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WITH t9e 


Dfhclando pai-itergtie moiundo. Hon. 


ur c. Guos, 



Printed b'j and IVud, fAlIk B,-Uiiii, 






P R E F il C E 

or TH£ 

A U T H O R. 

AS Exercises are generally allowed to be highly- 
useful to the learners of a language, the nature 
of them requires, that they should be rendered enter-, 
tainihg and instructive ; yet most of them abound with 
examples, which cannot fail of disgusting all persons 
of taste and understanding. 

Ka care has hecn wanting' to select, in this perform- 
ance, such sentences as are not only inoffensive, but 
conducive to the scholar's improvement ; and, in this 
respect, it has the^ advantage over any other book of 
this kind. The letters enclosed between parentheses, 
and interspersed throughout the whole work, indicatf 
the different moods and tenses of the verb, bjr re- 
feiences to the tables, pages 24, 25, 26, 29, .30, SI* 
&c. ; so that even a child cannot be at a loss for tl^c 
particular mood or tense it is to be put in, if he atiend 
to the letter of reference. 

To every part of speech' are prefixed the Rules of 
the French Syntax J and care has been taken, to set 
down the gender of nouns; which will enable the 
pupils of either sex id perform their exercises in a 
proper manner, and save much of the time usually 
spent in consulting their dictionary. 

The method of Pari \\\ \s ^vsxvc^^ ^'i^ n "^^^ ^^: 
questionably the most e«&^ ^xiji ^ir.^^^>xv:>^^'* 

fik ^ 



master and scholar, that has ever been presented to t Iric 
pubh'c. Let the pupil, for instance, turn into FrencrA 


this phrase, " 1 have promised you. ;" he will pro- 
bably render it tims, J^ai promts a vou5\ but, if yoU 
point out to him what is ami.^, as it is done in this 
part of the present undertaking, he will assuredly re- 
collect, >llat the personal pronouns, in their oblique 
cases, are almost always put before the verb. Again, 
let him translate these words, ** The letters which 1 
have received ;" in all probability he will do it in the 
feUowing manner, Les lettres que j^ai regu\, but he no 
sooner perceives, that the last word is wrong, than he 
•alls to mind, that in this case, the participle agrees 
"with the foregoing noun in gender and number ; which 
will make a deeper impression of the rule on his me- 
moFv, than can be done by any other means, especially 
if the master take care to explain to him the particular 
ruks reki^ng to the construction of the participle ; and 
the case is the same as to. other constructions. 

A cornpendinus history of the most celebrated Greek 
and Latin authors is added ; as well as of the best 
French writers and their works ; and the whole is in- ' 
termixed with anecdotes, both curious and entertaining. 

Some of my friends have prevailed on me to sutyoin, 
ill an Appendix,, such plain and familiar Cards and Let- 
ter, as, It is hoped, will be of service to students of th« 
French tortgue* ; and in the present undertaking the . 
Regufar f and Irregular { Verbs are alphabetically con- 
jugated in the most concise manner, with the letters 
Ipeferred to in the several parts of this performance, 

^Seepage 2^^ i Z^t l<i- tii>&<;* 



Anal If sis of the Paris of Speech -- 1 

A View of the Definite Article 6. 

■- ■ ^ . — Partitive Article ..-- ibid. 

Indefinite Article ibid^ 

Formatufh bf the Piural Number of Nouns T 

A View of the Feminine Gender of Adjectives 8 

Personal Pronouns ...........^.i. S( 

A View of the Order in the ConstiuctioH of the Supplying 

Pronoun, and of some Personal Pronouns .. — . ibid. 

JPossf-ssive ProHouns. ......... ...^.^.......i* 1(X 

Demonstrative Pronouns ............. ....n... ibid. 

Relative Pronouns .--- H 

Interrogative Pronouns ..... .............. ibid. 

Indefinite Pronouns ..^.. .....•••••.. ibid. 

Cardinal Numbers - 13 

Ordinal Numbers ..^. ............ •»...,•«••• 1^ 

jmiiii^*iic(ii.we j.\uwut§s ....••...•..•.......• a| 

€Qll€ctiv€ Numbers .............. ibtd. 

Distributive Numbers ibid. 

Ordinal Adverbs ,..^ , ^9 

Numerical Denomination . ibid. 

The Degrees of Comparison 1. ^. ........ . ibid. 

Irregular Comparatives and Superlatives ........ 1^ 


Exercises to the Accidence of Nouns ............ 20 

Preliminary Observations upon Verbs ........... 25 

Terminations of the Primitive Tenses of the Regular Verbs 24 
Unvariable Terminations in all the Conjugations ... ibid« 

Conjugation of the Verb Avoir 25 

— Eire *5Sk 

Preliminary Obsenatim^ upon tKe ConjM^atxvitts «i' ^^^ ^^ 

Trench Regular and Irregulair Verb* .-.-•• 


A Table showing tie Conjugation of tie Mcgular 

French Verbs ..-«• ,--.. -,.-- 

A Table showing the Conjugation of the Irregular 

French Verbs ..•...•......•• ...... 3^ 

Exercises upon the Simple Tenses of the Reguiar Verbs 38 


Exercisesftpon the Simple Tenses of the Irregular Verbs 41 


Exercises upon the Compound Tenses of the Regular Verbs 45 

Exercises upon the Compound Tenses oft he Irregular Verbs 47 

CHAP. vir. 

Exercises upon the Simple and Compound Tenses of the. Ue- 
gular and Irregular Verbs, conjugated interrogativeli/ 4S 

Exercises upon the Simple and Compound Tenses of the 
Regular and Irregular Verbs conjtfgated negatively^ 
hoth with and without Interrogation ........ — . 50 


Exerliies upon the Simple and Compound Tenses (f the 

" Regular and Irregular Re/lccted Verbs ........... ibid. 

PART 11. 


Rules and Observations upon the Articles 52 

Exercises upon the Articles 56 


Rules and Observations upon Novns 67 

Exercises upon Nouns • 69 


Rules and Observations upon Pronouns 76 

Sect. 1. Personal Pronouns ibid. 

Exercises upon Personal Pronouns %^ 



'Sect. 2. Possessroe Pronouns %^ i 80 

Exercises upon Possessive Pronouns 88 

Sect. 3. Demonstrative Pronouns 9I 

Exercises upon Demonstrative Pronouns . . 93 

Sect. 4. Relative Pronouns gj 

Exercises upon Relative Pronouns 99 

S^CT. *5. Interrogative Pronouns 105 

Exercises upon Interrogathe Pronouns . . . ibid. 

Sect. 6. Indefinite or Indeterminate Pronouns .... 107 

Exercises upon Indejinite Pronouns Ill 

Sect. 7» The Sippplying Pronouns^ le, en, y ....... 123 

Exercises upon the Supplying Pronouns ... 124 


Rules and Observation^ upon the Degrees cf Comparison 1 27 

Exercises upon the Degrees of Comparison 12S 


Rules and Observations upon Verbs 136 

Exercises upon Verbs 138 

Sect. 1. The Use of Tenses ; 142 

Exercises upon Tenses 144 

Sect. 2. The Use of the Suitjunctive Mood 15a 

Exercises upoH the Subjunctive Mood .... 155 

Sect. 3^ The Goroemment of Verbs igQ 

Exercises upon the Government of Verbs ,.* lG2 


Rules and Observations upon Impersonal Verbs .... 171 

Exercises upon Impersonal Verbs • • . 172 


Rules and Observations upj/i the Participles ....•••. 177 

Sect. 1. The Active or Present Participle 178 

Exercisisupon the Active or Present Participle ibid. 

Sect. 2. The Passive or Past Partidfie * . . . ^'^^, 

Exercises upon t h^ Pam^K. or P a&t 1? aT^Vcxj^^ 


CHAP. VIII. t>afee 

ttitfes and 'Ohsetvfrtions Upon Adverts ------- igT 

Escercisis upon Adverbs ---------.---- jga 


Of the Prepositions - — ------%.----• ^ojpr 

Ex'rcisfs upon the' Prepositions --.------. 1^3 

. Rcjnuf 1(6 upon the Prepositions which are used before the 

Verb' ..-...-. : - . . .^12 

Exercises vpon the foregtmg P)^ epositions ----- 213 

Rtmrn ks upon some Prepositions ^ -------._ ogO 

Exercises vpon the foregoing Prepositions - - - - - . 222 

Farther Rondrks upon the Prepositions a Awd de - - 229 

Exercises upon the foregoing Prepositioks ----- 230 


Observations upon the Conjum^iems si and que - - - 236 

Exercises ttpe» the foregoing Oonjtmctifms - ^ - - - 237 



Exercises upon bad Trench -------- — -- 242 

Appendix^ eontaining €eifds and FamiUar Letters - - 289 

EXPLANATION of the Marks and Abbketiatioks 
* • mad^ use of in this Work, 

m. is for the masculine gender. 

f. for tbe fiemitiine. V 

(a) (b) (c) &c. to (k) denote tbe different tenses. Sec 
p^ks ^29 and 30. . ' 

(1) (2) (3) &c. to (6) are tb€ indices of reference to tbe , 
bottom uf the page. 

— — — denotes thattlie wotd\s«^t\Ved\%'Bwwi^wm 
JC^gJjjsh, except tb» final. 







Analysis of the Pnrts of Speech. 

THERE are^ in tlie French language, ten sqrts of words, 
or parts of Speech; namely, the Article, the Sub- 
stantive or Noun, ihe'ADJECTivE or Adnoun, the 
Pronoun, the Verb, the Ai>verb, the Participle, 
the Preposition, the CoNJUN^tioN, and the Inter* 


T. The Article is a werd prefixed to substantives to 
point thfm out, and to Sh'Qwho.w far their signification ex- 
tends ; as, Mestudy ofhibtoi'v is useful and agreeable; Vetudc 
de VhUtuire est utik et agieabk : the nature of man is un-' 
known to man ; la nature de Vhomme est inconnve a l*kom^ 
me: A bad roan is ungrateful toward Gud and toward men ; 
un tnechavt hvmme est ingrat envers Dieu et envers ies horn" 
mcs : A princels not always so happy as people believe ; un 
ptince 71* est pas iovjours aussi Atuieux que le pevple le croit, 

Gramm)EVita#i§ acimit of two sorts of articles : 

The definite f/A^eJ /f, na. /a, f. for the singular; /«, plural 
for both gendc^rs. ■ 

The InHitinite (a or an) un^ m. une^ f. for the singular; 
des instead vf qnelqufSf plusuwSf for the plural. 

The defimte article,, 1st, restrains the signification of s 
general appellation; as, Vefude de I'histoire est utile et agr^* 
able. La nature de l^homnte est inconnue a Momme, 

2dly, Indicates ihe gender and number of substantives; 
and for this reason is used in French before a noun taken ia 
it's widejt sense; as, Y^ludtorne V esprit ; study adorns the 
mind : la nature abeaucoup d^obsenateurs, maiselle a peudc 
c&tifidens; n.^ture has many obselvers, but she has few con- 
fidents.- Lea princes ne sont pas toujours aussi keureux que 
le pevjih le croit; princes are not always so happy as peo- 
ple believe. Les exempUs instrvisent plus (jit? .U^ ^x^mc^V^\ 
examples injilruci more vVvaa ^xcc^^X^^^ 

2 iN'l^ODUCilON.Te 

Substantives in French , baying no rermi nation to distinguish sufHci- 
catly the pluralfrom the singvla>, 'it.has b^en necessary to prefix a 
particle, in order to denote the number of the thing spoken of; and 
the particle used for the article, Wfiibh, as we have shown, limits the 
general aimification of noufUa is alfo made, use of to point out their 
gender and number. 

The indefinite article i$* used in a vague sense, and re- 
strains the significatiua of .^'ge^^al appellation to one or 
several objects in an indefiDite or. .partitive sense; asy ua 
prince rCest pas toujour^ amsi keureux gup^ le peu/ple lecroii. 
Nous voi/ons quelquejhu des princes irh-malheurfvx ; we some;- 
times see princes very uhhappv. ti'n hoT\imc degeni^ est sujet^ 
ccnime uh autre hommey ^ coffimeftre d^s errtur^ ei des fautes; 
a man of genius is subject, like another man, to commit 
(some) errours aiid faults. 

Another article, called partitive, iu, de la, des, is. commonly ad>« 
mitted in practical French granamar; thi^ article is I'esolved in English 
by the particle some* 

II. A Substantive or noun is a word which expresses 
the name of any thing that exists, or that we conceive to be 
existing; as, the earth, — a house,— man, — Peter, — virtue, 
—prudence. La terre^ — utie, maiion, — I'/wmme, — Pierre^'T- 
vertUf — prudence. 

To Substantives belong gender, number, aoJ case. The 
gender is, either masculine or femiAwc ; asv le pere, la m^e, 
le jardw, ta maison. There is no neuter in the French 

The number is either singular or pluraL 

The singular signifies one thing; «s, le pire, lamtre. The 
plural more than one ; as, ks p^res, Fes meres. 

The case signiiies the different states, or the different cir* 
cumstances uf a noun. 

A noun in a proposition is to be considered either as subject or 
object, that is to ia/,. as governing or governed. The governing. case, 
called also the nominathe, expresses the Subject of the verb, and U 
placed in French, as it is in English, before the verb, except in asking 
a question. 

III. An Adjective is a word added to a substantive to 
express it's quality, or to particularise it's general significa 
tion ; as, adUigent scholar, un ecolier diligent. In Frencl 
the adjective is dtclinable, ajid agrees in gender and num. 


. ber witli the substantive to which it is joined or refers ; 
as, im 'pttit bomAie, tthe petite fenime ; a little man, a little 
woman, • . 

The feminine of adjectives is formed by adding an e [called mute pr 
feminine) to the masculine gendler; as, uti petit homine^ un€ fetiu 
femme : but if the pFimitive masculine end with an € mute, cHen there 
is no alteration, and the feminine is like the masculine 3 as^ un chemp 
fertile^ ime tetrc fertile^ Sec page S* 

IV. The Pronoun supplies the place of a noun, and 
prevents the unpleasant eflect of a frequent repetition; a», 
jai vu monfrere, il itoit trh-walade, instead of raon frfere 
toit tr^f'thdade ; 1 saw my brotbier, ke was very sick,' in- 
stead of 1123^6; o^i^r was very sick. I 

Pronouns are of six kinds, viz. personal, possessive, df* 
monstrative, relative, interrogative, and improper or inde- 
finite. . 

The personal pronoun is used instead of the name of a 
.^rson ; ^s,je, tju, ^, m. f//^, f.- for the singular ; nous, vtmit 
ilsy m. ellesy f. for the pluraL - .. « 

The possessive, pronouns mark possession; they are of 
two sorts, conjunctive and .absolute. 

The conjunctive pronouns are 'lised only with substan- 
tives; as, morit marines; ton^ia^ ttst son^sa^&ss; notre^ 
■nos; votre, vos ; latr, leurs. 

The absolute pronouns are used by themselves, theirltib* 
stantives being understood ; as, le mien, la mzmne, Fes^teyii, 
les miennes ; le tien, la tienne^ les tiens, les Hemes ; le sietiy 
la sienne, les siens, les siennes ; le notre, la notrCt les fi6ireis 
}e v6tr€, la voire, les 'c6tns; le leur, la'leur, les leurs. 

The demonstrative pronouns are used to particularise 
persons or things, as if pointed at by (he finger. 

The relative pronouns refer to persons or thtngs.spbken 
of in a former part of a sentence. 

The interrogative pronouns are used in asking questions,. 

The indefinite, prunouns are u«ed in a vague sense ; as, 
touty quelque, chaque, &c. 

V. A Verb is .a word which signifies to b^^Qt to do ; as^ 
Thomas est studieux, Thomas is studious ; Thomas etudi^f 
•I^homas studies. 



. Verbs are divided, first, into rcigular and irregular, pcr- 
Bonal and impersonal. 

When a verb fullows the rule of it's conjugation, it is called 
regular; but if it deviate from it, it is called irregular. 

Personal verbs are those which are conjugate4 with tlie 
personal pronouns j'e, tu, il, elle, &c. 

Impersonal verbs are ihose which are conj^ugated only in 
the third person singular with the pronoun i/, it. 

Secondly, verbi> are divided into active, passive, neotef, 
and reflected. 

The active verb marks the action of it's subject, or no- 
minative case ; and makes good sense with the accusative 
of it's object, -or the thing on which it acts ; as. j>e mange da 
faaiiif J eat bread ; tu buis de la bierre, thou dhnkest beer; 
il chanteune chanson^ he sings a song. 

The passive verb marks the passion or suffering of it's 
subject ; je suis aime,. 1 am loved ; tu eff^uniy thou art 
punished ; il est banni, he is banished. 

A neuter verb is a word denoting the action of it's subject 
or nominative,, which action remains in the subject, and 
does not, with propriety, admit an accusative after it ;- as, 
J€ dorSf I sleep ; U court, he runs. 

The reflected verbs receive their name from reflecting the 
action of a subject or nominative on itself; as, je mejfriilej 
I burn myself; il s'aifhe, he loves himself. 

There are two auxiliary or helping verbs, ^tre, to be ; 
nnd avoir, to hate; . these are called auxiliary, from their 
helping in the conjugation of other verbs. 

Four things are to be distinguished in verbs; the mood, 
the tense, the number, and the person. 

The mood expresses the diflerent manner and uses madr 
of a verb positively, conditionally, or in an unspecifie 
jnanoer. There are five moods ; infinitive, indicative 
condiuofiul, subjunctive, and imperative. 

The Infinitive is the root of the verb ; it expresses th< 
action ar passion in an indefinite sense, without any parti- 
cular circumstance of time,' number, or person. 

The ind.^cativc expresses the action or passion in a dire' 
,f^ positive h*ianner, in a time present, past, or future. 


The conditional expresses the action or passion with de* 
pendence on some condition. 

The subjunctive i& a manner of expressing the action or 
passion with a modified affirmation or negation, always sup* 
posing another verb, which it follows, or to which it be- 
longs, or some conjunction by which it is governed. 

The imperative^ expresses the action or passion by com* 
mands, prohibitions, desires, &c. 

The future tense has sometimes the signification of the 
imperative mood, when it commands or fbrbjds ; as, thou 
shall lovG the Lord thy God, tu aimeras le Seigneur ton 

The tenses. express the period" of time, in which an action ^ 
er passion is, was, or shall be. They are properly three, 
ihc prtsent, the past, and the future. 

Each tense has two numbers, singular and plural ; and 
each number' l^as three persons. 

VI. A Pa rticiplf. partakes something of the nature of 
a verb, and something of an adjective. 

Beside the quality or attribute, which is the property of theadjec* 

tivc, the participle expresses (tm<, together with the cgosiderfitjon .o^ 

tutingf or keing aeiidupotiy whence, the participle j6r«i«ffjt or activCfin^ 

tht T^rticiiplc past or fossivi i ^t ' 

Les hoinmes craignant Dieu. Dieu craini par les hommei^ 

VII. An Adverb marks the difference and circum-' 
stance of an action or passion. 

VIII. A Preposition is a word placed before the* 
nouns and pronouns which it governs, or before some verbs,, 
in order to connect words one with another, and to show 
the relation between them. 

IX. A-CoN JUNCTION serves to connect one word with, 
another, and sentences with sentences. ' 

X. An Interjection expresses the emotions^ or pat* 
iions of the sauly\as joy, grief, admiration, &c« 

The last four parts of speech are undeclinable; 




Singular. PLWRALr 

M. F. Common, Common. 

Isi. the, le, la, 1', les 

A»^d, of or from the f du, de la, del*, des 

3d. to thCy au, a la, k T, airx.. 

Op the partitive ARTICLE. 

\%X,,some, du, -de 1^, de 1', </e,* des, 

B. $d. o/'or/ro77i, de, \ de, d', de^ de ' 
3d. to s^me, ^ du,t ^ de la, h, de T, k rfc, ^ des. 


1st. a, un, - une, some ^ several, many ^ ant/, de$ 

C. 2d. of a, d'un, d*une, of some, de 
3d. to a, k un, k une, ^o ^ 9me, 4*c. a des. 

♦ This particle de, when employed for some, is used ccmmonly 
when a substantive is preceded by an adjective instead of the other 
articles, and seives for both genders and numbers. See Cbap. I. 
Arf* 19. De and a are prepositive particles, answering, in general, to 
the English prepositions ^ or Jrom and to, ^ See the remarks in Chap, 
I!^, upon prepositions. 

f Du is the contraction of de U, des of de les» Au is the contraction 
of a ie, auxjoi d Us, This observation is made^ to order that the scho- 
lar may know, in parsing, that du^ des, au,'aux, are prepositions and 
articles masculine contracted. 

As prepositiops^serve to connect words with one another, and to 
show the relation ;Det ween them, it is necessary, in parsing, to decom- 
pose these contracted particles, and to mention separately the preposi- 
tion and the aiticldf: for the preposition is always necessary to make 
sense, but not the other particle called often, improperly, article; a? 
.' horror of vice ^d love m virtye form tjse characteristic of wise mer 
-thorreur dii vke et I* amour de la vertu Jorment U caractere des homn 
sages x honour is duQ to kings, i*honneur est dC aux rois; custom is t 
Ugialator of languages, Tusage est U legislaieur des langues ; histo 
is the picture of times and men, Vhistoire est le tableau des temps et d 
< kommes. ' 

When the government of an adjective or a verb is indicated by t 
preposition de qr ^, if the following noun must take any article, ih 
use one of the foregoing articles, according to the references wh 
will be made in the course of th^se Exercises, observing the case, 
der, and number. 


A -VIEW of the FORMATION of .the PtURAL 


rst. HP HE plural of substantives is formed in French as -- 

-** in English by adding an s to the singular; as, le 
Uvre, the book ; les livres, the books ; adjectives, being de- 
clined in French, follow the same rule, and take an s for 
the plural ; as, un bon livrcy a, good book ; ks bons livres, 
the good books. 

2. Nouns ending in «, x, z, preserve the «ame terminjation . 
IQ the plural. 

3. The finals of and ail are changed into «wa^ for the plu» 
ral ; as, nn chevaly a horse ; devx chevaux, two horses. / 

. 4. But baly carnaval, paly regal, and proper names ending 
in al, likewise these nouns, attiraily camail, detail, eventaily 
mail, ipouvantaily gouverttdil, portail, and ierail, follow the 
general rule. ^ 

5. Australy boreaU canoniali fatal, frugal^, .naval, pastoral, 
and some others, have no plural in the masculine. 

6. Au, eau, en, ieu, ou, take commonly an x instead of aa 
s for the sign of the plural. 

7. "But bleu, trou, clou, cou, matou, licou, hibou, founjilou^ 
and loup garou, follow the general rule. 

8. Polysyllables ending in w^^change commonly the final 
t into i|; as, enfant, erfans; igarement^ igaremens* 

Gentilhorame,^ ^ G'entikhommes* 
monsieur, f ji i messieurs, 
madame, i g ^mesdames. 

mademoiselle, J v. ("^^^^^"^oisellcs. ^ 

However, we say, des dels de lit, testers of a bed ; kt 
dels d'un tableau^ the skies in a picture r<^c^^u*a*c^-c{e/yrai a- ' 
bows; des mils debteuf ovals. 




1. A DJECTIVES take an e mute fcr the formation of 
-^^ their feminine f as, aime, aimee; con%tAntf. const ante,* 
2. Adjectives ending with au e lAute have no variation 

in their .feminine, without' exception. Other adjectives 

form their feminine according to their termination, as in 

the following concise table : 

Adjecti'cea ending in 

3. c, 

4. f. 

5. g, 

6. el, eil, il, ol, ul, ... 

7. on, .... • 

8. ien, 

9. 6ur, 
jO. eux; 
il. as, dsi OS, . ........ 

12. ous, «. 

19. et, ot, ..«..• k .... I 
|4. au, . .. .-..'..i/-. .. . 

15. ou, 

16. oux, ......... .. . • 

17. -aux, 

Fomi their Feminmes in 

elle, eille, ille, olle, ulle, 


asse, esse, osse.. 


ette, otte. 





*i8. T^vori, favourite; hinlUfbenigne; malin ^ maHgne : 
frais, /raicAe; ^pais, 6pai5se. 

19. Grec, Grec^itf-;:Turc, Turque; ipvibMc y publique ; ca- 
duc, caditque, • 

20. Civil and ittbtil follow the general rule. 

21. Vieux, wd/Ze,- antcrieur, posterieur, citeriettr,- ulte>- 
rieur, int^rieur^ exterieur, tnaj^ur, mineur^ sup(§neur, infe- 
ri^ur, meilleur, follow the general riile. 

%2^ Ras and dos follow the geneml hile. 
23.^ Secret f complete and deoot^ follow the |*e|ieral rule. 
24. JdXonXfjalouse ; Tox\Xf rousse, 
N.B. For the place of the adjective^ see ChapAl, Jrt>, 
5, 6, 7. 





Sing. ' Plur. 

i* JC) wtf nouf* 

l^u, tu, ye OT you, vous. 

he, il, m. /i^o^) ilSt m. 

jAf, cite, f. iA^)', dies, f. 

« nuin, J C This pronoun ^^r- 

tAtfy, S on. v< ftfR^/ I'i always of 
people, ^ { the singular number 

Placed after a preposition. 

/^ • 



SOly SOI- 



ontself,^ ' f 

•''■' selves, 

him, kii, m. tkem, 

her, cllc, f. tkem,' el lea. f. 

Note. Their compounds are 
formed with mime* 
^ ,r } inoi-meme, f nous- 

( mes. 

3. Placed after a verb, in the im- 
perative mood affirmatively. . 

me, root, 



thee, toi, 



him, le, ) 
her, la, S 



I0 him, >iui, m. 

> /o them, 



4. Placed ^before the veib by 
which they^ ate governed. 

to thee, 
himself, I 


to^ us, 
to you, 
to themselves 



to himself, \^ 

her, la, f ''*'*» 




The French, having no particu- 
lar pronouns to representinanimate 
things, which are naturally with- 
out gender, employ ior them the 
personal^ronouns, tV, eUe, &c. ' 

5. Impersonal governingPronouns. 

Sing» . Pkr, 

S il, m. -1 , . S ils, m. 

6. Impersonal governed Pronouns. 


of it, en, oj tkem, en, 

to it,- . y, to them, y, 

Obsetv. ^11 and \y are sometimes 
made use of for personal pronouns ; 
en represents the second state, of 
him, of her, of them: ^represents 
the third state, to him, to her, to them. 
Vbok in the index for the syntax 
of these -particles » 

N.B. The governing personal 
pronouns follow in general the 
order which they keep in English; 
but the govctned pronouns are 
placed almost always before the 
verb by which they are governed. 
See Chapter IIJ| Section i, and. 
Section 7, 

7. A VIE W of the ORDER in the 
CONSTRUCTION of the fol- 
lowing governed PRONOUNS^ 


me, te, se, ^Ist 
inous,vous,se.r Isj 

see you-^ 
vous VOIA. V 
peak to you 
2« le, I^, les. I will explain them 
to you— jc vous les ^xpliqyerai. 
2i lui,leui. I. have told tt him^-^ 

je le lui ai dit. 
4. y ■ I will carry them to you thither 

— je vous lesyiportcni, 
.5. en. I will^cairy soim to themthi* 
^^r— je leur y en poricrai. 





M. -F. 


his, her, it*j, 




thine y 
his or her'^s, 







M. and F. 


M. and F. 

mea* , 







le mien, la mienne^ 
]e tien, ; la tienne, 
le se, la sienae. 

le D6tre, la n6tre, 
le vdtre, la \ ocre, 
le leur, la leur, ' 

M. F. 

les miens, lei mieones. 
les tiena, les tiennes. 
les siens, les siennes. 

M. and F. 

les Rotres. 
les votres* 
lea leurs. 









Plcjral. . 


thst,^ "' ""' ^^""» \th"e,i "*' 

• This .pronoun crt is used before a noun mastuline, which beg'ns 
with a vowel) or A mute. 

The foregoing prortouns arc always joined to a substantive, which 
they precede^ as io £nglish. 

2. that, celui, celle, those, 

3. this, celui-^i, celle-ci, these, 

4. that, celui-la, celle-lii, those, 


ceux, celles. 
ceax-ciy celles ci. 
ceu;^«la, celles-1^ 

.be,or},. . ., . ^ these or those, } «, 

5. which, 
thai which, 
or whatf 

6. thist 
J, that, 

* In the words ce qui, ce que^ ce is to be 
considered as the demonstrative pronoun, 
and qui and que as relative pronouns; qui is 
the governing state, que the governed state : 
in order ta know which of the two you 
must use, ehange that which into that who or 
. ai^Mi; if you find that who would; be the 
Gk'it, employ qui, if lohom employ que% 



Sing, and Plvr. Singular, PtURAi.. 

M. abdf. M. F. M.. F. 

TvhOt qui, lequel, laquelle, lesquels, lesquellcs 

whosejof^ldoxkt.or duquel, delaquelle, desqucliy desquelles 
from whontf { de qui, 

to whom, k qui, auquel, ^ l^uelle, auxquels,- auxqaelloi 

tvhom, que, qui, )equel, laqudle, Icsquels, Iesqucllc& 

. that, qui, que,, lequel, . laqudl^A lesquels, les^ucUe* > 

tvhich, qui, que, lequel, laquelle, lesquels, lesquelles 

mhth^^ >dont, "^ duquel, de laquelle, desquels, desquelles 

> to whiehy auquel, a laqueHe, auxquelij auxquellei 

which, for Ycequi, 

that which, >ceque,^ • _►.• 

whut, J jr« p. 10, n. 5. 

what, ^"^"ci'uot'^"^'?^"^^' q"*^"'> ^'«*=^»' q*^^"" 


Who? qui? 

o/whomf dequi? 

to whom f k qui ? 

whom? qui? 


which? lequel ? laquell< ? &c. 

what? quel? quelle? &<:, before a substiihtive« 

what ? que ? quoi ? indeiermii^ajtely^ 


Singular. Masc. and Fem. >Plij4ajl. M. and F. 

1st. *omf, qudque, • que]i|ues, 

5d. of' or from some, de- qudqaey' dc queJques, 
3d*, to some, h'quQ\<\\ie, ^ quelqiies. 

After the same mannier arq declined 
some, somebody, quelqu'iin, quelqu'une, que)ques-uas, quel- 

everi/y each, chaque, chacun, chaCune.. 
tt^Aoer^r, quiconque, qui que te soit. ' 
whatever, quoi qu« ce soit. ^ ,. 

iiobodjif, pas uu, aucun, nul, personne, . ^ 
nothing,, rkti; littk, peu ; many, plusicurs, beaucouy. 



, T 

SiNO. Masc. - ' Sing. Feu* 

1st. one another, Tun Tautre Tune rautre, 
5?d. of one anotker^Vun de Tautre, Tune de Tautre, 
3d. to'one another, Tun a Tautre, Tune k Tautre. 

PLua. Masc, ' » Plur. Fem. 

one another, les uns les autres, letf lines l^s autres, 
of pne another ties nns desautres, les unes des autres, 
to oneanotherylcs uns eiUxaxiir^Sf les unes au^autrcs. 

Sing. Masc. Sing. Fbm/ 

Ut,hoth, i'un et Tautre, I'une et Tautre, 

Sd, of both, de Tun et de Tautre, de Tune el de I'autre, 

3d. to buthf a Tun et I'autre, a Tune et X Tautre. 

Plur. Masc. Plur. Fem. 

botht les uns et les autres. les unes et les autrcs, 

of both f des uns e.tdes autres. . , d?8,ancs et des autres, 
to both, aux uns et aux autres, aux unes et aux autres. 

Sing. Masc. Sing. Fem. 

1st. either, Tun ou I'autre Tune ou Tautre, . 

2d.o/et^;ir*vderunouderautre, de I'une ou de I'autre, 
3(1. to either, a Wish ou a Taulre, a Tune ou i Tautre. 

PlUEiMMiSc. Plur. Fem. 

either, les uns ou les autres, les unes ou les autres, 
of either, des uns ou des autres, des unes ou des autres, . 
to either, aux uns ou aux autres, aux unes ou aux autrcs. 

Sing. Masc; Sing. Fem. 

1st. neither, ni Tun ni I'autre, . ni Tune^ ni Tautre, . 
Cd.^neiM.nide Tun nide I'autre, ni de Tunc ni de I'autre, 
3d.^oim7Aer,n>^ I'un ni a I'autre, ni k Tune ni a I'autre. 

Plur. Masc. - Plur. Fem. 

neither, ni les uns ni les autres, ni les unes ni les autres, 
o/*ne27/ifr,ni des uns ni des autres, ni des unes ni des autres, 
^a^ea/^. ni aux uns ni aux autre?, ni aux unes ni ^uil^mIi:^. 




Cardinal Numbers. 

1, one. 

2, two* 

3, three. 


6* ■ ' • ' 

7, seven* 
S, ei^kt. 

10, ten. 

11, eleven. 
H, twelve* 
13, thirteen, 
\^y fimrteen, 
li, fifteen, 

16, sixteen, 

17, seventeen, 
18,' eighteen, 

19, nineteen^ 

20, tweitty, 

21, tvienU/'one, 

22, txientj^'two, 
and so on to 

SOy thirty, "'• * 
31, thirty- one, 
3'2j thirty-two, 

■' * Hi»d so on t» 
40> /or^jf. 
.^\y forty one. 
^2, fort U' two ^ iv 

■ and so on tt.^ . 
^6, fifty, 

5 1 , Jlf^y-one, 

52, Jfty^tw), 
...and so on to 

oT, *«r(j^ owe. 

Let Nombrei Cardmatac, 





























Cardinal Numbers. 

62. sixty ' two ^ 

and so on to 
70, seventy, 
7tt seventy-one, 
7t, seventy- two, 
and so on to 

80, eighty. 

81, eighty -one, 

82, eighty- two^ 

and ftu on to 
JO, ninety, 

91, ninety-one. 

92, niruty twOf 

and so on to 
100, one hundred, 
€00, /wo hundred, 
300, three hundred, 
400, ybur hundred. 
500, Jive hundred, 
600, six hundred. 
700, «et'«i hundred. 
800, tight hundred, 
900, fittte hundred, 
1000, mie thousand. 

Let Nosibres CaidioauK. 


soixanle-et-dix, or, septante. 
suixante-et-onzc, or, septante-et-uii. 
soixcintieet'douze, or septantc-detix* 

quatre- vingt, or, octante, or, huitaote. 
quatre-vingt-un,, or, &c. 
quatre- vingt- deux, 

quatre- vingt- dix, or, uonanle, or, 

quatre- vingt-onze, or, &c. 
quatre- vingt-douze, 


deux cents, 
trois cents, 
quatre cents, 
ciuqif cents, 
six cents, 
sept cents, 
huit ceiits. 
neuf cents, 
milled > 

These cardinal numbers never vary their termioaiion, ex-: . 
cept tm, which makes une in the feminine; cent BnUfniiiion ■■ 
take an s in the plural ; vingt in quatre-vingt takes an s 
ivhen a substantive follows ; miile is written mil, when we 
write the date of the year j in this case cent does not vary,' , 
if it be followed by a nuinber. 

1804, one thousand eight MDCCCIV, mil-huiucent quatre, 
hundred and four. 

or, dix-kilit cent qtfatre. 

- The words se^iante, oclnnte, and mmante, are obsolete ; 
huitante and neurante have been made use of only by 8<>me , 
calculatorsi^ The advantage of admitting tbade words, stp^^. 

' is^OUNS *0F NUMBER. 

Ordinal Numbers. 

Isr. Jirat, 

2(1. second, 

3(1. third. 

4ih. fourth, 

5lb. Jiftfi. 

6'ih. sixth. 

7ih. sevt'jith. 

8th. eighih. 

9ili. fiinth. 
10th. tenth. 
lUh. eleventh. 
^2'h. txcdjth, 
loCh. thirieeM. 
'4tjii fourteenth, 
16th. sixteenth, 
l7th. seixenteenth, 
l8th. Eighteenth, 
Jtjth. nihetetnth, 
20lh. thmtkth. 
2 1st. iwentj/'Jiist, 
2 '2d. twenty 'iecond^ 
awd so 01) to , 

?l^t. ' ihirty- first, 
5$d, 'thiVhhsecondi 

' and so on to 
40th. /or/ieM. 

Lc5 Nombres Ordinaux. 

'» . ' ■• • 

1", premier, M. premiere, F» 
2<*. second, M.seconde,F.ordeiixi^ma 
5*. troisieme, M. and F, 
4 . '({uatrieme. 

5*. cinqul^me. / 

6^ sixieme. 
7*. septi^mc. 
8% huitieme. 
<)*. nieiivierne. 
10*. dixieme* 
11., onzieme» 
12*., dpugjeme, 
13*i treizi^me. 
14*. quatorzieme. 
15*.^ qiiinzieme. 
l6% seizieme. 
l/*. drix-sq)ti^me. 
18*. dix-huiti^m^. 
19*. dix.peuvi^m€, ^ 

20*. ,v|ngtt^me. , 
21*. yingt-et-uni^pie,. 
22*. vingt«deuxieme^ ♦ , ^vu 
, et ainside sttii€ 
tret)te-d(eu:ti^ixi^l?t^ '■ ;. -. < 
f/ ainsi de suite •. • . 


3 1*. 


iantCy huitantCf neutant e^y^hich preserve wir roots, w ob- 
vious enough to ihp'^e who have ;iumbttfs to put down, in 
figures undec tlie' dictation o( another person, .Sic-vingi 
f six score J was the common appellation: for 120 in the tit 
century, but has been abandoned : quatre^vingt (four scare) 
will probably soon experience the saipf; fote. These fi|lse 
numerical appellations are entirely rejected by matbemaU- 
ci*ns. * 



Ordinal Nmnbera. 

42d. jorty-sectnidy 
and so on to 
50th. fiftieth. 
51st. fifty first. 
52d. jy'ty-secgnd^ 
And 8^3 on to 
66tb. ^tieth. 
6 1st. sixfy-fint, 
62d. jsixty- second, 
. and so on to 
70th. sgcenti€th» 

7lsl. secentyfirst, 

72d. iecenty-stemdf 

and so on to 
%0(tL eightkth. 

91&ly tighty'first* 
. 8^d. ctghty-seeondf 
jELTtd so on tp 

90th nimtkth. 


91st. 7z«»^j^-^r«^ 
PSd. fime(j/ second^ 
and so an to 

Les Nombres Ordinaux 

41*. quaxanle-et-uni^mc. 
42*. quarante-deuxieme, • 

et ainsi ie suite 
50*. cinquantieme. 
5r. cinquante-et-uni^mt. 
52*. cinquante-deuxiftme. 

e/ atii^ de suite 
60*. soixaati^me. 
6l^ soixaate-et-unieme.. 
62*. soixant^'deuxi^roe, 

e/ ttin^ de suite 
70*. soixante-et-dixi^mey or, s^plan* 

7l\ soixante*et-onziine, or septante* 

ct-uni^me. , . 

7S*. ^ixante-et-dou^i^me,or,septant€ ' 

et ansi de suite. 
80*. quatre-vingti^me^oriQCtanti^mCy 

or, huitanti^me. 
8l*. quatre-viogt-uni^me,. or, &c« 
82*. quatre-vingt-deuxi^e, or, &c. - 

et ainsi ds suite. • 
9(Jf. qaatfe-vingt-dixi^me, or, no- 

nanti^me, or neuvanti^me. 
91*. quatre-vingt-onzieme, or, &c. 
92*. qt&atre-vingt-douzi^me, orii^c* 

et aiflsi de suite. 

lOQth. one hundredth, 100*. centi^me. 
gOOth. two hundredth. 200«. deux centi^me. 
SOOth. three hundredth. 300e. trois centi^inc. 
^OOth. four hundredth, 490*. quatre centi^me. 
^OOth.^^w hundredth. 50C«. cinq centi^me. 
600lh. six hundredth C00«. six ceoti^me. 
^700i\i.seoehh'^ndr<d/h, 700*. sept senti^me. 
800tfa. eight hundredth. 800*, huit cei^ti^me. 
90bth. nine hundredth* 900*. n^if centi^me* 
\QMi\i,owi thousandth, 1000*. miUi^me. 





vne fait. 

tbefint timey la premiere fbu* 


' tw'tcet 

deux fJis. 

• , ^ J . ? la sccondc or 
the setond time, ^ dcuxi^me foU 


irois fois. 

the tbhd time, la troisi^me fois. 

ffiftr i'tneif 


the fourth time,\A\M.dX.nhmt fois* 

the doMe^ 

le double. 

the treble. 

le triple. 


* the quadruple^ 

y le quadruple. 


the quintuple. 

Je qumtuple.. 
le d6cup1e. 

the decuple^ 

a hundred fold, \q centuple. 



a pair or d couple, 

unepaire. or Une couple. 

eight or eight ddi/s together, 

une buitaijie« 



une dizai^e. 

it dozen, . 

une douzaine. 

a score or tmnty. 

une vingtaine. 

a hwndned, 


une centaine. 

a thousand. 

un miliier. 

a quarter of 
* a hundred 

apoundov of \ 

un quarteron. 


une quarte. 

a quarter. 


un quartiflf. ^ 




, I 



ike third part; 

le tiers. 

the fourth part. 

le quart. 

. three fa9ttik$^ 

le» troia-quarts. 


un cinqui^me. . . 


les quatre cinqui^ra9»>. 

fke sixth, 


les cinq sixi^mes. 
le dixiencie* 

the tenth. 


^tht tithe. 


V«i ^\^m^ ^ 

^^ the tenths, 




First t OT in the Jirsi place, premierement, ou, en pr^^ 

mier lieu, 
secondly, or in the second place f secqndexnent, o^, en secor> 

thirdly, or in the third place, troisi^mement, ou, en tro>si ^ 

me lieu. 
fourthly, x>r in the fourth place, quatri^mement, ou, en qua- 

tri^roe lieu. 
fifthly, OT in thej^th place^ cinqui^mement, ou, en cin- 

qui^me liyu. 


y»k$, unites. 

itns, diizaines. 

hundreds, centaines. . 

thousands,. mille. 

$ens of thousands, diMiines de mille. 

hundreds of thousands, centaines de mille. 

miiUons, millions. 

^ens of mitlions, dixaines de millions. 

hundreds of millions, ' centaines de millions* 

thousands of millions, milliards. 



1. When die^djective is compared in an equal, higher, 
•r less degree, it is called comparative, which comparison 
is made in French by placing before it phis, more ; moinSi 
less ; ^f so ; tmssi, as, &c. 

2. WHen the quality »8 raised to the highest degree, oi 
depressed to the lowest, it is called superlative, which su|^r- 

'.lative is made in French by placing the definite articles, /e, 
la, Us; de, du, dt U^ des ; d, au,.^ la, awe, &c.j (before phts^ 
moin9, n^eUkur, pirtj &CC. i^> 

3^ Soinetimes-a quality is mentioned in the highest tie- 

greii without comjparison; and this is done in French by 

' placing adverbs ot exaggeration befom it : as, very rich ; 

ir^s-rieJie: very polite ;*4r^s-poii ; \tT^ mviclx o.hl\^ed •, iu- 


I ^ 





* 4> 

*2 '»^^fc;§a9-2 



- -JJ « < oj eS 

HE V""" 

a. - Q. 


V . «> QJ 







6 S 

c s 

.a ^ 

e s 


3 C 



cr lA w '2 

3 3 
cdT eS 

S £ 

C« lA 

a 3 
15- "fi* 



^ .5 



•-» — 









. c r# «« fl* 


St ^ 


cu =u 


2 w> 




« ja 





















' oT- J5 vg > « * «r 

Sri ;i^t:,^vi;;^v 


> t2 S "sT 
P< 3 o 2 

'" 6-11 



- o» 




< o 


V) Vk 

•5. a 




PARt, I^jejl^VP. I. 


Tbe following NOUNS ar^^to b6 declined through 'all their 
cas^!$ and numbiers wi^fhe'definite article. See p.' 6. A. 1st. 

rHE hook. 
The remediff 
The fruit. 
The wind, 
The design. 
Tie grammar, . 
The home, 
The Citstom, 
The beauty. 
The pension. 
The rent, 
The icork. 
The ejcpremon, 
Tie water. 
The friend. 
The church, 
The intention. 
The learned num. 
The Christian hero. 
The tvholesome herb, 
The cheerful hwnour, 
Thejlne^ress, , 
The thiik hedge, , 












rente, . 







iloCnroe savant, 










heros Chretien, 
i^erbe salutairc, 
^umeurjoyeux, (p.^.lO.)/. 
Aabillement elegant, m. 
haie epais, f^ 

N. B. The km Italu: i3 route -, the b in tbe Roman letter 
is aspirated. ^ .'.".-, 

■The following. Nouns are t0 be- declined, in the ^iond case 
'■ in bDth Dtimben^. . page 6, A. 2d# \ 

jr ;. fwhUe horsey ^ ijheyal. blanc, p. 8. 3. «i. 

"*, I wai^Arc nation, J^ fia^OBbelliqn«ux,p.S. 10./. 

«f^7ro#i J last year, r fmfi^e pa«s^, j>. 8. 1. /. 

I Aa^ time, .^ tems Vkeui:eV\x> v.. ^ AO. m. 
icAarming faefy, dame c\\^tiaai^V> ^» \s, \* J. 





The following Nouns are to be declined in the third Case, 

in both Dumbers, p. 6, A. 3d* 

faithful frien'df ami fid^Ie^ 
insupportable noise, bruit insupportable, 
to the-^ dangerous sickness, maladie dangereux, 
ski/Jul pkj/sician, habile roedecin, 
unavoidable uar, guerre inevitable^ 

• - * 

The following Nouns,, taken in a Itihitec^ sens*, are to be 
declined through allv.their cases, bj the Partitive 
. ArHcle, p« 6, B. in the singulat only. 

some^ ^' cider, 
good wine, 
good wai^r, 
bad bread, " 
bad ink, 
bad paper. 

The foUpwipg Nouqs to be declined with the Indefinite 
Article (Sing, un,d^un, d un ; Plur. des, de, d desj through 
all their cases and numbers, p. 6, C. 
a teorA:, . 
a poem, 
a word, 
a tofigue, 
a province, 
a' fashion; ' 
a tree, 
:d letttr^ - ; 
a fault, 
a mountain^ 








. *. 













cafe *' 

• m. 



bon vin, 


bonne eau, 


mauvais pain, > 


tnabvaise encre, 


tnauvaiff papier, 




















mbntagne« ^ 




an authuir^ 
a scholar^ 

a sincfrn declaration y 
an active many 
a hew housey 
a lorig street, 
a chuei distemper f 
a I'hristioJt tkougkt, 
Oil ancieni CMstom, 
a deceit/ ut pramne^ , 
a luck^ opportuttitjff; 
a fat load, 
a great beasts 
a secret cabal^ 
afooltsk qutstiony 
a fine plain, 
a mellow pear^ 
a sweet hope, 
afal^e expression, 

ftmiy m. 

auteur, ' m* 

ccolier, m, 

dcclarp.tioD, f, franc, p. 8, 
^)mmf , m. actif. - 
maisoh.yi neuf. 
ruL',/. Iftng. 
maladie, /^ cruel, 
bbn felHinev/. ' ' • ' 
pensce, /. chr6ii^« 
ancier) comom^,/. 
pr(>messe,.y*. troinpeur. 
heunux ocomo\\,f, 
terre,y. g.raB. 
gros L6te,y. 
intrigue,/'. secYet. 
sot qoeBtion,/! . ^ 
beau campagntfjjT. 
poire,/! mou. . 
doux esperauce,/* 
faux expressiuD,/! 

*Thc Ibllowing Nouns t6 be declined with thfej Possessiv 
Pronouns tbiV)ugh'atV their numbers'Wnd' cases.* 

my hqpk, livre^ 
^ thy paper, papier., 
Aw or herpen^ pluihe, 
our school, ecole. 
your miister, inhttre, 




their tutor, prcce'ptcur, fw. 

my grief , <;ha;rgin, n 

thy trouble, peine, j 

her amusement, amusement, n 
mtr pleasure, plaisir, n\ 
your friend, ami. 


their companion\t6m^gnoin ,n 


this + hook is good, 

this pen is bad, 

that man is civil, 

that hamlet is beautiful, 

this hermit is huppy, 

that boldiUss is impudent, 

that history is well written, 

livre, m. ^tfe, (a) bon. 
plume, /. ^tre, (a) mauvai* 
Aomme, m. ^tre, (a) civil, 
'hameau, m* etre, (a) beau. 
Aermite, HI. cMte, (a) faeureu> 
hardiesse,/. ^tre,(a)inipudenr 
Aistoire,/. etre, (a) bienecri 

* Theie pronouns are declined with the particles di and a, as in tk 
English. See the possta^ive. pronouns, p. lo. 
i- Sfe the denMflstrative pronouns, p. iq. 

( 53 ) . 




1. A LL personal verbs are conjugated with tbese pro- 

-^A. nouns jc, /M,.i/, or elle, for the singular; and nous^ 

vous, ils^ or elles^ for the plural. 

2. All reflect^ verbs are conjugated with these prpnouns, 

• je me^ tu te^ il scy or die se ; notts nous^ vous vous^ Us scy or 

rllvssc; Cf in mcy te, se^ is omitted, and en apostroptre is put 

in its place, when' the following word begins with a vowel. 

3. All active verbs may become reflected, by putting se 
before the infinitive, when the action may return upon thtt 
agent that produces it. 

4. Reflfcted verbs, in a reciprocal sens^, are used in the 
plural only. 

5. All neuter and active verbs arc conjugated in their 
compound tenses by the help of the auxiliary avoirs as is 
likewise the verb hre, 

6. fi,«flective and reciprG||pal verbs are always conjugated 
. in their compound tenses by the help o£ itre ; also these fol- 
low] ng^verbs, aller, abordery arrivery accouriVy dScSdei\ des^ 
cendrCf entYeryifnonttry mouriry naitre. partir^ retournery sortir, 
tomber^ venir, and their derivatives, except when used 

7. In all the verbs of the first conjugation, in which an e 
is preceded by a g, (hat e is retained t&rough all the tenses 

. and moods before a or o, as manger^ ; mangeanty eating. 

8. The CQTOpound regular and irregular verbs commonly 
follow the conjugation of the simple, from which they are 

9* Custom requires, that an « should be added to the se- 
cond person of the impt^rativ^ woodi in v^i^bs of the first 
conjugation, when they are followed by the paiticiw^s en and 
V ; asj disposeS'€n;pens€S'y>;xds-i/; the latter takes m t when 
it is followed by en ; as, ui-tren^ - 

It is very indifferent how many conjugations we admit* 
Some admit four, others ten, and even twelve. We shall 
reckon six conj ligations. 

( 24 > 



, c . . Tartioiplc Participle Prcs'. ofthc Prcter 

Ficscnif' Passive. Jnaicative. oftncln 








issdrt ■ 

• • 

















uiicut . 










I St conj. aim er 

2d conj. pun- i> 

3d couj, d- emfir 

^th conj. vend- re 

5lh coni. N^d- uire 

6th coBj. pe- indre 

Unvftriabfe TERMINATIONS in all the CONJUG 


Singular. Present Tense. 

B. ois 


D« nu 

E. uit 







cU ions 

4' amts 

it ma 

ut ^met 


' Future. 

ez ent 













;* • 



fie% . 





Present Tense. 
e. WW 





at assions 




tt issions 

» • ' • » 




Ut . ufsions 

*»^ '* ". JnstlonS . 

.{ /I .;" '7 3 .." wi • ■ 

MS tie 







Participle Present. 
H. ant 

! .1. 
. t 


Var/aMc* ^ 


( 25 ) 


Conjugation of the Auxiliary Verb AVOIR, to heece. 

Present Tense. 

tot have^ nous avon«« 








1 have^ j*ai, 
tkou hast, tu ai| 
he AaSf il * a. 

I had, j'avoisy 
thou kadst, tu avois* 
kehad, ilanoit. 

I had, j'eua 
he kad^ il eut. 

/ shall or aii// havi^ j'auru, 
th9u shalt havty lu auras, 
h€ shaUhave, il aura. 

you have, vous ave^, 
they have, ils f ont. 


toe had, nous avionS| 
ye/u had,' vous avicsy 
/A<ry had, ils avoient. 


CM had, nous eumes, 
j^<w A^u^ vous eutcsy 
they had, ils eurent. 


we shaft Move, nous aurons» 
you shail have, vous aurez, 
they shail have, ils auront. 



J should have, j'aurois« 
thou shauidst have, tu aurotSi 
he should havef il auroit. 

we should have, nous aurions, 
^ shou/d haoe^ vous aurie2, 
/A«jf should have, ils auroient. 

Pr«seat Tense. 

that J may have, que j'aye, 
thou mayst have, tuaycsi 
he may havCf il ait* 

cur may have, que nous ayoss, 
you may have, vf^s ayez, 
they may have, ils aient* 


that I might have, que j'euaae, 
thou mifhitt kave, tu ensaesi 
he might havoi il cfit. 

we wifght have, |m>us eassionf» 
you mtgb havef vous cussiez, 
they might have^ iU coMeAt. 

to have. Avoir; 


havmgt lyant* | I . had, ea, m, eue, /» • 

SiNGui^AR. Plural* 

have thou, aye, 

ht him have, qu'il att| 

la Ktr have, qu'elle ait* 

Ut uphove, a)ouSy 

have you, ayez, [ticnt 

Ut them have, qu'ils, or qu'elict 

* Or elle, she, in the third person singular of all verhs« 

f Or tiles ^ for tht femiaiac, itk «A\ Nw>ft\ >» xSofcCwtt^'^wsc*. ^^x^i 


( 26 ) 

CM\|ugatloli of the Auxiliary Verb ETRE, to be. 

•Preicnt Tense. 

toe- are, nous sommeS| 

/ anif je sttis, 
A. thou artt tu 99, 
' he ji, il eat. 

Bi thou wast, to ^tors, 
he waSf ii £toi^ 

/tvaj, jefasy 

C. thou tuasti tu f»S| 
he tuast il fot, 

/ sha/l or a;i7/ ^, je serai 

D. /A(;tt Mo/^ ^/, tu seras, 

^0tt are, voo^ £ies, 
</ury ar<, ils soat, 


sue ivff^y nous etionS) 
you were, vou& ^ticz, 
they were, ils etoicnt. 

Preie il. 

we were, nous fumeS, 
you were, vous ffttes, 
//^^ tua;, lis tuient. 


toe shall hi, nous serons, 
you shall be, vous serez, 
they shall he, ils seront. 

SiNOiTLAK. Plural. 


we should be, nous serions, 
you should be, vous serie?:, 
they, ils seroicnt. 


Ishvuld be,* je seroisy 
t/iou skuulisi be, tu serois, 

Fje«cBt Tense. 
SiNOVitAR. Plural. 

thdl I may be, quejje soisi we may be, nous soyons, 

thou mayst be, in ioi$, 
he may be^ il aoit. 

you may be, vuus soyczi 
they may be, ils soieut* 

that /"might itf, que je fusse, 
G. thou mighiet be, tu fiisiea, 
he might ie^ il (^t. 


we might be, nous fussionSi 
you might be, vous f usticzy 
they mi^ht be^ iU fusient. 


being, ^caot. 

to be. Era A. 



I I. been, et6. 

Singvl-ah. ' 

be thou, soil, 
Itthim be, qu'il soit, 
tether be, ^u'elle soit. 

let us be, soyons, 
be you, soyez, , 
lit them be, qu'Us §r quticlks soitfnt. 

• Of / could, would, or might be, 

% ' Or / had OS €9uld^ would ot ihmldbd 


To form the qompound tenses of the verb /» ^iii^, ' you need only 
add after each person the p^^t participle, eu &>r the French, and had 
for the English, through all the tenses and moods ; as, j*ai eu, I have 
had, and so on. 

The compound ten<es of the verb to kc are formed by ihf ^elp of 
the auxiliary verb otwtr through all it's tenses and moods, byaddins* 
after each person and tense, /ti for the French, and bun for the £nglitb( 
n&tj'ai gti, I have been, &c.; j^avw iti^ I had been, ^«; ao4 «P cm* 

Observe, 1st, The coropound tenses of all ot^erv^bs, 
botb regular and irregular, are formed by tb^ help gf tttesa 
two auxiliary verbs, by adding the past pArticipU oi^ tbf 
verb you are conjugating, after each tens«'JMid persoQ of 
Ihe a^n^iliary verb. Fqr example, tQ forin all tho com* 
pound' teivses of the verb parlcr, to speak, it's past pajrtici* 
pie hc\x\s^parUf you oeed only put parlg after tb^ sfimple 
tenses of the verb avoir. 

Observe, %dly, Those verbs which ars CQDJugaUd l^y the 
help of etre are compt)unded only of the simple tenses of 
that auxiliary verb ; that is toy^y, the coin|K>utui tenses 
of the verb etrc do not 'serv.e for tjie compound of others: 
but the compound tenses of thq v^rb avoir may S0ry«, though 
seldom, for tlic compound of others : eonsequf^ntly, verbi 
conjugated by the help of avoir are sometii^es compounded 
of it's compound tenses, and tl)ose cgnju^ted by th^l^elp 
of etre are only com'pounded of 'it's simple tenses. The 
reason of it ihay bf, becaus^ the compound tepses of th« 
verb etre art formed by the help of the verb avoify which 
reflective, and some neuter, verbs will not admit of« 
Except from this observation verbs used passively, which 
are conjugated by the help of tVrf in all il's tepses, both 
simple and compound. 

N.B. f^or what verbs are coniugated by the help! of ffooiff 
•r the help of itrct see Brtiimmarif Observations, p. 23. 


( 28 ) 



NOTE, first, the letters A, B, C, &c. show the difierent 

Secondly, When a letter is ws^nttng, the tense in other 
cases pointed out by it is likewise wanting. 

Thirdly, Having the first person singular of the irre* 
gular verbs, the other persons will easily t>e found by a 
reference to the similar letter in the regular verbs ; as, for 
example, I should resolve, answers to the letter e in the verb 
rSsoudre, which is ^f rtsoiidrois. If you turn to the same 
letter in the table of the regular verbs, page 24 or ^9, yon 
will find the same termination in the fourth conjugation; 
and so for the other irregular verbs, a few excepted, whick 
will be taken notice of, and their irregular tenses conju- 
gated at full length. 

. Fourthly, To find, in the irregular verbs, the first per- 
son plural of the present teiise, indicative mood, you need 
only change the i in the termination of the first person sin- 
gular, in the imperfect tense, indicative mood, into n ; as,. 
VfDoisy vioonsi ttoisy ri&nSf &c.; the verb ^^r^ only excepted* 

Fifthly, The compound verbs, regular and irregular, 
follow the\onjugation of their simple ; ihuSy pennettre, pro- 
meitrcj &c. are conjugated \ike mettre: aud when it is 
otherwise, this will be noticed. 

Sixthly, The two auxiliary verbs are conjugated here 
see p. 25, 26. All the verbs of the last five conjugations, 
both regular and irregular, are inserted in the exercises 
upon the conjugations, Chap. II, and III, except those few 
mentioned at the end of Chap. III. 

Seventhly, The second person singular and the first 
and second persons plural of the imperative mood, in all 
verbs, are the same as the second person singular and the 
first and second persons plural of A. The third person sin- 
gular and the third person plural are the same as the third 
person singular and the third person plural of F, except, 
1st, savoir^ which makes the second person singular sache^ 
£rst person plural sachonsy second person plural sachet. 
JSdJy, j^voir and eire, which take all their persons from F. 

< «9 ) 


( 30 ) 


• • 








a a 

e e 

9 9 

a. Qu 



9 « 
O* JO 

• c ? 

> ^ 

9 ^ 
n- CO 

• • 

8 a 

.2 • 

2 - 

•B • 
• CO 

•3 *5 
£ g 

•J Am* 

rr » 
S. 2 


» G 

0. o« 



•• > 
























«4« * 

































^ • 




















• •> 

f J 

.1 s 

> > 






g s 

eft •» 
^ KB 

•* C 

S 9 


' V 9 

(fl CO 

9 9 
1 • 

^ (A 

— c 
J. 2 

CO «o 

*5 '9 
-a -3 

00 OS 

.2 a 


• • 

c c 





















a a 


J J 

CO 6t 

<.^ Of 

> ••- 

•3 CO- 

.. Q 



• 1 

CO (O 


1 ( 


'7 *T 

c c 

9 9 

a. ft. 

• « 

-0 -T3 

I • 

no no 

*9 "5 

S 2 

•3. a 

■- 2 

e a 
a. 2L 




2 2 


^ a 









.2 S 


m C 

•I * CO N ,^ M 

•so ?L -IL 9 • T^ 

( 31 ) 


ABATTRE, to\ ail-ions, all-iez, 
beatdoxon, like* aill-ent 
hattre, g. alUasse 

Absoudre, to ab- 
solve, Nnus ab- 
solvons, ez, eiit. 

a. absou-8 

b. absolv-ois 

d. absoud-rai. 

e. absoud-rois 

f. absolv-e 
b. abaolv-ant 
i. absou-s 

Accourir, to run 
to^ like caurir, 

Accueillir, to wel- 
come, like cueiilir 

Acquerir, to ac- 

a. acquier-« 
acqu6r-on8, ex, 


b. acqu6r-oi8 

c. acqu-ifl 

d. acqiier-rai 

e. acquer-rois 

f. acquierwe 
acqucr-iuns, ac- 

queriez, acqui- 

g. acqu-isse 
b. acqu6r-ant 
i. acqu-is 

Admettre, tq ad^ 
mit, like mcttre, 
AUer, to go. 

a. vais^ vas,* va, al- 
Ions, aUe^i vont* 

b. all-oU 

c. aii-ai ' 
d» i-rai 

S. b-usse 
h. buv-ant 
i. b-u. 

Bouillir, tobei!. 

a. bou-s ^ 

b. bouilUois 

c. bouill-is 

h. all-ant 


Apprendre, to 

learn Mkeprendre, 
AaseiiWiTyto assault, 

like tressaiilir, 
Asseoir, (se) tositfi^ bouilli-rai 

down, e. bouiili-rnis 

a. assie-ds f. bouilt-e 

b. a.ssey*ois 

c. a&s-is 

d. assi6-rai or asse- 

assic-rois or asse- 

f. assey-c 

g. ass-isse 

g. bouill-isae. 
b. bouilUant 
i. bouill-i. ' 

b. assey-ant 
i. ass-is. 


b. batt-ois 

c. batt-is 

d. batt-rai 

e. battHTois 

f. batt-e 

g. batt-Isse 
h. batt-ant 
i. batt-u. 

Boire, to drink. 

a. boi-s 
buv-ons, buv-ez, 


b. buv-ois 

c. b-v\s 

{d. \^01-T&\ 

e. boi-TOis, , 

to circumcise* 

a. circunc-is 

b. circoncis-oitf 

c. circonc-is 

d. circonci-rai 

e. circonGi-rt)is 

f. circoncis-e 

b. circoncic-ant 


Circonscrire, to 

circumscribt, like 


Clorre, to close* 
a. cUis * 

d. clor-rai 

e. clor-roiiB^ 
i. clos.. 

Combattre, to 
Commettre,' to 
commity like met- 



Comprendre, t<Ae» convainc-rois 

nnderstund^ Irke 
ConvlKkre^ to CQft- 

a. ccnclus 

b. C(iiiclu-ois 

c. ctuicl us 

d. c«>nclu-rai ' 

e. conclurois 

f. conc*u-e 

g. concl-usse 
h. concMu-ant 
i. coiiel u. 

Cunfire, topickl 

a, confi-s 

b, cunfis-ois 

c, conf-is 

d, conh-rai 

e, conli-rois 

f, confis-c 

g, conf-issc 
b» confis-ftiit 
\, conf-it, 
Connoitre, to inoiv. 


Conqu^rjr, to con- 
like acquirit, 

CoMcnUr ^toconsent, 
like sentir, 

Contemrju contain, 
like tenir* 

Cunt red I re to con 
traificty is conju- 
gated like 9on/irt 

Q^nvaincrei tocon* 

f. convainqu-e 
^. convHinqu«i9&e 
h, convainqu-ant 

ouivaiirC'U, . 
Conuevenir* to in- 
fringe J like tenir. 
Cunvenir, to agree ^ 

tike tenir, 
Corrompre, to cor- 
rupt, like rotnpre, 
Coudre, to sew, 

a. couH.s 

b. cous ois 

c. cous-i» 

d. coud-rai 

e. cuud-rois 

f. cous e 

g. cou«-issc 
h* cous ant 
i. cous-u. 

Couiir^ to run. 
a cou-rs 
b. cour«ois 
'\ cour-us 

1. cour-rai 
c» cour-rois 
t'. cour-e 
4; cour usse 
J. cour ant 

. cour-u 

Couvrir, to cover. 
u, couvr-e 
0, C(Hivr-ois 
L\ couvr -is 

d. couvri-rai 

e. Ci'Uvri-rois 

f. cou¥-re 

fb. croy-oif 
c. -cr-us 

\, croi-rai 

e. croi-roif 

f. croi-e 

g. cr*usse 
b. crovant 

I. cr-u , 

Croitre, to grolt, 

a. croi s 

b. cfoiss-ois 

c. ci-us 

d. croit-rai 

e. croit-rois 

f. croiss-e 
{, cr-usse 
). croiss ant 

». cr-\i 
Cueillir, to gat her » 

b. cueiU-ois 

c. cuei)l-i8 

!• cueille-rai 

e. cueille-rois 

f. cueill-e 

h. cueill-ant 
I. cueill-i 


*^ to tijjiggie, like 


I. decboi-s 

b. t^anting 

c. dech-u9 

d. decber-rai 

e. d^cber-row 

f. d^cbdhe 

pttfcf. g. cojtivr-isse t. a«5i:uui»c 

jf^ ^lijivain-cs L couvr-ant *^ dech-u«8C 

j^/ ^onvHinqu'tHS \\ C(»uv-ert ' \b. uuHt\ng 

c. c^nvuinqU'is ICroirej to 6c/ir0c. \. titcU-vi 

i/^ co^raJnc-^rai 'a. croi-s \D4couAx€> 


like coudre, 
D^couvrir, todis- 

caoer, like cou- 

Decri re Jodescribt 

like icrirt. 
D^croiire, tode- 
crease thkvcruU re, 
D6d\ re^te retract , 

like dire. 
Dementi r, togivi 

the lie, like meH- 

Demettre, to re 

Deplaire, io dis- 

pUaseMke piaire. 
Debapprehdre, (o 



Desservir, to take 

away, \\kementir 
I>etenir« todetain^ 

like ienir. 
Devenir, fobecopte 
like tenir. 
Dire, to say, is con- 
jugated like con 
Jire \ except in 

the second person 

plural, where ii 

makes dites, 

Disconvcnir, Vt 
disagree, like te 

Discoarir, to con- 
. verse, like courir, 

Dissoudre, to dis- 
solve, tike ab 

Distraire, to dis- 

Dorihir, to sleep 
a. dor- 6 

( »3 ) 

b. dorro-ois 

c. dorm is 
i. dormi rai 

e. duml-rois 

f. durm-e 
4. dnrm-isse 
^. dorm-ant 
<. dorm-i. 


C-i blow, 
.i, il eclot, ils eclo 

). il eclurra, \\>\ 


e, il eclorroit, ils 

f. eclose 
i. eclos. 

Ecrire, to write . 

a. 6cr-is 

b. eoriv-ois 

c. ecriv-is 

d. 6rri-rai 

e. ecii-rois 

f. ocriv-e 
VJ\ rv Jo elect, Wke 


like moudre. 
Em on voir, tostif 

up, Vike inouvoir A 

like courir. 
Endormir, to lull 
S'enfuir, to rm 

away, Wke fair. 
S'enquerir> to m 


S'entremettre, ip 


Entreprendre, to 

undertake, 'lilu 

Entretetiir, toen* 

tertaiu, like tc 

fiir, ' 
En I re voir, to see 

a little, ' like 


Entr'ouvrir, to 


Envbyer, to scn'3j, 
4. envoi-e 

b. cnvoy-ois 

c. envoy-ai 

d. enver rai 

e. enver- rois 

f. envoi-e 

g. enroy-asse 
h. envoy-ant ' 
i. envoy e. 

Equivaloir^ to he 

of equal value, 

like vhluir, 

E X cl u re , /o exclude, 

is conjugated like 

conclave i except 

in the participle 

past, where it 

makes exclus, 

Exttaire, to ex* 

tr act, Wketr aire. 

1^ ieWtis used only 

in the following 


quir e,\\V« acque^ * . W\<^\\N. 
rir. . Y- ^"^"^^ 

( 3* ) 

Fairc^forfo. ||T IKE, to read. 

bisons, faites, 

b. ibis^bis 

c. f-is 
d^ fe-rai 

e. fe-roiS' 

f. fass-e 

g. f-iise 
b. fkis-ant 
i. fait 
Falloir, tohentees- 

taty, Tcrb imp. 
a» il faut 

b. il foU-ott 

c. il falUut 

d. il faad^ra 

e. il faud-roit 

f. il fail)-e 
p. il faHui 
1. failu 

Fair, iajfet, 

a. fui-9 

b. fuy-ois 
d. iRii-rai 

f. fui-c 

b. fuy-ant 
i. fu-i 

HAIR, to hate. 
a-hais . 
b* baiss-ois 

c. ba-i's 
d* hai-rai 
e« bai-rois 

f. ha'iss-e 

g. haipsse 
h. haiss-aot 

UL^ a. li-s 
t>. lis-ois 

I' V"" • 

|J. Ii-rai 
0. li-rois 

f. lis-c 

g, 1-usse 
K. li-sai)t 
fr. 1-u 




rur^, is con- 
jugated like con- 
Jire; except 

a. in the plural, 
•maudbs-oDS, -ez, 


b. maudiss-ois 
Mtfintenir, to 

fnamtduif like 



like cofifire 
Mentir, to lie. 


b. ment-ois 

c. ment-is 

d. menti-rai 

e. menti-rois 

f. ment-e 

g. ment-isse 
h. men-tani 
i. roeqtoi 

Se M^prendre, to 


McsofFrir, (o nn. 

derbid, like cqu- 



Mettre, topKl^ 

a. me-ts ^ 

b. mett-oif 

c. in-i« 

d. mett-rai 
tt». raetl-rois 

f. xnett-e 

g. m-isse 

h. mett-ant 
i. m-is 

Muudre, togrwd' 
a* mou-s 
b. moulrois 
c- rooul-u^ 

d. moud-rai 

e. moud-rois 

f. moul-e 

g. moul-ufse 
b- Q(ioul-ant 
i. mouUu 

Mourir, to dte* 

a. meur-s 

b. mour-oi$ 

c. iQour-us 
Id. mour»rai 

e. mpur-rais x 

f. meur.e 
mour-ions, iej, 

g> mour-usse 
h* mour-ant 
i. mort. 
Mouvoir, to mote. 

a. meu^s 
raouv-ons, -eg, 

b. mouv-ois 

c. m-us 

d. mouv-ral 

f. in«u.^ 

DQouv ions,*iez 

g. m-usse 

h. mouv-ant 

1. m-ii 


< M ) 


like tnattir. 
Pen veiur, toattain 

like venir, 
Permeitre J toper'' 

mitn like mettre. 

All RE, ^0 6( , . ' '^ 

a. na-is 

b. naiss-ois 

c. naquis 

d. nai-trai 
c. nait-rois 

f. n:iiss-e 

g. natiu-isse 
h. naiss^ant 
i. n6. 

obtain tUketC'^ 
^ ftir, 
Offrir, to qfcr, 

like a^uvrir, 
Omeiire, to omitf 
like mettrt» 
Ouir, ^0 ^ftfr, is 
seldom used, ex- 
c. ou'is 
i. oui'. 

Ouvrir, to open^ 
like couvrir. 


A\TRE., tofeed, 
is conjugated 
like naitre, but 
c and g are 
wanting, i. pu. 
Parcourir, to run 

over^ like courir, 
Paroitre, to ap» 


a. plai-s 

b. plais-uis 

c. plu-s 

d. plai-rai 

e. plai-rois 

f. plais.e 
{. pl-usse 
h. plais-ant 

Fie u voir, to rain. 
. verb. imp. 
H. il pleut 

b. il pleuv-oit 

c. il pi-ut 

d. i] pleuv*ra 

e. il pleuv-roit 

f. il pleu-ve 

g. il pUiic 

b. pleuv-ant 
i. pl-u. 

Po u r V oi r , toprofvide, 
pretoir; except 

c. pourv -us 
g. pourv-usse 
Pouvoir, to be able 

a. puis, peux, peuf 

b. pouv.ois 

c. p-us 
e. pour-rois 
f« p.uisie 

g, p-us&e 

b. pouf-ant 

i. pu. 

Pr^dire, toforttett, 
likt eonjfre. 
Prendre, to toke, 

a. pren-ds, ds, d^ 
pren-ons, ez, 

b. pren-ois 

c. pr-is 

d. prend-rai 

e. prcnd-rois 

f. pretin-e 

*. pri-sse 
h. pren-ant 
i. pr-is. 

P I essentir,f <?/brf. 

ifc, likeinew//r. 

Prevenir, to brc' 

ventf like vettir^ 

Prevaloir, to pre* 


a. prevau-x 

b. prevalois 

c. prevaUus 

d. prevaud-rai 

e. prevaud-rois 
f» preval-e 

g. preval-usse 
b. prevaUant 
i. preval-u 
Prev-f)ir, to foresee* 

a. prev.ui.s 

b. prevoy ois 

c. pr6v-is > 

d. pr^voi.rai 
^e. ^t4^Q\.\^>Rk 

( 36 ) 

g* previsse 
h. prevoy-ant 

Prom^ttrc, topro- 
mkcy hkrmettre 
Provenir, to pro- 
ceed^ like venir 

1^ to sit dotun o- 
ygain^ like asieoir. 
R&biiilr eJoabate 
like haiirty 
Rebattre, to re- 
ptat over, and 
over, like battre. 

Reconnoitre, to re- 
collect Xik^croU re 
Recoudre, to sem 
og^tfiflike coudre, 

Recourir, tohcncr^ 
course, tike courir. 

Recoup rir, to covet 

again, Wke couvrir. 

R^crire, to write 

again J ike Ccrire, 

l^ecuti\\\\T,to reap 


Relire, to read 

again, like lire 

Remettre, to place 
again, Wkentetfre. 

R^moud I e, to grind 
again,\Jikt moudre, 

Renv«»ycr» to send 
backf like e^i- 

Repaitre, tofeedup- 
ei?» like naUrei 

c. rep- as 
g. rep-^8se 
i. rep-u. 

Reparoitre^o op 

pear again, like 


Repfnlir (f^e), /olf, rorop-e 

repent,]\kementJr g*. rofnp-bse 
Rep rend re, to take 

Rompre, tohreak 

a. romp«s 

b. romp^it 

c. romp-is 

d. romp-rai 

e. romp-rois 

again, Wkeprendre. 
Requerir, torequest, 

like acquerir. 
Res ou (Ire, to resolve 
like absovdre, 
c, resol-us 
^. r^sol-usse 
i. rcsol-u* 


Vike meritir^ 

Rctenir,/o retain, 

like tenir, 

l\f*yen\r Jo return 

hke renir, 

Rev6tir, to invest, 

like vctir. 

He vi V re, to revive, 

like vivre, 

Revoir, to see 

again, like voir. 

Rire, iu laugh. 

a. ris 

b. ri-ois 

c. r-is 
«1. ri-rai 

e. ri-rois 

f. ri*e 
<. r-isse 
n. ri-aiU-> 
i. ri. 

h. romp-ant 
i. romp-u. 
Runvrlr, to open 
again, like couvrir 

S AVOIR, to knaa 
a. sats, Savons, 
savez, savent 
b» sav-ois 

c. s-us 

d. sau-rai 

e. sau-rois 
r. tach-e 
g. s-usse 

b. sach-aivt 
i. s-u. 
Secourir, to sue* 
coKr ,like courir. 
Sentir, to feel 
Servir, to seroC' 
Sortir, to go out^ are 
conjugated like 
Souffrir, to suffer, 
like couvrir. 
Soiirire, to smile, 
like rirt. 
Suuscrire, to sub' 
scribe, \}ke ecrire 
Soutenir, to supm 
port, like ienir. 

* Wc likewise say. risws^ spetking ef thiogi w)|ich may be rc« 
itolved im0 mneii^ See Oram. . 

( »7 ) 

Se louvenir, (0 re-l 

. tiend.rai 

■ vainc-n 

member, tike lemr 

- tiemi-rois 

Vtnir, /oconw, like 

Suffire, to iuffici. 

. lienn-e 


«. .uff-i. 


V^tir, to ctotie^ 

b. suffis-ois 


a. v6l.» 

c. suff-ii 

t,. t-insse 

b. vSl-ois 

I. Kn-»nt 

c. v&t-is , . 

e. aufluruis 


1. vgtj.rai 

f. suffia^ 

Traire, to milk. 

e. vSti.rois 

g. luffxisse 

a. trai-» 

t vfet-e 

b- auffis-anl 

b. tray-ois 

;. v^t.isse 

i. «uff.i 

1. trai-rai 

1. *£t.ant 

Sui»re, to follow. 

e. tiai-rois 

. v6t.u 

ft. iiiU 

f. tray^ 

Vivre, io Ok. 

b. auiv-ois 

h. tray-ant 

a- ¥■•< 

C. 3Ui»ii8 

- trait 

J. sui».rai 

IreMaillir, tottart^ 

c. vec-us 

e. Euiv.rob 

». iremiil-e 

d Tiv-rai 

f. sutv.e 

b- tressaill-oih 

g. suiv.isse 

c. tressailVis 

f. Vive 

h. iuiv.aot 

d. tressaiili-rai 

g. vec.usM 

V. tressailU-roi* 

h- ti«-ant 

Sui-prendre, fa 

'- trcssatiUe 

i. vec-u. 

turprise, like 

3, Iressutl-isiB 

Voir, to i€e,'n con. 


li. tressail-ant 

jugated like pr/. 

Suneoir, to ad- 
joum, like flj- 

1. iressaill-i 

9oir; except 
d. ver-rai 


V wortihkepri. 

f. ver-roi* [Hug. 

,Survivre, to out- 

VouloiT, reVwtf- 

Ikt. hkeviiirc 

^hir i except. 

a. ?au-i. 

e. vaill-e, «, a. 

T AlRE.(se), to 
A 6e li/tat, like 

Vaincre, (0 vm. 



b' v«ul-o<s 


c. voul-iu ' ' 

Teair, io iold 


d. yond-ni 

a, tie-ns 

b. *ainqu-ois 

e. voudvToii) 

tenons, -m, 

c> Tiin^.is 

f- vciiill>e 


d- vaine-tai 


b> teD-ois 

e- vaino-raii 


c- tins, lina, tint. 

f- vatnqu-e 

g, vouUutM 

tmra**, iintes 

g. vaioqU'iMa 

h. voul-ant 

, linreitt. 

ti. armnqitt «t 





1st. Conj. hi er. They would condemn, 

(a)* I fpeakjpflr/f?'. tondamn-er* 

Thou hearesl, Icout^er, (f) I may honour* hanor^erm 

He plays, jow-er. Thou mayst love, aim»er» 

We explain, expliqu-er. He hiay abhor, abhorr^er. 

You observr, observ^er. We may detest, dttesUer. 

They prate, cauji-erf Youmayobserve, oft^f-ri'-er. 

(b) I did call, appel-er. They may study, ttudUer, 
Thou didst approach, cp- (g) I rtiight lease, qfenn^er. 

procher. Thou migbtst let, louden 

He did arrite, arriver. He might -invade, tlud-cr* 

We did command, cont" We might avoid, tvit-tr. 

moHd-er. You mi. despise, wjt7?rw-c'r. 

You did advance, avanc-er They mi.respect,re«j^^^r* 
They did ramble, rod er. 

(c) I pardoned, pardonn^er. 2d. Conj. in ir. 
Thou beganst, cojwwf«c-fr. (a) I warn, flrer^/r. 
He considered, jpc/ Thou obeyest, obe ir. 
We exhorted, exhort ^er. He disobeys, dhohe-ir. 
You hoped, esper*cr* We enlarge, aggrofid-ift 
They abused, ahus^er. You make short, ac<JOt/rc-tr 

(d) I will dictate, dict-er. They make narrow, etrec-ir 
Thot^ shalt repeat»rr/?r^fr. (b) 1 did furnish, ybw/Tiir. 
He w|ll correct, corrig^er* Thou didst embellish, ewt» 
W^will advise, co»5ei7/«er. bellir, 

Youwill consul t,con«t/^^«er. He did demolish, dhnoUir. 
They will deliberate, dt^.' We did unite^ i/nir. 
libir^er. You did disunite, dSsvn^ir^ 

(e) I should repeat, repeUer, They did define, d(fin ir. 
Thou shouldst satisfy , con^ (c) I hardened, (fi/rc-ir* 

ienUer. Thou softeaedst, amoll-ir. 

He would decide, dScid-er, She weakened, affoibl-ir* 

Wewoulddeterminej/v^-en We nourished, nourr^ir, 

Youwould j ustify just^Jtr, You refreshed , rcfrcAch-ir, 

« The letters throngbont this Eiercite Book show the dimrent 
taHet tad moods in which the verb ou^Jbt Vo be ^uu 9^ 1^.44 tad ap^ 




They flpu ri shed, ^ewr-tr. (d)r I will owe^ d-evdir. 

(d) I will banish, hannir. (e) I could comprebend, con^ 

Thou shalf perish, per-ir, c-etoir. 

He shall suffer, pdt-ir, (f ) I may owe again, red-evoir. 

We will appiaud,aj9/;/atf<f-ir (g) 1 mi.pcrceive, aperc»€voir. 
You will fill up, remplir. 

Th ey w i 11 s u cceed , rtuss4r. 

(e) I should blush, roug-ir. 
Thou wouM&t bless, btn-4r. 
It would swallow up, en^ 

gl'out ir. 
We should groan, g^m-iir* 
They would cure^ gu'cr-Jr. 

(f ) 1 may choose, chgi$-ir 


4tb Conj. in dre. 

(a) I wait, attend-re. 
Thou understandest, 

He comes dovirxydescend-re 
We depend, dtpend-re^ 
You suspend, suspend-re. 
ITiey wait, at t end-re. 

(b) I did answer, repond-re. 

Thou mtiyesl embellish, (c) I cleaved,J^€«c/-re. 

He may applaud, applau- 

Wc may soften, adouc-ir. 
You may act, flg-ir. 
They may divert, divert-ir. 

Thou spread St, ripand-n* 
He extended, ^tend-re. 
We bended, t end-re. 
You suspended, suspend-re^ 
They came down, descent 

(g) I might choose, chois-ir. (d) I will condescend, condes: 

Thoq mightest commiser- 
ate,, cojnpat'ir. 
He might fulfil, accompl-ir. 
We mi. embellish,c;ff6'e//«2V. 
You niight dazzle* ^blou-ir. 
They might annihilate, 

3d fefltrj? 2» evoir. 

(a) I condtjve, conc-evoir. 
Thou perceivest, ap^frc e- 

He s(ill o^es, red-evoir. 
We owe, d-evoir. 
You receive, rcc-evoir. 
They deceive, dec -evoir, 

(b) I did receive, rec-cvoir. 

Thou will defend, (fe/iw- 

He will bite, mord-re. 
We will confound, confcn"' 

You will spread, repanfi^re 
They will answer,repond-re 
(e) I would forbid, defend-se. 
I might lose, perd-re. 
Thou mightest sell, vend^re 
He might answer, ripond-re 
We mi. stretch out, tend-rc 
You might come down, (fe^- 

They might understand^ 

<c) I perceived, apcrc-evoir. (f yiia^.N^nXiwA^'^TUw^-tt!, 



40 £X£llCI&eS FiimTl. 

Thou mayst correapond, (g)!* migbt condu€(,<9it4i^iM>r. 

correspond- re. • • -..j 

He mayThear, to«rf-« , , .^'\^'^\' « '-^W. 

We may e^cpect, atUnd re. <»Vu»"^^'-^^'':'"'^''*> 

You may X^\%xl tord-re. ^''"'" jomest, j«-.»*,. 

They may let down, de,- He encompaMcs. ce-indr*. 

•^ , -^ ' We oblige, astretndrr. 

cena-re. ^ .**.' . .. , 

You enjoin, enjo-tndre^ 

5th Com in uiw • '^^'^y feign, /c-iwrfre, 

(a) flead, conduire. (c) ] ftared, cra-indre* 
Thou translates!, /rac?-tf2>r. Th-ou feigned stj^ir-mA^e, 
He reduces, fed-ukt. He constrained, confra-m- 
We introduce, introd-uire^ dre. 

You bake, c-uire. We pitied, pla-indte. 

They reduce, rSd tare. You reached, atte-mdrt, 

(b) I (lid translate, traduire. They put out, ite-indre. 

(c) I guided, cond'uire. ^ (d) I will reach, atte-indre^ 
Thou translatedstjf/YZc?- wire (e) Jwouldenc1ose,ei7ce-ifid>*e. 
He reduced, red-uire. (f) I may limit, restre indre» 
We reduced, rtduire. Thou mayest infringe, en- 
You did over with, mrf-t/ire^ fre-indre. 

The) enticed, ind-uire. He may put out, iie»indte» 

(d) I will lead again, recon- We may fear, cra-indre. , 

d'vire. You may join, jo-inrfr^. 

(e) I would construct, con- They may compel, .c<i»- 

str uire. tra-indre, 

(f ) 1 may instruct, in^tr-uire, (g) I might fear, cra-indre. 
Thou mayest consiruct,con- Thou mighiest feign, jft- 

str-vire* indre, 

Ue may conduct, conrf-wire. He might infringe, enfre- 

Wcmmytran8late,frafi uire, indre, 

Yori may reconduct, recon- We mi.extipguish,//0-in(/re. 

d'uire. You might join.^o-f'nrfre. 

They may reduce, rcd-uire. They might pity, pla^iadrc 

Cha». IV. 






Irregular Verbri of the First Conjugation in er. 

(a) He goes, all-er, 

(a) We judge, Jw^-fr.* 

(b) Ididjudge,>g-er. 

(c) I judged, jttg-er. 

(d) I will go, all-er. 

(d) He will send, envoy -er. 

(e) I would go, aUur 

(e) He should send, envoy 'cr, 

(f ) I may go, all-er.- 

(f ) They may go, aU^er. 

(g) We might judge,>g-er. 

• See Page 23. 7. 

Irregular Verbs of the Second Conjugation 2/^ ir. 

Primitive Tenses. 

Infinitive. ^^M"P»e 
*"* Present. 


M. F. 

Present of Preterit 
the Indie, of the Indie. 

"ist^en tir tant 

ti tie 

s ; tis 

2d t enlr enant 

enu enue iens ins 

. 3d ouv rir rant 

ert erte 

Kie ris 

33 • 

S 4th cou rir rant 

ru rue 

ti rus 


1 5tb acqu erir erant 
(^dth cveill ir ant 

is ise 

» • 

1 le 

iers ^ is 
variable is 

1st Variation. 

(a) I consent, consen-tir. 

(b) I did go out, sor'tir, 
ic) I foresaw, pressen-tir, 
(d) I will give the lie, dc' 

: men-tir, 
Ce) I~ should feel, ryisen-tir^ 

(f ) I may set oui, parMr. 

