Tpeireadai tov<; Kvlira^i. aXXa 

yap Srj Tai<i fxev avKal<i avTui ^c^Oeiai. 

Tot? Se (fjOLVi^iv at airo twv appevwv •npo<i tou? 
6i]\ei<;' ovToi yap elcrcv ol iTTtfieveiv 7roiovvTe<i 
/cat €KTreTT€iv, o KaXovai tiv€<; ex tt}? ofjboioTrjTO^ 
oXvvOd^eiv. yiveTat he TovSe tov Tpoirov. otuv 
dvdfi to appev, aTroTefxvovai ttjv (nrdOrjv e^' 
^<; TO avOo<; €vdv<; axnrep e%et, tov re %f ow Kal 
TO dv6o<i Kal TOV KOVLopTov KaTacreiov(Tt, KaTa 
tov KapiTov Trj<i dr]XeLa<i' kuv tovto Trddrj, hiaTTjpeZ 
Kal ovK aTTO^dWei. (paivcTat 8' df^cj^oiv diro tov 
appevo<i TOi? OrfKeai ^oijOeia yivea-Oar Orjkv yap 
KaXovat TO Kapirof^opov dX)C r) fxev olov fu^i<i' 
rj Be KaT aWov Tpoirov. 

1 &-K6r Uv . . . iroXvs couj. W. from G, cum copiose fructi- 
^cat ; iirorav alyiirvpos ^ ttoXvs MSS. U adds koI before 

^ KcopvKovs I conj. In 3. 14. 1. the elm is said to bear 
KtepvKiSes which contain gnat-like creatures ; these growths 
are called Kwftvfi<fi^ri riva KolKa 3. 15. 4 ; and in 3. 7. 3. the 



where there is most dust. And they say that 
huhvort alsOj when it fruits freely,^ and the ' gall- 
bags ' 2 of the elm are used for caprification. For 
certain little creatures are engendered in these also. 
When the knips is found in figSj it eats the gall-insects. 
It is to prevent this, it is said, that they nail up 
the crabs ; for the k-nips then turns its attention to 
these. Such are the ways of assisting the fig- 


With dates it is helpful to bring the male to the 
female ; for it is the male which causes the fruit to 
j)ersist and ripen, and this process some call, by 
analogy, 'the use of the wild fruit.' ^ The process 
is thus performed : when the male palm is in floAver, 
they at once cut off the spathe on which the flower 
is, just as it is, and shake the bloom with the flower 
and the dust over the fruit of the female, and, if this 
is done to it, it retains the fruit and does not shed 
it. In the case both of the fig and of the date it 
appears that the ' male ' renders aid to the ' female,' 
— for the fruit-bearing tree is called ' female ' — 
but while in the latter case there is a union of the 
two sexes, in the former the result is brought about 
somewhat differently. 

same thing is referred to as t^ OvXaKuSes rovro, where rovro 
■= ' the well-kno^vn ' ; cf. also 9. 1 . 2, where Sch. restores 
raipvKOvs ; cf. Pall. 4. 10. 28. Kxnraipovs (?) U ; Kvirtpovs MV; 
KVirfptv Aid. ; KVTTapovs COllj. W. 

2 b\vv6d.Ceiv, from oKvvdos, a kind of wild fig, as tpivi^eiv, 
from ipiv6s, the wild fig used for caprification. cf. C.P. 
o. 18. 1. 




I. 'ETTet Be Trepl tmv rjfiepfov SivSpcov etprjrai, 
XcKTeov ojJboiw^ Kol irepl twv ayptcov, et re ri 
ravTov Kol erepov e'xpvcn Tol<i r)p,epoi<i eX B" oXtw? 
Xhiov T^9 (f>vcreco^. 

At fiev ovv yeveaei<i airXal Tive<i avrCov elar 
irdvra jap r) airo (yneppuiTO'i rj airo pi^rj'i (pverai. 
TovTO 8' oy% ft)9 ovK ev8e')(6/jLevov koI aX\&)9, aA-X' 
tcrft)9 Bia TO fiT} iretpdcrdai firjSeva /jbtjhe (pvreveiv 
eK^voiTO 8' av el Xafx^dvoiev roTrovi eTnTrjheiov^ 
Kol depaneiav rrjv dpjjLOTTOvaav toairep koI vvv 
ra dXcrdoSr] Koi (jitXvSpa, Xeyco S' olov TrXdravov 
Ireav XevKrjv atyeipov ineXeav' diravTa yap 
ravra kuI to, rotavra ^vrevofieva ^Xacndvei koi 
rd'x^iara Kal KdWicrra diro rcbv irapaairdhwv, 
Stare Kal p,eyd\a<; ouaa<; rjhrj Kal laoBevSpov^ dv 
Tt9 ixerady BiafMevetv (pvreverai Be rd TroWd 
avrwv Kal KuraTrrjyvvfjteva, KaOdirep rj \evKrj Kal 
Tj acyeipo<;. 

Tovr(ov fiev ovv 7r/jo9 rfj aTrep/xariKfj koI rfj 
drro roov pt^cov Kal avrrj yeveai<; earr roiv Be 

^ 4K<pvoiTo conj. W. ; iirKpioiro UMVAld. 


Of Wild Trees. 
Of the ways in ichich xoUd trees originate. 

Now that we have spoken of cultivated trees, 
we must in like manner speak of wild ones, noting 
in what respects they agree with or differ from 
cultivated trees, and whether in any respects their 
character is altogether peculiar to themselves. 

Now the ways in which they come into being are 
fairly simple ; they all grow either from seed or from 
a root. But the reason of this is not that they 
could not possibly grow in any other way, but merely 
perhaps that no one even tries to plant them other- 
wise ; whereas they might grow ^ from slips, if they 
were provided with a suitable position and received 
the fitting kind of tendance, as may be said even 
now of the trees of woodland and marsh, such as 
plane willow abele black poplar and elm ; all these 
and other similar trees grow very quickly and well 
when they are planted from pieces torn off, so that - 
they survive, even if at the time of shifting they are 
already tall and as big as trees. Most of these are 
simply planted by being set firmly, for instance, the 
abele and the black poplar. 

Such is the way in which these originate as well 
as from seed or from roots ; the others grow only 

' 5<rT€ Kol tiey. conj. Sch. ; koL Sxne /cai ^67. UM ; koX So-re 
Mry. PAld. 



dWcov eKelvai' irX'qv oaa jjlovov airo a7repfxaro<; 
(f)V€Tat,, KaOdirep iXdrr) irevKr] ttItv^. oaa Be e^et 
(TTTepfia Kol KapiTov, Kav axro pL^r]<; yivTjTai, koI 
diro rovTCdv iirel koL rd Sokovvtu aKapira elvai 
yepvdv (pacriv, dlov TrreXeav Ireav. a-rj/xelov 8e 
Xiyovaiv ov jxovov ore (pverai iroW'd rcov pc^cov 
diT'qprriixeva KaO^ ovf hv rj roirov;, dWd Kol rd 
(Tvpu^aivovja 6ecopovvTe<i, olov iv ^eveo) rr}<; 
^KpKahia<i, C09 i^eppdyrj ro avvad potcrdev v8(op iv 
Tft) irehiw ^pa-xOevTwv rwv ^epeOputv oirov piev 
6771/9 rjaav Iriai TrecpVKvcai, rov KaraTroOevro'i 
Toirov, TO) varepcp erei p^erd tt)v dva^rjpavatv 
evravda av0i<i dva(pvvai (paaiv Ireav ottov Se 
TTTeXeai avOi<; TrreXea?, Kaddirep koX ottov irevKai 
Kol eXarai Treu/ca? /cat eXara?, wairep p,tp,ovp,6V(ov 

'AXXd rrjv Ireav ra^v TrpoKaTa^dXXecv irpo 
Tov TeX6ta)9 dSpvvai koI Trei/rat rov KapnTOV 
hi Kol TOV Troirjrrjv ov KaK(o<; irpoa-ayopeveiv 
avT7)v wXea-iKapTTov. 

T'^9 Se 7rTeXea<; KUKeivo crr]p,eiov v7roXap,^d- 
vovaiv orav ydp dirb rcov Trvevp^droov 6t9 tou9 
exop-evov'i r ottov; 6 KapTTo^ aTrevex^V' (pveaOai 
^aai. TTapaTrXrjcnov Be eoiKcv elvai rb crvp,^alvov 
o Kot eVl T&v (f) pvyaviKcov koI ttolwBwv tivcov 
eajiv ovK ixbvTcov ydp aTTepp,a (pavepov, dXXd 

^ cf. 5. 4. 6. 

^ ' Katavothra' (now called ' the devil's holes,' see Lawson, 
cited below) ; cf. Paus. 8. 14 ; CatuU. 68. 109 ; Pint, de sera 
numinis vindicta, 557 c ; Plin. 31. 36 ; Frazer, Pausanias and 
other Greek Sketches, pp. 315 foil. ; Lawson, Modern Greek 
Folklore and Ancient Greek Religion, p. 85. 



in these two ways — while some of them, such as 
silver-fir fir and Aleppo pine grow only from seed. 
All those that have seed and fruit, even if they grow 
from a root, will grow from seed too ; for they say 
that even those which, like elm and willow, appear 
to have no fruit reproduce themselves. For proof 
they give the fact that many such trees come up at a 
distance from the roots of the original tree, what- 
ever the position may be ; and further, they have 
observed a thing which occasionally happens ; for in- 
stance, when at Pheneos ^ in Arcadia the water which 
had collected in the plain since the underground 
channels ^ were blocked burst forth, where there 
were willows growing near the inundated region, the 
next year after it had dried up they say that willows 
grew again ; and where there had been elms, elms ^ 
grew, even as, where there had been firs and silver- 
firs, these trees reappeared — as if the former trees 
followed the example * of the latter. 

But the willow is said to shed its fruit early, before 
it is completely matured and ripened ; and so the 
poet ^ not unfittingly calls it " the willow which loses 
its fruit." 

That the elm also reproduces itself the following 
is taken to be a proof: when the fruit is carried by 
the winds to neighbouring spots, they say that young 
trees grow from it. Something similar to this 
appears to be what happens in the case of certain 
under-shrubs and herbaceous plants ; though they 
have no visible seed, but some of them only a sort of 

^ -KTfXeas aiOis irreAeos conj. St. ; irreAeas avrl ir«Aeai U ; 
TTTfXfas avrl TrreXfas MV; trreXf as aZOis -rrfXtas P; vrfXia 
auOiT XTeAeos Aid. 

* i. e. by growing from seed, as conifers normally do. 
' Homer, Od. 10. 510; c/. Plin. 16. 110. 

vol.. I. M 


tcov fiev olov 'xyovv rtov S' av9o<i, wairep rb dufMOV, 
oyu-&)9 a-TTO TovTwv ^XacTTavovacv. irrel ?; <ye 
7r\dravo<; e'X^ec <pav€pa)<i koI airb tovtcov (pveTUi. 
rovTO ^' i^ dWcov re 8rj\ov Ka/cetvo fxiyiarov 
arjfielov axf^drj yap 7]Sr] Trore 7re(f)VKVia irXdravo'; 
ev TpuTToSi '^oXko). 

4 TavTa<; re Stj to.? yevecrei^ vTroXTjTrreov eivai 
Tcov dypLCOv Koi en Ta9 auTopdrovi, a? Kal ol 
(pvaioXojoi Xeyovaiv ^Ava^ay6pa<i pep top depa 
irdvTOiv (f)daKcov e'^^^iv airepp^ara koi ravra 
avyKaTa(f)ep6p,epa rep vSarc yevvdv rd (pVTd' 
Aioyevrji; 8e ai]7rop,evov rov vSaTO<i koi pbi^LV 
Tivd Xap,^dvovro<i tt/Oo? ttjp yrjv K\eL8r]p,o<; 8e 
(Tvvecndvai puev eK rcov avroiv rol^ ^cooi?, oarp 
he doXepcorepoiv Kal ^jrvx^porepcov Toaovrov direxeiv 
rov ^coa elvai. \XeyovaL he riv€<i koI dXXoi irepX 
rrj<i yeve(Teco<i.^ 

5 'AXV avrrj puev dirrfprr^pLevr] ttco? ecm rrjf; 
al(jdrjaeo3<i. dXXai he 6p,oXoyov/u,evat Kal ipL(pa- 
vei<i, olov orav e(f)oho<; yeprjrat TTorapov trapeK^dv- 
T09 TO peWpov rj koI 6Xa><; erepoaOc Troirjaapevov, 
Kaddirep 6 NeVo? ev rfj ^A^hrjplrihi TroXXdKi'i 
pbera^aivei, Kal dp,a rfj ixera^dcrei roaavrrjv 
vXy)v avyyevva rou; r6iT0i<i, wcrre rS> rpirw erei 
(Tvvrjpe(f}elv. Kal rrdXiv orav eiropi^piai Kurd- 
aywai rrXeldi y^povov Kal yap ev ravrai^ iSXacrrrj- 
aei<i yivovrai (fivrcov, eocKe he rj pbev rwv irorap.Siv 
€(fioho<i eirdyeiv aiTepp,ara Kal KapTTov<;, Kal roi/f 
6yerov<; (pacri rd rcov iroLOihoiv' rj S' eiropb^pla 

1 cf. C.P. 1. 5. 2. 

^ Sc. of Apollonia, the ' Ionian ' philosopher. 

3 cf. C.P. 1. 10. 3 ; 3. 23. 1 ; Arist. Meteor. 2. 9. 


down, and others only a flower, such as thyme, young 
plants nevertheless grow from these. As for the 
plane, it obviously has seeds, and seedlings grow 
from them. This is evident in various ways, and 
here is a very strong proof — a plane-tree has before 
now been seen which came up in a brass pot. 

Such we must suppose are the ways in which wild 
trees originate, apart from the spontaneous ways 
of which natural philosophers tell. ^ Anaxagoras 
says that the air contains the seeds of all things, 
and that these, carried down by the rain, produce 
the plants ; while Diogenes ^ says that this happens 
when water decomposes and mixes in some sort with 
earth. ^ Kleidemos maintains that plants are made 
of the same elements as animals, but that they fall 
short of being animals in proportion as their com- 
position is less pure and as they are colder. * And 
there are other philosophers also who speak of 
spontaneous generation. 

But this kind of generation is somehow beyond 
the ken of our senses. There are other admitted 
and observable kinds, as when a river in flood gets 
over its banks or has altogether changed its course, 
even as the Nesos in the district of Abdera often 
alters its course, and in so doing causes such a 
growth of forest in that region that by the third 
year it casts a thick shade. The same result ensues 
when heavy rains prevail for a long time ; during 
these too many plants shoot up. Now, as the 
flooding of a river, it would appear, conveys seeds 
of fruits of trees, and, as they say, irrigation channels 
convey the^ seeds of herbaceous plants, so heavy 

Keyovfft . . . yeveaeus apparently a gloss (W. 
TAconj. W.; rVMAld. 



rovro TTOiel tuvto' avyKara^epet yap TroWa 
TOiV airepixdjwv, koX a/xa crrjylrlv riva rf)^ 7% kuI 
Tov vBaTo<i' eVel koI rj fii,^i<i avrtj tt}? Al<yvTTTla<i 
) <yrj<i SoKCi TLva jevvdv vXrjv. iviwx^ov 8e, av fxovov 
vTrepydaoovTai koi Kiv^jacoaiv, evOv<i dva^Xaardvei 
TCL olKela T779 %ft)/9a9, Mairep iv K.pi]Tr} KvirdpiTTOi. 
yiverac Be 7rapa7r\'^ari6v ti rovroa koX iv rot? 
eXdrroaiv dfui <yap Kivovfi€VT]<; dva^XaaTavet 
TToa Tt9 iv eKd(TTOL<i. iv he roL<; rjfMi^po^oi'i iav 
vTTOvedarj'i ^aiveaOai cf)aac rpi^oXov. avrat fiev 
ovv iv rfj fiera^oXfi r7J<; %«yoa9 elaiv, etre koi 
ivvTrap^ovTwv airep/xdrcov etre koX avTri<i ttw? 
Siaridep,€vr]<;- oirep laco^i ovk droirov iyKara- 
KKeLOfxevcov dfia rcov vypcov ivLa')(pv he koX vhdrcov 
i'KLytvop.evcov Ihicorepov dvarelXai v\r](; irXrjOo';, 
oiairep iv J^vpijvT] TriTTcohovi rcvo'i yevo/xevov Kol 
•nax^o<i' ovTWi yap dve^Xdarrja-ev rj irXyacov v\r} 
Trporepov ovk ovcxa. (^acrl he /cal ro ye criXcptov 
OVK ov Trporepov iK TOiavTrj<; rivof alria<i (fiavr}- 
vai. rpoTTOt fxev ovv roiovroi tcov toiovtcov 


II. Udvra he Kdpirifia t] aKapira, kuI dei(f)vXka 
rj (pvWo^oXa, kuI avdovvra rj dvavOrj' KOival 

^ 7) S" . . . TOUT?) conj. W. ; ri 5* iir. toCt' av iwolei TavT6 
UMV (5' aS marked doubtful in U) ; r) 5' iir. tovt' avrh cTroiet 
Aid. 2 piin iQ 14.7. 

■* i.e. and is released by working the ground. 

* cf. a P. 1. 5. 1 ; Plin. 16. 143, who gives the date 
A.u.c. 130; cf. 19. 41. 



rain acts in the same way ^ ; for it brings down 
many of the seeds with it, and at the same time 
causes a sort of decomposition of the earth and of 
the water. In fact, the mere mixture of earth with 
water in Egypt seems to produce a kind of vegeta- 
tion. And in some places, if the ground is merely 
lightly worked and stirred, the plants native to the 
district immediately spring up ; ^ for instance, the 
cypress in Crete. And something similar to this 
occurs even in smaller plants ; as soon as the earth 
is stirred, wherever it may be, a sort of vegetation 
comes up. And in partly saturated soil, if you 
break up the ground, they say that caltrop appears. 
Now these ways of origination are due to the change 
which takes place in the soil, whether there were 
seeds in it already, or whether the soil itself some- 
how produces the result. And the latter explanation 
is perhaps not strange, seeing that the moist ele- 
ment is also locked up in the soil.^ Again, in some 
places they say that after rain a more singular 
abundance of vegetation has been known to spring 
up ; for instance, at Cvrene, after a heavy pitchy 
shower had fallen : for it was under these circum- 
stances that there sprang up the wood* which is 
near the town, though till then it did not exist. 
They say also that silphium^ has been known to 
appear from some such cause, where there was none 
before. ^ Such are the ways in which these kinds 
of generation come about. 

Of the differences bttween icild and adtivated trees. 

II. All trees are either fruit-bearing or without 
fruit, either evergreen or deciduous, either flowering 
* c/. 6. 3. • TotovToi MSS. ; rocovrot conj. W. 



fydp<; 8iaipe<T€i<; iirl irdvTwv eialv ofioiwi 
rj/xepcov re Kol dypicov. iBca 8e tt/oo? to, 7]fi€pa 
TMV dyplfov o-^iKapTTia re Ka\ la')(y^ koI ttoXv- 
KapiTia TU) irpo^aiveLV TreTraivei re yap oyjnai- 
repov Kol TO 6\ov dvOel koX /SXaaTavei a>9 eVt to 
irdv Kol i(7')(yp6Tepa ttj (f)va€r Koi irpoipaLvei, 
fjuev •nXe'io) KapTrov e/CTrerrei 6' rJTTOV, el firj Kac 
irdvTa dWd ye to, o/jLoyevrj, olov e\da<i koI uTnov 
KoTtva Kal dxpd<i. uTTavTa yap ovtw^, irkrjv 
e'l TL crirdviov, wairep eVl tmv Kpaveicov Kat tmv 
ovcov TUVTa yap 8)] (f)a(Tt ireTraiTepa Kal r)8vTepa 
TO, dypia TMV rjfjiepwv elvar Kal el 8i] tl dWo prj 
7rpoa8e-^eTac yetopylav t) 8ev8pov rj Kal tl tmv 
iXaTTovcov, olov to ctlK^lov Kal r] KdmrapL^ Kai 
Tcov ')(e8po'iTOiv 6 6epp,o<i, a Kal fidXccrT dv t49 
dypia Tr)v (f)vaiv eliroi. to yap pr) 7rpoa8exopevov 
'qpepaxTiv, waTrep iv Tol<i ^dooi'i, tovto dypiov Trj 
(fivaei. KaiTOi ^i^crlv "Ittttcov dirav Kal rjpepov 
Kal dypiov elvat, Kal depairevop.evov pev rjpepov 
pr] depaTreuop-evov 8e dyptov, Trj pbev 6p6m Xeycov 
Ty 8e ovK opOS)'?. i^apeXovpevov yap dirav 
')(elpov ylveTai, Kal diraypiovTaL, Oepairevopievov 
8e ov'X^ dirav ^eXTiov, loairep etpr/Tai. o 81] 
')((opLaTeov Kal Ta p,€v dypia Ta S' rjp.epa Xcktcov, 

^ el ix^ . . . 6/xoyevrj conj. W.; el ;u)) Kal iravra ra &\\a koI 
TO. 6fj.oioyfVTJ UAlVAld.H. 

2 cf. G.P. 3. 1. 4. =* cj. 1. 3. 5 11. 

* i.e. the terms 'cultivated' and 'wild' do not denote 
distinct 'kinds.' 



or flowerless ; for certain distinctions apply to all trees 
alike, whether cultivated or wild. To wild trees, as 
compared with cultivated ones, belong the special 
properties of fruiting late, of greater vigour, of 
abundance of fruit, produced if not matured ; for they 
ripen their fruit later, and in general their time of 
flowering and making growth is later ; also they are 
more vigorous in growth, and so, though they produce 
more fruit, they ripen it less ; if ^ this is not universally 
true, at least it holds good of the wild olive and pear 
as compared with the cultivated forms of these trees. 
This is generally true with few exceptions, as in the 
cornelian cherry and sorb ; for the wnld forms of these, 
they say, ripen their fruit better, and it is sweeter 
than in the cultivated forms. ^ And the rule also does 
not hold good of anvthing which does not admit of 
cultivation, whether it be a tree or one of the smaller 
plants, as silphium caper and, among leguminous 
plants, the lupin ; these one might say are specially 
wild in their character. For, as with animals which 
do not submit to domestication, so a plant which does 
not submit to cultivation may be called wild in its 
essential character. However Hippon ' declares that 
of every plant there exists both a cultivated and a 
wild form, and that ' cultivated ' simply means * that 
the plant has received attention, while ' wild ' means 
that it has not ; but though he is partly right, he is 
partly wrong. It is true that any plant deteriorates 
by neglect and so becomes wild ; but it is not true 
that every plant may be improved by attention,* as 
has been said. VVTierefore ** we must make our 
distinction and call some things wild, others culti- 

* i.e. and so become ' cultivated.' 
« ft 8^ MSS. ; ««b conj. Sch. from G. 



wdTTcp roiv ^cowv TO, o-vvavOpcoirevofxeva koX to, 
BexofJ'€va Tidaaeiav. 

AWa TovTO fiev ovBev caoo^ hia<^epei Trorepca 
prjTeov. oLTTav he to i^aypiovfievov roi<; re 
Kap7T0L<i ')(elpov jLverai koI auro ^pa^vTepov 
Kol (f)vXkoi<i KoX KXcoal KoX (pXoio) Kal rfj 6\y 
/iop(f)f]' Kal yap TrvKVorepa /cal ovXorepa /cat 
aKXrjpoTepa Kal javra Kal oA-77 r/ (f)vai<; jiverai, 
0)9 iv rovTOif fidXiara t?}9 8ia(popd<i tmv rjfiepcov 
Kal TMV dypicdv ytvofievTj'i. hi o Kal ocra roiv 
rjfiepov/jiivcov roiavra rvyxdvet, ravra dypid 
(fiacrcv elvai, KaOdirep ttjv wevKrjv Kal ti-jv Kvnd- 
piTTov, 7) oXw9 r) TTjv dppeva, Kal ttjv Kapvav he 
Kal rrjv hioa^dXavov. 

"Ert re rat ^iXo-ylrv^^pa Kal opeivd /xaXXov elvar 
Kal yap rovro XafM^dverat 7rpo9 rrjv dypiorrjTa 
TMV hevhpwv Kal oX(W9 tmv ^vtmv, elr ovv Kaff' 
avro Xaix^avofxevov eore Kara av/ji/3e^r)K6<;. 

'O jxev ovv roiv dypicov dcfiopia/xo^ eW ovrco^ 
rj Kal dXXo)<; XrjTrjeo^;, ovhev av cao)<; hteveyKOi, 
7rpo9 rd vvv eKelvo he dXrj6e<i, w? ye tS> rvirw 
Kal a7r\c()9 elirelv, oti fidXXov opetvd rd dypia Kal 
evOevel to. irXeioi Kal fjbdXXov ev tovtoc<; Tot9 
TOTTOLf, idv pbTj Ti<i Xafi^dvT) Ta (piXvhpa Kal 
Trap air ordfjiia Kal dXacohrj. ravra yap Kal to. 
roiavTa rvy^dvec Treheivd fidXXov. ov firjv dXX^ 
ev ye T0t9 fieyaXot^; opeaiv, olov Hapvrja-o) re 
Kal KvXXrjvT] Kal ^OXvfnro) r& UiepiKw re Kal 
r& Myo-tft) Kal et vov roiovrov erepov, d-rravra 

1 TiQaatiav conj. W,, c/. Plat. PoL 264 c ; rieaaiov UMAld. 



vated — the latter class corresponding to those animals 
which live with man and can be tamed. ^ 

But perhaps it does not matter which way this 
should be put. Any tree which runs wild deteriorates 
in its fruits, and itself becomes dwarfed in leaves 
branches bark and appearance generally ; for under 
cultivation these parts, as well as the whole 
growth of the tree, become closer, more compact - 
and harder ; which indicates that the difference 
between cultivated and wild is chiefly shown in these 
respects. And so those trees which show these 
characteristics under cultivation they say are really 
wild, for instance fir cypress, or at least the ' male ' 
kind, hazel and chestnut. 

Moreover these wild forms are distinguished by 
having greater liking for cold and for hilly country : 
for that too is regarded as a means of recognising 
wild trees and wild plants generally, whether it is so 
regarded in itself or as being only incidentally a 
distinguishing mark. 

So the definition of wild kinds, whether it should 
be thus made or otherwise, perhaps makes no 
difference for our present purjjose. But it is certainly 
true, speaking ^ broadly and generally, that the wild 
trees are more to be found in hilly country, and that 
the greater part of them flourish more in such regions, 
with the exception of those which love water or grow 
by river sides or in woods ; these and such-like trees 
are rather trees of the plain. However on great 
mountams, such as Parnassus Cyllene the Pierian and 
the Mysian Olympus, and such regions anywhere 

2 ov\6repa conj. W. from G, spUsiora ; opOSripa MSS. cf. 
C.P. 6. 11. 8. 
' 5s 7« conj. Sch. ; 5<rT« UM ; is iv Ald.H. 



<f>V€Tai 8ia T-qv irokveihiav tmv tottcov e^ovat 
<yap KoX Xifiv(t)8€i<i Koi ivvypovi Kal ^r}pov<i Koi 
yecoSei^ Kal 7r€Tp(o8ei<i koI Tov<i ava fiiaov Xei- 
fioiva<i /cat a')(ehov ocrai Biacjiopal t^9 7^9* en 8e 
rot"? fi€v KOiXov<; Kal ev8i€Lvov<i rov<i 8k fierecopov; 
Kal TrpoaTjvifjLovi- ware 8vva(r6ai, Travrola Kal to, 
iv TOt<? Tre8ioi<i ^epeiv. 

Ov8ev 8' CLTOTTov ovS" el evia fir} ovro) Trd/iupopa 
TMV npwv, aXX! I8i,uyrepa<i tcv6<; vXr]<; r) irdarjii r) -rrj^; 
TrXelarrj'i, olov ev rrj Kpr]rr) ra ^I8ala' KV7rdpcTT0<i 
yap eKel' Kal to, rrepl KikiKLav Kal 'Zvplav, ev 
oU K€8po<;' evca'X^ov 8e t>}9 2u/5ta9 Tepfiivdo<;. al 
yap 8ia<popal T?y9 %ft)/3a9 rrjv l8t6TrjTa iroLOvaiv. 
aXV etpTjTac to l8i,ov 009 eirl irav. 

III. "I5ta 8e TO, T0id8e roiv opeivcov, a ev Tot9 
'7r€8LOi<i ov (^verai, [iTepl rrjv Ma/ceSot'tat'] iXdrr] 
irevKT] ttItv^ dypia cfilXvpa ^vyia (^77709 ttv^o^ 
dv8pd^Xr] p,iXo<i dpKevOo<i repp,iv6o<i epiveo<i 
(^iXvKr) d(f)dpKri Kapva 8ioa^dXavo<; "vrplvo^. rd 
8e Kal iv Tot9 'iTe8loi'; /ivpiKrj irreXea XevKt) Irea 
atyeipo<i Kpaveia OifXvKpaveia KXrjOpa 8pv<i XaKa- 
pr] d'X^pd'; /xijXea oarpva Ki]Xaarpov ixe)da ira- 
Xiovpo-i o^vaKavdo'i <<T^ev8a[u>o<;,> fjv ev p,€v tw 

^ iv . . . 'lSa7a conj. W. (after Sell., who conj. ra iv) ; tcl 
iv K(A)Tri Tp 'l5ofa UAld. 

^ i.e. it is not meant that a tree which is ' special ' to 
Mount Ida {e.g.) occurs only there. 

3 ntepi r))v Muk. ? a gloss ; irepi re rijv Ma«. MPgAld. ; re om. P. 


ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS, 111. ii. 5-111. i 

else, all kinds grow, because of the diversity of 
positions afforded them. For such mountains offer 
positions which are marshy, wet, dry, deep-soiled or 
rocky ; they have also their meadow land here and 
there, and in fact almost every variety of soil ; again 
they present positions Avhich lie low and are shel- 
tered, as well as others which are lofty and exposed 
to wind ; so that they can bear all sorts, even those 
which belong to the plains. 

Yet it is not strange that there should be some 
mountains which do not thus bear all things, but 
have a more special kind of vegetation to a great 
extent if not entirely ; for instance the range of Ida 
in Crete ^ ; for there the c\-press grows ; or the hills 
of Cilicia and Syria, on which the Syrian cedar 
grows, or certain parts of S}-ria, where the terebinth 
grows. For it is the differences of soil which give 
a special character to the vegetation. ^ ^However 
the word ' special ' is used here in a somewhat 
extended sense.) 

0/ mountain trees: 0/ the differences found in xcUd trees. 

III. The following trees are peculiar to mountain 
country and do not grow in the plains ; ^ let us 
take Macedonia as an example. Silver-fir fir ' wild 
pine ' lime zygia Valonia oak box andrachne yew 
Phoenician cedar terebinth wild fig alatemus hybrid 
arbutus hazel chestnut kermes-oak. The following 
grow also in the plain : tamarisk elm abele willow 
black poplar cornelian cherry cornel alder oak lakare 
(bird-cherry) wild pear apple hop-hornbeam holly 
manna-ash Christ's tiiom cotoneaster maple,* which 

■• ff(^«V5a/t»'os add. Palm, in view of what follows ; oluavopro 
&Ka,>eoi UPAld.Bas.; &km>Bos Pj. 



opei Tre(f)VKv7av ^vytav KoXovcnv, iv he rro nrehiw 
yXetvop. oi S' dWco'i Siaipovai Kal erepov iroi- 
ovcTiv elSo^ acpevSdfivov koX ^vylw;. 

"Airavra Be oaa Koivd rcov opcov kol twv 
irehiwv, fiei^co fiev Koi KoKktw rfj byfrei ra ev rot<i 
7re§tot9 <yiV6Tai, KpetTTco Be ry %/oeta rfj re rcov 
^vkcov Kol Ttj Twv KapTTMv TO, opeivd' irXrjv 
d')(^pdBo'i Kal diriov koI p^rfKea^' avrat 8' iv Tol<i 
irehiot^ Kpe'nrovi ov p,6vov rot<; Kapirol^ oKka koI 
T0i9 ^liKois' iv yap rol<; opeai piKpal Kal o^coSet? 
Kal aKavdcoZei^ yivovrai' irdvra he Kal iv roL<; 
opeaiv, orav iiTiXd^covTat roiv oiKeloyp tottcov, Kal 
KaWloi (jyverat Kal evdevel p^aXkov co? he d'n\oi<i 
elirelv rd iv toI<; opdXeai rcov opoiv Kal p^dXia-ra, 
rcov he dWwv rd iv T0t9 Kdrco Kal KOi\oL<;' rd K 
iirl rcov aKpcov %et/3fo-Ta, •yrXrjv et ri rfj (f)vaei 
(f)i\6ylrvxpov e%ei he Kal ravr av riva hia(f)opdv 
iv rot? dvop^oioa rcov ronrcov, vrrep wv varepov 
XeKreov vvv he hiatpereov eKaarov Kara rd<; hia- 
(f)opd<; rd<i elpr]p,eva<i. 

'AeLcjjvWa p,ev ovv iart rwv dypioyv d Kal 
rrporepov iXex^V' i^a.rr} rrevKT] tt/tu? dypia iTV^o'i 
dvhpdx^V /itA.09 dpKevOo'i repptvdo<i ^iXvkt} 
d(f}dpKrj hdcpvr) (f)€X\.6hpv<i KrjXaarpov o^vuKavOo^ 
7rpivo<; puvpiKiy rd he dWa irdvra (f)vWo^o\el' 
7r\r]v et n irepirrov iviaxov, KuOdirep iXexOrj irepl 
rrj<i iv rfi Kpijrr) rrXardvov Kal hpvo^ Kal et irov 
roTTO^; Ti? oX,<09 evrpo<^o^. 

1 8' SWcos conj. Sch. from G ; 8' av Aid. "^ Plin. HJ._77. 
^ i.e. are not always of the poorest quality, ravr av riva 
conj.W.; ravTa avraiv Ald.H. * 1. 9. 3. 



when it grows in the mountains, is called ::ygia, 
when in the })lain, gleinos : others however,^ classify 
differently and make maple and ci/gia distinct trees. 

- All those trees which are common to both hill 
and plain are taller and finer in aj)pearance when 
they grow in the plain ; but the mountain forms are 
better as to producing serviceable timber and fruits, 
with the exception of wild pear pear and apple ; 
these are in the plain better in fruit and also in 
timber ; for in the hills they grow small with many 
knots and much spinous wood. But even on the 
mountains all trees grow fairer and ai*e more vigorous 
when they have secured a suitable position ; and, to 
speak generally, those which grow on the level parts 
of the mountains are specially fair and vigorous ; 
next to these come those which grow on the lower 
parts and in the hollows ; Avhile those that grow on 
the heights are of the poorest quality, except any 
that are naturally cold-loving. But even these shew 
some variation 3 in different positions, of which we 
must speak later ; for the present we must in our 
distinctions in each case take account only of the 
differences already mentioned. 

Now among wild trees those are evergreen which 
were mentioned before,* silver-fir fir ' wild pine ' box 
andrachne yew Phoenician cedar terebinth alaternus 
hybrid arbutus bay phellodrys'^ (holm-oak) holly 
cotoneaster kermes-oak tamarisk ; but all the others 
shed their leaves, unless it be that in certain places 
they keep them exceptionally, as was said'' of the 
plane and oak in Crete and in any other place which 
is altogether favourable to luxuriant growth. 

* il>e\\6hpvs conj. Bod., c/. 1. 9. 3 ; (p^XKhi Spvs UMV(?)Ald. 

* 1. 9. 5. 



KapTTi/Jia Be ra fxev aXKa TTavTW ire pi he lrea<; 
KoX alyeipov koX TrreXea?, Mcnrep e\e)(dri, Bi,a/ji(f)icr- 
^rjToixnv. evtoi Be ttjv aoyeipov fiovrjv (iKapireiv 
(paaiv, Mcnrep koX ol ev ^KpKaBla, ra Be aWa 
Trdvra ra iv TOL<i opeai KapTrocpopetv. ev K^p^ry 
Be Kol atyeipoi Kapiri/uLOi irXeLov; elai' fiia jxev ev 
rS> cfTOfMLO) Tov avrpov rov ev rf} "iBrj, ev c5 ra 
avaOrjixara avaKetrai, dWr) Be fxiKpa TrXrjaiov 
airwrepw Be fidXiara BooBeKU aTaBlovq irepi Tiia 
KprjVTjv Savpcv Ka\ovp.evr]v TroWaL elcrl Be koX 
ev T« ttXijctlov 6 pel Trj<; "lBr]<i ev rS) KivBplq) 
KoXov/xevQ) Kol irepX Wpatcriav Be ev rot? opeaiv. 
ol Be [xovov TOiv roiovTcov rrjv ine'K.eav KapTrcfxov 
elvai (paai, KaOdnep ol irepX MaKeBovlav. 

MeydXr] Be Bca<J3opa 7Tpb<i Kapirov kuI aKapiriav 
Kol Tj TMV TOTTcov ^vcn<;, waTrep iirl re rr}'; Trepcrea? 
e%ei Kal tcov (f)otviKO)V' rj fxev ev Klyvirrw Kaptro- 
<f)opeL Kal ec ttov tcov irXrjaLov tottcov, ev 'PoBo) Be 
fie^pi TOV dvOelv fiovov dcpCKveiTai. 6 Be <f)o2vi,^ 
nrepl fiev ^a^vXSiva OavjjiaaTo^, ev t^ 'FiXXdBi Be 
ovBe TTeTvaivei, irap evioL<i Be 6Xw<i ovBe 7Tpo(f>aLvei. 


'Ofioiax; Be Kal hepa TrXelo) TOiavT eaTLv eVet 
Kal TCOV eXaTTOvwv Troapiaiv Kal vXrjfiaTav ev t^ 

1 2. 2. 10. 

2 c/. 2. 2. 10. It appears that the buds of the poplar were 
mistaken for fruit (Sch.); c/. Diosc. I. 81. Later writers 
perpetuated the error by calling them k6kkoi. 

^ TOV ev Tjj "15?; conj. Sch.; rov iv rip "iSp U; tov iv ry 'iSrjy 
MV ; iv rp WSr? Ald.H. 



Most trees are fruit-bearing, but about willow 
black poplar and elm men hold different opinions, 
as was said ^ ; and some, as the Arcadians, say that only 
the black poplar is without fruit, but that all the 
other mountain trees bear fruit. However in Crete 
there are a number of black poplars which bear fruit ^ ; 
there is one at the mouth of the cave on momit Ida,^ 
in which the dedicatory offerings are hung, and 
there is another small one not far off, and there are 
quite a number about a spring called the Lizard's 
Spring about twelve furlongs off. There are also 
some in the hill-country of Ida in the same neigh- 
bourhood, in the district called Kindria and in the 
mountains about Praisia.* Others again, as the 
Macedonians, say that the elm is the only tree of this 
class which bears fruit. 

Again the character of the position makes a great 
difference as to fruit-bearing, as in the case of the 
persea ^ and the date-palm. The persea of Egypt 
bears fruit, and so it does wherever it grows in the 
neighbouring districts, but in Rhodes ^ it only gets 
as far as flowering. The date-palm in the neighbour- 
hood of Babylon is marvellously fruitful ; in Hellas it 
does not even ripen its fruit, and in some plices it 
does not even produce any. 

The same may be said of various other trees : in 
fact even " of smaller herbaceous plants and bushes 
some are fruitful, others not, although the latter are 

* Upaialav eonj. Meurs. Greta ; npaaiav UMVAld. 

^ cj. 4. 2. 5. -Kfpafai conj. R. Const. ; Trepaelas U ; repffias 

" 'PoScp conj. R. Const, from G, so too Plin. 16. Ill ; ^6a 
Aid. cj. 1. 13. 5. for a similar corruption. 

^ eiret Kal conj. Seh. from G ; eirel 8e xal Aid. 


avTrj %ft>pa Kol avvopco X^P9 '^^ f^^^ KapTTt/Jba ra 
S' aKapna fyiverar KaOdirep koX to /cevravpiov ev 
rfj 'HXeta, to jxev ev tT] opeivfj Kapnifjiov, to S' ev 
Tfp irehiw aKapiTOv aWa jxovov avOel, to 8' ev Tol<i 
KOiKoL^ TOTToi'i ovS' civOcl ttXtjv KaK(ti<i. hoKel 8' 
ovv KoX TOiv dWcov TOiV opbO'^evoiv KoX ev fxid 
irpoarjyopia to fiev aKapirov elvai to 8e KapTrifiov, 
olov irplva 6 fiev KapiTLp^o^ 6 S' d/capiro'i' koI 

7 KkrjOpa he iiaavTW'i' avOet S' d/x(p(o. cr')(jehov he 
oaa Kokovatv dppeva tmv ofioyevcov ciKapTra' koX 
TOVTCOv TO, fzev TToWa avOelv ^aai to, S' oXtyov 
TO. 8' oXw? ouS' avdelv to, he dvairaXiv, tcl p,ev 
dppeva piova Kaprro^opelv, ov pbrjv aX)C utto ye 
TMV dv6(ov (pveaduL to, SevSpa, KaOdirep Kol aTrb 
TOiV KapjTMV oaa KapinpLa' kuI ev dp,(f)otv ovtw? 
evioTe ttukvtjv elvac ttjv €K(f)vaiv a>aTe TOV<i 
opeoTVTTOVf; ov hvvaaOai hiievai fir) oSoTroirj- 

8 ^ Ap,(f)i(T^r)TelTat he Kal irepl tmv dvdoov eviwv, 
axTTrep eiirop^ev. at p>ev yap Kal hpvv dvdelv 
oXovTai Kal Trjv 'HpaKXecoTiv Kapvav Kal hioa- 
/BdXavov, eTi he irevK'qv Kal ttItvv ol 8' ovhev 
TOVTCOV, dXXd Tov covXov Tov ev Tat? KapvaL<; Kal 


^ X<i>pa. Koi Aid. ; f] Kal conj. St. 

^ i.e. the 'males' are sterile whether they flower or not. 
Kal Tovruiv ra fxkv troWa I COnj. ; rovToiv ra noWa tA fiev Aid. 

* ? i.e. the flowers of the ' female ' tree. 

* i.e. (a) in those trees whose 'male' form is sterile, 
whether it bears flowers or not ; (6) in those whose ' male ' 



growing in the same place as the former, or ^ quite 
near it. Take for instance the centaury in Elea ; where 
it grows in hill-countr}-, it is fruitful ; where it grows 
in the jilain, it bears no fruit, but only flowers ; and 
where it grows in deej) valleys, it does not even 
flower, unless it be scantily. Any way it appears 
that, even of other plants Avhich are of the same 
kind and all go by the same name, one will be 
without fruit, while another bears fruit ; for instance, 
one kermes-oak will be fruitful, another not ; and the 
same is true of the alder, though both produce 
flowers. And, generally speaking, all those of any 
given kind which are called ' male ' trees are ^vithout 
fruit, and that though- some of these, they saj-, 
produce many flowers, some few, some none at all. 
On the other hand they say that in some cases it is 
onl}' the ' males ' that bear fruit, but that, in spite 
of this, the trees grow from the flowers,^ (just as in 
the case of fruit-bearing trees they grow from the 
fruit). And they add that in both cases,^ the crop 
of seedlings ^ which comes up is sometimes so thick 
that the woodmen camiot get through except by 
clearing a way. 

There is also a doubt about the flower of some 
trees, as we said. Some think that the oak bears 
flowers, and also the filbert the chestnut and even 
the fir and Aleppo pine ; some however think that 
none of these has a flower, but that, — resembling"^ 
and corresponding to the ^^^ld figs which drop off" 
prematurely, we have in the nuts the catkin," in the 

form alone bears fruit, but the fruit is infertile. The passage 
is obscure : W. gives up the text. 

* fKipvcriv. cf. 7. 4. 3. 

* ofioiov conj.W.; Sfioiav UAld. cf. 3. 7. 3. 
" cf. 3. 5. 5. 

VOL. I. N 


ivov 6/u,OLov Kol avaXo'yov elvai Tot9 irpoairo- 
TTTMToi^ epivol<;. 01 he Trepl MaKeBovlav ouSe 
Tavrd (f)aacv avdeiv dpKevdov o^vrjv apiav a(pev- 
Ba/xvov. evioi Be ra'i apKevdov<i Bvo elvai, kuI rrjv 
/Mev krepav avdeiv fiev a/capirov 8' elvai, ttjv Be 
irepav ovk avOelv fiev Kapirov Be (pepecv ev0v<; 
TTpocpaivofjLevov, wairep teal Ta<; crvKa<i to, eptva. 
crvfi^atvet B' ovv cocrre eirl Bvo err] tov /capirov 
e'xeiv fiovov rovro tmv BevBpcov. ravra fj.ev ovv 

IV. 'H Be ^\d(TTr]cn<; tmv fiev dp,a ytverai, Kal 
T(ov rjfiepcov, tmv Se puKpov eTTiXenrofievr), roiv B" 
i]Br] irXeov, diravTayv Be Kard rrjv rjpLvrjv wpav. 
dWd Twv Kapircov rj TrapaWayrj TrXelcov Marrep 
Be Kal irporepov eiTro/xev, ov Kara ra? ^Xaarrjcrei'i 
al 7re7rdva6i<i dWd ttoXv Bia(f)6'pov(Tcv eVet Kal 
TMV o-^iKapiTOTepoiV, a Brj Tive<i (pacriv iviavro- 
(jiopelv, olov dpKevdov Kal Trplvov, ofxca al jSXaa- 
rrjaet<i rod rjpo<^. avrd 8' avrcov ra ofMoyevr} rw 
irporepov Kal varepov Bia<^epet Kara tov<; roirovi' 
Trpcora p.ev 'yap ^Xaardvei rd ev Tol<i eXeaiv, a)9 
01 Trepl M^aKeBovlav Xeyovac, Bevrepa Be rd ev roi<i 
7reStoi9, €(T')(^ara Be rd ev roi<; opeaiv. 

Avrcov Be roiV KaO^ eKacrra BevBpcov rd fiev 

^ i.e. the male flower, cf. Schol. on Ar. Vesp. 1111. 
&e6<t>pa<nos Kvpiias \4yei KVTTapou r^v irpodvBrjaiv rrjs nirvos : 
but no explanation of such a use of the word suggests itself. 
c/. 3. 3. 8 ; 4. 8. 7. 

2 aplav conj. Sch., cf. 3. 4. 2; 3. 16. 3; 3. 17. 1 ; o^vvriv ayplav 



oak the oak-moss, in the pine the ' flowering tuft.* ^ 
The people of Macedonia say that these trees also 
produce no flowers — Phoenician cedar beech aria ^ 
(holm-oak) maple. Others distinguish two kinds of 
Phoenician cedar, of which one bears flowers but 
bears no fruit, while the other, though it has no 
flower, bears a fruit which shows itself at once ^ — 
just as wild figs produce their abortive fruit. How- 
ever that may be,* it is a fact that this is the only 
tree which keeps its fruit for two years. These 
matters then need enquiry. 

0/ (he times of budding and fruiting of icUd, as compared 
icith cultivated, trees. 

IV. Now the budding of wild trees occurs in some 
cases at the same time as that of the cultivated forms, 
but in some cases somewhat, and in some a good 
deal later; but in all cases it is during the spring 
season. But there is greater diversity in the time of 
fruiting ; as we said before, the times of ripening do 
not correspond to those of budding, but there are 
wide differences. For even in the case of those 
trees which are somewhat late in fruiting, — which 
some say take a year to ripen their fruit — such as 
Phoenician cedar and kermes-oak, the budding 
nevertheless takes place in the spring. Again there 
are differences of time between individual trees of 
the same kind, according to the locality ; those in 
the marshes bud earliest, as the Macedonians Siiy, 
second to them those in the plains, and latest those 
in the mountains. 

Again of particular trees some wild ones bud 

* i.e. withoiit antecedent flower. 

* 8' oZy conj. W.; ax^Uv UMVAld. 



avvavafiXaardvei roh rj/jiepoi^, olov dv8pd')(\Tj 
d(j}dpKr}' d^pd<i 8e /j,iKpa> varepov Tfj<i aTriov. rd 
Se Kal TTpo ^e<pvpov koX fierd irvod'i evOv ^ecftvpov. 
Kol TTpo ^€(j}vpov jxev KpavBia Kal drfKvKpaveia, 
fjuerd ^e(pvpov Se 8d(j)V7j KXrjOpa, irpo lar]fjb6pLa<; Be 
/jbtKpov (jilXvpa ^vyia (j)r)yb<; crvKrf Trpcot^Xaara 
Se Kal Kapva Kal Spv<; Kal dKT€0<;' en Se /xdWov 
rd aKaptra SoKovvra Kal dXcrdoSi], \evK7) irreXea 
Irea aiyeipo<;- TrXdravof; Se jXLKpw o^^iaiTepov 
TOVTcov. rd Se dXXa (aairep evLcrTapievov rov 
ypo<i, olov epLveo<i (fiiXvKTj o^vdKavOo^ iraXiovpo^; 
TepfiLv6o<i Kapva Sioa/SdXavo'i' /xrjXea 8' 6-\jrL- 
/SXaaxo?' o-ylrtjSXacrToraTov Se a^eSov t-^o<i dpia 
rerpayoovla Oveia p,[Xo<i. al fiev ovv ^Xaarrjaei^ 
oi/Tft)? exovaiv. 

At Se dvd7](T€L<; aKoXovOovai fiev to? elTrelv Kara 
Xoyov, ov firjv dXXd irapaXXdrTOvai, fidXXov Se 
Kal eirl irXeov rj tmv KapTrcov reXeLa>cn<;. Kpavela 
fxev ydp dTToSiSoycn irepl rpoirdf; Oepivd<i r) 7rp(oio<; 
(T-xeSov wcnrep irpcoTov 17 S' o-^ia, fjv Si] rcve<i 
KaXovcri OrjXvKpaveiav, fier avrb to fieroTrcopov 
ecrri Se 6 ravT7)<; Kapiro^ d^pa>ro<; Kal to ^vXov 
daOeve<i koI 'X^avvov Toaavrrj Sr) Siacpopd irepl 
dp.<f>o). Tep/jbivdo<i Se rrepl nvpov dfirjTov rj fxiKpu) 

^ See below, n. 4. 

^ TO d/c. 5oK. Kal a.\<T. conj.W. ; ra olk. koI Sok. koI a\cr. U 
MP ; T^ UK. TO SoK. aK(T. Aid. 
'^ &<nrep apologises for the unusual sense given to ivtcrr. 



along with the cultivated forms, as andrachne and 
hybrid arbutus ; and the wild pear is a little later 
than the cultivated. Some again bud both before 
zephyr begins to blow, and immediately after it has 
been blowing. Before it come cornelian cherry and 
cornel, after it bay and alder ; a little before the 
spring equinox come lime zygia Valonia oak fig. 
Hazel ^ oak and elder are also early in budding, and 
still more those trees which seem to have no fruit 
and to grow in groves,'^ abele elm willow black 
poplar ; and the plane is a little later than these. 
The others which bud when the spring is, as it were, 
becoming established,^ are such as wild fig alaternus 
cotoneaster Christ's thorn terebinth hazel * chestnut. 
The apple is late in budding, latest of all generally 
are ipsos ^ (cork-oak) aria (holm-oak) tetragonia 
odorous cedar yew. Such are the times of budding. 
The flowering times in general follow in proportion ; 
but they present some irregularity, and so in still 
more cases and to a greater extent do the times at 
which the fruit is matured. The cornelian cherry pro- 
duces its fruit about the summer solstice ; the early 
kind, that is to say, and this tree is about the earliest 
of all.** The late form, which some call 'female 
cornelian cherry ' (cornel), fruits quite at the end of 
autumn. The fruit of this kind is inedible and its 
wood is weak and spongy ; that is what the difference 
between the two kinds amounts to. The terebinth 
produces its fruit about the time of wheat-han'est or 

(usually ' beginning '). to 5* iXAa ia-rep eytarr. conj. W. ; tb 
S' iA.A<»r irep' U ; ra 5e> j irfpitviffTafifvov MAld. H. 

* Kapva can hardly be right both here and above. 

* See Index. 

* aX^^^" 3:arirep -rpStrov not in G, nor in Plin. (16. 105) ; text 
perhaps defective. 


oyjriairepov diroSiScocn kol jxeKia Koi a(j)ivha^vo^ 
Tov Oepovi rov Kapirow KXrjdpa Sk koi Kupva kol 
axpdScov Ti yevo^ fieroTTcopov 8pv<; 8e koI Sioa- 
^d\avo<i oy^Lalrepov en irepl nXeiaSo9 Svaiv, 
a)cravTa><i he kol (pcX-VKT] koi irplvo'i koX iraXiovpo'i 
Koi 6^vdKavdo<i fJbera nXetaSo9 hvcriv rj S' cipia 
')(€i/M(ovo<{ dp-)(piJbevov' Kol 7] pbrjXea fxev roU 7rpcoT0i<i 
'>^v)(€(Xiv, d'^pd'i 8e o-yjria ^et/iwi'o?' dvSpd^Xr] Be 
Kol d(pdpKi] TO fxev TrpcoTOv ireTraivovaiv djxa tm 
/SoTpvl irepKd^ovTi, to he vaTepov, hoKel yap TavTa 
hUapTra, dp')(opLevov tov '^^eip.wvo'i, iXaTrj he Kol 

5 fjitXo<; dvOovai p,iKp6v irpo rfkiov Tporrobv [/cat t^9 
ye e\dTri<i to dvdo'i KpoKtvov /cat dWco'i koXov] 
TOV he Kap-nov d(f)idai /xeTO, hvaiv TiXeidho'i. 
irevKri he koI ttItv^ irpoTepovai ttj ^XaaTrjaei 
fiiKpov, ocrov TTevTeKa'iheKa rjpLepai^, T0v<i he Kap- 
7rov<i dirohihoacn pbeTO, TiXeidha kuto, \6yov. 

TavTu p,ev ovv fxeTpicoTepav p.ev e)(ei irapaWa- 
yr]V irdvTwv he nrKeiaT-qv r] apKevOo^; koI rj /crjXaa- 
T/909 Kal rj TTplvo<i' 7] p,ev yap dpKevOo<i iviavcnov 
e'^eiv hoKel- irepiKaTaXap^dveL yap 6 z/eo? tov irepv- 
aivov. ct)? he Tivh <paaiv, ovhe TreTraCvei, hi o Kal 
7rpoa<paipovcn teal ')(^p6vov Tivd Tr/povcnv idv he id 

6 eVl TOV hevhpov rt?, d7ro^i]paiveTai. (f)aal he Kal ttjv 
Trptvov 01 Trepl ^ApKahiav eviavTW TeXeiovv dpua 
yap TOV evov TTeiraivei Kal tov veov virocfialvei' 
M(TT€ Tot9 T0L0VT0i<i av/ju/Salvei avvexco^ rbv Kapirov 
e'X^eiv. (paal he ye Kal ttjv KrfKacrTpov Inro tov 

' airoS. Ka\ fxeXia U ; airoS/Scofrc fxeXia Aid. Some confusion 
in text, but sense clear. 
2 o^^ila. : '>.T)o^ia W. 

1 82 


a little later, manna-ash^ and maple in summer ; alder 
hazel and a certain kind of wild pear in autumn ; 
oak and chestnut later still, about the setting of the 
Pleiad ; and in like manner alaternus kermes-oak 
Christ's-thorn cotoneaster after the setting of the 
Pleiad ; aria (holm-oak) when winter is beginning, 
apple with the first cold weather, wild pear late - in 
winter. Andrachne and hybrid arbutus first ripen 
their fruit Avhen the grape is turning, and again ^ 
when winter is beginning ; for these trees appear to 
bear twice. As for ^ silver-fir and yew, they flower 
a little before the solstice ; ^(the flower of the silver- 
fir is yellow and otherwise pretty) ; they bear their 
fruit after the setting of the Pleiad. Fir and Aleppo 
pine are a little earlier in budding, about fifteen 
days, but produce their fruit after the setting of the 
Pleiad, though proportionately earlier than silver-fir 
and yew. 

In these trees then the difference of time is not 
considerable ; the greatest difference is shewn in 
Phoenician cedar holly and kermes-oak ; for Phoe- 
nician cedar appears to keep its fruit for a year, the 
new fruit overtaking that of last year ; and, accord- 
ing to some, it does not ripen it at all ; wherefore 
men gather it unripe and keep it, whereas if it is left 
on the tree, it shrivels up. The Arcadians say that 
the kermes-oak also takes a year to perfect its fruit ; 
for it ripens last year's fruit at the same time that 
the new fruit appears on it; the result of which is that 
such trees always have fruit on them. They say also 

^ After Z<mpov Aid. adds aveovmi (so also H and G) ; Plin. 
13. 121. omits it ; om. W. after Sch. 
* yhp Aid. ; S^ conj. W. 
5 Probably an early gloss, W. c/. Plin. 16. 106. 



X^ifJ'Covo'i airo^dWeiv. o-^LKapira Se a(}>6Bpa koI 
(f)L\vpa Koi Trv^o<i. [rov 8e Kapirbv d/3p(OTOv 
e%e6 TTavrt, ^(oco (jylXvpa drfkyKpaveia 7rv^o<i. 
oylrUapTra 8e Kol kltto^ koX dpKevOo^ koX 
irevKT] Kol avhpdxKr^.'] co? he ol irepl 'ApKuSlav 
(fiaacv, €Tt TovTwv o-y^iKapirorepa a-xeBov 
Se irdvTwv 6-\JnaiT€pa rerpaycovLa dveta /it- 
X09. at puev ovv tmv Kapiriov diro^okal koI 

ireirdvaeii} twv d^ypiayv TOiavra<i exovai 8iacf)opd(i 
ov fiovov irpo'i rd rj/jLcpa dWd koI irpo^ eavrd. 

Y. ^vfj,/3aLV€i S* OTav dp^covrai ^Xaardveiv 
rd fxev dWa avvexv ^V^ T"e /SXdcrrijcnv kol rrjv 
av^rjcriv TTOLelcrdaL, irevKiqv Be kol iXdrrjv kol 
hpvv BtaXeLireiv, kol rpel^i 6pfid<; elvai xal rpet? 
a(f)i,evai (SXaarov'^, Bl o koI rplcrXoTTor irdv yap 
Bt) BevBpov orav ^Xaardvr] Xotto,' irpwrov /xev 
aKpov €apo<i evdv^ lara/xevov rov Sapyr]Xicovo<;, 
ev Be TTJ "IBrj Ttepl irevreKalBeKa /xdXiara rj/jbepwi' 
fierd Be ravra BiaXiTrovra wepl TptdKovra rj 
IxLKpSt TrXetof 9 eTn^aXXerat. irdXcv dXXov<i ^Xaa- 
Tovi cItt' dKpa<; rrj<i KopvvTjcreoo^ t^9 eirl too Trpo- 
repcp ^XacTTOf koX rd fiev dvco rd 8' et? rd 
irXdyia kvkXw TroieiTai rrjv ^Xdarrjoiv, olov yovv 

^ (plKvpa Aid.; <f>i\vpea conj. Sch. 
^ rhv Sh . . . . avSpdx^v- Apparently a gloss, W. 
^ rerpayaivia conj. Sch. (rerpa- omitted after -repo) : c/, § 2 ; 
yojvla MV ; yoivUia U. 

* rS>v aypiwv after ireirdvaets Conj. Sch.; after i^uepa Aid. 

* Plin. 16. 100. 



that holly loses its fruit owing to the winter. Lime ^ 
and box are ver}- late in fruiting, (lime has a fruit 
which no animal can eat, and so have cornel and 
box. Ivy Phoenician cedar fir and andrachne are 
late fruiting-) though, according to the Arcadians, 
still later than these and almost latest of all are 
teiragonia ^ odorous cedar and yew. Such then 
are the differences as to the time of shedding and 
ripening their fruit between wild* as compared 
with cultivated trees, and likewise as compared with 
one another. 

Of the itasons of bwldiuy. 

V. * Now most trees, when they have once begun 
to bud, make their budding and their growth con- 
tinuously, but with fir silver-fir and oak there are 
intervals. They make three fresh starts in growth 
and produce three sejiarate sets of buds ; wherefore 
also they lose their bark thrice ^ a year. For every 
tree loses its bark when it is budding. This first 
happens in mid-spring "^ at the very beginning of the 
month Thargelion,8 on Mount Ida within about 
fifteen days of that time ; later, after an interval of 
about thirty days or rather more, the tree ^ puts on 
fresh buds which start from the head of the knobby 
growth 1** which formed at the first budding-time; and 
it makes its budding partly on the top of this,ii partly 
all round it laterally,^- using the knob formed at the 

* rpiaXoToi conj. Sch.; TpiaXoixoi UM,V; rpiaXfroi MjAld. 
c/. 4. 15. 3 ; 5. 1. 1. 

' €opoy conj. R. Const.; atpos VAld. c/. Plin. I.e. 

* About May. 

* What follows evidently applies only to the oak. 

^^ Kopvyrifffus conj. Sch.; Kopivris ?«s UMV; Kopixprjs e«s 
11 c/. 3. 6. 2. 12 rh add. Sch. 



TTonja-d/xepa rrjv tov Trpcorov /SXacTTOv Kopvvijv, 
(oairep koX rj Trpcorr] ^Xdarrjai'i e%6i. yiverai Be 
Tovro irepl tov Xfctppo(f)opc(bva Xijyovra. 

2 Kara Se ravrrjv rrjv ^XdaTrjcriv koI rj K^]Kl<i 
(jiverai- irdaa, kul i) XevKrj koL t] fJueXaiva' ^verai 
Se ft)9 eVt TO TToXv vvKro<i ddpoo^- i(f rjfxepav 8e 
fxtav av^7}9et(ra, Tr\rjv rr)<i TnTToetSov^;, idv viro 
TOV Kavfi.aTO<i \rj^6fj ^rjpatveTai, Kol dvav^r]<; eVl 
TO jjiei^ov, ijiveTO yap av p,ei^(ov tw p,eyedei. 
hioirep Tive^ avTMV ov fiei^ov e'x^ovai Kvd/j,ov to 
pAyeOo^. 7] h\ fxekaiva kol iirl TrXetou? rjfiepa^ 
€yx^(i>po<i i(TTi, Kol av^dvovTUL KoX Xa/x/Sdvovaiv 
evLai fJue<ye6o<i /xrjXov. 

AtaXeiTTOVTa Se fxeTO, tovto Trepl irevTeKaiheKa 
r]/jbepa<i trdXiv to TpiTov i7ri/3dXX€TaL ^XaaTovi 
'EKaTO/ui^aiMVO^;, eX,a;^to-Ta9 rjfiepwi TOiv irpoTe- 
pov i(T(o<i yap €^ rj evTTa to irXelcTTOV' rj Be 
^XdcrTr)ai<; ofiola Kal tov avTOv Tpoirov. irapeX- 
dov<T(ov he TOVTwv ovKeTi eh fir}K0<i dXX^ el<; 
7rd^o<; r] av^r}cn<i TperreTaL. 

3 Hacn fiev ovv T0i9 Bevhpoi<i at ^XaaTrjaei'^ 
^avepai, fidXiaTa he Tfj eXdTrj Kal t]] TrevKrj hia 
TO cyT0i')(elv tcl ydvaTa Kal e^ taov tov<; o^ov<; 
e;^etf. wpa he Kal tt/jo? to TefivecrOai to, ^vXa 
TOTS hid TO Xorrav iv yap Tot<; dXXoi<i Kaipoi^ 
ovK ev7repcaLpeT0<i 6 (}iXoi6<i, dXXd Kal irepiaipe- 
devTO<i fxeXav to ^uXov yiveTat Kal Trj 6-\^et, x^ipov 
eVet Kal 7rpo9 ye ttjv xP^'^^^ ovhev, dXXd Kal 

1 About June. 

2 c/. 3. 7. 4 ; 3. 8. 6 ; Plin. 16. 27. 

^ ^yX^'^P"^ conj. Coraes ; e(jx>^t^pos Aid. 
♦ 5*c(^e/Toi'T« conj. St.; SiaAeiJrovo-oi Ald.H. 

1 86 


first budding as a sort of joint, just as in the case of 
the first budding. This happens about the end of 
the month Skirrophorion.i 

2 (It is only at the time of this second budding that 
the galls also are produced, both the white and the 
black ; the liquid forming them is mostly produced in 
quantity at night, and, after swelling for one day 
— except the part which is of resinous character — it 
hardens if it is cauglit by the heat, and so cannot grow 
any more ; otherwise it would have grown greater in 
bulk ; wherefore in some trees the formation is not 
larger than a bean. The black gall is for several 
daj's of a pale green ^ colour ; then it swells and some- 
times attains the size of an apple.) 

Then, after an interval * of about fifteen days, the 
tree for the third time puts on buds in the month 
Hekatombaion ^ ; but this growth continues for fewer 
days than on either of the previous occasions, perhaps 
for six or seven at most. However the formation ot 
the buds is as before and takes place in the same 
manner. After this period there is no increase in 
length, but the only increase is in thickness. 

The periods of budding can be seen in all trees, 
but especially in fir and silver-fir, because the joints 
of these are in a regular series and have the knots 
at even distances. It is then the season also for 
cutting the timber, because the bark is being shed '' ; 
for at other times the bark is not easy to strip off, 
and moreover, if it is stripped off, the wood turns 
black '' and is inferior in app>earance ; for as to its 
utility ^ this makes no difference, though the wood 

' About July. 

* \<yira.v conj. Sch.; Aonrav UMV; Xixav Aid. 

" ef. Plin. 16. 74. 

^ ye conj. Sch. ; re Aid. 



la-'X^upoTepov, eav fiera rrjv ireiravcnv tmv Kapirwv 


Tavra fiev ovv i8ia tmv Trpoetprj/xevcov hevhpwv. 
at he ^\aaT7](Tei<i a'l irrl }^vv\ kuI ^ApKrovpo) yivo- 
fievai p,€Ta rrjv eaptvrjv a'^eSbv Kotval ttclvtcov 
evhrfkoL he fjuaXkov ev roi<i rj/xepot,^ kuI tovtcov 
fiakLara crvKfi koX dfiireXcp kol poia koI oXco^ oaa 
evTpa(f)7] KoX OTTOV %<»/oa rotavrr]' ht o koI ttjv 
eV ^ApKTOvpq) irXeiaT'qv ^aal 'yiveadai nrepl Ser- 
ToXiav KOL yiaKehoviav afia yap av/j,j3acvei kuI 
TO fxeroTTcopov koXov <ytveadai koI puaKpov, Mare 
Kol TTjv jjLoXaKOTrjTa crvfi^dWecrdai rod depo<i. 
iirel Kol ev AIjuttto) hid rovB' oo'i euTrelv alel 
^Xaardvei rd hevhpa, rj /cal fiiKpov Tiva htaXetTrei. 

^AXXd rd p,ev irepl xa? i7rL/3XaaTi]aei<;, wairep 
etpTjrai, Koivd, rd he Trepl ra? hiaXeLyfrei<; diro t?}*? 
TrpcoTrj'i ihia tmv Xe'X^Oevrcov. thiov S' ivLoi<i 
v'irdp')(eL Kol to tt)? KaXovfjLevrjf; Ka'^pvo';, olov 
Tol<; [re] Trpoeiprjfievoi'i' e^ei jdp /cal eXaTrj koL 
TTevKT) Koi hpv<i, Kol GTC (ptXvpa KoX Kapva koX 
hio(7^dXavo<i koi ttItv^. avTUi he jlvoptui hpvi 
fiev irpo Tr]<i ^XaaTijaeco'i v'iro(^aLvovcrri<; Tfj<i 
r}pivri<i Mpa<;. earc S' wairepel KV7]at<i (pvXXiKrj 
jxeTa^i) irlirTOvaa t7J<; e^ dp')(fj<i eTTOihrjaew'i koI 
Trjf (})vXXiKr}<; /3XacrT?^crect)9' Trj 5' ot; ecrrt tov 

^ SevSpwv conj. R. Const.; Kapir&v Ald.H. 
2 cJ.G.P. 1. 10. 6; 1. 12. 4; 1. 13. 3; 1. 13. 5; 1. 13. 10; Plin. 
16. 98. 8 c/. C.P. 1. 14. 11. * cf. 5. 1. 4; Plin. 16. 30. 



is stronger if it is cut after the ripening of the 

Now what has been said is peculiar to the above- 
mentioned trees.^ 2 ^^^\^ tj^g buddings which take 
place at the rising of the dog-star and at that of 
Arcturus after the spring budding are common to 
nearly all, though they may be most clearly seen in 
cultivated trees, and, among these, especially in fig 
vine pomegranate, and in general in all those that 
are luxuriant in growth or are gi'owing in rich soil. 
Accordingly they say that the budding at the rising 
of Arcturus is most considerable in Thessaly and 
Macedonia ^ ; for it also happens that the autumn in 
these countries is a fair and a long season ; so that 
the mildness of the climate also contributes. Indeed 
it is for this reason, one may say, that in Egypt too 
the trees are always budding, or at least that the 
process is only suspended for quite a short time. 

Now the facts as to the later buddings apply, as 
has been said, to all trees alike ; but those which 
belong to the intervals after the first period of 
budding ai*e peculiar to those mentioned above. 
Peculiar to some also is the growth of what are 
called ' winter buds,' '^ for instance in the above- 
mentioned trees ; silver-fir fir and oak have them, and 
also lime hazel chestnut and Aleppo pine. These 
are found in the oak before the leaf-buds grow, when 
the spring season is just beginning. This growth 
consists of a sort of leaf-like formation,^ which occurs 
between the first swelling of the leaf-buds and the 
time when they burst into leaf. In the sorb^ it 

^ f(TTt . . . (pvWiKrj: i(TTi conj. R. Const.; iioTrepfl conj. Sch.; 
?Tt Se Zairep tj KVTjffis <pv\aKh UAld.H. ; (pvWiidi mBas. etc. 

^ Tf) 5' 077 ((ttI conj. W. (c/. the description of oij, 3. 12. 8) ; 
T^ 8' iSidr-nrt Aid. 



fieroTr(i)pov fiera T-qv <f>vWol3o\tav €vdv<i Xnrapd 
Tt9 Kal warrep i7ro)Sr]Kvia, Kadairepavel /xeWovaa 
^Xaardvetv, Kal Siafiiveo tov 'x^ec/xcova /J'i'xpi' tov 
rjpo'i. rj Be 'HpaKXecoTiKt) fxerd rrjv aTTo^oXrjV rov 
KapTTOv (f)vei TO ^orpvoihe'^ rfK-iKov (JKoykrj^ evpbe- 
<y€0r]<;, ef evo<; ixicrxov irXelo) Bt], a KoKoval Tive'i 
lovXov^. TovTwv e/caarov eK puKpwv av'^KSirai 
pLOpLMV (f)o\iBa)T(ov TTJ TCb^eL, KaOdiTep 01 (TTpo^iKoc 
Trj<i 7r€VKT]<;, ooare fi7] dvopuoiav elvai rrjV 6^\nv 
crrpo^iXu) ve(p koI 'xXcopw "nXrjv irpopLriKecnepov 
Kol ax^^ov IcroTrax^'i BioXov. tovto Be av^erai 
TOV ;^6t/i&>z^a' {koX djxa T<p rjpi X'^'^'^^^ '^^ (f)oXi- 
BcoTo, Kol ^av6a yiveTat), /cat to /nrjKO'i Xafi^dvei 
Kal TpiBdKTvXov OTav Be tov r)po^ to <f)vX\ov 
^XaaTdvrj, rauT' dTroiriTrTei Kal to, tov Kapvov 
KaXvKooBr] irepLKapina fyiveTai av/xf^efjiVKOTa KaTO, 
TOV fXLcrxov, TOcravTa oaa Kal r)v to, avOt]' tovtwv 
V ev cKdaTM Kdpvov ev. irepl Be Trj<i <f)iXvpa<i 
iTTiaKeiTTeov, Kal et tl dXXo Kaxpvo(fi6pov. 

VI. "EcTTt Be Kal to, puev evav^fj to, Be Bvaav^rf. 
evav^rj p,ev Td re irdpvBpa, olov ivTeXea 7rXdTavo<; 
XevKTj atyecpoii hia' Kai tol irepl TavTr)<i d/ji<f)ia- 
firjTovai Tive<i ft)9 Bvaav^ov<i' Kal tcov Kapiroi^opwv 
Be eXdTr) irevKT] Bpv<;. evav^ecTTaTov Be . . . /itXo9 

^ evOiis \iirapa conj. Sch. ; t<s add. W. ; ev6vs ai trapa rrjs \J. 
^ (pvfi conj. W.; (pverai Aid. ^ i.e. catkins, cf. 3. 3. 8. 

* TtKilu 5^ conj. Sch.; wjcoSt; UMVAld.; -nXelova U ?. 
» cf. 3. 10. 4. 

" a-v/LLimenvKOTa Kara, rov fj..: G evidently had a different 
text ; ? <rvfine(t>vK6Ta W. 



occurs in the autumn after the shedding of tlie 
leaves, and has from the first a glistening look,' as 
though swelling had taken place, just as if it were 
about to burst into leaves ; and it persists through 
the winter till the spring. The filbert after casting 
its fruit produces ^ its clustering growth,^ which is 
as large as a good-sized grub : several * of these grow 
from one stalk, and some call them catkins. Each 
of these is made up of small processes arranged 
like scales, and resembles the cone of the fir, so that 
its appearance is not unlike that of a young green 
fir-cone, except that it is longer and almost of the 
same thickness throughout. This grows through the 
winter (when spring comes, the scale-like processes 
open and turn yellow) ; it grows to the length of three 
fingers, but, when in spring the leaves are shooting, 
it falls off, and the cup-like ^ fruit-cases of the nut 
are formed, closed all down *^ the stalk and coire- 
sponding " in number to the flowers ; and in each ot 
these is a single nut. The case of the lime and 
of any other tree that produces winter-buds needs 
further consideration. 

Of the comparative rate of growth in trees, and of the length oj 
their roots. 

VI. Some trees are quick-growing, some slow. 
Quick-growing are those which grow by the waterside, 
as elm plane abele black poplar willow ; (however 
some dispute about the last-named, and consider it 
a slow grower :) and of fruit-bearing trees, silver-fir 
fir oak. Quickest growing of all are . . .^ yew lakara 

' oaa Kol ?iv TO. iv6ri conj. W.; oira koI Kara ivOri Aid. 
* Lacuna in text (Sch.W.). The following list of trees also 
appears to be in confusion, and includes some of both classes. 



Kai XuKapa ^77709 apKevOo<; cr^ev^afivo^; ocrrpva 
^vyta fxeXia KkrjOpa 7riTv<i dvSpd'xXr} Kpaveia 
TTu^o? dxp(i<i. Kap7ro(f)opei 8' evdv^ iXdrr] TrevKt) 
7riTV<;, Kav otttjXikovovv /j,eje6o<; XajSwaiv. 

H he av^7)ai<i koI tj ^\d(jTr\(n<i tmv fiev dWcov 
ara/CTO? Kara toi'9 tottov^ tmv ^Xacrrwv, Trj^ 8' 
ekdrrjf; wpicTfievr] /cat avvexv^ kuI varepov. orav 
ryap eK rov aT€\e')(pv<; rd irpcoTa ax^crd^, irdXiv ef 
eKeivov rj erepa ayi(Ti-'i 'yiverai Kara rov avrov 
rpoTTOv, Kol Tovr del irotel Kara Trdaa^; Ta.9 eVt- 
^\aarr)(Tei<i. ev he TOt<i dWoi<; ov5' 01 0^01 kut 
aXXr}\ov<; TrXrjv eiri rivcov oXtycov, olov kotlvov 
/cat dXXo)v' e^ei he /cal rrjhe hia<popdv rj av^r)cn<; 
Koivfi irdvrwv onolo)^ •^fxepcov re koX dypicov rd 
fxev yap koX eK rov dxpov rwv /SXaar&v kol eK 
rS)v irXayicov (f)verai, KaOdirep dirio^ poa (tvkt] 
fjbvppivo<; a^^hov rd irXelara' rd 8' eK rov aKpov 
ixev ovK dvLijcTLv €K he rcov irXayloov, koI avro 
'rrpoooO eZr ai ro virdp^ov, wairep koI to oXov are- 
Xe%09 Kal 01 dKpefji6ve<i. avpL^aivei he rovro eVt 
T779 HepaiKrj^; Kapva<; kol rrj^; '}ipaKXea)riKr)<; koI 
dXXaiv. dirdvrwv he rcov roiovrcov et9 ^v (pvXXov 
drroreXevrcaaiv ol ^Xaarot, hi o Kal evXSyco^; ovk 
eTTi^Xaardvei Kal av^dverai pLrj e^orra dp^/jv. 
ippoia he rpoirov rivd rj av^r]ai<; Kal rov crirov 

^ Kark . . . ^XaffTwv conj. W. ; Karh, rovs rpSirovs (corrected 
to tSttovs) Kal 0\a(rrovs U ; MVP insert rovs before /SAoottowi. 

^ eKfivov . . . Kara conj. W. ; eKflvov r) kr4pa (rvf^eTai to tea 
Kol UAld. 

=* SWwv : ? i\ W, ; I suggest &\\<av ^XaSiv. 



(bird-cherry) V'alonia oak Phoenician cedar maple 
hop-hornbeam zygia manna-ash alder Aleppo pine 
andrachne cornelian cherry box wild pear. But 
silver-fir fir and Aleppo pine bear fruit from the very 
first, whatever size they have attained. 

While the growth and budding of most trees are 
irregular as regards the position in which the buds 
appear,! 1\^q growth and budding of the silver-fir 
follow a regular rule, and its development afterwards 
is also in a regular sequence. For, when the trunk 
first divides, then again from the divided trunk the 
second division ^ takes place in like manner, and so the 
tree goes on with each fresh formation of buds. In 
other trees not even the knots are opposite to one 
another, except in some few cases, as wild olive and 
others.' Here too we find a difference in the 
manner of growth which belongs to all trees alike, 
both cultivated and wild : in some cases the growth 
is from the top of the shoots and also from the side- 
buds,'* as in pear pomegranate fig myrtle and the 
majority of trees, one may say : in some cases the 
growi:h is not from the top, but only from the side- 
buds, and the already existing part is pushed out ^ 
further, as is the whole trunk with the upper 
branches. This occurs in the walnut and in the filbert 
as well as in other trees. In all such trees the buds end 
in a single leaf**; wherefore it is reasonable that 
they should not make fresh buds and growth from this 
point, as they have no point of departure. (To a 
certain extent the growth of com is similar ; for it 

* iK TOW . . . TXayiuv : ? iic rod ixpov Kcd ix ruy ■r\ayiuy 
^Keurruv. cj. 3. 5. 1. 

* i.e. grows without dividing, cf. Plin. 16. 100. (of dif- 
ferent trees). 

* ^vAXov perhaps conceals some other word. 



Kol yap ovTO<i ael rfj TTpodxret rov v7rdp'^0VT0<; 
av^dverai, kclv KoXo^coOfj ra (pvXka, Kaddirep ev 
Tol<i e7n^ocrKO/xevoL<i' TrXrjv outo? ^e ovk eK rov 
TrXayiov 7rapa(f)vet, Kaddirep evia tcov x^SpOTrcov.) 
avTT} fxev ovv Biacj^opd Ti<i av etrj ^\aaTrjaew<i 
dfia Kal av^7]a€W<i. 

^aOvppi^a Se ov (pacrl Tive<: eivai rd dypia Bid 
TO (fivecrdai 'jrdvra aTTO cr7repparo<;, ovk dyav 
6p6(t)<i XeyovTCi;. evhe^erai yap orav e/x/Stcocr?; 
iroppco KaOUvac Td<; pi^a<i' eVei Kal tmv \a')(^dv(ov 
rd TToWd TovTo nroLel, Kalirep dadevearepa ovra 
Kal evapyoi^ (f>v6fj,6va <iv> rfj yfj. ^advppi^oraTov 
S* ovv 8oK€l ro)v dyplcov eivai rj Trplvo'i' iXdrr} Be 
Kal vrevKr] /j,€Tpi(o<i, eTmroXaioraTOv Be Opavira- 
X,09 Kal KOKKvprfKea Kal a7roBt,d<;' avrr] B^ icrrlv 
MCTTrep dypla KOKKVjJbrfKea. ravra fiev ovv Kal 
oXtyoppi^a' 6 Be dpavrra\o<i rroXvppi^ov. avp,- 
^aivei Be toi<; dXkoi<i T0t<; fx,r} Kara ^dOov<; e^ovai. 
Kal ovx rjKLara iXdrrj Kal irevKr), 7rpoppi,^oi<; vrro 
rSiv TTvevpLaTCdv eKTriirTeiv. 

Ot fiev ovv irepl 'ApKaBiav ovtco Xeyovaiv. o'l 
8' e'/c TTj^ "1 8779 ^advppi^orepov eXdrr^v Bpvo<; aXX" 
eXaTTOf? €X€iv Kal evdvppi^orepav elvar ^aOvppt- 
^QTaTov Be Kal rrjv KOKKvpirjXeav Kal rrjv 'Upa- 
KXeo)TLK7]V, ra? Be pi^a<i XeTrrd'i Kal laxypd'i ttjv 
' HpaKXecoriKrjv, rrjv Be KOKKVpLrjXeav TToXvppi^ov, 
dfKpo) 8' e/x^iMvai Belv BvaooXed pov Be Trjv 
KOKKVfiTjXeav. e7rt7roX^9 Be a^evBapuvov Kal 

rov virdpxovTos coiij. Sch. from G ; tjj virapxovffri Aid. 
ohh' : ? ohK W. 3 piin. 16. 127'. 

«>;8tci(rT, : cf. 3. 6. 5 ; O.P. 1. 2. 1. 



also regularly increases by pushing forward of the 
already existing part/ even if the leaves are mutilated, 
as in corn which is bitten down by animals. Corn 
however does not'^ make side-growths, as some 
leguminous plants do.) Here then we may find a 
difference which occurs both in the making of buds 
and in the making of fresh growth. 

3 Some say that wild trees are not deep rooting, 
because they all grow from seed ; but this is not a 
very accurate statement. For it is possible that, 
when they are well established,* they may send 
their roots down far ; in fact even most pot-herbs 
do this, though these are not so strong as trees, and 
are undoubtedly grown from seed planted in the 
ground.^ The kermes-oak however seems to be the 
deepest rooting of wild trees ; silver-fir and fir are 
only moderately so, and shallowest are joint-fir plum 
bullace (which is a sort of wild plum). The last 
two also have few roots, while joint-fir has many. 
Trees which do not root deep,* and especially silver- 
fir and fir, are liable to be rooted up b}' winds. 

So the Arcadians say. But the people who live 
near Mount Ida say that the silver fir is deeper 
rooting' than the oak,^ and has straighter roots, 
though they are fewer. Also that those which have 
the deepest roots are plum and filbert, the latter 
having strong slender roots, the former having 
many : but they add that both trees must be well 
established to acquire these characters ; also that 
plum is very tenacious of life. Maple, they say, 

* iyapyus . . . 75 : so G ; ^v add. W. 
® 0<i0ovs conj. Sch.; j3a0os Aid. 

^ $adoppi(6r(poy conj. W.; ^oBvppi^oraiov UMVAld. 
"* Proverbial for its hold on the ground ; cf. Verg. Atn. 4. 
441 foU. 

o 2 


6\i'ya<i' Tr}v ^e fieXiav irXeiov; koX elvat irvKvop- 
pi^ov Kal ^aOvppc^ov. i7n7ro\r]<i Se koI apKevdov 
KoX KeSpov Kal K\7]dpa<i Xe7rTa9 /cal 6/ia\et9' 
en 8' o^vrjv Kal yap tovt iTrnroXacoppi^ov Kal 
okiyoppt^ov. rrjv Se ovav €7rnro\aLov<i fiev l(JX^' 
pa<i he Kal 7ra%eta9 Kal hvaoiXedpov^ TrXtjOei, Se 
fjbeTpLa<i. ^advppi^a pev ovv Kal ov ^advppii^a 
ra ToiavT iariv. 

VIT. ^ Am-OKoirevro^ he tov o-reXe^oi/? ra pev 
aXXa TrdvO^ 0)9 elirelv irapa^Xaardvei, TrXrjv iav 
at pi^ai TTporepov Tv-)(U)cn TreTrovTjKvlar TrevKrj 
8e Kal iXdrrj TeXicof; eK pi^Mv avTO€Tei<i avaivovrai 
Kal edv TO uKpov iTriKOTrfj. avp^alvet, Be tBiov 
Tfc irepl Tr}V eXaTrjV orav yap KOirfj rj KoXova-Ofj 
VTTO TTveup.aro'; rj koI aXXov TLvb<i irepl to Xelov 
rov areXi'Xpv'i — e;j^^et yap p^e'x^pi Tii/09 Xelov Kal 
do^ov Kal 6p,aXov iKavov ictto) ttXoIov — irept.- 
<f)v€Tai piKpov, viroBeearepov eh v'y^o^, Kal Ka- 
XoixTLv 01 p.ev dp(f)av^iv 01 he dp(fiL<f>vav, rq> pev 
Xp(op,aTi, p^eXav rfj he (TKXrjporrjTi virep^dXXov, 
e^ ov rov'i KpaTrjpa^ iroiovatv 01 irepl ^ApKahlav 
2 TO he TTd')(p<i olov av TVj(r) to hevhpov, oacpirep 
dv la'xypoTepov Kal iyx^XoTepov rj ira^xyTepov. 
avp^aivet he KaKelvo ihiov ev TavTcp tovto) irepl 

^ (T(p. Kol oKlyus conj. W. ; <r<^. /car' oXtyov UMVAld. 
'^ i.e. not very fibrous. 

