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Full text of "Entomologica Americana"

V? 





Q 



L 




Americana 



PUBLISHED BY THE 




AT BROOKLYN, N. Y. 



VOL. I. 



APRIL 1885 to MARCH 1886. 



< — >»> 






EDITOR: 

JOHN" B. SMITH, 

NATIONAL MUSEUM, 
WASHINGTON, D. C. 




Americana 



VOL. I. 



BROOKLYN, APRIL, 1885. 



NO. 1, 



ANNOUNCEMENT. 



Experience has shown that the Entomologists of the United States 
have not been disposed to give that support, which would insure financial 
success to the various entomological journals that have been published, 
and the feeling among many, of late years, has been that in union there 
would be strength. At the meeting of the Entomological Club of the 
A. A. A. S. , in September 1884, the desirability of a union of existing 
journals was unanimously conceded. 

Negotiations between the representatives of the "Bulletin of the 
Brooklyn Entomological Society", and "Papilio'', led to an arrangement 
by which these Journals were discontinued, and all intention of reviving 
them abandoned. In their stead, a new Journal — of which this is the 
first number — was created. 

The new Journal will be devoted to Entomology in general, and 
the support of leading specialists in all orders has been promised. The 
effort will be to make it interesting and instructive to all persons in any 
way interested in entomology. 

For many reasons the issuing of such a Journal as an individual 
enterprise was deemed undesirable, and the representatives of "Papilio" 
therefore became life members of the Brooklyn Entomological Society, 
which has been duly incorporated. Provision has been made for 
a permanent publication fund which, it is hoped, will place the new 
Journal on a sound financial basis. 



The publication committee consists of the Editor and Messrs. B. 
Neumoegen, H. Edwards, E. L. Graef and F. Tepper; and the two 
journals are therefore represented in the management. 

The Journal will be edited by Mr. J. B. Smith, who has heretofore- 
had charge of die Bulletin, and we are glad to announce that Prof. C. 
V.Riley, U. S. Entomologist, who has also become a life member of 
die Society, has promised his assistance in making the Journal a success. 

The proceedings of the Brooklyn Entomological Society, and of the 
Entomological Society of Washington, will be regularly published, and 
any other Entomological Society that will send us an abstract of its 
proceedings will receive like consideration. 

We ask therefore that all interested in the advance of American 
Entomology give us their substantial and hearty aid in our new enter- 
prise. The Publication Committke. 



Visit to an old time Entomologist. 

By Dr. John G. Morris. 

One evening, some years ago, while sipping tea with the family of 
a friend in his garden in an interior Ohio village, I hastily and uncere- 
moniously sprung up from my chair, much to the astonishment of my 
friends, and captured a beetle that was lazily flying by Well, I spilled 
my tea and dropped my flannel cake and tongue, (not my own, it was 
delicious beef tongue) but in the scramble, I secured the insect. 

"You should visit Baron Jemson, before you leave Ohio", exclaimed 
the lady of the house, "he also catches bugs and is a queer specimen of 
a big-bug himself, and yet not a hum-bug either." 

"Baron Jenison!'' 1 replied, "I would go a hundred miles out of my 
way to see him, for I have heard of him as a man worth visiting.'' 

Having received directions, behold me early next morning cm my 
way to visit a foreign titled entomologist who had settled down in Central 
Ohio. I had never corresponded with him, but I had heard of him. I 
knew that he was closely allied to one of the proudest families of the 
English nobility, but he himself was a German by birth. Eor some years 
he had held a distinguished rank in the army of a German prince. He 
had enjoyed all the advantages of a German university education. He was 
.1 gentleman of refined manners and ornamental accomplishments, — he 
excelled in music and as a draughtsman he hail few equals. His leisure 



hours were devoted to Entomology and his ardor became so intense, 
that, having procured a furlough from military duty, he went to Africa on 
a collecting tour and visited most of the museums and large private col- 
lections of Europe. 

An unhappy disagreement with some of his family led him to leave 
his native country and settle in the United States. He abandoned for- 
tune and all prospects of preferment and came over with his wife as a 
poor man. He laid aside all his titular and aristocratic honors and was 
known among his neighbors as plain Mr. Jenison. 

This was the gentleman whom I was going to visit. I was quite a 
young man and wanted to see and learn. I had never seen a live noble- 
man. Since that time, I have seen many with more names than dollars, 
and more titles than shirts. 

On arriving at the village where the baron lived, I did not at once 
go to his house. I was covered with Ohio dust and I went to a hotel 
and spent more time in making my toilet than I had done for months. 
I thought my appearance should correspond to the occasion. The boot 
black said that if he rubbed another hour at my boots, they would be as 
thin as paper, and the chambermaid impudently asked me "whether I 
intended to wash my own shirt?". "Is soap scarce here?" I rejoined. 
'No Sir, but it will be if you stay here long'' was the little minx's an- 
swer, as she bolted like lightning out of the room, just in time to escape 
a blow from my slippers which I hurled at her head. 

After smoothing down every hair and adjusting my cravat very 
neatly, much to its astonishment, I ordered a coach and two. There was no 
such vehicle in the village. I was told that I must walk. Walk! to a 
nobleman's mansion? That was vulgar but I had to do it. 

I went. The house was pointed out. It was not a palace, not even 
a splendid mansion; it was an ordinary house, very ordinary indeed. It 
was located on the muddy tow path of a canal; it was constructed of un- 
painted boards; pigs, fowls and dogs were enjoying themselves around 
unmolested. I thought my guide had made a mistake. My fancy had 
portrayed something different: I had thought of columned porticoes, 
massive gateways, a porter's lodge and liveried servants. My courage 
began to rise, for verdant as I was, I was intimidated at the idea of en- 
countering a learned nobleman in his stately mansion, but if his resi- 
dence is so unpretending, thought I, his manners must correspond. I 
knocked. A plain, farmer-like man in shirt sleeves, stubby red beard, 
coarse straw hat, shoes innocent of the stain of blacking and vest and 
pants that had seen long and severe service, appeared. 



— 4— 

I inquired in English: "Is Mr. Jenison at home?" 

"Yes Sir, walk in ' was the reply in strong German accent. 

"■Please deliver this card", said I. 

"lam Mr, Jenison, at your service, Sir!" he replied, straightening 
himself up with an air of dignity and polished refinement that bespoke 
the cultivated gentleman under this every day guise. 

I was amazed and relieved. This then was the entomologist, Baron 
Jenison. I told him my errand in his native language and I was most cor- 
dially, almost enthusiastically received. There was the genuine German 
gush in his manner and in less than ten minutes, though he was twenty 
years older than I, we were on most familiar terms. We began at once 
and although it was before noon, I will not say how late it was at night. 
or lather how early next morning, before we parted. 

It was indeed a glorious day. He of course, showed me all his 
collections in almost every department of Zoology, and presented me- 
ss ith some of his unequalled entomological drawings. He treated me 
most hospitably and regaled me with everything his own larder and a 
neighboring caterer could furnish. He displayed extensive reading and 
personal observation on various branches of Natural History and 
entertained me most instructively from his exhaustless stores of informa- 
tion. I humbly sat at the feet of this Gamaliel of science and hung upon 
his rich discourse with rapture. I started questions and suggested diffi- 
culties just to draw him out and he spoke like a book. He had met 
with no one for months who could speak with him on his favorite sub- 
ject and he seemed greatly delighted. You may imagine what an excit- 
ing day I spent. The Baron was personally acquainted with many of 
the most distinguished naturalists of Europe and related many interest- 
ing anecdotes concerning them. He made me tell all I knew about our 
American entomologists of that day, when the brotherhood was yet small. 

Long shall the events of that day be remembered by me. It was an 
intellectual feast rarely enjoyed. The final adieu long after midnight 
was impressive. I tore myself away bearing many specimens of the 
generous Baron's duplicate beetles and the profoundest respect for a truly 
accomplished gentleman and naturalist. 
Baltimore, Febry. 1885. 



Synonymical Notes. 
By George H. Horn, M. D. 

There have remained for a long time in our lists species described 
by Edward Newman which have for various reasons escaped identifica- 
tion. Several of these are Cerambycidae which immediately obtruded 
themselves during a recent re-arrangement of my cabinet. Having satis- 
factorily determined those not previously settled it appeared to me proper 
to bring together in one list all of Newman's Cerambycidas. These have 
been described either in the "Entomologist" bearing date 1840-2, or in 
the "Entomological Magazine" Vol. V, bearing date 1838, In the annex- 
ed list I have arranged the genera alphabetically, for easy reference, and 
opposite each of Newman's names the equivalent as now recognized. 
Those names opposite which no other occurs are still used. 

In addition to the Cerambycidaa, Newman has described a large 
number of species in other groups: these are also brought together and 
similarly treated. 

In conclusion will be found a number of notes referred to from the 
list by numbers in parenthesis. 

By the method of treatment here adopted, priority is established, and 
the excuse of "long continued use" can not prevail in rejecting an old 
name for a new one. 

CERAMBYCIDAE DESCRIBED BY EDW. NEWMAN, WITH THEIR SYXONOMY. 

CaUidium a:reum Ent. Mag. V. 393. 

" antennatum ed. 

" cylindrides ed. 394 -= Smodicum cucujiforme Say. 

Chion rusticus Ent. 23 = Cliion cinctus Drury. 
Clytus humeralis Ent. Mag. V, 394 = Neoclytus scutellaris Oliv. 
Curius dentatus Ent. 17. 

" scambus Ent. 79 = Plectromerus dentipes Oliv. 
Encyclops pallipes Ent. Mag. 392 = Encyclops ccerulea Say. 
Klaphidion deflendum Ent. 6 == Stenosphenus notatus Oliv. 

" sobrium Ent. 30 = " sobrius (1) 

mucronatum Ent. 27 = Elaphidion mucronatum Fabr. 

" incertum Ent. 28. 

" parallelum Ent. 29. 

" arctum Ent. 29 = E. parallelum Newin. 

" inerme Ent. 29. 

" pumilum Ent. 29. 

Olaphyra semiusta Ent. 19 = Molorchus bimaculatus Say (2). 
1 fcterachthes ebenus Ent. 9. 



—6— 

I cpima badia I'm. 69 = Typocerus badius Newm. 

iH'lu'lis Km. 69 = " veljjtinus Oliv. 

sinuata Km. 70 = " sinuatus Newm. 

aurigera I'm. 70 = " zebra t as Fab. 

bifaris Km. 70. 

mulabilis Ent. 71. 

capitata Ent. 71. 

directa Ent. 71 = Acmseops directa Nm. 

indirecta Ent. 71 = Leptura lineola Say. 

interrupta Ent. 72 = " subhamata Kami. 

stictica Kni. 72 = " octonatata Say. 

vibex Km. 72 (3). 

allecta Ent. 72 = Keplura sphsericollis Say (4j. 

paupercula Ent. 72 = " " 

exigua Km. 73 (5). 

haematites Ent. 73. 

nana Ent. 73 = Leptura exigua Nm. 
Melhia pusilla Km. 18. 
Obrium rubrum Km. Mag. V, 395. 
( teme indecora Ent. 8 = Oeme rigida Say. 
Pachyta [one Ent. 30 = Gauroles cyanipennis Saw 
Phyton limum I'm. 18 = Phyton pallidum Say. 
Saperda cretata Ent. Mag. V, 396. 

" cana Ent. 12 = Stenostola pergrata Say. 

flammata Ent. 13 = Amphionycha flammata \m 
Spalacopsis stolata Km. 305 (g). 

" suffusa Ent. 305. 

Slrangalia famelica Ent. 68. 

" emaciata Ent. 68 = Strangalia acuminata ( >li\ 

" strigosa Enl. 69. 

Toxotus dives Ent. 68 = Toxotus cylindricollis Say. 

rugipennis Zoologist Vol. 2, p, 476 (14). 

The following other than Cerambycicku are described in the- Knt< 
mologist. 

Kebia russata i>. 31 = Pinacodera platicollis Say. 
Plochionus amandus p. 32. 
Hi-pa Bacchus p. 76 = Odontota bicolor Oliv. 
i' Ariadne p. 77 = Charistena Ariadne Nnv. 
" Erebus p. 77 = Microrhopala Erebus Nm. 
" Pluto p. 77 = " excavata Oliv. 

" Hecate p. 77 = " cyanea Say. 

Cryptocephalus binominis p. 78 (7). 
qiiadriforis p. 78 (8). 
quadruplex p. 78. 
" lateritius p. 78. 

trsus p. 79 (8). 



Species described in Entomological Magazine, Vol. V, 1838. 

Trichius bistriga p. 170 = Trichius affinis Gory, 
l'enthe funerea p. 374 = Penthe pimelia Fab. 
Pogonocerus concolor p. 375 = Dendroides concolor Nin. 
" bicolor p. 375 = Dendroides canadensis Latr. 

Eedilus fulvipes p. 375 = Corphyra fulvipes Nm. 
" rufithorax p. 375 = "' collaris Say. 
" imus p. 375 = " lugubris Say. 

" guttula p. 375 = " terminalis Say. 

" lugubris p. 375 = " Newmani Lee. 

Myodes slylopides p. 376 = Myodites stylopides Nm. 
Emmesa connectens p. 376. 
Hypulus simulator p. 376. 
Cephaloon lepturides p. 377. 

Macratria linearis p. 377 = Macratria murina Fab. 
Ischnomera carmata p. 378 = Asclera ruficollis Say. 
Synchroa punctata p. 378. 
Bolitophagus silphides p. 378 = Nosodes scabra Thunb. 

" telraopes p. 378 = Boletophagus depressus Rand, 

liydnocera serrata p. 380 = Hydnocera pallipennis Say. 
Opilus castaneus p. 380 = Priocera castanea Nm. 
Degrapha typica p. 380 = Calopteron reticulatum Fab. 
" discrepans p. 381 = " " 

•' dorsalis p. 381 = " terminale Say. 

divisa p. 381 = " " 

Csenia scapularis p. 381 = Csenia dimidiata Fab. 
Eros praefectus p. 382 = Eros thoracicus Rand. 
•• lictor p. 382. 

" alatus p. 382 = Plateros canaliculars Say . 
" oblitus p. 382 = Eros sculptilis Say. 
Polaclasis ovata, p. 383 = Polyclasis bifaria Say. 
Rlupicera proserpina p. 383 Sandalus petrophya Knoch. 
Onichodon orchesides p. 384 = Fornax orchesides Nm. 
Necrophorus bicolon p. 385 = Necrophorus pustulatus Hersch. 
Feronia atrata p. 386 = Pterostichus permundus Say. 
" orbata p. 386 = Evarthrus orbatus Nm. 
•' spoliata p. 386 = Evarthrus spoliatus Nm. 
•' coracina p. 386 = Pterostichus coracinus Nm. 
•' monedula p. 386 = Pterostichus coracinus? Nm. 
•' lachrymosa p. 387 = Pterostichus lachrymosus Nm. 
moerens p. 3S7 = Pterostichus coracinus Nm. 
picipes p. 377 (9). 

relicta p. 387 = Pterostichus relictus Nm. 
interfector p. 387 = Pterostichus ad oxus Say. 
" rostrata p. 387 = Pterostichus rostratus Nm. 
Amphasia fulvicollis p. 388 = Amphasia interstitialis Say. 
Phymaphora pulchella p. .'$89. 



Langoria gracilis p. 390. 

Hispa Xerene p. 390 = Microrhopala Xerene Nm. 
Philemon p. 390 = Odontota nervosa Panz. 
" Baucis p. 390 =r " 

Donacia cincticomis p. 391 (10)- 
" cataractae p. 391 (11). 
rugifrons p. 391 (11). 
1 »rsodachna cosfata p. 391 (12). 
" ruficollis p. 391. 

" inconstans p. 392. 

1 hlsenius fulgiceps p 490 = Chlsenius pensylvanicus Say. 
auguslus p. 490. 

MISCELLANEOUS PUBLICATIONS. 
AnchomenuS picticoniis Zoologist, ii, p. 414 = Platynus picticornis Nm. 
Hydnocera rufipes Uharlesw. Mag. IV, p. 362 (13). 
" segra id. p. 364. 

" curtipennis id. p. 364 = Hydnocera rusticalis Say. 

Rhysodes aratus Charlesw. Mag. 1838, p. 664 = Rhysodes exaratus Serv. 

p. 666 = Ciinidium sculptile Nm. 
1840, p. 249. 

p. 250 = Griburius larvatus Nm. 

= Oryptocephalus guttulatus Uliv. 
= Pachybrachys limbatus Nm. 

= Oryptocephalus lituratus Fab. 
= PCryptocephalus trivittatus Oliv. 
unknown. 

NOTES. 

i. — Stenosphenus sobrius Nm., does not occur within our fauna! limits 
It is abundant in Mexico. 

2. — Gltiphyra seminsia Nm , is that variety of M. bimaculatus Say, with 
the greater portion of the surface rufo-testaceous. 

j, — Subsequently described by me as L. nitidicollis . 

4. — Leptura allecta Nm., is that form of sphaericollis with red thorax. 
pauper cula with black thorax. 

5. — Synonymous with this species is L saucia Lee. L. exigua Nm. i> 
recognized as variable. The typical form is black, the basal joint 
of antennae and front legs pale; L. nana has the mouth pale, also 
the front legs and the bases of the middle and hind femora; /.. 
saucia Lee, has the legs similar to nana, the thorax yellow with a 
large discoidal black spot; sometimes the angles only are yellow. 
In my cabinet is a specimen similar to nana with the head rufo- 
testaceous. 



" scu 


lptilis 


id. 


Cryptocephal 


us bivius 


id. 


" 


larvatus 


id. 


" 


laulus 


id. 


" 


limbatus 


id. 


" 


mammifer 


id. 


" 


geminatus 


id. 


• " 


lixus 


id. 


» 


luteolus 


id. 



— 9— 

L. sabirgentati Kby. Under this name I propose to include 
several forms which have been separated on color variation. These 
are ruficeps Lie. , simlis Kby , and rhoiopus Lee. The differences 
between these forms are given by Dr. Leconte (New Species, 1873, 
p. 217) the last mrm.l, accidentally omitted, being very like 
the normal subargentita except that the legs are all rufo-testaceous. 

6. — It is probable that these are merely sexes of one, stolata being the 
male, suffusa the female. 

7. — This is, without much doubt, that called by the later name &/- 
incius Hald. 

8. — These two have not been certainly identified. 

9. — -" The type of F. picipes Nm , in the British Museum belongs to 
this (stygicus Say) species, but the description does not agree and 
seems to refer rather to P. submarginatus." Leconte. In either 
case the name is a synonym and should be dropped. 
10. — This is the species known by the more recent name of lucida Lac. 
1 1. — These two seem to be forms of the variable cupraea Kby. 
1 2. — After an examination of a large series of Orsodachne from all parts of 
our country I can see no reason why they should not be considered 
as one species. There is even greater variation in color than the 
names now known will cover. The published names in the order 
of date are as follows: 

0. ATRA Ahrens, Neue Schr. Ges. Halle, 181 1, 1, p. 46. 
vittata Say, Journ. Acad, iii, 1823, p. 430. 
armeniacce Germ., Ins. spec. nov. 1824. p. 526. 
hepatica Say, Journ. Acad. V, 1827, p. 281. 
Ghildreni Kby., Faun. Bor. Am. 1837, IV, p. 221, pi. 7, fig. 6. 
tibialis Kby., id. id. 

inconstans Nm. Ent. Mag. V, 1838, p. 392. 
costata Nm., ruficollis Nm., id. p. 391. 
trivittata Lac, Mon. Phytop. 1845, *> P- 7 1 - 
luctuosa Lac. id. p. 72. 

tricolor Mels., Proc. Acad. 1840, p. 160. 

From this it seems that our species has quite as much synonymy 
as has been admitted for the two principal European species. 

13. — Hydnocera rufipes has been placed as a variety oUiumeralis Say, but 
incorrectly, it is a much paler blue than that, the legs entirely pale 
rufo-testaceous and the elytra are densely and finely punctured. 

14- — This species has since been re-described by Dr. Leconte (New 
Species, 1873, P- 2 °7) as P<-tch\'la rugipennis, he being apparently 
unaware of Newman's previous description. 



— IO — 

On the classification of North American Diptera 

(Second paper.)* 
By Dr. S. W. Williston. 

The limits of the two following families, as here given, are narrower 

than these now accepted by Osten-Sacken, whose authority in dipterologi- 
cal matters I need not say is among the very highest. For convenience 
sake, however, I exclude certain disputed genera, to be discussed else- 
where, thus rendering the forms given in this paper more certainly re- 
cognizable. In this, as in the following papers, I introduce genera from 
Mexico and the West Indies, wherever I can do so with clearness; such 
will be printed in italics. Genera unknown to me will be preceded b\ 
.in asterisk. 

TANYSTOMA. 

Tarsi with three membranous pads at the tip (the empodium deve- 
loped pulvilliform); body and legs wholly without macrochaetae {diptera 
eremochceta Osten-Sacken); eyes of male holoptic (Osten-Sacken), rarely 
narrowly seperated; two sub-marginal, five posterior cells in the wing, 
fifth posterior cell not contiguous at its base with the discal cell; the mar- 
ginal vein encompasses the whole wing; some or all the tibiae with spurs. 

TABANIDiE. 

Proboscis of the male with four, of the female with six bristles; third 
joint of the antennae annulate, never with differentiated style or bristle; tegu- 
Idt rather large. 

Species never very small, often among the largest in the order; never 
thickly pilose; in life the eyes usually brilliantly colored and marked. 
Head short, broad, eyes large. Antennae porrect, the third joint com- 
posed of from three to eight annuli or segments. Thorax not very 
convex, scutellum without spines on its border. Abdomen broad, 
moderately elongate or short, never slender or contracted. Legs moder- 
ately stout, the front and middle tibiae sometimes dilated, the middle 
tibiae always with spurs. Veins of the wings distinct: first posterior cell 
(and fourth in exotic species) rarely closed. 

Early stages passed in the water or earth; larvae carnivorous; with 
a distinct head; pupae free. The females are blood-sucking, usually found 
in the neighborhood of pastures, in sunny open parts of woods, during 
the hot sun-shiny days of summer. The males are much more rarely 
met with, and will be found usually in sweepings of meadow lands, on 
flowers, etc. 

* The first paper of the series is in Bull. B'kl. Ent. Soc. VII, p. 129. 



1. — Hind tibiae with spurs at their tips (sometimes small:. ( Pangonince. ) 2 

Hind tibiae without spurs; ocelli absent. ( Tabanince.) 5 

2. Third joint of the antennae composed of eight annuli, the lirst of which is only a 

little longer than the following ones , 3 

Third joint composed of five or fewer segments, the first of which is much longer 

than the following; ocelli present 4 

3. — Front of female narrow, without denuded callus; ocelli rarely absent.. Pangonia. 

Front of female broad, with a large, broad, denuded callus; ocelli present 

Apatolestes, ^. 11. 

4. Second joint of the antennae about half as long as the first; wings hyaline or with 

small spots; eyes in life with numerous small dots Silvius. 

Second joint as long, or but little shorter than the first; wings with a dark pic ure; 
eyes in life with fewer, larger spots Chrysops. 

5. - -Front of the female as broad as long; callus transverse; front tibia; a little 

dilated; base of third antennal joint not dilated Haematopota. 

Front of female narrow 6 

6. — Front tibia; very much dilated; third antennal joint not strongly angulated above 

Lepidosiimjii. 

Front tibiae moderately dilated ; face short Diachlorus. 

Front tibioe not dilated 7 

7. — A small ocelligerous tubercle present in the female; eyes pubescent, more dist- 
inctly in the male Therioplectes. 

( >celligerous tubercle absent; eyes pubescent Atylotus. 

Ocelligerous tubercle absent; eyes bare Tabanus. 

LEPTID^. 

Third joint of antennce simple ; with a simple, or thickened siyliform, 
bristle; tegulce rudi??ientaty. 

Rather small to rather large species; thinly pilose, with short thorax, 
elongate abdomen and large wings. Head short, eyes of male contiguous 
or approximate; ocelli present. Antennae mostly short, never elongate, 
the third joint with a terminal or dorsal bristle, or terminal slender style. 
Face small, excavated. Proboscis short; palpi slender, porrect, often 
bushy pilose. Abdomen elongate, broadest toward the base, composed 
of seven segments; the female ovipositor pointed. Legs slender, the hind 
pair somewhat elongate; some or all the tibiae spurred. Posterior cells of 
wings all open. 

Larvae carnivorous, living in earth, decaying wood, dry sand, 
in moss or in water. The flies are usually found about meadow 
and low woodlands, on bushes, etc., and prey upon other insects. Some 
western species of Symphoromyia, according to Osten-Sacken, suck blood, 
as do the horse-flies. 



— 12 — 

1. — Front tibia- with terminal spurs; face without swelling in the middle (Dialysis 

Walk., teste Osten-Sackcn) Triptotricha. 

Front tibiae destitute of terminal spurs 2 

2. Third joint of antennae, round, oval, or pear-shaped, the bristle distinctly 

terminal 3 

Third joint kidney-shaped, arista more dorsal 5 

3. — Anal cell open Leptis. 

Anal cell closed i 

4. — 'J bird joint of antennas with a slender arcuate bristle Chrysopil°. 

Third joint with a shorter, slender style *Spa..la.*Ptioli' . 

5. Anal cell open Symphoromyia. 

Anal cell closed Atherix. 

Apatoiesles, n. g. 9- Head broad; eyes bare, elliptical, angulated 
above. Front broad, its least width (at the vertex) about a third of 
the length, below with a large, transverse, denuded callus. Ocelli 
distinct. Antenna? situated below the middle of the head in pro- 
file, short, small, first joint thickened, but little longer than broad; sec- 
ond joint very short, simple; third joint twice as long as the first two 
together, only a little thickened at the base, cylindrical, composed of 
eight annuli, the first only a little longer than the following ones. Pro- 
boscis short, scarcely extending beyond the tip of the palpi, the second 
joint of the latter moderately tnickened. Abdomen a little wider than 
the thorax, the sides nearly parallel to the tip of the fourth segment. 
Legs simple, the front tibiae very slightly dilated, hind tibiae with spurs. 
All the posterior cells open; anterior branch of third vein with a stump 
near its origin. 

Apatolestes comastes, n. sp. 9- Black, thickly bluish gray pollinose. Front 
-Inning black; face whitish gray; palpi light yellow; wings with stigmatic spot and 
brownish spots on the cross veins; tibiae brownish yellow. Length II mm., of wings 
9 mm. 

Front shining black, on each side of the ocelli faintly brownish pollinose, below the 
callus, the first two antennal joints, and on the face densely nearly white pollinose; third 
antennal joint black. Thorax nearly uniformly clothed with bluish gray pollen, thicker 
on the pleurae; on the dorsum with sparse white pul>escence, the pleurae with moderately 
abundant white pile; dorsum with three slender whitish stripes. Abdomen opaque 
brownish black, the first segment and the posterior margins of the following segments 
grayish and clothed with sparse wdiite hairs. Legs black, the tibiae brownish yellow : 
front tarsi blackish, middle and hind pairs brown. Wings lightly infuscated, the 
stigma and narrow clouds on the cross veins brownish. 

Two specimens. California. This species in size and general ap- 
pearance resembles Tabanus pumihis Macq. 

Gen. nov. A female specimen of a species, yet unnamed, from Florida, 



— 1 3— 

may belong to a new genus. The species is the smallest with which I am 
acquainted in the family, measuring only 6 mm, and has the appearance 
ot a small Tabanus. The hind tibiae have minute spurs. The head is that of 
Taba?ius (sensu strict.), except that there is no callus, the front is rather 
broader, and the antennae have only two very small terminal annuli of 
the third joint, the basal segment of which is large, only a little longer 
than broad, gently convex below and obtusely angulated in the middle 
above. The body is light yellowish brown, thickly pollinose, the wings 
hyaline with a brownish stigmatic spot. The eyes in life apparently had 
the upper half green and the lower purple. 



Noctuids common to Europe and North America. 

By John B. Smith. 

In the "Verh. k. k. zool. bot. Gesellschaft in Wien'' 1874, pp. 273 
to 319, is a paper on the above subject, by Mr. H. B. Mceschler, than 
whom perhaps no one has a better collection of Insects from boreal 
america. From Labrador especially he seems to have sources of supply 
not open to the majority of collectors, and not a few of the species de- 
scribed by him are unknown to the American student. To the courtesy 
of Mr. Mceschler, who at the request of Mr. A. W. P. Cramer sent me 
for study a small lot of northern species, and among them his types, I 
am in a position not only to speak intelligently as to his species; but 
also to correct some errors which have crept into his article. As the 
heading to this article implies, I speak of the Noctuids alone, and more 
particularly of the species of Agrotis. 

Agrotis augur Fab. = haruspica Grt. Mr. Mceschler refers approv- 
ingly to Speyer's note on this species. Speyer calls them varieties, nam- 
ing the american form grandis. Grote had previously named the species 
haruspica and retains the name as referring to a distinct species, and in 
my opinion correctly. Augur is uniformly smaller and with very dist- 
inct maculation, and is distinguishable at a glance from its European 
ally. Not that alone would afford reason for their distinctness; but the 
fore tibiae are much more heavily spinulated in the American form, and 
the genital organs of the $ are obviously different. In haruspica the 
side piece is wider at the middle, and narrows rather abruptly to an ob- 
tuse tip. The clasper is short, stout, with an abrupt curve forming one 
cjuarter of a circle. In augur on the contrary the side piece is much 



— 14 — 

longer, tapering regularly and evenly from base to tip: the clasper is 
much longer, more slender, gracefully curved, and terminating in a hook 
curved into a semi-circle. These characters are constant and reliable, 
and indicate a good species, however closely related. The western form 
Sierra differs from haruspica less than that species does from augur, anil 
is yet a fairly good species. 

Agroiis sincera II. S. This species I have not been able to compare 
with European material, but doubt its identity. 

Agrotis Wockei Mceschl. This species has been hitherto unidenti- 
fied by American Lepidopterists, and is said, fide Staudinger, to occur 
also in Central Asia. Comparisons of types prove that scropulana Mori. 
is a later name for Wockei, and not for cornea, as Mr. Grote puts it. 
Okakensis Pack, is suspected by Mr. Mceschler as identical with either 
Carried or Wockei, but without reason: it has bipectinate antennae, while 
those of WdtkeisLYe simple. I may be permitted to doubt the identity of 
the Central Asia specimen with our American form. 

I ! 

Agroiis /'estiva var. conflua. Mceschler speaks of a § recently receiv- 
ed, and in his lot is a specimen marked var. conflua; but which is cer- 
tainly not that species. I have conflua and /estiva, and compared with 
them, this species differs in having a protuberant, roughened clypeus, 
very heavily armed lore tibia, and entirely different genitalia. I have 
named the species solitaria, and feel certain that Mr. Mceschler has al- 
lowed a superficial resemblance to mislead him. 

Agrotis simplonia Hb. G. Mr. Mceschler mentions two specimens, 
and especially a $ which is distinguished by a rusty-spot before the reni- 
form: this identical specimen is now before me, and is certainly nothing 
more nor less than a large ^ of Mr. Mceschler's own species, dissona 
which is also in the same lot. Compared with alpine simplonia which I 
have at hand the differences are so radical and obvious, that it is really 
a mystery how Mr. Mceschler could overlook them. Simplonia need not 
yet be added to our faunal lists. 

Agrotis Islandica. This Mr. Mceschler claims is found in Labrador: 
but not like the type form. Two specimens, one from Iceland, and one 
marked var. Labradorensis are in Mr. Moeschler's lot. This variety is 
certainly the opipara of Mr. Morrison, and in my opinion fully distinct 
from the type Islandica. I have seen numerous specimens of opipara 
which showed very little variation, and decline to believe that it is a vari- 
ation of Islandica, which is closely allied to sexali/is or obeliscoides. I 
would much rather believe it a form of ochrogaster Gn., which varies 
enormous! v. 



— 15— 

i 
Agrotis segetum = texana Grt. This reference is doubtfully made 

fide Grote in his list of 1875, and texana is not known to Mr. Mceschler 

in nature. I have seen both sexes of segetum as well as texana and find 

them totally different. Mr. Giote's reference was probably made on the 

faith of erroneous information as to the European species. I do not 

believe that segetum occurs in our fauna. 

There are eleven other species of Agrotis cited as common to both 
continents — viz: Chardinyi, bdja, speeiosa, C. nigrum, plecia, fennica 
ravi, saucio, ypsilon, prasina, and occulta, and as to those I believe him 
correct, though all the references had been previously made. 

At some future date I shall have some criticisms to make of others 
of Mr. Moeschler's original references. I would here simply call atten- 
tion to the fact that all is not done when it has been determined* that 
there are no constant differences in color and maculation between species 
on both sides of the Atlantic. All those forms which are at home in 
North America are presumably distinct, and only the most careful com- 
parisons of structure should determine whether the species are really 
alike. A certain amount of exception to this applies in the case of the 
circumpolar fauna, and of species which extend far northwardly. The 
great similarity of surroundings, and the extreme probability that at 
some time a connection existed between the circumpolar countries, gives 
countenance to the idea that the fauna is largely identical, and to this 
opinion I am led by what I have thus far seen of that fauna. 

As to Mr. Moeschler's paper as a whole, it bears evidence that the 
author is a firm believer in the identity of a large percentage of the Lepi- 
doptera found in Europe and North America, and his comparisons are 
all made with a view to prove identity. Too much importance is placed 
on color and maculation, and not enough on structure. Mr. Moeschler's 
references, where they are original, must be carefully verified before they 
are accepted. 



Eyes of Insects. 

In No. 2 of the Journal of the N. Y. Microscopical Society, is an 
article on "compound eyes and multiple images', interesting as well to 
the Entomologist as to the Microscopist. There is considerable infor- 
mation about the general structure, and especially interesting are the 
notes on the differences of size in the facets of some Tabantdce, and the 
probable difference of function. Mr. Williston's paper on Syrphula shows 
that this difference in size of facets occurs also in that family, and also 
that it has some generic value. J. B. S. 



— 16— 

Water Beetles. 

Looking over several collections of Water Beetles recently, I was 
surprised to see how poorly they are usually represented. Mr. Roberts 
and myself last season took numerous species, most of them in large 
numbers, out of a single pond, and in fact a very limited tract of that 
pond; and that in mid-summer. April and May are the best months to 
collect those insects, and any moderate sized pool in which there is some 
vegetation is sure to yield an abundant harvest. A stout net ring is re- 
quired, the bag to be of coarse cheese cloth, and the vegetation should 
be swept nearly to the bottom: not once only, but half a dozen times. 
In a single haul over a hundred specimens, representing ten or a dozen 
species have been taken. Rather sluggish ditches in meadows form ex- 
cellent collecting grounds. J. B S. 



Oviposition in Agrion. 

Mr. McLachlan has noticed Agrion mercitria/e, ("a very local British 
species') with a part or the whole of the abdomen incrusted with mud, 
caused by its sinking its eggs in the mud left from the dried up pools. 
He is not aware that this species descends beneath the surface of the 
water. (Ent. Mo. Mag. Vol. XXI, p. 211.) Remembering the same 
thing, on referring to my collection, I find a few females of our common 
Agrion civile with mud on a part of the abdomen. The egg laying habit 
of this species is to sink about the last four segments beneath the water, 
generally on grass. I know only one species of North American Agrion 
to descend beneath the surface of the water, viz: our common A.exulans. 
I have noticed it a foot or more beneath the surface, fastening its eggs to 
the stems of water grass, and remaining submerged a long time during 
the operation. When a stick is thrust near it, or a slight commotion 
caused that will shake the grass stalk, it will let go, rise quickly to the 
surface and as quickly take wing. 

ACAD. NAT. SCI. PHILA. S. FRANK AaRON. 



In June 1870 I took about sixty cocoons of Samia Cynthia to New- 
burgh, N. Y., and there freed them. In August 1884 I found on Eagle 
Cliff, Lake Mohawk, some distance west of Newburgh, several cocoons 
of -5". cynthia on Sassafras. These were evidently the descendants of those 
I had freed in 1870. Ailanthus is not found on Eagle Cliff, and the 
species has evidently adopted the food plant of its near ally, promethea. 

Chas. A. A. During. 



New Bombycidae from Colorado. 

By Henry Edwards. 

Notodonta notaria, n. sp. 

Primaries mouse-color, with the nervures, three apical streaks, and a dentate, 
marginal line, brown. At the base, from near costa to near internal margin is a clear 
and very distinct white streak. Secondaries sordid white, with brownish dentate 
marginal line, and a large brownish blotch at anal angle, enclosing a whitish sublimate 
mark. Thorax concolorous with primaries. Abdomen yellowish brown at base, 
whitish toward the tip. Antennae dull fawn-color. Underside of primaries sordid 
white, clouded with brownish, of secondaries sordid white, margins only brownish. 

Exp. wings 50 mm. Length of body 24 mm. Colorado (D. Bruce.) 
5 specimens $ Q- 

A very fine insect, undoubtedly belonging to the European genus, 
and in its general aspect recalling A\ tr.em.ula, S. V., and N. torva, L. 

Janassa lignicolor, var. Coloradensis, n. var. 

This is probably a new species, but for the present I prefer to regard 
it as a variety only. The primaries are however much less produced 
than in/, lignicolor and the tint is grey, with little or no wood-brown 
shade. The coloring is more diffusely disposed over the wing surface, 
givmg an indistinctness to the markings, and there is a great difference 
in the general appearance, difficult to define in words. The anal cloud 
on the secondaries is decidedly smaller, while the whole insect has a 
shorter and stouter appearance. 

Several examples. $ 9- Denver, Colorado (D. Bruce), Salt Lake 
(Hy. Edwards). 

Icthyura Brucei, n, sp. 

Ground color of primaries sordid white, with the lines and marks, rich brown. A 
basal and sub -basal line, the former whitish, edged with brown, and dentate in the 
middle, the latter almost straight. Behind the middle is a broad brown shade, through 
which from costa to internal angle runs a clear white line, which on costa is broadly 
produced into the distinct white mark usual in the genus, between this and the 
margin a row of Seven brown spots in the middle of which is a brownish cloud resting 
on posterior margin, which with the fringe is brownish. Secondaries wholly mouse- 
color. Thorax sordid white at the sides, the centre broadly brown . Abdomen dull 
sordid while. Antennae and palpi brown, the shaft of the former whitish. Underside, 
mouse color, with darker bent median band common to both wings, and the white 
costal mark on primaries indicated by a pale dash. 

Exp. wings 30 mm. Length of body 12 mm. Colorado, 1 tf. 

A very characteristic and distinct species which 1 dedicate with 
great pleasure to my good friend, Mr. David Bruce, its discoverer. It 
differs exceedingly from any form previously known to me. 

ENTOMOl < >GIC \ \MKKK" \\.\ 3 



— 1 8 
The breeding habits of some of our Dragonflies. 

H\ W'.m. T. Davis. 

In the March number of the American Naturalist, Mr. F. E. Todd 
gives an interesting account of the breeding habits of some Dakota 
dragonflies. A species closely resembling Lestes imguiculata was ob- 
served by him crawling down the stems of plants to a depth of several 
feet in a clear pool. 

I myself have observed various species of "mallet headed'' dragon- 
flies under water, clinging to plant stems, and once — but only once — I 
saw a female Aeschna go below the surface of a slow flowing spring. It 
was on the 21st of October and about 4 o'clock in the afternoon, when 
I observed this dragonfly partly immersed, but it soon crawled further 
down the stick until it was entirely under water and near the bottom of 
the pool which was quite shallow. This insect 1 have before me now 
and I take it to be Aeschna verticalis, Hagen. It is a bedraggled speci- 
men and probably was near the end of its days even if had not so un- 
kindly terminated them. 

Some of the species of Aeschna seem pardal to running water and 
I have noticed many flying up and down a brook in the fall, but have 
never noticed the same insects about the ponds in the vicinity. It is 
probable, however, that only a few of the large headed dragonflies go 
below the surface to lay their eggs, as we often see them dipping their 
abdomens as they fly close to the water. 

Mr. Uhler says: "LibcUula auripetinis I have often seen laying eggs 
and I think I was not deceived in my observation that she dropped a 
bunch of eggs into the open ditch while balancing herself just a little 
way above the surface of the water. " 



Are Curculio Larvae Lignivorous? 

Dear Sir: 

Mr. Knaus, in the last Bulletin, p. 150, seems rather to enquire 
whether curculio larvoe live upon dead or decaying wood, than to quest- 
ion their feeding upon the woody tissues of living plants. So far as my 
experience goes, it seems beyond doubt that, in addition to such genera 
as Hylobuis and Pissodcs which infest living plants, there are species 
which breed in dead wood. I have observed Magdalis barbita. oviposit- 
ing in fallen hickory {Carya a mar a) and have taken larva;, pupae, and 



-i 9 — 

imagos of same species from trees that had evidently been felled more 
than one season. Acoptus suturalis may also be found in dead stumps. 
In the following family Eupsalis minula breeds frequently in old stumps 
and logs of maple, etc., while in the Calandridx I think there are un- 
doubtedly lignivorous species. Cossonus plataka has been found by me 
in large numbers under the the bark of a poplar which had been some 
years dead and was partly decayed. The beetles had evidently emerged 
from the wood, which was penetrated by numerous small holes. Rhyn- 
colus and Stenoscelis of this family also apparently breed in dead wood. 
I have taken specimens of S. brevis both from old poplar and from 
maple stumps. 

Ottowa, March u, 1885. W. Hague Harrington. 



Society News. 

Brooklyn Entomological Society, March 3d. Twenty-six members and 
visitors present, the President Mr. Cramer in the chair. The reports of the offi- 
cers for 1884 were read and approved. Mr. A. Salle of Paris, France; Baron C. 
E. von Osten-Sacken, Heidelberg, Germany; and Dr. John G. Morris, Baltimore, 
Md., were on motion of Mr. J. B. Smith elected honorary members of the 
Society. Prof. C. V. Riley of Washington, D. C, was elected a life member. 
Mr. A. E. Brunn was nominated for membership by Mr. E. L. Grasf, and Mr. 
W. H. Danby of Brooklyn, and Mr. Eugene M. Aaron of Philadelphia were no- 
minated for membership by Mr. John B. Smith. 

On motion, the Secretary was instructed to offer to the Agassiz Association 
the aid of the Society in the way of determinations and in such other ways as 
might best further the ends of both Societies. 

Mr. Smith introduced Dr. Horn of Philadelphia, honorary member of the 
Society, and Dr. S. W. Williston of New Haven, who had come on to attend the 
meeting of the Society. Dr. Williston was invited to sit as a corresponding 
member of the Society. 

Mr. Smith described a monstrosity of a $ Lucanus cervus, the left mandible 
of which was modified into an imperfect 9 head. 

Dr. Horn gave a short account of several monstrosities known to him, and 
stated that the Lamellicomia were especially rich in monstrosities. The antenna? 
were very often the subject of abnormal variations. Frequently there would be 
an unequal number of joints in specimens of the same species, or even in the 
same specimen. The Carahidas stood next in the order of frequency. This led 
him to speak of variations of color and sculpture, and their value in systematic 
work. The sexual organs of the ^ are among the most absolutely invariable 
structures, and are the most reliable in the separation of species among the Sl<t- 
•philiradcB. Mr. Smith gave it as the result of his studies in the Noctuidce that the 
genitalia of the $ afforded the best possible specific characters. In the species 
of Mamestra especially, every species nearly has a very distinct and peculiar 
structure. Identity of type always indicates close relationship, while identity of 
form in his experience, proves specific identity, no matter how much maculation 



— 2 

or color may differ. The variatioDS of M- olivacea were alluded to, and though 
he had separated two species on apparently excellent characters of maculation, 
yet he fully expected that they would ultimately prove varieties or races of the 
Bame species* 

Dr. Williston stated thai the result of Ins studies in Diptera had led him 
tn hold views in accordance with those of Dr. Horn. He hud been much inter- 
ested in the results, recently published, reached by Dr. Horn and Mr. Smith in 
reference to the value of sexual characters. In the Diptera the range of color 
variation was very wide. Specimens, of the same species in his cabinet ranged 
from clear yellow to deep black. They were undoubtedly the same species lie- 
cause he had every intergrade in his series; yet some writers would be apt to 
make four of five distinct species out of them. Species should be very cautiously 
described on color characters alone, no matter how well marked they appeared 
to be. The time for indiscriminate description had passed, and comparative 
Entomology must now be specially studied. 

Dr. Horn then spoke as to genera. The variation of species w r as almost univer- 
sally admitted, and by the theory of evolution was explained. But genera varied 
also— they so gradually intergraded that there were but very indistinct lines of de- 
marcation. However disinclined workers might be to affirm their belief in evolu- 
tion, all the best work done was wittingly or unwittingly based on it. Keeping 
that as a guide permanent arrangement of groups of genera and species can be 
made. An illustration was drawn from the Melokla; in the highest type of which 
the claws were distinctly bifid, the parts equal, the upper portion pectinated. 
These varied gradually to the perfectly simple, single claw. Jiy reasoning from 
the theory of evolution he sometime since predicted the occurrence of two further 
genera that would fill gaps left in the series by the then known forms. One of 
these predicted genera has been since discovered. He confidently expected the 
occurence of the other. Mr. Smith spoke as to the generic divisions of the Lepi- 
doptera. The hairy eyed genera of the Noctuidae especially afford an instance. 
Mamestra, Tceniocampa and Xylomiges though widely separated in the lists yet 
ran so close that it was next to impossible to draw a distinct line between them. 
Species occur which might with almost ecpial propriety be referred to either 
genus. 

Mr. Hulst spoke on this subject. In his opinion nature must be taken as 
we find it, and whatever our opinion on the theory of evolution, in practice it 
would be found that nature had certain gaps that could be utilized in systematic 
work. The chain was nowhere complete, and with the amount of material that 
falls to the lot of the ordinary collector no trouble is experienced. He alluded to 
the inconstancies of characters used in separating families, in the Geornetridce, 
The venation, which forms the basis for the highest divisions in Lepidoptera, 
often in the Geometrida varies essentially in one and the same species. 

The remainder of the evening was spent in informal discussion, during 
which Dr. Horn illustrated three varieties of rf $ found in Oryptdbium. Nearly 
every species has these varieties, one of which. Dr. Born calls a complete ., 
another an incomplete tf, the third an imperfect A paper now in press will 

completely illustrate these forms. 

The Treasurer reported the amount of the Publication fund $150 as fol- 
lows: Life membership fees from E. L. Graf, John l'>. Smith and Prof. C. V. 
Riley, each $50 = $150. 





AmemcAna 



VOL. I, 



BROOKLYN, MAY, 1885. 



NO. 2. 



Classification of Hemiptera. 

By Herbert Osborn. 

Authors are by no means agreed as to the exact limits of the order 
Hemiptera or rather as to the number of groups to be included in this 
varied order. Neither are they agreed as to the natural affinities or the 
relative rank of the groups and sub-groups they place in it. 

Mr. P. R. Uhler, our best American Hemipterist includes in the 
group only the Heteroptera, Homoptera and Parasita, excluding the 
Mallophaga and the Thysanoptera; these latter groups have been includ- 
ed by many authorities and Mr. Packard still maintains on embryological 
grounds that they should be included. 

This being the condition, and as many more observations both em- 
bryological and morphological seem necessary to definitely settle the 
question at issue, we are forced to content ourselves with systems more 
or less artificial. 

In undertaking to present a svnoptical arrangement of the group 
therefore, I shall not consider it in place to discuss these doubtful matters, 
but simply endeavor to present in condensed form what seems to me the 
most natural grouping, and that which will afford students the most 
ready means of arranging their collections. 

I have followed most nearly the arrangement given by Mr. Uhler in 
his chapter on Hemiptera in the "Standard Natural History" but am in- 
debted also to the works of Westwood, Packard, and others. While I 
have verified all points possible, I have in many instances been obliged 
to rely upon various authorities, well aware that the discovery of new 
species must frequently modify the definition of the groups to which they 
naturally must be referred, and while finding occasion to introduce oc- 
casional characters in separating the families, based on observations of 



— 22 — 

the material in my own hands, it would of course be useless and out of 
place to attempt to designate such portions, since originality can not be 
claimed for any such work, though the author may rightly be held re- 
Sp »nsible for presenting the matter as a whole. 

The arrangement given is in descending order, hut it will he im- 
possible to follow this in the order of giving the generic synopses. 

Including the Mallophaga and the Thysannptera {Physapoda of 
Packard) we have no comprehensive definition ofth • group. Excluding 
these, we may say the Hsmiptera include those insects provided 
with a rostrum or beak formed from the labium and enclosing four ex- 
tensile setae which form a sucking tube, along with wings usually four in 
number which are either all membranous, or the fore ones partially or 
entirely coriaceous. (In Cocci ice there are two in the males only, and in 
some other groups they are absent or rudimentary in one or both sex< s.) 

This group which we may call Hemiplera genuina is clearly divided 
by the position of the head and the structure of the wings into two sub- 
orders, the Hderoptera and Homoptera. 

A third sub-order, Parasita, includes the suctorial lice infesting 
mammals, these apparently having about equal affinities for the two other 
sub-orders, but combining with neither in being wingless and the beak 
not jointed. 

The other groups are at present most conveniently grouped here, 
and may be ranked also as sub-orders though structurally there can be 
little question that the}- must bear a more distinct relation to the Hemip- 
tera proper. 

The Thysa?ioptera (or Physapodd) are minute insects usually less 
than 2 millimeters in length; with four very narrow delicately fringed 
wings which lie flat on the back, with free palpigerous mouth parts, and 
tarsi without claws; the terminal joint being vesicular. 

The Mallophaga are wingless parasitic insects living on birds or 
mammals, with free biting mouth parts, antennae of three to five joints 
and presenting some resemblance to the wingless Psocidae, and by 
some authors grouped with the Pseudo-Neuroptera, 

It is intended to include in these synopses only the North American 
genera, and the tables must not be considered as applicable in a larger 
range. The characters also, here mentioned are those of most import- 
ance as related to the groups to be here included. 

Perhaps in no Other order of insects is there such diversity of modi 
lication in the several structural elements, and this diversity is accom- 
panied with extreme lack of constancy, so that the clear definition of 
groups is rendered difficult. 



The body varies in form from the most elongated and thread like to 
short or circular, from the thickest to forms so flattened that they may 
live in the narrowest crevices They are convex above and below, or 
flattened or concave above and convex below. 

The head serves by its position to separate the two leading sub- 
orders but aside from this it is subject to most extreme modification. It 
is cylindrical, often elongate in Reduviidce and Nabidce, decidedly flatten- 
ed in Corddce and allied families. In the Homoptera the front is very 
often produced, the most extreme modification of this part occuring in 
the Fulgoridce. 

The ryes are usually prominent organs, standing out at the sides of 
the head; they serve rather as land marks— by which to locate the other 
organs of the head — than as distinctive in themselves. 

The ocelli are commonly present and by their absence or by their 
relation to the eyes serve to define some minor groups. 

The antenna are never particularly elongated, usually composed of 
few joints and as a rule but slightly modified. They run from filiform in 
the lower Homoptera to setiform in Cicada and allies: and are mostly 
filiform, with the terminal joints either slender or else slightly enlarged 
in the Hderoptera. In a few cases the joint next the last is much flatten- 
ed and broadened or otherwise modified. They are truly capitate only 
in the Lioiheida. 

The labrum is usually very small, but occasionally with the clypeus 
furnishes good characters for separation of genera and species. The setae 
of the mouth vary greatly in length, but are of little value in determin- 
ing the relation of groups. 

The labium is an important structural element. It forms the sheath 
for the setse, and is termed the beak or rostrum. It consists of three or 
four joints except in the Pediculidae where it is apparently devoid of arti- 
culation. By its origin at the front of the head indicating the horizontal 
position, or at the sternal border of the head indicating the vertical posi- 
tion, it serves to distinguish the Heteroptera and Homoptera and by its 
separation from or apparent union with the sternum it serves to divide 
the Homoptera into two minor groups. Furthermore the form of the 
basal joint and the comparative length of the joints are points of great 
value in determining relationships. 

The thorax in its modifications corresponds in general with the 
habits of the groups, whether aquatic, terrestrial or aerial. 

The prothorax is often minute and weak, again enormously deve- 
loped and overshadowing all other parts as in Membracidae. It is trans- 
versely sutured in Reduviidae. 



— 24 — 

The mesothorax contains in the higher Homoptera and in nearly all 
Hderoptcra, a well developed scutellnm, situated hetween the bases of 
the fore wings Its form and size assist in distinguishing some import- 
ant groups. The metathorax is often reduced in size, forming a thin 
plate between mesothorox and abdomen. The legs vary in size and 
length and in the structure of the tarsi. A part or ail of them are ciliated 
in most aquatic species: they are strong and spiny in most of the raptorial 
groups: pul villi are in some groups present between the claws of the 
tarsi. The 7vings are quite characteristic. In Honwptira they are gener- 
allv membranous and veined, or the fore ones as in Ctrcopidcc and allies 
uniformly coriaceous. In the latter case they do not overlap at the tips 
but unite on the median line as the elytra of Coleoptera. In Hderoplera 
the fore wings are divisible into three parts: a basal thick portion, the 
corium; a transparent apical portion, the membrane, which is veined; 
and a portion bordering the scutellnm, the clavus. In some groups, 
notably the Phytoconidae there is a triangular part between the corium 
and membrane, the cuneus. They usually lie flat on the back, the 
membranous portions overlapping each other. The hind wings present 
less differences in structure, in both groups; but their venation is often 
important in distinguishing minor groups. 

The Parasita and Mallophaga as well as one sex in many of the 
other groups, and occasionally both sexes are wingless or have these or- 
gans represented by mere rudiments. In Thysanoptcra they are very deli- 
cate with a very broad and delicate fringe. 

The abdomen presents many modifications of form, some of which 
are quite constant. It is quite commonly concave above for the recept- 
ion of the wings, but seldom so concave as not to be filled by the flatly 
folding wings. The spiracles are, except in Parasita, situated below the 
margin. The margin is quite generally sharp and either horizontal or 
slightly elevated. The genital organs are in some groups external and 
furnish valuable characters for separating groups, but more commonly 
they are hidden in both sexes so as to furnish little aid without dissect- 
ion and frequently the distinction of the sexes is impossible by external 
characters. In the higher Homoptera and in a few groups of the Helerop- 
tera the ovipositor of the female is received into a slit on the underside 
of the abdomen and serves to readily distinguish the sexes and affords 
useful characters in systematic arrangement. 

The following analytical tables will assist in placing the vaiious sub- 
groups, and also show the arrangement which seems to me at present 
most satisfactory. 

In the synopses of families many groups are given that rank for 



—2 5 — 

convenience, which by good authorities, and very properly I think, are 
given the rank of super-families. These groups will be discussed more 
particularly along with the characters of sub family and generic import- 
ance in the synoptical tables of genera, which it is intended shall follow 
this paper. 

SYNOPSIS OF SUB- ORDERS. 

A. — Labium forming a beak and enclosing setae. 

B -Labium jointed, spiracles inferior, wings usually present. 

C. — Head horizontal, beak arising anteriorly, fore wings, coriaceous at base 

Heteroptera 
CC. -Head vertical, beak arising postero-inferiorly. Wings uniformly membran 

ous or coriaceous Homoptera 

BB. — Labium not jointed, spiracles superior. Wings always absent Parasita 

.•4.4. — Labium not forming a beak, mouth parts free. 

g. — Wings present, narrow, delicately fringed; tarsi vesicular (frequenting 

blossoms) Thysanoptera. 

BB.— Wings never present; tarsi with claws. (Parasites on birds and mammals).... 

Mallophaga. 

SYNOPSIS OF FAMILIES. 

HETEROPTERA. 

* ANTENNAE ALWAYS PROMINENT. 

t Legs ordinary, adapted to terrestrial life. Never Inhabiting water or wet places. 

.4.— Head usually flattened or triangular, closely joined to body, often immersed to 
the eyes, basal joint of the rostrum straight. 
B.— Bodies usually rather thick and flattened or convex above, convex below. 
C. — Ocelli usually conspicuous. 
D. — Scutellum very large. 

E. — Scutellum quite convex, covering nearly the whole abdomen 

Scutelleridae. 

EE. —Scutellum nearly flat, attenuated posteriorly Penlatomidae. 

DD. — Scutellum ordinary. 

F— Antennae inserted above a line drawn from eyes to base of beak .... 

Coreidae. 
FF. -Antennae inserted on or below lateral margin of head and on a line 

drawn from eyes to base of beak Lygaeidae. 

CO.— Ocelli absent or inconspicuous. Bodies rather soft. 

G. -Terminal joint of antenna: not slender Pyrrhocoridae. 

(iO.— " " " " long and slender Phytocondae. 

BB.— Bodies decidedly flattened or else decidedly concave above, beak 3-jointed. 

//, —Antennae tapering. Body very flat Cimicidae. 

JUL— Antennae enlarging at tip or clubbed. 

/. —Wings more than covering abdomen, gauze like 

Tingitidae. 



— 26 — 

//. Wings not covering the abdomen. 
J. — Margins of thorax and abdomen elevated, angular, head ftot 

flattened Phymatidae. 

././. -Thorax and abdomen exceedingly depressed, (live under 

bark) Aradidae. 

.1.1. Head cylindrical, distinctly separate from b >dy, base of rostrum curved. An 
tennse usually tapering, prothorax with transverse suture. 

K. — Rostrum long, slender Nabidae. 

KK. Rostrum short, stout Reduviidae. 

** ANTENNAE (EXCEPT IN GALGULIDAE) PROMINENT. 
ft Legs usually very long and slender, the tarsi furious!// modified/or locomotion on 

surface of water or life in marshy places. 
A. — Antenme very conspicuous. 

B. — Antennas slender. Bodies linear Hydrometridae. 

BB. — Antennae short and thick or with basal joint stout and outer joints slender 

Velliidae. 
BBB. — Antennae long, conspicuous. 

C. —Ocelli and scutellum apparently absent Hydrobatidae. 

CC. - Ocelli present, size small Saldidae . 

A A. — Antennae inconspicuous, ocelli present Galgulidae. 

*** ANTENNAE ALWAYS CONCEALED IN CAVITIES OF THE HEAD. 
Iff Legs often ciliated. (Aquatic forms.) 
A. — Head inserted in prothorax, fore tarsi normal. 
B. — Bodies flat oval or ovate. 

C. —Without caudal setae Naucoridae. 

CC. — With strap-like caudal appendage Belostomidae. 

BB. — Bodies flat, oval, ovate or elongated, with long respiratory caudal setae 

Nepidae. 

HUH. Bodies thick, usually soft, convex above Notonectidae. 

.1.1. — Head overlapping the prothoiax, fore tarsi flattened and ciliated. . . .Corisidae. 

HOMOPTERA. 
* BEAK DISTINCTLY SEPARATE FROM STERNUM. 

Tarsi three-jointed. Antennw minute, setiform. 
A. — Wings more or less opaque, usually narrow, sometimes very broad. 

B. — Prothorax well developed. Antennae placed between the eyes. Scutellum 
triangular. 
C. --Bodies usually rather slender, front little, if any, produced or carinated. 

D. — Ocelli on vertex Tettigonidae. 

DD. — Ocelli on front Jassidae. 

CC. — Bodies usually stout, ocelli on vertex, front usually carinate. ... Cercopidae. 
llll. —Prothorax weak, often but slightly developed, antennae and ocelli placed 
beneath the eyes, front often produced, scutellum inconspicuous.. Fulgondae. 
.1.1. Wings entirely membranous, strongly veined. 

D. — Prothorax normal, not covering wings. Wings broad, size large, males 

musical Cicadidae. 

DD. — Prothorax greatly enlarged, covering the wings and often the entire body 
Membracidae. 



—2 7 — 

** BEAK APPARENTLY ARISING FROM STERNUM. 
Tarsi one- or tico-jointed. All of small she. Antenna' prominent, usually filiform. 
A. — Tarsi usually 2-jointed, wings, when present, four. 
B. — Beak 3 or 4 -jointed. 

C. — Antennae 10-jointed Psyllidae. 

CC — Antennae 3 to 7-jointed Aphid.id.ae. 

BB.— Beak 2-jointed Abyrodidae. 

.4,4. —Tarsi one-jointed. Males with two wings, females never winged. Enclosed 
in waxy scales closely adherent to bark or leaves, or clothed with cottony down. 
Coccidae. 

PARASITA. 

The American species are contained in one family Pedicul'dae. 

MALLOPHAGA. 

A. — Antennae filiform. Maxillary palpi absent, tarsi short Philopteridae. 

.1.1. -Antenna? capitate. Maxillary palpi conspicuous, tarsi long Liotheidae. 

THYSANOPTERA. 
These are conveniently grouped in one family Thripidae. 



An abnormal Lucanus cervus * 

At the January meeting of the Society Mr. L. C. Schenk exhibited 
a $ specimen of Lucanus cervus with apparently somewhat aborted man- 
dibles. It seemed at first as if here was only a case of accidental injury 
in an early stage; but more careful study has developed a very interesting 
malformation. In size the specimen ratner exceeds the average $ of 
cervus, and up to the head, is normal. The right side of the head to the 
mandible, is normal, the antenna complete. The mandible is distorted, 
lacking the teeth, and the point bent inwardly and joining the front under 
the labrum. It is perfectly immobile, and forms an irregular loop. 
The left .side of the head is shorter than the right; but retains the 
normal sculpture to the front. The antenna is aborted, the basal joint 
much shorter than that of the opposite side, the remaining joints irregu- 
lar, the club wanting. The eye is irregular in shape, and somewhat 
flattened. The front is oblique, the clypeus twisted sideways by the 
right mandible. The left mandible is wanting, its place occupied by an 
imperfect female head, with two perfect though immobile mandibles. The 
palpi and labrum are aborted and form a queer intergrade between $ 
and 9 an( -l appear partly to belong to the <$ and parti}- to the 9 head. 
The palpi are hardly half the length of those of a normal <^\ Altogether 
this is the most remarkable abnormity it has been my fortune to see. J-l>.^. 

* Read before the Brookl. Ent. Soc. March 1885. 



■28- 



Synopses of Cerambycidae .* 

By Charles W. Leng, B. S. 

GNAPHALODES, Thorns. 

A species belonging to this genus has occured in Texas. It should 
be placed before Chion with the following definition: 

Prothorax with lateral spine behind tin- middle; antenna 1 densely fring- 
ed beneath, inner angle of joints 4—7 spinose; elytra bispinose at tip, episterna 
of metathorax wide, scent pores distinct. 

The scutellum is triangular, larger than in Chion, and the eyes are 
less coarsely granulated; the prosternum is perpendicular behind, and the 
mesosternum convex. The body is brown, uniformly clothed with gray 
brown pubescence, paler and more dense on the scutellum. The species 
may be considered an occasional visitor rather than a permanent addi- 
tion to our fauna. 

G. trachyderoides Thorns. Class. Long. p. 236; acuticornis Chev. Dej. Cat. 
page 152. 

CHION, Newm. 

Contains one species, a large grayish brown insect with rounded 
prothorax, spined at sides and bispinose elytra. It varies greatly in color 
and may or may not bear a yellowish arcuate blotch on each elytron be- 
fore the middle. Length 25 — 37 mm. = 1 — 1.5 inches. Hab. America 
borealis. 

C. cinctus, Drury, 111., 2. 1773. Ind. I, p. 85, t. 37, f. 6. Harris, In j. In>. 
81; ruricola Gmel. ed Linn. I, 4, p. i860; rusticus Fab. Sp. Ins. I, 228; baUeatus 
Deg. Mem. V, in, t. 14, f. 3; (jaraanicus Fab. Syst. Ent. 178; 4 spinosus Hald. 
Tr. Am. Phil. Soc. X, 32. 

EBURIA, Sere. 

Contains several species of moderate size readily distinguished 1>\ 
the two pairs of ivory spots on the elytra. We reproduce the Synopsis 
offered by Dr. Leconte in 1873, and published in S.M.C., No. 264. 

A. — Middle and hind femora produced at tip into two acute spines; elytra bispinose 
at tip; 
a.— Front coxa? not angulated. fissure completely closed; prothorax abruptly con- 
stricted before and behind, tuberculate and strongly armed on the sides; color 
piceous; 

Body glabrous above, slightly pubescent beneath, prothorax feebly grossly 
punctured, elytra with very small ivory spots of which the medial pair and 

the outer basal one are frequently wanting Ulkei. 

Body densely and finely pubescent, prothorax with a few very large punct- 
ures; elytral spots small, distant, outer basal one sometimes wanting, ely- 
tral spines small stigmatica. 

* Synopses of the preceding genera will be found in the Bull. Brookl. Ent. Soc. 
Vol. VII. 



— 2 9 — 

b. — Front coxa angulated; prothorax densely arid coarsely punctured, sides sub- 
luberculate in front, lateral spine small, acute, dor.-al callosities denuded, 
color testaceous; 

Lateral tubercle of prothorax very distinct; elytra with outer spine shorter, 

and ivory spots smaller Haldemani. 

Lateral tubercle of prothorax feeble, elytra with outer spine longer, and ivory 

spots larger 4-geminata. 

c. — Front coxae angulated; prothorax densely and finely punctured, transversely 
impressed before and behind the middle, lateral spine acute, color testaceous; 

Ivory spots very unequal, thoracic spine strong stigma. 

Ivory spots equal, large; thoracic spine very small, femoral spines very long. 

distincta. 

Ii. — Femora with short apical spines; elytra obliquely truncate inwards at tip, pro- 
thorax coarsely and densely punctured, rounded on the sides, with two denuded 
dorsal callosities; color testaceous; front coxre distinctly angulated. 

Ivory spots of elytra unequal ovicollis. 

C. — Femora without spines, apical angles obtuse; elytra transversely subtruncate; pro- 
thorax with four dorsal callosities before the middle, lateral spine very small; front 
coxa? not angulated; 
Abdomen densely, but equally and less finely punctured: sides of prothorax much 

rounded in front of the spine, ivory spots small tumida. 

Abdomen unequally punctured, sides of prothorax very feebly rounded in front; 

Ivory spots geminate, apex of elytra truncate mutica. 

Ivory spots single, apex of elytra nearly rounded, with a small sutural spine... 

manca. 

E. Ulkei Bland, Proc. Ent. Soc. Phila., I, 270. 
Length 27 mm. — 1.08 inch. Hab. Lower Cal. 

E. stigmatica Chevr. Col. Mex. fasc. 3, 1834, No. 60; perforata Lee. S.M.C. 
No. 264, p. 180. 

Length 23 — 30 mm. = .92--- 1.20 inch. Hab. Tex. 

E. Haldemani Lee. J.A.P. ser. 2, II, p. 102. 

Length 19 — 30 mm. = .75 to 1.20 inch. Hab. Texas, Florida. 

E. 4-geminata Say, TAP-, V, 2, 1827, p. 275. Lee. J.A.P. ser. 2, II, p. 11. 
Chev. Ann. Fr. 1862, p. 265. 

Length 23—30 mm. = .90—1.20 inch. Hab. Atlantic States. 

E. stigma Oliv. Ent. IV, 67, p. 126, t. 23, f. 180. 

Length 18.5 mm. = .70 inch. Hab. Cuba, Florida. 

E. distincta Hald. Proc. A. P. Ill, 1845, p. 150; Dej. Cat. 3d ed. p. 351. 

Length 22—25 mm - =.90 — 1.00 inch. Hab. Ga. and Miss. 

E. ovicollis Lee. S.M.C. No. 264, p. 180. 

Length 18— 23 mm. = .72— .92 inch. Hab. Texas. 

E. mutica Lee. Proc. Ac. Phil. VI, 1853, p. 233. 

Length 17—21 mm. = .60— .80 inch. Hab. Texas. 

E. manca Lee. S.M.C. No. 264, p. 181. 

Length 15 -20 mm. = .60-. 80 inch. Hab. Texas. 
ROMALEUM, White. 
The species of this genus differ from Elaphidion, with which they 
have been united, by the more robust form and by the epistema of the 

ENTOMOLOGICA AMERICANA 5 



—3° 

metathorax being distinctly though slightly wider in front, and gradually 
narrowed behind. The femora are not spinose and the spines of the an- 
tennae are never long. The antenna- are longer than the body in ^J\ 
the prothorax is very densely punctured with a posterior medial channel 
and dorsal cicatrices. In Q the antennae are shorter and the prothorax 
coarsely punctured with a medial and two dorsal callosities. The species 
are separated as follows: 

Body uniformly finely pubescent; 

Both angles of 3d and 41b joint of antenna 1 spinose procerum. 

Ouier angles only spinose simplicicolle. 

Body irregularly pubescent, with spots of coarser and denser hair; 

Pubescence mottled irregular atomarium. 

Pubescence uniform, fulvous rufulum. 

Sparsely pubescent, elyira very coarsely punctured before the middle, with an irre 
gular transverse paich ot white pubescence at the middle taeniatum. 

R. procerum Lee. Proc. Ac. Phil. 1859, p. 88. 

Length 37.5 mm. = 1.5 inch. Hah. New Mexico, Cal. 

R. simplicicolle 1 laid. Proc. Ac. Phil. Ill, p. 151; Lee. Journ. Acad. Nat. 
Sci. Phil. ser. 2, 11, p. 1 2 ; pulverulentus Hald. Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. X, p. 32; Lecontei 
Dej. Cat. 3d ed. p. 352; Chev. Journ. of Ent. I, p. 243. 

Length 44 mm. = 1.75 inch. Hab. United Stales. 
The two species above mentioned are very close, and separable only 
by characters given in the table. The species of this and the succeeding 
genus are founded on structural differences, in which the family Ceram- 
bycidae is so rich. In the present and in other instances these differences 
are so slight as to indicate that the species arc either of very recent ori- 
gin or are now tending to coalesce. We fail however to find intergrades 
which would justify us in uniting the species and merely caution the 
student that the table must be followed very literally to correctly identify 
specimens. R. aperarium, White, = one of the above species. 

Since the above was in type, Dr. Horn writes as follows: -Alter 
examining my series, I can not separate procerum and simplicicolle, ami 
would advise their union under the former name. The arrangement of 
the antennal spines is an illusory and evanescent character. " 

R. atomarium Drury, 111. 11, 1773, lnd - •- P- 93> t- 4L f- 6; Lee. J. A. P. ser. 2, 
11, p. 177; marylandieus Fab. Syst. Ent. p. 179; Oliv. Ent. IV, 70, p. 6, t. 1, f. t;; 
multicolor L. ed. Gmel. I. 4, p. 1857 ; pulverulentus De G. Ins. V, p. 118, t. 14, f. 12. 

length 22- 31 mm. = .88 — 1.22 inch. Hab. Middle and Southern States. 

R. rufulum Maid. Trans. Am. Phil. X, p. 32. 

length 22— 28 mm. = .88 — 1. 15 inch. Hab. Middle States. 

These are again closely related. The fulvous color will distinguish 
rufulum as well as the uniform pubescence: atomarium being darker in 
every specimen we have seen. 



— 3 i— 

R. taeniatum Lee. Proc. Ac. Phil. VII, 1851, p. 81. 
Length 20 —25 mm. = .80 — 1.00 inch. Hab. Texas. 

A verv distinct species, intermediating somewhat in appearance be- 
tween this and the following genus. 

ELAPHIDION, Sen?. 

In this genus the metathoracic episterna are scarcely wider in front 
than behind. The prothorax in sculpture and form and the spines of 
thighs, elytra and antennae vary in every conceivable degree and are the 
basis upon which most of the numerous species have been erected. In 
general the species of Elaphidion are more slender and smaller than those 
of Roma hum. The species require renewed and careful study, which 
can only be made however, with Dr. Leconte's types at hand for com- 
parison. 

SYNOPSIS OF ELAPHIDION. 

A. — Antennae and elytra with very long spines; thighs spinose at tip; prothorax per- 
pendicular behind, mesosternum gibbous; prothorax rf 9 similar with several 
callosities; 
Antenna; (J 1 longer than the body; 

Above glabrous, with patches of white hair irroratum. 

Above clothed irregularly with gray pubescence mucronatum. 

Antennae rf not longer than the body; 

Uniformly pubescent, scarcely mottled on the elytra tectum. 

B. — Antennal spines small; elytra rounded at tip, sutural spine distinct; prothorax 
broadly rounded at sides, coarsely and deeply punctured with three narrow 
smooth spaces; 

Rather slender, piceous, thinly clothed with long flying hairs alienum. 

C. — Antennal spines small; prosternum rounded behind, mesosternum obliquely decli- 
vous; thighs not spinose at tip; prothorax $ finely, 9 more coarsely punctured; 
(scent pores indistinct in a, b, or very obvious c, or wanting d); 
a. — Prothorax rounded on the sides with several dorsal callosities, elytra truncate 
and strongly bispinose at tip; 

Pubescence grayish brown, mottled incertum. 

b. — Prothorax feebly rounded on the sides, elytra uni- or not spinose at tip, pubes- 
cence grayish brown, mottled; 
Thorax with a medial smooth space, and no dorsal callosities; tip of elytra trunc- 
ate inwards, not spinose inerme. 

Thorax with a medial smooth space and two small discoidal callosities; tip of 

elytra subtruncate, sutural spine distinct truncatum. 

Thorax more rounded on the sides, dorsal space coarsely punctured; tip of elytra 

rounded, suture not spinose spurcum. 

r. Prothorax scarcely rounded on the sides, nearly cylindrical (except in pumilum); 
elytra bispinose; 
Pubescence mottled, flying hairs not very obvious; elytral spines long; legs den- 
sely punctured and pubescent ; 



—32— 

Prothorax scarcely longer than wide villosum. 

Prothorax distinctly longer than wide parallelum . 

Pubescence mottled, flying hairs very long and numerous on legs and antenna.*: 
legs very sparsely punctured; 

Elytral spines very short pumilum. 

Pubescence sparse, coarse, uniform; body very long ami slender, coarsely punct- 
ured; legs coarsely punctured; 

Flying hairs sparse; antenna] and elytral spines moderately long 

subpubescens. 

Flying hairs long; spines long aculeatum. 

Body shining testaceous, sparsely punctured and nearly glabrous; 

Plying hairs sparse; elytral spines long unicolor. 

'/. Prothorax rounded on the sides, coarsely punctured ((j 'O) without callosities; 
body more robust, uniformly coarsely and sparsely pubescent, elytra rounded 

at tip; legs coarsely punctured ... moestum. 

/>. Antenna) spines completely wanting; thighs not spinose; pubescence uniform, 
sparse; form slender, prothorax feebly rounded on the sides; 
Pubescence intermixed with long Hying hairs; elytra rounded at tip, legs very finely 

pubescent, scarcely punctured; metasternum without odoriferous pores 

punctatum. 

Thinly clothed with long flying hairs; elytra rounded and slightly truncate at tip; 

thighs finely punctulate with sparse seti^erous punctures; metasternum with 

distinct odoriferous pores imbelle. 

Pubescence without long flying hairs; elytra truncate at tip, legs very coarsely 
punctured; punctuation of prothorax rfQ dissimilar cinerascens. 

E. irroratum Linn. Syst. Nat. ed XII. p. 633; Drury, 111. I, p. 92, t. 41, f. 3; 
Hope, Trans. Zool. Soc. I, p. 107; Jacq. Duv. Hist. Club, 1857, p. 266, t. 10, f. 7. 

Length 19 mm. = .75 inch. Hab. Cuba, New York, Ills. 
The thighs are distinctly spinose in all that we have, but two speci- 
mens from Illinois which are otherwise similiar have the antennal spines 
moderate. 

E. mucronatum Say, J. A. P. Ill, 1823, p. 427; Newn. Ent. p. 27; muricatum 
Said. Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. X, p. 33; nebutlosum Guer. Ic. regn. anim. Ill, p. 255; 
Dej. Cat. 3d ed. p. 352. 

Length 15—19 mm. = .60 -.75 inch. Hab. Mass. to Florida and westward to 
Missouri. 

A common and distinct form. 

E. tectum Lee. Proc. Am. Phil. Soc. XVII, 413. 
Length 15.6 mm. = .62 inch. Hab. Florida. 

We have not seen this species. 

E. alienum Lee. Tr. Am. Ent. Soc. V, 173. 
length 14.5 mm. = .58 inch. Hab. Arizona. 

Dr. Leconte's description does not describe the thighs, and having 
no specimen before us we are unable to place it in any previous division. 
It appears to be a quite distinct form from characters given in table. 



—33 — 

E. incertum Newn. Ent. p. 28; Lee. J. A. P. ser. 2, II, p. 13; aspersus I laid. 
Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. X, 1847, p. 32; vicinum Hald. Tr. Am. Phil. Soc. X, ],^; 
negledum Lee. Journ. Ac., N. Sc., Phil. ser. 2, II, 13. 

Length 17.5 mm. = .70 inch. Hab. New York. 

E. inerme Newn. Ent. p. 29. 

Length 12 — 15 mm. = .5 —.6 inch. Hab. Pennsylvania, Tex. 
All the specimens we have answering to the description are from 
Texas and are small and slender. 

E. truncatum Hald. Trans. Am. Phil. Soc. X, p. 33; debile Lee. Proe. Ac. Sc. 
Phil. VI, 442. 

Length 14 — 19 mm. = .56 — .75 inch. Hab. Texas. 
Our only specimen is large and robust. 

E. spurcum Lee. Proc. Ac. Phil. VI, p. 422. 

Length 14 mm. = .45 inch. Hab. Texas near Mexican boundary. 
The pubescence is distinctly mottled. 

E. villosum Fab. Ent. Syst. I, 2, p. 302; Newn. Ent. p. 28; patator Peck, 
Harris Ins. Mass. p. 81. 

Length 18 mm. = .70 inch. Hab. Middle and Southern States. 

E. parallelum Newm. Ent. p. 29; Lee. J.A.P. ser. 2, II, p. 103; Chev. Ann. 
Fr. 1862, p. 262; murinus Dej. Oat. 3d ed. p. 352; pusillus Dej. Cat. I.e.; dblitus 
Lee. J.A.P. ser. 2, II, p. 14; arctus Newn. Ent. p. 29; Lee. J.A.P. ser. 2, II, p. 16. 

Length and Habitat same as villosum. 

These common species differ markedly in the form of prothorax as 
well as in parallelum being usually much more slender. The 5th ventral 
segment in ^ villosum is rounded at tip, while in $ parallelum it is 
truncate. 

E. pumilum Newn. Ent. p. 29; Lee. J.A.P. ser. 2, II, p. 14. 
Length 9 mm. = .36 inch. Hab. Georgia, Tex. 
This species is easily identified by synopsis. 
E. subpubescens Lee. Proc. Ac. Phil. XIV, p. 41. 
Length 17.5 mm. = .70 inch. Hab. New Jersey, Tex. 
E. aculeatum Lee. S.M.C. No. 264, p. 184. 
Length 15 mm. = .60 inch. Hab. Texas. 

These two species are closely allied and distinguished from other 
species by their very slender form. 

E. unicolor Rand. Bost. Journ. II, 1838, p. 42. 
Length 11 mm. = .45 inch. Hab. Atlantic States. 

The slender scarcely pubescent body and elytra distinguish this 
species at once. 

E. moestum Lee. Proc. Ac. Phil. VI, p. 442. 
Length 13 — 15 mm. = .50 — .60 inch. Hab. Texas. 

Resembles spurcum in size and robust form, but differs in elytral 
spines and pubescence which is sparse, exposing the dark brown color 
of the body and elytra. 



—34 — 

E. punctatum Lee. S.M.C. No. 264, p. 185. 

Length 10— 12 mm. = .40 — .48 inch. Hah. Lower Cal. 

E. imbelle Lee. Huff. Bull. IV, 27. 

Length 17. 3 mm. = .70 inch. Hah. California. 

E. cinerascens Lee. Journ. Ac. Sc. Phil. ser. 2, II, p. 15. 

Length 8.5—12.5 mm. = .35 — .50 inch. Hah. Pa. Tex. 

The three species above named are sufficiently characterised by the 
synopsis. E. punctatum we have not seen. 

Note. — I shall be glad to see any specimens of Elophidion which d<> 
not fall within the descriptions above given, or which seem to intergrade 
between them. Quite large series have served on the whole to confirm 
Dr. Leconte's views on this genus and specimens needing special atten- 
tion will be therefore very interesting and meet with prompt recognition 
in these columns. Such may be sent to Mr. ("has. W. Leng, P.O. Box 
3565, New York. 

ANEFLUS, Lev. 

This genus is rendered necessary for certain species which complete- 
ly resemble the elongate forms of Elaphidion [suhpubescens etc. ) in ap- 
pearance, but differ by having the joints of the antennae from the 5th 
flattened and distinctly carinate along the middle of the flat sides. 

SYNOPSIS OF ANEFLUS. 

Prothorax distinctly dilated, and feebly angulated on the sides; elytra bispinose at 
tip; hind tibia; scarcely carinate; palpi unequal, with the last joint dilated, tri- 
angular; 

Very large, spines of antenna? moderately long protensus. 

Prothorax cylindrical, sides nearly straight; 

Third joint of antennae with a spine a little longer than that of 4th joint; palpi with 
last joint not dilated; 
Elytra emarginate at tip, slightly bispinose, flying hairs of tibia? long, not very 

numerous linearis. 

Third joint of an term re with spine much longer; 

Elytra emarginate at tip, flying hairs of tibia.- not conspicuous, palpi with last 

joint not dilated tenuis. 

Elytra truncate at tip, suture more prominent, flying hairs of tibiae long, numer- 
ous; palpi very unequal, with last joint triangular, dilated; (antennal cari- 
nas obsolete) volitans. 

Antennal joints 3 — 6 with short spines, distinctly carinate; apex of elytra with two 
long spines; last joint of palpi elongate, triangular prolixus. 

A. protensus Lee. Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1858, p. 82. 
Length 30 mm. = 1.22 inch. Hab. Arizona. 
A. linearis Lee. Proc. Ac. Phil. 1859, p. 80. 
Length 10 mm. =.41 inch. Hab. California. 



ENTOMOLOGICA AMERICANA, MAY, I? 



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BNTOMOLOGICA AMERICANA, MAY, 1885. 



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—35— 

A. tenuis Lee. Proc. Ac. Phil. VII, p. 81. 

Length 1.25 mm. = .50 inch. Hab. Texas and Arizona. 
In this species, as in the preceding, the palpi are not dilated and 
are not very unequal; the hind tibiae are however much more distinctly 
carinaled, the spine of the 3d antennal joint is two-thirds as long as the 
4 th joint and the spine of the latter is quite small. 

A. volitans Lee. S.M.C. No. 264. 1873, p. 186. 

Length 10 mm. = .40 inch. Hab. Lower Cal. 
In this species as in prot.nsus the first joint of the antennae is longer 
and less thickened than in linearis and slightly curved, the outer joints 
are scarcely carinate, the spine of the 3d joint is two-thirds as long as the 
4th joint and the spine of tne latter is also long, being fully one third as 
long as 5th joint. The hind tibiae are only feebly carinate. 

A. prolixus Lee. S.M.C. No. 264, 1873, p. 203. 

Length 25 mm. = 1 inch. Hab. Lower Cal. 

The antenna? are very distinctly carinate, of $ nearly as long as body, 

9 scarcely two-thirds as long. The appearance of a transverse line on 
the disk of prothorax is the result of the arrangement of the pubescence 
rather than a positive elevation. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATES I & II. 

1 Tetropium cinnamopterum, 18 Xylocrius cribratus, 

2 Upsimus 4-lineatus, 19 Malacopterus vittatus, 

3 Smodicum cucujiforme, 20 Ueme rigida, 

4 Conocallus collaris, 21 " strangulata, 

5 Physocnemum brevilineus, 22 Eucrossus vilicornis, 

6 " Andrete (Elytra), 23 Dryobius 6-fasciatus, 

7 Rhopalopus sanguinicollis, 24 Haplidus testaceus, 

8 Hylotrupes bajulus, 25 Achryson surinamense, 

9 " ligneus, 26 Gracilia minuta, 

10 Phymatodes variabilis, 27 Axestinus obscurus, 

11 " dimidiatus, 27a " " antenna, 

12 " vulneratus, 28 Brothylus conspersus, 

13 " varius, 29 Osmidus guttatus, 

14 " decussatus and nitidus, 30 Stromatium pubescens, 

15 Merium proteus, 31 Antenna of Aneflus, 

16 Callidium antennatum, 32 Gnaphalodes trachyderoides. 

17 " hirtellum, 

[By the error of the Photo Engraving Co., the plates were made 
rather smaller than ordered. The actual size of insects iigured is therefore 
somewhat greater than indicated. Most of the species here figured were 
described in Bulletin, Vol. VII.] 



- 3 6- 

Synopses of Butterflies.* 
Bv Rev. Geo. D. Hulst. 

EREBIA, Dalm. 

i. Tyndarus Esp. Schm. I. 2. p. 97, pi. 67. Gattias W. II. Edw. Trans. Am. 
Ent. Soc. 3, 274. 

Above brown: on disk of primaries covering the discoidal and 
upper median interspaces a triangular castaneous patch enclosing a black 
duplex spot, both parts ocellated. Secondaries with three black spots 
each in a pale castaneous ring. Underside of primaries castaneous ex- 
cept the costal edge and apex which are gray; same markings as above. 
Secondaries grav with a brown tint; the disk crossed with a deeply cre- 
nated line, anterior to which near base is another similar line nearly ob- 
solete: spots as above. 

Expands 1.5 inches. Colorado. 

2. Haydenii YV. H. Edw. Rep. Hayden Exp. Montana, 1872, 467. Trans, 
Am. Ent. Soc. 5, 19. 

Upper side fuscous, immaculate. Underside a shade paler, much 
marbled with gray scales; primaries immaculate; secondaries with a com- 
plete series of black ocelli along the edge of outer margin, one in each 
interspace, each ocellus narrowly ringed with ochraceous and having a 
minute white pupil. 

Expands 1.6 inches. Taken at Yellowstone Lake. 

3. Epipsodea Butl. Cat. Sat. B.M., p. 80, pi. 2, f. 9, IihoiUaW. II. Edw. 
Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. 3, 273. 

Body black. Wings above, uniform dark brown; the primaries 
generally have 3 ocellated submarginal spots, 2 towards the apex, the 
third post median; all are surrounded with bright reddish brown. There 
is a row of corresponding ocellated spots on secondaries, varying in 
number. Beneath primaries somewhat paler with spots repeated; secon- 
daries paler on outer third, the ocellated spots not edged with reddish 
brown. 

Expands 1.5 inches. Colorado, Montana. 

4. Magdalena Streck. Bull. Brookl. Ent. Soc. 3, 35. 

Upper surface of wings entirely and uniformly dark blackish brown. 
Beneath as above with the outer third a shade lighter. 
Expands 2 inches. Colorado. 

5. Disa Var. Mancinus Doub. Hew. Gen. Diur. Lep. II, p. 380, pi. 54. 
Upper side deep sooty black; primaries slightly reddish towards 

* These Synopses are continued from the "Bulletin". Descriptions oi" the spe 
cies oi the preceding genera will be found in Vol. I to Vol. VII of that publication. 



—37- 

outer margin; a submarginal row of reddish spots the two nearest the 
apex more distinctly pupilled. Beneath primaries as above: secondaries 
brown densely powdered with silvery white scales giving a grayish cast: 
there is a broad median band of soot}' black, deeply indented towards 
base, regularly sinuate outwardly; at the costal margin and on the outer 
edge of this band is a triangular patch of white; also a white spot on 
second submedian nervule; a submarginal row of faint blackish lunules 
is also present. 

Rocky Mts. , Alaska. 

6. Rossii Curt. App. Ross' 2d Voyage, p. 67, pi. A, f. 7. 

Wings uniform dark reddish brown above and below, somewhat 
paler below. On the primaries towards apex are two ocellated spots close 
together which are repeated below. 

Expands 2 inches. Arctic Am. 

7. Discoidalis Kirb. Fauna Bor. Am. IV, p. 298, pi. 3, f. 2, 3. 

Body brown. Wings brown: costa spotted with gray; a triangular 
obscure tawny reddish discoidal stripe from base to posterior margin on 
primaries. This spot is also on the underside of the primaries, and the 
wing is tipped with gray. Secondaries beneath distinctly marbled and 
clouded with gray and whitish. 

Expands 1.5 inches. Arctic Am. 

8. Fasciata Butl. Cat. S.B.M., p. 92, pi. 2, f. 8. 

Wings above much as in discoidalis. Below the primaries are paler 
with three darker fasciae: one basal indistinct; the second broadly median, 
broadest at costa: the third marginal. Secondaries beneath whitish cin- 
ereous with three darker fasciae: the first basal, confused; the second 
median, undulating; the third marginal. 

Expands 2 — 2.5 inches. Arctic Am. 

9. Sofia Streck. Bull. Brookl. Ent. Soc. 3, 35. 

Upper surface dark brown. Primaries crossed with a submarginal 
rusty yellow band, the same color evident in the discoidal cell. Second- 
aries with a submarginal row of four rust colored spots. Beneath prim- 
aries with band repeated but paler. Secondaries also lighter, the spots 
white. 

Expands 1.5 inches. Ft. Churchill, Brit. Am. 

VESAGUS Doub. Hew. Gen. Diur. Lep. 380, pi. 64, f. 3, 
has been catalogued as a N.A. species of Erebia and thus stands in Mr. 
W. H. Edwards' latest catalogue. 1885. But it undoubtedly does not 
belong to our fauna. In Doub. Hew,, where it is figured and named 
without description, to the name is added, "Rocky Mountains", with an 
interrogation mark; showing the* locality was uncertain. Kirby catalogues 
it p. 64, 1. 36 with the ?. Dr. Morris in his catalogue, p. 10. leaves 

ENTOMOLOGICA AMERICANA, 6 



-33- 

the ? out, as docs Weidemeyer p. 27, who gives it the locality "U. S." 
W. II. Edw. in all his catalogues leaves out the?, and in the 01 
1877 adds to locality "(Prob. Brit Am.)". All these were made without 
a personal knowledge of the insect. Strecker in his catalogue, 1878, p. 
151, (probably under the suggestion ofHewitson), expresses his convict- 
ion that the species is not North American but Soutn American. Kirby, 
Cat. of the Diur. Lep. in Coll. W. C Hewitson 1879, P- I 3°' ."' ,Vrs 
without any expression offloubt, locality ''South America''. Wether this 
is based on the previous knowledge o\ Mr. Hewitson, or on evidence 
gained by Mr. Butler by new materia! 1 do not know; but in view of it, 
the locality originally surmised must have been an error, and in the 
present state of the case, the species must be dropped from our lists. 
No authenticated specimen has ever been taken in North America so far 
as 1 ( an learn. 

The most oi our .species of Erebia have been named on very limited 
material, not always in the best condition. It is probable a large gather- 
ing of material will very great!}' modify our present list. 

My thanks are given to Dr. H. A. Hagen of Cambridge, and Rev. 
W. J. Holland of Pittsburgh lor very valuable assistance in the above 
Synopsis. 



Notes and News. 

STYLOPID^. 

The species of this family are very rare indeed in American collect- 
ions, but seem more common in Europe. In an old number of the 
"Journal of Microscopy and Natural Science" is an article on the subject 
from which 1 quote: "On another occasion saw about 20 Hying, but they 
were so high from the ground he could only capture half a dozen. The 
little animals are exceedingly graceful in their flight, taking long sweeps 
as if carried along by a gentle breeze, and occasionall yhovering at a few 
inches from the ground". They are in Europe parasitic on Andrena, 
which is a very early species, flying in April. The (^cJ 1 are sa 'd to em- 
erge from the pupae early in the morning — 9 to 1 1 a.m. 

Our species, Xenos Peckii is parasitic on Polisles and I have very 
often seen the head of the pupa projecting between the segments of the 
abdomen of our common species. In the "classification" it is stated that 
the head of the pupa case of the $ is convex; that of of the 9 A at - Spe- 
cimens of Polis/es found with a $ pupa might be confined with proper 
food until the parasite emerges. Suppose some of our Collectors turn 
their attention to Stylops this spring! J. B. S. 



—39— 

Looking over the new edition of the "International Scientist's Di- 
rectory" we find that out of 4&21 names of Scientists from the U. S. and 
Can. 620 have Entomology specified as one of their studies. Of these, 
229 have Ent. added as one of several branches in which they are inter- 
ested. Among these there are a few well known Entomologists, but a 
large proportion consists of those omnivorous individuals for whom the 
circle of Sciences seems too small, and who have tacked on all theologies 
besides numerous other things not ending in ology. 47 are Entomolo- 
gists pure and unadulterated, apparently without specialty. The remain- 
der express a preference for one or the other of trie orders; and the Lepi- 
dopterists head the list with 129 devotees — some of them have Lepid. only 
as one of several other pursuits, but have no other specialty in Entomo- 
logy. The Coleoptera follow with a company of 93 — while the two orders; 
Col. et Lep. are combined by 73 individuals. A weakness for Hymenop- 
lera is confessed by 10; for Diptera by 6; for Hemiptera by 5; for Neurop- 
il a by 4, while Mr. Bruner as sole representative of the Orthoptera brings 
up the rear. 14 are interested in several orders. The LepidopLra are 
combined with the Diptera three times; with the Neuroptera twice; 
with the Orthoptera once. The Coleoptera are combined with the Hymen- 
optera three times; once each with Hemipt:ra, Orthoptera and Diptera; 
while one ambitious individual collects; Coleoptera, Lepidoptera and Gen- 
eral Curiosities. These figures are suggestive, and should induce young- 
students to take up some of the neglected orders: there is an immense 
field fur work in them, and "Entomologica'' will do all it can to ease 
the work by presenting introductory synopses of families in all orders. 
Mr. Brunei', the single Orihopterist feels solitary, and to induce others to 
join him will prepare an outline synopsis of that order for an early No. of 

this Journal. 

* * 
* 

We hear that Dr. Horn has been elected on honorary member of 
the Entomological Suciety of France. They have but six honorary 
members outside of France, and to be ranked as one of them is of, itself 
sufficient testimony of the high standing Dr. Horn has made for himself 
in the Entomological world. We know of none better deserving such a 

distinction. 

* * 

Apropos of your notice on Water Beetles, I recollect being very 
much surprised not long since to notice some species, bobbing their 
heads against the ice (from below be it understood). I could hardly be- 
lieve my eyes at first, but wherever I found a bit of transparent ice, I 
could with a little patience notice the insects swimming round below. 

* * * C. W. Leng. 



— 40— 

This is a good place to call the attention of readers to the fact that 
No. 3 of this Journal will be sent only to those who have sent in their 
subscription before that number is issued. We are sorry to make such 
a provision, but we have not yet hem able to find a printer sufficiently 

interested in the advancement of Entomology to print our paper for less 
than regular price in "Hard Cash''. 

■» i > i ^ 

Society News. 

Brooklyn Entomological Society, April 7th.— Twenty-one members, and 

one visitor present; the Vice-Pres. Mr. E. I.. Graf in the chair. Messrs. A. E. 
Brunn and W. H. Danby of Brooklyn and Mr. E. M. Aaron of Philadelphia 

were elected members of the Society. Prof. F. Fillon of Brooklyn was proposi d 
for membership by Mr. Cramer. 

Letters from Messrs. A. Salle, Baron C. R. von Osten Sacken, and Rev. 
John (I. Morris acknowledging their election as honorary members were read 
by the Secretary. 

Mr. Smith presented his Report as Editor lor Vol. VII of the Bulletin. 

Entire cost of Vol $325 45 

Receipts from sale of back Volumes and subscriptions... $157 75 
Extra pp. in Nos. 2 A :!, borne by Messrs. Hulst .'v Smith... 31 00 

Volumes furnished Members 35 00 

Exchanges 73 00 

Deficit, paid by Society 28 70 $325 45 

Mr. Tlulst called the attention of the members to a collection of Coenonympkce, 
broiight by Mr. Geo. Frank, lie said that these specimens added considerable 
positive knowledge on the subject of the variation of the species. These speci- 
mens, undoubtedly '.'. ochracea Edw., varied in color of the upper surface of the 
wings from a dark brown to a very light buff, the males being darker than the 
females. There was also a variation in both sexes, some having ocelli, others 
wanting them. Beneath, there was just as wide variation in the ground color, 
and in the ocelli. The broken white band on the secondaries was about or quite 
obsolete in some, in others broad and definite. One specimen had a decidedly 
reddish brown submarginal band on the hind wings beneath. 

The question was asked, "might it not be that these were separate species 
Hying together'".'' 

Mr. Frank said they were taken near St. Paul, Minn. Mostly on the same 
day in one small locality; that there was a continuous iutergradation and that 
he found some widely differing in markings and color, in coitu. 

Mr. Hulst spoke at some length upon the subject of the evening "the effect 
of external conditions upon Lepidoptera", remarking upon the three influences, 
temperature, humidity, and food, and took the ground that the most of direct 
and immediate changes in the appearance of the insect, resulting from these 
three causes, could be explained on the theory of impaired or redundant vitality. 
And in the most of cases w here the changes did not apparently follow from im- 
paired or redundant vitality, it was only fair, though our knowledge did not give 
proof, to suppose these were the operating causes. Considerable exception was 
taken to Mr. Ilulst's views, but as the hour of adjournment had arrived, nothing 
but an expression of dissent could be given. It was especially thought by some, 
thai food had often a direct modifying influence. 





AMERICANA 



VOL. I. 



BROOKLYN, JUNE, 1885. 



NO. 3. 



Record of some Contributions to the Literature of North 
American Beetles, published in 1883 — 84* 

By Samuel Henshaw. 

In II the first number (in heavy-faced type) refers to the author- 
list in I. 

An examination of II shows that twelve (12) authors have described 
nine (9) new genera and three-hundred and ninety-five (395) new species. 

E=^_IR,T I. 

Casey, T. L. 

7 Motes on Coleoptera. 
Bull. Bkl. E. S. 1884, v. 7, p. 64-67. 

8 Revision of the CucnjicUe of America 
north of Mexico. 

Trans. Am. Ent Soc. 1884, v. XI, 
p. 99-112, plates 4-8. 

9 Contributions to the descriptive and 
systematic Coleopterology of North 
America. Part I. 

Phila. 1884, pp. 60, i plate. 

10 Revision of the Stenini of America 
north of Mexico. 

Phila. 1884, pp. 206, 1 plate. 
(.See Science 1884, v. 4, p. 561.) 

11 (Malformation of Acmreops.) 
Science 1884, v. 4, No. 96, p. 5 Bull. 

Caulfield, F. B. 

12 Remarks on Chrysomela scalaris 
Lee, Chrysomela labyrinthica Lee. 
and Physonota unipuncta Say. 

Ca. Ent. 1884, v. 16, p, 226—7. 



Anthony, A. C. 

1 Lebia grandis in Massachusetts. 

Quart. Journ. Bost. Zool. Soc. 1883, 
v. 2, p. 16. 
Blanchard, F. 

2 Note on the habits of Amphicoma 

vulpina. 

Bull. Bkl. E. S. 1883, v. 5, p. 90. • 

3 Table of Balaninus Germ. 

Bull. Bkl. E. S. 1884, v. 7, p. 106-8. 

4 Note on the species of Gaurotes Lee. 

Bull. Bkl. E. S. 1884, v. 7, p. 108. 
Bowditch, F. C. 

5 Notes on the habits of Hydrocharis 

obtusatus Say and Magdalis olyra 
Herbst. 

Quart. Journ. Bost. Zool. Soc. 18I 
v. 3, p. 1-7. 
Bowles, G. H. 

6 On luminous Insects. 

Rept. Ent. Soc. Ontario for 1882. 
1883, p. 34, figures. 



* This brings the Record of American Coleopterology from where it was left in 
the Bulletin, B.E.S., V, 69 -74 to Jan. 1, 1885. J. B. S. 



—42- 



15 



16 



Chaudoir, Max de. 

13 Monographic das Oodidea Part. 2. 

Ann. Soc. Ent. Fiance 1882, (1883) 
ser. 6, v. 2, p. 485—554. 
Clarkson, Frederick. 

14 The dung pellet makers. 

Ca. Ent 1884, v. 16, p. 18—19. 
Origin and limitation of the term 
Scarabaeus. 
Prionua brevicornis Fabr. 
Ca. Ent. 1884, v. 16, p. 95. 
Haoitats. 

Galeruca xanthomelsena Schrank. 
Ca. Ent. 1884. v. 16. p. 124-5. 
Destructive, to elms at Long Island 
Claypole, E. W. 

17 The Colorado Potato -Beetle. 

Amer. Nat. 1883, v. 17, p. 1174-75 
\,i second brood in 18w3; scarcity 
in the Middlt stales during 1883 
[See Science 1883, 0. 2, p. 327.) 
Coleman, N. 

18 The Colorado Potato-Beetle pupating 
above the ground. 

Quart. Journ. Bust. Zool. Soc 1 
v. 2, p. 32. 
Coquillett, D. W. 

19 Descriptions of a few leaf-eating Co- 
leopterous larvae 

Ca. Ent. 1883, v. 15, p. 21—2 
Brief description of Chrysomela 
pallida, V. clivicollis, G. multigut- 
tis, V. bigsbyana, C. similis, Lema 
cottaris, Doryphora juncta, and D. 
VO-lineata. 

20 Notes on the early stages of Xylo- 
trechus annosus Say. 

Ca. Ent. 18S3, v. 15, p. 31—32 

21 Notes on the early stages of Calop- 
teron reticulatum Fabr. 

( la. Ent. 1883, v. 15, p. 97—98 

22 Descriptions of a few Elaterid and 
allied larvse. 

Ca. Ent. 1883, v. 15, p. 101— 2. 
Describes E later nigricoUis, An, 
drochirus fxiscipes, Athous cucul 
talus. 

23 Notes on the early stages of Lixus 
macer Leconte. 

Ca. Ent. 1883, v. 15, p. 113. 



Deveraux, W. L. 

24 Coal tar for the Plum weevil. 
Ca. Ent 1883, v. 15, p. 236. 

Ineffectual. 

25 Weevil versus Curculio. 
Ca. Ent. 1884, v. 16, p. 27—29. 

Application of the terms, 
Dimmock, A. K. 

26 Sexual attraction in Prionus. 
Psyche, 1884, v. 4, p. 159. 

Dimmock, George. 

27 Scales of Coleoptera. 
Psyche, 1883, v. 4, p. 3-1 1 ; 23-27: 

43-47; 63 7i- 
Describes and figures the scales oj 
species ql CicindeUdce, Dermestidce, 
Scarabatidai, Buprestidce, Elateri- 
dev, Ptinklw, Cerambycidce, and 
Ourculiomdce. Literature of the 



subject. *See Science 1883, v. 1. p. 
203; 1884, v. 3, p. 127—28. 

28 Coleoptera. 

Stand. Nat. Hist. Bost. 1884, v. 2, 
p. 297—402, figures. 

Popular illustrated account of the 

order. 
Doll, J. 

29 (Habits of Dynastes; ) 

Science, 1884, v. 4, No. 97, p. 6, 
Bull. 
Duges, E. 

30 Metamorphoses du Lyctus planicol- 
lis Lee. 

Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1883, v. 27, p. 
54-59, plate. 
Duvivier, Antoine. 

31 Enumeration des Staphylinides de- 
crits depuis la publication du Cata- 
logue de MM. Gemminger & de Ha- 
rold. 

Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1883, v. 27, 
p. 91—215. 
Evans, John D. 

32 llemarkable gathering of beetles. 

Ca. Ent. 1883. v. 15, p. 237-38. 
Forbes, S. A. 

33 Insects injurious to the Strawberry. 

Trans. Miss. Valley Ilort. Soc. 1883, 
v. I, p. 50-85. 
Describes the habits, early stages 



—43— 



&c of Lachnosterm sp., Gotalpa 
lanigera, Paria G-notata, P. ater- 
rima, Otiorhynchus sulcatus and 
Tyh Kle rm a f r agaric? . 

34 The food relation* of the Carabidre 
and Coccinellidae. 

Bull. 111. State. Lab. N. H. 1883, 
No. 6, p. 33-64. 

See also Science 1883, v. 1, p. 317; 

Am. Nat. 1883, v. 17, p. 417—19. 

35 Twelfth Report of the State Entomo- 
logist on the noxious and beneficial 
Insects of the State of Illinois. 

Springfield, Illinois, 1883. 

Not seen. Gives notes on the Corn- 
root worm, Diabrotica longicornis 
and the Strawberry Grown borer, 
Tyloderma fragarice. Also re- 
marks on the food relations of pre- 
daceous beetles. 

36 Thirteenth Report of the State Ento 
mologist on the noxious and benefi- 
cial Insects of the State of Illinois. 

Springfield, Illinois, 1884. 

Includes notes on Diabrotica longi- 
cornis injuring Com and on the fol- 
lowing Strawberry pests, Lachno- 
sterna sp., Gotalpa lanigera, Allo- 
rhina nitida, Scelodonta pubescens 
(= nebulosus), Paria G-notata. P. 
aterrima, Golaspis brunnea, Otio- 
rhynchus sulcatus, Anthonomus 
musculus and Tylodermafragaria^ 
Figures of several of the above are 
given. 

37 On the life-histories and immature 
stages of three Eumolpini. 

Psyche, 1884, v. 4, p. 123-30, pi. 1. 
Relates to Golaspis brunnea, Paria 
aterrima, Scelodonta pubescens ( = 
nebulosus) all of ichich injure the 
roots of the Strawberry. 

38 On the life-histories and immature 
stages of thiee Eumolpini. Correct 
ive Note. 

Psyche, 1884, v. 4, p. 167—168. 

39 Insects affecting the Strawberry. 

Trans. Wise. State Agr. Soc. , v. 21 
Not seen. 



French, G. H. 

40 Preparatory stages of Epilachna b< >- 
realis Fabr. 

Ca. Ent. 1883, v. 15, p. 189—91. 
Fuchs, C. 

41 A lost locality. 
Bull. Bid. E. S. 1883, v. 5, p. 81. 

Near Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Gerstaecker, A. 

42 Ueber die Stellung der Gattung Ple- 
ocoma Lee. im System der Lamel- 
licornier. 

Stett. Ent. Zeit. 1883, Jahrg. 44, p. 
436—50. 
Godman, F. Ducane & Osbert Salvin. 

43 Biologia Centrali-Americana. 
London . 

Parts 21—34 Jan. 1883-Decemb. 
1884 contain portions ofAdephaga 
by Bates, Staphylinidoz by Sharp, 
Malacodermata by Gorham,. Phyto- 
phaga by Jacoby and Tenebrioni- 
dai by Champion. 
Hagen, H. A. 

44 Lawsuits against grubs and grass- 
hoppers. 

Science, 1884, v. 4, p. 168 — 71. 
Partial reprint of paper wit It. same 
title which was first printed in 1881. 

45 Chrysomela scalaris. 
Ca. Ent. 1884, v. 16, p. 120. 

Abundant on elms at Cambridge, 
Mass. during May. 
40 Scolytus rugulosus in branches of 
Pear-trees, which were killed by 
Pear-blight. 

Ca. Ent. 1884, v. 16, p. 161—63. 

47 Note on Chalcographa scalaris Lee. 
Ca. Ent. 1884, v. 16, p. 225—26. 

48 Note on the habitat of Xyloryctes sa- 
tyrus. 

Ca. Ent. 1884, v. 16, p. 239—40. 
Hamilton, John. 

49 Observations on Anthrenus varius 
Fabr., Anthrenus musaeorum Lin., 
Trogoderma ornata Say, and Sito- 
drepa panicea Lin. 

Ca. Ent. 1883, v. 15, p. 90-93. 

50 Notes on a few species of Coleoptera 
which are confused in many collect- 



—44- 



ioiis, and on sonic introduced Euro- 
pean species. 
Ca. Ent. 1884, v. 16, p. 35—38. 

51 The survival of the fittest among cer- 
tain species Of Ptclosticlms as de- 
duced from their habits. 

Ca. Ent. 1884, v. 16, p. 73—77. 

52 On Valgus canaliculars and sqna- 
miger, Elleschus bipunctatus, Xylo- 
lyctes satyrus. 

Ca. Ent. 1884, v. 16, p. 105 8. 
.")!! On Trogoderma ornata, Physonqta 
unipuuctata and Taiiysphyrus lem- 
nae. 

Ca. Ent. 1884, v. 16, p. 133-36. 
", 1 (Joleoptera in September on Brigan- 
tine Beach, N. J , on the Atlantic 
Coast. 

Ca. Ent. 1884, v. 16, p. 186 90. 
Hanham, A. W. 

55 Entomological Notes. 

Ca. Ent. 1884, v. 16, p. 98 - 99. 
Notes on afew species eaten by toads. 
Harrington, W. H. 

56 ( Beetles injurious to men.) 

Ca. Ent. 1883, v. 15, p. 59—60. 
Acmaeops pratensis in the ear, 
Melanophila lonyipes biting th 
neck. 

57 (Notes on Beetles.) 

Ca. Ent 1883, v. 15, p. 79-80. 
Records and habitats of a few 
species. 

58 Variations in mai'kings of Cicindela 
se .< guttata. 

Ca. Ent. 1883, v. 15, p. 239. 

59 Ohrysornelidae. Leaf-Eaters. 

Rept. Ent. Soc. Ontario for 1882, 

188 3, P- 53- 62 > figures. 

60 Injurious Insects affecting the Hick- 
ory. Coleoptera. 

Rept. Ent. Soc. Ontario for 1883, 

1884, p. 42 -52, figures. 

61 List of Ottawa Coleoptera. 

Trans. Ottowa Field, Nat. Club, 

1884, v. 2, p. 67—85. 

Introductory comparing previous 
Canadian and a few local lists with 
the present. List o/'1003 species 
included in 524 genera ami 67/am, 



Hi) species an ru w to ( hnadian 
lists. See Science 1884, 0. 3, p. 235 
Cd (Gathering of beetles. ) 

Ca Ent. 1884, v 16, p 17-18. 

63 Additions to Canadian lists of Cole- 
optera. 

Ca. Ent. 1884, v. 16, p. 44 47; 70 
to 73; 96—98; 117 -19. 
Harrington, W. H., James Fletcher 
and J. B. Tyrrell. 

64 Coleoptera. 

Trans. Ottawa Field Nat. Club, 

1884, V. 2, p. 137-39- 

Notes on a number of species. 
Hayward, R. 

65 A note on Acmseodera culta. 

Quart. Journ. Bost. Zool. Soc. 1883, 
v. 2, p. 56. 

On the flowers of Hypoxys erecta. 

66 On the sexual characters of Boleto- 
therus bifurcus. 

Quart. Journ. Bost. Zool. Soc. 1884, 
v. 3, p. 16-17. 
Hayward, R. and H. Savage. 

67 A catalogue of the Coleoptera of the 
Green Mountains. 

Quart. Journ. Bost. Zool. Soc. 1883, 
v. 2, p. 12 15; 24-29; 36-38. 
Hill, F. C. 

68 On the antenna of Meloe. 

Am. Journ. of Sc. 1883, ser. 3, v. 

25. P- 137—38, figures. 
Describes the distortion of the male 
antenna and its use during copu- 
lation. 
Holland, W. J. 

69 (Use of the jaws of the male Eupsalis 
minuta.) 

Bull. Bkl. E. S. 1883, v. 6, p. 46. 
Horn, G. H. 

70 Synoptic table of Pseudomorpha. 

Bull. Bkl. E. S. 1883, v. 6, p. 16. 

71 Synoptic table of Tachycellus. 

Bull. Bkl. E. S. 1883, v. 6, p. 51-2. 

72 The species of Discoderus. 

Bull. Bkl. E. S. 1883, v. 6, p. 52-3. 

73 Synoptic table of Mallodon. 

Bull. Bkl. E. S. 1884, v. 7, p. 9. 

74 Notes on Chrysomela. 

Ca. Ent. 1884, v. 16, p. 127 — 29. 



-4S — 



Odligrapha muitiguttis Stal. = 
scalaris Lee. ; C. multiguttata Stal, 
C. opifera Stal recorded from Ari- 
zona; C. labyrinlhici Lee. Ms. = 
C. pnirsa Stal; G. limbaticollis Stal 
not N. American; D rryphora 
melunothorax Stal recorded from 
X. Mexico, and Plagiodera fioscu- 
losa Stal from California. 

75 Synonymical Notes. 

Ca. Ent. 1884, v. 16, p. 147 —48. 
Possible identity of Lames is, 
Westw. and Xenorhipis Lee. ; Cyr- 
tophcrrus gibbulus Lee. = Micro- 
clytus gazellula Raid; Leptura coc- 
cinea L,ec. = teslacea Linn., L. 
atrata Lee. = proxima Kirby. 

76 Miscellaneous notes & short studies 
of North American Coleoptera. 

Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. 1883, v. 10. 
p. 269—312, plate 9. 

77 (Poecilobrium n. g. proposed for 
species included in Callimus.) 

Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. 1883, v. 10, 
p. 11, Proc. 

78 (Method of mounting dissections of 
the mouth parts of beetles. ) 

Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. 1883, v. 10 
p. 13, Proc. 

79 (Outer lobe of maxilla present in the 
Gyrinidae.) 

Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. 1883, v. 10, 
p. 16, Proc. 

80 (Work of Attagenus megatoma in 
ticking.) 

Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. 1883, v. 10, 
p. 17, Proc. 

81 Notes on the species of Anomala in- 
habiting the United States. 

Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. 1884, v. 11, 
p. 157-64. 

82 Synopsis of the United States species 
of Notoxus and Mecynotarsus. 

Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. 1884, v. 11, 
p. 165—76. 

83 Synopsis of the Philonthi of Boreal 
America. 

Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. 1884, v. 11, 
p. 177—244. 



Hubbard, H. G. 

84 (Habits of Mallodon melanopus.) 

Science 1884, v. 4, No. 96, p. 5, Bull. 
Jones, A. W. 

85 Notes on the habits of Cic'ndelidae. 

Bull. Bkl. E. S. 1884, v. 7, p. 74-6. 
Kellicott, D. S. 

86 Psephenus Lecontei, on the external 
anatomy of the larva. 

Ca. Ent. 1883, v. 15, f. 191 —98, figs. 
See Science, 1883, v. 2, p. 337. 
Kilman, A. H. 

87 Phytonomus punctatus Fabriciufi. 

Ca. Ent. 1884, v, 16, p. 144 -45. 
Abundance in Canada, description 
and habits. 
Lameere, Aug. 

88 Addenda et corrigenda a la liste des 
Ceranibycides decrits posterieure- 
ment au catalogue de Munich. 

Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1883, v. 27, p. 
104—5, C. R. 

89 Contributions a l'histoire des meta- 
morphoses des Longicornes de la 
famille des Prionidae. 

Not seen. 
Describes ami figures pupa of Pa- 
randra polita Say. 
Leconte, J. L. 

90 Synoptic table of Stenolophus. 

Bull. Bkl. E. S. 18S3, v. 6, p. 13-25. 

91 Synoptic table of Acupalpus. 

Bull. Bkl. E. S. 1883, v. 6, p. 15. 

92 Synoptic table of Calathus. 

Bull. Bkl. E. S. 1883, v. 6, p. 49. 

93 Synoptic table of Agonoderus. 

Bull. Bkl. E. S. 1883. v.6, p. 53-54. 

94 Lists of Coleoptera collected in 1881 
by Dr. Bell and others in the Lake 
Superior district and in the North- 
west Territories, east of the 112th 
meridian and south of the 60th par- 
allel. 

Geol. and Nat. Hist. Surv. of Ca. 
Kept, of Progress (or 1880-81-82, p. 

2 9 c — 39 c - 
Leconte, J. L. & G. H. Horn. 

95 Classification of the Coleoptera of 
North America. 



- 4 6— 



Smithsonian Misc. Coll. 1883, v. 26, 
pp. 38 and 567. 
Leng, C. W. 

96 Synopses of Cerambycidae. 

' Bull. Bkl. E. S. 1884, v. 7, p. 7 11; 
57— 64; 95— 101; 112 — 16; plate 2. 

97 (Notes on a few beetles. ) 

Bull. Bkl. E. S. 1884, v. 7, p. 76-7. 
Lugger, Otto. 

98 Spread of the 12-punctured Aspara- 
gus beetle. 

Am. Nat. 1883, v. 17, p. 199. 

99 Food-plants of beetles bred in Mary- 
land. 

Psyche, 1884, v. 4, p. 203—4. 

100 List of Coleoptera found in the vi- 
cinity of Baltimore. 

Johns Hopkins Univ. Circ. v, 3, No. 
30, p. 7S—79- 
Not seen. 
Matthews, A. 

101 On the classification of the Coleop- 
tera of North America by Dr. J. L 
Leconte and Dr. G. H. Horn. 

Ann. and Mag. N. H. 1883, ser. 5 
v. 12, p. 167 — 72. 

102 Synopsis of North American Tri- 
chopterygidae. 

Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. 1884, v. 11 
p. 113-56. 
Merriam, C. H. 

103 Kavages of a rare Scolytid Beetle in 
the Sugar Maples of Northeastern 
New York. 

Am. Nat. 1883, v. 17, p. 84 6, tigs. 
Concerning Gorthylus punctatissi- 
mus Zimm. 
Moffat, J. A. 

104 (Notes on Calopteron reticulatum.) 

Ca. Int. 1S83, v. 15, p. 179—80. 
Osborn, H. 

105 The Corn-root worm (Diabrotica 
longicornis. ) 

Bull, Iowa, Agric. Coll. Dept. Ent. 
1884. No. 2, p. 61—69. 
Packard, A. S. 

106 Descriptions of the larva 1 of injuri- 
ous forest insects. 

Third Rept. U.S. Ent. Comm. 1S8 
p. 251—62, plates 6 — 15. 



Concerning Buprestidceand Oeram- 

byc'nlir. 

107 The development of the bark-bor- 
ing beetles Hylurgops & Xyleborus. 

Third Rept. U.S. Ent. Comm. 1883 
p. 280 — 82, plate 22. 

108 Mode of oviposition of the common 
pine borer (Monohammus confusor). 

Am. Nat. 1884, v. 18, p. 1149— 51. 

109 Egg-laying habits of the Maple-tree 
borer (Glycobius speciosus. ) 

Am. Nat. 1884, v. 18, p. 1 151— 52. 
Patton, W. H. 

110 Sound-producing organs in Ano- 
mala, Anthonomus and other Coleop- 
tera. 

Psyche, 1884, v. 4, p. 146. 
Pergande, T. 

111 (Ptinus brunneus bred from rat 
dung. ) 

Science, 1884, v. 4, No. 96, p. 5, 
Bull. 
Regimbart, M. 

112 Essai monographique de la famille 
des Gyrinidae. 

Ann. Soc. Ent. France 1882, ser. 6, 
v. 2, p. 379—458, plates 10-12; 
1884, ser. 6, v. 3, p. 121 — 90, plate 
6; p. 381—482, plates 11 — 14. 
Reinecke, O. 

113 Longevity of beetles. 

Bull. Bkl. E. S. 1883, v. 6, f. 36. 
Microclytus gazellula alive after 
immersion in alcohol /<>r sen nil 
hours. 

114 Invasion of Phytonomus opimus, 
Leconte. 

Buffalo Freie Presse, Aug. 12, 1884, 
Bull. Bkl. E. S. 1884, v. 7, p. 76. 
Reitter, Edw. 

115 Platypsylla castoris Bits., als Ver- 
treter einer neuen europaeisehen 
Coleopteren-Familie. 

Wien. Ent. Zeit. Jahrg. 3, p. 19-21. 
Not seen. 
Rey, CI. 

116 Description de la larve de l'Anthicus 
tioralis. 

Ann. Soc. Linn. Lyon. 1883, new 
ser. v. 29, p. 141 — 42. 



-47— 



Ricksecker, L. E. 

117 On the occurrence of Aniphicoma 

Bull. Bkl. E. S. 1883, v. 5, p. 83. 
Flying over sand dunes near San 
Francisco. 
Riley, C. V. 

118 On a gall-making genus of Apio- 
ninae. 

Bull. Bkl. E. S. 1883, v. 6, p. 61 — 

119 Food habits of Megilla maculata. 

Am Nat. 1883, v. 17, p. 322—23. 

120 Damage to silverplate by insects 
(Niptus hololeptus). 

Am. Nat. 1883, v. 17, p. 420. 

121 Number of moults and length of 
larval life as influenced by food. 

Am. Nat. 1883, v. 17, p. 547—48. 
Observations upon Tenebrio moll 
tor, T. obscurus and Trogoderma 
tarsale. 

122 Insects affecting stored Bice. 

Am. Nat. 1883, v. 17, p. 790. 
Mentions several beetles. 

123 Hypermetamorphoses of the Meloi- 
dae. 

Am. Nat. 1883, v. 17, p. 790 — 91. 
Revision of the nomenclature of 
the larval forms. 

124 Enemies of the Egg-plant. 

Am. Nat. 1883, v. 17, p. 1070. 
Mentions Cassida texana, Dory- 
phora juncta. 

125 Habits of Murmidius. 

Am. Nat. 1883, v. 17, p. 1071. 
Lives in old rice and straw ; spins 
a cocoon; names several cocoon- 
spinning beetles. 

126 Cantharis Nuttalli injuring wheat. 

Am. Nat. 1883, v. 17, p. 1 174. 

127 Hymenorus rufipes as a myrmico- 
philus species. 

Am. Nat. 1883, v. 17, p. 1176. 
In nests of Formica fusca. 

128 Keport of the Entomologist. 

Rept. Comm. Agric. 1883, p. 99 to 

180. 
Pages 159—70, plate 12, fig. 3, 
give descriptions and figures of all 
stages of Galeruca xanthomelcuna ; 
also remedial recommendations. 



129 Hitherto unknown mode of ovipo- 
sition in the Carabidae. 

Science, 1884, v. 4, p. 342. 

Chlcenius impunctifrons traced 
from egg to beetle. 

130 The insects of the year. 

Science, 1884, v. 4, p. 565 —68. 
The seasonal occurrence of insects. 
Riley, C. V. & H G. Hubbard. 

131 (Habitats of Mezium.) 

Science, 1884, v. 4, No. 96. p. 5, 
Bull. 
Roberts, C. H. 

132 (Notes on beetles.) 

Bull. Bkl. E. S. 1884, v. 7, p. 77-9. 
Saunders, William. 

133 Insects injurious to the White Pine 
Pinus strobus. 

Rept. Ent. Soc. Ontario, for 1883, 
1884, p. 52-59. 
Several beetles are reported upon. 
Saunders, W. E. 

134 Insects injurious to drugs. 

Ca. Ent. 1883, v. 15, p. 81—83, 
Rept. Ent. Soc. Ontario for 1883, 
1884. p. 29 --30. 
Mentions six beetles. 
Schaupp, F. G. 

135 On the occurrence of Aniphicoma 
(lupina). 

Bull. Bkl. E. S. 1883, v. 5, p. 83. 
Flying over the sand at Coney Is- 
land, New York. 

136 Hints for raising Coleopterous 
larvae. 

Bull. Bkl. E. S. 1883, v. 6, p. n; 
16—19. 

137 List of Carabidae, found in the 
neighborhood of New York City. 

Bull. Bkl. E. S. 1883, v. 6, p. 29 to 
32; 71—72. 
Annotated list of about 214 species. 

138 Sea-shore collecting. 

Bull. Bkl. E. S. 1883, v. 6, p. 36. 
Notes on a few Carabidce. 

139 Synoptic table of Bradycellus. 

Bull. Bkl. E. S. 1883, v. 6, p. 50. 

140 Larva of Galerucella sagittariae 
Gyll. 

Bull. Bkl. E. S. 1883, v. 6, p. 54. 



- 4 8- 



141 The species of Cicindelidae. 

Bull. Bid. E. S. 1883, v. 6, p. 73 to 
108, plates. 

142 Remarks and descriptions of new 
species (of Cicindelidae). 

Bull. Bkl. E. S. 1884, v. 6, p. 121 
to 124, figures. 
Schwarz, E. A. 

143 Insects affecting drugs. 

Ca. Ent. 1883, v. 15, p. 140; 

Rept. Ent. Soc. Ontario for 1883, 

1884, p. 30. 
Adds Lasioderma serricorne and 
Oryphalus jalappce to the list 
given by W. E. Saunders. 

144 Injury done by Colaspis tristis. 

Am. Nat. 1883, v. 17, p. 978. 
Destruction of the terminal shoots 
of the pear and peach. 

145 Coleoptera infesting Prickly Asb. 

Am. Nat. 1883, v. 17, p. 1288—9. 

146 Habits of Blaps and Embapbion. 

Am. Nat. 1884, v. 18, p. 76. 

147 Carabidae confined to single plants. 

Bull. Bkl. E. S. 1884, v. 6, p. 135-6. 
Mario monilicornis and ? Psy- 
drus piceus under pine bark, Bro- 
mius atriceps in steins of grass 
and Onota fioridana between leaf- 
ribs of Cubbage palmetto. 

148 Notes on tbe food-habits of some 
N.A. Bhynchophora. 

Bull. Bkl. E. S. 1884, v. 7, p. 8; 
Sharp, D. 

149 Revision of the species included in 
the genus Tropisternus (fam. Hydro 
philidae. 

Trans. Ent. Soc. London, 1883, p 
91 — 117. 
Shufeldt, R. W. 



152 Mordellidae, Notes & Descriptions. 

Bull. Bkl. E. S. 1883, v. 6, p. 3—5. 

153 Synopsis of the Apioninae of North 
America. 

Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. 18S4, v. II. 
p. 41 — 68, plate 3. 
Snow, F. H. 

154 Additions to the list of Kansas Cole- 
optera in 1881 and 1882. 

Trans. Kans. Acad. v. 8, p. 58. 
Not seen. 

155 Trogoderma tarsale as a Museum 
pest. 

Am. Nat. 1883, v. 17, p. 199, (from 
Psyche v. 3). 
Stejneger, L. 

156 Contributions to the history of the 
Commander Island. 

Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 1883, v. 6, p. 
58 -89. 

A few families and genera are 

mentioned. 
Stone, George H. 

157 Epilachna corrupta as an injurious 
in sect. 

Am. Nat. 1883, v. 17, p. 198--99. 
Heeding on blackwax beans. 
Townsend, C. H. T. 