(g) I might repent, se repen- 


2d Variation, 
(a) I agree, conv^enir. 

Thou obtainest, nbt-enir. 

He attains, parv-enir. . 
. We coniaiDi cont'tnivt 

(a) You prevent, prh^eniti 
They proceed, prav-enir, 

(b) I did inftinge, contix'- 
V'cnir, ^> ^ 

(c) I agreed, conv-etiir* 
Thoa retainedst, ret^enir. 
He came again, rev-enir. 
We remembered » se sou» 

You maintained, maen* 

They supported, sout-tnir*^ 

(d) I will detain, dit'emr, 

(e) I should disagree, «/f#ctvt* 



(5^ \ tSV%»J \«W!SIW^^ ^«^-W«^- 




(g) I might entertain, en/rp- 

3d Variation. 

(a) I open, ouv-rir 

(b) 1 did discover, decmtD-rir* 

(c) I opened again, rwrv-Hr. 

(d) 1 will cover again, re- 

(e) 1 would offer, (jff-rir, 

(f ) I may* open a little, en- 


(g) I noight underbid, mis" 

Thou niightest suffer, souf* 

He might cover, cauv-rir. 
"We might open, owo-rir. 
You might suffer, io^-rir. 
They rai|bt offer, off-rir. 

, 4th Variation, 
(a^ I run, oou-rir, 
(b). I did run to, accou-rir. 

(c) I had recourse, recou-rir, 

(d) 1 Will discourse, i^i^oii- 

^e) I would^ run ever, pur- 

(f ) I may incur, encou-rir. 

(g) I might succour, iecou-rir 

5th Variation. 

(a) I acquire, acqu-frir. • 

(b) I did request, regu-trin 

(c) I cornquered, conqu-erir, 

(d) 1 wi^l inquire ,«'fnfM-^nr. 
(c) 1 could conqiicr,co»^*^rir 

(f) I may acquire, ac^|i-^tr., 

(g) I might acquire, acqu^ir 

6th Variatiou. 

(a) I gather, cutU-Ur, "^ 

. Thou receivest, ac' > ^ 
cueiUrir, I 3' 


Hedollects,r6C»ei//-tr, S ^ 
We start, iressailUir, 
Yoji gather, cueill-ir, 
Th ey assaul t,aMat//>tn^ 
I boil, bouitl'ir. '^ 

Thou servest, serc-ir, j 
He sleeps, dorm-ir. \ 
We lull asleep, endor" V g^ 

OT-zV. I '^ 

You serve, serv-ir. w 
They take a^way, des^ 
serv-ir. J 

(b) 1 did gather, cueill-ir, 

(c) i started, tressaiil-ir, 

(d) I will assault, MsscdU'ir, 

(e) I would sleep, dorm-ir, 

(f) I may boil, kouUi-iri 

(g) I might serve, serv-ir. 

Mm • 



TION fit oir. 

Terminations of the Primitive Tenses. 


Paiticiple Participle Pceiept of Preterit of 
Prcfcntt Padivc. the Indicat* the ladicat* 



act u He 





ant u ue 






«»t is ise 





' 1st Variat'on. You may know, stniwt, 

(a) I am willing, vouloir. They may be wiUiug,' v<m» 
Thou art abU, poiivofr. - loir. 

He has, a^oir. (g) I might have, avoir. 

We provide, pourvoir. He might be able, pouvoir^ 

You move, mouvoir. We might move, mouvoir. 

They stir up, emouvmr. You might know, savoir. 

I know, sceOoir, They migbt be willing^ 

Thou art worth, valoin voul&in 
He M> of equal value, e^vi- 

valair. 34 Variation. 

They prevail, prevaloir* (a) I see a little, entrevwr^ 

(b) I did know, savoir. (b) 1 did see, voir. 

(c) I bad, avoir y (c) I foresaw, prtvoir. 
Thou providedsf, pourooir, {A) I will see again, rtooir. 
He decayed, dechoir, (e) I would see, ,v<»ur. 

We moved, mouvoir, (f) I may see a little, tnire^ 
You knew, savoir. voir. 

Theywerewilling,T>oii/o«r. (g) I might fiusesee, prhoir 

(d) ] shall have, ainn'r. 

He^will be able, pout^o^. 3d Variation. 

He will provide, pourooir, (a) ' t*^ down, i*0sseoir. 

You shall know, $avoir. (b) 1 did sit ^own again, «e 

They will, be willing, von- rassedir, 

Idir. (c) I adjourned, surseoir. 

(t) I would know, savoir. (d) I witl.sii down, $*0sseair,. 

(f) I may have, avoir. (e) 1 vtonU 9k do^B^ ^o^^c- 

He may be willing, 9o»- oir, 

loir, (f ) I may sit down, iosscoir. 

We may move, mouvoir, (g) i migibt adjovurn, suruoir,. 

IRREGULAR VERBS of the 4th, 5th, and 0th CON- 

JUGATION tn re. 

Terminations of the t^rimitive Tenses. 

. ^ . . Participle Participle Indicatrvc 

lotinuive. p,^jcnt. Pa«»;v«. Prcaent. Prcterpcrf. 





















. ant 



' S 





re . 






Paet h 

]8t Variation. 

(a) I take, prendre, ' 
Thou learnest, apprendre. 
He understands, campren' 

We put, mettre* 
You admit, g^dmettre. 
They commit,' commettre^ 

(b) I did unlearn, desappren^ 


(c) I \inderXock,entreprendr€. 
Thou tookest again, rr- 

' She mistook, «e mkprendrt. 
We intermeddled, senirt^ 

You omitted, oinettre. 
They permitted, permettre, 

(d) I will surprise,*wr;)ren</rtf« 

(e) I wouid put again, re- 

(f) I may promise, ^rcwi^^^re, 

(g) i might take again, re- 


2d Variation • 

(a) I appear, /laroif re. 
Thou kn<»west, conncUre* 
He resolves, risoudre. 
We appear, comparoUre, 
You disappear, did'paro^^re. 
They absolve, absoudre* 

(b) 1 di|J grind, moudre. 

(c) I appeared again, rqt^a- 

Thou recollectest, reco;?- 

He ground, Smoudre* 
We grew, croStre, 
You appeared, paroitre. 
They around agaJD, re- 


(d) I will decrease, dccroftrc* 

(e) I would elect, e/tVe. 

(f) I may dissolve, dUsovdre, 
Thou mayest read, //re. 
He may exclude, exclure^ 
We may drink, boire. 
You may please, plaire. 
They may hold their 

tongue, se taire, 

(g) I might read again, re/ire. 
Thou mightest outlive» 

He might displease^ dc- 

We might believe, croire. 
You might live, vivre. 
They might revive, re* 


' 3d Variation. 
(b) 1 beat, battre. 
Thou beatest down fObaftre. 
He breaks, roimpre. 
We fight, combat tre. 
You repeat over and bver^ 

They struggle, ic debattre. 

(b) 1 did abate, rabattre, 

(c) I convinced, convaincre, - 
Thou sewedst, coudre^ 

He corrupted, corrompre*. 
We debated, dibatire. 
You overcame, vaincre. 
They vanquished, vatifcre. 

(d) 1 will unsew, dicoudre. 

(e) I could convince, co««> 

(f ) I may sew again, recoic* 

(g) I might fight, combaitrg^ 

4tb Yanatioti« 
(a) lla\ig)a,rir€» 

Chap.V. upon verbs. 45 

(b) I did smile, sourire. They foreteW, pridire, 

(c| t ran away, s'etifuire, (b) It did suffice, wffire. 

(d) I will follow j suivre, (c) I said, (/ire. 

(e) It would follow thence. Thou inierdictedst, ihier^ 

/etisinvre, dire, 

(f ) I may pursue, pot/r^uirre. He slandered, medire, 

(g) I might pursue^ poursui' We preserved, confire, 

vre. You contradicted, conipe^ 


5th Variation. ^^^y cursed, maudire. 

(a) Iv write, ^cn're. (d*) I will describe, rfecnVe. 

Thofi transcribest, trans- (e) I would inscribe, imcrire, 

crire, (^) I ^^y circumscribe, cir- 

He retracts, se dSdire, conscrire, 

We^obscribe, sQuscrire, (g\ I might write again, r^« 

You pi^escribe, prescrire, crire. 

VERBS, which are not included in the preceding 



in ir^ in oir 

Faillir, to fail, ^ FoWolr , to be necessarjf^ 

T\nT, to run away» Pleuvoir, to rain, 

ll&ir^ to hate. Savoir, Jo /rirow. 

Mourir, to die, " Seoir, to be Jit, 

V^tir, to clothe, in re 

Se* d^v^ir, to putt off the Clorre, to close, 

clothes, Eclore, to blow, 

$e rev^ir, to put on. Faire, to do^ & it's compound 

Naitre, to be born. 




(a) I have begun, (a) avoir commfncer,* (i) 

Thou hast punished, • punir. 

He has owed, detoir. 

* In Compound Tenses the second verb is always put in t%e past 
participle, answering, to tbc leuec L.. 



Part I.' 

We have sold, 

Yoti have translated, 

They have painted, 

(b) I was engaged, 
Thou vi'dbt warned, 
It was perceived, 
We were expected, ^ 
You were condiirted, . 
They were joined, 

(c) I had explained, 
Tkou hadst demolished. 
He had conceived,' 
We had answered, 
You bad reduced, 
They had commanded, 

(d) I shall be relieved. 
Thou shah be warned, 
He shall i e received. 
We shall be heard, 
You will be introduced. 
They pitied, 

(e) I should have been a- 


Thou shouldst have been 

He should have been de- 

We should have been de- 

You should have been 

They should have been 7 
feared, y 



(b) itrt engager, (i) 

avert ir, 


(c) avoir expUqucr. (5J 


report (ire, 
ft- dm' re* 

(d) hre souiager. (I) 

entendre, ' 
' introduire, 

(e) avoir itre (i) alarmer, (i^ 






(f ) I may have been rewarded, (0 avoir itre (i) rtcompenserO) 

Thou ma^xst have been 7 ^ 

obeyed, 3 

He may have been per- ) ^ 

ceived. 3 

We may have been ex- ? - ^ 

pected, f *~"^ 




CflAi. VL 



You may have been re- 

They may havebeen com- 



<g) I might have been armed, (g) avoir ctre (i) armer. (i) 

Thou mi. hkve been chosen, ., 

It mi. have been perceived, ~> 

We might hav^ been lost, .. 

You mi. havebeen enticed, ■■ 

They might have been li- 1 ^ ^^^^ 
mitted-, J 




« A 


(a) I have foreseen. 

Thou hast obtaihed. 
He has opened, ^ 
We have run over. 
You have acquired, 
They have gathered, 

(b) I had known, 
Thou hadst seen, 
He had adjourned, 
We had provided. 
You had seen a Jittlei 
They had moved, 

(c) I had learned, 
Thou hail St resolved, 
He had broken, 
We had pursued, 
You had prescribed. 
They had enclosed, 

(d) I shall bave repented, 
Thoii sbklt have remem 

He shall have covered ) 

himself, | 

We shall have succoutedi 


(a) avoir pressmtir, 

ouvrir, * 
- partourir, 

(b) avoir savoir, 

* mouvoir, 

(c( avoir apprendrcy 

(d) Hrt se reptntir, 

se souvenirm 

se couvrin 
avoir secourir. 







Yoji will have requested, requirir. 

They shall have assaulted, assailtir, 

(e) 1 »UouW have been ad- 7 ^^j ^^^^ g^^^ ^jj ^^freQ) 

milled, * • / 3 . 

Thou sh' .uhht have been 7 • /j-« 

elected, ) . ' .' 

He sho. hvl.vf*b'^'^ braren, ■ battre, 

W»sho.iav.. i. ■:. iifsued^ ■ ■ ^ poursukrc* 

Ymi ^b ■. ■ ..e been J ^ contredire. 

c..\'.:K..i . -u J 

The V .:'.',»• been blown, - ictore, 

(f) 1 my :- provided, (f) ttrepourvoir^ (i) 
Th.j-.i nvi^osl be moved, mouvoir. 

Ho may have silteri down> ^Vk^eofr. 

We iii.iy be pr..vided, fourvoir. 

Yoi; may be moved, Jmowcoir, 

Thf^v may have sitten down, i'asseoir. 

(g) I might be dead, (g) ^re mourir, (i) 

'I'hou migbtcst be clothed, xetir. 

He might have run away, avoir fitir. 

We might have heard, ouir, 

• You might be invested, ctre revetir. 

They might be born, nmtre. 




VERBS, conjugated interrogatively.* 

. Do you lose? perdre? Have they melled } fondref 

Do ihey embroider? broderf Had he accomplished? ac-> 
Have you 8pok«*n ? par^r? complir? 

Shall we furnish ? fovmir? Had she brought ? apporterf 
Has he translated ? traduire? Shall we have found ? trou' 
Ha& she learni ? apprendre ? ver ? 
Would \ou have nourished* Will yott Have done?yaircf 
nourrir ? Have you obeyed ? obcir f 

* T^eteoM ii compounded when the verb to have or to be is expressed. 
It would be needless by figures to mark the teases, as they may 

nsily be ioixad out by the help of the foregoiog Exercises, 

ciiiAP. VII. UPON VERBS, ' \9 

Had they stunned? (touriir? Had they sent? envoyer T 
Has she answered? repottdref Had sh^ taken ? prendre? 
Sbaii we'have done ? fairc? Ha« he opened ? mtvrir? 
Will they have printed? im- tJave they Wvedt vivref 

primer ? Has she sewed ?' coudre f 

Had he reflected ? re/lechir? Have you read ? lire? 
Had they forgotten ? ouhlier? Have you told ? dire? 
Have they acquired ? acqut- Shall we have read? lire? 
- rir? Has she appeared? paroUref 

Would you have drunk ? Ha^ he resolved ^ risoudrt f 

boire f Shall we ha. pleased ? plaire ? 

Had. she gathered? cueillir? Had they sent? envpyer? 
Had we covered ? couvrir? Has he resolved? rvsovdref 
Have you written ? ^crire ? Do you embroider ? broderf 
Have they known ? ctmmjitre? Does she learn ? apprendref 
Has he known? s(itoir? Do they. write? tcrire^ 
Had they prevatiled ? prha^ Shall we breakftist? dtje&nert 

loir? Will th^ perceive? aper- 

Has she resolved ? risottdref ctrqir? 
Have they suffered ? *07//fri>? Do^ou live ? ,vivre f 
Had they seen? voir? Do ihey open^? o|*t'rjr/ 

Shall they have done? j^«»rc? Does he know? ^avgir? 
Had ue resolved ? risQudrei Will you have dined ? d^eff 
Have they promised? jpro- ; Had we resolved ? rt««vrf#e/ 

mettref Had. you concluded? cote-v 

Had they foreseen ? .pn'toirf dure? 
Has he provided ? poifrvoitrf Have they taken ? prendre f 
Has she s^en ? voir? .Has she believed ? croiref 

Had we knd^^ ? (^wnoitre? Have you sent? envt^er? 
Bhall we kave eaten ?'^aiig'er? Had bejcdirered ? couvrir f 
Will she have written? ecriref Would you write ? ccrire f 
Had she foreseen ? prt^ir ? Wpuld ^they change ? ekan^ 
liai we seen ? voir ? ger? 

Had . they provided ? pour^ Will you serid ? eniBoyer^ 

voir? ' Sj^ail we take ? prendre .* 

Will they have put? mettre? Will she believe? cr9iref 
Shall we have finished ^Jinir? Will they do ? faire? 
Will she have done ? faire? Do you sleep ?^ dormir T , 
Will he have. finished i^«j>? Does she know ? cormoitre? 

v50 EXERCISES Part!. 




VERBS, conjugated negatively, both with and without 

We do not speak, parter. Have you not written? ecrite? 

You do not stud-y, etudier. They h^ve not seen, voir. 
Have they not written? ccnW? He will never forget, outlier. 
You shall not go, aller, 1 have not seen any thing, wtr. 

Will they not admire ? ad- Have you not met with any 

mirerf body? re/icontrer? 

They would not have doubt- She would not have ^per-- 

e<5, doHter. - ^ ceived, apercevoir. 

She might not have rendered, I have not spoken any inore^ 

rmdre parler. 

You would not have punish- You never have admired, ad^ 

ed, puhit\ mirer. 

Have you not received ?, re- I never shall forget, oMier. 

ccvo'r? ^ You did not answer at all, r^- 

Have they not perceived ? a- pondre. 

ptrcecoir? Have -you not found ? tro'u* 

.You have not answered, re- ver ? 

pondre, , They would not have believed, 

W^uld you not have danced? cro'tre, 

danser ^ I never could have guessed. 

Has he not translated ? tra- deviner, 

duire? The5 had not lost at all, per- 

Has she not admired ? edrni* drc, 

rerl She has not translated, tra^ 

Do we not go ? aller ^ ' duire, 




A I taki" a walk, je me promene. (See page 23» 2.) 

Thou divtrtesi ih} self, 5e o^if erf ir. tu te . ' 

He I 't' revives, d'a/^erarair. il se. 

' * Hie French in a negaiion use two ne^tive particles, viz* ne arid 
'jfia/", hot; fic bdA point. i-nt at all \ ne and jamais t never; ne aod ritn^ 
re ■ 'ng, not any t:'in^; or and aucun.. no\. ^0"^ \ ne «ivd ^eTsoniw^ no* 
i V'. r.^t any body; »* and f/ui, no tnoxe, uov%ti>} xaQ\t\ ut 


Ch.u». IX. UPON VERBS. 51 

We surrender ourselves, se rendre. nous- nou* . 

Y'>u behave/. ye* conduire, voils voas 

They complain, sc'plaindre. lis se 
B I did not imagine, jc fre rnitnagiiikjis pas, *' 

Thau diJsl nqt grow rich, s'cnrkhir. lune te 

He did not sil down, '^'assivir,' W ne s€ 

We did not ruin ourselves, se perdre, nous ne nous 

You did not reduce yourselves, se rCduirt* vous ne vons 

They did restrain themselves, sc resiraindre, lis ne se 
C Wus I offended? m'offensai je ^ 

Didst thou rejoice ? se rijouir ? te.^ . . tu 
. Was he moved ?'5'cmojiroir-/ 

Did we understand one another? t,*€ntendre? nous. ..nous 

Did yoii introduce yourselves ? sintroduire? vous. ..voui 

T>\A xhii)- ]q\\\} sejoindre? se...i!s 
D Shall I ilot take a walk ? lit me promencrai-jc pas 

Wilt thou not defend thyself? se defhidre f 

Will he not deceive himself? se dlcevoirT* 

Shall we not fight ? se batim? 

Will you not conduct yourselves ? ,se conduire? 

Will they not constrain, themselves ? se confraindre? 
Iv I would have untbessed' myself, je me seroi< dishabilli. 

Thou wouldst h 've grown cold, se rifroidir, 

.lie would have sitten down, s*asseoh\ 

We should have caught cold, sc morfondrc. 

You should have introduced yourselves, s*introauire, 

JThey would have cortstrained themselves, secontraindre, 
F I may awake, je me teveiUe. 

Thou mayest rejoice thyself, se rijouir. 

He may provide fbr himself, se pourvoir* 

AVe may defend ouTsel'ves, se dcfcndre. 

You may behave, se condmrc. 

They may meet together, sejoindre. 
G I might not have submitted, se soumettre* 

Tliou mighlest rebel,, se rexolter. 

She mglit not marry, se marUn 

We mjght grow hold, s'aihardir. 

You i^Mght have gro>An rich, s*eiirichir. 

They might not have caught cold, senrhumer, 

• When a verb, intfrrogativdy u»cd, ctiA* vj'\\\v ^ ^^^*^^ JJ'\,\4[« 
ways put a (') between the verb and the pronoutv \ "» v^ ^^ \<i^\v« ^^^ 
"examples: parie^t^iif at-it parte f parUi^-i-iU 

F 2 





KULES* and 'observations u^on ibe ARTICLES. 

!• /^ 1 "" H E definite article le, with it*s accidents /a, 7e«, &c., 
A see p. 6 A, agrees in gender and number, with the 
noun to which it is joined, and is used before the common- 
nouns, taken in the whole extent of their signification, as: 
la vertu est preftrable aux richesses/, virtue' is preferable to 
riches : al&q before those denoting an indivi\luai distinction, 
or a totality of objects ; as : the spring is an agreeable sea* 
'«on ; le printemps est nne §aiSOtt agreahle : men, are mortal ; 
ks hbrnmes sont mortels. See Art. 3«. 

2. The partitive article, du, de la, des^ &c., see p. 6 B, 
is used before nouns taken in a partitive and indeti^rminate 
ien*ie^ or in a sense which does not denote either an indivi* 
dual distinction, or a specific totality ; as : learned people 
have approved his work pdes savans out approuvt son .oum 
trage. See Art. 18, 

3. All common npuns substantive take the definite article ; 
also names of kingdoms, rivers, provinces^ mountains, &c., 
unless in the sense of remaining in, going to, or coming from ; 
in this case we make use of the prepositions en and de ; as,: 
I am going to France ; je lais en France : He is arrived 
from Flanders ; ilest arrive de Flandre, Tbey live in Italy; 

ils demevrent en Italie* 

4. Proper names in the plural take the definite article, though they 
kavc none in the singular ; as, Us Homire^ Uf Virgile^ &c. 

5. When a superlative immediately follows ii'» substantive^ the de- 
finite article is always pot before the superlative in the first case, and 
agrees with the substantive in gender and number ; as : he is the most 
learned man ; c*est i'hamme le p/us savant. You speak of the most learn* 
ed man, vousparUx>de rhomme le pjui savant. 

' ) ■ ■ . ' ■ ' ■ ■ • I - ■ ■» — . — . — . — i — — . 

* The rules are in iar^c^typc, A^ ^^^ obseiNaV\otv^ viv^ ^mi^VVw ^.>j^^» 


Chap.K upon the ARTJCLfcs 53 

£>ccept whenun or une is followed by a substantive ; iiithis case the 
dcfi lite article is commonly used in the second case plural ;^as : he is 
one of the raost learned men; c*€St un homme des plus savatSy or c'ut un 
des homnuf la plus savdns, or c*est nn des plus s/tvans kommes, 

6. Adjectives and verbs used" substantively take the 
article, and are of ihe raasculine gender, as : idle people are 
despised; les pareaseux sont mtprists: his love for study 
makes him almost forget eating and drinking; son amour 
pour I'tf tide lid fait pre sque oublier le boire et le manger, 

7. A or ail in English before a noun of measure or weight^ 

is rendered in French by the definite article /e, la; as, ten 

• crowns a bushel' ; dix ecus le boisseau* 

When a substantive, having the definite article before it, is preceded 
by toutf tlie article is kept, in the first case, through sW the cases of ttutt 
as : all the world, tout le monde ; of all the world, de tout le mondc\ to all 
the world, a tout le mondej ihe whole eslrth, toute U terre, 

8. Some adverbs or prepositions used substantively require the ar-« 
tide, as: the inside, le dedans; the outside^ le dehors i the upper p%rt, 
le dessus;. the under part, le dessous. ' . 

9. The definite article is put before the names of the Italian authors, 
according to their synrax, as : Taao, le Tasse \ except Raphael^ Michel' 
Ange-t F'etiarquti Hocace^ Sannazar, and some others; al^d those who have 
written in liatin, ^s Sadolet^ Manuce^ BaroniuSt &p« 

10. After the vtrhjouer, to play, we make use of the definite article 
in the second case, speaking of musical instruments, m i jouer di^violarr^ 
de la guftarre ; and speaking of ^ames at cards, or bodity exer&ises, we 
make use of the tame article in the third case, as ijouer aux cartes^ d /a 
psumei and after jm«r, a player, we make use of the preposition de 
m both instancrs> as: unjoueur dcvio'on, dc guitarre, de eartes\ de 
paumem \ ~ - 

1 1 . No ^article, but only the preppsitton de, is used after the follow- 
ing words of quantity, scarcity, or exclusion : ahondance, plenty ; assez, 
enough ; autant, as much ; beaucoup, much ; ' r0;ff^/VA, how many ; it^m- 
kre, number ; jamais, never; m*in5,'le^s ; pas or point, no 5 *^«,' little; 
plus, more ^quantUe, quantity ; rien^ nothing; tant^so many ; /r(M>, to© 
much; except when the substantive is particularised, jee exceptions 
to art. 15; • 

No article is used after the wordsi espice,.sorte, genre ^ mlauge^.hxxt 
only the preposition de» - 

No article, but the preposition de^ is used before the latter of two 
substantives, when it expresses the nature, mancr, species, quality, or 
country of the first. See Remarks upon the prepositions a and de. 

The adverb bieti, used for beancoup^ much, takes aftei it the definite 
article in the second case, as; he has much money, ila bien de V argent : 
but heaucoup takes the preposition de, as : il a biaiicoup d^argetitt un- 
less it is determined and specified by a relative pronoun that follows 
it, as : iladepense beaucoup de V argent que vous lui a-viez. dcfunei hehas/ 
spent a great deal of the money that you gave hini^ 

S4 kULfeS A^b bfiSEftVAtlONS Part It. 

12* Some names of countriet, contrary to thee]tce|;>tioos of the third 
rule« retain their article even in the sense of remaining in, coming to, 
or going f i om* These names are particularly those of remote countries, 
*i*i»> of America^ Asia, or Africa, to which we may join la Marcbe, le 
Perebet le Maintt &r.y provinces in France, ii Mans, U Catdetf la Fere, la 
Fertit ' le Havre ie Gractt la Rocbelle, U ^teMoy, Sec, cities in Trance : 
h Mantmian^ le Milohfx, le Parmesan^ Sec,, divisions of Italy: to which 
«dd, la Haye^ the Hague. 

13. No article is used before cardinal numbers; except, first, when 
the nouns to which they arrjotned have a fixed number, either hy them- 
telves , as : Ics quatte $aistmt ; the four seasons \ or by a relation to some- 
thing else eitpiresscd by the circumstances of the discours<*, as : les deux 
lettres que jevoui ai icriteti the two letters .which I wrote to you, 
Sjecondly, speaking of cards, or the day of thr month, as : le dix ; le 
neuf. ,de yanvuYt de Fivrurf,.lle ra?irr, de pique, &c.. 

14. No article is used before proper nameSf particular 
places, towns, or villages, &c. 

^ Except some nouns, when they denote an individual distinction ot 
a particular appellatton, as : VAtbalte de Rac ink, la Merope de VoLm 
TAi a x^ speaking of two plays 6i these two authors. 

15. No article is used befotc nouns immediately following certain 
prepositions with which they form a kind of adverb, as 1 avec amities 
^ith friendship) sans didain^ without 4i*^*ini p^r </k/^/» through 
kpite. ^ • « > 

No article is used after a verb followed by a noun which forms but 
(Me idea with it : as, «vo;V toutime, to 1^ ; avcsr pitU, to pity. 

Except when these nouns are followed, firsti by the relative pro> 
■buns, quh q»ef leqttel, Ac. : secondly^ by a superlativci because the 
substantive is then particularised. 

16. No'article is used after the preposition eii, except in a very few 
cases, which will be noticed in the observations about prepositions; 
whereas dans always requires an article after it, unless tt is followed 

' liy a pronoun,! as : dans ma ebamkre^ in my roomi dans quelques en- 
ifroiVs, in some places. 

Dans is used when the noun following is particularised, and ert 
■When it is bot; as^ mettex du vin dans la bouteille; meuet6 votre vin en 


17. No article is used before a noun, which follows irhm£diite^y 
smother of which it expresses a particular quality, ai : I was born in 
London, the capital city of England; ytinis ni m Loudres^ wiWe capitale 
it Angltter^e\ New/on, mathematicien et astrOnome tmHiortel; la par esse ^ 
vice nnturej aux enfani\ because the substantive is then considered as an 
•djective. Neither is the article used after the verb itrti as : il est me- 
decin, he is a physician, and not li eit un t/iedetin ; unless in the ex- 
ception of the i^thobtervaiion, and unless the veib be preceded by cef 

, as : c*est i/ff imA^cm. 

IB. The partitive articles du^ de /a, des, de, d du, d de la, 
^ des, d' de, are used "according to the second observation, 
and answer to some, either expressed or understood before 
« subsiuntiye. See pag« 6 B- 

<iiiAt.t. UP6n tHfi ARTICLES. *5 

'. . . . ^ 

i^. When tKe adjefctive goes before it's sobstantiyie, we use, instead 
of the foregoing indefinite articles, de for the first case, d Je for the 
, ibrrd css^, as : voild de l>on paht that is good bread ; ^oil4 di Mies dtmes^ , 
■tfaof e are fine ladies ; and not, du bou gaivt : des he//es daniis. 

«o. The articles «», ««f, are used wnen they signify only ^ kind of 
indeterminate individuality, or an individuality in an inaeterminate 
manner, as : a king otight to be the father of his^ people ; uir rot d^t etre 
it pere de son piupie. However, these articles may sondetimes be changed 
for the definite. article, as : a wise n^n rules- his^ passions; un bomme 
sage regie see pasiions, or Vbdmme taj^e^ &c. ^The articles un and une 
are expressed in English by aot an\ nn is more geaerally a numeral 

The numeral adjective »», one, is not ejtprcssed in. French before 
eentf or m///f, unless tent or miVe is taken substantively. 

21. Articles are* repeated befqre caqH substantive, thougtr' 
synonymous,. as: \e%f(Tveur9 et les grices que nous- reccpor^s 
du cielf the favours and kindnesses wbico we receive from^ 
Heavenl The prepositions d and deare also repeated before 

every word they govern^ 

22. 0/ Is often suppressed in Englishj and the noons are transposed ^ ^ 
as, my father's hout^ ; the king's palace $ a sea«port ; stik stockings : 
but the regular order of the nouns nMSt be restored in FVench,^as if' 
they were expressed in English by of] the house of my fother; the 
palace of the king, &c. ; la, maison dc monpere; le palais duroi; un 
port dc meri des bas dt tok* 

23. The e and <f in ie^ hije, mey set de, ee, <A?, ^»r, are- suppressed^' 
when the following word begins with a vowely or b mute, and an apos- 
trophe (') is put in their plate, to denote theelision of the vowel ; thus > 
we write : Pair the air ; ^eau, the water; /'bomme, the man ; il Pinstryit^ 
he instructs him or her ^/<i/, I have ; cVi/'assez, it is'enough in'avc%' 
\om pas dit fu*il s*babiIUitf did you not say that he was dressings 
inmself? I 

t4« I* snffers- elision in the coi^unction si {if, or mbcfber} before the 
personal pronouns, i7, i/i, but not beforeany other word} as; i'i^vicnt, 
if he come ; s*Us vienncnt, if they comp. 

25. Adverbs are commonly placed after the verb in t simple tense,- 
and between the auxiliary and the participle inr a compounid' one. 

N. B. In tbft exercises of tbis^chapter, the adjectives-^ 
^hich are to bepkioeKl after the luhsttnui^s to^hick tbey 
rebte,. ^t printed in italics; 

55 EXERCISES Part 11. 


L (1) Fire,(2) air, earth, and water^ are the four elements. 
Few, m. cur^m.terre^i^ eauyi, Ctr^[jd) eUmcnt^m. 

Tii«Lsprin(;r, the summer, the autumn, uod the winter, ke,m, automne^L ^irer, m. 

are the fuur se sons of the year. 

saisonA, ann^e,f. '■ • * 

(1) Europe* A^ia, Africa, and Amerioa, 4re tBe four 
f, Asie,(.A/riqu€ff, Atntrique,{, 
quarters of the world. 
partie, f. monde, ra. 

The east, the west, the north, and the south, are the 
€stf m. aucsty m. ' nord, ra. • gud^ m. 

four cardinal points. 
cardinal (3) point s^ ra. 

The sight, the hearing, the feeling, the taste, and 
vwc,f. ouit,C toucher yva, goiU^m,- 

the smell, are the five natural senses. 

odor at i m. sens de nature, ^ 

Geography, I according to | the derivation of the word; is 
GrogmphicyU sdon (2) etimologie^i. . wo^, m. 

a description of the earth ; it consist*^^ chiefly in 

f, t€rre^f,elleconsister(t^)principa{ementd 

giving a true description of the terrestrial globe. This 
donner vrai (4) f. terrcstre globeytn, Cc 

globe has an iTnaginary axis and. poles, and it is 

imaginairc axe, f. des poles, m^ il>{^) 
surrounded with mauy iwia^mflr^ circles 
dnvironne deplusieurs cercles^tn. 

The axis is an vtiaginMry line passing through the 

ligneS, qui passe par 
centre of the- r^al globe of the earthy upon which the 
centre, m. reel^ globe, m* sur laquelk 

whole earth | is supposed | to turn as a whf 
toutela •/ (a) supposte tourner comme (^5) roue 
upon the axletree. 
sur ("2) essieu, m. 

. Pigc, Art, I Page, Art, ! Page, A» 

rJ' ^S 23 I (4) S 1 \. 

Chap.I. upon the articles. 57 


The |)o1es are two extremities of the axis;' the one is 

extremite,f. (I) Cune (a) 

tet'med the northy or arctic pv\e; the other the south, 
9jpf€hry (1) nord^ m. arctique polcy in. Vautre sud, m. ' 
er antarctic pole. 

[The chief circles are eight ; the horizon, the nwrr* 
i/ ^ a ilwV cerctes printipat (2) (I) m. tneri* 

<)ian, .the equtttx)r, the zodiac or ecliptic^ the 
dietiy m» eqiMteur^ m. zodiaqucj m, ectiptigue, m, 

polar cirple of the north, ' the pdar circle of l^ 

south ; the tropic of Cancer, and the tropic of* 

trupique, m. du Cancer ^ m. dti 

CapricornCy m. » 

The earth is oval, and flattened toward the poles. 

terrcy f. ovale^ applatie vers 
The Hungarians, ashamed, of obeying a queen, 
Hongrois konteux de{[) obtir ^ (3) rctiw, f. 

called queen Mary king Mary. 

appekr (b) la reinc Mark le roi^ m, 

(4) Obstinacy in (•l-) vice is a mark ' of reprobattOQ* 

Qpinidtrfie, f. dans m. (a) marque ^ f. 
-(4-) Complaisance suits itself to e?ery humour. » 
f. s'Mccommoder (a) ^ toutcs sqrtes c^hwmeursm 
Hypocrisy is a homage which (4) tice pays to 
hypocrUic^ f. m. que in. rendre (a) 

(4) virtue. ^ 
vertu, f. 
2. The love of (4) glory ibspires courage, 

amour, m, gloire, f. inspirtr (a) du ; ra. 

The Age of Lewis the Fourteenth by Monsieur 
Siecle, m. Loww Quatorze par 

ie Voltaire is rather a history of the mind, and of 

^lutot hisioirey f, esprit 

the manners, than recitals of battles. • 

. mxurs que des recits de kataUles, 

Page Art. I l^gc Art. 

(') 45 »3 (3) 6 C 

58 EXERCISES . • Part II. 

3*, Rivets commonly Bow toward the north 

Jliriere, f, ordinairemeHi {i) coultr {a) vers 
•r toward the south. 

The Rhine flows .from the south to the north; the 
Rhin^ m. couUr (a) (2) (2) 

Po atid the Danube from the west to the east. 
jn. ' m.t 

The Rhine hajj two springs* which rise on the 

source^ f. • qui ntiitre (a. irr, au 
• mount of St. Godard, in the country of the Orisons ; the 
mount, m, Godard, dans pays, m. Gnsons, m, 

northern | :!oe!5 by the name of | the Upper Rhine, 

septentrioiiale.^. porter (h) le nom d^ Haut-Rkin. 

and the southern | by that | of the Ljwer Rhine. 

miridionale^f. celui de Bas Rhin, 

The Mediterranean is a great gulf o£ihe' Atlan» 
MSditerraneCff.' grand golphe, m. - Atlan- 

tic ocean. 
tique ocean, ra. 

(3) Sicilv isthef granafy of Italy. 
^ ' 6icile, f, grenier, m. (3) Italief f* 

^.Machiavei and Hobbes lay down for maxims in the 

etablir (a) pour maxime.dmis 
art of governing, craft, artifice, stratagem, des- gouvcrner,jfinesse, f. (4) a/tifice, m* stratagcme^m. des^ 
potic power, injustice, and irreligion. 
potistnettn. injustice, f, irreligion^ ^. 

Weakness, fear, . melancholy, and ignorance, ape 

Foiblesse, f. (4-) crainte, f. 7nelancoJie, f, 
the sources of superstition. * 

f. f. 

Hope, -^ pride, presumption, a wiirm imagi^ 
Esph'ance,£f(4) orgeml, m, f. (xhaufft 

nation, and ignorance; are the sources of enthusiasm. ' 
f. f. enfhifsiaswf.', m* 

Eloquence, painting,, sculpture, -and poetry | belong 
(4) f. peinture, f. f. potsie, f,ctre(ji)du rcssort 

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to I the imagination. 
dc • f. 

The worship of fire was almost universal among the 
ailtef m. (l)/ctt,m. (b) prcsque vniversel dans 
Pagan*! ; it passHd from (2) the Chaldeans to (2) the 

Paganisme.m, il passer (c) Chaldten ^ 

Persians, from the Persians to the Greelji^'fTom the Greeks 
Perse ^ Grec 

to the Roman?. 

Light is an emanation of the rj\)s of the sun. 
Lumicrej £,' icoulementj m, rayons, m, soleil^m. 

Custom is the legislator of languages. 

Usage ^ m. (a) legislateur^ m. (I) langue, f. 

The use of words -is often C(;ntrary. to their 
usage f m» (1) mot, ra. (a) souvent contraire 
analogiey'f, - 

(1) Intemperance and Idleness are the two most dan- 
- ' f. (3) oisiiete, f. (a) ■" dan^ 

gerous enemies . of life. 
gereux enfietfiij m. {\) vie,f, 

4i, A Demosthenes and a Cicero do not appear ^ in - 
Les ' Us ne par oissent pas dans 

every age. 
tous les sittles, 

5, To th» sh'larae of human reason, the grossest 
konte, f. humain raisouj f. grossier^\) 
crrours find their abettors. 

crreur, (, trouverifi) • difensem\ m. 

kings are denied the sweetest blessing, which society 
Vol, m, (a) prive de doux (4-) bierij m. socitte, f. 

affonlsr to the rest of mankind, and that is fiiendship. 
procurer, (j^y au I autres hommcs ce (a) amUii,£, 

6, Ambitious men | sacrifice | «very thing | to fortune. 
Ambitievxy m. sacrifier (a) ' tout f. 

- Page Art. I 







6o EXERCliiES PARTir. 

A roan ought, 'in | learned works. | to unite profit wfih 
On doit dans les outrage d'esprit joindre (I) utile y m. 

(l)dgreab(e^ m. 

Idle people | are despised. 
Faresseuxy m. (a) mepnsery (i). 

Tl^e industrious are praised, but the slothful arc 
diligentj m> (a) louer, (i) par€ss€ux,my(eL) 

punished. . . ' 

puftir (i) 

The wise man ) seelcs wisdom, but the fuol 

sage <:kercherf (a) (2) sagtsse^ f. inais fou^v^, 

despises understanding. 
mepriser (h)(2) rcdsofiy'f. 

The Doric, lonicy and Corinthian orders ware in- 
Dorique, Joniqutf Corintkicn ordre, m. (c) 

vented by the Greeks; the Tuscan and Composite by th^ 
inventes par Qreci Toscan, , Compoii'Uc 


Newton says, that there are seven primitive colours, 
dire (a) qu*il y n primitif couleur,^, 

red, orange, yellow, green,' blue, indigo, 

(1) rougfy m. orange, m.jaune'ytin, vert,mibleu,va»indigo,Ta. 
and violet. 

•ciotet, m. , ^ 

Difficulties stupify the sluggard, and terrify ' 

(2) Dijficulte, f. ttonner, (a) -parcsseux, epouvanter, (a) 
the fearful, but animate the courageous. 

timide elles ^animcr (a) couragtux. 

7. In England gold | is worth | 3/. IJs. \0\d, an 

Bn Angleterre, f.(5)or,ra. vahir, (a) 
oiiUce, and silver 3/. 2^. a pound, 
•/tee, f. argent, m. livre,(. 

In Italy raxu silk costs ^ eighteen pence a pound. 
(5) cru soie, f. co&ter, (a) sou 

To pretend to please [ every body | is folly. 
vouloir contenttr tout (4) fnonde /olie» 

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1 • 


Chap. I. UPON THE AR'HCLES/ tfl 

It is impossible | to provide tgdinst all mconT^iiiences. 

de prcvefiir . (I) inconvenient ^mi 

H, The inside . of a [ dwelliif;.hotise { oDght to be 

dtdansyva. hdtimtnt^ tnJ devoir (9) 

tommodious, and the outside regular. 
commode dehors^ tsu r^gtdier^ 

S' Dante, TassOfZVid'JriostOj \ are in. [the first rank' 
Tasse, Arioste, twr, (a.irr.) rang^ttkn 

among the Italian poets ; Titian an^ Corregio^ afhong the 
parmi^ ^en foHc Corrpge 

peintre, m. ^ 

10. Alfred the Great, who played well on the 1iar|i, 

, Grand Jover (b) de harpe^, 
visited the Danish Camp. { it the disguise of | 
foisiter (g), Danois Canqty m. . ^ dtguid en (2) . 

a minstrel* 
People began to play at cards in France ii\ X39KV 
On cofnme»ger(c) d aux carte ff, 
under the reign of Charies^ VL , 
sous rtgne^VBk, 

11. Many people take much trouble to f 
• B€aucoup{S) gens prendre (a»ir r.) bicn de /« peine,^. pour 
do nothing; j 

Those w^o I govern are like the celestial bodies 
goMremer(a) (a)comme ci^te c(>rpt,tfk. 
which have much briglitness and no rest. 

beaucoup(3) ^at,m. point(3)rep9S^m, 
1 !2. Mantua, Milan, and Parma, fruitful pre« 

(4) Mantouan,Tn^{5) Milanois^m. Pamicsan^m. fertile 
vinces of Italy, have often been the theatre of wan 

(a)' souvent (i) m, guerre,'[. ' 

43. Bibliographers^ arrange books in five jprmd- 

Bibliographe, m. ranger (a) les livref.m, tn 

' § 

Piige Art. I fage Art. I ft^ K!C^« 

(O 53 7 (3) SS ^^ \ V.^- ^V "^-^ 

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€2 ' EXERCISES Pakt II. 

fol classes: divinity, laws, belles lettres, arts 

f. th^ologie, f. {1) junaprudcncc, f. 
^nd sciences, and history. , 

histoire, f. 
Feeling fs the most genersj of the five natural senses. 
Toucher, m, plus tttndu sens dc nature. 

The mouth ef the Danube | has | five large 
■ embouchure', f. sc fait per 

openings into the Euxine Sea. 
canid dans poutEuxin, m. 

The temple of Soloimon was begun 4-80 yca» 
m. (c) commencer (i) -an, m. 

after the departure from Egypt. 
sortie, i, dc 

The threegraces were daughters of Bacchus and ( I) Venu>. 
^ (b) >//e,f. 

"^The nine muses made a professed vow -of 

faire (b) particulier profession , f. 


■ • . 

The ^even primitive colours | are distinctly seeji | ia 

prinatif coulair, f. disiinguent dans sc 

-the rainbow. • . 

Mrc-en-ciel, nu 

14/Pyrrhus, after having put away Andromache,| gave ■ 

apres avoir, 7'epndier(\) ; qucdonner^c) 

her in marriage | to Heleuus. 
la (2) 7nariage 

Homer and Virgil are the princes of poets; Demos- 
Hom^re Virgile m. poetc, m. Demos, 

thenes, Quintilian, and TuUy, the princes of orators. 

th^ne, Quintilien, Cic^ron, r or at curs, m. 

The courage of Achillas and (1) Hectot, the valour ©f 

m. Achilte " ' / valeur,f. 

Diomedes and '(I) Ajax, the love of Helen and (I) Bri- 

Diomide, amour, td. Helene 

jitis, the fidelity cS Andromache and (1) Penelope are ce. 

Hdiliti, f. Penelope, xe*- 

'Pagc Art. I Page Art^ 


lebrated*!!! the writings of Homef; 
Itdre dans ecrit, m. Homer e. 

Calliope presides over the poem; Euterpe over the 
prmder (a) d. pocme^ m, d 

eclogue, Polyhymnia over the ode. 

f, Polymnie d . ode,f. * 

Pericles, Demosthenes, Aristotle, Plato, Apellcs, 
Vcrklh\ DcfJwsthcney. Aridote^ Flatou, 
Phidias, and Praxiteles, Nourished in the age of 

F)rc£xitble jleurir (c) dans- Micle 

Philip and Alexandef; Lucretius^ Tolly, Titus Livius^ 
PMlippe Akxandn ; Lucrcce^ Cicirorif .. TiVc-Lwe, 
iSIaro, Horace, Ovid, Varro, and Vitruvius, in ths 
Vivgilcy Ovide, VarroHy Vitruve, 

age of Augustus ; Michael Angelo, Raphael, (l) Titian,. 
Auguste; Michel Ange, Raphael, IHtien, 

(l)Tasso, and (1) Ariosto, in the time of the Medici. 
Tasse, Ariostc, temps des Medicis, 

Pythagoras taught the immortality tf the soul io 
Fythagore ens€igner(c) ■ ■ <6,f, dmt^i, 

the Scythiaiis. 
Scythe, m. 

Confucius was the great lawgiver of the Chinese. 

(b) grand Ugisfaieur Ckinois,\A. 
Odin was the great lawgiver and (2) hero of the Gpths. 

htros, m, Goth, m. 
Raphael excelled in expression. 

exceller(h) dans (3) f. . . 

Lewis the Fourteenth was the protector of learning. 
Louis Quatorze (b) protecteur, m. belles Uttrcs. 
Naples is a peninsula. 
Naples prtsquHe, f. 

Smyrna and Alexandria are two of the most Bimous 
Smyrne Alexandrie des plus fameux{^ 

seaports in the Levant. 
ichcllt. f. du Li'vant, 

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• 1 

fi4 EXERCISES Part 11. 

London is the granary «f the world. 
Londrce ' magaain, n\, (\) mondey m, 

ftaeioe's <2) 4thalia and Voltaire's (?) Merope arc J/*a« 
wfi/ic jna$terpieces. 

chefi- d* centre i ra. 

Tasso's (2) Jerusahm ddivered is a very fine poem, 

f. deiti'rer(i)(^B) beaujm^me^tn, 

15. TLoy who speak without reflection are liable 

C€Ut ^ui purler (a) sans (a) expostr (i) 

to say many } fooli^ things. | 
4 dircbeaucoup{ii) sottiscSyf. , 

People often do from, solf-loye What they 

Oh soHvoit {^)fair€j (a) par amour •prvpre,m» ce qiie on 
lelievo they du out of good nature. 

ero«re(a.irr.)y<jv>? par- Uen^eillmce, i, 

\6, He land j is dittiii^uished | into ci^ntinents, isknds, 
Urre, f. #e divise /en Cmtinent, m* enile^f, 
peninsulas, iiijthmuses. promontories* inQUDt9,ins, 
tn presqt^ile, at isikmc, f. en promonlbire, iu« en montagne^f, 
and coasts. 

en c6t€, f. 

The aqueaus part, or watfr, i i$ distinguished | into 
aqueux partie^ f. ctf^, f . ' se divise 

(Oceans, lakesi gulf^, straits, channels, and rivers. 
ecfa^y m . lac, m . gclpkcy tn . dttroit, m . carial, m . rivihe, f, 

Wc have \*i thin tis an eWc/Zi^f 7?^ principle, quite 

en nous inttlli^cntj princip€,m» touta-fait 
distinct from body and matter. 
dlHt'iMt (5) carps, m. maiicre, f. ' 

J'enelon has united in his poeiii the perfection? of 

Tension nnir Q) dans son poeme^ixi' liwnere^f, 

mind with the charms of the invagination. 
e^jrit, m. (), charme, m: f. 

17. The best coffee comes from Mocha, a town 

meiUeur eafc, ro. venir, (a)irr.) (6) ville,.fm 

rf Arabia Iclix, at the entrance of the Red sea, 

Arabic^ f. Heureux d ' emhouchHre, fr Mcr Rou^c, f. 









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and forty-fivfe miles from the strait •£ Babelman- 
€i d qudrantt cinq milks ^ f. ( 1 ) dCtroit, m, Babelman* 


Malpighi, pbysicran to pope Innocent XII, was the first 
medccin du pope, m. (c) 

who observed the circulation of the sap in plants-, 
(jni observer (c) * f* ; .fic're, f, dans (2) plantef. 

in \GQ7. 

Harvey, ,physician to Charles the First, king of England^ 

was the iirst^vho observed the circulation of the blood, 

in l628. 

Frederic the third, king of Prussia, was at once a 

Prusse toutiCn4€nible(S) 
king, a warrior, a philosopher, aftd a legislator/ 
roif guerriery philosopher JSgislateur. 

Christopher Columbus discovered (4) America in 1472 ; 

Christ ophe Colomb dtcouvrir (c) 
be was a Genoese, a great seaman, and the best geo- 
(3) Genoisj (3) ' hoynme de mer, mcillcur geO" 
grapher of his age. 
graphe ' sitclc^ m. ' % 

18. The Pythagoreans preferred (5)* vegetables • to 

■ ' > ricien prefer cr (b) des legume f m.ddu 

^,iish, to poultry, /a ortolans, to good roast-beef, 

poissonjm.(5y volatile ff. (5) m, (5) bisufroti, 

and ^0 all kinds of^ meat. 

(5) sorte, f. viande^ f. • 
Beside (5) gold and (5) silver, Europe obtains 

. Outre, or, t argent ^ m. (4) Europe retirer 

out of the nc\y world, sugar, cocoa, tobacco, 

(a) (i) noiireaii f/ionde, svcre,m, cacao, la. t abac ^i^i^ 
cochineal, indigo, and the Peruvian Bark. 
cochenillcy f, indigOf quinquina^ m. 




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C6 £«EACtSES pAKTir. 

The Mrtal of BriBr^ in the Gatinoif, a (1) province 
csnaljm. dans 

of France, was constructed under the ministry of the 
de (c) coHstraire, (i) sous ministire 

Ci^rdinal Richelieu; it joins the Loire to the Seine* 
tardinal de il joiudre, (a) f, f. 

aad it serves to convey in hoats to Paris, 

U servir (^) d hqnsportcr par hatttau^ m. a 
hajiy woody and all sorts of commodities. 

{2)foini m. ifoiSf m, toutc sorte, f, > denrCe^ f. 

191 The fortune of (3) courtiers is liable to great and 

i, conrtisansy m. (a) svjet (4) grand 

ttRaccoiTntaUe revolutions. 

it range rederst m. 


20. A king ought to be the father' of bis people. 
roi, ra, devoir (a) p^re, m/ pevple, m. 

An affedtd simplicity is a delkute imposture. 
affectc sintpHeife, f. (a) . f. 

An unexpected and unforeseen accident ^' may 

inopine imprctu m. pouvoir (a.irr.) 

blast the fairest hopes. 

rcnDersler . beau (5) esplrcence^ f. 

An old man | in love | is an object, of^idicuJe. 
'oieilididy m. amour eux (a) 

A modest woman ' is fespected. 

femme^ f, (a) rcspucttr (i) 

A wwc man prepares hijnseif for "adversity. < 

sc preparer (a) advetsitet f. 

21. CloiJds and fogs' fare formed oiit | of the 

(3) Nudge f m. brouillard, m. (s) former (i) 

vapours | arising ( from the earth. 
vapeur^f, (juis'tlh^ent tcrre^f. ' 

The air and oiann^i' render a person engtiging, 

fnaHiereSf(,Tp\,ren(fre{dL) f. qff'ahk, 

the mind ancl hun^our render (6) him agreeable. 
esprit y m . gdietcy f.. 

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Not to foresee the greatest part of the disgraces 
•3.1? JW7* prtvoir part{e,£^ 

, which happen to (1) us, is a sitre sign of a 

arrlver (a) ' assure . marque, t 

want of judgment and penetration. 
difauty m. 

Wsdom and modesty do not less gain the ' 
' Sagessc, f. modestic, f. ne sattirer (a) pas mains 

esteem of men, than foHy and pride their contempt, 
€Stime,f, fouc^f. orgueU,m, vitpris^xn. 

Great and extensive projects, joined to a quiclc 
(2) Gra?id ^vaste pro jet ^ m,joindrt\ (i) prompt' 

and wise execution, constitute the able mini(>ter. 
sage faire (a) habUt ministry, nor.. 

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(»') 9 4 I W 55 19 



r. npO substantives and adjectives belong gender, nura- 
A ber, and case. See p. 2. art, ii, and p. 6? 7, 8. 

The gender is either masculine . or fcwinine. Seep.!?, 
art. ii. and p. 8. 

The nun^.ber is either singular or plural : the plural is 
formed by adding a,h s to the singular. See p. 7. 

Of, de, is the sign of the 2d case. See p. 6* 

To, (2, is the sign' of the 3d case. See p. 6. 

Of is often suppressed in English, and the nouns are 
transposed ; as, my father's bouse ; a sea-port ; silk-stock- 
ings ; but the regular order of the nouns must be restored 
m Frcfich, as if they were expressed in English by of'; the 
heuse of mv father ; &c., la maisoH demon ptrej unport de 

mcr ; dvs has de soie. 

When a noun is compounded of » substantire smd an adjective, both 
take the mark oF the plurU ; as, un getudboinmef det gettt'dshommes ; a 
gentleman, scvfinl gentlemen. 

When a noun i3 compounded of a preposition and a nouo, or of ft 
veib and a'noun^ the noua alont uVa« X.\v% s^iV^ ^t;^Nk\iks^'^>"^^'»' 


avant' coureur, des avant'Coureurs ; a forerufaner, foreraoners; un garde" 
feu, des garde-fousiZ rail, rails ; when it is compounded of two nouns 
joined by si preposition, the first alone takes the mark of the plural $ ai» 
ttn chef.tVteuvre, a masterpiece ; des chefs^d'eeuvre, masterpieces. 

2. Adjectives, being declinable in French, follow the 
same gender and number as their substantives ; as, a good 
book, vn bon livre ;. a good pen, vnc bonne /;/<//?ie; good 
books, de bons Ikrcs ; good pens, de bonnes plmnes. 

Many substantives singular, having a conjunctive copu- 
lative coming between them, will have an adjective plural, 
which adjective shall agree with the masculine rather than 
the feminine substantive, if the substantives be of different 

An adjective, or a past particrj)le, preceded by any tense 
of the verb to bcy ttre^ is al way? declined and agrees in gen- 
der and number with th^ substantive to which it relates. 

3. When two or more substantives of drflFerent genders are the first 
case to the verb etre, the adjective, or participle tl»t follows, ought to 
be in the masculine plural ; as, the (trunk, the closet, and the room, 
arc epen ; ie coffr^, le cabirUt et la cbambre tont oavertf* 

.4. Two or more substantives of different gendes#, imstediately fol- 
lowed by an. adjective or participle, require- commonly, Uiit the adjec-^ 
tive, or participle, should agree in gender and numoer with the last 
substantive; as» she found the trunk, the cljoset, and the room open; 
elie trouva le coffre, le cabinet it la cbambre ouverte. 

Except when an adjective, or a past participle, implies a union, or a 
collection ; such zSt joint, uni, r/unii as, the children, father, and mo- 
ther, united or joined together ; les enfans, lefire, et la mire reunis,OM. 
jojr.ts ensemble, 

5* Obs. Ajectives of number are placed before their substantives ; 
except when they are used as a surname, without an article; as, Charles 
premier, JncqixCB second, Geor.cs frotj ; Charles the tirst, &c. 

There are some other adjectives, which are to be placed sometimes 
before, and sometimes after their substantives. Seep. 23 of the Gram- 
mar, •• 

6. Some adjectives are put before their substantivesv as, 
beau, bon, grand, gros, jeune, mauxais, mtchant, meilleur, 
petit, vicHJc. 

7. Adjectives are put in French after their substantives. 

8. Some adjectives govern the following noun in the se- 
cond case, that is, are followed by the preposition de: SucIl 
are adjectives signifying desire, knowledge, rememhranceyigno- 
Tance, forgetting, care, fear, guilt, fulness^ emptiness, plentj^, 

, want, &c. If the following substantive be particularised^ 
then the article definite, du, de la, des, must be used. 

Chap. II. UPON NOUNS. 69 

9. Some acyectives govern" the following noun in the 
third case, that is, are followed by the preposition d. Suich 
are adjectives signifying submiision^ rclatum, pleasure or dis- 
plcasffre, due, rtrntancc, dijficvlty, likeness, inclination, apt' 
ncs6, ^fitness, advantage, pro/it, &c. If the following sub- 
stantive be particularised, then the article definite, au, d lUy 
aux, must be used. 

10. Adjectives signifying dimension, as, long, thick, high, 
derpy big, wide, or broad, which come after* the word of mea- 
sure in English, com« before il m French, and' are followed 
by the preposition de; as, a window three feet broad, tine 

Jcnetrc\a,rgi& de trpis picds. Or, which is the more general 
praatice, the adjective is turned into it's substantive with the 
word of measure before it; in this case, both the quantity 
and the word of measure, or liimension, are preceded by tho 
preposition de; as, unejaietre de trois pieds de largeur^ 
When in this construction the verb to be happens to pieced^v 
the word of meMVMor dimension, it i« commonly changed 
into the ward ^^irs and the preposition de^ which ^ beh)re 
the quantity ^f measure, is left out; as, tmefcnetre qui % 
trois pieds de largmr ; a window which is three feet broad. 

Adjectives are dcjclkiable in Frc«cb and undeelinable in English. 

Adjectives in J^glish arc formo^ i^to comparative |»y the «<^diti^^a 
of r or er, and into saperlative by adding to the positive it or est \ as, 
great, greater f or grefitest. In Frepch, the comparative ia formed by 
prefiKmg the particle ftus before the positive, /e j>lus is the sign or 
the superlative. 


1. Helen, | who wa* the cause of the Trojan war, | was 

Helene qui (c), cause, £. guerrc,u de Trote (b) 

the daughter of (l) Jupiter and (2)Leda, the wife of Tyn- 

^llc femme, f. 

darus, king of Laconia. 
roi, m. 
The rules of civility are those of decency and 
riglc, f. (^3) hondete, f. (a) edits (3) hunstancc, f. 
good manners. 
dcs bon mwurs, f. 

Page Art. I 
i^) 55 *i \. 

Page Art. 

70 EXERCISES Part 11. 

The character of .flsop's Fables is simple nature. 
• car act ire, m. JE^iopc ( I ) Fahh\ f. (a) 
Thcocriliis's Idyls, under a native (2) and rural simplicity, 
Thiocrite ( I ) Idyllc^ ^ovh naif (3) champCtrcaituplkltc^^J 
include an inexpressible charm. 
r<:vfvrmcr {}\) inexprimahlc (2) agrCmrnf^m, 

llypocrilcs are the objects of God*s hatred, and of 
(a) ilcs Dicv, ra . ( 1 ) haiiUy f. 

the indignation of all good men. 

f. - gens dc bieriy m. 

2. England is a fruitful (2) and pleasant country, | inwhicli | 
AnglcUrre fertile agrCabU pays^ m.. dont 

the air is temperate, ' but the weather is very va- 
air, m. tcwpM-, main ou temps ^ m. ires i«» 


arth IS called the dry ^>^^r'C^^. element, 
Terre, f. appeler.(\) sec (2) ^^tjj^ tUment^ m^ 

fire is dry and ho't. '\ M' 

feu,m. chaidm 

An allegory is a continued metaphor. 

alifgorie, f. continue (2) metaphorcy f. 

Ann Bullen. had an oval face. 

Anne de Boulen, (b) oxal (2) visage, m, 

Juno was ah enemy of the Trojans. 
Junon (b) Venntjni Troycns. 

The Phrygian ^(2) fable gives ujiderstanding and 
Phrygicn(^) fable, ^. donn€r{'a.) deT esprit, m.- 
virtue to the nature of the bf ute ; the Egyptian (2) fabl» 
(5) vertVyf, f. f, Egyptien (4) 

gives body and passions to the divine nature. 

du corps, m. des passion, i. divin {2) nature, ^.^ 

We are infinitely obliged to our forefathers for the 
vifiniment redevables 7ios ancetres pour 
fundamental rules of the sciences. 
fondamental (2) regie,, f. science j f. 

Wind is agitated air. 
(6) 'Cent, m. un agitt {2)air^ m. 


Art. 1 


Art. I 



(0 55 

2Z \ 

(?) 8 


(0 5S 



7 I 

(4) » 

^ ^ 

^ V^A S^ 



Chap. II. UPON NOUNS; 71 

A liar and a flatterer are equally. (Ie«picable» 
menteur Jialtcur (a) ('gakmcnt mtprisahley 

both make a very bad use of the 

Vim et Vautre faire (ar) mauxais . usage^ m. 

precious gift of (2) spcecB. 
pncieux, (\) don,m, parole, i!, 

A litigious man is an abominable (1) bein<^. 

chicaneur, m. etre^ m, . 

OKI peopje boast always of former tinies- 
Li's vieilles gens vanter^ (a) pass6f ra, ( I) temps, m. 

3. The courage., and (3) intrepidity of Charles X[J, 

ra. intrtpidUtff, douze 

king of Sweden, werfe wonderfiil. 
roiy m. Sut'de, f. (b) ct(mnant, (4) 

The clemency and (3) courage of Henry IV, king of 
cUmcnce, f. ra. 

France, have been celebrated by poets and .hi>itorians. 
(a) ^i) celvbrer(i) (^) pif€f€fm.(3ykistoriens,m» 

4. Sylla 46iiiir«l iii Uomc an absolute power and 

s'acquerirjic* \vv,)dans absolu ( 1 ) pouvoir, ra. 

authority* -■ 
(3) auforitc, f . . . 

In mod' courtiers we find nothing but an 

la pi apart aes cmirtisaus.xu, on ne trouvcr (a) que 
affected politeness and sincerity. 
nffecte ( 1 ) polltesse^ f. (3) <:ordialUtn f*. ' 
'Garrick acted with a charining taste and dignity. 
jouerj (b) charmant ( I ) gout, m. (3) nohlesseS* 

.5. Sappho is called by ancient authors the tenth muse, 
,Sapphit appt'kr (\)par ancien atiteur, m. trntse, f. 

'Herscliel, the most distant of the planets, . takes 
Herachel plus tloignte planite, f. employ(r,((i) 

upward of,80 years, | to perform its revolution round | the 

a/if-m. d faire sa revolution autour du 

sun; Saturn, .29 years, 10"7 days.; Jupiter, U years, 314? 

^olril, m. 

days, and 12 hours; Mars, I year, 321 days, and £3 houts; 



Page Art. , 

Page >. Art. 



.<?) 68 7 

(3) 55 *« 

(3) »o 


(*) S'^ I 

(4) 68 z 


'72 EXERCISES Part 11. 

the Earth,' 365 days, 5 hoars^ and 43 minutes; Venu^, 
224 days, and 6 hours; Mercury, S7 days, an'd 23 hours. 

6. Fine thoughts, by dint of being repeated, ce^sc to 
Dehcau{l) pcnsce,^. d force ifttre rtpetS (2) cesser (tL)d€ 
be fine. 

A lie is unworthy of an honest man. 
Le mensunge indigne honncte. 

The sublime is to imitate simple nature. 
sitbllme, m, dc imiter f. 

The ostrich is the only bird, which | does not 

Qutruche^i. seuloiseau,m, qui ne couver(£) 

sit upon I her eggs'; the heat of the sun hatches 

pas SC8 csufs^ ckQleur,t\ sole'd^m^faire^^a.m,) 
tdorre les; (3) 

One of La Fontaine's best fablets is that which he 

Un La Fontaine (4) mcilleurfabU, f. celk . que 
has made upon the animals sick of the plague. 

faitcy sur animal maiade pcste^f. 

One bad {6) omen among the Romans was 

augure,.m.£he%. Romaiuy m. (b) des 

cobwebs fastening on a standard. 

toiks d'arraigntef. qui s'attachoient d etendarty m. 

irlcica and Dulichium are two small islands of the loni* 
It/taque DvUckie petite (5) ^/r, f, loni^ 

an sea, 

en (2) 7ner, f - 

7. I It is only | in the Atlantic ocean, | that we see | 
CV nest que dans Atlantiqu€{2)oc(an^m, qu^vn voit 

the singular spectacle of flying fishes. 
sitigulicr (6)spectacl€y m. volant (6) poisson^ m. 
Spanish Jesuits brought the cinchona bark into 
Espagnul (6) Jesuiie apporter (c) qmnquina. m. ' <ii 
Kurope in l640. 

Page Art. 

(1) 8 14 

(2) 68 % 

Page Art. 

(3) 9 4. 

(4) 55 a* 

Page Art, 
is) 68 6 

(6) 68 7 

Chap. IL UPON ^^OUNS. f S 

Piadar was the prince of Lyric poets, 
Findareib) Lyrique {i) pontes. ^ 

The Olympic games were instituted by Her- 

Ol^mpiquesXi) jeux , (c) insiituer(\) Her- 
cules to the honour of Jupitet Olympus. • < 
cule efi honneur Jupiter Olympkn* 

The Pythian games were consecrated to the god Apo!- 

Fythien ^ (c) c&n8acr€r(\) Apol* 

lo, in memory of his killing the serpent 

Ion, en memoire de ce que il axoir (b) tuer (i) serpent ^ «. 

Python. ' ' 

The Nemean games were instituted to the honour of 
Nemteh (c) instituer{y) 

HerculeSi because he had tamed a lion of the Nemieaa 
parce que (b)^^ domter (i) laforit 


All gravitating bodies | have a tendency | to the cen« 
le^ grace corps . tendence, f.. cen- 

tre of .the earth. 
tre fia, ^erre, f. 

One misconstrued word, one ambiguous tale, one 
. (l) mal interpret e parole, f, douievx rapport, m. 

groundless suspicion, kindles every day irrecon- 
malfonde soupfon^ ra. allumeri?^) tons Its jours des irr^cou' 
cilable enmities^ 
ciliable kaines^f. 

The- invariable order, which we observe in the eco- 
orrfre, m. que remarquer(ft)(i) coHm 
nomy of the universe, is the work of an infinite 
dtdie,£, wmver*, m.(a) ouvrogf, ro. itifini 

and all-powerful | intelligent being. | 
totUe-puissant intelligence, f. 
The Holy Scriptures are a treasury of. noble, grand, and 
Ecriture Sainte (a) fonds, m. 
sublime thoughts. 

Page Art. I Ya^ Ktx. 

fi) 68 7 I W S^ ^^ 


74 EXERCISES Part 11. 

Hope is the dream of a man awake* 

(^l)Espirance,£, ^ong€,m, heillL 

Scarron excelled in the burlesque style. 
Scarron excellef, (b) burfcsque styky m. 

When Zeuxis .intended to paint ^ peifect beauty, 

Zez/xis vou/oir, (cirr.) peindre parfait beaut ^,€. 

he put together the separate features of several exrstinj; 

rassembler (c) separe trait f m. existant 

S. Most men ^ are desirous of | new things. ' 

Laplupartdes homm€S,m.(B) avide (2) fiouveaufjS^f. 

A mind solicitous about | tliat which is to come | is 
esprit, m. inquiet de Vavenir 


Commonly - young people | lavish | their 

Communement^ 1 )jeune gens, mMre(f^prodigue (2) dc 
. time^ their health, and their money. 
t€mps,m,{2) santiy£, argentyta. 

liife is full of snares, fear, and miseries. 

( l)ne,f.(a) pkin embicht, f. (3 ) crainte, f. (3) mishre^ f. 
Nature is content with | a little. | 

f.(a) de peu 

God alone is free fronr inconstancy. 
Dieu, m,seul(&) exempt inconstance^ f. 

9. Maritime (4) and marshy places are liable to heavy 

marecageux pays, m. {s^sujet d des epais(j^) 
brouillardj m. 

Nothing is more agreeable to the nature of mas, than 

beneficence and liberality. 
(I) beinfaisancef f. 14. 

Tha favours of (1) fortune are common to the righteeas 
favetir,ff f. (a) commun bon 

and to the wicked. - 

. : miclMnt. 

Art. Page I Art. Pagi 

(i) $» X I (3) 55 a» 

(2) 68 % \ U^ » 1 

Chap. !!• UPON NOUNS, 7S 

Boys are naturally inclined to idleness an4 

(\) Jeuneif ge?is {ki) cnclin (^\) paressCyf, 

(2) dissipation^ f. 

There are in the marshes on the shores of the Ganges^ 
II y a dans marais^m, sur bord,'m. Gangc^m. 
in Asia, crocodiles, which are *25 feet long. 
<•//. Asie, (3) crocodile y m. qui de longueur » 

The famous mine of Potosi in Peru is more 
fameux min€,£, Potosi' PcroUyXa, avoir (B)plu0 
than 250 fathoms deep, 

de toise^i, dt profondtur^L 

The cuffee-lree,s are commonly 1 6 or 18 feet high, and 
cqfier, m. ont de hauteur ^ 

they yield - two or three times a year an abundant 
foutnirid) o^ fois par an abondant^^) 


The walls of Babylon were two hundred feet high, 
mur, m. avoir (b) de hauteur , ft 

and fifty feet broad. 

de largeur, f. 

The whale has no teeth; it's prodigious strength 
haleine^ f. nc avoir (a) point (5) dent, f. saprodigicUx{^)forcef. 
is in jt*s tail, which is ^3 or 24; feet broad. 
dans queue, f. qui avoir (a) largeur, f. 

The royal (4) canal in China is about 1 800 miles long, 
• m, environ de 

The great wall in the north of China, is about 1500 
tnuraille^ £, au .. 

miles long. 

de . . . 






I) St 


. (3) , 54 


^) 55 


1 U) 6ii 


Page Art. 
(5) 53 «* 






Personal Pronouns. 

1, t>ERSONAL PRONOUNS are either govetning or 

-*^ governed, 

Tbe governing personal pronouris je, tu, il, nousy &c., 
»«*^-5»'art. 1| are put before the ver,b, as in English. 

A governing personal pronoun cannot be parted from it's 
Tcrb, but by agoverned pronoun either personal or supplying. 

Governing personal pronouns of the* third person, are 
used not only for persons, but also for things, v 

After two or more governing pronouns, the verb must bo the -plural number, and in the most worthy person, 

2. There are some cases, where the pronoun personal is put after the 
verb) when, in the middle of a sentence^ it is joined likeapa* 
renthesis with these seven verbs ; dire^ to say ; refondre, to answer } 
r^plifuer, to reply ; repartir, to ans;wer again $ tontinuer, to continue ; 
foursuwre, to pursue ; zndi x* eerier, to cry Out; as, I have none, ««• \ 
jftoirtd be ; je n*en at pcint, repond it-il. 

3. The personal pronoun must be put after the verb in these phrases^ 
dussiesn-'vottSf though you should ifussiez'votis, though you were ; puhm 
4ie» OT puisieX'Vous, may you ; and in any of those which form what 
l^rammarians call the optative mood : as, though- you were rxd^'y/uisieX" 
nfOMi rUkts : though you should write to him ; dussiex-ifous hi ecrtre : 
tazy you see him in good health ; puissitX'-vous le 'voir en hsnite sante % 
or you may express though by quoique followed by the subjunctive mood, 
and then the personal pronoun is placed before the verb, according to 
tbe general rule. , 

4. It is more elegant to put the personal pronoun, even followed by 
^ue signifying tbat^ after the verb preceded by oneof these conjunc- 
tions : autiif but ihcn ^peut-etret perhaps; du mains, au moins, at least ; 
tn vairti in vain ; ^ peifiet scarcely, Sec, as : but then he received his 
reward ; ^ussi rcfu/-il sa recompense. 

5. In an interrogation, either affirmative or negative, the 
personal pronoun is always put after the verb in simple 
tenses; as, do you eat? mangez-roK*? do you not write ? 
iiGcuveZ'VOus pas ? In compound tenses it is put imme- 
diately after the auxiliary, either in an affirmative or nega- 
tive question ; as, have you eaten ? ayez- raw*- mange? have 
you not wiittcn? n'avez-row* pas ecrit. 

6. When, in an interrogation,, we make use of a verb of the first con- 
jugatiojj, as the verb in «uch a. ca^e, ending w'iiVv2itv e m\ii^, v.ovxldiv\3.k« 

Ch.III.Skct.I. personal pronouns. 77 

9 harsh sound with the following pronoun je, we put an acute accent 
upon the last e of the verb ; as, do I speak ? parle-J^ f and not pzrlc-jef 
However, in this instance, I would advise to make use oC the easy 
. way of asking a question by these wojds, €st-ce qucj as it must be done 
for some other words ; as, dp I sleep ? est-ce fue je dors ? In this case 
the pronoun is put before the verb. 

7. When a verb interrogatively used ends with a vowel, we always 
put a t between th6 verb and the pronoun, as in the following evample i 
does he eat ? mange-t ilf }m% she eaten ? a'-t-elle mange ? 

81 What we have said in the second rule, must be said, likewise^ 
when after those verbs comes another noun instead of a pronoun ; 9fi^ 
all men are fools, says Boileauf /(wi ies hommes sont /oust d'lt Boileau* 

9> A governing personal pronoun is superfluous, wi^en 
any npun whatever is the first case to a verb; as, George 
Hi is a good king; George ill .est un bon roi. , But in ah 
interrogation, besi^de the nouD, >v'e put the pronoun iifler 
the verb; as, does your brother write ?t?o^re/r^reecn/-«7? 
Except when in asking a question we nuike use of this 
idiom, esUceque: in this case the pronoun is left out, as in 
the foregding example ; est-ce que votre frere ecrit ? 

JO. After two or more governing pronouns, rile verb roust 
be put in the plural number, and in the most wor^thy person ; 
as, you and I are idle, toys et nipi fi(ms sommes paresseux. 

\\, The governed personal pronduns, wze, te, nous, vous, 
le,la, les, lui (for d, lui or a elle), leur (for d eux or it elles\ see 
paged, ^it' 4j ^re put in French before the verbs by which 
ihey are governed; as, il me donnenn livre, he gives roe a 
book J il me soitlage de ce fardeau, he relieves roe of thin 

1 2. The governed personal pronouns, moi, tot, nous, vous^ 

le, la, ies, lui (for a lui or li elk), leur, (for a eux or d. tlks\ 

see "page 9, art, 3, are used after the first and second person 

of the imperative^moody expressed without a negation ; as, 

' donnez-wio2 (for d mui) cc livre, give me (for to me) that 

hook; 5oulagez-/wo« de ce fiardeau,.re/icre me of that burden. 

The governed personal pronouns, moi, tot, nous, vous, lui^ 

* tile, eux,elles, {seepage p, art, 2,) are used after prepositions. 

Moi, tot, lui, eux, aie sometimes employed as governing pronouns ; 

AT, qui est la ? mot, or je suis la; tuhe is there ? I, ox lam there ; qui a hit 

cela ? lui, or 2/ a fait cela ; who bos done that f he, or he did it; vous etet 

plus jeune que mot ; you are younger than J, or than I am. The English 

have admitted a similar deviation in these pronouns, when they com* 

. pound them with sef/i they say in the governing as in the goveraed 

state, himselj, herself, theoneives, instead of hatif^ vkwtlj^ ^5K.*i^\iRHi^»X 

there himseif^ s!^e camq^ krselj, I d\^ iVvu wjselj. 


13, The supplying pronouns, /e, /a, les^ y, en, seepage 9, 
art. 6, are always put before the verbs by vrhich they are go- 
verned ; le, la, and les, are always put before lui and leur ; 
as, you give them to him; vqus les lui donnez : whereas 
they are put after the other personal pronouns ; as, I give 
it to you; je rows /c donne ;' except in the imperative mgod 
in affirmative sentences ; ns, gweitme; Aor\v\Qz le-mou 

The supplying pronouns en and y are put after all other 
personal pronouns, and e» after ^; as, I have sent some to 

them thither; je leur y en ai envoye. See page 9» art. 7. 

Except when jr and moi ineet together in the second person of the 
itDperative mood affirmatively uscd^^ is put befbrc moi ; as^ carry me 
thither; menez-y>iaoi. 

J^.B» The last three observatidns, with their exceptions, are fully 
exemplified iii their proper places, and in the supplying pronouns* 
See the Grammar, p. lot. 

14* lit which sortie wrongly call a personal pronoun in the follow- 
ing exvpiples, is commonly used before adjectives, where the word 
thing is understood ; as, it is glorious to die for our country; il est 
• gUrieux de mourir pour sa patrie. If the adjective make a complete 
sense, ce is commonly used : as, it is true ; c'est <orai. 

li is likewise used when we speak of the time and hour ; as, it is 
elevea o'clock ; il,est otixe beures : it is bad weather; il fait mauvais 
tijnps. , ■ . ^ 

Except when a question is asked with ce; as, quelle beure est-ce la? 
' the answer is, c'eit une heure. Ce is commonly used iA the beginning 
of a sentence before a substantive ; as, it is a pity ; c'esl dommage. 

15. J/, elUf singular, or iA, ellcSf plural, and ce^ are indiscriminately 
used ; let, beiore substantives expressing the sex, quality, profession, 
or trade of a person : as, he is a merchant; il est marchandy or, c'est un 
tMrcband: 2clly, before names of nations ; as, they are Frenchmen ; ils 
sent Franfoisy oTyCe sont des Franpoii. Observe that, in the Wo fore- 
going instances, no article is put before the substantive after-the per- 
sonal pronouns je, tu, il, &c. 

16. Governed personal pronouns are always to be re- 
peated ; as, I recommend and advise you to read Tele^ 
raachus; Je vous recommande et vous conseille de lire Tele^ 

maque, ' f 

17. Personal pronouns are repeated before each verb : ist, when they 
are followed by verbs in different tenses; as, I say, and shall always 
say; je dis et je dirai toujours: idly, when we. pass from a negation to 
an affirmation, or from an affirmation to a negation : ^dly, after the 
conjunctions mats, meme^ cependant, neanmoins, nonebstant, malgre tout 
tela, au'ii^ ainsiy ou, &c. But when the personal pronouns belong to 
the same tense and person, fhey are commonly not repeated ; as, I say 
sad declare; jc disict diclare. Observe here, that the pronoua on if 

always repeated ; as, people Speak and act ; otv j>arlc t\. otv o^u. 
iS, The pronouns /uf, eux^ elte^ e//«, /<«r, ate uitdi ^.v iVvt ttvd. QS.*.%t».« 
tcncc, only wAca we are speaking of ^cScson^-, a*, u 'w, >iQ>xi \>iq\\i«^ 

Cn. IH.Sect.I. personal pronouns. 79 ' 

It is ; Est-ce 'votre frha ? C*est Ini, When wc arc speaking of inani- 
ynate things, We make use of the pronouns, /«, h,/et ; as, is it youK hat? 
Yes, it is, Est-ce lei votre chaff an, ? Out, cc Test, and not, c*esf lul*» 

19. The foregoing proopuns /*/» euxy el/Cf ei/«!s, /r«r, when we are 
speakijng of inanimate things, are sometimes used ii^ the middle of a 
sentence, sometimes not:'there is no other rule for it than custom, and 
this can be learned only by use ; for, speaking of a sword, I may say, 
je lui Jots la vie, I am indebted ip it for my life ; and yet we ndust say, 
speaking of the same sword, attaebej^-y ce tteeud, hang that swordknot 
to it ; not, attacbeX'\u'i. 

20. J/, ils ;. elk, elles, in the beginning of a sentence, are 
used, speaking even of inanimate tilings; as, when speak- 

- ing of a house, I say, elle est belle. 

21. Lni, eux\ die, &c., governed by a preposition, arc 
never ,u^e«i, speaking of irrational and inanimate things; 
as, you see.thut house, be lives over against it; vous voyez 
qette muison, il demeure vis-d'Vis, and not viS'd-visd*cL'e» 

In thiscase the prepositions become adverbs ; but observe, that some 

prepositions never, or very seldom, become adverbs ;' as, avec^ with ; 

jaHSf withoiit, Sec; therefore in such <;ase8 give another turn to the 

X sentence ; as, I cannot do without it, je ne puii m*en passeri he came 

with it, // l*a apporti, , 

It may be observed, tiiat aprh and avec are sometimes followed by 
luii eux, elle, or tllet ; -as, when that river ovferflows, it carries every 
thing away wit^h it ; lorsque cette riviere sed«5borde, elle entraine tout 
avec elle ; but as such sentences are ai good without avec elle or aprh 
elle, as with, and it very often happens that we cannoL m^ke usi! of 
these expressions, it it best to avoid them by omitcing them absolutely, 
as in the foregoing example, where lorsque cette riviere se dehorde, elU 
entratne tout, is as good French without avec die, as if these words 
were added. 

22. Lui, elle, and lot, at the end of a sentence, are not to be used in- 
differently. Soi is very seldom used in the plural. When we speak of 
things in the masculine gender, soi is used : as, the loadstone at- 
tracts iron; Taimant attire le fer a soi. ElU-memc may be used in the 
feminine: as, virtue is lovely in itself*, la verluestaimable en elle- meme, 

Speaking of persons in general, soi is to be used; as, a man ought not 
to speak oi himself, but with great modesty ; on r.e dcit parler de soi,^ 
qWavec keaitCQup de tntdestie. When we speak of a particular person, 
lui or elU is used instead of soi; as, that man speaks of nobody but 
himself; cet homme ne'parle que de lur, 

N.B. Meme is often elegantly put after lui, elle, euxt soi^ &c., and ' 
even must be put after them, when they follow a reflected verb. 

Comparative View of tlie Personal Pronouns. 
In French, when a verb interrogatively u^ed has for it's nominative 
•ase a noun, or a pronoun, either absolute, as le mien, le leur, &c., or in* 
determinate, as, quelqu^un, ceci, cela, &c., the noun !jreced<.% v.\Nc%^^V:k> 
as in the a£Bfmation ; and a pev^otv^V ^ioti<a>Mv o^ ^^ >icw\\^ -^^-vwaj^^ 

♦5ee the third Obscrv4UOtiuvoivS>i^^\Yvtv^^t^^^^^^'»'*'^^'^'^^'^ 
amplc9 thereon. 


.Bgrceing with the noun in gender and number, is out after the verb, 
for the signs of the interrogation ; as, Ei^rr^v lent-i//* la mahoM est-etU 
b^iie ? Ics ^coliers tffr/Voff/ ;7j un ih^me ? - ^ 

In English the noun is put after the veil) or the auxiliary ; doez^ J!», 
did^ ibAly &c., for the sign of the interrogation; as, h Peter iomi^g? " 
does Peter come ? is the bouse bii^lt ? shall the scholars write a theme ? 

1 1> French the governed pronouns* either personal or impersonal, 
see page-9, n.^., are coninioiity placed before the words by which they 
are governed, changing the-form of the personal, moit toi, sot, iuif e/ie, 
eux, elleSi into, me^ te^ se, le, ia^ les, iu't^ for i lui or a elle, leuf for a etiic 
or i elles ; as, je le vcrrai, je iui parlerai, je vous defends dc leur parler. 

In English the natural order of the regimen is preserved $ as, I will . 
see himf I will speak 10 him or to her, I forbid j>o» to speak to themt 

la French the particles /«, la, Us, which are made use of for arti- 
cles, are also employed ,for personal and impeisonal governed pro- 
nouns in both numbers. 

W English the personal governed pronouns in the singular are hrm, 
htr\ the impersonal is it ; the plural pronoun them is in English per* 
•qnal and'impersonal, and is used for the three genders. 


J. Cerberus was Ji horrible(l)rlog with three beads; !)• 

Cerbere (b) ckien,m,il tetes 

kept the gates of Hell, ^ 

garder(b) p(H't€,(.(2)enfer. 

The eagle has a very piercing leye; he looks at the 
aigl€,m, ^ ptifant (\)iue^f» regarder (ny 

sun without closing his eyelids; he inhabrts 
soldi ^m* haksa- pavpicrc,f, habiter (h} 

cold countries and high mountains; he builds his 
frvid ( 1 ) pays, m . haat (3) montagnc, f. const mire (a) 

nest in the clifts of rocks, or on the suramil of the 
fli/e, m. fent'ey^. }ocher,m, so?7i?net, m. 

highest trees. 
kaut arbre, m. 

2. it is better, says some one, to excite envy 

' il valoir {a,.iTt.)mieux,dir€{^) on {2) enviej. 

ihkn pity. , 

' que (2) piticy f. 

Titus having -{)assed one day without having 
avoir {\i) passer Q) jour,m. sans avoir 

Page Art, 
(i) 68 8 

f2j j« ^ X 

Page Art, 
(3) 6i 7 

' Cu.III. SectJ. personal PRONOUNS. SI 

done good to any person, I have lost this. (6) day, 

faireOinrJ^dubien quelquun perdre Q) 

snid he» 
cttrc (c.irr.) 

3. May you imitate the virtues of your ancestors* 
Pouvoir (e.irr.) hniter vcrtu, f. ancctre, ro. 

. Though you were ms rich as Croesus, if y6u do not 

(^) ttre (g) aiissi que 

I know how ] to put bounds to your desires, you will h« 
sdvoir(^B„\rT,) mettre des borH€y£. . dhir^m. (d) 

always poor. 
. toujours pauvre, 

4. Your cousin has applied himself to the duties of 

if'ctre (a) appliquer (i) devoir ^ in 

his situation ; thus. he is esteemed by every body. 
itat^m. aussi estimeriX) detoutkmonde. 

5. CflBsar said, upon the irregul^jirity of tone in^ 

dire{c,'\rr.)ausujet de f. die ton dc 

somebody v^ho read before him: Do you read, or sing? 

quelquun Ure{\>,\xv.)devant{Z) (4) (a) chanter f 
If you sing, you sing very ill. * 


6. When I say to you, that with a little attention you 
Quand c?2re(a.irr.) (5) que peu de f. 

will make great progress in your studies, do I mistake ? 
f aire idjrr. )de grands etudes se t romper f (fi) 

7. Will man always (6) (7) take more care in 

prendrc{i\ArT.)plus de soin de 
adorning his body, than in foiming his mind and heart? 
©rncr corps que de former esprit , m. cceur, m« 

8. We listen with complaisance, says La Rocbefoucault, to 

icouter (a) docility dire{HArr.) 

the advices which are gisen (o) us by those iWio 

cunscil, m. qui donncr (i) ccux 

I know how to j flatter our passions. 
snxoir (a.irr.) 
The people will kill (5) thee, if they become out- 
peupky ra. tuer (d) si it enCrer (a) e«/ii- 









• I 




(6) 55 








^ ^^^ -^1 







ra^eou?, said Demosthenes to Phocion ; ( and so tbcy will 

reur dire(b.\rr.) et.^toiau^si 

thee, I answered Phocion, if they recover their, rea^o. 
repondre (c.irr.) rcntrer(fi)dans son bong^cns^ , 

- 9» Are then the beauty, order, and duration of the. 

Soat Us done (1) beauU, f. ordre, m, dur^Cy f. 