2 c/. Hdt. 6. 37, and the proverb vItvos rpSvov iKrplffeadai. 
* b/xaXov conj. ScaL ; no lov Aid. 

' iKavhv 'lirr<(> vXoiov conj. W.; ^ Koi i]\Ikov irXiluv Aid.; so 
UH, but with nXoiov. 



has shallow roots and few of them ^ ; but manna-ash 
has more and they are thickly matted and run 
deep ; . Phoenician cedar and prickly cedar, they say, 
have shallow roots, those of alder are slender and 
' plain,' - as also are those of beech ; for this too has 
few roots, and they are near the surface. Sorb, they 
say, has its roots near the surface, but they are 
strong and thick and hard to kill, though not very 
numerous. Such are the trees which are or are 

not deep-rooting. 

Of the effects of cutting doicn the rchole or part of a tree. 

VII. Almost all trees shoot from the side if the 
trunk is cut down, unless the roots have previously 
been injured ; but fir and silver-fir wither away ^ 
completely from the roots within the year, if merely 
the top has been cut off. And there is a peculiar 
thing about the silver-fir; when it is topped or 
broken off short by ^vind or some other cause 
affecting the smooth part of the trunk — for up to a 
certain height the trunk is smooth knotless and 
plain * (and so suitable for making a ship's mast ^), — 
a certain amount of new growth forms round it, 
which does not however grow much vertically : and 
this is called by some amphauxis ^ and by others 
amphiphi/a ** ; it is black in colour and exceedingly 
hard, and the Arcadians make their mixing-bowls 
out of it ; the thickness is in proportion " to the tree, 
according as that is more or less vigorous and sappy, 
or again according to its thickness. There ^ is this 
peculiarity too in the silver-fir in the same connexion ; 

* Two words meaning ' growth about,' i.e. callns. 
'• oiov ftv conj. W. ; olov 4av Aid. ; ovov tiv conj. ScaL 
« Plin. 16. 123. 



TTjV eXdrr/v orav fxev yap ri<i Tov<i 6^ov<i a7ravTa<; 
aipeXoiv aTTOKoyJrjj to aKpov, airodprjo-Kei ra^ew?' 
orav Be ra Karcorepco ra Kara ro Xeiov a<^e\r], 

^fl TO KaToXoLTTOV, TTCpl O St) Kol 7] dfx(f)av^i,<i 

<f)veTai. ^fi he SrjXov on t& ey^iiXov elvai koX 
XKwpov, etirep airapd^XaaTov. dXXd yap tovto 
fiev thiov Tf]<i iXdrrjf;. 

3 ^epei 8e rd /jcev dXXa tov re Kapirov rov 
eavTOJV Kal rd Kar eviavrov einyivoixeva Tavra, 
(pvXXov dvOo<i ^Xaa-Tov rd Se Kal jSpvov rj eXiKa- 
rd Se irXelw, KaOdirep rj re irreXea rov re /36rpvv 
Kai ro 0vXaK(t)Be^ rovro, Kal crvKrj Kal rd epivd 
ra TrpoaTroTTLTrrovra Kal e'i rive'i dpa r&v ctvkmv 
oXvvOocfiopovcrcv' iaQ)<; 8e rpoirov rtvd KapiTO'i 
ovro'i. rlxV 77 'HpaKXecoriKr) Kapva rov tovXov 
Kai, 7] rrplvo'i rov (^oivlkovv kokkov r] he hdtpvri 
ro ^orpvov. (pepei jxev Kal rj Kap7ro(f)6po<;, el pur) 
Kat Trdaa dXXd roi yevo<i ri avrri>i, ov p^rjv dXXd 
rrXeov ;; aKapirof, fjv hrj Kal dppevd Ttve<i KaXov- 
<Tiv. aXX 7) rrevKT] rov rrpoairoiTiTrrovra kvt- 

4 TlXelara Be rravruiv rj Spv<i Trapd rov Kapirov, 
olov rriv re KrjKiBa rr)V fiiKpdv Kal rrjv erepav 

^ i.e. and so does not, like other trees under like treat- 
ment, put its strength into these, cf. C.P. 5. 17. 4. 

2 kavTwv conj. Sch. from G ; ahrhv Aid. 

« The leaf-gall, cf. 2. 8. 3; 3. 14. I. For tovto cf. 3. 18. 11 ; 
4. 7. 1. ■• Lat. r/ cf. C.P. 5. 1. 8. 

^ Tiva Kupwhs conj. Sch.; tivu &Kapiros UAld. 



when, after taking off all the branches, one cuts off 
the top, it soon dies ; yet, when one takes off the 
lower parts, those about the smooth portion of the 
trunk, what is left survives, and it is on this part 
that the amphaujcis forms. And plainly the reason 
why the tree survives is that it is sappy and green 
because it has no side-growths.^ Now this is peculiar 
to the silver-fir. 

0/ other things borne by trees besides their leaves flowers and 

Now, while other trees bear merely their own ^ 
fruit and the obvious parts which form annually, to 
wit, leaf Hower and bud, some bear also catkins or 
tendrils, and some produce otlier things as well, for 
instance the elm its ' cluster ' and the familiar bag- 
like thing,^ the fig both the immature figs which drop 
off and (in some kinds) the untimely figs •* — though 
perhaps in a sense ^ these should be reckoned as 
fruit. Again filbert produces its catkin,^ kermes-oak 
its scarlet ' berry,' " and bay its ' cluster.' ^ The 
fruit-bearing sort of bay also produces this, or at all 
events ^ one kind certainly does so ; however the 
sterile kind, which some call the ' male,' produces 
it in greater quantity. The fir again bears its 'tuft,'^*' 
which drops off. 

11 The oak however bears more things besides ^^ its 
fruit than any other tree ; as the small gall i^ and its 

6 c/. 3. 3. 8 ; 3. 5. 5. 

' cf. 3. 16. 1. i.e. the kermes gall (whence Eng. 'crimson'). 

» fiorpvov UMVAld., supported by G. and Plin. 16. 120; 
but some editors read ^pvoy on the strength of 3. 11.4. and 
C.P. 2. 11. 4. 9 aAAo Toi conj. W. ; aWk koI Aid. 

^0 cf. 3. 3. 8 n. " PUn. 16. 28. 

12 iraoa conj, W,, c/. § 6 ; <t>fptt Aid. i^ ^y 3 5 o. 



•T^i/ TriTTcoSrj fieKaivav. en he avKafXiVMha dWo 
rfj fji'0p(j)f] TrXrjv crKkrjpov koL Sva/cdraKrov, 
cnrdviov he rovro' koX erepov alSoicoSr] a')(^ecnv 
e^ov, reXeiovfjbevov 8' eV* aK\nf]pov Ka-rd ttjv 
eTTavdaraaiv koX rerpvir-qfjievov' 7rpoae/x<pepe<i 
rpoTTOv TLvd toOt' icrrl Kal ravpov Ke<^a\fj, Trepi- 
Karayvv/Jbevov Be evhodev e%€t 7rvpr}vo<; i\da<i 
lao(f)ve<;. (J3vei 8e Kal tov wtt' ivLCOv KoKovfjuevov 
ttTKov tovto 3' earl (K^aipiov epi(oSe<; fJioXaicov 
•nepl TTvprjvcov aKkrjpoTepov 7recf)VK6<i, m 'X^pcovrai 
7rpo<i rov<i '\v')(vov<;' Kacerai yap /caXeo?, wairep 
Kal rj /xeXaiva Kr]KL<i. (pvei 8e Kal erepov a(f)aipiov 
KOfirjv exov, rd fxev dWa d'^petov, Kard 8e rrjv 
iapiVTjv wpav eirl^airrov %i'Xa) /neXLTtjpa) Kal Kard 
rrjv d^rjv Kal Kard rrjv yevcriv. 

Ilapacfivec 8' evSorepco t>79 tmv pa^hwv ixaaxct- 
Xiho'i erepov a-^aipiov dpnayov rj Kal KoiX6fiicr')(^ov 
iSiov Kal TToiKiXov rov<i fiev ydp eTravecrrrjKora^ 
6/jb(f)aXov<i eTTLkevKov; rj eirecrrLyixevovi e%et [xeKa- 
j/a? TO S' dvd /LLeaov KOKKo^acf)e<i Kal XafMirpov 
dvoiyofxevov S' earl p^eXav Kal eTrlaairpov. airdvtov 
8e TTapa^vet, Kal XiOdpiov Kiacr')]poei8e<; iirl 
rrXeiov. en S' aXXo rovrov a'rraviairepov (f)vXXi- 
Kov crvfM7re7rcXr]fji€Vov irpofirjKe'i crcpaiplov. eirl 8e 
rov (pvXXov <f)vei Kard rtp pd'^iv cr(f>atpi,ov XevKov 
Biavye^i v8arS)8e<i, orav diraXov -p' rovro 8e Kal 

^ TTvprivos e\das Iffofves conj. W.; Trvprjvos tKaia flpov(pvnv 
UMV ; irvfjTiva f'Ao/a elpovipirjv Aid. 

^ nrepl Trvp'f)viov ffKXT}p6Tepov I conj. ; Trepl irvp-qviov <TK\r\p6Tr\ra 
U ; "Kipl TTvpTjviov <TK\rjp6repov M ; trepnrvprjvlov ffKKr)p6Tepov 
VAId. W. prints the reading of U. p-or irlKoi see Index. 


other black resinous gall. Again it has another 
growth, like a mulberry in shape, but hard and 
difficult to break ; this however is not common. It 
has also another growth like the penis in shape, 
which, when it is further developed, makes a hard 
prominence and has a hole through it. This to a 
certain extent resembles also a bull's head, but, when 
split open, it contains inside a thing shaped like the 
stone of an olive.' The oak also produces what some 
call the ' ball ' ; this is a soft woolly spherical object 
enclosing a small stone which is harder,' and men 
use it for their lamps ; for it burns well, as does the 
black gall. The oak also produces another hairy 
ball, which is generally useless, but in the spring 
season it is covered with a juice which is like honey 
both to touch and taste. 

3 Further the oak produces right inside the axil * 
of the branches another ball with no stalk or else ^ 
a hollow one ; this is peculiar and of various colours : 
for the knobs which arise on it are whitish or black 
and spotted,^ while the part between these is brilliant 
scarlet ; but, when it is opened, it is black and 
rotten." It also occasionally produces a small stone 
which more or less resembles pumice-stone ; also, less 
commonly, there is a leaf-like ball, which is oblong 
and of close texture. Further the oak produces on the 
rib of the leaf a white transparent ball, which is 
watery, when it is young ; and this sometimes con- 

' Plin. 16. 29. 

* iy^orepw . . . fuiaxaf^iSos conj. R. Const. ; ivrepiaivrii rmv 
poTuv ^a<rxaA/5oj UAkl. Plin., I.e., giffnuiU et alae ramorum 
eiM.s pilulaK. ^ ^ ins. St. 

^ Plin., I.e., nigra varietate di^persa. 

'' tiriaairpoy; Plin., I.e., has apertis amara inanitaa est, 
whence iniwiKpov conj. Sch, 


fiva^ eviore evhov tcr')(eL. reXeiovfievov he o-kXt]- 
pvverai Kr}Ki,8o<; /jLiKpd<; Xeia? rpoirov. 

'H fiev ovv Bpv<; roaavra (pepei irapa rov 
Kapirov. 01 yap p^vKrjTd airb rSiv pi^cop Kal 
irapa ra<; pL^a<i <f>v6fievoi koivoI koI erepcov elaLV. 
ft)cravTft)9 he /cat rj l^ia' Kal <yap avrrj ^verat, 
KaX ev dWoi<i' aXX! ovBev rjrrov, wairep eKeyOt], 
7r\ei(TTO(f)6pov icTTLV el Si ye hrj KaB' 'HcrioSoi/ 
<f)€pei /jueXi Kal //.eXtrra?, ert fiaWov (^aiverai, S' 
ovv Kal 6 p.€\iT(oBr)<i ovto? ')(^v\b<i eK rov depo^ 
iirl TavTTj /jbaXiara Trpoai^eiv. c^aal he Kal orav 
KaraKavOfj ylveadai Xirpov e^ avri]<;. ravra 

jxev ovv thia t^9 hpv6<;. 

VIII. HdvTcov he, wairep eXex^V' '''^^ hevhpwv 
(09 KaB* eKaarov <yevo<; Xa^elv hia(f)opal 7rX.etof9 
elaiv r) piev Koivr] nrdaiv, fj hiaipovai to OrjXv Kal 
TO dppev, MV TO fiev Kap7ro(f)6pov to he aKapirov 
eiri Tivcov. ev oh he dp,(f>co Kapirocf^opa to drjXv 
KaXXiKapirorepov Kal iroXvKapTTOTepov' irXrjv 
ocroi ravra KaXovaiv dppeva, KaXovcri yap Tive<i. 
irapairXriaia S' 17 roiavrrj hia<popd Kal a)9 to 
rip^epov htTjprjTat 7r/309 to aypiov. erepa he Kar 
elho<i avTo!)V twv op^oyevoiv virep d)V XeKzeov ap,a 
<TVvep,(^aivovTa<i Kal Ta<i lhia<i p,op(f)d<; tcov p,r} 
(^avepSiv Kal yvmpipiwv. 

1 Plin. 16. 31. ■' Hes. Op. 233. 

2 Plin. 16. 16. ■» \(KT(ov add. Sch. 


ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS, III. vii. 5-viii. i 

tains flies : but as it develops, it becomes hard, like a 
small smooth gall. 

Such are the growths which the oak produces as 
well as its fruit. For as for the fungi ^ which grow 
from the roots or beside them, these occur also 
in other trees. So too with the oak-mistletoe ; 
for this grows on other trees also. However, apart 
from that, the oak, as was said, produces more things 
than any other tree ; and all the more so if, as 
Hesiod ^ says, it produces honey and even bees ; 
however, the truth appears to be that this honey-like 
juice comes from the air and settles on this more 
than on other trees. They say also that, when the 
oak is burnt, nitre is produced from it. Such are 

the things peculiar to the oak. 

0/ ' male ' aiul 'femalt ' in trees-: the oak as an example of 
this and other differences. 

VIII. 3 Taking, as was said, all trees according to 
their kinds, we find a number of differences. Com- 
mon to them all is that by which men distinguish 
the 'male' and the 'female,' the latter being fruit- 
bearing, the former barren in some kinds. In those 
kinds in which both forms are fruit-bearing the 
' female ' has fairer and more abundant fruit ; how- 
ever some call these the ' male ' trees — for there 
are those who actually thus invert the names. 
This difference is of the same character as that 
which distinguishes the cultivated from the wild tree, 
while other differences distinguish different forms of 
the same kind ; and these we must discuss,* at the 
same time indicating the peculiar forms, where these 
are not ^ obvious and easy to recognise. 
* M conj. St.; yAiTf Ald.H. 



2 Apvo<? Br) yevrj — ravTijv yap jxaXiara Siaipovcri' 
Kal hvLOi ye €v6v<; ttjv /xev rjixepov KuXovcrc rrjv S' 
ayplav ov tTj yXvKvrrjjL rov Kapirov SiaipovvTe'i- 
irrel yXv/cvraTo^ ye 6 Trj<i (prjyov, tuvtijv S' 
aypiav rroiovaiv dX\a tw fiaXkov iv roi<i ipya- 
(XLfiot(; (pveaOai Kal rb ^vXov ex^iv Xetorepov, 
rr}v Be (prjybv Tpa^v Kal iv roi<i opetvoU — yevrj 
fiev ovv 01 fiev rerrapa ttoloixtlv ol Be irevre. 
BiaWaTTOvai 6' evia Tot9 ovofxacnv, olov rrjv Ta<; 
y\vK€i,a<i ^epovaav ol fjuev rj/neplBa Ka\ovvT€<i ol 
S' ervfioBpvv. ofioiox; Be Kal eV aWo)v. co? 8' 
ovv ol irepl ttjv "iBrjv Biaipovai, raS' eVrt ra eoBr}' 
r)p,epl<: alyikw^ TT\arv<^vWo<i <f>r)yo^ a\,i(f)Xoio<i- 
oi Be evdv(f>\oiov KaXovciv. KcipTTifia fiev Trdvra' 
yXvKvrara Be ra ri)^ (f)7]yov, Kaddirep eiprjrai, 
Kal Bevrepov ra tt}? r]p,epiBo<i, eTreira t^9 nXarv- 
(f)vXXov, Kal reraprov t) dXL(f)Xoi,o<;, ec'^arov Be 

3 Kal TTiKporarov 77 alyiXcoyfr. oy;^ diracat Be 
yXvKeiai iv rot? yevecrtv dXX^ ivlore Kal TriKpal, 
Kaddirep rj (jjrjyo'i. BLa^epovat Be Kal toI<; 
fieyWeai, Kal To2<i cr)(^7]/xaai Kal Tot9 %/oot)/xacr£ 
TMV ^aXdvcov. iBiov Be e^ovaiv )] re ^77709 Kal 
7] dXi,(f)Xoio^' dfxcpoTepai yap TrapaXtOd^ovcriv iv 
T0i9 dppecn KaXovfievoc<; i^ aKpcov tmv ^aXdvwv 
eKarepcoOev, al /xev 7r/oo9 tu> KeXixpei al Be 7rpo<i 

1 Plin. 16. 16 and 17. 

^ See Index, 5pvs and fi/j.fpis. vfiepis, lit. 'cultivated oak.' 

3 Plin. 16. 20. 



1 Take then the various kinds of oak ; for in this 
tree men recognise more differences than in any 
other. Some simply speak of a cultivated and a wild 
kind, not recognising any distinction made by the 
sweetness of the fruit ; (for sweetest is that of the 
kind called Valonia oak, and this they make the wild 
kind), but distinguishing the cultivated kind by its 
growing more commonly on tilled land and having 
smoother timber, while the Valonia oak has rough 
wood and grows in mountain districts. Thus some 
make four kinds, others five. They also in some 
cases vary as to the names assigned ; thus the kind 
which bears sweet fruit is called by some hemeris, 
by others 'true oak.' So too with other kinds. 
However, to take the classification given by the 
people of Mount Ida, these ^ are the kinds : hemeris 
(gall-oak), aigilops (Turkey-oak), ' broad-leaved ' oak 
(scrub oak), Valonia oak, sea-bark oak, which some 
call ' straight-bai-ked ' oak. ^ All these bear fruit ; 
but the fruits of Valonia oak ai'e the sweetest, as has 
been said ; second to these those of hemeris (gall-oak), 
third those of the 'broad-leaved' oak (scrub oak), 
fourth sea-bark oak, and last aigilops (Turkey- 
oak), whose fruits are very bitter. * However the 
fruit is not always sweet in the kinds specified as 
such ^ ; sometimes it is bitter, that of the Valonia oak 
for instance. There are also differences in the size 
shape and colour of the acorns. Those of Valonia 
oak and sea-bark oak are peculiar ; in both of these 
kinds on what are called the ' male ' trees the acorns 
become stony at one end or the other ; in one kind 
this hardening takes place in the end which is 

^ Plin. 16. 19 21. 

* oiix . • ■ evioTf conj. W.; text defective in Ald.H. 


avTrj rfj crapKL. Bi o koX d(f>aiped€vrcov ofioia 
f^iverat Koi\(JOfx,aTa T0t9 eVt rcov ^docov. 

AiaipepovcTt 8e koI roi<i (pvWoi,<i koX toi<; a-reXe- 
^ecrt Kul Tot? ^v\ot<i koX rfj oX-rj fjuopcjjfj. rj puev 
yap t)/x€pl<i ovK 6p9o(j>vr}<; ovSe Xela ovSe p^aKpd' 
irepiKOfxo'i ryap r) (purela Kal iTrearpa/M/nevr) koX 
Tr6\vfid(X')(a\o<i, ware o^ooBr) koL ^pa^eiav ylve- 
crdai' TO he ^v\ov lax^pov /xev dadeveaTepov he 
T% (f)7]yov' TOVTo yap iayvporarov Kal daaire- 
(xrarov. ovk 6p6o(f)vr)<; he ovh' avirj dW yjttov 
en Trj<i rjpeplho<;, to he aTeXe^o<i 'Tra'^^vrarov, Mare 
Kal rrjv 6\r]v [xop^7]v /3/3a%etai/ elvai' Kal yap 
rj (fivreia TrepiKo/xo'i Kal ravrr) Kal ovk el<i opOov. 
rj he alyiXcoylr opdoc^vecnaTov Kal vy^r^XoTarov 
Kal XeioraTov Kal to ^vXov eU fJirjKo^ la'xyporaTov. 
ov (f>veTai he iv rol<; epyaaipbotf; rj crTravio)^. 

'H he irXaTV<j)vXXo<; hevrepov 6p6o<pvta Kal 
fMrjKei, 7rpo<; he rrjv %/jetai/ rrjv otKohofiLKrjv %et- 
ptarov fieTo, ttjv dXlcfiXoLov, (pavXov he Kal ei9 to 
Kaieiv Kal dvOpuKeveiv, iocnrep Kal to t?}9 dXi- 
(pXoLov, Kal dpiTrrjhearaTOv fxer CKelvrjv rj yap 
dXicjiXoio^ 7ra')(v fiev e%€i to cneXexo^ ^(avvov he 
Kal KolXov edv e')(r) Trd^o^i a)9 inl to ttoXv, hi 
b Kal d'X^pelov eh Ta9 oiKohofid'i' en he o-rjireTai 
Td'x^tara' Kal yap evvypov iart to hevhpov hi o 
Kal KoiXrj ylveTai. ^aal he TLva ovh^ iyKdphiov 
elvai p,6vr]. XeyovcTLV 009 Kal Kepavvo^XrJT€<i 
avTai /jbovaL yivovTai Kalirep v-\\ro<i ovk e^ovaai 

1 i.e. at the ' top ' end ; irpls : ? eV, irphs being repeated by 

2 fc^wi/ MSS.; iiwv conj. Palm. » Plin. 16. 22. 


ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS, 111. vm. 3-5 

attached to the cup, in the other in the flesh itself.^ 
Wherefore, when the cups are taken off, we find a 
cavity like the visceral cavities in animals.^ 

3 There are also differences in leaves trunk timber 
and general appearance. Hemeris (gall-oak) is not 
straight-growing nor smooth nor tall, for its gx-owth 
is very leafy * and twisted, with many side-branches, 
so that it makes a low much-branched tree : its timber 
is strong, but not so strong as that of the \'alonia 
oak, for that is the strongest and the least liable to 
rot. This ^ kind too is not straight-growing, even less 
so than the hemeris (gall-oak), but the trunk is very 
thick, so that the whole appearance is stunted ; for 
in growth this kind too is very leafy * and not erect. 
The aigilops (Turkey oak) is the straightest growing 
and also the tallest and smoothest, and its wood, cut 
lengthways, is the strongest. It does not grow on 
tilled land, or very rarely. 

The ' broad-leaved ' oak (scrub oak) ^ comes second 
as to straightness of growth and length of timber to 
be got from it, but for use in building it is the worst 
next after the sea-bark oak, and it is even poor wood 
for burning and making charcoal, as is also that of 
the sea-bark oak, and next after this kind it is the 
most worm-eaten. For the sea-bark oak has a thick 
trunk, but it is generally spongy and hollow when 
it is thick ; wherefore it is useless for building. 
Moreover it rots very quickly, for the tree contains 
much moisture ; and that is why it also becomes 
hollow ; and some say that it is the only ' oak which 
has no heart. And some of the Aeolians say that 
these are the only oaks which are struck by light- 

i.e. of bushy habit. ' aurrj conj. Sch.; avri) UAld. 

Plin. If). 23 and 24. ' fi6vr, conj. St.; fiSiniv Ald.H. 



t5>v AloXicov rivet, ov8e 7rpb<; to, lepa 'XpwvTai 
Toi<i ^vXoi'?. Kara /juev ovv ra ^v\a Kol rat 

o\a<i ixop(^a<i iv rovroi<i al Siacf)opaL 

6 K.rjKl8a<i Se itavra cjiepei to, yevrj, povq Se el<; 
TO, Sep/Mara ')(^prjaip,riv rj r]p,epi<i. rj he rrj<i alyi- 
XwTToi? Kal TTjt 7r\aTV(f)vX\,ov rfj p,ev 6-^et irapo- 
pboia ry t?}? rjpepiSo^, irXrjv Xeiojepa, axp€to<; 8e. 
(pepei Kal ttjv krepav ttjv p^eXaivav rj ra epia 
PdiTTOVcnv. he Kokovcri tiv€<; (fxiaKov op^oiov 
T0t9 paKLoi<; T) alyLXw^jr fxovr] (jyepei ttoXiov Kal 
Tpa'xy' Kal yap 7Tri')(yalov KaraKpefidvpyrai, 
Kaddirep Tpvxo<; oOovlov p,aKp6v. (f)veTai he 
TOVTO eK rov (pXoiov Kal ovk e'/c t?}? Kopvprj^; 
odev r) /3d\avo<;, ovh^ ef 6(})0aXfxov dXX eK rov 
irXayiov roiv dvcodev o^cov. rj K dXi(^Xoto<i eiri- 
jxeXav TOVTO (pvec Kal /Spa'x^v. 

7 Ot fiev ovv eK t>}9 "lhr)<; ovtco<; hiaipovcriv. ol 
he irepl MaKehovtav TeTTapa yevrj iroiovaiv, 
eTV/xohpvv fj Ta<f yXvKeia<i, 7rXaTV(}>vXXov f) ra? 
TTLKpd'i, (f)rjy6v f) TO.? (TTpoyyvXa<i, daTrpiv TavTTjv 
he ol p,€V aKapTTOV 6Xco<; ol he (f)avXov tov Kapirov, 
axxTe /M'}]hev iadleiv ^oiov irXrjv v6<i, Kal TavTrjv 
OTav eTepav pr) e)(^r]' Kal to, TroXXd Xap/3dvea0ai 
TrepiKe^aXala, po^^VP^ ^^ f^^'' ^^ ^vXa' mreXe- 

1 Plin. 16. 26. 

^ <pd(TKOV . . . ^o/ctojs conj. Sch. (^a«-ioiy Salm. ) : (pdcrKos ojnoios 
rois ^paxeiois UP.2 ; (pdffKov dfioioos ro'is fipayx'^"^^ Ald.H. Plin. 
16, 33, c/. 12. 108 ; Diosc. 1. 20; Hesych. s.v. (pdcricos. 

^ rpaxv conj. W.; &paxv UP. * Kopvvtis. cj. 3. 5. 1. 



ning, although they are not lofty ; nor do they use 
the wood for their sacrifices. Such then are the 

differences as to timber and general appearance. 

^ All the kinds produce galls, but only hemeris 
(gall-oak) produces one which is of use for tanning 
hides. That of aigilops (Turkey-oak) and that of the 
'broad-leaved' oak (scrub oak) are in appearance 
Uke that of hemeris (gall-oak), but smoother and use- 
less. This also produces the other gall, the black 
kind, with which they dye wool. The substance 
which some call tree-moss and which resembles rags* 
is borne only by the aigilops (Turkey-oak) ; it is grey 
and rough 3 and hangs down for a cubit's length, like 
a long shred of linen. This grows from the bark and 
not from the knob * whence the acorn starts ; nor 
does it grow from an eye, but from the side of the 
upper boughs. The sea-bark oak also produces this, 
but it is blackish ^ and short. 

Thus the people of Mount Ida distinguish. But 
the people of Macedonia make four kinds, ' true-oak,' 
or the oak which bears the sweet acorns, ' broad- 
leaved' oak (scrub oak), or that which bears the 
bitter ones, \'alonia oak, or that which bears the 
round ones, and aspris^ (Turkey-oak); '^ the last- 
named some say is altogether without fruit, some 
say it bears poor fruit, so that no animal eats it 
except the pig, and only he when he can get no 
others, and that after eating it the pig mostly 
gets an affection of the head.* The wood is also 
wretched ; when hewn with the axe it is altogether 

* i'wlfj.eKay tovto cpvei conj. Seal.; (infj.. rovro ^vffft U; ivl 
utKlay TOVTO <f>vei MVAld. 
« See Index. ^ Plin. 16. 24. 

^ rfpiK^paXal^ : apparently the name of a disease. 



KTjOevTa ixev 0X0)9 a')(^pela- Karap'^yvvrat <yap koX 
SiaTTLTTTei' aTrekeKtjTa 8e j3e\ri(i), hi o koI ovtw 
XpSivrai, fxo')(dr]pa 8e Kot ei9 Kavaiv koI el<i 
avOpaKeiav a')(^peto<i yap oA-eo? avdpa^ hia to 
TTTjBdv Koi aiTivOripi^eiV ifkrjv T0t9 %aX.«:ei)crt. 
TovTOi^ Be 'X^prjai/xcorepo'i tmv aWwv Sea <yap to 
airoa^evvvadai, orav iravarjrai <j)vacofi€vo<;, 0X1709 
avaXiaKerai. [to he t^9 (i\.i(f>Xoiov 'x^pijcri/xov €t9 
Toi'9 d^ova<; fxovov Kal ra TOtavTa.] hpv6<i p,ev 

ovv Tavra<i TTOiovat Ta9 lhea<i. 

IX. Twy he aXXcov e\dTTOV<i' Kal ax^hov to, 
ye TrXetcTTa hiaipovai dppevi Kal drfkei, KaOdirep 
etprjTai, TrXrjv o\iy<ov d)v eari Kal tj ivevKt)' 
irevK'T]'^ yap to [xev rjixepov Troiovcri to h^ dypiov, 
Trj<i S' dypLa<i hvo yevt]' KaXovat, he rrjv fiev ^Ihauav 
rrjv he jrapaXiav rovrcov he opOorepa Kal fxaKpo- 
repa Kal to (jivXXov e^ovcra 'rra')(vTepov rj ^Ihaia, 
TO he (pvWov XeTTTOTepov Kal dfievrjvoTepov ^ 
TrapaXia Kal Xeiorepov tov ^Xoiov Kal eh ra 
hepfiara ')(^priai./j,ov' ij he erepa ov. Kal t&v 
arpo^lXfov 6 fiev t?79 irapaXta'i a-rpoyyvXo<i re 
Kal hia'X^daKwv ra')(e(o<;, 6 he t^9 ^\haia<i jxaKpo- 
Tepo<i Kal ')(Xo)po<i Kal rjrrov ^dcTKCdv 019 av 
dyptu)Tepo<i' ro he ^vXov Icr'xvporepov to t^9 
7rapaXia<;' hei yap Kal Taf roiavTa^ hca(f)opd<i 

1 Plin. 16. 23. 

^ rh Se . . . roiavra : this sentence seems out of place, as 
a\t<f>\oios was not one of the ' Macedonian ' oaks mentioned 
above (Sch.). 

ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS, III. viii. 7-ix. i 

useless, for it bi-eaks in pieces and falls asunder ; 
if it is not hewn with the axe it is better, where- 
fore they so use it. ^ It is even wretched for 
burning and for making charcoal ; for the charcoal 
is entirely useless except to the smith, because it 
springs about and emits sparks. But for use in the 
smithy it is more serviceable than the other kinds, 
since, as it goes out when it ceases to be blown, little 
of it is consumed. ^ The wood of the sea-bark oak 
is only useful for wheel-axles and the like purposes. 
Such are the varieties of the oak ' which men 
make out. 

Of the differences in firs. 

IX. *The differences between other trees are fewer; 
for the most part men distinguish them merely 
.according as they are ' male ' or ' female,' as has been 
said, except in a few cases including the fir ; for in this 
tree they distinguish the wild and the cultivated * 
kinds, and make two wild kinds, calling one the * fir 
of Ida ' (Corsican pine ^) the other the ' fir of the 
sea-shore ' (Aleppo pine) ; of these the former is 
straighter and taller and has thicker leaves," while 
in the latter the leaves are slenderer and weaker, 
and the bark is smoother and useful for tanning 
Jiides, which the other is not. Moreover the cone of 
the seaside kind is round and soon splits open, while 
that of the Idaean kind is longer and green and 
does not open so much, as being of wilder character. 
The timber of the seaside kind is stronger, — for one 
must note such differences also between trees of the 

' T. describes Trpivos cfuKa^, and <p(\\6Spvs in 3. 16, 
(ieWSs in 3. 17. 1. 

■* Plin. 16. 43. =* Stone pine. See Index. 

« Plin. 16. 48. ' ^vWov W. conj.; {uAoj- UMVP. 

p 2 


Xafjb^dvetv tmv avyyevMV jvMpifioi yap Bia rr]p 

2 'OpOorepov Be koX TraxvTepov, wa'jrep elirofxev, 
rj 'iSata, koI tt/jo? rovroi? TrirrcoSia-Tepov oXw? to 
BevBpov, fjieXavripa Be Tr'mrj koX yXvKvrepa xal 
XeTTTOTepa koI evwBearepa, orav ^ oifiTJ- eyjn]- 
Oelaa Be x^ipcov eK^aivei Bia to ttoXvv e'X^eiv top 
oppov. eoLKacn B' anep oinoi Biatpova-cv ovofiacriv 
tStoi? ol dXKot, Biaipeiv t& dppevi koX OrjXei' 
^aal S' ol irepl MuKeBoviav koX aKapirov ri jevo^ 
o\(o<; elvat TrevKijf;, kuI to fxev dppev fipayvTepov 
re Kol aK\rjpo(f>vW6repov, to Be OifK-v evfxrjKe- 
arepov, koI tcl ^vWa XcTrapa kol aTraXa KaX 
K€K\,eva fidWov e-)(€i,v' cti Be to, ^vXa rrj^ fiev 
appevo<i TrepifxrjTpa koL crKXrjpa koI ev Tai<{ 
epyacriaL^ crTpe(f)6/jbeva, t?}9 Be dr}Xeia<; evepya koI 
aai-pa^rj Koi fiaXaKOiTepa. 

3 S%eSoi' Be KOivrj ra rj Bcacpopa irdvTWV rwv 
dppevcav koI OrjXeiMV, a)9 ol vXorofjLoi (fiacriv. uTrav 
yap TO dppev rfj TreXeKrjo-ei kuX ^pa')(yTepov koI 
eTrecrTpafifiivov fxaXXov KaX Bvaepyorepov KaX Ttp 
■)(^pu)p,aTL pLeXdvTepov, to Be drjXv evp/qKearepov 
iireX KaX rrjv alyiBa ttjv KaXovp,€vrjv rj drjXeia Trj<; 
trevKT]^ e%ef rovro S* iarX to eyKapBiov avTrj^;' 

^ ffvyyevwv conj. R. Const. ; a.'Yyfi(i>v UAld. ; 4yyeiwv MV 

2 yucaptfioi conj. R. Const.; yvupifios UAld.H, ; yvd>pi/j.a 
conj. W. 

' dpd6Tepoi' conj. R. Const.; d^vrepoy UMVAld. 

* fxeXavTfpa . . . evwSeffTepa conj. W.; fieXavTepat Se it/ttij 
Kal y\vKVTfpai Kal \fvr6Tepai koL evuSfffTepai UMV; fieKavrepa 


same kind/ since it is by their use that the different 
characters are recognised. ^ 

The Idaean kind is, as we have said, of straighter-^ 
and stouter growth, and moreover the tree is 
altogether more full of pitch, and its pitch is blacker 
sweeter thinner and more fragrant ^ when it is 
fresh ; though, when it is boiled, it turns out 
inferior,^ because it contains so much waterv matter. 
However it appears that the kinds which these 
people distinguish bv special names are distinguished 
by others merely as 'male' and 'female.' The 
people of Macedonia say that there is also a kind of 
fir which bears no fruit whatever, in which the 
male''' (Aleppo pine) is shorter and has harder 
leaves, while the 'female' (Corsican pine) is taller 
and has glistening delicate leaves which are more 
pendent. Moreover the timber of the ' male ' kind 
has much heart-wood,^ is tough, and warps in joinerv 
work, while that of the ' female ' is easy to work, 
does not warp,^ and is softer. 

This distinction between ' male ' and ' female ' 
may, according to the woodmen, be said to be common 
to all trees. Any wood of a ' male ' tree, when one 
comes to cut it with the axe, gives shorter lengths, 
is more twisted, harder to work, and darker in 
colour ; while the ' female ' gives better lengths. 
For it is the ' female ' fir which contains what is 
called the aigis ^ ; this is the heart of the tree ; the 

')k Kal y\vKVT€pa Kal \iirroTfpa koi ilaoZiffripa Aid. Kf-KTOTtpa, 
'' less viscous. 

5 cf. 9. 2. 5 ; Plin. 16. 60. « Plin. 16. 47. 

'' irepinvTpa conj. R. Const. : so Mold, explains ; irepifj.T)Tpta 
UMV. cf. 3. 9. 6. 

8 affTpa^TJ conj. R. Const.; eva-rpafiri Aid. 

'•> aiyiSa : c/. 5. 1. 9 ; Plin. 16. 187. 



aiTiov Se oTi airevKorepa Koi rJTTOv evSaBo<i koI 
Xeiorepa koI evKreavcorepa. yiverai 8e iv rol^ 
fi€y€Oo<; exovarc tmv SevSpcov, orav eKTrea-ovra Trepi- 
aatry ra \evKa ra kvk\q). tovtcov yap irepi- 
aipedevTwv koI KaTa\€i(j)d€Lar}(; rr]<; fjbrjrpa^ €K 
TavTr}<; ireXeKUTai' ecrTt 8e evxpovv a^oSpa Kol 
XcTTToivov. b 8e ol irepl rrjv "ISrjv BaSovpyol 
Ka\ov<n (tvkTjv, to einyiyvofievov iv rat? irevKai';, 
ipvOporepov ryv XPOt'CLV Tr]<i SaS6<;, iv rol'i appeaiv 
eari jxcDCKov of crwSe? he tovto kol ovk o^ei 8aBb^ 
ovSe Kalerat oTOC aTroTTTjSd airo too irvpo'i. 

H€VKr}<; fjuev ovv ravra yevrj ttocovctiv, rffiepov 
re Kol aypLov, koI t?}? aypia<i appevd re koI 
drjXeiav koi rpinjv rrjv uKapTrov. ol Be irepX rr/v 
Ap/caBiav cure rrjv aKapirov \eyovcnv ovre rrjv 
Tjpiepov 'irevK7]v, aXka ttltvv elvai <f>a(n' koX yap ro 
are\exo<i i/mcfiepeaTaTov elvat rfi ttLtvI koI exeiv 
rrjv re XeTrroTTjra Kal to fxeyedog /cal iv rac^ 
ipyacnuL^i ravTo to ^v\ov to yap t?79 7r€VKij(i koI 
iraxvTepov Kal Xeiorepov Kal ii-^rfkoTepov elvai' 
Kal ra (f)vXX.a ttjv ixev TrevKrjv execv iroWa Kal 
\17rapa Kal ^adea Kal KeKXifiiva, Tr)v Se ttltvv 
Kal Trjv Kcovo(f)6pov ravrrju oXiya re Kal avxP'OoBe- 
crrepa Kal irecppiKOTa /jiaXXov' <ap.<^(j) Se rpixo- 
<j)vXXa.> en Be rr}v irirrav ifj^epearepav t^? 

^ evKTfava>T€pa : evKTrjSovwrepa conj. R. Const, cf. 5. 1. 9 ; 
but text is supported by Hesych. s.v. levKreavov. 
^ I omit KoX before ra KVK\<fi. 
» Plin. 16. 44. 



reason being that it is less resinous, less soaked with 
pitch, smoother, and of straighter grain.^ This aigis 
is found in the larger trees, when, as they have fallen 
down, the white outside part ^ has decayed ; when 
this has been stripped off and the core left, it is 
cut out of this with the axe ; and it is of a good 
colour ^^-ith fine fibre. However the substance 
which the torch-cutters of Mount Ida call the ' fig,' ^ 
which forms in the fir and is redder in colour than 
the resin, is found more in the ' male ' trees ; it has 
an evil smell, not like the smell of resin, nor will it 
burn, but it leaps away from the fire. 

■* Such are the kinds of fir which they make out, 
the cultivated and the wild, the latter including the 
'male' and the 'female' and also the kind which 
bears no fruit. However the Arcadians say that 
neither the sterile kind nor the cultivated is a fir, 
but a pine ; for, they say, the trunk closely resembles 
the pine and has its slendemess, its stature, and the 
same kind^ of wood for purposes of joinery, the 
trunk of the fir being thicker smoother and taller ; 
moreover that the fir has many leaves, which are 
glossy massed together '' and pendent, while in the 
pine and in the above-mentioned cone-bearing tree '^ 
the leaves are few and drier and stifFer ; though in 
both the leaves are hair-like.^ Also, they say, the 
pitch of this tree is more like that of the pine ; for 

* ToCra yevT} con j. R. Const, from G ; ravrd ye UMVAld. ; 
Plin. 16. 45-49. 

* ravrh conj. W.; avrh Aid. 

" /3afle'a : Saaea conj. R. Const, c/. 3. 16. 2. 

"^ i.e. the cultivated invK-r) (so called). T. uses this peri- 
phrasis to avoid begging the question of the name. 

® 6.fjL(pw he rpix- ins. here by Sch. ; in MSS. and Aid. the 
words occur in § 5 after TtiTTfc^earepov. 


TrtTuo9* KoX <yap ttjv Trtrvv e^^iv oXiyrjv re KaX 
TTiKpdv, Sxnrep koX rrjv K(ovo(f)6pov, rrjv 8e 7revK7]v 
cvooSt) Kal iroWrjv. (pverai S' iv p,ev rfj 'Ayo/caSia 
77 TTtTU? oXi'yr} irepl 8e ttjv 'HXetat' ttoWi], ovtoi 
piev ovv 6\(p Tw yevei 8ia/x(f)ia^r]TovaLV. 

'H Se TTtTU? 8oKet T?}? 7revKr}<i kol 8ia(f)€peiv ra> 
\nrap(OTepa re elvat koX XeTrrocf^vWorepa Kal to 
plyedo'; iXdrrcov Kal rJTTOV 6p6o(f)urj<;' en Se rov 
Koivov eXdrTO) (fiipeiv Kal ire^piKora p,aXXov Kal 
TO Kapvov iTiTTcoheaTepov' Kal ra ^v\a XevKorepa 
Kal opiOLOTepa ttj iXdry Kal to 6\ov direvKa. 
8ia(f>opdv 8' e%et Kal ravTrjv pie<yd\rjv irpo^ rrjv 
irevKrjv' 7revK-r)v p,ev yap eTTiKavdeiaSiV t(ov pi^MV 
ovK dva^Xaardveiv, ttjv ttLtw 8e (paal rive<i dva- 
^Xaardvuv, (ocnrep Kal iv Aea^co ip,7rpr)cr6ivro<; 
rov Uvppaieov 6pov<i rov mrv(i)8ov^. vocrrjfxa Se 
Tat? irevKat^i roiovrov rt, Xeyovat aufi^aiveiv ol 
irepl rrjv "I8r)v &ar , orav /xrj p,6vov ro iyKdp8iov 
dXXd Kal ro e^co rov crreXe'Xpv^ 6v8a8ov yevtjrai, 
rrjviKavra axmep drroTrviyecrdai. rovro 8e avro- 
fiarov (XVfM^aivei 81" evrpo<^iav rov 8ev8pov, £09 dv 
Tt9 eiKdcreiev oXov yap ylverat 8d<;' rrepl puev ovv 
rrjv TrevKTjv l8iov rovro TrdOo<;. 

^EXdrr] S' iarlv 77 p,ev dpprjv 17 8e drjXeia, 8ia- 
(f)opd<; 8' e)(^ovaa rot<; c^vWot?* o^vrepa yap Kal 
KevrrjTLKwrepa ra rov dppevo<i Kal iirearpafip^iva 
fidXXov, 81 Kal ovXorepov rfj 6-^eL (jjaiverai ro 
8ev8pov oXov. Kal r5> ^vXw' XevKorepov yap Kal 
fiaXaKoorepov Kal evepyecrrepov ro rrjf; di]XeLa<i Kal 

^ iriKpav conj. R. Const, from G ; fiiKpav VAld. 
^ Kal TuvrrjV fityaXr^v irphs conj. Sch. ; Ka\ rijv fxty. rrphs 
QMV; fiiya.\T]v irphs Aid. 



in the pine too it is scanty and bitter,^ as in this 
other cone-bearing tree, but in the fir it is fragrant 
and abundant. Now the pine is rare in Arcadia, 
but common in Elis. Tlie Arcadians then dispute 
altogether the nomenclature. 

The pine appears to differ also from the fir in 
being glossier and having finer leaves, while it is 
smaller in stature and does not grow so straight ; 
also in bearing a smaller cone, which is stiffer and 
has a more pitchy kernel, while its wood is whiter, 
more like that of the silver-fir, and wholly free from 
pitch. And there is another great difference 2 
between it and the fir ; the fir, if it is burnt down 
to the roots, does not shoot up again, while the 
pine, according to some, will do so ; for instance 
this happened in Lesbos,^ when the pine-forest of 
Pyrrha * was burnt. The people of Ida say that the 
fir is liable to a kind of disease ; — ^when not only the 
heart but the outer part of the trunk becomes glutted ^ 
with pitch, the tree then is as it were choked. This 
happens of its own accord through the excessive 
luxuriance of the tree, as one may conjecture ; for 
it all turns into pitch-glutted wood. This then is an 
affection peculiar to the fir. 

' The silver-fir is either ' male ' or ' female,' and 
has differences in its leaves "^ ; those of the ' male ' 
are sharper more needle-like and more bent ; where- 
fore the whole tree has a more compact appearance. 
There are also differences in the wood, that of the 
' female ' being whiter softer and easier to work, 

* iv Affffi^ conj. W. from G, and Plin. 16. 46 ; els hia&ov 

* On the W. of Lesbos, modem CalonL cf. 2. 2. 6 ; Plin. I.e. 
» c/. 1. 6. 1 ; Plin. 16. 44. 

« PUn. 16. 48, 7 cf. 1. 8. 2. 



TO o\ov crre\6-)(0<i evfirjKeaTepov to Be rov dppe- 
ro9 TTOiKiXctyrepov koI ira'xyrepov koI crKXrjporepov 
Kal TTspi^irirpov fiaXXov 6\a><; Se (f)av\6r€pov rrjv 
oyjriv. iv Be tw kcovq) tw fiev tov appev6<i i(TTt 
Kiipva oXiya iirl tov aKpov, tm Be Trj<i 6r}\eCa<; 
oA-ft)9 ovBev, &)9 ol eK MaKeBovlw; eXeyov. e'xei Be 
Trrepvya'; to (f>vWov Kal eV eXarrov, Mcrre rrjv 
oXrjv fiop(f)r]v elvai OoXoeiBrj koL irapofJiOLov fid- 
Xicrra Tat9 BofWTtai? Kvveafi' ttvkvov Be ovrco^i 
ware fxijre ')(^i6va Bclevat ixr)6^ verov. oXox; Be Kal 
rfi o-yjrei ro BevBpov KaXov Kal yap t) ^XdarrjaL'i 
IBia Tt9, coairep etprjrai, irapa Ta9 dXXa<i Kal /lovr) 
rd^iv exovaa' rm Be ixeyedei, fxeya Kal iroXv t^9 
iTevKr\<i evjjbrjKecnepov. 

Ai,a(f)epet Be Kal Kara to ^vXov ov fiiKpov to 
fiev yap t^ eXdTr)<i IvcoBe'i Kal fxaXaKov Kal kov- 
ff)ov, TO Be Trj<; 7revK7)<; Ba8a)B€<; Kal ^api) Kal 
aapKwBeaTepov. o^ov<; Be e^^ei 7rXeiov<; fxev rj 
TrevKT] (TKXripoTepov<i B^ 77 eXdrrj, a')(eBov Be irdv- 
Tcov ft)9 eiTvelv (TKXr]poT€pov<i, TO Be ^vXov fiaXa- 
Kcorepov. oXa)<i Be ol 6^01 irvKvoTaTOL Kal (JTepeoi- 
TaTOi jxovov ov Biatpavetf iXdTr]<; koI 7revKr)<; Kal 
TO) 'X^pcofiaTi BaB(ioSeL<i Kal p,dXiaTa Bid(f)opoi tov 
^vXou, fxdXXov Be t^9 eXaTTj'i. e^et Be, axnrep rj 
irevKT] Tr]v aly'iBa, Kal r] iXdrrj to XevKov Xovaaov 

^ Traxvrepov conj. W. ; irXarvrepoy Aid. 

'^ Plin. 16. 48 and 49. ^ For the tense see Intr. p. xx. 

^ <t)v\\ov, i.e. the leafy shoot. Sch. considers cpvWov to 
be corrupt, and refers the following description to the cone ; 
W. marks a lacuna after (piWov. Pliny, I.e., seems to have 
read <(>v\\ov, but does not render koI iv' e\arrov . . . Kweais. 
The words nal eV tKarrov can hardly be sound as they stand. 
For the description of the foliage c/. 1. 10. 5. 


while the whole trunk is longer ; that of the ' male ' 
is less of a uniform colour thicker ^ and harder, has 
more heart-wood, and is altogether inferior in appear- 
ance. In the cone ^ of the ' male ' are a few seeds at 
the apex, while that of the ' female,' according to 
what the Macedonians said,^ contains none at all. 
The foliage * is feathered and the height dispropor- 
tionate so that the general appearance of the tree 
is dome-like,^ and closely resembles the Boeotian 
peasant's hat^ ; and it is so dense that neither snoAv 
nor rain penetrates it. And in general the tree has 
a handsome appearance ; for its growth is somewhat 
peculiar, as has been said, compared with the others, 
it being the only one which is regular, and in stature 
it is large, much taller than the fir. 

' There is also not a little difference in the wood : 
that of the silver-fir is fibrous ^ soft and light, that of 
the fir is resinous heavy and more fleshy. The fir 
has move knots,^ but the silver-fir harder ones ; 
indeed they may be said to be harder than those of 
any tree, though the wood otherwise is softer. And 
in general the knots of silver-fir and fir are of the 
closest and most solid ^^ texture and almost ^^ trans- 
parent : in colour they are like resin-glutted wood, 
and quite different from the rest of the wood ; and 
this is especially so ^- in the silver-fir. And just as 

• OoXotiZri conj. Seal.; ffijAo€«5^ U (erased) ; ffijAoctSet ilV; 
ut cancamtratum imitetur G ; ? OoXioeiSri ; in Theocr. 15. 39. 
Oo\ia seems to be a sun-hat. 

® Kvvfais : ef. Hesych. s.v. mivrj Boiarria, apparently a hat 
worn in the fields. 
' ef. 5. 1. 7. * cf. 5. 1. 5. » cf. 5. 1. 6. 

^* cf. 5. 1. 6, KtpecTwSeis. " ov ins. Sch. 

" fuiWov 5e conj. W. ; fJiWov f) Aid. " ef. .S. 9. .S 



KaXovfievov, olov avTtarpo^ov rfj alyiSi, jrXrjv to 
/jb€V XevKov 77 S' alyU ei;%/3&)9 8ia to evhahov. 
TTVKVov oe Koi XevKov yivcTai koX koXov eV ra>v 
Trpea^VTeptov rjhr] hevhpav dWa cnrdvLov to 
XpV^^'^ov, TO Be Tv^ov Sa-yjriXe^, e^ ov Ta re tmv 
^ci)ypd(f)0}v TTCvaKia Troiovcn /cat to, ypafifiaTua to, 
TToWd' TO, S" icTTrovSacr/jbeva e/c rov ^eXTiovc;. 

01 Be trepl ^ApKaSiav d/McfyoTepa KaXovatv 
aljiSa KOI Tr]V t^? TrevKrjt; koX ttjv t^9 eXaTrj^, 
KoX eJvai irXeioi ttjv t?}? iXdTr]<; dXXd KaXXioi ttjv 
Trj(; TrevKTjf;' etvai yap tt}? fiev iXdTrj'i iroXXijv re 
Kal Xelav Kal irvKvijv, tt;? 8e 7TevKr)<; oXtyrjv, ttjv 
fievToi ovaav ovXoTepav kuI la^upoTepav koI to 
oXov KaXXiQ). ovTOi fiev ovv ioLKaai Tol'i ovofiaai 
hia^wvelv. 77 5e iXaTi] TavTa<i ex^i T09 8t,a<^o- 

pd<; 77/309 Tr)v TrevKrjv Kal eVi ttjv irepl ttjv dfM- 
(fiav^iv, fjv irpoTepov eiTrofiev. 

X. 'Ofu?7 8' ovK e%et 8ia(f>opd<i dXX' iaTi fxovo- 
y€vi<;' 6pOo(f>v€<; Be Kal Xeiov Kal dvo^ov Kal '7rd')(o<i 
Kal v-yfra e)(^ov a'X^eSbv Xcrov ttj iXdTr]- Kal TaXXa 
Be TTapofiocov [re] to BevBpov ^vXov Be ev'xpovv 
laxvpov evLvov Kal (f)Xoibv Xeiov Kal Tra^w, (f)vX- 
Xov 8' dcr'X^iBe'i Trpo/jbrjKea-Tepov dTTiov Kal ijra- 
KdvOi^ov i^ aKpov, pv^a<i ovtc iroXXm ovtc KaTa 
^dOovr 6 Be Kapiro^i Xeioq ^aXavd)Bi]^ ev ix^vta 

c/.^Eur. LA. 99 ; Hipp. 1254. 

Ta 5' conj. Seal. ; koI Aid. 

irevK-ns conj. Seal, from G ; ixdrrjs Aid. 

f\iry]s eonj. Seal, from G ; irtvKrjs Aid. 


called its white ' centre,' which answers, as it were, to 
the aigis of the fir, except that it is white, while 
the other is bright-coloured because it is glutted with 
pitch. It becomes close white and good in trees 
which are of some age, but it is seldom found in good 
condition, while the ordinary form of it is abundant 
and is used to make painters' boards and ordinary 
writing tablets,^ superior ones being 2 made of the 
better form. 

However the Arcadians call both substances ai^s, 
alike that of the fir ^ and the corresponding pai-t of 
the silver-fir,* and say that, though the silver-fir 
produces more, that of the fir is better ; for that, 
though that of the silver-fir is abundant ^ smooth and 
close, that of the fir, though scanty, is compacter 
stronger and fairer in general. The Arcadians then 
appear to differ as to the names which they give. 
Such are the differences in the silver-fir as com- 
pared with the fir, and there is also that of having 
the amphauxis,^ which we mentioned before. 

Of beech, yew, hop-homheajn, lime. 

X. The beech presents no differences, there being 
but one kind. It is a straight-growing smooth and 
unbranched tree, and in thickness and height is 
about equal to the silver-fir, which it also resembles 
in other respects ; the wood is of a fair colour strong 
and of good grain, the bark smooth and thick, the 
leaf undivided, longer than a pear-leaf, spinous at the 
tip," the roots neither numerous nor running deep ; 
the fruit is smooth like an acorn, enclosed in a shell, 

' iroW^v conj. Gesner ; ov\riv UmBas. ; 3\rjv MVAld. 

« cf. 3. 7. 1. 

^ i.e. mucroriate. cf. 3. 11. 3. 


"jtXtjp [ovrc] avaKavOo) koI Xet&), Kal ov^ ft)9 17 
8iocr^d\avo<i aKavdoohei, 7rpoa€fi(ji€pr)<i Se Kal 
Kara yXvKvrrjra Kal Kara rov ')(y\ov eKelvus. 
>yLverai 8e Kal iv rS> opei XevKrj, f) Kal ')(^pT]ai/jLOV 
e%6t TO ^vkov Trpo? iroWd' kuI <yap 7rp6<; dfxa^- 
ovpyiav Kal tt/oo? KXLPOTrrjyLav Kal el<; 8i.(f)povp- 
yiav Kal et? Tpaire^tav Kal et9 vavTrrjjLav rj S' iv 
Tot9 7reStoi<? fjbiXaiva Kal d')(p7}aTo<i Trpo? raina' 
Tov he KapiTov e^ovat nrapaTrKifjaLov, 

yiovoyevT]^ he Kal t) //.tXo?, opdo<^vr)<i he Kal 
evav^rj^i Kal ofioua rfj iXdrrj, irXrjv ov^ v'\lr7]\ov 
ovrct), TToXvfida-'X^aXov he p,dWov. 6/xotov he Kal 
TO ^vWov e^et rrj eXdrrj, XnrapcoTepov he Kal 
fiaXaKcorepov. ro he ^v\ov q fiev ef ^ A.pKahia'^ 
fieXav Kal (^olvlkovv, rj S" eK t% "I877? ^avdov 
a(f)6hpa Kal ojxoiov rfj Kehpw, hi Kal rov<; ttco- 
\ovvrd<i (paaiv e^aTrardv co? Kehpov 7ra)\ovvTa<;' 
irdv jdp elvat Kaphiav, orav 6 (f)\ot6<; irepiaipeOf}' 
6/xoiov he Kal rov (pXoiov e-)(eiv Kal rfj rpaxvTriri 
Kal TW 'X^p(opM,TC ry Kehpcp, pi^a<i he /jLiKpd<; Kal 
XeTTTa? Kal eirnroXalov;. uirdviov he to hevhpov 
irepl TTjv ^'Ihrjv, ire pi he M.aKehovLav Kal ^ApKahlav 
TToXv' Kal KapTTOv (fiipei arpoyyvKov P'lKpat p^ei^co 
KvdpLOV, Tw ')(pdop,aTt S' ipvOpov Kal p,dXaK6v 
<f)acrl he rd p.ev \6(f>ovpa edv (pdyrj tmv (pyXkcov 
dTToOvrjCTKeiv, rd he p.rjpvKd^ovra ovhev 7rda-')(eiv. 
TOV he Kapirov iadiovai Kal tmv avSpcoircov riv€<; 
Kal ecTTiv rjhv<i Kal daivrji;. 

• ix^''os being otherwise used of a prickly case, such as 
that of the chestnut. ir\V a«'af- koI \elci> conj. W.; irX^v 
oiiK b.V3i.Kavd<jn koX \tloDi U ; irXV ovk iv UKivd^ MVAld. 



which is however without prickles ^ and smooth, not 
spinous,- like the chestnut, though in sweetness and 
flavour it resembles it. In mountain country it also 
grows white and has^ timber which is useful for 
many purposes, for making carts beds chairs and 
tables, and for shipbuilding * ; Avhile the tree of the 
plains is black and useless for these purposes ; but 
the fruit is much the same in both. 

^ The yeAv has also but one kind, is straight- 
growing, grows readily, and is like the silver-fir, 
except that it is not so tall and is more branched. 
Its leaf is also like that of the silver-fir, but glossier 
and less stiff. As to the wood, in the Arcadian yew 
it is black or red, in that of Ida bright yellow and 
like prickly cedar ; wherefore they sjiy that dealers 
practise deceit, selling it for that wood : for that it is 
all heart, when the bark is stripped off ; its bark also 
resembles that of prickly cedar in roughness and 
colour, its roots are few slender and shallow. The 
tree is rare about Ida, but common in Macedonia and 
Arcadia ; it bears a round fruit a little larger than a 
bean, which is red in colour and soft ; and they say 
that, if beasts of burden *' eat of the leaves they die, 
wliile ruminants take no hurt. Even men sometimes 
eat the fruit, which is sweet and harmless. 

- aKcwddSei conj. R. Const.; aKavddiSyt Ald.H. 

^ Xti/Ki) ^ Kol eonj. W. ; \fvicn re koI Ald.H. 

^ cj. 5. 6. 4 ; 5. 7. 2 and 6. 

^ Plin. 16. 62. (description taken from this passage, but 
applied to fraxinus, apparently from confusion between 
filKos and fifXla). 

« c/. 2. 7. 4 n. 



"EcTTt 8e Kol rj 6arpv<i /j,ovoeiSi]<i, rjv icaXovai 
rive<i oarpvav, 6fxocf)ve<i rrj o^va rfj re (pVTeia koI 
tS> <f)\ot,&- (fivWa 8e aTrioeiBrj tw ayrj/xari,, 7r\r)v 
7rpo/jLr]Kear€pa ttoWw koX el<: o^v avvrj^p-ha koX 
p^L^o), TToKvlva he, airo rr)^ p^earjf; ev6eia<i koX 
/xeyaXr]<i tmv aXXmv irXevpoeiSoo^; KararecvovaMV 
Kol irdxo'i exovawv en he eppvrihcofieva Kara 
Ta9 lva<i Kol x^'pf^'yi^ov exovra kvkXq) XeTrrop' to 
he ^v\ov (TKXrjpov kol a^povv, eKXevKov Kupirov 
he fiiKpov irpop.aKpov opiOLOv KptOfj ^avdov pi^a<i 
he ex^t psTcwpov^' evvhpov he koX (fiapayy&heii. 
Xeyerac he o)? ovk eTririjheiov ei9 ocKLav ela-(f>e- 
peiv hvadavarelv <ydp (f)a<Ti koX hvaroKelv ov 
av ^. 

T^9 he ^iXvpa^ -q fiev apprjv earl rj he O^Xeia- 
hi,a<f)€povai he rrj fiop(f)fj rfj oXtj koX rfj rov ^vXov Kal 
Tft) TO p,ev elvai Kapiripbov to S' aKapirov. ro pLev 
<ydp rri<i dpp€vo<; ^vXov aKXrjpov Kal ^avdov koX 
o^oohearepov Kal rrvKvorepov eari, en h' evcohe- 
arepov, to he rrjf 6't]Xeia<i XevKorepov. Kal 6 
<^Xoio<i rrjf; puev dppevo<; 7TaxvTepo<i Kal TrepiaipeOel^ 
aKapbirr}'; hid rrjv a-KXrjporrjra, rr]<; he d7)Xeia<; Xen- 
r6repo<; Kal evKap,'nrj<i, e'f ov rd<i Ktcrra<; Troiovacv 
Kal 77 piev aKaprro': Kal dvavdrj';, rj he drjXeia 
Kal dvOa e^et Kal KapTTov ro piev dvdo<i xaXv- 
Ka)he<; rrapd rov rov (f>vXXov pbicrxov Kal irapd 

1 c/. 1. 8. 2 [hffrpvis), 3. 3. 1 ; G.P. 5. 12. 9 [harpin) ; PHn. 
13. 117. 

^ fiftrris , . . Karareivovffwv conj. Sch.; fietrtjs ■iT\fvpoet5ais 
rwv &\\wv (vdetwv koI fx(ya\i\v KaTaretyovffuv Aid. cf. 1. 10. 2 ; 
3. 17. 3. 



The oslrys (hop-liornbeam),^ which some call 
oslrya, has also but one kind : it is like the beech in 
growth and bark ; Its leaves are in shape like a pear's, 
except that they are much longer, come to a sharp 
point, are larger, and have many fibres, which branch 
out like ribs from a large straight one- in the 
middle, and are thick ; also the leaves are wrinkled 
along the fibres and have a finely serrated edge ; the 
wood is hard colourless and whitish ; the fruit is 
small oblong and yellow like barley ; it has shallow 
roots ; it loves water and is found in ravines. It is 
said to be unlucky to bring it into the house, since, 
wherever it is, it is supposed to cause a painful 
death ^ or painful labour in giving birth. 

^ The lime has both ' male ' and ^ female ' forms, 
which differ in their general appearance, in that ot 
the wood, and in being respectively fruit-bearing 
and sterile. The wood of the ' male ' tree is hard 
yellow more branched closer, and also more fragrant ^ ; 
that of the 'female' is whiter. The bark of the 
' male ' is thicker, and, when stripped off, is un- 
benduig because of its hardness ; that of the 'female ' 
is thinner ^ and flexible ; men make their writing- 
cases " out of it. The ' male ' has neither fruit nor 
flower, but the ' female ' has both flower and fruit ; 
the flower is cup-shaped, and appears alongside 
of the stalk of the leaf, or alongside of next year's 

^ 5u(rfla»'OT€ri' I conj. ; ivtrOivaTov PgAld.; Zvadavarav conj. 
Sell. , but hvaBava-rav has a desiderative sense. 

* Plin. 16. 65. 

* en 5' €110)5. inserted here by Sch.; c/. Plin., I.e. In Aid. 
the words, with the addition ri t^i ffqXeias, occur after 

*• Xf-KTurtpoi conj. Scb ; KeuKortpot Aid. 
" cf. 3. 13. 1 ; Ar. Vesp. 529. 



TT]V €49 vecora /cd^pw icf)" erepov ixiayov, 'yXoepbv 
Se OTav fi KaXvK(o8e<;, iKKaXvTTTOfiei'ov Be eiri^av- 
6 dov 77 Be avOijcrt^ afia rot? rjjxepoi^. 6 he Kap7ro<; 
a-TpoyyvXofi 7rp6fxaKpo<; rfkiKo<i KvafXO<; o/u,oio<; tw 
rov KiTTov, 'ycovla<i e^f^v 6 dSpot; irevre olov IvSiv 
e^e-)(^ova(tiv koX el<i o^v avvayofievcov 6 Be firj 
dBpb<i dBLapdpoTepo^' BiaKvi^6/jievo<i Be 6 dBp6<i 
eyec pi/cp' drra koI Xeirrd cnrepp,d'na rfkiKa /cal 
6 rrj'i dBpa(f)d^vo<i. to Be (pvWov Kol 6 (f)\oio<; 
rjBea Kot <y\vKea' rrjv Be p,op^7]v Kt,TTa)Be<i to 
(fivWov, TrXrjv eK TrpocraycoyT]'; p,dWov rj irepi- 
(pepeta, Kara to tt^o? tm P'lo'XV Kvprorarov, 
dWd Kara fieaov eh o^vrepov ttjv arvvajoiyrjv 
e')(pv Kol p^aKpoTepov, eirovXav Be kvkXo) Ka\ ice')(a- 
paypevov. pLrjTpav K e-)(ei to ^vXov p,iKpdv Kal ov 
TToXv p,aXaKWTepav tov aXXov p,aXaKov yap Kal 
TO dXXo ^vXov. 

XI. T'j}? Be cr(f>evBdpvov, KaOdirep e'liropev, Bvo 
yevr] iroiovaiv, 01 Be Tpia' ev p,ev Brj tS) koivS> 
irpoaayopevovai a<pevBap,vov, erepov Be i^vyiav, 
rpirov Be KXiv6rpo)(ov, &)? ol irepl ^rdyetpa. Bia- 
(j)opd S' earl rPj<i i^vyLa<i Kal rrj^ a(f)evBdp,vov on 
7} piev a<f)ep8ap.vo<i XevKov e%et to ^vXov Kal 
evivorepov, 7) Be ^vyla ^avOov Kal ovXov to Be 
(pvXXov evp,eye9e<i dp^cpco, rfj cr^^tcrei opoiov rS> 

1 c/. 3. 5. 5. and 6. 

^ ^taKvi^oufvos : Siacrx'^oVej'os, ' when split open,' con j. W. 

» c/. 1. 12. 4 ; C.P. H. 12. 7. •* 3. 3. 1. 

'' TTpoffayopevovat coiij. VV. from G ; Trpotrayopeverai Aid. 



winter-hiid ^ on a separate stalk ; it is green, when 
in the cu[)-like stage, but brownish as it opens ; it 
appears at the same time as in the cultivated trees. 
The fi'uit is rounded oblong as large as a bean, 
resembling the fruit of the ivy ; v.hen mature, it 
has five angular projections, as it were, made by 
projecting fibres which meet in a point ; the im- 
mature fruit is less articulated. When the mature 
fruit is pulled to pieces,- it shows some small fine 
seeds of the same size as those of orach. The leaf and 
the bark ^ are well flavoured and sweet ; the leaf is 
like that of the ivy in shape, except that it rounds 
more gradually, being most curved at the part next 
the stalk, but in the middle contracting to a sharper 
and longer apex, and its edge is somewhat puckered 
and jagged. The tiniber contains little core, which 
is not much softer than the other part ; for the rest 
of the wood is also soft. 

Oj majyh and «-sA. 

XI. Of the maple, as we have said,^ some make ^ 
two kinds, some three ; one they call by the general 
name ' maple,' another zt/gia, the third klinotrokhos ^' ; 
this name, for instance, is used by the people of 
Stagira. The difference between zygia and maple 
proper is that the latter has white wood of finer 
fibre, while that of zygia is yellow and of compact 
texture. The leaf '^ in both trees is large, resem- 
bling that of the plane in the way in which it is 

® k\iv6tpoxov AXA.; K\iv6ffTpoxov \I : hoTfioxov coiij. Salm, 
from Plin. 16. 66 and 67, ciirstvenium or cra-^iiicnium. Sch. 
thinks that the word conceals 7Arj'oj ; c/. 3. 3. 1 ; 3. 11. 2. 

' <p6A\oi> conj. R. Const.; ^v\ov UMVAld.H.G. 



Tr}? irXardvov reravov XcTrrorepov Se koI acrapKO- 
repov Kol /uaXaKdorepov Koi irpoixrjKeaTepov to, Se 
(Ty^iafiaO^ 6\a r et<? o^v avvrjKOVTa koI ov^ ovtco 
/jLeaoa-x^iSi] aXV uKpocr'X^LSearepa' ov •jroXvlva Be 
ft)9 Kara fii'yeOo'^. e^^t Be /cal (})\ot.ov fXLKpw 
rpa^vrepov rov Tr]<; (f)ckvpa<;, vTvoTreXiov ira'xyv kol 
irVKVorepov rj 6 t^9 ttltvo^ koX uKafiTTrj' pi^at 8' 
oXiyai, KoX /jierecopot koI ovXai cr^eSoi' al irXelarai 

2 KOI al Trj<i ^av6ri<i koi al tt}? XevKr]<i. yiverai Be 
fiakiara ev rot<i e(f)vBpoi<i, ft)9 ol irepX rrjv ^'iBrjv \e- 
ryovai, Kal eari crirdviov. irepi av6ov<i Be ovk jjBeaav 
rov Be KapiTov ov Xiav i^ev Trpofiijfcrj, Trapofioiov Be 
Tft) TraXiovpoi irXrjv Trpopb^iKearepov. ol 8' ev rS) 
'OXy/xTTW TrjV fxev ^vyiav opeiov fMaWov, rrjv Be 
o-(f)€vBa/jLvov Kal ev rolf TreStot? (^vecrOav elvai Be 
TTjv fiev ev TO) opei ^vofievTjv ^avdrjv Kal ev^povv 
Kal ovXrjv Kal arepedv, 17 Kal 7rp6<i ra mroXvTeX'i] 
rSiV epyoov ^(poiVTai, rrjv Be ireBeivi^v XevKrjV re 
Kal fxavorepav Kal rjrrov ovXrjV KoXovcn 8' avrrjv 
evtoi yXeivov, ov cr(f)€vBa/j,vov. . . . Kal rfj^ appevo<i 
ovXorepa ra ^vXa o-vvea-rpafi/xeva, Kal ev ra 
rreBio) ravrrjv (pvecrdai. /xdXXov Kal ^Xacrdveiv 

3 "Ran Be Kal ixeXia<; yevrj Bvo. rovrwv 8' ?/ 
fxev vy\rriXr] Kal ev/ji'^Kr]<{ earl to ^vXov e-^ovaa 
XevKov Kal evivov Kal /xaXaKcorepov koI dvo^o- 

1 reravhv : c/. 3. 12. 5 ; 3. 15. 6. 

- ax^Tna-ff conj. R. Const, from G"; ffxl/^ae' Aid. Cam.; 
axhlJ-o-6' Bas., which W. reads. 
» o\o : ? '6\us. 

* i.e. do not riui back so far. 
' -noXvCva conj. R. Const.; iroAu* Iva 5e Aid.; iroXv- Iva bf M. 



divided ; it is smooth/ but more delicate, less fleshy, 
softer, longer in proportion to its breadth, and the 
divisions - all ^ tend to meet in a point, while they 
do not occur so much in the middle of the leaf,* 
but rather at the tip ; and for their size the leaves 
have not many fibres.^ The bark too is somewhat 
rougher than that of the lime, of blackish colour 
thick closer^ than that of the Aleppo pine and stiff; 
the roots are few shallow and compact for the most 
part, both those of the yellow and those of the white- 
wooded tree. This tree occurs chiefly in wet ground,*^ 
as the people of Mount Ida say, and is rare. About 
its flower they did ^ not know, but the fruit, they said, 
is not very oblong, but like that of Christ's thorn,"-* 
except that it is more oblong than that. But the 
people of Mount Olympus say that, while zygia is 
rather a mountain tree, the maple proper grows also 
in the plains ; and that the form which grows in the 
mountains has yellow wood of a bright colour, which 
is of compact texture and hard, and is used even for 
expensive work, while that of the plains has white 
wood of looser make and less compact texture. And 

some call it gleinos ^^ instead of maple ^1 The 

wood of the ' male ' tree is of compacter texture and 
twisted ; this tree, it is said, grows rather in the 
plain and puts forth its leaves earlier. 

1- There are also two kinds of ash. Of these one is 
lofty and of strong growth with white wood of good 
fibre, softer, with less knots, and of more compact 

" -rvKvSTepov conj. Seal, from G ; -Kvpiintpov UAld. 
'^ e<l>vSpoii : v<l>vSpois cc>nj. Sch. cf. vpufifios, v-roverpos. 
8 c/. 3. 9. 6 n.; Intr. p. xx. » cf. 3. 18. 3. 

"» cf. 3. 3. 1 ; Plin. 16. 67. 

" W. marks a lacuna : the description of the ' female ' 
tree seems to be missing. ^- Plin. 16. 62-64. 



repov Koi ovXojcpov rj Se raireivorepa koX tjttov 
evav^T}'? Koi rpax^'Tepa koI a-KXrjporepa koX ^av- 
Oorepa. ra 8e (f)vX\a tm fxev cr%7;yu-aTi Sa^voetSr}, 
TrXaTu^vWov Bdcpv)]';, eh o^vrepov Be avvrjyfjbeva, 
yapayfiov Be tiv eyovja kvkXm kol eTraKavoi- 
^ovra' TO Be oXov, oirep etiroi Tt,<; av (f)vXXov rw 
cifia cf)vXXoppoetv, a<i) evo<; fiia^ov koI irepi 
fiiav olov Iva Kara yovv koI av^vycav ra (fivXXa 
KaO^ eKaarov 7re(f>VK€, av)(y5iv Bie-)(ovaS)V tcov 
(TV^vyiMV, 6fioiO}<; Kal eirl Tr}<; ol'r;?. ecTTC Be to>v 
ixev ^paxea to, yovara Kal at av^vyiat to ttX^^o? 
iXdrrovi, tcov Be t?}9 XevKi]<i Kal fxaKpa Kal 
irXeiovi' Kal to, KaO^ eKaarov (f)vXXa jxaKpoTepa 
Kal crrevoTepa, ttjv Be xpoai^ TrpaaooBTj. (f)Xoiov 
Be Xelov e%ef, Kairvpbv Be Kal XeiTTOV Kal rfj 
XPo'^ 'JTvppov. TTVKvoppi^ov Be Kol ira'Xvppii^ov 
Kal fxerecopov. Kapirov Be ol fiev irepl Trjv "IBrjv 
ovx VTTeXd/ii^avov ex^iv ovS" dv6o<;- ex^i' S' ev 
Xo^M XeiTTO) Kapirov Kapvrjpov co? tmv d/xvyBa- 
Xmv viTOTTLKpov TTj ryevaei. ^epei Be Kal ere/j' 
aTTa olov ^pva, Kaddirep rj Bdj>vr), TrXrjv aTi(f)p6- 
Tepa' Kal cKaarov KaO' avTo ac}iaipoeiBe<i, oiairep 
TO, TOiV irXaTdvoiV tovtcov Be to, /mev Trepl rov 
Kapirov, TO, S' dirr)pT7]ixeva ttoXv, Kal to. irXelaTa 
ovro). ^veTai Be rj fiev Xeia Trepl to, ^advdyKt} 
/xdXiaTa Kal e<pvBpa, rj Be rpa^eta Kal Trepl Ta ^rjpd 
Kal TreTpatBrj. evtoc Be KaXovac Trjv fiev /leXtav 

^ ov\6rfpov : avov\6Tepov W. from Sch.'s conj.; &vovKos 
does not occur elsewhere, and T. uses fiav6s as the opposite 
of oZ\<)s. 

2 i.e. instead of considering the leaflet as the unit. For 
the description c/. 3. 12, 5 ; 3. 15. 4. 



texture ^ ; the other is shorter, less vigorous in growth, 
rougher harder and yellower. The leaves in shape 
are like those of the bay, that is, the broad-leaved 
bay, but they contract to a sharper jjoint, and they 
have a sort of jagged outline ^\ith sharp points. 
The whole leaf (if one may consider this as "^ a ' leaf ' 
because it is all shed at once) grows on a single 
stalk ; on either side of a single fibre, as it were, 
the leaflets grow at a joint in pairs, which are 
numerous and distinct, just as in the sorb. In some 
leaves the joints are short ^ and the pairs fewer in 
number, but in those of the white kind the joint is 
long and the pairs more numerous, while the leaflets 
are longer narrower and leek-green in colour. Also 
this tree has a smooth bark, which is dry thin and 
red in colour. The roots are matted stout and 
shallow.* As to the fruit, the people of Ida supposed 
it to have none, and no flower either ; however it 
has a nut-like fruit in a thin pod, like the fruit of 
the almond, and it is somewhat bitter in taste. And 
it also bears certain other things like winter-buds, 
as does the bay, but they are more solid,' and each 
separate one is globular, like those of the plane ; 
some of these occur around the fruit, some, in fact 
the greater number,*^ are at a distance from it. The 
smooth kind ' grows mostly in deep ravines and damp 
places, the rough kind occurs also in dry- and rocky 
parts. Some, for inst-ance the Macedonians, call the 

» ^pax«'a conj. Seal, from G ; rpaxta UAld.H. 
* Bod. inserts ov before fierttepop ; c/. 3. 6. 5. (Idaean 
account. ) 

' ffTKppoTepa conj. Dalec. ; <rrpu<t>v6r(f)a MSS. 
« ir\t7<rra conj, R. Const. ; »\e/rro UM VAld- 
' c/. Plin., I.e. 



T?;!/ Be ^ov/jueXiov, wairep ol irepi MaKcSovlav. 
5 jxel^ov Ze KoX fiavorepov rj ^ovfieXLo^, St' o koI 
rjTTov ovXov. (fjvaet Be to [xev ireBecvov koI Tpa-yy, 
TO B opeivov KoX \elov' eari Be rj fiev ev Tot9 
opecTL (pvofievr] euxpov; koI \eia koX arepea koI 
yXta'^pa, rj S' ev rco TreSteo d')(^pov<; koI jxavrj kol 
rpa^eia. (to S' oXov d><; elrrelv to, BevBpa oaa 
KaX ev Tft> TTeBlw koX ev tw opet ^veTUi, to, /xev 
opeiva ev'X^pod re Koi aTepea koI \ela yCvcTai, 
KaOdirep o^inj TrreXea to, aWa' to, Be ireBetva 
jxavoTepa kuI dxpovaTepa Kal X^^P^> "^^V^ dnriov 
Kol /j,r]\ea^ Kal d'XpdBo';, ct)? ol Trepl top "OXvfiTrov 
<f)aar tuvtu 8' ev tw ireBup KpeLTTO) Kal t& 
KapTTM Kal Tot9 ^vXoL<i' ev /xev yap tm opet 
T/?a%et9 Kol dKav6(oBei<; Kal 6^(oBeL<; elalv, ev Be tm 
ireBiO) XeioTepoi Kal /u,eL^ov<i Kal top Kapirov e')(^ov(TL 
yXvKVTepov Kal crapKcoBecrTepov' fieyeOet Be alel 
fxel^co TO, ireBeivd.) 

XII. Kpavei,a<i Be to /xev appev to Be OrjXv, 
fjv Brj Kal OrjXvKpavelav Ka\ovcriv. e'X^ovcn Be 
(f}vWov fiev djxvyBdXy o/xoiov, irXrjv XiiraBeaTepov 
Kav ira'XyTepov, (pXoiov 8' IvcoBrj XeiTTOv to Be 
(TTeXe'X^O'; ov iray^v Xiav, dXXa wapacpvei pd^Bovq 
Mo-jrep dyvo<i' eXdTTOv; Be ?; drfXvKpaveia Kal 
OafxvcoBeaTepov icrTiv. Tov<i Be o^ov<i 6fioi(o^ 
exovaiv afjb^co Ty dyvw Kal kuto, Bvo Kal KaT 

^ cf. Plin., I.e., and Index. 

^ fjif^Cov 5e Kal fxavSrepov conj. W. from G ; fi. 8e Kal /.LavSrepa 
MVU (? /.lavSripov) ; fxeiCwv df Kal fjLaKpoTfpa Ald.H. 



one ' ash ' (manna-ash), the other ' horse-asli ^ ' (ash). 
The ' horse-ash ' is a larger and more spreading ^ 
tree, wherefore it is of less compact appearance. 
It is naturally a tree of the plains and rough, Avhile 
the other belongs to the mountains and is smooth ^ ; 
the one which grows on the mountains is fair-coloured 
smooth hard and stunted, while that of the plains is 
colourless spreading and rough. (In general one 
may say of trees that grow in the plain and on the 
mountain respectively, that the latter are of fair 
colour hard and smooth,^ as beech elm and the 
rest ; while those of the plain are more spreading, 
of less good colour and inferior, except the pear 
apple ^ and wild pear, according to the people of 
Mount Olympus. These when they grow in the 
plain are better both in fruit and in wood ; for on 
the mountain they are rough spinous and much 
branched, in the plain smoother larger and with 
sweeter and fleshier fruit. However the trees of the 
plain are always of larger size.) 

Of coi-ndian cherry, coiniei, 'cedars,' medlar, thorns, sorb. 

XII. Of the cornelian cherry there is a 'male' and 
a 'female' kind (cornel), and the latter bears a corre- 
sponding name. Both have a leaf like that of the 
almond, but oilier and thicker ; the bark is fibrous and 
thin, the stem is not very thick, but it puts out side- 
branches like the chaste-tree, those of the 'female' 
tree, which is more shrubby, being fewer. Both 
kinds have branches like those of the chaste-tree, 

' Koi rpaxv . . . Kt7ov conj. Sch.; koI \uov . . . rpaxv Aid. 

* A€7a conj. Mold.; Aeu(ca Ald.G, 

* ^rjA.eas conj. Seal., c/. 3. 3. 2; ^eAi'os UMAld.H. 



dW7]Xov<i- TO Be ^vKov to fiev Trjs Kpaveia<i 
UKaphiov zeal (TTspeov oXov, ofioiov KepaTi ttjv 
TTVKVOTrjTa Kol Ti-jV l(Txvv, TO Be tt}? 6ii\vKpaveia<i 
ivTepicovrjv e^ov koI [xakaKcoTepov koX Kotkatvo- 
jievov Bl o Koi a')(^pelov eh ra (iKovTia. to S' 
v\fro<; Tov appevo^ 8(oSeKa fxdXiaTa in^-^eoiv, rfXiKr) 
Tcou aapiacTMV i) /jie jiCTTr]- to yap okov aTe\e')(o<i 
vyjro'; ov/c ta-x^ei. ^aal 8' ol p.ev ev T^"l8r) tt) TpeodSi 
TO /xev appev UKapirov elvac to Be drfky KapTrtfiov. 
TTVprfva S' KapiTO'i e%et TrapaTrXyaiop e\da, Kol 
eaOioixevo^ y\vKV<} koI evmBr]^' avOa Be b/xoiov 
TO) Trjf; e\da<i, koI aTravdei Be xal KapTrocfiopel 
TOV avTov TpOTTov T(p e^ evb^i pbia-'X^ov TrXelovi 
€')(eiv, (T)(eBov Be koI Tot<? XP^^^^^ 'jrapaTrXijcriQx;. 
ol S' ev MuKeBovia KapTrocpopelv /mev dp,(j>co (f)aalv 
TOV Be Trjf; d7fKeia<i d^pcoTov elvar Ta<? pt^a? 8' 
6/xoi,a<i ex^i Tah dyvoi<; iaxupo-^ '(Oil dvoiXed pov<?. 
jLveTat Be koI irepl to, e(f)vBpa koI ovk ev Tol<i 
^7]poi<i fJbQvov (j)V6Tai Be /cat o-tto cnrepfJiaTo^ koX 
diTO irapaaTrdBo'i. 

K.eBpov Be ol fiev (pacriv elvau BlttiJv, ttjv jiev 
AvKtav TTjv Be ^ocviKijv, ol Be fiovoeiBrj, KaOdirep 
ol ev Trj "iBr). TTapofMoiov Be ttj dpKevOw, Bia^epei 
Be fji,dXi(TTa TU) <f)vXXq)' to puev yap tt)^ KeBpov 
(TKXrjpbv Kal o^v koI aKavdoyBe^;, to Be t?}? dpKevdov 
fiaXaKcoTepov BoKel Be kuI vxjrrjXocfyvea-Tepov elvai 
rj dpKevdo^' ov /xtjv dXX^ evLoi ye ov Siaipovat 

^ The Idaeans are evidently responsible for this statement. 
T. himself (3. 4. 3) says the fruit is inedible. 

