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Full text of "Entomological news"

VOL. Ill 



JANUARY & FEBRUARY, 2000 



US ISSN 0013-872X 
NO. 1 



:NTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 






13 



21 



25 



ioflronoquia (Trichoptera: Limnephili- 
^yyj "\ rom an intermittent slough of the central 

riatte River, Nebraska K.D. Alexander, M.R. Whiles 

A new Selenophorus (Coleoptera: Carabidae) from the 

Rio Grande in Texas Foster Forbes Purrington 

Monomorium minimum species group: gyne number 

and longevity (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) Mark B. DuBois 

New distributional data and first record of gregarious 
behavior for Aegithus melaspis (Coleoptera: 
Eratylidae) from Mexico J.L. N-Heredia, R.N -Gutierrez 

Platydoryctes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) a new 

doryctinae genus from Brazil S.M. Barbalho, A.M. P-Dias 

New species and a new record of Bordontilla (Hymen- 
optera: Mutillidae) from Chile James P. Pitts 32 

Variability in the larvae of Serratella serrata (Ephe- 
meroptera: Ephemerellidae) L.M. Jacobus, W.P. McCafferty 39 

Plauditus grandis (Ephemeroptera: Baetidae) a new 

small minnow mayfly from Tennessee N.A. \\iersema, L.S. Long 45 

Leptohyphes zalope (Ephemeroptera: Leptohyphidae) 
a polytypic North and Central American species 

D.E. Baumgardner, W.P. McCafferty 49 

Distribution and taxonomic contributions to the Ephe- 
meroptera fauna of Mexico and Central America 

N.A. Wiersema, D.E. Baumgardner 60 

Altered photocyclic regimes influence the duration of 
maternal care in a burrower bug (Heteroptera: 
Cydnidae) Scott L. Right 67 

Cantharidin attraction in Pyrochroa (Coleoptera: 

Pyrochoroidae) G. Nardi, M.A. Bologna 74 

BOOK REVIEW X^*SM/?J/g>s. 24 



BOOKS RECEIVED AND BRI1 
CORRECTION NOTICE 



31,48,59,73 
12 



THE AMERICAN ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 



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Vol. 1 1 1 , No. 1 , January & February 2000 



A NEW SPECIES OF IRONOQUIA (TRICHOPTERA: 
LIMNEPHILIDAE) FROM AN INTERMITTENT 
SLOUGH OF THE CENTRAL PLATTE RIVER, 

NEBRASKA 1 

Kevin D. Alexander 2 , Matt R. Whiles 3 

ABSTRACT: Ironoquia plattensis, a new limnephilid caddisfly species, is described from 
both males and females. The new species is similar to Ironoquia parvula but is easily distin- 
guished based on its apically, unforked parameres and the shape of inferior appendages, 
upper cereal lobes and the supra-phallic plate. The new species is presently known only 
from one site on Mormon Island in the central Platte River valley, Nebraska. The site is a 
stopover point and staging grounds for migrating whooping cranes, sandhill cranes 
and various other waterfowl. 

An aquatic ecology and biomonitoring study was conducted on a primary 
waterfowl migration stopover and staging area on the central flyway for vari- 
ous species including the endangered whooping crane (Grus americana). This 
area is located in the central Platte River valley on land owned by the Platte 
River Whooping Crane Trust in Hall County, Nebraska. During this study, a 
species of terrestrially pupating Ironoquia Banks was discovered in an inter- 
mittent slough on Mormon Island. This species was much smaller and morpho- 
logically distinct from Ironoquia punctatissima (Walker, 1852) which is the 
common species of Ironoquia on the Great Plains. Comparisons made to speci- 
mens, borrowed from the Illinois Natural History Survey (INHS), of the other 
four species in this genus (Morse, 1993) indicated that the specimens from the 
Platte River represented a previously undescribed species. Further investiga- 
tions indicated that this new species was very similar to Ironoquia parvula 
(Banks, 1900), which is distributed in northeastern North America and its far- 
thest westerly distribution reported in the literature to date is in Ohio (Huryn 
and Foote, 1983; J.C. Morse personal comm.). Descriptions of both the male 
and female, as well as a diagnosis, are provided here. The holotype and a paratype 
female are deposited at the Illinois Natural History Survey (INHS) and paratypes 
are deposited at Kansas State University (KSU), the National Museum of Natu- 
ral History (NMNH) and the collection of the senior author (KDA). 



1 Received January 11, 1999. Accepted September 20, 1999. 

2 Math/Science Division, Wayne State College, 1111 Main St., Wayne, NE 68787. 

3 Department of Entomology, 123 Waters Hall, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 
66506-4004. 



ENT. NEWS 1 1 1 ( 1), 1 -7, January & February, 2000 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Ironoquia plattensis, NEW SPECIES 

Figs. 1-4 

Male. Body length 6.0 - 6.5 mm. Forewing length 7.0 - 8.0 mm. General color pale 
brown. Wing membranes and veins brown with small, pale spotting. Genitalia as in Figure 
1A and 2. Inferior appendages triangular and projecting slightly posteriorly (Figs. 1A, 2 and 
3C,E). Cerci laterally compressed and divided into dorsal and ventral lobes. Dorsal lobe is 
broadly truncate while ventral lobe is tab-like, dorso-ventrally compressed and slightly up- 
turned. Supra-phallic plate is rhomboid and sagitally folded approximately 45 degrees. Phallus 
with central tube slightly enlarged apically; parameres unforked, each with apical one-half 
sclerotized and slightly curved (Fig. 3A). 

Female. Body length 5.5 - 6.5 mm. Forewing length 6.5 - 8.0 mm. Color pattern similar 
to male. Abdominal sternite 7 produced posterad approximately l/4th of its length. 
The apical end broadly rounded across most of its width with a slight mesal notch (Fig. IB). 
The internal spermathecal sclerite, weakly sclerotized and gradually narrowing posteriorly 
forming a "teardrop" shape (Fig. 4A). 

Types. Holotype male and paratype female from Nebraska: Hall Co., Platte River 
intermittent slough on Mormon Island, Ol-X-1997, M. Whiles (INHS). Additional paratypes 
(all same locality): Ol-X-1997, M. Whiles, 2 males (NMNH); 30-IX-1997, M. Whiles and 
B. Goldowitz, 5 males, 4 females (KSU); Ol-X-1997, M. Whiles, 1 male (KDA); reared 
from pupae in X-1997 by KDA and MRW, 04-VI-1997, M. Whiles, 5 males, 1 female 
(KDA). 30-IX-1997, M. Whiles and B. Goldowitz, 3 males, 3 females sacrificed for 
scanning electron microscopy. 

Etymology. The species is named after the landscape of the Great Plains 
and the Platte River from which it was collected. 

Diagnosis. The smaller size of this species easily separates it from the 
much larger Nearctic species (Schmid, 1955): /. punctatissima, Ironoquia 
kaskaskia (Ross, 1944) and Ironoquia lyrata (Ross, 1938) which have fore- 
wing lengths > 14 mm. It is most similar in size to, but distinctly smaller than /. 
parvula. Based on very similar genitalic structures, it is most closely related to 
/. parvula. However, /. plattensis is most easily separated from /. parvula based 
on the presence of unforked parameres (Fig. 3A) as opposed to bifurcate 
parameres in /. parvula (Figs 3B). A small, subapical fork may occasionally be 
present on only one of the parameres of /. plattensis, however, it is never 
apical. In addition, this new species possesses shorter and more blunt inferior 
appendages (Fig. 3C,E) than /. parvula (Fig. 3D,F), the upper cereal lobes are 
more apically acute in /. plattensis (Fig. 3G) than in /. parvula (Fig. 3H), and 
the lateral wings of the supra-phallic plate are also longer with the tips more 
recurved in /. plattensis. Ironoquia plattensis females possess a gradually nar- 
rowing "teardrop" shaped spermathecal sclerite (Fig. 4A) whereas the 
spermathecal sclerite of/, parvula females narrows abruptly and forms a "key- 
hole" shape (Fig. 4B). The coloration of/, plattensis is lighter and the spotting 
on the wings is much more pronounced than in /. parvula. 



Vol. 1 1 1 , No. 1 , January & February 2000 






dl 




la 




ss 



B 



Figure 1. Illustrations of Ironoquia plattensis male and female genitalia (scale bar = 
0.5mm). A. Male, lateral view (dl = dorsal lobe of cercus, ia = inferior appendage, spp = 
supra-phallic plate, vl = ventral lobe of cercus). B. Female, ventral view (sgp = subgenital 
plate, ss = spermathecal sclerite). 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 




Figure 2. Scanning electron micrograph of Ironoquia plattensis male genitalia; postero- 
lateral view (dl = dorsal lobe of cercus, ia = inferior appendage, spp = supra-phallic plate, 
vl = ventral lobe of cercus). 



Vol. 1 1 1 , No. 1 , January & February 2000 











G H 

Figure 3. Diagnostic male genital structures for Ironoquia plattensis and Ironoquia parvula. 

A. /. plattensis paramere. B. /. parvula paramere. C. /. pluttensis inferior appendage, lateral 
view. D. /. parvula inferior appendage, lateral view. E. /. plattensis inferior appedage, dor- 
sal view. F. /. parvula inferior appendage, dorsal view. G. /. plattensis, upper cereal lobe, 
dorsal view. H. /. parvula upper cereal lobe, dorsal view. 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 





A B 

Figure 4. Female spermathecum and spermathecal sclerite, ventral view. A. /. plattensis. B. 
/. parvula 

DISCUSSION 

To date, larvae of /. plattensis have been found only at one site along the 
central Platte River even though intensive sampling of aquatic macroinverte- 
brates has been conducted for two years at similar habitats in the vicinity. The 
Mormon Island collection site is a 20m reach of an approximately 500 m 
intermittent, backwater slough of the Platte River that is occasionally con- 
nected to the river channel during periods of high water. When water was 
present during 1997, wetted width of the collection site averaged ca. 13m and 
average maximum depth was 30 cm. However, both width and depth fluctuate 
greatly throughout the year. Water flow at the site is very slow and it is prima- 
rily a lentic habitat. The site is intermittent and dries in summer; during 1997, 
it dried from 02 July to 1 1 August and again from 10 to 22 September. The 
slough also completely freezes over during winter. 

Substrate at the site is a thick layer of detritus and silt overlaying sand. 
Aquatic macrophytes and algae are abundant, especially in summer. The domi- 
nant macrophytes consist of Potamogeton sp., Typha sp, Scirpus sp., Carex 
sp., and Lemna sp. Riparian vegetation is typical treeless wet meadow, con- 
sisting of grasses and forbs on sandy soil and the groundwater table is gener- 
ally near the surface. 

As is typical of species in this genus, the larvae of /. plattensis become 
terrestrial and migrate away from the stream during late spring. Migrating lar- 
vae were first noticed in pitfall traps intended to capture amphibians. Larval 
aestivation and terrestrial pupation occurred in the surrounding tallgrass 
prairie, with adult emergence occurring in late September and early October. 
Laboratory reared pupae exposed to natural photoperiod but sheltered from 
extremes in temperature emerged at the same time as well. 

Much of this biological information about /. plattensis is similar to what 
occurs in /. parvula (Flint 1958, 1960) which reinforces our hypothesis that 



Vol. 1 1 1 , No. 1 , January & February 2000 



these two species are closely related. We also hypothesize that these two spe- 
cies shared a common ancestor that was split into two vicariant populations by 
Pleistocene glaciers (Souders et al. 1990). The eastern species evolved into 
what is now /. pan'ula and the western species that survived in the Platte River 
valley is now /. plattensis. This may be similar to what occurred in the perlid 
stonefly species, Perlesta xube Stark and Rhodes and Perlesta adena Stark 
which are morphologrally similar and share a similar distribution pattern (Stark 
and Rhodes, 1997) to /. plattensis and /. parvula. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

We thank B. Goldowitz, C. Morgan, and M. Wolfe for field assistance; M. Yeska for 
laboratory assistance; K.W. Stewart for the use of a light microscope with drawing attach- 
ment; R.E. DeWalt at the INHS for the loan of specimens; A. Huryn, J.C. Morse and S.R. 
Moulton for advice and assistance; E. Rosa-Molinar and K. Lee for invaluable assistance 
and use of the SEM facilities at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln; and the Platte River 
Whooping Crane Maintenance Trust for cooperation and assistance. This research was 
partially supported by a grant from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to B. 
Goldowitz and MRW. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Banks, N. 1900. New genera and species of Nearctic neuropteroid insects. Trans. Amer. 

Entomol. Soc. 26: 239-259. 
Flint, O.S., Jr. 1958. The larva and terrestrial pupa of Ironoquia parvula (Trichoptera: 

Limnephilidae). J. N. Y. Entomol. Soc. 66: 59-62. 
Flint, O.S., Jr. 1960. Taxonomy and biology of some Limnephilid larvae (Trichoptera), 

with special reference to species in eastern United States. Entomol. Amer. 60: 1-117. 
Huryn, A.D. and B.A. Foote. 1983. An annotated list of the caddisflies (Trichoptera) of 

Ohio. Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 85: 783-796. 
Morse, J.C. 1993. A checklist of the Trichoptera of North America, including Greenland 

and Mexico. Trans. Amer. Entomol. Soc. 119(1): 47-93. 
Ross, H.H. 1938. Descriptions of nearctic caddis flies (Trichoptera) with special reference 

to the Illinois species. Bull. 111. Nat. Hist. Surv. 21: 101-183. 
Ross, H.H. 1944. The caddisflies, or Trichoptera, of Illinois. Bull. 111. Nat. Hist. Surv. 23: 1- 

326. 
Schmid, F. 1955. Contribution a 1'etude des Limnophilidae (Trichoptera). Mitt. Der Schweiz. 

Entomol. Ges. 21: 1-225. 
Souder, V.L., J.B. Swinehart and V.H. Dreeszen. 1990. Postulated evolution of the Platte 

river and related drainages. Conservation and Survey Division, Institute of Agriculture 

and Natural Resources, University of Nebraska-Lincoln. 
Stark, B.P. and H.A. Rhodes. 1997. Perlesta xube, a new stonefly species from Nebraska 

(Plecoptera: Perlidae). Ent. News 108(2): 92-96. 
Walker, F. 1852. Catalogue of the specimens of neuropterous insects in the collections of 

the British Museum. Part 1. 190 pp. London. 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



A NEW SELENOPHORUS (COLEOPTERA: 
CARABIDAE) FROM THE RIO GRANDE IN TEXAS 1 

Foster Forbes Purrington^ 

ABSTRACT: Selenophorus chaparral us n. sp. is described from Val Verde, Zapata, and 
Cameron Counties on the lower Rio Grande of Texas. The male is distinguished by a pair 
of carinate prominences positioned bilaterally on the disc of abdominal sternum VII. 

In North America north of Mexico, the New World genus Selenophorus 
Dejean (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Harpalini) presently contains 38 species ar- 
ranged by Bousquet and Larochelle (1993) in three informal groups. The 
largest, their palliatus group of 28 species, subsumes two of Lindroth's groups, 
opalinus and palliatus, that together keyed only nine current Selenophorus spe- 
cies (Lindroth 1968). As Lindroth commented, a review of the North Ameri- 
can species would imply an interesting task, for which we await a pending 
modern revision by George E. Ball (pers. comm., G.E. Ball). 

In Casey's (1914) key to genera of Selenophorini, S. chaparralus n. sp. 
goes to Hemisopalus (type S. opalinus LeC.) and thence to H. opalinus, that 
differs, inter alii, by being much larger, and to H. perpolitus Csy., with only a 
faint elytral iridescence. 

In America north of Mexico, Selenophorus is more diverse in the southern 
United States, especially from North Carolina to Florida, through the Gulf 
states and into Arizona. Six species are recorded from Canada; none are known 
from California (Bousquet and Larochelle 1993). Many appear to be xerophil- 
ous and occur on sandy soils (Lindroth 1968). 

Micrographs were obtained with an ISI-40 scanning electron microscope. 
Measurement of length follows Kavanaugh (1979) who measured apparent body 
length ( ABL) from apex of mandible to apex of elytron. 

In reference to the numbering of abdominal sterna of this beetle, I note that 
in Coleoptera, sternum II is basalmost, sternum I evidently having been lost 
from the ancestral coleopteran stock (as determined by the lack of a sternum to 
match abdominal tergum 1). Thus, with six pregenital sterna (i.e., those ex- 
posed when the male is not in copulo, or a female is not ovipositing), the last 
one is abdominal sternum VII. Imms (1948) states that in most (adult) insects 
the first abdominal segment, and especially its sternum, is reduced or vestigial. 

In Lindroth's key to Selenophorus Dejean, S. chaparralus n. sp. will run to 
couplet 4. The new species is accommodated by going to a new couplet 3a., 
inserted after couplet 3., as follows: 



1 Received May 13, 1999. Accepted July 16, 1999. 
omology, The Ohio State 

ENT. NEWS 1 1 1 ( I ), 8- 1 2, January & February, 2000 



Department of Entomology, The Ohio State University, 1735 Neil Avenue, Columbus, 
OH 432 10. 



Vol. 1 1 1 , No. 1 , January & February, 2000 



3a. Abdominal sternum VII of male with a pair of carinate 

prominences. Texas S. chaparralus n. sp. 

Abdominal sternum VII of male without prominences 4 

Selenophorus chaparralus Purrington, NEW SPECIES 

Recognition: This is the only Selenophorus bearing paired carinate promi- 
nences on the last visible abdominal sternum of the male. 

Description: Holotype male. Total length (ABL) 8.0 mm. Color. Dorsal forebody 
ferrugineous, antennae testaceous, labrum orange, also mandibles but their apices pi- 
ceous, contrasting, palpi testaceous; legs testaceous except coxae rufescent; entire under- 
body ferrugineous; elytra piceus, except base anteriad to margin, scutellum and epipleurae 
rufescent. Luster. Entire dorsal surface very shining; forebody not iridescent, elytra with 
pronounced iridescence, ventral surfaces very slightly iridescent. Microsculpture. Absent 
from head except labrum with well-defined slightly transverse meshes, irregular trans- 
verse meshes on anterior edge of clypeus and behind eye in vicinity of supraorbital seta; 
absent from pronotum; dense microlines on elytral intervals; all striae (including the broad 
stria 9 lying mesad of the lateral bead) with granulate isodiametric meshes; ventral surfaces 
without microsculpture except some shallow microlines and transverse meshes on genae 
and abdominal sterna. Head. Head rather small; eyes moderate in size; frontal foveae 
deep; antennal scape and pedicel with sparse scattered short pubescence; labrum with 
concave anterior margin; labial mentum edentate. Thorax. Pronotum slightly broader 
than long, widest slightly before middle, sides evenly arcuate; anterior angles produced; 
basal bead entire; hind angles broadly rounded; median sulcus impressed but not extended 
to base or front margin; posterolateral impressions shallow, linear, divergent anteriorly, 
separated from corners by a broad shallow convexity and marked with weak rugose 
punctation. Prosternum with intercoxal process unmargined. Elytra. Striae rather wide 
with dull granulate floors, parascutellar striae short but distinctly impressed, with setiger- 
ous puncture at base; intervals convex with irregular micropunctulae; seriate setigerous 
punctures on interval 3 very near stria 2, on interval 5 near stria 5, on interval 7 near stria 
7; setigerous umbilicate puncture series widely separated into 6 anterior and 9 posterior; 
subapical sinuation distinct; humerus subangulate and lacking a tooth; apex and base with 
sparse short pubescence. Abdomen. Abdominal sternum VII of male ventrally with a pair 
of carinate prominences positioned bilaterally on the disc as in Fig. 1. Genital armature. 
Median lobe of aedeagus long: 3mm; apical 1/5 angled abruptly right as in Fig. 2; basal 
1/5 curved left; shaft inflated near middle with 2 parallel longitudinal swollen ridges, left 
ridge subcarinate, dorsal ridge smoother; surfaces of the swollen midsection of median 
lobe with longitudinal rugulosity as in Fig. 3; apex with a well-developed approximately 
horizontal disc bearing a hook-like anteriorly directed termination on its left margin as in 
Fig. 2; membranous zone occupying the right apical 1/5; internal sac without armature. 

Type Series. HOLOTYPE, male: "Val Verde Co. TEX, Amistad Reservoir, 19-111-98 
F.Purrington//AMIS-259: 913//Holotype Selenophorus chaparralus Purrington 1999", 
deposited in the U.S. National Museum (USNM), Washington, D.C. Seven PARATYPES, 
sex and label data as follows: 1 female, same as holotype except "Amis-259: 914", depos- 
ited in the USNM. 1 male, 1 female: "Port Isabel, Tex., X-20-'49 O.Bryant//Collection of 
the California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco, Calif." (Cameron County), deposited 
in the California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco, California. 1 male, 3 females: 
"Texas:Zapata County//Falcon State Park//15-X-1985//Robert Davidson and John Rawlins", 
deposited in the Carnegie Museum of Natural History, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 



10 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 




Figure 1. Selenophorus chaparralus Purrington, n. sp., HOLOTYPE C?: scanning electron mi- 
crograph of last visible abdominal sternum AB-VII, right ventral aspect. Scale bar = 0.5 mm. 




Figure 2. Selenophorus chaparralus Purrington, n. sp., HOLOTYPE Cf : scanning electron mi- 
crograph of aedeagus median lobe, ca. distal 1/3, dorsal posterior aspect showing apical disc and 
membranous aperture that accommodates eversion of the internal sac. Scale bar = 0.25 mm. 



Vol. 1 1 1 , No. 1 , January & February, 2000 




Figure 3. Selenophorus chaparralus Purrington, n. sp., HOLOTYPE d: scanning electron micro- 
graph of aedeagus median lobe mid-length rugulosity, left aspect. Scale bar = 0.1 mm. 



Etymology: From the Tamaulipan chaparral plant association that charac- 
terizes the type locality. 

Notes. The holotype is missing the right maxillary palpomere 4; its genita- 
lia and sternum AB-VII are removed and glued on a card point; the sternum 
was platinum-coated in preparation for electron microscopy, which contributes 
a slight metallic luster artifact. 

Habitat. The holotype and the female paratype from Val Verde County 
were collected under a small rock in a dry grassy acacia savanna upland ca. 1 
km from the Amistad Reservoir shoreline at San Pedro campsite, Amistad 
National Recreation Area. Average annual precipitation (1965-1994) is 50.3 
cm (Garwood 1996). Floristic elements from the Chihuahuan Desert, the 
Tamaulipan Chaparral and the Edwards Plateau intersect in the Amistad Res- 
ervoir area (Shelford 1963), and this perhaps reflects the potential for unique 
faunal associations and moisture-driven vicariance mechanisms that charac- 
terize desert ecosystems (Erwin 1996, Williams et al. 1985, Hendrickson and 
Minckley 1985, Minckley 1984). These circumstances, combined with low 
systematic collection effort on this daunting terrain, make it not altogether 



12 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



surprising to discover a well-differentiated unknown ground beetle species of 
a genus familiar to southwestern United States aridlands. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

George E. Ball, University of Alberta, Edmonton, encouraged this description in 
anticipation of his planned revision of the genus, and I greatly appreciate his perspicacity 
and confidence. He also checked the holotype male of this new species against several 
Selenophorus types in his possession to ascertain its distinctiveness. I thank Charles A. 
Triplehorn of my Department for sharing taxonomic insights, Robert L. Davidson, Carnegie 
Museum of Natural History, Pittsburgh, for his generous help with advice on taxonomic 
conundrums, and David J. Horn of my Department for commenting on an early draft and 
for his continuing support. Robert E. Whitmoyer, Director of the Electron Microscope 
Laboratory, Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center, Wooster, prepared the 
SEM micrographs; Jose G. Diaz, Department of Evolution, Ecology, and Organismal 
Biology (Ohio State University), prepared the plates. David H. Larson and Bill Sontag, 
National Park Service, permitted my research at Amistad National Recreation Area. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Bousquet, Y. and A. Larochelle. 1993. Catalogue of the Geadephaga (Coleoptera: 
Trachypachidae, Rhysodidae, Carabidae including Cicindelini) of America north of 
Mexico. Mem. Entomol. Soc. Can. No. 167, 397 pp. 

Casey, T. L. 1914. Memoirs on the Coleoptera. V. The New Era Printing Co., Lancaster, 
PA, 387 pp. 

Erwin, T. L. 1996. Evolution at the equator: arboreal and alticolous beetles and their 
taxon pulses (Coleoptera: Carabidae). (Abstr. p. 18) Proc. XX Int. Cong. Entomol. 
Firenze, Italy. 

Garwood, A. N. 1996. [ed.] Weather America. Toucan Valley Publ., Milpitas, CA, 1412 
pp. 

Hendrickson, D. A. and W. L. Minckley. 1985. Cienegas - vanishing climax communi- 
ties of the American southwest. Desert Plants 6: 131-175. 

hnins, A. D. 1948. A general textbook of entomology including the anatomy, physiology, 
development and classification of insects. 7th Ed. Methuen & Co., London, 727 pp. 

Kavanaugh, D. H. 1979. Studies on the Nebriini (Coleoptera: Carabidae), III. New 
Nearctic Nebria species and subspecies, nomenclatural notes, and lectotype designa- 
tions. Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci. 42: 87-133. 

Lindroth, C. H. 1968. The ground-beetles (Carabidae excl. Cicindelinae) of Canada and 
Alaska. Pt. 5. Opusc. Entomol., Suppl. 33; Lund, 296 pp. 

Minckley, W. L. 1984. Cuatro Cienegas fishes: research review and a local test of diversity 
versus habitat size. J. Ariz.-Nev. Acad. Sci. 19: 13-21. 

Williams, J. E., D. B. Bowman, J. E. Brooks, A. A. Echelle, R. J. Edwards, D. A. 

Hendrickson and J. J. Landye. 1985. Endangered aquatic ecosystems in North American 
deserts with a list of vanishing fishes of the region. J. Ariz.-Nev. Acad. Sci. 20: 1-62. 

Shelford, V. E. 1963. The ecology of North America; Univ. 111. Press, Urbana, 610 pp. 



CORRECTION NOTICE 

The cover of the November & December 1999 issue of Entomological News indicated it 
was issue No. 4. This was in error. That issue was No. 5 as indicated on the masthead of inside 
pages. Entomological News regrets this error. H. P. B. 



Vol. 1 1 1 , No. 1 , January & February, 2000 1 3 

MONOMORIUM MINIMUM SPECIES GROUP: GYNE 
NUMBER AND LONGEVITY (HYMENOPTERA: 

FORMICIDAE) 1 

Mark B. DuBois 2 ' 3 > 4 

ABSTRACT: Gyne number is reported for 13 species of the Monomorium minimum 
species group; life span, and worker mortality rates are presented for 5 species: Monomorium 
cyaneum, M. emarginatum, M. minimum, M. trageri, and M. viride. Most species appear able to 
establish colonies haplometrotically; most exhibit presumed secondary polygyny. Average gyne 
lifespans (under laboratory conditions) ranged from 1 .08 years (M. minimum) to 7.54 years (M. 
emarginatum). Worker longevity for M. cyaneum ranged up to 1.4 years. 

The ant genus Monomorium is represented by over 350 species (Bolton, 
1995). There is no information concerning basic biology (such as number of 
gynes per colony and life span of gynes and workers) of most species. Keller 
(1998) conducted an extensive literature review and incorporated unpub- 
lished information regarding ant gyne life spans and related factors. Of the 53 
ant species he discussed, only one species (Monomorium pharaonis 
(Linnaeus)) was included (Peacock and Baxter, 1950; Peacock et al., 1955). 
Keller's work expanded on the known life spans of 31 ant species' provided 
by Holldobler and Wilson (1990: 169). Bolton (1995) listed over 9,500 spe- 
cies of ants. 

The purpose of Keller's research was, "to test evolutionary theories on 
aging by investigating whether the evolution of eusociality had been paral- 
leled by an increase in queen life span..." This is the expected pattern if life 
span is influenced by extrinsic mortality factors (Keller, 1998: 236). A side 
result was the confirmation of the paucity of knowledge of this aspect of basic 
ant biology. Comparative theories are difficult to evaluate when there are 
limited observations within a large and diverse group. 

This publication provides longevity data for Monomorium cyaneum 
Wheeler, M. emarginatum DuBois, M. minimum (Buckley), M. trageri DuBois, 
and M. viride Brown. These are the first recorded observations for multiple 
members of the minimum species group (DuBois, 1986) for colonies kept under 
similar laboratory conditions. Although colonies were collected at different 
times, all were subjected to a similar regimen in the laboratory. 



1 Received March 1, 1999. Accepted April 10, 1999. 

2 116 Burton Street, Washington, IL 61571-2509. 

3 Research Affiliate, Center for Biodiversity, Illinois Natural History Survey, 607 East 
Peabody Drive, Champaign, IL 61820. 

4 Send reprint requests to the Washington, Illinois address. 

ENT. NEWS 111(1), 13-20, January & February, 2000 



14 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Information concerning the number of queens per colony is included for 
members of the Monomorium minimum species group. This information is 
based principally from information gleaned during my revision (DuBois, 1986) 
and from subsequent field collections. Although isolated studies have re- 
ported gyne counts for a few species, this is the first time all species (within 
this group) have been included and compared. 

METHODS AND MATERIALS 

Longevity Study Colonies of each species were collected and trans- 
ported to the laboratory for study. Locality data for each colony is presented 
in Appendix A. Each colony was isolated in Fluon coated chambers and 
provided suitable habitat (water filled test tubes wrapped with red cellophane 
as described in DuBois and DuBois, 1994). Ants were fed a combination of 
artificial ant diet (Holldobler and Wilson, 1990: 632), a 50:50 mixture of 
honey and water, and chopped insects (typically grasshoppers, cockroaches, 
and Lepidoptera larvae). Observations were made weekly. Any dead individu- 
als were removed and enumerated. Each species was identified by examina- 
tion of both gyne and worker corpses. Identifications were made using DuBois 
(1986) and comparison with previously identified specimens. Voucher speci- 
mens were retained in the author's personal collection. Regression analyses 
were conducted for each colony to identify mortality rates in the laboratory. 
Colonies were maintained until all individuals had died. The final dates were 
recorded and life spans were calculated from the initial date of colony collec- 
tion. In some cases, workers lived significantly beyond the death of the gyne. 
In these instances, an attempt was made to determine worker life span. 

Gynes per Colony Study Records were extracted from the author's 
personal collection of Monomorium coupled with notes made while examin- 
ing museum collections during revision of this group. Only those collections 
that contained dealate gynes were counted. As with all collections, the ob- 
served number of gynes is presumed to represent the minimum found in each 
colony; others may have escaped detection. No effort was made to determine 
whether all gynes were fully fertile and inseminated. The issue of functional 
polygyny remains open for these species. 

Literature records were examined to determine additional information re- 
garding the number of gynes per colony (for example, Bhatkar, 1992). The 
data presented by Peacock and Baxter (1950) was subjected to the same statis- 
tical analyses. 

RESULTS 

Number of Gynes per Colony (Tables 1 and 2). 
Longevity Study For each species examined, the number of gynes per 



Vol. 1 1 1 , No. 1 , January & February, 2000 



15 



observed colony was noted. The total number of corpses removed confirmed 
this count. Statistics (average, standard deviation, and standard error of the mean) 
were calculated to provide the basis for comparisons. The number of colonies 
observed (n) is listed after the name of each species. 



Table 1. Gynes per colony observed. 

Species Average Min - Max 

M. cyaneum (n =15) 3.93 1 - 15 

M. emarginatum (n = 1) 4 N/A 

M. minimum (n = 5) 1 1 

M.trageri(n = 4) 1 3-15 

M. viride(n = 12) 1.75 1-4 



Standard Deviation 

4.008 
N/A 
0.000 
5.477 
1.055 



Standard Error 

1 .0349 

N/A 

0.000 
2.7386 
0.3046 



Field Collections and literature records Each species is listed with the 
number of gynes per collected colony. Collections containing only workers 
or reproductives were eliminated. Statistics (average, standard deviation, and 
standard error of the mean) were calculated. The number of colonies observed 
(n) is listed. Peacock and Baxter's (1950) data for Monomorium pharaonis is 
presented at the bottom of this table. Only the original data representing field 
collections (for baited and trapped colonies with dealate gynes) was used to 
calculate these statistics. 



Table 2. Gynes per field collection. 

Species Average Min - Max 

M. compressum (n = 2) 2.5 2-3 

M. cyaneum (n = 26) 2.8 1-12 

M. ebeninum (n = 13) 3.3 1-10 

M. emargiwitum (n = 4) 4.3 1-11 

M. ergatogyna (n = 24) 4.9 1 - 20 

M. marjorae (n = 1) 1.0 N/A 

M. inquilinum (n = 1) 1.0 N/A 

M. minimum (n = 65) 2.4 1 - 23 

M. pe rgandei (n = 1 ) 7.0 N/A 

M. talbotae (n = 1 ) 8.0 N/A 

M. trageri (n = 3) 4.0 1-10 

M.viride(n = \l) 6.5 1-64 

M. wheelerorum (n = 12) 1.0 1-1 

M. pharaonis (n = 10) 26.8 2-110 



Standard Deviation Standard Error 



0.707 

3.020 

2.983 

4.717 

5.445 

N/A 

N/A 

3.432 

N/A 

N/A 

5.196 

15.038 

0.000 

37.416 



0.5000 
0.5923 
0.8273 
2.3585 
1.1114 

N/A 

N/A 
0.4257 

N/A 

N/A 
3.0000 
3.6472 
0.0000 

11.8320 



Observed Workers Produced (per Colony) and Mortality (Tables 3 & 4). 
Dead workers were removed weekly from each colony and enumerated. 
Since some workers were undoubtedly eaten before they could be removed, 
these calculations represent the lower boundary of total workers. Colony count 
(n) is provided in Table 1 . Dead workers provide an indication of the repro- 
ductive capacity of each colony over the life of the colony (Table 3). This data 
also provides an indication of worker mortality under controlled laboratory 



16 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



conditions (fairly constant climate, consistent food supply and lack of preda- 
tors) (Table 4). ' 



Table 3. Workers produced per colony. 



Species 

M. cyaneum 
M. emarginatum 
M. minimum 
M. trageri 
M. viride 



Average 

655.40 

1658.00 

329.80 

845.25 

785.17 



Min - Max 

20-1323 

N/A 

101-773 
389-1560 
87 - 2250 



Standard Deviation Standard Error 



388.724 

N/A 
264.321 
502.345 
605.040 



100.3681 

N/A 

118.2080 
251.1724 
174.6601 



Table 4. Weekly worker mortality. 

Number of 

weeks 
observed 

775 
76 
160 
267 
552 



Species 

M. cyaneum 
M. emarginatum 
M. minimum 
M. trageri 
M. viride 



Average 

13.0 
21.8 
10.8 
12.7 
18.5 



Standard Deviation 

8.547 
0.000 
6.936 
7.249 
12.416 



Standard Error 

2.207 
0.000 
3.102 
3.625 
3.584 



Observed Adult Gyne Life Span (days) (Table 5). 

Observed life span was calculated from the date of colony collection until 
the date of observed death of the last gyne for each colony. Since workers are 
unable to reproduce, colonies were doomed from the point of the last gyne's 
death. This calculation is presented as it represents a boundary with respect to 
the longevity of each colony. Individual gyne life spans were also recorded, 
but are not presented herein (details can be obtained by contacting the author 
directly). Since colonies were well established prior to collection, the actual 
life span of the colony may have been one or two years beyond what was 
observed in the laboratory. 

Table 5. Observed adult gyne life span (days). 



Species 

M. cyaneum 
M. emarginatum 
M. minimum 
M. trageri 
M. viride 



Average Min - Max Standard Deviation Standard Error 



632 


207 - 927 


2755 


N/A 


395 


294 - 778 


546 


403 - 674 


451 


118-713 



203.956 

N/A 
214.390 
111.101 
198.671 



58.8769 

N/A 
95.8783 
55.5503 
57.3512 



Observed Adult Worker Life Span (days) (Table 6). 

Worker life span was calculated from the date the last gyne perished until 
the last worker perished. This represents an absolute minimum life span and 
assumes the worker eclosed on the day the last gyne perished. Calculations 
were only made on colonies where workers outlived gynes. 



Vol. 1 1 1 , No. 1 , January & February, 2000 1 7 



Table 6. Observed adult worker life span (days). 

Species Average Range Standard Deviation Standard Error 

M.cvaneum(n=l) 239 14-516 196.224 74.1658 

M. minimum (n=l) 14 N/A N/A N/A 

M. trugeri (n=l) 182 N/A N/A N/A 

M. viride (n=6) 54 14-83 24.850 10.1448 

DISCUSSION 

Gynes per colony Bhatkar (1992) reported 2-38 physogastric gynes 
per colony of M. minimum in Texas and Louisiana. Voucher specimens could 
not be located to confirm this identification. Most colonies were presumed to 
have a single foundress with secondary adoption of additional gynes. Gregg 
(1944) reported 12 - 14 gynes per colony of M. minimum in the Chicago 
region. Dennis (1938) reported 12-15 gynes per colony for the same species 
in Tennessee. Gregg (1945) reported 64 gynes in a colony of M. viride in 
Florida and a single gyne in a colony of M. cyaneum in Arizona. Brown (1943) 
reported 1 - 5 gynes per colony of M. viride in New Jersey. 

Although the sample sizes are different, the following comparison is at- 
tempted for those species within the minimum group. Fundamental assump- 
tions are made about the distributions of gynes: they are normally distributed 
and that the observed mean and standard deviation are reasonably close to the 
population mean (ji) and standard deviation (a). This would imply that 99.7% 
of all observations would fall within 3 standard deviations of the mean and 
95.4% of all observations would fall within 2 standard deviations of the mean. 
The following formula was applied to determine raw scores for each species 
observed for corresponding z scores of 3 and 2 (resulting in Table 7): 



Where: x = raw score, z = z score, a = population standard deviation, and ji = 
population mean. 

Table 7. Raw scores for gynes per colony. 

Species Raw Score (z = 2) Raw Score (z = 3) 

M. compressum (n = 2) 3.91 4.62 

M . cyaneum (n = 26) 1 0.30 1 3.72 

M.ebeninum(n=\3) 9.27 12.26 

M. emarginatum (n = 4) 12.37 16.46 

M.ergatogyna(n = 24) 15.81 21.25 

M.marjorae(n=\) N/A N/A 

M.inquilinum(n = \) N/A N/A 

M. minimum (n = 65) 8.98 12.31 

M. pergandei (n = 1) N/A N/A 

M.lalbotae(n = \) N/A N/A 

M.trageri(n = ?>) 16.02 21.18 

M. viride (n= 17) 27.78 39.41 

M . wheelerorum (n = 1 2) 1 .00 1 .00 

M. pharaonis (N = 10) 1 1 .63 1 39.05 



18 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



For each species listed in these tables, the raw scores would indicate the 
maximum number of gynes expected within 2 or 3 standard deviations. This 
would indicate a larger amount of polygyny in some species than others (par- 
ticularly M. pharaonis). 

Workers produced per colony Several authors have commented on 
the large colony size for many of the minimum species group species. However, 
there do not appear to have been any investigations into worker mortal- 
ity or numbers of workers produced for the five species (M. cyaneum, M. 
emarginatum, M. minimum, M. trageri, and M. viride) discussed herein. With 
relatively low worker mortality for all species observed (11 - 22 workers per 
colony per week) and individual queen's ability to produce large numbers of 
workers within a relatively short time span, it is not surprising that some 
colonies can become quite large. 

Longevity Previously reported observations indicated life spans for M. 
minimum (gynes lived approximately 1 year, workers lived approximately 4 
months; DuBois, 1986: 81), for M. ergatogyna (gynes lived approximately 2 
years, workers lived 4-8 months; DuBois, 1986: 91), and for M. pharaonis 
(gynes lived 39 weeks, workers lived 9-10 weeks, and males lived 3-8 
weeks; Peacock and Baxter, 1950). Worker longevity observed here is similar 
to previously published observations. Most workers appear to live approxi- 
mately 6 months. One notable exception is the extended life for M. cyaneum 
(1.4 years). Since workers from 4 colonies lived for nearly one year or longer, 
it would appear that this species has a significantly greater life span than other 
species examined to date. All minimum group species exhibit significantly 
longer life spans than that observed for the tropical tramp species M. pharaonis. 

What was surprising were the long life spans of some of the observed 
queens (for example, M. emarginatum gynes with a life span exceeding 7 
years). If one assumes the majority of colonies collected had persisted in the 
field for at least one year before collection (to allow them to grow to a size 
where they were noticed), the life span for most observed species is double 
what has been previously reported. Most gynes lived between one and 1.7 
years in the lab, for a presumed total life of 2 to 2.7 years. Only M. ergatogyna 
had a previously reported life span of this length. Future research should 
concentrate upon additional tropical and subtropical species of Monomorium to 
ascertain whether M. pharaonis is unique with its short life span. Curiously, I 
could find no published life span information on M . floricola, a species that 
exhibits similar opportunistic nesting behaviors as M. pharaonis. 

Overall comments With the inclusion of the tropical tramp species, 
Monomorium pharaonis (previously studied), we now have longevity data for 
1.7% of all described Monomorium species. Based on Keller's (1998) review 
of literature and non-published observations for other ant species, the sum of 
our knowledge of ant longevity now represents 0.61% of all known ant spe- 



Vol. 1 1 1 , No. 1 , January & February, 2000 1 9 



cies. How long ants (gynes, workers, or males) live remains an area needing 
significant additional study. Comparative research such as that discussed by 
Keller (1998) may open more interesting lines of investigation once we have 
a clearer understanding of the entire range of variation with respect to how 
long ants live. This paper is intended to encourage others to continue docu- 
menting fundamental aspects of the biology of ants. Much work remains. 

Appendix A 

Locality information is provided for all colonies observed during this study. Locality 
information for additional field collections of Monomorium minimum and other species used 
to determine gyne numbers per colony is not presented below (to conserve space), 
but is available by contacting the author. 

Monomorium cyaneum 

Arizona: Pima Co.. Santa Catalina Mountains, Loma Linda Picnic Area 7700', Tl IS 
R16E Sec 31, July 31, 1991, M. B. DuBois (MBD), J.R.DuBois (JRD), B.R DuBois 
(BRD) Colonies: 1700 G, 1700 J, 1700 O, 1700 Q, and 1700 T. 

Arizona: Pima Co., Santa Catalina Mountains, Inspiration Point 7700', T11S R16E 
Sec 31, August 6, 1991, MBD, JRD. BRD Colonies: 1704 A, 1704 D, 1704 E, 1704 F, 
1704 H, 1704 J, 1704 L, 1704 M, 1704 N, and 1704 O. 

Monomorium emarginatum 

New York: Suffolk Co., Long Island (nest in sandy soil), May 17, 1987, Stefan 
Cover. 

Monomorium minimum 

Illinois: McLean Co., Funk's Grove, 600', T22N R01E Sec 19, May 23, 1992, MBD, 

J.D. Pratt. 

Illinois: Mason Co., Revis Prairie, Easton 5.5 mi S, 0.25 mi W. T20N R07W Sec 26, 

August 30, 1992, MBD, F. Catchpole. 

Illinois: Peoria Co., Jubilee College St. Park, Turkey Hollow 600', T10N R06E Sec 

26, April 24, 1993, MBD Colonies: 1737 AA, 1737 AD, and 1737 AF. 

Monomorium trageri 

Florida: Alachua Co., 3.5 mi NE Gainesville, December 3, 1991, L. R. Davis, Jr. 

(LRD). 

Florida: Clay Co., 1.3 mi S of Duval Co. line along Rte. 301, under bark of pine, 

May 17, 1992, LRD. 

Florida: Columbia Co., Ichetucknee Springs St. Park, April 18, 1992, LRD. 

Florida: Union Co., Worthington Springs, Santa Fe River, December 13, 1991, LRD. 

Monomorium viride 

Florida: Baker Co., Route 250, Vic. East Tower, Osceola Nat'l Forest, March 1. 

1992, LRD Colonies: 1, 2. 

Florida: Baker Co., Route 250 A, 0.25 mi N Route 90, Osceola Nat'l. Forest, March 

1, 1992, LRD Colonies: 3,4. 

Florida: Baker Co., 1.3 mi W Duval Co., line along Route 90, May 17, 1992, LRD 

Colonies: 5, 6. 

Florida: Union Co., Dukes, Along Route 18 A, 1.7 mi E Route 121, February 22, 

1992, LRD. 



20 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Florida: Walton Co., Portland 1.1 mi NW, March 19, 1993, MBD, LRD, M. A. 
Deyrup (MAD) Colonies: 1732 C, 1732 D, and 1732 E. 

Florida: Walton Co., Eglin Air Force Base, Freeport 4.5 mi NW, March 21, 1993, 
MBD, LRD, MAD Colonies: 1736 H and 1736 I. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

The author wishes to thank his wife, Jeri, and son, Benjamin, for their continued 
support and encouragement. Without them, such work would not be possible. Special 
thanks are also provided to Stephan Cover (MCZ) and Lloyd Davis, Jr. (Gainesville) for 
providing colonies of species not readily available to the author. Mark Deyrup (Archibald 
Biological Station) cheerfully provided transportation during a visit to Florida. Rick 
McWhite and Carl Patrick (National Resources, Eglin Air Force Base) provided assistance 
in visiting sites on the base. This paper was reviewed by Don Webb, John Bouseman, and 
Wallace LaBerge (Illinois Natural History Survey, Champaign, Illinois) and two anony- 
mous reviewers. Where possible I have attempted to incorporate reviewer's comments. 1 
accept responsibility for any remaining errors or omissions. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Bhatkar, A. P. 1992. Mating success in Monomorium minimum (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). 

J. Kans. Entomol. Soc. 65(3): 244 - 250. 
Bolton, B. 1995. A New General Catalogue of the Ants of the World. Harvard Univ. Press, 

Cambridge, MA. 504 pp. 
Brown, W. L., Jr. 1943. A new metallic ant from the Pine Barrens of New Jersey. 

Entomol. News 54: 243 - 248. 
Dennis, C. A. 1938. The distribution of ant species in Tennessee with reference to ecological 

factors. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 31: 267 - 308. 
DuBois, B. R. and M. B. DuBois. 1994. Colony founding by queens of Solenopsis molesta 

(Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Entomol. News 105(2): 61 - 68. 
DuBois, M. B. 1986. A revision of the native New World species of the ant genus 

Monomorium (minimum group) (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Univ. Kans. Sci. Bull. 53: 

65- 119. 
Gregg, R. E. 1944. The ants of the Chicago region. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 37(4): 447 - 

480. 

Gregg, R. E. 1945. Two new forms of Monomorium (Formicidae). Psyche 52: 62 - 69. 
Holldobler, B. and E. O. Wilson. 1990. The Ants. Harvard Univ. Press, Cambridge, MA. 

732 pp. 
Keller, L. 1998. Queen lifespan and colony characteristics in ants and termites. Insectes 

Soc. 45: 235 -246. 
Peacock, A. D. and A. T. Baxter. 1950. Studies in Pharaoh's ant Monomorium pharaonis 

(L.). 3. Life history. Entomol. Mon. Mag. 86: 171 - 178. 
Peacock, A. D., J. H. Sudd and A. T. Baxter. 1955. Studies in Pharaoh's ant Monomorium 

pharaonis (L.). 11. Colony foundation. Entomol. Mon. Mag. 91: 125 - 129. 



Vol. 1 1 1 , No. 1 , January & February, 2000 2 1 

NEW DISTRIBUTIONAL DATA AND FIRST RECORD 

OF GREGARIOUS BEHAVIOR FOR AEGITHUS 

MELASPIS (COLEOPTERA: EROTYLIDAE) 

FROM MEXICO 1 

Jose Luis Navarrete-Heredia^, Rodolfo Novelo-Gutierrez^ 

ABSTRACT: New distributional records and observations of the gregarious behavior for 
Aegithus melaspis from Mexico are provided. 

Erotylid beetles are primarily mycophagous, mostly feeding on macro- 
basidiomycetes, although the species differ in particular requirements of fun- 
gal structures: some are surface grazers while others feed on gills or context 
(Skelleyera/. 1991). 

In Mexico, the Erotylidae comprise about 100 species (Alvarenga 1994; 
Johnson 1967, Skelley 1998). Aegithus Fabricius is an American genus with 
76 species, of which 12 have been recorded from Mexico (Alvarenga 1994). In 
his treatment of the Erotylidae in the Biologia Centrali Americana, Gorham 
(1888) divided the genus into two groups: A, with smooth, not striate, elytra, 
and B, with gemellate-striate elytra. 

Aegithus melaspis Gorham belongs to Group A. It is easily recognized 
within that group by its uniform dull brick-red color, and its moderately con- 
vex, smooth body, which is a little shiny ventrally. The antennae are mostly 
black, with the two basal antennomeres red; the tibiae, tarsi and scutellum are 
black. The male has a "punctiform setigerous dot" on the middle of the first 
visible abdominal sternite. This structure is similar to the "median pubescent 
fovea" present in some male ciids (Lawrence 1971). 

Presently A. melaspis is known from Mexico [Chilpancingo (Guerrero), 
Presidio and Orizaba (Veracruz), Tehuantepec (Oaxaca)], Guatemala (San 
Geronimo), and Nicaragua (Chontales). Here we provide new distributional 
data and field notes for A. melaspis. 

Material examined: GUERRERO: Mochitlan, Acahuizotla, tropical subdeciduous forest 
(TSDF), 650m, 8.1 V.I 986, L. Delgado, under bark (1 Male, 6 Female); JALISCO: Casimiro 
Castillo, TSDF, 390m, 25.11.1994, J.L. Navarrete, ex log with mycelia (2M, 2F); Puerto Vallarta, 
Ejido Las Palmas, 2049-N, 10504'W, TSDF, 1.VIII.1998, S. Guerrero and S. Zalapa, ex fungus 



1 Received March 17, 1999. Accepted June 30, 1999. 

2 Entomologia, Centro de Estudios en Zoologia, CUCBA, Universidad de Guadalajara, 
Apdo. Postal 234, 45100, Zapopan, Jalisco, Mexico. 

3 Departamento de Entomologfa, Institute de Ecologfa, A. C., Apdo. Postal 63, 91000. 
Xalapa, Veracruz, Mexico. 

ENT. NEWS 111(1), 21-24, January & February, 2000 



22 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



( 1 M, IF) (new state record that extend the distribution of this species approximately 1 ,050 km NW 
from Chilpancingo); MICHOACAN: Gabriel Zamora, tropical deciduous forest, 920m, 
9.VI.1998, R. Novelo, on trunk of Ficus petiolaris H.B.K. tree (106M, 61F) (new state record). 
Specimens are deposited in the entomological collections of the Centra de Estudios en Zoologfa, 
Universidad de Guadalajara (CZUG), Instituto de Biologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de 
Mexico (IBUNAM) and Instituto de Ecologfa, A.C. (IEXA). 

The specimens from Michoacan were collected around 1100 h during a 
warm sunny day. Hundreds of imagoes were observed on a Ficus petiolaris 
tree (amate amarillo); individuals were located mainly from the basal por- 
tion of the tree trunk to approximately two meters high, completely covering its 
circumference. Some of the beetles were copulating while others remained 
crowded in several irregular large masses (Fig. 1). Apparently, the individuals 
were moving from the tree's base to the branches since the greatest abundance 
was observed at the lower part of the trunk. Furthermore, the ground around 
the tree was covered with a thick layer of decaying leaves well wetted by the 
previous night's heavy rain, the first after a long period of drought. Individu- 
als apparently came out from this layer or maybe from the rock crevices in 
which the tree roots were attached. 

There is little information available on the life cycles of the Erotylidae; 
however, some data indicate that larval and pupal stages are rather brief, while 
imagoes are longer-lived, becoming quiescent during unfavorable seasons 
(Skelley et al. 1991). In this context, the first heavy rain we observed probably 
was the trigger to break off such quiescence and to start the reproductive be- 
havior of adults, which emerged in synchrony from the ground. This synchro- 
nous pattern enables rapid mate localization (Goodrich and Skelley 1991). Fur- 
thermore, the gregarious behavior plus the aposematic coloration of adults of 
this species could reduce the risks of predation during reproductive activity 
[for other examples in mycophagous species see Leschen (1994)], which ap- 
parently is very brief in A. melaspis, since after a period of 2.5 hours there was 
no evidence of any individuals. It is not known whether they flew away look- 
ing for a suitable place to oviposit or returned to the leaf litter. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

We thank M. K. Thayer (Field Museum of Natural History) and M. A. Moron (Insti- 
tute of Ecology) for their invaluable criticism to improve the final manuscript. Dr. Mor6n 
also provided the name of the host tree. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Alvarenga, M. 1994. Catalogo dos Erotylidae (Coleoptera) Neotropicais. Revta bras. 
Zool. 11(1): 1-175. 



Vol. Ill, No. 1, January & February, 2000 



23 




Figure 1 . Accumulations of Aegithus melaspis adults on Ficus petiolaris ( ft Top). 



24 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Goodrich, M. A. and P. E. Skelley. 1991. The Pleasing fungus beetles of Illinois (Co- 

leoptera: Erotylidae). Part I. The Dacninae. Trans. 111. St. Acad. Sci. 84(3-4): 155-172. 
Gorham, H. S. (1888. Erotylidae. In: Godman, F. D. and O. Salvin, eds., Biologia 

Centrali-Americana, Insecta, Coleoptera. Vol. 7:49-112. 
Johnson, D. H. 1967. Neotropical species of the genus Triplax Herbst and review of the 

genus Haematochiton Gorham (Coleoptera: Erotylidae). Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 123(3601): 

1-25. 
Lawrence, J. F. 1971. Revision of the North American Ciidae (Coleoptera). Bull. Mus. 

Comp. Zool. 142(5): 419-522. 

Leschen, R. A. B. 1994. Ecological and behavioral correlates among mycophagous Co- 
leoptera. Folia Entomol. Mex. (92): 9-19. 
Skelley, P. E. 1998. Revision of the genus Ischyrux Lacordaire (1842) of North and 

Central America (Coleoptera: Erotylidae: Tritominae). Occ. Pap. Fla. St. Coll. Arthr. 

9: 1-134. 
Skelley, P. E., M. A. Goodrich and R. A. B. Leschen. 1991. Fungal host records for 

Erotylidae (Coleoptera: Cucujoidea) of America North of Mexico. Entomol. News 

102(2): 57-72. 



BOOK REVIEW 

AN AFFAIR WITH AFRICA, Alzada C. Kistner. 1998. Island Press. Wash- 
ington, DC. 246 pp. $24.95 (hardcover). 

Can an entomological book be a thriller? Alzada Kistner, a trained biologist, demonstrates 
that the answer can be yes. This book is a superb combination of biology, history, culture, adven- 
ture, and at times sheer terror, all the while showing the love of an entomologist for her subject 
and science. It provides an insight into how the minds of dedicated entomologists work and is an 
inspiration for those not able to live the lives of the author and her family. 

The "Affair" starts in 1960 in the heart of Belgian Congo just three weeks before its inde- 
pendence and progresses for 13 years through troubled political times in Africa as the continent 
is changing from colonial to independent rule. The central focus of the book is the entomology of 
myrmecophiles and termitophiles, little staphylinid beetle "guests" living in ant and termite colo- 
nies. Unlike most scholarly entomological treatises, the other elements of life - the oppressive 
heat and mosquitoes, the risk of life to lions, elephants, green mambas, violent mobs, and dicta- 
tors, and the wonderful people who helped them throughout their investigations - are not omit- 
ted. Woven throughout the book are facts and insights into the biology of the beetles, ants and 
termites that are being studied. Kistner provides a pictorial and historical account of biology in 
colonial Africa in a time that has now disappeared. 

Although this book defies simple classification, it does work its magic on the reader. It is 
written in a positive, cheerful style that reaches out and grabs the reader and reveals the author's 
love of insects, people and science. Every so often a book comes along that serves to inspire. 
This is one of those rare books. 

Justin O. Schmidt 

Southwestern Biol. Institute 

1961 W. Brichta Dr.,Tuscon, AZ 85745 

Editor's P.S. Although a century later, and the searching was for infinitely smaller organisms, 
this is a fascinating epic of biological exploration in the tradition of earlier 19th Century explor- 
ers. The book is equally as fascinating for the first hand experiences of the Kistners through the 
changing times in Africa during the second half of the 20th Century as for their experiences 
collecting myrmecophiles and termitophiles. This is highly recommended, pleasurable, and in- 
formative reading. 

H.P.B. 



Vol. 1 1 1 , No. 1 , January & February, 2000 25 



PLATYDORYCTES, A NEW DORYCTINAE GENUS 
FROM BRAZIL (HYMENOPTERA: BRACONIDAE) 1 

Sandra Maria Barbalho, Angelica M. Penteado-Dias^ 

ABSTRACT: One new Doryctinae genus, Platydoryctes and 4 new species (P. soaresi, P. 
duckensis, P. amazonensis and P. rafaeli) are described from Brazil. This new genus is char- 
acterized by its dorsoventrally flattened body. 

Wasps of the subfamily Doryctinae belong to the cyclostome Braconidae, 
which have a circular or oval oral opening formed by a concave clypeus and 
labrum (Sharkey, 1993; Marsh, 1997). They are distinguished from other cy- 
clostome Braconidae by the following characters: fore tibia with a row of spines 
along the anterior edge (90%); presence of a flange at the apico-lateral edges of 
propleurum that extends over the ventral-lateral corner of the pronotum 
(Achterberg, 1993); and dorsal valve of the ovipositor with a double node at 
apex (Quicke, 1992). They vary considerably in color and size, normally have 
a cubic head and long ovipositor and possess a type 1 venom apparatus (Edson 
& Vinson, 1979, Quicke et al, 1992 and Barbalho & Penteado-Dias, 1997). 
Most are solitary idiobiont ectoparasitoids of Coleoptera larvae; species of 
this group are found worldwide. 

The number of described genera is 140, but this should increase to well 
over 200 (Marsh, 1993) with more studies in the Neotropical region. Recent 
studies with the Neotropical fauna of Doryctinae (as part of a major project by 
the first author) have revealed more undescribed genera. 

This paper provides the description of an interesting new genus, with a flat 
body. Although we have no information on the biology of this genus, its flat 
body probably is associated with the type of host it attacks, or the microhabitat 
where the host is found. 

This new genus is characterized by its dorsoventrally flattened body and 
the four new species are included in the same genus mainly because of this 
character. These new species are not included in Sharkeyella Marsh (another 
flat bodied genus) because of the coarsely and densely hairy ovipositor sheaths 
found in this genus (see coments). 

The subfamily Doryctinae can be identified following keys provided by 
Sharkey, 1993 and Marsh, 1997 and their genera can be identified following 
Marsh, 1997. Type specimens are deposited in DCBU Collection (Departa- 
mento de Ecologia e Biologia Evolutiva da Universidade Federal de Brazil. 



1 Received May 29, 1999. Accepted August 20, 1999. 

2 Departamento de Ecologia e Biologia Evolutiva, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, 
Via Washington Luiz, Km 235, Caixa Postal 676, CEP 13.565-905, Sao Carlos, SP. 

ENT. NEWS 1 1 1 ( 1 ), 25-3 1 , January & February, 2000 



26 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Sao Carlos, Sao Paulo, Brazil), INPA Collection ( Institute Nacional de 
Pesquisas da Amazonia, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil) and in CNC (Canadian 
National Collection, Ottawa, Canada). 

Platydoryctes Barbalho and Penteado-Dias, NEW GENUS 

(Figures 1-17) 

Type species Platydoryctes soaresi n. spec., Barbalho & Penteado-Dias. 

Body dorso-ventrally flattened; occipital carina present and not meeting hypostomal 
carina; face striate; head 1 .2- 1 .3 times longer than its height; eye width 1 .5-3.3 times temple 
width; first flagellomere length about equal to length of scape and pedicel combined; 
propleurum smooth; mesonotum not declivous anteriorly or slightly more elevated 
than pronotum; notauli few developed; scutellum granulate; sternaulus complete and 
smooth; propodeum rugose; wings hyaline or banded; vein m-cu in fore wing reaching 
before (Fig. 17) or basad (Fig. 15) with 2RS; first subdiscal cell open at apex, 2 cu-a 
absent; vein m-cu in hind wing absent; hind coxae with or without tubercle. Body length 
3.0-4. 1mm 

Comments. This genus differs from Sharkeyella Marsh, another flat bod- 
ied genus, because Sharkeyella has T2 with longitudinal striate grooves con- 
verging to base of third tergum (in Platydoryctes the grooves are parallel or 
diverge before the third tergum) and has notauli scrobiculate anteriorly and 
obscured posteriorly by wide rugose area before scutelum (in Platydoryctes 
notauli is absent or few developed). Besides, Sharkeyella is characterized by 
its coarsely and densely hairy ovipositor sheaths. These characters are not 
present in Platydoryctes. 

Key to the species of Platydoryctes, NEW GENUS, 
Barbalho & Penteado-Dias: 



1. Frons and vertex smooth; M+CU in hind wing longer than IM 

(Fig. 16) P- duckensis 

Frons and vertex granulate; M+CU equal to or shorter than IM 2 

2. (1) Tl 3 times longer than apical width; propodeum with 3 central longi- 

tudinal carinae united to form a single carina apically and with a carina 

on each side (Fig. 13), r-m in fore wing absent (Fig. 17) P. atnazonensis 

Tl less than 2 times longer than apical width and propodeum without central 

longitudinal carinae (Figs 2, 5); r-m in fore wing present (Fig. 15) 3 

3. (2) Head 1 ,2 times longer than width; temple smooth and shining P. soaresi 

Head 2 times longer than width; temple granulate P. rafaeli 



Vol. 1 1 1 , No. 1 , January & February, 2000 27 

Platydoryctes soaresi Barbalho & Penteado-Dias, NEW SPECIES 

(Figures 1-3, 15) 

Holotype: Head. Flat in lateral view; occipital carina present and not meeting hypostomal 

carina; face striate; vertex granulate; frons granulate; temples smooth; head 1.2 times 

longer than height; head width 2.3 times eye width; oral opening short, about half of eye 

height; eye width 1.5 time temple width; malar space 1.2 times oral opening; 22 anten- 

nomeres; first flagellomere length about equal to length of scape and pedicel combined. 

Mesosoma. Flat in lateral view; pronotum large in dorsal view, about 1/4 of mesoscutum 

length; propleuron smooth; mesonotum height half of its width; mesonotum only slightly 

more elevated than pronotum; mesoscutum granulate and with a granulate-rugose area in 

apical half (Fig. 1); notauli absent; scutellum granulate; sternaulus complete and smooth; 

propodeum rugose with lateral longitudinal carina slightly impressed (Fig. 2); legs slightly 

granulate; fore tibia with a row of 5 short spines; hind coxa without distinct basal tubercle. 

Fore wings. (Fig. 15) Banded; m-cu arising basad 2RS', r-m vein present; first subdiscal cell 

open at apex, 2cu-a absent . 

Hind wings. (Figure 15) M+CU about equal to 1M; m-cu not tubular; r-m length 0.4 of IM. 

Metasoma. (Fig. 3) Tl 1.4 times longer than apical width, Tl striate, T2 granulate-striate; 

T3-4 granulate and remaining terga smooth and shinning; ovipositor length 1/3 of metasoma. 

Color. Body brown; wings banded, stigma dark brown. 

Body length. 3.1 mm. 

Male. Unknown. 

Distribution. Santa Catarina and Sao Paulo states, Brazil. 

Holotype. 1 female, Fazenda Canchim, EMBRAPA,Sao Carlos, SP, Brasil, October 10, 1985, 

A . S. Soares col., (DCBU). 

Paratype. 1 female, Seara (= Nova Teutonia), Santa Catarina, Brasil, November 26, 1940, 

(CNC). 

Etymology. This species is named for technician and collector of the 
holotype Airton Santo Soares from the Department of Ecology and Evolution- 
ary Biology, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos. 

Platydoryctes rafaeli Barbalho & Penteado-Dias, NEW SPECIES 

(Figures 4-6) 

Agrees with the description of P. soaresi except as follows: temple granulate; head 1.2 
time longer than height; head width 1.6 time eye width; eye width 2.0 times temple width; 
antennae were broken; mesopleuron granulate; mesoscutum granulate and with a striate 
area in apical half (Figure 4); hind coxae with basal tubercle; propodeum striate-rugose (Fig. 
5); Tl 1.5 times longer than apical width; Tl with dorsal carinae extending to the apex of 
the tergum (Fig. 6); Tl-2 striate, remaining terga granulate (Fig. 6); ovipositor longer than 
metasoma; fore wings hyaline; body brown except propodeum and Tl black. Wings as in 
Fig. 16. Body length 4,0 mm. 
Male. Unknown. 

Distribution. Rondonia state, Brazil. 

Holotype 1 female, Ariquemes, Rondonia, Brasil; November, 28, 1986, J. A . Rafael col.. 
Malaise trap ,(INPA). 

Etymology. This species is named for entomologist Dr. Jose Albertino 
Rafael, from Institute Nacional de Pesquisas na Amazonia , Manaus, Amazonas. 



28 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 




s*- 



14 



Platydoryctes soaresi . 1, Mesoscutum; 2, propodeum; 3, metasoma. P. rafaeli. 4, meso- 
scutum; 5, propodeum; 6, metasoma. P. duckensis . 7, lateral view of the head and mesosoma; 
8, head; 9, mesoscutum; 10, propodeum; 1 1, metasoma. P. amazonensis. 12, mesoscutum; 
13, propodeum; 14, metasoma. ( scale bars = 0.5mm, except to fig. 9 = 0.6 mm). 



Vol. 1 1 1 , No. 1 , January & February, 2000 



29 





15 





17 



Platydoryctes soaresi. 15, wings. P. duckensis. 16, hind wing. P. amazonensis. 17, fore 
wing (scale bars = 0.5 mm). 



30 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Platydoryctes duckensis Barbalho & Penteado-Dias, NEW SPECIES 

(Figures 7-11, 16) 

Agrees with the description of P. soaresi except as follows: flatter than the holotype 
and other species (Fig. 7); entire head smooth and shinning (Fig. 8); head 1.3 time longer 
than height; head width 2.1 times eye width; eye width 2 times temple width; 22-23 
antennomeres; oral opening 1,8 times longer than malar space; mesoscutum not declivous 
anteriorly; mesoscutum 2.6 times longer than its height; mesoscutum sculpture as in 
Figure 9; fore coxae extremely flat; propodeum rugose as in Fig. 10; Tl rugose (Fig. 1 1), 
T2 and half of T3 striate, T4 rugose in basal half (Fig. 11); in hind wings M+CU longer 
than IM (Fig. 16). Body length 3.2 mm. 
Male. Unknown. 

Distribution. Amazonas and Rondonia states, Brazil 

Holotype. 1 female, Reserva Ducke, Manaus, Amazonas, Brasil, October 13, 1988, J. A . 
Rafael col., elevattd trap, (INPA). 

Paratype. 1 female, Ariquemes, Rondonia, Brasil, November, 28, 1986, J. A . Rafael col, 
Malaise trap, (DCBU). 

Etymology. The name duckensis refers to the locality Reserva Ducke, 
near Manaus, Amazonas. 

Platydoryctes amazonensis Barbalho & Penteado-Dias, NEW SPECIES 

(Figures 12-14, 17) 

Agrees with the description of P. soaresi except as follows: flatter, more than 22 
antenomeres; head 1.3 times longer than height; head width 1.8 time eyes width; eyes 
width 3.3 times longer than temple; malar space 1.6 longer than oral opening; mesoscutum 
as in Figure 12; propodeum granulate and with 3 strong central carinae and 2 lateral 
carinae (Fig. 13); in fore wings r-m absent; in hind wings m-cu absent (Fig. 17); Tl 3 times 
longer than apical width; Tl with 2 longitudinal carinae extending to the apex of the 
tergum (Fig. 14); Tl granulate; T2-3 striate, remaining terga smooth (Fig. 14). Body 
length 4,1 mm. 

Although vein r-m in fore wing is absent in this species, it is included in this genus 
because it has all the other characters of the genus. 
Male. Unknown. 

Distribution. Amazonas state, Brazil. 

Holotype. 1 female, Manaus, Amazonas, Reserva Ducke, Brasil, December 20, 1977, 
Norman Penny col., light trap, (INPA). 

Etymology. The name P. amazonensis refers to the Brazilian state of 
Amazonas. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

We thank Paul Marsh for the loan of material and help with the project of the first 
author; CNC (Canadian National Collection) for the loan of specimens; CPPSE (Centro de 
Pesquisa de Pecu^ria do Sudeste), EMBRAPA, Sao Carlos, SP for permits to collect the 
specimens; FAPESP (Fundacao e Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de Sao Paulo) and CNPq 
(Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientifico e Tecnol6gico) for financial support; 
Gl^ucia Marconato for the drawings. 



Vol. 1 1 1 , No. I , January & February, 2000 3 1 



LITERATURE CITED 

Achterberg, C. van. 1993. Illustrated key to the subfamilies of the Braconidae (Hy- 

menoptera, Braconidae). Zool. Verhand. 283: 1-189. 
Barbalho, S. M. & A. M. Penteado-Dias 1997. Morfologia do Aparelho de Veneno dos 

Braconidae Cyclostome (Hymenoptera). Revta. Bras. Zool., 14 (1): 65-71. 
Edson, K. M. & S. B. Vinson 1979. A comparative morphology of the venom apparatus of 

female braconids (Hymenoptera, Braconidae). Can. Entomol. Ill: 1013-1024. 
Marsh, P. M. 1993. Description of New Western Hemisphere Genera of the Subfamily 

Doryctinae (Hymenoptera, Braconidae). Contr. Amer. Entomol. Institute, 28 (1): 1-58. 
Marsh, P.M. 1997. Subfamily Doryctinae, pp 206-233. In: Wharton, R. A. Marsh. P. M. 

& Sharkey, M.T. eds. Manual of the New World Genera of the Family Braconidae. 

Spec. Pub. Int. Soc. Hymen. No. 1, 439 pp. 
Sharkey, M. J. 1993. Family Braconidae. In: Goulet, H. & J. T. Huber. Hymenoptera of 

the world: an identification guide to families. Centre for Land and Biol. Resources 

Research, Ottawa-Ontario, Research Branch Agric. Can. Publ., pp. 362-395. 
Quicke, D. L. J.; Tunstead, J.; Falco, J. V. & P. M. Marsh. 1992. Venom gland and 

reservoir morphology in Doryctinae and related braconid wasps (Insecta, Hymenoptera, 

Braconidae). Zool. Scripta 21: 403-416. 
Wharton, R. A., P. M. Marsh and M. J. Sharkey, 1997. Manual of the New World 

Genera of the Family Braconidae. Spec. Pub. Int. Soc. Hymen. No. 1, 439 pp. 