"universe the effect of mere blind chaiVce? 
uhir>€rs,m, effei,m. d'une avcitgle fortune ? 
10. He and I have agreed. 

nous somfnes d*accord. 
You and he do not agree. ^ , 

itre (a) d'accord* ' ' 

, II. The first step to folly, is /to believe ourselves vvis^. 

dtgvc de folic y f. dc croire (2) novs sage» 
. God ^ends us (2) afHictions. for the amendments of our 
envoyer, (a) des rCforme^ f. 

morals, and the exercise of our virtues. ^ . 

mccurSff, m. 

The manner of bearing the misfortunes which buppeii 
maniere, f. dr supporter mal, ra. (3) arriver(^) 
to us augments or diminishes (2) them. 
(2) V ' ter (a) nuer (a) 

History teaches (2) us morality, in | setting before | 
fhistoireX^nseigner^s) la morale, f, en proposer {h) 
us (.2) examples of virtues and vices, in order that we should 

(4) ajin de 
imitate the former, and shun the laner. 
ter uns fair autres, ■ 

Henry the (3) Fourth has said, that praises would bq of a 

(a) dire (i.irr.) louangeS. ctre, (c) d'un 
- very great advantage, if ilfey ^^ave (2) us the good qua- 

donner (b) 
lities," of which we are in want. ' 

qui nous vmnquent. 
The people of Gardara honoured poverty with a 
habitans honorer (b) pauvrete, f. d*un 







(0 77 


(3) .7 


(5) 68 


It) 77 


U) 5^ 


(6) 57 


Ch.III. Sect.I. personal PRONdUNS, 83 

particular kind of worship, they looked upon it as the 

partieulier ( 1 ) adte^ m , regarder ( b) la 
parent of' industry and h11 the arts. Aristpphanes and 
tfi^rc ' Aristophanes 

Theocritus aUo bestow^on it the J very same ( encomiums. 
"Tkeocrite aussi donner (sl) lui mtme titrefVa, 

12. Help me. 
aider (k). 

Tell me what I ' can do for you. 

dii'e (k.irr.) ce que ' poyvoir (A.\rr,)fair€ 

Believe me, fortune sells often very dear what 
Croire (k.irr.) f. vendre (a) c/ier ce que 

people believes she | pives away. | 

on croire (a.irr.) qit'elle dottner (a) ^ 

The confidant of Medea says to her, what 
La dente rfire (a J rr.) (2) lui, que 

remains (2) to you against so many enemies ? Myself. 
rester (a) il' tant (3) 

Cssar seeing Brutus amortg bis assassins, says; 

V(w> (a.irr, , . </tre (a jrr.) 

and thou also my son Brutus ! 
aussi Jils 

13. The surest way to cure (2) us of Qur faults, gUerir defaut,m, 

is to I point I them out to us in others. 
X^)de /aire observer (2J autre. 

The glory lof great meii is to be measured by th# 
gloire^i.des doit eire m€surcr(i) 

means they had of acquiring it. ^ 

mot/en^ m. qu^iis out eus pour acqufrir la (2) 

War is so great an evil, that nothing can jus* 
guerrCff. tnal,m. rietine pouvoir(B,ArT,)juS'' 

tify it but necessity alone. 
tifier (2) la que la seule neces^tS* 
No body has attained to glory without 
personne^m, n*est panpenir (i.irr.) 
5oroe one envying it .him. 
qu*on ait envtie la^Z) lui. 

Page Art* | Page Ait. 

<0 43 "I (.1) S^ ^^ 
W 77 11 \ 


Honour is the price of great actions, and glory 
HonnettrfVa. prix,m, de^ beau f, gloire,f, 

is the lustre which accompanies them. 
tclat qui acconipagner (sl) les. 
Men , without (I) religion, and wi,thout morals, are 
(\) Homme^m. f. - witrvr*, f. (a) 

pests in (1) society: they ought to be banished | from it. | - 
despestes it faut les . hannir (i) en 

If you speak ill of any person, people will tdl it ' 
sparUr(B,)mal^ quelqu'un^ on rf2re(d.irr.) 

him, will speak to him ( of it. ] 

on en. 

14. Flattery j has a soothingnes^ in it's sound; | it is 

(1) ie, avoir (^.Mx,) la ^oix duuce; (2) 

difficult ^ rrot to listen | to it. 
^- denepas^preterroreille y(3) 

Of all those who have excelled in hafmony, it is the ' 
ceux (q) €XC€ll€r(i)dan$(i)karfnonie,f, (4) 

common Opinion, thut Orpheus carried the prize before all 
is&ikmun opinion^f, Orphee remporter (b) prix sur 
others. He derived bis birth frorh Apollo and the 
tirer (b) naissance, f. 

mtise Calliope. 

. • . ■ . , 

Life is too short for suicide; it is not worth the while 
F»c,f. trap court se tuer; cen'est pas ia peine 

to be hnpatient. 

4e s'impatienter, , 

It is a just matter of complaint, that (l) sincerity and (I) 
Ce sujet^ m. . platnte -te 

plainness are out of fas^bion. .. v 

^andeur^ f. (f ) kors mode. 

15. If you wish to form yourself to (I) eloquence, 
vouloir, (a.irr.) (5) vous 

read Djemosthenes and Cicero, they are the gre^Ust 

//r«(k.irr.' ce (a) , 

orators of (l) antiquity. 

orateurfta, antiquity 


Pigc Art. 
5» I 


Page ArU 

Page Art; 

(3) 87 13 

(i) ii «' 

(4) 78 H 


16. Seneca says, and repeats (1) to us; that anigeris 

dtre(a.irr.) rSpiter {a) {2) coSrt^f^ 

madness. ^ - 

17. I maintain, and I will always maintaiOf that. 
soutenir^ (a.irr.) ioujours . 

men cannot | be happy without vintiit. 

on poMrtw (a.irr.) ktureux (2)TJ<nti^f, 

We are the slaves of | whatever | weekber^^X 
(a) esclave * toufyslesc hoses que 
dread or covatt 

craittdre (a) - quit disinr (a) 

18. Who prates so much ^ it is he ; it is she, 

habilUr (a) tant' (4) 
Is that your task? no, it h iiot* Is thiSiya»ttri>ookf 
Est'Cc Ih tdchCf f. nan (4) E^-ce la Imrtffu. 
' J^'s, it is. ' 

©Ml (4) 

19. Send your sword to- the cutler, 1^ will giva 
Envot/er (k) ^pee, £, f&urhustiJtr^ni. itoiiifr(d) 

it an edge. 
lui (1) le JU^ m. 

20. The' sun is the soul of the world, he aniaatet 

SBleilytn, dme^f, mondetVa. wimer(j$^\ 
,all it*s parts. 
tout partie^f, 

London is the finest city in Earope, it is sithate 
Londres (a) plus bcmi ville, f. «fft^r (a) 

. at the 51st degree aiid a half uf porth latitudep^ and a^ 
nu degre^m. demi septentrional (S) t,, 

the ] 7th and half of east longitude from the isTanif of Ferraig^. 

oriental i,b) f. - 'Vtle deFer,' 

21. If there be any way to knoif ourselves^^ 
s'U y a qudque moyen^ iti. de connoilre (1) nottf^^ 

alone can lead us to it. . 

stul powvoir {eLATT,) conduire {!] f. 
Grief is a poison to those,, who abandon them-*. 
. ffi)Chagrin^ m. m. pour ceux ahandormer (a) (1) ie 

Page Arc P»gc Art. .1 Page Ad. 

(i)- 77 II (3)cithet«!«*f«r*r«K<f I (s\ ^ H 

ti, f. 

• I 

86 , l^fiRCISES UFeN ; Pajblt It. 

selves to iL . 

22. The flatterer has no good opitiioti either of hiimeff or' 
Jlatteurftn.n'a f. ni nt 


Self-love directs every thing to itsdf. 

(2) Amovr'ptopre rapporteF (b) tovt soi. 

The Amajpons giaverned and defended tbfir states by 
\4mazfmes gouverner {h) ..drfendre {h) {3} itats 

Piety refers | all things ( toGod^and seff-lnve 

(2) Pi/teyf.r^ppoirttr (m) toai d -amour-propj^lZ) 

applies I eveiy thin«» | to itsHfc. 

f^e Art. 

Page Art. I Page Ait. 

(») 6» H (3) 86 -I 

• tx. 


Possessive Pronouns. 

1. 'T'^.filE conjunctive possessive pronouns, see p. 10, 
X come always before the nouns to wbicji they are 
joined ; as, it is my snuffbox, c*e$t roa takatiepe* 

2k. Mon^ ton, souy see pe. 10^ are used instead of wd, ta^ sa^ 
, before ,:(emi nine nouns beginning with a vowe^ oc k mute, 
^r the sweetness of sound ; as, my frword, Ukoa ^ph ; ihy 
soul, XoKdiM.'^ ibis friendship, soyi amitU, 

AhMlute possessive pronouns, see p. 1-0, are used by 
themsekes with the definite article /e, /a, Us ; as, k mien^ 

' Vf hen ioJUt'^gtiiSici.amoMr in French^ the English potaessive pro- 
noaiiff are to be rendered* in Ffrenth by the governed personal pro* 
nouns, see p. 9, si aa, for yonr sake, pe»r tmutur de vous, and nor 
p9urvotre autoMT,. 

> Whea the verb itn signifies u bti^g /#,. the Engl rah posKSsivc 
pronoun is rendered into French by the govemtd peisonal pronoun, 
*^ V* 9r2l »i t^*^ house is aiiirr, cettt wMti%9n isi a mot, aira not tst 
la menne* But when the pvticle u h joined to the verb e me, the 
possessive jpronoun is commonly iised^ aa« this is my house,. c*eit mer- 
M9/iij»M; it 1$ his bookA, and not youn^ c'cst liM livxc^ ei Mm fas Ut 

■ ^ ■ -• '■ t 


4.1 The gendeT'of posse9if« pronouns ^oes not follow 
that uf the persun ^ho speaks, of U'Spoken of, bat tigrcM 
with the pAFticuJar gender of every noun it is joined to ;• 
u&y her fluher i6 dead, son p^re t§t mori. 

5, The' possessive conjunctive pronoun is always fe« 
peated before a substan/tive and after a conjunction; as, 
niy brothers and my sifters, mes friru et mes sours; his 

fktber aod iBot|irr« son pire et sa nl^rt. 

6. Le mien, le tien, Iciitn, Ac, in the i|:ia«culine geader «ad si»> 
gular number, sometimes signify due ; as^ we must givt^ every oo^ 
his due, H faut rcndre a cbacun le siem /Id the plural hoMibcr %fA 
Biaicttlioe gender^ they •ometimes signify ft pcfson's relatibiu$.asj 
your reKitioat and hisy /ri^>ilrr/i</ /rf«fAU« * 

7. When speakii^ of inaoimatc thingt^ hss, it'% theiri, Slcta arc 
commonly rendered in French by jmi, m, ses^ hurt $ as> fi^^t b^(^ 
ibetr properties-, les plante« oiit leart propri6t6s. But wMa if^'or 
rAar-beioags-io^ substaDti^^epreceding^ it Is commonly .ftadfredin* 
French by the supplying pronoun en oxy^ aecoidiag to the state^ Ma 
p« ^, 6 } as, these plants are good, I know tbar qual'itic^y ett plantet 
torn bonnes^ j'eu connm les quatiteu This happens when the prbnoon 
may be resolved into the- subtuotive to which it icUtei| jm in the 
foregoing. example : these ^ams are good^ I^ knaw- the qu^litiep o{ 
these plants* 

8. The conjunctive potatssive pronoun, with the- particle die before 
it, is used instead of the absolute pouetsive pronoun on aH aach 
occasions as the following ; an acquaintance of. bis,. ir«« dc wncoif 
noiisaneet\ a friend of mine, uu de mes amit» 

9. The conjunctive possessive pronoun is used when we call or an* 
awer friends^. relations, &c. ;.as> coitae, daughter^ ventz^ wm JUiei % 
yes, ^rother^ out f .mon/rire*. 

10 Conjunctive possessive, pronouni, coming, in Engliab, ' after 
some verbs not signitytng a distemper, are resolved into the con« 
jMOCttve personal pronoun: and, instead of the pouessive pronoun^ 
we put the definite article 4 as, I have pared my nails, je me <«/> 
rqgne ief angles ; he has cut my hair, t/m^a coupe Its chev/eux^ 

II. Generally,' when in a sentence a noun or a personal pronoun 
sufficiently denotes what thing it is you are speaking oi, the pos* 
scssive pronoun is omitttd as useless, and resolved into the deftnite ' 
article; as, Lhaveapatn in my teeth, in my stomach, in my head, 
in my eyes, Scc^j^ai malz\x% dents^ tiVestomacy k la tittt Bxxxyeux, &c. ^ 
However, when a pain or distemper continues for some time upoa 
ui, wc may say, speaking to a person acquainted with it, mjumi^ 
ne guerit pa$f my leg does not bcal^ mon bras me fait toujour s mal^ 
my atm pains me still. This may likewise happen in a jfew other 
instances, Generally, the last two rules uke place when there it . 
a sort of equiyocatiun or amphibology. 



Cimiparatwe View .of tht Voswuiye PronovkU^. ^ 

In French, as id English, a noun preceded by'a posses9ivc 
pronoun, as, num, ton, son^ 4^0.4 my^ tky^ his, her, &c., see 
p. 10, takes no article, because this pronoun particularises 
sufficiently the noun. 

. This pronoun is tin adjective of possession, therefore it 
must be submitted to the rules of the adjective, which is de- 
clinable in French^ and follows the gander and number of 
the nonn to which it is joined ; us, que k martaimt sa femme, 
tt que la femme respecte son mari. 

In, French the analogy of concord is made with the 
thhig possessed, but in Englisih with the p€>sses8or. 

''In French the possessive pronoun called absolute, as, Ic - 
mkn^ 1e tten, &c., see p. 10, takes the article ; as, c'e'st le 
men. In English the same pronoun is used without the 
article ; as, it is mine. 



l.The pride 6f man is still greater than his (1) ignorance; 
orguciltm. encore que f. 

and what is wanting to his (2) knowledge, he supplies 
- cequi manquer^a) savoir^m. y wpplieriia) 

by his (2) vanity^ 
i— -^^, f. 

Mazarine used at first his (2) power with modera- 
user de (c) dHahfird puissance; f . 
lion ; he affected, • in the beginning of his griindeur, 
affecttr (c) au commencement, m . (2) grandeur, f , 
as nfuch simplicity as Richelieu had displayed hau^h- 
autant de simpUdte que (b) dtploytr (i) ie hau^ 

teur, ' , 

War has it's theory like other sciences. 

(3) Guerre, f, ( 1 ) theorie, f . comme les 

. Achilles sacrificed twelve Trojans to the manes | of his 
Achillesacrifier {c) "' Trqyen mdne» 


0) S6 
(V By 





(8) i» 





/ ■' 



% ■ • 

friend Patroclu*. 

amiy ni. PatrocU. . . ■ 

(3) Men ofteo {\.) reajp more fruit from their errours, thiri' 

fi>cr(a) (2)/rwiif erreur 

from their glorious actions. (3) £rrours make | a man 
beau actiws^f, rentrer 

look into himself. | 
rkommeen Itd-Tneme, 

The Seine has it's source in Burgundy.. 
Seine, f. source, f. en Bourgogne, ^ 
2. For our own sake (4) we ought to be temperate. 

devoir {a.) sof}rt\ 

S. Though the subjects of La Fontaine's Fables are not 
, Quoiqne sujet^m, -(f) 

of his invention, the manner of relating th^hi (5) is hiM. 

f. manih&J,deracconter(si) d Ui, 

Newton could say, that the discovery of attrac- 
pourvoir {b.irr.) dire dhowverte^f^ ^ .? 

tion was his. 
f. ( b) d. lui: 
4. Opportunfties do not render a man weak, but they 

Occasion, f. . ne rendre {Q.)pas foible ; mats 
discover his .weakness, says Pascal; however, 
dtcouvrir(a.'\Tr,)foibless€,f. dire {aArr,) ctp^ndant 

the safest (6) Way is to shun dangerous (6) opponunitie^. • 

siJLr voie, f. de hiter reux 

A good king does not { so much ] consult his owndignity 

m,m. tant m *-mter{Bi)' — te,f, 

and (7) elcvaiion, 'as the advantage and happiness/bf 

f. que homeur^ irtV 

his subjects* 

5. Every tongue has it's phrases and it's peculiarities. 

Chaque langue phrase, f. (8) particularHt. 

Poetry derives it^s strength and justness from phi- 

Pocsie, f. tirer (a) force ^ f. {S)Justessey f. phi^ 



Page Art; Page Art. I .Pa*e Art. 

(O 55 «5 . (4) «6 z \ <n\ %^ ^ 

Is) n 1^ \ ^^ M ^ 

W S3 ^11 

(3) 55 2^ 


Hercules, before be c^ied, made a present to Phi* 

Ilercule, . atant que demtfu riff aire (c) pris^t Phi- 

loctetesj bis companion and friend, of his arrows died 

IqctHe compagnonyTa, ami ^tck€,fJeintes 

in the blood of tbe hydra. 

sang, ra. hydre^ f. 

Such Are most men ; theirungratefulness is almost 
Telestlecommundes itigratitudetf, presque 

always the price of our favours. 

toujours prix, ra. * hietifaity m. 

'6, Mine and thine, tbbugh ^ the fbundiition of/ 

qimque principe, m.Jhndamentai 
civilized ( 1 ) nations, are the cause of many contests. 
civUiser (i) f. (a) f. beaucaup de querelles* 

7. Good breeding 'supports the decency of conversation ; 
(2) Bon idvcafiwiy f..seutient (a) ce, f. (2) . f. 

• (S) candour and (3) | frankness uf mind ] preserve it-s 
. — — ear, f. franckise, f. en Im 


8. Cssar, determined to | pass over | into the inland of 

-•i 11 er{s)dt passer (4) 
Britain; dispatched Volseoius, a (5) lieutenant of his, to 
Bretagntf f. envoyer (c) ]^our 

cruise on the British coast. 
crmtrsur Britannique (I) cott^ f. 

9. Diogenes seeing one day a young man who blushed 

wir (h.irr.) ' rougir(b) 

M the least equivocal word ; ^well ! friend, said he 
gu moindre '^"'■^que {{)mot,m, courage/ ami, m, 
(€) to him, 1 see upon your face the | very complexion | 

visage i m. colotis^ m* 

of (2) virtue. . . 

^. Philo, the philosopher, one of the seven sages of Greece, 

Grcce, f. 
jeeing-a man who was complaining of his sufferings : alas ! 

se plaindre (b) ' mo/, m. eh t 

Pag? Art. I * Page Aru 1 • Page Art, 

/O •» 7 I (3) 55 «« .(5) 87 8: 

^J jz I I f4; 54 16 \ ij>) s •t 


' friend, said he to (i) h'uti ; consider those of othei^ 

^amijtn. dire (c.irr,) 

and thine will appear light to (1) thee. 


10. Ulysses, crossing the sea of Sicily, commanded hi« 

Uli/sse traverser (h) SkiU, commander (c)d 

BHilors to stop their ears with wax, and^ caused 

matelot de se houcher les oreillcy f. de la cire, f . «ey(nrc(c.irr.) 

' himself to be tied tp the mast of the < ship, to keep him- 

Her * mdt vaisseau^mpour stdifem^ 

■ self from the charms of the sirens. 

jire charme fiti. syr^ne. , 

1 1 . I It wotild be I better for a ipan^ to lose his life^ 

Ih Tololr (e) mieux quit prrdre^g) 

than to lose his honour by ft shameful and criminal 

deperdre hmttujs crimviH 

action. ... 

{tdioiti f. ... 

Page Ajt. 

(0 9 4- 


Demonstrative Peonouiss. 

1, Ce or cety celte and cf«, are joined to and go before 
a substantive ; as, this book, this morn^this pen', these housed; 
ce livrey cvt homme, cette phimey ces maimm, 

Ce is used before a noun mtisculii>e beginning with a con* 
sonant; as,- ce litres but if the noun begin with a vowe^ 
or an A mute, cet must be used ; as, cet tafanty cet homme. 

2. Celui^ celle, ceuxy ctlies, ought to be followed by a 
second case ; as, he of you, celui de vous ; or the relative 
pronoun^t;zor^?/e; as, he who loves; <5elai qOi aime : he 

whom you love ; celui que vom aimcz. 

The particles ri.and la* are sometimes joined by a hypheo toa.sub* 
stantive; as, this man, that woman, cet homnu-cx^ ctnt femme-Wt I^TY 
are likewise joined in the same manner to the demonstrative pronoun^ 
as, ceux>fi, ceux-ia. ■ , . 

3. Ce is likewise used before qui or que : m this case it is 
said of inanimate things only, and signifies what> or the 
thing which ; as, ce qw&vous cherckez n*est ^a« \rx\ "^"^^ 
you look for is' rtoV Uete, ox v\x^^\xv^^wkViv>is Asss.*>r./^^^ 


' ♦<;# denote* iixioViean^v.^^U^v^^^^'*'^'^^^ 


4. He who ^ he that, she v>ho, they who, such as^ &c., in 
the sense of that, even governed of the verb substkntive t& 
be, are rendered in French by celui qui, celle qui, ceux qui. 

These pronouns arc never separated, unlets the particle /z is joined 
to cdyl, ce/le, ecux, (tiles ; as, he docs not know the human heart, who 
trusts the vaih promises of men : celui-lk me cohtjoit pat le eeeur hu" 
main, fui sejie emx vaitm promenet des bnnmes, $tich as are enemies 
to virtue do not know it ; cenx-ll m cwnmtent pmt la vertu, qui m s»Mt 
enmemis. This way of speaking is seldom used, at least in commoa 
conversation ; we rather say, celui qui se fie aux ^aivfs promessef des 
bmumti, ne cmnost pas k eoeur bfiuiiM, Ceux qui sent ennemis dc U 
veriu, ne la connoissemt pas, 

^ He who, be that. Sec, whether they be separated in English, or 
not, are sometimes elegantly rendered in French by the impersonal 
e*estt OF e^est tie pas, according as the sentence is aflirmative or negative, 
with an infinitive followed by que de before a second infinitive ; as in 
the foregoing example I may likewise say : C'est ne pas cotincttre le ceeur 
bumain que de sefier aux vasnes promessa des bemmes, 

I say sometimes, because, first, if one of (he liiiglish verbs be in the 
future tense, it is by no means to be used. Secondly, there are many 
cases in which it is ncvec used ; as, they were punished who did* it, . 
ceux qui Vont fait ont ete pntit ; to put' the two verbs in the infinitive 
mood would be nonsense. 

6. The English possessive prpnouns, his, her, their, before a substan. 
tive, signifying of him, of her, of those, who, or that, are rendered in 
Ficnch by de celui quit de cc//r qui, de ceux qui, de celiet qui, after the 
substantive to which they relate $ as, every one should praise the en- 
deavours of those, who seek to be useful to the public : cbacun divroit 
Ituer les efforts de ceux qui cbercbent a itre utiles au public. 

7. Cequi, ce que, what, beginning a seucecce of two parts, is com* 
raonly followed, aftrr the first part, by ce before etre, and the word etre 
is followed by a substantive; as, what I am saying to you is the truth, . 
ce que je ymus dis, c'est la v/ri/e» Sometimes thoverb etre is followed 
by the preposition de with an infinitive ; as, what grieves him is, noc> 
to have succeeded ; ce qui lefdcbe, c'est de n^aifolr pju reussi. Some- 

.' times by que, if it come before another mood; as, ce qui lefdcbe, c'est 
qa*i\n*a pat reussi, 

8. Ce fui is used when it is the noininative of the verb ; as, re qui 
me plait, what pleases me. When that demonstrative pronoun is govern- 
ed by ihe verb, we use ce dont, if the verb govern the preposition de; 
as, ce dont vous vous plalgue»f that of which you complain: we use ce 
et qmoi, if the verb require the preposition i ;• as, ce si quoi votu vouf 
appliquex,' t\ai to which you apply : we use ce que when the verb re^ 
quires no preposition; as, ce que r/ous dites, what you say. 

9. Ce is not repeated in the before-mentioned case before an adjec- 
tive, or past participle; as, what I am saying to you is true, ce quey« 
vearf dii est 'urai% 

10. Ceci, this, cela, that, are sometimes relative to a single noun; as« 
dffttreX'jt^at ceci, ou ccla, give rae this or that, speaking of any single 

e/f/itj wbatcfcn Sometimes they aic aot ttUUNC \o ^ uu^t uqmtv^ W 

CbJU*5sc?.5. demonstrative pronouns. 93 


lo Mcotire action; in this case ula geberally signifies the action before 
•poksB of ; aa, we often speak ill of absent people, which is base; en 

• ffifhwmnimt mal dts ahstns, cela est itiJigne, Ceci ^nerally signifies 
the Ktion which is going to be mentionira ; as, this is like to surprise 
yo% a man who died a hundred and ten years old ; ceci va vou4 tur* 

^rgtidre^ uw homme fiti mourut agi ie cent»dix ans* 


. 1. The Essay OD Man, by Alexander Pope, is a masterpiece* 
m. chef'd*ituvr€ym» 

This little book may constitute the study of the whole 
j^ottvozr (aj'rr.) fairc kudcy f. tout la 

lifk of a thinking roan. This essay has been translated 
^ vieff, ' komme qui mSditcr (fi) m. tradmre(y) 

into.all languages, both in prose and verse* 
teslangucyi^ tant en qu'en 

This spirit of independency, which proceeds from 
esprii, m, ■ ice, f. qui provenir (a.irr.) 

pride . and envy, produces the furious passion of do* 
orgtttil, m* envie, f. produire (a) furievx f. . do* 

2. Cyrus began the monarchy of Persia, and Ninas 

commencer (c) monarchies f. de Perse^ 
th|^t of Assyria, 
The source of the prepossessions of childhood is the 
source, f, P^'w^^, m. (l)fw/a«ce,f. (a) 

" same as that of manhood. 
m^me que dge^ m. viril. 

The practice of (I) suicide cannot be justi* 

pratique^ f, suicide, m, ne pouvoir (tLAvr,) 
fied by any principle, except that of (I) atheism. 

excepts atkeisme. 

Truth is the object of sciences; | what is fair and 
(l)Frfli, m. objet des sciences ; ie beau et 

'good J is that of (1) arts, 

Mildness is | as | useful to those who have the 
( I )douccuryt {^ygalement utile (a) 

Page Art, 
(0 &* ^ 

■ I 


P4 •'. EXERCISES Ut>ON Part II. 

right . of coromanilii^g, | as | to thoUt wW) oughi to 
, £riti m." cmmander et . '• divoir (a) 


It is better to restrain our natural generosity, 

U Dahir (#irrO mieujt rasiraindre •— ^rc^4),— — ^e,f. 

than to fallinta | such a ] silti^ion as to want that 

que dt tomber wie . i.iA^noztsa^wsktiOiadf 

oi others, ' 

If (1) afflictions be chastisements^ of Heaven, k it 

des il) del, m, doit -on 

a wonder that the number of the^ifflicted is so numerous, 
' $*jctQfmer ' v ^ifiig^ (0 -nombnux 

since that of the guilty is oumberless ? , 
. puisque coupable^ ii^nL 

The foible of young men , is pleasure, the foible 
m* des (2) Jleune gcns^ m. (i^plamrj m. , 
of old people is avarice, that of the great is vaBity, 
{S)vidll€Sg€ns^f. f. grand — -/^e^. 

- of (1) common people slander, of girls (1) coquetry, 
petit (^) peuple{l)midisanc€ff. Jille 
{l)Good masters make (l)good servants; the latter 
maitret m.faire (a.irr J • domestique ceux d 
are scarce, because the former are not com'moii. . 

rare, parce que ceux l^ » . 

3. Thetis carried Achilles, her (3) son, into He!) to- 
/ TMtu porter (c) ^ . ' * av^ enfer pour 

dip (4) him in the Styx, which rendered (4) him invulne* 
plonger Stix,m, (5) rendre (c) ^nvulne^^ 

rahle ail over his body , except on the beel, which she held 
ruble par tout te <itf taloa que temr(by, 

in dipping (4) hini. 

Pope Leo Xy and Francis I king of France, made 

Le P ape Leon Fran^gU s€fa%rc{QAxv.) 

each other a fine present by their agreement; but the Jatter 

ehacun le ayncordat ; cdui-d 

Page Art. 1 Pa| 

(i) 52 1 I (3) 87 

Page Art. 
9 4 

' Page Art. 

(5) »o 5 

(0) 18 9 


asked what he could take, and Ibe former 

4iemander (c} {D pouvoir(b.irrJj prendre cdui-lcL 

obliiin«d what he CDuJd • not a»k. 
<ibtenir{c\XV,){\) jwmtoir ( dcmmider* 

^. He that nev^r was | acquainted with | (3) adversity, 
, (2) flrofr(a)' iprowo€r(\) — — — /^ 

aays Seneca, has seeix the world bcrt on one 

dire (a^rr.) Stne^uc, n*a voir (i.irr.) qve de 

side, and | is ignorant of ( \m\i the scenes of (3)'natur©, 
coie^ m. ignf^rer (a) la moitie,f, des f. t. 

They that laugh at j erery thing, | and they that 
, (2) se moquer (a) de tovt (2) 

fret at .every thing, are fools alikr, 

^mquii'ttr de Sgahment* 

He thet . wercomes his pas'^ions^ conquers ttlt 
(2> - surmonier (t) . se defaire dc (^,\rr.) 

greatest enemies; ' 

He that makes others fear him, has reason to 

sefaire (a. i rr. ) craindre des mitres 
fear (4) tliem. 

Fortune (3) is nevermore deceitftrl, than When she 
f. . n'est frompeur (5) quand 

seems ' most to fevour. He that is Croesus to day, 
^embler (si) le plus notts favoriser (2) Cresus 

inay be Codrus to morrow. 
He who does not consuTc hrs (6) reasoti. in his (6) 
(1) • -_^er(a) f. 

pleasures, has no right to expect any help from 

dtmt^ m. de attendre aucun secourSf m. en 
it in his (6) troubles. 
(7) peinc^i. 

Kappy, exclaimed DKniysJus tW yt)i!n^r, after 

. HeureuXy s eerier (b) Detiis jeunej aprts 

having been driven out of SyFSCuseyhjippyare they who 

avoir (i) chasstt (i) •• (2) 

from infiincy bave beea accuswwied -to (3) misfortune. 
dis {3)€nfanae^^ » accoutvimr {\) malheur^ta^ 

Page Art. | J*age Art, l- ^^^'t 

ti) 10 5;. I (41 9 ,., ^ \ <6>> ^n 


The general who attacks has his choice, but he who 

attaquer (a) (a) k choix, m. (1) 
lets himself be attacked does not > know . on what 
ie laMse attaquer saroir (a*irr^) de quel 

« side be I is to be I attacked. 
eite^m. sera , 

They who invented the art of writing found 

(I) / (c) tcrire^ t router (t) 

the means of establishing the intercourse of friendship 

,fnoi/cfis,m. ttahUr commerce^ m, (2) amitUy f. 

in the absence of the objects which produce it. 
en r f. qui produirc (a) la (3) 

He ^ is truly a good man, who has a natural 
Celui'ld veritablemait homme de tien mtutel (4) 

abhorrence of C2) vice, and love of virtue. 
Jimreurj f. m. V amour ^ tn. (2) vertu^ f. 

He gets • double victory, who knows bow 

Celui'ld, remporter {h) xictwre, f, savoir, (a.irr.> 

to overcome himself, after he has overcome his 

8e vaincre aprh avoir taincre (i.irr.) - 


5. To keep up acquaintance with J vicious people | is to 

Wre familierement \ vtcieux {A) gens (a) 

authorize (2) vice. 

automer m. 

It is ou jood or (5) ba4 education, that depends 
Ce dcla f. (pie dependre (a) 

always the happiness or (5) misery of our life* 

ioujours honheur^m. malheur^fa* vte , f, 

6. We ought to encourage their endeavours, who app 
On devoir (a) encourager les effort^m. de ceux s'appliQt 

themselves to arts and (5) sciences* 
(a ) aux m. f. 

7. Beauty is what pleases. 
<2) Beaute, f. ce qui plaire, (ti.irr.) 

It is difficult for men not to hate a little ^ 
// que les hnr (f.irr.) 








. 4 



*. '» 








I C*-) 


Ca/IU.SectJV. relative pronouns. 97 

ihpy fear mucbr 

craindre{eL) beauctMp, 

A coquette does not want to be beloved \ all she 

icoquette^t* ne $t sexier (a) pas de aimer (i) toot ce 

aims . at is . to appear lovely, and to pass f^r a 

•qp^eUe (Usirer (a) (3) de it re trouvSe aimabh de passer 

^^eauty. What predominates in her is vanity aD() (1) 

beUe (2) daminer (9.) (,3)vanUSyf* 


iegereii, f. . . 

What renders men so mi:»eraMe is their pride and 
(2) rtndre (a) (4-) orgueil, m. 

their cttpidity. 
aviditi, f. 
.8, What cost little is too dear, when it is of 
(?) xotuer (a) peu trop cher^ quand cela ne etre (a) 
no use. . y 

de aucun usage* 

What Seneca says is true, that (3) anger is 
(2) Shieque dire (a .irr.) vrai, que colht^ f. 


ithenationd* esprit^ . 

9. I hope, that this will please you. 
espSrcr (a) ^ue {5) vous plaire (d) 

I like that, because the >«i^ntences are short, an4 
aimer (a) (5) phrases ^* court - 



Page Art, | Page Art. I Page Art. 

(I) »i 5 1 (4) 68 ' 1 I (i) a 4 

Relative Pronoons. 

1. THE relutive pronnun qvi is the nominative, and 
que the accusative, in speaking of all sorts of objects; as, ' 
the stone which is here, la pier re qui est ici; the hoxi^A. 
ihat you see, la maison que'vous •coyei. 

Except that qui is used even vt\ tV^ ^tc^s«JCvs^\w^V».^ ^^ 


que J when it signifies what person ; fis^jc sais qui vmuaimcZy 
I know whom you love, or the person whom yrni love; 
and whcfn it is governed by a preposition ; as, en qui, sur 
qui^ avec qui, &c. In the last case, iequeL, &c., may like- 
wise be used. 

JJ. Doni is the second case for of whom, of which, whose ; 
d^tfi is the third case, for io whom; see page 11- 

When qui is in the second or third case, or connes after 
any -preposition whatever, it is applied only to persons, or 
ohjerts used as persons. 

Therefore it would be a fault to say, c''est la matson de-qui jV vgus tti 
farUy it is the house of which I have spoken to you. In this case we 
make use of duquel, de laquelle^ Sec, or donty which is used eqtially for. 
all objects^ and ofien more properly i';i.:n de qui, or duquel, de h^iicUe, 
&C4, as, c*est la maiion donije vous at par/i. 

3. jfqut is sometimes used in spr^kiiig of antm^ite objrcts, though 
they are not persons, or objects used as persons; but, as we can never 
err by making use of auquel, ^ laquelie, &c., I would advise the learner 
to do so. 

. 4. Whom, which, that, though not exfxressed in English, 
must always be expressed .in French by qui or que\ as, the 
man you see, Vhonmie que vous voyez. 

5. Lequel, laquelie, Sec, arc to be used instead of f ai, ist, when 
qui is equivocal : zdly, when the relative pronoun is in the second 
case after a substantive; as, a courier has been sent to court, at whose 
return • - - on a envoyi im courier a'la cour^ au retow duquel - - • 3dly, 
when the relative pronoun expresses a choice ; as, which will you see? 
lequel, orlaquelle^o«/ea{-vo//i voi*'^ 

6. Spcavng of things, in which, in what, to which, atwhich, at 
what, in thexacnse of where, or, wherein, are rendered in French by 
•^ instead oiaans lequek Idauelle, ice, as, the bouse in which or where 
he lives, la maisen oh il Jemeure; the. end at which he aims, le but 
ou il tend. From which, from what, are rendered by d*eu instead of 
duquel, laquelie, Sec, as, t'hc country from which I come, le payt d'eu 
je vient. Through which, by which, are rendered by par 6ii, or par 
lequel, i^c 

je ne fetiuns pas^ 

However, in most circumstances, attqutl, i laqueUe, Hec, are used 
with more propriety. 

8. A quoi must always be used when it has for it's antecedent ce, 
and the verb etre, or rien, and is followed by a noun or a verb go- 
.veming the third case; as, it is to that I apply myself, ^ett \ quoi je 
m* applique; there is nothing to which I am not disposejj, iln^y a rien 
a quoi je ne mms disPosi, 
g, De fuoi is used when it follows immediately ee and the verb 
/"/Tf, and is follgwed by a noun or a verb go^CTmn^ vVi^ iccotk^ cMe.\ 
^s, it is that I complain of, c'est de quoi ja mt plains « l^>\\.a.K^x fm 
ft^e make u^e of dent ; at least it is a gicat dtaWktltct •> %%^ x>aei^\a 

Ch.IILSect.IV. relative pronouns. 99 

nothing in the world o£ which God is not the authori il n*y a r>cn mn 
mondt dnnt, Ditu nt soit Pauteur, 

10. ^oi may likewise be used instead of fe^uel, hqueUtt &c*9 after 
a prepositiuo governing it, such as jirr, en^ apres, avec, &c* ; as, the. 
reason I rely upon, la raiton sur quoi je mefond£* 

11. Que IS used instead oi de ^t^i and it qui. It happens 
not only when the second or third case of a persunal pro- 
noun comes immediately before it, but likewise ^ter any 
oiber noun, when the sentence begins with ce and ttrt ; as, 
it is to you that I speak, c'est d vous que je parle ^ it is to 
happiness that 1 aspire, cVst au bonheur quej*aspire; il is 
from the public, thatl expect approbation, c'esi. du public 
q ue y at tends T approbation. 

The triie rule for distinguishing this is, when ^rhas the tignificatidn 
of the conjunctioivri6a/, not of which f as you may see by the foregoing . 
examples: by this rule there is no danger of being mistaken. Hence 
it may appear, that in such cases que is to !be looked upon as a Gen- 
junction, rather than a relative.proaotm. 


1. Synonymous t^rms are several words or phrases 
Les synrniymcy m, plttsieursy m. mot, m. phrase^ f, 

which signify the yame thing. 
{\)signifier(B) mtmechoseff. 

Cicero was one of those, who were sacrificed to the 

Ciceron(c) ccux (I) (ic) *acrj/fer(i)(2) 

Tcngeance of the triumvirs. • 


Nero caused j the Christians to be accused | of set- 
Neronf aire {cut.) accuser les Chretiens €w- 

ting Ronie on fire, | which he ordered to be | done 

brasement dc Home (1) avoir (b) faire(^J\xv,) 

himself. , ' • - 

faire iui-mtme. 

In 4he games which Titus gave once (3) to the Roman 
jeux ( 1 ) donner (c) Romain (4) 

people, he spent three ;Tn>llions sterling. 
pi'uple, m. depehser (c) 



Art. Page 
i (3) 18 

(0 97 

(2) 68. 



que, when it signifies what person ; fis^jc sais qui vonsaimcz, 
I know whom you love, or the person whom ycu love; 
and wh^Jn it is governed by a preposition ; as, en qui, sur 
^ qui, avec qui, &c. In the last case, fequeL, &c., may like- 
wise be Used. 

JJ. Dofit is the second case for of whom, of which, uhose ; 
d ^tfi is the third case, forio whom; see page 11- 

When qui is in the second or third case, or comes after 
any^preposition whatever, it is applied only to persons, or 
objects used as persons. 

Therefore it would be a fault to say, c^est la maison de-qui je V6us ai 
farUt it is the house of which I have spoken to you. In this case we 
make use of duquel, de laquel/e. Sec., or dent, which is used equally for 
all objects^ and ofien more properly tii^n de qui, or duquel, de laqidle, 
&C4, as, c^eit la mahon donty'e vo«j at parle. 

3. A qui is sometimes used in sprdkiiig of animate objrcts, though 
they are not persons, or objects used as persons; but, as we can never 
err by making use of auquel, ^ laquelie, &c., I would advise the learner 
to do so. 

. 4. Whom, which, that, though not exfxressed in English, 
must always be expressed .in French by qui or que, as, the 
man you see, Thomnie que vous voyez. ' 

5. Lequel, iaquelle, &c., arc to, be used instead of qui, ist, when 
^iiiis equivocal : zdly, when the relative prohoun is in the second 
case after a substantive; as, a courier has been sent to court, at whose 
return • - - on a envoyi un courier a' la coury au retouy duquel - - • 3dly, 
when the relative pronoun expresses a choice ; as, which will you see? 
lequel, orlaquelle^i/oa/^af-vo//! voi'^f 

6. SpcaVng of things, in which, in what, to which, at which, at 
what, in the>ttcnse of where, or, wherein, arc rendered in French by 
•^ instead oiaans lequ&i^ Iaquelle, Sec, as, the bouse in which or where 
he lives, la maison ou il Jemeure; the. end at which he aims, le but 

. ou il tend. From which, from what, are rendered by dV« inatead of 
duquel, Iaquelle, Sec, as, t'hc country from which I come, fe payt d'ou 
je vient, ' Through which, by which, are rendered by ^r ou, or par 
lequel, i^c* ... 

. 9. The relative pronoun qtm is used only in speaking of inanimate 
objects. It may be used in the third case instead of auquel, d Iaquelle, ~ 
&c., as, it is a reason, which I did notihink of, c*eit une rauou a quoi 
je ne fetiuns pas. 

However, in most circumstances, attqufi, ^ Iaquelle, Sec, are used 
with more propriety. 

S* A quo: must ahways be used when it has for it's antecedent ce, 

and the verb e'tre, or rien, and is followed by a noun or a verb go- 

.veming the third case; as, it is to that I apply myself, e*e$t ^ quoi je 

m* appliques theri; is nothing to which I am not disposcjj, iln^y a rien 

a quoi je ne iou disPosi, 

9. De quoi is used when it follows immediately ce and the verb 
ftre,. and is followed by a noun or a verb governing the secon4 case ; 
/y, // j's that I complain of, c*esi de quoi Je me fla'im^ }Sm\. iRw( tUa 
we make use of iient ^ at icast it is a peal de^W^tltei^ %%^ x.V«ei«.\& 

Cii.IILSect.IV. relative pronouns. 99 

nothing in the world o£ which God is not the authofi il n*jf a rlcn «« 
montfe dnnt. Dieu ne soit l*auteur, 

10. Sluii may likewise be used instead of fennel, hquelUi itc*^ after 
a preposition governing it, such as sur^ en, aprhf avec, &c* ; as, the . 
reason I rely upon, la raison sur quoi jt mefondt% 

11. Que IS used instead of (2e ^t^i and d, qui. It happens 
not only when the second or third case of a persunal pro- 
noun comes immediately before it, but likewise ^ter any 
other uouii, when the sentence begins with ce and ttre; as, 
it is to you that I speak, c'est d X'ous que je parle ^ it is to 
happiness that 1 aspire, c'est au bonheur que J* aspire; it is 
from the pnt)lic, thati expect approbation, c'esi. du public 
que J attends Vapprobatitm, 

The tme rule for distinguishing this is, when ^r has the significatidn 
of the conjunctioiv ritar, not of which f as you may see by the foregoing . 
examples : by jthis rule there is no danger of being mistaken. Hence 
it may appear, that in such cases qui is to !be looked upon as a cen- 
junction, rather than, a relative.proaotm. 


1. Synonymous terms are several words or phrases 
Les synonyme^m, plttsieiirsy m. maty m. phrase^ f, 

which signify the yame thing. 
(l)^gwi/2cr(a) jfitme chose ^f, 

Cicero was one of those, who were sacrificed to the 
Ciceron(c) ceiw (I) (j:) saaifier (i) (2) 

vengeance of the triumvirs. - 

Nero cau-jed ] the Christians to be accused | of set- 

Ncronfain'{cAfr.) accuser les Chretiens €//*- 

ting Rome on fire, | which he ordered to be | done 

brasement (k Rome (1) avoir (b) j^aire (i.irr.) 

himself. . ' • • 
faire iui-m^me, 

ln.4he games which Titus gave once (3) to the Roman' 
jeua; ( 1 ) donner (c) Romain (4) 

people, he spent three mirllions sterling. 
peuple^ m. dtpehser (c) 


Art. 1 Page 
i I (3) i» 


(0 97 

\i) 68. 





A boy who is decile to the good advices whicb 
jeme homme (I) mu,m,'qu*on 

are given him will | not fail to have merit. | 
donner (a) (2) avoir (d) infaHliblemeni du minie^ m. 

Men« who are created to know and love God^ 
(SyjEFommts (I) (a) crter (i) pour connoitre 
ought to apply themselves to shun vice» apd to 
devoir {9) s'appfiquer tt hkcr{3)m, 

practise virtue. 
pratiquer (3) wr/ai, f* 

(3) Actions which have caused repentance must jbe of 

(1) durtpentirym, devoir {jB^y 

great instruction. 

2. Socrates was instructed in eloquence by a woman^ 

Socrate ( c) instruire (i) dam iloqtience, f . 
whose name was Aspasia. ^ 

' dont lenomyVa {b)JMpast(. 

The Magi and Chaldaeans, | the, chief of whom { was 
Mage Chaidim dont le chef (b) 

Zoroaster, employed . their studies upon magic and 
Zoroastre, employer (h) . iiudt^ f. it la magie^ f. 

astrology, which was in a manner all the learning of 
€istrologie, f. ce qui (b) en quelquefafon scieuce, £ 

the ancient people of Asia. 
ancien peuple, m. de VAsie, 

Apollo killed the Cyclops, who had forged the thun* 
Apollon tuer(c) Cycfope (1) (b) forger (}) fou- 

derbolt with which Hippolytua was struck. 

ircy m. dont Hyppolite (c) f rapper (i) 

Henry td^e Fourth | looked upon | the good education 

Henri (4) Quatre regarder (b) iducation, f. 

of youth as a thing on which depends the fe. 

. jeuneste, f. comme ciose^ f. dont dipendre (a)' /c- 

licity of kingdoms and people. 

Ucitif f. (5) royaumCj m. (S) peuples. 

Page Art. 


Art. 1 

(0 97 



M 9 

4. 1 



(I) Ignorance is a disbonpar to mankind, and in a 

deshonnettr, m.{i) humani(c,(. en quelque 
manner red uc<*s men below the beasts, whose (1) igno- 
fagon reduire (a) au dessous des bke, f. (2) 
ranee is the consequence of their natur^, and not the effect 

'f. nonptis 

of neglect and (3) indifference. 

(1) negligencCyi. 

Ariadne, the daughter of king Miilios, gave a clew of. 

donner (a) peloton 
thwad to Theseus, by means of which he got out of 
Jil,m. ThheCy {\)moyen,m, 9ortir{c) 

the labyrinth, after having killed the minotaur. 
labyrinthe^xii, avoir tuer (i) mitiotaure, n\* 

Charon, | according to | the ancient poets, was the fer- 
Httivant (b) bat' 

ryman of -llell ; lie ' indifferently received all sorts of 
tdier^ m . ( I ) enfer, m andiff'€renmi€fit{^)r€C€Voir{b) sorte^ f. 
persons into his bark ; they, however, whose bodies 

barque, f, cctf.v cependavt (2) 
were not buried, waited a hundred years on the shore, 
(b) ensevelis attendr€(h) rivage, it . 

before they were admitted among the number of passen:;ers. 
avant que d'etre admettre(i,\TT,) m$ pass«ign\ 

Lying is a vice, for which yuu cannot have 

(\) Mensonge, rn. m. (2) pOtfiw(a.irr.) 

J too much I horror. 

trap de horreur^i, *• 

3. When Mol^aiume II took \ Constantinople in 
Quand Mahomet prendre {c,Wr,) en 

14-S3, all the Greeks who cultivated the arts [took 

Grec cultker (b) arU^ ro. ^e 

refuge | ' in Italy ; they w«re received by th« 
ftfugkr (c) en llalie ; (c)' accveilhr (i.irr.) par 

houses of Medicis, Est, ami Bentivoglio, - to whom Italy 
maUoTijf,' rf* de d (5) r 

J is indebted for | itV politeness and glory. 
devoir (a) M^olitesst, f, sagloire, f. 

Page Art 
(0 5i » 

Page Art. 

(0 55 2.1 

M 55- ai 


Page Art, 

(5) 98 a 


A i^an ought | to clioose well the friend, fo whom he 
Ilfaut ckohir am, m* (1) on 

intends to ^ve his (2) confideace* 

vouloir (ft.irr.) dUiner cwffUmce, f. - 

Let UiT render t>u]^lves able to fulfill the duties of 
rendre (k) capable de remptir devoir, m. -" 

the sitoatioD, to wfirich God destine;^ (3) us. 

Statf tn» Dieu, m. desiintr (a) 

.Take care wbum you trust. 
t rendre ffk) garde d (I) 4€>er (a) 

Take care to whom and of whom yovi speak. 

parfer (a) 

4. Interest has it's soiurce in the unbounded love (5) we ha?e 

m. sd f. dktigle (4) que 

for ourselves. ' ^ , 

The too great value (5) we put upon ourselves is 

estime'f f, arcir (a) de 
commonly punished by universal (4) conteirfpt. 

int mepris, m. 

We • must early prepare ourselves to aban- 

devoir (a) de bonne keufe notts pt^irer d 
don to fortune, all the advantages (5) we have receive<l 

f. iien, m. recevoir {i) 

from her, so that we may not be surprised when she takes 
fl/?« qtSe ne itrc(S)pa8 ; ^et {b)f 

them away from us. 
(3) lea (3) nofua. 

Those who complain of Ihe pains (5) they suffer, 

Ceux se.plaindre(jBi) tnal^^m, Mouffrir {vk.m,) 
forget those (5) they have o<;casioned, 
^outlier (a) faire (i.irr.) 

5. It is said, that Cromwell had fifty chambers, and thi^t his 

Ondii W . 

best friends never knew in which he { intended to lie* 
jamais (6) savoir {b) laquelle - ' coikher(l>) 

Philip said to his son Alexander, on giving him (3) 
Philippe dire (c) . Alexandre^ en donner (h) 

Page Art. I Pw« Art. I Jh« 

//> fH » \ (3) 9 4 I W 9» 

Ch.III.Sect.IV. relative P&OKOtJNS.' ir 

Aristotle for his preceptor, Learn under soLffood a master; ' 
Anstote . precepieurf Apprtft^ sous un si 
to avoid the faults into which I haye fallen; 
ct eviber faute,i\dansksquettes hre(B)ttmlter(i) 
The canal of Laiiguedoo runs over a river, over 
m. passer (a) par dessusriifi^reyf.sur 

which a bridge is built id the form of an ^||ueduct, 
laqudle p(mt,m»coHtruire(})eH (I) fortfie SqyiduCj 

«:nder which the river continues it's course. 
sous lequel son coArs^y m. 

6. The world is a stagip, upon which (^) men always 

mondcy m. thedtre, m, . ok 
masked are playing upon one another. ' 
masquS at jouer{vL)lesunsde9autres, 

The allies of Rome^ ashamed to aclcnowledge 'as theif 
aUU. konteux{S) reconnoitre pour 

head a city from which liberty seemed banished 
maitresse vilkt f. d^ok (3) libertS,fpar<4tre(by hanni 
for ever, began to shake off a yoke which 
pour toujuursj commencer {c) d secouer Joug,m, qut' 
they bore with' pain. 
wfcr(b) petne^f, 

^CorioUmus came to besiege Rome^ whence he had 
^ridan ^mtr(c.irr.) ameger d'oii. (b) 

(n|^;»tr (i) 

kinds I of literary performances | there -is only 
■^^^ Jl^jsre, m. d'icrire U n'y-avoir (a) que 

the comic, in which trivial (4) expressions may B.nd 

on f. pouiJoir (f.irr.)Vrotfver 

a place. 

f. . . , . 

The thing which Ihe covetous man least. th i nk& qf is to 
diaqueUe otwire, m. kjmins (-5) p(i4s€r{i)de 

succour the pour ; his chest is the object in which he 
secourir coffre-fort^m. m. oH 

places all Jiis pleasure. 

mettre{2LATx,) plaisir, m. 

Page Aru 
(i) 54 i6 

Page Art. I P^^ kx\^ 

U) W T \ 


5. Toe d'««£«4s ci ;ie s^u! are tbe most dangerous; we 

s'io.ui €!.*:?»• our to c.-re ibec:!; it is, however, what 
dLr:,:r \ tr^rai '?r i g^znr fa ct cepemdamt H 
we ?;.!?* ti.nii « f . 

Wfc-t tvai*5 kn-^wSeige without (2) rirtoe? 

lie (3, whu ri: ! not kr.ow to ^rhat to appi)* him* 
or >ir : a ^ i tt :>ir J .i rr, " c tf noi s'appiiqmer 
self Hunns his ^4 youih, d^es oot know whi>t to do 

ptmJant JcumftKyt. aqaois^oceaper 

in his '4; o'.ii a£fi. 

vieilicuf^ t. 
9. After the^xi>ience of God, there is nothing of which 

a m'w aioir '%) 
1 doabc less than the immortahty of the sou).- 

doMicr (a) maiMS que dtt tt a/iie. f. 

]0.\Vith(5)prodisalityyoa uill be generous duringsix anonthf, 
— — ^t, f. ^ire{d) pendant mms,m. 

after which you cannot be so any lonsger ; with good ceo* 
apris quoi ne pom:oir {d.irr.) pfus titre wieiagtSc0* 

nomy you may be generoui all your | life-time. | 
Momie, f. ^N/ifroir(a.irr.) tw, f. 

1 1. It is in Gody that we ousht to put our hopes. 

c€6t en devoir (a) metire espSrance^ f. 

It is on good or bad education, that depends 

de mavcais f. dSpendre(h) 

almost always the happiness or the wretchedness of (2) life. 

presque toujour s bonhenr, ra. maikeur^ m. n>, f. 

It is to a wise and experienced friend, that we ought to 

eclair e (6) onrt, m. devoir (a) 

give some authority, .and some power over our mind. 

quelque autorite^i. powoir^m, esprit ^m. 

It is to the king and parliament, that belongs the right 

appartenir (tL ATT,) droit, m, 
f>f enacting laws. 

de faire den lot. f. 

Page Art. 



Page Art, 

(r) 68 2 

(i) 92 


(5) 5» 

/V S^ i 

'A) 87 


\«) ^ T 

ch.iii.sict.v. interrogative PRQNOUNS. WS 


Iktxrrogatitz Pronouns. 



1. Qu€y as an interrogative, is applied only to things, and 
qui only to persons ; as, what do you say ? que ditta-vomf 
whom do you look for ? . qui cherchtz-vous ? Both ar<i used 
in all their cases as above. , 

S. Quoi, interrogative, is used after a preposition, or* 

after the particle deor d; as, upon what are yon groumied f 

sur quui vous fandez-vous f about what do you.busy your- 

. self? de quoi vous tn^lez-voua^ 

3. If iju9t be not inmediatcly followed by a verb, it may sometttnes 
be used in the first case; as, wnat ts there greater ? quoi deplutgrmn4t 
It sometimes only expresses an emotion of the mind \ as, how ! yoa 
are angry ! quoi, voKi /ftf J y^i^^ / 

4. Quel^ quelle^ &c., are said of persons and things. 

It is to be observed, that t^utl is tlways^followed bv ifi substantive; 
as, what man is it ? quel homme est-ce ? Except when the noun was- 
expressed before ; as, this is my opinion ; what it yours ? vM mm ■ 
Untimenl \ quel est It vC/re. 

5. Leqiitla 6cc.^ is also said of persons and things ; it is 
always followed by a genitive expressed^ ox understood ; 
as, which' of the two will you have? leqvel diss dfiu^ voukz-' 
vous ? Quel answers to 'what ; lequel, to xtfhich, 

6. Whose, signifying ^0 w^om a th lug belongs, is trans- . 
jated into French by the dative, H qui ; as, whose house h 
that ? k qui est cette tnaison ? 


Who were they ^ that divided the Roman empire among 
(c) cevx quipartag€r(c) Romain (l)in. entre 
themselves after the death uf Caesar ? Cassar Octavianus,. 

evx Cisarf Cisar Octavien.' 

Mrirk Antony, and Lepidus. Who was the most beautiful 

Marc AntoinCf de (b) beau (2) 

woman of that age? Cleopatra; she married Mark An- 
femmCff. tewpsMf CUopatre ; €pouser(c) 

tony. What was the cause of their ruin ? Cleopatra stirred 
quelle (c) f. Vexciter 


Page Art. I Page Art. 

(.} 68 7 I W * v^ 



(1) him up to make war against Caesar Octavi us; but be' 

(c) a 

was defeated ' near the promontory of Actium* WHo * 

(c) defaire (i.i rr . ) prh de promontoire, m. 

was Cleopatra ? She was queen of Egypt, and daughter of 

(h) , (b) . Eg^pie, 

Ptolemy, the last king of Eg}'pt. 


2. What avail riches without health ? 

8€rvir{^,irT,)(^)ricJks8t sans (2) sattti, f. 

3. What I can be more agreeable I to; parents, 'than vir-' 
quoi de plus agr table pour . deis 

tuous and well educated children? . . 
— eux (3) bien itex^ enfant, m. 

4. Who is the man, that can be certain of coa- 
qud pouvoir (f.irr.) 

stant ($) happiness ?. 
bonheur, m. 

Whatman . can sa)', that he krtows himself ? 

fuel pauivoir {blAttJ) dire secofm(Atre(ja) 

What lirisfottune can we fear, after | we have j. 

infortune^f, pouvoir (ekArr,)craindre apri9 avoir 
lost every thing? 
perdre (i) . ' 

5. You have read Telemachus and (fi) Jerusalem Delivered, 

(a) Ure (i) le (6) . f. d6livrer (i) 

which of those two poems | do you prefer ? | 
lequel* po^mey m. aimer(sL)mi€UX. 

6. Whose are now the A randelian marbles f 
iqui appartenir (a.irr.) ^present marbre d'ArondeL 

Page Art. I . Page Art. 
(0 9 4 (3) 68 7 

UJ S* » 1 (4) 54 »4 


, Indefinite or Indeterminate Pronouns. 

1. Pas uh^ aucun. nul^ are the three negative pronouns, 
ba'Ving the signification of no person or nothing, and re- 
quire the particle ne before -the verb; as, nobody spoko of 
it ; aucun, o pas vn^ or nul ii'en a parle; nobody knows it; 
aucun, or pas tin^ or nul ne le sait. 

JV»/ 15 never used in an interrogation; or with a negation before it; 
for we do not sav* nul ne h saitil? 

2. Aucun is sometimes used without a negation, in phrases of in- 
terrogation or doubt. In spch a case it may be rendered by quelqu'un ; 
as, of all those who know mv reasons, is there any one who has blamed 

mc ? de tens' ceux qui savent met ra'tsom^ V en a* /-//aucun qui m*att blame f . 

3 . When nucvn and uul arc followed bv a second case, or a subs^iintive 
eii her ex p ressed or understood, they mt'St be in the same gender as that 
second case or substant i v^, but not in '.he same numbel; as, none of Iheiti 
has been there, aucun cTeux, speaking of men, 'or aucune d*eUes, speak- 
ing of women, it'jFtf rrr* These three pronouns, used as, pronouns^ 
have no pluial. 

4. Nul and aucun are sometime^ to be Uoked upon 'as 
adjectives; this happens, when they are joined to a sub- 
stantive ; as, be yields to no reason, il ne se rend d apcune 
raison; she has no pleasure, e//e »'a aucun plaisir, Nul 
may likewise be used, but aucun in such a case is much better, 

5. Nul is also a law term, signifying void ; in such a case it has a 
plural, if the noun be in the plural ; as, the proceedings arc void, /e$\ 
procedures sont nuUes. ' ' ■* 

6. Chacnn^ chaque^ signify every person or thing, have no 
plural, are indifferently applied to persons and things, and 
follow the gender of ihe noun to which they are joined, or 
relate ; as, each of these two women has seen it, chac4ine 
de ces dcvx femmes Va vu. 

Everyone, everybody, each, are expressed in French by 
chaciin, without being joine<l to a substantive, which is 
always understood ; as, every one has his peculiar way of 
thinliing; cliacun a sa manih e particuHerc depenscr. 

Every is expressed hy chaque, which is joined to a sub- 
stantive which is seldom understood; as: every science has 
it's principles; c\\'At\\ie. science a ses principes, > '[ 

Ohs. If the noun be a collective one, and cannot be divided by one ' 
or two, ebacun is put in. the masculine gender, though^the collective 
jjoun be feminine-; as, the Commons withdrew, each of them to thjir • 
own home; les communis se ret'trerent, chacun chtx sot, 

N.B. Custom does not allow us to say, un cbacun, instead of cbacun» 
7. PiHTsonne signifies nobody, has no \vI\3lt^V^ \^ v\H»^>i^ ^. ., 
the mHsciiiine gender, and \s aUewiX^ ^o'^^ VV^ V^"^^"^^"^ "^ 
before the verb ; as, nobody sav^i \t> persowne ne\^ ^^- 


8. In intenopdve tcniences, and after an expression of doubt, wIka 
^itnm si|;nifies any body, and is not preceded by an adverb of denialt 
such as, iMft «<v<r, &c., the particle ne must be omitted i as, did ever 
any body find the philosopher's stone? personne a^'il jamais tramvi 
U fitrrt fhti»te^aU f I do not think that any body could resist hitay 
jimxrottfat fue pcnotknepmisu Im$ rgsisier. This way of speaking 
insinuates, that you do not believe the thing concerning which you 
apnfc. Take care not to confound this pronoun With the noun substao* 
tive: a person, HIM /«riM««| the person, laperttmnt^ whicb is alwtyt 

$• Tout has many significations : it sometimes 8igni6es 
. Mf every y or the whUe. When it is- joined to a substantive, 
it raquires the definite article before the following noun, 
notwithstanding it's hnving before it de or a ; as, the whole 
hous^, ioute la raaison ; of the whole house, de toute la 
roaison ; to the whole house, d toute la raaison. 

10. The pronoun i(mt, used by itself, is a|wa3*8 put in 
the masculine singular ; as, almost every thing is uncertain 
In this world, presque tout est incertain dans ie immde. 
Sometimes it has che signification of c/za^i^; as, everyday, 
tous ka jours; every moment, d tout moment^ &c. But 
we say, A chaque insiant, d chaque minute^ every instant, 

every minute. 

11. Tout sontetimes si^ifies altbougb^ followed by a wo'd denoting 
the quality, office, dignity, tradr, calling, circumstance, &c., of the 
subject : in such a case, the word denoting such quality, &c., which is 

Iplaced aftcribe verb in English, must be placed in French immediately 
after tout^ and must be fullowed by qtt ; as, though he is learned he 
mistakes sometimes; r«»r savant ^^'i/est/Vsetrompequelquefois. When 
twt is rendered by bitn que^ or quoiqtie, the verb must be put in the sub- 
junctive mood; as, Inen que, or quoiqu^il^ soit savant, 9tc, 

12. When the worfl that comes atcer the verb does not denote the' 
quality of the subject, then notuoiihtUnding^ ox although ^ must be 
rendered in French by bien que, or quoiquei as, although you make use 
of his physician, bien que, or quniquc, vous vous terviex dt son msHecin* 

13. /oMf, in the sense of 41/r^airg-^, is indeclinable, except before a 
noi^n feminihe beginning with a consonant. 

14. When Hen signiAcs nothing, or not auy thittg,the particle ne must 
be placed before the verb; as,,I have seen nothing prettier, je n'aj rien 
vu de plits beam. 

15. But when it sigiiifict 4//y thing, and is not preceded' by an ad- 
verb of denial, the panicle ne is omiiced ; as, have you ever seen a/if 
thing so beautiful? aveZ'Vous jamais rien vu deji beau. 

\6m Plusieurs signifies fnant/ or stveral. It is a]wa\8 
plural ; as, several have believed, that the world was eter. 
nal, plusieurs ont cru le monde kernel. It is sometimes an 
adjt'Ctive; a^:, many friendb, plusiatrs amis. It is dtxtined 
with the Jndc/jnite articles de and d, 
I/, ^trgp other, is sometimes an adJVctvvci ?is, ^tio'Ccvw \>o<3\^> uti 

Ch.III.Sect.V1. indefinite PRONOUNS. 109* 

autre livu t sometimes a substantive, M/htn it is prededed by en, to 
which it has relation ; a8,^'rn connois un autre, I know another: sokne* 
times a pronoun ; as, another than \ou, un autre quevous, jtutrm» our 
iicighbour, others, or other people, is used only in the second and 
third cases ; as, of others, toothers, d*autrui, ^ autrui — Ni l*mn niPauirep 
neither the one nor the other, will have the verb in the singular, if the 
verb come after it ; as, ni I'un ni ,1'aut're n*en sait ia raisen, neither the 
cnet nor the other^ knows the reason of it ; and in the plural, if it come 
before ; as, ih n^en savent la raison ui I'un ni rautre.— L*tt« Pautre, one 
the other, one another, is used ta express the mutual action of two 
objects on each other, and consequently it isalwa)'s reciprocal ^as, they 
love one another; Us s*aiment l*un I'autre. The first is always in the 
first case. — I/un et Vautre^ one and the other, or both, has a different 
meaning: it signifies the union of two objects already mentioned; 
as, both arc in the wrong; Us ont tort Tun ?t I'autrc, or, I'un etPautre 
ont tori ; it alv/ays governs the plural* Both of these two words are 
declined with the definite article. 

Take notice, that /*«« l*autre comes always after the verb; ni Pan M 
Patitre and Vun et t^auttCy in the first case, go indifferently before or 
after, with this difTerenre, that, when they arc put after, the personal 
pronotHi goes always before the verb, though not expressed in English ; 
and, w|pcn they are before the verb, the personal pronoun is omitted, ' 
though expressed in English ; as, they are both in the wrong, ot btth 
are in the wiong, ils ont tort Tun et I'autre^ or, Tun et I'autre «;;/ tort, 

18. QuelqitCf some, signifies in the singular, that'the ob- 
ject is taken indeterminately; as, he is always reading somd 
^ood book, il lit tovjours quelque hon livre. In tlve plural, 
it expresses an indeterminate number of objects; as, be ic 
addicted to some vices, Ufst aihmne d quelques vices, 

1 9 Sometimes queffue signifies not the indeterminate number, but 
the indeterminate quality or quantity of things, and answers the English 
expressions •tu/iixffv^rr, although^ tbottgh, tmer iomucb% &c., as, attbcu^ 
they are learned, quelque savars qu'Us soient. I^e/fue, taken in thw 
•ense, has no plural before adjectives, unless they arc immediately 
followed by their substantive; as, though they seem ever to rich, «nei- 
quc ricbfs quails paroiuent ; though he has performed ^v«r lo good actions, 
quelques belles actions' qu'^il ait fa'ites, , . 

Observe, that quelque in this case is always followed hvque or qut^ 
which governs the following verb in" the subjunctive mood. 

20. When whatl'vcr. Sec, signifying quelque in French, is followed 
immediately by a verb, it must be separated into two words,' and then 
quel has both numbers and genders, and que is not reputed in the 
toilowing patt of the sentence ;as, Kvhale^'er his intentions are, quellcs 
que soitrt ses intentions ; ivhate^^er I am, qi>el que^V sois ; vfhatever they 
mdy be (speaking oi women), quelles qu'elles puisseni etre, 

21. QticlquuNf in tbe sense oi sovicbody^ or any body ^ \% 
used in ail it*s ca^es in the sin|;ular masculine only ; as, some^ 
body has told it to me; q.ielqu'un we l*a dit, I know it 
from soDU'l/ody, Jc le sain de quelqu'un. However quelques* 
'Uiis is u*cd ^h the uomimitive of ttie v€tb \iks^ 'fcQ\xv^ ^"«V5»s» 



bave saiH it ; quelqiirs-uns Pont dit. In the other cases wt 

make use ofquelqucs jjersonneSf and not quclques-uns, 

ix^^u^qu*um sometimes signifies aii indeterminate part of a num- 
ber, md is then joined yt'wh the second case of some other noun ex* 
pressed, or sufHcicntly undetstood; or v^itb the particle en instead of . 
the second case; in this' sense qudqu*un is used in all the genders, 
numbers, and cases ; as, has atiy of these scentlemen heard any thing- 
of it ? quclqu'ui), or quetques-una, dt cef Mes'ieurt en auroit-ilp or aum 
roiettt'iiti entendu parltr? There are fine flowers, give me some\ voiUt de 
SeUes Jleurtt dotrnex m'en quclqaes*unes« 

23. When nxfbate^'erhztno i«lation either to an adjective or substan- 
tive, it must be rendered by quol qtt€^ tout ce qui, tout ceque; as, nvbmt" 
«vtfr happens,' qooi quM tfrrrv^; «&^tf/«vrr you please, tout ce qu'iY 
Hfiut plaira. — S[uei que is used only in the first case, whelreas tout ce qrif 
tout ce quet are used in all their cases. Observe^ that quoi que ce soit 
(whatever it may be) is likewise used in all it's cases 5 as, of tvhfllever 
he tnay speak« dc quoi que ce soit quVV parte \ to whatever he may 
apply himself I a quoi que ee soit qu'il s'appliqtte : this last pronoun, 
when followed by averbj requires that verb in the subjunctive mood 
with que before it, as may be seen by the foregoing example. 

Sluoi que ee soit, in a sentence with the particle tte before the verb« 
signifies nothing at all, ox nothing ^vbatever \ af, he talks of nothing 
viatevert il ne parte de quoi que ee soit. 

14; Slut qtie ce soit, whoever or whatever person, is used in all cases; 
as, frvni tvoomevcr.he may have learned it, de qui que ce soit q\iil l*ait 
appris ; to whomever he may address himself, a qui que ce yoit qu'il i'<2« 
dresse. When this pronoun belongs to a sentence wherein ne precedes 
the verb, it stands for nobody ivbatever; as, I shall speak of it to nobody 
whatever, je ti*en parlerai a qui que ce soit. Hence it appears, that quoi 
que ce 9oit is used for things only, and qui que ce soit for persons. 

25. ^f que ce soit, in the sense of quiconque, ^yhoever, or whatever 
person, must always be followed by ii, ellc, Ac, or qui, and sometimes 
Dy both ;as', whoever it may be, he will be discovered, qui que ce soit, il 
sera decouvert I whoever deceives meshallbe discovered, qui que ce soit 
qui me trompe, il sera decouvert ; but after quiconque, ii and qui are omit* 
ted ; as, quiconque me trompera, sera decouvert ; and not il sera, &c. 

26* Mcme is sometimes an adjective ; as, the same author, 
le mewe auteur : sometimes it answers to stif in English ; 
as, myself, mox-mi'me : in these two senses it has a plural* : 
sometimes it answers to even in English ; as, eccn this book, 
ce livre meme, 

27. Je ne sais qui, I do not know who, is used in all it's tases in the 
•singular only for persona, ye nesais quoi, I do not know what, is used 

in all it's^as^s for things only in the singular yi ne wii quel is used in 
til it's numbers, cases', and genders, speaking of persons or things, and 
is always followed by a substantive. 

28. They, ive, people, men, &c., are oftentimes rendered 
by on ; as, they, or people^ talk; on parte; may I know ? pettt 
on savoir? Sometimes on signifies it: in this case the verb, 
vh'jch is in English in the passive voice, must be changed in 

* Sec rule 22> of the penoiuA ^tqhoutv^ ^^^ *l^* 

Ch.IILSect.V1. indefinite PRONOUNS. ill 

French into the active; as, it is hoped, on espcrej it was 
said, on disoit. Farther, as the passive voice is seldom used 
in French, in such a case the noun or pronoun, %vbich is the 
subject of the passive verb in English, inust be made the 
object of the verb in French, and the passive verb must be 
changed into the active, and put in tiie same tense as in 
English ; as, great rejoicings have been made this week, on 
a fait cttte senmine de gmndts rejuuissances^ instead of dc 
grandcs rcjouUsances ont 6lc faites* 


1. Of the great number of friends, who surround (1) i|s ' ir> 

nombre,m. am ^virmner (ti) dans 

(2) prosperity, there often (3) remains not one in adversity. 

prosptritty f. il ncn renter (9) aticun • tc, f. 

No reverse of fortune ought to alter friendship. 
Auatn revers, m . ne devoir (a) alterer (2) amiiiif f. 

Mankind have no one certain (4) view in (2) life, they 
{2)Uomme,m'»n*ont initfVa. vie,i. 

suffer themselves^ | to be led astray | by a continual levii^. 
selaissir (a) emporter {^)lvghele^f, 

2* I doubt whether there be any author without faults. 

douter(}x) quil y avoir (S) o-uteur^m, defaiff,m* 

Of all the tragic (4) poets ate there any superior to 
* ^ yena-'t'iluucunaudessusde 


3. Giddy minds . begin many things without finishing 
.lesespritslig€rscommenc€r{a.) chose^L fnjinfr 


4. A prejudiced mind . yields to no reason. 

prevenu (4) esprit, m. fiese rendre (a) aucune raison^ f. 

5. In I trials | the least flaw in the in-* 

prociSi^vn, criminel moirfdre dtfaut; m. de for^ 

dictment renders void the whole prosecution. 
malitc, f. rendre (a) nuUe toute la procedure, f. 

6. Tt^ey* took at Rome the rote of every citizen 
On prendre (b.irr.) suffrage, Mk, chaque citvyen 

in the election of magistrates. 
pour . rna gist rat. 

Page Alt. I Page Art. 

(0 9 4 ^3) 55 *5 



There is in every p'lant a, certain' quality, whick 
II y a plante^ f. 

renders (l) it wholesome or hurtful. 
rendre (a) la salutaire nuiaibte, 

• Self makes itself the cen^re of every thing, 
Lemoi^va. ^e^irc (a.irr.) centrum. .chqscjfs 

and each self is the enemy and would be the tyrant 

mbi vouloir, (e.irr,) 

uf all others. 

This is an axiom, evident by the very light of 
Ce m, seul lumiere, f. 

(2) nature, that God wiU reward every man accord- 

' f, jDu'w, m. rtcompenser {6) 
ing to bi6 works. 

Every mau has his (3) ruling passion ; it is a necessary' 

dominant (4) f . ce nccesaire (4) 
consequence of his constitution, 
f. temperament^ m. 

The world is a great stage, on which every one 
wioude, m. theatre^ m» oH 

acts his part, 
Jouer (a) rohy m. 

Every animal knows how to choose it's proper 
^avoir (a.irr.) choisir Valiment qui 

food. , .. 

lui est praprBn 

Every one has his own manner of thinking and of 

propre fapriy f. pcnser 
7. He whom noboby { can please \ is more unr 

personH€ponvoir(aATT,)plaire^ mal- 

happy, thao he who pleases nobody. 

How ma4)y people, who love nobody^ and who ar« 
QomlfUn de gens aimer (a) 

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(0 9 4 

N 5» V 

P«ge Art. 

(3) 87 4 

(4) « r 


Ch.IH. Sect.V!. indefinite PRONOUNS. 3 13 

beloved by nobody, boast, notwithstanding, of ha ving 

se ranter (a) niannioins ^ 
many friends. 

beaucoup (1) . * 

A man is not less blamable tor trusting nobody. 
On 71* est pas de ne sejier ii 

than for trusting every body. - 

tout h monde, . 
8. Did ever any one know mankind better 
Avoir (b) jamais (2) personne cgntuAtre (i.irr.) micux 

than h'\ firuyere ? Did ever any one write more ingeniously 

^rire (i) ' ndivcment 
than La Fontaine ? 

<;. Every man seeks tranquillity, and nobody finds it. 
Tout k monde ckercher (a) j-epcw, ni. trmcoer (a) 

It is impossible to provide against all inconveniences. 

de remedkr d inconvenknt, m. 

Every' moment is dear to him, who knows th« 

Tous momeniym^sont chers cdui conndtre {^axv ) 

value of time. 
prixj m. temps, m. 

If idleness be the mother of every vice, it may 
oisivete, f. tons les m. on pouvoir (a.irr.y 

be said also, that laziness is an enemy to every virtue. 

dire* paretsc, f» ^ de 

10. Every thing in our heart ought to yield to equity. 
tout casuTf m. devoir (a) ceder Squite, f, 

AH things that have only the world for | their foun- 
ce qui ne axoir (a) que monde, m« fon- 

dation I perish and vanish with the world. 
derhent^ m»pSrir (a) 's'evanaittr (a) 

' ' In the heat of civil wars, all is full of horror aiil 
fort fta, civile guerre f£. ' {si)ple%nd*horreur^i. , 
de sang,m. 

Men of parts iieglect nothing, they turn every thing. 
Les gens hMles ne negliger (a) mettre (a) 

to advantage* , 

.. dprqfitf m. ) , ~ . 


Page, An, !♦ 'Pi^'t KU. 

(i) 53 " \ W » ^^^ 


Every m^h has some pa&sious, it is the necessary coose- 

des cest neccssaire 

quence of his (1) nature. 

f. f. . 

11. Two things directly opposite prejudice (2) us, cu»- 
A ckos€f£, tout contraire prtvenir, {a) (J) cou^ 

^ torn and •(4') novelty. , 
tume,i, ^ nouveaute^f. 

12, Though (3) ambition is a vice, it is nevertheless the 
Quoique f. (e) m. nianmoins >- 

founddtion of. many virtue;;. 

bast^ f. plusieurs. 

13« The wife, (4) mother, and (4) daughters of Dariu?, 

ftinme^ f. »i^/«, f. ' filU^ f. 

however afflicted and dejected they \iere, could not 

tout qfflige{5) abatn(,5)qu'elles{b) pouvoir (cAtt,) 
forbear admiring Alexander's generosity. 
s'empccher d' admirer gtnirosite, f. 

A traveller often relates things quite otherwise than 
voyageur rapporter{a) tout autremcnt que 

they are, 
- ne itrc (a). . 

14« There is nothing so ridiculous as' English sung | 
// n*y a de si ridicule que de I Anglms ekunti 

after the Italian manner. | 

h Vltclieme. 
15. It is' dangerous to ""undertake anything above pur 

de entreprendre au-dessus de ses 

Strength. - 


Is thore any thing more polite, than to give others 
% QSDoir (a) il de plus ,poli dejbumir ^ux 

an opportunity of displaying their parts? 
occasion developer esprit ^ m. 

There is nothing good, of (6) which God is not the author. 
II 71 y a ricn de ne (f) auteur, m. 

It is in vain for us to bury ourselve's in p-bscuirity ; no* 
C*e8t en vain que nons nous en/on fons dans 








4 ' 

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(3) S^' ^ I (0 68 

(4) S5 *^ \ V^^ ^'^ 

Page Art. 



thing protect^ us (I) against the persiecuttons of (2) ma- 
rien ne tnettre (a.irr.) ^ convert de poursuitCy f. . mi' 

lignity, nothing shelters (1) us fronn the dart* of envy. 
chancete, mettre (a) 4 I'abri traii, m,{2) envieyf. 

The wise man leaves nothing to (9) Fortune of what 

ne laisser (a) • ce que ^ 

he can take away from her, either by reflection, 

poi^iw (a.irr.) , ^^er (I) iui . ou (^) coiiseil 

or by foresight. 

" (3) prh'oyafice, • / 

When (4) sacrifices | wer« ofered | to Juno; who pre- 
Quand of fir (b.irr.) (5) i pri' 

sided over marriage, the gall of the victim | was thrown ( 
sider {h) d m. fitl, ro. vktmey f. (b) jiHr (i) 

behind the altar, to show, that ( no such thing 
autely.m, pour montrer ilne devoir (b) y avoir 
ought to be I among married people. 

rien de semhlahle gensy m. 

l6« Many are deceived in endeavouring to deeeivp others. 
t romper (\) en touloir(h,\n.) 
A man is seldom successful, when he applies himself 
On fie reifssit gudre •» sappliquer (a) 

to several things at one time. 

4 lafois. 
\7, God has not given (I) us h«arts to hate ene ano« 
Dieu Conner (i) des muTy m. jwwr nom niHr 

' ther, or hands to cut t>ne anothef's throats. - 

ni des main, C nom couper la gf^rge, f. Its uns aux autres* 
If the sc.ouige of war be necessary, let ujs not hate, 
JleaVy m . guerre S, (d^nee^ssmreyne p ous^ hair ( k .irr.) pas 
kt us not devour pne another, ia the m'idst uf (2) peace.. 
nen&mdi'^(^€r (X)pas au mihet^y m, paixyf. 

The generality of (2) men employ the first pan of 
la'plupart emplQycriii) parity; {^ 

life in making j tb« remaiiider of it | miseiable. 
a rendre V autre 

Soiomon and Job | ha<d tb« clearest idea» of | 
Sulamofk . * W Citnnoiire (i.irr.) If mkux 

10 9 


, , ^H"" 


1 Page Arf, 


(3), 54 


\ <,^\ w^ 1^ 


(4) 54 




human m'sery, and have described it in the most lively 
la m'mrede l*komme (a) parler (i) X.l)ende ^W 

manner ; the one being the happiest of men, the other 
ntaniire^^. /V» ^treih) heureux 
the most iinfortunate ; 4he former acquainted, by ex()e- 
malheurcux ; run connoitre (h.irr.) cxpe* 

rience, with the vanity of pleasures, the latter with tha 
rienccf (d) vaniiSff* des piaisirt m. V autre (S) 
reality of -pain. 
reaiitStf. desmaux. 

Men are made for one another, yet 

{a) f aire (i.irr.) les uns pour les.autres cepaidant 
thdy wony one another. 

jBC dechirer (a) ka uns les aufres - 
llie temple of Solomon having been destroyed, they 

Salomon Qr) (i) dttruire (i) on en 
built another by the order of Cyrus. 

hdtir (c.irr.) tin autre Cj/rus. 

There are persons whom we . hate, and others 
11 y avoir (a) des hair (a.irr.) tP 

whom we love, without knowing why : the one is an injus* 

sans savoir vn 

tice; the other a weakness. 
autre fuibUsse^ £ 
It is with the diseasesi of the heart, as with those of 
II en est des maladte^ f . comme de cdles 

the body ; some are real, others imaginary, 
les unes riel, imaginaire, 

Alexander and Julius Canar were two great comman* 
Alexandre Jule Cesar (b) capi^ 

d^rs ; the one conquered Asia, the other subdued the 
taines ; conquSrir (c.irr.) Asie^ subjugutr (c) 

. A man often (4) thinks he | is his own director, ( 

Vhommt oroire (a.irr.) se cqnduire 

when aH the while be* is in leading-strings ^ | while 
hrsquHl est conduit et pendant 

Page Art. \ Pa|e Art. 

{>) 7^ 13 I (3) with If MTO^rriW. 



his judgment js aiming at one object, his heart 
que son esprit tendre (a) d, un but cacur^ m* 

) leads (I) him away j insensibly to another. 
en trainer (a) insensibhment d wi 

A wise and plain man does not humble himself, nor does 
sc^ge (2) simple sahaisser (a) 

be care to humble the- pride of others. ^ 

se sou^^ier (a) de ergueil autrvi. 

fS. There are some provinces in Gerniany, where the same 

II y a AUtmcLgney oil 

chifi ches serve for Roman Catholics and Lutherans. 
serr'cf^ (a.irr.) d Rmnain CathoHque Lutherkns. 

There are few people who have lived in the world 
. peu de gens (f) vivre (i.irr.) monde, ro. 

without having had. some strange adventure.* 
avoir (i). bisu^rre aventure, f. 

A rash confidence is the forerunner of soin% 
t emir aire (2) confianccy f. avant'CQureury f. 

disgrdce, f. I 

19- The palm-tree incessantly , rises of itself, what- 

palmier, m. sans cesse se relever (a) lui-mime, 
ever efforts are made to depress it. « 

on /aire (f) pour eiaisstr (1) le. 

Howew r distant from the earth :the planets are, we 

Quelque ' iloigne(3) , terr€,f, plmttesiT) on 

measure their distance by astronomical calpulations. 
en mesurer (a) la distance^ f. desastronomique (2) calciUf m. 

We I are often in want | of experience, however old 
manner (a) souvent cxperieJ^e, quelque dgi 

we are. 
que nous (f ) 

Rolljn says, that however delicate Terence 

Monsieur Roflin dire (a.irr.) quelque 

' appears to (i) us, he is still very far from the delicacy and 
paroitreij) encore iloignS Jinesseyf, 



Page Art, 

(l) 77 

, 11 

(3) 68 z 

(2) 68 


118 EXERCISES UPON , Pakt fi. 

(1) beauty of Arisfophanes. 
. heautcj f. ' ' .. 

Whatever riches you may have, whatever advantages 
richeiscs f. avoir {£; de 

you may enjoy, yuu will neyer be happy, if you do not 

jouir{i) keurtyjf 

I know how to | repress jour passasns. 
savoir (a.irr.)" rlprimer 

With whatever vai« distinction men may flatter thera- 
de vain{^) f. se Jiatter (Q 

selves, they have, however, the same origin. 

cependuntj mime origine^ff 
However ingenious the Greeks and >ie Romans were, 
Quelque Crcc Romain (g) 

yet they neither found out the an of printing 

cf pendant . ne frouver (c) ni ar/,m. deimprimcr 

books nor of engraving prints. 
ni cebii de graxer estampe. 
However skilful and learned we mayiiei let us not mako 
'_ habile {^) iclaire (f) f<ure(li) 

a vain show of our knowledge. 
etcUageyia. sci€ftce,i, • 

However wise and happy a man may be, he has always 
sage (2) hevreux on it re (f) on 
some troublesome moment, which he cannot foresee. 
fdcheux m. anpouvoir{9jiTx^)privoir, 

Whatever philosophy we may have, it is difficult to 
philosophies £, on avoir (f) difficile de 

suffer I a long time | without complaining. 
sovffrir long'temps seplaindre* 

However wicked men may be, they dare not 
mechant (f) n'oser(B.) 

appear enemies to virtue. ' * • 

paroUre de la vertu, f. 

!20. Whatever may be your birth, whatever may be your 

(f) naissance^ f. 
dignities, you have qo right to despise any body. 
digniti^ ne devoir {d) mepriser personne, - 


Page Art. | Page Art. 

(I) s% «» I (») 68 a 

Ch.iii.sect.vl indefinite pronouns. 119 

Whatever may be the power of a sovereign, he ^ 
(0 puissa?icCf f. souverain, 

can never hope to inert ase (I) it, nor even to 

poitvotr (aAtt.) €spercr de augmevter 7iiCive 

maintain (I) it, if he do not apply himself particularly 
soutemr sattachcr (a) 

to establish good order in his (2) finances. 
dfairertgner vrdreytn, f. 