^ But (1. 11. 4) only certain varieties of the olive are said 
to have this character : the next statement seems also incon- 
sistent with 3. 4. 3. Perhaps T. is still reproducing his 
Idaean authority. 



arranged in pairs opjwsite one another. The wood 
of the ' male ' tree has no heart, but is hard through- 
out, like horn in closeness and strength ; whereas 
that of the ' female ' tree has heart- wood and is softer 
and goes into holes ; wherefore it is useless for 
javelins. The height of the * male ' tree is at most 
twelve cubits, the length of the longest Macedonian 
spear, the stem up to the point where it divides 
not being very tall. The people of Mount Ida 
in the Troad say that the ' male ' tree is barren, 
but that the ' female ' bears fruit. The fruit has a 
stone like an olive and is sweet to the taste and 
fragrant^ ; the flower is like that of the olive, and the 
tree produces its flowers and fruit in the same manner, 
inasmuch as it has several growing from one stalk,^ 
and they are produced at almost the same time 
in both forms. However the people of Macedonia 
say that both trees bear fruit, though that of the 
' female ' is uneatable, and the roots are like those of 
the chaste-tree, strong and indestructible. This tree 
grows in wet ground and not only ^ in dry places ; 
and it comes from seed, and also can be propagated 
from a piece torn off. 

* The ' cedar,' some say, has two forms, the Ljcian 
and the Phoenician ^ ; but some, as the people of 
Mount Ida, say that there is only one form. It 
resembles the arkeulhos (Phoenician cedar), differing 
chiefly in the leaf, that of ' cedar ' being hard shaq) 
and spinous, while that of arkeidhos is softer : the 
latter tree also seems to be of taller growth. How- 
ever some do not give them distinct names, but call 

' fiovov ins. R. Const, from G. 

* Plin. 13. 52. See Index ireSpos and ipKfvdoi. 

' *oi»'»jc^i': toifiKiiciiy conj. W. cf. 9. 2. 3 ; Plin. I.e. 



T049 ovofiaaiv aW' dfi(f)co KaXovct KeSpovj, rrXrjv 
Trapa<ri]fi(o<; rijv Kehpov o^vKehpov. o^coSr] 8' 
dfji(f)0) KoX TToXvpLaa-xaXa fcal eir e<TT pa fxp^iv a e^ov- 
ja TO, ^v\a' prjTpav S' rj fxev dpKevOo^ e;)^et 
fiiKpav Kol TTVKvrjv KOI orav KOTrfj Ta-)(v crrjTTo- 
fiivrjv Tj Se Ke8po<i to TrXelcrrov ijKapSiov koX 
ttcrrt7re9, ipvOpoKaphia S' dfj,<pco' Kal rj /xev ti}? 

4 KeSpov eycoSi;? i) Se tT]^ ei-epm ov. Kapiro^; 8' 
6 fiev T^<? KeSpov ^av0o<; p,vpTOv p,eye0o^ <^X^^ 
€V(i>8rj(; r}8v<i iadUaOat. 6 Be T>79 apKevOov ra 
p,ev dWa o/xowi, /u-eXa? Be kol aTpv(f>vo<; Kal 
uxTTTep d^p(OTo<i' Biapiivet 8' 6t9 eviavrov, eW^ 
orav a\Xo9 eTTK^vfj 6 irepvaivo'i airoTTiiTTei. 0)9 
Be ol iv ^ApKaBia Xeyovai, Tpei^ dpa Kapirov^; 
ta-yei, tov re irepvcnvov ovttco Triirova Kal 
tov rrporcepvaivov ijorj ireTTOva Kat eooooi/juov 
Kal rptrov tov veov virocpaivei. 6^77 Be XdTvpo<; 
Kal Kopiaai tou9 6peoTV7rov<; avT(p dvav6el<; dp^(o. 
TOV Be ^Xotov ofioiov e^^i KVTrap'iTTM TpwxyTepov 
Be' pi^a^ Be pavd<i dp,(l)6Tepat Kal iirLiroXaLOV^. 
<f>vovTai trepl to, ireTpdiBrj Kal 'Xj^ip.epLa Kal tovtov^ 


5 jVIecr7riX,7;9 ^' e'crrt Tpia yevr], avdrjBtbv aaTa- 
veio^ dvdi]Bovo€iBi]<i, 0)9 ol irepl ttjv "^Btjv Biai- 
povcrt. (f)€pei Be r} fiev aaTaveto^ tov Kapirov 
fjuei^co Kal XevKOTcpov Kal 'X^avvoTepov Kal Tov<i 
TTVprjva'i e)(ovTa paXaKcoTepov^' at S' eTepac 

^ irapa(xr]fji.a!s t))i' KfSpov U ; tt. rhv KeSpov M ; Aid. omits the 
article ; irapatrri/xaffia. KfSpov conj. W. 

2 fi-hrpav conj. Sch.: ixRKAov UMVAld. Plin., 16. 198, sup- 
ports fxiiTpav : he apparently read fxijTpay 5' tj fj,ev a. ex*' f^aWov 



them both 'cedar/ distinguisliing tliem liowever as 
' the cedar ' ^ and ' prickly cedar.' Both are branching 
trees with many joints and twisted wood. On the 
other hand arkeulhos has only a small amount of 
close core/2 which, when the tree is cut, soon rots, 
while the trunk of ' cedar ' consists mainly of heart 
and does not rot. The colour of the heart in each 
case is red : that of the ' cedar ' is fragrant, but not 
that of the other. The fruit of ' cedar ' is yellow, 
as large as the m}Ttle-berry, fragrant, and sweet 
to the taste. That of arkeutJtos is like it in 
other respects, but black, of astringent taste and 
practically uneatable ; it remains on the tree for a 
year, and then, when another grows, last year's fruit 
falls off. According to the Arcadians it has three 
fruits on the tree at once, last year's, which is not 
yet ripe, that of the year before last which is now 
ripe and eatable, and it also shews the new fruit. 
Satyrus^ said that the wood-cutters gathered him 
specimens of both kinds which wei*e fiowerless. The 
bark is * like that of the cypress but rougher. Both ^ 
kinds have spreading shallow roots. These trees 
grow in rocky cold parts and seek out such districts. 
^ There are three kinds of mespile, anthedon 
'oriental thorn), sataneios (medlar) and anthedonoeides 
(hawthorn), as the people of mount Ida distinguish 
them. "The fruit of the medlar is larger paler 
more spongy and contains softer stones ; in the other 

■xyKv-hy ; but the words koI otov . . . trrjxonfyriv (which P. does 
not render) seem inconsistent. ? ins. ov before Toxi» Sch. 

3 ? An enquirer sent out by the Lj'ceum : see Intr. p. xxi. 

•• «x*' conj. W.; iSoKfi Aid. 

* afi<l>6T€pcu conj. W. ; kfiporipas U; a.ii<poripovs Ald.H. 

* Pliu. 15. 84. 

' c/, C.P. 2. 8. 2 ; 6. 14. 4 ; 6. 16. 1. 



eXaxTft) T6 TL KoX evoohearepov ical (TTpvcpvoTepov, 
Mare Svvacrdat TrXelci) ^(povov dr^aavpi^eaOai. 
TTVKVorepov he /cat rb ^v\ov tovtwv koI ^avdorepov, 
ra §' dWa o/j,oiov. to 8' av6o'i iraaoiv ofioiov 
apLvyhaXfi, irXrjv ovk epvdpov wairep eKelvo a}OC 

e'^xXcoporepov p-cyeOei /leya to BevBpov 

Koi TTepiKOfxov. (f)vX\.ov Be to jxev ein 

'iro\va'x^iBe<i Be koI ev UKpo) a€\ivoeiBe<}, to S' 
eVt Tcov iraXaiOTepwv 7ro\va-)(iBe<; a(^6Bpa koX 
iyycovoetBe'i /xei^oa-i ar^icr/jLaai,, Tcravov lv(t)Be<i 
XeTTToTepov creXivov koI Trpo/xTjKeaTepov koI rb 
6\ov Kol ra (Tj(icr^aTa, irepiKexa^poiyiievov Be 
oXov piayov S' 6%et Xeirrbv p,aKp6v rrpb rev 
(fivXXoppoecv S' epvdpaiverai, acpoBpa. TToXvppi^ov 
Be rb BevBpov koX 0a9vppi^ov Bi o kol xpoviov 
Koi BvcroiXedpov. Kol rb ^vXov e^ef TVVKvbv koX 
6 arepebv Kal ttcra7re9. (jiverac Be koI airb crirep- 
p.aro'i Kal airb TrapacnrdBo^. v6crr]p,a Be avroiv 
eariv Mare jrjpdaKovra crKcoXrjKo^pcora yiveadai' 
Kal ol (TK0)X7}Ke<; p.eydXoi Kal iBioi rj ol ck tmv 
BevBpcov TMv dXXcov. 

Tct)v S' OLMV Bvo yevT] iroiovcn, rb fxev Bi] 
KapTTO^opov drjXv rb Be dppev aKapirov ov fMrjv 
dXXa BiacpepovcTL rot'? KapTroU, T<p ra? fiev 
a-rpoyyiiXov rdf Be irpop.i'jKri ra<i S' woeiBrj (f)epeiv. 
Bca^epovai Be Kal rot? x^Xoi^' a)<i yap eVt to 

^ iXaTTui re ti conj . W. ; ^Xarrw fieri UAld. 

- \W. suggests that some words are missing here, as it does 
not appear to which kind of ixiairlXt) the following descrip- 
tion belongs ; hence various difficulties. See 8ch. 

3 Probably a lacuna in the text. W. thus supplies the 
sense : he suggests o-i/cuoeiSe's for o-eAij'oeiSes. 



kinds it is somewhat smaller,^ more fragrant and of 
more astringent taste, so that it can be stored for a 
longer time. The wood also of these kinds is closer 
and yellower, though in other respects it does not 
differ. The flower in all the kinds is like the almond 
flower, except that it is not pink, as that is, but 

greenish - In stature the tree is large and it 

has thick foliage. The leaf in the young tree is 
round ^ but much divided and like celery at the tip ; 
but the leaf of older trees is very much divided and 
forms angles with larger di\isions ; it is smooth * 
fibrous thinner and more oblong than the celery 
leaf, both as a whole and in its divisions, and it has 
a jagged edge all round. ^ It has a long thin stalk, 
and the leaves turn bright red before they are shed. 
The tree has many roots, which run deep ; wherefore 
it lives a long time and is hard to kill. The wood 
is close and hard and does not rot. The tree grows 
from seed and also from a piece torn off". It is 
subject to a disease which causes it to become worm- 
eaten ^ in its old age, and the worms are large 
and different ' to those engendered by other trees. 

^ Of the sorb they make two kinds, the ' female ' 
which bears fruit and the ' male ' which is barren. 
There are moreover differences in the fruit of the 
' female ' kind ; in some forms it is round, in others 
oblong and egg-shaped. There are also differences 

^ TfTaibi-: c/. 3. 11. 1; 3. 15.6. 

^ xepiKexapayufvoy conj. Seal.; xeptKeOapfitror IJ ; repiKfKop- MVAld. c/. allusions to the leaf of /leo-xiATj, 3. 13. 1 ; 
3. 15. 6. 

6 c/. 4. 14. 10 ; Plin. 17. 2-21 ; Pall. 4. 10. 

^ t8ioi Aid. (for construction c/. Plat. Gorg. 4S1 c) ; ISiovs 
UMV (the first i corrected in U). W. adopts Sch.'s conj., 
riSiovi, in allusion to the edible cossua : cf. Plin. I.e. 

« Plin. 15. 85. 



irdv eixoSearepa Kol yXvKvrepa ra arpo'yyvXa, 
ra S' ft)oetSi} 7roWdKi<i iarlv o^ia kul tjttov 

7 evcoBr}. (pvWa 3' afx<polv Kara fiia'X^ov [xaKpov 
IvoecSi] 7re(f)VKacn arot')(y}hov ck tmv TrXaylcov 
TTTepvyoetSo)';, &>? ef09 oVto? rod 6\ov \o^ov<i 8e 
e'XpvTO'i ia^x^ia pbevov; ew? t?}? tVo9* 'rr\r]v Sieardaiv 
d(f) eavTMv viroav^vov ra Kara fxepo'i' (f)vWo- 
^dXel 8e ou Kara fiepo<i dWa oXov dfia to 
rrrepvycbSe^. elal Se nepl fiev ra TraXaoorepa 
Kul fiaKporepa 7r\€iov<; at av^vyiai, irepl he ra 
vecorepa Kal ^pa')(yr€pa iXdrrovi, irdvrav he eV 
CLKpov rod fxia'xpv <^vWov irepLrrov, ware Kal 
irdvr elvai rrepirrd. rw he a-)(^j]fiarc 8a(f)Voei8T] 
T/}9 Xeirro^iiXkov, ifK'qv x^P^JI^^^ e-)(pvra Kal 
/Spaxvrepa Kal ovk eh o^v ro aKpov avvrJKOv 
dW^ et9 7repi(f>epecrrepov. avdo<i he e')(ei, ^orpv- 
eo8e9 «7ro /jicd<; Kopvin)^ e'/c rroXkcov /JiiKpcbv Kal 

8 XevKOiv (TuyK€Lfi€vop. Kal 6 Kaprro^ orav evKapirfi 
^orpvcohr]^' jroWa yap diro t?79 avrrj<i Kopvvr}<i, 
M(Tr elvai Kaddiirep Krjpiov. aKO)\r]K6^opo<; eVt 
rov hevhpov 6 Kapiro'i direirro'; mv en yiverai 
fidXkov rSiv /jLea-TTiXcov Kal umiwv Kal d^pdhcov 
KairoL TToXi) arpv^v6raro<;. yiverai he Kal avro 
ro hevhpov aKaXr^Ko^pwrov Kal ovrco<i avatverai 
yrjpdaKov Kal 6 aKcoX^]^ Lhio<i epv6p6<i haav<;. 
Kaprrocjiopel h' eTrieiKco'i via- rpierrjt; yap evdv<i 
(pvei. rov fxeroTTiopov 5' orav dTTO^dXrj ro ^vXXov, 
evOifi tcrxei- ttjv KO.'X^pvcohr} Kopvvqv Xiirapav Kal 

^ <pi\Xa . . . ffToixv^^f conj. W. ; (pvWov 8' rb /xiv 
n'lffXOf fiuKphv IvoetSrj- irec(>. [be] ffroixv^^*' UMVAld. 

^ a.<p' tavToiv { = a.Tr' aW-qXccv) conj. Seal.; air' avruv U: so 
W., who however I'enders inter se. 



in taste ; the round fruits are generally more fragrant 
and sweeter, the oval ones are often sour and less 
fragrant. The leaves in both grow attached to a 
long fibrous stalk, and project on each side in a row ^ 
like the feathers of a bird's wing, the whole forming 
a single leaf but being divided into lobes with 
divisions which extend to the rib ; but each pair are 
some distance apart,- and, when the leaves fall,^ 
these divisions do not drop separately, but the whole 
wing-like structure drops at once. When the 
leaves are older and longer, the pairs are more 
numerous ; in the younger and shorter leaves they 
are fewer ; but in all at the end of the leaf-stalk there 
is an extra leaflet, so that the total number of leaflets 
is an odd number. In form the leaflets resemble * 
the leaves of the ' fme-leaved ' bay, except that they 
are jagged and shorter and do not narrow to a sharp 
point but to a more rounded end. The flower ^ is 
clustering and made up of a number of small white 
blossoms from a single knob. The fruit too is 
clustering, when the tree fruits well ; for a number 
of fruits are formed from the same knob, giving an 
appearance like a honeycomb. The fruit gets eaten 
by wonns on the tree before it is ripe to a greater 
extent than that of medlar pear or wild pear, and 
yet it is much more astringent than any of these. 
The tree itself also gets worm-eaten, and so withers 
away as it ages ; and the worm ^ which infests it is a 
peculiar one, red and hairy. This tree bears fruit 
when it is quite young, that is as soon as it is three 
years old. In autumn, when it has shed its leaves, 
it immediately produces its winter-bud-like knob,'' 

3 Plin. 16. 92. ^ For construction c/. 3. 11. 3. 

^ i.e. inflorescence. ^ Plin. 17. 221. "> cj. 3. 5. 5. 



iTTcoSrjKviav oaaav i^hrj ^XaaTLKov, koX Sia/aivei 
9 Tov ^eifjbcova. avaKavOov he icm koX r; on; koX 
t) fxeaTTtXr}' (jiXoibv 8' e-)(eL \elov vTroXiirapov, 
oa-airep fj,r) <y6pdvZpva, rrjv Be %/coat' ^avOov 
iiT CKevKaivovTa' ra Be yepdvBpva rpa'x^up /cat 
[xeXava. to Be BevBpov evp.ejeOe'i 6pdo(five<i 
evpvOfMov rfi Ko/xr)' (7)(^eBov yap d><; eirl to iroXv 
(Trpo^iXoeiBe'i (XX^P'f^ Xapi^dvei Kara rrjv Kofirjv, 
eav fM7) re ifXTroBlcry. rb Be ^vXov arepeov ttvkvov 
i(T-)(vpov ev'x^povv, pL^a<; Be ov 7roXXd<i p,ev ovBe 
Kara ^d6ov<;, lcr')(vpa^ Be koX Tra')(eia<i koL dva>- 
Xe0pov<i ej(ei. ^verai Be kol diro f)i^r)<i koI diro 
•napa(TirdBo<i koI diro cmeppaTO^' rotrov Be ^rjrei 
'y^v')(^pov eviKfxov, (f)iX6^(oov S' ev rovrm koX 
BvacoXedpov ov p,7]p dXXa koX (pverai ev Tot9 

XIII. "IBiov Be rfi (pvaeL BevBpov 6 /cepaao^ 
earr /McyeOet fiev pueja' koL <ydp et? T€TTapa<; 
Kol elKoai irri'^ei,^' ecrri 8' 6p0o(f)ve<; a(f)6Bpa' 
7ra;^09 Be axrre ica\ Bltttj'X^vv r'qv TrepLfieTpov aTTo 
ri]<; pl^rj^ ^X^''^' <^y^^oi' S" op,oiov tS> t^<? 
fieaTTiXTj^i a/cXtjpov Be acpoBpa /cal TTW^^vrepov, 
ware rfj xpoia iroppadev (pavepbv eivai rb BevBpov. 
(pXoibv Be rrjv Xei6rr)ra koI rrjv %/ooai/ koI rb 
7ra;^09 ofioiov cpiXvpa, Bi* o Kal rd'i KLa-ra<; e^ 
avrov TTOiovcnv oxjrrep Kal Ik tov t?}? ^i,Xvpa<i. 
TrepnricfiVKe Be ovro<; ovre 6pdo<pvr]<; ovre kvkXo) 
Kar laov, dXX! eXiK7]Bbv TreptetX^jcpe KdrwOev dvco 

' (iffairep fii] conj. Bod.; Siffvep rk Aid ; Strre ra M. 

"^ /c(i/x?jV Ald.H.; Kopv<p^v conj. Sch. ; vertice G. 

=* I'liii. 16. 125 ; c/. 16. 74 ; 17. 234. 

^ ■naxvrtpov : so quoted by Atlien. 2. 34 ; irKarvTfpov MSS. 


ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS, III. xii. 8 -xiti. i 

which is glistening and swollen as though the tree 
were just about to burst into leaf, and this persists 
through the winter. The sorb, like the medlar, is 
thomless ; it has smooth rather shiny bark, (except 
when 1 the tree is old), which in colour is a whitish 
yellow ; but in old trees it is rough and black. The 
tree is of a good size, of erect growth and with well 
balanced foliage ; for in general it assumes a cone- 
like shape as to its foliage,'' unless something inter- 
feres. The wood is hard close strong and of a good 
colour ; the roots are not numerous and do not run 
deep, but they are strong and thick and inde- 
structible. The tree grows from a root, from a piece 
torn off, or from seed, and seeks a cold moist |X)sition ; 
in such a position it is tenacious of life and hard to 
kill : however it also grows on mountains. 

Of bird-cherry, elder, icillow. 
XIII. 3 The kerasos (bird-cherry) is peculiar in 
character ; it is of great stature, growing as much as 
twenty-four cubits high ; and it is of very erect 
growth ; as to thickness, it is as much as two cubits 
in circumference at the base. The leaves are like 
those of the medlar, but very tough and thicker,* so 
that the tree is conspicuous by its colour from a 
distance. The bark ^ in smoothness colour and thick- 
ness is like that of the lime ; wherefore men make 
their writing-cases ^ from it, as from the bark of that 
tree. ' This bark does not grow straight nor evenly 
all round the tree, but runs round it ^ in a spiral 

^ cj. 4. 15. 1 ; Hesych. s.i: Ktpaaos. 
I cJ. 3. 10. 4 ; Ar. Vesp. 529. 

" ^tpix4<pvKe . . . Tr€piire<pvK6s : text as restored by Sch. and 
Dthers, following U as closely as possible. 
* Trepiei\7t<p* coiij. R. Const. 



rrpocrd'ycov, wairep r/ SLuypacpr) rcov ^vWtov Kol 
Xo7ri^6/xevo<i ovTO'i eKSiperai, eKelvo^ S" e7rtTO/i09 

2 ryiverat koX ov SvvaTat' p,epo<i 8' avrov ri top 
avrov rpoTTOV acf^aipelrai Kara 7rd^o<i cr'X^i^op^vov 
XeiTTov C09 av (pvWov, to Se Xoittov tt poa p,eveLv 
re Svvarai koX aco^ec to hevhpov axravTW? irepi- 
ire^vKo'i. TrepiaipovfMevov Be otuv Xotto, tov 
(p^oiov avvcKpalvei /cat Tore ttjv vypoTrjTa' Koi 
OTUV 6 e^co y^LTOiv Trepiaipedfj, fiovov 6 V7ro\tTTr)<i 
iirifieXaiveTai coairep pbv^oohei vypaaia, koX tvoKlv 
v7ro(f)V€Tai TO) SevTepo) erei 'XtTobv aXko<i dvT 
jeKCivov TrXrjv XeTTTOTcpo';. Tre^VKe koX to ^vXov 
6p,OLov Tat9 Icrl T(p (pXaiw (TTpeTTTOi^ eXiTTo/xevov 
KOL 01 pd^Boi (jyvovTUi TOV avTov TooTTov evdv^' 
TOv<i 6^ov<i S' av^avofievov av/u,^aiV€i, Tom jxev 

3 KaTO) del diroXXvadai tou9 S' dvco av^ecv. to S' 
oXov ov TToXvo^ov TO BevSpov dXX^ dvo^oTepov 
TToXi) Trj<i alyeipov. TroXvppi^ov Be Kol ctti- 
TToXaioppi^ov ovK ayav Be ira'xyppL^ov' r] S' 
etncTTpo^r] koX T')]<; pi^r}<i zeal tov (fyXotov tov irepl 
avTrjV r] avrt]. dvOo^ Be XevKov dirlw koX fxeairiXr] 
ojjioiov, e/c /jLtKpcbv dvO&v avyKelfxevov KrjpiwBe^. 
6 Be KapTTO'i ipv6po<i opoto<i Btocnrvpo) to crp^;?}//.a, 
TO Be peyeOo'i rfXiKOV Kvap-o^, irXrjv tov BioaTrvpov 
jxev 6 TTvprjv aKXrjpb'i tov Be Kepdaov piaXaKo^;. 
(pveTUt 8' OTTOv Kol Tj (f){,Xvpa, TO Be oXov oirov 
TTOTapol KOL e<f)vBpa. 

4 ^vcTai Be KoX 7} uKTr) pidXiaTa Trap* vBo)p koI 

1 Which is an ellipse, the segment of a cylinder : so Sch. 

^ fKelvos: i.e. lower down the trunk, where the spiral is 
less open. ^ evhofxos : cf. 5. 1. 12. 



(which becomes closer as it gets higher up the tree) 
like the outline of the leaves.^ And this {lart of 
it can be stripped off by peeling, whereas with the 
other part - this is not possible and it has to be cut 
in short lengths.^ In the same manner part is 
removed by being split off' in flakes as thin as a leaf, 
while the rest can be left and protects the tree, grow- 
ing about it as described. If the bark is stripped off 
when the tree is peeling, there is also at the time a 
discharge of the sap ; further, when only the outside 
coat is stripped off, what remains turns black with a 
kind * of mucus-like moisture ; and in the second 
year another coat grows to replace what is lost, but 
this is thinner. The wood in its fil:)res is like the 
bark, twisting spirally,-^ and the branches grow in 
the same manner from the first ; and, as the tree 
grows, it comes to pass that the lower branches keep 
on perishing, while the upper ones increase. How- 
ever the whole tree is not much branched, but has 
far fewer branches than the black poplar. Its roots 
are numerous and shallow and not very thick ; and 
there is a similar twisting of the root and of the bark 
which surrounds it. '^ The flower is white, like that 
of the pear and medlar, composed of a number of 
small blossoms arranged like a honeycomb. The 
fruit is red, like that of diospyros in shape, and in size 
it is as large as a bean. However the stone of the 
diospyros fruit is hard, while that of the bird-cherry 
is soft. The tree grows where the lime grows, and 
in general where there are rivers and damp places. 
"The elder also grows chiefly by water and in shady 

* Ikaitfp conj. Sch.; Tep MV; -irus Ald.H. 

* (TTpfirris i\irr6ix(vov conj. Sch. ; arpfin^ e\iTT0fi4vai U ; 
o-Tpexry L\iTrofj.fy,f Aid. « c/. 3. 12. 7. ^ Plin. 17. 151. 



€V T0t9 (TKL€pol<i, OV flrjV oXXa Kal iv TOt<? fl1] 

TOLovToi<;' Oa/jLV(t)8€<; 8e pd^hoL<i eVeretoi? av^a- 
vofiivai'i /J'^XP'' '^V'^ (f)vWoppoia<i et? /atJ/co?, elra 
fiera ravra 6t9 'nd')(p<i' ro 8e v-\lro<i twv pd^hoav 
OV ^li'ya \lav dXka koL fidXio-ra ct)9 k^dirrixv 
TMV Be crreXe^^wi' 7ra%09 Twy yepavBpvcov oaov 
7repiKe(f)a\aia<i, (f)Xoib<i 8e Xeto? XevrTO? Ka7rvp6<i' 
TO he ^vXov x^vvov koI KOixpov ^rjpavOeVy ev- 
repLwvrjv Se e^pv pbokaKi^v, coare 8i' oXov Kal 
KOiXaiveadai Ttt<? pd^hovq, e^ mv koX ra<i ^ukti]- 
pLa<i TTOiovcri ra<i Kov(j)a<;. ^rjpavOev Se la^vpov 
Kal dyi]p(i)v iav /3/oe%t;Tat, Kav y XeXoTTiafievov 
Xoiri^erat he avTo/jbarov ^rjpaivofievov. pL^a<i he 
eyei fierecopov; ov TroXXa<; he ovhe /xeydXa^;. 

5 (pvXXov he TO fiev Kad^ eKaarov fxaXaKov, irpo- 
lxriKe<i ft)9 TO Trj<i TrXaTU^vXXov hd(})vr)(;, /xel^ov 
he Kol TrXaTVTepov kol irepK^epeaTepov eK fieaov 
Kal KdTuiOev, to S" UKpov eU o^ii /xaXXov (rvvrjKOV 
kvkXu) S' e%of x^pay/xov to he oXov, irepl eva 
ixicryov iraxyv Kal Ivcohrj waav kXwvlov to, fiev 
ev6ev TO, he evOev KaTo, yovu Kal av^vyiav 7re(f>v- 
Kacn TMV (pvXXcov hiexovra dir dXXi]Xo)v, ev he 
i^ aKpov Tov ixiaxpv. vTrepvOpa he Ta (pvXXa 
eVtet/cco? Kal ^aOi^a Kal crapKcohr]' (pvXXoppoel 
he TOVTO oXov, hioirep (pvXXov dv xi? etrroc to oXov. 
e)(pv(JL he Kal ol KXo)ve<; ol veoi <yci)VO€ihi] Tiva. 

6 TO 8' dv6o<i XevKov eK fiLKpcov XevKMV ttoXXmv 
iirl TTJ TOV {Jbla^pv axycxei Kr]pi(ohe<;' evahiav 

^ -nepiKetpaKaias, some part of a ship's prow : so Pollux. 
^ Ka-Kvp6s conj. Sch.; koX irvpffSs U (?) ; koI irvpp6s V 
■novpos M. ^ Sc. pith. 




"places, but likewise in places which are not of this 
cliaracter. It is shrubby, with annual branches which 
go on growing in length till the fall of the leaf, after 
which they increase in thickness. The branches do 
not grow to a very great height, about six cubits at 
most. The thickness of the stem of old trees is 
about that of the ' helmet ' ^ of a ship ; the bark is 
smooth thin and brittle ^ ; the wood is porous and 
light when dried, and has a soft heart-wood,^ so that 
the boughs are hollow right through, and men make 
of them their light walking-sticks. When dried it is 
strong and durable if it is soaked, even if it is stripped 
of the bark; and it strips itself of its own accord as it 
dries. The roots are shallow and neither numerous 
nor large. The single leaflet is soft and oblong, like 
the leaf of the 'broad-leaved' bay, but larger broader 
and rounder at the middle and base, though the tip 
narrows more to a point and is jagged^ all round. 
The whole leaf is composed of leaflets growing about 
a single thick fibrous stalk, as it were, to which they 
are attached at either side in pairs at each joint ; 
and they are sepjirate from one another, while one 
is attached to the tip of the stalk. The leaves are 
somewhat reddish porous and fleshy : the whole is 
shed in one piece ; wherefore one may consider the 
Avhole structure as a 'leaf.'^ The young twigs too 
have certain crooks '^ in them. The flower " is white, 
made, up of a number of small white blossoms 
attached to the point w^here the stalk divides, 
in form like a honeycomb, and it has the heavy 

* Xapay/j-oi' conj. R. Const, from G ; Trapayftof UMV; 
a-iraoayfj.ov Aid. ^ c/. 3. 11. 3 n. 

^ yaivoeiSri U; ?7<«»;'io€i5^ ; G seems to have rea<l yovaTonSrj ; 
Sch. considers the text defective or mutilated, 

7 cf. 3. 12. 7 n. 



Be e%e« XeipicoSrj ein^apelav. e-^^et 8e Kal rov 
KapiTov o/xolci)<; tt/jo? evl /xLa'X^a) 7ra%ei ^orpvcoSi) 
Si' yiverai Be KaraTreTraivo/nevo^ /xeXaq, &)/zo9 Be 
oiiv 6p,(})aK(oBT]'i' /xeyeOeL Be fiiKpo) [lei^wv opo^ov 
rr)P vypaaiav Be olvcoBrj rfj 6-\\rei' Kal to.? %etyoa9 
TeXeiovjxevoL ^dirTOvTai Kal ra^ Ke<^aXa<i' e%ei Be 
Kal ra evTo<; aijaa/xoeiBij ti-jv o-^lv. 
7 YidpvBpov Be Kal ?; Irea Kal 7ro\v€tBe<s' rj jxev 
fieXaiva KaXov/xein] rro top (fiXoibv e%ety fieXava 
Kal (poiviKovv, 7] Be XevKr) to5 XevKov. KaXXtovi 
Be e-xev ra<i pdj3Bov<; Kal ;^/??/criyu,ft)Te/oa9 eU to 
nrXeKeiv 77 p,eXaiva, 97 Be XevKrj KaTrvpcorepa^. eari 
Be Kal Tr]<; /jieXaivr]<i koI tyj^ XevKi]<; evLov <yevo<; 
fxiKpov Kal ovK e)(pv av^rjcriv eh vy\ro<i, &cnrep Kal 
eir ctXXcov tovto BevBpcov, olov KeBpov (f)OLviKo<;. 
KoXovcrt, 8' ol Trepl ^ApKaBlav ovk Ireav dXXa 
eXlKrjv TO BevBpov olovrai Be, wairep eXe;^^j;, koI 
KapiTov ex^iv avrrjv yovcpbov. 

XIV. "EcTTt Be rrj'i 7rTeXea<; Bvo yevti, Kal ro fiev 
opeiirreXea KaXetrai to Be TTTeXea- B[.a(f)epeiBe t5) 
OafivoyBeaTepov etvac ttjv TTTeXeav evav^eaTepov Be 
T7;i/ opetTTTeXeav. (f)vXXov Be dcr)(^iBe<; TrepiKe'^^apay- 
jxevov rjcrv^rj, TrpofirjKeaTepov Be tov Trj<i diriov, 

' Kara-niTTaivofjiivos conj. W. ; koI ireTr. VAld. 

'^ Kol . . . ^dnrovrai I conj., following Seal., W., etc., but 
keeping closer to U : certain restoration perhaps impossible ; 
Ka\ ras X^^P"^^ reAeiovs ava$\dffTei oi Kal ras Ke<pa\d.s U ; X^'^P^S 
Se Te\elovs- kvafiXaffe'i MV ; om. G. 

» Plin, 16. 174 and 175, 


fragrance of lilies. The fruit is in like manner 
attached to a single thick stalk, but in a cluster : 
as it becomes quite ripe,^ it turns black, but when 
unripe it is like unripe grapes ; in size the berry is a 
little larger than the seed of a vetch ; the juice is 
like wine in appearance, and in it men bathe - their 
hands and heads when they are being initiated into 
the mysteries. The seeds inside the berry are like 

^ The willow also grows by the water, and there 
are many kinds. There is that which is called 
the black willow^ because its bark is black and 
red, and that which is called the white * from the 
colour of its bark. The black kind has boughs 
which are fairer and more serviceable for basket- 
work, while those of the white are more brittle.* 
There is a form both of the black and of the white 
which is small and does not grow to a height, — just 
as there are dwarf forms of other trees, such as 
prickly cedar and palm. The people of Arcadia 
call the tree '^ not ' willow ' but helike : they believe, 
as was said,^ that it bears fruitful seed. 

0/ elm, pojylars, aider, [semyda, bladder-senna]. 

XIV. s Of the elm there are two kinds, of which 
one is called the ' mountain elm,' the other simply 
the ' elm ' : the difference is that the latter is 
shrubbier, while the mountain elm grows more 
vigorously. The leaf is undivided and slightly 
jagged, longer than that of the pear, but rough 

* See Index. 

' KawvpwTfpa^ conj. Sch.; koI irvpwrfpai U; (tat irvpoTfpas 
MVAld. cf. 3. 13. 4. 
« Sc. iTfo generally. " 3. 1. 2, » PlJn. 16, 72. 



rpa'xp he kcu ov Xeiov. /neya Be to hevhpov koI 
TM v-\fr€i Koi Tft) fMeyedet. ttoXv S' ovk eart irepl 
rrjv ^'iSrjv aWa cnrdviov tottov Be e^vhpov (f)iXel. 
TO Be ^vkov ^avOov koX layypov kcu evivov koX 
'y\ia)(^pov' uTrav yap KapBlw ')(pc>)vrac S' avTa> 
Kol TTpof Ovpco/xara TroXvTeXr}, koI yXwpov fxev 
euTOfxov ^rjpov Be Bvcrropov. aKapirov Be vofxi- 
^ovatv, aXX iv Tat? KwpvKicn rb KOfifii Kal Orjoi 
arra KcovcoiroeiBr] (f)epei. ra<i Be Ka^pvi IBiWi 
icrx,€i Tou fieTOTTOopov TToWa? Kal fxiKpa<i Kal 
fxe\aiva<;, iv Be ralf; d\Xat,<; copai^ ovk eire- 

2 'H Be \evK7] Kal rj aiyecpo'i ixovoeiBi'i'^, opOoc^vi) 
Be a/J,(pw, 7r\7]v /xaKporepov ttoXv Kal fxavorepov 
Kal \ei6repov r) atyeipo<i,To Be a XJ) fxa roiv <^vWwv 
irapo/iocov. o/xotov Be Kal to ^vkov refivofxevov 
rfj XevKOTrjTL. Kapirov 3' ovBerepov rovTWv ovBe 
avOo^ e')(eLv BoKet. 

'H K€pKl<; Be irapo/uioiov rfj \evKYj Kal rw p,eye6ei 
Kal TM T0v<} K\dBov<i eTTiXevKOVi €')(eLV to Be 
^vWov KiTrct)Be<; p,ev dycovcop Be eK tov dWou, 
TTjv Be piiav irpoixrjKri Kal eh o^v avvrjKovcrav' r5> 
Be ■)(^pa)p.aTi a')(^eBbp ofioiov ro vtttlov Kal to 
IT paves' filcryo) Be TrpoaTjpTrjfxevov fiaKpu) Kac 
XeiTTU), Bi o Kal OVK opdbv dXSJ eyK€K\ifievov. 
(j)\oibv Be Tpa')(VTepov t% \evKrj<i Kal pbdWov 
VTToXeTrpov, oicrirep 6 t-j}? d')^pdBo<i. aKapirov Be. 

3 Movoyeve'i Be Kal rj KXrjOpa' <j)vcrec Be Kal 

^ y><iTXPov conj. St.; alcrxpi" Akl.H. cf. 5. 3. 4. 

- cf. 5. 5. 2. 

8 cf. rh evXaKSiSf^ tovtq, 3. 7. 3 ; 2. 8. 3 n.; 9. 1. 2, 



rather than smooth. The tree is large, being both 
tall and wide-spreading. It is not common about 
Ida, but rare, and likes wet ground. The wood is 
yellow strong fibrous and tough ^ ; for it is all heart. 
Men use it for expensive doors 2 : it is easy to cut 
when it is green, but difficult when it is dry. The 
tree is thought to bear no fruit, but in the ' wallets ' ' 
it produces its gum and certain creatures like gnats ; 
and it has in autumn its peculiar ' winter-buds ' ^ 
which are numerous small and black, but these have 
not been observed at other seasons. 

The abele and the black poplar have each but a 
single kind : both are of erect growth, but the black 
poplar is much taller and of more open growth, and 
is smoother, while the shape of its leaves is similar 
to those of the other. The wood also of both, when 
cut, is much the same in whiteness. Neither of 
these trees appears to have fruit or flower.^ 

The aspen is a tree resembling the abele both in 
size and in having whitish branches, but the leaf 
is ivy-like : while however it is otherwise without 
angles, its one angular*^ projection is long and 
narrows to a sharp point : in colour the upper and 
under sides are much alike. The leaf is attached 
to a long thin stalk : wherefore the leaf is not set 
straight, but has a droop." The bark of the abele 
is rougher and more scaly, like that of the wild pear, 
and it bears no fruit. 

The alder also has but one form : in growth it is 

* KCLXpvi, here probably a gall, mistaken for winter-bud. 

* c/., however, .3. 3. 4 ; 4. 10. 2, where T. seems to follow a 
different authority. 

" Supply ywy'tay from aytiviot^. 

' ifKiKhiuivov : sc. is not in line with the stalk. 


6pOo(pve<;, ^v\ov S' e^ov fxaXuKov koX evrepKovrjv 
IxakaKrjV, Mare hi' okov KOiXalveaOai ra<; XeTna^ 
pdfi8ov<i. (f)vWov S' ojJiOLov (17710), 7r\r)v jJbel^ov 
Koi tvcoSearepov. Tpaxv4>\oiov 8e /cal 6 ^Xoto<; 
eacodev epv6p6<;, 8i o koX ^diTTei ra Bepfjuara. 
pl^a<; 8e i7ri7ro\aiou<; . . . rfKiKov 8d(f)vr)<i. (pverai 
Be ev rol<i €(f)vBpot<i dXkodt S' ovBafiov. 
4 [X7]p,v8a Be TO [xev ^vXkov e')(ei ofioiov rfj 
YlepcriKT] KoXovfxivrj Kapva irXrjp fxcfcpo) arevore- 
pov, TOP (fiXoibv Be ttolklXov, ^liXov Be eXa^pov 
'X^prjaLjxov Be eh ^aKTr}p[a<i /xovov eh dXXo Be 

'H Be KoXvrea e%6t to fxev (pvXXov ejyu<; rod 
T7]f; tVea?, iroXvo^ov Be koX 7roXv(f>uXXov koL to 
BevBpov 6Xa><; fzeyw top Be Kapirov eXXo^ov, 
KaOdirep tcl 'X^eBpoitd' Xo^oi<i yap TrXarecri koI 
ov arevoh to cnrepfj.dTiov to evov fxiKpov koi ov 
ixeya' aKXrjpbv Be fieTpico'i ovk dyav ovBe ttoXv- 
KapTTOV u><i Kafa fieyeOo'i. cnrdviov Be to ev 
Xo^oh e'X^eiv top Kapirov oXiya yap TOiavTa roiv 

XV. 'H Be 'HpaKXecoTiKr) Kapva — ^vaet yap 
Kal TOVT dypiov tw re firjBev r) firj ttoXv 
^etyow ylveaOai <r)> tcov i)fiepa>v top Kapirop, kol 
TOO Bvpaadai ')(^ei[xoiPa<i V7ro(f)epetP Kal tw ttoXv 
^veaOat Kara to, oprj Kal TroXvKapTTOV ep Toh 
6peioL<;' eVt Be tw firjBe aTeXe'X^coBe^ dXXa 0a/x- 

1 Part of the description of the flower, and perhaps of the 
fruit, seems to be missing. Sch. 

^ c/. 4. 8. 1 ; but in 1. 4. 3 the alder is classed with 'am- 
phibious ' trees, and in 3. 3. 1 with ' trees of the plain.' 

« Betulam, G from Plin. 16. 74. 


ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS, III. xiv. 3-.\v. i 

also erect, and it has soft wood and a soft heart-wood, 
so that the slender boughs are hollow throughout. 
The leaf is like that of the pear, but larger and 
more fibrous. It has rough bark, which ou the inner 
side is red : wherefore it is used for dyeing hides. 
It has shallow roots . . . ^ the flower is as large as 
that of the bay. It grows in wet places'- and 
nowhere else. 

The semyda ■'> has a leaf like that of the tree called 
the ' Persian nut '(walnut), but it is rather narrower: 
the bark is variegated and the wood light : it is only 
of use for making walking-sticks and for no other 

The bladder-senna* has a leaf near that of the 
willow, but is many-branched and has much foliage ; 
and the tree altogether is a large one. The fruit is 
in a pod, as in leguminous plants : the pods in fact 
are broad rather than narrow, and the seed in them 
is comparatively small, and is moderately hard, but 
not so very hard. For its size the tree does not 
bear much fruit. It is uncommon to have the fruit 
in a pod ; in fact there are few such trees. 

Of filbert, terebinth, box, krataigos. 

XV. The filbert is also naturally a wild tree, in that 
its fruit is little, if at all, inferior to that of the tree 
in cultivation, that it can stand winter, that it grows 
commonly on the mountains, and that it bears 
abundance of fruit in mountain regions ^ ; also because 
it does not make a trunk, but is shrubby with 

* Sch. remarks that the description of KoXvrta is out of 
place : c/. 3. 17. 2. \V. thinks the whole section spurious. 
The antitheses in the latter part suggest a different context, 
in which KoKvTta was described by comparison with some 
other tree. * bptiois couj. W.; <popais Aid. 



v(o8€<i elvai pd^hoi^ avev fiaa-'X^aXcov Kol av6^oi<; 
fiaKpal<i Be Kol 'Ka')(eiai<i iviai*;' — ov firjv dXka 
KOL i^tjfiepovTai. hiacjiopdv 8e e^^ei rw top 
Kapirov dnoSiSovaL /3e\.riO) koI fxel^ov to (pvWov 
K€)(^apayfxevov 6' cificpoiv ofioioTarov to t^9 
Kkrjdpa'i, ttX^p irXarvTepov koI avro to SivSpov 
/xei^ov. KapTTLfiooTepov 5' alel <ytveTai kutu- 
KOTTTopevov Ta9 pd^hov^. <yevri he hvo dficjiolv 
al fiev yap (TTpoyyvXov at he irpofxaKpov ^epovcrt 
TO Kdpvov e/cXevKOTepov Se to twv rjp,epo)V. kol 
KaXXiKapirel fjidXiCTTd y ev T0t9 i(f)v8poi^. e^rj- 
fxepovTai he to, dypta fieTa(f>VTev6p,eva. <f)Xoibv 
S' e)(^ei Xeiov iTTiiToXaiov XercTOv Xtirapov ISifoq 
aTLyp.d<i XevKUf eyovTa ev avTW' to he ^vXov 
acfiohpa yXla')(^pov, wcrre Kol to, XeTTTo. Trdvv pa^- 
hia TrepiXorriaavTe'i Kavea ttolovctl, /cat to, Tra^ea 
he KaTa^vaavTe<;. e%et he Kal evTepLOiinjv XeTTTrjv 
^avOrjv, f] KoiXaiveTai. Ihiov 8' avTcov to irepl 
Tov tovXov, oiairep etTrofiev. 

T/}? he TeppiivOov to piev dppev to he drjXv. to 
p.ev ovv appev d/capTTov, ht o kuI /caXovaiv dppev 
TMV he OrfXeiSiV rj piev ipvdpov evdix; (f)epei- Tov 
Kupirov rjXLKov ^a/cbv direTTTOV, rj he ')(Xo€pov 
eveyKaaa p-eTa TavTa ipvdpaivei, Kal dpxi Ttf 
dp,7reXq) ireTraivovaa to ea-'xaTov iroiet p,eXava, 
p,eye6o<i t'fXiKov Kvap,ov, prjTLVcohr) he Kal Ovco- 
hidTepov. ecTTi he to hevhpov irepl p,ev ttjv "Ihrjv 
Kal yiaKehoviav ^pa')(y 6ap,voihe<i eaTpap,p,evov, 
irepl he ^ap,aaKov t?}? 'Zvpia'i p^eya Kal 'ttoXv 
Kal KaXov 6po<i ydp tI (fyaaiv elvai Trdp./xea-TOV 

1 cf. a P. 2. 12. 6. 2 cf. Geop. 10. 

3 AeloJ'Conj.W.; irAsov UMVAld. 



unbranched stems without knots ; though some of 
these are long and stout. Nevertheless it also submits 
to cultivation. The cultivated form differs in produc- 
ing better fruit and larger leaves ; in both forms the 
leaf has a jagged edge : the leaf of the alder most 
closely resembles it, but is broader, and the tree itself 
is bigger. ^ The filbert is always more fruitful if it 
has its slender boughs cut off. - There are two kinds 
of each sort; some have a round, others an oblong 
nut ; that of the cultivated ti-ee is paler, and it fruits 
best in damp places. The wild tree becomes 
cultivated by being transplanted. Its bark is smooth,' 
consisting of one layer, thin glossy and with peculiar 
white blotches on it. The wood is extremely tough, 
so that men make baskets even of the quite thin 
twigs, having stripped them of their bark, and of 
the stout ones when they have whittled them. Also 
it has a small amount of yellow heart-wood, which 
makes * the branches hollow. Peculiar to these trees 
is the matter of the catkin, as we mentioned.^ 

^ The terebinth has a ' male ' and a ' female ' form. 
The ' male ' is barren, which is why it is called 
male'; the fruit of one of the 'female' forms is 
red from the first and as large as an unripe " lentil ; 
~he other produces a green fruit Avhich subsequently 
:aims red, and, ripening at the same time as the 
grapes, becomes eventually black and is as large as a 
Ijean, but resinous and somewhat aromatic. About 
Ida and in Macedonia the tree is low shrubby and 
twisted, but in the Syrian Damascus, Avhere it 
abounds, it is tall and handsome ; indeed they say 

* I Akl.H.; ^ W. with U. cf. 3. 13. 4. 
s 3. 7. 3. « Plin. 13. 54. 

" KoX before iirfwrov oin. St. 


4 T€pfiip0o)v, aXXo 8' ovSev ire^vKevat. ^likov he 
e%et yXLcTXpov real pi^a<i la')(vpa^ Kara ^ddov<i, 
KoX TO o\ov avayXeO pov avdo<i Se o/noiov t& tt}? 
ekda^, Tw ')(^p(o/jiaTi 8e epvOpov. <f)vWov, nrepl 
€va ixla')(pv TrXeict) BacpvoeiBij Kara av^vyiav, 
wcTTrep KoX TO TT]<i o'ir}<;' koX to e^ uKpov irepiTTOV 
TrXrjv e<y<yo)vca)T€pov tt}? otrji; koX ha<^voeiheaTepov 
he kvkKo) Kol XLirapov dirav ajxa tS) Kapirw. 
<^epeL he kol KcopvKcohrj Ttva KOiXa, KaOdirep ?} 
TTTeXea, ev oh 6rjpihi,a iyyuyveTai, Kwywiroeihrj' 
e<y<yi'yveTai he tl kol pr]Tiv6!)he<i ev T0VT0t<} koI 
f^Xiaxpov ov fiTjv evdevTev ye r] prjTtvr) auWe- 
yeTai aXhC diro tov ^vXov. 6 he Kapiro^ ovk 
d(jiLr]at ptjTLvrjf; irXrjdo'i, dXXa TrpoaexeTac fiev 
Tai<i %e/>o"''j Kciv fxrj 7rXv6fj /jueTO, ttjv crvXXoyrjv 
avvexeTur 7rXvv6/x€vo<; he 6 fiev XevKO'i koL 
aTrcTTTO? eirLTTXel, 6 he [xeXa<i vcpia-TUTai.. 

5 'H he TTv^of; pueyedet, fiev ov pieydXr), to he 
(pvXXov op^oiov e%ef pbvppivw. (f)veTat S' ev Tol<i 
■^vxpol'; TOTTOL^ KOI Tpa')(ecTi' Kcu yap to, KvToypa 
TowvTov, OV Tj TrXeLaTT] ylveTar ■\jrvxpo<} he koI 
"OXvfnro<? 6 M.aKehovi/co'i' koX yap evTavOa 
ylveTai 7rXr)v ov /leydXrj' /jieyicrTr) he /cav kuX- 
XiaTt] ev Kvpvo)' Kul yap evfiijKei'i Kal iraxo^ 
exovaat ttoXv irapd Ta9 dXXa<i. hi b Kal to 
/xeXi ovx vhv o^ov T)]<i ttv^ov. 

^ TTXeiw : sc. <pv\\a, ill loose apposition to (j>v\\ov. Ap- 
parently the leaf is said to resemble that of oir) in its compo- 
site structure, but that of the bay in shape : cf. 3. 12. 7. 

^ oiTrav a/xa conj. W. ; a/xa airav UAld. 

3 cf. 2. 8. 3; 3. 7. 3; 3. 14. 1. KwpvKdSv conj. R. Const.; 
KopvooSr] Aid.; KwpvtiSTj H. ; KapvuSr} mBas. 



that there is a certain hill which is covered with 
terebinths, though nothing else grows on it. It has 
tough wood and strong roots which run deep, and the 
tree as a whole is impossible to destroy. The flower 
is like that of the olive, but red in colour. The leaf 
is made up of a number of leaflets,^ like bay leaves, 
attached in pairs to a single leaf-stalk. So far it 
resembles the leaf of the sorb ; there is also the 
extra leaflet at the tip : but the leaf is more angular 
than that of the sorb, and the edge resembles 
more the leaf of the bay ; the leaf is glossy all 
over,- as is the fruit. It bears also some hollow 
bag-like ^ growths, like the elm, in which are found 
little creatures like gnats ; and resinous sticky 
matter is found also in these bags ; but the resin is 
gathered from the wood and not from these. The 
fruit does not discharge much resin, but it clings to 
the hands, and, if it is not washed after gathering, it 
all sticks together ; if it is washed, the part which is 
white and unripe floats,^ but the black part sinks. 

The box is not a large tree, and it has a leaf like 
that of the myrtle. It grows in cold rough places ; 
for of this character is Cytora,^ where it is most 
abundant. The Macedonian Olympus is also a cold 
region ; ^ for there too it grows, though not to a 
great size. It is largest and fairest in Corsica,' 
where the tree grows taller and stouter than anywhere 
else ; wherefore the honey there is not sweet, as it 
smells of the box. 

* ertirXu conj. R. Const, from G ; 4irl ir\f7ov Aid.; iir\ x\t7 
(erased) U. 

» c/. Cylore buxi/er, Catull. 4. 13 ; Plin. 16. 70. 

« cf. 5. 7. 7. 

^ Kvpv^ conj. R. Const, from Plin. I.e.; Kvpiiyui U; Kvp-f]yri 


UXrjdei Be ttoXv /cpdraiyo^i eariv, ol he Kpa- 
TULyova KoXovaiv e%ei he to fiev (pvXXov ofMoiov 
fxecTTTikri jeravov, irXrjv fiel^ov i/celvov kcu irXarv- 
repov rj TrpofiTjKeo-repop, rov he yapa<^px)V ovk 
e'xpv (acnrep CKeivo. jLveraL he to hevhpov ovtc 
p.e<^a \lav ovt€ iraxv' to he ^v\ov ttolkIXov 
laxi>pov ^avOov e'xei he ^Xoibu Xelov o/jloiov 
fxeairiXr]' fiovoppi^ov S" ei? /3ddo^ 0)9 eVt to ttoXv. 
KapiTOV S' e^ec (TTpoyyvXov tjXlkov 6 kotlvo^' 
irerraLvopevo'i he ^avOvveTai ical iirifieXalveTaf 
KaTo, he TTjv yeuaiv koX top x^^ov peaTrtXcohe^' 
hioTTep olov d<ypia p,ea7riXrj ho^eiev av elvai. 
piovoeihe'i he koI ovk e^ov hi,a(f)opd<i. 

XVI. 'O he irplvo^ (pvXXov [xev e;^ei hpytohe^;, 
eXuTTOV he koX eiraKavdl^oi', top he ^Xoiop Xeio- 
Tepop hpv6<;. avTO he to hevhpop [leya, KaOdirep 
r) hpv'i, idp exv "^^TTOP Koi ehacpO'i' ^vXop he 
TTVKPOP Kal la^ypop' ^aOvppi^op he eTneiKO)^ koX 
TToXvppt^op. Kaprrop he e^^i ^aXapoohrj' /MiKpa 
he r) ^dXapo'i' TrepiKaTaXafi^dpei he 6 peo<; top 
6P0P' o-»/re yap ireTralpei,, hC o Kal ht(f)opecp tlpc^ 
(paai. (j)epec he Trapa Trjp /SdXapOP Kal kokkop 
TLpd (poiPiKovP' "crx^^ ^^ ^"'^^ l^iap Kal v(f)eap- 
wcTTe epioTS avfi/Saipei TeTTapa<i djxa Kap7rov<i 
ex^iP avTOP, hvo puep Tov<i eavTOv hvo S' dXXovi 
TOP Te T^9 t'^ta? Kal top tov v(f)€apo<;. Kal ttjp 

1 Quoted by Athen. 2. 34 ; c/. Plin. 16. 120 ; 26. 99 ; 
27. 62 and 63. 

2 TiTav&v: cj. 3. 11. 1; 3. 12. 5. Athen., I.e., has rera- 

' ixeivo Athen. I.e.; KaKelvo Aid. 
* lavdhv before lax^P^v Athen. I.e. 


^ The kralaigos is a very common tree ; some call it 
kra'aigon. It has a smooth ^ leaf like that of the 
medlar, but longer, and its breadth is greater than 
its length, while the edge is not jagged like that ^ 
of the medlar. The tree does not grow very tall or 
thick; its wood is mottled strong and brown ^ ; it 
has a smooth bark like that of the medlar ; it has 
generally a single root, which runs deep. The fruit 
is round and as large as that of the wild olive ^ ; as 
it ripens it turns brown and black ; in taste and 
flavour it is like that of the medlar ; wherefore this 
might seem to be a sort of wild form of that tree.*^ 
There is only one form of it and it shews no 

Of certain other oaks, arbutus, andrachne, wig-tree. 

XVI. The kermes-oak' has a leaf like that of the 
oak,but smallerand spinous,^ while its bark is smoother 
than that of the oak. The tree itself is large, like 
the oak, if it has space and root-room ; the wood is 
close and strong ; it roots fairly deep and it has many 
roots. The fi'uit is like an acorn, but the kermes- 
oak's acorn is small ; the new one overtakes that of 
last year, for it ripens late.^ Wherefore some say 
that it bears twice. Besides the acorn it bears a kind 
of scarlet berry i*^* ; it also has oak-mistletoe ^^ and 
mistletoe ; so that sometimes it happens that it has 
four fruits on it at once, two which are its own and 
two others, namely those of the oak-mistletoe ^i and 

' /coTiros Athen. I.e. ; Ko^pifios UMVAld. 

® fieffiri\r] added from Athen. I.e. 

■> cf. 3. 7. 3. s c/. 3. 16. 2. » c/. 3. 4. 1, 4 and 6. 

10 Plin. 16. 32 ; Simon, ap. Pint. Theieus 17. 

" cf. C.P.% 17. 1. 

s 2 


fiev l^lav cfiepei eK tmv TTpo<; jSoppdv, to Se v(f)eap 
€K Tcov 7rpo9 pLeay-iix^piav. 

01 8€ irepl ^ApKaSlav hevhpov ri a-jiiXaKa 
KoXovaiv, 6 icrriv o/xocov tw irplvrp, ra Be (f>vX\a 
ovK aKavdoihrj e%et aX)C aTraXwrepa koI ^advrepa 
Koi Bia(jiopa<; 6')(ovra ifkelov;' ovSe to ^v\ov 
Mairep eKelvo oTepeov koL 'kvkvov, ak\a koI 
p,aK.m,Kov iv rat? ep'yacrlai';. 

'^O Be KoXovcTLV at ^ApKdBe<; (peWoBpvv TOidvBe 
e%6i Tr)v (pvcTLV 0)9 fJ^ev a7rX(W9 elirelv dva p^ecrov 
irpivov Kal Bpuo'i ea-Tiv koX eviol <ye viroXapb^d- 
vovcTiv elvat Orfkvv irplvov Bl o koI ottov p,i] 
(pveTai Trpivo^ tovtm '^(^pcovTac 7r/oo9 Ta<i dp,d^a<i 
Koi TO, TocavTa, KaduTrep ol irepl KaKeBalpbOva koI 
^HXetav. Kokovcri Be oi <ye Ao)pi6l<i koI cipiav to 
BevBpov 'icTTC Be paXa/ccoTepov pbev Kal pbavoTepov 
Tov rrpivov, aKXrjpoTepov Be koX irvKvoTepov Tr)^ 
Bpv6<i' Kol TO 'x^pcop.a (p\oia9evTO<i tov ^v\ov 
XevKOTepov p,ev tov 'rrplvov, olvcoiroTepov Be t7}9 
Bpv6<i' TCL Be (f)vWa TrpoaeoiKe fxev dp,(j)oiv, ey^ei. 
Be pel^co p.ev rj o}<; TTplvo<; iXuTTco Be i) ft)9 Bpv<i' 
Kal TOV Kapirov tov p,ev irpivov KaTO, p,e<yedo<i 
iXaTTM Tal<i eXa)(iaTai'i Be ^aXdvoi<; taov, Kal 
ryXvKVTepov pev tov irpivov niKpoTepov Be Tr]<i 
Spv6<i. KoXovat Be Tive<; tov p,ev tov irpivov Kal 
TOV TavTr)<i Kapirov clkvXov, tov Be T'fj<i Bpvo<i 
^dXavov. fjLTjTpav Be e-xet ^avepcoTepav rj 6 
irplvo<i' Kal 7} p,ev (peXXoBpvt; TOiavTrjv TLvd 6%et 


1 Plin. 16. 19. See Index. 

2 PaOvTfpa MSS. ; evOvTfpa conj. Dalec. 
* Plin. I.e. See Index. 



of the mistletoe. It produces the oak-mistletoe on 
the north side and the mistletoe on the south. 

The Arcadians have a tree which they call smilax ^ 
(holm-oak), which resembles the kermes-oak, but 
has not spinous leaves, its leaves being softer and 
longer - and differing in several other ways. Nor 
is the wood hard and close like that of the kermes- 
oak, but quite soft to work. 

The tree which the Arcadians call ' cork-oak ' ^ 
(holm-oak) has this character : — to put it generally, 
it is between the kermes-oak and the oak ; and some 
supjwse it to be the ' female ' kermes-oak ; wherefore, 
where the kermes-oak does not grow, they use this 
tree for their carts and such-like purposes ; for instance 
it is so used by the peoples of Lacedaemon and Elis. 
The Dorians also call the tree aria.*^ Its wood is softer 
and less compact than that of the kermes-oak, but 
harder and closer than that of the oak. When it is 
barked,^ the colour of the wood is paler than that of 
the kermes-oak, but redder than that of the oak. 
The leaves resemble those of both trees, but they 
are somewhat large, if we consider the tree as a 
kermes-oak, and somewhat small if we regard it as 
an oak. The fruit is smaller in size than that of the 
kermes-oak, and equal to the smallest acorns ; it is 
sweeter than that of the kermes-oak, bitterer than 
that of the oak. Some call the fruit of the kermes- 
oak and of the ana ' mast,' ^ keeping the name 
' acorn ' for the fruit of the oak. It has a core which 
is more obvious than in kermes-oak. Such is the 
character of the ' cork-oak,' 

^ Already described ; c/. 3. 4. 2 : 3. 17. 1. 

5 c/. Paus. Arcadia, 8. 12. 

« UvXov : c/. Horn. Od. 10. 242. 



'H Se Kofiapot;, i) to fxefiaiKvXov t^epovtra to 
iScoSLfiov, earl jxev ovk ayav fiiya, tov he (f)\oibv 
e)(€i Xeirrbv /xev 7rap6/J,otov ixvp'tKr], ro he (pvWov 
/jbera^v irpivov koL hd(f)V7)<;. avOel he rov Uvave- 
yp-icovo';' ra he avdij 7T€(f)VKev diro /xid^ Kpe/jid(Trpa<; 
iir aKpcov ^orpvhov rrjv he fxop<j)r}v eKaarov 
eajLV opuoLOV puvprcp Trpo/xrJKei koX to) puejedei. he 
(T'^ehov TrjXiKOVTOv d(f)vWov he koX koIXov wcnrep 
wov eKKeKoXapLfxevov to aropu he dvecp'y [xevov 
orav 8' diravOija-r}, koI rj Trpoa^vai^ rerpvirriTai, 
TO S' diravOrjaav Xctttov koI coairep (j<^6vhv\o<; 
irepl UTpaKTov tj Kdpv6io<; AcopiKo^i- 6 he Kap7rb<; 
eviavTO) ireiraiveraL, coad^ dpia crvpb^aiveL tovtov 
T e%efy KoX TOV €Tepov dvOelv. 

Uapopioiov he to (I>vXX,ov koI 97 dvhpdx^V ^X^'' 
T(p Kopidpcp, pLeyedo'i ovk dyav p,€ja' tov he cf)\oi6v 
Xetov e%ei Kal irepipprjyvvpLevov Kapirov S' e%€t 
ofMOiov TTJ Kopidpa. 

"OpLOLOV 8' eO-Tt TOVTOt^ TO (^vXKoV KoX TO T^9 

KOKKvyia<i' to he hevhpov puKpbv. Xhiov he e^et 
TO eKTraTTTTOvadat tov Kapirov tovto yap ovS" 
e(f)^ evo<i aKijKoapbev dWov hevhpov. TavTa puev 

ovv KOivorepa irXeioai, %ft)/)at9 koi tottoi^;. 

1 Plin. 15. 98 and 99 ; Diosc. 1. 122. ^ October. 

' fKKiKoXajxfxivov MV, c/. Arist. H.A, 6. 3 ; 4yK€Ko\afifieyov 
UAld. -* cf. 1. 13. 3. 

^ Kapvuos, an unknown word, probably corrupt ; kIovos 
AwpiKov conj. Sch., 'drum of a Doric column.' cf. Athen. 
5. 39. 


ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS, 111. xvi. 4-6 

^The arbutus, which produces the edible fruit 
called 7/iemaikylon, is not a very large tree ; its bark is 
thin and like that of the tamarisk, the leaf is between 
that of the kemies-oak and that of the bay. It 
blooms in the month Pyanepsion ~ ; the flowers grow 
in clusters at the end of the boughs from a single 
attachment ; in shape each of them is like an oblong 
myrtle flower and it is of about the same size ; it has 
no petals, but forms a cup like an empty eggshell,^ 
and the mouth is open : when the flower drops off", 
there is a hole* also through the part by which 
it is attached, and the fallen flower is delicate and 
like a whorl on a spindle or a Doric kanieios.^ The 
fruit takes a year to ripen, so that it comes to pass 
that this and the new flower are on the tree 

^ The andrachne has a leaf like that of the arbutus 
and is not a very large tree ; the bark is smooth ^ 
and cracked,' the fruit is like that of the arbutus. 

The leaf of the wig-tree ^ is also like that of 
the last named tree, but it is a small tree. Peculiar 
to it is the fact that the fruit passes into down ^'^ : 
we have not heard of such a thing in any other 
tree. These trees are found in a good many 
positions and regions. 

« Plin. 13. 120. 

' \fiov conj. Sch. ; XtvKhv UAld. In Pletho's excerpt the 
passage has \elov, and Plin., I.e., evidently read Xtiov. 

* Ttepippriyvifxtvov. Plin., I.e., seems to have read -rtptmi- 
■yvvnevov. c/. 1. 5. 2 ; 9. 4. 3. 

' Plin. 13. 121. KOKKvyias conj. Sch. after Plin. I.e., cf. 
Hesych. s.v. KfKKOKvyo>fiivT]v; noKKOfirfXias U; K0KKv/iri\4as 

i^" (KvainTovaBai : fiiLctum amitttre lanugine Plin. I.e. ej. 
6. 8. 4. 



XVII. "Evia Be ISicorepa, KuOairep koI 6 (f)eXX6^' 
yiverat fxev iv TvpprjvLa, to Se hivhpov earl are- 
Xe^j^wSe? fxev koI okcyoKkaBov, evjxr^Ke'; 8' i-jneiKM^ 
Kol €vav^e<i- ^vKov l(T')(yp6v' rov Be (f)\ocov ira^vv 
a-<p6Bpa Kal Karapprjyvv/xevov, Mcnrep o Trj<i imvo'i, 
irXrjv Kara yttet^ft). to Be (j)vX\.ov o/jLoiov Tai<i 
l^ekiai^ 'iTa')(v TrpofxrjKeaTepov' ovk aei<^vWov 
aXka (pvWo^oXovv. Kapirov Be [alel] (f)epei 
^oKavrjpov ofioiov ttj apia. irepiaipova-L Be top 
^\oiov Kai (f)acn Betv iravTa a(f)aipetv, el Be fir] 
')(e.lpov jiveTUi to BevBpov i^avaTrXripovTat Be 
irdXiv (TxeBov iv Tpialv eTsaiv. 

"iBiov Be Koi 7] KoXovTea irepl Aiirdpav BevBpov 
[xev €VfjiejeOe<i, tov Be Kapirov ^epei iv Xo^oi<i 
rjXiKov (fiUKOv, 09 iriaivei to, irpo^aTa 6av/jia(TTco<i. 
<f)veTaL Be dirb cr'rrepp.aTO'i koX e'/c t?}? twv irpo^d- 
Twv Koirpov KaXXiaTa. wpa Be Trj<i ^yreta? afxa 
* ApKTOvpcp Bvop.iv(p' Bet Be (})VT€veLV 7rpo^pexovra<; 
OTav yBi] Bia(f)vrjTat iv tw vButc. (f)vXXov S* e^^i 
irapopiOLov TijXei. ^XaaTavei Be to npcoTov 
fiovo(j)ve^ iirl ctt] fjudXiaTU Tpia iv ol<; koX Ta<i 
^aKTTjpta^ Tefjivovaf BoKOVcrt yap etvai KaXau' 
Kal idv TL<i KoXovcrr) dirodvija-Kec Kal yap drra- 
pd^acTTOv iaTiv elra axi'^eTai Kal diroBev- 

BpOVTat TO) T6Ta/3T«i) €Tec. 

» Plin. 16. 34. 

2 Tvpprjvla conj. R. Const.; vuppriviai UMV; irvppvla Aid. 

" alel must be corrupt : probably repeated from ad^vWou. 

^ $a\avr]phv conj. Sell. ; ^aKavr]<popov UMVAld. 

5 hpia conj. R. Const, from G ; ay pia P.^MVAld.; ay plat U. 



Of corli-oak, kolutea, koloitia, and of certain other trees 
peculiar to particular localities. 

XVII. ^ Some however are more local, such as the 
cork-oak : this occurs in Tyrrhenia ^ ; it is a tree with 
a distinct trunk and few branches, and is fairlv tall 
and of vigorous growth. The wood is strong, the 
bark very thick and cracked, like that of the Aleppo 
pine, save that the cracks are larger. The leaf is 
like that of the manna-ash, thick and somewhat 
oblong. The tree is not evergreen but deciduous. 
It has always"' an acorn-like* fruit like that of 
the aria^ (holm-oak). They strip off the bark,* and 
they say that it should all be removed," otherwise 
the tree deteriorates : it is renewed again in about 
three years. 

The kolutea^ too is a local tree, occurring in the 
Lipari islands. It is a tree of good size, and bears 
its fruit, which is as large as a lentil, in pods ; this 
fattens sheep wonderfully. It grows from seed, and 
also grows very well from sheep-droppings. The 
time for sowing it is the setting of Arcturus ; and 
one should first soak the seed and sow it when it is 
already sprouting in the water. It has a leaf like 
*.elis^ (fenugreek). At first it grows for about three 
years with a single stem, and in this period men cut 
their walking-sticks from it ; for it seems that it 
makes excellent ones. And, if the top is cut off 
during this period, it dies, for it makes no side- 
shoots. After this period it divides, and in the 
fourth year develops into a tree. 

« c/. 1. o. 2 ; 4. 15. 1 ; Plin. 17. 234. 
^ oiipaipeiv conj. Coraes ; hiaipt'iv PjAld. 
8 c/. 1. 11. 2; 3. 17. 3. 

* T7)A€t conj. R. Const, from G, faeno fjraeco ; tiAcj UMV; 
'uAp Aid. 



'H Se irepl rrjv ^'lhr}v, tjv KoXovai KoXocrtav, 
erepov elho'i iariv, 6a/u,voei8e<; Be koi ol^oihe^ kol 
TroXvfjudcry^aXov, airdviov Be, ov ttoXv' e')(eL Be 
(pvWov Ba(liVoei,Be<; 7r\aTV(f)vWov Bd(f)vr)^, ttXtjv 
arpoyyuXcorepov koX [xel^ov oiaO^ opuoiov (pavveaOai 
To3 T?}? TrreXea?, TrpofjLijKecrrepov Be, rrjv XP^^^ 
iirl ddrepa ')(\oepov oinaOev Be eirCKevKalvov, koI 
TTokvivov eK Tcbv OTTiadev raZ? \e7rTal<; lal eK re 
rf]<; pd'xew'i /cal fiera^v rcov TrXeupoeiBcov diro 
T?79 /jiecn]<; KaTareivovcrcav' ^Xoiov S' ov Xetov 
dW* olov Tov Trj<; dpLireXov to Be ^vXov aKXrjpbv 
KoX TTVKvov pt^a? Be €7rc7roXaiov<i koI XeTrrd'^ 
Kol fiavd<; ovXd<i 8' eviore, /cat ^avdd<; a^oBpa. 
Kap-TTov Be ovK e-)(eiv (pacrlv ovBe dv9o<i' tj)v Be 
KopwcoBr] Kdxpvv KoX Toy? 6(p6aXfiov<i tou? irapd 
rd (jivXXa Xeiovi a<p6Bpa kol Xi7rapov<; koI 
X€VK0V<i TO) (Tx/llJ'CLTi Be Ka^pvcoBeL^' diroKOTtev Be 
Kol eTTiKavOev TTapa(^verat koL dva^Xaardvei. 

^'IBia Be Kol rdBe rd -nepl rrjv "IBtjv ecrrLV, olov 
i'l re ^AXe^dvBpeia KuXovpevj] Bd<f)vri koi crvKr) ri<i 
Kal a/x7reXo9. t% pev ovv Bd(f)vr](; ev rovra ro 
I'Blov, on em^yXXoKapiTov ecrriv, oocrirep Kal i) 
KevrpopvppivT]' dp,^6repai <ydp rov Kapirov e%- 
ovaiv eK rfj<; pd'^^oo'i rov (f)vXXov. 

'H Be avKi] 6apvoiBe<i p.ev koI ou% vy\rtp^6v, 
rrd^o'i S' e^pv ware kol TTTj^valov elvat rtjv rrepi- 
jxerpov ro Be ^vXov eirea-rpapupbevov yXia-xpov 
KdrooOev pev Xeiov koI dvo^ov dvwOev Be vepl- 

1 KoKoiriav (? KoXoiTiav) U. cf. 1. 11. 2; 3. 17. 2. Which- 
ever spelling is correct should probably be adopted in all 
three places. - c/. 3. 11. 3. 



The tree found about Mount Ida, called ^o/.y^ j 
is a distinct kind and is shrubby and branching ^-.i 
many boughs; but it is rather rare. It has a /. 
like that of the ' broad-leaved ' bay,^ but rounc 
and larger, so that it looks like that of the ek 
but it is more oblong : the colour on both sides i 
green, but the base is whitish ; in this part it i^ 
very fibrous, because of its fine fibres which spring , 
partly from the midrib,^ partly between the ribs* \ 
(so to call them) which run out from the midrib. 
The bark is not smooth but like that of the vine ; 
the wood is hard and close, the roots are shallow 
slender and spreading, (though sometimes they are 
compact), and they are very yellow. They say that 
this shrub has no fruit nor flower, but has its knobby 
Avintei--bud and its ' eyes ' ; these grow alongside of 
the leaves, and are very smooth glossy and white, 
and in shape are like a winter-bud. When the tree 
is cut or burnt down, it grows from the side and 
springs up again. 

There are also three trees peculiar to Mount Ida, 
the tree called Alexandrian laurel, a sort of fig, and a 
* vine ' (currant grape). The peculiarity of the laurel 
is that it bears fruit on its leaves, like the ' prickly 
myrtle ' (butcher's broom) : both have their fruit on 
the midrib of the leaf. 

The * fig ' ^ is shrubby and not tall, but so thick 
that the stem is a cubit in circumference. The wood 
is twisted and tough ; below it is smooth and un- 
Ifanched, above it has thick foliage : the colour both 

' ?K T€ T^s paxia>s Kol conj. W. ; /cal Ta?s {li^aii koX Aid. c/. 
3. 10. 3, and «« t^i paxfus below, 3. 17. 4. 
■• TrKtvpoetSiv : irXtvpotiSwi conj. St. 
» See Index. Plin. 15. 68 ; c/. Athen. 3. 11. 



.ov 'X^pwfia Be Kol (j)vWov Kal (jjXoiov ireXiov, 
he (j')(fiixa ro)v <f>vWaiv o/jlolov tw t?}9 (f)i\vpa<; 
at fJbdXaKov kol TrXarv kol to /j,eye6o<; irapa- 
TfXijcnov' av6o<i fieaTriXcoSe^; Kal dvOec ap,a ry 
fieairiKr]. 6 he Kap7r6<^, ov KaXovac av/cov, epvOpo<; 
i7Xi«:09 i\da<; rrXrjv crTpoy'yvX(i)Tepo<i, iadi6/jLevo<; 
he fX€(7'7n\(ohr]<i' pt^a? he e')(ei 'iTa')(eia^ cocrav 
avKrj<i rjp,epou Kal Y^icr^/aa?. acraTre? he ecrri to 
hevhpov Kal Kaphiav e%ei cxTepeav ouk ivTepLo>vr)v. 

'H he dfjb7re\o(; (pvcTat, fiev T779 "lS?y9 irepl Td<i 
^a\dKpa<i Ka\ov/jL€va<;- Icrrt he Oa/j,vct)h€<; pa^- 
hi,oi<; /jiCKpol'i- TeivovTai he ol K\o)ve<; 0)9 irvyw- 
vialoi, 7rpb<i 0I9 pdyi'i elcnv e/c irXayiov fxeXaivai, 
TO fxeyedo^ r)\i,KO<; Kvajxo'i yXvKelaf e-^ovcn he 
evTO<i 'yi'yapTMhe<i Ti fidkaKov (fjvWov cTTpoyjvXov 
da'X^ihe<; puKpov. 

XVIII. "E;;^6t he Kal TaWa ax^hov oprj (f)vcrei<i 
Tivd<i Ihia'i TO, fxev hevhpwv tu he 6dp,vwv to, 8' 
aXX.oov vKrjfidTWV. dXXd yap Trepl fxev t^9 ihio- 
t?;to9 etprjTat 7r\eovdKi<; oTi ylveTai Kaff eKaaTov^ 
T07rof9. ri he ev avTOi^ T0t9 ofioyeveaiv hia(j)opd, 
KaOdirep 77 TOiv hevhpwv Kal tmv Odfivcov, 6/j,o[(o<i 
eVrt Kal tmv dXXcov, wairep etprjTai, tmv Tr\ei(XT(ov, 
&(nrep Kal pdfjbvov Kal iraXiovpov Kal otcrov [koI 
o'iTov] Kal pail Kal klttov Kal ^dTov Kal heprnv 

' Lit. grape-stone. 

'^ I omit 7] before Stafopd with Sch. 


ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS, III. wii. 5-xviii. 

of leaf and bark is a dull green, the shape of the 
leaf is like that of the lime ; it is soft and broad, 
and in size it also corresponds ; the flower is like 
that of the medlar, and the tree blooms at the same 
time as that tree. The fruit, which they call a ' fig/ 
is red, and as large as an olive, but it is rounder 
and is like the medlar in taste ; the roots are thick 
like those of the cultivated fig, and tough. The 
tree does not rot, and it has a solid heart, instead of 
ordinary heart-wood. 

The ' vine ' (currant grape) grows about the place 
called Phalakrai in the district of Ida ; it is shrubby 
with small twigs ; the branches are about a cubit 
long, and attached to them at the side are black 
berries, which are the size of a bean and sweet ; 
inside they have a sort of soft stone ^ ; the leaf is 
round undivided and small. 

Of the differences in various shrubs — buckthorn, xcithy, ChHsl's 
thorn, bramble, sumach, ivy, smilax, [tpindle-tree]. 

XVIII. Most other mountains too have certain 
peculiar products, whether trees shrubs or other 
woody plants. However we have several times 
remarked as to such peculiarities that they occur in 
all regions. Moreover the variation- between things 
of the same kind which we find in trees obtains also 
among shrubs and most other things, as has been 
Siiid : for instance, we find it in buckthorn Christ's 
thorn withy 3 sumach ivy bramble and many 

^ [/cai oirov] bracketed by W. ; /col taov Aid. ; koI itrov Kal 
o'lTov MVP ; Kal oXaov Koi utrov U. Only (^aoi is mentioned in 
tlie following desci-iptions. 



'Y'dfxvo'i re ^dp eariv rj fiev jxiXaLva ?/ he Xcvkj], 
Kal 6 Kap7ro<i Bt,d(f)opo<;, a.Kav9o(^6poL Be d/j,(f)co. 

Tov re olaov to pev \evKov to ^e pekav koX to 
dvdo<i cKarepov koI 6 Kapiro'i Kara \6yov 6 pep 
Xev/co'i 6 Be pe\a<i' evLoi Be Kal coairep dva peaov, 
oiv Kal TO dv6o<i eTri.'nop<^vpi^ei Kal oure oivunrov 
ovre eKXevKov eanv coarirep rwv erepojv. e%et Be 
Kal ra (f>vWa XeirTorepa Kal Xeiorepa Kal Ta<; 
pd^Bovi TO XevKov. 

"O Te 7ra\iovpo<i e%et BLa^opa<i . . . diravra Be 
TavTa Kap7ro<f)6pa. Kal 6 ye "jraXtovpo^ ev Xo^w 
TiVL TOV Kapirov fc'%€f KaOairepel (f)vXX.q), ev S Tpia 


tj rerrapa yiverai. ypcovTai o avro) 7rpo<i Ta<; 
y8^%a9 01 laTpol KOTTTOVTe^i' e%et ydp Tiva 
y\i(r')(p6r'r}Ta Kal XtTro?, Mcrirep to tov Xlvov 
(TTTeppa. <f)V€Tat. Be Kal iirl Tol<i e(f)vBpoi<i Kal ev 
T0t9 ^r]pot'i, Mcnrep 6 ySaT09. [ovx, rjTTOV Be e(TTi 
TO BevBpov TrdpvBpov.^ (f>vX\.o/36\ov Be Kal ov)( 
oiairep rj pdpvo^ dei(f)vWov. 

"Et^ Be Kal TOV ^drov TrXe/cw yevij, peyiaT^jv Be 
e'^^ovTe^ Bia^opdv otc 6 pev 6p0o(f)V7j<i Kal v->^o<i 
exoov, 6 B' eVl Tr)<i 7/79 Kal evOv<i Kdrco vevcov Kal 
OTav avvdTTTj] TJj yfi f)i^ovpevo<; irdXiv, ov Brj 
KaXoval Tive<; ')(^apai^aTov. to Be Kvvocr^aTov 
TOV KapiTov virepvdpov e^et Kal TrapaTrXrjaiov t& 
Trj^ p6a<;- eaTi Be Odpvov Kal BevBpov peTa^v Kal 
TTapopiotov Tal'i p6ai<i, to Be (pvXXov dKav6SiBe<i. 

1 c/. 1. 9. 4; 3. 18. 12; G.P. 1. 10. 7. 

2 Some words are missing, which described various forms 
of iraXiovpos, alluded to in irdvra ravra (Sch.). c/. 4. 3. 3, 
where an African iraKlovpos is described. 

^ Kadairepe] cbvA\(i> conj. W., cf. 3. 11.2; KaBdirep rh <pv\\ov 


^Thus of buckthorn there is the black and the 
white form, and there is difference in the fruit, 
though both bear thorns. 

Of the withy there is a black and a white form ; 
the flower and fruit of each respectively correspond 
in colour to the name ; but some specimens are, as 
it were, intermediate, the floAver being purplish, and 
neither wine-coloured nor whitish as in the others. 
Tlie leaves in the white kind are also slenderer and 
smoother, as also are the branches. 

There is variation also in the Christ's thorn . . . ^ 
all these forms are fruit-bearing. Christ's thorn has 
its fruit in a sort of pod, resembling a leaf,^ which 
contains three or four seeds. Doctors bruise * them 
and use them against coughs ; for they have a certain 
viscous and oily character, like linseed. The shrub 
grows in wet and diy places alike, like the bramble.^ 
But it is deciduous, and not evergi*een like buckthorn. 

Of the bramble again there are several kinds, 
shewing very great variation ; one is erect and tall, 
another runs along the ground and from the first 
bends downwards, and, when it touches the earth, it 
roots again ; this some call the •' ground bramble.' 
The ' dog's bramble ' (wild rose) has a reddish fruit, 
like that of the pomegranate '° ; and, like the pome- 
,granate, it is intermediate between a shrub and a 
tree ; but the leaf is spinous." 

"* KovTovTts : for the tense c/. 3. 17. 2, irpo3f>«'x<»^«s- 
oi»x . . . vdpvSpov probably a gloss, W. 

- p6ais UMV (?) Aid.; hSah conj. Sch. from Plin. 16. 180. 
Athen. (2. 82) cites the passage with irapav. ttj {>oia. The 
Schol. ou Theocr. 5. 92 seems to have traces of both readings. 

'' aKavBaSes conj. Sch. from Schol. on Theocr. (see last note), 
'.vhich quotes the passage with aKavBuSes ; ayywSfs UAld.; so 
;ilso Athen. I.e. Plin. (24. 121) seems to have read I'x^wSes 
(vestigio hominia simile). 



T?}9 Be pov TO /mev appev to he OtjXv koXovctl 
tS> to [xev aKapirov elvai to he /cdpnifiov. ovk 
€■)(€(. Be ovBe Ta9 pd^Bov^ vy^rfK,d<i ovBe 7ra%eta9, 
<f}vXkov B' ofxoiov •meXea TrXrjv jxiKpov Trpofirj- 
Kearepov koX eiriBaav. rcov Be kXcovlcov tmv vecov 
€^ laov TO, (f)vX\,a eh Bvo, /car dXXi^Xa Be eV tcov 
irXajicov ware a-roi^etv. ^dirrovcn Be tovtw koX 
ol aKvroBeyjrai ra Bepfiara ra XevKa. avOo^ 
XevKov ^OTpu(x)Be<i, ru> a^rjpiaTi Be to 6Xo(r^epe<; 
oarXiyyai; e^ov Mcnrep koI 6 ^oTpv;- diravdrj- 
aavTo<i Be 6 Kapiro'; cifia rfj crra<^vXr) epvOpalveTai, 
Kol ytvovrac olov (f)aKol Xeirrol avyKev/xevor 
^OTpv(oBe<; Be to a)(r)iJia kcu tovtwv. e^j^et Be ro 
cf>apfj,aK(oBe<; tovto o KuXelrai pov<; iv avTw 
6(TT0)Be<i, o KoX rrj<i pov BirjTrrjfjLemjf; ej^et 7ro\Xa«t9' 
pC^a 8' iir iiroXaio'i koX fxovo(f)vr}<; ware dva- 
Ka/jbTTTecrdac paBLQi<; oXoppc^a- to Be ^vXov evre- 
pLcovrjv e)(^ei, ev(f)Oaprov Be Kal Koinoixevov. iv 
Tvacn Be 'yiyveraL Tot9 T07rot9, evOevel Be fxdXiaTa 
iv T0t9 dpyiXcoBecri. 

TloXveiBrjf Be 6 kltto^;' koX <yap €77/76409, Be 
ei9 vy^o<i alp6fM€vo<i' koI tcov iv v-yjrei nrXelai jevrj. 
rpCa 8' ovv (})aLveTai ra /xeyia-ra 6 re XevK6<i koI 
6 fieXa<; Kal rpirov rj eXi,^. eiBr] Be Kal eKdarou 
rovTcov TrXeioi. XevKo<i yap 6 fiev tS> Kapiru) 
fiovov, 6 Be Kal roi<i (f)vXXoL<; icrrl. irdXcv Be tcov 
XevKOKdpTTcov jxovov 6 fxev dBpov Kal ttvkvov Kal 
avveaTTjKOTa tov Kapirov e^et KaOairepel acjiaipav, 

1 Plin. 13. 55; 24. 91. 

- ffToixe'iv: cf. 3. 5. 3 ; Plin. 13. 55. 