BOOKS RECEIVED AND BRIEFLY NOTED 

BIODIVERSITY OF THE DOMATIA OCCUPANTS (ANTS, WASPS, 
BEES, AND OTHERS) OF THE SRI LANKAN MYRMECOPHYTE 
HUMBOLDTIA LAURIFOLIA VAHL (FABACEAE). 1999. K.V. Krombein, 
B.B. Norden, M.M. Rickson, and F.R. Rickson. Smithsonian Contributions to 
Zoology, No. 603., Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC. 34 pp. 
8V 2 x 11. Paper. 

HumboUltia laurifolia is a common, and endemic, understory tree in the lowland rain forests 
of Sri Lanka. Although it is a myrmecophyle, it also attracts a diversity of invertebrate associates 
and possesses a morphology and phenology, including expanded, hollow, self-opening intern- 
odes, and a variety of extrafloral nectaries, that facilitate a strong relationship with ants. In this 
contribution, the authors discuss the variety of organisms interacting with and inhabiting this 
tree, including, among many others, fourteen taxa of ants, an internode nesting crabronine wasp, 
an undescribed social xylocopine bee, and several ant predators. 

MILLIONS OF MONARCHS, BUNCHES OF BEETLES: HOW BUGS FIND 
STRENGTH IN NUMBERS. 2000. Gilbert Waldbauer. Harvard University 
Press. 264 pp. Hard. $24.95. 

In this popularization of insect life, Waldbauer focuses on the group behavior of species 
that are not as highly organized, socially, or as well known for their social behavior as termites, 
ants, bees, and wasps. The emphasis in this interesting volume is on ladybird beetles, locusts, 
mayflies, butterflies, sawfly larvae, tent caterpillars, and others. Why these insects form aggre- 
gations and what they get out of their associations are questioned and carefully considered. In 
addition to the possibility of safety in numbers, many other factors may be involved such as 
control of temperature and humidity, better food and housing, better chances to mate, and coop- 
erative defense against attacks. 



32 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



NEW SPECIES AND A NEW RECORD OF 
BORDONTILLA (HYMENOPTERA: MUTILLIDAE) 

FROM CHILE 1 

James P. Pitts 2 

ABSTRACT: Bordontilla cycloflava, B. nigra, B. obscura and B. xanthomaculata are 
newly described from Chile. Bordontilla patagonica is newly recorded from Chile. A key 
to the species of Bordontilla is provided. 

Fritz and Martinez (1975) described Bordontilla as a monotypic genus in 
the subfamily Sphaeropthaminae. This genus includes one of the southern-most 
mutillids known. Bordontilla is characterized by the presence of a fine and 
distinct curved carina that separates the pronotum from the mesonotum, a 
strongly convex mesosoma and a prominently tuberculate clypeus. No other 
information on this genus has been published since the initial work. 

Only females of the genus Bordontilla have been described. The males 
may have been described as Neomutilla Reed (1898), since only males of 
Neomutilla have been described and these occur in the same region. However, 
only the collection of a male and female in copula or host records will confirm 
this association. As with most mutillids known today, the natural history and 
host records are unknown. 

Four new species of Bordontilla are described, illustrated and discussed 
below. 

MATERIALS AND TERMINOLOGY 

Specimens for this study were borrowed from, and are deposited in, the 
following collections: Canadian National Collections: Ottawa, Ontario 
(CNCI); J.P. Pitts Collection: Athens, Georgia (JPPC). 

T2, T3, etc., denotes the second, third, etc., metasomal tergites respectively, while S2, S3, 
etc., signifies the second, third, etc., metasomal sternites respectively. 

Bordontilla cycloflava, NEW SPECIES (Fig. 1 A) 

Diagnosis. This species is readily distinguished from other females of 
the genus by the following characters: head and mesosoma stramineous, 



1 Received May 28, 1999. Accepted September 6, 1999. 

2 University of Georgia, Department of Entomology, Athens, Georgia 30602. 

ENT. NEWS 111(1), 32-38, January & February, 2000 



Vol. 1 1 1 , No. 1 , January & February, 2000 33 



metasoma piceous with one medial maculation of T2, the condition of the ca- 
rina on the dorsal margin of the mesosoma and humeral carina not angulate. 

Description of Female. Coloration of head and mesosoma stramineous. S1-S2 com- 
pletely and Tl stramineous basally. T2-T5 and S3-S5 piceous. T2 medially with stramineous 
round maculation. T6 and S6 stramineous. Legs stramineous with infuscated joints. Pu- 
bescence golden brown on vertex of head and dorsum of mesosoma. Abdominal pubes- 
cence fuscous. Legs with pale pubescence. 

Clypeus with posterior border distinctly dentate, median region strongly gibbose, 
with a deep circular depression laterally and below antennal scape, median anterior region 
and lateral regions with long pale pubescence. First flagellomere longer than pedicel, and 
terminal flagellomere longer than preceding segment, with apex obtusely angular. Gena 
sparsely punctate. 

Mesosoma with disk of pronotum, mesonotum, dorsal and lateral faces of propodeum, 
and metapleura sparsely punctate and nitid. Humeri carinate. A fine carina delimits 
pronotum from mesonotum and is connected by lateral carina to propodeal spiracle, 
indistinct just anterior to spiracle. Propodeal spiracle tuberculate. Propodeum without a 
distinct lateral carina posterior to propodeal spiracle. Propleuron impunctate, with long, 
pale, dense and decumbent pubescence. Mesopleura impunctate, anteriorly with pale 
decumbent pubescence. 

Metasoma with T1-T2 sparsely punctate and with sparse erect pubescence. T3-T6 
with larger punctation and denser pubescence. SI with median elevated carina, notched 
medially. S2-S6 with punctation, last with apex weakly truncate. Pygidial area glabrous, 
nitid and undefined laterally. 

Length. 5 mm 

Male. Unknown 

Holotype, E: Chile, Malleco, Puren, Contulmo Nat. Mon., 350 m, mixed Evergreen 
For., FIT, ll.XII. 1984-13. II. 1985, Coll. S. and J. Peck (CNCI). Paratypes, 2E: Chile, 
Alto de Vilches, 70 km E Talca, 5. XII. 1984-20.11. 1985, Coll. S. and J. Peck (CNCI and 
JPPC). 

Discussion. This species is similar to B. patagonica with the humeral 
carina not angulate and the clypeus prominently tuberculate. It is similar to B. 
xanthomaculata in coloration, but differs from this species by the humeral 
carina, the clypeus more prominently tuberculate and second metasomal terg- 
ite with one maculation. 

Etymology. From the Greek cyclo "a circle" and the Latin flava "yel- 
low," in reference to the stramineous coloration of the second metasomal 
segment. 

Bordontilla nigra, NEW SPECIES (Fig. IB) 

Diagnosis. This species is readily distinguishable from other females of 
the genus by the following characters: head, mesosoma and metasoma 
concolorous, the dorsum of mesosoma finely striate, appearing dull and 
humeral carina angulate. 

Description of Female. Coloration of head, mesosoma and metasoma fusco-pi- 
ceous to piceous. Mandibles and flagellum fuscous. Trochanters, femora basally, tibial 



34 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



spurs and tarsi infuscated testaceous. Pubescence piceous on vertex of head and dorsum of 
mesosoma, pale stramineous on front and lateral margins of head, laterally on mesosoma 
and on legs; Tl, all sternites and apical fringe of T2-T5 with pale pubescence; T2-T6 with 
piceous erect pubescence on disk. Pubescence of legs pale. 

Clypeus with posterior border distinctly dentate, median region strongly gibbose, with 
a deep circular depression laterally and below antennal scape, median anterior region and 
lateral regions, with long pale setae. First flagellomere as long as pedicel, and terminal 
flagellomere longer than preceding segment, with apex obtusely angular. Gena punctate 
and finely striate ventrally. 

Mesosoma with disk of pronotum, mesonotum, dorsal and lateral faces of propodeum, 
and metapleura punctate and finely striate, appearing granulate and dull at low magnifica- 
tion. Humeri with angulate carina. A fine carina delimits pronotum from mesonotum and 
is connected by lateral carina to propodeal spiracle. Propodeal spiracle tuberculate. Small, 
glabrous, nitid region on dorsum situated medially from propodeal spiracle. Propleura 
punctate and finely striate with long, pale, dense and decumbent pubescence. Mesopleura 
punctate and finely striate, anteriorly with pale decumbent pubescence, posteriorly gla- 
brous and nitid. Latero-posterior region of propodeum punctate, with long pubescence. 
Legs with dense fuscous pubescence. 

Metasoma with T1-T2 sparsely punctate and with sparse erect pubescence. T3-T6 
with larger punctation and denser pubescence. SI with median elevated carina that is 
notched medially. S2-S6 with sparse punctation, last with apex weakly truncate. Pygidial 
area glabrous, nitid and undefined laterally. 

Length. 6 mm 

Male. Unknown 

Holotype, 9: Chile, Cautin, 15 km NE Villarrica, Flordel Lago, 14. XII. 1984- 
10.11.1985, Coll. S. and J. Peck (CNCI). 

Discussion. This species is similar to B. xanthomaculata and B. obscura 
with the angulate humeral carina. The coloration and striations of dorsum and 
head are different from any described species of Bordontilla. 

Etymology. From the Latin nigra "black," in reference to the piceous 
coloration of body. 

Bordontilla obscura, NEW SPECIES (Fig. ID) 

Diagnosis. This species is readily distinguished from other females of the 
genus by the following characters: head and mesosoma ferruginous and 
the metasoma piceous, the dorsum of mesosoma and lateral margin of 
propodeum carinate and humeral carina angulate. 

Description of Female. Head, mesosoma and legs ferruginous. Metasoma piceous. 
Tl basally and SI completely infuscated ferruginous. Vertex of head, pronotum, median 
band on mesonotum, and lateral spot on propodeum infuscated. Legs infuscated, femora 
and tibial base lighter. Pubescence brown on vertex of head and dorsum of mesosoma and 
metasoma. All sternites and apical fringe of T2-T5 with pale pubescence. Legs with dense 
fuscous pubescence. 

Clypeus with posterior border moderately dentate, median region moderately gibbose, 
and laterally below antennal scape with a deep circular depression, median anterior region 
and lateral regions with long pale setae. First flagellomere as long as pedicel, terminal 



Vol. 1 1 1 , No. 1 , January & February, 2000 35 



flagellomere slightly longer than preceding segment, with apex obtusely angular. Gena 
sparsely punctate. 

Mesosoma with disk of pronotum, mesonotum. dorsal and lateral faces of propodeum, 
and metapleura sparsely punctate and nitid. Humeri with angulate carina. A fine carina 
delimits pronotum from mesonotum and is connected by lateral carina to propodeal 
spiracle. Propodeal spiracle tuberculate. Propodeum with distinct sinuous lateral carina 
beginning at propodeal spiracle. Propleuron with long pale pubescence, dense and de- 
cumbent, impunctate. Mesopleura impunctate, anteriorly with pale decumbent pubes- 
cence. 

Metasoma with T1-T2 sparsely punctate and with very sparse erect pubescence. T3- 
T6 with larger punctation and denser pubescence. SI with median elevated carina, notched 
medially. S2-S6 with punctations, last with apex weakly truncate. Pygidial area glabrous, 
nitid and undefined laterally. 

Length. 3.5 mm 

Male. Unknown 

Holotype, 9: Chile, Nuble Prov., Las Trancas. 19.5 km ESE, Recinto. 1250 m, 
10. XII. 1982-3. 1. 1983, Coll. A. Newton and M. Thayer (CNCI). Paratype, 19: Chile, 
Nuble Prov., Las Trancas, 19.5 km ESE. Recinto. 1250 m. 10.XII. 1982-3. 1. 1983, Coll. A. 
Newton and M. Thayer (JPPC). 

Discussion. This species is similar to B. xanthomaculata and B. nigra 
with the humeral carinae angulate and the presence of lateral propodeal cari- 
nae. It is similar to B. patagonica in coloration, but differs from this species by 
the angulate humeral carina, the clypeus not as prominently tuberculate, sec- 
ond metasomal sternite smoothly concave (not depressed basally) and the 
piceous coloration of the metasoma. 

Etymology. From the obscura "dark," in reference to the infuscated re- 
gions on the mesosoma. 

Bordontilla xanthomaculata, NEW SPECIES (Fig. 1C) 

Diagnosis. This species is readily distinguished from other females of 
the genus by the following characters: head and mesosoma stramineous and 
metasoma piceous with two lateral maculations of T2, the condition of the 
carina on the margin of mesonotum and angulate humeral carina. 

Description of Female. Coloration of head and mesosoma stramineous. SI com- 
pletely, Tl and S2 basally stramineous. T2-T6 and S3-S6 piceous. T2 with two stramineous 
round maculations situated laterally. Legs stramineous with infuscated joints. Pygidial 
area infuscated stramineous. Pubescence golden brown on vertex of head and dorsum of 
mesosoma and metasoma. All sternites of metasoma with pale pubescence. Legs with pale 
pubescence. 

Clypeus with posterior border dentate, median region moderately gibbose, and later- 
ally below antennal scape with a circular depression, median anterior region and lateral 
regions with long pale setae. First flagellomere slightly longer than pedicel, and terminal 
flagellomere slightly longer than preceding segment, with apex obtusely angular. Gena 
sparsely punctate. 



36 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Mesosoma with disk of pronotum, mesonotum, dorsal and lateral faces of propodeum, 
and metapleura sparsely punctate and nitid. Humeri with angulate carina. A fine carina 
delimits pronotum from mesonotum and is connected by lateral carina to propodeal 
spiracle. Propodeal spiracle tuberculate. Propodeum with indistinct lateral carina posterior 
to propodeal spiracle. Propleuron impunctate with long, pale, dense and decumbent 
pubescence. Mesopleura impunctate, anteriorly with pale, decumbent pubescence. 

Metasoma with T1-T2 sparsely punctate and with sparse erect pubescence. T3-T6 
with larger punctation and denser pubescence. SI with median elevated carina. S2-S6 
sparsely punctate, last with apex weakly truncate. Pygidial area glabrous, nitid and unde- 
fined laterally. 

Length. 3 mm 

Male. Unknown 

Holotype, 9 : Chile, Alto de Vilches, 70 km E Talca, 5.XII. 1984-20.11. 1985, Coll. S. 
and J. Peck (CNCI). 

Discussion. This species is similar to B. obscura and B. nigra by having 
the humeral carina angulate and the lateral margins of propodeum carinate. 
Coloration is similar to B. cycloflava, but differs from this species by the 
angulate humeral carina, the clypeus not as prominently tuberculate and sec- 
ond metasomal tergite with two maculations. 

Etymology. From the Greek xantho "yellow" and maculata "spotted," 
in reference to the stramineous maculations of the second metasomal tergite. 

Bordontilla patagonica Fritz and Martinez (Fig. IE) 

Bordontilla patagonica Fritz and Martinez, 1975: 129 E 

Distribution. Argentina (Chubut Providence); Chile (Osorno Providence). 
New Record. Chile, Osomo Providence, Puyehue, N. P. Antillanca, 1200m, Nothofagus 
Tree Line, 16.11.1988, Coll. Lubomir Masner. 

Discussion. The holotype of B. patagonica has not been studied. The 
holotype currently resides in the Antonio Martinez Insect Collection (AMIC) 
in Salta, Argentina. This specimen, however, fits the description on all ac- 
counts. 



Vol. 1 1 1 , No. 1 , January & February, 2000 



37 




0.6 mm 



0.3 mm 




0.8 mm 




0.25 mm 




0.4 mm 



Figure 1. A. Bordontilla cycloflava, metasoma lateral view; B. B. nigra, lateral view (legs, 
antennae, and sculpture not shown); C. B. xanthomaculata, abdomen lateral view; D. B. 
obscura, thorax lateral view; E. B. patagonica, thorax lateral view. 



38 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



KEY TO FEMALE SPECIES OF BORDONTILLA 

\. Dorsum of mesosoma striate, with close punctation, appearing dull; mesosoma and 

metasoma piceous nigra, sp. nov. 

1'. Dorsum of mesosoma nitid, with sparse punctation; mesosoma not concolorous 

with metasoma 2 

2. Mesosoma stramineous; metasomal segments 2-6 not concolorous 3 

2' . Mesosoma ferruginous; metasomal segments 2-6 concolorous 4 

3. Second metasomal segment with 2 stramineous maculations (Fig. 1C); humeral 

carina distinctly angulate xanthomaculata, sp. nov. 

3'. Second metasomal segment with 1 stramineous maculation (Fig. 1A); humeral 

carina not angulate cycloflava. sp. nov. 

4. Mesosoma red, metasoma metallic blue; humeral angles distinctly angulate; 
mesopleura nitid; propodeum not carinate laterally 

(Fig. IE) patagonica Fritz and Martinez 

4'. Mesosoma red with dark spots laterally, metasoma piceous; humeral angles 
distinctly carinate; mesopleura finely striate; propodeum laterally carinate 
(Fig. ID) obscura, sp. nov. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

I thank Erich Tilgner (University of Georgia, Athens), Tatiana Volkova (University of 
Georgia, Athens) and Theresa Pitts-Singer (U.S. Forest Service, Athens, GA) for criti- 
cally reviewing drafts of this paper; John Huber (CNC1) for gracious loan of the speci- 
mens; CNCI for a CanaColl grant for travel to the CNCI for study of specimens; Denis 
Brothers (Peitermaritzburg, South Africa) for answering questions concerning this project. 
I am grateful for the financial support provided by the University of Georgia, College of 
Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Department of Entomology. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Fritz, M.A. and A. Martinez. 1975. Mutillidae Neotropicales. IV. (Hymenoptera) Un 

genero y especie nuevos de Sphaeropthalminae. Physis 34: 129-132. 
Reed, E. C. 1898. Revision de la "Mutillarias" de la obra de Gay. Rev. Chileana 2: 1-4. 



Vol. 1 1 1 , No. 1 , January & February, 2000 39 

VARIABILITY IN THE LARVAE OF SERRATELLA 
SERRATA (EPHEMEROPTERA: EPHEMERELLIDAE) 1 

Luke M. Jacobus, W. P. McCafferty 2 

ABSTRACT: Series of larval specimens of Serratella serrata from eastern North America 
exhibit previously undocumented variability in abdominal characters, especially tubercle 
armature. A redescription of the species takes this variability into account. Study of the 
specimens revealed errors in the larval key to the Serratella species. The mistakes are 
noted and corrected. 

A character of fundamental importance for the species identification of the 
larvae of many North American Ephemerellidae has been the relative devel- 
opment and placement of dorsal paired tubercles on the abdomen. This impor- 
tance is best illustrated by the much used specific keys to larvae in the genera 
Caudatella (Allen and Edmunds 196 la), Attenella (Allen and Edmunds 1961b), 
Drunella (Allen and Edmunds 1962), Serratella (Allen and Edmunds 1963a), 
Eurylophella (Allen and Edmunds 1963b, Funk and Sweeney 1994), and 
Ephemerella (Allen and Edmunds 1965). Whereas this characterization is 
presumed to be relatively stable within stated limits, we discovered an unex- 
pected and critical level of variability with respect to such characterization in 
the common eastern species Serratella serrata (Morgan). The discovery has 
prompted this report and the redescription of the larval stage of 5. serrata 
given below. Material examined is deposited in the Purdue Entomological 
Research Collection, West Lafayette, Indiana. 

Series of late instar larvae of S. serrata collected from New York, Quebec, 
and West Virginia exhibited a wide range of variability in abdominal charac- 
ters, especially in the development of the paired, submedian tubercles on the 
terga. In the initial description of the larval stage by Morgan (1911), and in a 
subsequent description by Lestage (1925) (essentially paraphrasing Morgan), 
these tubercles were described as occurring on terga 4-7. A redescription by 
Allen and Edmunds (1963a) noted small tubercles sometimes also appearing 
on terga 3 and 8. Material we have studied demonstrated development of 
tubercles from tergum 2 to tergum 9. Individual specimens exhibited a series 
of tubercles on the terga in the following combinations: terga 2-9 (Figs. 1, 2), 
terga 3-9 (Figs. 3, 4, 5, 6), terga 3-8 (Figs. 9, 10), terga 4-8 (Figs. 7, 8). The 
smallest tubercles are often best seen in lateral perspective. This armature 
sometimes appeared more darkly sclerotized than the surrounding integu- 
ment (Figs. 1, 5, 7), and in some individuals was margined or thickly covered 
with short, robust, dark setae, referred to as spicules (Figs. 5, 7), while others 



1 Received August 16, 1999. Accepted August 30, 1999. 

2 Department of Entomology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907. 

ENT. NEWS 111(1), 39-44, January & February. 2000 



40 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



were bare (Figs. 1, 3, 9). The most highly developed tubercles were somewhat 
hook-like, as seen in lateral view (Fig. 2), while others were smaller to minute 
and not curved (see especially terga 3 and 9 in Fig. 4). 

In addition to structural variability, we also noted stability and variability 
in abdominal color patterns that have been used in the diagnosis of S. serrata. 
Allen and Edmunds (1963a) described tergum 9 of S. serrata with paired 
sublateral maculae. The specimens we examined also had these maculae; how- 
ever, most specimens had sublateral maculae present on other terga as well 
(Figs. 1,3,7,9); in some, maculae were present on terga anteriorly to segment 9, 
including the first abdominal tergum (Figs. 3,9). 

Abdominal terga 5 and 6 on the larvae of S. serrata were described by 
Morgan (191 1) as "pale marked with brown pencillings." Traver (1935) also 
mentioned these pencillings. Later, Allen and Edmunds (1963a) described terga 
4-6 as "often pale." The specimens we examined varied in the degree of 
pencillings present (contrast Fig. 1 and Fig. 5) and also in the situation of pale 
areas on the terga (contrast Fig. 5 and Fig. 7). Terga 4-7 in our material varied 
with respect to the pale markings. In some specimens, terga 4 was pale in the 
posterior half (Figs. 1,3,5 ); sometimes it was entirely tan or brown (Fig. 7). 
Terga 5 and 6 most consistently were pale (Figs. 1, 3, 5, 9); however, in one 
specimen, tergum 5 was dark, and terga 6 and 7 were pale (Fig. 7). 

The larval foreleg of S. serrata, as figured by Morgan (1913), differed 
somewhat from the foreleg figured by Allen and Edmunds (1963a). Specimens 
we examined most closely matched the figure by Allen and Edmunds (1963a); 
however, there was some variation in setation that would explain the slight 
discrepancy between the two figures. 

In view of these observations, we provide a redescription of the larva of S. 
serrata below. Our description may facilitate more accurate identification of 
larvae, particularly when only one or few specimens are available in a sample. 
The description of S. serrata is of additional importance, because this species 
is the type of the genus Serratella, which was erected initially as a subgenus 
by Edmunds (1959) and later given generic status by Allen (1980). 

Serratella serrata (Morgan) 

Mature Larva. Length: body 5.0-6.0 mm; caudal filaments 1.5-2.0 mm. General 
color tan to light brown, with varied markings, pale to dark brown. Head: Vertex rough- 
ened with no distinct occipital tubercles, but with patches of spicules, often slightly raised. 
Scape and pedicel of antennae margined with dark brown. Maxillary palpi reduced, three 
segmented. Thorax: Pronotum with pair of minute submedial tubercles. Legs with femo- 
ral, tibial, and tarsal brown bands; femora stout, with long hairlike setae along hind 

margin; tarsal claws with 3-5 denticles. Abdomen: Gill lamellae on segments 3-7, imbri- 
cated, with gills 7 somewhat reduced, often obscured below gills 6; lower fimbriate 

portion of gills lamelliform. Segments 4-9 with well-developed, dorsoventrally flattened, 
posterolateral processes; processes brown medially, pale posteriorly, with row of short, 
robust setae laterally; posterolateral processes of segment 9 most acuminate. Terga vari- 



Vol. 11 1 , No. 1 , January & February, 2000 



ously marked with dark brown, with sublateral maculae present, most apparent on tergum 
9; terga 4-7 with variable large pale regions, usually most prominent on terga 5 and 6; 
tergum 4 often pale posteriorly only; tergum 7 variable. Paired submedian tubercles, on 
terga 2-9, 3-7, 3-8, 3-9, 4-8, or 4-7; most prominent and always present on terga 4-7; 
tubercle shape varies from broadly rounded protuberances to narrowly acute, sometimes 
slightly hooked processes; in some individuals some or all tubercles without spicules, in 
some individuals some tubercles with marginal spicules only, and in some individuals some 
tubercles with surface spicules. Sterna yellowish to light tan, with row of dark dashes in 
each half. Caudal filaments subequal, pale to brown, with darker median band, without 
intersegmental setae, with whorls of coarse setae distributed sparsely on apical margins of 
segments; whorl setae usually longest at approximately two-thirds distance from base to 
apex of filaments. 

Material examined. Five larvae. New York, Sullivan Co., Neversink River below 
Monticello, 1.5 mi south of SR 17, VII-18-1997, K. Riva-Murray. Six larvae. Quebec, 
Wakefied, VII-8-1931, L. J. Milne. One larva, West Virginia, Lost River, VI1I-12-1930, J. 
G. Needham. 

Remarks. From the redescription above, it is apparent that, depending on 
what variant is being keyed when using the key of Allen and Edmunds ( 1 963a), 
larvae of S. serrata could be keyed to S. Carolina (Berner and Allen) on the 
basis of the dorsal abdominal armature and an incorrect occipital figure citation 
(see below). It may also be possible that some individuals of S. serrata could be 
keyed to 5. spiculosa (Berner and Allen). These three species share the pres- 
ence of occipital spicules and a pair of pronotal tubercles by which they may be 
distinguished from S. serratoides (McDunnough), S. sordida (McDunnough), 
and S. frisoni (McDunnough). McDunnough (1931) stated that sternal mark- 
ings could be used to separate such species as S. serrata and S. serratoides from 
each other. We found that the sternal color patterns of the larvae of S. serrata, 
however, varied to such an extent that some individuals might be perceived as 
S. serratoides. If sternal markings were used exclusively, S. serrata and 5. 
serratoides could be easily confused. In all cases, the presence of pronotal tu- 
bercles will separate individuals of 5. serrata from S. serratoides, as noted by 
Traver(1932). 

Allen and Edmunds (1963a) described the caudal filaments of S. serrata as 
being "without setae". This could be somewhat misleading because the seg- 
ments of the caudal filaments indeed have setae on the apical margins, al- 
though they do lack intersegmental setae. 

Couplet 8 of the Allen and Edmunds' (1963a) larval key to the Serratella 
species refers to figures of larval heads, portraying "paired, submedial, occipi- 
tal tubercles". The numbering of the figures to which the text of the key refers 
was evidently inadvertently reversed. Their figure 12 clearly shows occipital 
tubercles as described in the key and should be labelled as figure 11; conse- 
quently, figure 1 1 should be labelled as 12. We have modified couplets 8 and 
9 from Allen and Edmunds (1963a:587) as follows to take into account the 
new-found variability and figure labelling error reported here. Figures cor- 
rectly referred to in the following couplets are those of Allen and Edmunds 
(1963a). 



42 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 




1 





Vol. 1 1 1 , No. 1 , January & February, 2000 



43 




8 





10 



Figs. 1-10. Serratella serrata late instar abdominal variability. 1. Variant 1 (dorsal). 2. Variant 1 
(lateral). 3. Variant 2 (dorsal). 4. Variant 2 (lateral). 5. Variant 3 (dorsal). 6. Variant 3 (lateral). 7. 
Variant 4 (slightly less mature) (dorsal). 8. Variant 4 (slightly less mature) (lateral). 9. Variant 5 
(dorsal). 10. Variant 5 (lateral). 



44 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



8 (7). Head with paired, submedian, occipital tubercles (fig. 12) Carolina 

Head without tubercles (fig. 1 1) or only roughened (fig. 13) 9 

9 (8). Head without tubercles, covered with numerous fine spicules as in 

figure 11; maxillary palpi with single segment (fig. 49); tarsal 

claws usually with 6 to 8 denticles (fig. 61 ) spiculosa 

Head roughened and with only patches of spicules as in figure 13; 
maxillary palpi three-segmented (fig. 50); tarsal claws usually 
with 3-5 denticles (fig. 62) serrata 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

We thank A. V. Provonsha (Purdue University) for his expertise and critical eye in 
checking the figures for this study and G. L. Lester (EcoAnalysts) for the donation of 
some specimens used in this study. Research was funded in part by a National Science 
Foundation grant DEB-9901577 to WPM. This study has been assigned Purdue Agricul- 
tural Research Program Journal Number 16047. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Allen, R. K. 1980. Geographic distribution and reclassification of the subfamily Ephe- 
merellinae (Ephemeroptera: Ephemerellidae). pp. 71-91. In: Flannagan, J. F. and K. 
E. Marshall, eds. Advances in Ephemeroptera Biology. Plenum, New York. 

Allen, R. K. and G. F. Edmunds, Jr. 196 la. A revision of the genus Ephemerella (Ephe- 
meroptera: Ephemerellidae). II. The subgenus Caudatella. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 
54: 603-612. 

Allen, R. K. and G. F. Edmunds, Jr. 1961b. A revision of the genus Ephemerella (Ephe- 
meroptera: Ephemerellidae). III. The subgenus Attenuatella. J. Kans. Entomol. Soc. 
34: 161-173. 

Allen, R. K. and G. F. Edmunds, Jr. 1962. A revision of the genus Ephemerella 
(Ephemeroptera: Ephemerellidae). V. The subgenus Drunella in North America. 
Misc. Publ. Entomol. Soc. Am. 3: 147-179. 

Allen, R. K. and G. F. Edmunds, Jr. 1963a. A revision of the genus Ephemerella (Ephe- 
meroptera: Ephemerellidae): VI. The subgenus Serratella in North America. Ann. 
Entomol. Soc. Am. 56: 583-600. 

Allen, R. K. and G. F. Edmunds, Jr. 1963b. A revision of the genus Ephemerella (Ephe- 
meroptera: Ephemerellidae). VII. The subgenus Eurvlophella. Can. Entomol. 95: 
597-623. 

Allen, R. K. and G. F. Edmunds, Jr. 1965. A revision of the genus Ephemerella (Ephe- 
meroptera: Ephemerellidae). VIII. The subgenus Ephemerella in North America. 
Misc. Publ. Entomol. Soc. Am. 4: 243-282. 

Edmunds, G. F. 1959. Subgeneric groups within the mayfly genus Ephemerella (Ephe- 
meroptera: Ephemerellidae). Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 52: 543-547. 

Funk, D. H. and B. W. Sweeney. 1994. The larvae of eastern North American Eurvlophella 
Tiensuu (Ephemeroptera: Ephemerellidae). Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 120: 209-286. 

Lestage, J. A. 1925. Contribution a 1'etude des larves des Ephemeres: Ephemerelliden. 
Ann. Biol. Lacustre 13: 227-302. 

McDunnough, J. 1931. The eastern North American species of the genus Ephemerella 
and their nymphs (Ephemeroptera). Can. Entomol. 63: 187-197, 201-216. 

Morgan, A. H. 191 1. May-flies of Fall Creek. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 4: 93-1 19. 

Morgan, A. H. 1913. A contribution to the biology of mayflies. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 
6: 371-413. 

Traver, J. R. 1932. Mayflies of North Carolina. J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. 47:85-236. 

Traver, J. R. 1935. Part II systematic. North American mayflies order Ephemeroptera, 
pp. 237-739. In: J. G. Needham, J. R. Traver and Y.-C. Hsu. The biology of mayflies. 
Comstock, Ithaca, New York. 



Vol. 1 1 1 , No. 1 , January & February, 2000 45 

PLAUDITUS GRANDIS (EPHEMEROPTERA: 

BAETIDAE), A NEW SMALL MINNOW MAYFLY 

FROM TENNESSEE 1 

N. A. Wiersema^, L. S. Long^ 

ABSTRACT: Plauditus grandis new species, is described from adult males and larvae collected 
from Tennessee. The larvae of P. grandis are distinguished from all other North American two- 
tailed baetids by their large size, distinctive leg setation, narrow labial palpi, tergal patterning, 
mandibular morphology, absence of hindwingpads, and short median caudal filament. This spe- 
cies appears restricted to the interior low plateau of Tennessee and was usually found with the 
rarely collected mayfly species, Paraleptophlebia kirchneri. 

Examination of a large number of specimens recently collected from Ten- 
nessee revealed a previously unrecognized species of the small minnow may- 
fly genus Plauditus Lugo-Ortiz and McCafferty (1998). This species is de- 
scribed below as P. grandis, in reference to the species comparatively large 
size among Plauditus species. 

Plauditus grandis, NEW SPECIES 

Larva. Body length: 6.8-8.2 mm, cerci 4.5-5.0 mm. Head: Head capsule with median 
rows of short, transverse dashes on each side of the medial trunk of the epicranial suture. 
Labrum as in (Fig. 1) with paired submedial and 6-10 sublateral setae. Maxillae robust and 
with 2-3 crest setae; palpi two segmented and extending to the galealacinial crest, segment 
1 subequal to segment 2. Right mandibular incisors as in Fig. 2. Left mandibular incisors 
as in Fig. 3. Segment 3 of labial palpi (Fig. 6) narrow, with very slight distolateral point 
and evenly rounded to weakly concave distal margin; segment 2 with 5-6 dorsal setae. 
Thorax: Nota of male and female larvae chocolate brown in color with scattered pale and 
dark areas. Leg coloration and setation similar to (Fig. 5); femora with numerous robust 
seta adjacent to distal margin and all segments with numerous surface setae. Tarsal claws 
(Fig. 4) robust and with 11-17 denticles, basal two small. Abdomen: Tergal patterning of 
mature male larvae usually similar to (Fig. 10); terga of female larva uniform chocolate 
brown with pale sublateral spots anteriorly and narrow, medial, pale stripe. All terga in 
both sexes with paired, submedial brown spots, may be difficult to discern. Posterior 
marginal spines of middle and posterior terga large and rounded apically (Fig. 7). Sterna 
2-9 with paired submedial brown spots, submedial oblique markings anteriorly and 
sublateral brown dashes anteriorly and medially. Gills elongate and symmetrical. Median 
caudal filament short, about equal in length to basal width of cerci. Cerci with wide band 
of darkened segments located distal of the midlength. 

Male adult. Body length: 7.8-8.2 mm, forewings 6.2-6.6 mm. Head: Dark brown in 
color; ocelli encircled in medium to dark brown basally. Antennal scape, pedicel and 
flagella dark to medium brown. Turbinate eyes large with pale orange-brown upper 



1 Received May 14, 1999. Accepted September 9, 1999. 

2 4857 Briarbend Drive, Houston, TX 77035. 

3 153 Heritage Creek, Lavergne, TN 37086. 



ENT. NEWS 111(1), 45-48, January & February, 2000 



46 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



portions and red-brown lower stalks. Thorax: Nota and sterna dark brown with highly con- 
trasting paler areas around sutures; pleura with less extensive dark areas. Anterior 
process of mesoscutum dorsally oriented with weakly rounded to truncated anterior mar- 
gin, and moderately to well developed dorsal point usually similar to Fig. 8. Forewings 
with light brown colored venation, relatively long double marginal intercalaries and often 
with brown pigmentation in the stigmata area. Forefemora dark brown, tibia paler than 
tarsi; mid- and hindlegs medium to light brown. Abdomen: All segments medium choco- 
late brown, posterior segments more intense in color. Sternum 9 with lateral triangular 
brown markings (Fig. 9). Genitalia as in Fig. 9, with near cylindrical basal forcep segments 
and segment 3 weakly expanded distally; basomedial process weakly sclerotized and with 
shallow to deep posterior emargination. Caudal filaments light brown. 

Material. HOLOTYPE: Male adult with larval and subimaginal exuviae, TENNES- 
SEE: Rutherford Co., Middle Fork Stones River at Hwy 269 & Short Creek Church, March 
21, 1997, L.S. Long (deposited in the Purdue Entomological Research Collection, West 
Lafayette, Indiana). PARATYPES: 3 male adults with larval and subimaginal exuviae, two 
exuviae and one genitalia slide mounted in Euparol, same data and deposition as holotype; 
1 male and 1 female larvae, TN: Rutherford Co., Dry Fork Creek at Brothers Rd., March 
21, 1997, L.S. Long, same deposition as holotype; 1 reared male and 3 larvae, TN: 
Williamson Co., South Prong Spencer Creek at Liberty Pike and Jordan road, February 19, 
1997, L.S. Long, deposited in Florida A&M Entomological Collection. Additional mate- 
rial: TN: Rutherford Co., West Fork Stones River at Panther Creek, March 14, 1998, L.S. 
Long (female larva in personal collection of NAW); Middle Fork Stones River at Hwy 41 
and Hoover's Gap Church, March 21, 1997, L.S. Long (male larva, NAW); Middle Fork 
Stones River at Lynch & Pruitt, March 14, 1998, L.S. Long (larva slide mounted in 
CMCP-10, personal collection of LSL). 

Diagnosis. Larvae of P. grandis are distinguished from all other Plauditus 
species on the basis of their large size; highly distinctive leg coloration and 
setation; short median caudal filament; narrow labial palpi; tergal and sternal 
coloration as well as numerous additional features found in the above descrip- 
tion. Plauditus cingulatus (McDunnough) larvae also have a short median 
caudal filament similar to P. grandis, but are otherwise distinguished by the 
above features. Plauditus grandis males may be confused with P. futilis 
(McDunnough) on the basis of coloration features (abdominal terga olive- 
brown to clay colored) used in past descriptions and characterization 
(McDunnough, 1931; Traver, 1935; Jensen, 1969). However, P. futilis adult 
males are smaller in size; have a darkened quadrate-shaped median process 
between the basal forcep segments without an emarginate posterior margin; 
longer more robust terminal forcep segments (3.0-3.5 X as long as basal width); 
and overall paler coloration. Additonally, this is a western species with its east- 
ern limit in the central Hill Country region of Texas and P. grandis is likely en- 
demic to Tennessee or the central highlands of the southeastern United States. 
The coloration and morphology of the male genitalia and sternum 9; large size; 
overall chocolate brown coloration; and lack of hindwings should distinguish 
males this species from all known Acentrella, Heterocloeon and Plauditus 
species. 



Vol. 1 1 1 , No. 1 , January & February, 2000 



47 




Figs. 1-10. Plauditus grandis, n. sp., 1-7, 10 Larva. 1. Labrum (dorsal view). 2. Right mandibular 
incisors. 3. Left mandibular incisors. 4. Tarsal claw (enlarged). 5. Leg 6. Labial palp (dorsal). 7. 
Medial posterior margin of abdominal tergum six. 8-9 Adult male. 8. Partial thorax (oriented at 
90 angle). 9. Genitalia (ventral). 10. Male larval tergal patterning. 



48 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Remarks. The type locality, Short Creek, is a small 2nd order bedrock 
stream of the Stones River Drainage and is located in the Central Basin of the 
interior low plateau region of Tennessee. Larvae were collected from clumps 
of submerged grass along the stream margin at the type locality and from 
macrophyte beds in shallow run habitats of 1st to 4th order streams within the 
drainage. Plauditus grandis and Paraleptophlebia kirchneri Kondratieff & 
Durfee seem to be endemic to this region and were the only mayfly species 
collected from temporary streams of the Stones River Drainage. In addition to 
P. kirchneri, Acentrella ampla (Traver), A. turbida (McDunnough), Diphetor 
hageni (Eaton), Eurylopheila tetnporalis (McDunnough), Plauditus veteris 
(McDunnough), and Stenonemafemoratum (Say) were collected with P. grandis 
from other locations. Based on collection records, emergence would appear to 
be restricted from February through April. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

We would like to thank B. C. Kondratieff (Colorado State University) and R. D. Waltz 
(Indiana Department Natural Resources) for their helpful critiques of the manuscript 
version of this publication as well as Howard Boyd and two anonymous reviewers. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Jensen, S.L. 1969. A new species of Pseudocloeon from Idaho (Ephemeroptera: Baetidae). 

Pan-Pac. Entomol. 45: 14-15. 
Lugo-Ortiz, C.R., and W.P. McCafferty. 1998. A new North American genus of Baetidae 

(Ephemeroptera) and key to Baetis complex genera. Entomol. News 109: 345-353. 
McDunnough, J. 1931. New species of North American Ephemeroptera. Can. Entomol. 

63: 82-93. 
Traver, J.R. 1935. Part II. Systematic, pp. 239-739 In: J.G. Needham. J.R. Traver and 

Y.C. Hsu [eds.]. The biology of mayflies with a systematic account of North American 

species. Comstock Publ. Co., Ithaca, New York. 



BOOKS RECEIVED AND BRIEFLY NOTED 

A REVISION OF THE GENUS Theope: ITS SYSTEMATICS AND BIOL- 
OGY (Lepidoptera: Riodinidae: Nymphidiini). 1999. Jason P.W. Hall. Scien- 
tific Pubishers, Gainesville, FL. 127pp. 1 color plates. 8V 2 x 1 1 . Paper. $32.50. 

A thorough study of the complex Neotropical metalmark butterfly genus Theope. Included 
are descriptions of all species, distribution maps, illustrations of genital characters, keys to spe- 
cies, and notes on biologies. Two new species and two new subspecies are described: 15 lecto- 
types are designated. The 10 color plates illustrate all species. 



Vol. 1 1 1 , No. 1 , January & February, 2000 49 

LEPTOHYPHES ZALOPE (EPHEMEROPTERA: 

LEPTOHYPHIDAE): A POLYTYPIC NORTH AND 

CENTRAL AMERICAN SPECIES 1 

D. E. Baumgardner 2 , W. P. McCafferty 3 

ABSTRACT: Reared larval to adult associations along with the study of extensive type 
materials and new collections from North and Central America indicate that the little stout 
crawler mayfly Leptohyphes zalope has been described under numerous synonymys, 
including L. apache, n. syn., L. ferruginus, n. syn., L. hispidus, n. syn., L. lumas, n. syn., 
L. piraticus, n. syn., L. succinus, n. syn., and L. zelus, n. syn. Variation in coloration and 
size of larvae and adults as well as head spiculation in larvae grades among and within 
populations of L. zalope. Somewhat variable head patterning in the larvae is obscured in 
pre-emergent larvae, but is otherwise diagnostic, together with the presence of a three- 
segmented maxillary palpi and a basal process on the outer ventral lamellae of the opercu- 
late gill. Adults have a slightly bulbous terminal forceps segment, and somewhat variable 
but apparently distinctive coloration. The species is wide ranging from the southwestern 
United States throughout much of Mexico, and Central America to Costa Rica. 

The last comparative study of species of Leptohyphes Eaton was by Lugo- 
Ortiz and McCafferty (1995a), wherein six species of Leptohyphes along with 
species of Haplohyphes Allen and Tricorythodes Ulmer from Central America 
were treated. McCafferty (1996) listed another 21 species of Leptohyphes from 
Mexico and the USA, bringing the total, previous to the present study, to 36 
species known from North and Central America. More specific distributions in 
Central America, Mexico, and the USA may be found, respectively, in 
McCafferty and Lugo-Ortiz (1996a), McCafferty and Lugo-Ortiz (1996b) and 
McCafferty (1997). The genus is clearly of Neotropical origin (e.g., McCafferty 
et al. 1992, McCafferty 1998), and no species of the genus are known from 
Canada (McCafferty and Randolph 1998). 

Although Leptohyphes mayflies are common in streams throughout the 
southwestern USA, Mexico, Central America, and much of South America, 
species taxonomy has remained problematic mainly because the vast majority 
of species have been known only as larvae or only as adults. In fact, among 
North and Central American species, only three species have been known as 
both larvae and adults, and only two of those associations were authenticated 
by rearing. In addition to the lack of stage correlation in species of Leptohyphes, 
some larval characteristics historically used to distinguish the many species 
known only as larvae have proven to be variable and gradational among and 
between populations. Discrepancies in the original descriptions and figures of 
several species have also been cause of concern. For example, Allen variously 



1 Received June 5, 1999. Accepted August 26, 1999. 

2 Department of Entomology, Texas A & M University, College Station, TX 77843. 

3 Department of Entomology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907. 

ENT. NEWS 111(1), 49-59, January & February, 2000 



50 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



described the size of the mature larvae of L. apache Allen as 5. 5-6. 5mm (Allen 
1967) and as 4.5-5.5mm (Allen 1978); and Allen (1978, Fig. 36) assigned the 
exact same illustration to depict L. zelus Allen as had been used earlier to 
depict L. lumas Allen and Brusca by Allen and Brusca (1973, Fig. 25). In the 
adults, many species apparently have structural similarities, such as involve the 
wings and male genitalia, leaving only color pattern differences to distinguish 
them. Also, Traver (1958) had incorrectly drawn details of male genitalia. Ad- 
ditional discrepancies from the literature were discussed by Lugo-Ortiz and 
McCafferty (1995a), or were revealed in the present study and are discussed 
later in this paper. 

In order to better understand species makeup within Leptohyphes, the 
present study initially entailed a detailed examination of the type material of 
several species described only as larvae by Allen (1967, 1978) and Allen and 
Brusca ( 1 973). This phase of the study revealed that seven species names were 
equivalent, including L. apache, L. ferruginus Allen and Brusca, L. hispidus 
Allen and Brusca, L. lumas, L. piraticus Allen, L. succinus Allen, and L. zelus. 
The study therefore also confirmed the former synonymy by Allen (1978) of L. 
lumas with L. hispidus, as well as the former synonymy by Lugo-Ortiz and 
McCafferty (1995a) of L. zelus with L. lumas. Leptohyphes apache is the senior 
name among the above. 

Another important aspect of the present study involved larva to adult 
rearings. In Texas, several samples of Leptohyphes larvae that fell within the 
larval morphological definition that is associated with all the above men- 
tioned names (= L. apache) were reared. Adults of the reared materials ap- 
peared to possibly match the structural characteristics that had been described 
for L. berneri Traver and L. zalope Traver from Mexico, and L. priapus Traver 
from Costa Rica (Traver 1958). We thus compared our reared adults with adult 
types of those three species. Adults clearly matched the types of L. zalope, 
thus revealing the senior synonym applicable to a widespread polytypic spe- 
cies. This was a discovery that had not been anticipated. The conclusions 
could not have been made merely by comparing type material, at the exclu- 
sion of rearings, because L. apache (under any of the synonymous names) had 
been known only as larvae (Allen 1967, 1978; Allen and Brusca 1973), and L. 
zalope had been known only as adults (Traver 1958). 

A new synonymy of L. zalope is presented below, along with diagnoses of 
the larval and adult stages, and data on synonymies, distribution, and vari- 
ability of the species. Collections (and their acronyms) housing materials 
used in this study include The California Academy of Science, San Francisco 
(CAS); Florida A & M University, Tallahassee (FAMU); Purdue Entomologi- 
cal Research Collections, West Lafayette, Indiana (PERC); Texas A & M Uni- 
versity, College Station (TAMU); Wilbur R. Enns Entomology Museum, Uni- 
versity of Missouri, Columbia (UMC); and the University of North Texas, 
Denton (UNT). 



Vol. 1 1 1 , No. 1 , January & February, 2000 5 1 



Leptohyphes zalope Traver 

Leptohyphes zalope Traver 1958:85. 
Leptohyphes apache Allen 1967:352. NEW SYNONYM. 
Leptohyphes ferruginus Allen and Brusca 1973:88. NEW SYNONYM. 
Leptohyphes hispidus Allen and Brusca 1973:88. NEW SYNONYM. 
Leptohyphes lumas Allen and Brusca 1973:91. NEW SYNONYM. 
Leptohyphes piraticus Allen 1978:554. NEW SYNONYM. 
Leptohyphes succinus Allen 1978:555. NEW SYNONYM. 
Leptohyphes zelus Allen 1978:557. NEW SYNONYM. 

Larval diagnosis. Mature body length: 4. 0-7. 5mm. Mature caudal filaments length: 
3. 5-7. Omm. Coloration generally light brown to brown to reddish brown, with somewhat 
darker markings. Vertex penciling (in all but very early instar and very late instar larvae) 
ranging as that shown in Figures 1-3, with semicircle at middle third of posterior margin, 
with longer, more or less straight, oblique lines originating at bases of semicircle and 
diverging anteriorly, medial straight longitudinal line dissecting the semicircle and be- 
yond anteriorly, and short transverse line anterior to semicircle extending between diver- 
gent long oblique lines originating from bases of semicircle; variants with lines incomplete 
or broken, although semicircle usually recognizable; occasionally vertex appearing en- 
tirely variegated or granular; pre-emergent larvae usually with unicolorous dark or dark 
granular head capsule, and linear markings usually indistinct or difficult to detect. Tarsal 
claws with row of denticles. Middle abdominal terga not elevated; terga 6 and/or 7 without 
groupings of highly elongate bristles. Maxillary palpi three segmented (Fig 4). Outer 
ventral lamellae of gills on abdominal segment 2 (operculate gill set) with well-developed 
basal beak-like process as in Figure 5. 

Male adult diagnosis. Body length: 3. 0-5. 5mm. Forewing length 4. 0-6. Omm. Hindwing 
length 0.5- 1.0mm. Cerci length 10. 0-1 7. Omm. Coloration ranging from cream to yellow 
or gray to light to dark reddish brown. Head and pronotum overshadowed with black 
stippling giving a gray cast. Mesonotum ranging from shiny yellow-brown to light red- 
dish brown to dark chestnut brown. Forefemora gray with dark black stippled longitudinal 
bands. Foreclaws similar and blunt. Wings similar to Figures 1 and 3 in Traver (1958). 
Abdomen distinctly lighter than thoracic nota, with cream to yellow to gray to reddish 
brown background color overshadowed by fine black stippling giving gray cast. Genitalia 
as in Figure 6, with apices of forceps rounded and slightly bulbous, with penes more or 
less Y shaped, and with each penal lobe with short linear incision subapically in dorsolat- 
eral aspect, giving rise to narrower dorsolateral process appressed to tip of penal lobe. 

Female adult diagnosis. Body length: 3. 5-6. Omm. Forewing length: 5. 0-7. Omm. 
Hindwings absent. Cerci length 4. 0-1 2mm. Body coloration and markings similar to male, 
although contrast between thoracic nota and abdominal terga often not as pronounced. 

Type material examined. Leptohyphes apache: HOLOTYPE larva: ARIZONA. Na- 
vajo Co, N Fk White R at White River, Fort Apache Indian Reservation, V1I-5-1964, R. K. 
Allen (CAS); PARATOPOTYPES: 14 larvae, one slide (CAS); PARATYPES: ARIZONA, 
1 larva, Navajo Co, stream 8 mi N White R, VI-25-1951, S. J. Preece (FAMU), 2 slides 
(CAS); four larvae, White R 4 mi N White River, VI-15-1951, S. J. Preece (FAMU), 2 
slides (CAS); 2 larvae, Yavapai Co, Beaver Cr at Beaver Creek Rangers Stat, VII-4-1964, 
R. K. Allen (CAS); 2 larvae, Greenlee Co, San Francisco R, at Clifton, VII-4-1964, R. K. 
Allen (CAS). NEW MEXICO, 1 1 larvae, four slides, Taylor Cr, Santa Fe Natl For V1II-26- 
1937, C. M. Tarzwell (CAS). UTAH, 1 larva, Virgin R, Zions Natl Prk, VI- 1947, G. F. 
Edmunds (PERC), 3 slides (CAS). 



52 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 








Figs. 1-6. Leptohyphes zalope. 1. Middle instar larval vertex (typical pattern). 2. Middle instar 
larval vertex (common variant pattern). 3. Pre-emergent instar larva vertex (dark variant). 4. 
Larval maxilla. 5. Larval gill lamellae of abdominal segment 2 (ventral view, lateral lamellae 
top). 6. Male adult genitalia. 



Vol. 1 1 1 , No. 1 , January & February, 2000 53 



Leptohyphes berneri: HOLOTYPE male adult: MEXICO, Metlac, XII-25-1940, H. H. 
Hobbs (FAMU). ALLOTYPE: same data as holotype. PARATYPES: 22 males, 8 females, 
same data as holotype. 

Leptohyphes ferruginus: HOLOTYPE larva: MEXICO, Veracruz, R San Marcos, at 
Apapantilla, 3 mi SE Villa A Camacho, XI-12-1968, R. K. Allen (CAS). PARATOPOTYPES: 
2 larvae, 4 slides (CAS). 

Leptohyphes hispidus: HOLOTYPE larva: MEXICO, Veracruz State, stream 5 mi S 
Ciudad Mendoza, XI-7-1968, R. K. Allen (CAS). PARATOPOTYPES: 42 larvae (CAS), 1 
larva (PERC). PARATYPES: 14 larvae, 2 slides, MEXICO, Veracruz State, R Jamapa, 3 mi 
NE Coscomatopec, XI-8-1968, R. K. Allen (CAS). 

Leptohypohes lumas: HOLOTYPE larva: MEXICO, Chiapas State, stream 7 mi N 
Arriaga on Hwy 190, VII-20-1966, R. K. Allen (CAS). PARATOPOTYPES: 16 larvae 
(CAS), 1 larva (PERC). PARATYPES (all R. K. Allen, all CAS): MEXICO, 7 Larvae, 
Chiapas State, stream 7 mi N Arriaga on Hwy 190, X-23-1968, 3 larvae, stream at Santa 
Isabel, 12 mi above Arriaga on Hwy 190, X-23-1968, 3 larvae, R Teapa nr Ishuatan, VII- 
18-1966; 2 larvae, Oaxaca State, R Grande, 3 mi S Gualatao, XI-6-1968; 1 larva. Tabasco, 
R. Grifalva at Teapa, VII-18-1966; 1 larva, Chiapas, R. Huitla, 14 mi N Tapachula, XI-1- 
1968; 7 larvae, Veracruz State, R Jamapa, 3 mi NE Coscomatepec, XI-1-1968, 2 larvae, R. 
Jamapa, 3 mi NE Coscomatepec, VII-14-1966, 2 larvae, R Tecolapan, Santiago Tuxtla on 
Hwy 180, VII-16-1966, 5 larvae, R San Marcos, at Apapantilla, 3 mi SE Villa A. Camacho, 
XI-12-1968. 

Leptohyphes piraticus: HOLOTYPE larva, 3 slides: HONDURAS, Dept Choluteca, 
small stream, Choluteca, ca 16 mi E Jicaro-Galdn, Pan Am Hwy, X-10-1964, J. S. Packer 
(FAMU). 

Leptohyphes priapus. HOLOTYPE male adult, slide mounted: COSTA RICA, Rio 
Pedregosa, 11-1939, D. L. Rounds (PERC). PARATYPES: 13 male adults and four female 
adults, same data and deposition as holotype. 

Leptohyphes succinus: HOLOTYPE larva: TEXAS, Hays Co, San Marcos R, IV-3- 
1973, M. Peters (CAS). PARATYPES (all M. Peters, all CAS): 4 larvae, same data as 
holotype; 8 larvae, same data as holotype, except Vl-6-1973; 1 larva, TEXAS, Kerr Co, 
North Fork Guadalupe R, 4 mi W Hunt, VIII-1973, Guadalupe R. SH 16 crossing, VII-27- 
1973; 1 larva, 3 slides. 

Leptohyphes zalope: HOLOTYPE male adult: MEXICO, 4 mi S of Rio Papagago 
Bridge on Rfo Zalope, 1-4-1948, S. Mulaik (PERC). PARATYPES: 3 male adults, same 
data and deposition as holotype. 

Leptohyphes zelus: HOLOTYPE larva: HONDURAS, Dept Comayagua, 3 mi N Taulabe 
on Hwy 1, large river, X-20-1964, J. S. Packer (FAMU). PARATOPOTYPES: 5 larvae, 2 
slides (CAS). PARATYPES: GUATEMALA: 44 larvae, R Latoma at km 182 on CA 2, VII- 
24-1966, R. K. Allen (CAS). HONDURAS (all J. S. Packer, except where noted): 1 larva, 
Comayagua, steam 5 mi S on Hwy 1 at bridge, X-17-1964, 1 larva, R Humuya 1 mi N 
Comayagua at bridge, X-17-1964, (CAS); 1 larva, Dept Cortes, R Chamelecon, X-18- 
1964 (FAMU), 3 larvae, R Blanco 2 mi N Carcol at bridge on Hwy 1, X-18-1964, (CAS); 
4 larvae, Dept. Francisco, Morazdn, 10 mi E Guaimaca on Hwy 3, small stream XI-6-1964 
(FAMU), 1 larva, stream nr La Venta at jet Hwy 3 & R Choluteca, XI-7-1964, MorazSn, 
stream 6.5 mi from jet Hwy 3 & 5 on Hwy 5, XI-7-1964, (CAS); 1 larva, Dept. Olancho, 
stream 1 mi W Campamento, Galera turn-off on Hwy 3, XI-7-1964 (CAS); 2 larvae, Dept. 
El Paraiso, small stream ca 3 km E Danli, VIII-29-1964 (CAS), 5 larvae, stream ca 8 km 
E Danli, VIII-29-1964 (CAS, FAMU); 1 larva, 50 km E Danli, trib R. Guayambre at jet 
Hwy 14, IX-3-1964 (FAMU); 4 larvae, R Clarrita at San Morano on Hwy to Escuela 
Agricola, X-29-1968, R. K. Allen (CAS). 

Other material examined. (All larvae, unless otherwise indicated.) ARIZONA: Gila 



54 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Co, San Carlos R at San Carlos, VII-20-1970, Salt R on Hwy 288, VII-20-1970 (CAS), 
East Verde R on rd 406, 10 mi E Payson, VII-19-1970 (CAS, FAMU), East Verde R on 
Hwy 87, VII-18-19-1970 (CAS); Yavapai Co, Oak Cr at Red Rock Crossing, VII-17-18- 
1970, Oak Cr nr Cornville, VII-18-1970 (CAS), Verde R at Verde Valley, VII-18-1970 
(CAS, FAMU). BELIZE: Cayo District, Roaring Cr, riffle, VI-20-1974 (PERC), 13 mi SE 
Belmopan nr Caves Branch R, 1-4-1996 (UMC); Stann Cr District, Dry Cr, 5.7 mi Middlesex 
on Hummingbird Hwy, 1-11-1996, North Stann Cr, 2.7 mi SE Middlesex on Humming- 
bird Hwy, 1-1 1-1996 (UMC); Toledo District, Agvacate Cr, 3.9 mi SW Blue Creek Village, 
1-9-1996, Golden Stream at golden Stream Village, 1-10-1996 (UMC). COSTA RICA: 
Alajuela Prov, R Pizote ca 5 km N Dos Dioses, III-9-1986, R La Paz Pequena, 7.8 km N 
Vara Blanca, III-3-1986, P N Rincon de la Vieja, Quebrada Provision, III-4-1986 (FAMU); 
Cartago Prov, R Platanillo, 2.2 km E Tayutic, 1-30-1986 (FAMU); Guanacaste Prov, R Los 
Ahogados, 11.3 km ENE Quebrada Grande, III-7, VI-26-1986 (FAMU); Lim6n Prov, R 
Uatisi, W Uatisi, II-2-1986 (FAMU); Punterenas Prov, 10 km N San Vito, at quarry 
waterfall, 111-16-1969 (PERC), R Bellavista, ca 1.5 km NW Las Alturas, VI-15-17-1986, 
R Ceibro, rt 2, ca 6 km W rd to Buenos Aires, II-2-1986 (FAMU). EL SALVADOR: R 
Mizata, 27 mi W La Libertad, X-28-1968 (CAS). GUATEMALA: R Latoma at KM 182 on 
Hwy 2, X-24-1968 (CAS). MEXICO: Chihuahua State, small stream S Pecheco, 1-22- 
1987, R Gavildn, Los Amarillos, VI-23-1987, Arroyo Lalo Varela, trib R Gavil^n, VI-22- 
1987, R Piedras, Verdes nr Pacheco, VI-22-1987 (PERC); Nuevo Le6n State, Cabezones R 
at Hwy 85, 15 mi N Linares, V-15-1995, Pobillo R, at St Hwy 115, V-15-1995 (TAMU); 
San Luis Potosi State, Naranjo R at Hwy 80, town of Naranjo, V- 18- 1995; Tamaulipas 
State, R Guayalejo (Tamasi) off Hwy 347 nr San Igancio, V-26-1993, Branch of Chihue 
R at Hwy 101, ca 12 mi S Jaumavae, between km marker 91 & 92, V-17-1995 (TAMU). 
NEW MEXICO: Catron Co, San Francisco R at Glenwood, VII-21-1970 (CAS); Grant Co, 
East Fork Gila R on Hwy 527, VI-21-1970, Gila R nr Clifton, Hwy 180, VII-21-1970 
(CAS). TEXAS: Bandera Co, Medina R, V-1977, McCafferty et al. (PERC), Medina R at 
TX 16, 1 mi N Medina, III-8-1997 (TAMU); Bell Co, Little R at FM 2184 NE Holland, SW 
Rodgers IV-9-1993 (adults) (TAMU); Caldwell Co, San Marcos R, 6 mi NE luling off 
Hwy 80, VIII-9-1970 (CAS); Comal Co, Guadalupe R at end of Pk Rd 31 in Guadalupe St 
Prk, X-14, XII-23-1994 (UNT); Hays Co, San Marcos R at Cheatam St in San Marcos II- 
22-1997 (2 males reared) (TAMU), San Marcos R at Co Rd 101 (Caners Crossing), 1 mi 
below confluence with Blanco R, in San Marcos city limits, at Hays/Caldwell county line 
(males and females reared) (TAMU); Kendall Co, Guadalupe R, V-1977, McCafferty et al. 
(PERC); Kimble Co, Llano R at Texas Tech Field Stat, IV-1 1-1992 (UNT), Junction South 
Llano R at Hwy 956, X-13-1996 (TAMU); Menard Co, San Saba R st FM 864 low water 
bridge, IV-1 1-1992 (UNT), X-22-1992 (TAMU); Victoria Co, Guadalupe R at Riverside 
Prk, VIII-24-1997 (adults) (TAMU), VIII-20-1997 (larvae & adults) (TAMU). 

Distribution. Leptohyhes zalope has been known from Arizona, New 
Mexico, Texas, and southern Utah in the north to Costa Rica in the south. The 
distribution patterns shown by the species (under its various synonyms) in 
Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas were reviewed respectively by Lugo-Ortiz 
and McCafferty (1995b), McCafferty et al. (1997), and Lugo-Ortiz and 
McCafferty (1995c). In Texas, the species was previously reported as L. succinus 
from Hays and Kerr Counties (Allen 1978) and from Bandera and Kendall 
Counties (Lugo-Ortiz and McCafferty 1995c). It is newly reported herein from 
Bell, Caldwell, Comal, Kimble, and Victoria Counties. In Central America, the 
species has been reported under various synonyms from Belize, El Salva- 



Vol. 1 1 1 , No. 1 , January & February, 2000 55 



dor, Costa Rica, Guatemala, and Honduras. In Mexico, it has been known from 
the states of Chiapas, Chihuahua, Guerrero, Oaxaca, Tabasco, and Veracruz. It 
is newly reported herein from the states of Nuevo Leon, San Luis Potosi, and 
Tamaulipas, indicating a general distribution throughout much of Mexico. 
The species distribution of L. zalope from the United States to southern Cen- 
tral America is similar to that of L. packeri Allen and certain other species in 
other families of mayflies, including Americabaetis pleturus (Lugo-Ortiz and 
McCafferty), Baetodes deficiens Cohen and Allen, Callibaetis floridanus 
Banks, C. montanus Eaton, C. pictus (Eaton), and Cloeodes excogitatus Waltz 
and McCafferty (Baetidae); Caenis diminuta Walker (Caenidae); Stenonema 
mexicanum (Ulmer) (Heptageniidae); Isonychia sicca Walsh (Isonychiidae); 
and Thraulodes brunneus Koss and T. speciosus Traver (Leptophlebiidae). 

DISCUSSION 

Coloration and size of L. zalope larvae and adults vary. This is evident to 
some degree even within populations, sometimes with larger or freshly molted 
individuals tending to be darker. Abdominal color pattern of larvae was not 
found to be species specific, although it had been suggested as a specific char- 
acter previously for some of the synonyms. For example, the abdominal color 
pattern described for L. hispidus by Allen (1978, Fig. 42) was found to be 
present, partially present, or entirely absent within populations. Both L. 
ferruginus and L. piraticus larvae were described as being red, although this 
color is no longer evident in the preserved type material. Many of the mature 
specimens of synonyms tend to take on the reddish cast. Type material of L. 
lumas and L. ferruginus were taken at the same time from the same locale on 
the Rio San Marcos in Veracruz, Mexico, evidently only differing in general 
ground coloration. In addition, what Allen (1978) identified as L. ferruginus 
was reported by him from the type locality of L. piraticus in Honduras. 

Extensive samples demonstrated that when L. zalope larvae approach the 
final molt, patterns on the head capsule are more difficult to detect and some- 
times no longer evident as the head becomes much darker. For example, the 
holotype of L. hispidus was based on such a pre-emergent form of L. zalope. 
The remainder of the type series, however, consisted of larvae with character- 
istic head patterns (Figs. 1, 2). Of all the material examined, middle instar dark 
forms without distinct patterns were never found. The figure of L. hispidus 
(Allen and Brusca 1973, Fig. 23) is of a pre-emergent larva and explains why 
Lugo-Ortiz and McCafferty (1995a) continued to consider it a distinct spe- 
cies, although they had recognized the equivalency of L. lumas and L. zelus. 

Reddish color morphs and inconsistent patterning within a single species 
of mayflies are known within larval populations of other families, for ex- 
ample, Rhithrogena impersonata (McDunnough) (Heptageniidae) and 
Ephemerella needhami McDunnough (Ephemerellidae). Sometimes reddish 



56 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



morphs predominate, but often they are a small proportion of the population. 
Flowers and Hilsenhoff (1975) showed that the red color becomes more in- 
tense and any patterning is more inconsistent in older larvae of reddish morphs 
of R. impersonate!. Usually highly diagnostic patterning of the larvae of 
Baetis intercalaris McDunnough (Baetidae) is occasionally absent in certain 
populations (Waltz et al. 1996), and otherwise distinctive markings are en- 
tirely absent in about 5 percent of large populations of E. needhami (W. P. 
McCafferty and A. V. Provonsha, unpublished). 

Although adult coloration varies in intensity, consistent features appear 
to include the longitudinally banded smoky forelegs; the brighter and often 
darker coloration of the mesonotum as compared especially to the abdomen; 
and the fine over-stippling on the abdomen that gives it a gray cast no matter 
what the intensity of ground color (although the stippling is more difficult to 
detect when the ground color is darker). The main reason we do not consider L. 
priapus (known only as adults) to be a junior synonym of L. zalope, despite its 
evident structural similarities (Traver 1958), is the lack of the foreleg banding 
and absence of the black stippling on the abdomen in the type material of the 
latter. Leptohyphes berneri, which was another possible candidate for syn- 
onymy because of similar adult male foreclaws, genitalia, and wings, was not 
considered equivalent because of the concolorous body and other markings, 
including the apparent lack of fine over-stippling on the abdomen. 

In general the only putative difference between L. succinus and the other 
synonyms was body size of larvae. The L. succinus type series is in the upper 
end of body size range (6.0-7. Omm) now known for L. zalope; however, Allen 
(1967) had originally considered larger individuals as L. apache, as noted 
above. 

The presence of head spicules in the larvae was found to be a highly 
variable character that was used by Allen (1978) to separate a number of 
species of Leptohyphes. Even within the type series of L. apache, spicules 
were found to be present, present and sparse, or mostly absent and difficult to 
detect. The presence of fine spicules (along with reddish color) was used by 
Allen (1978) to distinguish L. piraticus (known only from a single type speci- 
men) from other species, including L. apache. The fact that the presence and 
absence of head spicules can be stable characteristics in distinguishing spe- 
cies of Ephemerellidae (e.g., Allen and Edmunds 1963) may have influenced 
Allen's attempts to use such characters for distinguishing species of 
Leptohyphes. 

Allen (1978) incorrectly indicated that L. succinus and L. apache lacked 
what he referred to as the "basal spine" on the operculate gill. Our examina- 
tion of type material of both of the latter revealed the presence of this charac- 
teristic, which is actually a narrow, often pointed fleshy outgrowth, or process, 
on gill 2. Allen (1978) correctly indicated the presence of this larval character- 
istic in L. ferruginus, L. hispidus, L. lumas, L. piraticus, and L. zelus. However, 



Vol. 1 1 1 , No. 1 , January & February, 2000 57 



it is important to note that the structure in question is not an outgrowth of the 
operculate part of gill 2, as was shown by Figure 2 of Allen (1978), but is 
actually a colorless outgrowth of the outer ventral lamellae of the gill 2 (see 
Fig. 5 herein). This discrepancy has also been pointed out by Wang et al. 
(1998). The process can be difficult to detect because it can be nearly transpar- 
ent. It is for this reason that close examination is required for accurate detec- 
tion. 

As indicated above, Allen (1978) synonymized L. lumas and L. hispidus; 
however, previous to this study, the types of L. lumas could not be found at 
CAS, although they were reportedly there. This was one reason the latter 
synonymy could not be confirmed prior to this time, for example, by Lugo- 
Ortiz and McCafferty (1995a). After examining a series of Allen material at 
CAS labeled as L. hispidus, it became apparent that it represented the lost type 
series of L. lumas because it possessed the precise locale labels and number of 
specimens given under the original description of L. lumas. Obviously, Allen, 
upon synonymyzing L. lumas with L. hispidus, inappropriately removed the 
original identification labels from the L. lumas series and replaced them with 
L. hispidus identification labels. We have restored the correct historical label- 
ing in the materials residing at CAS. 

The combination of larval characteristics given under the diagnosis above 
should serve to distinguish Leptohyphes zalope larvae in North and Central 
America. Further studies of Leptohyphes, however, are expected to clarify fur- 
ther the species makeup and diagnoses. It is certainly possible, for example, 
that even more species names of Leptohyphes will eventually fall as syn- 
onyms of L. zalope, once additional examinations of type materials and addi- 
tional rearings take place. 

Based on larval morphology, Allen (1978) placed, in addition to those 
now known to be equivalent to L. zalope, the following species into what he 
referred to as the apache group of Leptohyphes: L. alleni Brusca, L. brunneus 
Allen and Brusca, L. castaneus Allen, L. dolani Allen, L. michaeli Allen, L. 
mirus, L. murdochi Allen, L. nanus Allen, L. packeri Allen, L. paraguttatus 
Allen, L. pilosus Allen and Brusca, L. quercus Kilgore and Allen, L. robacki 
Allen, L. sabinas Traver, L. spiculatus Allen and Brusca, L. vescus Allen, and 
L. vulturnus Allen. We do not know if this is a natural grouping at this time or 
how many of these species are actually valid. 

Although they all apparently share similar claw denticulation and abdomi- 
nal morphology, such characteristics could very possibly prove to be 
symplesiomorphies. 