Avoid as much as you can the company of all 
EvUer (V) ' , pouvoir (d.irr.) compagnie^i, 

vicious (3) persons whate>rer; for no vice is 

queUns qudles soient ; car un vice ne va 
alone, and all are infectious. 
pas seul, contagieux, 

21, The I Vestal virgins | were priestesses, whom Numa 

Vest ale (b) des prttresse 

Pompilius appointed at Rome to preserve the &acred (3) fire 
€tablir{c) d pour constrver feu^m. 

dedicated to Vesta. These Vestal virgins were chosen (4) 

dedie Ces {h) choisir (i) 

\ out of I the best houses in Rome, and were obliged to 

des . de devoir QS) 

preserve their virginity, while they waited on that 
gardcr tirginltcy 'pendant que vtrc(h)aii service decette 

Goddess: if any one sinned against this law, she 
Dees»e ; quclqiiune ptcher (b) , Zo«, f. 

was buried alive, 

(b) £nterrer (i)(4) toute vive, 

^22. Rivers flow commonly" toward the north, or 

Rivihe,f. coulcr (a) ordmairement vers nord, m, * 

toward the south. There are some, as the Da- 

sud,m." 11 y en a quclqucsuncs 
nube, the river St. Lawrence, and the river of Amazons, 

Jlcuve^ St, Laurent fivicreyf. 

which flow from the west to the east, ^ 

ouest, ni. e.vf, !»i. 
23. Whatever genius a man may have, ' he cannot with- 
Quelque on avoir {() on ne pouvoir (jiL,irr\) 



Page^ Art: 




W 68 7 




i W ^* * 


it • 

out application exc^l in any thing whatever. 

exceller en quoi que ce soit. - 
' They who do not apply themselves to any thing ap* • 

s'appliquer (a) quoi que §e smt 
pear to (l).me very despicable. 

meprisahle, . 

24-. To whomever we speak, we ought to be civil.' 

parler (f ) devoir (a) 
We never ought to speak ill of any one whatever vk 

mal (2). 

his (3) absence. 

25. Whoever has said, that (4) men are the sport 
Qnique cesoit qin(f)(i,'\rr.) Jo2iet,mm 

of an unavoidable fatality, is in the wrong. 
inevitable {5)fataiitef £^il avoir (a) tort 

Whoever thinks himself free from the obligations 

Quidonque se crdre (9,.\tt.) exempt 
of divine (5) precepts, cannot look on himself as 

pouvoir (a.irr.) se regarder 
bound by any human laws. 

lie humain (5) /oi, f. 

Whoever commits an injustice, exposes hjmself to receive 

cL en rectvoir 
une mitre. 

26. The same manners, which are becoming when they 

maniere^^, siCentiyicn 

are natural, | render people \ ridiculous, when they ar« 

nndre (a) , 


afecte, / ' . 

Customs are not the same in all countries. 
CoutimCi f. (a) ^ pciysy m. 

Good fortune without judgment destroys 

f. prudence - se d^iruire (a) 


Part Art. 

(i). 77 " 
, (z) J to 24 

'age Art. I 
87 4 I 

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(3) 87 4 (5) 68 7 


Ch. IU. Sect.VI. indefinite PRONOUNS. 121 

Magistrates ought to render j list ice to every ^ody. 
Magistrate m, devoir {fi) 
even to their enemies. 

<•) \ ' ■ ■ ■ . 

Animalsy and even piaiH^y iwere^ in the number or' 

(i) planieSf f, (b) au 
the Egyptian divinities. * 

Egyptien {^) diviniti^ f. 
27. i du not know who has translated Homer int« 

savoir {a.irrO traduire (i) en 

Latin (2) verse, but 1 know that it has been translated- 

vtrSj^m, ' 

more' (3) than once (4). ^ 

The j€ ne sais quoi is the subject of a dialogue 4)etiveeii 
Ariste and Eugene, written by Bouhours. 

. ^cHr'e (i.frr.) 
When a man has health and wealth, I do not 
qn dt la satUe^ f. dcs richtsses, f. 

know of what he can complain. 

on poifvoir (a,irr.) se plaindrc, 
I do not know which is the best translation of Mil- 

quelle traduction^ f. 

lou'« (5) Paradise Lost in French. 

Paradis Perdu en Fran fois^ 
^J. Animals are divided . into terrestrial, aquatic, and 

Animaux on (6) diriser (a) en Un estre, aqmtiqtie, 

It is believed that Pharamond, the first Icing of 

On (6) croire (a) 
France, established the Salic law. 

etablir (c) Saliqve (2) /o/, f. 

People attribute the inveiition of gunpowder to a 

On (6) attribuer (a) invrntion, f. poudre d canon jf, . 
\ Franciscan friar | of Fribufg, named BerthuKI 

Franciscmn (2) iwwc . Fribourg, appeli 


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(4j 17 

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(6) iLO 




Id this worjd t>eop1e | dwell ou]y npon ] the outsiiie 
nwnde fin. on ne s'aniter (a) que aux dehors 
^nd (1) appearances. 
The heart is a true cameleon*; we think to seize it, 

x>rai aamiUoky m. oricroire (a) saisir (2) ie 
and we embrace | nothing but | a shadow. 
ron rCembrasser (a) qiie (S) (4) ombre ^ f. 
It is reported, that Pythagoras required, from those 
On (5) rapporter (a) Pythagore exiger (b) 
whom he instructed in ' philosophy, a probationary 

ins f mire (h) dans philosophie,(. '■ ^preuve^f, 
-silence of five years. 
de cinq ans de silence. 

Diana is represen(c;d as arnned with 'a bow and 
Diane, f. on {5)representer (rt) arme de arc, m. ^ 

arrows, with htr sixty nymphs, who keej> her" com- 
fleche, ra. avec _ nympke teni'r (a) Ini (2) com" 

pany every where. 
pagnie partoul 

It has been observed, -that the agitatioti of the air 

On (5) avoir remarqver (i) agitation, £ air, nu 

I by means of | a fan )ias no leffect on the thenno- 

par eventafU aucun effet^ m. s?tr titvino^ 

' meter, nor any power of | making it colder, 

' mbtrCi m. aucun pnutoir. m. le refroidir. 

We make a trade of(6j virtue and (6) love; | every thing \ 
0»(5) trajiquer (h) tout 

is I set up to sale |. among (6) men. 
d veiidre ^parmi 

people aie afraid of seeing themselves as they are^ 
On (5) cmindrt (a) • . se voir ttl qu^on (5) 

because they arc not what they, ought to be.. 
on (,5) ce qu^ oullj) devoir (^) 

Vfe study to learn, and we learn by dint of study ing*. 
On (5) pour on d force 

When people have not the resolution to rorrect themselves 
0/1 (5) f. de se corriger 

Page . A^rt. 
(s) no oA. 

(6) S^ I 





(0 55 





l^J 77 






of their vices,. tbej_ ought at least to hftvt the prudence 
ses , -on {\) iiUvQir {a) au-moiiis -sagesseyi^ 

to conceal tbem. * ^ 

t/c cacher les (2). • "^ . 

When a roaa has been forsaken in distress^, he 
. OH . dans infortuncp £m on 

knows no friend in- prosperity. 

ne connoitre .(&) point de (3) honheur^ m. 

There are few Xenophons and Csesars to be 

On trmcce raremtnt des 
founds qualified both to execBt(i things worthy of 
deskommes capables d^ des digne 

record, and to become their own historians. 

la {S) hish/ire, f, devettir historicn^m, 

A man believes - as readily what he fear's^ 
hn eroire (a.irr.) aumpromptement cequcon craindrt(jf\ 
as what he ■ wishes. 
que on desirer (,9) 

No person is eithet fta happy^ or ao unb^^i^ 

on ne itr€(jBL) jamais aussiieureuii jomsi 
as . he imagines. 
que (3) on s'imaginer (a). * - 

Page Art. I Page Art. I Page Art. 

(t) no st8 ] («) , if «» I (3) » H 



TSuppiiYiNO Pkonouks^ ley en, y, 

1. Itf or so, i« sometimes rendered by le; as, gWe it to 
me, donnezAe-moi; 1 will give i^ to yovi, je vous le don^ 
nerai\ I think so, je le croin. 

. Of, from, with, by, about, &c., kim, her, it, them, some^ 
any, &uc,, and^^ence, by e»; as, ne m'en parl€%pas, do 
not speak of it to me. 

To it, thre, therein^ in it, in them, about it^ about themf 
&c., by 5^ ; as, I consent to it, fy consens, I will not be 
against^ it, je ne^ m'y opposerai pak!^ The^e pronouns, are 
called supplying, because th^y staud not onlj; fpr,<xnt g^ft* 


ceding word, but sometimes for whole sentences, and are 
chiefly used instead of the pronouns lui^ ellc; eitx, eiles; 
ihey are placed before the veib' f)y which l bey a ;e go- 
verned, according to the rule, p. 7Sy art, 13. 

2. Le and en are applied cithcT to persons or things, 
and y to things only ; except in a very few instances, and 
in an answei to a question; as. do you think of me? Yes, 
1 do ; PenseZ'Vmis d tnoi ? Oui, fv peme, 

3. Lii put after ctf -when we^peak of things, is decliiiable; as, arc 
thcic your horses'? Yes, they aie; Aont-ct la 'vos chevaux f Quit ee Vet 
so'it* I say when wc speak of things ^ bccaun: when we speak of per- 
sons, we make use of the personal pronouns; as, are these your bso- 
ihers ? Yes, tiiey are; sont-ct ih votfrins f Out, ce sorJ eux; and not ce 

. Ics sonr. 

4. It is now the general opinidn, that ie is indeclinable after an 
adjective, in the following and similar expressions: I was frightened* 
and^m so still ; je fus efrayit et /ele Suit encore i they wcie ill, aod 
^re ftill so I f/s etoltnt mtJada ft le stnt encore, 

5» Where ie supplies the place of a substantive, it agrees 
with it in gender and number; as, it is easier to preserve 
Ihealtbt than to rtcover sf ; U est plus ais6 de conservcr la 
$anU la recouvrer. 


1 . The term of ( l) life is short, that of (l) beauty is still more 
termef m, court, celui ensore d'avantage 

leX2). . .. 

I In order to | paint the passions with art, | it is 
. pour peindre U 

accessary | to have studied the heart of ( 1 ) man, and to 

faut ' 

know all it's springs. 

connoitre (2) en les ressort^ ro. 

When a man has wealth, he ought to make 1^ good use 
on ' du bien, m» faut /aire tmpioi/y la. 

?fi it; without lavishing it foolivhiy. 
2) en sans prodiguer (2) le fnal-d-propos. 


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Ch . II I. Sect. VI. v^SUPPLYrNG PMONOUNB. 12;$ 

* . ' ' • 

Nobility, given to the fatl>er8, because, tbey were 
( I ) Noblesse, f. donner (jt) . ' p^t^e^ hi. parce que (b) 

virtuous, has been left > by iQliericance tO their 

(2) laisser (^) en heritage 
c)jildren, in or^er that ttiey may become to. 
enfant^ qfin que devenir (0 le (3) 

The laws of nature and decency oblige ^4-) us 
loi,L f. bienstance^f, 

equally to defend the honour and the interests pf our 
egaltment honneur^ noi* , 

relations, when we may do it without injustice. 
parent, m. pouvoir. (9) f aire le (3) sans 

. When the • body is sick, the mind is so likewise. 
corps, VQ, malade esprit (I) dussi 
It is well to trust men^ but it is better to mistrust 
bon de se jitr aux mieux de se mtfier' 

them. . • 

en (3). 
Who promises hastily, repents it leisurely. 
promettrej (a) d la h^e se repentir(ja) en (a,)d loisir: 
Mpst men lake more (5) care to pass for 

La plupart des hommes soin de pour 

having probity, than to hare any ' in reality, 
a-^r vertu:,!, de en reellement. ' 

Hq that hinders not a mischief, when I it is in hiS) 
empecher le mal, m, quUndille peuP. 

power, I is guilty -of it. * 

coupable en, (3) * 

Heaven seldom grants a great fortune with the art o£ 
del, m. rarement accorder (jsk) f, talent fin, 

making good use of it. ^ , 

usage^ m. 
It was ..asked of Biori what thing could be 

On demander (b) d ceqd*il pouvoir{}o sex.) y avoir de 
worse than pain : it is, «aid he, not to be able to beat ^it" 
pire lemal:ce de 7ie pouvoir sovffrir{^) le. 

The impulse of .self love is so natural (4) to us^ 
mouvementffn, amour propre, m, 

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(0 '5* « (3) 7» »3 

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126 EXERCISES UPON Pa ax 11. 

■ # ^ 

that mqst commonly we do not feet it (I), and we 

leplus ioutent scntir (a.irr.) 

believe we act by othipr principles. 

eroirCy (a.irr.) agir d*antre9 pes, ' 

Philoctetes, abandoned by the Greeks, in the island of 
ahandonner {y^ * ■ f/p, f. 

Lemnos^ a prey to the most bitter grief, and to the 

en proie ^'gw, f. (^) doulcur, f. 

horrors of (3) indigence and (4) solitude. led there, during 
horreurs ' f. i,fnener{c)yi^\) pendant 

several year^, a miserable life. 
annie w,f. 

There are some who have all the bitterness and malig- , 
11 y a des gens aigreur, f. mmlig^ 

kiity ©f angef, though they have nothing of it's vehemence. 
niteS'Oyolereytquoique nenaycntpas ks importemcns. 

'Every man seeks tranquillity, and no body finds it (1); 
ToutUmondechercher{jik)repti$ym» personnc tiouver 
no wonder, because every one [expects to 

en nc doii pas sen etonner, parce que on (5) * chercher (a) 
meet | with it from exterior objects; whereas jie can 

le (1) hors de - soi ctonnepoutoir(9Uvv.) 

find it (I) only within himself. 
que en soi 

2. Giddy minds begin many things without 
Les e sprits Ugers commencer (a) 

finishing any of them. 
avcun en (\) 

3. Are these your sentiments ? Yes, they are. (6) 

4. Miss A. is not yet married, but she will be so soon. 

warier (i) le biaitot, 

jfj.. Trajypdv excites terrour and pity; 

Tra4tdit, f. exciter (a) (3) tcrreiir, f . (4) piti^^ f. 

it is thai which renders it tragical. The | epic poem J 

ccstcc cequi rendre(ji)la{l)tragique, tpo/'ce, f. . 








(I) 78 


(3) 6^ 


(S) ito 


(2) 68 


(^ 5S 


, (6) 124 




I " 

excites (I) asionishraent and admiration; it is that which 

6tonnement • > ■ 

renders it (2) heroic. , 

It is easier to preserve health, than to' recover it; and 
flwc(3) conserver sante,^. recouvrer la (2) 

to prevent diseases, than to cure them. 
prtvenir maladie, d gvtrir les (2) 

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A COMPARISON implies a relation to another thing 
with vthich the comparison is made. • . 

The positive is the adjective in ii's natural state, without 
a relation to another thing; as when I sa^, this house is 
pretty, cette maisojK est belle, there is in fact no^umnarisoa 
At all: however, if by degrees of compa-risoVi we mean dif- 
ferent manners of expressing the quality of something, 
there are three ; the positive, the comparative, andr- the 
superlative: . ' * . , 

2* When the adjective is compared in a ji equal, higher, 
or less degree, it is called comparative, which comparison 
)» ra%de in French "by placiri<i before it plu^y more ; moins, 
less ; . «, so ; aussi, as ; aus^i bitn^ 4///ja///, &c. 

3. Flus and nioins, ni^' aifssif aussi bieny tant^ out ant, ^.^ 
answering to the Secoiu! part of the compjiri^on, j^Aiiyj, a*, 

are coiainuniy followed jby the particle que, .^ • 

4. Sit&o, tant, so mtich, as miich, as many, ao many, comparatively 
used,. »:c.aiwM'-: »>?d:r.cga.tivrly ; as,. you ar<; iioOso. rich as he, yous 
fi*/tes fas si r*'-ab que iui; he has not as many friends as you, // n*a fat 
\^tiid*am'^i u^\c 'vous, 

5. When plus^ moins^ font, autrntt^ are immediately follow- 
ed by a substantive, that subsuwUs^ mM^\,\i^'^\^^^^^^V^ 


the preposition f/e; as, more money , plus cTargent; less 
credit, n^tnns de cr^it; jbo much pain, aiitant de peiae ; so 
many rings, tant de bagues. 

i. When the verb avoir or etre is before pfus, moins, aMtant, &c,, and 
the Mime verb follows ^ue, the second avoitf or etre, ii most properly 
IdFt out in the French, xhough it may be expressed in -English ; and we 
are contented with fue and the pronoun only, or any other noun ; as» 

aussi semee qu'elle, and not qu*ei/e ett. 

Except/when fue is followed by a conjunction, or by the tame verb 
in the infinitive mpuU, with a government after it, or a preposition ; as, • 
you have more pVea'Sure than if you had great riches ; vous avex plua tie 
plaisir, que si vous af/te» heaucoup de ricbesses, you arc more happy than 
if you were married, -vous etet plus beureux que si vous etie» marie , or 
que d'cire marie* 

7. When plus and moinssixe adverbs of quantity, or meet 
with a noun of number, the word than, which immediately . 
follows wore or less^ is expressed by the preposition de\ as, 
he has more than ten guineas, il a plus de dix guinees, 

8. When the quality is raised to the highest degree, or 
depressed to the lowest, it is called superlative. 

^. The definite articles, k, la, &c., are put he^ove plus, 
moins, meilleur, pire, &c., in the superlatice degree; and, 
when the superlative is followed by the noun with which 
the comparison is made, this noun must be intbe second 
cas6 ; as, he is the best of my friends, il est le ineilleur de 
mes amis. 

10. When the superlative is fi)lIowed by a yerb, that' 
verb must be in the subj inactive mood, preceded by ^wi, dont,^ 
or gwe; as, the most hnppy woman alive, la fbmfne la plus 
heureusequiexiste; the most happy man that 1 know, Thom* 
me le plus heureux, qutje connoisse, 

11. Sometimes a quality is menttoned in the^ highest 
degree without comparisori; and this is doneinr French' 
by placing adverbs of exaggeration before it; as, very 
rich, f;T>5*riche; very polite, ^r^^-poli; extremely obliged, 
iiifiniment oblig^. 


I.England is a powerful kingdom. 
.AngleterrCf f. puissant royaume^ m* 


2. Asia(l)\s Ini^cr than(l) Europe. 
Jsie,f.(2) grand (3) f. 

Africa is less peopled than Europe. 
{\)/lfrique (2) peupkr (i) (3) 

America is the largest (4) quarter of tfre \vorld# 
{\)Amcnquey!^, * parfie^f, monde^uu 

History (5) is a^ useful as agreeable. 
Histoire^ f, auasi que 

' A , liar is as much despiscr), as a candid (6) man is 

fnenteur, tn» autantmtpris€r{\)que sincere ^, 

111 qualities are^ratching, as .. well as 

les mautais (6)qvaliteff, se commimiqitrnt aussi bien que 

diseases ; and the mind is at least as mupii liable to 
(5) maladk^ f. ' esprit , m. ^ihmam ^H^ st^jct di' 
iDfection as the body. 

f. que corps, m. ' « * 

To be a Cynic is as bad as to be a sycophant. 

^ ^tUw\m. . 

Lytng is the basest of all vices, 
Mensonge^m. (4) bas in* . . • 

3. Nothing is more dangerous for a young man than bad 

Rien nest (2) dangereux pour (3) mauvais (6) 

compagnie, f. 

The simplicity of (5) nature is morq amiable than all the 

r-«^e,f. f. {2) 'oifHdble (3) 

embellishments of (5) art. 

The imagination of Ariosto, author of .Orlando Furioso^ 

f. I'Arioste du Roland Funetun 

is' more fiery atid unruly than that of Lucau./ 
(2) fougeux {6) dtrtgle (3) celle 

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130 EXERCISES UPON Past )i. 

The poetry of Ariesto is more animated and striking 
potsie, f. animt JrappmU 

than that of Tajsso, author of Je-usalem Delivered.' 
du TadS€y de la Jerusalem DilivrSe. 

There is no knowledge more useful than that of otir- 
lln'y apointdcconnoissance {X) utile (2) * 


The hummingbird of the West Indies \h not bigg;er than a 
co'ltbn^m, Antilles (I) gros ^8) 

small nut; he is still smaller in South America: his body 
noisett^y f, encpre ( 1 )pitit (3) corps^m, 

M'ith his feathers is scarce bigger than that of a. 

(3) plUmc,f.nectrc{aL)guhe (1) (2) celui 
' May bug; he is the rival of the peacock, for the beauty of 
hanneton,'m» paotif m. ■ < 4 6^ f. . 

bis plamage, 

Hoiiier was more carc^til to describe (4) nature, sncb as^ . 
a songe d peindre f.tdUe-pCtBk 

found it, than to form heroes completely perfect 
etoit . . :(2) -djaire des kiros trds-gceompHs. 

The empire ef i;\ud Romans was of a greater durationr 
m. (c) (I) 4ura,£. 

than the empire of tba Greeks, but the gloty of { tbel«tler f . 
(2) gloirCff^ ceux^ 

was mor(^ shining from the rapidity, of it's conquests. 

brilHint (5) par <e, f. leur conquetCyU 

The hatred of tl;ie vicious will do you less (6) 
haine^ f. . faire (d) , 

barm than their conversation. 

Our envy lasts always longer than the pros* 
enviCff. (Ztfrer(a) plus long -temps * - don- 

peri ty of th68e whom we envy. 
h€ur,fn. ceux envieriB) 

Internai^(4') factions are always more pernicious to tbo' 
Intestines (J) ^. — — ei/a?(5) 

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(5) 68 z \ (7) 68 ^ 1 

Cha?.1V'. degrees of COiMPARISON. 131 

people than f&reign wars, famine,, pestilence, and all 

Stranger ( I ) gu€rre,f.(2yamine,£. ( 2)peste, f. 
other calamities, which we 'attribute to the urath of God, 
fe,t jue{S)oiiattribit£r(H) cold re ^I, 

The passion for liherty is hardly les» powerful in the 
f. (2) libcrtt,U negucres (4) puissant (5) 
heart of man, than the. fear . of (2) dcatli. 
<:ceur, m. (fi) crainte, f. mort^ f. ' 

A king is always less happy than people believe, 
rot, m. ioujovrs (4:) hevreux (6) on croir€(a) 

People live more quiet in the country than in town^ 
On vivre (a) (4) tranquilled campagne, f, (6) d vWe/, 

Otway has followed (2) nature in the language, of his 
s)dvre(\) tatjgage, m. 

tragedies, and therefore shines in the passionate parts 
tragtdky f. c'esipovrquoi il briller (a) ' pasiiio}uit(l)cndroit,tn. 
more than any of the English (6) poets. Il has been observed 
(4) (6)aucvn ^ QuelquesvrUiques avoir 

by s»ome criticfi, that this poet has "founded his tragedy 
(h) observer 0) - fonder {i) ™^2^f^ 

of Venice Preserved on so wrong a plot, that the great- 
Few we Sauvee faux{\) intrigue, f,^ 
est , ctaraders are those of (2) rebels and (2) traitors. 
caracterCj ra/ (a) ceux traitrc. 

The reputatiwi of honour i« often more | sought after j 
. f. (2)AoffweMr,m. (4) cowWr (i.irr.) . 

than (2) honour itself. 
((J) meme. 

Ambition excites no less jealousy than love does. 
(2) f. fer(a) {\)de iff) nef ait V amour. 

Nothing is more flattering thin praises received from 
Rien n*est Jhatteur (2) louattge, f. recevoir (j) 

a person generally praised. 
personne, f, l&uer (i) 

4. Paris is' not (4) so populous (6) as London. 

peuple* ■ " 

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The love of our neighbour is ss necessmry' 
^mowr, m. de proChai/i,m. (i) n^ecssaire 

in (2) society for the happiness of life, as in Christianity 

darts tt, f. bonheur, no. (2) we, f. chrlstialkisme, m. 

for eternal (2) JPeljcity.* 

ttcrnelf ni. (3) tv, f. 

Nothing is no eloquent as (2) good example. 

Nothing is so. piercing as the eye of a rival. , 

^per^ani (cii,m* 

Jn what concerns futurity, fears are always 

En ce qui -ncr (a) (2)av€»irfnu(Q)crainte, f. 

as false as hojn^s. 

\l) faux (4) (2) espt ranee, f. 

There is no rest so sweet, as that which is purcHased 
Jl riy a pas de repos, m. doux cclui \b) achcter (i) 
by labour. 
(2) travail, m, 

Plato says, that (2) incTustry is as preferable to (2) 

travail, m. 
laziness, as the polish of a metal is to the rust* 

pQlijin, m, I* est rouiUe,m, 

After (2) courage, nothing is so necessary to a man as 

(2) friendship, in order | to be able | to bear that series of 

amitK, f. vfin de pnuvoir ^ supporter suite, f. 
unfortunate events, whicli characteiize the different - 
malheureux{S)cveHcmvtit,m.{o) caracCcriscr (n) 
(4) periods of his (6) life. ' 

f. . tie, f. 

5. Cardinal de Retz had more genius than Mnzarine, 

(b) • g'nie Mazarin, 

Caesar would have done more honour to (2) humanity, if 
Cesar {e)faire (i) 

he had been lessambilious. 

(b) amlntieux, - " . 

Girardon and Le Puget we're two excellent (4) Freneh 

(b), excellent {3) 

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Ch^p;IV. degrees of comparison. 133 

sculptors : Giiardoti has more grace, and Le Puget mor^ 
sculpteur » (a) (1) grdce (1) 

The description of the grotto of Calypso inspires raorf - 
f. grottej. (I) 

sensuality than that (2) of the richest palaces. 
sensualiti riche palais^ m. 

There is more courage in sufferiog adversiiies patient1y« 
(3) (1) d, 'souffrir (idxfersite patiemmentff* 

than I in de!rvering ourselves from them | by death. 

it s^en delivrer mort. 

Nothing inspifes more ambition^ than tb^ report of the 
ne (1) ' bruit,'m^ 

fatne of others^ 

renommee, f. autruu 

A single ero44ion of the heart has more pncwer up(te 
seul mouvement,m^ cceurytn, {I) cridit^m, 
the soul, than all the reasons in the world. 
Sne^ f. raison, f. de mondej m; 

Animats that have> the most feet are not those that run 

(l)j?ierf, m. . (2) qui 

the fastest: those men who have the most;$erVant6y ai>e not 

vite les . ■ ■ (1) • valet, m. 

those who are the best served. t 

(e mkux servir {Lirr.) • 

6. Nothing is so amiable, as- a seduciAg>;tnati> 49^ botmo* 

de aimaffk , sedumtnt maii 

thing is mpre odious tbaOf^sedijicer* . 
• odieux siducteur, 

Jdius Caesar had alone more virtud^ tha»^'alfcithe^ 
nators had together. (I) * 

7. Clec^atrii^hadlottliar ear«^ two'pearisy the fiDc^t that 
CHqp^tre (b) €l oreUkt^, perl^y^* heiifu(;4)qu!(ni 

ever j had been tseeo; oick wa^^ valued at more than 
/5)jamaU avoir {g) wu»y{6yi (h)estime(i) tt d^ 

orty thousand pounds sterling. 

t ' 

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Lewis XlV had| in l6Si, sixty thousand sailors^ and 
lA)uis matelot^ 

more than a hundred large ships. 

(I) gros vaisscau, 

3. One of the greatest defects (xfthe Pharsalia is (2) that 

difavifin. Pharsal€,f, 

fury of imagination, which Lucan did not know how 
f&uguty f. imagination, f. Lucain ne saroir (c) pas 

to repress, and which made him rather an enthusiast 
repHmer faire (c) (3) en plutot ^ cnthousiaste 

than a true poet. '' 

A perfect iragedy is one of the noblest productions 
parfjait (4) tragtdie, f. . f^ 

of human genius. 
humain (4) esprit y m. 
The city of Troy was formerly the most celebrated 
- ville, f. (b) autrefois ctltbre 

of Asia Minor. , 
Minevr (4) Asie^ f, - 

The. (4) most ancient- and (5) general idolatry was the 

ancien idolatries f. (b) 

worship V rendered'fo the sun. 
ciilte\tn, rcndre(\) soleil,m. 

Of all the amusements and (5) pleasures of life, conyer- 

m. ptaisir, m. tie, f. 

sation has always been looked upon, not only as the most 
£ regarder (i) non-seukment 

^ rational, but also as the most agreeable method of ' 
raisonahle, mal aussi agrtablc rntthodey f, , 

unbendiDg* the mind. \ 

delasser esprit. -'-,'• 

The reign of L^wis XIV, king><i)f: fWince, was the 
regne, m, ,.i r:i'.nv v^ (c) 

longest and one of .the )no8t glpFiou»:>a)f the FrenchX4)' 

moriaVchy. .. ■. ' ' '*;• bi***' ' ' 

monarchic, f. . . 

f- ■ 1 •- O • ^" 

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Of all the passions (l; avarice is the most difficult; to 

fi r. \ dijic^e d 

overcome ; because we find no remedy .against it, 
vaincre onne troifver {a) point (^) secours 

either in old age, or in the weakness (»f Oonstitution, as.. 

ni vicillcsse, f. foiblesse, f, tcmpira^ment , iu» 

we find againsl the others; and besides, being more 

(S) en qaccVailleufs "'' 

circumscribed than enterprising, exterior (4) objects do . 

reaserrtr (i) cntv'eprenant 

not op,mse to it any difficulty to surmount. 
opposer^S) lui ,. ^ 

The most certain prophets are (2) experience Siui 
sur (4) ievinSf m.' f. 

(5) prudence. .. . 

Experience is the best adviser; but it | is better | 
(1) f. constiller.m. valoir(jASrx*ynHux 

to learn by that of others^ than by our own. . 
s'instruire par celle des autresquepar la sienne, 
9- Cicero was themobtJeHnied of all orators.. 

savant orateur^m. 

The greatest of misfortunes is to sink under them. - 

malkeuTy m. telui (Ty svccomber, is the most persuasive of ail flatteries. 
Amour-propre^ m, ' ^f \ - 

Paternal auihoritv is the most respectable of . aH 
■ nel (4) autorittf f. 
laws. . . 

les loi,£, . • \ .' 

. Husbandry is the most proper occupation for leading 
Agriculture, £. yropre ^ f, vour inener 

a quiet and happy life. 

tranquil le (4) heureux vie, £. • - 

10. The fairest (6) promises are (6) ^posed to all the 

promesse^f, " \ 



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(3) 5S . »i 




(4) 68 7 


mncertainty of faturity, and to.all tb« chaoses o£ 
tncertHudet f. arenirym. changefnent^m. . 

hninan affairs. 
kumain (^\) chase, 

11. It ofteD happens, that the greatest enemy atnanhas 
sauvfnt{^).arriver(9L) qu'vn i(f) 

is himself, 


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1. ^TpHE verb agrees in person and number with it** 
X subject or nominative case. All nouns whatavar, 
in grammatical construction, are of the third persoa^ as, 
the air prepossesses, the behaviour eijtgages ; Voir previent^ 
les mani^es engagent. 

£xcept when an tddreia is made to a person or thtn^ ; th«il the 
noan (answering to what is calkd the vocative case in Latm) is of the 
aecond person;. a«,. vain promises of men, you have deceived mel 
vaines promesses dts honumff . vpus m*ave9i tr^wtpi ! 

2. Two or more nouns in the singular number bare 
verbs Agreeing with them in the plural number; as, thd 
father and mother have' consented to it, lep^re et lanidre 
y ont GPnsenti. 

Except when they are jx)ined by the disjunctive con- 
junction mi ; as, ou le pere ou la mkre y a consenti ; bjut, 
ivi this case, when a personal pronoun with another pro- 
noi^n or noun is the nominative case of the verb, the latter 
is put in the plural ; as, either yon or I will go, ou vamcm 
moi nous irons. 

3. The verb following the conjunction nt is pot in tlia 
plural, when the two nominative cases of the verb do or 
receive the action at the same time ; as, neither mildness 
nor force can move him, ni la douceur n\ la force mf 
peuvent Vimouvw^ 

Chap.V. ; CFON VERBS. 137 

The singular is used in such t^ses as the following: ni M. Ig duc^ 
ni M. h comte ne sera amhassadeur, neither tbe doke nor the earl will 
be ambassador ; because there was to be only one ambassador. 

4. If many nouns or pronouns, singular or plural, be separated by 
maiSi rierif taut, jusqu'af et tnemti &c.^ then the verb agrees in number 
and person with the noun or pronoun which follows these* words;. as» 
not only his estate and healthy but also his^putation, has suffered by 
it; n^ti'tei^Unient ses iienSf et sa sante, mals encore- sa regulation en a 
iouffert, X 

5. Collective palrtitive nouns, as^ infinite, Hombre, la 
plupart, quantite, troupe, mtiltititdey* &c., followed by, a 
noun in tiic plural, require the verb in the plural; as, most 
men are of that sentiment; la plupart des honfmes sent 
de ce sentiment. « ' 

When they are used by themselves, they generally govern the verb 
in the plura], if they have a'>elation to a noun in the plural which is 
understood. Ln plupart ^ according to the Frikch Academy, 
almost always governs the verb in the plural, whether the noun to 
wliich it relates be in the plural or not. 

N.B, All these pollective nouns, when followed by a npun in the 
singular, require the vefb in the singular. , 

6. When the nominative to the verb etre, it is ge- 
nerallAput in the singular; as, it. is , we, c'estnaus; it is 
y on jt^est vous : except the ferb is followed by a third 
person plural ; as, it is they, ce aont eux.* 

7. After the determining pronoun qui, the verb is put ' 
in the same number and person as the word to which qui 
relates ; as, you who speak, vous qui parlez ; we wlio study,. 

nous qui Studion's. 

8. The verb is commonly repeated in Frcnth ; ist, when the first 
member of the senience is affirmative, and the second negative ; or, 
the first negative, ~apd the second affirmative ; as, wc ought to expect 
every thing of God, and nuthiiig of ourselves, on doit at tend re /oar * 
de Dieu et nt r'ten attendrb de soUmeme ; our reputation does not depend 
upon the caprice of mc-ti^ but on the praise- worthy actions which we 
do,, vutre reputation ne depend pas du caprice des hommet, mats ^//f ide- 
pend des actions louables que nous faisons. 

2d\y, When the verb is active in the first member, and passive or '; 
reflected in the sedond; as, lazy men are not csteeined, because they 
do iTot deserve iCj on si*estimepas ies faineans, parce ^m'iIs ne mtrttiit' 
pas d'citc estimes. 

N.B. Three things are chiefly to be considered i» verbs, viz, -the. 
nse of tenses, the use of moods, and the government of verbs. 

' ■ • ' «c 

J ' • Except-from these, le quarts la moitie^ k ticr«> H^\^\0^^.'^vr^^^'^ ^gk- 

vcm the ?erb4n the singi4i^r. 



* * 

!• Cadpius taughjt the Greeks the use of (1) letterf. 
enseigner (c) mue usage ^ m. * ' 

Mr. de Turenne d|i iiot ^pend his (2) youth in (SX 

ne perdre (c) j^nes annies dans 
refTeminacy or pleasures^ 

^\) moksse^i, etiavoivpte,(. ' . ■ 

If yon desire to be ^steemed^ you must be 
, vouloir (a.irr.) estma\ (i) Ufaut ^que vous itre (f) 
civily complaisauty mild, and aiable. 

Vicious habits are diseases, which human 
Vicieux (4) habitude^ f. (5) maladiey f. auxquelles ^if9na£n(4) 
helps cannot remedy. 

^ecoiirs, ni. ne poifvoir ( seuls remedier* 
(I) Prudence is the eye of (I) virtue. --^ 

f. aUftn. vertUyL ^ 

(1) Nature begins, (l) education finishes. m^ 
f. amimencer (a) f. Jhtir (a) 1|^ 

(1) Nature make^the poet, (1) art makes the orator* 

Health is the support of life, and joy is the soiil of 
( I )8anU, f. soutieuy f. ( 1 ) rf e, f. joie^ £ dme^ f . 

(1) health. 

Innocent (4) pleasures make the comforts of life. 

|>teM«r, m. /fliVf (>,) f^licitSyf. - vie^L 

Talour is a Compound of (1) prudence and (6) courage. 

Valeur,{, rifultatf m. , f. m. 

T(i6 too great indulgence of (1) fathers ruins (1) children. 

trop f. 

Memory is the depository of the riches of the mind. 

(i)Mimoir€jf, , dipodtaire^f, rkhtsse^i. ' esprit yta. 

Politeness is an attention in causing that by our words 

i\)Politeise, f. £• d /aire, que parole^U 

Page Art. 

Page Aft. I page Aft» 

(3) 54 16 j (5> 54 1% 

(4) w 7 I rej is *^ 

Chap.V. upon verbs. ISp 

and our manners others be pleased with us and" ivith 

maniere^f. (f) content (I) d^ 

(2) Imagination makes t1>e greatest part of all the 

Lfaire (a.irr.) partie^f. 

pleasure and discontent of (2) men, \ 

plaisir, m. d^Msir^ m. 

2. Age (2) and (2) merit render a Wan venerable; rank 

m. m,rendre{2^ (2) rang, to. 

and dignity render (4) him respectable. 
(^) dignitif f. 

Authority and power bmd, interest and love 
(2)AutorittjE. (3)paMt?oir,m. lier{Q){2)int€ret,m.{S)am(mr,m. 
attacker (a). 

Liberality and gratefulness . are the bonds of con- 
(2) lAbiralite, f. (3) reconnoissancc^ t. liens ^ m. (2) con- 
corde^f, , 

3. illeither riches nor dignities I'endief iis happy. 

Ni (2) richesse,f, fti lu grandeur nerendrt(&) (4) heurtux, 

4. Not oiily his dignities, his riches, but his (5) virtue 

honntur^m, vertu^L 

vanishes away. 

Wealth, dignities, honour, ) evefy thing | disi|p()ears 
Biensj konneurs, tout dispar€litn(ti,\$y 

at death, virtue alone remains. 
tnortyf, stvl tester, (a) 

5. Most people fitt mofe from 
La plupart des Tumnnes se condmre (a) pat 

habit than from reflection ; it is | fur thiis reason, that | 
habitude, f. . ce . pourquoi 

we see s^many people, who, though 

• voir{B) iant de gens quoique 

with great abilities, commit iery gVeat 
doues de beaucoup ^esprit, commettre^i) deirh' grand 

fa»te, f. . 

Page Art. I t>%«t Kit. \ ^^%^ ^^* 

140 EXERCISES Part If. 

The array of the Infidels was entirely defeated. " 
annte, f. (c) entihement difaire (i). . 

A very great number of youth ruin themselves^. 

dejeuftes gms S€ perdre (h) 
because they read impious books, and because they 
parceque Iir€(j&) desimpi^Xl) livre, m. que 

I get acquainted with | licentious people. 
frequenter (a) (2) libertine m. 

The greatest part of philosophers are not reasonable. (3) 
La plupart philosopher m. ' 

Most men see only through 

La plupart du monde . ne voir (a) que d travers ' 

self-love. ' 

amour-propre, m. ' 

Most men are active | in suing for | a favour, ; 
dctif(J3) d poursuivrc grace, f» - 

indolent when they have obtained (4) it. . 

Half of the world take * pleasure in slandering, , 
Moitie,f, monde, m. prendre (ji)plaisir,m.d medii^ 
and the other half in believing slanders. ^ 

d croire medisances, f. 
6, We ofteh say, it is they who have caused our ruin ; iu 
souvent(5) (6) il 

would be more true to say, it is we who were the first. 

(e) vrai de (6), 

cause of all our misfortunes, 
f; malheur, m. 

A miser may have riches in his chest, but 

avaft, m. pouvoir (a.irr.) (2)rkhessey f scs coffres, m, 
he is Dot the master of them, for they 

maitre, m. en (7), ce hre (a) elles qui 
I are in the possession of | his heart and of his miiid. 
posseder (a) etson casur, m. esprit, m.. 

It was the Phoenicians who invented the art of 
Ce (c) (6) Phenicien inventer{c) 




Page AiU 
(O 68 7 

68 a 


It was envywhibh occasioned the first murder in 
(I) (c) envie (2) occasioner {c) meurtre^m. ' 

the world. \ ' . 

• It is the pernicious flktteries of courtiers, which corrupt , 
< (1) {. couriiiauy m, cortompre{uL) 

princes, and precipitate (3) them into an abyss of miseries. 

dans Mmct m. tnaJh€ur,m* 

Haiidsome persons carry letters of recommendation 

Les belle c*, f . porter (a)(4) lettrcy f . 

' in their faces: they are (4) letters written by the Tery 
sur le front, m,ce (l) Sciire (lAYr,) la main 

•hand of nature, and | easy to be read | ^y ali the nations 
mime f. lisible pour f. 

of the earth. ' 

,f, SolomoQ, who was the son 6f Dayidy and who built 

(b) bdtit(c) 

the temple of Jerusalem, was the wisest of kings. 

When oar ^ces>>leave\43) us, We fi&n&r t oursMves 
Qua7id quitter (f^} «c ^tter^i) 

that we have left (3) them* 
igue (fest.uous,qui\ {%) w(i) * 

Men who are ^r^ated ^to . know 'Knfd to IdVe^God^ 

creer(\) pour connoitre 
ought to apply themselves to shun (5) vice, iiiid^ 
, ^wir (a) i^ppU^ner ^dMter 'tn. 

.practise (5) virtue. 

8. Our reputation does not depend on the ctfprice (ST 

dipendrt (a) dm . 
(5) man, but (5) on our good actions. 

^ de rf. . 

There are many things, which it is of little, or 
II y a beaucoup de . qu'il importt peu ou 
of « 110 importance to know. 
qu*U n*mporter (a) point du tout de 'iavoir, 
A man in a. high post is never regarded with an in* 
'ktttitritng,m. regarde d'un 

jPage Art. I Page Art. ( Page Art, 

(0 ''J7 ^ I (3) 77 " I (S^ S* \^ 

(9) 97 I I W h^ 1^ \ \^v nt '^^ 


different (1) eye, (2) but always considerjed as: a friend 

ail, m. considert camme. 

or an enemy. ' 

, We cannot dispense with knowing mankind / 

On ne powvoir {?i.\xr,)s€ dispenser de connoitre Vkomme 
in general and ourselves in particular, 

de se conncriire soi-mtme. 
There are ihrisrinn^?, who love theirSieighbours more . 
liv a des chrctiejis ■ , * . 

than themselves. 

Kiiouled^e is the treasure, but judgment (2) thi' 
(3) Scieiicc, f. trhor, m. {3)jugem€nt^ m, 

treasuier of a wise man. 
. tresoiier, m. 

Frus'diity is a fair fortune, aud industry a good 

(3) tS, f. btait (4) f. ^ * (3) travaily m, b(m{4) 


patrimoine, m. * 

It is more difficult to conquer ourselves than (2) an x 
II dijDicUe de se vaincre 

enemy, ■ . 

We may; give good advice, but not the resolution 
' pouvoir (a) donner canseilf m. 
to fijllow (3) it. 
de svivre . • ' . 

We must expect every thing fron> God^ and nothing 
Ilfaut tout aitendre , de ' ne rieti 

from ourselves. 

(2) de 

. «■» 

Page Aft, 

Pa^c Art. 

(0 6g 7 (3) "5* « 

(z) 137 8 (4) 68 6 

Page Art. 
(S) 7» ti 

The use or TENSES. 

1. The, present denotes the actual or habitual action of 
passion of the subject ; 2iS fhris, which answers to the Elng- 
lishy I write, I do write, I ani writing. 



Chap. V. Sect. I. UPON VERBS. 143 

This tense is often used in familiar discburse instead of the future, but - 
then it must be joined lo some words which denote futurity ; as, I shall 
be with you in a moment, ^^ sui& d •vcus dam an m-.ment- It is also used 
as in all other tongues, particularly ii« the French, in orations, poetry, 
or set discourses, instead of some other tenses, to leprescnt an actioB 
past in a more lively and emphaiical manner. 

^, The. imperfect tense represents the time nf an event 
under two points of view, or relative circumstance?. 

1st. The imperfect represents a past event, as present 
at the lime of another event pa^t, and mentioned or un- . 
derstood in the sentence; and tlien it exactly answer* 
the 1'^nglish expression, J was doing, as I was reading 
when you came into ray room ; je lisois quaiid vous e/i- 
trates dans ma chambre. The action of reading is past 
in itself, but it is present in respect of y<#ur entrance into 
my room: I had a design to speak to him, hut he was not 
at home,j'"fliw dessein de lui parfer, mais ilnvtoit pas chez 
lid. My design to speak to him, thou;;h pastm irseif, was 
present irt respect of the circumstance Uiulerstood, when I 
Tcent to his Jwuse, 

2(lly. The imperfect is used to represent a continuity,, 

a repetition, a habitude, and then it exactly answers the 

English expression, / used fv rfo; a,s This man altered hiff 

mind every day, cet homme chahgepit tons lesjouys de dessein. 

The act of altering his mind- being repeated, reqi.'ires the 

imperfect. Lewis XIV loved war too much, Louis XI V^ 

aimoii trovp la guerre. Here also the imperfect must be 

.tiscd to express an habitual disposition. But should we 

specify how many, times, or how long an action has been 

repeated, or the exact duration of the habitude, the' pre- 

terij ought to be employed instead of the imperfect; as,' 

. ihifiJ Thaif aTiered his. inind three times, or, for three days, 

ctt hommc changea de dessein irois fois^ or, pendant trois 

jours, and not chaugeoit. Lewis XIV loved war tootnueh 

all his life, Louis XIV aima trap la guecr^p&^d^n^toute.,^ 

vie, and not fliwJ'dtV. ^ v.v\.>.».% ..,^^^> "'• 

N.B. Thb imperfect is used after «, if, insfe^d oF ^hc; sj^jjunfitpje 
moQd, e^pres«c{i,l}ytilb^td, coiild, would, i A English;' as, riryo« 
-would come, i^^fi^ n^ijl^»fui^ir \ .if virtue shbilld'^eign; stla vfrtu 

regnoit, .* ' 

3. The pret^^-rit denqtes en action entirely past, in a time 
also entirely past} as,; he was happy (fast week, last month, 
last year, il fut heureux la semaine passie, le mots pass6, 


rannie passte. If the time be not entirely past,' ^e makr 

use i)f the compound of the present tense; as, be has b««ii 

liappy this week, this month, this year, il a €te heQreux 

cette semaint'ci, ce mok ci, cttte annee-cu 

The preterit it used when we speak of an action done but onee or 
very seldom, and the time is specified; as, Edwrard III took Cabit 
the 3d of August 1347, Edward 111 prit Calais le^3 d'Aoiit I547« * K 
the time be not specified, we may indifferently use the preterit or the 
compound of the present ; as, Edward /// a pris Calais, or pi^tt Cnlaii* 

4. We commonly make use of the compound of the present tenae 
before deputSy since ; as, there has been a great battle since I saw jon^ 
Uy a'eu une grandt iataiUe, depuis ju€J€ ne veus ai vk* Somctimc^wt . 
noiake use of this tense instead of the compound of the future ; as, wiU 
you have donie soon ? avegi-'vout bientdt fait, tastead of aurna-^ftm 
hitiki6i fait? ' . 

5. The future is used aa in other languagest 

6. The conditional is usdd as 'in English; but never 
after the conjunctions which govern the subjunctive mood, 
though it has been erroneously placed by ;soaie gramma- 
rians among the tenses of that mood. 


1. History is the picture of (1) times and (1) men,^ 
( 1 ) Histoire, f. portrait^ m. temps 

consequently the image of (1) inconstancy, (1) caprice, 
par consequent -— , f. — s— • — cCyf. ce, m. 

and a thousand variations. 
de f. 

We seldpm. act according to our principles: when we 
ne guere agir (a) selan 
interpose with advice, we speak like (2) oracles, aqd^^. 
se melcr (a) de conseiller parler' (s) camme 
on our.owo account, we act like fools. 
pour prqpre compte, m. {9)fous. 

Fear >- exaggerates danger, and it is contagious. 
' Crainte,f, e^irer^ (a) ro.,. - ^. ■ ■ 1 eux. 

?• The* Lacedemqnians. presented., drunkct) slaves to' the* 
' [Lac(id€miikMdimMr en 

(0 5* . 

ArU . 

Ptgc ■ • 


' Page 


.1 . 

;W 54 

18 I 

(3) W. 


CiiAP.V. Sect,!. UPON TENSES.- 14S 

view of tlieir cbHdren, j to inspire, them with | mor* 
spectacle d iifin de mspuer Icur 

{l)korrour of dfiinVenficss. 
' l'ivrpgnerie» 

It was a custom among the RomaDS, to sacrifice little 
Ce (b) * chez He ^acrijier de , -* 

infants to the domestic (2) God^, for the happiness of thf 

domestifjue bomheutym* * 

femily, ^ ^ 

families*' v 

The Scythians sacrificed to Diana all the strangers, wh# * 
Scythe (b) Diane etrangct' 

fpH into their hands, 

iomher (b) aitre 

The Lacedemonians sacrificed their children- to th^ h(?- 

- ■ (b) k 

nour of Mercury, 

• — — r^. ■ • . , ' 

Seleucus | use<}>to say, ] -that he (3) who ^totild know 

c/irt?(b) wfxw(e.icr.) 

th« weight of a soeptre, would not deign to pick it up. 

pddsy m. sceptre,, m, daign€r{^)ramasser(Je)lt 

The tiafa was the Crowii peculiar to the Asian 

]fMire,f.{b) ^ourormeyf.particulier d'Asie 

princes. • . 

The duke of Ouisc says • iji his Memoirs, that Inno- 

dire (a.irr.) ^ 

-cent X ' wept whenever he pleased, and that he 
. . pieiirer (b) quand il tuiplaire (b.irr.) 
Was a very ^reaX actor. 

comedien, m. 

Don Lewis de.Haro, minister of the court of Spain, sai<l 

/ Louis > ministre cmir, f. (b) 

of cardinal Mazarine, that he was greatly > defective 

axoir (b) tin grand difaut^ n|» 
in politics, because he always wanted to cheat, 
{^5)p0Htifue, w«/ei>(b»irr.) trompcr* 

Psige Art. 

Page Art. 

(i) « It \Z) 9» 4 

(•) 6i 7 (4) 78 li 


Page Art* 
(5) #4 *^ 


The learning of the old EgyptiaTj priests consisted 
science, f. ( 1 ) ancien Egyptien {^)prttr€ conisieiifi) 
in geometry and astronomy. 

Herophiius, a doctor of the Drnids, gave Anat^miciil 

Uiropkile Druide, donner^) d^aftatomic(3) 

■' lectures on the bodies of more than seven a^ndreii living 

/ffow, f. dc ^. tivant'{2) 

men. The Druids had the direction over al things which 

Druidts (b) in tendance f 

1>elonged to the divine (2) worship In GJiul; tlie.y bad 
' regarder (b) ' culte, m. ' dans Ggulcs ; (b) 

the cruelty to kill men on the altars of their Goak, 
cruautty f. de e gorge r dts auid 

Orpheus, according to the fable, united so agreeably 
Orphee, suivant f. meter {h) agrtahlement 

•his voice with hjs lute, ^hat he stopped the course 
voixy L d Ivikyvn* ar refer (b) cours^m. 

of rivers, calmed - tempests, even attracted the most 

riviere^'f. calmer (b) itrnpite^ f. attirer (b.) 

ravage beRsts, and gave , motion to the trees 

-eaurage (,2) animanx, donner (b) (4-) mouxenttnt, m, arbrc, m* 
and rooks. • 

rocher, m. ' 

The Romans always kept the sacre-d fire in the 

sans ccsse eiHretenir (b) sacrt (2) 
temple of Vesta ; they |_ looked upon | the extinction 

. . regarder (b) extinctum 

it las an omen of public (2) disaster, and the chief 
^5) en conime presage^ m, dcsastre, m. grand 

fpriest . kindled it again, at the sunbeami, with 

.ponfife le rallumcr (b) aux soleily m. (3) rayons^ m. 
the religious ceremonies prescribed by Numa Pompi- 

religieiix (2) cercmonie, f. prescrit 
'lius. • , . 

Richelieu!s(3) soul breathed haughtiness and vengeance; 
dme^ f. respirer (b) hautevr, f. • '£ 

Mazarine was pliant and | eagerly desirous | of wealth, 
(b) souplc axide liens* 



Page Art. 1 

Page Art, 

(i) 68 


(3^ S5 ^>- ^ 

V V.<\ 1'^ ^^ 

.(2j . 68 


U) 54 ^^ 


CiiAP.V. SECTif. UPON TENSES. > 147 

It h!\s been said of Augustus Caesar, that he was always 
On a (lit . . '. (^) 

masier ofCl) his animosity, and of all his passions : or rather 

t^y f. ' • ^ plutor . 

that having but one, to which he saciNiiced all the 
■ n'cn avoir (h) fjitt laquelle sacrrfier (b) 

others, his (1) ambition regulated all his jvroceedings, 

f. rtgler (b) ajtmarc/ie^ f» 

animated all his designs, and fori^ed aH his cUnnection?: 

'anuncr {b) (lesiehty m,, former (b) liaison, ^^ 

he did not ruin his en^^mies, but when he despaired of 

f/e pvrdn (b) * . que desqwrcr (b) d€ 

I rccoiiciling them to him ; | and it was Jess to | take 

lesgag/Kr ce (h) pour se 

revenge | for the harm which they had done (2) tphim,thaii 
vender de mal - . 

to prevent that which they might do (2) to him, 
prtxenir ctlui que pouvoir (b) faire 
Ifvyedidnot fluttef ourselves, the flattery of others 
flatter (b) nous mcmes ^^^-^rie^ f. 
could never hurt us, 
ne nous fer pit jamais de maL 

Scipio Africanus.j used to say, | that he- would rather. 

dire Cb.irr.) aimer (e) mieuv 

save the life of one citizen, than defeat a (3) hundred 
sauver citoym,m, 

King Alphonso | used to say, | that a prince ought so 

dire(h) ' doit 

much to love truth, that every (4) word of (5) his should 
tellefnent vtrite^ f. cferoir (b) 

have as. much credit aiid power, as the oathp 

autant {6) force, i. que serm€ntSyJ!c\f / 

of private men. 
des particuliers. 

3. Plato banished music. | out of | his commonwealth. 
Flatoh bannir (c) de republtque, f. 










Page Art. 
one is not exprnsei 
107 6 


Page AA 
(|) 87 8 
(i)53 »i 

148 EXERCISES Part. It 

Socrafes learnecl to dance when he was | ati old mao. | . 

apprendre (c) ^ ' vieux . 

Cardinal Bibiena, Pope Leo (1) X, and the archbishop tf 

• IJon drchfXfiquc 

Trissino, revived, | as much as | they could, the dra- 

rtssusciter{c) niitaiit que poutoir (c.irr.) thi* . 
jna- of the Greeks. Bibiena wrote his Calandra in 1482. 
dtr€,m. Grec donner(c) Calandre^f. 

After him, they had the plays of the immortal Ariosto, 
on (c) ' cow^c/Zc, f. , AriosfCf 

and the famous Machiavel's (2) Mandragora. The taste for 

pastorals prevailed. Tassu's Aminta had all the suc*^ 

pastorale privcdoir(cArr,) Tass€{2) Aminthe(c) suo- 

cess (3) it deserved, and Guarini's (2) 'Pastor Fido sfill 
ccsy m . mt titer ( b) J^astor Fido^ m . un sucfU 

encore phts grands 

The Sophonisba of Mairet, gentleman | to the { duke of 
Sophonisbe, f, gentilhomme du dvc 

Montmorenci, is the first French tragedy, in which 

Fratifois (4) die^ f. laquelU 

the three unities are observed ; it was acted in lG29« Mairet 

(f) elk {c)joiiCe 

pointed nut the true path which llotrou followed. Thf 

out fir ((^) la raitahle earrihe oi^ ent^'er^c) 

first scene, and almost the whole fourth act of Rotrou's (2) 

SQhie,^. tout acte,vn, 

Winceslaus, are masterpieces. Corneillc came afterward ; 

Venceslcm (5) chefa d^aiuirc paroitre (c) eusuite 

he was the creator o^ the French (4) stage, 
(c) thtdtrfj m. 

Phadrus was a man of wit; delicute, easy, and 
Phcdre (b) esprit ; delicate gracieux, 

polite.' Who would have thought, that an author so per- 
•poli avoir (e) croire (i) 

feet could be forgotten, even at Rome, in the time of 

pouvoir (g.irr.) outlier (i) mhne des 

Seneca ! that is to say, 6£iy years, at most, after the 
Seneque f ceH'tldire, an^m. tout au plus 





0) 68 




^; 55 





€%af.V,Sect.L upon tenses. UJ 

death of the author. He remained in that oblivroti till 

, d€meurtr(c) oubliyVa^vsqu'au . 
4he sixteenth century, when Francis Python broognt him 

Steele^ que Francois rcio%7ier(c)/tti(l> 
to light' again* 
la lumidre 
- Marius was very ill used by (2) fortaue; however, he did 

(c) 'maUraiU cepen^ant, 

Bot lose his courage. 
perdre (c) . 
Cardinal Richlieu was admired and hated. 

(c) ' . 

The Parliament of Paris made a decree against 

rendre (c) arret, m. 
Chillies Vlly alid • banished (1) Jiim from th^ kingdom; 

bannir(c) . 

they began a criminal (3) prosecution against Henry III. 
* il c<mmencer(c) proc^s^ m. Henri 

Bernai*d Raynaud, a (4) Frenchman, was the first who in- 

Franfois (c) wi- 

Tented the bombarding of cities with a fleet ; Algiers 
venter {c)de bombardier desviUe^f.. Jivtieyf. Alger 
Avas the first (5) bombarded city. 

(c) ' ^ , 

John Sobieski, king of Poland, obliged C&ra Mustapha, 
Jean Pologne, obliger (c) 

who commanded the Ottoman army, to. raise the siege of 
^ commander (b) Ottoman armee, f. lev& ^g^f m. . 
Vienna, on the J^^tli of September,. l6'83. 
Vienne . 

The desire of Al^ander the Great to be thought the • 
dhir, m. ~ Alexandre ' cfe passer pour 

son of Jupiter Ammou caused (I) him to wear the horns 

f(ure{c) porter coime^f. 

of that God. 

* Midas obtained this favour of Silenus, tiiat what- 

^ . obtenir (o). Sil^e tout ce 

ever he touched should become gold; but he soon 

que toucher (e) devenir(e) or; , bientot (6) 

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(0 77 " (3) 68 7 I (^1 68 % 


fcpeutcd ity because the i^ictuals ttiemselves, wbich 

w repcttfi%(c)€a{\) viandes mcme . 

he toiiclied, were changed into gold; and^ vfith all his g'old^ 

(b) S€ changer (\i) 

he was starving. 
fnourir (b) • (Jefuim^ . 

At the instant when Phocion was about to die, they 
A que devoir (b) on 

asked him what cotnmands he had for hi$ sod; he 

deniander (c) (2) lui ce que il avoir {p) dfaire dire ii 
answered, to forget the injury of the- Athenians, 
repmdre(c)de ottblier t/yMre,f. . . Athtnien. 

Milo, the Crotouian, after having carried a bull two 
Milan de Qrotonne^ avoir porie taureaii'M^d^ 

years old on his shoulders the whole length of the stadiuro^ 
devx arts . epauU tout ie long du stadt% Bi« 

at the Olympic* games^ killed (2) him with hb fist, 
Oljfmpiquts {3) jetiXf(m(nMmer.{c) d^uncoup de poing, 
«nd ate (2) him up the s^me day. 
manger {c) tout entier lejoUr.mcme, 
The temple of Diana, at Ephesus, was burnt oji (4) the 
temple, m, Diane, Ephdse, (j:). br&ler (\) 
clay that Alexaniier the Great was born. 

fUfitre (c.irr.) 
* The Jesuits bark covers the trunk of a tree whicli 

quipquinafVn, couvrii'(Q.) ^ro/tcm* 
grows iu Peru, in the province of Qutto: this 

croitre (a.irr.) au Perou, m. 

bark is a specific against intermitting fevers, J^r« 
icorce, f. sptcifique, m. intermittent {Z^JLevre^ f. 

beyrac, a famous physician of the i7th century; was the 

celebre medecin, m- sikle, ra, (c) 

fijst in frapce who made use of this extraordinary 

faire (c'lrr,) usage vi^r'OeiUeug 

anticlot% Sydenham | brought (i) it into esteem [ a^t the 
ftkrifugeiTn. Vaccrediter^c)^ dahaib\ 

same time in Englfind. 

- Meo have almx)6t etttlrcly perverted the use of 
presque entieremetit percertirQ) usage 

Pigo Art, PaRC KiX.. \, 

U) 77 i» 1 (4)onwao*c«t'^<"«*\ 

Pa^e Art. 


speecb, and made .( I ) words to sigmfy notHing. 
paroie^f. Jaire(}) pourne signifier rien. 

The faction ofCaeoar soon became a ruling party,* 
f. bi€nf6t{2)devenir{c)dojninant(S)partiym. 

%hich I put an end to \ the republic. - 
.€Jigloulir(c) . ' 

' The ce1ebrate<l I^hrynea 'offered to rebuild the walls 
ctltbre Fhryn^ offrir{c) de relevcr muraille,?, 
of Thebes, on condition that they would engrave 

<^ on graver (e) 

to her honour this inscription : Alexander destroyed 
d ghire,f» f. adtiruir€(\) 

the walls of, Thebes, and the courtezan Phrynea has 

mur^m, courtisane, i, 

rebuilt (4) them. 

The " series of revolutions caused bj 

enahainemenf^m. occasionner(\) 

events and prepared by the passions brought Rome 

evinetnenty m". ramener (c) 

^t last to it's primitive (3) government^ which wa>; raonar- 
eafin (b) mguar* 


Attila made a continual (3) traffic of the \ fear of 
faire (b.irr.) frayeur^ f. 

ihc Jlpmans ; but Julian, by his(5) wisdom, (6) constancy ,(^ 

sagesse, f. comtaaccy f. 
economy, valour, and an uninterrupted series of heroic (3) 
^Cimomieyi,vaUurjL. mninterromptteiZ) suite ^L 
actions, drove back the' barbarians from the fronti^s of 

chasser (c) barbare 

bis empire; and the terrour which hijs name . inspired, 

ierreur, f. nofn, m. htspirer(j}) 

. i-estrdined (4). thexn as long as he lived. 
C0nt€nir{c) tant ^ que ritre (.c.irr.) 

The Strait of Gibraltar wa& the term of the travels 
detroity m, (c) terme, m. voyage , m. 

of Hercules. 

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It was about the middle of the fifteenth century,. 

Ce (c) vers milieu f.m. siiclCf fn. 

that they made use of coffee at AdeO) a (1) famous 

on (2)faire (c) usage cafe, m. 
port in the gulf of .Arabia. Thence it passed to 
party ra. sur Dc Id passer (c) 

Grand Cairo, afterward to Constantinoi>le, | and thence | it 

Caire, m'. ensuite (Tcu 

was spread in a 'short time over all Asia. Thevenot 
X se rtpandre (c) en peu de te?nps, dans Asie, f. 
brought (3) it first to France in 1656. 
apporter (c) le premier en 

Junius Brutus endeavoured to procure the favour of 

idcher (c) de se rer • 

the citizens by the havock uf his (4) own family, fuid 

citoyens destruction, f. prdpreJamUUf £, 

by parricide. 
ie parricide, 

Catiline promised some the gratifying their lust,, 

^napromettre(c)auxuns satisfaction^£. de possum^ 

oliiers the death of their parents. 
morty f. 
How many (5) men have been cut off .by the vioJence 
Combiefi detruire (i) f., 

-of men, still more than by all other calamities ! 
encore -tS, f. 

4. At all times the number, of the wicked has exceeded 
De nomhre^m* mCchant^m, surpasser (ji) . 

that of the good. 
bon, m. 

Never upbraid a man with the services (D) you hayo ^ 

Nereprocher Qn) jamais 
rendered him. 

5. Be diligent and you will be rewarded* 

rccompenser Q) 
\ When a labourer has worked for you, be cavefal 
Lorsque ouvrierym. {d)travailler(}) aroi>(k). 

' to pay (3) him 'immediately. 
soin de payer 

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Ch.V.Sect.II. subjunctive mood. 153 

There will al\va3^s be wars among (I) men, because 

II y , avoir (<]) tntre 

they are ambitious and governed by interest. 
Remove the cause, aiiii the effect will ceases 
JDetruire(k) f. effttt^m, cesser {A) 

When you have once telt how | hard it is | to 
Quand (il) sentir (i) combieh U est dur de 

bear an injury, you will better comprehend how 
soujfrir injustice, f. mieux (2) comprendre (d) 

unlawful il is t(» do one* 
crimintl f aire (3) en. 

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Th£ Use of tub Susjumctivs Mood. 

1 . The subjunctive mood is used after ^ue or ouii preceded by a verb 
denoting doubt, wish, fear, command, prohibition, &c., such tireerain^ 
drff prier, douter^ soubaher, permettret commander^ Aefcndre^ tec, ;as, bis 
father has. for bidden him to go thither ; son pere a defend u <\}x*ilj aUftC. 
But when any of these verbs govern a noun or proaoun, the verb follow* 
ing is put in the infinitive roood^ coramoi\ly with the preposition it/t 
before it ; as in the foregoing example, sbnpirt lui a defendu d*y alter, 

2. The subjunctive mood is likewise used after ^«« preceded by 8om« 
impersonal verbs ; as, I must go thither ; il faut ^ue^^y ^ille. See tjic 
9th observation upon impersonal verbs; ' 

3. There are some impersonal verbs which govern the indicative 
mood ; such are, it parou^ ily a apparence, &c., and thofe which denote 
any thing more positively. But, when the same impersonal verbs are 
used negatively or interrogatively, they govern the subjunctive. mood j 
as^ it is true, that you are married ; U tit vrai qui vqus Ites marii i it 
it true, that you are married ? est il vral que vous soyez marie ? 

4. 'The subjunctive mood is used after verbs preced^ed by ne or u^ used 
in a doubtful manner, and followed by que or qui ; as, I ao not believe, 
that he has done it, je ne crois pas qu*il Vait fait ; if you think I am an 
honest man, si vputcroyex, <nicje sois benn^te bomme. Some grammarians 
say that, speaking in the last instance positively, the verb fol!pwing 
que is put in the mdicative mood ; as, si vous croyez que je tuts hon* 
nete homme. 

5. The indicative mood is more properly used in the foregoing case^ 
after Che verbs dire, efH>ncer, p£irmery and the like ; as, if you say, that he 
is an honest man^ sivoui6.iitsqu*iI at bonne te bomme: Except when 
dire is followed by que, and a verb implyin^r a comiaaad or prohibi* 
tion; as, tell him to comei i//lri-/»? ;»*i7 '^tfflff^. . 


6. The subjunctive mood is used after the Verb // sembhi it seems ; 
as, it seems that you are angry ; ilsemhle fue vous seyex faebe. But, if 
that verb have a pronoun before U, or a governed word after it, the 
indicative mood is to be used; a8> il me semhlet or il iet/ible a la compa- 
gnie ^tf« vous eta (ach6« 
. 7. A verb following another, which is in the subjunctive mood, must 
also be put in the same mood after que or qvi ; as, do you believe, that 
,he expects I shall come? croyez-vous qu*i] &*attende queje vienne?' 

8. The subjunctive mood is used, ist, after qucique, quelque, quel fue, 
£^f ., signifying whoever, whatever, &c. ; as, though you are rich ;> 
quelque ricbe que vous soyex. See the 19th and 2ath observations upoa 
indcteripinate pronouns, page 109. 

idly, After que used instead of repeating the conjunction si in the 
second membec of a sentence; as, if y<<u study and take pains ; si'-vaus 
Studiex et que vous freniez de la peine. See the 5th observation. apoa 
conjupxtions, chap.x. i' 

^dly, After the proooun^tfi or ^i/f preceded immediately by a super* 
lative; as, it. is the best news you can tell mc ; c^esi la meil^eure nouvefU 
que njous puissic^ji me dire* * 

4thly, After que used instead of de ce que, wljich governs the indi- 
.cairve mood; as, I am sorry he is not come ; je suis facbe qu*i/ ne soit 
pas *venu,y or, dc ce qu^W n*est pas venu, 

5thly, After the relative pronoun qui or que between two verbf, so- 
as to express some desire, need, ornecessity ; as,' ( seek a womaD who 
is handsome, rich, and wise; je cbenbe uneftmme qui soil belle^ riebe^ 
et sage* ' 

6thly, Wc elegantly make use of the compound of the preterit of the 
subjunctive mood after it, instead of the compound of the imperfect of 
the indicative; atf, if I had been informed of it sooner, Ihat would not 
have happened; iij*en eusse ^t6 averts plutSt^ cela ne seroitpas arrivi^ 

9. The verb which is in the future in English is p\xt in the present ii> 
French,'whenever it ought lb be in the subjunctive mood; as, do. you 
think, that he will come ? eroyex'V'ous qu*il vienne ? I do not believe, 
that he will write; Je ne cross pas qu*il 6crive. Except after the verbs stf* 
votry assurer^ Sec., where it, signifying whether, must be used instead o£ 
que ; as, do you know whether he will come ? savex vous s*U viendra* 

10. The verb which, according to the aforesaid rules, is pi^t in the 
subjunctive mood, must be pu( in the present tense of that mood, if it 
be preceded by a verb in the present or future tense ; as, do you believe^ 
that he will guess it ? croyex-vous qif*\\ le dsvinef will you believe now, 
that he has written ? froirf». vous 4 present qu*U ait ecrit ? If the first ' 
verb he in any other tense, or in a compound one, the preterit of the 
subjunctive mood is to be used; as, what would you have him do ? Que 
voudrieX'SOUt qu'iljh ? 

This tense is likewise use.d when the verb which is in the subjunc* 
tive mood is followed by the conjunction it, and a verb in the impeir- 
fect Tense, or a conditional expression, though.the first verb be in the . 
present; as, do you. believe that he could guess it, if you would not tell 
It him ? crpyez-yous qrCil le dcvioit, si vous ne le iui disiexpas f I doubt 
whether he wpuld have succeeded without the help of .his friends, je 
doute qu*ilciit reitssi satM It secours de ses efmis. 
As riicre are some conjunctions, which require the subjunctive moody 
Mad art every where the same, it w ill not \>c utamlo %tt tKcm down here. 

Cii.V.Sect. U. subjunctive mood. 




Afin que, pour que, — that, to the end that, 

avant que, — ^ — before. 

sans que, — - ' — tvithout that, 

quoique, bien que,, encore que, iA«w^ A. 

soit que, whether and or, 

snppo^e, ou supposons que, — suppose that, 

au, ou en cas que, 

non que, 

non pas que, j 
<:e n'est pas que, 
pourvu que, 
a moins que, 
.po«r peu ifae, 
/de peu I*, que, 
de craintc "que, 
loin que, 
hien loin que, 
•inalgre que. 

— in case that^ or if. 

— not that. 

— it is mot thai'. 

— provided, 

— nnleas. 

— if- ever so little. , 
— -for/tar that. 

— -• It fit, 
-—Jar from, 

— lerj^ far from, ' 
'^for all that, though. 

— notioithstandiiig thai, 
-*- God grant. 

nohobstant que, «— 

Dieu vcuiile que, " — 

Plaise ou plAt h. Dieu que, • — would to God. 

k Dieu ne plaise que^ God forbid, 

«nonque,- • I ^,ave,buf. 

SI ce n est que, 3 . ' 

/v. B, The last two govern the sobjunctive mood when they are 
preceded by a veib expressing command, desire, or uncertainty. In 
other cases they govern the indicative mc^od; as, I want nothingof you, 
-but to do your duty ; je nt veux rlen autre chose de vcus sinon quej 90^ 
si ce n'est que, vout fassiez n/otre devoir: I have answered him nothing 
but that I had executed his ordeis; Je ne lui at ri^6ndi\x autre those , . 
sinon que, ou si ce n'est que j'avois execute ses orders. 


1. The -/Egyptians did not doubt, that certain animals 

Egyptien douter{h) aamaJL^\!\, 

and plants were dWirvvlW** \ 

cniainplattt€,£* neCg) ditiittte* 


Caligula ordered the Romans to render (l)him 

voulott^c'iTT.) que rend re (g) 

divine (2) honours. 

Alexander .did so much honour to Pindar, that 
Alexandre f aire {cAVT .) iant (^3) 
when he put all to fire arid sword in the city of Thebe*, 

meftre (c.irr.)'^oii^ a feu et d sang 
he commanded (4) his (5) house to be spared, and ali 
commander (c) (g) epargjier (}) ainsi que \ 

.'those who were of his (5) race, 
(b) racCf f. 

Good kings order, that justice be well administered 
(()) ordonner (h) f. (f) admim*irer(i)(py 

in their kingdom. 
Wisdom requires, that in every thing we do w« 
' Sa^esse, f. xouloir (a.irr.) tout ce que Jidt^ (a.inr.) 

act with redectioD* 


. Reason requires, that our desires be just, a^l|d that no 
f. earlier (a) dtsir,m.(f) {6) nuiU 

impatience may accorapaQy (I) them, 
f. . accompagner ^0 . 

King John . being importuned by a courtier to 

sollitiUer (i) eourtisent m. dc 

untomb the bones of a pcrsou, who in his li(e>time, 

faire flgtewcr le corps 'dp durant (oute sa vie' 

had ^A his great enemy : No, no, replied (c) the king, 

I wish all my enemies were as honourably buried, 

row/oir (e.irr.)gtf^ {^)ausd enterrer (i)(6) 

Do- nothing to day Hiat thou mayest repent of to 
Faire (k) dont se rcpentir (f.irr.) 


2. It is difficult for a man uneasy and turbulent, t^ 
- - que inquiet 

enjoy true satisfaction. 

avoir (Jt) jamais uu vrtd contcntementy ra. 

. . ^^^^ 




(I) 77 


(3) i% 


(^) 68 


■AA) 9^ 


rt. I Page 



3. It appears that self-love is the most terrible and the 

amour-propre (a) * 
most dangerous of our enemies ; since, after having in^i- 

puhqueapris sHre iim- 
nuated itself int* our favour under ibe titleof an intimate 
huer(\) auprh de pouf a titrt intime{l)^ 

counsellor, it makes use of the lights whkhthis(2) 
€ons€iller,m, ne se servir {a) lunu^reSyf, 

employ gives (3) it only to betray (3) us. 

que pour trahir 

4. I do not believe, that true friendship . can . ex- 

croire ( vrai amitie^£,powooir(S^n')ex^ 
ist among people wlio are not viirtuous.v 
ist-cr entre des personncyi, • ^ 

There is no man so constftnt in his prindples, 

II n*y avoir (sl) point d^humine * 

as not to have changed sometimes. There is no (4') go-* 
que a n'en avoir (f) quelquefbis, 

vernment, that lias not had it's variations. 

There is no (4") condition so low, but may fa^ve 

f. bas que elle nelaisser(f) 
hopes; or any so high, that is | out of the reach. 
esperancef f, ni de eleve qu'eUe ne (f) accessible 

of fear. 
d (5) craintCt^ f. 

The world can never be so bad, but an honest (6) 
mond^y m, assez dtpravef pour que 

man will, at one time or other, > be thought good 

i6t ou tard ne itre (f) croire (iJl|^) 

for something* , - ^ ' 

5. You do net "believe, that the subjunctive mood is properly 

/ croire (z) made^m.i^) bicn. 

used in our language. 

employer (i) langucyf, 

6. It appears, that man is ingenious in tormenting him^ 

sembkr (a) (f) el se tourmtnUt* 








(i) 68 


(3) 77 


(5) 5^- 


{^) ^i 


(4) 53-^ 


(6.) 00 







7. of great (1) consequence to be that (2) \yliich 

f. que nous (f) 
we would be thought to be. 

vouloir (e.irr,) qu*on nous croire (g). 

8. 1st. There man, wbatver merll be ibay have, but 

quelque {Ofui\ne 

would be much mortified, if' he knew all that is thought 
(g) mortifies savoir {b) on penser (o) 

. ' of him (3). 

However glorious an action is in itself it ought 
Que! que que f, {J) 

.sot to pass for great, if it be not the effect of wisdom 

^a) ^ sagesse^f, 

and good (I) design. * '' 

iTun desseiUf m. ' 

2d, If you read (4-) history, and look £br a 

/i/e, (a) que tous chercher (f) 

prince equally favoured and persecuted by fortuu.e, 

igalemcntfavoriser (i) de la 

.you wiU find (5) -him in the person of the ^ emperor 
trQuver (.i) f. empereur yin. 

Henry IVi 

3d* Homer, who invented the fables of the gods and (6), 
Homdre ihventer (C) 
demigods, is the most agreeable liar that ever was. , , 
» /tfemi'dicux menteur (g) 

The emperor Antoninus is looked upon as one of the 
empereur Antonin regarder (i) 
grea)ipi (1) pi;inces thfit ever rejgned. 

avoir (J) jmnais regnL 
They draw diamonds from the* mines of Golconda 
Qn ^irer (a) des diamant, m. mine, f. Golconde 

and (fi) Visapour^ the most renowned that are in the 

rmomme qui {£) 
Orientate (7) Ind^s. ^ 

5tb« We have npt one history, which is true in all it*s 

histoite^U (S)'Crai 

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(«) 5$ •! 

(7) ^8 . 7 

- Cii. V. Sect. II. SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.. 159 


par fie y f. * . \ 

6ih. If in my youth '1 bad known the value 

jtunesse^i. {^ connQitre{},\iu)pri3;im. 
of time, and that it wa^ irreparabde^ 1 would Have em* 

tfmps^m, (b) (e) ep^ 

ployed tl) it (2) better. , 
plsyer .(\) mieux*' » 

9. I do not believe, that peace will be of long dwrationi ' 
crohre (a.irr.) paftr, f. (e) duree, f. 

iO. What^ would you have him to do against three f 

Que vouloir(b,iir,)vous qu'il fairt{g) 
To arc. ■' 

Qui/ m&urir, (g) 
Could you believe, that Milton had been one of the 
croire{e) (g) (0 . , 

warmest abeLtors . of those who put to death Charier 
ardent dtfenseur^ m. mettre (c.irr.) 

(3) the First ? ' ' 

1 1. We despise the worlds when we know XO Jt thoroughly; 

mtpriser (a) connoitre (a) , djhfid ; 

but we give ourselves up to it before we know (1) it; 

selivrcr {'a) (\) y ^voJit que co/moUre (f) 
and the heart is frequently misled before reason enlightens 

. souxent - ^gart eclair er (f) 

(i)it. ■ ... . 

The magistrates are sometimes (S) obliged (4) to tqP;fd.te 

certain evils, for fear that greater ones should happen. • 
w?a/,ni.(5)(/e crainte qiie il ne en arriver (f}de plus grand, • 
You never will • become learned, unless yoft 
ne jamais {9) devenir {d) saroant dmoinsqut 
study methodically and assid.uously. 

Hudier (f avec.mtihode avec assiduite. 

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Psge Art« 

(5) 7 a 



The Government of Verbs. 

1. Active verbs govern the first case, see p. 6; as, I 
read the Bible, je lis la Bible. Passive verbs goverti the 
second case; as, he is esteemed by all men, il est estime de 

- tout le monde : they also govern the first case with the 

preposition par, speaking of some bodily action; as, he was 

killed by rohb'rs, il a ite tue par des voleurs. ' 

In speaking of actions, which partake both of the sentiments of the . 
mind and motion of the body, we commonly make use of far^ 
though we say, U est entouri dr'gens enrmyeux, he is surroanded by 
troublesome people ; here M/0«r/ expresses only, that troublesome 
people are round about him. 

2. Some verbs are followed by the preposition d without 
any other case; some, beside the preposition ^| govern 
also the 1st or the 2d ca«^e; as: * 

Ob6ir ^quelqu*un, to obey somebody, 

Penser d quetque chose, 'to think ojf somethings > 

Donner quelque chose, d quelqu'un, to give something to 

Accoutumer quelqu'un d quelque chose, to accustom some^ 

bo4y to something, 
^ 3. Some verbs are followed by the preposition de without 
any other case ; some others, beside the preposition de^ 
govern also the Ut or the dd case ; as : 
Se souvenir de quelque chose, to remember something, # 
Medire de quelqu'un, to slander somebody, 
Acc^ter quelque chose de quelqu'un, to accept something. 

of somebody, 
Avertir quelqu'un de quelque chose» to admonish swnebody 

of something. 
Commander a quelqu'un de faire quelque chose, tocdmmand ' 

somebody to do something, 

4. Many verbs govern the infinitive with the preposition 
d before it: in this case, fb in English almost always may 
be (Ranged into in, or for-, as, help me to do it, or in 
doing it, aidezmoi ^ le ^aire. ' - 

5. Some verb§ have the prepositipn pOur before their 
infinitive, which occurs when to denotes the design, end, 
or re^Hon of the piission or action of the verb. In this . 

case, to can be changed JRto vii order to> •ooitfi a (Icsigii toy 

CiK V. Sect, Til. OF VERBST. l6i . 

to the end that; as, I came to see you, or in order to see 
vou, or with a design to see you, Je sitis venu pour toi/s voir, 

6. There arc five verbs after which de^nd a are used indiscriminately 
before the infinitive : contra'indre, covtinuerf diicofttifiutr, essaytry/orcgrm' 

The verb ohiiger, in the sense of to fprce, to excite, to engage, i« 
. followed by the preposition ^J^ before the infinitive; as, 1 will oblige 
him to do it, je I oh/igerai a Ic faire; when it is used passivelyj it is • 
followed by. the preposition de\ as, he was obliged to do it, il fut 
oblige de le faire. 

When the verb tacber signifies to aim, it requires the preposition ^ 
before the infinitive; as, he ami to hurt rne, il idcbe a rae nuire: 
otherwise it. reqqiiies the preposition de\ as, I will endeavour to 
please you, je tacbirai de vou's plaire. 

When the verb i'efforcer is used in the sense of tq strive, to strain, 
to make use of all our strength, it requites the preposition d bcfoic' 
ihe next infihitive ; but, when it is used in the sense of to endeavour^ . 
to m^e use of our industry, it rirquircs the preposition de^ as, he 
strove to riin, ii i*est ej^orce a conrir ^ he endeavours to please her, i^ 
5'^' r« ^f lui plaire. 

When the vcib tarder is used pcrton^lly, it requires the preposition • 
^*; when impersonally, tbe preposition de ; as, do not stay, vip 
fardtx pas i revenir ; I long to see her, il me iarde de la voir. In tl)i> • 
■ sense it is always joined to a third case, and may be (bllov^cd by gu^p.. 
with the verb in the subjunctive (nood ; as, il me /arde fue'^c la vote* 
. The verb commencer is^ sometimes followed^by de /according (o the 
French. Acadimy, the ear is the judge in su^h a case. When it 
signifies to begin by, it is followed by par; as, he l>cgan by reading, 
iEsop's Fables,* i I roMfftcffftf^r lire les Fables d'Esope. 

Tbe verb Mtfff^vtfr requires the preposition dc before the ipfinitive^ . 
when i^is used negatively ; as, I will not fail to do what you pleaie, 
je ne manquerai pat dt faire ce que vous vouUx ; or when it siguifiei^ .«- 
to be near, to be like to door suffer any thing; as, I was like to fall^, 
j^ai maftqu^ de tomher* In this sense it is always used affirmatively, . 
and hi familiar discourse. 

But when it is used alHrmatively in the sense of not to dp what we 
ought, it is followed by the prepositioif ii; as, he has failed to do hifli 
duty, i/ii manque a /d»r; ion </«x;o{V. 

7. De is used before the infinitive of verbs, after certain 
nouns joined to the verb avoir without ah^ article ; such are * 
avoir coftgc, permission, envie, coutiime, bestmt, sitjetj 
raison, droit, tort, occasion, &c., de, 

8. Infinitive moods governed by the verb itre, followed by a noun ' ■ 
governing the second case, take also de before them;. as, I am glad to-- 
see you, je suit tien aise de vqus •voir. But it the verb itrr be followed 
by an adjective which governs the third case, the verb which is in the 
infinitive takes before it the preposition ^ ; as, he is ready to go 
thither, //«/ pr^t kjrW/rr. 

9. When r/rtf, signifying . to be, is foWo^fie^ Vj"^ ^ wsvm^ ^TkS^ V^^\ 
ceded by ee, the foiiowing verb, in the in^mUNe m6»a!^, V^ ^xtc'c^^A - 
by^uede-, $$, it is a folly for a man to iotBtX.VvvtQ&^\^> Oe»s. une i»-^« 

10. De J* put before tjie ialinitivc after vcmr ^tk4 n« i*^* ^*^ ^^'^'^ 



fying an actloa that has just taken place; as, I left him just now, je 
viens de U quitter^ or je ne fais que de ie quitter* These two verbs are 
frequently used thus in the present and imperfect tense, but in no other, 

11. A\% put after the' verb ve^/tr signifying to begin, or to set about 
jdoing something; as, when \ began to speak, quami je vins zparkr^ 

. This verb is used in all it*s tenses, and is commonly placed after some 
conjunctions. Sometimes it is npt expressed in English, though it is 
added to the French verb ; as, when he shall know that, quand il 
viendra \ savoir ceia. 

12. ^ is piit before infinitive moods or verbal nouns governed by 
itrCt preceded by ce, and used in the sense of to be a person's torn, 
iiis business^ or his duty ; as» it is your tutn to drink, c*est i i)oui a 

13. The verb coming after ^hmc or frti^ very often requires the pre- 
position pour before it ; as,' he has vanity enough to believe it, il a 
»ssez dt vauiti pour le eroire* Sometimes it takes the preposition 4* ; 
as, to afiFroqt hin;i was not sufficient, ce n'Uoit pas assez de Poutrager : 
sometimes no preposition at all j as, this is insulting me enough, or 
too much, c^est assez ou e*est trop m*tntulter» Hence it appears how 
Tiuch grammarians are in the wrong, in saying thattfxx^a: and trop aU 
^9ys require the preposition j^Mvr before the next infiaitive mood, 

14. When two or more verbs requiring different cases after them 
govern the same object, this must follow the ftrst verb In the case this 
verb governs, and a relative pronoun must be put after each of the 

lother verbs in the case governed by that verb ; as, that pleased and 
tbarmed the prince, eeiapiut au prirree H le cbarma^ and not cela plut 
et cbarma lepr'wce^ because plaire governs the ibiid case of the per>soo, 
and ctarmer the first. 

15. There are some verb$ which take no preposition after 
|hem before the infinitive mood ; as, aUer^ venir, envoyer^ 
saoaiTy faircy oser, Toif\ pouvoir, vouloir^ croire, preiendre^ 
% 4evoirM tcauter, entendre^ daigner, &c. " 


1. When I see (1) bir^s build their nests with so much 

voir (a.irr.) former nid tant jf2) 

art and skilf, 1 ask what master taught - (3) them 
urt adrcsse, demander (a) appvmdre (c*irr.) 

mathematics and architecture, 

Cod. will reward the good, and punish the 
f^compenser (d) . bon, nu punir (d) 
m^chanti in. 

Reading adorns * the mind. 
-LectureyLorneriB) esprit; 

Page Art, I Pajp Art. \ T«^ Kt^* 


cii.v.sect.iii. government of verbs. 163'. 

Help your neighbour, and do not insult' him Id bis 
Aider (k) prochmH^ va. ■ » 

in fortune. 
mauvaise fortune. 

Nothing (>er«uades men more efiectually than good 
ne persiiader (b) efftcaceinent 

A sagacious man, who sees consequences in their 
sage ro/r(a.irf.) f. 

principles, and effects in their, causes, may 

pDuvair (hMt.) 
cause himself I to be looked upon | by the people as a 

sefaire regarder du peuple 

pfophet. , . 

prophete, m. . 