^ ^orpvciSes conj. W. ; $orpvriS6v U; ^orpvo6v Aid. 

* 6 povs masc. cf. Diosc. 1. 108. 



1 Of the sumacli they recognise a ' male ' and a 
' female ' fomi, the former being barren, the latter 
fruit-bearing. The branches are not lofty nor stout, 
the leaf is like that of the elm, but small more 
oblong and hairy. On the young shoots the leaves 
grow in pairs at equal distances apart, corresponding 
to each other on the two sides, so that they are in 
regular rows.^ Tanners use this tree for dyeing 
white leather. The flower is white and grows in 
clusters ; the general form of it, with branchlets, is 
like that of the grape-bunch ; when the flowering is 
over, the fruit reddens like the grape, and the 
appearance of it is like small lentils set close 
together; the form of these too is clustering. ^ The 
fruit contains the drug called by the same name,* 
which is a bony substance ; it is often still found 
even when the fruit has been put through a sieve. 
The root is shallow and single, so that these trees 
are easily bent right over,^ root and all. The wood 
has heart-wood, and it readily perishes and gets 
worm-eaten.6 The tree occurs in all regions, but 
flourishes most in clayey soils. 

" The ivy also has many forais ; one kind grows 
on the ground, another grows tall, and of the tall- 
growing ivies there are several kinds. However the 
three most important seem to be the white the 
black and the hdix. And of each of these there are 
several forms. Of the ' white ' one is white only in 
its fruit, another in its leaves also. Again to take 
only white-fruited sorts, one of these has its fruit 
well formed close and compact like a ball ; and this 

^ i.e. nearly uprooted by wind. 
« KoicrSfievov : c/. 8. 11. 2, 3 and 5. 
" Plin. 16. 144-147. 



ov Br) KaXovcTL TiV€<i Kopv^^iav, ol S' WdijVTjcnv 
^AxcipviKov. 6 Be iXaTTOiv SiaK€)(Vfievo<; coairep 
Kol 6 fxeXa<i' e^ei Be Koi 6 fie\a<i Bia(f)opa'i dW 
ov^ 6/xota)9 <f>av€pd<;. 

7 'H Be eXi^ ip /jLeyio-rai.'i Bia(popal<i' koX yap 
roU (f)v\\oi<; irXelarov Bia(^epet rfj re fiLKporrjri 
KOL Tw ycovoeiBr] koI evpvOfxorepa elvar to, Be rov 
KiTTOv 7repi(f)epecrTepa koI dirXa,' koX rw pirjKei 
TOiv KXr]/jbdro)v koI ert t&) aKapiro'^ elvai. Bia- 
reivovrai yap Tcve<i tS> fii] aTroKtrrovcrdat, rfj 
^vcrec Tr)v eXiKU dXXa rr]V e/c rov kittov reXeiou- 
fxevrjv. (el Be iraaa diroKLTTOvrai, Kaddrrep Tive^ 
(paaiv, r)XiKCa<; dv etrj koI Bia6eae(ii<; ovk etSou? 
Bia(popd, KaOdnep koI t?}? drrrlov trpo^ ttjv 
uxpdBa.) ttXtjv to <ye ^vXXov Koi ravTri^ ttoXv 
Bia(j)epei Trpo? rov kljtov. cnrdviov Be tovto koI 

. ev 6XiyoL<i earlv wcrre TraXaLOVfievov ixera^dXXeiv, 

8 wcnrep iirl rrj<i XeuKr]<i koi tov Kp6rcovo<;. ciBt] 
S' icrrl TtXeiui t7]<; eXi/co'i, <W9 p-ev ra Trpocpave- 
(TTara koI pAyiara Xa^elv rpia, rj re j^Xoepd koI 
7roi(oBr]<; rjirep Kal TTXelarri, /cat erepa i) Xev/cij, kol 
rpLTr) 7] TTOCKiXr}, tjv Brj KaXovai Tive<i ^paKcav. 

1 cf. Theocr. 11. 46. * Plin. 16. 145 foil. 

' i.e. is the most ' distinct ' of the ivies. 

^ c/. 1. 10. 1 ; Diosc. 2. 179. 

^ i.e. as an explanation of the barrenness of helix. 

* i.e. and so becomes fertile. 

■^ SiaTehovrai : cf. G.P. 4. 6. 1. Star, r^ . . . apparently 
= " insist on the view that," . . . but the dative is strange. 
The sentence, which is highly elliptical, is freely emended bj' 
most editors. 



kind some call korymhias, but the Athenians call it the 
' Acharnian ' ivy. Another kind is smaller and loose 
in growth like the black ivy.^ There are also vari- 
ations in the black kind, but they are not so M'ell 

* The helix presents the greatest differences ^ ; the 
principal difference is in the leaves/ which are small 
angular and of more graceful proportions, while 
those of the ivy proper are rounder and simple ; 
there is also difference in the length of the twigs, 
and further in the fact that this tree is barren. For,^ 
as to the view that the heliv by natural development 
turns into the ivy,*^ some insist ' that this is not so, 
the only true ivy according to these being that which 
was ivy from the first^; (whereas if, as some say, the 
heltji invariably ^ turns into ivy, the difference would 
be merely one of age and condition, and not of kind, 
like the difference between the cultivated and the 
wild pear). However the leaf even of the full- 
grown helix is very different from that of the ivy, 
and it happens but rarely and in a few specimens 
that in this plant a change in the leaf occurs as it 
grows older, as it does in the abele and the castor-oil 
plant.^** 1^ There are several forms of the helir, of 
which the three most conspicuous and important are 
the green ' herbaceous ' kind (which is the common- 
est), the white, and the variegated, which some call 
the ' Thracian ' heUx. Each of these appears to 

' I.e. and helix being a distinct plant which is always 

• vaaa conj. Sch.; iros Aid. 

^^ Sc. as well as in ivy; cj. 1. 10. 1, where this change is 
said to be characteristic of these three trees. (The rendering 
attempted of this obscure section is mainly from W.'s note.) 

" Plin. 16. U8 foil. 



eKaa-rr) 8e rovToav hoKel Sia^epetv /cal <yap tt}? 
-^XocoSov; T) fiev XeTTTorepa koI Ta^i(f)vWoTepa 
Koi ert, 7rv/cvocf)vWoTepa, 77 8' r/rrov Trdvra ravT 
€)(pv<ra. Kol Trj<; irovKiXr)^ r/ jxev fxel^ov r/ 8' 
ekuTTOv TO (f)vXX.ov, Koi TTjv iTOLKiXiav 8t,a- 
^epovaa. o)aavT(a<; 8e /cat ra t^9 X€VKr}<i rSt 
fie'^eOei koI rfj XP^^9 8ta(f)epovaiv. evav^eardTt] 
he t] TTOicoSrjf; koI eirl irkeicrrov Trpo'iovaa. (f>avepav 
5' elvai (f)a(Tiv ttjv diroKiTTOV fievrjv ov jxovov To2<i 
^uX\oi<i on /ji€L^Q) Kol TrXarvrepa e-x^i aXka 
KOL T0t9 ^XacxToW ev6v<i jap 6p6ov<i eyec, Kat 
ov% Mcnrep t) erepa KaraKCKajjifxivi], Kal oia ttjv 
XeTTTorrjTa Kal 8ia ro fjbrjKO^' rrj<i he KiTTcohov<i 
Kal ^pa'X^vTepoi Kal irax^repoi. Kal 6 KCTT6<i 
orav dp')(rjrai, airepfiovadai /xerecopov e'%et Kal 
opOov TOV ^XauTov. 

9 YloXyppL^a jxev ovv diraf; kitto<; Kal irvKvoppi- 
^09 avveaT paixfievo<i Tai<i pii^ai<i Kal ^vXcohecrt Kal 
7ra%etai9 ical ovk ajav ^aSvppi^o^, ixdXicna S' 6 
fieXa^, Kal rov XevKOv 6 rpa^vrarof; Kal dypi(o- 
raro<i' hi b Kal ;^aXe7ro9 TrapacfyveaSai irdai 7049 
hevhpoi<i' drroXXvai yap irdvTa Kal dcpavaivet 
71 apacpovfievci rrjv Tpo(f)7]v. Xa/x^dvei he fxaXicna 
'Trd')(p'} ovro'i Kal dTrohevhpovrai Kal yiverai avTO 
KaO^ avro kittov hevhpov. <jo<; 8' eirl to irXelov 
elvac 7r/)09 erepw (piXel Kal ^rjrel Kal wairep 

10 enraXXoKavXov iarcv, e)(^ei S' evdv^ Kal ri]<f 

1 ra^KpvWorfpa conj. W. from Plin. 16. 149, folia in 
ordinem digesta ; fiaKpoipvWoTepa MSS. cf. 1. 10. 8. 

* KaTo/c€KayU;ue»'7j conj. W. ; KaraKeKav/j.fvri \J Aid. ; KaraKeKafi- 
fifvovs conj. Sch. 

^ KirrdSovs MSS.; irouSous conj. St. * cf. C.P. 1. 16. 4. 



present variations ; of the green one form is slenderer 
and has more regular ^ and also closer leaves, the 
other has all these characteristics in a less degree. 
Of the variegated kind again one sort has a larger, 
one a smaller leaf, and the variegation is variable. 
In like manner the various forms of the white helix 
differ in size and colour. The ' herbaceous ' kind is 
the most vigorous and covers most space. They say 
that the form which is supposed to turn into ivy is 
clearly marked not only by its leaves, because they 
are larger and broader, but also by its shoots ; for 
these are straight from the first, and this form does 
not bend over^ like the other; also because the 
shoots are slenderer and larger, while those of the 
ivy-like ^ form are shorter and stouter. * The ivy 
too, when it begins to seed, has its shoots upward- 
growing and erect. 

All ivies have numerous close roots, which are 
tangled together woody and stout, and do not run 
very deep ; but this is specially true of the black 
kind and of the roughest and wildest forms of the 
white. Wherefore it is mischievous to plant this 
against any tree ; for it destroys and stanes any 
tree by withdrawing the moisture. This form also 
more than the others grows stout and becomes tree- 
like, and in fact becomes itself an independent ivy 
tree, though in general it likes and seeks to be ^ 
against another tree, and is, as it were, jmrasitic.^ 
^Moreover from the first it has also this natural 

* ilvai conj. W. ; aU\ UM ; oel Aid. 

* i.e. depends on another tree; not, of course, in the 
strict botanical sense, c/. 3. 18. 11. i-waWoKavKov conj. 
Seal.; ixavKoKoXov MVAld.U (with v corrected), cf. irtpi- 
a\\6Kav\os, 7. 8. 1 ; G.P. 2. 18. 2. 

7 Plin. 16. 152. 



<^ucre(W<? Tt TOLOVTOv etc 'yap tmv ^XaaroiV d(f)lr}aiv 
ael pi^a<i ava fxecrov tmv (pvWcov, alcnrep ivSveTat 
Tot? BivBpoi<i KoX T0t9 'Tei,')(loL<; olov i^e7riT7]B€<; 
Tre7roir]fMevat<; vtto tt}? (f)var€co<;' Bt o /cat e^atpov- 
fievo<; rr)v vypoTTjra koX eXKwv d(f)avaiv€c, koL eav 
diroKOTrfi /cdrcodev Svvarat Bia/xeveiv koX i^rjv. 
€%€t he Kol erepav Siacfiopdv Kara tov Kapirov ov 
fiiKpdv 6 fiev <ydp i7rLy\vKv<; icTTcv o Se acpoBpa 
7riKpo<i Kot TOV \evKov Kol TOV fxeXavo'^' aTjfieiov 
8' ore TOV /jb€v ecrOlovcTLV ol opvi06<; tov 8' ov. 
TO, fiev ovv irepl tov klttov oi/t(W9 e%ef . 

'H Be aplXd^ iaTL jxev eTraWoKavXov, 6 Be 
Kav\o<i dKavOooBrj^i koI oiCTTrep 6p6dKav9o<i, to 
Be (f)v\\ov /ciTTwSe? p^iKpov dycoviov, kuto, tt]v 
fjbia'X^ov 7rp6(r(f)variv TvX'qpov. iBiov S* OTi ttjv re 
Bid fjueaov TavTijv cjairep pd^i-v XeiTTijv e%ei 
Kol ra? aT7]/xoviov<i BiaXi]ylr€t<; ovk diro TavTi}^, 
MtTirep Tu Toov dXXwv, dXXd irepl avTrjv 7repi(f)epei<; 
rjyjxeva'i diro t?79 '7rpoa(f)va€co<i tov [xl(X)(0V t« 
(fivXXa). irapd Be tov KavXov Ta yovuTU kol 
vapd Ttt'i BiaX€i'\lrei<; ra? (fivXXiKUf; etc twv uvtoov 
p,icr')((ov TOi<? (pvXXof; 7rapa7re(})VKev iovXo<i Xcttto? 
Kol eXt/CTo?* dvdo<; Be XevKov koI evcoBe<; Xeipivov 

1 (Tn7\a^: ?/irXa| W. c/. 1. 10. 5; Plin. 16. 153-155. 

2 iiraWSKavKov conj. Sch. ; inavASKavXov V. cf. 3. 18. 10. 
' icavAhs conj. R. Const.; Kapnhs UMVAld. 

* rv\7]p6v conj. W. ; voTr)p6v Ald.U (corrected). 

* TowTijc: cf. rh ev\aKwSf^ tovto, 3. 7. 3. Is the pronoun 



characteristic, that it regularly puts forth roots from 
the shoots between the leaves, by means of which 
it gets a hold of trees and walls, as if these roots 
Avere made by nature on purpose. Wherefore also 
by withdrawing and drinking up the moisture it 
starves its host, while, if it is cut off below, it is able 
to survive and live. There are also other not incon- 
siderable differences in the fruit ; both in the white 
and in the black kind it is in some cases rather 
sweet, in others extremely bitter ; in proof whereof 
birds eat one but not the other. Such are the 

facts about ivy. 

The smilax ^ is parasitic,^ but its stem^ is thorny 
and has, as it were, straight thorns ; the leaf is ivy- 
like small and without angles, and makes a callus * 
at the junction with the stalk. A peculiarity of 
it is its conspicuous^ slender midrib, so to call it, 
which divides it in two ; also the fact that the 
thread-like branchings ^' do not start from this, as in 
other leaves, but are carried in circles round it, 
starting from the junction of the leaflet with the 
leaf. And at the joints of the stem^ and the 
spaces between the leaves there grows from the 
same stalk as the leaves a fine spiral tendril. s The 
flower is white and fragrant like a lily.^ The fruit 

deictic, referring to an actual specimen shewn in lecture? 
cj. also 4. 7. 1. 

* ^ia\T)}^eis Aid. ; SjaAei^^efs UMV. A mistake probably 
due to SioAefi^eis below, where it is right. hidKri^is is the 
Aristotelian word for a 'division.' 

" ToC Kav\ov TO y6vaTa couj. Sch.; rhv KUvKhv t)>v &tovov Wd. 

* This must be the meaning of UvXos here, qualified by 
kKiKr6s; but elsewhere it = catkin, c/. 3. 5. 5. 

® \eipivov conj. R. Const, from Plin. I.e. dente lilium ; 
^piv6v UAld. 



Tov Be /^apirov e%et irpocrefxcfjepi] too arpv^vco koX 
Tc5 jxrfKdoOpa) kol /xaXiaTa t^ KaXov/xevrj aTa^vX-fj 

12 dypia' KuraKpefMaarot S' ol ^orpve^ kittov rpo- 
irov Trapeyyi^ei 5' 6 7rapadpcjKi(7fio<; irpof rrjv 
(Tra<f>v\i]V' aTTo jap evo<i criqfxeiov ol iJila-)(pi ol 
payiKoL 6 Se Kapiro'i ipvOpS^, ex^v 7rvpr]va<; to 
fiev CTTt Trdv Svo, iv T0t9 fiel^oai rpel^ iv Be toi<; 
/jiiKpoi<; eva' (rKXt]po<i S' o 7rvpr)v €v fidXa kol t&5 
■)(^p(t)fiaTi fi€Xa<i e^codev. cSiov Be ro tmu ^orpixov, 
on eK TrXayicov re tov KavXou TrapaOpiyKL^ovcriv, 


wairep errl Tijf pd/xvov Kal tov ^drov. tovto Be 
BrjXov 0)9 Kal uKpoKapirov Kal TrXayioKapTrov. 

13 [To 5' evd)vvfio<i KaXovjxevov BevBpov ^veTai fiev 
dXXoOi T6 Kal Trj'i Aia^ov iv tm opei t& ^OpBvv- 
vw KaXovfjLevq)' ecTTL Be tjXlkov poa Kal to <pvXXov 
ex^t poo)Be<i, fxet^ov Be rj ')(^a/xaiBd(jiV7]<i, Kal fiaXa- 
Kov Be cocntep rj poa. rj Be ^XdaTricn<; dp'X^eTac 
jxev avTw irepl tov YioareiBeoiva' dvOei Be rov 
ripo^' TO Be dv6o<i ofioiov Trjv X/Joai/ Ta> XevKa> 
lO)' o^ei Be Becvov wairep <^6vov. 6 Be Kapiro'i 
efj,<f)epr]<; ttjv fjiop(fii]v fxeTa tov KeXv^ov<i tm tov 
arjadfjbov Xo^a>' evBoOev Be aTepeov ttXtju Birjprf- 
fjuevov KUTO, TTfV TCTpaaToixlctv. TOVTO eadio- 

^ Presumably a. & fSdSi/xos. See Index. 

^ iraptyyt^fL 8' 6 irapadpiyKifffihs I conj., c/. irapadptyKiCovcri 
below; -rrapoiyyv^ei Se irapaBpivaKiCei Se cbj U; Trapayyi^d Si 
irapaeprivaKl^et 5f vs MV; irapaepiyKiCfi S« iis conj. W, 



is like the strykhnos^ and the meloihron (bryony), 
and most of all like the berry which is called the 
' wild grape ' (bryon}-). The clusters hang down as 
in the ivy, but the regular setting - of the berries 
resembles the grape-cluster more closely ; for the 
stalks which bear the berries start from a single 
point. The fruit is red, having generally two stones, 
the larger ones three and the smaller one ; the 
stone is very hard and in colour black outside. A 
peculiarity of the clusters is that they make a row^ 
along the sides of the stalk, and the longest cluster 
is at the end of the stalk, as in the buckthorn and 
the bramble. It is clear that the fruit is produced 
both at the end and at the sides. 

* The tree called the spindle-tree ^ grows, among 
other places, in Lesbos, on the mountain called 
Ordynnos.^ It is as large as the pomegranate and 
has a leaf like that of that tree, but larger than that 
of the periwinkle,'^ and soft, like the pomegranate 
leaf. It begins to shoot about the month Poseideon,^ 
and flowers in the spring ; the flower in colour is 
like the gilliflower, but it has a horrible smell, like 
shed blood.^ The fruit, with its case, is like the 
pod of sesame ^^ ; inside it is hard, but it splits easily 
according to its four divisions. This tree, if eaten 

' ■KapaOpLyKi^ovcriv conj. Sch. ; irapadpvyKi^ovffav U (cor- 
ructed) ; irapa0pvyyi(ov<Ti M. 

* This section down to the word avoxv is clearh' out of 
place : evdwuos was not one of the plants proposed for dis- 
cission 3. 18. 1. It should come somewhere among the 
descriptions of trees characteristic of special localities. 

* Plin. 13. 118. « cf. Plin. 5. 140. 

" This irrelevant comparison probably indicates confusion 
ill the text, as is shewn also by Pletho's excerpt of part of 
this section : see Sch. 

^ January. » f6voy: cf. 6. 4. 6. i" cf. 8. 5. 2. 




(^liXKov Kol 6 Kapiro^, kuI fiaXiaTa Ta9 alyaf 
iav fir) KaOdpa-eco^ '^^XV- KaOaiperai he dv- 
^XV"] '^^P' t^^^ °^^ BevSpcov KoX Odfivcov 

etprjrai' ev he TOt<; I^t}? Trepl rwv \eL'iTO[xevcov 



by sheep, is fatal ^ to them, both the leaf and the 
fruit, and it is especially fatal to goats unless they 
are purged by it ; and the purging is effected by 
diarrhoea.2 So we have spoken of trees and 

shrubs ; in what follows we must speak of the 
plants which remain. 

^ In Pletho's excerpt (see above) this is said of periwinkle. 
' I.e. and not by vomiting. 



I. At fxev ovv Si.a(f)opal tmp o/jboyevMV T€0e(o- 
prjvrai Trporepov. airavra S' iv Tol<i oiKeioi'i 
T07roi9 KaWico yiverat koX p.aWov evadevel- kuX 
<yap Toi<i aypLoi<; elalv eKdaroL<i ocKeLOt, KaOdirep 
T0t9 Tj/nepoi^;' TO, fiev yap ^tXet TOv<i €(f)v8pov'i 
KoX €\(oBei<;, otov atyeLpo<i \evK7] Irea Koi 6\fo<i ra 
irapa rov'i 7rora/jLOv<; (J3v6fM€va, to, Be tov<; evcrKe- 
Tret? Kul evrfkiov<;, to, 8e fxdWov rov<i 7ra\icrKLov<;. 
TrevKt] fxev yap iv Tol<i irpoaeiXoi'i KaWlarr] koI 
fiey[a-T7], iv he tol^ 7ra\i(TK[oi<; oX&)9 ov (f)verat' 
iXuTT} Se dvcLTtaXiv iv rolf; TraXicrKiOi^ KaWiarr) 
Tot9 S' eve'iKoi^ ov^ d/xoi&)9. 

'Ez/ ^ApKahia yovv wepl rrjv K.pdvijv koKov- 
fMevrjv Toiro^ iarc Ti9 KolXo<i /cat aTTvov;, eU ov 
ovheiroO^ oX&)9 rfkiov i/x^dWeiv (^aaiv iv tovtm 
Se TToXv Sta(j>epovaiv al iXdraL kuI tw yu.?;/c6i koI 
TM 7rd')(^ei,, ov {jli-jv 6fJ,OLco<; ye rrvKval ovS' copalai 
aXA,' rjKcaTa, KaOdirep Kal al irevKai al iv Tot9 

TTa\l(TKLOL<i' 8l Kul 7r/309 TO, TToXvTeXi] TMV 

epycov, olov dvpco/xara Kal el ri dWo cnrovSacov, 
ov 'X^pcovrat tovtoi'? dWa 7rpb<; Ta<; vavirr^yia^ 
fiaXkov Kal Ta9 ocKoSo/jid'i' Kal yap 80K0I koWl- 



Of the Trf:e3 and Plants special to particclar 
■|V- Districts and Positions. 

^■^ O/" the importance of position and climate. 

I. The differences between trees of the same kind 
have already been considered. Now all grow fairer 
and are more vigorous in their proper positions ; for 
V ild, no less than cultivated trees, have each their 
own positions : some love wet and marshy ground, as 
black poplar abele willow, and in general those that 
grow by rivers ; some love exposed ^ and sunny 
positions ; some prefer a shady place. The fir is 
fairest and tallest in a sunny position, and does not 
grow at all in a shady one ; the silver-fir on the 
contrary is fairest in a shady place, and not so 
vigorous in a sunny one. 

Thus there is in Arcadia near the place called 
Krane a low-lying district sheltered from wind, into 
which they say that the sun never strikes ; and in 
this district the silver-firs excel greatly in height and 
stoutness, though they have not such close grain 
nor such comely wood, but quite the reverse, — like 
the fir when it grows in a shady place. Where- 
fore men do not use these for expensive work, such 
as doors or other choice articles, but rather for 
ship-building and house-building. For excellent 

^ (iiffKfirf'is should mean ' sheltered,' but cauiiot in this 
context, nor in C.P. 1. 13. 11 and J2: the word seems to 
have been confused with eCff/coiros. 



arai koI ravetai koI Kepaiac at eic tovtcov, en S' 
i(TTol Tw /j,r]K€t, Bia(f)6povre^ dXX' ov')(^ 6fioia)<i 
lo-^vpov' KoX CK Tcoy TTpoaeiXcov cifjia rfj $pa-)(yjr]TL 
TTVKvorepoi re eKcivcov koL la-'xypojepoi, yCvovraL. 

Taipei 8e cr^oBpa kuI tj p,[\o<i rot? 7ra\.icrKi,oc<; 
Kol rj 7rdSo<; Koi rj Opav7raXo<;. irepl Be ra<i 
Kopv(f)a<; TMv opeoiv kcu tou? ■yjrvxpov'i roTTOv^i 6via 
fiev (pverat koI ei? v-^o<;, eXdrrj 8e Kol dpKevdo<? 
<f>verai p,ev ovk eh i5i/ro9 Be, KaOdirep Koi irepX rrjv 
UKpav K.vWi]vrjv' (pverai Be /cal 77 Kt]\aaTpo<i 
€7rl tS)v d/cpcov Koi 'X^eipeptoardrwv. raina pev 
ovv dv rL<i Oeirj ^Ck.6-^v')(^pa' rd S' dWa iravra 
0)9 elirelv [ou] pdXKov ')(^aipei roi<; 7rpocrei\oi<i. 
ov firjv dWd Koi tovto avp^aivet, Kara rrjV 
'Xjcapav rrjv OLKeiav eKacTTW rSiv BevBpwv. ev 
K.p7]rr} yovv t^acTLv ev Tol^^lBaiOL<i6pe(Ti KaievTOi<; 
AevKol<i KokovpevoL^ iirl rwv aKpcov odev ovBeiroT 
eTTtXeiTret %f<wi' KvirdpiTTov elvar TrXeicnr} jdp 
avTrj Trj<; vXtji; kol 6XQ)<i ev rfj vi')cr(p Kal ev TOi? 

"EcTTt Be, wairep koI irporepov eipTjrai, Kal r&v 
dypiav Kal roov rjpepoov rd p,ev opetvd rd Be 
TreBeivd p,dXXov. dvaXoyCa Be Kal ev avTOi<i TOt«? 
opeari rd puev ev roif viroKaTco rd Be irepl rd<i 
Kopv<pd<i, ware Kal KaXX'tw ytverai Kal evcrOevrj. 
navraxov Be Kal 7rdcrr]<; rrj<i i/Xt;? 7rpo9 ^oppdv 
rd ^vXa irvKvorepa Kal ovXorepa Kal dirXa)^ 
KaXXio)' Kal oX(o<; Be TrXeloo ev rol<i '7rpo<T^opeloL<i 
^verai. av^dverat Be Kal iiriBiBcoa-L rd irvKva 

^ I omit 0/ before Ktpaiai with P. 

^ afia I conj. ; aWii Aid.; om. W. after Sch.; a\A' dfia 
conj. St. 



rafters beams and yard-arms ^ are made from these, 
and also masts of great length which are not however 
equally strong ; while masts made of trees grown in 
a sunny place are necessarily- short but of closer 
grain and stronger than the others. 

Yew pados and joint-fir rejoice exceedingly in 
shade. On mountain tops and in cold jwsitions 
odorous cedar grows even to a height, while silver-fir 
and Phoenician cedar grow, but not to a height, — 
for instance on the top of Mount Cyllene ; and holly 
also grows in high and very wintry positions. These 
trees then we may reckon as cold-loving ; all others, 
one may say in general, prefer a sunny position. 
However this too depends partly on the soil appro- 
priate to each tree ; thus they say that in Crete on 
the mountains of Ida and on those called the White 
Mountains the cypress is found on the peaks whence 
the snow never disappears ; for this is the principal 
tree both in the island generally and in the moun- 

Again, as has been said ^ already, both of wild and 
of cultivated trees some belong more to the moun- 
tains, some to the plains. And on the mountains 
themselves in proportion to the height some grow 
fairer * and more vigorous in the lower regions, some 
about the peaks. However it is true of all trees 
anywhere that with a north aspect the wood is 
closer and more compact^ and better generally; and, 
generally speaking, more trees grow in positions 
facing the north. Again trees which are close 

3 3. 2 4. 

* Something seems to have dropped out before iart. 
' ovKoTfpa. conj. W. from mutilated word in U; KaK\imr*pa 
MV; KaWia Aid. 



fxev ovra fiaXXov eh /mrJKO'i, 8t o Kol avo^a koX 
evOia KoX 6pdo(f)vrj yiverai, Kol Kco7re(bv€<; e'/c 
Tovrcov KoXkicnoL' <ra Se fiava> jxaXkov ei<i 
^dOo<; Kal 7ra;^09, Bt o koX a/co\tcoT€pa Kal 
o^wSea-repa koX to o\ov aTepeoorepa koX TrvKvojepa 


6 Xx^^ov Be Ta<i avra<i exct Bia(f)Opa<i tovtoi^; 
Kal iv T0i9 TToXtaKLOC^ Kal iv rot? 6veLK,oi<; Kal ev 
roi<; a.TTvooL'i Kal evrrvoot^;- o^coBeaTepa yap Kal 
^pa^vTepa Kal yrrov evdea ra iv T0t9 euetXoi? 
^ TOif TrpoaTjve/Jioi'i. on Be eKaarov ^rjrel Kal 
X(opav oiKeiav Kal Kpdcriv aepo<; (pavepov tm to, 
pblv (f)epeiv evlov<; roirov; ra Be firj (pepeiv [xrjTe 
avra yiyvof^eva /Mijre (pvTevofxeva paBto)<i, iav Be 
Kal avriXd^rjrai firj Kap7ro(f>opecv, axrirep iirl rov 
(jiOLVCKo^; eXex^V '^'^^ '^^'* Alyv7rria<i avKafiivov 
Kal dWcov elalydp TrXeLco Kal iv TrXeiocn ^wpat? 
TO, fiev 6Xo}<i ov (})v6/j,eva rd Be <f)v6p.eva fiev 
dvav^rj Be Kal dKapira Kal ro okov (pavXa. rrepl 
a>v ta(o<i XeKreov e(^' ocrov exofiev iaTopLa<i. 

IT. 'Ev AlyvTTTO) ydp iariv IBia BevBpa irXeiw, 
ri re avKd/iiivo<; Kal r) irepaea KaXov/uevT] Kal t) 
^d\avo<i Kal r/ aKavOa Kal erep' drra. 

"Ecrrt Be rj puev avKdfjiivo'} TrapaTrXrjata 7rft)9 tj] 
ivravda avKap^tvo)' Kal ydp to (pvXXov irapopiOiov 

^ Kwvewves : cf. 5. 1. 7. ^ rh Se fiava add. W. 

8 cf. 5. 1. 8. * 2. 2. 10. 


8\ais . . . fxtv con], W. ; oKws oh d)vrtv6u.(va\] ; oAuis (bvTtvo- 
fxeva MVPAld. 


together grow and increase more in height, and so 
become unbranched straight and erect, and the best 
oar-spars 1 are made from these, while those that 
grow far apart 2 are of greater bulk and denser 
habit 3 ; wherefore they grow less straight and with 
more branches, and in general have harder wood and 
a closer grain. 

Such trees exhibit nearly the same differences, 
whether the position be shady or sunny, windless or 
windy ; for trees growing in a sunny or Mindv 
position are more branched shorter and less straight. 
Further that each tree seeks an appropriate position 
and climate is plain from the fact that some districts 
bear some trees but not others ; (the latter do not 
grow there of their own accord, nor can thev easily 
be made to grow), and that, even if they obtain a 
hold, they do not bear fruit — as was said"* of the 
date-palm the sycamore and others ; for there are 
many trees which in manv places either do not grow 
at all, or,^ if they do, do not thrive nor bear fruit, 
but are in general of inferior quality. And perhaps 
we should discuss this matter, so far as our enquiries 

Of the trees special to Egtfpt, and of the carob. 

II. 6 ITius in Eg}-pt there are a number of trees 
which are peculiar" to that country, the sycamore 
the tree called persea the balanos the acacia and 
some others. 

Now the sycamore to a certain extent resembles 
the tree which bears that name ^ in our country ; its 

« Plin. 13. 56 and 57. 

' Xhij. conj. R. Const. ; et-ux Aid. 

* I.e. mulberry. See Index. 


u 2 


e;^efc koI to /i€yeOo<i koI rrjv okrjv irpoao'^LV, rbv 
8e KapiTOV Ihiwi (fiipec irapa ra dWa, KaOdirep 
eXe^Of] KOI iv TOi<i i^ dp^^'i' ov yap aTro rwv 
^Xaartov ouS' aTro tmv dKpep,6v(ov dXX! ix tov 
(TTeXe'X^ov'i, fieyeOo^i jxev rjXiKOv avKov koI rfj o-yfrei 
Be TrapaTrXrjcnov, Ta> %fX&) Be koX rfj yXvKvrtjTt 
TOtf 6Xvvdoi<i, ttXtjv yXvKVTepov ttoXv koI Kcy- 
'X^papISat; 6Xco<i ovk ej(ovTa, nXijOei Be ttoXvv. 
Kal irerTeiv ov BvvaraL p,r) eiriKviadevra' aXX,' 
€)(0VTe<i ovv^wi (TLBrjpov'i eTTiKvi^ovaiv a 8' dv 
iiriKVLaOff reraprala ireTTerar tovtmv S' d(f)ai- 
pedevToov irdXiv dXXa (jiveTat koI dXXa koX i/c 
rod avTov tottov firjBev TrapaXXdrrovTa' koI 
rov6^ ol fiev Tph ol Be TrXeovaKi'; (^acrl ylveaQai. 

2 TToXvoTTOv Be TO BkvBpov (T(f)6Bpa cVti Kal TO ^vXov 
avTov eh TToXXd ')(^pi]aipov. cBcov Be e'X^eiv BoKet 
irapd raXXa- Tfirjdev yap ev6v<i ^(Xcopov ecrrr 
avaiverai Be ejx^vQLov et9 ^odpov Be efi^dXXova-t 
Kal 619 Ta? Xifiva<; €v6v<; Kal Tapi')(evovai.' 
^pexofievov 6' ev tw ^vOw ^rjpaLveraf Kal orav 
TeXect)? ^rjpov yevrjrai, Tore dva^eperat Kal einvel 
Kal BoKel Tore KaXco^; rer a pi'^^evcr Oat' yiverai yap 
Kovcf)ov Kal puavov. 97 fxeu ovv avKdfx,cvo<{ €')(ei 
ravra<; rd<; lBL6rrjra<i, 

3 "Eot/ce Be ri<i wapaTrXTjcrla r) (pvaif elvai Kal 
rrj^ ev Kpijrr] KaXovp.evr}<i K.V7rpta<i avKrjf;- Kal 
yap eKeivT] ^epei rov Kapirov e'/c rov areXexov<i 
Kal eK roiv Trax^rdrwv aKpe/novcov, ttXtjv on 
^acrrov nva d^irjcn /jciKpov d(f)vXXov axnrep 
pi^Lov, 7rpb<; m ye 6 Kapiro'i. to Be crreXe^O'i fxeya 

M. 1. 7 ; c/. 1, 14 2. 

2 cf. G.P. 1. 17. 9; Diosc. 1. 127; Athen. 2. 36. This 


leaf is similar, its size, and its general appearance ; 
but it bears its fruit in a quite peculiar manner, as 
was said at the very outset ^ ; it is borne not on the 
shoots or branches, but on the stem ; in size it is as 
large as a fig, which it resembles also in appearance, 
but in flavour and sweetness it is like the ' immature 
figs,' except that it is much sweeter and contains 
absolutely no seeds, and it is produced in large 
numbers. It cannot ripen unless it is scraped; but 
they scrape it with iron ' claws ' ^ ; the fruits thus 
scraped ripen in four days. If these are removed, 
others and others again grow from exactly the same 
point, and this some say occurs three times over, 
others say it can happen more times than that. 
Again the tree is very full of sap, and its wood is 
useful for many purposes. There is another peculiar 
property which it appears to possess ; when it is 
cut, it is at first green, but it dries in deep water ^ ; 
they put it at once in a hole or in pools and so season 
it ; and it becomes dry by being soaked in the deep 
water, and when it is completely dry, it is fetched up 
and floats and is then thought to be duly seasoned ; 
for it is now light and porous. Such are the 
peculiarities of the s^xamore. 

Somewhat similar appears to be the character of 
the tree which in Crete is called the ' Cyprian fig ' * 
(sycamore). For this also bears its fruit on the stem 
and on the thickest branches ; but in this case there 
is a small leafless shoot, like a root, to whicli the 
fruit is attached. The stem is large and like the 

scraping was the prophet Amos' occupation : c/. Amos 7. 14. 

• ifi&veiov conj. W.; tls fivBov UMVPAld. ? iv Bvdcf) hu. 

* See Index, c/. Athen. 3. 11 ; Plin. 13. 58 ; Diosc. 1. 127. 3. 



KOi irapofMoiov t^ Xev/cr}, (fivWov Be rfj irreXea. 
ireiralvei, he TeTTapa<; tcap7rov<;, oaanrep avrov koL 
at ^Xaarrj(TeL<i' ovheva 8e TreTraivei /mt) eTTiT/xr]- 
6evT0<; Tou ipivov koX eKpvevro^ rov oirov. rj Se 
'y\vKvrr]<i 7rpoaep,(f}epr)<i ru) av/cw Kal to, eawOev 
Tol<i epLVol<i' fxe'yedo'i tjXikov KOKKvprjXov. 

(Tavrr] Se TrapaTrXrjcria Kal rjv ol "Ifwt'e? Kepw- 
viav KaXovcnv e« rov areXe)(ov<i yap Kal avrrj 
(pipei TOP irXelarov Kapirov, airo he tmv aKpe/xovcop, 
wcnrep etiropev, oXlyov. 6 Se Kapiro'; eA.Xoy9o9, ov 
KaXoval riv6<; AlyvnTtov avKov Bii]p,apT7]K6Te<;' 
ov yiverac yap 6Xco<; irepl Atyuirrov dXX' iv Xvpla 
Kal iv ^Icovla 8e Kal irepl KvlSov Kal 'l^ohov. 
aetcfiuXXov Se Kal av9o^ eKXevKov e%oi; Kal tl 
^apvT7jT0<i, p,r) fi€T€(opi^ov Se cr(f)6Spa Kal oX&)9 
€K TOiv Karoo Trapa^XacrTTjTiKov avwdev he 
vTTO^rjpacvofievov. e;^et 8e afia Kal rov evov Kal 
rov veov Kapirov a<paipovpLevov yap Oarepov fxera 
Kvva Kal 6 erepo<; evOv<i (pavepo'i Kvovfxevo^' 
Kverai yap warrep ^orpvi ofioa'X^rjfKov elr av^rj- 
6el<i avOel irepl ^ApKrovpov Kal larjp^epLav avro 
rovrov Br) BiafMevei rov x^ificbva /ie%/Ot K.vv6<;. rj 
fxev ovv 6fxot6r7]<; on areXe)(6Kap'7Ta Kal ravra' 
8ia(popal he at elprjfievai 7rp6<; rrjv crvKdp,ivov.) 

'Ey AlyvTrrcp S' iarlv erepov rj rrepaea KaXov- 
fjLevov, rfi p,ev rrpoao'^et /xeya Kal KaXov, irapa- 
iTXrjcnov Be puoKiara rrj diriw Kal <^vXXol^ Kal 
dvOeat Kal dKpep,o<Ji Kal ru) oXro a')(r]iJbarr TrXrjv 

^ ocratvep conj. R. Const., etc., cf. Athen. I.e.; oaa vnep 
avTov U (corrected) ; Soa v-nep avrhv Si ; oca uirip avrov Aid. 
2 Plin. 13. 59. 3 1. 14. 2. 



abele, but the leaf is like that of the elm. It ripens 
its fruit four times a year, having also ^ four periods 
of growth ; but it ripens no fruit unless the ' fig ' is 
split and the juice let out. The sweet taste resembles 
that of the fig, and the inside of the fruit is like 
that of wild figs : it is as large as a plum. 

2 (Like this too is the tree which the lonians call 
carob ; for this too bears most of its fruit on the 
stem, though it bears a little also on the branches, as 
we said.^ The fruit is in a pod ; some call it the 
' Egyptian fig ' — erroneously ; for it does not occur at 
all in Egypt, but in Syria and Ionia and also in 
Cnidos and Rhodes. It is evergreen and has a 
whitish flower and is somewhat acrid ; it does not 
attain to a great height, and it sends out side-shoots 
entirely from its lower parts, while it withers above. 
It has on it at the same time both last year's fruit 
and the new fruit ; for if the one is removed after the 
rising of the dog-star, immediately the other is seen 
swelling up ; for there swells * up as it were another 
similar cluster. This then increases and flowers 
about the rising of Arcturus and the equinox ; and 
thenceforward it ^ persists through the winter to the 
rising of the dog-star. The likeness then consists in 
the fact that these trees too bear finiit on their stems, 
and the differences between them and the sycamore 
are as has been said.) 

^ In Egypt there is another tree called the persea, 

which in appearance is large and fair, and it most 

— resembles the pear in leaves flowers branches and 

general form, but it is evergreen, while the other is 

* Kvirai conj. W. from G ; Kvei MSS. 

* i.e. the cluster, now in the fruit stage. 
« Plin. 13. 60 and 61. 



TO fiev a€L(f)vWov rb Be <pvXXo^6\ov. Kapirov Se 
(pepet TToXvv Kal iracrav wpav TrepiKaTaXa/x^dvei 
ryap 6 7-609 ael tov evov Trerret he vtto toi"? 
errjala^' tov S' dXXov oofxorepov acpaipovcn, Kal 
airondeaaiv. ecrri 8e to fj.ey€do<i rjXtKov a7rt09, 
TW a'X^tjp.aTi Be irpop.aKpo'i a/xvySaXcoBrji;, ■^pcofia 
Be avTOV TTOtwSe?- e-^^eL Be ivrb^ Kapvov, coairep 
TO kokkv/jL7}\ov, ttXtjv eXuTTOV TToXv Kal ^aXaKOi- 
repov rrjv Be crdpKa yXvKeiav a(f)6Bpa Kal rjBelav 
Kal ev-neTTTOV ovBev yap evo')(Xel iroXv irpoa- 
eveyKafievcov. evpi^ov Be to BevBpov Kal ixi-jKei 
Kal 7rd)(^ec Kal TrXrjOei ttoXv' e')(eL Be Kal ^vXov 
i(X')(ypov Kal KaXov rfj oyjrei /iieXav, coairep 6 Xwto?, 
e^ ov Kal TO, dydXfiara Kal ra KXivia Kal 
TpaTre^ia Kal raXXa to, TOiavra Troiovaiv. 

'H Be ^dXavo<i e^ei fiev Tr)v Trpoarjyopiav diro 
TOV KapiTov' (fivXXov S' avjfj TrapairXrjaLov t« 
T?79 fjbvppivTj'i 7rXr)v Trpo/jbrjKearepov. eari Be to 
BevBpov eviraxh [xev Kal evp,eyede<;, ovk eixpvh 
Be dXXa Trapearpa/xfxevov. tov Kapirov Be Tot? 
KeXv(f)eai y^poiVTai ol puvpe-^ol kotttovte^' euo)Be<; 
yap e'xei tov Be Kaptrov avTov d')(peiov. eaTi Be 
Kal T(p jjieyWei, Kal tt) o-yjrei. mrapaTrXrjcno'i tm t?}? 
Ka7r7rdpio<i' ^vXov Be la^vpov Kal el<i aXXa Te 
'^ptjai/xov Kal eh Ta<; vavTrriyla^. 

To Be KaXovfxevov KovKi6(pop6v icrTCV ofioiov t&) 
(pOLViKf Trjv Be op-oioTTjTa KaTO, TO (TTeXe')(o^ 
e%ei Kal to, cjjvXXa' Bia^epei Be otl 6 fiev (f)olvi^ 
fiovo(f)ve(i Kal dirXovv icTTi, tovto Be Trpoaav^rjdev 
cr^t^eTat Kal ylveTai BtKpovv, eWa irdXtv eKUTepov 

1 aTTOTLBeaaiv conj. R. Const, from G (recondunt) ; riQiaai 



deciduous. It bears abundant fruit and at every 
season, for the new fruit always overtakes that of 
last year. It ripens its fruit at the season of the 
etesian winds : the other fruit they gather somewhat 
unripe and store ^ it. In size it is as large as a pear, 
but in shape it is oblong, almond-shaped, and its 
colour is grass-green. It has inside a stone like the 
plum, but much smaller and softer; the flesh is 
sweet and luscious and easily digested ; for it does 
no hurt if one eats it in quantity. The tree has good 
roots as to length thickness and number. Moreover 
its wood is strong and fair in appearance, black like 
the nettle-tree : out of it men make their images 
beds tables and other such things. 

2 The balanos gets its name from its fruit ^ ; its leaf 
is like that of the myrtle * but it is longer. The 
tree is of a good stoutness ^ and stature, but not of a 
good shape, being crooked. The perfumers use the 
husks of the fruit, which they bruise ; for this is 
fragrant, though the fruit itself is useless. In size 
and appearance it is like the fruit of the caper ; the 
wood is strong and useful for shipbuilding and other 

^ The tree called the doum-palm is like the date- 
palm ; the resemblance is in the stem and the leaves, 
Ijut it differs in that the date-palm is a tree with a 
single undivided stem, while the other, as it increases, 
splits and becomes forked,*^ and then each of the two 

2 Plin. 13. 61. 

• i.e. it is like an acorn [BaKavoz). 

* fivppivjis MVPAld.; fivplxrii U. 

' firrox" conj. Sch. ; €v^a0(s \J ; oTaflei Ald.H. 
« Plin. 1.3. 62. 

^ cf. 2. 6. 9, where the same tree is evidently indicated. 
lUpovv conj. Salm., Seal., etc.; ixpov UAld.H. 



TovTwv 6/jlol(o<;' €71 Sk Ta? pd^Sovi; ^pax^ia'i e^ec 
a(f)6Spa Kol ov TToXA-a?. ')(^p(avrai he tw (f)vX\m, 
Kaddirep ra> (polviKi, 7rp6<; ra TrXiy/xara. Kapirov 
Se 'Ihiov e'%et ttoXv hia^epovra koI pbeyedet koX 
a')(rjiJLarL koX %fXfo* /xeye0o<i fxev yap e')(ei a-)(ehov 
')(etpoTr\r)6e<i' crrpoyyiiXov Se kol ov Trpo/jLijKrj' 
'y^pwfia eTTL^avdov ^(yXov heyXvtcvv koI evcrTOfiov 
ovK ddpoov he, wcnrep 6 (potpi^, dWa Ke'xwpto-fievov 
Kad^ eva' irvpfjva he p,eyav kol a(f>68pa crKkrjpov, 

€^ ov TOV<i KpiKOV^ TOppeVOVaC TOV? eh TOV<i 

arpcofMaTet'i Tov<i 8ia7ToiKi\ov<;' hiacpepei Be ttoXv 
TO ^vkov Tov cf)0LvtK0<;' TO p,ev yap fxavov koX 
IvcoBa Kal 'X^avvov, to he ttvkvov /cal ^apv Kal 
(rapKSyhe<; Kal hcarfirjOev oiikov (T(j)6hpa Kal 
(TK\r)p6v ear IV. Kal oC ye hrj Uepaai iravv 
erificop avro Kal eK rovrov tcov kXivwp eiroiovpro 
TOl"? TToSa?. 

'H he cLKapda KaXelrat fxev hid to dKav9o)he<i 
6\op TO hephpov elvai irXrjv tov (TTe\e')(^ov<i' Kal 
yap eirl toop aKpe/xovcop Kal eirl tcop ^XaaTwv 
Kal iirl TCOP <^vK\wp e%et. iieyeOei he iieya, kuI 
yap hcoheKdiTTj^v^ e^ avTrj<i €pey}nfio<; v\r} Te/xpeTai. 
hiTTop he TO yevo<i avTr)<i, rj fxep ydp ecrTi XevKr) 
7} he fxekaipa' Kal rj fxep \evKr} dadepi]<; t€ Kal 
euarjTTTO';- r/ he pueXaipa la)(vpoTepa tc Kal 
dar]7rT0<i, hi o Kal ep Tat? vavirr)yiai<i 'X^pooPTai 
7rpo9 Ta eyKOiXia avTrj. to hephpov he ovk dyav 
6pdo(j)ve<;. 6 he Kapiro'^ eXXol3o<;, KaOdirep twv 
XehpoTTMP, ft} 'x^pcoPTai ol ey)((t)pL0L tt/oo? Ta hepfiaTa 
dvTl Kr}Ki,ho<i. TO h' dp6o<; Kal ttj oyfret KaXop, 
waTe Kal aTecpdpovi ttoibIp i^ avTov, Kal ^appui- 



branches forks again : moreover the twigs are very 
short and not numerous. They use the leaf, Hke the 
palm-leaf, for plaiting. It has a peculiar fruit, very 
different from that of the date-palm in size form and 
taste ; for in size it is nearly big enough to fill the 
hand, but it is round rather than long ; the colour is 
yellowish, the flavour sweet and palatable. It does 
not grow bunched together, like the fruit of the date- 
palm, but each fruit grows separately ; it has a large 
and very hard stone, out of which they turn the 
rings for embroidered bed-hangings. ^ The wood is 
very different to that of the date-{)alm ; whereas the 
latter is of loose texture fibrous and porous,- that of 
the doum-palm is close heavy and fleshy, and when 
split is exceedingly compact and hard. The Persians ^ 
used to esteem it highly and made the feet of their 
couches out of it. 

*The akanlha (acacia) is so called because the 
whole tree is spinous (akanfhodes) except the stem ; 
for it has spines on the branches shoots and leaves. 
It is of large stature, since lengths of timber for 
roofing of twelve cubits are cut from it. There are 
two kinds, the white and the black ; the white is weak 
and easily decays, the black is stronger and less 
liable to decay ; wherefore they use it in shipbuilding 
for the ribs.^ The tree is not very erect in growth. 
The fruit is in a pod, like that of leguminous plants, 
and the natives use it for tanning hides instead of 
gall. ^ The flower is very beautiful in appearance, so 
that they make garlands of it, and it has medicinal 
^ Plin. I.e., velares annulos ; cf. Athen. 12. 71, ad Jin. 

• x'^^"'"' coiij. Sch.; x^'^P^'' Aid. 

3 I.e. during their occupation of Egypt. 

* Plin. 13. 63 ; Athen. 15. 25. 

' cf. Hdt. 2. 96. « cf. Athen. I.e. 



/cwSe?, Bi Kol avWeyovcnv ol iarpoi. yiveTai 
8e €K TavTrj<; koI to Koixfir koI peei koI ttXt)- 
yela-r]^ kol avTOfiarov avev o-^ao-eco?. orav Be 
KOTrfj, fiera Tpirov eTO<; €vdv<; dva^e^daTTjKe' 
TToXv Be TO BevBpov ea-Ti, Kal BpvfjLoi; p,€ya<; irepX 
Tov ©Tj^aiKov vo/jLov, ovirep Kal rj Bpv<i Kal rj 
irepcrea TrXeiarrj Kal rj ekda. 
9 Kat <ydp rj i\da irepl tovtov tov tottov ecnl, 
T(p TTorajJiw fxev ovk dpBevopevrj, irkelw yap rj 
rpiaKocria ardBia direyei, vap.aTLaioi'^ S' vBacnv 
elcrl yap Kprjvai iroWai. ro S' eXacov ovBev 
')(elpov Tov ivddBe, ttXtjv KaKcoBearepov Bid to 
(T7raviot<i Tol<i dXal 'X^prjaBar (fjvaec Be to ^vXov 
TOV BepBpov Kal aKXrjpov Kal TrapaTrXrjcnov 
refxvofJ.evov rrjv X/aoai/ rm XcoTivo). 

10 "AXXo Be Ti BevBpov rj KOKKvprjXea, fieya /lep 
ra> [xeyWei Kal rrjv (pvcriv rou Kapirov ofioiov toi<; 
fiecnrlXois, Kal to p,eyedo<i irapairXricriov TrXrjv 
e^ovTa TTvprjva (TTpoyyvXov dp')(^€Tai Be dvOelv 
fi7jvo<i liIvaveyln(t)vo<;, tov Be Kapirov TreTraivei irepl 
rfXiov Tpoird'i 'x^eipLepcvd'i' dei(f)vXXov S' icrTLV. 
ol Be irepl ttjv Sr]0aiBa KaTOtKovvTe<i Bid Trjv 
d^Oovtav TOV BevBpov ^rjpaivovcn tov Kapirov Kal 
TOV irvprjva i^aipovvTC^ koittovcv Kal iroiovai 

11 "TXrjpa Be iBiov ti (pveTai irepl M.efi(f)iv, ov 
KaTa (f)vXXa Kal ^XaaT0v<i Kal Trjv oXrjv fiop<f)rjv 

1 cf. Hdt. I.e. 

^ ax'^'^^'os conj. U. Const.; ffxlffeus Aid. 

3 TTAf/ffTT? conj. R. Const.; irAe/trij UMVAld, 

■' cf. G.P. 6. 8. 7, where this olive is said to produce no oil. 

« c/. Strabo, 17. 1. 35. 



properties, wherefore physicians gather it. ^ Gum 
is also produced from it, which flows both when the 
tree is wounded and also of its own accord without 
any incision ^ being made. When the tree is cut 
down, after the third year it immediately shoots up 
again ; it is a common tree, and there is a great wood 
of it in the Thebaid, where grow the oak, the persea 
in great abundance,^ and the olive. 

* For the olive also grows in that district, though 
it is not watered by the river, being more than 300 
furlongs distant from it, but by brooks ; for there 
are many springs. The oil produced is not inferior 
to that of our country, except that it has a less 
pleasing smell,^ because it has not a sufficient 
natural supply of salt.*' The wood of the tree is hard 
in character, and, when split, is like in colour" to ' 
that of the nettle-tree. 

* There is another tree, the (Egyptian) plum 
(sebesten), which is of great stature, and the 
cliaracter of its fruit ^ is like the medlar (which it 
resembles in size), except that it has a round stone. 
It begins to flower in the month Pyanepsion,io and 
ripens its fruit about the winter solstice, and it is The inhabitants of the Thebaid, because 
of the abundance of the tree, dry the fruit ; thev 
take out the stones, bruise it, and make cakes of it. 

There is a peculiar bush ^^ which grows about 
Memphis, whose peculiarity does not lie in its leaves 

^ ffxaviojj . . . (pvffft conj. W. ; ffxavlws rols oA<rt xp- ""^ 
fifffi Aid. ; so U, but omitting t^. 

' t.e^ black, cf. 4. 3. 1. » Plin. 13. 64 andGo. 

* Tov Kapvov add. Seal, from G and Plin. I.e. ^" October. 
" afi<pv\\oy conj. Seal, from G and Plin./. c.;<foA\oi'UMV Aid. 
^* Mimosa asptrata ; see Index, App. (2). vKt)fxa conj. Seal. 
from G (materia) ; oXSvfui MAld.U (corrected). 



e%oi/ TO 'iSwv aXV et? to av/x^aivov irepl avTo 
nradd' tj fiev yap 7rp6ao-\jn<; aKavdwhrj^; ecrrlv 
avTOv, KoX TO <j)vX\.ov Trapo/xoiop rat? irTep- 
iaiv OTav he tc<{ a-^r)Tai tmv kXcovIcov, Scnrep 
d<j)avaLv6fjLeva to, <f)vWa av/xTTLTTTeiv (pacrlv etra 
fiCTo, Tiva '^povov ava^tcocTKecrdac ttoXlv kuI 
OaXkeiv. Kol Ta [xev thia Tr]<; ')((i)pa^, ocra y 

av BevSpa Ti9 ^ Od/xvovi ecTTOi, to, y eTTKpave- 
araTa tuvt eVxi. irepl yap twv iv tw •rroTafiS) 
Kal Tol<} eXeaiv vcTTepov ipov/xev, otuv kuI irepl 
TOiv aWwv ivvBpcov. 
12 [" AiravTU Be iv ttj X^P'f "^^ BevBpa Ta Totavra 
fieyaXa Kal Tolf firjKecn KOi to?? 'ird')(ecnv iv 
yovv M^ifxcjiiBt TrfkiKovTO BevBpov elvai XeyeTai 
to 7ra^09, Tpel<; avBpe<i ov BvvavTUL Trepikapb^d- 
vecv. eaTi Be Kal TfirjOev to ^vkov KaXov ttvkvov 
re yap acfioBpa Kal tw ')(^pcofiaTL \coToeiBe<;.] 

III. 'Ei/ Ai^vT) Be 6 Xa>TO<i 7r\et<TT09 Kal koX- 
\i(TTO^ Kal 6 Tra\iovpo<i Kal ev Ttat, fxepeai tj} re 
NacraficoviKT] Kal Trap* ^Afxficovi. Kal dXX.oi<; 6 
^oivt^' iv Be Tfi Kvprjvata KV7rdptcr(T0<i Kal iXdat 
re KoWicTTai Kal eXaiov irXelaTOV. IBicoTaTOv 
Be irdvTcov to aiX(f)iov eVi KpoKov iroXvv rj %(w/3a 
<f)epei Kal evocrfiov. ecTTi Be tov Xcotov to fiev 
oXov BevBpov XBlov ev/J,eyede<i r/XcKov dirwi rf 
fjLLKpov eXaTTOv (pvXXov Be ivTopLm e^ov Kal 
TrpivcoBe'i' TO fxev ^vXov p,eXav yevq Be avTOV 
TrXeiw Bia(fiopa<i e^ovTa Tol<i Kapirol'i' 6 Be Kap'no<i 

^ iraflos : c/. 1. 1. 1 n. 

^ c/. Schol. ad Nic. Ther. 683 of a sensitive plant called 
(TKopnlov^os or iffx^ovffa. a<pavaiv6iiiva conj. Seal. ; a<pav\iv6- 
ixiva UMVPaAld. 


ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS, IV. ii. ii-iii. i 

shoots and general fonn, but in the strange property ^ 
which belongs to it. Its appearance is spinous and 
the leaf is like ferns, but, when one touches the twigs, 
they say that the leaves as it were wither up -and 
collapse and then after a time come to life again and 
flourish. Such are the most conspicuous things 

peculiar to the country, to speak only of trees or 
shrubs. For we will speak later of the things which 
grow in the river and the marshes, when we come to 
speak of the other water plants. 

'All the trees of this kind in that country are 
large, both in height and stoutness ; thus at Memphis 
there is said to be a tree of such girth that three 
men cannot embrace it. The wood too, when split, 
is good, being of extremely close grain and in colour 
like the nettle-tree. 

Of the irtes and shrubs s])ecial to Libya. 

III. * In Libya the lotos is most abundant and 
fairest ; so also is the Christ's thorn, and in some 
parts, such as the Nasamonian district and near the 
temple of Zeus Amnion, the date-palm. In the 
Cyrenaica the cypress grows and the olives are fairest 
jind the oil most abundant. Most special of all to 
-his district is the silphium, and the land also bears 
abundant fragrant saffron-crocus. As to the lotos — 
the whole tree is peculiar, of good stature, as tall as 
a pear-tree, or nearly so ; the leaf is divided and like 
that of the kermes-oak, and the wood is black. There 
are several sorts, which differ in their fruits ; the fruit 

' This section is evidently out of place ; its probable place 
is at the end of § 10, so that the description will belong to 
the ' Egvptian plum.' 

* See Index. Plin. 13. 104^106. 



rfKiKO^; Kvafio^, rrreTraiveTai Be, Mairep ol ^orpve^, 
/jLera^dWcov ra? 'x^poid^' (f)veTac Be, KaOdirep to, 
fivpTa, Trap' dWrjXa ttvkvo^ iirl tmv ^XaarSsv 
ia6i6/jL€vo<i S' 6 iv TOt<f A(i)ro(f>dyoi<; koXov [ievoL<; 
<yXvKv<i Kol tJSu? Kol dcrivr)<; Koi eri Trpo? rrjv 
KoCkiav dya66<;' r/Blcov S' 6 dirvprivo^, ecrrt yap 
Kul TOiovTov TL yevo^' TTOiovai Bk Kal olvov i^ 
1 noXL» Be TO BevBpov Kal iroX-VKapTTOV ro y 
ovv ^O^eWov arparoireBov, r/vLKa e^dBi^ev eh 
Kapxv^ova, Kal tovtm ^aaX Tpa^rjvat nrXeiovi 
ri/jiepa<; eirLkLiTovTOiv tmv iTrirrjBelcov. ecm fxev 
ovv Kal iv rfj vrjcrw rfj Acoro<payiTiBi, KaXovfiev-p 
7ro\v<i' avrrj S' eirLKetTai. Kal direx^i p^iKpov ov 
fj,r)V ovOev ye /xepo'i dWa ttoWw 7r\eiov iv Trj 
rjireipw' irXelcrTov yap oXoy; iv rfj At^vrj, Kaddrrep 
ecprjrai, tovto Kal 6 iraXtovpo'i iariv iv yap 
^vecnrepiai rovrot^ KavcrL/xoi<i ^pwi'Tat. Bia(f)epei. 
Be ovTO<i 6 XcoTo^ Tov Trapa roi'i AQ)TO(j)dyoi<;. 

'O Be TraXiovpo'i dafivwBearepo^ rov Xwrov' 
(f)vWov Be wapofJiOLov ej(^et rw ivravda, tov Be 
KapTTov Bt,d(f)opov' ov yap irXaTiiv dXXd oTpoyyv- 
Xov Kal epvOpov, //.eye^o? Be rfKiKOv t^? KeBpov rj 
fiiKpG) /jbei^ov TTvprjva Be eyei ov avveadt6/x,evov 
KaOdirep Taif poat9* r)Bvv Be tov Kaprrov Kal idv 
Tt<? olvov iiTixer) Kal avTov rjBlo) ylveaBal (f>aac 

Kal TOV olvov rjBiO) TTOLelv. 

1 cf. Hdt. 4. 177; Athen. 14. 651 ; Scyl. Feripl. Lotophagi. 
■^ A ruler of Gyrene, who invaded Carthaginian territory in 
conjunction with Agathocles, B.C. 308. 

* TJj \a>TO(t>aytrlSi conj. W. ; tt) Xairotpayla ^dptii UMAld. 

* p-ipos : fxdotv conj. Sch. (non minor G). 


is as large as a bean, and in ripening like grapes it 
changes its colour : it grows, like myrtle-berries, 
close together on the shoots ; to eat, that wliich grows 
among the people called the Lotus-eaters ^ is sweet 
pleasant and hamaless, and even good for the stomach ; 
but that which has no stone is pleasanter (for 
there is also such a sort), and they also make wine 
from it. 

The tree is abundant and produces much fruit ; 
thus the armv of Ophelias,- when it was marching 
on Carthage, was fed, they say, on this alone for 
several days, when the provisions ran short. It is 
abundant also in the island called the island of 
the Lotus-eaters ; ^ this lies off the mainland at 
no great distance : it grows however in no less 
quantity,^ but even more abundantly ^ on the main- 
land ; for, as has been said,*' this tree is common in 
Libya generally as well as the Christ's thorn ; for in 
the islands called Euesperides ' they use these trees 
as fuel. However this lotos ^ differs from that found 
in the land of the Lotus-eaters. 

^ The (Egyptian) ' Christ's thorn ' is more shrubby 
than the lotos ; it has a leaf like the tree of the same 
name of our country, but the fruit is different ; for 
it is not flat, but round and red, and in size as large 
as the fruit of the prickly cedar or a little larger ; 
it has a stone which is not eaten with the fruit, as in 
the case of the pomegranate, but the fruit is sweet, 
and, if one pours wine over it, they say that it 
becomes sweeter and that it makes the wine sweeter. 

' -KXeTov U ; ? irKeiaiv with MV. 
« 4. 3. 1. 7 cf. Hdt. 4. 191. 

« cf. Hdt. 2. 96. 
» See Index. PUn. 13. HI. 


"EiVioi Se TO Tov Xtorov SevSpov 9aixvS}Ze<i elvai 
Kul ttoXvkTulSov, TO) aT€\6)(^ei 8e ev7raye<;' tov Be 
KapTTOV fieya to Kapvov ex^iv to o e'/CTO? ov 
(TapKOih€<i aWa BepfjuaTcoSicrTepov iadiofjievov Be 


i^ avTOv TTOLovcnv ov Biafxeveiv aX)C r) Bvo rj 
TpeU rjfiipa^ eiT o^vveiv. rjBico fiev olv tov 
KapTTOV TOV iv T0i9 AcoTOcfid'yoc';, ^vXov Be 
KoXkiov TO iv Kvprjvaca- OepfJuoTepav Be elvai, 
TTjv 'x^copav TTjv TOiv Ao)TO(pdya>v tov ^vkov Be 
TTjv pl^av elvai fxeXavTepav puev iroXv ttvkvtjv Be 
rjTTOv Kal eh eKaTTW ')(pr]crL/u,r]v' eh <ydp to, 
iyX^eipLBia kol to, eirtKoXX'^fiaTa 'x^prjaOai, tm 
^vX(p Be €t9 TG TOL'9 avXov<; Kal eh aXXa TtXeio). 

'Ev Be TTj fiT) vofievTj Ti]<; Ai^vr]<; dXXa Te irXeiw 
<^veadat Kal (f)OLVCKa<i p,€'ydXov<; Kal kuXov^' ov 
p.rjv aXV OTTOU /juev (j)0tvi^ dXfivpiBa Te elvai Kal 
€(f>vBpov TOV TOTTOv, ovK iv TToXXft) Be ^ddei dXXd 
jxdXiaTa iir 6pyviat<i Tpiaiv. to 5' vBoip evOa 
/xev yXvKv (r(f)6Bpa evda Be dXvKov ttXtjctiov ovtcov 
dXX'^Xoi<{- oirou Be to, dXXa (f)veTai ^rjpov Kal 
dvvBpov eviaxov Be Kal to, cppeaTU elvai eKaTov 
opyviMV, axTTe viro^vyioL'i diro TpoyrfXid<i dvtfiav 
Bi Kal OavfMaaTov ttw? ttotg U)pv')(6r] TrjXiKavTa 


(f)OiviKa<; Kal ev "Afjip.covo'; elvai Biacjiopdv e%oi' 
TTJV eiprjfMevrjv. (pvearOai Be ev Trj firj vofMevrj to 
dvfjLov TToXv Kal dXXa iBid Te Kal TrXeico ylveadai 

^ Sch. after Seal, places this section before § 3, making the 
account of this tree consecutive. * Plin. 13. 17. 104-106. 
' fijiraxes conj. R. Const.; euo-roxes U; fijaraxft MPsAld. 
* c/. Hdt. 2. 96. 



1 Some say that the lotos - is shrubby and much 
branched, though it has a stout ^ stem ; and that the 
stone in the fruit is large, while the outside is not 
fleshy but somewhat leathery ; and that to eat it is not 
so much sweet as palatable ; and that the wine which 
they make out of it does not keep more than two 
or three days, after which it gets sour ; and so that 
the fruit* found in the Lotus-eaters' country is 
sweeter, while the wood in the Cjrenaica is better ; 
and that the country of the Lotus-eaters is hotter ; 
and that the root is much blacker than the Avood, 
but of less close grain, and of use for fewer purposes ; 
for they use it only for dagger handles and tessellated 
work/ while the wood is used for pipes and many 
other things. 

In the part of Libya where no rain falls they say 
that, besides many other trees, there grow tall and 
fine date-palms ; however they add that, where the 
date-palm is found, the soil "^ is salt and contains 
water, and that at no great depth, not more than 
three fathoms. They say also that tlie water is in 
some places quite sweet, but in others quite close 
by it is brackish ; that where however other things 
grow, the soil is dry and waterless ; and that in 
places even the wells are a hundred fathoms deep, 
so that they draw water by means of a windlass 
worked by beasts. Wherefore it is wonderful how 
at any time digging to such depths was carried out. 
Such, they say, is the s}>ecial character of the water 
supply which feeds the date-palms in the district 
also of the temple of Zeus Amnion. Further it is 
said that in the land where no rain falls thyme ' is 

' firiKoW-nfiara : lit. ' pieces glued on '; c/. Pliu. I.e. 

« cf. Hdt. 3. 183. 

" eifioy niBas.H.; Oci/u/ov UMV^AId, cf. 6. 2. 3. 

X 2 


ivravOa, koI irrSiKa kuI BopKaBa koX crrpovOov 

6 Kcu erepa rcov Orjplcov. dWa ravra fiev ahrjXov 
el e/CTOTTt^et ttou Triofieva- (Bia yap to Ta%09 
Bvvarai /xaKpdv re /cat ra')(y Trapayevia-dai,), 
aXXft)? T€ Kel 8i rjfiepMV rivcov trivovai, Kaddirep 
Kol TO, rjfjiepa Trapa rpirrjv rj Terdpr'qv TroTi^eTaL 
ravTW TO Be tcov aXkcov ^cooov, olov o(pe(ov 
aavpwv Kol twv tolovtwv, (fiavepov oti anoTa. 
T0U9 Be Ai^va<i Xeyeiv on top ovov eaOiei tuvtu 
09 /cat Trap' r)fuv yiveTUi, TroXvirovv re Kal fjbekav 
crvaTTeipdyfjbevov el<; eavro- tovtov Be ttoXvv re 
yivecrdat crc^oBpa /cal vypov ttjv <f)vcnv elvai. 

7 Apocrov Be del iriiTTeLv ev tt} fir) vofievrj iroW^v, 
MCTTe BrjXov OTi TOP [xev (poivcKa Kal et ti aXXo 
(pveTat ev dvvBpot^ to re ex Trj<i yi]<i dviov ixTpecjiei, 
Kal 7rpo9 TOVTO) rj Bp6ao<i. iKavrj yap ft)9 Kara 
pbeyeBrj Kal Tr)v (pvaiv avTwv ^rjpdv ovaav Kal €k 
ToiovTcov avvea-TTjKvlav. Kal BevBpa fxev TavTa 
irXelaTa Kal IBicoTaTa. irepl Be tov cnX<^tov 
XeKTeov varepov rrolov tl ttjv <f)V(Tiv. 

IV. 'Ei/ ^€ Ty 'Acrta Trap' eKdcrT0i<i cBi' aTTa 
Tvy^dver rd pev yap (j)epovaiv at %&)/)ai to, B' 

Lepus Aeyyptiacus. cf. Arist. H.A. 8. 28. 
ws Kara conj. Seal, from G ; Sffre ret Ald.H. 


ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS, IV. in. 5-1 v. i 

abundant, and that there are various other peculiar 
plants there, and that there are found the hare^ 
gazelle ostrich and other animals. However it is 
uncertain whether these do not migrate in order to 
find drink somewhere, (for by reason of their fleet- 
ness they are able to appear at a distant place in a 
short space of time), especially if they can go for 
several days without drinking, even as these animals, 
when domesticated, are only given drink every third 
or fourth day. While as to other animals, such as 
snakes lizards and the like, it is plain that they go 
without drink. And we are told that according to 
the Libyans, these animals eat the wood-louse, which 
is of the same kind that is found also in our 
country, being black, with many feet, and rolling 
itself into a ball ; this, they say, is extremely common 
and is juicy by nature. 

They say also that dew always falls abundantly 
in the land in which no rain falls, so that it is plain 
that the date-palm, as well as anything else which 
grows in waterless places, is kept alive by the 
moisture which rises from the ground, and also by 
the dew. For the latter is sufficient, considering 2 the 
size of such trees and their natural character, which 
is dry and formed of dry components. And trees of 
that character are most abundant in, and most 
specially belong to such country. The character 

of the silphium we must discuss later. 

Of the trees and herbs special to Asia. 

IV. In different parts of Asia also there are 
special trees, for the soil of the various regions 
produces some but not others. ^ Xhus they say that 
' Plin. 16. 144. 



ov (fyvovcriv olov klttov koI iXdav ou (f>aai,v elvat 
T?}? 'Acria? ev rot<; ava> t^9 Sfpi'a? airo da\dTTr]<; 
irevO^ rjiiepoiv aX>C ev ^Ivhol^ (pavijvai klttov 
iv T(p 6 pet TO) M.rjpo) Ka\ov/x6vo), odev Sr) kuI top 
Aiovvaov elvat, fxvOoXoyovcrc. 8t o koI ^AXe^av- 
hpo<; a.7r' i^oBiWi XeyeTat aTrtcov eaTe<^av(i) ixevo^ 
KiTTU) elvai Kol avTO<; /cat rj crTpaTid' tcov 8e 
dWcov ev MrjSla fiovov irepiKXetecv yap avTi] 
BoKet Kal avvaTTTeiv rra>^ t& Uovto). KaiToi ye 
Bie(j)c\oTip.i]Or) "Ay07r<xXo9 iv rot? TrapaBelaoL'i rot? 
nrepl ^a/3v\cbva (f)UT€va>v TroXXa/ci? Kal irpay- 
pLaTev6ixevo<i, a)OC ovSev eVotet irXeov ov yap 
eBvvaTo ^rjv coairep ToXka to, e« t^? 'EXXaSo?. 
TOVTO p,ev ovv ov Be')(eTai rj %<w/3a Bia ttjv tov 
uepo'i Kpacnv dvayKaia><i Be Be-^^eTat, Kal irv^ov 
Kal (piXvpav Kal yap irepl TavTa irovoixriv ol ev 
Tol<i irapaBeicroi^. eTepa Be cBta cfjepei Kal BevBpa 
2 Kal v\i]fxaTa- Kal eoiKev o\a><; 6 totto? o 7rpc<; 
dvaTo\a<i Kal fiecnjfx^pLav wa-nep Kal ^coa Kal 
(pvTa <f)epeiv iBia irapa tov<; aX\.ov<;' olov ij re 
MrjBia %&)/?a Kal UepaU aXka re e%et TrXeiw Kal 
TO pbTjXov TO M^TjBiKov rj TO HepaiKov KaXov/j,evov. 
ex^i' Be TO BevBpov tovto (pvXXov fiev Ofioiov Kal 
(T'^eBov laov tw t^9 dvBpd'^^Xrj^, dKdv6a<i Be oXa<i 
airio^i rj 6^vdKavdo<i, Xeta? Be Kal ofeta9 cr^oBpa 
Kal lax^pd<i' to Be p^rjXov ovk eaOieTai p,ev, 

1 4\dau conj. Spr.; e'Actrrj^ MSS. cf. Hdt. 1. 193; Xen. 
Anab. 4. 4. 13 ; Arr. Ind. 40. 

2 Kirrhv conj. W., cf. Arr. Anab. 5. 1.6; /cai t))v UMV; 
Kal T^i Ald.H. ^ \eyf rat add. W. 

^ *'|oSfos UMVP; 'luSlas W. with Ald.^ 

^ KiTT^ eJvai conj. W. ; eZro fxe'ivai U; eTro fii] elj/at MVPAld, 



i\ y and olive ^ do not grow in Asia in the parts of 
Syria which are five days' journey from the sea ; but 
that in India ivy 2 appears on the mountain called 
Meros, whence, according to the tale, Dionysus 
came. Wherefore it is said^ that Alexander, when 
he came back from an expedition,* was crowned 
with ivy,^ himself and his army. But elsewhere in 
Asia it is said to grow only in Media, for that country 
seems in a way to surround and join on to the Euxine 
Sea.'' However," when Harpalus took great pains 
over and over again to plant it in the gardens of 
Babylon, and made a special point of it, he failed: 
since it could not live like the other things intro- 
duced from Hellas. The country then does not ^ 
admit this plant on account of the climate, and it 
grudgingly admits the box and the lime ; for even 
these give much trouble to those engaged in the 
gardens. It also produces some peculiar trees and 
shrubs. And in general the lands of the East and 
South appear to have peculiar plants, as they have 
peculiar animals ; for instance. Media and Persia have, 
among many others, that which is called the 
' Median ' or ' Persian apple ' (citron).^ This tree ^^ 
has a leaf like to and almost identical with that of 
the andrachne, but it has thorns like those of the 
pear^^ or white-thorn, which however are smooth 
and very sharp and strong. The ' apple ' is not 

^ i.e. and so Greek plants may be expected to grow there. 
But the text is probably defective ; c/. the citation of this 
passage, Plut. Qnaest. Conv. 3. 2. 1. 

' KatToi ye. This sentence does not connect properly M'ith 
the preceding. « „j ^dd. Sch. 

» Plin. 12. 15 and 16 ; cited also Athen. 3. 26. 

1° cf. Verg. 6. 2. 131-135. 

&irios: ? here=axpas R. Const, cf, C.P. 1. 15. 2. 




evoafxov Be irdvv kuI to if>vX\ov tov BevSpov Kav 
6t9 ifidria redfi to fir)\ov ciKOTra ScaTijpei. XPV~ 
(Tifiov S' eiretBav tv^V <rt(;> TreTrw/caj? (jxipfiaKov 
<Oavdatfxov hodev yap ev o'lvw SiaKoirret ttjv 
KOikiav Kol e^dyei to (f)dpfxaKov> Koi 7rp6<; ctto- 
[xaT0<i evwhiav edv ydp ti<; e^lrj]crr} ev ^(o/xo), rj ev 
dW(p Ttvl TO eacoOep tov jxtjXov eKinearj el<i to 
(jTo/xa Kal KaTapocfirjaj], iroiei Trjv oapLrjV rjBetai'. 
! airelperaL he tov rjpo<i eU irpacna^; e^aipedev to 
(TTTeppba BieLpyaap,eva<; eVfyu-eA-w?, etra dpBeveTai 
Bid TeTdpTr]<i r) TTepirTrj^ y/iepai;- otuv Be dBpov 
rj, Bca(f)VTev6Tai, irdXtv tov eapo<; el<; ')(^(opiov fxa- 
XaKov Kal e(jivBpov kol ov Xlav Xeinov (piXel 
yap TO, ToiavTU. (pepei. Be to. fxifka irdaav wpav 
TO, fjbev yap dcfiTjprjTat ra Be dvOel Ta Be eKireTTei. 
tS)v Be dvOoiv 6a a, Mcnrep etTTo/xev, e%ei KaOdirep 
rj\aKdT'>iv eK fxeaov tiv i^e^ova-av, raDra cctti 
yovifJLa, oaa Be p.T) dyova. aireipeTai Be kuI eh 
ocTTpaKa BiaTeTprjfxeva, KaddTrep fcal ol ^oiviKe^. 
TOVTO fxev ovv, waTTep etprjTac, irepl T'i]v UepatBa 
Kal TTjV MrjBlav eaTiv. 

'H Be ^IvBiKT) %(»/3a. Ti]V re KoXov/xevrjv e^ei 
avKYjv, fj KaOlriaiv eK tmv K\dBwv Td<i f)i,^a<; dv\ 
eKacTov eVo?, wairep etprjTai, irpoTepov d(f)Lr}(Tt 
Be ovK eK TOiv vewv a^OC eK tmv evcov Kal eTi 
iraXaioTepcov avTai Be (xwdirTovaat ttj yfj 
•noLoixTiv oiairep Bpix^aKTOv kvkXm irepl to Bev- 
Bpov, wcTTe y'iveadat, KaOdirep aKrjvrjv, ov Brj Kal 

1 T(s add. W. from Athen. I.e.; Oavaciixov . . . ipipfxaKov 
add. Sch. from Athen. I.e. 2 pijn. n. 278 ; 12. 16. 

' a^phv if W. from Athen. I.e., whence diaipvTfvirm W. etc. 
for 5ia(^i;Tei;77Tat Ald.H. adpov ri UMVAld. 


eaten, but it is very fragrant, as also is the leaf of the 
tree. And if the ' apple ' is placed among clothes, 
it keeps them from being moth-eaten. It is also 
useful when one^ has drunk deadly poison ; for being 
given in wine it upsets the stomach and brings up the 
poison ; also for producing sweetness of breath ; - 
for, if one boils the inner part of the ' apple ' in a 
sauce, or squeezes it into the mouth in some other 
medium, and then inhales it, it makes the breath 
sweet. The seed is taken from the fruit and sown 
in spring in carefully tilled beds, and is then watered 
every fourth or fifth day. And, when it is growing 
vigorously,^ it is transplanted, also in spring, to a 
soft well-watered place, where the soil is not too 
fine; for such places it loves. And it bears its "^ apples ' 
at all seasons ; for when some have been gathered, 
the flower of others is on the tree and it is ripening 
others. Of the flowers, as we have said,* those 
which have, as it were, a distaff"^ projecting in the 
middle are fertile, while those that have it not are 
infertile. It is also sown, like date-palms, in pots *• 
with a hole in them. This tree, as has been said, 
grows in Persia and Media. 

"^ The Indian land has its so-called ' fig-tree ' 
(banyan), which drops its roots from its branches 
every year, as has been said above ^ ; and it drops 
them, not from the new branches, but from those 
of last year or even from older ones ; these take 
hold of the earth and make, as it were, a fence 
about the tree, so that it becomes like a tent, in 

* 1. 13. 4. 5 i.e. the pistil. 

* Plin. 12. 16, fictilibus in vasia, dato per cavemas radicihus 
ipiramento : the object, as Plin. explains, was to export it 
tor medical use. 

' Plin. 12. 22 and 23. » 1. 7. 3. 


elu)6a<7L ScaTpL^eiv. elal 8e at pt^ac ^vo/ubevat 
SidSrjXot 7rpo<; tov? ^Xaarrovs' XevKorepat yap 
Kal Bacrelat koX crKoXial Kol d<f)vWoi. e%ef Se 
KOI Tr}V avco Kop.rjv ttoXXtjv, koI to oXov 8evBpov 
evKVKXov KoX Tft) p,ejed€L /xeya a(f)6Spa' Kal yap 
cttI Bvo CTTaSia iroieZv (pacn rrjv aKidv Kal to 
'jrd')(o<i Tov areXi-^ovi evia TrXeiovwv rj k^rjKovra 
^ripbaTcov, TO, Se ttoWo, rerrapaKovra. to Si ye 
(f)vWov ovK eXarrov e%ei ireXrr}^, KapTTov Be 
a(f)68pa p,iKpov tjXIkov ipi/Sivdov 6p,oLov he avKcti' 
BC o Kal eKoXovv avro ol "}LXXr]V€<i avKrjv oXiyov 
Be Oavp,aaTa)<i tov Kapirov ov^ oti kuto, to tov 
BevBpov peyeOo<; dX\d Kal to oXov. (pveTac Be 
Kal to BevBpov nrepl tov ^AKecrlvrjv TroTapov. 
6 "Eo-rt Be Kal erepov BevBpov Kal tm peyeOet 
pukya Kal rjBvKapTTOV OavpaaT&<; Kal p,eyaX6- 
KapTTOv Kal '^pcbvTai Tpo(j)T} TOiv ^IvBwv ol ao^ol 
Kal p,r} dp,7re-^6p,evoi,. 

"^Tepov Be ov to cpvXXov tyjv p,ev p,op<pT)v 
'irp6p.rjKe<i Tot? twv aTpovdoiv TTTC/Joi? opoiov, a 
irapaTidevTai, irapa to, Kpdvr}, p.rjK0<i Be 0)9 

"AXXo Te iaTLV ov 6 Kapno^ paKp6<; Kal ovk 
ev9v<i dXXa aKo\t6<; ia6i6p.evo<i Be y'XvKv<;. ovTo<i 
iv T7J KoCXia Brjyp^ov ip.irotel Kal BvcrevTeplav, Bi 
o ^A'Xe^avBpo'i uTreKTJpv^e prj eaOleLV. ecTTi Be 
Kal eTepov ov 6 Kapiro'i op.oio<; Tot9 Kpaveoi<;. 

i oSconj. W.; aTs UMVAld. 

2 &<pv\\oi conj. Ualec; SifvWoi UVAld. ; so also MH., 
omitting koI. 

^ i^^Kovra . . . TerrapaKovra MSS. ; e| . . . TeTrdpwv conj. 
Salm. c/. Plin. I.e.; Strabo 15. 1, 21. 


which ^ men sometimes even live. The roots as they 
grow are easily distinguished from the branches, 
being whiter hairy crooked and leafless.- The 
foliage above is also abundant, and the whole tree is 
round and exceedingly large. They say that it 
extends its shade for as much as two furlongs ; and 
the thickness of the stem is in some instances more 
than sixty ^ paces, while many specimens are as 
much as forty ^ paces through. The leaf is quite as 
large as a shield,^ but the fruit is very small,^ only as 
large as a chick-pea, and it resembles a fig. And 
this is why the Greeks ^ named this tree a ' fig-tree.' 
The fruit is cui'iously scanty, not only relatively to 
the size of the tree, but absolutely. The tree also 
grows near the river Akesines." 

There is also another tree^ which is very large 
and has wonderfully sweet and large fruit ; it is 
used for food by the sages of India who wear no 

There is another tree^ whose leaf is oblong in 
shape, like the feathers of the ostrich ; this they 
fasten on to their helmets, and it is about two cubits 

There is also another 1*^ whose fruit is long and not 
straight, but crooked, and it is sweet to the taste. 
This causes griping in the stomach and dysentery ; 
wherefore Alexander ordered that it should not be 
eaten. There is also another ^^ whose fruit is like the 
fruit of the cornelian cherry. 

* -KiKri) : a small round shield. = cf. C.P. 2. 10. 2. 
^ I.e. in Alexander's expedition. '• Chenab. 

8 Jack-fruit. See Index App. (3). Plin. 12. 24. 

* Banana. See Index App. (4). 

" Mango. See Index App. (5). Plin. 12. 24. 
" Jujube. See Index App. (6). 


Kal erepa he irXeim koL 8ia(f>epovTa twv iv 
TOt? "KXXrjatv dXX,' av(ovv/xa. davfiacrTov 8' 
ovSev rrj<i IScotijto^' a%€hov 'yap, w? 76 hrj Tivh 
(fyacriv, ovOev oX&)9 tmv BevSpcoi/ ov8e rcov vXr]- 
/xdrwv ov8e rwv iroiwhSiv ofiovov iari toi<; iv rfj 
'l£X\d8i 7r\7]v oXiycov. 