The male genitalia of L. zalope, and others with similar genitalia (e.g., L. 
berneri and L. priapus), must be examined carefully in order to interpret them 
correctly. Depending on the slide mount, the short subapical incision of the 
penal lobes may not be apparent because the divided tip is normally closely 
appressed (Fig. 6). On the other hand, if the lobe is severely flattened out in a 



58 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



slide preparation, the tip of the penal lobe can appear to be bifid and diver- 
gent. The latter was found to be the case with the examined slide mounts on 
which Traver (1958) based her Figures 4 and 5, which inaccurately showed 
the penal lobe tips as being highly divided. The forceps of L. zalope are rounded 
and slightly bulbous apically (Fig. 6). An apparent distinguishing feature in 
the forceps of L. berneri is evident if one were simply referring to Figure 4 of 
Traver (1958). In that figure of the genitalia of L. berneri, Traver showed the 
terminal forceps segment as being bluntly pointed and quite different from 
forceps of both L. zalope and L. priapus (Traver 1958, Fig. 5). Our examination 
of Traver' s types, however, revealed that they were all exactly as that shown 
for L. priapus in her Figure 5, and Figure 6 of L. zalope herein. The male 
genitalia therefore would appear to be of limited use in certain specific diag- 
noses. 

Based on wings with similar venation, and development of the hindwing 
costal process, genitalia described above and referred to as the perterseni type 
by Traver (1958), and foreclaws that are similar and blunt in the male adult, 
species closely related to L. zalope in North and Central America do indeed 
include L. berneri and L. priapus. There remains a possibility that these three 
species are syonymous as alluded to above, because the adult color differ- 
ences presently used to distinguish them may eventually prove to be variable 
and gradational. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

We thank A. Provonsha (Purdue University) for illustrations, discussing analyses, and 
reviewing an early draft. We thank the following for the loan of specimens: B. Henry 
(University of Texas-Pan American, Edinburgh), J. Kennedy (UNT), V. Lee (CAS), J. 
Peters (FAMU), R. Sites (UMC), and N. Wiersema (Houston). We thank D. Bowles (Texas 
Parks and Wildlife) and B. Henry for more recent field assistance. We thank G. Edmunds 
(University of Utah) for the donation of certain materials, including types. We also thank 
C. Lugo-Ortiz (Albany Museum, South Africa) for reviewing the draft manuscript. Re- 
search at Purdue was funded in part by a NSF grant to the second author. Funding for field 
collections was provided in part by a grant from the University of Texas-Pan American 
Faculty Research Council, 1992, and funding for publication was provided by the Purdue 
University Agricultural Research Program. The Paper has been assigned Purdue ARP No. 
15938. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Allen, R. K. 1967. New species of New World Leptohyphinae (Ephemeroptera: Tricorythi- 

dae). Can. Entomol. 99: 350-375. 
Allen, R. K. 1978. The nymphs of North and Central America. Leptohyphes 

(Ephemeroptera: Tricorythidae). Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 71: 537-558. 
Allen, R. K. and R. C. Brusca. 1973. New species of Leptohyphinae from Mexico and 

Central America (Ephemeroptera: Tricorythidae). Can. Entomol. 105: 83-95. 
Allen, R. K. and G. F. Edmunds, Jr. 1963. A revision of the genus Ephemerella 

(Ephemeroptera: Ephemerellidae) VI. The subgenus Serrate/la in North America. 

Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 56: 583-600. 



Vol. 1 1 1 , No. 1 , January & February, 2000 59 



Flowers, R. W. and W. L. Hilsenhoff. 1975. Heptageniidae (Ephemeroptera) of Wiscon- 
sin. Gr. Lakes Entomol. 8:201-218. 

Lugo-Ortiz, C. R. and W. P. McCafferty. 1995a. Contribution to the taxonomy of the 
Leptohyphidae (Insecta: Ephemeroptera) of Central America. Stud. Neotrop. Fauna 
Environ. 30: 165-176. 

Lugo-Ortiz, C. R. and W. P. McCafferty. 1995b. Annotated inventory of the mayflies 
(Ephemeroptera) of Arizona. Entomol. News 106: 131-140. 

Lugo-Ortiz, C. R. and W. P. McCafferty. 1995c. The mayflies (Ephemeroptera) of 
Texas and their biogeographic affinities. Pages 151-236. In: Current directions in 
research on Ephemeroptera. L. Corkum and J. Ciborowski (eds.). Can. Schol. Press, 
Toronto. 

McCafferty, W. P. 1996. The Ephemeroptera species of North America and index to their 
complete nomenclature. Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 122: 1-54. 

McCafferty, W. P. 1997. Ephemeroptera. Pages 89-117. In: Nomina Insecta Nearctica, a 
checklist of the insects of North America. Volume 4: Non-holometabolous orders. R. 
W. Poole and P. Gentili (eds.). Entomol. Infor. Serv., Rockville, Maryland. 

McCafferty, W. P. 1998. Ephemeroptera and the great American interchange. J. N. Am. 
Benthol. Soc. 17: 1-20. 

McCafferty, W. P., R. W. Flowers, and R. D. Waltz. 1992. The biogeography of 
Mesoamerican mayflies. Pages 173-193. In: Biogeography of Mesoamerica: pro- 
ceedings of a symposium. S. P. Darwin and A. L. Weldon (eds.). Tulane Stud. Zool. 
Bot., Suppl. Publ. No. 1, New Orleans. 

McCafferty, W. P. and C. R. Lugo-Ortiz. 1996a. Los Efemeropteros (Ephemeroptera) 
de America Central. Rev. Nicaragiiense Entomol. 35: 19-28. 

McCafferty, W. P. and C. R. Lugo-Ortiz. 1996b. Ephemeroptera. Pages 133-145. In: 
Biodiversidad, taxonomfa y biogeograffa de artropodos de Mexico: hacia una si'ntesis 
de su conocimiento. Univ. Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. 

McCafferty, W. P., C. R. Lugo-Ortiz, and G. Z. Jacobi. 1997. Mayfly fauna of New 
Mexico. Gr. Basin Natural. 57: 283-314. 

McCafferty, W. P. and R. P. Randolph. 1998. Canada mayflies: A faunistic compen- 
dium. Proc. Entomol. Soc. Ontario 129: 47-97. 

Traver, J. R. 1958. Some Mexican and Costa Rican mayflies. Bull. Brooklyn Entomol. 
Soc. 53: 81-89. 

Waltz, R. D., D. E. Baumgardner, and J. H. Kennedy. 1996. An atypical larval color 
form of Baetis intercalaris (Ephemeroptera: Baetidae) from Pennsylvania and the 
Kiamichi river Basin of southeastern Oklahoma. Entomol. News 107: 83-87. 

Wang, T.-Q., R. W. Sites, and W. P. McCafferty. 1998. Two new species of Leptohyphex 
(Ephemeroptera: Leptohyphidae) from Ecuador. Fla. Entomol. 81: 68-75. 



BOOKS RECEIVED AND BRIEFLY NOTED 

MITES. ECOLOGY, EVOLUTION, AND BEHAVIOUR. 1999. D.E. Walter 
and H.C. Proctor. Univ. New South Wales Press, Sydney, Australia. 322 pp. 
Hard. $95.00. 

A comprehensive natural history of mites and an overview of mite behavior, evolution, and 
ecology. The authors highlight the roles that mites have played in the development of important 
theoretical concepts in ecology and evolution (e.g. local mate competition, prey refugia, multi- 
level selection and tritrophic level interactions). 



60 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



DISTRIBUTION AND TAXONOMIC CONTRIBUTIONS 

TO THE EPHEMEROPTERA FAUNA OF MEXICO 

AND CENTRAL AMERICA 1 

N.A. Wiersema^, D.E. Baumgardner^ 

ABSTRACT: New records for 16 species of mayflies are reported for Belize, Costa Rica 
and the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo Leon and Tamaulipas. The presence of 
Apobaetis indeprensus in Tamaulipas represents a new genus record for Mexico. Fallceon 
fortipalpus is reported from Tamaulipas, representing the first report in Mexico and first 
record other than its type locality in Costa Rica. Cloeodes excogitatus is reported in Nuevo 
Leon and Tamaulipas representing the first known locations in Mexico. A new species, 
Cloeodes waltzi, is described from a distinctive larva collected from the Rio Corona in 
Tamaulipas, Mexico. 

At present there are records of 1 84 mayfly species within 43 genera and 1 1 
families reported for Mexico and Central America (Domiquez et al. 1996; 
Lugo-Ortiz and McCafferty 1996a; McCafferty and Lugo-Ortiz 1996ab; 
Wiersema 1998; Waltz and McCafferty 1999), 121 in Mexico and 106 in 
Central America. Examination of recent collections from Chihuahua, Nuevo 
Leon and Tamaulipas, Mexico and Costa Rica and Belize revealed many 
significant new records within the mayfly families Beatidae, Caenidae, and 
Leptohyphidae as well as a highly distinctive new species described below as 
Cloeodes waltzi new species. Specimens upon which these reports are based 
are deposited in the following institutional collections: Brackenridge Field 
Laboratory of the University of Texas at Austin (BFL); Texas A&M Univer- 
sity at College Station (TAMU); Purdue Entomological Research Collection 
(PERC); Wilber Enns Museum at the University of Missouri (UM). 

BAETIDAE 

Apobaetis indeprensus Day MEXICO: Tamaulipas, spring at head of 
Rio Mante, ca., 10 mi., W of Mante, V-17-1995, D.E. Baumgardner and B.C. 
Henry (male adult, TAMU). This represents the first report of this species 
outside the USA. Prior to this report A. indeprensus had its known southern 
limit in Texas (McCafferty and Davis 1992; Wiersema 1998). 

Baetodes velmae Cohen & Allen COSTA RICA: San Jose Prov., Cerro 
de la Muerte, Rio Savegre at San Gerado de Dota, 0933'N, 08348' W, VIII-7- 
8-1995, C.R. Nelson (larvae, BFL). Baetodes velmae was previously known 
from Panama (Cohen and Allen 1978; Flowers 1987), thus its presence in 



1 Received May 14, 1999. Accepted September 15, 1999. 

2 4857 Briarbend Drive, Houston, TX 77035. 

3 Department of Entomology, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843-2475. 

ENT. NEWS 111(1), 60-66, January & February, 2000 



Vol. 1 1 1 , No. 1 , January & February, 2000 61 



southern Costa Rica was to be expected. 

Callibaetis floridanus Banks BELIZE: Cayo District, Belmopan at 
Belmopan Airstrip, I- 1 1-1996 J.C. Abbott (adult female, TAMU). Callibaetis 
floridanus ranges from Pennsylvania (Wiersema, unpublished) in the north- 
eastern United States to Costa Rica in Central America, but has not previously 
been reported from Belize. 

Callibaetis puntilusus McCafferty & Provonsha BELIZE: Cayo District, 
Belmopan at Belmopan Airstrip, I- 1 1 - 1 996 J.C. Abbott (adult female, TAMU). 
This species was previously known from Texas in the United States to Chiapas, 
Mexico, thus its presence in northern Central America was expected. 

Camelobaetidius arriaga (Traver & Edmunds) BELIZE: Cayo District, 
Caves Branch River on Hummingbird Belmopan, 13 mi SE, 1-4-1996, J.C. 
Abbott (male adult NAW). The adult male reported above is typical of the 
form originally characterized under the name of C. arriaga (distinctly elon- 
gate basal forcep segments and dark blue-black coloration covering the poste- 
rior half or margin of most abdominal segments) by Traver and Edmunds 
(1968). However, an additional adult male from the Belmopan Airstrip was 
collected by John Abbott a week later which is typical of the form character- 
ized under the name C. chiapas (Traver and Edmunds). McCafferty (1996) 
placed C. chiapas and C. jenseni (Traver & Edmunds) as junior synonyms of 
C. arriaga. Unfortunately, of the eight species of Camelobaetidius known 
from southern Mexico and Central America only C. warreni (Traver and 
Edmunds) is known from both adults and larvae. Camelobaetidius arriaga, C. 
chiapas, and C. jenseni are only known as adults, where as C. kondratieffi 
Lugo-Ortiz & McCafferty, C. musseri (Traver & Edmunds), C. similis Lugo- 
Ortiz & McCafferty, and C. sinaloa (Allen & Murvosh) are only known as 
larvae. Thus the status of the various aforementioned species will remain 
unclear until the larval and adult stages are correctly associated. 

Camelobaetidius kondratieffi Lugo-Ortiz & McCafferty COSTA RICA: 
Puntarenas Prov., Rio Bellavista, Las Alturas Biological Station, VIII- 15- 1995, 
C.R. Nelson (larva, BFL). This species was previously known from Guatemala 
and Belize (Lugo-Ortiz and McCafferty 1996a). 

Camelobaetidius similis Lugo-Ortiz & McCafferty MEXICO: 
Tamaulipas, Branch of Rio Chihue at Hwy. 101, ca. 12 mi. S of Jaumave, 
between kilomarker 91 & 92, V- 17- 1995, D.E. Baumgardner & B.C. Henry., 
(larva, TAMU). This species was previously known from only its type locality 
in Guerrero, Mexico (Lugo-Ortiz and McCafferty 1995a). The presence of C. 
similis in Tamaulipas, Mexico represents a significant northern extension of 
its known range. Additionally, this is only the third larva of this species re- 
ported to have been collected. 

Cloeodes excogitatus Waltz & McCafferty MEXICO: Nuevo Leon, Rio 
Pobillo at St. Hwy 115, near Linares, V- 15- 1995, D.E. Baumgardner & B.C. 
Henry (larvae, TAMU). Tamaulipas, Rio Pilon at bridge off Hwy 85, near Villa 



62 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Mainero, V-16-1995, D.E. Baumgardner & B.C. Henry (larvae, TAMU). The 
location records reported here represents the first known locations of C. 
excogitatus in Mexico. Previous to this report C. excogitatus was known from 
Arizona (Waltz and McCafferty 1987; Lugo-Ortiz and McCafferty 1995b), an 
unknown locality in Mexico (Lugo-Ortiz and McCafferty 1994), and recently 
in Texas (Baumgardner and Wiersema 1999) and northern California (Waltz 
etal. 1998). 

Cloeodes waltzi, NEW SPECIES 

(Figs. 1-6) 

Larva. Lengths: body 5.2 mm (female); median caudal filament 2.0 mm; cerci 2.2 mm. 
Head: (Fig. 3) Coloration pale yellowish, with distinct dorsal patterning of 3-4 brown spots on 
each side of the epicranial suture, as well as distinct frontal patterning. Frons not developed into 
intra-antennal process. Antennae about half as long as larval body. Labrum with deep medial 
emargination along nearly parallel anterior margin; paired submedial and 2-3 lateral elongate, 
simple setae. Right mandibular denticulation 3(l)+l+3 with well developed tuft of setae near the 
molar region. Left mandibular incisors damaged, but apparently with 3(1)+ 1+3 denticulation. 
Segment 2 of labial palpi (Fig. 4) with 4-5 dorsal setae, segment 3 narrowly truncate apically. 
Paraglossae with 4-5 dorsal, inner marginal setae medioapically and 5-6 ventral inner marginal 
setae; glossae robust, with 14-16 inner marginal setae. Maxillae with 3 galealaciniael crest setae; 
palpi (Fig. 2) elongate and two segmented. Thorax: Pronotum with brown patterning on each side 
of wide medial pale area. Meso- and metathoracic nota with pattering of light and dark areas. 
Thoracic sterna entirely pale yellowish except for dark brown coloration ajacent to intersegmen- 
tal areas of metathorcic coxae. Mesonotal crest [convex medial longitudinal suture of mesonotum] 
well developed in anterior half. Hindwingpads absent. Femora with large brown area medially 
and two lanceolate setae distally, tibia with an arc of fine, hairlike setae basally and darkened 
distally with one lanceolate subtended setae, tarsi with short row of fine, hair-like setae and 
darkened basally; tarsal claws elongate and narrow (Fig. 6). Abdomen: Terga (Fig. 1) with dis- 
tinct pattering of light and dark areas. Anterior margin of abdominal sterna 2-8 with darkened, 
transverse bands and paired lateral brown spots; transverse bands increasing in size and connect- 
ing to the lateral spots posteriorly; sternite 9 entirely brown in the anterior three-fourths. Gills 
elongate and rounded medially with broken tracheation (Fig. 5), gill seven extending to middle of 
segment 9. Posterior lateral spines elongate and widely spaced. Caudal filaments with narrow, 
subdistal band of darkened segments. 

Adult. Unknown. 

Material. HOLOTYPE: female larva (body and headcapsule in alcohol, mouthparts 
and mesothoracic leg mounted on slide in euparal) MEXICO: Tamaulipas, Rio Corona at 
Hwy 85, ca. 15 mi north of Victoria, V-16-1995, D.E. Baumgardner & B.C. Henry 
(PERC). 

Etymology. We are honored in naming this species after Robert D. Waltz 
in recognition of his extensive contributions to our understanding of the 
diverse and complex family Baetidae. 



Vol. 1 1 1 , No. 1 , January & February, 2000 



63 









Figs. 1-6. Cloeodes waltzi, n. sp., 1-6 Larva. 1. Tergal patterning. 2. Maxillae. 3. Head 
capsule. 4. Labium (right dorsal, left ventral). 5. Gill five. 6. Tarsal claw. 



64 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Diagnosis. The larvae of C. waltzi are at once distinguished from all other 
Cloeodes Traver species found in North and Middle America by the posses- 
sion of apically truncate labial palpi; elongate two segmented maxillary palpi; 
elongate antennae; elongate and narrowed tarsal claws; distinctly patterned 
head capsule; and tergal patterning. The tergal patterning and labial palps are 
reminiscent of the Brazilian species C. hydation Lugo-Ortiz & McCafferty 
(1996b). However, no relationship can be ascertained at this time. Cloeodes 
species have additionally been found in Africa (Waltz and McCafferty 1994), 
Australia (Lugo-Ortiz and McCafferty 1998), Cuba (Kluge 1991), and Mada- 
gascar (Lugo-Ortiz et al. 1999) since the world revision presented by Waltz 
and McCafferty (1987). 

Fallceonfortipalpus Lugo-Ortiz & McCafferty MEXICO: Tamaulipas, 
Rio Pilon at bridge off Hwy 85, at Villa Mainero, V- 1 6- 1 995, D.E. Baumgardner 
& B.C. Henry (2 larvae TAMU, some parts on slide in euparal). Previous to 
this report, F. fotipalpus was only known from its type locality in Costa Rica 
(Lugo-Ortiz et al. 1994). 

Fallceon longifolius (Kluge) BELIZE: Cayo District, Caves Branch River 
on Hummingbird Belmopan, 13 mi SE, 1-4-1996, J.C. Abbott (17 adult males, 
TAMU and NAW); Cayo District, Macal River on road to Coracal Augustine, 
10 mi S, 1-6- 1 996, J.C. Abbott (2 adult males, TAMU). This species was previ- 
ously only known from southeastern Cuba and Hidalgo, Mexico (Lugo-Ortiz 
etal. 1994). 

Fallceon quilleri Dodds MEXICO: Tamaulipas, spring (at local park) at 
Hidlago Ave.? , 1 kilometer W of Juamave off Hwy 101, V- 16- 1995, D.E. 
Baumgardner & B.C Henry (6 adult males, TAMU); Branch of Rio Chihue at 
Hwy 101, ca. 12 mi S of Juamave V-17-1995 D.E. Baumgardner & B.C. Henry 
(larva, TAMU). BELIZE: Cayo District, Caves Branch River on Hummingbird 
Belmopan, 1 3 mi SE, 1-4- 1 996, J.C. Abbott (3 adult males, TAMU). This wide- 
spread species is known from as far south as Costa Rica in Central America 
(McCafferty and Lugo-Ortiz 1996b) and as far north as the Black Hills of 
South Dakota in North America (McCafferty 1990), but previous to now was 
not reported from Tamaulipas, Mexico. 

Paracloeodes minutus (Daggy) BELIZE: Cayo District, Caves Branch 
River on Hummingbird Belmopan, 13 mi SE, 1-4-1996, J.C. Abbott (15 adult 
males, TAMU). This common trans-continental species ranges from Califor- 
nia to North Carolina (Wiersema, unpublished) in the United States, as far 
north as Ontario, Canada and as far south as Costa Rica, but has not previously 
been reported from Belize. 



Vol. 1 1 1 , No. 1 , January & February, 2000 65 



CAENIDAE 

Caenis latipennis Banks MEXICO: Chihuahua, Rio Chuviscar, off rd. to 
Namiquipa, Hwy 1 60, X-22- 1 995, D.E. Bowles (3 males, TAMU). Nuevo Leon, 
Rio Pobillo at Hwy 115, nr Linares, V-15-1995, D.E. Baumgardner & B.C. 
Henry (male, TAMU). Tamaulipas, Rio Chorretas at Las Norias, XII-23-1971 
(9 males and 36 females, TAMU). This widespread and common small square- 
gill mayfly was previously reported only from the states of Chiapas and Nuevo 
Leon in Mexico (McCafferty and Lugo-Ortiz 1996b). 

Caenis punctata McDunnough MEXICO: Nuevo Leon, Rio Pilon at 
unnamed rd., across from General Teran off Hwy 35, V-15-1995, D.E. 
Baumgardner & B.C. Henry (larva, TAMU). This represents the first report of 
this principally eastern North American species in Mexico. 

LEPTOHYPHIDAE 

Leptohyphes dicinctus Allen & Brusca BELIZE: Stann Creek District, 
North Stann Creek, 2.7 mi SE Middlesex on Hummingbird Hwy, 1-11-1996, 
R.W. Sites (6 larvae, UM). This species was previously known only from 
Guerrero, Mexico. With respect to diagnosis these larvae lack the row of long 
posterior marginal "spines" on tergum 6, as described in Allen (1978). 

Leptohyphes vescus Allen MEXICO: Tamaulipas, Rio Guayalejo off Hwy 
247, nr San Ignacio, V-26-1993, B.C. Henry (larvae, TAMU); spring (at local 
park) at Hidalgo Ave?, near Juamave on Hwy 101, V-16-1995, D.E. 
Baumgardner & B.C. Henry (2 males, TAMU). Leptohyphes vescus was de- 
scribed and has been known only from Texas. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

We would like to thank Charles Riley Nelson (Brigham Young University), David Bowles 
(Texas Parks and Wildlife Department), Robert Sites (Wilber Enns Museum, 
University of Missouri), Brad Henry (University of Texas Pan-America) and John Abbott (Uni- 
versity of Texas at Austin) for the loan or gift of some of the material used in this study. We 
would also like to thank Brad Henry and Boris Kondratieff (Colorado State University) for their 
helpful critique of the manuscript version of this publication. We finally thank Howard Boyd and 
two anonymous reviewers for their helpful notes on the submitted version. The collecting trip of 
Brad Henry and Dave Baumgardner into Mexico was made possible through a Faculty Research 
Grant, Faculty Research Council, UTPA. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Allen, R.K. 1978. The nymphs of North and Central American Leptohyphes (Ephemeroptera: 

Tricorythidae). Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 71: 537-558. 
Baumgardner, D.B. and N.A. Wiersema. 1999. Additions to the inventory of Texas 

mayflies (Ephemeroptera). Entomol. News 110: 70-71. 
Cohen, S.D. and R.K. Allen. 1978. Generic revisions of mayfly nymphs. III. Baetodes in 

North and Central America (Baetidae). J. Kansas Entomol. Soc. 51: 253-269. 



66 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Domiquez, E., C. Molineri and W.L. Peters. 1996. Ephemeroptera from Central and 

South America: New species of the Farrodes bimaculatus group with key for the males. 

Stud. Neotrop. Fauna & Environm 31: 87-101. 
Flowers, R.W. 1987. The adult stage of three Central American Baetodes (Ephemeroptera: 

Baetidae) with notes on the genus. Aq. Insects 9: 1-10. 
Kluge, N.Y. 1991. Cuban mayflies of family Baetidae (Ephemeroptera) 1. Callibaetis, 

Cloeodes, and Parucloeodes. Zool. Zh. 12: 128-136 [in Russian! 
Lugo-Ortiz, C.R. and W.P. McCafferty. 1994. New records of Ephemeroptera from 

Mexico. Entomol. News 105: 17-26. 
Lugo-Ortiz, C.R. and W.P. McCafferty. 1995a. Taxonomy of the North and Central 

American species of Camelobaetidius (Ephemeroptera: Baetidae). Entomol. News 

106: 178-192. 
Lugo-Ortiz, C.R. and W.P. McCafferty. 1995b. Annotated inventory of the mayflies 

(Ephemeroptera) of Arizona. Entomol. News 106: 131-140. 
Lugo-Ortiz, C.R. and W.P. McCafferty. 1996a. New Central American and Mexican 

records of Ephemeroptera species. Entomol. News 107: 303-310. 
Lugo-Ortiz, C.R. and W.P. McCafferty. 1996b. Cloeodes hydation, n. sp. (Ephemeroptera: 

Baetidae): an extraordinary, drought tolerant mayfly from Brazil. Entomol. News 106: 

29-35. 
Lugo-Ortiz, C.R. and W.P. McCafferty. 1998. First report and new species of the genus 

Cloeodes (Ephemeroptera: Baetidae) from Australia. Entomol. News 109: 122-128. 
Lugo-Ortiz, C.R. ,W.P. McCafferty, and J.-L. Gattolliat. 1999. The small minnow 

mayfly genus Cloeodes Traver (Ephemeroptera: Baetidae) in Madagascar. Proc. 

Entomol. Soc. Wash. 101: 208-211. 

Lugo-Ortiz, C.R. , W.P. McCafferty and R.D. Waltz. 1994. Contribution to the tax- 
onomy of the Panamerican genus Fallceon (Ephemeroptera: Baetidae). J. New York 

Entomol. Soc. 102: 46-475. 
McCafferty, W.P. 1990. Biogeographic affinities of the Ephemeroptera of the Black 

Hills, South Dakota. Entomol. News 101: 193-199. 
McCafferty, W.P. 1996. The Ephemeroptera species of North America and index to their 

complete nomenclature. Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 122: 1-54. 
McCafferty, W.P. and J.R. Davis. 1992. New and additional records of small minnow 

mayflies (Ephemeroptera: Baetidae) from Texas. Entomol. News 103: 199-209. 
McCafferty, W.P. and C.R. Lugo-Ortiz. 1996a. Los efemeropteros (Ephemeroptera) de 

America Central. Rev. Nica. Entomol. 35: 19-28. 
McCafferty, W.P. and C.R. Lugo-Ortiz. 1996b. Ephemeroptera. pp. 133-145. In J.E. 

Llorente-Bousquets, A.N. Garcfa-Aldrete and E. Gonzalez-Soriano (eds.). 

Biodiversidad, taxonomia y biogeograffea de artropodos de Mexico: hacea una sftesis 

de su conocimiento. Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico DF. 
Traver, J.R. and G.F. Edmunds. 1968. A revision of the Baetidae with spatulate-clawed 

nymphs (Ephemeroptera). Pac. Insects 10: 629-677. 
Waltz, R.D. and W.P. McCafferty. 1987. Revision of the genus Cloeodes Traver 

(Ephemeroptera: Beatidae). Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 80: 191-207. 

Waltz, R.D. and W.P. McCafferty. 1994. Cloeodes (Ephemeroptera: Baetidae) in Af- 
rica. Aq. Insects 16: 165-169. 
Waltz, R.D., P. Ode, and J. Lee. 1998. Cloeodes excogitatus (Ephemeroptera: Baetidae) 

in northern California. Entomol. News 109: 215-216. 
Waltz, R.D. and W.P. McCafferty. 1999. Additions to the taxonomy of Americabaetis 

(Ephemeroptera: Baetidae): A. lugoi n. sp., adult of A. robacki, and key to larvae. 

Entomol. News 109: 39-44. 
Wiersema, N.A. 1998. Camelobaetidius variabilis (Ephemeroptera: Baetidae), a new 

species from Texas, Oklahoma and Mexico. Entomol. News 110: 21-26. 



Vol. 1 1 1 , No. 1 , January & February, 2000 67 

ALTERED PHOTOCYCLIC REGIMES INFLUENCE 

THE DURATION OF MATERNAL CARE IN A 
BURROWER BUG (HETEROPTERA: CYDNIDAE* 1 

Scott L. Right 2 

ABSTRACT. Female burrower bugs, Sehirus cinctus (Heteroptera: Cydnidae), terminate 
egg care after a predictable interval when eggs do not hatch. This study examined the 
influence of light/dark (L:D) cycling on the termination of care. Females kept under rapidly 
cycling light/dark periods (15L:3D) did not differ from controls (15L:9D), with both groups 
terminating care 8 days after anticipated hatch. In contrast, females kept under slowly cycling 
light/dark periods (15L:15D) remained responsive for 2 additional days. In terms of the num- 
ber of light/dark cycles experienced, however, females under slowly cycling light/dark periods 
(15L:15D) were similar to controls (15L:9D), with both groups terminating care 8 photocycles 
after anticipated hatch. In contrast, females kept under rapidly cycling light/dark periods 
(15L:3D) remained responsive for 2 additional photocycles. The results of this study suggest 
that insect subsocial behavior is influenced by metabolic and photocyclic cues. 

Sehirus cinctus Palisot (Heteroptera: Cydnidae) is a subsocial burrower 
bug that exhibits well-defined maternal behavior. Females guard eggs and 
first-instar nymphs in small burrows, responding defensively to intruders by 
shielding the offspring with their bodies (Sites & McPherson 1982; Kight 1996). 
Immediately after eggs hatch, females forage and provision the burrow with 
host plant fruits (Prunella vulgaris: Labeacae). Several days later, nymphs 
disperse and maternal behavior ends. 

The primary cues governing the termination of care are associated with 
egg hatching (Kight 1997). However, when mature eggs are experimentally 
replaced with immature stimulus eggs, females continue brooding past the 
normal period of care, but consistently terminate care after a predictable pe- 
riod of time (Kight 1997). Under such conditions, the cues normally associ- 
ated with egg hatching are absent, and termination of parental care appears to 
be governed by a time-sensitive endogenous process. 

The duration of maternal behavior could be influenced by an internal 
clock, external cues, or a combination of both (reviewed by Saunders 1982). 
Because the cycling of day and night provide a readily available cue, the 
predictable duration of care among egg-replaced female S. cinctus could be a 
function of cumulative photoperiod (Goryshin & Tyshchenko 1974; Gibbs 
1975; Veerman & Vaz Nunes 1984). Studies of cumulative photoperiod ef- 
fects have most often examined induction or termination of diapause (Will- 
iams & Adkisson 1964; Goryshin & Tyshchenko 1973; Veerman & Vaz Nunes 



1 Received June 17, 1999. Accepted September 15, 1999. 

2 Department of Biology and Molecular Biology, Montclair State University, Upper 
Montclair, New Jersey 07043. 

ENT. NEWS 111(1), 67-73, January & February, 2000 



68 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



1987;Hardie 1990;Numata 1992; VazNunes& Hardie 1993, 1994), although 
a similar mechanism could potentially govern the termination of care in some 
insects. 

In this study I examine the hypothesis that light/dark cycling influences 
the duration of care in egg-replaced Sehirus cinctus females. 

MATERIALS AND METHODS 

Adult Sehirus cinctus were collected in Monroe County, Indiana, USA 
and housed in mixed-sex groups at 25C and a 15L:9D light/dark photocycle 
in ventilated petri dishes containing moist sand and fed fruits of the host plant 
Prunella vulgaris. After oviposition, experimental subjects were transferred 
to individual enclosures and placed in environmental chambers with adjust- 
able photoperiod. 

Control. Immediately after oviposition, control females were isolated at 
25C in 15L:9D chambers. Shortly before hatching, mature eggs were replaced 
with immature eggs recently laid by donor females. Females do not discrimi- 
nate between their own eggs and strange eggs placed in the nest (Kight 1995); 
hence, this cross-fostering technique was useful for examining the duration of 
maternal behavior when mothers do not experience egg hatching. Subjects 
were observed for 1 days after their own (removed) eggs hatched (PH = post- 
hatch). 

Altered Photocycles. To examine the influence of light/dark cycling on 
maternal care, a group of egg-brooding females was held at 25C, with a 15L:3D 
photoperiod (fast-cycle 18h females). A similar group was held at 25C and 
15L:15D (slow-cycle 30h females). Shortly before hatching, mature eggs in 
both treatment groups were replaced with immature eggs recently laid by 
donor females. In the 10 days after their own (removed) eggs hatched, subjects 
kept on 18h cycles experienced 13 light/dark cycles, whereas those under 30h 
cycles experienced 8 light/dark cycles. 

I measured maternal responsiveness in all treatment groups with a daily 
behavioral assay of each female's response to disturbance (Kight 1996). Daily 
trials were conducted over a range of four hours to ensure that all insects were 
under scotophase during observations. Subjects were gently touched five times 
with a dissecting probe on the posterolateral margin of the abdomen at 30 s 
intervals. Females responded in one of three ways: defense (moving toward 
the probe), retreat (moving away from the probe), or stasis (no response). By 
assigning a numeric value to each response (+1 defense, stasis, -1 retreat), a 
daily score was calculated ranging from -5 (always retreating) to +5 (always 
defending). All subjects were tested in this manner for 10 days PH. 

Each treatment group contained 20 females. Data were analyzed using 
nonparametric statistical procedures (Siegel & Castellan 1988) with a = 0.05. 



Vol. 1 1 1 , No. 1 , January & February, 2000 69 



RESULTS 

Maternal response scores (Fig. 1) of control (15L:9D) females never dif- 
fered significantly from those of fast-cycle (15L:3D) females (Wilcoxon-Mann- 
Whitney Test, N=20, P>0.0856 for all days), but were significantly lower than 
those of slow-cycle (15L:15D) females on day eight PH (Wilcoxon-Mann- 
Whitney Test, N=20, P=0.0212) and marginally lower on day nine PH 
(P=0.0661). 

There was, however, a pronounced difference between the photocyclic 
extremes (Fig. 1). Maternal response scores of fast-cycle (18h) females began 
to fall on day eight PH, and were significantly lower than those of slow-cycle 
(30h) females after and including day nine PH (Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney 
Test, P < 0.0197 for days nine to ten PH). 

Duration of maternal responsiveness was therefore influenced by the rate 
of light/dark cycling in that females experiencing abnormally long (30h) cycles 
remained responsive for 24 to 48h longer than either control females or 
females under short (18h) cycles. 

When data were examined in terms of the number of experienced light/ 
dark cycles, both slow-cycle (30h) females and control females experienced 
approximately 7 cycles PH before terminating care (Fig. 2). Fast-cycle (18h) 
females, however, remained responsive for 9 cycles PH two more than con- 
trols and slow-cycle (30h) females. Thus fast-cycle (18h) females remained 
maternal for more cycles than expected from control data. 

DISCUSSION 

The life history of Sehirus cinctus may demand reliable mechanisms to 
determine duration of care. Reproduction is synchronized with availability of 
the host plant, which flowers for only several weeks each spring (Kight 1 995). 
Pre-reproductive females feed on developing host plant fruits, and by the time 
oviposition occurs fruits have matured and fallen from the plants. When eggs 
hatch, fruits remain available, but Prunella vulgaris is rapidly displaced by 
other spring annuals and the source of provisions diminishes (Kight 1996). 
Should eggs fail to hatch, females could suffer reduced fitness if a replacement 
clutch is not initiated before the food source disappears. 

There is evidence in other species that internal mechanisms govern the 
duration of care given to offspring. For example, female burying beetles, 
Necrophorus vespiloides, respond maternally to conspecific stimulus larvae 
only during the anticipated hatching period of their own young (Miiller & 
Eggert 1990). Stimulus larvae presented to the mother either too early or too 
late are killed by her, but larvae introduced at the time of hatching elicit 
maternal care from her. Similar behavior is found in male house mice, Mus 
domesticus, which generally attack and kill stimulus pups, but show inhibi- 



70 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



u 

t 1 - 



1/3 

I 



1 



-3- 



-5 




15L15D 



15L:9D 



4567 

Days Post-Hatch 



T 

10 



15L:3D 



Figure 1 . Median maternal response scores of cross-fostered brooding mothers kept under 
different photocyclic regimes. 

* = termination of care 



Fast (18h) 



Control (24h) 



Slow (30h) 



photocyclic threshold 



metabolic threshold 




8 



10 



Absolute Days After Removed Eggs Hatched 

Figure 2. Time-line of experienced photocycles for brooding females kept under cycles of 
different length. Distance between squares is one cycle. Photocyclic threshold (diagonal line) 
refers to the predicted minimum number of light/dark cycles prior to termination of care. Meta- 
bolic threshold (vertical line) refers to the predicted minimum number of absolute days prior to 
the termination of care. Asterisks indicate when termination actually occurred. 



Vol. 1 1 1 , No. 1 , January & February, 2000 7 1 



lion of infanticidal behavior at a predictable time after mating. Moreover, the 
interval between ejaculation and inhibition of infanticide in mice coincides 
with the gestation period of potentially sired young (Perrigo et al. 1990). This 
interval can be shortened or lengthened by placing mice under non-24 h light/ 
dark cycles (Perrigo et al. 1990, 1992). 

The results of the present study indicate that the duration of egg care in 
Sehirus cinctus is similarly influenced by light/dark cycles. In terms of abso- 
lute time, females experiencing 18h or 24h cycles terminated care 24-48 h 
earlier than females experiencing 30h cycles. However, if females based the 
termination of care exclusively on the number of light/dark cycles experi- 
enced, 18h cycle females should terminate care earlier than controls, but this 
did not occur. 

One possible explanation is that the mechanism is metabolically compen- 
sated females may terminate care when sufficiently hungry. At 25"C, thresh- 
old metabolic demand (hunger) would have occurred in control females 7 ab- 
solute days after their own (removed) eggs hatched. Fast-cycle (18h) fe- 
males continued brooding for 9 cycles and 7 days PH, which is consistent with 
the metabolic demand hypothesis: females became sufficiently hungry at 7 
days PH, regardless of the number of cycles perceived. This hypothesis is 
supported by evidence that maternal females terminate care earlier when housed 
at warmer ambient temperatures (Kight & Cseke 1998) and anecdotal obser- 
vations of egg-replaced females leaving the burrow to gather single fruits for 
their own consumption, always within 24 h of termination of care. Metabolic 
demand and maternal motivation may be competing processes. 

Slow-cycle (30h) females, however, remained responsive for 7 cycles but 9 
days PH, indicating that metabolic demand is not sufficient for the termina- 
tion of care. Because all treatment groups were housed at the same ambient 
temperature, slow-cycle (30h) females had metabolic demands similar to fast- 
cycle (18h) and control females at 7 days PH. That slow-cycle females re- 
mained maternal for additional absolute time indicates that a minimum num- 
ber of photocycles must also be experienced prior to termination of care, 
although it is possible that metabolic demand would eventually circumvent 
this minimum under more extreme photocyclic conditions (i.e. longer cycles 
or constant light/dark). 

An alternative explanation for these findings is that slow-cycle females 
would reach a metabolic threshold less quickly if metabolic expenditure de- 
creases at night. If, for example, maternal females were more vigilant during 
the day, slow-cycle females, which did not experience as many photocycles as 
the other groups by day 7 PH, would have expended less cumulative energy. 
Brooding females in all treatment groups, however, were generally slow to 



72 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



respond to the initial experimental stimulus of each daily trial but responded 
immediately to subsequent stimuli, suggesting that daytime metabolic ex- 
penditure is minimal prior to disturbance. 

The results of this study indicate that egg-replaced burrower bugs kept at 
25C do not terminate care until both 7 absolute days and 7 photocycles PH 
have passed. While these events occur simultaneously under natural circum- 
stances, both conditions were met before termination of care even when abso- 
lute time and photocycle were experimentally uncoupled (Fig. 2). 

Because post-hatching maternal provisioning of food is important for off- 
spring survival, reproductively successful females should not terminate care 
early. S. cinctus thus appears to have evolved a mechanism to prevent 
maladaptively premature termination of care. The present study represents the 
first demonstration that insect parental behavior is influenced by cumulative 
light/dark cycling. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

The manuscript benefitted from readings by P. Clark, J. Jenkins, B. Possidente, W. 
Rowland, J. Smallwood and D. Vanderklein. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Gibbs, D. 1975. Reversal of pupal diapause in Sarcophaga argyrostoma by temperature 

shifts after puparium formation. J. Ins. Physiol. 21, p. 1 179-1 186. 
Goryshin, N.I. & Tyshchenko, G.F. 1973. The accumulation of photoperiod information 

in the cabbage moth Barathra brassicae L. (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) during diapause 

induction. Ent. Obozr. 52, p. 249-255. 

Goryshin, N.I. & Tyshchenko, V.P. 1974. The place of the memory link in the mecha- 
nism of photoperiod reaction in insects. Zhurnal Obshchei Biologii 35, p. 518-530. 
Hardie, J. 1990. The photoperiodic counter, quantitative day-length effects and scotophase 

timing in the vetch aphid Megoura viciae. J. Ins. Physiol. 36, p. 939-950. 
Kight, S.L. 1995. Do maternal burrower bugs, Sehirus cinctus Palisot (Heteroptera: Cydnidae), 

use spatial and chemical cues for egg-discrimination? Can. J. Zool. 73, p. 815-817. 
Kight, S.L. 1996. Concaveation and maintenance of maternal behavior in a burrower bug 

(Sehirus cinctus): A comparative perspective. J. Comp. Psych. 110:69-76. 
Kight, S.L. 1997. Factors influencing maternal behavior in a burrower bug, Sehirus cinctus, 

(Hemiptera: Cydnidae). Anim. Behav. 53:105-112 
Kight, S.L. & Cseke, J.J. 1998. The effects of ambient temperature on the duration of 

maternal care in a burrower bug (Heteroptera: Cydnidae). J. Kans. Ent. Soc. 71:185-187. 
Miiller, J.K. & Eggert, A.K. 1990. Time-dependent shifts between infanticidal and 

parental behavior in female burying beetles: a mechanism of indirect mother-off- 
spring recognition. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 27, p. 11-16. 
Numata, H. 1992. Temporal variation in the photoperiodic induction and termination of 

adult diapause in the bean bug, Riptortus clavatus. J. Ins. Physiol. 38, p. 447-452. 
Perrigo, G., Bryant, W.C. & Vom Saal, F.S. 1990. A unique neural timing system 

prevents male mice from harming their own offspring. Anim. Behav. 39, p. 535-539. 
Perrigo, G., Belvin, L. & Vom Saal, F.S. 1992. Time and sex in the male mouse: 

Temporal regulation of infanticide and parental behavior. Chronobiol. Int. 9, p. 421- 

433. 



Vol. 1 1 1 , No. 1 , January & February, 2000 73 



Saunders, D.S. 1982. Insect Clocks, 2nd ed. Pergamon Press, Oxford. 

Siegel, S. & Castellan, N.J. Jr. 1988. Nonparametric Statistics for the Behavioral Sci- 
ences. New York. McGraw Hill. 

Sites, R.W. & McPherson, J.E. 1982. Life history and laboratory rearing of Sehirus 
cinctus cinctus (Hemiptera: Cydnidae), with description of immature stages. Ann. 
Em. Soc. Am. 75, p. 210-215. 

Vaz Nunes, M. & Hardie, J. 1993. A model for the photoperiodic counter in the aphid 
Megoura viciae. J. Ins. Physiol. 39. p. 173-182. 

Vaz Nunes, M. & Hardie, J. 1994. The photoperiodic counter in the black bean aphid. 
Aphis fabae. J. Ins. Physiol. 40, p. 827-834. 

Veerman, A. & Vaz Nunes, M. 1984. Photoperiod reception in spider mites: photorecep- 
tor, clock and counter. Photoperiodic Regulation of Insect and Molluscan Hormones. 
pp. 48-64. Ciba Foundation Symposium 104. Pitman, London. 

Veerman, A. & Vaz Nunes, M. 1987. Analysis of the operation of the photoperiodic 
counter provides evidence for hourglass time measurement in the spider mite 
Tetranychus urticae. J. Comp. Physiol. (A) 160, p. 421-430. 

Williams, C.M. & Adkisson, P.L. 1964. Physiology of insect diapause. XIV. An endo- 
crine mechanism for the photoperiodic control of pupal diapause in the oak silk- 
worm. Antheraea pernyi. Biol. Bull. Mar. Biol. Lab.. Woods Hole. 128. p. 497-507. 



BOOKS RECEIVED AND BRIEFLY NOTED 

THE BIOMECHANICS OF INSECT FLIGHT. FORM, FUNCTION, EVO- 
LUTION. 2000. Robert Dudley. Princeton University Press. 476 pp. Hard. 
$49.50. 

Beginning from an overview of insect flight biomechanics, this author goes on to explain 
insect morphology, wing motions, aerodynamics, flight energetics, and flight metabolism within 
a modern phylogenic setting. Drawing on biomechanical principles, he describes and evaluates 
flight behavior and the limits to flight performance, and develops evolutionary explanations of 
insect flight. He analyzes the origins of flight in insects, the roles of natural and sexual selection 
in determining how insects fly, and the relationship between flight and insect size, pollination, 
predation, dispersal, and migration. The main focus of the text is the author's explanation ot 
functional design from evolutionary and ecological perspectives. Also noteworthy is the synthe- 
sis of literature (over 100 pp.) on insect flight. 

THE TIGER BEETLE GENUS OXYCHEILA (INSECTA: COLEOPTERA: 
CICINDELIDAE). 1999. J. Wiesner. COLEOPTERA. Schwanfelder 
Coleopterologische Mitteilungen. Schwanfeld. Germany. 8 1 pp. 4 color plates. 
8'/ : x 11. Paper. 

A complete systematic revision of the genus. 46 species are included. For each species, the 
following are presented: synonymies, type specimen or status, diagnosis, description or re-de- 
scription, distribution, localities, ecology, and etymology. 55 diagnostic figures. 48 specimens 
illustrated on 4 color plates. 



74 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



CANTHARIDIN ATTRACTION IN PYROCHROA 
(COLEOPTERA: PYROCHROIDAE) 1 

Gianluca Nardi 2, Marco A. Bologna-^ 

ABSTRACT: A new case of probable cantharidin attraction in beetles of the genus Pyruchroa is 
recorded. Observed feeding on blister beetle tissues is related to possible cantharidin transfer 
during copulation as demonstrated in other pyrochroine Pyrochroidae. 

Cantharidin is a toxic terpenoid present in the haemolymph and tissues of 
Meloidae and Oedemeridae beetles, with probable intraspecific attractive func- 
tion, at least in blister beetles, and representing a feeding deterrent against ver- 
tebrates (except in a few cases, e.g. toads) and predaceous arthropods. Never- 
theless, cantharidin is strongly attractive to several species of insects of differ- 
ent orders, particularly other tenebrionoid Coleoptera. A recent review on 
canthariphily was published by Dettner (1997). 

The first records of cantharidin attraction in pyrochroine Pyrochroidae were 
published for three Nearctic species by Young (1984a, 1984b): Schizotus cervi- 
calis Newman, Neopyrochroa femoralis (LeConte), and N. flabellata (Fabri- 
cius). This phenomenon was observed in two Palaearctic species: Pyrochroa 
serraticornis serraticornis (Scopoli) by Bologna and Havelka (1985, without 
subspecies association), and Schizotus pectinicornis (Linnaeus) by Holz et al. 
(1994). 

The new observation of attraction concerns one male of P. s. serraticornis 
from Latium, Cisterna di Latina, Italy (Latina Province, UTM 33TUG 198068, 
April 8 1991, G. Nardi leg., 2: 15 PM), found on a dead male of Meloe (Meloe) 
proscarabaeus Linnaeus used as bait under hazel trees (Corylus avellana 
Linnaeus). This blister beetle was collected in the same locality a few days 
earlier (April 2 1991, G. Nardi leg.). 

The single previous record of this Pyrochroa species, published by Bologna 
and Havelka (1985: Latium Apennines), reported a male displaying courtship 
behavior on a Meloe (Meloe) violaceus Marsham male, which itself was simul- 
taneously in homospecific courtship. The new record concerns a male of P. 
serraticornis feeding on the first abdominal sternites of the blister beetle; feed- 
ing continued for one hour in a rearing box. 

The cantharidin assumption was recorded in males of N. flabellata and 5. 
pectinicornis (cf. Dettner, 1997 for a review and detailed literature). Males 
store cantharidin chiefly in the reproductive apparatus and can secrete it through 



1 Received March 11, 1999. Accepted April 6, 1999. 

2 Via Galileo Galilei, 14, 04012 Cisterna di Latina (LT), Italy, e-mail: l_nardi@ hotmail.com 

3 Dipartimento di Biologia, Universita degli Studi "Roma Tre", Viale G. Marconi 446, 00146 
Roma, Italy, e-mail: bologna@bio.uniroma3.it 

ENT. NEWS 111(1), 74-76, January & February, 2000 



Vol. 1 1 1 , No. 1 , January & February, 2000 75 



a cephalic exocrine gland. Females, during courtship, check the presence of this 
substance in this gland and copulate with a male having a higher load of canthari- 
din; most of this stored substance is transferred during copulation into the fe- 
male spermatheca. Females can transfer cantharidin to the eggs and consequently 
larvae are protected against predators. 

Pyrochroidae of the subfamily Pedilinae (considered as a distinct family by 
some authors), and other beetles of the families Anthicidae, Endomychidae, 
Staphylinidae and Chrysomelidae also have been recorded in the field feeding 
on Meloidae and Oedemeridae tissues (cf. Dettner, 1997 for a review on the 
significance of this behavior). 

Based on the new feeding record in P. serraticornis, and the presence of the 
cephalic gland at least in the closely related P. coccinea (Linnaeus) (Schutz and 
Dettner, 1992), we suspect that cantharidin transfer during copulation also oc- 
curred in Pyrochroa. This phenomenon could also be particularly significant be- 
cause fire-colored beetles of this genus have repellant glands with unknown chemi- 
cal products, and could represent model species in mimicry complexes 
with other beetles such as Elateridae (Liberto, 1993) and Lycidae (Bologna and 

Nardi, unpubl.). 

LITERATURE CITED 

Bologna, M. A. and P. Havelka. 1985. Nuove segnalazioni di attrazione della cantaridina del 
Meloidae su Coleotteri e Ditteri. Boll. Assoc. Romana Entomol. 39 (1984): 77-82. 

Dettner, K. 1997. Inter- and Intraspecific Transfer of Toxic Insects Compound Cantharidin: 115- 
145. In: Dettner K. et al. (eds.), Vertical Food Web Interactions. Ecol. Studies, 130. 

Holz, C., G. Streil, K. Dettner, J. Dutemeyer and W. Boland. 1994. Intersexual Transfer of a 
Toxic Terpenoid during Copulation and its Paternal Allocation to Developmental Stages: 
Quantification of Cantharidin in Cantharidin-Producing Oedemerids (Coleoptera: Oedemeridae) 
and Canthariphilous Pyrochroids (Coleoptera: Pyrochroidae). Z. Naturforsch. 49c: 856-864. 

Liberto, A. 1993. Osservazioni sistematiche ed eco-etologiche su Anostirus (Parastirns) cerrutii 
Binaghi (Coleoptera, Elateridae). Boll. Assoc. Romana Entomol. 47 (1992): 81-85. 

Schutz, C. and K. Dettner. 1992. Cantharidin-secretion by elytral notches of male Anthicid spe- 
cies (Coleoptera: Anthicidae). Z. Naturforsch. 47c: 290-299. 

Young, D. K. 1984a. Field studies on cantharidin orientation by Neopyrochroa flabellata (Co- 
leoptera: Pyrochroidae). Great Lakes Entomol. 17: 133-135. 

Young, D. K. 1984b. Field records and observations of Insects associated with cantharidin. Great 
Lakes Entomol. 17: 195-199. 



76 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



SOCIETY MEETING OF OCTOBER 27, 1999 

(Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia) 

Jamie Cromartie, Richard Stockton College of New Jersey 
Dan Otte, Academy of Natural Sciences 

THE AES LIBRARY: FROM LINNEAUS TO THE WORLD WIDE WEB 

The meeting was held in The Ewell Sale Stewart Library of the Academy of Natural Sciences, 
which holds the books, journals and other collections of the AES. For the presentation, Jamie 
Cromartie and library director Dan Elliott selected about fifty volumes. These ranged from 
early works by Linneaus and Fabricius, through rare, beautifully illustrated books by John 
Abbott and others, to recent catalogs and field guides. Dr. Cromartie pointed out several themes 
in the display, including the discovery and naming of familiar and unfamiliar species, narticu- 
larly of moths and butterflies. 

A series of books and journals laid out the story of the Rare Skipper, Problema bulenta, origi- 
nally figured by Abbott, but not seen by scientists again until the 1920's. It has recently been 
found in New Jersey. Another theme was works of noted lepidopterists. Among them were the 
published papers of novelist Vladimir Nabokov on American butterflies, including his descrip- 
tion of the Karner blue. Other authors highlighted were scientists at the Academy or affiliated 
with AES. The books and journals also showed the evolution of scientific publication in insect 
systematics, culminating in a collection of Lepidoptera web sites, available on the terminals in 
the library. 

Links to these pages can be found at http://www.stockton.edu/~cromartw/lepidoptera.html 
The catalog of the ANSP library can be searched online at http://www.acnatsci.org/library/ 

To more fully show the power and potential of the web as a tool for scientific study of 
biodiversity. Dr. Otte gave a demonstration of the Orthoptera Species File Online, found at 
http://viceroy.eeb.uconn.edu/orthoptera 

"The Orthoptera Species File (OSF) is a taxonomic database of the world's othopteroid insects. 
It contains full synonymic and taxonomic information for over 25,000 species and genera (all 
taxa described prior to 1998) of the Tettigonioidea (katydids and haglids), Grylloidea (crick- 
ets), Acridomorpha (locusts and grasshoppers: Acridoidea + Eumastacoidea + Trigonoptery- 
goidea + Pneumoroidea + Pamphagoidea), Tetrigoidea (pygmy grasshoppers), and Tridactyloidea 
(sand crickets), as well as images and sounds for many species. A database for the Gryllacridoidea 
will become available in the second half of 1999. This site also includes a searchable database 
of entomologists working on the Orthoptera." 

William J. Cromartie, 
Corresponding Secretary 



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The following books are available from Kendall7Hunt Publishing: 

An Introduction to the Aquatic Insects of North America edited by Richard W. Merritt and 
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pages/otabind/S78.69*/ ISBN 0-7872-3240-8). Aquatic Insects, with readings written by 41 
experts, will quickly become your standard reference book. It includes features such as: com- 
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keys to major life stages of North American aquatic insects; and tables at the end of every 
identification chapter with summaries at the generic level of the ecology, habits, and distribu- 
tion of the order or family of aquatic insects. 

Immature Insects, Volumes I and II, edited by Frederick W. Stehr (Volume I: 1987/768 pages/ 
casebound/$136.44*/ISBN 0-84034639-5 and Volume II: 1991/992 pages/casebound/ 241.44*/ 
ISBN 0-8403-4639-5 ). Immature Insects provides information on the biology and ecology of 
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identify insects ranging from the most common to the extremely rare through use of the abun- 
dant illustrations, descriptions, and/or keys to selected species. Immature Insects is the only 
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These books also describe techniques necessary for the collecting, rearing, killing, preserving, 
storing, and studying of insects. Both books also include an introduction defining how terms 
are used in the book, a complete glossary, and an extensive index. 

For more information or to place an order, call Jill Crow at 1-800-228-0564. 
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q 6 ( 



I? N'T 



MARCH & APRIL, 2000 



US ISSN 0013-872X 
NO. 2 



OMOLOGICAL NEWS 



New and rare microcaddisflies (Trichoptera: Hydrop- 

tilidae) from the eastern United States S.C. Harris, A.D. Huryn 77 

Distribution of Microstylum morosum and M. galactodes 
(Diptera: Asiiidae): significant range extensions 

RJ. Beckemeyer, R.E. Charlton 84 

A new genus and three new species of the tribe 

Spathophorini (Heteroptera: Coreidae) Henry Brailovsky 97 

A review of the leafhopper genus Acrulogonia 
(Homoptera: Cicadellidae) with descriptions 



of new species 



C. Godoy, M.W. Nielson 107 



A new species of Schildola (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) 

from Costa Rica C. Godoy, M.W. Nielson 116 



An annotated list of planthoppers (Hemiptera: 
Fulgoroidea) of Guana Is., British West 
Indies 



Charles R. Bartlett 120 



A new species of Paracloeodes (Ephemeroptera: 

Baetidae) from Mexico R.P. Randolph, W.R McCafferty 133 

Acentrellaferopagus, new species (Ephemeroptera: 
Baetidae): formal new name for North American 
A. laponica sensu Morihara and McCafferty 

J.A-Tercedor, W.R McCafferty 137 

A new combination for two North American 

small minnow mayflies (Ephemeroptera: Baetidae) 

N.A. Wiersema 140 

Baetiella (Ephemeroptera: Baetidae) in Hong Kong, 
with description of a new species 

X. Tong, D. Dudgeon 143 



THE AMERICAN ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 



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Vol. 1 1 1 . No. 2. March & April. 2000 77 

NEW AND RARE MICROCADDISFLIES 

(TRICHOPTERA: HYDROPTILIDAE) FROM THE 

EASTERN UNITED STATES 1 

Steven C. Harris^, Alexander D. Huryn^ 

ABSTRACT: Two new species of microcaddisflies, Hydroprila tomah from Maine, and 
Oxyethira mcgregori from Alabama, are described, illustrated and compared to congeners. New 
illustrations of H. strepha and O. dualis, closest relatives of the new species, are included for 
comparison. Both new species appear to be uncommon, based on small numbers collected and 
a limited range. 

Although the caddisfly fauna of both the northeastern and southeastern 
United States has been fairly well studied, new species continue to be found. 
This paper describes two new species; one in the genus Hydroptila from a 
single locality in Maine, and another in the genus Oxyethira from a few scat- 
tered localities in northern Alabama and southern Tennessee. Both species are 
apparently rare, being represented by one and four specimens respectively. 
Terminology used in the descriptions follows that of Marshall (1979). Type 
material will be deposited at the National Museum of Natural History, 
Smithsonian Institution (NMNH) and at the University of Tennessee (UT). 

Hydroptila tomah, NEW SPECIES 

(Fig. 1) 

Hydroprila nr strepha. Huryn and Harris. In review. 

In a study of the caddisflies inhabiting the Tomah Stream in southeastern 
Maine, one of the 27 species of microcaddisflies was identified as a close 
relative of Hydroptila strepha Ross (Huryn and Harris. In review). On com- 
parison with the type of H. strepha, this specimen, although similar, was de- 
termined to represent an undescribed species. 

Diagnosis. A recent review of the five eastern species in the strepha group 
by Sykora and Harris (1994) provided a stable framework for the placement 
of the new species. This review allowed us a greater degree of confidence in 
determining that a single specimen represented a new species. Hydroptila tomah 
is most similar to H. strepha (fig. 2), particularly in the shape of the inferior 
appendages. The new species is distinguished by the elongate posterodorsal 



1 Received July 16, 1999. Accepted August 30, 1999. 

2 Department of Biology, Clarion University, Clarion, PA 16214. 

3 Department of Biological Sciences, University of Maine, Orono, ME 04469. 

ENT. NEWS 1 1 1(2): 77-83, March & April 2000 




78 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



lobes of segment IX, which are noticeably shorter in H. strepha, and by the 
sickle-shaped phallus which is straight in H. strepha. 

Description. Male. Length 2.8 mm. 27 antennal segments. Brown in alcohol. Venter of ab- 
dominal segment VII with short apicomesal process. Segment VIII annular. Segment IX in 
lateral view deeply emarginate posterolaterally, rounded anterolaterally. in dorsal view deeply 
incised posteriorly forming pair of elongate lateral lobes, emarginate anteriorly. Segment X 
truncate laterally; narrow dorsally with slightly flared apex, small median lobe on posterior 
margin. Subgenital plate a narrow shelf in lateral aspect; in ventral view broadly rounded dis- 
tally, with pair of stout, median setae. Inferior appendage in lateral view narrow, curving down- 
ward distally to enlarged, clublike apex, basally with rounded lateral projection; ventrally with 
broad base, narrow and gently tapering distally to slightly out-turned apex, mesal margins 
straight. Phallus tubular basally, distally narrow and sickle-shaped, ejaculatory duct protruding 
apically and contiguous, thin paramere at midlength encircling shaft. 

Female and larva. Unknown. 

Type material. Holotype, male. Maine, Washington County, Tomah Stream @ floodplain, 
N45"28.28', W67"35.58', 1-2 July 1997, A. Huryn (NMNH). 

Etymology. Named for the type locality. 

Oxyethira mcgregori, NEW SPECIES 

(Fig. 3) 

Oxyethira dualis Morton. Harris, O'Neil and Lago 1991: 245. 

In the course of identifying a series of microcaddisflies from high altitude 
springs in California, a number of O. dualis were identified. To verify the 
identifications, the California specimens were compared with a small series of 
the same species from Alabama. On close comparison, it was determined that 
the material from Alabama, thought to be O. dualis, instead represented a simi- 
lar, but undescribed new species. 

Diagnosis. Oxyethira mcgregori is very similar in overall appearance to 
O. dualis (fig. 4). The phallus is nearly identical in both species with a distinc- 
tive series of short spines at the apex. It is this character which is most easily 
seen and which can lead to misidentification. The new species is readily sepa- 
rated, however, by the lack of a dorsal bridge from segment IX, which is readily 
apparent in O. dualis. The presence or absence of this character is used in 
Kelley (1982) to broadly separate the species groups of Oxyethira. Since O. 
dualis has been reported from much of North America, the separation of a new 
species in the southeast suggests what is now being called O. dualis may rep- 
resent a complex of species. 



Vol. 1 1 1, No. 2, March & April. 2000 



79 




Figure 1. Hydroptila tomah, n.sp., male genitalia. A. Lateral view; B. Ventral view; C. Dorsal 
view; D. Phallus, ventral view; E. Phallus, lateral view. 



80 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 




Figure 2. Hydroptila strepha Ross, male genitalia, drawn from type. A. Lateral view; B. Ven- 
tral view; C. Dorsal view; D. Phallus, ventral view; E. Phallus, lateral view. 



Vol. 1 1 1. No. 2, March & April, 2000 



81 




Figure 3. Oxyethira mcgregori n.sp., male genitalia. A. Lateral view; B. Dorsal view; C. Ven- 
tral view; D. Phallus, ventral view; E. Phallus, lateral iew. 



82 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 




Figure 4. Oxyethira dualis Morton, male genitalia. drawn from California specimen. A. Lateral 
view; B. Dorsal view; C. Ventral view; D. Phallus, ventral view; E. Phallus, lateral view. 



Vol. 1 1 1 . No. 2. March & April. 2000 83 



Description. Male. Length 2.2-2.4 mm. 32 antennal segments. Brown in alcohol. Venter of 
abdominal segment VII with short apicomesal process. Segment VIII tapering to rounded lobe 
in lateral aspect; shallowly emarginate on posterior margin ventrally, margin deeply emargin- 
ate dorsally. Segment IX compressed dorsoventrally, lacking any anterodorsal bridge, narrow- 
ing posteroventrally; in dorsal and ventral view tapering anteriorly, posteriorly terminating in 
pair of truncate lobes. Segment X membranous, tapering posteriorly. Subgenital plate strongly 
arched in lateral aspect, truncate posteriorly. Phallus tubular, wide basally and apically; apex 
bearing series of four short spines, ejaculatory duct protruding distally as narrow process. 

Female and larva. Unknown. 

Type material. Holotype, male. Alabama, Lauderdale County, Cowpen Creek @ Co. 
Hwy. 8, 18 June 1983, S. Harris (NMNH). Paratypes, Alabama, Lauderdale Co., Shoal 
Creek @ Co. Hwy. 8, 18 June 1983, 2 males (NMNH); Tennessee, Knox Co., Stroud 
Spring on Northshore Drive, 3 miles W jet. Norell Rd., 25 June 1972, D. Etnier, 1 male (UT). 

Etymology. Named for Stuart McGregor, colleague and friend of the senior 
author, who was born and raised in north Alabama. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

Partial funding to support the study of the Tomah Stream came from the Maine Depart- 
ment of Inland Fisheries and Wildlife (MDIFW) and the U.S. Department of Fish and Wildlife, 
Office of Endangered Species (Section 6). David Etnier of the University of Tennessee kindly 
provided the specimens of O. mcgregori from Tennessee, Marilyn Myers of the University 
of California-Berkeley provided O. dualis material from California, and Kathleen Zeiders 
of the Illinois Natural History Survey made available the type of H. strepha. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Harris, S.C., P.E. O'Neil and P.K. Lago. 1991. Caddisflies of Alabama. Bull. Geol. Surv. 
Ala. 142: 1-442. 

Huryn, A. D. and S. C. Harris. In review. High species richness of caddisflies (Trichoptera) at 
a river-floodplain complex in Maine. Northeast. Nat. 

Kelley, R.W. 1982. The micro-caddisfly genus Oxyethira (Trichoptera: Hydroptilidae): Mor- 
phology, biogeography, evolution and classification. Ph.D. dissertation, Clemson Univ. 
436p. 

Marsha!!, J.E. 1979. A review of the genera of the Hydroptilidae (Trichoptera). Bull. Brit. 
Mu. Nat. Hist.(Entomol). 39: 135-239. 

Sykora, J.L. and S.C. Harris. 1994. Five new species of Hydroptila from eastern United 
States (Insecta: Trichoptera: Hydroptilidae). Ann. Carnegie Mus. 63: 67-75. 



84 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



DISTRIBUTION OF MICROSTYLUM MOROSUM AND 

M. GALACTODES (DIPTERA: ASILIDAE): 

SIGNIFICANT RANGE EXTENSIONS 1 

R. J. Beckemeyer 2 ' 3 , R. E. Charlton 4 ' 5 

ABSTRACT: Microst\lum morosutn, long listed as endemic to Texas, is documented tor Kan- 
sas (nine counties), Oklahoma (13 counties), Arizona (two counties). New Mexico and Colo- 
rado (one county each). The species' range is shown to extend 450 miles north of the northern- 
most Texas county of record. Microstylum galactodes, known to occur in Texas and Kansas, is 
newly documented for Oklahoma (four counties). M. galactodes is also reported here from nine 
counties in Kansas, seven counties in New Mexico, three counties in Arizona, and three coun- 
ties in Colorado; nearly all of these are newly documented counties for the species. A number 
of counties are also added to the lists originally published in Bromley's (1934) summary of 
Texas Asilidae, bringing the counts to 30 Texas counties for M. galactodes and 20 Texas coun- 
ties for M. moms it in. 

Microstylum Macquart is a robber fly genus of "About one hundred spe- 
cies ... most ... occurring] in South and Central Africa, Madagascar, India, 
Ceylon, China, the Malay States, and certain of the East Indies" (Bromley. 
1927). E. W. Fisher (pers. commun., 1999) notes that there are currently 127 
species of Microstylum listed for the Old World in various regional catalogs. 
(Also see Hull, 1962 for additional data on world-wide distribution.) Four 
species of Microstylum have been described from North America (Martin, 
1960): two from the southwestern United States, and two from Mexico. The 
two species found north of the Mexican border are M. galactodes Loew and 
M. morosum Loew. The taxon M. pollens Osten Sacken (Texas) listed by Hull 
(1962) and others is considered a color variant of M. morosum by Martin and 
Wilcox(1965). 

The keys to the genera of Asilidae in Wood (1981) can be used to identify 
Microstylum: keys to separate the two species that occur in the U.S. appear in 
Back (1909), Bromley (1934) and Martin (1960). These are large insects. 
Bromley ( 1 934) lists the lengths of M. galactodes as 30-34 mm and M. morosum 
as 35-50 mm, however we find that the larger M. galactodes and smaller M. 
morosum do overlap in size. The two species are easily distinguished, M. 



1 Received August 25, 1999. Accepted October 4, 1999. 

2 Department of Biology, Southwestern College, Winfield, Kansas 67156-2499. 

-^ Address correspondence to: Roy J. Beckemeyer, 957 Perry, Wichita, KS 67203-3141. 
Email to: royb@southwind.net 

4 Department of Entomology, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas 66506. 

5 Contribution No. 99-476-J of the Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station. 

ENT. NEWS 1 1 1(2): 84-96, March & April 2000 



Vol. Ill, No. 2, March & April, 2000 



85 



galactodes having milky white wing membranes, the body reddish-brown, 
and the head and thoracic dorsum evenly covered with whitish pruinescence, 
M. morosum having black to brown wings, black to brown body, and with 
thoracic pruinescence restricted to the lateral margins. Figure 1 illustrates a 
typical specimen of each species. 

Back (1909) and Martin (1960) gave the range of M. galactodes as Texas, 
New Mexico and Kansas, and that of M. morosum as Texas only. James (1941 ) 
listed M. galactodes for Colorado. Martin and Wilcox, in the chapter on Asilidae 
in Stone et al. (1965), extended the ranges for both M. galactodes and M. 
morosum to include Arizona. 

Having collected M. morosum recently in Kansas, the authors became in- 
terested in more accurately portraying the distribution of Microstylum north of 
the Mexican border. We present records here, gathered with the generous as- 
sistance of a number of museums and collectors, that document the widespread 
southwestern U.S. distribution of Microstylum. Both M. galactodes and M. 
morosum have been found to occur in the states of Arizona, Colorado, Kansas, 
New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas. We list and map all counties of record we 
could find for these states. We also list the Mexican states for which records 
were found. 



3 mn 




Figure 1. Specimens of Microstylum galactodes (left. Crane Co., TX) and M. morosum 
(right, Riley Co., KS) from the Kansas State University Collection. Specimens were scanned 
using a flatbed scanner at 300 dots per inch by R. E. Charlton. 



86 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



DISTRIBUTIONAL RECORDS FOR M1CROSTYLUM MOROSUM 

Sources of Records: AM-NMSU - Arthropod Mus., New Mexico St. Univ. (D. B. Richman); 
Back - E. A. Back, 1909; Bromley - S. W. Bromley, 1934; CAS - Cal. Acad. Sci. (E.W. Fisher); 
CRN - C. Riley Nelson, personal collection, Provo, UT; CSU - Col. St. Univ. (B. Kondratieff); 
DB-NMSU - Dept. Biol., New Mexico St. Univ. (G. S. Forbes); EEM - Enns Entomol. Mus., 
Univ. of Missouri-Columbia (K. Simpson); EWF - Eric W. Fisher personal collection; Mine - 
J.S. Hine, 1918; James - M. T. James, 1941; KU - The Snow Entomol. Mus., Univ. of Kans.; 
KSU - Kans. St. Univ. Mus. Entomological and Prairie Arthropod Res. (R. E. Charlton); Martin 
& Wilcox - Martin & Wilcox, 1965; OSU - Entomol. & Plant Pathology Dept., Okia. St. Univ. 
(D. Arnold & R. Grantham); RJBa - R. J. Bauernfeind personal collection, Manhattan, KS; 
RJBe - R. J. Beckemeyer personal collection, Wichita, KS; RG - R. Grantham personal collec- 
tion, Stillwater, OK; RLH - R. L. Huber personal collection, Prairie Village, KS; Smith - Smith 
et al., 1962; SWD - S.W. Dunkle personal collection, Piano, TX; TAM - Tex. A & M Univ. 
Coll. (D. Oswald & E. G. Riley). 