The wise know how (t) to foresee ^ evenfs, 

L*hommesagesav(nr{siArr.) , prhoir{Q.^^-vtnm€ntym. 

and to 1 lay hold of | occasions. 
A thought is not fine, if (3) it be not understood by the 
ptnsee,^. beau entendre (i) 

most ignorant, and esteemed by the most skilful. 

estimerX}) habile 

The man who cannot bear misfi^rtune is really 
poy voir {Q,.irr, )8Upport€r(2)inf'orfua€^f» 

' We easily forget our faults^ when they are 

.aisemeni{^)ouirli€tX») * ne vtre (a) 

known only to. ourselves* 

savoiri},\rx.)quede * * 

The burying places of the Africans are planted with 
cimetiere^ m. ' de 

flowers, less to serve as ornaments, than to indicate 
/?eMr, pour de pour 

the frailty of human life / ^ 

frqgilite; f; huniaAn (5) vie^ f. 

Our timidity augments the arrogance of an enemy, 
ldch€t6,£. •/er(a) 

Page Art. I P%g6 An, \ '^^^^ ^^'^^ 

/i)bowfJMot,xjfrestidl (3) 9 S \ Vi^ ^"^ "^ 

(JJ i5 t'\ (4) SV >S \ 



2; Qur heart persuades (I) us easily what it desires. 

c(tur^ m. - aisiment ce que il dtsirer (a) 

He (2) who engages another to comroit a crime 

persuader (a) d un autre de comm^ttre ni. 

is not less guilty, than he (2) who commits (3) it. 


Ait\ honest man hurts nobody, he does not slan- 

ne nitire {&) d personne nie^ 

der his neighbour. 

dire (a. WT.) do prockain^m, 

Po' us very judiciously (4*) compares peace to. health, 
JPolyoe jttdicieiisement (5) patx, f. (5) scfjif^, f. 

ai>d war to a (iangerous (JS) illness. 
{5) guerre, £, maladie^f. 

3. Let us be afraid to dishonour ourselves. 
^craindre (k) dishonorer 
The excess of a distemper sometimes#(4) forces the 
exces, ra. mal, m. forcer (a) 

physician to be cruel. , 

"mcdedn, m. ' . 

Aristippus, the philosopher, requ(?sted his companions to 

charger (c) 
tell his fellow citizens from, him ^ to think' betimes". 

. concitoyenyTa. desapart songer de bonne heure 
of providing themselves with stores, which they could 
"d, se procurer des bicns pouvoir {g,\TV,) 

save with them from shipwreck. 
SQUver ' du naufragi\m» • 

A learned (6) man doubts of all that (7) is not certain;. 
' docte douter (a) 

'the prudent (6) man mistrusts all that is not safe ; thd 

vise (6) man a^sindons to popular . prejudice all that is 

populaire (,5)pr(ji{g€s, m, 
not sufficiently sscertuined. 
sujfisamment assure. 

The chief is afraid of being discovered;' the^ 
larron, m. crav^re (a) etre decoworir (i.irr.) 

Page AtU I Kage A.Tt^ \ * 


rogue of being known; the sharper of being sur- 
Jripfni, m. recontwttre (i.irr.) ^lou^ m. sur^ 

prised ; and the Jobber of being taken. 
prendre (i.irr.) voleur, m. prendre (i.irr.) 

The miser no more enjoys. what he has, than 
avare,m, pas plus {l)Jouir (jbl) de (Q) 
what he has not* , 

The Dutch have a good proverb : Thefts / never 
HollandoiSyTa. ^ {$) vol, m*jamm${l) 

enrich ; alms , never (1) imppverisb ; prayersi. hin- 

en rickir (a) (3) aumone, f. appawcrir (a) (3) prkres,tn*emm 
der no work. 

pecker (a) (4) travaiUer, 

If we had no pride, we should not so often (4) com- 
(b) d'orgveil, m. * plain- 

plain of that of others. 
dreXe) celui - v 

Isocrates says, that . a prudent man ' ought to 

fevoir (a) ^e 
remember things past, to make use of the present, and 
ressowoenir des ' *e servir 

foresee those which are to come. 
prevoir les futures. 

4. Herodotus tells us of the ancient Persians, that 

Hirodote raconter (jai) Person, 

from the. age of five years • to twenty they instructed 
depuis an\m,jusqu\d enseigner{hy 

their sons only in three things, to manage the horse, ta 
d dresser 

make use of the bow, and to speak truth. 
se servir arc, m. dire verite, f, 

Astraea was the daughter of Jupiter and Themis ; after 

Astree (b) 
having dwelt upon earth during all the golden age, 
avoir kabiter (i) • ' ^durant d'or{5) dge, ro« 

she returned tu Heaven, | as soon as \ men beg^n to 
s'en refoumer^c) dh que commencer (c) (Q 

corrupt themselves. 

se corrompre. 

Pag* Art. 

'(O^ 55 «5 

(a) 9; 3 

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The study of history disposes (1) us not to be surprised 
etude hUioire, {, {2) retire point surprendreQ} 

at the various events, of (S) wbic(i%e are the witne^es. 
des dvoer^ tvenemens timoin, m*. 

A good instructor endeavours to render agreeable 
prtcepieur*f m. s^efforcer (a) 4 * 
I every thing ( tha| is useful. 
tout ce qui 

Julius Caesar, having landed in England, saw that ibe 

{b)faitvne deicentc roir (c.irr.) 

inhabitiEints of that island used very long swords, and 

ceite avoir (h) de {^) tpee^ f. 

very small shields; from which he drew this judicious 
de (4) bouclier, m. de Id tirer (c) (4-) 

infereiice, that it would be dangerous to have to fighl 
consequence^ i, (e) de ttcombattr^ 

with men, who sought more to ofiiend their ienemies tbao. 

des sohg€r(h) d nuircd 

to defend (l) themselves, 

se ' ^ ' 

5. Diana had her temple at Epfaesus ; it was one of the 

Diane (b) m.^ Bphese; ce (b) 

3even winders of the world: ilerostratus set it oii\ 
merveilLe^ f . mettre (c .i r r. ) f5) ^ ie* 

fire, to rendec his name immortal; but the £pbesian» 
Jeu pour nom,m, . Epbtsiens 

prohibited, oa pain of death, the very mention of bis 
defendre (c) de la ynort de mcme prononcer 

name. * 

According to Newton's calculations, seven or e|gbt 
Selon . calcul - 

minutes are sufficient for the light to come from tb^ 
minute suffire {&) dfalumi^re^f,(Q)parcenir 

sun to the earth i that is to say, to cross a distance 

jusqu*d la . c*est-d-dire traverser^ espace^m, 

of near thirty-three millions of leagues. 

pres de millioH lieue* * 

Art. I - Page • Art^ 

(5) 7.8 iz 

(6) i6o 5 


Art. , 


f^) 77 



(2) i6o 





PalaniQdlf s inventeJ the g&me of chess, at the siege 
Falamide inpentet'dc) jeU^m. {\)4chccs, 

of Troy, as well to serve for a diversion to the soldiers, 
Trojfe, iant (2) Krvir ate droertissement des soldats, 

as to teach (3) them the stratagems of war. 

que fjpprendre ritse^ f. guerre, f. 

Man has too much knowledge to be a sceptic, and 
trop cwinoissance, f. (2) sceptique, 

too much weakness to be a stoic. 

foiblesse, f. (2) stdicien, ' . 

Youth wants " wisdom to deliberate, and 

Lajenncsse manquer (a) (4) sagcssCf f. (2) delibirer 

old age wants streiii»th to execute. 

Tidllease, f. puissance, f. (2) ^ 

6. We have scarcely begun to live, when we must 
d peine a-t-02i comm€m:er(\)(5)vivrequeil/aliQir(9,,\Tr.) 
think of- Hyrng. 
songer d mourir. 

As religion obliges us to revere princes^ princes are 
f. oblige'r (a) -(5) rivirer 
obliged to revere religion. 
(5) ■ ■ 

Many people take upon themselves to (4) reform the 

j^ssez de gens ' . se meler (9.) 
world, but scarcely any one begins with reforming 
fnonde,m,maispresqu€ personnene comm€m:er{a,}dsc 

Charles XII, king of Sweden, ruined his kingdom,* 

Sutde [^.^royuume^m^ 

in endeavouring to place Stanislaus lipon t-he throne of 
en s'eforcer^h) {5) irmetm. 

Poland. ■ . t . ' ' 

Pologne. ■ 

Every one ought to strive to increase in wisdom. 
chacun devoid (a) s*efforcer . croitre en (6) 

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Page Art. ) Page Art. 

(i). 5a I ^3) f7 Ji \ (5) »6t ^ 

(2) ;^o S .J(4} »^0 l,\ \S\ h\' <^ 



,, The unfortunate have never failed to complain, 
malheureux ( 1 ) manquer (i) (2) H pktindre. 

He Is despised, who fails to fui^l the du* 
' On . mipriser (a) celui qui manquer (a) (2) Templir ^cfe- 

ties of bis situation. 

voiTy m. elfaif, m. 

f. King Alphonsus was wont to say, that his dead 

avoir (b) coutume (3) dire mort (4) 

xounsellors, meaning his books, were to (5) hina far 
conseUler, m. voulant dire Ikre, m. (b) plus 

better than the living; for they, without flattery or fear, 
utile vivant ; car ceuX'ld ^^'^rie,Lnicrainte 

told (5) him the truth. , 

dire (b) vliH^yf. , 

Children say what they do, oid people what (6) they 

Enfant i m. dire (a) (6) faire (a) vieitlard, ra. 
have done, and f6ols what they have a mind to do'* 

(a) (i) sot, m. (6) (a) cnvie (3) 

'8« It is shameful, to be subservient to oar passions, 
II honteux -de cibeir 

It is glorious, to be useful to our country. 

utile ' patrie^ f. 

9. Censure' is a tax, which a man pays to the public 
Censurcy f. taxe, f. payer (a) , 

for being eminent; it is a folly to think of escaping it, 
eminent; ce folic, f, penser d y cchapper 
and a weakness to be affected | by it. | 
foiblesse, f. toucM, (7) en. 

It is the character of consummate merit, to be Me ts 
marque, f. sjipfrieur pouvoir 

live in retirement with honour, after a man has lived in 
dans retraite, f. • i apres qu*on en 

public with splendour, * * 

10. They had just finished signing a treaty of peace, whem 

fnir de signer fraite, m. paix, ' 
war was rekindletl again with more fury. 
guerre se rallumcr (c) defurjeur, f. 

^age Art, 



Page Art. 

,(t) Si 6 

(4) 68 
is) 77 


. (6) 

9« S 

(2) iOi 6 , 



78 •/ 

(3) i6i 7 


. ^ 


11. As soon as Mr. A. began to speak of his horses^ 
^ussitot que venir {c) {{) parler coeval, m. 

dogs, hunting, &c., I tocxk a French leave ©f the company. 
(2)chien, m, chasse, f. quitter (c) la compagnie sans dire motm 
1^. it is to youth jparticulaily thai it is- becoming to 
(3) jeunesheyU * convenir {n,ur.)de 

be liiodebt. • , 

13. Usurpers at their | assuming power | have authority 
Tlsurpateur^m, avenement 

enough to commit murder, but they have not enough 
assez X^-) Qommettre meurtrt^ m. rien avoir (a) 
to hinder "it, 
empecher Ic 

14. Love and obey your parents. 
Aimer ()l) obiir Ck) 

15. We all of us complain of the shortness of time, siiya 

se plaindre (a.) b}ievetS,f* temps, m,' 

Seneca, and yet have much more than we 

Seneque, cependant nous en avoir ^b) que n*cn 

know . I what to do with | . IVjIost |nen spend the 

5flro2r (a.irr.) {5) employer. Laplupqrt dcs passer {a) 

greatest part of their lives, says he, either in (6) doing 
portic, f. vie, f. ou d /aire 

nothing, or in acting amiss, and quite other things 
(6) . mat tout chose, £ 

than they ought to do. 

que ce que devoir (e) faire, '' 

We cannot please' virtuous people; if,, far 

Onnepouwir{a.}rr.){5)plaire vertueux personne,£, loin 
from endeavouring Jo repress our passions, we obey them 
de travaitler ^ ses on l^uf 

and give ourselves up to them entirely. 
on selivrer " (3) y avevglemenf. 
The rich ought to supply the wants of the poor. 

devoir (a) subvenir aux besoins pauvre,m» 

It I is necessary | to know how to penetrate into the 
/a^otr (a.irr.) savoir ptnitrer 

Page Art. Page Art. | 

!l) 162 II (3) 162 1% I 

Page Art. I Page Art. 

(5) t62 i^ 

i79' EXERCISES, &c. Paht II. 

interior dfmen^ nbt to be tfle dupe of their exterior. 
■> eur yin, pournepasHredupe^L — ewr,m. 

We wmy admire the | time past, / but we 

0/i (l)j!?o?et;oir (a.irr.)('2) passe, m, il 

must conform ourselves to the present. 

falloir (a . i r r, ) /accommodcr au 

Thoui^h the viengeance of God seems to be lame, 

Quoique f. stmhltr {^) {2) hoiteux 

and to come but sltmly; yet it overtakes, soorier or 

ne marcher que fort lentement^ elleatteindre (a) . tot 
later, the wicked, 
tard seller at ^ m. 

It was a maxim with Caesar, that we o«ght to reckon 
Ce(b) f. (/e . - dev(iir{yi) (2) compter 

we, have done nothing, so long as any thing remaiub to 
n* avoir riaifcdt • tant qu'ilfeste quelque chose : -i 

1)0 done. ^ 


Trflc (5) grandeur does not consist in doing what we are 

/, "--^^'terdjaire ccqucon 

willing ' to 'do, but in willing to do what we ought 

Toii?oir (a.irr.) (2)/ai/*e it (4) (2) cequ'on 
(2) to do. ^ . 

A man must be a simpleton, say the Spaniards, who is not 
il faut sot Espagnol, pour ne 

ible to make two verses; but he must be mad who 
youvoir (2) ' verSftia. il faut fou pour 

makes four. ^ 

tnjuire • 

Among the virtues which ought to. surroitnd the 
(5) devoir (a) environner 

throne, the t)eople look chiefly (6) for piety, justice, 

ckercher (^a) surtout — iif£» • f. 

^oura£[e, and mercy. 
drnvOurejt, cltmencey^. 

Politeness makes a man appear oiiiwarclly such arf 
Politesse,f> faire {'a)(9,)par6it re unhomme au dehors telque^ 
he ought to be inwardly. 
devoir (e)(2) interieurement. 

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(j) 'x/o 28 I (3) 68 6 I (5) 197 47 

h) i6z 15- \ (4) »»» * \ \^>>^VintU*|sr««^ 

( ni ) 




1." TMPERSONAL VERBS are used only in the ihird 
X peison singuliT. They are of two kinds : st»me are im- 
personal by their nature ; and these are never used but in the 
third person singular; as, il neige, ilpleut : others are some- 
times impersonal, sometimes^ personjj. These are persQnal 
when il in French has a relatLon to. some foregoing noun; 
as, drawing is a genteel amusement, it becomes young ladies ; 
Ic df^aiff est un- amuscmctU honnete^ il convient auxjeunes 
Der^oisdlcs : here il has a relatum to dessin. They are 
impersonal when it has no relaiibn to a fori^going noun; as, 
le desiin est un amusement honncte, il convient que les jeu?i€S ■ 

Demoistlles s^y app/i-qvent. 

a. The verb U pleut^ bisjde the ,usc made of speaking of rain, may b* 
used impersonally in a figurative sense, speaking of several otlierthiaga 
^hich may be supposed to fall like rain j as, il ^\cni des pien e$^ il 
pleui dt la manne dans U desert. 

q. S'imc personal verbs arc used impersooally inthe'third person sin* 
gular, though their following nominative is in the plural; as, n^any oc- 
casions aie lound ; U u ^ruwt/ehicn dts cccashtis, or ilya bicn desOiCOiionSm 

4. Ilya, there is, there are, some ^re, many are, may 
be followed by a noun in the plural ; as, there are few peo- 
ple," who apply themselves to their own language; il y a 
peu de gens qui s' appliqacnt d leur propre langue: Some- 
limes en is added to it ; in this case it has a relation to some * 
preceding noun ; as, il y a des gens qui apprennent le Latin; ' 
i\ y en a qui negligent leur propre langue : there are peopte 
who learn Latin; there are some who negieet their owu 

When we speak of something present, as if pointed at with the 
Hogcr, tl'cre is \s rendered in French by vo'u'a; as, tbere is- a han2lsome 
lacl/ ; vol. a une bdU dame 

5. The imper&oiia! ily a is likewise used to denote a quantity of, 
timf*. In this ..ise, ago, iince, these, znd for, are rendered in French by 
iiy a heginning the sentence ; afterward comes the number followed by 
qv^', as, I nave been in Loudon these three yearSj^il y a trois aos queje 
$uU a Loidres, If the impersonal be transposed, que is omitted; as, je 
vioi» a Londres U y a trois ans. In an interrogation, combfen y a-t^il qut 
... is commonly used. ' . , 

6. Veibs construed with the indeterrninate pronoun on 9re not pro- 
perly impcisonal, though used only in the third person singular; be- 
cause on may bejcsplved into a substantive ;.aKoa^4rl^ov\^v>CkSk'ccwvQ)X,% 


farlent; consequently all verbs may he preceded by dn, except those 
-which are impersonal by th(^ir nature ; as, for example) we never say 
•n neigf, 

7. The auxiliary verb to be, followed by the adjective 
necessary or requisite, when it may be resolved into we mustj 
is commonly rendered in French by ilfaut, with th'efoilow- 
ihg verb in the infinitive mood ; as, it is necessary to,^oT we 
must love our neighbpur, il faut aifner son prochain. 

8. II faut signifying a vuafit is followed by a substantive^ preceded, 
by one of these articles, un, de, des, du, de la ; as, to write well, we mus( 
Ihave good paper, ink, a«d pens ; pour bien 4:rire, ilfaut de bon pa- 
pier, de bonne encre, et de bonnes plumes. . 

Q. The verbs to be necessary^ mustf and should, signifying duty, and pre- 
ceded by \ pergonal pronoun, or any other noun, arc Vendered ia 
Fiench by the verbs i/jr<7»/, ilfaud'oit, iljaudra, 4cc., according to the 
corresponding tense in English? in this czitf il faut is followed by 
sue, then comes the pronoun, or tJae noun ; and the ver^, following 
Doth, is put in the subjunctive mood ; as,4^ust go, ilfaut quej *aille s 
my brother must go* ilfaut que mon fr^re aille, 

lo. It is, followed by luitb, is expressed in French by il en est, and 
the two following nouns are put in the second case, ana separated b]r , 
€otame : as, it is with you as with me; il en est de vous comme de moi, 


1, We have | every thing [ from. God; pt is fit, \ 
tenir {slAtt,) tout (l) il convcnir (jn} 

t is jasC, that we refer to him all our actions. 

rapporter (f) d lui f. , . 

It often happens, that, after hacving satisfied our- / 
(2) ar river (a) s*etr€ satisfait 

selves, we are not the more contented for it. 
on est conteJit ew (3) 

J. Cardinal Mazarine, prime minister of France, sent 

premier minist re envuy^r « 

so much money into Italy to enrich his relations, that 
(h) f ant de argent en pour enrichir parent ^ .. 

the Italians thought, that it rained gold and silver 
^roire (b.irr.) pteuvoir Qoiyor^m, argent ^m. 

into that country. 

3. There were in Hell, f according to | the poets, tlnree' 
Uy.avoir[h) enfer^tti- suivant po^te,n^ 

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(l) lO^ 10 

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(3) 78 »3 


furies, Ti^hone, l^legaera, and Alectq. 
furie " Megercy 

There were tbree destinies, or ttie three sisters, Clothot 
(I) ^ parquet wuVy 

Lachesis, and Atropos. 

There were three judges in Heil, Minos, Rhadamant|it]s» 
(1) J^ge Rhadamantef 

and iE'dcus. » 

Many truths . seem to \>e par^oxe^ at 
Plusieurs Ttrite^ f. parcitre (a.irr.y des paradoxes in, (2) 
^rst ; ' such was the opinion that there were antipodes* 
d'ahord; tel (b) . f. (1) (b> rf^ 

There are some unhappy moments, wherein the rop$( 
(1) (3) malheureux i|i» oi plu^ 

yirtuous are the most fe^ile. V 

vtrtuaix foible. 

There are some of:c^sions hi life, wherein (4). silencf 
(^) (a) w, (, ou ^ m» 

and simplicity ^re the best ^ poljcy. 
(4-) simplicile, f. meilieur politiqiie,^ f. 

There is in true virtue a candour and ingeriuity, 
0) (5) viritablc candeur^i, mg^nuit^yf^ 

which nothing'- can counterfeit. 

povboir (^.\TT,)contrefaire, , 
Derhaitt says, that there are (3) seas and rivers in 
dire {jfcAXT.) (1) mer^rn, rixiere^i. 

the moon ; Huyghens says, that there are (3) inhabitants 
lune^ f» (0 habitant 

m it. Cassini says, that he had observed in the moon m 

mountain, the height of whi^h appeared to (6) him ta 
montagneS* dont hatUei^r, f.. ' pdroUre, (b.irr.) 
exceed ^hrce leagues^ 
exceder, lieue. 

It depends on ourselves to be happy, sipce it is in ojgr 
dependre{8L) de keurenx puisque 

power to lead a good life. 
pQuvoir^ m» metier vie^ f» • 


Page Art. I Page Art. I Pi«t Ktt. 

(i) 171 4 I b) 64 i^ \ (.<N ^^ '^n ^ 
W SS «i I 5»^ i \ VJ^ 11 "^^ 


4. There have been philosophers, who maintained, that alt 

{\) pkilosophe soutenir {b.\rr.) 
passions were bad.. To seek to destroy the passions 
passions f £, (b)mauvais, Vouloir(^) detrulre 
would be to undertake to annihilate ourselves; 
xeiireie) tnirependre {S) antantir (4) nous, 

we must only regulate (4) them. 
il nefavi que regler 

There is no age, no condition, no situation, which 
\ 11 rCtst ni Stat 

I does Dot leave | a man the liberty and the means of 
ne laisser (f ) liber te, f. fnoyen^ m. 

practising some virtues. 
praiiquer f«rfw, f. 

There is at the least as much cfourage as sincerity 
pour le moins autant de que de ■ ■ t6iC. 

in confessing freely the faults which we have committed. 
it ' f. ' commettre (i)(5) 

There is no perfert model of virtue. 
11 n*y a point de parfait modUe^m. 

, There ii sometimes under dirty rfegs more pride, 

chiiif haillon, .m . orgue il, nt. 
than under gold and - purple. 
ijue sous or, m. pourpre^ f. 

'There is no government, in which there have not been 

(6) ou il n*y ait e» 

some variations. 

des . 

Tliere is no species in natnre, in which we do not 
point d'especes L oH Von nt 

seceive a great deal of variety. 

remarquerCO beaucoup variSi/i. 
* Where there is no honour, (here is no security ; and 
Ou pQini d'honneur^ sureie 

if I \^e must t die, .it | is better | to eocountef 

falloir (a.iTr.) valoir ( mieux qfrontej^ 

the danger, than to wait for it. . 

m. deVatttndre* ^ < 

JPkge A^U 

0) 54 ^^ 
(z) J 04 /^ 

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(3) ie>o ^ V U)^ \^i . 1 


\ - ■ 

It wa&^a fine compliment made to the emperor Ves* 
Ctfut I m.faire (i) 

pasian : Greatness and majesty have changed nothing 

^ {\)Grand€ur,f. {2) majestcyi.riont ' 

in you but this, that your power in do good should 

que C€ci, cest que pouvoir^ m. dejairc It hien 
be answerable to your will. 
repondre (a) volonte, f. 

There are (4) men of prey, as well as (4) beasts of prey/ 

(3) proie,i, beie^i. 

When there are so many thousands of dangers hovering 
(3) * tant de milliers qui tious 

about us, what wonder is it if one strike us 
menateniy Jaut'il s'itoiiner si en/in nous succomber{9.)d 
at last. 
un seul. 

5. It is 518 years since the present Turkish empire 
II y a (5,) an, m. que Turc 

began in Bithynia, under Ottoman. 
tommencer (c) 

It is 480 years since gunpowder was invented. 

(6) poudrCff, d canon (c) 

It is S60 years. since printing was invented. 

rart, m. (Timprimer (c) 
It is 357 years since Constantinbple was taken by 

prendre (i.irr.) 
the Turks. 

It is 228 years since the new style was introduced 

cakndrier, ro. iniroduir€(i) 
into Italy by pope Gregory XIII. 
en papt^m. 

It is but 55 years since Lisbon was destroyed by an 

dctruire (i) 
tremblement, m. de terre, 

6. It was said of the emperor $everus, as well as of Augus* 
Ona dit 



(iV 5» 


(*) S5 


(4) iA -^»* V ^* 


176 EXERaSES UPON Paitt !!• 

tus, that h« should never have been born, or that 

ne {i\ jamais (e) devoir {\) naUrer 

be should never have died. 

( I ) (e) avoir devoir (i) movrir. 

If, It j is necessary | to submit without reluctance to the 

falloir (a.irr.) se soutneltre de ton ,gre 
laws; to obey our naasters wilUngly; to serve our friends> 
Joi, f. obeir (2) . de bon volonfe, f. strvir ami 

heartily; and to do kindnesses to our inferiors with a 
de bon cxur faire plaiair de 

gt>6d grace. 
bonne grace, 

' To be learned, it is necessary to study ; to be wise ancf 
Four savani (3) ' (4i)etudier; sage. . 

happy, ft is necessary to be docile to. the advice of our 
keureux (3) (4) aux avis 

parents and masters. 

It is hepessary to prefer our duty to our pleasure. 
(3) (4-) priferer devoir y in« plaisirj in> 

It'is not enough to think with exactness, we must 
ne sujji re (a. irr,) pas de penser {5)justess€, it Jaht 
express ourselves with clearness and purity. , 
sexprimer clairenient purement. 

Children should be brought up in the fear of 

llfdltoirX,^Atr») elcver les enfans crainiey^f. 

God, and (6) the love of learning and (6) virtue. 

^€. There needs but one bad inclination to make ia maiv 

11 nefcdloir {aLArr,)que £, pour rend re 

yicioi^s, but many good ones are necessiry to make- 

mais il en falloir (a.irr.) plusieurs bonnes pour 
him virtuous. 
9.''An author ough^t to receive, with equal madenu. 
Ilfaut qu'un auteur recevoir (f) egal mq^ 

tion, the praises aird criticism which aie p,asse(| 
iestiey f.. leuange^ f.' (6) critique^ f. onfaire QEuirr.)» 

Piige Art. I Page Art. | Page 

0> S$ 2/ |. (j) 17a ^ \ Cs) 54 


on bis productiohs. 

The passions should be subject to (2) reason, 
Il/alloir (a) que les passions (f) soumettre (i) (1) \ f. 

It is not enough for a general to be prudent and brave, 

Ce que etre(£) 

it is also necessary that he be fortunate. 
il faut aussi que il (f) heureux. 

We must shun short enjoyments, which produce (.3) 
II faut eviter de courtes jaieSf £p produirg (yi) 

long pain. 

de (-t) dftuleur, f, . 

10. It is with our tiine as with our estates ; a good 

(5) temps patrimoine; 

oeconomist makes a little go a great way. 
econome, m. saii en tirer tout le profit possible. 

It is with beauty as with (lowers : it soon fades away, > 
(5) tCj f. Jleuryf. bi-ntot passe?' (a) 

It is with the diseases of the - heart, as with those of 
(5) tnalactie^ f. caur^ m, celles 

tl^e body; some of them are real, and som« imas^inary. 
corps y m. (a) riely » ■ '*aire^ 

W 6* 

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Pa^e Art. 

(3)' 136 I 
(4) 8 5 

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(S) !?» ^« 




PARTICIPLES are either active or passive; therefor© 
i shall take notice of them beparately in the two foU 
lowing sections. 

I7fl I - EXERCISES UJ?ON . Part 11. 


Tub Active oh -Present Particifla. 

1. The active or present participle is alivays indeclin- 
able ; as, a woman fearing God, and loying her husband ; 
line fennne craigtittnt DieUy et aimant son mari. Except in 
a verv few law terms, 

2. We now seldom miike use of a participle active,- except eta^nt^' 

and a^ant^ which are by some used bc(ore a ■ participle passive; as^ 

-having met with his brother, he spoke to him{ ayant rfucontr/ sott 

frih, ii lui pana. Except too when it is preceded by e;; ; as, in 

going, \ir while I was going ; en allant ; in eating, or^while I was- 

eating, en man^jeant. Some call this a gerund, and they are in th^ >. 

ri||ht. Howevtr it matters very little what it is called. 

Efty in this case, may oe translated into English by while, or when,, 
which may likewise be rendered in Frenclv by c(,mmt\ lortque^ or 
quandi the first of these requires the following ve^b in the imperfect ^ 
the other two require it in the present, or in any other tense ; as, I 
never speak while eating, or while, or when, I eat; je ne parle 
jamais, iorsquCt ou quandf'jt mange; and not, comme je mange; but ' 
we say, as I was at dinner, he came to see me ; comme je diaoiSy il 
tint me voir, 

3. Some participles are, by use, become adjectives, and 
sofTie substantives; aft, a detracting man, a detracting wo^^ 
man ;" i/» homme m6disant, line femme midhante, or un 
medisant, une medisante. In such a. case they are de- 

4. Participles follow the regimen of the verbs they cotne 
fcom ; as, his temper being repugnant to mine, son kumeuPi 
rep\ignant k la mienne, 



1. The Amazons were women • of Scythia ; they fol- 
'' Amazon^ -(b) (1) /omme, f, Scythit; suin 

lowed their husbands to war, and se^in^ (2) thena 
vre Cc.irr.) niari, m. guerre, f, ro?> (h.irr.) 

allt cut to pieces by the enemy, near il>e river ThefiiKiir 
tailler i}y{3il en poK pres dujfkuve 

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(*) 77 " ■ (3) f8i ' 

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doii in Cappadom, resolv<»d (\) to nonke war (beraselves; 

tn Cappadoce, rtsoudir, (,) 
they Hid (2) great eA;>ioi!s at the siege of Troy, under 

f air e (c.irr,) - m, sous 

the conduct of Penlhesilea. ' 


Flatteries ^ creeping before the great, 

Flatttur.m. fl^/fer (a.irr.) ramper (h) grand 

to be able to beccrpe insoJent to their equals. 
pour decenir envers ^gf^U ^n. 

A woman attHch^'d to Her «lur}es, fearin> - God, 
femme,, f. attacherj\) (?>) dfrorr, m. crairtdre (h) Dieu^ 
loving her (3) bvisbard, a'ld taking g.^f^d mrt' of her 
fl/mfr(h) mari, , artiir {h) hien soin 

famiJy, is b\ all those who kMow (4) her. 
famifie^f. respecter {) de cop7iotfre(a.'nT.)la^ . 

Gercraphy and chronolr gy be'ng ti.e two eyes of 
Gtographie, f. chronologie, f ccif 

history, t» study well the latter, we mu«4t be. gu'ded by 
histoire, f. pour celle-ci il faut 

. the former. 

Epaminondas, general of the Th^^bans, had such hatred to 

(t) vfte telle aversion de 
idleness, that, finding one of his captains asleep in the 
paresse trOuver (h) endormi pendant 

daytime, he slew (4) him; for which act bt-irig reproved 
lejottr tuer (c) laqiielle action, f. (h) hlamer (i) 

by his officers, he replied, . I left him as J found 

rtpondre (c'.irr.) Tiii laissecommeje fe atoir (a) 
bim; comparing idle men t<> 'lead men.. 
troiiter (i) faineant (5) hommes d mort 

•The beetle, beipg <h*si>ised by th^ <*ag?e, heg^n to 
escarbotyXn^ mipriser (i) fl^/e^ cowmiencer (c) 

think of taking vengeance. 
jfl^diter sur les moyensde se vettger. 

Demetrius of IPhalera having | been informed, | that 

(h) apprendre (i.irr.) 

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Art. 1 

•^^ 'KsVi 

(t) i^o 3 

(3) «7. 
I U) 77 


V vs^ *»• "V 

(2 J 53 ''S 



- \ 


the Athenians had thrown down his stataes. They have not, 

(b) renverser (i) 
said he, overthrown (1) virtue, which erected (^) them to 

dresser (i) 
(2) me. 

The raind. by extending and repeating. the ide« 
t.spnf^m, C7i if'rfdre{h) repeter {h) 

of durhlion uith</Ui 2^cr reaching the end, acquires 

durtc, f. sans jiurnih attdndre Jin^ f, acquirir (a.irr.) 
the idea of (l) e»er;iity. 

T!«e Styx was a river of (l) Hell ; the Gods having 
Hlyx. m. (b\7?cwre, m. enfer^ m. (h) 

sworn by it's waters were obliged to keep their 
jurer \^\) ses f. (b) obliger (\) (S) garder 

oath, on pain of being deprived of nectar and'divi- 

serment^m.'Smis peine de (4) prixer {}) m. ■■ 

nity for the space of a hundred years. 
— i/e, f. espace, m. arf,m. 

Hope may be compared to those fine trees, 

( 1) Eiperance , f. pouvoir (a.irr.) arBre^m, 

that bearing no fruit gratify (2) us with thei^ shade. 

giii ne porter {h) point de fier{ii) de ombre. 

i. If had rather, said Luciau, please by teilin|; 

aimer (f) mievx, dire (c) plaire en dire (h.irr,) 

truth than be diverting in telling fables; because, 
Vtrite, que d'amuser in f aire (h.irr.) (fe* contes ; parce que, 
if 1 be not agreeable, I may be useful, 

(a) pouvoir (a.irr.) utile, 

3. A grovelling mind never ^reaches to sublimity. 
(5) rampant {6) esprit , m. Jamais arriver (a) au sublime. 

An obliging person makes himself to be loved 
(5) obligeant {€) personne, f. sefaire (a.irr.) aimer 

by every body. 

4. Your portrait drawn by Mr. A. is not like tb^ 

m. fait ressemdlant d celin 

4r^vfn by Mr. B. 

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'2j 77 " 


Pa^ ^rt. 

Page Aru 

(j) i6o . ft 

(5) »78 3 

(i) »i* * 

i ^^\ " ^* 7 


Cu . Vil. Sect. II. THE PARTICIPLES. 181 


The Passive or Past PAftTiciPLlfc. 

I. The passive participle is declinable; 1, when it is 
used adjectively; as, men despised ; des hommes.meprises: 
thoy are loved ; ils sont aimis^ ou elies sont aimies. 

2(Ily,-^It is declinable, wken it is preceded by a noun or 
pronoun which it governs in the first case; as, the letters 
which I have received ; les Uttres que j'ai reeves, 

jdly, When, with the aaxiliary verb e/r«, it forms a neuter, reci- 
procal, or reflected verb, not goveruing ar first case, or followed by 
any other word making but one sense with it ; as, they have addicted 
themi>elves to xxzdc, -lis se scat sdonnis au n^goce. But we do not wf^ 
s.he put herself to death, <llt ^nt d»mmie la mort ; because U mort is a 
fiTst case. If the verb lave no governed word after it, the practiee 
t}f the rule is still more certain. 

The difi^ulty is to know whether the participle, followed, by aa 
infinitive mood, ought to agree with the foregoing noun or pronoun. 
As no giaramaiian explains this matter in a clear and intelligible 
manner, and it is besides of great use, I shall give some observations 
upon it in the following rule. 

II. The participle, followed by an infinitive mood, Is 

declinable, if it govern the foregoing noun or pronoun ; if 

the noun or pronoun be governed by the infinitive mood, 

the participle is indeclinable. 

Now, to know whether the participle* or the infinitive mood', 
govern the foregoing noun or pronoun, mind these following obaerr 

ist, Jf the infinitive be preceded by a prepo^itioo, the participle 
governs the noun or pronoun, if the noun or pronoun may be put, 
without altering the sense, between the participle and the infinitive { 
as, the soldieis whom they have compelled to march; les soIda<a 
yi/'on a contraints de marcher ; we may say, they have cc^mpelled the 
soldiers to march ; oh a contraim le% toldati de marcher. Again, the 
iiistory which 1 gave you to read, I'histoire que je yous ai dpnntt a lire; 
for we may likewise say, 1 gave you the history to ,iead ; jc vous ai 
dirtnee I'histoire Wire. ' 

Ou the contrary, the infinitive governs the foregoing noun or pro- 
noun, if this cannot bcplit between the participle and the infinitive; 
as, we nevr ought to swerve fiom the good way, which we began to 
follow ; il ne faut jamais s'^carter de la bonne route gme Von a t:om^ 
mence a iuivre\ we cannot say on 9 conttHtnci lahbnne roa/e a stiiirei but ' 
on a coif mence a suivre la bonne route. 

idly, Iflbe infinitive be not preceded by a preposition, the partU 
\ciple govei^s tlic foregoing n^u or pronoun, itXcvc VG^^aJv^-^^ \ca;?)\ik^ 


, • 

turned intQ the present participle in English, or rrndered in Frencli 
by quiy an4 the imperfect of the indicative mood, without altering 
the sense ; as, I saw her painting ; je I'ai vae peindre : I heard her singi 
jc Vz\ entendue cbsntti- 1 the Iadie;s whom t saw pass'.ng; Ui dames 
aue j'ai v«ics patter : the soldiers whom I saw goings; Ics soldats que 
yai vus fartir. In all the foregoing examples I may say, without 
-alftoring tlie sense, je l*ai vue qui peignoit, }e Tai enteudue qui cbaH» 

On the contrary, the infinitive governs the noun or pronotm, when 
the infinitive cannot be turned into the present participle,' or rendered 
by qui and the imperfect tense: thus, speaking of a lady, whose 
picture yfti% drawn, we say, I saw her picture drawn, je Tai %/» 
peindre; of a song, I heaid it sung, jt Vni enlendu chanter, 

III. The passive participle is indeclinable, ist. When it is imme* 
dia'ely followed by qtit or qul^ at, the consequence which I intended, 
that you should draw from it, la Consequence que y^t priUndu que 
vous tiraAstez* 

idly, When the participle and the auxiliary verb are used imper* 
tonally ; as, the hot weather we have had, Ics chalcurs quMl a Jait, 

3dly, The passive participle is iiMieclinable, when it can- 
not be joined to a substantive as it's adjective ; therefore the 
participles parU^ agi, ete, dot mi, menti, &c., are never 

4tl)ly, When it is followed by it's governed case; as, I 
have received'the letters, y^/t reijules lettres, 

Mhlv/lhe paiticiples pu frontpoitvoir, voulu from vouhir^ 
eilher because they are not nscd adjectively, or because an 
infinitive is understood, which governs the preceding noun; 
as, I made all the endeavours I could, j'ai fait tous les 
efforts que j*ai pu ; /aire is understood after pu. 

IV. It ia the opinion of some grammasifias, that, when the subject 
or nominative case of the verb, or an adjective, comes after it, the 
participle is indeclinable ; but good authors, such as theabb£s Gi^ard 
indd'Olivet, Masicun Duclos, Marnumtil, 5rc., make it declinable i 
af, there is a good lesson our misanthrope has received, voilk nne 
boane le9on qu'a rcfue notre iniiiantbrope ; — Marmnntel : the impres* 
aion, which the reciul of your misfortunes made on me, I'impreMioa 
que m*aytfU£le recitde vos malheurs; ib. 

The participles in the foregoing examples are declinable, because, 
according to the second obseivation, the foregoing.aounraie governed 
by the participles. ' 

V« According to the aecood obscrvatiofi we write, the .ladies whont 
you canoe to see, les dames que vous e:es venu voir, because the fore- 
going noun is governed by the infinitive. 

Though a personal conjunctive pronoun l^ put before ailf or ^feiWf 
followed by a verb in tn^ iafinitlve mood ; the participles a/ii and 
vinu muat agree with the person to. which tliey relate; \hm we w<ite, 
she came to see yoo, ellt vout tit veoul vc/r» 

Ch. VII. SbCt. If. THE PART1CJH.ES. 1«9 


1. The inhafoitantf of the - city of Sybaris banished the 

habitant vitk^ f. bannir (t>X 

cocks, for fear of (1) being awakx»ned by them. 
coq^ de peur evcil/er (i) (2)€n, 

The fleet destined .to go to the siege of Tirpy wa» 
Jlotte,£.destinH3) siege, m, (b) 

Composed (3) of twelve or thirteen hundred ships/ 
composer (i) . vffisseaUy^, 

Alinerva .was considered among the pagans as the 
Minerve (b) (5) parm pdien comm€f 

patroness of liberal arts. 
protect rice beau arty m. 

The Mases^ who were the daught€i^ of Apollo and 

qui (b) 
Mnemosyne, were placed Under the direction of Apollo; 
(c)i7J!e/^rt(i.irr.)' sous conduite, f. 
Rome was, at first, governed by (5) kings. 
Rome (c) d'ahord, gouvernt (4) 

Greenland was (f) discovered in the ninth centi>ry 

Le Groenland (c) deconvrir (i.irr.) si^cie^ 

by a Norwegiat), calkd j^ric ; it is situate be^een Eu^ 

NorvegieUy (4) ' ' 

rope and America* The sea of Greenland is frozen 

ffteVy f. gdi 

during nine months. 

Apollo promised , Cassandra, the (6) daughter of 

promctire (c.irr.) d JUit, f. 

king Priam, the giiPt of prophecy J but afterward having 
roi don, m, — — ^-cie, . ensuitc (h) 

I met with | a repulse, he annexed this penally 10 bit 
epronver{\) refus^ untr (c) - pmnition, f. 

proiDisfs, that bhe should ever foreiel the truths 
. promtsse, f. iottjaurs pridirt (c.«rr,) vraiy m^ 

but never be believed. 

maia qu*eftt ne seroit jamais or aire (i.irr.).. 

Page Art. I Page Art; | Page 

(f) til % 1 (3) i8i 4 (a) V^ 

Page Art. 


We m^st never give occasion of being thought 

7te devoir {r) jamais donner croire(\.\vT.) 

weak and timorous by avoiding danger; but we must 

Jlnble^ I ) timidcy en cherchant ii tviier in. mais 

ato avoid exposing ourselves to danger without cause.. 

aum eviter de > 

We cannot trust a history, which has not 
^ On ne pouvoir (a) se^cr d hist nre, f. 
been written by a contemporary author, 
ecri/e (i.irr.) '-rain (2) auteur, m. 

2d, It is easy to justify faults, which have 
aiae de '^^-fierlcsfautc^i. que Von a, 
been committed through necessity. 

/airf(i)(3) - te. 

It is less dangerous not <Co declare war against rft* 

moins reux de ne pas rer guerre^ f. aux, 

b«U, than not to finish (4) it after it has been begun. (S)^ 
^ dene pas — 1> qnandon I'a commencer (i) 

Seneca says of himself, that in Lis youth he 
Seneque rfire(a.irr.) Jeunesse^f, 

repeated two thousand proper (2) naines, after (5) haytug 
repttef (b) , noms^ m. . 

lieard (4) them once only; and lliat he repealed (4) then)' 
entendre (i) vne seulefois ; 

in the same order in which they had been^ recited to hiin, 

qu'ou Ics lui avoit reciter (}%3) 

The princes of Greece held a general (2) meeting at 

tenir{c,\rr,) assemblies f. 

Sparta and Argos, where it was resolved, that they 
Sparte (c) resoudre (i.irr.) 

should join all their forces under the conduct of 

Joiftdre, (f.irr.) f. - cnndui^, f, 

king Agamemnon^ to revenge the affront which Menelaus, 

(6) vender m. 

his brother, had received from Paris. 
(b)rccero?r(i) Pdris. 

Study rids us of the erroursy into which the pre« 
effranchir (jsl) oH pre^ 




(i) 6& 


(3^ «8i 

(^ ^« 


(4) 7« 

ilrt. I 

4 I 

Page Art* 
(S) *" 6 


jddices of bad education had plnnged (1) u** 
Jugt, ip. f. (b) plonger (i) (^) 

The bad examples, which princes have . «etr 
inauvaisex€mple,rD, , dannerQ)(2) 

often turn against cheiuseWes. 


People greedy of their liberty easily abuse il> 
Les peuples avide ■ » ' te, f. en abuser (a) aiitmesi^ 

as soon as they have recovered it. • ' - 

desqu*ils , rontrecouvrer (\)(2) 

People can neVer coitipreh^tid t!i6 ilisoF- 

On ne pouvoir {a att,) jamais bien si reprhen'ter disor-^ 
^ers of civil (^) wnrs, uiHcsbs tliey . have seen 

rfre, m, d m^ins qt^xm neics <ivoir (f) voir (i .irr.) (2) 

them with their own eyes, 

de ses\ ffi/, m. (3) 

A fault wh4ck impvudence has caused Sn war 

fautCf f. que f. afairei\,\Tr,)f»^e ^ la 

ought to correct those (4) who have committed (6) it, and 

yiiire (J) (2). 
who have suffered by it. 
en ont souffsrt 

We seek in vain for the occasiot>> which we havr 

On{6)cherch€r(fi) que o»(6) 

perdrc(i)(^). ^ 

3d, The greater part of the states of Europe have 
phipart^ f- etats V (u) 

been formed from the ruins of the Roman empire.. 

former (i) dtbris, m% Romain empire^ m. 

How many have cepented «of not having ap- 

Combien de gensse itre (a) repentir (i) ((?) s*eU'e ap" 

plied themselves during their yo^th. 
pliquer (i) (^) pendant jeunessc, f 

2. 1st. DiCLI)rAFL£. The invention <^ thosd sigmr* 

f, 5/^/if, m. 

which have been formed to . depict speech. Is 

fue V<nk a fyifuer (i)i9,)pour pcindrp parole, f» 

Page Art. \ Page Art. I P^^^ K\x* 

W 77 U \ (3) 7 9 \ S^\ ^ ^\ 



•attributed to the Phoenicians^ 
attribuer (i){l) 

, U, UiTDECMNA^LE. The TulcR wbich you havA 

begun ^ to learyi are a little difficult. 
c&mmencer (X) d apprendre difficile^, . " 

3. Ist^ Uni>eclinablb. 

Have you not a miiid to practise the virtues, whicU 

envit depratiqucr vertu,£, 

you have heavd commended ? 

Sd. The great heat, that has prevailed, hds '" 
^ ' grandes chaleurs qu*il 'avoir {a) /aire (i) (2} (a) 

caused many diseases. 
causer (i) beaucoup de maladUs. 

The disputes that have occwrred copcerning reK>- ' 
qu*il y avoir {jsi) avinr (\) {2) 
. gjon have corrupted , charity. 

avoir (t^) alf€r€r(\)(Q) (3) charit€,£, 

Sd. We pity the wretched, however (4) odious they 
OnapitiedesmiscrableSy. odmix 

may have been. 

(0 (i) 

4lh. The countess of Aunoy has written a novels, 

-• icrire (i) (2) romaxiym* 
the title of which is Hyppolite Comte de Dugias. 
. iitre, m« . . . 

M***. de Gomez has written (^^Les Joumees Amusantes. 
W**". de Grafigny has published Les Lettres -d'une Pera-^ 

viehne. M***. de la Suze has written (2)^ some good elegies^ 

and M**. Deshoulfcrs some very good idyls. M*"* d« 

idi^lle, f. 
Riccoboni has written several novels, which are esteenedF.. - 
. (2) plusieurs rmnaM estim€r(i)(:5y 

Page Art. | Page Art. I Page Art. 

(0 f * I (3) 5* I I (5) x8i I 


6tb. I see, that yoa have Mrritten your theme ra 
voir (a.irr.) faire (iarr.) • fk^mty m^ , 

the best manner vou h could. 

. • - •» > 

ie mitujque vous avez jfouveir (i^r.^ (I) 

* 4. To write history well, it is necessary to observe all 
Pour ecr ire • ilfailoir (tiJar^ — -ver 

the detaib, which have been given by contemporary 

m. qnen onC d(mner{\){2)lc9 — tain{S). 

mutcur, m. 

- ^Eneas, in favour of Paltas, sacrificed t a the infernaf 
EnSe faveur sacrificr{c) deVekfer. 

Gods eight Greek gentkroen, whom he had made 

Grec gcntilshotimc (b) fairc (i.irr.X 

^ prisoners. 

5. Do not deviate from, the good road, which yoa 

ccarter (k) ' rouU, f. 

bave begun to follow. 
commencer (V) i suivre. 

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(i) 182 3 

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(1) lU 4 I (3) 68 r 



APV£RBS^ if simple^ are commonly placed before 
adjectives and pariieiples; as, this wine is very 
good, ce vih est tres-boit. When they are compound, 
they are commonly placed after ; as, he is arrived £fcasoa- 
ably, il est arrive d proyos. 

2. When adverbs, simpie or compound, are joined to a 
Terb, they are commonly placed after it y as^ she loves Um 
t;ci|derlyj^/7/e Vaiim tendrement* 

18a ' EXERCISES UPON Part 11. 

But wben the tdverb it simple, and joined to a verb icr i i^mpound 
tec^e, it may be placed before or after the participle, though it it belter 
to place it b.*forc ; as, elle Yatcndrement tume. Except davaMtagCp mortf 
which is always put after the participle. 

Tbe fol lowing adverbs, ^/m, mieux, trvp^ maiffprt, totjomrs, jamaii^ and 
aome others, arc placed between the auxiliary and the participle f and 
vAxtnjamais or toujourt meets with another aaverb, it is always placed 
first ; as, he always spoke well of you, il^^ teujfuurt blm parle de vdbs. 

3. Beaucwpt peitp tr^p^ at»e$i, and similar adverbs of <)uantity, take 
sometimes before them the particUs Ji or ^, in the manner of nouns ; 
as, it is the custom of many people, c'estla coutume de beaucoup de gensf 
of few people, de peu de getis ; that happens to too many people, tela 
arrive a trop de gens ; to too few people, k trop peu de gena. These 
adverbs take the prfposition de after them. 

4. In a negative sentence we generally make use of two 
negative words ; as, ne. . .plus^ no more \nc,, •pointy not al - 
all; ne. . -pas^ not ; ne. . ,rien, nothing; ne .. .jatntdSf ne*. 
ver; ne,. .nultement, by no means ; ne. . •personne^ ne. . «/mi» 
tiA, ne. . .aucuUy nobody, &c., and ike verb is put between 
the two negations. 

5. Ne, which is the first negation, always follows the 
subject of the verb, and whatever depends on it, if the sub- 
ject be a noun ; as, man, being born feeble, is never free 
from trouble, Vhomme ttant ni foible Westjdmtm exempt de 
peine. If the subject be a pronoun personal,, and the 
sentence interrogative,* the sentence begins with ne; as, <lo 
not you know ? ne savez-votis pas ? In. compound tenses the 
second negation is always put bet^'e^n the auxiliary and 
the verb ; as, I have not read your book» Je n*ai pas iu votrt 
livre. If the verb be in the infinitive mood,' the two nega- * 
fives come befor^ it ; as, not to tell you a falsehood, pour ne 
pas vous dire vn mensonge, 

6. We make use of the particle ne, without it's second negative word^ 
in the following cases. 

ist, When the negative ni follows $ ai, I neither love nor hate hiiD^ 
je ne l*£tme ni ne fe bd'u, 

xdly, After the conjunctions a moins que, unless ; depeur^Mt, de create 
pie, lest, or for fear that ; as, unless he comes, a mo'mt fu*ifne\icnme» 

3dly, After fue preceded by the verba empicBerj to binder, or keep 
from ; crairtdre, to fear; and others expressing fear in mentioning an cU 
feet not desired; as, he i» afraid, that he will come to dayi ucreunt 
fu*il ne vienne aujourd'hui. 

But if we wish, that the thing spoken of should happen, then the 
verb that follows craindre^ or any other verb expressing fear, moat be 
attended with two ncptives;aa, he is afraid, that he will not comcte 
day, 11 cy'^iiff^ fa'i^nf vienne^tfi aujourd'hui. * 

4fth}y, Before que, taken in the sense of sinoii) beside^ nothing but«. 
oolyjas, I desire DO recompense, onXy, or\>u\^OEve^\cai«vxt^KA^\\^t^ 
you/ ji ai'deiire pwr ri(omp<nH <^u« \c ^loivlr ds "uw* wWxjar^ 

Chap.VJII. adverbs. 189 

5thly, After que ;7«, taken in the seose of why not ; as, why do not • 
you answer ? que nc refonJeX'veus ^ 

6thly, After nt tav&ir used for ite powaoir, or when it implies an un« 
certainty of the mihd ; as, I cannot do it. je ne saurois k ftdrt% 

But, if it imply a full ignorance of the thing, it commonly requires 
two negatives ; as, 1 do not know whether he be come, je nt sais pss s'il 
e&t venu, • • 

7thly, After the verbs oser, cetier^ and powvoirt used negatively ; as, 
I dare not write to him,^'e n'ose lui ccrire. In an interrogative phrase 
a second negation is cofdmonly added ; as, dare y€>u not write to him ? 
u*osez vous pas /«i ecrir't? 

8thly, Ahcr the verb il y a, followed by a compound of the present' 
tense in a negative sentence ; as, 1-have not been in Paris these ten years^ 
U y n dix ans que je n*ai ete a Paris : even if it be followed by any other 
tense, the second negative is still omitted ; as, I had not been in Paris 
for a year, il y avoit un an fue\c n*aveis /te h Paris, 

9thly, When, in a Negative sentence,, the particle de signifies a part 
of time ; as, I will not see him for a year, je ne le verrai d'aa an. 

loihly, There arc some expressions, -in which we make use of a 
single or double negative indiscriminately, particularly after 51'; a^, si 
*vous ne voultxm*y conduire^ or si 'uous ne vouiex pa» m'y eotiduire, if yo» 
wiil not carry me thither-; si vous nc *uene» cette temaiiie, or si •09tu nc 
•uene% p4S cctts semaine^ if you do not come this week ; &c. 


1 . Passions are sometimes rash, and always credulous. 
(I) f. qvelquefoistitntraire, (2) credule.{2) 
Socrates was formerly a great philosopher; he tHug!)t 
Socrate (b) autrefois , injitruirt\Q\ 

Xenophon and Plato. 


2, Homer sometimes slumbers in the midst of (I) 
Home re qutlquefois(j3)sommeillcr{B,y au milieu, in. 

Gods and heroes. 
. We seldom repent of, (4) talking little, but very 
rarefncpt (3) se itpeutir {^) parler peu, mais tret 

often of talkinjg too much, 
souvent (4) trap, 

I Ignorant people [ are generally obstinate. 
Les ignorant (^) ordinairement obatint, (2) 
The public often ascribe to merit ail the success of 
m. (3) atinbuer(si)m6ritey'm. succ^s, m, (I): 

Page Art. 

Page Art. 

(i) ^2 1 

.(3) 1^1 ^ 

i^) 68 % 

^) ^1^ % 



f. • 

Death almost always comes j at an improper- hour. | 
Jlortyf. (1) beuir (a) mal ^ propos. 

Friendship commonly finishes, where rrvalship be- 
(2) AmUityt. 0) dinairtment Jtnir (a) om(2) rixalittf, co^rh- 
.mtncer (a). \ ' 

Hannibfil for a long time was a scourge to the Romanj^^ 
Antiibal lohg^temps {i) Stre {c) le ^tau des 
but was conquered at. last, 
(c) vaincr£ (i.irr.) enjin (1). 

Carthage lies over against Sicily: this city made 

f. tin (aj situt tis-d-vis Sicile, f. faire^Q Arr,) 

war several times against the Romans, but (3) it was at 

{}) phisiettrs fois, 
last entirely ruined. 
enfih tnticrement ruine (4). 

Philosophy triumphs easily ov^r evils to coroe, 
■■ ' — phie, f. triompher (a) aistm^nt des mal d venir, 
but evils present triumph over it. 

de elk. 
We do not easily quit a bad habit^ wkich affords. 
aisttnent quitter (a) habitude, f. qui ntm^^^ 
us any pleasure. 
divertir {s,). 

They (5) who have been always prosperous are the roost 

, (1) heuiTitx 

I senwbly affected | vvith every attark of * ill 

sensible (lux mdind res at toques de la matfDais(A) 

It well becomes a king to inarch at the head of his (jSy 
11 bien sied d de t^te^ f. 


They who believe alt the good spoken of them- 
(5) croire (a.irr.) bieriy m. qu*on dirt Ca.irr.) cux 

Page An. 
(6^ 86 a 





(i) l«7 





U) S.» 





Chap.viii. adverbs. 191 

selves, and all the evil sjjoken of others, «re unhappily 

malf m. autriSf malheureusement 

mistaken on both sides. ' 

tromper (i) de part et d* autre. 

Great talents | are seldom found | in a man without 

hts m. St trovver (a) raremetit 

(1) great defects, and the naost monstrous errours havff 

dSfauty m. monstrueux (2) errturs, f. 

often been the production of the greatest geniusses. 

f. ^ gtnie,m» 

Idleness often borrows the name of rest, and thinks 
(3) Paresse,f. (4) empntntcr (a) nowi, m. repos, cro/rc(a.irr.) 
by this to screen itself from the just blame, which it 
par Id se mettre d convert hldme^ m. (5) 


Judgment often prevents e:itcrprises,* which (3) rash- 

(3) m. (A) empecher (h) des incon* 

ness would cause to succeed. 

sidcrafiony f. fatre (e) r^ussir. 

Fortune always reserves to Herself the disprsal of 
(3) f. tottjours (4) se reserver (a) disposition, f. 

what she gives. 

ce que (5X donner (a) 

(3) Meditations upon the inconstancy of human things 
f. cT,f. humain{2)chose,f, 

are never uselessly employed. 

inutilement ■ c r(i)(6) 

. There is no. man so perfect, but sometimes yields 

^.' porfait qui lie (-V) cecfer(a) 

to human frailties. 
tiViiifirmite huma'me, 

3. I( is the custom of many people, to cry down the 

Ce (5) coHtu7ne,f. beaucoup de gens de dtcricr 
talents of others. 

To act before having reflected, is what happens to too 
agir > d*avoit' rvflechir (i) ce qui arrvoer (a) trap 

Page Aft; Pa«« Art. * I Pa«t Kxx 

it) 5$ >o W 6'' ^ \ ^^ ^^ ^' 

192 EXERCISER UPON Part 11. 

many people 
dc gcJis, 
We are soon tired of too great prr sperity. 

fat'iguer (i) de trap de fc, f. 

Nature has many observers, but she has few con- 
f. bcaiicoup (l) obscrxattur^ peu (1; 

fidents. ' • - . 

AH the fine words in the world are not worth so much 
heau{2)parole, f. du monde ne valoir (a.irr.) poi 
as a liule g»')o<l will. 
un pi ?/ de (1) volontt\ f. 

Nature has given too much extent to our curiosity, 
donMer{\) trap (I) t ten due ^L .— — /f, 

and has set too narrow bounds to our abilities. 

rncUrc (i.irr.) trap ttnni(A)borne,^. cnunomance, f. 
4. As the earth does not (J)) always produce roses and 

produire (a) (6) rose 
lilies, but likewise brings forth nettU's and thistles; 
((})/i.y, aiissi porter {h) (fi) roiice {6)6pint\ ' 

i>o the world does not always afford us (6) couteot- 
ainsi procurer (i) 

mcnt ami (6) pleasure, but sometimes (6) afflictions and (6) 

Utility is never where there is not lio- 

Ut'de, m. we (h) jamah ou ne (a) pas hon- 

nfte^ m. 
^ I set no value on boldness, if it be not accom- 

fiurc (a.irr ) aucun cm de la hardiesse, f, 
panied with prudence. 
pag/ier(\)de f. 

A ^ood man is he who does all the good he 
. Vhuumte homme 

m ■ 

<:an, and who does harm to nobody. 

jJowroir (a.irr.) wr/^/re (a.irr.) de mal personhcm 

Scient«8 are but little cultivati^d in the midst of 
f. we etrc (a,) gut re cultiver f i) au milieu 

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(0 53 II f3) 8 7 

(2; g 14 I (4) 68 7 

Page Art. 
CS) >88 4 

Chap. VIII. ADVfiRBS. 193 

• • 

riches, and they are badly cultivated in poverty ; a mf>- 
,ric/iesse, le smt nuU , pauvreUy £• iw^« 

derate fortune is their proper situatioil. 
diocre (I) f. convenable {I ) ctatyia. 

He (2) who i& a slave to his passions can never 

esclavc de \ {.(3)poievoir{'BLATr,) jamais 

boast of being free. 
se ianter itre libre. 

The time past is no more for us; the present is a 
passe f ra. (3) pins rien present ^ m. 

point indivisible, that runs away with a rapidity, "whieh 

m. ^ ^ qui s'ecouler (a) te, f. gut 

escapes thought itself; the time to come is but 
cchaper d pepste, f. mime ; avenir, m. ne (a) -(3) que 

the sport of hope. 

jouet espej'ance, f. " ' . 

5. The same thing' never, appears the same to all 
mSme. chose ^ f. (4) paroitre (a.irr.) les 

• It is not a little thing, to know how to be ^ 

Ce ne fit re (a) pas petit chose^ f. que de savoir se taire 
silent. " ^ 

The lawgiver of the Jews 'was nq^ an ordinary 
Icgislateur, m. Juif ne (b) pas . ordituxire 

man. • .~ • 

(1). bomme, 

A thing unjust cannot be either advantageous or 
rien d*injuste iie est avantageux ni 

6. 1st. All (5) that is written in the book of Destiny is 

^crire (i) {6) desdn, m. 

unavoidable ; because i^o one can either force his 

inevitable ; puree que <m ne ni . forcer 

situation, or see beyond the reach of his ca- 

icmphament^ m. ni voir nu^dela de la portee 1l<- 








. Page 

Act. 1 









4 1 









» \ 





2d. Unless you study youVill not become 

id moins que ne ttudier (f) . devenir (d.irr.J 


3d. I apprehend, that you will commit a fault against 
craindre (a) nefaire (J[Art.)fautet f. 

\his rule ; but no matter ; the fkult is more in the Ian* 

rigl€,£, peuimporte; 
guage than ih you, and this fault may be corrected by not 
.making use of the negation, which has no business here. 

f. vienf id mat-^'propog* 

. 4th. The whole human kind is but one . family 
tout le genre humaia ■ tie (a) qtte famiUe^ f. 

dispersed over {i) the face of the whole earth. 
disperse {ly ' svr/ace,£. taute la terre 

The true Christian looks for no . support 

vrai Chretien, m. ne chercher (a) d'appui 
against the malignity of men, but in the inaocence and (3) 

'rrtS, f. , que , f. 

the righteousness of (4) his conduct. 
droiturey f. conduite, f, 

I ' see lib end to our troubles, but in th^endof our 

n€Voir(^.\rT,)^terniede mal que 
lives. Desires have no limits; the iiccomplish. 
Souhait, m . ne avoir (a ) point de liiniie, f, leur accom- 
mentoflhem does nothing but open to them a new 
plissement ' 9ie faire (^i) ouvrir (5) leur nouv€au{6) 

career. We are happy only when ^he bounds of 

carriere, f. ne ctre (a) heureux que bome^ f. 

our fortune are those of our cupidity. ■ 

f. celles - — — ^e, f, 

A good prince has no other design ip his government^. 

ne dessein m, 

jHit to render his dominions flourishing by art8|' 

de elat, m. Jlorissant 

sciences, justice, ai)d plenty; because he has the 

ۥ aboTidance* f 

Page Art. 


(i) 68 . 2 


(2) igj 6 1 


*age Art, J Page 

55 *' I (5) 77 
%^ 4 \ V^^ ^ 

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happiness of his pepple in view, Hod true glory ior 
bonkeur, au en vue^ vrai gdoircy f. 

his aim. 

but, ra, , 

^lost commonly when* we think, tbM men^ b(^v« 
Laplupafidutentps on croire (i.irr.) 

overcome a passion, they have ^ done nothing but 
surmontcr(\) f , ne avoir (n) /aire (lAvr,) qu*en 

strengthen some others. 
fortifier d'autres. 

There are rich men who foolishly enjoy their wealtli,^ 
riche soHement\\)jouir {i) de biei^ 

and who know | nothing but | how {2) to be rich. 
nc savoir (a.irr.) que 

(3) Reason and (3) self-love are two irreconcilable (4) 
f. amour-propre ^ . 

enemies, two rivals, jealous of the empire over pur 
enneiniy m. rivals ro. ^ 

hearts, which never lay down their arms, but 
cccur, m. we. , .jamais (I) poser (a) les armes, que 

after th6l:oTnplete defeat of one or the other. 

entihe defaite, t, , 

. It is hardly ever, but at the expense of our own 
Cene est presque jamais qu'aus; dipens sa» 

rest, that we undertake to trouble that of others. 
repos,' onentreprendre(siArr,) bier 

Without friends the world is but a wilderness, 
ami^m* monde^m. desert, m. 

If clemency be the virtue of heroes, (3) vengeant:e 
{Z) dtmence^ii (S) kiros 

ought to be a quah'ty that agrees only with a 
devoir (a) * ^ f. ne convenir {9L.\rT,)que d 

base (4) and cringing mind. 

rampant esprit^ m. 

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[4 jho w u nottxprejsed 

Page Ar^ 
(3) .S« ' « . 
(4); 6a f 



5th. Why do not you speak, instead of (l) grumbling. 
Que ne parler(a,) murmurcr. 

6th. As (2) antiquity cannot authorise an errour, 
Comme nepouvoir{2L.\Tr.)autonser erreur^f, 

so (2) novelty cannot prejudice truth. 

ai?isi nowceauUy f. porter prejudice it (2) veritS, f. 

Lying is a vice | so very | infamous, that the 

(2) Mewjopgc, m. m.. si infdme 

greatest liars cannot bear it in 

' menteurf m. fie pouvoir (a.irr.) supporter (3) le 
other men. 

A man who has always some terrour hanging over his 

qui inqui^te 
mind cannot enjoy that tranquillity of mind, w^ich is 
esprit, m. jouir de 
the balm of (4) humlan (2) life. 
bauTke, m. 

If a man cannot find ease within (5) himself, it 
trouver(^2)iranqinUtc,?, ' H 

is to little purpose to seek it | ^y where else., | 

€St intUUe qu'ilchercktr(B){3)la ailleurs 

7th. When we dare not blanae a- bad princt 

(wcr(a) hUnmr mechant m, 

after his ""(6) death, it is a mark that his successor 

mortt f. ce itre (a) marque, f. successor 

resembles biro. (3) 

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(i) fti2 ^ 

Page Art, 

(3) 78 13 

(4J 6S 7 

P»gc Art, 

(s) 197 17 

(6) 87 4 

Chap. IX. 





Some PREPOBiTjaNS govern the first case^ Bime the se* 
con4, and some'the third. The second CQ&e, tts^-du^ dela^ 
des, is indicated by the particle cfe/ and the third case, 
d, aUy d laj aus^ by the particle d. ■ 


1^ k . tU, to, in 3.3 envers 

2 a cause de on account of,Jbr 34 except^ 

3.apr^s ajflter, next to 

4 ai^dell Je deycnd 

5 au-de5ius Je upon, a^e 

6 au-desaous de under^ heUno 

7 au liea de instead of ' 

8 aupr^' de near, ky^ of 

9 \ travers 
so au travera 

1^1 autour dc 
t% avant 


le centre 
ti ccnfbrm6» 

thttd !• 
19 dans 
^§ dedanib 
19 de 
sp dehors 
21 depuifl 
%2i d^s 

23 derriftre 

24 dessui 

25 dCMOtU 

86 devant 

27 durant 

28 en 

29 en.dcf^ 

30 en delii 

31 en d^pit df 

de \ a^^^i^. 


^5 fiute de 
30 hormis 
3.7 hort 

38 hors de 

39 jusqu'Jb 

40 l.oin de 
4( le long ife 
42 moycnnant 
•43 roaigr6 

44 nonobstant 

5«/, tOt at the 45 outre 
• Aouse oj^ among 46 par 

fagreeaSie to 

. In J intOf vMin 

tHf within 

of, from, by 

without^ beyond 







47 parmi 

48 pendant 

49 par dessua 
50. par dessout 

5 1 par rapport a 

58 pour 

53 pris de 

54 proche de 

55 qdant a- 
5.6 sans 

58 seloa 

59 suiyaat 

* towird^to 

for ^ant of. 


except, saving 


far from 


in spite of 
5 nottvithstandi' 







C by reason of, on ac^ 
^ count of 
Sfor, to^ inordir 
i 'to 


§n this side, toithin 60 sous 
I on that side^ with" 61 sut 

i out 6lVCTft 

in spite of , . x • 


near, by 


according t9 
according, to^ 

^weT ai^awii*^ o|^* 



J. I^t not your zeal for a cause push you 

Que zele,m. f. ,ne voia entrainer (fy 

into a hazardous (2) engagement. Set (3) bounds to 

(I) Tu.Mettre(kATT.) dome,t 

your zeal by (4) discretion, to errour, by truth, to (4) 

f. erreur, f. (4) vSriti, f. 
passion, by reason, to (4) divisions, by (4) charity. - 

f. (4) f. f. t6,f. 

The wicked endeavour to allure others to wicked- 
mickanty m, sefforctr (a) dt excifer (4)wce,ni. 


Dost thou not know, that God sometimes 

savair (a.irr.) qudquefois (5) 

grants a more prosperous (2) condition to those men/ 
recorder (a) 

whom he intends , to punish for their wickedness. 
Touloir {2L.\tr.) m^chanceU^f. 

2. Marius | was wont to say, | that he could 

dire (b.irr.) souvent povooir (b.irr.) 

not hear the cry of the laws for the clashing of 

entendre cri, m. fo», f. . ' cliqitetis^ m. " 

arms. The modest Pompey himself presumed. to say^ 

cwcr(c) Siht 
As for me, can I think of laws } I who am armed ? 
' Quant d penser aux moi qui 

3, Twice only after Numa's (6) reign was the teidple 

seulement regwe, m. (c) 

' of Janus shut; once in the consulship of Titus Maar 
fermer (i) * sous consulate m. . ' - 

' lius, after the first Punic (2) war was ended; and 
aprh que guerre^ f, (c) Jinir (i) 

again after the -battle of Actium, when Augiistos. 

tine secondefgis haiailley f. 

had obtained peace both by sea ai^d land, 
(c) obtenir (i) (4) paix " et " mer terre. 

Pi^c Art. \ Pagt Art. \ ^a^jt Ktu 

rO 197 J 7 (3) 54. i^ \ Vd ^^T -^^ 



Next to God, there (1> is nothing so cap^Mc . of 
Dim, qui pouvoir (JattJ) plus 

contributing to the happiness and (2) welfare of men^ 
contribuer bgnheur, m. prosperitg^ t 

(3) as men* 
4. Never spend beyond your income. 

Jamais dipemer {k) revenu^n^^ > 

5« Eudeness proceeds from want of good breed fng> 
- ImpolitcssCy f. difaiit d* education y. 

and from an ignorance, which tramples upon the rules 

U se metire (a).. ^ rbgl€^S% 

and decorum of tcivil (4-) society. 
egapdSfVa, vie, f. 

Lucian ^ays, that at a social table the of the 

f.. — — ;:6re, ro. - 
guests ought never to be above that of 

convive, m, ne devoir X^) jqinai9 au-dessiis de cflui. 

the nvusesi or under that of the graces. 

. au^dessom de ^ ^ 

6. The canal of Languedoc begins near (5) the 

m. commtnten {f^) 

^port of Cette, and communicates with the GUronne below 

cammmiquer (a) 
. 7» The Romans, after the conquest of Egypt, whence 

conquite, f, ' d*ott 

they brought to RdAi'e the in^ntion of paper, continued 

apporter(jc) f. papier, m. 

notwithstanding; fo( (6). a long:time, to make use of waxen' 
neanmoins dfaire usage de t ablet tes 

tablets instead of paper.* 

enduites de cire 

In several countries in the norUi of £urof>e, people 
plusieurs pays au >) o» 

make use of sea-coal instead of wood, fgj: 
fait usage charbon dc terrt hois, 

common ^eU 
le chauffage. 

P^ge ArtJ I Pagfr' Art. \ ^^«^ ^"^^ 


^. A girl well brought up ouglit never* to smfkr 

^/fe, fi ilevee ne devoir (a) soi(ffrir 

neat her any other suitors (1), btu those whom her (2) re- 

d'autres mntmU que - pa* 

lations approve. 

9. A truly courageous (3) man nakea bis wbj 

vrmment se/aiFe {j^jrr;) , jour 

through dangers. 

10. The Romans cut a straight rotcA of sixty 

former (c) droite (JS^ route^ £. 
days journey through the Black Forest, from south west 
de marche noire (3) f. du sud ouest 

to north east. 
est, m. 

11. Venus had always about her the graces, sports, 

(b) . ksjeuxp 

smiles, an4 loves. 
ks ris ei les amours. ' 

12*. No one can be pionoOneed happy before his (2)t 

personne^m. appelerii) heu»eux 

mort^ f. 

Poetry came late among the Romans ; 

Poieie, f, fut introduite/usez tard • 

for, (4) about 310 years after the tiuilding of'Rome^ 
car, ran fimdation, f. * 

Andronicus Livius exhibited the first play, in the consulship 
/aire (c) representer comSdk\f, sous cottnUat^m, 
of C. Claudius and M. Tuditanus, the year before 

annie, f . 
Ennius wac bom, who was older than Plautus and 
/a naissancc dtEnnius (b) ancien Plaute 


13. A young man ought to speak with much disctetioii- 

devoir (a) Beducoup (5) . £. 

rag9 Art. 

(O ^7 4 1 (i) "^VV 

(3) b^ •» \ VSi ^'i ' '^^^ 


and reserve. 

Numa, considering that the fear of the gods could 

■rcr (h) craintCy f. jpottToiKb)^ . 

not penetrate into (I) the minds of the fieirce Romaa 

entrer esprit ^m, ftroce 

(^) people without the .intervention of a miracle, pretended 

peuple^m. m: pret€ndre\c) 

(3)he had nocturnal (2) conferences with the goddess Egeria. 

(b) — — — ne f. deesstff, Eghie 

The most important and the most neglected ^' of flU 

conversations is that with ourselves, 
f. ctllc 
A man ought to employ the first paf t of his (4) life 
devoir (a) - er ^^"tie^ f. me, f. 

in conversing with the dead, the«second with the living, 
(i (5) mort, vivanty 

and the third with himself. 

14. It is right, that every one should he master in his own 

juste chacun (0 


15. The honest (6) man does not speak against truth, or 

parler (a) veritif f. 

the prudent (2) man against vulgar (*i) opinions. ' *' 

cqmmun (4) f. 

Truth ought to be maintained against the argu* 
Veritiyf. devoir (a) soutenir (i) (^) '' raisonne- 

mehts of half wits, and in spite H}f the persecutions of 
ment^m. faux savant en depit ' ^^ ?♦<• 

mad zealots. 

The Persians use, against seVerail sort of dis- 

. Per ses fair e (a.irr.) usage fna^ 

eases, the water wherein their prince has washed his^ 
ladicy f. de Veau dans hqy^eUe ^ ' lo^'^r (i) 

(4) hands. 

main, f. 

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(2) 69 7 \ (4) ^^ * \ ^^ ^^ 


i6, A child well brought up will always (1) behave 
enfant f m. ilevi se CQu^re (d) 

according to the dictates of his superiors. 

ordf^y m. 
Fear disposes (2) us to conceive (3) things according 
Cnmie^f, d interpreter " • 

to the^ppinion with which it has prepossessed (2) us. 

f. dont elle (a) prevenir (i). 
i7» Wise people see effects in their Causes; btit (S) 
3) Per^onne^ f . sage voir (a) 

uots will not believe any thing, until it i9 too late 
^€ vouloir (a.irr.) rien croire qw lorsqu*iln* est plus tempi 

prevent the mischief. 
e prevenir mat, m. 

8. Within or without the house, a woman; ought to be 

maison femmcy f. devoir (a) 
^cently dressed. 
cemment halnller {}) (J^) 

9. Of two evils the (5) least is always to be 

fMl^ ra. devoir 

• losen. 
referer (i) 
The Greeks derived their * mythology from /Egypt*. 

GreC tirer^o) mythologie JEgt/pte, 

Ambition is the great disturber of peace, and 
(3) f. perturbateuf,m,. (S]paixyf, 

^>lator of (3) leagues and treaties. 

teur^ ra. Hgue, f. (6) trait i, m. 

Princes generally (1) measure the greatness of their 
(3) mesurer (a) grandettTyf^ ^ 

ory by the extent . of their empire. ^ 
ioire^ f. itenduey f. 

D. Within or without the church a clergyman ought not 

egiise, f. 'eclesiastique devoir (a) 

1 to lose sight of | the dignity and (6) importance of his 

perdrc de we — — ie, f, A 

lation, f. 

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21. Edward the (1) Fourth was the first of all the kings 

• ^ (c) 

of England since the Norman conquest, that had 

Normand (2) cojiquHCf f, qui (g) 
taken a subject to wife. • 

prU (\)une ifouse dam la classe de ses 9i{jets. 

Soliman married Roxolena | contrary to | the custom of 
fyattter (c) Roxelani conire coutvnfe^f. 

former emperors, iion<^ of whom | had ever married a 
precedent (2) auctm desqwls n'aroit eU mariS 

wife I since the death of Bajacet the Elder. 

moriy f. • ancietu 

•2?. From the beginning of the world men have been 

cwaimencemtnt^ m. ' mondcy nu 
the same, weak and wicked. 
m^mct /tdbfe mMtmt» 

23. I do not care whether I march behind 01^ before 

Que rn'mporit de marcher 

the others, provided I march at my ease* 

pourouqme ai^e, m. 

24* There are (8) animals above and under ground. 

<«Te,f. .^ 

25. At the present time some (4) people in Potosi, 
Dans ce nHmmU^ci personne le Potose 

(5) whose sneeators adoied the sun, are born, 

OHceire^m. • — -rer(b) iro/ei/, ni.(a)na£^re(l.irr.) 
live,' . and will die under ground, without 
wrre (ajnr.) fwownV (d.irr.) laterre^ ' . 

having aeen the sun (6) once jn their lives. 

26. Distinction of rank is necessary in civilized society ; 

£ rangy m» — — ^^, f. 
but all men are equal before God. 

igal • Dieu, • , ' 
27* The ent , gathers, during the sqmraer, the provision 

fimtmiy f,fairt(jx) tte, m. les F. 

(5) of which she ^ is in want J <Juring the winter. 

avoir (a) besoin hiver, m. 


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(2j .^5 7 j (4) 109 \^ \ V,^ n 


28. JEne&Sf after the taking of the city of Troy, car- 
Ence - prUc, f. em* 

lied off his father Anchises upon his shoulders, vilk his 
forter (c) Anchise - tpaule, ' 

domestic gods. He landed in Africa, where Dido. coo- 
dome^tique aborder (c) Afrique^ Uidom con- 

ceived so much love for (1) him, that she married (2) 
ccTiiir(c) amour /yo i fjfr(c) 

him. Dido afur the departure of .Eneas, ascended a 

depart y ro. momier (c) • 

funeral pile, \%bere she pierced herself with a sword. 
sur hucht r, m. $c perccr (c) Ic sem. d'ait camp d^cptt. 

(3; Mexico was conquered by Fernando Cortex, ia 
-♦/'.ryy^i-.m. (c)cc«7tfcn'r(i.irr.) Ferdinand ■ - 

1520; '3; Peru by Francis Pizanro, in 1527; and (3) 

Pcrou, m. Francois 
C!»ili, by Diego o'Almagro, in- 1534. 
Chili, ra. 

L*(). Madras and Pondicherry are situate on the eastern 

coast of the peninsula of India on this side the Ganges. 
presquik'f f. 

30. Tbe Gaiiuci rises at the mountain 

Gangt'f m. prendre (a.irr.) sa source wnmt^ m. 

Ima, which .:.<ikes a part of the mountain Caucasus. 

^ J aire (,^,\rr.) partie^ f. mont, m. Caucase. 

The Indians believe, that bathing in. this river 
croirt (a^irr.) en se baignant rivitre^ f. 

purifies them of their ^ sins. It serves to 

ses ciu.v Ics puri/ient pcckt, m. servir (a) 

distinguish the two peninsulas; the peninsula of India (4) 

giier , . . 'J : 

within the Ganges, and tbe peninsula of India beyond the 
Ganges. ' • ■ . 

31. There (5) are certain pleasures, which, in spite of 

plainirf m. dont r 
fortune, a wise man knows (b*) how to enjoy. 

savoir (a. i rr.) Jouir, 

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^4) 197 »tf 

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(6; how u nou€xprastd\ 


Demosthenes, by great (1) resolution aad almost infinite (2) 

pains, after a long babit, altered the na« 

peine f f. long (i) habitude^ f. corriger (c) 

tural (2) imperfection of bis (3) speech; and even, in 

f. voiXf f. meme 

•despite of nature, became the (2) most eloquent man 

' f. devenir (c.irr.) 
perhaps that ever lived, 

peui'^tre qui avoir (T) jamais existS. 

32. There is as much« difference between the learned and 

(4) autantde f. savant 

the ignorant, as there is between a person in good healtk 

que Hyena cduiquiseporte bien 

and a person in .srcknes*. »^ 

celui qui est maladie, , ^ 

33. A bad man is ungrateful toward God anci 

michant ingrat Diett, m. 

toward men, 

homwe^ m.' • 
We must be good toward others, but in stich a manner 
// faut de telle manicre 

that they cannot take thence an opportunity to be bad 
qu'ils ncn prennent pas occasion^f, de 

toward us. - 

34. No roan is free from passions, iexcept the 
Aucun nehre (a) exempt (5) 

true Christian. - 

parjait Chretien, m, 

35. Most part of our misfortunes happen only for 
Laplupart malheur^m. ne ar river {b) que 

. want of attention. 

36. Nobody (6) but Alexander could - mount 

nepouvoir(y) monter 

37. The law of Mohammed permits evfery thing 

loi, f. Mahomet permettre (a.irr.) tout, m^ 

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(^) 6g 7 I C4) 17 » 4 1 (6) 107 7 

' T 


except wine. 

38. In vain we dream of happiness in any 

chercher (ii){i)borkeur dans les chases qui 
thing without us: Happiness must be within us. 
soMt devoir (a) en 

The I elevated situation | of a monarch sets (2) him abeve 
eltvation, f. met t re (a) hors de 

the intercourse of friendship. 
commerce, m. (3) amifii, f. 

SP» Strive for truth, even to death ; ana 

Soi/ez attacks d terite^i. {Z)mort^f^ 

I contend for { justice, even to the risk of your 
dSfendre (k) (1) meme au perH voire 


%)ie. ' ' - ■ 

40. He (4) who is to day in full health, perhaps is not 

parfait sante^i, peut'itre 
far from death ;- and he (4^) who enjoys great riches at 

mortyi, jouir{\i){5i) rkkesseyi. 

present, is not perhaps far from beggary. 

(3) misih-e, f. 

41. The alligators, amphibious animals, which -are 

teur,m» bie 

seen along some rivers of India and America^ 

' riviire, f. 
resemble the crocodiles of Egypt. 
ressembler (6) 
4^. There are Christian states in Europe, where a 

Ilya des Chretien 6tatf m. ot^ 

Jew, for a sum of money, will get (2) you a. 

Juiff somme,^. argent^ yjiire (d.irr.) aroir 
church living. 
benefice eclesiastique. 
43. The honest man does nothing against his 

Uhomme debienfaire(fiATT,) rien 

conscience; the wicked man perpetrates a crime, in 
f. le scelerat cammettre (jblAtt,) m. 







(i) i6o 

. I 

(3) 5» 




0) 77 


W S« 





spite of the punishment which is to follow. ' 
punitioHy f. V est attachie, 

44. Force has made, and will make, the right of 

f. (a) /aire (i.irr.) - droit, m. dts 

states, notwithstanding the protestations of the weak. 
puissanceSy foibles, 

45. Beside the most excellent fruits, Arabia Felix 

ro J[ 1 ) — — hieS' heureux{2y 
produces the most valuable gums and perfumes. 
produire (a) - csiimt (3) gomme^ f. (3) patfuniy m* 

46. Life is to be measured by action, not by (4) tinle. 
{4-) Fie, f. devoir (a.) mesurerQ) (4) f. temps, tsu 

Sometimes (4) men err in their counsels through 

Quelquefois errer (a) deliberation, i. 

ambition, as Perdiccas; sometimes through a false opinion 

f. faux{b), f. 

of right, as Brutus; sometimes through overdoing, as 

droits trop d^ardeur^ 

Pericles; sometimes through ^ anger, as Marius* 

amour de la vengeance 

Bacchus was born in the city of Thebes; Wwa^ 
iifl^re (c.irr.) Dilhyt 

brought up by Silenus and the nymphs of the isle of 
Hever (i) Silene tii/mp/it^- ile 


Tasso I is superior to | Ariosto, in the arrangement of 
Le Tasse Vemporier (a) sur VArioste ^conoviie 

his plan, decency of manners, and dignity of cbarac- 
—- , m» > ce, f. matirSf ^^-^te^ f. carac-- 

ter ; in a-word, by the sagacity of genius. 
tere;enun mot, sagesse,f. ghiie^m. 

The rainbow is formed from the sunbeams reflected 
arc en- del sc former {si) rayon, m, refiichi 

by drops of rain.. 
(6) goutte, f. pluie, f. 

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(0 5« • 3 

(3) 68 2 

(5) 8 


(^} > lO 

1. (4) 5» I 

. (<^ 54 


208 EXERCISES 1>P0N Fart H. 

We must judge of the merit of men by the utilHry of their 

47. The best fable of the Greeks is that of Psycht ; 
• beau {I) f. celfe 

the most pleasant was that of the Matron of Ephesus; the 

agriahle (c) f« 

prettiest among the moderns is that of Fully, who 

joU — :-ae, f. 

having blinded Love is. condemned jto attend 

(h) crev^r (i) Itsyeux a V amour d. lui servir. 

him as a guide. 

de guide, ' ' 

48. If you neglect to (2) study during your youth, you 

nigliger {&) eiudier jeunesse^f. 

will be a burden to (3) yourself and to others in your 

fardeau, m. 
old age. 
vieifUsse, f , ' • ' 

49. The canal of Languedoc is carried over (4) hills 

passer (a) montagne^ f. 
and valli^s. 

60. The Meuse, at one place, loses itself underground, 

dans €ndtvitseperdre(jA,nv.) terrCy 

and appears again some leagues below. 
reparoitre (siArv*) lieue^f. plus bas, 

51. The son of the second Scipio Africanus, by reason of the 

VAfricain^ . sa 

3veakness and indisposition of his body, could not 

foiblesse, f. a ses defaut corporels, nepouvoir (ci.rr.) pas 

so well tread in the steps of his father, as his father had 

suivre les tracesyi.\ f^re^m. que . - ,(b) 

I done in | those (5) of his | grandfather. | 

suivre (i.irr.) dieul^ m, 


59. Zenocrates was the most rigid and (6) severe of all the 

philosophers; and, for this very reason, noted and emment. 

ilfut cHehrc 

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(2^ 160 3 

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Some men Ibve a place for the profit; others for 
aimer (a) les emplois 
the honour. 