6 "ISiov Be Kol rj i^evT] Trj<i %«/>«? rauTr]<;' TavT7)<i 
8e Bvo yevr), to p.€V ev^vXov Kal koXov to Se 
(pavXov. cnrdvLov he ro koKov ddrepov he ttoXv. 
TTjv he XP^^^ °^ drjaavpi^Ofievrj Xa^i^dveu rrjv 
evxpovv aXA,' eu0v<; rfj ^vaei. ean he ro hevhpov 
6afivct)he<i, Mcnrep 6 KVTicro'q. 

7 ^aal h' elvai koX reppuvdov, ol h' 6p,oLOv 
Tepixivdw, TO fiev (f)vXXov koX tov<; kXwvu^ koI 
ToXXa TrdvTa o/zom e%ei t^ Tepfiivdcp top he 
KapTcov hid(f)opov' Ojxoiov yap Tai<i dfivyhaXai<;. 
elvat yap Kal ev HdKTpoi'i ttjv TeppavOov ravrrjv 
Kal Kdpva (f)epeiv rjXlKa dpuvyhaXa hca to /jlt) 
fieydXa' Kal ttj oyjrei he Trapofioia, ttXtji/ to 
K€Xv(f)0<i ov Tpaxv, TTJ h' evo-TOfiia Kal rjhovfj 
KpeiTTO) Twv dfj,vyhdX(ov. hi Kal XPV^0<^'' tov<; 
eKet fxaXXov. 

8 'Ef &v he TO, IfidTia Troiovai to jxev (pvXXov 
ofioiov exet rfj avKafilvo), ro he oXov (pvrov T049 
Kvvop6hoL<i 6/J,oiov. (fivrevovcri he ev rol<; 7reStot9 
avTo Kar 6pxov<i, hi o Kal iroppwdev d(f>opcil)(Xi 
dfiTreXoi ^aivovrat. ex^i he Kal ^0iviKa<i evia 

1 Plin. 12. 25. 

•^ See Index. Plin. 12. 17-19. 

3 Pistachio-nut. See Index App. (7). Plin. 12. 25. Nic. 
Ther. 894. 



There are also many more ^ which are different to 
those found among the Hellenes, but they have no 
names. There is nothing surprising in the fact that 
these trees have so special a character ; indeed, as 
some say, there is hardly a single tree or shrub or 
herbaceous plant, except quite a few, like those in 

The ebony 2 is also peculiar to this country; of 
this there are two kinds, one with good handsome 
wood, the other inferior. The better sort is rare, but 
the inferior one is common. It does not acquire its 
good colour by being kept, but it is natural to it from 
the first. The tree is bushy, like laburnum. 

Some say that a ' terebinth ' ^ grows there also, 
others that it is a tree like the terebinth ; this in 
leaf twigs and all other respects resembles that 
tree, but the fruit is different, being like almonds. 
In fact they say that this sort of terebinth grows also 
in Bactna and bears nuts only as big as almonds, 
inasmuch as they are not large for the size of the 
tree * ; and they closely resemble almonds in appear- 
ance, except that the shell is not rough ; and in 
palatableness and sweetness they are superior to 
almonds ; wherefore the people of the country use 
them in preference to almonds. 

*The trees from which they make their clothes 
have a leaf like the mulberry, but the whole tree 
resembles the wild rose. They plant them in the 
plains in rows, wherefore, when seen from a distance, 
they look like vines. Some parts also have many 

* Sta . . . n4ya\a : Seh. omits these words, and W. con- 
siders them corrupt ; but G seems to have had them in his 
tc;xt. The translation is tentative. 

* Cotton-plant, cf. 4. 7. 7 and 8. Plin. 12. 25. 


fiepr] TToWov<;. koI ravra fiev ev BevBpov 

9 <l>epet Be koX (nripfiara iBia, ra jxev roh 
XeBpo7rot<i o/jLoia ra Be rot<; 7rvpoL<; koI rat? 
Kpii9al<;. €pe^iv0o<i jxev yap /cat (f)aKo<i koI rhWa 
ra Trap^ rjfitv ov/c ecrriv' erepa S' iarlv ware 
7rapa7r\i]aca Troielv ra €'\ln]p,ara Kal pbrj Bia- 
yiyvcocTKeLv, a><i (paa-iv, av [mtj ra aKOvarj. KpcOal 
Be Kal TTvpol Kal aWo re yevo<i aypLwv Kpi6a)v, 
e^ Qiv Kal dproi r)Bei<i Kal ')(pvBpo<; Ka\6<;. ravra^ 
01 iTTTTot icrdiovret rb rrpoirov Bie^deipovro, Kara 
p,CKpov Be ovv i0ia6evre<} ev a')(ypoi<i ovBev 

10 M.d\c(Tra Be cnreipovac rb KaXovfievov opv^ov, 
i^ 01) TO e^^r^fia. rovro Be 6p,oiov rfj ^eta Kal 
TrepLTrria-Oev olov 'XpvBpo'i evireirrov Be, rrjv oyp^tv 
7re(f>VK6^ 6p,oiov ral<i alpai^ Kal rcV ttoXvv xpovop 
ev vBart, airoxelrai Be ovk elf ard-)(yv aXK olov 
^o^rjv, cocnrep b Keyxpo<; Kal b eXy/io?. dWo Be 
eKoXovv at "^W7]ve<i (^aKov rovro Be op-oiov 
fiev rfj O'y^ei Kal rb ^ovKepa<;, Oepi^erai Be irepl 
HXeidBo<i Bvaiv. 

11 Aia(f>epei Be Kal avrrj r] X(t>pa rw rrjV p,ev 
(f)epeiv evia rrjv Be p,r] (pepeiv rj yap bpecvr) Kal 
dp^rreXov e^ei Kal eXdav Kal rd dXXa aKpoBpva' 
7r\r]v aKapirov rrjV iXdav, Kal a^^Bbv Kal rrjv 
<f>vaiv wcTTrep fiera^v Korivov Kal €\da<i earl Kal 

^ cf. 8. 4. 2. whence it appears that the original text here 
contained a fuller account. Plin. 18. 71. 

^ Sorghum halepoise. ^ Sc. of Alexander. 

* The verb seems to have dropped out (W.). 


date-palms. So much for what come under the 
heading of 'trees.' 

These lands bear also peculiar grains, some like 
those of leguminous plants, some like wheat and 
barley. For the chick-pea lentil and other such 
plants found in our country do not occur ; but there 
are others, so that they make similar mashes, and 
one cannot, they say, tell the difference, unless one 
has been told. They have however barley wheat ^ 
and another kind of wild barley,- which makes sweet 
bread and good porridge. VVhen the horses^ ate 
this, at first it proved fatal to them, but by degrees 
they became accustomed to it mixed with bran and 
took no hurt. 

But above all they sow the cereal called rice, of 
which they make their mash. This is like rice-wheat, 
and when bruised makes a sort of porridge, which is 
easily digested ; in its appearance as it grows it is 
like darnel, and for most of its time of growth it is * 
in water ; however it shoots ^ up not into an ear, but 
as it were into a plume,^ like the millet and Italian 
millet. There was another plant ^ which the Hel- 
lenes^ called lentil; this is like in appearance to 
' ox-horn ' (fenugreek), but it is reaped about the 
setting of the Pleiad. 

Moreover this country shews differences in that 
})art of it bears certain things which another part 
does not ,' thus the mountain country has the vine 
and olive and the other fruit-trees ; but the olive is 
barren,^ and in its character it is as it were almost 
between a wild and a cultivated olive, and so it 

5 cLToxf^T-ai ■ cf. 8. S. 1. 6 c/. 8. 3. 4. 

" Phaseolns Mumjo ; see Index App. (8). 
* I e. of Alexander's expedition. • ® Plin. 12. 14. 



rfi 6\rj fMop^fj- Kol TO (f>vWov tov fiev irXarv- 
repov TOV 8e aTevoTepov. TavTa fxev ovv kuto, 

12 'Er he TTj 'Apia X^P^ KaXovfiivrf aKavOd icrTiv, 
e0' ^9 yiveTai BaKpvov ofioiov ttj ajxvpvr] koX tji 
oyjret Koi Ty oafifj' tovto Be OTav eTTiXafi-^rj 6 
7]Xto<; KUTappel. iroWa Be koX aWa irapa to, 
evTavOa Koi ev Trj %ft>/oa koI ev Toh 'iroTap,6l<i 
jLveTai,. ev eTepoi<i Be totto^? eVrtf uKavda XevKrj 
Tpto^o<i, e'f ^9 Kal aKVTciXca Kol jSaKTTjpla^; ttoi- 
ovaiv 67rcoB7}<; Be Kal fxavrj- TavTrjv Be KaXovaiv 

"AWo Be vXrjiia /xeyeOo'i fxev rjXiKov pd(f)avo<;, 
TO Be (fyvWov Ofioiov Bdcpvrj Kal tm fiejedei Kal 
TT] fiopcfifj. TOVTO B' ei TL (f)dyoi evaTToOvrjCTKei. 

Bt O Kal OTTOV TiriTOt TOVTOV^ i(j)vXaTTOV Btd 

13 'Ey Be Trj VeBpcoala x^P^ 7re(j)VKevai (f)aalv ev 
{xev ofiOLOv Trj Bd<j)VT) ^vWov exov, ov to, vTro^vyta 
Kal oTiovv ei (pdyot jxiKpov e-maxovTa Biec^Oei- 
povTo irapa7rXr)aLa)<i BiaTiOe/Meva Kal (T7rd)fX€va 

6/JiOl,CO<; Tol<i eiTLkrj'JTTOL'i. 

"KTepov Be aKavddv Tiva elvar TavTrju Be 
(f)vX\ov fiev ovBev ex^i-v 7re(f)VKevac B' €k fiidq 
pit,r]<f e<f eKdaTcp Be tmv o^cov uKavOav ex^iv 
o^elav a^oBpa, Kal tovtwv Be KaTayPvfievwv rj 
TrpoaTpi^ofJbivcov oirov cKpelv iroXvr, 09 d'7roTV(f)Xoi 

^ Kol (TXf^hv . . . iJ.op(p^ conj. W. ; crx^Shv Se koI riju <pv<Tiv 
wa-irep fxtr. hot. Ka\ i\. iffrt 5e tt) oAtj /uopcpf) Kal rh <p. Aid. ; so 
also U, omitting the first icaL 

2 Balsamodendron Muhd ; see Index App. (9). Plin. 12. 



is also in its general appearance,^ and the leaf is 
broader than that of the one and narrower than that 
of the other. So much for the Indian land. 

In the country called Aria there is a ' thorn ' ^ 
on which is found a gum resembling myrrh ^ in 
appearance and smell, and this drops when the sun 
shines on it. There are also many other plants 
besides those of our land, both in the country and in 
its rivers. In other parts there is a white ' thorn ' * 
which branches in three, of which they make batons 
and sticks ; its wood is sappy and of loose texture, 
and they call it the thorn 'of Herakles.' 

There is another shrub ^ as large as a cabbage, 
whose leaf is like that of the bay in size and shape. 
And if any animal should eat this, it is certain to die 
of it. Wherefore, whei'ever there were horses,*^ they 
kept them under control. 

In Gedrosia they say that there grows one tree "^ 
with a leaf like that of the bay, of which if the 
beasts or anything else ate, they very shortly died 
with the same convulsive symptoms as in epilepsy. 

And they say that another tree ^ there is a sort of 
' thorn ' (spurge), and that this has no leaf and gi*ows 
from a single root ; and on each of its branches it has 
a very shai-p spine, and if these are broken or bruised 
a quantity of juice flows out, which blinds animals or 

3 fffivpvri conj. Sch. from 9. 1. 2 ; Plin. I.e. ; tj IWvpia Ald.H. 

* See Index. 

5 Asafoetida ; see Index App. (10). Plin. 12. 33. 

' i.e. in Alexander's expedition. Probably a verb, such 
8.8 i!(T(ppalvovTo, has dropped out after Xinroi (Sch.). Odore 
equos invitans Plin. I.e. 

' Nerium odortim ; see Index App. (11). cf. 4. 4. 13 ; Strabo 
15. 2. 7; Plin. I.e. 

8 Plin. I.e.; Arrian, Aiuxb. 6. 22. 7. 



raWa ^coa Trdvra koI Trpo? Tov<i dvOpooirovi et 
Tt9 rrrpoapaLvecev avTo2<;. iv he roTroa Tial 7re<j)v- 
Kevat, Tiva ^ordvrjv, v<f)' fj crvpeaTreipcofievov; o06f9 
elvat /j,iKpov<; acjioBpa' rovToif 6' et rf? i/Ji^d<i 
rrrXrjyeir] dvijaKCiv. dTroTrviyecrdai 8e koI aTTO 
tS)v <f>OLvlK(ov Twv oijxoiv et Tf9 (pdjot, Koi Tovro 
ixnepov Karavor]6rjvac. roiavTUt fiev ovv hvvd- 
yLiet9 KoX ^(t)0)v KoX (pvrwv ta(o<i koL Trap d\\oi<; 

14 UepLTTorepa Be roiv cpvofxevaiv koL nrXelarov 
e^rjXX.aypeva tt/jo? to, aWa rd evocr/xa rd irepX 
'Apafiiav KOI ^vpiav koI ^Ivhov'i, olov 6 t€ 
\i^avci)T6<i KoX rj a-fxypva /cat 7] Kuaia koI to 
oiro^dXcrap.ov koL to Kivd/jia>p,ov koI oaa dXka 
TOiavra- Trepl oiv iv dWot^ ecprjTai, Bid irXeiovoov. 
iv pev ovv Tol'i 7rp6<; eco re koI p,ear)p,/3pLav koi 
TavT cBia koX erepa Be rovrcov TrXetto icniv. 

V. 'Ei^ ^e T0fc9 nrpo'i dpKTov ov'x^ 6p,o'Lco<i' ovdev 
jdp ore d^Lov \6yov Xeyerat trapd rd Kocvd rSiv 
BevBpcov d Kol (piXo-^vxpd re rvyx^dvei koi ecrri 
KOL trap r]plv, olov irevKT] Bpv'i iXdrr] 7rv^o<i 
Bwa^d\avo<{ (fiiXvpa koI rd dXXa Be rd roiavra' 
^^(eBov ydp ovBev erepov irapd ravrd ianv, dXXd 
Tcov dXXwv vXr]p.dT(ov evia d TOV<i 'y^vxpov<i 
p,dXXov ^rjrel tottov^, KaOdirep Kevravpiov 
d->^'ivQL0Vy em Be rd <^appbaK(aB7} Tat? pi^at^i Kal 
ToZ<i OTTol'?, olov iXXej3opo<i iXarijpiov aKap,p,Q)via, 
a-)(eBov Trdvra rd .pi^OTop,ovp,eva. 

2 Ta p,ev ydp iv t& TiovTW KaX rfj ©paxy ylverai, 

^ TO. dAAo 86 : ? om. ra ; 5e om. Sch. 


even a man, if any drops of it should fall on him. 
Also thej say that in some parts grows a herb under 
which very small snakes lie coiled up, and that, if 
anyone treads on these and is bitten, he dies. They 
also say that, if anyone should eat of unripe dates, 
he chokes to death, and that this fact was not 
discovered at first. Now it may be that animals and 
plants have such properties elsewhere also. 

Among the plants that grow in Arabia S^-ria and 
India the aromatic plants are somewhat exceptional 
and distinct from the plants of other lands ; for 
instance, frankincense m^Trh cassia balsam of Mecca 
cinnamon and all other such plants, about which we 
have spoken at greater length elsewhere. So in 

the parts towards the east and south there are these 
special plants and many others besides. 

Of the plants special to northern regions. 

V. In the northern regions it is not so, for nothing 
worthy of record is mentioned except the ordinary 
trees which love the cold and are found also in our 
country, as fir oak silver-fir box chestnut lime, as 
well as other similar trees. There is hardly any 
other 1 besides these ; but of shrubs there are some 
which for choice - seek cold regions, as centaury and 
wormwood, and further those that have medicinal 
properties in their roots and juices, such as hellebore 
squirting cucumber scammony, and nearly all those 
whose roots are gathered. ^ 

Some of these grow in Pontus and Thrace, some 

® I have moved fuiWoy, which in the MSS. comes before 
'■u9 iWoty. 

^ ». e. which have medicinal uses. 


ra Se irepl rrjv Otrrjv koX top Uapvaaov kol to 
TlrjXiov KoX rrjv "Oaaav koX to 'YekeOpiov Kol ev 
TovToa Be Tive<; (paai TrXelarov TroWa Be koX 
iv rfi ^ApKaBla kol ev rfj KaKwvLicfj' (pap/xaKU)Bei<; 
yap Kol avrat. rcov Be evtoBoiV ovBev ev Tavraa, 
TrXrjv 2pi<i iv TJj ^iWv piBi kol irepl top ^ABplav 
ravTY} yap XPV^'^V '^^^ ttoXv Bia^epovaa twv 
aXXoiv a}OC ev Tot9 aX,eeLvol<i Kal roi<i 7rpo<i 
/jb6crrjfj.^pLav Mairep dvriKei/xeva ra evcoBrj. e^ovai 
Be Kal KvrrdpcTTOv ol uXeecvul fxaXkov, oiairep 
Kp)]T7] AvKia 'P0809, KeBpov Be Kal ra ®paKia 
optj Kal ra ^pvyia. 

Tcbv Be rj^iepovjxevwv rjKtard ^aatv ev TOt? 
■\Jrv')(^poc<i v7rop,eveiv Bdcpvrjv Kal /jivppivrjv, Kal 
rovrwv Be rjrrov en rrjv p,vpplvr)v' ar^jxelov Be 
Xeyovaiv on ev rtp ^OXvfiTrfp Bdcpvrj fiev iroXX'^, 
lxvppivo<i Be 6X(i)<; ovk ecrriv. ev Be r& Tlovrm 
rrepl UavriKdiraiov ouS" erepov Kalirep airovBa- 
^ovrcov Kal irdvra fM7]-)(^av(0/jievo)v 7rp6<; rd<; lepo- 
<Tvva<i' avKaX Be TroXXal Kal evfieyedei<; Kal 
poial Be TrepiaKeira^ofxevar airioi Be Kal firjXeai 
rrXelarai Kal TravroBaTrcorarai Kal xp^]arai,' 
avrai S' eapival TrXrjv el dpa o^iar rf]<i Be 
aypia<i vXr]<; earl Bpv<i irreXea fxeXia Kal oaa 
roiavra' rrevKri Be Kal iXdrrj Kal rrirv<i ovk eartv 
ovBe oXft)? ovBev evBaBov vypd Be avrrj Kal 
Xelpcov TToXv rrjf; XtvcoTriKTJf;, war ovBe rroXv 
')(^pMvrat avrrj irXrjv 7rpo<i ra viraldpia. ravra 

1 TeXiOpiov conj. Sell, (in Euboea), cf. 9. 15. 4 ; UeXedpwv 
UMVP; UapOeviov Ald.G. 

^ Whose rhizome was used for perfumes; cf. 1. 7. 2; de 
odor. 22. 23. 28. 32 ; Dykes, The Genus Iris, p. 237, gives an 
interesting account of the modern uses of ' orris-root.' 



about Oeta Parnassus Pelion Ossa and Telethrion,! 
and in these parts some say that there is great abund- 
ance ; so also is there in Arcadia and Laconia, for 
these districts too produce medicinal plants. But of 
the aromatic plants none grows in these lands, except 
the iris '^ in Illyria on the shores of the Adriatic ; for 
here it is excellent and far superior to that which 
grows elsewhere ; but in hot places and those which 
face the south the fragrant plants grow, as if by con- 
trast to the medicinal plants. And the warm places 
have also the cypress in greater abundance ; for in- 
stance, Crete Lycia Rhodes, while the prickly cedar 
grows in the Thracian and the Phrygian mountains. 

Of cultivated plants they say that those least 
able to thrive in cold regions are the bay and 
myrtle, especially the myrtle, and they give for 
proof 2 that on Mount Olympus the bay is abundant, 
but the myrtle does not occur at all. In Pontus 
about Panticapaeum neither grows, though they are 
anxious to grow them and take special pains * to do 
so for religious purposes. But there are many well 
grown fig-trees and pomegranates, which are given 
shelter ; pears and apples are abundant in a great 
variety of forms and are excellent. These are spring- 
fruiting trees, except that they may fruit later here 
than elsewhere. Of wild trees there are oak elm 
manna-ash and the like (while there is no fir silver- 
fir nor Aleppo pine, nor indeed any resinous tree). 
But the wood of such trees ^ in this country is damp 
and much inferior to that of Sinope, so that they do 
not much use it except for outdoor purposes. These 

3 Plin. 16. 137. 

* Plin., I.e., s&ys that Mithridates made this attempt. 

' i.e. oak, etc. 


fx,€V ovv irepl rov Yiovrov rj ev rial 76 Toiroi'i 

^Ev 8e rfi UpoTTOVTiSi <yiveTai koI fivpptvo<i koI 
Bdfpvrj 'Tr6Wa')(ov ev Totf opecriv. tacos S" evia 
Kot rcov TOTTcov iSlu Oeriov eKacTOi yap exovat 
ra Bia(fiepovTa, coaTrep etprjrai, Kara ra<i vXa<i ov 
piovov Tw /SeXrLO) koI %et/oco Tr]v avrrjv e)(eiv dWa 
KoX Tw (f)ep€LV rj fMT) (pepeiv olov 6 p.ev T/xcoX,o9 
eyet Kot 6 Mvaio<i "OXi;/i7ro9 ttoXv to Kupvov 
Koi rrjv hioa^aXavov, en he dprreXov koX pirfXeav 
Kol poav r] Be "iBt] rd p,ev ouk eyei tovtcov rd 
Be airdvLa' irepl Be MaKeSoviav kol rov UiepiKov 
^OXvfiTTOv rd pev ecrri rd S' ovk eari rovrcov ev 
Be rfj EuySota koL irepX rrjv M^ayvrjalav rd pev 
Eiv/3oiKd TToXXd rS)v Be dWoov ovdev ovBe Brj irepl 
rb UeXiov ovBe rd dWa rd ivravda oprj. 

B/aa%u9 5' earl T07ro9 09 e^ei kol 6Xco<; rrjv 
vavirrj'yrjcnpiov vXrjv rrj<; pev ydp Eupdoirr}'; BoKcl 
rd rrepl rrjv ^luKeBovlav kol ocra rrj<i @paK7]<i Kal 
Trepl ^IrdXiav t?}9 Be 'Acrta9 rd re ev K.tXiKi,a 
Kot rd ev Xivcoirp Kal 'Apblao), ere Be 6 Mvaco^ 
"OXvp.TTO'i Kal 7) "\Br] ttXtjv ov rroXXijv' rj <ydp 
Xvpla KeBpov e^ei Kal ravrrj ^/scovTat 77^009 rd<; 

^AXXd Kal rd (^iXvBpa Kal rd rrapaTrordpua 
ravO^ opioioi^i' ev p,€v ydp rw ^KBpia irXdravov ov 
(J3aaiv elvai TrXrjv rrepl rb Atop.yjBov'i lepov 
arraviav Be Kal ev '\raXia rrdarj' KairoL rroXXol 
Kal peydXoi rrorapbol nap dp,(f)oiv' dXX ovk 

^ See Index. 

2 Kal cfo-o : text probably defective, but sense clear. ? koI 
iffa TTjs 0. €Xei KoX rb, irepl 'I. 



are the trees of Pontus, or at least of certain districts 
of that country. 

In the land of Propontis myrtle and bay are 
found in many places on the mountains. Perhaps 
however some trees should be put down as special 
to particular places. For each district, as has been 
said, has different trees, differing not only in that the 
same trees occur but of variable quality, but also as 
to producing or not producing some particular tree. 
For instance, Tmolus and the Mysian Olympus have 
the hazel and chestnut ^ in abundance, and also the 
vine apple and pomegranate ; while Mount Ida has 
some of these not at all and others only in small 
quantity ; and in Macedonia and on the Pierian 
Olympus some of these occur, but not others ; and 
in Euboea and Magnesia the sweet chestnut ^ is com- 
mon, l)ut none of the others is found ; nor yet on 
Pelion or the other mountains of that region. 

Again it is only a narrow extent of country which 
produces wood fit for shipbuilding at all, namely in 
Europe the Macedonian region, and cei-tain parts ^ 
of Thrace and Italy ; in Asia Cilicia Sinope and 
Amisus, and also the Mysian Olympus, and Mount 
Ida ; but in these parts it is not abundant. For Syria 
has Syrian cedar, and they use this for their galleys. 

The like is true of trees which love water and 
the riverside ; in the Adriatic region they say that 
the plane is not found, except near the Shrine of 
Diomedes,^ and that it is scarce throughout Italy * ; 
yet there are many large rivers in both countries, 
in spite of which the localities do not seem to 

^ On one of the islands of Diomedes, off the coast of 
Apulia ; now called Isole di Tremiti. c/. Plin. 12. 6. 
■» c/. 2. 8. 1 n. 


eoiKC (j>€peiv 6 TOTTOf eV 'PTjy la) yovi' a<; Aiovvawi 
'iTpeaj3vTepo<; 6 rvpavvo<; icpvrevcrev iv reS Trapa- 
Sei(T(p, ai elai vvv iv t& yvfivaa-lo), (f)i\oTtfi'r)deLcrai 
ov 8eSvv7]vrac Xa^elv p.k'yedo'i. 

'ISiVioi 8e TrXevarTjv e')(pvcn irXdravov, ot he 
TrreXeav koX Iriav, oi he fjbvpiKrjv, wairep 6 Klp,o<;. 
ware to, jxev roiavra, Kaddirep iXe^OV' '^^v tottwv 
cSia Oereov ofioico^ ev re to 49 dypioi^ koX to?? 
r)fjbepoi<;. ov /xrjv aXXa rd'X^ av etif) Kol rovTwv 
eVi Tivcov Mcrre Bia/coafxrjOevTcov hvvacrdai rrjv 
')(^u>pav (pepeiv, kol vvv ^vp,^aivov opco/iiev koX 
eirl ^(jtiwv evccov koX <^vjoiv. 

VI, M.ejlarrjv Se Sta(popav avTrj<i rrj<; (f)va€Ci)<; 
Twv BevBpcov KOL aTrXeo? tcov vXTj/xaTcov vttoXt)- 
tneov f]v KoX -wporepov etiroixev, on ra fiev eyyaia 
ra S' evvSpa Tvy)(^dvei, KaOdirep tmv ^cocov, kuI tmv 
cfiVTcbv ov fjiovov ev Tot<i eXeai kol Tal<i Xt/jLvaa 
Kol Toh TTOja/jioU yap dXXd koX ev rrj daXdrTrj 
ipverai kol vXrj/jLara evia ev re rfj e^ca koI SevSpa' 
iv p,ev yap rfj irepl rjfxa<; fiiKpa Trdvra ra (pvofieva, 
/cat ovSev virepe'^ov q)<; elirelv t^? daXdrrij^' ev 
ifceCvr] Se kuI ra roiavra koI virepexovra, Kal 
erepa he /jbeL^o) hevhpa. 

Ta fiev ovv Trepl r)jxa^ eari rdhe' ^avepoorara 
fxev Kol KOLvdrara irdaiv ro re (f)VKo<? Kal to 
fipvov Kal oaa dXXa roiavra- (pavepcorara he Kal 

^ <piXoTi/j.T]6e7aat conj. St. ; (piKoTifiridels MSS ; Plin. 12. 7. 
"* eaKaTT7\s conj. Seal, from G ; iKarris Ald.H. 


produce this tree. At any rate those which King 
Dionysius the Elder planted at Rhegium in the park, 
and which are now in the grounds of the wrestling 
school and are thought much of/ have not been ^ble 
to attain any size. 

Some of these regions however have the plane 
in abundance, and others the elm and willow, others 
the tamarisk, such as the district of Mount Haemus. 
Wherefore such trees we must, as was said, take to 
be peculiar to their districts, whether they are wild 
or cultivated. However it might well be that the 
country should be able to produce some of these 
trees, if they were carefully cultivated : this we do 
in fact find to be the case with some plants, as with 
some animals. 

Of the aquatic plants of the Mediterranean. 

VI. However the greatest difference in the natural 
character itself of trees and of tree-like plants gener- 
ally we must take to be that mentioned already, 
namely, that of plants, as of animals, some belong 
IX) the earth, some to water. Not only in swamps, 
lakes and rivers, but even in the sea there are some 
tree-like growths, and in the ocean there are even 
trees. In our own sea all the things that grow are 
small, and hardly any of them rise above the sui-- 
face 2 ; but in the ocean we find the same kinds 
]-ising above the surface, and also other larger 

Those found in our own waters are as follows : 

most conspicuous of those which are of general 

occurrence are seaweed ^ oyster-green and the like ; 

most obvious of those peculiar to certain parts are the 

3 Plin. 13. 135. 



ISicorara Kara Tov<i roirovi i\drr) crvKrj Bpv<i 
dfi7re\o<i (poivi^. rovrcov 8e rd fiev Trpoayeia 
TO. Be TTovTia TO, 8 dfi^orepcop twv Toiroiv Koivd. 
Kal rd /J.6V TToXveiSi], Kaddirep ro (f>vKO^, rd Se 
p,iav ISeav €)(ovTa. tov <ydp (J3VKov<i to p,ev eart 
7r\.aTV(pvWov raivioeiBh y^pSifia TrowSe? exov, 
Br) KoX irpd&ov KoXovai Tiva, ol Be ^warrjpa' 
pl^av Be e^^i Baaeiav e^codev evBodev Be XeTTvpicoBrj, 
fiaKpdv Be iTriecKO)'; koL ev7ra')(r} irapojxoiav T0t9 

3 To Be Tpc^6(f>vWov, Mcnrep ro pudpaOov, ov 
TTOcoSe? aX,X' €^oi))(^pov ovBe e'Xpv Kavkov dX>C 
opOov 7r&)9 ev avrw' (f)verai Be tovto eirX rSiv 
ocnpaKwv koX tmv XlOcov, ovx oxxTrep Odrepov 
7rp6<i rfj yfj- Trpoayeia S' dp.<pa), koI to /juev 
T pL')(o<^vWov 7rpo9 avry rfj yfj, iroWdKL^ Be coanep 
€7r iKXv^erai fiovov vtto rrj<; 6a\drrr]<;, Odrepov Be 

4 Viverai Be ev [xev rfj e^co rfj Trepl 'HpaKXeovi 
arrj\a<i Oavfiaarov ri ro p,eyeOo<i, &<; cfyacri, koX ro 
iTXdro<i fxel^ov &)? TraXaiarialov. (peperac Be 
rovro eh rrjv eaw ddXarrav dfia rw pa> tw 
e^codev KoX /caXovaiv avro irpdaov ev ravrrj o 
ev rtcrt roiroi^ war eirdvoo rov oficpaXov. Xeyerai 
Be eirereiov elvat koI (jiveaOac fxev rov rjpo<; 
Xrjyovro<i, dfc/xd^eiv Be rov depov<;, rov fieroTrcopov 
Be (f)divecv, Kard Be rov ^^ip^wva diroXXvaOat koI 
eKTrlirretv. diravra Be koX rdXXa rd (f)v6p,eva 
Xeipo) Kot dfiavporepa yiveaOai rov 'X^eip.wvo'i. 

^ See Index : trvKri, ^pvs, etc. 

^ raivioet^es conj. Dalec. : rerat'oeiSes UPgAld.H.; to t(vo- 
u^h MV. » c/. Diosc. 4. 99 ; Plin. 13. 136. 


sea-plants called 'fir' 'fig' 'oak' '\-ine' 'palm.'^ 
Of these some are found close to land, others 
in the deep sea, others equally in both positions. 
And some have many forms, as seaweed, some but 
one. Thus of seaweed there is the broad-leaved 
kind, riband-hke - and green in colour, which some 
call 'green-weed' and others 'girdle-weed.' This 
has a root which on the outside is shaggy, but the 
inner part is made of several coats, and it is fairly 
long and stout, like kromyogeteion (a kind of onion). 

3 Another kind has hair-like leaves like fennel, 
and is not green but pale yellow ; nor has it a stalk, 
but it is, as it were, erect in itself; this grows on 
oyster-shells and stones, not, like the other, attached 
to the bottom ; but both are plants of the shore, 
and the hair-leaved kind grows close to land, and 
sometimes is merely washed over by the sea^ ; while 
the other is found further out. 

Again in the ocean about the pillars of Heracles 
there is a kind ^ of marvellous size, they say, which 
is larger, about a {jalmsbreadth.® This is carried into 
the inner sea along with the current from the outer 
sea, and they call it ' sea-leek ' (riband-weed) ; 
and in this sea in some parts it grows higher than 
a man's waist. It is said to be annual. and to come 
up at the end of spring, and to be at its best in 
summer, and to wither in autumn, while in winter it 
perishes and is thrown up on shore. Also, they say, 
all the other plants of the sea become weaker and 
feebler in winter. These then are, one may say, the 

* i.e. grows above low water mark. 
^ See Index : ittvKos (2). 

* i.e. the 'leaf: the comparison is doubtless with t^ 
tXotu, § 2 ; 6j UMVAld. ; 1i W. after Sch.'s conj. 


ravTU fiev ovv olov 'Trp6(T<yeia Trepi ye rrjv 
dakajjav. rb Be irovnov (f)VKo<i o ol aTroyyiei'; 
dvaKoXvfi^wat ireXdyiov. 
6 Kal iv Kp7]rr) 8e (jyverai irpo^ rf} yfj eirl roiv 
TTerpwv TrXelaTop Kal KoXXtcTTOV o5 ^aTrrovaiv ov 
/.lovov ra? Taiviw? dWd Kal epia Kal i/xdria' Kal 
eify? ai> 17 7rp6a-(f)aTO'i rj ^a(^rj, ttoXv KaWtcov r) 
Xpoa rr}(; irop^vpa^' yiverai B' iv rfj irpocr^oppo) 
Kal TrXeiov Kal koXKlov, oiairep al arroyyiai Kat 
dWa Totavra. 

6 "AA,Xo 8' eaTiv o/xoiov ry dypcoarer Kal yap to 
(f3vWov TrapairXi'jaLov e-xeu Kal rrjv pi^av yova- 
rQ)Sr} Kal fiaKpdv Kal ire^VKvlav ifkaylav, coaTrep 
7) ri]^ dypdiaTiSo^;' e'^ei Se Kal KavXov KaXafxcoSr}, 
KaOdirep rj dypwari<i' iieykBei he eXarrov ttoXv 
rov (fiVKOv<;. 

"AXXo Se TO ^pvov, o (pvXXov fxev e%et 7roft)Se9 
rfj %/ooa, rrXarv 8e Kal ovk dvopuoiov Tat<? Opioa- 
Kivai<i, ttXtjv pvTcScoSearepov Kal coo-irep avv- 
eavao-fiivov. KavXov Be ovk e%e/, dXX drro iJLid<; 
dpyrj^i irXeio) rd roiavra Kal irdXiv dir dXXrj'i' 
(pverai. Be eirl rcov Xidwv rd. roiavra 7r/3o<? t^ yfj 
Kal rcov oarpdKcov. Kal rd jxev iXdrrco a^eBov 

ravr ecrriv. 

7 'H Be Bpv<i Kal Tj eXdrrj Trapdyeioc fiev d/x(p(o' 
(f)vovraL 8' eVl XlOol<; Kal ocrrpdKOi,^ pi^a<i fiev ovk 
exovaac, rrpoarrecfiVKvlai, Be wcrirep al XerrdBe^. 
d/j,(f)6repac fiev olov o-apKocpvXXa' Trpof^jKearepov 
Be rd (f)vXXov rroXv Kal irax^repov tt}? iXdrr]<; 

1 Plin. 13. 136, cf. 32. 22 ; Diosc. 4. 99. 

* litmus ; see Index, <pvKos (5). 

* Plin. I.e. ; grass-wrack, see Index, (pvKos (6). 


sea-plants which are found near the shore. But the 
'seaweed of ocean,' which is dived for by the 
sponge-fishers, belongs to the open sea. 

1 In Crete there is an abundant and luxuriant 
growth 2 on the rocks close to land, with which they 
dye not only their ribbons, but also wool and 
clothes. And, as long as the dye is fresh, the 
colour is far more beautiful than the purple dye ; 
it occurs on the north coast in greater abundance 
and fairer, as do the sjionges and other such things. 

^ There is another kind like dog's-tooth grass ; 
the leaf is very like, the root is jointed and long, 
and grows out sideways, like that of that plant ; it 
has also a reedy stalk like the same plant, and in 
size it is much smaller than ordinary seaweed. 

* Another kind is the oyster-green, which has a 
leaf green in colour, but broad and not unlike 
lettuce leaves ; but it is more wrinkled ^ and as it 
^ve^e crumpled. It has no stalk, but from a single 
starting-point grow many of the kind, and again 
Irom another starting-point. These things grow on 
stones close to land and on oyster-shells. These 
are about all the smaller kinds. 

^ The ' sea-oak ' and ' sea-fir ' both belong to the 
shore ; they grow on stones and oyster-shells, having 
no roots, but being attached to them like limpets.^ 
Both have more or less fleshy leaves ; but the leaf 
cif the ' fir ' grows much longer and stouter, and is ^ 

* Plin. 13. 137 ; 27. 56 ; ^piov conj. Seal, from G and Plin. 
I c; poTpvov UAld.H. 

* jivTiSce^effTepov conj. Seal, from G and Plin. I.e.; -xpvtrioihe- 
crepov Aid.; f)u(riaiBeffTepoy mBas. 

8 Plin. Lc. ' AeiroSej Aid.; AoxaSej W. with UMV. 

' -rpou-nKeffTtpov . . . Tr4<pvKe koI conj W. ; -rpofi. Se rh (pvWov 
raxv Kol -raxvTepoy rrjs f\ir7]S- ■wo\v Si Kod Aid. 



7re0f /ce koX ovk avojjboiov rol<; roiv oairpiwv \o^ot<i, 
Kolkov S" evhodev koI ovhev ep^oy ev avTOi<i' to Be 
T^9 Bpvd<; XcTTTov KoX /JLvpiKcoBecrTepov' ^/aw/ia S' 
eTTLirop^vpov dfKpotv. 77 Be oXrj /xopcpr] t?}? pev 
iXdrrjii 6p6r) koI auT^9 ical TOiv dKpep.6vwv, rrjf; Be 
Bpvd<i (TKoXKoripa koL pdXkov e^ovaa ttXcito?' 

8 ylverat, Be dp-cfxi) koL iroXvKavXa koI </j,ov6Kav\a,> 
povoKavKorepov Be i] ikdrrj' ra? Be aKpep^oviKa'i 
uTTOipvaei^ rj pev iXdrr} puKpd^ e%ei Kal €vdeia<i 
Kol p,avd<;, rj Be Bpv<; ^pa'xyrepa'i Kal crKoXLQ)Tepa<i 
Kal 'TTVKVOTepa'i. to S' oXov p,eye6o<i dp,(f)OT€p(ov 
ft)9 Trvycovialov rj pjiKpov virepalpov, pel^ov Be co? 
dirXSj'i elirelv ro Trj<; e'A-aT?;?. 'x^prjcnp.ov Be rj Bpv<i 
6i9 ^a(pr)V iplayv raL<i yvvat^lv. eVl p,ep rcop 
aKpepiovwv 7rpoa-7}pT'r]p,eva roiv 6aTpaKoBepp,cov 
^cocov evLa' Kal Karco Be irpb^ avTW tw KavXm 
irepiTreipvKOTcov tlvwv 7' oXw, iv rovroL<i BeBvKOTe^i 
Qvivvoi re Kal dXX! drra Kal to op^oiov ttoXvttoBi. 

9 TavTa p,ev ovv TTpoayeia Kal paBia 6eu>p7}drjvar 
<paal Be rive<i Kal dXXrjv Bpvv elvac, TTOvriav y) Kal 
Kapirov <f)epei, Kal rj ^dXavo<i avrrji; '^prjcrlp,')]- 
TOL"? Be aKivOov'i Kal KoXvp,/3r]rd<; Xeyetv ore Kal 
erepat p,eydXaL Tcve<i rol<i pueyeOeaiv eirjaav, 

'H. Be dp,TTeXo<i dp,(poTep(oa€ ylperar Kal yap 
7rpo9 T^ yfj Kal irovria' pe'i^co 6' e%ei koI rd 
(pvXXa Kal rd KXrjpara Kal rov Kapirov 7) 

'H Be (TVKrj d(f)vXXo<; p,ev ru) Be peyeOec ov 
pueydXT], ')(pSyp,a Be rov (})Xoiov (f)ocviKOvv. 

^ ahrols Ald.H. ; avrif conj. W. 
2 I have inserted nov6KavKa. 



not unlike the pods of pulses, but is hollow inside 
and contains nothing in the 'pods.'^ That of the 
''oak' is slender and more like the tamarisk; the 
colour of both is purplish. The whole shape of the 
• fir ' is erect, both as to the stem and the branches, 
but that of the ' oak ' is less straight and the plant is 
broader. Both are found both with many stems and 
with one,- but the • fir ' is more apt to have a single 
stem. The branchlike outgrowths in the 'fir' are 
long straight and spreading, while in the ' oak ' they 
are shorter less straight and closer. The whole size 
of either is about a cubit or rather more, but in 
general that of the ' fir ' is the longer. The ' oak ' 
is useful to women for dyeing wool. To the branches 
are attached certain creatures with shells, and below 
they are also found attached to the stem itself, which 
in some cases they completely cover ; ^ and among 
these are found millepedes and other such creatures, 
including the one which resembles a cuttlefish. 

These plants occur close to land and are easy to 
observe ; but some report * that there is another ' sea 
oak' which even bears fruit and has a useful 'acorn,' 
and that the sponge fishers ° and divers told them 
that there were other large kinds. 

^ The ' sea-vine ' grows under both conditions, both 
close to land and in the deep sea ; but the deep sea 
ibrm has larger leaves branches and fruit. 

^ The ' sea-fig ' is leafless and not of large size, and 
the colour of the bark is red. 

' riviiav 7' Sa^j conj. W. ; rivoiv i\uv Aid. ; tivuv -yf oXav U ; 
text uncertain : the next clause has no connecting particle. 

* Plin. 13. 137. 

' aKivBovs, a vox nihili : perhaps conceals a proper name, 
e.g. 2iKe\tKovs ; ffvoyytis conj. St. 

6 Plin. 13. 138. 7 Plin. I.e. 



10 'O 8e (fiOLvt^ i(TTt, fjLev irovnov /3/9a%L'o-TeA,6;^69 
he (T<p6Spa, Kul cx^ehov evdetai at iK(f)vaec<i rwv 
pd/3B(i)v Kol KarcoOev ov kvkKw avrai, Kaddirep 
Tcoy pd/38a)v al uKpefiove^;, aX,X' axrav iv TrXdrei 
Kara fxlav avve')(el<i, oXiya^^ov Se koI diraX- 
XdTTOvaac. tmv he pd^hoov rj rwv d'JTO(f)va€cov 
TOVTCov ofioia rpoirov riva rj (j)vai<; rot? tcov 
d/cavdcov (})vWoi<i tmv aKavLKOiv, olov aoy/coiq 

KoX T0t9 TOLOVTOl^, TtXtJV Opdol Koi OV^, UXTTTep 

eKCtva, irepLKeKXaa fievai koI to <pvXXov e)(ov(Tai 
hia^e^pcofievov vtto Trj<i dX/jiri<;- eVet to 76 hi 
oXov rjKeLv rov [xeaov je KavXov koX rj aXXr) 6-\ln<; 
TTapairXrjaia. to he 'x^pcofia kuI rovrcov koX twv 
KavXwv Kol oXov rov ^vtov i^epvOpov re ar(p6hpa 

Kot <f)Ol,VlKOVV. 

Kal ra [lev iv r^he rfj OaXdrrj] roaavTa eartv. 
r) ryap (XTToyyca Kal al dirXvaiat KaXovfxevai Kal 
el Ti TOLovTov erepav e%ei (j>vaiv. 

VII. 'Ei' he rfi e^co rfj irepl 'HpaKXeov; arrfka^ 
ro re rrpdcrov, oicnep el'prjrai, ^verai Kal ra 
aTToXiOovfieva ravra, olov 0vfia Kal ra haipvoeihrj 
Kal ra dXXa. rrj<; he epv9pd<i KaXov/j,evr)<s ev rfj 
^Kpa^ia fiiKpov iirdvoi Kotttou ev fiev rfi yfj 

^ KtLTcedev . . , airaWaTTovaai probably beyond certain re- 
storation : I have added «:al before Karwdev (from G), altered 
KVKKwBev to kvkKw, put a stop before koX Karwdev, and restored 
airaWaTTovcrai (Ald.H.). ^ cf. 6. 4. 8 ; 7. 8. 3. 

* TTepiKeKhafffjLiva, i.e. towards the ground, cf. Diosc. 3. 
68 and 69, where Plin. (27. 13) renders (pvWa) vwovfpiKXarai 
ad terrain infracta. 

ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS, IV. vi. lo-vii. i 

The 'sea-palm' is a deep-sea plant, but with a 
very short stem, and the branches which spring from 
it are almost straight ; and these under water are 
not set all round the stem, like the twigs which grow 
from the branches, but extend, as it were, quite 
flat in one direction, and are unifonn ; though 
occasionally they are irregular.^ The character of 
these branches or outgrowths to some extent re- 
sembles the leaves of thistle-like spinous plants, 
such as the sow-thistles - and the like, except that 
they are straight and not bent over ^ like these, 
and have their leaves eaten away by the brine ; in 
the fact that the central stalk* at least runs through 
the whole, they resemble these, and so does the 
general appearance. The colour both of the branches 
and of the stalks and of the plant as a whole is a 
deep red or scarlet. 

Such are the plants found in this sea. For sponges 
and what are called aplt/siai ^ and such-like growths 
are of a different character. 

Of the aquatic plants of the 'outer sea' (i.e. Atlantic, Persian 
Gulf, etc.). 

VII. In the outer sea near the pillars of Heracles 
grows the ' sea-leek,' as has been said ^ ; also the 
well known ' plants which turn to stone, as thyma, 
the plants like the bay and others. And in the 
sea called the Red Sea* a little above Coptos® 

• i.e. midrib. 

* Some kind of sponge. dirXuaioi conj. R. Const.; TcXvaiai 
UAld. ; irXvalai M ; irXovaiai V. « 4 g ^ 

7 raira: c/. 3. 7. 3 ; 3. 18. 11. 

8 Plin. 13. 139. 

9 KdxTou conj. Seal.; kotov MV; K<JAirou UAkl.; Capto G 
and Plin. I.e. 



SivBpov ovSev (pverai irXrjv t^9 aKavOr^^ rrj<i 
Bi-\jrd8o<; Ka\ovfj,evr]<f airavia he kol avrrj 8ia ra 
Kav/xara kol ttjv avvhpiav ov)( vec yap aXX.' rj 
Si' iroov reTrdpcov rj irevre koX rore Xd^pco'i kol 
iir oXijov ^pwoi/. 

2 'Ei/ 8e rfj OaXaTTT) (pverai, KoXovai 8' avrd 
8d(f)vriv KoX i\dav. ecrxi he rj fiev Sd(f)vr) o/xota 
rff dpia 7] he iXda <Tfi e\da> ro) (pyXXw' Kapirov 
he 'ix^i' V iXda irapaTrXijcriov rat? e\dai<i' d^irjai. 
he fcal hdKpvov, e^ ov ol larpol <j)dpixaKov evaipov 
crvvTideaaiv o ycverai a(f>6hpa dyadov. orav he 
vhara vrXetft) yevqi-ai, p.vKrjre<i (pvovrai 7r/)09 tj] 
daXdrrr] Kard Tcva roirov, ovrot he diroXidovvrai 
VTTO Tov rjXtov. 7) he ddXarra drjpicohrjf irXet- 
arov; he e')(^et tou? Kap-^apia'i, cocrre prj elvai 

'Ev he T(p KoXirw rw KaXovjxevw 'Hpcocov, e</>' ov 
Kara^aivovaiv ol e^ Alyvinov, <pveTai fiev hd^vr] 
T€ Koi eXda kol 6vp.ov, ov /jLtjv ')(Xo}pd ye dXXa 
XidoeLhrj ra virepexovra rri<; OaXdrrrj^;, 6/J.oia he 
Koi Tot<i ^vXXoi<i Kol Tol<i ^Xa<noL<i roi<; ')(Xa)pot<i. 
iv he Ta> 6vp.(p koI to tov dvdov<i ^^pw/za hcdhr/Xov 
wadv prjiTO) reXeoyi i^rjvOr^KO'i. fJLrjKr) he ra)V 
hevhpv(f)icov oaov eh rpeh irrjxei'i. 

3 01 he, ore avdnXovi rjv tmv e^ ^Ivhcov aTroara- 
Xevrcov viro ^AXe^dvhpov, rd ev t^ OaXdrrj] 
(f)v6fieva, P'^xpi' ov p,€v av r) ev tw vypw, ^/jW/ua 
^aaiv exeiv opoiov Tot<i (f>vKiot<i, ottotuv S' e^- 

1 cf. Strabo 16. 1. 147. ^ gge Index. 

^ The name of a tree seems to have dropped out : I have 
inserted tt? 4\da : cf. rais i\dais below. Bretzl suggests ISea. 
for apl^. 


in Arabia there grows on the land no tree except 
that called the ' thirsty ' acacia, and even this is 
scarce by reason of the heat and the lack of water ; 
for it never rains except at intervals of four or five 
ye^rs, and then the rain comes down heavily and is 
soon over. 

^ But there are plants in the sea, which they call 
'bay' and 'olive' (white mangrove-). In foliage 
the 'bay' is like the aria (holm-oak), the 'olive' 
like the real olive.' The latter has a fruit like olives, 
and it also discharges a gum,* from which the 
physicians * compound a drug ^ for stanching blood, 
which is extremely effective. And when there is 
more rain than usual, mushrooms grow in a certain 
place close to the sea, which are turned to stone by 
the sun. The sea is full of beasts, and produces 
sharks ^ in great numbers, so that diving is 

In the gulf called ' the Gulf of the Heroes,' '' 
to which the Egyptians go down, there grow a ' bay,' 
an ' olive,' and a ' thyme ' ; these however are not 
green, but like stones so far as they project above 
the sea, but in leaves and shoots they are like their 
green namesakes. In the ' thyme ' the colour of the 
flower is also conspicuous, looking as though the 
flower had not yet completely developed. These 
treelike growths are about three cubits in height. 

*Now some, referring to the occasion when there 
was an expedition of those returning from India sent 
out by Alexander, report that the plants which grow in 
the sea, so long as they are kept damp, have a colour 

^ cf. Diosc. 1. 105 and 106. 

' cf. Athen. 4. 83 ; Plin. 12. 77. 

6 PUn. 13. 139. " ef. 9. 4. 4. » Plin. 13. 140. 



eve'yOevTa radfj 7rpb<{ tov i]\cov, iv oXiyo) ■)(^p6vq) 
e^OfioiovaOai tw d\L (pveadao 8e Kol a')(Oivov<; 
\t,divov<; Trap avrrjv rrjv daXarrav, ov<i ovSeU av 
Siayvotr) ttj o^frei 7rpo<{ tov<; aXrjdivov'i. Oavfia- 
(TKorepov 8e n rovrov Xiyovar (pvecrdai yap 
Bev8pv(f)i arra to /xev 'x^pcop.a e^ovra 6/xoiov 
KepaTL /3oo9 T0i9 ^e 6^oi<; rpa^^a koX air aKpov 
TTvppd' ravra he OpaveaOat fiev el avyK\a>i] Ti9' 
iK Be TovTcov TTvpl ifji^aWo/xeva, Kaddirep tov 
aiSrjpov, hidiTvpa yi,vop,eva irdXiv OTav diro'^v- 
■XpiTO KadlcTTaadai /cal ttjv avT7)v XP^^^ \a/x- 

'Ei/ 8e Tat9 vrjaoL<i TaU viro t?}? TrXrjfifivpiSo'i 
KaTaXap,^avop,evaL<i BevSpa /xeydXa TreapVKevai 
rjXiKac TrXdTavoL kol alyeipoL at fieyiaTai- avp,- 
^aiveiv Be, oB' rj TrXij/utfivpU eireXOoi, to, p,ev dXXa 
KaTaKpvTTTeaOaL oXa, tcov Be pueyiaTOOv virepex^iv 
Tov<; KXdBov<;, e^ wv Ta irpvpLvrjaia avdiTTecv, elB* 
oT€ TrdXcv dfi7r(OTi<i yivoiTO e/c twv pi^cov. e^stv 
Be TO BevBpov (f)vXXov fiev ofxoiov tt) Bd(j>vr), dv6o<i 
Be T0i9 ioi9 KOL Tw ;^/3(w/xaTt koI ttj oa/xfj, Kapirov 
Be rjXLKov eXda koI tovtov evcoBr] crcpoBpa' koI to, 
fxev (pvXXa ovk drro^dXXeLv, to Be dv6o<i koI tov 
KapTTOv dfxa tw (pdivoircopa) yiveaOai, tov Be eapo<i 

"AXXa B' ev avTrj Ty OaXdTTy 7re<^VKevai, dei- 
(pvXXa jxev tov Be Kapirov ojxolov e'xeiv tol^ 

liepl Be Trjv HepalBa Tr)v kutu ttjv Kap/iaviav, 
KuB* o rj ttXt] ixjxv pl^ ylvcTai, BevBpa eaTlv evfxeyedr) 
Ofioia TTj dvBpd')(Xr) kol t^ p^opcfifj koX Tot9 (f)vXXoi<i' 
Kupirov Be e^^i ttoXvv ofiotov to5 ^^^pco/iart Tat9 



like sea-weeds, but that Avhen thev are taken out and 
put in the sun, they shortly become like salt. They 
also say that rushes of stone grow close to the sea, 
which none could distinguish at sight from real 
rushes. They also report a more marvellous thing 
than this ; they say that there are certain tree-like 
growths which in colour resemble an ox-horn, but 
whose branches are rough, and red at the tip ; these 
break if they are doubled up, and some of them, if 
they are cast on a fire, become red-hot like iron, 
but recover when they cool and assume their original 

^ On the islands which get covered by the tide they 
say that great trees ^ grow, as big as planes or the 
tallest poplars, and that it came to pass that, when 
the tide ^ came up, while the other things were 
entirely buried, the branches of the biggest trees 
projected and they fastened the stem cables to them, 
and then, when the tide ebbed again, fastened them 
to the roots. And that the tree has a leaf like that 
of the bay, and a flower like gilliflowers in colour and 
smell, and a fruit the size of that of the olive, which 
is also very fragrant. And that it does not shed its 
leaves, and that the flower and the fruit form to- 
gether in autunui and are shed in spring. 

* Also they say there are plants which actually 
grow in the sea, which are evergreen and have a fruit 
like lupins. 

^In Persia in the Carmanian district, Avhere the tide 
is felt, there are trees** of fair size like the andrachne 
in shape and in leaves ; and they bear much fruit like 

1 Plin. 13. 141. 

^ Mangroves. See Index App. (12). 

3 cf.Arr. Aiiab. 6. 22. 6. 

^ Plin. I.e. Index App. (13). » Plin. 12. 37. 

* White mangro%'es. Index App. (14). ,^j 


afxv'ySaXat<; e^codev, ro S' eVro? crvveXlTrerai. 
KaOdirep avvTqprrjfxivov irdcrtv. vTTolSe^pcoTat 8k 
ravra ra hevhpa iravra Kara fjueaov vtto Tr}<; 
6aXdTTri<i Koi ecrrrjKev vtto tmv pt^oiv, wcnrep 
TTokvTTOVi. orav 'yap rj a/xTrcoTi? yevrjrac Oewpelv 

6 etTTLV. vScop Se oXw^ ovk eanv iv tw tottw' Kara- 
XeiirovraL he Tive<; Stcopf^e? Bi wv BiaTrXeovaiv' 
avrai S' elal da\dTTr)<;' S koI SrjXov otovrat Ti,ve<i 
ore rpe^ovTai ravrrj koI ov too vBari, 7r\i]v ei rt 
Tal<; pi^ai^ eK t% 7779 eXKOvaiv. evXoyov Be koX 
TOvO^ d\/jbvpbv elvai' koi 'yap ovSe Kara ^dOov<i 
al pt^ai. TO Be 6\ov ev to yevo<; elvai rwv t iv 
jfi daXdrrrj (^vofievwv Kal tmv iv rfj yfj vtto Trj<; 
7r\r)fjbfjivplBo<; KaraXa/x^avofxevcov koI to. p,ev iv 
rfi OaXdrrr) puKpa Kal (f)VKoo8i] (fiatvo/j^va, to, 8' 
iv TTJ yj] p,eyd\a Kal 'xXwpd Kal dvdo'i evoBfiov 
e-)(ovTa, KapiTov Be olov depfjLo<i. 

7 'Et* TvXfp Be TTj vijaay, Keirac S* avrrj iv tm 
'A/3a/3fc&) KoXiTM, rd jxev irpoi; eco roaovro ttX-^^o? 
elvai (f)aai BevBpoiv or iK^aivei 77 7rXripp,vpl<; 
wctt' d'n(i3')(ypoia6ai. irdvra Be ravra /xeyedr) fiev 
ex^tv rfXiKa avKTj, rb Be dv6o^ virep^dXXov rfj 
evooBia, Kapirov Be d^pcorov o/xoiov rfj o^y^rei ra> 
depficp. <j>epeiv Be rrjv vrjaov Kal rd BevBpa rd 
epL0(^6pa TToXXd. ravra Be (f)vX\ov /iiev e^ety 
rrapofioLov rfj d/jLTreXo) ttXtjv p,i,Kp6v, Kapirov Be 
ovBeva (pepetv iv c5 Be rb eptov rfXiKov firjXov 
iapivbv avp.fiep,VK6<;' orav Be wpalov fj, iKirerdv- 

^ Plin. I.e. Sicca litore radicibus nudis polyporum modo 
complexae steriles arenas aspectantur : he appears to have 
had a fuller text. 


in colour to almonds on the outside, but the inside 
is coiled up as though the kernels were all united. 
1 These trees are all eaten away up to the middle by 
the sea and are held up b}- their roots, so that they 
look like a cuttle-fish. For one mav see this at 
ebb-tide. And there is no rain at all in the district, 
but certain channels are left, along which they sail, 
and which are part of the sea. Which, some think, 
makes it plain that the trees derive nourishment from 
the sea and not from fresh water, except what they 
draw up with their roots from the land. And it is 
reasonable to suppose that this too is brackish ; for 
the roots do not run to any depth. In general they 
say that the trees which grow in the sea and those 
which grow on the land and are overtaken by the 
tide are of the same kind, and that those which groAV 
in the sea are small and look like seaweed, while 
those that grow - on land are large and green and 
have a fragrant flower and a fruit like a lupin. 

In the island of Tylos^^ which is situated in the 
Arabian gulf,* they say that on the east side there is 
such a number of trees when the tide goes out that 
they make a regular fence. All these are in size 
as large as a fig-tree, the flower is exceedingly 
fragrant,, and the fruit, which is not edible, is like in 
appearance to the lupin. They say that the island 
also produces the ' wool-bearing ' tree (cotton-plant) 
in abundance. This has a leaf like that of the vine, 
but small, and bears no fruit ; but the vessel in which 
the ' wool ' is contained is as large as a spring apple, 

^ (pvKwSj] (patv6fj.eva to S' iv conj. W. ; <pvK. <pv. 5" eV MVAld. ; 
U has (pepdfifva {?). 
^ cf. 5. 4. 6 ; Plin. 12. 38 and 39 ; modern name Bahrein. 
* i.e. Persian Gulf. 



wad at KoX i^eipecv to epiov, i^ ov to.? at,vB6va<; 
v(f)aLvovcn, ra? fiev evTe\ei<i Ta<; Be TroXfreXe- 

Tlverai Be tovto koL iv 'It'Sot?, wairep i\€')(^9r), 
Kal iv ^Apa^la. elvai Be aWa Bei'Bpa to av6o<i 
e'X^ovTa ofioLOV tm XevKotw, irXrjv aoBfiov Kal rat 
/xeyedei, rerpaTrXdaiov tmv twv. Kal erepov Be ri 
BevBpov 7ro\v(pvX\.ov wairep to poBov rovro Be 
TTjV fiev vvKra avp,p.v€iv dfxa Be ro) 7)\i(p dviovTL 
Bcoiyvvcrdai., fxecnrifx^pia^ Be TeXe&)9 BieTrrvx^ai, 
TToXiv Be rij^i B6iXr}<; crvvdyecrOat Kara [xiKpov Kal 
rr]v vvKTa (Tv/j.fiveiv' Xeyeiv Be Kal rov<i eyx^' 
piov^ on KadevBei. yiveadai Be Kal (pocviKa^ iv 
rfj vr](j(p Kal a/XTreXou? Kal raWa aKpoBpva Kal 
(TVKa<i ov (pvWoppoovaa^. vBcop Be ovpdvLOV <yive- 
aOai fjiev, ov /jltjv %p?7o-^at ye 7r/)09 tou9 KapTT0v<i' 
dXX elvac Kprjva^i iv rfj vijao) TroXXa?, ac^' a>v 
irdvTa ^pex^i'V, o Kal av/jxpepeiv fxaXkov r& air a 
Kal T0t9 BevBpeaiV. Be o Kal orav var) rovro eV- 
a<bievai Kadairepel Kara'rr\vvovra<; ixelvo. Kal 

ra /juev iv rfj e^co daXdrrj] BevBpa rd ye vvv 
re^ewprj/xeva ax^Bov roaavrd iariv. 

VIII. 'Tirep Be rcov iv roL<; Trora/xoU Kal TOt? 
eXeai Kal raU Xt/xi/at? fxera ravra XeKreov. rpia 
Be iariv eiBr] roiv ev rovroa, ra fiev BevBpa ra 8' 

1 i^fipeiu conj. W.; iiaalptiy Pg : ^^aipuv Aid. ^ 4. g. g. 

•' T.imarind. See Index App. (15). Plin. 12. 40. 
■* -ttA^v &oSf^oy conj. H. Steph.; irXeiova uSfjLov UMAld. 
° T# fieyeOei /col I conj. ; Kal T(f neyeOet UM VP ; koI cm. Aid. 
« Tamarind also. See Index App. (16). '^ i.e. leaflets. 
^ Ficus lacci/era. See Index App. (17). ov (pvWoppoovffas 
couj. W., cf. G and Plin. I.e.; ai (pvWoppoovaiv Ald.H. 


ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS, IV. vii. 7-vni. i 

and closed, but when it is ripe, it unfolds and puts 
forth ^ the ' wool,' of which they weave their fabrics, 
some of which are cheap and some very expensive. 

This tree is also found, as was said,- in India 
as well as in Arabia. They say that there are other 
trees ^ with a flower like the gilliflower, but scent- 
less ■* and in size ^ four times as large as that flower. 
And that there is another tree ^ with many leaves ' 
like the rose, and that this closes at night, but opens 
at sunrise, and by noon is completely unfolded ; and 
at evening again it closes by degrees and remains 
shut at night, and the natives say that it goes to 
sleep. Also that there are date-palms on the island 
and vines and other fruit-trees, including evergreen ^ 
figs. Also that there is water from heaven, but 
that they do not use it for the fruits, but that there 
are many springs on the island, from Mhich they 
Avater everything, and that this is more beneficial ^ 
to the corn and the trees. Wherefore, even when it 
rains, they let this water over the tields,i*^ as though 
they were washing away the rain water. Such 

are the trees as so far observed which grow in the 
outer sea. 

()/ the plants of rivers, marshes, and lakes, especially in Egypt. 

VIII. Next we must speak of plants which live in 
rivers marshes and lakes. Of these there are three 
classes, trees, plants of ' herbaceous ' ^^ character, and 

* & icol avfitpepfiy conj. Sch.; & koI avfuptpei Aid.; U has 

'• cf. C.P. 2. 5. 5, where Androsthenes, one of Alexander's 
admirals, is given as the authority for this statement. 

'^ The term ra -xoiuiSri seems to be given here a narrower 
C3nnotation than usual, in order that ret XoxfueSi) may be 



(wcTTrep TTOKoSr) ra 8e \o')(^fx,(o87). \eyco Se "ttokoSt] 
fjiev olov TO aeXivov to eXeiov koI ocra aXKa roi- 
avTtt' XoxfJ'd'^^V ^^ fcdXa/iiov Kviretpov cfyXeu) (T')(oI- 
vov ^ovTOfJiOv, airep a'^^eSov KOiva iravroiv rcbv 
iroTa/jLcov kclI twv roiovrcov tottcov. 

^Kviaxov Be /cal /Sutoi koX iraXioupot koI ra 
aWa SevSpa, Kaddirep Irea XevKrj wXaravo^. rd 
fiev ovv fi^xpi Tov KaraKpvTrrea-dai, rd Se Mcrre 
fiiKpov VTrepix^tv, rojv he at fiev pi^ai kuI fit/cpov 
Tov (7Te\e')(pv<i iv ray vypo), to 8e dXXo acofia irdv 
e^Q). rovTO yap Kat Irea Kal KkrjOpa Kal ifKardvfp 
Kal (piXvpa Kal wdai, rol<i <f)i\,vBpoi^ aufi^alvet,. 

Xx^Bov Be Kal ravra Koivd rrdvrwv rwv irora- 
jjioiv eariv eirel Kal iv ra) NetXw TricpvKev ov 
/jbr)v TToWrj je r/ 7r\dravo<i, dWd (nravicorepa ert 
ravrrjf rj XevKT), ifKeiarr] Be fieXia Kal ^ovfjb€Xio<i. 
rSiv <yovv iv Aiyvirroi cfivofievcov ro fxev oiXov 
TToXv irXrjOo'i iariv 77/009 ro dpiOfirjaaaOaL KaO' 
CKaarov ov /jLtjv aXA,' &<; ye d7rX(o<; elirelv diravra 
iBcoBifia Kal 'x^uXov'i e-yovra yXvKei<;. Biacfyepeiv 
Be BoKet rfi yXvKvrrjrt Kal ra> rp6(^ifia fidXicrra 
elvat rpia ravra, 6 re irdirvpo'; Kal ro KaXov- 
/xevov crdpt Kal rptrov p,vdcnov KaXovat. 

^verai- Be 6 TrdiTvpo^ ovk iv ^ddet rov vBaro<i 
dXX^ ocrov iv Bvo 7r?;;^ecrfi', ivLa')(ov Be Kal iv 
iXdrrovL. Trd^o'? fiev ovv rrj<i pl^rj(; rjXiKOv Kap- 
7ro9 x^ipb'i dvBp6<; evpcocrrov, p,7]K0<; Be virep re- 
rpaTrrj'X^v (pverai Be virep rrj<; 7179 avrt]<;, nrXayia^ 
p'i^a^ eh rov ttijXov KaOielaa Xe7rrd<i Kal 7rvKvd<i, 
dv(o Be rov<i iraTTvpovq KaXov puevovi rpiycavov;, 

1 TcS;/ yovv K.T.X.: text probably defective; what follows 
appears to relate to to rroidiSr]. 


plants growing in clumps. By ' herbaceous ' I mean 
here such plants as the marsh celery and the like ; 
by ' plants growing in clumps ' I mean reeds galin- 
gale phleo rush sedge — which are common to almost 
all rivers and such situations. 

And in some such places are found brambles 
Christ's thorn and other trees, such as willow abele 
plane. Some of these are water plants to the extent 
of being submerged, while some project a little from 
the water ; of some again the roots and a small part 
of the stem are under water, but the rest of the 
body is altogether above it. This is the case with 
willow alder plane lime, and all water-loving trees. 

These too are common to almost all rivers, for 
they grow even in the Nile. However the plane is 
not abundant by rivers, while the abele is even more 
scarce, and the manna-ash and ash are commonest. 
At any rate of those ^ that grow in Egypt the list is 
too long to enumerate separately ; however, to speak 
generally, they are all edible and have sweet flavours. 
But they differ in sweetness, and we may distinguish 
also three as the most useful for food, namely the 
papyrus, the plant called sari, and the plant which 
they call mnasion. 

2 The papvTus does not grow in deep water, but 
only in a depth of about two cubits, and sometimes 
shallower. The thickness of the root is that of the 
wrist of a stahvart man, and the length above four 
cubits ^ ; it grows above the ground itself, throwing 
down slender matted roots into the mud, and 
producing above the stalks which give it its name 
• pap}Tus ' ; these are three-cornered and about ten 

2 Plin. 13. 71-73. 

' TtTpaxjjxu : SeVo x^x*'s MSS. See next note. 



fie.<yedo<i co? heKa inj'^eL';, ko/xtjv ej^ovra'i a')(^pelov 
aaOevTj Kapirov he o\w<i ovheva' tovtov<; 8' dvaSt- 
SaxTi Kara ttoWo, p^epr}. 'x^pcovrai Be Tat9 p-ev 
pi^ai<i avrl ^vXcov ov povov rut Kaeiv aXXa koL tm 
(TKevrj aWa iroieiv e^ avrcov TTavTohaird' iroXv 
<ydp e'X^ei to ^v\ov kuI koKov. avro<i he 6 ird- 
TTvpof irpot TrXeiara 'X^prjcnp,o^' /cat yap irXoia 
TTOiovcTCv i^ avrov, koI Ik tt]^ ^i^Xov Icnia re 
TrkeKOvai koI ylriddov^ ical iadijrd Tiva koX 
(TTp(opvd<i Kol (Txoivia re kol erepa irXeLO). /cat 
epc^avearara Sr] rot<; e^w rd ^L^XLa' pdXicna he 
Koi TrXeiarrj ^orjdeta 7rp6<; tt}v Tpo(j>rjv dir avrov 
'yiverat. p,aacovrac <ydp diravre<i ol ev rfj %ftj/3a 
rov nrdTTvpov koi wpbov Kal e(f)06v kol OTrrov Koi 
rov pev 'XvXov KaraTTivovat,, rb he pdar}p,a eK^dX- 
Xovaiv. 6 pev ovv rrd'irvpo'i roiovr6<; re Kal rav- 
ra<; irape^erai rd<i 'y^pela';. jiverai he Kal ev 
Xvpia irepl rrjv Xip,vr)v ev ^ Kol 6 KdXap,o<i 6 
ev(t)hrj<;' odev Kal ^Avr(,<yovo<i et<f ra? vav<; eTrocetro 
rd a)(^OLVia. 

To he crdpt (f}veraL p,ev ev rG) vhart irepl rd eXrj 
Kal rd TTehia, erreihdv 6 7rorapo<i direXdrj, pl^av he 
€')(ei aKXrjpdv Kal crvvearpapLpbevriv, Kal e^ avri)^ 
(pverai rd aapca KaXovpueva' ravra he p7]K0<; p,ev 
d)<i hvo 7r7;%et9, 'Trd')(o^ he rjXLKOv 6 hdKrvXo^ 6 
peya'i t^§ -y^eipo^;' rpiyoovov he Kal rovro, Kaddirep 
6 irdTTvpo^y Kal Kop^rjv e^ov TvapairXricnov. pui- 
(TcopievoL he eK^dXXovai Kal rovro rb pdarip,a, rfj 
pC^rj he ol aihr^povpyol ^/owi^raf rbv ydp dvdpaKa 
rroiel 'X^pr^arbv hid rb cxKXrjpbv elvai rb ^vXov. 

To he p,vdaiov 7roi6t)he<i earcv, war ovZepiav 
irape'X^erat %/3etai' 7rXr}V rrjv et? rpo(f)'r]v. 



cubits ^ long, having a plume which is useless and 
weak, and no fruit whatever ; and these stalks the 
plant sends up at many points. They use the roots 
instead of wood, not only for burning, but also for 
making a great variety of articles ; for the wood is 
abundant and good. The ' papyrus' itself- is useful 
for many purposes ; for they make boats from it, 
and from the rind they weave sails mats a kind of 
raiment coverlets ropes and many other things. 
Most familiar to foreigners are the papyrus-rolls 
made of it ; but above all the plant also is of very 
great use in the way of food.^ For all the natives 
chew the papyrus both raw boiled and roasted: they 
swallow the juice and spit out the quid. Such is 
the pap}Tus and such its uses. It grows also in 
Syria about the lake in which grows also sweet- 
fiag ; and Antigonus made of it the cables for his 

* The sari grows in the water in marshes and 
f>lains, when the river has left them ; it has a hard 
twisted root, and from it grow what they call the 
saiia 5 ; these are about two cubits long and as 
thick as a man's thumb; this stalk too is three- 
cornered, like the papyrus, and has similar foliage. 
This also they chew, spitting out the qui.d ; and 
smiths use the root, for it makes excellent charcoal, 
because the wood is hard. 

Mnasion is herbaceous, so that it has no use except 
f<)r food. 

^ Se'/co ir^x^'s : T€Tpair^X«'* MSS. The two numbers seem 
to have changed places {Bartels ap. Sch.). c/. Plin. I.e. 

* i.e. the stalk. 

» c/. Diod. 1. 80. * Plin. 13. 128. 

' t.e. stalks, like those of the papyrus. 



Kal TO, jjbkv yXvKVTrjri hia^epovja ravrd ecrji. 
(f)veTai Se koX erepov iv Tot9 ekecn koI raU Xl/m- 
vaa ov avvdinet, rfj yfj, Tr}v fxev ^vaiv 6/jloiov 
To?9 KpivoL<i, iroXvc^vWorepov he kclI irap^ dWrfKa 
TO, (ftvXka KaOcLTrep iv Btaroi'x^ia' ')(^pcofia Se %Xft)- 
pov e')(eL (r(f>68pa. ^^/owvrat 8e ol larpol trpo^ re 
jd yuvaiKela avTO) koX 7rpo<i rd KaTaypura. 

[Tavra 8e yiveraL iv tS> TTOTap.w el pltj 6 pov<i 
i^e<f>epev avp./3atvec Se Mare koI drro^epeadai' 
erepa S' drr avrcov irXelco.] 

'O 8e Kvap.o<i (pverai p,ev iv rol^ eXeai /cal Xip,- 
vai<i, KavXQ<i he avrov p-rjKO^ p.ev 6 pLUKporaro^ 
el<i rerrapa<i mq-x^ei^, Trd')(o<i he haKrvXiaio<i, 
6pbOLO<i he KaXdp,(p p,aXaKa> dyovdra. hia(fivaet<i 
he evhodev e%6i hi oXov hieiXr}p,p,eva<i opoia<i rot? 
Kr]p[oL<i' eirl rovra he rj KOihva, irapopboia crcprjKLq) 
7repi(f)epei, koX iv eKdarro rdv Kvrrdpiov Kvap,o<; 
p,iKp6v vrrepaipwv avTf]<i, 7rXrj6o<{ he ol irXelaroi 
rpidKovra. rb he dvdo<i hnrXdaiov rj p.i]Kcovo<i, 
"Xpaypia he 6p,ovov pohw KaraKope^' iirdvw he rov 
vharo'i rj Koohva. 7rapa(f)verai he (pvXXa p,eydXa 
Trap' eKaarov rcov Kvdpuwv, o)v taa rd p.eye6ri 
irerdaw %erraXLKfi rov avrov e^ovra KavXov r(p 
rSiv Kvdpiwv. (TVvrpL'\lravrt S' eKaarov r(ji)v Kvd- 
p,cov (fiavepov ian ro ircKpov avvearpap^p-evov, i^ 

^ Ottelia alismoeides. See Index App. (18). 

2 ravra . . . irXflw conj. W. after Sch.; I have also trans- 
posed the two sentences, after Sch. The whole passage in [ ] 
(which is omitted by G) is apparently either an interpolation 
or defective, ant/j-aivfi. 5e wcrirep kuI anocpfpfcrdar frepa 5e oiTr' 
avrHv T^ irXela' ravra Se yiverat ey r^ irora^i^- ei /trj 6 ^ovs 
e^f<pepfv Aid. ; so also U, but avrwv ir\eta>. 


Such are the plants which excel in sweetness of 
taste. There is also another plant ^ which grows in 
the marshes and lakes, but which does not take hold 
of the ground ; in character it is like a lily, but it is 
more leafy, and has its leaves opposite to one 
another, as it were in a double row ; the colour is a 
deep green. Physicians use it for the complaints of 
women and for fractures. 

Now these plants grow in the river, unless the 
stream has thrown them up on land ; it sometimes 
happens that they are borne down the stream, and 
that then other plants grow from them.- 

* But the ' Egyptian bean ' grows in the marshes 
and lakes ; the length of its stalk at longest is four 
cubits, it is as thick as a man's finger, and resembles 
a pliant^ reed without joints. Inside it has tubes 
■which run distinct from one another right through, 
like a honey-comb : on this is set the ' head,' which 
is like a round wasps' nest, and in each of the cells is 
a ' bean,' which slightly projects from it ; at most 
there are thirty of these. The flower is twice as 
large as a poppy's, and the colour is like a rose, of a 
deep shade ; the ' head ' is above the water. Large 
leaves grow at the side of each plant, equal ^ in size 
to a Thessalian hat '"- ; these have a stalk exactly like 
that " of the plant. If one of the 'beans ' is crushed, 
you find the bitter substance coiled up, of which the 

' PHn. 18. 121 and 122. 

* fia\aK^ Ald.H.G Plin. I.e. Athen. 3. 2 cites the passage 
w ith fioKpif. 

* To-o conj. W. ; koI Aid. 

^ xeroffij) conj. Sch. from Diosc. 2. 106; -riKu Ald.H. ; 01 
■Khaaoi are mentioned below (§ 9) without explanation. The 
comparison is oniitt«d by G and Plin. I.e. 

'' i.e. that which tarries the KuSva. 


8 ov jLveTai, o iriXo^;. ra fiev ovv irepl top Kapirov 
TotavTa. T) 8e pt^a TraxvTepa tov KaXd/xov tov 
TTa-^vrcLTov koI 8ia(jiV(T€i<i ofjboioi'i e^ovaa T(p 
Kav\&. iadiovai 8' avrrjv koI oipbrjv koX ecj)6r)v 
Kai OTTrtjV, Kac ot irepl ra ekrj tovtw crtro) Ypwv- 
rai. (f>v€Tai, fiev ovv 6 ttoXu? avT6fMaro<i' ov jj,r)v 
dWa Kol Kara^dWovcnv ev rrrfka d')(vpdo(TavTe<i 
ev jJidXa irpo^ to Kareiex^^vaC re koI p,elvai koI 
fxr] oia<f)6api]vaf Kac ovtco KaracrKevd^ovat TOv<i 
Kvaficova<;' dv 8' dira^ dvTiXd^rjTUi, /xevei Bid 
TeA-of?. la^vpa yap rj pi^a /cat ov Troppco rf}<i 
TMV KoXd/xcov TrXrjv eTraKavdi^ovaa- hi o Kal 6 
KpoKoheiXo'i (pevyei p^rj irpocrKO'^r) rSt 6(f)6a\pq> 
T& p,rj o^v Kadopav yiverat. Be ovto<; koI ev 
%vpia Kal Kara KiXcKtav, a\A,' ovk eKTrerrovaiv 
ai 'xoipai' Kal Ttepl Topoovrjv rfjf; X.a\KiBiKij<i ev 
\ifivrj Tivl perpia rw fieyeOei' Kal avTov TrerreTai, 
TeXe(»9 /cal reXeoKapirel. 

9 'O Be \a)T6<; Ka\ovp£vo<; (pverai p.ev 6 TrXetcrro? 
ev T0t9 7reBt,ot<i, orav rj %ft)/3a. KaraK'kvcrdfj. rov- 
Tov Be 7} pev TOV KavXov cf)vai,<; opoia tt} tov 
Kvdpov, Kal ol ireTaaoi Be (haavTca, ifK'qv e\dT- 
T0f9 Kal XcTTTOTepoi. eTTLcpveTai Be opolco^ 6 
Kapiro'i TU) TOV Kvdpiov. to dv6o<i avTOV XevKOV 
ep,<f)ep€<; tt} aTevoTrjTi tcov (fivWoov Tolf tov 
Kplvov, TToWd Be Kal irvKvd eV dWi]\oLf; (f)veTac. 
TavTa Be OTav pev 6 ■^Xio? Bvrj avpbp,vei Kal avy- 
KoXviTTei, TYjV KooBvav, dpLa Be Trj dvaToXrj Bioi- 

^ 6 -ir'iKos UMV; 7] irlAos Ald.H.; 'l = germen Sch. 
2 cf. Diosc. 2. 107. 

* Koi Karafi. conj. W. ; Karafi. Aid.; kotojB. 5' UMV. 

* Plin. 13. 107 and 108. 


jnlos^ is made. So much for the fruit. The root 
is thicker than the thickest reed, and is made up of 
distinct tubes, like the stalk. -They eat it both 
i-aw boiled and roasted, and the people of the 
marshes make this their food. It mostly grows of 
its own accord ; however they also sow ^ it in the 
mud, having first well mixed the seed with chaff, so 
that it may be carried down and remain in the 
ground without being rotted ; and so they prepare 
the ' bean ' fields, and if the plant once takes hold it 
is permanent. For the root is strong and not unlike 
that of reeds, except that it is prickly on the surface. 
Wherefore the crocodile avoids it, lest he may strike 
his eye on it, since he has not sharp sight. This 
plant also grows in Syria and in parts of Cilicia, but 
these countries cannot ripen it ; also about Torone in 
Chalcidice in a certain lake of small size ; and this 
lake ripens it perfectly and matures its fruit. 

■*The plant called the lotos (Nile water-lily) grows 
chiefly in the plains when the land is inundated. 
The character of the stalk of this plant is like that 
of the ' Egj'ptian bean,' and so are the ' hat-like ' 
hjaves,^ except that they are smaller and slenderer. 
And the fruit '' grows on the stalk in the same way 
as that of the ' bean.' The flower is white, resem- 
bling in the narrowness of its petals those of the 
lily,'^ but there are many petals growing close one 
upon another. When the sun sets, these close ^ and 
cover up the ' head,' but with sunrise they open and 

» cf. 4. 8. 7. 

• Kaprhs cojij. W. ; Xanhs MSS. Possibly the fruit was 
Sf eciallv called \un6s. 

7 cf. Hdt. 2. 92; Diosc. 4. 113. 

® 5up, ffv/jLfivei eonj. St.; <rvfj.ixvfi MV; (rvfifivrj U; avfifiirt] 
(oaaitting koI) Ald.H. 



'ye'Tai koX virep rov vSaro'; yiverai. tovto 8e 
TTOiei f^€')(pi av rj Kcohva eKreXecoO'p koI ra auOrj 

10 irepLppvf). T^9 he Ka)8va<; to fxeyedof tjXIkov 
firjK(ovo<i T7]<i fxeyLarrj^;, koX Sie^axrrai Tat<i Kara- 
TOfial^; rov avrov rponrov rf] fxrjKwvf ttXtjp ttvkvo- 
Te/309 ev TavTai<i 6 KapTTo'i. eari Be Trapofjuoici 
ra> Keyxp^- ^v he rep Kvcfipdrr] rrjv Kwhvav (paal 
Koi ra av07] hvvetv koX vTroKara^aiveiv tt}? o^^ia^ 
pA'X^pi, peacbv vvKTMV Kal r& j^dOei iroppw ovhe 
yap KaQievra rrjv X^^P^ Xa^elv elvai. fiera he 
ravra orav opdpo^ 77 iraktv erravievai Kal rrpof; 
rj/jbepav en fidWov, dfia rw ifKiw (^avepov <ov> 
virep rov vharo<; Kal dvo'iyeiv ro civdo^, dvoiyOev- 
ra he en dva^alveiv av^yov Be ro virepalpov 

11 elvat ro vhcop. ra? he K(io8va<i ravra^ 01 Alyv- 
irrioi avv6evre<; eh ro avrb crijTrovcnv eirav Be 
(yarrfi ro KeXv(f)0<i, ev t&) TTora/mu) KXv^ovre<; e^at- 
povat rov Kapirov, ^r]pdvavre<i Be Kal rrrl(Tavre<i 
dprov<; iroLovai Kal rovrcp ^/Owi/Tat cnri(p. 77 Be 
pi^a rov Xcorov KuXelrat fxev Kopaiov, earl Be 
crrpoyyvkri, to /xeyeOof; rjkiKOV fiijXov K-vBcoviov 
0XotO9 Be TrepiKetrai, irepl avrrjv p.eXa<i i/x<f)epr)<i 
ra> KaaravalKw Kapvw' ro Be evrb<; XevKov, ei/ro- 
fjuevov Be Kal oTrrco/juevov yiverat XeKida)Be<;, rjBv Be 
ev rfi 7rpoa(f)opa' eadlerai Be Kal oop>ij, dpiarri 
Be ev \r(p] vBan e^Oi] Kal orcrr). Kal ra fiev 
ev roi<i vBacrtv ayeBov ravrd eariv. 

12 bjv oe TOi? apficooeai ^iwptof?, a eanv ov TToppco 

1 cf. Diosc. I.e. 2 cf. C.P. 2. 19. 1 ; Plin. 13. 109. 

^ dij/fas conj. W. from Plin. I.e.; ? o\f/ias Sipas. 

* <:hv> add. W. 