158 On the variation of the elytra! mark- 
ings in Cicindela sexguttata. 

Ca. Ent. 1883, v. 15, p. 205—8. 

159 Further remarks upon the variation 
of the elytral markings in Cicindela 
sexguttata. 

Ca. Ent. 1884, v. 16, p. 125—27. 

160 The proportion of the sexes in Ci- 
cindela vulgaris Say and other 
notes on the species. 

Ca Ent. 1884, v. 16, p. 227—31. 

161 Note on the inequality of the elytra 
in Alaus ocidatus. 

Ca. Ent. 1884, v. 16, p. 238—39. 
Troop, James. 



150 Observations upon a collection of j 162 Strawberry Pests. 



Insects made in the vicinity of New 
Orleans, La., during the years 1882 
and 1883. 

Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus. 1884, v. 7, p. 

331—38. 

List of species, copy from Riley 
of notes and figures of a luminous 
hirrn. 
Smith, J. B. 
151 New Mordellidae and Notes. 

Bull. Bkl. E. S. 1883, v. 5, p. 80-1. 



Science, 1884, v. 4, No. 91, p. 6, 
Bull. 

Notes mi Tyloderma fragarice and 

0tiorhynchu8 ligneus. 
Van Wagenen, G. H. 

163 (Abundance of Galeruca xanthome- 
laenae in New York; 

Ca. Ent. 1883, v. 15, p. 160. 

Williston, S. W. 

164 Protective secretions of a species of 
I lleodes. 

Psyche, 1884, v. 4, p. 168—69. 



(To be continued.) 



—49— 

New species of Californian Moths 

By Henry Edwards. 
FAM. jEGERIADAE. 

Pyrrhotaenia Elda, n. sp. (?) 

Closely allied to P. heliardhi, P.fragarice and P. Behrensii. The forewings 
are bright bluish green, with the internal margin fiery copper red, this color being 
broadest at the base, ceasing before reaching the interior angle. The lower wings 
are fiery copper red, the fringes of both pairs golden purple. Front, pectus, palpi, 
sides of thorax and abdomen, caudal tuft, three posterior se rments of abdomen, fore 
femora, and all the tibise fiery copper red. Both pairs of wings are quite opaque. 
Beneath there is on secondaries a black discal spot, and the upper wings are coppery 
red with a purple flush, •and purplish toward the posterior half. 

It is by no means unlikely that this is the Q of /■'. Behrensii, the 
lower wings of which are transparent, and should this prove to be the 
case it may also be concluded that P. helianthi with opaque wings is the 
9 of P.fragarice, in which the wings are transparent. The fact of 
the different disposition of the abdominal band is against this conclusion, 
but a careful study of the group has convinced me that the sexes differ 
considerably, and in P- animosa Hy. Edw. , described in Papilio, Vol. 3, 
p. 1 56, they are distinguished by the character referred to, the lower wings 
of the $ being transparent, while those of the 9 are opaque. In other 
of the genera this peculiarity appears, especially so in Sannina exitiosa 
Walk., and in Falua denudata Harr., and I shrewdly suspect that Melittia 
(Scs/'a) grande Streck. will prove to be the $ of M. gloriosa Hy. Edw. I 
have seen none but <$$ of the former of these species and none but Q 9 
of the latter. But further observation is needed, and we may have some 
time to wait for definite conclusions as the insects are remarkably rare. 
P. Elda is the size of/ 3 . Behrensii {20 mm.) and is described from 2 Q 
taken in Siskiyou Co , California, by Mr. Jarnes Behrens. 

FAM. BOMBYCIDAE. 

Nadata Behrensii, 11. sp. 

Paler in color than either N. gibbosa or N. Doubledayi, the markings therefore 
standing out in bolder relief. The apex of the primaries greatly produced and the 
scalloped margins strongly defined. The anterior line is more bent in on the costa 
towards the base, thus leaving a much wider space between it and the posterior line 
than in either of the other two species. The white discal spots are ovate in shape, 
not round as in .V. gibbosa. and they are surmounted by a very conspicuous dusky 
shade. The secondaries have a well defined median band, which in the <$ is paler 
than the ground color of the wing, but in the 9 somewhat darker. The underside 
is very pale buff, almost sordid white, a reddish shade on apex of primaries, and a 
pale brown median band common to both wings. Antennae tawny. Thorax, legs, 
abdomen and palpi all sordid white, the latter without black tips. 

Exp. wings (^ 45 mm:, 9 5 2 mm - Length of body 24 mm., 9 
26 mm. 1 rf Butte Co., Cal. (R. H. Stretch). 1 9 Siskiyou Co., 
(J. Behrens). 

ENTOMOLOGICA AMERICANA 8 



—50— 

FAM. NOCTUIDAE. 

Catocala Andromache, n. sp. 

Allied to ' '. Desdemona 1 1 > . Edw. (Papilio, Vol. 2, p. 15) but much smaller, 
and with confused and indistinct markings to the upper wings. Their color is green 
ish drab, the lines all with darker shadings above and below ihem, and more regular 
in their outline than in C. Desdemona. The basal half-line is almost obsolete, the t-a 
much produced outwardl) in the middle, wink' the 1 p has .1 strong tooth outwardly 
on the third subcostal vein. Reniformand subreniform almost lost in the speckled sur- 
face of the median space. Secondaries dull orange, dusk) at base and along theabdom- 
uial margin. Median band as in ' '. Desdemona, widest in the centre, and sharply 

produced into a hook, which reaches the abdominal edge. Marginal band white at 
the apex, narrowing suddenly in the center, and abruptly and broadly cut by the 
orange field leaving an ovale black spot at the anal angle. Underside dull orange, 
the primaries bearing a broad black median band, the apex also being broadly black. 
In the specimen before me, the marginal band is divided by an orange dash as it ap- 
proaches the internal angle. Hand of secondaries as on upper side. 

Exp. wings 44 mm. Length ol body 20 mm. 
1 $ neat San Bernardino, Cal. Collection of J. Akhurst. 
No other yellow winged Catocala. is known tome from California 
except C, Zoe Behr., which belongs to another section of the genus. 
FAM. GEOMETRIDAE. 

Triphosa pustularia, n. sp. (?) 

In this singular form the primaries arc blackish brown, with the posterior mar- 
gin-, a square patch in the middle of the dark posterior space, and three or four large 
patches on the costa, pale fawn color. These marks are in very strong contrast with 
the ground shade. The secondaries are-alsopale lawn color, with the lines dark 
brown, and the abdomen is brown with fawn colored band. Underside with reddish 
tint, strongly marked discal spot, and the lines all rather indistinct. 

Exp, wings 45 mm. Length of body 18 mm. 

1 cf> l 9- Summit, Sierra Nevada. (Hy. Edw.). 1 $ British Co- 
lumbia, (J. J. Rivers). 1 9 Soda Spring, Shasta Co.. (J. Behrens). 

This may possibly prove to be an extreme variety of the well known 
F. dubitata, but it is so distinct in its markings as to deserve at least a 
varietal name. 

Triphosa badiaria, n. sp. 

Ground color of both wings bright yellowish brown, with the lines, bands and 
discal sp.it oi a very dark brown shade. The median dark band is of almost equal 
throughout, and only slightly dentate on its edges. The base and costa are also 
dark brown. Above the posterior margin, which is black, are some brown lunulcs. 
the same ornamentation being carried around the margin oJ the secondaries, which 
aie dusk}- lor their basal hall. I nderside dull law n brow ti, disi al -pots very distinct. 
but the lines only faintly marked. Thorax and abdomen yellowish brown. 

Exp. wings 40 mm. Length ofbody [6 mm. 
I 9. Shasta Co , I al., (Hy. Edw.). 

Certainly a distinct species, which cannot, 1 think, be at all referred 
to any known form. 



—5i — 

A note on Scotocryptus. 
By George H. Horn, M.D. 

The above genus was indicated by Girard (Ann. Ent. Soc. Fr. 
1874, p. 574) for a blind Silphide but was not sufficiently described to 
enable me to place it with certainty in my tables of genera. Recently 
Dr. Sharp has received a second species and realizing the difficulty above 
alluded to deals more fully with the generic characters (Comptes-rendus, 
Soc. Ent. Belg. Feb. 1885). 

The anterior coxa- are transverse and moderately prominent and 
their cavities enclosed by the meeting (if the epimera and prosternum. 
By the system suggested by me these characters place the genus in the 
Anisotomini as indicated in my Revision (Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. 1880, p. 
319) and with the help of I)r Sharp's notes its place seems immediately 
alter Agaruophagus and before instead of after LioJcs. The absence of 
eves is otherwise unknown to me in the Anisotomini and it would be in- 
teresting to know whether the posterior coxae are separated as is often the 
case in blind insects, although no mention of this is made either by 
Sharp or Girard and the very poor figure given by the latter seems to in- 
dicate that they are contiguous. 

The tarsi on all the feet, are three-jointed. To this chaiacter Dr. 
Sharp attributes considerable value and makes it the sole groundwork for 
the separation of a tribe which he places between the Anisotomini and 
ChoUvini. From my own studies this numerical reduction of the several 
joints is only another step in the direction so plainly indicated in the 
geneia already known. In order that the idea may be more readily 
grasped the genera may be disposed in the following order, the numbers 
referring to the tarsal joints: 



Triarthron 


5-5-5, 


J 9- 


Amphicyllis 


5- 


-5- 


-4, 


tf. 


Stereus 


5—5-5, 


d 9. 




5- 


-4- 


-4- 


9- 


Hydnobius 


5-5—5, 


<? 9- 


Agathidium 


5- 


-5- 


-4, 


&■ 


Dietta 


5—5—5, 


c??- 




5- 


-4- 


-\, 


9- 


Anogdus 


5—5—4, 


c? 9- 




4- 


-4- 


-4, 


9- 


Anisotoma 


5—5-4, 


d 1 9- 


Agaricophagu 


5 4- 


-3- 


_ 3> 


cf 9- 


Colenis 


5-5-4, 


cf 9- 


Aglyptus 


4- 


-3- 


-3, 


tf 9- 


Cyrtusa 


5-5-4, 


<? 9- 




3- 


-3 


-3, 


9- 


[soplastus 


5-5-4, 
5—4—4, 


9- 


Scotocryptus 


3- 


-3- 


-3, 


3 9- 


Liodes 


5—5-4, 
5—4—4, 


0. 













In a study of the above arrangement it will be seen that Scotocrypt- 
us follows naturally the course indicated by the genera which precede it. 
In order that the numerical combinations shall be complete several new 



—52— 

genera will have to be discovered, and the missing genera may be hypo- 
thetically indicated as far as the tarsal structure by any one whose inclin- 
ations run that way. 

In the tribe Clambini the tarsi are 4-4-4 in both sexes in the 
dure genera known to me. 

The antenna.- of the Anisotomini exhibit a somewhat similar tendency 
to numerical modifications: first, by having nine or ten joints; second, 
by the variation of the number of joints composing the club, being either 
three, four or five. 

In view of the facts above presented I cannot adopt the course of 
Dr. Sharp in separating Scotocryptus as a distinct tribe based on the num- 
ber of tarsal joints, while the absence of eyes is but rarely of generic value 
and in some instances merely sexual. 

STN0NTM1CAL NO VAX 

My attention has been called by Mr. S. Henshaw to the omission 
of the following species from my list of those described by Mr. 
Newman. George H. Horn. 

Catogenus puncticollis, Ann. Mag. N. II., 1839, p. 399 =C. rufus Fabr. 
Endomychus perpulcher, Ent. Mag. V, p. 390 = Mycetina perpulchra Newm. 
Schizotus cervicalis, Ent. Mag. V, p. 374. 
Cicindela ventralis, Fait. Mag. V, p. 414. 

The species is not recognizably described, the name is preoccupied 
and should be dropped. 



A. A. A. S. 

The next meeting of the American Association for the Advancement 
of Science will be held at Ann Arbor, Mich., commencing August 26th, 
1885. The Entomological Club will meet at that place on August 25th 
according to its by-laws: exact locality not yet determined. 

Will those members of the Club, or other Entomologists who ex 
pect to be present, please notify one of the undersigned, and also send 
in the title of any papers they expect to read, and the length of time they 
expect to occupy, so that a programme can be arranged. The exact 
place and hour of meeting, as well as the programme so far as fixed, will 
be published later. 

Chairman: John B. Smith, Brooklyn, N.Y. 
Herbert Osborn, Ames, Iowa. 
B. Pickman Mann, Washington, D.C. 

Committee. 



—53— 

On the identity of Cyaniris ladon of Cramer with C. pseud- 
argiolus of Boisduval and Leconte. 

By Arthur G. Butler, F.L,S., F.Z.S.L. 

In the third volume of his "Description de Papillons exotiques", 
pi. cclxx, d, E; Cramer figures a blue Lyccenid under the name ofPapilio 
ladon; in his text p. 141 he says — ''On f a irouve au Cap de bon Esper- 
ance". 

In his Encyclopedic Methodique, vol. ix, p. 678, Godart describes 
the species and repeats Cramer's locality. 

Mr. Trimen, "Rhopalocera Africa? Australis" p. 252, again describ- 
es the species but says at the end of his description — "The only example 
I have seen is the $ specimen in the British Museum ". 

The specimen mentioned by Trimen bears a label referring to the 
Old Museum Register in which I find P. Ladon Cram. a. S. Africa ?, 
the locality having evidently been assumed from the fact that Cramer 
gives Cape of Good Hope as the habitat of the species. 

The specimen described by Mr. Trimen is the form of C. pseudargi- 
olas to which Mr. W. H. Edwards has given the name of Lyccetia margin- 
a/a; it does not wholly agree with Cramer's figure, the latter being rep- 
resented by a form nearer to the Lyatna violacea of Edwards and differ- 
ing from L. marginata in the absence of the brown marginal suffusion 
only; a series of this — the typical form of C. ladon — was in the 'Zeller' 
collection labelled as Lyc&na lucia; two specimens of typical L. lucia 
stood with the series, which was obtained from Maine, U.S.A. 

The date of publication of Cramer's species is 1782, that of the de- 
scription of pseudargiolus is 1833; so that there can be no question as to 
the priority of the name C. ladon, the only pity is that M. Boisduval 
should have failed to recognize the species owing to the false locality 
given by Cramer. 



Notes and News. 



In No. 1, Vol. VIII of the Journal of the Cincinnati Soc. of Nat. 
Hist. p. 49 is a translation of an article from the "Bulletin de la Societe 
Geologique de France" 3me series, Vol. XII, p. 676, etseq., entitled 
"On the tracks of Insects resembling the impression of plants'. In it 
are described the tracks or tunnels made by a species of mole cricket 
just under the surface of a clay soil, and the superficial resemblance of 
these elevations .to stems of certain species of plants is pointed out. It 
is suggested that if by any chance such a track were preserved in, or im- 
pressed on sandstone, it might very easily be mistaken for a fossil Br achy- 



—54 — 

phyllum or Phymatoderma. The article is of great interest, presenting an 
other difficulty to the student of fossil remains. 

Mr. L. O. Howard writes us that during the month of Decern 1 hi 
enormous numbers of the great water-bug — Belostoma grandis — were at- 
tracted to the electric lights in New Orleans. In the late evening the 
pavements along Canal Street were seen almost swarming with disabled 
specimens of this insect, and many thousands were destroyed by being 
crushed under foot. He states that he was well aware of the readiness 
with which this species is attracted by light, but was hardly prepared for 
such a scene as this. The large water beetle — Cybister fimbriolatus 
was also attracted with the Belostoma, hut in smaller numbers. 

Dr. Hagen informs us that the Collection of Lepidoptera heretofore 
at the Peabody Museum, Salem, Mass., is now in his charge at Cam- 
bridge. The move is a good, and very necessary one. The collection 
contains many of Dr. Packard's and some of Mr. Morrison's types, and 
was slowly going to dust and Anthrenus when last we saw it. 

Lt. Casey has also donated his collection to the Museum at Cam- 
bridge. Having been ordered to California on military duty he was un- 
able to take the collection with him and thus disposed of it. With 
Coleoptera, the Museum is now fairly well supplied. 

The American Entomological Society has appointed Mr. S. Y 
Aaron its curator for the balance of the year, at a salary. This is a timely 
action, for the collections of that Society are too valuable to be allowed 
to go to ruin. It will be a comfort also for visitors and students to find 
some one that knows which family of Lepidoptera is concealed in the 
boxes marked Hymenoptera etc. 

We understand that Prof. Baird, Director of the U.S. National Mu- 
seum has decided to appoint an assistant Curator of the Department of 
Insects in that Museum, at a salary of $1500 per annum, and that 
Prof. Riley the Honorary Curator, in view of the fact that this action 
will secure the permanent care of collections, in case of his death or re- 
moval from Washington, has decided to turn over to the Museum all his 
own collections, the larger part of which are already deposited in the 
Museum. Also that increased attention will be given this Department 
after July first. Prof Riley is now looking for a competent man to take 
the place and will be glad to receive applications. 



—55— 

It may be of some interest to learn how much of a collection the 
National Museum can at present boast of From data kindly furnished by 
Prof. Riley, the following has been compiled. 

ist: Collection, C. V. Riley, 17,725 species with 115,058 specimens, 
divided as follows: Hymenoptera 2,550 species, 24,796 spec. ; Coleoptera 
9,058 species, 48,618 spec; Diptera 699 species, 5,646 spec; Lepidop- 
tera 2,368 species, 17,098 spec; Hemiptera 1,134 species, 8,862 spec; 
Orthoptera 560 species, 6,903 spec: Neuroptera 160 species, 868 spec; 
Arachnids and Myriapoda 1 10 species, 425 spec; Galls and Gall in- 
sects 734 species, 4.152 specimens; the balance miscellaneus and Insect 

Architecture. 

There is also an alcoholic collection, principally of adolescent states, 
containing" 2,850 vials, and a collection of some 3000 slides of minute 
insects and larva; mounted in Canada Balsam. 

2nd: Collection of Department of Agriculture. Containing a large 
lot of material accumulated in the practical work of the division, and by 
the collections of its employees. It contains about 5000 species — mostly 
exotic — not in the Riley collection. 

3rd: Collection of the National Museum. This is the poorest of the 
lot, and consists principally of the material sent in during the past three 
years from all sources. There are about 2000 species not in either of 
the other collections. 

4th: The exhibit collection of Economic Entomology prepared 
for the New Orleans Exhibition, valuable for its economical interest. A 
catalogue of this has been printed. 

This forms a good nucleus, and in charge ofa competent and enter- 
prising curator it will quickly take rank as one of the most important in 
the country. The large collection of larvae forms a distinct and decided 

addition to its value. 

* * 

* 
In the Proc. Ac. N. Sc. 1885, p. 24, Mr. Strecker describes a new 

Co/ias (r/is), from the Rocky Mts. on the boundary between the U. S. 
and British America. Mr. Strecker says: "It is an act of temerity to de- 
scribe a Colias as new under any circumstances in these days, and doub- 
ly so to describe it from examples of the female sex alone, yet I have no 
apprehension that the above insect will not stand as a valid species." 

Mr. Strecker is usually not much of a splitter, and it is somewhat 
curious that he should feel so positive of his new species, while Mr. W. 
H. Edwards, who has been strongly suspected ofa leaning to numerous 
species, contends that it is nothing but a slight variation ol a well known 
western form — Mead n \ believe. It will be something new to find Mr. 
Edwards trying to prove species identical. 



- 5 6- 

Mr. Streckei also (loc. cit. p. 26) describes a specimen of Cecropia 
with an extra primary, or rather the rudiment of one. Rather an in- 
teresting and rare monstrosity! 

* * 

* 

In the May No. of the "Correspondenzblatt des Entomologischen 
Vereins 'Iris' zu Dresden - ', Mr. J. Rober describes a similar monstrosity 
of Limenitis populi; the specimen is a $, and has besides four normally 
complete wings an additional left secondary, equal to a fragment con- 
taining the first three veins. 

Mr. Hulhert writes us from New Britain Conn, that Antho ha lis 
genutia is not uncommon near that place on rocky hills. It flies with a 

jerky motion, which renders it easily distinguishable from Pieris rapa 
with which its white color might cause it to be confounded. 

Lt. T. L. Casey in his new location is not idle — he has sent us 
some "Miscellaneous Notes"', from which we cull the following: 

The description of a somewhat singular deformity may be of some 
interest. The specimen is one of a large series and of a species oi 
Eleodes, very common about San Francisco; it is remarkably uniform in 
sculpture, being very smooth and polished with minute and sparse 
punctuation. In this specimen, however, the left elytron is entirely cover- 
ed with a regular series of small closely placed costa? which are confused- 
ly and conspicuously though minutely rugulose, and separated by well- 
marked stria.-; the right elytron is of the normal smoothness. The con- 
trast between the two is so great that it almost seems as if the left elytron 
had been removed and another of exactly the same form but of a roughly 
sculptured species had been substituted. 

I cannot account for this eccentricity except possibly that in bygone 
ages the species was roughly sculptured, and that by reason of compar- 
atively recent changes of condition and modification of surroundings it 
has become smooth. The phenomenon could then be considered to be 
the result of an effort on the part of nature to bring to light its pristine 
features, in the same manner as in the human species, where as is well 
known, characteristics of ancestors long since passed away, frequently 
re-assert themselves in the children of after generations. 

Involuntary Movement after Death. 

A chicken jumping spasmodically about after its head has been 
severed and after actual death has taken place is a familiar sight to most 
of us. These movements are simply the result of involuntary contract- 



— 57- 

ions and relaxations of the muscles, and are analogous to a phenomenon 
which I have noticed in beetles, but of course on a much more extended 
scale. On several occasions while examining minute Staphylinidae which 
had been dead thirty hours or more, with ordinary [lowers of the mi- 
croscope, 1 was surprised to find a feeble motion in the outer joints of 
the antennae. This motion was a gentle and irregular waving to and 
fro, the base of the organ being perfectly rigid, and reminding me of 
similar twistings often to be observed in the tip of a cat's tail when the 
base of that appendage is entirely motionless. These movements have 
undoubtedly been noticed and recorded before, and the)- are simply men- 
tioned here because it may be supposed that so small and slender an 
insect, having been in alcohol for twelve hours and gummed for about 
the same or longer period subsequently, would have become so dry and 
rigid as to prevent any such movement. 

I was very careful to see that no draughts or other disturbing causes 
could give rise to this singular action. T. L. (J. 

In our next number we shall commence a very interesting article on 
•'Bees and other hording insects; their specialization into females, males 
and workers". Foi the Lepidoptensts, who may perhaps think their in- 
terests rather neglected thus far, we have a supply of literature, which 
we shall present at an early date. 



Book Notices. 

Report of the Entomologist, Charles V. Riley, M. A., Ph. P., for the year 1884. 
Washington, Govt. Printing Office, 1885. From the Report of the Dept. of Agri- 
culture for 1884, pp. 285 — 418 and plates I to X. 

The public is accustomed to careful and valuable Reports from Prof. 
Riley, and this is not behind the others. As usual, a number of new 
species of economic interest are described and illustrated and the life 
histories of quite a number are worked out. Cabbage insects are pro- 
minently treated of and the life history of several Noctuid species is 
given. Reports on special subjects studied by field agents during the 
summer of 1884 occupy a portion of the Report and treat of pests that 
for some reason have attracted unusual attention. Ten plates illustrate 
the insects treated of and their life habits, and still further enhance the 
value of the Report. 

"Descriptions of North American Chalcididae from the collections of the U.S. 
Department of Agriculture, and of Dr. C. V. Riley, with Biological Notes. To- 
gether with a list of the described North American Species of the family, by L. O. 
Howard. M. Sc, Assistant, Bureau of Entomology. " 

ENTOMOLOGICA AMERICANA 9 



- 5 8- 

This paper is issued as Bulletin No. 5 of the Bureau of Entomolog) 
and its scope is sufficiently set forth in its title. Mr. Howard has for 
some time past made a special study of the parasitic Hymenoptera, and 
we are pleased to see some of the results of his patient and persistent 
labor. Six sub-families are embraced in the present paper. All the 
genera and a large number of new species are described. The paper is 
a valuable addition to the literature of this most interesting order. 

Catalogue of the Exhibit of Economic Entomology at the World's Industrial 
and Cotton Centennial Exposition, New ( Means 1884—85. Washington, (Dept. 
oi Agriculture) 1884, pp. 1 — 95. 

Boletin de la Academia Nacional de Ciencias en Cordoba (Republico Arg 
entina) Tome VII, Entraga I, 2 et 3. Buenos Aires 1884, pp. 1 -392. | All oc- 
cupied by an article on the Staphylindae of Buenos Aires, by Felix Lynch Arri 
balzaga] . 

Contributions to the Descriptive and Systematic Coleopterology of North 
America. Part II. By Thos. L. Casey, Lieut. <>f Eng'rs, U. S. A. Philadelphia, 
December 1884, pp. 61 — 198. 

Mr Casey has here given us a pamphlet, for which, with the best 
possible intentions, it is impossible to say a word of praise. He describes 
93 new species, several of them in genera that have not yet been worked 
up. Thus there are several new species of Bembidium, or as Mr. Casey 
calls it "Btmbidion"; a new Tachys which it takes over a page of brevier 
tvpe to describe, which is two millimeters long, and is unique. Such de- 
scriptions are aggravating, for their minuteness of detail, and after all 
they amount to nothing but additional names for the lists. 

There are also three new species of Cratacanthus based on color and 
proportion of parts. This, in our opinion is unwarranted; dubius is an 
exceedingly variable form, and every species described by Mr. Casey is 
represented in our scries. 

Mr. Casey in his introductory remarks, stated that he used a bin- 
ocular microscope with mechanical universal-jointed stage clip for hold- 
ing the pin. This as we can testify from personal inspection is a fine 
instrument, but the great difficult}- is that it exaggerates unimportant 
characters — even individual has peculiarities, in which it differs from 
other individuals of the- same species, and Mr. Casey's careful descript- 
ions are individual, and not characteristic of species, Mr. Casey entirely 
fails to make any allowance for variation. His illustration in reference 
to astronomical minutness of detail is totally inapplicable. This science 
has for its aim the discovery of the laws regulating stellar motions. These 
laws are immutable — there is no allowance to make for variations; while 
in the Coleoptera there are scarcely two specimens exactly alike. 



—59— 

We think a great deal of Mr. Casey, and believe him to be a close 
observer, a careful and conscientious student, and able to take a high 
rank as a coleopterist; nevertlreless, or for that very reason, we are very 
sorry to receive such a paper from him It is an obstacle, rather than an 
aid to students, and we think that some day Mr. Casey will say of this 
as Dr. Leconte did of one of his early papers — I quote from memory — 
"One of the crude results of my earlier studies was a monograph of the 
genus Pasitnachus, where, being then inexperienced in the recognition 
of species, individual characters were given a value which subsequent 
studies and material proved they did not possess"'. He adds that lie 
should have considered it a favor, had the manuscript been returned to 
him for revision or declined. J. B. S. 

Revised Catalogue of the Diurnal Lepidoptera of America, North of Mexico, 
by W. H. Edwards. Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. XI, 1884, pp. 94, [Issued February 
18th, 1885]. 

This brings the list of species to the beginning of 1885. A notable 
feature is an index to genera and species, but altogether the work is 
hardly an improvement over the previous edition. Of course Mr, Ed- 
wards allows none of the conclusions of recent writers on butterflies to 
influence him in his estimation of species. 

Notes on the Systematic Position of some North American Lepidoptera, by 
John B. Smith. Trans. Am. Ent. Hoc. XII, pp. 77—84, pi. Ill, [February 1885J. 

Discusses the genera classed as Zygcenidcz in the lists. 

On the North American Asilidae iPart II). By S. W. Williston, M.D., Trans. 
Am. Ent. Soc. XII, pp. 53 — 76, (January 1885). 

Contains synopses of Liphria, Mallop tora, Promachus, Erax, and 
Proctocanthus. Dr. Williston here continues his monographic work, and 
there is now no reason, why, in the families thus classified, students 
should not be able to collect and arrange intelligently. 



Society News. 

Brooklyn Entomological Society. May 5th, 1885.— Twenty-one members 
present, Mr. Cramer in the chair. The Secretary reported the correspondence 
with the President of the Agassiz Association, and submitted a proposition for a 
course of Introductory Lessons to be prepared by Members of the Society. It 
was resolved that the annual excursion of the Society be to Passaic Falls, Patter- 
son, N. J., on May 30, 1885, and Mr. Roberts was appointed a committee to ar- 
range details and notify members. Prof. F. Fillon was elected a member. 

Mr. Angell read a paper on some variations of Chrysomela philadelphica Lee. 
and Scalaris Lee, leading to a belief in their specific identity. This was illu- 
strated by drawing of the varieties showing the gradual change of maculation 



_o — 

from that typical of one form, to that typical of another.* Mr. Smith added that 
these variations were largely selected from material obtained by him, and there 
were some interesting Tacts as to the localities from which those specimen came. 
In Cambridge he collected several hundreds of C. scalaris, all perfectly alike In 
the pineries of New Jersey he collected 0. philadelphica, slightly variable hut with 
no particular tendency toward scalaria. In Cape Cod both species were found, 
and both somewhat variable, showing a tendency to an obliteration of tie- Lines 
of demarcation between species Specimens from the Adirondack^ further close 
the gap, while material received from Canada showed a surprising range of vari- 
ation ami furnished most of the interesting forms completing the links between 
the species. 'This was interesting because lie had found that in both Coleoptx ra 
and Lepidoptera, species that elsewhere were constant enough showed a decided 
tendency to variation in the same localities. The fauna of Northern New York 
and Canada is one of extreme interest and deserves careful study. 

Mr. Waters exhibited a specimen of Anisota Hdligbrodtii together with the 
cocoon from which it was obtained. Mr. Hulst remarked on this, that all the 
other species of Anisota had naked pupae and were subterranean, while here was 
a species apparently congeneric, which had a double cocoon like Oecroput, spun 
on mesquit: not a solid cocoon, but net-like, so as to show the pupa. Mr. Doll 
said that the geometrid Eucaterva variaria raised by him. spun a very similar co- 
coon, also donbje. Mr. Hy. Edwards joined the meeting alter adjournment and 
remarked on this subject that under some circumstances the species of I)(tl<im< 
will spin a light cocoon among d-ebris, so also as to most of the other Bombycidw 
that are usually subterranean. 

Entomological Society of Washington. April 2, 1885. -Mr. Schwarz ex- 
hibited specimens of Rhopalopus sanguinicollis Horn and remarked that this 
Cerambycid is one of the few species peculiar to the mountainous regions of the 
Alleghanies. He contrasted this scarcity of peculiar mountainous species with 
the rich montane and colli ne faun." of Europe, given as the reason of the differ- 
ence, the long established cultivation of the soil in Europe by which the fauna 
and flora of the plants have become differentiated from those of the less cultivat- 
ed hills and the uncultivated mountains. 

Mr. Howard made a statement in regard to the parasites of T kyridopteryx 
ephemerceformis. He had found the larva- of Hemiteles thyridopterigis being eaten 
by a Chalcid larva, presumably that of the Pteromalus commonly bred from the 
bags of the Tkyridopteryx. He generalized on the difficult distinction between 
primary and secondary parasites. 

Dr. Marx read a paper on the Arachnida collected b\ Dr. Turner in North- 
ern Labrador. The best presented families are tin Lycosoidce, the Drassoidcv 
and Tomisoidce. 

May 0. —Mr. Schwarz exhibited newly hatched specimens of Epiccerus im 
bricatus, still possessing the mandibular appendages. One specimen illustrated 
the process of losing these appendages. They do not break off in one piece, but 
the basal third remains attached to the mandibles and must be lost at a later 
time. 

A discussion took place between Dr. Barnard and Messrs. Stewart, Schwarz 
and Howard respecting the collection of Neuroptera. 

* The paper with plate illustrating the varieties will appear in an early 
number. 




Americana 



VOL. I. 



BROOKLYN, JULY, 1885. 



NO. 4. 



Bees and other Hoarding Insects. 

Their Specialization into Females, Males and Workers.* 
By Edwin A. Curley. 

I beg that you will note the order in which I have mentioned the 
sexes. It is females and males, and not males and females. In a scien- 
tific discussion, I feel constrained to tell the unvarnished truth regardless 
of the consequences to the social fabric; and among the Hymenoptera, it 
is most certainly a fact, that the ladies are all-important, and the gentle- 
men approach as closely to perfect insignificance as it is fairly possible to 
conceive. The happiness of a hundred thousand most willing slaves 
depends upon the mother-bee of the hive, while three thousand idle 
males do nothing but eat and loaf, and flit in the sunshine, in the hope 
of that hymenial favor which only one of their number is destined to re- 
ceive; while to the one that attains the one short flight in the sunshine 
of wedded bliss, which is the sole object of his existence, the immediate 
consequence is the sharp pain of mutilation, and then a lingering death 
to be promptly followed, or perhaps to be accompanied by the execution 
of his 2,999 insignificant and now worse than useless rivals. 

In discussing the differentiation of bees into females, males, and 
workers, I shall have no need to call your attention to any new discover- 
ies in the world of wonders among those minute creatures that we have 
had with us for all ages, and whose life we are just now beginning faintly 
to understand. My illustrations will be drawn mainly from other orders, 
in which it will be impossible for me to make a mistake without its being 
readily seen by some of the general public as well as the specialists. 

* Read before the Brooklyn Ent. Soc, Dec, 29, 1884. 



—62 — 

The limits of this paper will not permit elaborate definitions, or fine 
discriminations, and 1 have therefore to ask that you will kindly make 
your own definitions, taking care to give to my words in general, the 
narrowest sense compatible with the use to which I apply them. 

From the creatures and die plants, that man has domesticated for 
his use, we have learned nearly all of the lessons in heridity, which we 
have no good reason to unlearn, and my fust illustration shall be from 
one of these, the barn yard fowl. 

If we mate a Black Spanish fowl with a Buff Cochin, and hatch out 
the eggs as the bees do theirs, in an incubator, till we have a hundred 
chicks, among these we shall find a very great diversity. Some when 
fjlly grown will be nearly, if not quite as heavy as the Buff Cochin, and 
some will weigh little, if any, more than the Black Spanish. Their re- 
spective weights will probably vary between those natural to their sex in 
the two varieties to which their progenitors belong, but much the larger 
number will be very nearly halfway between. And as color is not neces- 
sarily correlated with weight, it is quite possible that the heaviest chick 
will be the blackest; that is to say, that he may take his color almost en- 
tirely from one parent, and his weight and form from the other. In color 
every one oftne hundred chicks will, when fully grown, be in some de- 
gree distinguished from every other; and if we take color, size and form 
together for our guide, there will not be one among the whole number 
that we cannot readily distinguish from every other. Now this particular 
cross from the great difference in size, form and color of the parent stock 
enables us to see very clearly a fact which the closest and most careful in- 
vestigation shows to be a general law It is this: 

All offspring are variable by heridity. Ami under some cireumstances 
/lie variations arc wide. 

Nearly every youth, who has amused himself with an aquarium, 
knows that he can dwarf his fish if he chooses to do so. Other things 
being equal, the weight of a fish depends upon the amount of food it is 
allowed to consume. This variability is so great among fishes, that of 
two as nearly alike as possible, either one may be fed so that he shall ex- 
ceed a pound in weight, before the other, receiving very little food, shall 
turn the scale at an ounce. ■ 

Thus insufficiency of food affects the development of all organs. 
Ail breeders of animals have some knowledge of this fact as applied to 
their own business, and of which our fish merely affords a striking ex- 
ample. It is an inevitable deduction, that when the food is of the general 
quality which is suitable for the due nourishment of all the organs but is 
insufficient in amount, the stronger organs, if such there be, will take 



-6 3 - 

more than their share, and the weaker organs will go to the wall. From 
this matter oi' food supply we have a general law, which may be stated as 
follows: 

Living creatures are variable from the amount and quality of their food. 
And among some orders the limits of this variation are wide. 

It is scarcely necessary for me to go into the fact, that the insects 
being exposed to more extreme vicissitudes than the larger orders of 
animal life are much more variable in almost every respect. It will be 
interesting, however, and it may be instructive in the line of our inquiry 
to point out some powers of variation in sex in a very common plant, 
which, while they are very much greater than those of the bee, have some 
points of striking resemblance. 

Indian Corn is pictured to the unobserving mind, as a plant bear- 
ing something good to eat at the side; and a tassel on the top. The 
botanist tells us that the tassel on the top is a male plant, that at the side 
is a female plant, or perhaps more than one, that all these are joined 
upon one stalk, and that the something good to eat, is the product of 
the female plant, fertilized by the pollen of the male. All this is fact as 
far as it goes; but it gives us no conception of the whole truth. 

On going into the field in bloom, we find that nearly all of the 
stalks have tassels on the top; they are male plants. In a good field we 
shall find perhaps half of them with reproductive females at the side, say 
two good ears of corn to a hill. There are therefore nearly twice as 
many perfect males as there are of perfect females. We find also, that 
the undeveloped females are very numerous, from one to half a dozen on 
a stalk. And a close examination shows that the number of females that 
become developed is almost entirely a matter of food. Such an investi- 
gation shows also some plants bearing only a female on the stalk and 
some that are entirely undeveloped in both sexes. 

Thus in our field of Indian corn we have male stalks, male and fe- 
male stalks, female stalks, neuter stalks. And the stalks that bear deve- 
loped male and developed female individuals all have, (a) a male indi- 
vidual on the top, (b) one, two, or three females at the side, (c) one to 
six undeveloped females at the side, and possibly with, possibly instead 
of (c) they may have, (d) one to half a dozen buds and germs of females 
at the side. 

If, when the corn is ripe, we go with the farmer and gather a basket- 
ful, we shall invariably find that on each ear there are kernels less per- 
fectly developed than others, and we shall have every reason to believe 
that in the basketful there are some kernels that could not reproduce, 
that some kernels would reproduce, but would, under the most favorable 



-6 4 - 

circumstances give but imperfect offspring, and that there would be a 
very wide range in the degrees of the imperfection of the plants produced 
from these imperfect kernels. 

As a matter of fact, the farmer in planting, selects with care the 
most perfect ears, and the most perfect parts only of the ears so selected, 
and yet we have the males, the females, and the neuters or undeveloped, 
for the result, as I have described them. 

Indian corn is so extremely variable in this matter of sex, that care- 
ful experimenting in this direction would be likely to give most interest- 
ing results in a single lifetime. 

Having now illustrated some principles of variability, and given 
some idea of the extent to which it may go, under our own observation, 
we must deal with the question before us by way of hypothesis. 

Let us suppose a primitive or typical Bee among the honey seeking 
insects of early days. She is necessarily a creature having such attributes 
as are common to all species of bees which are her offspring, but in 
many respects she is very unlike our Hive Bee of to-day We see her 
at a time when this typical species has already learned the wonderful 
lesson of thrift. She stores honey in times of plenty to provide for times 
of want. She is feeding her offspring from her stores. As the keen com- 
petition of life goes on, she must provide for the wants of her offspring 
for an ever increasing period, and, as her powers in this respect are taxed 
to the utmost, her powers of reproduction are of necessity diminished; 
she produces some imperfect eggs, and she produces fewer eggs. Still 
the vast majority of her offspring perish, either for lack of sufficient food 
or as prey to natural enemies before their power of self defence are suffi- 
ciently developed for successful flight or resistance. 

It is quite reasonable to suppose that the bee has been subjected to 
such vicissitudes as these. The extraordinary differences in the sizes of 
the various living species of bees would indicate the truth of the theory 
of insufficient food as far as we have yet followed it. If we have a species 
of bee only one-eight of an inch in length while some others are an inch 
and a quarter in length and stout in proportion, it will take one thousand 
(iooo) of these Lilliputian bees, to weigh as much as a single specimen 
i >f < me of these largest species. Is it not most reasonable to suppose that 
this tremendous variation in size, is chiefly due to the matter of food 
supply, as is the well known fact in the very laige variation we can thus 
make in the size of an individual fish? 

Now when the food supply is so very scant that the size of the off- 
spring is necessarily much dwarfed, evidently the weakest will die in the 
process of rearing; evidently also, the mother-bee whose reproductive 



-6 5 - 

powers are the weakest as to the number of offspring, and whose maternal 
instincts are the strongest, that is to say, the one that lays the fewest eggs 
and takes the best care of her young, will best succeed. 

If any broods of young perish altogether from famine, it will be 
those that are so numerous as entirely to overtax the powers of the 
mother-bee in feeding them. Thus we gradually approach a time when 
the care of the mother-bee extends to a period in the life of the offspring, 
when they appreciate and respond to her affection. The offspring are 
still numerous and the struggle for existence is severe. The food supply 
is sufficient to bring the young to that point in existence when they are 
capable of applying with some prospect of success the instinct, that is to 
say, the congenital knowledge inherited from the mother. And as the 
mother-bee continues after this period to help them in their struggle for 
existence, they see and understand her assistance, and they neccessarily 
respond to her affection. Here is definitely established filial love, in re- 
sponse to maternal affection and it is necessary that this filial love should 
be established in strength even in this little insect, before it is possible 
that the specialization under consideration shall commence. It must 
not be supposed that the size of these tiny creatures renders them incap 
able of this strong feeling, — we must in this respect as in others go by 
the evidence of our senses and the necessities of the case. Without strong 
affection the whole life of these bees is quite inexplicable, while with it 
their conduct is the natural outcome of a certain amount of intelligence 
applied to certain conditions of existence. 

Among all creatures nursed with a mothers care, filial love grows 
stronger and stronger, according to the capacity and circumstances of 
the offspring and the strength of that affection which calls it forth. But 
when the time for mating approaches the young seek other relationships 
and so far as it is incompatible with these does filial love decay. 

But what happens if the young are by nature incapacitated for these 
other relationships? 

Then filial love necessarily grows with the individual and strengthens 
with her strength. 

The mating instinct may be almost or wholly lacking; and if wholly 
lacking, then all of that part of the highly nervous organization, inherited 
from the mother that is devoted to the affections, will have no other out- 
let than in filial love. 

The common life around us, and man himself will perhaps afford 
us some partial illustrations of this necessary law. The best illustration 
outside of the insect world is one of which the facts may be easily ascer- 
tained by any person who will make the inquiry. 



—66— 

The breeding of mules is an important industry. The horse anil 
the ass arc capable ol strong affection, but their colts seldom develope a 
filial love which has a control in^ influence on their adult life. 

Kilt the mule, the hybrid between the male ass and the female horse, 
except in very rare instances is congenitally incapable of reproducing its 
kind. It has more or less of the instinct for mating, but it necessarily 
does not have the strong sexual passion of a perfect equine animal. Its 
love for its mother however amounts to a master passion; it is not spas- 
modical, but it is intense and it continues as long as there is an oppor- 
tunity of showing it. It is capable of transfer to another subject and 
those who breed mules in large numbers take a useful, instructive and 
amusing advantage of this fact. 

When the young mules are weaned, the mothers are withdrawn from 
their company, and one, otherwise worthless old mare is substituted for 
many mothers. The poor young things turn to the good natured old 
mare as to a very goddess; while she receives their worship with the 
equanimity of her sex, never hinting in the mildest terms, that it is an 
idolatry that should be abated. As the dilapidated goddess herself may 
be depended upon for her staid qualities, it follows that her worshippers 
are thereby kept out of mischief. And the poor mule is not a backslider, 
it is always a consistent worshipper. 

I have stated that filial love is absolutely necessary to the specializa- 
tion under consideration. It should be added that it must be intense in 
its character and capable of replacing to a large extent the maternal in- 
stinct of the perfect creature. 

From the fact that insufficiency of food would affect the growth of 
all organs we deduced the further fact that it would affect weak animals 
the most, giving those not congenitally perfect an irregular development. 
It follows also, that if a veiy young animal congenitally perfect, receives 
for a long period only sufficient food to sustain life, the organs not vital 
will be more or less dwarfed in their proportions, as compared to the 
vital organs. 

For here the law of parsimony is absolute. The vital organs must 
receive a certain supply, or the life perishes. The non-vital organs make 
no such imperative demand, and they consequently get less in propor- 
tion. And an organ that is entirely useless to the life of the individual, 
would under such circumstances receive no nourishment whatever; ex- 
cepting only as it is correlated to the organs that are useful or vital. The 
re-productive organs of the young of all species are entirely useless to the 
life of the individual; their powers are latent, and excepting as the) are 
correlated to other organs, they make no demand for nourishment. Star- 



-6 7 - 

vation must therefore dwarf the reproductive organs of very young in- 
dividuals, in proportion to those which are very important, or absolutely 
necessary to life. In plants this fact is constantly shown all around us 
and our maize is a striking example. 

The reproductive powers of swine are very great. But a young pig 
that is half-starved will not only have its reproductive powers very much 
retarded in their growth, it will have them diminished in their ulti- 
mate strength. This is a matter in which general observation fur- 
nishes the proof. I have not asked fish-culturists the question but I am 
absolutely certain that other things being equal, the number of fish-eggs 
will depend upon the size and thrift of the individual, and these, other 
things being equal depend upon the question of food. 

It is easy to imagine a possible case among the vertebrates or even 
the mammals in which a perfectly normal organism by long continued 
insufficiency of food, is allowed a slow development of those organs that 
are absolutely necessary for its life, and of the others most nearly corre- 
lated to these, while the organs of reproduction, in the incipient or un- 
developed stage in which they were when starvation commenced, still 
remain till they become fixed and immutable notwithstanding any a- 
bundance of food that may he given at a later period of life. 

Let us now go back to the variability of eggs as shown by our hun- 
dred chicks or the variability of seeds as shown by our ears of corn. 
This variability is variability of the germs, and this is congenital variabil- 
ity. This variability as shown in the hundred chicks gives us from three 
to six pounds for their adult weight and they all differ in color, form, or 
both. 

We take no account at present of the fact that our primitive bee as 
shown by her offspring of to-day was far more variable than fowls, but we 
note that she was a hoarding insect, gathering with great care and in- 
dustry in good times, food for times of scarcity; that she supplied her 
young from her stores; and that they responded to her maternal cares 
with filial affection. 

We left her at a time when the struggle for existence was keen and 
some of her offspring starved through no fault of her own. She was ex- 
hausted with a constant search for food and the cares of a numerous and 
starving family. 

This necessarily involved the fact that her reproductive system was 
quite out of balance, she was incapable of producing as many eggs as 
her progenitors, and many of those that she did produce were imperfect. 

Of these imperfect eggs some addled and some hatched out imper- 
fect offspring. 



—68— 

At this point we proceed to inquire into the nature of the imper- 
fections of the offspring. 

There would probably be quite a variety in these defects. One- 
might be wanting in legs, another deficient in wings, ' another insane, 
another deaf, another possibly congenitally blind, or perhaps wanting in 
that sense, whatever it is, by which ants and bees intelligently converse 
with their fellows. 

All of these and many other congenital defects are possible and even 
probable, because we see them in other and the least changeable orders 
and species of creatures. 

But the greatest in number of all the very important defects, would 
be defects of the reproductive organs; because they are the organs in the 
mother which have been most affected by her unfortunate environment. 

Under these circumstances, what must become of all the imperfect 
offspring in a sharp struggle for existence? 

Manifestly all wanting in legs, or wings, or eves, or in any organs 
necessary for quick and intelligent movements in attacking or resisting 
enemies, or in collecting food, must die at an early age, notwithstanding 
any possible care of the mother. 

Manifestly none of those defective in the reproductive organs would 
so die, unless they were also defective in some other particular, unless 
indeed the struggle became so keen, that perfect and imperfect went to 
the wall together. 

Manifestly also, these insects, thus congenitally imperfect in the re- 
productive organs, would have a great advantage over all others in the 
struggle for existence, from the time at which the reproductive period in 
those others commenced. 

If altogether incapable of reproduction, they would have vitality 
enough for themselves and a surplus to expend. 

The energy inherited from the hardworking progenitors would be 
too great for idleness. The surplus must be expended at the dictates of 
love or hate. Hate, beyond that healthy indignation at attack or imposi- 
tion which is necessary to self-protection, is unnatural to such beings.* 
But they have one to love, and that is the mother. The perfect offspring 
depart to reproduce their kind, and the one, two, three, or the dozen, of 
the imperfect ones, stay behind with the mother bee, or if she dies they 
transfer their affection to some one of their perfect sisters. 

Now another hoard of honey must be gathered, and another lot of 
eggs laid, hatched out and cared for. The female bee works industriously, 

* Lubbock's instances of ants attacking strangers and not reselling friends by no 
means demonstrates the opposite of this proposition. 



-6 9 - 

and true to her instinct, denies herself of necessary food, that she may 
lay by the more for her future offspring. 

And now these creatures, happy in their deprivation, capable 
of supplying their own wants with ease, insist on gathering food for the 
mother-bee. She takes it with eagerness, tastes and stores it away. And 
alter the young are hatched out, the like attempt to feed the mother-bee 
results in feeding them. Thus this family have for a time a great ad- 
vantage in the struggle for existence and there is a perfectly adequate 
motive for the conduct of the kind little creatures who minister to the 
wants of the mother-bee. 

Still this happy family is not precisely the foundation of our modern 
bee-hive; it is really too affluent for complete success. 

The mother-bee, no longer overworked, recovers her health and un- 
fortunately lays perfect eggs; with the help of the nursemaids she rears 
her young without overtaxing her powers. Her family and any others 
like it have very decided advantages over the old tvpe, to which never- 
theless the}" inevitably revert, to fall into a state of starvation as before; 
for, in this family, the nursemaids have and can have, no probable suc- 
cessors while there is plenty to eat. 

If this happens to one family of bees, it will probably happen to mam- 
families. The temporary affluence of one family caused by the pre- 
sence of the helpers will itself increase the depth of poverty in the neigh- 
boring families, and this poverty will give them helpers in undeveloped 
bees in the next generation, by which in turn they will be raised to af- 
fluence. Thus there will be alternating generations of bees, that is to 
say generations with helpers, followed by generations without them. 

Among those that go forth from the mother-nest to find mates and 
rear families of their own, are some that are congenitally weak in the re- 
productive organs. The majority of these meet with sound mates and 
the variation dies out. But some individuals thus congenitally imper- 
fect, meet with like mates, The congenital weakness of the reproductive 
organs is intensified in the offspring. The majority are perhaps so im- 
perfect as not to be able to reproduce their kind. Any of these that 
reach maturity will be glad helpers of the mother-bee. 

Their less imperfect brothers and sisters are defective in many de- 
grees. The offspring of one never reach maturity. Those of another 
nearly all thrive and there are a dozen reproductive females among them. 
In their migrations at swarming time these bees sometimes become 
established near less affluent families, congenitally perfect, and are some- 
times crossed with them . 

Here we have the bees in a condition of the greatest variability as 

ENTOMOLOGICA AMERICANA. 11 



to reproductive powers, but all of those that are getting on well in the 
world have among their offspring some that cannot reproduce, and help- 
ers are consequently numerous. 

About this time the paupers are established as a distinct variety. 
Sick and discouraged with the unsuccessful battle of lile, they are more 
or less tolerated in the affluent families ol their neighbors. But when 
they have recovered their bodily strength, they have not also regained 
their mental balance. They have become accustomed to a life of toler- 
ated dependence; so they live in the nest and lay eggs to be reared by 
their industrious neighbors. Sometimes the imposition becomes too 
great for good nature to stand and there may be a terrible slaughter of 
the innocent paupers and their offspring. The ones however that most 
nearly resemble the useful members of the community escape destruction 
and thus are established the Cuckoo- Bees, their similation of virtue being 
ever the closer as indignation increases at their vice. 

The varieties become extremely numerous; many of them however 
becoming rapidly extinct. At first in all families where there are help- 
ers there are almost or perhaps quite as many undeveloped males: but 
this being for bees, a hurtful variation the tendency of natural selection 
is to their diminution. On the whole those families are the most suc- 
( essful in which there are the largest number of undeveloped females. 

All this time experience is being gathered in the mothers and differ- 
entiated and stored in their systems, to re-appear as instinct and intelli- 
gence in the offspring. 

Sometimes the most affluent families come to want, and perfect fe- 
males are dwarfed in their reproductive organs by scarcity of food and 
are only capable of being helpers. 

From all this diversity there is at last a type evolved which is on 
the whole the best for the majority of the bees. This type is one in- 
volving a degree of imperfection in the reproductive organs of all offspring 
unless highly stimulating food in large quantity is supplied from a very 
early stage of growth. Thus the normal product is simply a helper and 
the number of males and females in proportion to the number of helpers 
and the food supply is a matter entirely under the control, not of chance 
nor of the mother, but of the community. This then, I think, is the 
foundation of the Hive-Bee family, the highest type of the flying Il\- 
nienoptera. 

As instinct enlarges and intelligence increases, the helpers take 
more and more upon themselves the care of the household. They be- 
come pre-eminently the workers, and their officious interference is con- 
tinually stopping the mother-bee's toil, and stuffing her with the best 



—7i — 

food they can obtain. She gives herself up more and more exclusively 
to the work of reproduction, and her powers increase till she becomes 
capable of changing food into eggs and individually starting a hundred 
thousand existences in her single lifetime. 

Between this highest type of the bee and the lowest, we find several 
hundred varieties all capable of explanation, either as progressive or re- 
trogressive, developments from our primitive bee. Many of them are 
highly specialized in their social habits, and it seems tome that all those 
that have two fully developed sexes and one or more undeveloped sexes, 
must neccessarily have thrift, intelligence and love, as the foundation with- 
out which it is impossible that such creatures should of themselves build 
up such a singular condition. 

It seems to me that hunger, something approaching starvation, is 
necessary as a beginning of the specialization. Now we all know that 
from their capacity to increase with enormous rapidity, some insects are 
subject to great vicissitudes in the matter of food. The locusts, for in- 
stance, increase in numbers till having eaten everything in their native 
habitat, they leave it in dense masses that obscure the heavens, and which 
devastate vast regions. Of the next brood, immensely more vast in 
numbers than even these, comparatively a small remnant reach maturity, 
and scarcely any reproduce their kind. The race grows up again from 
the few starved individuals too weak to leave the old habitat and of which 
a few managed to survive long enough to lay some eggs. Those doubt- 
less produce many imperfect insects, but these specializations are not use- 
ful to the race in this case, and they cannot survive. I think it likely 
however, that man could specialize locusts and many other insects in this 
way without difficulty. I think it likely that he could with great care 
so specialize fish and possibly fowls and with great patience and much 
difficulty some of the mammals. I think also that if mules were from a 
thrifty hoarding stock like squirrels they would be in the habit of feeding 
the old mare as the workers feed the mother-bee. But while it may be 
allowable to mention these as interesting possibilities I do not propose to 
discuss them in this paper. 

There is another element which is, I think, very important in fixing 
the definite type of the workers, and whicn 1 had intended to discuss. 
But while I think that element important in the bee and perhaps abso- 
lutely necessary for the still higher specialization of the ant, I think also 
that a permanent body of workers is necessarily evolved from the condi- 
tions which I have assumed as natural and proper to the primitive bee. 

To recapitulale in few words: 



— 72 — 

I presuppose a primitive bee fertile and affectionate, hoarding and 
intelligent. 

1 show that great want will necessarily diminish the number of 
her eggs. 

That it will render some eggs imperfect by deranging the repro- 
ductive organs of the mother. 

That consequently some of the offspring will be defective in the re- 
producing organs. 

That while other imperfect bees will generally die before maturity, 
those imperfect only in the reproductive organs, will live if the perfect 
offspring live. 

That some of these being incapable of mating, will not go away for 
that purpose, but will stay with the mother-bee. 

That having surplus energy to expend, they will use it in accord- 
ance with the instinct of the race, in gathering and storing food. 

That the surplus food will be utilized by the mother-bee, and thai 
therefore this family will be affluent. 

That being affluent the formerly overtaxed mother will recover her 
health, and that her offspring will thereafter be perfect. 

That consequently these nursemaid-bees will have no successors, 
and the family will therefore be again reduced to want. 

That some bees of the same hatch with the nursemaids will be con- 
genially imperfect notwithstanding that they leave the mother and find 
mates. 

That the offspring of congenitally imperfect bees will be extremely 
variable. 

That some of this offspring will be unable to reproduce and that 
they will remain with the mother-bee as nursemaids or helpers. 

That these helpers from the congenital imperfections of their moth- 
ers will have successors; substantially as is seen among the hive-bees 
and the humble-bees of the present day, and 

That the variation thus started will eventually be reduced to a given 
type or types — by the survival of the fittest. 

That whatever other circumstances may aid in producing the result 
in question, this is sufficient ol itself to account for the specialization of 
the bee and the ant into females, males and workers. 



—73— 

Record of some Contributions to the Literature of North 

American Beetles, published in 1883 — 84. 

By Samuel Henshaw. 

(Continued from p. 48.) 



IF-A-IVr II. 



CICINDELIDAE. 



Oraus ambiguus Schaupp 142 p. 121 Cal. — Cicindela perviridis {var. ) Schaupp 
141 p. 79 Cal. Or. Ut. Newfld. ; C. nigrior (var.) Schaupp 141 p. 79 Geo.; C. Hoinii 
Schaupp 141 p. 80, pro anthracina || Horn; C. graminea (var.) Schaupp 141 p. 80, 
Kans. Cal.; C. pacifica (var.) Schaupp 141 p. 84 Cal. Ut. Nev. ; C. scabrosa (var. ) 
Schaupp 141 p. 84 Fla. ; C. Laurentii (var.) Schaupp 141 p. 87 Cal.: C. tenuicincta 
(var.) Schaupp 142 p. 122 Col.: C. lunalonga Schaupp 142 p. 122 Cal. 

CARABIDAE. 

Bembidium vinnulum Casey 9 p. 15 Ariz. — Tachys litorahs Casey 9 p. 15, N. J. 
Trechus hydropicus Horn 76 p. 273 Va.— Anophthalmus audax Horn 76 p. 272 
Ronald's Cave. — Pterostichus zephyrus Casey 9 p. 2 noloc. ; P. osculans Casey 9 
p. 2 no loc. — Amara apachen^is Casey 9 p. 3 Ariz.; A. marylandica Casey 9 p. 4 
Md. ; A. pallida Casey 9 p. 5 N.Y. ; A. ferruginea Casey 9 p. 5 N. J. — Metabola vi- 
vida Bates 43 p. 298 Ariz. Mex. N. Son. — Dercylinus (n. g.) Chaud. 13 p. 525 pro 
Lvolenes impressa Lee. — Discoderus robustus Horn 72 p. 52 Ariz. — Harpalus lustrans 
Casey 7 p. 64 pro lucidus || Lee; H. opacus Casey 9 p. 8 Pa.; H. manhaltanis Ca-ey 
9 p. 9 N.Y., H. vespertinus Ca^ey 9 p. 10 Ariz.; H. placidus Casey 9 p. 10 N.Y. ; 
H. convictor Casey 9 p. 12 N.V.; H. canonicus Casey 9 p. 12 R. 1.; H. lustralis 
Casey 9 p. 12 N.Y. ; H. snesceiis Casey 9 p. 12 N.Y. R.I. — Selenophorus seneo- 
piceus Casey 9 p. 13 Ariz. — Stenolophus gracilis Casey 9 p. 14 Ariz. — Ameiinus (u. </.) 
Casey 9 p. 7 pro Bradycellus linearis Lee. — Bradycellus lucidus Casey 9 p. 8 Ariz.— 
Tachycellus Kirbyi Horn 71 p. 51 Out. Ohio. — Anisodactylus arizonse Casey 9 p. 6 
Ariz. IScudomorpha angustata Horn 70 p. 16; 76 p. 274 Ariz. 

DYTISCIDAE. 
Laccophilus lateralis Horn 76 p. 282 Ariz— -Hydroporus palliatus Horn 76 p. 

283 Cal.; H. picturatus Horn 76 p. 283 W. Nev.; 11. quadrimaculatus Horn 76 p. 

284 W. Nev. — Craphoderes occickntalis Horn 76 p. 281 Cal. W.T. 

GYRINIDAE. 
Cyrinu> canadensis Regimbart 112 p. 159 Amer. bor. Ca.; G. corpulentus Re 
gimbart 112 p. 178 Amer. bur. Dineutes analis Regimbart 112 p. 216 La. Tex. 

SILPHIDAE. 
Triarthron pennsylvanicum Horn 76 p. 2S4 Pa. 
PSELAPHIDAE. 
Tychus testaceus Casey 9 p. 31 Mass. N.Y. Mich. — Bryaxis gracilis Casey 9 p. 
32 Mich. ; B. inopia Casey 9 p. 33 Fla. 



—74— 

STAPHYLINIDAE. 

Titlianis (n. g.) Casey 9 p. 16 pro Aleochara valida Lee. — Emplenota (n. <j. ) 
Casey 9 p. 17; maritima Casey 9 p. 17 N.J. — Myrmedonia Kauveli Sharp 43 p. 199 
N. Amer. U. St. Mex. — I'hilonthus seiicinus Horn 83 p. 182 Ca. Pa. Tex.; P. nites 
cens Horn 83 p. 182 Vane. W.T. Cal. ; P. alutaceus Horn 83 p. 183 Cal. ; P. per- 
vervus Horn 83 p. 183 Vane; P. bucephalus Horn 83 p. 184 Cal. Vane; P. gentilis 
Horn 83 p. 185 Ariz.; P. asper Horn 83 p. 185 Pa. D.C.; P. irinus Horn 83 p. 186 
Tex.; P. semiruber Horn 83 p. 187 Cal. Ariz.; V. basalt Horn 83 p. 187 Col. B. 
Amer. Wy. ; P. gracilicornis Horn 83 p. 190 Ariz.; P. pubes Horn 83 p. 182 W.T. 
Nev. ; P. grandicollis Horn 83 p. 193 Cal. Vane; P. puberulus Horn 83 p. 193 Cal. 
Ariz.; P. quadricollis Horn 83 p. 194 N.V. to Mo. Mich.; 1'. Theveneti Horn .S3 p, 
194 Cal. Nev.; P. innocuus Horn 83 p. 199 Ariz. P. oct identalis Horn 83 p. 200 
Col. Ut. Ind. Terr. Wy. ; P. Schwarzi Horn 83 p. 201 Mass. Mich.; P. hudsonicus 
Horn 83 p. 201 Ca. H. B. Terr.; P. Pettiti Horn 83 p. 201 W.T. Cal.; P. triangu- 
lum Horn 83 p. 202 W.T. Nev. Cal.; P. ferreipennis Horn 83 p. 202 W.T. Cal.; 1'. 
caurinus Horn 83 p. 203 Vane, to Cal. ; P. Crotchi Horn 33 p. 203 Vane, to Ariz. : 
P. arizonensis Horn 83 p. 203 no loc. ; P. cuncians Horn 83 p. 205 U.C.; P. iequali^ 
Horn 83 p. 205 Ca. L. Sup.; P. quediinus Horn 83 p. 209 Mich. Kans. ; P. filicornis 
Horn 83 p. 210 Nev.; P. versutus Horn 83 p. 211 Cal.; P. distans Horn 83 p. 211 
Vane. Nev.; P. fallaciosus Horn 83 p. 212 Mass. Pa.; P. brevipennis Horn 83 p. 212 
L. Sup.; P. crassulus Horn 83 p. 213 Nev.; P. clunalis Horn 83 p. 213 Cal.; P. par- 
vus Horn 83 p. 214 Ariz.; P. bidentatus Horn 83 p. 214 Cal. Vane. W.T. ; P. virili* 
Horn 83 p. 215 Vane.; P. punctatellus Horn 83 p. 215 H. B. Terr. Nev.; P. mi- 
crophthalmias Horn 83 p. 216 Vane to N. Eng. & Va. ; P. decipiens Horn 83 p. 217 
Cal.; P. instabilis Horn 83 p. 218 Col. Wy. ; P. picicornis Horn 83 p. 218 Nev. ; P. 
serpentinus Horn 83 p. 219 Ky. ; P. quadrulus Horn 83 p. 221 Cal. Ariz.; P. viri- 
danus Horn 83 p. 221 Middle States W. to Mo. ; P. Lecontei Horn 83 p. 222 Cal. 
Col. ; P. aurulentus Horn 83 p. 222 W.T. H. Col. Col. Mich. Ky. ; P. inversus Horn 
83 p. 239 Col.— Actobius nanus Horn 83 p. 225 Ca. Mich. N. Engl. ; A. inutilis Horn 
83 p. 225 Mich. N. Engl. ; A. fraterculus Horn 83 p. 226 N. 111. Mich. ; A. senilis 
Horn 83 p. 226 Col. Nev. Cal. ; A. infimus Horn 83 p. 227 Cal. ; A. ocreatus Horn 
83 p. 228 Cal.; A. patella Horn 83 p. 229 Mich. N.V. ; A. loxatus Horn 83 p. 229 
D.C.; A. puncticeps Horn 83 p. 230 Cal. ; A. parcus Horn 83 p. 230 Mich, to D.C. ; 
A. pusio Horn 83 p. 230 Col. ; A. jocosus Horn 83 p. 232 Del. N. C. ; A. jucundus 
Horn 83 p. 232 S. C. ; A. elegantulus Horn 83 p. 232 Cal. Ariz. — Cafius seminuens 
Horn 83 p. 236 Cal.; C. luteipennis Horn 83 p. 237 Cal. 

Dianous zephyrus Casey 10 p. 11 Vane. B. Col. — Stenus punctiger Casey 10 p. 
13 Col.; S. gemmeus Casey 10 p. 18 Geo.; S. bilentigatus Casey 10 p. 19 Va.; S. 
sculptilis Casey 10 p. 22 Nev. Cal. W.T. ; S. laccophilus Casey 10 p. 23 Ont. ; S. ver- 
ticosus Casey 10 p. 25 Vane. W.T. ; S. tristis Casey 10 p. 27 Cal.; S. Austini Casey 
10 p. 28 N. H. L. Sup. B. Col.; S. ranops Casey 10 p. 29 S. States; S. delavv;iren*is 
Casey 10 p. 30 Middle States; S sectator Casey 10 p. 31 W. T.; S. zunieus Casey 10 
p. 32 Ariz.; S. tacomoe Casey 10 p. 34 W.T. ; S. strangulators Casey 10 p. 39 N.Y. 
Mich.; S. tenuis Casey 10 p. 40 Ont. Mass.; S. difficilis Casey 10 p. 41 Middle States 
Mass. Ont.; S. Pettiti Casey 10 p. 42 Ont. Middle States; S. scrupeus Casey 10 p. 43 
Ont. L. Sup. ; S. intrusus Casey 10 p. 44 Mass. Mich. Ca. ; S. rugifer Casey 10 p. 47 
Col.; S. anastomozan Casey 10 p. 48 N. H. ; S. shoshonis Casey 10 p. 49 W.T. ; S. 
[nsularis Casey 10 p. 50 Vane. B. Col.; S. vexatus Casey 10 p. 51 W.T. ; S. Schwarzi 
.Casey 10 p. 52 Mass.; S. pauper Casey 10 p. 53 Mass.; S. subtilis Casey 10 p. 54 
Mich.; S. indigens Casey 10 p. 55 Mass.; S. simplex Casey 10 p. 56 Or.; S. vicinus 



—75— 

Casey 10 p. 57 D.C. Pa. Ala.; S. ingratus Casey 10 p. 58 Mich. ; S. neglectus Casey 
10 p. 59 Mass. Ont. Ill Neb.; S. scabrosus Casey 10 p. 60 L. Sup.; S. vespertinus 
Casey 10 p. 61 W.T. ; S. convictor Casey 10 p. 62 W.T. ; S. confusus Casey 10 p. 63 
Mich. ; S. inornatus Casey 10 p. 64 Mass. Mich. L. Sup. ; S. placidus Casey 10 p. 65 
Mich.; S. mendax Casey 10 p. 66 Mass.; S. eriensis Casey 10 p. 67 Mich.; S. sphser- 
ops Casey 10 p. 68 Mass. ; S. militaris Casey 10 p. 69 L. Sup. ; S. pluto Casey 10 p. 
70 Mass.; S. incultus Casey 10 p. 71 Ariz.; S. corvus Casey 10 p. 72 B.Col. Cal. ; S. 
montanus Casey 10 p. 74 N. H. ; S. costalis Casey 10 p 77 Nev. Cal. ; S. alveolatus 
Casey 10 p. 78 Nev.; S. ellipticus Casey 10 p 79 Cal.; S. adelops Casey 10 p. 80 
N. Cal.; S. luctuosus Casey 10 p. 81 Cal. Nev. B. Col.; S. pusio Casey 10 p. 82 
Mass. Ca. L. Sup. ; S. nanulus Casey 10 p. 83 B. Col. ; S. atomarius Casey 10 p. 84 
Mich. Mass. ; S. virginise Casey 10 p. 87 Va. ; S. texanus Casey 10 p. 88 Tex. West. 
States; S. venustus Casey 10 p. 89 no loc. ; S. occidentalis Casey 10 p., 90 B. Col.; S. 
pacificus Casey 10 p. 91 Cal.; S. abstrusus Casey 10 p. 92 N.Y. N. J.; S. arizonre 
Casey 10 p. 93 Ariz. Tex.; S. integer Casey 10 p. 94 Mass.; S floridanus Casey 10 
p. 95 Fla.; S. mammops Casey 10 p. 97 Mass. L. Sup. Col. B. Col. &c. ; S. gravidus 
Casey 10 p. 98 Mass. ; S. animatus Casey 10 p. 99 L. Sup. ; S. tumicollis Casey 10 
p. 100 Mich.; S. carinicollis Casey 10 p. 101 Mich L. Sup.; S. insignis Casey 10 p. 
102 Cal. ; S. dolosus Casey 10 p. 108 Col. ; S. villosus Casey 10 p. 109 Cal. ; S. secti- 
lifer Casey 10 p. no D.C; S. milleporus Casey 10 p. in N.Y. Geo. Fla.; S. jejunus 
Casey 10 p. 112 B. Col. ; S. vinnulus Casey 10 p. 112 Mass. L. Sup. Mich. ; S. Caro- 
lina Casey 10 p. 116 Ala. Fla. ; S. ageus Casey 10 p. 1 16 Mass. ; S. pudicus Casey 
10 p. 117 L. Sup.; S. minor Casey 10 p. 118 Mich.; S. rigidus Casey 10 p. 119 
Mass.; S. incertus Casey 10 p. 120 Neb. ; S. parallelus Casey 10 p. 121 Mass.; S. 
noctivagus Casey 10 p. 121 N. H. ; S. luculentus Casey 10 p. 122 Cal.; S. juvencus 
Casey 10 p. 123 Mich.; S. pauperculus Casey 10 p. 124 Mich.?; S. haplus Casey 10 
p. 125 Mich.; S. enodis Casey 10 p. 126 Col.; S. dives Casey 10 p. 127 Cal.; S. sub- 
griseus Casey 10 p. 127 Cal. B. Col.; S. terricola Casey 10 p. 128 Nev.; S. mundulus 
Casey 10 p. 129 W.T; S. tuberculatus Casey 10 p. 129 Fla.; S. indistinct - 
us Casey 10 p. 130 Mich.; S. brumalis Casey 10 p. 131 Mich.: S. gratiosus Casey 
10 p. 133 Mich. ; S. monticola Casey 10 p. 134N.H. ; S. curtus Casey 10 p. 135 
Mich.; S. alacer Casey 10 p. 135 Fla. Tex. Ariz. Col. S. 111.; S. hirsutus Casey 10 
p. 137 Mich.; S. vestalis Casey 10 p. 138 Cal.; S. tahcensis Casey 10 p. 139 Nev.; 
S. nimbosus Casey 10 p. 139 Col ; S. pugetensis Casey 10 p. 140 W.T.; S. vacuus 
Casey 10 p. 141 Cal.; S. amicus Casey 10 p. 142 Col. ; S. exilis Casey 10 p. 143 
Cal.; S. californicus Casey 10 p. 145 Cal. Nev.; S. gibe Casey 10 p. 146 Ariz.; S. 
dispar Casey 10 p. 147 Mass. Tex. D.C. Kans. 

Areus (n. g.) Casey 10 p. 150; A. retrusus Casey 10 p. 154 B. Col.; A. fraternus 
Casey 10 p. 155 Wy. L. Sup. ; A. umbratilis Casey 10 p. 156 B. Col. ; A. croceatus 
Casey 10 p. 158 Neb. Mich. L. Sup. N.Y. D.C. ; A. advena Casey 10 p. 158 L. Sup. ; 
A. europs Casey 10 p. 160 Md. Va. ; A. megalops Casey 10 p. 161 Fla. ; A. lugens 
Casey 10 p. 161 Mass.; A. plicipennis Casey 10 p. 162 B. Col.; A. agnatus Casey 10 
p. 163 B. Col. ; A. Sayi Casey 10 p. 164 Cal. ; A. amabilis Casey 10 p. 166 Del. ; A. 
perforatus Casey 10 p. 169 Ariz.; A. nitescens Casey 10 p. 170 Fla.; A. pollens 
Casey 10 p. 172 W.T. Cal.; A. patens Casey 10 p. 172 Col.; A. reconditus Casey 
10 p. 173 Mass. L. Sup. Iowa; A. propinquus Casey 10 p. 174 N.H.; A. canadensis 
Casey 10 p. 175 Ont. N. 111. ; A. pinguis Casey 10 p. 177 B. Col. W.T. Or. Nev. 
Cal.; A. utenis Casey 10 p. 178 Col.; A. trajectus Casey 10 p. 179 Col.; A. papa- 
gonis Casey 10 p. 180 Ariz. ; A. obsoletus Casey 10 p. 181 Ont.; A. artus Casey 10 



- 7 6- 

p. 182 N.Y.: A. dilutus Casey 10 p. 184 La.; A. meridionalis Casey If) p. [85 Fla.; 
A. varipes Casey 10 p. 187 Mi' h. ; A. dissentiens Casey 10 p, 190 L. Sup.; A. Hub- 
bardi Casey LO ]). 191 L. Sup. ; A. lsetulus 10 p. 192 Cal.; A. leviceps Casey 10 p. 
193 I!. Col.: A. politulus Casey If) p. 193 B. Col.; A. simiolus Casey 10 p. 194 L. 
Sup.; A. pertinax Casey 10 p. 195 Wy. ; A. lucidus Casey 10 p. 196 Cal. 
Eusesthetus brevipennis Case) 9 p. 20 Mich.; E. punctatus Casey 9 p. 21 Fla.; K. 
floridse Casey 9 p. 21 Fla.; E. similis Casey '•• p. 22 Fla.; E. mundulus Casey '•' p. 
23 Mas- : E. robustulus Casey 9 p. 24 Mas-.; E. iripennis Casey 9 p. 25 Ohio; E. 
texanus Casey 9 p. 26 Tex. ; E. atomus < lasey 9 p. 28 Fla. — F.daphus carinatus 
Casey 9 p. 30 D.C.; E. luculentus Casey 9 p. 31 D.C.— Lithocharis tabacina Casey 

7 p. 65 no loo. 

TRICHOPTERYGIDAE. 
Ptilium Hornianum Matthews 102 p. 143 Tex. — Ptenidium speculifer Matthews 
102 p. 151 Mass.; P. Ulkei Matthews 102 p. 151 D.C. 

CUCUJIDAE. 
Silvanus gilsE Casey 8 p. 73 Ariz. — Lsemophlseus terminalis Casey 8 p. 83 Tex. ; 
L. floridanus Casey 8 p. 85 Fla.; L. Horni Casey 8 p. 89 Cal.; L. rotundicollis Casey 

8 p. 89 S.C. ; L. quadratus Casey 8 p. 90 Gulf States; L. Schwarzi Casey 8 p. 91 
Fla. D.C; L. extricatus Casey 8 p. 92 Mo. ; L. pubescens Casey 8 p. 93 Cal.; L. 
truricatus Casey 8 p. 93 Mich.; L. denticornis Casey 8 p. 94 Tex.- Lathropus pubes- 
cens Casey 8 p. 96 Cal. — Dysmerus (n.g.) Casey 8 p. 97; basalis Casey 8 p. <)~ Fla. 
Telephanus Lecontei Casey 8 p. 103 Ariz. 

HISTERIDAE. 

Hister gentilis Horn 70 p. 285 Ariz. — Echinodes decipiens Horn 76 p. 286 Ariz. 

NITIDULIDAE. 

Carpophilus zuni Casey 9 p. 34 Ariz. — Epursea papagona Casey 9 p. 35 Ariz. 

BUPRESTIDAE. 

Gyascutus carolinensis Horn 76 p. 288 N.C. 

CIOIDAE. 

Ennearthron californicum Casey 9 p. 36 Cal.; E. unicolor Casey 9 p. 37 N.Y. 

SCARABAEIDAE. 

Lachnostema subpruinosa Casey 9 p. 38 Atlantic States. — Anomala oblivia Hon. 

81 p. 163 Pa. to Geo. 

CERAMBYCIDAE. 

Phymatodes ater Lee. 96 p. 100 N.Y. — Poecilobrium {n.g.) Horn 77 p. II. 

CHRYSOMELIDAE. 

Cryptocephalus ellipsoidalis Casey 7 p. 66 Mass. N.Y.-Disonycha pulchra Casey 

9 p. 31 Pa.; D. arizonoe Casey 9 p. 52 Ariz.— Chsetocnema paupercula Casey 9 p. 53 
N.Y.— Psylliodes extricata Casey 9 p. 54 N.J. ; P. renescens Casey 9 p. 55 N.Y. 

Microrhopala dimidiata 1 lorn 76 p. 292 Tex. ; M. vulnerata Horn 76 p. 292 Ari/. : 
M. montana Horn 76 p. 294 Mont. — Odontota californica Horn 76 p. 297 Cal. Ariz.; 
O. gracilis Horn 76 p. 298 Tex. Charistena perspicua Horn 76 p. 298 Ariz. N.Mex. 
Octotoma marginicollis Horn 76 p. 300 111. S.C. Tex. -Stenopodnis (n.g.) Horn 76 
p. 301; flavidus Horn 76 p. 301 Cal. Ari/. 

TENEBRIONIDAE. 

Eurymetopon piceum Casey 9 p. 40 Ariz. : E. emarginatum Casey 9 p. 41 Ariz. : 
E. papagonum Casey 9 p. 42 Ariz.; E. carbonatum Casey 9 p. 43 Ariz.; E. sculptile 
( lasey 9 p. 44 Ariz. ; E. dubium Casey 9 p. 44 Ariz.— Emmenastus nanulus Casey 9 



—77— 

p. 45 Cal. — Asida macra Horn 76 p. 304 N.Mex. Ariz. — Coniontis elliptica Casey 9 
p. 46 Cal.— Eusattus poliius Horn 76 p. 304 Cal.— Eleodes arcuata Casey 9 p. 47 
Ariz. — Platydema pernigrum Casey 9 p. 49 Ariz.; P. parvulum Casey 9 p. 50 N.Y. ; 
P. opaculum Casey 9 p. 51 Pa. 

MORDELLIDAE. 

Mordella carinata Smith 152 p. 3 Fla. Tex. La. ; M. flaviventris Smith 152 p. 3 
Tex. Fla.— Mordellistena conformis Smith 152 p. 4 Tex.; M. hirticula Smith 152 p. 4 
Tex. La. ; M. immaculata Smith 152 p. 5 D.C.; M. erratica Smith 151 p. 80 Fla. ; 
M. tarsalis Smith 151 p. 80 Tex. ; M. pratensis Smith 151 p. 80 Fla. 

ANTHICIDAE. 

Corphyra flabellata Horn 76 p. 306 W.Nev. — Noxotus nuperus Horn 82 p. 168 

Ariz. Mex. Kans. ; N. calcaratus Horn 82 p. 170 Nev. Ariz. L. Cal. ; N. denudatus 

Horn 82 p. 173 Cal. 

MELOIDAE. 

Cantharis gentilis Horn 76 p. 31 1 N.Mex. Ariz.; C. occipitalis Horn 76 p. 312 

Cal.; C. incommoda Horn 76 p. 312 Cal. — Calospasta viridis Horn 76 p. 312 Col. 

N. Mexico. 

CURCULIONIDAE. 

Apion vespertinum Casey 7 p. 67 Cal.; A. erraticum Smith 153 p. 44 Tex. Iowa; 
A. obsoletum Smith 153 p. 44 Dae. Mich. Ca. ; A. erythrocerum Smith 153 p. 44 
Kans. Middle States D.C. Tenn. ; A. robustum Smith 153 p. 45 Tex. Mo. Iowa; A. 
punctinasum Smith 153 p. 46; Wy. Dae. Col.; A. parallelum Smith 153 p. 47 D.C. 
Tenn.; A. estriaium Smith 153 p. 47 Ca; Col. Tex.; A. ovale Smith 153 p. 47 Mo. 
Cal.; A. impunctistriatum Smith 153 p. 48 Tex. D.C; A. desolatum Smith 153 p. 
48 Geo.; A. sordidum Smith 153 p. 48 Utah; A. floridanum Smith 153 p. 49 Fla. 
Cal. Ariz. la. D.C; A. obesum Smith 153 p. 49 Mich. Tex.; A. parvulum Smith 
153 p. 49 Middle States; A. atriceps Smith 153 p. 49 Geo. Fla. Cal. ; A. minutum 
Smith 153 p. 50 Fla. N.Y. ; A. opacicolle Smith 153 p. 50 Cal. Ariz. Or. ; A. texa- 
num Smith 153 p. 51 Tex,; A. ellipticum Smith 153 p. 51 Neb. La.; A. californicum 
Smith 153 p. 52 Cal. ; A. decoloration Smith 153 p. 52 D.C. N.C Ariz. Md. Va. ; A. 
concoloratum Smith 153 p. 52 Cal. W.Va. Geo. Mich. Fla.; A. carinatum Smith 153 
p. 52 Fla. Tex. Neb.; A. brevicolle Smith 153 p, 53 Cal. Tex. Ariz.; A. typicum 
Smith 153 p. 53 Cal; A. abdominale Smith 153 p. 53 Ariz. 111. D.C; A. antenna- 
turn Smith 153 p. 53 Cal. Ariz.; A. cordatum Smith 153 p. 54 Cal.. A. capitatum 
Smith 153 p. 54 Mich. Neb. Or.; A. oblitum Smith 153 p. 54 Col. Cal. Tex. Kans. 
Fla. ; A. turbulentum Smith 153 p. 56 Middle States Tex. Cal. ; A. minor Smith 153 
p. 56 Cal. La.; A. dilatatum Smith 153 p. 56 Ariz.; A. herculanum Smith 153 p. 56 
I'a. N.Y. D.C. Mass.; A. pyriforme Smith 153 p. 57 Ariz. ; A. Walshii Smith 153 
p. 57 pro lanuginosum || Walsh; A. vicinum Smith 153 p. 58 Col. Cal. N.Y. D.C; 
A. modestum Smith 153 p. 58 Ariz. Knns. Fla.; A. perminutum Smith 153 p. 59 
'lex. Geo D.C. Mass.; A. griseum Smith 153 p. 59 Middle, South & West. States; 
A. traternum Smith 153 p. 60 South. & West. States; A. varicorne Smith 153 p. 60 
South. & West. States; A. extensum Smith 153 p. 61 Mont. Kans.; A. aeneipenne 
Smith 153 p. 61 D.C; A. contusum Smith 153 p. 61 Dae; A. tenuirostrum Smith 
153 p. 62 Tex. Kans. Neb. D.C; A. attenuatum Smith 153 p. 62 Kans.; A. con- 
fertum Smith 153 p. 63 West. & South. States; A. patruele Smith 153 p. 64 U. S. 

Podapion (n. <j.) Riley 118 p. 61; gallicola Riley 118 p. 62 D.C, L. Sup. Mass. 
Tyloderma nigrum Casey 9 p. 56 N 111.; T. punctatum Casey 9 p. 57 N.Y. — Balan- 
inus obtusus Blanchard 3 p. 107 N.H. Mass. Tex. Neb. 

ENTOMOLOGICA AMERICANA- 12 



- 7 8- 

Notes and News 

In the Vol. of the Stettiner Entomologische Zeitschrift for 1884, 
which has just come to hand, we note that our good friend Dr. Horn 
has also been elected honorary member of that society. It gives another 
proof of the high standing Dr. Horn has made for himself. 

* * » 

Early this spring I found under the bark of a tree a specimen of 
Coptocycla aurichalcea as bright and glittering as ever a specimen I saw in 
life. It was perfectly dry, and a mere shell and had evidently been dead 
a long time. In no collections I have ever seen, have I found any speci- 
mens at all approaching the living insect in beauty. I mentioned this 
to Drs. Hagen and Horn, at Cambridge, recently, and Dr. Horn says 
both Dr. Leconte and himself had tried in every way to restore or pre- 
serve the color of this insect, without success: he suggests that the living 
insects be confined, kept perfectly dry, and allowed to die of starvation 
and possibly in that way fine cabinet specimens might be obtained. Dr. 
Hagen says that a drop of Glycerine under the elytra preserved their 
lustre for some time but eventually they became dull. Will our Coleop- 
terological friends try their hands at this during the coming season and 

report success? 

* * 

In Can. Ent. XVI p. 131, Miss Murtfeldt gavesomenotes on "Attacus 
cinctus, Tepper". In Mrs. Fernald's collection I saw recently, a pair of 
A. splendidus De Beauv. labelled A. cinctus, and received from Miss 
Murtfeldt. The remarks in the Can. Ent. must therefore be considered 
as notes on A. splendidus, the determination (credited to Prof. Riley by 
the bye,) being erroneous. Splendidus is credited to our fauna in Mr. 
Grote's list of 1882; but I have never seen a specimen from the U.S. and 
do not remember having seen any note of its being found north of Mex- 
ico. Still it is very likely that it will yet occur near the border. 

From cinctus the species is readily distinguished by the shape of the 
transparent spots, which in splendidus take the form of an elongate tri- 
angle, or arrow head, and extend to and sometimes cross the outer 
median line: in cinctus on the contrary the spots are smaller, not regu- 
larly triangular but more rounded; those of secondaries of an irregular 
diamond shape: they never cross and rarely even touch the outer median 
line. Other characters are not wanting to separate the species, but those 
above mentioned are the most obvious. The error in determination was 
a very natural one, as Mr. Tepper had but recently figured the species, 
and a cursory comparison with the figure would indicate identity. 



—79— 

Newark, N. J., now has an Entomological Society with about 15 
members. Some of our Newark friends are excellent collectors, and 
will no doubt be heard from before long. We wish them good luck and 

prosperity. 

* * * 

Early in June we had the pleasure of seeing Mr. Thaxter and his 
collections at Kittery Point and obtained some hints on collecting at 
light. One point may be interesting, and that is that Noctuids always 
fly against the wind, and unless your light is placed so that they can fly 

thus to get to it, your success will be small. 

* * 

In Dr. Horn's Scotocryptus paper in our last number, p. 51, is 
"Aglyptus 4 — 3 — 3 (J 1 5"- The "9" is owing to a slip of the pen, and 

should be omitted. 

* * 

Dr. Goding, of Ancona, 111., writes us "Having read Mr. Stretch's 
article'' 'Anal appendages of Leucarctia acrcea, (Papilio III, 41), I was 
interested in the capture of a specimen of Ctenucha fulvicollis while the 
insect was in the act of protruding similar appendages. These 'anal 
antenna;' were about I of an inch long, of a milk white color, and cover- 
ed with short yellowish gray hairs, very closely resembling a lamp chim- 
ney cleaner" as observed by Mr. Stretch. 

The insect was captured while flying around a lighted lantern, the 
appendages being plainly seen by quite a number of persons. I have 
never observed these organs in the insect mentioned by Mr. Stretch. " 

This is interesting as showing similarity of structure between the 
Arctiidce. and this species, classed as one of the Zygcenidce. Will our friends 
all over the country watch the insects they attract to light, and find 
whether any other species shows this peculiarity, the function of which is 

not yet satisfactorily explained. 

* * 

In an old (1879) foreign Journal I found recently a note of some 
interest. A pair of Anth. pernyi emerged from the cocoon together; next 
morning they were found in coitu and so remained until 4 p.m. that day. 
They then separated, the $ was removed and killed, and the 9 began 
ovipositing. About 6 p.m. another $ emerged, which immediately and 
before the wings were yet fully unfolded, sought the female and remained 
in coitu until 8 a.m. next morning. The 9 then continued the egg-laying 
business and all the eggs proved fertile. The interesting point is, that 
it controverts the accepted theory that a 9 once mated exercises no 
further attraction to the $$ and is unmolested by them. Have any of 
our readers observed similar instances? 



— So- 

The new Check list of Coleoptera, by Mr. Henshaw will be ready 
for distribution some time in September Mr. Henshaw has promised 
to furnish manuscript for annual supplements, which will be published 
in our Journal. What we need now, is an addition that will bring our 
Lepidoptera lists up to date, and may-hap the present year has also that 

in store for us. 

* * 

* 

Lt. T. L. Casey lias sent us $50 for a life-membership in the B'kln. 
Ent. Soc. This sum goes to our publication-fund. Will not some of 
our other friends help us along in the same way? 

Mr. Curley's paper, on a previous page, is an interesting contribu- 
tion, and one deserving of study; many will not be inclined to agree 
with him in his deductions; but it presents facts in a somewhat novel 
light, and we are ready to receive criticisms. 



Society News. 

Brooklyn Entomological Society. June 2, 1885. — Twenty persons present, 
among them Dr. Geo. H. Horn, honorary member of the society; Mr. Ciamex in 
the chair. 

A communication from Capt. D. H. Murdock, presenting the Society with 
a small lot of Anthobium, was read by the Secretary. 

Mr. Smith read a paper upon some structural peculiarities of the Zypcenida 
and Bombycidee, touching upon some points of correlation of habits and struc- 
ture, and dwelling somewhat on the modifications of the genital organs of the 
male. These structures it seemed probable would furnish characters of great 
systematic value, and their modifications in the Noctuidre were now being 
studied by Prof. Riley and himself in the prejiaration of a monographic work on 
the N. A. Noctuidse. A system of classification of the Sphingidce, Zygcenidce and 
Bornbycidce was outlined, placing the Sphingrdce lower in the scale then at present 
catalogued. 

Dr. Horn illustrated some modifications of structure in Corphyra, referring 
more especially to the ^ sexual pieces. 

The balance of the evening was spent in discussing methods of collecting 
on the sea-shore. Mr. Weeks had succeeded in taking quite a number of 
Dysehirius pallipennis by digging on the site of a dried up pond until he found 
water which he then poured over the old banks. 

After informal discussion the Society adjourned until the first Tuesday of 
September. 

Will the members of the Society please collect during the season in all ord- 
ers, outside of their specialities and turn over the material to me for the benefit 
of the Society's collection? I am ready to receive donations to the cabinet at my 
office, No. 4 Fletcher St., NY., or will call for specimens if notified. 

CHAS. W. LENG, Curator. 





MCANA 



VOL. I. 



BROOKLYN, fiUGUST, 1885. 



NO. 5. 



An Introduction to a classification of the N. A. Lepidoptera 

By John B. Smith. 
(Continued from "Bulletin" VII, p. 141.) 

In the previous papers of the series is given a synopsis of the families 
of the Lepidoptera and a review of the genera of the Rhopalocera. The 
present paper deals with the Sphingidce which in our lists are catalogued 
immediately after the Rhopalocera. 

This group or division has had rather a hard time of it at the hands 
of recent authors, no two lists being alike. Sometimes there would be 
a dozen species to a genus, then a dozen genera each with one species, 
and in the next list we would find as many genera, but with different 
names, or the same genera differently applied. To straighten out the 
confusion thus caused will be the task of the monographer of the group, 
and is beyond the province of this paper; those names which are used in 
Mr. Grote's most recent list will be used here, though not all of the 
genera are adopted and the sequence is changed. 

On this point of sequence of genera, I have adopted an order based 
on their structural relations. It is a matter of small importance 
because the genera are interchangeably related, Arctonotus for in- 
stance having the structural characters of both Pogocolon and Smerinthus, 
while Deidamia unites Smerinthus with Sphinx. No linear classification 
will therefore show the true relationship of the genera, and my scheme 
is to begin with the most typical genus of the series and thence work to 
that form most nearly like the following group. lam unable to com- 
prehend why Mr. Grote places the "Phalasnoides" (Smerinthides) between 
the "Eumorphae" [Philampdus and allies) and the "Manducae" {Sphinges) 



— $2 — 

for they are entirely out of place there and the "Manducae'' and "Eu- 
raorphae" are certainly closely enough related. 

The Sphingidae are distinguished by their usually large size, plump 
robust bodies, usually long, conic and cylindrical abdomen and prismatic 
antennas. The venation has been figured in Vol. VII of the "Bulletin" 
and the distinctive feature in that respect was found to be a distinct cross 
vein, connecting the costal and subcostal of the secondaries, near base. 
The wings of the typical Sphinges are usually rather narrow, long and 
stiff, capable of great resistance to the air, as well as of rapid motion; 
and the habits of the insects, or at least a large part of them, hovering 
over a flower while feeding, requires such a structure. Usually they fly in 
the early evening, though many, among them the Macroglossa. fly in the 
hottest sunshine, and are often mistaken for humming birds. The Smer- 
inthides on the contrary, incapable of feeding, are rarely taken, though 
sometimes attracted to light. 

'I he larvae are usually furnished with a distinct caudal horn, or an 
eye like spot denoting its usual position, though some species lack all 
trace of it. It is the habit of the larva also to rest with the thoracic seg- 
ments raised, and somewhat curled, and this, giving them a fancied 
resemblance to the Sphinx, is said to have prompted the name. 

Among our forms two distinct groups may be distinguished. The 
Sphinges, with long corneous tongue, prominent head, and rarely serrate 
antenna?, and the Smerinthides with short weak membraneous tongue, re- 
tracted head, usually serrate or pectinated antennae in the rj 1 , and general- 
ly angulated dentate or crenulate outer margin of forewings. 

The true Sphinges, or those with long corneous tongue divide readi- 
ly into two distinct series on the shape and proportion of the antennas. 

In the Macrog/ossce they are distinctly clavate toward the tip (which 
is furnished with a small bent hook) and usually fully one half the length 
of the primaries. In the others the antennas are either tolerably equal 
throughout or they are thickest in the middle, tapering to each end. 

Most, if not all the Macroglossoe are diurnal in their habits, flying 
about flowers in the hottest sunshine. 

Macroglossa {Hemaris) contains those of our species with more or 
less transparent wings, and unarmed tibiae. 

Pogocolon (Plcrogon) has opaque wings of much the same form as 
Mnroglossa but has spinose tibiae, the anterior armed with a series of 
long corneous claws at outer side and tip. I cannot separate Lepisesia 
from Pogocolon, and Euproserpinus also seems congeneric. These genera, 
each containing a single species, have a somewhat different habitus from 
that of the more typical Pogocolon, and serve to show the close relation- 
ship of that genus to Macroglossa. 



To some extent intermediate between the Macroglosscz and the 
Sphinges are three genera which are aberrant wherever placed. 

Amphion, Aellopos and Thyreus have no special relationship except 
in the tufted abdomen. There is always a prominent anal tuft, and usu- 
ally there are more or less distinct lateral tuftings. The tongue is strong 
and the antenna; are not clubbed. 

Amphion is perhaps nearest to Macroglossa and has a similar body 
form; the ornamentation is also similar, but the primaries are excavated 
below apex, and again below middle, and the hind angle is somewhat 
prominent. The single species, nessus, is a very pretty one, with a nar- 
row, clear yellow band across the abdomen. 

Aellopos is somewhat depressed. The head is much more prominent 
than either of the preceding, the antenna; are remarkably slender, almost 
setaceous, with a small recurved hook at the tip; the thorax is narrow, 
the primaries inserted well back, and the abdomen is long, broad, ob- 
tusely terminated, and the tip is furnished with a fan like tuft. The 
primaries are narrow with even, very oblique outer margin. The narrow 
thorax well produced before the insertion of wings, and the narrow pri- 
maries, recall Dilphonota . 

Thyreus is a very peculiar form, with strong Smerinlhid tendencies, 
but long corneous tongue. The $ antennae are thickened and serrate, 
the head is not prominent, the body is plump, convex, and the abdomen 
short, very broad and obtusely terminated. The anal tuft is pointed and 
the lateral tufts, extending nearly to middle are round and truncate. 
The primaries are excavated below apex, angulated at middle and again 
excavated above the hind angle. The Smerinlhid features are prominent 
but not more so than the characters which lead to its association with 
Amphion. 

Enyo is a very recognizable form, distinguished by the prominent 
thoracic crest. The primaries are narrow, but else very much as in the 
preceding. The abdomen is elongate, conic, with a fan like tuft, distinct 
in the $ only The distinctly crested thorax is unique in the N. A. 
Sphingids and serves to isolate the genus at a glance. 

The series of typical Sphinges may be headed with the genus 
Sphinx which includes Daremma, Diludia, Phlegethonlius {Macrosild) 
Dolba and Hyloicus of Mr. Grote's list. 

The characters common to all these, are oblong, or subquadrate 
thorax, the primaries inserted well forward, the head moderately promi- 
nent, the abdomen conic, robust, primaries with even, somewhat round- 
edly oblique outer margin, sometimes with the anal angle somewhat 
marked. The legs are long and strong, the fore tibiae moderate in length, 
robust, and usually furnished with a series of claws or stout spines at 



-8 4 - 

outer side, and a similar series along outer side of tarsi. The hind tibiae 
are always longest and are furnished with two pairs of very long unequal 
spurs. The species classed as Phlegethontius are more robust, with 
broader head, somewhat more prominent palpi and rather broader wings. 
Sphinx is applied to the narrower winged species with long acute apices. 
Daremma has rather more retracted head and more rounded outer mar- 
gin. Hyloicus is very like Daremma but there is an excavation in the 
secondaries before anal angle, Diludia has the hind angle of pri- 
maries marked, and lacks the armature of the fore legs. This has per- 
haps a claim to generic distinction, but the armature here is a variable 
quantity and not decided enough in its character to be given much weight. 
Dolba is applied to a small, dark species, with rather short stout ab- 
domen and unarmed fore tibiae. None of these generic names seem 
worthv of adoption, since the characters upon which they are based are 
evanescent. 

Caiitethia is rather a peculiar form with the habitus of Pogocolon, 
but the structure of a true Sphinx, except for the wider head and more 
prominent eyes, which ally it to Dilphonota. It falls in naturally after 
Dolba. It certainly does not belong with Macroglossa. 

Ceratomia has a more retracted head, smaller eyes, and longer, ob- 
tusely terminated abdomen. The larval character of C. quadricortiis (4 
short horns on shoulder) is so peculiar that I should expect that more 
differences will yet be discovered in the imago. The genus should pre- 
cede Sphinx in cataloguing. 

Pachylia, Philampdus and Deilephila agree in having a larger head, 
more prominent eyes, and robust thorax, with the insertion of primaries 
further back than in Sphinx. The legs are longer, less robust, and the 
fore legs especially are longer and weaker than in Sphinx. The primaries 
are wider, slightly excavate below apex and above hind angle. Second- 
aries with distinctly marked anal angle. 

The differences between this series and the series Sphinx are difficult 
of enumeration because mostly comparative, but I think the foregoing 
will serve to separate them. 

Inter se these genera are distinguishable — Pachylia by its very large 
size and obtusely terminated abdomen; Philampelus by conic abdomen, 
long fore tibia and unarmed (i.e. no armature other than the ordinary 
spines) tarsi; and DeiUphila by having the fore tibia at tip, and the tarsi 
at the sides furnished with longer claw like spines. I cannot separate 
Argeus from Philampelus. 

Amphonyx and Dilphonota have still more prominent head, narrower 
thorax still more produced in front of the base of primaries, very long 
conic abdomen, and long,, pointed primaries. Amphonyx antczus is a 



-8 s- 

large insect, the middle of secondaries semi-transparent, and the outer 
margin of primaries even. The third joint of palpi is produced in the 
form of a small curved horn. Dilphonota contains smaller species with 
dentate outer margin of primaries, and the thorax with a distinct divided 
crest. The latter structure is peculiar to this genus so far as I know, 
among the N. A. representatives of the family. 

These two genera really belong nearer to the true Sphinges than 
Pachylia and allies; but are placed here merely for convenience of com- 
parison. 

In the remaining genera of this series, a long step is made to the 
Smerinthids in the weak legs with the small spurs of the middle and hind 
tibia. The head is as in the Sphinges and the thorax is rather shorter 
than in that group. 

Chccroiampa has short narrow primaries and an unusually long 
slender, conic abdomen. The secondaries also are very narrow, and ex- 
cavated before the anal angle. The species are of the most elegant in 
our fauna. 

Darapsa has wider wings and heavier, shorter abdomen, the thorax 
is proportionately weaker, and the head more retracted. The wings are 
much as in Philampeius. I cannot separate Ampelophaga versicolor from 
this genus. 

Deidamia is one of the connecting genera between this group and the 
Smerinthids. The head is retracted, the $ antenna; serrate, the primaries 
shaped like Smerinthus. But the tongue is distinct and ior this reason 
I place it at the end of the present series. 

The Smerinthides are distinguished by the short membraneous 
tongue, retracted head, serrate or pectinate antennae of the rj 1 , usually 
angulated or scolloped primaries, less conic and more obtusely terminated 
abdomen, which is also more woolly and less smoothly clothed than in 
the preceding group, and by the weak short legs in which the spurs are 
greatly reduced in size and often wanting in part. The posterior legs are 
much reduced in length and strength, and instead of being the most 
robust, they are in this series the weakest pair. As a whole the tendency 
to the Bombyeidce is unmistakeable and very strongly marked in every 
respect. 

The genera are closely related and with the exception of Arcionoius 
and Ellema which I class with this series, they are often lumped under 
the generic type Smerinthus . 

Triptogon contains two large species, modes/a and occidentalis, with 
very strongly retracted head, scolloped outer margin of primaries, and a 
heavy claw terminating the tip of fore tibia. The middle and hind tibiae 
have each two small spurs at tip. The secondaries are not ocellated. 



-36 — 

Piionias has the outer margin .if primaries similarly crenulated, but 
lacks the claw of the fore tibia. It is smaller, and has the secondaries 
ocellate, differing from Smerinthus only in the outer margin of primaries. 
Whether or not this ought to warrant the genus is a question, and in 
the limited number of species in our fauna it should be considered rather 
as specific than generic. 

Smerinthus has the primaries excavated and angulate and the second- 
aries ocellate. The antennae of the $ vary in the length of the pectina- 
tions; but the differences are specific and not generic. The tibia; are 
unarmed and the posterior pair have only a single pair of small spurs at 
tip. I cannot separate Calasymbolus Grt. from this genus. 

Cressonia is a very distinct genus. The palpi are long, the third 
joints prominent, pointed and divaricate, the tibia? heavily spined, the 
posterior with two pairs of spurs. The antenna? of the $ are bipectinate 
in true bombyciform fashion. The outer margin of wings is dentate or 
scolloped, but not prominently so. This is one of the most distinct of 
the Sphingid genera, the palpi being abnormally developed, 

Arctonotus is a peculiar genus, which Mr. Grote classes with the 
"Caudi&eres", and which in the armature of the fore tibia is related to 
Pogocolon; but by the weak short tongue, the serrate and bristled <$ an- 
tennae, and woolly body is nearer related to the Smerinthides. It seems 
out of place anywhere. The primaries are small, stout, the outer margins 
even. The posterior tibiae have two pairs of spurs. 

Ellcma is usually classed as a Sphingid genus but the tongue is 
short, the legs are weak, and the posterior tibia have only a single pair 
of spurs. The $ antennas are serrate and furnished with tufts of bristly 
hair and the head is retracted. The outer margin is even, and the apex 
somewhat rounded. 

Exedrium Grt., based on Sphinx halicarnim Strk. , probably comes 
here. Mr. Strecker's description gives no structural details of any kind, 
and I have only seen the insect to make a superficial examination of it. 
It has a strongly bombycoid appearance, the wing form being much like 
that of Hckrocampa and the body compact, robust. The tongue is prob- 
ably weak, and the legs short. 

In synoptic form the scheme above developed is as follows: 

Tongue long, strong, corneous SPHINGIDES. 1 

Tongue short, weak, membraneous SMERINTHIDES. 8 

i Antennae clubbed at tip and furnished with a short bent hook , 2 

Antennae not clubbed, equal, or thickest at middle, either bent at tip or slender, 

curved 3 

2 Tibiae unarmed, wings more or less hyaline Macroglossa. 

Tibia: spinose, anterior armed at sides and tip Pogocolon. 



-37- 

3 — Abdomen tufted at tip, and usually also at sides \ 

Abdomen not tufted at tip or sides 5 

4— Body short, plump; abdomen pointed at tip; primaries excavated below apex 

and again before hind angle Amphion. 

Abdomen elongate, flattened, rather abruptly terminated; anal tuft fan like; 

primaries very narrow, pointed; antennae very slender Aellopos. 

Abdomen short, obtuse, broad, with brush like lateral tufts; antennae thick, in 

$ serrate; primaries angulate and excavate Thyreus. 

Abdomen conic, with a fan like tuft at tip; thorax with a distinct sharp crest 

behind collar, primaries as hi Thyreus Enyo. 

5 — Spurs of middle and hind tibiaj very long, unequal, legs robust Q 

Spurs of middle and hind tibiae short, weak, more equal; legs weak « 7 

6— Prothorax not much extended before base of primaries; fore legs short and stout. 
Abdomen conic, pointed, fore tibia and tarsi usually armed with spines or claws 

at ouier side Sphinx. 

Abdomen conic, pointed, head much broader, eyes larger; size very small; 

secondaries yellow with black margin Cautethia. 

Abdomen obtuse at tip, head retracted, wings wider Ceratomia- 

Piothorax more extended before the base of primaries, head larger, thorax robust; 
anterior legs longer, weaker; primaries with outer maigin sinuate. 

Abdomen obtuse Pachylia. 

Abdomen conic; anterior tibia and tarsi unarmed Philampelus. 

Abdomen conic; shorter; anterior tibia and tarsi with claw like spines at outer 

side Deilephila. 

Piothorax still further produced before base of primaries; head large; eyes very 
prominent; abdomen long and rather slender; thorax narrower. 
Thorax untufted; third joint of palpi projecting forward like short horns; outer 

margin of primaries not dentate Amphonyx. 

Thorax with divided crest, outer margin of primaries dentate Dilphonota. 

7 — Wings very narrow , small, abdomen long, conic, very smoothly clothed 

Chcerocampa. 
Broader winged, less robust, head more retracted, abdomen shorter, less regu- 
larly conic Darapsa. 

Primaries angulated, abdomen obtuse, head crested, strongly letracted; ^ an- 
tenna; serrate Deidamia. 

8 -Primaries with outer margin scolloped or evenly crenulaled. 

Anterior tibia with a heavy claw at t.p . . Triptogon. 

Anterior tibia unarmed Paonias. 

Primaries with outer margin excavate and angulate Smerinthus. 

Primaries with outer margin evenly dentate; 3rd joint of palpi unusually long; 

divaricate at tip Cressonia. 

Primaries with outer margin even. 

Anterior libia armed with a series of long claws; plump, robust, body woolly 

Arctonotus. 
Anterior tibia unarmed; form more slender, less robust Ellema. 

(To be continued.) 



—88— 

Synonymical Notes No. 2 
By Geo. H. Horn, M. D. 

The species here considered are those described in a large and rather 
rare folio volume entitled "Insectes recueillii en Afrique et en Amerique" 

by A. M. F. J. Palisot de Beauvois, bearing date 1805. The species 
described are of all orders and were nearly all collected by the author 
himself during the year 1786 — 1797 and by reference to the descriptions 
the regions of our country visited by him can readily be ascertained. 

The present essay will consider the U.S. Coleopteia mentioned by 
Beauvois whether the species are described by him as new or quoted 
from other authors. In the following list I have arranged the genera 
alphabetically for easy reference and follow the species with the initial 
B. for Beauvois, the other abbreviations being sufficiently known. 

In the case of any change in the name, whether in the genus or 
species, the present equivalent follows the Beauvois name. 

The first attempt at a translation of the Beauvois species was made 
by Chevrolat (Ann. Fr. 1853) but not in a very satisfactory manner as 
many were not seen by him. A work of this kind is never very easy and 
can best be done by one well acquainted with the separate regions from 
which Beauvois obtained the species. 
Agathidium oniscoides, B. p. 160. 
Blaps metallica, B. p. 140 = Hoplocephala bicornis. 
Callidium fulminans Oliv. p. 248 = Arhopalus fulminans. 

erythrocephalum Oliv. p. 248 = Neoclytus erythrocephalus. 
Cerambyx garganicus Oliv. p. 247 = Chion ductus. 
Cebrio bicolor Fab. p. 9. 
Copris viridis B. p. 24 = Canthon viridis. 

obtectus B. p. 25 = Onthophagus Hecate. 

capistratus B. p. 57 = Choeridium histeroides. 

Amnion Oliv. 92 = Copris minutus. 

canadensis B. p. 92 = Onthophagus Janus. 

sti iatulus B. p. 92 = idem. 

latebrosus Fab. p. 93 = Onthophagus Hecate. 

subreneus B p. 105 = Janus. 

carolinus Fab. p. 198. 

carnifex B. p. 198 = Phanreus catnifex. 
Elater oculatus Linn. p. 213 = Alaus oculatus. 

luscus Oliv. p. 213 = myops. 

verticinus B. p. 214 = Elater rubricolhs. 

griseus B. 214 = Limonius griseus. 

ramicornis B. pp. 10 and 214 = Dicrepidius ramicornis. 

rufipes B. p. 214 (1). 



-S 9 - 

Harpalus viridiseneus B. p. 108. 

dubius B. p. 108 = Cratacanthus dubius. 
Helops contractus B. p. 121 = Meracantha contracta. 
tenebri udes B. p. 121 = Tenebrio tenebrioides. 
taen.atus B. p. 121 = Helops micans. 
obliquatus Fab. p. 122 = Penthe obliquata. 
americanus B. p. 122 = Helops undulatus (2)- 
tristis B. p. 139 (3). 

carolinensis p. 162 = Scotobates calcaratus. 
saperdoides Uliv. p. 162 = Xylopinus saperdo.des. 
calcaratus B. p. 162 idem. 

Hister cyLndricus B. p. 178 (4.) 
elongatus B. p. 178 (4)- 
latipes B. p. 178 (5). 

subhcemisphericus B. p. 180 — Hitter abbreviatus. 
interrup.us B. p. 180. 
regularis B. p. 180 = Epierus regularis. 
Lamia nodosa Fab. p. 244 = Acanihocinus nodosus. 

dentator Fab. p. 244 = Monohammus titillator. 
Melasis picea B. p. 7 = Zenua picea. 

Meloioiiiha angusiata B. p. 30 = Macrodactylus angustatus. 
p.iraduxa B. p. 173 = Rhipidandrus paradoxus. 
Passalus cornuius Fab. p. 1 . 
Piionus imbricornis Oliv. p. 242. 

Scarabaeus nasicornis-americanus B. p. 75 = Xyloryctes Satyrus. 
Blackburnii Fab. p. 75 = Geotrupes Blackburnii. 
Broscii B. p. 89 = Strategus Antaeus 9 • 
splendens B. p. 89 = " splendens. 
ferrugineus B. p. 90 = Bradycinetus ferrugineus. 
rubeolus B. p. 90 = Aphodius rubeolus. 
Cephus Oliv. p. 90 = Bolbocerus farctus. 
tumefactus B. p. 91 = idem, 

truncatus B. p. 41 = Phileurus truncatus. 
TityusB. p. 138 = Dynastes Tityus. 
Antceus Fab. p. 210 = Strategus Antaeus. 
Scariies marginatus Fab. p. 106 = Pasimachus marginatus. 
depressus Fab. p. 106 = " depressus. 

sublsevis B. p. 107 = " sublaevis. 

Georgia; B. p. 107 = Morio Georgian. 
quadrimaculatus B. p. 107 = Clivina bipustulata. 
Sphseridium pallidum B. p. 157 (g). 

crenatum B. p. 158 = Sphseridium scarabaeoides. 
laeve B. p. 158 (6). 
unistriatum B. p. 158 (6). 
Sinodendron americanum B. p. 192 = Sinodendr'on cylindricum (9). 
Stenocorus cyaneus Oliv. p. 249 = Desmocerus palliatus. 
Trichius scaber B. p. 58 = Osmoderma scabra. 

variegatus B. p. 59 = Valgus canaliculars. 
squamiger B. p. 160 = squamiger. 

seticollis B. p. 59 = idem. 

ENTOMOLOGICA AMERICANA 14 



— 9 o— 

Tenebrio SIlblaevisB. p. 163 = Nyctobates pensylvanica. 
femoratus B. p. 163 = Haplandrus femoratus. 

minimus B. p. 164 = Opairinus notus. 
variolosus B. p. 164 (7)- 
elongatus B. p. 164 = Zophobas mono. 
Trox scabrosus B. p. 175. 

unistriatus B. p. 175 = Trox suberosu-. 
crenatus B. p. 176 idem. 

denticulatus B. p. 176 idem, 

serrulatus B. p. 176 = Trox tuberculatus. 
I rogosita virescens Oliv. p. 125. 

angustata B. p. 125 = Languria angustata. 
marginata B. p. 125 = Tenebrioides marginata. 
maxillosa B. p. 125 = Gnathocerus cornutus. 
mutica B. p. 126 (8). 
depressior B. p. 126 (8). 
subnigra B. 12*7 (8). 

NOTES. 
1 — Elater rufipes. The name being preoccupied at the time it was 

given and not being recognizably described should be dropped. 
2 — Helops americanus Beauv. Should be adopted for the species now 

called undulatus Lee. 
3 — Helops tristis Beauv. This is certainly not a Helops but I cannot 

identify it. Is it American? 
4 — These two species cannot be identified and should be dropped from 

the insufficiency of the descriptions. 
5 — The occurrence of a species so large (13 mm.) in our territory is very 

doubtful. 
6. — S. pallidum and S. lave are said by Chevrolat to be Camptodes 
(Ann. Fr. 1853; p. 631). I think there can be no doubt that £. 
pallidum is Pallodes silaceus Er. and Beauvois' name should prevail. 
5. larve I cannot identify while 6". unistriatum seems to be Dacty- 
losternum abdominale Fab. 
7 — This is called an Iphthimus by Chevrolat. It should doubtless be 

omitted from our lists. 
8 — These species are Tenebrioides but it is impossible to identify them 

by the descriptions and figures. 
9 — This species is European and does not occur in the U.S. 



We call attention to the advertisement of the New Check list of 
Coleoptera on our cover. It is now in press, and subscriptions may be 
made through the Brooklyn Entomological Society. 

* * 

The position of assistant curator of Entomology in the U.S. Museum 
will be filled by "ye Editor", who will nevertheless see that Ent. Amer. 
is issued promptly, as heretofore. 



— 9i — 

The Influence of Climate on Cicada septendecim. 
By C V. Riley. 

I have instituted the present season a series of experiments in the 
transferring of the eggs of Brood XXII {septendecim) of the Periodical 
Cicada, to the extreme southern states, where no septendecim brood is 
known to occur and of Brood VII [tredecim) to northern states where no 
tredecim brood is known to occur. The purpose of the experiments is to 
test the effect of climate on the permanency of the two races; in other 
words, whether the larva in its subterranean life will be influenced by 
variation in the mean annual temperature. It will be interesting to ob- 
serve whether or not the tredecim race will require more than 13 years 
for development when transferred north, or the septendecim race fewer 
than 1 7 years when transferred to the south . 

The details of the experiments will be placed on record. The 
following transfers have already been made through the kind assistance 
of the gentlemen mentioned: 

BROOD VII {Tredecim). 



EGGS RECEIVED FROM. 



EGGS SENT TO. 



July i, 1885 
" 6, 1885 
" 13, 1885 
" 13, 1885 
" 13. 1885 



P. H. Skipwith, Oxford, Miss. 
W. L. Peters, Senatobia, Miss. 
J. G. Barlow, Cadet, Mo. 
P. H. Skipwith, Oxford, Miss. 
P. H. Skipwith, Oxford, Miss. 



J. A. Lintner, Albany, N.Y. 
J. H. Comstock, Ithaca, N.Y. 
Herbert Osborn, Ames, la. 
Saml. Henshaw, Boston, Mass. 
R. Thaxter, Kittery Pt, Me. 



BROOD XXII (Septendecim). 



DATE. 


EGGS RECEIVED FROM, 


EGGS SENT TO. 


July I, 1885 
" 6, 1885 
" 6, 1885 

" II, 1885 
" 13, 1885 


F. M. Webster, Lafayette, Ind. 
F. M. Webster, Lafayette, Ind. 
F. M. Webster, Lafayette, Ind. 
E. Roeder, New Hope, Pa. 
E. W. Allis, Adrian, Mich. 


E. A. Smith, Tuscaloosa, Ala. 
Geo. Noble, Savannah, Ga. 
J. E. Willett, Macon, Ga. 
D. L. Phares. Agr. Coll. Miss. 
R. W. Jones, Columbus, Miss. 



The Periodical Cicada on Staten Island. 
By William T. Davis. 

In 1877 the Periodical Cicada occurred on Staten Island in count- 
less numbers. In places fences, trees and bushes were brown with 
cast skins, while the whir of their flight and monotonous song could be 
heard in every direction. This was the Hudson River brood, or that 



—92— 

numbered XII by Mr. Riley, and is the only one that seems to be gener- 
ally remembered by observing persons on the Island. I recall thinking 
at the time, while I watched the pupa crawl up the garden fence and cast 
their skins as night came on. that I would not see any more of these in- 
sects on Staten Island until 1894. 

However, on May 8th, 1881, while collecting insects with Mr. Leng 
in the neighborhood of Watchogue, Stat. Isl., we found a red-eyed 
Cicada pupa under a stone, and on June 5th, eight specimens were col- 
lected, all of them males and many of those being wet, having recently 
immerged. By the 12th of June they had become quite numerous, and I 
noted at the time that "about one tree I counted 52 pupa skins of the 
red-eyed Cicada''. 

This year I made special search for this Harvest fly, and as it occur- 
red in the neighboring territory, I hoped to find an individual or two on 
Staten Island. On July 4th, while walking along a wood-path with my 
friend, Mr. James Raymond, he found the upper left wing of the insect 
I had been looking for, and which some bird had evidently torn from its 
owner. I have this fragment now, and there is no doubt of its identity. 

From the above it seems that whenever the 17-year Cicada has oc- 
cured as a brood or "Locust year'' happens in the vicinity of Staten Is- 
land, that a few individuals have appeared on it. This fact has been ob- 
served before by Mr. S. S. Rathvon, (mentioned by Mr. Riley), in 
Lancaster Co., Pa., who noted all those broods in his locality; but it 
may be of interest to again call attention to it in connection with a new 
location. 

NOTE. — Mr. Leng has this year also found a lew pupa on Staten Island, but not 
common anywhere. J. B. S. 
^ 1 • 1 ^ 

Descriptions of New Lepidoptera. 

By B. Neumoegen. 

Sphinx Separatus, n. sp. 

I lead, thorax and abdomen of mouse gray color, with darker shades on pro- 
thorax and thorax, shading laterally into whitish gray. Lateral lines of prothorax and 
patagice prominently marked in black, inner marginal line hardly distinguishable. 
Gray dorsal band on upper side of abdomen, with a black dorsal centre line on last 
and anal segments, ornamented with black segmentary bands. Primaries of mouse 
gray color, with markings like in Sph. lugens Wlk., in brownish black, but the apical 
diagonal dashes, the undulating transverse line, which runs partly along outer margin 
and in an irregular bend turns and rests within the central part of inner margin, as 
well the two horizontal dashes between median nervules, much more prominent and 
pronounced than in lugens. The space between interior and anterior transverse line 
and along costa, above discal spots of brownish hue, leaving in discal cell and above 
centre of inner margin, interspaces of grayish white. A round basal, black blotch. 
Secondaries whitish gray, with large marginal and prominent medial bands of brown- 



—93— 

ish black, the color in marginal band fading into gray towards anal angle. A black 
basal blotch, fringes in primaries and secondaries whitish gray, ornamented with 
dark brown at intersection of nerves; less marked on secondaries. Below: legs and 
abdomen mouse gray. Primaries and secondaries brownish gray, the basal regions 
shading into light gray and assuming a whitish tint near anal angle of secondaries. 
The anterior transverse line on primaries and the marginal and medial bands on sec- 
ondaries well pronounced. Fringes as above. 

Habitat: New Mexico. Length of body 28 mm. Expanse of wings 
1 10 mm. = 4.40 inches. 

Types in coll. Prof. F. H. Snow and B. Neumcegen. 

This stately insect has been, for many years, confounded with Sph. 
lugem Wlk. , which comes from Mexico, although a few specimens have 
been found in our South-Western States. Lugtns Wlk., is a considerably 
smaller insect of brownish olive tint, with delineations not so prominently 
marked, and faint basal blotches. The excellent figure of Mr. Strecker's 
Sph.lugens Wlk. (H. Strecker's No 13, fig. 12), would do well for Sph. 
separatus, if the color were changed and the other differences prominent- 
ly marked. 

Arctia v. Mormonica, N. var. 

This is a beautiful variety of the Incorrupta type. Head, thorax and wings 
whitish yellow with black markings. The two black dots on prothorax missing and 
the black stripes on thorax and pategise slender. Primaries have the black markings 
of the various horizontal and transverse lines so diminutive that they appear merely as 
a number of irregular dots and dashes. Secondaries have a marginal transverse row 
of black dots and a prominent discal dot. A bright rose colored shade along basal 
margin. Abdomen bright rose, with black dorsal and lateral lines, and black 
anal tip. 

Habitat: Northern Utah. 
Types coll. Hy. Edwards and B. Neumcegen. 

This insect is the connecting link between the Kevadensis and docta 
groups, and shows how near akin they are Mormonica, but for its color 
and slender markings, resembles A. Anthoka Bd. in its primaries and A. 
Mexicana Gr. and R. in its secondaries. 

As I stated, at the time, in Papilio Vol. VIII, p. 151, A. incorrupta 
Hy. Edw., is undoubtedly the typical form and A. Nevadtnsis Gr. and R. 
but a variety; but entomological etiquette, much to the detriment of clear 
scientific understanding, giving the first disvoverer the preference, Neva- 
densis will have to lead the line, which stands, as far as we know, now: 
A. Nevadensis, Gr. and R. 
v. incorrupta, Hy. Edw. 
0. Sulphurica, Neumgn. 
v. Mormonica, Neumgn. 

A. elongata' Stretch, from Spokane falls, Wash. T. , lately described, 
seems to be but another local form of this extremely variable insect. 

Arctia v. sulphurica: This is simply a correction for the v. ochracea 



—94- 

Neum. mentioned in Papilio III, p. 151; ochracea being pieoccupied by 
Mr. Stretch for a var. of A. Achaia , 

Adelocephala Bicolor var. Suprema. 

A brilliant variety of this handsome Bombycid. Head, thorax, abdomen and 
legs pearl gray. Primaries brownish shading off into pearl gray, from apex along ex- 
ternal and interior margins to base. Two distinct silvery white di^cal dots. Fringes 
pearl gray. Secondaries bright rose color, fading into pearl gray along margins. 

Below, primaries bright rose color, shading into pearl gray along costa and mar- 
gins. Secondaries uniform pearl gray, sprinkled with brown granules. 
Habitat: Iowa. 

Types coll. Mr. Geo. Franck and B. Neumoegen. 



Some New Species of Hispini. 

By John B. Smith. 
While arranging my collection of Chrysomelida recently, I found 
that an Odontota given me by Mr. Julich which superficially resembled 
dorsalis was really a distinct species. As it seems probable that speci- 
mens of this species are confounded with dorsalis in collections I desire 
to call attention to the form. In order that our knowledge of the His- 
pini might be brought to date, Dr. Horn has kindly sent me such new 
species as were in his own collection. 

Microrhopala uniformis, sp. nov. 

Terminal joint of tarsi very little longer than lobes of third; antennal club elon- 
gate. Moderately robust, black, shining. Vertex not sulcate. Thorax rather longer 
than wide, wider at base, sides arquate, surface cribrate; a shallow fovea at base. 
Elytra nearly parallel, each distinctly tricostate, the intervals biseriately punctured 
except between the second and third in which four rows are observed at the apical 
fourth; margin not serrate. 

Length 4 — 4.5 mm. Had. Ariz. 

Two specimens; one somewhat immature, and therefore piceous. Dif- 
fers from porcata to which it is most nearly allied by not having the vertex 
sulcate, by the longer thorax, the sides more distinctly arquate, and by 
the more robust form. The species is to an extent intermediate between 
the groups into which the genus is divided, the posterior tarsi having the 
fourth joint very obviously exceeding the lobes of third, while in the an- 
terior tarsi it is scarcely longer. 

Odontota Horni, sp. nov. 

Elytra with ten series of punctures, with three entire costa; ; reddish yellow, sut- 
ure narrowly black, the sides and tip not serrate or crenate. Antennae and legs 
black. Head black, coarsely punctured. Prothorax yellow above and below; above 
coarsely punctured, the punctures deep and somewhat elongate; a smooth deeply im- 
pressed median line. Meso and meta-thorax black, sternum yellow. Abdomen pale, 
sides piceous. Size and form of dorsalis. 
Length 6 mm. Hab. Mass. 

This species bears a deceptive resemblance to dorsalis, and may be 
confused with it in collections. Superficially it differs only by the nar- 



—95— 

rower, equal, sutural vitta. It differs further in the bicolored underside, 
the want of serrations at the sides of elytra and in the presence of a dis- 
tinct impressed median line on thorax. Several specimens from Mass. 
are in Mr. Julich's collection, and he informs me he has seen the same 
species in Mr. Lugger's collection taken near Baltimore. Dr. Horn says 
there is a specimen of the same species in the Leconte collection, 
Odontota lateritia, sp. nov. 

Elytra with eight series of punctures, divided into twos by three costse. Form 
slender, parallel, margins of elytra distinctly serrulate. Above, uniformly blood red 
in color; beneath, head and prothorax red, else black. Antennae and posterior legs 
black ; median legs piceous, anterior legs rufo-piceous. Vertex with a median sulca. 
Thorax slightly wider at base, sides arquate; coarsely and densely punctured with an 
impressed median line, and a shallow transverse basal fovea. 