Diogenes h^d regard neither for gods nor men ; he 
(b) dtegards ni 
was one of those eccentric characters, whom the Grecian: 

c'6toit singulier ;=— re, m. Grec(l)' 

rabble put among their seven - wise men, 

(2) canaille, f.'a mis au rang de sage^m. 

53. When hope is gone, despair is near at hand. 
Quand on n'espere plusy ori est trds dhespoir, m. . 

54. In (3) France, near Poictiers, is a stone of a prodigious^ 

Poitiers, pierre, f. 
(2) size, supported (4) by four pillars; but the cause* 
• grandeur^ f. piliery m, 

of it's (5) erection is not known. 

f. connoitre (i.irr.) (4) 

55* What is more ridiculous than Achilles or A ga*' 

Qtiy a-t^il de'plus 
memnon in. their qyarrels for a girl ? For, as for Ajax^ 

querelle, f. Jille ? Car, 

anger brought (6) him to madness and death, 
furefir^ f. condvxre (c) frtnisie^ f. mort, f. , 
56. It is better | to go to bed j without supper, 
xjflib2>(a.irr.)wiettj? secoueher. soupt^m*. 

than to rise with . debt. . 
de se iever des deftes» 
The security of a nation cannot "subsist without armsi 
sAreU, f. f. 

arms* without, pay, or pay without taxes. 

solde, f. * imp6t, m. 

57« Save the respective rights of (he partiesi is a phVase 

r '" ' ' t if(^) droit, m. f. 

commonly inserted in papers signed before notaries^ 

insSrer (i) acte,Ta, passi par devant not aires i 

58; The christian lives according to the maxims of 

thritieHf m. se conduire (a) m. 

the Gospel, 

tvangUt,. ^ 1 

Pigc Arti Y Rge Art. I B^vys. 

i'l J '9 (4^ 5^ ^^ \ ^^X ^^ 


I will answer ray critics according to the objec- 
ripondre (d.irr.) critique^ m. 
tions which (l)they make, 
f. faire (d) . 

Morality consists in regulating our manners, Jiccording- 
Morale^ f. d regler m<turs, f. . 

to the precepts of reason. 

f. . 
59* A captain and a general have different parts to 

conduite^f, d 
act : the • former ought to do all things according 
suivre : premier ^ m. detoir (a) (2) 
to order; the latter should determine freely, according t» 

devoir (a) iaviscr selon 

the exigence of. affairs. ' 

t)0. The state of Florence enjoyed tranquillity "and plenty 

etatf m. jouir(b) (3) traiiquilliti abondance 

under the government of the Medicis ; Tuscany was then 

gouvernementy m. Toscane (b) alors 

in Italy what Athens had been in Greece, 

Italic (b) Grece. 

They (4) who, under a pretence of friendship, 

pretextefTQ. amiiUyf, 

ij& injury, are worse (5) than open ener 

eommettre (jA,ATV.)d€s injustices, des dcclar^(6) 


We always consider that which is bad in us lender th«^ 
appearance- of some good. 

V r» 
6l. Don Vasco de Gama, a Portuguese gentleman, was the 

first who landed at Calcutta, on the coast of Malabar, 

aborder(c) c&te^f, 

and who discovered the passage to the £last-Indies round 
decouvrir (c) en douifkuit 

the Cape of Good-Hope, in I49I> wider .the reign .of 

^ EsperancCf sous . regne,ta. 

Emanuel the Great. . 

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It is naturally pleasing to rule and have power over 
agriable (1) dominer pouvdirt m, 

others, but he (2) is the great and absolute priiice, who 

commands himself. 
St d. 

Good prose has the same advantage over poetry, as a 
f* foestky f. que 

'handsome woman has over -another who is painted. 
beau (Z)femme^ f. Jarder (i). 

62. Mankind hasten on- toward eternity, without 
Hommes s^avaHcer (a) tc, f. 

either (4)' foresight or reflection. 
privoyarice^ f. €t f. 

The whales are so numerous, particularly near 
baltincy f. ' en si grande quantite 

Spitzberg in Greenland, , that they swim in lar^e 
dans le Gro'enldhd " natter (a) en grand 

shoals, like carps in a pand. 
. troupe^ f. carpe, f. etangt m.. 

63. Britain, the most famous island of the whole worlds 

fameux (5) l/e, f. tout mondcy 

lies over against Germany and. France* 

est situee Alltmagney f. f. 

The sun is the roost striking emblem of divinity, 
soleil,m. frappant {6) m. — » — te,f, 

and Was adored as the Supreme (6) B^ing, by almost all 

(b) ^trCy m. presque 

the ancient (6) nations. It is> thence, perhaps, that 

■f. deid yeut-etre 

comes the custom to build places ' of , worship* 
couiu7n€y£, bdtir idificcs pour leculte divin 

even to this day, in such a direction, that the people may 
meme ctujourd^hvi, iel f. (f) 

have their faces turned to the east. * * 

k visage orient^ ra. 

(I) b% 

Page I Ai%» 
(5) 8 10 

Art. I Page A^t. 

8 (3) 8 . H 


1 h 

4. par 

2 de 

5 s&ns 

3 pour 

6 upr^ 



" First, upon Prepositions before the Verbs* 

When a proposition ^is to be put before a verb, tbat 
verb invt!^t l»e in the present of ihe infinitive ; except after 
the preposiiion f«, which requires after it the present par* 
ticiple. Ti>e only prepositions which are used before 
the present of the infinitive are the six following : ^, rfe, 
pourf sans, par, aprcs, which may be employed before all 
sons of veiljs; except the preposition aprds, which if 
used only before, avoir and ctre. 

Prepositions ukich are put be' Trepositian put before 
fore the present of the infinitive : the present participkt 

which then is qUo called, 
a gerund. 

7 en / 

De and a, before an infinitive, arc sometimes preceded by other 
prepositionsi or ftdverbsy with which tbey.nftke compotind prepow* 
tions. I 

The prepositions which ^take cfe after them are: 

8 avant Je 11 hormis (2r 

9 exce"pt^ cte 12 loin de 
lOliorscfe 13 prhi^de 

And some other esrpressionsy which are classed amon^ the preposi- 
tions, because ihey are expressed' by a simple preposition in SQine. 
other language, 'as ; 

14 «u lieu (fe ' 17 ^ la reserve de 

15 au risque cfe 18 de crainte dt 
l6h force de 19,fauteck 

And some others, composed with a substantive or an adverb and A\ 

The prepositions which take d aAer them are : 

20 jusqu'a 21 sauf a 

And some otbersy composed with afi adjective «r an adverb 



1. History .is equally proper to form the h'eart, and 
(\) Histoire^f, ■^galemcnt cosur,fn, 

to adorn the mind. 
orner esprit t m. 

Goodeducalion teaches (2) us, to behave well toward 
(i) f, tnseigner {^) nous biencomporier 

(3) every body. 
tout le monde. 

A good general of ah army is as attentive 

d'armee avoir (a) autant de attention 
in concealing his designs, as in discovering liiose of ths 

cacher desseifiy m. que decouvrir 


Accustom yourself, when you are young, to practise 
S'accoutumer (k) tandis que (a) Jeune pratiquer 

virtue; it will help (2) you to suffer patiently all the 
(1) f. aider {d) supporter patieniment 

crosses of this world, 
traverscjfr ' ^ie, f. 

Our corrupt nature is more disposed to do. evil, than 
corrompuuQ^) f. . malg ra. 

to do good. 
bien^ m. 
There is (5) a great deal of satisfaction in teaching dili- 

beaucoup enseigner des 

gent (4-) b6ys, but rhere is a great deal of trouble in teach« 

ecotier, ra. peine 

ing idle ones. . 

The love of G6d invites (2) us to love one (6) another. 

* noui aimer 

Let us endeavour betimes to do good. 
' trava'iUer (k) de bonne heurefaire bien, ig. 
A boy who is inclined to learn well b always 
Scoiier^ m . eticlin apprendre ^ 

Page Art. 

Page Alt. 

(O 5» i (3) '97 ^3 (5> ^7^ 4 

77 II I (4) <>8 7 I <?^ ^"^ 

Page Art. 


ready to receive his master's (1) instructions, diligent to* 

prit recttoir 

learn his lessons, careful to come every day to school, 

assidu venir torn Its jours tcole^ 
and skilful in making a good use of his time. 
habile vsage, ra. temps, m. 

It is the duty of kins;s to command, and that of subjects 
C*est aux rois ' avx sujeta 

to obey. 
3. As men of sense • say a great deal in few (2) 

bons sens, m. dire (a.irr.) bcaucovp * en 
words, so the halfwitted have the talent of talking tnuc|), 

and yet (3) saying nothing. ^ 

We have no reason to place any hope in our enemy, 
aucune f. mettre quelque 
If we have none in ourselves. 

It is sometimes dangerous to speak the truth. 

^Iquefois -rewx dire vSriUyf. 

Socrates, | the day before | his (4} death, in the 
Socrate, veille^ f. de 

prison, Applied himself to read ^sop's (1) fables, 
jpriion, f. sefaire (b) une occupation Esope 

and to turn (5) them into verse. 
mettre en vers. 

The .consuls and senators alone had a right to wfear 

sin^eur seul (b) le droity m. porter 
purple robes. 
pourpre robe, 

Livy says, that the fear of losing liberty is a 

Tite Live rf/re(a.irr.) crainte^ f. perdre te 

kind of slavery. 

esp^ccy f. esclavage, 

3. Wicked men always find pretences enough to 

Michanty m. tronver (a) assez de pretexte^ m. 

oppress the innocent; and when they want good rea* 
opprimer manquer (a) (6*) 

















Page Aru 

(5) 77 ^« 

(6) 169 I 


sons, they have recourse to calumViies. 

f. recourSjm,_ (i),calo7nnie^f, 

Pepi a, king of France, did not ifve long enough, 

ne vivre (c.irr.) assez long-temps^ 
to put all his projects into execution. ' 

niettre en 

Coquets pretend to (2) be jealous of their 

. Coquettes sefaire (a) honneur i jaloux (3) 

lovers, to conceal that they are jealous of other women, 
amant cacher qu'^Ues sont des femme^ f. 

It is never too late to do good. 
jamais bieuy m. 

Frequent conversation with learned men is a ' short 

(O , f, (Phabilesgens abregS{4) 

way to attain knowledge, and to save our- 

chemin,m. parvenir d {l)sciehceff. s'^pargner 

selves the labour and pains inseparable (5) from (I) study* 

travailt m, peine^ f. itvde, f. 

Take time to deliberate an^ advise; bat lose 

Prendre (k) du examiner perdre (k) 

no time in (6) executing your resolutions. 

Nature has given (1) animals one time to act» 
(1) f. donner(\)d ' ^ ^'^^V, 

another to rest. ' 
se reposer. 
To become learned a man wants t)irec things, 

savant on avoir (a) chose ^^m 

nature, study, and exercise. 

(1) f. (1) etude,^ (1) in. ^ 

4. Begin - with studying, if you wish to ' be 
, ' Commencer (k) * vouloir (a.irr.) deienir 



A man should set out with conquering his passions. 
// faut commencer vaincre 

5. We cannot betray truth without ren- 

ne pouvoir (&ArTsi trahir{^ vtrite^^* r&^ 

Fage Art. 
(2) ai» • 2 

Page Art* 
(4) 68 7 

(5) 68 z 


dering (1) ourselves despicable and guilty. 
dre mepri-sable cottpable, 

I cannot read Tully, particularly his Treatises on 

poiivoir {,) lire Cictron, 
Old Age, on Friendship, his Offices, or his Tusculan (2) 
Vielllesse^f. Amifie/f. 

Questions, without adoring, that divine-inspired bpeast. 
f. souffle divin qui I'mspiroit* 

The too great attention, which a man * bestows 

La trop f. on donner (aj 

in (3) observing the faults of others, makes hixn 

defuut,m, faire[i^,\Tt.)quon 

die without having had the leisure to know 

woi/n'r (a.irr.) lomr^m^deconnoitrt' 

his own, 
lessiens, - 

Tlie concise (2) expression of fine thoughts satisfies the 

f. p€ns€e,£, contenter (fa) 

mind without tiring it. 
esprit, m . lasscr ( 1 ) /e. 

6. Alexander, the (4') son of P)iilip> after having conquer- 

Jils, m. conque* 

ed Greece, and a part of Asia, died, having reigi^ed 

Wr (i.irr.)Grcce,f» 

only 12 years, regretted not only by (5) his own sol- 

proprt soU 
diers, but even by the people whom he had conquered, 
dat^ m. meme des penples 
and who became the victims of the ambition of bis 

deiaiir (c.irr.) 

7. Boys learn by teaching others, who 
Ecoliers ajfprendre (a.irr.) enseigner (h) d*autrts ecoliers 

bs^ve less knowledge than themselves, because in repeating 

^tre moins instruit euxmemes, par ce que reptter(h) 

I those things which | they have formerly iearnedV 

ce que aupatavant (6) 

they fix them more stedfastly in their memories. 
iU se Vimpriment plus profondiment dans la memoire, ' 

^ a 

JPagc Art, 

i) 77 I* 
y 68 7 

Page Art. I Page Art. 

(3) »'» I 1 (5) 197 • 19 

(4) i4 17 I W 1S7 a 


We must take caro, th^t in remcJjitig one 

// falloir (a.irr.) prendre garde f remtdier ( 1 ) 

evil we do not fall (2) itito a grealer. • 
mal tomber (f) 

D©n Alphonso, king of Naples, by alighting from 

liis horse to (3) relieve a countryman that was in. {4) 

secourir pa^ysdn^ ra. 
danger, gained the city of Gaetji in a fe.w tiotirs, by making * 

fuire (lu 
his first enjtry at their hearts, which the battery of • his 
dans Icur cgsurunebrecht 
guns could not have done in many days. 
canon ^ m. 

luassisting tl)« poor, who can do very little, says 

poHvoir {^.\rr,) ^ trds pett, 
Marcus Au^€lt^ls, we shall be assisted by'God, who can d* 

•every thing. • 


A man a^sked a rourtier "how he had -made his way 

On dc7nandmr{h)^ courtisan^m, s*itoit si fort 

so well at court; he aiiswered in t-hese four words, 

avance ^a la cour^ f. 

ifljuriasferendo, tt gniHas agendo, by bearing injuries, and 

smtfrir (h ) 
(5) returning thanks. 

'8. Think, before yott speak, and consider before yo« 

Re/ltckir (}iy parier^ 

^rbmeHre, • 

Before yon undertake any thing, take right mea*" 
entreprendre prendre (kAvr,) Juste 

sures, so that you may have nothing to reproach 
desorttque (f) sereprocker 

yourself, if you do not succeed. 

9* Nothing remains but quietly (6) to prepare our* 
ne renter (a) iranquilletnent 

Page Art. | Page Art. I Pa^ ktMv 

,(i) i6o 2 J ($) A12 t \ U^ i.i.^ >% 

(n) J97 17 \ (4) 197 ^ \ W ^^1 **■- 



•selves for death, and with blinded eyes to receive the 

£i ( 1 ) mort, f. Us bandt (2)(3) <ri7, m. recevoir 
i)low. i« 

'Coup^ m. 
10. Unless we are as credulous as the Jew Appella, who 

d'ttre "-''^Ic Jvif^ m. 

can bcliwe, that, the day that Cxsar overthrew 

pousfoirijdLA xv.yroire taincrc (c.irr.) 

, Pompey at Pergamus, the bells rung of tbemseives in a 

cloche, f. sonner (c) 
floret (2) and remote part of the temple into which it was 
cache partie,£, in« ok n'itoit 

not lawful for any but priests to enter ? 

peimis qu*aux de 

.11. We cannot conceive the disasters of a country, 

potcvoir (vLATT.) cencevoir ' ravage^f. pays 

that has been the theatre of war, except we have seen 

m. guerre^f, ««ir (i.irr.) 

(4) them with our own eyes. 

ant, m. (3) 
1% Men that are | destitute of | religioA, says Lactantius, 

are sc far from being learned philosophers, that they 

inslruit (2) . 

ought not to be esteemed even as reasonable (2) - 

ne devoir (a) pas mime . regardcs 

13. Many people begin to take the resolution to 

commencer (a) d prendre 
live righteously, when they are near dying. ; 
xHtore religieusement mourir. • 

14. The envjous, instead of endeavouring to perfect . 

tnvkxix ' s forcer {S) devenirplms 
themselves, study only to (5) tarnish the good 
parfait ne chercher (a) que ternir 
qualities of others. 

15. Be resolved to defend your king and country, at 
, (k) determine i rot,m. jNZy«,m. 

the risk of losing your property and life. 
perdre hien, m* «ic, f. 

P^ge Art. I P»Bt Kt^ \ n^c. Arti 




16. Seferal people, without (l) great natural (^2) capacity* 

persfmnest tiJL. 

but by dint of application} have attained the bighesi 
mais . s*appliqu€r, sont parvenir{\y.ait haitt 
degree of skill in some sciences. 

degre hahitete^^.ccrtaine f, ^ ^ 

17. In Catholic (^) countries, people are allowed on (3)- 

pays^ m- ' pouvoir (a) 

Sunday to go to the play, to dance^ to play at cards and* 

comediei f* jouer carte 

dice; in short, to do any thing, except bfifendinjg God, 
de ; en un 7nof, tout f aire 
by actions which should be criminal on (3) the other days- 

cf the week. 

i8. For fear of fdlKng into poverty,, some rich'peo|il« 

iomber (4) pauvKLtty^, gens richer 

live in misery. 

rix'yc (a irr.) (4) Jt-iscrc, f, 

J 9* For want of speaking a language whicK we have* 

parler fangueff^ 

learned, we soon forget it.. 

appr€ndre(\Arr.)(5) bientSt outlier (jbl) . 

.20. The tyrant governors of Rome carried the fury 
tyrannique porter (c) fureur, f.. 

of domineering as far as to declare, that the most laudable 

dmniner ^ loiiable 

action in a Roman was to kill a king. 

f. (b) de titer roi^m, 

21. How many youth act as if they had' 

Combien de jeunes gens se conduire (a) , ^ (h) 

taken for a maxim of conduct this Epicurean (2) sentence : 
prendre(}) conduite 

Let us amuse ourselves while we are young, and grow 

pendant fue . jcune, saufactrt 
wise when we are old. 
sage vieux, » 

Page Art. 
(i) 68 6 

(a) 68 7 

Page Art. 
(3)011 is not expressed 


Page Art. 

(S) 181 t 



1. Eh h ucver followed by th« article, tliough we say, in a familiar 
way of ipeaking, he is dead, Ue:t d///cn famire moxdei apon what ac- 
count, en Vbcnuiur de futl taint, 

2. Dans is always followed by the article, except before posfteuivt 
pronouns, proper uamcsofaurhors([uoted. and propcrnames of towns; 
as, I have read it in Cicero, je I'ai lu dam Cic^ron ; seek in iDy pocket, 
chcrchrz dans aaa poche. We indifferently make use of iu or dmmt be* 
fore personal' pronouns ; as, in hira, en lui, or dans lai* But we tayi 
pen^er eu soi-iTiCrne, to refloct within ourselves. 

3. Ertf before nouns of time, signifies the time employed in doin^ 
a ihiog; and dans^ the time after expiration *A which the thing will be 
done; as, I could do it in a week, or I would spend no more than • 
week in doing \i,J€ Itfentls en buU jours \ I will do it a week heoce^ 
je Uferai dans buit jours* 

4. Cb€%, followed by a pronoun, or a proper name of a person, sig* 
nifies somebody's hcuse; as, he is at my house^ at your house, dec* ; Hat 
chez mot, obex vous, &c« It is preceded by de, when it signifies comiof 
flora ; as, I come from your house, /« vieifs de chez votii, 

5* Dedans, debars, dessns, desious, and ayparavant, are al%irays adverbs^ 
and never prepositions; consequently they have no case after tbeni, ex- 
cept when dedans and debar st dessus and dessous, are either joined toge*- 
ther, or have the particle de or par before them ; as, both within aAd 
without the house, dedans et debars la maison; both upon and under 
ifce chair, dessus et dessous la chaise ; from under :he bed, de dessous le lit* 

6. When the definite article precedes dedans or debars, dessus or <ln- 
saus^ these words are used substantively, and consequently reqairepMr 
fo^lowiog noun in tlie second case; as, the inside or the outside of the ' 
house, le dedans ou le debars de la maison. 

7. yuijuesi or iziYitx jus jue^ (to, as far as, til!) coming before a vewely 
it's fi4al e or es is omitted, and an apostrophe is put in it*s stead ; as. 

subjunctive ; and noljusques a ceque. 

8. Even, or very, in F^iglish, is sometimes rendered in French by 
jusfu^a; as, even the kiog,y»5^i('au roi. In this sense it signifies an 
emphatic expression of a collection or eniversality of objects, either 
uenUoned or undei stood; as, when I say, even kings are mortal, 
jusqu' aux rois sont morteis ; it signifies all meD, even kings are mortal, 
Uus Ui bommes jusqu'aux ro'is sont morteis. 

9. Sauf, which signifies an exception to something, governs the first 
case, speaking of thmgs ; as, without prejudice of his claim, saut iO»i 
droit. It governs the third case, speaking ot persons ; as, lauf au dt' 
mandeur ^ sepcurvoir, but the plaintiff, cr petitioner, is at liberty to sue, 
or make application. A law expression. 

10. When before signifies opposite to, or in tbe presence oft it must be 
rendered in French by d^'vant \ as, opposite to your house, devuu 
vot^e maison ; in the presence of £he king, devant le roi. The opposite 
to de-v^nt is derriere, behind. When bijtire signifies to have precedeiny 
of\ it is rendered in French by a'^obir If pas snr\ as, dukes are* before 

aarls, /esdua ont le pas sur let comtes. \n a\V o\.\\tT csk%t\^6</or«i^ render* 
0ci in ^jcach- by avant ; as» we vici^ ^^'J^JX ^^V*^^^"^ Hjv^TSk** {K\«ft\ 


htureux avant la guerre; viituc is before every thing, la vtrtu drit^ 
oUcr avant tout f it's opposite is aprh^ after. 

I i»Avanti followed hyque, is,a conjunction,' which governs the sub* . 
junctive t as, before you were born ; avant que vous/itssiex tie ; follow* ■ 
cd by Jet it governs the infinitive; aS} before death; avant de mourir, 

12. Pres, auprht near, govern the ad case, though we may say, ia 
common conversation, near St. Paul-s, yrhi I'eglise St, Paul, Pres must 
always be used instead of aupret^ speaking of time or age ; as, it is near 
twelve o'clock, il est pr^s de midi; she is near thirty years old, elle et\ 
^\h% det rente ans, 

13 . As custom will not always s)iffer aupres to be used, when speak*; ' 
ing of places, particularly after tropt J/, asse»,pltiM, bieitf I advise the 
le<irncr to make use olpres', as, he lives near the church, IL defneure^x^%,>. 
de I'eglrse; though auprh may be indifferently used in Quch a case. 

14. Pr^f, in the sensf oi save^ exeepthgi governs the thvrd case, an4^ 
must be placed-aftcr the noun whieli it governs i as, except a crown, a> 
ufi ecu p> es ; excepting that, a celapres, r 

1 5 . Aupres must al ways be used instead of pres $ r st, wheiTwe spetiu 
of somebody, placed with anothet*, as his master, friend^ counsellor, 
or servant ; as, /'a/ mis monjils aupres de mm ft ere \ 1 have pla^xd my 
son with my brother,. t^ix. as his tutor, master, friend. \ 

2dly« When we mention in what esteem a person is wt^h another». 
or what iotere&t he has-with him ; as^ he is in favour with Che king, 
my lord, that latdy f.i/«i/ b'len aupres dn ro'i^At. monseignem^ 6fi cetf 
dame% he can do what he will with him, i/ a /ojrr ^dirvo/r aupres de lui, 

3dly,.Whenwe mention by whom a person isentertained, sheltered, 
&c. ; as, he is gone to live with him, il^ett retire aupres de lut ; he is^ 
quite safe w ith hi m, il est en surete ^upr^s de lui. 

1 6. The prepositions to and toward, when they, signify iff regard fa, 
must always be rendered in French by envert ; as, he is tingrateful to - 
God and men; il est iugrat envers Oieu, et envers les bommes. In all. 
otrher cases toward must be rendered by vers; as, he went toward Ia» 
lingtbn, ilestalle vers Islington, K<rri signifies likewise «^tf/;as,<4ibout 
the beginning of the spring, vers le commencement du priniemp,si 

17-. Whcnfrom and to denote simply the distance iji;om one place to 
• another, they are rendered in French by de and a; as« it is five mile« 
from London to Greenwich, ily a ciuq miiles^dc Londres a Greenwich, 
When they denote the quantity of the distance, they are rendered by 
dtpu'is and jitsque ; as, he walked from London to Gieenwichj il alia i • 
pietl depuis Londres ]\ii(iyL*i Greenwich, When they denote succession 
of place, they are rendered by de and en ; as, he goes^iora town td> 
town, // va de ville en ville* 

18. Ai eact, and every, before a ooiin denoting distribution- of pco« 
pie, time, or place, are rendered in French by^^r; as, two crowns a 
piece, 4eux'e'cus par r^/«;. three guineas a week, trns guinees par se^ 
o maine; four shtUmgs a mile, quatre scbcllirgs p^r miJle, 

ig, J^is'^-vis and ^ ^opposite, opposite, govern the 2d case, though 
we say in common conversation, vis-a-vis I'bStelde ville, opposite 
Guildhall. The first is applied both to persons and things, ^c other 
to things only, 

21. The paiticiple active in English, preceded by wUbout^ it tendstt!,^ 
ed in French by sans, sometimes toUovieAV>^ ^%>a^>^a5^^AN^N^\'^^'«x^5v• 
a rticie ; . as, he »}ok c 10 him v« Vih^ut UwAti^^ \\ \u\ ^t\* ^w»^ ^^ iv^^^N 


Sometimes by in infinitive without a preposition ; an, itluipntla nnt 
era'tndre. Sometimes by que^ and the follow injfr veib in the subjunctive 
mood ; as, il Imparla sans qQ*i/-cratni1[; and this last must be used 
when the active participle in English is preceded either by a pronoun 
or any other noun. ■ 

81. j^Sf in English, with the verb in the indicative moon, or on and .• 
M^cn with an active p<»rticiple, are rendered in French) sometimes by 
sur followed by ee oMe^ as ; as you wrote to me, that . . .sur ce que voar 
m^avt» itr'ttijue. . . Sometimes by ccmmet as ; as I walked into the Parki 
commey« mepromenols au Pare, Sometimes by ^ followed by a sub* 
i^antive ; as, on my arriving at London, \ ^tsn arr'ruee ^ Londrts* 

2Z The preposition de.^ centre, sur/iouSt and sans, are commonly re* 
pcatcd in French, though they are not in the English; aS) there'-were 
many books upon the table and chair ; iij avoit beaucoup de iivret sur 
U table et sur la cbaki* 

23. A: par, potir, av&, dam, ice, arc commonly repeated when the 
nouns are not synonymous, or prttty nearly of the'same srgnification ; 
as, by mildness ana reason, par la douceur et par /a raisOni par is re* 
pcated, because douceur and ratsen are neither synonymous, nor nearly 
of ibcf same signification. But in this instance, in luxury. and Volup*. 
tuousness, dans la mo/lesse et la voluptg, the preposition, fbr the contrary 
reason, is not repeated . 



1. All circles, either great or small, are divided into 

les cerde, m. tant qve (a) diviser (i) ( 

(2) three hundrtd aud sixtj degrees. 


A body is extended in length, breadth, and 
(To/y*, m. itendu longneur,^. largeur^ff. 


The art of engrating on copper was inven,tai at 
{3) gravure, f. cuivre (c) irouvcr(i) 
Florence by a goldsmith named Finguerra | in the | nud- 

orfevre, m, , au 

die of the (4) fifteenth century. 


Actaeon was transformed into a stag at the sigKt of Diana. 
\4cteon {c) mHamorphos€lr(S)c€rf^VQ, iu€,f. Diane, 

Hercules lifted Antasus up in the air, and stifled (5) Kim. 
Hercvle clever (c) Antee _ Stoufer (c) 








Page Art. I Page 

(3) S» ^ \ ^<\ m 

(4) '5 A 



between his arms. 

(1) \ . 

2. Pearls are formed in oisters of sparticular (3) kind* 
(2)Fer/e, f, ^es huitre, £ esp^ce, f. 
which are found in the sea of the East-Indfes, a^d 

on trouvtr(R) . Indes-Orientales^ 

which are fished up. in ,(4) abundance at Cape Comorin, 

on pccher (a) abondance au Capy m. 

and on the borders of the island of Ceylon. 
bord • Ue^f, 

Pliny places forests inthe bottom of the Oriental (3) 
Pline desforStyf. fondytn, 

ocean, ^ or the Indian sea. 
act aft, m.. mer des Indcs. 

iEscuiapius was brought up in physic, under the care 
Esculapt (c) itex>€r (i) mcdednc, f. conduiU, f.' 

of Chiron the centaur. - 

ccniaure^ m. 
There (5) is much good in concok'd, much evil in 
beaucoup (6) (6) 


All (2) virtues are lost in (2) interest^ as (2) rivers ar« 

6€ pcrdre (a) ' 

lost in the sea. , ' • 

w»er, f. 

3. In the course of a \feek you may see, at 
Dans courSi ro. huitjour pouvoir (dtirr.) 

Epsom, horses running six miles in eight minutes. 
cketfal qui/aire (a.irr.) en • 

4. Sycophants like better to dine at the houses of others 

Parasite aimer (a) mieux les autres 

than at home. 

tux, ^ , 

41. It is reported, that Renaus, in derision of his brother^ 

on raconter (jdi) - frkre 

leaped over the ifiew walls of Rome,, and 

sauter (<:) par-dessus nouveau muraille,£. 

Page Art, 

(0 197 3» 
(2) S% I 

Page* Art: I Pige - Art, 
M 68 7 I ih) 171 K 


for this was killed by Romulus, 
(c) tuer (}) 

6. The inside of a | dwelling house J ought to be com- 

bdiiment, m, devoir {jx) 
modious, and the outside regular. 


7. The Russian empire extends kself*, tnward the 

Ru8se{\)empire,'m,s*ctendre(B) vers 

south, as far as the Caspian (l)sea.^ 
inidiy m. ' Caspien 

According to (2) the calculations b£ antronomers^ 

caicul, m. , • ■ — m€,m, 

the-mean distance from the eartk to the suhms 95,173,000- 

moyen f. de , 


Defer your revenjje till to morrow;! and to mor-' 
Drfftrer (It) vengeance, f 
raw repeat and fuilow the same maxim. 
rtpcter(k) suiv re (k.'irr.) * f, 

8. All men, even the most prudent, are subject (3) to com- 
mit errours and faults. 

9. All is lost, saving honour. 
perdre (i) honneur, m. 

Do not be afraid, in the beginning, to 4) speak 

avoir peur (}i) au commencjementjTt. parler 

a language badly ;, speak it any how^ and' correct 

d, raventurcy mufd corriger 
yourself afterward. - - 


10. If we be well informed (5) of vvhat has been before 

instruire (i.irr.) ce qui 
us, we I shall not be entirely ignorant of | what | is to be | 

ignQr€r,{d)eniicrcment d€Voir(a)ar river 

after us. . ' 

11, It will not be long,,, before yoti will have 
11 ne se yassera pas long-temps (f) 

Page Art, 

(') 6S 7 

M '97 i^ 

Page Art, | - Paf 

(3) 69 ^" I (S) 18 

(4) W* * \. 

Page Art. 


forgotten the world, or before alt the world will huve 
Qublier (i) monde, m. ni, 
forgotten (l) you. 

12. The city of Trey was situate in Phrygia, on the 

viile,{. Troye (h) sitae .(9,) Fhtygie, 
coast of the iEgean (3) sca^ near the Hellespont, and (4) 
cete^t Egce VHetUspont^ 

opposite the Ghersones-^ of Thrace. 

f. Thrac^ 

13. The island of Goree is near Cape Verd. 

Mocha, whence comes the best (5) coflfce, is near 

venir (a) caf€,xo» 

the Strait of Babelmandel. 

ditruitf no. 
14.. One of the prettiest eclogues of Fontenelle is that (6) 

of Gorillas and Ismbne. Any thing that Gorillas said to 

Tout ce que dire (b) 

Istn^ne was agreeable (l) to her, except the word Love. 

au mot d*amour prcs. 
15, A witty and cheerful prattling is not amiss among 

spirituel(3) enjoue bahil, tn, nest pas malsiant 
women ; but among men reason should prevail in con* 
Jhnme; avec f. devoir (ti) prevaloir 


f. ' 

l6\ There are certain , duties to be observed, even 

dtvoiry m. d observer ^ incmei 

toward those from whom you have received 

dont (a) reccv.oir (i) 

injury. . 

des injustices. 

The q units pass from Africa into Europe about the 

, caille, f. passer (a) - Afrtque en 
end of the spring; and they return thither in the 
jfin,S. y rdoiirner (a) au 

beginning of autumn, crossing the Mediterranean. 
commencement yici, traverser (b) — iiee, f. 



(t) 77 


(0 /^' - 




Men began about the year 1 300 to (l) make use of 
On eofnntcncer (c) se servir 

the compass, , 

17- The ranunculus was brought from Syria wito £urop»^ 

renoncule, f» (c) apporter (i) Syrie en 
in (2) the time of the crdisacres under Lewi&IX. 

croisade Louis IX, 

France is extended from .thPe Rhine to th^^ 
s*ti€Hdre (a) Rkin^ ra, 


It (3) is 226 miles from London to Farts, 

It (3) is .5875 miles from London to Canton. 

18.. There (3) are some pel ty sovereigns in(4')Oernvany^wE^^ 

Lire to furr![!;n (5) princes their s »ldiers; and one of tb« 
LiUr (a) soiudty m. 

conditions of the treaty is, that for those spldters. whcv 

f. ttaite, ra. 

I happen to die | they are entitled to receive twenty pounds 
meurcnt t en droH dt Uvrcy ^ 

a man. . 



19. Hercules separated the two mountains Calpe and 

Hercule sSparer (c) montagncy f, 

Abila : these two mountains are situate opposite one 

* « gne, f. situe (6) 
another; Calpe in Spain, and -Abila in Mauritania,, ap- 

en Espagne, — ——wie, jwr- 

poar liiie two pillars, which are said to 

XoUre (a.irr.) comme . co{omn€,i. .on dire (a.irrt 

be the pillars of Hercules. 

The old castle of Romania, usually called Scstos^ 
meux forty m. communcment 

lying on the European (5) point of the Hellespont, is over 
aitue te, f. 

Page Art. | Page Art. 

(3). m ^ \ ^> ^> 1 

Page Art. 
0) 21Z I 

C^) >97 17 I U) »^S7 ^^ \ v^^ ^'^^ ^ 


against Abidos, another castle on the opposite shore ; they 

oppose (1) cote, f. 
are celebrated ^ by the 'poets for the amours of Hero 

rendu ctUbre an svjet des 

«nd Leander. Here it was that Xerxes * laid , sl 

Cefui Id que f aire {catt.) Jeter 

bridge of boats over (2) the Hellespont, 6n which he 
fontjm, . batteau 
passed his (3) artny. 

J^aire\cArt^ passer 

. SO. It is I a miserable thing, | to die before our 

II malheureux de mourir son 

time. What tjme, 1 pray ? that of Nature ? Why, 

4empSy je vous^rkr (a) celui f. Mais 

Nature, for her part, gave (4) you 

L quant ci ce qui ta concerne^ avoir {iBi) donntr (\) 
the Use of life, as of so much money i 

jouissance, f. I'/c, f. d*ttne sontme d*argent 
without setting any day of . payment. What 

fixer pottr Vecheance du payment, 

reason. tjhen have you to (5) complain, if she call (4) it 
done vovs piaindrCf redemanderQa) 

in when she has a mind? for you received 

U lui plait car woir (a) recevoir (i) 

(4) it iipon this condition, " "^ 

d cette f. 

It is not enough to be known by every body> ff 
II ne suffit pas de i:;dnm^tre{\,\rr,)de 

M'e die without knowing (4) ourselves* 

mourir (a.irr») 
'21. Do as thoti wouldst be . done nnlo* 

Fdire (k.irr.) votUoir {t,\xx»)qU*xm vousfaire, (g.irr.) 

is a sentence (^) upon which all nations under Heaven 

are agreed. ■ 
-^ont adopter (i) 

2«. Foreigners taVe pleasljre in (7) admiring, at 

Etranger prendre (a'irr.) admire r^ (J) 

df^m^terdam, the singular tnixture formed by the ridges 

: fniiange\ m. fiite, ra. 

Pt«s Art. 1 Page Art. \ ^^^ ^\* ^ 

is) S6 ^ J '. 


of houses, the tops of trees, and the flags of slirps, 
cim€,£. btmderolleyf. vaisseau^ 

which give at once, in the same place, an appearance of 
ce qui <J la fms, lieu, m» tpectacle^ m* 

the sea, (1) ihe city, and the country. 

The ignorance of the clergy was so great in the 8tk 
f. c^gc, m.(b) 

century, that Charlemagne, being at Rome, asked 

siMe^m, - demander (cX^) , 

pope Adrian for some learned persons, who cotild^ 

savant personnagCy m . pOMToir (g.i rr.) 
t^ach his subjects the first elements of gramnlar and 

tnseigner (a) 4 

^l) arithmetic, entirely unknown in his kingdom. 

ahsolument incotmu - royaume^ m* 
Great riches, suddenly acquired, ^re never 

De fftomptement acquerir{\Arr,)He 

. s€en without indignation or astonishment. 


We must not pass one single day without reading or 
11 scul^ lire • 

ivriting something. 

The Rortans had neither the use of glass fo» 
i^ Romain Tie (b) ni usage, m, terre, m. 

windows, nor linen for shirts. 
f entire, i. niliirge^m. vhemm^i, 
23. It concerns not only thp king, but (3) nwi, (4)yi)u, and 
dl importe d d ' , 

the whole society, that wicked men be punished. 

les michant, ra. ' (e) 
The whole world is set in (5) motion by the 
ntonde, m. m€itre.(}Arr,) mowcefncnt 
wish ft)r riches, and the dr^ad of poverty. 
' dhir dis rickesscs, ' crainte, f. pauvreU^ f. 

Amasis, king of Eg>pt, | in the j beginning of bis reigti> 

EgyptCy xttt • r^grte,m* 

Cbought (6) he ought to manage the | ^affiftCtion8 of the 
croirc (c-irr.) devoir^ ^ me/tergcr tspriis 

ftigc Art. 

Page Art. ' 



(t) 55 " 

( ) 9 '» 

,(5) 197 


(ij j6o z \ 

4) ^^^ ^z J 

. ;M ^« 



people*! with skill, and to brin^ (l).tbcjm to their dttty 

adressc rappeier ilnvmr^m. 

by mildness and reason ; Lu was, al repasts and in con* 

douffUVf f. f. (b) avx r^pa^ 

vertation, of a cbeerful temper. 

eiijuuc (2) humeur^ f. . 
Tb« Turks, though great lovers of coflbe, through 
Turc quoique amafevn caj'^^ ra. par 

idleness neglect- ibe culture of the coffee-tree: (3) great 
pareste ucgligcr (a) Culture ,£, cqfier^m. 

plantations of it have been made jn Martinico, 

- en avoir (b) /tf//e(i.irr.) Martinique^ £, 

St. Domingo^ Jamaica, and Virj|ii>ia. 
Si,IhmingU€yJa7ndifiuc^(, ^ Virgmtff, 

Page Art. I Page Art, I Pdgc Art. 

(r) 77 a I («) 68 7 | 0) 55 19 

Farthbk Remarks upon the Prepositions i and de^ 

• N.S, The prepcMition de and the article /e ar^ contracted intd du ; de 
md w into de9: of the father, du p^rc; of the Fathers, </fip^re«; instead 
of tie le p^re, dt Us peres. The same contraction of the article is made 
^ith the preposition ^ : to the faiher^ «^ p^i e; to the fathert^ au»t p^rca f 
instead of a U {>^rt, a Us p^res. 

The preposition Jf^of) before a sobstantive indicates the kecond case^ 
^ lis the sign of the third case, see page 6. 

I. When two nouns substantive in English are joined together, mak« 
ing but one word% the first cxpitsstng the maniKr or form of a thing, 
. or the lise for which it is designed« the first must be the second in 
French, with the prepo«ition a before it, or tt must be changed into t 
vfctb in the infinitive mood $ as, a ditiing-room> unc suIU a manner | a 
patch*boy, un hotte a ino^hes, 

t But, if the first express the matter of which the thing spoken of 
is made, itre^uireathepreposttioD <&$ as^ silk stockings, dei tgs de 
tote $ a s 1 Iver pot, urn fot d *dr^nt, 

3. W (^ sometimei used, xst. instead of ^/y or r^, before namei of 
pUces, which admit of no article j as, vvore \ PariSf afier a Londrti^ 
ti'arreter ^ Amsterdafn-, 

adiyi 'Instead olwitb \ ai, to psint with oil colour!, fimdrezPhttiUm 

3dlv, Instead of /2>r ( as, a coach forsik persons, umarttse ksix^laceim 

4thly, Instead of aftir ; aS| to live after the English fashion, viinre k 

5thfy, Instead of m % at,' on the right hand, \. mmn d 9Ui % oa the left 
hand, a mahi gaucbt* ' 

6th^y, Instead of in \ as, ^ suit in fashibni un hmkU k & m9df\ 

^thly, Insuad of ^ } as, step by step, ^oi a ^j(h 


Sthly, lattttd •£ 4tC7rd\ng f^ fdlloWtd by the sirbstaotivo awh ; aS) 
according to my opinion ; a »»if «tnf. 

9thly, Instead of ro ; a5| to judg^ of him by his looks ; ^juger de hi 
par /rt mine. . , ' 

lothly, Instead of at ; as^ at t\^o o'clock, ^ deux beures. 

It is sometimes used without being expressed in English* 

4. De is often put after a substanttve instead of somet expressed or uh> 
dei'stood ; as, a bit of bread, of meat ; «;/ morceau de psbtt de nnandi* 

It is sometimes used likewise, ist, after the indeterminate pronouns, 
^uelqu*unt pertonnet rien, ouoif &c., before an adjective; as, there is no* 
body so lucky as he, Jtny a personne de si beureux que lui\ there it "^ 
something inexpressibly gracious in his discourse, il y a,Je nt sais qutn 
de gracitux dans sex diicours. 

2diy, Before the proper names of placet, having no article, which we 
are going to, or coming from ; as, revetiir de Parist partir de Landres, 

3dly, Ibstead of in; as, he went away in the night ; il partit de tiuit,- 

4thly, Before a past participle in the following and similar expres- 
sions ; as, there were ten thousand of them killed or'wounSed ; iljf en 
eut dix mille de tua ou de blessf's, 

5 thly, Instead of fyi as, he is taller by the whole head ; il ext plut 
grand de toute la lite, 

6thly« instead of 'witb ; as, he ran with all his might ; il courut de 
toutef 'sex farces, 

ythly, Instead of in, afttr^ instead of% as,. he behaves in, or after, this 
manner ; il se conduit de cette mantle ; were I in youratead, d petals dc 


Sthly, Instead of on ; as, to live on fish, nnvre depoisuuij, 
It is likewise used without bekig expressed in English. 
There are some other uses of the preposition de and d : but it would 
bte too redious to relate them here, as they,have been suflicieiitly ex- 
plained in the foregoing grammatical rules and observations. 


1, It was from th« country of the Seres, an 'ancient . 

' Ce /wi^*> w* Sei'h^ 

people of theiiulies, that silk- worms w^re transported into 
peupl€,rti, tttdeSf soieil)ter,m.(c) trtmspei^6 (^) 
(3) Europe, under the emperor Jastinian, about the year 
550. vers 

Soine people pretend, that, since the invention of 
personne, f . -""^dre (a) que ^ . f. 

iire-armB, battles are not so Woody. 
f€n{l)arfii€Stf.batuilie,f, sangltmt, (i) 

Gunpowder and guns were first invented by S warts, 











<*) 6^ • 



~ i^n 



a (I) monk of Cologne, in (2) the year 1340. Edward 
III had four pieces of cannon, which gained 

(b)^ • faire(c,m.)gagn€r 

him the battle of Creci in (2) the year 1346. 

The horse-guard<» were instituted in England in (2) 1550» 
cheval (3) garde^ m^ 

2» Si ik stockings were first worn by 

Sole {4d bas, m* (c) pour la premitrefois porter {\) . 

Francis I king of France, in 1543. 

The purple colour was the most esteemed among th«. 
paurpre (4) coukur, f. (b) 


The gunpowder plot was discovered ^e 

des poudres (4) conspiration, £, dScowcririiAn,) 

day before it | was to | have been put in exe*- 

teille,(. que devoir (b) itrp • mettrfii},xv,)en . . 

cution by Guy Fawkes, in l605. 

3. 1st. Alcseus and Sappho were bprn at Mitylene^ in 
Akh iM«/re( dans 

t})e island of Lesbos, 

.^/e,f. ... 

'2d. A sword is ill trusted with an angry man* 

Spie.u confier (j){5) irritS 
Sid. The Persians were enervated by luxury ; therefore it 
Perse (b) hervi lamollesseyc'estpourqum 
was not difficult for Alexander to conquer (G) them, 
(c) (5) Alexandre de vaincre les, 

4th. liCt us, after the fashion of Socrates, conceal 

(5) maniire,f. ne declarer. ^k)p(is 

Qur own opinion, undeceive others, and in, evc^y disr 

de t romper (k) tout .^ ^ 

pute inquire, whac carries the fairest .pirobajbilit^y . 
f.chercker(k) ce qui presenter (a) • grand — -— -^e, f. 
' of truth. . , 

5th. Cobwebs fastening on a standard >iiere 
des arfiignie^ f. qui s'att other (b)(5) etehdarfi^ m. (b ) 

PagC' Art. 

(0 .54 17 ^ 

(2) m ts not expressed 

Page Art. 
(4) "9 . « 

Page Art. 


532 ' V EXRftGISES UPON PaUt If. 

■ . . - • 

looked upon, »roong the llomanA, as a bad omen. 

fnufivais aifgur€,m. 
Anajcagoras, upon the news brought of 

(1) premier rappoH qui Ini Jut fait 
his son's (2) death, replied, I know I- begot ^ him 

quejt ravois engenilri 
iftortal ; which expression declares, that such accidents . 

laqudk , f» . tels nu 

•| are bitter to | those who do not. think of 
qffectcnt plus amtrement ceux ^ penser (jei) 

them bef(»re they happen. 
(3) y Qvant que arriver (e). 

6th. One month in the school of affliction \uirteach(4) 
mow, m.(l) ^Cfde,f, ' f. , 

V9 more wisdom, than the grave precepts of Aristole in 
de sngesse, f. • , . r» 

seven years* 

7th. At Lacedemon, boys were permitted to "get 

il koit pcrmis auxjeunes gens dc prendre 
\j «tealth all they could find in the gardens of the citizens; 
(l^a derobee ce quails jardin, m. . cit^cn^tn. 

and fhcir schoolmasters sent (4) thvm by night le steal 

entoi/er (b) de ' 

vegetables and fruits for their repast on the next 
ies ligtmey m. " da suivant (5) 

Jovr^ m. 

People who are beyond (6) the polar circle, being 
Feuples polairc cerclc, m, 

deprived of the light of the sun for some time^ do a part 
priver (i) 
^f their work by moonlight. 

6uvrage^ wii (1) clair de la luue, 
' 8tb. Every one would live according to his fancy, 

xmilQirit) (1) fantaisieff, 

9tii. To say the truth, the English phraseology is more 
(1) vraif m. ■ "gic, f. 

pimple, more regular and rational, than the Fredich. 

fan AfU I Page Art. | Page Art. 

//; a«9 3 1 (3) 78 ta (S) ^8 7 * 



• lOtB. Hannibal's (1) three victories at. Trebia, at Thra- 

victoire^ i\ (2) (2) / ' 

simene, and at Cannae, are above (3) all the exploits of Alex- 
ander, ^or why ? Because the one conquered (4) Romans, 

quoiP " ^nV(c.irr.) 

the other (4-> Asiatics. .... ». 

4. l-jst. That the city, might not be .large to 

J/in que ville, f. ne etre (g) pas d'une grande cten^ue 
]io purpose, Romulus, according' to the old stratagem 
imUile7nctt.t . m, 

of founders <C>f cities, | set open | an asylum; thither 
(5)fonda(eup,m, {5) ouvrir {cArx,) asile,m,' oH 
resorted, as to a place of refuge, out of the 

accounr (cirr.) lieu, ra. dcs 

neighbouring countries, all the rabble, without distinction, 

, Vfiisins contrie,i. popMlacCyf, 
bond, and free, one with another^ folk 

, esflflVe litre, tous confondm les uns qvec Ics autres, geni change and novelty. 
'- avide . (5) —— gementf ro. nmveautL 

Of , all things by which tranquillity. 

qui peuvent nous .procurer la tranquilitt 

. of xnJBd i9 procured, nothing is better tban husbandry, no* 

^esprit de iagriaifture^^, 

thiqg is pleasanter, nothing .more worthy of a gentleman. 

. 4e agreable- .' de _digne hmrtmeUbre. 

r. 2d^ In China people may go from Pekin to Can^ 

o« /?ott voir (a. irr.) , (5) . 
ton by the royal canal, which is (6) 600 leagues (6)-.lohg, 
3d. When ^^schines, by way ofrepfoach, objected to 

' , ^-: — ter{c) 

Demosthenes, that his orations [ smelt of | the lamp. 
. .- t stntir ih.\xv,) lampe^£, 

Ii)deed» | said Demosthenes, |- there is a great differ- 
ulaptriti il y a- 

ence between the things which you and I do in fh(i 

^* moifaisons (5) 

night by * . lamplight. 
vuit dlaltteurdelalampet 

Page Art. 1 page Art, I Page Atu. 

(i) .55 2» . . (3) IS"? S \ V^ ^^^ ^' . 


4th/ Titus Liviu's relates, that the Romans, at the 
/ TUe Uvc rappoHtr (a) 

battle of Cannx, haJ 50000 men killed; Polybios 

bataille, f. (c) (0 tfur (i ) Poiybe 


, 5th. A liar by profession is not believed,* even 
menteur ( 1 ) (^) croire (i.irr.) m6me 

when be speaks the truth. 
qva^d <?irc (a. irr.) rMtiff, 

6th. Nobody but (2) the ( wise man ] is pleased 

sage^ms ne^trcia)eonitent^ 
with his (3) own condition. 
de f. 

Reading gives taste for (4) solitude, fiHs 
(4)Lecture,(. dottncriii){5)goAtjm» f. rtmplir(sL) 

.Ibe mind with knowledge, und renders "((i) us able to 
esprit (1) donnoissances, f. mettre (a.irr.) in e/af <fe 
judge rationally of things; il banishes idleness and it's 
' juger saincment hannir {id){^)msiv€U^f, ^ 

fatal consequences; it teaches ((^) us the means to 
funette f. tTiseigncr {9) moytn^nk. it 

make a good use of time, and to acquire virrut. 
magCy m. (4) Umps^ m. acqu^rir(J^) vcrtu, f. 
Physicians are a great deal more prudent than painters ; 
{4f) Medeciriym, beaucoup (4)prt«/re, m. 

they cover their ignorance with^hree or tour feet 
fOif«nV (a.irr.) * (l) pied^m. 

jpf earth, whereas the othiers do. not fear to ex- 
: ierre^ f. au lieu que ■ '• ^ . ' craindre (a) de 

pose theirs to the eyes of every body^ 
lesleurs ailytn, ttjut mvnde^m. 
An untimely old .age, burdened with ihfirmitteji 
prSm(Uvr^'VkiUess€,i, actable (i) ■■■■../^^f, 
«nd miseries, is almost always the inheritance 

' re^f, heritage^m, 

kft us by a vicious and irregular youth. 

qui €,it laiss6 (6) nous deregle Jeunesse^ f. 

7th. Poropey's men bad so great a confidence in 

soldat, m. (b) conjianccy f. 

Page Art. 
4i) *30 4 

Page ArU I Page Art. 


their cause and (1) their chiefs, that they considered not 

ch(J\ ro. ^ — — rfr(c)wy» 

by what means they | might be able | to overcome^ 

qudmoifen^m, pouroir (e.'irr.) (2) taincre 
but after what manner tliey | ought to use j the vicr- 

(3) matdavyf. dn'oiri!b)(Q)userde 


8th. It is the property of a great genius^ to (-^j fore- 
Ce propre^m* prvs- 

know future things, and to (4) determine some time before 
seaiir aitparavant 

what may happen on ev^ry side, and what is 
(5)jpo«rotr(a«irr.)flrrirer(3) chaqu€*cote 
I to be done | when any thing has happened. . 
• "A faire ' qvdque est ^ . 

Among the Grecians, masic was a part of a learned 
Greci m: miia(j[tie,f, (b) savant 

education; and | it is reported, | that Epaminondas played, 
f. on dit jo«er(b) 

singularly well upon the lute. 

txtrdordinaxnmtnt (3) /t//, m. 

When men rush into party (6) quarrels, they 

se Jeter (a) dans des 
are immoderate on both &ides, either in honouring their 

injiute (3) part et d^autre^ soU . vaHter{h) 
friends, or affronting their enemies. 
soit en inmlter (h) 

In all disputes every one believes, that he has right on 
his side. . ' (?) 








(r) lai 




4 . 

(5) 92 . 


\2.) 1 62 





(6) 229 



. CHAP. X. 

Obscrtafwns upon the ConJuj\ct4ons si and qite. 

I, ^"^HEvei)) following the conditional si is never put in tbesubjuno 
J^ ttve mood ; and it is put in ho other tense ot the' indicative but 
the present, the preterit, and the imperfect; consequently, the future 
in English is changed into the present in French ; as, you shall .be'tdtia* 
Red if you tall to morrovir ; v§us ierez satis/ait si vous v^ez 'demain. 
The conditional is clwnged Tnto the imperfect of the indicjitive; as» if 
you would call to morrow; tivoifi venieE demain^ or ^vtfous vQukz 
verur demaip ; and not si vous vfcndrieXf 4>r jj vqhs nfddraM^vtniv/ ■ ^ 

2. Sometimes, instead of the compound of the imperfect of the ^^i- 
cative, we elegantly make use of the compound of the prpterit pf t|ye 

^ subjunctive mood after si ; as', Hf I had known it sooneir,' that Wdimi _ 
no\ have happened ) si je Ptwst suf lut6t, ceia ne sercit pas' atrhvc^ m^ 
stead of 52 je /'<2V0ii S0, &c. . ■.•':^ '«.' i , 

3. When si signifies whether^ it may be used in any tenoofv t^ iiu 
dicative and the conditional ; as^ do you not know whether he woul4 
conie, •if-r-T'i «K tftfW»B-iioiri paiilfU viendrdtt si^-^^ ; I do ^t'luioW' 
whether He will come to d9^; jt su^ms i*'il •wxttuitaL aujourd^hui*, 

4. From thjc last observaitipa it,f9U9w,Sy. that.the.conjunctio|ia.cii£<- 
'ther and or are ■ -mbst icdmtnntaty Ytndered in I^rench by ii and oz< ; as, 
ask htm whether he have done that 01^ not; ^eirtandtXflui Vil a fait cela 
ou non. They are sometiviCB reodflred in Freach, whether by ^«^, or 

'by ott quCi or que alone ; a«, you will not be punivj^ed whether you-<have 
doifb tnat or not; que vous ayts&fait eela^ que or ou q^je V9us ne Vfyex 
frii^ vms'wt'sertK pas puui. It- may likewise be reimclted 'tHls way ; 
vous' ne strex pas funi^ soit qficcMti ayexfait.ot/a\ 'ioit que, or ou que 
VOU.S neU*ayezpas fait, Jt is better not to 1 tepe^^it^^ at leaat in cos* 
"versatibn. Take notice, that whether^ an^ dr, jrendered^y ^ue, or soit 
que, giMrem the subjunctive m'ood in French* 

{. We make use of ^«»instiBid of repeating the conjunction if, or 
some of the otjier conjunctions, but more panticularly those of which 
que makes a part. In the first case.^irr is K>llowed by the subjunctive 
xQood ; as, if hecomi^ and if yoo speak to htm ; sHl mm et qul^ tous lui 
parliez. In the second case, the verb is put in the subjuncltvc^ mood, 
when que supplies the place of a conjunction which requires this mood ;. 
and in the indicative mood, if it sopply the place of a conjunction 
'which requires the indicative ; so that it.follovs the nature of theicon- 
junction of which it is a part, 

Examples where que governs the indicative. When I have told and" 
assured you ; quand je vous at dit% et quejV vous ai assure ; as he main* 
tailsed it, and I did not believe it; comme il ie soutenoit et que Je ne le 
Cioyo\% fas, • 

Bxamples of the subjunctive. He is very far from reading and writ- 
ing well ; il s*enfaut bien qu'il Use et qu'r/ derive iien ; provided he comes, 
and is in good health ; pourvu qu*il vicnttef et qu'i/soit en bonne sauti, 
Alany more instances will be met with ni the following examples. 

* See the exception to the 9th observalion on the use of the sub* 
junctire mood, page 154. . 


6. -Most of the conjunctions g )vern the indicative mood. 

7. Some conjunctions govern the subjiinclive mood ; you 
will find them all at the end of Chr^p. V, Sect. II, ou the 
use of the subjunctive mood, p. 1 '>5. 

8. The conjunction que^ that, which is employed betweon 
two verbs, and which is niacfe use ot to defin^ mure parti- 
cularly the sense of the first verb, is sometimes understood 
in English, but it must always be expressed in French; as, 
I believe you are in the right, Jc crois que vous aviz raiaon, 

''^ 9- Q^€^ than, a»^ serves to connect the tivo lerm^* of ^ 
coippariison ; as, Asia is bigger tha^l Europe, I' Ash' est plus 
grande que VEuropc, history is as useful as agteeable, 
i^histoire est aussi •tf/i/e qu'agrCahlc. 

13» Que preceded by the negation ?ie; ne • . , gu^re^ 
ne • • » Titn, s gnifying in English ; but, ouh/, Vfiless, is put 
£er 0eulement, sinon, excepted gnd serves to limit the nega- 
tive; as, you do nothing but play, lous ne faltcs que l^a* 
diner. See Chap. VIII, Art. 6'. No. 4, p. 188. 

1 1. Que after ili/ a, signifies depuh que, since, as, it is two 
years since I saw him, il y a dtuxans que je ne Vai vu, 

12. Conjunctions are commonly repeated in French. 

EXERCISES upon the foregoing CONJUNCTIONS* 

1. It is the custom of the Mohammedans,' if they see 

coutumCff, MahomHaris foirXaJFr.) 

a written or printed paper upon the ground, to (1) take 

iniprimt (i) d terre^ f. ramasscr 

it(2) up, andto keep(2)it carefully, lest it should contain 

gardtr soigneusement de peur que ne contenir (f j 

something of their Alcoran* 

If that which we desire fall out, we shall be 
(3) arriver{iak) 

j;1ad ; if not, we must be content. 
fikn-ttise ; 

Truth is so great a i>erfectioil» says Pythagoras, that 
Verity, f. f. 

if God would render (3) hrroself visible to men, he would 
vouloir (b.irr.) 

Page Art. 

(0 2U Z 

P»ge Art. 

W 78 tj 

Page Art. 

(5) .9* » 


choose light for bis body, and tru^h for bis (I) " 

choisir (e) lumierCj f. corpsy m* 


^ • • • 

If your meanfi ^uit not with your 

Tos mot/en J m. ne rtpondre (a.irr.) pas (2) 
ends, pursufe those ends which . suit witK 

but, m. viser (k) a un but qui ^t re (J) proportionne (2) 
your means. 

We I should avoid | many regrets, if lyQ • knew 

s*epargner (e) ' , savoir (b.irr.) 

how to moderate our passions. 


% Bayle, that judicious philosopher, very projjably' 

would nqt have compofued more than one volume in fioUo, 

(e) plus de 

if ^he had written only for hiraself, and not for 

(g) , nonpas 

libraife* ' . ' . 

3. We are in good health to <Jay, and yet we do mot 

(a) santi,£, . 

kn*w ^ whether we shall live (5>jtiU to morrow'* 
savoir (,) vivre\d,\rs,) 

4. I What does it signify' |. to a. man who lives 

qu*importe '^ .,»., -wre (aJrr.) 

within the bounds of nature, whetherhe have a (4) 

hundred or a thousand acres ?. 

5. If men were wise, and . would follow the' 

(b) que ils vouloir (g) 'suivre 

• light of reason, they would avoid many sorrows*. 
lumikre f. *y/;arg«er (e) 6ca«(cowp(5)(:^flrgri«,ni* 

People commit many faults when they are young, be* 
On faire (a.irr.) on jeune, 

cause they want experience, and theiy only 
ojt manquer (a) (6) quon nc 

Page Aft. I Page Art. 

(0' 8; 4, (s\ li^r 39 , 

(2) ^o I . I (4) a is not cxptfissed 

Page Art. 

S3 11 
6o 3 

(5) S3 11 
(6J 1 

CiiAt. X. . SOMK fcbN JUNCTIONS. 23J 

J. . -i . 

tBkt ' advice of inemselves. 

prendre (a.irr.) conml que desoUtn^mi* . i 

War is a scourge, even to the conquerors; and 

Ouerre^f. Jliau,m,m€meppur^f,vainquevr,m, 

kings dt)ght never to arulertake (1) it, unless it ingaU ami 

'd€ioir(SL) entreprendre .». , que (f) ,. •- 


S, Pliny says, that pearls are soft in the sea, and grow 

Piinc perlCf f. molle sa 

bard when tkey aref(^) exposed to the air. . - 
• ^di&cir (a) 

Quintus Cinciniiatus | resumed his ploug!** again, | . 

reprendre (c.irr.) charrue, f. 
«s soon as he h^d quitted the dictatorship. 
-aussitoi que (c) quitter (i) dktaturty f. 

'Addison says, that, when a nation ) abounds with 

nation, f, abonder {bl) eti 
physicians, it grows thin of people. 
medecin diminuer (a) en population. 

Juno was called the queen of the gods, the goddess of 
Junon i\}) appeler (i) 
kingdoms and riches, because she was Jupiter's: (5) wife. 
royaumt ^nch^ss€&, • (b) • fernnre^f, 

Hehk \ ihsinuated herself so well into | Jupiter's (3) favour, 
Hebi gagner (c) si bicn tea bennes grdces de 

that she always served "(4) him attable, and gave (4) him 

^servir (b.irr*) verser (b) 

nectar to drink, ( till ,.. Ganymede took her 

le nectar^jti. jusqiid ce que Oanymkde prakdrc (g. irf .) 


Vulcan, by Jupiter's (3) order, fastened Prometheus on 
Vukcdn, attacker {c) Promtthee " 

mount Caucasus with iron chains, because he had 
montf m. Caucase defer (5}^c^^;^e, f. (b) 

stolen fire from Heaven. ,^ 
dSrober (i) cie/, m« • 

Pandora went to meet £piiaetheuS| brother to Pro« 
Pandore alter {c) (6). trouper Epimethte^ Pro^ 

Fage Art. I Page Art. I 
P) $8 2/(4) ^7 li \ 

Page Art. | Page Art. | Pa§e Art. 

240 LXt;RCISES LI^N Part H. 

iDcdieus, being 9fnt by Jupiter; and carried (1) him a 
fnlthee^ (h) porter (c) 

i box, in which all the woes of (2) nature were enclosed: 
boUe, (, dans laqueile nttnix {h\ raifermCs : 

as soun ^s he had opened (3) h, they spread themselves 
dumifSt que (c) ouvrir (i.ur.) /d (4) se repamhe (c) 

.«n over the earth'; Aothios remained but (2) hope alone 
.sur ioiife il ne rester (c) que scute 

ai the bottom. 
fondy m. 
Vulcan had for his companions *lh6 Cyclops, so called 
(b) compagnon' *. Cffvhpe, ainsi 

because they had but one large eye in the middle 
n'tfTw (b) que, aii^m. milieu, m, 

of their f«>rehead» ' . 

' du front, m.' 
7, People made use of the bark of trees, before paper 

On 9e servit (hy tcorce 

was invented. 

(g) ^ ■ . 

A body has no motion* unions it receives 

mouxemeut^ tn. a moins <jve recnoir (e) 
(4) it from another, 

iiegulus dissuaded the Romans from, making pej^CPf^ 
dis^uadcr (c) de (5) 

though this would cost him his life. 

ii.en (4) devoir (g) co&ter (1) tui h tie. 
The Greeks forbade women, under pain of deatb| 
dfjenih^e (c) aux torn peine 

to be present at the Olympic games, though they were the 
de . (0) Oipnpigue jettx, quoique (g^ 

diversions of ''all Greece. 
divertissennnt Gr^c*e,'f. 

The emperor Caligula wished, that til the citizens of 
empereur soukmitef (c) . Citoyen 

Rome had but ohe neck, that he might 

(g) que coU, ni. a/tn qite pcuvoir (g.irr.)' 

behead them all at one Mow. 
t rancher la iete d tous d^un sent coftp* 


fO 77 







ra) <8» 


(5) Hi 



(4) 7^ 



Cha?. X. SOME.COMJUNCT10NS. 241 

8. I think, that piftty is iriily styled the found** 
i:roire (a irr.) — /e, Justtment appcler (i) 

tion of alt virtues. 

Pythagoras tells (1) us, that' the souls of men continue 
rfwHj (a) 'dtne,f, wimrre (a.irr.) 

i-ncbed. after death, but^ pass from body to (2) bo4y ; 
rcclltffftetit murl^i, ftiait corfrs 

§o that the same person i:> perhaps to day 
tie sorie qnt prrstmrtCf f. 

a dunghill cock, who, in tin; limo of the Trojan war, 

coq de bassC'Cour dc Troiii{3) gjivrttfl, 

S%'as AgamezunoD. 

- Wiicn Diogenes' foumi any tedious discourse ] was 
, voir {b,Wr.)fm' itnennujfa/it(^)dijiCOinSfm,a)r^ 
drawing near | it's conclusion, he was woiit to cry out in 
prochcr (b) de Jin, f. 

'a transport of joy, Huzza ! I see laftd. 

; Rtj/ouissomi'nous f 

9. DangoTous (4) and crafiy designs seem !• 

dCcevaiu mtrepi'ufc^ f. p^roitre (slavx,.) 
many people troth greater and more spleiuii<Cthafi 

d hcaucoitp. de gcfis et biHllant 

t|uiet " studies, 

franquitk (4) Cttidc, E 

10. £nvy knows no happiness, but in the tnisfortnnjet 

i^QHmntrc (a)" dt honhtur^ ro» fuaikeur 

of othcis. 

It. It is 6000 years'since God created the world. 
(5) cYtcr^c) mondp^ 

12. If you would ^qaire (6) reputation, or perpetutfie 

vouloir (a.irr.) £ 

yoUT name, you must ^o (6) things worth 

it faut que voiis faire (f.irr.) digne (a.irr.) 
writing, or write things vyorth reading, 

t^/rc tcrire (i) (0 /iiT(i.irr.) 



Page Art. 

Page Art 




W 51 a» 

(5) «7T 4 




(4) 68 7 



PART in. 



Note^ I St,. All the words printed ii\ Italics, being 
either wrong, or not in a right Order, are to be al- 
tered by the Scholar, according to the Roles of 

Noif^ 2dly, This mark (n) shows that a Word is 
Wanting,* and ouglit to be put in by the 5H:holar. Tbt 
Words omitted are either Articles or Prepositions. 

Nfftff 3dly, The alphabetical letters,* a, ^, f, &c«9 
. to h show the Tenses and Moods in w:hich th6 Verb 
ought to be put by the Sdiolar. V * . 

FRANCOIS Spina itre (c) a inventeur a lunette, 
Jacques Metius HoUandnis, ^t GaViI6i Galileo 
Ttorentin, itre (c) a jnTcnteurs a t^escopes. Tor- 
ricclty ittvtHttr (c) a barom^tres, et Dr6l>elliwi a thermo- 
in5irest Un homtne dela Piussc Polonoise deviner {c) a 
syst^me a motide planetaire. Milord Neper travailUr (c) 
le premier a calculs des Ingarithmes. Gu^rick de Magde* 
bourg inventer (c) a machine pneumatiquc. Galilee decou" 
vrir (c) a satellites a Jupiter, a taches a soleil, et son rotation 
sur sa axe. Le Hollandois' Huyghens voir (c) a anneau 
A Saturne; un Italien voir (c) son satellites. Le grand 
Nfcwton flroir (a) itiofntrc ce que cVf re (a) que a Inmi^re, 
il dx'oir (a) devoile A grand loi, qui faire (a) tnouvoir a 
astrcs et qui dinger (a) a corps pesans vers a centre a terre. 
Le Florenlin Finiguerra itrc (a) a ptire a art a graver d^ 
estarapes. Huyghens e/re (a) a inventeur a penduies. On 
commencer (c) a Venise ▲ tailler des brillans et a imitcr ies 
^ • perles, ■ 

Le sublime A sentimens rfo^eoir (,«^) \3\ v«k!5«v«i^^^^^^^^«^^*- 


, mens, niinjages/brfttji expressions hardi: taut (ire (a) t^yri- 
quille chez lui et simple. Uame pltinement maitresse a el^*- 
m^e ne voir (a) a cboses que comme Us itre (a) et ne se 
mettre (a} point tn peine a y rien changer. 

N ' Arrie se donner.{a) un coup a poignard.; pour donner 4. 
son mari a exemple a un mort heroique : ellc relirer (a) A^ 
poignard^t )e presenter (a) ilm^ en dire (h), Fetus, cela pe 

/aire (a) point a mal. 

, On dir^ (b) i Horace fils, «r//f r (h) combattre contre a 
Curiaces, que peut-^tre ii faudroit pleurer lui, i\ ripondre (a)«. 
Quoi ! vous pleurer (e) mot mourant pour mon pays? Et a 
Med6e ; Que resler (a) il d vous contre tant a cnnemis? 
£1le rtpottdre (a) froidement, ** Moi-m6me/' £t au pkre des 
Horaces qu'un de son fils, combattant contre a Curiaces^ 
avoir (b) prendre (i) a fuite. Que vouloir (b) vou^.qu'il 

/aire (g) contre trois! II r(pondre (a), ** Qu'il fnourirfjg),^ 
Cette esp^ce a sublime ne se trouver (a). point dans a o^c^ 
parce qii'il tenirijx) ordinair<;nient ^ quelque action, et q|io 
d^ns A ode il n'y avoir (a) point a action. C'^^€,(a).dan6 a 
.dramatique qu'on trouver (a) le principalement* <]lonxeille 
en (?lrc (a) rempli. 

La lieiae Hcnriette a Angleterre, dans un vaisseau j|tt 

. milieu a un orage furieux, rassurer (b) ceux qui qccompagner 
(b) elle, en dire (h) d eiurd^un air,tranquille| que les.reiusf 
ne se noi/er (b) pas. 

Curiace, aller (b) combattre pour son patiie, dire (b) 4, 
Camille son maitresse, qui, pour retenir ^f, faire (b) ^alpir-^ 

' son amour. . 

Ataiit que a ^tre^^ vous, je nuis ^ mon pay4. 

Auguste avoir (b) dicouvrir (i) a conjuration, que Cinna* 
' avoir {h) former 0) contre sa vie, et Tayant convimere (i) 
dirc(H) d lui. 

Soyons ami, Cinna cV^fc* (a) moi qui t'en conviet (a)^ 

Voil^dessentimens sublimes: AReine ^fre (b) au-dessus a 
crainte: Curiace au-dessus a amour : Aug^st^ au'dessus'A 
vengeance : et tous trois, iis etre (b) au*dessus a passions 
. et A Verlus cwnmun. • 

Les Italiens employer (a) pour a tragedies des'vers libres, .. 
nioti agpelt*s pacce qu'ils Hre (a) affranphis a joug a rime, ^ 


La rime ttre {vl) un ornement invenie par a peuples a nord, 
Lc Trissin parmi a Italiens vtre (a) I e premier cjtii sccouer 
(c) A jouo A rime, il y ato'tr (a) Heiix cents vmgt ans, et 
composer (c) en vrrs Iibres son pc.eino de l^Italie doliyree; 
niais TArioste et lc Tassc avoir (a) rime leurs po^mes, Les 
<\nglois sont dans In niifnti^ prevention contre a rime; mais 
Pope avoir {'n) rimo lows son mrvrnges. Les Italiensse ctr€ 
I a) scrvir (i) de vers libic$, rAIamanni pour son admi rabies 
Ceorgiques, Annibal Caro pourAa;/ traduction de l'Eneid#, 
^larcfierti pour cctui a lAicrece, ct le cardina) Bentivoglio 
])our cetui a Stace. Les tra»;e(tic8 a grands maitres Italiens 
it re (a) en vers lihrts: c'vtix (a) dans ce goAt qu'jro?r 
^•d) (ravaille !e marqnis Maffei, Tabbe Cc^nti, et I'abb* 

Tibt^re /h?re (c) accuser un boiame pour avoir vcndre (i) 
avec son maison la statue de I'ieiniiereur. Domitien /fl/nc 
(c) condamner a ra'>rt un fcmme pour s*6lre deskabWur (i) 
(Levant son image", ct un citoven parce qu'il (tcoir (b) le de- 
scription de tout A terre peint%VLT murailles de sm chambre. 

Tel ^tre (b) a discipline a premier Romains^ qu'on y atoir 
{n)voir (i) des gen6raux condamner leurs enfans A-inort 
pour avoir, sans IcuV ordre, gagner (i) a victoirc. 

Ia nier Baltique n'avoir (a) ni flux ni reflux; mais 
lorsque a vent? a ouest soit flier '(\i)'^vec violence, ils re- • 
Jouler (a) les v\i\ de la mer Baltique vers a orient, et ne leur 
laisser (h) qne trois pivds a profondeur veis a retrancbe- 
ment de Stralsund. L1le de Rugew etre (a) vis-d-vis Stral- 
sund dans a mer Baltique. 

Louis XIV avoir (h) djre (I) au Gomte de Granamont.. 
je gavoir (a) votre dge ; Tcx^que de Senlis qui avoir (a) 
84 ans m*avoir (a)donn6 pour 6poq|ie qiie vous aroir(b) 
^luditj ensemble dans A mOine classe. Get 6v^que, Sire, 
rfpfiqucr (c) le comte, n'accmer (a) pas juste, car ni il mje 
nous n'^Potr (a) jamais etudie. 

Les enfans d'un lunetierde Middtehourg dans laZclande 
jover (h) dans a boutique a leur pt^re, mettre (c), dire (a) 
on, deux terras de lunettes Tun devant I'autre k quelqtie • 
distance; ils voir {c) avec surprise que le coq-A leur clocher 
#fre (b)extiAraeraent gros, et comme s'il avoir (g) ctre (i) 
tout pr^s d'e»ix. lis le Jaire (c) remarquer h leur pere, 
i[u\fahriqffrr(c) bientftt aprhi lc premier lunette d'approche 
^ifnt on se itre (0 servi. \ZacW\t 3'wv%<yu 'cX. l^^^vs^^ 


tletmS'perfiTtwnMer(c).LVen^'i cette heurcux d^ciouvertef 
•et Galilee apptiquer {c) le le. premier i rastronomie, eft 
l609* Ttl Hr^{c\ k ce qu'on pi-ttendre (a), a origineiA 
. leleicope* 

-'L'e^u dans .A flux re$ter (a).qninse minutes ou OBviron^ 
. 4ans^an pl^^s iaui Elevation : dans-A reflux elle demeurer (a) 
.aussi pr^d'uQ quart d'heure, dans m plus grand abaissement. 
.lie. Aux.c/fe.(a) d« six heures» c'dre (a) A.direque les eaux 
Ifre (a) en/ra&rt^^six b^res de suite du midi a nord. Elles 
€n^layer(s) le mtme temps a revenir a nord a midi. 
.'.Spinosa, £inieux cbefAmatexialistes n^odernes, m^urir 
(€)co 1677; il a//ri6aNrr (b) A formation A univers i un^ 
mouvemeDt eternel a mati^re mue par /iM-m^me, et sans a 
intervention d'un moteur pi imitif* . Selon lui» Dieu itre (a) - 
.toutet tout itrt (a). Dieu.. Le mati^re, substance unique^. 
itre (a) a inie wmertei* dont a bommes, a animaux, et a 
v%6tattx itne (a)des roodiflcations* Spinosa avoir (a) for 006 
son systeme sur a ancien, syst^me a aine a monde 6tabli par 
Pjtbagore^ elr-expos^ en. vers si beaux daus>A sixi^e liyre a - 
iEneida^ .v. 724* 

On compter (a) phs a cinquante e^^ces a perroquejtSy . 
.tolls dlfl^nt-eafi^re, a *tail)e, Axouleurs. On oe rcit-- 
vmUrer (a) jamais ces oiseaux sevi: its vokr (a) lowjours • 
•parbande: .lis virre (a) danci a for^ts et se nourrir (sl) a^ 
graines et A.fruits-sauvages: ils^Ve (^) Uur nids daus It 
-topus A certains arbres, ou, i'annee preccdente, Tjoisi^au 
oomcD^'le cbarpencier avoir (a) coMtrmre (i) a sien, dont- 
ils'se aervir. sou venU Les feroel les ybire' (a) leurs ouifs 
ennombre impair, savoir, trois^ cinq^ouseipt: le premier 
nombre ttrt (a) plus ordinaire, le dernier, itrt (a) tr^s ^ 
lare. Get oiseaU vtvre (a). com npu^tement dix-buit on. 

Le condor itre (a) un oiseo^ -de. proie a Ferou* JU, fie- • 
maUe oe pondre (a) que fort rarement. Ot^pouvoir (a) voir * 
ceoiseau dans a .cabinet a bistoi re na/ifre/ a Soci^e Roy ale * 
de.Londres^ un a plus curieui, et a mieux ToMrois .en tout . 
gf nre qu'il y avoir (1) en Eoirope. n 

On croire (a) que le hiri>iideiles r0^«r (a) eaEUsope; ce 
§^i fonder (a) ee conjecture c-'^^rf (a) que celui a pays les 
plus sq>tentrionaux ne <or/tr (a) point de ce diroats froids^ . 
On irauver (a) e/t on Suede, 'c\vi\ Urt (^t\^^«cc>s^vy«^^'«>a3^^A!^!^ 
tdt* Q%mi9p ee .accrocbicn san* mQW^i!Wi«\\^'*w^ ^^^^'^^^ 


Le noi'sarige itrc (^) un piseau duqiid le chant Hre (a) furt 
i2;rcable ; il y en axoir (a) cinq ou six cspeces taut diffeien- 
tos .par A pluftiaae. 

Monsieur de IXvdXimxiT prttcnrlre (a) que a fourmis ne por» 
tent dc hs grains dans l^ur babitations que a faire les eutrer 
dans A construction a leur eJifice, et qu*e\\es passer (a) a 
hiver a manger, amoncelees les vns sur a Ics auties et si 
immobiles qu'elles svmbler (a) inort. Ce sentiment (tre (a) 
Gontraire. ^ ^''<^ tcmoignages a Piine, a Elien, a AMrovande, 
et A autres naturalistcs. . - 

Le requin ttrh (a) a poisson a plus terrible qu'tt y acmr 
(f)'dans le niers a An.crique: il ttre (a)-cxtr(^m'»ment vo- 
race, et dtxortr (a) son proie prt-sque sans macher la; 
pour saisir ia il ifrr. (a) oblige a se reiverser sur le dos; 

* ]>arce qtie son machoire superieurfe avancer (a) beaucoup sur 
A inferieure : mais, malgrc* a temps qu'il employer (a) a faire 
ce mouvement, il tfre (a) rare qu'elle echappe d lui» Ce 
poisson monstrucux pescr (aO plus a douze quintal: il avoir 
(a) environ vingt pic*ds a longueur. La cachalot etre (a) a 
eiinemi a plus redoutiibie a requin : il avitir (a) plus de soix- 
ante et dix pied a long'ieur. 

Quel que pouvoir (0 ^ire le destruction a le petits poisson^ 
de nuir, il en rester (a) toujours vn: quantite infmense a 
cbnquc eiip^ce; parcequ'iU (Ire (a) presquc tous ov pares, et 
qu*ils multiplitr (a) prodigieusement, au lieu que le gros pois* 
sons ne faire (a) tout au plus quo deux petits chaque annee. 
Qnand Lulli composer (y) son recitatifs, il prier (b) qpel- 
<{«icftnb la Charopm^le a en declanier d lui les paroles: il 
prendre (b) raprdenaent son Ions, et, eDSuite, ii reduirt (b) 
hs Hux regies a art. 

L'apologu^ c'^re (a) un recif^ et non un drame ; parcequ'on 
n'y xo:r (a) point le loup emporter (b) I'agneau ; mai» qii'on 
dire (a) seulement dans It qu'il atoir (a) eroporte le» 

Le caractere a fables a Esope ^trt (a) ji simple nature. 
Pb^dre affranchi a Augufte croire (c) que ce genre ^tre (b) 
fusceptible- a graces et a embellisscmens. Quand on lire (a) 
A auleur Grec, on oubher {yi) son (e:sonne a ne 8'occup<?r 

' que A ce qu'il enseigner (a); mais, quand on lire (a) le Latin, 
on penser (a) encore qu'il etre(h) homme a esprit, qu'il etrc 
(b) delicate gracieux, poii, et qu*il songir (b) a i't/re. II ne 
5e coiitiuier (a) pas a racovAer, \\ piindrc(^A.^^^^vw.\Wwtd'«La 

' senl [rait : son expressions etVe 0^^ choui, son v^tw*:W^ mKiuv'*^ 

Viw. yen toignC\ Get aulettr lUi. ^^ ^<^l^ s:^S^\^X^<>ss>!t 


tneme des a t«m|)s A Seo^que, ditre (a)--^-dire, cinquante 
ans apr^s a moit a auteur ; mais Francois Pithou tircr (c) k 
A A bibrfiothdquc de S. Remi a Rheims dans 'i scizi^ine sr5cle. 
Ri€n Ti'vtre (a) si ai>6 que a ravaler, que a ridiculiser 
m^ine, si Von vouloir (h), a plus beaiixouv rages par des ana- 
- l)'ses pcu fid^^fS. Qxietre (a)-ce que a Iliade? Deux petits 

• rois» chacun d'uiie mtchant petit vIIUp, se querdlcr (a) pouri/;* 
fille; Tun deux se mutiner (a) et s'en alter (a) pleurer dans 
Srth quartier: cependant a autre etre (a) oblige a revenir 
prier ic, Etre (b) ce le peine a faire un Iliade ? 

Homere etre (a) cense a p^re a a epopee; Eschille a a 
trajitedie ; Esopc A a apoliigue; Findare a a (>uesie lyrique; 
' et Theocrite a a pastorale, 

Muschus et Bion venir (c) quelque temps apres T4iepcritc ; 
. Te premier etre (c) c61iibre en Sicile, et a autre a Smirne eo 

• lohte r ie premier ajouter{c) a a eclogue plus a finesse, plus 

• A cboixy moms a negiigence. Son bois etre (a) des bosquets 
plutut que A bois, et son fontaiiies etre (a) p'resq'ie a jets- 
d'eau. Voyez *fl idyle SUP A enlevement A Kui ope. Bioii 

xouloir (a) rapprocher Ic carac teres a res trois ponies, on 
pwtvoir (a) dire qie Thcocrite aroir (a) pvindre (i) ia nature 
simple et quelquefois ueglij^ee. Moschus arulr {a) arranger 
(i) la avec art. Rion avoir (a) donner (i) a die des parures. 
Chez Theocrite, a id^le (tre (a) dans un bois, ou dans une 
prairie toujours vert, Chez Moschus, i7ttre(a) dans une 
vil^e. Chtz Bion, ildtrein) prcsquc sur un^iiieatre. 

Virgile avoir (a) mieux alme prendre pour modeleTheo- 
crite que Moscbus et Bion ; il s*y etre (a)aitacbe icllement 
que Sim 6clogues n'etre (a) presque que a imitatioiis a po^te 
Grcc. ^ Cetre (a) le mi^mcs sujets, a m^mes tours, ires-sou- 
vent A mc^mes pens^es. Horace avoir (a) peindre (i) \q carac- 
tere a eclogues a Virgile dans ce vers fameux : 

■ Molleafquefacctum 

Virgilio annuerunt gaudvntes rare Cama;nce, 

Calpurnius et Nemesianusse distijiguer(c) par a poesfe pas- 
torale sous a empire v Diociesicn; Tun ^^r^ (b) Sicilien, a 
autre tiaitre (c) k Carthage. On (rou"ocr (j^'^ c\\ftx^\vfv '^^>^ k^^i^ 
mocUeux qiiLJaire (a) a 'dme n ^ec\o^^• AX'S* oxvyu V^^^ 
temps ea temps a images gracicux, KN<i\%>aR.>^\^vv>^\ ^'^^^'^^ 


.ik'avoir (a) rien a cr verve pastorale f{niMpirer (b) Ik-puiae^ 

L'eelogue chez ^ Italiens lire (a) eHiKr«la^te.A poinle^, 

A jeux A raotSy a pens^es qui revei»rr(a) sur /KtVf9^iiie> et qui 

se toum^r (a) en antilbt*ses. CV^re (a) Monsieur de Fontc- 

tnelle, qui por/er (a) ce jugemeiit dt le Guarini, a U Bonna- a le cavalier iVt^rin. Seloii >/ rAmiatbe ale Tasye 

.^#re (a) ce que a Italic motlerne eeooir (a) de meiUeur dans 

. A g^nre pastoral ; et il imimer (a) que c*€tre Xa) pftpce i^W 

ne s'etre (a) pas tant livre a poiutes de son pays. 

HoBorat du Bueil, Marquis de Racan, mourir (c) eti 
1 67 O9 i\ iire (c) disciple A~Malherbe, et reieper (c) ea 
France a gloire a eclogue ; aussl. I'e^roio^r (a)*t-on dans S9n ' 
bergeries a esprit a Tb^ocrite et a Virgile; son chanson 
% la louaoge.A reine, m^re de Louis XHI. ^<re (a)fort beau. 
Monsieur de Segrais etre (aX^selon Monsieur de Footer 
iielle, le modele a plus excellent que nous apoir (f ) a a vi« 
pastorale ; en cela il Hre (a) d'accord avec Des^r^aux qni 
dire (a) : 

Que Segrais '^ns ['eclogue enchanter (a) 7efor4l8«. 
•Madame Deshouli^res ne le ctdier (a) k persoD«e daiis a 
idyle : aussi naif que Tbeachte, aus^i dilicat que Virgile, 
muftsl j/Krt^ti«/ que Bien. 

L'Odyssee faire (d) le peinture a Uiysse, . q«i es^uyer (a) > 
tous A mal que I'humanite pawcoir (a) eprouver de la part a . 
dieux, et a toute a nature conjur6e contre ilf et qui sur^ 
cMMM/er (a) tout par k patience et a. prudence. 
' Les obstacles presenter (i) dans un poi>aie'epique;s'4/7* 
peler (a) noeuds ; et le mani^re avec lequel on forcer (a) Jes 
' ae uommer (a), denouement. 