^ Ki\v(pos i.e. fruit: Kapir6v i.e. seeds. 



appear above the water. This the plant does until 
the ' head ' is matured and the flowers have fallen off. 
^ The size of the ' head ' is that of the largest poppy, 
and it has grooves all round it in the same way as 
the poppy, but the fruit is set closer in these. This 
is like millet. - In the Euphrates they say that the 
'head' and the flowers sink and go under water in 
the evening ^ till midnight, and sink to a consider- 
able depth ; for one can not even reach them by 
plunging one's hand in ; and that after this, when 
dawn comes round, they rise and go on rising towards 
day-break, being ^ visible above the water when the 
sun appears ; and that then the plant opens its flower, 
and, after it is open, it still rises ; and that it is 
a considerable part which projects above the water. 
These ' heads ' the Egyptians heap together and 
leave to decay, and when the 'pod ' ^ has decayed, they 
Avash the ' head ' in the river and take out the ' fruit,' ^ 
and, having dried and pounded ° it, they make loaves 
cif it, which they use for food. The root of the lotos 
is called korsion,'' and it is round and about the size 
C'f a quince ; it is enclosed in a black ' bark,' like the 
shell of a chestnut. The inside is white ; but when 
it is boiled or roasted, it becomes of the colour of 
the yolk of an egg and is sweet to taste. The root 
is also eaten raw, though it is best when boiled in 
v/ater or roasted.^ Such are the plants found in 


In sandy places which are not^ far from the river 

« iTTiVovTfi : cf. Hdt. 2. 92. ^ c/. Strabo 17. 2. 4. 

* iaeierai . . . oirr-fi conj. Sch. from Plin. I.e. and G ; eVfl. 
S.; /col wfiov a.p(arr\ 5« iv rots uSofftc ahr)) wfjA\ Aid. ; apliXTT) Se 
Kit Tojs SSaffiv avrriv UMV, thea o/iij U, ifiri V, wfii) M ; apiarTj 
5'F fv T<f vSari fcpdi] f) Koi oitttJ H. 

* oil was apparently not in Pliny's text ; (21. 88.) 



rod TTOTa/jLov, cfiverai Kara 7% KuXelrat. jxaXiv- 
addWrj, (TTpoyyvXov t« a')(r]fjiarL fxeje0o<; Se 
rfXiKOv fMecTTTiXov uTTvprjvou Se d(f)\otov' (f>vWa 
8e atpLTjatv air avrov o/xoca Kvirelpoy ravra 
avvd<yovTe<i ol Kara rrjv ■)(oiipav eyjroiJaLV iv ^pvrw 
T(p diro TMV Kptdcov Kal yiverai <y\vKea acpoBpa- 
'X^pwvrat Se 7rdvr€<; axrirep rpay/jf^aa-i. 

13 Toi9 8e ^oval kuI toI<; TTpo^drofi aTravra fiev 
TO, ^vojieva iScoStfjid iariv, ev 8i ri <yevo<i iv rat? 
\Lfivat<; Kal Tol<i eXeai (jjverai hia^epov, o Kal 
')(\copdv vifiovrai Kal ^ripaivovre<; irapexovac Kara 
'Xeijxoiva Tol<i ^ovcrlv orav ipydcrcovrac Kal rd 
acofiara e'x^ovaiv ev airov dXko Xa/ju^dvovref 

14 "Eo-Tt Be Kal dXko 7rapa(f)v6/jLevov avTo/xarov 
ev tS) (jLtw' tovto Be, orav 6 atro<i y Ka0ap6<;, 
vTTOTnicravre'i Kara^dWovai rov 'yeijxSyvo'i vy- 
pdv et9 yijv' ^Xaarijaavro'? Be refi6vTe<; Kal 
^rjpdvavre^ irape'^^ovcri Kal tovto (Boval Kal 

'tlTTTOl^ Kal T0t9 VTTO^VyLOL'i (TVV TW KapiTO) TW eiTl- 

yLvo/xevo)' 6 Be Kapiro^ /xey66o<i fiev rfKiKov arj- 
aafiov, (TTpoyyuXo<i Be Kal rw ■^pcofjLaTC 'xXcopo'i, 
dya6o<i Be Bia(f)ep6vTco^. ev AlyviTTW puev ovv 

Ta TreptTTa (j')(^eBov TavTa dv Tt9 Xd^oi. 

IX. 'E/cacTOi Be tmv iroTafiMv eoiKaaiv IBlqv 
Tc (f>ep€iv, axrirep Kal tmv y^epaaioov. irrel ovBe 
6 T/)t/3o?v09 iv diraaiv ovBe 7ravTa)(^ov (f)veTai, 
dW' iv T0t9 eXctiBeai tmv TTOTap.oiV iv fieylaTw 
Be ^dOet TrevTaTTij'x^ei rj /xiKpo) fiei^ovi, KaOdirep 

^ Plin. I.e. anthalium, whence Salm. conj. avQaWiov. 
- Saccharum biflorum. See Index App. (19). 
^ ev (tItov &\\o conj. W.; evairovvra Aid. 

ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS, IV. vin. 12-ix. i 

there grows under ground the thmg called malina- 
thalle ^ ; this is round in shape and as large as a medlar, 
but has no stone and no bark. It sends out leaves 
like those of galingale. These the people of the 
country collect and boil in beer made from barley, 
and they become extremely sweet, and all men use 
them as sweetmeats. 

All the things that grow in such places may be 
eaten by oxen and sheep, but there is one kind of 
plant "^ which grows in the lakes and marshes which is 
specially good for food : they graze their cattle on it 
when it is green, and also dry it and give it in the 
winter to the oxen after their work ; and these keep 
in good condition when they have no other ^ kind 
of food. 

There is also another plant * which comes up of its 
own accord among the corn ; this, when the harvest 
is cleared, they crush slightly^ and lay during the 
winter on ^ moist ground ; when it shoots, they cut 
and dry it and give this also to the cattle and horses 
and beasts of burden with the fruit which forms on 
it. The fruit in size is as large as sesame, but round 
and green in colour, and exceedingly good. Such 

one might take to be specially remarkable plants of 

IX. Every river seems to bear some peculiar plant, 
just as does each part of the dryland. *" For not even 
the water-chestnut grows in all rivers nor everywhere, 
bat only in marshy rivers, and only in those whose 
depth is not more or not much more than five cubits, 

* Corchorxis triloctilaris. See Index App. (20). 

» G seems to have read {nro-rriffoLvrei (lemter pinsentes) ; 
vTOTT-fiffcwTfs W. with Ald.H. 

* els conj. W. ; tijv Aid. 

7 Plin. 21. 98 ; Diosc. 4. 15. 



irepl Tov Xrpv/xova' a-x^eSov 8e iv rocrovTcp koI 
6 KoXapo'i Koi ra a\Xa. vrrepe-x^et he ovdev 
avrov 7r\r]v avra ra <pvXka wairep eTTiveovra 
Kal KpVTTTOVTa Tov Tpi^oXov, 6 8e rpi^oXos; avr6<i 
iv Tw vSart vevcov et9 /3vd6v. to 8e (fivWov iarl 
TrXari) irpocrepf^epe^ rw t% 7!*Te\ea9, pla-^ov Se 
e%et acfioSpa pxiKpov 6 he KavXo'^ i^ dicpov 
'iTa')(inaTO<;, 06 ev to, (pvWa Kal 6 Kapiro^, ra 
he Karo) X67rTOTe/309 del MxP'' '''% pt????" ^X^'' 
tie diroTre'^vKoTa dir avrov rpixcohr) ra fiev 
TrXelara TrapdXXrjXa rd he Kal irapaXXdrrovra, 
Kdroodev diro rr}<; pi^rj^ p.eydXa rd he dvw del eXdr- 
rco irpolovaLV, Mcrre rd reXevraca p^iKpd rrdpuTTav 
elvai Kal rrjv hia^opdv peydX^jv rrjv diro r7]<; 
pi^rj^ 7rp6<; rov Kaprrbv. e;^et he Ik rov evb<; 
KavXov Kal Trapa^Xaarripara rrXeiu)' Kal yap 
rpia Kal rerrapa, peyiarov S' alel rb irXrjaiai- 
repov rrj<i pi^rj<;, elra rb perd rovro Kal rd 
dXXa Kard Xbyov. rb he rrapa^Xdcrr^jpd iariv 
wcnrep KavXb<i dXXo<i X€7rr6repo<; pev rov irpcorov, 
rd he (})vXXa Kal rbv Kapirbv ex(t>v 6poL(o<;. 6 
he Kapirb'i pbeXa<i Kal aKXrjpb^; a^ohpa. pc^av 
he 7]XiK7]v Kal woiav e')(ei, aKeirreov. rj pev ovv 
(fivcn<; roiavrrj. (j)verai pev dirb rov Kaprrov 
rov rriirrovro'i Kal d(^ir](Tt, ^Xaarbv rov ^po<i- 
(paal he 01 pev elvat eirereiov ol he hiapeveiv 
rrjv pev pi^av eh xpovov, e^ ^9 Kal rr}V /3Xa- 
arrjaiv elvai rov KavXov. rovro pev ovv crKe- 
rrreov. thiov he irapd rdXXa rb roiv irapacfivopevoyv 
eK rov KavXov rptX'^hwv' ovre ydp (pvXXa ravra 
ovre KavX6<;' eVet ro ye rrj<; rrapafiXaarrjcrew'; 
KOivbv KaXdpbov Kal dXXcov. 



as the StnTnon. (In rivers of such a depth grow 
also reeds and other plants.) No part of it projects 
from the water except just the leaves ; these float as 
it were and conceal the ' chestnut/ which is itself 
under water and bends down towards the bottom. 
The leaf is broad, like that of the elm, and has a 
very long stalk. The stem is thickest at the top, 
whence spring the leaves and the fruit ; below it gets 
thinner down to the root. It has springing from it 
hair-like growths, most of which are parallel to each 
other, but some are irregular; below, starting from 
the root, they are large, but, as one gets higher up 
the plant, they become smaller, so that those at the 
top are quite small and there is a great contrast 
between the root and the top where the fruit grows. 
The plant also has on the same stalk several side- 
growths ; of these there are three or four, and the 
largest is always that which is nearer to the root, 
the next largest is the one next above it, and so on 
in proportion : this sidegrowth is like another stalk, 
but slenderer than the original one, though like that 
it has leaves and fruit. The fruit is black and 
extremely hard. The size and character of the root 
are matter for further enquiry. Such is the character 
of this plant. It grows from the fruit which falls, 
and begins to grow in spring. Some say that it is 
annual, others that the root persists for a time, and 
that from it grows the new stalk. This then is 
matter for enquiry. However quite peculiar to this 
plant is the hair-like character of the growths which 
spring from the stalk ; for these are neither leaves 
nor stalk ; though reeds and other things have also 



X. Ta ixev ovv tSia Oecoprjreov l8io)<; BrjXov on, 
ra 8e Koiva koivm^^. hiaipeiv he ^(^pT} koI ravTa 
Kara tov<; T67rou9, olov el ra fxev eXeca ra 8e 
Xifivala TO, Be irordpLia fidWov rj koI kolvo, ttuv- 
T(ov rwv TOTTcov Biuipeiv Be koX iroia ravra ev tw 
uy/OcS Kol Tft) ^r}p(p (pverai, koX •nola ev tS> vypa> 
fiovov, 0)9 a7rXft)9 elirelv 7rp6<; ra /coivorara elprj- 
fjieva Trporepov. 

^Ev S' ovv rfi Xifivr) Tfj TTepX ^Op^ofievov rdS' 
ccttI ra (jivofieva BevBpa Kal vXrjfiara, irea 
eXaLayvo<; alBrj KaXafio^ 6 re avXrjriKo^ Kal 6 
erepof Kvireipov (f)Xecb<; rv^rj, en ye fxi^vavda 
iK/jLT) Kal TO KaXovfievov trrvov. o yap irpoaayo- 
pevovcn Xe/uva rovrou ra rrXeiw Ka9^ v8ar6<; eari. 

Tovrcov Be ra /j,ev dXXa yvcopifia' 6 B' eXalayvo'i 
Kal 1] (TiBti Kal ?7 firjvavOo<i Kal rj cKfirj Kal to 
tirvov c(T(i)<; fiev (f>verat Kal erepcoOi, irpoaayopeve- 
rai Be aXXoi<i ovop-aar XeKreov Be rrepl avroyv. 
ecrn Be 6 /xev eXalayvo<; (f)vaei fiev dafivcoBe'i Kal 
rrapofioLov rol<; dyvoif, (pvXXov Be €')(ei, tc5 p,ev 
ax^lpMri TrapavXijaiov fiaXaKov Be, wairep at 
firjXeai Kal 'xyo(t)B€<i. dvOo<i Be rut rrjf; XevKi]^ 
op^oiov eXarrov Kapirov Be ovBeva (pepei. <pverai 
Be 6 TrXelaro^ jxev eirl twi' rrXodBwv vrjcrav elal 
ydp rive<i Kal ivravda 7rXoa8e9, Mairep ev Klyvirro) 

' Ta Se Koiva Koivws conj. Sch. from G ; to Se koivws Ald.H. 
^ Tahra conj. Sch.; TaCTo Aid. 

* trpbs TO. Koiv. elp. irp. conj. W. supported by G ; «ojv<{totb 
irpofffiprjufva irporepoy Ald.H, 



Of the plants peculiar to the lake of Orchomenos (Lake Copdis), 
especially its reeds ; and of reeds in general. 

X. Plants peculiar to particular places must be 
considered separately, while a general account may 
be given of those which are generally distributed.' 
But even the latter must be classified according to 
locality ; thus some belong to marshes, others to 
lakes, others to rivers, or again others may be common 
to all kinds of locality : we must also distinguish which 
occur alike ^ in wet and in dry ground, and which 
only in wet ground, marking these off in a general 
Mray from those mentioned above as being most 
impartial. 3 

Now in the lake near Orchomenos grow the 
following trees and woody plants : willow goat-willow 
Avater-lily reeds (both that used for making pipes and 
the other kind) galingale phleos bulrush ; and also 
' moon-flower ' duckweed and the plant called 
niarestail : as for the plant called water-chickweed 
the greater part of it grows under water.* 

Now of these most are familiar : the goat-willow 
v.ater-iily ' moon-flower ' duckweed and marestail 
jrobably grow also elsewhere, but are called by 
different names. Of these we must speak. The 
goat-willow is of shrubby habit and like the chaste- 
tree : its leaf resembles that leaf in shape, but it is 
soft like that of the apple,-^ and downy. The bloom ^ 
is like that of the abele, but smaller, and it bears no 
fi-uit. It grows chiefly on the floating islands ; (for 
here too there are floating islands, as in the marshes 

* TOVTOv TO xXeta) Kaff vS. conj. Sch. ; tovto ir\eia) to Kaff vS. 
t M ; TOVTO irAtiOl' T^ KoO' vS. Aid. 

5 fi-n\€ai perhaps here = quince (/iTjXe'a KvSaria). 

* iivdoi here = catkin. 


irepl ra eX-t] koI ev ^ecnrpanihi koX iv dX\,ai,(; Xl/jl- 
vaL<i' iXdrTMv Se Kad^ vBaTO<;' 6 fxev ovv iXaiayvo^; 

'H Be aiBi] rrjv /xev fiop^rjv icrriv 6[xoia rfj 
HrjKoovr koI yap ro dvoi KvriVMBe<i tolovtov e%et, 
irXriv fiel^ov co? Kara Xoyov p.eyedei Be oXo<; 6 
ojKO<i r]\iKov firjXov ecm Be ov <yvp,v6v, dWd vfj,€ve<; 
irepl avTTjv Xcvkol, /cat eVt rovTOi<i e^wOev (j>vWa 
TTOioBr] TrapairXTjaia T0i9 t&v poBwv orav ev 
KoXv^iV (bcri, rerrapa rov dpidpuov dvoi')(Qel<ja 
Be Tov'i KOKKOvi epv6pov<i jxev e^ec ray a')(rjp,aTL 
Be ouT^ ojJbOLOv; Tal<i poai'i aXXd nrepi^epel^ jMLKpom 
Be KoX ov iroXku) yu-et^of? Keyy^pov rov Be x^Xov 
vBarcoBr) nvd, KaOdirep 6 roiv nrvpoiv. dBpvverai 
Be Tov depovi, iJLia')(ov Be e%ei p,aKp6v. to Be 
dvOo'i op,OLOV poBov /cdXvKi, fiet^ou Be Kol cr^eSov 
BtTrXdatov rm fieyeOei. rovro p,ev ovv koX to 
(fjvXXov eirl rov vBaro<;' fierd Be ravra, orav 
drravOija-rj kcu a-va-rf] ro irepiKdpTriov, KaraKXive- 
aOai (f)a(Tiv eh rb vBcop jxaXXov, reXo<i Be avvdwretv 
rfj yfj Kal rov Kapirov eK'X^elv. 

Kap7ro(f>opelv Be rcov iv rfj Xifivrj rovro Kal ro 
^ovrofjiov Kal rov (pXecov. elvai Be rov ^ovro/nov 
fieXava, rw Be jxeyeOei, TrapaTrXtjcrLov rw T179 
(TiBr]<;. rov Be (pXecD rr)V KoXovfjievrjv dv6i]Xy]v, 

^ eKarrav . . . vSaros : sense doubtful. G. seems to render 
a diiferent reading. 

- i.e. the flower-head, which, as well as the plant, was 
called <r(5rj. 

3 fxriKcevi can hardly be right : suspected by H. 

^ c/. Athen. 14. 64. 

^ i.e. petals. 



of Egj^jt, in Thesprotia, and in other lakes). When 
it grows under water, it is smaller.^ Such is the 

The water-lily ^ is in shape like the poppy.^ For 
the top of it has this character, being shaped like 
the pomegranate flower,^ but it is longer in propor- 
tion to the size of the plant. Its size in fact as a 
whole is that of an apple ; but it is not bare, having 
round it white membranes,^ and attached to these 
on the outside are grass-green ' leaves,' "^ like those 
of roses when they are still in bud, and of these 
there are four ; when it is opened it shews its seeds, 
which are red ; in shape however they are not like 
pomegranate" seeds, but round small and not 
much longer than millet seeds ; the taste is insipid, 
like that of wheat-grains. It ripens in summer and 
has a long stalk. The flower is like a rose-bud, 
but larger, almost twice as large. Now this and the 
leaf float on the water : but later, when the bloom is 
over and the fruit-case * has formed, they say that it 
sinks deeper into the water, and finally reaches the 
bottom and sheds its fruit. 

Of the plants of the lake they say that water-lily 
sedge and phleos bear fruit, and that that of the 
sedge is black, and in size like that of the water-lily. 
The fruit of phleos is what is called the ' plume,' ° 

" i.(. sepals. 

^ (>6ais conj. Bod. from Nic. Ther. S87 and Schol. ; biCais 

* ■rfpiKapriov conj. W. ; KaraKapwiov MSS. Kara- probably 
due to KaruKKiveaOai. 

' cf. Diosc. 3. 118. at>07i\rjv, sc. Kafrrhv elpai. But Sch. 
mggests that further description of the fruit has dropped 
ijut, and that the clause ^ . . . Kovlas does not refer to the 



o) 'x^pMvrat, 7rpo9 Ta<; KOVia<i. tovto 5' icrrlv olov 
7r\aKovvTM8€<; tl /xaXaKov iiriiTvppov. €tc Se 
/caiy Tov (pXeco kuc rou ^ovto/jlov to fiev drfkv 
aKaprrov, %/9r;o-t/i,oz^ he irpo^ ra irXoKava, to Sk 
dppev axp^lov. 

Tlepl he T?}9 cKp,r]<i koX p,r}vdv6ov^ koX tov ittvov 

^IhicoTaTov Se tovtwv iaTlv rj TV(f)7j Kol tm 
d<pvWov elvai, /cal tm p,7] TrdXvppL^ov Toi<i ci.Xkoi'i 
OfiOLCO^' iirel TaWa oux ^ttov et? to. /caret) ttjv 
op/jbrjv e'xei koI Tr]p Svvafiiv fidXiaTa he to 
Kvireipov, Mcnrep kclI 97 dypa)(TTi<i, 81 o Koi Bv(t(o- 
XeOpa Kol TavTa koi 6\o)<; dirav to <yevo<i to toiov- 
Tov. 1) Be pL^a TOV KVireipov iroXv rt tmv dWwv 
TrapaWuTTei Trj dva>/j,dX(,a, tw to fxev elvai Tra^v 
Ti KoX aapKcoBe^ avTrj<; to he XerrTov kol ^vXwBe^' 
KoX Tfj ^XaaTrjcret kuI ttj yeveaer (pveTai yap 
o-TTO TOV 7rpefj,v(jo8ov<; eTepa XeirTrj KUTa irXdytov, 
eiT ev TavTT] avvicFTaTat ttciXiv to crapKc!)8€<i, ev m 
KoX pXaaTO<^ d(j)' ov 6 KavX6<;- d<^Lr]cn Se Kul 
et? ^d0o<i TOV avTov TpoTTOV pc^a<i, Si' /cal TrdvTOJV 
pbdXtGTa hvcrdoXedpov Kal epyov i^eXeiv. 

(%X^^ov Be irapairX'qaioi'i cfiveTai rj dyp(0(TTi<; e'/c 
TMV yovdTwv al yap pl^ac yovaT(oBei<;, e^ e«a- 
aTOV S* d^irjcriv dvco ^XacTTOV Kal KdTcodev 
pi^av. Q)(TavTO)<; Be /cal r) aKavOa rj d/cav(oBT]<;, 
dXX^ ov KaXa/jb(oBi]<i ovBe yovaTOiBrj^; r] pl^a Tav- 

^ Kovias : ? Kovtdffiis (plastering), a conjecture mentioned 
by Sch. 



and it is used as a soap-powder. ^ It is something 
like a cake, soft and reddish. Moreover the ' female ' 
plant both of phleos and sedge is barren, but useful 
for basket-work,- while the ' male ' is useless. 

Duckweed ' moon-flower ' and marestail require 
further investigation. 

Most peculiar of these plants is the bulrush, both 
in being leafless and in not having so many roots as 
the others ; for the others tend downwards quite as 
much as upwards, and shew their strength in that 
direction ; and especially is this true of galingale, and 
ilso of dog's-tooth grass ; wherefore these plants 
too and all others like them are hard to destroy. 
The root of galingale exceeds all the others in the 
diversity of characters which it shews, in that part 
of it is stout and fleshy, part slender and woody. 
So also is this plant peculiar in its way of shooting 
and originating; for from the trunk-like stock -^ 
»rows another slender root* sideways, and on this 
again forms the fleshy part which contains the shoot 
from which the stalk springs.^ In like manner it 
also sends out roots downwards ; wherefore of all 
plants it is hardest to kill, and troublesome to get 
rid of. 

(Dog's-tooth grass grows in almost the same way 
from the joints ; for the roots are jointed, and from 
each joint it sends a shoot upwards and a root down- 
wards. The growth of the spinous plant called 
oorn-thistle ^ is similar, but it is not reedy and its 

■2 c/. Hdt. 3. 98. ' i.e. rhizome. 

* i.e. stolon ; cf. \. 6. 8. 

* i^' ol 6 KuvKos transposed by W. ; in Aid. these words 
oome before 4v ^. 

' ij aKavdSTfS I conj. ; Keafayos UMV; Kfdvindos Aid.: ^ 
ifdymdos most edd. ; G omits the word. 


T»79. ravra fxev ovv iirl irXelov 8ui rrjv o/xoiOTTjTa 

^veTai S' €v dfji(j)otv koI iv ry yfj kuI iv 
TM vSari, Irea KoXa/xo'i, ttXtjv tov avXrjTtKOv, 
Kvireipov TV(j>r) <^Xea)9 ^ovro/xo'i' ev he rw vhari 
ixovov aihr). irepl yap r^? TV<pr)'i d/jL(f)Lcr$7}rov(Ti. 
KaWico Be KoX fiel^co tmv ev dfK^olu cpvofievcov 
alel TO, iv rw vSart yiveadal (f>aai. (f)veadat S' 
evia TovTcov koX iirl twv ttXouSmv, olov rb kv- 
ireipov KoX TO ^ovto/jLov koI tov (pXecov, wcrre rravTa 
TO, fiepr] TavTa KaTe^eiv. 
7 ^FiSooBifxa S' ecTTt tmv iv t^ Xifivrj TaBc rj fxev 
aiBrj KoX avTTj fcal to, (pvWa rot? Trpo^dToa, 6 
Be $Xa(XTo<; rot? vaiv, 6 Be /cap7r6<; toI^ dv6pco'7rot,<i. 
TOV Be (pXed) koI T779 TV(f)r]s: koI tov ^ovto/xov to 
7r/309 Ttti? pc^ai<i diraXov, o fxdXiaTa icrdiec to, 
TraiBla. pi^a S' iB(oBifio<i rj tov (fyXeo) /jlovt] rot? 
^ocTKrifjLaatv. otuv S' av')(/jib<i y koL fjurj yevrjTai 
TO KUTCL Ke(f)aXT]v vBcop, diravTU avXM-^t tcl iv Trj 
XifivT}, fjidXicTTa Be 6 KaXajxa, virep ov koX Xolttov 
elirelv virep yap tmv dXXcov (T')(eBbv ecprjTac. 

XI. Tov Br) KaXdp,ov Bvo fpacrlv elvat yevrj, tov 
re avXrjTiKOV Kal Tbv eTepov ev yap elvat to 
yevo<i TOV eTepov, Bia(f)epeiv Be dXXijXoov Icrxvi 
<Kal 7ra')(yTr]TL> kuI XeTTTOTrjTC Kal daOeveia' 
KaXovcn Be Tbv /xev la'x^vpbv Kal ira'xyv ')(japaKiav 
Tbv B' eTepov TrXoKifiov Kal (}>veadai Tbv fiev 

1 i.e. we have gone beyond the list of tjpical plants of 
Orchomenus given 4. 10. 1, because we have found others of 
which much the same may be said. 

2 cf. 4. 10. 2. 

3 ahr^ : cf. 4. 10. .3 n. 



root is not jointed. We have enhirged on these 
matters^ because of the resemblance.) 

The willow and the reed (not howe\ er the reed 
used for pipes) galingale bulrush phleos sedge 
grow both on land and in the v.ater, water-lily only 
in the water. (As to bulrush indeed there is a 
difference of opinion.) However they say that those 
plants which grow in the water are always finer and 
larger than those that grow in both positions ; also 
that some of these plants grow also on the floating 
islands,- for instance galingale sedge and phleos ; 
thus all parts of the lake contain these plants. 

Of the plants of the lake the parts good for food 
are as follows : of the v.ater-lily both the flower ^ and 
the leaves are good for sheep, the young shoots for 
pigs, and the fruit for men. Of phleos galingale 
and sedge the part next the roots is tender, and is 
mostly eaten by children. The root of phleos is the 
(jnly part which is edible by cattle. When there is 
a drought and there is no water from overhead,^ all 
:he plants of the lake are dried up, but especially 
the reed ; of this it remains to speak, since we have 
said almost enough about the rest. 

XI. ^ Of the reed there are said to be two kinds, 
the one used for making pipes and the other kind. 
For that of the latter there is only one kind, though 
individual plants differ in being strong and stout, '^ or 
on the other hand slender and weak. The strong 
stout one they call the • stake-reed,' the other the 
' weaving reed.' The latter they say grows on the 

* K((paXT)y UMVAld.; for the case cf. Ken. Hdl. 7. 2. S 
£,nd 11 ; KfcpaXrts conj. W. 

* Plin. 16. 168 and 169. 

* Kul iraxvTTjTi add. Dalec. from G. 



irXoKifxov eVt tmv TrXodScov rov he '^^apaKiav eirl 
TOif fcco/nvai' K(i)[x,vda<i he KoKovcn ov av 97 avv- 
rjOpoiafievoi; KoKafio^ /cal avjxTreTrXejfxevo^ Tai<i 
pi^at,<i' rovTO 8e ylverat, Kad^ ov<i av roirovi 
T?}«? Xljjlvt]^ evyeiov y ^w/jtoj/' ^iveadai, Se irore 
rov 'xapaKiav koI ov 6 avXrjriKO'?, jxaxporepov 
fiev Tov dWov 'xapaKiOV (TKa>\r]/c6^po}rov Si. 
TovTov /xev ovv TavTa<i Xeyovcri ra<i 8ia(f)opd<i. 

2 Uepl Be rov avXrjri/cov to /j,ev (f)V€adai 81^ iv- 
V€aT7)pL8o<;, Marrep rive<i (paai, koX ravTrjv elvai 
rr)v rd^iv ovk d\ri6e<i, dXXa to jxev oXov av^T]- 
0€L(Ti]^ yiveTai rrj^ Xifjuvrji;- on 8e tovt iBoKei 
(TVfi^aivecv iv TOt? irporepov ')(p6vot<i fidXiara 81 
ivveaTr]pL8o<i, koX ttjv jeveaiv rov Kokd/jLov rav- 
Trjv eiToiovv TO (TVfji^e^rjKO'i o)? rd^Lv Xa/bu/ddvov- 

3 Te9. jiverat Be orav e7ro/j,^p[a<} yevo/xevtj'i efifievj} 
TO vBcop Bv' err) rovXd-)(^L(TTOv, av Be irXeLO) xal 
KaXXicov TOVTOV Be fidXiara p,vrjfj,ovevovcrL yeyov- 
6TO<i TMV vaTepov XP^^^^ ore avve/3r) to, irepl 
X.aip(oveiav' rrrpo tovtcov yap ecfiacrav erty TrXetft) 
^aduvdTJvai T7}v Xifjbvqv' p£Ta Be Tuvra vcrTepov, 
0)9 6 Xotyu.09 iyeveTO (T(f>oBp6<;, TrXrjcrdrjvai fiev 
avTrjV, ov /j,eivavTo<; 8e tov vBaTO<i dXX^ iKXiTTov- 
T09 ')(eLp,(avo<i ov yeveadai tov KdXafiov (j)aal yap 
Kal BoKel ^a6vvo/jievr]<; Trjf Xi,p,vr}(; av^dvecrOai 
TOV KdXafxov 6l<i /j,r]KO<i, /xelvavTU Be tov enrtovTa 
eviavTov dBpvveadar Kal yiveadai tov fiev dBpv- 
devra ^evyiTrjv, c5 8' av firj avfjiTrapafieivp to 

1 Kuifivfft : lit ' bundles. ' 

2 Sv' U-n conj.W.;^ UMVAld. 
" B.C. 338. 



floating islands, the stout form in the ' reed-beds ' ^ ; 
this name they give to the places where there is a 
thick mass of reed with its roots entangled together. 
This occurs in any part of the lake where there is 
rich soil. It is said that the ' stake-reed ' is also 
sometimes found in the same places as the reed used 
for pipes, in which places it is longer than the 'stake- 
reed' found elsewhere, but gets worm-eaten. These 
then are the differences in reeds of which they tell. 

As to the reed used for pipes, it is not true, as some 
say, that it only grows once in nine years and that 
this is its regular rule of growth ; it grows in general 
\vhenever the lake is full : but, because in former 
days this was supposed to happen generally once in 
nine years, they made the growth of the reed to 
correspond, taking what was really an accident to be 
a regular principle. As a matter of fact it grows 
whenever after a rainy season the water remains in 
the lake for at least two years,- and it is finer if the 
water remains longer ; this is specially remembered 
to have happened in recent times at the time of the 
battle of Chaeronea.' For before that period they 
told me that the lake was for several years deep * ; 
and, at a time later than that, when there was a 
severe visitation of the plague, it filled up ; but, as 
the water did not remain but failed in winter, the 
reed did laot grow ; for they say, apparently with 
good reason, that, when the lake is deep, the reed 
increases in height, and, persisting for the next year, 
n atures its growth ; and that the reed which thus 
matures is suitable for making a reed mouthpiece,^ 
while that for which the water has not remained is 

■• frt) rXflu conj. Seal, from G ; fn ■wXtiu UMV; In wAeTov 

* See n. on tJ> ffro/xa rwv yXoirruv, § 4. 

VOL. I. B B 


vS(op l3o^/3vKiav. rrjv fxev ovv fyeveaiv elvai 

4 ^ia(^ep€LV he tmv aWwv KoXdfMcov w? Kad^ 6\ov 
Xa^elv evTpo(jila tlvI t^9 (pvcrea'i' evirKT^Oearepov 
yap elvat kol evaapKorepov koI 6X(o<i Se drjXvv ttj 
Trpocroyfrei. koX yap to (pvWov irXarvTepov '^^(eiv 
Kal XevKorepov rrjv Se dvOijXtjv iXaTTco t5>v 
dXXcov, Tivd<i 8e oXw? ovk e^eiv, 01)9 kuI irpocr- 
ayopevovcnv evvov)(ia<i' i^ oiv dpiara fiev (^acri 
TLve^ yiveaOai rd ^evyrj, KuropOovv Be oXiya 
irapd Trjv epyatJiav. 

T^v he TOfMrjv wpalav elvat irpo ^AvTcyeviSov 
fjuev, rjVLK rjvXovv dirXdcnw';, vtt' "ApKTOvpov Bo^;- 
Spofii,MVO<i jjbrjvo^' rov yap ovrw jfjurjOevra av)(yol<; 
fiev erea-iv vcrrepov ylveaOat ^prjcri/xov Kal irpo- 
KaTavXTJ(Teco<i hetcrdat ttoXX?}?, cru/jLfiveiv he to 
aTOfia TMV yXcoTTWv, o 7rpo9 rrjv SiaKTrjpCav elvat 

5 '^pyjcrifiov. iirel Be eh ttjv irXdatv fieTe^rjaav, Kal 
r) TOfjbr] p,eTeKivi]6'T)' Tefivovai yap Brj vvv tov 
'ZKippo<popi(ovo<i Kal 'FtKaTOfi^aiMVO'i wairep irpo 
TpoTTMV [xiKpov Tj VTTO Tpo7rd<;. yiveaOai Be <paai 
Tpievov Te yjpt)(Jniov Kal KaTavXrj(Tea><i /S/aa^eta? 

^ fioix&vKiav. In one kind of pipe the pei-former blew, not 
directly on to the 'reed,' but into a cap in which it was 
enclosed ; this cap, from the resemblance in shape to a 
cocoon, was called ^S/x^v^. 

'^ fhai add. W. 

3 Plin. 16. 169-172. * September. 

^ i.e. between the free end of the vibrating 'tongue' and 


suitable for making a ' cap.' ^ Such then, it is said, 
is 2 the reed's Avay of growth. 

3 Also it is said to differ from other reeds, to speak 
generally, in a certain luxuriance of growth, being of 
a fuller and more fleshy character, and, one may say, 
' female ' in appearance. For it is said that even the 
leaf is broader and whiter, though the plume is 
smaller than that of other reeds, and some have no 
plume at all ; these they call ' eunuch-reeds.' From 
these they say that the best mouthpieces are made, 
though many are spoiled in the making. 

Till the time of Antigenidas, before which men 
played the pipe in the simple style, they say that 
the proper season for cutting the reeds was the 
month Boedromion * about the rising of Arcturus ; 
for, although the reed so cut did not become fit for 
use for many years after and needed a great deal of 
preliminary placing upon, yet the opening '' of the 
reed-tongues is well closed, which is a good thing for 
the purpose of accompaniment.^ But when a change 
was made to the more elaborate style of playing, the 
time of cutting the reeds was also altered ; for in 
our own time they cut them in the months Skirro- 
])horion ^ or Hekatombaion ^ about the solstice or a 
little earlier.^ And they say that the reed becomes 
lit for use in three years and needs but little 
preliminary playing ujx)n, and that the reed-tongues 

the body or ' lay ' of the reed mouthpiece : the instrument 
implied throughout is apparently one Mith a single vibrating 
' tongue' (reed) like the modem clarinet. 

* 5jo»tTTjptai' UMV; StoKTopiav Aid. ? irphs rh aKpovtitfiiov, 
' for the concert-room ' ; quod trat illis theatrorum nwribus 
I tilius Plin. I.e. 

' June. * July. 

* Siainp conj. W. ; aiantptl UH.; is a-tpl MVAld. 


SeiaOaL koI KaTaaTrda/nara Ta<; ^Xcorra? ta'x^eiv' 
rovTo Be avayKalov Tol<i fiera ir\,dafiaTO<i av- 
\ovai. rov /xev ovv ^evyijov Tavra<i eipai ra? 

6 'H S' epyacrta ylveTUi rovrov top rpoirov orav 
avWe^cocrt ndeaaiv vrraiOpLov rov 'xeifxSivo^ iv 
TW Xefifiari' rov S" rjpo<; ireptKaOdpavTe'i Kal 
€Krpi,ylravT€<; eh rov rfKiov Weaav. rov 6epov<i he 
fjbera ravra avvrefiovra et? ra /xea-oyovdria TrdXiv 
vtraWpiov rideaai 'X^povov rtvd. TrpoaXeiTTOvai 
Se Tc3 fieaoyovarlo) ro tt/jo? tov9 ^\acrrov<i yow 
ra Be fxrjKrj ra rovrwv ov yiverai BiTraXaiarcov 
iXdrrco. ^ekriara jxev ovv elvai rwv [xea-oyova- 
riwv Trpo'i rrjv ^evyoirouav oXov rov /cakdfiov rd 
fiecra- puiXaKiorara Be '[^^(eLv i^evyrj rd Trpof rov<; 

7 /SXacrrov'i, aKXrjpurara Be rd tt/oo? rfj pi^rj' avp,- 
(fxoveiv Be rd<i y\(orra<i rd<; €k rov avrov pecroyo- 
variov, rd<i Be dX\a<; ov avficpoyveiv Kal ri]v fiev 
7rpo9 rr} pi^rj dptarepdv elvat, rijv Be tt/jo? rov<i 
^Xacrrov'i Be^idv. rp,r]6evro<; Be Bc-^^a rov p^ecro- 
yovarlov rb crro/ia t^9 yXcom]<; eKarepa<i yive- 
aOai Kara rr)v rov KaXdp,ov rop.7]v edv Be dXXov 
rpoTTOV epyaadoiaiv at yXwrrai, ravra<; ov irdvv 
arvpicfxovelv' r) p,ev ovv epyaala roiavrrj. 

^ KaTaawda-naTa : lit. 'convulsions'; j.c. the strong vibra- 
tions of a ' tongue,' the free end of which is kept away from 
the body or ' lay ' of the mouthpiece. Such a ' reed ' would 
have the efifect of giving to the pipes a fuller and louder tone. 

^ i.e. so as to make a closed end. 


have ample vibration,^ which is essential for those 
who play in the elaborate style. Such, they tell us, 
are the proper seasons for cutting the reed used for 
the reed mouthpiece. 

The manufacture is carried out in the following 
manner. Having collected the reed-stems they lay 
them in the open air during the winter, leaving on 
the rind ; in the spring they strip this off, and, 
having rubbed the reeds thoroughly, put them in 
the sun. Later on, in the summer, they cut the 
sections from knot to knot into lengths and again 
put them for some time in the open air. They 
leave the upper knot on this internodal section - ; 
and the lengths thus obtained are not less than two 
palmsbreadths long. Now they say that for making 
mouthpieces the best lengths are those of the middle 
of the reed, whereas the lengths towards the upper 
growths make very soft mouthpieces and those next 
to the root very hard ones. They say too that the 
reed-tongues made out of the same length are of the 
same quality, while those made from different lengths 
are not ; also that the one from the length next to 
the root fonns a left-hand ^ reed-tongue, and that 
from the length towards the upper growths a right- 
hand 3 reed-tongue. Moreover, when the length is 
slit, the opening of the reed-tongues in either case 
is made towards the point at which the reed was 
cut*; and, if the reed-tongues are made in any other 
manner, they are not quite of the same quality. Such 
then is the method of manufacture. 

3 i.e. the vibrating 'tongues' (reeds) for the left-hand 
and the right-hand pipe of the Double Pipe respectively. 

■• i.e. not at the closed end, but at the end which was 
' lower ' when the cane was growing : cf. § 6, irpoa\fiiroviTi 5e 



8 ^verat Bk irXelaro'i [xev fxera^v rov K.r](f)iaov 
Koi Tov M.e\avo<;' ovro<i Se 6 totto? Trpoaayo- 
peverai ixev HeKeKavia' tovtov 8' earip arra 
X.vrpoi KoXovfievoi ^aOvafiara tt;? Xi/ivr]'?, iv 0I9 
KoXkiaTov (f)aai yiveadar <>yivea9ai> he koI kuO^ 
o 7} Upo^uTia KoXoviMevrj Karacjieperar tovto S' 
iarl irora/jLo^ picov eK Ae^aheia<;. KoXkKno'i he 
hoKel "Trdvrcov jLvecrOat irepl rrjv 'O^etaz/ koKov- 
fievrjv KafiTTTjv 6 he totto? ovt6<; iariv ifx^okrj 
rov Krj(f)i,crov. yeirvcd 8' avro) Trehiov evyeiov, 

9 Trpocrayopevovcri, 'iTTTTLav. 7rp6a^oppo<i he roiro'^ 
aX,Xo9 T?}<? 'O^e/a? K.afnrrj'; earcv, ov Ka\ov(Ti 
Horjhplav (f)vea0at hi (paat, /cal Kara ravrrjv 
evjevr] rov KoXafiov. ro he 6\ov, ov av 'p ^aOv- 
yeiov Kal evyeiov %ft)yoioi/ Kal l\v(bhe<i Kal 6 
K.r](f)iao<; avafiicryerai Kal Trpo<; rovroi<i jBdOva^ia 
rr](i \L/xvr]<;, koXXio-tov yiveadai KoXa/nov. irepl 
yap rr)v ^O^ecav Ka/ATT^t' Kal rrjv Borjhpiav irdvra 
ravra vnap^eiv. on he 6 K.rj<f)ia6'; /xeydXrjv e%et 
poTTrjV ei? ro iroielv KaXov rov KaXafiov arj/xelov 
eypvcTL' KaG' ov yap rorrov MeXa? Ka\ovpievo<i 
efi/3dWei I3ade[a<i ovar}'; r7]<i Xipivrj^ Kal rov 
ehd(f)ov<; evyeiov Kal tXvcohovi, r) oXwii /i/; yivecrOai 
i) (fiavXov. Tj fiev ovv yeveai'? Kal (jivai<i rov 
avXrjriKOv Kal r) Karepyacria Kal riva<i e%ei hia- 
cbopa^ TT/oo? T0U9 dXXov^ iKava)<i elp^aOco. 

10 revr) he ov ravra p-ovov aXXd irXeiQ) rov KaXd- 
p.ov rvyxdvei (f)av€pa<; e')(^ovra rfj aladrjaei hia- 
<f)opd<;' 6 p,ev yap 7rvKvd<; Kal rfj aapKi Kal roi<i 

1 c/. Plut. Sntla, 20. 

^ i.e. the so-called ' Lake ' Copais. 

» Kal add. W. 



This reed grows in greatest abundance between 
the Kephisos and the Black River ^ ; this district is 
called Pelekania, and in it are certain ' pots,' as they 
are called, which are deep holes in the marsh,- and 
in these holes they say that it grows fairest ; it is also ^ 
said to be found * where the river called the ' Sheep 
River ' comes down, which is a stream that flows from 
Lebadeia. But it appears to grow fairest of all near 
•' the Sharp Bend ' ; this place is the mouth of the 
Kephisos ; near it is a rich plain called Hippias. 
There is another region north of the Sharp Bend 
called Boedrias ; and here too they say that the reed 
grows fine, and in general that it is fairest wherever 
there is a piece of land with deep rich alluvial soil, 
where also Kephisos mingles ^ his waters with the 
soil, and where there is further a deep hole in the 
marsh ; for that about the Shaq) Bend and Boedrias 
all these conditions are found. As proof that the 
Kephisos has a great effect in producing the reed of 
good quality they have the fact that, where the river 
called the ' Black River ' flows into the marsh, though 
the marsh is there deep and the bottom of good 
alluvial soil, it either does not grow at all or at best 
but of poor quality. Let this suffice for an account 

af the growth and character of the reed used for 
pipes, of the manufacture, and of its distinctive 
features as compared with other reeds. 

But these are not the only kinds of reed ; there are 
several others '^ with distinctive characters which are 
easily recognised ; there is one that is of compact 
growth in flesh and has its joints close together ; 

* yivfdOai add. Sell.; *o<n- yiveaOai 5e icad' ft UMVP ; so 
Aid. , but Ka&' hv. 

' avafi[ay(Tai : ? a.vau.iayr\Tai ; c/. Plut. Sttll. I.e. 
« Plin. 16. 164-167 ; Diosc. 1. 85. 



'yovaaiv, 6 he fiavo^i koI oXiyoyovaro^;' Kal o fiev 
KotXo^, ov Kokovai TiV€<; avptyjiav, ovSkv yap &)<? 
elirelv e'X^ei ^vXov kol aapK6<i' 6 Se arepeo'i koX 
av/jb7r\T]pr]^ fiiKpov. Kal 6 fiev yS/3a%u9, o Be 
evav^r}<; Kal vyjr^rjXo'; Kal 'Tra-)(y<i. o he Xe'Tno<; Kal 
7roXv(pvXXo'i, 6 Se 6Xiy6<f)vXXo<; Kal fiov6cf)vXXo^. 
oX&)9 8e TToXTuii rive^ elcri hia^opal Kara ra^ 
Xp€ia<i' €KaaTo<; yap 7rpd<i sKaa-ra %/9?;o-i/xo9. 

11 ^Opofiaai Se aXXoc aXXoi(i Trpocrayopevovaf 
Koivorarov he 7r&)9 o hova^, ov Kal XoxP'(*)he(naT6v 
ye (f)aaLV elvai Kal p,dXiara <f)ve<TOai irapa rovf 
TTOTayLtoti? Kal ra? Xc/juva<;. hta^epeiv 8' 0/10)9 
■jravro<; KaXd/xov ttoXv rov re iv tw ^^pu) Kal tov 
ev TOt<; vhaai (pvofievov. ihio<; he Kal 6 To^f«:o9, ov 
ht] KprjTLKOv Tivet; KaXovcnv oXiyoyovaro^ fiev 
cyapKQ)8e(rTepo<; he Trdvrcov Kal fidXicrra KdfM-yjriv 
he)(^6/ji€V0<;, Kal oXa><; ayeaOai hvvdp,€vo^ 609 av 
deXr) Tt9 depixaivofievof;. 

12 "E^ofcrt he, wairep eXe'X^Orj, Kal Kara rd (f)vXXa 
fjbeydXa^ hia^opd'; ov TTXrjdet Kal jieyedei jmovov 
dXXd Kal 'X^pocd. TTOLKiXo'i yap 6 AaKcoviKo^ 
KaXovfieva. en he ttj decree Kal irpoa-i^vcret.' 
Kdrwdev yap evioi TrXelcrra ^epovai ra)v ^vXXoov, 
auT09 he Mo-irep €k Od/nvov irecfiVKe. cr;^eSov he 
TLve<i (j)acn Kal tmv Xi/jLvalcov ravTqv elvai rrjv 
hia(popdv, TO 'TToXix^vXXov Kal irapop^oiov e^i^Lv 

TpOTTOV Tivd TO ^vXXoV T(p TOV KVTTeipOV Kttl 



another that is of open growth, with few joints ; 
there is the hollow reed called by some the ' tube- 
reed/ 1 inasmuch as it has hardly any wood or 
flesh ; there is another which is solid and almost 
entirely filled with substance ; there is another which 
is short, and another which is of strong growth tall 
and stout ; there is one which is slender and has 
many leaves, another which has few leaves or only 
one. And in general there are many differences in 
natural character and in usefulness, each kind being 
useful for some particular purpose. 

Some distinguish the various kinds by different 
names ; commonest perhaps is the pole-reed, which is 
siid to be of very bushy habit, and to grow chiefly 
by rivers and lakes. And it is said that there is a 
wide difference in reeds in general between those 
that grow on dry land and those that grow in the 
water. Quite distinct again is the ' archer's ' reed, 
which some call the ' Cretan ' : this has few joints 
and is fleshier than any of the others ; it can also be 
njost freely bent, and in general, when warmed, may 
be turned about as one pleases. 

The various kinds have also, as was said, great 
differences in the leaves, not only in number and 
size, but also in colour. That called the ' Laconian ' 
reed is parti-coloured. They also differ in the 
position and attachment of the leaves ; some have 
most of their leaves low down, and the reed itself 
grows out of a sort of a bush. Indeed some say that 
this may be taken as the distinctive character of 
those which grow in lakes, namely, that these 
h ive many leaves, and that their foliage in a manner 

ffvpiyyiav conj. Sch. from Plin. I.e., syringiam ; cf. Diosc. 
/. •., Gtop. 2. 6. 23. avpi-yi U; trvpiyyi MV; trvpiyya Ald.H, 



(fyXeci) Kol dpvov Kal ^ovto/hov (TKe^lracrOat 8e 


13 Tevoi; Se ri KoXdixov (pverai Kal enriyeiov, o ovk 
ei9 opOov aX>C eirl yrj^i ac^irjat rov KavXov, Mcnrep 
7} ayp(0(TTt.<;, koX out&)<? TroLelrai r'qv av^rjcriv. 
ecTTL he 6 ixev ctpprjv arepeo^, KaXelrai Se vtto 
rivcov elXeriaq. . . . 

O Se ^lv8iKo<; iv fxeyla-rj} hia(^opa Kal axxTrep 
erepov oXox; to y€vo<;' ecm Se o ixev dpprjv arepe6<;, 
6 Se dfjXv(; KotXo<;- Siaipovcn yap Kal tovtov tw 
dppevc Kal drjXei. cpvovrai S" i^ €vb<i 7rvd/j,€uo<; 
TToXXol Kal ov Xo)(^/xci)86L<i- TO 8e (pvXXov ov fiaK- 
pov aXA,' op^oiov rfj Irea' tw 8e p^eyeOei p^ydXoi 
Kal evirayel^, ware aKOVTiOi^ ^prjadai. (f)Vovrat 
8e ovTot nepl top ^ KKeaivrjv TTorajiov. airaf; 8e 
KdXafMo<> ev^ooo'i Kal refxpofievo^ Kal eTTiKat,Qfxevo<i 
KaXXiwv /3Xa(TTdv6r ert 8e ira-xyppi^o'^ Kal tto- 
Xvppi^o<i, 8i Kal 8va-(i)XeOpo<;. rj 8e pi^a yova- 
Ta)8r](;, coaTrep tj t^9 dypwaTi8o<;, irXrjv ov iravro'i 
6p,OL(o<;. dXXa irepl fiev KaXdfxcov lKav(o<; elprjcrdoi). 
XII. K.aTdXoi7rov Se elirelv ccxrav sk rov yevov^ 
Tovrov irepl (T)(^oivov Kal yap Kal rovro rwv 
ivv8pcov Oereov. eart 8e avTOv rpia ei8i], Kaddirep 
Tipe<i 8iaipovaiv, 6 re 0^1)9 Kal dKap7ro<;, ov 8r) 
KaXovaiv dppeva, Kal Kdpirifio^i, ov fieXayKpavlv 

^ Opvov, a kind of grass (see Index ; cf. Horn. II. 21. 351), 
conj. Soh. ; fipvov MSS. ; however Pint. Nat. Qiiaest. 2 gives 
fipvov along witli rv(pT) and <p\fws in a list of marsh plants. 

2 5e le'i TOVTO conj. W. ; Se tovto UM VAld. 


ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS, IV. xi. 12-xii. i 

resembles that of galingale phleos thryon ^ and sedge ; 
but this needs ^ further enquiry. 

There is also a kind of reed (bush-grass) which 
grows on land, and which is not erect, but sends out 
its stein over the ground, like the dog's-tooth grass, 
and so makes its growth. The ' male ' reed is solid : 
some call it eiletias ^ 

The Indian reed (bamboo) is very distinct, and 
as it were a totally different kind ; the ' male ' is 
solid and the ' female ' hollow (for in this kind too 
they distinguish a ' male ' and a ' female ' form) ; a 
number of reeds of this kind grow from one base and 
they do not form a bush ; the leaf is not long, but 
resembles the willow leaf ; these reeds are of great 
size and of good substance, so that they are used for 
javelins. They grow by the river Akesines.* All 
reeds are tenacious of life, and, if cut or burnt down, 
grow up again more vigorously ; also their roots are 
stout and numerous, so that the plant is hard to 
destroy. The root is jointed, like that of the dog's- 
tooth grass, but this is not equally so in all kinds. 
However let this suffice for an account of reeds. 

Of rushes. 

XII. It remains to speak of the rush,-^ as though 
it belonged to this class of plants, inasmuch as we 
must reckon this also among water plants. Of this 
there are three kinds ♦^ as some distinguish, the 
•sharp' rush, which is barren and is called the 
male'; the 'fruiting' kind which we call the ' black- 

* Sch. marks a lacuna ; there is nothing to correspond to 
.') ixfv &ppr]y. ■* Chenab. 

« c/. 1. 5. 3 ; 1. 8. 1 ; Plin. 21. 112-115 ; Diosc. 4. 52. 

* See Index. 



KaXovfxev Sea to jxeXava rov Kapirov e%eti', 7ra')(v- 
repo^ 8e ovro<i koI aapKOihearepo'i' koL TpcTO<i tw 
fxeyeSei koI rfj TraxvTrjri Kol evcrapKia Siacpepov 

6 Ka\0Vfjb€V0<i o\6a')(OLVO^. 

H fxev ovv fMeXayKpavU avj6<i Tt9 icaB^ avrov 6 
8' 6^v<; Kol 6\6a')(oivo<i e/c rov avrov (pvovTar o 
KoX UTOTTOV (f)aLV€Tai, Kol SavfiacTTOV 7' rjv ISetv 
o\7]<; KO/j,i(T0€icrr)<i rrj^ (T')(pivLa'i' ol rroWol yap 
rjaav aKapiroi 7re<^VK6re<i e'/c rov avrov, Kapirifiot 
Be oXljoi. rovro fxev ovv eTriaKeirreov. e\dr- 
rov<i Se o\ft)9 01 /cdpiTi/jiOL' 7r/?o9 yap ra irXeyfiara 
')(pr}(TiiJbCiirepo<i 6 6\6cr')(^0LV0^ hia to crapKa>8e<; Kal 
jxaXaKov. Kopvva 8' o\w<i KapivLixof; i^ avrov 
rov ypafXfMcoSovi i^oiBriaa<i, Kairecra eKriKret 
Kaddirep ood. 7rp6<; /xid yap dp^fj ypa/nficoSei 
e^ec rov<; nreptara'X^vcioBei-'; fjiLcrxov<?, e'^' mv aKpcov 
TrapairXaylovi rd<i ro)V dyyelcov eyei crrpoyyvXo- 
rrjra^ v7ro')(^aaKOvaa<i- ev rovroa Se ro airepfid- 
nov dKi8coSe<i icrri fieXav eKdarrp 7rpoa€fi<p€p€<; 
ra> rov dareptcrKov ttXtjv d/xevijvorepov. pi^av he 
e%6t fiaKpdv Kal 7ra')(yrepav iroXv rov a-xpivov 
avrr) 8' avalverai Kad' eKaarov iviavrov, eW^ 
erepa rrdXiv drro r7J<i Ke(f)aXr]<; rov ay^olvov KaOle- 
rai' rovro 8e Kal ev rfj oyjrei (f)avepov ISetv rd<; 
fiev ava<i rd<i Se ')(X(opd<; KaOtefj.eva<i' rj Be Ke^aXrj 
ofjioia rfj roii> Kpopivwv Kal rfj rSiv yrjreiwv, crvp,- 

^ 6. y' ^v iSuv conj. W. from G ; 9. iv y eX^i'iv \J ; d. ev ye 
iServ MVP ; e. 4viSe:i> Aid. 

- ol Ka.pTnfj.oi conj. R. Const.; ol Kapiroi Ald.H. 

^ yap seems meaningless ; G has autem. 

■* Kopova. ; c/. 3. 5. 1. 

" ypafxfjiwZei con], R. Const.; 7po/Ujuco5€ts Ald.H. 



head ' because it has black fruit ; this is stouter and 
ileshier : and third the ' entire rush/ as it is called, 
which is distinguished by its size stoutness and 

Now the 'black-head' grows by itself, but the 
' sharp ' rush and the ' entire ' rush grow from the 
same stock, which seems extraordinary, and indeed 
it was strange to see it ^ when the whole clump of 
rushes was brought before me ; for from the same 
stock there were growing ' barren ' rushes, which 
were the most numerous, and also a few ' fruiting ' 
ones. ■ This then is a matter for further enquir}-. 
The ' fruiting ' - ones are in general scarcer, for ^ the 
' entire rush ' is more useful for wicker-work because 
i)f its fleshiness and pliancy. The ' fruiting ' rush in 
general produces a club-like^ head which swells 
straight from the wiry stem, and then bears egg-like 
bodies ; for attached to a single wiry ^ base it has its 
very spike-like** branches all round it, and on the 
i?nds of these it has its round vessels borne laterally 
and gaping '^; in each of these is the small seed, 
which is pointed and black, and like that of the 
Michaelmas daisy, except that it is less solid. It 
has a long root, which is stouter than that of the 
ordinary rush ; this withers ever}' year, and then 
another strikes down again from the ' head ' ^ of the 
])lant. And it is easy to observe that some of the 
roots as they are let down are withered, some green. 
The ' head ' is like that of an onion or long onion. 

T€pi(rTaxv«5tis seems an impossible word ; ? »«pl avrhr 

I'TToxtuTKovaas coTii. Soh.; cTio-xa^ovo-os AlcLH. 

e. the part above ground; cf. Plin. I.e. Sch. has dis- 
.1 of the idea that ic€^>aA4 is here a ' bulbous ' root. 



7r€(j)VKVid TTftj? €K irXeiovcov ek tuvto koX irkaTela 
KuToyOev e'-^ovaa Ke\v(f)7] virepvOpa. avfi^aivet, 8' 
ovv 'iSiov iirl r&v pi^oiv el avaivovrai Kar iviavTov 
Kol €K rov av(o6ev ttoXiv tj <yeveai'i. rS)v fxev 
ovv (T'^oivoov Toiavir] Ti<i (j)vai<i. 

Et Be Kol 6 /3dT0'i Kul 6 7ra\iovpo^ evvSpd tto)? 
iariv rj TrdpvSpa, Kadd-nep evia^ov, (jiavepal (rye- 
hov KoX al rovTcov 8ia(f)opai' irepl d/x(f)oiv yap 
ecprjrai irporepov. 

\y(iiv he vrjawv roiv irXodBoyv tmv ev 'Oyo^o/ievw 
ra fiev fieyedrj TravToBaira rvyydvei, ra Be fie- 
yioTa avTwv eajLV ocrov Tpicov araSlcop rijv irepi- 
jxerpov. ev AlyvTrro) Be fxdXicrTa peydXa a(f)6Bpa 
(TVvlaraTai, ware kol v<; ev avTai<i eyyiveadai 
TToWov<i, ov<i Kol Kvvrjyerovai, Bia^aivovre'^.^ koX 
Trepl fiev ivvBpcov ravT elprjo-Ooo. 

XIII. Wepl Be ^pwyv^ioTTjTO^ ^vtmv kol Bev- 
Bpwv Tcov evvBpcov eVt toctovtov e')(^Ofiev o)? av Kad^ 
6\ov \eyovTe<i, otl ^paxv0i(orepa tmv ;^e/3crat&)i' 
earl, KaOdirep koX rd ^coa. rov<i Be kuO^ eKaarov 
^lov<i laropTjaai Bel roiv ')(epaala)v. rd jxev ovv 
dypid (fiaaiv ovBep,iav e'XjSLv 0)9 elrrelv ol opeorviroi 
Bta(j)opdv, dWd irdvra etvai /xaKpo^ia Kol ovdev 
^pa')(y^LOV' avro fj,ev rovro taa)<i d\rjOe<; \eyov- 
re?" diravra yap vireprelvei ttoXv rrjv ra>v dWeov 
^coTjv. ov fMijv dXX" 6fX(o<i earl rd p.ev fxdXkov rd 
S' Tfrrov fxaxpo^ca, KaOdrrep ev roh '^/xepoi'i' irola 

1 3. 18. 3 and 4 ; 4. 8. 1. 

ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS, IV. xii. 3-xiii. i 

being, as it were, made up of several united together ; 
it is broad, and underneath it has reddisli scales. 
Now it is a peculiar fact about the roots of this plant 
that they wither every year and that the fresh 
growth of roots comes from the part of the plant 
wliich is above ground. Such is the character of 

Bramble and Christ's thorn may be considered to 
some extent plants of the water or the waterside, 
as they are in some districts ; but the distinctive 
characters of these plants are fairly clear, for we have 
spoken of both already.^ 

The floating islands of Orchomenos - are of various 
sizes, the largest being about three furlongs in cir- 
cumference. But in Egypt very large ones form, so 
that even a number of boars are found in them, and 
men go across to the islands to hunt them. Let 

this account of water-plants suffice. 

Of the length or shortness of the life of 2tlants, and the canses. 

XIII. As to the comparative shortness of life of 
plants and trees of the water we may say thus much 
as a general account, that, like the water-animals, 
they are shorter-lived than those of the dry land. 
But we must enquire into the lives of those of the 
dry land severally. Now the woodmen say that 
the wild kinds are almost ^ without exception long- 
lived, and none of them is short-lived : so far they 
may be speaking the truth ; all such plants do live 
far longer than others. However, just as in the case 
jf cultivated plants, some are longer-lived than others, 

■^ cf. 4. 10. 2, to which § this note perhaps belongs. 
^ ij eltre'ii' eonj. Sch. ; is flxetXJ-; is et-roi MV; as ttr eliroiev 



Se ravra cxKeTrreov. ra 8e rjfxepa (pavepfo'i 8ia- 
4>6p€i tS> to, fiev elvac /xuKpo^ia to, Be ^paxv^ia' 
0)9 S' a7rA,w9 eiTrelv ra aypia tmv rjfjbepoyv pbUKpo- 
^tcorepa koI 6X(o<i tw yevei /cat to, avriSiyprjfiiva 
KaS' eKaarov, olov k6tivo<; iXda<i Koi axp^'i airiov 
ipiveo^ avKYj^' la-')(i.ip6repa yap koI irvKVorepa 
Kol ayovoorepa to?? TcepLKapTTLOL<^. 

T^y he fiaKpo^c6rT]Ta fxaprvpovcriv eiri 'ye tlvoov 
Koi r)/xep(ov Koi ayplcov koL at irapahehofievat 
(fyrj/jiai, irapa tmv /xvOoXoycov iXdav /xev <yap 
\e<yovai ttjv Wd/jvrjai, (f)olviKa 8e rbv iv ^rjXw, 
KOTivov 8e Tov iv ^OXvfiTTLa, d(f)^ ov 6 crrecjiavo^' 
(f>r)yov<i 8e rd'i iv 'I\t&) ra<i iirl rod "iXou fivijfia- 
T09' Tivef 8e (paai koX rrjv iv Ae\(/)Ot9 ttXcituvov 
^Ayafxe/jivova (})VTev(Tai koL ttjv iv Ka(fivat<t Tr]<i 
'A/9«aSta9. ravra fiev ovv 07rft)9 e%6t Ta;i^' av 
erepo^ etr] X6yo<;' on 8e icrri fxeydXri 8iacf)opd 
ra)V 8ev8pct)v (pavepov fiaKpo^ca fiev yap rd re 
Trpoeiprjfieva kol erepa TrXeico' ^pa^v^ia Be fcal 
rd roiavra 6/jioXoyov/jL€vco<;, olov poid avKr) ixrjXea, 
Ka\ rovrcdv i) rjpivr) [xaXXov Kal r) yXvKela rrj<i 
6^ei,a<i, wcnrep roiv poSiv r/ dirvprjvo<i. ^pa')(y^La 
Be Kal dfiTreXcov evia yevr] Kal fidXiara rd ttoXv- 
Kapira' BoKel Be Kal rd TrdpvBpa ^pax^^icorepa 

^ Kal TO avr. conj. W. ; Kara avr. UMV; to ai>T. Alil.H. 

2 ireptKaprriots : cf. C.P. 1. 17. 5. 

3 On the Acropolis : cf. Hdt. 8. 55 ; Soph, 0. C. 694 foil. 



and we must consider which these are. Cultivated 
plants plainly differ as to the length of their lives, 
but, to speak generally, wild plants are longer-lived 
than cultivated ones, both taken as classes, and also 
when one compares ^ the wild and cultivated forms 
of particular plants : thus the wild olive pear and fig 
are longer-lived than the corresponding cultivated 
trees ; for the wild forms of these are stronger and of 
closer growth, and they do not produce such well- 
developed fruit-pulp.2 

To the long-lived character of some plants, both 
cultivated and wild, witness is borne also by the tales 
handed down in mythology, as of the olive at Athens,^ 
the palm in Delos,* and the wild olive at Olympia, 
from which the wreaths for the games are made ; 
or again of the Valonia oaks at Ilium, planted on the 
tomb of Ilos. Again some say that Agamemnon 
planted the plane at Delphi, and the one at Kaphyai ^ 
in Arcadia. Now how this is may perhaps be 
another stor}', but anyhow it is plain that there is a 
great difference between trees in this respect ; the 
kinds that have been mentioned, and manv others 
besides, are long-lived, while the following are ad- 
nittedly short-lived — pomegranate fig apple: and 
among apples the ' spring ' sort and the ' sweet ' 
apple are shorter-lived than the 'sour' apple, even 
as the ' stoneless ' pomegranate is shoi-ter-lived than 
the other kinds. Also some kinds of vine are short- 
lived, especially those which bear much fruit ; and it 
appears that trees which grow by water are shorter- 

* Under which Leto gave birth to Artemis and Apollo : c/. 
I'aus. 8. 48. 3; Cic. de Ltg. 1. 1.; Plin. 16. 238. 

* Its planting is ascribed to Menelaus by Pans. 8. 23. 3. 



TMV iv rol<i ^'rjpoi<i elvai, olov Irea XevKrj aKTrj 

3 "Evia Se <yr)pd(TKeL /j,ev koI arjireTai Tux^co^i, 
irapa/BXaa-rdvei he ttoXlv e'/c tmv avrcov, wcnrep at 
Bd(j)vai Kol ai fiijXeat re Kol al poai koX tcov 
(f)LXvSpQ)v TO, iroWd' irepX cov koI aKeyj/atr av 
Tt9 TTorepa tuvtcl Bel Xeyecv r) erepa' Kaddirep ei 
Tf<f TO crTeXe%09 dTroK6-yfra<i, Mcnrep TroLOvaiv ol 
jewpryoi, irdXiv dvaOepuTrevot TOv<i ^\aaTov<;, r) el 
Koi o\w<i eKKoyfretev ci^pt rwv pi^&v koI eiriKav- 
aeiev koX <yap ravra ttolovctlv, ore he /cal uTro 
Tov avTO/xdrov Gvp,^aiveL' iroTepa hrj tovto tuvto 
Bel Xeyeiv rj erepov; y pev yap del rd pept] ra? 
av^r]aet'i Kal ^di(TeL<i (f>aiveTai irapaWdrTovra 
Koi en T<Z9 8caKaOdpcrei<i Td<; vtt avTMV, TavTj] 
p,ev av Bo^eie ravrou elvar tl yap av enl tovtcov 

4 rj eKeivcov Biacpepoi; y 8' axrirep ovaia Kal (f)vai<; 
TOV BevSpov pdXiar av (f>aivocro to crTeX.e%o<?, OTav 


Tt9, 6t p,r) dpa Bid to dirb to)v avTfov dp^^MV elvai 
TavTO Oeit]' KaiTOL TroXXa/ci? (Tvp^^atvei Kal Ta9 
pi^a<i eTepa<i elvai Kal peTa^dXXecv toov pev arjiro- 
peveov TOiV 8' e^ dp^r}<i jBXaaTavovawv. iirei, edv 
dXr}Oe<; y, co? ye Tive<; (f)aai, xa? dp-ireXovi puaKpo- 

1 c/. G.P. 2. 11. 5. 

•^ avadtpairevoi conj. W. ; avadepainvei Aid. 
^ ^ ei Koi '6\bis conj. W. ; & et koI icaXSis U 
MV; KoX el KuKws Ald.H. 

■• Sc. and then encourage new growth. 



lived tlian those which live in dry places : this is true 
of willow abele elder and black poplar. 

Some trees, though they grow old and decay 
quickly, shoot up again from the same stock,^ as 
bay apple pomegranate and most of the water- 
lo\ing trees. About these one might enquire 
.whether one should call the new growth the same 
tree or a new one ; to take a similar case, if, after 
cutting down the trunk, one should, as the husband- 
men do, encourage - the new shoots to grow again, 
or if 2 one should cut the tree right down to the 
roots and burn the stump,"* (for these things are 
commonly done, and they also sometimes occur 
naturallv) ; are we then here too, to call the new 
growth the same tree, or another one ? In so far as 
it is always the jjarts of the tree which appear to 
alternate their periods of growth and decay and also 
the prunings which they themselves thus make, so 
far the new and the old growth might seem to be the 
same tree ; for what difference can there be in the 
one as compared with the other ? ^ On the other 
hand, in so far as the trunk would seem to be above 
all the essential jiart of the tree, which gives it its 
special character, when this changes, one might 
suppose that the whole tree becomes something 
different — unless indeed one should lay down that to 
have the same starting-point constitutes identity ; 
whereas it often ^ happens that the roots too are 
different and undergo a change, since some decay 
and others grow afresh." For if it be true, as some 
assert, that the reason why the vine is the longest 

* I.e. how can the substitution of one set of 'parts' for 
another destroy the identity of the tree as a whole? 

* xoXXoKij conj. Sch. from G ; voXXa Kal AliH. 

" And so the ' starting-poiut ' too is not constant. 

c c 2 


yStwrara? elvai tS) fir} ^veip €Tepa<; aX>C i^ avTMv 
ael avvavaTrXrjpovadat, <ye\olov av i(T(o<; Bokolij roi- 
avTT) avyKpiat<; iav <firj> fievr) to <rTeX6^o<i' avrtj 
yap olov VTTodeaL'i Koi cf)vcn<i SivSpcov. tovto fiev 
otv OTroTepoi^i iroTe XeKreov ovdev av SieviyKai 

6 7r/309 TO, vvv. Tci^^a S' av etr) jxaKpo^ loot arov to 
nrdvTW^ hwafxevov avTapKetv, oxxvep rj iXda Kal 
T& crreXe^ei Kal Ty irapa^XacrTrjaeL koI tw 
Bv(TQ)\€0pov<; €'X,etv Ta<i p[i^a<;. BoKet Be 6 ^i,o<; 
T^9 ye fiid<i elvai, KaO^ ov to o-T6Xe%09 Bet ttjv 
apxhv TiOevTa fieTpov avafieTpetv tov xpovov, 
fidXiaTa Trepl eTrj BiaKoata. el S' oirep eirl t(ov 
d/jL7reXct)v Xeyovat Ttve<i, &)? Trapatpov/jievwv tmv 
pi^MV KaTa /jbepo<; BvvaTai Bia/xevetv to crxeXe^j^o?, 
Kal rj 6\r] (f)v(n<i o/xola Kal 6p,oio(f)6po<; oiroaovovv 
'X^povov, /iiaKpo/3iooTaTov dv eir) TrdvTcov. ^aal Be 
Beiv ovTco TToietv OTav rfBrj BoKrj KaTacfiepeo-dar 
KXrjfiaTd re eiri^dWeiv Kal Kapirovcrdai tov 
iviavTov fieTa Be TavTa KaTaaKd'\lravTa eVt 
OaTepa TT]<i d/inre\ov TrepiKaddpai Tracra? ra? 
pi^a<i, eW efXTrXrjaaL <^pvydvoiv Kal eTrafMTjcraadai 

6 Tr)v yrjv tovtw fiev ovv tw eVei KaKib<i (pepeiv 
cr(})6Bpa, TO) B' vaTepw ^eXriov, tw Be TpiTW Kal 

^ «! ahrwv Aid., SC. toiv ^iCa>v ; eie tS>v avrwp conj. W. 

2 i.e. such an argument practically assumes the permanence 
of the trunk, which in the case of the vine can hardly be 
considered apart from the root. SoKoln roiavrri crvyKpiais I 
conj. from G ; SiKaioTdrri avyKpiais MVAld. ; SiKaioTdrrit 
avyKpiffeis U ; SoKoit] elvat i] ffvyKpitris conj. Sch. ; so W. in 
his earlier edition : in his later editions he emends wildly. 



lived of trees, is that, instead of producing new 
roots, it always renews itself from the existing ones,^ 
such an illustration must surely lead to an absurd con- 
clusion,^ unless ^ we assume that the stock persists, 
as it must do, since it is, as it were, the fimdamental 
and essential part of a tree. However it cannot 
matter much for our present purpose which account 
is the right one. Perhaps we may say that the 
longest-lived tree is that which in all ways is able to 
persist,* as does the olive by its trunk, by its power 
of developing sidegrowth, and by the fact that its 
roots are so hard to destroy. It appears that the 
life of the individual olive (in regard to which one 
should make the trunk the essential part and standard* 
in estimating the time), lasts for about two hundred 
years.'' But if it is true of the vine, as some say, that, 
if the roots are partly removed, the trunk is able to 
survive, and the whole character of the tree remains 
the same and produces like fruits for any period, 
however long, then the vine will be the longest-lived 
of all trees. They say that, when the vine seems to 
be deteriorating, this is what one should do : — one 
should encourage the growth of branches and gather 
the fruit that year : and after that one should dig on 
one side of the vine and prune away all the roots on 
that side, and then fill the hole with brushwood and 
heap up the soil. In that year, they say, the \ine 
bears very badly, but better in the next, while in the 

' I have inserted /^^, which G seems to have read. 

* avrapKuv U, cf. Ar. Eq. 540 ; airrapKeiv Aid. 

* /cofl' %v rh (TTfXiX"^ Set ri^v apxhv rtdevTa I conj. ; SO G ; 
.cofl' tv (TTtKex"^ ^^V "f^h" apX')'' TtBevra fiirpov Ald.H. ; el 
i)el for ^5-»/ U ; xafl' % toC ffTtXixous Sei rhv oyxoy ri64vra fifrpov 
<;onj. W. ; kuB' hv rh itt. IjStj apxh" xal fitrpov xp^ conj. Sch. 
(/.end of §4. « Plin. 16. 241. 


rerdprcp KaOicrracrdaL kuI ^epeiv ttoWou? koI 
Ka\ov<;, axrre fxrjSev 8ia(f>ep€cv r) 6t€ rjKfJiai^ev' 
irreiSav 8e iraXiv aTroTrXrjyfj, ddrepov p,epo<i irapa- 
aKairreiv kclI depaTreveiv 6p,oi,a><;, koX ovto)<; alel 
8tap,ev€cv' TTOieiv 8e tovto p,d\iara hi erwv SeKa' 
Sl o koX KoirreLv ovSeirore tov<; tovto TroiovvTa^, 
aXV eVt 'yeved^ 7roWd<; TavTa tu crTeXeXH ^*'^" 
p,iv€iv, bi<TT€ pi,rjhe p^e/MvrjaOai tov<; <jiVT€vcravTa^' 
TOVTO pLev ovv ta(o<i twv ireireLpapevaiv aKovovTa 
8el mcTTeveLv. tu 8e puaKpo^ia koI ^pa^v^ta 

8ld TMV elpr)IJL€VQ)V 6e(Op7)T€OV. 

XTV. 'Noarjp,aTa 8e TOt? p,€V dypl,0L<; ov (f)aai 
^vpb^aiveLV v<^^ wv dvaipovvTai, <j6auX.o)9 8e 8ia- 
TideaOai koX paXiaTa i7n87]\(o<; otuv 'X^aXa^oKo- 
TTrjOfi rj pXaaTdveiv pueWovTa rj dp-yppueva rj 
dvOovvTa, KoX oTav rj irvevpia ■\^V')(^pQv rj depp^ov 
iTTtyevijTaL /cara TovTOV<i tow? Kaipov<i. viro 8e 
TMV mpacav yeLp.divoiV ov8e dv v7rep^dWovT€<; 
Maiv ov8ev irda'X^eiv, dXkd koX ^vpicfjepetv irdcn 
Xetpao-drjvar p,r} x^LpaaOkvTa yap KaKO^XaaTO- 
Tepa yiveadaL. TOi<i 8e rip,€poi<; ecrrt TrXetfo voarr}- 
pbaTa, Koi TU p,ev cocnrep Kotvd irdcriv rj rot? 
TrXettrrot? ra S' i8La KUTa yevrj. Koivd 8r} to re 
crK(o\r]KovcrOai kcu daTpo^oXelaOai koI 6 a(f>a- 
/ceXccrpo^. diravTa yap 009 elitelv koi (TK(i)Xr)Ka<; 

^ diro7rA7)75 : am-oK-fiyrj conj. Sch. 

2 Plin. 17." 216. ' 3 c/. C.P. 5. 8. 3. 

■* Kara ytvr] conj. W.; Kal tA 7e'»'9j UMV; koI koto ytfrj Aid. 

ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS, IV. xni. 6-xiv. 2 

third and fourth it becomes normal again and bears 
many fair clusters, so that it is quite as good as when 
it was in its prime. And when it goes off again,^ 
they say one should dig on the other side and apply 
the same treatment ; and that so treated the tree 
lasts for ever ; and this should be done at intervals of 
about ten years. And this is why those who adopt 
this treatment never cut down the vine, but the same 
stems remain for many generations, so that even 
those who planted the trees cannot remember doing 
so. However perhaps one should enquire of those 
who have had experience before accepting this state- 
ment. These exam{)les may serve for considering 
which trees are long-lived and which short-lived. 

Of diseases and injuries done by loeeUker conditions. 

XIV. 2 As to diseases — they say that Avild trees 
are not liable to diseases which destroy them, but 
that they get into poor condition, and that most 
obviously when they are smitten with hail when 
either they are about to bud or are just budding 
or are in bloom ; also when either a cold or a hot 
wind comes at such seasons : but that from season- 
able storms, even if they be violent, they take no 
hurt,^ but rather that it is good for them all to be 
exposed to weather : for, unless they are, they do 
not grow so well. Cultivated kinds however, they 
say, are subject to various diseases, some of which 
are, one may say, common to all or to most, while 
others are special to {^articular kinds.^ General 
diseases are those ^ of being worm-eaten, of being 
sun-scorched, and rot.'^ All trees, it may be said, 

" Koiva Sii ri t« conj. W. ; koivo. koX tot« UMV; Koivi- oiov 
T<{Te Ald.H. • cf. 8. 10. 1. 



ta'xet irXi-jv ra fxev i\dTT0V<; to, 8e TrXciOv;, KaOd- 
irep avKr) firjXea koI aTrio^;. o)? 8e aTrXco? elirelv 
rfKiara cTKcoXrjKovvTat, rd Spifiea koX OTrcoSr), Kal 
d,aTpo/3oX€iTai coaavrco^;' /mdWov 8e rot? veoL<i r) 
rot<i ev uKfiT) TOVTO crvixj3aivei, navrcov Se [xd\i,ara 
rfi re crv/cfj koI rfj dfiireXcp. 

'H 8' iXda 77/909 T(5 Toi'9 a-KcoXrjKa'; 'i(T')(eiv, ot 
Brj Koi rtjv a-VKrjV Sia(p6etpovcnv evriKTOVTef, (f)V€i, 
Koi rjXov 01 Se ixvKrjra KaXovaiv, evtoi, he Xoirdha' 
TOVTO S' icTTlv olov rjXlov Kav(Ti<;, 8i,a<f>d€tpovTaL 
8' ivioTe Kal al veai iXdai 8id Trjv virep^oXrjv t^? 
TroXvKapirla'i. rj he ■yjrcopa Kal ol '7rpoacf)v6p,€VOi 
KOj^kiat, (TVKrj^ elaiv oi> iravTa'X^ov he tovto 
a-vp,/3aLvei Tai<i avKal'i, dXX' eocKe Kal tu 
vo(77]fiaTa jLvea-Oat /caro. toj)? tottou?, Mairep Tol<i 
^oiOL<i' eirel irap" eVtot? ov ^Ircoptcocri, KaOdirep ovSe 
irepl TTjv Klveiav. 

' AXlaKeTai he avKrj pidXiaTa Kal a<^aKeXL(TfjiS> 
Kal Kpdh(p. KoXetTat, he a(f)aKeXicrfM6<; pev OTav al 
pi'(^ai p^eXavdcoai, Kpdho^ 5' oTav ol KXdSor Kal 
yap KoXovcri Tive<; KpdSov?, 66ev Kal Tovvopa ttj 
v6(T(p' 6 S' epiveo<i ovTe KpaSa out€ a<^aKeXi^ei 
ovTe ■y^rwpia ovtb crKcoXrjKOVTat Tac<; pi^al<i 6p,oica<;' 
ovSe Srj ra epivd Tive<i aTro/SaXXova-iv ovS* idv 
ep.<j)VTevda)aiv eh avKrjv. 

1 ottc^.Stj UMVAld. ; fvdSn H., evidently from Plin. 17. 221. 
cf. a P. 5. 9. 4 and 5. 

'^ AoTTttSo : Plin. 17. 223, patella. Tlie ?i\os is an abortive 
bud, called in Italian novolo. 

* T)\iov Kavffis COW], Seal, from Plin. I.e. veluti solis exusHo : 
so also G ; fiAoiavTov U ; ?i\oi avrhv V; ^Ao« avrwv M ; ^Ao< 
avTwv Aid. which W. prints provisionally. 


have worms, but some less, as fig and apple, some 
more, as pear. Speaking generally, those least liable 
to be worm-eaten are those which have a bitter 
acrid ^ juice, and these are also less liable to sun- 
scorch. Moreover this occurs more commonly in 
voung trees than in those which have come to their 
strength, and most of all it occurs in the fig and the 

The olive, in addition to having worms (which 
destroy the fig too by breeding in it), produces also 
a ' knot ' (which some call a fungus, others a bark- 
blister "-), and it resembles the effect of sun-scorch. ^ 
Also sometimes young olives are destroyed by exces- 
sive fruitfulness. The fig is also liable to scab, and 
to snails which cling to it. However this does not 
happen to figs everywhere, but it appears that, as 
with animals, diseases are dependent on local con- 
ditions ; for in some parts, as about Aineia,^ the figs 
do not get scab. 

The fig is also often a victim to rot and to 
krados. It is called rot when the roots turn black, 
it is called krados when the branches do so ; for 
some call the branches kradoi^ (instead of kladoi), 
whence the name is transferred to the disease. The 
M ild fig does not suffer from krados rot or scab, nor 
does it get so worm-eaten in its roots'^ as the culti- 
v.ited tree ; indeed some wild figs do not even shed 
their early fruit— not even if they are grafted ' into 
a cultivated tree. 

^ cj. 5. 2. 1. * Evidently a dialectic form. 

® pi^ais PAld. ; ffvKais W. after conj. of Sch. 

" efitpvTevOaiffiv conj. Sch. ; evi <pvT. UMV; evia <pvr. Aid. 
A oparently the object of such grafting was the ' caprification ' 
of the cultivated tree (c/. 2. 8. 3); but grafting for this 
pi rpose does not seem to be mentioned elsewhere. 



'H Se yjrcopa fMoXicrra jLverat orav vScop eVt 
YlXeidSt yivtjrai /nrj iroXv' iav Se ttoXv, dno- 
xXv^erat' avfx^aivei he Tore koi rd ipivd dirop- 
peiv KOL Toy? o\vv9ov<i. roov Be ctkooXtjkcov tmv 
iv Tat<{ crvKal<i ol fiev e^ avrrj<i yivovrat ol he 
evTiKTovrai viro rod KoXovfievov Kepacnov 7rdvTe<; 
he el<i KepdaT7]v dTroKadlaravrar ^Oeyyovrai he 
olov TpLj/xov. vocrel he avKi) /cat edv eirofx^pLa 
ryevrirat' rd re yap tt/jo? rrjv pl^av Kul avrr] rj 
pl^a oiairep fxaha- tovto he KaXovat Xoirdv. 
rj S'. dfj,7reXo<i Tpaya- rovro he /xdXiara avTr)<i 
icrrt TT/Jo? rrS darpo^oXelcrdai, t) orav vrro 
rrvev/uidrwv ^XaaroKOTrrjdfj rj orav rfj ipyaaia 
av/xirddr] rj rpirov vTrrla r/jit]Of}. 

'Pvd<i he yiverai, o KaXovcrt rive<i -^LveGOai, 
orav i7Tivi(f)6fj Kara rr)v aTrdvOrjatv rj orav 
Kpeirrcodfj' rb he 7rd$o^ earlv cocrre diroppelv rd<; 
pdya^ Kal rd<i emiievova-a'i elvat fiCKpd<;. evia he 
Kal piywaavra voael, Kaddirep rj dp.7reXo<;' djx- 
pkovvrat yap ol 6(}idaX/xol rrj<; irpcororofiov Kal 
rrdXiv virepOepixavdevra' ^rjrel yap Kal rovrcov rrjV 
avfifierpLav coarrep Kal t?}? rpo<p7]<i. 6X(jo<i he irdv 
TO Trapd (^vcnv irriKivhwov. 

1 cf.aP. 5. 9. 10 ; Col. 5. 9. 15. 

2 c/. 5. 4. 5 ; G. P. 5. 10. 5 ; Plin. 17. 221. 

^ avTT] ri (ilCa 1 conj. ; outi> tV ^'Ca" U ; om. Aid. 

^ cf. C.F. 5. 9. 12 ; Plin. 17. 22"). 

^ i.e. shedding of the 'bark' of the roots, \oirav conj. 
Sch., cf. G.P. 5. 9. 9 ; KoiriSa Ald.H., cf. 4. 14. 3; but the 
word here points to a different disease. 