Texas 

Microstylum morosum was described by Loew in 1872 from specimens 
collected in Dallas, Texas. It is a magnificent animal (Figure 2.), "...probably 
the largest asilid occurring in North America." (Bromley, 1934). As long as 50 
mm (Bromley, 1 934), it has a "stiltlike neck" and dark brown wings. Bromley 
( 1934) described it as a"... 'green-eyed monster'...[ with)... an antedeluvian [sic] 
appearance...", as it has emerald green eyes when alive. 

Back ( 1 909) provided data for a number of specimens from Dallas County, 
including the male and female types. He also listed a specimen from Victoria 




Figure 2. Microstylum morosum in life. Photo by R. J. Elzinga of Kansas State University. 



Vol. 1 1 1, No. 2, March & April. 2000 87 



County, Texas (June 5). Hine (1918) collected the species from the Trans- 
Pecos ("...forty miles south and slightly west of Pecos, the nearest town being 
Toyahvale...[in Reeves County]"). In his review of Texas Asilidae, Bromley 
(1934) said that M. morosum was "...rather common in the open woodlands 
and adjoining cotton fields in the bottom lands along the Trinity and Bosque 
Rivers. ..[and occurs in] Dallas, McLennan, Bosque, Madison, Victoria, Travis, 
Mills, [and] Brewster Counties, June 28 - Aug. 26." Records for a number of 
additional Texas counties have been gathered from various collections and 
these are summarized at the end of this paper. 

Kansas 

Smith et al. (1962) noted that M. morosum was the "...largest and least- 
common species..." of the asilids listed in their popular book on Kansas in- 
sects. However, they did not list any specific Kansas localities or specimens. 
The occurrence of the species in Kansas went unrecorded in later publications 
and catalogs. 

We document the occurrence of M. morosum at the northern end of its 
range for nine counties in Kansas and for one county in Colorado. These records 
constitute a significant northern range extension for M. morosum. Five coun- 
ties (Chautauqua, Cowley, Montgomery, Geary and Riley, Kansas) are lo- 
cated in the Osage Plains physiographic region; Sumner County is in the Ar- 
kansas River Lowlands; Barber and Comanche Counties in Kansas are in the 
Mixed Grass Prairie region (Schoewe, 1 949). Meade County, Kansas and Baca 
County, Colorado are in the High Plains Short Grass Prairie. 

Barber County and Comanche County are located on the Kansas-Okla- 
homa border. The Red Hills physiographic region in which Barber County is 
located is characterized by rolling hills with exposed rocky slopes. Vegetation 
"...is mixed grass prairie with an overstory of red cedar forming a savannah- 
like aspect" (Zimmerman and Patti, 1988). A single specimen was collected 
from Barber County by R. J. Bauernfeind of Kansas State University on 25 
July, 1990, and is in his collection. The Kansas University (KU) collection 
contains three specimens from Schwartz Canyon in Comanche County, col- 
lected 4 July 1991 by G. A. Salsbury. Ron Huber (pers. commun., 1999) has 
specimens from both Barber and Comanche Counties in his personal collec- 
tion: "KS: Comanche Co., Schwartz Canyon, 1 3 mi S. & 1 6 mi E. of Coldwater, 
7/4/91 leg G. Salsbury & R. Huber, 2 m 6f, Sec. 14, T 34, R 16", and "KS: 
Barber Co., 14.5 mi W. Medicine Lodge on Hwy 160, hilltop just W of MP 21 1, 
leg R. Huber, 7/6/91, If". The Colorado State University collection also con- 
tains specimens of M. morosum from both Barber and Comanche Counties. 

There is a single specimen of M. morosum in the KU collection taken in 
Caldwell, Kansas (Sumner County) by Stallings and Turner, 19 July 1953, 
and a second Sumner County specimen collected by G. A. Salsbury, 16 Aug. 
1979 labeled "edge of woods". R. L. Huber (pers. commun., 1999) has a fe- 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



male specimen in his personal collection taken in Caldwell, Kansas 6/19/52 
leg Stallings & Turner. Sumner County is on the Oklahoma border. 

Chautauqua and adjacent Montgomery Counties are also located along the 
Kansas-Oklahoma border east of Cowley County. The collection locale for 
the most recently-collected specimen from Chautauqua County was along a 
gravel road 1.5 miles east of the Cowley/Chautauqua County line and 5 miles 
north of the Oklahoma border (R8E, T34S, Section 15). This site is within the 
Osage Cuestas subregion of the Osage Plains. The Osage Cuestas, also known 
as the "cross timbers", are comprised of a forest-prairie mosaic with blackjack 
and post oak on the ridges and tall grasses or cultivated fields in the lowlands. 
One specimen was collected while it was flying in the lee of a roadside hedge 
row in the company of numerous dragonflies (Odonata: Anisoptera: 
Libellulidae: Trained lacerata}. It was taken in the early afternoon of VII-30- 
1994 by the senior author, and is in his collection. The Kansas University 
collection contains a single specimen from Chautauqua County taken in Se- 
dan, Kansas, July 25, 1951 by Robert E. Beer and three specimens from Mont- 
gomery County, one with acridid prey, collected by Beamer and Lawson 
August 3, 1923. 

Geary County and Riley County are both located at the northern edge of 
the Flint Hills physiographic subregion of the Osage Plains, and are bounded 
to the north by the edge of the glaciated region. In the Flint Hills, the upland 
vegetation is dominated by tall grasses, with riparian forests along the streams. 
The KSU collection contains one specimen from Geary County, collected by 
J. Schesser on August 12, 1955. Of the five KSU specimens collected from 
Riley County, the first was collected by R.C. Smith in Manhattan, Kansas on 
15 July, 1921. There are two specimens that were collected by T. E. Hall in 
July 1929 labeled "Riley Co." These specimens from Geary and Riley Coun- 
ties that were collected prior to 1962 are likely the source of the account by 
Smith et al. (1962). The fourth Riley County specimen is one collected by N. 
Marston on July 4, 1964. 

The junior author has observed M. morosum on the Konza Prairie in Riley 
county in recent years; most of his sightings were of males perched atop the 
scattered small bushes on rocky prairie hillsides. The fifth Riley County speci- 
men is a voucher specimen collected from the Kon/a Prairie by Brian Kopper 
(14-VII-1997). The KU collection contains three additional specimens from 
Riley County taken in 1909. 

Cowley County, in the southern portion of the Flint Hills, adjoins Sumner 
County on the east; Ron Huber (pers. commun., 1999) has a female specimen 
in his collection that was collected from Cowley County (Cambridge, Kansas) 
12 July 1975 by D. Stallings. 

The Kansas University collection contains two specimens of M. morosum 
from Meade County, Kansas ("2500ft., F. X. Willliams. VII- 10- 191 1"). at the 
eastern edge of the short-grass prairie. 



Vol. 1 1 1. No. 2. March & April. 2000 89 



Colorado 

In addition to the specimens of M. morosum from Barber and Comanche 
Counties in Kansas, the Colorado State University collection has specimens 
from Baca County (B. Kondratieff, pers. commun., 1999), the southeastern- 
most county in Colorado. The species had not been previously reported from 
that state. 

Oklahoma 

M. morosum has not previously been reported for the state of Oklahoma; it 
was recorded from a total of 13 counties in the course of this study. Most of 
the records were provided by Richard Grantham (pers. commun., 1999) of the 
Oklahoma State University Department of Entomology and Plant Pathology. 
Specimens in the OSU collection were from counties across the northern tier 
of Oklahoma, with a single county in the south-central part of the state (Mayes 
County) also represented. Most of the records were from the 1930's or the 
1960's: 

Alfalfa County (Byron: 11 Aug. 1931); Cimarron County (Black Mesa: 24 June 1933, 2 
specimens 22 June 1966; Kenton: 24 June 1933); Garvin County (Lindsay: 27 July, 1976); 
Grant County (Medford: 8 Aug. 1931); Kay County (Blackwell: 2 specimens, 12 Aug. 
1931); Mayes County (Locust Grove: 12 July 1963); Nowata County (Lenapah: 1 Aug. 
1 93 l);Osage County (Grainola: 1 Aug. 1931; Fairfax, 28 & 30 July 1932); Pawnee County 
( Watchorn: 1 1 July 1930; Pawnee: 12 & 13 July 1932); Payne County (Lake Carl Blackwell: 
3 Aug. 1960, 5 specimens 13 Aug. 1960; Stillwater: 12 July 1969). 

In addition, Dr. Grantham has 2 specimens of M. morosum taken 30 June 
1999 from Black Mesa in Cimarron County in his personal collection. Ron 
Huber (pers. commun., 1999) has a single female specimen of Microstylum 
morosum from Oklahoma in his personal collection. It was taken in Grant 
County and was collected 1 9 July 1 953 from Wakita, Oklahoma by D. Stallings. 
Three additional records for M. morosum in Oklahoma were found in the De- 
partment of Biology collection at New Mexico State University (DB-NMSU) 
by Greg Forbes (pers. commun., 1999). The Oklahoma records from NMSU 
are: "Jackson Co., Elmer 28 vii 1983, If, H. Reed, J Nelson; Wagoner Co., 18 
viii 1976, 1m (on ground) D. C. Arnold; Love Co., 9 mi west Marietta, 18 vii 
1971, If, K. Mennealy". Jackson and Love Counties are on the Oklahoma/ 
Texas border. Wagoner County is in northeastern Oklahoma just east of Tulsa. 
These records fill in the gap between Texas and Kansas and indicate that M. 
morosum very likely occurs through most of Oklahoma. 

New Mexico 
The DB-NMSU collection also contains a specimen from New Mexico 



90 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



which constitutes the first report of M. morosum for this state: "Union Co., 
Clayton, 1 vii 1 962, 1 f, David Hine." Union County is directly south of Baca 
County, Colorado. 

Arizona 

Finally, Dr. Eric Fisher (pers. commun., 1999) reports records of M. 
morosum from Arizona in the California Academy of Sciences collection: Santa 
Cruz County ("Santa Rita Mtns., VII-9- 1924, A Nichol...") and Cochise County 
("Douglas, VII-3-1924, E. Bal..."), both in southeastern Arizona. Prior publi- 
cations have listed only "Arizona" with no specific locality information. 

Summary 

These records indicate that M. morosum has a much greater north-south 
range than previously indicated in the literature. Its range extends through 
Kansas and Oklahoma to 60 miles south of the Nebraska border. The Kansas 
localities range from 325 to 465 miles north of Dallas county which was the 
northernmost Texas county of record. The species also appears to occur across 
nearly the breadth of the state, from the tall-grass prairie region of eastern 
Kansas to the high plains at least as far as Baca County, Colorado and Union 
County, New Mexico, just west of the Kansas-Colorado border. 

DISTRIBUTIONAL RECORDS FOR MICROSTYLUM GALACTODES 

Microstylum galactodes was described by Loew in 1 866 from three male 
and six female specimens from New Mexico. Back (1909) listed the species as 
occurring in Kansas, Texas and New Mexico, but did not reference specific 
localities other than citing "Pecos River, Texas". Bromley (1934) called M. 
galactodes a "...large, striking species...", and Kondraiieff (pers. commun., 
1999) comments that "A mating pair in flight is a sight to behold." 

Texas 

Bromley (1934) noted that M. galactodes "Occurs in the central and west- 
ern portions of.. .[Texas]", and he went on to list "Pecos, Brewster, Frio, Bexar, 
Webb, Jim Hogg, Brown, Jeff Davis, Presidio, Brooks, Starr, [and] Ector Coun- 
ties." 

The KSU collection contains 16 specimens from Texas; four of these are 
from counties not mentioned by Bromley (1934): one specimen from Kleberg 
County ("Kingsville, Tex., 7-6-2 1 , F. M. Hull (?)"); two specimens from Tarrant 
County ("May, Tx, 27-VII-31, R. H. Painter collector"); one specimen from 
"Crane Co., Tx., June 21, 1958, R. H. Painter and F. M. Painter collectors." 
Additional county records for Texas gathered in preparing this paper are sum- 
marized at the end of the paper. 



Vol. Ill, No. 2, March & April, 2000 



Colorado 

James (1941) listed M. galactodes from Colorado ("Las Animas [County], 
July 12, 1931 [Leonard Sweetman]"). However, the species' occurrence in the 
state was not recorded in later publications. The Colorado State University 
collection contains specimens of M. galactodes from Baca, Bent and Las 
Animas Counties, all in extreme southeastern Colorado. It also contains speci- 
mens from Potter County in the panhandle of Texas, and from Val Verde 
County, which lies on the Texas border with Mexico. Ron Huber (pers. 
commun., 1999) has a male specimen from Baca County, Colorado ("...Pic- 
ture Canyon, W of Cranshaw, 7/12/91 leg M. Kippenham, B. Kondratieff et 
al...") in his personal collection. 

New Mexico 

Back (1909) did not include any specific locality data for M. galactodes in 
New Mexico, listing only the state. The Texas A&M collection contains 2 
specimens of M. galactodes from Lea County, the southeastern-most county 
in New Mexico, and 7 specimens from Eddy County. The Enns Entomology 
Museum of the University of Missouri-Columbia, contains one specimen of 
M. galactodes from Las Cruces [Dona Ana County], collected 12 July 1917 
by R. C. Shannon (K. Simpson, pers. commun., 1999). The Department of 
Biology collection at New Mexico State University contains a number of speci- 
mens collected by G. S. Forbes from Dona Ana County. Dr. Forbes (pers. 
commun., 1999) has also supplied to the authors some interesting notes on the 
habitats used by M. galactodes in New Mexico: 

"NM: Dona Ana Co.: Upper Box Canyon, 0.8 mi. SW Picacho Pk. 4200' 

Habitat large sandy arroyo between sandstone hills, adjoining desert scrub to NW. Major 

shrubs include, mesquite, tarbush (Fluorensia), creosotebush, littleleaf sumac, and soaptree 

yucca. Most specimens perched on large mesquites or on littleleaf sumac in the canyon. 

One individual of M. galactodes was a prey item of Promachus giganteus Mine. 

29 vi 1982 1m, G. Forbes (GSF) 

6 vii 1982 1m, If, GSF 
18 vii 1982 If, GSF 

7 vii 19832m, If, GSF 

Afton Lava, 20 mi. W Mesilla Dam (about 25 mi. SW Las Cruces) 

Habitat cresosotebush-tarbush scrub on NE side of Afton lava flows; was collected from 

both of these shrubs. 

21 vi 1983 2m, 2f, ( 1 pair in cop) GSF 

26 vi 19832m, 3f, GSF 

Jornada Experimental Range, 3.5 mi. N. USDA HQ Adults perched on Opunria imbricata 

(tree cholla)...f, 2 July 1999 (GSF), perched on mesquite and tobosa grass" 

"Socorro Co., NM: White Sands Missile Range. 33 deg. 36.01' N, 106 deg. 39.83'W, 
about 10 mi. W of the Trinity Site, in black grama grassland, sandy soil, with Yucca elutu 



92 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



common. One f. perched on yucca stalk caught, others seen, 1 July 1999, J. Van Zee and S. 
Bird, collectors." 

The DB-NMSU collection also contains one specimen from De Baca 
County, New Mexico: "SE end Sumner Lake, 9 vii 1986, 1 m, GSF", and 
several from Eddy County: "Rt. 128 at Co. Rd. 787, ca. 1 mi. E WIPP [Waste 
Isolation Pilot Project... 10 mi. E Jet. of Rt. 31 and Rt. 128.. .about 28 mi. SE 
Carlsbad] site turnoff, 10 vi 1989, 1m, If, GSF; Los Mendanos, nr. WIPP site, 
T22S R13E, sec. 15, 12 vii 1978, 2f, T. Marr & W. Whitford; 32 deg. 23' N, 
103 deg. 51.4' W, If, DeLorme, McHugh, Schaffner (Texas A&M) 17 Aug. 
1979". The Arthropod Museum of New Mexico State University (D. B. 
Richman, pers. commun., 1999) contains one specimen ofM. galactodes from 
Chaves County ("Bottomless Lakes State Park, Plot #8 pitfall trap. July 18, 
1985. Janet Swain Collector"). The KU collection contains the following New 
Mexico specimens: one specimen labeled "White Sands, NM [Otero County] 
VI-27-40 L. J. Lipovsky", one specimen labeled "Roswell New Mexico [Chaves 
County] 6-26-32 R. H. Beamer", and two specimens labeled "Malaga N.M. 7- 
11-36" [Eddy County], one collected by D. R. Lindsay, the other by J. H. 
Beamer. Greg Forbes (pers. commun., 1999) states that he "...wouldn't be 
surprised.. [to fmd]...M. galactodes... in all the southern counties of NM at lower 
elevations. It seems to occur in a wide range of plant communities and soil 
types: black grama grasslands in sandy soils, tobosa grass playas and tarbush 
playas in heavy soils, and open desert scrub in deep sand." 

Kansas 

The KSU collection contains three specimens of M. galactodes from Kan- 
sas ("Hamilton Co., Kansas '28, Aug 6., elevation 4000 ft., R. H. Painter Col- 
lector"), one with an acridid prey. Hamilton County is in the High Plains physi- 
ographic region, which was characterized historically as a short-grass prairie, 
although recent years have seen the introduction of irrigation for cultivated 
crops. The area is one of little vertical relief. The KU collection contains speci- 
mens from 6 other Kansas Counties, most of them also in the short-grass prai- 
rie region. Among the specimens collected by F. X. Williams in 1911 in west- 
ern Kansas were the following: one from "Grant Co. 2800 ft. ... VII-27-1911", 
one from "Kiowa Co. Kan. 2250 ft. ...VII- 1-191 1", one labeled "Stanton Co. 
Kan. 3000 ft. ... VII-30-191 1", and one from "Meade Co. Kan. 2500 ft. ... VII- 
10-1911". The KU collection also contains two specimens from "Morton Co. 
Ks. 7-22-24 O. O. Bare" and two from Finney County labeled "Garden City 
Kans. Aug '95 H. W. Menke" (the labels on these specimens appear to be 
quite old and we believe the specimens to date from 1895). The Biology De- 
partment collection at NMSU (G. Forbes, pers. commun., 1999) contains a 
single specimen taken from Seward County, (on the Oklahoma border and 



Vol. Ill, No. 2, March & April, 2000 93 



directly west of Meade County) Kansas: "10.5 mi. N. Liberal, 21 vii 1984, If, 
R. & C. Huber." Finally, Ron Huber (pers. commun., 1999) has one specimen 
in his collection from Comanche County: "...Schwartz Canyon, 1 3 mi. S. & 16 
mi. E. of Coldwater, 7/4/91, leg G. Salsbury & R. Huber, If, Sec. 14, T 34, R 
16". This single M. galactodes was taken together with a number of speci- 
mens of M. morosum. 

The specimens of Microstylum that we have in hand thus indicate that in 
Kansas M. galactodes is the more western species and M. morosum the more 
eastern, though their ranges do overlap in the southwestern quarter of Kansas. 
Microstylum galactodes in Kansas occurs mostly in the short grass prairies. 
There is obviously a need for more collecting and observation to better under- 
stand the detailed distributions of the two species. 

Oklahoma 

There are 8 specimens of M. galactodes from Oklahoma in the KSU col- 
lection. Seven specimens are from Randlett in Cotton County ("15-VII-31, R. 
H. Painter collector"). Cotton County is on the Texas-Oklahoma border. The 
eighth specimen was collected in Woodward, Oklahoma, in July, 1925 by G. 
K. Teripening. Woodward County is in northwestern Oklahoma. The OSU 
collection contains a number of specimens of M. galactodes, most from 
Cimarron County, the extreme western county in the Oklahoma panhandle. 
Richard Grantham (pers. commun., 1999) reported the following: Cimarron 
County (Kenton: 6 June (2 specimens), 29 & 30 June 1933; Boise City: 2 
specimens 10 July 1933; 15N, 13 W of Boise City: 2 specimens dated 14 July 
1971; Black Mesa: 21 July 1983); Harmon County (Vinson: 9 July 1934). 
These records span the western portion of the state from south to north, and 
are the first records published that document specific localities for this species 
in Oklahoma. 

Arizona 

Finally, the KU collection contains a specimen of M. galactodes labeled 
"Mustang Mt. Ar. 6-12-33 R. H. Beamer". The Mustang Mountains are lo- 
cated in Santa Cruz County, Arizona, near the Mexican border. E. W. Fisher 
(pers. commun., 1999) reports specimens of M. galactodes from Cochise 
County (Wilcox, VIM -1968) and Yavapai County, Arizona (Peebles Valley, 
130 km east of the California/Arizona state line - this appears to be the west- 
ern-most record for Microstylum). 

DISCUSSION 

While we list a number of previously unpublished county records for both 
species of Microstylum occurring north of the Mexican border, the exact dis- 
tributions, particularly through the northern and western extent of their ranges, 



94 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



remain to be defmitized. There are indications that M. morosum may occur in 
a larger variety of habitats than M. galactodes, which seems to occur most 
often in short grass prairies and scrub lands. M. galactodes appears to be the 
more common of the two species. The records gathered for this paper yield a 
ratio of the number of specimens of M. galactodes to specimens of M. morosum 
of 1.8:1. Both species seem to be somewhat local in distribution where they do 
occur. G. Forbes (pers. commun., 1999) found M. galactodes in the Las Cruces, 
New Mexico area "...at only 5 sites in a number of years of collecting" and B. 
Kondratieff (pers. commun., 1999) observes that "...A/, galactodes can be very 
common in certain areas of eastern Colorado." Microstylum galactodes ap- 
pears to be restricted to the western third of Kansas and Oklahoma while M. 
morosum is found across both states nearly to their eastern borders. 

Date ranges for M. morosum records are from 5 June through 26 August, 
with 80% of the records occurring in the period from the first of July through 



OK 




No Record 

Microstylum galactodes 
Microstylum morosum 



Figure 3. The recorded distribution of Microstylum morosum (counties denoted by an asterisk) 
and M. galactodes (shaded counties) in Arizona, Colorado, Kansas, New Mexico, Oklahoma, 
and Texas. 



Vol. 111. No. 2. March & April. 2000 95 



mid-August. Date ranges for M. galactodes are 6 June through 17 August, 
with 88% of the records cited occurring between mid-June and the end of July. 
Figure 3 illustrates the distributions by county in Arizona, Colorado, New 
Mexico, Texas, Oklahoma and Kansas as indicated by the records cited here. 
We have also listed in the summary below the few records that we came across 
for the occurrence of M. galactodes and M. morosum in Mexico. The fact that 
these are large, conspicuous, and rather spectacular insects should be helpful 
in filling in the gaps in our understanding of their distribution. We hope that 
this paper will provide inspiration and information to encourage insect collec- 
tors to search for and to further document the occurrence and biology of these 
impressive predators. 

SUMMARY OF COUNTY AND STATE RECORDS 

Microstylum galactodes: UNITED STATES: ARIZONA: State, no county listed (Martin & 
Wilcox); Cochise (EWF); Santa Cruz (KU); Yavapai (EWF). COLORADO: Baca (CSU, RLH); 
Bent (CSU): Las Animas (James: CSU). KANSAS: State, no county listed (Back); Comanche 
(RLH); Finney (KU); Grant (KU); Hamilton (KSU); Kiowa (KU); Meade (KU); Morton 
(KU); Seward (DB-NMSU); Stanton (KU). NEW MEXICO: State, no county listed (Back); 
Chaves (AM-NMSU. KU); De Baca (DB-NMSU); Dona Ana (DB-NMSU, EEM); Eddy 
(DB-NMSU, KU. TAM); Lea (TAM); Otero (KU); Socorro (DB-NMSU). OKLAHOMA: 
Cimarron (OSU); Cotton (KSU); Harmon (OSU); Woodward (KSU). TEXAS: State "Pecos 
River" (Back); Baylor (KU); Bexar (Bromley, TAM); Blanco (CRN); Brewster (Bromley, 
KU, TAM): Brooks (Bromley, TAM); Brown (Bromley, KSU); Childress (TAM); Crane 
(KSU); Dimmitt (CRN); Ector (Bromley, KSU); Frio (Bromley); Jeff Davis (Bromley); Jim 
Hogg (Bromley, TAM); Kleberg (KSU); Lipscomb (TAM): Live Oak (KU); Martin (TAM); 
Pecos (Bromley, DB-NMSU, KU, TAM); Potter (CSU); Presidio (Bromley); Reagan (TAM); 
Reeves (KU); San Patricio (TAM); San Saba (DB-NMSU); Starr (Bromley, TAM); Tarrant 
(KSU); Terrel (DB-NMSU); Val Verde (CRN, CSU, DB-NMSU); Victoria (KU); Webb 
(Bromley). MEXICO: COAHUILA (TAM); DURANGO (KU, TAM). 

Microstylum morosum: UNITED STATES: ARIZONA: State, no county listed (Martin & 
Wilcox); Cochise (CAS); Santa Cruz (CAS). COLORADO: Baca (CSU). KANSAS: State, no 
county listed (Smith); Barber (CSU, RLH, RJBa); Chautauqua (RJBe, KU); Comanche (CSU, 
KU, RLH); Cowley (RLH); Geary (KSU); Meade (KU); Montgomery (KU); Riley (KSU, KU); 
Sumner (KU, RLH). NEW MEXICO: Union (DB-NMSU). OKLAHOMA: Alfalfa (OSU); 
Cimarron (OSU, RG); Garvin (OSU); Grant (OSU, RLH); Jackson (DB-NMSU); Kay (OSU); 
Love (DB-NMSU); Mayes (OSU); Nowata (OSU); Osage (OSU); Pawnee (OSU); Payne (OSU); 
Wagoner (DB-NMSU). TEXAS: Bell (TAM); Bosque (Bromley); Brazoria (TAM); Brewster 
(Bromley); Collin (TAM); Coryell (TAM); Dallas (Back, Bromley); Gonzales (KU); Kendall 
(CSU); Lampasas (SWD); Leon (SWD); Madison (Bromley, TAM); McLennan (Bromley, KU, 
TAM): Milam (TAM); Mills (Bromley, DB-NMSU, KSU); Reeves (Hine); Robertson (SWD); 
Travis (Bromley, CRN); Victoria (Back, Bromley, DB-NMSU); Williamson (TAM). MEXICO: 
CHIHUAHUA (DB-NMSU); COAHUILA (TAM). 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

This manuscript could not have been prepared without the help of the museum curators 
and collectors who so generously provided records and notes. Students of Microstylum are 



96 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



exuberant and enthusiastic about these insects; Boris Kondratieff s (pers. commun., 1999) com- 
ment: "What a sweet genus" is typical. We thank R. J. Lavigne for reviewing a very early draft 
of the manuscript. Eric Fisher reviewed a later version of the manuscript prior to submission 
and provided Arizona collection records. R. J. Elzinga graciously allowed us to use his photo- 
graph of M. morosum. We are especially grateful to R. Grantham and D. Arnold of Oklahoma 
State University, B. Kondratieff of Colorado State University, J. D. Oswald and E. G. Riley of 
Texas A&M, D. B. Richman (The Arthropod Museum) and G. Forbes (Jornada Experimental 
Range) of New Mexico State University, R. Brown of Kansas State University, B. Ratcliffe of 
the University of Nebraska-Lincoln, and K. Simpson of the University of Missouri-Columbia 
for reviewing the specimens of Microstylum in their institutional collections and providing us 
with the pertinent distributional data. Dr. Forbes was especially generous with data from his 
field notes regarding habitat information for M. galactodes. Ron Huber of Prairie Village. 
Kansas provided records of specimens from his important personal collection. Sid Dunkle of 
Piano, Texas and C. Riley Nelson of Provo, Utah provided Texas records from their personal 
collections. Thanki to R. Brooks and S. Ashe of Kansas University for allowing R. E. Charlton 
to review the specimens of Microstylum in the Snow Entomological Museum. Finally, thanks 
to the two reviewers of the submitted manuscript for their suggestions for improving the paper. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Back, E. A. 1909. The robber-flies of America, north of Mexico, belonging to the subfamilies 

Leptogastrinae and Dasypogoninae. Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 35:137-400 + plates II-X1I. 
Bromley, S.W. 1927. The genus Microstvlum in Madagascar (Diptera: Asilidae). Trans. Am. 

Entomol. Soc. 53:201-207. 
Bromley, S. W. 1934. The robber flies of Texas (Diptera, Asilidae). Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 

27:74-113. 
Hine, J. S. 1918. Notes on robber flies from southwest Texas, collected by the Bryant Walker 

Expedition, with a description of a new species of Erux. Occas. Pap. No. 61 Mus. Zool., 

Univ. Mich., Ann Arbor, MI. 7 pp. 
Hull, F.M. 1962. Robberflies of the world. The genera of the family Asilidae. U.S. Nat. Mus. 

Bull. 224. Part 1:1-430, Part 2:431-907, + figures 1-2536. 
James, M. T. 1941. The robber flies of Colorado (Diptera, Asilidae). J. Kans. Entomol. Soc. 

14(l):27-36, 14(2):37-53. 
Martin, C. H. 1960. A new species of Microstvlum (Diptera: Asilidae) from Mexico. J. Kans. 

Entomol. Soc. 33(l):44-45. 
Martin, C. H. & J. Wilcox. 1965. Family Asilidae. pp. 360-401 In: Stone. A., C. W. Sabrosky, 

W. W. Wirth, R. H. Foote, & J. R. Coulson, Eds. A catalog of the Diptera of America north 

of Mexico. Agr. Hdbk. No. 276, USDA, Wash. D.C. 

Schoewe, W. H. 1949. The geography of Kansas. Trans. Kans. Acad. Sci. 52:261-331. 
Smith, R. C., E. G. Kelly, G. A. Dean, H. R. Bryson, & R. L. Parker. 1962. Insects in 

Kansas. Rev. Edition, D. E. Gates and L. L. Peters, Eds. Kans. St. Univ.. Manhattan, KS. 
Wood, G. C. 1981. Asilidae. Chapter 42, pp. 549-573 In: McAlpine, J.F., B. V. Peterson, G. E. 

Shewell, H. J. Teskey, J. R. Vockeroth, and D. M. Wood, Eds. Manual of Nearctic Diptera. 

Volume 1 . Res. Br. Agr. Canada. Monog. No. 27. Can. Govt. Pub. Center. Quebec, Canada. 
Zimmerman, J. L. & S. T. Patti. 1988. A guide to bird finding in Kansas and western Mis- 
souri. Univ. Press Kans., Lawrence, KS. 



Vol. 111. No. 2. March & April. 2000 9J7 

A NEW GENUS AND THREE NEW SPECIES 

OF THE TRIBE SPATHOPHORINI 

(HETEROPTERA: COREIDAE) 1 

Harry Brailovsky2 

ABSTRACT: Egerniella, new genus, and two new species, E. delectabilis from Ecuador and 
Peru, and E. immaculata from Peru, and Himellastella formosa a new species from Brazil are 
described, illustrated, and assigned to the tribe Spathophorini (Coreidae). The new genus re- 
sembles and is most closely related to the Neotropical genera Himellastella and Paralycambes. 

The tribe Spathophorini has been the subject of two recent papers 
(Brailovsky 1998, Brailovsky & Barrera 1998). Recently I had the opportu- 
nity to study additional material, including a striking new genus and an 
undescribed species of Himellastella Brailovsky and Barrera. 

The new genus has been placed in couplet 6 of the Brailovsky and Barrera 
(1998) key: 

6 Mesosternum elevated; humeral angles sharp but hardly produced laterally; 
posterolateral border of pronotum almost smooth or only with upper half finely 
nodulose Lycambes Stal 

6' Mesosternum flat: humeral angles produced laterally into a medium or large-sized 

and acute spine; posterolateral border of pronotum abruptly crenate or nodulose 7 

7 Humeral angles markedly produced laterally into a sharp and large spine 
(Figs. 8-9); middle femur unarmed; hind femur length reaching anterior 

margin of abdominal sternite VII; plica not visible Egerniella, new genus 

7 ' Humeral angles produced laterally into medium-sized angulate triangle (Fig. 6); 
middle femur ventrally armed; hind femur short, not extending beyond anterior 
margin of abdominal sternite VI; plica present Paralycambes Kormilev 

Acronyms used: Carnegie Museum of Natural History, Pittsburgh, Pa. (CMN), Joe E. Eger, 
Private Collection (JEE), Texas A & M University, College Station (TAMU). and Institute de 
Biologfa, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM). 

All measurements are given in millimeters. 

Egerniella Brailovsky, NEW GENUS 

Description. Head. Wider than long, barely pentagonal, non-declivent, dorsally flat; 
tylus unarmed, apically globose, raised, extending anteriorly to and laterally higher than 
juga and antenniferous tubercles; juga unarmed, shorter than tylus; space between anten- 
niferous tubercles filled by tylus, and space between them smaller than width of one 
tubercle; antenniferous tubercles unarmed, border entire, continuous, almost semicircular, 
not prominent: antennal segment I robust, cylindrical, thickest, slightly curved outward, 
barely flattened, longer than head; segments II and III cylindrical, flattened, sulcate: 



1 Received June 25, 1999. Accepted September 16, 1999. 

2 Institute de Biologfa, UNAM, Departamento de Zoologfa. Apdo Postal 70153, Mexico 
D.F., 04510, Mexico, e mail: coreidae@servidor.unam.mx 

ENT. NEWS 1 1 1(2): 97-106, March & April 2000 



98 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



segment IV fusiform; antenna! segment IV the longest, III shortest, and II shorter than I; 
ocelli close to eyes; distance between ocelli 2.9 to 3.7 times the diameter of one ocellus; 
preocellar pit deep; eyes globose, protuberant, upper margin located almost at same level 
of vertex and frontal area; postocular tubercle and mandibular plate absent; buccula 
rectangular, raised, short, entire, not projecting beyond antenniferous tubercles, meeting 
posteriorly and closed; rostrum reaching middle third of metasternum; rostral segment III 
shortest, I shorter than II and IV, and II longer or subequal than IV; ventral surface behind 
buccula without tubercle. 

Thorax. Pronotum. Wider than long, trapeziform, slightly declivent, with posterior bor- 
der subequal to base of scutellum in width; collar wide; anterolateral angles obtuse; humeral 
angles markedly produced laterally into a sharp and large spine; anterior margin smooth, curved; 
anterolateral margins obliquely straight, nodulose; posterolateral margins abruptly spinate and 
tuberculate; posterior border almost straight and posterior margin with irregular transversal 
ridge; triangular process broad, apically subacute; calli entire, not elevated. Prosternum sunken, 
posterior margin in front of area between fore legs produced into narrow acute projection; 
mesosternum flat or barely convex, anterior margin in front of area between fore legs produced 
into a broad and blunt keel, posterior margin between middle legs bilobed, each lobe well 
separated from mesial line and in the same relative position as the arms of anterior margin of 
metasternum; metasternum broad, squarish, anterior margin with two small arms, separated 
along midline; each arm almost touching the two lobes of the posterior margin of mesoster- 
num; posterior margin of metasternum straight, lateral angles projected into short subacute 
plate lying against metacoxa, and at middle third entirely flat (Fig. 5); metathorax laterally not 
expanded, in dorsal view with metapleura and acetabulae not visible; anterior lobe of metatho- 
racic peritreme weakly globose and almost fused with the tiny posterior lobe; evaporative area 
poorly developed. 

Legs. Hind coxae separated, distance between them 2.2 to 2.4 times the diameter of one 
coxa, and apically without tubercle; fore femur slender, ventrally with one subdistal spine; 
middle femur slender, unarmed; hind femur incrassate reaching anterior border of abdominal 
sternite VII; dorsal surface smooth, ventrally with one row of strong spines and tubercles run- 
ning from middle third to apex; fore and middle tibiae unarmed, sulcate, widened distally; hind 
tibia almost straight, flattened, shorter than length of hind femur, with outer margin sulcate and 
not expanded, inner margin not expanded, apically armed with a slender and relatively long 
spine. 

Scutellum. Longer than wide, triangular, flat, shorter than clavus; disc without triradiate 
ridge; apex acute not elevated; lateral margins emarginate. 

Hemelytra. Macropterous, reaching apex of abdomen; clavus and claval suture not cov- 
ered by the scutellum; costal margin emarginate; apical margin obliquely straight, with apical 
angle narrowly long, extending beyond middle third of hemelytral membrane. 

Abdomen. Gradually narrowing; connexival segments scarcely elevated; posterior angle 
of segments IV to VII projected into short and acute spine; segments II and III entire, without 
spine; abdominal sterna without medial furrow; abdominal spiracles slightly elliptical to circu- 
lar, close to anterior border; abdominal sternite II visible, slender, short, rectangular, without 
tubercle; abdominal sternite III not expanded laterally. 

Female genitalia. Abdominal sternite VII with fissura, this with inner margin overlap- 
ping; plica not visible; gonocoxae I subtriangular, short, exposed, closed in caudal view, straight 
in lateral view, with upper border rounded to subacute; paratergite VIII triangular, spiracle 
visible; paratergite IX squarish, longer than paratergite VIII. 

Male. Unknown. 

Integument. Body surface shiny, with clavus, corium, prosternum, mesosternum, and 
metasternum dull; surface including antennal segments and legs sparsely clothed with short 
decumbent to suberect setae; head, collar, calli, prosternum, mesosternum, metasternum, middle 
third of propleura, mesopleura, metapleura, connexival segments, and abdominal sterna not 



Vol. Ill, No. 2, March & April. 2000 99 



punctate; posterior lobe of pronotum, acetabulae, anterior and posterior margin of propleura, 
and posterior margin of metapleura strongly punctate; clavus and corium densely and finely 
punctate; scutellum transversely striate. 

Etymology. Named for Joe E. Eger, distinguished American heteropterist, 
specialist of Scutelleridae, and collector of the type series. 

Discussion. Egerniella Brailovsky new genus, Himellastella Brailovsky 
& Barrera, and Paralvcambes Kormilev, share the following characters: head 
ventrally smooth, without tubercle behind buccula, hind femur gradually 
incrassate, triangular process on pronotum well developed, mesosternum flat, 
metathorax not expanded laterally, scutellum longer than wide, and humeral 
angles laterally produced. In Egerniella and Paralycambes, the middle third 
of the metasternum is flat, in Himellastella it is conspicuously produced into 
two large conical lobes freely directed downward (Figs. 1-3). Egerniella dif- 
fers from Paralycambes in the following characters: humeral angles markedly 
produced laterally into a sharp and large spine, middle femur unarmed, hind 
femur length reaching anterior margin of abdominal sternite VII, and plica not 
visible. In Paralycambes the humeral angles are produced laterally into an 
acute medium-sized angulate triangle; middle third of femur ventrally armed, 
hind femur short not extending beyond anterior margin of abdominal sternite 
VI, and plica present (Brailovsky 1998, and Brailovsky & Barrera 1998). 

Type species.- Egerniella delectabilis Brailovsky, new species. 

Egerniella delectabilis Brailovsky, NEW SPECIES 

Figures 5, 8 

Description. Female. Dorsal coloration. Head shiny yellow, with postocular surface and 
two narrow longitudinal stripes running laterally to middle line from ocellar tubercle to near 
antenniferous tubercles shiny brown; ocelli reddish; antennal segments I to IV shiny chestnut 
orange; pronotum shiny black with collar, calli, three broad longitudinal stripes and posterior 
border shiny yellow; humeral angles with the spine shiny chestnut orange to shiny black; calli 
sprinkled with brown reflections; scutellum shiny red with lateral margins ochre and shiny 
yellow longitudinal median stripe; apex creamy yellow; clavus black with vein and comissure 
dull yellow; exocorium dull red, with costal margin dull yellow, endocorium dull black with 
veins and apical margin dull yellow; hemelytral membrane dark ambarine with veins and basal 
angle black; connexival segments II to V shiny chestnut orange, and VI and VII shiny chestnut 
orange with inner margin and posterior third of segment VII black; dorsal abdominal segments 
black. Ventral coloration. Head shiny yellow; rostral segments 1 to 111 dirty yellow and IV 
black with basal third dirty yellow; prosternum, mesosternum, and anterior third of metaster- 
num black: posterior third of metasternum shiny chestnut orange; propleura shiny yellow with 
broad chestnut red longitudinal stripe close to outer third; mesopleura and metapleura shiny 
red to shiny chestnut orange with posterior margin and large and broad spot shiny yellow; 
anterior lobe of metathoracic peritreme pale orange yellow; fore acetabula shiny yellow; middle 
and hind acetabulae shiny yellow with posterior third shiny chestnut red; fore and middle legs 
dirty yellow with sulcate section of tibiae irregularly black; hind leg with coxa, trochanter and 
femur shiny chestnut orange and femoral spines black; tibia with basal half shiny brown, and 



100 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



distal half and tarsi dirty yellow; abdominal sterna shiny brown with following areas shiny 
yellow: sternite II, pleural sterna II to VII, middle third of sterna III to V, middle third of 
anterior margin of sternite VI, and inner face of paratergite VIII and IX. 

Variation. 1- Rostral segment IV yellow with apex black. 2- Middle third of head 
behind buccula black. 3- Middle third of abdominal sterna II and VII shiny black. 4- 
Paratergite VIII entirely yellow. 

Measurements. Head length 1.36, width across eyes 2.04. interocular space 1.00, 
interocellar space 0.42, preocular distance 0.82; length of antennal segments: I, 3.24, II, 2.44, 
III, 2.08. IV, 3.60; length of rostral segments: I, 0.65. II, 0.75, III. 0.55, IV, 0.72. Pronotum: 
Total length 3.36, width across frontal angles 1.68, width across humeral angles 5.20. Scutellar 
length 1.80, width 1.44. Total body length 12.95. 

Male. Unknown. 

Type material. Holotype: , Ecuador: Provincia Napo, vie Puerto Misahuali, l-2'-4.2"S-77 
-39'-49.2"W, 550-630m, 6-19-1X-1998. J. E. Eger (TAMU). Paratypes. 1 , same data as for 
holotype (UNAM). 1 , Peru: Huanuco Department, Tingo Maria National Park. Tingo Maria, 
660m, 1 1-17-IV-1987, J. E. Eger (TAMU). 

Etymology. Named for Latin "delectabilis", meaning delightful or agree- 
able. 

Egerniella immaculata Brailovsky, NEW SPECIES 

Figure 9 

Description. Female. Dorsal coloration. Head shiny chestnut yellow with ocellar tubercle 
brown; ocelli red; postocular surface black; antennal segment I chestnut yellow (antennal seg- 
ments II to IV mutilated); pronotum shiny chestnut yellow with posterior transversal ridge 
reddish brown: scutellum bright red with lateral margins ochre and bright yellow longitudinal 
median stripe; apex creamy yellow; clavus black with vein and claval comissure dull yellow: 
exocorium dull red with costal margin dull yellow, exocorium dull black with veins and apical 
margin dull yellow; hemelytral membrane dark ambarine with veins and basal angle black; 
connexival segments II to VII shiny chestnut orange with inner margin of VII black. 
Ventral coloration. Head, rostral segments (apex of IV black), thorax, and abdomen shiny 
chestnut yellow; prosternum, mesosternum, and anterior half of thoracic metasternum 
black; posterior half of metasternum shiny chestnut orange; anterior lobe of metathoracic 
peritreme dark orange; fore and middle leg yellow; hind leg with coxa and trochanter 
shiny chestnut brown, femur with dorsal surface shiny chestnut yellow, and ventrally. 
including the spines and tubercles, shiny brown to black, tibia yellow with basal third 
black, and tarsi yellow; abdominal sternite VII yellow with shiny black longitudinal stripe 
running throughout fissura; genital plates shiny yellow with outer margin of paratergite 
VIII and IX, and caudal margin of gonocoxae I bright black. 

Measurements. Head length 1.34, width across eyes 2.00. interocular space 0.98. 
interocellar space 0.44, preocular distance 0.86; length of antennal segments: 1. 3.08, II to IV 
mutilated; length of rostral segments: I, 0.65, II, 0.72, III, 0.55, IV, 0.67. Pronotum: Total 
length 3.48, width across frontal angles 1.80, width across humeral angles 6.12. Scutellar length 
1.88, width 1.44. Total body length 13.78. 

Male. Unknown. 

Type material. Holotype: 9- Peru: Huanuco Department, Tambillo Grande Canyon, 
13 km S Tingo Maria, 930m, 3-V-I988, J. Ch. de Vela (TAMU). 

Etymology. Named from the Latin "/m", meaning not, and "maculate", 
meaning spot, to reflect the unspotted abdominal sterna III to VI. 



Vol. Ill, No. 2, March & April, 2000 101 



Key to the Species otEgerniella 

1 Pronotum shiny black with collar, calli, posterior border, and three broad 
longitudinal stripes shiny yellow; propleura. mesopleura and thoracic 
metapleura bright red to shiny chestnut orange with yellow marks; 
abdominal sterna III to VI not entirely yellow delectabilis sp.n. 

1' Pronotum shiny chestnut yellow with posterior transverse ridge reddish 
brown; propleura. mesopleura and thoracic metapleura yellow; abdominal 
sterna III to VI entirely yellow immaculata sp.n. 

Himellastella formosa Brailovsky, NEW SPECIES 
Figures 1,4, 7, 10 

Description. Male. Dorsal coloration. Head shiny chestnut orange; antennal segment I 
shiny chestnut orange, and segments II to IV shiny red; pronotum shiny chestnut orange, with 
humeral angles shiny reddish brown, posterior margin and triangular process yellow, and two 
creamy yellow enamel-like spots located on middle third, one behind calli, the other on poste- 
rior margin; scutellum shiny chestnut orange, with apex creamy yellow; clavus dull yellow 
with punctures orange; corium dull yellow with reddish brown stripes between veins; hemelytral 
membrane dark ambarine, with veins and basal angle darker; connexival segments III to V 
yellow and VI-VII yellow with inner margin orange red; dorsal abdominal segments orange red 
with yellow longitudinal stripe running throughout middle third of segments V to VII. Ventral 
coloration. Including rostral segments (apex of IV black), fore and middle legs, and genital 
capsule shiny chestnut orange; metasternum shiny orange red; propleura with small protuber- 
ance, and mesopleura and metapleura with large and broad creamy yellow hardened protuber- 
ance; hind leg shiny chestnut orange with posterior margin of femur and basal third of tibia 
shiny chestnut red; anterior lobe of metathoracic peritreme pale orange; pleural margin of ab- 
dominal sterna II to VII yellow to creamy yellow. 

Structure. Thorax. Pronotum. Humeral angles markedly produced laterally into a large 
sharp spine, with medium-sized and broad marginal spines and tubercles; triangular process 
broad, nodulose, conspicuously elongate, extending far from the middle third of scutellum 
(Fig. 7). Middle third of metasternum remarkably produced into two large lobes, freely di- 
rected downward (Fig. 1). Genital capsule simple, semiglobose; posteroventral edge with me- 
dian broad projection, protruding as a large quadrate plate, with angles almost straight (Fig. 4). 

Measurements. Head length 1.84, width across eyes 2.24, interocular space 1.16, 
interocellar space 0.60, preocular distance 1.14; length of antennal segments: I, 4.30, II, 3.20, 
III, 2.60, IV, 4.95. Pronotum: Total length 5.00, width across frontal angles 2.35, width across 
humeral angles 8.20. Scutellar length 2.20, width 1.80. Total body length 21.65. 

Female. Unknown. 

Type material. Holotype: Cf, Brazil: Tonantins, Amazon River, VIII-1923, S. Klages 
(CMN). 

Discussion. This species resembles H. conica Brailovsky & Barrera, in 
having two creamy yellow enamel-like spots on the pronotal disc and one on 
the propleura. Himellastella aploa Brailovsky & Barrera, the other previously 
known species, lacks creamy yellow spots. 

Himellastella formosa new species, can be distinguished by its longe size, 
longer than 21.00 mm, the triangular process of pronotum extends far from 
the middle third of scutellum, and the lobes of the middle third of metaster- 
num are remarkably produced (Fig. 1 ). In H. conica, the body size is shorter 



102 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 






Figures. 1-4. Himellaxtella spp. 1-3 Metathorax in lateral view. 1. H.formosa sp. n. 2. H. uploti 
Brailovsky and Barrera. 3. H. conica Brailovsky and Barrera. Fig. 4. Male genital capsule of//. 
formosa sp. n. Fig. 5. Mesothorax and metathorax in ventral view of Egerniella delectcibilis sp. 
n. Figs. 6-7. Head, pronotum and scutellum in dorsal view. 6. Puralycambex misionensix 
Kormilev. 7. Himellastella formosa sp. n. 



Vol. Ill, No. 2, March & April, 2000 



103 




8 



Figure 8. Dorsal view of Egemiella delectabilis sp. n. 



104 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 




Figure 9. Dorsal view of Egerniella immuculata sp. n. 



Vol. Ill, No. 2, March & April. 2000 



105 




Figure 10. Dorsal view of Himellastella formosa sp. n. 



106 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



than 1 9.00 mm, the triangular process never reaches the middle third of scutel- 
lum, and the lobes of the metasternum are conical, stout, and smaller (Fig. 3). 

Etymology. From the Latin "formosus", meaning beautifully formed. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

Sincere thanks and appreciation to the following colleagues and institutions for the loan of 
specimens and other assistance relevant to this study: John L. Rawlins and Robert L. Davidson 
(CMN), Joe E. Eger (JEE). and Joseph C. Schaffner (TAMU). Thanks to Ernesto Barrera 
(UNAM), Cristina Urbina, and Jesus Contreras for the illustrations. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Brailovsky, H. 1998. A new species of Paralycambes Kormilev from South America (Hemi- 
ptera: Heteroptera: Coreidae: Meropachydinae). J. New York Entomol. Soc. 106: 57-63. 

Brailovsky, H. and E. Barrera. 1998. A new genus, two new species, and synonymical notes 
on the tribe Spathophorini (Heteroptera: Coreidae: Meropachydinae). with a key to genera 
of the tribe. Proc.Entomol. Soc. Wash. 100: 746-754. 



Vol. 111. No. 2. March & April. 2000 107 

A REVIEW OF THE LEAFHOPPER GENUS 

ACRULOGONIA (HOMOPTERA: CICADELLIDAE) 

WITH DESCRIPTIONS OF NEW SPECIES 1 

Carolina Godoy 2 , M. W. Nielsen 3 

ABSTRACT: The genus Acrulogonia was established by Young (1977) who included eleven 
species: A. chocona, A. defectiva, A. fuscinula, A. incompta, A. ordinaria, A. pararesima, A. 
reclusa, A. resima, A. mucidula, A. smidti and A. sparsa. In this paper we present a key to 
species and describe two new species from Costa Rica: A. sexspinosa and A. tecta. The latter is 
also present in Panama and Nicaragua. A. ordinaria is here reported from Costa Rica for the 
first time. The genus ranges from Nicaragua to Bolivia. 

The genus Acrulogonia was described and illustrated by Young (1977), 
who described nine species: A. chocona,A. defectiva, A. fuscinula, A. incompta, 
A. ordinaria, A. reclusa, A. resima, A. sparsa and A. pararesima. Young also 
placed Tattigoniella mucidula Jacobi and Poeciloscarta smidti Metcalf in this 
genus. Acrulogonia occurs in Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, Colombia, Ven- 
ezuela, Peru, Bolivia, French Guiana, Guayana and northeastern Brazil. A. 
pararesima and A. ordinaria occur in Panama and Costa Rica, the latter being 
a ne ,v record for Costa Rica. A. ordinaria has been collected from 700- 1 700 m 
in February and June. In this paper we describe two new species from Costa 
Rica: A. sexspinosa from Costa Rica and A. tecta from Costa Rica and 
Nicaragua. 

Acrulogonia 

Type- species: Poeciloscarta smidti Metcalf 

Medium-size leafhoppers. Color pale brown to dark brown, sprinkled with 
small spots and occasionally with pale vermiculations, and, in some species, 
with large pale orange to bright orange spots on the forewings. 

Head weakly produced, anterior margin broadly rounded in dorsal view; 
clypeus slightly flattened medially, clypellus with profile of its ventral aspect 
slightly more horizontal than remainder of contour of face. Thorax with pronotal 
width equal to or less than transocular width of head; forewing with mem- 
brane absent or limited to inner apical cell or to inner two apical cells, texture 
translucent to opaque; hindlegs with femoral setal formula 2:1:1 or 2: 1 : 1 : 1 . 

Male genitalia: pygofer scarcely to moderately produced with posterodorsal 



1 Received May 28, 1999. Accepted September 9, 1999. 

2 Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad, Apartado Postal 22-3100 Santo Domingo. Heredia, Costa 
Rica. 

3 Monte L. Bean Museum, Brighum Young University, Provo, UT 84602 USA. 



ENT. NEWS 111(2): 107-115, March & April 2000 



108 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



process varying interspecifically in position from anteapical to apical and with 
additional process in some species, macrosetae varying from two to twenty, 
limited to apical half of pygofer; aedeagus symmetrical, shaft elongate, apex 
abruptly curved at right angle to long axis of shaft, shaft usually with at least 
one pair of processes. 

MATERIAL AND METHODS 

The details of preparations of genital structures of leafhoppers for dissec- 
tions and study are given by Oman ( 1 949). We have followed his method with 
some modifications. A system was devised in which the abdomens of 10 leaf- 
hoppers were cleared simultaneously. Abdomens were removed, placed in ten 
percent potasium hydroxide and left to soak overnight at room temperature. 
The following day individual abdomens were washed in water before exami- 
nation and eventual preservation in glycerin in microvials. 

Specimens are deposited in the following collections: 

CAS: California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco, USA 

INBio: Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad, Santo Domingo, Heredia, Costa Rica. 

NHM: The Natural History Museum, London, UK 

UCR: University of Costa Rica, San Pedro, San Jose, Costa Rica. 

USNM: United States National Museum, Washington, USA 

USU: Utah State University, Logan, USA. 

MEN: Museo Entomologico, Leon, Nicaragua. 

Acrulogonia sexspinosa NEW SPECIES 

Figs. 1-6 

Length: Male 9.2-11.2 mm, female 10.0-11.5 mm. 

Color of dorsum entirely brown, sprinkled with small pale spots. Crown irregularly dotted 
with beige, pronotum with beige small spots and with or without pair of orange lateral mark- 
ings, scutellum brown with beige dots. Forewings opaque, with proximal irregular orange mark- 
ings, proximal area of corium, discal cells and subapical cell with small pale and beige spots; 
face brown with a median and lateral longitudinal pale stripes. 

Head weakly produced, with median length of crown slightly more than one half interocular 
width and approximately one-third transocular width, without carina at transition from crown 
to face, ocelli located on line between anterior eye angles, each slightly closer to adjacent 
anterior eye angle than to median of crown; crown in lateral view slightly concave medially 
across ocelli, lateral clypeal sutures extending onto crown and attaining ocelli; clypeus slightly 
flattened medially, muscle impressions distinct. 

Thorax with pronotal width less than transocular width of head, disc rugose and punctate. 
Forewings with membrane limited to inner two apical cells. Hindlegs with femoral setal for- 
mula 2:1:1, length of first tarsomere greater than combined length of second and third tarsomeres. 

Male genitalia: Pygofer variable with or without an anteapical dorsal process with a simple 
or bifid apex, process with two or three macrosetae near middle (Figs. 1 A- ID). Plates elongate, 
triangular, narrowed in basal half, weakly fused basally, not extending posteriorly beyond 
pygofer apex, broadened near base and anteapically, with multiseriate setae (Fig. 2). Style 
without preapical lobe, extending farther posteriorly than apex of connective (Fig. 3). Connec- 
tive Y-shaped with arms divergent, stem keeled (Fig. 4). Aedeagus symmetrical, shaft elon- 



Vol. 1 1 1, No. 2, March & April. 2000 



109 




Figs. 1-6. Acrulogoniu sexspinosu, n. sp. 1 A, B, C, D. Pygofer, lateral view; 2. Plate, ventral 
view; 3. Style dorsal view; 4. Connective dorsal view; 5. Aedeagus, lateral view; 6. Female 
abdominal sternum VII. 



1 1 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



gate, curved dorsally with short acute pair of ventral processes arising before apex, shaft with 
one pair of processes arising ventrally slightly before middle of shaft extending apically 
anteriorly with elongate slender acute dorsal process arising at midlength (Fig. 5). 
Female abdominal sternum VII, with rounded median lobe (Fig. 6). 

Holotype male: COSTA RICA, Puntarenas, Peninsula de Osa, Rancho Quemado Apr 
1991, J. C. Saborio, LS 292500, 511000 (INBio). 

Paratypes: 1 C?, 3 9 same data as holotype except, 200 m Jun 1992. F. Quesada, 1 
Cf Apr 1991; 1 Cf Mar 1992; 3 Cf, 2 9 Set. 1991 (INBIO, NHM, USNM); 1 9 same 
locality and collector, Jul 1992; 2 Cf, May 1992, F. Quesada & G. Varela; 1 Cf P. N. 
Corcovado, Sendero a Rio Claro, Jan-Mar 1992, Malaise trap LS 508300-270500 (INBIO, 
CAS); 2 Cf Est. Sirena, 0-100 m, Nov 1989, G. Fonseca, 270500-508300; 2C? same data, 
50 m, IV-VIII 1989; 1 Cf same locality 17 Jun a 4 Sep 1991, Malaise trap; 3 C? Fila Madre, 
3 Km. SO de Cerro Rincon, 545-710 m, 25-26 May 1995, A. Picado. LS 273300-520000; 
1 9 same locality. Die 1989-Mar 1990, Hanson (UCR); 1 Cf, 1 9 Cerro Rincon 200 m S 
del Hito, 744 m, Die 1989-Mar 1990 (UCR); 8 Cf, 1 9 Cerro Rincon 200 m S del Hito, 
744 m, Sep 1990 (UCR, USU); 2 Cf , 2 9 Golfo Dulce, 3 km SW. Rincon, 10m, Mar-May- 
1989, Hanson (UCR); 11 Cf Quepos Manuel Antonio, Apr 1991, G. Varela, LS 370900- 
448800; 1 Cf Pen. Osa, Bosque Esquinas, 200 m. Jun 1994, J. F. Quesada, 302400- 
545250; 3 Cf Est. Agujas, Sendero Zia, Rio Agujas, 300 m. 2-15 Jan 1996, A. Azofeifa. 
T. Foso. LS 276750-526550; 2 9 P. N. Corcovado, Est. Sirena, 17 Jun-4 Set 1991, LS 
270500-508800; 3 9 same locality, 50 m, Apr-Aug 1989 (INBio). 

Remarks. 

Acrulogonia sexspinosa is similar to A. pararesima but the former can be sepa- 
rated by its aedeagus, which has a pair ventral processes at the apex extending 
anteriorly, each with a bifid tapering acute process. This species has been col- 
lected from 0-750 m in the wet lowlands. 

Acrulogonia tecta NEW SPECIES 

Figs. 7-13 

Length: Male 6.3-8.0 mm, female 6.5-7.7 mm. 

Color of dorsum entirely brown, sprinkled with small pale yellow spots. Crown, pronotum, 
and scutellum brown sprinkled with small pale spots. Forewings translucent with red veins, 
claval area with small pale spots, remainder sprinkled with small pale yellow spots; face brown 
with median and lateral longitudinal pale stripes. 

Head weakly produced, with median length of crown slightly more than one half interocular 
width and approximately one-third transocular width, without carina at transition from crown 
to face, ocelli located on line between anterior eye angles, each slightly closer to adjacent 
anterior eye angle than to median of crown, lateral clypeal sutures extending onto crown and 
attaining ocelli; clypeus slightly flattened medially, muscle impressions distinct. 

Thorax with pronotal width less than transocular width of head. Forewings slightly opaque 
with membrane limited to inner two apical cells. Hindlegs with femoral setal formula 2:1:1, 
length of first tarsomere greater than combined length of second and third tarsomeres. 

Male genitalia: Pygofer abruptly narrowed posteriorly, strongly produced into an acute 
process which is directed caudodorsally, with four macrosetae on ventral margin near its 
midlength (Fig. 7A); with a less sclerotized ventral process, arising externally but directed 
internally , that does not exceed the length of the pygofer (Fig. 7B). Plates slender and triangu- 
lar, narrowed in apical half, weakly fused basally, not extending posteriorly nearly as far as 
pygofer apex, with uniseriate setae in basal two-thirds of their length (Fig. 8). Style without 



Vol. 1 1 1, No. 2, March & April. 2000 




Figs. 7-13. Acrulogonia recta, n. sp. 7 A. Pygofer, lateral view; 7 B. Pygofer, lateral view apex, 
ventral view; 8. Plate, ventral view; 9. Style dorsal view; 10. Connective dorsal view; 11. 
Aedeagus, lateral view; 12. Aedeagus. caudoventral view; 13. Female abdominal sternum VII 



1 1 2 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



preapical lobe, extending farther posteriorly than apex of connective (Fig. 9). Connective 
U-shaped with arms divergent, stem keeled (Fig. 10). Aedeagus symmetrical, shaft elon- 
gate, in lateral view apex curved dorsally, except apical portion, shaft with one pair of 
lanceolate processes arising ventral laterally slightly beyond midpoint of shaft (Fig. 11), in 
caudoventral view these processes not extending to apex (Fig. 12). 

Female abdominal sternum VII with posterior margin deeply emarginate (Fig. 13). 

Holotype: Male: COSTA RICA, Guanacaste, Estacion Pitilla, 9 Km. S Sta Cecilia, 700 
m. May 1991. P. Rios, L-N 330200, 380200 (INBio). 

Paratypes: COSTA RICA, 4 Cf , 1 9, same data as holotype; 1 Cf , 1 9 , Jul 1991; 1 Cf , 2 
9 May 1994; 1 Cf Apr 1995; 2 Cf , 6 9 , Oct. 1993; 1 9 , Oct 1994, ypt; 2 Cf Jun 1994, ypt; 8 
Cf, 5 9, Jan 1994, Malaise trap; 1 9 , Feb 1995, ypt; 19, Aug 1994, ypt; 1 9, Jun 1991, 
Malaise trap; 1 Cf Nov 1989, Col. C. Moraga & P. Rios; 2 9 same locality. Mar 1991 ; 1 9 , Jul 
1995; 1 Cf, 1 9, 29 Mar-5 Apr 1995 C. Moraga, Malaise trap; 1 Cf 22 Aug 1993; 1 Cf Aug 
1 994; 1 Cf May 1 99 1 ; 1 Cf , 2 9 . 3 1 Mar-29 Apr 1 992, S. Rojas; 2 9 K. Taylor; 1 Cf Nov 1 988 
GNP Biodiversity Survey; 2 9, Jul 1988 (INBio); 3 Cf, 5 9 II curso parataxon. May 1990 
(INBio, NHM, USNM, USU); 1 9, May 1992, F. Araya; 1 9 , Jan-Apr 1992, Malaise trap; 1 
Cf Aug 1994, J. Acosta, Y. Umafia: 1 Cf Jul 1991 (CAS); 1 Cf Apr 1989, I. Gauld (UCR); 2 9, 
Sep 1989, I. Gauld (UCR); 2 Cf Sendero Nacho, May 1994, P. Rios. Other material, COSTA 
RICA, Guanacaste 1 Cf Z. P. Tenorio, Tierras Morenas, Rio San Lorenzo, 1050 m. 28 Mar-21 
Apr 1992, A. Marin; 1 Cf 18 Mar-26 Apr 1995, G. Rodriguez; 1 Cf Est. Cacao SW side Volcan 
Cacao, 1000-1400 m. 1988-1989, Malaise trap, GNP Biodiv. Survey, 323300-375700; 1 9 
Jan-Abr 1992, Malaise trap, 1000-1400 m. May 1991, Elfin Rainforest 91; 2 Cf Prov. Alajuela, 
Res. Fores. San Ramon, 5 Km N Col. Palmarefia, Rio San Lorencito, 900 m. Mar 1990, Curso 
Carabidae, 244500-470700, 7 Mar- 16 Apr 1995, Malaise trap; 1 Cf Sector Colonia Palmarefia 
9 Km S. O. de Bajo Rodriguez, 700 m, 9 Sep- 18 Oct 1995, G. Carballo, Malaise trap; 29,21 
Oct. 3 Nov 1994; 1 Cf, 2 9- same locality and colector, 15-28 Nov 1994; 1 Cf same locality 
and colector. Set 1995; 2 9 , Nov 1994; 1 Cf , 1 9 , same locality, 620 m, 22 Jun-23 Jul. 1994, 
Fam. Hurtado G., Malaise trap; Prov. San Jose; 1 Cf Est. Las Nubes de Santa Elena, Fca. de 
Olman Bonilla, 1450 m. 1 Oct. 1995, A. Picado L-S 372500-507700. Prov. Cartago, 1 Cf 
Quebrada Segunda Tapanti, 1 150 m. Aug 1994, G. Mora, Malaise trap., LN 194000-560000; 1 
Cf , 1 9 , P. N. Tapanti, A. C. Amistad, 1300 m. Nov 1993, G. Mora, Malaise trap., LN 194000- 
559800; 1 9, Jul 1991; 1 Cf R. Grande de Orosi'desde sendero La Pava hasta La Catarata, 
1300-1700, Aug 1995, R. Delgado, Malaise trap., LN 191500-560400; 1 9, Die. 1995, G. 
Mora; 3 9 Turrialba, Grano de Oro, Chirripo, A.C. Amistad, 1 120 m, Oct. 1993, P. Campo, 
LN 200250-595900. Prov. Puntarenas, 1 Cf Est. Altamira, Sendero Educative Gigantes del 
Bosque, 1150-1400, 1-15 Nov 1994, M. Segura. Malaise trap. 331700-572100 (INBio). NICA- 
RAGUA, 2 Cf , Zelaya, Rio Las Latas, 2 Jun. 1977, 220 m. 1 1 04' N, 88 33' W, J. M. Maes & 
B.Hernandez (MEN). 

Remarks:. 

Acrulogonia tecta is similar to A. ordinaria but the former can be sepa- 
rated by the form of the male pygofer which abruptly narrows and has a pair of 
ventral processes (A. ordinaria has just one dorsal process); also, the aedeagus 
of A. tecta has just one pair of ventral lateral processes whereas A. ordinaria 
has two pairs of processes. A. tecta has been collected from 200 to about 1400m 
elevation. 



Vol. Ill, No. 2, March & April. 2000 113 



KEY TO MALES IN THE GENUS ACRULOGONIA 

1 . Plate not extending to apex of pygofer 2 

Plate extending beyond apex of pygofer 10 

2. Pygofer with a conspicuous dorsal process extending posteriorly from near 

middle of dorsal margin (fig. 14) fuscinula Young 

Pygofer lacking dorsal process or small process arising near caudal margin 

of pygofer 3 

3. Pygofer process slender, extending posteriorly beyond pygofer apex which 

is narrowed and not or only sligthly wider than the process 4 

Pygofer process not as above, or if so then pygofer apex not narrowed, 

broader than process 7 

4. Aedeagus with pair of lateral processes near base (fig. 15) chocona Young 

Aedeagus without lateral processes near base (with ventral process slightly 

more distally, or not) 5 

5. Aedeagus with pair of slender apical processes extending beyond apex 

of shaft (fig. 16) mucidula (Jacobi) 

Aedeagus without processes extending beyond apex of shaft 6 

6. Forewing with two or three orange spots on corium; aedeagus with pair of 
lanceolate lateral processes arising dorsally at midlength of shaft (fig. 11).. tecta n. sp. 
Forewing without orange spots on corium; aedeagus with pair of short aciculate 
processes arising on ventral margin of shaft near base, and pair of variable 

dorsal process arising subapically (fig. 17) incompta Young 

7. Dorsal pygofer process strongly decurved in lateral view (fig. 18) resima Young 

Dorsal pygofer process not strongly decurved 8 

8. Pygofer relatively short and broad, aedeagus with retrorse lateral processes 

on apical half of shaft (fig. 19) defectiva Young 

Pygofer longer and more slender, aedeagus without such processes 9 

9. Dorsal pygofer process well developed, extending posteriorly to or beyond 

pygofer apex (fig. 20) ordinaria Young 

Dorsal pygofer process weak, short, not attaining pygofer apex (fig. 21) 
smidti (Metcalf) 

10. Aedeagus with median ventral keel in apical half (fig. 22) reclusa Young 

Aedeagus without median ventral keel 11 

1 1. Aedeagus in lateral view with one pair of subapical processes (fig. 23) 

sparsa Young 

Aedeagus in lateral view with two pairs of subapical processes 12 

12 Forewing with two pale red suboval spots broadly bordered with black on corium 

near costa; aedeagal processes simple, without rami (fig. 24) pararesima Young 

Forewing with numerous white dots and two large orange spots on the 

lateral corium, few orange spots near base of clavus; aedeagal processes 

bifid (fig. 5) sexpinosa n. sp. 



1 14 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 





21 




23 




22 



legend opposite, on page 1 15. 




24 



Vol. 1 1 1 , No. 2, March & April. 2000 115 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

The authors thank Humberto Lezama (UCR) for loans of specimens and Paul Hanson 
and Paul Freytag for comments on the manuscript and one anonymous reviewer for their 
suggestions which improved the content of the paper. This research was financed by the 
Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation (NORAD) through the project " Con- 
tribution to Knowledge and Sustainable Use of Biodiversity in Costa Rica". This research 
was also possible thanks to the Cooperation Agreement between the Ministry of Environ- 
ment and Energy (MINAE) and INBio in order to accomplish the National Biodiversity 
Inventory. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Young, D. A. 1977. Taxonomic Study of the Cicadellinae. Part 2. New World Cicadellini and 
the genus Cicadella. North Carolina Agric. Exp. Stn. Tech. Bull. 239. 1135 pp. 



Fig. 14. Acrulogonia fuscinula Young: Pygofer lateral view (modified from Young, 
1977). Fig. 15. Acrulogonia chocona Young: Aedeagus, lateral view (modified from 
Young, 1977). Fig. 16. Acrulogonia mucidula (Jacobi): Aedeagus, caudoventral view 
(modified from Young, 1977). Fig. 17. Acrulogonia incompta Young: Aedeagus lateral 
view (modified from Young, 1977). Fig. 18. Acrulogonia resima Young: Pygofer lateral 
view (modified from Young, 1977). Fig. 19. Acrulogonia defective! Young: Pygofer lat- 
eral view (modified from Young, 1977). Fig. 20. Acrulogonia ordinaria Young: Pygofer 
lateral view (modified from Young, 1977). Fig. 21 Acrulogonia smidti (Metcalf): Pygofer 
lateral view (modified from Young, 1977). Fig. 22. Acrulogonia reclusa Young: Aedeagus. 
lateral view (modified from Young, 1977). Fig. 23. Acrulogonia sparsa Young: Aedeagus, 
lateral view (modified from Young, 1977). Fig. 24. Acrulogonia pararesima Young: 
Aedeagus lateral view (modified from Young, 1977). 