JLe premier genre a com^die (tre (c) cekii A.Eupolfs, a 
)Cratin, A Ariatophane. Aristopbane avoir (b) .un genre - 
libra et gai ; il posseder <b)-dans a plus haut deg^e, ce tour- 
;»ure A cspdt qui faire (a) le. cumique, qui Jeter {9) vlb cer- 
tain vernis a ridicule sur /e cboscs. . , 

Moliere avo/r (a) priendre(i) v Aristopbanelecoraique;. 
A Plaute Je feu et A activite ; a Terence a peintureA m«eurs. 
Hom^re enchanter (a) moi; mais ce n*etre (a) point, 
quand il montrer (a) d mot un fleuve qui. ^orftr (a) de son 
lit pour courir ^pr^ un bomme, et que Vuleain accdurir(a)-^ 
avec son feiix poiTr forcer ce fleuve a renlr^r^aas ion bords* ^ 
J'admirer (,iL) \\T!fs\^ mais ie «trc ^%> ^>x A'^iwV^ A^ wiv^ 


▼alsscaux changer (i) a ri} mphcs a a mer, Quaroir (a) je a 
fairc de ce forct I' (i) a Tasse, /t^ hippogrirfes a a 

■ Ario<te ? Ce n'ttre (:i) pa« user, mais abuser a privilege 
qti'on avoir (a) a feindre. Je rviivoiicr (u) cc rain miracles 
au.x coiitcs A fees, (J lequtl il if re (a) pcrmcttre (i) v batir a 
chateaux a cristal,efA marcher avec a desbott^s a sept lieux* 
Les poesies A Homere, seh)n Elifn, se c/ifl;i/rr (h)autre&)is 
par morceaux detachcsaiix qutlon c!ofni('r(b)A titrcspariicu- 
liers, comma a combat.A vaisseaux, la Fatroclee, la grotte a 
Calipso : on appel(r{b)Jts rapsodies, et ceiix, qui' chantcr(h) 
lc8^ rapsodistes. Ce Ctre (c) Pisistrate roi a Athene^, qui ras" 
sembler (c)cf morceaux, qui arranger (c) Ics dans \lut ordre 
naturel, et qui en composer {c) Ics deux corps a poosie que 

' nous avoir (a) sous a ni.m a lliade et a Odyssoe : on enjaire 
(c) ensuite. plusieurs editions /flwttf.r. Aii^totc^ en /aire (c) 
une pour AJexandrt* le Grand, qui mctirc (c) la dans «ne 
precievx cassette, qu'il avoir (h) trouver (i) parmi k depou. 
illes a Darius, et qu'oji nommcr (cl Tedition A a cassette. 
Kniin Arisi^arque, que Piolom6e Philameior avoir (h)fair§ • 
(i) gouverneur a son fils Evergctes, en [aire (c) une si cor* 
r^cte ti si fxacte, que son nom Hre (a) dccenir (i) celui de 

' la seine critique. On dire (a) un Aristarque, pour dir« 
. , un bon juge en mahere a godt : les autres CEitiqaes, on 
ttppcUr (a) les des Zoi'es. 

Pha6ton, fils d'ApolIon, vonfoir (c) conduire a chariot 
A solcil, et ^clairer A monde, au rooins pout un jour; mais^ 

* comme il ne saroir (6) point a route qu'il falloit tenir dans 
A ciel, et qu'H n'avoir (b) pas asscz a force a gouverner ce 
chevaux ailes et si impetueux, il mattre (c) a feu a ciel et 
A la terrel 

Le sceptre a Bacchus vfre (b) un ihirse, cttre (a)'a- 
. dire, une petite lance couvrir (i) a lierre ct A pampre: il 
invcnter (c) a usage a vin : Wfaire (c) boire de le a Indiens, 
qui croire (c), au commencement, que c*ctre (b) dc le poison, 
parce qu*il avoir (b) enivrcr (i) /<* el met (re (i) en furie. 
• Dedale vlre{bj un excellent architccte ; il quitter (c) A 
rille A Athcncs, et venir (c) se metlre au ser^cc a ror Minos 
dans A i!e a Cri^le, dans Icqitel il bdiir (c) le labyrinthe avec 
tant A art el a detours, qtie ceux, qui ttre (b) entrcs dans le^ 
ue pouvoir (b) sortir de le; il ttre (b) iui-mCme retinir (i) 

* prisonnier dans le avec son fils Icare, ^our avoir offetvse a 
fui;'mms il trouver (c) mo^eu n &fit^Xx<i k ^ij^'^^ ^\is»i\-^i\^^ 


qu'^ Icarc, a s'envolcr par a milieu a air ; mais Icare contrt 
A avertisscment A son p^re s'approcker (c) trop prcs a sdleil^ 
qaifaire (c) fondre ses ailes, et il tomber (c) dans a mi^r^ 
qui depuis en avoir (a) retenir (i) le nom. 

Lcs Satyres ttre (b) en fans a Faune; e/re (h) vieux^ iU 
s*appi'ier (b) S^fenes; tous ^abatidonner (b) extr^memcnt a 
la ivroguerie. Le chefetAplus ancieo, nomoie Silenus, 
ikv<r (c) Baccbus dans son enfance ; il ^<re (b) toujours 
monte sur un dne; ce animal se signaler (c) dans ie guerre, 
que Bacchus avoir (c) contre les Indiens; car s*e/re (h) met" 
ire (i) a braire, il etonner (c) tellement A eiephans d€ a enne* 
mis, que cela etre (c) cause a squ victoire. 

Junon^jiz/ot/x A Jupiter, avoir (b) k son service Argot 
tout remptt a yeux : elic employer ih) le a observer a actions 
A Jupiter son man, et lorsqu'une partie de son yeux etre{b) 
-abattre (i) a socnmeil, I'autre veiller (b); mais a dieu Mer- 
cure tuer{c) ce Argus parle comraandement a Jupiter, apr^s 
avoir endormi*/e au son a sun fliite. Jtinon a recompen^r 
A fid^lite A son espion, changer (c) /e en un beau p^on,. 

Pendant que Junon, Pallas, et V6nus, asmter (b) A./e* 
noces A Pelce et A Thetis, la deesse a a discordcjfe/<fr (c)a 
milieu a a compagnie une pomme a or, avec ce inscriptiony 
qu*i7 devoir (b) ^tre adjuger (i) a la plus 6e«»; cbacHtie so 
attrihucr (b) /e, tft, pour terminer leur,dispute, iU convenir- 
(c) A s*en tenir a /e jugement a Pdiis; mais seduire (i)par 
A attraits a Venus, sans avoir aucun ^gard a les richesses 
A'Junon ni a a sagesse a Pallas, il dSctder (c) enfaveur X 
V6nuS, ce qui attircr (c) d lui dans k suite Ahaine a ces 
deux autre« deesses. 

Paris alter (c) a Sparte, od Men61as,' qui en itre (b) roi, 
recevoir (c) le avcc toiis la demonstrations possibles a ami* 
tie, et m^me laisser (c)' le chez lui sans se defier a rient 
pendant un voyage qu'iiyafrc (c) k I'lle a Cr^te, oii son 
affaires appeler (b) le : mais le perfide Paris profiler (c) a ce 
occasion et entmener (c) en Asie Hil^ne,* femme a M6n4las 
ct soBur A Castor et Pollux : ils se retirer (c) tpus deux a 
Troyc, ce qui occasionner (c) ce fameux guerre entre les a Troy ens. 

Hom^re ^/rc (c) d'abord appe!^ M^lesigene, parce qu'il 
itre (b) nailre (i) prJ^s a le fleuve M61es. Malgre son pre- 
roier nom, on ne savoir (a) pas au juste le temps ni a lieit v 
son naissance. On crofVc (a) comnLurL^nv^tvt c^M ctrc CJ>\ 


tciniert, et qu^l vrore (b) environ huit cents cinquante ans 

ftvamt A ^rc Chretien c'^tre (a)-ii-dirc, trois generations apres 

* gaerre a Troye. Sutvant ce calcul, il pouroir (b) avoir 

appfendre (i) dans son en&nce les merveilles a ce siege de la 

booche rn^me a plusieurs vieillards qui y avoir (b) ^tre (i), 

et B^^ire- entrcienir (i) souvent avcc a Grecs a. Europe et a 

Asae, qui avoir (b)connoit re (i) Ulysse, Achille, et Menelas. 

Ubistoire 'tout ricente a ce f<inieux siege aiflammer (c) 

son g^nie po^tiqoe : il compost r \c) a Iliade ; mais ce ro^-me 

po^Yne, A sujet a sa gloire, itrc (c) egalement celui a sou 

malheurs. On ^'O^r (c) h H ltd, Le grammairienTbesto- 

rides commtttre (c) ce Islcbete : voici coinrocnt : 

Hom^re sV^rc (b) rendre (i) a Phocec, aprcis avoir p^r- 
courir (i) a plus grand partio a a Grece, rcciier (h) de 
ville en viHe son ouvrages, et trouvcr (h) par ce moyen 
de quoi subsister. Le poeie Gree rCxitir (c) son Vers a les 
Pboceens; ils Hre (c) enchantcs de Its: mais TheStorides» 
le bel esprit a' a ville, ne vouloir (c) pas s'en tenir kuno 
mdmiration sterile : il qffri^ (c) a liomere de loger k chez 
luiy A nourrif le^ et a entretenir le g^neralcment de tout, 
irne mettre (c) qu'une condition h des precedes si beaux en 
aj^parence, c*et re (b) qWllomhre communiauer (e} d lui »h- 
poesies. Le po^te rtduire (i) a la derniere indigence we 
croire (a; tnip heureux, il accepter (a) a proposition et livrir 
(a) tous son poemos. A peine son hOte aiikr (c) les en son . 
disposition qu'il se(/^c/(2rer(c) A auteurcfe/f^. Pourmieux 
en iraiposer, il quitter (c) Phocee, et venir (c) a Cbio. 

D^sespere a ce pcrfidie, Homere voltr (a) a Chio pour y 
cbnfondre I'imposteur. Thestorides avoir (b) prendre (i) la. 
fuite sur a nouvelle qu' Ilumere rentr (b) k lui. L'ud et 
Tautre fairf (c) quelque temps a entretien a. Grece. Le 
poete Jurer (b) a poursuivre en tous lieux a gramroairien. 
A la fin A pauvrete contraindre (c) Homere a cesser sa ven-' 
g^nce et a voyages, a se fixer ii Chio, et a lever une ecole 
let. On voir (a) encore h quatre milles a a ville, sur a bord 
A A mer, le si^es de son disciples, et sa chaire, pratiques 
dans un roc. li se marier (c), continmer (c) A faire dea 
' vers, et composer (c) v Odyss#(\ 

Homere wt se consoler (c) jamais du vol a ^on plus beau 
ouvrage; et la douleur a ne pouvoir confondre a perfidie 
A Thestorides condiHre (c) k au tombeaWvV^^^ ^^ t^^^^ ^ 
inGrmith, et a extreme mi^ie. \uOTv^-Xvxa.^s ^y^^j** ^^ 
mart, on etcoer (c) i lux des slalue* ^X t^ VOTi^\«^- Ts«e^N. 


villes pi/ljisaiit se dispitf€r(c) a honneur a avoir voir (i) naltrt 
le; la m^meb »ept viHes qui, dire (h) on, Vax'oir (b) vUt 
(i) mcndier i!e son vitant. 

Sapbo nitifre(c) duns a ile Lesbos, elle rirre (b) environ 
500 ans avant Ji'Sjis-Christ. L"S Miti^eniens avoir (b) scs 
vers en si hfiute estirae, qil'ilsyii/W (c) graver a ima(;e a cc 
heroine sur It ur monnoie. Denys d'Halicarna&se et Lonpn 
nous ont conser\e une hymne qu'elle avoir (\j)Jau'€ (i) a 
Venus, avec uoccerfain odede seize vers adressee a une fille. 
Tout le monde s|iit comme elle ienniner (jc) sa vie par 
ufi coup A desespoir et pour s*e;Te voir (\)mep riser {}) par 
un jeunc homme, qu'elle a/ wfr (b) eperdunient. On pre'-' 
fendre (a) mt^me, que la letlrequ'Ovide faire (a) ecrire d 
f//e a ce amant nV/re (a) qu'une copie a rr/wr qu*elle ecrire 
(c) d iui effectivemcnl en Sicile oil il s'c^tre (b) relire. 

Du temps d'Eschyle, la sciine Grecque, quel que progre^ 
q\i'etle avoir (g) faire (i) depuis Thespis, eire (b) encore 
un pea informe. On manqncr (b) quelquefois a la rogle a 
Ics trois unites. On \\ entendre (b) fws assez bien a plan a i 
pieces. On outrer (b) siirtout a caracieres. La scene vtrt 
(b) en proi'e a des sentimcns hors de nature et gigantesques; 
Ik de? expressions dur, raAo^fwr,- obscures, em bar rass^es; i' 
tes situations a plus terribles, et i moins vraisemblables. 
. Eschyle souvent guindo, toujours £\irien)iyf rapper (h\ tonner 
(b), sarts cesse ; il atterrer (b) Ics spectateurs par a lea coups 

Sophocle venir (c) qui corriger (c) ces memcs defauts, qui 
rametier (c) tout a Tordre, a le vraisemblable, a a decence. 
Ses plans ^re (a) roguliefs, son carac(^rcs beau, noble«, 
el soulenus ; son peinturi'S vif; sa diction beau, mnjestutux, 
coulante. On appeler (b) le indifteremment a abeille ou a 
Sy»^ne Attique. 

Euripide %'tlever (c) rooins haUt. II peiiidre (c) riiomme 
d^apres 4 hommememe. Le naturel, a elegance, a facility, 
A graces, caracUriser (a) /e. 11 toucher (a), il interesser (a), 
il parler (a) continuellement au coeur et. gagner (a) le; So- 
phocle ilever (a) fi-me, aggrandir (a) A i^ces; son style re- 
prlsenter (a) bien I'air a le homme a guerre, car il tire (b) 
general a la armee Athtnicn avec Pcricltis. Le style d*Eu- 
ripide se soufenir (a) plus par a soin et par A arrangemetit a 
les paroles que par a force et par a noblesse des pensees : il 
efre(sL) rempii A ces traits seutcivVlew^;., k ces tnaxlmes ist)lee« 
et lumincux^ qui faire i^\) d\re k Cvwoii ^vi^ Oaas\v«. ^<«^ 


d^Euiipide 6it^ (a) «nc sentence ou une maxime* On po?/- 
r«?r(e)ajoiiter quelque chose ii Sophocle, et etendre un peil 
plus son pensees: qtielqucs auteurs anciens ont t^roins (\) 
qu'Giiripide nV/iic(b)pas nsscz serre; que son tragedies setftir 
(b) le dialogue ct a entretiens Socraiiques. On reproc/ier 
(a) a lui A avoir sonvent metire (i) dans^o/i pi6<^s a allusions 
deplncees. Son antlpatbie pour a beau sexe paroitre (b) 
daiis /04'^ les occasions qu'il axmr{b) a en medire. Les 
affaires' que susciter (c) d lui son attachement a la doctrine a 
Socrate, et les nieco^tantemens qu'il avoir (c) a ?»a patrie, 

forcer (c) ie a quitter la. 11 se refirfr (c) che« Arclnfelaiis, 
roi A Macedoiiie. Ce prince avoir (h) a plvis^s^a/ze/ con^ii- 
deration pour Ics gens a let ires. On prlteiidrc (a) qu'il 

faire (c) Euripidt iioii premier ministre. II do/mer {c)m lui 
un appartement dans le palais. 

La fin des dc-ux plus bt'au ornennens a .a sci>ne Grecqive 
vire (c) aussi malhtureyx que Acours a leur vie r^r^* (c) bri^M 
laot. Sopbocle h'ttrangfer (c), dire (a) on, pour avoicavalei 
de travers un grain a raisin. On racujtttr (a)ieni^niechoM 
A Anacreon; mais ceux qui en ont yttrlcr (i) de la sortn 
%^tire (b) pas bicn assures a ce qu'ils dire (b). Euripides 
a'r^re (h) egare dans un boi.% ttrt{c) ^f{itr^>r€udre^i\) \^^v\ci% 
chiens a Arcbelaiis, qui metire {c^le en pieces. Les auciens 

Jaire (a) mention de quaire-viogt-dpujfe tragedies compostT 
(i) par Euripide; maisil n'en rebte dvovs que dixncuK - il 
vrore (c) 75 ans, et mt^urir (c) u-n an ou deux avantque Ly- 
sandre avoir (g) prc/idrt U) Allity*ies ; c eirc (a)-a-dire, 404» 
avant Jesus-Cbnst. buphocl'e jy2<n:n-r^' (O i lui, quoi^e 
beaucoup plus age. 

L'ingratitude a cnfans a Sophocle <ire{\^) fawcux, Kn- 
Buyes A voir vivre le^ impatiens a heritcr de^ui, crtnre (h) 

. son extreme vieillesse un attentat a leurs droit*}, its uccuier{2i) 
le A etre tombe en cnfance. Dh dif'ircr (a) It aux niagistnus, 
comme incapable a regir ses bicjis. Quelle defense opposer 
(a)-t-il a ses enfans? Une «<//. U wonircr (a) a Us juges 
son CEdipe u Culone, tragedie qu*il Vf/?*/- (b) a arhever, el, 
sans s'emouvoir en aucunc fa^on, il dvmtwdtr (.a) a ewj, si 

•-un lei ouvrnge avoir (b) quelques marqur<> a affoibiissf^niciit 
A sp.n Chpriu Jamais accuse Wdre (c) ubaoudre (i) plus 
l^^roptemont, ni r€wioj/<7'(i),avfcc tanl a t4ccU\v«\\\\\«^\vi. ^v v 

. gioire.: f^cphocle/atrc \c) 1*10 trtt^d\^s \ \\ e\\ U vt V>^ ^^^n;^ 
4i//oifs b^L i\ vivrv (c) i)3 «ins. x ^i v:<'> 

<«^u<w»*je.4'camedie d«» Nvieei* a\oir ^^^ ^'vJa^^^ v.^t.^ 


• GJffler ^f), les Atb^niens honortr {c) cmuite Arktopfiane l 
une couronne a olivier sucre. On a pretcndre (i) que la 
'Com^die^ des Nuces tivair (b) influe mr a mort a Socrate. 
Muis sur quoi se fonder (H)-t-an? On jie charger (c) /f 
d'accusations graves et capitals que vingt-trois ans «pjri-s 
A representatioas a <ce pi^c,. il paroiire (a) que tout a e^t 
"qii'il produire (c) -ttre (c) d'amuser le peuple a Athenes. 
Les jugefi A le Ardopage otw (e) ils dicte a arii^ts a mort 
sur des boulfonneries ? 

P^aillcurs Platon lui-mifme, disciple a Socrate^ et son 
apolegiste, donner (a) a ]ouangc6 a U pocte comique^ il diix 
(a) que les grdces kahiter (b) dans son seia. Ce qui perdre 
(c) Socrate, ce r/re (c) moinssa pbilosophie hvcr (i) sur a 
tb^i^rcy ce eire (p) moins ses maximes fount fr (i) en ridi- 
cule, que son £tLqon libre a ezpriiner im-mime sur a religion 
«i A gouvernemejit a son pays. 11 se prCsmter (c) dauJc in« 
fdiQefi delateurs, Anite et Melite, qui accustr (c) U a atb^ . 
JMne^parce qu'il se tnoquer (b) de la pluralito a dieuji. Les 
juges condammr (c) le a boire a le jus a ciguc. 11 voir (c) sm 
6n du roend^ <eil a indifference dont il avoir (b) envisag^ tous 
A eveneroens a sa vie. Sa ferame et a amis rccueillir (c) sef 
dernier paroles; clles etrc (c) tout d*un sage: elles rov/er(b) sar 
A ioiraoftalite a la 4me, et prouver (b) a grandeur a la^iVii.' 
Qelques p^res a la egli^e decorer (a) ce sagte du titre a 
martyr a Dieu. Erasme c^<>e (h) qu*autan.t de fois qu*il 
/i/% (a) la^aii mort a Socrale, il etre (a) tenti6 a s'ecrier: 
O saint Socrate 1 priez pojur nous, 

Aristote aimer (b) a elude avec tant a passion, que, pour 
y passer les nuits, et 8'einpi'.cber a dormir, il etendre (b) bor« 
A le lit une main, dam lequri il fcnir (b) une.boiiie a airain : 
la boule rtpondrc (h) a un bassin,^et rUeiller (b) le au bruit 
qu'i7y»4r<^(b) en tttmber (h). 

Demosthi^ne itrt <b) noiirt (i) bi^gue. L'art itre (c) d 
lui d'un gruiu) secuurs. Avec des cailloux qu'il Retire (b) 
dans 8ab(}uche, et qu'il comerver (b) en parterfh) tr(*s-baut, 
il parvenir (c) ^ delier sa langue, h. procurer ^ lui-m^me une 
bonne prononciation. II s^apprcHdre (c)encQre& bien {>lacer 
son epaules, en exerccr (h) Iki-fntme dans une espt^ce a tri- 
bune au-dessus a Icquel pendre (b) une lance dont la-pointe 
avertir (b) le de ne pas tant hausser Ics; II prononcer (b) «oa 
harangues. devAXM un miruir^ a^u kmici^T. veojlet sion fiette. 
Jl e///ermcr{b) iui-mi'me dan*des\\euxso\]L\emi\Tv^>^<ww >5\.\"t.- 
^aillci h la /ueur a. tine \arope, \a \^Vt rate ^ ^^^^^^'Wk ct 
^titbisarre, il t^/re (b)p\us\eut*mo\s^^tv'iV^^*^^^.^- '^^^'^'^ 
^*f e/2A/an£ ^ue, fait au silence et a les vet^\>i«> v\vx^ cttc Q 


trouble dans la tribune aqx harangifles pur a tumulte d^s 
assemblees poputaires, il sortir (b) quelquefois a ce re. 
'lrait«; et, pour se precautioiiner ountrc le bruit, il alier' 
(b) barangoer les flots inipetueux a a mer. 

Demosthenef/re (c) exile pour un trait qmjiitririti) toutes 
ses Aentf actions. Alexandre demander (b) aux Atbeniens* 
' qu'*ils Uvrtr (g) d lui un certain Harpalus, dont il vouioir(b) 
tirer vengeance: ils bai(mcer (b) sur a parti qu'ils prendre (e) : 
Demostb^ne comteilkr (a) k evx a satisfaire le monarqUe. Co 
m^mc Harpalus tmogfinfr (a) alors a ehvoyer une coupe a or' a 
l>€inottbene qui rececoir (a) la. Uaffaire a Harpalud itre 
(a) remettre (i) en deliberation ; grand embarras pour D4. 
nottb6ne« Comment oficr changer d'avis ? Pour n*£tre soup- 
^oimi A rien, Wfeindre (a) a avoir un rhume^ ''II vaiir (a) 
A TasMRtbl^e/ le cou tout enveloppe ; mais Ttrnposture a 
lie ^inateury tbrrompu par a or, ^treijc) d^cuuvrir (i) etjmiiic 
(i) par J: exil. 

Une difference bien remarquable entre les ^erivains- 
dTAfh^nes et ceuk a Rome, c'^^re (a) qu*on voir (a) \ef^ 
premiers, divotis a jalousie, tourmentes a un ver ron- 
geur, B^Jair€.(\i) une^^emc/guerfe ; aa lieu 'que ks granda 
auteiirs Latini n'ont^jamais avoir (i) leur gloife obscurcir (i) 
^r C€ U^he. eailus, Pollion, tlorace, VirgiU, ^ire <b) 
-'iainis. Pline le jeune et Tacite n'opoltr (b)'qu'un cbeur. 

Vifg^e itr^ (b) du village d'And^, 4 une lieue A^Ian* 

^tooe. 11 w»ny(c)au monde Tan 68'4 de la fondati^n'A 

'^'tne,' 8(^8 ▲ premier cbnsulat a Pdmpie et a Crassus« jUph 

idi^s A pctobre, qui r/re (b) le 15f ct mois-lk, iecenir (c) 

.'fi^Kits par .fOH nai^isance. Qu^Ic(ues misirables ^crivaiiis 

laire compter h l^auteur dix grands ! sesteroies pour cbacjue 
"^vefs, ce qui monter (b) k la sorem'e de 325,000 livres de^ 
Qotre mennoie. r ^ 

Bathille i*iipproprier (c) des Vers A Vir^re. "Rien jskiire 
(a) plus fameux que ce supercherie. Virgile avoir (b) it-- 
lajche dc I'liiit, ^,Ta porte a /e palais a ^uguste, un distique 
oii il/tfire (b) /e,^gal a Jupiter. . Augiisie voufoir (c) con- 
holt re Tauteur dele; person ne ne se d^clar^T ^<^^oJi*^v\'5k 
prft/iter (h)de.ce! *iJenceise/airc (^^"^Viot^w^^^ ^^^fc^vs^^x^sjc^ 


■ - » 

Ijps presenset les grdces a a courfondre (a) sur )ui. Le ilepvt 

A Virgile jtuggii'cr (u) dliei une i(^ee ^f i«rn/j7» cVst de mettrc 

au htts A /(' <Ji5tic|ue uii conwu en cement de vers Latin repet9 

qaatre fois*. L'einpereur demaiido qu'on ach^ve le sens 

{/e It; mais persuune, excepie Virgile, ne pouvoir (c) faire 

^. Le veritable auteur ayant par la ttrc (i) dcceutriy (i), 
BaHiillet/irc/iir yC) la iable a Rome.. 

Virgile ne xivre (c) que 52 ans. II movrir (c) a Brindos, 
cnnrime il alltr(h) a Grece pour mettre, dans la retraite, la 
derniere main h son En^ide qu'il avoir (b) etre (i) onze'ans a 
€omposer,.€t dont il itre (b) si peu satisfat, qi^il ordonncr (c), 
par SOD U-sUment, que Ton briUcr (g) sqh poeme ; mais on-se 
gurdtr (c) bien a executer un paroil ordre. VirgiU mourir 
(^c).ass(>znfhe pourlaisser dcssommes considerables uTucca, 
u Varius, k M6cciie, a I'empereur menae. Son corps vtra 

Xc) porte prcs a Naples, et Ton mettre (c) sur son tooabeau 
l«fs vers t'Suivans^ qu'il avoir ib) faire en mourant: - 

Parmi Ifs Mantoqaiisje re^us la nais^ance; 

Je mourus chez les Calabrois ; 
Parthenope me tient encor sous sa puissance: 

J*ai cbant^ les h^ros, to bergers, et les bois. 

■ Horace ^tre (b) cotemporain a Yir^leV il fu^tre (c) 

d'un simple affranchi, k Venuse, dans la Pouille. VirgJIc 

introdmre (c) le k la coUr d'Auguste. jls'attirerXc) ki 

"legardsy a bienfaits, et a amiti6 a M^c^ne. Horace avoir 

(c) des ennefnis. Dans ce tronp6 irriti et grotesque de 

petits p(>^tOs envieux qui sonner (b) le tocsin au b^s a U 

Parna'ssc, un iemarquer (b) Pantilius, surrtommf la punaise, 

k ca.use a a platitude a scs veis, 'D6m^tr»us le medisant. 

' Tannius le parasite, Tigellius 'rinseusi&. Leur coripb^ 

' Crispin saiair {Vf a uii transpbi t belfiqueiix, 'emir (c) piibli- 

' qa^mentdefierleur ennemi commun. Qu'on dormer (f)J 

Jions, s'^cffie-t-il,; (ine cbambre, des'cablettes, une bcure, et 

destemoiris, et~v6yons iqili de nous deux, d'Horace ou de 

moi, faire (d) plus.A ouvragc.. Toutes Ic^iiim arches, tons 

A hbelles, A>tf^ A chandcims de ses ennemis, se tQurner (b) 

contre eux, ct ne servir (b) qVai fournir k sa causticite, k 

donncr dii ressort a son imagi^nalioii. II amUscr (b) k leurs 

4i^peDsIa ville et A c'bur^ Auguste, M^cehe^ Agrippa, ne 

* Sic \Oi n^ volu's, &c. 
f JVanraa me genu ti, Ca\aW\ Tk^wctc, \ftt\t,\.TS«afc 


dimpproHver (b) point ce ^unte a f scrime. Les gran(i|^ 
po6teK, tels que Valgiits, PolUon,, ct Virgile* uppihmdir {b)i 
Im vrageance que leur ami tirer-Qi). del'envit. • C?t enfi^nt 
cii^ri A ApoUon, cet4crirvain, a la fois niaanthropeicourtisaii, 
epicurien, philosophe, mcmrir (c) i Tage a cinquante-sept 
'^nfe^ La France dttoir (a) /^ /ifi autatit que Rome. Sans lui, 
peut-6tre, n'aTtnr{e) nous jamais avoir (i) Despreaux. 

IJucain ncdire (c) a Cordoue en Espaigne, Tan 39 a J^us- 
Christ. Sa Pharsale, ou a fruerrd a Cesar ei a Pomp6e, 
avoir (a) immortalise /e» II avoir (b) le g^ate •grand, e)e%e, 
raais pen juste : scm style itre (a) toujoiirs empoul^« Pour 
rendre cct auteur, i1 ne failoit rien moina qpe rimagination 
vifetfougnix d'un Br^beuf. Lucain tntrer^ (c) dans a con- 
spiration de Pison contrc a empereiHr. Au premier 6oup« 
^on qu'on «M?a»r(c)de ce conjuration, on grr^tcr (c) /c. 
. Toute A gr&ce que^airc (c) NeroB ^ lui 6tre (c) de iiii 
4auver a inikmie a supplice, en doumr (h) d lui a choix a U 
genre. A mort* Lucain sc Jqire (c) ouvrir leq veioea dans 
un bain chaud. 

Perse, tntraine par sa colt^re ejt par a impulsions son gi- 
nte, txkaler (c) des torrens a bile. Avec quit force et qml 
i^ivdcit^ il ptfint a cour a Nerou! Quel ridicule xXjetcr (a) 
sur ce pnnce ; sur sa affectiHion k composer des vers emmielici 
<)oocereux, cadencer^i charge a epith<^tes; 4ks vera rorc6s, 
ignobles, et ridiculp% sans gteie, A chaleiur* et a force. 
Perse monrir (tc) a r4ge a trente'ans. II ^tre (b) maitre {j^yk 
Yolterreen Toscane : il laisser (c) son bibIioth4que et vingi- 
cinq v^Wie. icvr& au philosophe Cornutus^ son precepteur ; 
ifiais le philosophe se conttHter (c) des livres, et r-eutUHfer (c) 
Fargent a /e« sceurs a U pocte. Autanc les si^tifes jLJ^ersc 
re^pirer (a) a liel et a haine, autant il ttn* (b.) doux, eti- 
jou^, liantdansa socict^. Quoiquo libredan^ a peinture 
qu'il^ire (a) des vices, il avoir (b)des moeiirsiiu9t^es« 

N^on Hrt{h) ptrssione pour a spectacles: il monttr (by 
Im-ln^me sur a thedtre, y rSpresenter (b)^n LaUt a actricc 
et n' avoir (b) a affection que pour it cnntetlien*^, et surtoiiit 
poor un Qorome P&:is. Cet acteur (Hspoter (b) k l^cour 
de presque tons a emplois. Scs amis^ a parens^ et beau- 
coup A personnes de la lie a peuplc, s*eire (b) artiAccr (i) 
par son canal, elrcmjdisser (b) les places a ^Kvs uYi'^vX.o.iiX. 

Pierre Abaiiard naitre (c) en ^t^\^9,T\^v ^vktv^^xw^^^ 
noble, en 101 9. Son pCire s'appclcr Cy^^x^v^^w. K\a%^^*^ 


4ui'Wi}me et a dispater. L'enyie de se faire-uiYe repotatron, 
■ct A etnbiiprasscr par son raisoniMrineiiS les ineilleurs dialecti* 
Gierts A lit Ciirope^ f/rr {b.) sa passiDii d<>minante;.il axoir (o) 
• ti>ut Hcii (1% satigfairfi/f/ a Paris. ' lljoituire ^b) a la reputa- 
tion A savantet a athletb invincibit; puur a ergotiame, ctlui 
Ahomrnc aimabte. II mot/ rtr (c) k Cluni, Tannee 1142, 
ilans le sotxante-trotni^ineannee a son &ge. 

On regarder (li) MaLherbecommc lepere a a poesieFran- 
. ^oise : il naitre (c) a Caen veis 1656. Ses ouv rages sercir 

(a) encore demodelc ; il reformer (c) notre langue, et dunner 
(c) d elk'p\u% A gr&ce et a majeste. On rqcontrr (a) que 
les pauvres se plaire (b) a demander d lui souvent rauin6ue, 
assiirant le qu'ils prier (e) Dieu pour lui. Malherbe ne 
manquer (b) jamais a r^pondre d eux, qu'il ne croife (b) 
pas ks en grand faveur dans a ciel, uttendu t|ue Dieu 
'ehandonner (yi) les dans ce monde; et qu'il aimer (e) inieux 
que M. de Luynes, ou quelquc autre favor), avoir {g)tekir 
(») d /irt ce Idt^gage. 

Franv^is HedeLin, abbe d'Aubignac et de Meimac, tire 

(b) Parisien. 11 ^tre (c) d'abord avocat; resperance" 
> A s'aipancar pldtdtybirf (c)/i/icmbrasser a ^tat eccl^siastique. 

i^on m^f\teparvefiir(c)k la connoissance a le Cardinal a Ki<' 
chelieu^qui co;7^er(c)d/«a /a education a son nevee, le due 
A Fronsac. Point dc genre a Htt^rature que Tabbe a Aubi- 
gnuc i^'(Koif^iii)embrass€rix), II fut tour k tour grtimmairieny 
humanistic, po^tc, antiijuaire, predicateur, et romancier : il 
avoir (b) beaucoup a ^u dans a ima^nation mais plus en- 
core dans A caract^re. La Pratique a le Tb«dtre etrc (a) 
son .aK«Tlleur ouvrage. ll/r»>e(c) une trag^dieen prose qu'il 
iniikikr (c>ZenobKJ, et qu'il preiejidre(h) 6tre compoeee sui- 
vant les regies prUcrire (i) dan& a traite a a pratique a U 
theatre : ce ffcce iCaxoir (c*) aucun succes : ce qui^otr^ (c) 
■dire au Grand Cond^ : ^* Je «ais bon gre k Tgbbe Aubignac 
A avoir m bien suivre (i) a Y^gles a Aristote; mais je ne par-' 
donne point aux regies a Aristote a avoir faire (i) fasre & 
'I'abbe a Aubignac une^i ra^chante fragedie." 
• Bf ademoiselle de Scud^xi naitre (c) au Havre d^ Gr4ce en 
i^U7« £Ue ^tre (c) tuirnommec la Sapho a son siibcle. Oo 
pduvoir (a) raettre ce feinme illustre au premier rang a le^ 
rt^'nianciers. Son Artaro^ne, ou le grand Cycus, et princu 
pttlement sa Clelie, ne iitt (a) (\ue le. tableau a ce qui se 
'f»&H't (b) k la cour a France. 
^ >• '0» raconter (a) une avcntUTe s\i\^xi\v^t^^ ^>» wcvtieT V5^^ 
i tll€ daD8 un vo>afcfe cu Pro^euce ^Nec ^oti U\t^ ^v^^t^^> 


On plac&r(jc) ies dans line chambre i deti>c lits. Avaiit 
que de sc coucher, Scud^ri demander (t) ce qu'iUfaire (e) 
du prince Ma^ard, un dei hiroii du roinvin a 'C} rus. AprSs 
qtiielques contestations^ il ^tre (c)arrftte qu%)n/<i/re (e) assas- 
siner ie^ Dc's marchands, luges dans uoe chambre voii>ine, 
my ant entendre (i)' a conversation^ erotre (c) que c'itre (b) 
4a mort a quelque grand prince, lip'jpel^ Masard, dont on 
comphter (b) la porte. • La justice tire (c) axcrti, et Ies 
deux Scudiri mis eh prison : ils ne parvenir (c) quVec 
peine ^justifier eirar-«i^«f*.' ' • 

- LeCid ACorneille ^tre(B) I'^poque du plus haut point 
d'elevfltion a notre theiltre. La piece hrc (c) doiinet (i) 
en 1637. La oour et a ville ne se lasser (b) point a voir la 
repr6senter. On admirer (b) ces coups de maitre oii le' 
fils a plus amoureux sacrijier (a) son amante a son pere ; 
oil ce m^mc fils entre chez son roaltresse qui venir {^) de 
promettrc son main a le vaiuqueur a son amant. 11 ttre{h) 
passe en proverbe de dire, ceia (tre (a) beau commc a Cid. ■ 
Conjeille arofV (b) dans son cabinet la piece traduire (i) en 
toutes A langues A /a Europe, hors a Esclufonne et a Turque. 
tJn succcs si jprodigieux ne^iiire^ (b) qu'augmenter a de- 
pit secret a le Cardinal A Richelieu, il voir (h) tomber 
soitau theatre, soit a la lecture, presque ious ses productions 
- ou ccwjr A ses proteges: sa jalousie c/rc (b) au tomble : 
* il vouloir (c) passer pour ^tre a auteur a le Cid ; mais Cor- 
neille pr^Jlrer (c) a gloire ^ tons Ies richesses que etre (c) 
^ert h lui. 

Corneille avoir (a) tant a beautes, qu'eiles demander (a) 
gr^e pour ses d^fauts, qui (ire (a) des intrigues /roic?, a 
Ies amours d6plac6s et fades, \les raisonnemens alam- 
biques. II faut oublier ses premier et a dernier pieces en 
faveur a ses chefs-d'oeuvre. Le Cid, Ies HoraceF, Cinna, 
Polieucte, Pompee, Rodogune, &c. rendre (d) ^jamais son 
nom immortel. Corneille naitr^ (c) k Roueti en l6'0() : il 
itr€ (b) fils d'un raaitre des eaux et for^ts: il kxereer (c) k 
Rouen a cbarfj;e a Avocat-General. C^- grahd homme 
mourir{c)en l684, d^nue a fortune* 

Mademoiselle de Goumai savoir (b) tout A langucs sO' 
•cant: t\\e icrirc (b) dans la sien mieux qn'aucune femme 
\ de son temps; roais elle n'avoir (a) Scrire (i) que dans le ^i^lit 
A S^n^que et A MontagAc. U«LdtcvYC«X\^\i c^<i^\^ ayvJcr ^^ 
pour ce dernier, I'ejivie ^ vo*\t le el n %'\tis.V\>i\T«^ ^^^.t^ Vj^ ^ 
tf»/>^ei?rreprendre le voy^e iv \a c«^^\.a\e a>5i'^ t^^«^ ^^^^^ 
Montagae, eel homine umcjucijo^it \i:\\^\wivv««^"^^^'^^ '^ 


inent des choset neuves^uire (c) /a heritiere A ses Etudes, er 
nommtr (c) la sa.fiUe d'alliaoct^^ La veritable fiUe a Mon- 
tagne, Madame la Vicomtesse Hie Gumaches dou/tcr (b) le 
num A «i(£ur a Mademoiselle de Gournai. l^Mtfaire (c) im- 
primcr ses Elssais en 16369 elde4w (c) Us au cardinal a IU- 
chelieiii^ £lle /cMfr.;(^) pcHif ^Vncien tenps, pour a com* 
pilations', et a longs c<j(^i9«ntaires, pour a solilude, et a 
austere raison : malgr^ cp caractere, elle ctre (b) vjf, imp^ 
tuci»se^et vitidicative : a^Oascone|elle4iKMi*(b}/oic/ a ima- 
gination ct tout A feu A son pays. Albntagnc etani fuourir (i), 
ellc tourner (c) tout ie% affections du c6te f Racan. 

Honorat de Beutl, marquis de Racan, etFe (b) alors ea 
grand reputation : ainsi que Mainard, cetre (b) un ^leve 
A Malberbe. Racaii avoir (a) reiusir (i) daos a poeaie sub- 
lime comnie dans a poesie simple et natarelle. Ses Bergeries, 
A |>asturale, di vlsee a cinq actes ct ses Odes Sacrees, ou para- 
phrases a Us Psaumes a David, /aire (c) d kti beaucoup a 
honneur. L'cnvie a connoitrc un poetc a ce merite ne quit' 
ier (b) point Mademoiselle a Gournai: eWe praidre (c) des 
arrangemens a s*en procurer une visile : le^our et a heurd 
ou il venir (e) voir la itre (c) ar^t^s. Deux amis a Racan^ 
ay ant savoir (i) Ic, resaudre (c) a se donper un divertisse- 
ment qui pennr (c) devenir tragique ; voici ce qu'en raconte 

** Un de ce» Messieurs, dit-il, prcvenir (c) d'unfe figure 
o\i deux cclle du rendez-vous ety«ire(c)dire que c*c^rc(b) 
- I^acan qui dcmander (b) k voir Mademoiselle de Gournai^. 
Dieu savuir (a) comroe il ^tre (c) rtcevoir (i) ! II par Ier (c) 
fort k Mademoiselle k Gonrnai des ou v rages qu'elle avoir (b) 
fait im[)rimcr, et qu'il avoir (b) ttudier (i) expr^a, Enfin 
apr^ un quart d'heure de conversation, il sortir (c) et laisser 
<c) Mademoiselle A Gournai fort satisfaite a avoir voir (i) 
Monsieur de ]^a(;au« A peine Stre (b) il k trois pas de chez 
clle,.qu'on venir (c) annoncer d elle un autre M. a Racan. 
Elle croire (c) d'abord, que c'Slre (b) Ic premier, qui axoir 
(b) dire d tile quelque cbose, et qui remonUr (b) : 
elle 6c prtparer (b) k faire d lui un compliment Isi-dessus, 
lorsque Tautre entncr (c) ti faire (c) le sien. Mademoiselle 
a Gournai ne pouvmr (c) a'emp<^clicr a demander d lui plu- 
sieurs fois, s'il hre (b) veritableroent M. a Racan, et racoB" 
ier (a) >/ lui ce ^ui ventr (b) de se parser. Lepretendu Ra- 
cBnJiafre (c.) fon ic fiLcW de\a.)p^^^%>a?ovi a-ooir C^S6<«*^ 
{i)d/ui,etjureric) ^'i\s s'en vo^jcr (,<1, l^x^^.H^Wciv- 


)e nc Vavoir (b) et6 a THUtre, parce qu'il /over (c) /a davan- 
tage- Eiitin W passer (c) chez eile paur le verilable Racan, 
et I'autre pour un.Racan dccontrebande. 11 nefaire (b) que 
de sortir, lorsquo M* a Racan, en original, demander (c) a 
parler iL Madcniqiselle .a Goiirnai, Sit6t qu'clle savoir (c) 
/c, elle perdrc (c)p:ilience: Qiioi ! encore des Racans ? dit- 
elle. Nearv^moins on Jaire (c) entrer le. Mademoiselle a 
Gournai \e prendre (c) sur qn ion fori haut, et demander {c) , 
d lui s'il re/iir (h) pour in«u)ter f//e. M. a Racan, qui 
d'ailleurs n*hre (b) pas trop ferre parleur, et qui a'aitcndre 

(b) il une autre rece()tioR, en etre (c) si etonne qu'il ne 
povtoir (c) repondre qu*en balbutiant. Mademojgelle a 
Gournai qui ^tre (b) violente, se persuader (c) tont debon, 
que dctre (b) uu hommf euvoye pour jouer /<i; et, defa>SiiDt 
sa pantoufle, tWe charger (c) le a grands coups a mule, et 
obliger (c)7e.A se sauver." 

•Depuis ce avanture il u'avoir (c) pa& envie a revoir la: 
r^anmoins elle rcchenher (c) le encore. Un jour QW^Jairp 

(c) d lui une visite, et-montrer (c) <^ Ivi des epigrammes dc 
5a composition. ^' Comment. trouvfz-vous lesf* dit-elle 

jd lui. '* Sans aucun 3enset ss^ns pninte/' ripondre (c) Ra* 
can. ' £t qu'importe ? reprit-elle : ce sont des epigrammes 
k la Grecque. . Deux. jours aprbft ils se trouver (c) -4 diner 
.ensemble : on «ert>ir (c) un mauvais potage. MademoiseUe 
A Goumai, se tournaot.du vot^ a Racan, (/ire(c) ci lui: voi- 
lA une mechante squpe. .Mademoiselle, repartir (c)au88i- 
tb\ Racan, 'Vc'est une soupe a la Grecque." 

Cette savante avoir (c) bean coup a enncmis : il se tronve 
.encpre uo moiuwiQeBt a leur haine, intitule le Rcmerciment 
des Bcurrii^res, Ei le prc,nentir (q) requ^ia-au . lieatenant- 
criminel, pourfajre. arr^tci .Afcours 4 ce liJi>eUe« que.'f^u'uQ 
dire(c) /eau (Cardinal clu^i'^^rram '* Oh ! pour cet&» repondre 
(c) du Perron, je cirou*e(a) que le li^u^enunc w^ordonner (d) 
pas qu'on prt.fidreJS).l(ii^^ corps . . .. et poor ce qui est dil 
qu'elle a-coir (a).«ervif >(0 *1® public^ q^a 6le:Si particulicre- 
ment, qii'ou n'cn parler {J\ que parconjecmre: il faut 
seulement que pour f^ire croire le contraire, elle %q Jaire (f ) 
peimlre devaivtson livrc*." 

De tons, les poetes Frapi^s-qui avoir (t) faitt (i) des 
operai Qufnault eat celui^qui avoir (a; le mieux r^ussu 

♦ Ellft 6toU u^^*\iv^* V • ' 


Alceste, Tfaes^e, Alys, Phaeton, Armide, itre (a) des chef^« 

Pradon, sou ten n par la cabale, baf oncer («) Racine, et- 
m^me paraitre (c) quelque temps av«c pl^ k 6clat. Pradon 
compter (b) insoiemment, au rang a set admirateurs, Saint 
Evremond, Mesdames Deshouli^res et de Sevign^, la do- 
che&se de Bouillon et le due de Nvvers« qui troitver (h) 
miserables lies pi^s a Racine. De-ioutes celles a Pradon 
on nejeuer (a) que celui m^ Ri^alus. Get auteur n'avoir (b) 
de po^e que la figure, a distractions, a ext^rieur n6glig^, 
'A saihies, ct a aventures singulier. Vojant un jour sifHer. 
4ine dc ses pi^s, il sifier (c) comme les autres. Un mous- 
quetaire que ne eonnmtre (b) pas le, et dont il f^obstiner (yiy 
4 he vouluir pas ^itre eonnoitre (i), prefidre |c) sa perruqub 
«l A chapeau quM Jeter (c) sur a theatre, baitre (c) /e, et 
vouloir (c), pour venger Pradon, percer de son6p^ Pradon^ 
lui-m^e. 11 ntxfoir (b) si peu la g^grapbie, qu'il trma^ 
porter (c) plus d'une ibis des villes -d'Asie en Europe : ie 
princt'de Contt entire (c) d hides reproches; Je prievo- 
%re -altesse a excuser mot, ripmdre (c) Pradon f2 /in, c*<kre {z) 
4^09 je ne mvoir (a) pas la "cbrcmcAogie. II -maurir ^c)'i 
i^«m«n 1^98. 

Racine nuitre (c) en l€$9. C^f/^{a)mn des p)«s rlh»- 
eres-^ves de Port :RojFal : (itant en&Kt, \ipauer (b) 1c« 
joumces €ir^r 1 l^ftude a fcratftcttM'Grees; H cdeker (H) 
-dett livfes.ponr lire" lf# 'A iet ' lieurtB» iodtiesi il alter (f^) 
f^uvent se perdre dans lesibois a rtlbbaye,^Hi Eurrpide iia 
fnatn* malgr^a defense Jr qaelifaes personMsdont il dfpendrt 
<b), ettjni en br^Uer (e) d /trt cons^utivement trois exenf* 
•plairet. 11 iibfUer (c) dans Ainende par one ode aur a ma- 
Tiagc A le roi ; elle Ml»tr(c)dlMunegratifS<Niiion; irn^itvorir 
(b) que 31 ans, lorsqif il dMnet (ci)'Mi Tb^baide ; apres ce 
piece, il donrnr (c) Alexandre. AtaM de li vrer la an thea- 
tre, il aller (e) niontrer la A- Compile, 'quit »pr^ avoir lire 
(i)/a, </t>f (a) 4 Tauteur, qu'il ttcoir (fc^'on granid talent pour 
■A poasie» mais qii^il n'en omt (b) point pour a tragedie: 
>r6veajement,^nr« (c) voir le^contraire. ' 

Ce ^tre {c) vers ce temps-la queHitcine lkr(c) utie r»troite 

amltie avec Boilean,^ (fliUkl^eo^wtth (c) toujours depuis, et 

-qu'iV regardet' (b) comme son rtmSt're^ Ce ctre (c>«u8si vers 

a m^me temps, qu'il se bi^uiller (c) avec Messieurs a Port 

Hoyal ; pour St recoociliery i\ quitter (jt^X^^ ^\s:^^u>^toWv^'si^ 


«t composer (c) Esther et Athalie, chef:s-d'oeuvre da tbi'^trc 
Francois. Sa devotion nc rCforrher (c) point son camciere 
naturellemeiit cAU:}tique: i( peindre (c) plus a un personv 
nage d'apres nature. Ce po^t^, dont tous a ouvrages res- 
pirer (a) la douceur et a molesse, ■ ren/erwrr (b) dans son 
cceur le fiel le plus amer; mais il ne faut considerer Ilacine 
que par les endroi^s qui immortixliser (a) /e. 

On trouver (a) dans ce edrivain, rival a Ics tragiqaes 
Grecs et A Comeille pour Tintelligence a Arj- passions, ' ii he 
elegance toujours soutcnue, une correction admirable, la 
ventclaplus frappante, point on prcsque pointAdeela- 
nation ; par tout a langage a le coeur et A le sentin>ent, a 
art A lit versification avec a harmonic et a graces a la poetic, 
porier(\) au plus baut degr6. II mourir (c) a Paris en 16*9$. 

3oileau Despreailx naUre(c) au village a Crone, pres a 
Paris, vn r63o. II e«Mijfer (c) dn barreau, et ensuite a la 
Sorbonne; tfegoflil^ a ces deux chicanes, il ne sc livrer (c) 
qa'i. son taleDt,.et dircenir (c) rh(:(tineur a la France. Ce 
grand po^te (vcoif ^c) toujours dans le coeur tin germe a. re- 
ligion, qoi 9e dCteloppcr (c) parfaitement sur a fin a s.i 
vie,' et rendfe (c) la exemplaire*. Eiitendant un juur des 
espirits^forls nier a existence a un premier Etre, il eiUrtr 
dans une reverie- profonde : quelqu*un d'eux etonnesVrWar 
(c).: ** Mais vous ne dire (a) ricn el nous, Monsieuir Des- 
pr£aax!" Le po^te rSpfmdre (c) d lai brusquement: '^ Je 
ptfiser (it) t[Ue Dieu at(^ (a) de'sots euneniis." II mourir 
(c)en 1711. . 

Son litre de Gramd-Prevot du Parnasse Wet re (a) fits cc 
qui devoir (n) faire /e estimer da vantage. Les ndqjsA 
quelques miserables victinies, immolces a la rif6e piibllque 
iM immortttliser (d) point le. Les regards a Id post6ri(e 
passer (d) rapideraent sur les premier satins, et s*arreter (d\ 
u ses beau epitres, h son Lutrin, et surtotit 4 son Aft poe- 
tique : ouvrages adroirables, oil la poesie ttre (a) porter (i) 
b, son -plus haut point a perfection. Quel justesse! qiiti 
puret6! quel force! et qmi harmonie! -Le g^nie et a 
trunail cwir (a) epuise, diuis cea A^tfvrages, tout feurs tes« 

Bayle naitre (c) att Carlat, dans Ic cooit6 de Foix, en 

l647. II e/re (c)'pro(esseur en philosophic et en histoire • 

a Ilotterdani. Get auteur, un des wi^\VV«>^ri 'i[\iXfcCcvK\^TN& 

qtii avoir (f) jamais exibt^, semblcr ^^l"^ >io>3\oNt \^xx^^»^^'^ 

le pyrrhonhme dant tout A sc\euces. V! vico\«^\<v^^ ^^"^^^^^ 

<0'e (h) Ja moiodre de celles qu'Ou wtcutuT V?^ ^vrcwV^^^ 

q6^ ENTFJITA1NI!W and 


On a.prctefrdrc (i) trouver, h. chaqtie page a ses ecrits, k^ 
pre uvL'k A son increduUle ; mai;i ces pieiives ne vtrc (a) 
pas cvidentcs. On lie savoir (a) souvent h quoi s'en te- 
iiir. Bayle decider (a) rarement-: il nefaire (a) que pie- 
sc^iter \ii pour et a contre a ub point a controverse: il ne 
dirt (a) pais qqe telle religion rire (f) faux; mais il ne 
dhe (a) pas non plus qu'elle itrc (f) vrai, II tialdir (a) et 
rtnvi'ncr (a) eg^ieiuent plusieurs dogmei a Li' ChrisUauisme. 
On truuvcr (a) dans un endrort la contraire a cc qu'il 
avajicer (a) dans un autre. 11 ne Unniner (a) rien, et 
se rcscncr.ivk) tuujour&quelque chose- a diie. Scs.ouvrages 
tlirt Ca) un ntelaii^e a, bun et a mauvais, qui rettdrt (a) 
"fa lecture ^f Us dangereuse a ceuxqui i\ avoir (a) pas I'esprit 

Croiroit-on que ce grand genie avoir ( des pelit^t^ce ? 
Sa passion lire (b) a voir des baladins de place.- A I'^e 
(ie plus A 50 ans, des qu'il en arriver (b) h Roterdain, il 
ti'ajj'ubUr (b) de son ma uteau, coir/ ir (h) a cebpectilclecomine 
un enfant, cl it re (b) le dernier a se retirer. 

L'abb6 de rcitvloii naip'er(c) dans le Perigord en \65\.:. 
il i'trc (c) un des plus grands boinmea qui avoir, (f) pa* 
roiO'C. (i) dans a cglise de Fr<^n9e: predicateur, theolo-i 
gif*n, At tres-i)el esprit, il itjre (b)-encore a boname a monde' 
le plus aimable. Abcille log^re et diificfle dans ^on choixy 
il iiaroir {h) prendre (\) que Ic fleur a Ics sciences et A,ks 
bclles-jle tires. Son genie ctre (b) creuteur e\ luifiincqx; son- 
gouit siir et natural; son imagination douxal hrillant\ sa coQ« 

■ versa{joh insfrmtif tX, ddidcux } sa plunge ceiui m^me a Ics 
graceftj Jt^iiannant dans un cercle a courtiSans et a femu>ed, 
A sav'ans et a beaux esprits, souhaito partout, et ne se livrant 
qu'iit A li^s amis intimes, aimant et rendant aiinable a v«rtu, 
f^it pour^.A peuple' ct A grand monde, a ville ec a cour, il n'y 
paruUre \c) qu^ ||0uc ^tre I'idole de le. . ^ 

Fcf velon t;^rc. (c) nonim6 en 168.9 precepteur des dues 
A Buurgogiie, a Aojou,, et a Berry. Ce the (c) pour ces 
jeunets princes quM composer (c) le lelemaque, ouviage 
imn^orlel ^ i) y a dans ce roman moral, toute a pompa a 
HonuM'e, et toute a elegance a Virgile, ies agraraens a la 
fable la force a Ifi verit^, des descriptions nobles et 
sublimes et a kis peintures riant tt naijiifd, Les peuples 
/roiii'tr(a) dans cif otjv rage un an\i zele qui ne thercktr (a) 
qu'd rfndre Its, heureux ; et \cs io\s wtv fewv\'&\\\\ \tv\'^\^^-^\«. 
A la. ihttcrio; partout a v^UU *e pii:seiitcv\>\^ d<iu&U «Ky^s 

tnJJlc formes, sumo de la feUciu. Ia %v>i\^ Ctvc ^v^^ sSi, xwii^. 


(urel, hannonieux. Telemaque vtfe (a) unique en son genre. 
En quinze muis i1 en paroitre (c) vingt Editions. 

Get iiuteur passer (b) a la couf pour un homine a projcts : 
les siipos Stre (b) adrairables dans a speculation mais impra- 
ticables. Ses maximes a gouvernement mpprocher (a>de la 
t^publique a Piaton. Un jour le roi dire (c) en guilter (h) 
le : " J'ai entrettmir (i) ie plus bcl esprit et I • plus chimeri- 
que A men royauroe." Cela rappder (a) la reponse a Bus- 
suet 4 Madame a Grignan, qui demander (b) h luis'i Feue- 
]on Mvoir (b) tant A esprit : " Ab, Madame ! il en avoir (a) 
a faire trembler." 

£n 1695 il ttre (c) norame archcv^q(ie a Cambrai, oik 
il OTOurir -(c) en 1715* Le due a Marlborough aro/r (b) 
tant A estime et a veneration pour ce prelat, qu'il ordonner 
(c) k ses Anglois, a epargner seslerres, pendant que toutes a 
flutres provinces Stre (b) Hire aux fiammes et a le pillage. 
, Fbntenelle ntdlre (.c) k Rouen en 16i>7» et vivre (c) 10& 
ans. II ctre (c) dans tout a cours a sa jeunesse d'un tempe- 
rament si foible, qu'a 1 6 ans le jeu de billard I'tre (b) un ex- 
ercice Crop violent pour lui, et que toute agitation un peu 
▼iolenlcyai/T (b) d Ivi cracher le sang. 11 efre (c) d'abord 
avocat et plaider (c) une cause qu'il perdre (c), ce qu^i\ faire 
({) le aussitut renoncer au barrcau, pour ne se livrer qu'a 
la litt^rature et a la philosophie. Pierre et Thomas Cor- 
neille etre (h) ses oncles materncls. 

II Sire (c) secretaire a la Academie a les sciences pen- 
<!ant 43 ans, et il donner (c.) cheque annee un volume a 
iiistoire a ce Academie. On trouve, dans toutes a ceuvres 
A pe auteur, un ordfe, \inc clarte, une justesse, et unt pre- 
cision adroirabfe. On y trourer (a) un ecrivain a grands 
talens, faisant aimer les sciences a ^\\x& ahstraiti reunis^ 
sant la subtilit^ du raisonnemcnt a un style qui Stre (a) 
particulier t liti; ayaiit plus a esprit que a genie, et plus 
A'delicatesse que a invention ; plac^ sous deux regnes pour 
m^riter a estime de deux sieclcs, et par la variete a Ses con- 
noissances, et par a singularity de son dme, toujours paisible, 
moderee, egato, inaccessible aux mouvemens inquiets oti 
^iolens qui rcndre (a) les autres hommes roallieureux ; fait, 
^.n un mot, pour les agreroens, et a delices a la societe, oili 
il porter (b) les qualit^s les plus aimablcs, de Penjoue- 
mentf a la gaieti, a le espilt, a la politesse, a les repar- 
xies Jin, et a la vivacite; prenanltovw etv ViQ\i\^^^«xV> ti% 

A a % 



parlant jamais en mal a personnel chercbant a faire briller 
tout A anofirle. 

En g^eral tous a ouvrages a Fontenetle Hrc (a) ingc- 
xiieux, et I'on y trouver (a) beaucbup a esprit et a agr^mens; 
mais les idees en ctre (a) queiquefois trop m eta physiques, 
les reflexions trop subtiles, le btyle trop affect^, la tourfiure 
A /e« phrases ajambiquce et q)igramnfiatique : en un mot, 
il courir (a) aprcs Ttsjirlt. A cela prcs Fontenelle devoir 
j(a) passer pour un de nos meilleurs, et, sans contredit, 
pour un A nob plus ingenieux et de nos plus agreables ecri* 
vains. Malgre une same peu robuste en apparence, il ti'aroir 
(c) dans a cours de sa longue vie aucuiie maladie considera. 
- ble, pas D)6me la petite verole, excepte une l^^re fluxion a 
poitrine. II n* avoir (c) Tome dure que fort tard, et ce nc 
etre (c) que six ans avant sa raort qu*il s'apercrooir (c) que 
Ka vue %*afoihlir (b) : il dit alors, en plaisantant^ ** J envoie 
dievant moi nies gros equipages/' 

La Fontaine, Tun des plus beaux g^nies a son siecle, tim" 
tre (c)a Chiiteau-Tbierri, en Champagne, en l62l, un an 
apres a naissance a Moli^re. II y^rot>.(a), dans tou'sses . 
ouviages, des beautes qu'on ne ^rot/reir (a) point ailleurit. On 
remdrquer (b) en lui le merae esprit a simplicite, a candcur, 
A naivete, que nous admirer (a) dans ses fables. U^tre (b) 
plein A probity et a droiture^ doux, ingenu, naturel, sin- 
cere, sans ambition, sans 6el, prenant tout en bonne part; 
et, ce qui ttre (a) plus rare, cstimant les poetes ses confreres, 
^t vivaut bien aveceux. Sa conversation- nV^ re (b)ni brii^ 
lant ni enjout^ a moins qu'il ne etre (g) avec ses intimes amis 

On (/ire (a) qu'un Jour avant ^t6 invitu.A diner chez un 
Fermier G^n^ral pDur am user les convives^ il manger (c) 
beaucoup, et ne /^ar/er (c) point : ensuite s'^tant lev^ de 
table de fort ban beiire, sous pr^texte a after a a A<:a- 
deniie, quelqu'un rvprlsentcr (c) d, luiy qu'il n ftre (b) pas 
encore temps. '* He bien, repondre (e) il, je prendre (d) la 
jplus long." 

On rapporter (a) qu'avant etc long-temps sans voir son 

ills, il rcncontrer iiv)U un jour dans une maibon sans recons. 

troTtre /c, et tCwoii^m r {c) ensuiie a la cwnipagnie qu'il /rot/4 

:;'^" wpr (b) ct lui de IVsprit et.A le gout. .Qiiand on avoir (c) 

'"" dit d /wt que -c't/re (b) spn fils, il rtpintdrc (c) tranquille- 

ment : ** Ali! j'en sifis bicn aise." Cette indilierence iiiflu&r 

(b) sur tout sa conduite, el rend re (b) le queiquefois insen^ 

si ble A ha /njures a le lemifiS* 

Moliere nuttte (c) ^ Pans-, c'ltre V^^\^ V^^*^^ ^^ •^^'^ 


(f) le plus excel I e dans a comedie depuis*A renaissance a 
&« lettres. \l ^trc (b) aussi bon acteur qu'excellent po^te- 
S'etaiit mtttrt p) tHi lit apr^s a quatrieme representation du 
Malade Iinaginaire, sa toux redoubler (c), il se rompre (c)" 
line veine, et mourir (c) le m6me jour, en 1673, X 53 an?.. 
On avoir (c) beaucoup a peine d'obienir a le archev^que a 
Paris la permission a mettre son corps en terre sainte, Entrc 
srcs comedies, le Afisanthrope, le Tartufe, les Femmes 5a- 
vartt^ PAvare, le Festin a Pierre, le Bourgeois Gentilho'mme. 
et les Precieu^es Ridicules, ^tre (a), de* chefs-d'oeuvre, qui 
rendre (d) sa memoire immortelle. 

Les qiialit^s a son coeur, n'tVrc (b) pas moins estimable^ 
ijue les talens a son esprit. 11 ttre (b) doux, compatissant, 
complaisant et gonereux. Un pauvre ayant rendrc (i) (i lui 
nne piece a nr, qu'il axoir (b) donner (i) J lui par m^prise ; 
** Oil hi vertu vat-cllf se nicher? s^tcrier (c) Moliere : tiens, 
mon ami, en voila une autre." On assurer (a) qu'il lire 
(b)se9 comedies 4 une t7ei/.p servante, et qu'il corriger (b) 
les plaisanteries Jont elle ti^flvoir (b) pas etefrappt, 

Jean Baptiste Rousseau, si fameux par scs talens et par 
A malheurs, nattt^ (c) k Paris en 1660. Le nom de grand 
^u'^on donner (a) d lui, caracterise l^idee qu'on a de P^le- 
vation a son genie ; nous n*avoir (a) point de poMe plus 
poete que lui. S'il n'a pas r^ussi dans ses comedies et 
dans A op6ra, en recompense il est unique pour Pode ; les 
iiens 4tre (a) le triomphe de la poesie et a la raison. Citrc 

S) 14 qn^il est v^ritablement grand, sublime, barmonieux, 
cond'en pens^ ^^f% hardies', et lumineux, en tours 
heureux et pleins a energie. II n'a prcsque point eu 
d'imitateur pour la cantate et pour a a1l4gerie; deux sor* 
tes A po^mes qu'il a, pour ainsi dire, cree, Dans la tra* 
duction A les psaumes, il ctre (a) quelquefois presque ^gal 
k David. Quelques-unes de son epttres, qui rovler Va) sur 
des choses utiles, prouver (a) son bon goiit, un jngement 
sain, K/t litteraturepro/bffd. A I'egard de son epigrammrs, 
de cettx m^nes qui ^tre (a) leS plus licencicux, elles porter 
(a) I'empreinte A son genie. It est Ala fois le Pindare, a 
Horace, a Martial,' et a Anftcreon a la France ; rarement 
trouver (a)-t-oh ches lui des negligences, de beaux mrtrceaux 
pr4c6des on suivis a vers plats ou inutiles. La seule parties 
qu'on avoir (f) contestee d lui^ ^St cclle du sentiment ; ii 
itre (a) bien au-<lf ssous de Uu-m&me, \^\^vikA xvwXw V$V, 
fmrler un hag^g% tendie et affcctue\xi.% 

A.a % 


L'Abbe Desfonlaines ttre (b) fils d'un conseiller S|u par- 
lemejit a Roueii. II enlrer (c) dans la socieie des Jesuites 
en 1700, et quitter (c) la quinze ans aprbs. II venir {c) 
fixer son sojour a Paris. 

Vers le commencement a I'anne^ 1735, il obtenir(c) un 
privil(g« A le roi p«>v,r faire des observations iur les ecrits 
modernes; il en publier (b) une feuille toutes a semaines. - 

On ne connoUre (b) gu^rcs avant lui ce genre de critiqiie» 
qui, sans donner dnns a secheresse d« la froide analyse, tii 
dans A dego(kt a la erudition, ne prendre (a) de celle-ci que 
ce qu'elle a d'agr^able. Le' sel et ,\ agremens, dont il avoir 
^ (c) soin A assaisonner ses kii'iWes, faire {cjlcs moins cecher- 
cber des per^onnes savantes que des espritg fri voles ; les 
femmes surtout trouver (b) les amusant. C'est dans ces 
Merits periodiques que Desfonlaines a paroUre (i) aux yeux 
A ses partisans TAristarque de nos jours ; c'etre (b) a leur 
gre un critique jadicieqx, qui avoir (b) le tact s{ir, avec 
un talent singulier pour saisir les beaut^s et a endroits fbi« 
bles A un ouvrage; pour presenter les a.u public dans leur- 
vrai point a vue, pour prCsentcr les hi d'une mani^re ele- 
gante et enjouee ; c*Hre (b) un observateur qui mettre (b) de 
rint6r6t dans les raolndres choses, ^ui savmr (b) Tart a. 
amuser et a instruire, de fondre habilement dans Tbccasioil ' 
toute Terudition qu'il' avoir (b) puisi dans les meilleurs 
icrivains anciens et modernes. ' ^ . 

L'orthograpbe' a cause, parmi les gens v lettres, un ve- 
ritable schism^. Quclqu€S-uns ont croire (i) devoir changer^ 
Tancienne, par a mt^me raison qu'on a r^orme nos iieitx 
mode«. Lts I.taliens avoir (a) Jonne h, toiite a Europe^ 
Fexemplc a (res changemens. Le Trissin entreprendre (c) 
A introduire de nouvcdux lettres dans a alpl)abct Italien, et. 
4'en oter ccux qu'il croire (b) inuliles et m^me embarras- 
santes ; mais ils ne itre (c) pas aufisi heureux dans cette inno-. 
vation que dans plusieurs autre^, et partieulit^rement dans 
celle des vers librcs. 



A ces bommes systematiqms ^tre (b) a rendce notre lan^uQ 

plus belle, plus facile a liie, ct surtout a apprendre: ils trou* 

rer (b) absurde que Tortlipgraphe ne ripondrc (g) pas 4 la 

prononciation ; que Vune itxc (g) continuellement en contra* 

diction avec a autre Lc plan c\u fts irnagtRcr (c) \)our ro»r 


.midier ^ ce qu'ils appeler (b) un abus, ^fre (h) bon, sans 
doute; i I avoir (b) a grands avantages; mais rexecutioii 
D*en hre (b) pas facile. Pour ^tre rempli d'une maniere sa- 
^sfai^ante, il ne fallnit rien inoins-qii'un. homme qui avoir 
(g) toujours vivre (i) dans les n^eilJeurcs compagmes, qui 
pjMgtder (g) parfaitement sa langue, qui parler (g) Id sans 
laisser entrevoirle moindre defaut d'organe, de pays, d'igno« 
rance, et a mauvaise education. QuelKiu'un qui prononctr 
(e) bien itre (e) seul en e(at d'urtbographier de m^ine. Mais 
,qucls eire (c) les premiers en France et les plus zdes parti- 
sans duncographisme? un Manceau, nomm6 Jtcques P^lle- 
tiefy et un Gascon, ap'pel6 Louis Maigrct. En voulant' 

, tous deux ramener Torthographe i la pronunciation usit^e, 
lis ne ramener^c) la qu'a la prononciation de leur pays ; e( ce 

. qu'ily avoir (c) de plaisaat, c'est qu'ils se reprocher {h).la^ 
et que cbacun croire (c) son coie.ia veritable e^ 
seule maniere a bien prononccr. 

Ramus, ou Pierre de la Ramee, xouloir (c) entrer en lice: 

il iftventer (c) et tdcher (c) a accrediler une nouvelle ortho- 

grapb^.* 11 e^icherit sur tout ce qu'on avoir (b) imaging 

pour reformer la. La sienne ttre\\i) sj singuli^re, que per- 

. . Sonne ne pouvoir (c) lire ses ouvrages, et qu'il avoir (b) de 

. la peine 4 les lire lui-mSme. Get. inconvenient o6%er '(c) 
Ic A raettre k cot6 de ce qu'il faire (b) imprlmer suivant sa 

. reforme, la m^aie chose ecrilc de la maniere ordinaire. Le 
public ne savoir (c) point du tout gr6 k Tauteur a avoir eii- 

' cette attention, et traiter(c) le de ridicule, comme les au- 
tres, pour avoir ose innover. 

Le mauvai) succ^« de ces differentes tentatives(/t'goM/tr(c) 
pendant quelque temps d'en faire de nouvelles. Quelques 

. ecrivains sejiatterijc) a 6tfe plus h'eureux ; on combattre^c) 
les encore: mais enfin leurs id«es commencer (c) a prendre*, 
lis travailler (c) 4 differentes reprises sur a orthograpbe, et 

faire (c) presque sentir la necessity a en avoir une nouvelle ;. 

. iU discnier (c) la propriete a chaque jettre ; les accens m^me 
ne it re (c) pa^ oublies. On deUrmiRer (c) oil devoit ^tre le ^ 
4^ave et I'aigu ;. le circonflexc it re (c) imaging a1ors,.afin de 
constater la supp^ression a quelques leltres. W paroitre {c) 
des observations, sur les points, les deux points,- les virgules,. 
et les.trema. Oi\ faire {c) folio pour ces dernitrs arti- 
cles seuls. 11 est pa^le.dans Pabbe Goujet d'un certain doc* 

. teur, qui se disciplincr (c) pout le^ C«.>\^^^ ^^^\\^\ N.'^^. 

Jumui» les gra in mai liens ne iwcriter V!^ ^\>i:8k o^^^^'^^^'^'^'" 


cation A eetie pensec : Textr^me exactitude est le sublime d^ 
sols. Toutefois, ces observateurs rigides, ayant itne sorte de 
raison dans la defense a leur cause, grossir (c) cbaque jour 
leur parti. Les plus grands ^crivains se ranger (c) k leur 
opinion. Ce sont eux principalement qui/airc (c) la valoir^ 
et qui ont meftre (i) h la mode la nouvelle orthograpbe. 

Parnii ceux doi^t le nom en a le plus impose, il fafit 
distinguer Du Marsais, TAbbe de Saint Pierre, et=M. de 
Voltaire. Le j.udicieux Du Marsais, un des bommes qui 
avoir (f ) le mieuy entendre (i) le genie a les langues, et qui 
ait porte plus loin I'esprit de discussion et d'analyse dans 
toutes A parties gramma ticales, vifaire (i) voir, qu'en ma- 
tiere d'orthographe, si Tusage c^re(b) un maitre dont il con^ 
venir (b) en general de respecter les lois, c*ctre (b) le plus 
souvent aussi un ty ran dont il Falloitsavoir ii-propos secoufr 
le joug. II a marque les cliangemens qu'on devoir (e) y 
faire. II est d'a\is qu'on supprime les lettres redoublees, 
quand elles ne rendre {sl) aucun son. L'Abbc de Saint- 
Pierre a eie plus bardi : ne voyant que fautes et abus dans 
A ancienne orthographe, ' il a travaille avec plus a zt^le 
que A sage ssc k reformer la, Dans son livre de la Taille 
reelle, un de ses meilleurs ouvrages, il tdcher (c) de re- 
duire en pratique son nouveau syst^me sur a ortbograpbe ; 
mais plus d'une personne se trouver (c) fort erabarrasseeit 
la lecture. On y lire (a) saje, usaje, langaje, neglijence, 
p^iz'an, Fransces, Ejipsiens, Sec, M. de Voltaire passe 
pour avoir innovc h son tuur: mais la pratique qu'tl 
iuivre (a), et qu'il est parvenu^ rendre assez commUHe, avoir 
(]}) ete proposee avant lui. Sa mani^re a ortbographier ne 
consiste qu'en deux ou trois points-: il icrireQi) connaitre, 
aimait, Fran^ais, quoique Louis X\V prononcer (g) toujours 
Fraa^ois. II mettre (a)' deux F a philosophe. Chez lui 
les lettres redoubloes Hre (a) rares: en general il icrire. (a) 
ats ou ois selon que Ton prpnonce Tun ou I'autre. II de- 
' cidc, pir ce moyen, la bontede bien»des rimes, el la termi- 
naison veritable de beaucoup a noms de peuples. - II faut . 
avouer que cette meibode facilite beaucoup la prononciAtion 
de bien a les roots aux Strangers. 

Le syst^nie des plus bardis novateur^,' en fait d'ortbo- 

grapbe, itre (c) yivement refute par ceux qui pr(fettr (b) 

^ lui Tancienne. M. I'Abb^ d*01tVet combattre (c) pour 

J'usage. L'A bb6 Desfontaiues, toujours en guerre pour 

ubattre le neologisme, tourmr {z") ^^i\A%xv\. o^Oi^^ts* \aw^s 

^u plume conlre a ueograph'xstne. iScvi>\co\i^ ^ ft^:\\Nii«& 


iejoindre (c) k ce combattant redoutable, lis ne cesser (c) 
A rSp^ter qu'il ^tre (b) de la derniere.impertance de Uis. 
ser leschoses sur a ancien {lied ; qu'il y alier (b) dc la police - 
des lettres, et de ccU6 mime de I'etat ; que Torthographe 
intSresicr (b) la grammaire et la langue ; qu'il falloit appor- ' 
ter autaut a soin pour orthographier correctement que pour 
^rire purement: ils fonder (b) leurs reclamations sur ▲ 
n6cessii6 a conserver I'^tymologie a les mots ; de faire portejp 
A notre langue, derivee de celle a les anciens Romains, 
les gioricuses marques de son origine ; sur la difiicnlte qu'il 
y avoir (e) h, distinguer le singulier et le plurier soit dos 
nonis, soit dcs verbes, puisque il aime et ils aWnent sVrnVe 
(e)il aime, ils-aime; sur a multitude de dialectcs qui s'i/(/ra« 
duire (e) dans notre langue, le Normand, le Picard, le 
Bourguignon, le Provencal, &c. ^tant autoris^s a ecrire 
comme ils parlcr (a) ; enfin, siir Piimtilit^ dont ckvenir (e) 
nos biblioth^ques, et sur a obligation oit I'on vtrc (e) d*ap* 
'prendre a lire de nouveau tons les livres Francois imprimes 
avant la r^forme. Ils ajouter (b) que cette diiference, qui 
se trouve cntre notre ortbographe et notre pronoiiciation, se 
faire (b) encore plus sentir dans a langue Angloisc. II est 
vrai que, de toutes a langucs connues, c'est cdui oil cc de- 
faut est le plus considerable. 

Les vengeurs z61es de I'ancienne ortbographe trailer (b) 
- leurs raisons de demonstration morale;' mais lours advcr- 
saires nejuger (b) lesp&s ro^me une simple preuve : ils refuter 
(b) les pour la plupart avec succ^s. Quant h. cette raison, 
qu*on croire{h) sans replique, qu'il faudroit jeter au feu les 
ineilleurs livres, comme devenus inutiles par lanouvelle 
ortbographe, ils r^ont/re (c) que, pourrem^dieracet incon- 
venient, on n'avoir (b) qu'a faire iroprimer les de nouveau. 

Le p^re Buflier, Messrs. Rollin et Restaut/ vouloir (c) 
rapprocher les deux paities: ils paroitre (c) egalcmetit 
eloign^s de respecter superstitieusemcnt a usage et de^heurter 
le en tout. L'orthographe pour laquelle ikj se dSclarcr (c) 
est une ortbographe raisonnee. Un cas, disent-ils, od il 
ctre (e) ridicule a changdr la mani^re lisitee a ecrire, 
c'est lorsque des mots, ayant un m6me son, ont pourtant 
une signification oppos^e, comm6' poids, poix, et pois ; 
villeetvile; qui sont toutes chbses differentes. II n'est 
pas douteux ciu'il ne faille marquer l|ux'yeux les diffe- 
rences que I'on ne pouvoir {^ ^laiw^ '&^\\\\\ \ \<a\^^^% 
Suivre /a raison et rautoiile, noW^, ^^o^ n ^^^nn^sc^^Nrs. 


plus judicieux, la r^gle a plus s^ pai* rapport k rbrtbo- 
graphs. Cetie r^gle dire (a) tout, et condamne )e pe- 
dantisme et toute afi'ectation. On n'a rien dit de plus &ense 

J[ue ce qu'on trouve dans a preface a le Dictionnaire de 
*Acadeinie Fran^oise, en parlant de Torthographe : '* L'an- 
cienne Svhapper (a) it nous tous les jours; ct, corome il ne 
faut point se pres)»er de r«y^ter la^ on ne devoir (a) pas non 
plus faire a grands efforts pour re^enir la.^' 

Si des coutescations elevees au sujet de I'orthographe 
nous passons k ceux qu'a S(i>ci(ee8 la prononciation^ nt>U9 
voir (d) encore les grammaiiiens divi»e8. L^impossibilite 
de savoir comment il faut prononcer quelques mots Latins, 
et les idecs a les Latinistes modernes, mettre (c) autrefnis 
en combustion Tuuiversite de Patis et a College RoyaL II 
t^agir (b) de savoir comment il falloit prononcer 4e8' dt^ux 
mots quisquis et quanquam. L'universite a Paris, vouloir 

(b) qu'on prononcer (g) kiskis, kankam. Quelques prufes- • 
seurs de College Royal, nouvellement 6'abli,^aloux a se faire 
un nom dans a moiide Latin, itre (b) d'avis contraire : ils 
opiner (b) fortement pour qu'on pronoucer (g) quisquis j quan- 
quam: cctte dernier prononciation itre (b) alois une nou- 

-. veaute. La Sorbonne croire (c) la dangereuse, et ordonner 

(c) qu'on se confonner (g) k la prononciation d'us^ge dans 
A ^coles. 

Les professeurs royaux sc mqquer (c) de pareils ordres: 
lis prononcer (c) le Latin, comme ils croire (c) devoir faire 
ky et engager {c) h.\in coup d'eclat un jeune bachelier pins 
ardent encore qu'eux pour la nouvelle prononciation. Cet 
abbe, au mepris des ordres reiteres de la So( bonne, pro/ioncer 

(b) partout avec affectation quisquis et quanquam: il itre 

(c) bient6t cite au tribunal de la faculte de theologie, qui 
vouloir (c) depouiller le du revenu a ses benefices. Appel 
sur le cb'amp de la part de I'abbe au Parlement : Paffairt 
alter (b) deyenir serieuse: mais les professeurs royaux, en- 
gages d'honneiir^ ne pas laisser condamner le plus zele dd- 

^ fenseur de leur opinion, alfer (c) en corps i I'auilience,. re- 
presenter (c) 4 la cour I'mjustice des procedes a la Sorbonne. 
ijt Parlement avoir (c) egard k la prii^re a les supplians : il 
r^^a6/ir(f;)..l^abbe. dans, tous ses droits, et 7ais^r (c). chacun 
libre a prononcer le'Latia comme on vouloir (e)^ 

La prononciation de la. langue Fran^oise a caus^ ua 
plus grand nombre die conte&lax.\oivi*. i\ %'^t\ iicqcr (a) 
chaque jour: plusieurs ne 4(re (jsO): ^A:&^\^J^'^^\^\ti\vM«« 
P^ssom iprisent a ks r^lcs cv^'iX/oUoir V?C>:<i\rtfc\N%t ^x^tta* 


dUir€(h); les litterateurs difenr (a) d'opinion en quelques 
point sur ce matiere. 

\\%'agir (a) de savoir si unc traduction, pour Stre bonne, 
tt pour reunir a suffrages de tout le monde, devoir (a) 6tre 
ou iitt€rale ou libre. Cette' question a €ie faife de tout 
te'mps ; mais on a principalemet agitee la k I'occasion des 
%oyage« de Gulliver, traduits par TAbbe Defqntaines. Oa 
savoir (a) que son principal ineri.te etrc{b) le jugement et le 
goAt. II avoir (b) fait des changemens considerables dans 
cette traduction, ainsi que dans celie de Laurent Echard, de 
Joseph Andrews, Ac* car, parmi les auteursoil il y a le plus 
4 changer, c'est assurement chez les roraanaers Anglois, et 
noniqiement chez le dodeur Swift. 

Un bomroe de genie et qu*on a voir (i) remplir une 
des« premieres places du ministi^re, 'M»f de Silhoifet, dans 
la preface de sa traduction en prose de^M^ssais .de Pope sur 
la critique et sur Khomme, bldmer (c) la liberte qu'en 
a?oit pris a 6ter quelque chose au Gulliver. II inwctfcer 
(c) contre ceux qui se donner (b) carriere en traduisant, et 
vouloif(c) d^montrer la nccessite a i^tre litt6ral : il appuycr 
(e) ses raisonnemens de Texemple. Sa traduction de TEssal 
9tir la critique est rendu presque mot pour mot de Toriginal. 
etpar-l^directementopposce ^ la traduction de ce m^me 
ouTrage, donn^e en vers par M. t'Abb^ Dtfresnel. 

La difference qu'on remarque pour la fidelite, entre ces x 
^eux traductions, est 6tonnante: W se7nbler (ja) que ce ne 
ftre (f ) par le m^me out rage. Autant I'une a pour ob- 
jet A ^ire sehtir tout a force et tout a merite du texte, 
autant Fautre tendre (a) k accommoder le k notre go{it, 
dt A tourner le beau coup nioins a notre instruction qu'ii 
notre ahiusement. L'Abbe Duresnel envoyer (c) un exem* 
pTairc de sa traduction k Pope, qui nV/re (c) pas satisfait 
dele^ et ne juger (c) point ^-propos de faire reponse; il 
croire (b) avoir ^te defigure. II est certain pourtant qu'il 
y a des Vers de g^nie, ct d'une verite frappante dans cette 
traduction en ve^s de TEssai sur la critique. Le roecon- 
tentement a Pope ne efre (c) pas le seul chagrin, qu'aroiV 
(c) k essuyer M. 1*A bbe Duresnel : on faire (c) d lui beau- 
coup A autres tracasseries, qui ont erop^ch'e le a donner une 
edition nouvelle de son ouvrageavec des corrections et a les 

Le traducteur des rpyages de Gulliver ^ alt^oj\€ ^rci ^A\2\. 
de XEssai sur la critique, repoiMscr (^cf)\cs Vx^AVsViCCv^^'Sy ^v^^^- 
fiv lui, et u'ecouler (c) que sou de\v\X-. QtL^tvviw V5C\ \^ 


prenve dans Ses ftuilles. En faisanl Toppojiition a la tra- 
duction en prose a la tra<ruction en vers, Wjuger (c) celle- 
ci superieure ii Tautre : it ne voir (c) danb ia premiere 
qu*une mauvaisecopied'un tii*s-b(>n original. II en prendre 
(c) occasion de faire valoir ses idees sur a liberte, et I'es- 
pece d'Hudace que devoir (a) savoir prendre toute personne 
qui traduirc (a). 

Selon lui -les beautes du go{it do tontes Ics nations c/c- 
voir (a) 6tre conservees ; n)ais il ne jwgtT'(a) pas qu'il ea 
^tre (f) de m^me de certaines beaute-i locales, quedes allu- 
sions a des usages particuliers empechvr (a) d'etre senti par- 
tout, et rendrc (a) le plus souvent dcs enit^mes insipides : au- 
quel cas il rccommande qu'on substitucr (f; 4(*s allusions phis 
ingcnicua^ et plus senbibles, qu'on nniplacer (f) inline quel- 
quefois les idees oi// re, les details trop etendus, tes comparai- 
9onsforce, par des choses pi us j ustes et pi us nobles, eii aver tis- 
sant toutcfois le public de ces changemens. II se moque de 
CCS traducteurs qui, sous pietexte de conserver a un ori- 
ginal son air nature!, sacri/ier (a) la force, a elegance, et k. 
clarte, a une fidelite ridicule. '^ Substitucr, dit-il, des mots 
Francois k des niots a uue autre langue, c'esl fnire comme les 
ecoliers qui commencer (a) a traduire." D'aiileurs, ajoute^-t-il^ 
qu*est-ce qui emp^he qu*on ue^^re(f)^ la fois elegant et fiddle? 
Le traducteur en prose, ennemi dCclare-de toute tra- 
duction libre, souttnir (b) que la crainte a n'^lre pas assei 
exact et littoral devoir (b) faire sacrificr les roots aux choses, 
Bien de plus vrai que ces principes, repondre (b) TAbbe 
Desfontaines, mais qu'ils sont dangereux dans a consequen* 
ces! Celui qui se borne a ^tre purement littoral en abuser 
(a) le plus souvent ; en sorte, qu'au lieu a sacri6er les mots, 
aux choses, il sacrifier (a) reellement les choses a lc9 mots: 
lia raison est qu'cn rendant les mots, et m^me le sens princi-* 
pal, on ne rcndre (a) pas toujours les idees accessoires„ qui 
torment tout I'art et tout a merite a un ouvrage. 