^ virria ToiJ.ii seems to be a technical term for pruning in 
such a way that the growth of the new wood is encouraged 



Scab 1 chiefly occurs when there is not much rain 
after the rising of the Pleiad ; if rain is abundant, 
the scab is washed off, and at such times it comes 
to pass that both the spring and the winter figs drop 
off. Of the worms found in fig-trees some have their 
origin in the tree, some are produced in it by the 
creature called the ' horned worm ' ; but they all turn 
into the ' horned worm ' ; - and they make a shrill 
noise. The fig also becomes diseased if there is 
heavy rain ; for then the |)arts towards the root and 
the root itself^ become, as it were, sodden,* and this 
they call 'bark-shedding.'^ The vine suffers from 
over-luxuriance ; this, as well as sun-scorch, specially 
happens to it either when the young shoots are cut 
by winds, or when it has suffered from bad cultivation, 
or, thirdly, when it has been pruned upwards.'^ 

The vine becomes a 'shedder,' ' a condition which 
some call 'casting of the fruit,' if the tree is snowed 
upon at the time when the blossom falls, or else 
when it becomes over lusty ; ^ what happens is tliat the 
unripe grapes drop off, and those that remain on the 
tree are small. Some trees also contract disease 
from frost, for instance the vine ; for then the eyes of 
the vine that was pruned early become abortive ; and 
this also happens from excessive heat, for the vine 
seeks regularity in these conditions too, as in its 
nourishment. And in general am-thing is dangerous 
which is contrary to the normal course of things. 

a ad so there is less fruit : exact sense obscure ; ? ' from 
below' {i.e. with the blafle of the knife pointing \ipwards). 
Cj. C.P. I.e.; Col. 4. 24. 15 ; Plin. I.e., in -iupinum excims. 

- cJ. C.P. 5. 9. 13. 

* KptiTTwOy : i.e. the growth is over-luxuriant. The word 
oocurs elsewhei-e only in the parallel passage C.P. Lc, where 
o -curs also the subst. Kpf'muais, evidently a technical term. 



7 MeyaXa Se ^vfi^aWerat, kclL to, rpavfxara koX 
at TrXrjyal tmv Treptcr/caTrTOVTCov et? to fjurj (jiipeiv 
ra<; pLerafto\a<i rj Kavjxarrwv ■Pj '^(eificovcov aadev€<i 
•yap ov Sia rrjv eXKoxriv koI rov irovov ev-)(^e(.p(o- 
TOTUTOV iarc ral<i virepjBoXal^. a-)(^e86v Si, oi? Tfi/e? 
oiovrai, TO, irketa-ra tmv vocrrjfidTcov airo TrXrfyrj'i 
jLveTar koI yap to, aaTpo^XrjTa KaXovfieva Koi 
TO, (T(f)aK€\i^ovTa Bia to aTro TavTr](; elvat twv 
pi^Mv Tov TTovov, oXovTai h\ Kul 8vo TavTa<i elvai 
fjLova<; v6(Tov<i' ov firjv aWa touto y ovk dyav 
6/jioXoyovfiev6v iaTi. 

[TldvTwv S' dcrOevio-TaTOV r] /ji,r}\ea 77 r/pivrj koX 
TovTwv 77 y\vKela.^^ 

8 "Et'iat he 7rrjp(0(rec<{ ovk eh (pOopdv yivovTai 
o\(op dX}C €69 aKapiriav' olov edv rt? T7}9 TrtTfo? 
d(f)e\r] TO d/cpov rj tov (f)0iviK0<;, d/capTra ytveadac 
d/ji,(f)(o BoKel Kal ov^ o\(o<i dvaipelcrdai. 

VivovTat he v6<jol koi TOiv Kapiroiv uvtmv, edv 
p,rj KUTa Kaipov Ta nvev/xaTa koI rd ovpdvia 
yevrjTaf crv/n^aivei yap oTe /xev diro^dWetv 
yevofxevcov r) firj yevop-evcov vhaTwv, olov Ta^ avKd<i, 
OTe Be ■)(^eipov<; ylveadai a7]7rofievov<i Kal KaTawvtyo- 
jjuevovi Tj TrdXiv dva^r)patvop.evov<; irapd to heov. 
XGipLirrov he edv diravdova-'i tktlv e<pvcrj], Kaddnrep 
eXda Kal dp,7reXa)' avvaTroppet ydp 6 Kapiro^ hi 

1 Plin. 17. 227. 

^ evx^^p^Tirarov conj. W. after Lobeck ; evxetpCTarov Aid. 

^ TTouov conj. H. from G ; ronov MVAld. 

* This sentence is clearly out of place : the plural rovroov 
has nothing to refer to. cf. 4. 13. 2. It is represented how- 
ever by Plin. l. c. 


^ Moreover the wounds and blows inflicted by men 
who dig about the vines render them less able to bear 
the alternations of heat and cold ; for then the tree is 
weak owing to the wounding and to the strain put 
upon it, and falls an easy prey - to excess of heat 
and cold. Indeed, as some think, most diseases 
may be said to be due to a blow ; for that even 
the diseases known as ' sun-scorch ' and ' rot ' occur 
because the roots have suffered in this way.^ In 
fact they think that there are only these two 
diseases ; but there is not general agreement on this 

The * spring apple ' and especially the sweet 
form of it, has the weakest constitution.^ 

^ Some mutilations however do not cause destruc- 
tion of the whole '^ tree, but only produce barrenness ; 
for instance, if one takes away the top of the Aleppo 
pine or the date-palm, the tree in both cases appears 
to become barren, but not to be altogether destroyed. 

There are also diseases of the fruits themselves, 
■which occur if the winds and rains do not come 
in due season. For it comes to pass" that sometimes 
trees, figs, for example, shed their fruit when rain 
does or does not come, and ^ sometimes the fruit is 
spoilt by being rotted and so choked off,^ or again 
ly being unduly dried up. It is worst of all for 
some trees, as olive and vine, if rain falls on them as 
they are dropping their blossom ; '^^ for then the fruit, 
having no strength, drops also. 

5 Plin. 17. 228 and 229. 

« i\'xv conj. W.; Tivuv PaAld.H. cf. C.P. 5. 17. 3 and 6. 

' cf. C.P. 5. 10. 5. 

8 Si add. Sch. » cf. C.P. I.e. 

'" cnravdovffi conj. Sch. from G and Plin. l.c. ; iraveovai Aid. H. 



9 'El/ M.i\7]Ta> Se ra<i i\da<i, orav ayai Trepl to 
avOelv, Kajxirai KareaOiovcnv, al fiev ra (f)vWa ai 
he TO, avdri, erepai ra> jivei, koX y^Ckovai tu 
Sei'Spa' 'ylvovrat Se iav fi vorta koX evZieivd' eav 
he irriXd^r] Kaiifxara p^yvvvrat. 

Ilepl Be Tdpavra Trpoc^aivovai fiev del ttoXvi 
KapiTov, VTTo 8e TTjv dirdvOrjaLV rd itoXTC aTroX- 
Xvrai. rd fiev ovv roiavra rcov tottcov i8ia. 

10 Viverai he koI dXXo vocrrj/xa irepl ra? eXda<i 
dpdj^viov KaXovfMevov (pverac yap rovro /cat Bia- 
4>0€Lp€i Tov Kapirov. eiTLKdeL he Kal Kavixaru 
Tiva fcal eXdav Kal fioTpvv Kal dXXov<; KapTrov<;. 
ol he KapiTol aKcoXrjKovvTat rivcov, olov eXda<i 
aTTiov /jLTjXea^ fjueair iXr}<i p6a<i. Kal 6 ye t^9 iXdas 
aKatXrj^ edv puev vivo ro hepfia yevT^rai hia(l)deLpei 
TOV Kapirov, edv he tov Trvpijva hiacpdyr] oxpeXet 
KcoXverat he virb tw hepfiari elvai vharo^ eV 
^ApKTovpw yevofievov. ylvovrat he Kal ev rats 
hpvireTrecn aKd)X7]Ke<i, a'lirep Kal ')(eipov<i el<i rrju 
pvaiv oXo)<i he Kal hoKovaiv elvai aairpaL' hi' c 
Kal yivovTai toi<; vorioi,<; Kal fidXXov ev toU 
e(f)vhpoc<i. eyyivovrai he Kal Kvlire^ ev riai Toii 
hevhpcov, wcnrep ev rfj hpv'l Kal rrj crvKr)' Ka] 
hoKovatv eK ttj^ vyp6rr)T0<i crvvLcrraadac t?}? t'TTO 
TOV (f)Xoiov crvvLcrra/J,evr)'i' avrrj he eart yXvKela 
yevofxevoL';. yivovTat he Kal ev Xa')(^dvoi,<i ricrlv, 

^ c/. G.P. 5. 10. 3. 

2 Tarentum: c/. C.P. I.e. 

^ airdvOrjffiv conj. W.; &vdnffiv Aid. 

* Plin. 17. 229-231. 

* af)ax»"o«' conj. Sch. after Meurs. ; apixviov UPj ; apxiX'""* 
MVP ; iipxiviov Aid. cf. G.P. 5. 10. 2. 


1 In Miletus the vines at the time of flowering are 
eaten by caterpillars, some of whieli devour the 
flowers, others, a difl^erent kind, the leaves ; and they 
strip the tree ; these appear if there is a south wind 
and sunny weather ; if the heat overtakes them, the 
trees split. 

About Taras ^ the olives always shew much fruit, 
but most of it perishes at the time when the blossom 
falls.3 Such are the drawbacks special to par- 
ticular regions. 

* There is also another disease incident to the 
olive, which is called cobweb ; ^ for this forms '^' 
on the tree and destroys the fruit. Certain hot ' 
winds also scorch both olive vine-cluster and other 
fruits. And the fruits of some get worm-eaten,^ as 
olive pear apple medlar pomegranate. Now the 
worm which infests the olive, if it appears below the 
skin, destroys the fruit ; but if it devours the stone it 
is beneficial. And it is prevented from appearing 
under the skin if there is rain after ^ the rising of 
Arcturus. Worms also occur in the fruit Avhich 
ripens on the tree, and these are more harmful as 
iffecting the yield of oil. Indeed these worms seem 
to be altogether rotten ; wherefore they appear when 
:;here is a south wind and particularly in damp 
places. The hiips^'^ also occurs in certain trees, as 
T;he oak and fig, and it appears that it forms from the 
moisture which collects under the bark, which is 
sweet to the taste. Worms also occur ^i in some 

6 <pvfrai Aid.; 4fi<t>veTai conj. Sch. from C.P. I.e., but the 
1 ext is perhaps defective. 

' cf. C.P. 5. 10. 5. 8 cf. C.P. 5. 10. 1. 

» «V conj. Sch., cf. C.P. 5. 10. 1 ; 6x' U; di' Ald.H. 
"> cf. 2. 8. 3. 
" The subject of yivovrat is probably (tkwAiikcs, not Kvi'wes. 



€v0a Se Kti/jbTrai Bia<p6povcrr}<i BrjXov on t^9 

11 Kat ra fiev voaijfiara a')(ehov Tavra koX iv 
TOVTOi<i ianu. evia Se irddrj to)v Kara ra? u)pa<i 
Koi roiv Kara tov<; tottov^ yivofiivcov avaipelv 
TrecpvKev, a ovk av Ti? etiroL voaovj, olov Xiyco ttjv 
eKirrj^iv koI o KoXoval rive<i KavOfxov. aXka he 
Trap eKaaroL^ iret^vKe irvevpara airoWvvai, Kal 
airoKaeLv olov iv XaXKiBi tt}? Ev^oia<i 'OXuytiTrta? 
brav TTveuar] puKpov irpo TpoiroiV rj puera TyOOTra? 
')(eLp€pLvaq i/ru^po?- diroKaei yap to, BevSpa Kal 
ovTco<; ava iroiel Kal ^rjpd &)? ovB^ av v(f)^ rfkiov 
Kal ')(^p6vov TToWov yevoiT av, hi o Kal KaXouai 
Kavdpbov iyevero Be Trporepov irdWciKi.^ ijBt} Kal 
eiT ^ Kp-^nnrov BC eTOiv TerrapaKovra cr(f)oBp6(}. 

12 Hovovai Be pdXiaTa tmv tottwv ol koIXol Kal 
ol av\Sive<i Kal ocroi Trepl T0v<i Trora/iou? Kal 
aTrXw? 01 d-nveva-JOTaroL' twv BevBpcov Be fidXicrra 
avKrj, Bevrepov Be iXda. e\da<; Be pdWov 6 
KOTivo^; eirovrjo-ev la-)(yp6Tepo^ wv, o Kal Oavptxtarov 
TjV' at Be dpLvyBaXal to 7rdp,7rav d'jradel^' diradel^ 
Be Kal at pifkeai Kal al dirioi, Kal al poai iyevovTO' 
5t' Kol Tovro r]v davpaarov. dTroKaerai Be 
€vOv<i eK rov areXexovi, Kal oXg)? Be pdWov Kal 
irporepov d><; elirelv aTTTerai <Td dv(i>> roiv Kdro). 
(fiavepd Be yiverai rd p,ev apba irepl rrjv ^Xdarrjcnv, 

1 Plin. 17. 232. 

2 Tuv Kara rovs riirovs conj. Sch. from Plin. I.e.; rwv kuO^ 
avra Aid. 

» ^/ciTTjIiv conj. Sch.; $,cn\n^tv UMPoAld. cf. C.P. 5. 12. 2, 

•• cf. a p. 5. 12. 4. 


pot-herbs, as also do caterpillars, though the origin 
of these is of course different. 

Such are in general the diseases, and the plants 
in which they occur. Moreover^ there are certain 
affections due to season or situation- which are likely 
to destroy the plant, but which one would not call 
diseases : I mean such affections as freezing ^ and 
what some call ' scorching.' Also * there are winds 
which blow in particular districts that are likely to 
destroy or scorch ; for instance the ' Olympian ' 
wind of Chalcis in Euboea, when it blows cold a 
little before or after the winter solstice ; for this 
wind scorches up the trees and makes them more 
dry and withered than they would become from the 
sun's heat even in a long period ; wherefore its effect 
is called 'scorching.' In old times it occurred very 
frequently, and it recurred with great violence in 
the time of Archippus, after an interval of forty 

^The places which suffer most in this way are 
hollow places, valleys, the ground near rivers, and, in 
general, places which are least open to wind ; the 
i;ree which suffers most is the fig, and next to that 
the olive. The wild olive, being stronger, suffered 
more than the cultivated tree, which was surprising. 
But the almonds were altogether unscathed, as also 
were the apples pears and pomegranates ; wherefore 
this too was a surprising fact. The tree gets scorched 
by this wind right down to the trunk, and in general 
the upper are caught more and earlier than the lower 
j>arts.^ The effects are seen partly at the actual 

* c/. C.P. 5. 12. 7 ; Plin. 17. 232 and 233. 

* icaT» UilVP ; &vu> W. after Sch.'s conj. : text probably 
cefective ; I have added to &vu>. c/. C.P. 5. 12. 5. 



7} he i\da 8ta rb aei<pv\Xov varepov ocrai fiev ovv 
av (f>vWo/3o\7]acoaiv ava^KoaKOvrac TrdXcv, oaai 
8' av fXT) reX6Q)<; aTroWuvrai. Trap* evLOi<i 8i rive<i 
dTTOKavdelaai koL rcov (^vWoov avavdevrtov dve- 
/SXacTTrjaav irdXip dvev tov diro^aXelv koX to, 
(f)vXXa dve^iwcrev. ivtaxov he koX 7roXXdKi<; 
TOVTO (Tv/x^alvei, KuOdirep koI ev ^iXliTTroi'i. 

Td 8' CKTrayevTa, orav firj reXe(o<; uTToXrjrac, 
rd'^icTTa dva^Xacrrdvet, oWre ev6v<i rrjv dpi/ireXov 
Kap'7TO(popelv, wairep ev SerTaXia. ev Be r& 
HovTcp Trepl UavTi/cdTvaiov at /xev e/CTnj^ei'i 
'ylvovrai SL)(^o)<i, ore fiev inro yjrv'X^ov'; edv ■)(^eipiepiov 
fi TO eTO<i, ore he vtto vrdycov idv <ye ttoXvv ')(p6vov 
hLa/jiivcocTi. d/ii(f)6repa he fidXicxTa yiyvovrat 
ixerd Tpoird'i Trepl ra? reTrapaKOVTa. <yivovrai 
he 01 fjbev ird'yoi Tal<i aWplaL<i, ra he '^VXV /J'dXiara 
v(f)^ oov 7] eKTT7]^i<i orav aldp[a<; ovar}'; al Xeirthe^ 
KaruipepoyvTai,. ravra S' earlv wcnrep id ^ucryLtara 
TrXrjv TrXarvrepa, koL (jiepofieva ^avepd ireaovra 
he ov hca/jievei' irepl he rrjv ^pa.K'qv eKTn']'yvvvrai. 

'AXXa <ydp al fiev voaoi iroaai re Kal irolai Kal 
rive<i yivovrat Kal ttoXiv al hi' v7rep^oX7]v 
■X^eifi(ovo<; rj Kav/xdrcov <f)6opal Kal al hid irvev- 
fidrcov '\}rvxporr)Ta rj depfiorrjra hid rovrojv 
dewpeladwaav wv evla^ ovdev dv kooXvoi Kal TOi? 
ayptoiii elvai Koivd<; Kal Kard Tr)V oXrjv tmv 
hevhpcov (fiOopdv Kal en /jidXXov Kard ttjv tcov 
KaprroiV' o Kal av/x^aivov opM/jiev ovk evKapirel 

] Plin. 17. 233. 

^ 6Kira76VTa conj. iSch. ; iK-nXayivTaVi ; (Kir\r\y€vra 
'' eav 76 conj. Sch.; iav Se U; tav ir. %• S. 76 Aid. 




time of budding, but in the olive, because it is 
evergreen, they do not appear till later ; those trees 
therefore which have shed their leaves come to life 
again, but those that have not done so are completely 
destroyed. In some places trees have been known, 
after being thus scorched and after their leaves have 
withered, to shoot again without shedding their 
leaves, and the leaves have come to life again. 
Indeed in some places, as at Philippi, this happens 
several times. 

^ Trees which have been frost-bitten,^ when they 
are not completely destroyed, soon shoot again, so 
that the vine immediately bears fruit, for instance 
in Thessaly. In Pontus near Panticapaeum the 
frost-bite occurs in two ways, either just from cold, 
if the season is wintry, or from long^ spells of 
frost ; in either case this generally occurs in the ■* 
forty days after the winter solstice. The frosts 
occur in fine weather, but the cold spells, which 
cause the frost-bite, chiefly when in fine weather the 
' flakes ' ^ fall ; these are like filings, but broader, 
and can be seen as they fall, but when they have 
fallen, they disappear — though in Thrace they freeze 

Let this suffice for consideration of the diseases, 
their number and nature, including the fatal effects 
of excessive cold and heat or of cold or hot winds. 
And it may well be that cei-tain of these also affect 
wild trees, producing entire destruction of the tree 
md still more that of the fruit. Indeed we see this 
actually happen ; for wild trees also often fail to 

* x€^2 conj. Sch., c/. C.P. 5. 12. 4 ; /xeret UMVAld. 
° XcTiSfi conj. ScaL from 6 (sqvammvlae) ; (^ewlSfs Aid. c/. 
3dt. 4. 31. 



<yap ovS' eKclva 7roWdKi<;, aX)C ov')(^ 6fjLOL(o<; olfiai 

XV. AoiTTov B' eliTelv ocra Trapaipovfievcov 
rivoov fjLop[o)V aTToXkvTat. koivtj jxev 8r) Truer i 
(fidopa Tov (j}\oiou irepiaipeOevTo^ kvkXo)' Trap 
yap 0)9 elTrelv oyTco? airoWvaOac 8ok€C 7r\r)v 
avhpd')(\r)' Kol avrr) 8e idv Ti9 rrjv adpKa (xcpoSpa 
TTLear) koX tov pueWovra ^Xacrrov SiaKo-^frr)' 7r\'r]V 
el dpa (f)eWov' tovtov ydp ^acn koI evadeveiv 
pbdWov TrepiatpovfjLevov SfjXov on, tov e^co koI 
TOV KaTW 7rpo<i TTj crapKL, KaOdirep koI T7]<; dvBpd- 
X^V*- eVet Kol TOV Kcpdaov TrepiaipetTai koI 
T?;9 dfiireXov koI tt}'? (f)t\vpa<;, e^ ov to, a')(oi,via, 
fcal p^akd^rjq twv iXuTTOvcov, aXA,' ou% o Kvpio<i 
ovS" 6 rrpSiTO^, dXyC o eTTiTToXrj'i, 09 Kal avTO/xaTO^; 
ivLOTe ttTTOTTtTTTet 8ia TTjV V7r6(f)v(7iv duTepov. jap (fiXoioppayrj evia twv hevhpwv icniv, 
wcTirep Kal r) avSpd'^Xr) Kal 77 irXaTavd. ft)9 8e 
TiP€<; oiovTat, irdXiv vTro^yerat 1^609, o he e^cnOev 
diro^ripaiveTai Kal prjyvvTai Kal avT6fMaT0<i 
aTTOTTtTTTet TToXkoiV, dXX 0V')(^ 6fio(,(o<; eTTiSijXo'i. 
(fyOelpovTai p,ev ovv, C09 otovTat, irdvTa Trepiatpov- 
fievov, Sta(j>epeL 8e Ta> daTTOv kuI ^paBvTepov Kal 

^ Plin. 17. 234; cf. C.P. 5. 15. 1. 

2 cf. 1. 5. 2. 

" P\aarhv conj. Sch. from 6 ; Kapirhu UAld.H. 

•* Plin. 17. 234-236. 


ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS, IV. xiv. 14-xv. 2 

produce a good crop of fruit ; but, I imagine, they 
have not been so well observed. 

Of the. effectii on frees of removing bark, head, heart-icood, 
roofs, etc.; of various causes of death. 

XV. 1 Next we must mention what trees perish 
when certain parts are removed. All perish alike, if 
the bark is stripped off all round ; one may say that 
every tree, except the andrachne,- perishes under 
these circumstances ; and this tree does so also, if 
one does violence to the flesh, and so breaks off the 
new growth ^ which is forming. However one 
should perhaps except the cork-oak; for this, they 
say, is all the stronger if its bark is stripped off, that 
is, the outer bark and also that which lies below it 
next the flesh — as with the andrachne. For the 
bark is also stripped from the bird-cherry the vine 
and the lime (and from this the ropes are made), 
and, among smaller plants, from the mallow ; but in 
these cases it is not the real nor the first bark which 
i5 taken, but that which grows above that, which 
even of its own accord sometimes falls off because 
fresh bark is forming underneath. 

■* In fact some trees, as andrachne and plane, have 
a bark which cracks.^ As some think, in many cases 
a new bark forms ^ underneath, while the outer bark 
withers and cracks and in many cases falls off of its 
own accord ; but the process is not so obvious as it is 
in the above mentioned cases. Wherefore, as they 
think, all trees are destroyed by stripping the bark, 
tliough the destruction is not in all cases equally 

' c/. C.P. 3. 18. 3. <p\oioppayr\ fvta conj. Mold.; <p\oiop- 
payla n'la UMV; ipvWopoyia /ila Aid. 
' xnropveTai conj. W. ; wiro^uei Ald.H. 



fjbdWov Kol rjTTOV. evca yap ifKeiw 'x^povov 8ia- 
fjiivei, KaOdirep crvKr} koX (piXvpa koX 8pv<i' ol he 
Kol ^7jv (f)aai ravra, ^fjv Se koX irreXeav koX 
<f)oiviKa' tt)? 8e (fii\vpa<i koX crvfKJyueadai, rov 
(f)\oiov 7rXr)v fxiKpov' rSiv he dWwv olov irwpov- 
(rBai Kal Ihiav riva (pvcriv e'xeiv. ^orjOelv he 
Treipcovrai hcairXdrrovre'i ttijXS) koI 7repihovvTe<i 
(^Xoiot? Koi Ka\dp,oL<i Kal toI<; TOiovToi<;, otto)? /jLtj 
t^v^rjTaL fjbr]h^ dTro^rjpaLvrjrac. Kal 7]h7] <paai ttov 
dva(j>vvai, KaOdirep Kal ev 'HpaKXeia ttj T pa')(^ivia, 

3 TO.? (TVKa^. hel he dpba ry rrj<; -y^copa'i apery koI 
TT] rov depo<; Kpdaei Kal ra eTriyiyvo/xeva roiavra 
elvar yeificovcov yap rj KUVfidrcov eTriyivofievcov 
acpohpwv evdv<; aTroWwrai' hia(f)epoucn he Kal 
at &paf irepl yap Trjv ^Xdcrrrjaiv eXdrrj^; rj 
TrevKrjif, ore Kal Xottoxtl, rov &apyr]Xia)VO'i »; 
'^Kippo<f>opiMVO'i av Tt? TTepieXr), irapa^pv/^^ ^'^- 
oXXvrai. rov he ')(^eifj,(ovo<i TrXeico ')(p6vov dvr- 
e%et Kal en fidXXov ra la')(yp6rara, Kaddirep irpi- 
vo<; Kal hpv<i- xpovtwrepa yap ?; rovrwv (f)$opd. 

4 hel he Kal rrjv ireptaipeaiv e')(et,i> ri irXdro'i, 
irdvrcov fiev fxdXiara he rcov Icr^vpordroyv' eirel 
av rL<i fXLKpav 7ravreXM<; ttoitJcttj, ovdev aroirov to 
p,r) aTToXXvadat' Kairoi (fiaal ye rcve<;, eav orr- 
oaovovv, crv/M(f)6eipecrdat rrdvrwi' dXX^ iirl rcov 
dadevecrrepwv rovr eiKO^. evia yap Kav firf 
kvkXw rcepiaipedfi (^deipeadai <pa<Tiv, a Kal 

' Kol add. W. (text defective in MSS. except U). 


rapid or complete. Some in fact, as fig lime and oak, 
surxdve for some time ; indeed some say that these 
recover, and also the elm and date-palm, and 
that the bark even of the Imie almost entirely 
closes up again, while in other trees it forms as it 
were a callus and ^ acquires a peculiar new character. 
Men try to help the tree by plastering it with mud 
and tying pieces of bark reeds or something of the 
kind about it, so that it may not take cold nor 
become dried up. And they say that the bark has 
been known to grow again ; - for instance that that 
of the fig-trees at the Trachinian Heraclea did so. 
However this does not only depend on the quality of 
the soil and on the climate ; the other circumstances 
which ensue must also be favourable ; for, if great 
cold or heat ensues, the tree perishes at once. The 
season also makes a difference. For if one strips the 
bark of a silver-fir or fir at the time when the buds 
are shooting during Thargelion or Skirrophorion,** at 
which season it is separable, the tree dies at once. 
If it is done however in winter, the tree holds out 
longer ; and this is especially true of the strongest 
trees, such as kermes-oak and oak ; these it takes 
longer to kill. However the piece stripped off must 
be of a certain breadth to cause the death of the 
tree, especially in the case of the strongest trees ; for, 
if one does it only a little, it is not surprising that 
the tree should not be killed ; though some indeed 
say that, if it is done at all,^ the tree certainly dies ; 
this however is probably true only of the weaker 
kinds. For some, they say, if they are in bad barren 

- ava<pvvai conj. Seal, from G ; <pvvai Ald.H. 

^ May-June. 

* 6-xoaovovv conj. Sch. from G ; utrataow Aid. 



XvTvpav e')(ei ')((i)pav Kal drpocfiov. avrrj jxev hrj, 
KaOdirep e'iprjrai, kolvt] (jiOopa Trdvrcov. 

XVI. '^Hv Se KoXouaiv eirLKOirrjv twv hevhpoiv, 
fiovov 7r€VKr)<i iXdrrjf; Trtrfo? (jioiviKO'i, ol he Kal 
KeSpov Kol KvirapiTTOv (paal. ravra jdp, iav 
"Treptaipedfj rrjv Ko/nrjv dvaiOev koX iiriKOTrfj to 
UKpov, (jideLperat Trdvra Kal ov pkaardvei, KaOd- 
nrep ov8^ irriKavOivra rj Trdvra r) evia. ra K 
dWa Trdvra Kal TrepiKorrevra ^Xaardvei, Kal 
evid ye KaWioi ylverai, KaddTvep rj ekda. Sca- 
(^Oeiperai, he rd TroWd kclv cryiaOri to crrekeyo'^' 
ovhev yap vTrofieveiv hoKet TrXrjv dfiTreXov Kal 
(TVKi]<; Kal p6a<; Kal p,rfXea<;' evia he Kav eXKcoOfi 
Kai fjiet^ov Kal (3advrepov aTroXXvTai. rd S* 
ovhev Tracr^et, Kaddirep rj TrevKrj hahov pyov pbevrf, 
Kal e^ Mv hr] rd<; prjrlva^ o-vXXeyovaiv, olov eXd- 
rr](f rep/MLvOov Kal yap hr] rovrwv eh ^ddo^ r) 
rpwaL<i Kal eXKQ)ai<i. Kal yap e^ d^opcov (f)Opdhe<i 
yivovrai Kal e^ oXiyoc^opwv TroXv(f)6poi. 

Td he Kal TreXeKijaiv VTrofj,evei Kal opdd Kal 
TTeaovra vtto Trvevp^arof, ware TrdXiv dvlaraaOaL 
Kal l^rjv Kal ^Xaardveiv, olov Irea Kal TrXdravo<i. 
OTrep avve^rj Kal ev ^Avrdvhpai Kal ev ^iXLTrTroi<i- 
eK7r€(Tova7}<; yap d>^ aTreKoyfrav rovi dKpefiova<i 
Kal eTTeXeKi]aav, dve(f)V}] vvKrwp rj TrXdravo<i 
KOV(f)iaOelaa rov ^dpov<i Kal dvejSiai Kal 6 (pXoio'i 
Tr€pi€(f)v TToXcv. TrapaTreTreXeK7)/xevTj S' ervy)(^avev 
CK ro>v hvo pbepoiv rjv he ro hevhpov pAya p7]K0<; 

1 Plin. 17. 236 ; cf. 3. 7. 2 : C.P. 5. 17. 3. 
•^ cf. 3. 9. 5. 

^ &voidev Koi conj. W. : koI &vw9ev Aid. 
* cf. 1.3. 3; 1.14. 2, 


ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS, IV. xv. 4-xvi. 2 

soil, die even if the bark is not stripped all round. 
This then, as has been said, is a universal cause of 

XVI. ^ The process which is called topping of 
trees is fatal only to fir silver-fir Aleppo pine^ and date- 
palm, though some add prickly cedar and cj-press. 
These, if they are stripped of their foliage at the 
top ^ and the crov/n is cut off, perish wholly and do 
not shoot again, as is the case with some, if not with 
all, if they are burnt. But alj other trees shoot 
again after being lopped, and some, such as the 
olive,* become all the fairer. However most trees 
jierish if the stem is split ; '' for no tree seems able to 
stand this, except vine fig pomegranate and apple ; 
and some perish even if they are wounded severely 
and deeply. Some however take no harm ^ from 
this, as the fir when it is cut for tar, and those trees 
from which the resins are collected, as silver-fir and 
terebinth ; though these trees are in fact then deeply 
wounded and mangled. Indeed they actually become 
fruitful instead of barren, or are made to bear 
plentifully instead of scantily. 

Some trees again submit to being hewn both 
when they are standing and when they have been 
blown down, so that they rise up again and live and 
shoot, for instance the willow and the plane. ^ This 
was known to happen in Antandros and at Philippi ; 
a plane in Antandros having fallen and had its boughs 
lopped off and the axe applied to its trunk, grew 
again in the night when thus relieved of the weight, 
and the bark grew about it again. It happened that 
it had been hewn two thirds of the way round ; it 

5 c/. C.P. 5. 16. 4; Plin. 17. 238. « c/. C.P. 5. 16. 2. 
■^ <^opa56j conj. Sch.; <popiBes Aid. * Plin. 16. 133. 



fiev fxel^ov rj heKairri'^v, Tra^o? 8' wcrre yu,^ pahia)<i 
av irepCKa^eiv reTTapa<; av8pa<i. r] he ev OiXtV- 
7rot9 Irea irepLeKOTrri fiev tou9 aKp€fjb6pa<i, ou fxrjv 
TrapeTreXeKrjdrj. fidvTi<; 8e Tt? eireia-ev aurqv<; 
Ovaiav re Troietcrdai kuI Tqpelv to SevSpov &)<? 
arjfxetov ajaOov 76701/09. avearr] Se koX ev 
'Erayeipoi'i ev tm fiovaelw Xev/crj rt? eKireaovaa. 

T779 he fM7]Tpa<i e^atpovfMevrj'i ovOev ft)? elirelv 
(^Oeiperai Sevhpov. arjfxelov Be otl iroWa KoTka 
rwv /xeyedo'i exovroov Sevhpcov eariv. ol he Tvepl 
^ KpKahiav (paal fiexpi' rivo^ /xev ^rjv to hevhpov, 
reXewi he e^ airavro^ e^aipeOei<Tr}<i koX irevKrjv 
(pdelpeadai koX iXdrrjv koX aWo irav. 

YLoivt] he (pOopa TrdvTcov Kav al pl^ai Trepi- 
KOTTMaiv rj irdaai rj al TrXelaTai Koi fieyicnai, 
Kal Kvpidorarai rod 'QrjV. avrai fxev ovv e^ 


'H S' VTTO Tov eka'iov TTpocrOecrei rivl fidWov rj 
d<f>aip6aer TrdXefJiiov yap hrj Kal tovto irdar Kal 
eXaiov eTTtx^ovai rol<; vTroXeififiaai tmv pi^cov. 
la^vet he /.taXXov to eXacov ev Tol<i veoi^ Kal dprt 
(f)Vo/juevoi<i' daOevecnepa ydp, hi o Kal dirrecrdaL 

^dopal he Kal vtt dXXrjXwv eccn, tw irapai- 
pelaOai Ta? Tpoc/xx? koI ev rol'i dXXoi<; ifxirohl^etv. 
'X^aXeiro'; he Kal 6 kctto^; Trapacfivofievo^;, ■)(^aXeTro^ 
he Kal 6 Kvriao'i' diroXXvaL ydp irdvd' ft)9 elireiv 

^ riifhs fiev Cv'-' "J"^ 5. conj. W. ; rivos iav (corrected) tov SevSpov 
U; Tij/os f^riped-n TOV 5. MVAld. 

2 c/. Plin". 17. 234 ; G.P. 5. 15. 6. 

^ vafff Kol e\aiov inixf overt conj. Sch.; Traatv eAaiov iirixfv- 
ova IV UMPaAld. 



was a large tree, more than ten cubits high, and of 
such girth that four men could not easily have 
encircled it. The willow at Philippi which grew 
again had had its branches lopped off, but the trunk 
had not been hewn. A certain seer persuaded the 
people to offer sacrifice and take care of the tree, 
since what had occurred was a good omen. Also at 
Stageira an abele in the school gardens which had 
fallen got up again. 

Hardly any tree is destroyed by taking out the 
core ; a proof of which is the fact that many large 
trees are hollow. The people of Arcadia say that 
the tree under these circumstances lives for a time,^ 
but that, if the tree is entirely deprived of its core, 
fir or silver-fir or any other tree perishes. 

All trees alike are destroyed when the roots are cut 
off, whether all or most of them, if those removed are 
the largest and the most essential to life. Such 

then are the causes of death which come from the 
removal of.a part of the tree. 

On the other hand the destruction which oil ^ 
oauses is due rather to a kind of addition than to 
removal ; for oil is hostile to all trees, and ^ so men 
pour it ^ over what remains of the roots. However 
oil is more potent with young trees which are just 
growing ; for then they are weaker ; wherefore men 
do not allow them to be touched at that time. 

" Again trees may destroy one another, by robbing 
them of nourishment and hindering them in other 
ways. Again an overgro^%-th of ivy ^ is dangerous,^ 
and so is tree-medick, for this destroys almost any- 

* i.e. to complete the destruction of a tree. cf. Plut. 
'^Hae<,t. Conv. 2. 6. 2. 
» Plin. 17. 239 and 240. • cf. C.P. 5. 15. 4. 

" y^oKfTos 5« Koi Aid. ; x"^*'^* 5' ^o'tIi' conj. W. 



lcr')(yp6Tepov Se tovtov to aXtfjuov aTroWvart <yap 


"Ei^io. 8e ov ^de'ipei /xev %et/9ft) Se Trotet rai^ 
Bvvd/jiecri tmv -xyXwv koI tmv ocrfioiv, olov rj 
pd(f)avo<; Koi -q 8d(f)V7} rrjv dp-irekov. oacppaiveaffai 
yap (jjaat Koi eK-Keiv. Bi o koi orav 6 ^\acrTO<i 
irXrjaiov jevrjrat TrdXiv dvacnpe^eLv kol dcpopdv 
0)9 TrdXefxia^ ov(T7]<i rrj<i 6cr/jLrj<i. ^ AvSpoKvBrj(; Be 
Koi TrapaBeiy/xaTt tovtm Kare^PVo-aro 7rpo<i rrjv 
^orjdeiav rrjv diro rr)<; pa(f>dvov yLVOfievrjv 7rpb<i 
Tov olvov, 0)9 e^eXavvovcrav rrjv fxeOrjv (pevyeiv 
yap Bt] Kal ^coaav rrjv dfnreXov Tr]v 6ap,riv. al 

fM€v ovv (pOopal 7rft)9 re ylvovrat kuI iroaaL Kal 
7rocra%<M9 (pavepbv eK roiv Trpoeiprf/Jievoyv. 

^ e\Kei : lit. ' draws it in ' ; cf. e\Keiv aipa, ne6v, etc. 
2 cf. C.P. 2. 18. 4. 6 &\a(TThs irATjo-ioi/ conj. Dafec. from G 
6 ir\r]<Tiov fiKaarSs Ald.H. 



thing. But halimon is more potent even than this, 
for it destroys tree-medick. 

Again some things, though they do not cause 
death, enfeeble the tree as to the production of 
flavours and scents ; thus cabbage and sweet bay have 
this effect on the vine. For they say that the vine 
scents the cabbage and is infected ^ by it. Wherefore 
the vine-shoot,- whenever it comes near this plant, 
turns back and looks away,^ as though the smell 
were hostile to it. Indeed Androkydes * used this 
fact as an example to demonstrate the use of cabbage 
against wine, to expel the fumes of drunkenness ; 
for,^ said he, even when it is alive, the vine avoids the 
smell. It is now clear from what has been said 

how the death of a tree may be caused, how many 
are the causes of death, and in what several ways they 

' a.<popa.v conj. Sch. ; ev<popf7v U ; afopttv Aid. ; averti G ; 
recedere Plin. I.e.; eKX<«'f>e»»' conj. W. 

* A medical man who preached temperance to Alexander ; 
c/. Plin. 14. 08 ; 17. 240. 

* yap Srj Kol conj. Dalec. from G ; yap 5*1 koi Aid. 



I. Ilepl Se TTJ'; {/Xt;?, Trola re iarLV eKdarr), 
Kol TToO^ oipaia rifiveaOai, koI tt/oo? Troia tmv 
epycov ')(p7]aifM7j, kol iroia Svaepyo'i rj evep'yoq, Kol 
et Tt, aX\o T^9 ToiavTr]<i laTopia<i e^^erat, irecpa- 
reov Oytioto)"? etTreiv. 

'Q^paca Srj re/xveadac TOiv ^vXoov ra /xev ovv 
(XTpoyyvXa koI 6a a irpo'i (pXaiafMov orav ySXa- 
ardvTj- t6t6 yap evTTepLaipeTO<i 6 (f)Xoi6<i, o St) 
KaXovai XoTTCLV, 8ia ttjv vyporrjra rrjv viroyivo- 
fxev7]v avrS). perd he ravra hvairepLaipero'i /cat 
TO ^v\ov peXav ylveraL Kal Svcr€tSe<;. ra Se 
T€rpdyo)va p,erd rov XoirrjTov' d(fiaipelrai yap 
7) 7re\€Kricri<i rr]v BvcreiSeLav. oA-w? Trdv tt/oo? 
i(T')(yv (hpaiorarov ov povov irerravp^evov rr]<{ 
/3\a(TT7]a€(o<; dW' ert pdWov eKTreirdvav rov 
KupiTov. dWd Sid rov (f}Xoicrp,ov d(opoi<; ovariv 
atpaiot^ avp^^alvei ylveadai rot<; crrpoyyvXot.^, 
ware ivavriai al SipaL Kara avp,^e^7)K6<i. ev- 

1 Plin. 16. 188. " cf. 3. 5. 1. 

* Svffit epiaiperSs con]. Sch.; SvaTrepiKadapros Aid. 




In like manner we must endeavour to speak of 
timber, saying of what nature is that of each tree, 
what is the right season for cutting it, which kinds 
are hard or easy to work, and anything else that 
belongs to such an enquiry. 


Of the seasons of cutting. 

Now these are the right seasons for cutting 
timber : — for ' round ' timber and that whose bark is 
to be stripped the time is when the tree is coming 
into leaf. For then the bark is easily stripped 
(which process they call ' peeling ' -) because of the 
moisture which forms beneath it. At a later time it 
Is hard to strip,^ and the timber obtained is black 
and uncomely. However square logs can be cut 
after the time of peeling, since trinmiing with the 
axe removes the uneomeliness. In general any wood 
is at the best season as to strength when it has not 
oaerelv ceased coming into leaf, but has even ripened 
its fruit ; however on account of the bark-stripping 
it comes to pass that ' round ' timber is in season * 
when it is cut before it is ripe, so that, as it happens, 
:he seasons are here reversed. Moreover the wood 

* i.e. in practice the timber is cut before the idealh' 
jroper time. 



'X^povaTepa Se ra iXdriva yiverai Kara rov 
rrpSirov XoTTrjrov. 

2 'Evret Be fiaXicrT rj fiovov irepiaipovcn tov 
^\oLov iXdTr]<i vevKtj'i tt/ti/o?, ravra jxev Tefxverat, 
TOV rjpo'i' Tore 'yap rj ^7uiaTr)cn<;- ra Se dWa ore 
fiev fierd irvporopilav, ore Be fiera rpvyrjTov /cal 
^ApKTovpov, olov dpla irreXea cr(f)evBap,vo<i p,e\ia 
i^vyia o^va (ptkvpa 077709 re koX oKw<i oaa 
KaTopvTTerat' Bpv<; Be oyjnaiTaTa Kara ')(eip.Mva 
/lerd TO p-eruTToypov' edv Be viro tov Xottijtov 
rp.ijOfj, arjirerai To.'^^tcrTa w? eiirelv, eav re efi- 
(fiXoio<i edv re dcfiXoiOf}' koI p,dXiaTa fiev ra ev 
tS> 7rp(OT(p XoTTT^Tw, BcvTepu Be Tci ev r& BevTepw, 
Tp'iTa Be Koi rjKLCTTa ra ev tw TpiTM' to. Be 
/jberd TTji' ireTravcnv twv Kapiroiv d^pwTa Biap,evei, 
KCLV dXoTTiaTa fj' rrXrjv virb rov (pXoibv viroBvo- 
pbevoi (TKtoXrjKe'i eViTToX?}? eyypdcjiovai to c7TeXe;\;o<?, 
049 Kal o-<^pa<yl(TL '^(^pMVTai Tive<i' oopalov Be Tp^r}- 
dev TO Bpvivov acra7re9 xe koi dd piTrtiBecrTaTOV 
<yiveTai Kal aKXrjpov Kal ttvkvov warrep Kepaf 
TTav yap op,ot6v eariv eyKapBiat' TrXrjv to <ye t>}9 
dXi(f)XoLOv Kal TOTe (pavXov. 

3 Xvp,^a[vet Be Kal tovto vTrevavTcov, OTav re 
Kara ti-jv ^XdcTTTjaiv Tep,vo)VTac Kal OTav p,eTd 
TOv<i Kapirom. Tore p,ev yap dva^rjpalveTai Ta 
aTeXexv '^^'' ^^ ^Xaardvet Ta BevBpa' /iera Be 
Toi'9 Kap7rov<i TTapa^Xaa-jdvei. Bvarop^coTepa Be 

1 c/. 3. 5. 1. 2 ^ add. Sch. 

^ (priySs T€ conj. Seal.; TrriySs re \J ; (prjyia-iv 1 e Y ; -irriyontv 
T6 MAld. 

5. 7. 5 

KaTopvTTfrat conj. Sch. from G ; dpiiTTerai Aid. c/. 5. 4. 3; 


of the silver-fir is of a better colour at the time ^ of 
the first peeling. 

But since they strip the bark of 2 hardly any trees 
except silver-fir fir and pine, these trees are cut in 
the spring ; for then is the time of coming into leaf. 
Other trees are cut sometimes after wheat-harvest, 
sometimes after the vintage and the rising of 
Arcturus, as aria (holm-oak) elm maple manna-ash 
~ygia beech lime Valonia oak,^ and in general 
all those whose timber is for underground use.* 
The oak is cut latest of all, in early winter at the end 
of autumn. ^ If it is cut at the time of peeling, it 
rots almost more quickly than at any other time, 
whether it has the bark on or not. This is especially 
so if it is cut during the first peeling, less so during 
the second, and least during the third. What is cut 
after the ripening of the fruit remains untouched by 
worms, even if it has not peeled : however worms get 
in under the bark and mark the surface of the stem, 
and such marked pieces of wood some use as seals.*^ 
Oak-wood if cut in the right season does not rot and 
is remarkably free from worms, and its texture is 
hard and close like horn ; for it is like the heart of a 
tree throughout, except that that of the kind called 
sea-bark oak is even at that time of poor quality.^ 

Again, if the trees are cut at the time of coming 
into leaf, the result is the opposite of that which 
follows when they are cut after fruiting : for in the 
former case the trunks dry up and the trees do not 
sprout into leaf,^ whereas after the time of fruiting 
they sprout at the sides. At this season however 

* ef. At. Thesm. 427 : Opnri)ieara aippayiZia, 
' cf. 3. 8. 5. 

* PKoffTavet M ; -wapaBKaardyet W. with Aid. 



Old TTjv (TKkrjpoTrjTa /tard tuvttjv ttjv wpav. 
KeXevovcri Be koL 8e8vKvt,a<i t?}? aeXrjvr^'i refiveiv 
0)9 a/iXTjporepwv koX daaiteareprnv yivo/xevoov. 
iirel 8^ at ire-^ei'i tmv Kapirctiv irapaWdrTOVcn, 
SrjXov OTC KoX al aKfial 77/009 ttjv TOfx,r}V irapaX,- 
XaTTOVffiv del yap o-yjnalTepai al roiv o^jnKap- 

4 TToreprnv. Bi Kal Treiptovrai rive<i opi^eiv Kad^ 
€Kd(T TT]V olov iTevKrjv fiev Kal eXdrrjv orav viro- 
XoTTOXTiv' €Tt Be o^vav Kal (jiiXvpav Kal cr^eV 
BafJbvov Kal ^vyiav T7]<i O7rc6yoa9* Bpvv Be, axTTrep 
etprjrai, /xerd to ^OivoTrcopov. <paal Be ri,ve<; 
TrevKijv oopaiav elvai tov rjpo<i, orav <ye e^r) Ttjv 
KaXovfxevrjv Kd')(^pvv, Kal ttjv ttLtw orav ^OTpv; 
avTrj<i dvdfj. irola fxev ovv d>pata KaO^ eKaarov 
Xpovov ovrto Biaipovvrat. irdvTwv Be BrjXov on 
/3e\TL(o rd Tcov dKfia^oi'Tcov BevBpwv r) tS)V vewv 
KOfjLiBi] Kal jeyrjpaKOTwv rd fiev yap vBarcoBr), rd 
Be yecoBrj. 

5 n\etcrTa9 Be 'X^peia<; Kal fieylara^ rj iXdrr) Kal 
7) 'jrevKT] TvapeyovTai, Kal ravra KdWiara Kal 
pAyiaTa rwv ^vXcov earl. Biacf)epovai Be dX\.?]\o}v 
ev TToWol'i' T) fiev ydp 7revK->] aapKooBecrrepa re 
Kal oXiyoivo^' r) 8' iXdrr} Kal 7roXvivo<i Kal 
dcrapKO^, axrre evavTico^ eKarepov e-)(eiv roiv 
pepMV, Ta9 /Mev lva<i lcr')(ypd<i rrfv Be adpKa 

^ al add. Sch. 

'- inroKoTrSiaiv conj. Sch.; fi iriXtiv elcri U; vireAeivatriv MV ; 
virt\ivwffiv Aid. 

^ ravT7]y conj. St.; Kal tV Ald.H. 



they are harder to cut because the wood is tougher. 
It is also recommended to do the cuttin/r when the 
moon has set, since then the wood is harder and 
less likely to rot. But, since the times when the 
fruit ripens are different for different trees, it is 
clear that the right moment for cutting also differs, 
being later for those ^ trees which fruit later. 
Wherefore some tr}- to define the time for the 
cutting of each tree ; for instance for fir and silver- 
fir the time is, they say, when they begin to peel ^ : 
for beech lime maple and zygia in autumn ; for oak,^ 
as has been said, when autumn is past. Some how- 
ever say that the fir is ripe for cutting in spring, 
when it has on it the thing called ' catkin,' * and the 
pine when its ' cluster ' ^ is in bloom. Thus they 
distinguish which trees are ripe for cutting at various 
times ; however it is clear that in all cases the wood 
is better when the tree is in its prime than when it 
is quite young or has grown old, the wood of quite 
young trees being too succulent, and that of old ones 
too full of mineral matter. 

Of the inood of silver-Jir and fir. 

Silver-fir and fir are the most useful trees and in 
the greatest variety of ways, and their ^ timber is 
the fairest and largest. Yet they differ from one 
another in many respects ; the fir is fleshier and has 
few fibres, while the silver-fir has many fibres and is 
not fleshy, so that in respect of each component it is 
the reverse of the other, having stout fibres ^ but soft 

* cf. 1. 1. -211.; 3. 5. .5. 

' I.e. the male inflorescence. 

* ToCra conj. Sch. from G ; aina Ald.H. 
' cf. 3. 9. 7 ; Plin. 16. 184. 



fwXaKTjv KoX jjbavrjv St o ro /juev ^dpv ro 8k 
KOV(f>ov' TO fiev yap evSaSov to 8e dSaSov, fj koI 

6 XevKOTepov. ex^^ ^^ '^^^^ o^ov<; TrXeioy? fxev rj 
TTevKT], aKXr]poT€pov<; Se rj iXaTt] ttoWo), /xdWov 
Be Kol crK\r)poTdTOV<i TrdvTWV dfX(pco 8e 7rvKVov<i 
KoX KepaT(i)8eL<i /cal tw ^/jftj/xart ^av6ov<i kol 
8a8d>8ei<i. OTUV 8e Tf^rjOcoat, pel koX e« twi' t?)<? 
eA,aT979 icat e/c tcoi^ tt}? TrevKrjf; eVt ttoXvv ^/joi'oi^ 
vyp6T7]<i Kal p^dWov e/c to>v Trj<; iXdTr]<;. 'icTTi 8e 
KOI TToXvXoTTOV rj iXdTrj, KaOdirep Koi to Kpopuvov 
del yap e%e£ Tivd vTroKdToa tov (paivopevov, Kol 

7 e/c TOLOVTcov rj oXrj. Si' o koI Td<i Kcoira^ ^vovTe^ 
d(f)aLpelv TTCipayvTai KaO^ eva Kal 6paXcb<i' edv yap 
ovTco<; d^aipSiaiv, l(T-)(ypo<i o /cco7red)v, edv Be 
TrapaXXd^coai Kal yu.?; KaTaairtoaiv 6poia><;, dade- 
vrj<i' irXrjyrj yap ovtco<;, e/ceti/w? S' d(f)aipecyi^. €(TTI 
Be Kal p^aKpoTaTov rj eXdTrj Kal 6pdo(f)vecrTaTOV. 
Bt o Kal Ta'i Kepata<i Kal tow laTov<i €K TavTr]<; 
TTOLovaiv. e^^i Be Kal Ta^ (f)Xe^a<i Kal Ta^; lva<i 

8 ep,<^ave(TTdTa<i irdvToov. av^dveTat Be nrpSiTOv 
ei<i p.rjK0<;, d'^pi' ov Br] ecpiKrjTai tov tjXlov kol 
ovre 0^09 ovBelf ovTe 7rapa^Xd(TTr]cri<i ovtc Trdxp^ 
ylveTai' p.eTd Be TavTa el<; ^d6o<i Kal 7ra;^09* 
oi5tci)9 al Twv o^cav eK<pvcr€i<; Kal irapa^aaTrjcxei'i. 

1 rb fxtv yao 4vB. conj. St. from (r ; eV5. yap Aid. 
•' cf. 3. 9. 7. 

* cf. 3.. 9. 7, /j-ovov oh 5ta<pape7s, whence it appears that the 
epithet refers to colour. .-, 

* Plin. 16. 195. * i.e. the annual rin£;s. c/. 1. 5. 2 ; 5. 5. 3. 
« cf. Horn. Od. 12. 172. 

'' KaTarfKuxTiv COnj. W. ; Kara iraffiv UAIV; Kara ndvra Aid. 

« cf. Plin. I.e. » c/. 1. 2. 1. 

^^ ifj.<pavtffTaTas conj. W. ; «i>7€i/€(rTciTa5 Aid. 
" 56 conj. Sch.; /col UAld;H. 


flesh of open texture. Wherefore the timber of the 
one is heavy, of the other hght, the one^ being 
resinous, the other without resin ; wherefore also it 
is whiter. Moreover the fir has more branches, but 
those of the silver-fir are much tougher, or rather 
they are tougher than those of any other tree ; - the 
branches of both however are of close texture, 
homy,3 and in colour brown and like resin-glutted 
wood. * When the branches of either tree are cut, 
sap streams from them for a considerable time, but 
especially from those of the silver-fir. Moreover the 
wood of the silver-fir has many layers, like an onion : ^ 
there is always another beneath that which is visible, 
and the wood is comjxised of such layers throughout. 
Wherefore, when men are shaving this wood to make 
oars,^ they endeavour to take off the several coats one 
by one evenly : for, if they do this, they get a strong 
spar, while if they do the work irregularly and do 
not strip " off the coats evenly, they get a weak one ; 
for the process in this case is hacking instead of 
stripping. The silver-fir also gives timber of the 
greatest lengths and of the straightest growth ; 
wherefore yard-arms ® and masts are made from it. 
Also the vessels ^ and fibre are more clearly ^^ seen in 
it than in any other tree. At first ^^ it grows in 
height only, until it has reached ^- the sunshine ; and 
so far there is no branch nor sidegrowth nor density 
of habit ; but after that the tree proceeds to increase 
in bulk 13 and density of habit, as i* the outgrowing 
branches and sidegrowths develop. 

^' ixP' • • • ^<piKTtTcu conj. Sch.; fixP' "^ ^h KtupiiaiTai U; 
ivDtj ouK oupiicrtTai MV; &XP'^ "" ax^'^T''"* Ald.H. 
- cf. 4. 1. 4. 

Lit. ' this being the effect of the outgrowth.' -rdx"*' 
-■xs Aid.; xoxo»> oray conj. W. 



9 TavTa fjLev ovv thia t% eKaTrj^;, ra 8e Koiva Kal 
7revKi]<i Kal iXdTr]<i Kal rwv aWoov. eari yap 97 
fjuev Terpd^oo<; rj 8e 8l^oo<;. KaXovcri Be reTpa^oovfi 
fxev 6aai<i e'^' eKcirepa Trj<i ivrepi,(ovr]<; hvo kt)]- 
S6v€<; elalv evavriav e'x^ovcraL rrjv (pvaiv eireira 
Kad^ cKarepav ttjv KTqhova TToiovvTac ttjv TreXi- 
KTjcnv evavriav ra'i 77X777^9 Kara KrrjSova cpepov- 
T€9, OTav e^' eKarepa tt}? ivrept-covti'i rj TreXeKija-i'i 
dvaaTpecprj. tovto yap e^ dvdyKT]<i av/x^aivei 
Bia TTJV (f)vaLV TOiv KTrjhovwv. Ta<i he Toiaina<; 
i\dra<i Kal irevKaf; rerpa^oovi KaXovai. elcrl Se 
Kal TT/oo? ra? epyacria'i avjai KaXXiaTar ttvkvo- 
rara yap exovai ra ^vXa Kal ra? alyiha^ avrai 

10 (pvovcrtv. at hi^ooi 8e KTrjSova fiev e-xpvcn fxiav 
e<^' eKarepa rr]<; evrepi(i)V'>]<;, ravTa<; Be evavrla<; 
dWrjXac^, ware Kal rrjv TreXeKrjcnv elvat SiirXrjv, 
fiiav Kad^ eKarepav KrrjBova rat? 7rXr]yat<i evav- 
riat<i' diraXwrara [xev ovv ravrd cf)aaiv e^^iv 
rd ^vXa, -^eipiara Be tt/jo? ra? epyaaia';' Bia- 
arpecperai yap pbdXiara. puovo^oovi Be KaXovat 
Ta9 eyovaa<i piav p,6vov KrrjBova' rrjV Be rreXe- 
KTjaiv avrwv yiveaOai rr)v avrrjv e^' eKarepa 
rr]<i evrepiQ)vr]'i' ^aa-l Be p.av6rara fiev e^^iv rfj 
(pvcret rd ^vXa ravra Trpo? Be rd<i Bia(jrpo(f)d<i 

11 Aca(f)opd<i Be e-xpvcn roL<i (f)Xoioi<;, Kaff" a? 
yvo) pi^ovaiv lB6vre<i evdix; rb BevBpov irecpVKo^ 

' Plin. I.e. 

^ The meaning of ' four-cleft ' etc. seems to be this : 

(X)^-C/eFf- (S^2-C/eFt- (T^f -Cleft. 


These are the characteristics peculiar to the silver- 
fir. Others it shares with the fir and the other trees 
of this class. ^ For instance, sometimes a tree is 
' four-cleft/ sometimes ' two-cleft ' ; it is called ' four- 
cleft ' when on either side of the heart-wood there 
are two distinct and diverse lines of fissure: in that 
case the blows of the axe follow these lines in cases 
where the hewing is stopped short on either side of 
the heart-wood.2 For the nature of the lines of fissure 
compels the hewing to take this course. Silver-firs 
or firs thus formed are said to be ' four-cleft.' And 
these are also the fairest trees for carpentry, their 
wood being the closest and possessmg the aigis.^ 
Those which are ' two-cleft ' have one single line of 
fissure on either side of the heart- wood, and the lines 
of fissure do not correspond to each other, so that 
the hewing also is performed by cuts which follow 
the two lines of fissure, so as to reach the two sides 
of the heart-wood at different angles. Now such 
wood, they say, is the softest, but the worst for 
carpentry, as it warps most easily. Those trees which 
have only a single* continuous line of fissure are 
said to be 'one-clefl,' though here too the cutting 
is done from either side of the heart-wood : and such 
wood has, they say, an open^ texture, and yet^ it is 
not at all apt to warp. 

' There are also differences in the bark, by obser- 
^ ation of which they can tell at once what the 

" cf. 3. 9. 3. * fiiav couj. W. ; fxiay 5e PjAld. 

* navSrara conj. W. ; ^avorrfra Aid. 

® TO luXo . . . Teks conj. Sch. ; to |uAa- toCto 5f jTi^bj toj 
Ald.H. ' Plin. 16. 195 and 196. 



nroiov tl earr rcov jxev 'yap €vkt7)86v(ov koX 
aarpa^MV kol 6 (f)Xoi.o<; \€io<; koI 6pd6<;, tmv 
5' ivavTLcov T/3a%u9 re koI Bie(Trpa/x/j,6vo<;-<i 
Se Kal iirl tmv Xoittwv. aXX! ecnt rerpd^oa 
fjuev oXlya fxovo^oa 8e irXeito tcov dWcov. airaaa 
he Tj vXr] fiel^cov koX opOorepa koI dcrrpa/SeaTepa 
Kal ari(f)poT€pa koX 6Xq)<; KaXXiwv koX TrXetcov 
Tj iv Tol<i Trpoa^opeioa, locnrep Kal irporepov 
iXe')(6rj' Kal aurov tov SevSpov Be ra TTyoo? 
^oppdv TTVKvorepa Kal veaviKdorepa. oaa Se 
VTTOTrapd^oppa Kal iv TrepiTrvo), ravja arpecfiei 
Kal irapaXXdrrei irapa /xiKpbv 6 j^opea^, ware 
elvai, Trapearpa/LLpevrjv avrcov ttjv ixrjrpav Kal 
12 ov Kar opdov. earL Be oXa fxev rd TOiavra 
la')(ypd TfMrjdevra Be daOevrj Bid to 7roXXd<; e^eiv 
7TapaXXayd<i. KoXovai Be ol TeKTOve<i eTriTO/jLa 
ravra Bid to tt/jo? ttjv ')(peiav ovrco Tep,veiP. 
6Xco<; Be %et/3&) rd e« ro)v e(f)vypo)v Kal ev- 
Bieivwv Kal 7raXi(jKiQ)v Kal avvr]pe(f)MP Kal tt/jo? 
Ttjv reKTOviKTjv %/9etaz/ Kal 7rpo<i rrjv irvpev- 
TiKr)V. al [xev ovv roiavrai Bia(f)opal irpo^ rot"? 
TOTTOVi elcrlv avTwv roiv 6/xojevcov W9 ye aTrXco? 

II. Aiaipovai yap rLve<i Kard Ta9 'X^copa^;, Kai 
(fiacriv dplaT7]v p,ev elvai T779 vXri<; rrpo'^ rrjv 
reKTOviKrjv xpeiav rr}? 669 ttjv 'EXXdBa irapa- 
>yivo/jiev7]<i Trjv M.aKeBoviKijv Xei'a re yap eari 
Kal da-Tpa^r]<; Kal exovaa Ovlov. Bevrepav Be 
TTjv UovTtKijv, Tpirrjv Be rr)v aTTo tov 'VvvBaKov, 

1 irecpvKhi : cf. Xen. Cyr. 4. 3. 5. 

^ vwoTTapd^oppa conj. St.; vtrb irapd^oppa Aid.; vnSPoppa t] 
irapd^oppa conj. Sch. 


timber of the tree is like as it stands.^ For if the 
timber has straight and not crooked hnes of fissure, 
the bark also is smooth and regular, while if the 
timber has the opposite character, the bark is rough 
and twisted ; and so too is it with other points. 
However few trees are ' four-cleft,' and most of 
those which are not are 'one-cleft.' All wood, as 
was said before, which grows in a {X)sition facing 
north, is bigger, more erect, of straighter grain, 
tougher, and in general fairer and more abundant. 
Moreover of an individual tree the wood on the 
northward side is closer and more vigorous. But if 
a tree stands sideways to the north - with a draught 
rc'und it, the north wind by degi-ees twists and con- 
torts ^ it, so that its core becomes twisted instead of 
running straight. The timber of such a tree while 
still in one piece is strong, but, when cut, it is weak, 
because the grain slants across the several pieces. 
Carpenters call such wood ' short lengths,' because 
they thus cut it up for use. Again in general wood 
which comes from a moist, sheltered, shad}- or con- 
fined position is inferior both for carpentry and for 
fuel. Such are the differences, generally * speaking, 
bt tween trees of the same kind as they are affected 
b}- situation. 

Of the effects on timber of climate. 

II. ''Some indeed make a distinction between regions 
and say that the best of the timber which comes into 
Hellas for the carpenter's purposes is the Macedonian, 
fo • it is smooth and of straight grain, and it contains 
redn : second best is that from Pontus, third that 

TopaAXoTTfi conj. Dalec. ; rapaWdyd U ; irapaX-nyfi Aid. ; 
■Ka,}a\vyi(fi conj. H. Steph. 

76 conj. Sch.; Si Aid. ^ p^n jg 197 



TeTdpTTjv 8e Tijv AlviaviKijv ')(^et.p(,(TT7]v Se rrjv T( 
liapvaacaKTjv Koi Tr}v J^v^oIkijv koI yap o^dohet' 
/cal rpa^eia<i koX Ta')(y a-rjireaOaL. ire pi he rf]' 
^ApKa8iK7]<; aKenreov. 

^Ya'xyporara he tmv ^vKcov iarl ra ao^a Ka 
Xeia' KoX rfi o-yjrei Se ravTa KukXicrTa. o^coSi 
Se yiverai to, KaKor po<^r}devTa Kal ijrot -^^eifjUMv 
TTiecrdevTa rj Kal akXo) rivl roLomtp' to jaf 
6\ov rr]if TToXvo^tav elvat evheiav €VTpo(f)La<i 
orav he KaKorpotpijaavTa avaXd^rj irdXiv Kal ev 
adevijarj, avfi^alvei KaraTriveaOai rov<i o^ov^ 
VTTO T7]<i 7repi<pvcrea)<;' evrpo(j)ovv yap Kal av 
^avopevov dvaXa/M^dvei Kal iroXXdKL^ e^coOei 
p,ev Xelov to ^vXov Siatpovpevov 8e 6^(bSe< 
e(f)dv7]. 8t' Kal aKOTrovvrat roiv cr^icrrcot' ra' 
p,rjTpa<i' iav yap avrat exfoo-iv o^ovf, o^toSr) Ka 
TO, eKTQf;' Kal ovroc, ■x^aXeircoTepoi, roiv e/cTO<? Ka 

VivovTaL he Kal al airelpau Sia '^eip.cova<i n 
Kal KaKOTpo<f)Lav. aireipa^ he KaXovcriv orav i 
(TVcrrpo<prj ti<; ev avrfj p,ec^o)V Kal kvkXoi<{ irepi 
e'X^opAvr] TrXecocnv oud' watrep 6 6^o<i dirXcb'i ovd 
o)9 'q ovXoTr]^; rj ev avTa> rw ^vXcp' hi oXov ydf 
7rG)9 avTT] Kal opaXl^ovaa- %a\e7r(UTeyooy hi 
rovTO rroXi) Kal hvarepyorepov rcov o^aiv. eoLKi 
he 7Tapa7rX7]criQ)<; Kal f09 ev Tol<i XiOoL^ eyyivecrda, 

^ A river which flows into the Propontis on the Asiatic 

"^ Near Mount Oeta. Alviaviic7}y conj. Palm, from Plin 
I.e.; alayiKiiv P^Ald.H. 

' ravTO, K(ix\i(na- o^aiSri Se conj. Seal.; TaffTO kuI fidKiirro 
o^wSt] yiy. Ald.H. ; TouTa fidKiffra- o^coStj Se 71V. U. 



from the Rhyndakos,^ fourth that of the country 
of the Ainianes/- worst is that of Parnassus and that 
of Euboea, for it is full of knots and rough and 
quicklv rots. As to Arcadian timber the case is 

Of knots and ' coiling ' in timber. 

ITie strongest wood is that which is without knots 
and smooth, and it is also the fairest in appearance.^ 
Wood becomes knotty when it has been ill nourished 
and has suffered severely whether from winter or 
some such cause ; for in general a knotty habit is 
supjwsed to indicate lack of nourishment. When 
hoAvever, after being ill nourished, the tree recovers 
and becomes vigorous, the result is that the knots 
are absorbed^ by the growth which now covers them ; 
for the tree, being now well fed and growing 
vigorously, recovers, and often the wood is smooth 
oiitside, though when split it is seen to have knots. 
And this is why they examine the core of wood that 
hes been split ; for, if this contains knots, the out- 
ward 5 parts will also be knotty, and these knots are 
harder to deal with than the outer ones, and are 
easily recognised. 

^ ' Coiling ' of the wood is also due to -vrinter or ill 
nourishment. Wood is said to ' coil ' when there is 
in it closer twisting" than usual, made up of an 
unusual number of rings : this is not quite like a knot, 
nor is it like the ordinary curling of the wood, which 
runs right through it and is uniform. ' G^iling ' is 
much more troublesome and difficult to deal with than 
knots ; it seems to correspond to the so-called 

* KarawiviaQai : ? KaraXa^^iveadai. cj. below, § 3. 

* I.e. outward in regard to the core. * Plin. 16. 198. 

" ^ avtrrpotfyfi conj. Seal.; p cuo-rpo^ U; § finpa^rj Aid. etc. 



ra KoKovfieva Kcvrpa. otl 8* rj Trepi,(fiV(n<i Kara 
\afi^dvec tou? 6^ov<; (pavepcoTarov i^ avTrj<{ rrj 
aladrjaeox;, ov firjv aWa KoX eK rcov aWo} 
4 Tcov o/j.OL(ov' TToWdKL'i yap avTOv Tov BevSpo 
fi€po<i Ti crvveKrj<f)6ri vtto darepov crv/jb(f)Vov<i <yevo 
fxevov Kol idv rt? iK'y\inlra<t Of} Xidov et? t 
hevhpov 7) Koi dWo ti tolovtov, KaraKpinnera 
7r€pi\r)(ji6ev viro Tr)<? 7r€pi(pvaeco<;' oirep koI irep 
TOP Korivov (Twe^rj tov iv M.eydpot^ tov iv t: 
d'yopd' ov Kal eKKOTrivTO^ Xoyiov rjv dXwvai Ka 
SiapTraadrjvai ttjv ttoXlv oirep iyivero . . . 
ArjfiijTpto^;. iv tovtw yap Siaa'X^t^OfjLeva) Kvrj 
/AiSe? evpWrjaav Kal aXX' UTTa Trj'i ^Attikt} 
ipyaa[a<i KpepuaaTd, tov kotlvov ov dveTedrj t 
wpoiTOV eyKoCkav9evTO<i. tovtov S' eVt fjLiKpo: 
TO XoiTTov. TToWaxov Be Kal dWoOi yiveTa 
irXeiova ToiavTa. /cal xaOra fiev, Mairep etprfTai 
KOLvd liKeiovwv. 

III. Kara he Ta9 Ihla^ eKuaTOV (f)vaei<i a 
TOiavTai elai Siacpopai, olov irvKvoTrif; fiavoTif 
^apvTr)<; Kov^6Tr)<i aKXripoTrjt; fxaXaKOTrji;, rnaav 
T<w9 Be Kal eo Ti<; dXXr] ToiavTt]' Koival Be o/xolw 
avTai Kal TMV rjjxepwv Kal tmv dypvcov, ooaTe irep 
irdvTcov XeKTeov. 

. 1 oT£ 5" T) conj. W.; oVt S»j UMV; on Sf Aid. 

2 c/. Kara-niveffdai, above, § 2. 

3 Plin. 16. 198 and 199. 

■* eKy\v\j>as 0fi conj. W. ; eKAvif/as 6rji U ; eKXtdaa-Bfi Ald.H. 

' Text defective. 

« i.e. the bark had grown over these, cf. Plin. I.e. 


ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS, V. ii. 3-111. i 

' centres ' which occur in marbles. That ^ vigorous 
growth covers ^ up the knots is plain from simple 
observatiQn of the fact and also from other similar 
instances. ^ For often some part of the tree itself is 
absorbed by the rest of the tree which has grown 
into it ; and again, if one makes a hole in a tree and 
puts^ a stone into it or some other such thing, it 
becomes buried, being completely enveloped by the 
wood which grows all round it : this happened with 
the wild olive in the market-place at Megara ; there 
was an oracle that, if this were" cut open, the city 
would be taken and plundered, which came to pass 
when Demetrius took it.^ For, when this tree was 
split open, there were found greaves and certain 
other things '' of Attic workmanship hanging there, 
the hole "^ in the tree having been made at the place 
vhere the things were originally hung on it as offer- 
ings. Of this tree a small part still exists, and in 
many other places further instances have occurred. 
Moreover, as has been said, such occurrences happen 
also with various other trees. 

Of dijFerences in the texture of different icoods. 
III. ^ Corresponding to the individual characters of 
the several trees we have the following kinds of 
differences in the wood : — it differs in closeness, 
heaviness, hardness or their opposites, and in other 
similar ways ; and these differences are common to 
cultivated and wild trees. So that we may speak of 
all trees without distinction. 

fpyoffias KpffuiffTa. tov kot'ivov ov I conj. from G and 
Plin. I.e. (certain restoration perhaps impossible) ; KtpfirtaTi o 
fffriv 4y KOTiitf)- ou U; AUl. has Kepfjiriarl, M Kpffuurr], V «p- 
IticToov ; St. suggested KoefiainStv o-rXotv as words of the 
ori ^Dsl text. « Plin. 16. 204-207. 


IIvKvoraTa fiev ovv SoKet koL /SapvTara ttw^o? 
elvai Kol e^evo^' ovSe yap ovS" eVi tov v8aTO<i 
ravT emvet. koX 7) fiev 7rv^o<; 6\r}, t?}<? Be e^evov 
7) firjrpa, iv j/ koX rj tov '^pco/naTO'i iari fieXavi'a. 
TMV S' aWcov 6 X&)T09. TTVKVOv Be Koi rj T7]<i 8pv6<; 
/ji'qrpa, fjv KoXovai /xeXdvSpvov koX en fidWov rj 
TOV KVTiaov irapofioia yap avTrj hoKsl Trj i^evM 

2 MeXay Be a(f>6Bpa kuI ttvkvov to tj}? Tep- 
fiLvdov -Tvepl yovv Xvpiav ixeXdvTepov (fiaatv 
elvai T?79 i/Sevov koI €K tovtov yap kuI Ta9 
Xa/3a9 Ta>v iyx^eipLBlcov iroielcrdai, Topveveadai 
Be e^ avTcov Kol KvXiKa<i S^jpixXetov^, coaTe 
firjBeva av BiayvMvai 7rpo<i Ta<i Kepafxea^' Xafi- 
^dveiv Be to eyKapBiov Belv Be aXei(f)€iP to 
^vXov ovTO) yap yiveadai Kol koXXiov Kal 

Wivat Be Kal aXXo tl BevBpov, dpa tj} jxeXavia 
Kal TTOLKiXiav TLva e^ei virepvOpov, wcrre elvai 
Tr)V o-yfriv waav e^evov TroiKiX'q<i' Troieiadat 8' e^ 
avTov Kal KXLva<i Kal BL(f>pov<; Kal to, dXXa to, 
(TTTovBa^ofxeva. to <B€> BevBpov fieya (T<f)6Bpa 
Kal KaX6(f)vXXov elvai ofioiov rat? d'rrLoi'i. 

3 TavTa fiev ovv d/xa ttj fieXavia Kal ttvkvo- 
TrjTa e%et. ttvkvov Be Kal 77 acfiivBafivof Kal 
r) ^vyia Kal oX(W9 rrdvTa to, ovXa' Kal rj iXda 
Be Kal 6 KOTLVO^;, dXXa Kpavpa. puava Be tmv 
fiev dypLcov Kal epe'^lficov to, eXdTLva fidXiaTa, 

cf. Arist. Meteor. 4. 7 ad Jin. 

cf. 1. 6. 1. 3 cf. 3. 15. 3. 

Probably so called from their resemblance in shape and 



Box and ebony seem to have the closest and 
heaviest wood ; for their wood does not even float on 
water. This applies to the box-tree as a whole, and 
to the core of the ebony, which contains the black 
pigment.^ The nettle-tree also is very close and heavy, 
and so is the core of the oak, which is called ' heart 
of oak,' and to a still greater degree this is true 
of the core of laburnum ^ ; for this seems to resemble 
the ebony. 

The wood of the terebinth is also very black and 
close-grained ; at least in S\Tia ^ they say that it Ls 
blacker than ebony, that in fact they use it for making 
their dagger handles ; and by means of the lathe- 
chisel they also make of it ' Theriklean ' cups,* so 
that no one could ^ distinguish these frona cups made 
of potter}' ; for this purpose they use, it is said, the 
heart-wood, but the wood has to be oiled, for then 
it becomes comelier and blacker. 

There is also, they say, another tree ^ which, as 
well as the black colour, has a sort of reddish 
variegation, so that it looks like variegated ebony, 
and of it are made beds and couches and other things 
of superior quality. This tree is very large and has 
handsome leaves and is like the pear. 

These trees then, as well as the black colour, have 
<!lose wood ; so also have maple zy^a and in general 
i\\ those that are of compact growth ; so also have 
the olive and the wild olive, but their wood is 
brittle.' Of wild trees which are used for roof- 
timbers the wood of the silver-fir is the least com- 

colour to the cups made by Therikles, a famous CJorinthian 
f otter ; see reff. to comedy in LS. *.i'. 

* fxTlSeva tiy conj. W. ; jUtjS' iv tva Aid. 

• Sissoo wood. See Index App. (21). 

' aX\a Kpavpa conj. Sch.; aAXa kuI avpa MVAld. 




rSiv 8' aKXoiv ra clktivu koI tcl avKiva koX 
TO, T?79 fxr]X€a<; koL ra t^<? hd^v'r}<;. crKXtj- 
porara Se ra Bpviva koI ra ^vyiva kol ra 
Ti]<i apia<i' koX yap vnro^pe'xpvat ravTa 7rpo<i 
TT}v rpvirrjcnv [xaXd^eui^ 'X^dpiv. /xdXaKa 8e 
Kad' oXov p,€v TO, fiava Kal ')(avva' twv he 
(lapKwhcbv fxdXiara (fiiXvpa. SoKei 8e Kal 6ep- 
fjiOTarov elvai rovro' arjfielov Be ort /xaXia-ra 
d/jL^Xvvei, rd crcSijpia- rrjv <ydp ^acfirjv dvlr]crc Bid 
rrjv Oep/jLorrjTa. 

4 %epiJLOV Be Kal /ctrro? Kal Bd(pvr] Kal 6Xco<; 
6^ a)V rd TTvpela jLverar ISAevearcop Be (prjai 
Kal avKdfjLLVov. y^rvx^poTara Be rd evvBpa Kal 
vBarcoBr], Kal yXiay^pa Be rd Irelva Kal dp.- 
TTeXiva, Bl o Kal ra? daTriBa^ eK rovrwv Trotovat' 
(TVfipvei <ydp TrXtj^evra' Kov^orepov Be ro rr]^ 
lrea<i, pavorepov ydp, Be o Kal rovrut pbdXXov 
•X^payvrai. ro Be t?}? rrXardvov yXKy^pdrrira p-ev 
eyei, cfivcrei Be vyporepov rovro Kal ro rr}<i irre- 
Xea<i. cnipelov Be ecrriv, pberd rrjv rop^rjv opObv 
orav (Tradfj, iroXv vBcop dcplrjac. ro Be r'fj<; avKa- 
piLvov TTVKvov dpa Kal <yXla')(^pov. 

5 "Eo-rt Be Kal dcrrpa^eararov ro t% 7rreXea<;, 
Bl* Kal rov<; a-rpo^el<} rwv dvpoiv rroiovarc 
irreXetvovi' edv ydp ovroi pbivcoai, Kal at dvpai 
pevovaiv darpa^el<i, el Be prj, Biaarp€(j>ovrai. 
rroLovat S' avrov<; epLiraXiv ri9evr€<i rd ^vXa ro 
re drro rr]<; pl^T]^ Kal ro diro rov (pvXXov 

^ viru^pexouai cuiij. Harduiii from Plin. 16. 207 ; awoPpiOovai 
Ald.H. ; airo/Spf'xoiKri mBas. , 

■■' cf. 5. 5. 1, which, referring to this passage, hardly* agrees 
with it as now read. 



j)act, and among others that of the elder fig apple 
and bay. The hardest woods are those of the oak 
zygia and aria (holm-oak) ; in fact men wet ^ these 
to soften them for boring holes. In general, woods 
which are of open jx)rous texture are soft, and of 
those of fleshy texture the softest is the lime. The 
last-named seems also to be the hottest ; the proof 
of which is that it blunts iron tools more than any 
other ; for they lose their edge - by reason of its 

Ivy and bay are also hot woods, and so in general 
are those used for making fire-sticks ; and Menestor ^ 
adds the wood of the mulberry. ' The coldest woods 
are those which grow in water and are of succulent 
character. The wood again of willow and vine is 
tough ; wherefore men make their shields of these 
woods ; for they close up again after a blow ; but 
that of the willow is lighter, since it is of less com- 
pact texture ; wherefore they use this for choice. 
The wood of the plane is fairly tough, but it is 
moister in character, as also is that of the elm. A 
proof of this is that, if it is set upright ^ after being 
cut, it discharges much water.^ The wood of the 
mulberry is at once of close grain and tough. 

" The wood of the elm is the least likely to warp ; 
wherefore they make the ' hinges ' ^ of doors out of 
elm wood ; for, if these hold, the doors also keep in 
place ; otherwise they get wrenched out of place, 
rhey make the ' hinges ' by putting wood from the 
-oot above ^ and wood ' from the foliage ' below,^ thus 

=* c/. 1. 2. 3 n. * PUn. 16. 209. 

* opOhv orav conj. W. : SO G ; opOhi orav MV; orav ooOa Aid. 
« cf. 5. 1. 6. ^ Plin. 16. 210. 

^ Sc. an arrangement of cylindrical pivot and socket. 

• i.e. as socket and pivot respectively ; cf. 5. 5. 4. 



KoXovat 8e ol reKrove<; to airo rov (pvWov to 
dvco' ivapfioaOevTa yap aX\,-)]Xoi<i etcaTepov Koa- 
\vei 7rpo<; Trjv 6pp.r)V evavTiw<i e')(^ov. el 8e e/ceiTO 
KUTa (pvaiv, ovirep rj poirtj ivTavda ttcivtcov av 
rjV rj (f)opd. 

Td<i 8e 6vpa<i OVK €vdv<i avvreXovaiv, dWd 
rrrj^avTe'i e^caTaai, Kaire^Ta vcTTepw ol he t« 
TpiT(o eVet (TVveTekecrav eav ixdWov cnrovhd^wat' 
Tov fiep yap Oepov<; dva^rjpaipopevcov hita-ravTai, 
Tov Be ')(€ip,a)i'o^ crvp^fJLVovaiv. aiTiov S' oti Ti]<; 
eXciTTTi TO, p,avd koI aapKOiSr) eX/cet tov depa 


'O he (polia^ Kov^o<i Koi evepyo<i Koi p,a\aK6<;, 
oiarrep 6 (f)eW6<i, ^eXTLcov he tov (fieXKov oti yXl- 
<TXpo<i' eKetvo he dpavaTov. hid tovto Ta e'lhoyXa 
vvv €K TOV tS)v (f)oivcK(i)v TTOLOvai, TOV he (peXXov 
TraprJKaat. ra? lva<i he ov hi oXov e^^L ovS* eVi 
TToXv Koi /jLaKpd<i ovh^ dxravTco^ Trj Oeaei iyKei- 
p,eva<i Trdawi dXXd TravTohairoi'i. dva^rjpaiveTai 
he KoX Xeatvop^evov Kol irpiopievov to ^vXov. 

To he dvov, ol he dvav KaXuvai, Trap "Afipwvl 
T6 yiveTai koX ev Trj Kvpiivala, ttjv jxev p,op(^7]v 

OflOLOV KVKapiTTUy Kol TOL<i KXdhoi<; Kol T0l<{ (jjvX- 

Xoi<i KoX tS) aTeXe'xet, koi tw KapTTU), pudXXov S' 
wdTrep KV7rdpiTTo<{ dypta' ttoXv p,ev koX ottov 

' KtAj\vei : Sell, adds ddrepov from G. 
^ ejcetTo conj. W. ; sksivo Aid, 

* i.e. the 'upper' wood in the upper position. 

* ■Ko.vrwv MSS. (?) ; iravTus conj. W. 

* i.e. there would be no resistance, ■//v after av add. Sch. 



reversing the natural position : (by wood ' from the 
foliage ' joiners mean the upper wood). For, when 
these are fitted the one into the other, each counter- 
acts ^ the other, as they naturally tend in opposite 
directions : whei'eas, if the wood were set - as it 
grows,^ all the parts * would give where the strain 

(They do not finish off the doors at once ; but, when 
they have put them together, stand them up, and 
then finish them off the next year, or sometimes the 
next year but one,** if they are doing specially good 
work. For in summer, as the wood dries, the work 
comes apart, but it closes in winter. The reason is 
that the open fleshy texture of the wood of 
the silver-fir^ drinks in the air, which is full of 

^ Palm-wood is light easily worked and soft like 
cork-oak, but is superior to that wood, as it is tough, 
while the other is brittle. Wherefore men now make 
their images of palm-wood and have given up the 
wood of cork-oak. However the fibres do not run 
throughout the wood, nor do they run to a good 
length, nor are they all set sjnoametrically, but run 
in every direction. The wood dries while it is being 
planed and sawn. 

^ Thyon (thyine wood), which soine call thya, grows 
near the temple of Zeus Ammon and in the district 
of Cyrene. In appearance the tree is like the 
cypress alike in its branches, its leaves, its stem, and 
its fruit ; or rather it is like a wild cypress.^*^ There 

6 c/. Plin. 16. 215. 
' fii which the door itself is made. 
8 Plin. 16. 211. » Plin. 13. 100-102. 