Length 6 mm. Hab. Ariz. I specimen. 

A very distinct species, belonging between nervosa, and gracilis. It 
is more robust than gracilis and more>parallel than nervosa. Its uniform 
blood red color is characteristic and differs immediately from the two 
other species belonging to the same section. 

Charistena bicolor, sp. nov. 

Head and elytra metallic dark blue, shining, thorax red. Beneath prothorax 
and abdomen red, else blue black. Elongate, sides of the elytra parallel, margins 
not serrulate. Thorax as long as wide, feebly arquate in front, parallel behind, Disc 
hardly convex, with a large, shallow, fovea at base; sparsely punctured at middle, 
more densely at sides. Antennae black, legs red. 

Length 45 mm. Hab. New Mexico. 1 specimen. 

The second and third joints of antennae are equal in length, and 
the species is close is Ariadne. It stands before that species in the se- 
ries. The intermediate femora do not appear to be serrulate, and the 
margins of the elytra are also smooth. It differs from all other species 
by the uniformly red thorax: the red legs also distinguish it from Ariadne. 



On the discovery of Thoracantha, a tropical genus of 

Chalcid flies, in Florida. 

By Wm. H. Ashmead, Jacksonville, Fla. 

It may be interesting to many of your readers to know that that 
interesting genus of the ChalcididcB, Thoracantha, has a representative in 
the United States. 

This spring, among other interesting captures, I took a beautiful 
male specimen of this unique genus, feeding upon the flowers of the 
gall-berry Ilex glaber, being I believe the first of the genus discovered on 
the North American Continent. 

The genus has heretofore been considered tropical, all the described 
species having been taken in the tropics. 

Thoracantha fur cala Fabricius, is from Africa and Brazil; T. striata 



- 9 6- 

Perty and T. Lalreillii Guerin are from Brazil; while 7! nasua Walker is 
from Philippine Islands, so that the discovery of the species in the U. S. 
is doubly interesting. 

As my species does not agree with any of the descriptions accessible 
and is probably new, I name it in honor of the ''Land of Flowers" and 
submit the following description. 

Thoracantha floridana, n. sp. 

<$. Length .17 inch. Black, shining, coarsely rugose. Head small, trans- 
versely rugose, not visible from above and held horizontally under the abnormally 
developed thorax: eyes moderate, oblong oval, mandibles large, curved, and 4-den- 
tate; antennae black, 12-jointed, 9-branched, scape moderately long, cylindrical, 2nd 
large, globular. 3rd to nth short, cylindrical, slightly widened and truncate at tip, 
each emitting a long sparsely pubescent sub-clavate branch; 12th joint very long, about 
same size as the antenna! branches and making the antenna? apparently ten-branched; 
thorax enormously developed and elevated, strongly rugose, the rugosities taking the 
form of longitudinal grooves, with short. .sparse pubescence; parapsides wide apart, 
distinct; scutellum abnormally developed, projecting posteriorly over the abdomen in 
the form of two long slightly curved horns, which are longitudinally grooved; wings 
are slightly brownish or fuliginous and when at rest lie flat under the horns; the mar- 
ginal vein is long, thick, and brownish black, stigma a large brown black spot with 
the postmarginal vein very long; abdomen pedunculated, ■peduncle longer than ab- 
domen, finely sculptured, cylindrical, slightly bent near the middle and thickest at 
base, abdomen smooth shining, black, compressed and when viewed from the side, 
triangular; legs testaceous, pubescent, coxae well developed black, upper part of 
femora and upper edge of tibiae brown, two apical spurs on posterior tibiae, with one 
small spine on middle pair. 

Described from one ^ specimen. 



Notes and News 

The meetings of the Entomological Club of the A. A. A. S. will be 
held in room "H" of the University of Michigan. The first meeting 
will be held on the 25th of August at 2 P.M. and the following is the 
programme for that meeting: 1. Annual address of the President, Dr. 
John G. Morris. 2. Election of Officers for the ensuing year. 3. Re- 
ports of Officers and Committees. 4. New business. 5. "A biographical 
sketch of Dr. Wm. Le Baron, late State Entomologist of Illinois" by Dr. 
F. W. Goding. 6. Notes on structural and systematic characters of some 
N. A. Lepidoptera, by John B. Smith. 

Other papers have been promised by Prof. C. V. Riley, Prof. Herbert 
Osborn, Rev. Geo. D. Hulst, Dr. D. S. Kellicott and Prof. J. A. Lintner. 

* 

Mr. Ricksecker has written us a letter that is interesting enough to 
print almost in full; he says: 

"Allow me to add my testimony to the fact, that at least some Cur- 
culio larvae are lignivorous. At Monterey, Cal, I took numbers of 



—97— 

Cossonus piniphilus Boh. from a parti} - decayed pine log, and at Spokane 
Falls, W. T., I found Cossonus crenatus Horn under the bark of pine logs 
and stumps that were still sound. Magdalis Le Contei Horn I have su- 
spected of depredating in living pine-trees, but am not certain of this. Of 
Scolytidce I have seen great swarms of Pityophthorus pubipennis Lee. in the 
branches of newly-felled Live Oaks, and have taken the same or an allied 
species from sticks of oak that had previously been peeled for tan-bark. 
P. hamatus Lee. , Tomicus plastographus Lee. and several species of Den 
droctonus burrow in pine and spruce timber. 

It must not be inferred, however, that because some of these insects 
burrow in timber-trees that they are destructive to our forests. Many 
species will never attack a healthy tree but have an acute sense for dis- 
covering an injured or dying tree or one that has recently fallen. It is 
the same with many Buprestidae and Cerambycidae. I have taken a 
dozen Buprestis upon a single pine log, and at night, in a wood-cutters 
camp, many specimens of Monohammns and Acanthocinus were taken on 
the piles of cord-wood (pine), and some were shaken from young pines 
that had been injured by fire, but none were observed on healthy trees. 
The apple-tree-borer, Chrysobothris femorata, attacks young fruit trees 
that have been scorched by the sun, but its natural food is the oak for I 
have seen dozens of them in the branches of a small Live-Oak that had 
been cut down less than an hour. Xylotrechus nauficus Mann., were 
also there, in great numbers, some copulating and others ovipositing. 
Thus also I have observed a swarm of many hnndreds of ' Melanophila con- 
sputa and M. longipes Say, where a brush fire had scorched some young 
spruce trees {Abies Doug/asii). M. fulvoguttata also attacks the spruce 
and M. gentilis the pine, Ergates spiculafus Lee. flourishes equally well 
in spruce or in pine, but our common Hylotrupes ligncus Fab., I have 
found only in Redwood*, {Sequoia semperzrirens), and Neocly /us conjum tus 
Lee. only in the Madrone. 

In all these cases, however, it is only the dying or recently deceased 
wood that is attacked. Every tree that falls in the forest, every limb 
that is broken off by the wind, every stick that is cut by the wood-chop- 
pers axe, is attacked by its own peculiar species. They come from all 
directions. They swarm about it, and run up and down upon it The 
sexes will be in copulation; some females will be hunting for suitable 
crevices in the bark, in which to deposit their eggs; other females will 
be seen in the act of ovipositing, and last of all, not infrequently, — the 
parasitic Hymenoptera, in their turn, seeking the eggs of the wood-lovers, 

* Mr. Julich informs me that in the cast, he has found this species confined to 
red cedar. Ed. 

ENTOMOLOGICA AMERICANA 1 . r > 



-98- 

and depositing their own upon them. In due time the eggs hatch, the 
larvae bore the wood and live their required time, until they come forth 
as imagines to renew their war upon the dying or injured trees. As 
these species are generally represented by thousands of individuals in a 
given locality, it is easy to imagine how destructive they would be to 
our forests and orchards were they to attack healthy trees. As it is, their 
operations are fruitful of good in that they aid nature in the grand scheme 
of life. The fallen tree is perforated in all directions, moisture enters the 
perforations and Termites, fungi and decay all add their forces in reduc- 
ing the wood to soil. 

Many interesting facts continually come under ones observation, 
but the difficulty is in determining what is new and what is not. Thus, 
I was astonished some ago, in watching a swarm of perhaps a thousand 
Melanophila consputa and M. longipes, on some spruce trees and logs, 
after, a fire in the woods. A large old spruce log, partly decayed, and 
full of termites, had been subjected to considerable heat, and some of 
the bark had slipped off. Here I saw and watched four different individ- 
uals of Melanophila devour the scorched termites, which was the first 
instance I had observed of a carniverous habit in the Buprestidce. This 
may, however be well known to others, Then again some very common 
facts seem to be little known. For instance, I once told Dr. Leconte 
that our common Mitrius contractus was a bombardier beetle and he was 
surprised to hear it.'' 

Melanophila longipes has been known to take playful nips out of ex- 
posed portions of the human body, but actual carnivorous habits have 
not been heretofore recorded to our knowledge. As to Metrius, the in- 
formation is new. Dr. Horn has collected this insect and never noticed 
the bombardier habit, and Mr. Julich has also taken them in large num- 
bers without making that observation. Have any others of our Western 

friends noticed this fact? 

» * 

* 

The death of Mr. H. K. Morrison has made an opening for an in- 
telligent, enterprising and good collector. Coleoptera and Lepidoptera 
find a ready sale, and other orders are attracting increased attention here 
and may also be disposed of in Europe. Who will undertake this? 

* * 

* 

To facilitate exchanges among collectors we will hereafter publish a 
separate page of advertisements of offers and requests to exchange. A 
uniform charge of 5 cents per line will be made and the ads. will remain 
until crowded out by others. Desiderata may be mentioned and lists of 
duplicates added. Check list numbers or names may be used. 



—99— 
Book Notices. 

Cut Worms. A paper read before the New York State Agricultural Society, at the 

Annual Meeting, January 21, 1885, by J. A. Lintner, Ph. D., New York State 

Entomologist. 8vo. 25 pp. figures. 

Contains a brief review of the literature, a synopsis of their life hist- 
ory, and a compilation of what is known of remedies. 
Studies among the Meloidae. By Geo. II. Horn, M. D. Tr. Am. Ent. Soc. 

XII, pp. 107—116, March 1885. 
Descriptions of New North American Scarabaeidae by Geo. H. Horn, M. D. 

Tr. Am. Ent. Soc. XII, pp. 117— 128, March 1885. 
Contributions to the Coleopterology of the United States (No. 4) by Geo. 

H. Horn, M. D. Tr. Am. Ent. Soc. XII, pp. 128—162. March 1885. Plates 

V and VI illustrate these articles. 
On the species of Canthon and Phanaeus of the United States, with notes 

on other genera, by Frederick Blanchard. Tr. Am. Ent. Soc. XII, pp. 163 — 172, 

May 1885. 

We are glad to see Mr. Blanchard in the ranks of our systematic 
workers. He has been long and favorably known as a collector, and his 
paper gives evidence that he is able to do good work in the systematic line. 
The Periodical Cicada. An account of Cicada septendecim and its tiedecim race, 

with a chronology of all broods known, by Chas. V. Riley, Ph. D. Bulletin No. 8, 

Div. of Entomology U. S. Dept. of Agricult. June 1885, pp. 46, figures. 

This pamphlet is accompanied by Circular No. 16, giving the di- 
stribution of the two broods due this year, and stating that notes of the 
appearance, the numbers and distribution of the broods are desired. It 
would be a desirable thing for all Entomologists to gather what infor- 
mation they can in reference to these insects if they appear in their locali- 
ties and send the same to Prof. Riley. 
Descriptions of some new Cerambycidas with notes by Geo. H. Horn, M.D. 

Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. XII, pp. 173 — 197, June 1885. 

Gives synopses of Oxoplus, Sienosphenus, Monilema, Monohammus, 
Goes, Ona'derus, Eupogonius and Dysphaga. 

Synopsis of the Throscidae of the United States. By Geo. H. Horn, M. D. 

Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. XII, pp. 198 — 208, June 1885. 
A Study of the species of Cryptobium of North America. By George H. 

Horn, M. D. Tr. Am. Ent. Soc. XII, pp. 85—106. PI. I and II. (Feb. 1885.) 
Dr. Horn here gives us an exceedingly interesting paper, illustrating 
some remarkable peculiarities of structure. These were touched upon 
in the March Meeting of the Brooklyn Entomological Society, and are 
here elaborated. Of many species there are three forms of structure of 
the 4th ventral segment of the $. One is called a perfect <$, another 
an imperfect ^, the third an incomplete $. These are but descriptive 
terms and are not applied to differences of function. It is however an 
exceedingly interesting question whether these differences in structure 



— IOO— 

have not some corresponding physiological difference. It seems highly 
probable, and yet it is difficult to imagine what it could be. The com- 
plete $ is the most common, the imperfect <$ nearly as plentiful while 
the incomplete $ is comparatively rare. 

The imported Elm Leaf Beetle. Its habits and Natural History and means of 
counteracting its injuries. Bulletin No. 6 of Div. of Ent. U. S. Department of 
Agriculture pp. 18; I pi. May 1885. 

Insects affecting growing wheat. By F. M. Webster. Purdue Univ. Bulletin 
No. 3. Indianapolis April 1885, pp. 6; 3 Plates. 

Obituary Note. 

We are sorry to record the death of Mr. H. K. Morrison, of Morgan- 
ton, N. C. Mr, Morrison was born at Boston, Mass., January 24, 1854, 
and died at his home in Morganton, June 15, 1885, of inflamation of 
the bowels. The passion for collecting insects was strong with him from 
childhood, and in his twentieth year he determined to give up his busi- 
ness as shoe dealer and devote himself entirely to Entomology. At this 
time he began publishing, and described quite a number of heterocerous 
lepidoptera and made valuable notes and observations, especially in the 
Noctuidae. The papers were principally in 1873. ^74 an( ^ 1 875 in the 
Boston Proceedings, and Proc. Ac. N. S., Phil. Many notes and shorter 
papers are in the Canadian Entomologist for those years. They display 
strong appreciation of characters used in systematic Entomology, and 
render it a matter of regret that he did not continue the study. However 
he had determined to earn his living as a collector, and the long trips 
necessitated by this made systematic work an impossibility; the more so 
as justice to those purchasing from him required that rarities should go 
to them in the sets taken. In the spring of '76 he went south, collect- 
ted in Georgia and the mountains of Western N. C. , in '77 he married 
and established his home in Morganton, whence his later trips were made. 
In '77 he also made a three months trip to Colorado; the summer of '78 
he collected in the black hills; '79 in New, Cal. and Utah, '80 and '81 
in Wash. Terr., Or. and So. Cal.; '82 and '83 in Arizona, '84 in South- 
ern Florida and in the spring of '85 he again spent some time at Key 
West. Mr. Morrison was a dilligent and careful collector and found a 
large number of new species in all orders, so that "Collected by Mr. 
Morrison" appears everywhere in descriptive papers. He was well known 
not only everywhere in America, but also in Europe, and had built up 
quite an extensive business in this line. His premature death has de- 
prived our science of one of its most active workers in the collecting line 
and will leave a vacancy hard to be filled. 





Americana 



VOL. I. 



BROOKLYN, SEPTEMBER, 1885. 



NO. 6. 



Descriptions of New Species of Heterocera. 

By R. H. Stretch. 

As many of the readers of "Entomologica Americana'' are aware, 
I have for the past three years been engaged on a monograph of the 
groups. Zygcc.nidoc, Lithonida and Arctiida of North America, intended to 
collate all the literature thereon, and to illustrate all the species with a 
good recognizable figure. The work is now in such a state, that its com- 
pletion depends only on my ability to secure a certain number of types 
for figuring; and in this place I propose, while describing certain new 
forms, so as to obviate the risk of their being described while the work 
is in the press, and so creating synonyms, to indicate my desiderata and 
ask assistance from those who may be fortunate enough to possess the 
species, either in the form of drawings or photographs, or the loan of 
the insects themselves. At this date there are drawn about 350 figures, 
illustrating 210 species, most of them already printed. 

Scepsis Wrightii. 9-cT- Similar to S.fulmcoUis, but smaller. Ik-ad, palpi, 
antennae, legs, thorax and abdomen, black, the latter with blueish reflections. I'm 
thorax white with very pale yellowish tinge, not extending to the underside of the 
head and palpi. Primaries dark brown, as in fulvicollis, but with paler fringes and 
yellowish costa. Secondaries diaphanous, with irregular blackish margin, as infulvi- 
collis. Beneath as above. 

Expanse of wings 1.10 inches. Hab. Southern California, Wright. 

Described from 7 ^Q, received from Mr. G. W. Wright, after 
whom it is named. Readily distinguished by its smaller size and the 
tint and distribution of the prothorax coloring. 



— 102 — 

Harrisina australis. ( j\ Similar to H. Americana, but larger. Head black. 
Antennae black, wiih a metallic blue. tinge. Abd. mien and legs black. Prothorax 
orange, the color extending to the base of the patagia, and underside of the head and 
breast. Wings shaped as in americana, but more opaque, blacker and with a more 
positive blackish -green reflection. 

Expanse of wings 1,15; length of body 0.50 inches. Hab. Florida, 
Hy. Edwards. 

Out of the four American species this is the only one which has the 
underside of the head yellow, and this character will instantly separate 
it. In size, the range of americana is from 0.75 to 1.00 inch, with an 
average of about 0.90 inch, so there is a notable difference in size as well 
as color. 

Harrisina metallica. Similar to americana but much larger. Entire insect 
above and below, lustrous blueish-green, with the wings a shade yellower than the ab- 
domen. Prothorax orange, the color not extending to the underside of the head. 
The wings have the apices much more produced than in americana or australis. 

Expanse of wings 1.60 inches; length of body 0.50 inch. Hab. New 
Mexico, Prof. Snow. 

Very distinct from any of the other American forms. The types 
were received from Prof. Snow under the name of H. americana, and it 
may probably be in other collections under that label. 

Nola hyemalis. 9cf- Head and palpi whitish, palpi darker beneath. Ab- 
domen pale. Body beneath, and legs darker. Primaries very pale gray, resulting 
from a sprinkling of minute brown dots on a white ground, somewhat darker towards 
the outer margin and apex. Costa with a dark brown streak at the base, and wings 
crossed with three indistinct lines made up of dots. Basal line most distinct, at one 
third from the base, oblique, straight, parallel with the outer margin, with a distinct 
brown dot near the costa, made up of tufted scales. The second line is slightly beyond 
the middle, parallel with outer margin for half its length, then rounding rapidly to 
the costa. The third line originates near the anal angle, is parallel with the second, 
and leaves the terminal space broadest on the costa. Each of these lines is followed 
outwardly by a very narrow white shade, and the tip of the wing is faintly striped, 
owing to the varying depth of color of the veins and interspaces. Fringes long, dark- 
er than the wing, and distinctly separated therefrom by a very narrow pale line. 

Secondaries very pale, shaded with darker tints at the apex. Fringes very long, 
concolorous. Beneath, immaculaie, primaries darkest. 

Expanse of wings o 80 inch. Hab. Crystal Springs, San Mateo 
County, (Hy. Edwards); Alameda County, Calif. (Behr). 

Does not appear to be uncommon in March and April on fences 
and at light. 

Cisthene plumbea. Head and thorax lead color. Abdomen bright red above, 
dusky beneath. Primaries lustrous drab or lead color, with a somewhat triangular 
whitish spot on the inner margin, two thirds from the base. Secondaries clear pink, 
with a broad costal lead colored margin, which is continued along the outer margin, 
decreasing in widih to the anal an^le. Beneath as above, but somewhat paler. 



— io3— 

Expanse of wings 0.85 inch. Hab. Texas, Belfrage. 

Similar to unifascia, but of a darker and different tint and fewer 
pale markings. 

Cisthene lactea. Eyes black. Antennre brown. Palpi black. Tongue as 
long as the body. Entire insect otherwise white above and on the body parts, the 
underside of the wings being smoky, especially the primaries, on the latter are usually 
six small black spots, three on the costa, equally spaced; one just outside the discal 
cell, and two in the space below the median vein, one of them being near the base, 
and the other near the outer margin. 

Expanse of wings 0.70 inch. Hab. Providence Mountain, Bernar- 
dino County, California. 

This species may not strictly belong to Cisthene but the material is 
too scant to allow of dissection. 

Crocata Belfragei. Eyes black. Head, palpi, collar, thorax and primaries, 
concolorous, clear yellowish brown. Secondaries reddish, with a moderately wide, 
outer, blackish border. Fringes red. Beneath reddish on all wings, as are the 
underside of palpi and abdomen; the latter above, dull orange, with a dorsal and 
lateral series of black spots. Legs somewhat dusky. 

Expanse of wings 0.85 inch. Hab. Texas, Belfrage. 

Intermediate in size between rubicundaria and costata, and very 
different from either in color and shape of the primaries, which are square 
at the tips, the inner margin being much longer proportionally, and the 
outer margin less oblique than in either of the species mentioned. 

Crocota costata. Eyes black, head reddish, palpi same with dusky tips. 
Thorax pale stone color, collar very narrowly edged with red. Abdomen pale red. 
Underparts reddish; outside of legs dusky. Primaries pale stone color, dusted with 
red scales, which are most conspicuous along the costa and on the discal vein. Sec- 
ondaries pale reddish, of the tint of red-lead. Beneath, all wings pale reddish, not so 
dark as secondaries above. 

Expanse of wings 1. 10 inch. Hab. Texas, Belfrage. 

Allied to rubicundaria, but larger; with the primaries and thorax of 
a very different color; the primaries are long and comparatively narrow, 
with the outer margin very oblique. 

Crocata obscura. Pale fawn color to smoky brown ; when of the latter color, 
the entire insect is concolorous, except the eyes which are black, and the costa of the 
primaries beneath which is enclosed to red. The same is the case when entirely fawn 
color. Sometimes the primaries are fawn color and the secondaries smoky, in which 
case the head, thorax and abdomen are the color of the primaries. 

Expanse of wings 1.05 inch. Hab. Pennsylvania, Strecker; New 
Hampshire,. Fernald. 

This*fnsect has been sent to me under the name of ferruginosa, 
Walker, and is so described by Packard in his monograph of the Bom- 
bycidoe, but this cannot be as ferruginosa has a discal dot on the sec- 
ondaries like brevicornis. 



— 104 — 

Callimorpha reversa. Head and prothorax ochre yellow. Palpiochre 

yellow, I. hick at the tips. Patagia white. Thorax white, with a 1 road central brown 
stripe. Abdomen wine, with traces of a narrow dorsal stripe. Legs yellowish, coxa> 
of, anterior pair with a round black dot; outer edges of anterior and middl 
dusky. Primaries silky white; inner margin, costa, and outer margin ratherbroadly 
edged with dark brown, interrupted at the apex. A brown band crosses the wing 
from the anal angle to the costa, about two-fifdis from the base; from the centre of 
th I ami. a second brown band runs to the outer margin just below the apex, divid 
ing the wing into three pi ineipal white patches. The basal patch is triangular (some 
times divided by a narrow basal brown band). '1 hat on the outer margin is more or 
less ovate, and is frequently divided near the apex by the brown nervules into three 
sub-equal spots; and the costal patch is more or less clearly divided into three sub 
equal -pots, by an expansion on the discal vein of the bn wn costa] margin, and by 
toothed enlargements of the brown markings, between the discal vein and apex. See 
ondaries clear white, immaculate. Beneath as above, but the markings are more ob- 
scure, and the costa of all the wings is tinged with yeilow ochre. 

Expanse of wings 1.50 to 1.90 inch! Hab. Canada, Saunders; New 
York, Hy. Edwards; Kansas, Prof. Snow. 

This species has long been confounded with Leconki. Harris and 
Doubleday discussed the question of their specific identity, and Canadian 
Entomologists have long contended that two species were included un- 
der the latter name, but so far as I know without pointing out the most 
recognizable character, which is to be found in the main transverse band 
ol the primaries. In Leconki, this starts from the inner margin and goes 
to the apex, while in reversa, it starts from the outer margin and goes to 
the anal angle, being exactly as in Clymene, Just as is often the case in 
the latter species, the transverse band is sometimes partly absolete near 
to the costa, and this seems to be the chief variation. 

Arctia approximata. 9- Head and palpi black beneath, front and vertex 
pale. Thorax cream color; prothorax with two black spots, thorax with three black 
stripes. Abdomen red above, with dorsal series of black spots; tip and underside 
black. Legs black touched with cream color. Primaries velvety black, with all the 
margins, the nerves and nervules, terminal W, terminal transverse band on which 
the \V rests, and longitudinal streak, dark cream color. The terminal band is in- 
complete, wanting the portion between the subcostal and median veins. A small 
pale dot above the origin of the first median vein, is all that remains of the median 
band. No basal or sub-basal bands. Secondaries clear red, yellowish round the 
Mack spots, winch consist of the discal spot of the median row, all four of the sub- 
marginal row, and the two apical spots of the marginal series, which are fused to 
gether round the apex. No basals clouds. Beneath as above, but colors more 
diffused. 

Expanse of wings 145 inch., length of body 0.52 inch. Hab. 
Canada, Hy. Edwards. 

A small species close to Saundersii, of which it may be only a 
variety. The pattern of the primaries resembles no other species. The 
secondaries are like Saundersii 'and intermedia. Described from 1 Q, 



— io5— 

sent me by Henry Edwards, who states that he has another identically 
the same. 

Arctia obliterata. $. Head beneath and palpi black; above pale yellowish, 
with black spot between the antennae. Thorax pale yellowish, with two prothoracic 
and three thoracic stripes. Abdomen black above, yellow ochre along the sides, with 
black lateral spots; beneath whitish with two rows of black spots. Legs black; 
femora of the anterior pair touched with ochre; outside of all the tibia? whitish. 
Primaries dark blackish brown; costa, fringes and inner margin, narrowly pale 
yellow, as well as the veins, longitudinal stripe, terminal W, and costal half of the 
terminal band, this being all that is left of the transverse bands except traces of the 
median. Secondaries dull red with black spots, the marginal and submarginal rows 
being all present and of good size. There are faint traces of all the row of median 
spots, but the discal one is the only one conspicuous. Base unclouded. Apical spots 
slightly fused into a narrow apical border. Beneath, as above, but the colors paler 
and more diffuse. 

Expanse of wings 1.30 inch. Hab. (?) 

Described from 1 $ in only fair condition, sent me many years 
ago by W. H. Edwards, Esq. After seeing all the other American 
Arctians I can refer it to none. The ornamentation of the primaries 
places it in the Quenselii, gelida group, characterized by the presence of 
only the costal half of the terminal band, which imparts to them a very 
distinct character. Obliterata is however the only one in which the sec- 
ondaries are spotted, and also the only one in which they are red. 

Arctia elongata. 9 • Head and palpi black, front very narrowly margined 
with pale yellowish white. Thorax the same color, with two prothoracic and three 
thoracic stripes which occupy nearly the entire surface. Abdomen above yellow - 
ochre, last segment whitish; terminal hairs, two lateral rows of spots, and a moder- 
ately broad dorsal stripe, black. Thorax and abdomen beneath, black, with a few 
pale marks on the edges of the segments of the latter. Legs imperfect in my speci- 
men. Primaries black, markings pale yellowish white. These consist of a narrow 
costal border not reaching beyond the median band; a similar border to the inner 
margin and the fringes; the median vein very narrowly as far as the terminal band; 
the longitudinal streak, terminal W, terminal and median bands both extending from 
costa to beyond the longitudinal streak, and traces on the costa of a sub-basal band. 
Secondaries clear ochre-yellow, with black spots. All four spots of the marginal and 
sub-marginal rows are present, the costal spot of the former, and the three apical 
spots of the latter row, being fused into a narrow apical margin. All three spots of 
the median row present, the inner one being connected with the base by a black streak. 
Fringes yellow. Beneath, similar to the upper surface, but colors less pronounced. 

Expanse of wings 1.55 inch. Hab. Spokane Falls, Washington 
Territory. 

Described from one female in good preservation except the legs and 
antenna;. Collected by Mr. Ricksecker and presented to me by Mr. 
Rivers of Oakland, California. The species is very distinct. In shape 



— io6 — 

it approaches nearest to Dahurica, the wings being rather narrow, with 
the outer margin oblique, and apex acute. If the veins were all pale, 
it would somewhat resemble the yellow forms of achaia in color, but not 
in shape. 

Euchsetes murina. cf9* Eyes dark brown. Head and thorax clear stone 
color, with a pink shade in the suture between them. Palpi dusky, a few pink hairs 
at their base. Abdomen above reddish, with a dorsal row of small black dots. Be 
neath stone color, as are the legs, the fore coxre of the latter shaded wiih pink. All 
the wings pale stone color, above and below. Fringes and extreme costa paler. 
Expanse of wings 1.25 inch. Hab. Tucson, Ariz. 
Not uncommon at light in August. In form it is near egle, but 
smaller, and differs from it in having pale costa and red abdomen. 

Euchsetes Bolteri. Q- Palpi, eyes and antennae dull black. Thorax white 
above, with a fine red line on the front of the prothorax. Thorax below slate color 
with a red patch centrally. Legs dark gray; coxae of anterior pair red; base of the 
femora white. Abdomen bright orange above, dull white beneath, with a white anal 
tuft, a dorsal series of black dots as well as a lateral series. Primaries dull while, 
slightly tinted on the outer half with irregular markings of light stone-drab color. 
These markings vary in depth of color in different specimens, and extent; in one 
specimen they are so close that only fine white points of the ground color of the wing 
show between them. Secondaries pale slate color. Beneath, all the wings are uni- 
form pale stone-color. 

Expanse of wings 1.40 inch. Hab. Texas, A. Bolter. 

The above description was kindly furnished me by Mr. Bolter, 
drawn up from the three females in his possession. The species is very 
distinct, being close to clegans, but differing in color of abdomen and 
tint of wings. 

Halesidota scapularis. <$. Eyes black. Head pale fawn color. Antenna 
stout, long, rufous. Prothorax dirty white, with brown median line. Patagia like 
prothorax, brown in front. Thorax brown, with triangular white spot in front. Ab- 
domen dark yellow ochre above, banded below with brown and pale Tawn color. 
Primaries dark brown with six irregular bands of white spots. The first basal and 
narrow, the spots fused into an irregular curved band. The second row consists of a 
large irregular spot below the median vein, and a long costal spot divided by the sub- 
costal vein. The third row has a similar costal spot, a small one below the median 
vein, and a large one above and a small one below the submedian vein. The fourth 
row has five spots, the middle one very small. The fifth row is submarginal, and 
consists of eight lunate spots decreasing in size towards the costa where they also be- 
come more ovate. The sixth row is marginal, triangular, a small spot at the end of 
each of the nervules. Secondaries very pale fawn-white, with four darker submarg- 
inal spots, those near the apex largest. 9- Similar to tf, but the head brown, the 
spots on the primaries larger and slightly more irregular, and but two spots on the 
secondaries, the largest near the apex. Beneath, the secondaries show a dusky shade 
at the middle of the costa, irregularly connected with the apical spot. 

Expanse of wings $ 2.00, 9 2.30 inches. Hab. New Mexico, 
A, Bolter. 



Allied to Sobrina, Ingens and Argentata } but distinguished from all 
these by the thoracic parts. 

DESIDERATA. 



Eudryas Stce Johannis, Walker. 
Ctenucha Robinsonii, Boisd. 
Lycomorpha Palmerii, Packard. 
Penthetria majuscula, Hy. Edwards. 

" parvula, Hy. Edwards. 

Nola anfracta, H. Edwards. 
Hypoprepia inculta, H. Edwards. 
Cisthene tenuifascia, Harvey. 
Eulithos a thoracica, H. Edwards. 

" composita, H. Edwards. 
Nemeophila Scudderi, Packard. 

" Geddesii, Neumoegen. 



Alexicles aspersa, Grote. 
Spilosoma antigone, Strecker. 
Ectypia bivittata, Clemens. 
Leucarctia permaculata, Packard. 
Halesidota Davisii, Ply. Edwards. 

" mixta, Neumoegen. 

" minima, Neumoegen. 

" cinnamomea, Boisduval. 

" macularia, Walker. 

Euhalesidota pura, Grote. 
Vanessodes fuscipes. 
Euchsetes inopinatus, Hy. Edwards. 



Of these desiderata, Eudryas S tee Johannis is in the British Museum; 
the types of L. Palmerii and Leucarctia permaculata, as well as Ectypia 
bivittata appear to be hopelessly lost; Ctenucha Robinsonii and Halesidota 
cinnamomea appear to exist only in the Boisduval collection in France; 
Halesidota macularia is in the British Museum, but apparently not 
known in the United States; and lastly Nemeophila Scudderi (Platarctia, 
Packard) is Nemeophila Sclwynii, H. Edwards, and may be in collections 
under that name. 



NOTE ON SANDALUS. 

Sandalus has always been rather an uncommon insect near N.Y. 
while Mr. H. W. Wenzel of Philadelphia has found it commonly enough; 
he writes: ''In regard to finding Sandalus petrophy a, you inform me that 
the insect is rare in the neighborhood of New York. I think if it is 
sought for in the right season and locality it might be found as frequent- 
ly as I find it near Philadelphia. I do not think Sandalus is a local in- 
sect, as I have found it in several places, not before the end of June, and 
the most of them I have captured in the middle of July, and always on 
Beech, crawling on the bark or sheltered along the roots of the tree. 
Their movements are very slow. 1 have frequently observed them with 
head and thorax covered with dirt; have also found them half out of the 
ground, but only in the morning. The females are found more frequent 
than the males. So far as my experience goes, the larvse evidently live 
on Beech. The 'new classification refers to Sandalus as affecting various 
cedars; I have collected in several cedar districts through Southern New 
Jersey but never met with a single specimen on cedar, and wherever I 
have found them, there was no cedar in the vicinity." 



— ioS — 

Synonymical Notes. (No. 3.) 
By George H. Horn, M. D. 

During a visit made a short time ago to the Museum at Cambridge, 
I had an opportunity to examine the types of the species described by 
Lieut. T. L. Casey, now the property of the Museum. 

The proposed publication of a new list of the Coleoptera of our 
fauna rendered it advisable to go carefully over the writings of those who 
have specially treated the species of our fauna. With this view the de- 
scriptions of Kirby, Leconte, Randall, Newman and Palisot de Beauvois 
have been as far as possible re-studied, and those of Melsheimer, Halde- 
man and Ziegler are in progress. 

In the following pages especial attention has been given to the 
species described in an isolated manner, those treated synoptically such 
as the Euplecti, Euaesthetus and Steni have been left for future study. 

The remarks which follow are based on a comparison of the species 
with those of the cabinet of Dr. Leconte, now part of the Museum at 
Cambridge. 

A few of the species mentioned below have been described in the 
Brooklyn Bulletin and are so quoted, the others are in pamphlets pri- 
vately printed, entitled "Contributions to the systematic and descriptive 
Coleopterology of the United States'', parts 1 and 2, (the paging being 
continuous.) and "Revision of the Stenini of America North of Mexico". 

Pterostichus zcphyrus, I, p. 2 = P. adoxus Say, var. rejectns, Lee. 
" osculans, id. = P. diligendus Ghd. 

" manhattanis, 2, p. 72 = P. lucublandus Say. 

Amara apachensis, 1, p. 3 = A. remotestriata De/., var. relucens Mann. 
" marylandica, I, p. 4 = A. basillaris Say. 
" pallida, I, p. 5 = A. rubrica Hold. 
" ferruginea, I, p. 5 = A. rubrica var. 
Bembidium vernula, 2, p. 62 = B. constrictum Lee. typicall 
" acticola, 2, p. 63 = id. slight variety. 

" militare, 2, p. 65 = B. picipes Kby. 

" vividum, 2, p. 66 = B. contraction Say. 

" dejectum, 2, p. 67 = (1). 

" vinnulum, 1, p. 15 = (2). 

Tachys occultator, 2, p. 69 is allied to pallidus and mordax. 

" litoralis, I, p. 15 = T. pallidus Chd. 
Barytachys glossema, 2, p. 70 = T. granarius Dej. 

" gemellus, 2, p. 71 (3). 

Discoderus pinguis, 2, p. 75 = D. robustus Horn (4). 
Cratacanthus litoreus, 2, p. 74 = C. dubius Beauv. 
" bisectus, 2, p. 75 = id. 

" texanus, 2, p. 75 = id. 



— 109 — 

Bradycellus Iucidus, I, p. 8 (5). 

Stenolophus gracilis, I, p. 14 = S. ochropezus Say. 

" scitulus, 2, p. 78 = S. conjunctus Say, var. rotundatus Lee. 
Harpalus opacus, 1, p. 8 = Anisodactylus nigerrimus Dej. 

" manhattanis, 1, p. 9 = Xestonotus lugubris Dej. 

" vespertinus, 1, p. 10 (Q). 

" placidus, 1, p. 10 = H. fallax Lee. 

" convictor, 1, p. 12 = H. viridiameus Beaur. 

" canonicus, I, p. 12 = id. 

" lustrahs, I, p. 12 = id. 

" aenescens, 1, p. 12 = id. 

Selenophorus seneopiceus, 1, p. 13 = S. pedicularius Dej. 
" perpolitus, 2, p. 76 = gagatinus Dej, var. 

Anisodactylus arizonae, 1, p. 6 (7). 

Bidessus nigrinus, 2, p. 80 = B. affinis Say, var. obscurellus Lee. 
Helephorus pallens, 2, p. 81 = H. lineatus Say. 
Philhydrus angustulus 2, p. 83 = P. reflexipennis Zimm. 
Colon decoris, 2, p. 84 = C. thoracicum Horn. 
Eumicrus vestalis, 2, p. 85, a valid species. 

" punctatus, 2, p. 86 = Choleras Zimmermanni Schaitm. 
Tychus testaceus, 1, p. 31 = T. longipalpus Lee, fide Lee. 
Bryaxis facilis. 2, p. 87, near to B. rubicunda Aube. 

" gracilis, 1, p. 32, id. id. 

" inopia, I, p. 33, very near B. puncticollis Lee. 
Batrisus denticollis, 2, p. 87 = near B. nigricans Lee. 

" Virginia?, 2, p. 90, allied to B. striatus Lee. 

" aterrimus, 2, p. 91, near B. spretus Lee. and B. striatus Lee. 
Arthmius gracilior, 2, p. 88 (8)- 
Euplectini (species) (9;. 
Tithanis, new genus = Maseochara Sharp. 
Emplenota mantima, 1, p. 17 is Polystoma maritimum. 
Quedius silvicola, 2, p. 123 = Q. fulgidus Fab. var. 

Belonuchus moquinus, 2, p. 125 = Belonuchus xanthomelas Solsky, (10). 
Xantholinus fucosus, 2, p. 126 = X. emmesus Grav. var. fusciceps Fvl. 
Cryptobium capito, 2, p. 127 = C. pallipes Grav. 

"■ convergens, 2, p. 129 = C. floridanum Lee. 

" parallelum, 2, p. 130 id. 

" proximum, 2, p. 132 id. 

Lathrobium tricolor, 2, p. 133 = L. ventrale Lee'. 

" inops, 2, p. 135 = L. othioides Lee. 

Orus picipes, 2, p. 136 = Scopreus picipes. 

" punctatus, 2. p. 138 = Scopseus punctatus (H). 
Stilicus latiusculus, 2, p. 139, a valid species. 
Lithocharis tabacina, B. B. VI, p. 65, a valid species. 
Edaphus carinatus, 1, p. 30 = E. nitidus Lee. 

" luculentus, I, p. 31 id. 

Euresthetus (species) 1, p, 19 (12). 
Erchomus flavidus, 2, p. 141 = E. ventriculus Mr. immature 

ENTOMOLOGICA AMERICANA . 17 



— no — 

Conurus versicolor, 2, p. 142 = C. crassum Orav. immature. 
" imbricatus, 2, p. 143 = C. pubescens Payk. 
" occultus, 2, p. 145 = C. basale Say. 
" corticola, 2, p. 145 = C. opicum Say. 
setifer, 2, p. 147 = id. 

Bolit 'bias facilis, 2, p. 148 = B. trinotatus Er. cab. Lcc. 

" occiduus, 2, p. 150 = B. cincticollis Say. 
Bryoporus parvulus, 2, p. 15 1 = B. rufescens Lee. var. testaceus Lee. 
Mycetoporus inquisitus, 2, p. 152 = M. splendidus Orav. 
Apocellus (species) 2, p. 153 (12). 
Ptilium fungicola, 2, p. 162 = P. Hornianum Matlh. 

" trimcatum, 2, p. 163 (13). 
Trichopteryx radicola, 2, p. 163 (14). 

" funginus, 2, p. 164 = T. discolor Hold. 

" longipennis, 2, p. 166 = T. parallela Mots. 

Cryptamorpha Hubbardi, 2, p. 167 = Psammcecus Desjardinsii Guar. (15). 
Carpophilus zuni, 1, p. 34, a valid species. 
Epursea papagona, I, p. 35, allied to E. rufida Mels 
Rhizophagus procerus, 2, p. 168, a valid species. 
Monocrepidius finitimus, 2, p. 169 = M. auritus Hbst. 
Drasterius fretus, 2, p. 170 = D. amabilis Lee. 
Anthaxia nanula, 2, p. 174 = D. ceneogaster L. et 0. 
" simiola, 2, p. 175 = id. 

" senescens, 2, p. 175 = id. 

Lyctus parvulus, 2, p. 175 = L. opaculus Lee. 
Ennearthron californicum, 1, p. 36, a valid species. 
" unicolor, 1, p. 37 = E. Mellyi Mellie. 

Serica parallela, 2. p. 176 = S. sericea Illig. immature. 

" porcula, 2, p. 177 = S. elongatula Horn. 
Diplotaxis levicula, 2, p. 178 = D. punctata Lee. 

" popino, 2, p. 179, a valid species. 
Strigoderma pimalis, 2, p. 181 = S. arboricola Fab. (IS). 
Lachnosterna subpruinosa, 1, p. 38 (17). 

Cryptocephalus ellipsoidalis, B. B. VI, p. 66 = C. insertus Hold. 
Disonycha pulchra, 1, p. 51 = D. punctigera Lee. 

procera, 2, p. 182 = D. pensylvanica Illig. 
" arizonae, 1, p. 52 = near maritima Mann. 

Chxtocnema paupercula, I, p. 53 = C. parcepunctata Or, immature. 
Psylliodes extricata, i, p. 54 — punctulata Mels. very immature. 

" angustala, 1, p. 55 = P. interstitialis Lee. var. convexior Lee. 
Bruchus cubiculus, 2, p. 183 = B. impiger Horn 9- 
Epitzagus ovalis, 2, p. 184 (18). 

Eurymetopon piceum, I, p. 40 = E. emarginatum Cos. immature. 
" emarginatum, 1, p. 41 (20). 

" dubium, 1, p. 44 (19). 

carbonatum, I, p. 43, is the $ of dubium (21). 
sculptile, 1, p. 44 = E. emarginatum Gas. 
" papagonum, 1, p. 42 = id. (22)- 

Emmenastus nanulus, 1, p. 45, nearly related to obesus Lee. 



Con'ontis elliptica, i, p. 46 (23)- 
Eleodes arcuata, 1, p. 47 = E. extiicata Say (24) 
Blapstinus pimalis, 2, p. 185 = B. pulverulentus Mann. 
Platydema pernigrum, 1, p. 49 (25). 

■' parvulum, 1, p. 50 = P. excavatum Say. 

" opaculum, 1, p. 51 = P. ruficorne Sturm, var. anale Hald. 

Mordella deserta, 2, p. 186 = M. lunulata Helm. var. 
Xylophilus densus, 2, p. 187, allied to piceus Lee. 
Notoxus delicatus, 2, p. 189 = N. monodon Fab. var. Pilalei Laf. 
Anthicus facilis, 2, p. 190 = A. spretus Lee. 
Rhynchites naso, 2, p. 190 (26). 
Anihonomus moleculus, 2, p. 191, a valid species. 
Elleschus californicus, 2, p. 193 = E. ephippiatus Say. 
Tyloderma nigrum, 1, p. 56 = T. aereum Say. 

" punctatum, 1, p. 57 = id. 

Apion vespertinum, B. B. VI, p. 67, a valid species. 
Hrachytarsus paululus, 2, p. 194 = B. tomentosus Say <$. 

The following new genera of Carabidae have been proposed: 

Amerinus for Bradycellus linearis Lee. In the first description 
(1, p. 7) no distinctive generic characters are given. In fact there are 
none if we except the presence of a few squamules on the middle male 
tarsi. The new name is unnecessary. 

Glycerius for Bradycellus nitidus Dej. The character given being 
the number of setae along the lateral margin of the thorax. The value 
of this will be recognized by those having some knowledge of the Cara- 
bidae. The name is also unnecessary. 

1 — Bembidium dejedum Casey. This species belongs to that series of 
the Peryphus group in which the dorsal punctures are at the middle 
of the third interval, it should therefore be placed with ephippiger 
and grandicolle (Lee. Proc. Acad. 1857, p. 4). 

2 — Bembidium vinnulum Casey. Should be placed in the series with 
scopulinum and picipes. It is remarkable in the large and deep 
punctures of the striae. 

3 — Barytachys gemellus, Casey. Closely related to incurvus and differs 
in the absence of punctures in the basal stria of the thorax. 

4 — The difference in the measurement .of the episternum of the meta- 
sternum between Mr. Casey and myself results from the fact that I 
compare the anterior side with the internal edge while Mr. Casey 
measures the piece really diagonally. 

5 — This species must at present remain in Bradycellus but the middle 
tarsi being as widely dilated as the anterior mark it as a very peculi- 
ar species. 



1 12 — 

6 — Harpalus vespertinus Casey. Allied to and very closely resembling 
ellipsis Lee. and differs in having the elytra very smooth in both 
sexes. 

7 — Anisoddtlvlus arizoruz Casey. Belongs to that series in which the 
anterior tibial spur is broader at middle and the hind tarsi shorter 
and somewhat depressed. It belongs to the group B-b as defined 
by me (Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc. 1880, p. 172) and is related to 
nivalis by the single puncture at each angle of the epistoma. In 
form it resembles semipunclalus. It is very black and shining (the ■ 
female slightly opaque) the surface sometimes with a slight purplish 
lustre. 

8 — This form is placed by Leconte with globicollis. I find differences 
in the form' of the sexual fovea in all the males examined. 

y — As the genera and species are treated systematically the value of the 
species will be determined in time. It is however the opinion of 
Mr. Ulke, to which Dr. Leconte assented, that Nicotheus tibialis is 
the male of Eutyphlus similis Lee. 

10 — This species is considered a Philonthus by Dr. Sharp. It is not in- 
cluded in my synopsis as I thought and still think that it should 
either remain in Belonuchus or that the latter should be entirely 
united with Philonthus. 

1 1 — Orus does not differ from Scopaeus. The antennae are not genicu- 
late. 0. picipes is very close to Scopaeus exiguus Er. O. punctatus 
is from Owens Valley, Cal., the type was formerly one of two in my 
cabinet, it is very close to Sc. brunnipes. 

12 — These are treated synoptically and the value of the species can be 

determined by any one having the material. 
13 — The generic reference seems doubtful. I was unable from lack of 

time to dismount the specimen for study. 

14— Of this species I saw the elytra only and could not satisfactorily 

determine. 
15 — There is no difference between the specimens from Florida and 

those from Oregon, Madeira, Mauritius and New Zealand. 

16— The comparisons made by Mr. Casey are between specimens from 
New Jersey and Arizona, he having none from the intermediate 
regions. 

1 7 — The important characters which define the position of this species 
have been omitted. It is however allied to micans. 



—ii3— 

1 8 — Epiiragus ova/is is extremely close to plumbeus and very doubtfully 
different. 

19 — Eurymeiopon dubium. In the types of this the thorax is a little 
more coarsely and not quite so closely punctate as in rufipes and 
the sides of the thorax slightly sinuate near the hind angles. In a 
large series before me (21 specimens) these characters are evanescent. 

20 — E. emarginatum is also allied to rufipes but is more elongate, some- 
what convex and with the elytra less densely and somewhat 
substriately punctate. 

21 — E. carbonatum. The typical series of this species consisted of five 
specimens. That to which the label was attached is emarginatum, 
the other four are males of dubium. Supposing the majority to re- 
present the species the synonymy is placed accordingly. 

22 — The differences between the forms united as emarginatum are purely 
individual. 

23 — The species of Coniontis are with our present knowledge purely 
opinionative. I preferred to consider the forms described as C. 
elliptica as smaller forms oirobusta in view of the recognized varia- 
tion in Eschscholtzii and viatica. There is almost unlimited op- 
portunity for new names in this genus. 

24 — There can be no doubt in the mind of any one who will examine 
a large series of extricata that cognata Hald. is merely a variety and 
that artuata Casey is the female of cognata. 

25 — Platydema pernigrum has the form of Janus Fab. but with a more 
shining surface and more distinct sculpture. The color differences 
alluded to by Mr. Casey are inexact. 

26 — Rhynchiiis naso is allied to fossifrons but the thorax is more densely 
punctured: the striae are also more coarsely punctured. 

Among the Steni the following synonymy has been observed: 

Dianous chalybeus Lee. = coerulescens Gyll. A $ specimen of the latter obtained 
by me in Scotland has been returned to me by Mr. Casey as chalybeus. 

D. zephyrus Casey = nitidulus Lee. 

Areus Casey = Hemistenus Mots. The genus is not considered a valid one. 



We call attention to our page of "Exchange" Notices. Those having good 
species to offer or desiring a particular line of insects, cannot do better than to avail 
themselves of its advantages. 



— 114 — 

On the Classification of North American Diptera 

(Third Paper.)* 

By Dr. S. \V. Williston. 

"The families Stratiomyidae, Tabanidae, Xylophagidae, Acanthome- 
ridae and Leptidse form a natural group, which has several characters in 
common: three pulvilli, total absence of macrochajtae, and smooth legs, 
deprived of those bristles and spines that distinguish the Asilida. 1 , and, in 
a lesser degree, most of the Bombylidre and Therevidae. " 

"The principal families in this group are well marked enough, but 
there are, along side of them, many forms of transition, so-called synthetic 
types, which render the exact difinition of the families very difficult." — 
Osttn Sat ken** 

Three or four of these synthetic genera are peculiar to, or occur in, 
North America. These are: Arlhropeas Loew, Ghttops Burgess, and 
"Nov. Gen." Osten-Sacken (to include Arlhropeas leptis O.-S, and an un- 
described species fiom Washington Territory). Of Bolbomyia Loew, not 
enough is known to base any definite opinion — its author was in doubt 
about it himself. Dr. Brauer, in his recent extensive review*** of the 
genera of Xylophagidae and Stratiomyidce, would place them under the 
Xylophagidae. Baron Osten-Sacken, on the other hand, would locate 
them under the Leptida). I know but one species, pertaining to the new 
genus; its general habitus is so markedly Leptid, that I would agree 
with Osten-Sacken that the structure of the antennae should hold a sub- 
ordinate value. The larvae possibly, when found, may give more decisive 
evidence. Subula, another disputed form, Brauer retained in the Xylo- 
phagidae, but pointed out larval relationships with the Stratiomyidx'; 
Osten-Sacken gave reasons (I.e.) for including this genus under the Stra- 
tiomyidae, a view which Brauer afterwards accepted, f 

With these changes, however, I am utterly at loss to find characters 
that will distinguish these families, and I am here compelled to give an 
artificial analysis to separate the disputed forms. 

The veins separating the posterior cells are here spoken of simply as 
posterior veins. In the distribution of the groups I follow Brauer chiefly. 

* See ante p. 10 for second paper. 
** Berlin. Ent. Zeit., Band XXVI, 1SS2. p. 363. 

*** Denksclir. d. math.-natnrw. Classed. kaisi Akad. d. Wissenschaften, Band 
XLIV, pp. 59 — 110. 

t 1 lenkschr. etc. Band XLVII, p. 23. 



— ii5 — 

Thr: writings of Loew, Schiner, Gerstiicker, Osten-Sacken and Brauer 
have been especially studied in the preparation of this paper. 

Empodium developed pulvilliform, pulvilU present. Without distinct bristles 
idiptera eremochceta O. S.). Basal cells of icings large. Third joint of antennas seg- 
mentated or annulated. Tegidce small or rudimodary. Proboscis not adapted for 
piercing. Males holoptic or dichoptic* . 

[.—Tibiae wholly without spurs; veins usually crowded anteriorly 

STRATIOMYIDAE. 
Tibiae more or less spurred; the costal vein encompasses the whole wing; two 

sub-marginal and five posterior cells always present 2 

2. — All the tibiae with spurs 3 

Front tibiae without spurs \ 

3. — Third joint of antennae not acute at tip, or, if so, the scutellum with spines on 

its border XYLOPHAGIDAE. 

Third joint acute; palpi cylindrical; scutellum without spines.. *Arthropeas, Lw. 

4. — Fourth posterior cell closed. (Macroceromys Bigot) Subula, Meig. 

Fourth posterior cell open 5 

5. — Face projecting on each side into a rounded conical protuberance, thickly cover- 
ed with hair *Glutops, Burgess. 

Face with two deep, diverging furrows, running from the base of the antennae to 
the oral margin ''Nov. gen." O.S. 

XYLOPHAGIDAE. 

Species of moderate or large size, more or less elongated, thinly 
pilose, or nearly bare. Ocelli present. Antennas elongate, third joint 
annulated or segmentated, never with a differentiated style or bristle. 
Veins of the wings distinct, not crowded anteriorly, third longitudinal 
vein furcate; five posterior cells. Abdomen with seven or eight visible 
segments. All the tibiae with spurs at the tip. 

The flies are usually found about trees, where they feed upon sap, 
or about decaying logs, and are often mistaken for ichneumonids. 

1. —All four posterior veins arise from the discal cell; head small; scutellum with 

spines Ccenomyia, Latr. 

The last posterior vein arises from the second basal cell; head not small; scutel- 
lum without spines 2 

2. —Fourth posterior cell closed; third joint of antennae much elongate, composed of 
numerous distinct divisions, often pectinate; eyes emarginate near the antennas 

Rhachicerus, Hal. 
Fourth posterior cell open; third joint of antennae composed of eight annuli, in- 
distinctly separated Xylophagus, Meig. 

■ 1 propose this term as the antithesis of holoptic. 



— n6- 



STRATIOMYIDAE. 

Head large, hemispherical. Antennoe situated at or below the 
middle of the head in profile, short or elongate, the third joint composed 
of more or less distinct annuli; usually with a more or less differentiated 
style, or bristle. Eyes bare or pilose; ocelli present. Scutellum often 
with thickened spine-like points. Abdomen elongate, clavate, oval, or 
rounded, flattened or convex above, of five or more visible segments. 
Legs never very stout, often slender, tibia? without spurs (except in some 
exotic genera). Wings usually with the veins more or less crowded an- 
teriorly, often on the outer posterior part weak and faint; third longitud- 
inal vein usually furcate, terminating before the tip of the wing; four or 
five posterior cells, all open, the posterior veins not seldom more or less 
rudimentary. 

Species from three or four to twenty or more millimeters in length, 
bare or moderate pilose. They are mostly flower-flies, and are often found 
upon vegetation in the vicinity of damp places. Larvae pupigerous, that 
is the pupa; remain within the larval skin till ready to emerge as perfect 
insects. 

i. — Abdomen with seven visible segments Beridinae. 

Abdomen with only five or six visible segments 2 

2. — Three posterior veins, all discal Pachygastrinae. 

Four posterior veins, the anterior ones sometimes rudimentary 3 

3. — All the posterior veins discal, the last posterior cell contiguous at its base with 

the discal cell 4 

The last posterior vein arises from the second basal cell, the last posterior cell not 
contiguous at its base with the discal cell 5 

4. — Third antenna! joint with a long, delicately fringed, lamclli form style; usually 

large, more or less elongated species; males dichoptic. (HermetiincB.) 

Hermetia, Latr. 

Third joint not with such a style; abdomen short, not more than twice as long 

as broad Clitellarinae. 

5. — Antenna; with a slender dorsal or terminal bristle Sarginae. 

Antennae never with a slender or long bristle Stratiomyinae. 

(To te continued. ) 



In the article on the 8phingi<ke in No. 5, the word Dilphonota, wherever it oc- 
curs, should read Dilophonota. 



— U7— 

On the Parasites of Odontota Suturalis. 

By L. O. Howard. 

I publish this short note on the parasites of Odontota Suturalis at the 
request of Dr. Riley, who has recently made an exhaustive study of the 
habits and life history of this interesting leaf-mining Coleopter, and who 
wishes to refer to the parasites specifically in his paper without the necess- 
ity of cumbering it with descriptive matter. He has bred four species, 
all of which issued in July. 

i. Spilochalcis odontotae, m. This is strikingly handsome species, looking 
like a dwarfed specimen of 8. marice (Riley. ) It was described by the writer to- 
gether with other species of the genus in Bulletin 5 of the Division of Entomology. 
It issues from the pupa of the Odontota the latter part of July. 

2. Sympiezus uroplatae, n. sp. Male. — Length 2.61 mm. Expanse4.6mm. 
Flagellar joints of the antennae distinct and somewhat flattened. Whole of pro- and 
mesonotum strongly shagreened. Median carina of metascutellum delicate, straight 
and clearly definsd. Abdomen ovate. Hind coxae coarsely shagreened above. Color 
metallic green ; scape yellowish beneath ; front femora brownish at base, distal half honey 
yellow, tibiae and tarsi nearly white; middle and hind femora brownish, slightly me- 
tallic above, tibiae and tarsi nearly white with the exception of a brownish tinge near 
base of hind tibice. Wing veins dusky; stigmal more delicate than with other species. 

Described from 1 rf, bred from mine of Odontota [Uroplata) sutura- 
lis, July 24, 1,884 at Washington, D. C. The larva of the Sympiezus 
was observed on opening the mine, to feed externally on the larva of the 
Onodonlota. 

3. Trichogramma odontotae, 11. sp. Female. — Length 0.55 mm., expanse 
1. 12 mm. Color: eyes red, head, antennae, thorax and basal joint of abdomen or- 
ange yellow, all legs light fuscous, remainder of abdomen light brown. Antenna; 
except scape and including pedicel with a few short sparse hairs. Basal portion of 
fore wing included by stigmatal vein slightly fuscous, remainder hyaline. 

Male. — Length averages about .05 to .1 mm., shorter than 9. wun wings of a- 
bout the same proportionate length. Colors the same except that the abdomen is 
darker, and the fuscous patch on the base of the fore wings is more pronounced. In 
balsam-mounted specimens no complete division of the flagellum into joints can be ob- 
served and the antennae appear 3 -jointed (scape 1, pedicel 2, flagellum 3). Conspic- 
uous whorls of hair are present, however, indicating possible sub-divisions. The ap 
pearence is much like that of the <^f antennae of Tr. erosicornis, Westw. (Trans. Linn. 
Soc. Lond. Ser. 2, Vol. I. (1878) PI. 73, figs. 24 & 25) for which Westwood erects 
the sub-genus Ajwobosca. 

Descrbed from <^ and 9 specimens bred during the month of July 
from the egg masses of Odontota suturalis on Locust at Washington, D. C. 

4. Derostenus (Closterocerus) sp. A number of the brilliant little species of 
this genus have been bred in this country fiom the leaf mines of both lepidopterous and 
coleopterous larvae. None have ever been described and as they are very difficult of 
separation and approach very closely to the European species, I shall not undertake 
to publish an isolated species. A study of the American Entedonince will, of course, 

ENTOMOLOGICA AMERICANA 18 



— n8— 

I e made in tunc, and meanwhile this species may be referred to by the manuscript 
name V\ rosU nus primus. 

The fact that a species of this genus lias been bred from the pupa of 
Eulophus would seem to indicate that Derostenus may consist of second- 
ary parasites and tnat this species may have fed in the larva state on the 
larvae or pupae of the Spilochalcis or the Sympiezus. 



Notes and News. 
1 1 seems that Mr. VV. II. Edwards has not yet forgiven Dr. Hagen 
for his article on Coiias. Having on several occasions attempted to dis- 
pute Dr. Hagen's conclusions by bringing out prominently the differen- 
ces between the species — thus showing how minute and evanescent they 
really are — he now makes his attack in a different way and in ' Papilio" 
IV, pp. 167 — 171, with great display of logic and fat type, undertakes 
to prove that Dr. Hagen for the sake of annihilating several innocent 
species of Coiias, did wilfully, and with malice prepense, manufacture, in- 
vent, and as truths publish, certain facts which had no existence. In 
other word sthat Dr. Hagen wilfully lied to prove the identity of two spec- 
ies of Coiias. Of course such charges require no answer from Dr. Hagen. 
No one believes them and they therefore do no harm. Still to show that 
Mr. Edwards has either withheld evidence he had knowledge of, or did 
not inquire far enough before making so grave a charge, the following is 
published. 

"Dear Mr. Henshaw: 

You probably have "Papilio" 
IV, No. 9 and 10. Will you please read the article 'On some Historical 
Errors' on p. 167, and give me any information you may have, in refer- 
ence to the matters there stated as facts. I am especially desirous of 
learning about those insects caught in copula. Mr. Stretch says he did 
not catch them: did you? What are the facts about that unfortunate 
cyanide bottle? Please correct any other errors you may know of in the 
article, and let me have your reply at as early a date as possible. 

Very truly, John B. Smith." 

Dear Sir: 

A number of the statements in the paper 

"On some historical errors'' (Papilio 1884! [1885] v. 4, p. 167 — 171) 
by Mr. W. H. Edwards require correction. 

Dr. Hagen's statement, that six pairs of Coiias were taken in copu- 
lation, is correct. Many envelopes, as Mr. Stretch writes, contained 
more than a single specimen frequently of widely separated genera, but 
in no case were specimens labelled as collected in copulation unless so 



—ii9— 

taken; the six pairs in dispute were labelled by me "^ and 9 taken in 
cop.", so that assumption in this case was unnecessary. 

Memory as to the number or per cent of the specimens taken by an 
individual collector after a term of nearly two years, is not wholly trust- 
worthy and by Mr. Stretch's reasoning it could be logically inferred that 
I collected 95 per cent of the Coleoptera. According to my memory 
such a conclusion would be far in excess of the truth, through not more 
so than that Mr. Stretch collected fully 95 per cent of the Diurnals. It 
is immaterial how many or how few butterflies Dr. Hagen collected, but 
I can state positively that he caught and handed to me for labelling 
more than five pairs of a single species. Mr. Stretch must surely have for- 
gotten the many discussions that took place concerning machaon, mena- 
pia and leio, not to mention others, when he wrote that Dr. Hagen knew 
nothing about the butterflies, and I can bear willing testimony that Mr. 
Stretch was too energetic and too enthusiastic a collector to allow his 
many interesting captures to miss so appreciative an audience as Dr. 
Hagen proved himself on many occasions. 

Mr. Edwards' statement of Mr. Stretch's remarks, in relation to the 
Colias whose color was changed by cyanide are not entirely consistent. 
In June 1884 he wrote me that Mr. Stretch claimed that Dr. Hagen was 
wholly mistaken in his account of the matter and in Papilio Vol. IV, p. 
170 (received in July 1885,) he writes that Mr. Stretch, in answer to his 
cpaestion as to what he (Mr. S.) knew about this Colias, "replied that he 
knew nothing of it." 

Mr. Edwards' English while not "obscure" is certainly misleading 
when he says that Mr. Stretch did not use a cyanide bottle, as he prob- 
ably intended saying that Mr. Stretch did not use the cyanide bottle in 
question. 

Mr. Stretch used a cyanide bottle all the time he collected in Oregon 
and Washington Terr. 

In regard to the Colias similar in color to C. aslraea, I have only to 
say that a yellow Colias recognised in the field as corresponding closely 
to, if not identical with others previously collected, was placed in a damp, 
freshly prepared cyanide bottle, and when taken from the bottle the 
hind wings were wet; the specimen was preserved and the facts noted at 
the express wish of Dr. Hagen. 

The application of the term "omnivorous" to the new collecting 
bottle is not clear to me. 

Yours, Saml. Henshaw. 



— 120 — 

How shall we collect, in alcohol or cyanide? And how shall we fasten 
our small beetles, with gum or with shellac? Practice varies in this re- 
spect and each method has its advantages and corresponding disadvan- 
tages. Mr. C. Lugger has had an experience this summer that is some- 
what suggestive. He transported his collection of Coleoptera to New 
Orleans for the exhibition, and the moist heal of that locality soon 
began to produce a crop of mould. Careful examination showed that ot 
insects on cards, those mounted with gum of any kind were uniformly 
mouldy, while those mounted with shellac as uniformly escaped. Pinned 
insects collected in cyanide began to mould and decay while those col- 
lected in alcohol pretty generally remained sound. Southern collectors 
claim that they cannot use shellac because it hardens so rapidly that the 
insects turn and twist. Alcohol as a collecting medium has the dis- 
advantage that it contracts the muscles of the mouth parts. Dr. Horn 
says that in Bernbidium and many other small Carabidae and many of the 
Staphylinidce there appears a great difference in the proportions of the 
joints of the palpi. Two specimens of a Bernbidium examined, showed, 
one a minute terminal joint hardly \ as long as the preceding; while 
another, obviously the same species, had the terminal joint fully as long 
as the second. The first was collected in alcohol, and the terminal joint 
was retracted far into the second; while the other, collected in cyanide, 
had the joint extended as far as possible. Care and knowledge are thus 
imperative in the use of these organs in systematic work. 

^ i * i — 

Book Notices. 
Vol. VI, Part 2, of the Trans. Am. Conn, Ac. Arts and Sc, is at 
hand and contains the following of interest to Entomologists. 
New England Spiders of the family Epeiridae. By J. H. Emerton, pp. 295- 

342, pi. 33-40. 
New England Lycosidae. By J. H. Emerton, pp. 481-505, pi. 46-59. 
North American Conopidae, Conclusion. By. Dr. S. W. Williston, pp. 377- 

394. pi. 41. 

Mr. Emerton here continues his studies on the new England spiders, 
and by his clearly drawn plates and careful text gives a great addition to 
our knowledge of these handsome though somewhat repugnant insecta. 

Of Dr. Williston's paper we need only say it is good. Our readers 

know his style of work. 

* * 

In the July No. of "The American Monthly Microscopic Journal" 
is a note by D. S. Kellicott of an aquatic lepidopterous larva probably 
belonging to Cataclysta, which forms a free case, similar to that of a 
Phryganeid, with silk, holding together fragments of Lemna &c. 





Americana 



VOL I. 



BROOKLYN, OCTOBER, 1885. 



NO. 7. 



Proceedings of the Entomological Club of the A. A. AS. 

The club met under the rules and pursuant to notice, on the 25th 
day of August, at room H of the University of Michigan, at 2 P. M. , 23 
persons present. 

In the absence of the President, the meeting was called to order by 
Prof. Osborn, the Vice-President, who stated that Dr. Morris, the Presi- 
dent, had announced his inability to attend. 

The Secretary stated that the minutes of the meetings at the Phila- 
delphia session of the Ass"n , had been printed in the Bull. Bkln Ent. 
Soc. . the Can. Ent. and in the Proceedings of the Ass'n., and printed 
copies were in the hands of the members. On motion the reading of the 
minutes of the previous meeting was dispensed with. 

The following were then nominated and elected officers of the Club 
for the ensuing year. President, Prof. J. A. Lintner of Albany; Vice- 
President, Mr. E. A. Schwarz of Washington, and Secretary, Mr. John 
B. Smith of Brooklyn, N.Y. 

Prof. Lintner taking the chair expressed regret at the absence of Dr. 
Morris and the consequent want of a presidential address. He stated 
that there had not been during the past year any falling off in the interest 
taken in Entomology: on the contrary the interest had rather increased. 
Those in public positions know this to be the case by the increase and 
character of the applications for information, especially from Agriculturists 
which were made both to the U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, and to State 
officers. 

The chairman of the committee on arrangements reported what had 
been done to obtain papers for the present meeting. 

Prof. Riley moved that hereafter the officers of the club be elected 



at the end of the sessions, in each year, and that the officers thus elected 
serve at the meetings of the club the following year. This was seconded, 
and a resolution to that effect was adopted. 

The Secretary then read the following paper, Dr. Coding not being 
in attendance. 

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH of WILLIAM LeBARON, 

LATE STATE ENTOMOLOGIST OF ILLINOIS. 

By Dr. F. W. Goding. 

William LeBaron was born Oct. 17, 18 14, in North Andover, 
Mass., and was the son of Dr. Lemuel and Martha LeBaron. His father 
was a physician of considerable note, and his paternal grandfather a 
minister. His maternal grandsire, Dr. Thomas Kittredge, was a surgeon 
whose fame extended from Maine to Washington and was one of a long 
line of physicans. Thus it is plain that Dr. LeBaron inherited studious 
habits and scientific tastes, and even his life study was decided upon 
from earliest childhood. 

The neighboring cities soon attracted his less studious brothers, and 
upon William devolved the care of the aged mother and grandmother, 
both of whom he attended through long illnesses and closed their eyes in 
death before he was twenty-five years old. 

His early education was acquired under the iron rule of Dr. Putnam 
whose school for boys was famed in those days, attracting from far and 
near many who afterward attained distinction in their several vocations. 
Among his school-mates he was beloved and respected, one of whom 
said of him: "He was the boy with the best judgement among us. In 
any dispute we always called upon William to decide; for he was always 
so fair and so true, that we were all willing to abide by his decisions." 

From childhood he evinced a strong love of nature and devoted his 
leisure hours to studying her in her various branches. First Ornithology 
and then Botany attracted his attention; and having made an exhaustive 
collection of specimens in each of these departments, he turned his 
attention to Entomology to which he ever after remained faithful. 

The doctor studied medicine under the tutorship of his uncle, Dr. 
Joseph Kittredge, in North Andover, and for several years he practiced 
there. We are informed by his family that he graduated from Harvard 
Medical College in 1857, hence he must have returned from the West 
to complete his medical studies. 

In 1 84 1 he married Sarah Jarvis Carr of Ellsworth, Maine, and 
in 1844 removed to Geneva, Kane Co., 111. (the old homestead being in 
sight of the place where I am now sitting), where the remainder of his 



— 123 — 

life was spent with the exception of the last year, during which time he 
resided in Chicago. While in Geneva he continued in the practice of 
Medicine, and he was known far and near for his skill in diagnosis of 
disease and surgical operations. 

In 1850 he made his advent into the scientific world by means of 
an article published in the old Prairie Farmer, upon the "Chinch Bug" 
which was at that time making serious ravages in the wheat crop, then the 
most important product of the State. In this article — which was re-pub- 
lished in Fitch's 2d N. Y. Ent. Report — he gave the first scientific ac- 
count of the life history ol this important pest describing it as new under 
the name of Rhyparochromui devastator. Of this paper Dr. Fitch says: 
"Little requires to be added to this account". The same is true of the 
many scientific papers written by Dr. LeBaron, as he never published 
until the entire subject was thoroughly understood by him. His ex- 
haustive researches into the habits of the chinch-bug, and practical sug- 
gestions (in this and subsequent papers) as to their extermination, attract- 
ed the attention of the leading entomologists of Europe and America, 
with whom he ever after maintained a close correspondence. 

In 1 86 1 he was elected corresponding member of the Entomological 
Society 0/ Philadelphia and soon after member of the Mass. Hort. Soc. 

In 1865 he became Entomological Editor of the Prairie Farmer, 
to which paper he had contributed at intervals, for years, severing this 
connection only when his declining health compelled him to do so. 

A collection of Dr. LeBaron s contributions to that paper, of his 
answers to correspondents, and other papers read before various Agricul- 
tural and Horticultural Societies would make a valuable addition to 
entomological literature. We have received a hint from his family that 
the publication of a volume containing his essays etc., both published 
and unpublished has been seriously contemplated, a fact that will be re- 
ceived with pleasure by all. 

The doctor was thoroughly practical in all he wrote, and his state- 
ments of facts could be relied upon implicitly, as he tested his discoveries 
again and again before he gave them to the world. 

In 1870 two candidates appeared for the office of Illinois State Ento 
mologist made vacant by the untimely death of the lamented Walsh — 
Dr. Henry Shimer of Mt. Carroll and Mr. Emery of the Prairie Farmer, 
both of whom were well qualified for the position. For reasons that can- 
not be given at this time, Gov. Palmer refused to appoint either, but 
named Dr. LeBaron for the place, taking him entirely by surprise. 

From this time he devoted his whole attention to this work that lay 
nearest to his heart, until his health gave way under the severity of the 
strain. One of the first moves made by him was the purchase of the 



— 124 — 

Walsh Collection which secured to the State the finest and most accur- 
ately named collection of insects to be found in America. But this was 
not all; his labors being of an original nature added directly to our 
knowledge of insect life and his name will be handed down to posterity 
as one of the pioneers of economic entomology. 

But Dr. Le Baron's standing as an entomologist will be based al- 
, most entirely upon his Four Annual Reports, the last of which forms a 
most valuable text book for the order Coleoptera. He was moved to 
undertake this work by the numerous letters he received from young 
men interested in the study of entomology, who could find few books 
on the subject, suitable for beginners that were within their means. In 
his Fifth Report he proposed to compile a similar work on Diptera, his 
specialty. He had collected much material for it, but his sickness and 
death cut short his usefulness, just as he began to give to the world the 
results of his half century of arduous study and investigation. 

Dr. LeBaron died in Elgin, 111., Oct. 14, 1876, in the 62d year of 
his age, leaving a wife and five children. All are highly respected and 
esteemed, one son being editor of the Elgin Daily Navs and Post Master, 
and another being a successful publisher living in Chicago. 

The doctor left quite a collection of insects besides augmenting the 
Walsh Collection, and that of the State University. 

As you are all conversant with his writings I need not remark that 
lie was a man of fine literary attainments. A finished classical scholar, he 
showed a remarkably fine discrimination in the use of words, and as a con- 
sequence his meaning was always perfectly clear. He was even an authority 
to those about him upon all literary subjects, and many an evening 
he spent entertaining and instructing the young people of his neighbor- 
hood by his keen analysis of the best English and American authors. 

He was an active member of the Unitarian Church, being trustee 
both east and west for many years. For nearly a quarter of a century, 
consecutively, he held the position of school director, while he was fre- 
quently called to fill other positions of trust by his fellow townsmen. 

In conclusion, as a neighbor I would say, that more important than 
all was the good he did in the community by the example he set and the 
high moral standard he held up for all to attain to, who were in any way 
connected with him. A knowledge of his keen discrimination between 
right and wrong, and the ease with which he blew away the sophistries 
that men of the world use to cover their derelictions from duty, exercised 
a restraining influence upon all who knew him. 

With a hand ever open to aid the poor and friendless, he gave what 
he valued far above money — his time to straighten the crooked paths of 
others; and make the doubtful way plain. 



The poor of the town flocked to his funeral to look once more upon 

one, who had been their best friend upon earth. As his writings were a 

guide and a help to those who labored in the same scientific field, so his 

life was a guide and a help to all with whom he came in daily contact. 
His entomological writings both published and unpublished, so far 

as I have been able to ascertain, areas follows: 

"History of the apple-tree Caterpillar." 

Written in Mass. at an earlier date than the others. 

" Worms Injurious to Dried Fruit." 

"Metamorphosis of Insects." 

"On the Codling Moth, Carculio and Potato Beetle." Delivered at Cobdert, 111. 

' 'Insects Injurious to the Peach. ' ' 

"On the Extermination of Noxious Insects." Delivered in Jo Davies Co. 

"Connection between Scientific and Practical Entomology." 

In two parts. First, delivered at Jacksonville. 111. ; Second, published in Tr. 
111. St. Hort. Soc, Vol. 5, 

"Insects Injurious to Field Crops." 

' 'Sudden Appearance and Disappearance of Noxious Insects. ' ' Delivered at Gale^burg. 

"Communications to Prairie Farmer." 

"First Annual Report of III. Slate Entomologist." 1871. 

Table of Contents: Introduction. — White Marked Tussock Moth.— Fall 
Web Worm. —Lester Apple Leaf-folder (ii. sp.) — Oyster Shell Bark Louse. — 
Cahimorpha Pear Caterpillar. — Green Chestnut backed Plum Caterpillar. — 
American bine Chafer. — Green Crc-am Spotted Grape Worm. — Spinous Cur- 
rant Caterpillar. — 4-striped Plant-Bug. — Colorado Potato Beetle. — Rose 
Slug. — Pine Leaf Louse. 

"Second Annual Report of III. Slate Entomologist." 1872. 

Table of Contents: Introduction. — Canker Worm. -Apple and Walnut 
LeafCrumpler (11. sp.?). — Periodical Cicada. — Pear Flea Louse. — Small 
Bronze Flea Beetle. — Spotted Willow Aphis (n. sp.). — Willow Bark Louse 
(n. sp.). — Stalk-borer. —Chinch Bug. — Grasshopper parasite (n. sp.?).— Notes 
of the Season. 

"Third Annual Report of the III. State Entomologist." 1873. 

Table of Contents: Introduction.— Codling Moth. — Hand-maid Moth. — 
Cottonwood Leaf Gall Louse. --Transportation of Useful Parasites. — Intro- 
duction to Entomology. 

"Fourth Annual Report of the 111. State Entomologist." 1874. 

Consisting of an Introduction. —Outlines of the Study of Insects. — Tables etc., 
and a Treatise on the Coleoptera of North America. 

"Apple Tree Tent Caterpillar." Publ. in "American Ent." Vol. 2, p. 143. 

' ' Oom Kernels in Cocoons of Cecropia Moth ' '. Publ. in ' 'American Ent. ' ' Vol. 2, p. 1 77. 

"Noxious Larvae". Publ. in "American Ent." Vol. 2, p. 232. 

"The Chalcideous Parasite of the Apple Tree Bark-louse (n. sp.). 
"Publ. in "American Entomologist" Vol. 2, p. 360. 
(To be continued. ) 



"Ye editor" has entered upon the duties of his new office at the National Museum, 
Washington D. C, and letters should be addressed to him there. Communications for 
1 Ik- Society and books and pamphlets still go to Brooklyn, N. Y. 



— I 26 — 

Notes on Chrysomela scalaris, Lee 

By G. W. J. Angell. 

Lately, while examining some specimens of the genus Chrysomela, 
I found an insect answering equally well to the descriptions of scalaris 
Lee. ox Philadelphia! Linn. This led me to arrange a series from im- 
material in tnis group, to find, if possible, intergnules between the two. 
Further examination but strengthened the idea, that these so called spe- 
cies are but varieties or races of one and the same insect. Before dis- 
cussing the series thus obtained I give the original descriptions of Leconte 
and Linnaeus and also the remarks of Rogers and Crotch. 

"C. scalaris Leconte, Ann. Lye. I, p. 173. 

Oval, greenish blue; elytra punctate, yellowish while spotted with blue. Suture 
with a broad metallic black stripe, branched in three or four places. Humerus wi;h a 
large lunate spot; under surface bronzed black, antennre and legs ferruginous." 

"C. philadelphica Linn. Syst. Nat. II, p. 592. 

(Jval, greenish black, elytra pale yellow, with a longitudinal stripe near the sut- 
ure and a number of dark green spots; palpi, antennae and legs rufous, under surface 
dark green." 

Rogers (Proc. Acad. 1856, p. 31) says: "This insect (scalaris) is 
closely allied to C. philadelphica of Linnaeus, the difference consists in 
the suture being marked with a broad black stripe with which the spots 
are connected. In C. philadelphica the suture is black, straight and 
narrow, separated from a narrow subsutural black vitta by a narrow 
yellow line." 

Crotch (Proc. Acad. 1873, p. 49) separates them as follows: 

"First vitta joined to suture, which is laterally tridentate scalaris. 

First vitta free, suture not green philadelphica. 

He also states that in this group the epipleura: of the elytra are 
yellow. This 1 find to be the case in the majority of insects examined, 
but it is not entirely constant. From the above descriptions it appears 
that the basis of all determinations of these insects has been the metallic 
green, tridentate sutural vitta of scalaris and the free, bronzed, subsutural 
vitta of philadelphica. In my series I find the following variations from 
the typical form. For convenience, I refer to those markings near the 
vitta, which being joined to the latter make it dentate, as vittal spots. 

A. — Vittal spots small, hardly linear. Humeral markings broken, 
not forming a continuous line. Vitta faintly marked. An interior 
humeral spot. 

B. — Vittal spots linear. Humeral markings connected, and two 
interior humeral spots. Vitta more strongly marked, slightly diverging. 

C. — Vittal spots longer. Humeral line curved and interior spots 
connected. 



•127 — 










D. — Vittal spots nearer the vitta, 
diverging, almost connected. Hum- 
eral line angulated. In these speci- 
mens A, B, C & D the markings are 
pure bronze. 

E. — Vittal spots joining subsut- 
ural vitta, making the latter dent- 
ate. Humeral lunule pipe shaped 
Interior spots combined forming a 
single heavy dot. Sutural and sub- 
sutural vittae uniting near lower 
margin of elytra. 

F. — Vittal spots free, vitta sut 
ural. Markings greenish bronze. 

G. — Sutural vitta strongly den- 
tate. Lower vittal spot free. Mark- 
ings green. Margins of prothorax 
light yellow. 

H. — Vitta broader and denta- 
tions more obtuse. 

I. — Dentations still more obtuse. 
All markings heavier. This is the 
common lorm of scalar is . 

J. & K. — In these specimens the 
series reverts somewhat to the phila- 
delphica type. The sutural vitta 
and humeral lunule are like scalaris 
but the fine lateral spots and red- 
dish bronze color of the markings recall philadelphica. This series shows 
a nearly complete gradual gradation from the finely maculate form of 
philadelphica (H) to the strongly marked scalaris type (I). A still more 
extended series will, I expect, completely demonstrate the truth of the 
opinion here advanced. Should further investigation bear me out, the 
name philadelphica Linn, must stand for both insects, as it has decided 
priority. Scalaris is however a well marked race, in some localities very 
constant. Hundreds collected at Cambridge last summer show scarcely 
any variation, while specimens from New Jersey, Cape Cod and prin- 
cipally Canada are decidedly inconstant and variable. 

Figure L represents an insect which has long been considered a 
variety of scalaris. In many collections it bears Dr. Leconte's cabinet 
name labyrinlhica, but it has lately been determined by Dr. Horn as 
identical with C. pnirsa Stal. Its elytral markings are certainly peculiar 




— 128 — 

and very constant, yet in many specimens of scalar is I have seen, there 
is a strong tendency towards this torm. In regard to Crotch's paper, al- 
ready quoted, 1 find another important exception to a specific character 
given therein. He separates multipunctata Say, and its varieties from s/al- 
aris and philadelphica, by its partially yellow prothorax. An examina- 
tion of figure G will show that in this insect, a decided scalaris form, the 
lateral margins of the prothorax are light yellow. This leads me to doubt 
the validity of multipunctata as a distinct species, a doubt which Crotch 
also expresses, though he gives no reason for it. 



Notes on Mexican Lepidoptera, with descriptions 
of New Species. 

By Henry Edwards. 

(Fourth Paper.) 

I continue the descriptions of a few other fine insects collected by 
Mr. Wm. Schaus, at Jalapa, Mexico, which, as far as I am able to ascer- 
tain, are new to science. They certainly do not occur in any works to 
which I have access, and I therefore think it best to place them on record. 

FAM. ZYGAENIDAE. 

Lycomorpha notha, n. sp. 

Form and size of L. pholvs, Dru. Wholly bluish-black with the exception of a 
triangular patch at base of primaries, a very small patch at base of secondaries, collar, 
palpi, and inside of fore femora, which are bright orange. 

I J 1 . 19. (No. 228.) 

Lycomorpha sinuata, n. sp. 

Allied to L. latercula, Hy. Edw. Head, antennre disc of thorax, abdomen and 
legs all dull sooty black. Thorax with the sides and base, brick red. Primaries 
brick red, with the margins sooty black, very narrowly so at the apex, broadest on 
the median vein, thence straight to internal margin. Secondaries wholly sooty 
black, except the base, which has a brick red patch. The markings are repeated on 
the lower side. 

Exp. wings 24 mm. Length of body 10 mm. 1 9- (No. 230.) 

SUB-FAM. ARCTIIDAE. 

Gnophaela disjuncta, n. sp. 

Somewhat resembling at first sight the common G. vermiculata, G. & R. The 
wings are however much narrower, and have a very striking greenish metallic sheen, 
while the spots are totally different both in size and arrangement. Below the median 
nerve is a narrow stripe, not cmite reaching the base, widening from a mere point to 
immediately below the cell, where it is excavated, and surmounted by a rather large 
.^ubovate patch, divided in half by the black median nerve. The apical patch is 
large, cut into 5 spots by the nervures, that nearest the internal angle being a mere 
dot. The secondaries have a large spot at the base, which is also divided into two 
by the nerve, the lower being almost oblong; and the upper subtriangular in shape. 



— 129 — 

From the costa near to the apex, runs a large pyriform spot, crossed by two black 
nervures. The markings are repeated on the lower side. The fore femora and 
pectus are bright ©range, the rest of the body bluish-black, the abdomen having a 
row of 6 small dots on the sides, and not a stripe as in G. venniculata. 
Exp. wings 45 mm. Length of body 17 mm. <$. O. 

SUB-FAM. NOTODONTIDAE. 

Janassa laciniosa, n. sp. 

J 1 . Bright but pale fawn-color, with darker streaks. The primaries have the 
costa shaded with rich coffee-brown, especially on the apical half. There is also a 
sub-apical dash, and some streaks of the same color on the posterior margin. From 
the base in centre of the wing runs an olive-brown clouded line, expanding into a 
blotch as it passes the cell, but not reaching to the margin. Secondaries sordid white, 
yellowish along the abdominal margin, and with a bright brown blotch at the anal 
ano-le. Beneath yellowish fawn -color, costa of both wings stained with brown, and 
the ends of the nervures of the primaries also marked with brown. Thorax brown 
on disk, fawn-color at the sides. Abdomen fawn-color, darkest at the base. 

Q. Dark coffee-brown, costa fawn-color towards the apex, and a pale fawn dash 
at internal angle, which in both sexes is a good deal jagged. Secondaries darker than 
in the tf, with the brown anal blotch as usual. Beneath, the primaries are dull brown, 
paler on the margins. Secondaries fawn-color, with brown dots at the ends of the nerv- 
ules. Thorax and abdomen as in the J 1 , the latter with a brown line beneath. 2 $ , 
3 9. Jalapa (W. Schaus, No. 398). Mazatlan (Hy. Fdw.). 

Exp. wings (J 1 42 mm., 9 50 mm. Length of body $ 22 mm., 9 20 mm. 

SUB-FAM. HEPIALIDAE. 

Phassus triangularis, n. sp. 

Wings greatly produced into a falcate point at the apices; rich wood brown, 
varying in shade, the 9 considerably paler than the tf. Costa arched at the base, 
both it and the subcostal nervure very strong and muscular. The costal margin is 
pale fawn-color, clouded with brown, three distinct triangular patches, most apparent 
from the middle of costa towards the apex. From the subcostal nervure, about 15 
mm. from the base of the wing runs a broad ribbon-like band, which passes into a 
point as it nears the internal margin, then upward to the edge of the cell, forming a 
very open V-like mark. At the end of the cell it is joined to a clear silvery white 
triangular patch, behind which is a double white spot. These white spots vary 
-lightly in shape in different individuals, but the average form is as here described. 
The posterior margins are broadly clouded with rich brown, on the field of which 
may be seen 3 macular bands, not passing below the median nervure. On the sub- 
costal space above the waved broad band is a row of 8 small oblong pale patches, and 
at the base of the wing near the internal margin are 4 pale spots, some of them oc- 
casionally with brown centre. Lower wings dull brown, pale at base, and with pale 
dashes at the apex. Underside wholly dull brown, with pale marks on the costa of 
both wings. 

Exp. wings, cf 140 mm., $ I0 ° mrn - Length of body, <j" 70 mm., 9 85 mm - 

A magnificent species, evidently belonging to Walker's genus. The 
transformations have been observed by Mr. Schaus, and will hereafter be 
referred to. 

ENTOMOLOGICA AMERICANA 20 



— 130 — 

Synopses of Cerambycidae. 

By Charles W. Leng, B.S. 
(Continued from p. 35. ante.) 

The following paper on the species of the genera erected at the ex- 
pense of Elaphidion is based upon material received by Dr. Horn since 
the publication of our synopses (No. 2 May). Those synopses were 
submitted to Dr. Horn for the insertion of the new species, but the 
material then in hand did not justify him in making any changes and 
the absence of Dr. Leconte's types of Anejlm prevented the careful com- 
parison which has led to these notes. We are greatly indebted to 
Dr. Horn for the opportunity of publishing them in this series and 
trust the reader may derive great satisfaction from this final clearing up 
1 it a puzzling group. 

ROMALEUM, White. 

R. simplicicolle Hald. = procerum Lee. 

The differences between these two species are not constant and the 
intergradation in the arrangement of the antennal spines on the outer 
side of the third and fourth joints is so gradual as to render it impossible 
to draw any line of separation. R. operarium Wht. , B. M. CataJ. p 309 
pi. VI, fig. y, is without doubt the same thing. 

R. seminitidum n. sp. 

Form robust, piceous, moderately shining, pubescence very fine and very sparse, 
lite surface being almost nude. Head coarsely and deeply punctured, a space clothed 
with yellowish pubescence on each side of the occiput within the eyes. Head slight- 
ly wider than long, base a little narrower than apex, sides irregularly arcuate, disc 
slightly flattened, with three callosities, one med.an larger, one on each side slightly 
in front of the middle; suffice roughly granulate punctate. Elytra wider than the 
thorax, -lightly narrowing to apex, the apices sinuously truncate, the sittural angle 
dentiform, disc slightly depressed, surface coarsely punctured and sub-granulate at 
basal striee, the punctures very rapidly liner and sparser posteriorly. Body beneath 
brownish, punctulation fine and sparse, pubescence very fine. Legs brown, punctate. 
the tibia.- not eaunate. Length 1. 04 inch; 26 mm. 

This species closely resembles Eustroma validum and might readily 
be mistaken for it without relerence to the generic characters. It is more 
shining and less pubescent. The antenna; are distinctly spinous on the 
inner side from the third to tenth joints, and less distinctly on the outer 
side from the fourth to tenth. 

One 9> Arizona. The male probably has a different thoracic 
sculpture as is usual in this genus. 



ANEFLUS, Zee. 

The outer antenna] joints are distinctly carinate on their flat sides 
this sentence gives the basis on which the genus was erected. On tins 
point some remarks will appear in the course of this article. 
The species of Aneflus are thus distinguished: 

Outer joints of antennae more or less distinctly carinated 2 

Outer joints not distinctly carinated volitans, Lee. 

2 — Third joint of antennae with a very long spine tenuis, Lee. 

Antennal spines of moderate size 3 

3 — Elytra simply emarginate at tip linearis. Lee, 

Elytra spinose at tip 4 

4— Thorax cylindrical; pubescence of elytra conspicuous. 

Disc of thorax vaguely quadvituberculate; antennal spines well developed. 

protensus, Lee 
Disc bituberculate at base, an elevated transverse line slightly in front of mid- 
dle; antennal spines small prolixus, Lee. 

Thorax distinctly narrower at apex, the disc very roughly sculptured ; pubescence 

of elytra very inconspicuous calvatus, Horn. 

A. volitans Lee. New Species, 1873, p. 186. Brownish, sparsely clothed with 
long pale pubescence. Thorax longer than wide, base and apex equal, sides feebly 
arcuate, disc densely rather coarsely punctate. Elytra closely coarsely punctate, the 
punctureis finer posteriorly, the apices truncate, the sutural angle acute not spiniform. 
Tibiae with flying hair. Length .40 inch; 10 mm. 

The carinae of the outer joints of the antennae were said by Dr. 
Leconte to be obsolete, in fact from an examination of the type I can- 
not find that they exist at all. The spine of the third antennal joint is 
two-thirds as long as the fourth joint, while that of the fourth is above 
one-third the length of the fifth joint. 

This species is placed at the beginning as an expression of its close 
relationship with some Elaphidion as acukatum and subpubescens and as 
the genera constructed at the expense of Elaphidion are at present de- 
fined there seems to be no reason why A. volitans should not be placed 
near the species above cited, unless it be placed in Psyrassa Pascoe. 
The latter genus and the value of its characters will be referred to later on. 
One specimen. Lower California. 

A. tenuis Lee, Proc. Acad. 1854, p. 81. Brownish or piceous, sparsely cloth- 
ed with white pubescence. Head very coarsely punctured. Thorax longer than wide, 
base very slightly narrower than the apex. Sides feebly arcuate, disc coarsely and 
deeply punctate, an indistinct smooth median line. Elytra coarsely and deeply but 
not closely punctate, the punctures gradually finer toward the apex, the apices emar- 
ginate, not spinose. Length .46 — .64 inch; 1 1.5 — 16 mm. 

The carinae of the outer joints of the antenna,* are very indistinct. 
The third joint has a long spine equal to half the length of the fourth 
joint, the other joints are mutic. This species should probably be placed 
in Psyrassa, if recognized. 

Occurs in south-western Texas. 



—132- 

A. linearis Lee. True. Acad. 1859, p. So. Rufo-testaceous, sparsely clothed 
w nil whitish pubescence. Thorax longer than wide, sides arcuate, disc < oarsely dense- 
ly punctate, a slight smooth space at middle p >steriorly. Elytra coarsely punctured, 
the punctures somewhat liner near the apex, the apices separately emarginate- 
iruncate, not spinose. Length .40 — 42 inch: 10—10.5111111. 

The outer joints of the antennae are distinctly carinate on their flat 
sides, the third, fourth and fifth joints with a short apical spine. The 
living- hairs of the tibiae are long but not very numerous. 

Occurs at Tejon, California. 
A. protensus, Lee. (Proc. Acad. 1658, p. 82.) Brownish piceous, clothed 
w.th grayish-white pubescence. Thorax longer than wide, scarcely peiceptibly 
narrower at apex than at base, sides feebly arcuate, sl.ghtly obliquely impressed near 
the base, disc convex, very coarsely and roughly punctate-granu.ate with four d.stinct 
elevations arranged in a quadrangle and a narrow median smooth callosity. Llyira 
coarsely not closely punctate, the punctures gradually finer toward the apex, the 
apices bispinous (j 1 or with the suture above spiniform O. Length 1 06 rf , 1.20 Q 
inch. 26.5—30 mm. 

The pubescence of this species is nearly as abundant as in Elaph. 
atomarium but more regularly placed. The joints three to six of the 
antennae are distinctly spinous, the spines gradually shorter. The outer 
joints are distinctly carinate on their fiat sides. 

Occurs in Arizona and northern Sonora. 
A. prohxus, Lee. n. sp. 1873, p. 203. Piceous, moderately densely clothed with 
cinereous pubescence with a few longer hairs intermixed. Thorax longer than wide, 
nearly cylindrical, coarsely and closely punctured, disc moderately convex with two 
slightly elevated tubercles near the base and a transverse elevated line slightly in front 
of the middle. Elytra coarsely not closely punctured, the punctures finer posteriorly, 
the apices bispinous in both sexes. Length 1.00 inch; 25 mm. 

The outer joints of the antennae are very distinctly carinate, the joints 
three to six with a short spine at apex. The slight transverse elevated 
line of the thorax is made more conspicuous by the arrangement of the 
pubescence. 

Occurs at Cape San Lucas, Lower California. 
A. calvatus, n. sp. Brownish piceous, moderately shining, surface with very 
tine, sparse and inconspicuous pubescence. Head coarsely punctured. Thorax 
lunger than wide, base one-half wider than apex, sides feebly arcuate, disc coarsely 
and roughly punctured with a tendency in the punctures to become transversely con- 
fluent. Elytra double the width of apex of thorax, parallel, coarsely and deeply, not 
closely punctate, the punctures finer near the sides and toward the apex, apices bi- 
spinous in the emargination between the spines and distinct tooth. Body beneath 
sparsely punctate. Length 1.16 inch.; 29 mm. 

The outer joints ol the antennae are very distinctly carinate on their 
flat sides, joints three to six distinctly spinous at tip. The legs are feebly 
pubescent without flying hairs. It is conspicuous among the larger 
species by the very feeble pubescence of the surface. 

One specimen <J\ Arizona. 



The table and remarks which precede are made from the species 
(the typical specimens) which Dr. Leconte considered as belonging to 
the genus Aneflus. Two of the species are, however, doubtful as mem- 
bers of the genus from the fact that in one (volitans) the antennae are not 
at all carinate, while in another {tenuis) more faith than sight is required 
to see it These two speciesgihould without any doubt be referred to 
Psyrassa Pasc., if it is to be recognized. In the latter genus Paseoe in- 
cludes our Elapkiiion unLolor, Rand. 

One of the essential characters of the group, Spherionides. to which 
Psyrassa is referred, is the presence of carina; on the tibiae. This is cer- 
tainly not the case in unico/or. ''The spine of the third antennal joint 
is remarkably long; and this seems to be a good generic character" 
(Bates, Biol. Cent. Am. V, p. 28). In unico/or the spine is rarely re- 
markably long, never longer than one-third of the following joint, usual- 
ly it is not longer than in villosum or truncalum. As far as the antennal 
spine and the carinate tibiae volitans and tenuis are Psyrassa. Assuming 
unLolor to be also a Psyrassa we observe a gradual fading out of all the 
characters: the tibiae are very distinctly carinate in tenuis, scarcely so in 
volitans and not at all in unico/or; the spine of the third joint of the an- 
tennae is two-thirds the length of the next joint in volitans, one-half in 
tenuis and less than a third in unico/or. After studying all the characters 
of the species cited I can only quote the remarks of Leconte regarding 
unico/or and apply them to the three species: "I can find no sufficient 
characters for separating this as a distinct genus, much Jess placing it in 
another tribe". In conclusion I would suggest that tenuis and volitans 
be returned to Elaphidion and placed between subpubes^is and unicolor. 

EUSTROMA, Lee 

The antennae are stout, in the male as long as the entire body, in 
the female much shorter. The antennae are not carinate in the same 
sense in which that term is used for Aneflus and it therefore seems better 
to place Eustroma in closer alliance with Elaphidion. 

The excavation of the underside of the antennal joints is more evi- 
dent in the males. The oval patch of pubescence near the front angles 
of the thorax is purely a male character and at the same time it is well 
to note that the male femora are much stouter than those of the female 

The differences between Eustroma and Elaphidion are really feeble 
and restricted almost entirely to the antennae: it will, however, be observ- 
ed that the metastemal episterna are broader in Eustroma but parallel. 

Geo. H. Horn. 



— !34 — 

To Dr. Horn's npte on Eustroma we may add that the outer joints 
of the antennae are compressed and pubescent, the lower joints shining, 
sparsely punctured and thinly clothed with long fulvous hair; joints 3 — 7 
spinose. The mandibles are stout and acute, with the outer margin 
suddenly bent near the tip in $ (as in Axesiinus) but regularly curved 
in Q. The body above and beneath is jfunctured and clothed with 
rather coarse yellowish brown hair; the prothorax has several smooth 
confluent spaces, the intervals being very coarsely punctured. The 
elytra are feebly truncate at tip and armed with a small sutural spine. 
E. validum, Lee. Proc. Ac. Phil. 1858, p. 82. 
Hab. Texas, Lower California. 

TYLONOTUS, Hold. 

Contains one species of variable size and coloration, distinguished 
structurally by the strongly clubbed femora and bisulcate antenna; and 
further from the succeeding genus by the callosities of the prothorax. 
The color is dark brown with part of the thighs and a blotch before the 
middle and another at the apex of the elytra testaceous. The surface is 
punctured (only thinly on the elytra) and sparsely pubescent. 

T. bimaculatus, Hald. Trans. Am. Phil. X, p. 38. 

Length .40— .60 inch. = 10 — 15 mm. Hab. Penn., N. Y. 

ZAMODES. Lee. 

Contains again a single species, opaque black in color, clothed 
with dense bro\tnish pubescence, mixed with erect hairs; prothorax 
rounded at sides, punctured; elytra strongly punctured before, gradually 
less behind. The species resembles Tylonotus but differs in the antennae 
not being sulcate, the prothorax having callosities and the legs being 
piceous. 

Z. obscurus. Lee. S.M.C.. No. 264, 1873, p. 188. 

Length .52 inch. = 13 mm. Hab. Penn., N. J. 

COMPSA, Tarty. 

Prothorax punctured, without callosities puncticollis. 

Prothorax not punctured, with a narrow callus elevated at middle, and an elevated 

tubercle on each side of the base quadriplagiata. 

C. puncticollis, Lee. S.M.C., No. 264, 1873, p. 188. 

Length .32 — .52 inch. = 8 — 13 mm. Hab. Lower California. 

An elongate blackish shining species, the body clothed with graj 
pubescence. The sides of prothorax are rounded and the regular punct- 
ulation of the elytra is mixed with a few larger punctures. 

C. 4-plagiata, Lee. S.M.C., No. 264, 1873, p. 189. 

Length .40 inch. = 10 mm. Hab. Lower California. 

The color is dark brown, each elytron bearing two quadrate pale 



— 135 — 

spaces. The larger punctures in this as in the preceding species support 
flying hairs which are not however very long or as conspicuous as in the 
polished species of Hderachthes. 

HETERACHTHES. Nevan. 

The species of this genus are strongly allied to the preceding and 
are easily known by the very elongate form, the large and coarsely granu- 
lated eyes and strongly clavate thighs. The antenna? 9 are slender, but 
the joints 3 — 6 in ^ are remarkably thickened uniformly throughout 
the length of each joint. Three species are recognized as (ollows: 

SYNOPSIS OF HETERACHTHES. 

femora strongly clavate; elytra sliming, with paler markings; 

Prothorax roughly punctate without callosities nobilis. 

Prothorax with a few piliterous punctures and callosities at middle 

quadrimaculatus. 
Femora lc>s incrassated ; elytra opaque black ebenus. 

H. nobilis, Lee. Proc. Ac. Phil. 1862, p. 41. 
Length .50 inch. = 12^ mm. Hob. Texas. 

This species is the largest of the three. The prothorax is trans- 
versely impressed before and behind as in the following. The elytra are 
ornamented with two pale fasciae, one before the middle interrupted at 
the suture and one behind the middle, angulated in front. 

H. 4-maculatus, Hald. Trans. Am. Phil. 1862, p. 43; Lee, J.A.P., ser. 2, 
II. p. 23. 

Length .30 -.45 inch. =7^ — 11 mm. llab. Penn., Mo. 

Varies considerably in the markings. The general color above is 
darkish testaceous with paler spots. 

H. ebenus, Newn. Ent. p. 9; Hald., Trans. Am. Phil. X, 1847, p. 43; Lee. 
J.A.P., ser. 2, II, p. 23; dimidiaticomis Dej. Cat. 3. ed. p. 359. 
Length .42 inch. = 10J mm. Hab. Southern States. 

Very easily known by the opaque black color and structural charact- 
ers named above. 

PLECTROMERUS, Lee. 

Contains one species: 

P. dentipes, Oliv. Encycl. Meth. V, 1790, p. 268; Ent. IV, 70, p. 29; scambus 
Newn., Ent. p. 79; Lee, J.A.P., ser. 2, II, p. 22. 

Length .40 inch. = 10 mm. Hab. Georgia, Florida. 

The form of this species is cylindrical and the surface is polished 
and glabrous. Prothorax nearly straight on sides. Antennae with 4th 
joint much shorter than 5th. Thighs suddenly clavate armed beneath 
with a broad tooth which is larger than in Curius. Color testaceous, 
the elytra with two fuscuous bands. 



-136- 

CURIUS, Newn. 
C. dentatus, Newn. Ent. p. 17: Dej. Cat. 3. ed., p 358; eoncinnatus Hald. 
Trans. Am. Phil. X. 1S47. p. 43. 

Length .24 inch. = 6 mm. Huh. Florida. 
Form depressed, surface dull, slightly pubescent. Color pale brown. 
the elytra with three longitudinal darker spots. The eyes are coarsely 
granulated, the antennae slender, longer than the body, annulated, finely 
punctulate and pubescent. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE III. 

1 Dicenthrus Bluethneri. 12 Curius dentatus. * 

2 Eburia 4-geminata. 13 Pcecilobrium chalybeum.* 

3 Elaphidion rufulum. 14 Eumichthus cedipus. * 

4 " parallelum. 15 Phyton pallidum. 

5 Ancflus protensus. 16 Obrium rubrum.* 

6 Eustroma validum.* 17 Hybodera tuberculata. 

7 Tylonotus bimaculatus. 18 Megobrium Edwardsii* 

8 Zamodes obscurus. 19 Callimoxys sanguinicollis. 

9 Compsa puncticollis.* 20 Molorchus bimaculatus. 

10 Heterachthes 4-maculatuS. 22 Ancylocera bicolor. 

1 1 Plectromerus dentipes. * 

* The drawings for this figure we owe to the kindness of Dr. Horn. 



In a specimen of Monihma sent me as semipundatum I observe a 
strange aberration. The tarsus of one hind leg is five-jointed, the first 
four joints being quite equal in length but each shorter than usual so 
that the four occupy only the length that the usual three would do. The 
final joint is of the usual size. The spongy pubescence which covers the 3d 
joint only, on the normal tarsus, is in the other spread over all four joints 
and reaches even the tip of the tibia. In view o( the well established theory 
that such aberrations are a reversion to an ancestral type more or less re- 
mote, this specimen would be a further indication that the Longicorns are 
descended from individuals possessing five jointed tarsi. Chas. W. Leng. 

Not everybody knows the qualifications required to make a good 
Entomologist, but we have recently discovered one not previously known 
to us, and which might prove interesting. A well known Coleopterist re- 
joices not only in a fine collection, but in a little six year old son who 
takes a great interest in his father's collection and in his callers as well. 
Recently came a visitor who was viewed by the youngster with a great 
deal ol interest and curiosity. After he had left, the boy sidled up to his 
father and said confidentially: "Papa! that wasn't a real one; was it?'' 
"What do you mean?'' said the astonished father. "He collect insects; 
don't he?" "Yes, certainly." "But he isn't a real collector; not a genuine' 
one I mean!'' "But why not?" "Because he has too much hair on his 
head: all the real ones have very little! ' said the youngster decidedly. 



ENTOMOLOGICA AMERICANA, OCTOBER, 1885. 




— 137— 

Huebner's Tortricids. 

By Prof. C. H. Fernald, State College, Orono, Me. 

The time of publication of some of Hiibner's works has been a mat- 
ter of no little investigation on the part of entomologists, and many pa- 
pers have appeared on this subject, in the European Journals. I have 
thus far interested myself only so far as pertained to the Tortricids, that I 
might get the most accurate information, in the matter of priority, for 
my work on the revision of this group. 

Hiibner published in his Sammlung Europaischer Schmetterlinge, 
forty-six plates containing two hundred and ninety-one colored figures of 
European Tortricids, and Carl Geyer who continued the work after the 
death of Hiibner in 1826, published seven plates of Tortricids, contain- 
ing forty-nine colored figures. 

Mr. S. H. Scudder stated in his historical sketch of the genera of 
Butterflies, page 98, that Dr. Hagen told him the works of Hiibner were 
in their original wrappers in the Konigliche Bibliothek in Berlin. Wish- 
ing to get what help might be obtained from this source, I wrote to my 
kind friend Mr. O. Budy in Berlin, who went to the Royal Library and 
examined Hiibner's works for me. He writes that Hiibner's part of the 
Sammiung is not in the original wrappers, but the continuation of the 
same by Geyer is still in the wrappers of which there are two. In look- 
ing over the volumes of Hiibner, Mr. Budy found several prospectuses 
by Hiibner himself, bound in the last volume. These were carefully 
copied and sent to me and they furnish some additional evidence bearing 
on the date of the publication of Hiibners works; but at present I shall 
mainly make use of what pertains to tne Tortricids. 

The first prospectus is without date but gives a list of Hiibner's 
works then for sale, and from the Sammlung, only the Pyralids, twenty 
plates, and the Sphinges, sixteen plates, are offered. The dates of these are 
there given as 1796, so that whatever may have been the date of this pro- 
spectus, 1 796 may be regarded as the date of the first twenty plates of the 
Pyralids and the first sixteen plates of the Sphinges. The statement is 
also made on this prospectus that the Tortricids and Tineids will appear 
very soon, therefore it must have been later than 1796, when they were 
published. 

The second prospectus is dated Augsburg Dec. 21, 1806, and adver- 
tises four hundred and seventy-five colored plates of the Sammlung, with 
title page and text, but does not state what the plates are. The third 
prospectus, dated 1807, advertises four hundred and ninety-seven plates 
etc. The fourth, dated 1S09 is also of little value for our purpose. It 
advertises 34 4-5, fifteen plate issues. The fifth prospectus is dated Augs- 

ENTOMOLOGICA AMERICANA 21 



-138- 

burg Dec. 22, 1823, and advertises for sale such of Hiibner's works as 
had appeared up to that time, and states of the Sammlung, that there 
were the title page, twenty-five pages of descriptive matter and six hund- 
red and sixty-three plates, namely: Papilio 161; Sphinx 34; Bombyx 
67; Noctua 151; Geometra 100; Pyralis 30; Tortrix 46; Tinea 67; Al- 
ucita 7. This is signed by Hiibner himself. 

The first part of Geyer's contribution is still in the original wrappers 
dated Augsburg 1830, and contains the Tortricids, plates 48 to 52 inclu- 
sive, with title, preface and two sheets of text. The second part of the 
continuation is in the original wrappers dated Augsburg 1834, and con- 
tains five plates of the Noctuids, Nos. 158 to 162. In the same wrap- 
pers is contained a prospectus of the whole work dated Augsburg, Jan. 1, 
1834, giving the prices and signed by Carl Geyer. In this are adver- 
tised, fifty-three plates of the Tortricids, all that were ever published, with 
the number of plates of the other families. 

A careful examination of the contemporaneous works is of import- 
ance in this question and I have looked over all that I have access to 
In Illiger's edition of the Verzeichniss der Wiener Gegend which bears 
the date of 1801, there is a notice in the first volume as follows:-"The 
2nd volume (that containing the Tortricids) is already in press. Ostern, 
1800." Now this second volume contains reference to the first thirty 
plates of Hiibner's Tortricids and as it was already in press in 1800, these 
plates must have been issued before 1800, but from the first prospectus 
mentioned above, they must have been issued later than 1796. 

The portion of Haworth's Lepidoptera Britanica which includes the 
Tortricids, — as shown by the original wrappers in the Banksian Library 
in London, — was published in 181 1 and contains references only to the 
first thirty plates of the Tortricids in the Sammlung. Whether there 
were any more published at that time I have no means now of determin- 
ing but of course Haworth had seen no more. 

Charpentier and Sommer's Ziinsler, Wickler etc. published in 182 1, 
contains references to plate 40, so that this plate must have been in their 
hands at that time and the first 40 plates must have been published be- 
fore 1821. On the 22d of December 1823, Hiibner advertises the first 
46 plates of his Tortricids for sale as shown above by the fifth prospectus. 
We may reasonably infer that this last date is the time of publication of 
plates 41 to 46 inclusive. 

Hiibner's Verzeichniss contains references to the plates of the Tor- 
tricids up to and including plate 46, and yet this work purports to 
have been published in 1816. We see no way to explain this discrep- 
ancy except to agree with Scudder that the Verzeichniss was published in 
parts and that only the first part with the title page really appeared in 



— 139— 

1826, and the part which includes the Tortricids, could not have been 
published earlier than 1823 and perhaps later than this. 

Frolich, in his Enumeratio Tortricum, published in 1828, refers to 
the first 46 plates but not to the 47th. Treitschke in Die Schmetterlinge 
von Europa, Vol. V. published in 1830, (the preface is dated Dec. 1829), 
refers to this 47th plate, so we may feel sure it was published late in 1828 
or early in 1829, after Frolich's work but before Treitschke's. The con- 
temporaneous French and English works afford no assistance for then 
authors do not appear to have received Hubner's works for some little 
time after their appearance. 

Plates 48 to 52 inclusive, of the Tortricids were published in 1830 
as shown by the date on the original wrappers in the Royal Library in 
Berlin. Plate 53, the final one of the Tortricids in the Sammlung, is re- 
ferred to by Treitschke in his Supplement, Part 3, published May 10th, 
1835, but this plate was first offered for sale by Geyer in his prospectus 
dated Jan. 1, 1834 which must be regarded as the time it was published. 
Summing up the above, the dates of publication of the Tortricids in 
Hubner's Sammlung Europaischer Schmetterlinge are as follows: 

Plates 1-30 incl. were publ. later than 1796 and earlier than 1800. 

" 31-40 " " " 1 8 1 1 ? " " 1820. 

" 41-46 " " Dec. 22, 1823. 

" 47 was published late in 1828 or early in 1829. 

" 48-52 inclusive were published in 1830. 

" 53 was published Jan. 1, 1834. 

The Present Status and Future Prospects of Silk Culture 
in the United States.* 
By C. V. Riley 
The subject is discussed under the following heads: 

1. The adaptability of the U. S. to Silk-culture. 

2. Silk-culture in the Gulf States. 

3. Silk-culture on the Pacific coast. 

4. Profits of Silk-culture. 

5. Necessity for a home market for the cocoons. 

6. The prospects of establishing a market by private enterprise. • 

7 The practical outcome of the efforts by the Department of Agriculture 
in promoting Silk-culture under present restrictions. 
The paper deals with the above named subjects in detail and the es- 
sential, conclusions are: 

1. The adaptability of our country to Silk-culture is proven beyond 
all question. 

T Abstract of a paper read at the recent meeting of the Am. Ass Adv. Sc. 



— 140 — 

2. That the profits are so small that by far the larger proportion of 
those who become interested abandon the culture after the first year. 

3. That the present encouragement given by Congress through the 
Department of Agriculture has been productive of good in that it has en- 
abled the establishment of three reeling centres, one at Philadelphia, one 
at New Orleans and one at San Francisco, which are in active operation 
and furnish a home market for cocoons. 

4. That there is great difficulty in carrying on the experiment on 
true business principles because of the law which prevents the Commis- 
sioner of Agriculture from selling the products of these reels and thus 
utilizing the income. 

5. That this encouragement has intensified the interest felt in the 
subject, but that it can endure only so long as Congress chooses to con- 
tinue the appropriation. This, once withdrawn, will precipitate a 
reaction. 

6. Finally, that no permanent advantage can be secured until tariff 
,egislation gives real encouragement to the industry and recognizes the 
fact that so-called "raw silk - ' is a manufactured article and should, if 
other manufactured articles are protected, receive like protection. 

* 1 » 1 — 

Society News. 

Brooklyn Entomological Society, September 1, 1885. — Twenty-six mem- 
bers and visitors present. Mr. J. B. Smith in the chair. Mr. Leng the curator 
reported large accessions to the cabinet, and progress in arranging the material. 
The Society has now an almost complete collection of the Cicindelidce and Car- 
abidce of the vicinity of N. Y. Mr. Hulst, the librarian reported large accessions 
through exchanges and that books had been re-arranged und newly catalogued. 

Lt. T. L. Casey was elected a life member of the Society. Mr. O. Dietz was 
proposed for membership by Mr. Julich, and Mr. Adrian T. Birkhoff by Mr. 
Weeks. 

The resignation of Mr. L. C. Schenk was presented and accepted. Mr. 
Leng read a paper on "Hypocephaius armahi.s".* Mr. Smith gave an account of 
the meetings of the Entomological Club of the A. A. A. S., and called attention to 
some interesting facts presented, and stated they would be published. A discus- 
sion was* had over the peculiar structural modification of Cosmosoma omphale in 
which Messrs. Hulst, Leng, Neumoegen, Graef, Weeks and Smith participated. 
Mr. Hulst exhibited a suffused specimen of Danais archippus Mr. Doll says a 
damp cyanide bottle will produce the same effect. Mr. Mohns has seen just 
such specimens on the wing and does not believe in its being the effect of cya- 
nide. A discussion was had in reference to the action of cyanide in changing 
colors of insects. Mr. Waters exhibited specimens of Saturnia galbina and states 
that these are the imagines belonging to the cocoon exhibited at the May meeting 
of the Society but he cannot account for the presence of Anisota Reiligbrodtii, in 
the box, as there se< med to be no other kinds of cocoons. 

"This will appear in full in a future number. 




Americana 



tfOL I. 



BROOKLYN, NOVEMBER, 1885. 



NO. 8. 



The North American Myriapoda 

By Lucien M. Underwood, Ph.D. 

In order to call the attention of collectors to this interesting though 
much neglected group of Arthropoda the following outline sketch of the 
literature of the American species and synopsis of the genera heretofore 
recognized in America have been prepared. 

The first paper of importance was published in 182 1 by Thomas 
Say 1 , describing fifteen species half of which will probably stand as good 
species in the genera in which they were originally described and others 
in genera established later. 

Nothing more of importance appeared until 1844, when George 
Newport 2 published his extensive Monograph in which five American 
species were described together with the new genera, Theatops and Scolo- 
pocryptops to which some of Say's species were referred. 

Girard 3 , in 1853, described Scolnpendra heros, the "centipede" of 
the South-West, and two species of lulus. Three years later Sager 4 gave 
three almost unintelligible descriptions of Myriapoda giving neither 
structural characters nor localities. Two of the three species, have, how- 
ever, been identified bv later writers. 



1 Thomas Say. Descriptions of the Myriapodre of the United States. Jour. 
l'hila. Acad. II, 102— 114, 1 821 (Reprinted in Collected Writings, Edited by Le- 
conte, II, 24 — 32). 

2 George Newport. Monograph of the class Myriapoda, Order Chilopoda. 
Trans. Linn. Soc. XIX, 265—302, 349—439, 1845. 

3 Charles Girard Myriapods. Appendix F to Marcy's Report on Red River 
Expedition, 243—246, Plate, 1853. 

* Ab. Sager. Descriptions of three Myriapoda. Proc. Phila. Acad. VIII, 
109, 1856. 



— 142 — 

In [86 1, H. C. Wood 5 , better known by his work on the Fresh 
Water Algae, commenced a series of pipers which culminated in a mono- 
graph, "The Myriapoda of North America'', published in 1865, the 
most important paper ever published on the subject in this country. In 
the first paper he describes four species of Scolopoulra from America be- 
sides numerous exotic species. 

In 1862 Dr. Koch 6 published his monograph of the genus Lithobius 
in which he described L mordax and L transmarinus from Louisiana. 

Then follows the remainder of Wood's papers. His paper on the 
Chilopoda appeared in 1863, in which he describes twenty-six new 
species from America together with the new genera, Bothropolys and Opis 
themega. In 1864 three papers appeared in the Proceedings of the 
Philadelphia Academy; the first on the PolyJesmidce, describes ten new 
species; the second on lulidce, describes eleven species of lulus and three 
of Spirobolus; the third describes the new genera, Octogleria and Brachy- 
cybe with 0. bivirgata and B. LeContei, new species. In 1865 appeared 
his chief work "The Myriapoda of North America'' published by the 
American Philosophical Society in quarto with three plates; this work 
describes all the genera and species known to inhabit the United States 
at that time, amounting to eighteen genera and ninety-two species. In 
1867 two additional papers were published, describing new species from 
Texas and California, the former with four species the latter with six 
species. 



5 Horatio G. Wood Jr. Descriptions of new species of Scolopendra in the Col- 
lection of the Academy. Proc. Phila. Acad. 1861, 10 — 15. 

On the Chilopoda of North America ( with Catalogue of all the specimens 

in the Collection of the Smithsonian Institution. Jour. Phila. Acad. n. s. V, 5—42, 
1863. 

Descriptions ot new speci s ol N rth American l'olyde-mid.e. Proc. 

Phila. Acad. 1864, 6 — 10. 

Descriptions of new species of North American Iulidse. Proc. Phila. 

Acad. 1864, IO—15. 

Descriptions of new genera ami species of North American Myriapoda. 

Proc. Phila. Acad. 1864, 186-187. 

The Myriapoda of North America. Trans. Amer. Philos. Soc. XIII, 

137—248, 3 plates, 1865. 

Descriptions of new species of Texan Myriapoda. l'roc. Phila. Acad. 

1867, 42—44. 

: — Notes on a collection of California Myriapoda, with descriptions of new 

Eastern species. Proc. Phila. Acad. 1867, 127-130. 

,; Ludvoig Koch. Die Myriapodengattung Lithobius. pp. 9^, two plates. Niirn- 
berg, 1862. 



— 143 — 

There next appeared a paper published by E. D. Cope' in 1869 on 
the extinct Mammalia of the cave formations of the United States giving 
a short account of the cave Myriapoda; in this he describes five new- 
species with the new genera Pseudotremia and Andrognathus. In 1870 a 
second paper appeared on the Myriapoda of the Alleghanies describing a 
new genus and species Petaserpes rosalbus. 

The year 1870 ushers in the first representative of a new order of 
Myriapoda; Dr. Packard" in two short papers notes the discovery of 
Pauropus in Massachusetts — a type of minute Myriapoda on which 
Lubbock had founded the order Pauropoda. 

In the year 1872 Meinert 9 described Lithobius vorax from Louisiana; 
Harger 10 published a paper describing seven new species and the new 
genus Trichopetalum; and Cope 7 in a paper on the fauna of the Wyan- 
dotte cave described the new genus Scoter pes. 

Another paper by Packard appeared in 1874 on "Myriapods from 
Colorado" published in Hayden's Annual Report; new forms were de- 
scribed but no new species named. 

In 1875 Anton Stuxberg 11 published two valuable papers on the 
North American Lithobiida, the first describing eight new species of 
Lilhobius, the second enumerating all the species of North America, 
twenty-four in number including five from Mexico. 

Packard 12 again in 1877 described Poldesmus cavicola from Utah, 
and Murray 13 described Brachycybe rosea from California. 



7 Edward D. Cope. Synopsis of the extinct Mammalia of the Cave Formations 
of the United States with observations on some Myriapoda found in and near the 
same etc. Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc. XI, 171 — 192, 1869. 

On some new and little known Myriapoda from the Southern Alleghanies. 

Trans. Amer. Entom. Soc. Ill, 65 — 67, 1870. 

On the Wyandotte Cave and its Fauna. Amer. Nat. VI, 1872. 

H A. 8. Packard Jr. New or rare Neuroptera, Thysanura and Myriapoda. 
Proc. Boston Soc. N. H. XIII, 405 — 411. 1870. 

A remarkable Myriapod. Amer. Nat. IV, 621. 1870. 

9 Fr. Meinert. Myriapoda Muscei Havniensis. I. Geophili. Naturhist. Tidsskr. 
3 R. VII, 1871.— II. Lithobiini. Ibid VIII, 1873. 

10 0. Harger. Descriptions of new North American Myriapods. Amer. Jour. 
Science and Arts, 3rd series, IV, 116— 121, plate, 1872. 

11 A. Stuxberg. Nya Nordamerikanska Lithobier. Ofversigt k. Vetensk. Akad. 
Kurhandl. XXXII, No. 2, 65—72. 1875. 

Lithobioidre America: borealis. Ibid. XXXII, No. 3, 23—32. 1875. 

12 A. 8. Packard Jr. On a new cave fauna in Utah. Pull. U. S Geo!. 
Survey (Hayden) III, 1877. 

18 Andrew Murray. Economic Entomology: Part I, Aptera. London, 1877. 



— 144 — 

In 1878 f. A. Ryder 14 notices the discovery of a second species of 
Pauropoda in America. — Pauropus Huxleyi, hitherto known only from 
England; in 1879 the discovery of a third forming a new genus Eu ry- 
pauropus; and in 1881 he gives a list of the Lysiopelalidce of North America 
adding a new genus and species, Zygonopus Whitei. 

Packard 15 published three papers in 1883, the first describing Poly- 
desmus ocel/atus (since referred by Stuxberg to Craspedosoma); the second 
a revision of the Lysiopelalidce, a most important addition to our litera- 
ture, giving a summary of the information at hand and founding the new 
genus Cryptolrichus on Spirostrephon ccesioannulatus Wood; the last is a 
short paper on the Morphology of the Myriapoda. 

Finally in 1884 Latzel 16 in his masterly work on the Myriapoda of 
Austro-Hungary has given some notes on American species notably the 
so called Lysiopelalidce. His criticisms will be found stated below. 

Such is the principal literature on the subject to date, to say nothing 
of many shorter notes on distribution, structure and classification that 
have appeared in various periodicals and other publications. 

The European species have been carefully studied by Meinert" 
1866— 1868, Fanzago 18 1874, Latzel 16 1880— 1884, and others. The 
work of the last named author is the most important contribution to a 
knowledge of the Myriapoda that has appeared for a long time. It is 



14 John A. Ryder. Discovery of two remarkable genera of minute Myriapods 
in Fairmount Park. Amer. Nat. XII, 557-558. 1878 

Notice of a new Pauropod etc. Proc. Phila. Acad. 1879, 139, 164. 

An account of a new genus of minute Pauropod Myriapods. Amer. Nat. 

XIII, 603—612. 1879. 

A third locality for Eurypauropus. Amer. Nat. XIII. 703. 1879. 

List of the North American species of the Lysiopetalida;, (with a blind 

form Zygonopus, n. g.). Proc. U. S. Nat. Museum, III, 520—531. 1881. 

13 A. S. Packard Jr. A new Polydesmus with eyes. Amer. Nat. XVII, 1883. 

A Revision of the Lysiopetalidcv, a family of Chilognath Myriopoda, with 

a notice of the genus Cambala. Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc. XXI, 177 — 197. 1883. 

On the Morphology of the Myriopoda. Ibid. XXI, 197—209. 1883. 

lB Robert Latzel. Die Myriapoden der Oesterreichisch-Ungarischen Monarchie. 

Erste Halfte: Die Chilopoden, pp.228, plates I -X, Wien, 18S0. — Zweite Hiilfte: 
Die Symphylen, Pauropoden und Diplopoden, pp. 414, plates I — XVI, Wien, 1884. 

1 7 V. Ber<isoe og Fr. Meinert. Danmarks Geophiler. Naturhist. Tidsskr. 
3 R., IV, 1866-7. 

Fr. Meinert. Danmarks Chilognather. Ibid. V, 1 — 32. 1868. 

Danmarks Scolopendrer og Lithobier. Ibid. V, 241 — 268. 1868. 