116 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



A NEW SPECIES OF SCH1LDOLA (HOMOPTERA: 
CICADELLIDAE) FROM COSTA RICA 1 

Carolina Godoy^, M. W. Nielson^ 

ABSTRACT: The genus Schildola was established by Young (1977) and included five species: 
S. abrupta, S, comtgis, S. ductilis, S. morio (Mel : char), and S. opaca. In this paper we describe 
one new species from Costa Rica, Schildola bivirga. The genus ranges from Costa Rica to 
Peru. 

The genus Schildola was described and illustrated by Young (1977), who 
described four species: S. abrupta, S. corrugis, S. ductilis and 5. opaca. Young 
also placed Microgoniella (Microscita) morio Melichar in this genus. S. opaca 
is reported from Colombia, Panama and Costa Rica; in the latter it has been 
collected from 100 to 1700 meters elevation. S. abrupta occurs in Ecuador, 
and S. corrugis, S. ductilis and S. morio are reported from Peru. In this paper 
we describe one new species, Schildola bivirga. Nothing is known about the 
biology of these leafhoppers. 

Genus Schildola Young 

Schildola Young, 1977. Type-species Schildola opaca Young, 1977. 

Length male 7.6 - 8.7 mm, female 7.6-10.7 mm. Color dark reddish black to black 
with white, ivory or orange spots. Hindleg with femoral setal formula 2:1:1, 2:0:0, 2:1:0. 

Male genitalia: Pygofer short or moderately produced, apical margin broadly or narrowly 
convex, setae few to many, their location variable, pygofer processes absent. Plate short, trian- 
gular, not extending posteriorly as far as pygofer apex. Style extending posteriorly beyond 
apex of connective, with preapical lobe. Connective short, narrowly Y-shaped. Aedeagus 
slightly decurved, variable from short to elongate, without processes. Paraphyses bi- 
ramous, symmetrical or not. 

Female abdominal sternum VII with posterior margin transverse, rounded, emarginate on 
central part of posterior margin. 

MATERIAL AND METHODS 

The details of preparations of genital structures of leafhoppers for dissec- 
tions and study are given by Oman (1949). We have followed his method with 
some modifications. A system was devised in which the abdomens of 5 leaf- 
hoppers were cleared simultaneously. Abdomens were removed, placed in ten 
percent potassium hydroxide and left to soak overnight at room temperature. 



1 Received May 28, 1999. Accepted August 30, 1999. 

2 Institute Nacional de Biodiversidad, Apartado Postal 22-3100 Santo Domingo, Heredia, Costa 
Rica. 

3 Monte L. Bean Museum, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602 USA. 

ENT. NEWS 111(2): 116-119, March & April 2000 



Vol. 111. No. 2, March & April, 2000 1 17 



The following day individual abdomens were washed in water before exami- 
nation and eventual preservation in glycerin in microvials. 

Specimens are deposited in the following collections: 

CAS: California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco, USA. 

INBio: Institute Nacional de Biodiversidad, Santo Domingo, Heredia, Costa Rica. 

NHM: The Natural History Museum, London, UK. 

UCR: University of Costa Rica, San Pedro, San Jose, Costa Rica. 

USU: Utah State University, Logan, USA. 

Schildola bivirga, NEW SPECIES 

Figs 1-8 

Length: Male 7.8 - 8.5 mm, female 7.6 mm. 

Color generally dark brown to black. Crown, pronotum and scutellum shiny black 
with a tranverse red spot at crown apex. Forewings with a tranverse orange spot with paler 
leg joints. 

Head weakly produced, with median length of crown slightly more than one half interocular 
width and approximately one-third transocular width, anterior margin very broadly rounded 
in dorsal view, without carina at transition from crown to face, surface convex, glabrous; antennal 
ledges not protuberant; face slightly flattened in profile, clypeus shiny. 

Thorax with pronotal width greater than transocular width of head, weakly rugulose. 
Forewings with veins elevated and with pits, with supernumerary crossvein forming extra 
anteapical cell (Fig. 1). Hindlegs with femoral setal formula 2:1:0, first tarsomere with 
length equal to combined length of two more distal tarsomeres and with setae of plantar 
surface arranged in two parallel rows. 

Male genital ia: Pygofer moderately produced, with dorsal obtuse angle and with apical 
margin narrowly convex, setae few (Fig. 2). Plates short, triangular, with multiseriate macrosetae 
(Fig. 3). Style with apex truncate. Connective Y-shaped (Fig. 4). Aedeagus symmetrical, slightly 
decurved, border serrate ventrally from midlength to apex in lateral view (Fig. 5); in caudoventral 
view shaft elongate, apex with pair of serrate folds (Fig. 6). Paraphyses symmetrical, with rami 
directed posteroventrally (Fig. 7). 

Female abdominal sternum VII rounded, emarginate on central half of posterior margin 
(Fig. 8). 

Holotype male: COSTA RICA, Prov. Cartago. La Cangreja, 1900 m. VII-1991, Col. P. 
Hanson y C. Godoy (INBio) 

Paratypes: 5 C?Cf, same data as holotype; 3 CfCf, same data except 19-IX 1992, 1 Cf, 
same data except VIII-IX 1991, 1 Cf, same data except II 1992 (UCR). 1 Cf, Prov. 
Cartago, R. Grande de Orosi desde Puente R. Dos Amigos hasta la Represa, 1400-1800 m, 
X 1995, R. Delgado. LN 186600-562000. T. (INBio). 2 Cfcf, R. Grande de Orosi desde 
Sendero La Pava hasta La Catarata, 1300-1700 m, XI 1995, R. Delgado. LN 191500- 
560400. T. Malaise (INBio); 3 Cfd\ 4 Km NE Canon, Genesis II, 2300 m, X-XII 1995, C. 
Godoy & P. Hanson (1 CAS, 1 NHM, I USU); ICf, same data except VIII 1996 (UCR). 

Remarks: 

Schildola bivirga is similar to S. opaca, but differs by having a black head 
with a tranverse red spot at the apex of the crown and without spots on the 
pronotum, the presence of one spot on each wing, and by the serrate ventral 



1 18 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 




8 

Figs. 1-8. Schildola bivirgu., n. sp.: 1. Anterior forewing apex; 2. Pygofer and plate, lateral 
view; 3. Plate, ventral view; 4. Style and connective dorsal view; 5. Aedeagus, lateral view; 6. 
Aedeagus, caudoventral view; 7. Paraphyses; 8. Female abdominal sternum VII. 



Vol. Ill, No. 2, March & April, 2000 1 19 



margin on the aedeagus in lateral view; in S. opaca. the ventral margin of the 
aedeagus is smooth but the apex has tiny protuberances. In Young's (1977) 
key this species would go to couplet 3, but is black with orange spots. This 
species has been collected from 1300 m to 2300 meters. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

The authors thank Humberto Lezama (UCR) for loans of specimens, and Paul Hanson and 
Paul Freytag for comments on the manuscript and one anonymous reviewer for suggestions 
which improved the content of the paper. This research was financed by the Norwegian Agency 
for Development Cooperation (NORAD) through the project "Contribution to Knowledge and 
Sustainable Use of Biodiversity in Costa Rica". This research was also made possible thanks to 
the Cooperative Agreement between the Ministry of Enviroment and Energy (M1NAE) and 
INBio in order to carry out the National Biodiversity Inventory. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Young, D. A. 1977. Taxonomic study of the Cicadellinae. Pan 2. New World Cicadellini and 
the genus Cicadellu. North Carolina Agric. Exp. Stn. Tech. Bull. 239. 1135 pp. 



120 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



AN ANNOTATED LIST OF PLANTHOPPERS 

(HEMIPTERA: FULGOROIDEA) OF 
GUANA ISLAND (BRITISH WEST INDIES) 1 

Charles R. Bartlett 2 

ABSTRACT: Twenty-seven species of planthoppers (Hemiptera: Fulgoroidea) are reported 
from Guana Island (British Virgin Islands), 26 for the first time. The full geographic range 
of each species is summarized. Local biogeography and alpha taxonomy needs for Guana 
species are discussed. Most planthoppers found on Guana (63%) are also known from 
Puerto Rico, but many species (59%) have never been reported from outside the Puerto 
Rican Bank. 

Guana is a small privately owned island of 299 hectares situated north of 
Tortola in the Virgin Islands of the British West Indies. Guana Island is in 
unusually good ecological condition (Heatwoleetal. 1981, Mayer and Chipley 
1992), and consists principally of steeply hilly terrain, reaching an elevation 
of 246 m, covered principally by dry scrub woodland. The flora consists of 
over 300 species (Mayer and Chipley 1992). There is a small area of flat land 
with principally grassy vegetation plus a salt pond fringed with mangroves 
and Sporobolus grasses. Guana Island has been subject to a wide array of 
biological investigations (e.g., Mayer and Chipley 1992, Becker and Miller 
1992, Evenhuis and Miller 1994, Roth 1994), although there are no previous 
studies on the auchenorrhynchous Homoptera. Geologically, Guana is a por- 
tion of the Puerto Rican Bank, which was connected to Puerto Rico by dry 
land during the Pleistocene glacial maxima (Heatwole and MacKenzie 1967, 
Lazell 1996). Puerto Rico became separated from the Virgin Islands approxi- 
mately 8,000-10,000 years ago (Heatwole and MacKenzie 1967). The vegeta- 
tion, climate and geology of the Puerto Rican Bank has been recently described 
by Heatwole et al. (1981). The planthoppers (Fulgoroidea) of Guana, there- 
fore, are expected to be a relictual subset of the Puerto Rican fauna. The objec- 
tive of this work is to document the planthoppers of Guana Island in a zoogeo- 
graphic context. 

The insects of Puerto Rico are relatively well known (reviewed by 
Maldonado Capriles 1996). Caldwell and Martorell (1951) provide keys to the 
fulgoroid fauna except Kinnaridae provided by Ramos ( 1 957). Wolcott ( 1 950), 
with additions summarized by Maldonado Capriles and Navarro (1967), lists 
the species of Puerto Rico, including some not treated by Caldwell and Martorell 
(1951) or Ramos (1957). The only fulgoroid species previously reported from 
Guana was the flatid Melormenis basalis (Walker, 1851) by Medler (1990). 

1 Received August 12, 1999. Accepted October 8, 1999. 

2 Department of Entomology and Applied Ecology, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 
19717-1303. 

ENT. NEWS 111(2): 120-132, March & April 2000 



__ Vol. 111. No. 2. March & April. 2000 _ 121 

All other fulgoroids are reported from Guana for the first time. 

MATERIALS AND METHODS 

Fulgoroids were surveyed during three collecting expeditions by the au- 
thor (1993, with J. Cryan, 1994 and 1997) in cooperation with The Conserva- 
tion Agency (Jamestown, Rhode Island). All surveys were conducted during 
October at times when The Conservation Agency was granted general access 
to the island for scientific research. Additional specimens from the Virgin Is- 
lands were obtained on loan from the Bernice P. Bishop Museum (BPBM, 
Honolulu, Hawaii) and M. Ivie (Montana State University). Collecting meth- 
ods included sweeping or beating vegetation, visual inspection of plants, and 
malaise trapping. 

For each species recorded, all specimens examined are reported and a sum- 
mary of the entire geographic range is provided. The reported range of each 
species within the Caribbean islands is arranged geographically from west to 
east, with the Lesser Antilles divided into the Virgin Islands (VI), Leeward 
Islands (LI), and Windward Islands (WI) following Bent (1977). Synonymy is 
reported only for species with changes in nomenclature since Metcalfs Cata- 
log of the Homoptera (Metcalf 1936, 1943, 1945, 1948, 1954a, 1954b, 1957, 
1 958), or for species reported under a different name by Caldwell and Martorell 
(1951). Junior synonyms are followed by the citation that resulted in the no- 
menclatural change. Voucher specimens of all species have been deposited 
primarily in the collection of North Carolina State University, Raleigh; with 
representative collections at the BPBM and the University of Delaware (New- 
ark, Delaware). 

A discovery curve (species accumulation curve) was calculated to eval- 
uate the completeness of the survey and estimate the number of undetected 
planthopper species on Guana Island. The discovery curve was created by 
treating each specimen collected as an observation, and randomizing the se- 
quence of observations with a SAS (SAS Institute 1989) program, and plotting 
observations by cumulative species. Total planthopper species richness was 
predicted using Chao's (1984) abundance based estimator of species rich- 

p2 

ness, S c h ao = S b s + ' , where S b s = number of observed species, Fj = 



number of species observed by exactly one specimen, F2 - number of species 
observed by exactly two specimens. The variance was computed using the 
Chao (1987) estimator of standard deviation. 

RESULTS 

A total of 27 fulgoroid species (or subspecies) among nine fulgoroid fami- 
lies was found on Guana Island. All taxa are listed in Table 1; the five new 



12: 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



species will be described elsewhere. Chao's (1984) estimator of species rich- 
ness ( standard deviation) calculates as 27. 1 0. 142, and the discovery curve 
(Figure 1 ) exhibits a clear leveling-off, suggesting that a high percentage of 
Guana Island planthopper species were detected. 

Of the 27 species, 17 (63%) are also known from Puerto Rico. The species 
that have not been recorded from Puerto Rico are Bothriocera eborea Fennah, 
1943, Colpoptera maculifrons flavifrons Osborn, 1935, Acanalonia depressa 
Melichar, 1901, Sayiana viequensis Caldwell, 1951, Flatoidinus spinosus 
Caldwell, 1951, and five new species. Colpoptera maculifrons, however, is 
represented on Puerto Rico by the nominate form (C. m. maculifrons Muir, 
1924) and two other subspecies (C. m. maculata Dozier, 1931, and C. m. 
carinata Dozier, 1936). Also, the Puerto Rican acanaloniid Acanalonia 
brevifrons Muir, 1924, is closely related to A. depressa (see Discussion). Of 
Guana Island's 27 species, 16 (59%, excluding Neomegamelanus elongatus 
reductus, see Discussion), have not been reported from outside the Puerto 
Rican Bank (Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands). 

Other than the aforementioned fulgoroid, no other Auchenorrhyncha has 
been previously reported from Guana Island. Among non-fulgoroid 
Auchenorrhyncha, a single treehopper species (Deiroderes inermis Ramos, 
1957), and a single cicada species (Proarna hilaris (Germar, 1834)) was found 
on Guana Island. There were no cercopids found during the present study on 
Guana Island. 








500 1000 

Number of individuals collected 



1500 



Fig. 1 . Discovery curve for Guana Island planthopper species. 



Vol. Ill, No. 2, March & April, 2000 



123 



Table 1: Fulgoroids of Guana Island, British Virgin Islands. 



Species 



Island: Specimens 
examined 



Previously reported range 
(West to East; type locality 
in Bold) (VI = Virgin Is.; 
LI = Leeward Is.; WI = 
Windward Is. 



References: 



Cixiidae 



Botliriocera eborea 
Fennah, 1943 


Guana: 18 
Tortola: 52 


VI: Tortola, Jost Van Dyke; 
LI:St. Kitts, Nevis, Mont- 
serrat; WI: Dominica. Martin- 
ique, St. Lucia, St. Vincent 


Fennah 1943, 1945, 1949; 
Caldwell and Martorell 1951 


Oliurus slussunae 
Van Duzee, 1912 
= Oliarus borinquensis 
Caldwell.1951: 
Mead and Kramer : 
1982:424-426. 


Guana: 86 
Little Thatch: 1 
Tortola: 2 
Great Camanoe: 1 
St. John: 2 


Cuba, Puerto Rico; VI: St. 
Thomas; USA: Florida (but 
not Mississippi or Texas, 
Mead and Kramer 1982} 


Caldwell and Martorell 1951, 
Mead and Kramer 1982 


Oliurns viequensis 
Caldwell,1951 


Guana: 2 (9) 
Anegada: 3 


Hispaniola, Puerto Rico, 
Vieques; VI: St. John; LI: 
Antigua; USA: FL 


Caldwell and Martorell 1951, 
Mead and Kramer 1982 


Pintulia alta Osbom, 
1935 


Guana: 83 
Tortola: 258 
Beeftl 


Puerto Rico; VI: St. Thomas 


Caldwell and Martorell 1951 



Delphacidae 



Neopunana carabbensis 
(Caldwell, 1951) 

= Punana carabbensis 
Caldwell, 1951: 
Asche, 1983: 128 



Guana: 168 
Tortola: 10 
St. John: 5 
Great Camanoe: 2 
Frenchman's Cay: 2 
Gt. St. James: 1 



Puerto Rico, Vieques; VI: St. 
Thomas 



Caldwell and Martorell 1951 



Neopunana n. sp. 1 



Guana: 2 



Neopunana n. sp.2 



Guana: 3 



Neopunana n. sp.3 



Guana: 3 



Guana: 5 



saccharivora 

(Westwood, 1833) 



Cuba, Jamaica, Hispaniola, 
Puerto Rico, Vieques; LI: 
Antigua, Guadeloupe; WI: 
St. Lucia, Barbados, 
Grenada, Trinidad; Vene- 
zuela, USA: Florida, Georgia, 
Hawaii; British Honduras, 
Venezuela 



Anonymous 1833,Westwood 
1833, Crawford 191 4, Van 
Duzee 191 7, Spooner 1920, 
Wolcottl927, 1936, 1950; 
Caldwell and Martorell 1951, 
Box 1953, CIE 1956. Fennah 
1959, Metcalfel969.Bruner 
etal. 1975 



124 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Species 



Island: Specimens 
examined 



Previously reported range 
(West to East; type locality 
in Bold) (VI = Virgin Is.; 
LI = LeewardIs.;WI = 
Windward Is. 



References: 



Anchidelphax huvanen- 

sis : (Crawford, 1914) 
= Delphacodeshava- 

nensis (Crawford, 

1914):Fennah, 

1965:97 



Guana 

Cf macropter: 4 
9 brachypter: 8 
9 macropter: 1 



Cuba, Jamaica, Puerto Rico,: 
Caja de Muertos, Vieques; 
VI: St. Thomas, St. Croix; 
WI: Martinique, St. Lucia, 
Barbados 



Crawford 1 914, Muir 1918, 
Osbom 1929, 1935; Wolcott 
1936, 1950; Muir and Giffard 
1924,CaldwellandMartorell 
1 95 l,Fennah 1959, 1965; 
Miskimen and Bond 1970 



Neomegamelanus 

elongatus reductus 
(Caldwell, 1951) 
= Megumelamis 
elongatus reductus 
(Caldwell, 1951): 
McDermottl952: 
50-52. 



Guana: 13 



Puerto Rico, Vieques. 



Caldwell and Martorell 1951 



Toya venilia (Fennah, Guana: 28 
1959) Necker: 14 

= Delphacodes venilia 
Fennah, 1959: 
Fennah, 1%5:% 



?Puerto Rico, ?Vieques; LI: 
Montserrat 



Fennah 1 959, 1965 



Derbidae 



Sayiana viequensis 
Caldwell, 1951 


Guana: 24 
Anegada: 1 


Vieques 


Caldwell and Martorell 1951 


Achilidae 


Catonia arida 
Caldwell, 1951 


Guana: 139 
Tortola: 1 
Virgin Gorda: 1 
Necker: 1 
St. John: 1 


Puerto Rico, Caja de 
Muertos 


Caldwell and Martorell 1951 


Catonia cinerea 
Osbom, 1935 


Guana: 64 
Tortola: 6 
Virgin Gorda: 1 


Puerto Rico, Caja de 
Muertos, Vieques; VI: St. 
Croix 


Osbom 1935, Wolcott 1936, 
194 1,1 950; Caldwell and 
Martorell 1951 


Catonia sp. near major 
Fennah, 1950 


Guana: 27 
Tortola: 2 


LI: Antigua 


Fennah 1950 



Tropiduchidae 



Tangella schaumi 
(Stal, 1859) 



Guana: 1 
St. John: 1 



Puerto Rico, Caja de Muer- 
tos, Vieques; VI: St. Thomas, 
St. John, Jost Van Dyke 



Stal 1859, Fennah 1949. 
Caldwell and Martorell 1951 



Vol. 111. No. 2, March & April. 2000 



125 



Species 



Island: Specimens 
examined 



Previously reported range 
(West to East; type locality 
in Bold) (VI = Virgin Is.; 
LI = Leeward Is.; WI = 
Windward Is. 



References: 



Tangia viridis 
(Walker, 1851) 

= Neurotmela viridis 
(Walker, 1851): 
Fennah, 1965: 
100-101 



Guana: 97 
St. Thomas: 1 
St. John: 1 



Mona, Puerto Rico, Caja de 
Muertos, Vieques; VI: St. 
Thomas, Tortola, Virgin 
Gorda, St. Croix 



Osbornl 935, Wolcott 1936, 
194 1,1 950; Fennah 1949, 
Caldwell and Martorell 1951, 
Miskimen and Bond 1970 



Flatidae 



Flaloidinus spinosus 
Caldwell, 1951 



Guana: 2 



VI: St. John, St. Thomas, 
Tortola 



Caldwell and Martorell 1951 



Melormenis basalis 


Guana: 55 


Mona, Puerto Rico, Caja de 


Melichar 1902, 1923; Beatty 


(Walker, 1851) [nee. 


Tortola: 8 


Muertos, Vieques; VI: St. 


1947, Wolcott 1923, 1941, 


Caldwell, 1951] 


Virgin Gorda: 2 


Thomas, Jost Van Dyke, 


1950; Caldwell and Martorell 


= Melormenis 


Great Camanoe: 1 


Tortola, Virgin Gorda, St. 


1951, Fennah 1949, 1965; 


antillanm 


St. John: 2 


Croix; LI: Anguilla, St. 


Miskimen and Bond 1 970; 


(Kirkaldy, 1909): 




Bartholomew, St. Kitts, 


Aschel997. 


Fennah, 1965: 107 




Nevis, Montserrat, Antigua; 








Hawaii (type locality "West 








Indies" (Walker 1851), but 








stated as unknown by 








Fennah (1965)) 




Petrusa epilepsis 


Guana: 268 


Cuba, Hispaniola, Mona, 


Melichar 1902, 1923; Myers 


(Kirkaldy, 1906) 


Tortola: 28 


Puerto Rico, Caja de 


1928; Wolcott 1923, 1936, 


= Petrusa marginata 


Anegada: 1 


Muertos, Vieques; VI: St. 


194 1,1 950; Fennah 1941, 


(Linne, 1767): 


St. John: 6 


Thomas, Jost Van Dyke, 


1949; Beatty 1947, Caldwell 


Metcalf, 1957: 


St. Thomas:! 


Tortola, Virgin Gorda, St. 


1 950, Caldwell and Martorell 


337-342. 


Scrub: 5 


Croix; LI: St. Bartholomew, 


1 95 1 , Miskimen and Bond 






St. Kitts, Nevis, Montserrat, 


1970 






Antigua; WI: Grenada; 








Brazil, Columbia (type 








locality unknown) 




Pseudcflatoides albus 


Guana: 17 


Puerto Rico 


Caldwell and Martorell 1951 


Caldwell, 1951 


Tortola: 6 








Frenchman's Cay: 1 






Issidae 


Thionia argo Fennah, 


Guana: 92 


Puerto Rico, Vieques Is., 


Fennah 1949, Caldwell and 


1949 


Virgin Gorda: 4 


Culebrita; VI: St. Thomas, 


Martorell 1951 




St. John: 1 


Jost Van Dyke, St. Croix 






Scrub: 1 







126 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Species 



Island: Specimens 
examined 



Previously reported range 
(West to East; type locality 
in Bold) ( VI = Virgin Is.; 
LI = Leeward Is.; WI = 
Windward Is. 



References: 



Colpoptera matuli- 
fronsflavifrons 

Osbom, 1935 


Guana: 3 Mona; VI: St. Thomas, St. 
Tortola:3 Croix; LI: Antigua 


Osbornl 935. Beatty 1947, 
Wolcott 1950,Miskimenand 
Bond 1970 


Acanaloniidae 


Acanalonia depressa 
Melichar. 1901 


Guana: 79 VI: St. Thomas, St. John, 
Tortola 2 Anegada, St. Croix 
Virgin Gorda: 1 
Great Camanoe: 2 
St. John: 1 
Beef: 1 


Melichar 1901, Caldwell and 
Martorell 1951 


Kinnaridae 


Prosotropis 9 9 
(poss.manrutratti 
Fennah, 1942) 


Guana: 2 
St. John: 1 




Quilessafasciata 

Fennah. 1945 


Guana: 131 Puerto Rico 

Tortola: 1 
Little Thatch: 1 
Virgin Gorda: 3 
CasCayfSt. 
Thomas): 1 
Anegada 10 


Ramos 1957 



DISCUSSION 

Although it is satisfying that Chao's (1984) estimator of species richness 
was only slightly higher than the observed species richness, it would be opti- 
mistic to claim that all species were detected. It should be noted that these data 
were not collected for the express purpose of estimating planthopper species 
richness, and that abundant species were not consistently collected at every 
encounter. Although additional planthopper species almost certainly occur, 
these data clearly suggest that a high percentage of species have been 
detected. 

A variety of taxonomic problems were revealed in this study. One particu- 
lar difficulty was with the forms related to Acanalonia depressa: A. brevifrons 
(type locality: Puerto Rico) and A. impressa Metcalf and Bruner, 1930 (type 
locality: Cuba). Acanalonia impressa appears to be an endemic Cuban form. 
Caldwell and Martorell ( 1 95 1 ) and Fennah ( 1 949) make conflicting statements 
as to the geographical limits of A. brevifrons. Caldwell and Martorell (1951) 
report A. brevifrons from St. Croix, St. Thomas, and tentatively Anegada, but 



Vol. Ill, No. 2, March & April. 2000 127 



curiously do not report Puerto Rico (A. brevifrons was described from a single 
Puerto Rican male; Muir 1924) and do not report A. depressa in the Virgin 
Islands. Fennah ( 1949), however, reports A. depressa from Jost Van Dyke, St. 
Thomas and St. Croix, but limits A. brevifrons to Puerto Rico. The published 
morphological distinctions between A. depressa and A. brevifrons concern 
their relative size and subtle differences in the shape of the head and tegmina 
(Fennah 1 949), but gehitalic comparisons have never been made. Fennah ( 1 949) 
suggested that A. impressa and A. brevifrons should be subspecies of A. depressa. 
The status of these species clearly requires reexamination. 

The delphacid Neomegamelanus elongatus reductus was described from 
Puerto Rico and Vieques Island by Caldwell (in Caldwell and Martorell 1951 ) 
as a Caribbean subspecies of the otherwise mainland N. elongatus (Ball, 1905) 
(found on the coastal eastern United States. Connecticut to Florida, McDermott 
1952, Cummins et al. 1988). Other than geography, no useful morphological 
distinctions between these subspecies were presented. Comparison of chrotic 
and phallic features of Neomegamelanus elongatus elongatus and N. elongatus 
reductus suggests that there are not sufficient differences to justify subspecific 
status, although a detailed examination was beyond the scope of the present 
work. For the purposes of this study Neomegamelanus elongatus reductus was 
not considered a form unique to the Puerto Rican Bank. 

Two species found on Guana had some notable differences from described 
forms. The kinnarid Quilessa fasciata lacked the diagnostic markings on the 
forewings noted by Ramos ( 1 957), and had additional processes on the aedeagal 
complex. These differences are probably insufficient to consider this form a 
separate species, but may merit subspecific status. The achilid Catonia nr. 
major (from Antigua) showed color and genitalic differences compared to 
Fennah \s (1950) description (this species is only recorded from the holotype), 
and probably represents a new species. 

Zoogeographically, more than half of the species encountered on Guana 
Island are apparently endemic to the Puerto Rican Bank. Of the remaining 
species, three others are found also in the Leeward Islands (Toya venilia, Catonia 
nr. major, and Colpoptera maculifronsflavifrons), three were distributed widely 
within the Caribbean (Bothriocera eborea, Melormenis basalis and 
Anchidelphax havanensis; the former two largely restricted to the Lesser 
Antilles), one ranges to northern South America (Petrusa epilepsis). three range 
to the continental United States (Oliarus slossonae, O. viequensis. and 
Neomegamelanus elongatus), and one is found in both Central America and 
southeastern United States (Saccharosydne saccharivora). It appears odd that 
more species have an affiliation to North America than to Central America. 
Modern ideas concerning the origin of the Caribbean fauna (e.g., Rosen 1985, 
Liebherr 1988) suggest that biological affinities should be strongest with Cen- 
tral America. Ramos (1988: 68) also suggested that the Caribbean Auche- 



128 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



norrhyncha has "little or no affinity to North or South America." The eastern 
position of the Puerto Rican Bank (relative to the other Greater Antilles and 
Central America) and long period of time required for vicariance, however, 
would most certainly obscure biogeographic affinities at the species level. 

The issid Colpoptera maculifrons Muir, 1924 has five subspecies (includ- 
ing the nominate form) that collectively occur throughout the Caribbean is- 
lands. The nominate form along with C. m. carinata Dozier and C. m. maculata 
Dozier are recorded from Puerto Rico, with the latter form also recorded from 
Mona Island (Dozier 1931, Caldwell and Martorell 1951). Colpoptera maculi- 
frons dominicana Fennah, 1955, is known only from Hispaniola; C. m. 
angustior Fennah from the Leeward Islands (Antigua, Nevis, St. Kitts, 
Montserrat) and St. Croix; and C. m, grenada Fennah from Grenada (Wind- 
ward Islands) (Fennah 1955). 

The cixiid Oliarus slossonae was abundant on agave (Agave missionum, 
Agavaceae) on Guana, a host plant also reported for it on St. Thomas (Mead 
and Kramer 1982). Perhaps significantly, agave is not reported as a host else- 
where in its range (Mead and Kramer 1982), suggesting that Oliarus slossonae 
may represent a species complex. 

The delphacid Toya venilia was common on Guana (and nearby islands, 
R. Denno, pers. comm.) in the grass Sporobolus virginicus (Poaceae) near a 
salt pond. Individuals of this species are commonly brachypterous, with an 
85.7% (24 of 28) brachyptery rate among the Guana specimens examined in 
this study. Toya venilia was described from Montserrat (Leeward Islands), the 
only locality where this species has been unquestionably recorded in the past. 
Puerto Rican and Vieques Island records are based on Fennah' s (1959: 262) 
assertion that "It appears to be this species which Caldwell and Martorell [1951: 
183] have reported from Puerto Rico under the name Delphacodes nigra*\ 

A total of 27 species and subspecies of planthoppers (including five new 
species) were recorded from Guana Island. Most planthoppers found on 
Guana also occur on Puerto Rico (17 of 27 species, 63%), mostly endemic to 
the Puerto Rican Bank (16 of 27 species, 59%). The relatively high degree of 
endemism observed is consistent with the high degree of endemism observed 
among Auchenorrhyncha in the Greater Antilles by Ramos (1988). It should 
be noted, however, that this observation is based on substantially incomplete 
information because many smaller Caribbean islands have no published re- 
ports of fulgoroids, and our knowledge of the planthoppers of Jamaica and 
Hispaniola is quite poor (Ramos 1988). Further surveys of Caribbean 
Fulgoroidea are needed to more confidently assess planthopper zoo- 
geography. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

I am grateful to the Jarecki family, W. Lu and J. D. Lazell of The Conservation Agency, 
and the staff of Guana Island who made this research possible. 1 also thank M. A. Ivie (Montana 



Vol. Ill, No. 2, March & April. 2000 129 



State University) , K. Arakaki and S. Miller (Bernice P. Bishop Museum) for loans of speci- 
mens, and S. McKamey (United States National Museum), D. W. Tallamy, and J. A. Hough- 
Goldstein for valuable comments on the manuscript. Field work for this study was primarily 
supported by The Conservation Agency, with additional support from the Department of Ento- 
mology and Applied Ecology, University of Delaware. 

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Ann. K. K. Naturh. Hof. 17: 1-123. 



Vol. Ill, No. 2, March & April. 2000 131 



Melichar, L. 1923. Homoptera, fam. Acanaloniidae, Flatidae et Ricaniidae. Genera Insectorum 

182: 1-185. 
Metcalf, Z. P. 1936. General Catalogue of the Hemiptera. Fascicle IV, Fulgoroidea, Part 2. 

Cixiidae. Smith College. Northhampton, MA. 269 pp. 
Metcalf, Z. P. 1943. General Catalogue of the Hemiptera. Fascicle IV, Fulgoroidea, Part 3. 

Araeopidae (Delphacidae). Smith College, Northhampton, MA. 552 pp. 
Metcalf, Z. P. 1945. General Catalogue of the Hemiptera. Fascicle IV, Fulgoroidea, Part 4, 

Derbidae. Smith College, Northhampton, MA. 212 pp. 
Metcalf, Z. P. 1948. General Catalogue of the Hemiptera. Fascicle IV, Fulgoroidea, Pan 10 

Achilidae. Smith College, Northhampton, MA. 85 pp. 
Metcalf, Z. P. 1954a. General Catalogue of the Hemiptera. Fascicle IV, Fulgoroidea, Pan 1 1 

Tropiduchidae. N.C. State Univ., Raleigh, viii + 176 pp. 
Metcalf, Z. P. 1954b. General Catalogue of the Hemiptera. Fascicle IV, Fulgoroidea, Part 14 

Acanaloniidae. N.C. State Univ., Raleigh, vii + 64 pp 
Metcalf, Z. P. 1957. General Catalogue of the Homoptera. Fascicle IV, Fulgoroidea, Part 13, 

Flatidae and Hypochthonellidae. N.C. State College, Raleigh, viii + 565 pp. 
Metcalf, Z. P. 1958. General Catalogue of the Homoptera. Fascicle IV. Fulgoroidea, Part 15. 

Issidae. Waverly Press Inc., Baltimore, MD. vii + 561 pp. 
Metcalf, Z. P. and S. C. Bruner. 1930. Cuban Fulgorina. 1. The families Tropiduchidae and 

Acanaloniidae. Psyche 37(4): 395-424. 
Metcalfe, J. R. 1969. Studies on the biology of the sugar cane pest Saccharosydne saccluirivora 

(Westw.) (Horn.: Delphacidae). Bull. Entomol. Res. 59: 393-408. 
Miskimen, G. W, and R. M. Bond. 1970. The Insects of St. Croix, United States Virgin 

Islands. Sci. Survey Porto Rico Virgin Islands 13(1): 1-114. 

Muir, F. A .G. 1918. Homopterous Notes II. Proc. Hawaii. Entomol. Soc. 3: 414-429. 
Muir, F. A. G. 1924. New and Little Known Fulgorids from the West Indies (Homoptera). 

Proc. Hawaii. Entomol. Soc. 5(3): 461-472 
Muir, F. A. G. and W. M. Giffard. 1924. Studies in North American Delphacidae. Bull. Exp. 

Stn. Hawaii. Sugar Planters' Assoc., Entomol. Ser. 15: 1-53 

Myers, J. G. 1928. Notes on Cuban Fulgoroid Homoptera. Studies on Cuban Insects 1: 13-28. 
Osborn, H. 1929. Notes on Porto Rican Homoptera. J. Dept. Agric. Porto Rico 13(3): 81-112. 
Osborn, H. 1935. Insects of Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Homoptera (excepting the 

Sternorhynchi). Sci. Survey Porto Rico Virgin Islands 14(2): 111-260. 
Ramos, J. A. 1957. A review of the auchenorhynchous Homoptera of Puerto Rico. J. Agric. 

Univ. P.R. 41(1): 38-117. 
Ramos, J.A. 1988. Zoogeography of the auchenorrhynchous Homoptera of the Greater Antilles 

(Hemiptera). pp. 61-70. In: J.K. Liebherr (ed.). Zoogeography of Caribbean insects. Cornell 

Univ. Press, Ithaca, NY. 
Rosen, D. E. 1985. Geological hierarchies and biogeographic congruence in the Caribbean. 

Ann. Mo. Bot. Card. 72: 636-659. 
Roth, L. M. 1994. Cockroaches from Guana Island, British West Indies (Blattaria: Blattellidae: 

Blaberidae). Psyche 101: 45-52. 

SAS Institute. 1989. SAS user's guide: Statistics. SAS Institute, Gary, NC. 
Spooner, C. S. 1920. Some notes on the occurrence of Delphacinae (Hemip. Homop.). Entomol. 

News 31: 44-46 
Stal, C. 1859. Novae quaedam Fulgorinorum formae speciesque insigniores. Berlin. Entomol. 

Z. 3: 313-327. 

Van Duzee, E. P. 1912. Hemipterological gleanings. Bull. Buffalo Soc. Nat. Sci. 10: 477-512. 
Van Duzee, E. P. 1917. Catalogue of the Hemiptera of America North of Mexico (excepting 

the Aphididae, Coccidae and Aleurodidae). Tech. Bull. Univ. Calif. Agric. Exp. Stn. Univ. 

Calif. Press, Berkeley, Vol. 2, pp. i-xiv, 1-902. 



132 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Walker, F. 1851. List of the specimens of Homopterous insects in the collection of the British 

Museum. 2: 261-636. 
VVestwood, J. O. 1833. Additional observations upon the insect which infests the sugar 

canes in Grenada. Mag. Nat. Hist. 6: 409-413. 
Wolcott, G. N. 1927. Entomologie d'Haiti. Service Technique du Department de F Agriculture 

et de 1'Enseignement Professionnel. Port-Au-Prince, Haiti. 440 pp. 
Wolcott, G. N. 1936. Insectae Borinquenses. A revised annotated checklist of the insects of 

Puerto Rico. J. Agric. Univ. P.R. 20(1): 1-600. 
Wolcott, G. N. 1941. A supplement to "Insectae Boringuenses". J. Agric. Univ. P.R. 25(2): 33- 

158. 
Wolcott, G. N. 1950 [dated 1948]. The insects of Puerto Rico. J. Agric. Univ. P.R. 32(1): 1- 

224. 



Vol. Ill, No. 2, March & April. 2000 133 



A NEW SPECIES OF PARACLOEODES 
(EPHEMEROPTERA: BAETIDAE) FROM MEXICO 1 

R.P. Randolph, VV. P. McCafferty 2 

ABSTRACT: Paracloeodes lugoi, n. sp., is described from Morelos, Mexico. Structure of 
the labrum, mandibles, and labial palps distinguishes the larval stage of P. lugoi from all 
other known species of Paracloeodes. The adult stage of the new species is unknown. 

Previously only one species of Paracloeodes (Ephemeroptera: Baetidae), 
P. minutus (Daggy), was known from North America, including the U.S. (see 
Daggy 1945, Day 1955, McCafferty and Waltz 1990) and Mexico (Lugo-Ortiz 
and McCafferty 1994). Six additional species are known from Middle and 
South America, including one species each from Cuba (Kluge 1 99 1 ) and Puerto 
Rico (Traver 1938), and four species from South America (Lugo-Ortiz and 
McCafferty 1996). Paracloeodes minutus is also known from Costa Rica 
(McCafferty and Lugo-Ortiz 1 996). Herein we describe a distinctive new North 
American species of Paracloeodes from Morelos, Mexico. Material of the 
new species is deposited in the Purdue Entomological Research Collection, 
West Lafayette, Indiana. 

Paracloeodes lugoi Randolph and McCafferty, NEW SPECIES 

Larva. Body length: 5.5 mm. Caudal filaments length: 2.0 mm. Head: Coloration light brown 
with no discernable pattern: frontal keel present between antennae. Antennae approximately 
1.5x length of head capsule. Labrum (Fig. 1 ) rounded anteriorly, with margin of medial notch 
convex, with lateral margins converging posteriorly, and with long, simple setae scattered dor- 
sally; anterior margin with row of long, fine simple setae. Left mandible (Fig. 2) with incisors 
fused at midlength; outer set of incisors with four denticles, inner set of incisors with two 
denticles; prostheca stout; small tuft of setae at base of triangular process of mola; molar trian- 
gular process obliquely directed medially, with four denticles medially. Right mandible (Fig. 
3) with incisors cleft to base; outer set of incisors with three denticles, inner set of incisors with 
two denticles; prostheca bifid; tuft of setae present at base of mola; mola with one long, simple 
seta protruding from medial margin. Maxillae [similar to Fig. 17, Lugo-Ortiz and McCafferty 
(1996)] with three denticles at apex of galealaciniae; palps two segmented, with simple setae 
scattered over surface, more concentrated near apex; segment 2 slightly longer than basal seg- 
ment. Labium (Fig. 4) with glossae and paraglossae with long, fine simple setae concentrated 
at apices; glossae with numerous fine, simple setae scattered over surface and with row of stout 
setae medially; paraglossae with long, fine simple setae on outer margin and single row of 
long, fine simple setae medially; distal palp segment subtriangular, reduced in size, with long, 
fine simple setae scattered over surface, more concentrated near apex; junction of medial pro- 
jection of segment 2 and apex of palp forming distinct obtuse angle medially; segment 2 with 
medial margin nearly straight and evenly tapering basally, broadly joined to segment 1, with 
long, fine simple setae scattered over surface of segment 2; palp segment 1 subequal in size to 



1 Received June 5, 1999. Accepted September 29, 1999. 

2 Department of Entomology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907. 

ENT. NEWS 111(2): 133-136, March & April 2000 



134 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



remainder of palp. Thorax: Prothorax with pair of submedian bilobed markings; meso- and 
metathorax brown with no discernable pattern. Forelegs with row of stout setae dorsally, and 
row of small, spatulate setae just below row of stout setae, ventrally with scattered long, stout, 
simple setae and long, fine, simple setae; femora with cluster of long, fine, simple setae and 
two stout setae distally; tibiae and tarsi with long, fine, simple setae scattered on dorsal surface 
and long stout setae ventrally; tarsi with few very fine setae ventrally; tarsal claws with barely 
discernable row of minute denticles basally. Hindwingpads absent. Abdomen: Terga brown 
with darker brown patterning throughout; terga 1-2 brown; terga 3-6 brown with pair of subme- 
dian darker brown spots near posterior margin and with anteromedial darker brown spot on 
each tergum; tergum 6 with anterolateral corners light brown; terga 7-9 lighter brown with 
anteromedial dark spot and paired submedial posteriorly directed dark markings; tergum 9 
bordered laterally and posteriorly with dark pigment; tergum 10 mostly light brown, with 
anteromedial dark spot; posterior tergal spines approximately 1.5x longer than basal width. 







Figs. 1-4. Paracloeodes lugoi, n. sp., larva. 1. Labrum (dorsal). 2. Left Mandible. 3. Right 
Mandible. 4. Labium (left-ventral; right-dorsal). 



Vol. Ill, No. 2, March & April, 2000 135 



Paraprocts with twenty marginal spines, with medial spines largest; triangular process with 
14 uniform spines; body of paraproct with long, simple setae scattered over surface. Gills 
on segments 1-7, asymmetrical, with outer margin straight; gill margins weakly serrate, 
with long, fine, simple setae at each serration; gill trachea distinct. Sterna uniformly 
brown, with long, fine, simple setae scattered over surface. Caudal filaments uniformly 
brown with numerous long, fine, simple setae medially, terminal filament subequal to 
cerci and with numerous, long, fine, simple setae laterally. 
Adult. Unknown. 

Material examined. Holotype: Larva, MEXICO, Morelos State, Rio Cuautla at Cuautla, elev. 
4600', temp. 70 F, XI- 13- 1968, R. K. Allen, [mouthparts, legs, tergum 3-4, gills 3-4, paraprocts 
mounted on slide (medium: Euparal)]. 

Etymology. We are honored to name this species after C. R. Lugo-Ortiz for 
his recent and prolific contributions to global baetid taxonomy. 

Diagnosis. Larvae of Paracloeodes lugoi differ from all South American forms 
(see Lugo-Ortiz and McCafferty 1996) by the absence of hindwingpads and 
presence of a uniquely shaped labial palp (Fig. 4). Paracloeodes lugoi larvae 
are .rost similar to the North and Central American species P. minutus but can 
be separated from that species on the basis of the distinctive shape of the labial 
pa ps (Fig. 4), the convex shape of the labrum (Fig. 1), and the bifid prostheca 
on the right mandible (Fig. 3). The medial projection of labial palp segment 2 
in P. lugoi is larger in relation to the apex of the palp (Fig. 4) than that of P. 
minutus [Fig. 12, Day (1955)]. The angle formed by this projection and the 
apex in P. lugoi is considerably greater than the approximate right angle found 
in P. minutus. The base of labial palp segment 2 in P. lugoi is relatively broad, 
evenly broadening distally. In P. minutus, the base of segment 2 is narrower 
and the medial margin is concave [Fig. 12, Day (1955)]. The labrum of P. 
lugoi (Fig. 1) is considerably more convex anteriorly than the labra of speci- 
mens of P. minutus we have examined. The prostheca of the right mandible 
(Fig. 3) of P. lugoi is apically bifid, whereas that of P. minutus is serrate 
medially. In addition, the molar triangular process of the left mandible in P. 
lugoi (Fig. 2) is obliquely directed, rather than being perpendicularly promi- 
nent as in P. minutus. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

We thank G. F. Edmunds, Jr. (Salt Lake City, Utah) for the donation of the material 
for our study. We also thank A.V. Provonsha (West Lafayette, Indiana) for the figures. 
This paper has been assigned Purdue Agricultural Research Program Journal Number 
16008. Research was supported by NSF grant DEB-9901577. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Daggy, R. H. 1945. New species and previously undescribed naiads of some Minnesota may- 
flies (Ephemeroptera). Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 38: 373-396. 



136 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Day, W. C. 1955. New genera of mayflies from California. Pan-Pac. Entomol. 31: 121-137. 

Kluge, N. Y. 1991. Cuban mayflies of the family Baetidae (Ephemeroptera) 1. Genera 
Callibaetis, Cloeodes and Paracloeodes. Zool. Zh. 12: 128-135. [In Russian], 

Lugo-Ortiz, C. R. and W. P. McCafferty. 1994. New records of Ephemeroptera from Mexico. 
Entomol. News 105: 17-26. 

Lugo-Ortiz, C. R. and W. P. McCafferty. 1996. The genus Paracloeodes (Insecta: Ephe- 
meroptera: Baetidae) and its presence in South America. Annl. Limnol. 32: 161-169. 

McCafferty, W. P. and C. R. Lugo-Ortiz. 1996. Los efemeropteros (Ephemeroptera) de 
America Central. Rev. Nica. Entomol. 35: 19-28. 

McCafferty, W. P. and R. D. Waltz. 1990. Revisionary synopsis of the Baetidae (Ephemerop- 
tera) of North and Middle America. Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 1 16: 769-799. 

Traver, J. R. 1938. Mayflies of Puerto Rico. J. Ag. Univ. Puerto Rico 22: 5-42. 



_ Vol. 111. No. 2. March & April. 2000 _ 137 

ACENTRELLA FEROPAGUS, NEW SPECIES 

(EPHEMEROPTERA: BAETIDAE): FORMAL NEW 

NAME FOR NORTH AMERICANA. LAPPONICA 

SENSU MORIHARA AND McCAFFERTY 1 

J. Alba-Tercedor 2 , W. P. McCafferty 3 

ABSTRACT: A new nameAcenrrelluferopagus, new species, is proposed for the North American 
baetids that were previously known as Acentrella lapponica or Baetis lapponicus and which 
had been described in the larval stage by Morihara and McCafferty. The species is apparently 
confined to northern Canada and Alaska. Characteristics of the femora and tibiae as well as 
labial palps may be used to differentiate larvae of A . feropagus from those of the European 
species A. 



Bengtsson (1912) originally described the species Acentrella lapponica 
Bengtsson from Sweden. McDunnough (1936) first recorded the species in 
North America, based on the study of alate specimens collected from the Ca- 
nadian tundra. The identification was confirmed by Bengtsson. Thereafter 
McDunnough' s identification of the material was not questioned, and the dis- 
tribution of the species has been considered as circumpolar (see McCafferty 
1985). 

In the revision of the North American larvae of the genus Baetis sensu 
lato, Morihara and McCafferty (1979) included a detailed description of the 
larvae of A. lapponica. Morihara and McCafferty (1979), however, pointed 
out some apparent differences between the larvae from North America and 
European larvae (see Muller-Liebenau 1970), commenting, for example, that, 
". . . in N. A. the large dorsal setae of the femora and tibiae are more robust and 
shorter than those in European forms." 

Morihara and McCafferty (1979) took a very conservative approach in 
their study with respect to naming new species. For example, although they 
described several unnamed species, those species were not named until later 
by others [see review by McCafferty and Silldorff (1998)]. During the prepa- 
ration of a recent paper on the genus Acentrella (Alba-Tercedor and El Alami 
1999), it became apparent that differences noted in North American larvae by 
Morihara and McCafferty (1979) were of species-level significance, and that 
A. lapponica sensu Morihara and McCafferty was a new species. That species 
is formally named herein. 



'Received August 27. 1999. Accepted September 29. 1999. 

2 Departmento de Biologfa Animal y Ecologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de 
Granada, 18071 -Granada, Spain. 

^ Department of Entomology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907. 
ENT. NEWS 111(2): 137-139. March & April 2000 



138 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Acentrellaferopagus, NEW SPECIES 

Baetis lapponicus (Bengtsson), Morihara and McCafferty, 1979:149. 

Material examined. HOLOTYPE: mature larva on slide: Canada, Northwest Territories, 
Keewatin, Bothia, VII-28-1977 (3WF229 S9) (deposited in the Canadian National Collection, 
Ottawa), identified in 1979 by D. Morihara as Baetis lapponicus. Additional larval material 
was examined from the Murchison River drainage system of the District of Keewatin. North- 
western Territories (Nunavut), collected by J. Collins in 1976 and 1977, and residing at the 
Freshwater Institute, Winnipeg, Manitoba. 

Etymology. The epithet feropagus, literally "wild country" in Latin, is a 
noun in apposition in reference to the northern wilderness of North America 
from where the species is known. 

Diagnosis. Larvae of the new species can easily be distinguished from 
those of A. lapponica by the shorter and more robust setae of the femora and 
tibiae, as was pointed out by Morihara and McCafferty (1979) (compare fig- 
ures 9-14 with Miiller-Liebenau, 1970: figures 46e, f, g). Moreover, there are 
clear differences between the two species in the shape of the apical segment of 
the labial palpi (compare figures 1-2 with Miiller-Liebenau, 1970: figures 46d, 
and Jacob, 1991: figure 3a.). Acentrellaferopagus larvae may be differenti- 
ated from other North American species of Acentrella by using the key pro- 
vided by McCafferty et al. (1994) and substituting the name feropagus for 
lapponica. We do not know of differences in the adult stages of A. feropagus 
and A. lapponica. 

Distribution. We provisionally consider all materials previously identi- 
fied and reported as A. lapponica in North America to be A. feropagus. As 
such, the distribution includes Alaska (Harper and Harper 1981) and New- 
foundland (Labrador), Northwest Territories, and Quebec in Canada [see re- 
cent review in McCafferty and Randolph (1998)]. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

We are indebted to D. Cobb (Freshwater Institute, Winnipeg, Manitoba) for providing 
Canadian material for study. This paper has been assigned Purdue University Agricultural Re- 
search Program Journal No. 16062. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Alba-Tercedor, J. and M. El Ahuni. 1999. Description of the nymphs and eggs of Acentrella 
almohades sp. n. from Morocco and southern Spain (Ephemeroptera: Baetidae). Aquat. 
Insects 21: 241-247. 

Bengtsson, S. 1912. Neue Ephemeriden aus Schweden. Entomol. Tidskr. 33: 107-1 17. 

Harper, F. and P. P. Harper. 1981. Northern Canadian mayflies (Insecta: Ephemeroptera), 
records and descriptions. Can. J. Zool. 59: 1784-1789. 



Vol. 1 1 1, No. 2, March & April. 2000 139 



Jacob, U. 1991. Ephemeroptera: zur Systematik der europaischen Baetidae auf Gattungsebene. 

Verb. Westd. Entomol. 1991: 271-290. 
McCafferty, W. P. 1985. The Ephemeroptera of Alaska. Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 87: 381- 

386. 
McCafferty, W. P. and R. P. Randolph. 1998. Canada mayflies: a faunistic compendium. 

Proc. Entomol. Soc. Ontario 129: 47-97. 
McCafferty, W. P. and W. L. Silldorff. 1998. Reared association and equivalency of Baetis 

adonis and B. caelestis (Ephemeroptera: Baetidae). Entomol. News 109: 261-265. 
McCafferty, W. P., M. J. Wigle, and R. D. Waltz. 1 994. Systematics and biology ofAcentrella 

rurbida (Ephemeroptera: Baetidae). Pan-Pac. Entomol. 70: 301-308. 
McDunnough, J. 1936. A new arctic baetid (Ephemeroptera). Can. Entomol. 68: 32-34. 
Morihara, D. K. and W. P. McCafferty. 1979. The Baetis larvae of North America 

(Ephemeroptera: Baetidae). Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 105: 139-221. 
Miiller-Liebenau, I. 1970. Revision der europaischen Arten der Gattung Baetis, 1815 (In- 

secta, Ephemeroptera). Gewa'ss. Abwa'ss. 48/49 (1969): 1-214. 



140 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



A NEW COMBINATION FOR TWO 

NORTH AMERICAN SMALL MINNOW MAYFLIES 

(EPHMEROPTERA: BAETIDAE) 1 

N. A. Wiersema^ 

ABSTRACT: Acentrellci alachua, n. comb., and A. parvula, n. comb., are transferred from 
the genus Plauditus. 

The small minnow mayfly genus Plauditus Lugo-Ortiz & McCafferty 
(1998) was recently established for a small group of North American species 
originally described in Pseudocloeon Klapalek or Cloeon Leach. Lugo-Ortiz 
and McCafferty (1998) transferred 12 such North American species into 
Plauditus. However, a recent survey of these species revealed that two species 
would be more appropriately transferred to Acentrella Bengtsson. Species 
emendations are as follows: Acentrella alachua (Berner), n. comb., Acentrella 
parvula (McDunnough), n. comb. 

The following combination of characteristics indicate that A. alachua and 
A. parvula are more appropriately placed in Acentrella as opposed to Plauditus, 
Heterocloeon or any other Baetis complex genus: possession of minute 
hindwingpads (Fig. 4); tergal surfaces lacking scales and or scale bases; gills 
with smooth margins; the compact nature of the labium with narrow palpi 
which possess evenly rounded (Fig. 1) or slighty truncated apices; short, wide, 
apically cleft mandibular incisors without serrations on the inner margin of 
the right incisors (Figs. 2 & 3); relatively long dorsal femoral and often present 
tibial setae (Fig. 5), compared to Plauditus and Heterocloeon species; highly 
reduced posterior marginal abdominal tergal spines with sharply pointed and 
occasionally multidentate apices (similar to Fig. 14 Waltz and McCafferty 
1987); distinctive genital forceps of the male adult (Fig. 8) and moderate to 
well developed anterior process of the mesoscutum (Fig. 7). I would note that 
the development of the anterior process of the mesoscutum demonstrates con- 
siderable specific variability within the three previously mentioned genera. 
The anterior process of the mesoscutum is one of a number of features, which 
indicates a close relationship among Acentrella, Heterocloeon, and Plauditus 
as well as additional genera. With respect to mandibular morphology, Plauditus 
species possess elongate and narrow mandibular incisor which are not dis- 
creetly cleft apically and with the inner margins of the right incisors serrate. 
The mandibular incisors of Acentrella species on the other hand are shorter 
and more robust in appearance, often apically cleft, and usually lack serrations 



1 Received August 23, 1999. Accepted October 20, 1999. 
2 4857 Briarbend, Houston, TX 77035. 

ENT. NEWS 111(2): 140-142, March & April 2000 



Vol. 111. No. 2, March & April. 2000 



141 




Figs. 1-8. Acentrella pan'ula I. Labium (dorsal half). 2. Right mandibular incisors. 3. Left 
mandibular incisors. 4. left metathoracic notum. 5. Leg. 6. Tarsal claw. 7. Partial thorax 
(adult, lateral view). 8. Genitalia (ventral). 



142 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



on the inner margins of the right incisors. Serrations along the inner margins of 
the right mandibular incisors are also found in species of Heterocloeon, Baetis 
species and other genera. Finally, the male genitalia of A. alachua and A. 
parvula possess a number of distinctive characteristics, one of which may 
prove to be a generic autapomorphy for Acentrella (e.g. enlarged, wide-based 
basal forcep segments with a broadly rounded, inner-medial emargination). 
Basal forcep segments of this form are not found in Plaitditus or Heterocloeon 
species, but are typical of the following Acentrella species for example: A. 
sibirica (Kazlauskas), see Fig. 6 in Park et al. 1996; A. sinaica Bogoescu, see 
Fig. 42b in Miiller-Liebenau 1970; A. lapponica Bengtsson, see Fig. 42a in 
Miiller-Liebenau 1970; A. insignificant (McDunnough), see Plate 3, Fig. 7 in 
McDunnough 1926; and A. turbida (McDunnough). On the basis of numerous 
synapomorphic features found in Liebebiella Waltz & McCafferty (1987) and 
Acentrella it is possible the adult males of Liebebiella will also have similar 
genitalia. 

On the basis of the highly reduced, strap-like hindwingpads, mandibular 
incisor morphology, highly reduced labrum, and long femoral and tibial setation 
of the larvae, and the genitalia of the adult male, A. parvula and A. alachua 
seem to be closely related to A. turbida. Acentrella insignificans is also very 
similar to A. parvula, A. alachua and A. turbida. However, A. insignificans 
larvae retain much larger hindwingpads and thus usually have small hindwings 
in the adults. It is also possible that the reduced tibial setation found in A. 
parvula and A. alachua is an adaptation for life in slower-flowing waters than 
is typical for some other Acentrella species. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

I would like to thank W. L. and J. G. Peters (Florida A&M University) for the loan of 
additional larvae of A. alachua from Florida. I would also like to express my appreciation to 
W. P. McCafferty (Purdue University) and B. C. Kondratieff (Colorado State University) for 
their critiques of the manuscript version of this publication, as well as two anonymous review- 
ers for their helpful notes. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Lugo-Ortiz, C. R., and W. P. McCafferty. 1998. A new North American genus of Baetidae 

(Ephemeroptera) and key to Baetis complex genera. Entomol. News 109: 345-353. 
McDunnough, J. 1926. New Canadian Ephemeridae with notes IV. Can. Entomol. 58: 296- 

303. 
Miiller-Liebenau, I. 1970 (1969). Revision der europaischen arten der gattung Baetis Leach. 

1815 (Insecta. Ephemeroptera). Gewiisser und Abwasser 48/49, 1-214. 
Park, S. Y., Y. J. Bae, and I. B. Yoon. 1996. Revision of the Baetidae (Ephemeroptera) of 

Korea (1) historical review, Acentrella Bengtsson and Baetiella Ueno. Entomol. Res. Bull. 

(KEI), 22: 55-66. 
Waltz, R.D. and W.P. McCafferty. 1987. Systematics of Pseudocloeon. Acentrella, Baetiella. 

and Liebebiella, new genus (Ephemeroptera: Baetidae). J. New York Entomol. Soc. 95: 

553-568. 



_ __ Vol. 111. No. 2. March & April. 2000 __ 143 

BAETIELLA (EPHEMEROPTERA: BAETIDAE) 

IN HONG KONG, WITH DESCRIPTION 

OF A NEW SPECIES 1 

Xiaoli Tong^rS, David Dudgeon^ 



ABSTRACT: A new species of Baetiella (Ephemeroptera: Baetidae), B. trispinata, from Hong 
Kong, China is described and illustrated based on adult and larval material. The first adult 
description of B. pseudofrequenta (Muller-Liebenau) and new distributional records for B. 
bispinosa (Gose) and B. pseudofrequenta in China are provided. 

Baetiella Ueno is a poorly defined genus distributed in the Palearctic and 
Oriental Regions. The genus frequently has been considered as a subgenus of 
Pseudocloeon (e.g., Kazlauskas, 1963; Braasch, 1978; Kluge, 1983), a syn- 
onym of Pseu docloeon (e.g., Gose, 1980; Muller-Liebenau, 1985), or treated 
as Baetis (e.g., Kazlauskas, 1963; Braasch, 1978; Muller-Liebenau, 1985). 
Waltz and McCafferty (1987) gave a generic diagnosis for Baetiella and listed 
12 species within the genus. The genus is now clearly known to be distinct 
from Pseudocloeon (Lugo-Ortiz, McCafferty and Waltz, 1999). Waltz and 
McCafferty (1997) added three species to the genus that had been placed in 
Baetis (Tenuibaetis) by Kang et al. (1994). In this paper, a new species of 
Baetiella, B. trispinata, from Hong Kong, China is described based on adult 
and larval material. The first adult description of Baetiella pseudofrequenta 
and new distributional records for B. bispinosa (Gose) and B. pseudofrequenta 
(Muller-Liebenau) in China are also provided. 

Abbreviations used for deposition of types are as follows: the insect collection of the South 
China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, P. R. China (SCAU); Department of Ecology & 
Biodiversity, The University of Hong Kong (HKU); the insect collection of the Agriculture and 
Fisheries Department of Hong Kong Government (AFDHK); the collection of Florida A & M 
University, Tallahassee, Florida (FAMU); and Purdue Entomological Research Collection, West 
Lafayette, Indiana (PERC). 

Baetiella bispinosa (Gose, 1980) 

Pseudocloeon bispinosus Gose, 1980: 211. 
Neobaetiella macani Muller-Liebenau, 1985: 108. 
Neobaetiella imanishii Muller-Liebenau, 1985: 108, fig. 19. 
Baetiella bispinosa (Gose): Waltz and McCafferty, 1987: 563. 



1 Received July 14, 1999. Accepted September 24, 1999. 

2 Department of Ecology & Biodiversity, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam Road. Hong 
Kong SAR, China. 

3 Present address: College of Resources and Environment, South China Agricultural Univer- 
sity, 510642, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, P. R. China. 



ENT. NEWS 111(2): 143-148, March & April 2000 



144 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Larva. Adequately described and illustrated by Muller-Liebenau (1985). 
Adult. Unknown. 

Material examined. CHINA: Hong Kong: 4 larvae. Lantau Island, Shek Mun Kap. 17-XII- 
1996. Xiaoli Tong, in HKU; 1 larva, Hok Tau, 18-X-1998. Xiaoli Tong. in AFDHK. CHINA: 
Guangdong Province: 1 larva, Nankunshan Nature Reserve, near the Middle School, 16-IX- 
1994, Xiaoli Tong, in SCAU; 2 larvae, Nankunshan Nature Reserve, Stone River, 1 1 -III- 1995, 
Xiaoli Tong, in SCAU: 11 larvae, Yangshan, Chengjia Nature Reserve. Lutian, 15-VII-1996. 
Xiaoli Tong, in SCAU. 

Distribution: Japan; China: Guangdong, Hong Kong and Taiwan. 

Baetiella pseiidofrequenta (Mliller-Liebenau, 1985) 

(Figs. 15-20) 

Baetis pseudofrequentus Muller-Liebenau. 1985: 98. 

Baetis (Tenuibaetis) pseudofrequentus Muller-Liebenau: Kang et al., 1994: 26. 

Baetiella pseudofrequenta (Muller-Liebenau): Waltz and McCatferty, 1997: 136. 

Larva. Adequately described and illustrated by Muller-Liebenau (1985) and 
Kangetal. (1994). 

Male adult (in alcohol, reared from larvae in the laboratory). Body length 4.1 mm, (brewing 
4.4 mm; cerci 10.0 mm. Turbinate eyes well developed (Figs. 19-20), orange with light cream 
margins apically. Antennae shorter than head capsule: flagella gray: pedicels light yellow; 
scapes light yellow with rust colored markings basely. Meso- and metanota pale or gray-yellow 
dorsally and dark brown laterally; thorax ventrally dark brown. Forewings (Fig. 18) hyaline; 
longitudinal veins and paired marginal intercalaries gray; pterostigma areas with 5-7 
slanting veinlets. Hindwings (Fig. 15) with acute costal process and two longitudinal 
veins. Forefemora straw colored with rust preapical markings (Fig. 17); foretibiae and 
foretarsi gray. Length of foreleg segments (mm): femora 7.80, tibiae 1.00, tarsal segments 
0.08, 0.38, 0.29, 0.18, and 0.12. Other legs gray or light gray-yellow. Abdominal terga 1- 
6 translucent, whitish to light yellow dorsally and with rust colored markings laterally: 
terga 7-8 light brown-green; terga 9-10 whitish; terga 1-9 with single purple-red trans- 
verse streak posteriorly. Genital forceps (Fig. 16) with basal segments 1-2 whitish; termi- 
nal segments 3-4 gray-brown. Cerci gray with purplish annulations at apex of each 
segment. 

Female adult (in alcohol, reared from larvae in the laboratory). Body length 3.5 mm: 
forewing 4.4 mm; cerci 7.8 mm. Vertex light yellow or yellow. Pronotum with red-brown 
streak anteriorly, a pair of oblique red-brown dashes submedially. Thorax except foreleg 
as in male. Abdominal terga 1-10 whitish to yellow dorsally, light brown-green tinted rust 
laterally. Cerci as in male. 

Material examined. CHINA: Hong Kong: 2 larvae, Shing Mun, 12-XI-1996, Xiaoli Tong, in 
HKU; 4 larvae, Tai Po Kau Forest Stream, 19-XI-1996, Xiaoli Tong, in SCAU; 91 larvae. Lam 
Tsuen River near Tong Min Tsuen, 6-1-1997, Xiaoli Tong, in SCAU; 36 larvae. Pak Ngau 
Shek, 13-1-1997, Maria Salas, in HKU; 2 larvae, Ma Po Mei near Lam Kam Road, 7-X-1997, 
Xiaoli Tong, in HKU; 56 larvae, 5 male adults and 4 female adults, Ha Wan Yiu, 4-XI-1997, 
Xiaoli Tong, in SCAU; 2 larvae, Tan Shan River near Ng Uk, 13-11-1998, Xiaoli Tong, in 
AFDHK; 4 larvae. Tan Chuk Han, 18-111-1998, Xiaoli Tong, in HKU; 14 larvae. Ho Chung, 1- 



Vol. Ill, No. 2, March & April. 2000 145 



IV- 1998, Xiaoli Tong, in HKU; 2 male and 2 female adults, Nam Chung River, near Luk 
Keng Lam Uk, 5-III-1999, Xiaoli Tong. in SCAU. 

Distribution. China: Hong Kong and Taiwan. 

Baetiella trispinata Tong & Dudgeon, NEW SPECIES 

(Figs. 1-14, 21-22) 

Larva. Body length 4.6-5.4 mm; cerci 5.0-7.0 mm. Head: Head capsule yellow-brown. La- 
brum (Fig. 8) approximately 2.0 times wider than long, deeply cleft anteromedially, dorsally 
with submedial pair of long, robust, simple setae and anterior submarginal row of 7-8 long, 
robust, simple setae. Hypopharynx as in Figure 10. Left mandible (Fig. 1) with incisors with 6 
denticles; marginal lateral denticle enlarged. Right mandible (Fig. 2) with incisors with 6 den- 
ticles; marginal lateral denticle enlarged. Maxillae (Fig. 3) with 4 denticles on galealaciniae 
and 4-5 fine, simple setae on medial hump; maxillary palpi 2 segmented: terminal segment 
with small apical tip. Labial palpi (Fig. 6) 3 segmented; terminal segment conical, with tiny 
apical tip. 

Thorax: Thorax yellow-brown, with irregular brown markings medially; mesonotum with two 
longitudinal, yellow narrow stripes on both sides near median line. Pro- and mesonota with 
numerous tubercles. Metanotum (Fig. 7) with single long tubercle medially. Hindwing pads 
(Fig. 7) reduced, approximately 2-3 times longer than wide. Legs (Fig. 4) paler than thorax, 
femora with brown longitudinal markings on dorsal surface and with row of long, relatively 
robust, simple setae dorsally; tibiae with row of dense, fine, simple setae dorsally; tarsi with 
row of sparse, fine, simple setae dorsally. Tarsal claws (Fig. 5) with subapical pair of long, fine, 
simple setae and 2 rows of 7-8 denticles (one of the rows vestigial). All legs lacking coxal gills. 
Abdomen: Generally yellow-brown, with medium brown to brown markings. Segments 2-6 
with pair of oblique brown dashes anteriorly, segments 7-9 with pair of small specks in anterior 
half. Posterior margins of terga 1-3 with single median dorsal tubercles; terga 4-9 with paired 
dorsal tubercles posteriorly, decreasing in size towards abdomen, on tergum 9 dorsal tubercles 
reduced (Fig. 9). Gills whitish and untracheated, present on segments 1-7; gill surface with 
numerous pores, margin smooth with fine, simple setae. Paraprocts as in Figure 1 1. Cerci yel- 
low-brown; median terminal filament reduced to one segment. 

Male adult (in alcohol, reared from larvae in the laboratory). Body length 4.0-4.8 mm, fore- 
wing 4.4-4.8 mm, cerci 11.5 mm. Head yellow-brown. Antennae approximately 1.5 times 
length of head capsule; flagella pale brown; scapes yellow-brown; pedicels red-brown. 
Upper portion of compound eyes orange, extremely large (Figs. 21-22); lower portion 
black. Ocelli whitish with black basal rings. Thorax light brown. Forewings (Fig. 12) 
hyaline, basal portions and pterostigma areas tinted with brown; longitudinal veins and 
paired marginal intercalaries light brown, with distinctly brown pigmented areas adjoin- 
ing and including crossveins. Hindwings absent. Legs (Fig. 13) whitish, femora with 
brown marking apically; foretibiae with light brown basal macula. Length of foreleg 
segments (mm): femora 1.00, tibiae 1.50, tarsal segments 0.08, 0.50. 0.45, 0.27, and 0.15. 
Abdominal segments 1-6 opaque, cream; segments 7-10 light brown; terga 1-9 with single 
pale brown streak posteriorly. Genital forceps (Fig. 14) whitish, arched. Cerci whitish. 
Female adult (in alcohol, reared from larvae in the laboratory). Body length 4.4 mm, forewing 
5.0 mm. Head yellow-brown; flagella light purple-red; scapes light yellow; pedicels purple- 
red. Pronotum light yellow-brown with 3 longitudinal brown markings. Abdominal terga 1-7 
and 10 yellow-brown; terga 8-9 yellow. Other characters as in male except for the usual sexual 
differences. 

Material examined. Holotype: Mature male larva (in alcohol). CHINA. Hong Kong: Ma Po 
Mei, Lam Tsuen River near Lam Kam Road, 29-X-1997, Xiaoli Tong, in SCAU. Paratypes (in 



146 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 




Figs. 1-11. Larva of Baefiella trispinata, new species. 1. Left mandible. 2. Right mandible. 3. 
Maxilla. 4. Foreleg. 5. Tarsal claw. 6. Labium. 7. Metanotum. 8. Labrum. 9. Abdominal terga. 
10. Hypopharynx. 11. Paraproct. 



Vol. 111. No. 2. March & April. 2000 



147 




Figs. 12-14, 21-22. Adult of Baetiella trispinata, new species. 12. Forewing. 13. Legs. 
14. Genitalia. 21. Head, lateral view. 22. Head, anterior view. 