'" KvirdpiTTos aypla conj. Sch. ; Kvxapiaffov aypiav MAld. 



vvv rj Tr6Xi<i earl, koX en Siafx,vr)/j,ov6vov(Tiv 
6po(j)d<i Tiva<i Twv ap'xaioyv ov(Ta<i. dcra7re<i yap 
oXft)9 TO ^v\ov ovXorarov Se rrjv piKav earl' /cat 
€K ravrrj'i to, cfTTOvSatoraTa Troielrai tmv epycov. 
ra he dyaXp.ara y\v(f)Ovaiv e« roivSe, KeBpoyp 
KVirapiTTOV \q)tov ttv^ov to, S" iXuTTQ) Koi eK 
TOiv e\atva)v pt^oyv dppayel<i yap avrai Kal 
o/xa.Xa)9 7rco<i aapKcoSei^;. ravra p,ev ovv IBio- 

Tojrd riva tottcov Kal (f)vaeco'i Kal %/3eta9 

TV. Bapea Be Kal Kov(f>a BrjXov co? rfj ttvkvo- 

TTfTl Kal p^aVOTTJTt Kal vypOTTJTI, Kal ^rjpOTTJTl Kal 

Tw yXoLcoBei Kal aKXrjporrjTC Kal fiaXaKorrjri 
Xr^TTTeov. evia /xev ovv dpa a-KXrjpa Kal ^apea, 
KadoLTTep TTv^o'i Kal Bpv'i' ocra Be Kpavpa Kal tt} 
^7]p6rr)Ti (TKXTjporaTa, ravr ovk e%et j3dpo<i. 
diravra Be rd dypia rwv rj/jbepwv Kal rd dppeva 
roiv OrfXeLMV nrvKvorepd re Kal o-KXnjporepa Kal 
^apvrepa Kal ro oXov la-'X^vporepa, Kaddirep Kal 
irporepov elTTopsv. ci)? 8' eirl to irdv Kal rd 
aKapiTorepa tmv Kapirtp^cov Kal rd xelpoi rwv 
KaXXiKaprrorepoiV el firj ttov KapTrificorepov ro 
dppev, oaarrep dXXa re (j)acn Kal rrjv KVirdpirrov 
Kal rrjV Kpdveiav. dXXd rwv ye dfnreXoyv cf)a- 
vepo)<i al oXiyoKapirorepac Kal 7rvKV0<p6aXp,6repaL 
Kal arepecorepar Kal p^TjXecov Be Kal ro)v dXXmv 



is abundance of it where now the city stands, and 
men can still recall that some of the roofs in ancient 
times were made of it. For the wood is absolutely 
proof against decay, and the root is of very com|)act 
texture, and they make of it the most valuable 
articles. Images are carved from these woods, 
prickly cedar cypress nettle-tree box, and the small 
ones also from the roots of the olive, which are 
unbreakable and of a more or less uniformly fleshy 
character. The above facts illustrate certain 

special features of position, natural character and 

Of dijfereiices in timber as to hardness and hexivine-ss. 

IV. Difference in weight is clearly to be determined 
by closeness or openness of texture, dampness or 
dryness, degree of glutinousness, hardness or softness. 
Now some woods are both hard and heavy, as box 
and oak, while those that are brittle and hardest 
owing to their dryness, are not heavy. ^ All wood of 
wild trees, as we have said before, is closer harder 
heavier, and in general stronger than that of the 
cultivated forms, and there is the same difference 
between the wood of ' male ' and of •' female ' trees, 
and in general between trees which bear no fruit and 
those which have fruit, and between those which 
bear inferior fruit and those whose fruit is better ; on 
the other hand occasionally the ' male ' tree is the 
more fruitful, for instance, it is said, the c^-press the 
cornelian cherry and others. However of \ines it is 
clear that those which bear less fruit have also more 
frequent knots and are more solid,- and so too with 
apples and other cultivated trees. 

> Plin. 16, 211. 2 cf. C.P. 3. 11, 1. 



'AcraTT/} Se cj)va€c KV'7rdpiTro<; KeSpo^ €^€vo<; 
Xft)T09 TTV^of iXda Korivo^; Tve-VKr] evBaSo^ dpla 
Bpv^ Kapva J^v^otKij. tovtchv he ■)(povi(OTara 
BoK€t rd KvirapiTTtva elvav to, '^ovv iv 'E^ecroD, 
e^ oiv al Ovpai tov vecoarl veco, redrjaavpiafieva 
TeTTa/?a<? eKetro yeved';. p,6va 8e Kal aTik^rjBova 
he')(6rai, 8l o koX to, <nTovBa^6p,€va tmv epycov €k 
TOVTMv iroioucri. tmv 8e dWcov daaTrecTTarov 
p^erd rd KVTTap'mLva Kal rd OvcoStj rrjv avKd- 
p,ivov elvai (^acri, Kal Icyxypov d/xa Kal evepyov to 
^vXov yiveTai Se to ^likov [«ai] iraXaiovp.evov 
p,e\av, wairep Xtwro?. 

"Ert he dXKo Trpo'i dWo Kal iv dXk(p daairk^, 
o\ov irreXea p,ev iv rS> depi, Bpv<i he KaropvT- 
TopAvTj Kal iv T& vhaTL Kara^pexop'kvrp hoKcl 
yap oXo)9 acraTre? elvai' hi o Kal et? rov'i ttotu- 
fiovf Kal 619 Ta9 \<i iK tovtcov vavirriyovaLV' 
iv he rfi daXdrrr) atjTTerai. rd he dXka hiafievei 
fidWov, oirep Kal evXoyov, rapcx^evopieva rij 

AoK€i he Kal rj o^vt) 7rpo<i to vhcop dcrairrj^; 
elvai Kal ^eXTicov yiveadai ^pe^opievri. Kal r] 
Kapva he rj ^v^olKrj daaTrri<i. (f)aal he Kal ttjv 
TrevKTjv iXdT7]<i pbdWov viro Tepr]h6vo<? iardieaOai' 
Ttjv jjiev yap eivau ^rjpdv, ttjv he TrevKr^v e^ety 
yXvKVTTjTa, Kal ocro) ivhahcoTepa, pbdXkov irdvTa 

1 Plin. 16. 213. 

'■^'a . . . sKftro conj. Bentley; TtdTjaavpiafitvat 
. . . tKfivTo Aid. II.; P has fKfiro, 



Of differaices in the keeping quality of timber. 

I Naturally proof against decay are cypress prickly 

cedar ebony nettle-tree box olive wild olive resinous 
fir aria (holm-oak) oak sweet chestnut. Of these the 
wood of the cypress seems to last longest ; at least 
the cy])ress-wood at Ephesus, of which the doors 
of the modern temple were made, lay stored up- 
for four generations. And this is the only wood 
which takes a fine polish, wherefore they make of it 
valuable articles. Of the others the least liable to 
decay after the wood of the cypress and thyme-wood 
is, they say, that of the mulberry, which is also 
strong and easily worked : when it becomes old, this 
wood turns black like that of the nettle-tree. 

'Again whether a given wood is not liable to 
decay may depend on the purpose to which it is put 
and the conditions to which it is subjected : thus the 
ehn does not decay if exposed to the air, nor the oak 
if it is buried or soaked in water ; for it appears to be 
entirely proof against decay : wherefore they build 
vessels of it for use on rivers and on lakes, but in sea- 
water it rots, though other woods last all the 
better ; which is natural, as they become seasoned with 
the brine. 

*The beech also seems to be proof against decay in 
water and to be improved by being soaked. The 
sweet chestnut under like treatment is also proof 
against decay. They say that the wood of the fir 
is more liable to be eaten by the teredon than that 
of the silver-fir ; for that the latter is drj', while the 
fir has a sweet taste, and that this is more so, the 
more the wood is soaked with resin ^ ; they go on to 

' Plin. 16. 218. * Plin. 16. 218 and 219. 

' cj. 3. 9. 4. 



S' eodieaOat TcpySovt ttXtjv kotIvov koX iXdw;- 
TO, 5e ov, Std TYjv TTLKpoTTjTa. iadLeTciL he ra p,kv 
ev TJj doKoLTTr] arjTTOfieva viro reprjSovo^;, rd S" iv 
rfj yfj VTTO aKwXrjKwv /cat vtto dpiiroiv ov <ydp 
ycverai TeprjBoiyv aXX rj iv rfj daXdrrrj. ecrri 8e 
i) reprjScbv Tft) fxev fxejedei fxiKpov, K6(f>aXr)V S' e%et 

6 /j,€<yd\t]v Koi oSovra^' ol Se dpiire'i ofioiot rot? 
aKcoXyj^tv, vcji'' mv Ti-Tpaiverai. Kara p,tKpbv rd 
^vXa. Kol ecTTi ravra evtara' TriTTOKOTrrjdevTa 
yap orav eh rrjv ddXarrav kXKvaOfj areyer rd 
8e VTTO roiv reprjhovwv dvtara. tmv Be aKwXrjKwv 
Tcbv iv rol<i ^vXot<i ol pev elcnv iK t?}9 oiKeia^ 
(Tr)y^eo3<i, ol S' ivTiKTovrcov erepoov ivTiKrei ydp, 
axTTrep koi rolf; SevSpoif, 6 Kepdarri<i KaXovpevo'i, 
orav Ttrpdvrj kuI KotXdvr) 7repiaTpa<f)el<i oocnrepel 
p,voh6')(ov. cf)€vyet 8e rd re oapbwhr] koI iriKpd koi 
a/cXrjpu Bid TO prj hvvaaOai riTpdvai, Kaddirep 

6 rrjv TTv^ov. (f)aal Be koX rrjv eXdrrjv (fjXoiaOelcrav 
VTTO ri]V ^Xdarrjaiv daairrj Biapevetv iv rw vButi' 
(pavepov Be yeveadai iv ^eveS> rr)? ^ApKaBia<;, ore 
avT0L<i iXifivcodr] to ireBlov (f)pa')(d€VTO<; tov /Bepe- 
dpov Tore ydp ra? ye(pvpa<; 7roiovvTe<i iXaTLva<i 
Kai, OTav iirava^alvrj to vBcop, dXXijv Kol aXXrjv 
i(f)t(7TdvTe<i, 609 ippdyt] koI dirrfxde, irdvTU evpe- 
dijvai rd ^vXa daarrrj. tovto fxev ovv iK avp- 


1 Plin. 16. 220 and 221. 

^ rtrpaiverai con j. Seal, f rom Gr ; rtrpf vera* UVo. ; irciraiyfTai 
MVAld. » c/ 4. 14. 5. 

* dxnrepc-i jiiuoS^x"*' conj. W. ; &airep ol p.v6xo^oi MSS. ; G 
omits. The word tJLvoh6xos does not occur elsewhere as a 



say that all woods are eaten bv tht- fcredmi t \ 
the olive, wild or cultivated, and that these v. 
escape because of their bitter taste. ^ Now wodds 
which decay in sea-water are eaten by the icrcdon, 
those which decay on land by the s/cokw and l/irips ; 
for the teredon does not occur except in the sea. 
It is a creature small in size, but has a large head 
and teeth ; the thrips resembles the skolex, and these 
creatures gradually bore through ^ timber. The harm 
that these do is easy to remedy ; for, if the wood is 
smeared with pitch, it does not let in water when it 
is dragged down into the sea ; but the harm done by 
the teredon cannot be undone. Of the skolekes which 
occur in wood some come from the decay of the wood 
itself, some from other skolekes which engender therein. 
For these produce their young in timber, as the worm 
called the ' horned worm ' ^ does in trees, having bored 
and scooped out a sort of mouse-hole ^ bv turning 
round and round. But it avoids wood which has a 
strong smell or is bitter or hard, such as boxwood, 
since it is unable to bore through it. They say too 
that the wood of the silver-fir, if barked just before 
the time of budding, remains in water without de- 
caying, and that this was clearly seen at Pheneos 
in Arcadia, when their plain was turned into a lake 
since the outlet was blocked up.^ For at that 
time they made ^ their bridges of this wood, and, 
as the water rose, they placed more and more atop 
of them, and, when the water burst its way through 
and disappeared, all the wood was found to be 
undecayed. This fact then became known bv means 
of an accident. 


c/. 3. 1. 2. ^paxSfVTos conj. Sch. ; SpoxeVros Aid. H. 
■KoiovvTfs, e<ptffTavTfs lumi. jitndens. 



7 'El/ TvXfp 8e T^ vijafp rfj irepl rrjv ^ \paj3iav 
elval TV (jya(Ti ^vXov i^ ov tcl irXola vavTnjjovvraL' 
TOVTO 8e iv fiev rfj OaXdrrr] (T')(ehov aarjmov 
elvai' Siafievei yap en] irXelo) rj SiaKocria Kara- 
^v0i^6p,€vov edv 8e e^co, xpovLOv jxev ddrrov he 
cnjirerai. (Oav/juacrrov 8e kol erepov Xeyovai, 
ovSep Be 7rpb<i ttjv arrjyjriv. elvai yap ri SevSpov 
e^ ov rdf ^aKT7]pia<i re/xvecrdai,, /cal yiveadai. 
Ka\a<i acjioSpa TrotKiXiap rivd e^ovaa^ opuolav t« 
rov Ti'ypio'i 8epp,aTf ^apv 8e cr^ohpa to ^vKov 
TOVTO' OTav he rt? pt"*/^^ tt/oo? crTepedirepov tottov, 
KaTayvvaOat /cadaTrep to, Kepafiia.) 

8 Kal TO T^9 fxvpUr]^ he ^vKov ovx oiairep 
ivTavOa daOevh, a\X laxvpov ooairep irpivivov rj 
Kal dWo Tt Toyv la')(ypoiV. tovto fiev ovv apba 
p,r)vvei 'X^copa'i re Kal depo<; hcacpopd^ Kal hvvdfxei^. 
TMV he opuoyevoiv ^vXcov, olov hpvtvcov irevKivwv, 
OTav TapiX^vcovTai — Tapi'xevova-i ydp ovk ev Xacp 
^ddet irdvTa hvovTe'i t?}? Oa\dTTr)<;, dWd Td p,ev 
TTpo? avTfi Tfi yfi, Td he p,LKpov dvQ)Tepa>, Td S' ev 
irXelovi ^dOer iravTov he Ta 7r/309 Tr]v pc^av 
OaTTOV hveTUt Kad^ v8aT0<;, Kav iTrcvfj fidWov 
peirei KdTco. 

Y. "EcTTt he Td fxev evepya tmv ^vkwv, ra he 
hvaepya' evepya fiev ra jxaXaKa, Kal TrdvTcov 

1 Plin. 16. 221 ; cf. 4. 7. 7. 

- Teak. See Index App. (22). 

■' Calaniander-wood. See Index App. (23). 



^ In the island of Tylos off the Arabian coast 
they say that there is a kind of wood ^ of which 
they build their ships, and that in sea-water this 
is almost proof against decay ; for it lasts more 
than 200 years if it is kept under water, while, if 
it is kept out of water, it decays sooner, though 
not for some time. They also tell of another 
strange thing, though it has nothing to do with 
the question of decay : they say that there is a 
certain tree,^ of which they cut their staves, and 
that these are very handsome, having a variegated 
appearance like the tiger's skin ; and that this 
wood is exceedingly heavy, yet when one throws 
it down on hard ground * it breaks in pieces like 

Moreover, the wood of the tamarisk ^ is not 
weak there, as it is in our country, but is as strong 
as kermes-oak or any other strong wood. Now 
this illustrates also the difference in properties 
caused by country and climate. Moreover when wood, 
such as that of oak or fir, is soaked in brine — not 
all being soaked at the same depth in the sea, 
but some of it close to shore, some rather further 
out, and some at a still greater depth — " in all cases 
the parts of the tree nearest the root (whichever 
tree it is) sink quicker under water, and even if thev 
fioat, have a greater tendency to sink. 

Which kiiid^ of wood are easy and which hard to work. Of 
the core and its ejects. 

V. Some wood is easy to work, some difficult. 
Those woods which are soft are easy, and especially 

* irpos (TTtp. roTtov can hardly be sound : ? ' on something 
harder than itself.' 
5 See Index, fivp'iKi, (2). « PUn. 16. 186. 



fidXiaTa ^iXvpa- Svaepya Se koX rd aKky^pd koI 
TcL 6^o)8r] /cat ou\a<i e^ovra crvorpocfydf Bvaepyo- 
rara Se dpia kol 8pv<i, d><i Se Kurd jjApo^; o rrj<; 
irevKri^ o^o<i koI t?}9 €XdT7]<i. del Be tmv ofjiO'yevMV 
TO fiaXaKMrepov tov crKXriporipov KpeiTTOv 
crapKfoSeaTepov ydp' koI ev6v aKOTrovvrai, ra? 
aavlSa<; ol T6KT0V6<i ovroo'i. rd 8e /jiO)(dr}pd 
cnSijpia hvvarat re/xveiv rd crKXt^pd fxaWov roiv 
fiaXaKMP' dvLTjac yap ev rot? ixaXaKol<i, Mcnrep 
iXex^V Trepl t/}? (f)iXvpa<;, TrapuKova Se fidXiara 
rd cTKXripd' Si' o koX ol aKvroTOfxoi Troiovvrai 
T01/9 7rivaKa<; d)(^pd8o';. 

M7]Tpav Be Trdvra ijuev e^eiv ^aalv ol reKrove<i 
(pavepdp S' elvai fidXiara ev rfj eXdrr)' ^aiveadai 
yap olov (})Xocd)Bri Ttvd rrjv avvOecriv avrrj'i rcov 
kvkXcov. ev eXda Be Kal ttv^w Kal rol<; rocovTOi<; 
ov'x^ 6/AOt&)9* Bi' b Kal ov (fiacrl ri,ve<; e%efi/ rfj 
Bvvd/jLec TTV^ov Kal iXdav rjKicna yap eXKecrOai 
ravra tmv ^vXcov. eari Be ro eXKeadat to aufi- 
irepucnaaOaL Kivovfxevrj'i t?}? p,7]rpa<;. ^rj yap 
609 eoiKev eirl ^(^povov ttoXvv Bt 7ravTa')(^60ev 
fiev dfia jxaXiara 5' e« tmv OvpoifxdTwv i^aipov- 
cnv, OTTCO? d(TTpaj3ri ■§• Kal Bid tovto cr'Xi^ovaiv. 

^Atottov S' dv Bo^eiev otl ev jxev TOt<i ^vXoi^ 
T0t9 <TTpoyyvXoL<; dXv7ro<i rj firjTpa Kal dKivr]TO<i, 
ev Be T0t9 TTapaKivrjOelaLV, edv prj oXw^ e^aipedy, 

1 5. 3. 3. 

'^ rh. (TKAripa. conj. Sell, from G (?) ; tovto P2Ald.H. 
' ^X*'" conj. Sch. ; €X*« ^ Ald.H. 
■• eAooi' conj. Seal, from G ; eAoTjjj' Ald.H. 
* i.e. and this happens less in woods which have little 
core. * oyua (? =6ij.olws) MSS. ; aiiTV conj. W. 



that of the lime ; those are difficult which are 
hard and have many knots and a compact and 
twisted grain. The most difficult woods are those 
of ana (holm-oak) and oak, and the knotty \yarts 
of the fir and silver-fir. The softer part of any 
given tree is always better than the harder, since 
it is fleshier : and carpenters can thus at once mark 
the parts suitable for planks. Inferior iron tools can 
cut hard wood better than soft : for on soft wood 
tools lose their edge, as was said ^ in speaking of the 
lime, while hard woods ^ actually sharpen it : where- 
fore cobblers make their strops of wild pear. 

Carpenters say that all woods have^ a core, 
but that it is most plainly seen in the silver-fir, 
in which one can detect a sort of bark-like charac- 
ter in the rings. In olive box and such woods 
this is not so obvious ; wherefore they say that box 
and olive * lack this tendency ; for that these woods 
are less apt to ' draw ' than any others. ' Drawing ' 
is the closing in of the wood as the core is dis- 
turbed.^ For since the core remains alive, it apjiears, 
for a long time, it is always removed from any 
article whatever made of this wood,^ but especially 
from doors,'^ so that they may not warp ^ : and that 
is why the wood is split. ^ 

It might seem strange that in ' round ' ^"^ timber 
the core does no harm and so is left undisturbed, 
while in wood whose texture has been interfered 
with,ii unless it is taken out altogether, it causes 

" Bvpufiarav conj. Sch. ; yvpu/xartay Aid. cf. 4. 1. 2 ; Plin. 
16. 225, ahietem vol varum payinis aptii-simam. 

" aarpa^ij jf conj. Dalec; affrpa&rj UMV'Ald. 

' i.e. to extract the core. ^" See below, §5. 

" ■wapaKivriBfltri, i.e. by splitting or sawing. irfXfKijdt'iffi 
conj. W. 



Ktvel Kol 7rapaarpe(})et' fidWov yap elKo<i yv/xvo)- 
Oeiaav anoOvijaKetv. 6fiQ)<i Be oi ye larol koi 
al Kepalai e^ai,pedeiari<} a)(^p€iot. tovto Be Kara 
avfil3e^riK6<i, on 'X^CTMva^ e'%ef TrXetov;, la')(yp6- 
rarov Be /cal Xeirjorarov Be rbv eaxo-Tov, ^rjpora- 
Tov yap, K,al Tou? aX\ov<i ava \6yov. orav ovv 

4 (T')(^i,a6fi, TrepiaipeiTUi to, ^i-jporara. el S' 17 fiijrpa 
Bia TO ^rjpov aKeirreop. BiaaTpe<^ei Be e\Kop,evr] 
ra ^v\a kuI iv Tot<; a'X^Larol'i kuI TrpicrTOL<i, orav 
fir} d><; Bel 7rpico(Ti' Bel yap 6pdr)v rrjv Trptaiv elvat 
Kal fir} ifKayiav. olov ovarj'i t^9 fir)rpa<i e^' r}v 
ro a, fir} Trapa rr}v ^y rifiveiv, dWd irapd rrfv 
ySS. (f)delpeaOat yap ovrco (paaiv, eKeivw^ Be ^rjv. 
on Be irdv ^vXov e')(ei- firjrpav e'/c rovroov ocovrat' 
(f>avepbv yap eart Kal rd fir} BoKovvra iravr e'^eiv, 
olov TTV^ov Xcorov rrplvov. arfpelov Be' rov<; yap 
arp6(j)Lyya<; roiv dvpwv ro)v 7ro\vreX(bv iroiovcn 
fiev CK rovrcov, cyvyypd<f)ovrai Be oi dp')(^ireKrove<i 
ovrci)<; <fir}> eK fii}rpa<i. ravrb Be rovro arffielov 
Kal on irdaa firjrpa eXKerai, Kal al rcov crKXrfpo- 

5 rdrav, a<{ Brj nve<; KapBla<i KaXovcri. 7ravro<i Be 

^ And so cause no trouble. 

^ cf. 5. 1. 6. TrKelovs conj. Sch. from G ; &K\ovs Ald.H. 
' Text probably defective ; ? insert i^yptdri after ^vp^"- 
* The figure would seem to be 

D C 

• A [/ A 



disturbance and warping : it were rather to be 
expected that it would die ^ when exposed. Yet 
it is a fact that masts and yard-arms are useless, 
if it has been removed from the wood of which 
they are made. This is however an accidental ex- 
ception, because the wood in question has several 
coats,- of which the strongest and also thinnest is 
the outermost, since this is the driest, while 
the other coats are strong and thin in proportion 
to their nearness to the outermost. If therefore 
the wood be split, the driest parts are necessarily 
stripped off. Whether however in the other case 
the object of removing the core is to secure dryness 
is matter for enquiry.^ However, when the core 
'draws/ it twists the wood, whether it has been 
split or sawn, if the sawing is improperly performed : 
the saw-cut should be made straight and not slant- 
wise. * Thus, if the core be represented by the 
line A, the cut must be made along the line BD, 
and not along the line BC : for in that case, they 
say, the core will be destroyed, while, if cut in 
the other way, it will live. For this reason men 
think that every wood has a core : for it is clear 
that those which do not seem to possess one never- 
theless have it, as box nettle-tree kermes-oak : a proof 
of this is the fact that men make of these woods the 
pivots^ of expensive doors, and accordingly"^ the 
headcraftsmen specify that wood with a core shall 
not" be used. This is also a proof that any core 
'draws,' even those of the hardest woods, which 
some call the heart. In almost every wood, even 

* c/, 5. 3. 5. aTf>6<pty^ here at least probably means • pivot 
aiui socket.' 

® ovTus Ald.H. ; avTohs conj. W. ' fxi) add. W. 


vol- I. G O 


ct)9 elireiv ^vKov (XKXrjpordrT) Koi fiavora.T')] rj 
jxi'^rpa, Kol avTfj<i rrj'; iXdrri<i' fiavoraTr) jxev ovv, 
on Td<; lva<i e%et koI 8ia ttoXXov koX to (TapKwhe<i 
TO dva fiiaov ttoXv' aKXrjpoTdTr] Be, otl koI 
at lve<i aKXrjporaTai koX to aapKOihe'^' Be o koI 
01 apxiTeKTOva avyypdcpovTai irapaipelv Ta Trpo? 
TTjv p,rjTpav, 07ra)9 Xd^wai, tov ^vXov to irvKVOTa- 
Tov Kol /xaXaKCOTaTOv. 

T(ov Be ^vXwv Ta /xev (r)(^icrTd Ta Be TreXeKTjTa 
Ta Be o-TpoyyvXa- ax^LCTTa fjbiv, ocra BiaipovuT€<; 
KaTa TO jjueaov Trpt^ovcri' rrreXeKriTa Be, oacov 
diroTreXexoxri Ta e^w aTpoyyvXa Be BrjXov oti 
TO, 6Xco<i d-yjravaTa. tovtcov Be Ta ax'-ard fiev 
oXo)<i dppayr} Bid to yvfivwOelcrav ttjv firjTpav 
^rjpaivecrdaL Kal dTToOvrja/ceiw to. Be TreXeKrjTa 
Kol Ta cTTpoyyvXa prjyvvTar fidXXov Be ttoXv 
ra aTpoyyvXa Bid to €va7r€iXrj<fidai ttjv ixrjTpav 
ovBev ydp oti tcov dirdvTOiv ov p^yvvTUi. TOt<? 
Be XcoTivoi'i Kal toi<; dXXoi<; ol? eh tov<; crTpo- 
(jiiyya<; ^/awi^rat Trpo? to /xv prjyvvaOai ^oX^itov 
TrepnrXdTTOvcriv, 07r&)9 dva^rjpavdfj Kal Biairvevady 
KaTd fMiKpov rj eK t?}? fjbT]Tpa<; vypoTrj^;. rj /j,ev o7)v 
jXTfTpa T0iavT7}v ex^i- Bvvafiiv. 

VI. Ba/)09 Be eveyKelv la^^pd Kal t) eXdrr} 
Kal 7] irevKT] irXdyiai TiOifjievar ovBev ydp ev- 

^ ^vXov aKKriporari) conj. Sch. from G ; ^vXov (TK\i)porarov 
UMV: so Aid. omitting Kal. 

■■' airoireXeKoxn Conj. Sell.; airon\fKa>ffi UM ; anoirKfKovai 
Aid.; aiToiTt\fKou<ri mBas. ^ cf. C.P. 6. 17. 2. 


in that of the silver-fir, the core is the hardest 
part,^ and the jwirt which has the least fibrous 
texture : — it is least fibrous because the fibres are far 
apart and there is a good deal of fleshy matter 
between them, while it is the hardest part because 
the fibres and the fleshy substance are the hardest 
parts. Wherefore the headcraftsmen specify that 
the core and the j>arts next it are to be removed, 
that they may secure the closest and softest part 
of the wood. 

Timber is either ' cleft,' ' hewn,* or 'round' : it is 
called 'cleft,' when in making division they saw it 
down the middle, ' hewn ' -when they hew off- the 
outer parts, while •' round ' clearly signifies wood which 
has not been touched at all. Of these, ' cleft ' wood ^ 
is not at all liable to split, because the core when 
exposed dries and dies : but ' hewn ' and ' round ' 
wood are apt to split, and especially ' round ' wood, 
because the core is included in it : no kind of timber 
indeed is altogether incapable of splitting. The 
wood of the nettle-tree and other kinds which are 
used for making pivots for doors are smeared * 
with cow-dung to prevent their splitting : the object 
being that the moisture due to the core may be 
gradually dried up ^ and evaporated. Such are the 
natural properties of the core. 

Which tcoods can Lent support weight. 
W. * For bearing weight silver-fir and fir are strong 
woods, when set slantwise " : for they do not give like 

■• icfpiTrXirToviJi conj. Sch. from G ; itfpnrarrovaiv Ald.H. 
Plin. 16. 222. * di'o|jjpai'^ conj. Sch.; ava^-qpaiiv Ald.H. 

« Plin. 16. 222-224. 

' e.g. as a strut. *\a7m» conj. Sch. from Plin. I.e.; airaXai 

G G 2 


BiBoaaiv, oicrirep r) 8pv<; koX to. yecoSr), aX>C avTco- 
6ovcn' crrj/uLeiov BeoTi ovBeTTOTe prjyvvvTai, Kaddirep 
eXda Kol Bpv<;, aXXd irporepov cr^TTOvrai Kol 
aX,\(U9 aTravhSyaLV. la'^vpou Be koX 6 (j>otvi^' 
dvuTTaXiv yap r) Kd/M-\ln<i rj rot? dWoi^ yiverar 
Ta fiev yap et? rd /caro) KafMirTerai, 6 Be (poivi^ 
eh rd dvw. (jiacrl Be Kal Trjv TrevKrjv Kal rrjv 
e\dr7]V dvra>6elv. to Be T779 ^v^olKrjq Kapva^, 
yiverai yap p.eya Kal 'x^pMinaL 'irpo'i rr)V epe-yjriv, 
orav fieWj] prjyvvadai '\^o<pelv Mare Trpoaicrddv- 
eadai irpoTepov oirep Kal ev ^ Avrdvopo) avve- 
Trecrev ev rw ^a\avei(p Kal TrdvTe<i e^eTDJBrjaav. 
Icr'X^vpbv Be Kal to t^9 (xvKfj'i ttXtjv eh opdov. 

2 'H Be iXdrr) /xdXicrra &)9 elirelv l<T)(vp6v. tt/jo? 
Be ra? tmv reKTovcov Xpeia^ ix^KoXXov fxev fid- 
Xiara rj irevKrj Bid re rrjv /xavorrjra Kal rrjv 
evdvnoplav ovBe ydp oXw? ovBe prjyvvaOal (f^aatv 
edv KoWi]6fj. evropvorarov Be (piXvKr], Kal rj 
XevK6rr]<i warrep rj rov KTJXdarpov. rcop Be dXXcov 
r) (f>lXvpa- ro ydp oXov evepyov, wairep eXe^Or], 
Bid /jiaXaKorrjra. evKafiirra Be co? p,ev aTrA-w? 
elrrelv oaa yXiaxpci- Bia(^epeiv Be BoKel crvKd- 
fx,ivo<i Kal epive6<i, Bi o Kal rd iKpta Kal rd<; 
are^dva<i Kal oXw? oaa irepl rov Koafiov eK 
rovrcov Troiovcri. 

3 Eiuirptara Be Kal evax'-o'Ta rd eviK/xorepa rtov 

^ i.e. the strut beooiiies concave or convex respectively. 
cJ.Xeix. Cyr. 1. 5. 11. 

'^ i.e. it cannot be used as a strut, or it would 'buckle,' 
though it will stand a vertical strain. 

» Plin. 16. 225. 

* cf. C.P. 5. 17. 3. evOunofyuraTa : fvdvTropiaf. 


oak and other woods which contain mineral matter, 
but make good resistance. A proof of this is that they 
never split like olive and oak, but decay first or fail 
in some other way. Palm-wood is also strong, for it 
bends the opposite way to other woods : they bend 
downwards, palm-wood upwards.^ It is said that fir 
and silver-fir also have an upward thrust. As to the 
sweet chestnut, which grows tall and is used for 
roofing, it is said that when it is about to split, it 
makes a noise, so that men are forewarned : this 
occurred once at Antandros at the baths, and all those 
present rushed out. Fig-wood is also strong, but only 
when set upright.^ 

Of the woodi best suited for the carpenter's various purposes. 

^The wood of the silver-fir may be called the 
strongest of all. But for the carpenter's purposes 
fir best takes glue because of its open texture and 
the straightness of its ix)res * ; for they say that 
it never by any chance comes apart when it is glued. 
Alatemus ^ is the easiest wood for turning, and its 
whiteness is like that of the holly. Of the rest 
lime is the easiest, the whole tree, as was said, 
being easy to work because of the softness of the 
wood. In general those woods which are tough are 
easy to bend. The mulberry and the wild fig seem 
to be specially so ; wherefore they make of these 
theatre-seats,'' the hoops of garlands, and, in 
general, things for ornament. 

" Woods which have a fair amount of moisture in 
:hem are easier to saw or split than those which 

^ c/. 5. 7. 7. 

' Rendering doubtful. iKpia has probably here some un- 
known meaning, on which the sense of kovuov depends. 
' Plin. 16. 227. 



Trd/JLTrav ^rjpcov ra fiev yap iravovrai, ra Be 
LCTTavrar ra Se ')(\,wpa Xlav avfjbfjbvec koI ivi^e- 
TUi iv T0t9 ohovat TO, irpla-fiaTa Kal ifMrrXdrrei, 
8i KOI TrapaWaTTOvaiv dX\'>]Xcov TOv<i oBovraf} 
iva i^dyrjTai. eari Be koX Bva-rpvirrjTorepa ra 
xlav ■)(X(op(i' ^paBeci)<i yap uva(f)epeTaL ra i/crpv- 
TTij/xara Bia to ^apea elvar tmv Be ^rjpoov Ta;\;eo)9 
Kal ei/Oix; 6 drjp dvaOepfxaivofievo^ dvaBiBaxn' 
irdXiv Be ra Xiav ^rjpa Bid rrjv aKXrjpojrjra 
BvcTTrpiaTa' KaOdirep yap ocrrpa/cov (Tvn^aivet 
irpieiv, Bt Kal rpviroivre'^ eirt^pexovaiv. 

KvireXeKTjTOTepa Be Kal evropvoTepa Kal ev^o- 
ooTcpa ra ')(Xa)pd' TrpoaKddrjTal re yap to ropvev- 
Ttjpiov fjuaXXov Kal ovk diroTr-qBa. Kal 7) 7reXeK7]ai<; 
rwv fxaXaKcorepcov pacov, Kal r) ^e(Ti<i Be ofioiu)^ Kal 
en Xeiorepa. lcT)(yp6TaTOV Be Kal r) Kpdveia, rcov 
Be dX\(ov oup^ TjKiaTa t) ineXea, Bt Kal rov<i 
(TT/oo^ea?, Mairep eXe^drj, Tal<i dvpat^ TTTeXeiVof? 
TTOLOvaiv. vyporarov Be fxeXia Kal o^vrj' Kal yap 
ra KXivdpia ra ivBiBovTa eK rovrwv. 

VII. "OXw<i Be TTp6<i TTola rr]<i vXr]<i eKdarrj 
^p?;o-tyu,}/ Kal TTo'ia vavTr'>iyi](TLp,o<i Kal oIkoBo/jllki], 
irXelaTri yap avrrj t} %/3eta Kal iv fi€yLaroi<i, 
ireipareov elveiv, d^opi^ovTa KaB' maarov 10 

'EXfiTT; fiev ovv Kal irevKri Kal KeBpo<; ft)9 aTrXw? 

^ -iravovrai can hardly be right : Plin. I.e. seems to have 
had a fuller text. 

^ ifiirKaTTet : cf. de Sens. 66. 


ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS, V. vi. 3-vii. i 

are altogether dry : for the latter give/ while the 
former resist. Wood which is too green closes up 
again when sawn, and the sawdust catches in the 
saw's teeth and clogs - them ; wherefore the teeth 
of the saw are set alternate ways, to get rid of the 
sawdust. Wood which is too green is also harder to 
bore holes in ; for the auger's dust is only brought 
up slowly, because it is heavy ; while, if the wood is 
drv, the air gets warmed by the boring and brings 
it up readily and at once. On the other hand, wood 
which is over drv ^ is hard to saw because of its 
hardness : for it is like sawing through earthenware ; 
wherefore they wet the auger when using it. 

However green wood is easier to work with the 
axe the chisel or the plane ; for the chisel gets a 
better hold and does not slip oft". Again softer 
woods are easier for the axe and for smoothing,* and 
also a better polished surface is obtained. The 
cornelian cherry is also a very strong wood, and 
among the rest elm-wood is the strongest ; where- 
fore, as was said,^ they make the ' hinges ' for doors 
of elm-wood. Manna-ash and beech have very moist 
wood, for of these they make elastic bedsteads. 

Of the woods used in ship-building. 

VII. Next we must endeavour to say in a general 
way, distinguishing the several uses, for which 
purposes each kind of timber is serviceable, which 
is of use for ship-building, which for house-building : 
for these uses extend far and are important. 

Now silver-fir, fir and Syrian cedar ** are, generally 

' TO Xicw |7jpo conj. St. ; Aeta Kcd {Tjpo Ald.H. 

* Sc. with the carpenter's axe. 

* 5. 3. 5. 6 See Index. 



UTreiv vav7rr}y^cnfj.a' Ta<; fiev yap Tpujpec^i koX ra 
fiaKpa TrXota iXdrtva ttoloxxtl 8ia K0V(f)6rr]Ta, ra 
Be aTpoyyvXa irevKiva 8ta to acraTTe<i' evioc 8e koI 
rci'i rp(,r]pei<; Bia rb jxr) eunopeiv iXdrrj^;. ol 6e 
Kara "Hvptav /cal ^oivUrjv e'/c KeBpov (nravi^ovai 
yap Kul 7T€VKr]<i. ol 8' iv K.V7rpa) 7rirvo<i' ravrrfv 
yap 7} vijcrof e%et Kal BoKel KpelrTcov elvai t?}? 

2 irevKrj'i. koX to, fiev aWa e/c rovrcov rrjv Be 
rpoTTiP TpLi'ipei fjLev Bpvtvrjv, Lva dvreXD tt/oo? ra^ 
ve(o\Kia<i, Tal'i Be okKaai, irevKiv^iv inroTodeacn S' 
€Ti Kal Bpvtvrjv eirav vecoXKcbaL, rah 8' eXdrTOcnv 
6^vtvr}v' Kal 6\Q)<i eK tovtov to 'x^eXvcrp.a. 

Ov'X^ aTTTCTac Be ovBe Kara rrjv KoWrjaiv 
6/jlolco<; ro Bpvivov rwv irevKLVcov Kal eXarivwv ra 
fiev yap irvKva ra Be p,avd, Kal ra /xev o/xoia ra B 
ov. Bel Be o/jLoiorradrj elvai ra p,e\\ovra avp.- 
<f>vea6at Kal p,r) evavrla, KaOairepavel \ldov Kal 

3 'H Be ropveia rol<; p,ev 7rXocot<i yiverai avKa- 
fiivov fjbe\.ia<i TTre\ea<i rr'Kardvov y\c(T)(^p6rr]ra 
yap ex^iv Bel Kal lax^v. x^cplart] Be ->) rr]<i 
irXardvov ra-)(v yap ai^werai. ral<i Be rpirjpeaiv 
evioi Kal 7nrvtva<; ttoiovctl Bia ro e\a(f>p6v. ro 
Be arepeeofjia, tt/oo? m ro ')(^e\vap,a, Kal ra? iirw 
rlBai;, jxeXia^; Kal (TVKap,ivov Kal 7rreXea<i' la')(vpa 

^ TpiT)pei conj. W. ; rpirjptj U; rpnipris MV; rpiT\p(ffi Aid. 

'^ rais 5' iKoiTroffiv o^vivr}v coiij. W. {rois Sch.) ; rots yuer 
iXirroffiv o^iv Aid. cf. Plin. 16. 226. 

^ Xf^v(Tfj.a, a temporary covering for the bottom : so Poll, 
and Hesj'cli. explain. 



speaking, useful for sliip-building ; for triremes and 
long ships are made of silver-fir, because of its light- 
ness, and merchant ships of fir, because it does not 
decay ; while some make triremes of it also because 
they are ill provided with silver-fir. The people 
of Syria and Phoenicia use Syrian cedar, since they 
cannot obtain much fir either ; while the people of 
Cj'prus use Aleppo pine, since their island provides 
this and it seems to be superior to their fir. Most 
parts are made of these woods ; but the keel for a 
trireme ^ is made of oak, that it may stand the haul- 
ing ; and for merchantmen it is made of fir. How- 
ever they put an oaken keel under this when they 
are hauling, or for smaller vessels a keel of beech ; - 
and the sheathing ^ is made entirely of this wood. 

* (However oak-wood does not join well with glue 
on to fir or silver-fir ; for the one is of close, the 
other of open grain, the one is uniform, the other 
not so ; whereas things which are to be made into 
one piece should be of similar character, and not of 
op|X)site character, like wood and stone.) 

The work of bentwood^ for vessels is made of 
mulberry manna-ash elm or plane ; for it must be 
tough and strong. That made of plane-wood is the 
worst, since it soon decays. For triremes some make 
such parts of Aleppo pine because of its lightness. 
The cutwater,'^ to which the sheathing is attached,^ 
and the catheads are made of manna-ash mulberry 

* This sentence is out of place ; its right place is perhaps 
at the end of § 4. 

' ropveiu ; but the word is perhaps corrupt : one would 
expect the name of some part of the vessel. 

* iTTfptaifia : apparently the fore part of the keel ; ^areipa. 
^ irphs ^ rh xf^vfffiacouj. W. after Seal,; irp6aa>- rh trxf^vv/xa 

Aid. (ffx^^ofia M, x*'^''<'',"« U) irpoffw rh 5e x*^""'!^ mBas. 



•yap hel ravT elvai, vav7r7]yr]cn/jLo<i fxev ovv vXt} 
(x^eSov avjrj. 

4 OiKoSofJbLKr) 8e 7ToWa> irXetoov, eXdrt] re koX 
irevKri koI Ke8po<i, en KV7rdpLTro<i S/oO? kuI dp- 
Kevdof ft)9 S' a7r\ft)9 elirelv iraaa ')(^pr]a[iji,r] irXrjv 
€1 Ti9 daOevrj^ irdfiTrav ovk et? ravro yap irdaai, 
KaOdnrep ovS" eirl rr)<i vav7rr]y[a<i. al 8' dWai 
7rpo9 Ta c8i,a rwv rexvoiv, olov crKevr] koX opyava 
Kol ei TL TotovTov erepov. irpo^ irXeiara 8e a')(ehov 
Y} iXdr-T] Trapex^Tcti' X/oetai^* Kal yap 7rpo<i tov<; 
7rLvaKa<i TOv<i ypa(f)0/j,evov<i. reKTOViKrj puev ovv t) 
TrdXaioTdrr] Kparlarr}, edv rj daairrj^;- evderel yap 
ft)9 elirelv irdai ')(prjaOat' vauTrrjyiKrj 8e 8id rrjv 
Kdpby^iv iviKfjLorepa dvayKatov eVel tt/jo? ye rrjv 
KoWrjatv rj ^rjporepa avfi^epei. la-raTUi yap 
Kaivd rd vavTTijyovfxeva Kal orav avfiirayfj /cad- 
eXKVcrdevra crvfi/jiveL Kal crreyei, ttXtjv edv fir) 
iravrdiraaiv e^iKfxaaOfj' rore Se ov Be')(^eTai k6\- 
\ijcnv rj ovx o/xoiwi. 

5 Aet 8e Kal Kad^ exaa-rov Xa/J,^dveiv ec<; irola 
'^(^prjcn/JLO'i ecTTiv. iXdrr] /xev ovv Kal irevKr], 
KaOdirep etprjrai, Kal irpo^ vavTrrjyiav Kal tt/oo? 

^ e\drri . . . &pKevOos conj. W. ; (Kxrri t( koI itevKTi Koi KtSpos 
(Ti KvirdpiTTOs Spvs irevKti Kol KfSpos &pKfv6oi U ; eAoTTj t6 Kal 
irey/cTj Kal KiSpos Kal &pKev0os Ald.H.: SO also MV, omitting 
Kal before apK. 

- aij 5' otTrAws conj. Sch.; ottAwj 5' is Aid. 

^ Kaiva conj. Sch. ; Kal vvv Aid. 

^ (Tvixirayri conj. W., which he renders ' when it has been 
glued together ' ; av/iiriTi Aid. G's reading was evidently 


and elm ; for these parts must be strong. Such 
then is the timber used in ship-building. 

Of the woods used in house-huilding. 
For house-building a much greater variety is 
used, silver-fir fir and prickly cedar ; also cypress 
oak and Phoenician cedar.' In fact, to speak 
generally,^ any wood is here of service, unless it is 
altogether weak : for there are various purposes for 
which different woods are serviceable, just as there 
are in ship-building. While other woods are service- 
able for special articles belonging to various crafts, 
such as furniture tools and the like, the wood of 
silver-fir is of use for almost more purposes than any 
other wood ; for it is even used for painters' tablets. 
For carpentry the oldest wood is the best, provided 
that it has not decayed ; for it is convenient for 
almost anyone to use. But for ship-building, where 
bending is necessary, one must use wood which 
contains more moisture (though, where glue is to be 
used, drier wood is convenient). For timber-work 
for ships is set to stand when it is newly ^ made : 
then, when it has become firmly united,* it is 
dragged down to the water, and then it closes up 
and becomes watertight,— unless ^ all the moisture 
has been dried out of it, in which case it will not 
take the glue, or will not take it so well. 

Of the nses of the wood of particular trees. 
But we must consider for what purposes ^ each 
several wood is serviceable. Silver-fir and fir, as has 
been said, are suitable both for ship-building house- 

* ir\r)v fav /i^ conj. W. ; T. 4dv re M ; ir. iav ye Aid. 
*' i.e. apart from ship-building and housebuilding, in 
which several woods are used. 



olKoSofilav KoX en 7rpo<; dWa tmv epycov, et? 
TT\ei(o Se rj ekdrrj. ttltvl Se ')(po}VTaL fiev et? 
d/ji(f)Q) KoX ov^ rjTTOV et9 vavTrTjyiav, ov f-irjv dWd 
ra^u 8ia(Tr]7r6Tai. 8pv<i Be 7rpo<i olKohofiiav Kol 
'7rp6<; vavTrrjyiav en re tt/jo? rd Kara, 7^9 KaropvT- 
Topbeva. (f)L\vpa 8e 7r/3o<? rd aaviSM/xara rwv 
p^aKpoiv ttXoIoov koX 7rpo<i Ki^cona koX irpo'i rrfv 
TMV pLerpwv KaTacrKev7)v. e^et Be Koi rbv (f)\oiov 
')(^p7](TipLov irpo'i T6 rd a-'XpLvia Kol 77/309 rd<i Kiara^' 
rroiovai <ydp i^ avrrj<i. 

6 %<^evBapiv6<i re koI ^vyia 7rpb<i KXivoTTTjyiav 
Kol TTpo'i rd ^vyd rwv \ocf)Ovpo)v. /AtXo9 Be et9 
rrapaKoWrjpiara Kij3(oroi<i koX viroj3d6poL<i koi 
6X(o<i rol<i roiovroi<;. irplvo^ Be irpo^ d^ova<; ral<i 
piovoarp6(f)oi<i dp,d^ai<; koX €69 ^v<yd Xvpat^; koI 
yjrdXrrjplot';. o^vr) Be 7r/?09 d/xa^OTrrjylav kol 
Bi(ppo7r)]yiav rrjv eureXrj. irreXea Be 77/309 6vpo- 
irriyiav koI yaXedypwi' ^/jwi^rai Be koX el<i rd 
d/jLa^iKa pLerpio)^. 7n]Bb<; Be et9 d^ovaf re rah 
dpid^ai<i Kol eh e\Kr]0pa roh dporpoi'i. dvBpd'xXrj 
Be Tat9 yvvai^lv eh rd irepl rom larov<;. dp- 
Kev6o<i Be eh reKrovia<i koI eh rd vrraiOpia koX 
eh rd Karopvrropteva Kard yr]<i Bid ro daaire^. 

7 a)o-auT&)9 Be kuI 77 }Lv^olKr) Kapva, koX irpof ye 
rrjv Karopv^LV en pbdWov dcraTn]';. "ttv^m Be 
'X^pwvrai piev 77/J09 evia, ov purjv dW rj ye ev rat 
^OXvpurrw ycvopbiv)] Bed rb ^pa^eld re elvai KaX 
6^(i>B7]<i d'X^pelo<;. reppiiv6(p Be ovBev ')(^pS)vrai 

1 Klcrras : c/. 3. 13. 1 ; perhaps ' hampers,' c/. o. 7. 7. 

2 napaKoXXv/xaTa : lit. ' things ghied on.' 

3 Plin. 16. 229. 

^ ToTs /xovo(TTp6(t)ois a^a|ojs : or, perliaps, ' the wheels of 



building and also for other kinds of work, but silver- 
fir is of use for more purposes than fir. Aleppo pine 
is used for both kinds of building, but especially for 
ship-building, yet it soon rots. Oak is used for 
house-building, for ship-building, and also for under- 
ground work ; lime for the deck-planks of long ships, 
for boxes, and for the manufacture of measures ; its 
bark is also useful for ropes and writing-cases, ^ for 
these are sometimes made of it. 

Maple and zygia are used for making beds 
and the yokes of beasts of burden : yew for the 
ornamental work attached - to chests and footstools 
and the like : kermes-oak ^ for the axles of wheel- 
barrows ^ and the cross-bars of lyres and psalteries : 
beech for making waggons and cheap carts : elm 
for making doors and weasel-traps, and to some 
extent it is also used for waggon work ; pedos ^ for 
waggon-axles and the stocks of ploughs : andrachne 
is used for women for parts of the loom : Phoenician 
cedar for carpenters' work ^ and for work which is 
either to be exposed to the air or buried underground, 
because it does not decay. Similarly the sweet 
chestnut is used, and it is even less likely to decay 
if it is used for underground work. Box is used for 
some purposes ; however that which grows on 
Mount Olympus ' is useless, because only short pieces 
can be obtained and the wood ^ is full of knots. 
Terebinth is not used,^ except the fruit and the resin. 

<»rts with solid wheels.' rals conj. Sch.; re koX UMV; t6 koI 
:iovo<TTp6<pov5 a/xa^as Aid. 

' irrjSos (with varying accent) MSS.: probably = ira5oj, 4. 1. 
:5 ; irv^os Aid., but see §7. 

® TtKToviai can hardlj- be right. ' cf. .3. L"). 5. 

* c/. 1. S. 2, of box in general ; Plin. 16. 71. 

'* Inconsistent with 5. 3. 2. 



TrXrjV Tft) KapwM Kal rfj pijTLVp. oifBe (fnXvKrj 
ttXt^v rol<i 7rpo^drot<i' ael yap iari Baaeia. t^ 
Se a(f)dpKrj et? ')(^paKd<i re koI to Kaieiv. kt}- 
XdcrrpM Be Kal cn]/xv8a tt/jo? /3aKTr]pLa<i. eviOL he 
Kal 8d(f>vr]' ra? yap yepovTiKo.'i Kal Kov(f>a<{ ravrr}<i 
TToiovcriv. Irea 8e tt/oo? re Ta<; da'uiha'i Kal 
ra<i Kiara'i Kal tcl Kava Kal rdWa. irpoaava- 
Xa/Seiv Be eari Kal rSiv aXkoov eKaarov 6fiOL(o<;. 

Ai^p7]rai Be Kal Trpo? to. reKTOviKa tmv opyd- 
vcov cKaara Kara rrjv -x^peiav olov (T(pvplov /xev 
Kal reperpiov apt,ara fiev ycverai kotlvov ;T^/9ft)VTat 
Be Kal 7rv^i,voL<i Kal ir-reXetvoL^ Kal fieXecvoi<i' Ta<; 
Be /jLeydXaf (7(f)vpa<; 7nTviva<; ttolovctiv. ofioioxi 
Be Kal TMv dXXcov sKaarov e'%ei nva rd^iv. Kal 
ravra fxev at xpelai Biaipovaiv. 

VIII. 'J^Kacrrr} Be rr]<{ vXr)<i, wairep Kal irporepov 
eXe)(dii, Biacfiipei Kara TOv<i tottou?" evOa fxev yap 
Xo)t6<{ evOa Be KeBpo<i ylverai Oavfiaaj'^, Kaddnrep 
Kal irepl 'S.vpi.av ev Xvpta yap ev re Tot<; opeai 
Bia(f>epovTa yiverat rd BevBpa rrj'i KeBpov Kal tw 
vyfrei Kal tm Trd^^ei' rrjXiKavra ydp eariv cocr 
evia fiev /jltj BvvaaOai rpel<i dvBpa<i •jrepiXafi^dveiv 
ev re TOi<i TTapaBeicroL'i ert /ietfo) Kal KaXXlo). 
(f)aLveTat Be Kal edv Tt<? ea Kal jjurj refivr] tottop 
oiKelov €Kaarov e-^^ov ylvecrdaL Oavfiaarbv t&J 
fiTjKei Kal 'ird')(eL. ev KyTrpo) yovv ovk erepuvov ol 
^aaiXei<i, dp,a fiev rrjpovvre^ Kal ra/xtevopLevot, dfia 

' Inconsistent with 5. 6. 2. <pi\vp4a conj. Sch. 

^ Kal (T-n/ivSa conj. Sch. ; Kal fxvla U ; Kal fiva Aid. c/. 3. 14. 4. 


ENQUIRY INTO PLANTS, V. vii. 7-viii. i 

1 Alaternus is only useful for feeding sheep ; for it is 
always leafy. Hybrid arbutus is used for making 
stakes and for burning : holly and Judas-tree ^ for 
walking-sticks : some also use bay for these ; for 
of this ^ thev make light sticks and sticks for old 
men. Willow is used for shields hampers baskets 
and the like. We might in like manner add the 
several uses of the other woods. 

* Distinction is also made between woods according 
as they are serviceable for one or other of the 
carpenter's tools : thus hammers and gimlets are best 
made of wild olive, but box elm and manna-ash are 
.ilso used, while large mallets are made of Aleppo 
pine. In like manner there is a regular practice 
ibout each of the other tools. Such are the 

differences as to the uses of various woods. 

Of the localities in which the best timber grows. 

\TII. Each kind of timber, as was said before, 
(liH"ei"s according to the place ^ where it grows ; 
in one place nettle-tree, in another the cedar is 
lemarkably fine, for instance in Syria ; for in Syria 
and on its mountains the cedars grow to a sur- 
passing height and thickness : they are sometimes 
so large that three men cannot embrace the tree. 
And in the parks they are even larger and finer. It 
appears that any tree, if it is left alone in its 
natural jiosition and not cut down, grows to a 
remarkable height and thickness. For instance in 
(Cyprus the kings used not to cut the trees, 
I oth because they took great care of them and hus- 

' TttuTijs conj. H. ; ravras UMVAld. 

* Plin. 16. 2;i0. 

* To-Kovs conj. Seal, from G ; T«$5as Aid. 



5e /cat 8ia to SvcrKOfMiarov elvai. yu,^«09 fxev r)v 
T(bv eh ri]V kvheKrjp-q rrjv Arj/jLijTpLOU T/jLt)0evTO)v 
rpcaKaiSe/caopyviov, avra 8e ra ^v\a rw jxrjKei, 
dav/jLaara koX ao^a kuI Xeia. /xiyiara 8e kov 
irapa ttoXv to, iv rfj Yivpvw <^aalv elvar tmv 
yap €v rfj AarivT] Kokoiv yivo/xevcov vTrep^oXfj 
Kol ro)v iXarlvcov koI roiv TrevKivcov — /xet^o) yap 
ravra koI /caWico rcov ^IraXiKMV — ovSev elvai 

2 TTpo? ra iv rfj K.vpva). irXevaai yap irore Tov<i 
'Fco/j,alov<i ^ovXop-evovi Karaa Kevdaaadai ttoXlv 
iv rfi v/jao) irevre kuI ecKoai, vavai, Ka\ rrjXi/covTOv 
elvai TO p^eyedo^ tmv SevBpcov coare elarrXeovra^ 
6i9 KoKiTOVi Tiva<i Kal \Lp,eva<; 8iao-)(^iadelai T0i9 
la-rot'i iiriKivSwevaai.. Kal oXtw? Se Traaav rrjv 
vrjaov hacrelav Kal oidirep r}ypi(op,iviiv rfj vXy 
St' Kal cnroarrjvai rrjv ttoXiv oiKL^eiv hLaj3dvra<i 
Se Tiva<; d'noTep.ecrdat 7rdp,7ro\v 7rXrjdo<i iK tottov 
^pa-)(€09, &a-Te TijXiKavrrjv TTOir)<Tat a^eSiav r] 
iXPV^(f''TO TrevrrjKovra icrTLOt<i' ov fir]v ciXXa 
htairea-elv avrrjv iv tm ireXdyei. K.vpvo'i p,ev ovv 
etVe hui TTjv dveciv etre Kal ro e8a(t>o<; Kal rov 
depa TToXi) 8ia(f}6pei rcav dXXcov. 

3 'H Se Tcov AaTLVOov e<Pv8po<i iraaa' Kal r; p.ev 
TTeheivrj 8d(f)vr]v €^€1 Kal p,vppi,vov<i Kal o^vijv 
6avp,aaT7]V rrjXcKavra yap rd p,7]Kr] rep^vovcri 
war eh'ai SiaveKco'i tmv Tvpp-qviScov v-no rrjv 
rpoTTiv 7] 8e opeivT) irevKrjv Kal iXdrrjv. to 8e 

^ Demetrius Polioreetes. cf. Pint. Demetr. 43 ; Plin. 16. 

2 eitiKiv^vuevcrai conj. W.; iir\ rhy ttvkvov Aid.; SO U, but 


* i.e. against the overhanging trees. ? la-rlois, to which 
Siaffx- is more appropriate. 


banded them, and also because the transport of the 

timber was difficult. The timbers cut for Demetrius' * 

ship of eleven banks of oars were thirteen fathoms 

long, and the timbers themselves were without 

knots and smooth, as well as of marvellous length. 

But largest of all, they say, are the trees of 

Corsica ; for whereas silver-fir and fir grow in 

Latium to a very great size, and are taller and 

finer than the silver-firs and firs of South Italy, 

these are said to be nothing to the trees of Corsica. 

\ For it is told how the Romans once made an ex- 

\ pedition to that island with twenty-five ships, wishing 

\ to found a city there ; and so great was the size of 

I the trees that, as they sailed into certain bays and 

i creeks, they got into difficulties ^ through breaking 

V. their masts.^ And in general it is said that the 

I whole island is thickly wooded and, as it were, one 

I wild forest ; wherefore the Romans gave up the idea 

I of founding their city : however some of them made 

I an excursion ^ into the island and cleared away a large 

quantity of trees from a small area, enough to make 

a raft with fifty sails ; ^ but this broke up in the open 

sea. Corsica then, whether because of its uncultivated 

condition or because of its soil and climate, is very 

superior in trees to other countries. 

The country of the Latins is all well watered ; 
the lowland part contains bay, myrtle, and wonder- 
ful beech : they cut timbers of it of such a size that 
they ynW run the whole length '• of the keel of a 
'j.^rrhenian vessel. The hill country produces fir and 
silver-fir. The district called by Circe's name is, it 


Sio.Soi'Tai 5e ripas conj. St. from G; Sio/Sai^a 5« nra Ald.H. 
^ «Xp^<''oTo xfVT. iar. conj. Sch.; p exp^'^'""^" "' Ald.H. 
SiaitKas conj. Sch. ; Sia reus Aid. 



KipKaiov KaXovfievov elvai fxev ctKpav v^rj\i^v, 
haaeiav he ac^ohpa koI e^eiv Spvv fcal Bdcf)vr)v ttoX.- 
Xt]v Kol p,vppbvov<;. Xeyecv Se Tov<i ey')(^u>piov^ fw? 
evTuvda 7) KipKT) KarwKec koX SeiKvvvai tov tov 
^ EX'7r7]Vopo<i Tii^ov, i^ ov (fivovTat fxvpplvai Kadd- 
irep at (TTe(l)av(t>Ti8e'i tmv aWtov qvtcov pteydXayv 
/Mvppivcov. TOV 8e TOTTOV elvui Kol TOVTOV viuv 
TTpocrOeaLV, koI irporepov puev ovv vrfcrov elvai ro 
K.ipKalov, vvv he vtto iroraficop tlvcov irpoaKS- 
'XOicrOai KoX elvai rjlova. rri<i he vrjaov to /xejedo'; 
Trepl oyhoTjKovTa aTahiov^. nal to, jxev tmv 

Toirwv ihia iroXkrjV e;^6t hia(f)opdv, foatrep etpijTai 

TX. To he Kol 7rpo<i Tr]V TTvpwcnv iroi^ eKuaTrj 
Trj<i vXtj'i e^ec Xe/cTeov ofioicof Kal ireipaTeov 
Xa^elv. dv6paK6<i p-ev ovv dpiaToi ylvovTaL tcov 
TTVKVOTdTwv, olov dpLa<{ hpub'i Kopdpov aTepeco- 
TaTOL ydp, &(TTe irXelcTTOv ■)(^p6vov dvTeyovai Kal 
p,dXi(TTa laj^vovar hi o Kal ev Toi<i dpyvpeCoif; 
T0VT0L<i ^pMVTai TTyOO? Tfjv 7rpQ)r7]v TOVTWV eyjrijaiv. 
Xeipiaroi he tovtcov ol hpuivor yecoheaTaTOi ydp' 
■X^eipov? he Kal ol tmv Trpecr^vTepcov tmv vewv, Kal 
fidXicTTa ol TMV yepavhpvcov hid TavTO' ^rjpoTaTOi 
yap, hi" Kal ir'qhMai Kaiofievor hel he eviKfxov 

BeXricTTOi he ol TOiv ev uKpifi Kal fxdXi(rTa ol 

1 c/. Horn. Od. 10. 552 foil., 11. 51-80, 12. 8-15; Plin. 15. 

'•* peai^ Ttp6a6efftv conj. .Sell.; e»s avhphs Otaiv Aid. 


EXQUIRY INTO PLANTS, V. viii. 3-ix. 2 

is said, a lofty })romontory, but very thickly wooded, 
producing oak, bay in abundance, and invrtle. There, 
according to the natives, dwelt Circe, and they shew 
Elpenor's tonib,^ on which grow myrtles like those 
used for garlands, though other kinds of myrtle are 
large trees. Further it is said that the district is a 
recent addition '^ to the land, and that once this piece 
of land was an island, but now the sea has been 
silted up by certain streams and it has become 
united to the coast, and the size of the 'island'^ 
is about eighty furlongs in circumference. There 

is ^ then much difference in trees, as has been said 
re])eatedly, which is due to the individual character 
of particular districts. 

Of the uses of various icoods in mahimj fire : charcoal, fuel, 

IX. Next we must state in like manner and 
endeavour to determine the properties of each kind 
of timber in relation to making fire. The best 
charcoal is made from the closest wood, such as 
aria (holm-oak) oak arbutus ; for these are the most 
solid, so that they last longest and are the strongest ; 
wherefore these are used in silver-mines for the first 
smelting of the ore. Worst of the woods mentioned 
is oak, since it contains most mineral matter,^ and 
the wood of older trees is inferior to that of the 
younger, and for the same reason that of really old 
trees '^ is specially bad. For it is very dry, wherefore 
it sputters as it burns ; whereas wood for charcoal 
should contain sap. 

The best charcoal comes from trees in their prime. 

cf. Plin. 3. 57. * €x«i conj. Sch.; fhat Aid. 
i.e. and so makes much ush. ^ cf. 2. 7. 2. 



TWl' KOXO^MV (TV/JL/jieTp(0<i jdp €')(pV(TL TU) TTVKVU) 

Kal yecoSei koX rw vypM- ^€\tlov<; Be koI ck tmv 
eveiKwv koX ^rjpMV koI Trpoafioppcov rj eK tmv 
iraXiaKLwv Kal vypoov Kal 7ryoo9 vqtov Kal el 
iviKfjbOTepa<i v\r]<i, irvKvrj'i' vypoTepa yap ij ttukvt]. 
Kal oX,&)9, oaa r) (fivaet i) 8id [rbi^] tottov ^iiporepov 
irvKVOTcpa, i^ uTravrcov /BeXrlco Sid rijv avTr^v 
alriav. %/3eta. he ciWcov aWrj' tt/jo? evia yap 
^7)Tovcn rov<i fiaXaKov^, olov iv roi<; cnBi]p€ioi,<; 
Tov<i rij'i Kapva<i rrj'i ^v^oiKi]<i, orav '^St] KCKav- 
p,evo<i y, Kal ev rot? dpyvpeLOi<; toi/? ttitvivov^. 
XpMvrai Be Kal at Texvai tovtol^. ^rjTOvat Be 
Kal 01 p^aXvet? tou? TrevKivovi fidWov r) Bpvtvov<i' 
KaiTOL dadevearepoi aXX' ei9 rrjv (pvcrrjaiv d/xei- 
vov; &)9 rjcraov Karapapaivo/xevor eari Be rj (fiXo^ 
o^VTepa Tovrcov. to Be 6\ov o^vrepa <p\6^ Kal 
7) Tovroyv Kal i) roiv ^vXcov tmv p,avo)v Kal kov^wv 
Kal T) rdov avaiv r] S' eK roSv ttvkvwv Kal ^(Xwpwv 
vcoOecrrepa Kal ira'x^uTepa' iracroiv Be o^vtutij t] 
€K TO)P vXi]fx,dr(ov' dv6paKe<i Be 6X(o<; ov yivovrai 
Bid TO yu.^ e')(^etv to awfxaTOiBe^. 

Te/Mvovat Be Kal ^7]T0Ucn et9 t«9 dvOpaKi,d<; tu 

1 Ko\oBS>v con]. Palm.; KoWa^uv U; KoKd^mv A\A. 

^ Se /col ^K tSiv conj. W. ; Se koI oi rSiv UMVP; 5« ol rSiv 

^ KoL el iviK/xoTtpat conj. W.; Koi oi ivaKfiortpas U; /col ^ iv 
aKfx7)Tfpa,s MV; Kol ol iv aKfx-riTfpas Ald.Bas.Cam. The sense 
seems to require vypoTtpas for iviK/xortpas and eviK/xoTtpa for 
vyporepa. G seems to have had a fuller text. 

* i.e. from growing in a damper place, cf. 5. 9. 4. 



and es|}€cially from trees which have been to}H)ed ^ : 
for these contain in the right proportion the qualities 
of closeness admixture of mineral matter and moisture. 
Again better charcoal comes from trees- in a sxmny dry 
position with a north aspect than from those grown in 
a shady damp jx)sition facing south. Or, if the wood ' 
used contains a good deal of moisture,* it should be 
of close texture ; for such wood contains more sap.^ 
And, for the same reason, that which is of closer 
texture either from its own natural character or 
because it was grown in a drier spot,^ is, whatever 
the kind of tree, betterJ But different kinds of 
charcoal are used for different purposes : for some 
uses men require it to be soft ; thus in iron-mines 
they use that which is made of sweet chestnut 
when the iron has been already smelted, and in 
silver-mines they use charcoal of pine-wood : and 
these kinds are also used by the crafts. Smiths ^ 
require charcoal of fir rather than of oak : it is 
indeed not so strong, but it blows up better into 
a flame, as it is less apt to smoulder : and the flame 
from these woods is fiercer. In general the flame is 
fiercer not only from these but from any wood which 
is of oj>en texture and light, or which is drv' : while 
that from wood which is of close texture or green is 
more sluggish and dull. The fiercest flame of all 
is given by brushwood ; but charcoal cannot be 
made from it at all, since it has not the necessary 

They cut and require for the charcoal-heap straight 

* c/. § 1 ad Jin. 

* iripoTtpov conj. W.; Ittpirrtpa UMV; ruKrirtpa ^rtpirepa 
Aid. I have bracketed rkr. 

' /3eA,Tia> conj. Sch.; ^Kriuir UM ; p4\Tioy Ald.H. 
8 c/. Plin. 16. 23. 



evOea koX to, Xela' hel yap &>? irvKvorara avv- 
delvaL irpo'i ttjv KardiTVL^LV. orav 8e jrepi,- 
aKeiy^coaL rrjv Kapavov, i^dirrovat irapd puepof 
'7TapaKevrovvTe<i o^eKicTKOL'^. eh puev ttjv dvOpa- 
Kidv rd TOiavra ^rjTOvcn. 

Ava/cuTTva 8e tc5 jevet p,ev oXo)? rd vypd' Koi 
Tft ')(\(opd Bid TOVTO hvcTKairva. Xeyco Be rd uypd 
Ta eXeia, olov rrXdravov Ireav XevKr/v aiyeipov 
eVel Kol 7] a/x7re\o? ore vypd BvaKairvo'^. eK Be 
rrj<i IBla^ (jbucreo)? 6 (f)olvi^, ov Br) koi p,dXc(xrd 
ru>e<i vTreiXrjcjiaa-L BvaKairvov 69ev koi X.aip7]p,cov 
e-TTOLTjae " rod re BvaKarrvordrov ^oiviKO<i e'/c 7179 

6 pi^o(fioir7]rov(i 0\e/3a9." Bpip.vraro<i Be 6 Kairvo^ 
(7VK7]<i Kol ipiveov Kol et ri dXXo ovrcoSe?* airia 
Be r) vyp6r7]<;' (^XoiaOevra Be Kol diro^pex^^vra 
ev vBarc irrcppvrq) Kal perd ravra ^rjpavOevra 
irdvrcov dKarrvbrara Koi (pXoya pbaXaKcordrrjv 
dvlrjaiv, are Kal rr}? ol/ceia'i vyp6rrjro<; e^r]pr]p,evr]<;. 
Bpip,ela Be Kal t] re(j)pa Kal ?; Kovla rj a??' avrwv. 
pbdXiara Be (j)aat rrjv diro rrj'i dptvyBaXrj^;. 

6 IT/)09 Br) rd'i KapiiVLa<i Kal rd<i dXXa<i re)(ya^ 
dXXr) dXXoL<i 'X^prjalp^r). ep,7rupeveaOai Be dpiara 
crvKrj Kal iXda- avKr) p,ev, on yXla'^^pov re Kal 
pavov, ioare eXKet re Kal ov Bietaiv iXda Be, ore 
TTVKVov Kal Xiirapov. 

^ \uo. conj. Seal, from G ; via Aid. 

^ With sods. c/. Plin., ^.c, who seems to have had a fuller 

' An Athenian tragic poet. Seal, restores the quotation 



smooth 1 billets : for tliey must be laid as close as 
pwDssible for the smouldering process. When they 
have covered"^ the kiln, they kindle the heap by 
degrees, stirring it with {X)les. Such is the wood 

required for the charcoal-heap. 

In general damp '.vood makes an evil smoke, and 
for this reason green wood does so : I mean the 
damp woods which grow in marshy groimd, such 
as plane willow abele black poplar : for even 
vine-woodj when it is damp, gives an evil smoke. 
So does palm-wood of its own nature, and some 
have supposed it to give the most evil smoke of all : 
whence Chaeremon^ speaks of '"Veins issuing under- 
ground from roots of palm with its malodorous smoke." 
Most pungent is the smoke of fig-wood, whether 
wild or cultivated, and of any tree which has a 
curdling juice ; the reason lies in the sap ; when 
such wood has been barked and soaked in running 
water and then dried, it gives as little smoke as 
any other, and sends u]) a very soft^ flame, since 
its natural moisture also has been removed. The 
cinders and ashes of such wood are also pungent, 
and especially, they say, those of almond-wood. 

For the crafts requiring a furnace and for other 
crafts various woods are serviceable according to 
circumstances.^ For kindling fig and olive are best : 
fig, because it is tough and of open texture, so that 
it easily catches fire and does not let it through,^ 
olive, because it is of close texture and oily. 

thus : ToS Tf SvffKa-Kvayrdrov \ (po'iyiKos tK yrjs })i^o<poiTi\rovs 
(pXf^as {^iCo(piTVTovs conj. Schneidewin). 

* i.e. not sputtering. 

' Kal . . . xpV(f(f^V conj. W. ; rixvats aWriKois xP^^^'^f^V U; 
T. aK\-n\as xp- MV; re'xt^ &\\r) iart xp- P > t. oAA^Aojs earl 
XpvrifJ-V Aid. * i.e. bum out quickly. 

47 < 


Uvpela Be ^iverai fxev e/c ttoWmv, apicrra Se, 
W9 <p')]at Mevearmp, eV kittov' rdxtcTTa <ynp koI 
TrXelcrrov avaTTvei. irvpelov Se (paaiv dpiarov 
fi€V €K T?79 aOpayev^jf; Ka\ov/xevrj<; viro rivcov 
TOVTO 8' earl hevhpov ofioiov rfj dfiireXo) koX rfj 
olvdvOij rfj dypia' Mcnrep eKclva koX rovro dva- 
^aivet TT/oo? rd BevSpa. Bel Be rrjv ia-^dpav e« 
rovrcov irot-elv ro Be rpviravov i/c Bd<^vri<;' ov yap 
eK ravrov ro ttolovv kuI wdcr^ov, dW' erepov 
evOv Bel Kara <f)V(nv, koI ro fxev Bel rraOrjrLKov 
elvat ro Be irotTjriKov. ov /uirjv dWa Kac eK rev 
avrov y'iverai Kai, W9 76 rLve<i v7ro\afJ,/3dvovcnv, 
ovBev Bia(f)epeL. yiverai yap eK pd/xvov Koi 
irpivov Kal (piXvpa'i Kal (T)(eB6v eK rcov ifKeiaraiv 
rrXi-jv e\da<;' o Kal BoKel droirov elvar Kal yap 
aK\rip6repov Kal Xmapov r/ eXda' rovro fiev ovv 
davfi/xerpov e^ei BrjXov on, rijv vyporrjra tt/jo? 
rr]v rrvpwcnv. dyadd Be rd eK pdpvov iroiel Be 
rovro Kal rrjv ecr^dpav XPV<^'''V^' '^po'i yap rw 
^Tjpdv Kal d')(yP'OV elvat Bel Kal p^avorepav, iv rj 
rplyfri'i l(T')(yr], ro Be rpviravov drraOearepov Bt 
ro rr]<i Bd(f)V')]<; dpiarov d'Tra6e<; yap ov epyd- 
^erai rrj Bpifivrrjri. Trdvra Be rd rrvpela ^opeioi<i 
fiev Odrrov Kal /xdXXov e^dirrerai, vorloa Be 
rjrrov Kal ev /aev rol<i /jierecopoa /xdWov, ev Be 
rol<i Koi\oL<; rjrrov. 

^Avlei Be rS)v ^vXoov rd KeBpiva koI aTrXw? mv 

^ TT. Se fiverai jxkv conj. Sch. ; ir. fiiv ylnTat Sf UMVAW. 
2 cf. 1. 2. 3 n. 

' KiTTov conj. Bod. iromdeigne 64, Plin. 16. 208 ; Kapvov Aid. 
* irvpehv con]. Salm,; irvpol UMVAld, 



Fire-sticks are made ^ from many kinds of wood, 
but best, according to Menestor,^ from ivy ^ : for 
that flares up most quickly and freely. They 
say also that a very good fire-stick ^ is made of 
the wood which some call traveller's joy ; this is 
a tree like the vine or the •' wild vine/ which, 
like these, climbs up trees. The stationary piece ^ 
should be made of one of these, the drill of bay ; 
for the active and passive parts of the apparatus 
sliould not be of the same Avood, but different in 
their natural properties to start with, one being 
of active, the other of passive character. Never- 
theless they are sometimes made of the same wood, 
and some supj)ose that it makes no difference. 
They are made in fact of buckthorn kemies- 
oak lime and almost any wood except olive ; 
which seems surprising, as olive-wood is rather 
hard and oily ; however it is plainly its moisture 
which makes it less suitable for kindling. The 
wood of the buckthorn is also good, and it makes 
a satisfactory stationary piece ; for, besides being 
dr\- and free from sap it is necessary that this 
should also be of rather open texture, that the 
friction may be effectual ; while the drill should 
be one which gets little v.orn by use. And that 
i^ why one made of bay is best; for, as it is not 
\vorn by use, it is effective through its biting 
quality. All fire-sticks take fire quicker and better 
in a noi-th than in a south wind, and better in an 
exposed spot than in one which is shut in. 

Some woods, such as prickly cedar, exude ^ 
noisture, and, generally speaking, so do those 

i.k. the piece of wood to be bore<:l. cf- de igne, I.e. 
aviii. ? ayiSia, 



eXat&)8?/9 t; vyp6T>]<;' Si" o Kol to, a^yuX^iard 
(paaiv ISUtv ivloTe' Troiovcri yap eK rovrcov. o 
Se KaXovcnv ol fMdvTei<i EtXei^fta? dcpeSpov, inrep 
ov KoX eKdvovrai, 7rpo<; Tot<i iXaTivoi<; yiveraL 
avvLcrTafM€vy<; tivo^ ^7/90x77x09, xw cr^7;/xaxi fj,ev 
(TT poyyvXov fieyeOo^; 8e r)\iKov diriov rj koI fxcKpo) 
fiei^ov rj eXarrov. eK^Xaardvet he f^dXicna rd 
iXdiva Kol dpyd Kcl/xeva koX elpyaa p,kva iroXXd- 
KL<i, idv iKfidSa XafM^dvT] /cal eXJ] roirov vorepov 
wcnrep r/S?; xf9 (TTpO(f)€v<i xi}? 9vpa<i i^Xdarrjcre, Kot 
et9 KvXiKiov ttXivOwov redeiaa /cwttt; eV irijXq). 

^ cf. C.P. 5. 4. 4. 01 ixdvTiis . . . iKarlvois conj. Lobeck. ; 
ol \e7av . . . to7s hcuTlvois U ; olKeiav , . . rovs iKfj-arlvois V; ol 
Attai' TTJs €i\r)0r]as . . . tois iKixarlvois M ; ol \f7av rris aXyjOvlas 
i(pai^pov . . . Tovs (Karivovs P2 ; lAfTay rfjj (l\r]duias fcpvSpoy . . . 
Tovs iKajivovs Aid. 



whose sap is of an oily character; and this is 
vliy statues are sometimes said to ' sweat ' ; for 
the}' are made of such woods. That which seers 
call the menses of Eileithuia/ ^ and for the appearance 
of which they make atonement," forms on the wood 
of the silver-fir when some moisture gathers on it : 
the formation is round ^ in sliape, and in size about 
as large as a pear, or a little larger or smaller. 
Olive-wood is more apt than other woods to pro- 
duce shoots even when lying idle or made into 
manufactured articles ; this it often does, if it obtains 
moisture and lies in a damp place ; thus the socket 
of a door-' hinge ' * has been known to shoot, and 
also an oar which was standing in damp earth in an 
earthenware vessel.^ 

- !.e. as a portent, c/. Char. 16. 2. 

arpo-l'^vXov conj. Sch.; ffTpoYyvKiis UMVPoAkl. 
^ cj. 5. 6. 4 ; Plin. 16. 230. 

'" ttXivO. Ted. K(iir-i) 4v ir-qXq) COllj. Spr. ; TrKivdn'OV TiOtXs Tjj 
Kii-TTv irn\6s PoAlil.H, 



BiCHARD Clay and Sons, Limited, 




Latin Authors. 

A PI" LEI US. The Golden Ass. (Metamorphoses.) Trans, by 

\V. Adlington (1566). Revised by S. Gaselee. i Vol. 
CAESAR : CIVIL WARS. Trans, by A. G. Teskelt. i Vol. 
CATULLUS. Trans, by F. \V. Cornish ; TIBULLUS. 

Trans, by J. P. Postgate ; PERVIGILIUM VENERIS. 
; Trans, by ^' W. Mackail. i Vol. 

jCICERO : DE FINIBUS. Trans, by H. Rackham. i Vol. 
jCICERO : DE OFFICIIS. Trans, by Walter Miller, i Vol. 

Winstedt. Vols I and II. 

1631). 2 Vols. 

"DRACE : ODES AND EPODES. Trans, by C. E. Bennett. 

1 Vol. 

Showerman. i Vol. 
)VID: METAMORPHOSES. Trans, by F. J. Miller. 

2 Vols. 

ETRONIUS. Trans, by M. Heseltine ; SENECA : APOCO- 
LOCYNTOSIS. Trans, by W. H. D. Rouse, i V^ol. 
LAUTUS. Trans, by Paul Nixon. Vol. I, 
LINY : LETTERS. Melmoth's Translation revised by 
''V. M. L. Hutchinson. 2 Vols. 
•FOPERTIUS. Trans, by H. E. Butler. I VoL 
►U ETON I US. Trans, byj. C. Rolfe. 2 Vols. 
ACITUS: DIALOGUS. Trans, by Sir Wm. Peterson; 
Hutton. I Vol. 
PE RENCE. Trans, by John Sargeaunt. 2 V'ols. 

Greek Authors. 

APOLLONIUS RIIODIUS. Trans, by R. C. Seaton. i Vol. 
THE APOSTOLIC FATHERS. Trans, by Kirsopp Lake. 

2 Vols. 

APPIAN'S ROMAN HISTORY. Trans, by Horace White. 

4 Vols. 
DAPHNIS AND ClILOE. Thornley's Translation revised 

by J. M. Edmonds ; PARTHENIUS. Trans, by S. Gaselee. 

I Vol. 


Vols. I, II, HI, IV, and V. 
EURIPIDES. Trans, by A. S. Way. 4 Vols. 
THE GREEK ANTHOLOGY. Trans, by W. R. Paton. 

Vols. I, II.andlH. 


MOSCHUS). Trans, by J. M, Edmonds, i Vol. 

H. G. Evelyn White. I Vol. 
JULIAN. Trans, by Wilmer Cave Wright. Vols. I and II. 
LUCIAN. Trans, by A. M. Harmon. Vols. I and II. 
MARCUS AURELIUS. Trans, by C. R. Haines, i Vol. 

TYANA. Trans, by F. C. Conybeare. 2 Vols. 
PINDAR. Trans, by Sir J. E. Sandys. I Vol. 

PHAEDRUS. Trans, by H. N. Fowler, i Vol. 

Perrin. Vols. I, II, III, and IV. 
PROCOPIUS. Trans, by H. B. Dewing. Vols. I and II. 
QUINTUS SxMYRNAEUS. Trans, by A. S. Way. i Vol. 
SOPHOCLES. Trans, by F. Storr. 2 Vols. 

Trans, by the Rev. G. R, Woodward and Harold Mattingly. 

1 Vol. 

XENOPHON : CYROPAEDIA. Trans, by Walter Miller. 

2 Vols. 


Greek Authors. 

AESCHINES, C. D. Adams, of Dartmouth College. 

AESCHYLUS, H. W. Smyth, of Harvard University. 

ARISTOPHANES, J. W. White, of Harvard University. 

Heseltine, of New College, Oxford. 

STITUTION, Edward Capps, of Princeton University. 

ARRIAN, W. K. Prentice, of Princeton University. 

ATHENAEUS, C. B. Gulick, of Harvard University. 

CALLIMACHUS, A. W. Mair, Professor of Greek in the 
University of Edinburgh ; ARATUS, G. R. Mair, of Gonville 
and Caius College, Cambridge. 

LEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA, Rev. G. W. Butterworth, 
: the University of Leeds. 

' CHRYSOStOM. W. E. Waters, New York University. 
r^EBIUS, Kirsopp I^ke, of Harvard University. 
:!;EEK LYRICS, J. M. Edmonds, of Jesus College, Cam- 

HOMER, ILIAD, W. F. Harris, of Harvard University. 

[lOMER, ODYSSEY, A. T. Murray, of Stanford University, 

IAMBIC AND ELEGIAC POETS, E. D. Perry, of Columbia 

ISAEUS, R. J. Bonner, of the University of Chicago. 
SUCRATES, G. Norlin, of the University of Colorado. 

\lANETHO, S. de Ricci. 

MEXANDER, F. G. AUinson, of Brown University. 

i'AUSAXIAS, W. H. 8. Jones, of St. Catherine's College, 

illlLOSTRATUS, IMAGINES, Arthur Fairbanks, Boston 
Museum of Fine Arts. 

1 LATO, LYSIS AND GORGIAS, W. R. Lamb, of Trinity 
College, Cambridge. 

ILATO, REPUBLIC, Paul Shorey, University or Chicago. 

ILUTARCH, MORALIA, F. C. Babbitt, of Trinity College, 

lOLYBIUS, W. R. Paton. 

TIIUCYDIDES, C. F. Smith, of the University of Wisconsin. 

:;kxophon, anabasis and hellenica, c. w. 

P.rownson, of the College of the City of New York. 

Lat in Auth ors. 

AMMIANUS, C. U. Clark, of Yale University, 

AULUS GELLIUS> C. B. Plainer, of Western Reser' 

AUSONIUS, H. G. Evelyn White, of Wadham Colleg 

CICERO, AD FAMILIARES, E. O. Winstedt, of Magdalt 

College, Oxford. 

Stilt taford. 
FRONTINUS, DE AQUIS, C. Ilerschel, of New York. 
FRONTO, C. R. Haines, of St. Catherine's College, Can 

HORACE, EPISTLES and SATIRES, W. G. Hale, of tl 

University of Chicago, and G. L. Hendrickson, of Ya' 

JUVENAL AND PERSIUS, G. G. Rarnsay, of Trinity Colleg,' 

Oxford, and late of Glasgow University. j 

LIVY, B. O. Foster, of Stanford University. i 

LUCAN, S. Reinach, Member of the Institute of France, i 
OVID, TRISTIA AND EX PONTO, A. L. Wheeler, of Bry 

Mawr College. 
SALLUST, J. C. Rolfe,' of the University of Pennsylvania. 

Haverford College. 
SENECA, MORAL ESSAYS, J. W. Basore, of Princeto 

TACITUS, ANNALS, John Jackson, of Queen's College 

VALERIUS FLACCUS, A. F. Scholfield, of King's College 

VELEIUS PATERCULUS, F. W. Shipley, of Washingto 

VITRUVIUS, F. W. Kelsey, of the University of Michigan. 


New York = = G. P. PUTNAM'S SONS 



PA Theophrastus 

IJM Enquiry into plants and 

A8 minor works on odours and 

1916 weather signs