18 F. Fur. a, jo. I Chilopodi Italiani. Atti d. Soc. Ven. -Trent. Ill, fasc. 1, 
1874. 

I Chilognathi Italiani. Ibid. Ill, fasc. 2, 1874. 



— 145 — 

finely illustrated by twenty-six plates that might well serve as a model for 
American monographers. Very few species appear to be common to 
the United States and Europe. The genera however are much the same, 
the greater number found in Europe being due to the more advanced 
state of the study there. 

The Myriapoda may be conveniently grouped in three orders* as 
follows: 

A. —Body composed of 6 — IO segments; antennae 5-jointed; bifid, bearing three long 

jointed appendages; nine pairs of legs; species minute, 0.5 — 1.5 mm. long 

I. PAUROPODA. 
' Antennae simple; species of medium or large size B. 

B. —Body more or less cylindric or half-cylindric; head normally composed of three 

segments; antennae 7— 8-jointed; mouth parts consisting of protomalae** (man- 
dibles) and deutomalae (labium); two pairs of legs to each segment 

II. DIPLOPODA. 
Body usually flattened; head normally composed of five segments; antennae 
12 — 70- jointed; mouth parts consisting of protomalae (mandibles;, deutomalae 
(1st maxillse) and two pairs of malipedes (auxiliary lips); one pair of legs to each 
segment III. CHILOPODA. 



I. PAUROPODA. 

The Pauropoda contain two well marked families as follows: 
Segments ten, not sculptured above; head and legs not concealed by projecting scuta; 

color pale; motions agile Fam. Pauropodidae. 

Segments six, tuberculate or sculptured above; body depressed, three times as wide 

as high; head and legs concealed by projection of segments; color reddish; 

motions slow Fam. Eurypauropodidae. 

The first family, Pauropodidae Lubbock, contains a single genus 
Pauropus Lubbock, with two American species. The second, Eurypau- 
ropodidae Ryder, contains the genera Eurypauropus Ryder, with one 
American species and Brachypauropus Latzel, as yet found only in 
Europe. 

The entire number of Pauropoda described is seven as may be seen 
from the followins: table. 



* Dr. Packard though originally accepting Lubbock's order Pauropoda is now 
disposed to unite it to the Dlplopoda as a suborder. It is perhaps better for the 
present to retain this group in the form Lubbock first placed it. For Packard's later 
views cf. Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc. XXI, 204. 

For a discussion of these organs the reader is referred to Dr. Packard's paper: 
"On the Morphology of the Myriapoda", before quoted. 



■14^ — 



Senera. 


Total Species 


European. American. 
1 


Common to both. 


Pauropus 

.ypauropus 
Eurypauropus 


3 2 
1 

3 3 


2 

1 


i 

1 


Totals: 7 6 

1 


3 2 



II. DIPLOPODA. 

The order Diplopod;i contains the following families: — Polyxitiidae, 
Polvzonidae, Glomeridae, Po/vdesmidae, Chordeamidae, Lysiopetalidae and 
Iulidae. The first and second of these Latzel places in the suborders 
Pselaphognatha and Colobognatha respectively. The remaining families 
constitute the Chilognatha proper. All except the Glomeridae* have been 
reported from North America. The families may be distinguished as 
follows: 

A. — Body small (2.5 mm. long), soft-skinned, more or less scaly or covered in parts 

by bushy hair; protomalce without stipes, uncovered; anus in the penultimate 

segment; odoriferous glands wanting; 13 pairs of legs... Fam. 1. Polyxenidae. 

Body covering crustaceous; legs not less than 17 pairs B. 

B. — Head small, triangular; mouth more or less rostrate, thus appearing suctorial; 

protomala; small; deutomala; obsolete or wanting Fam. 2. Polyzonidae. 

Mouth parts masticatory; protomalae large; deutomalae well developed C. 

C. — Body composed of 19— 20 segments; scuta often projecting laterally, forming 

laminae; legs 28 — 31 pairs; eyes wanting Fam. 3. Polydesmidae. 

Body composed of about 30 segments, frequently setose; legs 40—50 pairs; eyes 

usually distinct Fam. 4. Chordeumidae. 

Body segments indefinite always more than 30 D. 

I). Body long, slender, tapering; scuta usually deeply furrowed; antenna? long, 
slender, the seventh segment short and conic; legs very long, the eighth pair 

only modified in the $, the seventh and ninth pairs normal; sterna free 

Fam. 5. Lysiopetalidae. 

Scuta moderately if at all furrowed, car in ate or warty; antenna; and legs short 

or only moderately long; both pairs of legs of seventh segment of tf modified; 

sterna at least of anterior segments united so as to form complete rings 

Fam. 6. Iulidae. 

* The Glomerulce of all Myriapods most resemble the pill-bugs or sow-bugs 
( Oniscidce) in their general features and habits. They may be distinguished from 
other Myriapods by their short body composed of 11 — 13 segments, and by having 
1 nly 17 23 pairs of legs. 



— 147— 

Family l. POLYXENIDAE Gray and Jones. 
This family contains the single genus Polyxeniu Latr , of which we 
have one species P . fascieulatus Say, distributed from Massachusetts to 
Georgia. 

Family 2. POLYZONIDAE Gervais. 
This family contains four American genera with rive species; the 
genera may be distinguished as follows: 

A. -Sixth and seventh joints of antennae confluent with the fifth and with it forming 

a club; body segments 56 Andrognathus Cope.* 1 sp 

Joints of antennae normal, not forming a club B 

B. — Eyes wanting; rostrum shorter than the antennae. . . .Brachycybe Wood.** 2 sp 

Eyes present, conspicuous C 

C. —Eyes 8; body segments about 45 Octoglena Wood. 1 sp 

Eyes 2; antennae large and stout; body segments 50-53 

Petaserpes Cope. 1 sj 
Family 3. POLYDESMIDAE Leach. 
The Polydesmidae of this country have all been described under 
Polydesmus Latr. f of which twenty-one species are recorded. Strongylo- 
st ma Brandt, Fontaria Gray and perhaps other groups ranked as sub- 
genera by Wood, will take generic rank; until, however, a careful study 
of the types can be made it will be best to leave the species in the orig- 
inal genus under which they have been described. 

Family 4. CHORDEUMIDAE C. Koch. 
With some hesitation I place in this family most of the forms hitherto 
ranked as Lysiopetalidae by American writers. In this I follow Dr. Latzel 
whose important work has been noticed above. In a note on the American 
Chordeumidae\\ he unites Scoterpes Cope and Zygonopus Ryder and places 
them as a subgenus of Craspedosoma Leach-Rawlins. Trichopetalum 
Harger he also regards as forming part of Craspedosoma, and Pseudotremia 
Cope, he would place near the same genus Cryplotrichus Packard, he 
places near Campodes Koch. The form of "Polydesmus with eyes" re- 
cently described by Packard,^ Latzel|J states is properly one of the 



* Forming according to Cope (Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc. XI, 182) the type of a 
new family Andrognathidte. 

** Latzel unites Brachycybe Wood with Platydesmus Lucas. The latter genus 
has priority. 

t An apparent exception is Stenonia hispida Sager, Proc. Phila. Acad. VIII, 
109 (1856). This undoubtedly belongs to Polydesmus though the description is very 
imperfect. 

ft Lie Myriapoden der Oest.-Ungar. Monarchic, II, pp. 213 — 214 (1884). 

t American Naturalist XVII, 428 (1883). 
Xt Latzel, loc. cit. p. 125, note. 



— 148— 

Chordeumidae and Stuxberg has referred this also to Craspedosoma. In the 
light of these criticisms it will appear that this family needs another re- 
vision. Until this can be made it will be best to leave the genera as Dr. 
Packard has arranged them. I therefore append Dr. Packard's table as 
given in the Transactions Amer. Philos. Soc. XXI, p. 178, omitting of 
course Lysiopetalum which forms a family of its own.* 

A. — Body not setose; antenna; long; eighth pair of legs of rj* modified, six jointed ; 

genital armature small Pseudotremia Cope. 1 sp. 

Hi xly setose B. 

B. — Body short and thick; eyes triangular; antennae slender; setae one-fifth as lon$^ 

as body is thick; legs short Cryptotrichus Packard. 1 sp. 

Body short and fusiform; eighth pair of legs of $ two-jointed; sette half as long 

as body is thick Trichopetalum I larger. 3 sp. 

Body slender; eighth pair of legs of $ two-jointed ending in a claw; setae very- 
long; eyeless Scoterpes Cope. 1 sp. 

Like Scoterpes; setae a little shorter; sixth pair of legs of $ greatly swollen 

Zygonopus Ryder. 1 sp. 
Family 5. LYSIOPETALIDAE Wood. 
This family as now restricted consists of the single genus Lysiopeta- 
lum Brandt, with a single species L. lactarium Packard, the form origin- 
ally described by Say as lulus lactarius. 

Family 6. IULIDAE Leach. 
The three American genera of Iulidae may be characterized as 
follows: 

A. — Body long and slender; segments 59; scuta strongly carinate; antennae short 

and thick; eyes in a linear series Cambala Gray. 1 sp. 

Scuta not strongly carinate B. 

B. — Scutum of second segment produced at the sides so as to reach the head; antenna- 
short and thick, the joints shorter than broad Spirobolus Brandt. 5 sp. 

Scutum of second segment not produced; antennae more slender; the joints 
much longer than broad lulus Brandt. 19 sp. 

III. CHILOPODA. 

The Myriapods of this order are comprised in four well marked 
families all of which are represented in North America; they may be 
separated as follows; 



* I also append Latzel's diagnosis of Craspedosoma. Corpus subleres et plus 
tninusve iuliforme. Segmenta carinis evanescentibus aut nullis, tuberculis vel gramdis 
senis setigeris majorilms vel minoribus ornata et sulco medio, longitudinali exarata. 
Oculi plerumque distincti. Antenna longcu et tenues, articulo teriio maximo. Pedum 
pariafemincv (plerumque) 50, maris 48; pedes longi. Mas: Pedum paria duo in or- 
gana copulativa commutata. 



— 149 — 

A. — Dorsal scuta 8; antenna? long, setaceous; legs long; tarsi many-jointed 

Fain. I. Scutigeridae. 

Dorsal scuta 15 or more; tar^i 3-jointed B. 

B. — Feet-bearing segments 40 — 150; antennae 14-jointed Fam. 2. Geophilidae. 

Feet-bearing segments 20—25; antenna: 17 — 30-jointed ' 

Fam. 3. Scolopendridae. 
Feet-bearing segments less than 20; dorsal scuta in two sets, a smaller alternat- 
ing with a larger Fam. 4. Lithobiidae. 

Family 1. SCUTIGERIDAE Gervais. 
The family Scutigeridae consists of a single genus Scutigera Lam., 
better known as Cermatia which is a more recent name. Two species 
are found in the United States: S. forceps [Cermatia forceps Wood) some- 
what generally distributed east of the Mississippi, and £. Linceci (Cerma 
tia Linceci Wood) from Texas. I have found the former at Bloomington, 
111., Philadelphia, Pa., Brooklyn and Utica, N. Y. In Brooklyn it ap- 
pears to be somewhat common in cellars. In Utica a single specimen 
was taken running about the floors of the N. Y. Central station. 
Family 2. GEOPHILIDAE Leach. 
The Geophilidae of North America are divided among three genera 
as follows: 

A. — Cephalic segment elongate; twice as long as broad; antennas -approximate 

Mecistocephalus Newport. 4 sp. 

Cephalic segment less than twice as long as broad, subquadrate or triangular.. B. 

B. — Cephalic segment subquadrate; joints of antennas unequal 

Geophilus Leach. 6 sp. 

Cephalic segment narrowed in front; body attenuate anteriorly; antenna? ap- 
proximate Stngamia Gray. 16 sp. 

Family 3. SCOLOPENDRIDAE Newport. 

This family contains the species popularly known and sometimes 

foolishly dreaded as "centipedes"; our genera are four in number and 

may be distinguished as follows.* 

A. — Eyes distinct; feet-bearing segments 21 ; antennas attenuate, 17 — 30-jointed 

Scolopendra Newport. 9 sp. 

Eyes wantmg B. 

B. — Feet-bearing segments 21 , C. 

Feet-bearing segments 23; last segment narrow; antennae 17 -jointed 

Scolopocryptops Newport. 4 sp. 

C— Last scutum the largest, quadrate , Opisthemega Wood. 2 sp. 

Last scutum not larger than the others Cryptops Leach. 3 sp. 



* The genus Theatops Newport founded on Cryptops poslica Say is doubtless a 
form of Scolopendra. 

ENTOMOLOGICA AMERICANA 23 



Family 4. LITHOBIIDAE Newport. 

This family in some respects the highest of the Myriapoda, contains 
two genera whose characters are given below. 

Ucelli 2 — 40 each side of head, variously arranged; labium 3-toothed in the 

middle Lithobius* Leach. iS sp. 

A single large ocellus each side of head; labrum 1-toothed in the middle 

Henicops Newport [Lstmyctes Meinert). 1 sp: 

I have followed Stuxberg and Latzel in uniting Bothropolys Wood 
with Lithobius. 

This completes the list of genera as now known in North America; 
species and probably genera are waiting discovery and description, for 
as we shall soon show, large areas of our country are still untouched and 
only very limited regions have been worked with any degree of thorough- 
ness. The study of the Myriapods in America is only fairly begun. 

So far we have given only the number of species in each genus. 
The following table will give a summary by families. For contrast tne 
corresponding numbers for a much more limited European area are 
given, namely Austro-Hungary where the Myriapod Fauna has been 
thoroughly studied. The number of species already reported will be seen 
to be 129, distributed among 27 genera. A few of these however repre- 
sent species early and imperfectly described which may not certainly be 
identified be recent writers. 



* S.uxberg (Ofversigt af k. Vetensk. Akad. Forhandl. 1875) has formed six 
subgenera of Lithobius all of which are represented with us. I subjoin his diagnoses. 

1. Eulithobius Stuxberg. Scuta dorsualia 6, 7, 9, n, 13 angulis posticis pro 
ductis. Pori coxales in pedum paribus 12, 13, 14, 15 (L. niultidentatus). 

II. — Neolithobius Stuxberg. Scuta dorsualia 7, 9, II, 13 angidis posticis pro- 
duciis. Pori coxales in pedum paribus 12, 13, 14, 15 ,(L. vorax, L. mordax, 
L. transmarinus). 

III.— Lithobius Leach s. str. Scuta dorsualia 9, 11, 13 angidis posticis prod mils. 
Pori coxales in pedum, paribus 12, 13, 14, 15 (L. xanii, L. planus. L. forficatus, 
L. paucidens, L. pinetoruin). 

IV. —Pseudolithobius Stuxberg. Scuta dorsualia 9, 11, 13 angulis posticis pro- 
duciis. Pori coxales in pedum paribus 11, 12, 13, 14, 15 (i. megaloporus). 

V. — Hemilithobius Stuxberg. Scuta dorsualia 11, 13 angulis posticis productis. 
fori roxales in pedum paribus 12, 13, 14, 15 (L. eucnemis). 

VI. — Archilithobius Stuxberg. Scuta dorsualia omnia angulis posticis roiundatis 
vel subrectis. Pori coxales in pedum paribus 12, 13, 14, 15 (L. bipunctata, L. 
monticola, L. pusio, A. Kochii, L. obesus, L. paradoxus, L. bilabiatus). 



■151- 



Famii.ies. 



North America. 



AUSTRO-HUNGARY. 



Pauropodidae 

Eurypauropodidae 

Total Pauropoda 

Polyxenidae 

Polyzonidae 

Glomeridae 

Polydesmidae 

Chordeumidae 

Lysiopetalidae 

Iulidae 

Total Diplopoda 

Scutigeridae 

Geophilidae 

Scolopendridae 

Lithobiidae ... - 



Total Chilopoda 



8 
i 

25 



"5 



61 



[6 



1 

15 
19 
17 
7 
36 



96 



26 



19 



65 



IS 



22 

6 

39 



Totals 



27 



129 



34 



170 



In order to show where the species have been most collected the 
following list of states with number of species reported therefrom may be 
of interest. California 27, Pennsylvania 25, Illinois 16, Georgia 13, 
Oregon 12, Virginia 10; Texas 8, New York and Florida each 7, Michi- 
gan 5, Louisiana and Tennessee each 4, Massachusetts and Kentucky 
each 3, Connecticut, New Jersey, Indiana, North Carolina, South Carolina 
and Missouri each 2, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Maryland, District 
of Columbia, Alabama, Mississippi, Minnesota, Arkansas, Kansas. 
Colorado, Utah, New Mexico and Washington Territory each 1. It 
will thus be seen that Maine, Vermont, Delaware, West Virginia, Ohio, 
Wisconsin, Iowa, Nebraska, Dakota, Montana, Idaho, Wyoming, Nev- 
ada, Indian Territory and Arizona have had no Myriapods reported from 
within their limits. It should be said that several species have never been 
reported definitely in regard to locality. Consequently, in addition to the 
above we must report "United States" 6, "Eastern U. S. " 6, "Western 
U. S." 1 and "Southern States'" 2. 



— I '2 — 

On the Classification of North American Diptera. 

(Third paper. Concluded from p. 1 16 ante. ) 
By Dr. S. \Y. Williston. 
BERIDINAE. 
Abdomen with seven visible segments in the male, in the fe- 
male with an additional ovipositor. Wings with a stigmatic spot; 
all the posterior veins arise from the discal cell.* Abdomen flattened. 

1. — Three posterior veins; occiput fiat 2 

Four posterior veins; scutellum with spines 3 

2. —Scutellum with spines; palpi rudimentary Beris Latr. 

Scutellum without spines (Metbponia L\v., non Macq.). Allognosta O.S. 

3. — Occiput excavated; hind femora thickened at the extremity * Neoexaireta O.S. 

Occiput flat, hind femora simple; last two abdominal segments small 

Scoliopelta, n. g. 
SARGINAE. 

Body usually elongate; rather small, nearly bare species. Four 
posterior veins, the last one arising from the basal cell. Antenna? short, 
the third joint rounded or subquadrate, with an apical or pre-apical 
arista. Scutellum without spines on its border. (Occiput deeply ex- 
cavated. ) 
1. — Anterior ocellus more widely separated than the other two; males holoptic or 

dichoptic . . . # 2 

(Ocelli equidistant, more approximate 3 

2. — Abdomen contracted toward the base, clavate or pedicillate 

Macrosargus Bigot. 
Abdomen not pedicillate in the male, in the female the second segment not con- 
cave on the sides Sargus, Fabr. 

3. --Second antennal joint prolonged on its inner side into a projection, extending on, 

and closely lying upon, the third joint Ptecticus Loew. 

Second joint not with such a projection 4 

4. — Males dichoptic; eyes bare Chrysonotus Loew. 

Males holoptic; posterior veins weak 5 

5. — Eyes thickly pilose *Chloromyia Dune. 

Eyes bare, deep metallic species; front very broad in the female; arista terminal; 

abdomen short; eyes of male with an area of enlarged facets above 

Microchrysa Loew. 
STRATIOMYINAE. 

Rather large species, the abdomen usually oval and more or less 
thickened. Five posterior cells; often, however, one or more of the three 
veins that arise from the discal cell are faint or entirely rudimentary, and 
the cells hence coalescent: in these cases, the discal cell will usually show 
angulations, indicating the origin of such veins. The last posterior vein 



* This character I have found variable in species of Beris; its precise value in 
some other genera is yet to be decided. 



— *:>:> — 

is nearly always distinct, and arises from the second basal cell. Anterior 
veins often crowded anteriorly. Antennae never with a long or slender 

bristle. 

I. — First antennal joint three or four times as bug as the second; scutellum with 

spines Stratiomyia Geof. 

First antennal joint not three times as long as the second 2 

2.— Front projecting below, face much retreating, body narrow, abdomen narrower 
than the thorax, third longitudinal vein n< >t furcate, scutellum with small spines 

(Texas, Mexico) *Myxosargus Brauer. 

Front not projecting below, face convex, abdomen short, broad, scutellum usual- 
ly with spines; third longitudinal vei.i usually furcate. . . . Odontomyia Meig. 
Genera not yet known to occur in the United States: Chordonota 
Gerst. (Mexico), Neorondania O.S. (Mexico), Cyphomyia Wied. (Central 
America, West Indies), and Nothomyia Loew. (Cuba). 
CLITELLARINAE. 
Abdomen short, usually but little longer than broad; four posterior 
veins, all of which arise from the discal cell. Small or moderately large 
species, nearly bare. 
i. — Scutellum without spines; face produced below into a projecting cone; posterior 

veins of wing weak; small species Nemotelus Geof. 

Scutellum with spines 2 

2. — Antennae short, with a subterminal bristle Oxycera Meig. 

Antennae more or less elongate, without bristle 3 

3. — Scutellum with two spines on its border \ 

Scutellum with six spines. (Scoliopetta). 
4. — Antennae much elongated, style not differentiated, eyes bare, smaller species. . . . 

Euparhyphus Gerst. 
Antennas less elongate, style more or less differentiated, eyes pilose, larger 

species Clitellaria Meig. 

Additional N.A. genus: Euryneura Schiner. — Mexico. 

PACHYGASTRINAE. 
Small species, abdomen oval. Three posterior veins, all arising from 
the discal cell. 
1. — Antenna; situated near the middle of the face in profile, third joint short, with a 

terminal arista, scutellum without spines Pachygaster Gerst. 

Antenna; situated low down, near the mouth 2 

2. — Third joint of the antennae forked, the upper branch with an apical bristle 

*Chauna Loew. 

Third joint of the antennae elongate, segmentate, scutellum with spines 

*Acanthina Wied. 
Additional N.A. genus: Cynipimorpha Brauer, I.e. — Mexico. 

NOTES: 

Sabula, Chrysonotus and Chaunu are all preoccupied. At least one of these 
of earlier date {Chauna Illig. ) is now in use, and will necessitate a change. 

The only North American species referred to Chloromyia is Sargus viridis 



—154— 
Say (= S. nigribarbis Big.). This species, however, as I identify it, is a true 

Si in /us. 

Sargus triinttatus Say is probably a Ptecticus. S. xanthopusWieA. is, [believe, 
a synonym of 8. decorus Say. 

Macrosargus is a genus of doubtful value; some of Loew's species of Sargus 
belong here. 

Exochostoma caloceps Big., as Osten-Sacken suggests, is probably an Odon- 
tomyia. 

Chryeoehlora Lat. (Mexico) is placed by Brauer in a distinct group. 

Scoliopelta n. g. Head similar to that in lieris. Eyes broadly contiguous in 
the male, pilose; ocellar tubercle prominent; face rather small, antennae situated a 
little below the middle in profile, first two joints short, of nearly equal Length; third 
joint moderately long, moderately thickened, and then uniformly attenuated to the 
tip, composed of eight segments, without style, first segment longest, about as long as 
the second joint, the following six joints very narrow and distinguishable only with 
difficulty, terminal segment longer; palpi cylindrical, not abbreviated. Scutellum 
nearly as broad as long, sub-triangular, with two larger, approximate spines at its tip, 
and on each side two smaller ones. Abdomen much flattened, nearly circular in out 
line, composed of seven segments, the last two small, the seventh scarcely distinguish- 
able from above. Hypopygium small. Origin of the stem of the second and third 
veins opposite the base of the discal cell; origin of the second vein before the anterior 
cross-vein; the furcation of the third vein near the middle; discal cell with four post- 
erior veins, the third abbreviated before reaching the margin, the first two nearly con- 
tiguous at their origin; fifth posterior cell broadly contiguous at the base with the 
discal cell. Legs a little more slender than in Beris. 

Differs from Beris in the broad short abdomen, the elongate palpi, 
the presence of the third posterior vein, etc. From Aclina it differs in 
the holoptic male, the shape of the abdomen, hind femora, etc. 

Scoliopelta luteipes, n. sp. ^. Length 7 mm. Black, legs luteous. Antennae 
about two-thirds as long as the distance from their base to the ocelli. Dorsum of 
thorax shining, with a deep green reflection, clothed with short orange-colored pile; 
humeri and post-alar callosities obscurely luteous. Halteres yellow. Abdomen mod- 
erately shining, with sparse, very short, black pile. Legs luteous, the knees broadly, 
and the tarsi yellow. Wings brownish infuscated, darker in front, the stigma small; 
veins, except toward the base of the wing, brown. 

Two specimens, collected in meadow-land, near the base of Mt. 
Washington, in the early part of August. 

In the examination of my material I have observed a few general 
characters that appear not to have been previously described. I offer 
some of them here as merely suggestive. 

In all the genera of Stratiomyidae known to me, except Subula, 
species of Beris, Scoliopelta, Ptecticus and Pachygaster, the second longi- 
tudinal vein takes its origin from beyond the anterior cross-vein. Its 
origin in the three species of Ptecticus, which I have examined, was un- 
expected. 

In the Stratiomyidae, except the Beridinae (and Subula), the front 
coxal openings are more widely separated, the coxae are shorter, the meso- 



— 155— 

sternum longer and more developed, so that the front pair of legs are 
more widely separated from the other two, which are approximated at 
the back part of the sternum. This difference may most readily be per- 
ceived by a comparison of Coenomyia and Hermetia or Stratiomyia. 

In the present and related families the second main vein-stem of the 
wings gives off, first the sixth longitudinal vein, and, at a short distance 
beyond, the fourth. In the family Syrphidae the reverse is invariably the 
case in the two hundred or more species examined by me. The Conopi- 
dae agree better with the Muscidae calypiratae in the origin of the fourth 
and sixth veins occuring at the same point. 

Errata. —First paper, page 132, line 6, for "thickened" read flattened; 
p. 134, under Xantbogramminae, B. for "Ocelli" etc. read Face retreating, etc.; 
BB. for "Ocellar" etc., read Face projecting. Second paper, p. 11, line 6 from 
bottom, insert usually after "wings". 

Yale College, May i88;. 



Notes on Platysamia Polyommata Tepper. 
By Geo. D. Hulst. 

Platysamia polyommata Tepper, described from a unique Q in 
Mr. Water's collection, Brookl. Bull. Vol. V, p. 66, and represented in 
that place also by a photograph, is, as any one may see, an insect with 
rather broader wings than P. cecropia L. and consequently without 
doubt a Platysamia. Since then Mr. Waters has received from Arizona 
a <$ of this same species. In coloration it is very like the 9- having 
the same bands and spots on wings and body. It has in addition a 
white basal crossband on the fore wings, and the black ground color is 
richer and very velvety in appearance, The shape of the wings is how- 
ever altogether different from those of the 9- In this it has almost the 
form as it consequently has very much the appearance of Callosamia 
promethea. The fore wings are just as distinctly falcate, and the external 
margin runs inward, shortening the internal margin and narrow- 
ing the wing. The hind legs are narrow and extent backward. 
The insect is thus put in the unfortunate position, that the tf 
is in one genus, the 9 i n another. Samia cynthia has gotten itself 
in a somewhat similar predicament. In China it is a Samia but in the 
few years it has been naturalized in this country, it has broadened its 
wings, so it has become a pretty fair Platysamia. I call attention to 
these facts only that those who are interested may see that some of these 
genera have no excuse for existing as at present limited; for they are, I 
believe, limited by the shape of the wings and the wing spots only: 
neither of which characters are constant or identical in the sexes of the 
same species. 



—156— 

Notes and News. 
The collection of Lepidoptera made*by Mr. O. Meske, of Albany, 
N. V., has been acquired for the National Museum. The collection con- 
tains many types of American species and a well determined lot of 
European and other exotic species. With the Lepidoptera contained in 
the Riley collection and in the Belfrage collection, that order is now very 
fully represented: — American forms principally considered. When in 
shape, with the rich biological material of the Riley collection well work- 
ed in, it will rank among the best in the countrv. 

* * 

We are pleased to be able to notify our readers that Mr. P. R. Uhler 
of Baltimore has handed us the mss. for a Check List of the Hemiptera 
Heteroptera for publication. That we need such a list no one will 
dispute, and that Mr. Uhler is the proper man to prepare it will be as 

little doubted. 

* * 
* 

The first specimen of Rhopalopus Sanguinicollis Horn, I got from 
Carrolltown on the Laurel Ridge Mts. Since then I have found it on 
the Chestnut Ridge in Westmoreland Co., Pa.; but only on the sweet black 
cherry tree. It does not seem to injure any other trees, for beside these 
trees stand sweet red and sour red cherry, apple, peach, pear etc., all un- 
touched by the insect. It makes its appearance after the tree has blos- 
somed and before the fruit is ripe (about middle of June) and a few 
specimens may be gotten as late as August. It is always taken in the 
afternoon on the shaded side of the tree. Thaddeus Seher. 

Owing to the length of other articles, the continuation of the Pro- 
ceedings of the Ent. Club of the A. A. A. S. was crowded out of this 

number. A goodly portion will appear in our next. 

* * 
* 

In the June number of Ent. Am., under "Notes and News", I no- 
ticed the statement from Mr. L. O. Howard, that Belostoma grandis was 
attracted in great numbers to the electric lights in New Orleans during 
the month of December. This was also the case in the early part of the 
same year, and probably prevails to a greater or less extent all the year 
round. I might add that in Chicago the electric lights attract, besides 
other insects, great numbers of Ephemera:. In the latter part of July I 
have seen myriads of these insects in the evening, attracted to the lights. 
In some places the stone pavement being entirely covered over with them, 
so that there was more danger of slipping up on their soft bodies and 
falling, than if the pavement had been carefully strewn with the proverbial 
banana peel. They undoubtedly breed by millions in the Chicago River, 
and are a constant source of annoyance during the greater -part of the 
summer. C. H. T. Townsend, Constantine, Mich. 



— 157— 

Book Notices. 

Dr. Carlos Berg of Buenos Aires, has sent us a series of his papers, 
mostly from the "Anales de la Sociedad Cientifica Argentina'"', and giving 
notes and descriptions on and of a large number of Coleoptera, Ltpidopltra 
and Hemiptera. It is interesting to note, that in addition to our old and 
well known friends Agrotis ypsilon, and saucia, A. incivis, and Cindaphia 
bicoloralis also occur in the Argentine Republic. For A.ypsilon we have 
as synonyms frivola Wallgr. and robasta Blanch. A. saucia has as syno- 
nym angulifera Wallgr., and the Doctor thinks that Spaelotis stictica 
Blanch., S. punctulaia Blanch., Agrotis impaclaWlk., and Noctua aethiops 
Phil., will also prove forms of this protean species. A. incivis is A . ante- 
posila Gn. , and A. leniicidosa Moritz. Cindaphia bicoloralis Dr. Berg 
himself had re-described as Botis amiculatalu and here corrects himself. 
It proves that the synonym mill is grinding there as well as here. 

On the Parasites of the Hessian Fly. By C. V. Riley, Ph.D., Proc. U. S. 
Nat. Mus. VIII, 413—422, PI. XXIII, Sept. 1885. 

An interesting contribution to the history of this well known pest, 
describing and illustrating: — Merisus destructor (Say), M. (Homoporus) 
subapterus n. sp., Eupelmus allynii (French), Tetrastichus productus n. sp. 
and Platygaster Herrickii Pack An extract characterizing the species 
was read before the recent meeting of the A.A.A.S. , and the life history 
of the species is carefully traced. 

Fourteenth Report of the State Entomologist on the Noxious and Bene- 
fical Insects of the State of Illinois. By S. A. Forbes (3d Kept.), for the year 
1884. pp. 136, pi. XII. Also an Appendix containing "General Indexes to the 
first Twelve Reports of the State Entomologists of Illinois. ' ' 

Contains an Entomological Calender, and articles on Corn Insects; 
Wheat Insects; Grape Insects; Black- and Raspberry Insects; Agrotis C. 
nigrum; Apple and Pear Insects; Maple and Elm Insects; and Miscellan- 
eous Notes. 

The Index to the 12 Reports is a valuable contribution, modelled 
upon Prof. Riley's Index to the Mo. Reports. The title page enumer- 
ates Francis LeBaron as one of the State Entomologists — we were under 
the impression that William LeBaron held that office. 

Quite a large number of new species of several orders are described 
more or less completely, and a new Tenlhredid genus (Melallus) is very 
incompletely characterized. 

The article on Wheat Insects is interesting because it covers to an 
extent the ground covered in the publication by Prof. Riley (previously 
noticed) on the parasites of the Hessian fly. 

In all but Tetrastichus carinatus the generic reference of the species 

ENTOMOLOGICA AMERICANA 24 



-i 5 S- 

described, is either erroneous, or the name of a genus is used which has 
been long since subdivided. Descriptive work ought either to be left to 
competent specialists, or, as in the case of Prof. Riley's paper, a special 
md careful study of the group treated of, should be made. However 
good a general entomologist a man may be, he cannot have that special 
knowledge of any one order which is necessary to a describer of new 
species. Pteromalus futvipes Forbes is the Merisus subapterus of Riley, 
and Prof. Riley's generic reference is reliable. 

The figures are largely reproductions bom Riley, or from the earlier 
111. Repts. The new figures are as a rule very poor, inaccurate, in 
Mime instances even misleading and they print miserably. A recent 
number of "Science" criticised the last report of the U. S. Dept. of Agri- 
culture for its illustrations; acknowledging their artistic merit and scien- 
tific accuracy, but blaming the use of Photo-engraving for their repro- 
duction. Curiously enough the new figures in this report, which show 
no traces of that careful supervision of the artist necessary to secure an 
accurate figure of an insect, are passed over without comment by that 
Journal. As a whole the report is a valuable contribution to economic 
entomology, though leaving in some points, much to be desired. 

Further notes upon the markings and attitudes of lepidopterous larvae, 
together with a complete account of the life history of Sphinx ligustri and Selenia 
iUunaria (larvx). By Edward B. Poulton. Tr. Ent. Soc. London, 1885. Part II 
(August 5) pp. 281—329. PI. VII. 

A valuable and exceedingly interesting contribution to the ontogeny 
of the species treated, of giving some interesting speculations as to the use 
and purpose of some ol the appendages, and on the origin of the colors 
and markings and their philosophy. The article is too long to abstract, 
and we must refer students to the paper itself for its contents. 

Wie entsteht die Gliederung der Insectenfuehler? By Dr. Fritz Mtiller. 
Kosmos, 1885. Vol. XVII, pp. 201 — 204. 

Notes on the gradual increase in various stages of the number of 
joints in the antenna? of dlotenjics rugosus and some species of Cochlio- 
psyche, showing how the increase in number of joint stakes place by divis- 
ion, principally of the third and fourth joints. 

The Butterflies of North America by William II. Edwards. 2nd series. Boston, 
Houghton, Mifflindk Co., 1874 — 1884, pp.445, pi. 51. 4 . 

A recent number of '"Science" contains a notice of the above work, 
which we can heartily indorse. After giving the author deserved credit 
for the quality of matter, and especially the fine plates (part of this praise 



— 159— 

belongs to Mrs. Peart, the artist), the article reads as follows: "In this, 
[referring to the list of species closing the volume] however, in which the 
number of species is raised from 512 to 612, he retains in nearly every 
particular the antique classification adopted in the first volume. The 
studies which Mr. Edwards has undertaken upon die history of butter- 
flies have rendered him an authority on that subject, and his skill in 
field investigation has been unexcelled. This, however, constitutes no 
claim whatever to any knowledge of the structure itself of butterflies, 
upon which classification must be founded; and as he has shown no 
such knowledge in his writings, we can only regret that he did not alto- 
gether omit this list, since it carries an authority to the public eye which 
it does not possess, the classification being not only false in many minute 
particulars, but fundamentally false to nature". 



Society News. 

Brooklyn Entomological Society, Oct. 6th, 1885. — Present 27 members 
and visitors; the president, Mr. Cramer in the chair. Mr. O. Dietz and Mr. A. 
T. Birkhoffwere elected members of the Society. Mr. Smith proposed Mr. \V. 
B. Taylor of Brooklyn; Mr. Weeks proposed Mr. Chas. Scott of N.Y., and Mr. 
Neumoegen proposed Mr. Chas. Palm of N.Y. as members of the Society. On 
motion of Mr. Neumoegen, seconded by Mr. Hulst, Senor Doctor Don Juan 
Gundlach, of Cuba, was elected an honorary member of the Society. Mr. Hulst 
presented additional evidence that Danais archippus occasionally presented a 
very dark, blackish suffusion. Mr. By. Edwards exhibited a specimen of 
archippus which before being put in cyanide was bright red; but was now dull 
blackish. He stated however, that he had this summer taken an even darker 
specimen in the field. He also exhibited a specimen of Colias eurydice dyed 
a brilliant red, by the action of a damp cyanide bottle. 

Mr. Tepper exhibited a series of bred specimens of Papilio asterias and read 
a short paper* on their variation, especially noting the facts, that the anal ocellus 
varies in size and shape and is sometimes entirely absent, therefore not reliable 
as a test of specific distinction. 

Mr. Smith stated, that he had of late examined every collection he had seen, for 
variations in Papilio, and considered the anal ocellus as of absolutely no value. 
Mr. Cramer states that a series of turnus, bred in Maine, so strongly resembled 
rutulus that he could scarcely distinguish them. Mr. Edwards had seen bred spe- 
cimens of asterias showing even a greater range of variation, but he considered that 
Mr. W. H. Edwards placed more stress upon the shape of the anal spot than the 
presence of the ocellus, and hardly liked to consider the species classed under 
machaon as identical. He referred to P. Hippocrates which showed a peculiar 
departure from the normal form in the shape of ocellus, and said many of the 



* Which will appear in a future number. 



— 160 — 

misunderstandings and differences of opinion had arisen from differing ideas of 
a species. An occasional resemblance of a specimen of one species to that of 
another, did not identity of the two. Mr. Neumoegen spoke on the 

same subject. He had P. asterius from Cuba and from this locality the female 
instead of being larger and with less yellow than the <$, resembles that six 
in all respects. In other words, that sexnal difference in color which is so prom- 
inent in U.S. specimens does not exist there. This is the form named poh 
by Drury. In Central America the asleroides form becomes the prevailing one. 
Mr. Smith, referring to Mr. Edwards' remarks on species, said that the difficulty 
was, that some persons would not recognize the fact that species are not always a 
fixed quantity. The process of evolution is still going on, and the so called 
species that these disputes are about are undergoing change. Some forms never 
resemble anything but themselves and leave no doubt as to their distinctness. 
These are so far fixed that they may be called species; but the other forms that 
are changing, and have so far changed that locally they are constant, are not 
species, though they deserve a title explaining their relation to the parent stock. 
No sensible man will dispute the close relationship of asterius, polyxenes, asler- 
oides, and some others, and it is generally assented that they come from the 
same stock. They have not yet branched so far as to leave the stem form be- 
hind, or to sever connection with it. Many others are in the same predicament. 
Several other examples were instanced. Mr. Hulst favored names to indicate 
the relationship of forms to each other and did not think the term species 
should be used for these partly separated forms, lief erring to the species of 
Papilio allied to machaon he had been inclined to believe Dr. Hagen in the 
wrong, but carefully studying Mr. W. H. Edwards' reply, and the figures given 
with it, he became fully convinced that Dr. Hagen was in the main correct. 

Mr. Hulst made some remarks on Plaiysamia potyommata Tepper which show- 
ed how little the genera in this group were based on actual characters, for the 9 
is a Plaiysamia, while the $ belongs to the genus CaUosamia. Mr. Neumoegen 
agrees that the Attaci are badly separated generically. Take the variations of 
Cynthia in Japan, U. S. and Paraguay and you have entirely different wing form 
and habitus, so that your species in Paraguay belongs to one genus, while in 
the U. S. it belongs to another. Incidentally he mentioned that it had been 
proved by breeding that Attacus splendidus and orizava were identical. 

Mr. Smith then introduced Mr. E. A. Schwarz, of Washington, who read a 
few notes on TelmalophUus americanus .* Mr. Leng read a few notes on the dis- 
tribution of Cicindelidce near N. Y. 

Mr. Edwards called attention to the fact that diurnals were occasionally at- 
tracted to the electric light. He had observed P. troilus, P. atalanta, cardui, 
huntera, V. antiopa, D. archippus, and L. pseudargiolus. He had been informed 
by Dr. C. Hart Merriam that a Light-house keeper on Lake Ontario had been 
greatly annoyed by the large swarms of archippus that flew r against it and ob- 
scured the light. 

After informal discussion the Society adjourned. During the informal dis- 
cussion a small lot of named Coleoptera, from So. Cal. donated by Dr. Horn 
were sold at auction for the benefit of the Society, and brought $9.50. 



Which will appear in a future number. 




Americana 



tfOL I. 



BROOKLYN, DECEMBER, 1885. 



NO. 



Aletia xylina vs. A. argillacea* 

By C. V. Riley. 

Without entering into any general discussion, which would be out 
of place here, as to whether Hiibner's names should be adopted or not— 
a question which has always divided entomologists — but following those 
who, taking the more conservative view, accept his species when his de- 
scriptions and figures leave no question as to what is intended, the 
purported description in connection with the figures, would have to be 
rejected even from this standpoint. In point of fact they leave every 
doubt as to the species intended, and give us no absolute certainty. The 
only descriptive part is that referring to the white dot, and this is con- 
spicuously and well represented on the figure referred to; but it is this very 
character which makes it morally certain that some other species than 
xyli?ia Say was intended; for while typical specimens of xylina invariably 
have the three white minute dots referred to on page 9, of this work, the 
conspicuous discal or reniform spot on primaries is almost invariably* 
oval and dark, with two cinereous pupils, which are often dilated so as to 
represent a large cinereous spot, with a dark center and a dark border. 
Of the many hundreds, and we may say thousands, of specimens which 
we have examined, not one has had the distinct white spot described and 

* This article is taken from advance sheets from the 4th Rept. U. S. Entomolog- 
ical Commission and to give point to it I reproduce Hiibner's original description. 

"Aletia Argillacea. Aus Bahia. Vom Herrn Sommer abgelassen. Eine 
Noctua genuina und Heliophila lineata. Sie ist der A. Vitellina sehr ahnlich, hat 
aber in nichts eine Gleichheit mit ihr und auf den Schwingen einen weissen Punkt. 
Ihre Fiirbildung 399, 400, stellt ein mannliches Muster vor." 

This may be translated: "From Bahia. Left by Mr. Sommer. A Noctua genuina 
and Heliophila lineata. It is very similar to A. Vitellina, but is in nothing identical 
with it, and has a white dot on the wings.' Figs. 399 and 400 represent the male." 

The question as to what argillacea really is, will be considered in a special study 
of the genus Anomis which I hope soon to make. From material so far studied it is 
a species received from Bahia, somewhat smaller than xylina. 



— 162 — 

tig u icd by Hubner. The figures in other respects bear out this con- 
clusion; for while in the different copies of the Zutrage the coloring will 
vary according to the colorist and according as the colors have changed 
with age — two facts which in themselves should be sufficient to discard 
names founded on mere figures — yet in the three copies which we have 
examined the figures represent a smaller, feebler-bodied species, lacking 
in the characteristic olivaceous hues, and much more roseate superiorly 
and more highly colored with yellow and roseate on the under side. 
The under surfaces of xylina are of tolerably uniform pale gray, with a 
faint ochreous tinge, and in no specimen of xylina do we find the sharp 
black line on the under side of the hind border of the secondaries charac- 
teristic of Hiibner's figure. 

From these facts it will be seen that nothing can be absolutely 
settled from Hiibner's description and figures, and so much has this been 
felt by previous authors that they have not been able to identify Hiib- 
ner's argillacea. Thus Guenee, who had evidently better material to 
judge from than any previous, or for that matter subsequent, author 
whom we can call to mind, questioned whether his grandipuncta 
(=xylina) could be referred to argillacea, for the reason that this last is 
more yellow, more distinctly marked, with the reniform concolorous, 
marked with a very distinct white dot, and quite distinct on the under 
surface Even Mr. Grote, notwithstanding the assurance with which he 
identifies argillacea in the paper before the Association in 1874, express- 
ed his uncertainty in his first published opinion on the subject. (Bulle- 
tin of the Buffalo Society of Natural Sciences, vol. i, p. 170, 1874.) 

The figures on our Plate IV, 7a, were kindly copied for us by Mr. 
Skinner, from the copy of the Zutrage in the library of the American 
Entomological Society. The coloring has been slightly lightened in the 
printing, but otherwise shows the figures very well as they appear in 
that copy. In the copy in Dr. Hagen's possession,* as also in that which 
we have lately obtained for the Department of Agriculture, the figures 
are somewhat darker; but all are uniform in those particulars which we 
have just pointed out, and in which they differ from xylina. Hence, a 
careful and candid study of the subject, so far as Hiibner's work per- 
mits, leaves very grave doubt as to the identity of his argillacea, and 
though from the fact that we had accepted Grote's determination in the 
first edition of this work (solely on his authority) we have tried to retain 
it rather than make a change in this second edition; yet an unbiased 
weighing of the facts presented by the published data would alone have 
forced us to reject argillacea. We are entirely of Dr. Hagen's mind, as 

This copy, as Dr. Ilagen informs us, is on "geschopftes Papier" with what is 
known as old coloring in good condition. 



— 163 — 

expressed in a letter written to us April 4, 1883, after full study of the 
facts, and before he was aware of our previously published opinion to 
the same effect. He remarks: "Compared with Say's excellent de- 
scription, I believe it out of question not to accept Say's name, which 
has priority. 

Forced thus, from the published data, to reject argillacea on the 
ground of uncertainty, we have endeavored to reach the definitive con- 
clusion from non-published, historical data, i. e., by an endeavor to as- 
certain whether types of Hubner's argillacea were still in existence. Dr. 
Hagen kindly informed us, in a letter dated April 12, 1883, that since 
argillacea was described from the collection of the late Mr. Sommer of 
Altona near Hamburg, it might perhaps be possible to find the type spe- 
cimens still in that collection, as Mr. Sommer had his collection speci- 
mens kept in very good order. The Sommer collection was supposed 
to have been purchased by the Museum of the city of Hamburg, but 
upon inquiry we were informed by Mr. C. Criiger, who was formerly 
connected with the Museum Godeffroy of Hamburg, that the collection 
had long since been purchased by Dr. Staudinger, of Blasewitz near 
Dresden. Having thus traced the Sommer collection, we directed Mr. 
A. Koebele to proceed, with specimens, to Germany, and to visit Dres- 
den and inquire into the facts. With the kind permission of Dr. Staud- 
inger, Mr. Koebele was able to make an examination of the Sommer 
collection, but the results gave us no greater certainty; for, from the notes 
made, it would appear that very few of the labels in the Sommer collec- 
tion are written by Sommer. The collection is, also, in great disorder, 
and has been neglected by Dr. Staudinger. Of the eight specimens of 
our xylina in the collection one is marked from Panama, another from 
Porto Rico; one is named ii A?io??iis grandipuncta Guen.", another, un- 
spread 9 specimen '■'argillacea Hbn." and a third "A, grandis". If 
there were any way of considering these labels authoritative the evidence 
might be considered in favor of our xylina being Hubner's argillacea, 
but from all the facts it is evident that the labeling has been done by 
other hands, and there is other evidence to weaken the value of those 
labels. Thus the type of argillacea is distinctly stated by Hiibner to be 
male, so that the female above referred to could not be the type, which 
must also have been spread to have permitted the artist to fully figure the 
upper and under surfaces of all wings. Again in the Sommer collection 
there are eight specimens of a closely allied moth — the Anomis luridula, 
of which one is labeled "luridata/' and a second "modes/a' and a third 
"exacla''. The species bears no resemblance whatever to the exacta of 
Hubner's figures, so that we have here positive evidence oftheworth- 
lessness of the labels as historical indications of Hubner's types. 

* 



-.6 4 — 

Proceedings of the Entomological Club of the A. A. AS. 

(Continued from p. 125 ante.) 

The following paper was then read by its author. 
NOTES ON SOME STRUCTURAL CHARACTERS 
OF THE LEPIDOPTERA. 
By John B. Smith. 

I had hoped and expected to be able to present a rather complete 
review of the structural peculiarities of some groups or families of the 
Lepidoptera and to propose a new scheme of classification; but lack of 
time and too many other duties prevented the completion of the work, 
and I will present only brief notes of a suggestive character. 

In many families in all orders, sexual peculiarities furnish characters 
of high systematic value; but in the Lepidoptera these organs have never 
been carefully studied and no systematic value has been attached to 
them. Lederer in the "Noctuinen Europas" gives a number of figures 
and describes a number of what he calls "after klappen", but his figures 
are imperfect and misleading and the most essential parts of the structur- 
al peculiarities were missed by him. 

For some time past the Noctuidse have been studied by Prof. Riley 
and myself with the view of preparing a monographic work on the 
family, and many interesting points in structure have been discovered. 
Working over the Noctuidae suggested inquiries and studies in other 
families, partly to fix relationships, and partly for purposes of comparison. 
The discoveries of modifications of the genital organs of the <$ are such, 
that a decided modification in our present classification of the Lepidop- 
tera may have to be made. The diurnals are so well separated, that no 
special examinations of them have been made, though what little I have 
done shows that there is still much to be learned about them. The 
normal structure of the clasping organs of the $ among the Heterocera 
consists of a superior lunate or triangular corneous plate, which I call 
the supra-anal plate; a variously shaped corneous hook soldered to the 
tip, which I call the supra-anal hook: and an oblong, semi-chitinous 
piece on each side, called the side piece; to which are often attached 
corneous hooks or processes called claspers. The side pieces are move- 
able, are very differently shaped, and afford excellent specific and per- 
haps generic characters. The claspers also offer a wide — in fact infinite — 
variation: so great a one indeed that in some groups there are no two 
species alike, and the modifications are specific while in others they are 
so constant that they afford good generic characters. 

My present purpose is to call' attention to some modifications of 



-i6 5 - 

this structure in the Bombycidae and the groups placed between them 
and the Rhopalocera. In the Hesperidae, the males, so far as I have 
examined them, have the supra-anal plate small, lunate or crescent 
shaped, there is no supra-anal hook, and the side pieces are short, and 
illy, or not at all adapted for clasping. Some, perhaps many of the 
higher groups have the supra-anal plate well developed, but it is with 
the lowest of the group — those placed at the end of the series, that I 
have now to deal. 

Among the Heterocera the Zygaenidae most nearly approach the 
Hesperidae in this respect; entirely lacking the supra anal plate, and hav- 
ing the side pieces scarcely modified into clasping organs. 

The Syntomidae are closely allied in structure; but here, though the 
supra-anal hook is not, in the forms examined by me, fully developed, 
it is well indicated, and the side pieces are often corneous and furcate, or 
provided with separate corneous claspers. In Didasyi these organs are 
very prominent and furnished with long tufts of hair. 

Allied to the Syniomidae are the Aegeridae, or Sesiidae as some 
prefer to call them. But here the supra-anal plate undergoes a modifi- 
cation: instead of being solid, a triangular space is punched out of the 
center, leaving a triangle with its apex somewhat dilated. There is no 
supra-anal hook in those specimens examined by me, and the side piece 
is simple. 

In the Macroglossae another peculiar modification appears. Here 
the plate is narrowed, thickened and takes a shape somewhat like a 
Lobster's claw. The side piece is simple, and there is a stout, straight, 
corneous spine below the intromittent organ. * 

Sphinx has usually a complete supra-anal plate and hook, and 
often corneous claspers. 

In the higher Bombycidae we notice a curious and remarkably con- 
stant modification — the supra-anal plate is present though pften much 
reduced in size, and the tip is somewhat prolonged, but instead of 
forming a spine it divides and forms points, or lobes, varying in the 
species. I illustrate cynthia, cecropia, regd/is, imperial's and Adelocephala 
bicolor and all the other large species examined by me, present the 
same form.* 

This modification gradually runs into the normal form; but through 
what stages it passes to do so I am not yet prepared to say. 

Little as I have done yet, the results attained are still instructive — 
in combination with wing structure and habits they suggest a classification 
somewhat different from that usually adopted. 

The Syniomidae with diurnal habits, clear, bright or contrastingly 
* Figures of these peculiarities will be presented at a future date.— J.B-S. 



— 166 — 

colored wings with few veins, should head the list, followed by the 
Aegeridae, with similar appearance, similar habits and very similar struc- 
ture: then come the clear wing sphinges or Macroglossae which are also 
largely diurnal and which differ very essentially in structure from the 
typical Sphinx as I have shown recently in "Entomologica Americana"; 
and the Sphinges with crepuscular habits again lead naturally to the typ- 
ical Bombyces, through the nocturnal Smerinthids. 

As the highest type of another series stand the Zygaenidae. Also 
largely diurnal in habit and often brightly colored they yet differ largely 
from any of the preceding in the numerous veins of both wings. The 
true Zygaenidae do not exist in the United States as I showed recently 
in the Transactions of the Am. Ent. Soc; but their close allies, the 
Pryomorphidae do exist here in some number, and they very gradually 
lead into the Lithosiids and thence to the Arctiids and Bombyces. 

We have here two distinct series: the Syntomidae and Zygaenidae 
rather closely allied, and diverging from thence, the one to the Bombyces 
through the Sphinges, the other to the same group through Pyromorpha, 
Lithosia and Arctia. 

In the Lepidoptera Heterocera and especially those groups classed 
as Zygaenidae and Bombycidae systematists have shown a remarkable ob- 
jection to the creation of families, or more correctly to the use of family 
terms to express relationships and define groups. The result is that 
there is a mass of species all classed under the general term Bombyces, or 
Zygaenidae which have absolutely not one character in common. Mr. 
Grote to be sure in his recent list makes some divisions, but unfortun- 
ately they are nowhere defined, based only on superficial resemblances 
and thoroughly unscientific. Coleopterists have by careful and hard 
work raised their branch of Entomology to the dignity of a scientific 
study, while Lepidopterists have wasted their time in studying the orna- 
mention of insects, overlooking the most obvious structural details, and 
the classification of the order therefore leaves much to be desired. To 
call attention to the fact that there is yet plenty of work to be done be- 
fore Lepidopterists can claim that they have a knowledge of their order 
equal to that of the Coleopterists, these brief notes are presented. An- 
other and perhaps natural error has been made by many Lepidopterists: 
they have seized some one character, and rested their studies on that. 
Thus Dr. Herrich-Schaeffer made venation the ultimate test of family 
distinction while Dr. Packard with less felicity finds head characters 
controlling and ignores venation. The result gives us such assemblages 
as those heretofore mentioned. I wish it distinctly understood that I do 
not pretend to find the one controlling character in the genital structure 
of the rj^. I deem it a very important one in connection with other 



— 167 — 

characters, but no more. The legs afford excellent characters as yet en- 
tirely overlooked, while thoracic structure, and especially that of the 
dorsum will eventually furnish points of value to systematists. 

Adding to these notes, I wish to call the attention of systematists to 
a character not made use of so far as I am aware, to the extent its im- 
portance warrants: It is the relative proportions of the hind legs. In Noctua 
and Geometra, using these terms in their widest sense, the posterior legs 
are uniformly longer than the others and very strong, proportionately, 
and the two pairs of spurs are well developed, often prominently so.* In 
the typical Bombycidae on the other hand, the opposite is the case; the 
fore legs are strongest, often longer than the middle pair, and the post- 
erior pair are small and weak, and the spurs are small, often wanting in 
part. This is a peculiarly Bombycoid character, and the strong relation 
that the Snurinthids have to the Bombycids finds an additional proof in 
the agreement in this respect — the obsolete tongue and short posterior 
legs separate them very .sharply from the true Sphinges. I have recently 
pointed out that Ellema belongs to the Smerinthid, and not the Sphingid 
series. 

In examining the large Bombycidae, I have often been struck by the 
enormous development of the "epiphysis" of the anterior tibia. In most 
groups it is concealed, and in some Rhopalocera wanting. It is present 
in all the Heterocera so far as I know; but often very small. In regalis, 
imperialis and some others this organ is very largely developed and is 
bare of vestiture. 

What purpose does it serve? 

The following paper by Mr. Geo. D. Hulst was then read. 

THE FAMILY POSITION of EUPHANESSA MENDICA, Wlk. 
By Geo. D. Hulst. 

Euphanessa mendica was first described a.sA r udaria mendica by Walk- 
er Cat. Brit. Mus. II, p. 576 (1854), and redescribed by Herrich- 
Schaeffer Lep. Exot. p. 19 as Eadule biseriata. By both of these authors, 
and afterwards by Dr. A. S. Packard Jr. (Synopsis Bombycidae U. S. Pro. 
Ent. Phil. 1864 p. 102,) it was placed among the Bombycidae. In the 
latter place Dr. Packard describes the new genus, Euphanessa. 

In the Canadian Naturalist III, p. 227 (1 87 1) Mr. W. Saunders 
describes the larva as being in form a true Geometer, having only two 
pair of abdominal legs. In his Geometrid Moths p. n (1876) Dr. 
Packard refers to this, but still places the insect among the Bombycidae, 
and writes as follows: "I have carefully recompared this genus proposed 

* Some Geometers, I am aware, lack the spurs; but the difference in proportion 
is, I believe, constant. 



— ,63 — 

by myself and placed next to Nudaria, ami am still of the opinion that 
this is its proper position. In the small head with the large occiput and 
the male genital armature it is much like Crocata. The antennae and 
legs are much as in other Lithosians. The venation, though different 
in some important respects from that of Crocota, (there being a subcostal 
cell where there is none in Crocota, and but five subcostal veins where 
in Crocota there are six), is still Lithosian in plan there being four med- 
ian veins. On a fresh comparison of Euphanessa with European examples 
of Nudaria I see no reason to doubt the clear subfamily relations of 
the two genera. " 

In the Trans. Ento. Soc. London, 1877, p. 371, Mr. A. G. Butler 
in a Catalogue of the Lithosiidae in the Brit. Museum places the insect 
near Nudaria without comment. 

Having during the last few months given some study to the Geome 
tridae, I have come to the conclusion that the proper and only possible 
place of this insect is among the Geometridae, ana not among the l.om- 
bycidae where it is placed by the authors above quoted. 

1st. — The larva is a true Geometer. The larva? of the Bombycidae 
are, I believe, in no case Geometers. And those of Crocota and Nudaria 
are not only not Geometers, but are more or less clothed with hair and 
spines. From this characteristic Euphanessa is an anomaly among the 
Bombycidac, and has no relation whatever to its so called nearest allies. 

2nd. — The pupa is just as anomalous if Euphanessa be placed 
among the Bombycidae. The pupae were found in New Jersey by Mr. 
J. B. Smith,- and the imagines emerged. The pupa skins are now in 
my possession by his kindness. Both Crocota and Nudaria I am told 
pupate in a cocoon. The pupa of Euphanessa was found under bark, en- 
tirely without cocoon, girthed and suspended by the tail. The pupa un- 
doubtedly went beneath the bark only for protection from the weather, 
and was hanging free. The pupa of the Bombycidae are comparativelv 
short and stout. That of Euphanessa is slender, angulate and elongated. 
The pupa can thus properly be referred only to the Geometridae. There are 
at least some corresponding examples, I have read of, among the Geo- 
metridae of Europe, but I have heard of none among the Bombycidae. 
Somewhat aberrant in the first family, it would be anomalous in the 
second. 

3rd. — In habits the imago is entirely a Geometer. It is not only 
easily disturbed during the day, but has the habit of hiding on the under 
side of leaves, with the wings widely extended when at rest, and it has 
the loose uncertain weak Geometrid flight. 



— 1 69 — 

4th. — So far as the head is concerned the insect it seems to me must 
be considered a geometer rather than a Bombycid. In size, it is no 
smaller comparatively than many cither Geometers. The antenna? tongue 
and palpi are Geometrid rather than Bombycid. And the shape of the 
front and occiput is paralleled in others of the Geometers. At the most 
the parts of the head which Dr. Packard emphasises as being of great im- 
portance in showing the Bombyqid standing of the insect, might serve for 
generic but certainly not for family separation. 

5th. — I have made no detailed examination of the thorax, and can 
not speak of any bearing this may have on determination. Superficially 
it agrees with the Geometers. 

6th. — So far as the venation is concerned, Dr. Packard is as far as I 
can see, mistaken in saying there are four median veins, unless he ac- 
knowledge the same to be true of all Geometers. I have examined 
several wings, fully denuded by the Chloride of Lime and Carbolic acid 
process, and placed in Balsam and I can not find any feature which is 
not reproduced in the figures of venation given by Dr. Packard in his 
Geometrid Moths. In the position of vein 5 (the independent vein) it is 
very different from Croco/a, though not from Nudaria. As a matter of 
fact however the venation of many of the Geofnetridae and Bombycidae 
exactly correspond, and little stress can be placed on venation. But 
Euphanessa is undoubtedly a Geometer on this basis, or I have made a 
very often repeated error in observation. 

7th. — There is a great difference in the relative size of the legs of 
the Bombycidae and Geometridae. Mr. Smith has called my attention to 
the fact that in the Bombycidae the hind legs are usually as small and as 
weak or smaller and weaker than the fore legs. The contrary is the case in 
the Geometridae. On this basis Euphanessa is a strongly marked Geometer. 

8th. — So far as rny observation has gone, the genitalia of the male 
of Euphanessa mendica follow the type o( the Geometridae. Certainly the 
genitalia differ very materially from those of Crocota. The lateral claspers 
are somewhat the same, but the supra-anal plate of Euphanessa is a 
slender down curved spine after the ordinary form of the Geometridae, 
while Crocota has at the termination of this plate, another spine beneath 
and within the terminal incurved point, which, curved backward, seems 
to have a scissors movement toward the terminal spine for clasping. 

Thus there is nothing which would make the* placing of this insect 
among the Geometridae an error, while many things make its position 
among the Bombycidae anomalous and forced. There are many things 
in which it agrees only with the Geometridae, none in which it agrees 
only with the Bombycidae. It seems therefore that Eupjhanessa must be 
catalogued with the Geometridae. 

ENTOMOLOGICA AMERICANA 26 



— i7c— 

Prof. Riley commenting on the paper," thinks that Mr. Hulst makes 
out his case very well. The characters enumerated, make the insect an 
anomalous one wherever placed, still the bulk of the characters are geo- 
metrid and he thinks that most Lfepidopterists would instinctively place 
it with the geometers, rather than the Bombycids. He had previously, 
in a note to some paper on the preparatory stages of other insects referred 
to the peculiar pupa of this species, which is the only instance known to 
him where a heterocerous pupa was girthed, and fastened by thecremast- 
er as in the Papilionidae; and the resemblance was further heighthened by 
two small horns, or ears, which gave the insect the appearance of a 
miniature Papilio cresphontes. We have here the anomaly of a moth, low 
in the scale, mimicing a character peculiar to buttertlies usually placed 
among the highest, by systematists. He thinks the only conclusion to 
be formed from this, is that the adolescent stages are not always to be 
depended on in defining the proper position of the mature insect. In 
reference to Mr. Smith's paper there were two points to be remarked on. 

First, — the genitalia in some groups have been well and carefully 
studied, and as it is desirable that there should be uniformity in nomen- 
clature, new names should not be proposed for the parts, but so far as 
possible the names used by others should be adopted. 

Second, — he agreed entirely with Mr. Smith's strictures on the work 
of the Lepidopterists, which had heretofore been so superficial that it had 
been often made a reproach, and their work was looked on as unscien- 
tific. The specific descriptions are often very unsatisfactory, based on 
the most inconstant characters, and the generic descriptions are even 
worse. In reference to the genitalia he doubts whether they will be as 
useful in systematic work as is now supposed, and venation and other 
structures will still have to be relied upon. 

When first the variability in this respect was discovered, it appeared 
valuable; but larger study he thinks will shake our faith. He says, too, 
that he finds more or less variability in the same species. He has found 
that some species otherwise closely allied are widely separated by this 
character, and again species perfectly distinct are nearly alike in this 
respect. He looks upon them as of secondary importance, and con- 
siders them as adaptations and special functional developments, that 
must not be too strongly urged, though undoubtedly of value as Mr. 
Smith suggests, in connection with other characters. 

In reference to the anterioi tibial epiphysis nothing certain can be 
said, though there is little doubt but it serves some purpose in the at 
traction of the sexes. He does not believe that it is a scent organ as has 
been suggested. 



Prof. Lintner remarking on Mr. Hulst's paper, stated that he had 
started up Euphaneisa mendica by the hundreds and hid noticed their 
flight. They would just flutter for a short distance and then return to 
cover under the leaves. The pupal characters mentioned were new to 
him, and he asks Prof. Riley whether they were truly girthed as in 
Papilio or whether there was not a slight cocoon. 

Prof. Riley replied that he had not seen them transform, but he 
considered it truly girthed, there being a single strong thread in a suture 
either at the end of the meta-notum or near the base of the abdomen. It 
was some time since he had seen them; Mr. Smith might recollect 
better. 

Mr. Smith states that he found them under a piece of loose bark, 
fastened by the tail, and a distinct band, while there was no trace of a 
cocoon. The long slender pupa suggested Tipula, and he was utterly 
astonished when he found the imago that emerged. He certainly would 
never have imagined it a Bombycid pupa. 

On motion the club then adjourned, to meet on the 26th inst. at 
the call of the President. 

Club meet August 26th, at 7 P.M. pursuant to adjournment, 40 
persons present, Prof. Lintner in the chair. The minutes of the previous 
meeting were read and adopted. 

Dr. Kellicott read a paper 

ON THE LARVAL PERIOD OF HARMONIA PINI, 
AND A PARASITE OF SAME. 

The original description of this moth, together with the facts, so 
far as known, in its history, were published in the Canadian Entomologist, 
vol. XIII, 1885. The last week in June of this year I had an opportu- 
nity to visit the "old homestead'' in Oswego Co., N. Y., where I ob- 
tained a limited number of imagines and certain additional facts per- 
taining to its preparatory stages; these I present for the consideration of 
this Club, together with specimens of the moth, the pitch-masses in which 
the pupae form, with pupa shells protruding, and a dipterous fly-parasite 
of the species. 

I have elsewhere, Canadian Entomologist XIII, 157, shown that 
the larva does not transform until, at least, two years old; I think now 
that I have evidence that it does not change until the third year. The 
facts are these: In June 1883 two pitch-exudations on a small pine were 
marked; these were fresh and were supposed to contain larvae one year 
old and which would probably give moths in June 1884; accordingly 
I made arrangements for having the same cut out and sent to me at 



— 172 — 

Buffalo in May 1884; the plan failed, however, and, as it turned out, 
the oversight led to good results. On revisiting the spot in June of this 
year 1 at once identified the pitch-cocoons marked in June 1883, then 
one year old. and on examining them 1 could find no reason for think- 
ing that nitidis escaped from them in 1884; on opening one of them a 
live chrysalid was found within; tne other was cut out with an axe and 
on fuly 6th gave a moth, now in my collection. 

These facts do not amount to demonstration, although to me they 
indicate a high degree of probability that the life-period of this /Egcrian 
is completed the third year. For, by way of application, the fully formed 
pitch-masses of June 1883 were caused by larvae hatched in 1882 since 
die imagos of 1883 were just appearing, and had moths issued in 1884 
the opening, pupa-shell and pupa-cell would have been easily seen until 
18S5. It is scarcely possible that eggs were laid in 18S3 from which 
larvae occupied these masses formed by a previous generation or by some 
other animal. On examination of scores of examples I have failed to 
find traces of any other insect in the pitch, at least, such as could cause 
the exudation. ,Pinipeslis Zimmermani causes somewhat similar forma- 
tions, but they are readily separated from those of the ./Egerian. 

The egg and the very young larvoe have not been seen by me: the 
former is evidently deposited near a wound in the tree; the young not 
being able to penetrate the outer bark of the pine trunk. They rarely 
occupy branches and have not been found in small trunks, i.e. from 
three to five years growth; on the other hand they prefer young pines 
from six inches to a foot in diameter, especially such as have grown up 
when the original pine forests have been mostly removed. 

For obvious reasons larva; boring into woody stems or the roots of 
trees or shrubs are well protected from insect parasites. A few references 
occur, however, to instances of hymenopterous parasites of our wood- 
boring yEgerian larvae; one, Phceogmcs ato\ parasitic in Podosesia syr- 
ingce, has been noticed by G. H. French, Papilio I, 106, and another, 
an fchneumon, in the same, by Herbert Osborn, Papilio II, 71. Thus 
far I have found no mention of a dipterous parasite of any of our species 
of the group. The two-winged fly exhibited with the examples of 
Harmonia pint escaped from a pupa of the same and is a parasite of the 
same. May 30, 1885, at Portage, N. Y., I removed amass of pitch that 
proved to contain a pupa; it was kept in a proper box when it soon 
lost its motion and the puparium of the fly was observed within its shell. 
The fly appeared June 20th. It has been sent to Dr. C. V. Riley for 
identification, but it was not in his collection and it was not specifically 
identified; it is a species of Tachina. I am at a loss to understand, 



— 173 — 

knowing the larval habits imperfectly, how the fly can possibly deposit its 
egg upon the moth larva, as it lives continuously, as I suppose, within 
the pitch. There must be some means of obtaining air and possibly 
there are openings left for that purpose; I have not been successful in 
finding out how the matter is managed. The' pupa-cell is covered at the 
outer extremity by a thin layer of rather brittle pitch; it may be a fact 
that this is sometimes destroyed when the temporarily exposed inhabitant 
is victimized. Had the parasite occupied the body of the host since the 
previous summer, it seems that the latter would have been too much ex- 
hausted to have completed its transformations. But why guess out the 
history of this parasite and its relation to the host? Now that its existence 
is known of, the facts of its history may be readily determined. 

Prof. Riley had been very much interested in the paper. He could 
not recollect any instance where the larval life has been so long, and the 
/Egeridae as a rule are supposed to require only one year to undergo 
their transformation. As to the manner in which the Tachina reaches 
the /Egeria larva, it is probable that the latter must come to the surface 
rather often to expel the excrement from its burrow and the Tachina 
could take advantage of that. Once fastened, the egg is very secure. 

Prof. Lintner asks whether the larva feeds on the pitch. Dr. Kelli- 
cott says that the excrement is mixed with pitch, but the larva makes 
regular burrows in the wood and undoubtedly feeds upon the wood. He 
says the larva is always more or less coated with pitch, and when remov- 
ed from its burrow dies in a short time from the stiffening of this sub- 
stance. He assumes that the larva must come out sometimes for air, 
but does not see that there is any arrangement similar to that of Pcedisca 
Scudderiana which has a little trap-door-arrangement which it can open 
at will. 

Prof Lintner says that Nephopteryx Zhnmermani, or Pinipesies has the 
same pitch pine feeding habit and also lives in turpentine exudations. 

Dr. Kellicott has observed this larva also which however does not 
make so large an excrescence. The excrescences are also more irregular, 
often a mere line or track of pitchy exudation marking the track of the 
larva from whorl to whorl or twig to twig. This larva when removed 
from its burrow also lives but a short time, owing to the hardening of 
the pitch. 

Dr. Kellicott then read a paper 

ON THE PREPARATORY STACKS OF AN 
UNDETERMINED COSSUS. 

This short paper on the preparatory stages of an undetermined 
Cossus although in a somewhat unfinished state of preparation is presented 



— 174 — 

for friendly criticism, and whether or not it shall be completed finally, 
depends upon what is left of it after you have done. A few weeks since 
ii was my pleasure to revisit the "old homestead" in Oswego Co., N. Y., 
and to tramp for a few days over hills'and swamps dwelling upon the 
memories of boyhood days and endeavoring to capture a few insects for 
mementos and for my collection In getting a few I was successful. 
One of interest among this number is the Cossus whose larva and pupa 
are the subjects of the following notes. 

The discovery of the borer was accidental; passing along the border 
of a brook I came upon some alders, A. incana, which had been drawn 
out root and branch upon dry ground: one stem had been broken oft" 
near the root disclosing the cylindrical gallery of an insect borer very 
different from those made by a beetle larva common in the same stems. 
An examination brought to light numerous examples of a Cossus larva 
in the roots and stems of the alders in the vicinity. The facts in its 
history were partially made out. 

Larvce of two distinct sizes were about equally abundant; the larger 
ones at the time, June 29th, were moulting. As the imagos, probably, 
had escaped it seems pretty certain that the preparatory stage lasts three 
years, i.e., the smaller larva; were one year old, the larger two and these 
transform next May or June. Several pupa-shells (all broken) were 
found in the openings in the bark, and one pupa, which was dead but 
in perfect condition. The larva, it seems bores principally in the roots 
until the second year, when it begins to work upward in the trunk, and 
before pupating in the spring of the third year, bores out to the surface a 
few inches above the ground. The pupa-cell, a mere enlargement of the 
burrow a little below the external opening, is not stopped or plugged 
with chips as is the case in the cell of C. Centerensis\ none were found 
in the roots and no evidence was obtained that the larva bores in the 
trunks save towards the end of its period, when it moves upward to pre- 
pare a way for the moth to escape where it is out of the way of danger 
of water, as the alder grows in wet places. This moth escapes as others 
of its kind do, by the pupa worming its way out of the cell so that part 
of its body protrudes from the tree when the moth emerges leaving the 
skin in the opening. 

I will describe the larger of the larva; and compare the smaller one 
as it may differ. 

Length 1.5 to 1.8 Laches. Subcylindrical, tapering very slightly at extremities, 
slender, width ofbody .25 of an inch. Length of smaller ones .8 inch. The head is 
light yellowish brown above, black about the mouth parts, hemispherical, smooth, 
or slightly roughened, with a few dark clots from which arise dark hairs, usually 



— 175— 

worn off the vertex of the larger examples. The second ring is smooth, lighter color- 
ed than the head; above the spiracle on either side there are three black spots situ- 
ated at the corners of a right-angled triangle, the upper one at the right angle, bears 
a coarse brown hair, the other two liave finer, lighter colored hairs; the top of the 
third ring is likewise smooth and brownish; the remaining body surface except the 
yellowish pihferous spots and top of ring thirteen is white; the longer hairs on the 
posterior rings are black. The body rings are strongly folded transversely; the 
yellowish dorsal spots bear brownish hairs; the anterior larger pair are situated rather 
near together on the broadest transverse fold; the smaller posterior pair are situated 
on a narrower fold and much farther from the slight dorsal furrow. The stigmata are 
broadly elliptical, the rings narrow, black scarcely raised above the surface, the color 
within the ring light brown. The legs are yellowish, hooks black; the prop legs 
with very many hooklets. 

The pupa is slender, length 1.6 inches, width of thorax .33 inch, but slightly 
curved and of .unusually uniform diameter, smooth, under a lens transversely striate, 
the three anterior rings black, shagreened, on the prothorax there are two conical 
protuberances which in profile under a strong lens prove to be double pointed: on the 
clypeus are two gouge-shaped spines, shining black on outer half, and on the upper 
roughened base of each of these there is a small conical tooth; on the underside of 
the head case, below the gouge-like spines is a pointed spine directed forwards; back 
of this are two smaller cusps, one either side of ventral line and still farther back 
apparently over the first tarsal joint of the fore legs are two smaller points. The 
transverse rows of dorso-abdominal teeth are as usual, but the teeth are exceedingly 
fine, increasing in size but little posteriorly; the black, blunt anal segment bears 
several small black conical teeth on either side. 

I have mentioned this insect above as an undetermined Cossus; that 
it is one of the Cossidze, there can be, I think, no doubt and as I un- 
derstand the descriptions of the preparatory stages of the genus Cossus, 
it seems to me that it belongs to that genus, therefore I will for brevity 
of referrence call it provisionally Cossus Alni. It certainly is clearly 
distinct from C. Centerensis whose larva and pupa I have had an oppor- 
tunity to examine from poplars at Corunna, Mich. ; in fact it appears to 
be distinct from any species, whose history is know. It may prove to 
be one of the doubtful or partially known species. I am aware that Mr. 
Lintner has referred to a Cossus which bores in the trunk of white birch; 
I am also mindful that insects are as a rule pretty good botanists and 
that B etui a and Alnus are closely related plants, so this insect may prove 
to be the one discovered in the birch by Mr. Lintner. It ought not to 
be a difficult matter to obtain the moth in May or June next. 

For the above entomological guessing, my first attempt, I trust 
you, my friends, will pardon me; as most of you have at sometime and 
in some degree, committed the same error, I think you will. 

Prof. Lintner says that the larva referred to as having been found by 
him in birch seems also a root borer; all those found being near the ground. 
He found only one broken pupa which is still in his possession and he 



-i 7 6- 

offers it to Prof. Kellicott for examination ami study. The pupae in this 
genus afford excellent specific characters. 

Prof. Riley says Mr. Koebele last fall found in N. II. a larva boring 
in birch, which he thought was a Cossid. This died, or at least has not 
emerged, and as far as he recollects agreed very well with Dr. Kellicott's 
description. However, some examination had been made, and some 
discussion had been had with the result that it was doubtful whether the 
larva was Cossid, or whether it was not that of a Zeuzera or an Aegeria. 
He simply suggests this as a possibility as the larva seems to agree very 
well with Dr. Kellicott's account. 

Dr. Kellicott says he is very sure it is not an Aegeria but a Cossus. 
He further mentions that he has found querciperda at Buffalo, in dry red 
oak. At first he thought them small specimens of C. robifiice. 

Prof. Lintner hopes that Dr. Kellicott will continue his experiments 
and observations on this interesting group. 

Prof. Riley then gave some 

NOTES ON THE PRINCIPAL INJURIOUS INSECTS 
OF THE YEAR. 

We are aware that almost every year is characterized by some un- 
usual prevalence of destructive insects, not previously observed in any 
such numbers. Examples were last year Pulvinaria innumerabilis and 
Agrotis fennica. A glanee at the entomological events of the present 
season shows a comparative scarcity of such phenomena so far as noxi- 
ous species are concerned and I can recall but few characteristic of the 
year. One worthy of mention is Agrotis messoria found at Goshen, 
N. Y., destructive to the onion. This had previously been known as 
destructive to vegetation, but principally to fruit trees by cutting out the 
buds in early spring; hence the habit noticed this summer has been ex- 
ceptional. Another species, belonging to the Coleoptera, Anihonomus 
musculus, attracted considerable attention in the strawberry fields, cm 
Staten Island, N. Y. This habit of the species is not new, because I had 
noticed it in Missouri many years ago, but its abundance and destructive- 
ness were phenomenal. As is usual, where a great abundance of a form 
is collected, the species was found to have two names, and there is some 
doubt as to what the destructive species really is. 

Another Lepidopterous insect, Eurycreon ranialis, a Pyralid, is 
worthy of mention as a conspicuously injurious insect in the South- 
western States. It is astonishing what an amount of injury this insect 
has done, and the agricultural papers have been full of accounts of this 
"web worm'', as this insect has popularly dubbed. This larval first 
found in 1S67, in Western States, and in Kansas in 1S73, common on 



— 177— 

Amaranthe. The present year it was destructive not only to the vege- 
tables but many other plants. All through Texas, Indian Territory, 
Kansas and Arkansas, and also Iowa and Nebraska, the insect was most 
destructive. The larva, though of the usual Pyralid form, is still well 
distinguished by its pale green color and large piliferous spots. 

During the present year Cicada septendecim has appeared in many 
portions of our country and I have been able to collect a large number 
of valuable notes that will enable us to better fix the limit of distribu- 
tion and the extent of both the sepleiutccim and iredecim broods. 

In Central N. Y, the Hessian fly has done a great deal of damage. 
For some years past it has not attracted much attention there, and it has 
been the opinion of some even well known Entomologists that it had left 
its old haunts and migrated to the west. As a matter of fact however 
wheat culture has changed its center, and the only reason there have 
been no complaints in the East, is that there was little or no grain for 
them to attack; and this year the sudden increase in numbers has again 
called attention to the fact that the insect has not yet left its old haunts. 
So much injury has been done that many farmers abandoned the crop 
and did not harvest it. 

On the Pacific Coast, locusts have been unusually abundant, and 
have done great damage. Hitherto the injury had mostly be done by 
Camnula pellucida, but this year the species has been Melanoplus devasta- 
tor. I regret to say that Mr, L. Bruner, an agent sent to visit Montana, 
reports a great increase of the Acridida> throughout that region and great 
fears are entertained of the future; but the prospects are not necessarily 
gloomy, for the weather has of late been unfavorable to their develop- 
ment, and unless there is a great change of conditions they will not be 
unduly abundant. 

Melanoplus spretus is still most abundant, but native species are also 
very plentiful, and Camnula pellucida was found, indicating that all these 
species can become very destructive in the west. Many other species 
were locally abundant or destructive, but these can be considered charact- 
eristic of the year. 

Dr. Kellicott mentioned that in Buffalo Podosesia syringes has been 
destructive to the ash trees. Prof. Osborn and Mr. Hy. Edwards had 
stated in "Papilio" that the young shoots or branches were attacked, but 
in Buffalo it lives under the bark of the old trees. He has observed a 
number of the trees, has seen the pupa cases projecting and has watched 
20 or more from a single tree in a single day. Often ioo or more were 
in a single tree. 

A gentleman from Goshen, said he knew something about one of 
the insects mentioned by Prof. Riley. A friend of his had three acres of 

KNTOMOLOGICA AMERICANA. 27 



-178- 

unions, and ajl had been eaten up, so the land had to be plowed and put 
into potatoes. The larvae never came out in the day, but in the evening 
they came out in vast numbers and all hands turned out to capture them. 
A man and wife had between 9 and 12 P.M., collected 8 quaits of larva. 
In regard to the Hessian fly, that is SO abundant in that part of the State 
that wheat culture is simply abandoned. 

Prof. Underwood says the maple a^gerian has been common in Syra- 
cuse this year and many trees were literally full of larva. 

Prof. Osborn says in referrence to Sesia syringa that in 1 — \.\ inch 
ash twigs he has found them most abundant — tnose from larger trees con- 
tained mostly parasites. Caloptenus femur -iul. rum has been abundant and 
attracted considerable attention — in fact some papers proclaimed the 
arrival of M. spretus. They have done considerable damage to oat fields, 
eating off the heads, and in pasture lands, where the damage is less 
evident. 

In motion oi Pro!. Cook the meeting adjourned to meet again at the 
call of the President. 

(To be continued.) 



Notes and News. 

Dr. Coding writes us as follows: I have another piece of good news to report. 
Tennessee — the most progressive of all the Southern States has made another ad- 
vance and appointed a State Entomologist. Prof. E. W. Doran, Principal of the 
London (Tenn. ) Academy is the appointee and will at once enter upon his duties. 

Though not very well known to the entomological world, yet Prof. Doran has 
been a quiet, earnest student of the habits of insects for several years, and no doubt 
.1 bright future is befoie him. 

Little entomological work has been done in Tennessee, and, with a rich soil and 
fine magnolia groves about him we may well expect some line fruit following Prof. 
Doran's labors". 

Prof. Doran is unknown to us, and we await with interest the result of his work. 
It is always a pleasure to us to learn of a new worker, and in this case there is added 
the gratification that another State has recognized the importance of having an Ento- 
mologist. It might, perhaps, have been better, had a more experienced man been 
appointed, but we are willing to give our new friend a fair show. 

Occasionally, in a narrative of travels an interesting observation on insect habits 
is made, and is very apt to be overlooked. Mr. E. A. Schwarz has handed us the 
following notes from "Die Thierwelt im Hollandischen Guiana" von Aug. Kappler.* 
Ausland 1885. P. 617. No. 31. Speaking of Bradypus cucculiga (Faulkner), an 
animal of the the size of a cat, covered with a fur of dense hair-like wool; and be. 
longing to the Edentata, he says "In this thick fur there lives as a parasite, a Tineid, 

* Animal Life in Dutch Guiana, by Aug. Kappler: 



—179— 

which when the animal is dead comes forth by the dozen and flies away". A para- 
sitic Tineid is certainly a curiosity. 

P. 699, No. 35. Speaking of birds of the genus Cacicus, several of which in- 
habit Guiana, he says "Very remarkable are their friendly relations with several 
species of Pciistes, well known to the Indians and negroes. The nests of these birds 
are never seen without a nest of these wasps in the immediate vicinity —sometimes so 
near that the bird when entering its own nest, touches the combs of the wa-ps, which 
are not at all disturbed by this proceeding; but they vigorously resist any attempt to 
disturb the birds' nests. I know three species which are thus friendly with these birds". 

* * 

The new Check List of Hemiptera Heteroptefa will be ready for distribution to- 
ward the end of the present month. It will make about 30 pages, and will cost 50 
Cents per copy. Subscriptions to be sent to the Editor, at the National Museum, 
Washington, DC. 

-*'^^B>- 

Book Notices. 

List of the Coleoptera of America, North of Mexico. By Samuel Henshaw. 
Philadelphia. American Entomological Sweety. Roy. 8vo pp. 161. Oct. 1885. 
We have received this publication, and are heartily glad to see it. M-. 
Henshaw has earned the gratitude of every American Coleopterist, and we doubt not 
he will receive it. But the Am. Ent. Soc. has also done its part, and has furnished 
us with a book that for quality of paper, neatness and accuracy of typography, seeks 
its equal. There are 9258 species numbered, representing those forms known to 
American students. Species not yet identified are left without a number, and we 
regret to say there are quite a large number of them. Every Coleopterist should have 
at least two copies. 

Society News. 

Brooklyn Entomological Society. November 3d, 1885. — Twenty-four 
persons present; Mr. Cramer, the President, in the chair. Messrs. W. B. Tay- 
lor, Chas. Scott and Chas. Palm were elected members of the society. 

Mr. Smith read a paper on "Cosmosoma omphale," * illustrated by black- 
board sketches, describing a peculiar secondary sexual character, of the tf, 
noted at a previous meeting. Mr. Hy. Edwards exhibited the pupa and cocoon 
of the same insect, the latter of which is fine, rather loose, and of a bright lemon 
yellow. In response to a question, he stated that the larva was tufted, and 
somewhat Arctia form and he rather agreed with Mr. Butler that there ought to 
be a group Ardio-zygamida; to which such species as this might belong as they 
had characters common to both groups. Mr. Smith illustrated the agreement 
of Cosmosoma with some of the Bombytida; in genital structure, and stated, 
that, while undoubtedly strongly Bombycid in character, yet there were peculi- 
arities enough to put this species in the Syntomoidee. It is certainly not it 
Zygcenid. Prof. Riley remarked on the peculiarity of the position of this 
structure. It had, he believed, the purpose of attracting the 9 ftn d he thought 
that a rivalry might exist among males — he credited insects with sufficient 
psychic development to believe that the 9 might exercise choice in the matter 

* Which will be published in the next number. 



— i8o— 

of which should be her mate. Mr, Weeks exhibited a series of D. jxrchippus 
showing variations in depth of suffusion. 

Prof. Riley exhibited to the Society several colored lithographic plates of 
Acronycta, Imagines and larva 1 , ami also of Cicada septendecim in various stages 
of development. After informal discussion the Society adjourned. 

Entomological Society of Washington, Nov. 19th. Mr. Otto Lugger 
read a paper on the larva of Caenia dimidiata ( Fabr.), whieh is identical in ap- 
pearance with lit,'. 133 of Packard's Guide, there called "related to DrUus" but 
which had never been bied. The larva? were found in May 1883 in a cluster of 
214 specimens at the base of a willow, slightly covered with dead leaves. They 
much resembled the cast-off skins of Oniscus found in similar locations. 
Amongst the larva? were specimens of a young Helix exidently born there. Re- 
moved to a breeding cage they remained motionless for a few days, but then re- 
vived and moved about, but with extreme slowness of gait. The lateral appen- 
dages are hollow and inflexible. In ten days some transformed to pupae within 
the larval skins. The imago issued in six days and was perfectly white on first 
appearing, changing rapidly through light sky-blue to the normal coloring of 
blue and orange. The imagos copulated freely, but only one unfertilized egg 
was obtained. The speaker believed the larva to be phytophagic and not carni- 
vorous as suggested by Packard. 

The paper was discussed by Mr. Mann and Prof. Riley. Prof. Riley called 
attention to the similarity of habit between the Ccenia just described and 
fcycus terminalis which he believed to be also a vegetable-feeder. 

Mr. B. P. Mann explained at length the Dewey decimal system of library 
arrangement and classification. His paper was discussed by Prof. Riley and 
Mr. Smith. Prof. Riley commended the system for large libraries but consider- 
ed its use a waste of time for small private collections of books. 

Mr. J. B. Smith read a translation of Dr. Gerstaecker's paper on the posi - 
tion of Pleocoma Lee. , in the Lamellicorn series, from the Stettiner Entomol. 
Zeitung. 

The paper was discussed by Messrs. Schwarz and Smith and Prof. Riley. 
Mr. Schwarz endorsed Dr. Gerstaecker's conclusions, but called attention to the 
lack of emphasis placed on Dr. Leconte's original statement that the spe- 
cimen had no abdomen, and stated that after his second paper, Leconte made no 
redescription, and probably never re-examined his specimens, but based his 
conclusions as to the place of the genus on characters made out and embodied 
in his early articles. As to the larva called Pleocoma by Osten-Sacken, he re- 
marked that it was difficult to consider it a Lucanid, for no Lucanid of sufficient 
size is known from California— yet the larva could scarcely belong to any other 
group, and there was either an error in the locality, or there must exist a species 
not yet discovered. Possibly also the specimen was accidentally carried to the 
place where found. 

Mr. Howard made a statement to the effect that the Thoracantha floridana 
described by Mr. Ashmead in Entomologica Americam for August, as the first 
representative of its group found in the United States, is the same species which 
he (Mr. Howard) exhibited to the Society in June 1884, and which was origin 
ally collected by Mr. Schwarz at Haw Creek, Florida, in July, 1883. 

L. O. HOWARD, Coir. Secy. 




Americana 



VOL. I. 



BROOKLYN, JSNU1RY, 1886. 



NO. 10. 



Cosmosoma omphale.* 

By John B. Smith. 

At the Ann Arbor meeting of the A. A.A.S. . Mr. H. G. Hubbard 
mentioned to me a peculiar flaxy or cottony substance concealed in a 
cavity in the abdomen of the ^ of this species, and asked its use. The 
presence of this substance was entirely new to me, and so far as I have 
been able to discover since, no mention of it is made by any author. At 
my request, Mr. Hubbard who was prevented by indisposition from at- 
tending the meetings of the Entomological Club, sent some specimens 
through Mr. E. A. Schwarz, who presented the matter before the Club. 
He called attention to a broad plate at base of abdomen — much larger 
than the ventral portion of the sub-basal segment, and stated that this 
covered a cavity in which was concealed a downy substance, sufficient in 
quantity when teased out to fill a small pill box. Considerable discus- 
sion on the nature and use of this structure was had; but all present 
were absolutely ignorant of its existence before this time. 

Mr. Hubbard has kindly given me a number of specimens of this 
insect and from them these notes are made. The intention at first was 
to give a description of this structure only; but on reflection it was decid- 
ed to figure and briefly describe the external anatomy of the entire insect. 

Lepidopterists have paid too little attention to the anatomical struc- 
ture of their pets, and as, sooner or later the study must become more 
specific in structural detail, it may save the future student some labor to 
have at least one species carefully figured. 

Right here it may perhaps be well to call attention to an error in 
my paper on the Zygaenidae, Tr. Am. Ent. Soc. XII, 77 — 84. On PI. 
Ill, fig. 25 the figure instead of representing Cosmosoma, really represents 
Didasxs. The error occured in labelling- the slides from which the 



* Ke.nl before the Brooklyn Entomological Society, Nov. 3, 1885. 



l82- 



dra wings were afterward made, and the word Cosmosoma wherever it oc- 
curs should read Didasys. I had no $ specimen of Cosmosoma before 
me when that paper was written, hence my failure to note the peculiar 
structure hereafter described. 




fit 7 ""-*=" r,<, 2 

The head presents nothing noteworthy, and the figures sufficiently 
explain its structure. The front is somewhat protuberant, nearly quad- 
rate, suddenly receding, and with a deep concavity below the base of 
the antennae, leaving a distinctly marked intervening carina extending to 
the suture. The ocelli are distinct, as usual situated close to the com- 
pound eye and behind the base of the antennae. 

The dorsum of thorax appears slightly lengthened in the figure, be- 
cause the convexity is not shown. Of the prothorax nothing is visible 
from above. 

The mesonotum or scutum is, as usual, the rriost prominent, and is 
oblong, somewhat widening posteriorly. The upper surface presents 
nothing of note, and does not seem to differ from its allies. Viewed from 
the side it shows more that is characteristic, and differs essentially from 
that of Zygaena by the slight development of the meta-thorax. No com- 
parisons can be made at present because of the lack of knowledge of 
allied forms, and I shall simply let the figure speak for itself. 

The abdomen is most peculiar. It consists of 8 segments, includ- 
ing the membraneous connecting segment at base, and excluding the 
specialized rings forming the genital armature. 

The membraneous ring at base consists of a dorsal plate a, an in- 
flated process, covering a spiracle, b, and a minute sternal ring, not vis- 
ible from below unless the abdomen is removed. The second dorsal 



segment is longest, and wider than the thorax. The 3rd is shorter and 
wider, while the 4th and 5th are nearly equal in width and considerably 
shorter. From this point the segments narrow rapidly and shorten some- 
what. The ventral surface at first view presents only six segments: the 
basal ring is hidden as above stated, by the thorax, while the second 
covers the two following rings, leaving only a narrow rim of the 4th seg- 
•ment exposed. The other segments present nothing remarkable, narrow- 
ing toward the tip; the last emarginate. The dorsal surface overlaps 
somewhat, and forms a beaded margin, more or less visible in various 
specimens and not marked in the Q . The figure (2) will show the un- 
derside better than I can describe it. 

Taking a specimen that had been softened, I lifted the abdomen 
from the tip, and found that it bent readily, separating along the posterior 
edge of the second dorsal segment and presenting an appearance from 
the side as shown at figure 3, except that the silky substance was not 
shown. Above the large plate is a cavity extending upward half the 
diameter of the whole segment and filled with a pure white cottony sub- 
stance, consisting of very fine threads cut to exactly the same length, and 
compressed into the space as closely as it was possible to pack it. Tak- 
ing it out carefully the pad measured nearly 2 mm. in width by 0.5 mm. 
in thickness; left to dry a few minutes a slight puff separated the mass, 
so that, sticking together as a ball, it had expanded to fully 7 mm. in 
diameter. In the fourth segment was found a similiar cavity with a 
somewhat smaller pad of this fine silky or cottony substance, and added 
to the other, a ball fully 10 mm. in diameter was formed, light as air, 
and fine as the finest floss silk. A section of the abdomen of a specimen 
barely softened, presented the appearance shown in figure 6. 

In the 2nd segment the cavity opens and is exposed by the simple 
lifting of the abdomen or dropping the covering plate. The third seg- 
ment is reduced ventrally to a narrow ring, lined inside with a fine elastic 
membrane to which the second pad is attached, and this rests in the ven- 
tral half of the fourth segment which is empty, but otherwise noimal, 
except that it is not united to the 3rd at its anterior edge. By flexion of 
the abdomen the distance between the edges of the 3rd and 4th segments 
is widened and the pad, unattached inferiorly, is exposed. Fig. 3 shows 
the appearance of the cavities in profile, while fig. 6 represents a section 
of the abdomen, the fine lines indicating the pad. 

The cavities extend upward to the center of the seghients, where 
they are separated by a thin chitinous wall; below this, and lining the 
cavities, is a thin elastic membrane, forming a complete sac. On this 
the superior or attached portions of the pad rest. 

The upper portion of segments 2 and 3 are empty — i.e. all the or- 



— 1«4— 

gans of the abdomen arc crowded into the terminal segments, leaving the 

2nd and 31x1 hollow. The stigmata opening into these segments are 
large and distinct. 

Completely softening a specimen and detaching the abdomen, I 
flexed it so that the cavities were opened, and then inserting a tube into 
the upper portion of the segment, having first punctured the septum di- 
viding segments 2 and 3 superiorly, I found that I could distend the 
fine membrane lining the lower cavity, causing it to present the appear- 
ance shown at fig. 5, in section, and in fig. 3 in profile. 

It is very probable that the insect has the power of voluntarily flex 
ing the abdomen, and thus opening the cavities, and also of inflating 
the membrane to protrude this silky substance, which a breath of air 
would then dilate, and this pure white substance contrasting with the 
deep black venter and bright red thorax and legs must present a very 
pretty appearance. The obvious explanation of this structure would 
seem to be that the display made would prove attractive to the female 
and the insect might strut about, exhibiting itself like a peacock or a 
turkey gobbler. There is however one difficulty in the way of this ex- 
planation. The attachment of the cottony pad to the membrane is so 
exceedingly slight, that the faintest puff of air, or a mere touch with a 
fine needle detaches it, and it seems scarcely possible that once displayed 
it could ever again be retracted and packed away into place. This would 
seem to indicate that the display would also mean the loss of the sub- 
stance, and yet every male I have been able to find in collections, appear- 
ed to have this pad intact and all of them had the cavities tightly closed 
as well. Then too, it would seem likely that such a display would have 
been noticed, for these insects are not uncommon. Mr. Hubbard says 
tney are quit abundant in sunny spots in the woods near Crescent City, 
Fla., and he will try to observe them more carefully. It would be well 
if all Entomologists in the regions where this insect is found would try 
to observe its habits closely. 

The genital structure allies the insect closely to some families of the 
Bombycidae. The supra-anal plate is broad and corneous, narrowing to- 
ward tip, where the sides are produced into moderately long acute hooks, 
bent outwards, and the points downward; while the middle is modified 
into a broad, rather short hook with rounded tip, bent downward. The 
side pieces are broad, chitinous and inwardly concave at base, suddenly 
narrowing halfway to tip and produced into a long, corneous, curved 
hook. Fig. 7 will show the appearance of these organs from below, 
giving the names of the parts; The central, narrow plate is the sheath 
of penis. 

The venation is shown at fig. 1. The primaries are twelve-veined. 



-i8 5 - 

No. i is the internal vein which is close to the hin f d margin. Between it 
and the median vein is a false vein, or fold, so closely resembling a true 
vein that until fully denuded, its spurious character is not apparent. In 
a species in which the wings are hyaline and only the veins clothed with 
scales this is especially likely to mislead, as here the false vein is as 
distinctly shown as any of the others 

Vein two runs from the outer third of median vein with a downward 
curve to outer margin Vein three from meadian nearly half way be- 
tween the inception of vein 2, and the end of the median, to outer 
margin. Vein six from a short spur at the end of sub-costal. The median 
cell is imperfectly closed by inward spurs from the end of median and 
sub-costal, which, perfectly distinct at their inception become faint and 
thread like before they join. Through the centre of the median cell, 
half way to the base, and the same distance toward the outer margin, 
runs a distinct fold or false vein. Vein seven forms the continuation uf 
the sub-costal, and gives rise to veins 10 and 8, one quarter from its in- 
ception. Vein 8 runs to apex, giving rise to vein g at its middle. Vein 
9 runs to costa, as does also vein io. Vein n runs from the sub-costal, 
one fourth from tip to the costa, rather less than one fourth from apex of 
wing. Vein 12 — the costal vein, runs from base to costa, rather less 
than one third from tip. 

The secondaries have but five veins; No. 1 is the internal; 2 and 3 
are together from the end of the median ; 4 and 5 together from the end 
of the sub-costal. There is no costal vein. The median cell is closed 
by a long inward loop. 

The figure will better explain the course of the veins than words of 
mine can do. The frenelum is present but is weak and hair like. It 
is simple in the $. 

The legs are moderately long and slender; closely scaled. Anterior 
with tibial epiphyses small; median with a pair of terminal spurs and 
posterior with two pairs of spurs. The tarsi are not spinulated but 
clothed beneath with rather stiff hair. The claws are simple, 

The antenna are lengthily bi-pectinate nearly to the tip, where the 
joints are serrate. In one specimen I counted sixty-three joints. In 'the 
9 the pectinations are not so long, 

The palpi are of the usual form and proportion, and as shown in 
the figure. 

In conclusion, the discovery of this remarkable structure in so pro- 
minent and well known a form as Cos?nosoma omphale, shows how little 
we really know as yet of the Lepidoptera, and how wide a field exists for 
the careful and conscientious student. 



- i86— 

COCOON OF C. OMPHALE. 

At the November meeting of the Brooklyn Entomological Society- 
Mi-. Ilv. Edwards exhibited the cocoon of this species as a supplement to 
the preceeding paper. It is a clear lemon yellow, oval, somewhat flat- 
tened and fastened to the underside of a leaf. There is a basis consisting 
of a thin silkv fabric, and on this are ranged the long yellow hair that 
give the color to the whole. These hairs are long, apparently nearly equal 
in length, ami furnished with minute hooks and bristles, enabling them 
to felt readily. Interpersed, are a few hair with black bushy tips and 
sometimes with also a circle of black bristles at middle. It would seem 
therefore that the larva must be somewhat Arc/in like. The pupa is pale, 
rather sordid in color, with the wings, antennae and legs well defined. 
It resembles very much the Orgyia pupa in color and shape, except that 
the abdomen is blunt and terminates abruptly. Both cocoon and pupa 
indicate a strong Bombycid relationship, not with the Arctiidas however, 
but rather with the Dasychirae. 



Note on Papilio Asterias Fab* 

By Fr. Tefper. 
I have brought with me this evening some specimens of Papilio 
listerias to show some of the variations, the species is subject to. In the 
first place I do not think it has ever been recorded that asterias occurs 
with a blind ocellus; that is with the orange anal spot without any trace 
of a black spot. I have such a specimen in my collection bred from the 
larva in Flatbush several years ago — the specimen as will be seen is in 
fine condition and leaves no question of a doubt that this form occurs. 
Moreover it is a male specimen, and this sex is much less given to branch 
off into aberrations than are the females. Besides we have what might 
be called inter-gradations, specimens in which the spot assumes different 
shapes, such as lobes or mere specks, all of which tends to show that 
there is a predisposition to take on abnormal forms. Now this is the 
main fact I desired to establish; but while on the subject I would point 
out some other variations into which the species is apt to run, and these 
are more frequently confined to the female sex. The yellow bands, as is 
generally known, are not so heavy in the females as in the males, al- 
though occasional females have these bands just as heavy as the males. 
I have found that the inner yellow band on the secondaries of the females 
is subject to very striking variations — in fact disappearing altogether in 
some instances. The specimens I exhibit will show this tendency very 
well indeed, as they range from the heavily banded ones to those lack- 

* Read before ihe Brooklyn Entomological Society, Oct. 6, 1S85. 



— 187— 

ing this band entirely. Another tendency to branch off is shown in the 

marginal row of spots on the secondaries These in the normal form 

are yellow, but as my specimens will show, the same spots are sometimes 

yellow, sometimes greenish or bluish, and sometimes even bright orange 

— this variation, as far as I have noticed, is also confined to the females. 

All the specimens exhibited were bred from larva? found on carrots in 

my garden at Flatbush. Jn connection with this subject I would say 

that collectors should endeavor to gather more material of our common 

species. I know well how it is. A collector has a pair of asterias in 

his collection and deems this sufficient. When in the field he disdains 

to look at asterias, much less to capture one. I myself would not advise 

old collectors to capture the mature insect, for the reason that the few 

met with are in the first place generally not fit for the cabinet, and in the 

second place I believe but occasional varieties are met with in the few that 

come under our notice. Collectors ought to bend their energy towards 

raising them, either from the egg, or from larvae, which can be picked 

Lip in quantities in any carrot field. Among 50 or 100 specimens you 

are almost sure to find some interesting forms, which will pav one for 

the trouble taken. 

^ ■ • 1 ^ 

Concerning Cremastochilus. 
By Geo. H. Horn, M.D. 
In the early part of this year I received word from Mr. J. J. Rivers 
of California that he had what he supposed might by a new species of 
Cremastochilus. The specimen was kindly loaned to me and on close 
examination proved to be a C. Schauinii in which an accidental notch of 
irregular triangular form had been made in the hind angles of the thorax. 
In this species the hind angles are formed of thin triangular plates. 
Shortly after this matter had been settled, a similar communication was 
received from Dr. Hamilton, and on seeing the specimen he referred to, 
it proved to be a canalkulatus in which both hind angles had been lost. 
The following letter from Dr. Hamilton gives the details. 
"Dear Sii: 
The two specimens of Cremastochilus canaliculars submitted to you 
were taken in June of the present year (1885) about two weeks apart, 
and in the same ants' nest. The first one taken had the hind parts of 
the thorax so abnormal (the angles, or rather processes being entirelv 
wanting) that I considered it a new species, till the other specimen was 
found with the enucleation of the angular pieces so far advanced that 
they were movable and might have been detached by a little pressure; 
though in the dried insect the mobility is lost, and the notch between it 
and the body of the thorax is much narrower than in life. On carefully 



examining the first specimen it will be seen that it once possessed these 
processes, as there is in the basal excavation on each side a roughened 
or alveolate space showing the place of attachment. The uniformity of 
surface of these spurs in connection with what is seen in the other spe< i 
men proves conclusively that their loss is not owing to an accident. 
These, with other questions present themselves. Are these pieces deddu- 
ous like the horns of the Cervidae, or are they gnawed out by the ants? 
And in the latter cast', what for? Does the same thing occur in other 
species? Yours truly [ohn Hamilton." 

The specimen submitted to me by Mr. Rivers showed plainly an 
inequality in the notching of the hind angles of the thorax as well as an 
irregularity of the edges of the notch. It is my belief that the irregular- 
ities in the Rivers and Hamilton specimens are the work of the ants, 
with which the specimens were found and I have long held the opinion 
and have so published it, that the pubescens depressed spaces near the 
front and under the hind angles of most of the species, are glandular, 
and give a secretion very palatable to the ants, and these, almost reason- 
ing insects, finding the processes in their way have deliberately removed 
them, either partially as in the Rivers specimen, or entirely as in the other. 
That the processes are naturally deciduous, as are the horns of the Cervidse 
or the mandibular appendages of the Otiorhynchs is hardly supposablc 

"Mr. Schwarz has also made some observations bearnig on this point, 
as follows: 

In May 1883 while on an excursion in the vicinity of Washington, I 
came across a large ant hill constructed by a species of Formica which is 
allied to, but not identical with, F. n/Ar. My attention was at once at- 
tracted by three objects on top of the ant hill, which at first glance ap- 
peared to be compact masses of ants. Upon looking closer to each 
of the masses proved to consist of a living CremastocJiilus attended 
by numerous ants which held on with their mandibles to the legs. 
the head, the sides of the thorax of the beetles, in short wherever 
there was a chance for them to hold on. That they did not intend to do 
any harm to the beetles was evident, and it seemed to me that they in- 
tended to prevent the escape of the Cremastochili from their colony. 
Herein they were evidently successful, as upon waiting for a considerable 
length of time there was no change in the situation. I then proceded to 
investigate the interior of the ant hill, which consisted of numerous layers 
of intricate galleries and chambers, all built of rather loose earth without 
any sticks or other debris. Within the chambers several more Cremasto- 
chilus were found but not attended to by ants. At this as well as at 
previous occasions I failed to find any trace of the larva or pupa of Cre- 
mastochilus either within or beneath the ant hill. E. A. Schwarz 



_i8q— 

Hypocephalus Armatus, Dem* 
ByChas. W. Leng, B.S. 

My attention was drawn to this Brazilian beetle by an article of M. 
Lameere in the Annals of the Belg. Ent. Soc, which presents so many 
curious features that I have thought some account of it, and more partic- 
ularly of the recent discoveries by Messrs. Sharp and Lameere would 
not be uninteresting. 

In the first place, it has caused the students of classification, as 
much anxious thought as any insect in existence, and has occupied a 
place in almost every group known. It was described in 1832 by Des- 
marest, and placed by him among the Silphidae, where it remained until 
Westwood transferred it to the Cucujidae. From that family it travelled 
into the Longnorns under the guidance of several eminent entomologists, 
where it remains at present in the catalogue of Gemminger & Harold 
and in the estimation of our European colleagues. Curtis published 
however in 1854 a long dissertation attempting to prove its Lamellicorn 
affinities, and Gistl, Spinola, and Leconte have each made it the sole re- 
presentative of a separate family, as to the name and affinities of which, 
however, no two agree. Dr. Leconte's view, based upon an examination 
of a specimen contained in the Brazilian exhibit, at our Centennial Ex- 
position, is the most interesting. He considers it a survival of an ancient 
family the other members of which are extinct. He shows by a careful 
examination of those parts, which experience has shown are least liable 
to variation, that it cannot be included in any family as at present con- 
stituted, while its various parts show such relationships, with many of 
them, as to indicate the possibility of their being descended from it. M. 
Lameere devotes a considerable space to controverting this view, and by 
supposing a modification of these parts in recent times, makes it a mem- 
ber of the Longicorn group. 

The principal features to which I would draw attention are as fol- 
lows: The five-jointed tarsi, the- very short antennae, the fossorial legs, 
and especially the enormously developed hind femora; (these will be 
considered with the habits of the insect); the manner in which the head 
joins the thorax, leaving a large space beneath, filled with a soft mem- 
brane. (This character is found in very few families and is of the 
greatest interest. ) The peculiar form of the mandibles is highly interesting, 
and they are capable of motion in a vertical plane, as well as outwards. 
This character is met with elsewhere only in the Rhymchophora. Of course 
the enormous thorax and short elytra attract attention at once. The 
thoracic interior is filled with powerful muscles operating the head and 

* Read before the Brooklyn Entomological Society, Sept. 1, 1885. 
ENTOMOLOGICA AMERICANA 29 



— 190 — 

mandibles. The creature is aptly characterized by Dr. Leconte as re- 
sembling no other beetle so much as an insect of an entirely different 
order — the mole cricket. And yet so wonderful are the operations of 
nature, that the discovery of the unique life history of this beetle shows a 
perfect adaptation of each of these discordant parts to the needs of its 
1 iwner. 

The first specimens were said to have been found in the carcass of a 
dead horse: which perhaps accounts for its original reference to the Sti- 
phidae. Subsequently specimens were found dead upon the ground, and 
the discovery that an Asiatic beetle somewhat resembling this pupated 
underground, led to the suspicion that it also might be subterraneanin 
habit; which suspicion the investigations of M. de Lacerde has practi- 
cally converted to certainty. Under this hypothesis you can easily under- 
stand the value of its special adaptation. By the movement of head and 
mandibles, directed by the powerful muscles of the thorax, it can loosen 
and push aside the particles of decaying vegetable matter, of which the 
soil of Brazilian forests is composed, its front legs aiding in the work, 
while the strong hind legs push the entire body forward through the 
passage thus partially prepared. Even the extraordinarily developed 
fringe of hair at the margin of the prosternum would have its use in such 
a process, brushing the membrane clean of all particles of dirt each time 
the head was retracted within the thorax. If it wishes to retreat through 
the hole it has made, the tibiae fit exactly into the femora, and they under 
the abdomen; leaving the pointed elytra to open the way for the passage 
of the large bulk of the insect: thus the creature is able to live and travel 
about for an indefinite period underground, feeding upon the tender 
roots, and perfectly secure from the attacks of its enemies. And now we 
can see how Dr. Leconte's theory of the very ancient origin of this beetle 
is confirmed, for it is not supposable that such forests as those of Brazil 
are of recent origin. On the contrary it is well known that portions of 
the globe were once covered with tropical-like growth, yielding among 
their roots a soil of softer consistency than we anywhere find now, thus 
affording ample opportunity for such subterranean beetles as H. armaius 
to gain a living in their own peculiar way. The presumption would 
therefore be, that their numbers would be proportionally great, and this 
bone of contention may well be the last living relic of a time when man 
was not upon the globe. 

To come now to the recent discoveries which have been somewhat 
anticipated in the last paragraph. The function of the sharply prolonged 
lateral lobes of the head was unknown until Mr. Sharp's article ex- 
plained them. I should also say that the capacity of movement con- 
tained in the head was known to very few. All specimens have been 



— IQI— 

found dead with the head in its position of retraction, that is, not only 
drawn in close to the thorax above, but completely bent under the 
thorax just as in the pupae of many Cerambycidae . It is capable of this 
elsewhere unknown movement through the possession of the large mem- 
brane between the head and the thorax. The specimen Dr. Leconte had 
for examination was evidently in this position, for he makes no mention 
of the membrane, which could not have escaped his eye had it not been 
concealed within the thorax. The drawings of Curtis show it perfectly, 
but it appears to have been overlooked by subsequent writers. This fact 
explains also why so many have failed to appreciate the suggestion of a 
subterranean career in the beetle's appearance, for with its head tucked 
under its wing, as it were, the mighty and warlike H. armilus becomes 
heavy, purposeless, even stupid in aspect. 

Mr. Sharp in an article in the Annals of the Belgian Soc for 1884 
states, that having softened a damaged specimen, he found, that upon 
overcoming the resistance of the powerful muscles contained in the thorax, 
he was able to make the head execute the complete movement of flex- 
ion and contraction. Putting the head into its natural position, he was 
able to inspect carefully the soft membrane thus brought to light. In 
doing so he made the interesting discovery of the wound which had prob- 
ably caused the death of the insect. That it had been inflicted during 
the life of the insect, was conclusively proved by the dried serum sur- 
rounding the wound: and, from the shape corresponding exactly with 
the shape of the genal processes of the head, it was highly probable 
that it had been inflicted by another individual with one of those parts. 
Instances of combats between males for the possession of females are 
known in many groups of animals, and even among man, so that there 
is nothing improbable in Mr. Sharp's supposition that the wound he dis- 
covered, was caused in such a combat. This, according to Mr. Sharp, 
would explain the great development of their genal processes; and, 
carrying out the theory of sexual selection, even the other characters. 
The beetles in their combats would endeavor to wound one another in 
the highly vulnerable soft membrane. An individual finding himself 
worsted in the fight, would need all the strength of the powerful muscles 
of contraction to hold his head close down to the thorax, and thus pre- 
vent his opponent reaching the weak point in his chitinous armor. His 
enemy on the other hand would use his mandibles to pry him open, 
and bracing himself with his stout hind legs, the struggle would go on 
until the weaker brother was defeated. Thus, according to Mr. Sharp, 
the individual deficient in the peculiar weapons of offens*e and defense, 
would often fail to secure a mate, and in the long run the majority would 
leave no offspring to perpetuate their failings: and in the series of ages 



— 192 — 

during which the species has existed, the gradual disappearance of poor- 
lv developed specimens has produced the present monstrosity — a monu- 
ment to the evil passions of the Coleoptera. 

Mv. Sharp is deeply grieved at such an immoral proceeding and I 
quote his closing and affecting words: "If I am correct in my suppositions 
"about this insect, those of us who are evolutionists will have to admit 
"that the organisation of this extraordinary creature has been evoluted 
"in correlation with sexual combats through a long series of ages, 
"and there has thus resulted a most extraordinary perfection of struct- 
"ures directly and indirectly connected with this object. This is so 
"abhorrent to our moral sense, that we may feel gratified that we can 
"also point to the fact, that these structures are unique, and that out 
"of hundreds of thousands of insects now known to us, there is nothing 
"to indicate that any other has passed through a similar evolutionary 
' 'record. " 

It will be observed that Mr. Sharp does not allude to the subterranean 
life of the insect, of which ne appears in fact to have been ignorant, for 
he regrets that he can furnish no satisfactory explanation of the form of 
the hind femora, unless they assist in the sexual combats as sketched 
above. It was reserved for M. Lameere to revive the previously known 
fact of the insect being subterranean, and thus complete its history as I 
have given it above — taking most of my facts from M. Lameere's article. 
M. Lameere examined a number of specimens, and found in several, the 
wounds of which Mr. Sharp wrote, and in one specimen a similar one in 
the much smaller upper membrane. He therefore adopts Mr. Sharp's 
theory as to their cause and of the development of the lateral processes 
by sexual selection; but considers that the other parts have attained their 
present form entirely through a process of natural selection, due to the 
subterranean habit of the beetle. 

To return to its position in classification for a moment; M. Lameere 
in support of his placing H. armatus among the Longicorns advances 
some interesting theories as to the antennae and tarsi. In his own words: 
"It is scarcely necessary to remark that long antennae would be ex- 
"tremely inconvenient for a longicorn so well adapted to a subterranean 
"life and that even on the surface they, would be useless, since it has 
"lost its wings. And as to the tarsi, just as the limbs of Mammalia 
"were originally furnished with five fingers which diminished in number 
"under special circumstances, so the legs of Coleoptera seem to have once 
"uniformly terminated in five-jointed tarsi, which have varied in the 
"process of evolution, as they were needed for running or for attaching 
"the insect to trees. If the insect needed adaption to walking o r 
"running habits, its tarsi would become as long as possible; and there- 



— r 93 — 

' 'fore such families now present the primitive form of five-jointed tarsi. 
"If however the insect was, as in Longhorns, in the habit of attaching 
"itself to trees, these would need to be as short and compact as pos- 
' 'sible, and hence the fourth joint has disappeared. The subterranean 
"life of Hypocephalus has simply restored its primitive form." 

Leaving these speculations, we certainly have in Hypocephalus ar ma - 
/us a most interesting addition to our knowledge of natural history, in a 
beetle so modified, that at first glance it does not resemble its order at all, 
and even after fifty years still baffles the attempts of our most learned 
Entomologists to place it properly in that order. 

To those who are inclined to the theories of evolution, it furnishes 
once more a striking example of what changes peculiar circumstances can 
bring about, and of the perfect operation of the processes of Natural 
Selection. 



Editorial vagaries. 

We have just looked over the back Nos. of Ent. Am. with a feeling 
of satisfaction at the value of their contents; but we cannot help feeling 
also that some parts — even the most valuable — are dry; very dry. Science 
is, by outsiders, supposed to be dry, and Entomology as a science ought 
necessarily to be dry also. It seems an inevitable deduction that if En- 
tomology is dry, Fntomologists also should suffer from drouth. And 
perhaps too, that explains the fact we have noticed, that all Entomologi- 
cal Societies that we have attended, have, without special motion, but 
with remarkable unanimity, wended their way, after adjournment, to some 
convenient locality where liquid refreshments were dispensed. When the 
Brooklyn Ent. Soc. arrives in force, there is always a new keg put up, for 
science is sometimes very dry indeed, and over the cup that cheers, the 
lights of our science hold forth to a group of special admirers, and in so- 
cial chat experiences are exchanged, and much valuable information 
gained. With Messrs. Edwards, Neumoegen, Hulst,* Graef, Tepper, and 
other Lepidopterists of note at one end of the table, Dr. Horn, Messrs 
Julich, Leng, Roberts, Angell etal, Coleopterists, at the other, "ye editor"* 
oscillating between, the hours fly unheeded, and, with a sigh of regret, the 
meeting finally adjourns: each member fuller than before — of Entomo- 
logical wisdom of course. 



Temperance drinks only! 



— 194 — 

Sometimes valuable observations are given at these ''annex" meet 
ings, which, but for the "chiel amang them taking notes" would never 

be "prented. " 

* 

At the recent "annex"' meeting of the lint. Soc. of Washington — pre- 
sent C. V. Riley, Ph. D., President; Geo. Marx, M. D., Vice President; 
E. A. Schwarz; Rec. Secy.; L. O. Howard, Cor. Secy.; "ye editor,'' as re- 
presentative of the rank and file, and Prof. H. Osborn as honored guest — 
there was observed a roach — Blatta germanica. Roaches are not so scarce 
in Washington as to merit special attention; but the members having all 
run very dry on Entomology generally, seized upon the subject with rel- 
ish — i. e. not with the same relish that the subject of Cicada was seized up- 
on by some members of this society on a previous occasion; but with a 
different, less gastronomical relish. 

Prof. Riley related that in his office there was a roach that had be- 
come quite tame and familiar.* It manifested no fear of him, would 
watch him at his work and would, when a finger was presented climb on 
it, run round on his hand, and make itself very much at home. 

Mr. Howard stated that he also had a tame roach, and this specimen 
had a fondness for tobacco. He would, when smoking, occasionally lay 
his cigar on the edge of one of the drawers of his desk, and the roach would 
come to the moist end and feast on nicotine. When taking up the cigar 
again he would shake off the roach who would wait until it was again re- 
placed, and again resume his feast. 

Another member, who modestly desires to have his name with- 
held, thought that insect intelligence had been much under- 
rated. A young lady friend of his had a pet roach that used to frequent 
her dressing case drawers, and used to expect and appreciate, the little 
tendernesses and endearments its mistress accorded it. For three years, 
or thereabouts it lived happily; but then, for a short time its mistress re- 
fused to notice it — other matters on her mind probably — and this the 
little pet took so to heart that it deliberately made a feast on "Pearl Pow- 
der,'' knowing of its poisonous qualities, and died. Deliberately com- 
mitting suicide! A marvelous instance of Insect intelligence! 

* 
Sea shore collecting, which is often very remunerative, has its disad- 
vantages if pursued on frequented shores. Every passer-by stares: pity- 
ingly in some instances; curiously in others. That might be endured; 
but they ask questions: why do you collect? what do you do with them? 
Usually we tell them they are used to flavor chowder, which despite our 

* The editor has also found Washington roaches very familiar indeed on very 
short acquaintance. 



— J 95 — 

clerical appearance does not always seem to meet with entire belief. Mr. 
Schwarz says they are used in making fever medicine, and as Mr. S. has 
a thoroughly medical look, his explanation is usually deemed satisfactory. 
Sometimes neither explanation will work and then such rencontres 
as the following may happen. Collecting industriously near Fortress 
Monroe, Mr. Lugger was accosted by an army officer who asked the usual 
questions. Considering his questioner Mr. Lugger tried to explain. 
"Hum" — replied the officer — "bugs eh! Humbugs I guess'' and passed 
on. Later on the officer again came along with all the pride of uniform 
and a fair lady on each arm, and found Mr. Lugger examining a speci- 
men of Tetrodon turgidus a bladder fish, which had been cast up and 
was inflated. "What's that; not a bug too is it?" was demanded. He 
was informed it was a fish. "What's its name; do you know?" That also 
was given as above. "Oh nonsense! I want an English name if it's got 
one." "Oh yes!" replied Mr. Lugger, remembering the "humbug'', "we 
call it the officer fish. " "Officer fish?" queried his now interested inter- 
locutor "Why Officer fish?" "Because it is usually so puffed up" was 
the answer, which caused the ignominious retreat of the young magnate 
amid the laughter of his fair companions. 

Curious mistakes sometimes occur in foreign Journals, commenting 
on American works, because of insufficient knowledge of English. In 
the "Relazioni intorno ai lavori della R. Stazioni di Entomologia Agraria, 
di Firenze 1879-82 issued in 1884, S. Targioni Tozetti gives a review of 
Prof. Comstock's paper on Coccidae in the Rept. of the U. S. Entomolo- 
gist some years ago; giving in parallel columns the species, and the plant 
or tree it infests and the locality where found. Among others we find 
My tilaspis panda nni n. sp. feeding on Trealease at Cambridge. Mr. 
Trealease is pretty well known, but that he had a special Coccid infesting 
him may be news. Of course Mr. T. was in the original referred to as 
collector. Another error in the paper credits Prof. Comstok with the 
ChalcididcE described in his Report, while Mr. Howard is in reality an- 
swerable for them. 

Prof. Comstock has hard luck — in the Berliner bot. Zeitschrift for 
1882 he is three times referred to as "Prof. Cornstalk." Bound to make 
a botanical specimen even out the name it seems. 

Our Editorial labors for the year are about closed— the present num- 
ber especially has required serious thought and much deliberation, and 
with a sigh of relief we put away our editorial paraphernalia, wishing 
each of our readers most heartily "A Happy New Year;" and as we feel 
charitably disposed, we will also wish them anything else they may desire. 



— 196 — 
Food-Plants of Lepidoptera* 

(No. 2. Smerinthus excaecatus, A. & S.) 
BY WM. BEUTENMULL1K. 
Leguminosae- 
Wistaria sinensis, Dec. (Chinese Wistaria. ) 

Rosaceae. 
Prunus virginiana, L. (Choke-Cherry.) Rubus odoratus, L. 1 Purple-Flowering 
" serotina, Ehr. (Wild Black Cherry.) Raspberry.) 

Spiraea opulifolia, L. (Nine Bark.) Pyrus malus, Tourn. (Apple.) 

Urticaceae. 

Ulnms fulva, Michx. (Slippery or Ulmus alata, Michx. (Whahooor 

Red Elm.) Winged Elm.) 

" americana, L. (American or " suberosa, Mouch. 

Wild Elm.) 

Cupuliferae. 

(,)uercus palustris, Du Roi. (Smamp or Ostrya virginica, Willd. (American 

Pin Oak.) Hop Hornbeam. ) 

" coccinea, Wang. (Scarlet Oak.) Carpinus americana, Michx. 
Corylus americana, Walt. (Wild (Hornbeam.) 

Hazel-Nut. ) 

Betulaceae. 
Betula alba, L. (White Birch. Betula var. populifolia, Spach. 

Salicaceae. 
Salix cordata, Muhl. (Heart-leaved Populus tremuloides, Michx. (American 

Willow. ) Aspen. ) 

" lucida, Muhl. (Shining Willow.) " grandidentata, Michx. (Large- 

" fragilis, L. (Brittle Willow.) toothed Aspen. 1 

" alba, L. (White Willow.) " angulata, Ait. (Angled 

" Babylonica, Tourn. (Weeping Cottonwood.) 

Willow.) " nionilifeia, Ait. (Cottonwood, 

Necklace Poplar.) 



Notes and News. 

The Rev. A. Matthews establishes** the new genus Corylophodes which is ex- 
ternally distinguished from Corylophus by the antennae having 11 joints (9 in Cory- 
lophus) by the small thorax with the posterior angles either obtuse or rectangular 
(produced and acute in Corylophus), and by the elytra being much broader than the 
thorax. The mouth parts are said to differ strikingly in the two genera but are not 
described. 

The new genus includes Corylophus marginicollis and tnincatus from North 
America, two species from the Sandwich Islands and a number of species from Central 
America, the old genus Corylophus being restricted to the two European species and 
a third from the Atlantic Islands. E. A. SCHWARZ. 



Commenced in l'apilio, Vol. IV, p. 155. 
' Entomologist's Monthly Magazine, XXII. Dec. 1885, p. 160. 



- i97— 

A generic Synopsis of the Hymenopterous family 
Chalcididae. 

By L. O. Howard. 