Figs. 15-20. Adult of Baetiella pseudofrequenta (Miiller-Liebenau) 15. Hindwing. 
16. Genitalia. 17. Legs. 18. Forewing. 19. Head, anterior view. 20. Head, lateral view. 



148 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



alcohol), CHINA, Hong Kong: 1 female, 2 male adults and 7 larvae, locality and date as holo- 
type, in SCAU; 1 larva, Ng Tung Chai, 25-11-1997, Xiaoli Tong, in AFDHK; 2 larvae. Shing 
Mun, 27- VIII- 1997, Xiaoli Tong, in HKU; 2 larvae. Ma Po Mei, Lam Tsuen River near Lam 
Kam Road, 22-X-1997, Xiaoli Tong, in HKU; 9 larvae, Lantau Island, Pui O, near Water Sta- 
tion. 23-VI-1998, Xiaoli Tong, 5 in PERC, 4 in FAMU; 2 larvae, Tai Po Kau Forest Stream, 25- 
11-1999, Xiaoli Tong, in SCAU. CHINA, Guangdong Province: 6 larvae, Nankunshan Nature 
Reserve, near the Middle School. 16-IX-1994, Xiaoli Tong, in SCAU; 2 larvae, Nankunshan 
Nature Reserve. Stone River. 11-111-1995, Xiaoli Tong, in PERC; 3 larvae, Yangshan, Chengjia 
Nature Reserve, Lutian, 15- VII- 1996, Xiaoli Tong, in SCAU. 

Etymology. The epithet trispinata is from the Latin words: tri- meaning 
three and spinatus meaning having spines, thus referring to abdominal terga 
1-3 of the larvae having 3 median dorsal tubercles. 

Distribution. China: Hong Kong and Guangdong Province. 

Remarks. The larva of Baetiella trispinata can be distinguished from all 
other species of Baetiella by the following combination of characters: (1) pos- 
terior margin of metanotum having a single long tubercle medially; (2) hindwing 
pads present; (3) legs lacking coxal gills; (4) abdominal terga 1-3 having a 
single median dorsal tubercle and terga 4-9 having a pair of dorsal tubercles 
posteriorly, decreasing in size towards abdominal end; (5) the gills present 
on abdominal segment 1-7; and (6) median terminal filament reduced to one 
segment. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

We thank W. P. McCafferty (Purdue University, West Lafayette, USA) for reviewing the 
manuscript, and two anonymous reviewers for their helpful comments. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Braasch, D. 1978. Baetidae (Ephemeroptera) in Mittelasien I. Entomol. Nachr. 22: 17-23. 
Gose, K. 1980. The mayflies of Japan. Key to the families, genera, and species. Part 7. Kaiyou 

to Seibutsu 2: 211-215. 
Rang, S.-C., H.-C. Chang, and C.-T. Yang. 1994. A revision of the genus Baetis in Taiwan 

(Ephemeroptera, Baetidae). J. Taiwan Mus. 47: 9-44. 
Kazlauskas, R. 1963. New and little known mayflies from the USSR. Entomol. Rev. 42:582- 

593. 
Kluge, N. Yu. 1983. New and little known mayflies of the family Baetidae (Ephemeroptera) 

from the Primor'ye. Entomol. Rev. 62: 53-68. 
Lugo-Ortiz, C. R., W. P. McCafferty and R. D. Waltz. 1999. Definition and reorganization 

of the genus Pseudocloeon (Ephemeroptera: Baetidae) with new species descriptions and 

combinations. Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 125: 1-37. 
Miiller-Liebenau, I. 1985. Baetidae from Taiwan with remarks on Baericllci Ueno, 1931 (In- 

secta, Ephemeroptera). Arch. Hydrobiol. 104: 93-110. 
Waltz, R. D. and W. P. McCafferty. 1987. Systematics of Pseudocloeon, Acentrella, Baetiella, 

and Liebebiella, new genus (Ephemeroptera: Baetidae). J. New York Entomol. Soc. 95: 

553-568. 

Waltz, R. D. and W. P. McCafferty. 1997. New generic synonymies in Baetidae (Ephe- 
meroptera). Entomol. News 108: 134-140. 



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MAY & JUNE, 2000 



US ISSN 0013-&72X 
NO. 3 



ft. 



OLOGICAL NEWS 



Larva, pupa, and adults ofGlossosoma nigrior (Trichoptera 
Glossosomatidae), with a review of the eastern North 
American species of Glossosoma D. Wyme r, J.C. Morse 

Description of male Belostomafoveolatum (Heteroptera: 

Belostomatidae) and new records of B. costalimai and 

B. stollii Jose Ricardo Inacio Ribeiro 

A new species ofCotinus (Cotinus) (Coleoptera: Melolonthi- 
dae) and a key for the identification of Mexican species 

C. Deloya, S. Ibanez-Bernai, C. Nogueira 

A new species of Leptonema of the occidentale group (Tricop- 
tera: Hydropsychidae) from Madagascar Oliver S. Flint, Jr. 



149 



159 



111 



Ill 



A new Oriental Blera (Diptera: Syrphidae) F. Christian Thompson 181 

A new species ofBabycurus (Scorpiones: Buthidae) from 

northern Oman Graeme Lowe 185 

First report ofCalleida (Calleida) purpurea (Coleoptera: 
Carabidae in Minnesota and a note on its occurrence 
on pasque flower Paul P. Tinerella 193 

First record of the genus Psephenops (Coleoptera: 
Psephenidae) from Mexico, with a description of 
a new species R. Arce-Perez, R. Novelo-Gutierrez 196 

Foraging distance of Pogonomyrmex occidentalis 
(Hymenoptera: Formicidae) on grazed and 
ungrazed shortgrass prairies in Colorado Shaharra J. V snick 201 

An annotated list of Trichoptera along several streams 
in the Bankhead National Forest in northwest Alabama 

M. B. Hicks, C. G. Haynes 206 

An annotated list of Trichoptera in the Black Belt Prairie 

region of west central Alabama M. B. Hicks, C. G. Haynes 215 

Found: Holotype of the lace bug Elasmognathus helferi 

(Heteroptera: Tingidae) Richard C. Froeschner 223 

Re-establishing the validity ofdcindela scutellaris 

(Coleoptera: Cicindelidae) Howard P. Boyd 224 

New descriptions and distributional records for eastern 

North American caddisflies David E. Ruiter 227 



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Vol. 1 1 1. No. 3. May & June. 2000 _ 149 

LARVA, PUPA, AND ADULTS OF GLOSSOSOMA 

NIGRIOR (TRICHOPTERA: GLOSSOSOMATIDAE) 

WITH A REVIEW OF THE EASTERN NORTH 

AMERICAN SPECIES OF GLOSSOSOMA 1 

Douglas A. Wymer^, John C. 



ABSTRACT: The three eastern North American species of the genus Glossosoma are reviewed 
with a new description for the male, female, pupa, and larva of Glossosoma nigrior. New char- 
acters are presented to distinguish the larva of G. nigrior from that of G. intermedium, and 
illustrated keys are provided to distinguish males, females, and larvae of these two species and 
G. lividum. 

The genus Glossosoma Curtis, 1834, is represented in eastern North 
America by three species, G. intermedium (Klapalek, 1 892), G. lividum (Hagen, 
1861), and G. nigrior Banks, 191 1, all of which are in the subgenus Eomystra 
Martynov, 1934. These three species are widespread in eastern North America 
(Fig. 1 ). Glossosoma intermedium is restricted to more-northern locations (Fig. 
1 A). Glossoma lividum has been reported only from Vermont, Massachusetts, 
New York, and Tennessee (Fig. 1 B). A record of G. lividum from either North 
Carolina or South Carolina by Unzicker et al (1982) is unconfirmed. Glosso- 
soma nigrior is distributed over both of these ranges as well as more-southern 
locations (Fig. 1C). Figure 1 was compiled from information published by 
Leonard and Leonard (1949), Ellis (1962), Hilsenhoff et al (1972), Longridge 
and Hilsenhoff (1973), Resh (1975), Etnier and Schuster (1979), Wimmer 
( 1 979), Masteller and Flint ( 1 980), Anderson (1981), Parker and Voshell (1981), 
Penrose et al ( 1 982), Huryn and Foote ( 1 983), Vinikour et al ( 1 983), Harris et 
al (1984), Lake (1984), Steven and Hilsenhoff (1984), Glazier and Gooch 
(1987), Garono and MacLean (1988), Floyd and Schuster (1990), Harris and 
Lago (1990), and Tarter (1990). Despite their widespread occurrence there is 
no reliable key for separating the larvae or the adults of these species. 

Kimmins (1943) produced descriptions and illustrations of the larva and 
case of G. intermedium (as Mystophora intermedia}. Additional descriptions 
of the G. intermedium larva were provided by Ross (1944), Hickin (1967), 
Mackereth (1956), and Lepneva (1964, as M. intermedia). The adults of G. 
intermedium were redescribed by Ross ( 1 944, 1 956), Unzicker ( 1 968), Nimmo 
(1974), and Schmid (1982). 



1 Received 5 May 1998, Accepted 2 August, 1998. 

2 Department of Biology, Tennessee Technological University, Cookeville, TN 38505. 

3 Department of Entomology, 1 13 Long Hall, Box 340365, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 
29634-0365. 

4 Author to whom request for reprints should be sent. 

ENT. NEWS 111(3): 149-158, May & June 2000 




150 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Figure 1 




^ _^/\ 

- 



^ 



o 

4'^ 



Fig. 1 , Collection locations for Glossosoma species in eastern North America: A, G. intermedium: 
B, G. lividum, C, G. nigrior. 



Vol. 1 1 1. No. 3. May & June. 2000 151 



Glossosorna americanum Banks, 1897, was synonymized with G. lividum 
by Ross (1965). Betten (1934) and Schmid (1980, 1982, 1998) redescribed 
and illustrated the male. Descriptions and illustrations of the larva and case of 
G. lividum were given by Lloyd ( 1 92 1 ) and of its pupa by Sibley ( 1 926) as G. 
americanum and M. americanum, respectively. 

Eomystra unica Denning, 1942, was synonymized with G. nigriorby Ross 
(1944). Descriptions of the larva and pupa of G. nigrior were provided by 
Neubauer and Robertson (1985) along with a key for larvae which we have 
found to be unreliable. 

Specimens examined for this study were borrowed from A. P. Nimmo, 
University of Alberta, Edmonton (APN); The Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto 
(ROM), The Frost Museum, Pennsylvania State University (FM); the Illinois 
Natural History Survey, Urbana (INHS), the University of Minnesota Insect 
Collection (UMN), and the Clemson University Arthropod Collection, Clemson, 
South Carolina (CUAC). 

Glossosorna nigrior Banks 

Glossosoma nigrior Banks, 191 1 ("1910"). p. 355. pi. 13 fig. 23; lectotype male (Type 1 1745) 
and lectoallotype female at the Harvard Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, 
Massachusets (Ross, 1938); type locality "Black Mountain, North Carolina, north fork 
of the Swannanoa River, May." 

Eomystra unica Denning, 1942, pp. 46-48, pi. 6 figs. 1-1B (synonomy by Ross, 1944, p. 292). 

Male: Length from front of head to tip of folded wings 7.4-7.6 mm (n=9). Forewings 5.9- 
6.1 mm (n=9. Fig. 2A). Hindwings 3.9-4.1 mm (n=9. Fig. 2B). Specimens in alcohol with 
dorsum of head and thorax light to medium brown. Thoracic venter and appendages light brown 
to yellow. Abdomen light brown to yellow with slightly darker genitalia. Forewings and 
hindwings uniformly dark brown. Maxillary and labial palps much longer than head is wide. 
Antennae extending to apex of abdomen. Inner apical tibial spur on each hind tibia flattened 
and sharply hooked (Fig. 2C). Abdominal segment IX with tergum light brown, broad dorsally, 
tapering ventrally to short, transverse sternal band (Fig. 2F). Inferior appendages broad ba- 
sally, divided apically into two long branches. Dorsal branch slender, setose, slightly sinuous; 
ventral branch bare in distal half with acute tip curved slightly dorsad and mesad (Fig. 2F). 

Female: Length from front of head to tips of folded wings 8.5-8.7 mm (n=10). Forewings 
1.1-1 .Q mm (n=10). Hindwings 4.2-4.4 mm (n=10). Coloration and general structure resem- 
bling that of male. Tibia and basitarsus of each mesothoracic leg much broader than in males. 
and concave posteriorly. Tibial spurs unmodified. Abdominal segment VIII lobed posterolaterally 
(Fig. 3B), deeply and broadly incised ventrally and dorsally (Figs. 3C and 3D, respectively). 
Segment IX evidenced only by pair of internal apodemes articulating externally with anterolat- 
eral corners of tergum X (Schmid, 1982), long membranous region anterior of tergum X and 
segment XI (Fig. 3A); cerci 1 -segmented, dark brown distally, spermathecal sclerite elongate, 
oval (Fig. 3E). 

Pupa: Length 5-6 mm (n = 14). Pupal cocoon reddish-brown, cigar-shaped. Pupal and 
larval case dome-shaped dorsally (Fig. 4E). Larval case modified for pupation by removal of 
transverse ventral strap, with dome-shaped dorsal portion firmly attached to rock substrate. 
Head medium brown with dark brown mandibles. Light yellow stripe connecting antennal bases. 
Mandibles each serrate on inner surface, one prominent median tooth with inconspicuous tooth 
at its base (Fig. 2D). Antennae curving around head posterior to eyes and extending along 
ventrolateral margins of body to abdominal segment VII or VIII. Tibial spurs 2-4-4, mid-tibial 



152 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Figure 2 



.5mm 




.5mm 





Fig. 2, Characters of Glossosoma species males and pupa: A-F, G. nigrior; G, G. lividunr, H, G. 
intermedium. A, right forewing, dorsal view; B, right hindwing, dorsal view; C, right inner 
apical spur, lateral view; D, left pupal mandible, dorsal view; E, genitalia, dorsal view; F, 
genitalia, left lateral view; G, genitalia, left lateral view (From Schmid, 1982); H, genitalia, left 
lateral view ( From Schmid, 1982). 



Vol. 111. No. 3, May & June. 2000 



153 



Figure 3 




Fig. 3, Characters of Glossosoma species females: A-E, G. nigrior, F-G, J, G. intermedium: H- 
I, G. lividum. A, abdominal segments V-XI, left lateral view; B, abdominal segment Vlll, left 
lateral view; C, abdominal segment VIII, dorsal view; D, abdominal segment VIII, ventral 
view; E, spermathecal sclerite, ventral view; F, abdominal segments VII-X, left lateral view 
(From Ross, 1944); G, abdominal segment VIII, ventral view (From Ross, 1944); H, abdominal 
segments VIII-X, left lateral view (From Schmid, 1982); I, spermathecal sclerite, ventral view 
(From Schmid, 1982); J, spermathecal sclerite, ventral view (From Schmid, 1982). 



154 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



and hind-tibial spurs about one-quarter length of tibia, fore-tibial spur much shorter. Male 
pupa with inner apical spur of each hind tibia flattened and sharply hooked (Fig. 2C). Abdo- 
men dorsally medium brown mottled with light tan ventrally. Anterior dorsal hook plates on 
segments III-IX and posterior dorsal hook plates on terga IV and V. Very lightly sclerotized 
terminal segment with two tufts of setae, each with three setae about as long as terminal seg- 
ment. 

Larva: Length 4-5 mm (n=20). Body cylindrical and somewhat C-shaped. Case made of 
small stones, top dome-shaped, ovoid; floor open ventrally near either end with flat mid-ven- 
tral strap transversely connecting long sides of oval (Fig. 4E). Head moderately dark brown 
with light brown mottling. Epicranial suture and frontal sutures light in color and highly vis- 
ible. Light yellow patch around eye extending posteroventrad. Leading edge of frontoclypeus 
slightly to strongly notched (Fig. 4A). Pronotum heavily sclerotized with small black spot on 
each anterolateral margin just above forecoxa and with black mark on each posterolateral mar- 
gin (Fig. 4C). Meso- and metanota entirely membranous. Thoracic legs medium brown with 
black margins. Small dark sclerite in intersegmental fold posterior of each meso- and metatho- 
racic epimeron (Fig. 4H). Tarsal claws each with basal seta on short pedicel, seta extending 
nearly to tip of claw (Fig. 4F). Abdomen membranous and light-colored except for dark brown, 
sclerotized tergite IX and anal prolegs. Tergite IX with five pairs of setae posteriorly (Fig. 4G). 
Anal opening with long, dark, sclerotized, vertical bar on each side. Anal prolegs each with 
four long setae distally (Fig. 4G). Anal proleg claws each with accessory hook dorsally and 
small ventral process directed basad (Fig. 4D). 

Key To Larvae Of Eastern Glossosoma spp. 

1 Pronotum with small black spot above forecoxa (Fig. 4C) 2 

1' Pronotum without small black spot above forecoxa 

(Lloyd 1921, fig. 193) G. lividum 

2 Intersegmental fold between thorax and abdomen posterior 

of each metathoracic epimeron with small sclerite (Fig. 4H) G. nigrior 

2' Intersegmental fold between thorax and abdomen posterior 

of each metathoracic epimeron without small sclerite G. intermedium 

Key To Adult Males Of Eastern Glossosoma spp. 

1 Inferior appendages each single, clavate (Fig. 2H) G. intermedium 

1 ' Inferior appendages each with two or more branches 2 

2 Inferior appendages each with two branches; preanal 
appendages each with irregular incision in posteroventral margin 

and without dorsal hook (Fig. 2F) G. nigrior 

2' Inferior appendages each with three branches; preanal 
appendages not incised posteroventrally, but each with 
hook dorsally (Fig. 2G) G. lividum 

Key To Adult Females Of Eastern Glossosoma spp. 

1 Abdominal segment VIII broadly and deeply incised 
posterodorsally and posteroventrally, lobed posterolaterally 

(Figs. 3C, 3D); spermathecal sclerite clavate (Fig. 3E) G. nigrior 

1' Abdominal segment VIII not incised dorsally and with quadrate 
or acute incision posteroventrally; spermathecal sclerite not 
clavate (Figs. 31, 3J) 2 

2 Abdominal segment VIII with broad, nearly quadrate incision 

posteroventrally (Fig. 3H); spermathecal sclerite rectangular (Fig. 31) G. lividum 

2' Abdominal segment VIII with deep narrow cleft posteroventrally 

(Fig. 3G); spermathecal sclerite tapered (Fig. 3J) G. intermedium 



Vol. 1 1 1, No. 3, May & June, 2000 



155 




Figure 4 



B 



1mm 





1 mm 



25mm 




.25mm 





9mm 



.25mm 




1 mm 




.8mm 



Fig. 4, Characters of C. nigrior larva: A, head capsule, dorsal view; B, frontoclypeus showing 
hair-pit arrangement and light spots, dorsal view; C, pronotum, right posterodorsolateral view; 
D, right anal proleg claw, lateral view; E, larval case, ventrolateral view; F, tarsus and claw of 
right foreleg, right lateral view; G, abdominal segments IX and X and anal prolegs, caudal 
view; H, meso- and metathorax and abdominal segment I, right lateral view. 



156 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



MATERIAL EXAMINED 

Glossosoma nigrior. South Carolina, Pickens County Clemson Experimental Forest, 
Wildcat Creek, 34.75 N, 82.83 W: 5M, 3F, 10P, 14L (CUAC); unnamed tributary to Seneca 
River, 2.4 km east of Old Central Road, 2L (CUAC). North Carolina, Haywood County - 
Creek at Big Creek Road, 35.67 N , 83.00" W: 4M, 8F, 6P (CUAC); Macon County Shope 
Creek nr. Coweeta Hydrologic Lab: 1 L, 4P (ROM). Kentucky, Lyon County Cannon Spring. 
3L (CUAC). Ontario, Algoma District Chippewa River at Rt. 17E, Batchawana Provincial 
Park. 3P, 3L (ROM). 

Glossosoma lividum: Ontario, Thunder Bay Tributary of Coldwater Creek, nr. Dorion: 
1 P, 2L (ROM); Sturgeon River at Rt. 11, 1 7.6 km NE of Jellicoe: 8P (ROM). 

Glossosoma intermedium: Pennsylvania, Centre County Upper Spruce Creek: 4P, 6L 
(FM); Steel Hollow Run, 4.8 km NW of Julian: 3L (FM). Maryland, Garrett County River 
beside road, ca. 2.4 km E of Friendsville: 6P, 9L (FM). Minnesota, Hennepin County Bass 
Pond: 7P ( UMN). Ontario, Algoma District Small stream at Rt. 1 7, 25.4 km SE of Batchawana 
Provincial Park: 1 P, 8L (ROM). Alberta Creek 24 km south of Hanging Stone River at Hwy. 
63: 8M, lOF(APN). 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

We would like to thank our colleagues at Clemson University for their input during the 
development of this project. We would also like to thank the Entomological Society of Canada 
and the National Research Council of Canada for use of their illustrations of Glossosoma 
intermedium and Glossosoma lividum adults. Special thanks go to Aysha Prather who prepared 
the illustrations for the female of Glossosoma nigrior. We are grateful to the following people 
and institutions for the loan of specimens: A. P. Nimmo; The Royal Ontario Museum; The Frost 
Museum; and the Illinois Natural History Survey. This is Technical Contribution No. 4382 of 
the South Carolina Agricultural and Forestry Research System, Clemson University. 

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31. 

Banks, N. 191 1. New species of North American neuropteroid insects. Trans. Am. Entomol. 
Soc. 34(4): 336-360. 

Betten, C. 1934. The caddisflies or Trichoptera of New York State. Bull. NY State Mus. 292: 
576 pp. 

Curtis, J. 1834. Descriptions of some (hitherto) nondescript British species of may-flies of 
anglers. Philos. Mag. J. Sci., third series 4(21): 120-125, 212-218. 

Denning, D.G. 1942. Descriptions of new Trichoptera from the United States. Can. Entomol. 
74: 46-51. 

Ellis, RJ. 1962. Adult caddisflies (Trichoptera) from Houghton Creek, Ogemaw County, Michi- 
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Etnier, D.A., and G.A. Schuster. 1979. An annotated list of Trichoptera (Caddisflies) of Ten- 
nessee. J. TN Acad. Sci. 54(1): 15-22. 

Floyd, M.A., and G.A. Schuster. 1990. The caddisflies (Insecta Trichoptera) of the Buck 
Creek System, Pulaski County, Kentucky. Trans. KY Acad. Sci. 51(3-4): 127-134. 

Garono, RJ., and D.B. MacLean. 1988. Caddisflies (Trichoptera) of Ohio wetlands as indi- 
cated by light-trapping. Ohio J. Sci. 88(4): 143-151. 

Glazier, D.S., and J.L. Gooch. 1987. Macroinvertebrate assemblages in Pennsylvania (U.S.A.) 
springs. Hydrobiologia 150: 33-43. 

Hagen, H. 1861. Synopsis of the Neuroptera of North America with a list of the South Ameri- 
can species. Smithson. Misc. Coll. Washington, D.C. 347 pp. 



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Harris, S.C., and P.K. Lago. 1990. Annotated checklist of the Rhyacophiloidea and 

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Harris S.C., P.K. Lago, and P.E. O'Neil. 1984. Trichoptera of the Cahaba River system in 

Alabama. Entomol. News 95(3): 103-112. 

Hickin, N. 1967. Larvae of British Trichoptera. Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, Ruther- 
ford, United Kingdom. 480 pp. 
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Proc. Entomol. Soc. of Wash. 85(4): 783-796. 
Kimmins D.E. 1943. A note on the caddisfly, Mystrophora intermedia Klapalek (Trichoptera). 

Proc. R. Entomol. Soc. Lon. Ser. A Gen. Entomol. 18: 96-98. 
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Frantiska Josefa prov vedy, Slovenost a Umenf v Praxe 1, 2(23): 443-462. 
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215-224. 
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Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich. 522: 1-35. 
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institute of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, new series 88. 2( 1 ). 638 pp. [Translated 

from Russian by Israel program for scientific translations, 1970]. 
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Longridge, J.L., and W.L. Hilsenhoff 1973. Annotated list of Trichoptera (caddisflies) in 

Wisconsin. Wis. Acad. Sci. Arts Lett. 61: 173-183. 
Mackereth, J.C. 1965. Taxonomy of the larvae of the British species of the sub-family 

Glossosomatinae (Trichoptera). Proc. Entomol. Soc. Lond. 31: 167-172. 
Martynov. A.V. 1934. Tableauz analytiques de la Faunne de TUSSR, 13: caddisflies, 

Trichoptera, Annulipalpia, I. Institut zoologique de 1'Academie des Sciences, pp. 1-321. 

Trichoptera Annulipalpia of the USSR, with descriptions of new or little known species 

and genera. Institut zoologiques de 1'Academie des Sciences, pp. 322-343 [English trans- 
lation of selected descriptions in the preceding work]. 
Masteller, E.C., and O.S. Flint, Jr. 1980. Caddisfly (Trichoptera) emergence patterns from 

two streams of the Allegheny National Forest area of Pennsylvania. Melsheimer Entomol. 

Ser. 29: 12-22. 
Neubauer, C., and E. Robertson. 1985. A description of the larva and pupa of Glossosoma 

nigrior Banks (Trichoptera Glossosomatidae). J. Entomol. Sci. 20(3): 300-304. 
Nimmo, A. P. 1974. The adult Trichoptera (Insecta) of Alberta and eastern British Columbia. 

and their post-glacial origins II. The families of Glossosomatidae and Philopotamidae. 

Quaestiones Entomologicae 10: 315-349. 
Parker, C.R., and J.R. Voshell, Jr. 1981. A preliminary checklist of the caddisflies 

(Trichoptera) of Virginia. J. GA Entomol. Soc. 16(1): 1-7. 
Penrose, D.L., D.R. Lenat, and K.W. Eagleson. 1982. Aquatic macroinvertebrates of the 

Upper French Broad River Basin. Brimleyana 8: 27-50. 
Resh, V.H. 1975. A distributional study of the caddisflies of Kentucky. Trans. KY Acad. Sci. 

36(1-2): 6-16. 
Ross, H.H. 1938. Lectotypes of North American caddis flies in the Museum of Comparative 

Zoology. Psyche 45(1): 1-61. 
Ross, H.H. 1944. The caddisflies, or Trichoptera, of Illinois. Bull. III. Nat. His. Surv. 23: 1- 

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Ross, H.H. 1956. Evolution and classification of the mountain caddisflies. Univ. 111. Press, 

Urbana. 231 pp. 



158 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Schmid, F. 1980. Les Insectes et Arachnides du Canada, Partie 7: Genera des Trichopteres du 
Canada et des Etats adjacents. Agriculture Canada, Publication 1692. 296pp. 

Schmid, F. 1982. Revision des Trichopteres Canadiens. II. Les Glossosmatidae et Philo- 
potamidae (Annulipalpia). Mem. Soc. Entomol. Can. 122: 1-76. 

Schmid, F. 1998. The Insects and Arachnids of Canada, Part 7: Genera of the Trichoptera of 
Canada and Adjoining or Adjacent United States. NRC Research Press, Ottawa, Ontario, 
Canada. 319 pp. 

Sibley, C.K. 1926. A preliminary biological survey of the Lloyd-Cornell Reservation: Studies 
on Trichoptera. Bull. Lloyd Libr. Bot. Pharm. Mat. Med. Entomol. Ser. 27(5): 185-221, 
236-247. 

Steven, J.C., and W.L. Hilsenhoff. 1984. The caddisflies (Trichoptera) of Otter Creek, Wis- 
consin. Wis. Acad. Sci. Arts Lett. 72: 157-172. 

Tarter, D.C. 1990. A checklist of the caddisflies (Trichoptera) from West Virgina. Entomol. 
News 101(4): 236-245. 

Unzicker, J.D. 1968. The comparative morphology and evolution of the internal female repro- 
ductive system of Trichoptera. Illinois Biological Monographs, Univ. 111. Press, Urbana. 
72pp. 

Unzicker, J.D., V.H. Resh, and J.C. Morse. 1982. Trichoptera. Chapter 9. Pages 9.1-9.127 in 
A.R. Brigham, W.U. Brigham, and A. Gnilka (editors), Aquatic insects and oligochaetes 
of North and South Carolina. Midwest Aquatic Enterprises, Mahomet, Illinois, iv-837 pp. 

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Trichoptera pupal cases (Glossosomatidae and Limnephilidae). Entomol. News 92(2): 
69-74. 

Waltz, R.D., and W.P. McCafferty. 1983. The caddisflies of Indiana (Insecta: Trichoptera). 
Res. Bull. Agric. Exp. Stn., Purdue Univ. 978 pp. 

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tial check-list of Vermont species. Ph.D. dissertation, Univ. VT. 300 pp. 



Vol. 1 1 1. No. 3. May & June. 2000 _ 159 

DESCRIPTION OF THE MALE OF BELOSTOMA 
FOVEOLATUM AND NEW RECORDS OF 

B. COSTALIMAI AND B. STOLLII 
(HETEROPTERA: BELOSTOMATIDAE) 1 



Jose Ricardo Inacio Ribei 

ABSTRACT: The male of Belostoma foveolatum is described for the first time. This species 
can be distinguished from other species of the B. dentatum group by the length of the first 
rostral segment and features of the male genitalia, especially the dorsal arms of phallus. The 
relatively short anteoculus confirms a close similarity between B. foveolatum and B. porteri. B. 
foveolutum is newly recorded from the Brazilian states of Ceara and Mato Grosso do Sul, B. 
costalimai from the Brazilian states of Roraima and Para, and B. stollii from the Brazilian 
states of Para and Rio de Janeiro and the Bolivian Department of Santa Cruz. 

The subfamily Belostomatinae can be distinguished from other subfami- 
lies of Belostomatidae mainly by the sternites not being subdivided by a su- 
ture (Mahner 1993), and the peculiar egg-laying habit of females (Lauck and 
Menke 1961). According to Nieser (1975) and Lanzer-de-Souza (1980), 
Belostoma Latreille, 1807 has 70 described species, being most richly repre- 
sented in tropical South America. Forty-two species are currently reported 
from Brazil (Lanzer-de-Souza 1980, 1992, 1996, Ribeiro 1999). Belostoma 
can be distinguished from other genera of Belostomatinae by the large mem- 
brane of hemelytra, the phallobase bifurcate dorsally, and dorsal arms of phal- 
lus extending nearly to apex of ventral diverticulum (De Carlo 1968, Nieser 
1975). 

Lauck (1962) started using the male genital structures for distinguishing 
species within Belostoma. In his study he proposed 16 groups of species based 
on features of the male genitalia. The species of the Belostoma dentatum group 
(sensu Lauck 1962) are large, varying in length from 38 to 52 mm, and present 
a distinct, very large ventroapical protuberance in the ventral diverticulum of 
the male genitalia (Lauck 1 962, Estevez 1 996). Nieser ( 1 975) included in this 
group some species treated by Lauck (1962) in the B. subspinosum group. The 
B. dentatum group as defined by Nieser (1975) can be recognized by the length 
of the scutellum, reaching the nodal line, and by the ventral diverticulum of 
the genitalia, which presents ventral and dorsal protuberances apical ly. The 
following very closely related species are currently known in the group: B. 
dentatum (Mayr, 1863), B. malkini Lauck, 1962, B. foveolatum (Mayr, 1863), 
B. harrisi Lauck, 1962, and B. porteri De Carlo, 1942. This group is 



1 Received August 2, 1999. Accepted October 20, 1999. 

2 Departamento de Zoologia, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, 
Caixa Postal 68044, 21944-970, Rio de Janeiro. RJ, Brasil. E-mail: belostom@acd.ufrj.br 

ENT. NEWS 1 1 1(3): 159-170, May & June 2000 



160 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



widely distributed in South America, being also found in Panama. 

B. foveolatum was described from a single female specimen of unknown 
origin. De Carlo (1938), Lauck (1962), Schnack (1973) and Nieser (1975) 
redescribed this species based only on females. Although some authors re- 
ferred to males of B. foveolatum in their studies, up to the present there is no 
description of the male for this species. During a revisional study of Belostoma 
from southeastern Brazil it was possible to describe male specimens of B. 
foveolatum and some genitalia variations which I have observed, as well as 
new South American records for this species, B. costalimai De Carlo, 1938, 
and B. stollii (Amyot and Serville, 1843). 

MATERIAL AND METHODS 

The description and new records are based on specimens deposited in the 
following institutions: American Museum of Natural History, New York 
(AMNH), Departamento de Parasitologia, Instituto de Ciencias Biologicas, 
Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte (DPIC), Departamento 
de Zoologia, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, 
Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Museo Argentine de Ciencias Naturales, Buenos Aires 
(MACN), Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo 
(MZSP), Museu Nacional, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de 
Janeiro (MNRJ), Naturhistorisches Museum Wien, Vienna (NHMW), and Snow 
Entomological Museum, University of Kansas, Lawrence (SEMC). In quota- 
tions of label data, a comma separates different information and a point sepa- 
rates information on different specimens. Collectors and insect collection in- 
stitutions are cited in parentheses. 

Morphological terminology for head, thorax, abdomen, and male genitalia 
follows Dupuis (1955), Lauck and Menke (1961), Lauck (1962), Estevez 
(1996), and Ribeiro (1999). Techniques for removing the male genital struc- 
tures follow those of Lauck (1962) and Estevez (1996). The dissected parts 
are stored in microvials with glycerin. Structures and methods of measure- 
ment are given in figures 1 - 6. 

Belostoma foveolatum (Mayr) 
(Figs. 7- 10) 

Zaitha foveolata Mayr, 1863: 355. 

Zaitha foveolatum: Berg, 1879: 192. 

Belostoma foveolatum: Kirkaldy and Torre-Bueno, 1909: 191. 

Description of male. Total length (from apex of head to apex of hemelytra at rest) 
40.25 - 44.90 mm; largest width of body 15.00 - 19.50 mm; length of anteoculus 2.24 - 3.36 
mm; length of anterior frontogenal suture (= anteclypeus - maxillary plate suture) 1.12 - 1.84 
mm; length of posterior frontogenal suture (= anteclypeus - loral suture) 1.12 - 1.60 mm; 
length of interoculus 1.96 - 3.04 mm; posterior interocular width 2.52 - 3.68 mm; length of 



Vol. 11 1, No. 3, May & June, 2000 



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Fig. 1. External morphology of Belostomu Latreille, 1807 showing the major morphological 
features referred to in the taxonomic description. Dorsal aspect of head, pronotum and part of 
abdomen of Belostoma. a) length of anteoculus; b) length of interoculus; c) ocular line; d) 
width of an eye; e) length of pronotum; f) largest width of pronotum; g) width of scutellum: h) 
nodal line. 



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Figs. 2 and 3. External morphology of Belostoma Latreille, 1807 showing the major morpho- 
logical features referred to in the taxonomic description. Fig. 2. Dorsal aspect of head of 
Belostoma. a) anterior interocular width; b) length of anterior frontogenal suture (= anteclypeus 
- maxilar plate suture); c) length of posterior frontogenal suture (= anteclypeus - loral suture); 
d); length of an eye; e) posterior interocular width. Fig. 3. Lateral aspect of head of Be lostomu. 
a) length of segment I of rostrum; b) length of segment II of rostrum; c) prosternal keel. 



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Figs. 4 - 6. External morphology of Belostoma Latreille, 1807 showing the major morphologi- 
cal features referred to in the taxonomic description. Aspect of the phallus of Belostoma sp. 
Fig. 4. Dorsal view. Fig. 5. Ventral view. Fig. 6. Lateral view, a) dorsal apical protuberance; b) 
dorsal arms; c) ventroapical protuberance; d) caudal lateral margin of ventral divertculum; e) 
length of ventral diverticulum; ventral diverticulum; g) width of ventral diverticulum. 



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Fig. 7. Dorsal aspect of the male of Belostoma foveolatum (Mayr, 1863). Scale: 20.00 mm. 



Vol. 1 1 1. No. 3, May & June. 2000 165 



segment I of rostrum 3.04 - 4.80 mm; length of segment II of rostrum 2.38 - 4.24 mm; length of 
pronotum 6.16 - 8.08 mm; largest width of pronotum 1 1.06 - 14.48 mm. 

General coloration nearly uniformly brown, occasionally suffused with yellowish brown. 
Pronotum with two yellowish longitudinal stripes, each parallel to lateral borders, pair of dark 
brown triangular marks adjacent to inner margins of longitudinal stripes. Abdominal venter 
yellowish brown. Legs with patches varying from darkish brown to reddish brown. 

Body elongate and ellipsoid. Length of anteoculus 0.94 - 1.14 times the length of 
interoculus. Clypeus reaching or nearly reaching the ocular line (0 - 0,24 mm). Anterior 
frontogenal suture equal to or longer than posterior frontogenal suture (1.00 - 1.25 times). 
Length of segment I of rostrum 1.13 - 1.29 times the length of segment II. Interoculus wider 
than long. Posterior interocular width 1.06 - 1.35 times the width of an eye, distinctly wider 
than the length of anteoculus (1.05 - 1.24 times). Vertex without a longitudinal median carina. 
Eyes rounded, internal margins with a sulcus that does not extend to vertex. Pronotum and 
scutellum without a distinct median carina. Largest pronotum width 1.73 - 1.89 times its length. 
Scutellum reaching nodal line. Prosternal keel somewhat rounded (Fig. 8). Pilosity extending 
only slightly beyond eighth abdominal sternum, covering from about one to two-thirds of mar- 
gin of connexivum. 

Male genitalia (Fig. 9). Dorsal arms are slightly broader at middle, not narrowing 
gradually toward apex in dorsal view. Phallus moderately symmetrical in dorsal view. Ventral 
diverticulum with a dorsal caudal protuberance in lateral view. Ventral diverticulum with a 
very large, distinct ventroapical protuberance in lateral and ventral views. Caudal lateral mar- 
gins of ventral diverticulum are sinuses instead of convex in ventral view. Length of ventral 
diverticulum 1.0 time width in ventral view. 

Variations (Fig. 10). I have seen two specimens from the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil 
which have the total length and genitalia relatively bigger than other specimens examined, but 
which still possess distinct protuberances. However, dorsal arms are slightly broad at base, 
narrowing gradually toward apex in dorsal view. Caudal lateral margins of ventral diverticu- 
lum are not sinuses but convex. 

Material examined. One female [holotype] (NHMW): [without locality], [without date], 
[without collector], A. L. Montandon del. 1909, G. Mayr det. 1863. BRAZIL. State of Para - 
One female (INPA 0020872): Curuauna [near Santarem], X-XI.1980, (R. C. Best), J. R. I. 
Ribeiro det. 1999. One female (SEMC): Lago Grande, 11.1939, (A. M. Olalla), D. R. Lauck det. 
1959. One male and two females (AMNH): Jacareacanga, VI. 1970, (M. Alvarenga), J. R. I. 
Ribeiro det. 1999. State of Ceara" One female (AMNH): [without date], (Manin), J. R. I. 
Ribeiro det. 1999. One female (UFRJ 24): Pacatuba, Caracanga [Sftio Cajazeiras], 1 I.V.I 986, 
(P. M. B. Carvalho), J. R. I. Ribeiro det. 1999. State of Mato Grosso do Sul One male and 
two females (DPIC 567): Corumba, 17. XI. 1992, (Fabiana & T. P. S. Sereno), J. R. I. Ribeiro 
det. 1999. State of Minas Gerais One male (DPIC 461): Belo Horizonte [reared in labora- 
tory], [without date], (A. L. Melo), A. L. Melo det. One male (DPIC 1331): Calceolandia, 
11.1990, (A. L. Melo), A. L. Melo det. One male (DPIC 209): Lagoa Santa, [without date], (A. 
L. Melo), A. L. Melo det. One male (DPIC 409): Lagoa Santa, [without date], (A. L. Melo), A. 
L. Melo det. One male (DPIC 1618): Lagoa Santa [Lagoa Olhos d'Agua], XII. 1990, (M. H. 
Pereira), J. R. I. Ribeiro det. 1999. One male (DPIC 1620): Lagoa Santa [Lagoa Olhos d'Agua], 
[without date], (M. H. Pereira), J. R. I. Ribeiro det. 1999. One male (DPIC 1606): Lagoa Santa 
[Lagoa Olhos d'Agua], XII. 1990, (M. H. Pereira), J. R. I. Ribeiro det. 1999. One male (DPIC 
1607): Lagoa Santa [Lagoa Olhos d'Agua], 22.IX.1988, (M. H. Pereira), J. R. I. Ribeiro det. 
1999. One female (DPIC 210): Lagoa Santa [reared in laboratory], [without date], (A. L. Melo), 
A. L. Melo det. One male (DPIC 1249): Januaria, 23. XI. 1997, (A. L. Melo), J. R. I. Ribeiro det. 
1999. State of Sao Paulo One female (MZSP 70.032): no Tiete, VIII. 1996, (Bicego), J. A. 
De Carlo det. One male and one female (MZSP): Ribeirao Preto [Fac. Medicina], XI. 1954, 
(Barretto) [cole<;ao M. P. Barretto, 1969], J. R. I. Ribeiro det. 1999. One male (SEMC): [with 



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ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



8 





9 




a 




r 




10 




Fig. 8. Prosternal keel of Belostoma foveolatum (Mayr, 1863) (lateral view). Specimens from 
state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Figs. 9 - 10. Phallus of Belostoma foveolatum (Mayr, 1863). Fig. 9. 
Specimen of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Fig. 10. Specimen from Sao Paulo, Brazil, a) dorsal view; b) 
ventral view; c) lateral view. Scales: 1.00 mm. 



Vol. 1 1 1 , No. 3, May & June, 2000 167 



out date], (E. D. Tacwnsend), J. R. I. Ribeiro det. 1999. One female (SEMC 326): [without 
date], [without collector], A. L. Montandon det. 1914, D. R. Lauck det. 1959. Two males 
(MNRJ 85): Sao Jose dos Campos; XII. 1934, (H. S. Lopes), J. A. De Carlo det. One female 
(MACN 39316): [without date], [illegible collector], J. A. De Carlo det. One male (MACN 
39316): VIII. 1960, [illegible collector], J. A. De Carlo det. One female (MACN 39316): 1.1907, 
[illegible collector], J. A. De Carlo det. 

Known distribution (Fig. 1 1). The known distribution of the species 
now includes French Guyana (Cayenne) and Brazil (states of Para N., Ceara 
- Pacatuba [03 58' S, 38 37' W - new record] -- NE., Mato Grosso do Sul - 
Corumba [ 1 9 1' S, 57 39' W - new record] central W., Minas Gerais, Rio 
de Janeiro, and Sao Paulo SE.). Borneo (Lanzer-de-Souza 1980: 56) is 
clearly a erroneous record. 

Notes. The relatively short anteoculus confirms a close relationship 
between B. foveolatum and B. porteri, as suggested by Nieser (1975). B. 
foveolatum can be distinguished from B. elongatum Montandon, 1908 by the 
relation of the length: width of the diverticulum in ventral view, which is about 
1 .3 times in B. elongatum. Finally B. foveolatum can be distinguished from the 
remaining species of the B. dentatum group (sensu Nieser 1975) by the length 
of segment I of the rostrum (including variations) and features of the male 
genitalia. In B. foveolatum the length of rostral segment I never exceeds 1.3 
times the length of segment II, while segment I in the remaining species is at 
least 1.3 times longer than segment II. Moreover, the dorsal arms of the phal- 
lus in B. foveolatum are slightly broader at the middle, a characteristic that is 
not present in the other members of the B. dentatum group even though the 
dorsal arms of variants gradually narrow toward the apex in dorsal view. 

New records of Belostoma costalimai De Carlo from Brazil 
Belostoma costalimai De Carlo, 1938: 234. 

B. costalimai has been reported from the Brazilian states of Goias, Mato Grosso, Minas 
Gerais, Rio de Janeiro, and Sao Paulo (De Carlo 1938, Lauck 1964, Menke and Lauck 1962, 
Nieser and Melo 1997). Herein I report the following new records of B. costalimai in N. Brazil: 
state of Roraima, Boa Vista [2 49' S, 60 40" W] one male (AMNH), 18.IX.1966, (M. 
Alvarenga), J. R. I. Ribeiro det., and state of Para, Jacareacanga [6 16' S, 57 39' W] one 
male and two females (AMNH), VI. 1970, (M. Alvarenga), J. R. I. Ribeiro det. 1999 (Fig. 1 1 ). 

New records of Belostoma stollii (Amyot and Serville, 1843) from South America 

Zaitha stollii Amyot and Serville, 1843: 430 [type for Zaitha]. 
Belostoma stolli: Montandon, 1903: 240. 
Belostoma stollii: Kirkaldy and Torre-Bueno, 1909: 192. 
Belostoma stolii: Nieser and Melo, 1997: 61. 

B. stollii has been reported from Guyana, Surinam, French Guyana, Venezuela, and the 
Brazilian states of Amazonas, Mato Grosso, and Minas Gerais (Amyot and Serville 1843, 
Kirkaldy and Torre-Bueno 1909, Lauck 1963, Nieser 1975, Lanzer-de-Souza 1980, Nieser and 



168 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 




130 w 120 



Fig. 11. Geographic distribution map for Belostoma fove olatum (Mayr, 1863), B. costalimai 
De Carlo, 1938 and B. stollii (Amyot and Serville, 1843) in South America. ( = B. foveolatum; 
-/>'. costalimai; * = B. stollii). (Map radically compressed to show "true proportion" per 
Peter's projection.) 



Vol. 111. No. 3. May & June. 2000 169 



Melo 1997). Records from Guatemala, Chile, and southern Brazil were considered erroneous 
and based on misidentifications (Lauck 1963). Herein I report the following new records of B. 
stollii in South America: BRAZIL State of Para, Cachimbo [8 57' S, 54 54' W] one female 
(MNRJ 107), VI. 1955, (J. A. Araujo), J. A. De Carlo del. [as B. brasiliensis], J. R. I. Ribeiro 
det. 1999. State of Rio de Janeiro, Mage, Citrolandia [22 35' S, 43 00' W] one male (UFRJ 
465), [without date], (H. W. Tavares), J. R. I. Ribeiro det. 1999. One male [with eggs on dor- 
sum] (UFRJ 466), 14.11.1988, [without collector], J. R. 1. Ribeiro det. 1999, and BOLIVIA. 
Dpto. Santa Cruz, Nueva Moka (untraced) one female (MACN 53946), III. 1955, (A. 
Martinez), J. A. De Carlo det. [as B. brasiliensis}, J. R. I. Ribeiro det. 1999 (Fig. 11). 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

The manuscript benefited from the useful comments of G. Mejdalani. A. L. Carvalho and 
A. L. Melo. Fellowships from Coordenac.ao de Aperfeic.oamento de Pessoal de Nfvel Superior 
(CAPES), Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientffico e Tecnologico (CNPq), Funda^ao 
de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro ( PAPER J), and Funda^ao Universitaria Jose 
Bonifacio (FUJB) are gratefully acknowledged. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Amyot, C. J. B. & J. G. A. Serville 1843. Histoire naturelle des insectes Hemipteres. Librairie 

Encyclopedique de Roret, Paris. 

Berg, C. 1879. Hemiptera Argentina enumeravit speciesque novas. Pauli E. Coni, Bonariae. 
De Carlo, J. A. 1938. Los Belostomidos Americanos. An. Mus. argent. Cienc. nat. 39(155): 

189-260 + 7 pis. 
De Carlo, J. A. 1968. Aparato genital de macho y hembra de Belostoma sp. (Hemiptera- 

Belostomatidae). Revta Soc. ent. argent. 30(1-4): 45-49. 
Dupuis, C. 1955. Les genitalia des Hemipteres Heteropteres. Mem. Mus. natn. Hist. nat. (ser. 

A) 6(4): 183-278. 
Estevez, A. L. 1996. Revision sistematica del genero Belostoma Latreille (Hemiptera - 

Heteroptera). Grupos de Belostoma (Belostoma) triangulum, B. (B.) minor, B. (B.)oxyurum, 

B. (B.) plebejum y B. (B.) denticolle. D. Sc. thesis, unpublished, Facultad de Ciencias 

Naturales y Museo, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, La Plata. 

Kirkaldy, G. W. & J. R. de la Torre-Bueno 1909. A catalogue of American aquatic and semi- 
aquatic Hemiptera. Proc. ent. Soc. Wash. 10: 190-191. 
Lanzer-de-Souza, M. E. 1980. Inventario da distribuic.ao geografica da familia Belostomatidae 

Leach, 1815 (Hemiptera-Heteroptera) na regiao Neotropical. Iheringia 55: 43-86. 
Lanzer-de-Souza, M. E. 1992. Nova especie do genero Belostoma Latreille, 1807. Iheringia 

72: 147-150. 
Lanzer-de-Souza, M. E. 1996. Nova espe"cie brasileira do genero Belostoma (Heteroptera, 

Belostomatidae). Iheringia 81: 3-6. 
Lauck, D. R. 1962. A monograph of the genus Belostoma (Hemiptera) Part I. Introduction to 

B. dentutum and subspinosum groups. Bull. Chicago Acad. Sci. 11(3): 34-81. 
Lauck, D. R. 1963. A monograph of the genus Belostoma (Hemiptera), Part. II. B. aurivillianum, 

stolli, testaceopallidum, dilatatum, and discretum groups. Bull. Chicago Acad. Sci. 1 1(4): 

82-101. 
Lauck, D. R. 1964. A monograph of the genus Belostoma (Hemiptera) Part. III. B. triangulum, 

bergi, minor, bifoveolatum and flumineum groups. Bull. Chicago Acad. Sci. 11(5): 102- 

154. 

Lauck, D. R. & A. S. Menke 1961. The higher classification of the Belostomatidae (Hemi- 
ptera). Ann. ent. Soc. Amer. 54(5): 644-657. 



170 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Mahner, M. 1 993. Systema Cryptoceratorum Phylogeneticum (Insecta, Heteroptera). Zoologica 

48(143): 1-302. 
Mayr, G. 1863. Hemipterogische Studien. Die Belostomiden. Verb, zool.- hot. Ges. Wien 13: 

339-364. 
Menke, A. S. & D. R. Lauck 1962. The Machris Brazilian Expedition - Entomology: Belo- 

stomatidae (Hemiptera). Contr. Sci. 55: 3-8. 

Montandon, A. L. 1903. Hemipteres aquatiques, notes synonymiques et geographiques, de- 
scriptions d'especes nouvelles. Bui. Soc. rom. Sci. Sti. 12: 97-121. 
Nieser, N. 1975. The water bugs (Heteroptera: Nepomorpha) of the Guyana Region. Uitg. 

natuurw. Studkring Suriname 16(81): 1-308. 
Nieser, N. & A. L. Melo 1997. Os heteropteros aquaticos de Minas Gerais. Guia introdutorio 

com chave de identificac.ao para as especies de Nepomorpha e Gerromorpha. Ed. UFMG, 

Belo Horizonte. 
Ribeiro, J. R. I. 1999. Revisao das especies de Belostoma Latreille, 1807 (Insecta: Heteroptera: 

Belostomatidae) ocorrentes no sudeste do Brasil. M. Sc. thesis, unpublished, Museu 

Nacional, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro. 
Schnack, J. A. 1973. Clave para determinacion de especies argentinas del genero Belostoma 

Latreille (Hemiptera: Belostomatidae). Revta Mus. La Plata (secc. zoologia) 12(3): 1-10. 



Vol. 1 1 1 . No. 3. May & June. 2000 171 

A NEW SPECIES OF COTINIS (COTINIS) 

(COLEOPTERA: MELOLONTHIDAE) AND A KEY FOR 

THE IDENTIFICATION OF MEXICAN SPECIES 1 

Cuauhtemoc Deloya^, Sergio Ibanez-Bernal^, Guillermo Nogueira' 

ABSTRACT: Cotinis (Cotinis) sinitoc, new species, from northwestern Mexico, is described 
and illustrated. Some comments about its relation with C. pokornyi, as well as an identification 
key for the 16 species of the subgenus Cotinis known to date in Mexico are presented. 

The subgenus Cotinis is the most speciously diverse group in the genus 
Cotinis Burmeister with 21 species, of which 15 ocurr in Mexico (Goodrich, 
1966; Deloya & Ratcliffe, 1988; Deloya, 1995; Delgado, 1988). Of the 15 
species, C. pueblensis Bates, C. paupenda Burmeister, C. pokornyi Deloya, 
C. rufipennis Bates, C. laticornis Bates, C. sphyracera Deloya & Ratcliffe, C. 
antonii Duges, C. orientalis Deloya & Ratcliffe, C. subviolacea Gory & 
Percheron, and C. beraudi Delgado, and the new species, are endemic of 
Mexico. 

Cotinis sinitoc Deloya, Ibafiez-Bernal & Nogueira, NEW SPECIES 

(Fig. 1-6) 

Holotype. Male. Length from apex of pronotum to apex of elytra: 16.4 mm; humeral width: 
9.6 mm. Dorsum velvety, venter shiny. Dorsal coloration: head bright green, pronotum ashy- 
brown with some green reflections, elytra ashy-brown, each with two longitudinal green vittae. 

Head (Fig. 1 , 2). Frontal projection fused, occupying 72% of length from vertex to clypeus, 
tapered apically; surface with subrugate punctures and long, thin, yellowish setae. Clypeus 
with trapezoidal laminar projection, anterior margin bisinuate in dorsal view and straight-angulate 
from disc level in lateral view. 

Thorax: Pronotum with a shallow median longitudinal impression; punctures of median 
size, distinctly separate and irregularly spaced; with coarse punctures moderately separated 
and with short yellowish setae at each side of pronotum; anterior and lateral surfaces shiny, 
basal part of disc opaque; lateral margins shiny and strongly marked; base without marginal 
line; mesoepimera with ventral region substrigulose, with long and thin setae, dorsal region 
smooth and punctate. Elytra with two slightly marked longitudinal costae converging at apical 
callus; with very small punctures well separated and with short setae; large, coarse C-shaped 
punctures irregularity disposed over apical third between elytral suture and inner costae; lat- 
eral margins shiny. Ventral region: Mesosternal projection with semi-rounded apex, parallel to 
body plane (Fig. 3). Metasternum with longitudinal line and small punctures at each side; 
central surface with punctures of moderate size, with yellow setae, punctures distinctly sepa- 
rate, lateral region substrigose, with large yellowish setae. Protibia tridentate, basal tooth short 
(Fig. 4). Abdominal sternites with long setae laterally. 

Pigidium: Surface strigose with moderately separated short, yellow setae on disc; apex 
margined with short yellowish setae. 



1 Received October 27, 1999. Accepted November 18, 1999. 

2 Instituto de Ecologia, A.C., Departamento de Entomologfa. Apartado Postal 63, 9 1 (MX) Xalapa. 
Veracru/., Mexico. E-mail: entomoK^ecologia.edu.mx 

3 Present address: Av. Central 14-A, Ciudad Granja. Guadalajara, Jalisco 45010, Mexico. 

ENT. NEWS 111(3): 171-176, May & June 2000 



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ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 







Fig. 1-6. Cotinis sinitoc new species (Holotype Cf). 1) Clypeus, frontal view; 2) Head, fronto- 
lateral view; 3) Mesosternum; 4) Protibia and tarsi, dorsal view; 5) Genitalia, dorsal view; 6) 
Genitalia, lateral view. Scale = 1 mm. 



Vol. 1 1 1 , No. 3, May & June, 2000 



173 






11 




12 



Fig. 7-12. Cotinis pokomyi Deloya (Paratype Cf ). 7) Clypeus, frontal view; 8) Head, fronto- 
lateral view; 9) Mesosternum; 10) Protibia and tarsi, dorsal view; 1 1) Genitalia, dorsal view; 
12) Genitalia, lateral view. Scale = 1 mm. 



174 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Genitalia (Fig. 5, 6). Parameres elongate, rectangular, 82% of length fused, convex, ex- 
panded latero-apically; anterocentral margins not curved ventrally, with antero-lateral projec- 
tions. 

Allotype. Female. Similar to male, except for the following characteristics: length from 
apex of pronotum to apex of elytra: 17.9 mm; humeral width: 11.1 mm. Clypeus with a trap- 
ezoidal laminar projection with anterior margin straight. Elytra without large, coarse, C-shaped 
punctures over apical third between elytral suture and internal costae; mesosternal projection 
with rounded apex. 

Variation in paratypes. The five paratypes (one male, three females, one not sexed) are 
similar to the holotype and allotype, differing only as follows: length from apex of pronotum to 
apex of elytra varies from 14.7 and 18.4 mm; humeral width varies from 8.8 to 11.2 mm; and 
the clypeal laminar projection may be small and short. 

* 

Type locality. Rosario de Tezopaco, state of Sonora, Mexico (approx. 27 48' N; 109 26' 
W). 

Type material. Holotype Cf, allotype 9- a d 5 paratypes. Holotype Cf, allotype 9- 
paratypes (ICf, 19) labeled: "MEXICO, Sonora, Rosario de Tezopaco, 30-VII-98, 470 m, G. 
Nogueira, col"; 299 paratypes with same data, except date "30-VIII.98". One paratype (not 
sexed) labeled "Mexico, Sonora, Cocorit, 22- VII. 1966, T. De la Rosa, col". The holotype, 
allotype, and one female paratype deposited in Entomological Collection of Institute de Ecologfa, 
A.C. (IEXA), one male and one female paratypes will be deposited in "Institute de Biologfa, 
Universidad Nacional Aut6noma de Mexico (IBUNAM)", one paratype in H. & A. Howden 
collection (HAHC), and the other female paratypes in the particular collections of Guillermo 
Nogueira (GN), Miguel Angel Mor6n (MXAL) and Cuauhtemoc Deloya (CD). 

Etymology. The specific name C. sinitoc is the anagram of the generic 
name Cotinis. 

Remarks. Cotinis sinitoc is related to C. pokornyi, both having the same 
form of frontal and clypeal projections, having the frontal projection a little 
elevated and not visible in lateral view (cf. figs 1 -2 vs. 7-8), pronotum with the 
lateral margins arcuate, and by the general form of the parameres. Differ by 
the ashy-brown with green reflections coloration of pronotum and elytra, and 
the presence of two green vittae in each elytron in C. sinitoc, whereas the 
coloration is blackish-green in the same structures of C. pokornyi. The clypeal 
projection is trapezoidal in Cotinis sinitoc and semitrapezoidal in C. pokornyi 
(Fig. 7). C. sinitoc has the pronotum with smaller punctation and the basal 
lobe rounded, whereas in C. pokonyi the punctation is larger and the lateral 
lobe sinuate. C. sinitoc has the dorsal surface of mesepimeron with separate 
punctures and long setae, whereas C. pokonyi has the dorsal surface of 
mesepimeron with tight punctures and long setae. The elytra are smooth with 
fine punctation only visible at great magnification in C sinitoc and punctate- 
striate in C. pokornyi. The mesosternal projection is semi-rounded with angulate 
apex in C. sinitoc (Fig. 3) and sligthly rounded in C. pokornyi (Fig. 9). The 
parameres have antero-lateral projections in C. sinitoc (figs 5-6), absent in C. 
pokornyi (figs. 11-12). Finally, the protibia is tridentate with short basal tooth 
in C. sinitoc (Fig. 4), whereas it is bidentate with the basal tooth difficult to see 
in C. pokornyi (fig. 10). 



Vol. 1 1 1. No. 3. May & June. 2000 175 



Cotinis sinitoc lives in a thorn forest with xerophitic brush-wood species: 
Prosopis, Parkinsonia, Cercidium, Acacia, Larrea, Celtis, Ferocacius and 
numerous perennial herbaceous plants. The soil has a high clay content. 

One male and two females were attracted to light traps (ultraviolet light 
with and without filters, mercury vapor lamps, and lamps of mercury vapor 
with metalic additives) between 20:00-22:00 hours (summer Pacific time). 
Additionally, one male and one female were obtained with traps baited with 
fermented banana and pineapple, placed at 1 m above ground. Another female 
specimen was collected in flight around thorny plants at 18:00 hours. 

In life, the specimens show an iridiscent green coloration with bright yel- 
lowish-orange stripes over the pronotum and elytra, which are lost when killed 
with ethyl acetate. 

C. sinitoc apparently has crepuscular or nocturnal habits, as does C. 
orientalis Deloya & Ratcliffe, 1988; both have been captured at light traps. 

Key to the known Mexican species of Cotinis (Cotinis). 

(Modified from Deloya & Ratcliffe, 1988) 

1 . Dorsum opaque, velvety or pruinose-like; venter shiny 2 

1 '. Dorsum and venter shiny, smooth (in C. antonii dorsal surface is not smooth) 12 

2. Frontal projection partially free, never fused. Clypeal projection large 8 

2'. Frontal projection fused. Clypeal projection large or reduced 3 

3. Clypeal projection pronounced. Elytra punctate 4 

3'. Clypeal projection reduced. Elytra smooth 7 

4. Frontal projection short, no more than 50% of length from vertex to 

apex of clypeus C. pueblensis Bates 

4'. Frontal projection long, at least 55% of length from vertex to clypeal apex 5 

5. Clypeal projection triangular C. pauperula Burmeister 

5 '. Clypeal projection semitrapezoidal or trapezoidal 6 

6. Clypeal projection semitrapezoidal. Pronotum and elytra blackish-green, 

elytra punctate-striate C. pokornyi Deloya 

6'. Clypeal projection trapezoidal. Pronotum ashy-brown with green reflections; 

each elytron with two green vittae C. sinitoc, n. sp. Deloya, Ibanez-Bernal & Nogueira 

7. Frontal projection long, at least 60% of length from vertex to clypeal apex, 
extending beneath antennal insertion C. impia (Fall) 

7'. Frontal projection short, no more than 50% of length from vertex 

to clypeal apex C. rufipennis Bates 

8. Clypeal projection narrow, less than 0.5 mm thick in lateral view 9 

8'. Clypeal projection distinctly thickened, greater than 0.5 mm in lateral view 11 

9. Elytra punctate-striate, punctures C-shaped C. punctatostriata Bates 

9'. Elytra not punctate-striate 10 

10. Clypeal projection in form of inverted triangle, apically expanded. Dorsal 
coloration opaque dark green with blue luster reflections, rest of body 
bright blue-green C. beraudi Delgado 

10'. Clypeal projection variable, i.e., quadrate, rectangular, triangular or only 
a little expanded apically. Dorsal coloration variable, green, black 
or red C. mutabilis (Gory & Percheron) 



176 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



11. Frontal projection with apex pointed in dorsal view. Clypeal projection 

expanded apically C. laticornis Bates 

1 1 '. Frontal projection with apex abruptly expanded and rounded. Clypeal 
projection semicircular. Surface of clypeus with longitudinal ridge 
between two depressions. Frons with depression either side of 
frontal projection C. sphyracera Deloya & Ratcliffe 

12. Frontal projection completely fused, short, not reaching antennal insertion. 

Clypeal projection reduced to two lobes. Elytra punctate-striate C. antonii Duges 

12'. Frontal projection partially free, extending beyond insertion of antenna. 

Clypeal projection variable 13 

13. Metasternum with long setae, greater than 0.5 mm in length. Clypeal 
projection obtusely angled from plane of clypeal disc in lateral view 

C. orientalis Deloya & Ratcliffe 

13'. Metasternum with short setae, less than 0.5 mm long. Clypeal projection 

obtusely or right angled from plane of clypeal disc in lateral view 14 

14. Clypeal projection right-angled from plane of disc in lateral view. 

Elytra with two well-developed costae C. viridiacyanea (Perbosc) 

14'. Clypeal projection obtusely angled from plane of disc in lateral view. 

Elytra lacking costae 15 

15. Color brownish black or deep plum. Internal sac of male genitalia 

with large teeth, greater than 0.5 mm in length C. fuscopicea Goodrich 

15'. Color variable, blue to bluish green to purplish. Internal sac of 

male genitalia with small teeth, less than 0.5 mm. ... C. subviolacea Gory & Percheron 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

We are grateful to Miguel Angel Moron-Rfos and Pedro Reyes-Castillo for their critical 
review of the manuscript, and to two anonymous revisors for their comments. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Delgado, L. 1998. A new Mexican species of Cotinis (Coleoptera, Melolonthidae) Revista 

Brasileira de Entomologia, 41(2-4):451-452. 
Deloya, C. 1995. A new species of Cotinis (Cotinis) Burmeister from Mexico (Coleoptera: 

Melolonthidae, Cetoniinae). Coleop. Bull., 49(2): 149- 152. 
Deloya, C. & B.C. RatclifTe. 1988. Las especies de Cotinis Burmeister en Mexico (Coleoptera: 

Melolonthidae: Cetoniinae). Acta Zoologica Mexicana (n.s.), 28:1-52. 
Goodrich, M.A. 1966. A revision of the genus Cotinis (Col. Scarabaeidae). Ann. Entomol. 

Soc. Amer., 59(3):550-568. 



Vol. 1 1 1. No. 3. May & June. 2000 177 

A NEW SPECIES OF LEPTONEMA OF THE 

OCCIDENT ALE GROUP (TRICHOPTERA: 

HYDROPSYCHIDAE) FROM MADAGASCAR 1 

Oliver S. Flint, Jr. 2 

ABSTRACT: Leptonema ranomafana new species, a member of the occidentale group, is 
described from the Ranomafana National Park in Madagascar. Eight species were previously 
recognized from the island, all belonging to the endemic tiffine group. The occidentale group 
had been known from 5 species recorded from Ghana south and east through central Africa to 
Natal. The Madagascan species agrees closely with its group, but is easily recognized by the 
structure of the tenth tergum and phallus. 

The hydropsychid genus Leptonema is known from the Greater Antilles, 
South and Central America (97 species), Africa (12 species) and Madagascar 
(8 species). It was first monographed by Mosely (1933; 37 species) and then 
again by Flint, McAlpine and Ross (1987; 105 species), subsequently Flint 
(1991) and Munoz-Quesada (1997) have added another 6 species from the 
New World. Very recently Chvojka and Sykora (1998) reviewed the Mada- 
gascan species recognizing two more species, but all in the endemic affine 
species group. No species other than those in this species group have been 
reported from the island. 

In 1988 and 1990 Mr. Warren E. Steiner, Jr. of the Entomology Depart- 
ment, Smithsonian Institution, collected insects as part of the Duke-Malagasy 
biotic survey of the Ranomafana National Park. On both of these years he 
collected a comparatively small, dark macronematine hydropsychid that on 
study turned out to be an undescribed species belonging, not to the Leptonema 
affine group, but to the occidentale group. This latter group contained 5 previ- 
ously described species, distributed from Ghana on the west, south and east 
through the Cameroons and Zaire to Natal in the southeast. The discovery of a 
sixth species on the island of Madagascar was wholly unexpected. 

Leptonema ranomafana Flint, NEW SPECIES 

Figures 1-7 

This new species is a typical member of the occidentale group, conform- 
ing well to the group characteristics (Flint et al. 1987). It is, perhaps, most 
closely related to L. marlieri Flint, McAlpine and Ross based on the presence 
of an apicodorsal process from the tip of the phallus. It is easily distinguished 
from this species, and all others in the group, by the presence of an elongate 



1 Received November 22, 1999. Accepted December 27, 1999. 

2 Department of Entomology, National Museum of Natural History. Smithsonian Institution, 
Washington, DC 20560-0105 USA. 

ENT. NEWS 1 1 1(3): 177-180, May & June 2000 



178 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 









7 



Figures 1-7. Leptonema ranomafana n. sp., male structures. 1, genitalia. lateral; 2, ninth and 
tenth terga dorsal; 3, inferior appendage, posteroventral; 4, apex of phallus, lateral; 5, apex of 
phallus, dorsal; 6, fifth sternum, ventral; 7, maxillary palpus, lateral. 



Vol. 1 1 1. No. 3. May & June. 2000 179 



wart a and development of a large apicoventral lobe on the tenth tergum, the 
very long, slender basal segment of the inferior appendage, and the details of 
the structures at the apex of the phallus. 

Male: Length of forewing 10-11 mm. Color fuscous, venter and legs stramineous. Fourth 
segment of maxillary palpus longer than third, fifth segment 1.6 times longer than basal 4 
segments combined (Fig. 7). Foretibia with a single apical spur. Fifth sternal lobes elongate- 
ovoid, set obliquely, about 2/3 width of sternum (Fig. 6). Male genitalia: Tenth tergum with 
wart a well developed, elongate, terete, wart c ovoid, protuberant; lateral lobe broad, with a 
small, obliquely set point laterally, apicodorsal tip slightly upturned, posterior margin strongly 
produced ventrad into a large, rounded lobe (Figs. 1, 2). Inferior appendage with basal segment 
very long, slender, lacking processes; apical segment less than 1/4 length of basal segment with 
spinose setae on inner margin (Fig. 3). Phallus with basal section enlarged, set at a slight angle 
to stem; apex separated from stem by a membranous region; with rounded apicolateral lobe and 
reflexed dorsolateral point, apicodorsal opening small, dorsal rim produced into a small point 
in lateral aspect, phallotremal complex situated centrally (Figs. 4, 5). 

Female: Length of forewing 8-10 mm. Color fuscous, as in male. 

Material Examined: Madagascar, Prov. Fianarantsoa, 7 km W Ranomafana, 1100m, 1-7 
Nov 1988, W.E. Steiner, Holotype, male, NMNH. Paratypes: Same data, 16Cf ; same, but 8-21 
October 1988, 17Cf, 19; same, but 17-22 February 1990, 13C?; same, but 22-31 October 
1988, 12Cf ; same, but Malaise trap in small clearing, montane rain forest, 1 9 ; same, but flight 
intercept-yellow pan trap in Malaise trap in small clearing, montane rainforest, 1CT,1 9 ; same, 
but 1-7 Nov 1988, 29'. same, but 1000m, 26-29 January 1990, Malaise trap across stream, 
montane rain forest, ICf, 19; same, but 900m, 1-7 March 1990, Malaise trap in small clearing, 
montane rain forest, 1 9 i same, but 8-13 March 1990, Malaise trap across stream, montane rain 
forest, 3Cf, 49 ; same, but 20-24 March 1990, Malaise trap across stream, montane rain forest, 
5Cf, 69 . 7km W Ranomafana, 1 100m, 7-14 Sept 1988. C. Kremen, 4Cf; Holotype and many 
paratypes in the NMNH; paratypes will be deposited in the British Museum, London, England; 
Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France; Albany Museum, Grahamstown, South 
Africa; Musee Royal de 1'Afrique Central, Belgium. 

Biology: The immature stages of this species have not been associated. 
Adults were taken both by net and in Malaise traps. Those without an acces- 
sory label were mostly taken by net as they swarmed over the stream in the 
evening (Steiner, pers. com.). 

Etymology: The name ranomafana is taken from the name of the national 
park and treated as a noun in apposition. Its meaning is "hot water", an allu- 
sion to the hot springs in the town of Ranomafana. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

I am indebted to Mr. Steiner for collecting these and many other most interesting caddisflies 
on the island of Madagascar. The contribution of two anonymous reviewers is gratefully ac- 
knowledged. 