Les partisans a les traductions litterales citer (c) le comte 
de Roscommon, qui, dans son po^me siir la mani^re de tra> 
duire, reprocher (a) aux traducteurs de notre nation a 6rre 
^x ennuyeux et froids paraph rastes : '* Un trait, dit-il, une pen^ 
see, que nous renfermer (a) dans une ligne, suffire (e) k un 
Francois pour briller dans des pages enti^res." Les circonlo* 
cutions et a paraphrases Hre (a) des defauts comrauns k 
Tous A traducteurB, Les partis-Ans de& traductions libres ne 
/ern'r (c) aiican couipte de ceitc autoulfe, ^v oppostit V^^ d t\U 


velle de Madame Dacier, qui caractei isc ainsi une traduc- 
tion servile et litierale : " Cc n*est la qii'une imitatiun basse, 
'qui, par une fidelite troj) scriipuleuse devenir (a) trds^infi- 
d^le: pour conserver !a leitn*, elle ruincr (a) Tesprit; c6 
qqi.est Touvrage d'uafroid et sterile genie." 

A force de vouloir 6tre ex^ct, ajouter (b)-ils, on nVst 
t]ue pint et sec, on se fait un style, Te plus souvent confus, 
entortille. Tout trad u c ten r,il est vrai, a, pour ainsi dire, 
un maitre, qui est son auteur; mais *'ce maitre ne devoir 
(a) pas exercer sur lui un empire oriental^et despotique, ni 
le charger de cbaines cpipme un vil esclave. L*unique dc- 
Vfiir de cctui-ci est Asuivre le toujours« mais quelquefuis 
d'un peu loin: cVst m^me par cette es|[.dce de liberie qu'il 
faire (a) honneur d lui. En marcbant scrupukusement et 
immeditatement sur toutes ses traces, il he pouvoir{e) avoir 
qu^line demarche contrainte, et sa basse servitude ctre (e) 
lionteusement marquee par ses pas timides et par la mau« 
Vaise gr^ce de tbus ses raou^'cmens." 

Faute de prendre un juste milieu entre une exactitude 
'^crupuleuse et une liberie hunn^te, presque toutes nos tra. 
ductions avoir (a) ete manquees : il en est trts-peu dont on 
parle : celui 4^Amiot ont v\i long«temps recheichees pour 
leur style naif et charmant ; on mcitre (a) encore au rawg 
des bonnes, celles dcs Lettres a Pline, par I'avocat Sacy, 
de TAcademie Fr&n^oise : des Leltrrs a Ciceron a Atticus, 
par Tabbe Mongaut: celles a Virgile, par i^abbe Desfon- 
taines; de TAnti-Lucroce, par M. de Bougainville; de la 
Vie d'Agricola et des Moeurs des Germains, par M. I'abbc 
de la Bletlerie. Les pr^sidens Cousin et Buuhier, les abb6s 
Prevot ct d'Olivet, se itre (a) dislingues par leurs traduc- 
tions. Cette elite de nos traducteurs a tache a reuiiir la 
fidelite, a. elegance, et a noblesse, 

Un bon traducteur devoir (a) avoir un plan a soi, Le grand 
defaut de tous est de marcher au hasard, de ne savoir pas 
ramener les choses X un point inierewant, CVst par cette 
raisoh principalement qu'on ne lire (a) plus d'Ablancourt, 
"repute si long temps la perle d< s traducteurs. On n^aimer 
(a) pluRsa traduction a Tacite, sumommee la belle infidcle, 
Di Houssaye est un discoureur, froid, minutieux, pesant. 
Quelle langufur, quelle incorrection, quelle indecente fiimi* 
liariiede style, dans M. Creviei ! il se7)fblcr {i\) avoir row/o/r 
(i) travestir la plupai l a les endroits a Tyic'a^ ^'\\ ^^^w^^'*^. 
1) y aroir (c) dittreiis scuUmew^ ^Mt k vswd.'w^'^i ^ "^"^^ 


duire les poMes, Est-ce en vers, est-ce en prosie ? Le cele- 
bre president Bouhier, ce savant d'un esprit si juste et d'lm 
' goAt si delical, tenir (a) pour les vers. II prttendre (a) que 
" les traductions en prose sont nioins /ai/ pour le plaisir a 
Ics lecteurs que pour TinteUigence a le texte. II ne penser 
(a) pas, qu*avec cette exactitude serviies qu*eiles exiger (a), 
on vouvoir (f) rendre toutes a beaut^s, toutes a grdces a la 
poesie : au contraire, dit-il> cette heurcux hardiesse, I'ame • 
des bons vers, he pouvoir (a) dtre que favorable au traduc- 
• teur.*' Le president Bouhier a pour lui Texemple des Ita- 
liens et a les Anglois. liomcre est>tr^s-heureusement tra- 
duit en vers Italiens par Salvini ; Tbeocrite par Ricplotti ; 
•Anacrenn surtout par phisieurs excellentes plumes; Virgile 
par Annibal Garo ; Ovide par les Anguillara. Les Anglois 
^tre (a) aussi heureux en traductions poetiques. On connoU 
tre (a) cetui d'Horocire par Pope, de Virgile et a Juvenal 
par Dryden, de Lucrtice par Creech. 

A tous ces exemples frappans, les partisans a les traduc^ 
tions en prose opposer (b) le mauvais succes de nos tra- 
ductions en vers : cbmme de cehd de Virgile.pai* Segrais; 
des Odes d' Horace par Tabb^ Pellegrin; des Heroi'des et 
des tl^gies amourevx d'Ovide par Thomas^orneille, par 
Tabbe Bartin, et par Richer, qui a mieux reussi dans ses 
Fables; des Metamorphoses par Bens^rade; de la Phar* 
sale par Br^beuf. Us mettre (b) tcoiis ces coplstes versifica- 
teurs dans la derniere classe a les 6crivains;'ils jyger (b) 
les les plus cruels'fleaux a la v^rite ct a les beautes origi' 
naux: lis priferer (b) d etfx, sans b^siter, I'ignorance et 
A platitude de Marole et de Martignac^ les ecarts d'inaagi- 
nation deCatrou, les bevues de Saint- Remi, la/roideur de 
BeHegarde et de Tarteron, la mauvaise grdce de Dacier, 
Tenflure et a esprit de syst^me de Sanadon, I'incorrcction 
^t A verbiage de Pabbe Bannier. Traduction pour traduc- 
tion, lis en aimer (b) encore mieux une mal re/tda en prose 
qa'une autre mal rendu en ycrs. ^ 

Le traducteur en "vers du px>^me de Petrone sur la guer^ 
civile, de la Veille des F^tes de Venus*, duqualrieme Jivre 
A la En^ide, n^axmr (b) encore expos^ qu*en general ses 
idees : bient6t il devehpper (c) les dans une preface a la t^te 
de ce m^me^quatri^me iivre. 

L*abbe Desfontaines se proposer (b) alors a donner une 
traduction complete des ceuvres de.Vii^le. Aiosi il 

^ Pemgi\ima'Vci»n*% 


f7rofV(b) k craindr^ de voir son travail de plusieursannees 
perdu, si les ideos du president Bouliier (7ro//* (L) lieu. Aussi 
ne manqutr (c)-t*il pas a protester i>autcm&iit, dans une de 
sesfcuilles, contre4out ce quecelui-ci aiw(b)dit dans saprc^ 
ftclp. Cette protestation circle) faite h roccasion du compte 
qu'il r€ndre(^c)do la traduction nouvelle de Pclronne, ce cuur* 
tisan eipporte par a satire ct a debauche, ou phit6t ce 'p6« 
d8](ogue enfle, qui ne connoUre (\b) la cour que par oui-dire. 
Le p^re Sanadon est d'avis qu'on pouxoir (h) traduire 
tr^s-heureusement les poetes en pmse. 14 sexplique clairc- 
inent&ur cela dans la preface de sa tradu<?tion dvs ceuvres 
■A Horace. L'abbe De&fontaines u'oubiur (c) pas de faire 
valoir ce sentiment, il eiter (c) le hiorceau oxX cei avieur dit : 
** Une traduction en vers ne peut inanquer a sacri/icr. suu* 
vent Tessentiel a accessoire, et a alteier ks pensocs et a ex- 
pressions de Tauteur pour tonserver les graces a lu versifi- 
ratiou." MaiSf d'un autre coto le president Bouhicr pouvoir 

(b) se reclaroer du pdre-Tarieron. qui, apr«s evoir donne la 
tradudtioQ des Satires, des Epitrrs, et a le Art poetiquo 

. d*Horace, avoir (b)ctevingt ans san^ospr entreprendre celle 
des odes, daus la persuasion qu'elles ne/^a^/roir (b)i^tre bien 
rendu qu'en yers. 

M. d'Alembert, dans scs Observations sur Tart de tra- 
4uire, condan>ne aussi les traductions en prose^ 11 dire (a). . 
.qu'un poete Grec ou Latin, depouiUe de^ son principal , 
charroe, la mesure et Itiarmonie, n'ltrc (a) plus reconnois- 
sabie, que l^s habillemens a la inoderne, qa*on pouvoir (a> 
donoer d kii^ pouvoir (a) dtre tous tres- beaux, mais que c» 
se ^tre^d) jamais les siens; qu*on imii«fa Ic, mais qu'on n^ - 
rend ra jamais le au naturel ; que notrepoesie»^vec ses rimes, - 
ses l^emistichcs toujouj's semblables, l'unif)rmite dc sa 
marcbe, et sa monotonie, ne pouvoir (a) representer la ca« 
dence variee a la poesie des anciens ; qii'enlin il faut apprch- 
die leurs langu«i>, lorsqu*on vouloirifi) connoitre leurs poc^tes. 
^Le combat instructif entre Tabbe Desfuntaines et Ic pre* 
l^ent Bouhier n'iimcn€r(c)pasd'autreseciaircissemens. La' 
mort enlcvcr (c) ce dernier en 1746. M. de Voltaire, en 
remplai^ant U a TAcademife Fcan^oisQ, et faisant, dans son 
discours de r^ption, I'eloge de son predeces^eur, rappcler 

(c) sa dispute sur la traduction a poetes et douner (c) Ultn 
gain de cause. 11 soulenir (c) avec le rel^br^ academicieu^ 
que les po^le* nc^dcvoir (b) ^tre Uaa^kuU c^^ ^^\\^i»^<^<^«i* 
Jien monlrer yC)\A, nccessite en m^iuQ Xhu^^ c^'5\^a\4«i\>ka.t«' 


(c) les obstades. Ce qui fait, dit il, que les .grands poetes de 
I'anti quite avoir (a) ^te traduits en Vers avec beaucoup a suc- 
ch chez nos voisins, et ridiculemefit chezles Fran9ois, c'est 
la difference du genie a les lahgues : la nbire ne pouvoir (a) 
se plier h, rendre le« peiits cboses; k nommer, sans causer du 
d^goiit, (tant rious cire (a) des Sybarites dedaigneux et diffi- 
cHesO les instrumens des travaux champ^tres et des arts me- - 
chaniques : point de mots, au contraire, qu'on ne pouToir(i\ 
k Texenyple a Us anciens, rendre avec une sorte de noblesse 
dans la langue du Dante, de Lop^ de Vega, et a Shakspeare. 

On pouvoir (e) ajouter, que si nous tire (a) depourvus de 
bonnes'tradiictions, jl fauts'en prendre k Tincapacite de ceux 
qui sfe miler (a) ordinairement a nous en donner. Par qui 
voyons-nous ce carri^re courue ? par tel homme qui lienien^ 
ire (a) gu^re naieux le Frao9ois que la langue qii'il tra-^ 
duire (a); par tel rimailleur, le mcpjfis et a effroi des gens 
senses, ^c. L'abbe Desfontaines, en parlant de sa traduc- 
tion dc Virgile, dire (a), qu'il n*y a pas une seule ligne, 
qu'il n'aioir (f ) travaillee avec autunt a soin que Despreaux 
travailler (b) ses ver«. On a loir'(i) un tra«tucteur, bomme 
de merite, i^tre deux jours enti^rs 4 rendre une seule phrase 
de son original ; mais ces sortes de traducteurs Ure (a) 
fares. Le cummun ne se doute pas qu'il faille du travail et a 
It g^nic. Avant d'etre traducteur, il est essehtiel d'etre 
auteor. Traduire, cV/re (a) creer une seconde fois, et 
lutter sans cesse contre son original. 

II y a des atiteurs qui avoir (a) condamne la poesie: 
t7 repr^senteir (b) un poete comme un ^tre tout particu* 
lier, dont la demence pouvoir (a) yiveinent frapper a ima* 
' gination des autres, et toumer les t^te«. Platon, qui eii 
avoir (b) une des mieux organisees, est le prennier auteur a 
le syst^roe anti-po^tique. Dans sa republique et dans ses 
Ipis; definrssant un homine qui s'occuper (a) a faire des vers, 
il pemrfre (a) & des couleurs les plus qff'reux, Quelques 
modernes se. sont Jaire (i) gloire a adapter Popinion de^e 
philosophc; et, «roir (a)<!harge le p'ortrait. 1^ 

Parmi les plus grands ennemis' a la poesie, il faut comp- 
ter uh fr^re de Madame Dacier,* savant comme elle,quoi- 
que moins cel^bre; mais esprit e.ntSt^ de reforme: il vou" 
kfir (c) appOrter la dans a iitt^rature, ainsi que dans a reli. 
gion. A'prhs avoir abjur6 ie Calvinisme, il afficker (c) 
des i decs rtgourenx et singulicires. II trouvcr (c) la po^sie 
jttandaleux, s^appliquer Qc')foTtetne^\VA^Wfe\ltt,^\.iivM^Titt^ 
«/« outrage dans loqueVUmaintenir ^^ la ti^T^-^\x\«a«,\vX\ftr 


jiiWe^ mw irh- dangereiix: Le livre est en Latin ; \lavoir{U) 
au moiiis ceC avanuge d'etre peu coanu ; mais le perc Lanii 
de rOratoire entreprendre (c) a tirer le de robscuritc. II en 
faire (c) passer les priocipes et A |>reuves dans un ouvrage, 
intiUile, Nouvelles Rcdexions sur TArt Po^iique. U vCiirc 

(a) gu(^re d*attentat, dont W vl avoir (f) charge I4 pocsie* 
Cet oratorien aimer (b) les sciences et a arts ; mais il vC aimer 

(b) ^ue les sciences abstraite^. On dit qu'il composer (c) 
ses elemens de matbematiques dans un voyage qu*il fairc 

(c) h, pied de Grenoble k Paris. 

Saint Evremond se declarer (c) aussi contre la poesie. 
"Lt^ poesie, dit-il, denoande un genie pnrticulier, qui ne 
s'acomitibde pas trop avec le bons-sens Elle est tant6t 
le* langage a les. dieux ; tantot celui a les fous ; rarement 
c^ui A un honnete homme/' Certains censeurs austt^res de 
la po^ie redout er (a) la au point de compter, pacmi a belles 
actions a leur vie, cellc de s'interdire la lecture a /e« pontes. 
On a loue Madame Rtfcine de n'avoir jamais /trie (i) les tra«- 
gedies A son epoux. ^ 

'Si Ton remonte des particuliers aux princes, on voir (d) 
que bien a les souverains avoir (a) pens^ de m^me ; qu'iU 
Tk'avoir (a) rien eu tant k cccur que de ienir a po^sje ^loi- 
gn6e de leurs 6tatS9 conme un de ces maux cpntagieux qui 
porter (a) la desolation et a roort partout'oii ils se gUsser 
.(a). Personne n'a pousse la pievention, k cet egard, plu^ 
• loin qiie le fieu roi a Prusse. Tout po^te lui e^i^e (b) un 
objet odieux. Le prince rpyal» le dernier roi a Prusse, 
itre (b) oblige, du vi vanl de son p^re, a se ^acher pour 
^tudier et pour s'entretenir avec quelques savans. 

. Pour revenir au roi son p^re, il avoir (b) une telle anti- 
pathic pour lespoMes, que, remarqnant des caract^res traces 
au-dessus a la principale porte a son palais k Berlin, \\ de- 
mander (c) k scs courtisans ce que cV/re (b) : on dire (c) it 
hi que c^tre (b) des vers Latins, composes par Wa^chler, 
fiesidant k Berlin. Le roi courrouce mande le sur le champ ; 
Rpoete, enparoissant, sW^era£^rf(b)li une recompense; maif 
qu'il Hr€ (c) eionne quand ce raonarque rfiirc (c) d iui, avecv 
menace : ** Je vous ordonne a bortir incessamment de la ville 
et a mes etats.'* 

Au reste ce prince n'aimer (b) pas plus les philosophes et 
A savans que les poetes: t^moin Pexil du c^lebre Wolf, et le 
mauvais accueil qu'il yairc (c) au. j^^tv^ ^^x^vvr.\<» ^^ ^>Ma^ 


Francois rifugie, qui itre (c) pr^sent^ d. /wi^comm«Tltt frr#- 
ilige ti'erudition. Le roi demander (c) <2 /tfi, pour mortifier 
/e*, s*il MTw/r (b) le droit public. Le jeune boratr.c etant 
obliger A convenir que non, ** All« etuHier /e, dit-il d hi, 
avant de vous donner pour satajil*.** Le jetine Baratier y 
iravaHlerf^c) si fort, renon^anl a toute autre ^tude, qu*il 

X 9oUtemr (c) sa \hhe de droit public au bout de qutnze mais : 
mais il mourir (c) peu a temps apres, de I'exces du travail, 
€n 1740> a V'kge de 19«m* On assure que ce jeune homnVy 
d^s rdge de quatre ans, parler (b) bien les langues Latiiie, 

, Fran^oise, et Allemande ; qu'il savoir (b) le Grec k six ans, 
et s( bien THebreu, entrc neuf et dix, qu'il p(nr$oir(h) 
composer en prme et a vers dans cftte langue, et ^railfiirela 
f^xte Hebreu de la Bible, sans points, en Latin ^u a Fran- 
cois 4 i'ouverture a le livre. II donr^r (c) au public p^u* 
. jiieursoufragcsFran^oitetLajtins. DetoutesA 9CteDces,!ain^ 
decide fire (h) peut-4tre )a seule qu'il n* avoir (g) pas etodiee. 
L^s aaVant du si^le^e Francois f^ ct ni6me long-tenops 
aprcs ce.monarqiie, itre (b) funatiques 4 I'egard a hs an- 
cien», et idpldtrer (b) tout ce qui ptfrttr (b) Tempmnte a la 
antiquity. Muret rendre (b) lt$ ridicules dans la persorrnie 
#e leUr coripb^e, Joseph Scaliger, Fliofflnic de son si^cle qui 
Mowr (b) I^ plus de mots Grecs et Latins,- mais aussi le plot 
Yaif>9 le plus e;iTieux, ie plus eraporte, le plus cyniqne, et . 
A pi OS fidiculement enthousiaste kits anciens. Le puriste 
ct r^^nt Muret envoytr (c) it liti des vers Latins. H 
ttecompdgner (c) cct envoi d'une. lcltr«, danslaquclle fl dire 
(b)que I«s vers woir (b) ^te adre«ses d bii d*AHemagne, et 
qu'on avvir (b) tires les d'un vieiix manuscrit. ' Scaligcr 
«e fie douier (b) de rtcn. Aossitdt apr^s les afoir lus, il 
f^ eerier {c) qu'ils ^tre {'b).adfnirables, qu*i!s ne powcoir (b) 
apparienir qu*a un ancien, et pritendre (c) qu'ils ttrt (b) 
d'uii vieux comique, iiomm^'rrab^'a. II citer (c) les, dans 
Son commentaire sur Varron, com me uh des raeill^urs 
morceaux a ce po6te. Quand Muret OKoir (c) t^oir (i). 
.Scaliger engag6 dans le pi^c, il en i/w^;we (c) tout le 
iDonde': oil lire (c) beaucoup aox d^pens du dernier. 

• C^fait Mt contrcdit par M.Vabbe Lsdvocat. Voyeisoti Diction- 

aatrc hiatOriquc-porialif, k Particle Baratier, oil cci autcur dit que le Pru6ae, charm^ dc noire jeune savant, lui fit J'accucil le plut 

l^racicuXy et renvoya'chrrclier presque tous les joura^ que la Social ^ 

Koyale de& scieocca iV^regca soleanellemcni au nombrc do sea mem- 

^resg que la Reine ifJ pcindrc etph^i &ot\ ^o^lmt 1 Monbijou, .miiison 

de pjrisancc dc sz fnajcste*. et <^ lo\«^U HsJvv'^^ ttkv^N^ Vv«lvs^«A» 

tlj(9i/naeur» ei de pigsent* 


Le c^l^bre sculpteur, Michel Ange Buonaroti, donner (c) 
i Rome une scc^ne datis a mcme go^r. Voulant faire trou- 
ver en defaut les areuglcs «ntbousiaste$ a. la antiquiie, il fn- 
ierrer{c) tin Cupidon de sa fa^on dans un endroit ou il sa- 
voir (b) qu'on dnoir (b) fouiller. On n*avoir (c) pas plut6t 
d^couvertla statue, qu'elle devenir (<^l*objet de radmiration 
de tous les pr^tendus connoisseurs. Le morceau Strc (c) * 
vendre (i) pour antique au cardinal de ^aiut-Gregoire : 
niais Buonaroti riclamer (c) ce Cupidun et pour preuve qn'il 
itre (b) de lui, produire (c) un bras qu'il avoir (b) cass^ k 
cette figure avant que de cacher la dans a terre, et qu'il 
oroiV (b) conserve soigneu;iement. 

Le premier, en France, qui oser (c) disputer ouvertement 
atkx anciens leur gloire et leur raerite, et qui pretendre (c) 
que les Grecs et a Romains devoir (b) ceder d nous a tous 
eggrds, est Tabb^ Boisrob^rt, si celc^bre par sa faveur aupr^s 
du cardinal, de Richelieu, dont i\ faire (b) Tamuseraent, et 
dont il avoir (b) la protection et a estime. De dix-buit 
pieces de theatre qu*i> composees cet abbe, il n'y en a pas 
line qu'on lire (f) aujourd*hui. U attribuer (b) le mauvais 
succcs de ses pi^es k la grande admiration qu*on' avoir (b) 
alors pour les anciens, et declarer (c) a evx la guerre. De- 
pouillant les Tun apr^ Taiitre d'une gloire qu'il croire (b) 
usurpee,il reprcsenter(c) les commedes bommesinspir^s quel- 
quefois par le g^nie^ mais toujours abandonnes par legoi^tet 
par A graces. Hom^re tire (c) le plus mahraire de tous a 
anciensi. Boisrobert comparer (c) le 4 ces chanceurs de 
carrefour, qui ne dibiter (a) leurs Ter» qu'^l^ canaille. 

Cette idee etre (c) saisie par un autre ptiot^ de Riche* 
lieu, par Desmajret^ de Saint-^Sorlin, un d^ eeux qui trct^ 
vaiUer (c) le plus k la iragedie de Mirame de ce ministre. 
Saint-Sor|in avoir (b) de la r^putarion, quoique son ex- 
treme fteonditd faire (g) ^ lui beaucoup a tort. C'est 
une des plus- extravagantes imaginations qu'il y avoir (f) 
jamais eu : on dire (b) qu'il ^tre (b) le plus fou de tous 
A pontes, et le meilieur po^te qui ^h*e (g) entre les fousk 
II donner (c) des scenes de fanatisme sur la fin a sa vie, qui 
VaDoir (a) plus fait connoitre que tous ses ouvrages^ Sa 
cum^dic des Visionnaires passer {c) pour un chef>d'oeuvre; 
c'est que Moli^re n^avoir (b) pas encore paru* Ses deux - 
po^mes,. Clovis et la Magdeleine, cf re (a^ des tlsi^ws d'^b^ 
iravagances qu'il croire (^b) !ix\pti\i:\xx«i ^ VwaX^ft^*^^^ 


de niieuK /ilans a Iliade. II ne se c/Wf (b) pas m^me 
ffatte,' oi\ feigner (b) qiielquefois de donner d lui la 
prcterence sur le pocte Grec. Ulliafle sembkr (b) ^ /mz le 
comble de toutcs a impertinences p<»^tique5; et, pour ame- 
iier le public ct son opmioii, il se dtchainer (b) contre Uo- 
inbr^. Zoile oi^ir (b) moins a acharnement, lorsqu^il 
oiler (b) mutilant ft fouettaiit toutes les statues de ce 
potte, dont i} etre (c) surnomme le fleau. 

PerrauU gurder (b) enCore le silence ; raais les sollicita- 
tfons r^iter^es de Saint-Sftrlin, qui prcsser (b) le de se join- 
dre a lui, et a embrasser Sct cause, determiner (c) /e a se 
faire chef de parti. L'idce de strvir sa patrie et ses con- 
temporains^a/fcr (c) le. Saint -So rlin represenier (c) d lui^ 
dans inie epitre, la France eploree et demandant h lui son 
-Appui : 

Vicns ddfendrc, Pcrrault, la Fnmce qui t'appelle, 

Charles Perrault xt'etre (b) pas iissurement le plus gran4 
soutien et le^ premier g^nie a la nation ; majs, au d^fant 
de talens, il avoir (b) un atnour ?enlable puur eux^ et tire 

. (c) plus utile au'x lettres et a les arts que la plupart des 
-personnes qui avoir (b) la plus grande reputation. II donner 
(c) la forme aux academies de peinture, de sculpture, et d*ar. 
chitecture. Contr6leur general dos batimens sous Colbeft, 
kiva» et con«der6 de ce. ministre, il anployer (c) sa faveur 
aupr^<de lui pour faire recompenser les gens a merite. ' If 
WQoir (e) passe pour en avoir beaucoi>p lui*meroe, s^I jx'avoir ' 
(b) pas eu la lattise de faire des vers; et s'il s'en etre(g) • 
ienaai la prose^danslaquelle c*e/re(b) tout un aiutre homnue. 
11 iire (b)fj^re du fameux Perrault, a qui nous sommes re- 
devables du plandu Louvre^ et de plusieurs excellens com- 
iiieutaire»sur Viiruve, Comme arcbitecte, Claude PerrauTl 
dexxHr {%) tenir un rang parmi les premiers bommes de son 
sikd^i com me medecin, ii est encore recommaiidable, ne f{it- 
ce qu« pour avoir d«mne Ta Yip et a sante a plusieurs de ses 
auiiB: et norom6ment k Boileau, qui en temoigner (c) d lui 
4M reconnoissance par des Epigram mes, Peu a genspossed^ 
(Jb) les vertus de la soci^t^dansun degre aussi eminent que 
ks aveiir (b)ces^deux fi bte4» Charles, surlout, ne conmUre ( b) 
.Bi-la kaine ni la jaloiisie: il seyoire (b) distingaer par une 
jM^ etoiuianl pour sas amis et par une franchise singuli^e. 
S^a Pftfaiidk des Anckos ei dt% ^x>^^\\\^%k^ «oi t;«^ ^\ \«- 

^arde ies arts et les scienteis i^^t (.c^eavoft ^\V<aUlteT Vj^ 


.Grand Sirt (b) la satire la plus fnd^enle qn*on povvoir (g) 
faire de tous les autrcs bi^oles glorieux v le mt^nde. 

11 est yrai que Perra^iU ue avoir (b)i{nagine le que pent 
Satire ^reveiiir de la graiide admiratton pour lea Grecs el a 
Latins. Ses dialogues, dans lesquvls on voir (a) ce pft^me^ 
itr€(a) le developpementde ses idees. 11 y faire (a) raiia^yst 
A ia lliade et a let oovrages de Platon ; et, dans r^toimement 
oii il est que ces deux g^nies etre (f) I'objet de r^adraira- 
tion A le public, il s'ecrie: " II faut que Dieu nefture {f)p«8 
' grand cas de la reputation de bel e«»pnt, puisqu'il permettre 
(a) que ces titres^^re (f) donnas i deux bommes comme Pla- 
ton et Homcre: a un pkilosophe qui a des visions si bisarref, 
•t ^ un po^te qui d^bite des choses si peo sensees.^' 

PerrauU /aire (c) plus encore: il vre^/re (c) au-dessus ' 
d'Hom^re uon-seuleraent nos premiers ecrivains, mais les 
. Scuderi, les Chapelain, et les Cassa^^ne. l\ juger {c) \e% 
po^roes d'Alaric, de la Pucelle, de Moise SHiive, des cfaefi^ 
d'oeuTre en comparaison des rapsocties a Uonii^re. EnCdre, 
si, dans re projetd'eleverjusqu'aux nu<*s ses centcinp^ratns, 
il avoir (b) eu Part de louer et a gagner les plus, iilasfcrcs^ 
peut-^lre e6t-il trouv« le public dispose k croire le: mais, 
•u d ne parler (c) point d'eux dans son Parall^le, ou il n*en 
dire (a) que des qboses qu'ils irouver (c) choquantes. Des- 
preaux s'y croire (c) personellement offense : llacine le itilf 
(c) egalement. Buileau prendre (c) sur lui de ne pas ^clater 
d'abord. . 

Cette indifference dans un hoinme dont on oMir (b)touw 
jours voir (i) la bile s'echautfer k la moindre atteinte qu'on 
pOKVoir (g) donner au bon gol^t et A*la i^ton, fpmner (b) 
•inguli^rement. Le savant prince de Gonti mre (c) on 
jour, qu'it aHer (e) a TAcadeinie Fran^eiie ecrire ' sitr lb 
place de Despruaux,^ Tu ders, Brutus. 

Le satirique se rtveilltr (c) enfin : il prendre (c)-riveiDent 
le parti a ks anciens, auxquels il etre (b) si i^evsble.* Sea 
veiexions sur Longin etre (a) toutesi lear a^antage. • C'^t 
- l^qu'il vouloir (a) montrer que le cultequ-on reitdre (a) d em 
Ji'est point on cuked'idol^tie.mais un cuUe raisonn^: i^Peji- 
c<kpiion de quelqacs legers defauts qu'il rfconftot^re(a)cneiix, 
il troupe U^ divins en totit, et croire (a) la nature epniseetsn 
leur faveur : il n'y a point de ridicules dont il- n*awir (§) 
couvert tous les Perrault. La i:4igiock%ft d^ CW'^^ %.'«i^i^ 
BatsJonssar Longin, quire qo?e\\« S^tt (^ %»^3a»V ^Vv3j«cw»x 
k son JMgemeni qu'elle en /aire (^Vy v««^ ^ ^*^^ ^^ ^'^vw' 
^/rc (b) fiictiQ par la poVitesse tV kmo^fei^v\o^\^^^^^ ^' 

284p entertaining AND 

• tarquc de son si^le Stre(c) souvent injaste. II nepardonner 
(b) pas a son adversaire de s'^tre moque de Tode sur la piise 
de Namur, el de la satire contre les feromes. Cependant 
qu'etoit-ce qu'une critique de quelques vers foibles, de 
quelques mauvais eipressions, de quelques be?ues reelles, 
et A quelques pensees^/ai(x, en comparaison de tant ▲ traits 
qu'il decocher (c) sur toute a famille de Perrault. 

Madame Dacier, etre (b) d'nne assiduite opinidtre au tra- 
vail, ne iortir (b) pas six fuis I'an de cbez elle, ou du moins 
de son quartier. Mais, upres avoir passe toute la matinee 
a Tetude, elie recevoir (b) le soir des visites de tout ce qu'il 
y avoir (b) de {(ens de lettres en France. 

Le Florus a?ec des notes Latines est d'elle. Sa Traduction 
de Terence a fait d elle beaucoup a honneur. La mani^ra 
abut elle apprendre (c) le Grec et a Latin est remarquablc : 
on ienir (a) cette aneccTece d'tfn^vieux officierde Saumur, 
qui avoit vivre (i) avec Tannegui Le Fi^vre. 

Ce savant Slever (b) lui-m^me un fils, ne desirer (b) rien 
tant que de voir le avancer dans Tetude des lani^ues, et 
grander (b) le beaucoup de;nc vouloir rien apprendre. La 
petite Le F^vre etoit temoin de. toutes les vivacites de son 
p^re. Un jour qu'il s*emporter (c) plus qu*;l I'ordinaire, 
elle prendre (c) en particulier son'frere« et lui ekposer (c) 
son tort. Le p^re etUendre{c) cette conversation; et, quand 
elle itre (c) finie, il appeler (c) sa fille, et lui demander if) 
si elle se sentir (b)du got\t pour Tetude: elle ripondre^c) 
qu*oui. Le p^re enchant^, lui mettre (c) entre les mains 

. des gramraaires, et elle y faire (c), en tr^peu de temps, 
des progr^ singuliers. Le jeune Le F^vre prendre (c) ex- 
emple; etlefr^re et la soeur, i Fenvi I'pn de I'autre, se 
trovcer (c) par la suite k la t^te des sa vans de F Europe. 

Quelques savans pritendre (a) qifk*il y a eu des romans 
chcz toutes A natrons et dans presque tous a sidles. En 
tffet oupowcoir (a) remonter jusqu'4 un certain disciple A 
Aristote, noram^ Dearque,l.equcl s*est excerce dans ce genre. 
On cite THistoire de Leucippe at de Clitophon* les Amours 
de Rbodanis et de Siupnid^, ceux de Daphnis et de Cloe, si 
c^lebres par la cbarmante traduction d'Amiot, et par des 
estaropesyatV sur lesdessins duduc jd'OrleiBins> regent. On 
cite encore ceux de Tb^ag^Ue et de Cbariclee, par Helio- 
dor^, eF^ue de Tricca, dans le qoatri^me siecle. Tous ces 
auvrages, et principaleroent lc>i detw\ew, jfoire V«l'\ ^X^vsvrv^'t 

la WBoiere dont les passions y itrt ^«L>Xmvt«&>^wX».^^tSftV% 


A /^f episodes bfibilemef^t lie i t'aetign principalc, par le na* 
turel et les af>r6n)ens a it style* 

Uevi^que Heliodore est 1© Fenelon Grcc. On bldmer (c) 
k beaticuup d'avoir truit^ un sujet pen coiivcnable a la di* 
^nite A son etat. Quelque leserve et (tuelqne politesse qu'il 
mmr {g) wi* dans son livre, la lecture en paroUre{c) si datn 
gerease poiif lee jc.ohes gens, qu'il ^ire (c) contraint, par an 
synode, ou de supprimer /f, ou a qaikerson 6v^Ghi. ilpri* 
^rer (c),dit-on, ce derniet* parti. , 

L'hist^ire des faits de Cbarletnagne et de Roland, faust«* 
ment attribti«e^ I'evt^quQ Turpifl, prouve encore que les rO«. 
mam lire (a) fort anciens* 

Le savant abbe Fleuil vouioir (a) qu*on n'ottUr (f) 
commence k connottre lei qu'au doazi^me siecle, et donnt, 
pour la source de tous, Thistoire des ducb a Normandi^ : ce 
qui rctrterser (a) le sentiment de ceux qui mettre (a) Hciia- 
dore k la t^te des pomanciers, et qui rfirf (a) que du maria|Jft ' 
de Theag^ne et de Chariclie ttre (a) n^ touji lei jromani, 
Italiens, Espagnols, Alleroands, Aitgloi^, et Francois. 

Dom Riviere, de la congregation de. Saint Maur, fixe 
kor orSgine au dixieme siMe. II dire{B) que le plus ancieU 
ietoxitStre (a) celui qtii p«re;{/r^ (c)au milieu de cesi^le, 
flous le titre de Pbilomla, ott la Bicn-flimda. Ge romam- 
toitf mr(a). les pretend us beaux exploits de Charlemagne de- 
cant Narbonne et Notre- Dame d^ la GraSse. On t»tr (a) 
encore & Toulouse an exemplairede la Philomela en langue 
ongiaale, c'est«i«>dire, romance ou polie, telle que parlcr 
(b) iu alors les gens bien clevis, etsurtout ceux qui mre (b) 
4 la cour. lis pr/ferer (b) la au L^tin, qui ctre (b) la langua . 
commune, et qu'on avoir (b) fort corrompue. 

A u milieu de tuutes ces contestations sur T^pnque a romans, 
ainsi ffppelles parce qu*ils (ire (b) ecrit^ en langue romance, 
on pouvoir (h) remarquer combieh les anciens diffher{m) 
de ceux de n'os jours. Les premiers romans (ire (b) un 
assemblage monstrueux d'histoires, molti^yavx, moiti^ v^« 
tables ; mais toutes sans vraisemblance; an compost d'aTen- 
ture s galantes. Et de toates fes idees extravagantes de fa 
'chevaleric. Les actions multipli^es a Finflni y paroUrc (a) 
sans on! re, sans raison, sans art. Ce (frc (a) ci's anciens 
et pitoyables romans que Cervantes, dans celui de Don 
Quichutte, a couxrir (i) d*un ridicule ^ternel. 

Mars le roman, informe alors, a ^t^ pori<^ depuis k la plus 
haute perS^cilon doflt \\ ilrt [^ &u%ce^\>:iV^. \J^i\Vi^^K%s. 


Henry IV, y a beaocoup coiitribu^: il effactr (c) ses deyan« 
ciers par son Astr^, roman en quatre volumes, Baro, son 
secretaire, y -en ajouler (c) un cinqui^me. Una narratiui) 
egalement vif et flearie, des fictions trts-ingenieuses, des 
caracteres aussi bien imagines que soutenus, et agreable* 
inent varies, ^ire (c) ie grand succ^s de cet ouvrag^, dans 
lequel Tauietir dicrire (a) ingenument sa propre bistoire et 
vnc partie des aventures a son temps. 

L*illustre Bassa, le grand Cyrus, la Cl^lie, donncr (c) 
Egalement beaucoup a celebrity 4 -leurs auteurs. On lir€, 
(e)encore ces trois romans, ainsi que I'Astree, s'ils n'etre (b) 
insupportables par leur st^le diffus et plus encore par leur 
fadeur. La Zaide de Madame de la Fayette et de Segrais, 
et la princesse de Cleves, onttoujours passe pour des cbefs*» 

Boileau regarder Hb) le genre romanesqiie com me un 
genre pcrnicieux de sa nature : il dire (b) que les romans 
Tit pQUVoir (b)s'allier avec le bon sens, les bonnes mo^urs, 
le bon go6ty et a progr^s des leltres; et il faire (c) tout 
ce qa'il put pour decrier les au milieu du dix-septi^me 
si^cle: c*itre (b>k temps oik ils itre (b) le plus en vogue. 
Oa ne voir (b) que productions, en ce genre, sans g^nie et 
sans, vraisemblance ; elles ne laisser (b) pas d'etre lues, et 
g^n^ralement admir^es. Gomberville, la Calprenbde, Des* 
marais, et Scuderi, avoir (b) le suffrage de presque toute la 
nation. Boileau, jeune alors, maisd*^un go^t fin, et d'uti 
ju^eroent forme, jcn/ir (c) allumer sa bile» Son dialogue, 
,.it la maniere de Lucien, ^ire (c) cesser Tillusion : ii se 
moque,'*dans ce dialogue, des bourgeois, et des bourgeoises 
de la rue Saint Honor6, peints sous le nom de Brutus, d'Ho- 
raliofs Codes, de Lucrece, de Clelie. II vouloir (a) qu'en 
punitioo de ca travestissement, on mene ces Ikq uins de bour- 
geois an bord d'un fleuve, pour y- jeter les tons la tSte la 
premiere a Temiroit le plus profopd, eux et leurs billetsdoux, 
leurs lettres galantes, leurs vers passionnes,et leurs nombreux 
volumes. Cenpendant com me Despr^aux avoir (b)juae sorte 
d'estimc pour Mademoiselle de Scuderi, il ne vouluir (c) pas 
faire iroprimerce dialogue, par respect pour elle; il se con* 
tenter (b) de lire le dans quelques societ6s ; mais I'ouvrage 
ctre (c) enfin donne au public, et tou^ les romauciers se 
riunir (c) centre I'auteurl 

La Calpren^de ctre (c) un de ceux qiii se croire (c) le 
plus offensSs: ii sepiquer Q>) d*&U* V\iotam^ c^viv cunUr ^\ 


le mienx : tmite sa reputation depmdrc (b) de Cleopatre, = 
de Cassandre, et de Pharamohd : il ne xoir (c) qu'avec d^- 
sespoir sa gloire attaiquee. La vanit^'^^re (b) extreme dans. 
cet ecrivain Gascon, (\\xifairjs (b) aussi des vers: apprenafit 
quelessiens avoir (b) 4t^ trouv^ 14chespar le cardinal de 
Richelieu, il sVcrier (c): ''Comment licbe ! Cadedis, il 
n'y. a rien de lache dans la maison de La Calpren^de." 
Quelqiie irrit6 que itre (g) ce roraancier contre Boileau, 
aussi-bien que tous ses confreres, il W avoir (cj qu'une c«» 
l^re impuissante. Tf»ute leur cabale r^unie ne pouxoir (c) 
tirer vengeance du saiirique: ils se borrtfr {c) k medire de 
lui dans toutes les societes dont ils ^tre (b) les oracles. 

Apres Despri6HUK, il faut mettre au rang des c^lebres 
conteropteurs des romans le savant ev(^que d!Avnincbes 
Huet. Son ouvrage sur leur ongine^aire (c) beaucoup a 
briiit, et sctxir (c) encore 4 decrediter les. II deplorer (c) 
le sort de la France d'etre inond^e de tant ▲ frivolit/'S, et 
li'oublier (c) rien pour faire tomber /e*. 
• Le p^re Por^e tlever (c) la voix contre les romans. II 
prononcer (c), en 1/36, une harangue dans laqnelle \\fou^ 
droi/er (c) les, A la. maniere dont il reprecente /«, il seroble 
qu'on etre (f) a la veille d*une revolution funeste dans la. 
litt^rature et dans a raoBurs. On croire (a) entendre Cic6- 
ron et Di^mostbene haranguant leur patrie en danger. Tout 
ce qu*on pouvoir (a) iraaginer de plus fort contre cette sorte 
douvrage, I'orateur dire (a) le avec son Eloquence et son 
esprit ordinaire: il parler (jd)^ tour ^ tour, en homme de 
lettres, A homme vertueux, a citoyen. 

Les tableaux qu'il trace des romanciers fameliques, des 
femfnes oqcupees jour et nuil k lire les, des petits enians 
echappes du sein de la nourrice, et tenant deyk dans leurs 
mains les Contes des Fees ; d'un gentilhomme campagnard 
assis surun vieux fauteuil, et lisant kses enfans les morceaux 
les plus merveilleux a la aitcieiine chevalerie, etre (a) d'lfne 
verite frappante, et I'ouvrage d'un grand maure. 

II croire (a) si bien les romans Tecueil a la vertu, qu'il 
s'ecrie : " Rendez-nous les chastes Bellerophons, les fa- 
rouches Hyppolites, qui ont ete insensible* aux soUicitations 
des Stenobees et des Phedres; en lisant PAstree et la prin. 
cesse de Cloves, ils devenir (d) amoureux." Declamation 
inutile: tout Pefftjt qu'elle prodtiire (c) etre (c) de faire 
changer de batterie aux romanciers. 
Ils sacrifier (c) la nature a VatX •• \\% c1iou\t \$>v>MaR.\»^- 


'taphysique (1e sentiment, et sn persiflai^ inconnu jusqu'a- 
lors. On obatudviMcr (c) W graodps aventures, \e$ projets 
faertiiqucs, les iDtrigues d^licatcment nouses, le jeu a /ts 
passion! noble«, leurs re ssort^, et leurs effets. On ne chmir- 
{c) plus les heros sur le tr6«ie, on iirer (c) l€$ m^cne dc la 
ik du pvuple. Le genre des Scnaderi, des Segrais, des ViU 
ledieu. y^ir« (c) place h celuidesLussan, des Marivaux^ des 
Crebillun. Le titre dc roio«n ^«(b)trop decrie poiiroser de- 
sormais en fai re usage: mais on y m6a^iMcr(c)celiii d'hiktoire, 
dc vie, de m^moir^, de contes, d'aVentures, d'anecdotes. 

Gil Bias est te meilleur roman qoe nous avoir (f): il vatit 
lui seol plusieurs traitt^ de morale. Quelle v6ritc! quels 
portraits des diil'erens etats a la vie ! On nepouvoir (a) re^^ 
Itiser des Inuanges k Don Quichotte, a ]' Argents de Barclay, 
qui est un tableau des vices et des revolutionii a les conrs, et 
^ quelqueP essais d^in gefire tout partibulier, tels que Zadig, 
Memnon, Babouc. L^ comte Hamilton a Jmrc (i) aussi 
des romans dans un go(it plaisant qui n'est pas le- burlesque 
de Scarron. II » Tart d*tnleresser dans le £bad le plus 
inince par le style le.pKis vif et le plus enjou^. 

Le maiciuis d'Argetis dire (a) que Dom Qaichotte e$t 
I'ouyrage qu'il ainttr (e) le uiieux avoir fait. Saiot Evre- 
mond avoir (b) die Iskm^m^ chose avant lui. II est certain 
qu'iin roman, compose sur le module de ceax qtre Vmi venir 
(«a) de citer, devoir (a) 6l-i3e.|0Qis au rang des excellens 
^critjs. Un bon roman m6rite d^>ccllfler un homme de lei* 
tres, conuae un poeme epique, uae tragedie, one com^die. 
La mediocrite m^ine en re gence u'est pas moins conrlan^- 
nable- que dans tous les auti'es. Cependant si les mijetirs 
Stre (a) attaquees dans un roman» Pauteur devenir (a) ta 
dernier de tous A eerivainsu 

Le grand reproche que Tonji faiti tm de nos romanciers, 
est de he devoir sa reputation qii'i Taaj9ai« au Sopha, et^ 
plusieurs autres ouvragesdans leiqiLels la licence est toujours 
preconisee. Maoon Lescaut est encore ua lirre de debauche. 
L*auteur deClevelaiid etdesMemoiresd'un Homme de Qua- 
lite ne devoir (a) pas se louer de ees productions. 'Sepmtvoir 
(a) on cofkter agr4ableiBent sana ^tpe I'oralQnr du^ vice ? 






A* eUnt oblige (fa Her k la campacrne ce matin, 
f rie M, B. de ^ne pa? se donner la peine de venir ajour- 
d*hui. M. A. seia bien aise dc Yoir M. B. apr^s-deraain a 
. cinq heures, 

' M. B. souhaite le bon jour a M. C. ComnJe il va diner 
. en vil1e, il ne pourra pas avoir le plaisir de le voir ajour- 
d'hui, et prie M. C. de venir demain a Thetire qui lui sera 
la plus convenable. 

M.C.aM. D. . , 
Je pars anjourd'h^ji pour Greenwich : la voitureest.41a 
pbrte : vous m'excuserez si je ne puis avoir le plaisir de vous 
voir comrae je m'en^tois flaite. Demain je serai au logis, 
je vous y attendrai. 

M.D.aM. E. 
Vous n'aviez pas besoin d'excuse. Vous'^tes trop . 
* ex^ct a remplir vos engagemens pour manquer de parole ; 
•t iTioi, je vous estime trop potir vous faire des reprocbcs* 
Adi*?u. Je vous parle du fond de nion coeur. •* 

M.E.aM. F. 

Je vous pri« de me renvoyer le livre aussitnt que vous 
I'atirez hi. Ma sqeur seroit bien aise de le lire aussi apr6« 
- vous. Vous (^te* trop poli pour ne pa^ faire toiite la dili- 
gence possible. 

. M. F.aM.G. ' 

Je vous renvoie le livrc que vous m'aveJ pr^te: je Pai 
111 avec beaucoup dc plaisir. Je ne doul^ ^^"Sk Q{a.^>\«a.^^* 
woisdlti voire 9€ei\r n'y en trouve-«L\xs.%\%'A«sXU>ftr^TftJ»'*»^* 



M.G. kM.H. 

Commp il fait'tr^-beau temps aujourd'huije vous attends 
•pr^s diner; nous irons voir M. A. et ensuite nous ferons 
wnc petite promenade au Pare jiisqu'au soir: n'oubliez pas 
de venir aussitot que^ous aurt'Z din^. 

M.H. kM.J. 

Vous n'avez pas besoin de m'altendre ce soir. Je suis 
engage pour toute la soiree. Le domestiqne, qui se charge 
de ce billet, vous fera, de ma part, un 'rapport exact des 
raison<: qui m'en emp^cbent; je suis persuade qu^ vous les 

M.J. ^M.K. 

Je vicns d'arriver de Chelsea; si vos occupations vous 
lais:$ent le loisiir de venir me trouver, je vous dirai des nou- 
velles qui vous feront plaisir Je serai loute- la journ^e au 
log's; ainsi choisissezvptre heure. 

M.K. ^^i.L. 

Je vous prie de roVxcuser de ce que j« n'ai pas ^te vous 
▼oir. Nousavonspu tant de coaipagnie qu'il ne m'n pasete 
possible de sortir :. vous savez que j'aime pouriant a vous 
voir. Demain je "serai libre, ct la premiere sortie qiie je 
ierai-stra pour vous parlet. 

ML. a MM. 

Comme on represente ce soir une nouvelle comedie, jc - 

- me propose d'y aller de bonne heure pour tr«mver unc 

place convenabie. On dit que M . Qarrick repi esmte le rdfc 

ile . .. . jugpz quelle foule de nionde il y aura. Si vnus 

avez le temps de m'accom pawner, je serai cbarme d'avoir 

'' votre compagnie. 

M. M. 4 M. N. 

11 y aura demain lin grand concours cle monde 4 . . . 
non frere, mon cousin, et moi, noiis y alluns 4.cheval; si 
9VUS voulez itre de la partie, faites-ie-raoi ^avoir, nous en 
mrons rous bieo aisvs, el iao\ ^%TVvc^\^T«\sk>i\^v. 

W. N. ^ M. O. ^ 


(.a compagnie s*assemblera a cinq l)«ures, ^e manquez 
pas de vous y trouver avec votre violon ; on se propose <<e 
biea rife: votre presence y contribuera, j!en suis sur, et voire 
esprit,, naturellement enjoue, trouvera I'occahion de prendre 

M>0.aM. P. 

au rendez 

soye^ pas siirpps de ce que je ne me Suis pas trouvi^ 
idfez-vous: j'avois un mal de t^^^affreux:.. ce n*est 
pourtant^as 1 etude q^ii roe I'a occasionne ; vous savpz que . 
Je suis nuturelleroent un peuparesseux; c'est mon foible^ « 
Denialn sans fauteje. suis k^ vous-. ' 

M.P. aM.Q, 

Avouez que vous ^tes tr^s-paresseux. Qqoi t deux joufS- 

. se passent sans vous voir^ et sans vecevoir 4^ vpa ncmvelles ! 

Vous iiegiigez vos amis, vous n*eD aves pas de roeiUeurs 

fue mei. Vene* rcp«r«r la looguetir de votre absence; jw 

vous attends ce soir. 

M. S. 4 M. T. 

Vous ^tes un vrai misanthrope. Depuishuit jours voiis 
nous'avez laisses sans aucune de vos nouvelles: est*ce 
i^'nsi -que Hbn traite ses atnis f Souvenez-vous que je suis 
le v6tre; mais j*ai tort de vous faire .des reproches d# 
votre silence; vous avea cent raisons prates pour vous 
^ excuser: venez le faire vous^m^me, et, d^le momeht que 
\|^ je volts v<^rrai, je vous dispenserai de qDatre-vingt-dix-neuf. ' 

^ M.V. aM.X. 

Je vous invite a venir prendre votre part d*une coople de . 
bouteilles de vin deDourgogne; nous aurons quelque autre 
pttile chose avec cela, \ Mon frere, qui vous estjme autant 
que nioi, vous en prie; vous nepuurrez pas vous refpser k-, 
uneinvitaiion ct k yne priere si sinci^re. Adieu. Ne man- 
quez pas de venir. 


\\ e£t difficile de se refuser aux soNicitations de ses aiais*^ 

Malgrc tons les pr^paratifs d'uu ^o^^^^ ^^ V ^^^^v^^'*^^v. 

Je me propose de vous aWer ^q\v. e% ^c\\^"C^^^^^^^ 

. Cc2 " ^ ^ 


equivoque, et il flatte )eb sentimens de mon coeur qui seront 
toujpurs inviolabies. Puisse notre amiiie durer aussi long- 
temps que jele sn^ihaiterois, elle seroit immortelle. £n 
s^riez-vous fache ? 

M*"% A, k M«'^. B. . " 
Je Yous invite, ma ch^re•amie,h, venir prendre le iLe 
avec moi; je seif.i seule, el j'espere que vous voudrez bien 
me faire le plaisir de venir me tenir compagnie* Adieu, 
Je le sbuhaite eacore plus que je ne Tespcre. ^ 

M^\ B. k M«"*. C, 
Je suls charmee d'apprendre que vous soy^z de retour 
ie la campague, j'aurai le plakir de vous voir quelquefois, 
Venez' aujourd'hui, tious nous amuserons k uhe partie de 
Whist : ma soeur et mon fr^re vou» inviteut aussi-bieo que 
noi. ■ ^ ■ 

En v^rit^ je ne sals que penser de votre long Bileace* 
Etefi yous mtfl^de? Je«fOQbaite le contratre, et^ si'vousvout* 
portez bien, ven^z voir une amie qui vous aime fttttant que 
vqus ^tes aimable, je vous attends; en consequence je ne 
sortirai pas ce soir. 

M«'^ E. a M•*^ F. . 
^ Souvenez^vous, ma cb^re amie,- de ce quevou^ m'avee 
pfTomis^ et ne manquee pa^ de venir k Theure indiquee. 
KoQS alions voir reprebenter une tragedie ce soir; on dit 
que j'y pleurerai, parce^ue le sujet en e&t fort tragique: 
par bonbeur, on repr^entera une farce qui essuiera mee 
iarmes et me fera rire._ 

M*"*. F. i M*"*; G. 
Je vous demande mii!^ pardons^ ii)a cb^re amie, de ce 
que je ne pourrai vous voir aujourd^hui. Je ne puis me dis- 
penser d'ailer k Kensington : demain sans faute je serai' au 
jbgis, et, si vous ne venex pas ipe voir le matin, j'irai vous 
trouvef le soir. ^ 

M*"\ G. ^ M*»MI. 
Je vous fais mon compliment sur le bonbeur qui vous 
eU arrive: perjs&nne nVn ^toit [)lus digne que vous, et per- ' 
Bonne ne vous estime plus que mo\. 3'ft&^^te j\iie vous ne^ 
MH'oubJierez pas, et que vous vowh »oMV\e«Ax«k Vi\\^>w% 4%. 
A«)/re amirie : eJIe 4oit <^re mtti\4Ta\)\^« 

APPENDIX. . 293 

* M*"*. J. h, ^^•"^ k. 

Ou vous ^tes malade, ou vous avez bien de I'indifie* 
rebce pour une personne qui vous aime. Quoi^ je vous 
invite a venir me voir, vous me ie promettes; je vous at* 
tends, etvous ue venes'pas. Quelle excuse trouvere^-yousf - 
Adieu. Je vous aime encore plus que je ne suis f<ichee contre 
vous. ' 

J'ai re^u avec le plus grand plaisir le bHlet qi;e tous 
m'avea envo} e. Falloit^il tant de raisons pour vous excuser f 
Une seule, ma ch^re aroip, auroit suffi: je n'ai jamais dotite 
de Yotre bon coeur et de votre sincerite. , * 

M^^ 0. a M'"^ P. 

Si ce soir vous avez le temps de venir prendre le the chea^ 
Qous, vous obligerez une amie: vous y trouverez une comr 
pagnie qui, pent 6tre, ne vous deplaira pas. Soyez per- 
si^ad^e que,' si vous ne venez pRs, vous m*af!ligere2^ Vou^ 
driez-vous me faire de la peineB. 

M*"«. P. 4 M*"*..Q. 

Je suis tr^s-f^hee de vous quitter, ma chore ^mie; de* • 
main nous partirons pour la compagne. Quelque plaisir qui 
m'y attende, IK ner ^era pas parfait loin de vous. Une qhose 
me consoU, c'est aue nous n'y res|erons qu.e trois mois* Qji^% 
ce temps^ m^ paroitra long! 

< • 

Enfin, nouB voild de retour, et j'en suis^bien aise:, j!acirai 
le plaisir da vous voir; q'est celui que je desire le plus; ce 
n>6t pas tant par rapport k vous que par rapport a moi;^ 
excuses mon amour-propfe, il ne recherche que lui-m&me,, 

M'"«. S. a M«"VT. 

Je suis invitee au bal ; et malgr^ toute ma passion paiiv^a.^ 
danse, je voudrois bien pouvoir me dispeDsor^de'parottre 
^dans une as^emblee si nombreuse. ' Je u'aime pas la cohue\ 
et si vpus Y.ene^ ce soir, je It^JUNewA ucv. ^xfeft-sx^ '^^'^ \!^ 
^hpensei'de sortir. Faitet pout iMi^ tEfflk cW\%^5s»^ "" 
file vous D9 fcriez peut-ftire pws v^WM ?io>Mb; . 

O c 5^ 

294 ^ APPENDIX. 


D^uneJilU dr sa mere. 

Ma trcs-chere m^re, 

J'ESPERE queyous trouverez que j'ai suivi, autant qu*ila 
eie en mon pouvoir, le plan d'educatidn qu^ vgusm'avez 
trac6. C'est particuli^rement aux soins contiuuels dc ma 
maitressequeje dois Ics progres que j'ai faits dcpuis queje 
iuis^datis son ccole. J*ai t^be de repondre a ses soins par 
inon assiduite a Vetiide, et par roon attention k remplir avec 
exactitude les differehte^ tdches qui m'etoient donnees. 
Puisse-je par ce moyen satisfaire aux obligations infinies que 
je V04JS dois pour Totre tendre sollicitude sur mon bonbeur 
f«tur| et ainsi meriter le nom de , 

Votre cbire fille, 


D'un^ls d son pere. 

Mon tres-cber pt^re, 

Jc suis parfaitement convaincu qo'eti suiTUnt exactement 
' ye% conseils pateiftd^, j'acquerrai les talents et les vertus - 
les plus propresi, remlre ma vie beut^use et honorable. 
Irlon premier devoir sera toujours celui de suivre vos pre- 
ceptes ; et de vous prouver par li Tobeissance et la gratitude • 
. ' it celui 4fli €|t avec luie affection fiiiale«t respectueuse, 

Votre fils^ 


jyunejeuneJiUe d sa mkre. 

Mt tr^*«h^re ro^re, 

* J* A J reqn voitt lettre, dafas laqnelle ^rmn me faites dea 
^ reproches sur ma n£g\igfii\t:e et m% ^«re8^; 'Vl*; ^-j 
y^^iUhte ni'a ft ft relire jp\uMfetiw io\% wv.te \fcV^^ t^> 

rpuspromets qtt'4 Patcnit tetie vo\ft Aonx^w^^^^^^^ 

_ . «. ^ ■ • • «• 


de me reprocber les defaut» dont vous m'accusez. J'ai 
pris une rcrpe resolution de suivre les conseils et les pre* 
ceptes de ma gouvernante; j'esp^re que la premiere 
fois que vous entendrezparler de moi^ vous serez satis* 
faite de ma docilit^ 4 vos remontrances, et que ma conduita 
future vous convaiucra que je^stiis ce que vous desirez que 

801 1. 

Votre tris-obeissante 

et soumise fille, 



D^unjih d son pbrc. 

Mon tres-cber pere, 

La regularity generalement observee dans les maisons 
«l'education, fait qu'on peut, apr^s une semaine, juger , 
de eel les qui suivront. Depuis huit jours qile je suis ^ 
Vecole dc Mr. A, tous les instans de la journ^c out et6 
utilement et agf^ableraent employes. Le maitre elMa 
maitresse sont les meilleures gens du monde, et sont aimes de 
touh les 6eo]iers, qui sont sensibles aux soins qu'on a pour 
t\\\\ lis en sont tres-reconnoissants. J'ai suivi jusqu'ici le 
plan d'economie que vous m'avez trac^, mais je prevoift 
que j'aurai quelques livres k acbeter: je connois voire ten* 
dresse et votre g6nerosite; et j'espere recevoir bient6(de 
vous un petit itiot de r^poiise ^ ma lettre. Je vous prie 
d'etre assure de la soumission et de I'affection de votre 
ils, ^ BC. 

LETTRE V. v^-* 

D'ftH^k ^ son pijrt. 

Mon trj^-cber p^re,^ . ' 

Lo%&Quji<y,oaa m'ayei ^meufH. Tecole, vous m'atek 
ordbnae de n§ vpqs, icmt .jjyi'en fV'ancois. J'ai mis p\fX* 
«ieiir& foil la plume ;&'jf iBi^^il* inais ni his expressions ni les 

je $u8$e parfailement le;¥ipaww, V^ lEfi^ V^V*:^?^ 


bons conseils, me ressouvenant bien de ce que vous m'aver 
dit a cet egard. Permettez done, s'il vous plait, mon tres*" 
cb6r p^re, ^ueje m'acquitte de il^on devoir; eViie consi- 
derez pas tant mon mauvais langage que le peu de temps 
qu'il y a que je suis h. I'ecole de Mr. B. je m'appliquerai 
avec atte.'Uion a i'etude de cette langue, afin de corresptdn- 
dre de pluser. plus p^r ce raoyen, et par celui de mes autres 
exercices, aux bonnes intentions vet, aux desstnns que vous 
avez pour moi, et a I'enti^re obeissance que je vous dois, 
etant avec un trec-profond respect, 

Mon. tr^s-cher- p(ire, 

YQtre, &c^ 


D^unfr^re d sa sctur. 

J'ai re^u, ma tr^s-ch^re soeur, voire lettre dateie da^ 
• •...• Je suis bien aise d'apprendre par voUs-m^me, que 
▼ous passez agr6ablement votre temps 4 la campagne. 
Comme nos vacances d*^te approchent, jVsp^re pai^ager 
bient6t avec vous les plaisijs dont vous jouissez. Dans 
quipze jours j'aurai la satisfaction de vous voir, de vous 
embrasser, et de vous assurer person nellement de la tend re 
et sincere amixie de votre fr^re^ 

J. a 


lyuitfrhe d sa sieur. 

J' AX re^u, ma ch^re soeur, la bourse que vousave?^ eu ki 
bont6 de faire pour ^oi et de m*envoyer. Tous ceujK 
4 qui je Tai montr^e pnt admire la beaute de votre ouvrage. 

dahs; car les gar9onft,kont''ib6t)fcnt des reraarques ,ma* 
lignes, aussi-bien que 1^ fillet - Sf^'au lieu de m'envoyer 
cette bourse directement de ^btre ^cble A celle o(i je s.ui8, 
vous PAviez cl'abbrd fait remc^lre ^ \tv^ ^b^ie m^fe^ en la 
priant^ iiegarnir le dedat^s avanX de i*i^ Vewio^«\,'v>ftjf^Vi:\ 
5«rwl)fipVUf< W plamr de Wit >ki witw \*fc\ ^^^^^ ^ 

APPENDIX, ^ 297 

vofifc fagon, et I'occasian de donner une preuve de sa get)e- 
rosite, 6t de sa prevoyante ; mais ce qui est differe n'est pas 
perdu. -Ell attendant, r^cevez mes sinceres reraercimensj 
et cro^e? ^la tres-sihccFe aOection de votre fr^re, . 



DVne demoiselle d sajeune saur^d Vecolp» 

Ma cb^re Nanci, ma tres-ch^re soeur, U y a huit jdOM 
f|uc je voii&ai ecril, et vous ne m'avez pas encore fait re- 
"Jjons'e. Je vous donnois cependant I'avis d'une soeur et 
d'une araie, en vous disant que ma cb^re miire et ma tante 
^toient tr^s-surprises et un peu m^contentes de votre ne- 
gligence k leur ecrife. N'alUguez point de frivoles excuses : 
avouez plut6ting^.nirment votre faute, demandez^n pardon^ 
•t 6vitez le desagreraent de rcc^evoir une lettre un pea 
ft^v^re df une mere tendre, mais dont I'afiectiou cependant 
ne Pemp^ehera pas de vous r&ppder const^mmeat i vo^ 
devoirs. Croyez moi avec la plus sincere amiu6| 

Votre soeur. 



JUponse d la prtcvderite, ; - 

Je suivrai votre conseily ma tres-cb^re soeur, etJoindf 
ebercher k m'excuser de ma negligence a eprire h ma 
ch^re m^e, je m'empTesse a vous avouer ma faiite; vous ' 
promettant qu^k Pav^nir je ne vous donnerai pas lieu da 
me faire 4es reproches 4 ce ^ujet. J'ai re^u v^re lettre ce 
matin; demain j'ecrirai 4 raa cb^re m^re. T^cbez dant 
cet interva)Ie d'attenuer ma faute, et de preparer mon 
pardon. Je vous-cbarge au nom de Pamitie fraternelle, de 
me faire rentrer en grice avec^na cb^re mere. Assurezr 
la que j'ai pris la ferme resolution de me^conformer-en* 
ti^rement 4 scs precieptes, etque j'esp^re me rendre biefi* 
t6t digne de partager egalement avec vous son affection et 
son estime: Adieu, croyez-moi votre soeur tendre^ recoa« 
uoissdnie et affectionnee, s v ^ 



D'unJiU a son pere» , 

Mon tr^s-cher p^r«. 

Vovs me demandez un compte fidMe de I'cmploi de 
mon temps. Je vais vons satisfaire sur cct objet, et vous 
verrez que je n'ai pas Ic loisir d'etre paresseux. %^os tra- 
ductions Latines et Fran^oiseb kont c6rrigees par les sous- 
maitresy nous les r^crivonK au net, et les etudions pendant 
un quart' d'heure ou une demi-heure, ensuite nous )«s 
repetons au maxtre, tfaduisant le Latin en Angiois tt 
rAnglois en Latin. Nous analysons les parties du discourse 
rapporlant chaqiie mot a sa classe et asa regie, 4 sa racing 
et a sa signification primitive et metaphorique. Nous 
repetons Une page des racines- Latinos et une page det 

# racines Grecques; la m^uem^thode rst suivie pour ]» 
Francois. Apr^s d6je{iner nous traduisons deux ^ages de^ 
Ciceron, et deux pft^M de Demosth^ne; le reste de I» 
matinee est employ^ ^ I'ecriturc, k V'ahthmetique et k la 
tenue des livres de compte. Apr^s midi lyous repeten».ua 
chapitre de la grammaire Angloise, fuisant la comparaison 
de cette paftie du disco^rs a.yec les r^Ies des Ungues. 
Latine et Frap^oise correspondantes au m^me chapitre. 
Kous traduisons deux pages de TSte-Live, .uue page de 
Demosth^ne, cent vers de Virgile ou d'Horace, et4 pages 
d'un livre Francois. Entre le th6 et lesouper, nous pr^acons 
lea lemons pour le lendemain. Notre maitre est trop eon- 
sciencieux pour vouloir nous dirober uh quart d'heure, une 
minute m^me, de not^e recreation : mais il exige que le temps 
de Tetude, soit rempli. Le motto qui est sur la porte de 
notre ^Vole'est Votens, Nolens f Doceberis et Disces. Apjbs 
cinq mois d'un travail dur 61 presque sans reiache, nous 

' avons besoin de cinq semaines de vacances au moins. Cela 
est raisonnable, ce)a est juste, cela eSt indispensable. Nos 
vacances eommenceront le 15 du present inois; j'esp^re 
avorr ce jour-la le plaisir de vous revoir, et de vous re- 
peter les assurances de ma docilit^ k vos volontes, et de 

^'affection respectueuse avcc laquelle je serw toujours. 

Votre, Sec. 

I N D E X. 

\ / 

N.Ii,Thz(\r$f^nikmhcr indicates the pagc,thc scCond,tbc third, sn<} other 
(when they occur] indicate the article or articles of the sai4 page* 

Af preposition, 197, i. | 212, i, 
— is used after some verbs, 1 60,4 | 

161, 8. I 162, 1.1) It. 
—is used after some adjectives, 69, , 


— has the signification of ar, td, 

wilh^Jor^ after ^ on, in, Sy, accori' 

tn^/o, 229, 3. 
A is the English indefinite article, 

or an adjective, 6* 
—when it signifies m^A, (vtry^ how 

itisrrndeiedinFrench, 22T, i8. 
jitout, when it is translated by vers, 

2ZI, 16. 
Adjectives used substajntivel'y ' take 

the definite article, 53, 6. 

■ their feminine terroina* 
tions, S. \ 

■ ag'^f c with theirsubstan* 
lives, 68, 2. 

How the adjective or farticiple past 
agrees with two preceding sub- 
stantives of different gendcr&,68« 

^<j(;>c//i'W of number; when before, 
when afc6r their subscancives,68, 

Whztadjectiifess recommdnlyplared 

before the substantives, 68* 6. 
What'd^Vcfrmaie placed after tht 

substantives 68, 7. 
Some adjectives govern the second 

case, 69, 8 
Some adjectives govern the third 

case, 69, 9. 
Ai^eciives signifying dimebsion, 

their construction an4 regimen, 

69*, 10. ' " 

Ad'verbs are put beFr>re adject iv«s 

and participles, 187. L. 
•——— are put after the verbs, 1^7, 


■ are put between the auxi- 
liary verbs, and ihc paiiiciplc^y 

. i88,s« 

A la reset ve de, »i2, 17. 
^/^r^i, preposition,i97,3. ) 212,6, 
yir«f/«, ih^ir declension, 6, 
Definite Article, when used, 52, 1,3, 
' —used soroetinies be- 

fore proper names, 5a, 4. | 5^, 

before the superla- 

tive, 52, 5. I 128,9. 

before adjectives 

used substantively, 53,6. 

-;--. bcfoie • nouns of 

measure, weight, &c. 53, 7, ? 
is kept in rhe first 

case after fou^ followed by a sub« 
stantive, 5;,7. 

put before adverbs 

or prepositions used subsun- 
tiveiy, S3, 8, 

plit in the second 

case after the verb jWr d^un i»« 
strumenf^topfay on an instrument g 
and in the third case after joutr 
a quelquejeUf to play at somgame^ 
53» 10. 

-^ put in the second 

cascafier^;Vff,taken for k^aucoup^ 

thou(;h beaucoup takes the indefi^ 

nite article, ^^<\\. -' ■■ , ., . 
iVio article is used after some verbs, . 

or prepositions, ^4, i^. 
No article is used after the pr«posii> 

tion #ff, but an article is always 

employed after dans, 54, i6« 
When no article is macf£ use of, 54, 

13, 14, I?, 16, 17. 
When the definite article is erapIo)«w 

cd before cardinal numbers* ' 

when not, 54,. 13. 
Indefinite article, or partitive ^artrcUt 

52,2. I 54* 18. 
When ttff, unc, Uan article, whep aa 
' adjective, ^^,ih. 
When the articUsdre rei^ettedv \«^ 

sod INDEX. 

Asy how render^ in French, 13^7, . Conjunctions which gQvcrn trhc sui^ 

2. |bx2,2I. junctivcy 1 ^^. " 

jiucunt 107, i» a» 3,4. Rcmartt* upon the Conjunctions 

yiu lieu de, 197, 7.. | iiii 14* • Jiand yw, 236, 7,2,3,4, ?• 

Aupthyprhy their regimen, their Conjunctions governing the iudica'^^ 

difference, 221, 12, ij^ 14, 15. tive, 237, 6. 

jia risque de, 212, 15* ——-«—— governing the 4ubjunc» 

Aussi, 127, 8,3. tivty 237, 7. I 15^, , 

Jtt^tfn/y 187, 3, $. I it8,6. . - 

Autre, 11, I 108,17. D 

Autruiy 108, 1 7 . /)tf»j is followed by the article, <|4j 

AvantdCtiitiS. ^ 16. | 220,2. 

Avantt followed by que, is a con* before a ndun of time, 220,3 . 

juncMon,and governfrtheiv^vnc- JDednns^ dihors, dessus^ dessout, used 

wf ; but followed by ^-p, it go- substantively, are pi eceded by 

verns the injinitivCf 2Si, il. the articles, 53^ 8 J 220, 6. 

.Avoir, its conjugation, 25. When they are adverbs, when prc- 

^-^r^iljiti i7i»49 5* 1 237t Id* • positions, 290, ;. 

AyaiU, 1 78, 8 . De,when used for tbe«rticle indefi- 
nite, du, de la, des f^onie)^^, 19. 

- B ' />e,</K)<^^i,^i,after verbs passive, 

Mioucoup Is followed by tliem^- 160, i* 

w/r tfr^c/c, 53. fi. '■^fMherwoirenvief permission, &€• ^ 

Before, when rendered by. rffciw/, , 161,7. 

when by avtint, 220, lo^ ^ *— » after some adjectives, 68, 8* [ 

^tVn is followed by the i^(^}/« 41/^ 161, 8« ' 

r;V.V, ^3, II. — ,after some veihs, i$i,.3. ^ 

JBoth, Vun et V autre, 12. — ^ after que, 162, 9, 

Sut, signify<ng<'n{^ how rendered, — , when generally used, 68, 8. | 

188,6. 160, i,3,7,,8,g, 10. I 212,2. j 

C ' 829, 2. 

Cardinal number, i%» — , used after the, indeterminate 

. « when it takes the pronouns, ouelqtCuu, personne^ 

^tic/^, when not, 54, 13. rien, quoi, before an adjective, 

Case, false case is to be avoided, 23^4 

162^ 14* —, its different significations, 230, 

Ce used for fV, 78, 14 4* 

Ce, cet, cette, cet, 10. | 91, i, s. | — , before a participle past, 230, 4. 

92, 7, 8. ■ D< crainte de, 212, 18. 

Ce, when, repeated, when not, 92, Demonstrative pronouns* ^ See Pro- 

. 7, 9* nouns. 

Cestvouf, i^p6, X)0n/, 98,9. 
. Ceci, ceia, their use, 98, 10, 

Ce/tti ytit, c^ix fut, 92, 4, 6. E - 

Ce qut, ce que, 92, 7. JS'mute is son^etimes acc^ted far 

Chaque, chaeun, '07,6. the sake lof the pronunciation^ 

Cfte», preposition, 197, 14. - 76,6. 

II when preceded by the prepo* ' Each, 107, 6. > 

sit ion ir, 220, 4, , when rendered hy par, 221, 

Cprnparufm, degrees of, 18, ) I27>. . i8. 

!,%• ' Either, t'un Ott PaK(r<, 12. 

{Umfiaraiive oi bw^ nuti^ mawais^ £», v^otiouti»\u«v^tttSv«Nk»^%«\ 



£«, pronoun, its place in the.con- 
struction,77,i2, 13. | 122,1,2* 
Sn, preposition, 2Q2, 28. 
•— is not fol^wed by any article^ 

$4, 16. I 220, I. 

Wi- is put before the participle pre- 
sent, 178,2 I 212,7. 

£n and dans before nouni of time, 
220, 3. 

Fnvers, preposition, 202| 33. | 


Etantf 178, 2. . 

Etre^ conjugation of, 26* 

Eux, 78, 18, I 79> 2«- 1 '24> 3* 
Even^ sometimes rendered in 

French by jusq.u*af 220^ S. 
Everji when rendered by par^ 22 r» 

Except/, I97i34» 
— »— » de, 2tft, 8^ 

Faute dti 2T2| ig. 

Ftmiaine of adjectives, their for- 
mation, 8* 

for one*s sakt, how rendered in 
Ffcnch, ^6, 2. 

frbnif when rendered by dc, a or 

eUy 211, 17* X 


Gerund, 178, 2. I 212,7; 


Ik who, he that, how rendered in 

French, 92, 4, 5. 
Hormis, 197 » 36, 

I de, 212, IT. 
Hors de, 197, 38^. [ 2i», 10. 

I. ' '. • 

//used for it, 78, 14. 
When i7, ils, die, flics, or c^, arc 

indiiferentiy used, 78, 15, 
II en est de, 172, 10. 
HJdut, vcrbimpersoffai, 172, 7. 
•——— requires the following verb 
in the subjunctive, 172, 9. 

signifying one'i xiwU, 172, 


Impenonal verbif 17 1, 


7rj vhen' rendered b^ Af, 123, i«- • 
// ix with, how rendered in French, 
172, 10. 


Je ne jais quo'i, 1 10, 27. 

jfouer, by wt^t preposition it is foit- 

lowed, 54, 10. 
Jutqu'el, I97»39« I 212,20. | 22©, 

Jmqu^ft ce que, eonjunc. governs 
the subjunctive^ 2ao, 7. 

Lit, when' used, 91, 2. ' 
he, la, les, articles, 6« | 52, i, 3* 
pronouns, 9« | 78, 13. | 

123,1. I 124, 2,3,4, 5' 
I'ftpronoun, when declinable, 124, 

4; When not declinable, 124, -5. 
Lequel, laquetie, 98, 5. | 105, ,3. 
Ltf/,77, 12. I 78,13,18. I 79iJ9» 

ar, 22. 
L*un rJuire, one another, 12. | 

108, 17. 
L*un et I' autre, both, 12- | 108, 17. 
V tun on I* autre, either, is« 
Ai /'«» ni I* autre, i%* | 108, 17. 

Mime, no, 26. 
Afi»c, 87, 8. 
Moirn, followed by^^u^, que, 

127,3 I 128,6. , 
— — , followed by de, 128, 5, 7. 

Names, all common names take 

the articles, 52, 3. 
1^ — proper, take sometimes the 

aiticles, 53, 9. | 54, 14. 
Ne. . .pas, ne. . .point, ne. . .jamais, 

ne .. . personnel ^ how they are 

separated, 188,4. 
— , how separated from pas or 

povit, i88, 5'. 
— , when used without the second 

negative, i88, 6. 
Ne. . .que, foi bat. only, except, no* 

thing but, i%i, 6. | 237, 10. 
Neither, ni I'un mVautre, 12. .• 
Nothiner hut, how rcodtred la 


. V 


I N K X. 

NsMnSf tvf9 fltons substantive m .PriSfauprhfthtirdiikrcnceyitif 
English, joined together|t when I2|i3, X4t 15. 
they ought to be rendered in — — ^tf, 197,43. | 212, 13. | 221, 
French by i 229, i ; when they 12, 13, 14, 15. 
ought to be rendered in French P ropernames ukc no ^rficU ,^8 ^ 14* 
by dCf 229, %m 
Ifu/, 107,1, 3,4, 5. 
Kyihbefi^ cardioftl, 13. 
' I -, ordinal,' 15. 

-*— — , multiplicatiyc, 17, 
— -, cpileciive, 17, 
•— -, distributive, 17, 
— , adverbial, 18, 

■■ which take the arti- 
cles, 57, n. I 54, 14. 

Pronouns^ their declension, 9, ( 
10. I II. I 12. 

le^Iui, y, en, order in the 
construction of, i2- 

Personal pronouns givernifig are put 
before the verbs, 76, i. 

■ put alter the verb inf 

an interrogative audinsomeother 
instances, 76, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8. 

* ■ ' ■ ■ -are put aftci the 

verbuscd interrogatively ,though 
the governing substantive is ex- 
pressed before the verb, 77. 9. 
colieefivef how em- 
ployed, 77, 10. 

governed f and the 

Numeral (Unomintit'wis^ i8* 

When the cardinal number takes 
the article, 54, 13 . 

When the »rdin*U number is put be- 
fore, and when after, the sub- 
•umiv.e, 68, '5* 


Cff the sign of the second case, 
aometimes suppressed in En- 
glish, but must be expressed in 
French, 67, i. 

Ont pronoun, no, 28. | 171. 6. 

0ne anofbiff l*unl*autre, declension 

of, I2j _ 

Onlyt nothing but, how rendered ilk 

French, 188, 6. | 237. 10. 
0ut for in vbicbi in wbaty &c. 



Par, piepositioo, 197,46 | 212,4. 
Participle present i& iudccjinable, 

178* I, a. , 

Those />tfrric/f/ffj which are become When the personal pronouns /«i, 

adjective* a. t declinable, 178.3. eux,elie,eiles, ire used atthc end 

Pa'^tlctpk passive, when declined, of a sentence, and when not, 

jSi, 1,2. I 1^2,4 7«, 18. I 79, 19, 21. 
r when not dc- J/, elle, iht *^«. at the beginning 

supplying pronouns /#, la,leSflui^ 
leur, y, en, are put before the 
verb by. which they are govern- 
ed, 77, n,' 12. 

Order of these prtnouns in their 
construction, 9. | 78, I3.^ 

When the personal pronoun, i7,r//(r, 
lis, elles, or the demonstrative 
pronoun ce, are indiffeiently 
used, 78, 15. 

Personal pronouns, governed by a 
verb, when they are to be re- 
peated, 78, 16. 

When they are notrepeated,78,i7. 

, clinfd, 182, 3. ' 
Pas un, 107, I. 
Pius. vi'Ans, tcJlovWd hyf!te,OTque 

r.e, 127,3 I t28> 6' 
. tollowctt bv dci 127, 5, 7- 

Flu ral of mum, their formation, 7 . 
JP/usieurSf \o6, i6. 
Tpeur, p>cp lijy, 52. I »I»' 3* 
Pr£pcsifions,j^. | 212. | 22c. 

t^ , wrhich arc comcnonly 

rtpdatcd ia Frbachp 222, 2>X)^3> 

of a sentence, arr used in speak- 
ing ot inanimate things, 7^, 20. 
Luii elle, et sol, their different use, 

79, 22. 
TUupSssesiive pronoun in English 

is sometimes rendered by a/^^r- 

sona^ promun m Fiench, 87, 10. 
ThefOsS(ssi: eproraunhsomcutacs 

omvutd \u Fi ench, 93» T i . 



^Arc repeated, 87, 5. 

The raasculine mo/tt torif son^ when 

ased instead oima^ ta^sa, S6, i. 
When his, itSt their, are rendered 

by son, sa^ jfj, or by en, 87» 7» 
' Demons truti'oe p'^onouns, 10. \ 91. 
■Relative pronouns, lO* | 97} ' 
Interrogative pronouns, 1 1 , 
Indefinite pronouns^ II. j 107. 


^jf^, relative pronoun, 10. | il* | 

97> i» 4- 

■ used instead of de quiy a qui, 

' 99> "♦ 

— as interrogative, is applied 

to things only, i05> i. 
- . - signifying of/bom, •which, that, 
is never suppre&sed in French, 
Slutl, quelle, lequel, 105, 4, 5* ' 
. Sluelque, 1 09 > 18, 19* zo. 
' Sluelqu'un, 109, 2 1« | iio, 22. 
.' S^i, relative pionoun, 10.. j 97, 1, 

y .— ,as interrogative, isapphed to 
pel sons only, 105,'!. 
S^i que C0 soit, IIO, 24, 25. 
^ttf, conjunction, after i^j tf » 1 7 1» 

— — instead of repeating si, 136, 5, 

■ ■■ used instead of repeatiug the 
conj unction of which que makes 
a pa It, governs the mood oi the 
conjunction which it supplies, 

236* S' 
«>*-.-afier a comparative, 23 7, 9. I 

— — ior depuis que, after ily a, 23 7, 


de, x6i, 9. 

^—M, . . ". que, signifying hut,onlj, 

except, i88, 6- | i37» 10. 


Relative pronouns, lo* ( 97. 
Repetition oi the article, 55. 2i. 
——of the personal pruuonns, 
78, 16, 17. 

of the possessive pro- 

Repetition of tfie verb, 137, 8. 

of the prepositions^ 222^ 

ai, *3» 
Rien^ 108, 14, 1$. ' 
Sans, preposition, 197, 56. | 212^ 

5. I 22r,20, 

54«/, 197, 57. 

——when it requires the first casc^ 
when the third, 220, 9. 

i?, 210, 21. 

Sake, how rendered in French, 86, 


Si, used as an adverb comparative, 

127,4, • 
— conj. remarks upon, 236, i, «y 

3.4 5- 
5", when rendered by le, 123, i. 

Suhjunctive» after a superlative, 

128, 10. I 154,8. 

' after qui, que, preced* 

ed by craindre,douttr,Scc.iShT^ 

7— -rafter que, preceded by. 

some impersoral verbs, 153,2,34 
when used after ^i or 

ne, 153,4. 

when the indicative if. 
to be preferred, 153,5,6, 
-^i..^ after a subjunctive, 

i54» 7« 

— after quoique, que/que, 

quel qve ; after que used tor si or 
de cc que ; after the relative qui 
between two verbs ; used some- 
times after J/, 1,4,5. 

after some eonjunc* 

nouns, 87, 5, 

■ oi tht demonstrulve 

proaouns, ^8, 7, 

tions, 155, 

afier i/Jaut, 172, 9, 

Superlative, 128, 8, 9, 11. 

— - ^- requires the following 

verb in the subjunctive, 128, 10. 

I *S4'8- 
, ■ ,1 — .of^QH, iwtf/, mauvais, 19* 

Supplying pronouns, -ji,!^ \ J 23,1. 

A-/, between two hyphens, when 

used, 77, 7. 
Tanr, adverb comparative, 127,4, 

lenies^ use of thc^ \^«fc, 
TirMtnation plvVie ^Vw^u^tvoxwca^*! , 



Termination of the six conjuga- 
' tions, 24. 
Thatt profiounor conj. sometimes 

sappreMed in English, butought 

to be al ways cxpresscdin French, 

TouU 53» 7.1 108,9, 10, II, 13, 

T'o, when rendered by a or en ; 

when by j usque ^ 221, 17. 
7b, towards, when rendeicd by«;i* 

verSy 221) 16. 

Uir^ vn^, 8* See /'«». 

^*r^j, observations on, 23, | 28. 
Termination of the regular verbs, 

24, 29. 
Termination of the incgular veibs, 

4i.|42. |41- 

Agreement of the verb with its an- 
tecedent, 136, I, 2, >. I 137, 7. 

Exception to the general preced- 
ing rule, 1^6, 2. 

When collective nouns require the 
verb in the plural, when not, 

When the verb 1$ repeated m 

French, when not, 137, 8. 
Use of ihc tenses of the verbs, 142. 
Government of the verbs; the verb 

active governs the first case, 1 60, 

The verb passivegoverns thesecond 

case, 160, 2. I 161, 8, 9, 10, 13. 
^^r£)i Followed by ihr prepositi6a 

-/tf, 160,3. j 161,8, 9,.io, 13. 

FerBs foUowcd by the prcpositi** 
fl, j6o, 4. \ 161,9, II, 12. 

followed by psuKj 160, 5. I 

162, 13. , 

followed by fl or £/^^ i6r, 6. 

which have no prepositions 

after them, 162, 15. 

-: — -impersonal, 171, 

reflcacd, their conjugation, 

23 » 2- 
y^ers, prep. 197, 62. | 221, 16. 

Fis-a-viSf aPopposite^ their govcin- 

tnent, and their ditlcrtace, 22 r* 



ffbatever^ zobatsoever, how ren- 
dered in French, no, 23. 

In which in what, &c. svraetimes 
rendered by 6«, 98, 6. 

Whom^ which, tbatt sometimes 
suppressed in English, but al- 

- ways expressed in French, 98,4, 

Whole, 98. 2'. 

— — when rendered by d qui^ 
105, 6. 

Whoever f qui que ce tolt, 1 10, 24, 

Without^ before a participle active^ 
how rendered in Frencb,22i ,20.. 

Words . suppressed sometimes in 
English, but w hich ought al way ft 
to be expreised in French, 88,. 
9. I 98) 4. I 237, 8. Sec Repe» 


y^ supplying pronoun oradverb,its 
order in the cnnstructioo, 12. { 
77, 12, 13. I 123, 1,2. 


Jt*nnt6(t(fy UiDMR and FTsED) LUU& Ui'tta\is 1^^^^^« 

■ », ■'