As an endorsement of the plan adopted by the editor of Entomo- 
logica Americana 1 present the following synopsis of one of the families 
of parasitic Hymenoptera which I have been studying in a somewhat de- 
sultory manner for the past few years In it I lay no claim to originality'; 
but present it as a simple compilation from Foerster, Thomson, Mayr, 
Walker, Halliday, Cameron, Rondani and other writers. I do not con- 
fine it to American genera ft;r the obvious reason that the family has been 
so little studied in this country, that European genera new in America 
will be recognized almost every day by the student. I have followed Dr. 
Williston's synopses in marking with an asterisk all genera which have 
not up to this date been found in America north of Mexico. I shall 
preface the consideration of each sub-family, where practicable, with a 
statement of works of ieterence. I would remind those who have occa- 
sion to use these tables that they will find a tolerably complete list of the 
species so far described in North America in Bulletin 5 of the Division 
of Entomology, U.S. Department of Agriculture, and take this occasion 
to call attention to the only important omission so far discovered in 
this list, namely, the nineteen species of Chalcididae described by l'Abbe 
L. Provancher in his "Petite Faune Entomologique de Canada". I much 
regret having inadvertently omitted these species. I shall carry my synop- 
sis in this number only to the twenty sub-families into which the family 
is naturally subdivided. The style of arrangement which I have adopted 
is used at the suggestion of Mr. Cresson and to enable him to readily in- 
corporate this work with his synopsis of the whole order Hymenoptera, 
which, I am glad to state, he intends to publish shortly. 

Family CHALCIDIDAE [Westwood). 

Tarsi 5-jointed. Anterior tibia; armed with a large curved spur. Antennoe usually 
many jointed Section M ACROCENTRI. 

Tarsi usually 4-, rarely 3-jointed, very rarely htteiomerous. Anterior tibiae with a 

delicate, short, straight spur. Antenna.' usually with few joints 

Section MICROCENTRI. 

Section MACROCENTRI Thomson. 
Posterior femora much swollen. 

Fore wings folded. Ovipositor of female curved over dorsum of abdomen 

Subfamily Leucospinae. 

Fore- wings not folded. Ovipositor protruding but slightly 

Subfamily Chalcidinae. 
Posterior femora not greatly enlarged. 
Thorax strongly developed, much arched and deeply punctate. 

ENTOMOLOGICA AMERICANA 30 



— 198 — 

Stigmal vein not developed. Second abdominal segment inclosing the rest 

Subfamily Euchannae_ 

Stigmal vein developed. All abdominal segments plainly seen 

Subfamily Perilampinae. 
Thorax not greatly developed. 
Collar large. Antennae many-jointed. Parapsidal sutures of mesonotum 
complete. 

Body not metallic side- of the mesoscutellum almost straight 

Subfamily Eurytominae. 

Body metallic. Sides of the mesoscutellum both curved 

Subfamily Toryminae. 

Collar small, frequently not visible in the middle. Antennae usually with few 

joints. 

Mesosternal pleura not discernible. Middle legs long, saltatorial, with very long 

tibial spur. 

Marginal vein long. Occipital border of vertex rounded. Antennae 13- 

jointed Subfamily Eupelminae. 

Marginal vein usually very short. Antenna; usually 11 -jointed. Occipital 
margin of vertex usually acute. Parapsidal sutures of mesoscutum ob- 
literated Subfamily Encyrtinae. 

Mesosternal pleura usually well marked. Middle legs not saltatorial. First 
tarsal joint not swollen and incrassate. 
Antennae 8-jointed. Parapsidal sutures plain. Middle tibial spur moderately 

long Subfamily Aphelininae. 

Antennas 10 — 13-jointed. 

Antennae 10-jointed, inserted just above the mouth, rounded and produced 

at apex. Abdomen almost sessile Subfamily Pireninae. 

Antennae 12- or 13-jointed. 
Antennae 12-jointed, funicle 5-jointed. Pronotum very short, scarcely 
visible in the middle. Submarginal vein subangulale, stigmal club 
often large. Abdomen almost sessile. Parapsides of mesonotum 

distinct Subfamily Tridyminae. 

Antennae 12-jointed. Abdomen distinctly petiolate. Occipital line 

complete Subfamily Spalanginae. 

Antennae 13-jointed, club 3- jointed, ring joints 2. Occipital line not 
complete Subfamily Pteromalinae. 

Section MICROCENTRI Thomson. 

Antenna? many-jointed, funicle 6-jomted. Tarsi of ^ 5-jointed 

Subfamily Tetracampinae. 
Antenna' at the most 9-jointed. Tarsi 4- or 3-jointed. 
Tarsi 4- jointed. 

Pronotum large. Mesoscutellum with four bristles. Submarginal vein not broken, 
post-marginal distinct, sub-marginal furnished with many bristles. Posterior 
tibice sometimes with two spurs. 
Abdomen usually with a distinct petiole. Mesoscutar parapsides very distinct. 

Antennae inserted below the middle of the face, simple with <^ 

Subfamily Elachistinae. 
Abdomen with a transverse, smooth and conspicuous petiole. Mesoscutar 
parapsides not defined, or indicated only by very slight grooves. 



— 199— 

Posterior coxoe very large and strongly compressed. Head semi-globose, 

front deeply but sparsely punctate. Antenna? of ^ rlabellate 

Subfamily Elasminae. 
Posterior coxa? normal. Postmarginal and stigmal veins rather long. An- 
tenna; of <$ often flabellate. Subfamily Eulophinae. 

Submarginal vein broken, costal cellule narrow, postmarginal and stigmal short, 
the postmarginal sometimes warning. Posterior tibia; with a single spur. 
Antenna; of <$ simple. 
Submarginal vein with two bristles or it is ornate. Metapleura very small. 

Mesoscutellum with two bristles near the middle 

Subfamily Entedoninae. 

Submarginal vein with from I to 5 bristles. Metapleura triangular, not small. 

Postmarginal vein usually absent. Mesoscutellum with four bristles, all 

behind the middle, often with two longitudinal impressed lines. Abdomen 

sessile Subfamily Tetrastichinae. 

Tarsi 3-jomted. Pubescence of the wings arranged in lines 

Subfamily Trichogramminae. 



Book Notices. 

First Contribution to a knowledge of the Orthoptera of Kansas, by Lawrence 
Bruner. Washburn Coll. Biol. Survey of Kansas. 1885, pp. 125 — 139. 

Mr. Bruner gives an annotated list of 88 species, of which four are 
new and described here for the first time. The list as such, and the notes 
are valuable and interesting; but we are sorry to see the description of 
new species. It has gotten to be too much the fashion in the U.S., 
among economic Entomologists especially, to describe new species at 
random and in all sorts of places — agricultural reports — reports of ex- 
periment stations, agricultural and horticultural papers and sometimes 
even newspapers. These reports are not known to the great majority of 
Entomologists, the publications are usually not noticed, or obtainable in 
the ordinary course of trade, and the descriptions there form a positive 
hindrance to the advance of the science of Entomology in the less known 
orders. We do not mean to criticise Mr. Bruner's paper especially, but 
the evil referred to has already assumed serious dimensions and is grow- 
ing. Unless something is done to check it, it will soon be necessary 
that the working entomologist subscribe to every agricultural and horti- 
cultural paper and get all the Reports of all kinds of surveys, ex- 
plorations &c. 

^ 1 • 1 — 

The balance of the Proceedings of the Ent. Club of the A. A.A.S. 

will be published in the next number. 

* * 

Dr. Horn and Mr. Hy. Edwards have donated to the Bkln. Ent. 
Soc. a small lot of good Coleoptera, which will be sold at auction at the 
next meeting, Jan. 5, 1886, the proceeds to go to the publication fund. 



— 200 — 

Society News. 

Brooklyn Entomological Society. December 1, 1885. Fifteen members 
present, Mr. Cramer the chair. Un motion of Mr. Roberts it was resolved to 
purchase for the Society an album or albums in which should be presi rved the 
portraits of members of the Society and of such other Entomologists as would 
send their portraits to the Society. Mr. Roberts read a short paper on habits of 
Elmis. Ordinarily they are found on sticks in running water or in moss or weeds 
in the streams. While digging out a Bembidium in gravel, some little distance 
from a stagnant pool, but still near enough for water to percolate easily, he came 
upon an Elmis, species not yet determined. He dug further and made a little 
pool, stirring continually, and in short time took 30 specimens. 

Mr. Weeks read an article "Concerning Cremastochilus"* sent in by Dr. 
Horn with an added note by Mr. Schwarz. Prof. Mayer exhibited a pupa-nest 
of Euchira socialis from the Rio Negro, S. A. 

Mr. Hy. Edwards presented to the Society a box of rare Coleoptera. suggest- 
ing that they be sold at auction for the benefit of the Society. After informal 
discussion and exhibition of specimens, the meeting adjourned. 

Entomological Society of Washington, Dec. 3, 1885. Mr. Otto Lugger 
in a humorous speech presented a persimmon walking-stick to >the Society 
which had been curiously carved by the larva of Dicec t obscura while in use. A 
discussion followed on the breeding habits of Buprestidae. 

Mr. J. B. Smith gave Utah Territory as a new locality for Pleoconia Behrerts'i 
and exhibited a specimen and proceeded to read a paper on the larva of My& 
Una vitlata. A number of these larvae had been found by Messrs Smith and 
Schwarz under a login November, feeding upon a mold. Mr. Smith exhibited 
carefrd drawings of the larva and specimens of both larva and adult. A discus 
sion followed upon the lateral appendages of this and similar larvae, and their 
uses, in which Prof. Riley and Messrs Schwarz, Smith, Osborne, Lugger and 
Howard took part. 

Prof. Riley made some remarks on the larval habits of Lixus. He had bred 
L. macer in 1872 in Missouri from stems of Ohenopodium hybridum in which the 
larva bored, and from which the beetle issued normally from a hole at the end 
of the burrow. He had recently however from Mr. F. M. Webster, evidence 
that the same species works in the stems of Helianthus in Illinois; but that in- 
stead of issuing through a round hole, the stem is cut thi'ough from the inside 
at the upper end of the burrow and plugged with fibre, the beetle issuing from 
the cut end. Lixus parcus makes a gall on Amelanchier in California. He also 
spoke of Pcediscus obfuscata Riley Mss. as a twig-girdler, issuing from the ori- 
fice of amputation, but that the orifice instead of being plugged as with Li; us, 
was webbed up with silk. 

Mr. Mann spoke of the use of the Dewey decimal system for purposes of in- 
dexing as adopted in Psyche. Mr. Howard and Prof. Riley spoke on the lateral 
appendages of the larva of Corydalus cornutus and their probable function and 
the former mentioned the relation between the heart-beat of this larve and . e 
contractions of the groups of branchire. 

Mr. E. A. Schwarz called attention to the food habits of an undescribed Cal- 
andrid beetle allied to Macrancylus which was found by Mr. H. G. Hubbard io 
develope in the stems ane roots of Acrosthintm aureum in Southern Florida. 
L. O. HOWARD, Corr. Secy. 

* Published in full, ante p. 187. 





mericAna 



VOL I. 



BROOKLYN, FEBRUARY, 1886. 



NO. 11, 



New Species and Varieties of Geometridae. 

By Geo. D Hulst. 

Some months since I began the study of the Geometrida of N. A , 
having more particularly in view a looking into the systematic arrange- 
ment of genera and species. With this object, in addition to my own 
collection, I have obtained for my use, wholly or in part as I have de- 
sired, the collections of the Lepiclopterists in the vicinity of New York, 
as well as of many others from other parts of our country. Many of 
these are especially rich from the collecting of Messrs. Hv. Edwards, 
Morrison and Doll, and variations from normal forms are largely repre- 
sented. So far my study has been in the Ennominte only. My con- 
clusions as to genera I will probably not give until the whole family has 
been studied. In the material at hand, I have found as they seem to me 
the following new species and varieties. The generic references are to 
be regarded as provisional. These descriptions may be followed bv brie 
notes on already named species. 

i. Oxydia zonulata sp. adv. Expands 46 mm. Head and antennae pale ochre- 
ous, the vertex, anterior edge of hind wings and abdomen shading somewhat lighter. 
Wings otherwise a pale yellow ochreous. T.a. line wanting. T.p. line present on 
both wings, reflected on fore wings near apex towards costa at an acute angle, and 
somewhat curved inwardly in its course across the fore wing; straight on hind wing. 
Its color is buff on fore wing, tawny on hind wing. There is a small smoky spot 
near anal angle. Beneath very light ochreous, without lines but with two or three 
shadings near apex. 

The above is close to 0. mundata Guen. but lacks the shadings o» 
the wings above, the cross line is not extended to the apex, and the lore 



— 202 — 

wings are considerably more bent downward at apex, i <$. Texas. 
Coll. Meyer. 

2. Ripula virginaria sp. now Expands 44 mm. Palpi brown tawny. Thorax, 
abdomen and wings pure white. The fore wings have a triangular spot near apex, 
black outwardly, reddish and olive otherwise, and another narrow olive spot near anal 
angle. On the hind wing is a divided olive band faint anteriorly, wavy on both sides, 
inwardly forming with the inclosed wing space a continuous waved white line. 
Beneath pure white. Fore and middle legs tawny, hind legs white. 

i ,j\ Florida. Coll. Hy. Edwards. Very near to R. mexicaria 
Guen. but it differs in design of markings on wings, and in the color of 
the legs. 

3. Eutrapela anfractata sp. now Expands 40 mm. Head, thorax, abdomen 
and ground color of wings, of an even light pearl gray. Wings with two darkish 
lines, the ba^al sinuous, curved outward, faint and on fore wings only; the outer 
slightly waved, straight however in its general direction, reflected near apex at an 
angle more obtuse than is usual, and with the reflected part not otraight but curved 
outwardly to co.->ta. The outer lines are edged with wdiitish outwardly, and shade 
gradually and broadly into the ground color. There is a broad submarginal fawn 
shading also. Discal spot distinct. Beneath light even gray, sometimes with an 
ochry shade. Lines wanting or outer lines very faintly perceptible. 

2 cf » ' 9 • A." z : Coll. ^y- Edwards, Hulst. Nearest nubilala 
Pack, and catenulata Git. It is quite possible that all ate variations of 
one species, imfi aetata being the Arizona form and catenulata the form 
having the median space fawn brown, darker than the rest of the wing. 

4. Tetracis mellitularia sp. nov. Expands 35 -45 mm. 

This is the species described by Packard, Geom. Moths p. 551 and 
figured plate XIII, f. 43, and called T. paralieliaria . The description 
and figure are of one of the darker specimens. The original description 
by Packard of 1\ paralieliaria, Bost. Pro. Nat. Hist. Vol. XVI, p. 3S, is 
very brief, simply, "lighter than T. truxaliala. A fresh specimen from 
Mr. Behrens is ochreous." The specimen labelled "type" in the Museum 
of Comp. Zool. Cambridge, Mass., is probably the fresh specimen 
referred to, and is the insect figured plate XIII, f. 42.. But this is not 
the same species with fig. 43 but is another, found commonly in Colorado 
and less so in Arizona and California and which varies from reddish 
ochreous to light ochreous. To attach the name of Packard to the one 
species we have what there is of the original description, the type speci- 
men, and the fig. 42, pi. XIII. To attach it to the species I call melli- 
tularia we have the description given in Geom. Moths, p. 551, and fig. 
43, pi. XIII. The name it seems to me must go with the original de- 
scription and the type. T. paralieliaria Pack, as thus determined, was 
afterwards named Eurymene excelsa by Mr. Strecker, Report Explor. and 
Stirv. Dept. of Missouri, RufTner, 1878, p. 1.S63, pi. 2, f. 9. And a 



— 2 °3 — 

lighter form, more common in Ariz., was described by Mr Grote, Can. 
Ent. Vol. XV, p. 27, and called T. simpliciaria. Mr. Grote's T. oblen- 
tarii (which must be T. obhntata) is close in appearance, but the cross 
lines are much wider apart, the antennae of the rj 1 are simple and the 
palpi very much less prominent. I have both his types before me for 
comparison. 5 <j\ 3 Q. Ariz, Nev. , Cal. : Coll. Hy. Edwards, 
Tepper, Hulst. 

5. Tetracis cavillaria sp. nov. Expands 41 mm. Head, b dy and wings of 
a dull lighl ochreous fawn color. The outer part of the wings with the color a little 
more decided, and over all a faint flesh colored flush. Lines faint, the t.a. nearly 
straight, the t.p. nearer median than usual, present on both wings, dull fawn. 
Another line beyond, faint, reaching from costa half way across fore wing. Beneath 
as above, somewhat lighter. Antennoe in $ rather shorter and pectinations more 
lengthy than usual. Fore wings slightly, hind wings very slightly angulated. 1 ^J 1 . 
Ariz.: Coll. Hulst. 

6. Tetracis morsicaria sp. nov. Expands 37 mm. Head, thorax and ab- 
domen light ochreous, lines dark fawn edged t.a. line inwardly, t.p. line outwardly 
with white. T.a. line straight, reaehing twice as far out on costa as on inner margin. 
T.p. line oblique, starting from costa just within apex. Hing wings very light ochre- 
ous outwardly, nearly white inwardly. Beneath lighter than above, t.p. line alone 
indistinctly evident. Margins of fore wings not falcate, but waved, fringes red. 

i 9- Texas. Coll. Hulst. Very like in appearance to T.paral- 
Itliaria var. simpliciaria, but the fore wings are much more extended, 
both lines, especially the outer, more oblique. The outer margin of the 
fore wing is much less falcate and angulated, and the margin itself is 
wavy and edged with reddish. 

7. Tetracis trianguliferaria Pack. var. notataria var. nov. 

This variety differs from the type form in having just within the 
posterior angle of the fore wings a dark brown spot, reaching from the 
inner border to vein 4. It is undoubtedly a part of a band corresponding 
with that of 1\ color adaria Grt. and Rob., but not connected with the 
outer costal spot. 

8. Tetracis edwardsata Sp. nov. Expands 35 mm. Head, antennae, thorax 
and abdomen cream white. Fore wings a light yellow ochre, crossed with a dark 
tawny band which is edged on both sides with white shading into the ground color. 
The band is broad at costa embracing one-third of the wing and reaching nearly to 
apex, then narrowing runs with nearly parallel sides first outwardly, then inwardly, 
and finally widens rapidly to inner margin. The outer margin of the wing is slightly 
darker than the ground color. Hind wings very light in color, a little clouded out- 
wardly, without band, and very slightly angulated at the middle. Fore wings angu- 
lated, and slightly falcate. Beneath very light cinereous, satiny, umcolorous. 

1 9 Siskayou Co. . Cal.: Coll. of Hy. Edwards in whose honor 
it is named. 



204 — 

9. Tetracis geniculata sp. nov. Expands 30 mm. [lead, thorax and ab- 
domen light ochreous Fore win ;s oi die same color, hind wings lighter. Apex of 
fore wings rectangular. M idian angle on all wings obtuse. Two lines on fore wings 
reddish brown, the inn r angulated below costa, edged outwardly with whitish, the 
outer reflected near costa at a right angle, continued across hind wings, and edged 
outwardly iis whole length with whitish. Discal spots minute-, black. B 
lighter, except on costal half of fore wings. Outer line partly evidenl on fore wings 
only. 

1 J\ Col.: Coll. Hulst. 

10. Metanema novellata sp. nov. Expands 36 mm. Wings uniform light 
yellow ochreous. Two lines on lore wings, the outer continued on hind wings, buff, 
straight,, more distinct than usual. The hind wings have a brown hair line, some- 
limes very faint, in the submarginal space. Fore wings acute at apex, strongly fal- 
cate, median angle rather strong, as also on hind wing-. Beneath even glistening 
light cinereous, the ordinary lines faint hut the brown submarginal hair line present 
on all wings. Discal spots, black points above and below. 

1 (j 71 . 1 9- Coll. Tepper, Neumoegen. The wings of this species 
approach in appearance Metanema quercivoraria Guen. 

11. Metanema argillaria sp. nov. Expands 34 mm. Head, antennae, thorax 
and abdomen light fawn, each segment oi the latter edged with aline of lighter color. 
Wings of uniform light fawn, formed by a clay ground color, heavily striated and 
p rwdered with lawn. T.a. line on fore wings brown, line, sinuous, rounded out- 
wardly. T.p. line brown, edged outwardly with clay while, common to both wings, 
and reflected on fore wing near apex to costa. Discal spots on fore wings distinct. 
black. The fore wings' are falcate without darker color in curve, the median angle 
not so projected as in the rest of the genus. Angle of the hind wings dentate, 
strong. Beneath, dull light ochreous, striated with fawn. Outer line apparent only 
on fore wings, rather broader and more indistinct, fawn colored and rounded not 
angulated to Costa. 

i $ Arizona. Coll. Neumoegen. 

12. Caberodes confusaria var. mimaria \u. nov. Expands 42 mm. Lines 
as in confusaria but with basal and outer space tawny, and median space yellow. 

\bo a row of submarginal clouded spots. 

1 9 Georgia. Coll. Hy. Edwards. 

13. Caberodes galbanaria Sp. nov. Expands 35 mm. For; wings a light 
yellow ochreous with outer third of both wings of a light pink brown. A faint white 
t.p. line passing through this, on both wings from apex of lore wings. Fore wings 
with apex produced, pointed, strongly falcate and angled. Hind wings angulated. 
outer edge of wings straight to point of angle, not rounded. Discal spots on all 
wings black. Beneath, light pinkish brown, somewhat nine pronounced on anterior 
two thirds of lore wings. Discal spot as above. 

1 9 Arizona. Coll. Ilttlst. 

14. Drepanodes effascinaria sp. nov. Expands 42 mm. Head, thorax and 
abdom< n 01 hreous. Fore wings pointed at apex, not excavated beneath, but strongl) 
falcate and angulate. Hind wings rounded. T.a. line- on fore wings reddish brown. 
rounding outwardly, and biangulate externally. T.p. line reddish brown, edged 
outwardly with light ochre- ius reaching from apex in a straight line across both wings. 



Pore wings wilhin t.a. line and both wings beyond t.p. line, reddish brown. The 
median space varies from clouded to bright yellow. Submarginal clouded spots 
sometimes apparent. Discal spots small, black. Beneath, outer line more faint on 
both wings. Color yellowish, with more or less huff, darker beyond t.p. line, i fiscal 
spots as above. 

2 9 S' C. and Fla. : Coll. Neumoegen and Tepper. The largest 
of our Drepjnodts, and allied to D. panamart'al'a.ck. 

15. Drepanodes hortularia sp. nov. Expands 26 mm. Head, antenna, 
body and wings ochreous buff with median space somewhat darker. T.a. line pres- 
ent on both wings, very nearly median, bending outward, somewhat zig-zag. T.p. 
line present on both wings, slight; on fore wings oblique, flexuous, and rounded to 
costa near apex. The Q ' las on hind wings two submarginal rows of small black 
spots arranged parallel with outer margin. Beneath, color as above, or a little light- 
er, slightly speckled with black. Lines obsolete or outer one indistinct. Rows of 
black spots repeated on hind wings of Q. 

1 J*, 1 9 X.J. and Fla.: Coll. Hulst. 

16. Drepanodes perizomaria sp. nov. Expands 36 mm. Plain, uniform, 
very even fulvous, with a decided lilaceous tinge. T.p. line only present, white in $, 
dark brown edged slightly with white outwardly in Q, oblique reflected at a sharp 
angle, very near apex to costa. Discal spots minute, black. Fore wing pointed, 
falcate in $, pointed, strongly falcate and excurvated in O. Apex of fore wings in 
O black. Beneath more of a buff color with lilaceous tinge lost, speckled with black 

dots. Lines indistinct. 

1 J*. 2 9 Va. Mon. Ariz.: Coll. Graef, Doll, Hulst. Consider- 
ably larger than heretofore named species, though in the <^ somewhat 
resembling some forms of D. puberaria, Grt. 

17. Azelina hubnerata var. atrocolorata var. nov. A form of hubnerata in 
which the basal and median space is smoky black, becoming deep black as it merges 
in the deep black t.p. line. T.a. line evident near costa, deep black. Hind wings 
on median and basal spaces lighter. Outer space of all wings cinereous, with mote 
or less of dark slriations, giving a smoky appearance. Beneath, smoky cinereous, 
tinged with lilac. 

7 specimens U. S. : Coll. Tepper, Hill, Neumoegen, Hulst. 

18. Azelina australata sp. nov. Expands 40 mm. Head, thorax and ab- 
domen russet, thorax darker posteriorly, and a dark line on each abdominal segment 
above. The wings are crossed by three distinct somewhat heavy black lines; the 
first basal, straight; the second submedian, slightly angulated outwardly at middle; 
the third extra discal, wavy and with a large sinus outwardly just above middle. 
Between the first and second is a slight clouded indistinct line. Between the second 
and third are two black hair lines, the inner parallel to the second, the outer parallel 
to the third line. Beyond the third, the space is clouded with inegular and broken 
dark bands. There is a zig-zag submarginal white line, and at the middle a marginal 
whitish rectangular spot. The wings are clay white in the median space, darker 
beyond the hair lines, and smoky ochreous beyond, the colors being limited by the 
lines. All the wings are rounded, unangnlated. The hind wings are brown with a 
median bla k line, the submarginal space dull Mack, and the margin much lighter 



anal angle jchrey yellow at 

nel band of 
white ban 

Hy Edwai 

ig Azelina radiosaria 

white. Antem if their 

9 aved on oute' 
■ 

outer mav 
■ inwardly, t.p. line inwardly, on both v with 

within t.p. line i 

Beneath, 
ve. the oui ring appai'- 

both v. ; al spot= diffuse but distinct. 

•aef. Doll. Hulst. Nearest to A. za 

aria. \ 

2C Endropia bilinearia lack. var. mollisaria var. 
The type form from the East is dark brown, with all wings strr.- 
dentated. The variety i a . almost the only f'>riD. found we 

xbreous color, with w ■ nearly 

21. Endropia bilinearia minoraria var. 

A form of a dull much smaller than the 

ordinary • imargina cloudings on fore 

ngulatiot! 
■ 

I can hardly mai a valid species. It is 

uniformly only about one-half to two-third- bilinearia. arid 

•.tier differently shaped But the lines are' 

same and - form are he- 
me. 

22. Endropia hilumarit 

rag casta to 

■ ■ 

'Utwardly with white. 
■■ 

utiinargiiial 
line, light 



— 207 — 

fawn, striated; t.p. lines quite distinct, quite straight on fore wings, apical white 
crescent distinct as above. 

2 $ Colorado. Coll. Graef, Tepper. 

23. Endropia occantaria sp. nov. Expands 46 mm. Head, thorax, ab- 
domen, and wings of a light clay fawn color, the median space being somewhat 
lighter. A faint lilaceous tinge over the wings a little more apparent beyond t.p. 
line. Fine scattered striations of dark fawn over the wings. A blurred submarginal 
clouding, obsolete near middle. A whitish apical spot. Lines fine, reddish, some- 
what rounded. Wings broader than usual, dentate at the end of each vein. Beneath, 
color a little lighter. Striations and t.p. lines more pronounced. Some orange ochre - 
ous shadings present. 

2 9 Nev. : Coll. Graef, Tepper. Appearently nearest E. bilinearia, 
Pack., of which it may be a distant variety. 

24. Endropia decoloraria sp. nov. Expands 28 mm. Head, body and ground 
color of wings fawn brown, with a faint lilaceous shade. Wings with a dark brown 
extra median band. This band is strongly sinuous, having especially a large sinus 
outward, just beyond discal space. Within this band some coarse ochreous striations 
forming somewhat of a band, also a narrow indistinct submarginal band of the same 
color formed in the same way. Fore wings nearly rectangular at apex with dark 
brown edge beneath apex, outer margin sinuous, not dentate nor angulate, swollen 
out at middle and somewhat bent inwardly close to outer angle, where there is a 
small spot of dark brown. Hind wings obtusely dentate with large double tooth near 
middle, and another single tooth near outer angle, with a deep sinus between. 
Beneath as above, without the darker bands and spots. 

2 $ Coll. Graef and Tepper. No locality with either specimen. 

This is nearest the insect represented by Dr. Packard as a var. 
of End. ar malaria H. Sch. (Geom. Moths, p. 511, Plate XII, f. 20.) 
Dr. Packard speaks of the wings being the same as in armataria though 
not so represented in the figure, and there they are not so diverse as in 
decoloraria. It differs from armalaria in the entire difference of color of 
wings and shape of bands above and below, has no suggestion of the very 
marked and brilliant appearance of armataria below, and there is an en- 
tire difference in the shape of both wings. 

25. Endropia lentaria sp. nov. Expands 32 mm. Palpi dark drab. Antennae 
and abdomen drab. Thorax and wings to t.p. line reddish ochreous. Beyond, the 
color varies from cinereous to dark brown. T.p. line on both wings, nearly straight 
un front wings reaching costa considerably within apex, reddish brown, edged out- 
wardly with a narrow white line. Fringes dark brown. T.a. line faintly evident on 
fore wings. Discal spots distinct, annulate on fore wings, faint on hind wings. 
Beneath a dull reddish brown irrorrated with dark brown, much darker beyond t.p. 
line. The lines are faintly evident, discal spots distinct. All wings rounded without 
angles or dentations. 

4 <$ Fla.: Coll. Neumoegen, Doll, Hulst. 

26. Endropia manubiaria sp. nov. Expands 44 mm. Very much as 111 E. 
serraiaria Dm., but with a single angle to each wing with the space beyond the t.p. 



— 208 — 

line either as light as median space or slightly darker; with no inner line to hind wings 
and with a looped hair line outwardly from t.p. line. Beneath, as above, but with 
lines somew hat more distinct. 

2 (J 1 , i 9 Colorado. CqII. Tepper, Hulst. 

27. Ellopia somniaria sp. nov. Expands 44 mm. 

This is a form from X. \Y. I". S and Brit, Columbia which Packard 
(Geom. Moths p. 494) does not separate from E. fervidaria. On com- 
paring 28 specimens of fervidaria with 10 of somniaria I fine] no inter- 
grading, and I see no reason why somniaria should not be considered a 
good species. It is larger, somewhat more yellowish, the dark speckles 
larger and more evenly distributed; the cross lines are broader and more 
distinct, the outer ones broadly edged outwardly and the inner ones in- 
wardly with orange. 

8^, 2 § Or. W. T., Van. I : Coll. Graef, Tepper, Neumoegen, 
Hulst. 

28. Eurymene arrogaria sp. nov. Expands 34 mm. Very much like E. 
fervidaria II. S. and E. phlogosaria Guen., but without striations or cross lines. The 
outer cross line is faintly suggested by the outer shadings, but so far as suggested is 
not straight, but rounded outwardly. Basal and median space ochreous fawn, outer 
space fawn with brown cloud at inner angle. Hind wings ochreous yellow, with 
dark brown or black cloud at anal angle, this in part being the beginning of the t.p. 
line. Discal spots prominent on fore wings. Beneath, orange yellow on costal half 
of fore wing from base to outer third, light yellow on posterior half. Outwardly- 
orange to turn of wing on outer margin. The space at inner angle, the outer third 
of hind wings, and all fringes vary from flesh color to lilaceous. Basal and median 
portions of hind wings orange yellow, striated with orange. Discal spot on fore wings 
somewhat blurred. 

3 J 1 , 2 9 Eastern States. Coll. Graef, Tepper. Neumoegen, 
Hulst. 

29. Rumia ochrearia var. unicoloraria var. nov. 

Differs from the type form in being of a clear bright yellow, without 
any markings whatever. 

30. Angerona crocataria Fab. var. caelaria var. nov. 

This variety differs from the type form in having the brown spots 
and markings quite obsolete and having the spots near outer angle of a 
pale white, faintly edged with brown. 



— 209 — 
Proceedings of the Entomological Club of the AAA. S 

(Continued from page 123 ante. ) 

Aug. 27th. The Club met pursuant to adjournment, at 7 P.M. 
Prof. Lintner in the chair, 12 persons present. The minutes of the 
previous meeting were read and adopted. Continuing the discussion of 
the previous meeting. Prof J. A. Cook stated that the grass-hoppers (C 
femur -rztirum) had been very destructive in Michigan. Many fields ol 
oats had been nearly destroyed. The heads had not been eaten off as 
stated by Prof. Osborn to be the case in Iowa, but the separate berries 
or grains had been cut off, and often covered the ground. Meadows 
and pastures had also suffered greatly. These insects seemed worst 
where the season had been characterized by a drouth. Several years 
ago a similar devastation occured in this State, but was serious only for 
a single year. The Army Worm, L. unipuncta Haw., had been seriously 
destructive in the south-western portion of the State, where it also did 
serious damage three years ago. Neither of these visitations could be ac- 
counted for on the explanation given years ago by Fitch, as the wet and 
dry years of the first raid were the reverse of Fitch's rule, while this 
year and last had both been very dry in this region. The "Black Army 
Worm" Agrotis fennica was very abundant and destructive last year about 
Bay City and up the Saginaw River as far as Saginaw City. The num- 
bers were fairly prodigious; bushels could be gathered in a few minutes. 
Hundreds could be crushed by a single foot-fall. Cardens and meadows 
were totally stripped of every green thing. This year the region devastat- 
ed last year had wholly escaped damage, though a similar attack had 
been suffered farther up the Huron Shore. Other cut-worms had been 
unusually abundant and destructive in the State the past year. Anthono- 
mus musculus Say, had done much damage to strawberries in the North- 
ern Peniusula last year and the year before. This year it had done little 
harm. Byturus unicolor Say, for the first time had done much damage 
to raspberries in Michigan this season. These insects were much more 
gray than the description of Say, or specimens in the College Cabinet 
previously collected would indicate. They are easily destroyed by die use 
of Paris Green. Prof. Cook also referred to a species of Noctuid Moth, the 
larva of which was doing much damage by eating the wheat in the bin. 
This insect had done much damage both last year and this. He had 
been unable to rear the insect. 

Prof. Osborn says that the habits of the grass-hoppers in Iowa were 
as Prof. Cook describes them. He said they ate off the heads of the 
oats; it would have been more correct to say that usually they ate the 
separate kernels. 

INIOMOI.OGICA AMEUCAN A. 32 



Prof. Riley asks Prof Cook to state more particulars about this 
larva \vhi< h injures stored grains. 

Prof. ( '< nils says they came with the samples of injured grain, looked 
like a Noi tuid, and were i of an in< h long. They ate the kernel, as the 
samples plainly showed, but how they did it he could n6t tell, though 
he had tried his besl to bring them to maturity. 

Prof. Riley 'lues not sec how a Noctuid larva could damage stored 
grain. It is so contrary to the ordinary habits of the species that he can- 
not understand it. A.fennica has taken on much more ol the arm) 
worm habit than messoria, but this ma) be because onions are planted 
in rows rather widely apart, and it would be impossible for such large 
numbers to subsist there for even .1 short time. In reference to injury 
done to glain in bins, a species of Ephesiia had probably done a greal 
part id it . 

lie also said that he had this vear succeeded in raising in consider- 
able numbers the pear Cecidomyid which Prof. Cook had mentioned in 
one of his recent reports. lie speaks ol this insect to illustrate the greal 
difficulty there is in determinations in this genus, lie could not find 
that it differed in any respect from the descriptions of Cecidomyia pyri ol 
Europe but to make sure he sent a series to that country and Mi'. Trans- 
it r\ .-< ould not find any differences from the description, bill the de- 
scriptions were so poor, and there were no existent types, so that there 
could be no certainty. Prof. Mig suggests describing it as a new 
pei ies with good figures and then there could at least be no doubt as to 
what was intended. This however was rather a violent remedy, and if 
generally applied would necessitate a great man) redescriptions. 

Mr. Smith states, in reference to the abundance of Ag. messoria 
larva that onion rows are about 18 inches apart, and 111 1 ft. square be 
Lween the rows he picked up between 40 and 51 larva just under the sur- 
face of the soil. 

Prof. Lintner says there seems to be a general belief, and older 
authors ha\c stated, that Noctuid larva are very difficult to raise. He 
lias during the past year raised Agrotis saucia without am; difficulty on 
plantain. 

Prof. Riley says saucia is very easily raised and stands any amount 
of bail treatment — of messoria on the contran of which hundreds of larvae 
were sent to the Department, ver) few reached maturity This difference 
often occurs — Pcedisca scudderiana, or more properly J', saligna Clem, is 
very easily raised. Another species of the same genus, Miss Murtfeld, 
Prof Kellicotl and he himself had tried their besl to bring to maturity, 
for 4 or 5 years, but with very little success. 

Prof. Westcott says that he has had the same experience with these 
species feeding on solidago. 



Mr. Osborn gave a note on the habitat of a Chironomus; he said his 
attention had been called by Dr. B, D. Halstead to certain larva' living 
in the water contained in the cups surrounding the stem of Silphium 
perfoliatum. 

The principal form thus found is a species of Chironomidae, nearly 
transparent and colorless and closely resembling the figures of Chirono- 
mus oceanicus Packard. The larvae were quite abundant in a large share 
of the cups examined, as many as forty and fifty occuring in a single cup 
A number were placed in a glass of water and their transformations 
watched. Before pupating the larva.' usually came to rest at the surface 
of the water against the glass, enclosing themselves in a gelatinous mass. 
Length of pupation appeared to be about two days though not constant 
in different individuals. 

Before emergence of the imago the pupa assumes a bright silvery ap- 
pearance from the separation of the outer membrane. The final process 
of emergence is passed through very rapidly, the imago resting for an in- 
stant on the surface of the water, and assuming very rapidly the full 
si/e. The cups must become dry occasionally and it would be interest- 
ing to know the time required for the entire development of the species. 

Prof. Riley says that most of Prof. Osborn's notes would apply to 
most of the species: but the developing in the cups Silphium perfoliatum 
is very curious, and interesting. 

Prof. Cook then gave some notes on the functions of the secretion 
of Bark lice, Leucanium tilice, Fitch. 

These lice attack many species of our forest and fruit trees. Though 
the scales on different trees vary considerably in si/e and form, and were 
similarly peculiar on each species of tree, yet they were doubtless of the 
same species of insect. Larvae lice from the Linden where they were 

st, transferred to butternut where they were smallest and very con- 
vex, developed into the peculiar type of the latter tree. These lice se- 
creted much bitter unwholesome nectar, which attracted the bees. Earh 
in the spring, it was observed that the Baltimore Oriole ami our two 
most common Sparrows were feeding extensively on the lice. The birds 
would take a limb and almost strip it of the lice. When the bees ami 
wasps commenced to swarm in the trees in quest of the nectar, the birds 
all left this feeding ground. Soon the flowers lured the bees to more 
inviting fields, when the birds again commenced to feed on the rapidl) 
growing scales. The nectar secretion seems surely to serve the insects 
that secrete it as it attracts the bees, which frighten away the birds. 

» Prof. Riley says this feeding of birds upon the Bark Lice is interest- 
ing and novel, and has never been observed before, 

Prof. Lintner says this theory of the secretion attracting bees, to 
keep off the birds was new to him. 



Prof. ' 'ook remarks that the secretion oi the Aphids gives excellent 
honey. He has tasted it from those on elm and poplar, and it is delici- 
ous. That from the bark lice is horrible, and last year when the bees, 
during the abundance oi these lice gathered so much of it, tons of honev 
were spoiled and had to be sold for manufacturing and commercial 
purposes. 

Dr. Cook also made some remarks on "The Choke Cherry Tortri- 
<\A Modi Cocoecia cerasivorana Fitch.'' 

The larva of this insect which had been very common in Michigan 
this summer, spun an immense quantity ol Silk, much like the tent ol 
the tent Catipillar C. americana, Harr. , though it not only lived but {<i(\ 
in the tent, obtaining fresh food by drawing twigs and branches into its 
web. In some cases shrubs two inches in diameter and ten leet high 
had been deflected several inches from the usual vertical position by this 
strong net. Prof. Cook had taken bushes to his Laboratory, and found 
that these large bushes were drawn to the wall of the room several inch- 
es distant It was asked how such small insects could exert such force, 
except that the fibers of the web contracted. Prof. Lintner thought the 
force came from the numerous and repeated attachments to the threads. 
Each time drawing the object a little nearer. 

Prof. Riley agrees with Prof. Lintner; the thread is so strong, so 
often crossed and doubled, and, always a little stretched, that very grad 
ually and almost imperceptibly these results are obtained. 

Prof. Riley then described a very peculiar Tineid cocoon obtained 
from a larva on apple. The larva spins three stout threads, fastened to 
as many distinct points, and converging to a common centre and at this 
point it spins a loose mesh-like cocoon in which it pupates. The cocoon 
swings free, and is supported anteriorly by two and posteriorly by one of 
these threads. He asks whether any similar structure had been noticed. 

Prof. Westcott says that on two evenings the past season Lachnoster- 
na futitis came to light in immense numbers. His son and himself at 
his street lamp gathered 780 of the insects. Usually fusca is the com- 
mon species there, but of those taken this season less than 3 percent 
were fusca and the balance futilis. In the face of the severe weather the) 
had last winter this was somewhat remarkable. 

On motion of Prof. Riley the club adjourned until Aug. 28. 

August 28. The club met pursuant to adjournment at 7 P. M 
Prof. J. A. Lintner in the chair, 12 members present 

On motion of Prof. Kellicott, seconded by Prof. Riley, Mr. Smith 
was appointed a committee to provide a distinctive badge lor members ol 



the Clubs, to be used at the next meeting; the badge to be of a deep blue 
color, and the words "Entomological Club" to be in some way printed 
thereon. 

On motion of Prof. C. V. Riley, the secretary was authorized to 
print the minutes of the present meeting of the Club, in "Entomolqgica 
Americana.'' 

Prof. Osborn moved that hereafter the club shall not meet prior to 
the first day of the meeting of the Association — after some discussion, the 
motion not being seconded was lost. 

Prof. Riley moved that a committee of three be appointed to ar- 
range a programme for the next meeting, and that the chair and the sec- 
retary be members of that committee. Carried; and the chair appointed 
Prof. Riley as the 3d member of the committee. 

Prof. Osborn gave a few "Random notes on Mallophaga.'' 

The secretary read the following letter from Mr. W. H. Edwards to 
Prof. j. A. Lintner. 

"I wish you to mention at the meeting of the Entomological Club, 
that whereas it was stated at the meeting one year ago, by Mr. E. M. 
Aaron, that in Tennessee, he had found Papilio ajax larvae on spice-wood 
and sassafras, ;;: I have experimented this season on these larvae, and in 
every case the larvae of Ajax, on either spice-wood or sassafras, refused 
the food, and died of starvation. I tried several larva just out of egg, 
before they had tasted pawpaw; also larvae just past 4th molt, before they 
had eaten (after the molt); and I tried half grown larvae, and in every 
case, the result was the same. I do not say that Mr. Aaron was mistaken, 
but I say West Virginia larvae refuse these two plants. 

You may. say, if you like, that I have this season, bred Ceonympha 
galadinus larvae from egg to imago and the result was the form califor- 
nica; therefore the species is seasonably dimorphic: — that I have bred 
Ceonympha inomaia, from Vancouver Island, from egg to imago, and 
got the same type butterfly: — -that I have bred Ceonympha ochracea to 
last molt, but not to Chrysalis: — that I have bred Salyrus charon, egg- 
to imago; and have larvae of Oehis hibernating: — that I have bred 
Argynnis halcyone from egg to imago, and whereas the butterflies arc- 
near to Argynnis a/ces/is, the larvae are almost as different as A. A/a/za 
larvae from either alcexlis or aphrodite. And you may say that I should be- 
greatly obliged for eggs from butterflies, especially of species which are 
not likely to be found in West Virginia. '' 

Mr. E. A. Schwarz exhibited specimens of Cosmosoma omphak from 



* Mr. Aaron sak] Upland huckleberry nol sassafras. See Brooklyn Bull. VII. 
; i. y j . Ed. 



—214 — 

Florida, and (.ailed attention to a peculiar character of the male, observ- 
ed by Mr. Hubbard. There is at base of the abdomen a deep cavity. 
normally closed by a flat plate, rilled with white, cottony hair, so closely 
packed, that when the covering plate was forcibly opened, the down} 
hair hurst out in quantity sufficient to (ill a small pill box. No living 
specimen had ever been observed with this cavity open, ami in dried 
specimens the structure is easily overlooked, though in each case visible 
when closely examined. 

Prof. Riley asks whether all specimens show this character, and 
whether it newer occurred in the 9- Mr. Schwarz says it occurs in all 
$$ seen, and in no Q* 

Mr. Smith said he had examined the structure so far as dry speci- 
mens would allow, and finds that there is a cavity, evidently a structural 
feature, and not the result of disease. No character of this nature had 
been previously observed, but he would study the structure carefully. 

'The possibility of this substance being of a fungoid nature was dis- 
cussed by Messrs Riley, Westcott, Schwarz and Smith. Mr. Schwarz 
states that Mr. Ashmead claims to have found the larva of this species 
boring in the Japanese plum, but the insect occurs also in considerable 
numbers where there is no Japanese plum, and there is probably also 
some other food plant. He says also that a very common species of L\- 
granthoecia* shows a somewhat analogous structure in the shape of a 
long chitinous pedicil at the base of the abdomen, having a long brush oi 
hair at the tip. The pedicil is fitted into a groove at the side of the ab- 
domen, and the brush of hair is folded over the back, and is not visible 
in the dry insect. 

Mr. Smith says in his studies on the HeliothincB lie noticed nothing 
of the kind, though such a structure as Mr. Schwarz describes mighteasi- 
ly have escaped him. 

Prof. Riley thinks he has noticed the character last mentioned by 
Mr. Schwarz, in probably the same species. It is strange what elastic 
properties some of the organs of the Lepidoptera, have. The peculiar 
organs in Spilosomn acraea and other species were cited as examples, and 
he says he has drawings of somewhat similar organs in Aletia xvlina 
which have not yet been described. 

Prof. Peabody has witnessed something similar in the living Phakel- 
lura nitidalis. 

Prof. Riley has also observed that character in the latter species. 

(To be continued. ) 



* Afterward seen by me il is Schinia (Lygranflioecia) marginata I law. Ed. 



-2 I 



A generic Synopsis of the Hymenopterous Family 

Chalcididae. 

By L. 0. Howard. 

(Continued from p. 197.*) 

Subfamily LEUCOSPIDINAE. 

This subfamily consists of the single genus Leucospis, Fab. for which 
the characters given in the subfamily synopsis will be sufficient. 

Subfamily CHALCIDINAE. 
Abdomen with a long petiole. Postrnarginal vein long. Posterior tibiae not spurred. 
produced at tip into a spine. 
( )vipositor not exserted. 

Thorax immaculate. Middle tibia; not spurred at apex..*Genus Smicra Spinola. 
Thorax maculate. Middle tibiae with spurs . . . Genus Spilochalcis Thomson. 

1 Ovipositor exserted, longer than the whole body Genus Podagrion Spinola. 

Abdomen almost sessile. Middle tibia: spurred. 
Antennae inserted in the middle of the face. 

Abdomen much produced *( Jenus Phasgonophora Sichel. 

Abdomen sub-globose Genus Chalcis Fabr. 

Antennae inserted near or not far from mouth. 

Ovipositor exserted, as long as abdomen . . . . *Genus Acanthochalcis Cameron. 
Ovipositor short, usually hidden. Posterior tibiae two-spurred. Hind femora 

normal Genus Halticella Spinola. 

Ovipositor short. Hind femora with a single large tooth 

Genus Notaspis Walker. 

Note. — In this subfamily 1 have followed Cameron, the latest au- 
thor, in retaining Phasgonophora which Andre would combine with Hal- 
tictlla, but have added Thomson's Spilochalcis with a view of accepting any 
good separation of the unwieldy old genus Smicra. All the species of 
die old genus, however, which I have seen from this country belong to 
the new division. 

Subfamily TORYMINAE. 
< >vipositor exserted. 

Antenna:- with two ring- joints, the flagi^lum thence 8-jointed 

*Genus Lochites Foerster. 
Antennae with one ring-joint, fiagellum thence 8 jointed. 

Stigma! vein with a very large knob. Abdomen of male much narrowed at 

base Genus Megastigmus Dalman. 

Stigma] vein with no such knob, or with a small knob. .Male abdomen not 
narrowed. 

■ In the synopsis of the subfamilies on p. 107 I inadvertently inserted, opposite 
the subfamily Chalcidinae, the character "ovipositor protruding but slightly", which 
should be changed to "ovipositor not curved over dorsum oi abdomen", in contra- 
distinction to the Leucospidinae. The character as it stood is wrong, as in the recent- 
ly described genus Acanthochalcis, the ovipositor is normally exserted to a con- 
siderable length, and in Podagrion, formerly placed with the Toryminae, bul nov 
more properly included among the Chalcidinae, the same character is found. 



2 1 6 — 

Hind femora beneath smooth, with a single tooth at some distance from 
the knee. 
Scutellum with a cross furrow behind the middle. 

1 1 mil border of first abd> rniinal segment straight in both sexes 

Genus Monodontomerus Westwood. 
Hind li irder of first abdominal segment incised in the middle with the 

female, straight or incised with the male 

*Genus Diomorus Walker. 

Scutellum without a cross furrow *< renus Holaspis Mayi. 

lliiul femora below finely dentate and usually with a single larger tooth at 
some distance from die knee. 
Hind border of first abdominal segment not incised; tooth of hind femoi 

often warning *Genus Oligosthenus Foerster. 

Hind border of first abdominal segment acutely incised with female; 

straight with male; femoral tooth always present 

*Genus Cryptopristus Foerster. 
Hind femora below not finely dentate and with no larger tooth. 

Scutellum with a clear sharp cross-furrow. Hind border of the first ab- 
dominal segment of the male entire or incised 

( ienus Syntomaspis Foerster. 
Scutellum without trace of a cross-furrow. Hind border of fust abdominal 

segment of male incised Genus Torymus Dalman. 

» Iviposilor not exserted Genus Ormyrus Westwood 

Subfamily EUPELMINAE. 
1 yes hairy. 

Second abdominal segment short, not incised *Genus Brasema Cameron. 

Second abdominal segment as long as all the others together, deeply incised at 

apex *Genus Lutnes ( lameron. 

Second abdominal segment very large, slightly rounded at tip 

*Genus Aseirba Cameron, 
i yes not hairy. 

Hind tibiae and first tarsal joint compressed, broad Genus Halidea Foerster.' 

Hind tibiae and first tarsal joint neither compressed nor broad. 

front below the antennal grooves indented. The middle ocellus in the antennal 
groove. 
Middle tibiae very long. 

Antennae arise near the border of the mouth *Genus Stenocera Walker. 

Antennae arise far above the mouth-border. . . .*Genus Polymoria Foerster. 

Middle tibiae not very long *Genus Ratzeburgia Foerster. 

Front not indented below the antennal grooves. Middle ocellus not situate in 
groove. 
Scutellum with a broad base against mesoscutum....*Genus Calosoter Walkei . 
Scutellum with a narrow base. 

First tarsal joint of middle legs with strong spines beneath 

Genus Eupelmus Dalmann. 

First tarsal joint of middle legs with no strong spines beneath 

*Genus Charitopus Foerster. 
Subfamily ENCYRTINAE. 
FEMALES. 
■ 4. jointed *Genus Cercobelus Walker. 



— 217- 

Funicle 5-jointed Genus Rhopus Foerster. 

Funicle 6-jointed.* 
Head with a sharp angle between face and vertex ....*Genus Habrolepis Foerster. 
Face not angled. 

Scape, funicle and club broadly Rattened. 

Wings developed end colored with brown 

*Genus Cerapterocerus Westwood. 
Wings almost always rudimentary; when developed, are hyaline. 

Head narrow, facial impression not extending up between the eyes 

*Genus Anusia Foerster. 

1 lead thick, facial impression extending between the eyes 

*Genus Mira Schellenberg. 
Scape, funicle and club not at all flattened. 

Scutellum at base with two deep impressions, wings rudimentary 

*Genus Ectroma Westwood. 
Scutellum without grooves. 

Scutellum crescent-shaped. Wings rudimentary 

*Genus Baeocharis Mayr. 
Scutellum three-cornered, with rounded or not rounded tip. 
Scutellum with a large bunch of hair at tip. 

Pedicel shorter than first funicle joint. Mesonotum without silver- 
white hairs. Marginal vein shorter than stigmal 

Genus Comys Foerster. 
Pedicel longer than first funicle joint. Mesonotum with silver-white 

hairs. Marginal vein at least as long as stigmal 

Genus Chiloneurus Westwood. 
Scutellum without a large bunch of hair. 

I lead with very large thimble-like punctures. 

Wings clear; marginal vein wanting or very short 

Genus Bothriothorax Ratzeburg. 
Wmgs entirely or somewhat fuscous; marginal vein never very 

short Genus Phaenodiscus Foerster. 

Head not with very large punctures. Antennal club obliquely 
truncate. 
Facial groove very pronounced.... Genus Copidosoma Ratzeburg. 

Facial groove slight Genus Homalotylus Mayr. 

Antennal club not oblique truncate. 

Wings rudimentary, or if developed the scutellum is flat or its tip 
is light colored. 
Scape strongly broadened below . . . .Genus Dinocarsis Foersser. 
Scape not broadened below. 

First funicle joint only as long as thick, the scape reaching 

only to the upper border of the facial impression 

*Genus Choreia Westwood. 
First funicle joint longer than thick, the scape reaching be- 
yond the facial impression. ...*Genus Erycidnus Walker. 
Wings developed. The scutellum arched and with smooth tip. 

* Except with Hokothorax testaceipes in which the body i-, not Hal. is dark color- 
ed, not smooth, and the wings with short cilia. 

ENTOMOLOGICA AMKKICANA : ' ,:{ 



— 2lK — 

Mesonotum lu^terless. 
Mesonotum with fine, sharp, longitudinal striae. Body short. 
Scape very slighdy broadened, it at all; funicle 5- or 6 

jointed *Genus Holcothorax Mayr. 

Mesonotum with thick, sharp and fine thimble-like punctures. 
Funicle 6-jointed. 

Funicle joints thicker than long. Marginal vein wanting 

Genus Aphycus Mayr. 
Fii^st five funicle joints longer than thick. Marginal vein 

present, although short Genus Blastothrix Mayr. 

Mesonotum more or less lustrous. 
Fore wings not ciliate. Antennae very long and thin; 6th 

funicle joint shortest, but live times as long as wide 

Genus Psilophrys Maj r. 
Fore wings ciliate. Last funicle joint not so long. 

Marginal vein one-half as long again as stigmal. Scapulte 

meet in a short carina. Antennae longer than body. . . . 

Genus Leptomastix Foerster. 

Marginal vein much shorter. Scapulae make no median 

carina. 

Antennae very thin; pedicel three times as long as thick: 

club almost as thin as the funicle joints 

*Genus Liothorax Ma) r« 
Antennae thicker; pedicel shorter; club stouter than 

funicle Genus Encyrtus Dalman. 

MALES. 

Funii le with only two short joints. The club unusually long, cylindrical 

*Genus Habrolepis Foerster. 
Funicle 6- jointed. 

Mesonotum before tegulae with a deep impression. Second and fifth funicle joint 

3-cornered when seen from the side. . . *Genus Prionomitus Mayr. 

Mesonotum with no impression. Funicle joints not triangular. 
Funicle joints each with two half whorls of long hairs. 
Marginal vein longer than stigmal. 

Mesonotum with close flat silver-white hairs, scutellum usually with a bunch 

of upright spiny hairs at tip Genus Chiloneurus Westwood. 

Mesonotum with brownish -yellow hairs, scutellum with no erect bunch of 
hairs. 

Marginal vein shorter than stigmal *Genus Cerapterocerus Westwood. 

Head and upper side of thorax thickly covered with very large round punct- 
ures Genus Bothriothorax Ratzeburg. 

I lead and thorax not so sculptured. 
Wings with long cilia. Head and th irax very finely shaggreened and 

lustrous. Body small and flat Genus Rhopus Foerster. 

Wings with short cilia. Body finely punctate, lusterless 

Genus Blastothrix Mayr. 
Funicle joints equally clothed with long or short hairs; no half whorls. 

Scutellum before its tip with a bunch of erect, black hairs 

Genus Comys Foerster. 
Scutellum with no bunch of hairs. 
Funicle strongly compressed. 



— 2 I 9 

Scape quite strongly broadened bilow; scutellum flat; w'ngs rudimentary 

*Genus Dinocarsis Foerster. 

Scape not compressed; scutellum strongly transversely arched ; wings deve- 
loped *Genus Prionomastix Mayr. 

Funicle not or but slightly compressed. 

Head and mesonotum with thick and sharp round punctures; marginal 

vein wanting or very short Genus Copidosoma Ratzeburg. 

■ Head and mesonotum not so sculptured. 

Mesonotum lusterless, no sculpture perceptible with a low power. 

Middle of face transversely strongly arched. Mesonotum under a 
high power with close longitudinal line or impressions. Pedicel 

shorter than first funicle joint *Genus Holcothorax Mayr. 

Face delicately arched. Pedicel longer than first funicle joint 

Genus Aphycus Mayr. 
Mesonotum moderately or strongly lustrous and usually with easily 
perceptible sculpture. 

Marginal vein evidently longer than the stigmal 

*Genus Ericydnus Walker. 
Marginal vein usually shorter than stigmal, seldom as long, or the 
wings are rudimentary. 
Wings rudimentary. 

Scutellum large, very flat, reaching behind to the base of the 
first abdominal segment ....... *Genus Choreia Westwood. 

Scutellum small, arched, not reaching to abdomen 

*Genus Baeocharis Mayr. 
• Wings developed. 

Head covered with large shallow impressions, over these thickly 

and finely punctured *Genus Phaenodiscus Foerster. 

Head not much punctured, usually with only a few scattered im- 
pressions near the eyes. 
Head lengthened below eyes, trapezoidal when seen from be - 

fore „ . . . Genus Psilophrys Mayr. 

Head not lengthened below eyes, round or oval when seen 

from before Genus Encyrtus Dal man. 

Subfamily APHELININAE. 
Fore wings with a hairless line, extending from stigma transversely towards base of 
wing; antennae apparently 6-jointed. 

Pore wings dusky on basal half and furnished with cilia towards tip 

*Genus Plastocharis Foerster. 
Fore wings not dusky and not with especially long cilia. 

Three antennal joints before club of equal length *Genus Mesidia Foerster. 

Three antenna] joints before club of unequal length. 

( Hipusitor exserted to more than one-third the length of abdomen 

Genus Centrodora Foerster, 
' >\ ipositor not at all or but slightly exserted . . . Genus Aphelinus Westwood. 
lore wings with no hairless line; antennae plainly 8-jointed. 

Antennal club only 2-jointed; hind border of hind wings with very long cilia 

*Genus Encarsia Foerster. 

Ann una! club 3-jointed; hind border of hind wings with no very long cilia 

Genus Coccophagus Westwood. 
♦ (To be continued. ) 



Society News. 

Brooklyn Entomological- Society. January 5, 1885. Twenty persons 
present, the president in the chair. The officers of the preceding year read their 
reports, which were accepted, and the following officers were ele< ti 'I for the en- 
Buing year. President: Rer. Geo. D. Hulst; Vice-Pres. : Chas. W. Leng; Corr. 

Secy.: John B. Smith; Rec. Secy.: A. C. Weeks; Treasurer: C. H. Roberts; 
Curator: (has. '\Y. Leng; Librarian: Geo. D. Hulst. Members of the Executive 
Committee: Geo. J>. Ilnlst, B. Neumoegen, J. B. Smith, E. L. Graef, C. W. Leng. 
Geo. Gade. Publication Committee: J. B. Smith, Hy. Edwards, Geo. D. Hulst, 
G W. J. Angell, E. L Graef. Messrs. J. Hess, C. Pfeil, and W. Schenck were 
dropped from the rolls of the Society for non-payment of clues. The proposition 
of the "Prairie Farmer" for an exchange of publications was accepted. 

Mr. Smith explained briefly how, where, wdien and wdiat to silt, and describ- 
ed the outfit required. Messrs. Graef, Hulst, Mayer, Cramer and Pearsall dis- 
cussed the question of how Limacodes are best brought to maturity. Mr. Pear- 
sall reports good success in forcing them to maturity by keeping in a warm 
moist temperature— a number of species are daily emerging from pupa foimed 
the past fall. Informal discussion closed the meeting. 

Entomological Society of Washington, Jan. 6, 1886. Prof. H. Osborn 
was elected a member of the Society. The election of officers for 1886 took 
place. Prof. C. V. Riley was elected president, but declined to serve as he had 
already served two terms. A second ballot resulted as follows: President: L. O. 
Howard; 1st Vice-Pres.: Dr. J. G. Morris; 2nd Vice-Pres.: Dr. Geo. Marx; Rec. 
Secy.: E. A. Schwarz; Corr. Secy.: J. B. Smith; Treasurer: B. P. Mann. Ex- 
ecutive Committee: Dr. C. V. Riley, 0. Lugger and Theo. Pergande. 

Prof. Osborn read a paper on certain Hemiptera which were unusually 
abundant in Iowa in the fall of 1885 giving with each species the food-plant or 
place of occurrence. Among the species mentioned are the, following: Caryno- 
eoris distinetus, Alydus eurinus, Neides spinosus, Anthocoris insidiosus, Phylus 
angulatus, Blissus teucopterus, Calocoris rapidus, Lyaus lineolaris, Phymata erosa, 
Acholkt midtispinosa, Cicada tibicen, Ceresa bvbalus, Publilia concava, Brochymena 
arborea and />'. annulata. 

Mr. Lugger read a paper on the life-habits of Mesites subcylindricus and 
Platypus flavicornis, as observed by him on the beach of the Chesapeake Bay. 
Eastern Shore of Maryland. The former species was found to live in great num- 
bers in old roots of Pinus ausiralis which are covered twice each day by the high 
tide. The beetles infest the roots in large numbers and honeycomb them with 
large and irregular burrows. Holes of exit for the perfect beetles are very few. 
The Platypus was observed abundantly flying one morning just before sunrise 
and not at any other time of the day, nor would the beetles be found on or in 
the Yellow Pines, the only trees growing in that locality. 

Dr. Riley exhibited drawings of larva and pupa of Exorista vitlata and Epi- 
pocus pundatus and explained the differences between the corresponding adole 
scent stages in these two insects. 

A letter from Mr. C. L. Johnson was read, stating that he had observed a 
Lepidopterous larva feeding on a species of Aphid, and had bred the insect to 
maturity. Mr. Lugger stated that the larva was that of Fertesicq tarquinivs, and he 
had also made the same observation several years in succession: though he had 
never actually seen them feeding on the Aphids. they were always found among 
them. 




Americana 



VOL. I. 



BROOKLYN, MARCH, 1886. 



NO. 12. 



The North American species of Toxophora. 

By D. W. Coquillett. 

The genus Toxophora may be easily distinguished from any other 
genus belonging to the family Bombylidce by the following characters: 
Wings with only three posterior cells; abdomen never club-shaped, cov- 
ered with an appressed tomentum and destitute of long pile; body and 
head when viewed from the side curves nearly in the form of a half-circle: 
first joint of antennae longer than the third. 

The following table comprises all of the species of Toxophora known 
to occur in North America. 

i. — Wings with three submarginal cells, the second vein being connected with the 
anterior branch of the third by a cross-vein 2 

Wings with only two submarginal cells; cross-vein at apex of discal cell not 

angular, and destitute of a stump of a vein leucopyga. 

2. — Cross-vein at apex of discal cell angular and bearing a stump of a vein . 3 

Cross-vein at apex of discal cell not angular, destitute of a stump of a vein \ 

3.— Wmgs hyaline, costal half only slightly yellowish pellucida. 

Wings smoky brown, costal half darker brown. ... amphitea. 

4. -— Abdomen with a black stripe each side of the middle virgata. 

Abdomen with a row of black spots each side of the middle maxima. 

T americana Guer. (Icon. Regn. Anim., Insectes, t. 95, f. 1) has 
never been described; moreover, the figure shows four posterior cells, 
which would exclude this species from the genus Toxophora. 

T. leucopyga Wied. Auss. Zw. I, 361, 2; Macq. Dipt. Ex. II, 1, 117, t. XIII. 
1. I; fulra Gray, Griffith's An. Kingd. XV, Ins. 2, 779, t. 126, f. 5; O.-S. Western 
Diptera 267; Cat. Dipt. 238. Ga.. Car., Tex. Length 10— 12 mm. (O.-S.) 

Unknown to me. Judging from the descriptions there can be no 
doubt of the correctness of this synonomy, which was suspected by Osten 
Sacken. 



T. pellucida ii. s)i. Wholly black. First joint ol antenna? while tomentose, 
1 1 hut side of second joint si vi ry pollinose in the mal :. A clusl :i of appressi d wliil 
i^h pile "N each side of ihe front ab >ve the antennae. Occiput pale yellowish pilose. 
I'll ii- ;\ pa'e yellowish p I" e, th i center fulv ms ton le bristles black; pleura 

white tomentose. Abdomen white tomentose, at th I llowish; a row oi 

on the anterior edges of the segments, 
those on the first segment extending the entire length of the segment, those on the 
second s gm nt coal iscing with etc h other; ii-o a row of black spots on each side oi 
the abd men. si uated in the middle of segments, somethimes wanting except on the 
i in i third segments. Venter white tomentose. Femora whitish tomentose, 
on the tibiae more yellowi.-.h. Knob of halteres whitish. Wings hyaline, costal, first 

[ cells somewhat yellowish; three sul r inal cells; small cross-vein 

at middle of i I; cross- vein at apex of discal cell angular and bearing a stump 

in which projects into the second posterior cell. Length 6 10 mm. Cal. 

7 d", 7 • 

T. maxima n. -p. Wholly b'ack. First joint ol antennae white tomentose. 
Front, exc pi the a] ex, wiih d msely appressed yellow pile. < >cciput yell iw pilose. 
Phorax yellow pilos and tomet >se, the bristl ;s black; pleurce j tllow pilo e. Abdom 
en l>ri In yellow tomen'os", a row of black soots on each side of the middle, situat 
ed on anterior edges of 1 it ejments, those on the second segment coalescing with 
each other. Venter sparse w hiiish tomentose. more dense on hind edges of the see 
ments. Femora and tibias pale yellow tomentose. Knob of halteres yellowish 
Wings 1 ya] ne, i osia , first and second basal cells slightly yellowish; three sub narg 
inal cells; small cross-vein at last thiid of discal cell; en ss-vein at apex of discal cell 

mgular, destitute of a stump of a vein. Len ;th 16 mm. Cal. i O. 

T. virgata ( >. -S. Western I >iptera 266. Lengthy — to mm. 23,1 . Cal., 
fex., Ga. 

T. amphitea Walker. Cat. B. M. II, 298; O.-S. Western Dipt. 267. Length 
12 mm. (according to Osten-Sacken 5 mm.). 1 v , Fla., Middle and So. States. 



Proceedings of the Entomological Club of the A A. AS 

(( lontinued from page 209 ant< . ) 
The Secretary then read the following paper: 

LARVAL LONGEVITY OF CERTAIN COLEOPHOR^E, 
Bj Mary E. Murtfeldt, Kirkwood, Mo. 

With regard to the life habits of its species no group of the Tineida 
is iimre interesting than the Colepphora. 

The larvae ate all ease bearers, the cases being very dense, of a 
woody or testaceous appearance and from silk with a large admixture ol 
excrementitious matter. They vary much in form and, where the larva 
ire confined to a single food-plant, the shape of the case may be regard- 
ed as an important characteristic of the species. 

Only the head and thoracic segments of the larvae are ever exposed 
and these alone show color ornamentations. 



The legs are well developed and the insect is capable of quite rapid 
locomotion notwithstanding the unwieldiness of the enclosed hind-body 
which is usually sustained at an angle of forty-five degrees and sometimes 
almost vertically. 

I have found the Cohophorce rather difficult to rear and this is es- 
pecially the case with the single brooded species that can be collected 
only in autumn. These must be preserved not only over winter, but 
through the still more trying months of spring and summer often late 
into September and October. During all this time the entomologist 
must continually guard these objects of his care from excessive heat, 
mould and mites. 

All Gdeophora larvae are averse to dampness and yet a certain 
amount of moisture about the time of their final tranformations seems 
to be necessary to their complete development. 

For four or five successive years I have collected and cared for the 
larvae of a certain species which may be found in September and October 
on the seeds of Chenopodium album. The cases of this species are at first 
conical and are carried in an almost erect position, but at maturity be- 
come somewhat fusiform and considerably curved at the anterior end. 
The average length is o 20 inch, the texture peculiarly firm with an ir- 
regular roughened and mottled surface which closely imitates the dull 
black, whitish green and pale brown of the ripening seed cases of the 
Chenopodium. 

The head and narrow cervical shield are polished pale-brown in- 
distinctly mottled with a darker shade of the same color. Thoracic seg- 
ments beautifully ornamented with curved and wavy lines of crimson 
on a pearl-white ground ami the long and slender legs are similarly 
marked. When removed from the case the hind body is found to be of 
a pale-green or greenish-white color, depressed cylindrical form and with 
a very soft and easily ruptured integument. The prolegs are of the 
normal number but reduced to simple circlets of minute hooks. Supra 
mal plate dark fuscous, horny and edged with short stiff hairs. 

On the dorsum of the seventh segment, in many of the larvae exam 
ined, were a pair of dark spots each one with two points projecting 
toward the medio-dorsal line. The nature of these marks ororgans I have 
not yet ascertained. 

Growth is usually complete by the middle of October and the larva 
then either desert their food plant entirely or attach themselves to the 
main stalk. Here they remain ten or eleven months and sometime s 1 ven 

r in a state of semi-dormancy. '1 hat they are not complete]) dorm- 
ant is evident by the fact that if forcibly loosened from their place! 
disturbed by the pressure of any other bod or ifth< 



224 — 

surface to which they arc attached becomes clamp, they will with apparent 
case lift up their cases and remove to a more favorable location. In the 
rearing jar the cases will nearly all be found attached to the muslin cover 
which the larvae have previously thickened with a very fine web. The 
cases are attached by a secretion which seems to be a mixture of cement 
and silk. I have also found the cases partly buried in the pith of a 
split-stalk of the food plant with which I had provided them. If nothing 
occurs to disturb them or to endanger their health they do not usually 
move from their original position. So far as my observation goes these 
larvae do not "feed up" in the spring or summer, though tempted with 
both fresh and dried food, and yet I have often found them, not only 
alive but plump and active and able to crawl up the smooth sides of the 
rearing jar after more than a year's abstinence. Their only preparation 
for transformation consists in strengthening the anchorage of their cases 
and in turning around within them to enable the moth to emerge from 
the posterior or free end. 

It is at this crisis that they are most likely to succumb to unfavor- 
able outward conditions. Their peculiar vitality seems to be exhausted 
and does not suffice for the change to pupae, hence my inability after re- 
peated experiments, to report success in rearing the perfect insect. 

C. litieapulvella Cham., is an equally tantalizing species. I have 
never found this feeding but have taken the cases in the autumn from 
the bark of trees and shrubs and only once succeeded in rearing the 
imago. 

I believe this larval longevity to be characteristic only of the seed- 
feeding species, as I have never observed it in those found on leaves or 
buds, the latter being usually double brooded. 

(P.S. Since the above notes were offered to the Entomological Club 
I have the satisfaction of reporting the emergence of two imagines of the 
species on seeds of Chenopodium. 

These appeared about the last of September. A few davs ago 
(Oct. 15) on cutting open some of the remaining cases I found one larva 
still unchanged but apparently healthy. 

The species seems closely allied to if not identical with C. lineapul- 
vella Ch., though the cases from which I bred the more typical form ol 
the latter were quite different in several respects. The species just reared 
varies chiefly in the darker ground color of the primaries, which instead 
of being white is deep buff and in the more profuse dusting of brown 
scales on the apical third. A more critical examination may disclose 
other less obvious distinctions. It would certainly add to the testimony 
against the value of larval characteristics should the two (supposed) spr- 
cies prove identical.) 



225 — 

Prof. Riley says, many species remain for a long time in the larva 
state. There is a Thyridopkryx which can hardly be distinguished from 
epha enter if or mis that lives a full year in the larva state instead of complet 
ing its transformations in a few months as ephacmeriformis does. 

Prof. Lintner remarked that it was surprising how far small larva- 
sometimes travelled during their life. Aspaedisca splender if reiki on 
apple, was often so abundant that almost every leaf on a tree showed 
either a larva or traces of its work. He found the pupa on the leaves, 
the branches, and on the trunks, even close to the roots. The imago 
emerged during the latter part of July. He wondered that the larva 
should travel so far before pupating. 

Mr. Smith then proposed as a subject of discussion 

'•HOW SHALL WE CREATE, AND FOSTER AN INTEREST 
IN THE STUDY OF ENTOMOLOGY!"' 

He said he had, during the past year or more, been carefully con- 
sidering this question, without reaching a satisfactory conclusion. It 
seems strange that in so large a country, with a fauna offerim? so many 
new and interesting forms, there should be so few with a lively interest 
in Entomology. The youth of this country seem to have no interest in 
that line, and the question is, could not some interest be created? And, 
further, how, when created, can this interest be fostered? He has receiv- 
ed many letters from collectors of this tenor: How can I determine mv 
insects? What books shall I get? and similar questions. He had not 
always found it easy to give a satisfactory answer. Many of the gentlemen 
present were teachers, or in official positions: Can they offer any sug- 
gestions? 

Prof. Osborn said, one of the first difficulties in the way of interest- 
ing students is, that we cannot offer them any profit from the studv. 
They must study something that will enable them to get a living, and 
Entomology is not one of the branches that offers many advantages in 
that direction. He teaches Entomology, and creates a temporary interest, 
which, owing to other serious duties of life, generally dies out, sooner or 
later. 

Prof. Riley said, the matter is an important one, and deserving our 
careful attention. The question of books, is a serious one, often asked 
and not satisfactorily answered. There are so many, treating of different 
groups or part of groups, that it requires a considerable library to study: 
and this kind of work does not reach the popular mind, and is not whai 
we need. Still we have no reason to complain of the progress of Entom- 
ology: compare the state of the science twenty years ago with its present 
condition, and it offers little to despair of. In the late edition of the 



2 2 6 — 

Naturalist's Dire. to ry there are more with Entomology in some of its 
branches alter I In ir nam :s, than ever befi ire 

Mr. Smith says that in the May No. of "Ent. Am " he had given a 
statement of what the Naturalist's Directory showed in this direction, and 
proved how little the word "Ent." after a nam- signified in mam 
instan< es. 

Prof. Peaho.lv said that in 1869 this matter came up before him and 
he has tried to work out its solution for many years. lie had projected 
a popular manual; but the longer he worked, the further off seemed the 
end. There were two serious difficulties in the way. The first s, thai 
the subject is so large that it is difficult for one man to c< >ver the ground 
and keep the work within moderate bounds; and the second, that our 
knowledge of many orders wasstill too incomplete for such a work which 
should he simple and comprehensive. 

Prof. Underwood thinks we do not necessarily need such a com 
prehensive work. The most successful manuals in botany, and such as 
created most interest, where those that treated only a limited group, and 
a limited fauna. A most useful treatise would he one embracing the in- 
sects of the N.E. United States, as there the largest number of those who 
would be interested in such a work would be found. 

Mr. S. W. Allis said, that one drawback is the want of knowledge 
how a collection should be kept. He has known a number of young 
men who started enthusiastically, and gathered a large lot of material: 
suddenly the museum pests appeared and cleaned them out: effectualh 
dampening their ardor. His idea would be to encourage students to 
collect in special groups. The collections would be smaller, mure readib 
kept, and there would be more apt to be good material amongst them. 

Prof. Riley thinks we could never render such a work as has been 
proposed, popular. We do not want to make collectors, we want students. 
who will take an interest in the work. There is great difficulty also in 
getting any order outside of Coleoptera and LepidoMera in a popular and 
yet accurate form, because so little is known of them. After all, in his 
opinion, Entomologists, like poets, are born, and not made, and unless 
they have the proper stuff in them, they cannot be made good workers. 
Relerring again to the question of books; he a) way recommends; first. 
II, oris Injurious Insects, a classic that will give acquaintance with main 
common species, as well as a simple classification; second, Kirby ami 
Spence; third, Westwood. He has had in mind an introductory work 
to which WeStWOOd would be somewhat the model. He would treat, 
perhaps, 100 families, taking a type of each, and giving a complete treat- 
ise on it, so that the student could gain a knowledge of what classification 



— 227 — 

meant. Such a work could not have synopses, because that would not 
be popular. 

Prof. Peabody would not recommend Kirby & Spence nor West- 
wood, for American students. He thinks that a student who could over 
come those works, and still retain an interest, would be a born Entom- 
ologist, who required no stimulant to interest him. 

Prof Lintner would not recommend Kirby & Spence, nor Westwood. 
He recommends Harris and Packard. He thinks children are born 
naturalists, and that synopses, especially if illustrated would be very 
useful. 

Prof. VVestcott says he recommends Harris, Packard, and Le Baron's 
4th Report, which is excellent so far as it goes; and there were several 
other reports that would be very useful. 

Prof Riley said there is a difficulty in recommending public docu- 
ments, because they are not readily obtainable in the ordinary course 
of trade. 

Prof. Osborn thinks personal contact among Entomologists the best 
way to create and sustain interest in the study. 

Further discussion brought forth no new suggestions, though many 
minor difficulties in the way of producing a popular and yet valuable 
work were discussed. 

On nmiion of Prof. Underwood the club then adjourned, to meet 
again under the rules, at the next meeting of the A. A. AS. 

JOHN B. SMITH, Secretary. 



The systematic position of the genus Triprocris Grt. 

By H. B. Moschler, Kronforstchen near Bautzen. 

I published in Stettiner Entomologische Zeitung, 1885, p. 203 etc., 
a treatise on Mr. Smith's Notes on the systematic position of some North 
American Lepidoptera and assented to this author's view, that none of 
the genera, placed in the family ZygCEitidae by several North American 
authors, belong to it; but there were a few genera unknown to Mr. Smith 
arid myself and Triprocris is among them. Since that time, Mr. Neu- 
n was kind enough to send me a fine specimen of Triprocris Smith 
sonianus Clem., collected in Texas, and I will give my view on the 

made position of this species, stated by an exact examination of my 
example. 

In size this species is similar to the species of the genus hio Leach, 
and the body, especially the antenna', shows a metallic hue like those 
speci* - 



— 228 — 

Antennae with bases approached, much shorter than the body, rather 

deeplv pectinated in the $ . Palpi very minute, scaled, drooping, term- 
inal joint acute. Tongue very short. Eyes large, rather prominent, 
naked. Head free, rather small, scaled, with ocelli. Thorax longer 
than wide, scaled. Abdomen rather cylindrical, finely scaled, shortly 
and indefinitely tufted at the sides, much exceeding the hind wings. 

Legs slender, finely scaled, hind tibiae with two apical spurs Fore 
wings longer than the body, narrow, rounded at the tip. Hind wings 
narrow, rounded at the tip. 

Neuration of the fore wings. Discoidal cell § of the length of the 
wing, obtuse at the end, divided; subcostal vein four-branched, two nerv- 
ules before the end of the cell, two behind it, near to each other. Two 
discoidal veins. Median vein four-branched with nervules nearly equidist- 
ant. Two internal veins- 

Neuration of the hind wings. Discoidal cell rather longer than 
half the wing. Costal vein wanting, subcostal vein two-branched at the 
end of the cell, one discoidal vein, median vein three-branched, the 
nervules nearly equidistant. Three internal veins. 

In my paper a specimen is mentioned as unknown to me and be- 
longing presumptively to Triprocris. 

At present, I am sure, that it belongs to this genus, in spite of a 
little difference of the neuration' of the hind wings; but I am doubtful 
whether it is the female of Tr. Smithsonianus or another 
species. A comparison of my figures will illustrate the 
difference. (Upper figure Smilhsoniimus, lower figure sp ?) 
With regard to the systematic position of the genus Tripro. ris, 
there is no doubt that it belongs neither to the family ol 
Zygaenidas nor to the Syntomidae. It cannot belong to the first family 
because the costal vein of hind wings is wanting, and as it has two in- 
ternal veins of the fore wings this genus cannot be placed with the Syn- 
tomidae. It can only belong to the family Pyromorphidae H. Sch., with 
the genera Pyromorpha H. Sch. and Harrisina Pack. ; for the genera be- 
longing to this family, are distinguished by two internal veins of the fore 
wings and want of the costal vein of the hind wings. 

I was thus able to examine all the genera of North American 
XygX'uidae, except Pseudalypia Edw., Horama Edw. , Edivardsia Nmgn. , 
and Penlhetria Hy. Edw., and I must again confirm that Mr. Smith's 
view that neither of them belong to the Zygaenidae is perfectly right. 




— 229 — 

The breastbone of the larva of Cecidomyia 
homologous to the labium. 

By Dr. H. A. Hagen. 

The gall of Cec. (Caryae) tubicola Sacken, is solid at the darker tip; 
the two basal thirds possess an elongated cavity, rilled but not densely with 
some irregular webbing, the threads being very fine. The comparatively 
very small larva has an amber-yellow breastbone;' its free part resembles 
a small tooth of a shark, which joins somewhat abruptly a longer and 
broader basal ovoid part. Near this part are situated saussage-like 
vessels; two of them connected with the larger part of the breastbone, just 
before the free pointed apical part. These vessels have a dull ashy-gray 
appearance, similar to spinning vessels, are 0,003 mill, thick, with a 
thinner end attached nearly together on the ventral side. The ventral 
side of the free part of the breastbone is concave at its base, where it is 
included in the body, and even on the not included part some fine striae 
are to be seen. If this is, as I believe it to be, an organ for spinning, the 
breastbone is homologous with the labium. I should remark that C. 
tubicola is till now the only species, known to me, to spin; but probably 
there exist many more. 



Society News. 

Brooklyn Entomological Society. February 2, 1885. — Twenty persons 
present, the president in the chair. Mr. Hulst gave some general notes on the 
classification of the Geometridce, based on the studies thus far made by him, and 
urged the collection of larvae and the breeding of the species, as the only way to 
obtain a thorough knowledge of the geometrid fauna of any locality. Mr. Weeks 
gave some of his experiences with the larvce of this family, noting that the larva 
of Eiidropia marghiaria hibernated without making special efforts to secure com- 
fortable or warm quarters for the winter. 

A discussion on methods of collecting and raising larva; in which severa 
membeis took part, closed the evening. 

Entomological Society of Washington. February 11, 1886. Mr. Howard 
read a note from Prof. Riley in relation to the food habits of the larva of Fenesica 
tarquinius, in which he stated that he had for some time had in his notes, the 
records of observations by Mr. Pergande, who had found the larva actually feed- 
ing on the following species of Aphididre: Pemphigus fraxinifolii, Schizoneura 
texseleata, and Pemphigus imbricalor. The last named species is the species re- 
ferred to by Mr. Johnson and Mr. Lugger at the last meeting. 

Mr. Howard read a paper on the Chalcid genus Podagrion, peculiar, because 
it unites the characters of several families, and is parasitic on Mantis eggs. He 
particularly described the method of oviposition through the hard covering of 
the egg masses. Mr. Lugger states that at, one period of its development the 
embryo of Mantis shows 4 pairs of legs. Mr. Howard also mentioned that n 

ENTOMOLOGICA A1WK.RICANA 3fi 



— 230— 

specimen of Lasiodenna serricorne has been found alive in Pyrethrum powder 

« hicli was still strong enough to kill cockroaches. 

Mr. Lugger exhibited a pattern of a new aquarium which is very con- 
venient for rearing and observing all sorts of aquatic larvae &c. It can be hung 
on the wall like a picture, and readily connected with the water pipe, so that a 
steady flow of water of any desired strength can be maintained. 

Mr. Smith read a translation and abstract of a recent paper on the odor 
giving structures of the males of Lepidoptera, commenting favorably on the 
same, and citing instances confirmatory of the views advanced, i.e. that thev 
were secondary sexual characters, the odor proving agreeable to the 9 • Mr. 
Schwarz said that among the many forms of secondary sexual characters in the 
t 'oleoptera, some would likely found analogous in function to those in the Lepid- 
optera. He referred more particularly to the tufts of hair on the mentum of 
Trogosita, and those on the ventral segments of the (J 1 in Dermestes. Differences 
in the vestiture of the sexes are known to occur: e.g. Hoplia. where the $ has 
scales, and the 9 only hairs; but in this case it is hardly possible that we have 
to do with odoriferous organs. 



Iftdex U> AiailF\<bt& &*id S<abjedfe. 



Aaron, S. Frank. 

Oviposition in Agrion 16. 
Angell, G. W. J. 

Notes on Chrysomela scalaris Lee. 26. 

Announcement 1. 

Ashmead, Wm. H. 

On the discovery of Thoracantha, a 
tropical genus of Chalcid flies, in 
Florida 95. 

Beuttenmueller, Wm. 

Food plants of Lepidoptera (Smerin- 
thus excrecaiu.-.) 196. 

Butler, Arthur G. 

On the identity of Cyanins ladon of 
Cramer, with C. pseudargiolus of 
Boisduval and Leconte 53. 

Book Notices 57, 99, 120, 157, 179, 
199. 

Casey, Lt., T. L. 

Miscellaneous Notes 56. 

Collection Notes 16, 38, 39, 54, 56, 
78, 79, 80, 97, 120. 

Cook, A. J. 

Notes on the functions of the secre- 
tions of Leucanium tilice 211. 
The Chi >ke Cherry Tortricid Moth, 
Coccevia cerasivorana 212. 

Curley, Edwin A. 

Bees and other hoarding insects, their 
spe ialization into females, males and 
workers 61. 

Davis, Wm, T. 

The breeding habits of some of our 
Dragon flie-> 18. 

The periodical cicada on Staten Is- 
land 91. 

Duering, Chas. A. A. 

Note on occurence of Samia cynthia 

10. 
Editorial vagaries 193. 
Edwards, Hy. 

New Bombycidse from Colorado 17. 

New species of California!! moths 49. 

Notes on Mexican Lepidoptera, with 

descriptions of new species 128. 

Ent. Club of A. A. A. S. 

Notice of meeting of 53. 

Programme of 96. 

Proceedings of 121, 164-178, 209 

to 214, 222—227. 
Fernald, C. H. 

Hiibner's Tortricids 137. 



Goding, F. W. 

Biographical Sketch of William Le- 

Baron 122. 
Harrington, W. H. 

Are curculio larva lignivorous? 18. 
Henshaw, Samuel. 

Record of some contributions to the 

literal ure of North American beetles. 

published in 1883—84. Part I, 41: 

Pari II, 73. 

Note on "On some Historical Errors' 1 

by W. H. Edwards 18. 
Horn, Geo. H., M.D. 

Synonymical notes, 5, 52, 88 (No. 2). 

ic8 (No 3'. 

On variations in Coleoptera 19 — 20. 

A note on Scotocryptus 51 — 79- 

Synopsis of Aneflus 131. 

Concerning Cremastoehilus 187. 

Howard, L. O. 

On the parasites of Odontota sutur 
nlis 117. 

A generic synopsis of the Hymenopt- 
erous family Chalcididse 197, 215. 

Hulst, Geo. D. 

Synopses of Butterflies (Erebia). 36. 

Notes on Platysamia polyommata. 

Tepper 155. 

The family position of Euphanessa 

mendica Wlk. 167. 

New species and varieties of Geome- 

tridte 202 — 208. 

Kellicott, D. S. 

On the larval period of Harmonia 
pini, and a parasite of same 171. 
On the preparatory stages of an un- 
determined Cossus 173. 

Leng, Chas. W. 

Synopses of Cerambycidse 28, 130. 

Note on Water beetles 39. 

Note on Monilema 136. 

Hypocephalus armatus, Desm. 189. 
Morris, J. G. 

Visit to an old time Entomologist 2. 

Murtfeldt, Mary E. 

Larval longevity of certain species ol 
Coleophora 223 

Neumoegen, B. 
Descriptions of New Lepidoptera 92. 

Notes and News 38, 53, 78, 96. 15(1. 

178, 196. 
Obituary Note. II K. Morrison 100. 



INDEX TO AUTHORS AND SUBJECTS (AND SYNOPSES). 



Osborn, Herbert. 

Classification of Hemiptera 21. 

Ricksecker, L. E. 
Collection Notes 96. 

Riley, C. V. 

The influence of Climate on Cicada 
septendecim 91. 

The present status and future pro- 
spects of silk culture in the U.S. 139. 
Aletia xylina vs. A. argillacea 161. 
Notes on the principal Injurious In- 
sects of the year, 176. 

Smith, John B. 

Noctuids common to Europe & North 

America 13. 

< >n variations in Lepidoptera 19-20. 

An abnormal Lucanus cervus 27. 

An introduction to a classification of 

the N.A. Lepidoptera (Sphingiche) 

81. 

Some new species of Hispini 94. 

\oti-s on the structural characters of 



the Lepidoptera 164. 
Cosmosoma omphale 181. 

Society News. 

Bkhi. Lnt. ode. 19, 40, 59, 80, 140. 

159, 179, 200, 220, 229. 

Ent. Soc. of Wash. 60, 80, 180, 200. 

220, 229. 
Stretch, R. H. 

Descriptions of n. sp. of Heteroi :era 

iot. 
Tepper, Fr. 

Note on Papilio asterias, Fabr. [86 
Underwood, L. M. 

The N.A. Myiiapoda 141. 
Wenzel, H. W. 

Note on Sandalus 107. 
Williston, S. W., M.D. 

On the classification of North Ainci 

Diptera (2d paper) 10; (3d paper 

114, 152. 

On variations in Diptera 20. 



I^ietex 16 Sy£i^>f3£e$. 



COLEOPTERA. 



Aneflus 34, 131 

( "hion 28 

Com'psa 134 

Curius 135 

Eburia 28 

Elaphidion 31 — 32 

Eustroma 134 



Gnaphalodes ', 28 

Heteraclithes 135 

Plectromerus 135 

Romaleum 29 — 30 

Tylonotus 134 

Zamodes 134 



DIPTERA. 



Beridmae (genera) 152 

Clitellarina.- (genera) 153 

Leplidse (genera) 10 

Pachy^astrina; (genera) 153 

Sarginae (genera) 152 



Stratiomyidae (sub-fairlily) 10 

Stratiomyina: (genera) 153 

Tal lanidae (genera) 10 

Toxophora (species) 221 

Xylophagida; (genera) 115 



HEMIPTERA. 

Synopsis of families 25. 

HYMENOPTERA. 



Chalcididae (sub-families) 197 

Leucospidinse 215 

fofyminae (genera) ; 215 



Eupelminse (genera) 210 

Encyrtinae (genera) 116 



LEPIDOPTERA. 

luehia 36 Sphingidse (genera) 83 

MYRIAPODA. 
Synopsis of On Ins. Families and genera ... 144 150. 



GENERAL, INDEX. 



Acoptus suiuralis 19 
Adelocephala suprema n. oar. 04 
Aegeridse genitalia of 165 
Aeshna verticalis note on 18 
Aglyplus 79 
Agrion oviposition in 16 
\grotis augur 13 
" carnea 14 
conflua 4 
fennica 209 
festiva 4 
haruspica 13 
islandica 14 
labradorensis 14 
messoria 176, 210 
" opipara 14 
" saucia 210 

scropulana 14 
•' segetum 15 
sierrse 14 
simplonia 14 
sincera 13 
solitaria 14 
texana 15 
" Wockei 14 
Alcohol for collecting 120 
Aletia argillacea 161 

'• xylina [61 
Am. F.nt. Soc. Curator for 54 
Amerinus 11 1 

Aneflus calvatus n. sp. 131, 132 
Angerona cselaria n. var. 208 
Anisoda 'tylus arizonje 112 
Anisota Heiligbrodtii, Cocoon of 60 
Anthocharis genutia in Conn. 56 
Anthonomus musculus, hab.of 176, 209 
Apatolestes n. gen. 11, 12 

" comastes n. sp. 12 

Aphids, secreti m of as honey 212 
Arctia approximata n. sp. 104 
" elongata n. sp. 93, 105 
" incorrupta 93 
" mormonica n. var. 93 
•' nevadensis 93 
•' obliteraia n. sp. 105 
" sulphurica 93 
Areus 113 

Argynnis halcyone 213 
Vrthmiu-; gracilior (note 8) 112 
\rtlnopeas 1 14, 1 15 
Aspaedisca splenderiferella 221; 
Atlacus cinctns notes on 78 
" orizaba 160 
" splendidus 78, 160. 
Azelina atrocolorata n. var. 20c; 
" austral ata n. var. 205 
radiosaria n. sp. 206 



Harytachys gemellus 1 1 1 

Beaovois — Synonomy ofColenptera de 

scribed by 88 
Belostoma grandis 54 
Bembidium dejectum 1 1 1 
" vinnulum 11 1 

Boltomyia 1/4 
Bombycidre, genitalia of 165 
Biadycellus lucidus (note 5) 11 1 
Byturus unicoilor 209 
Caberodes galbanaria n. sp. 204 
" mimaria n. var. 204 
Csenia dimidiala, larva of 180 
Calandridse 19 
Callimorpha Lecontei 104 

" reversa n. sp. 104 

Caloptenus femur-rubium 178, 201) 
Camnula pellucida 177 
Casey, Lt. T. L. 
Collection of 54 

Synonomy of species descr. by 10X 
Catocala andromache n. sp. 50 
Cecidomyia pyri 210 

" tubicola 229 

Charistena bicolor n. sp. 95 
Chauna 153 

Chironomus, habitat of a 211 
Chrysoboihris femorata, habits of 97 
Chrysomela labyrinthica 127 
" multipunctata 128 

" philadelphica 59, 126 

" pnirsa 127 

" scalaris 126 

Cicada 17 decim 91, 177 
Cicindela veniralis 52 
Cisihene lactea n. sp. 103 

" plumbea n. sp. 102 
Coccecia cerasivorana, net of 212 
Ccenonympha californicus 213 
" galactinus 213 

" inornata 213 

" ochracea 40, 213 

Coniontis elliptica 113 
" robiista 113 
Coleophora, larvae of 223 

" lineapulvella 224 

Colias elis, note on description of ^ 

" eurydice 159. 
Coptocycla aurichalcea, how to pre 

serve colors of 78 
Corylophodes 196 
Corylophus 196 

Cosmosomaomphale 140, 179, 181, ji 
Cossonus crenatus 97 
" piniphilus 97 
" platalea 19 
Cossus alni n. sp. life-history of 174 



GENERAL INDEX. 



1 pssus querciperda 176 
Cremasuichilus canaliculars 187 
" habits of 187 

" Schaumii 187 

Crocata Belfragei n. sp. 103 

" costata /*. sp. 103 

" nbscura n. sp. 103 
Cryptamorpha Hubbardi no. 112, 

Uiote 15) 
Cryptobiurn, remarks 011.20 
Cryptocepnalus distinctus 9 
Ctenucha fulvicollis, anal append, of 79 

" Rohinsunii 107 
Cyanide for collecting 120 
( yaniris I ad on 53 

" lucia 53 

" pseudargiolus 53 
Cybister fimbriolatus 54 
Danais archippus 140, 159, 160 
Derostenus primus n sp. 117 
Dianous chalybeus 1 13 

" zephyrus 113 
Didasys, genitalia of 165 
Diptera, on the classification of 114 
Donacia lucida 9 

" cuprtea 9 
I >repanodes eflaseinaria sp. nov. 204 
" hortularia sp. nov. 205 

" perizomaria sp. nov. 205 

Ectypia bivittata 107 
Elaphidion unicolor 133 
Elater rufipes 88, 90 
Electric light attracting insects 156, 160 
Eleodes arcuata 113 

" deformity of an 56 
Ellema 167 
Kllopia fervidaria 208 

" >omniaiia sp. nov. 208 
Elnvs, hab ts of 200 
Endropia d coloraria n. sp. 207 

" hilumaria n. sp. 2c6 

" lentaria v. sp. 207 

" manubaria n. sp. 207 

" minoraria n. sp. 206 

" mollisarla n. sp. 206 

" occaniaria n. sp. 207 
Entomologists in Scientist's IMrect. 39 
Epicserus imbricatus, mandibular app- 
endages of 60 
Epitragus ovalis 113 
Ergates spiculatus 97 
Eucaterva variaria, cocoon of 60 
Euchaetes Boheri n. sp. 106 
murina n. sp. 106 
Eurlryas Stse Juhannis 107 
Euphanessa mendica 167 
Eupsalis minuta 19 
Eurvcreon rantahs 176 
Euiymene arrogaria n. sp. 208 

" exceba 202 
Eurymetopon carhonatum 113 
" dubium 113 

" emarginatum 113 



Eutrapela anfractata n. sp. 202 

Fxoch >st una caloceps 154 

Eyes of Insects 15 

Fenesica tarquin u~, larv. hab. of 220,229 

Feronia picipes 9 

Genital struciure of Lepidoptera 164 

" variations of 19, 20 
(llapliyra semiusta 8 
Glutops 1 14, 115 
Glycerius 1 1 1 

Gnophaela disjuncta ». sp. 128 
Halesidota cinuaniomea 107 
" macularia 107 
" scapularis n. sp. 106 

Harmonia pini, life history of 171 

" parasites of 172 

Harpalus vespertinus 1 12 
Harrisina australis n. s)>. 102 
" met din a n. sp. 102 
Helops americanus 89—90 
" ir stis 90 
" undula us 89 — 90 
Hemiteles tliyriclop.erigis 60 
He--siaii fly 77 
Hister cylindricus 89, 90 
" elongattis 89, 90 
" latipes 89, 90 
Horn, G. H., elected honorary meniliei 
Soc. Ent. France 39 
of Steumer Ent. Verein 78 
Iliilmer's Tortricids, date of 137 
Hydnocera humeralis 9 

" rufipes 9 

Hylotrupes ligneus 97 
Hypocephalu-- armatus 140, 189 
Ichthyura Brucei n. sp. 17 
Involuntary movement after death 50 
Jana^sa coloradensis n. var. 17 

" lai iniosa n. sp. 129 
Jenison, Baron, visit to, 2 
Lachnosterna futilis, swarming of 212 
" subpruiosa no, 112, 

(note 17) 
Lep-.doptera, effect of external condi 

lions on 40 
Leptura allecta 8 
" exigua 8 
" nana 8 

mtidict His 8 
" paupercula 8 
" ruficeps 9 
" saucia 8 
" similis 9 
" sphaericollis 8 
" sulargentata 9 
Lestes unguiculata 18 
Leucania unipunc:a 209 
Leucanium til.ie, function of secre 

tion of 21 1 
Leucartia permaculata 107 
Libellula aur.pennis 18 
Light, insects attracted to 54 
Limacodes, how best raised 220 



GENERAL INDEX. 



Limenitis populi, aberration of 56 
Lixus macer, larval habit of 200 
" parous, " '• 200 

Lucanus cervus. monstrosity of 19. 27 
Lycaena*- see Cyaniris. 
l.ycoinorpha no. ha ». sp. 128 
" palmeri 167 

" sinuata n. sp. 128 

Lygranthcecia marginata, secondary 
sexual character of 213 
Macroglossa, genitalia of 165 
Magdalis barbita 18 
" l.econtei 97 
Mating of Hombyc.dae 79 
Melanophila consputa 97, 98 
" fulvoguttata 97 

" gentilis 97 

" longipes 97, 98 

Melanoplus spretus 177 

" d -vastator 177 

Meske, Collect on of 156 
Mesites sub ylmdricus 2 o 
Meianema argillaria n. sp. 204 
" novellata ?j. sp. 204 
Metrius contractus 98 
Microrhopala uniformis n. sp. 94 
Moeschler H. B., note on paper of 13 
Mol trchus bimaculatus 8 
Monilema, aberration of a 136 
Monstrosities 19 

Museum at Cambridge; Coll. at 54 
Mycetina viitala, larva of 200 
Nadata Behren.-ii n. sp. 49 
Nemeophila Scudderi 107 
" Selwynii 107 

Neph ipteryx Zimmermani 173 
Neoclytus conjunctus 97 
Nico heus tibialis 112 
Noctui Is at light; note on collecting 79 
Nola hyemalis n. sp. 17 
Udoniota dorsahs 94. 95 
" Horni n. sp. 94 
" lateriiia n. sp. 95 
" parasiies of suluralis 117 
Orsodachna atra, synonymy of 9 
Orus 112 

Oviposition in Agrion 16 
Oxydia zonulata n. sp. 201 
Paedisca obfuscata, larval habit of 200 
" saligna 2I0 
" Scudderiana 210 
Pachyta rugipennis 9 
Papilio ajax, food plants of 213 
" asterias 159, 186 
" asteroid es 160 
" hippocratus 159 
" p ilyxenes 1 60 
" rutulus 159 
Phassus triangularis n. sp. 129 
Pity >phthoiu> pubipennis 97 
Platypus flavicornis 220 
Platydema pei nigrum 113 
Platysamia Cecropia; aberration of 56 



Platysamia polyommata 155, 160 

Pleocoma, notes on 180 
" Behrensii 200 

Podosesia syringae 177 

Polistes sp. peculiar habit of 179 

Psyrassa, characters of 13 1 

Pterosiichus pi<. ipes 9 

Plilium truncatum HO, 112 (note 13) 

Pyrrhotaenia Behrensii 49 
" eld a n. sp. 49 

" fragariae 49 

" helianthi 49 

Rhopalopus sanguinicollis 60, 156 

Rhvnchiiis na-o 1 1 } 

Riiey, C. V., Coll. of at U.S. Mus. 55 

Ripula virginaria n. sj). 202 

Romaleum procerum 130 

" seminitidum n. sp. 130 

" simplicicolle I30 

Rumia unicoloraria var. nov. 208 

Samia cynthia 160, 155 

Sandalus petrophya, note on 107 

Sargus triviitatus 154 
" vindis 153 
" xanthojius 154 

Saturnia galbina, cocoon of 140 

Saiyrus charon 213 

Scepsis Wrightii n. sp. 101 

Scoliopelta n. yen. 152, 154 
" luteipes n. sp. 154 

Scotocryptus, note on 5 1 

Silk Culture in the U.S. 139 

Sinodendron americanum 89, 90 

Spalacopsis stnla a 9 
" suffu-a 9 

Sphaeridium laeve 89, 90 

" pallidum 89, 90 

" unistriatum 89, 90 

Sphingidse, classification of 81 
" synopsis of genera 87 

Sphinx, genitalia of 165 

Sphinx separaius n. sp. 92 

Spilochalcis odontotoe 1 17 

Stenoscelis brevis 19 

Sienosphenus sobrinus 8 

Strigoderma pimalis 1 10-12 (note 16) 

Siylopidae, how and when found 38 

Subula 114, 115, 153 

Sympiezus uroplatae n. sp. 117 

Syntomoidae, genitalia of 165 

Tenebus variolosus 90 

Tetracis cavillana n. sp. 203 
" edward^ata n. sp. 203 
" geniculaia n. sp. 204 
" melhtularia n. sp. 202 
" morsicaria n. sp. 203 
" notataria n. var. 203 
" oblentaria 203 
" paralleliaria 202 
" trianguliferaria 203 

Thoracantha floridana n. sp. 96, 180 

Thyridopteryx ephemaeriformis, para 
sites of 60 



' i K N E K A I I N D E \ . ( K K R A I A . ) 



I lis ridoptei yx -|>. 225 
['ineid ;i parasitic 178 

peculiar cocoon of 212 
I'oxophora, the species of 221 
" americana 222 

" amphitea 222 

" fulva 222 
" leucopyge 222 

" maxima n. sp. 223 

" pellucida n. sp, 223 

" virgata 222 

Tracks of Insects resembling the im 

pression of plants 53 
Trichogramma odontotse n. sp. 1 17 



Trichopteryx radicola 1 10, 1 12 (no 
Triphosa pustularia n. sp. 50 

badiaria n. sp. 50 
Triprocris, systematic position ol 

" smithsonianus 227 
rrogosita depressior 90 
•' mutica 90 
" subnigra 90 
U.S. Museum, Collections in 55 

" Curator for 54, 90 

Water beetles, note on 39 

•' where to colled H 

Kenos Peckii, where found 38 
Zygenidae, genitalia ot 165 



It? I41 



ERRATA. 



P. 


6, 


line 5, 


p. 


7, 


" 17, 


p. 


8, 


" 17, 


p. 


24, 


" 16, 


p. 


25. 


" 3°, 


p. 


27, 


" 7. 


p. 


52, 


" 22, 


p. 


60, 


" 29, 


p. 


74, 


" 5> 


p. 


98, 


" 13, 


p. 


103, 


" 9» 


p. 


"7, 


" 7, 


p. 


"7. 


" 22, 


p. 


119, 


" 7, 


p. 


H3. 


" 22, 


p. 


155. 


" ". 


1*. 


160, 


" 34, 


p. 


172, 


" 12, 


p. 


188, 


" 15, 


1*. 


209, 


" 6, 



for bifaris, read biforis. 

for carmata, read carinata. 

for rusticalis, read verticahs. 

for PhytoconidcB, read Phytocoridai. 

for Penlatomidae, read Pentatomidae 

for Abyrodidcv, read Aleyrodidce. 

for The, read This. 

for given, read giving. 

for perverous, read perversus. 

for some ago, read some time ago. 

from bottom, for enclosed, read inclined. 

between is, and strikingly, insert a. 

for Onodontota, read Odontota. 

for through, read though. 

for Poldesmus, read Polyde.siim.s. 

from bottom, for legs, read wings. 

for orizava, read orkaba. 

for Phaiogmes, read Phcvoijenes. 

from bottom, dele to, before "each' - . 

for T- A. Cook, read A. J. Cook. 





Americana 



PUBLISHED BY THE 




AT BROOKLYN. N. Y. 



VOL. II. APRIL 1886 to MARCH 1887. 



EDITOR: 

TOHU IB. SIL^EITUI-ai, 

NATIONAL MUSEUM, 

WASHINGTON, D. C. 

■ -«•»■ 

ASST. EDITOR: 

GEO. ID. HTJLST, 
BROOKLYN, N. Y. 





Americana 



ii. 



BROOKLYN. APRIL, 1886. 



NO. 1. 



INTRODUCTORY. 

When, one year ago, we issued the first number of "Entomologica 
Americana'", it was not without some doubts as to the success of the 
enterprise; but with a firm determination to do all in our power to make 
it one. We are pleased to be able to say that the support accorded us 
has fully equalled our expectations, and, though by no means a financial 
success, yet the support even in this way has been encouraging. It has 
en our endeavor to present not only special or descriptive papers; but 
so articles of an introductory nature, useful to the young student, and 
notes on the current Entomological news and literature. Nor have our 
papers been confined to one or two orders, though naturally Lepidoptera 
and Coleoptera as interesting the greatest circle of readers received the 
primary attention. Vol.11, the first number of which we present you 
herewith will be conducted on the same plan as the previous volume, 
and if possible even a greater variety and quantity of matter will be 
presented. We have on hand now a number of valuable papers, and 
have promises of further supply from leading specialists in all orders. It 
is unsafe to make specific promises as to the contents of a forthcoming 
volume, so we shall only say that all classes will find something of 
interest, and all students something of value in the numbers to be issued 
during the coming year. We shall endeavor to bring out our paper as 
promptly as heretofore, and hope that our friends will show their 
appreciation of our efforts by as promptly sending in their subscriptions. 

The Publication Committee ' 

Brooklyn Entomologicai Society. 



On some of the Genera of our Sphingidae. 
By Prof. C. ll. Fernald, State College, Orono, Me. 

In 1758, Linnaeus, in the tenth edition of his Systema Naturae, 
established the genus Sphinx, making four divisions; the first containing 
those with the outer margin of the fore wings angulated; the second, 
those with the wings entire and the abdomen without anal tufts: the third 
with entire wings but with anal tufts and the fourth of uncertain location. 

In 1775, Fabricius published his Systema KntomologicE in which he 
adopts the Linnean genus Sphinx, restricting it to the first two divisions 
given by Linnaeus, and established the genus Sesia for the third division 
and the genus Zygaena for the fourth. In his Genera Insectorum, pub- 
lished in 1776, Fabricius gives the characters of his genera and although 
very superficial, those given for the genus Sesia appear to apply better to 
the so-called /Egerians than to any of the Sphinges although he had 
some of both under his genus Sesia. 

In 1S05, Latreille, in the Histoire Naturelle des Crustaces et In- 
sec tes, vol. 14, p. 134, separated tiliae, ocellata and populi from Sphinx and 
established for them his genus Smerinthus, and removed stellatarum, fuci- 
formii and bombyliformis from the genus Sesia where Fabricius had 
placed them and located them under the genus Sphinx. This move 
purified the genus Sesia of Us incongruous species and left it restricted as 
now used by the French and German Entomologists. 

In 1S07. Fabricius prepared his Systema Glossatorum in which he 
restricted the term Sesia to certain species of the Sphingidae and proposed 
the generic name Aegeria for the group afterwards known by the English 
Entomologists as the Aegeriidae. Dr. Hagen in his invaluable Hibliotheca 
Entomologica, states that this work of Fabricius was never published and 
only advanced sheets were sent out, and the manuscript was lost. Hut 
Latreille had two years previously, as shown above, restricted Sesia to 
those species for which Fabricius in an unpublished paper proposed the 
name Aegeria. We should therefore regard .legend as a synonym ol 
Sesia as restricted by Latreille. 1 should never have troubled myself or 
anybody else with this hjstory but for the reason that the French, Germans 
and some Americans have always used these terms in the Latreillian and 
correct sense, while the English and many among us have used them in 
the Fabrician sense. For the sake of uniformity somebody ought to 
( hange, and as the French and < iermans are now really using the terms 

< ilv. we can hardly expect them to do so. The English have used 

the terms Aegeria and Aegeriidae so long that it will be a long time be- 
fore they will adopt new terms, but while we are revising our work and 



publishing new lists, will it nut be well to make the change from 
Aegeriidae and Aegeria to Sesiidae and Sesidi 

In 1777, Scopoli, in his Introductio ad historiam naturalem, pro- 
posed the genus Macroglossum with the European stdlatarum, an opaque 
winged species, as the type. In 1816, Dalman, in the Vetensk. Akad. 
Handl. proposed the genus Hemaris for the European species fuciformis 
and bombyliformis, both transparent winged insects allied to our diffinh 
and thy she. 

I have not examined these European species, but Mr. J. B. Smith 
informs me that he has examined stellatarum and finds no structural 
differences from the clear winged species. If he has made no mistake 
in his examination, there still remains the opacity or transparency of the 
wings to separate them. It is true that some of the species, on emerging 
from the pupa, have a few scales on the transparent part, which soon fall 
off, but I never heard of a case where there was the slightest danger of 
mistaking one for an opaque winged species. ' 

If we accept the view advanced by Dr. Horn, that genera do not 
occur in nature, but that they are simply convenient divisions, would it 
not be more convenient both to the collector and the student, to regard 
the clearwings as a distinct genus since the transparency of the wings is 
so obvious a character.-' If so, our species will belong to Dalman's genus 
Hemaris . 

In 1 8 16, Ochsenheimer, in the 4th vol. ot his Schmetterlinge von 
Europa, established the generic name Deilephila with nerii as the type, 
and this genus has always been accepted as it seems to include species 
well separated from those of other genera. In 1816, the Verzeichniss of 
Hiibner purports to have been published, but the part pertaining to the 
Sphingidue could not have been published earlier than 18 18 as shown by 
Mr. Scudder. In this work Hiibner has given a large number of generic 
names, some of which are now in use and generally received. 

In addition to the above named authors, Harris, Clemens. Walker, 
G rote and Robinson, Boisduval, Poey, Bremer, Duponchel and Swainson 
have given us genera for our North American species of the Sphingidcik 
till, at the present time, we have more than we know what to do with. 
and the work of elimination has begun. 

In the Entomologica Americana, Vol. I, page 81, Mr. Smith has 
given us a very suggestive and timely paper on our N. A. Sphingidae and 
one which I trust is to be only a preliminary paper to a fuller and more 
exhaustive one on the same subject hereafter. Without taking the space 
to call attention to the numerous good features of the work, 1 desire I" 



call attention to one or two oversights, and if I am wrong, no doubt Mr. 
Smith will convince me of the error of my ways. 

( >ur author lias taken Pogocolon and made Lepisesia, and Euproserp- 
inus synonyms of the same. Without discussing the question whether 
they are really synonymous, 1 would merely say that Lepisesia was estab- 
lished by (dote in Aug. 1865. Euproserpinus by Grote and Robinson in 
Nov. 1865, and Pogocolon by Boisduval in 1874, so that Lepisesia should 
have been used. 

The genus Darapsa was established by Walker in 1856 but Mr. 
Butler states in his "Revision", that the "genus was founded upon most 
heterogeneous material, the first three species [choerilus Cr., myron Cr. and 
pholusCx. J being referable to Hiibner's genus O/us, the fifth, to Walker's 
genus Diodosida, the sixth and eighth, to the genus Daphnis Of Hiibner, 
the seventh, ninth and tenth, to Chderocampa of Duponchel; there there- 
fore remains only the fourth species, allied to Charocampa, but apparently 
sufficiently distinct". This is rhodocera from the West Indies and is 
retained by Butler under the genus Darapsa as the type. The genus 
O/us was proposed by Hiibner for choerilus and myron and is used for 
these species and some others by Mr. Butler. Mr. Grote had previously 
broken up Walker's genus in the same manner but in 1873 ' ie changed 
his ideas, for some reason not apparent, and took Walker's first species 
{choerilus) for the tvpe and adopted the genus Darapsa for our species. 
Mr. Butler objected to this as the genus thus limited was synonymous 
with Hiibner's O/us. But the name O/us had been previously used by 
Cuvier for a genus of birds which prevents our using it for insects and on 
account ol this, Boisduval in 1874, established the genus Everyx with 
myron for the type. If rhodocera should prove to be really congeneric 
with myron and choerilus, then Walker's Darapsa should be used for 
them all. but Mr. Smith who has examined rhodocera, informs me that it 
is really generically distinct and therefore 1 see no alternative but to use 
Everyx for our species. 

In 1873, Mr. Grote established his genus Calasymbolus with as/ylus 
lor the tvpe. leaving myops with exececaius under Paonias, but later he 
transferred myops to Calasymbolus. The only characters given were "the 
genus differs from Paonias in the shape ol the secondaries, and from 
Smerinihui in antenna! structure". With regard to the antennal struct- 
ure, Mr. (dote probably compared the male of as/ylus, having biciliate 
antennae, with the male of gemina/us which has strongly bipectinated 
antennas while in cerisii they are biciliate Exccecatus, myops and as/ylus 
all agree in the form of the costa of the hind wings, in the small size of 
the thorax, the unsunken head and the vestiture of the head and thorax, 
and in these regards they differ from gemina/us and cerisii. On the other 



hand, cerisii comes nearer to exccscalus in the form of the outer margin 
of the fore wings than either of the others. 

Without enumerating further points of agreement or difference, it 
seems to me that we must either accept Paonias, Calasymbolus and Smer- 
inthus or else unite them all under the one genus Smerinlhus. Which 
will be most "convenient"? 

Mr. Smith states as follows in his remarks under "Darapsa". "I 
cannot separate Ampelophaga versicolor from this genus". Not feeling 
quite willing to take this ex cathedra statement without question, I exam- 
ined my material {choerilus, myron and versicolor), with some degree of 
care and find the following points of agreement. The head is small 
with the scales forming a central ridge or tuft between the antennae; pro- 
boscis about half the length of the body; palpi of medium size and 
length, curving up and pressed against the front; eyes of medium size, 
hemispherical and slightly ciliated; ocelli wanting; antennae slim, fusi- 
form, prominently hooked at the end, biciliate in the males but simple 
in the females: thorax short and stout, but little advanced in front of the 
base of the fore wings, vestiture smooth; abdomen large, cylindrical, 
tapering rather suddenly on the last segments, without anal or side tufts, 
segments destitute of spinules along the hinder edge; tibiae not spinose 
(fore and middle tibiae spinose in choerilus), middle tibiae with one pair 
of comparatively long, unequal spurs, the hind tibiae with two pairs. 

The fore wings have eleven veins (vein 10 wanting), the apex falcate 
or the outer margin excavate from the apex to the end of vein 4, and 
rounded beyond. The hind wings have the outer margin excavate be- 
tween veins ib and 3, but nearly straight beyond, or they appear to be 
somewhat produced at the end of vein ib; costa of all the wings arcuate; 
frenulum and loop present in the males, loop wanting in the females but 
the frenulum is represented by a cluster of very short fine bristles. 

Why these species should ever have been separated Is more than I 
can conceive. As shown above, they belong to the genus Everyx. If 
any separation is to be made, \t would seem that choerilus should be the 
one separated from the other two, because of its spinose tibiae. 

Mr. Smith says that Deilephila has "the fore tibiae at the tip and the 

irsi at the sides furnished with longer claw like spines'', but by a careful 

examination often examples of lineata and fourteen of chamcenerii, I find 

the fore tibiae entirely free from spines but there is a row of longer and 

larger, somewhat curved spines on the outside of the fore tarsi only. 

When we find Daremma, Diludia. Phlegethontius, Dolba and Hylou- 
itx by one stroke of the pen all united under Sphinx, is it not time to 
call a halt? Why not have put Ceratomia into the same lot? Did those 
four little tli< 'ins on the larva inspire fear? Surely Ceratomia is more 



— 6- 

nearly related to Daremma than some of the other genera are. The study 
which I have already given to these genera leads me to think that when 
Mr. Smith reviews his work and critically examines all the species struct- 
urallv, including the genitalia, he will also include Ceralomia, or else, 
(what is more likely), he will retain all the above named genera distinct. 
I have already trespassed too far and will not take time and space to point 
out their respective distinctive characters. 

NOTE BY EDITOR. 

Prof. Fernald rather intimates in the preceeding paper that he would 
like to have me "rise and explain'' — a thing I am never averse to doing. 
In the first place my paper on the Sphingida? is very general in character, 
does not pretend to go into the minuter details of structure, and gives 
only in brief my ideas on the subject, in the form that seemed to me 
most suited to the needs of the class that I desired to reach. The quest- 
ion of Sesiidce or AegeriiJce. is not touched in my paper; but I take this 
opportunity of signifying my entire concurrence in Prof. Fernald's view 
of the matter. 

Macroglossa or Hemarisi The great majority of European authors 
place croatica and stellatarum together with the clear winged forms, and 
Staudinger so catalogues them. Stellatarum makes a long reach in 
habitus to Aellopos, while croatica has rather more the true Macroglossa 
form. It is a question of opinion, and as my paper was designed to 
leave out such discussions, I adopted the more comprehensive term. As 
we have only the clear winged forms in our fauna it may be preferable to 
use the more restrictive term Hemaris. 

As to Lepisesia or Pogocolon, Prof. Fernald is right. The former has 
priority. The only awkward point is that whereas Pogocolon includes 
Lepisesia, that genus being created for a somewhat peculiar species, does 
not include Pogocolon. Mr. Grote's genus was created for this species 
only; but as the species of Pogocolon are really congeneric with Lepisesia 
flavo/asciata Mr. Grote's genus must be used. 

As to Darapsa: No one reading Walker's characterization and no- 
ting the general agreement of the forms placed under it, can doubt that 
the genus created by him was really nothing but Otus Hb. , and as Otus 
was preoccupied Darapsa should properly have been used as a substitute. 
Mr. Grote's action in breaking up the genus was therefore somewhat 
arbitrary; but as the term really included heterogeneous material he had 
perhaps the right to restrict the name to any form he chose. But he 
should have provided the three species of Otus with a new generic term . 
Mr. Grote's return to Darapsa was probably based on a view similar to 



— 7— 

mine. As, after all, stability in nomenclature is preferable to a sticking 
for a matter of unimportant principle, and as Everyx Bd. has come to be 
generally accepted, I will in future use this term, though I still claim 
that in strictness Darapsa should be used. My statement about rhodoctra 
was hardly so positive as Prof. Fernald puts it. I have seen the species, 
and it seems distinct enough from a rather superficial comparison — un- 
doubtedly it is as distinct as a goodly portion of the other Sphingid 
genera. 

The Smerinthincc are all known to me, and I must still insist that 
Calasymbolus is synonymous with Smerinihus, while I am not prepared 
to say that Paonias should be united. 

"Which is most convenient? - ' When a genus contains so many 
species that it becomes unwieldy, then comparatively unimportant charact- 
ers may be used to separate it as a matter of convenience; but when there 
are only six species all told, and on Prof. Fernald's own showing charact- 
ters of equal value with those separating Calasymbolus, separate most of 
the species, then I cannot see where the convenience comes in, if wc 
burden our memories and lists with a genus for every 7 species or two. 

My statement as to the armature of Deilephila was based on a rather 
careful examination of several specimens of linea/a, and a more cursorv 
one of some of the European species. Going over the material again I 
find Prof. Fernald correct in stating that the fore tibiae are not armed at 
tip. The first joint of the fore tarsus has a number of spines so close to 
the base, that, partially concealed as they are by the vestiture, they seem 
to belong to the tibiae. By removing the vestiture the error is at once 
apparent. This armature of the tarsi at that point is so unusual, while 
the terminal armature of the tibiae is so common, that I was perhaps 
justifiable in assuming the usual state as the actual one. The further 
statement of the armature of tarsi was loose — it should have been "out- 
side" instead of "sides'". This mistake is an error in the use of language 
and not of observation, for I knew the tarsi were so armed only at the 
outside. 

I regret that Prof. Fernald did not go further in his paper and point 
out all the differences between those genera I have lumped under Sphinx. 
I have seen and more or less closely examined nearly all of the species 
in all the genera that I have united, and have not thus far found any 
characters that could be seized on and definitively stated. Some day not 
too far distant, I hope to get at this family with an abundance of material 
at command, and maybe then I can convince Prof. Fernald that I was 
light — if on the other hand 1 should find I had been hasty, I shall be 
prompt in acknowledging my sins. 



Notes on North American Zygaenidae and Bombycidae 

-with descriptions of new forms 

Hv 1 1 i:xKv Edwards. 

As far as I am able to discover from the literature at my command, 
the following species of Hcterocera await description. It is somewhat 
remarkable that six distinct forms of Gluphisia, (of which genus only one 
species so far is to be found in our lists) should so long have remained 
unnoticed, especially as those hereafter described, or at last two or three 
of them, did not appear to be rare in the localities in which they were 
taken. 

* Fam. CTENUCHIDAE. 

Scepsis gravis, n. sp. 

Very closely allied to S, fulvicollis, but a much heavier insect, with 
the wings broader, and the abdomen much stouter and shorter. The 
pectinations of the antenna; are longer than in the common species, the 
clay colored costa is paler and therefore more distinct, the fringe of the 
primaries is clay color and not dusky or shaded with dusky, and the base 
of the head is wholly black, not at all encroached upon by orange. The 
vestiture of the thorax is very long, in this respect approaching the cha- 
racter pointed out by Dr. Packard as belonging to the species afterwards 
described by Mr. Grote as S. Packardi (Proc. Ent. Soc. Philad. Vol. 4. 
318). In other details it does not accord with this description, and I 
can but think with Mr. Stretch that Dr. Packard and Mr. Grote had be- 
fore them some faded examples of 6". fulvicollis, which as well as the 
present species, is found in California. I have no doubt of the distinct- 
ness of -S. gravis, whether it be S. Packardi or not, and I hardly think 
Dr. Packard could have overlooked so important a character as the black 
base of the head, to say nothing of the increased size and broader and 
heavier appearance. 

My specimens. (5 in number) are all from Mendocino Co., Calif., 
where they were taken by Mr. O. Baron. 

Scepsis var. pallens, n. var. 

I took in Denver, Colorado, during the past summer, several per- 
fectly fresh examples of S. fulvicollis, of the form alluded to by Mr. Grote, 
(I.e.) in which the collar is pale buff, indeed, in some specimens it may 
be called dirty white. This is not owing to fading, as most of the 
examples found were in excellent order, and not a few recently emerged 
from the chrysalis. T propose for this the above varietal name. 



— 9— 

Lycomorpha coccinea n. sp. 

Head, thorax, base of abdomen, basal two-thirds ot primaries, and basal half of 
secondaries bright carmine red. Border of the wings blue black, the inner edgi ol 
both borders strongly dentate. Eyes, antennae, and tip of palpi black. The markings 
are repeated on the lower side, the legs being brownish black, with crimson tirige. 2 
9- Arizona. Coll. Hy. Edwards. Expanse of wings 24 mm. Length of body 
9 mm. 

Melanchroia geometrides Walk. 

This species must find a place in our lists, as several specimens 
were taken by the late Mr. H. K. Morrison at Key West, Florida. By a 
singular error, Walker gives its locality as "Java" (C. B. M. Vol, 2, 
p. 387). It is common in Cuba. 

Melanchroia cephise Cram. 

This species has long been known as belonging to our fauna, having 
been found in Texas and Arizona. No mention of it is made in either 
Grote's New Check List or in that published by the Brooklyn Entom. 
Society. 

Fam. NYCTEOLIDAE II. Sch. 

Earias obliquata n. sp. 

Primaries very pale apple green, with an oblique stripe of pure white extending 
from basal third of internal margin to the middle of costa, which is also white near 
to the apex. Secondaries sordid white, with slightly pink tinge. Beneath wholly 
sordid white, stained with reddish along costal margins. Thorax pale green, ab- 
domen sordid white, concolorous with the wings. 2 <^\ Neuces River, Tex. Coll. 
B. Neumoegen and Hy. Edwards. Expanse of wings 20 mm. 

This insect evidently belongs to H. Schaffer's family Nycteolida.-, 
as does also the genus Sarrothripa which has at least three represen- 
tatives in our fauna, all strangely omitted from our published lists. 

Fam. LITHOSIDAE. 

Hypoprepia plumbea n. sp. 

A northern form, in which the primaries a?e nearly all lead-color, with the costa, 
internal margin, and median nerve all narrowly buff, the latter once forked behind 
the cell, the forks stained with pale pink. The tegulas are pinkish, the abdomen and 
thorax as in II. fucosa. The secondaries have only the basal third pink, the lead 
colored border being unusually wide. Though I believe this to be but a variety, it 
is so far removed from the typical examples of H. fucosa, that I have deemed it 
worthy of a name. 2^,1 O. Minneapolis, Minn. July 1884. (At light.) 