180 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



LITERATURE CITED 

Chvojka, Pavel and Jan L. Sykora. 1998. Revision of the Leptonema affine group (Insects: 
Trichoptera: Hydropsychidae) from Madagascar with the description of a new species. 
Cas. Nar. Muz. Rada Prirodoved. 167:25-33. 

Flint, Oliver S., Jr. 1991. Studies of Neotropical Caddisflies, XLV: The Taxonomy, Phenol- 
ogy, and Faunistics of the Trichoptera of Antioquia, Colombia. Smithson. Contrib. Zool. 
520:1-113. 

Flint, Oliver S., Jr., J. Frank McAlpine and Herbert H. Ross. 1987. A Revision of the 
Genus Leptonema Guerin (Trichoptera: Hydropsychidae: Macronematinae). Smithson. 
Contrib. Zool. 450: 1-193. 

Mosely, Martin E. 1933. A Revision of the Genus Leptonema. 69 pages. London: Br. Mus. 
(Nat. Hist.). 

Munoz-Quesada, Fernando. 1997. Five new species and a new record of Costa Rican 
Leptonema Guerin (Trichoptera: Hydropsychidae). Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 99:115- 
132. 



Vol. 1 1 1, No. 3, May & June, 2000 



A NEW ORIENTAL BLERA (DIPTERA: SYRPHIDAE) 1 

F. Christian Thompson^ 

ABSTRACT: The only known Blew from the Oriental Region is described and named Himalaya 
(HTCf The Natural History Museum, London) 

INTERPRETATIVE SUMMARY: A new pollinator is described and illustrated. The informa- 
tion will enable conservationists, ecologists and systematists to identify the species and will 
contribute to the inventory of the biological diversity of the Oriental Region. 

The flower fly genus Blera Billberg is characteristic of the North Temper- 
ate forest, the maggots live in tree holes and rotten stumps and the flies are 
common at flowers in the spring (Barkalov & Mutin 1991, 1992; Rotheray & 
Stuke 1998). Previously, the genus has only been known from the Holarctic 
Region. The first Oriental species is here described from the southern slopes 
of the Himalaya Mountains in northern India. 

Blera Himalaya Thompson, NEW SPECIES 

Male. Face yellow and white pollinose except broad brown shiny medial vitta; gena 
shiny and brown on anterior 1/2, yellow, white pilose and pollinose elsewhere; frontal lunule 
orange; frontal triangle bare, brown and shiny on anterior 1/2, white and white pollinose poste- 
riorly; eyes holoptic, with contiguity as long as ocellar triangle; ventral triangle black and gray 
pollinose except brown and yellow pollinose anterior to ocellar triangle, brownish-yellow pi- 
lose; antenna light brown, more orange ventrally, black pilose; basoflagellomere with elongate 
medial sensory pit; arista long, longer than face; occiput black to dark brown on dorsal 1/3, 
yellow ventrally, white pollinose, yellow pilose. 

Thorax. Postpronotum yellow, yellowish-gray pollinose, yellow pilose; mesonotum black 
except broadly orange laterally, sparsely gray pollinose except with irregular shiny areas me- 
sad to wing, yellow pilose; postalar callus orange, sparsely gray pollinose, yellow pilose; scutel- 
lum yellow, yellow pilose, with distinct yellow subscutellar fringe; calypter and plumula yel- 
low; halter orange except base of capitulum brown; katepimeron bare; metastemum bare; pleuron 
gray pollinose, yellow pilose, black except with orange areas on posterior antepisternum, dor- 
sal katepisternum and anterior edge of meron. Legs: coxae yellow, white pollinose, yellow 
pilose; trochanters yellow, yellow pilose; profemur yellow on basoventral 1/3 and apex, brownish 
black elsewhere, yellow pilose; mesofemur yellow on basoventral 1/2 and apex, brownish black 
elsewhere, yellow pilose; metafemur yellow on base and apex, black elsewhere, yellow pilose 
except for short black pile ventrally; pro & mesotibiae yellow, yellow pilose; metatibia yellow 
on basal 2/3, brownish black apically, yellow pilose; pro & mesotarsi yellow except apical 2 
tarsomeres brown, yellow pilose; metatarsus brownish black, black pilose. Wing: hyaline, bare 
on basoanterior 1/2, microtrichose posteriorly; microtrichose on apical 1/3 cell Sc, apical 1/3 
cell Rl, apical 2/3 cell R2+3, apical 1/2 cell R4+5, apicomedial 1/2 cell DM, apicomedial 1/3 



1 Received October 19, 1999. Accepted November 30, 1999. 

2 Systematic Entomology Laboratory, ARS, USDA, NHB-168, Smithsonian Institution, Wash- 
ington, D. C. 20560. 



ENT. NEWS 1 1 1(3): 181-184, May & June 2000 



182 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 




Fig. 1 . Blera Himalaya. Male genitalia, lateral view: a, cercus; b, surstyle; c, epandrium; d, 
hypandrium; e, aedeagal apodeme; f, aedeagus. 



Vol. 111. No. 3. May & June, 2000 1 83 



cell CuAl, apicomedial 1/4 cell CuP and all of alula and posterior margin beyond the cells. 

Abdomen: 1st tergum yellow, sparsely white pollinose laterally, yellow pilose; 2nd ter- 
gum black with two complete yellow fasciae, yellow pilose except for a few black pili along 
apicomedial margin, with 1st fascia on middle of tergum but reaching along lateral margin to 
base of tergum, with other fascia along apical margin; 3rd & 4th terga similar to 2nd, except 
basal black areas narrower and apical yellow fascia correspondingly broader, with more black 
pile apically; male genitalia (Fig. 1) brownish orange, black pilose. 

Female. Similar to male except for normal sexual dimorphism; frons brownish black, 
shiny except yellowish-gray pollinose laterally, yellow pilose; vertex brown, shiny except ocellar 
triangle gray pollinose; 5th tergum brownish black except basal 1/4 yellow, black pilose. 

Holotype. Male: INDIA: Himachal Pradesh, Simla, the Glen, 6,000 ft. [=1,828 m], Octo- 
ber 1945, T. Jermyn, deposited in the Natural History Museum, London. Paratypes: ICf 19 
with the same data ( 1 Cf USNM, 19 BMNH); "N. E. India," Partabnagar, 7,000ft. [2,133 m], 
31 October 1944, T. Jermyn (ICf USNM). 

The specific epithet, Himalaya, is a noun in apposition, alluding to the 
home of the species. 

Blera Himalaya is easily recognized as the only Blera species which mim- 
ics Apis bees. Superficially, the species may be confused with two Indian 
Criorhina Meigen species described by Brunetti (1923). Blera Himalaya dif- 
fers from one, interrupta, by having a broad brown facial vitta, and from the 
other, dentata, by lacking the large ventral spur on the hind femur. 

The genus Blera was revised recently by Barkalov and Mutin ( 1 99 1 , 1 992). 
Himalaya is placed in the genus Blera as it displays all the essential characters 
of the genus: bare and undeveloped metasternum, distinctive facial shape with 
produced frontoantennal region, bare and usually holoptic eyes, short apical 
section of vein R4+5, et cetera. In their key to the species of Blera, Himalaya 
runs to notata Wiedemann (couplet 1 7) as the postpronotum and scutellum are 
pale yellow, the metafemur has no apical process, the pro and mesofemora are 
narrowly pale basally, and 2nd tergum has narrow pale fasciae. Blera Himalaya 
is different from notata in overall appearance. Blera notata (southeastern USA) 
is a black species with reduced basolateral yellow triangular maculae on 2nd 
and 3rd terga and has a completely yellow face, whereas Himalaya is a brown 
and yellow to orange species with broad brown facial vitta and double con- 
tinuous pale fasicae on 2nd through 4th terga. In the structure of the male 
genitalia, Himalaya appears most similar loflukei Curran and robusta Curran, 
two Nearctic species. Unfortunately, Barkalov and Mutin ( 1 99 1 , 1 992) do not 
illustrate the aedeagus, nor are the details of the apical half of the hypandrium 
clear. So, all that can be stated is that the shape of the surstyle of Himalaya is 
similar, but differs in the shape of the apex. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

I thank Nigel Wyatt and Richard Vane-Wright, Natural History Museum, London (BMNH) 
for permission to study material in their care. The art work was done by Taina Litwak, for 



184 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



which I am grateful. The acronym USNM is here used for the National Entomological Collec- 
tions of the Smithsonian Institution, Washington. I also thank Stephen Gaimari, Department of 
Entomology, Smithsonian Institution, Washington; Douglass R. Miller, Allen Norrbom, and 
Manya B. Stoezel of the Systematic Entomology Laboratory, USDA, Washington; for their 
critical review of the manuscript. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Barkalov, A. V. and Mutin, V. A. 1991. Revision of hover-flies of the genus Blera Billberg 
1820 (Diptera, Syrphidae). Entomologicheskoye Obozreniye 70: 204-213, 737-749. [In 
Russian, translation in 1992, Entomol. Rev. 70(9): 53-63, 71(4): 115-131.1 

Brunetti, E. 1923. Pipunculidae, Syrphidae, Conopidae, Oestridae. Diptera. In: [Shipley, A. 
E., ed.l The fauna of British India including Ceylong and Burma. Vol. 3, xii + 424 pp. 
Taylor & Francis, London. 

Rotheray, G. E. and Stuke, J.-H. 1998. Third stage larvae of four species of saproxylic 
Syrphidae (Diptera), with a key to the larvae of British Criorhina species. Entomol. Ga- 
zette 49: 209-217. 



Vol. 1 1 1. No. 3. May & June. 2000 185 

A NEW SPECIES OF BABYCURUS (SCORPIONES: 
BUTHIDAE) FROM NORTHERN OMAN 1 

Graeme 



ABSTRACT. A new species of Babycurus is described from Jabal Akhdar, in the Al Hajar 
Mountains of Northern Oman. The discovery extends the range of this Afrotropical genus to 
southeastern Arabia. It represents a significant disjunction with the only other known record of 
Babycurus on the Arabian peninsula, that of B. zambonellii from southwestern Yemen and 
Eritrea. 

Babycurus Karsch, 1886, currently includes fourteen named species and 
two named subspecies, mostly distributed over tropical and subtropical Africa 
(Lamoral & Reynders 1975; Sissom, 1990). The genus has not been reviewed 
since Vachon (1940) provided a key to the known species. Recently, Sissom 
(1994) reported Babycurus zambonellii Borelli, 1902, from San'a, Yemen, 
providing the first record of this genus in the Arabian peninsula. The present 
paper describes a new Babycurus recently discovered in the course of a de- 
tailed survey of the scorpion fauna of the Sultanate of Oman. The new find is 
regarded as the sister species of B. zambonellii, and extends the range of the 
genus to the Oriental region. 

Babycurus exquisitus, NEW SPECIES 

(Figs. 1-9) 

Diagnosis. Babycurus exquisitus from Oman is closely related to Babycurus 
zambonellii Borelli, 1902, from Eritrea. Both are differentiated from other 
Babycurus by the following characters: relatively small species (adults < 50 
mm); pale straw-colored body; metasoma uniformly wide, segment V smooth 
to weakly granular with all keels obsolete; vesicle of telson smooth, covered 
with a dense brush of long setae on its ventral and lateral surfaces (mostly 
broken off in the holotype of B. zambonellii}; ventral surface of pedipalp fe- 
mur with scattered coarse granules at base, otherwise smooth; external keel of 
pedipalp femur strong, denticulate to granulate; dorsointernal, dorsomedian 
and dorsoexternal keels of pedipalp patella well developed, smooth to granulose; 
manus of pedipalp chela smooth, keels reduced or obsolete; dentate margin of 
fixed finger with 7-8 linear, non-imbricated subrows of primary denticles; 
subrows of pedipalp fingers flanked by a single external accessory denticle; 
pedipalps and legs without dense pubescence. 

Babycurus exquisitus is further differentiated as follows: small size, body 
length less than 40 mm; longer pectines: pectine length/carapace length 0.78- 



1 Received October 14, 1999, Accepted November 26, 1999. 

2 75-16 Drexelbrook Dr, Drexel Hill, Pennsylvania 19026, USA. e-mail: lowe@monell.org 

ENT. NEWS 111(3): 185-192, May & June 2000 



1 86 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



1.0; keels of metasoma I-IV finely denticulate or crenulate; telson elongate, 
streamlined, vesicle length/depth 1 .8-2.0, pectine length/vesicle depth 2.6-3. 1 ; 
pedipalp chela of male with long thin fingers and a swollen manus, that of 
female very slender with a narrow manus; chela length/width 4.2-4.7 (males), 
6. 1 2 (female), manus length/width 1 .57- 1 .76 (males), 1 .86 (female), movable 
finger length/underhand length 1.45-1.74 (males), 2.35 (female). 

Babycurus zambonellii differs as follows: larger size, up 50 mm in length; 
pectine length/carapace length 0.69-0.70; keels of metasoma ranging from 
denticulate or crenulate to heavily granulose; telson more bulbous, vesicle 
length/depth 1.6-1.8, pectine length/vesicle depth 2.0-2.1; subaculear spine 
more stout; chela of female less slender, chela length/width 5. 14, manus length/ 
width 1.77, movable finger length/underhand length 1.87. 

Description of holotype male (adult): Coloration: Base color uniform pale yellow; chela 
fingers, metasoma V and telson light orange; cheliceral teeth, denticles of chela fingers, articu- 
lar condyles of chela movable finger and leg segments, aculeus and subaculear spine dark 
reddish brown; black pigmentation around median and lateral eyes. 

Prosoma: Carapace subrectangular, nearly parallel-sided (Fig. 1); anterior margin con- 
cave, bearing a single median pair of setae; entire surface coarsely granular except for posterior 
and lateral furrows, and small smooth patches behind the lateral eyes; superciliary crests 
granulose, all other keels reduced or absent; posterior median furrow deep, posterior lateral 
furrows moderate; ocular tubercle not elevated; three lateral eyes present; distance of center of 
ocular tubercle from anterior margin 0.28 times length of carapace. Chelicerae with typical 
buthid dentition; two denticles on ventral surface of fixed finger, as in other Bab\curus (Sissom, 
1990). 

Mesosoma: Tergite I without keels, tergites 1I-VI with a single granulate median keel; 
median keel weak on tergite II, moderate on III, strong on IV-VI; tergite VII pentacarinate, 
with a broad, convex granular median keel and two pairs of well developed crenulate lateral 
keels; all tergites with dense granulation on intercarinal surfaces and a row of separated gran- 
ules along posterior margin; sternite III with convex medial area slightly wrinkled, bearing 1 1 
reddish setae; sternites IV-VI smooth, with lateral margins lightly shagreened; sternite VII 
shagreened, with a pair of smooth, nearly obsolete median keels, and obsolete lateral keels 
indicated by fine granules; tips of pectines extending to proximal third of trochanter IV; pectinal 
tooth count, left 22, right 21; combs with nine smooth middle lamellae bearing few setae; basal 
middle lamella with rounded corners, proximal corner not produced into a lobe or projection; 
basal piece with transverse suture, anterior area convex on sides with a deep anterior median 
furrow lined with short macrosetae, posterior area flat, steeply sloped, border convex with a 
median lobe. 

Metasoma (Fig. 9) (nomenclature of Levy & Amitai, 1980): Segment I with 10 keels, 
intermediary keels complete; segments II-IV with 8 keels, intermediary keels absent; all keels 
obsolete on segment V; dorsal and dorsolateral keels moderately developed and finely crenu- 
late to serrate on segments I-III, weak and feebly granulate on IV; intermediary keels on I 
moderate, crenulate; ventrolateral keels weak and finely granulate on I-III, nearly obsolete on 
IV; ventral keels weak and nearly smooth on I-III, essentially obsolete on IV; dorsal and lateral 
intercarinal surfaces on segments I-III finely shagreened, more densely so on anterior seg- 



Vol. 1 11. No. 3, May & June. 2000 



187 







' 



ii?VT 

'<. :':':-ff!-:y.'.^. ^"J.i 1 , vT^. "'.'. . ; .; ;i'-| 












Figures 1-5. Babycurus exquisitus n.sp., male. 1, Carapace and tergites I-II. 2, Right 
hemispermatophore, lobes at base of flagellum, dorsal (left) and ental (right) aspects. 3, Right 
pedipalp chela, external aspect. 4, Left chela, movable finger dentition. 5, Left chela, fixed 
finger dentition. Figs. 1, 3-5: holotype male. Fig. 2: paratype male. 



188 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



ments; other intercarinal surfaces smooth; dorsal surface with shallow median furrow on I-IV, 
convex on V; chaetotaxy: segments I-IV with 3 pairs of macrosetae (including posterior mar- 
ginal setae) on ventral keels, 2 pairs of macrosetae on ventrolateral keels; metasoma V with 5- 
7 long, backwardly curved macrosetae along dorsolateral margins, and 2-3 curved macrosetae 
on posterior lateral flank; anal margin smooth, bearing over a dozen large and small setae. 

Telson: (Fig. 9) Telson smooth, slender, teardrop-shaped, with a prominent subaculear 
spine; ventral, lateral and posterior dorsal surfaces of vesicle clothed in a brush of numerous 
(approximately 140) long, curved macrosetae; dorsal surface also bearing scattered short, fine 
microsetae; aculeus shorter than vesicle, rather stoul and strongly curved. 

Pedipalp: Femur (Fig. 6) 3.86 times longer than wide, tetracarinate, with external, 
dorsoexternal, dorsointernal, and ventrointernal keels distinct, crenulate to serrate (Fig. 6); 
intercarinal surfaces smooth to shagreened; dorsal surface shagreened, dorsoexternal surface 




e2 



d5 




dl 



d4 



8 dl 



\ _\ , \ _\ \ 





Figures 6-9. Babycurus exquisitus n.sp., holotype male. 6, Right pedipalp femur, dorsal aspect. 
7, Right pedipalp patella, dorsal aspect. 8, Right pedipalp patella, external aspect. 9, Metasoma 
IV, V and telson, lateral aspect. 



Vol. 111. No. 3. May & June, 2000 189 



nearly smooth except for scattered proximal granules, ventral surface nearly smooth on distal 
half, with scattered granulation on proximal half; internal surface coarsely shagreened, divided 
by a broad ridge with coarse polished granules; patella (Figs. 7, 8) 3.18 times longer than wide, 
with five weak keels; dorsointernal and dorsomedian keels finely granular, dorsoexternal keel 
nearly smooth, external keel smooth, ventroexternal keel polished and weakly granulose; inter- 
nal surface divided by a granulate ridge; dorsointernal surface sparsely granular, other surfaces 
smooth; pedipalp chela (Fig. 3) smooth with digital and dorsal marginal keels weak, smooth, 
confined to distal manus and fixed finger; other keels obsolete; manus swollen, manus width/ 
underhand length 0.58; chela fingers slender, proximally scalloped; movable finger length/ 
underhand length 1.45; dentition (Figs. 4, 5): fixed finger with 8 subrows of primary denticles; 
movable finger with 8 subrows of primary denticles, including long compound proximal subrow 
on basal lobe; proximal three subrows of fixed finger and proximal two on movable finger 
composed of bicuspid denticles; enlarged primary denticle on subrows 1-6 of both fingers 
flanked by enlarged internal and external accessory denticles; proximal subrow of movable 
finger compound, with single enlarged internal accessory denticle near midpoint; tip of mov- 
able finger with two enlarged internal subdistal denticles flanked by an external row of four 
small denticles; tip of fixed finger with one enlarged internal subdistal denticle; trichobothrial 
pattern orthobothriotaxic, type A-fi (Vachon, 1974, 1975) (Figs. 3, 6-8); femur with 
trichobothrium d, displaced internally; chela with el located near distal end of denticle subrow 
4 of fixed finger, est at middle of subrow 5. 

Legs: Basitarsi with two ventral rows of long macrosetae and numerous smaller setae on 
prolateral and retrolateral surfaces; telotarsi with two ventral rows of short macrosetae, and 
sparse setation on prolateral and retrolateral surfaces; prolateral tarsal spurs with a small basal 
bifurcation bearing a single stout seta, retrolateral tarsal spurs simple; ungues stout. 

Measurements of holotype male (mm) (L, length; W, width; D, depth): total length 33.50; 
carapace, L 3.75, ocular tubercle to anterior margin 1 .08; metasoma I, L 2.50, W 2.00; metasoma 
II, L 3.00, W, 1.83; metasoma III, L 3.17, W 1.75; metasoma IV, L 3.67, W 1.75; metasoma V, 
L 4.17, W, 1.69; telson vesicle, W 1.08, D 1.17; pedipalp chela, L 6.54; underhand, L 2.67; 
manus, W 1.54, D 1.67; fixed finger, L 3.75, movable finger L 3.88; pedipalp femur, L 3.71, W 
0.96; pedipalp patella L 4.29, W 1.35; pectine, L 3.63. 

Hemispermatophore from paratype male (Fig. 2): two long, laminiform, apically blunt 
lobes at base of flagellum; inner lobe separate from flagellum, slightly widened at base; outer 
lobe opposing inner lobe; basal lobe rudimentary, forming a lamina on a low, transverse ridge. 

Paratype female (adult): differs from holotype male as follows: body larger, carapace 
and tergites proportionately wider; tergites flatter, less convex laterally; pedipalp patella more 
slender, 3.42 times longer than wide; pedipalp chela more slender, manus width/underhand 
length 0.53; fingers much longer, movable finger length/underhand length 2.35; proximal scal- 
loping absent; denticles in proximal subrows not bicuspid; fixed finger with 7 subrows of 
primary denticles, with compound proximal subrow formed by fusion of two subrows (fusion 
point marked by internal and external accessory denticles); movable finger with 8 subrows of 
primary denticles, including long, proximal subrow flanked by a single external accessory 
denticle; pectines shorter, only attaining distal tip of coxa IV; basal piece of pectines wider; 
metasoma IV with ventral and ventrolateral keels weak but distinct, smooth to weakly crenu- 
lated; metasoma V with ventrolateral keels weak, marked by fine granules; ventromedian keel 
indicated by weak, polished granulations; pectinal tooth counts and metasomal morphometrics 
similar in the two sexes. 

Measurements of paratype female (mm): total length 39.00; carapace, L 4.42, ocular tu- 
bercle to anterior margin 1.25; metasoma I, L 2.67, W 2.21; metasoma II, L 3.25, W 1.96; 
metasoma III, L 3.42, W 1.83; metasoma IV, L 3.92, W 1.79; metasoma V, L 4.58, W 1.75; 
telson vesicle, W 1.29, D 1.33; pedipalp chela, L 7.40; underhand, L 2.25; manus, W 1.21, D 
1.25, fixed finger, L 4.92, movable finger, L 5.29; pedipalp femur, L 4.17, W 1.17; pedipalp 
patella, L 4.92, W 1.44; pectine, L 3.46; pectinal tooth counts, left 22, right 22. 



190 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Variation. Adult males exhibit little variation in color, size or form: body 
length 33-34 mm, carapace length 3.65-3.75 mm; morphometric ratios: cara- 
pace width/length 0.91-0.94, pedipalp femur length/carapace length 0.98-1 .01, 
pedipalp femur length/width 3.67-3.86, pedipalp patella length/width 3.02- 
3.18, pedipalp movable finger length/underhand length 1.45-1.74; pedipalp 
chela length/width 4.25-4.66, metasomal segment length/width: I 1.16-1.25, 
II 1.55-1.64, III 1.64-1.82, IV 1.99-2.10, V 2.47-2.49. Male pectinal tooth 
counts: 21-22 (2 combs with 21 teeth, 4 with 22); pedipalp denticle subrows 
(including proximal): movable finger 8-9 (3 fingers with 8 subrows, 3 with 9), 
fixed finger 8. 

A single immature male differs fron> adults as follows: pedipalp: patella 
slightly more slender, chela more elongate, manus not swollen, fingers lack- 
ing proximal scalloping and bicuspid dentition; metasoma IV and V with fully 
developed carination, not convex and smooth; metasoma IV with ventral and 
ventrolateral keels moderate, smooth to weakly crenulate; metasoma V with 
ventromedian, ventrolateral and dorsolateral keels weak to moderate, smooth 
to weakly crenulate. 

Holotype. Adult male, Oman, Jabal Shams, Jabal Akhdar, Al Hajar Al Gharbi, 2314.29'N 
57 11. 62' E, 1855 m, ultraviolet detection on ground surface in gravelly wadi with trees and 
rocks, surrounded by boulder strewn slopes, 2 October 1994, G.Lowe, M.D.Gallagher; deposi- 
tory: Naturhistorisches Museum, Basel, Switzerland. 

Paratypes: 1 adult female, 1 immature, same locality as holotype (NMB); 1 adult male, 
Oman, Jabal Shams, Jabal Akhdar, Al Hajar Al Gharbi, ultraviolet detection, in narrow rocky 
wadi, walking slowly on rock, 2314.27'N 5711.68'E, 1870 m, 2 October 1994, G.Lowe, 
M.D.Gallagher (GL); 1 adult male, Oman, Jabal Shams, in spider web in tree, 2314.31'N 
5711.64'E, 1900 m, 14 October 1993, 21:12 hrs, G.Lowe, M.D.Gallagher (NMB). 

Comparative material: Babycurus zambonellii: holotype (male?), Ethiopia (Eritrea), 
Chenafena, Magretti (MRSN); 1 female, Yemen, Sana'a, June-July 1981, Lanza, Borri & Poggesi, 
(MZUF). 

Depositories: GL, collection of G.Lowe; NMB, Naturhistorisches Museum, Basel, Swit- 
zerland; MZUF, Museo Zoologico "La Specola" delFUniversita de Firenze, Florence, Italy; 
MRSN, Museo Regionale di Scienze Naturali, Turin, Italy. 

Etymology. The specific epithet derives from the Latin adjective, exquisitus, 
meaning careful or delicate, in reference to the behavior and morphology of 
the animal. 

Remarks: The holotype of Babycurus zambonellii from Eritrea was as- 
sumed to be a male (Borelli, 1902; Sissom, 1994). If so, it would be atypical in 
that it lacks certain male traits observed in some other members of genus: 
scalloping and bicuspid dentition at the base of the pedipalp fingers, and a 



Vol. 1 1 1. No. 3, May & June, 2000 191 



heavy, swollen manus. The manus resembles that of females of other African 
members of the genus. It is as robust as the manus of male B. exquisitus, but 
the latter species has more slender chelae than other Babycurus. Sissom (1994) 
referred a female from Sana'a, Yemen, to B. zambonellii. The form of the 
pedipalp and telson of this specimen are intermediate between the holotype of 
B. zambonellii and the paratype female B. exquisitus, but the metasoma is 
more elongate than either. Immature buthids can have a more slender pedipalp 
and metasoma; however, the size of the Sana'a female indicates it to be a 
subadult or adult. Study of additional material is needed to clarify variation 
and sexual dimorphism in B. zambonellii. 

The Babycurus in Eritrea, Sana'a and northern Oman comprise a series of 
allopatric populations likely to be related by common descent. All possess a 
dense brush of long setae on the telson, a unique synapomorphy within the 
genus. The decision to place the Jabal Akhdar population in a separate species 
is based on clear differences in the shape of the telson and pedipalp chelae, 
smaller body size, more delicate form, and the distance and isolation from its 
nearest relatives in southwest Arabia and Ethiopia. 

Babycurus is primarily an Afrotropical taxon adapted to mesic and humid 
environments. One may speculate that it invaded Arabia during the Miocene 
or earlier, crossing a land bridge at the south end of the Red Sea (Coleman, 
1993), and spreading to northern Oman under mesic conditions. Subsequent 
development of hot, arid conditions in Arabia and north Africa during the 
Quaternary period restricted its distribution to higher elevations. Post-Miocene 
uplift of the Al Hajar ranges (Lippard et al, 1986) provided a refuge for the 
northern populations. I propose that B. exquisitus represents a Pleistocene relict 
confined to the highest parts of the Al Hajar mountains. It has not been found 
in extensive collections made at lower elevations in the Al Hajar mountains 
and Batinah coastal region of northern Oman, and it is unknown from the hot, 
arid steppes and dune systems of central Oman. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

The author is grateful to: HH The Minister of National Heritage and Culture, Sultanate of 
Oman, for sponsoring the scorpion study; Michael D. Gallagher for his strong support and 
guidance, including participation in trips to Jabal Akhdar to collect the types of this new spe- 
cies; the staff of the Ministry of National Heritage and Culture who provided support for my 
1993-94 visits to Jabal Akhdar, including Said Ali Said AI-Farsi, and Saddiqa Rhamdan; 
Andrew S. Gardner, Jim Dundon, Ian Harrison, J.Neil Barnes and many other collectors in 
Oman; the curators who loaned Babycurus material: L.Bartolozzi and Sarah Whitman (MZUF), 
N. Franzese and Lisa Levi (MRSN), H.W. Levi and Laura Leibensperger (Museum of Com- 
parative Zoology, Harvard University) and Scott F.Larcher (National Museum of Natural His- 
tory, Washington DC); and FrantiSek Kovarfk and Michael E. Soleglad for critical review of 
the manuscript, helpful comments and discussion. 



192 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



LITERATURE CITED 

Borelli, A. 1902. Di una nuova specie di scorpione della Colonia Eritrea. Boll. Mus. Zool. 
Anat. comp. R. Univ. Torino. 17 (422): 1-3. 

Coil-man, R.G. 1993. Geologic evolution of the Red Sea. Oxford Monogr. Geol. Geophys. No. 
24, New York, Oxford Univ. Press. 

I , amoral, B.H. & Reynders, S.C. 1975. A catalogue of the scorpions described from the Ethio- 
pian faunal region up to December 1973. Ann. Natal Mus. 22 (2): 489-576. 

Levy, G. & Amilai, P. 1980. Fauna Palaestina. Arachnida I. Scorpiones. Jerusalem: The Israel 
Acad. Sciences and Humanities. 

Lippard, S.J., Shelton, A.W. & Gass, I.G. 1986. The ophiolite of northern Oman. Mem. 
Geol. Soc. London. No. 1 1. Oxford, Blackwell. 

Sissom, W. D. 1990. Systematics, biogeography and paleontology. In: G. A. Polis (ed.), Biol- 
ogy of Scorpions, pp. 64-160. Stanford Univ. Press, Stanford, CA. 

Sissom, W.D. 1994. Descriptions of new and poorly known scorpions of Yemen (Scorpiones: 
Buthidae, Diplocentridae, Scorpionidae). Fauna Saudi Arabia. 14: 3-39. 

Vachon, M. 1940. Voyage en A.O.F. de L. Berland et J. Millot - Scorpions. V. Bull. Soc. Zool. 
Fr. 65: 170-184, figs. 1-25. 

Vachon, M. 1974. Etude des caracteres utilises pour classer les families et les genres de Scor- 
pions (Arachnides). Bull. Mus. Nat. d'Hist. Nat. Paris, (3), 140 (Zool. 104), 1973: 857- 
958. 

Vachon, M. 1975. Sur 1'utilisation de la trichobothriotaxie du bras des pedipalpes des Scorpi- 
ons (Arachnides) dans le classement des genres de famille des Buthidae Simon. C.R. Hebd. 
Stances Acad. Sci., D. 281 (21): 1597-1599. 



Vol. 1 1 1. No. 3. May & June. 2000 



FIRST REPORT OF CALLEIDA (CALLEIDA) 

PURPUREA (COLEOPTERA: CARABIDAE) 

IN MINNESOTA AND A NOTE ON ITS OCCURRENCE 

ON PASQUE FLOWER^ 

Paul P. Tinerella 3 

ABSTRACT: The carabid beetle species, Calleida purpurea is reported here for the first time 
from Minnesota. At present, no published records exist for the adjacent states of North Dakota 
and Iowa. This species has been reported (cited as rare) from South Dakota (Kirk and Balsbaugh 
1975), Wisconsin, and Manitoba (Bousquet and Larochelle 1993). 

A total of 38 specimens of the carabid beetle, Calleida purpurea (Say) was 
collected from pitfall traps on the Felton Prairie Complex, Clay County, north- 
western Minnesota, at 4703'20"N, 9625'45"W. Specimens were collected 
from May-September, during 1995 through 1999. On 14 May 1998, a single 
specimen was collected from Pasque flower. Anemone patens Linnaeus, dur- 
ing routine early season set-up of field transects. Before its collection, this 
specimen was observed moving about on the flower. 

All specimens were collected from 3 adjacent transects within the Felton 
Prairie Complex. The transect sites are located on dry tall-grass prairie. Pitfall 
traps were placed on gravelly ridges which grade from east to west, onto slightly 
mesic prairie. Vegetation on these sites consists of dry ground, tall-grass prai- 
rie indicator species such as Pasque flower, A. patens, Purple Coneflower, 
Echinacea angustifolia DC., Pussytoes, Antennaria spp., and at least two spe- 
cies of Blazing Star, Liatris spp. 

Taxonomic notes on Calleida Latreille & Dejean- Adults of the genus 
Calleida are slender, metallic, medium sized beetles (6.0- 10.0 mm). The 
genus, in habitus, appears similar to the platynine genus Agonum Bonelli, but 
is distinguished immediately by the presence of one pair of supraorbital punc- 
tures (2 pairs of supraorbital punctures are present in the Platynini), and the 
deeply bilobed or emarginate fourth tarsal segment. Calleida purpurea is an 
uncommon carabid species; adults are readily recognized by the metallic blue- 
green color of the integument, bilobed fourth tarsal segment, the yellowish- 
red third and fourth antennomeres, and the rounded hind angles of the pronotum. 
The species is keyed in Lindroth (1969:1060). 

Natural History of Calleida Latreille & Dejean- The genus Calleida 
belongs to the large, polygeneric tribe Lebiini. The tribe is most speciose in 
the tropics, where its members exhibit an arboreal habit. In temperate regions, 



1 Received November 3, 1999; Accepted December 27, 1999. 

2 Approved as North Dakota Insects Publication No. 17 Schafer-Post Series. 

3 Department of Entomology, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND 58105. 

ENT. NEWS 1 1 1 (3): 1 93- 1 95, May & June 2000 



194 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



most members of the tribe are ground dwelling or "planticolous"- dwelling on 
bushes and herbs (Lindroth 1969, Larson 1969). Members of the subgenus 
Calleida Dejean are cited by Lindroth (1969) as arboreal - usually dwelling 
on bushes and herbs, however, specific ecological details were not recorded 
for C. purpurea. Larson (1969) discussed the arboreal nature of the subtribe 
Calleidina, noting that many species of the subgenus Philophuga Motschulsky 
[treated by Larson as a genus, see Lindroth, 1969], had been collected from 
vegetation. In his review, Larson included label data confirming the presence 
of Calleida (Philophuga) spp. on specific plant species. The larvae of C. decora 
(F). and C. purpurea were examined by van Emden (1942); however, no eco- 
logical information was recorded. Adults of the genus are thought to be preda- 
ceous (Lindroth 1969), with C. (Calleida) punctata LeConte and C. (Calleida) 
decora being specialized feeders on noctuid and pyralid caterpillars (Watson 
1916;Dozier 1917). 

The presence of specific plant species on the Felton Prairie Complex, in 
association with soil type and soil moisture, may be indicative of suitable habitat 
for C. purpurea. All specimens of C. purpurea reported from the Felton Prai- 
rie Complex occur on sites with similar vegetation, soil type, and similar mois- 
ture gradients. On adjacent transects, where soil moisture and floral composi- 
tion differ, no C. purpurea have been collected. The highly fragmented state 
of such habitat, both locally and regionally, coupled with a previous lack of 
collecting on such habitats, may perhaps explain the lack of records of this 
species in Minnesota. All specimens of C. purpurea reported here were depos- 
ited in the North Dakota State Insect Reference Collection. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

I thank David A. Rider, Dept. of Entomology, North Dakota State University, Allan C. 
Ashworth, & Donald P. Schwert, Dept. of Geosciences, North Dakota State University, for 
review and comments pertaining to the manuscript. Appreciation is also extended to Gerald M. 
Fauske, Dept. of Entomology, North Dakota State University for discussion and comments 
pertaining to the Felton Prairie Complex. The helpful comments and suggestions of two anony- 
mous reviewers is also acknowledged, their comments serving to improve the manuscript. I 
also wish to thank Brian Winter, The Nature Conservancy - Minnesota Chapter, for coordina- 
tion and access to the Felton Prairie Complex. Financial support for this research was provided 
by the Minnesota Chapter of the Nature Conservancy, the Wisconsin Department of Natural 
Resources, and the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, Nongame Wildlife Fund. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Bousquet, Y. A. Larochelle. 1993. Catalogue of the Geadephaga (Coleoptera: Trachypachidae, 

Rhysodidae, Carabidae, including Cicindelini) of America North of Mexico. Mem. Entomol. 

Soc. Can. (167) 1-397. 
Dozier, H.L 1917. The life history of the Okra or Mallow caterpillar (Cosmophilaerosa Hiibner). 

J. Econ. Entomol. 10: 536-542. 
Emden, F. I. van, 1942. A key to the genera of larval Carabidae. Trans. Royal Entomol. Soc. 

London. 92: 1-99. 



Vol. 1 1 1 , No. 3, May & June. 2000 195 



Kirk, V.M. and E.U. Balsbaugh Jr. 1975. A list of the beetles of South Dakota. Agric. Exp. 

Sta. So. Dak. State Univ. 139 pp. 
Larson, D.J. 1969. A revision of the genera Philophuga Motschoulsky and Technophilus 

Chaudoir with notes on the North American Callidina (Coleoptera: Carabidae) Quaest. 

Entomol. 5:15-84. 
Lindroth C.H. 1969. The ground beetles (Carabidae excl. of Cicindelinae) of Canada and 

Alaska. Part 6. Opus. Entomol., Suppl. 34(1969): 945-1192. 
Watson, J.R. 1916. Life history of the velvet-bean caterpillar (Anticarsia gemmatilis Hubner). 

J. Econ. Entomol. 9: 521-528. 



196 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



FIRST RECORD OF THE GENUS PSEPHENOPS 

(COLEOPTERA: PSEPHENIDAE) FROM MEXICO, 

WITH A DESCRIPTION OF A NEW SPECIES 1 

Roberto Arce-Perez, Rodolfo Novelo-Gutierrez^ 

ABSTRACT.- Psephenops mexicanus, new species, is described based on specimens collected 
in a stream running through a cloud forest at Xico Viejo (1800 m asl), Veracruz State, Mexico, 
bringing the total number of described species assigned to the genus to seven. Complete illus- 
trations are provided, for the first time, for the genus Psephenops. 

The genus Psephenops (= Xexanchorinus) is comprised of six known spe- 
cies, with an apparent fragmentary distribution: P. smithi Grouvelle, 1898 
(Antillean); P. grouvellei Champion, 1913 (Guatemala); P. haitianus 
Darlington, 1936 (Haiti); P. maculicollis Darlington, 1936 (Colombia and Costa 
Rica), P. argentinensis Deleve, 1967 (Argentina) and P. prestonae Spangler, 
1990 (Costa Rica). In this paper, we provide the first record of the genus for 
Mexico along with the description of a new species. 

METHODS 

Fifteen specimens were collected in a stream located at Xico Viejo village 
(1800 m altitude), Municipality of Xico, Veracruz State, Mexico. Individuals 
were initially preserved in ethanol 80% and some were later pinned; all col- 
lected material was examined. Male genitalia were extracted in ethanol, and 
potassium hydroxide (KOH 5%) was used to clear genitalia, which were used 
to make illustrations. Microphotographs were taken with a scanning electron 
microscope JEOL, model JSM T20 with magnification of 200x. 

Psephenops mexicanus, NEW SPECIES 

(Figs. 1-4) 

DESCRIPTION: Holotype Male: Body oval, depressed; integument black, with reddish-yel- 
low reflections, completely covered with iridescent, reddish-yellow, short setae; head, anten- 
nae, pronotum and scutellum black; elytra dark reddish brown, slightly elevated at humeral 
region; legs dark reddish brown, darker than elytra; ventrally reddish black, vestiture short, 
fine and dense, grayish, with iridescent, yellow reflections; total length 3.3 mm, maximum 
humeral width 1.5 mm. 

Head (Fig. 1): Black and short, transverse; clypeus subrectangular, declivous at an angle 
of less than 90 degrees from the plane of the frons, distal margin widely emarginate; fronto- 
clypeal surface with long, robust and stiff setae; vertex minutely punctate, with minute setae 
and a very shallow longitudinal furrow at middle. Antennae moniliform, 11 segmented, scape 



1 Received April 19, 1999. Accepted November 8, 1999. 

2 Institute de Ecologfa, A.C. Departamento de Entomologfa. Apartado Postal 63, 91000 Xalapa, 
Veracruz, Mexico. E-mail: entomol@ecologia.edu. mx 

ENT. NEWS 1 1 1(3): 196-200, May & June 2000 



Vol. 1 1 1. No. 3. May & June. 2000 197 



larger than other segments, pedicel 0.60 length of scape and subglobose; 8 flagellar segments 
small, apical segment acuminate. Eyes lateral, rounded, very prominent, dark reddish brown; 
with post-ocular area amber yellow. Labrum similar to clypeus but shorter; maxillary palpi 4 
segmented (Fig. 2), covered with long setae; segment 1 smallest; the apical segment largest; 
relative proportion of segments: 0.40, 0.80, 0.60, 1.0, basal segments 1-3 subconical; segment 
4 oval, slightly depressed and ending in an inner subapical ridge. Labial palpi very short (Fig. 
2), 3 segmented; segments 1-2 rounded and wide, segment 3 subconical and slightly longer 
than preceding ones. 

Thorax: Pronotum black and subtrapezoidal (posterior margin 1.4 mm, lateral margin 
0.78 mm); anterior margin arcuate; posterior margin bisinuate and almost as wide as elytral 
base (Fig. 1); lateral margins straight along anterior half and expanded laterally on posterior 
half; posterolateral angles subacute; all margins narrowly rimmed; pronotal disc with middor- 
sal longitudinal carina (Fig. 1), carina well developed at distal half, and a wide, shallow, circu- 
lar depression at each side of carina; in profile view, pronotal disc (except for posterolateral 
expansions) convex; pronotal surface with a punctation coarser than that of the head, and cov- 
ered with short, cineraceous-yellow setae, and long dark reddish setae, setae shorter than those 
of head. Scutellum short and black, bluntly-pointed at apex. 

Elytra: dark reddish brown, with short yellow setae and long reddish-yellow setae; sides 
parallel on basal 0.75, then gradually converging rearwardly; base depressed on each side within 
humeri; surface without striae; length (from base to apex of suture) 2.45 mm; width (across 
humerus), 1.55 mm. Prosternum black, short and slightly carinate; with long, concave, lan- 
ceolate and slightly carinate postcoxal process (Fig. 2), which reaches anterior half of mesos- 
ternum. Mesosternum black, short; with wide groove for reception of prosternal process. Meta- 
sternum black, large and bulky. 

Legs: procoxae globose, mesocoxae conical, and metacoxae transverse; femora robust 
with yellowish-gray setae; tibiae slender; metatibiae as long as femora; protibiae with distinct 
apical posterolateral denticle; tarsi, 5 segmented, tarsomeres 1 and 2 bilobed, with ventral, 
moderately rolled-up, spongy-like pad covered with dense short pubescence ventrally; spongy- 
like pad of tarsomere 1 extending distally to level where tarsomere 2 divides; spongy-like pad 
of tarsomere 2 largest, extending distally and covering area beneath tarsomeres 3,4 and most of 
5; proportional length of tarsomeres: 0.30, 1.0, 0.25, 0.20, 0.65; a pair of long, curved, and 
slender apical claws present; with small basal tooth. 

Abdomen: Vestiture short, fine, dense and grayish; with distinct, yellow, iridescent re- 
flections on segments 1-3; setae long, black and stout on segments 4-7. Seven visible sterna in 
relaxed specimens; usually the segment 6 hidden under segment 5. Sternum 2 the largest. Pos- 
terior margin of sternum 1 deeply concave at middle, sinuate at sides. Posterior margin of 
sternum 2 as in sternum 1 but concavity shallow medially. Posterior margin of sterna 3 and 4 
straight, that of sternum 5 with a wide and shallow concavity at each side of midline. Sternum 
6 very short, posterior margin widely concave. Pygidial plate narrow, oval, as long as sternum 
5, and densely covered with long and stiff black setae. 

Genitalia (Figs. 3-4): Trilobate, total length 0.57 mm. Paramere, in dorsal view, as in Fig. 
3a; length 0.27 mm. Penis longer than paramere; in ventral view (Fig. 4a), apical half 
subtriangular, lanceolate; with a small tooth-like lateral projection at each side of basal 0.50, 
bearing a longitudinal lance-shaped sclerite along base; penis length, 0.22 mm. Phallobase, in 
lateral view, concave dorsally; in ventral view, bulky, hemicylindrical; length 0.24 mm, width 
0.22 mm. 

Female: Unknown. 

Variation in paratype series.- Some specimens have the elytra and legs 
black or reddish-brown; posterior margin of abdominal sternum 5 not clearly 
convex at middle. One specimen has antennal segments 5 and 6 almost merged. 



198 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 





a 





Figs. 1-4, Psephenops mexicanus sp. nov. 1) Details of head and pronotum showing middorsal 
carina, dorsal view; 2) detail of venter showing prosternal process; 3) and 4) male genitalia: 3a) 
diagram, dorsal view, showing bulky phallobase and paramere, 3b) microphotograph, dorsoapical 
view; 4a) diagram, ventral view, showing long penis and lanceolate apical half, 4b) micropho- 
tograph, ventrobasal view. 



Vol. 1 1 1. No. 3, May & June. 2000 199 

Measurements (in mm): total length of body, 3.15-3.55; maximum width 
1.45-1.7; length of pronotum 0.75-0.8, basal width 1.35-1.45; elytral length 
2.25-2.60. 

DISCUSSION 

Psephenops mexicanus, n. sp., may be separated from the other species of 
the genus by the following combination of characters: sides of pronotum straight 
on anterior half, suddenly and distinctly convex at posterior half; segment 4 of 
maxillary palpus almost twice as long as segment 3 and only slightly longer 
than segment 2; elytra without conspicuous striae; seven abdominal sterna 
visible; male paramere with the lateral sides almost straight, apex subtruncate; 
penis lanceolate and conspicuously longer than paramere. Psephenops 
mexicanus, n. sp., resembles other species in the following features: total length 
(grouvellei) (Champion, 1913); antennal scape almost two times longer than 
pedicel (haitianus [Darlington, 1936] and prestonae [Spangler, 1990]); num- 
ber of sterna visible (haitianus, maculicollis, smithi [Darlington, 1936]; 
prestonae [Spangler, 1990]). Apparently, P. mexicanus is most similar to P. 
maculicollis. 

Finally, it is important to note that this species represents the seventh de- 
scribed species of the genus, and is the northernmost record of the genus 
Psephenops. 

Type material. Holotype labeled: "MEXICO, Veracruz, Xico, Xico Viejo; 1800 m, bosque 
mes6filo de montana, 3-VIII-98, R. Arce col." Nine male paratypes, same data as holotype, 
except: 25-VI1-97, ICf; 26-VII-98, 4 Cfcf. Holotype and paratypes deposited at Colecci6n 
Entomol6gica, Institute de Ecologfa, A.C., Xalapa, Veracruz, Mexico (IEXA). 

Etymology. Because it is the first record of the genus for the country, it is 
named mexicanus. 

Type locality. Xico Viejo, Xico, Veracruz, Mexico. 

Habitat. Adult males of Psephenops mexicanus were captured in a stream 
with rapid water flow, on emergent and overhanging riparian vegetation, as 
well as on big rocks not exposed directly to the water current but in the spray 
zone. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

We thank Alonso Ramirez (Georgia) for his invaluable help with the English syntax for 
the final manuscript and also providing part of the literature. Tiburcio Ldez Aponte took the 
microphotographs and Cesar Rojas composed the illustrations. Finally, special thanks are due 
to Harley P. Brown (Oklahoma), and an anonymous reviewer for their comments and sugges- 
tions for the final manuscript. 



200 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



LITERATURE CITED 

Champion, G.C. 1913. III. Notes on various Central American Coleoptera, with descriptions 

of new genera and species. Trans. Entomol. Soc. London. 1913:62-169. 
Grouvelle, A.H. 1898. Clavicornes de Grenada et de St. Vincent (Antilles) recoltes par M.H.H. 

Smith, et appartenant au Musee de Cambridge. Notes from the Leyden Museum 20:35-48. 
Darlington, PJ. 1936. A list of the West Indian Dryopidae (Coleoptera) with a new genus and 

eight species, including one from Colombia. Psyche 43:65-83. 
Deleve, J. 1967. Contribution a I' etude des Dryopoidea (Coleoptera). XIX. Notes diverse et 

descriptions d' especes nouvelles. Bull. Ann. Soc. Entomol. Belgique 103:414-445. 
Spangler, PJ. 1990. A new species and new record of the water-penny genus Psephenops 

(Coleoptera: Psephenidae) from Costa Rica. Entomol. News 101(3):137-139. 



Vol. 1 1 1. No. 3. May & June. 2000 201 

FORAGING DISTANCE OF POGONOMYRMEX 

OCCIDENTALS (HYMENOPTERA: FORMICIDAE) 

ON GRAZED AND UNGRAZED SHORTGRASS 

PRAIRIES IN COLORADO 1 

Shaharra J. Usnick^ 

ABSTRACT: Western harvester ants (Pogonomyrmex occidentalis) are granivores that prefer- 
entially collect certain seeds. In the ants' search for these preferred seeds, their foraging dis- 
tances can be lengthy. However, the effects of grazing on P. occidentalis foraging distances 
have not been sufficiently studied. To test whether the ants foraged farther in grazed than in 
ungrazed sites, I offered commercial seeds (wheat and millet) at varying distances from the 
nests (6, 10, 12, 15, and 18m). Western harvester ants foraged significantly greater distances in 
grazed sites than in ungrazed sites. I conclude that the ants forage farther to collect their pre- 
ferred seeds in grazed ecosystems because there is more bare ground, a consequence of grazing. 

Pogonomyrmex species foragers often travel long distances to collect pre- 
ferred seeds (Rogers 1974, Whitford 1978, DeVita 1979, Anderson 1988, 
Holldobler & Wilson 1 992). DeVita ( 1 979) found that the foraging activity of 
P. californicus in the Mojave desert was highest near the nest, but that indi- 
vidual ants foraged up to 13m away from their nests. Rogers (1974) studied 
foraging in northeastern Colorado in lightly grazed and heavily grazed grass- 
lands; maximum foraging distances were 11.0 m and 14.3 m, respectively. 
Rogers' differences were not significant, but the data support DeVita' s find- 
ings in terms of the maximum foraging distance for the ants. Other studies 
have verified these foraging distances for Pogonomyrmex species and other 
granivorous ants (Whitford 1976, Anderson 1988). Fewell (1988) showed that 
on sparsely vegetated sites, such as grazed sites, western harvester ants walked 
significantly faster and traveled significantly farther. In this study I tested the 
hypothesis that western harvester ants forage farther in grazed sites than in the 
ungrazed sites. 

MATERIALS AND METHODS 

In order to determine the maximum foraging distance of the ants and to 
establish whether this distance varied between the grazed and ungrazed sites, 
I offered millet and crushed wheat seeds to the ants in petri dishes. These 
seeds were offered at varying distances away from the nests on two study 
sites, one grazed and one ungrazed. Millet and crushed wheat seeds were of- 



1 Manuscript received November 23, 1998. Accepted January 19, 2000. 

2 Previous Address: High Plains Grassland Research Station, USDA Agricultural Research Ser- 
vice, 84008 Hildreth Road, Cheyenne, WY 82009. 

Current Address: USDA-ARS, Southern Weed Science Research Unit, 141 Experiment Sta- 
tion Road, Stoneville, MS 38776. 

ENT. NEWS 1 1 1(3): 201-205, May & June 2000 



202 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



fered because preliminary experiments showed that the ants readily collected 
these seeds. However, the use of crop seeds did not lead to an overestimation 
of foraging distances because I followed the ants' trunk trails as they foraged 
up to and beyond the tested distances prior to the availability of crop seeds. 

Both grazed and ungrazed sites were located in Boulder County, CO. One 
site was located in Louisville on Rock Creek, which is owned by Boulder 
County Open Space. The second site was located on Horse Creek Ranch, just 
north of the City of Boulder. 

At each site, a minimum of three nests were tested but whenever possible 
more nests were used. Therefore, a minimum of 15 nests were tested during 
these times. These nests were well established and were approximately the 
same size and age. 

I placed the seeds in petri dishes and set them in or near an active trunk 
trail. The active trunk trails were randomly chosen. The seeds were placed 
near the trunk trails to ensure that the ants would find the dishes and forage 
from them. Only one trial per day was run to avoid "forager memory" of the 
dish placement. In addition, trials were done on alternating days. 

Beginning 23 June, 1994, crop seeds in shallow petri dishes were placed at 
6, 10, 12, 15, and 18m from the nest entrance. The test ended at 18m because 
previous studies showed that the ants foraged primarily up to 14m. In addi- 
tion, I found low numbers of ants at the ungrazed sites at the farther distances 
away from the nests. 

Ants were observed for 2 minutes every 15 minutes for a minimum of 8 
observation periods per distance per nest. A total of 266 observation periods 
were done over the field season. 

Ants that were within one meter on either side of the dish or were actually 
in the dish were counted as foraging at the dishes. In addition, dishes were 
placed at only one distance at a time to avoid distracting the ants to closer 
dishes and to allow the establishment and maintenance of a trunk trail to the 
dish. 

The data were analyzed by using a two-way ANOVA for unequal sample 
numbers, with sampling periods within nests as the samples. This test was 
done to test the interaction between grazing treatment and foraging distance. 

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 

A significantly (P< 0.0001 ) larger concentration of ants foraged at the longer 
distances for seeds on the grazed sites than on the ungrazed ones (Fig. 1 ). On 
both grazed and ungrazed sites, there was a high concentration of ant foragers 
at 6m. However, the number of foragers decreased sharply after 6m in the 
ungrazed sites while ants on the grazed sites regularly foraged at 18m and at 
all intermediate distances (Fig. 1). A significantly larger concentration of ants 
foraged at longer distances in the grazed sites than in the ungrazed sites (P< 
0.001). The largest number of foraging ants in the grazed site was observed at 



Vol. 1 1 1. No. 3. May & June. 2000 



203 



Foraging Distance in Grazed and Ungrazed Sites 



Grazed Sites 
Ungrazed Sites 




Meter distance away from the nest. 

Fig. 1. Foraging distances of western harvester ants (Pogonomyrmex occidentals Cresson) on 
grazed and ungrazed shortgrass rangeland (lines at the top of each bar indicate standard error ot 
means). 



204 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



18m (Fig. 1). In addition, when a two-way ANOVA was done on the interac- 
tion of ant numbers for each distance at grazed and ungrazed sites, the differ- 
ence was highly significant (P< 0.0001 ). 

The greater distances traveled on the grazed sites were likely caused by 
the increase in bare ground produced by livestock grazing (Milchunas et al. 
1989, 1992; Gillen et al. 1991; Bock and Bock 1993), although the amount of 
bare ground and availability of the ants' preferred seeds were not examined in 
this study, I believe that this hypothesis is correct because Fewell (1988) showed 
that on sparsely vegetated sites, such as grazed sites, P. occidentalis walked 
significantly faster and farther without an increase in foraging time. In this 
study, the ants in the grazed sites foraged farther than those in the ungrazed 
sites to collect seeds, perhaps because there was more bare ground on the grazed 
sites, which lowered the likelihood that the ants would encounter a preferred 
seed in the shorter foraging ranges. However, in order to accurately determine 
if grazing treatments did affect the ants and their foraging distances, an accu- 
rate estimate of the number of ants or nests per hectare needs to be done. 

Several other studies examined the foraging distance of P. occidentalis 
but those distances were not as long as those in this study. Crist and MacMahon 
(1992) found that foraging activity was concentrated 2-7m from the nest but 
could progress up to 7- 12m. Rogers (1974) found that the maximum foraging 
distances of P. occidentalis were 14.3m in lightly grazed grasslands and 1 1 .Om 
in heavily grazed grasslands. Rogers' findings are similar to mine because I 
found that the ants on the grazed sites commonly foraged farther, up to and 
beyond 18m away from the nest, whereas, in the ungrazed sites the ants for- 
aged primarily at 6m. 

Crist and MacMahon (1991) found that individual ants exhibited fidelity 
in their search sites, as well as a fidelity to certain seeds of certain select spe- 
cies. Their findings suggested that individual ants may forage in the same 
direction each day. In my study, individual ants could be actively foraging in 
the direction of previous dishes. However, the ants' fidelity is unlikely to arti- 
ficially increase the foraging distance encountered in my study because my 
tests were not done on consecutive days. 

The exact reason for the ants' extended foraging distances in the grazed 
sites remains unclear because there was a greater concentration of the ants' 
preferred seed species within 10m of the ant nests in the grazed sites. The first 
two preferred seed species of these ants were Heterotheca villosa (Asteraceae) 
and Stipa comata (Gramineae) (Usnick, 1996). Although the ants' preferred 
seed species are more abundant in the grazed than in the ungrazed sites, there 
was also a higher abundance of exotic, annual plants, which the ants do not 
prefer (Usnick, 1996). 

Harvester ants do appear to have a preferred foraging habitat, which in this 
study is grazed grasslands. However, how these preferences are affected by 
habitat characteristics, such as increased bare ground and increased amounts 



Vol. Ill, No. 3. May & June. 2000 205 



of exotic plants caused by grazing, remains unknown due to the difficulty in 
eliminating abiotic and biotic factors from the environment. 

In addition, due to these environmental factors, colony growth over the 
year may be fairly flexible. The amount of seeds that the ants are capable of 
collecting would be less that the colony needs. This is especially apparent 
during the summer months when colony growth is at its highest point. There- 
fore, the ants may travel farther during the summer months than they would 
during other times of the year when they do not have the additional colony 
growth. These extended foraging distances would be especially apparent on 
grazed grasslands. Although grazed grasslands have higher numbers of the 
ants' preferred plant species (Usnick, 1996), they also have increased amounts 
of bare ground and more exotic plant species. Therefore the ants may have to 
forage farther and spend larger amounts of time to collect preferred seeds. 

In conclusion, western harvester ants forage up to and beyond 1 8m in grazed 
shortgrass prairies, while most ants on ungrazed prairies foraged primarily at 
6m. I suggest that grazed grasslands have larger amounts of bare ground and 
therefore, the ants must travel farther in grazed sites to find their preferred 
seeds. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

Thanks to Boulder County Open Space for generous use of the sites. Also I thank Richard 
Hart, Brian Kreiser, Rob Kaczanowski, and Susan and Chenoa Usnick for their help on various 
aspects of this project. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Anderson, A. N. 1988. Dispersal Distance as a Benefit of Myrmecochory, Oecologia 75:507- 

511. 

Bock, C. E. & J.H. Bock 1993. Cover of Perennial Grasses in Southeastern Arizona in Rela- 
tion to Livestock Grazing, Conserv. Bio. 7(3): 371-377. 

Crist, T. O. & J. A. MacMahon 1991. Individual Foraging Components of Harvester Ants: 
Movement Patterns and Seed Patch Fidelity, Insect Socieux 38: 379-396. 

DeVita, J. 1979. Mechanisms of Interference and Foraging among Colonies of the Harvester 
ant Pogonomyrmex californicus in the Mojave Desert, Ecology 60(4): 729-737. 

Fewell, J. H. 1988. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 88(22): 401-408. 

Gillen, R.L., F. T. McCollum, M. E. Hodges, J. E. Brummer, & Tate, K.W. 1991. Plant 
Community Responses to Short Duration Grazing in Tallgrass Prairie, Jrn. of Range Mgmt. 
44(2): 124-128. 

Holldobler, B. & E. O. Wilson 1992. The Ants, Harvard University Press, Boston, MA. 

Milchunas, D.G., W. K. Lauenroth, P. L. Chapman, & M. K. Kazempour 1989. Effects of 
Grazing, Topography, and Precipitation on the Structure of a Semiarid grassland, Vegetatio 
80: 11-23. 

Rogers, L.E. 1974. Foraging Activity of the Western Harvester Ant in the Shortgrass Plains 
Ecosystem, Environ. Entomol. 3(3): 420-424. 

Usnick, S J. 1 996. Seasonal Seed Preference & Foraging Distance of Pogonomyrmex occidentalis 
(Hymenoptera: Formicidae), Western Harvester Ants, in the Grasslands surrounding Boul- 
der Co., CO. Univ. Colorado, Boulder. M.A. Thesis (unpubl.). 

Whitford, W.G. 1978. Foraging in Seed-Harvesting Ants Pogonomyrmex spp, Ecology 59(1): 
185-189 



206 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



AN ANNOTATED LIST OF TRICHOPTERA ALONG 

SEVERAL STREAMS IN THE BANKHEAD NATIONAL 

FOREST IN NORTHWEST ALABAMA 1 

M. B. Hicks 2 , C. G. Haynes 3 

ABSTRACT: The distribution and seasonal occurrence of adult Trichoptera at fifteen stream 
sites within the Bankhead National Forest is presented. Annotations include information on 
species habitat and relative abundance. The trichopteran fauna was represented by 135 species. 
Forty-four species previously unknown from this area and two species that appear to be en- 
demic were collected. One species collected is a new state record for Alabama (Pycnopsyche 
guttifer), and one species is new to science (Setodes n. sp.) 

The Bankhead National Forest (BNF) is the largest of Alabama's National 
forests. It is distinctive among other national forests in the state because it 
contains the Sipsey Wilderness Area. The relative absence of certain anthro- 
pogenic activities, for example, silvaculture, poultry operations and industrial 
facilities in the National Forest, especially within the Sipsey Wilderness Area, 
has enhanced its ability to sustain populations of flora and fauna that might 
not exist in other more impacted streams in Alabama. Previous surveys have 
detected several rare or restricted plants and animals (Harris 1990; McDearman 
1976; McGregor 1992), but studies of caddisflies in the area have been few. 
Several caddisflies found in the BNF are thought to be rare or restricted in 
distribution (Harris 1990). 

The BNF is situated in Franklin, Lawrence, and Winston Counties in North- 
west Alabama, and lies almost entirely within the Cumberland Plateau in the 
Appalachian Plateau physiographic province, with a small northern portion 
located in the Highland Rim. Although the Bankhead has remained somewhat 
protected for a large part of this century, increases in silvaculture, poultry 
industries, and strip mining over the past several decades have increased the 
chances for degradation to occur in streams draining this region. Because of 
this possible risk coupled with the relatively unknown insect fauna of this 
region, a survey and analysis of the caddisfly fauna of several streams in the 
forest was initiated. 

Fifteen sites on fourteen streams located throughout the BNF were sampled 
monthly for one year, during the months between January and December 1 993. 
The majority of the BNF lies within the Mobile Bay Drainage and contains 
tributaries of the Sipsey Fork of the Black Warrior River. However, Tennes- 
see River tributaries drain a small portion of it, one of which. Lee Creek was 

1 Received December 20, 1998. Accepted December 27, 1999. 

2 Mississippi Department of Environmental Quality, 2142 Jackson Ave. West, Oxford, MS 
38655. 

3 Department of Biology, Shelton State Community College, Cottondale, AL 35405. 

ENT. NEWS 1 1 1(3): 206-214, May & June 2000 



Vol. 1 1 1 . No. 3. May & June. 2000 207 



sampled. The remaining streams are all part of the Mobile Bay Drainage. The 
majority of the forest is underlain by sandstone and shale of the Pottsville 
Formation of the Pennsylvanian age, with limestone and dolomite crops oc- 
curring in the upper area ranging in age from Early Mississippian to Early 
Pennsylvanian (Adams et al. 1926). Streams that lie in the Cumberland Pla- 
teau portion of the forest all flow to the south and are tributaries to the Black 
Warrior River. The larger streams occupy deeply entrenched valleys, with 
overhanging bedrock cliffs occurring throughout the drainage basin. Streams 
located in the northern boundaries of the forest lie within the Highland Rim 
Province and drain to the Tennessee River. This area is characterized by gen- 
tly rolling hills, and the majority of the streams are slow and meandering. The 
benthic substrates of streams occurring in the Bankhead, although variable, 
consist primarily of flat bedrock with large, flat slabs of sandstone. A few of 
the smaller streams have sandy substrates, and streams draining the Bangor 
Limestone have limestone substrates of cobbles and boulders. Thompson Creek 
in western Lawrence County is unique in having large cobble for substrate, 
intermixed with sand and gravel. Lee Creek, in the northern-most boundary of 
the forest, displays slow moving waters, with sand and gravel substrate. It also 
contained a large amount of organic debris in its channel during the colder 
months. 

METHODS 

During the survey, water and air temperature (bulb thermometer), specific 
conductance (Cole-Parmer Model 1 48 1 -40), and pH (Cole-Parmer Model 6 1 2 
pH meter) were measured monthly in the field at all sites. Water samples were 
taken seasonally and returned to the lab where alkalinity was determined 
(Wetzel and Likens 1991). All water quality parameters were expressed as the 
mean of the 12 monthly samples (Table 1). The majority of the biological 
collections were obtained by ultraviolet light trapping methods (Harris et al. 
1991 ) from February to November 1993. Light traps were situated on the stream 
banks and operated for approximately one hour after dusk. Additional adult 
specimens were occasionally collected by sweeping along stream margins. 
Specimens were preserved in 80% ethanol. In all, 102 collections were made 
from which 9,329 caddisfly individuals were identified. 

RESULTS 

One hundred thirty-five ( 1 35) species representing 1 9 families and 46 genera 
were recorded. An annotated list of species documented is presented below 
(Table 2). Information for each species includes collection sites and number 
of individuals collected. A more detailed discussion of distributions is con- 
tained in Hicks (1995). An asterisk indicates species previously not reported 
from the BNF. In most cases only males of the species were identified. Voucher 
specimens are housed in the Aquatic Insect Museum of the University of Ala- 
bama. 



208 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



1 . Lawrence Co. 



2. 

3. 

4. 

5. 

6. 

7. 

8. 

9. 
10. 
11. 
12. 
13. 
14. 



Lawrence Co 
Lawrence Co 
Lawrence Co 
Lawrence Co 
Lawrence Co 
Winston Co. 
Winston Co. 
Winston Co. 
Winston Co. 
Winston Co. 
Winston Co. 
Winston Co. 
Winston Co. 



15. Winston Co. 



COLLECTION SITES 

Borden Creek; Forest Rd 208, 12.5 mi N Double Springs, T8S, R8W, Sec. 
28/21. 

Brushy Creek; Forest Rd 254, 9.1 mi S Moulton, T8S, R7W, Sec. 21. 
Hubbard Creek; Forest Rd 210, 8.5 mi NE Haley ville, T8S, R9W, Sec. 23. 
Lee Creek; Alexander Motorway, 8. 5 mi S/SW Moulton, T8S, R7W, Sec. 1. 
Thompson Creek; Forest Rd 208, 9.5 mi NE Haleyville,T8S,R9W,Sec. 22. 
West Fork Creek; Forest Rd 244, 10.6 mi S Moulton, T8S, R8W, Sec. 36. 
Brushy Creek; Forest Rd 255, 5.2 mi NW Addison, T9S, R7W, Sec. 23. 
Clear Creek; Co. Rd 25, 1.3 mi SW Double Springs, T11S, R9W, Sec. 1. 
Coon Creek; Co. Rd 8, 6.5 mi SE Double Springs, Tl IS, R7W, Sec. 30. 
Inman Creek; Forest Rd 124, 1.6 mi W Addison, T9S, R7W, Sec. 26. 
Long Branch; Co. Rd 80, 2 mi NE Addison, T9S, R6W, Sec. 23. 
Mile Creek; Co. Rd 13, 2.8 mi SW Addison, T10S, R7W, Sec. 15. 
Sandy Creek; Co. Rd 2, 3 mi NE Double Springs, T10S, R8W, Sec. 11. 
West Sipsey Fork; Recreational site, Sipsey Wilderness Area, 9.5 mi N 
Double Springs, T9S, R8W, Sec. 8. 

Wildcat Branch; unnamed Co. Rd, 6 mi S/SW Double Springs, Tl IS, R9W, 
Sec. 25. 




Sipsey Fork 

Figure 1. Collecting sites in the Bankhead National Forest. Numbers correspond to those listed 
in text. 



Vol. 1 1 1, No. 3, May & June. 2000 



209 



Table 1. Annual 


mean values for selected water quality parameters of streams 


sampled in 


the Bankhead National Forest (Winston Co., Lawrence Co.) (1993) 


Stream 


Air Temp. Water Temp. 


pH Conductivity Alkalinity 




(C) (C) 


(units) (umhos/cm) (mg/1 


as CaCO,) 


Clear Cr. 


18.1 15.4 


7.1 25.1 


1.2 


Coon Cr. 


19.2 15.4 


6.9 23.4 


1.0 


Inman Cr. 


16.8 15.2 


7.3 22.4 


1.1 


Long Br. 


15.7 14.3 


7.2 41.2 


1.6 


Mile Cr. 


18.9 15.8 


6.9 25.1 


0.9 


Sandy Cr. 


18.6 15.9 


6.9 26.7 


0.6 


W. Sipsey Fork 


18.3 16.7 


7.2 65.2 


2.8 


Wildcat Br. 


18.7 16.2 


6.8 18.0 


0.5 


Borden Cr. 


18.6 16.9 


7.2 135.6 


6.7 


Brushy Cr. I 


15.7 15.4 


6.9 19.0 


1.0 


Brushy Cr. 11 


16.2 14.5 


7.2 16.5 


1.1 


Hubbard Cr. 


18.0 15.0 


6.7 20.9 


1.3 


Lee Cr. 


16.0 15.7 


7.1 84.5 


6.0 


Thompson Cr. 


18.5 16.6 


6.9 51.2 


3.8 


West Fork Cr. 