Fam. BOMBYCIDAE. 

Lithacodes laticlavia Clem. 

This form has been confounded in collections with the well known L.fasciola 
II. Sch., but though greatly resembling each other, I am confident that they are 
distinct, and that Clemens' name should be restored for the present form. It is only 
; the size of L.fasciola, is of a much paler color, and wants the dark shading behind 
the silvery band. This band is also more straight on ijs edges, and the oblique sub 
apical line is very indistinct and in some cases ol olefc Hie lowei wing an 

ENTOMOLOGICA AMERICANA 2 



— IO — 

pale, testaceous, nol stained with the dusky shade, as is the case with the larger 
spe< ies. 

Average expanse of wings, L.fasciola, 22 mm. 
" " " " L. laticlavia, [6 nun. 

Several examples. Texas. G. W. Belfrage. 

Limacodes parallela n. sp. 

Allied to L. Y-hwerna Pack., but a very much smaller insect, smaller indeed 
than L. rectUinea. Ochreous, the upper wings darker than the lower. The orna- 
mentation is similar to that of L. T-inversa, but the second stripe of darker shade is 
quite straight and runs parallel with the first band, throwing the oblique subapical 
stripe which forms the short arm of the Y to a point considerably nearer the apex 
than in the allied species. With the exception of the brown stripes the entire insect 
is ochreous above and below. 

Expanse of wings 20 mm. 1 rj'. Indian River, Florida. Type, Coll. Hy. 
Edwards. 

Monoleuca obliqua n. sp. 

Size of M. sulphured, paler in color, with the white mark on internal margin 
quite oblique and directed from about 5 mm. from base of the wing immediately 
tow aids the apex. It is slightly waved, and is clear white. Lower wings paler than 
the upper. 

I $. Indian River, Florida. Coll. B. Ncumoegen. 

Ichthyura luculenta n. sp. 

Closely allied to I. strigosa Gr. and at first it may be mistaken for it. It is 
however a little smaller, and of a paler gray color over the whole surface. The 
thorax is wholly gray, wanting the usual brown longitudinal band, this being repre- 
sented by a brown shade between the antennae. Abdomen, legs, palpi, and shaft of 
the antenna; silvery gray. The lines are more strongly bordered with white than in 
any other of the species, the basal portion so much so as to leave the lines almost 
obsolete. The first or basal line starts from a whitish blotch a little above the median 
nerve, and is not dislocated as in other species. It is waved anteriorly, and bends 
abruptly outwardly before reaching the internal margin. The second line is very 
oblique, reaching the internal angle farther posteriorly than in I. strigosa. It is 
bordered outwardly by a brown shade. The third line leaves the second on the sub- 
median nervule, and is rather deeply notched before touching the internal margin. 
The fourth line is almost straight in its direction, slatting from the usual white dash 
on the costa, (which is, however, very indistinct) and is much waved throughout. 
There is a fawn colored shade behind its apical portion, but no trace of red scales. 
The margin is white, and the fringe grayish brown, cut with white at the nervules. 
The lower wings are smoky drab, palest along the abdominal margin, and with no 
median band. Beneath smoky-drab, darkest along costa of the primaries, which 
have a faintly defined paler band. Expanse of wings 28 mm. 2 q. Whitings, 
\. Indiana. (W. G. Gallagher.) Coll. Hy. Edwards. 

Ichthyura jocosa, n. sp. 

Wholly dark fawn drab, the lino all indistinct, the basal being quite obsolete for 
it> costal half. Second line nearly even in its course, reaching the internal margin 
considerably before the internal angle. It is shaded behind with reddish brown. 
Third line leaves the second very much below the median nerve and curves abruptly 
as it touches the internal margin. Fourth line visible on costa, then lost in a chest 
nut colored cloud, then very slightly sinuate towards the internal margin. There i:- 



no trace of white on the costal part of this line. A very faint row of brownish sub- 
marginal spots. Margin a little paler than the ground color. Lower wings paler 
fawn-color, with no median band. Underside wholly pale fawn-color, primaries 
darkest, with very faint median band common to both wings. The thorax above has 
the usual brown discal stripe, and the palpi are also brown above. Abdomen and 
legs wholly fawn -color, i 9- Indian River, Florida. Expanse of wings 28 mm. 

A very peculiar species, easily distinguished by its extremely faint 
lines, the want of the white sub-apical dash, and its brownish fawn-color, 
recalling- that of the European / anastomosis L. 

Ichthyura astoriae n. sp. 

Very pale, almost sordid white, so that the lines are almost undistmguishable. 
Basal line bent outwardly in a sharp tooth on the sub-costal nervule. Second line 
very slightly waved, and faintly bordered with pale brown posteriorly. Its branch, 
(the third line) runs almost parallel with the basal line. The fourth leaves the costa 
in a whitish curved streak, is there almost obsolete in a yellowish cloud, where it is 
much curved and then almost straight to the internal margin. Behind this are some 
blackish linear spots. Fringe concolorous. Secondaries above pale drab, no median 
band. Beneath wholly sordid white, with faint median band on secondaries only. 
Thorax with very pale brown discal line. Expanse of wings 32 mm. I (J 1 . Astoria, 
Oregon. Coll. Hy. Edwards. 

The palest of the genus, nearer to /. inornaia Neum., but differing 
greatly in the shape and direction of the lines, as well as in other 
particulars. 

Gluphisia Tearlei n. sp. 

Ashen gray, crossed by two slightly waved lines of reddish brown, which 
are edged distinctly with black. The median space is a little lighter than the rest of 
the wing. Posterior margins slightly clouded with dusky. A narrow black marginal 
line. Lower wings dusky. Beneath dusky, without marks. Thorax reddish-brown 
in front, gray on disk, as is also the abdomen. Exp. of wings 40 mm. Length of body 
18mm. 19. LakeTahoe, Cal.(Tearle). 1 J 1 . Truckee, Cal. (C. F. McGlashan.) 

Dedicated to my friend Osmond Tearle, Esq., by whom this interest- 
ing species was first captured. 

Gluphisia Wrightii n. sp. 

Head, thorax and abdomen very dark gray, thickly speckled with black scales, 
but lighter on the under side. The primaries are also very heavily covered with 
black scales. A little above the basal half of wing runs a waved line of pale gray, 
and from internal angle another waved line more oblique. The space between them 
is closely scaled with black, but towards the inner margin is an almost square buff 
patch, across which runs a black line. Space behind the middle band blackish, 
shading into pale gray at the submarginal dentate line. Margin and fringe pale gray, 
spotted with black. Secondaries sordid white, with a dusky submarginal shade, 
connecting with the blackish anal spot. Beneath smoky white, with faint indications 
of a double median band. Expanse of wings 42 mm. 1 9- San Bernardino, Cal. 

Kindly added to my collection, by my friend Mr. W. G. Wright, 
after whom I have named this pretty species. 

Gluphisia ridenda n. sp. 

Head, thorax and abdomen dark gray, plentifully sprinkled with black, especi- 



ally "ii the upper side. Feet and legs also gray molded with black. Antennae with 
the shaft white, pectinations blackish. Primaries with a buff patch al the base, in 
which are a few black scales. Behind thisa gray band, edged before and behind with 
black, and sprinkled with black scales. Then a rather wide buff or fawn-color shade, 
through which runs a waved rather indistinct blackish band. Behind this fawn-color 
band is another of white or silver-gray, edged with a conspicuous dentate black line, 
with some black scales towards the apex. The space behind the dentate line is pale 
gray. Fringe whitish, flecked with black. Secondaries yellowish gray, shading 
into dark smoky towards the margins. Underside sordid white, dark on the apex of 
primaries, with faint traces of a median band. Expanse of wings 30 mm. Length 
of body 12 mm. 3 cj 1 , 1 9- Denver, Colorado. Ily. Edwards, 1 cj'\ Montana, 
( loll. Neumoegen. 

Gluphisia rupta n. sp. 

Head and thorax above white flecked with a few black scales, white beneath. 
Abdomen and antennae wanting in my unique specimen. Primaries with basal space 
white with black central cloud. A very strongly marked black line runs quite across 
the wing a little behind the basal third, and from its junction at the internal margin, 
another line fainter and more oblique, and slightly dentate inwardly reaches the costa 
at the apical third. The space between these two lines is stained with buff, and there 
are a few black scales nearest the inner margin. Behind this is a broad space 
limited by the dentate submarginal band, and clouded heavily with black. Second- 
aries smoky, a little paler at their base. Fringes of both wings white, spotted with 
black at the intersection of the nervules. Underside sordid wdiite, the primaries with 
a broad smoky submarginal band. Size of Q, ridenda. 1 cf. Denver, Colorado. 
Ily. Edwards. 

The single specimen I possess of this species, was partially eaten by 
cockroaches after its capture, but an early examination enabled rue to 
pronounce positively as to its sex. 

Gluphisia albofascia n. sp. 

Ground color of primaries white with a yellowish tinge. Behind the small basal 
space is a rather broad black band, narrowing a little towards the costa. On this are 
a few whitish scales. Then a broad yellowish wdiite space, widest on the costa, 
where it is stained with black, and behind this to the margin a blackish cloud, grow- 
ing faint at the margin, and enclosing a dentate submarginal line. Secondaries pure 
w hite, with a black shade at the anal angle. Fringes white with black spots at 
the intersection of the nervules. Underside clear wdiite, the markings of the uppei 
surface plainly visible. Fore tarsi distinctly banded with black. Expanse of wings 
32 mm. Length of body 14 mm. 2 <^\ Salt Lake City, Utah. Ily. Edwards. 

Gluphisia formosa n. sp. 

Size and appearance of the last species, oi which it may be but an extreme 
variety. There is however, a very distinct shade of buff crossing the middle of the 
wing, and the lines are all very faint, giving the insect a yellowish gray appearance. 
The primaries are only very sparsely covered with black scales, and the black anal 
spot ofthe secondaries is wanting. Beneath, a very distinct smoky median band 
erossc> the primaries, and appears on the costa ofthe secondaries in the shape of two 
spots. 4^,1$. Salt Lake City, Utah. Ily. Edwards. 

It is possible that G. ridenda and G. rupta are forms of one species, 
and that G. albofascia and G. formosa forms < >f another, but I prefer to 



— !3— 

consider them as distinct until future investigation shall determine their 
true position. The lower wings of the Salt Lake forms are clear white, 
while those from Denver are smoky. 

Orgyia leucographa Walk. (Lep. Meter. B. M., p. 1723.) 
I have before me 7 examples of a form of Orgyia, which to say the 
least, are very extreme varieties of the common species. In the first 
place, there is a marked difference in size. O. leucostigma being much 
larger than the specimen under consideration. The color is uniform 
stone drab, with the lines very faintly marked, and the usual dark costo- 
apical entirely obliterated in 3 of the specimens, and only very faintly 
shown in the remaining 4. The white posterior spot near the internal 
angle, is also very faint in 2 specimens, stronger in 2, and quite distinct 
in the other'3. The ground color of all however is the same, stone drab, 
instead of brownish drab. Two Qs of this form are also very much 
slighter and smaller than those of 0. leucostigma. Could Walker have 
had this form before him when describing O. leucographdi He must 
have been well acquainted with 0. leucostigma, as on page 7S6, I.e., he 
quotes Smith & Abbott's description, and therefore he cannot in his de- 
scription of O leucographa refer to the common form of the well known 
species. HoweveV, should this surmise prove incorrect, I propose for 
the present insect the varietal name of . obliviosa . My examples are 
all from New Jersey, and are by no means faded, as 3 of them were rais- 
ed from cocoons found on maple. 

Apatelodes indistiicta n. sp. 

Primaries of a grayish drab, tinted with reddish, the lines and marks all obsolete, 
the suiface dotted with black irrorations. There is near the apex a semi-transparent 
square spot, with a smaller one beneath it. The fringe is reddish chestnut. The 
secondaries are reddish testaceous, without marks. Underside wholly reddish fawn- 
color, with a few black and brown specks, but wholly without the dark shading so 
conspicuous in A. torrefada. Thorax, color of primaries. Abdomen reddish testa 
ceous with brown dots. Expanse of wings 35 mm. Length of body 18 mm. 1 ^. 
Indian River, -Florida. Coll. B. Neumoegen. 

Apatelodes torrefacta var. Floridana n. var. 
In this form, which I have never seen, except from Florida, the 
wings have a much redder shade, the secondaries being almost dull brick 
red. Th-e double brown spot on the internal margin near the base, is 
much smaller than in the typical form, while the whitish shade on the 
abdominal margin of secondaries is almost wanting. The lines are all 
much fainter, the discal whitish spot, as well as that at the apex, being 
much more clearly defined. Beneath, the wings are foxy red, darker at 
the apex of primaries, with the bands only very faintly marked. It is 
possible that we may have to do with a distinct species. Specimens are 
in my own collection, and that of Mr. 13. Neumoesren, 



— 14 — 

Hemileuca Maia var. Lucina n. v;u\ 

A form occuring in Maine, and probably in other of the northern 
portions of our continent, which appears to deserve at least a varietal 
name. It is intermediate between H. Maia and H. Neuadensis, having 
the primrose band uniformly broad on the primaries and including the 
discal ocellus, and that of secondaries always wider than in any examples 
of H. Maia seen by me. This band too is of rather different shape, and 
invariably reaches the posterior margin farther from the anal angle than 
is the case with H. Maia. The wings too are much more transparent 
than those of the common form, and in some cases appear to be almost 
denuded of scales. I have during the past summer examined upwards 
of 300 specimens of H. Maia, many of which were raised from the egg, 
but though varying considerably among themselves, in the width and 
density of the band, I have seen none that I could not very readily 
separate from the form now under notice. My specimens (3 tf, 2 Q ). 
are all from Norway, Me., and from near Bangor, Me. 

Lophodonta plumosa n. sp. 

Head, thorax, palpi, and abdomen brownish gray, the latter blackish at its base. 
Antennae with extremely long pectinations, giving them a plumose appearance. 
Primaries brownish gray, with the nervules black. A linear discal spot surrounded 
by a buff shade, a sub-marginal slightly waved line, composed of blackish spots, 
between the nervules. There is a whitish cloud on the middle of the costa, and the 
whole surface is thickly flecked .with black scales. Secondaries sordid white, the ab- 
dominal margin yellowish, the posterior margin distinctly dusky, the dark shade 
widening at the apex. Fringe sordid white. Beneath sordid white, the costa of 
primaries dusky, and the submarginal line faintly shown. Expanse of wings 45 mm. 
Length of body 22 mm. I $. Denver, Colorado. 

A very distinct and strongly marked species, unlike anything else 
known to me. I place it provisionally here, the plumose antennae, and 
the absence of the tuft at the internal angle of primaries, probably en- 
titling it to generic rank. 

Hepialus McGlashani n. sp. 

Primaries yellowish fawn-color, of a brighter tint than any North Amer. species 
previously known to me. From the middle of the base runs a rather broad, very 
distinct, uneven silvery white line, which traverses the whole extent of the wing, and 
is entire and uninterrupted throughout its whole course. It runs from its starting 
point in a curve to the sub-costal nerve near the upper end, of the cell, thence obliquely 
to the internal margin, which it touches by a projecting tooth and thence directly to 
the apex. It has in the submarginal portion a tooth on each side near the middle of 
the wing, the posterior one being connected with the margin by a small white dash. 
Near the base of the internal margin are three small white dots, and along the costa 
are 6 others, the fourth of which is the largest, and is nearly connected with the for- 
ward tooth of the submarginal band. The secondaries are smoky, edged rather 
broadly with yellowish fawn-color. The fringes of both wings, as well as the thorax 
and head are of the same shade as the ground color of the primaries. The abdomen 
is pale smoky. Beneath, wholly smoky, the margins fawn-color, with a pinkish 



- i5 — 

tinge. Expanse of wings 30 mm. Length of body 16 mm. 9 examples, j-^ 1 , Q. 
Truckee, Calif. (C. F. McGlashan,) 

A very pretty species, in which the silvery band is in very strong 
contrast with the ground color of the wing. Its nearest ally is H. Maih- 
ewi, Hy. Edw. (Vane. Island) but the present species cannot be con- 
founded with any other. Mr. McGlashan, who is doing good work 
among the Lepidoptera of his district, and to whom I gratefully dedicate 
this interesting form, writes me as follows, regarding its habits: "The 
moth flits about the meadows for about 20 minutes just at dusk. Great 
numbers fly then at twilight, during the latter days of August and first 
days of September. The females seem to remain on the ground, and the 
males fly swiftly about in quest of them. At 6:40 their flight begins, at 
7 it is ended. They are found only in grassy meadows.'' 



Larval history of Spilosoma congrua, Wlk. 
By Geo. D. Hulst. 

Some few weeks since Mr. David Bruce of Brockport, N. Y., made 
me a visit, and looking over my treasures identified a certain pair of 
Arctiidce as Spilosoma congrua Wlk. The insect had been in my collec- 
tion unidentified for 32 years. But having them now identified, I am 
able to give a brief larval history, which all that time has been awaiting 
a name. 

On the 8th of June 1882, while walking in the beautiful park in 
connection with Union College, Schenectady, N. Y., I found a pair of 
Spilosoma, which, while approaching S. virginica in appearance, were at 
once recognized as distinct. The insects were, as I had no other means 
of carrying them, at once pinned in my hat, which often serves as an 
entomological box. I was called away as soon as I reached my stopping 
place in the city to an ecclesiastical meeting, which was of so exciting a 
nature that I forgot all about my insects until the next morning. But 
then looking for them, I found that the female before dying had laid a 
few eggs, which were cared for and brought with me to Brooklyn. 

The eggs were laid as are the eggs of S, virginica in a mass with 
something of regularity, and were pure white, not yellowish as in that 
species. The larvae emerged June 15th, and resembled the larva? of .S'. 
virginica, being of a dull somewhat sooty white, the hairs being long 
silky and scattered. After the first moult the larvae took a form and color 
which remained practically unchanged through their succeeding history, 
and 1 give only, and that in brief, their appearance after the last moult. 



— 16— 

The head was ol a deep shining black color, as were the pro-legs. 
The anal legs were black above, lighter below. The bod) dorsally and 
sub-dorsal ly was covered with hairs which were dee]) shining black, 
though duller in color near base. Laterally, on each segmerit, was a 
spot of light tawny or reddish brown hairs, including in part at least the 
spiracles, and these, often confluent, formed a lateral band. The spiracles 
were black. The first larva made cocoon, which was loosely composed 
of hairs, with little or no silk, July 17th. Unfortunately the pupa? all 
dried up, so that not one emerged. As will be seen the insect is un- 
doubtedly double brooded, and passes the winter like its congeners in 
the pupal stair. 

But there is one item of interest; Mr. Bruce has also raised the 
larva, and noted the same thing. The larva is, after the first moult, 
black and the hairs are even and comparatively short. The larva? are in 
appearance and vestiture not at all like the larvae ofvirgmica or latipenm's, 
but like, and indeed hardly to be distinguished from the larvae of Arctia 
virgo, nais, and arge. In other words, the imago is a Spiloso?na, the 
larva is an Ardia. Whether this will be of value in generic reference, 
and what effect it will have on the validity of two genera which have now, 
so far as is known, only the color of the insects to separate them, I will 
leave to others to determine. 



On some species of Anthaxia. 
By C. H. Roberts. 

In the Trans. Amer. Ent. Society, Vol. X, August 1882, Dr. Horn 
has given us a revision of the genus Anthaxia of Bupresticke. 

In his opening remarks Dr. Horn speaks as follows: "In the study 
of our species I have been unable to find any sexual characters like those 
which have been observed in the species of Europe. On the other hand, 
with an incomplete series however, I have not been able to find any of 
the latter with the tarsal claws toothed as in our cyanella and quercata. It 
will be observed that these two species differ from each other in the same 
manner that viridifrons and viridhornis do, and the question has arisen 
in my mind whether they are not respectively sexes of each other, the 
male in each case having the rougher surface sculpture." 

Dr. Horn again calls attention to this matter further on in his 
article, and urges collectors to study the habits of these species, saying 
of cyanella and qtwrcaia, "they are so often sent together, and even plac- 
ed side by side, that I am inclined to suspect a closer relationship than 
diat of allied species, in other words may they not be sexes of oner" 



— 17— 

While collecting in Middlesex Co., N. J., last summer, after beating 
a grape vine I found the species cyanella and quercata both in the net. 
This led to a careful search of the vine. I found the two species in large 
numbers flying about in company, and after watching them for nearly 
an hour was rewarded for my patience by the happy discovery of the two 
in copulation. 

Continuing my search upon this and other vines in the vicinity I 
succeeded in capturing twenty-two pairs all copulated. 

This proves Dr. Horn's surmise to be correct, that cyanella is the 
female form of quercata, and thus one of our prettiest species is lost to us, 
as has often been the case before, by uniting its fortunes with those of a 
male. I am now more strongly than ever of the opinion that the species 
viridifrons and viridicorms bear this same relation to each other, and that 
among the numerous aliases of cEneogaster the female will be found. 

It is to be hoped that other collectors, with myself, will search for 
the species of Anlhaxia next season, and endeavor to establish their re- 
lationship to each other. 



Book Notices. 

In Part III of Tr. Ent. Soc. London for 1885 there is a note "On 
two remarkable cases of mimicry from Elopura, British North Borneo", 
by H. J. S. Pryer; one referring to a Sesiid bearing a close resemblance 
to a wasp, but not more so than some others of this family, and the other 
to a Cerambycid (Coloborhombiis fasciatipennis Waterh.), which bears a 
most remarkable resemblance to a Scolia like wasp. This latter is a very 
interesting and remarkable instance of protective mimicry. We have in 
the American fauna several species which in flight may easily be mistaken 
for wasps, notably in the north Bcllamira scalaris, but when the insects 
are at rest this resemblance ceases. 

In the Proceedings of the Society at the April Meeting, the following 
communication deserves notice. 

"Mr. R. M Christy, who was present as a visitor, read the follow- 
ing note: As requested by my friend Mr. Wm, Cole, I wish to bring 
under your notice what I think will be regarded as a remarkable obvious 
case of naturally protective coloring. I was in America in the autumn 
of 1883, and on the 26th of August, near Carberry, Manitoba, I found 
a large larva feeding ravenously on the leaves of a small bush {Ekagnus 
argenha), which is so common on many of the drier parts of the prairies, 
of the Canadian Northwest. A short search brought to light quite a 
number of others, all feeding on the leaves of the same bush. These 1 

ENTOMOLOGICA AMF.RICANA. 3 



— 18— 

carefully kept, and in due time they entered upon the pupa stage, en- 
closing themselves in hard brown pear-shaped cocoons open at one end. 
Unfortunately, however, the mature insects emerged last spring (1884), 
while I was again in America, with the result that I am now only able to 
exhibit two very dilapidated — instead of two very handsome — specimens 
a\ that local form or sub-species of Platysamia Columbia which is peculiar 
to the prairies of the Canadian Northwest, and which has very recently 
been named Platysamia columbia-nokomis by my friend Mr. Brodie, of 
Toronto, in accordance with the trinomial system of nomenclature so 
general across the Atlantic. 

I have brought up for exhibition specimens o( Eleagnus arge?itea. 
It will be observed that the leaves are of a very peculiar pale silvery green 
color, quite unlike that of the leaves of most other shrubs. I have also 
brought for exhibition a colored drawing of the full-grown larva of the 
insect, made by my friend Mr. E. T. Seton, of Toronto, It is ob- 
servable that the color of the larva exactly corresponds during life 
with that of the leaves of the food-plant; and, as these themselves are of 
an unusual color, I think it may be regarded as an obvious case of nat- 
urally protective coloring. 

The total length of the larva is nearly three inches. The head is 
yellow, with a few black spots; there are also four black spots on the first 
segment of the body. The first three segments bear yellow clasping legs; 
the next segment none; the next four bore slightly hairy legs of a light 
yellowish color; the next segment none; and the last segment a pair of 
vellow legs. The body bore many protuberances of different kinds. 
covered with small black spikes. A row of spines down each side of the 
back. These rows were about one-fourth of an inch apart. Along each 
side of the body, and separated by the space of about one-fourth of an 
inch, ran two more rows of spines, the pair on the tail segment showing 
a brighter blue than the rest. Below this row again there were spines 
on the first five segments." 

It is interesting to know of this new variety of which we had been 
hitherto ignorant; and it is equally interesting to learn that the trinomial 
svstem is so general in America. In Entomology it has been confined 
almost exclusively to gall insects, and P . columbia-nokomis is the only 
lepidopterous insect so far as we can recollect, burdened with more than 
one specific name — synonyms of course excluded. 

The North American Chrysididae, by S. Frank Aaron, Tr. Amer. Ent. Soc, 
XII, pp. 209—248, pi. VI to X. 

Mr. Aaron describes the new genus Diplorrhos, and a large number 
of new species in the other genera of the family; giving synopses of the 



—19— 

species of the genera, as well as detailed descriptions. The work seems 
a °x>od one, and Mr. Aaron figures the parts relied upon for specific and 
generic characters. 

Revision of the Californian species of Lithocharis and allied genera. By 
Thos. L. Casey. Bulletin No. 5, Calif. Acad, of Sci. January 1886, pp. 40. 
Mr. Casey describes 25 new species from California, of which 8 are 
referred to the new genus Caloderma; 1 to the new genus Oligopterus, 14 
to Lithocharis proper, and 2 to the new genus Metaxyodonta. The name 
Trachysectus is proposed for the eastern L. confluens, the genus being 
very brieflv characterized. An appendix to the main paper contains the 
description of the new genus Hesperobium for Cryptobium tumidum Lee. ; 
a table of the genera of Paederi with the 4th joint simple, and the de- 
scription of Thyce marginata n. sp. 

On the Cynipidous Galls of Florida with descriptions of new species. By 
William H. Ashmead. Tr. Araer. Ent. Soc, XII, pp. V to IX. (Monthly Pro- 
ceedings) 1886. 
Studies on North American Chalcididae with descriptions of new species 
from Florida. By William H. Ashmead, I.e., pp. X to XIX. 1886. 

In the latter paper Mr. Ashmead describes Chalcis flavipes n. sp.; but 
as there is already a species of that name by Panzer, the name must fall, 
and we propose pallipes as a substitute. He also describes Decatpma 
flavicollis, which name is pre-occupied by Walker in the same genus; for 
this species we propose the name for id<m a. He also speaks of the genus 
Euphctus — it should be Euplectrus. The error is a small one and would 
not be noticed but for the fact that there is a coleopterous genus Eupledus, 
and it is possible to lead to some confusion if the correction be not made. 
Second Report on the Injurious and other Insects of the State of New 
York. By T- A. Lintner, State Entomologist. Albany. Weed, Parsons & Co. 
1885. 8". pp. 265. ff. 68. 

Prof. Lintner has given us in this report another sample of complete 
and careful work. Fortunately there was no new pest that required 
special attention, and the report is made up largely of complete histories 
of some of the known pests, that for one reason or the other required 
attention. The Report is very completely indexed, and there is an 
appendix, containing among other matters a list of papers published bv 
Prof. Lintner during 1882 and 1883. The great majority are in Agri- 
cultural papers not usually seen by Entomologists and the list is there- 
fore a useful one. 

Society News. 

Brooklyn Entomological Society. March 2, 1886. — Fifteen members 
present, the president in the chair. The Editor for Vol. I, Ent. Am. presented 
his report, as follows: 



20 — 

Disbursements for Printing and Distributing, - - - $502.04 
Cash received from Publications, - - - - $399.65 

('ash from B. Neumoegen, 91.00 

Deficit paid by Society, 11.39 $502.04 

Mr. Smith was then elected Editor for Vol. II, and Rev. Geo. D. Hulst was 
elected Assistant Editor. Mr. C. II. Roberts read a note on Anthaxia cyanella and 
quercata.* Mr. Smith noted that it was not at all an unusual thing for sexes of 
one form to be described as distinct species where the sexual characters were 
obscure or unknown, lit- had in the Apions based one section of the genus up 
nn the presence of a femoral tubercle on the anterior legs. It has since been 
proven beyond reasonable doubt that this is a sexual character, and the four 
Kpecies so distinguished are < ■-, of four other species in the succeeding group. 
Mr. Angell exhibited a species of Anthaxia from Florida which seemed undes- 
cribed. Mr. Smith noted the fact that in the genera of Bombyces grouped in Mr. 
Grote's recent list as Attaci, Ceratocampidce and part of those in the HemUeucini 
the antennae had two pectinations to each joint, and he proposed to separate this 
group from the rest of the Bombyces which had only one branch to each joint 
under the family term Saturniidce. The group is divisible into two sub-families: 
Attacince with the branches extending to: the tip, and Ceratocampince in which 
they end abruptly about one-third from tip. Some of these species have also 10 
veins to the primaries, instead of 12 as is usual. 

Mr. Hulst spoke of some of the results of his studies in the Geometridse, 
stating that there would have to be a considerable change in the arrangement of 
species, based on venational characters discovered by him. Mr. Hulst and Mr. 
Smith discussed the range of variation in venation, at some length. 

Mr. Leng as curator presented to the Society a scheme for the airangement 
of Lepidoptera, particularly looking to a gathering of all the information in re- 
gard to the local fauna that was obtainable. 

Entomological Society of Washington. March 4, 188G. Mr. H. F. Riley, 
was elected a member of the Society. Mr. Howard exhibited specimens of a 
Ghaleid bred from the galls of Gynips q. —saUatoris Eds. The Chalcid is new to 
science and has to form a new genus. 

Mr. Howard remarked on the fungus connected with the "Die-hack" disease 
of the Orange tree. The fungus has recently been supposed by Botanists to 
grow exclusively on the scales of Coccid.e. 

Mr. Smith illustrated the differences in the antennae of some Bombycidaf, 
especially describing the structure of these organs in the Saturniidce; character- 
izing the family, as well as the subfamilies Attacince and Ceratocampince. 

Dr. Marx exhibited a careful drawing of Thelyphonus giganieus and spoke 
on the structural and physiological characters of (his whip scorpion. Contrary 
to the statements of authors, this insect has 12 eyes instead of 8, there being 
5 on each side close together, two very small, and two in front. He also states 
that T. excubitor Girard, is the c <>I K g'iganteas, and described the differences 
between the sexes. In the discussion following this paper Mr. Pergande des- 
cribed the habits of Thelyphonus in digging its burrows and catching its prey as 
observed in a living specimen kept in a glass jar. 

Mr. Schwarz stated that Rhyncolus corticalis Boheman, belongs to the genus 
Allomimus and is closely allied to but specifically different from, A. dubius Horn. 

Mr. Schwarz remarked upon the apparent scarcity of the male in Gnathotri 
chus materiarius Fitch. He had never seen a male although a great many speci- 
mens of this common species were examined. 

* Published ante p. 1G. 




TOL. II. 



BROOKLYN, M1Y, 1886. 



NO. 2. 



On Hemerobius (Psectra) dipterus Burm. and 

H. delicatulus A. Fitch. 

By Dr. H. A. Hagen. 

Prof. Burmeister first described in 1839, Hdb. II, p. 973, No. 1. 
the interesting Hemerobius dipterus. The specimen collected near Leip- 
zig, Saxony, by Prof. Schwagrichen in the Museum in Halle, is a male 
with rudimentary hind wings. A second specimen from the same locality 
in Prof. Kunze's collection had been destroyed. The description of the 
venation by Burmeister is detailed. He remarks that this species is re- 
lated to Hemerobius, similarly as Mantispa notha to Mantispa. I may 
remark that the abdomen of H. dipterus male, in dry well preserved 
specimens, has just the same appearance by alternately knotty swellings 
as M. notha in Erichson's figure VI, b. 

The first specimen, which I have seen in the Museum at Berlin, in 
1849, was collected the summer before by Dr. Erichson in the Botanical 
Garden at Halle. Prof. Burmeister who happened to be present in the 
Museum, identified this specimen as //. dipterus. It is also a male. 
Walker, Catal. of the Neuropt. Ins. in the Brit. Museum, 1852, pt. III. 
p. 298, has only repeated Burmeister's diagnosis. 

Mr. J. C. Dale had collected a male specimen from a hazelbush 
outside of Breach Wood, near Langport, Somersetshire, fune 26, 184 5. 
The Pro«. of the Ent. Soc. London, March 6, 1854, (reprinted Zoologist 
Vol. XII, p. 4273) first announced this remarkable discovery, and Mr. 
John Curtis has given in the Trans. Ent. Soc, Ser. 2, vol. Ill, p. 56, a 
short description of the species. The same specimen is redescribed by 
R. M'Lachlan, 1866, and figured in his Monogr. British Neur. Plani- 
pennia. I am not aware of the capture of another specimen in England. 

The late Mr. Bremi-Wolf in Zurich sent to me the Hemerobidce 



— 22 — 

cted by him in Switzerland for identification in 1852. 
greater surety I submitted them also to Dr. Schneider in Breslau, then 
the best authority for this family. There were in Bremi's collection 19 
species (two not sent) and all but three with collection names. The 17 
before me belonged to 12 species, all published. In my publication of 
Bremi's species, Stett -Ent. Zeit. 1865, p. 230, 3 specimens only are 
mentioned, the types of which were in my collection. The other 9 are 
//. nervosus, hirius, pkaleraius, pvg/nnus. limbatus, hamuli, dipterus, 
nitidulus, paganus. 

For H. dipterus {niger Bremi in my synopsis), represented by a bad 

men of the female, Bremi remarks: rare near Kaltenbad on the Rigi. 

Dr. Schneider remarked; it is undoubtedly Burmeister's species, 
but I can not assure the sexes, as the specimen does not allow me to 
recognize them. As after analogy of Borcus and many Lepidoptera the 
aborted wings are to be found on the female, this specimen should be a 
male. I can not make out now if H. dipterus has been found later in 
Switzerland and quoted in local catalogues. At least Bremi's specimen 
was the first known with well developed hind wings. 

A few years later I received from the late Mr. Motschulsky a speci- 
men with well developed hind wings, mentioned by me among the 
Russian Neuroptera, Stett. Ent. Zeit., 1858, p. 130 as Micromus dipterus 
and by an error as a male. The genitals could not be studied as the 
specimen is glued with the folded wings on mica. The locality is given 
lekatarinoslaf, because a small pink lable with R,m. is on the pin. The 
abbreviated locality could be as well Jekatarinburg (on the Asiatic side 
ol the Ural) but the insects of this locality have in Motschultsky's col- 
lection always the label R.m. or. The specimen is still before me and it 
is the second with developed hind wings seen by me. 

In 1857 I discovered and named in the collection of the late Dr. 
Stein in Berlii>, two males and one female in excellent condition, all 
collected by him near Berlin. The specimens are now in the Berlin 
Museum. 

In 1865, Mr. G. Kiinow in Konigsberg, by beating the grass on a 
cemetery behind the observatory, collected, August 22, two males. Both 
are in excellent condition and are in my collection. The genitals are 
visible; a lancet-shaped horizontal blade and the parts below it make it 
sure that these specimens with undeveloped hind wings are males. Onlv 
two years ago Mr. Kiinow collected also the female in the same place. 
of which I possess the two wings of one side in a microscopical slide. 

In the Hemerobid. synops. synonym., Stett. Ent. Zeit, 1866, 
p. 376, after the study of 6 males and 3 females which I had the chance 
to examine of this rare species I established for it the genus Psectra . 



—2 3 — 

Mr. R. M'Lachlan in Trans. Ent. Soc. 1868, in his monograph of 
the British Planipennia described the male out of the collection of Mr. 
Dale p. 170 and figured it on pi. IX. He has first pointed out the generic 
characters. 

In Ent. M. Mag. 1879, P- 95- M'Lachlan records a short winged 
specimen (now in his collection) from Strasbourg, collected by Mr. F. 
Reiber. He had seen a specimen from Holland, sent by Mr. H. Albarda, 
with developed hind wings, in which the abdominal formation did not 
appear to differ from that of the dipterous specimens. Thus, he re- 
marks, the following problems remain to be solved: 1, are the dipterous 
and complete individuals of opposite sexes, and ifso which are males and 
which females? 2, has the same sex occasionally developed hind wings, 
although usually dipterous? 3, do the two forms pertain to distinct 
species? 

In C. R. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1882, No. 17, p. 77, M'Lachlan records 
a dipterous specimen in the Museum R. at Bruxelles from Pavia by Mr. 
Bertolini. The species was not before known from Italy. 

Pastor Wallengren in his Skandinaviens Neuroptera Planipennia, 
Kgl. Svenska Vet. Ak. Handl., T. IX, No. 8, 1 87 1, gives a very full 
account of the genus and the species. He could compare 3 specimens, 
male and female, and collected by himself in July near Earhuld, N. W. 
Scone, and 2 in the Stockholm Museum collected near this city by Prof. 
Boheman. The female is here first described. The author could not 
make a study of the genitals and accepts the common view that the 
dipterous specimens are males. His descriptions are very detailed and 
excellent. 

Mr. H. Albarda, Tijdschr. v. Ent. Vol. XVII, 1874, Versl. p. 15 
to 19, gives a full account of all published on H. dipterus. He could 
study 4 specimens, 3 males and 1 female. Two males collected 'by Mr. 
Six in Driebergen, Holland, (recorded as long ago as 1858 in the same 
hr. Vol. I, Versl. p. 12 and 39) now in the Museum in Leyden; 
one collected by Mr. Evarts in Salzbourg, Austria and one collected by 
Dr. van Hasset near Utrecht. The two last specimens are now in Mr. 
Albarda's collection. The specimen from Utrecht has well developed 
hind wings and agrees perfectly with Mr. Wallengren's description. Mr. 
Albarda believes (I think his magnified figures are not published) that 
two forms exist, and that all four specimens seen by him are females. 
The specimen with well developed hind wings has the fore wings longer, 
and the transversals placed differently; he could not find in the dipterous 
specimens the hooked anal appendages so remarkable for Hemerobius. 

This, as far as I know, is all that is published on //. diplcrus from 
Europe. There are 20 specimens present in collections, of which I 



24 — 

. ii i ill 6 are specimens with developed hind wings, 4 seen by me; 
14 arc dipterous specimens, 6 seen by me. The 20 specimens are from 
14 different localities, and besides those, Dr. Brauer, Neuropteren 
Kuropas, 1876, p. 29, quotes Irkutzk, Sibiria. 

NORTH AMERICAN SPECIMENS. 

Dr. Packard in Proc. Boston S.N. II.. 1870, t. 13, p. 407, mention- 
ed the capture of a dipterous specimen of Psectra diptera in Brunswick. 
Maine, Sept. 1 6th. When Dr. Packard showed it to me, I recognized 
directly my old European acquaintance, though my collection was still 
in Europe Dr. Packard notes that the specimen agrees perfectly well 
with Mr. M'Lachlan's description and perfectly well with his figure, 
though the abdomen is blunt and rounded. The type is perhaps de- 
stroyed, at least up to the present I can not find it among the insects of 
the Salem Academy. 

I am responsible for the locality Siberia given by Dr. Packard: it 
should have been S. Russia. 

The second specimen, collected near Detroit, Michigan, May 25, 
1874, by Mr. H. G. Hubbard is dipterous; the abdomen in bad con- 
dition. 

The third specimen was collected in the Blue Hills, near Boston. 
.Mass., June 1875, by the ' ate M>\ Morrison. It has well developed hind 
wings; abdomen wanting. Both are in my collection. 

When I was able last spring to acquire the types of the late Asa 
Fitch, I was much surprised to find that his H. delicatulus, Report I, 1885. 
p, 96, is a specimen of Psectra diptera with well developed hind wings. It 
was swept from the grass of Prairies in Illinois, October 1, (A. F.). The 
specimen was covered with mould, but could be cleaned so as to be per- 
fectly recognizable; the abdomen is in bad condition. 

The identification with the European species has been made with 
care. There is only one difference. The hind wing of the female from 
Konigsberg has the sector beginning from the first bifurcation blackish 
to the margin, as described by Mr. Wallengrcn; the female from Boston 
not, except that the small furcations on the apical margin are brownish. 
The type of A. Fitch has the hind wings rolled together with the ab- 
domen, but the sector though somewhat darker than in the female from 
Boston is not blackish. The female from Russia is in very unlucky 
position, but as far as 1 can see the sector is not blackish. The material 

re me does not allow me to go farther. Concerning the genital parts 
1 can decidedly affirm, that the two dipterous specimens from Kbnigs 

are males. The specimen from Russia shows a differently pointed 
end of the abd< imen. 




Description of Gasteracantha rufospinosa. 
By Geo. Marx, m.d. 

Although there are 
over 1 70 species of 
Gasteracantha at present 
known and described. 
from all parts of the 
globe: and several species 
are quite common in the 
U. S., there are only 
two males known for the 
1 70 females. One is that 
of Gas/, purvula, describ- 
ed by Thorell, the other 
that of Gast. Rogersii, 
a. $ enlarged 9 times, b. cephalothorax of Mime. described by Cambridge, 

c. palpus, d. 9 enlarged 2 times, e. cephalothorax .. 

of same. /. $ in natural prop >r ion to 9- Irom Alnca. 

I received through the kindness of Mr. H. G. Hubbard of Crescent 
City, Fla. , a female in alcohol (fig. d) with the notice to examine the 
ventral side and see if the little black spider, closely adhering to it, was 
a young one, or the long looked for, male. It was difficult to separate 
the two specimens, as the little one had securely fastened itself with the 
aid of several strong threads upon the rugose surface of the venter of the 
larger one. On examination it proved to be the male (fig. a). 

This was interesting /w se, but more remarkable is the great differ- 
ence in the structure between the two sexes and especially in the cephali 1- 
thorax. 

We need not wonder that in the male all spinous processes of the 
abdomen are wanting, for such is also the case in the 4 species of Acro- 
wma, indigenous to the U.S.; but there is generally a certain similarity 
preserved in the structure of both sexes, even if the cepha'x in the ^ is 
often larger and its pars cepha. higher. 

X< 1 w in G-isteracantha the cepha'x of the male is on an entirely 
different plan for it is here drawn out into a pointed projection over the 
mandibles, the highest point being at the base of the p. ceph (fig. b), 
while in the Q it is at the vertex of the cepha'x — the lateral eyes are re- 
el far behind the posterior middle eyes. 

The fact that the male was found fastened to the underside of the y 
that it might perhaps make its abode there lor the whole period 

xual intercourse or even longer, and it would be of great interest, if 
the readers who r< side in the Southern States would study the habits of 
this spider ami make known the result. 



— 26 — 

D /•: 8 C R I r T TON. 

Mai ii rax long i mm., broad o.S. Abdomen long 1.5, broad 1 S mm. 

Cepka'x blackish brown, finely granulated. Pars thoracica covered by abdomen; 
pars cephalica distinct, semi-globose, drawn out into a beak-like projection over the 
mandibles. 

s. A.M.E. largest, close to margin of clypeus. Square between the 4 M.E. 
longer than broad, narrower between P.M. E.; L.E.conti uou eofcepha'x, 

much behind the P.M.E. 

Abdomen semi -circular in i loping toward the apex which is 

squarely cut. Near the poslerior border is a ridge which runs parallel with it and 
which forms a break in the plane abdominal plate. 1 'ark brown. At margin 10 
foveae or sigillrc, 8 of which are at the semi cir< ular front and two behind. 4 fovea: 
in centre of abdominal plate; the 2 anterior ones close together, the posterior farthei 
separated than from the anterior. No spines. Abdominal plate with a narrow white 
margin and larger white spots between foveae; a large white mark between central 
fovece. Underside of abdomen black, rugose, conical toward the centrally local 
spinerets. 

Legs 1 and 2 stout, femur brown, rest of joints testateous with brown bands at 
their extremities 3d pair very small, 4th pair long and slender and colored like 1 
and 2. 

Palpus short, black, tibial joint with a hook externally, tar.^al part broad, sp on- 
shaped, fig. c. 

Female: Cepha'x long 3.3, broad 3. Abdomen long 5.5, broad 9. Breadth 
with the spines 13 mm. Legs I, 8.8, II, 8.6, III, 6, IV, 9.3 mm. 

Cqiha'x square and broad in front, rising suddenly, descending abruptly to pars 
thoracica; a little longer than broad, of a glossy black color rarely brownish, and 
scantily covered with thin white hairs. Eyessma.il, black; the lateral, contiguous. 
Mandibles vertical, stout and very prominently convex at the base, glossy black and 
hairy. Maxillce short, broader than long, rounded at tip; black with a lighter 1 
on inner side. Labium triangular, rounded, very short, black. Sternum emarginate 
at margin, with a vertical spinous elevation between cox e IV; glossy black. /'<(//>/' 
black with orange colored rings on all joints. Abdomen elliptic, of bright lemon 
color. Six spines; four lateral, two posterior. First lateral pair smallest, second as 
long as posterior pair. This pair is placed upon a common base which is a little 
below posterior margin of abdominal shield. All spines are of a bright scarlel col 1 
with a darker tip and are clothed with a short and robust p . each hair 

standing upon a little tubercle. The sigi 1 ■■■•■ ce are oval and of a dark reddish 
brown color. Ten of these are placed on the anterior margin of the abdomen, reach- 
ing around from the base of one anterior lateral spine to the corresponding one ai ill 
other side- and nine arc placed from thi 01 sterior lateral spine around the 

posterior margin of the abdomen to the other p. lateral .spine. In the centre of the 
ar sigillse placed in a trapez, narrower in front. The hard 
uface oi the underside of the abdomen is interrupted by about six imp] 
lines, and is maculate with irregular orange colored spots, scattered over the whole 
1 oval, convex, very glossy, and deep orange colored tubercle 
without any apparent orifice. Legs black, with orange colored ring tibia, meta- 

tarsus and tarsus. 



— 27 — 

Synopses of Cerambycidae 
By Chas. W. Leng, B.S. 

(Continued from p. 136, vol. I.) 

OBRIINI. 

This tribe contains only small species, distinguished by the front 
coxae being more prominent than usual, sometimes nearly conical and 
frequently contiguous, but completely inclosed behind. Following the 
"Classification" the genera are arranged as follows: 

Eyes variable, abdomen Q deformed 1 

Eyes finely granulate, elytra more or less subulate or abbreviated 2 

, .—Palpi with last joint broadly triangular Poecilobrium. 

1 'alpi slightly dilated, tarsi tumid (or swollen) Eumichthus. 

Palpi not dilated, last joint cylindrical; 
Eyes coarsely granulate; 

Prothorax much narrowed behind Phyton. 

Prothorax equally narrowed before and behind, tuberculate at sides 

Obrium. 
Eyes very finely granulated; prothorax with lateral and dorsal tubercles; 

Punctures fine, flying hairs sparse Hybodera. 

Punctures coarse, flying hairs long and numerous; 

Mesosternum wide Callimus. 

Mesosternum narrow Megobrium. 

2. —Elytra elongate and subulate Callimoxys. 

Elytra short, dehiscent and separately rounded at tip '. Molorchus. 

POECILOBRIUM, Horn. 

Contains one species described by Dr. Leconte as a Callimus. It is 
a small highly polished blue species with elytra sparsely punctured and 
thighs sometimes yellow. The presternum is sparsely punctured, the 
abdomen nearly smooth. • 

P. chalybaeum Lee. S.M.C., No. 264, 1873, p. 189. Length .24 in. = 6 mm. 
I lab.* California. 

EUMICHTHUS Lee. 

A small species from Vancouver, dark brown, finely punctured and 
pubescent, with two narrow cinereous elytral bands, between which the 
color is darker. It has a resemblance from the arrangement of bands to 
C. decussa/us. The elytra are marked near the base with a few large 
scattered punctures from which proceed long black flying hairs. The 
first two joints of tarsi are swollen. 



* I am indebted to Mr. Samuel Henshaw of Boston for his kind assistance in re- 
vising the lists of habitats which would have been far less complete without his aid. 



E. oedipus Lee. S.M.C., No. 264, p. 190. Length .20 inch. = 5 mm. ll.il>. 
Vancouver's [sland. 

PHYTON, Newn. 

Contains two small shining testaceous species with elytra unusuall} 
prettily marked with darker lines. The prothorax is constricted before 
and behind, considerably dilated at sides before the middle and strongl) 
narrowed behind. 

P. pallidum Say. J.A.P., III. 1823, p. 412; Hald. Trans. Am. Phil. X, p. 
42: Lec. J.A.P., sec. 2, II, p. 22; lepidum Dej. Cat., 3d ed., p. 358; linum Newh., 
Ent., p. iS; nilidum Knoch in lilt. Length .21 in. = 5111m. Hab. Atlantic and 
Gulf States, Ark. 

In this species the thorax bears three fuscous lines and each elytron 
lour fuscous lines becoming paler at the suture where the pairs form 
angles. (Vol. I, PI. Ill, fig. 15.) 

P. discoideum Lec. S.M.C., No. 264, p. 190. Length .24 in. = 6 mm. 
Hab. Cape San Lucas. 

The thorax is without markings and the elytra bear a lai>re fuscous 
cloud enclosing a round pale spot common to both elytra. 

OBRIUM, Serv. 

Contains two species resembling the preceding but differing as 
stated in table above. The elytra and general color beneath are rufo- 
testaceous and the surface is punctate and sparsely pubescent. 

I lead and thorax piceous, coarsely and closely punctate, elytra pale reddish brown, 

very distantly punctate rubidum. 

Body uniformly rufo-testaceous, thorax not closely punctate, elytra more Justly 

punctate (Vol. I, PL HI, fig- 16) rubrum. 

O. rubidum Lec. J.A.P., sec. 2, II, 1S50, p. 22. Length .36 in. =9111111, 
I Tab. Penn., Atlantic States. 

O. rubrum Newn. Ent. Mo. Mag., V, 183S, p. 393. Length .25 in. =6 mm. 
Hah. N.Y., Miss., Ohio, Pa., Atlantic States, Canada West. 

HYBODERA Lec. 

Contains two species of moderate size, distinguished from the suc- 
ceeding by the finer punctures. The thighs are strongly clubbed: the 
antenna} slender with scape as long as 2d & 3d jointsand joints 3-5 gradu- 
ally increasing in length. The prothorax is strongly constricted in ft out. 
less behind, and the base is as wide as apex; the sides are obtusely angu- 
lated and the disk bears four tubercles arranged in a square. They may 
be known as follows: 

species, thoracic tubercles very prominent tuberculata.' 

Smaller, thoracic tubercles feebly developed debilis. 

H. tuberculata Lec. S.M.C., No. 264, p. 191. Length .36 in. =9 mm. Hab. 
( ire-gun. Vane. (Vol. I, PI. Ill, f. 17.) 



— 2 9 - 

Color piceous, the elytra with a vague cinereous blotch at base and 
a broad band behind the middle, seen perfectly in well preserved speci- 
mens only. (PI. Ill, Vol. I, fig. 17.) 

H. debilis Lee. Trans. Am. Ent. Soc., V, p. 66. Length .24 in. = 6 mm. 

1 lab. California. 

The color is again piceous and the markings consist of an oblique 
silvery patch at base and a transverse band behind the middle. This 
may be only a poorly developed tuberculata but the absence of large 
series prevents the synonymy being perfectly established. 

CALLIMUS Muls. 

Contains two species resembling the European genus Cartallum in 
form but having the last joint of the palpi cylindrical and the meso- 
sternum very wide and truncate. The hind tibiae are somewhat curved. 
The species were described by Dr. Leconte under the generic name 
Pilema but do not differ from Callimus and are therefore referred to that 
genus. 

C. ruficolle Lee. S.M.C., No. 264, p. 192. Length .32 to .36 in. = 8 to 9 mm. 
Hab. California. 

Opaque black; thorax shining red, punctured, tuberculate and 
carinate, basal margin black; elytra flat, punctured and with the sutural 
angle prominent. 

C. cyanipenne Lee. I.e. p. 192. Length .28 to .30 in. = 7 to S mm. Hab. 
California. 

Flavo-ferruginous; thorax, CJ red, <$■ black; head, antenna?, apex 
of femora, tibiae and tarsi black; elytra blue, flat and punctured. 

MEGOBRIUM Lee. 

M. Edwardsii Lee. S.M.C., No. 264, p. 193. Length .50 in. = 12.5 mm. 
I lab. California. 

A species larger than the preceding but resembling them in form. 
Palpi oval, mesosternum narrow, prothorax longer, lateral tubercle much 
larger and obtuse. Color testaceous Elytral punctures few, arranged 
in three lines extending from base to a little behind the middle with a 
few scattered outside of these lines. The elytra bear an angulated pale- 
band in front of the middle and a few nebulosities behind. (PI. III. 
Vol. I, fig. [8.) 

CALLIMOXYS Kraatz. 

Contains two species readily distinguished from others of the group 
by the subulate elytra. The thorax of ^ is more or less red in both 
species. The color is black except the hind legs which are yellow, the 
club of the femora only being black. The elytra are somewhat variable, 
generally brownish with darker margin, and punctured. The species are 

Entomologica Americana, Vol. II. 5 May 1886. 



—30— 

difficult to separate and Dr. Horn has kindly communicated the follow- 
ing table to us: 

Abdomen almost glabrous sanguinicollis. 

Abdomen ratber densely clothed witb cinereous, slightly yellow pubescence 

fuscipennis. 

C, sanguinicollis Oliv. Ent. IV, 74, p. 9, t. 1, tig. 7; Chcv. Ann. Fr., 1862, 
p. 257 (PI. Ill, fig. 19). length .40 in. = 10 mm. Hab. U.S., east of Rocky Mts. 

C. fuscipennis Lee. Proe. Ac. Phil., 1861, p. 356. Length .40 in. = 10 mm. 
1 lab. California. 

MOLORCHUS Fab. 

Contains two species with very short elytra, dehiscent and separately 
rounded at tip. The color is blackish except the elytra which are more 
or less testaceous. The variability in their coloration has given rise to a 
considerable synonymy. 

SYNOPSIS. 

Prothorax narrower, angulated at sides; elytra testaceous longicollis. 

Prothorax broader, rounded at sides; elytra more or less blackish at tip and margin... 

bimaculatus. 
M. longicollis Lee. S.M.C., No. 264, p. 193. Length .32 in. — 8 mm. Hab. 
California, 

M. bimaculatus Say, J. A. P., Ill, 1823, p. 428; Newn. Ent., p. 20; qffinis 
Lee. Ann. Lye, I, p. 172, t. 11, f. 12; obscurus Lee. J.A.P., ser. 2, II, p. 21. 
Length .20 to .32 in. = 5 to 8 mm. Hab. U.S., except Pacific Slope. 

M. corniHM., Trans. Am. Phil.,X, 1847, p. 45; Lee. J. A. P., ser. 
2, II, p. 21, is a variety with the thorax rufous, found in North Carolina 
and Alabama upon the flowers of Corn us. 

M. semiustus Newn. Ent. p. 19; Lee. J. A P., ser. 2, II, p. 38, is a 
variety of M. bimaculatus with the greater portion of the surface rufo- 
tcstaceous (PI. Ill, Vol. I, fig. 20). It occurs at St. John's Bluff, E. Fla. 

RHOPALOPHORINI. 

RHOPALOPHORA Serv. 

This, the only genus of the tribe, contains three species, all slender 
blackish gray insects with prothorax more or less red. The head is 
elongate, eyes finely granulate, antennae slender with 4th joint shorter 
than 3d and 5th. Thorax variable in form and sculpture. Elytra 
punctate, flat, suddenly declivous at base. Legs very long and slender, 
thighs suddenly and strongly clubbed at tip, 1st joint of hind tarsi twice 
as long as 2d. 

SYNOPSIS OF BHOPALOPHOPA. 

Thorax impunctured laevicollis. 

Thorax punctured. 

Thorax broader, strongly l>i-im pressed longipes. 

Thorax narrower, transversely plicate and rugose rugicollis. 



_ 3 I_ 

R. laevicollis Lee. S.M.C., No. 264, p. 193. Length .48 in. = 12 mm. Hah. 
rexas and New Mex. 

Larger than any other species in our fauna and easily known by 
the impunctured thorax, which is distinctly constricted on the side 
at base. 

R. longipes Say, J.A.P., III, 1823, p. 426; Lee. J. A. P., ser. 2, II, p. 20; 
Proc. Ac. Phil., VII, 1854, p. 218; amabilis Dej. Cat. 3d ed., p. 359; porosa White 
Longic, VIII, 2, p. 206. Length .30 m. = 7.5 mm. Hab. Col., Penn., Kans.. 
Mo., Neb. 

The elytra are sometimes armed at tip. 

R. rugicollis Lee. Proc. Ac. Phil., 1858, p. 83. Length .38 in. == 9.5 mm. 
Hab. Texas. 

Distinguished from preceding by the form and sculpture of the 
thorax . 

ANCYLOCERINI. 

ANCYLOCERA Serv. 

This, also the only genus of the tribe contains a single species, a 
very dainty insect, black with scarlet elytra and abdomen and the long 
slender legs and clubbed thighs which make the preceding genus con- 
spicuous. The body is slender, head short and prothorax very long 
compared with the cylindrical elytra. The antennae are serrate, more 
noticeably the inner joints, i as long as the body in 9. an d longer than 
same in $. The hind pair of thighs is armed with a terminal spine. 

A. bicolor Oliv. Ent. IV, 1795, 68, p. 32, t. 3, f. 25; Casteln. Hist. Nat. II, 
p. 431; rugicollis Fab. Syst. El., II, p. 317; Lacord. Gen. Atl. X, t. 93, f. 5; Lee. 
J.A.P., ser. 2, II, 1850, p. 19; Uvidipennis Hald. Trans. Am. Phil. X, 1847, p. 44. 

Length .50 to .70 in. = 12.5 to 18 mm. Hab. Southern States from North 
Carolina to Texas. (PI. Ill, fig. 22, Vol. I.) 

PARISTEMIINI. 

The characters separating this tribe will be found in the arrangement 
of tribes. Bull. Br. Ent. Soc, VII, p. 114, or more fully discussed in 
the Classification p. 294. Two genera are known as under: 

Antennae short, serrate, nth joint appendiculate Elytroleptus. 

Antennae longer, slender, nth joint simple Holopleura. 

ELYTROLEPTUS Luges. 
Contains five species formerly known under the generic name 
Pteroplatus. The peculiar form of the elytra shown in the figure (PI. I, 
fig. 1) at once distinguishes the genus and the species may be distinguish- 
ed by the following 

SVXOPSIS OF ELYTROLEPTUS. 

Plack, elytra black with outer margin broadly fulvous floridanus. 

Black, elytra reddish yellow rufipennis. 



, elytra scarlet with apical fourth black apicalis. 

Scarlet, elytra all scarlet ignitus. 

Ferruginous, posterior half of elytra black divisus. 

E. floridanus Lee. Proc. Ac. Phil., 1S62, p. 38. Length .37 in. = 9 mm. 
Hab. Florida. 

E. divisus Lee. Trans. Am. l'.nt. Soc, XII, p. 23. Length .36 in. =9111111. 
1 1 ah. Texas. 

E. rufipennis Lee, I.e. Length .44 to .52 in. = 11 to 13 mm. Hah. Ariz.. 
X. Mex. 

E. apicalis Lee, I.e. Length .44 to .6S in. = 11 to 17 mm. Hal). Arizona. 

E. ignitus Lee., I.e. Length .44 to .52 in. = 11 to 13 mm. Hab. Arizona. 
A full description of the last four species will be found in Dr. 
Leconte's posthumus writings, cited above, together with notes by Dr. 
I bun. The exact value of these species is somewhat doubtful and it 
will require more material to settle the point than is yet accessible. 

HOLOPLEURA Lee. 
Contains only one species, but that is among the daintiest of the 
smaller Longicorns. The color of trunk, antennae, and legs is black; 
thorax and elytra reddish, sometimes very bright scarlet and always more 
or less ornamented with blackish spots and vitta?, more distinct in the 
male (PI. I, fig. 2). 

H. marginata Lee. S.M.C., No. 264, 1873, p. 194; Helena 9 Lee. I.e. 
Length .32 to .36 in. = 8 to 9 mm. Hab. California. 

ROSALIA Serv. 
R. funebris Mots. Bull. Mosc, 1845, I, p. 87, t. 2, f. 8; Lee. Ent. Kept.. 
1857, p. 61, t. 2, f. 11; alpina Lee. J. A. P., ser. 2, II, 1S52, p. 177. Length 1 to 
1.5 in. = 25 to 40 mm. Hab. Pacific Coast to Sitka. 

The remarkable black-white coloration of this insect distinguishes it 
very easily. It is the only representative of the tribe Rosaliini (PI. I, 

fig 3). 

EVAN DA Thorns. 

E. xanthomelas Guer. included in Austin's Supplement to Crotch's 
Check List has not been found within our faunal limits and is to be 
dropped therefore from our lists. 

(To be continued. )* 



TO OUR READERS. 

In accordance with our custom, the first two numbers arc sent to 
all our old subscribers. No. 3 and the future numbers will be sent only 
to those who send in their subscriptions to this volume. 



The plate to this paper will he given with the next number. 



—33 — 

A generic Synopsis of the Hymenopterous Family 
Chalcididae. 

By L. O. Howard 

(Continued from page 219 oi' Vol. I.) 

Subfamily PTEROMALINAE. 
SYNOPSIS OF TRIBES. 

Posterior tibice 2-spurred. 

Parapsides of mesoscutum discernible, or indicated anteriorly. 
Abdomen with a more or less distinct petiole, usually long; parapsides discernible 

anteriorly or complete Tribe Mischogastrides. 

Abdomen almost sessile; parapsides complete Tribe Cleonymides. 

Parapsides of mesoscutum not at all discernible Tribe Colotrechnides. 

Posterior tibiae 1 -spurred.* 

Anterior femora enlarged Tribe Chiropachides. 

Anterior femora not enlarged. 

Head very large, broad, excavated in front, with two acute tubercles on each 

side Tribe Caratomides. 

Head not especially large. 
Clypeus in the middle at apex acutely 2-dcntate; marginal vein of fore wings 

often thickened , Tribe Sphegigastrides. 

Clypeus not 2-dentate. Marginal vein not at all or very slightly thickened. 

Wings with a long marginal vein, short stigmal and almost no club 

Tribe Diparides. 
Club always quite pronounced Tribe Pteromalides. 

Tribe MISCHOGASTRIDES. 
Mesoscutar parapsides plainly discernible. 
Collar not separated. 
Dorsum convex; parapsides convex. 

Petiole short, or moderately so; left mandible 3-dentate. 

Petiole rugose or smooth; rf trophi normal .:• 

Cenus Lamprotatus Westwood. 
Petiole punctate, sub- depressed; wings with a very large club. 

Dorsum sericeus-punctate; (J 1 trophi normal 

*Genus Gitognathus Thomson. 

1 lorsum squamous-punctate ; rf trophi normal 

*Genus Stictomischus Thomson. 

1 vtiole very short ; both mandibles 3-dentate; club small 

*Genus Seladerma Walker. 

Petiole long; both mandibles 4-dentate; club large 

Genus Mischogaster Walker. 
Dorsum of mesonotum much flatter; parapsidal sutures not deep, posteriorly 
delicate but complete. 
MetSthorax rugose; <$ antennae sub clavate .*Genus Megorismus Walker. 



* Sometimes 2-spurred in the Chiropachides in which case the fore wings are 
transversely banded with brown. (See synopsis of this Tribe. ) Also 2-spurred in 
the genus Dimachus oftheTribe Pteromalides. 



_ 3 4 — 

Thorax short, scutellar furrows almost straight 

*Genus Ormocerus Walker. 

Collar sepaialed; parapsides not convex; petiole short 

*Genus Toxeuma Walker. 
Mesoscutar parapsides not plainly separated; antenna- with a long scape. 

Marginal and postmarginal veins long; $ trophi abnormal 

*Genus Halticoptera Spinola. 

Marginal and submarginal veins not long; rj" tropin normal 

*Genus Dicyclus Walker. 
Tribe CLEONYMIDES. 
Eyes hairy; labrum conspicuous; mandibles rather weak; ring joints of the antenna- 
large. 

Body metallic *Genus Cleonymus Latreille, 

Body scarcely metallic; abdomen sub-rotund; antenna: clavate 

*Genus Micradelus Walkei . 
Eyes smooth; labium hidden; mandibles strong; the left 3- and the right 4-dentate. 
Scutellar frenum with transverse impressions; head with rounded, convex cheeks... 

*Genus Trigonoderus Westwood. 
Not so; head triangular, narrow anteriorly. 

Abdomen sessile *Genus Platygerrhus Thomson. 

1 Abdomen with a distinct petiole *Genus Photismus Thomson. 

Tribe COLOTRECHNIDES. 

This tribe consists of the single genus *Colotrechnns which is suffi- 
ciently described in the Synopsis of Tribes for synoptical purposes. 

Tribe CHIROPACHIDES. 
Posterior tibiae armed with two spurs; wings banded; marginal vein not thickened. 
Anterior femora exciso-dentate; posterior tibial spurs arcuate; wings with two 

transverse bands Genus Chiropachys Westwood. 

Anterior femora simple; wings with but one band; stigmal club large, horizontal... 

*Genus Acrocormus Eoerster. 
Posterior tibia- with one spur. 

Marginal veins of fore wings thickened. 

Antenna with the ring-joints large, not transverse; anterior coxa; subcylindrical : 

stigmal club obsolete *Genus Pandelus Foerster. 

Antenna- with transverse ring-joints; cyaneous. 

Stigmal and postmarginal veins short Genus Metacolus Foerster. 

Stigmal vein longer than marginal; 9 with antenna] club stylate at apex 

*Genus Raphitelus Walker. 
Marginal vein of fore-wings not thickened. 

Stigmal club very large: anterior border of pronotum sharp 

*Genus Dinotus Foerster. 
Stigmal club small or moderately so; anterior margin of pronotum rounded. . . . 

(anus Rhopalicus Foerster. 
Tribe CARATOMIDES. 
Consists of the single genus Caratomus Dalman, a very strange form 
which can be readily recognized from the characters given in the tribal 
synopsis. 



—35— 

Family SPHEGIGASTRIDES. 
I pper wings with a delicate marginal vein, petiole punctale above, longer than 
broad. 
Petiole longer than the posterior coxae; $ palpi normal. 
Head with compressed cheeks; vertex not very narrow. 

Parapsides discernible *Genus Merismus Walker. 

l'arapsides not plainly discernible. 
Abdominal joints 2 and 3 very large ..*Genus Sphegigaster Spinola. 

Abdominal joint 2 very large, others short, often retracted 

*Genus Cryptoprymnus Foerster. 
Head with rounded cheeks, sub-lenticular, vertex narrow ; postpetiole very large: 

collar broad *Genus Syntomopus Walker. 

Petiole not longer than posterior coxa?; second segment of abdomen deeply emargi- 
nate and third very large; $ palpi abnormal. 

Vertex acute in the middle; parapsides not plainly discernible 

*Genus Cyrtogaster Walker. 

Vertex not acute medially; parapsides plainly discernible 

*Genus Polycystus Westwood. 
Upper wings with a thick marginal vein; petiole shorter than the posterior coxa;. 

Parapsides plainly separated; stigmal club large *Genus Pachycrepis Foerster. 

Parapsides not plainly distinguished Genus Pachyneuron Walker. 

Tribe DIPARIDES. 

l'etiole shorter than posterior coxae; $ antennae not verticillate-pilose 

*Genus Panstenon Walker, 
l'etiole linear, longer than coxae; postpetiole very large; $ antennae with well separ- 
ated joints, sparsely verticillate *Genus Dipara Walker. 

Tribe PTEROMALIDES. 

Posterior tibiae 2-spurred *Genus Dimachus. 

Posterior tibiae 1 -spurred. 
Antenna] club subulate Q, or conico-acuminate $; metathorax punctate, no fold 

and no spiracular sulcus .... Genus Merisus Walker. 

\11tennal club not subulate. 
Antennas inserted below the middle of the face; stigmal club scarcely discernible; 
vertex not medially acute; cheeks round; abdomen not rotund; left mandible 
3-, right 4-dentate; joint 1 ot the antennal funicle equal to the others in size, 

rarely abruptly smaller Genus Eutelus Walker. 

Terebra exserted; funicle of antennae thick, joint 1 in the O abruptly smaller; 

thorax above smooth; metathorax very short 

Genus Roptrocerus Ratzeburg. 

Joint 1 of the antennal funicle most usually large, very rarely abruptly smaller 

than the others; posterior coxa? not pubescent on the hind margin at base; 

left mandible usually 3-dentate, dentations broad at base 

*Genus Aetroxys Westwood . 
Vnterior margin of the collar sharp, acutely reflected; mandibles acutely 4- 

dentate *Genus Isocyrtus Walker. 

I lead with the vertex sometimes medially acute; eyes occasionally hairy; mandi- 
bles usually 4-dentate; antennae often inserted below the middle of the face; 
liny; joint plainly discernible; metathorax usually punctulate and furnished 



with a carina; abdomen often rotund, never produced at apex with 9 

Genus Pteromalus Swederus. 

Mandibles with three acute strong teeth; collar narrow, scarcely discernible 

Genus Metopon Walker. 
Genus DIMACHUS. 
Collar not separated ; funicle filiform, joint i large. 

Marginal vein thickened, stigmal nearly same length ora little longer; bodyshort... 

Subgenus Caenocrepis. 
Marginal vein delicate, longer than stigmal. 

Abdomen with a basal yellow hand Subgenus Dimachus. 

Abdomen with no band Subgenus Hemitrichus. 

Collar separated. 

First funicle joint short. 

Antenna" short, clavate Subgenus Habritus, 

Antennae filiform Subgenus Dinarmus. 

First funicle joint cylindrical; antennae filiform ■ • • • Subgenus Picroscytus. 

Genus MERISUS. 
hirst funicle joint short; rim of the metathorax with large punctures; coxae all rufous 

Subgenus Bceotomus Foerster. 

hirst funicle joint as long as the following. 

Abdomen subcylindrical, joint 3 short Subgenus Merisus Walker. 

Abdomen subovate, dorsum often flattened Subgenus Homoporus Thomson. 

Genus EUTELUS. 
Marginal vein one and a half times as long as the stigmal; metathorax with distinct 
lateral folds; club of $ antennae blackish. 
Head with narrow vertex; 9 ocelli placed in a very slightly curved line: thorax 

short Subgenus Eutelus Walker. 

Head with broad vertex; clypeus incised or truncate at apex; ocelli large; placed 
in a triangle: thorax long; margin of collar sharp; abdomen elongate, 

triangular Subgenus Platytermus Thomson. 

Marginal vein not at all or bnt slightly longer than stigmal; metathorax with no 
lateral folds: first funicle joint very small; vertex and collar narrow. 

Antenna: inserted a little below the middle of the face 

Subgenus Amblymerus Thomson. 

Antenna' inserted slightly above the clypeus; metathorax very short 

Subgenus Psilonotus Thomson. 

Genus ROPTROCERUS. 
Antennae inserted almost in the middle of the face which is impressed with large 

punctures Subgenus Roptrocerus Ratzeburg. 

Antennae inserted scarcely above tin- clypeus Subgenus Anogmus Foerster. 

Genus i^TROXYS. 
1 lypeus armed apically in the middle with a tooth; thorax long, collar acutely 

margined and dilated laterally; metathorax with short folds or none at all 

Subgenus Stenomalus Thomson. 
('lypeus with no apical tooth, but with a sinuate or truncate apex. 

Wings with a large stigmal club; head with the cheeks often rounded; collar 
separated, acute and not narrow medially. 



—37— 

Metathorax short; clypeus incised in the middle at apex; mesothoracic episterna 

reaching to coxae Subgenus Cecidostiba Thomson. 

Metathorax not short, often with a fold and often also with a slight transverse 

carina; head and thorax usually rigido-pubescent 

Subgenus Ccenacis Foerster. 
Wings with a small or medium-sized stigmal.club; head often triangular and with 
prominent eyes; collar often not at all or slightly separated. 
Head triangular, narrowed towards mouth, face not rigido-pubescent; eyes 
large, convex, round; presternum large; mesosternal groove distinct; the 
round spiracles remote from postscutellum. 
Collar acute. 

Vertex acute in the middle Subgenus ^troxys Westwood. 

Vertex not acute in the middle. 

First funicle joint small Subgenus Cricellius Thomson. 

First funicle joint large Subgenus Holcaeus Thomson. 

Collar not separated Subgenus Stinoplus Thomson. 

Head usually with bulging cheeks; eyes not prominent; sternal groove obsolete; 
vertex in the middle not acute; metathoracic spiracles usually large, oval; 
collar not at all or slightly acute; first funicle joint longer than pedicel. 

Collar broad; head with bulging cheeks; left mandible 3-dentate 

Subgenus Habrocytus Thomson. 

Collar narrow in the middle; head narrowing towards mouth; both mandibles 

3-dentate Subgenus Spintherus Thomson. 

Genus ISOCYRTUS. 

Eyes hairy; metathorax long, its apical border with large punctures; abdomen with 

its second segment smooth at base, the third not small. . . 

Subgenus Isocyrtus Walker. 
Eyes smooth; second abdominal segment with a dense fringe on sides, not large; 
third small. 
Vertex broad ; head short, thick, eyes round and prominent; funicle of the ^ 

antennae alternately white Subgenus Polycelis Thomson. 

Vertex not broad, eyes sub-ovate Subgenus Trichomalus Thomson. 

Genus PTEROMALUS. 

Eyes hairy; antennae incrassate; vertex sharp in the middle. 

Wings maculate; U abdomen short, ovate; tibiae with rigid bristles 

Subgenus Halizous Thomson. 

Wings immaculate; abdomen rotund Subgenus Trichoglenus Thomson. 

luooth. 

First funicle joint small Subgenus Meraporus Walker. 

First funicle joint large. 

Metathorax with a large sub-globose neck; flagellum of antennae filiform; G ab- 
domen ovate-acute; postmarginal vein longer than stigmal. 
Wings entirely pubescent; head with concave cheeks; neck of metathorax 

smooth Subgenus Catolaceus Thomson. 

Wings with a large clear spot; neck of metathorax punctate 

Subgenus Pteromalus Swederus. 
Metalhora* usually with a very small neck; postmarginal vein often shorter than 
stigmal, very rarely longer; 9 abdomen usually rotund. 

Entomologies Americana, Vol. II. 6 May 1886. 



- 3 8- 

Postmarginal longer than stigmal; neck of metathorax short; abdomen oval- 
rotund; vertex broad Subgenus Diglochis Thomson. 

Postmarginal shorter than stigmal or equal to it. 
Abdomen oblong. 

Vertex rounded in the middle, 9 abdomen ovate, convex below ; 9 wings 
often marked with large smoky discs; club of 9 antennae small, 

shorter than pedicel Subgenus Arthrolytus Thomson. 

Vertex acute in the middle Subgenus Dibrachys Thomson 

Abdomen rotund; cheeks compressed, acute; wings hyaline, postmarginal 
shorter than stigmal Subgenus Ccelopisthus Thomson. 

Genus METOPON. 

antennae strongly incrassate, sub-clavate; $ antennae verticillate-pilose 

Subgenus Metopon Walker. 
C antenna 1 with the flagellum of equal width throughout, $ antenna' pubescent or 

densely clothed with short hairs; 9 abdomen rotund 

Subgenus Dirhicnus Thon 
(To be continued.) 



Notes on Thelyphonus Latr. 
By Geo. Marx, m.d. 

There is a group among the Arthrogastra, to which Latreille has 
given the name Pedipalpi. This term can be interpreted in two ways, 
either, the palpi are like legs, or the legs are like palpi. "Palpi brachia 
cemulantes", says Latr., "the palpi resemble arms". If he had intended 
to introduce this idea into the name, he should have called the group 
Brachiopalpi. But he was correct in naming it Pedipalpi, for the anterior 
pair of legs are here functionally no motor organs; but their strucrure 
and insertion prove that they are the, here retained, 2nd maxillary or 
labial palpi of the insects, which are transformed in all other Arachnida 
into leg-like structures with motor functions, giving thus the whole class 
the characteristic 8 legs, and which are here exceptionally preserved in 
their original form. 

While the insertion of the 8 legs in all Arachnides is on one plane, 
either in close apposition or radiating from the sternum, we find in 
the Pedipalpi ?A their sternal surface only 6 coxae surrounding the sternal 
plate and the insertion of the first pair is at the pleural side and in the 
upper outer border of the maxilla;. 

The difference in the structure between the anterior and the other 6 
legs is remarkable. The former are not half as thick, but at least twice 
as lung as the latter. The tibia represents in the other .six legs one joint 
(in Phrynus sometimes two and three) while it has in the front pair — at 

m some — 27 to 37 joints, and the tarsus 8, 65, or even as man) as 
85, when it has in the other 3 pair only 3 joints. 



—39— 

Latreille divided the Pedipalpi into 2 genera: Phrynus and Thelyphon- 
us. Since then numerous species have been collected and new genera 
have been proposed. Koch establishes for the genus Thelypho7ius the 
family Urotrichiox Whiptails and Karsch for Phrynus the family Tarantula 
with the genera Phrynichus, Tarantula, Damon and Charon. 

Lucas described in his monograph 7 species of Thelyphonus, amongst 
which is T. giganteus which is found quite frequently in the Southern 
States, where it is much feared by the people who call it Nigger Killer, 
Mule Killer, Grampus, etc. Girard found a new species in the collection 
of the Red River Expedition 1S52, which he called Thelyph. excubi/or, 
and for which he gave no locality. This species seems to be very rare, 
for it is mentioned nowhere since in print, nor have I ever seen more 
than one although more than 20 specimens of giganteus came under 
my observation. This one is in my own collection and was received 
some time ago from Texas with a number of specimens of the other 
species. 

In examining this little collection I found the following interesting 
facts: 1, that excubitor is the male oi giganteus; 2, that they have not 
as stated by all authors hitherto, 8 eyes, but 12; 3, that they are per- 
fectly harmless as they possess no poison glands in their mandibles. The 
reasons for this assertions are: 1. The structural differences between both 
species are exactly such, as are found between the sexes of the scorpions: 
viz. in the male the tail and the palpi are longer and the abdomen more 
tapering toward the apex. There is no other difference in structure found. 
In opening the abdomen of two giganteus I found them filled with eggs 
or remnants of such, which was not the case in examining the abdominal 
cavity of excubitor. The external opening of the sexual organs present a 
great difference of structure, for while in all giganteus the vulva appears 
as a closed bursa the sexual orrifice in excubitor is not closed but repres- 
ents a slit, divided vertically by a bar with two arch-like prominences. 2. 
The fact that 2 eyes on each side have hitherto escaped the notice of natur- 
alists, has for its reason, that they are extremely small in comparison with 
the three large eyes between which they stand. Beside the two anterior ocelli 
which stand in the median line near the clypeus, there is on each side 
of the cepha'x and further back than the front eyes, a tubercle upon 
which these 5 ocelli are situated: one small one at the tip of the tubercle, 
one large one at its external side and one of medium size at the posterior 
slope. Between these two latter ones are two very small ocelli, the 
anterior of which stands a little higher than the posterior one. These 
small ocelli are quite distinct and shine with the same bright amber color 
out of the nearly black background of the tubercle. 3. That they have 
no poison gland in the mandibles, I can only prove by the absence of 



— 40— 

orifice in the terminal mandibular claw, which would occur here as well 
.is in all other Arachnida which have a poison gland in their mandibles. 
But they have another weapon, useful only for defense; for they can 
emit a sharp and penetrating odor very much like acetic acid. The in- 
habitants of some West India Islands therefore call them "Vinaigrier" or 
vinegar maker. Where that odor gland is situated in the body of 
Thelyphonus I am unable to say as my studies were confined only to 
dried specimens. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE. 



Fig. i. Thelyphonus giganteus Latr. 

male (Thel. excubitor Girard). 

Fig. 2. Thelyphonus giganteus Latr. 

female. 

Fig. 3. Sternal surface of the female. 

Fig. 4. Lateral eye eminence with the 
five eyes. 

Fig. 5. Front showing the mandibles. 
All the mouthparts are hidden 
under a thick pubescence and 
these hairs have been removed 



to show the mandibles and 

maxillae. 
Fig. 6. Front from the side. 
Fig. 7. Abdomen of the male, showing 

the sexual orifice. 
Fig. 8. Themandiblesseparated.afrom 

the inner side; b. from the outer 

side, 
tig. 9. On organ of special sense, situ 

ated at the tibia of each lear. 



Remarks on North American Scolytids. 
By E. A. Schwarz, Washington, D.C. 

Gnathotrichus materiarius. Dr. Packard in his Guide, p. 493, 
(see also Bull. 7, U.S. Ent. Comm., p. 174) states that "a species, prob- 
ably the Cryphalus materiarius of Fitch" has been found to bore into 
empty wine casks and spoil them for use. This is undoubtedly a con- 
fusion of species, as G. materiarius lives exclusively in pine trees. The 
species in question was probably Xyleborus fuscatus which, in my ex- 
perience, bores in several kinds of deciduous trees. 

Gnathotrichus asperulus is perhaps not rare; but not easily 
recognized. It bears a close resemblance to the smaller and rubbed 
specimens of Pityopldhorus miiiuiissimus, from which it differs mainly by 
vestiture of the antennal club. I beat two specimens from Pinus inops 
near Washington in May. In this tree it will probably be found boring 
in the same manner as G. materiarius. 

Pityophthorus. The first group of this genus (Leconte's group 
B), at once recognizable by the fine and dense punctuation of the elytra, 
includes a few easily distinguished species, infesting deciduous trees. 
The sexual differences seem to be alike in all species. The second group 
(Leconte's group C), divides naturally into two sections: In the first the 
elytra] declivity is dissimilar in the two sexes. The three species which 



1NTOMOLOGICA AMERICANA, VOL. II, Mirt lSSt>. 




^Jto ^ito-vy from SVcUure. 



. —41 — 

comprise this section (X. carmula/us, sparsus and plagiatus) are readily 
distinguished and live under bark of pine trees. They constitute a series 
which is strikingly parallel with that formed by the European Tomicus 
chalcographus, bidens and 4-dentalus, and since Mr. Eichhoff (Europ. 
Borkenkafer, p. 23). states that the first of these occurs also in North 
America, he probably refers to our P. sparsus. However, a comparison 
of specimens is necessary to establish the identity. The second section 
in which the elytral declivity is alike in both sexes comprises numerous 
species, mostly living on Conifers, and which are extremely difficult 
to distinguish. To one of those with nearly regularly punctate- 
striate elytra (probably P. hiriiceps) belongs Fitch's Tomicus minutis- 
simus. 

Xyloterus bivittatus. Mr. Eichhoff (I.e., p. 299) cites this as 
a synonym of the European X. lineatus Oliv, , and I think that he is 
right. His A', vittiger (I.e., p. 298), described from California, is un- 
doubtedly only a color variety of the same species. 

Xyleborus pyri. The male still remains unknown, but from 
analogy with the European A", dispar I strongly suspect that the species 
described by Leconte as obesus will prove to be the male of pyri. 

Xyleborus retusicollis. I have seen a female of this rare species 
in Mr. Ulke's collection. It agrees with the male in size and sculpture 
of the elytra but has the thorax anteriorly slightly flattened and not ex- 
cavated . 

Xyleborus xylographus Say. Under this name Dr. Fitch in 
his 4th Report, p. 30, describes a Scolytid boring under the bark of 
pine. His description is not cited by Zimmermann nor by Leconte, 
but his very careful article on the life habits of the species is copied by 
Dr. Packard in his Bull. 7, U.S.E. Coram., p. 163. A glance at Fitch's 
description plainly shows that he was mistaken in the identification of 
the species and that he had before him what is now known as X. ccelatus 
Eichh. Moreover xylographus belongs to a group of species which do 
not live under bark, but enter the solid wood. X. Saxeseni Ratz. is said 
by Eichhoff (I.e., p. 280) to occur in North America a: d this could 
only be identical with xylographus. Say's name however would have 
priority. 

Xyleborus pubescens. Among a large colony of this beetle 
which I found boring into Pinus inops near Washington, I discovered 
twi 1 specimens of the male. It is only one-third the size of the largest 
female, the elytral striae are finer, the tubercles at the declivity smaller, 
the thorax much shorter, not longer than wide, anteriorly much more 
suddenly rounded and distinctly depressed. The difference in general 
appearance between the two sexes is very striking. 



Xyleborus punctipennis. In the male the head is covered with 
very long but not dense hair and the elytral declivity is less impressed 
than in the female. This sexual character is quite exceptional in this 
genus and but for the structure of the antennal club this species would 
be referred to Pityopkthorus. 

Dryocoetes septentrionis is synonymous with /), autographui 
Ratz. as correctly stated by Eichhofl (I.e., p 262). 

Cryphalus rigidus. What Leconte (Rhynchophora of N. Am., 
p. 362) describes as the male I take to be the female. Two specimens 
from Detroit, Mich., which I consider as males, have the head deeply 
retracted in the thorax so that its sculpture cannot be seen; but the first 
antennal joint is fringed with a double rosv of long pale hairs as in 
certain species ul~ JMicracis. 

Cryphalus jalappse. Mr. Henshaw in his Check List wrongly 
places this in the genus Coccotrypes. To the latter genus belongs Bostry- 
chus dactyliperda Fabr., which, according to Eichhoff, lives in dates and 
Areca nuts and which has been widely distributed with these two articles 
of commerce. 

Xylocleptes. Mr. Eichhoff (I.e., p. 23) states that X. bispinus 
occurs in North America. The species is easily recognizable but I have 
seen nothing similar in our collections and suspect a confusion of locali- 
ties. It bores in the stems of Ch?naiis. X. cucurbi/ce lives in the vines 
of Wild Gourd, and X. decipiens will no doubt also prove to have similar 
habits, as the numerous specimens I collected in Michigan and near 
Washington always occured on low plants. I have failed heretofore to 
discover the real food plant. A', concinnus, on the contrary, is stated by 
Mannerheim to live under pine bark. 

Tomicus sexdentatus according to Eichhoff (I.e., p. 213) occurs 
in North America: but the statement is probably based upon a wron» 
locality. 

Tomicus montanus Eichh. (I.e., p. 219) from California is syn- 
onymous with 71 con fu sits. 

Tomicus mucronatus Lee, of Henshaw's Check List is apparently 
a duplication of Cryphalus mucronatus and should be stricken off. 

(To be continued.) 



Notes and News. 
We have received from Mr. Scudder a circular announcing the near 
completion of his work on the New England Butterflies, and" giving a 
list of desiderata in the way of early stages for illustrations. The list is 



—43- 



too long to reprint, but if any of our readers who may he in the position 
to aid Mr. Scudder will write to him, we doubt not that he will receive 
the list by return mail. Almost anybody can do something in this way. 
and we hope that Mr. Scudder will succeed in securing an abundance 
of the desired material 



Book Notices. 

New Genera and species of Californian Coleoptera. By Thos. L. Casey, 
Lt. Eng'rs. Bull. Cal. Ac. Sci., Vol. T, pp. 283 — 336, 1 pi. Dec. 15, 1S85. 

Describes 31 species of Staphylinidae, mostly belonging to the Ale- 
ocharini, with the new genera Colusa with five species (all new), Ponto- 
maloia with three species {Phytosus opacus Lee. and two new), Platyusa 
with one species, Bryonomus (for Cafius canescens Mann, and C. semi- 
niiens Horn) and Vellica {Homalini). Describes also three species of 
Actidium {TrichopterygidcB), Euscaphurus saltator (n. gen. et sp. Dascyl- 
lidae) Cccnocara occidens, (Ptinida?), Platycerus californicus (Lucanidne) 
and Polyphylla marginata (ScarabaMdae). 

In attacking the Ahocharini, Lt. Casey ventures into an unexplored 
field, where he is comparatively safe from making synonyms, because 
most of the species from the Pacific Coast are undescribed. It is to be 
hoped however, that Lt. Casey will not confine his work to mere de- 
scriptions; but will take up some of the groups systematically. 

The Butterflies of the Eastern United States. For the use of classes in Zoo- 
logy and private students. By G. H. French, A.M. Phila. Lippincott & Co., 
pp. 402, ff. 93. 

This is a neat work, in its get up; but rather disappointing in its 
contents. It should have been supposed that for the use of students, or 
as a text book, there should be some explanation of the basis of classifi- 
cation. There is nothing of this. The genera are not described at all 
except in the "Key", in which the most superficial characters are used. 
The sub-families are but little more fully defined, and the families are in 
much the same position. The species are rather fully described, and the 
book obtains its value from being a compilation of descriptions of species, 
with figures enough to guide the user with considerable certainty to the 
insect he desires to name. An intelligent student can probably name 
all his species from the Eastern United States, but when through with his 
work would have no more idea of classification than could be gathered' 
from Harris or Packard. The work is a disappointment. The classifi- 
cation, putting the Papilionidoe at the head, is perhaps not subject to 
criticism in a work of this kind: but some mention of the differences of 
opinion on this subject might have been profitably made. 



—44 — 

The Sphingida of New England. By C. II. Fernald, A.M., Orono, February, 
1886. Sprague& Son, State Printers. S<>, pp. 85, pi. VI. 

A handy little pamphlet giving a very complete account of the New 
England Sphinges in a concise, clear and accurate form. The larvae, 
where known, are described and the food plants are given. There is a 
Synoptic Table covering genera and species and then the genera and 
species are described in detail; the author relying upon his own ob- 
servation for the generic characters. It is a very practical little book, 
and one that will be of great help to the student that desires not only 
to get names tor his insects but to the learn something of their structure. 
The work is a companion to the "Butterflies of Maine'" and as in that 
work the pronounciation of the specific and generic names is given. 

>«•*■ 



Society News. 

Brooklyn Entomological Society. April 6th, 188G. — Eight members 
present, the President in the chair. Mr. Linell exhibited a living specimen of 
Zopherus mexicanus, remarking on the extreme tenacity of life exhibited by the 
specimen. He had tried to kill it in a variety of ways, and for the past eight 
days it had lived in a strong, freshly prepared cyanide bottle. Mr. Hulst made 
some further remarks on methods of obtaining eggs of Geometridne, and Mr. 
Weeks explained some of his methods for raising larva; which fed on small, low 
plants. Mr. Hulst exhibited a portfolio of colored drawings of larva; (princi- 
pally Bombycida;), and their food plants, made by Miss Emily L. Morton of 
Newbnrgh, N.Y., which were pronounced extremely natural and recognizable at 
a glance. 

Entomological Society of Washington. April 1, 1886. Mr. Schwarz made 
some remarks on the synonymy and biology of various Scolytids. He exhibited 
a specimen of the work of Monorihrum mail in Bed Oak and explained the nature 
of the main gallery made by the parent beetle and that of the branching galleries 
apparently made by the larvse. He also spoke on the work of a large colony of 
Xyleborus pubescens which he found in the solid wood of Pinus inops and exhib- 
Lted tho hitherto undescribed male of that species. Mr. Smith called attention 
to some features in the structure of the Saturniidce- The family as he proposes 
to limit it, has the following characters. Two branches to each joint of the an- 
tennee in the <$; no tongue; retracted head; short palpi: plump body; hind legs 
short and weak; tibia; without spurs; tarsi without spines; ,po frenulum; veins 
not more than 11, usually 10. The Attacince have the antenna; pectinated to the 
tip in both sexes. Except in Telea and Adias the discal cell of both wings is 
open. He considers that Samia, Plahfsamia, Philosamia, and CaMosamia are all 
congeneric, and explained tb e differences and agreements between them. In 
Hyperchiria io the antennae are as in AMacus; but simple, or only serrate in the 
9. In the Ceratocampince the pectinations never extend to the tip; the 9 has 
l In antenna; simple, except in Adelocephala bicolor in which they are pectinated 

i! the (j*, except that there is only a single branch to each joint of the an- 
The discal cells are always closed, and the differences in venation of 
the species was pointed out. 




Americana 



VOL. II. 



BROOKLYN, JUNE, 1886. 



NO. 3. 



Notes on two larvae of the genus Catocala. 

By I). S. Kellicott. 

C. obscura. The larva of this species feeds on the leaves of the shag- 
bark Hickory, C. alba, and in habit agrees very closely with other de- 
scribed species of the genus; it is, apparently, a night- feeder, concealing 
itself by day at rest under the loosened bark of the tree upon the leaves 
of which it feeds at night. July 5, 1883, at Pulaski, N. Y. , larvae were 
taken from beneath the bark of the hickory, and from these, two imagos 
were obtained. Two sizes were thus obtained on that day: one, evidently 
soon after its last larval moult, measured 1.6 in., width of head . 17 in., 
of eighth and ninth rings .2 in.; the smaller ones were 1.1 in. long, they 
moulted July 19, when they were 1.5 in. long and precisely similar to 
the larger size when taken July 5th. 

The head is somewhat flattened, reticulated with coarse, uneven 
lines and a heavy black stripe extends along the lateral borders from the 
articulation of the mandibles half way to the apex of head lobes. In 
this character it closely resembles the larva of C. retecta which likewise 
feeds on the hickory, The antennae are long, slender and white. 

The color of the skin is dark gray, much darker than in retecta. 
The piliferous spots which are arranged nearly at the corners of a rectangle 
are large and light colored; these are larger than usual in rings live and 
twelve, otherwise. there are no humps; there are no lateral fringes as in 
Ultronia and Unijuga. The dorsal line is very obscure; there are on 
rings five, nine and ten, irregular black crosses; the stigmatal line distinct 
and black. The stigmata are of the usual shape, the long axis, how- 
ever, leans slightly forwards, rings black, white within. The ventral 
surface is pinkish with black spots in the abdominal rings except eight 
and nine. The color of smaller specimens yellowish gray. One larva 



-46- 

then 2 in. in length spun the usual, light, very loose cocoon among the 
leaves July 20th; the imago appeared about August 15. The pupa was 
of the usual form and color covered with bloom; it measured 1.1 in 
The anal hooklets unusually long. 

C. habilis. The larvae of this species were in company with those of 
obscura mentioned above. Different sizes were taken; but slight changes 
in color or ornamentation was noted at the moults. This larva is quite 
different from any of the genus heretofore identified by me. 

An average mature caterpillar measured 2 in. in length; slender, 
color dark, in some almost black, skin shining. Along the dorsum 
there is a broad stripe lighter than the general hue, on either side a 
darker one of equal width; the stigmatal stripes almost black; beneath 
pale whitish with black spots on the middle segments. Head reddish 
black with faint reticulations in white. 

Pupated in the usual cocoon, the first to change July 18 gave a moth 
August 18. 

A CORRECTION. . 

In Papilio, Vol. I, p. 141, I described the larval characters of C. 
r ■ electa as those of C. flebilis. The mistake was made by comparing my 
moth with a rather diffuse specimen ©f reteda in the Harvey collection of 
moths now in the Buf. Soc. of Nat. Sci. labeled "flebilis". As Mr. Grote 
had seen this collection I supposed it approved by him and correct. It 
was not and I correct my error by saying that what is said in the paper, 
cited under C. flebilis refers to C. reteda. 



Mr. Geo. P. Welles, of Chicago, writes: — Has it ever occurred in 
your experience, that certain species were local within extremely narrow 
limits? I gathered Blethisa quadricollis under one stone during eight 
or ten successive days, and never anywhere else. Also Omophron robust- 
um under one particular chip, and in no other place. I have taken 50 
Toxotus Schaumii from a little bush year after year and never one two 
feet from there, except the first one I ever caught, which I took from 
the mouth of a big Asilus which came flying towards me." 

These local occurrences are of extreme interest. Several such have 
occured in my experience, notably in Tetraopes canteriator, for which 
I know two small localities on Long Island where I can get them year 
after year with absolute certainty; but though there is an abundance of 
their food plant all about, they never leave these small patches. 

J. B. S. 



—47— 

Notes upon various species of the Ennominae. 

By Geo. D. Hulst. 

Oxydia vesuliata Cr. This species has been taken in Southern 
Florida. The specimens differ in no respect from those received from 
Brazil. It is the largest Geometer of our fauna, expanding 75 mm. 

Urapteryx politiaria Cr. To specimens of this taken in Florida, 
Mr. Grote gave the varietal name of floridata. The Florida specimens 
seem to vary very little, and where a stretch of sea or a range of mount- 
ains intervenes slight differences may be of even specific value. But 
specimens of U. politiaria from Brazil are taken in numbers, the exact 
counterparts of the Florida form. 

Ripula virginaria Hulst. One of the most beautiful of Geometers, 
and the first of its genus in our country. 

Eutrapela transversata Dru. This species is very variable in the 
color and shape of its wings. It undoubtedly includes in its reach not 
only the many forms given names by Guenee and Walker, but as well 
the species Guenee called C. incurvata and C. ielragonaia. The only 
individual difference in the latter is the cross striations at the base of the 
tail. The cross line is found in every variation. 

In all collections that have come under my notice, the ochreous form 
is labelled var. goniata Guen. According to Dr. Packard, goniata is the 
fawn colored form, and is a synonym of transversata Dru. The variety 
name of th^ yellow form is transpositata Wlk. 

Specimens from the South are generally less angulated than those 
from the North, and are often of the variety incurvata Guen., having no 
angle on outer margin of fore wings. 

Eutrapela clemataria Ab. & Sm. There is considerable variation in 
this insect, especially in the female. One form, generally from the South, 
is lighter in color, with the apex of fore wings more pointed and very 
much extended. This is, I believe, the true E. clemataria Ab. & Sm. 
The darker form is var. iransducensata Wlk. This species also varies 
very much in the amount of undulations on the outer margins. Gener- 
ally very prominent, the undulation is sometimes hardly perceptible. 

Tetracis truxaliata Guen. Differs much in the size of specimens, 
ranging from 30 to 60 mm. 

Tetracis cervinaria Pack. This is one species in my opinion with 
T. aurantiacaria Pack., the former being the $, the latter the Q form. 
The sexes are much more distinct than is usual in this subfamily. The 



— 4»— 

$ was first described, and the name of the species becomes 7'. cer- 
vinaria Pack. 

Tetracis simpliciaria Grt. This is a lighter colored form of T. 
paralleliaria Pack., and may be retained as a variety name. For deter- 
mination of T. paralleliaria Pack., see remarks under T. mellitularia 
Ilulst, Ento. Am., Vol. I, p. 202. For information concerning Dr. 
Packard's type in the Museum of Comparative Zoology as well as for 
other favors, I am indebted to Dr. H. A. Hagen of Harvard University. 

Drepanodes olyzonaria Wlk. According to Packard who saw Walker's 
type and knew Grote's species this is probably the species afterwards 
called D. varus by Grt. and Rob. Walker fairly well describes the 
species which is very variable and we think ourselves justified in using 
his name. The species includes D. sesquilinearia G. and R., D. ccquosa 
( i. and R., and D. juniper aria Pack., the first two being perhaps allow- 
able as varieties. It is difficult sometimes to separate this species from 
D. puberaria G. and R., and D. perizomaria Hulst. 

Sabulodes dositheata Guen. Mr. A. G. Butler in "Some Notes un 
some N. A. Lepidoptera" (Papilio, Vol. I, p. 220), gives from British 
Museum types and specimens, a synonomy of this species which we have 
been accustomed to know as Tetrads cegrotata Guen. 

The synonomy is as follows: 

Sabulodes dositheata Guen. 

Columbia t a Guen. , 

Tetrads cegrotata Guen. 
Choerodes airopesaria Walk. 
subclararia Walk. 
" punctata Pack. MSS. 
This is pretty good for an insect which varies less than is usual, 
tii' nigh the 9 i- s ordinarily larger and lighter colored than the ^, and 
has the wings more angulated. The insect, (if the genus be a valid 
one), is the first of its genus in our fauna. 

Caberodes confusaria Hub. I accord this species the palm for vari- 
ability. It has been given five different names by Guenee, and two more 
by Walker after recognizing Hiibner's and all of Guenee's. Its name 
was well chosen by Hiibner. I have specimens before me ranging from 
32 to 62 mm. in expanse; ranging from bright yellow through light 
ochre to dark brown in ground color; ranging from wings evenly round- 
ed to wings strongly pointed, falcate and angulate. In variation of bands 
and border, color and wing shape it grazes on C. antidiscaria Wlk., and 
seems to intergrade with Eutrapela falcata Pack. 



—49— 

Caberodes antidiscaria Wlk. I have one specimen only of this, but 
have no doubt it is a good species. 

Eugonia vidularia Grt, This is a synonym of Tetrads grotearia 
Pack. It differs in no respect from the ordinary $ form, though it is a 
trifle lighter in color than the type. 

Eugonia magnana Guen. This species has for some years back 
been pretty universally looked upon as being a synonym of a European 
species. It ordinarily goes by the name E. alniaria Linn., but as Mr. 
Moschler shows, E. autumnaria Wernb. is the species it most resembles, 
and of this he believes it a synonym. As yet I hold it to be a valid 
species. I have examined several specimens, and find the American 
differs structurally from the European. In the venation of the fore wings, 
both the European species have a subcostal and two accessory cells. The 
American has a subcostal, but no accessory cells. On this ground I 
retain Guenee's name for our species. 

Azelina hubnerata Guen. A close contestant with Caberodes con- 
fusaria Hub. in variability. I do not know how many tropical forms 
named by Guenee, Walker and others may be included under this spe- 
cies, but in the range of American material it includes A. stygiaria Wlk ., 
A. honestaria Wlk., A. behrensata Pack., A. morrisonaria Hy. Edw. and 
perhaps A. zalissaria Wlk. It includes forms with wings angulated and 
unangulated, undulating on outer margins and without undulations, 
with median space very broad and with lines almost coalescing, with 
color varying through black, reddish, brown, and cinereous. 

Azelina zalissaria Walk. This seems to be very distinct from A. 
hubnerata, but curiously enough, all the specimens I have seen have been 
females. 

Azelina arizonaria Hy. Edw. Of this A. albomacularia Hy. Edw , 
is a variety. 

Endropia textrinaria Grt. This seems to me to be a good species, 
though Mr. Grote, probably unintentionally, left it out of his last Check 
List 1882. 

Endropia warneraria Harvey. As Mr. Grote has observed, this is 
the same as E. apiciaria Pack., and is the name of the species, as it anti- 
dates the latter. I have seen no specimen in the various collections of 
E.pilosaria Pack. From Dr. Packard's description the only material 
difference is in the shape of the hind wings. But in view of the difference 
in this respect of the two sexes of E. warneraria, I am inclined to believe 
F. pilosaria is not a distinct species The two species are at any rate very 
near to each other. 



—50— 

Endropia homuraria G. and R. Dr. Packard places this as a syno- 
nym of E. duaria Guen. But Mr. Grote, (Can. Ent. IX, 89 and Papilio 
II, 100), with considerable feeling and logic, protests against this dis- 
position of his species. Dr. Packard had Mr. Grote's type, and his 
opinion, with such opportunity of comparison, ought to be final. Certain 
it is if it be not E. duaria^ it is E. hypochraria H. Sch. The description 
seems to be of the reddish form of the latter. But Dr. Packard's opinion 
will have to govern us till we have more light. What has become of Mr. 
Grote's type I do not know. It is not in the Central Park Collection 
where Mr. Grote thought it might be. E. duaria Guen. differs very much 
in appearance, the wings being rectangular and very rounded in some 
male specimens, and very pointed, falcate and angulated in some females. 

Endropia amoenaria Guen. E. arefactaria G. and R. is a synonym 
of this species. If one take Mr. Grote's description of his species, 
and compare it with a specimen of E. amoenaria he will not doubt their 
identity. Dr. Packard had Mr. Grote's type, and his description and 
figure in his Geometrid Moths are from this type specimen. I speak of 
this as Mr. Grote has in later years claimed that his species and that of 
Guenee were not identical, although he admits his may be a variety. In 
looking over Mr. Neumcegen's collection, which in 1882 Mr. Grote 
studied, I find several specimens with label "Endropia arefactaria Gr." 
in Mr. Grote's handwriting. It may be Mr. Grote has identified this 
same form in other collections as his species. But this is not E. amoenaria 
at all, but a slight variation from the type form of E. madusaria Wlk., 
not sufficiently distinct however to deserve a varietal name 

Endropia helveolaria Hulst. In Mr. Neumcegen's collection I find 
2 r^tf and 1 9 of this species, each with label in Mr. Grote's handwriting 
"Zychnosea aulularia Gr. Type." I cannot find the published descrip- 
tion of either the genus or the species. The specific name, if it were 
published at the time of Mr. Grote's study of Mr. Neumcegen's collec- 
tion (1882) would be a synonym. What the fate of the genus would be 
I cannot say, for the insect is likely not an Endropia. 

Ellopia fervidaria Hiibn. Dr. Packard includes under this species 
E. fiscellaria Guen., E. flagitaria Guen., and as well the form called by 
me E. somniaria, I have before me of what I esteem the true E. fervid- 
aria 39 specimens, of E. fiscellaria 30, of E. somniaria 9. E. flagitaria 
will not stand as a distinct species, but the other three seem to me not to 
intergrade, and to be good species. In E. fiscellaria Guen., there is very 
great variation in the width of the cross lines. In one specimen from 



-5 1 — 

Mr. Hill of Albany, N. Y., they coalesce, and in one possessed by Mr. 
Bruce of Brockport, N. Y. they coalesce and are broken at the middle of 
the wing, thus forming a loop on costa and inner edge. 

Ellopia endropiaria G. and R. It is very probable that this is a 
synonym of E. paltaria Guen. The angulation of the wings which 
Guenee speaks of, and which leads Dr. Packard to think Guenee's species 
is not the same, is a matter of no specific importance. I have some spe- 
cimens with angulated, and others with rounded wings. The angulation 
of the wings, which seems to have been given generic, often subfamily 
value, is among our Ennomince, not even specific in value. It is quite 
often a sexual mark, the females always having the wings more pointed, 
more falcate, and more angulated than the males. Often the same sex 
thus differs in the various specimens. 

Ellopia pellucidaria G. and R. Dr. Packard places this as a synonym 
of E. seminudaria Wlk., and had the idea they represented the differing 
forms of the sexes. E. bibularia G. and R. , is without doubt a synonym 
of E. seminudaria Wlk. But with 13 specimens of E. pellucidaria G. and 
R., before me, and more of E. seminudaria Wlk., I am of the opinion 
not only that E. pellucidaria G. and R. is a good species, but one of the 
most distinct of the genus. I have moreover both males and females of 
both species, so Dr. Packard's idea that they represent the sexes only, is 
unfounded. 

Metrocampa margaritata var. perlata Guen. While it is recognized 
that the American insect is not specifically distinct from the European, 
yet I see no reason why it should be called a synonym only. It certainly 
has differences which have been noted by various authors. These differ- 
ences are very constant. The American insect is a good variety. 

Leucula lacteolaria Hulst. This is a species of another genus new 
to our fauna. It makes its appearance in Arizona, not in Florida, which 
very curiously in the Lepidoptera has closer affinities with the tropics, 
than any other portion of our country. 

Antepione imitata Hy. Edw. This is without doubt as Mr. Edwards 
suggests, a variety of A. sulphurata Pack. I have not seen the type, but 
have intergrading specimens. 

Rumia baltearia Hulst. This is, in my opinion, a variety only of 
R. ochrearia Pack. Its appearance is however very different, as the 
outer part of the median space forms a broad dark brown band. 

Numeria occiduaria Walk. This species is generally if not universally 
known in collections as N. pulveraria Linn., and the most of Lepidopt- 
erists have judged them to be identical. In the imago state they can 
hardly be thought otherwise. But there seems to be a very marked 
difference in the larvce. Dr. Packard gives a description of the larva; of 



both the European and American species, but dues not seem to notice 
how different they are. That the larvae are entirely unlike each other is 
confirmed to me by Mr. Bruce of Brockport, N. V., who has raised many 
specimens of the European species in England, and of ours here. I think 
as long as the matter stands this way, it is only fair to regard the Ameri- 
can as a good species. 

Nematocampa limbaria Haw. This is the insect afterwards named 
X. filimentaria by Guenee. But the insect was undoubtedly the one de- 
scribed by Haworth. As such it is figured in Wood's Index Entomo- 
logicus, as it was regarded as a European as well as an American species. 
Both Guenee and Packard seemed to have a suspicion that Haworth's 
name was the correct one for the insect. Mr. Grote's N. expunctaria is 
a variety of this species. I have never met with the type form, but I have 
seen examples of A 7 , limbaria corresponding in both the front and hind 
wings, but never in the same specimen. 

Eurymene serinaria H. Sch, Dr. Packard thought this to be the 
same as E. rosaria Grt. He does not seem to have known E. Jloscularia 
Grt. Herrich-Schseffer's figure, though undescribed, is very excellent, 
and is not E. rosaria but E. Jloscularia. E. rosaria seems to me to be 
a good species, though it differs from E. Jloscularia only in a general 
softening of the colors, a very unreliable basis for specific distinction. 
But with the few specimens of each I have, the two do not seem to inter- 
grade. 

Hyperetis amicaria H. Sch. This name, as has been remarked by 
Mr, Grote, antedates the name H. nyssaria of Guenee. The latter as 
being the name of the form dark reddish brown on the outer third is a 
good variety. 

The determinations given in the foregoing notes are without personal 
knowledge of the types of either Guenee or Walker. Dr. Packard, as 
well as Mr. Grote, have examined and commented upon those types, 
and in the majority of cases identified them. 

Mr. A. G. Butler has also published some notes upon the British 
Museum types. Very few of the species in the Ennomince of Guenee and 
Walker remain to be identified. A hasty count gives 6 to Guenee, 9 to 
Walker. But these will not disturb the synonomy much, if these authors 
keep up their average of synonyms. Upon another hasty count of identi- 
fied species I find Guenee named 36, and Walker 44. Of those ot 
Guenee 26 are synonyms, 10 are good. Of Walker's 38 are synonyms, 
6 are good. It is however only fair to say that some which- are not good 
species are good varieties. But with the few species undetermined, 
there stands very little possibility of much disturbance of the synonomy. 



FOOD-PLANTS OF LEPIDOPTERA. 

(No. 3. Eacles Imperialis, Dm.) 
Hv Wm, Bf.i tf.nmui i.er. 



Til £ceae. 

Tilia Americana, L. (Basswood.) 

" Europsea. (European Linden.) 

" alba, Michx. (White Linden.) 

Anacardiaceae. 

Rhus glabra, L. (Smooth Sumac.) 

Sapindaceae. 
Esculushippocastania, L. (Com. Horse 
chestnut. 
Acer saccharinum, Wang. (Sugar 

Maple. 
" dasycarpum, Chr. (White or 

Silver Maple. 
" rubrum, L. (Red or Swamp 

Maple. 
" pseudoplatanus, L. 
Negundo aceroides, Moench. (Box 

Elder. 
Kolreuteria paniculata, Laxm. (The 
panicle-flowered Kolreuteria. 
Leguminosae. 
Gleditchia triacanthos, L. (Honey 

Locust. 
Rosaceae. 
Primus Yirginiana, L. (Choke Cherry. 
•• serotina, Ehr. (Wild Black 
Cherry. 
Hamamelaceae. 
Liquidambar styraciflua, I.. (Sweet 

Gum. 
Lauraceae. 
Sassafras officinale, Nees. (Sassafras. ) 
Lindera Benzoin, Meisn. (Spice-bush. 

Urticaceas. 
I 1 mus fulva. Michx. (Slippery or Rec 

Elm. 
Americana, L. (American or 
White Elm 
alata. Michx. (Whahoo or 

Winged Elm. 
campestris, L. (English Field 

Elm. 
suberosa, Moench. (Cork- 
barked Elm 



Platanaceae. 
Platanus occidentalis, L. (American 

Plane or Sycancore. ) 
" orientalis, I- (Oriental 

Plane.) 

Cupuliferae. 

(^uercus alba, L. (White Oak.) 

'• macrocarpa, Michx. (BuiOak) 

" coccinea, Wang. (Scarlet Oak. ) 

rubra, L. (Red Oak). 

palustris, Du Roi. (Swamp or 

Pin Oak.) 

" Cerris vulgaris. (Turkey Oak.) 

Castania vesca, L. (Chestnut.) 

" pumila, Michx. (Chinquapin.) 
Fagus ferruginea, Ait. (Amer. Beech.) 
" sylvatica, L. (Wood or Common 
Beech. ) 
Ostrya Virginica, Willd. (Hop Horn- 
beam or Leverwood. ) 
Carpinus Americana, Michx. (Horn- 
beam Blue or Water Beech.) 

Betulaceae. 
Betula alba, L. (White Birch.) 

" var. populifolia, Spach. 
Alnus incana, Willd. (Speckled or 

Hoary Alder.) 
serrulata, Ait. (Smooth Alder. ) 

Coniferae. 

Pinus strobus, L. (White Pine.) 

" excelsa, Wallich. (Bhotan Pine.) 
Abies excelsa, Dec. (Norway Spruce 

Fir.) 

" " var. pendula. 

Larix Americana, Michx. (American 01 

Black Larch.) 

Cupres^us thyoides, L. (White Cedar. ) 

Taxodium distichum, Rich. (Amer. 

Bald Cypress.) 
Juniper communis, I-. (Common 

Juniper.) 
Virginiana. L. (Red Cedar.) 



Entomologica Americana, Vol II. 



lune 1886. 



—54— 

Remarks on North American Scolytids. 

By E. A. Schwarz, Washington, D. C. 
(Concluded from p. 42.) 

Chramesus Chapuisii. 

The two males I have seen are at once distinguished from those of 
icoricB by the fringe of rather long, sparse and stiff bristles on the anten- 
nal scape. In the many males of icoricc which I examined the fringe is 
entirely wanting. 

Rhopalopleurus pumilus. 

This is mentioned in Mr. Henshaw's Check List; but I do not know 
upon whose authority it is claimed as a North American insect. At any 
rate it must enter the genus Chramesus with which Rhopalopleurus is 
synonymous. 

Cnesinus strigicollis. 

The two sexes may be distinguished as follows: 
Male: Front shining, flattened between the eyes, anteriorly trans- 
versely depressed, the depression clothed with short grayish hair and 
with a flattened tubercle on each side; antennal scape elongate, curved, 
sutures of club fringed with long and conspicuous hairs. 

Female: Front subopaque, sharply margined between the eyes, 
anterior impression deeper, clothed with very dense reddish-brown hair 
and without tubercles, antennal scape shorter, not curved, hairs of club 
shorter and very fine. 

Bothrosternus. 

This genus was introduced into our fauna in the second edition of 
the Classification by Drs. Leconte and Horn but the only North Ameri- 
can species has not yet been described. Only a few specimens are known 
in collections, and as the majority of them happen to be before me, the 
description of an isolated species may be excused. 

B. Hubbardi n. sp. Oblong-ovate, reddish brown, shining, nearly glabrous 
above, antenna? and legs reddish. Vertex finely punctulate, front smooth, longitu- 
dinally excavated, the excavation with a deeper median line and anteriorly with a 
tubercle on each side; beak extremely short, smooth, and with a median tubercle. 
An acute ridge runs each side above the insertion of the antennre to the middle of the 
eyes and is continued along the inner margin of the eyes by a series of stiff yellowish 
bristles which increase in length posteriorly. Thorax convex, a little wider than long, 
sides nearly straight from base to middle, thence very much rounded, hind angles 
rectangular, anterior angles very obtuse, surface densely strigoso-punctate, without 
smooth median line but with the punctures on the disk and middle of base not oblong 
and sparser, side margin indicated from base to beyond middle, flanks densely rugo- 
sely punctate. Scutellurn hardly depressed. Elytra twice longer and at base distinctly 
wider than the thorax, punctate-striate, interstices flat, rather sparsely rugosely 
punctate, on the disk wider than the striae, narrowing on the declivity and each lieing 
furnished on the posterior half of the elytra with a row of semi-recumbent, short, 
yellowish bristles. Underside with sparse, short pubescence, front coxa 1 still mor.' 



3D — 

widely separated than in Cnesinus, ante-coxal ridges acute, metasternum rather 
coarsely punctate, abdominal segments convex, moderately strongly punctate. Anter- 
ior legs very little stouter than the posterior ones; front tibiae with an acute tooth at 
apical third and with the outer apical angle prolonged into a broad process which is 
longer than the first tarsal joint and which terminates in two acute, recurved teeth. 
Length 2.5 mm. 

Described from six specimens in which I fail to observe any sexual 
characters. Three specimens were collected by Mr. H. G. Hubbard, to 
whom the species is dedicated, at St. Lucie in Southern Florida on April 
26th. From his diary I infer that they were beaten from Hickory trees. 
The three other specimens are from the collection of Mr. Henry Ulke and 
are also from Florida. 

Four South American species of Bothrosternus have been described 
which are known to me only from the descriptions. B. Hubbardi seems 
to come nearest to truncatus Eichh. , but differs in the form and sculpt- 
ure of the thorax. In our own fauna the species cannot well be con- 
founded with any other Scolytid. 
Hylesinus fraxini. 

This is said (Eichh., Europ. Borkenk., p. 136), to occur in Califor- 
nia; but I have never seen North American specimens answering the de- 
scription of this European species. 

Hylesinus trifolii Mueller, 
is omitted from Henshaw's List and ought to be inserted after opaculus. 
(see Dr. Riley in Report of the Commissioner of Agricult,, 1878, p. 248), 
According to Chapuis's and Eichhoff's mode of classification trifolii be- 
longs to the second division of Hylastes in which the third tarsal joint is 
bilobed and the elytra separately rounded at base. This division is 
identical with Leconte's genus Hylurgops of his group Hylastes, which 
is distinguished by him from the typical Hylurgi by the relative length 
of the abdominal segments and the not-depressed scutellum. Both 
characters hold true so far as the genus Hylastes is concerned but are of 
little practical value for distinguishing the genus Hylurgops. Still, I 
think that trifolii ought to be placed in the genus Hylesinus on -account 
of the structure of the antennal club. In this genus the first joint of the 
club is but little larger than the following, and always pubescent; where- 
as in Hylastes and Hylurgops it is nearly as large as the rest of the club 
always glabrous. This is the only species in our fauna of the tribe 
Hylurgini which is known to infest an horbaccous plant. 

Phlceosinus punctatus. 

The sexual characters will help to distinguish this from the other 
North American species: 



- 5 6- 

Male: Front excavated, excavation smooth at middle and anteriorly 
with a small tubercle. Tubercles on the elytral declivity more prominent. 

Female: Front not excavated, but with a narrow median carina not 
reaching the vertex. Tubercles on the elytral declivity smaller. 

These sexual characters are nearly the same as in the European 

P. thuja. 

Phlceosinus serratus. 

Can this be the male of dentatus? The specific differences given by 
Dr. Leconte are about the same as those between the two sexes of the 
Kuropean Ph. Aubei. Both forms, that with alternately elevated elytral 
interstices {serratus) and that with equal interstices (denlatus) have the 
same food plant (Juniper), were beaten by Mr. Ulke and myself from 
the same trees, and have the same geographical distribution. Still, ab- 
solute proof of their identity is wanting, but the question can be easily 
settled by anyone who has the opportunity of finding colonies of the 
beetle still in their larval galleries Both forms are widely distributed, 
occurring from Maine to Florida and from Dakota to Texas and Arizona, 
and I can see no reason why Ph. Haagi Fichh., (Berl. Ent. Zeit. 1868) 
should not be synonymous with dtntatus, and Ph. graniger Chap. (Syn. 
(1. Scol., p. 247) with serratus. 

Dendroctonus. 

I have lately examined, in company with Mr. Ulke, a large series 
of specimens in our collections, and we found that our species could be 
sharply separated and all difficulties in their determination removed if 
J), rufipennis, punclatus and simplex were considered to form a single 
species, variable in size and sculpture of head and thorax. The variation 
in size between these three forms is not greater than that exhibited in D. 
terebrans and the same sculptural differences may also be observed in the 
latter species. However, nothing definite can be said before the life- 
history of the different forms has been studied. 

Crypturgus atomus 
seems to be identical with the European C. pitsillus Gyllh. (see Eichhoff, 
Europ. Borkenk., p. 166). 

Hylurgops pinifex 
is synonymous with the European Hyhxstes glabraius Zett. 



We regret to record the death of Mr. Fredk. W. Klages ofPittsbugh, Pa., who 

died of pneumonia on the 27th day of March 1886 in the 27th year of his age. Mr. 
Klages was an enhusiastic collector, and though a mechanic, with little time to spare, 
yet gathered a considerable collection. He collected in Kentucky, Florida and Ta- 
maica as well as in the vicinity ofTittsburgh. 

Entomology can ill afford to lose a young man k> enthusiastic .1- Mr. Klages in 
his chosen study. 



-57— 

On the variation and constancy of the elytral markings 

in Chrysomela, Doryphora and allied genera. 

By C. H. T. Townsend. 

1 have seen some discussion lately concerning the elytral variations 
of Chrysomela scalaris Lee, aroused by Mr. Angell's interesting notes 
on the species in a previous number of this journal. I had not intended 
writing anything on this subject until next season, after having had an 
opportunity to examine as large a number of specimens as possible dur- 
ing the summer, but perhaps a few general remarks at the present time 
on this and one or two allied genera will not be out of place. 

Some interesting notes on a sudden abundance of scalaris have 
lately been contributed by Dr. Hagen (Can. Entom., vol. XVI, p. 120 
and 225—6), and some other important observations by Mr. Caulfield 
(Can. Entom., vol. XVI, p. 226 — 7 and XVII, p. 230). I have never 
known this species to be abundant in this locality; nearly every season I 
have taken a few specimens, but no more. I shall find out, whether the 
species is variable or constant here next season, but allow me to give it 
as my opinion that if it does not appear in large numbers it will be 
variable. Mr. Angell, as above referred to, says of scalaris: "Hundreds 
collected at Cambridge last summer show scarcely any variation, while 
specimens from New Jersey, Cape Cod and principally Canada are de- 
cidedly inconstant and variable." This bears out my observations pre- 
cisely. At Cambridge the species had increased in large numbers and 
was very constant, while the specimens from other parts of the country, 
where they had not increased to any extent but were only normally 
abundant, were very inconstant and variable. This is the point which I 
wish to bring out. When the species is over-plentiful it seems to be 
constant, but normally presents many variations. Mr. Caulfield's ob- 
servations seem to bear me out likewise; from his notes it appears that 
scalaris is abundant at times in the neighborhood of Montreal, and very 
constant. Packard states (Bull. U.S. Ent. Com., No. 7, p. 126—7) that 
in the Summer of 1881 it was very abundant at Brunswick, Maine, on 
the linden. From specimens taken in July and August he has drawn 
up descriptions, from which it will readily be seen that the form was ex- 
tremely constant, and very near the scalaris type. 

A more familiar case to many of us is Doryphora 10-lineata Say, 
which has become a pest from its abundance, and seems to hold its own 
as the years roll on. As is well known it shows no variation, but is very 
constant; it certainly does not vary here (this strip of the country is in- 
cluded in its original line of most direct spread), and no variations have 
been noticed to my knowledge in any part of the territory overrun since 
it began to increase. Specimens taken by me in Lawrence, Kansas, in 



1874 (twelve years ago), show no differences when compared with recent 
specimens from this locality, except perhaps that the species has grown 
slightly more robust. Yet it undoubtedly varied in its normal state in 
the West, before it began to increase and take to the potato. The in- 
teresting particulars of its yearly eastward spread since 1859 are given by 
Packard in his Report on the Rocky Mountain locust and other injurious 
insects of the West (Rep. of Geol. & Geog. Survey for 1875, p. 722-6). 
Sar gives its original habitat as the Upper Missouri, and mentions a 
white variety with two of the lines united, supposed to be juncta Germ., 
which he took on the Arkansas. This latter form, which differs from 
10-litieala in the larva state as well as in the imago and is now considered 
a distinct species, is found in the more southern States and according to 
Packard originally represented the latter on the eastern slope of the Rocky 
Mountain Plateau. It is one of the old-time variations of 10-lineata. 
Glover has mentioned and figured a form (U.S. Agr. Rep. for 1869, p. 
123) which he says "is an apparent cross between the two (10-lineala 
and juncta), or a variety once found in the South, in which the heavy, 
thick black line of the juncta has a very fine yellowish line running partly 
through it longitudinally". 

I have a specimen from Missouri (near St. Louis, taken June 29th, 
1884), which has a well marked purplish line running partly through the 
heavy black one longitudinally, and with the elytra purplish next the 
suture and around the edges; otherwise as in juncta, of which these last 
two are variations. Another form, defecta Stal, is recognized as a variety 
of 10-lineata, but is a more modern variation than juncta. These three 
forms are represented in Mexico, Costa Rica and parts of western South 
America by 1 i-lineata Stal, from which 10-lineata probably originated, 
and subsequently gave origin to juncta and defecta. This interesting 
representative of the ancestral form of the "Colorado potato-beetle'' has 
recently been recorded within our territorial limits. 

Eight specimens of clivicollis Kirby taken here at different times 
show a series of four finely marked forms: five of the normal form; one 
in which the normal posterior marking of each elytron, formed by two 
linear markings meeting at an acute angle forward, is represented by a 
three-sided blotch; and two very striking variations, in one of which the 
two anterior markings of each elytron are united in one broad black 
band across both elytra, while in the other the same broad band is 
present but with the posterior three-sided blotch also. These are two 
very interesting variations, especially as this is quite constant compared 
with many others. 

As another example in another genus of the family, I would mention 
Una (formerly Plagiodera) scripta Fab. This species, which I have taken 



—59— 

in abundance in Louisiana, was at that time very constant, every spe- 
cimen (of forty-three collected) being- marked exactly the same, the 
normal form being represented (see Psyche, vol. IV, p. 222). But Prof. 
Riley has described and figured many variations of it from the West, 
which were doubtless taken when the species was in its normal state of 
abundance. Eight specimens of lapponica Linn, taken here (where I 
have never known it to be abundant) show a series of five well marked 
variations. 

The cause of the constancy of a form when it becomes very numer- 
ous in individuals is at first somewhat hard to see. We would naturally 
suppose that under such circumstances it would be very inconstant, as 
sexual selection would seem to have played no part, but all the indivi- 
duals would naturally have had to pair to produce such abundance. But 
here is just where we overlook the part which sexual selection has played 
— and it certainly is the cause to which this constancy is to be attributed. 
The form of a species which first begins to multiply rapidly and thus gets 
ahead of its kindred forms (it is likely to be the typical form, as that is 
the most numerous in individuals), is the one that will win. And it will 
be constant because sexual selection preserves the standard of beauty in 
a race which standard is determined by the majority. Now the large 
majority in a species that has begun to increase is the typical form, and 
from this we see that if a species happens to multiply unduly (we know 
not from what cause) and thus gets a start, it will perpetuate its type and 
remain constant, while its kindred variations will be pushed to the wall 
in the struggle lor existence. Some influence seems to guard the pro- 
pagation of a form while it is in a state of abundance, so that only the 
form itself is produced and no variations occur. The image of the favor- 
ed form, so predominant and numerous, seems to be deeply fixed in the 
being of the parent-beetle to produce this form. But as long as the 
species is in its accustomed state, variations are very frequently produced; 
and moreover they find room for themselves and increase. At all events 
these are the facts; I have given the explanation as I see it. 

In conclusion, if C. scalaris Lee. is shown, as it no doubt will be, 
to graduate by variations into the form of philadelphica Linn., it will have 
to be considered a variety of the latter; though other forms, as nearly 
related as these two, but not having connecting variations, must neces- 
sarily be regarded as distinct species. In other words scalaris is not a 
perfected species yet, but will be in time. How long a time may be 
told by entomologists some centuries hence, when its connecting varia- 
tions have passed away or developed into new species. 



—6b— 

Synopses of Cerambycidae. 
By Chas. W. Leng, B. S. 

(Continued from p. 32.) 

CALLICHROMINI md TRACHYDERINI. 

These two tribes are for convenience considered together. The) in- 
clude all the Longicorns with a triangular scutellum, more or less acute, 
and varying considerably in size. The species belong almost entirely to 
the warmer parts of the country. The arrangement of genera is as 
follows: 

I'Yont coxal cavities closed behind Callichroma. 

front coxal cavities open; 
Mandibles acute or simple at tip: 

I'ronotum broadly lobed at base; poriferous system of antenna; very distinct: 

Metnsternal pores absent, side pieces very wide Megaderus. 

Metasternal pores distinct 2 

Pronotum not lobed, sometimes subsinuate at base, poriferous system often ob- 
solete, and palpi in some genera scarcely impressed 3 

Mandibles emarginate at tip $ 

2 Prothorax strongly armed on sides Dendrobias. 

I'rothorax uniformly convex Lissonotus. 

3 Front large, square, perpendicular, abruptly separated from the ante-ocular space: 

Presternum vertical behind Stenaspis. 

Presternum arcuate at tip. 

Elytra distinctly margined at the sides Crioprosopus. 

Elytra not or obtusely margined ; » 

Prothorax armed with a lateral spine: mesosteraum not protuberant; 

Body pubescent Tragidion . 

Body glabrous, $ elytra costate Purpuricenus. 

Body glabrous, ^ without antennal tubercles Metaleptus. 

Prothorax rounded, convex /Ethecerus. 

front moderate, short, declivous, not abruptly defined each side; 
Two ivory vitta; on each elytron ; prothorax margined at apex ; 

Mesosternum declivous Mannophorus. 

( )ne ivory vitta on each elytron; prothorax not margined at apex. 

Mesosternum protuberant Entomosterna. 

Elytra without ivory vittae, mesosternum declivous; 

Body pubescent; prothorax not margined at apex Amannus. 

Body pilose; prothorax margined at apex Batyle. 

4 Elytra without ivory vittae; 
I'rothorax with an acute lateral spine: 

Kyes not divided; pubescence fine Oxoplus. 

Eyes divided; pubescence coarse Schizax. 

Prothorax rounded on sides, with dorsal callosities ... Tylosis. 

I'rothorax rounded on sides, or feebly spinose, without dorsal callosities, pube 

scence long and partly errect Crossidius. 

Prothorax narrowed in iront, mesosternum convex Sphaenothecus. 

Each elytron with two ivory vitta?, prothorax narrowed in front: 



— 6i — 

Mesosternum declivous, body robust Perarthrus. 

Mesosternum protuberant, body slender Ischnocnemis. 

The structural characters are so described by above schedule that 
they will not be rehearsed in the specific descriptions. The student is 
referred to the "Classification" for further characters. 
CALLICHROMA 1 at. 
The prothorax is very rugose and armed with a strong lateral spine 
and the scutellum is moderate in size. 

SYNOPSIS OF CALLICHROMA. 
Thighs orange; 

Elytra and parts beneath except abdomen and legs metallic green, tinged with a 

coppery hue splendidum. 

Metallic green only plicatum. 

Front and middle thighs black, elytra blue cobaltinum. 

Thighs black, elytra velvety black melancholicum. 

C. splendidum Lee. J.A.P., ser. 2, II, 1850, p. 37; Dej. Cat., 3d ed. p. 349; 
elegans Hald. Trans. Am. Phil., X, 1847, p. 31. 

Length 1. 25 to 1.50 in. = 28 to 40 mm. Hab. Southern States. (PI. , fig. 4.) 
The coppery hue which is always distinct on the thorax, sometimes 
is spread entirely over the elytra and this form is traditionally known as 
virescens . 

C. plicatum Lee. Proc, Ac. Phil., VI, 1853, p. 233. Length 1 to 1.5 in. = 
25 to 40 mm. Hab. Texas. 

C. cobaltinum Lee. S.M.C., No. 264, 1873, p. 195. Length 1 to 1.5 in. = 
25 to 36 mm. Hab. Lower California. 

The transverse rugse of the prothorax are not so coarse as in the two 
preceding species and the anterior transverse constriction is more regular 
and stronger. 

C. melancholicum Bates. Trans. Ent. Soc, London, 1872, p. 186; Chew 
Mss. Length 1.25 inch. = 30 mm. Hab. Mexican Boundary. 

All velvety black, except the legs and antennae, which are shining. 

MEGADERUS Serv. 
M. bifasciatus Dup. Mag. Zool. 1836, CI. IX, p. 5, t. 141, f. 2; Lee. J. A. P., 
ser. 2, II, 1852, p. 176; Dej. Cat., 3d ed., p. 344; corallifer Newn., Mag. Nat. Hist. 
ser. 2, IV, p. 195; Hald. Stansb. Expl. App. t. 9, f. 15. Length 1 in. = 25 mm. 
I lab. Texas, Ariz. 

Black, tibiae and elytra parti}' rufous, but very variable in the arrange- 
ment of the color. The thorax is very roughly punctured and the scu- 
tellum large and acutely triangular. (PI. , fig. 5.) 
DENDROBIAS Serv. 

D. mandibulars Serv. Ann. Ent. Soc. Fr., 1834, ser. 1, III, p. 42; Dup. 
Mag. Zool. 1836, IX, p. 23, pi. 151, f. 1, tf; 4-maculatus Klug, Dej. Cat., 3d ed. 
p. 345; Dup. I.e., p. 22, pi. 151, f. 2; basalis Dup. I.e., 1840, XIII, p. 6, pi. ^; 
lestaceus Dup, i.e., IX, p. 24, pi. 152, f. 1; Lac. Gen. Col., 1869, IX, p. 201, note 
1; sartorius Hoppner, Dej. Cat., 3ded., p. 345. Length .80 to 1.20 in. = 20 to 30 
mm. Hab. Cal., Tex., Ariz., New Mex. and Mex. 

I'.ntomologica Americana, Vol II. '.' June 1886. 



— 62 — 

Fur ihe above synonymy I am indebted to Mr. Samuel Henshaw. 

Piceous, variously variegated with dark yellow. Elytra black with four 

large yellow spots. The thorax is rugose and armed with a sharp lateral 

spine and and the scutellum nearly as large as in Megaderus (PI. 

fig. 6.) 

LISSONOTUS Dalm. 

L. multifasciatus Dup. Mag. Zool. 1836, CI. IX, p. 10. 1. 143. t. 3. Length 
.75 in. = 17 mm. Hab. Arizona, Cal. 

Black, elytra variously banded with yellow. Thorax is smooth and 
scutellum again large. (PI. , tig. 7.) 

STENASPIS Sen. 
Contains two species easily separated by their color. The thorax is 
obsolete]} 7 rugose with tubercles at sides and finely punctured and the 
scutellum moderate in size but acutely triangular. 

S. verticalis Serv. Ann. Fr., 1854, p. 52; Dup. 1. c, p. £7, t. 216, ('. 1; 
Dejeani Hceppner, Dej. Cat., 3d ed., p. 346; superba Newn. Ent. Mag. V, p. 493. 
Length 1.25 in. = 30 mm. Hab. Texas, Ariz. 

The thorax and beneath yellowish rufous except abdomen, knees, 
tarsi, and three spots on prothorax black; antennae yellow and black: 
elytra purplish blue, shining. (PI. . fig. S. ) 

S. solitaria Say. J. A. P., Ill, 1823, p. 410; I.ee. J.A.P., ser. 2, II, 1850. 
p. 9; Proc. Ac. Phil., VI, p. 441; Col. Kans. p. 30, t. 2, f. 14 O ; unicolor I.e. Suppl. 
p. 11, t. 38. Length 1.5 in. =40111111. Hah. Texas. Ark., Kan., Col., N. Mex. 
anil Arizona. 

Uniform bluish black, slightly shining. 

CRIOPROSOPUS Serv. 
I Contains three species with coarsely punctured thorax ami moderate 

but acutely triangular scutellum. 

♦ 

SYNOPSIS OF CRIOPROSOPUS. 

Prothorax black splendens. 

1'rothoiax orange, spotted with black magnificus. 

Prothorax black, sides with orange border lateralis. 

C. splendens Lee. Proc. Ac. Nat. Sci. Phil., VI. p. 441; Arcan. Nat. 185c). 
p. 127, t. 12, f. 9; rimosus Buq J Rev. Zool., 1840, p. 142: Mag. Zool., 1841, t. 66. 
Length 1.37 in. = 35 mm. Hab. Texas. 

The elytra are remarkable for the very deep and angular confluent 
rugosities and the beautiful shining green color. The legs are more or 
less yellow ami otherwise the insect is black. (PI. , fig. 9.) 

C. magnificus Lee. Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. V, 1875, p. 173. Length 1. 5 in. 
= 38 mm. Hab. Arizona. 

Bright orange, mouth, anteniiaj, knees, tibia- and tarsi black, head, 
prothorax and abdomen spotted with black and elytra black with two 
broad orange bands connected by narrow marginal line of same color. 



ENTOMOLOGICA AMERICANA, VOL. II, JUNE 1886. 




ENTOMOLOGICA AMERICANA, VOL. II, JUNE i! 




-63- 



C. lateralis I^ec. Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. XII, 1884, p. 23. Length .44 in. = 
1 1 mm. Hab. Texas. 

Black, clothed above and beneath with fine, erect, ashy pubescence. 
Beneath finely, above deeply and coarsely punctured. Sides of prothorax 
with broad orange border. Elytra with narrow side margin and broad 
transverse fascia orange. This is the smallest Trachyderide known. 

(To be continued.) 



Explanation of Plates II and III. 

The figuring is consecutive, and the numbers are scattered over both plates. 
Figs. 24 to 26 represent forms not obtainable when the genus was treated of. Starred 
figures we owe to Dr. Horn. 



1 Elytroleptus floridanus. 

2 Holopleura marginata. 

3 Rosalia funebris. 

4 Callichroma splendidum. 

5 Megaderus bifasciatus. 

6 Dendrobias mandibularis. 

7 Lissonotus multifasciatus. 

8 Stenaspis solitaria. 

9 Crioprosopus splendens. 

10 Tragidion coquus. 

1 1 Purpuricenus humeral is. 
12* Metaleptus Batesi. 

13 yEthecerus Wilsoni. 

14 Mannophorus lsetus. 

15 Batyle ignicnllis. 



16* Oxoplus corallinus. 
17* Schizax senex. 

18 Tylosis maculata. 

19 Crossidius discoideus. 

20 " intermedius. 

21 Sphaenothecus suturalis. 

22 Ischnocnemis bivittatus. 

23 Entomosterna cyanicollis. 
24* Nothorhina aspera. 

25* Hypexilis pallidus. 

26 Hammaticherus castaneus. 

(after the Biol. Cent. Am. ) 

27 Callimus ruficollis. 

28 Rhopalophora longipes. 



Notes and News. 

Flight of Water Beetles. 

A few days since while passing a small pond, I stopped to notice 
the swarms of Gyrinus on the surface and shortly after was struck by the 
appearance of certain small black insects flying in the air. A few mo- 
ments of close observation proved my suspicion, that the flying insects 
were Gyrinus, to be correct, and I was able by careful watching for a 
little while to observe the process entire. The insects after swimming 
about on the surface for a time, or sometimes almost immediately after 
coming to surface, would proceed to crawl up on the stones at the bank 
or upon partially submerged sticks, grass etc. After climbing up a few 
inches from the surface of the water, (I saw some as high as ten or twelve 
inches) they would remain quiet for a while, apparently waiting to be- 
come perfectly dry, then suddenly extend the wings and fly, taking to 
flight so quickly that 1 was unable to catch sight of the wings till they 
were in the air. Frequently they would fail to get well into the air. per- 
haps caught by a sudden gust, and capsize upon the surface, in which 



—6 4 — 

cases they folded their wings as quickly as possible and dove out of 
sight; whether any of these capsized ones made a second effort I could 
not determine. When they made a good flight they rose rapidly to a 
height of forty or fifty feet, then flew away with the wind and would be 
very quickly lost to sight. The species is one rather common in this 
I ( >ca 1 i ty , G ) rinus ana lis. 

I also saw several individuals of Hydrophilus glaber on stones and 
sticks several inches above the surface of the water but did not see any 
of them take to flight. 

It was a warm spring day, and about half past four when I first 
noticed the beetles. I watched them till nearly sundown, but they were 
not nearly so plenty the latter part of the time, partly perhaps on account 
of the change in temperature, possibly partly on account of my taking 
advantage of their terrestrial habit to secure a number of specimens. 

Ames, Iowa. Herbert Osborn. 

We have received a circular referring to a Summer Course in Ento- 
mology and General Invertebrate Zoology at the Cornell University, 
Ithaca, N. Y. Prof. J. H. Comstock is in charge of this Department, 
and the course will comprise lectures, laboratory practice and field work. 
It wHl begin Monday, June 2ist, and continue io weeks. The fee to 
others than college graduates or undergraduates taking regular courses 
at the University, will be $25. This is an excellent way of spending a 
summer vacation — it enables an Entomologist to follow his hobby, and 
at the same time initiates him into methods of study that will prove ad- 
vantageous to him in the further pursuit of his favorite science. 



Book Notices. 

Dinapate Wrightii and its larva. By George II. Morn, M.D. Trans. Am. 
Knt. Soc. XIII, pp. 1—4 and PI. I. 

That a Bostrychid, nearly two inches in length, sho Id remain so 
long undiscovered is passing strange; but this is what Dr. Horn presents 
to us in the above paper. It is from the Mojave desert. Calif., which if 
the rest of its fauna is as peculiar as this species must be an Entomo- 
logical paradise. 

Society News. 

Brooklyn Entomological Society. May 4th, 188G. — Twenty members 
present, the President in the chair. Dr. S. W. Williston of New Haven, Conn., 
was elected a member of the Society. Mr. Leng was appointed a committee to 
arrange for the annual excursion of the Society on May 31st. 

Mr. Smith read a paper on "Ants' nests and their inhahitants'", giving ;i 
popular account of myrmecophilous insects and their habits. Dr. Williston 
supplemented the acount with further notes on the Diptera found in ants nests 
either in the larval or mature stage, and remarked on some curious resemblances 
of certain Diptera to ants. 

.Mr. Weeks read a brief paper on some parasitic Hymenoptera and Diptera. 
merely mentioning the facts of their occurrence. Dr. Williston added a few 
remarks on the life habits of some Tachinids. 





Americana 



VOL. II. 



BROOKLYN, JULY, 1886. 



NO. 4. 



Record of some Contributions to the Literature of North 
American Beetles, published in 1885. 

By Samuel Henshaw, 

In Part II the first number refers to the author-list in Part I. 

A few articles either accidentally omitted from or received too late 
for insertion in the previous Record (Ent. Amer, v, I, p. 41.) are included 
now. A few papers of general interest although not especially relating to 
American beetles are also included. 

In the papers recorded sixteen (16) new genera and two-hundred 
and fifty (250) new species are described by nine (9) authors. 



Angell, G. W. J. 

1 Notes on Chrysoinela scalaris Lee. 

Ent. Amer. 1885, v. I, p. 12612S, 
figures. 
Bell, J. T. 

2 List of Staphylinidae taken at Belle- 
ville, Ont. 

Ca. Ent. 1885, v. 17, p. 4959. 
Sixty-six named species. 

3 (Xyloryctes satyrus in Ontario. 

Ca. Ent. 1885, v. 17, p. 58. 
Belon, Marie-Joseph. 
A Note sur quelques especes du genre 
Cartodere Thorns. 

C. R. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1884, v. 28, 
p. cxci-cxciii. 
Describes C. intermedia n. sp., 



synoptic table of related species; 
doubts the occurence in N. Ameri- 
ca of Lathridius filiformis Gyll. 
Berge, A. 

5 Enumeration des Cetonides decrits 
depuis la publication du catalogue de 
MM. Gemrninger et de Harold. 

Ann. Ent. Soc. Belg. 1884, v. 28, p. 
113-163. 
Bergroth, E. 

6 Vega-Coleoptera und Hemiptera. 

Ent. Nachrichten 1885, v. 11, p. 

268-270. 
List icith localities of the species 
mentioned and described by Sahl- 
berg in his reports upon th< Vega 
collections. 



—66 — 



Bisshopp, E. F. 

7 The Death-watch, (Xestobinni tessela- 
tum.) 

Ent. 1884, v. 17, p. 237-238. 
Blanchard, F. 

8 On the species of Canthon and Pka- 
naeus of the United States with notes 
on other genera. 

Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. 1885, v. 12, 
p. 163-172. 

9 Cryptobium fiavicorne Lee. 

Ca. Ent. 1885, v. 17, p. 180. 
Distinct from C pallipes. 
Bonhoure, Alph. 

10 Note sur le Platypsylla castoris Hit- 
sema et sa capture en France. 

Ann. Soc. Ent. France, 1884, ser. 6. 
v. 4, p. 147-154, plate 6. 
Branden, C. Van den 

11 Catalogue des Coleopteres Carnass- 
iers aquatiques (Haliplidae, Amphi- 
zoidae, Pelobiidae et Dytiscidae.) 

Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1885, v. 29, p. 
1- 118. 
Bruner, Lawrence 

12 Notes from Nebraska. 

Rept. Com. Agric. for 1884-85, p. 

398-403. 

Brief notes on Plagiodera scripta 
and Doryphora 10-lineata. 
Casey, T. L. 

13 New genera and species of Californi 
an Coleoptera. 

Bull. Cal. Acad. Sciences, 1885. v.i 
P- 283-336. 1 plate. 
Caulfield, F. B. 

14 Trapping Coleoptera. 

Ca. Ent. 1885, v. 17, p. 229-230. 
Principally Silphidae. 

15 Notes on Chrysomela scalaris Lee. 

Ca. Ent. 1885, v. 17, p. 230. 
Clarkson, F. 

16 The dung pellet-makers. 

Rept. Ent. Soc. Ont. for 1884-85, 
p. 40. 

Reprint from Ca. Ent. 1884, v. 16. 

p. 18-19; see Ent. Amer. v. 1, p. 

42 No. 14. 



17 The elm leaf beetle (Galeruca xan- 
thomelaena Schrank. ) 

Rept. Er.t. Soc. Ont. for 1884-85, 
p. 40-41. 

Reprint from Ca. Ent. 1884, v. 16. 

p. 124-125; see Ent. Amer. v. 1, 

p. 42, No. 16. 

18 Seaside captures (about New York.) 
Ca. Ent. 1885, v. 17, p. 106-108. 

19 Elaphidion villosum Fabr. 
Can. Ent. 1885, v. 17, p. 188-190. 

Claypole, E. W. 

20 Entomology by the electric lamp. 
Ca. Ent. 1888, v. 17, p. 117-119. 

Record of insects attracted to 
the electric lamps. 

Dimmock. Anna K. 

21 The insects of Betula in N. America. 
Tsyche 1885, v. 4. p. 239-2435271- 
286. 

Thirty-one species of beetles are 
mentioned. 

Dimmock, George 

22 Xyloryctes satyrus and Strategus an- 
taeus. 

Ca. Ent. 1885, v. 17, p. 39. 
Distribution. 

Dohrn, C. A. 

23 Classification of the Coleopteia of 
North America. 

Stett. Ent. Zeit. 1884, v. 45. p. 32- 
37; 113-125. 

Critical view of the Classification 

of Leconte and Horn. 

24 Revision der Amerikanischen Cucn- 
jidae Nordlich von Mexico, von 
Thomas L. Casey. 

Stett. Ent- Zeit. 1884, v. 45, p. 401- 
404. 
Review. 

25 Neuere publicationen uber nord- 
amerikanische Kafer, von Dr. Geo. 
H. Horn. 

Stett. Ent. Zeit. 1884, v. 45, p. 444- 

447- 

Review and extracts from Notes 
on Anomala and Notoxus. 



-6 7 - 



Doll, J. 
20 Note on Dynastes. 

Bull. Bkl. E. S. 1885, v. 7, p. 120- 
121. 

Found near tips of branches of Mt. 
Ash in Col. (=Ariz. ) 
Donckies de Donceel, H. 

27 List des Brenthides decrits poster- 
ieurement an catalogue de M. M. 
Gemminger and von Harold. 

C. R. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1884, v. 28, 
p. ccciii-ccx. 

28 Liste des Antkribides decrits post- 
errieurement au catalogue de M. M. 
Gemminger and von Harold. 

C. R. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1884, v. 28, 
p. ccxiv-ccxxxiii. 
Donovan, C. Jr. 

29 Dytiscus marginalis found in salt 
water. 

Ent. Mo. Mag. 1885, v. 22, p. 13. 

Duges, Eug. 

30 Metamorphoses de la Leptinotarsa 
undecimlineata Stal. 

Ann. Soc, Ent. Belg. 1884, v. 28, p. 
1-6, plate 1 in part. 

31 Metamorphoses du Tropisternus la- 
teralis Fabricius. 

Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1884, v. 28, p. 
7-12. plate 1 in part. 

32 Metamorphoses du Mallodon angus- 
tatum Thorns. 

Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1884, v. 28, p. 
12-18. plate 2. 
Forbes, S. A. 

33 Fourteenth Report of the State En- 
tomologist on the noxious and bene- 
ficial Insects of the State of Illinois. 

Springfield, Illinois, 1885. 

Short notes on Hippodamia macu- 
lata and other Cocclnellids, Paha 
aterrima, Scelodonta nebulosus, S. 
pubescens, Orepidodera helexines 
and Saperda iridentata. Index to 
the first twelve Illinois Reports. 
Fowler, W. W. 

34 Note on Hypothenemus eruditus 
West. 



Ent. Mo. Mag. 1885. v. 21, p. 256- 
257- 

35 Water beetles guided to water by 
sight and not by other senses. 

Ent. 1883, v. 16 p. 286. 

36 The genus Cercyon. 

Ent. 1884, v. 17, p. 54-59. 
Relates to British species but sev- 
eral found in the United States are 
mentioned. 

37 Tke "Death-watch" and its sound. 
(Xestobium tesselatum.) 

Ent. 1884, v. 17, p. 188-190. 
French, G. H. 

38 Larva of Chrysomela clivicollis Kby. 

Ca. Ent. 1885, v. 17, p. 19. 
Description; food-plant. 
Frost, J. 

39 Water-beetles and light reflected by 
glass. 

Ent. 1883, v. 15, p. 286. 
Fuchs, C. 

40 (Collecting in California. ) 

Bull. Bkl. E. S. 1885, v. 7, p. 125. 
Godman, F. Ducane & Osbert Salvin. 

41 Biologia Centrali-Americana. 

London. 
Parts 35-43 Jan. 1885— Dec. 1885 
contain portions of the Staphylini- 
dai and Bruchidae by Sharp, Ma- 
lacodermata by Gorham, Longi- 
cornica by Bates, Phytophaga by 
Baly and Jacoby and Tenebrioni- 
dae by Champion. 
Hagen, H. A. 

42 (Distribution of Xyloryctes satyrus 
etc.) 

Ca. Ent. 1885, v. 17, p. 58-60. 
Hamilton, John 

43 Hibernation of Coleoptera. 

Ca. Ent. 1885, v. 17, p. 35-38. 

44 Short notes on Coleoptera. 

Ca. Ent. 1885, v. 17, p. 45-48. 

45 Remarks on some species of Coleop- 
tera with supplementary descriptions 

Ca. Ent. 1885, v. 17, p. 103-106. 
4G Entomology at Brigantine Beach, N. 
J. in September. 

Ca. Ent. 1885, v. 17, p. 201-206. 



—68— 



Hanham. A. W. 
17 Entomological Notes. 

Kept. Ent. Soc. Out. for 1884 s 5 P 
41-42. 

Ili print from Ca. Ent. v. 16, p 
98-99. See Ent. Amer. v. \,p. 44. 
No. 55. 
Harrington, W. Hague. 
48 (Distribution of Xyloryctes satyrus.) 

Ca. Ent. 1885, v. 17, p. 58. 
I'.i Are Cuculio larvae lignivorous? 
Ent. Amer. 1885, v. 1, p. 18 19. 
Answered in the affirmative. 
Henshaw, S. 

50 List of the Coleoptera of America, 
north of Mexico. 

Phil. Am. Ent. Soc. 1885 ,8vo. p. 161 

51 (Distribution of Xyloryctes satyrus. ) 

Ca. Ent. 1885, v. 17, p. 40. 

52 Determinations of the 36 Coleoptera 
described by D. Ziegler. 

Ca. Ent. 1885, v. 17. p. 131-132. 

53 Record of some contributions to the 
literature of North American beetles 
published in 1883-84. 

Ent. Amer.1885, v.i, p. 41-48; 73-77 

54 Coleoptera of America. 

Science 1885, v. 6, p. 454. 

Number of species in recent lists. 

Horn, G. H. 

55 Notes on some Staphylinidae. 

Bull. Bkl. E. S. 1885, v. 7, p. 121- 
122. 

Relates to the forms of Edaphus; 

Trogophloeus laticollis belongs to 

Haploderus. 

56 A note on some Hydrophilidae. 

Ca. Ent. 1885, v. 17, p. 137-139. 
HydrophUus and Tropisternus dis 
tinct; separation of the species of 
HydrophUus; records Tropisternus 
apicipalpis and Berosus Salvinii 
from North America. 

57 Synonymical Notes. 

Ent. Amer. 1885, v. 1. p. 59. 
Newman's species. 

58 A note on Scotocryptus. 

Ent. Amer. 1885, v. 1, p. 51-52 

59 Synonymical Notes. No. 2. 



Ent. Amer. 1SS5, v. 1, p. 88-90. 

The species described by Beauvois 
('id Synonymical Notes. No. 3. 

Ent. Amer. 1885, v. i, p. 108-113. 

The species described by Casey. 

61 (Notes on some Cerambycidae. ) 

Ent. Amer. 1885, v. 1, p. 130-133. 
Notes and descriptions of the spe- 
cies of Momaleum, Aneflus and 
Eustroma contributed to Leng's 
Synopsis of the Cerambyciihn . 

62 A study of some genera of Elater- 
idae. 

Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. 1885, v. 12, 

P- 33-5 2 - 

63 A study of the species of Cryptobium 

of North America. 

Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. 18S5, v. 12, 
p. 86-106. 2 plates. 

64 Studies among the Meloidae. 

Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. 1885, v. 12, 
p. 107-116. 

65 Descriptions of North American 
Scarabaeidae. 

Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. 1885, v. 12, 
p. 1 17-128. 

66 Contributions to the Coleopterology 
of the United States. No. 4. 

Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. 1885, v. 12, 
p. 128-162. 

67 Descriptions of some new Ceramby- 
cidae with notes. 

Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. 1S85, v. 12, 

173 197- 

68 Synopsis of the Throscidae of the 
United States. 

Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. 1885, v. 12. 
p. 198-208. 

69 (Note on the Classification of the 
Staphylinidae. 

Science 1885, v. 5, No. 101, p. V, 
Proc. 

70 (Tarsal modifications in Silphidae 
and Cerambycidae. ) 

Science 1885, v. 5, No. 114, p. V. 
Proc. 

71 (Note on Dinapate Wrightii n. g. et. 
n. sp.) 

Science 1885, v. 5. No. 1 18, p, 

Proc. 



-6 9 - 



Hubbard, H. G. 

72 Notes on the habits of Hypotrichii 
spissipes Lee. , with description of 
the females. 

Psyche 1885, v. 4, p. 215-217, fig. 
Kerremans, Charles 

73 Enumeration des Buprestides de 
crits posteiieurement au Catalogue 
de MM. Geinmmger and de Harold. 

Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1885, v. 29 
p. 119-157. 
Kilman, A. H. 

74 The punctured clover leaf weevil 
(Phytononius punctatus.) 

Rept. Ent. Soc. Ont. for 1884-85, 
p. 32. 

Reprint from Ca. Ent. v. 16, p. 

144-145; See Ent. Amer. v. 1, p. 

45, No. 87. 
Knaus, Warren. 

75 Are Curculio larvae lignivorous? 

Bull. Bid. E. S. 1885, v. 7, p. 150. 
Answered in the affirmative. 

76 Additions to the Catalogue of Kan- 
sas Coleoptera for 1883 and 1884. 

Trans. Kans. Acad. Sci. 1885, v. 9, 
p. 57-61. 
List of 160 species. 

77 On some salt marsh Coleoptera. 

Trans. Kans. Acad. Sci. 1885, v. 9, 

p. 64-65. 

A few species of Cicindela and 
one of Rhyssemus are mentioned. 
Lameere, Aug. 

78 Longicornes captures aux Etats- 
nnis par le Dr. E. Fromont. 

C. R. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1884, v. 28, 
p, ccexxii. 

Mentions a few species. 
Leconte, J. L. 

79 Short studies of North American 
Coleoptera No. 2. 

Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. 1885, v. 12, 
p. 1-32. 
Lefevre, Ed. 

80 Descriptions de quatre generes 
nouve aux et de plusieurs especes 
nouvelles de Coleoptera de la famile 
des Eumolpides. 

C. R. Ent. Soc. Belg. 1884, v. 29, 



p. cxcm-ccvi. 

81 (Synonyruical Notes on Eumolpides) 

Ann. Ent. Soc. France 1884, ser. 6, 
v. 4, p. xlv-xlli; lxxv-lxxvi. 
Leng, C. W. 

82 Synopses of Coleoptera (Cerambyci- 
dae.) 

Bull. Bkl. E. S. 1885, v. 7, p. 117- 
119; Ent. Amer. 1885, v. I, p. 28-35; 
130-136, plates 1-3. 

83 (Water-beetles.) 

Ent. Amer. 1885, v. 1, p. 39. 
Observed beneath ice. 

84 (Abnormal Monilema.) 

Ent. Amer. 1885, v. I, p. 136. 
Lintner, J. A. 

85 Second report on the injurious and 
other insects of the State of N. Y. 

Albany 1885, pp. xiv-265. 
Amphicerus bicaudatus, Lema tri- 
lineatus, Tribolium ferrugineum, 
Brachytarsus variegatus and Ara- 
rnigus Fidleri are discussed and 
figured ; figures and brief notes of 
a few others are given. 
Lucas, H. 

86 Note sur le Gibbiurn scotias. 

Ann. Soc. Ent. France 1884, ser. 6, 
v. 4, p. Ixxvii-lxxviii, Bull. 

87 Sur la larve du Gibbium scotias . 

Ann. Soc. ,Ent. France 1884, ser. 6, 
v. 4, p. exxiv-exxv. Bull. 
Marsh, C. D. 

88 Swarming of a dung beetle, Apho- 
dius inquinatus. 

Am. Nat. 1885, v. 19, p. 716. 
Matthews, A. 

89 On a new genus allied to Corylophus 

Ent. Mo. Mag. 1885, v. 22, p. 160- 
161. 
Mc Donald, G. L. 

90 Peculiar mistake of Dytiscus margi- 
nalis. 

Ent. 1883. v. 16, p. 263-264. 
Glass mistaken for water. 
Moffat, J. Alston. 

91 (Capture of Chrysomela pnirsa. 

Ca. Ent. 1885, v. 17, p. 40. 
Olliff, A. Sidney. 

92 On the Coleopterous genus Holopa- 



—70— 



ramecus Curtis. 
Ent. 1883, v. 16 p. 1-4. 

Describes II. singularis Beck. 

Packard, A. S. 

93 Second report on the causes of the 
destruction of the evergreen and 
other forest trees in Northern New 
England and New York. 

Rept. Com. Agric. for 1884, 1885 

P- 374-3 8 3- 

Monohammus confusor, Glyco- 
bius speciosus and Saeixla cal- 
carata are mentioned. 

Ricksecker, L. E. 

94 (Biological Notes.) 

Ent. Amer. 1885, v. 1, p. 96-9S. 
Habits and habitats of several 
species. 
Riley, C. V. 

95 The imported elm leaf beetle. Its 
habits and natural history and 
means of counteracting its injuries. 

Bull. No. 6, U.S. Dept. Agric. Div. 
Ent. 1885, pp. 18, figs, and 1 plate. 
9G Water beetles destroying Carp. 

Bull. U. S. Fish Com. 1885, v. 5, p. 

3"- 

Species of Dytiscus or Cybister? 

97 Parasites of the larva of Lachnoster- 
na fusca. 

Psyche 1885, v. 4, p. 224. 

98 Report of the Entomologist. 

Rept. Com. Agric. for 1884, 1885, 

p. 285-418, 10 plates. 

The following species are discuss- 
ed viz: Epicaerus imbricatus, Phyl- 
loireta vittata, P. Zimmermani, P. 
albionica, Doryphora 10-lineata, 
Plagiodera scripta, Mallodon me- 
lanopus, Trichobaris trinotatus, 
Anomala varians, Sphenophorus 
robustus, 8. sculptilis, Euphoria 
Kernii, Prisloscelis ater, Ccdand- 
ra oryzae and Aramigus Fulleri. 
Remedial measures. Figures. 

99 On the hitherto unknown mode of 
oviposition in the Carabidae (Ab 
stract.) 



Proc. A. A. A. Sci. 1885, v. 33, p. 

538-539- 
See Ent. Amer. v. 1, p. 47, No. 
129. 
Sahlberg, John. 

100 Bidrag till Tschuktsch-halfons in- 
sekt fauna. Coleoptera och Hemip- 
tera insamlade under Vega-expedi- 
tionen vid halfons norra och ostra 
kust 1878-1879. 

Vega-expedionens vetenskapliga iak- 
ttagelser 1885, Bd. 4, p. 1-42. 

101 Coleoptera och Hemiptera, insam- 
lade af Vega-expeditionens medle- 
mar a Berings sunds amerikanska- 
kust uti omgifningarma af Port 
Clarence, vid Grantley Harbour och 
sjon Iman-ruk den 23-26 Juli 1879. 

Vega-expeditionens vetenskapliga 
iakttagelser 1885, Bd. 4, p. 43-58. 

102 Coleoptera och Hemiptera insamla- 
de af Vega-expeditionens medlemar 
paBering-on den 15-18 Augusti 1879 

Vega-expeditionens vetenskapliga 
iakttagelser 1885, Bd. 4, p. 59-71. 

Mentions a few species found in 

the United States. 
Schwarz, E. A. 

103 (Note on montane beetles.) 
Science 1885, v. 5, No. 120, p. V, 
Proc. 

104 (Mandibular appendages of Epicae- 
rus imbricatus.) 

Science 1885, v. 5, No. 120, p. V. 
Proc. 
Seher, Thaddeus. 

105 (Distribution and habitat of Ehopa- 
lopus sanguinicollis.) 

Ent. Amer. 1885, v. I, p. 156. 
Sharp, D. 

106 Note on the genus Plagithmysus 
Motsch. 

C. R. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1885, v. 29, 
p. lxxiv-lxxvi. 
Not seen. 

107 Note on Hydrobius fuscipes. 
Ent. Mo. Mag. 1884, v. 21, p. 84-85 

Smith, J. B. 

108 Dynastes again. 



—7i — 



Bull. Bkl. E. S. 1885, v. 7, p. 151- 
Hell's Canon in Ariz, not Col; 
distribution of B. Granti. 

109 (Lycus Fernandezi found in Tex.) 

Bull. Bkl. E.S. 1885, v. 7, p. 125. 

110 Species, varieties and races. 

Ca. Ent! 1885, v. 17, p. 3~9- 
Describes the variations among 
several species of Cicindela. 

111 Water beetles. 

Ent. Amer. 1885, v. 1, p. 16. 
Favorable places and seasons of 
the year for collecting; net. 

112 An abnormal Lucanus cervus. 

Ent Amer. 1885, v. 1, p. 27. 

113 Stylopidae. 

Ent. Amer. 1885, v. 1, p. 38. 

114 (Color of Coptocycla aurichalcea.) 

Ent. Amer. 1885, v. 1, p. 78. 

115 Some new species of Hispini. 

Ent. Amer. 1885, v. 1, p. 94-95- 

Snow, F. H. 

116 Lists of Lepidoptera and Coleop- 
tera collected in "New Mexico by the 
Kansas University scientific expedi- 
tion of 1883 and 1884. 

Trans. Kans. Acad. Sci. 1885, v. 9, 
p. 65-69. 

Mentions about 150 species, some 
are not fully identified. 
Townsend, C. H. T. 
117 A list of Coleoptera collected in 
Louisiana on or south of parallel 30°. 



Ca. Ent. 1885, v. 17, p. 66-73. 
About 110 species are mentioned. 

118 On the distribution of the genera 
of Carabidae along a river system. 

Ca. Ent. 1885, v. 17, p. 170-171. 

119 Notes on Acmaeodera pulchella 
Hbst. 

Ca. Ent. 1885, v. 17, p. 231-232. 
Variation and food plants. 

120 Notes on some Coleoptera taken in 
South Louisiana. 

Psyche 1885, v. 4, p. 219-222. 
Walker, J . J. , and W. W. Fowler. 

121 Coleoptera in salt water. 
Ent. Mo. Mag. 1885, v. 22, p. 45. 

Websdale, G. R. 

122 The Death watch and its sound. 
Ent. 1S84, v. 17, p. 236-237. 

XesloUum tesselatum is mentioned. 

Wenzel, H. W. 

123 Note on Sandalus. 
Ent. Amer. 1885, v. 1, p. 107. 

Habitat. 
Wood, Theodore. 

124 Hydradephaga in salt water. 
Ent. Mo. Mag. 1885, v. 22, p. 44-45 

125 Experiments with Bruchus infested 
Beans. 

Ent. Mo. Mag. 1885, v. 22, p. 114. 
Germinating qualities not affected; 
reproductive capabilities of adult 
plants injured; plants free from 
attacks of Aphis rumicis. 



(To be continued. ) 

Among the tools of trade which a Coleopterist ought to carry into 
the woods with him, is a pipe and some vile tobacco. By puffing smoke 
into the crevices of bark, into cracks, crevices, cavities in trees and 
other places where insects hide, the inhabitants may be easily dislodged. 
I have seen a dozen beetles run out of the crevices on top of a stump, 
after I had supposed I had taken everything to be found there. 

The species of Chakophora as a rule feed on evergreens. Among the 
American species C. campestris Say has been taken by Mr. Schwarz and 
myself on sycamore, which they attack when the tree is entirely dead and 
dry, and this is the only species thus far known that feeds in deciduous trees. 
It is likely that C. Fulleri, which resembles campestris very strongly in 
form, will be found to have similar habits. J.B.S. 



— 72 — 

Notes and News. 

Grosvenor Library, Buffalo, N. Y., 5—2 1— 'S6. 
Dear Sir: I take pleasure in informing you that at a recent meeting of 
Buffalo Entomologists, held for the purpose of making arrangements for 
the entertainment of the Entomological Club of the A.A.A.S., it was de- 
cided to tender the Club a reception on the occasion of their coming 
meeting here in August next; and also an excursion to some point of in- 
terest near the city. 

We hope there will be a good attendance at these meetings; and 
shall do everything in our power to make them successful and enjoyable. 
Sincerely yours, 

E. P. Van Duzee, Secretary. 
John B. Smith, 

Secretary Entomological Club, A. A. A, S, 
It is hoped that the attendance of Entomologists will be large, and 
that they will come well provided to add to the interest of the meet- 
ings. It is desirable that those who expect to attend and who will have 
papers to read, send in the titles, and the time they expect to occupy to 
Prof. J. A. Lintner, Albany, N.Y., Prof, C. V. Riley, Washington, D. C. 
or Mr. John B. Smith, National Museum, Washington, D. C. In the 
next number we shall hope to publish further particulars, as well as a 
programme for the first meeting. J-B.S. 



Book Notices. 

Dr. H. A. Hagen's Monograph of the Embidina is one of the most 
important memoirs that has appeared in the Canadian Entomologist for 
several years. 

It fills somewhat over fifty pages, was commenced in the August 
(18S5) number and concluded in the number for November. 

Seventeen species are recognized, four being described as new, one 
of these (Oligotoma Hubbardi) taken at Enterprise, Fla., by Mr. H. G. 
Hubbard is the only species recorded from the United States. Species 
of Embidina are so rare that few American entomologists have seen 
them; the concluding part of Dr. Hagen's memoir however giving the 
family characters, notes on systematic position, habits, distribution &c. , 
is of special value and interest to all students, 

Dr. Hagen with his unrivalled knowledge and material owes science 
the elaboration of the American species of Neuroptera and we hope this 
paper may be taken as an assurance that the work will not be left to less 
skilled hands. 



—73— 

On the American species of the genus Utetheisa, Huelner. 

By H. B. Moeschler, Kronfoerstchen bei Bautzen. 
Mr. Stretch in his valuable work "Illustrations of Zygsenidoe and 
Bombycidce of North America"' describes three species of Utdheisa, viz: 
bella Linn., speciosa Walker, and ornatrix Linn. Besides this he men- 
tions a fourth species or variety, and he gives beautiful figures of all. 
The author is doubtful whether these forms are specifically distinct, or 
merely varieties of one species. 

It seems indeed difficult to decide this question, for the preparatory 
stages of bella alone are known. But even if known, the larva; might dif- 
fer in size and color without proving the distinctness of the imago, for 
the larva of a species often varies under the influence of food and climate. 
I shall attempt to clear the subject as far as possible at present, and 
detail the descriptions: Linne described two species, bella and ornatrix, 
placing them in the Noctuida3. Cramer also describes and figures them, 
but he mistook bella, and mixed two species under this name, that form 
being figured as bella, which Walker afterwards described as speciosa. 
Cramer says, Vol. II, p. 20, "Le fond des ailes superieures des males est 
pour l'ordinaire d'une jaune obscure ou orange, tandisque les femelles 
comme celle nous representons ici, ont ce fond rouge. On le trouve 
dans l'amerique meridionale, a la New York, et dans 1' Isle Jamaique. " 
This description proves that Cramer saw only males of the yellow bella 
and females of the red speciosa. It seems also that later authors, Hiib- 
ner, Herrich-Schaeffer, Walker and Stretch, have not compared Cramer's 
description and figures of bella otherwise they would not have cited pi. 
109, f. C, I), as bella L. It is most strange that Walker has not cleared 
up this matter, for he describes the form figured by Cramer as a new 
species under the name speciosa, and yet cites the figure with bella L. 

If we compare only a few specimens of these two species, and of or- 
natrix there seems to be considerable difference between them; but with 
a great number of specimens for comparison there are specimens grading 
from one into the other. My friend Dr. Staudinger was kind enough to 
send me all the specimens of his rich collection for comparison, and these 
with my own collection gave 35 examples for comparison, viz: 10 bella, 
22 speciosa, and 20 ornatrix from various parts of North and South 
America and the West Indies. 

I compare bella from the United States, and from Cuba, speciosa 
from Cuba, St. Domingo and Jamaica W. I., and ornatrix from Panama. 
St. Croix, and St. Kitts, W. I., Surinam, Columbia and Peru. 

If we carefully compare the three species we will observe certain 
peculiarities of maculation common to all, viz: primaries having four 
black dots at the costa, extended to rows of dots in bella and speciosa; a 
Entomologica Americana, Vol TI. 11 July 1886. 



—74 — 

subterminal row of black clots, a similar series at the outer margin, and 
two black spots near the tip of the wing. Beneath, the primaries are deep 
red with three black spots .it the costa, sometimes appearing as broken 
bands, an interrupted black subterminal band crosses the wing, and 
there is a row of black dots at the outer margin. Secondaries with a nar- 
row or wide black outer margin, widest at' the apex where it incloses a 
white or pale red split, and having usually an inward dilation of this 
black margin beyond the middle. Palpi, head, thorax, and abdomen 
white, the former with black spots, the abdomen unspotted above, be- 
neath with two rows of black dots. Prothorax and pategia with a yellow 
or led spot on each side. The differences between these species are that 
bella Ins yellow primaries with six transverse bands, each containing a 
3 ries of black dots, while speciosa is vermillion, the bands as in bella. 
The secondaries of these two species are pink. Orn.rtrix has pale flesh 
colored primaries, the costa narrowly and interruptedly vermillion, the 
pale spaces with black costal dots, and there are also usually two black 
dots beyond the middle of the wing: these are, however sometimes want- 
ing. The subterminal row of dots is in an obsolete white band, and be- 
tween that and the series of dots at the outer margin, is a narrow broken 
band of vermilion. Beneath, the primaries are as in bella and speciosa. 
Secondaries white, the black outer margin generally very wide. Beneath 
the costa is pink. 

It does not seem to be doubtful that here are three specifically 
distinct forms, should the differences be constant; but as already men- 
tioned, there are specimens which prove that these species merge one 
into the other. These I shall describe as far as I can compare them. 

All specimens from the United States which I saw were true bella, 
but a specimen from Cuba varies toward speciosa in that the primaries 
show rosy hue. The second example from Cuba is most interesting 
for it at once merges speciosa and ornatrix. The primaries are white with 
a rosy hue; the first and fourth bands only are perfect and run to the 
inner margin, the second and third only as costal spots, and all are 
yellow with a slight reddish hue, as is the stripe near the outer margin. 

Secondaries partly rosy, partly white, the latter color near the hind 
margin. This specimen approaches Stretch's fig. 17 of pi. II, but the 
spots of the primaries are yellow, not red, and the secondaries have the 
black outer margin more narrow, and the rosy hue more extensive. 

The examples of speciosa from the West Indies vary considerably: 
some have vermillion primaries and sharply limited white bands, while 
others have white primaries with small and obsolete red bands, and 
sometimes the bands are broken into spots. 

With regard to ornatrix, all examples from the mainland are true to 
type, and vary very little, — specimens from Peru only showing a more 



dusky tint. But the examples from the West Indies seem to run more 
or less into speciosa. There are specimens from St. Croix and St. Kilts, 
different only from the South American ornatrix by the beginning of red 
longitudinal stripes on the primaries, while others show these stripes 
wider and broader, until the red coin,- is extended by degrees over the 
whole wing. 

The most striking specimen, from St. Croix, has quite red primaiies, 
the base is white, three sharply delined white bands run from costa to 
middle of wing, the subterminal white band is distinct, all the bands 
contain black spots, and there are also a few white, rounded spots; one 
opposite the first band, near the inner margin; one opposite the second 
band in the middle of the wing, and 2 smaller spots, enclosing black 
dots between the third and s.t. band. Secondaries' white, with black 
outer margin as in ornatrix. There is no doubt that these examples are 
transitions from ornatrix to speciosa. It is a fact well known to Entomo- 
logists, that the insular climate influences the size and color of some in- 
sects; and this seems to take place with these species to a considerable 
degree. Bella seems to be the Northern form which flies from the At- 
lantic States to Texas, where it is replaced by ornatrix, the Southern form, 
and this reaches into South America, and also appears in the West 
Indies But it is variable in the small Islands, and fluctuates more or 
less between the mainland form, and the insular speciosa. 

Speciosa is the insular form and remains constant in the largest 
Islands, becoming variable in the smaller ones, and there it sometimes 
merges into delta. Among the specimens of speciosa in Dr. Staudinger's 
collection, there are two labeled "Bogota". They are collected by 
Baron von Nolken, and it seems doubtful whether this labelling is cor- 
rect, because neither Dr. Staudinger nor myself ever got speciosa from 
South America. Mr. Nolken on his way to Bogota also collected in 
Jamaica, and it is possible that these two specimens were caught in this 
Island and not in South America, and that the labelling was done by 
mistake. 

Finally I shall attempt to rectify the synonomy of this species, for 
Linne described ornatrix before bella, and the former name must be ac- 
cepted for the species and bella must be applied as one of its varieties. 

U. ornatrix Linn. Syst. Nat. p. S37 (1767); Fab.; Dairy; Hb. ; Wcstwood; 
\V,k., List 567; Stretch, Illustr., p. 56, PI. II, fig. 18. 
Habitat: Texas, Mexico, West Indies, South America. 

Var. bella Linn. Syst. Nat. p. 885 (1767); Fab.; Dru.; Westwood; Morris; 
Harris; Packard; Grote; Cramer, Vol. II, p. 20, (in part); Wlk., List, p. 568; 
Stretch, Illustr., p, 56, PI. II, fig. 15. 

Habitat: N. Amer., Canada to Texas, Cuba, W. Ind. (merging into speciosa). 
Var. speciosa Wlk., List, p. 56S (1854); Clem., Syn. Lep. North Am., app. 
p. 314 (1862); Stretch, Illustr., p. 57, PI. II, fig. 16; bellaCram., Vol. Ill, p. 20 
(in part), PI. 109, figs. CD. (1779); Mb. Verz., p. 168 (1816). 



Notes on Hylesinus aculeatus and Phloeosinus dentatus. 
Bv Warren Knaus. Salina, Kansas. 

The Scolytidce are but sparsely represented in the coleopterous fauna 
of Kansas. This scarcity is accounted for in great part by the absence 
of forests over the greater part of the State; the natural home of these 
Coleoptera being beneath the bark of shrubs and trees, where a large 
part of the imaginal, and the whole of the larval life is passed. 

Of the seven or eight species of this family in this State, as given in 
the various Reports of the Kansas Academy of Science, but three have 
come under my personal observation, and but one (P. dentatus) has 
actually been observed at work. 

The burrows of a Scolytid in an ash post, which I supposed was the 
work of the "Ash Bark Borer", came under my observation about one 
year ago. The work however, was not recent and no specimens were 
obtained. Specimens of the sculpture were retained, but efforts to find 
more recent work were not successful until about the middle of July, 
1885, when I secured well preserved specimens, though dead, of an in- 
sect, from ash posts, near Stockton, Rooks County, and Edmond, 
Norten County. These specimens proved on identification to be 
Hylesinus aculeatus Say. No growing trees were found which had been 
attacked, and those only were selected that were already in a decaying 
condition. 

The burrows of this insect were almost facsimiles in every particular, 
consisting of a larger central channel from 25 to 100 mm. in length and 
1 mm. in width, made by the female, the young larvae eating its way 
outward from this channel, the larval channels constantly enlarging 
during the larval life, and sinking a little deeper in the wood as the 
pupa state is reached. These larval channels are from 5 to 45 mm. in 
length and from \ to 1 mm. in width. The central channel is usually 
slightly sinuous, being governed to some extent by the surface of the 
wood and the number of beetles at work, they never coming in contact. 
At about midway of the central channel there is in every instance a 
change of direction, — a curve, sometimes hardly perceptible, at other 
times and usually, very marked. The lateral larval channels extend 
outward at right angles from the central channel, and are about one third 
the length of the former, that varying from one to three inches in length. 

In November 1885, live specimens of this insect were taken from 
ash trees in the western part of Davis County. The bark of these trees 
had apparently been abraded about a month previous, and had been at 
once attacked by Hylesinus aculeatus. Large numbers of these had 



-77— 

eaten their way from I to I inch under the bark, from point of entrance 
and had gone into winter quarters. 

Probably the most destructive bark borer known in this State is the 
Phlceositius dentatus Say. Its attacks, so far as observed, — are confined to 
the evergreens, — junipers and arbor vitas. 

This insect was first noticed in Salina the summer and fall of 1884, 
attacking the junipers on the grounds of a number of the residents of the 
city. They were then in great numbers, many trees having been entirely 
destroyed, and others badly injured. The damage was done entirely by 
the perfect beetle, no larva; having been observed. The injury was al- 
most invariably confined to the base of the lateral offshoots of the branch- 
es of the tree, the beetle burrowing under the bark, and eating around 
the base of the twig, causing its destruction. Every twig from the trunk 
outward would be attacked, and a few burrows were also observed on the 
stems or trunks of the trees themselves. No primary gallery of the per- 
fect insect has been found to exceed three-quarters of an inch in length. 

1 have found no secondary or larval galleries. 

Packard, in his "Insects Injurious to Forest and Shade Trees" says 
he has observed this insect as early as the 1st of May. I have never ob- 
served it making attacks earlier than the 1st of September, continuing 
until the latter part of October. 

The attacks of this insect are made on healthy trees, and I have 
seen no less than fifteen cedars entirely killed in the Public Square of 
Clay Center, Kansas, that would average six inches in diameter at the 
base. This Scolytid is not a native, but has been introduced in cedar 
posts brought to the lumber yards from Michigan and Arkansas. I have 
examined posts from Arkansas which contained the perfect beetle, (but 
dead), larvae, and pupae. When these pupa; had completed their trans- 
formations, cedars in close proximity to the lumber yard were at once 
liable to attack. 

The primary gallery of this insect as examined in Arkansas cedars 
is short and straight, being from 18 to 25 mm. in length, and 3 mm. in 
width, The gallery widens at one end into a trilobed chamber twice as 
wide as the main gallery. The number of lateral or secondary galleries 
on each side varies from 15 to 60. These secondary galleries are from 

2 to 1 mm. in width, and those arising near the ends of the main gallery 
are about 45 mm. in length; those arising near the middle are about one 
half as long. 

The burrows are about one half in the wood and one half in the 
bark. The secondary galleries rarely cross each other, and when they 
do, it is owing to some inequality in the surface of the wood, or the 
close proximity of the burrows. 



-78- 

This bark borer is not without its enemies. I found fully one hall 
the pupae cases examined, contained nothing but the remains of a para- 
site that had destroyed the pupa, and had itself failed to escape. The 
perfect fly was also seen passing over the surface of the bark, seeking a 
favorable point to make an attack on her victim. Specimens of this fly 
were sent to Mr. L. O. Howard, Assistant U.S. Entomologist, who pro- 
nounced it a Chalcid fly belonging to the genus Spaihius. 



FOOD-PLANTS OF LEPIDOPTERA. .V" 4 

(Datana ministra, Dru.) 
By Wm. Beutenmuller. 



Tiliacese. 
Tilia Americana, L. (Basswood.) 
" heierophylla, Vent. (White Bass- 
wood.) 
" Europaea, L. (European Linden.) 
" alba, Waldst & Kit. (White Lin- 
den.) 
Rosaceae. 
Prunus cerasus, Juss. (Common Gar- 
den Cherry.) 
Pyrus malus, Tourn. (Common Apple) 
Cydonia vulgaris, Pers. ( " Quince.) 

Juglandaceae. 
fuglans cinerea, L. (Butternut.) 
" nigra, L. (Black Walnut. ) 
Carya alba. Nutt. (Shell Bark Hickory) 
" microcarpa, Nutt. (Small Fruit- 
ed Hickory.) 
" sulcata, Nutt. (Western Shell 

Bark Hickory. 1 ) 
" amara, Nutt. (Bitter Nut Hick- 
ory.) 
" porcina, Nutt. (Pig-nut Hickory) 

Cupuliferae. 
Oucrcus alba, L. (White Oak.) 

" obtusiloba, Michx. (Obtuse- 
leaved Oak.) 
" macrocarpa, Michx. (Mossy- 
cup Oak. ) 
" coccinea, Wang. (Scarlet Oak. ) 
rubra, L. (Red Oak). 



Quercus palustris, Du Roi. (Pin Oak.) 
" pedunculata, Willd. (English 

Oak.) 
" sessiliflora, Sal. (The Sessil- 

flowered Oak . ) 
" Cerris, Linn. (Turkey Oak.) 
Castania vesca, Gaert. (European 

Chestnut. ) 
" v. Americana, DeCand. 
(American Chestnut.) 
" pumila, Mil. (Chinquapin.) 
Fagus ferruginea, Ait. (Red Beech.) 
" sylvatica, L. (European Wood 

Beech.) 

" " var. purpurea, Ait. (Purple 

Beech.) 

" " cuprea, Lodd. (Copper 

Beech.) 

" " " laciniata, Lodd. (Cut 

leaved Beech.) 

[us Americana, Walt. (American 

Hazel.) 

" avellana, L. (European Hazel. ) 

Carpinus Americana, Michx. (Horn 

beam . 

Betulaceae. 

Betula alba, L. (White Birch. ) 
" var. populifolia, Spach. (Am. 

White Birch, ) 
" papyracea, Ait. (Paper Birch.) 



Scent-Organs in some Bombycid Moths. 

By John B. Smith. 
At intervals during the past year or two, isolated observations have 
been made of peculiar filamentary processes protruding from the abdomen 
of the male of some of our common bombycids, Lencarctia acrcea and 
Scepsis fulvicoUis being the observed species. Not long since, I describ- 
ed a peculiar abdominal character in the male of Cosmosoma omphale; 
and the recent capture and examination of specimens of Leucarctia acrcea 
has enabled me to add something to the knowledge of the structure in 
that species. Between the seventh and eighth ventral segments is a 
narrow opening, entirely invisible in the dried insects, but readily discern- 
ed on a slight pressure of the abdomen in the fresh specimen. This open- 
ing extends back about an eighth of an inch, and, on being carefully 
pried open, shows two closely folded tufts of fine blackish hair. Pressure 
upon the abdomen will generally force out these tufts, and, if rightly 
applied, will result in the extension of two orange tentacle like struct- 
ures, fully half an inch in length, united at the base, and spreading 
backward and outwardly in a gentle curve. The tufts of hair diminish 
as the tentacles are extended, the individual hairs occupying small but 
distinct papillae on the sides, until, when fully extended, they are evenly 
distributed around them, and no trace of the brush-like tuft remains. 
If the pressure be removed, the tentacles contract, the hairs again form- 
ing a tuft. 

Specimens of Pyrrharctia 
Isabella, when closely examin- 
ed, showed a similiar abdomi- 
nal structure; but here there 
were four tufts extended in- 
stead of two, and in color they 
were snow-white. Properly ap- 
plied pressure resulted in the 
inflation, first, of two basal 
sacs, which, when fully dila- 
ted, could be compared to 
/ nothing better than the ends of 

i. Leucarctia acraea. 2. Pyrrhaitva Isabella, two thumbs pointing in oppo- 
site directions, the hairs of two of the tufts arranged rather densely on 
the convex outer surface. From the middle of the lower edge of these 
sacs there extended two tentacles similar to those in acrcea, but not so 
long; and instead of being evenly clothed with hair, in this species the 




—So- 
lower portion only has the papillae and hairy surface. The sacs and 
tentacles here are whitish, instead of orange, as in acrcea. The 
processes of the latter species have a most remarkable resemblance 
to the tentacles of the larva otPapilio aslvrias, both in color and in shape. 
In both species an intense odor, somewhat like the smell of laudanum, 
is apparent when first the tentacles are exposed; and there is no reason- 
able doubt but that they are odor-glands, though exactly what purpose 
they serve is not so clear. In closely allied species no trace of this struct- 
ure has been detected. Several fresh specimens of several species of 
Arcfia, Spilosoma virgmica, and Hyphantria textor showed no trace of it: 
and no dry specimens of any other species thus far examined have a 
similar structure. 

Some years ago Mr. Morrison observed and described the structure- 
in acraa and mentions having found similar structures in Agrotis plecta 
and Euplexia lucipara. This I have not been able to verify. Prof. Riley 
has described similar structures in Ahtia xylina, and probably a consider- 
able number of other species will be found to have them. 



Notes on Geotrypes Opacus, Hald. 

By Alfred W. Jones, Salina, Kans. 

I do not know as to the relative rarity of this species, but from the 
fact of always finding a ready exchange for it, I suppose it is not very 
common. 

I have almost always taken it, where I have found no other scaveng rs 
at work, except Aphodias, and a few Staphylinus perhaps, and I have al- 
ways taken it either very early in spring or late in the fell. 

Generally I have taken it on low bottom land, or on sand bars in 
the river, where cattle are wont to drink: here I have taken most 
of the specimens, and I have taken them at the very water's edge where 
they had burrowed down into sand that was saturated with water. But 
I never found more than three or four in one place until last November, 
when in company with Mr. Warren Knaus, I drove to Manhattan and back 
from Salina. On our trip going down I saw a specimen crawling along 
in the road, and stopping to get it, I observed some fresh manure which 
yielded several specimens. Thinking we had procured all of them, we 
drove on, but returning about a week later we stopped to examine the 
very same place, and though at first it appeared as if it were a useless 
search, Mr. Knaus said that he saw several burrows going down into the 
sand and meant to find out what was there. He dug down nearly a foot 
with no success before he threw out one, and then in a few minutes we 
had eleven specimens in the Cyanide bottle. 



-8i — 

Synopses of Cerambycidae. 

By Chas. W. Leng, B.S. 

(Continued from p. 63. ) 
TR*AGIDION, Serv. 
Contains three species in which the prothorax is moderately punc- 
tured and the scutellum small, broad y triangular, almost rounded. The 
thorax and elytra are conspicuously pubescent concealing the punctures. 

SYNOPSIS OF TRAGIBION. 
Elytra sulcatc. 

Hind tarsi wider; antennae annulate annulatum. 

Hind tarsi narrower, antennae black coquus. 

Elytra even, not sulcate armatum. 

T. annulatum Lee. Proc. Acad. Phil. 1858, p. 83. Length .80 in. = 20 mm. 
Hab. Arizona, Cal., Texas, N. Mex. 

Black, antennas yellow with scape and tip of each joint black, 
elytra densely clothed with fulvous pubescence, basal line and humeri 
black. (PI, III, f. 10.) 

T. coquus, Linn. Syst. Nat. ed. X, p. 393; Lee. J. A. P. ser. 2, II, 1850, p. 
10; lynceum Fab. Syst, Ent. p. 191; Oliv. Ent, IV, 67, p. 37, t. 14. f. 97- Casteln' 
Hist. Nat. II. p. 452; Melsheimeri Germ, Ins. Spec. nov. p. 502. Length .60 in.= 
15 mm. Hab. Atlantic and Southern States, Tex., Col. 

Var. fulvipenne Say, Journ. Ac. Phil. Ill, 1823, p. 414; Leo. Journ. Ac. P. ser. 
2, II, p. 10. Length 1 in. = 25 mm. Hab. Ills., Col., N. J., Utah, La., Mo., Tex. 
Arkansas. 

T. coquus is entirely black except a spot of orange on each elytron 
near the base, 

T. fulvipenne is larger and the elytra are entirely clothed with ful- 
vous hair. 

A specimen in the collection of Mr. H. W. Wenzel, has the elytra 
suffused with black, except where the spots occur in coquus. presenting a 
form precisely intermediate. 

It is now considered a variety of coquus. 
T. armatum Lee. L A. P. V, 1, 1858, p. 25; Lacord. Gen. Col. IX, 1869, p. 
174. not. Length 1 in. == 25 mm. Hab. California, Texas. 

Color as in annulatum, but the elytra are smooth and the lateral 
spine of thorax is even more marked than in the other species of the 
genus. 

PURPURICENUS, Serv. 

Thorax coarsely punctured with a small lateral spine. Scutellum 
moderate, broadly triangular, acute at tip. Elytra not pubescent. 

SYNOPSIS OF PURPURICENUS. 

Thorax entirely black humeralis. 

Thorax black, disk red dimidiatus. 

Entomologica Americana, Vol II. 12 July 1886. 



— S2 — 

P. humeralis Fab. Ent. Syst. Suppl. p. [43; Bland, Proc. Ent. Soc. Phil. 1, 
[862, p. 276. var. Length .50-. 64 in. =13-1 6 mm. Hab. Atlantic States, Ohio to Mo. 

Entirely black except the elytra, which bear a reddish humeral 
space, defined by a line running from scutellum to middle of outer mar-- 
gin. (PI. II, fig. 11.) 

Variety axillaris Hakl. Trans. Am. Phil. X. 1S47, p. 31; Lee. J. A. 1'. ser. 2. 
II, p. 11, N.Y., Pa., Texas. Mass. 

The red space is larger and the punctuation not so coarse. 

P. dimidiatus Lee. Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. XII, p. 23. length .72 in. =18111111. 
llab. Yreka Cal. 

Black except disk of thorax and anterior half of elytra, Punctuati m 
also more coarse than in humeralis. 

METALEPTUS, Bates. 
This genus, recently added to our list by the occurrence of two spe- 
cies in Arizona and Southern California, is allied to Purpuricenus and 
differs in the absence of antennal tubercles in $ and in the pubescent 
surface. Two species may be separated thus: 

Apices of elytra conjointly rounded; more coarsely punctured Batesi. 

Apices of elytra sinuously truncate; less coarsely punctured angulatus. 

M. Batesi Horn Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. XII, p. 174. Length .40-. 52 in. -=10- 
13 mm. llab. Arizona. 

Black, sparsely clothed with gray pubescence, elytra at base and en- 
tire lateral margin red. 

M. angulatus Chev. Col. Mex. Cent. I, f. 4, 11. 83. Length .40 52 in. = 10 
13 mm. Hab. Mexico, So. Cal. 

To be distinguished only by characters of table above. (PI. II, f. 12) 
AETHECERUS, Chev. 

Thorax finely punctured; scutellum small, rounded at tip. The fol- 
lowing synopsis is extracted from Dr. Horn's paper, Trans. Am. Ent. 
Soc. VIII, 1880, p. 133, where a full discussion of this and other genera 
may be found. 

s rm > rsis of a etheger us. 

Thorax broader than long; elytra truncate at tip. 

Elytra feebly shining, the punctures near the apex not densely placed; thorax not 

maculate Wilsonii. 

Elytra opaque, punctures near apex very fine and densely placed; thorax with two 

discal black spots Hornii. 

Thorax as long as broad, elytra rounded at tip latecinctus. 

A. Wilsonii Horn Proc. Ac. Phil, i860, p, 570, pi. VIII, 6g. 4. Length .60 
in. =15 mm. Hab. Ariz., Texas. 

A. Hornii Lcc. Gen. Col. IX, p. 184. Length .60 in. = 15 mm. llab. Fla. 
A. latecinctus Horn Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. VIII, p, 134. Length .40. 60 in. 
= 10-15111111. Hab. Arizona. (PI. II, fig. 13.) 



-83- 

MANNOPHORUS, Lee. 

The thorax is closely and moderately coarsely punctate and the scu- 
tellum is moderately large, broadly triangular and nearly round behind. 

M. laetus Lee, Proc. Ac. Phil. VI, 1853, p. 442. Length .5-. 6 in. =13-15 mm. 
Hab. Texas. 

Black, beneath sparsely pubescent, above not at all, thorax red, 
elytra black or bluish black, densely punctate with two yellow elevated 
lines on each. Varieties occur with lines shortened and with a black 
spot on thorax. (PI. II, fig. 14.) 

A variety has recently appeared on the Mexican Boundary in Texas 
having the elevated lines of elytra black, smooth like the typical form but 
without a trace of usual color. 

ENTOMOSTERNA, Chev. 

Closely resembling the preceeding in form and Isclinojnemis in 
coloration of elytra. The thorax is however rounded on the sides and 
not narrowed in front, and is blue in color, quite bright in fresh speci- 
mens, nearly black in old specimens. The vittse of elytra are quite as 
bright as in hchnocnemis. 

E. cyanicollis Dup. Mag. Zool. 1838, CI. IX, p. 59, t. 220, f. 2; Lacord. Gen. 
Col, IX, 1869, p. 184, not. 3. Length .5-.6 in.=i3-i5 mm. Hab. Tex. Ariz. 

AMANNUS, Lee. 
The characters of this genus have been well defined in the table of 
genera. The species are as follows: 

Black, beneath gray, abdomen with shining denuded spots vittiger. 

Black, beneath testaceous except postpectus and legs black; femora testaceous at 

base pectoralis. 

A. vittiger Lee. J. A. P. ser. 2, II, p. 24. Length .43 in. = iimm. Hab. 
Llano Estacado, Texas and New Mexico. 

This insect is entirely clothed with pale pubescence except as indi- 
cated above, and on the elytra which bear a narrow black dorsal vitta 
abbreviated in front and have the suture and margin also blackish. The 
thorax is punctured except an obsolete dorsal callus, and is narrowed in 
front and ruunded on sides. The elytra are closely punctured, obsolete- 
ly bicostate and broadly truncate at apex. 

A. pectoralis Lee. 1. c. Length .27 ins.= 8 mm. Hab. Fort Yuma Cal. Col. 
The head is variegated with piceous. the vitta of the elytra testaceous, 
clouded behind, and the the lateral margin fuliginose. The thorax is 
cylindrical and the apices of elytra separately rounded. The general ap- 
pearance of the species of this genus suggests Sphaenothecus. 

(To be continued.) 



■8 4 - 



Society News. 

Brooklyn Entomological Society. June 2d, 188G. — Twelve members 
present. Mr. E. A. Schwarz, of Washington was proposed as a membe* - of the 
Society by Mr. Smith and on motion was duly elected. Mr. Hulst read a short 
extract from a paper by Prof. Fernald, recommending for sugaring molasses 
only, without any admixture of beer or rum. Mr. Weeks read a paper from Mr. 
H. B. Moeschler, on the American species of Utetheisa,* and another from Mr. J. 
B. Smith on some peculiar characters in some <$ Arcllids.] He also read a short 
note on his experience in collecting under decayed turnips, and a life history of 
Botis erectalis. After some general discussion and exhibitions of specimens the 
meeting adjourned until September. 

Entomological Society of Washington. June 3, 1886. Mr. Smith exhililed 
male specimens of Leucarctia acraea and Pytrharclia Isabella with a peculiar in- 
flated process extruded between the 7th and 8th ventral segments of the abdo- 
men and described the structure and how discovered.** 

Mr. Schwarz spoke on an observation made by Mr. Smith and himself 
during the month of April in regard to a new food-plant Pieris rupee; egg and 
young larvce having been found on Barbarea vulgaris. He thinks that the first 
annual generation of this Pieris is passed upon some wild Cruciferous plant and 
that Barbarea vulgaris will be found to be one of the principal food-plants of the 
larvae thus early in the season. 

Mr. Lugger made some remarks on introduced Coleoptera. A few speci- 
mens of the European Aphodius erraticus were first found by him in 1878 in the 
droppings of the Virginia Deer in Druid Hill Park, Baltimore, Md. Since that 
time the species has spread and is now so common in all sorts of excre- 
ments that it has actually replaced the formerly common A. Jimetarlus. A spe 
cimen of Agra arnea, a native of Surinam and a number of South American Cer- 
ambycida; were found at Baltimore, but invariably in the vicinity of the wharfs. 

Mr. Lugger further described the fertilization of the common Lady's Slipper 
Cypripedium acaule by a species of Andrena, and also mentioned the fact that 
the seeds of the Hard Maple, so numerous in the Smithsonian Grounds, were 
this year uniformly sterile. He attributes this phenomenon to the inclement 
weather during the flowering season which prevented bees from visiting the 
flowers. 

A number of smaller communications followed: Mr. Lugger on a case of 
faulty instinct in a Tachina fly which had oviposited upon the hard body of 
Rhodobcenus ld-pundatus; Dr. Marx on the occurance of the European Epelra 
.dlade>nata in Minnesota, Mr. Howard on the muscular force exhibited by a spe- 
cies of Canthon; Mr. Schwarz on the abundance of several species of Lachnos- 
terna durin" the present season, and on the Braconid parasite of Pissodes strobl; 
Mr. Howard on Epicauta cinerea being attracted by light; Mr. Smith on the 
.blistering power of one of our common Meloids. 



See ante p. 65. f See ante P- 79- 
* For more detailed description and figures see p. 79 ante, 



ENTOMOJ nru- , 

' ' AMERICANA V 



'".. II. 



Pi ITR n 




£*° fc ^K 



^Son.'^ro 



™ T\flUre,. 





Is 



AmeriqAna 



VOL. II. 



BROOKLYN, AUGUST, 1886. 



NO. 5. 



Larva of Aphorista Vittata, Fair. 

By John B. Smith. 

Early in November 1885, Mr. E. A Schwarz and myself while col- 
lecting in Virginia found under a decaying log a number of larvae feeding 
upon a mould fungus. Close search revealed a few very fresh specimens 
of Aphorista (Mycetina) vittata, and as the larva agreed closely with that 
of Epipocus discoidalis in Dr. Riley's collection which Mr. Schwarz had 
collected in Texas, it was assumed that the larva was that of A, vittata — a 
supposition which was verified by afterward obtaining the pupa, though 
none were found at this time. 

Larva of all sizes were found, the largest — mature as it proved — a- 
bout 8 mm. in length, and, as they appealed with retracted head and 
somewhat curled, about half as broad as long. They were of a dirty 
blackish brown color above, dirt}- yellowish white beneath, flattened 
though yet rather stout, and furnished at the sides of abdomen with a 
double row of lateral appendages, the upper dorsal, but at the extreme 
side of the segment: the lower ventral: the stigmata are situated between 
these appendages. The thoracic segments have only one of these lateral 
appendages, as has also the anal segment. The form of these append- 
ages and their proportion and situation are well enough shown by the ac- 
companying figure, and require no detailed description. The head is 
small, retracted, and usually not visible from above, in the living insect. 
The antenna,' are short with a small thick socket joint, a very short 2nd 
joint, a long, cylindrical, somewhat tapering terminal joint, which is fur- 
nished with a few scattered hairs, and has at tip a small tubercle, making 
really a fourth joint. Ocelli, three on each side; one before, and two 



-86— 



behind the base of the antennae. The mouth parts are proportionately 
very small, and so sunken that they are difficult to dissect out. The 
figure will render detailed description unnecessary. The maxilla? 
in the figure are separated from the labrum: naturally, they are bent in- 
ward above, so that only the palpi are visible. The maxillae are rather 
sparingly clothed with rather thick bristles diverging to all sides; the pal- 
pi are three jointed, the basal joint very thick and short, the second still 
shorter and not so thick, the 3d longer than the other two combined and 
much more slender. The labial palpi are two jointed, the terminal joint 
obliquely truncate. The head is equally and somewhat sparsely covered 
with punctures from each of which arises a bunch of hair spreading fan- 
like toward the tip, as shown in the figure. The lateral appendages are 
densely clothed with the same fan-like hair tufts, inserted also in distinct 
punctures. The pro-thorax above is covered in the same way, except 
near the base and in the depressed central furrow. The meso-, and meta- 
thorax have on each side a somewhat depressed, harder, more shining 
scute or plate, also punctured and furnished in the same way with hair 
tufts. The abdominal segments except the 8th and 9th have each two 
smaller, ovate scutes of the same nature, each side of the middle. On 
the 8th segment the scutes are confluent, and cover a greater part of the 
surface. The 9th segment is equally punctured and furnished with 
spreading seta;. 




The segments are well marked, the sutures being deep, so that when 
the insect is placed flat, they look like deep incisions, the sides declivous. 



-3 7 - 

Except the head and terminal segment, all others have a distinct longi- 
tudinal furrow, deepest at the posterior portion. Except where punct 
ured as shown in the figure, the upper surface is finely rugose or sha- 
greened. 

The figures will supply all details omitted here, better than descrip- 
tive terms can do; the interesting peculiar features being the lateral ap- 
pendages and the spreading tufts of hair arising from distinct punctures. 
What purpose do they serve? 

The pupa is equally peculiar, and is sufficiently described by the 
figure. It is white, with a very faint yellowish tinge, the elytra tucked 
in beneath the fore and median legs and over the posterior pair. 

A Family of young trap-door Spiders. 

(Fachylomerus carolinensis, Henfz.) 
By Geo. F. Atkinson* 

Two questions were asked by Mr. Moggridge about the habits of 
young trap-door spiders. For the answer to these he was unable to 
make any observations, so far as the record shows. The questions are; 
ist, do young trap-door spiders make nests like those of the parent with- 
out being shown? 2nd, do the males of trap-door spiders make a nest 
with a trap-door when very young? To the first question we would al 
most unhesitatingly reply in the affirmative, without direct observation. 
In regard to the second, it is well known by those who have given much 
attention to the habits of trap-door spiders, that the mature males, at 
least, do not build trap-door nests, but seek a hiding place under stones, 
logs, etc. 

There is also another question as to the constancy with which spe- 
cies follow a uniform type in the construction of their nests. Some nat- 
uralists make the different kinds of nests a partial basis for classification. 
and others are looking for different characters manifested in the varia- 
tions of the trap-door; whether the door is horizontal; the hinge lower 
or higher than the distal part of the door; or the door sloping one 
side, etc. 

The object of this paper is to present the variations produced by a 
family of 28 young trap-door spiders, in the building of their nests, 
which I have carefully observed and noted. I trust also to show that, 
from the labors of these little creatures, and of several mature ones, which 
I have had in captivity, a great deal of light is thrown on the questions 
stated above. 



—88— 

The family was captured by 1). E. Woodly, Student, at Chapel 
11 ill, N. C, March 17. 1 886, The mother had either deserted her child 
ren, or had met with h( r death. The tube was doorless and near a de- 
caying stump. The 28 children were living peacefully together in the 
silken cocoon which had contained the eggs at the bottom of the tube. 
After ke< ping them together in a small vial for one daw I prepared a 
bottle of earth for each one. The bottles measure 1 '.. inches in diame- 
by thee inches deep. In each about 1 J inches in depth of earth was 
placed. The earth was moist, loose, but smoothed over and gently 
packed to furnish a smooth surface for operations. 

The following table shows the time of beginning and completion of 
the work of each. In column 4 is given the time when the work 1 
which was carried to completion. Some began work earlier than here in- 
ii i ted but abandoned it. 



1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


Xo. 


Date 


Time plac- 


Time when work 


Time when trap 


Time when Lrap- 




Mar. 'S6. 


ed in bottle. 


began. 


door was begun. 


doorwascom] 


1 


18 


5 1'- >"• 


Unobserved. 


Unobserved. 


Unobserved. 


2 


18 


5 P- >»• 


" 


" 


" 


3 


18 


5 P . m. 


" 


" 






.Mar. U), 3.30a.m. 


5 a. 111. 


5.15 a. m.« 


4 


18 


5 P- "I- 


" 19, 1 2. 30 a. 111 


] a. m. 


2 a. 111. 


5 


18 


5 P- m- 


" 19, 2.30 a.m. 


4.20 a. m, 


5 a. m. 





18 


IO.30 p. 111. 


" 18/11.K a. 111 


Mar. 19, 12. 30a. m 

'• 19, 3-55 ;i - in - 


1 a. m. 
4.20 a. 111. * 


7 


18 


10.30 p. m. 


1 1.30 p. 111. 


" 19, 12.30 a. m 


2.30 a. 111. 


8 


18 


10.30 ]). 111. 


Mar. 19, 12.30a.1n 


3.20 a. m. 


4 a. m. 


9 


iS 


10.30 p. m. 


" 19, 2 a. 111. 


3.20 a. m. 


4 a. 111. 


10 


18 


10.30 p. 111. 


" 19, 7 a. 111. 


9 a. m. 


10 a. m. 


1 1 


*9 


4.10 p. m. 


4.15 a. 111. 


5.55 p. m. 


7.30 p. m. 


12 


] 9 


4.10 p. 111. 


Mar. 20, 1 1 a. m. 


Unobserved. 


2.30 p. in. 


•3 


19 


4.10 p. m. 


" 19. 4-3°P- m - 


5.50 p. in. 


6.30 p. m. 


14 


[9 


4.10 p. m. 


" 20, 10 a. 111. 


1 p. m. 


2.30 p. in. 


15 


19 


4,10 p. m. 


" 19, 5.18p.m. 


Unobserved. 


Unobserved. 


16 


J 9 


4.30 p. 111. 


5.15 p. in. 


6.20 p. in. 


Unobserved. 


•7 


19 


4.30 p. 111. 


4-45 1>> m- 


Unobserved. 


Unobserved. 


18 


19 


4.30 p. 111. 


5.10 p. 111. 


5.50 p. 111. 


6.30 p. 111. 


[9 


19 


6.30 p. m. 


750 p. 111. 


9.15 p. m. 


Unobserved. 


20 


19 


6.30 p. 111. 


Unobserved-. 


Unobserved. 


Unobserved. 


21 


19 


6.30 p. 111. 




" 


■■ 


22 


19 


6.30 p. in. 


9.20 p. 111. 


■• 


" 


23 


19 


9 p. m. 


9.50 p. m. 


• - 


" 


24 


J 9 


9 p. m. 


9.25 p. in. 




•■ 


25 


l 9 


9 p. m. Unobserved. 




•• 


26 


19 


9 ]). 111. Mar. 20, 4 p. m. 


Nol noted. 


Not noted. 


27 


19 


op. m. 


" 21, 10 p. 111. 


1 ]>• m. 


5 P- ra- 


28 


'9 


() p. in. 


" 20, 10 p. 111. 


1 1 a. m. 


il. 30 a. 111. 



" Nesl was destroyed anil another built. 

Variations from the normal type. By the normal type is meant that 
which seems to be the simplest, most nearly perfect, plan of construct- 



-8 9 - 

ion, is followed by a majority of those observed, and seems to indicate a 

natural instinct, a more potent influence of inherited habit in some, while 
in others the instinct seems to be latent at first and gradually unfolds 
with the dawning of consciousness! According to the normal type, the 
spider takes up pellets of earth with its mandible, and turning around 
places them upon the soil by the side of the tube, which is being dug; 
or carries or throws them to a short distance. Occasionally with its 
spinerets it applies viscid liquid to the pellets and edge of the tube, much 
as an artificer would alternately place cement and bricks in the construct- 
ion of a column. The trap-door is built in the same manner, by be- 
ginning, at one side of the edge of the hole, a horizontal wall to which 
particles are cemented and pressed in shape to make a Hat, circular, lid 
to the tube.* 

By a study ol Plate IV we shall see some of the variations from the 
n irmal types. Fig. i, a, represents one of the spiders, natural size, //, 
section ol a nest built after the normal type, door represented open, also 
natural size. All of the other figures, except 15 and 16, are magnified. 
In fig. 2, one side of tube, a, is extended above ground and carried over 
the tube. The door, represented open, is hinged at b; when closed it 
slopes downwards from the hinge attachment, fig. 3. This was the work 
ol Xo. 3. f!ie arched wall from a, was pressed in shape in the same 
way that the trap door is, so that when the spider began it at a, I thought 
it had begun the trap-door, and made this entry in my notes. "At 4.30 
door begun; two-thirds of the edge used for attachment of the hinge, 
making an awkward door." When the hinge was made \\i b, it was easy 
to see the arching of the wall was intentional. In fig. 10, the tube is curv- 
ed above ground in a similar way,- but the hinge is at one of the sloping 
sides, making a door that swings to the right and left instead of up and 
down. This was made by No. 25. Figures 4, 5, 6 and 7 represent the 
work of No. 15. A trench was dug, using the excavated earth for a wall 
on each side; the walls were then united by an arch over the middle, one 
end closed and a trap-door made at the other end. Fig. 8, represents 
the nest of No. 22, built in the same way as that of No. 15, except that 
at </, the hole was not entirely closed. No. 13 built what is shown in 
fig. 9. A trench with a wall each side was first built; in the middle of 
the trench was dug the tube and the door hinged at the base of one wall 
.it a, with the distal part of the door elevated at b. Fig. 11, shows the 
work of No. 24: a trench was dug by the side of the glass with 
a wall on one side at a; on the other side earth was carried upon the side 

* For description and illustration of the building <>l a nest ami trap-door by this 
-. see Amer. Nat. for July 1886. 



—90— 

of the glass and attached in small lumps at b; c, represents the nest, a 
small tower against the glass. Fig. 12, was made by No. 26. This is 
interesting as being the only one showing the concentric "lines of growth" 
usually noticed in the doors of nests that have been used for a year or so. 
No. 14, first dug a shallow hole as represented at b, fig. 13; abandoning 
this it dug another at c; it then removed the earth at d, making a trench: 
next it began the tube at c. but soon abandoned it, began again at /', 
restored d, and completed the nest in the normal way. The following 
table shows the varying positions of the door when closed. 

Horizontal: Nos. 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 9, 10, II, 12, 14, 16, iS, 19, 20, 21, 

23, 27, 28. 

Sloping downward from hinge attachment: Nos. 3, 7,8, 15, 17, 

22, 24, 26. 

Rising from hinge attachment: No. 13. 
Sloping door with hinge at one side: No. 25. 
Table showing the kinds of nests. 
Curved tube: Nos. 3, 8, 25. 
Straight tube: Nos- 1, 2, 4, 5- 6 > 9> io . lI > I2 > I 3» H, 16, 18, 19. 

20, 21, 23, 24, 25, 27, 28. 

Trench with arched walls: Nos. 7, 15, 17, 22. 

Nests of mature spiders, of this species, made in captivity present 
some of the variations mentioned above, as also some of the nests found 
in a state of nature. 

One of the most interesting things which came under my observa- 
tion during the work of these spiders was the varying potency of instinct 
manifested in the aptness with which each performed the task of building 
its home. This will be best illustrated by giving a few of the more 
striking examples recorded in my notes. No. 6, was placed in the bot- 
tle at 10.30 p. m. and began digging the tube in the noimal way at 1 1. 1 5 
p. m. It worked rapidly, sometimes taking up and unloading a pellet of 
earth in 10 seconds. Indeed it worked with as much ease, accuracy, and 
apparent thoughtfulness, as the mature one which I have described in 
the Amer. Nat. Sometimes with its palpi it would flirt the pellet across 
to the opposite side of the bottle. It began making the trap-door at 
12.30 a. m. and completed it at 1 a. m; one hour and forty-minutes 
from the time it began work, and two hours and thirty minutes from the 
time it was placed in the bottle.* During the operation every movement 
seemed to facilitate the work. No. 19, was placed in the bottle at 6.30 
p.m. : my notes read as follows: — "Began digging tube in normal way at 
7.50. Does not seem to be satisfied with work, and begins in another 
* One completed the work i = hour and 30 minutes; and another 1 hour and 20 m. 



-9i— 

place. This is done several times: 9.15 began making trap-door,'' etc. 
No. 26 was placed in bottle at 9 p.m. Mar. 19th. At 1 p. m. Mar. 20th 
it began digging and soon abandoned this place for another. This it re- 
peated as many as a dozen times, sometimes returning to the work and 
tearing away at the soil as if in a frenzy, and impelled by some irresist- 
able power. Then suddenly leaving the spot it would wander and en- 
deavor to climb the side of the glass; when it would as suddenly be 
seized with an irresistable inclination to tear away at the earth without 
any seeming purpose. Occasionally it seemed to work with more de- 
liberation as if it were gradually becoming conscious of a latent instinct- 
ive power! At 4 p. m. it continued work in one place until the nest was 
completed, but the door, which is represented in fig. 13, was barely hung 
together and was loosely hinged by three strands. A few days later I 
tore down this nest, when the spider went to work in the normal way and 
built a perfect nest. Upon this point alone it would be interesting to 
follow carefully the notes I have taken on all, but I fear it would make 
the article too long, so I will conclude this subject with reference to a few 
others. One without digging in the normal way pressed the dirt aside; 
buried itself, and then spun a bag of silk surrounding it. When remov- 
ed from this it went to work in the normal way. Several others acted 
very much like this one, and No. 26. 

These variations could not be attributed to a difference in the na- 
ture of the soil as in the case of variations noticed among adult spiders, 
when the soil at times was of a different character. Care was taken that 
the soil should be of the same compactness and moisture for each. In 
some cases a hard lump caused the spider to remove to another place, and 
in one or two instances the spiders waited so long before beginning work 
that the soil was too dry; pouring in water packed the earth too hard and 
it was necessary to loosen it before the spider could take up a pellet. With 
close watching and due allowance for conditions just mentioned there 
seems to be great variableness in the attitude which different young indi- 
viduals at first show in the construction of their nest. In some cases the 
consciousness, if might so be called, of instinctive power flashes upon 
them when they first are made to shift for themselves; while with others 
there seems to be a greater or less development or dawning of the same 
consciousness. 

Mr. Moggridge also asks at which end of the tube the spider begins 
to spin the silken linings? This species, so far as I have observed, (I 
have watched over thirty individuals, ) always begins at the upper end. 
1 had several opportunities of witnessing this among the young ones, and 
one mature one, when the spinning of the lining was done very beauti- 
fully. In fig. 14 a spider is represented in the act of spinning the silken 



02 — 

lining at the upper part of the tube. When the viscid fluid coming from 
the spinerets cools before it is applied loan object it forms a broad band 
or ribbon as it might be i died; by elevating and depressing the bod) 

mdicularly as shown in fig. i-t. and touching the spinerets here and 
to the wall ol the tube this ribbon of silk is fastened. By mi 
around the tube at the same time the lining is mplete for 

the perpendiculai distan< e covered by the spider in its movements. Some- 
limes instead oi elevating and depressing in the manner just described the 
ler will move around the tube fastening the ribbon in circles. 

Figs. 15 and 16 represent a novel way of excavating a hole which 1 
witnessed in the case of a mature spider. With its legs as supporters on 
each side of the tube it would elevate its abdomen in the air and hook its 
mandibles in the earth at the bottom of die hole; then revolving through 
a quadrant about the axis at <7. fig. 15, it would bring the earth to tin- 
surface and push it off with its palpi as shown in fig. 16. 

From this study we ma}- conclude the young oi' trap-door spiders 
build their nests instinctively; that males as well as females build trap- 
door nests before the sexual character and habits are well developed, 
winch in the case of the males make a somewhat wandering habit neces- 
sary in order to find the females; that young and old van- in making their 
nests from the normal type, so that the position or relative sloping of the 
door or tube could not be of any value in the classification: that this 
species does not use its legs to aid in spinning the lining to its tube, and 
that they spin the lining at the upper end of the tube first; and lastly that 
they vary in the degree of skill manifested as artificers and the maturity 
of instinctive power.* 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE. 
Fig. 1. a, Young trap-door spider, natural size, b, section of nest with open 
door, built in normal way, also natural size. Figs. 2 and 3 curved tube with slant 
ing door. Fig. 4, trench with wall each side seen from one end. Fig. 5, arch con 
necting walls. Fig. 6, same, closed at one end. Fig. 7, same, with nap door built 
at the other end. Fig. 8, another built on same plan, but the lit oj enin ; not quite 
.1 loose flap at a. Fig. 9, tube dug between two walls, hinge at a, disl 
■ al b. Fig. 10, curved tube with door hung so as to swing to tire right and 
left. Fig, [I, section of bottle showing work of spider: a, wall, b, pellets ol earth 
carried up and stuck to the glass, c, nest, a tower against the side of the bottle. Fig. 
12, nest showing concentric "lines of growth," in the trap-door. F'ig. 13, /;, first hole 
dug by spider, c, second one, d, wall between which was removed making of the ex 
cavation a trench, subsequently </. was restored and nest built in normal way ai b. 
l-'ig. 14. spiders represented in act of spinning silken lining to the upper end of the 
. 15 and 16, adult spider taking a novel method of excavating a hole. 
Note. — The doors of all the young trap-door spiders' nests are very thin, from 
2 to 3 mm. in thickness. One spider worked so rapidly that it would sometimes 
pick up and unload a pel th in 8 seconds. As a rule they required a much 

longer time than this. 

* All of the observations made tisa oi in the preparation of this article were made 
on individuals of the same specie De criptions of the new species collected, their 
uid food habits, 1 hope to have published in a subsequent article. 



—93— 

Record of some Contributions to the Literature of North 

American Beetles published in 1885. 

By Samuel Hknshaw. 

(Continued from p. 71.) 

rF.A.^T 11. 

CARABIDAE. 
Cychrus regularis Lee. 79p. 2 Id.; C. Rickseckeri Lee. 79 p. 2 Mont.- Calosoma 
Morrisonii Horn 66 p. 128 Ariz.-Nebria parvula Sahlh. 101 p. 47 Amer. kusted. Be- 
ring-Str. - Pachy teles parca Lee. 79 p. 2 Ariz.— Feronia ( Pseud ocryobius) splendida 
Sahib. 101 p. 49 Amer. kuste d. Bering-Str.; F. epipleuralis Sahib. 101 p. 49 Amer. 
kusted. Bering-Sir.; F. plana Sahib. 101 p. 50 Amer. kusted. Bering-Str, — Amara 
angustata Sahib. 101 p. 51 Amer. kusted. Bering-Str.— Stolonis Ulkei Horn 60 p. 
129 Tex.— Platynus? quadrimaculatus Horn 66 p. 139 Ky.— Galerita decipiens Horn 
66 p. 131 Ariz.— Lebia montana Horn 66 p. 131 Mont.; L. lecta Horn 66 p. 131 
Fla.; L. scapula Horn 66 p. 132 Ariz.; L. depicta Horn 66 p. 133 Mont.; L. pectila 
Horn 66 p. 133 pro vittataj; L. punctifera Lee. 79 p. 2 Ariz. -Chlaenius insperatus 
Horn 66 p. 134 Ariz. — Brachylpbus cauiinus Horn 6<5 p. 134 Cal. 

SILPHIDAE. 
Choleva alsiosa Horn 66 p. 136 Alaska. — Echinocoleus (11. g.) Horn 66 p. 136.: 
E. setiger Horn 66 p. 136 Ariz. — Ptomaphagus fissusHorn66 p. 137 Ariz.; P. Ulkei 
66 p. 137 D. C. — Hydnobius arizonensis Horn 66 p. 138 Ariz. 

SCYDMAENIDAE. 
Scydmaenus deformatus Horn 66 p. 138 Cal. 

STAPHYLINIDAE. 
Falagriaoccidua Casey 13 p. 285 Cal.; F. laticollis Casey 13 p. 287 Cal. -Colusa 
(n. g.) Casey 13 p. 288; C. gracilis Casey 13 p. 292 Cal.; C. eximia Casey 18 p. 203 
Cal.; C. valida Casey 13 p. 294 Cal.; C. exilis Casey 13 p. 294 Cal.; C. grandicolli- 
Casey 13 p. 295 Cal. — Pontomalota (n. g.) Casey 13 p. 296; P. californica Casey l:i 
p. 298 Cal. ; 1'. nigriceps Casey 13 p. 299 Cal. — Tachyusa experta Casey 13 p. 300 
Cal.; T. linearis Casey 13 p. 301 Cal.; T. laticeps Casey 13 p. 302 Cal.; T. faceta 
Casey 13 p. 302 Cal. ; T. Harfordi Casey 13 p. 304 Cal. — Platyusa (n. g.) <3aMy !'■'> 
p. 305; P. sonomae Casey 13 p. 305 Cal. — Calodera attenuata Casey 13 p. 300 1 ,il 
-Ilyobates californicus Casey 13 p. 307 Cal.; I. nigrinus Casey 13 p. 308 Gal.- M.i 
seochara californica Casey 13 p. 309 Cal.— Oxypoda insignis Casey 13 p. 310 Cal. 
l'hytosus bicolor Casey 13 p. 311 Cal.; 1'. maritinus Casey p, 312 Cal. — Belonuchus 
palleus Sharp 41 p. 431 Tex. Mex. C. Amer. — Bryonomus (n. g.) Casey 13 p. 313 
pro Cafius canescens and C. seminitens. Cryptobium ancepsHorn 63 p. 90 Ariz. ; C. 
Lecontei Horn 63 p. 94 Tex. Kans. ; C. vagum Horn 63 p. 95 Tex.; C. anzonriw 
Horn 63 p. 96 Ariz.; C. vitatum Horn 63 p. 96 Ariz.; C. ventrale Horn 63 p. 97 
Ariz., C. properum Horn 63 p. 101 Ariz.; C. nactum Horn 63 p. 102 Ariz. Oxy- 
porus austrinus Horn 66 p. 135 Geo. — Phloeopterus longipalpus Casey 13 p. 318 Cal. 
— Vellica (n.g.) Casey 13 p. 321; V. longipennis Casey 13 p. 321; Cal.- Lestevatrnn- 
cata Casey 13 p. 322 Cal. — Amphichroum maculatum Lee. 79 p. 3 Cal. New — Ho- 
malium algarum Casey 13 p. 316 Cal.; H. rugipenne Casey 13 p. 31 7<.'al. F.udeclns 
crassicornis Lee. 79 p. 4 La. -Protinus salebrosus Casey 13 p. 323 Cal. 

Fntomologica Americana, Vol II. 14 August 1886. 



-94- 

TRICHOPTERYGIDAE. 
Aciidium robustulum Casey 13 p. 324 Cal.; A. granulosum Casey 13 p. 325 
Cal. ; A. attenuatum Casey 13 326 Cal. 

CORYLOPHIDAE. 

Corylophodes (n. g.) Matth. 89 p. 160 pro Arthrolips marginicollis et Corylo- 
phus truncatus. 

EROTYLIDAE. 
Languria divisa Horn 66 p. 139 Col., N. Mex. 

COLYDIIDAE. 
Synchita dentata Horn 66 p. 139 Fla. — S. obscura Horn 66 p. 140 D. C. ; Dito- 
mu quadricollis Horn 66 p 140 N. C— Coxelus serratus Horn 66 p. 142 Cal.— Las~ 
conotus vegrandis Horn 66 p. 140 Cal. ; L. servus Horn 66 p. 141 Cal. 

CRYPTOPHAGIDAE. 

Ciyptophagus beringensis Sahib. 100 p. 20 Amer. sidan af Berings sund. 

HISTERIDAE. 
Ulkeus (n. g.) Horn 66 p. 142; U. intricatus Horn 66 p. 143 Kans. Tex. 

LATHRIDIDAE. 
Cartodera intermedia Belon 4 p. cxcii Amer. sept. 

DASCYLLIDAE. 
Euscaphurus (n. g.) Casey 13 p. 328; E. saltator Casey 13 p. 329 Cal. 

ELATERIDAE. 

Horistonotus vulneratus Horn 62 p. 35 Ariz.; H. palliatus Horn 62 p. 35 Ariz.; 
II. basalis Horn 62 p. 36 Cal.; H. gracilis Horn 62 p. 39 Nev. ; H. mitis Horn 62 
p. 40 Ut.— Esthesopus praeditus Horn 62 p. 42 Tenn. Tex. ; E. parcus 62 p. 42 Ariz. ; 
E. dispersus Horn 62 p. 43 Tex. Ut. Ariz. Cal.; E. pusio Horn 62 p. 43 Fla.— Ap- 
topus peregrinus Horn 62 p. 44 Tex.-Cryptohypnus barbatus Sahib. 100 p. 30 Amer. 
sidan af Berings sund. — Anchastus frontalis Horn 62 p. 49 N. Mex. — Elater insignis 
Lee. 79 p. n Tex. ; E. fastus Lee. 79 p. 11 Cal. ; E. rubriventris Lee. 79 p. 12 N. 
Mex.; E. melinus Lee. 79 p. 12 Cal. ; E. ater Lee. 79 p. 12 Col.; E. longicornis Lee. 
79 p. 12 Cal.; E. subtilis Lee. 79 p. 12 L. Sup.; E. lateralis Lee. 79 p. 12 Nev.; E. 
torquatus Lee. 79 p. 12 Nev.; E. nevadensis Lee. 79 p. 13 Nev.; E. affinis Lee. 79 
p. 13 W. T. Cal.-Drasterius asper Lee. 79 p. 5 Tex. ; D. cribratus Lee. 79 p. 5 Tex; 
D. debilis Lee. 79 p. 5 L. Sup.— Megapenthes nigriventris Lee. 79 p. 7 Cal. W. T. ; 
M. lepidus Lee. 79 p. 7 Cal. — Ludius pinguis Horn 62 p. 47 Or.— Agriotes imper- 
fectus Lee. 79 p. 16 Cal. ; A. sparsus Lee. 79 p. 17 Or. W. T.; A. hispidus Lee. 79 
p. 17 Cal.; A. nevadensis Lee. 79 p. 17 Nev.; A. apicalisLec. 79 p. 18 Cal.; A. tor- 
quatus Lee. 79 p. 18 Cal.; A. montanus Lee. 79 p. 19 Id. Wy.— Leptoschema (n.g.) 
Horn 62 p. 50 pro Agriotes protractum et al.— Eniconyx (n. g.) Horn 62 p. 51.; E. 
pullatus Horn 62 p. 52 Ariz.; E. gracilis Horn 62 p. 52 N. Mex. 

THROSCIDAE. 

Throscus invisus Horn 68 p. 201 N. Y.; T. convergens Horn 68 p. 202. Geo.; 
T. pugnax Horn 68 p. 202 Fla. ; T. mendax Horn 68 p. 203 Cal. ; T. sejunctus Horn. 
68 p. 204 Cal.; T. debilis Horn 68 p. 205 W. T. Or. 



BUPRESTIDAE. 
Halecia geiitilis Horn 66 p. 144 Tex. Mex. — Chrysobothris ignicollis Horn 06 p. 
p. 145 Col. Tex. — Schizopus Sallei Horn 66 145 Cal. — Thrincopyge laetifica Horn 
66 p. 146 Tex. — Tyndaris cincta Horn 66 p. 147 Tex. 

LAMPYRIDAE. 

Lycaina discoidalis Horn 66 p. 150 Tex. — Pyropyga simplex Lee. 79 p. 20 
Ariz. — Pleotomus nigripennis Lee, 79 p. 20 Ariz. — Lamprohiza Riversi Lee. 79 p. 20 
Cal.— Zarhipis Riversi Horn 66 p. 148 Cal.— Spathizus (n. g. ) Lee. 79 p. 20. ; S. tri- 
color Lee. 79 p. 21 Ariz. — Chauliognathus ineptus Horn 66 p. 150 Ariz.; C. misel- 
lus Horn 66 p. 150 Ariz.— Silis atra Lee. 79 p. 22 W. T. — Telephorus costipennis 
Lee. 79 p, 21 Fla. — Polemius princeps Lee. 79 p. 21 Ariz.; P. strenuus Lee. 79 p. 
21 Ariz. ; P. marginicollis Lee. 79 p. 21 N.Mex. — Malthodes bicolor Lee. 79 p. 22 Ariz. 

CLERIDAE. 
Cymatodera turbata Horn 66 p. 151 Tex.; C. sirpata Horn 66 p. 152 Tex.; C. 
fallax Horn 66 p. 153 Tex. — Clerus ocreatus Horn 66 p. 154 Kans. — Hydnocera Ion 
ga Lee. 79 p. 22 Ariz. 

PTINIDAE. 

Theca striatopunctata Lee. 79 p. 22 Cal. — Caenocara occidens Casey 13 p. 330 
Cal.— Sinoxylon simplex Horn 66 p. 155 Tex.; — S. floridanum Horn 66 p. 155 Fla. 
— Dinapate (n. g.) Horn 71 p. 2; D. Wrighti Horn 71 p. 2; Cal. 

LUCANIDAE. 

Platycerus californicus Casey 13 p. 331 Cal. 

SCARABAEIDAE. 

Glaresis mendica Horn 65 p. 117 Ariz.; G. inducta Horn 65 p. 1 17 Tex.— Phy. 
talus cephalicus Horn 65 p. 120 Ariz.; P. robustus Horn 65 p. 120 N. Mex. Ariz. ; 
P. pallidus 65 p. 121 Ariz.; P. vexatus Horn 65 p. 121 Tex.; P. debilis Horn 65 p. 

122 Ariz.; P. georgianus Horn 65 p. 122 Geo. — Listrochelus flavipennis Horn 65 p, 

123 Ariz.; L. gracilis Horn 65 p. 123 Ariz. — Plusiotis Woodii Horn 65 p. 124 Tex. — 
Orizabus Snowii Horn 65 p. 124 N. Mex.; O. ligyroides Horn 65 p. 125 Ariz. — Cre- 
mastochilus spinifer Horn 65 p. 126 Tex. ; C. planipes Horn 65 p. 127 Ariz. ; C. in- 
eptus Horn 65 p. 127 Ariz. 

CERAMBYCIDAE. 

Phymatodes ater Lee. 79 p. 22 N. Y. — Hypexilis (n. g.) Horn 67 p. 1 73; H. 
pallida Horn 67 p. 173 Tex. — Gracilia obliquata Horn 67 p. 174 Tex. — Romaleum 
seminitidum Horn 61 p. 130 Ariz. — Aneflus calvatus Horn 61 p. 132 Ariz. — Ptero- 
platus divisus Lee. 79 p. 23 Tex.; P. rufipennis Lee. 79 p. 23 Ariz. N. Mex. ; P. apica- 
lis Lee. 79 p. 24 Ariz.; P. ignitus Lee. 79 p. 24 Ariz. — Crioprosopus lateralis Lee. 79 
p. 22 Tex. — Purpuricenus dimidiatus Lee. 79 p. 23 Cal. — Metaleptus Batesi Horn 67 
p. 174 Ariz. — Oxoplus jocosus Horn 67 p. 175 Ariz. — Stenosphenus novatus Horn 67 
p. 178 L. Cal. ; S. lepidus Horn 67 p. 179 Ariz. ; S. dolosus Horn 67 p. 179 Tex.; S. 
debilis Horn 67 p. 179 Ut.-^-Monilema spoliatum Horn 67 p. 186 Cal.; M. Ulkei 
Horn 67 p. 188 Tex.— Liopus centralis Lee. 79 p. 24 Ariz. — Lypsimena californica 
Horn 67 p. 197 Cal. — Oncideres texana Horn 67 p. 195 Tex. — Dysphaga bicolor 
Horn 67 p. 196 Tex. 



96- 

CHRYSOMELIDAE. 
Lemabalteala Lee, 79 p. -4 Ariz.; I .. concoloi I ec. 79 p. 24 N. Mex. < 
optera dorsalis I «c. 7'.* p. 25 Ariz. ; C. bifaria 1 £c. 79 p. 25 Ariz. ; C. < anella Lei . 7'.' 
p. 25 S. Cal. Saxinis apicalis Lee. 79 p. 25 Ariz. Trichotheca vagans Lee. 79 p. 
26 Tex. Chrysochus robustus Horn 66 p. 156 Ariz. Graphops beryllinus Lee 
79 p. 26Kans.; G. obscurus Lee. 79 p. 26 Col ; G. varians Lee. 79 p. 26 111. 
I\\. Kan-.; ('.. simplex Lee. 79 p. 27 Tex. -Colaspis Crotchii Lefevre 80 p.cxcix 
1 ii Phyllobrotica livida Lee. 79 p. 28 Ariz. — Phyllodecta scutellaris Sahib. 1'H 
p. 55 Amer. kiiste d. Berings St. -Phyllecthius texanus Lee. 79 p. 28 Tex. 
I ijrperus maculicollis Lee. 79 p. 27 Cal.; L. torquatus Lee. 79 p. 2<S Cal. Androly- 
pe^is maculatus Lee. 79 p. 28 Cal.--Agelastica bicolor Leo. 79 p. 28 Ariz. Galeruca 
I ec. 79 p. 28 Ut. Hypolampsis guttatus Lee. 79 p. 29 La. Caeporis nanula 
i ■ . 79 p. 29 S. C Tex. Microrhopala uniformis Smith 115 p. 04 Ariz. Odontota 
llomi Smith 415 p. 94 Mass. ; O. lateritia Smith 115 p. '15 Ariz. — Charistena bicol 1 
Smith 115 p. 95 X. Mex. 

BRUCHIDAE. 
Bruchus longiventris Sharp 41 p. 476 Ariz. Mex. N. Sonora. Zabrotes(n. g.) 
Horn 66 p. 156; /.. cruciger Horn HO p. 157 Col.; Z. spectabilis Mom 66 p. 157 
Ariz. New : Z. obliteratus Horn 06 p. 158 Ariz.; /,. subnitens Horn 66 p. 158 Geo. ; 
/.. (Knsus Ilom 66 ]>. 158 Cal.; Z. planifrons Horn 66 p. 158. Ariz. 
?i TENEBRIONIDAE. 

Conoecus (n. g.) Horn 66 p. 159.; C. ovipennis Horn (iO p 159 Tex.— Zopherus 
granicollis Horn 66 p. 160 L. Cal. Rhinandrus sublaevis Horn 66 p. 160 Ariz. He 
lops strigicollis Horn 66 p. 161 Cal. 

MELANDRYIDAE. 
Dircaea Riversi Lee. 79 p. 29 Cal. 
C 1 ' 1 MELOIDAE. 

MacroBasis purpurea Horn 64 p. 108 Ariz. ; M. lauta Horn 64 p. 108 Ariz. — 

1 1 r i ) mo 

1 picauta msagnis Horn 64 p. no Ariz.; E. fallax Horn 64 p. in Cal. — Pyrota dubi- 

tafjtlis'iforn 64 p. inTex?; P. invita Horn 64 114 Tex.; 1'. bilineata Horn 64 p. 11c 

CcT.'AfizT— Cantharis molesta Horn 64 p. 111 Cal. 
iA } 
., CURCULIONIDAE. 

Erodiscus tinamus Lee. 79 p. 30 Fla. — Orchestes betuleti Horn 66 p. 101 I). ( ■ 
-Acalles costifer Lee. 79 p. 30 Tex. ; A. sulcicollis Lee. 79 p. 30 Tex. -Pseudomus in- 
flatus Lee. 79 p. 31 Fla.-CryptorhynchusIutosusLec. 79 p. 31 Fla.; C. brachialis Lee. 
79 |lf . 3£'{Fexj FtEygops seminiveus Lee. 79 P. 31 Ariz. 
unulr.nu.A ANTHRIBIDAE. 

To^OTropiS^Sseiaras Lee. 79 p. 32 Tex. — Chofagus nitens Lee. 79 p. 52 Mass. 
& liqe .'I : 1' .' 
..; _ 33 1 m 1 « 1 ^ 

' "Iii'tli* • 'translation of a Cuban work treating also of insects, bv an ol'- 
in lal translator,..^' find the following interesting and instructive passage: 
"tliat,tl|p riiiot)ew?rte and bugs, the cervo volante and also theherculo of 
Amiarical^/aKh'jMtarpt visible by their voracious destructions than poultry 
\.mte>ahd : ^arKMvs, in the night, at the crepuscle and in the day: also 
the slow bumble bee and the lightning bug.''! 



—97 — 

A generic Synopsis of the Hymenopterous family 

Chalcididae. 

By L. O. Howard. 

(Continued from page 38.) 

Note.— An asterisk should have been prefixed to the following subgenera men- 
ti Hied in the last installment of this synopsis, as none of them have been found as yet 
in this country: 

Gamocrepis, Kemittichus, Babritus, Dbxarmus, Picroscyhis, Bceotomus, Plait/ 
1 nuns, Amblymerus, Cecldostiba, Ccenacis, CriceMiiis, Halcams, Stinoplu?, Hdbrocy 
lis, Spintherus, Polycelis, Trichomalus, Wolizous, Trichoglenus, Meraporus, <'<tfnl- 
aceus, Dirjlochis, Arthrolytus, Dibrachys, Ccelopisthus, Dirhicnus. 

Subfamily EUCHARINAE. 
The genera of this subfamily are in such confusion that it is useless 
to attempt a synopsis before they have been thoroughly reviewed. I give 
simply Cameron's synopsis of the four Central American genera. 

Sen ellum simple at apex. Antennae 13-jointed, simple in both sexes 

*Genus Orasama Cameron. 
S.u'.eHum ending in two short blunt teeth which are not much longer than broad. 
Sides of metathorax with leafdike expansions at apex. Antennae, serrate in fe- 
male, simple in male *Genus Lophyrocera Cameron. 

Scutellum ending in processes which are as long as the abdomen. Antennae in male 
flabellate. 

Third joint of antennae as long as all the succeeding joints together . 

*Genus Lirata Cameron. 
Third joint of antennae not much longer than fourth Genus Kapala Cameron. 

Subfamily PERILAMPINAE. 
Abdomen not petiolate. 

Flagellum of antenna? compacted into a short club....*Genus Philomides HaJiday. 

Flagellum long and only slightly clavate Genus Perilampus Latreille. 

Abdomen petiolate. 

Mesonotum thickly and deeply punctate *Genus Lamprostylus Foerster. 

Mea 'iiotum not so punctured *Genus Elatus Walker. 

Subfamily EURYTOMINAE. 
Marginal vein thick, quadrate; post marginal and stigmal very short: a lunate or 
transverse submarginal dusky shade. Male antennae similar to 9. funicle 

4-jointed Genus Decatoma Spinola. 

Marginal vein linear; no submarginal fascia; male antennae verticillate-pilose. 
( heeks usually acute. Mesonotum umbilicate-punctate. 

Scape much longer than first funicle joint Genus Eurytoma Illiger. 

Scape equal in length to first funicle joint Genus Bephrata Cameron. 

Cheeks usually rounded. Mesonotum with more obsolete punctures, not umbili- 
cate-punctate. 
Body short; metathorax almost vertical. Marginal vein not longer than stigmal. 

Genus Systole Walker. 
Body long, metathorax sloping gradually. Marginal vein longer than stigrif&fl 1 .'" 

< ienwiOftwaktffH^^^rlw 



-oS- 

The genus Philachyra Haliday I have not mentioned as I think it 
cannot be separated from Isosoma. Of Aiolomorfhus Walker, I can form 
no definite opinion. 

Subfamily TRIDYMINAE. 
Antenna inserted slightly above the clypeus, which is rounded and produced at the 

apex. Parapsides plainly shown *Genus Tridymus Ratzeburg. 

Antenna 1 inserted at the middle of the front. Clypeus plain, not produced. Anten 
nae with both ring joints visible. 
Parapsides plain. Front impressed with very many dots. 

Wings ciliate at apex Genus Semiotellus Wcstwood . 

Wings not ciliate. Thorax slighty rugose-punctate. . . . *Genus Systasis Walker- 
Parapsides not plain *Genus Metasteuns Walker' 

Subfamily SPALANGINAE. 

Body aeneus, wings with a short marginal vein *Genus Isocratus Foerster. 

Body wingless or with a long marginal vein. 

Body not at all or very slightly metallic. Frenum not discernible. 

Body not metallic; mesonotum opaque, punctate; abdomen conieo-subulate. 

*Genus Tricoryphus Foerster. 
Mesonotum submetallic, polished. . 

Body winged; metathorax strongly punctate. *GenusCerocephala Westwood. 
Body winged or wingless; metathorax smooth; mandibles of usual size. 

*Genus Theocolax Westwood. 
Body winged, mandibles very large, three times the length of the head. 

*Genus Paralaesthia Cameron. 
Body metallic; antennas inserted in the anterior margin of the oblong head. Fren- 
um large, distinct Genus Spalangia Latr. 

Subfamily PIRENINAE. 
Wings with post marginal and stigmal very short. Ventral valvules not reaching to 
anus. Antenna; short, clavate; at least the two first funicle joints annuliform. 
Antenna with two ring-joints. Eyes of male strongly converging above. 

Genus Macroglenes Westwood. 
Antenna with at least three ring-joints. Scutellar frenum horizontal. 

Genus Pirene Haliday. 
Postmarginal and stigmal veins long. Ventral valvules reaching to anus. Antenna 

with one or no ring-joints. Terebra exserted *Genus Henicetrus Thomson. 

Postmarginal and stigmal veins moderately long. Ventral valvules not reaching to 
anus. Antennae with no ring-joints. Terebra not exserted. Abdomen with a 
large tuft of hair each side of petiole Genus Dilophogaster Howard.* 

Subfamily TETRACAMPINAE. 

Mesopleura not divided. ^ tarsi 4-jointed. Marginal vein long, narrow 

*Genus Tetracampe Foerster. 
Mesopleura divided. $ tarsi 5 -jointed, Marginal vein large, black, oblong-oval.... 

*Genus Platynochilus Westwood. 

* This name is proposed as a substitute for Tomocera, a genus founded by the 
writer in 1880—; ^nn. Rept. Com. Agr. 1880, p. 368, as the name first given conflicts 
with the genus Tomocerus of the order Collembola. 



—99 — 

Subfamily ELACHISTINAE. 

Abdomen with a more or less distinct petiole. 

Posterior tibi.e with very long spurs. Vertex in the middle, and collar acute 

Genus Euplectrus Westwood. 
Posterior tibiae with one or two short spurs. Pronotum subconical. 
Posterior tibiae i-spurred. Scutellum with two dorsal lines. 

Thorax ornamented with light colors. Scutellar sutures straight 

Genus Stenomesius Westwood. 
Thorax not ornamented with lighter colors Body or at least head metallic... 

Genus Elachistus Spinola. 
Posterior tibiae 2-spurred. Body not metallic. Scutellum with no dorsal lines... 

Genus Miotropis Thomson. 
Abdomen sub -sessile. Scutellum with two dorsal impressed lines. Posterior tibiae 
I -spurred. 

Body winged, metallic, often ornate Genus Cirrospilus Westwood. 

Body not metallic. Wings short or none Genus Melittobia Westwood. 

Note. — Foerster's genera Aulogymnus, Dichatomus and Rhicnopelle 
whioh he places in the Elachistinae are so insufficiently described that I 
cannot bring them into this synopsis without seeing specimens. No 
American species of any of these three genera have been found. 

Subfamily ELASMINAE. 
This subfamily consists of the single genus Elasmus which is suffic- 
iently characterized in the subfamily synopsis (p 199 of Vol. i ). Five 
species have been found in this country. 

Subfamily EULOPHINAE. 

Scutellum with no dorsal lines. 

Antennae inserted in the middle of the face; scape reaches far above the ocelli; $ 

antennae with 3 branches. Posterior tibiae i-spurred 

*Genus Hemiptarsenus Westwood. 
Antennae inserted far below the middle of the face ; scape reaches no higher than 
ocelli. Posterior tibiae usually 2-spurred. 
Parapsidal sutures complete but delicate. 

Antennae of $ 3 branched. Abdomen elongate 

* Genus Teleogmus Thomson. 

Antennae of $ simple *Genus Olinx Foerster . 

Parapsidal sutures not discernible. 
Posterior tibiae evidently 2-spurred. 

Marginal vein at least three times as long as stigmal. $ antennae simple; fun- 

icle 5-jointed Genus Sympiesis Foerster. 

Marginal vein not thrice as long as stigmal. $ antennae 3-branched, very 
rarely simple. 

Thorax very stout *Genus Cratotechus Thomson. 

Thorax not robust. 

Flagellum of 9 antennae compressed, fusiform, ($ with very short 
branches. Wings of 9 dusky. ..*Genus Microplectron Dahlbom. 
Flagellum of 9 antennae not compressed-fusiform. 



— ICO — 

Funi ■ 'i mlenna white, , with short branches 

*Genus Microlycus Thon 

Funicle of . black, with long branches 

Genus Eulophus Geoffroy. 

Posterior tibiae I -spurred *Genus Necremnus Thomson. 

S nullum with dorsal lines. Funicle and club of ■ 3 jointed. 

Posterior tibiae 2 spurred '< renus Diglyphus Thorns* m. 

Posteri 'i' tibiae 1 spurred *Genus Solenotus Foerster 

Subfamily ENTEDONINAE. 

Funicle ol antennae strongly toothed and furnished with whorls of hair 

Genus Astichus Foei 
Funicle <>( j antennae not toothed. 

Mesoscutellum with a middle furrow *Genus Holcopelte Foerster. 

Mesoscutellum without such a furrow. 

Willis with a seeming marginal cell formed by the hairs 

*Genus Secodes Foerster. 
Wings without such a cell. 
Postmarginal vein broken just distad of the stigmal. 

Submarginal strongly thickened 'Genus Pleuropachys Westwood. 

Submarginal not thickened. 

Metanotum with side keels *Genus Pleurotropis Foerster. 

Metanotum without keels. 

Mesoscutellum scaley Genus Entedon Dalman. 

Mesoscutellum smooth Genus Asecodes Foerster. 

Postmarginal vein not broken after stigmal. 

Abdomen elongate, pointed *Genus Omphale Haliday. 

Abdomen not especially elongate. 

Antennae 8-jointed Genus Chrysocharis Foerster. 

Antennae 9-jointed Genus Derostenus Westwood. 

Subfamily TETRASTICHIN AE. 
Scutellum without furrows. 

Wings without a stigmal vein *Genus Anozus Foerster. 

Wings with a stigmal vein. 

Whole border of the wings with very lung hairs Genus Gyolasia Foersti 1. 

Cilia of front wings not long. Thorax strongly punctate 

*Genus Euderus Haliday. 
Scutellum with two furrow.-. 
Scape greatly thickened. 

Fore wings with long cilia around entire border *Genus Ceranisus Walkei . 

Fore wings not cililate on front border *Genus Baryscapus Foerster. 

Scape not thickened especially. 

Antennae 10-jointed, with no ring joint "Genus Hyperteles Foerster. 

Antennae 9-jointed with q' 1 , without ring joints; with 9 io-jointed with 2 ring 
joints and a 3 -jointed club Genus Tetrastichus Haliday. 

Subfamily TRICHOGRAMMINAE. 
Front wings with regular rows of hairs. 
The submarginal vein does not reach the costa.... Genus Ophioneurus Ratzeburg. 

Submarginal reaches costa. 



lOI — 

Submarginal, marginaland stigma] make a regular arch. Antennae 8-jointed , 

Genus Trichogramma Weslwood: 
These veins make no regular arch. Antennae less than 8-jointed. 

Border of the wings with very long cilia *Genus Chaetosticha Walker. 

Wings from marginal vein to tip bordered with only short cilia. 

Antenna' 7-jointed, with one ring joint and a 4-jointed club 

*Genus Lathromeris Foerster. 

Anlennse 6 jointed, with no ring-joint and with a 3-jointed club 

*Genus Centrobia Foerster. 
Front wings without regular rows of hair. 

Antennae 7-jointed *Genus Asynacta Foerster, 

Antennae 6- jointed. 

Fore-wings broad, with short cilia around border 

*Genus Brachysticha Foerster. 

Fore-wings narrow with long cilia *Gen,us Oligosita Haliday. 

(To be continued. ) 



The first meeting of the Ent. Club of the A. A. A. S. will be held at 
2 p. m. Aug. 17th in the library room of the Buffalo Soc. of Natural 
Sciences. No definite programme has yet been made. On some after- 
noon during the session there will be an excursion of the Club to Mr. 
Wendling's grounds at Ebenezer, 8 miles from Buffalo, where refreshments 
will be served; the return to be around the City and through the Buffalo 
Carks, reaching the City about 8 p. m. There will also be a reception on 
some evening during the week. Special Badges will be provided for 
members of the Club, and it is very desirable that all that propose at- 
tending, notify the Secretary and send in also the title of any papers 
they expect to present. It is desired to make this meeting a verv suc- 
cessful one and the earnest co-operation of all is desired. 

John B. Smith, Secy. 

U. S. N. M. Washington, D. C. 

We regret to hear of the death of Capt. D. H. Murdock, 9th U. S. In- 
fantry, lately stationed at Fort Douglass U. T. Capt. Murdock was a 
good collector and in a good locality, for obtaining rare species. Mam- 
good species in our collection came from him. He was drowned while 
crossing a river with a detachment of troops on a scouting expedition. 

Death from typhoid fever has prematurely removed one of the most 
active workers in Acarinology, Dr. Gustav Haller who died in Bern 
Switzerland, on May 1, 1886, after a short illness. His papers mostly 
published in the Mittheilungen derSchweizerischen Entomol. Gesellschaft 
and in various German periodicals have contributed much to our knowl- 
edge of the biology, morphology and systematic arrangement of the 
Acarids and more especially of the families Tyroglyphidoe, Sarcoptida? and 
Hydrachnidae. 

Entomologica Americana. 15 August 1886. 



Synopses of Cerambycidae 
r,v Chas. W. Lf.ng, B.S. 

(Continued from p. S3.) 
BATYLE, 7 
Litellum small, prothorax sparsely punctured. Two species may 
eparated: 
Larger, black, sparsely pubescent; thorax red, elytra densely punctured. 

ignicollis. 
Smaller, red, elytra red with suture more or less black, legs more or less black; 

elvtral punctures coarse, distant suturalis. 

B. ignicollis Say J. A. P. Ill, 1823, p. 412; Lee. J. A. I". ser. 2, II, p. iS; 
Thorn. Syst. Ceramb. p. 242; coccin&.collis Ilald. Trans. Am. Phil. X, p. 39; Dej. 
Cat. 3 ed. p. 351: sanguinicollis Germ. Ins. Spec. nov. 1824, p. 515. 
Length .28-. 52 in. =7 13 mm. lla!>. S. \V. States. 

B. suturalis Say J. A. P. Ill, 1823, p. 411; Lee. J. A. P. ser. 2. 11, p. iS: mi- 
niatus Germ. Ins. Spec. nov. p. 515; rubens Dej. Cat. 3 ed. p. 351; rutUans Lee. J. 
A. 1'. ser. 2, II, 1S50 p. 18; ruber Lee. Proc. Ac. Phil. 1858, p. 82; Pearsalli Bland. 
Length .28 in. =7 mm. Hab. L ! . S. South of N. V., Mont. 

A very variable species. The legs may be red or black or anything 
between. The suture may not bear a trace of black or it may be more 
or less black up to the form Pearsalli in which the apical third of the 
Elytra is black. The thorax is occasionally black. (PI. IV, f. 15.) 

OXO PL US Lee. 

The species ol~ this and following genera have the scutellum small 
and acutely triangular. The species of Oxoplus are colored red and 
black and differ from Tylosis by having the sides of prothorax obtusely 
spinose and disk without callosities. The following synopsis by Dr. Geo. 
H Hum is extracted from Trans. Am. lint. Soc. XII, May 1885. 

SYNOPSIS OF OXOPLUS 

Thorax black, the tips of tubercles red: 
Elytra very densely punctate, color black, tin- basal margin and the side three- 
fourths to apex red; body beneath at middle and entire abdomen red; apices of 

elytra rj 1 sinuately truncate, sutural angle rounded marginatus. 

Thorax red, the apical and basal margins somewhat narrowly black. 
Abdomen red. 
Elytra black, broadly margined with red at base which extends down the side 
three-fourths to apex; surface densely rather finely punctate; apices sin- 
uously truncate, sutural angle obtuse; body beneath red, sides of meso- and 

metasternum browner cruentus. 

Elytra in great part red, a broad black band extending from the apex nearly two 
thirds to base; surface rather coarsely not densely punctured; apices trun- 
cate, the sutural angle slightly prolonged; body beneath black, abdomen 

red ' ' ' corallinus. 

Abdomen and entire bod) beneath black. 



— 103— 

Elytra colored as in corallinus with a very narrow basal black band; surface 
coarsely punctured at base, more finely and closely toward apex; apices sep- 
arately rounded, the sutural angle distinct but not prolonged .... jocosus. 
O. marginatus Lee. Proc. Ac. Phil. 1S62, p. 42. Length .86-.Q5 in. =22-24 
mm. Hab. Lower Cal. 

O. cruentus Lee. 1. c. . 75— .85 in. =19-21 mm. Hab. Lower Cal. 
O. corallinus Lee. 1. c. .70-. 80 in. =18-20 mm. Wyom., Utah and N. Mex. 
O. jocosus Horn Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. XII, 1885, p. 175. Length .48-. 60 in. 
=12-15111111. Hal). Cot. and Arizona. 

(To be continued.) 



Notes and News. 



In the "Entomologisk Tidskrift" of Stockholm Vol. 6, 1885 i s a iven a 
Cata'ogueofthe Macroleipdoptera of Norway, Sweden, and Finland. This 
is of interest to American Lepidopterists for three reasons; 1st the fauna 
of Arctic Europe is very much the same as that of Arctic America; 2nd 
the author after an examination of the types of Thunberg, De Geer and 
others, replaces nearly 30 names given in Staudinger's Catalogue, by 
more ancient names principally given by Thunberg, De Geer and Goze 
and 3rd, a number of new varieties are named, which may be found in 
our own Arctic fauna. We notice as well the statement that our Chryso- 
phanus Phhas var. americana has been taken bv a Swedish collector. 

Geo. D. Hulst. 

* * 

* 

A copy of the Davenport Sunday Democrat (June 27) contains a 
record of .the transfer of the Entomological collection of the late T. 
Duncan Putnam to the Davenport Academy of Sciences. We are pleased 
to note the liberal spirit of the relatives who preserved the scientific work 
of Mr. Putnam by placing his collection where it would be cared for and 
would instruct and perhaps lead others to follow in his foot-steps. It is 
too often that a collection accumulated by years of hard labor is allowed 
to go to ruin by the relatives of the deceased or sold in sections after bein»- 
robbed of its treasures by some enterprising collector who o- e ts a chance 
t" a get pick at it lor a small sum. 

* 
Having in preparation a series of synoptic tables of Aphodius with 
such emendatory notes as are required on my previous work, I will glad- 
ly return the names of any duplicate sets which may be sent to me. 

Geo. H. Horn, M. D, 

874 X. 4th St. Philadelphia. 



— 104 — 

We learn from "The Entomologist", that our American butterfly 
Danais archippus after taking possession within a few years of the Sain!' 

wich Islands and Australia, and while making rapid conquest of the Ma- 
layan An hipelago, has as well invaded England, and has been taken so 
often that he seems likely to conquer and stay. It is rather difficult for 
irity of Lepidopterists to recognise him under the name of 
Anosia plexippus ', but that is the name that the British Museum gives 
to what the rest of the Lepidopterological world calls Damns archippus. 
We suppose after the English fashion, (if it be not done already,), he 
will soon be dubbed with a "common name" as well, and his identity 
still further disguised. But none the less, he is an acquisition to the 
English fauna, new, larger than any of the rest of their butterflies, bril- 
liant in color, showy in appearance, easily caught, easily reared, novel 
and beautiful in chrysalis and larva, and withal American. G. D. II. 



Society News. 

Entomological Society of Washington. Meeting July 8, 1886. — The Cor- 
responding Secretary laid before the society a letter from Miss A. Haller an 
nouncing the death of Dr. G. Haller, the well-known Acarinologist; also a com- 
munication from Dr. Horn announcing the fact that Harpalus caliginosus strid- 
ulates. The noise is produced by the edges of the last two abdominal segments 
being rubbed against an alutaceous space on the inner edge of each elytron. 

Mr. Schwarz read from a letter of Mr. Hubbard a note on a specimen of 
Bradycinetus ferrugineus which suddenly died while being held m the hand. 
He also exhibited a male of HydrophUus ovatus remarkable from the form of the 
maxillary palpi, the two last joints being notably flattened. 

Mr. Smith read a note on Quadrina diazoma placed by Mr. Grote in the //< - 
mUeiicina but which he finds belongs to the Cossidae. He gave a detailed des- 
cription of the venation and discussed its affinities at some length. 

Mr. Schwarz read a short note on a small swarm of Cicadas observed by him 
at Fortress Monroe, Va., on June 17, 1880. No specimens or pupa shells could be 
procured and it was impossible, therefore, to decide whether or not these Cica- 
das belonged to the periodical species. 

Mi-. Johnson spoke on a Cecidomyidous gall-maker on twigs of Bwnelia 
lanuginosa as observed by him in the vicinity of Shreveport, La. The young tri os 
suffer severely from the attacks of this insect. 

Mr. Howard spoke on the food-habits of the common House Wren during 
the breeding season. He observed the rearing of two successive broods of young, 
the old birds feeding the young exclusively on insects. The principal food c< n- 
sisting of caterpillars, Macrodactylus subspinosus and another small black 
beetle, apparently a Carabid. 

Mr. Schwarz remarked on the habits of two species of Tabanus, T. mexicanvs 
and T. psammophilus, the former flying only shortly after sunrise and shortly 
before sunset. The second being a strictly maritime species and probably never 
attacking warm-blooded animals. 





Americana 



VOL II. 



BROOKLYN, SEPTEMBER, 1886. 



NO. 6. 



On two interesting new genera of Leptidae. 

By S. W. WlLLISTON. 

Three summers ago, while collecting in the White Mountains, 1 
found in the shady woods a specimen which I at the time took to be a 
Triptotricha. Upon a more careful examination, however, I was surpris- 
ed to find only four posterior cells in the wing, and the last posterior 
vein arising from the discal cell, a variation from the most essential char- 
acteristics of the family Leptidae, a note of which, so remarkable did the 
anomaly appear to me, I sent to the Stettiner entomologische Zeitun"-. 
Afterwards, Baron Osten Sacken, during his visit to the United States the 
past year, in looking over my collection was struck with the relationship 
of the specimen with Stygia elongata Say, and, although upon examina- 
tion the species was found to be evidently a different one, there could be 
no doubt of the congenerousness of the two. Stygia elongata has been 
an enigmatical species of doutful affinities since its description sixty years 
ago by Say, who placed it under the Bombylidae. Afterwards, Wiede- 
mann, who presumably examined Say's type, described it as Anthrax e- 
longata, and yet again in the same work, as Lomatia elongata, with the 
remark that the "Art gehort ohne Zweifel zu einer ganz andern Gattung'*, 
basing his opinion upon the differences in the proboscis, antenna?, and 
neuration. Baron Osten Sacken in his catalogue retained it anion" the 
Bombylidae as Lomatia elongata with the additional observation (note 
x 55. P- 2 37)'- "Stygia elongata Say, Lomatia elongata Wied., is not a 
Lomatia, as Wiedemann himself observes, but it is difficult to say what 
it is. It has the antennae of a Leptid, but nevertheless only four posterior 
cells. I saw the typical specimen in Vienna and it seemed to agree with 



— 106 — 

Wiedemann's figure. It is singular that another specimen of this species 
has never turned up in the United States; it would have allowed a more 
thorough investigation than the fragile type in Vienna, which one is 
afraid to handle."' 

My attention thus called to the subject, I have looked especially for 
the species, during the few opportunities that I have had for collecting, 
and a few days ago I was fortunate in finding it near Stamford, Connec- 
ticut. During the hour that I was collecting I observed six individuals, 
but only succeeded in capturing three of them, all males. I found them 
running about rather nimbly on the upper leaves of underbush in a 
small patch of partially shaded woods, in company with such species as 
Melanostoma pla/ychirus, Xanthogramma flavipes, Sargus decorus, Ptec- 
ticus Sackeni, etc The specimens all agree closely, and there can now 
be no doubt but that we have, in this case at least, a true Leptid with the 
normal number of but four posterior cells. As the species must require 
a new generic name I propose to call it AGNOTOMYIA, in allusion to 
the long period during which it has been unknown. My specimens dif- 
fer but little from the descriptions given by Say and Wiedemann, but 
that the species may be more readily recognized I again describe it as 
I. illows: 

Agnotemyia elongata. 

Styg'va elongata Say, Jour. Acad. Phil., Ill, 41, 1; Compl. Wr., II, 58. 

Anthrax elongata Wiedemann, Auss. zweifl. Ins. I, 315. 

Lomatia elongata Wiedemann , Auss. zweifl. Ins., 1, 561; tab. II, rig. 6. 

Habitat. =Pennsylvania (Say), Connecticut! 

<~£. Length 7 to S mm. Eyes in life green. First two joints of antennae liglit 
yellow, the second large, not elongate, third small, globular, and with the arista or 
slender style, black. Dorsum of thorax shining black, sparsely white pubescent; the 
humeri light colored and silvery pollinose, the dorsopleural suture obscurely luteous; 
pleura on lower part elongated, yellowish, covered with silvery pollen; metanotum in 
part lutescent. Abdomen shining black, the posterior angles of the first three seg- 
ments rather broadly yeilow, continued across on the posterior margin of the segments, 
uither narrowly in the middle; fmrth segment with the hind angles narrowly yel- 
low. Wings distinctly pubescent and with a distinct blackish tinge; toward the base 
and in marginal and submarginal cells yellowish. Coxae yellowish white, the legs 
more yellow; the tip of hind femora, and the hind tibia:, blackish; tarsi black, the 
middle metatarsi yellowish, the hind meiatarsi, except their tip, and the basal half of 
the second joint, whitish. 

Say describes the wings as hyaline, and does not mention the dark 
color of the hind legs, and speaks of the abdomen as being depressed. 
Wiedemann also does not mention the black of the hind legs, but his de- 
scription otherwise does not leave any doubt but that the species is the 
same. Neither author gives the sex, but Wiedemann's figure shows that 
the specimen was a male. The figure represents the species very well, 



except that the antenna? are shorter, the second joint more dilated, as 
Say describes it, and the abdomen less dilated distally. The abdomen 
in my specimens in drying became compressed, and it is possible that 
the same condition existed in the type, and was too widely restored in 
drawing. 

The genus approches Triptotricha^ rather closely, but the size, slen- 
derness, and the presence of but one spur on the front tibiae are all dif- 
ferent. The presence of but four posterior cells is undoubtedly a nor- 
mal character, and I doubt that it is at all variable; yet this hitherto im- 
portant family character will not serve for aught else than for a distin- 
guishment in the present case; the genus finds its proper location with 
Triptotricha in the sub-family Psammorycterinae*. Triptotricha, as Loew 
years ago pointed out, frequently varies in having the third posterior 
vein abbreviated, and in the examination of a considerable series of 
T fasciventrh Loew, I have observed the last posterior vein rarely aris- 
ing from near the base of the discal cell. It is thus possible, that, as an 
anomaly, a neuration similar to, if not identical with, that of the present 
species may exist in species of Triptotricha, For this reason I am un- 
willing to describe the first-mentioned species from the White Mountains 
until additional specimens shall have assured me that its neuration is a 
normal feature. In both of these species, however, the single spur 
on the front tibia will serve, I believe as a generic distinction 
should such a case possibly occur in Triptotricha where the third poster- 
ior vein is wholly obliterated and the last vein does not spring from the 
second basal cell. In the three species of Triptotricha known to me. all 
the tibiae have two spurs. The formulae for the tibial spurs in this fam- 
ily, so far I have observed them, may be expressed as follows: 

Agnotomyia, i, 2, 2. Atherix, o, 2, 2. 

Triptotricha, 2, 2, 2. Symphoro?nyia, o, 2, 1. 

Leptis, o, 2, 2. Arihroccras, o, 2, 1. 

Chrysopila, o, 2, 1. 

Arthroceras n. <j. 

In size, shape and general appearance much resembling certain species of Chrysu- 
ptlo, e. g. C. quadrata. Head in front view much like that of this species, but 
the front somewhat narrower and the lower part of the face does not form 
a hemispherical convexity as in the species of Chrysopila, but is in the female 
nearly straight or gently convex in profile, transversly convex and separated 
from the sides by two convergent deep grooves more like it is in species of Sym- 
phoromyia. In the male the grooves are deeper, broader, and more broadly V-shaped 

*Better Vertnilionina:, as, according to the usage of good Zoologists, the genus 
Psammorycter Blanch, should not replace I'ermilio Macq. because the latter was 
raised from specific to generic use. There is quite as much propriety in changing 
Musca vermilio Deg. into Vermilio .Decern as many of the numerous arbitrary changes 
that have been made in the generic names of diptera. Nor indeed would there be- 
more impropriety in calling the species Vermilio vermilio Deg. than to call a man Mr. 
Thomas Thomas. 



— I 

the middle portion smaller, more recedhij av< from the a] ex oi the V above. 

The eyes in the male- are broadly contiguous; the palpi are ported, and somewhat 
spatulate, at least in the female. Antenna' as in Chrysopila, except that the third 
jo ni is not at all dilated, and the arista is replaced, by a thickened, elongate, distinctly 
jointed style, a little broader toward the base, where it tapers from the joint. 1 
i omit -even joints in the style, the hist of which is elongated. Legs as in Ohrysopila; 
the hind tihi.e with one, the middle tibia.- with two, rather weak spurs, the front til ise 
. me. Wings large, the second vein sinuous as in species of Lijili.s. the anterior 
branch of the third vein not sinuous, and without stump; the second poster i 
nanow or petiolate at base, the anal cell open. 

This genus is the one referred torn my Classification {Entom. America- 
na, 1. p. 115) in the tabular synopsis as "Nov. Gen." O. S. and con- 
tains, beside the following new species, Arthropeai leptis O. S. The gen- 
i ri< difference from Arihrbpeas in the spur of the front tibiae was pointed 
out by Baron Osten Sack en four wars age, and, as he has not yet proposed 
a name for the genus, 1 venture to do so in order to describe the following 
interesting species. No one who will compare the present with other 
species ofLeptidse will for a moment doubt the family relationship. It 
must unquestionably be placed under the Leptidse, and not with the 
Ccenomyidae or Xylophagida?. 'Ihe addition, however, ol the two gen- 
era herein described, with Glutops Burgess, furnishes most important ex- 
ceptions to the distinctive characters of the family, and will make the 
limits very hard to define. 

Arlhroceras polhnosum, n. ^p. 

Habitat. Washington, Colo 

O. Length, 5.5 to 7 mm. Face and front thickly light ochraceous pollinose. 
Antennae Mack, the third joint at base, and the tip of second, reddish or yellowish. 
Palpi reddish yellow, the tip black. Thorax in ground color black, but the dorsum 
and the scutellum concealed beneath dense, nearly uniform ochraceous yellow pollen, 
and the pleura: beneath gray pollen, ochraceous above. Abdomen wholly and even- 
ly covered beneath with light grayish yellowish pollen, in the ground color black, at 
the hind margins of the segments, more broadly behind, apparently yellowish or red 
dish, begs yellow or lutescent yellow, the last four joints on all the tarsi brownish. 
Wings distinctly tinged with brownish yellow, the costal cell and outer part of margin- 
al cell of a more saturate color; veins futeous yellowish, more fuscous toward the 
outer part of the wing. 

$. Face more grayish pollinose. Palpi black, and bushy pilose. Abdomen in 
-round color wholly black, the hypopygium at tip, only yellowish. Femora, except 
the tip, black, the tarsi, except the base, darker; the light colored pile of the legs lon- 
ger and more abundant. 



— 109 — 

Descriptions of some New Trap-Door Spiders; Their 
Notes and Food habits. 

By Geo. F. Atkinson. 

A few months after sending the manuscript of the article, "A new 
trap-door 1 spider", to the publishers, I found a specimen which differed 
so markedly in color from the one, the subject of that article, and agreed 
so closely with the one described by Hentz as Mygale carolinensis, 2 now 
Pachylomerus carlinensis, 3 Hentz, that before having an opportunity to 
study them carefully I concluded the only difference was in color. Just 
after the article, "A family of young trap-door spiders", 4 was in type I 
discovered that the two forms were different species; that the one called 
in the Amer, Nat. "Anew trap door spider", and the young spiders 
whose work is described in the Ento. Am. were both new species: the 
former I have called Pachylomerus caribivorus, and the latter Pachylome- 
rus ^..spinosus. 

The nests of P. carib.vorus, and P. 4-spinosus, have already been de- 
scribed in the arcticles referred to. One thing however, in regard to P. 
caribivorus is worth adding. The last trap-door made by this species as 
described in the Am Nat. p. 590, was in sharp contrast, being made al- 
most entirely of clay, with the surrounding moss. In a few days the 
spider made an examination of its work and found it had made a mis- 
take in not placing moss in the door. It remedied this as well as pos- 
sible by cementing moss to the edge of the door and pressing the ends 
down so that about half of the door was covered with moss! 

Nest of Pachylomerus /urn's. March, 5, '86, on turning over an 
old log, a sudden movement of an object downward attracted my atten- 
tion, I looked and discovered a silken tube, with particles of earth and 
leaf mould attached extending above ground. On one side the silk was 
so extremely thin as to afford a "window" to the spider's house! It was 
through this that I had discovered the movement which attracted my at- 
tention. Nearly the entire remaining portion of the tube was covered 
with earth and leaf-mould, and here the silk was thinner than in other 
portions, yet intact. It seems almost incredible, yet from the wonderful 
intelligence manifested by these spiders, I was led to think this "window" 
had been purposely made: that the spider would sit by it and watch for 
beetles crawling about under the log, and seeing one would rush out 

1 American Naturalist, Vol. XX, p. 583, July 1886. 

2 The Spiders of the United States, by Nicholas Marcellus Hentz, M. D., Boston 
Journal, IV, p. 56. pi. VII, fig. 3. 

:1 Beitr&ge zur Kenntniss der Territelariae, Ausserer, p. 147. 
* Entomologica Americana, August 1S86. 



•I 10 — 



through the door, seize its pre) and return to its tower! It seems more 
reasonable when we consider that Nidrvalvata marxii (see food habits ol 
this species,) will nightly open its doors, remain out of sight, watch lor 
passing insects, and rush out and seize them. The tube was about 
Scm. in length, and there was only a very shallow excavation in the clay 
soil. The door is of the "wafer type", ami was fastened down by silk, 
probably in the fall when the spider prepared for hibernating. 1 

In the evening I placed the spider in a bottle of earth. During the 
night it burrowed into the soil and made a rude door, which appeared 
more like a flap hung from one side of the mouth of the tube. On the 
evening of Mar. 7, I removed a portion of the soil and placed in a por- 
tion of clay intermixed with loam, scattering over this a few bits of moss. 
I did not see the spider make the burrow, but next day saw it make two- 
thirds of a door, when 1 put an end to operations on that nest. The 
door was made practically in the same manner as that by P. caribivorus, 
but was a wafer door. 

From the appearance of the tube and the soil about it in both of the 
nests made in captivity, I felt sure this spider did not dig the hole in 
the normal way. Accordingly, Mar, 8, I prepared a jar of wet clay. 
Up to 11, p. m. the spider had not begun work, but in the morning the 
work had not progressed too far for me to observe it. The spider begins 
the burrow in a manner similar to that practiced by Nidrvalvata Marxii 
by pressing the earth aside from a central point with its anterior legs, 
using also its mandibles, but it is much slower in its movements than 



1 Mr. Moggridge says in Harvest Anis and Trap door Spiders, Supplement, 
p. 236. "I have on very few occasions, found the doors of a wafer or cork nest spun 
up during the winter at Mentone, and on digging have discovered the spider alive, 
though partially torpid, inside; but this I think is quite an exceptional event. 1 
should like to know, however, whether this becomes the rule in the ca^e of the ne«.is 
of those trap-door spiders which inhabit climates less favored than that of Mentone." 
lie also speaks of a Lycosa that is said to close her nest in Canes in winter. I.ntn ille, 
in Mem. Soc. Hist. Nat. Paris, (an VII, de la Repubique) p. 124, Says, "L'araignee 
tarentule ferme au-si son habitation, mais cet opercule n'est pas mobile, et n'est con 
struit que pour l'hiver." I have on several occasions found that P. caribivoroun, 
after eating one or two beetles, fastens down the lid with silk. Nidivalvata marxii, 1 
have found fastens the doors at times (See Amer. Nat. Vol. XX, p. 592.) 

O, P. Cambridge, in Annals of Nat. Hist. 1878, 5th series, Vol. I, p. 107, says 
that in all cases that came under his notice the upper extremity of the nest of Atypus 
piceus was without any perceptible orifice. He finally came to the conclusion that 
the spider gnawed its way out and then closed it with fresh threads again. These ex- 
amples seem to indicate that spiders will very frequently at least fasten the doors to 
their nests during a period of rest, when inactive and more liable to be injured, when 
having had sufficient food, and perhaps sometimes at regular periods when not en 
gaged in watching for food. It seems reasonable to suppose that in climates where 
the spiders are in a torpid state they would fasten their doors during this period. 



X. marxii. Pachylomerus furris is the spider represented in fig 15 & 16 
of the Ento. Am. for Aug. excavating in a "novel way". In making the 
trap door, sometimes when.in this position it would cement the particle 
to the door by pressing on top of the door with its posterior legs, against 
the ventral surface of thecephalothorax. When the hole was about 3cm. 
deep it would occasionally take earth out in the normal way. 

It will be seen that the habit of this spider is not wholly nocturnal in 
building its nest. During the month of July while I was at Ithaca, 
N. Y. I had a specimen of P. caribrvorus make a nest for Prof. Corn- 
stock. This was made entirely during the day. By reference to the 
young trap-door spiders 1 it will be seen that P. 4-spinosus works just 
about as well in day as at night. 

Nest of Nidivalvata marxii. The first one of this species which I 
found was taken Jan. 2, 1886, and which I have formerly mentioned as 
making in captivity a "folding door. " 2 In tearing up some moss I ob- 
served a tube in the bottom of which was the spider. Whatever there 
was at the upper end of the tube was destroyed in removing the moss, so 
that I have not had an opportunity to observe the door to the nest where 
the spider makes its nest in a patch of moss. I have found several nests 
ol this species by gathering moss. In all there were what appeared to 
1 e branches just above the surface of the ground at the base of the moss. 
1 iiese I regard as avenues in which the spider would search, or lie in 
wait, for ants. 

In captivity this spider made a very interesting nest with folding 
doors (See figs. 17 and 18 Plate V) and I believe it is with some such ar- 
rangement that it closes its tube in a state of nature, for the spider makes 
use of it in catching its prey, as will be described in the food-habits <.f 
this species. This kind of a door, I believe, has never before been seen 
or described, and adds one to the different types of nests which Mr. 
Moggridge has described and named. 3 The right name for this type 
should be -'double door", but as Mr. Moggridge has used that name for 
a nest which has two doors, one at the upper end of the tube and another 
some distance below at the opening of a branch in the main tube, it can- 
not be applied to this one. So I have called this new type the folding 
</oor yiest, from the manner in which the door opens and shuts. 

This species begins the excavation of its tube by parting the earth 
from a central point with its anterior legs and palpi turning around at 
the same time so as to push the earth on all sides. It works with ex- 

1 Entomologica Americana, August 1886. 

1 American Naturalist, Vol. XX, p. 592. 

a Harvesting Ants and Trap door Spiders; and Supplement. 



ceeding rapidity, and in this respect is in strong contrast with the mem- 
bers of the genus Pachylomerus, though the young ones of that genus 
work more rapidly than the older ones When beginning the nest in a 
patch of moss the spider will dive down into the moss and begin turn- 
ing rapidly in all directions, at the same time spinning threads to fasten 
together the pieces of moss around and over it, I have watched four 
different ones make the nest, two beginning in moss which I had placed 
over the eaith, and two beginning in soil. Two of these I had make a 
nest several times, and thus far everyone has first entirely closed the en- 
trance to the tube by building a sort of dome above it. Later, in one 
case a week, cutting through this and making the folding door. 1 Usual- 
lv while at work near the surface of the earth it will burrow out in differ- 
ent directions and elevate the surface of the earth. This I think is part- 
ly for the purpose of providing a place to put the earth which it excavates 
from the lower portion of the tube, as I have seen these filled up; and 
in one specimen, after the tube was about 2 cm. deep I observed the 
same habit of digging and cementing to the edge of the tube, as observed 
in the case of Pachylomerns caribivorus and 4-spinosus. This individual 
made the dome by carrying up three sides regularly until it had com- 
pletely covered the entrance. Usually in making the dome earth is 
placed on and about the edge of the tube, occasionally applying viscid 
liquid and spinning threads over it. Then the spider would, with its an- 
terior legs and palpi pull the edge over the tube. This operation would 
ba repeated until the dome was complete. 2 When moss is convenient the 
door is made almost entirely of moss and silk; each door is a surface of 
a half circle, is hung by a semicircular hinge, and the two meet, when 



1 Note. — In the Encyclopedia Brittannica, 9th edition, 1875, Vol.11, p. 291. 
O. P. Cambridge says: "The present writer was once told by a gentle n an \vlv> had 
formerly resided in the West Indies that trap-door spiders invariably made the tube 
and lid of one continuous, solid, homogeneous piece, and then cut out the lid v ith ihe 
fakers. This account, especially as coming from anon Naturalist seems impiobable, a 
spiders fakers being in no way fitted apparently for such an operation." Where the 
silk linining was thin, it would be a very easy matter for a spicier to cut through, and 
then repair the roughness by cementing on particles. Ii is probably an exaggeration to 
say that they "invariably"construct them in that manner, but I should not be surprised 
if some species made the trap, door in the manner described by this non "naturalist." 

2 I have never seen this spider press the lid on the ends of its mandibles as does 
P. caribivorus. I think this shows the adaptation of the special armature of the man- 
dbile of P. caribvorus, and related forms, for fastening the earth to the lid. P. car- 
ibivorus usually makes no thread in applying the viscid liquid to the door while ad- 
ding particles, but puts it on as a cement. The large point of the mandibles, which is 
covered with short strong spines serves admirably to punch the earth irregularly into 
the portion of the door already made, and causing it to adhere firmly. 



closed, in a straight line over the middle of the hole, as shown in fig. 18, 
Plate V. Every night (I observed one in my room for three months) 
the spider would throw open its doors as shown in fig 17, Plate V and 
in the morning close them. If I opened the door during the daytime 
the spider would invariably come up and close it, but never immediately, 
and never did it offer to catch the door and resist its opening. When 
members of this genus build their nest under stones, as they sometimes 
do, if the stone is elevated from the earth in one place the spider builds 
the tube above ground to the under surface of the stone, and here makes 
some sort of door, I have never been able to see just what, but probably 
very much like the ones made in captivity. A longitudinal section of 
one of these nests which I found under a stone is shown in fig. 1 1, Plate, 
IV, the surface of the ground at a and the mouth of the tube at b. On 
turning over the stone I saw what I thought was the cocoon of a moth, 
from which the insect had escaped at the upper end. I picked it up, 
and discovered the tube which I found about 12 inches deep, with the 
spider 1 at the bottom. This nest, perhaps inappropriately, I have called 
the hall door nest, because of the enlargement just within the entrance. 
This I consider would be of advantage to the spider in managing the 
door while catching an ant. The portion above ground was made of 
loam and leaf mould cemented with viscid liquid and lined on the inside 
with silk. So far as I have oberved, the members of this genus line only 
that portion of the nest with silk which is liable to cave in near the up- 
per portion of the tube. 2 

Nest of Myrmekiiphila foliata. 

The nest of this species is not constant in type, and shows wider va- 
riation in different individuals than any of those thus far described; but 
when taken in connection with the food habit of the species there does 
not seem to be a very great departure from a common type. 

The first individual was collected March 13, '86 by myself. In 
collecting specimens of ants and their root feeding "cows'' (Aphides) 
which they were protecting through the winter, I found a trap-door on 
turning over a stone. The tube I traced down about 14 inches, when 
I came upon and struck the spider off at one sidej In doing so I broke 
off a leg and palpus so that the spider died the next day. At the time I 
thought the spider must have underground galleries in which it hunted 
for ants similar to the galleries in the moss of the nest of Nidivalvata 
marxii. But since finding the nests of other individuals I think there 



1 Nidivalvata angustaia. 

2 I have observed the same thing with Myrmekiaphila foliata. 
Entomologica Americana. 16 August 1886. 



— 114— 

must have been a branch from the main tube with a trapdoor, and the 
soil being so full of rocks I failed to find it. 

The second individual I collected on the morning of Apr. 6, '86, 
while digging into a side hill with a southern exposure for white ants 
{Termes flavipes ,). Discovering a tube I traced it until I found at one 
side a trap door opening into a short branch. In this I found a fine 
specimen o( trap-door spider. The nest I concluded belonged to the 
type called by Mr Moggridge, "Double door branched nest'', but dif- 
fers from that in having a cork door instead of a wafer door, I did not 
see the door at the end of the main tube, if there was one, as the soil 
was very loose and rocky, and every trace would have been destroyed 
before finding the main tube. 

The third individual was collected in the afternoon of the same 
day, by one of the students, D. E. Woodley. The tube ran under a 
stone, a trap-door was at the upper end, but the branch and second 
door was not seen: Mr. Woodley said, however, that it might have es- 
caped his notice as the tube was not traced out very clearly. 

The fourth individual I collected Apr. 6. On turning over a stone 
I saw what is represented in fig. 16, Plate V except that the trap door was 
closed, and the spider was in the tube a short distance below it. The 
space above the trap door is a portion of an ants nest, b is the entrance 
from the surface of the earth; a, #, is a broad hall-way leading off into 
galleries on the side. The spider had come down at b, undoubtedly 
during the night while the ants were quiet, unconscious of the purpose 
of their terrible enemy, dug the hole in the center of this hall way, and 
covered it with a trap-door before the ants were stirring at the break of 
day. The soil was in a good condition for tracing out the tube, which 
I did very carefully and found neither branch nor second door, so that 
this nest was of the type single cork door, unbranched nest. 

The fifth I collected on the same day and not more than io feet 
distant. Fuming over a stone 1 saw a tube which ran down one of the 
perpendicular sides of the hole, in which the rock fitted, then along the 
bottom to near the center of where the stone lay. Here it disappeared 
taking a perpendicular direction again. I ran a straw down this tube 
and felt the movements of the spider. The spider would not seize the 
straw, as they sometimes will, and soon I could no longer feel the move- 
ments. I then dug carefully around the tube, and at the depth of about 
io inches struck the spider, splitting open its caput. This happened 
because the spider was in the branch: when I first ran the straw into the 
tube he was in the main tube, and probably bein frightened ran into the 
branch and caught hold of the door. This confirms what Mr. Mogg- 



rid"-e believes to be the case with spiders making a double door branched 
nest, that when an enemy succeeds in getting entrance to the main tube 
the spider will run into the branch. 1 This nest is represented in fig. 15, 
Plate V. Though the tube is represented nearly natural size the length 
is much fore-shortened, The space represented by the dotted lines a 
and b was 10 inches for each. The spider was found at b; the cork 
door can be seen at c. 

Another specimen was found, about which, unfortunately, I have no 
record nor recollection, except that it was collected sometime during the 
spring. This, though I have not given it a careful examination I believe 
to belong to the same species. I left it in the possession of Dr. Geo. 
Marx, at Washington. 

The specimen collected Apr. 6, 1 placed in a jar of earth to see 
what kind of a nest it made in captivity. For several days it showed no 
signs of working. Finally 1 found it buried in the earth much as Nidi- 
valvata marxii is, when having just completed the dome over the tube, 
and from the appearance of things I think the burrow was started, and 
the dome made in the same way as in the case of that species. The 
next day in place of the dome, in which there was no moss, was a perfect 
cork door with an abundance of moss in it. The spider had evidently 
cleared away the dome, which was made of earth and silk, and made 
the door of new material. 

When I lifted up this door the spider would catch hold of it. In 
a few days I found this door fastened down and that end of the tube 
filled with earth for a distance of 5 cm. The tube extended in a circui- 
tous direction for 10 cm or more where it came to the surface and was 
closed by another nicely fitting trap-door. I think the spider was alarm- 
ed at the discovery of her nest, and attempted by this strategy to deceive 
her enemy. If the jar of earth had been more capacious, and a longer 
time given the spider she might have made a branch and second door. 

Food habits. I have not yet had an opportunity of making very ex- 
tensive observations on the ford habits of these species, and cannot say 
that each one is confined to the insect for which I am certain it has a 
special fondness as an article of diet. Of the species of Pachylomerus my 
observations have been confined to P. caribivorus. I have already stated 
the fondness which this species has for carabid beetles, 2 and though kill- 
ing several ants and flies did not use them for food, During July, while 
at Ithaca N. Y. I fed several carabid beetles to a P. caribivorus which I 



i Harvesting Ants and Trap-Dour Spiders 
- Am. Nat. July 1886. Vol. 20, p. 592. 



— n6 — 

had alive. June 20, I placed a Plerostichus tucu&Iandus 1 , Say, in the 
bottle containing the nest of the spider. During the night the spider 
came out of the nest, caught the beetle, ate it and ejected the hard parts 
from the nest. July ist, it disposed ofa Plerostichus Sayi, Brulle. June 
29 it ate a beetle of the genus Chlanius. At another time it ate three 
good sized beetles of the genus Chloenius in one night. 

The observation which I made on Nidivalvata marxii in captivity arc- 
very interesting. I noticed that at night the spider would throw its doors 
wide open 2 as shown in fig. 1 7, Plate V. One evening I placed several 
in the jar containing the nest. When an ant approached so near the 
door as to send a communication to the spider'of its presence, the spider 
sprang to the entrance, caught a door with the anterior legs on either 
side, and pulled them nearly together, so that there was just space e- 
nough left for it to s^e the ant when it crossed the opening. When this 
happened, the spider threw the doors wide open, caught the ant, and in 
the twinkling of an eye had dropped back to the bottom of the tube with 
its game. This I saw repeated several times during the months of Jan- 
uary and February. At one time I placed a large cricket in the jar. The 
spider made several attempts to capture it but was not strong enough. 
It would probably eat crickets when fortunate enough to catch one. I 
think also that it would eat small carabid beetles, for I found several in 
the moss where I collected the spider. I have found the remains of ants 
in the nests. 

I have made no observations on Myrmekiaphila foliata in captivity, 
but from the location of their nests it is quite evident that the members 
of this species are extremely fond of ants, and seek to build their nests 

1 I am indebted to Prof. J. A. Comstock for the identification of the species oi 
1 leetles. 

2 The position of Nidivalvata in the subfamily Erhidontina; shows its near rela- 
tion to the Atypince. I have often been struck with its likeness to the Atypince, es 
pecially in the kind of a nest it makes, and though I have never seen an Atypus, 
nor one of its nests, I have often concluded that from the form of its nest it must be 
somewhat similar to Nidivalvata in architectural habit, and that the presence of a 
door, or covering for the entrance to its nest instead of being wanting, has been over 
looked ; that in the cases where the nest was open, accident had removed the door. What 
O. P. Cambridge says in Annals of Nat. Hist. 4th series, 1875, Vol. XVI, p. 240-241. 
seems to me to indicate that Atypus is very similar in habit to this genus. Not only in 
the form of the nest, but in its food habit. He says that on one occasion a nest which 
apparently had no orifice was buried in a box of earth; subsequently the tube was ob- 
served with a wide open mouth, and again was closed the following morning. The 
spider probably opens the doors at night to watch for food, and closes them in the 
morning as does N. marxii. 



either directly in an ants nest or in close proximity to it. I think in 
some cases it is intended that the main tube shall be used as a passage 
for ants, so that by coming out of the branch the spider can capture its 
food, for it is certain in these which I have observed that the external 
door is either wanting or old and in a neglected condition, while the 
door at the branch is kept well repaired. If I am correct in this conclu- 
sion it would account for the apparent variation noticed in the kind of 
nest built by this species. ■ In the nest represented in fig. 16, Plate V, 
the entrance b, and the landing a, a, of the ants nest answers for the 
main tube of the spider, and only the one tube and trap-door is required 
for the use of the spider. 1 

1 Note. — There evidently is quite a variation, even with the same species, in 
the kind of a nest which trap-door spiders make, As these prove to be very intelli- 
gent creatures, I believe they vary in the construction of the nest as the conditions of 
their environment varies, and that they adopt that plan which provides for them the 
safest abode, and at the same time will serve them the best as a trap. At the same 
time we must not lose sight of a common type, which, with some useful variations, 
each species follows; though species of different genera may make the same kind of 
a nest, and be identical in food habit, species of the same genus may vary with re- 
gard to the common type; so that the use of nests, and food habits, becomes of less 
value than has been heretofore supposed by some for purposes of classification. 

Mr. Moggridge says, "H. A. and T. U. Spiders" Supplement, pp. 236, and 237; 
' the ran ge and distribution of a species largely depend upjn the nature of its food, 
and this will also be an indication of the rivals etc. —"and in many cases even the 
structure and position of its dwelling place will be governed by this same all — import- 
ant question of food supply." 

Rev. O. P. Cambridge, at that time came to this conclusion, "and in the present 
case it is very important, as well as interesting, to conclude with some certainty that 
differences of type in the tubular nests of the spiders Mr. Moggridge has observed so 
closely and accurately, are joined to well marked specific differences etc. "Harvest- 
ing Ants and Trap-Door Spiders, Supplement, p. 301". Later, Cambridge doubts 
such close union of specific character and architectural habit, for he finds nests of Aty- 
pus piceus varying greatly in construction. (Annals of Nat. Hist. 1878, 5th series, 
Vol.1, p. 107.) From nests made in captivity, I know that Packylomerus turris 
and Nidivalvata anyustata make different nests according as the environments 
change. 

(To be continued. ) 



A monograph of the species of the subfamilies Eucneminae, Cerophyti- 
nae and Perothopinae inhabiting the United States, By George H. Horn, M.D. 
Tr. Am. Ent. Soc. xiii p. 58. February 1886. 

The species in these groups are mostly rare, and are very generally 
wrongly named in collections. The present paper is therefore very time- 
ly since it not only calls attention to the insects, but enables students to 
straighten out their material. It would be interesting to discover some- 
thing of the habits of these species. Most of them are accidental finds and 
no one knows exactly where to look for them with any certainty of success 



— i ia — 

Synopses of Cerambycidae. 

By Chas. W. Leng, B. S. 

(Continued from p. 103.) 

SCHIZAX Lee, 
A single species is contained in this genus; 
S. senex Lee. S. M. C. No. 264, 1873, p. 196. 
Length .52-.6S in.^13-17 mm. Hab. Arizona. 

Opaque black, clothed with cinereous pubescence, the sutural hit 
eral and apical margin of elytra fulvo pubescent. Prothorax strongly, 
elytra slightly punctured. 

TYLOSIS Lee. 
Contains two species: black, beneath with sparse white pubescence, 
thorax and elytra red with or without black spots, which are very varia- 
ble. They are separated as follows: 

Elytra red with black spots; thorax red with several black spots, (Plate I, fig. 

18,) maculata. 

Elytra red without spots, thorax red with black dot at middle of each side 

oculata. 
T. maculata Lee. T. A. P. ser. 2. II, p. 9; Col. of Kansas, 1859, p. 20, t. 2, 
fig. 15; punclicollis Klug. Dej. Cat. 3 ed. p. 348; sellata Lee. 1. c. IV, 1858, p. 25 
Length .36-. 68 in. =9-17 mm. Hab. Tex., Ariz, and New Mexico. 

T. oculata Lee. 1. c. II, p. 9. Length .45 in. =11 mm. Hab. Mexican Bdy. 

CROSSIDIUS, Lee. 

A. Prothorax subquadrate. 

Black, clothed with long gray hair; elytra very densely punctured, punctures very 
coarse at the base, becoming finer behind; front tibia- with a dense brush of 
hair on the inner side , ater. 

B. Prothorax rounded and subtuberculate on the sides. 

Elytra very coarsely punctured towards the base, punctures smaller behind. 

Head, antenna and legs black; under surface and pronotum black or rufous 
elytra rufo-testaceous with basal margin and sutural blotch black, the latter 
usually narrow or wanting in <^\ broader in 9 punctatus. 

Testaceous, antennae fuscous, legs ferruginous; elytra with two costae more dis- 
tinct than in the other species testaceus. 

Testaceous, antenna fuscous, legs ferruginous; elytra without costa, suture black, 
broader in 9 intermedius. 

Smaller, legs, antenna and head black; under surface yellow, trunk frequently, 
abdomen rarely blackish; pronotum more or less black; elytra yellow with 
humeral spot and sutural blotch more or less dilated, black. . . pulchellus. 
Elytra less coarsely punctured, punctures smaller towards the tip. 

Black, abdomen usually ferruginous; elytra rufo-testaceous, with basal margin 
and usually the whole of the suture black, the blotch never very much dil- 
ated; front tibia with a dense brush of hair on inner side hirtipes. 

C. Prothorax rounded on the sides, not angulated. 
Elytra densely and finely punctured. 



— ;i 9 - 

Piceous without lustre, very densely clothed with dirty yellow hair; sides of ely- 
tra broadly testaceous, blending imperceptibly into dark color; beneath tes- 
taceous and very hairy; antenna; and legs black Allgewahri. 

Elytra more coarsely punctured. 

Dull testaceous, densely pubescent; punctures of elytra dense, finer behind; 
thorax with two dorsal callosities; markings of elytra varying from a short 

humeral vitta to a complete piceous vitta and dilated sutural stripe 

humeralis. 

Bright red, antenna?, postpectns and head black; elytra coarsely punctured, 
punctures denser and somewhat smaller behind, basal band and sutural 
blotch black, the latter very broad in both sexes discoideus. 

C. ater Lee. Proc. Ac. Phil. 1861, p. 356. Length .40-.52 in. =10-13 mm 
llab. Utah, Cal. 

C. punctatus Lee. S. M. C. No. 264, 1873, p. 197. Length .52-68 in.= i3- 
17 mm. Hab. Or. Cal. 

C. testaceus Lee. J A. Phil. ser. 2, II, 1852, p. 102. Length .48 in.=i2mm 
Hab. Cal. Col. 

C. intermedins Ulke Wheel. Rept. Geog;- Expl. V, p. 813, t. XII, f. 1. Length 
.60 in. = 15 mm. Hab. Arizona, New Mexico. 

C. pulchellus Lee. Proc. Ac. Phil. 1861, p. 356. Ltngth .40-. 52 in. = 10-13 
mm. Hab. Cal., Col., New Mexico, Utah. 

C. hirtipes Lee. Proc. Ac. Phil 1854, p. 18; Ent. Rept. 1857, p. 61. Length 
■ 4^-.48 in. =10-12 mm. Hab. Cal., Oregon, W. T., Utah. 

C. Allgewahri Lee. Bull. U. S. Geol. Survey, IV, 2, p. 461. North Amer. Ent. 
I, p. 1, pi. I, fig. 1. Length .40-.53 in.=io 13.3 mm. Hab. Idaho. 

C. humeralis Lee. J. A. Phil. IV, 1, 1858, p. 25. Length .40-48 in. =10-12 
mm. Hab. New Mexico, Texas. 

C. discoideus Say, J. A. P. Ill, p. 411; palchrior Bland. Proc. Ent. Soc. 
Phil. I, p. 472. Length .36-. 48 in. =9-12 mm. Hab. Idaho, Col., Ariz., Mom. 
Neb., New Mexico. 

All the species of Crossidius seem subject to variation in color and 
marking, a careful discussiozi of which beyond what is included in our 
synopsis will be found in S. M. C. No. 264, p. 197 and in Dr. Horn's 
recent paper on the genus in Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. XII, p. 177. 

SPHAENOTHECUS, Dup. 

Contains one species. 

S. suturalis Lee. J. A. P. IV, 1, 185S, p. 25- Length .40-48 in. = 10-12 mm. 
I Lib. Texas and New Mexico, Ariz., Cal. 

Easily distinguished by the white pubescence, which, very sparsely 
scattered over, the elytra is arranged in a dense and very conspicuous 
narrow line at the suture. The prothorax is deeply, but sparsely punct- 
ured and rounded on the sides, and the scutellum moderate and also 
clothed with white pubescence. Color reddish brown or black. Anten- 
na; Q longer, $ nearly twice as long as body. 



— I2C — 

PERARTHRUS, Zee 

Contains one species. 
P. vittatus J. A. P. ser. 2, II, p. 10?.. Length .55 in. — 14 mm. Hab. Cal 

"Black, deeply punctured, clothed with erect gray hairs; thorax 
strongly transverse, narrowed at apex, convex, bi-sinuate at base, round- 
ed at the sides, with a small shining callosity at the middle and a basal 
spot each side golden pubescent; elytra black with two smooth elevated 
yellow lines; legs red, tarsi black. The scutellum is covered with dense 
yellow hair; the exterior vitta of elytra abbreviated at each end and the 
anterior portion of epipleurae yellow." 

(To be continued. ) 

New Species of Geometridae, No. 2. 
By Geo. D. Hulst. 

1. Tetracis jubararia, sp. nov. 

Expands 42mm. The size and much the shape of T. UUrantiacaria Tack. The 
head and thorax are ochreous, palpi dark ochreous, dark brown at tip. Antennae 
and abdomen light ochreous. The wings are orange ochreous, quite uniform. The 
t. a. line is rounded, angulate at the middle, the t. p. line oblique, sinuate; both dark 
brown and heavier than usual. There is also a basal cross line of the same color, 
starting at costa and running straight across reaching inner margin at t. a. line. 
Fringe reddish brown. The wings are much marked with brownish striations on the 
outer third. Hind wings lighter ochreous, darkest without. Outer line on the in- 
ner half of the wing. All discal spots present and prominent above and below. Be- 
neath hind wings ochreous, loosely but definitely striated with brown, fore wings 
light ochreous, and without striations along inner margin. T. p. line very dark and 
heavy on the anterior half only of all wings. 

I Q, Wash. T. Coll. Holland. Between T. aurantiacaria Pack, 
and T. viellitularia Must. 

2. Leucula lacteolaria sp. nov. 

Expands 36 mm. Head light ochreous. Body and wings thinly scaled pure 
silky milk white. On the fore wings are two jet black, very fine, slightly wavy lines, 
running parallel with each other, and the outer margin. The apex is very rounded, 
outer edge very retreating, the wing itself very narrow, so the lines are very oblique. 
There is an indicated basal line present. Fringes black along margin between veins. 
Beneath as above with lines fainter but distinct. Legs light ochreous or white, black 
in front. 

i 9, Ariz. Coll, Hulst. 

Differs from Guenee's species in that the veins are not marked with 
gray. The wings are much narrower. The lines are waved black much 
finer and more oblique, and the legs differ in color. 

3. Heterolocha ephelidaria sp. nov. 

This insect is of the same size and shape as H, edwardsaria Pack. 
of which it may be a variety. It is cream white in color, generally with- 



out any striations and these always few and faint. It has no outer or in- 
ner darkening" of color. It ordinarily has no indications of the t. p. line, 
though this when evident runs as in H. edwardsarta. I have seen spe- 
cimens of H. edwardsaria where the marginal band was very faint but 
the color of the wings always remained yellow, 
i J\ i 9, Nev. Coll. Hulst. 

4. Drepanodes syzygiaria sp. now 

Expands 27 mm. Wings of a nearly uniform warm yellowish fawn. T. a. lino 
wanting; t. p. line silky white, unmargined, very fine, reflected to costa at a right 
angle. Wings beyond t. p. line violet shaded. Beneath as above with indication of a 
marginal darker band. Discal spots black, small above on all wings, below on hind 
wings. Fore wings broad, hardly falcate almost rectangular. Costa strongly arched : 
antennae strongly pectinated, very long. 

2 rf, Fla. Coll. Neumcegen, Hulst, Near D. olyzonaria and D. 
J>erizomaria but may be known especially by the much lengthened anten- 
na; and nearly rectangular fore wings. 

5. Geometra illustraria sp. nov. 

Expands 38 to 44 mm. The form found in Cal. and referred to 
by Dr. Packard, (Geom. Moths p. 394), but not by him thought worthy 
a name. It seems to me however to be different from the eastern spe 
cies. It is uniformly of much greater size; it is in color uniformly of a 
very different shade of green; the cross lines are narrower, not edged 
with yellowish or purplish, are much straighter; there is not the same 
tendency to a whitening of the veins on the submarginal space: there is 
none of the bluish cast upon the submarginal space. Till further knowl- 
edge is had, I think it must be considered a valid species. 

Cal. Coll. Hy. Edwards, Hulst. 

6. Anaplodes festaria sp. nov. 

Expands 30 mm. Differs from A. pistacedria Pack, in being of a lighter more 
vivid silky green; by having two cross lines on all wings; by having the fringe pink, 
and a narrow margin of bright red on wings; by having the wings more extended 
and pointed. The green of the wings is much striated with white in long very fine 
silky lines, Cross lines fine, white, the inner rounded near base, the outer parallel 
with the outer margin. 

1 cT> 5 9 Cal. Ariz. Coll. Hy. Edwards, Neumcegen, Hulst. 

7. Aplodes zygotaria sp. nov. 

Expands 28 mm. Head ochreous in front, white on vertex. Antennas white. 
Wings, body, aud anterior portion of abdomen deep pea green. Costa narrowly 
white. Fringe.- green. Lines white very like A. mimosaria two on each wing. 
neath all wings lighter green. Fore tibiae green; otherwise legs v hite. 
1 3\ 6 9, Texas. Coll. Graef, Hulst. 

8. Racheospila xysteraria sp. nov. 

Expands 19 mm. Head and palpi red; antenna; and between antennae white. 

Thorax light green; abdomen pink dorsally, white laterally and beneath. Tufts 

on abdomen white edged with red. Wing, light green, two faint rather broad white 

lines on fore wings. Fore wing- red al base of costa. Costa to ex, and out 

E -^ica Americana. 17 August 1886 



er edge of all wings edged wi h red; hind wings red also on anal margin. At the 
middle of fore wings at margin, and at outer angle is a large red spot, also at middle 
of hind wings at margin. The red margin of hind wings broadens at anterior and 
anal angle. Discal spots red, annulate, white wiihin. Fringe alternating white and 
red. Beneath nearly white, the red showing at apex, discal points, and marginal 
llotches. 

i 9, Fla. Coll. Hulst. 

9. Nemoria tepperaria sp. now 

Expands 18 mm. Head, body, and wings dull ochreous green very much as in 
some specimens of N. subcroceata Wlk.; the antennae and head between lighter. 
I'alpi pink on last segment. Wings crossed outwardly by a very faint white line, de- 
terminate principally on the veins, parallel to the outer margin; an inner line very faint- 
ly indicated on fore wings; hind wings quadrate, undulate on outer margin, with a very 
prominent angle at middle. All wings with a very narrow brown marginal line. Beneath 
much lighter, unicolorous. Legs very light ochreous, except fore tibiae which are pink. 

1 cf, 1 Q, Ga. N, Car. Coll. Edwards, Tepper. 

This insect has the general appearance of Nemoria subcroceata W!k. 
but is easily recognised by the undulating outer margins, and exaggera- 
ted angle on hind wings, and dark brown marginal line. 

10. Eucrostis hollandaria sp. nov. 

Expands 27 mm. Front ochreous, antennre and vertex white, palpi very long 
as in Racheospila, bright red. Thorax and wings deep green. Costa white, fringe 
and narrow marginal line red, interrupted by green at end of veins. No cross lines 
present, but in their place near ba-e of fore wings are three brownish red points 
forming a curve, and outwnrdly a row of points of same color, nearly 
parallel with edge of wing, one on each vein. Near anal angle two are 
very much enlarged (the anterior one much the larger) become confluent, and 
inclose each a pure white space. On hind wings an outer bent row of same colored 
points, one on each vein, with the one nearest inner margin much enlarged, annulate, 
inclosing white space. D seal points distinct, brownish. Beneath light green, fring- 
es as above. The annulate spots above are reproduced though less distinct; discal 
spots as above, but less distinct. Other points very faint or obsolete, 
i 9, Fla. Coll. Holland. 

Eucrostis jaspidiaria, sp. nov. 

Size and markings of E. hollandaria differing principally in that there are no 
annulate spots on any of the wings. Color a darker green. Wings more pointed, 
less rounded. 

2 (j\ Fla. Coll. Hy. Edwards,. Hulst. I name this with a strong 
suspicion it may prove to be the $ of the preceding species. But the 
prominent point of difference the annulate spots is remarkable, and so 
far as I know unique, and till further knowledge is obtained I must re- 
gard the species as distinct. 

12. Eucrostis saltusaria sp. nov. 
Expands 20 to 26 mm. Front bright green, palpi, tibi«, and femora of fore 
legs, red. Vertex and antenna; white, the latter ochreous beneath. Thorax and 
base of abdomen bright green. Posterior part of abdomen white. Wings rather a 
dull deep green. Fore wings with a narrow white basal line, zigzag with two sharp 
angles outwardly. Discal spots long, white, angular, those on hi. d wings forming a 



— 123 — 

continuation of basal line on fore wings. Outer line much bent on both wings, to- 
wards and below middle scalloped with points on veins and these continued on veins 
to a marginal white line broader below apex and at inner angle, the latter space in- 
closing a deep red somewhat broken spot, which in the cj is continued part way a- 
long the edge as a marginal line. Hind wings as fore wings, with inclosed red spot 
at anal angle, connected along edge as a marginal red line. Fringes dull white. 
Beneath very pale green, lines very faintly reproduced. 

2 cf> 2 9- ^la. Coll. Hy, Edwards, Neumoegen, Hulst. 

This insect has very strongly the appearance of a Phoradesma, but 
the tibial amature of Eucrostis. 

13. Chlorosea graefiaria sp. nov. 

Expands 34 mm. Palpi white, front reddish brown, antennce white ochreous be- 
low. Thorax and forewings white faintly tipped with green. Abdomen and hind 
wings pure white the latter along the outer margin very faintly tinged with green. 
All fringes green. A single outer somewhat broad white line on fore wings, oblique, 
nearer outer edge than in C. nevadaria and starting from costa nearer apex. Be- 
neath pure white with very faint greenish tinge on fore wings along costa. Legs 
white. 

2 9> Nevada, Coll. Graef, Tepper. 

14. Cheimatobia bruceata sp. nov. 

While describing the above Gtometridce I wish to call attention to 
what is to me a very interesting addition to insect history. One of our 
cummon Geometers is the so called Cheimatobia boreata Hubn. The in- 
sect described under this name is common in Europe. It has been 
rather remarkable that, till very lately, the 9 has never been discovered 
in America. Dr. Packard says in his Monograph the 9 has never yet 
been taken, and till last spring I heard no account of it. At that 
time 1 received a letter from Mr. Bruce of Brockport N. Y., sayino- he 
had carried larvae through to imagines, and that the Q was entirely dif- 
ferent from C. boreata Hubn. of Europe, and that this insect, which had 
been looked upon as identical with another, was a very different thini*. 
Mr, Bruce asked me to give it a name, which I do by giving it the spe- 
cific name of bruceata, after the veteran and succes>ful Lepidopterist who 
ascertained its history. 

The 9 of this species, (I have several before me), is almost entire- 
ly wingless. It has just the merest rudiments of wings. And from its 
color and size, I have no doubt that it has, if taken, been looked upon 
as the 9 or " one of the species of Anisopteryx. It is of a grayish black 
color. Antennae and legs annulated with white. Thorax and abdomen 
marked above more or less with blackish. It is rather small, the dried 
specimens being 5 to 7 mm. in length. 

After knowing that they are not the same, it is easy to note differ- 
ences in the males of these two hitherto confused species. In C. bruceata 
the cross lines are finer, more distinct, more evenly scalloped, and more 
numerous in the average of specimens than in C. boreata. The wings 



— 124 — 

are more uniform in color, and show less of a tendency to a band; the 
veins are more distinctly lined and the outer angle is less rounded and 
retreating. The submarginal line on the fore wings is less rounded in 
at the costa, and on the hind wings is much nearer the outer margin. 

The 9 °f C- bruceata can not be Phigalia cinctaria French, Ills. 
Reports Vol. VII, p. 241, described from the 9 onlv > as the wings are 
much more developed in cinctaria, and the insect is more than twice as 
large apart from differences- in details. 



Note on Quadrina diazoma, Grote. 

By John B. Smith. 

.] iln Mr. . Grate's datalogue of 1882, Quadrina diazoma is placed 
in the ' ' Hemileucinf and is associated with Hemileuca, Hyperchiria and 
Co/oradia, which are all typical Bombycids. The genus and species had 
been. a' great puzzle to me, and being unrepresented in N.Y. collections I 
wrote Prof. Snow, for information. On a recent visit to Washington, 
Prof, b'now kindly brought me the unique type which is in poor condi- 
tion. I saw at a glance thatthe insect was wrongly placed in the catalogue, 
and very little study decided me in placing it with the Cossidae. with 
strong tendencies in appearance to Hepia/ns-d. tendency which the vena- 
tion of the primaries emphasizes, while the secondaries are Cossid. 
Primaries with 12 veins, the 1st or only internal being sinuate. 
The cell is very short, and the median vein gives rise to 2 near its incep- 
tion; to 3 at about its middle, and to 4 and 5 close together at the tip: 6 
and 7 are on a stalk from the end of the subcostal vein: 8 arises near the 
tip, 9 and 10 are on a stalk about one third from tip, and vein 10 runs 
to the apex: v. 1 1 runs from the middle of the sub-costal to the costa 
about one-fifth from tip. The cell is closed by an angulated vein at tip. 
On the secondaries there are two internal veins. The cell is shorter than 
in the primaries and is closed in the same way; 2 arises from the 
middle of cell, 3, 4 and 5 close together at the tips: 6 is straight from 
the upper angle of cell and a direct continuation of the sub-costal: 
7 arises from the sub-costal close to base and is connected near its incep- 
tion by a cross vein with the costal vein, which is sinuate and has a short 
spur at base. Essentially this is also the venation of Gloveria. 
There appears to be no frenelum. The tongue is obsolete and the 
palpi are short. The antennas are moderately long the joints very 
short, lengthily bipectinated. There appear to be no ocelli. The 
legs are moderately long, the median and hind tibiae each with a pair of 
short terminal spurs. The anterior tibiae have the epiphyses reduced to 
a small tubercle in a shallow depression. The tarsi are strongly spined 
and the claws are simple. In color the insect is a dull, even luteous red 
with traces of an outer broken black band. Altogether this is a remark- 
able insect, and the genus is probably a good one, nearly related to 
Gloveria but belonging to the Cossidce. 




AmeriqAna 



TOL. II. BROOKLYN, OCTOB. & NOVEMB. 1886. NO. 7&8. 

Notes on Scolytus unispinosus, Lee. 

By John B. Smith. 

A few days since (July 12, '86.) Mr, L, E..Ricksecker of Sylvania, 
Occidental P.O. Calif, sent me a section of Douglass spruce [Abies doug- 
lasii) infested by a Scolytid, about which he writes as follows: "The 
wood is a small section from the upper limb of a Douglass spruce, which 
was cut down on April 9th '86. Many species of Coleoptera attacked 
the tree on the same evening in a perfect swarm. Next day and there- 
after but few of these were seen. Other species however made their ap- 
pearance, and among these were numbers of Scolytus unispinosus Lee. 
For a week I could see them moving hurridly up and down the limbs of 
the prostrate tree. Then they became less, and by May 6th only a few 
stragglers could be found. 

Noticing that something was boring in these limbs and throwing out 
little piles of dust, I cut out patches of bark, and found in every case two 
Scolytus occupying a straight gallery; one, presumablv the male, being 
at the opening, and the other at the far end. At that date, May 6th to 
10th, the burrows were about an inch long — now (July 4th) the main 
burrow is two to three inches long, with about 26 side galleries on each 
side, diverging therefrom. The parent beetles are gone, but at the end 
of each side gallery is a larva, working farther and farther away from the 
main gallery. They work only in the layer of bark nearest the wood 
leaving a slight impression of their galleries on the wood. When full 
grown they turn towards the surface and there await their transforma- 
tions." 



— u6 — 

I'd this interesting account of Mr. Ricksecker a few notes based on 
the specimen (now in the National Museum) and on the literature, may 
be not uninteresting. 

The specimen shows two complete main galle- 
ries with the larval galleries — about 30 in a length 
of one and three-quarter inches — at irregular in- 
tervals on each side. These extend at first at right 
angles, with the main gallery, but become sinuous 
almost immediately, and the larvae change their 
direction, working upwards above, and downwards 
below the middle of the main burrow. Those 
larvae nearest to the centre work longer at right angles 
but eventually turn either upward or downward, 
and sometimes change the course of the gallery. 
One gallery shows a larva that first worked at right 
angles for a distance and then started downward un- 
til it came very close to another gallery — rather than 
enter this it changed its course, went obliquely up- 
ward for adistanceand then again turned downwards 
at rightangles. Two larval galleries from the same 
main gallery rarely cross each other, but sometimes two main galleries 
are close together and then the larval galleries cross and re-cross in the 
wildest confusion. The main galleries are sunken about as deeply into 
the wood as in the bark; but the larval galleries are deeper in the bark. 
At the point of entrance there is an enlargement of the gallery of a size 
sufficient to permit the beetle to turn. 

There are also, in the specimen, five main galleries with either no 
larval galleries at all, or just started. One of these galleries is interesting 
for here the beetle came in, formed a small cell, and started downward 
for half an inch, then changed its mind, and, turning, started upward 
for about an inch. In the main galleries no eggs seem to be laid within 
4 mm. of the entrance Before the parent beetle has finished its burrow 
the eggs laid nearest the entrance have hatched and the larval galleries 
will be from 3 — 4 mm. in length at the entrance before the last eggs are 
deposited. 

In general appearance the galleries of unispinosus resemble most 
nearly those of the European Sc. intricatus. But the most interesting 
point in Mr. Ricksecker's communication is the food tree. No other 
species of Scolytus whose food habits are recorded lives on Conifers. All 
attack deciduous trees. So striking a departure from the general habits 
of the genus is rather remarkable and furnishes another instance of the 
dangers of "reasoning from analogy". Mr. K. A. Schwarz has kindly 




■ — 127 — 

furnished me with a list of food plants of the European and American 
species which is as follows: 

Sc. amygdali = Amygdalus. 

Sc. Ratzeburgi — Betula. 

Sc. carpini = Carpinus. 

Sc. pruni and rugulosus — Pyrus, Prunus, Crataegus. 

Sc. intricatus: Quercus. 

Sc. Geoffrovi, pygtnaeus, Kirschi. mullistriatus = Ulmus. 

The American species of which the food habits are known, are the 
following: 

Sc. quadrispinosus'. Carya, 

Sc. fagi: Celtis, Fagus (?). 

Sc. muiicus: Celtis. 

Sc. rugulosus: Prunus, Pyrus. (Imported from Europe.) 

Sc. unispinosus; Abies Douglassi. 

Of the remaining five species Sc. californicus is tolerably common 
in collections, but the others appear to be exceedingly rare: in fact it is 
questionable whether any but the typical specimens are known. The 
second food plant of Sc. fagi (Fagus) is somewhat in doubt. Dr. Le- 
conte (Rhynch. p. 372) says: "depredates on beech trees according to 
Mr. Walsh"; but on referring to Mr. Walsh's original article (Pract. Ent 
II, p. 58) we find the following statement: "I obtained many specimens 
in South Illinois, from what I believe was a beech." Thus it still re- 
mains somewhat doubtful whether the species really infests the beech. 

Dr. Hamilton states (Can. Ent. XVII, 1885, p. 48) that Scofy/us 
rugulosus breeds in Hickory twigs, but Mr. Schwarz (Proc. Ent. Sue. 
Washington, I, No. 1. p 30) maintains that this Hickory species is 
different from rugulosus and apparently undescribed. 

111:1 
In the Entom. Mo. Mag. Sept. 1886 p. 85, Mr. George Lewis de- 
scribes a Brathinus oculatus from Japan. Hitherto this genus has been 
supposed to be exclusively American, two species being known in our 
fauna. The occurence of the species is therefore of great interest to stu- 
dents of Geographical distribution. 

* 

* 

In the Stettiner Ent. Zeitschrift Vol. 47, p. 215, Martin Jacoby de 
scribes Oedionychus cretica from the Island of Creta. This is also a new 
locality for this genus which is very rich in America, rare in Madagascar 
and Siam and has not been heretofore known in the European fai^na 



— 128 — 

Descriptions of some New Trap-Door Spiders; Their 
Nests and Food habits. 

By Geo. F. Atkinson. 
(Continued from p. 117.) 

DESCRIPTIONS. 

Prefatory Xote. It is not surprising that in a collection of some 40 
specimens there would be found several species, nor that a large number of 
these would prove to be new and undescribed forms, where so little atten- 
tion has been given to spiders in general, and especially those of the order 
Terrilelarice, as has been given in America. 

It has been a great pleasure to me to observe the nests and habits of 
so many of these creatures, which by their solitary and secluded life gen- 
erally escape our observation. It has seemed necessary, that, in connec- 
tion with interesting descriptions of their nests, architectural and food 
habits, these forms should be described and named. So interested have 
I become during the past year in the work of N. M. Hentz, that it would 
have given me more pleasure to find a specimen described by him than 
to find a new form. I feel sure that I have found one of his species, and 
possibly one other related species. I undertook the work of description 
with great reluctance, and have found it to be no small task. But my 
labors have been greatly lessened, and 1 have been sensibly encour- 
aged by the kindness of Dr. Geo. Marx, of Washington, Prof. J. II. 
Emerton and Samuel Henshaw of Boston. Dr. Marx loaned me works 
from his private library, Prof. Emerton, placed for my study his excellent 
collection of Arachnological publications, and specimens for comparison, 
which are now in the Mass. Inst. Tech., and showed me further kindness 
in directing me to the most useful works in the Library of the Boston 
Natural History Society, Mr. Henshaw also aided me in the same way 
and gave me the use of the specimens of Territelaria which are in the 
Museum of the Society. 

I have also found works in the Boston Public Library which have 
aided me. 

In the value of generic and specific characters I have been guided by 
those adopted by Anton Ausserer 1 , and the Rev. O. P. Cambridge 8 , 
who have given considerable study to members of the Terrifelaria. 

I have followed the classification adopted by Ausserer in his Bei- 
traege znr Kenntniss der Terri/e/arice. 

1 Beitiage zur Kenntniss der Territelariae, Auss. 1871, and Zweiier Beitrag etc. 
1876. 

2 Encyclopedia Britannica, 9th, Ed. pp. 291 and 597, Harvesting Ants and 
Trap Door Spiders, Moggridge, and Supplement. 



— 129 — 

I subjoin, for clearness a brief synopsis of his Classification. 

Suborder TerritelaricB. This was divided by Thorell into 3 families, 
as tul lows: 

2, lung sacs < htadisoidai. 

4, lung sacs. 

a. With >ut spinnerets .... Liphinti idine. 

b. With spinnerets Tlterophosoiikr. 

I'lie family Theraf>hosoid&, Thorell, is further divided into three 

subfamilies as follows: 

Maxillae well broadened at the base, palpi inserted laterally,.. Atypinae Thorell. 

Maxillae little broadened at base, palpi inserted laterally, 

Eriodontinae Ausserer. 

Maxillae not broadened at base, palpi inserted on the end, 

Theraphosinse Thorell. 
The ITie- phosince are then further divided into two groups, based 
on the relative elevation of the caput above the thorax. 

a. Caput well elevated, Aepicephali. 

b. C iput not much elevated, Tapinocephali. 

In specific descriptions I have endeavored to not repeat characters 

which seem at present generic, so that in most cases it will require both 
the generic and specific characters to identify a single species; for this 
reason I have given the characters of the genus Pochylomerus, established 
by Ausserer. 

Family THERAPHOSOIDAE, Thorell. 

Subfamily Eriodontinae, Auss. 

I. Genus Nidivalvata, n. gen. 

(nidus, nest, valvata having folding doors.) 
(PL V, figs. 8, 9, 10, 13, 23.) 

Ceph'x little longer than broad; greater breadth at middle, tapering very gently 
and equally to both ends; edges of posterior half slightly scalloped; small, deep, cir- 
cular, depression in center from which radiate to edges of ceph'x 6 depressed lines 
quite well marked. Caput well elevated, sloping to thorax gently, not broadly arched 
as in MyrmekiaphUa. In front, caput gently drawn to a short blunt point about 
which the eyes are crowded. Kyes can be better described by speaking of them as 
being in three groups; the ant-centrals a diameter or less distant and situated at the 
top and on sides of the hill; on each side of these, not far separated is a group of three 
eyes forming a crescent with the concavity toward the middle group; the eyes in this 
group nearly or quite touch each other. Fig. 8, PI. V, represents the eyes as seen from 
the front at an angle of 45° to a plane parallel with the base of the ceph'x. 

With this view the ant- and post laterals form a trapezium, base at post- laterals 
one-fourth larger than opposite side; height about one-third of base, postcentrals 
slightly in front of base of trapezium. Ant-laterals comparatively large; others vary- 
ing in relative size in different species, and it may be found, that the relative position 
varies also as in Pachylomerus. Maxillae extended in from, but not so much as in 
Eriodon. Fig. 10 represents a maxilla showing insertion of palpus. Labium Iriangu 
lar, distal end rounded, longer than broad at base. Mandibles strongly kneed in front 
of perpendicular clypeus. 



—i3o— 

About half or less than half as long as ceph'x., broad and deep, armed with a 
comparatively strong fang; the inner edge only of furrow for reception of fang armed 
wi li teeth; upper and inner edges of anterior half armed with short spines, which also 
extend part way around base of fang. 

Legs 4, I, 3, 2. 4, I, 2, 3, or 4, 1, 2, 3; palpi long. 3 tarsal claws. Claw of 
palpus unarmed. Abdomen short oval. Spinnerets 4 pair, the upper pair long and 
slender. 

1. Nidivalvata marxii, n. sp. 1 9 ' specimen. 

(PL V, figs. 8, 9, io, 13, 23.) 

Ceph'x broadly oval 6 mm. long by 5 mm. broad. Caput back of ocular prom- 
inence not perceptibly elevated, slope down to depression in center of ceph'x gradu 
al. Caput in front not much contracted on sides. 

Radial depressions all quite deep; the posterior one of the laterals on each side 
seeming to unite with the central depression. The depressions, though distinct in this 
specimen, have deepened somewhat by alternately being in alcohol and in the air 
while being studied. 

In each anterior radial depression on sides of base of caput is a well marked de- 
pression, though not deep, 

Post-central eyes fully as large as the ant-centrals, eyes of the outer group almoN< 
or quite touching. Ant-laterals dark orange, remainder transparent, legs. 4, 1, 3, 2. 
3rd 12 mm., 2nd 11$ mm. Sternum longer than broad, with three distinct circular 
punctures on each side. Abdomen broadly oval and bluntly rounded at each end; on 
ventral surface narrowed in front. 

Armature. Very few hairs; short and fine on abdomen, longer and darker on 
the 4 distal joints of legs. Metatarsus IV, with a row of spines on each side, and one 
on under side, with additional spines at each end; tibialV, with few long spines irreg- 
ularly placed on upper side, 3 distinct rows, two on under side and one on anterior 
side, with extra spines at each end. Patella two double rows of spines on upper surface. 
Metatarsus III, 4 rows of spines, two upper and two lower edge: spines irregu 
larly placed on upper side. Patella III, patch of spines on upper anterior surface, 
broadest at distal end; this is separated from a few spines on the posterior surface by 
an oblique rounded line. Metatarsus II, two double rows of spines, one on anterior 
surface, and one of long spines on under surface; tibia II and I, double row of long 
spines on under surface, and single row of short spines on anterior surface. Metatar 
sus I, three rows of long spines on under and anterior surface. Palpus, tarsus and 
tibia a somewhat double row of long spines on each side; patella, one or two spines 
on anterior surface. 

Labium separated from sternum by a deep furrow. 

Colors. Upper surface Ceph'x and legs, olive brown. Under surface legs dull 
yellowish. Sternum a little darker. Maxillte dull rufous, with reddish hairs. Oc- 
ular prominence black. Abdomen dull yellowish underneath, brownish yellow above, 
with two rectangular rich dark brown spots on anterior end. Mandibles rufous. Col- 
ors little changed in alcohol, not so bright however, and marks on abdomen disap- 
peared. 

2. Nidivalvata angustata n. sp. 9 2 , specimens. 

Ceph'x oblong, 5f mm. long by 4 mm. broad. Caput in front below eyes per- 
ceptively narrowed; caudad of ocular prominence perceptibly elevated, making the 
descent to the thorax steeper than in X. marxii. Legs 4, 1, 2, 3. Anterior central 
and lateral eyes dark, the others light; posterior centrals much smaller comparatively 

1 In honor of Dr. Geo. Marx. 



— 131— 

than in N. marxii, and the lateral groups of three distinctly separated. Radial fur- 
rows on thorax not so deep as in N. marxii, Otherwise the same. 
II Genus MYRMEKIAPHILA, n. gen. 
(murmekia, ants nest or hill, philos loving.) 
(PI. V, figs. 6, 7, 12, 14 and 22.) 

Ceph'x perceptibly longer than broad, nearly^: crescent shaped depression ^ 
distance from posterior edge, convexity caudad, ends not so extended as in Pachylo- 
merus; 6 radial lines, sometimes quite indistinct. Greatest width about the middle, 
narrowing gently to the anterior end, and more perceptibly toward posterior end. 
Caput large, high and broadly arched in the anterior f, then steeply descending to 
depression and also narrowing on the sides to this point. 

Eyes. Anterior and posterior laterals forming a rectangle, the height of which 
is equal to two-fifths the base. Ant-laterals oval, largest; postcentrals near the post- 
laterals; ant-centrals in a line about j from base of rectangle. Legs 4, 1, 2, 3. Lab- 
ium, trapezoidal, shorter than broad at base. Maxillas extending forward not quite 
so much in proportion as in Nidivalvata. See fig. 12, Plate V. 

Mandibles, half or more than half as long as ceph'x slightly kneed in front of 
margin of caput, armed with a strong fang. 

Inner edge only of groove for reception of fang armed with short teeth; front of 
mandible, on the inside of the insertion of fang drawn out into a three cornered toothed 
projection, much as in Pachylomerus, but a little smaller; short teeth along anterior 
half of inner upper edge of mandibles, and few at base of fang. Abdomen elongate, 
cylindrical, tapering gently to each end. Spinerets 4, upper pair medium size and 
length. 

I have been somewhat in doubt about placing this genus in the sub- 
family Eriodontince, as it has some affinities with members of the subfam- 
ily Therapho since, division yEpicep/iaii. But I think, after a comparison 
of the maxillae, with those of Cteniza, Nemesia, and Eurypelma, some 
species of which have a prolongation of the inner distal end, that the char- 
acter of the maxillae would place it in the subfamily Eriodoniince. If how- 
ever it should prove to belong to the Theraphosinae, it would constitute a 
genus related with, Aepycephalus, Cteniza, Cyrtocarenum, and Cyrtauche- 
nius, in the group Aepycephali. It can however be separated easilv from 
these genera by the following characters. 1 

Aepycephalus. "Head high and somewhat pointed, ceph'x broad as long, side 
eyes form a trapezium, lip broad as long etc." 

Cteniza. '-Side eyes form a trapezium. Lip somewhat three cornered, spinner- 
ets short and thick. Abdomen great, eggformed etc." 

Cyrtocarenum. "Ceph'x as in Cteniza; but head broader in front. Eyes occu- 
py whole breadth of head, abdomen and spinerets as in Cteniza etc." 

Cyiiauchenius. "Form of Ceph'x, and position of eyes as in Cyrtocarenum, 
mandibles not drawn into a point etc." 

As the nesting and food habits singularly resemble those of mem- 
bers of the genus Nemesia, and the form of the abdomen also, it might 
be confounded with that genus, which belongs to the group of ' Therapho- 

1 Beitriige zur Kenntniss der Territelarke, Auss. pp. 150, 151, 152, 156 
and 161. 



sina railed Tapinocephali, as Nemesia, being related to the genera above 
mentioned represents the passage from the Aepycephali to the Tapinoteph- 
a!i. The generic characters given by Ausserer 1 however easily distin- 
guish it. 

Neinrsiii. "Head low, little elevated above the thorax. Depression with the 
concavity behind." 

The specimen of Nemesia caementaria winch 1 saw in the Museum 
of the Boston Soc. of Nat- Hist is readily distinguished generically from 
this. 

i. Myrmekiaphila foliata, n. sp. 9 5 specimens. (PI. V, figs. 6, 7, 12, 14, 
and 22. ) 

In addition lo the generic characters are the following specific characters. An 
lerior central eyes 2 situated from each other about one diameter. Posterior lateral 
eyes a little larger than the ant-centrals. Post-centrals slightly angulated, a little 
smaller than the ant-centrals, each one about a diameter distant from the corres- 
ponding post-lateral, and situated a very little cephalad of the base of rectangle 
bounding the lateral eyes. Ant-centrals on point of hill higher than the others. 
Ant-laterals lowest; these and the post-laterals situated at base of the low hill for 
the eyes. 

Legs of one of largest specimens. 4th, 21 mm. 3d, 14J mm. 2d, 16 mm. 1st, 
17 mm,, palpus 11.5 mm. Ceph'x 9x7 mm. 

In the anterior radial lines, on each side of the caput is an elongated shallow 
depression. Two lateral radials on each side show a long, narrow, shallow depres- 
sion, post radials indistinct in some. Edges of ceph'x slightly crenate, and showing 
shallow, irregular depressions: posterior margin emarginate. Caput 3.5 mm, eleva- 
ted above thorax. 

Sternum 5 mm long by 3.75 mm broad, broadest part one-third distance from 
posterior end, distinctly angled. Labium slightly emarginate. Abdomen IO mm 
long by 7 mm broad. 

Armature. Very few hairs, more perciptible on abdomen, and still more so on 
the three and four distal joints of the legs, where the hairs are darker. Tarsus IV 
one or two spines on anterior side. Metatarsus IV with four or five long spines on 
under side, distal end 1 or 2 near centre. Tibia IV with scattered stiff hairs. Patel- 
la IV, upper and anterior side with numerous slender spines, with quite a strong base. 
A broad longitudinal denuded space on upper side, divides this patch of hairs. Fe- 
mur IV with a number of spines on distal upper end. Tarsus III, 2 spines on under 
side. Metatarsus III, 1 or 2 spines on under, distal end, 1 or 2 more near middle: 
two rows 3 or 4 spines each on upper anterior, and posterior edge. Upper surface 
of tibia and patella III, covered with spines, which are divided into two patches by an 
oblique, denuded, narrow space, Tibia III, shorter than patella III. Tarsus II, 1 
or 2 spines on posterior under edge; metatarsus Hand 1 with 2 or 3 spines on under, 
distal end, and 2 or three near middle. Dense row of hairs on anterior and posterior 
side of tarsus and metatarsus I; palpus, tarsus as in I; tibia with spine on under 
distal end, and one or two near middle. Labium separated from sternum by a deep 



1 Beitrage zur Kenntniss der Territelariae, Auss. p. 165. 

2 It seems unnecessary to repeat the description of the eyes so far as given tor 
the genus. Some variation should, however be allowed for other species which may 
be found. 



— '33— 

furrow. Maxillae and labium with very short, brown, strong spines at the oral ex 
tremities. 

Mors. Ceph'x dull olive with a rufous tinge; legs more decidedly rufous, ex- 
cept the femora which are paler and indistinctly tinged with green. Mandibles, 
sternum, maxilla? and labium decidedly rufous. Ends of mandibles darker. Ocular 
prominence black; posterior eyes light; others usually black.' Abdomen dull yellow- 
ish ; broad longitudinal dorsal band of delicate brown, from which branch on each 
side 7 bands of same color, extending down midway of abdomen. Above colors 
from alcoholic specimens. In some specimens the alcohol has entirely effaced the 
foliation on the abdomen, but it was distinct in all the specimens when alive. When 
alive the femora were of a delicate light, olive green. 

Subfamily THERAPHOSIN AE. 

Group ^Epicephali. 

I. Genus PACHYLOMERUS Ausserer. 

"Cephalothorax irar wenig langerals breit, lang, nach hinten allmahlig abfallend. 
Die halbkreisformige, nach vorn geoffnete Riickengrube etwas hochliegend, da von 
hier der Thorax nach hinten noch fast unter demselben Winkel sich abdacht wie der 
Kopf, wahrend bei verwandten Gattungen hinter der Grube der Thorax fast hori- 
zontal verlauft. — Augen etwas gedrangt, auf niedrigem Hiigel. Die vier ovalen 
Seitenaugen die grossten, mitsammen ein Rechteck bildend, dessen Hohe gleich der 
halben Basis. Vordere Mittelaugen hoher stehend als die Seitenaugen. Mandibles 
stark, wenig langer als hoch, in eine mit Domen bewaffnete Spitze vorgezogen. 
Falzrand beiderseits mit einer Reihe starker Zahne bewaffnet. Lippe so lang, als 
am Grunde breit, vorn zugespitzt. Die Extremitaten der beiden Hinterpaare auf - 
fallend verdickt, ihre Schenkel in der untern Halfte bauchig aufgetrieben. Tibia III 
kiirzer als Patella III, oben an der Wurzel mit tiefem Eindrucke. Die beiden vor- 
deren Fusspaare und die Palpen 9 etwas schwach, ihre beiden Endglieder unten 
flach und beiderseits mit einem breiten Bande kurzer, starker, dichtgedrangter 
Stacheln bewaffnet. Abdomen massig gross, eiformig. Spinnwarzen vier, etwas 
dick und kurz." 1 

Ausserer takes P. glaber Dall., as type of this genus and says: "ob 
die ubrigen vorlaufig hier eingereihten Arten wirklich hierher gehoren, 
lasst sich bei den etwas mangelhaften Beschreibungen nicht mit voller 
Sicherheit bestimmen." 2 

P. carolinensis Hentz, was one of those to which he refers. I think 
he was right in placing it in this genus, but for the relative position of 
the eyes, and some slight difference in the form of the labium there 
should be allowed some variation in generic character, which he un- 
doubtedly would have done, had he the opportunity to see the spe- 
cimens 

i. Pachylomerus carabivorus, n. sp. 9- 5 specimens. (Plate V, figs. I and 
4, and 20. ) 

Eyes. Anterior and posterior laterals forming a trapezium; base of which 
formed by the post- laterals one-fifth longer than the opposite side. Height about one- 
third of base. View of eyes taken perpendicularly to a plane parallel with the veil 

1 Beitrage zur Kenntniss der Territelarise, Auss., p. 145 and 146. 

2 Idem, p. 146. 

Entomologica Americana. 19 Oct. & Nov. 1886. 



— i 3 4— 

tra] surface of the ceph'x. With this view the ant- and post-lateral eyes appear ellipti- 
cal in outline; but viewed from a point toward which each eye maybe said to "look'* 
they are nearly circular in outline, and appear like "dormer windows", from the 
arched portion of the caput for each one. Fig. 3, Plate V, represents position and 
relative size of the eyes as seen from the view explained above; the arrows indicate 
the direction from which the greater number of rays of light enter the eyes. A line 
through the center of the ant -central eyes would pass a little above a line half way 
between the base and opposite side of the trapezium; ant-centrals are situated from 
each other, and from the ant-laterals about one diameter; receive the rays of light 
directly from above. Post-lateral eyes in line with base of trapezium, or a trifle 
anterior in some specimens, receive the rays of light from a point caudo-dorsal. Ant- 
lateral, largest, ant-central and post-lateral of about equal size, post-central smallest, 
though in one specimen they are of equal size with the ant-central and post-lateral. 

Ceph'x a little longer than broad at widest part. In one specimen 9 mm. x 8.25 
mm., another n mm. x 10 mm. &c. U-shaped depression situated about two 
thirds of the distance from the anterior margin of the caput. Base of ceph'x 3.5 mm: 
posterior angles quite sharply defined; lateral edge, from posterior angle to point of 
greatest width, straight. Greatest height of ceph'x, 6 mm. Mandibles 3.5 mm. 
long x 3 mm. deep. Abdomen 12 mm. long, whole length of spider 24.5 mm. Legs: 
1st, 16 mm; 2nd, 15.25 mm; 3rd, 15.25 mm; 4th, 19.5 mm. These are meas- 
urements taken from one individual. In some the legs are 4, 1, 2, 3. 

Armature. The legs have few hairs, though more abundant on tibia, metatarsus 
and tarsus, of all the legs, and patella III and IV. 

Patella IV on sides of proximal half covered with very short spines. Anterior 
side of metatarsus and tarsus IV slender spines; a few spines on under side, distal 
end of tibia IV. Trochanter III with a short papilla. Anterior side and upper 
distal end of patella III, whole upper surface of metatarsus III, and distal end of 
tibia III, covered with short, strong, black spines. On upper side of proximal end 
of metatarsus III is an elongated denuded spot, which seems to be the miniature of 
the smooth depression at proximal end of tibia III; tarsus III with few spines. Tibia, 
metatarsus and tarsus of II and I, and tibia and tarsus of palpus, with dense row of 
short, strong, black spines on anterior and posterior sides. 

Sternum with few hairs on edge, longer than broad, in one specimen 6.25 mm. 
by 5.75 mm., sharply angled between the articulation of the coxae; greatest breadth 
between coxse II and III. 

Maxilla; longer than coxa I; at edge of base a clustered row of short, strong, 
brown spines; densely hairy with rufous hairs on anterior edge. Labium broadest at 
base, distal end truncate, anterior angles well rounded; as long or nearly as long as 
broad at base; armed near distal end with a few spines similar to those on the maxil- 
lae; separated from the sternum by a deep furrow. 

Colors. When alive. Ceph'x and legs deep glossy black. Abdomen light 
brown. Ends of mandibles, hairs on end of mandibles, and on anterior edge of 
maxillae reddish. Patella IV also reddish on upper surface. Under parts lighter 
colored. Membrane connecting legs to ceph'x, and the joints of the legs whitish. 
When placed in alcohol the glossy black after a while disappears, and becomes a 
dark rufous brown, ends of legs remaining darker because of the presence of numer- 
ous very short, black spines. 

Pachylomerus carabivorus. var. emarginatus, n. var. (9, I specimen.) 

This seems to be a varietal form of P. carabivorus. Labium trapezoidal, anterior 
corners rounded; shorter than broad at base. Ceph'x nearly as broad as long, 10 



— 135— 

mm. long. Marginal configuration as in P. carabivorus, except that the posterior 
margin is strongly emarginate. Whole upper portion of ceph'x seems to be elevated, 
showing quite a breadth of membrane which connects it with the coxae. Middle 
portion of caput, perceptibly elevated and broadened a little caudad of the eyes. 
Legs; 4th, 23.5 mm; 3rd, 19.25 mm; 2nd. 18.5 mm; 1st, 20 mm. In front of the 
U-shaped depression the caput is emarginate, the depression extending for a short 
distance cephalad in the median line. This is seen to a certain extent in some good 
specimens of P. carabivorus. Otherwise as in P. carabivorus. 

Pachylomerus carolinensis, Hentz. 9> I specimen. (Plate V, figs. 2 and 
3, and 20.) Beitrage zur Kenntniss der Territetarije, Ausserer, 1871, p. 147. Mygale 
carolinensis, Hentz., Boston Joum. IV, p. 56. pi. VII, fig. 3. 

This specimen I am convinced is the same as the one described by Hentz as 
Mygale carolinensis. The description is very imperfect, and I take this opportunity 
of making it a little more complete, and easy to identify. His description is as 
follows. "Brownish, very glossy; cephalothorax with two slight impressions near 
the base; abdomen blackish, not glossy; third joint of the third pair of legs very short 
and crooked; feet 4, I, 3, 2." The spinal armature is the same as in P. carabivorus, 
but the ceph'x and arrangement of eyes are quite distinct. Ceph'x longer in pro- 
portion to width than in P. carabivorus, 10 mm. x 8 mm. in this specimen. U-shaped 
depression situated more than two-thirds the distance from anterior margin of caput, 
making caput larger in proportion. In the curve of the U-shaped depression, there 
is scarcely any depression; a very faintly depressed line, which is quite readily seen 
because it is very dark, connects the two well marked depressions at the anterior ends 
of the U. As Hentz's specimen was a small one, these depressions would be smaller 
than in the specimen I have. Had it been a well marked U-shaped depression, he 
would have noted it, as he has in the case of Mygale truncata. 1 

Caput caudad of eyes slightly elevated, making the slope quite steep. 

Radial depressions distinct, straight. Base of ceph'x 4 mm; angles not sharply 
defined; lateral edge from posterior angle to point of greatest breadth curved, with 
convexity outward, fig. 2, pi. V, represents the ceph'x of this species. By compar 
ing it with fig. 1, can be seen the differences of the two species in the configuration 
and markings. 2 Fig. 3 represents the eyes of P. carolinensis; fig. 4 of P. carabiv 
orus; fig. 19 tarsal claw, spur at base with a small spine on each side at its base; 
distad of this a spine divided at the end. Labium as long or longer than broad at base. 

Eyes. Ant- and post-laterals form a trapezium as in P. caribivorus, but the 
ant-centrals are situated on a line halfway between the base of the trapezium and the 
opposite side; the post-laterals and centrals forma curved line with convexity caudad, 
instead of a straight line as in P. carabivorus. 

Sternum as broad as long, 5 mm., broadest part one-third from caudal end. 

Mygale solstilialis 3 . Hentz, I am inclined to think is the male 
of this species. The depressions in the ceph'x are similar, the difference 
in the lengths of the 2nd and 3rd pair of legs is not of much specific im- 
portance in many species. The depressions on the abdomen are just 
what will appear in any of these species, when the abdomen becomes 



1 Boston Journ. IV, p. 55. Spiders of the U.S. N. M. Hentz, p. 16, pi. I, f. 1. 

2 The curvature of the lateral radials I do not think is constant. 

3 Boston Journ. IV, p. 56. Spiders of the U.S. N. M. Hentz, p. 17, pi. 1, f. 3. 



_I 3 6— 

.small for want of food, or after the depositing of eggs. In nearly all 
specimens either one, two, or three, or more pair of circular depressions 
can be seen. When the abdomen shrinks the space between the de- 
pressed dots of each pair becomes depressed in the form of a rectangle 
as seen in Hentz's figure of Mygak solslitialis. The difference in color 
of the two is not of specific importance, for the young of P. carabivorus 
have a brownish ceph'x, the old a glossy black, and when transferred to 
alcohol, this soon changes to brown. 

Pachylomerus turris, n. sp. Q, 1 specimen, (PI. V, fig. 5.) 

Ceph'x 6.5 mm. long x 6 mm. broad. Marginal configuration as in /'. carabiv- 
orus; lateral radial depressions in form of crescents with the concavities caudad; 
anterior radial depressions indistinct, but marked by a deep, small cylindrical punct- 
ure; armature same as P. carabivorus, with the exception of the lack here and there 
of a few spines, which may be accidental. 

Sternum nearly as broad as long, distinctly angled between articulations of coxae. 
1 .abium shorter than broad at base, nearly triangular, separated from sternum l>y 
a furrow. 

Eyes. Upon the arrangement of the eyes is laid the greatest stress in establish- 
ing this species. Ant- and post-laterals forming a rectangle; posterior row curved 
with the convexity caudad. 

Tuft of hairs on clypeus with few hairs; also very few hairs, or signs of their 
having been any, in the three lines caudad of the eyes. 

Pachylomerus 4-spinosus, n. sp. (PI. V, fig. 21.) 

Eyes as in P. carolinensis. Legs 4, 1, 3, 2, tibia III with depression at prox- 
imal end, but distal end not enlarged as in the other species. Armature very distinct 
from the other species. Patella IV with a number of spines; distal end of patella and 
metatarsus III, two spines; two on proximal end of metatarsus and two or three on 
distal end of tibia III; row of spines on each lower side of II and I, arranged thus in 
each row, one on tarsus, two on metatarsus, and two on tibia; palpus with a row on 
each lower side, arranged 3 on tarsus, 2 on tibia, one on patella, and one on femur. 
Spines at base of maxillae and on labium as in the other species of Pachylomerus. 
All the spines on the legs are medium length, and not short as in the other species. 
Ceph'x and legs pale rufous, abdomen light brown. Specimens young. Palpal claw 
is shown in fig. 21, plate V, at base is a large short spine, which has four divisions at 
the terminal end, the distal one the longest, and the others decreasing successively 
in length. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE V. 

Fig. 1. Ceph'x of Pachylomerus carabivorus. 

" 2. " " " carolinensis. 

" 3. Eyes of " " 

"4. « «« " carabivorus. 

"5. " " " turris. 

" 6. Myrmekiaphila foliata, dorsal view. 

" 7. " " eyes of. 

"12. " " maxilla of. 

•' 14. " " side view. 



KNTOMOLOGICA AMERICANA, VOL. II, OCT. .v NOV., 1886. 



h 1 h' 



Jit 




—137— 

lis,', g. Nidivalvata marxii, dorsal view. 

"8. " " eyes of. 

-• 10. " " maxilla of. 

•'13. " " side view. 

"ii. " angustata, nest of. 

" 15. Nest of MyrmekiaphUa foliata; dotted line at a represents bottom of place 
where stone lay. Space represented by dotted lines a and <l, much fore- 
shortened; b, where spider was caught; c, trap-door. 

•' 16. Nest of MyrmekiaphUa foliata in an ants nest; a a, landing in ants nest, 
leading off into galleries; b, entrance to ants nest; d, tube of spider; c, 
trap-door. 

" 17. Nest of Nidivalvata marxii, open. 

" 18. " " " " closed. 

" 19. Palpal claw Qi of P. carolinensis. 

•• 20. " '■ Q' " P- varabivorus. 

"21. Palpal claw of P. 4-spinosus. 

•' 22. " •' 9." -M foliata. 

" 23. " " 9>" &• mar.vii. 

Figs. I, 2, 6, 9, 13 and 14, about natural size. 

ERRATA. —In the first part of this article, pp. 109-117, for caribicorus where - 
ever It occurs, read earabivorus', for Notes, in title, read Nests; p. 1 10, line 7, 
note 1 , for Canes, read Cannes. 



Note on the secondary sexual characters of some 

North American Coleoptera. 

By E. A. Schwarz. 

Hydrophilus ovatus. The two sexes differ not only in the structure 
of the front tarsi but also in that of the maxillary palpi which, in the fe- 
male, are slightly compressed, the three joints being about equal in 
width. In the male, the palpi are much more compressed, especially 
the second joint which is twice as wide as the last. I can hardly believe 
that this obvious character should have been hitherto overlooked, still I 
find no mention ofit in the literature at my command. It is not alluded 
to by Dr. Horn (Can. Ent, XVII, 1885, p. 137-138). 

Myceloporus americanus and flavicollis . In addition to the sexual 
characters mentioned by Dr. Horn (Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. VI. p. 123) 
1 notice in the males of the above species a peculiar structure of the 
seventh abdominal segment. This is broadly emarginate at apex and 
its surface (so far as visible) covered with a dense filamentous vestiture 
which is longitudinally striate, projecting in two lobes beyond the apex 
of the segment. The lobes are divergent, narrowing toward the tip and 
terminating in a fine seta. This structure is the same in the two species 
which do not appear to differ except in coloration. 



-'38- 

Telmalophilui americanus. Judging from the description, the Europ- 
ean species of this genus do not differ essentially in the two sexes but 

the male of the only North American species shows a remarkable modi- 
fication of the hind tibiae. These are compressed and, excepting at the 
very base, much broader than in the female; the outer edge is straight 
but furnished near the base with a large subtriangular plate which is very 
thin and semi-transparent. On the inner edge the tibia is concave at 
basal fourth, then obtusely angulated, thence straight, the tibia gradually 
narrowing from the angle to the tip. In addition to this character the 
last \entral segment has a round but rather shallow excavation near the 
apex. I know of no other Cryptophagid which is so strikingly marked 
in the male sex. 

Axinocerus americanus. The remarkable antennal characters of this 
genus described and figured by Dr. Jayne (Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc. 
XX, p. 367, fig. 63) are those of the male sex. In the female the anten- 
nas are 10-jointed, 1 the two basal joints like those of the male, the third 
much narrower, a little longer than wide, the following 5 very small, 
transverse, gradually increasing in width, the penultimate joint strongly 
transverse, more than twice as wide as the preceding, the last joint com- 
pressed, slightly transversely oval (when viewed from the broad side), 
much smaller than the corresponding joint in the male and hardly twice 
larger than the first antennal joint. This rare species occurs also in 
southern Georgia. 

Scaphidmm quadriguttaium. Male: Metasternum in front of hind 
coxae rather coarsely and densely punctate and furnished with sparse 
yellowish pubescence, median line obsolete behind the middle. Hind 
tibiae on inner side with a fringe of fine hair. 

Female: Metasternum not concave, glabrous, with a few very fine, 
scattered punctures, median line entire and enlarged near the middle 
into an oblong groove. Hind tibiae simple. 

Malthodes captiosus. In 1882 I found at Deer Park, Md. , a species 
of iValthodes in the male of which I found a sexual character not men- 
tioned in any described species of the genns. I forwarded the specimens 
to Dr. Leconte calling his attention to my observation, and he wrote me 
that the species was M. captiosus but that in describing this species he 
had overlooked the best character. The character referred to, is of suf- 
ficient importance to deserve mention although no specimen is now before 
me and I describe solely from memory. In the male the sexual characters 
are not confined to the structure of the abdomen (as described by Dr. 



1 I may be mistaken in the number of joints but the single specimen before 
is in rather unsatisfactory condition. 



— i39— 

Leconte) but the hind tibiae are also affected. These are slightly bent, 
the apical half of inner edge emarginate and the emargination filled with 
a brush of fine hair. 

Malthodus parvulus. This, our smallest and at the same time com- 
monest species of Maltholes acquires a special interest from the fact that 
the male still remains entirely unknown. In our other species of Mal- 
ihodcs the males are not rarer than the females, but of t\\'\s pusillus I have 
myself, during the past three years, examined more than 200 specimens 
without rinding among them a single specimen that could be considered 
as the male. The specimens I saw in Dr. Leconte's collection marked 
as males are undoubtedly females in which the last abdominal segment 
became accidentally lengthened and somewhat distorted in the process of 
drying 

Xylophilus fasciatus. Male: Anterior tibiae with the outer edge 
strongly curved, inner edge strongly sinuate, almost angulate at middle. 
Posterior femora clavate and suddenly widened a little beyond the mid- 
dle; inner edge of hind tibiae with a row of fine hair and with a slight 
dilation near the base, terminal spur long. 

Female: Anterior tibiae, posterior femora and tibiae simple, the latter 
with the terminal spur short. Last antennal joint smaller in the male. 

Xylophilus piceus Hind femora in male armed near the tips with a 
lar^e triangular tooth. 



Notes on some Species of Geometridae, No. 2. 

t^Geometrinae. ) 
By Geo. D. Hulst. 
Geometra rectaria Git. (Can. Ent. IX, 157, 1877.) 

This seems to be a good species, and is found in some abundance 
in Central Texas and more rarely in Arizona and California. It is in 
some respects intermediate between G. iridaria Guen. and G. illuslraria 
Hulst and may yet be found to grade into both. 

Aplodes latiaria Pack. (5th Kept. Peab. Acad. p. 74, 1873.) 
Prof. Lintner has kindly loaned me the type of this species for exam- 
ination. I am unable to separate it from A. mimosaria (Guen, Phal. I, 
p. 377, 1852) except as a varietal form. The only material point of 
difference noted by Dr. Packard is that there is no inner white line on 
the hind wings. But on the specimen marked by him as "Type", the 
inner line is clearly indicated though very faint. In my observation there 
is in specimens of A . mimosaria every gradation from the distinct inner 
line to the form with the line obsolete. The name mav be retained as a 



— 140 — 

varietal name for the latter form. There is also much variation in the 
general color of A. mimosaria, which ranges from sea-green to dull 
white, very faintly tinged with green. 

Aplodes approximaria Pack. (5U1 Kept. Pcab. Acad. p. 73, 1873.) 
In this as in the preceding species, notwithstanding the statement 
of Dr. Packard to the contrary, the inner line on the hind wings is clearly 
indicated in the typical specimen, Mr. Graef has the only other speci- 
men of which I have knowledge, but it is likely in other collections 
under the name of A. mimosaria Guen. The specimens I have seen of 
mimosaria vary very much in the distance between the cross lines; and 
though I have seen no connecting links with A. approximaria, they will 
probably sooner or later be found, and A. approximaria will be proved a 
variety only. Till that time it must be considered a good species. 

Aplodes undinaria Strecker (Rept. Surv. Dept. Mo. p. 1862, 1878.) 
This is a synonym of Chlorosea bistriaria Pack. (Geom. Moths, p. 
378, pi. 13, fig. 55.) 

Aplodes junctolinearia Graef. (Brook. Bull. Ill, 87. 1 
This beautiful insect is unique in the style of its markings and is 
consequently one of the most interesting of the sub-family. 

Aplodes (Chlorosea) albaria Grt. (Can. Ent. XV, 126.) 
This species is very close to A . viridicaria, Hulst (Brookl. Bull. Ill, 
p. 41). The hind wings are nearly pure white, but in this it connects 
by gradations with the very light green tinted wings of A. viridicaria. 
There are, so far as I can see, but two points of difference between the 
two insects. 1st, in A. viridicaria the white lines on the fore wings are 
considerably wider apart at the costa than at the inner edge; in A. alb- 
aria they are parallel all across the wings; in both the outer line is par- 
allel with the outer margin. These are the type forms, but in the series 
of specimens I have the two forms connected. 2nd, in A. viridicaria 
the lines of the hind wings approach each other inwardly, which is not 
the case in the typical A. albaria. But in this, in my series of speci- 
mens, there are connecting examples. A. albaria seems to be the more 
prevalent form in Arizona. My present opinion based upon an examin- 
ation of 8 specimens, is, that A. albaria is properly catalogued as a 
variety of A. viridicaria. 

Geometra inclusaria, Walk. (List Brit. Mus. Geom. p. 508, 1861.) 

I have a number of specimens from Florida which seem exactly to 

agree with the description of the above species as given by Mr. Walker. 

I have in my possession no authenticated specimen of A. rubrolinearia 

Pack. (5th Rept. Peab. Acad. p. 74, 1873), hut fr° m tne description I 



— Hi- 
feel pretty certain it is the same as the species of Walker. The insect is 
an Aplodes. 

Synchlora rubivoraria, Riley, (ist Report Ins, Mo. p. 239, pi. 2, f. 25, 1869) 
{nlbolineata Pack., 5th Report Peab. Acad. p. 75, 1873; gracilwia Pack., 5th Re 
port Peab. Acad. p. 77, 1873), is a synonym of Synchlora {Aplodes) ylancarUt, 
Guen. Phal. I, 377, 1857. 

Synchlora tricoloraria, Pack. (Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist. XVI, p. 30, 1874) 
is a synonym of Synchlora liquoraria, Guen. (Phal. I, p. 375, 1857). 

Chlorosea perviridaria, Pack. (Geom. Moths, p. 379, pi. 10, f. 82, 1876), i?- 
a synonym of Chlorosea fasciolaria, Guen. (Phal. I, p. 351, 1857). 

Eucrostis zelleraria, Pack. (Geom. Moths, p. 370, pi. 10, f. 76), is a syno 
nym of Eucrostis phyllinaria, Zell. (Verh. Zoo. Bot. Ges. Wien, p. 479, 1872). 

Some species of Geometrinae I have not been able to identify from 
their descriptions. It is however likely that Geomelra mimicata, Walk. 
(List. Brit. Mus. Suppl. , p. 1601, 1866), is a synonym of Aplodes mim- 
osaria Guen., and both these may be the same as G. cerata Fab. ; that 
Thalia sodes deprivata, Walk. (List Brit. Mus. Geom., p. 1559, 1862), 
Kemoria indiscriminata, Walk. (I.e., p. 1556), and N. densaria Walk. 
(I.e. p. 1559), are variations of iV. chloroleucaria, Guen. (Phal. I, p. 351, 
1857); that Eucrostis oporaria, Zell. (Verh. Zoo. Bot. Ges. Wien, p. 481, 
1872), may be a variation of Nemoria pistaciata, Guen. (Phal. I, p. 348, 
1857); and that Geomelra euchloraria, Ab, & Guen. (Phal. I, p. 355, 
1857) is likely either Nevwrea subcroceata, Walk. (List Brit. Mus. Geom. 
P- 1557, 1862), or N. gratala Pack. (Geom. Moths, p. 373, pi. 10, 
f. 79, 1876.) 

I speak of these as probabilities, not so much for the purpose of 
giving my personal opinion based on a study of the literature, as for the 
purpose of exciting interest in some Entomologist making a visit to 
Europe and leading him to take specimens of these insects and others, 
that comparison may be made with the specimens in the British Museum, 
and with Guenee's types, which still exist in the possession of Mr. Over- 
thiir of Rennes. France. I think it probable that Zeller's types as yet 
undetermined, may be found in the collection of Lord Walsingham 
Merton Hall, Thetford, England. Any one visiting Europe could easily 
make needed comparisons and in a short time we could have the bulk 
of our Lepidoptera finally determined. The visits of Grote, Packard 
and Fernald bore in this line a wonderful deal of excellent fruit. 

It may not be too much out of place here to add a note which af- 
fects one of our Ennominae, concerning the species of which subfamily 
I have already (Ent. Amer. I, pp. 46 — 49) given some brief notes. Some 
time since, I saw, by the kindness of Mr. John B. Smith of the National 

Entomologica Americana. 20 Oct. & Nov. 1886. 



— 142 — 

Museum, the type of Stenaspilates tneskearia, Pack. (Geom. Moths, p. 
213, pi. 13, f. 50, 1876). I was very much surprised to find it to be the 
insect afterwards called Azelina arizonaria, Hy. Edw. (Pap. II, p. 130, 
1882). Without being ready to give any positive opinion, I may yet say 
it seems to me, the insect is better catalogued for the present under 
Azelina as Azelina meskearia, Pack. Packard's type is from Texas, and 
is somewhat more olivaceous than the type of Mr. Edwards; but allow- 
ing A. albomacularia, Hy. Edw., to stand as a variety, there is hardly 
enough distinction between it and A. meskearia to allow another variety 
between them. 



Two New Varieties of Noctuids. 
By A. W. Putman-Cramer. 

Raphia frater var. coloradensis. 

Q expands from 38 to 40 mm. Ground color of primaries yellowish white, 
more or less covered with black scales; La and t.p. lines strongly marked; black 
dash between reniform and costa; lower third of median space and all of basal space 
covered with black scales. Secondaries white, more or less covered with black scales. 
Male expands from 34-38 mm. Ground color of primaries yellowish white, more or 
less covered with black scales; t. p. line faintly marked, black dash between reniform 
and costa. Basal space thickly covered with black scales; lower half of median space 
entirely black. Secondaries like those of the females. In both <$ and 9 tn e pro- 
thorax is grey, and the thorax nearly white. 

Described from 3 <$ and 4 9' taken by D. Bruce in Colorado. 

Calocampa cineritia var. thoracica. 

Expands 45 mm. Prothorax and abdomen bright fulvous, thorax brownish 
grey. Ground color of primaries grey, of secondaries fulvous grey with light ful- 
vous fringe. Basal lines well marked, wavy rather than sinuous, costa slightly ful- 
vous. Stigma and reniform close together giving the appearance of a p on the left 
wing, and a q on the right one, the legs of which are curved outward. 

From reniform a narrow yellowish dash runs subapically, having a round brown 
spot at its starting point in the reniform and a slightly sinuous black dash at its lower 
edge near the margin. 

Under side of both wings fulvous grey. Stigma on secondaries faintly marked. 
Outer edges of both wings paler than body of wings. 

Differs from the type in the color of the thorax, the wavy basal lines 
and the lighter colored fringe of primaries. 

Described from a number of specimens taken in New Hampshire, 
by C. F. Goodhue. 



— 143 — 

Proceedings of the Entomological Club of the A A. A. S. 



The Club met under the rules and pursuant to notice at the rooms 
of the Buffalo Society of Natural History on Main Street at 3 o'clock p.m. 
on Tuesday, August 17, 1886- 14 persons being present. 

The President, Prof. J. A. Lintner of Albany, called the meeting to 
order. 

The Secretary, Mr. John B. Smith of Washington, being unable to 
attend, Mr. E. Baynes Reed of London, Canada, was appointed Secre- 
tary pro temp. 

As the minutes of the previous meeting at Ann Arbor had been 
printed in "Entomologica Americana", the reading thereof was on 
motion dispensed with. 

Prof. Lintner in taking the chair expressed his pleasure at meeting 
again so many brethren of the club; he alluded briefly to the absence of 
some who were usually present at these meetings and referred especially 
to Prof. C, V. Riley who had gone to Europe for the benefit of his health. 
He also paid a high tribute to the contributions to Entomology, espec- 
ially to the Lepidoptera, that had emanated from the rooms in which 
they were now assembled. 

The President then delivered his Annual Address. 

ANNUAL ADDRESS OF THE PRESIDENT 

of the Entomological Club of the A.A.A.S. 

at the Buffalo Meeting, Aug. 17, 1886. 

Gentlemen : I do not know that I can better discharge the duty 
devolving upon me, of the presentation of an address on this occasion, 
than in reference to some of the evidences of the continued progress 
made in our department of science as shown in publications which have 
appeared since our last meeting. Little that I shall refer to, may be new 
to most of those present, yet a retrospect of labor satisfactorily performed 
and successfully prosecuted, is always agreeable to those who have had 
part therein, while it may prove of interest and of value to those who are 
not present with us, or active members of our corps, or who may not 
have access to our current literature. 

Each of the several orders of Insects have been advanced through 
valuable studies and publications. While in some of the orders, the pub- 
lications have been but few, yet it is gratifying to know that collections 
are being made in them and studies prosecuted, of which we may look 
for the results ere long. 

In the HYMENOPTERA a Monograph 0/ the Chrysididce has been 



— 144— 

published by Mr. S. F. Aaron, containing diagnostic descriptions of 
genera and species. Seventy-four species are described, over one-half of 
which are new to science. Nearly all are contained in the collections of 
the American Entomological Society, of which Mr. Aaron is the curator. 
A list of the more important writings on the Chrysididte is appended, and 
the paper is illustrated in five plates (Transactions of the American Ento- 
mological Society, xii. 1885, pp. 209-248). 

Mr. Wm. H. Ashmead has given a Biographical and Synonymical 
Catalogue of the North American CynipidGe, containing 172 species, to- 
gether with a list of the trees and plants upon which they occur. It ap- 
pears that these insects are so nearly confined to oaks (of the twenty 
species enumerated), that only 13 species have other food-plants (Id. ib.. 
pp. 291-304). 

From the same author we also have Studies on North American 
Chalcididce, giving descriptions of 55 new species from Florida and notes 
upon others (Month. Proc. Am. Ent. Soc. for Dec 1885, pp. X-XIX; 
Trans. A. E. S.. xiii, pp. 125-135). 

Mr. L. O. Howard, of the Entomological Division of the U. S. De- 
partment of Agriculture, who for several years past has been engaged in 
the study of the interesting and serviceable family of the Chalcididce, is 
contributing to Entomologica Americana, a generic synopsis of the fa- 
mily, which he has divided into twenty subfamilies. The European 
genera have been combined with our own, as many of them will doubt- 
less be hereafter detected in this country (Ent. Amer. i, pp. 197-199, 
215-219, ii, 33-39, 97-101). A list of the North American species by 
Mr. Howard, may be found in Bulletin V of the Division of Entomo- 
logy, which also embraced the first of a series of papers descriptive of the 
ChahididcE in the collection of the Department, most of which were un- 
described. 

Contributions to the knowledge of our Hymenoptera, have also 
been made by Messrs. G. J. Bowles (Canadian Entomologist, xvii, p. 
231), J. A. Guignard (id. xviii, p 68), Wm. H. Harrington (id., pp. 
30,38, 45; Trans. No. 6 of Ottowa Field Naturalist's Club), G. W. 
Taylor (Canad. Ent., xviii, p. 250), and I. W. Fyles (ib., p. ^8). 

We are greatly pleased to learn that Mr. Ezra T. Cresson, to whom 
we are more largely indebted than to any other person for the knowledge 
of our North American Hymenoptera, is engaged upon a synopsis of the 
order, and that such progress has been made in its preparation that its 
publication may be expected before many months. 

In the LEPIDOPTERA a volume has been given to the public 
the present year, which we hope will be followed by others of the kind, 
in other of the orders, that greatly needed wants may be met. 



— 145 — 

The Butterflies of the Eastern United States, for the use of classes in 
Zoology and private students, by Prof. G. H. French, of the Southern 
Illinois Normal University, will enable the intelligent student, by the aid 
of svnoptic tables, descriptions and figures, to name almost any of the 
species that occur within the United States, east of Nebraska, Kansas and 
Texas. Two hundred species are described, illustrated in 93 figures, 
and where known, the earlier stages are also given. 

A similar work, devoted to a smaller group, is the Sphingidce of 
New England, by Prof. C. H. Fernald — a pamphlet of 85 pages and 6 
plates, in which the forty-two species known to occur in the Eastern 
States are described and a few of them figured. 

A feature in both of the above publications which deserves special 
commendation, is the accentuation of the names of the species. The 
care that has been bestowed upon the preparations of these lists, entitle 
them to acceptance and adoption, and we hope will ensure us some de- 
gree of uniformity in pronounciation, hereafter. 

Prof. Fernald and Mr Jno. B. Smith have contributed notes upon 
Some 0/ the genera of our Sphingidce (Entomologica Americana ii, p. 2). 

Mr. Smith has continued his Introduction to a Classification of the 
North American Lepidoptera in a fourth paper, devoted to the Sphingidse 
(id., 1, p 81 — 87), and has also given a more detailed account, with 
figures, of the scent-organs in some Bombycid Moths, than we have 
hitherto had ^id. ii, p. 79). 

The careful Life-histories of our Butterflies have been continued by 
Mr. W. H. Edwards (Canad. Ent., xvii, pp. 155, 181, 245), and also his 
Descriptions of New Species, from the Pacific Slope (Id. p. 61). 

The Rev. G. D. Hulst has published during the last month, De- 
scriptions of New Pyralidce, embracing such species as are not named in 
the American collections and are unknown to those who have made 
special study of the family. Much the larger number of the species de- 
scribed (89 in all) are from the western portion of the United States 
(Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. xiii, July 1866, pp. 145 — 168). Mr. Hulst has 
also published two papers upon the Geometridce in which several new 
species are described, viz., New Species and Varieties of Geometridce 
(Ent. Amer., i, pp, 201 — 208) and Notes upon various Species of the 
Ennominai (id. ii, pp. 47 — 52). 

Descriptions of new species ol Lepidoptera have also been published 
by Mr. Henry Edward (Ent. Amer., i, p 128, ii, p. 8), Mr. J. Elwyn 
Bates (Can. Ent., xviii, 74, 94), Mr. Ph. Fischer (Id., xvii, p. 133), 
Mr. B. Neumoegen (Ent. Amer., p. 192), and Mr. R. H. Stretch (Id., 
p. 102). 



— 146 — 

In the Proceedings of the Natural Science Association of Staten 
Island, for March 1886, Mr. Davis has recorded sixty species of butter- 
flies as found upon Staten Island, naming the recent additions to a 
former list. 

Other contributions to the Lepidoptera have been made by Messrs. 
Beuttenmuller, Bates, Clark, Fischer, Fletcher. French, Goodhue. Grote, 
Hamilton, Harrington, Kellicott, Moeschler, Smith, Stretch, Tepper, 
and Mrs. C. H. Fernald and Miss Murtfeldt. 

It is gratifying intelligence that the two volumes of the Butterflies of 
North America, for which we are indebted to Mr. W. H. Edwards, is to 
be followed by a third, work upon which has been commenced. As the 
volumes already issued have furnished the American student with a better 
series oflife-histories of butterflies than have ever been published else- 
where, while enriched with illustriations which in beauty and accuracy 
have never been surpassed, it is to be regretted that their author should 
be compelled to find the reward for his years of untiring labor in the 
honor that they bring him, and not in a pecuniary return. A merited 
tribute to the high character of this work, may be found in Science for 
October 9, 1885 (p. 307). 

The Butterflies of New England, which has been under the pen and 
pencil of Mr. S. H. Scudder for several years, and which has been so 
long awaited by Entomologists, is, we learn, rapidly approaching com- 
pletion. Having had the privilege of examination of several of the 
plates which are being printed at the well-known house of Sinclair & Sons, 
Philadelphia, by the chromo-lithographic process, I can only say of them, 
that they are marvels of faithfulness and beauty, hardly to be distinguished 
from hand-coloring. They certainly mark an advance in the application 
of this art to insect illustration that has never before been equaled in this 
country or in Europe. 

A Hand book of all the Lepidoptera described as belonging to the North 
American Fauna North of Mexico, giving brief descriptions of all the 
species known, to be illustrated with wood-cuts and lithographic plates, 
under the editorship of Mr. Henry Edwards of New York, has been an- 
nounced. It will be issued in parts, by S. E. Cassino, as stated in a cir- 
cular distributed, and will be commenced as soon as a sufficient number 
of subscribers can be obtained. 

Mr. R. H. Stretch is engaged on a Monograph of the Zygaenida. 
LithosiidcB and Arctiidce of North America, in which it is intended to 
collate all the literature relating to these families, and to illustrate all the 
species. About 350 figures have already been drawn for the work. 

D1PTERA. — We are unable to report much progress upon this 
order during the year. 



— 147— 

Dr. Williston has completed his series of three papers on the 
Classification of the North American Diptera in the families Xylophagidae^ 
Straliomyidae, Tabanidae, Leptidae and Syrphidae, published in the Bulle- 
tin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society (vii, p. 129) and in Entomo- 
logica Americana (i, pp. to, 114, 152), In these papers some ntw 
species are described, synoptic tables of the genera and diagnoses of the 
tribes and families given, and structural features illustrated. 

Dr. Williston has also published Notes and Des riptions of North 
American Xylophagidae and Stratiotnyidae (Can. Ent. xviii, p. 121), in 
which eleven species are described as new. 

Dr. Hagen has written of the Hessian Fly in Italy, recording its 
notice in that country (lb. , p. 129). He has also collated some facts 
relating to the food of Scenopinus larvae, leading him to offer the sug- 
gestion that «S\ pallipes found beneath carpets, may be carnivorous (Id., 
xviii, p. 73). Some observations of my own which are stated in the 2d 
Report on the Insects of New York, give additional reason for believing 
that this remarkable larva, feared as carpet-feeder, may prey upon the 
larva of the clothes-moth. 

The volume last referred to, contains also notices of an unknown 
larva feeding upon a fungus occuring on quince, the emasculating bot- 
fly (Cuterabra emasculalor), Bibio albipennis, Microdon globosus, and 
Trypeta pomonella. 

As addenda to the Scenopinus article by Dr. Hagen, Baron Osten- 
Sacken has contributed to the Entomologist's Monthly Magazine for the 
present month of August (vol. xxiii, p. 51 — 52) A T otes toward the Life- 
history of Scenopinus fenestrate, in which the literature of the species is 
more fully developed, and the conclusion drawn therefrom that the larva 
is undoubtedly carnivorous; and that it frequents fungi, hair-mattrasses, 
carpets, swallows nests, decaying wood, animal dejections, etc., not for 
the sake of the animal remains or the vegetable matter, but for the larvae 
or the pupse of the moths that live in them. 

■ Dr. Hagen also recorded the collection in Harvard College Labor- 
atory, of what is probably an addition to the small number of known 
marine insects, in Coleopa frigida, Fallen, raised from sea-weeds. Its 
earlier stages are unknown, and the opportunity is taken to call attention 
to the absence of any collection of our knowledge of the earlier stages of 
the Diptera. 

In a brief note from the same author to Entomologica Americana 
(i, p. 229), the idea is advanced that in Cecidomyia tubicola, O.-Sacken, 
the larval breast-bone is a spinning organ, and homologous with the 
labium. 



— 148— 

Mr. D. W. Coquillet has monographed the Lomatina of North 

America of the Bombylidae, consisting of four genera, indicating one as 
new, and describing five new species (Can. Ent., xviii, p. 81). 

COLEOPTERA. — Dr. G. H. Horn has continued to lay us 
under obligations for his valuable contributions to Coleopterology, in 
descriptive, classificatorv, bibliographical and critical papers, in the pages 
of the Transaction of the American Entomological Society, the Canadian 
Entomologist, and Entomologica Americana. Their titles are too num- 
erous to permit their citation in the present paper. 

Lieut. Casey has published New Genera and Species of Calif ornian 
Coleoptera [Extra Bulletin, California Academy of Science, vol. 1], and 
a Revision of the Californian Species of Lithocharis [Bull., No. 5, Id.]. 

Mr. Frederick Blanchard has given a careful paper On the species of 
Canthon and Phanaeus of the United States, with synoptic tables of spe- 
cies, bibliography, and notes on some other genera [Trans Amer. Ent. 
Soc, xii, pp. 163 — 172]. 

Mr. Charles W. Leng, is contributing to Entomologica Americana, 
Synopses of Cerambycidae, accompanied with illustrations [vol. I, pp. 
2S— 35, 130—136; II, p. 27-32,60—63, 81—83, 102—103]. 

Other contributions to the order, which have come under my notice, 
are from Messrs. F. B. Caul field. F. Clarkson, John Hamilton, S. Hen- 
shaw, A. W. Jones, Warren Knaus, C. W. Leng, A. L. Packard, E. A. 
Schwarz, J. B. Smith and C. W. Strumberg. 

In Entomologica Americana for July and August 1886 is a Record 
of some Contributions to the Literature of North American Beetles published 
in 1885, by Samuel Henshaw, which will be found very convenient for 
reference, and for which its compiler is entitled to sincere thanks. 

The most generally acceptable contribution to this order made dur- 
ing the year, has been the List of the Coleoptera of North America. North 
of Mexico, by Samuel Henshaw, in which we are given the recent classi- 
fication of Drs. Leconte and Horn, the large number of species describ- 
ed during the preceding twelve years, together with many important 
synonymical corrections. Annual supplements to the List are promised 
by the author. The labor involved in the preparation of a work of this 
nature, is so great, that each successive contribution of the kind, if as 
meritorious as the one under notice, marks an epoch in the literature of 
the order. 

In the HEMLPTERA we have had the gratification of having 
placed in our hands, our first Check-List. It presents a classification 
which has been so long needed by the student, of the Heteroptera. and 
the names of 1448 species. A debt of gratitude is due to Mr. Uhler for 



— 149 — 

its preparation, in consideration of the facility of study that it will afford, 
and the incent've to its prosecution. 

We have the promise that a similar List of the Homoptera will fol- 
low as soon as time can be found for its preparation. 

The chapter on Hemiptera, in the Standard Natural History recently 
published by S. E, Casino & Co., of 92 pages royal octave, is also from 
Mr. Uhler, and has been, I believe, generally received as advancing our 
knowledge of an order which has been much neglected in this country. 

The Fourteenth Report on the Insects of Illinois, by Prof. S. A. 
Forbes, State Entomologist, treats of several Hemipterous Insects, chiefly 
in their economic relations. 

In the Report of the Entomologist of the U.S. Department of Agri- 
culture for 18S5, Prof. Riley has presented a careful study of the two 
broods of the Periodical Cicida, Cicada septendecim — the seventeen-year 
(septendecim) and the thirte n-year race (tredecim), which appeared in 
1885 over a large extent of the country, and came together in Southern 
Illinois and Northern Georgia. There is also a summary of distribution 
and future appearance of all the broods (22 in number) known to occui 
in the United States: also a record of experiments made in transferring 
die eggs of the Northern and Southern races of the insect from one por- 
tion of the country to the other, as a test of the influence of climate upon 
the developmental period. 

In the 14th Annual Report of the Geological and Natural Histon 
Survey of Minnesota, Mr, O. W. Oesttund has contributed a List of the 
Aphididce of Minnesota, in which seventy-one species are recorded, ol 
which twenty-four species are described as new, and two new genera 
named. 

Among other contributors to the order, are Mr. \Vm. Ashmead, 
Prof E W. Claypole, and Mr. John J. Jack. 

In the NEUROPTERA, Dr. Hagen has contributed the European 
literature of the Hemerbbius dipterus, of which twenty examples are in 
collections in Europe, and four, so far as known taken in this country, 
referring to this species Dr. Fitch's type of H. delicatulus (Entomologies 
Americana, ii, p. 21). 

Mr. J. A. Moffat has narrated some habits of a Myrmeleon larva 
(Canad. Entom., xviii, p. 76). 

Two elaborate papers from Dr. Hagen are additions of much im- 
portance to the literature of the Pseudoneuroptera. The first is a Mono- 
graph of the Earlier Stages of Odon ita, (in 43 pages) in which 48 spi 
in the subfamily of Gomphina and Cordulegastrina are des< ribed ( brans. 
Amer. Entomol. Soc. xii, pp. 249 — 291). The second is a Monograph 
of the Emdidina, and is apparently one of the must careful and pains 
Entomologica Americana. 21 Oct. & Nov. 1S86. 



— ISO- 
taking of the erudite author's publications. Not only is each one of the 
seventeen known species minutely described (six pages in some instances 
are devoted to a single species) but the history of the family is fully pre- 
sented together with an extended discuss on of its characters with refer- 
ence to its assignment to its proper systematic position, which is held by 
the writer to be near the Termitida (Canad. Kntom, xvii, 1885. Aug., 
Sept.. Oct. and Nov.). 

Of writings upon the ORTHOPTERA, I find only a List of th, 
Orthoptera of Kansas, by Lawrence Burner and a note on the habits of