18.6 15.9 


7.2 26.3 


1.0 


Table 2. Annotated list of species collected in 


the Bankhead National Forest 




Family 


Species 


Collection Site Number 


# of Indi- 








viduals 


Dipseudopsidae 


Phylocentropus carolinus 


7,9,12 






Carpenter* 




15 




P. lucidus (Hagen) 


3,9 


4 




P. placidus (Banks) 


1,3,5,6,7,10,11,12,13,14,15 


92 


Hydropsychidae 


Ceratopsyche sparna Ross 


1,3,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15 


88 




Cheumatopsyche burksi Ross* 8,10 


2 




C. campy la Ross* 


6,8,9,10,13 


243 




C. editsa Gordon* 


2 


2 




C. goera Denning 


1,4,6,7,8,10,11,12,13,14,15 


147 






C. kinlockensis 








Gordon, Harris, Lago 


3 


1 




C. oxu Ross 


1,2,3,4,5,6,7,10,12 


34 




C. pasella Ross 


1,2,3,5,6,7,8,9, 10,11,12,13 








14,15 


130 




C. pettiti (Banks) 


2,5,6,7,8,10,11,12,13,14,15 


53 




C. pinaca Ross 


3,12,15 


6 




H\drops\'che betteni Ross 


2,3,5,6,9,12,15 


51 




H. dicantha Ross* 


1,2,3,7,8,9,15 


54 




H. sp. ni.frisoni Ross* 


14 


1 




H. mississippiensis 








Flint* 


1,2,8,11,12,13,14,15 


143 




H. orris Ross 


1,3,4,5,6,7,8.9,10,11,12,13 


73 




H. rossl 








Flint, Voshell, Parker* 


8,13 


3 




H. venularis Banks* 


8.10,12 


10 


Macrostemum Carolina (Banks)* 4,5,8,15 


10 




M. zebratum (Hagen)* 


H 


4 



210 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Family 


Species 


Collection Site Number 


# of Indi- 








viduals 


Polycentro- 








podidae 


Cernotina calcea Ross 


7,9,11,13 


6 




Cyrnellus fratemus (Banks)* 


5,6,7,12,14 


12 




Neureclipsis melco Ross 


13 


1 




Paranyctiophylax affinis (Banks) 


1,2,7,12,13,14 


23 




P. denningi (Morse) 


3,4,5,6,9,10,11,12,14,15 


151 




P. moesta (Banks) 


5,6,7,12,14,15 


26 




P. serratus (Lago and Harris) 


2 


3 




Polycentropus alabamensis 








Hamilton, Harris, and Lago 


3,9 


5 




P. blicklei Ross and Yamamoto 


5,8,9,14 


14 




P. cinereus Hagen 


1,5,12 


6 




P. confusus Hagen 


1,3,5,6,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,15 


257 




J O 

P. crassicornis Walker* 


4 


4 


Psychomyiidae 


Lype diversa (Banks) 


1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12, 








13,14 


167 




Psychomyia flavida Hagen* 


1,7,8,12,14 


86 


Philopotamidae 


Chimarra aterrima Hagen 


1,3,5,6,7,14 


51 




C. feria Ross* 


14 


2 




C. obscura (Walker) 


1,3,4,5,8,11,12,13,14,15 


401 




Dolophilodes distinctus (Walker) 


4,5,9 


4 


Glossosomatidae 


Agapetus alabamensis Harris* 


4 


1 




A. hessi Leonard and Leonard 


1,2 


42 




A. rossi Denning 


5,7,10,11 


34 




Glossosoma nigrior Banks 


1,3,14 


4 


Hydroptilidae 


Dibusa angata Ross* 


1,5,7,8,12,13,14 


48 




Hydroptila alabama Harris and 








" Kelley 


1,2,3,5,7,8,10,11,12,13,14,15 


182 




H. armata Ross 


1,3,11,13,14 


5 




H. disgalera Holzenthal and 








Kelley 


9 


4 




H. gunda Milne 


3,5,8,11,12,13,14 


59 




H. hamata Morton 


1,3,5,6,7,8,10,11,12,13,14 


667 




H. novicola Blickle and Morse 


8,15 


14 




H. oakmulgeensis Harris 


3,5,8,14,15 


169 




H. oneili Harris 


3,10,11,13,14,15 


38 




H. paralatosa Harris 


5,9 


2 




H. paramoena Harris* 


12 


1 




H. quinola Ross 


3,8,12 


9 




H. remita Blickle and Morse* 


9 


1 




H. vala Ross 


2,3,4,5,6,10,11,12,14 


80 




H. virgata Ross* 


4,5 


2 




H. waubesiana Betten 


11,14 


7 




Mayatrichia ayama Mosely* 


8,15 


56 




Neotrichia vibrans Ross 


4,5,8,9,12,14,15 


59 




Ochrotrichia shawnee Ross 


5,8,10,14,15 


245 




O. elongiralla Harris* 


4 


1 




Orthotrichia aegerfasciella 








(Chambers) 


1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,11,12,13,14 


62 



Vol. 1 1 1. No. 3. May & June. 2000 



211 



Family 


Species 


Collection Site Number 


# of Indi- 








viduals 




O. cristata Morton* 


1,5,8,13,14 


28 




Oxyethira janella Denning* 


7 


1 




O. novasota Ross 


1,2,3,5,6,8,9,12,13,14,15 


7 




O. pallida (Banks) 


9,13 


3 




O. rivicola Blickle and Morse 


5,7,14 


10 




O. zeronia Ross* 


13 


2 




Stactobiella delira Ross* 


2,7,8,14 


27 




S. palmata Ross 


1,7,10 


7 


Rhyacophilidae 


Rhyacophila Carolina Banks 


2,3,4,5,6,8,9,10,12,13 


47 




R. fenestra Ross* 


1,4,5 


4 




R. glaberrima Ulmer 


9,13 


2 




R. ledra Ross* 


8 


1 




R. lobifera Betten* 


7,11,14 


5 




R. torva Hagen* 


9 


1 


Brachycentridae 


Brachycentrus numerosus (Say)* 


8 


1 




Micrasema rusticum (Hagen) 


2,3,5,7,8,10,11,12,13,14 


144 




M. \vataga Ross 


7 


1 


Goeridae 


Goera townesi Morse 


1,2,5,7,8,10,12,13,14 


69 


Lepidosto- 








matidae 


Lepidosloma latipenne (Banks) 


3,5,6,8,9,13,14 


32 




L weaveri Harris* 


5 


1 


Limnephilidae 


Ironoquia punctatissma (Walker)* 


4 


1 




Pycnopsyche gentilis (Mclachlan)* 


15 


3 




P. guttifer (Walker) 


1 


1 




P. Indiana (Ross) 


8,10,14 


9 




P. lepida (Hagen) 


1,10,14 


10 




P. luculenta (Betten) 


9,13 


3 




P. scabripennis (Rambur) 


5,6,7,10,14 


12 


Uenoidae 


Neophylax oligius Ross 


10 


1 




N. concinnus Mclachlan 


1 


3 


Phryganeidae 


Agrypnia vestita (Walker) 


8,9,15 


26 




Ptilostomis ocelli/era (Walker)* 


4,9,10,15 


7 




P. postica (Walker)* 


4 


1 


Calamoceratidae 


Anisocentropus pyraloides 








(Walker) 


5,9,14 


34 




Heteroplectron americanum 








(Walker) 


9 


4 


Leptoceridae 


Ceraclea ancylus (Vorhies)* 


1,7,8,11,12 


37 




C. cancellala (Betten) 


1,3,5,6,7,8,14,15 


1.010 




C. flava (Banks) 


1.8 


328 




C. macualta (Banks) 


2,7,8,11,14 


83 




C. nepha (Ross) 


8,11,12,14 


16 




C. protonepha Morse and Ross 


2,7,9,10 


6 




C. tarsipunctala (Vorhies) 


2,5,7,8,10,12,13,14,15 


938 




C. transversa (Hagen)* 


1,2,3,5,7,8,10,12,13,14 


72 




Leptocerus americanus (Banks) 


13 


1 




Mystacides sepulchralis (Walker) 


1,2,3,4,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14 


201 




Nectopsyche Candida (Hagen) 


8 


18 




N. exquisita (Walker)* 


2,8,14 


13 




N. pavida (Hagen) 


1,3,8,10,12,13,14 


125 



212 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Family Species 



Oecetis avara (Banks) 

O. cinerascens (Hagen)* 

O. ditissa Ross 

O. georgia Ross 

O. inconspicua (Walker) 

O. nocturna Ross 

O. persimilis (Banks) 

O. sphyra Ross 

Setodes n. sp. 

Triaenodes cumberlandensis 
Etnier and Way 

T. ignitus (Walker) 

T. injustus (Hagen) 

T. marginatus Sibley* 

T. ochraceus (Betten and Mosely) 
Molannidae Molunna blenda Sibley* 

M. tryphena Betten 

M. ulmerina Navas 

Odontoceridae Psilotreta frontalis Banks 
Helicopsychidae Helicopsyche borealis (Hagen) 
Sericostomatidae Agarodes crassicornis (Walker)* 

A. griseus Banks 

A. libalis Ross and Scott* 

A. stannardi (Ross) 



Collection Site Number # of Indi- 
viduals 

2.3.14 18 
5 1 
1,3,4,5,6,11,13.14,15 37 
9 7 
1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12, 

13,14,15 365 
1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12, 

13,14,15 228 
1,2,3,5,7,8,10,11,12,13,14 123 

6,8,9,15 471 

14 2 

13 1 

8,9,10,15 9 

15 2 
3 1 
3,4,6 3 
12 1 
1,2,3,6,7,8,9,10,12,13 41 
6,9,10,12,13 19 
2,9 6 
3,5,7,8,14,15 48 

8.9.15 19 
8,9,15 12 
8 6 
8,9,13,15 19 



DISCUSSION 

One hundred two collections from 15 sites along 14 streams in the Bankhead 
National Forest yielded 135 species of caddisflies, from 46 genera and 19 
families. Two species collected are apparently endemic to the BNF 
(Cheumatopsyche kinlockensis and Setodes n. sp.). One species was a new 
state record for Alabama (Pycnopsyche guttifer). One species was collected 
that is new to science (Setodes n. sp.). 

Adults were collected from March to October, 1993. The number of spe- 
cies and individuals collected were greatest from May to August, with greatest 
monthly diversity occurring from May to July. Numbers of species, genera 
and families collected were high in comparison to other trichopteran surveys 
of drainages or regions of Alabama and other states (Frazer et al. 1991, 
Holzenthal et al. 1982, Harris et al. 1984, Haynes 1995), which suggests that 
the BFN supports a particularly rich fauna. The wide diversity of habitats and 
cool, swift, oxygen richwaters probably accounts for the rich fauna. Emer- 
gence patterns of specific taxa were not different based on size or location of 
stream. 



Vol. Ill, No. 3, May & June, 2000 213 



Hydropsychidae, Hydroptilidae, Leptoceridae and Polycentropodidae were 
represented by a total of 9 1 species, accounting for 66.9 percent of the species 
collected, whereas Calamoceratidae, Lepidostomatidae, Psychomyiidae, 
Uenoidae, Odontoceridae, Helicopsychidae and Goeridae were represented 
by 1 1 species, accounting for eight percent of the species collected. These 
percentages are similar to other southeastern systems and are explained by the 
adaptation of the larger families to warmer waters and the smaller families 
containing fewer species per family (Wiggins 1977). 

Clear Creek exhibited the largest number of species (62) and individuals 
(4588) collected, whereas Lee Creek contained the smallest (26 species and 
67 individuals). Streams draining the Wilderness Area yielded 2101 individu- 
als (23 % of total) and 85 species (63 % of total). All other streams yielded 
7228 individuals (77 % of total) and 123 species (91 % of total). The differ- 
ence in percentages of these two areas likely is due to the difference in number 
of streams and area sampled. 

Some taxa had widespread distributions and others appear to be limited in 
their distribution within the study area. A number of taxa were restricted to 
more than one stream located in the southern portion of the study area. Two 
species were restricted to more than one stream in the Wilderness Area. No 
taxa were restricted to more than one stream located in the western portion of 
the study area. These distributional patterns may arise from a variety of fac- 
tors including habitat, characteristics of the stream, or water chemistry. A more 
detailed discussion of distribution patterns can be found in Hicks (1995). 

Based on the results presented in this survey, the BNF contains a rich fauna 
of Trichoptera compared to other areas in Alabama, and contains several rare 
or endemic species. Because of this and other similar faunistic and floristic 
surveys of the area, the BNF deserves protection from harmful impacts in 
order to protect its natural history. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

The Department of Biology at the University of Alabama provided support and facilities 
during the course of this study and is gratefully acknowledged. We would like to thank S.C. 
Harris, Clarion University for verifying several identifications. We would also like to thank S. 
Harris, R. Holzenthal, B. Stark, and P. Lago for reviewing the manuscript. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Adams, G.I, Butts, Charles, L.W. Stephenson, and C.W. Cooke. 1926. Geology of Ala 
bama: Geol. Surv. Ala. Spec. Rept. 14. 312 p. 

Frazer, K.S., S.C. Harris, G.M. Ward. 1991. Survey of the Trichopteran in the Little River 
drainage of northeastern Alabama. Bull. Ala. Mus. Nat. Hist. 11:17-22. 

Harris, S.C. 1990. Preliminary considerations on rare and endangered invertebrates in Ala- 
bama: Geol. Surv. Ala. reprint Series 78. 92 p. 

Harris, S.C., P.K. Lago, and P.E. O'Neil. 1984. Trichoptera of the Cahaba River system in 
Alabama. Entomol. News 95:103-112. 



214 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Harris, S.C., P.E. O'Neil, and P.K. Lago. 1991. Caddisflies of Alabama: Geol. Surv. Ala. 
Bull. 142. 442 p. 

Haynes, C.G. 1995. Caddisflies of the Black Belt Prairie Region in West Central Alabama. 
M.S. Thesis. Univ. Ala. 164 p. 

Hicks, M.B. 1995. Survey of Caddisflies (Trichoptera) of the Bankhead National Forest in 
Northwest Alabama. M.S. Thesis. Univ. Ala. 285 p. 

Holzenthal, R.W., S.C. Harris, and P.K. Lago. 1982. An annotated checklist of the Caddisflies 
(Trichoptera) of Mississippi and southeastern Louisiana. Part III: Limnephiloidea and con- 
clusions. Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 84:513-520. 

McDearman, W.W. 1976. A floristic survey of Thompson Creek Watershed in the Sipsey 
River Wilderness Area of Lawrence County, Alabama. M.S. Thesis. Miss. State Univ. 93 p. 

McGregor, S.W. 1992. A mussel survey of streams draining Bankhead National Forest and the 
Oakmulgee Division of Talladega National Forest, Alabama: Unpublished report for Ala. 
Geol. Surv. 27 p. 

Weber, C.I. 1973. Biological field and laboratory methods for measuring the quality of sur- 
face water and effluents. Report No. EPA-670/4-73-001, Off. Res. Develop. U.S. EPA 
Cincinnati, Ohio. 149 p. 

Wetzel, R.G., and G.E. Likens. 1991. Limnological Analysis. Springer- Verlag. 391 p. 

Wiggins, G.B. 1977. Larvae of North American Caddisfly Genera (Trichoptera). Univ. Toronto 
Press. 401 p. 



Vol. 1 1 1. No. 3. May & June. 2000 215 

AN ANNOTATED LIST OF TRICHOPTERA 

IN THE BLACK BELT PRAIRIE REGION 

OF WEST CENTRAL ALABAMA 1 

M. B. Hicks 2 , C. G. Haynes^ 

ABSTRACT: Distributional records for 72 species of caddisflies from 15 sites located in the 
Black Prairie Region of West-Central Alabama are presented, along with information on sea- 
sonal occurrence, habitat and relative abundance. Leptoceridae is best represented (22 spe- 
cies), followed by Hydropsychidae (17 species), Hydroptilidae (17 species), Polycentropodidae 
(6 species), Philopotamidae (5 species), Limnephilidae (2 species), Phryganeidae (2 species), 
and Molannidae (1 species). Of the species reported, 12 are new records for this area. 

The Black Belt Prairie Region or Black Belt is a Physiographic Subdistrict 
of the East Gulf Coastal Plain that is geologically and biologically distinctive 
among physiographic regions of the Coastal Plain. The Black Belt is a cres- 
cent shaped region of approximately 8,000 square miles that extends south- 
ward from West Tennessee into Northeastern Mississippi and eastward into 
West-Central Alabama. This region is characterized by deeply weathered un- 
dulating plains of relatively low relief, that are developed on chalk and marl of 
the Selma Group (Copeland 1968). The Selma Chalk is composed of concen- 
trations of fossiliferous, soft, white-gray limestone (chalk) that weathers into a 
fertile black soil. The soil of this region is particularly noted for baking hard 
and dry in the summer and becoming highly adhesive when wet (Doster and 
Weaver 1987). Many of the chalk beds of this region contain more than 75 
percent calcium carbonate (Szabo and Beg 1977). 

Because of the thin soils and the impermeable nature of the chalk bedrock, 
the Black Belt represents a unique and clearly defined hydrologic region in the 
Coastal Plain. The streams of this region are noted for high turbidity, high 
rates of runoff, and great variability in flow (Harper 1943, Harris et al.1991). 
During the dry seasons the smaller streams go dry and the larger streams are 
significantly reduced in flow. Harper (1943) noted that this was the driest re- 
gion of the state, and that prairie grasslands once covered up to 10% of the 
area. Because of its harsh hydrologic characteristics, this region has a negative 
impact on the distributions of many aquatic organisms. Many species of fish, 
mollusks, and aquatic insects that are common throughout the Coastal Plain 
are rare or absent within the Black Belt. An extensive survey of the fishes of 
Alabama (Mettee et al. 1989) has shown that 16 species of fishes common to 
the Coastal Plain are absent or rarely encountered in the Black Belt. Prelimi- 



1 Received December 20, 1998. Accepted December 27. 1999. 

2 Mississippi Department of Environmental Quality, 2142 Jackson Ave. West, Oxford, MS 
38655. 

3 Department of Biology, Shelton State Community College, Cottondale, AL 35405. 

ENT. NEWS 1 1 1(3): 215-222, May & June 2000 



2 1 6 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



nary work on caddisflies in Alabama indicates that many common Coastal 
Plain caddisflies are absent from the Black Belt, but that at least one species is 
endemic to this region (Harris et al. 1991). 

In view of the natural history and unique hydrology of this region, along 
with the lack of aquatic entomological surveys for the area, a thorough survey 
of the caddisflies of the Black Belt was conducted during 1 993 and 1 994. The 
objective of this survey was to gather information on species composition, 
abundance, and distribution of the caddisflies of this physiographic region. 
This information should be useful to both industries and agencies trying to 
regulate and maintain water quality, as well as to systematists, biogeographers, 
and ecologists conducting research on the Black Belt and the aquatic systems 
of other regions. 

METHODS AND RESULTS 

In order to determine the caddisfly fauna of the Black Belt, light-trap col- 
lections were made for adult specimens. Ultraviolet lights were connected to 
rechargeable 12-volt gel batteries and placed over white enamel pans filled 
with 80% ethanol. The batteries have a 3-hour life span. The traps were placed 
at the sites about 1 to 1.5 hours before dusk and operated until 1.5 to 2 hours 
following dusk. Collections were made monthly from February 1993 to Janu- 
ary 1994. During the warmer months (March-October) aerial nets were used 
to sweep the riparian vegetation for any adults not attracted to lights. Benthic 
"kick" samples were taken with aquatic D-frame nets at all sites where pos- 
sible in order to obtain larval and pupal specimens. "Kick" samples were taken 
during the wettest months (November-April) when sufficient flow was avail- 
able for collecting. Collected specimens were taken to the lab where they were 
identified to the lowest taxon level possible. 

In order to characterize further the aquatic environment of the study area, 
several water quality parameters were measured monthly at all collection sites. 
Water temperature (bulb thermometer), pH (Cole-Parmer Model 612 pH meter), 
and conductivity (Cole-Parmer Model 1481-40) were determined in the field. 
Water samples were collected quarterly and returned to the laboratory to de- 
termine alkalinity (Wetzel and Likens 1979). A list of water quality param- 
eters by site is given in Table 1. All parameters are expressed as the mean of 
the monthly and quarterly samples. 

From this survey a total of 182 collections were made from which 21,877 
caddisflies were identified. Seventy-two (72) species representing eight fami- 
lies and 24 genera were recorded. An annotated list of species documented is 
presented below (Table 2). Information for each species includes collection 
sites and number of specimens collected. A more detailed discussion of distri- 
butions is contained in Haynes (1995). An asterisk indicates species previ- 
ously not reported from the Black Belt (*). In most cases only males of the 
species were identified. Voucher specimens are housed in the Aquatic Insect 
Museum of the University of Alabama. 



Vol. 1 1 1. No. 3. May & June. 2000 



217 



GREENE / , |ALE 




Figure 1. Collecting sites in the West Central Alabama Black Belt Prarie Region of West- 
Central Alabama. Numbers correspond to those listed in text. 

COLLECTION SITES 

1. Greene Co.; Taylor Creek; County Road 72, 5 mi S Boligee, T20N, R1E, Sec. 21. 

2. Sumter Co.; Wiggins Creek; U.S. Highway 1 1, V* mi S Epes, T20N, R2W, Sec. 25. 

3. Sumter Co.; Brown Brick Creek; unnamed dirt road V* mi off State Highway 28, 2 mi 

NW Livingston, T19N, R2W, Sec.7&8. 

4. Sumter Co.; Turkey Creek; State Highway 39, 6.5 mi S Gainesville, T20N, R2W, 

Sec. 11. 



218 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



5. Sumter Co.; 

6. Hale Co.; 

7. Hale Co.; 

8. Marengo Co. 

9. Marengo Co. 

10. Marengo Co. 

1 1 . Perry Co.; 

12. Dallas Co.; 

13. Dallas Co.; 

14. Dallas Co.; 

15. Dallas Co.; 



Noxubee River; County Road 85, 1 mi N Gainesville, T21N, R2W, Sec. 3. 

Jacks Branch; County Road 16, 6 mi S Greensboro, T19N, R4E, Sec. 13. 

Yellow Creek; County Road 2, 3 mi S Arcola, T18N, R3E, Sec.15. 

Powell Creek; unnamed dirt road 3 mi off U.S. Highway 80E, 4 mi W 

Faunsdale, T17N, R4E, Sec. 10. 

Little Dry Creek; County Road 44, Vi mi W Dayton, T16N, R4E, Sec. 14. 

Whites Branch; County Road 80, 2 mi N Thomaston, T15N, R5E, Sec. 5. 

Tayloe Creek; unnamed dirt road 1 mi off U.S. Highway 80E, 3.5 mi E of 

Uniontown, T17N, R6E, Sec. 24. 

Tatum Creek; County Road 1 1, '/z mi NW Orrville, T16N, R8E, Sec. 28. 

Bogue Chitto Creek; State Highway 22, 2 mi W Orrville, T15N, R8E, 

Sec. 7. 

Bear Creek; County Road 21, 3.5 mi W Orrville, T15N, R8E, Sec. 7. 

Big Swamp Creek; County Road 33, 1 mi NE Five-Points off County 

Road 33, T15N, R8E, Sec. 25. 



Table 1. Annual mean values for selected water quality parameters of streams sampled in 
the Black Belt Prairie Region of Alabama (1993) 



Stream 


Air Temp. 


Water Temp. 


PH 


Conductivity 


Alkalinity 




(C) 


(C) 


(SU) 


(u mhos/cm) 


(mg/1 as CaCO3> 


Taylor Cr. 


21.5 


19.7 


6.9 


456.7 


13.6 


Wiggins Cr. 


21.3 


18.5 


7.6 


460.4 


16.0 


Brown Brick Cr. 


20.5 


19.5 


7.3 


453.4 


15.7 


Turkey Cr. 


21.8 


22.1 


7.5 


375.5 


19.2 


Noxubee River 


21.1 


19.5 


7.6 


220.3 


5.8 


Jacks Branch 


23.0 


19.4 


7.3 


444.5 


10.8 


Yellow Cr. 


21.0 


19.3 


7.1 


447.0 


17.1 


Powell Cr. 


21.6 


19.4 


7.2 


470.7 


13.3 


Little Dry Cr. 


21.0 


19.3 


7.2 


510.5 


21.0 


Whites Branch 


20.7 


18.5 


7.4 


111.8 


10.8 


Tayloe Cr. 


19.3 


17.8 


7.0 


495.6 


15.7 


Tatum Cr. 


20.7 


18.8 


7.0 


112.0 


3.3 


Bogue Chitto Cr. 


20.8 


19.0 


7.1 


162.0 


6.7 


Bear Cr. 


21.0 


19.7 


7.3 


348.0 


9.2 


Big Swamp Cr. 


22.3 


17.6 


7.0 


88.3 


1.7 



Table 2. Annotated list of species collected in the Black Belt Prairie Region 



Family 



Hydropsychidae 



Species 



Cheurnatopsyche burksi Ross 

C. campyla Ross 

C. edistu Gordon 

C. ela Denning 

C. geora Denning* 

C. pasella Ross 



Collection Site Number # of Indi- 
viduals 

1,2,6,7,8,9,10,12,13 17 

1,2,3,5,6,11,12,13,14,15 323 

1,4,8,12,14 17 

5,12,13,15 73 

11,12 4 
1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12, 

13,14,15 2,444 



Vol. 11 1 , No. 3, May & June, 2000 



219 



Family 



Polycentro- 
podidae 



Philopotamidae 



Hydroptilidae 



Limnephilidae 

Phryganeidae 
Leptoceridae 



Species 

C. pettiti (Banks) 

C. sordidu (Hagen) 

Hydropsyche alvata Denning 

H. betteni Ross 

H. sp. m.frisoni Ross 

H. mississippiensis Flint 

H. orris Ross 

H. rossi Flint, Voshell, and Parker 
Macrostemum Carolina (Banks) 
M. transveraum (Walker) 
Potam\ia fluva (Hagen) 

Cernotina calcea Ross 
Cyrnellus fratemus (Banks) 
Neuretlipsis crepuscularis (Banks) 
Paranyctiophylax affinis (Banks) 
P. serratus (Lago and Harris) 
Polycentropus crassicornis 

Walker* 

Chimarra aterrima Hagen* 
C. floridu Ross 
C. moselyi Denning 
C. obscura (Walker) 
C. parasocia Lago and Harris 
Hydroptila alabama Harris 

and Kelley 
H. angusta Ross 
H. armata Ross 
H. cretosa Harris* 
H. gunda Milne 
H. hanuitu Morton 
H. novicola Blickle and Morse 
H. quinola Ross 
H. waubesiana Betten 
Neotrichia vibrans Ross 
Ochrotrichia confusa (Morton)* 
O. dardeni Harris 
Onhotrkhia aegerfasciella 

(Chambers) 
O. cristaia Morton 
Oxyethira janellu Denning 
O. novasotu Ross 
O. pallida (Banks) 
Ironoquia punctatissma (Walker)* 
Pycnopsyche scabripennis 

(Rambur)* 

Agrypnia vestita (Walker)* 
Ptilostomis postica (Walker)* 
Ceraclea flava (Banks) 



Collection Site Number 

1,2,3,5,6,8,9,11,12,13,14 

1,3,5,12,14 

4,5,11,13,14 

12,13,14 

4 

9,14 

1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12. 

13,14,15 
2,6,9,12,13,14 
1,2,4,5,6,8,9 
3,4,5 
6,7,8,11,13,14,15 

1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,11,12,13,14 

1,2,4,5,6,7,8,11,12,13,14,15 

2,5,11,12,13,14,15 

3 

3,10,12,14,15 

1,2,6,7,8,9,10 

15 

12,15 

11 

1,2,5,6,7,8,10,11,12,13,14,15 

5 



,12,13.14,15 
,3,4,6,12,13 
,8,12,13,15 

,7,12,13,14,15 

,3,5,7,12,13,14,15 

,11,12,13,15 

,7,12,13,15 

,3,5,7,8,9,11,12,13,14,15 



5,12,13,15 

5,13,15 

2,3,4,6,13,14 

1,2,3,4,5,6,7.8,11,12,13,14,15 

2,3,4,6,8,10,11,12,13,15 

12,13,14,15 

1,4,5,10,12,13,15 

1,4,5,10,12,13,15 

9 

15 

8,11,14 

1,5,6,7,10 

2,3,5,11,12,13,14,15 



# of Indi- 
viduals 

518 

13 

123 

11 

12 



3,010 

201 

95 

119 

233 

3,032 

406 

40 

19 

11 

73 

6 

9 

8 

952 

6 

150 

57 

42 

11 

73 

116 

232 

20 

450 

48 

48 

71 

262 

75 

245 

41 

586 

9 

9 
6 

27 
625 



220 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Family 
Leptoceridae 



Molannidae 



Species 

C. maculata (Banks) 

C. nepha (Ross) 

C. ophioderus (Ross) 

C. protonepha Morse and Ross 

C. tarsipunctata (Vorhies) 

C. transversa (Hagen) 

Nectopsyche Candida (Hagen) 

N. exquisita (Walker) 

N. pavida (Hagen) 

Oecetis avara (Banks) 

O. cinerascens (Hagen) 

O. ditissa Ross 

O. inconspicua (Walker) 

O. nocturna Ross 

O. osteni Milne 

O. persimilis (Banks) 

O. sphyra Ross 

Triaenodes Ignitus (Walker) 

T. melaca Ross* 

T. ochraceus (Betten and Mosely)* 

T. tardus Milne 

Molanna tryphena Betten* 



Collection Site Number 

1,2,3,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12,13, 

14,15 

1,2,4,10,12,13,14 
2,3,6,13,14,15 
1,2,5,7,8,9,11,12,13,14 
1,2,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,13,14,15 
1,7,8,9,12,13,15 
1,4,5,7,13,14,15 
12,13 

5,6,12,13,14,15 
5,9,13,14 
1,2,3,4,5,7,8,9,10,11,12,13, 

14,15 
1,2,3,4,5,6,7.8,9,10,11,12, 

13,14,15 
1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,10,11,12, 

13,14,15 
1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,11,12,13. 

14,15 
10,13,14 

1,2,3,4,5,11,12,13,14,15 
2 

2,12,13,14,15 

2,10,11 

13 

1,2,4,5,7,8,12.13 
13 



#of Indi- 
viduals 

1,271 

33 

51 

60 

162 

19 

177 

316 

249 

370 

516 

375 
677 

2,205 

62 

227 

32 

17 

45 

6 

46 

8 



DISCUSSION 



One hundred eighty two collections from 15 streams in the Black Belt 
yielded 72 species of caddisflies, from 24 genera and eight families. Three 
families, five genera and 12 species were found that were previously not re- 
ported as occurring in the Black Belt. No species new to science, or new state 
records were discovered. Adults were collected from February to November. 
The number of species collected was greatest from May to July, with the greatest 
number (56) being collected in May. The number of individuals collected was 
greatest from April to June, with June yielding the greatest numbers (9,035). 
The total number of adult specimens collected and identified was 2 1 ,877. The 
number of species of caddisflies in the Black Belt Prairie is slightly lower than 
other regions and drainages of Alabama. Surveys of other aquatic organisms 
in this region have also produced low species numbers and is probably due to 
the region's harsh prairie-like characteristics, in particular the intermittent nature 
of most of this region's streams. However, the familial composition of 
caddisflies in the Black Belt Prairie is similar to other regions throughout Ala- 
bama. The Hydropsychidae (17 species), Hydroptilidae (17 species), Lepto- 



Vol. 1 1 1. No. 3. May & June. 2000 221 



ceridae (22 species), and Polycentropodidae (6 species) were represented by a 
total of 62 species, which accounts for 86 percent of the species collected. The 
Philopotamidae (5 species), Limnephilidae (2 species), Phryganeidae (2 spe- 
cies), and Molannidae (1 species) were represented by a total of 10 species 
which accounted for a total of 14 percent of the species collected. 

By site, taxa richness ranged from 49 species at Bogue Chitto Creek (Site 
13), which represented 68 percent of all species collected, to 19 species at 
Whites Branch (Site 10), which represented 26 percent of all species collected. 
The average number of species collected at a site was 30, with 7 of the sites 
having 30 or more species. Monthly, taxa richness ranged from 56 species 
collected in May (77 percent of all species collected) to 1 species collected in 
February. No specimens of Trichoptera were collected in December or Janu- 
ary. In terms of biomass, Bogue Chitto Creek yielded the largest number of 
individuals (5,569), representing 25.5 percent of the total number of individu- 
als collected (21,877), while Little Dry Creek (Site 9) yielded the smallest 
number (406 individuals), which represented only 1 .9 percent of the total num- 
ber of individuals collected. In general, most sites yielded over 700 individu- 
als, with 5 sites yielding over 1 ,000 individuals. Throughout the year, the num- 
ber of individuals collected ranged from 9,035 (41.3 percent of the total) in 
June, to only 2 individuals in February. Most individuals emerged during the 
warmer, summer months. 

In general, Trichoptera were common throughout the entire study area. 
However, certain regions yielded a larger number of species and individuals 
than others. The eastern region of the study area (sites 11-15), located in Dal- 
las and Perry Counties, produced both the greatest number of species and indi- 
viduals, followed closely by the western region (sites 1-5), located in parts of 
Sumter and Greene Counties. The central region of the study area (sites 6-10), 
located in Hale and Marengo Counties yielded the lowest number of species 
and individuals. Many species such as Cheumatopsyche sordida, Ceraclea 
flava, and Neureclipsis crepuscularis that were commonly collected in the 
western and eastern regions were completely absent in the central region of 
the study area. A survey of the region's agricultural activity reveals that the 
central part of the study area is the most heavily farmed region. In the western 
and eastern regions, farming activities comprise much fewer acres (Kleweno 
1994). Streams of the central region are more heavily silted than in other re- 
gions, and overall water quality appears to be lower in streams of the central 
region. Other species were restricted to only a single region, such as 
Hydropsyche betteni, which was found only in the eastern region. Several spe- 
cies were restricted to a single stream such as Pamnyctiophylax affinis, which 
was found only in Brown Brick Creek. However, most species were found in 
several streams located throughout the entire study area. 

Previous surveys of this region (Harris et al. 1991) indicated that as many 
as 67 species were likely to occur in the Black Belt. This survey recorded 60 of 



222 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



those species plus an additional 12 species that were previously unknown from 
the Black Belt. Out of the previously unknown species, three families (Limne- 
philidae, Molannidae, and Phryganeidae) representing five genera (Agrypnia, 
Ironoquia, Molanna, Ptilostomis, and Pycnopsyche), are new records for the 
Black Belt. Although seven species previously found in the Black Belt were 
not identified in this survey, all previously known families and genera, except 
the genus Leptocerus were recorded in this study. No species new to science 
were discovered, and no new state records were established. However, four 
species (Ochrotrichia confusa: Hydroptilidae, Ironoquia punctatissma and 
Pycnopsyche scabripennis: Limnephilidae, Agrypnia vestita: Phryganeidae), 
previously known only from regions of the state located on or above the Fall 
Line, were collected in this survey. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

The Department of Biology at the University of Alabama provided support and facilities 
during the course of this study and is gratefully acknowledged. We would like to thank S.C. 
Harris, Clarion University for verifying several identifications. We would also like to thank S. 
Harris, R. Holzenthal, B. Stark, and P. Lago for reviewing the manuscript. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Copeland, C.W. 1968. Geology of the Alabama coastal plain: a guidebook. Geol. Surv. Ala. 

Circ. 47. 97 p. 
Doster, J.F. and D.C. Weaver. 1987. Tenn-Tom country: the upper Tombigbee valley. Univ. 

Ala. Press. 238 p. 

Harper, R.M. 1943. Forests of Alabama: Geol. Surv. Ala. Mon. 10. 230 p. 
Harris, S.C., P.E. O'Neil, P.K. Lago. 1991. Caddisflies of Alabama: Geol. Surv. Ala. Bull. 

142. 442 p. 
Haynes, C.G. 1995. Caddisflies of the Black Belt Prairie Region in West Central Alabama. 

M.S. Thesis. Univ. Ala. 164 p. 

Kleweno, D. D. 1994. Alabama farm facts. Ala. Dept. Agric. Indus. 
Mettee, M.F., P.E. O'Neil, J.M. Pierson, and R.D. Suttkus. 1989. Fishes of the Western 

Mobile River Basin in Alabama and Mississippi: Geol. Surv. Ala. Atlas 24. p. 18. 
Szabo, M.W., and M.A. Beg. 1977. Chalk resources of West Central Alabama: Geol. Surv. 

Ala. Circ. 102. 15 p. 
Wetzel, R.G., and G.E. Likens 1991. Limnological Analysis. Springer- Verlag. 391 p. 



Vol. 1 1 1. No. 3. May & June. 2000 223 

FOUND: HOLOTYPE OF THE LACE BUG 

ELASMOGNATHUS HELFERI 

(HETEROPTERA: TINGIDAE) 1 

Richard C. Froeschner^ 

ABSTRACT: The missing holotype of Elasmognathus helferi was found, labeled as such, and 
returned to the Naturhistorisches Museum, Vienna, Austria. 

Drake and Runoffs (1965, United States Natl. Mus. Bull., 243:202) cata- 
log of the "Lacebugs of the World" reported the status of the type material of 
Elasmognathus helferi Fieber (1844 Entomon. Monographian, page 91, pi. 7, 
figs. 33-41) as "sex and deposition of type unknown." 

Examination of Tingidae in the Drake Collection (now part of the collec- 
tions in the Smithsonian Institution, Washington D.C.) found a point-mounted 
female of that species with a time-faded paper label reading "Elasmognathus 
Fieber Helferi Fieber, Indes Or. +" in what appears to be Fieber' s handwriting. 

Because the original description dealt with only one specimen, and the 
present specimen and its labelling agree with that description and original fig- 
ures, this specimen is here considered the holotype. A red label "HOLOTYPE 
Elasmognathus helferi Fieber, labeled by Froeschner 2000" was put on its pin 
and the specimen was returned to the Naturhistorisches Museum, Vienna, 
Austria, for incorporation with the other Fieber material there. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

My sincere thanks go to Thomas J. Henry, U.S.D.A. Systematic Entomology Laboratory, 
and Paul J. Spangler, Smithsonian Institution, for helpful reviews of this manuscript. 



1 Received March 24, 2000. Accepted March 24, 2000. 

2 Department of Entomology, MRC-0105, United States National Museum of Natural History, 
Washington, D.C., 20560-0105. 



224 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



ESTABLISHING THE VALIDITY OF CICINDELA 
SCUTELLARIS (COLEOPTERA: CICINDELIDAE) 1 

Howard P. Boyd 2 

ABSTRACT: Cicindela scutellaris (Coleoptera: Cicindelidae) is sustained. C. varians is des- 
ignated a nomen oblitum. 

Ever since its description in 1823, Cicindela scutellaris Say has been the 
established name for a polymorphic species of tiger beetle (Coleoptera: 
Cicindelidae) widespread in North America. As a consequence, Cicindela 
scutellaris has appeared often in the literature in ecological studies, subspe- 
cies descriptions, and faunal treatises (Shelford 1917, Vaurie 1950, Boyd 1978). 
So it was remarkable that the valid name of this taxon should be challenged 
recently (Cassola 1999). 

Apparently, the sole female syntype of the taxon Cicindela varians Ljungh 
1799 was rediscovered recently among some old tiger beetle material from the 
Zoological Museum of the Lund University, Lund, Sweden, by Fabio Cassola, 
Rome, Italy, who identified it as conspecific with C. scutellaris, possibly C. s. 
rugata Vaurie. Formerly, Cicindela varians has been regarded in all catalogs 
and checklists (Boyd 1982, Freitag 1999) as one of several junior synonyms 
of Cicindela sexguttata Fabricius 1775, another widespread North American 
species. 

Cassola (1999) published his rediscovery, designated the specimen as the 
lectotype of Cicindela varians Ljungh, and provided full label data in narra- 
tive and photographic form for the unambiguous recognition of this specimen. 
In the same paper, Cassola (1999) proposed to redesignate the name of the 
taxon from Cicindela scutellaris to C. varians based on his identification and 
the earlier publication date of C. varians 1 799 compared to C. scutellaris 1 823. 
This proposal was made despite the fact that C. varians has never been applied 
in the literature to any C. scutellaris taxon for 200 years, and in contradiction 
of articles 23b and 79c of the 1985 International Code of Zoological Nomen- 
clature (ICZN) still in force at the time Cassola published. 

In summary, Cassola (1999) proposed C. varians as the senior synonymic 
name for the species, tenuously assigned it to the taxon formerly known as C. 
scutellaris rugata which would fall as a junior synonym to C. varians varians, 
and reassigned C. scutellaris as a subspecific entity under C. varians scutellaris. 
In all, nine new taxonomic combinations were proposed by Cassola (1999). 



1 Received March 15, 2000. Accepted April 8, 2000. 

2 Honorary Associate, Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, PA. Home address: 232 
Oak Shade Road, Tabernacle, NJ 08088. 

ENT. NEWS 1 1 1(3): 224-226, May & June 2000 



Vol. 1 1 1, No. 3. May & June. 2000 225 



Following is a brief history of Cassola's efforts to publish his rediscovery 
and proposed nomenclatural changes. Earlier, attempts to publish his findings 
in the United States were met with mixed success. Cassola first submitted his 
paper to the Coleoperists Bulletin but when it was not accepted, he next sub- 
mitted it to Entomological News under date of 17 October 1998. Following 
peer reviews, consultations with other cicindelid authorities, and additional 
correspondence with Cassola, Entomological News, on 15 April, 1999, ac- 
cepted that part of his paper which recounted his rediscovery but did not ac- 
cept publication of his proposed redesignations, indicating, instead, that he 
should submit all his proposed redesignations to the ICZN for approval before 
their publication. Cassola was unwilling to accept this compromise and so 
withdrew his paper. Subsequently, he had it published in the journal Fragmenta 
entomologica, Roma (Cassola 1999). 

Following that publication, in my dual role as Editor of Entomological 
News and as a worker in the Cicindelidae (Boyd 1 973, 1 978, 1 982), I brought 
this matter to the attention of the ICZN and am now in receipt of a letter dated 
4 February 2000 from Philip K. Tubbs of the ICZN (pers. comm.), pertinent 
excerpts from which are quoted below, as follows: 

"Your letter of 15 April 1999 to Dr. Cassola was entirely right: under 
the 1985 Code he should have maintained the usage of C. scutellaris Say, 
1823, and not reintroduced C. varians Ljungh, 1799 as a valid name. He 
himself explicitly admits (pp. 76-77) that his action contravenes Article 
23b of the 1 985 Code, and under Article 79c his usage would not be recog- 
nized by the Commission. It follows that the valid name of the species 
remains C. scutellaris. 

"As you probably know, a new and very considerably revised edition 
of the Code was published last year and came into force on 1 January. 
Under this (Article 23.9) a name in wide usage (like C. scutellaris) must 
automatically be given precedence over a name which has not been used 
as a valid (name) for the taxon since 1799 (a nomen oblitum such as C. 
varians); reference to the Commission is no longer necessary. Of course 
Cassola's paper was published before Article 23.9 came into force, but it is 
the case that his action does not count as a usage under the new edition and 
scutellaris is correct. 

"It is possible that varians might displace the subspecific name rugata 
Vaurie, but that depends on the usage of the latter name; in any case Dr. 
Cassola is not entirely confident of the synonymy. 

"One can sympathize emotionally with Dr. Cassola's desire for 'cul- 
tural justice' for long-dead workers, but ALL changes of names (which 
are really just labels for taxa) cause confusion, and the displaced names 
always have to be cited - otherwise all existing information on the species 
would be lost. It is for this reason that the Code (and especially the new 
one) lays emphasis on the need to maintain the prevailing usage of names 
unless a case is necessary for real taxonomic reasons." 



226 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



It follows, therefore, that the name Cicindela scutellaris continues to be 
the valid name for this taxon and C. varians must be treated as a nomen oblitum 
under this species rather than a junior synonym of C. sexguttata Fabricius 
1775 as in all catalogs. Consequently, the nine new combinations proposed by 
Cassola (1999) for the subspecific taxa currently recognized under Cicindela 
scutellaris are invalid. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

I thank Robert E. Acciavatti, Carnegie Museum of Natural History, Pittsburgh, PA., Rich- 
ard Freitag, Lakehead University, Thunder Bay, Ontario, and Ronald L. Huber, Editor of the 
Journal Cicindela for their reviews and correspondence regarding this matter. 1 especially thank 
Robert Acciavatti for his suggestions for improvements in this paper. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Boyd, H.P. 1973. Collecting tiger beetles in the Pine Barrens of New Jersey. Cicindela 5(1): 1- 
12. 

Boyd, H.P. 1978. Tiger Beetles (Coleoptera: Cicindelidae) of New Jersey, with special refer- 
ence to their Ecological Relationships. Trans. Amer. Entomol. Soc. 104 (2): 191-242. 

Boyd, H.P. and Assoc's. 1982. Checklist of Cicindelidae. Plexus Publishing Co., Marlton, NJ. 

Cassola, F. 1999. Studies on Tiger Beetles. CI. Rediscovery and re-establishment of Cicindela 
varians Ljungh, 1799 (Coleoptera: Cicindelidae). Fragmenta entomologica, Roma, 31 (1): 
71-80. 

Freitag, R. 1999. Catalogue of the Tiger Beetles of Canada and the United States. Nat'l. Re- 
search Council, Canada. 

Shelford, V.E. 1917. Color and color-pattern mechanism of Tiger Beetles. 111. Biol. Mono. 
3(4): 395-532. 

Vaurie, P. 1950. Four new subspecies of the genus Cicindela (Coleoptera: Cicindelidae). Amer. 
Mus. Novitates, 1458: 1-6. 



Vol. 1 1 1. No. 3. May & June. 2000 227 

NEW DESCRIPTIONS AND DISTRIBUTIONAL 

RECORDS FOR EASTERN NORTH AMERICAN 

CADDISFLIES (TRICHOPTERA) 1 

David E. Ruiter^ 

ABSTRACT: A new caddisfly species Glossosoma spinaium (Glossosomatidae) is described 
from Newfoundland and Quebec. The female of Rhyacophila acutiloba (Rhyacophilidae) is 
described for the first time. New distributional records and notes for 19 caddisfly species are 
presented. 

Twenty-two species of Glossosoma were listed from North America by 
Morse (1993). The following new species of Glossosoma is the first member 
of the subgenus Diploglossa Martynov in the Eomystra line of Ross (1956) 
reported from North America. 

Glossosoma spinatum NEW SPECIES 

Description: Structure typical for genus. Color dark brown (all specimens in alcohol). 
Length from front of head to apices of folded forewings 6-7 mm. Male (Figs. 1-2): Abdominal 
sternite VI with short, broadly rounded ventromesal process. Sternite VII with small, acute 
ventromesal process. Tergum X divided mesally into two lateral lobes with dorsolateral mar- 
gins composed of numerous spines directed caudad and ventrolateral portion lobate, cupped 
mesally. Inferior appendages each divided into two long, slender lobes, with mesal lobe di- 
rected dorsolaterally; lateral lobe directed caudomesally. Phallus large, vasiform, with the dor- 
sal branch having dorsal spinous lobe; phalicata membranous. 

Female (Figs. 3-6): Abdominal sternite VI with short, acute ventromesal process. Sclero- 
tized portion of segment VIII with dorsal margin about twice length of ventral margin in lateral 
view; anteroventral surface divided mesally by membranous area. Vaginal apparatus very long, 
narrow; essentially membranous, with a single long, faint sclerite anteriorly and three faint 
sclerites posteriorly. 

Immature stages unknown. 

Diagnosis: The male is distinguished from all North American Glossosoma 
species by the numerous lateral spines of the mesally split tergum X; the fe- 
male by the short, ventrally divided, eighth segment. The male can be distin- 
guished from the closely related Eurasian Glossosoma nylanderi McLachlan, 
by the numerous, relatively short and nearly subequal spines of tergum X; the 
relatively short, broadly rounded ventral lobe of the tergum X; and the subequal 
lobes of each inferior appendage (see Martynov 1934, Ross 1956, Malicky 
1983, and Vshivkova 1986 for figures of G. nylanderi). The female can be 
separated from G. nylanderi by the essentially membranous vaginal appara- 
tus, and fewer setae along the distal margin of segment VIII. 



1 Received May 4, 1999. Accepted March 23, 2000. 

2 6260 South Grant Street, Littleton, Colorado 80121. 

ENT. NEWS 1 1 1(3): 227-232, May & June 2000 



228 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Holotype male - Newfoundland: South Branch Grand Codroy River, Highway 1, NW South 
Branch, 5 June 1998, R.W. Baumann and B.C. Kondratieff. Allotype female: same data. Holo- 
type and allotype deposited at the National Museum of Natural History. Seven paratype males 
and females, same data, deposited as follows: 1M IF: Royal Ontario Museum; 1M IF: Illinois 
Natural History Survey; 1M: BYU; 1M: CSU; 1M: DER. 

Additional material examined: Quebec: Riviere St. Anne, Beaupre, 15 June 1997, B.C. 
Kondratieff and R.W. Baumann. 1M (CSU). Newfoundland: Humber River, NE Cormack, 8 
June 1998, B.C. Kondratieff & R.W. Baumann. 1M IF (DER). Newfoundland: Rocky Brook, 
Reidville Road, N Deer Lake, 8 June 1998, R.W. Baumann & B.C. Kondratieff. 1M (BYU). 

Rhyacophila acutiloba Morse & Ross, 1971 

Rhyacophila acutiloba was described from males collected in New Hamp- 
shire (Morse & Ross 1971). Prather et al. (1997) reported additional collec- 
tions from MA, ME, NC, NY, SC, VA, VT, WV, and indicated the female was 
still unknown. The following description is based on females from New York 
(Hamilton County, West Stony Creek, Highway 30, north of Great Sacandaga 
Lake, B.C. Kondratieff and R.W. Baumann, 5 June 1997, 3M 5F (CSU), 2M 
5F (DER). 

Female genitalia (Figs. 7-11): In lateral view, posterior margin of segment VIII strongly 
concave and dorsal margin with distinct bump; in dorsal view, dorsoposterior margin indented 
and ventroposterior margin broadly convex, extending caudad beyond dorsal margin. Posterior 
process of vaginal apparatus cleft mesally. 

Additional records and notes on Eastern North American Caddisflies 

The following appear to be new province/state records for eastern North 
American caddisflies. Material is deposited in the following collections: C.P. 
Gillette Museum of Arthropod Diversity, Colorado State University (CSU); 
Monte L. Bean Museum, Brigham Young University (BYU); Stephen R. 
Moulton (SRM); author's collection (DER). 

Micrasema bennetti Ross 1947 - TENNESSEE: Sumner County, Bledsoe Creek, junction of 
31E and Route 231, R.F. Kirchner and B.C. Kondratieff, 9 April 1994, 1M (CSU). 

Micrasema rickeri Ross and Unzicker 1965 - TENNESSEE: Blount County, Middle Prong of 
the Little River, Little Creek Road, D.E. Ruiter, 15 May 1988, 2M1F (DER). 

Micrasema sprulesi Ross 1941 : MAINE: Penobscot County, stream between Garland and Exeter, 
on Route 143, D.E. Ruiter, 2 June 1987, 1M1F; Piscataguis County, West Gate of Baxter State 
Park, D.E. Ruiter, 1 June 1987, 5M (DER). 

Cheumatopsyche helma Ross 1939 - ARKANSAS: Stone County, UV Light, North Sylamore 
Creek, Blanchard Spring Campground, B.J. Armitage, 3 June 1985, 2M (DER). 

Cheumatopsyche pettiti (Banks) 1908 - NEW BRUNSWICK: York County, Pokiok Stream, 
Highway 635, below Lake George, B.C. Kondratieff and R.W. Baumann, 15 June 1993, 1M 

(CSU). 



Vol. Ill, No. 3. May & June. 2000 



229 




Figs. 1-6. Glossosoma spinatum - male terminalia: 1, lateral view; 2, ventral view; female 
terminalia: 3, lateral view; 4, dorsal view; 5, ventral view; 6, vaginal apparatus, ventral view. 



230 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



VIII 






10 





11 



Figs. 7-11. Rhacophila acutiloba, female terminalia: 7, lateral view; VIII segment, 8, dorsal 
view; 9, ventral view; vaginal apparatus: 10, lateral view, 11, ventral view. 



Vol. 1 1 1, No. 3, May & June, 2000 231 



Homoplectra doringa (Milne) 1936 - WEST VIRGINIA: Kanawka County, Buzzard Branch, 4 
miles south of Prath, CR-83, B.C. Kondratieff and R.F. Kirchner, 28 May 1992, 1M (CSU); 
Mingo County, Laurel Creek, 2 miles east of Dingess, B.C. Kondratieff and R.F. Kirchner, 27 
May 1993, 1M (CSU). 

Hydrops\che frisoni Ross 1938 - WEST VIRGINIA: Mercer County, Bluestone River at Eads 
Mill, CR-3, B.C. Kondratieff and R.F. Kirchner, 27 May 1992, 1M (DER). 

Oxyethira grisea Betten 1934 - NOVA SCOTIA: Yarmouth County, Clyde River, Highway 
203, B.C. Kondratieff and R.W. Baumann, 24 June 1993, 7M6F (CSU). 

Stactobiella palmata (Ross) 1938 - NOVA SCOTIA: Halifax County, Guys River, Highway 
224 and 227, Carrol Corner, B.C. Kondratieff and R.W. Baumann, 23 June 1993, 1M (CSU). 

Lepidostoma lydia Ross 1939 - OHIO: Scioto County, small tributary of Mackletree Creek, 
B.C. Kondratieff, 10 May 1988, 4M2F (CSU, DER). 

Lepidostoma prominens (Banks) 1930 - WISCONSIN: Douglas County, Bois Brule River, Brule 
River State Forest, Route FF, B.C. Kondratieff, 20 August 1992, 2M1F (CSU, DER). 

Lepidostoma reoxum Denning 1954 - WEST VIRGINIA: Pendleton County, Seneca Creek, 
Judy Spring Trail, B.C. Kondratieff, R.F. Kirchner and J. Welch, 15 May 1990, 11M (CSU, 
DER). This appears to be a significant southwestern distribution extension. 

Ironoquia kaskaskia Ross 1944 - ARKANSAS: Montgomery County, Rattlesnake Creek, 4 
miles northeast of Caddo Gap, north of Road C52, T3S, R24W, sec. 33, H.W. Robison, 17 
October 1996, 1M3F (SRM). 

Molanna ulmerina Navas 1834 - NOVA SCOTIA: Hants County, Nine Mile River, Highway 
14, Hardwood Lands, R.W. Baumann and B.C. Kondratieff, 23 June 1993, 1M1F (BYU). 

Mariliaflexuosa Ulmer 1905 - INDIANA: Kosciusko County, Lake Wawasee, B.C. Kondratieff, 
2 July 1992, 1M (DER). 

Banksiola dossuaria (Say) 1828 - WISCONSIN: Forest County, blacklight at dusk, Gliske 
Creek, 3/4 mile above Rice Lake, Mole Lake Reservation, Arin Davis, 12 August 1996, IF 
(CSU). 

Rhyacophila parantra Ross 1948 - MISSOURI: Franklin County, small stream, Meremac State 
Park, B.C. Kondratieff, 1 June 1990, 1M1F (CSU); WEST VIRGINIA: Mingo County, Laurel 
Creek, 2 miles east of Dingess, B.C. Kondratieff and R.F. Kirchner, 27 May 1993, IMIF(DER). 

Agarodes griseus Banks 1899 - NOVA SCOTIA: Hants County, Nine Mile River, Highway 14, 
Hardwood Lands, R.W. Baumann and B.C. Kondratieff, 23 June 1993, 1M (BYU). 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

I thank Boris Kondratieff and Dick Baumann for providing most of these specimens. Steve 
Moulton provided the record for Ironoquia kaskaskia. I also thank Trond Anderson for provid- 
ing specimens of G. nylanderi from Norway for comparison. Boris and Steve provided neces- 
sary comments on an early draft of this paper. Two anonymous reviewers provided necessary 
comments with one providing very useful additional information concerning G. nvlanderi. 



232 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



LITERATURE CITED 

Malicky, H. 1983. Atlas of European Trichoptera. Dr. W. Junk Publishers, The Hague. Series 

Entomologica 24. 298 pp. 
Martynov, A.B. 1934. Caddisflies. Trichoptera Annulipalpia. Acad. Sci. USSR Publ., Leningrad. 

343 pp. 
Morse, J.C. 1993. A checklist of the Trichoptera of North America, including Greenland and 

Mexico. Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 1 19:47-93. 
Morse, J.C. and H.H. Ross. 1971. Two new species of Rhyacophila from Eastern North 

America. J. Kans. Entomol. Soc. 44:403-405 
Prather, A.L., A.L. Syrett and J.C. Morse. 1997. Females of Rhyacophila (Trichoptera: 

Rhyacophilidae) from the southeastern United States. In: Holzenthal R.W. and O.S. Flint, 

jr. (editors). Proc. 8th Inter. Symp. Trichop. 1995. Ohio Biol. Surv., Columbus, Ohio pp. 

387-399. 
Ross, H.H. 1956. Evolution and classification of the mountain caddisflies. Urbana: Univ. 111. 

Press. 213 pp. 
Vshivkova, T.S. 1986. Caddisflies of the family Glossosomatidae Wall. (Insecta, Trichoptera) 

in Far Eastern U.S.S.R.: I. Subfamily Glossosomatinae Wall. In coll.: Bottom organisms 

of Far East freshwaters, Vladivostok: BPI DVNC SSSR. pp. 58-75. 
Wiggins, G. B. 1996. Larvae of the North American caddisfly genera (Trichoptera). 2nd Ed. 

Univ. Toronto Press, Toronto, Canada. 457 pp. 



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Ms fcW JIiIiJ 



SEPTEMBER & OCTOBER, 2000 



NO. 4 



I 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



type series of Altica chalybaea (Coleoptera: 
ysomelidae) Laurent LeSage 

pulverata (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae), an 
alder-feeding sawfly new to North America D.R. Smith, H. Goulet 

Further contributions to the study of Dalquestia 

(Opiliones: Sclerosomatidae) J.C. Cokendolpher, W.D. Sissom 

Maternal care in Neotropical centipede Otostigmus 
scabricauda (Chilopoda: Scolopendromorpha) 

The genus Kunzella and a closely related new genus 
Youngszella (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) 

Further contributions to the spatulate clawed 

Baetidae (Ephemeroptera) W.P. McCafferty, R.P. Randolph 

A new Nearctic Apobaetis (Ephemeroptera: Baetidae) W.P. McCafferty 
Length-weight relationships of Jamaican arthropods 

M.D. Johnson, A.M. Strong 

Allocapnia polemistis (Plecoptera: Capniidae), new 

for Mississippi B.P. Stark, M.H. Alford, S.G. Tucker 

Alkaloid content of parasitoids reared from pupae of an 
alkaloid-sequestering arctiid moth (Utetheisa ornatrix) 

C. Rossini, E.R. Hoebeke,V.K. lyengar, W.E. Conner, M. Eisner, T. Eisner 

First record of Nycteribiidae (Diptera) in Virginia, and a 
discussion of host specificity and distribution of 
Basilia boardmani Christopher S. Hobson 

Life history and behavior of African bush grasshopper, 
Phymateus viridipes (Orthoptera: Pyrgomorphidae) 
in captivity Tohko Kaufmann 

Genus Festella (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae) with descrip- 
tion of F. rammei sp. n. Battal Ciplak 

Allotrochosiphum (Homoptera: Greenideidae), a newly re- 
ported genus from China, and description of a new species G.X. Qiao 

SCIENTIFIC NOTES: 

Mississippi record for Curicta scorpio (Hemiptera: Nepidae) Paul K. Logo 
Reporting species record data W.P. McCafferty 

BOOK REVIEW 



233 
238 
243 

G. Machado 250 
Paul H. Freytag 255 

259 
265 

270 
283 

287 
291 

294 
299 

307 

282 
312 
313 



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Vol. 1 1 1. No. 4. September & October. 2000 233 

ON THE TYPE SERIES OF ALTICA CHALYBAEA 
(COLEOPTERA: CHRYSOMELIDAE) 1 

Laurent LeSage^ 

ABSTRACT: Types are designated for Altica chalybaea. In addition, the median lobe of the 
male aedeagus, the spermatheca and styles of the female are described and illustrated for the 
first time. 

RESUME: L'auteur designe les types d'Altica chalybaea. II decrit et illustre aussi pour la 
premiere fois le lobe median de 1'edeage male de meme que la spermatheque et les styles de la 
femelle. 

Illiger (1807) described several new European, Brazilian and North- Ameri- 
can species in his paper entitled List ofHaltica species in the Collection Hellwig- 
Hoffmansegg. It is worth mentioning here that the Haltica of Illiger corre- 
sponded more, at that time, to the present whole subfamily Alticinae than to 
the genus Altica as it is defined today (LeSage 1995). 

The purpose of the present paper is to designate a lectotype for Altica 
chalybaea, and to describe and illustrate the male and female genitalia which 
are not treated in the original description. 

Type designation 

The original series, consisting of six specimens, comes from the A.S. Knoch 
Collection which is currently preserved in the Museum fur Naturkunde der 
Humbolt-Universitat zu Berlin in Germany. The collection label for the whole 
syntype series reads: "Chalybaea/ N/ A.S. Knoch/ Georg. Am. Francil. (= Geor- 
gia Americana, Francillon). 

LECTOTYPE. The presently selected male bears the following labels: a 
hand written label "oleracea F./ Am. bor. Leg." (= America borealis Leg.), a 
grey label with the number "55818" typed on it, a green label "America bor. I 
Knoch/ Nr. 55818", and a beige label: "Zool. Mus. Berlin." I have added the 
following red label: LECTOTYPE: Altica/ chalybaea/ Illiger/ Des. LeSage 
1999." 

This specimen had been originally misidentified, probably by Knoch, as 
indicated on the first label. Fortunately, this misidentification does not affect 
the nomenclature of the species because Knoch never published it. 

PARALECTOTYPES. The selected and dissected female bears a green 
and a beige label similar to the lectotype labels, and a small square piece of 
paper with the number "126" typed on it. 



1 Received November 1, 1999. Accepted November 26, 1999. 

2 Agriculture Canada, ECORC, Neatby Bldg 3032, 960 Carling Ave. Ottawa, Ontario. Canada 
K1AOC6. 

ENT. NEWS 1 1 1(4): 233-237, September & October 2000 




234 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



The remaining syntypes comprise four specimens. A male and a female, 
both remounted on small cards, had been dissected in the past but their genita- 
lia not preserved. The other two specimens are pinned males. They all bear a 
green and a beige label similar to those of the lectotype except for the last male 
which bears only a beige label. I have added the following yellow label to 
these: PARALECTOTYPE: "Altica chaiybaea Illiger/Des. LeSage 1999". 

Description: The original Latin description is very scanty: Sulcicollis, ovalis, 
cyanea, thorace transverso, elytris punctatis." (Thorax grooved, oval, blue, 
pronotum transverse, elytra punctate). 

Illiger added the following information to the description (translation): 
"Originating from Georgia, North America, Francillon. According to Profes- 
sor Knoch, it is also found in Pennsylvania. Length, two and two thirds lines, 
fairly similar to oleracea in shape, but much broader. The width of the pronotum 
exceeds its length by one-half. The posterior transverse groove is located in 
front of the posterior third, and is transformed into lateral grooves on the sides 
toward the head. The posterior margin of the pronotum is projecting in the 
middle, forming a flattened bow. This beetle is slightly metallic dark blue with 
a tendency to green. Due to fine grey setae, the antennae are brownish black, 
except for the basal segments which are clearly blue. The underside of the 
body and the legs are covered with fine, grey, inconspicuous setae. The elytra 
bear punctures which form anteriorly fairly close elongate series. The first 
segments of the anterior legs are bigger, thicker and broader than the other 
segments." 

Other external characters such as the number of labral setae (6), the frontal 
tubercules (smooth), the vertex (smooth), the pronotal groove (deep), the an- 
tennae, etc. are also found in several other species of the genus (LeSage, in 
preparation). 

MALE GENITALIA (lectotype). The terminology follows that used previously in my re- 
vision of the North American costate species (LeSage 1995). 

Median lobe of the aedeagus (fig. 1), 1.9 mm long, 500 (am wide; tip nipple-shaped. 
On the dorsal side, ostium of moderate length, about 1/4 length of median lobe; ostium 
lamellae markedly asymmetrical, the median lamella being 3 times as broad as the lateral 
ones; first 4-5 dorsal undulations interrupted in middle at base by median depression, 
approximately 20 in number. On ventral side, median carina not high, barely indicated, 
shorter than ventral ridges; ventral longitudinal ridges short, almost parallel, about 1/7 
length of aedeagus; lateral folds much reduced, little raised, less than 1/10 length of 
aedeagus; ventral wrinkles markedly developed, oblique, and about 20-25 in number. 

FEMALE GENITALIA (paralectotype). Styles ("vaginal palpi") (fig. 2): length, 505 (am, 
width, 93 (am; fused for basal 1/6; tips slightly divergent; sensilla, 15 (left) to 16 (right) in 
number, apical setae, 13 on left, 16 on right. Spermatheca: 293 urn long; receptacle cylindrical; 
pump extending beyond base of receptacle; small triangular appendix present at tip; basal 
portion of spermathecal duct straight and relatively long; spermathecal duct apparently 
with 3 complete loops; valve of spermathecal gland of medium size. 



Vol. 1 1 1. No. 4. September & October, 2000 



235 




Figure 1. Median lobe of the aedeagus of the lectotype Altica chalybaea Illiger, ventral 
side. 

DISCUSSION 

Unfortunately, the original description is not very useful for the recogni- 
tion of Altica chalybaea although the blue color and the ovoid shape of the 
body are the two most noticeable external features in this species. The state- 
ment about the broader shape of the body is true but must be interpreted care- 
fully since it applies to most females of Altica which are proportionally broader 
than males. In addition, there are several species with an ovoid body (e.g. A. 
ovulata Fall, A. ulmi Woods, etc.). consequently, it is not possible to recognize 
this species only on the basis of the body shape (LeSage, in preparation). 

The character state given for the pronotum can be applied to all Altica 
species, and it is also much more variable than reported by various authors 
(LeSage 1995). The same observation applies to the setae on the underside of 
the body and legs. The broader shape of the first tarsome of the front legs is a 
sexual character, not a specific one as reported by Illiger. Actually, this seg- 
ment, with few exceptions, is distinctly broader in males than in females in the 
genus Altica. 

As regards the external features of Altica chalybaea, the medium size, the 
ovoid shape, and the blue color of the body appear to be the most distinctive 
ones, but these characters are useful only in combination with those of the 
genitalia since there are quite a few North American species with a similar 
size, shape and/or color (e.g. A. ovulata Fall, A. ulmi Woods, etc.). 

As regards the male genitalia, the numerous oblique wrinkles on the ven- 
tral side of the median lobe of the aedeagus are very distinctive. In other spe- 
cies, these wrinkles are either not so numerous or not so oblique. 

In the female, the diagnostic features of the genitalia of Altica chalybaea 
are more difficult to recognize because the female genitalia of most North 



236 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 






a. 
o 
o 
cvi 




Figure 2. Styles of a paralectotype female of Altica chalybaea Illiger. 
Figure 3. Spermatheca of a paralectotype female of Altica chalybaea Illiger. 



Vol. 1 1 1 , No. 4, September & October, 2000 237 



American Altica species are still unknown except for the costate species which 
have been revised recently (LeSage 1995). In A. chalybaea, the basal portion 
of the spermathecal duct appears fairly long whereas it is proportionally shorter 
in other species, the receptacle of the spermatheca is not inflated whereas it is 
distinctly so in most species, and the inner margins of the styles diverge less at 
the tip than those of the known species. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

The assistance of Manfred Uhlig of the Museum fur Naturkunde der Humbolt-Universitat 
of Berlin in obtaining types has been greatly appreciated as well as the comments on the manu- 
script by my colleagues John Huber and Lubomir Masner. 

Thanks are extended to Go Sato for inking the figures and to Eric Rickey for the SEM 
picture. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Illiger, K. 1807. Verzeichniss der Arten der Flokafer, Halticae, in der Hellwig-Hoffman- 
seggischen Sammlung, mit Beschreibung der neuen, und Bezeichnung der iibrigen Arten. 
Magazin fur Insektenkunde 6: 81-188. 

LeSage, L. 1995. Revision of the costate species of Altica Miiller of North America north of 
Mexico (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Can. Entomol. 127: 295-411. 



BOOKS RECEIVED AND BRIEFLY NOTED 

CATALOG OF THE NEOTROPICAL CADDISFLIES (INSECTA: 
TRICHOPTERA). O.S. Flint, Jr., R.W. Holzenthal, S.C. Harris. 1999. 239 pp. 
8-1/2 x 1 1 format, ppbk. $30 plus shipping & handling. 

As the title states, this is a systematic catalog of the Trichoptera fauna of all American (New 
World) countries south of the United States. 

GENERIC KEY TO THE ADULT OCELLATE LIMNEPHILOIDEA OF THE 
WESTERN HEMISPHERE (INSECTA: TRICHOPTERA). D.E. Ruiter. 2000. 
22pp. 8-1/2 x 1 1 format, ppbk. $10 plus shipping & handling. 

REVISION OF THE NEARCTIC SPECIES OF THE GENUS POLY- 
PEDILUM Kieffer (DIPTERA: CHIRONOMIDAE) IN THE SUBGENERA 
P. (Polypedilum) Kieffer and P. (Uresipedilum) Oyewo and Saether. D. 
Maschwitz and E.F. Cook. 2000. 135 pp. 8-1/2 x 11 format, ppbk. $25 plus 
shipping & handling. 

The above three titles are recent publications of the Ohio Biological Survey, The Ohio State 
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238 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



MONOSOMA PULVERATA (HYMENOPTERA: 

TENTHREDINIDAE), AN ALDER-FEEDING SAWFLY 

NEW TO NORTH AMERICA 1 

David R. Smith, 2 Henri Goulet 3 

ABSTRACT: Monosoma pulverata, a European alder-feeding sawfly, is reported as new to 
North America from specimens taken in Newfoundland. It is separated from the only native 
North American species of Monosoma, M. inferentia. 

Monosoma pulverata (Retzius), an alder sawfly native to Europe, northern 
Africa, and the Near East, was collected on three different occasions in New- 
foundland in 1991 and 1998. The species is undoubtedly a relatively recent 
introduction, and, because of the prevalence of its host plant in North America, 
it is likely to spread on the continent. It is an addition to several species of 
sawflies on alder that have previously been accidentally introduced into North 
America: Fenusa dohrnii (Tischbein), a leafminer, and Eriocampa ovata (L.) 
and Croesus varus (Villaret), both external leaf feeders (all Tenthredinidae) 
(Smith, 1979b). 

Monosoma MacGillivray was treated by Smith (1979a) in a revision of 
North American Allantinae and includes only one native species, Monosoma 
inferentia (Norton), which also feeds on Alnus spp. Monosoma inferentia oc- 
curs from Newfoundland (insular and Labrador) west to British Columbia in 
Canada, and from Maine to North Carolina west to Minnesota and Illinois in 
the United States. The sheath, lancet, and male genitalia were illustrated by 
Smith (1979, figs. 186, 187, 189, 190). 

Monosoma pulverata occurs throughout Europe and in northern Africa 
(Lacourt, 1975) and Turkey to the Caucasus (Benson, 1968). Notes on its larva 
and biology were given by Pieronek( 1976, 1980, 1983, 1985). The male geni- 
talia were illustrated by Taeger (1987, fig. 13) and Lacourt (1975, fig. 1). 
Taeger (1987, fig. 14) illustrated a central depression on the 8th tergite; we did 
not see this in males of M. inferentia. We have not seen males from North 
America. Males are rare in Europe, and Benson (1952) believed it to be par- 
thenogenetic since males had not been found in Britain. 

The females of the two species are distinguished by coloration. Both sexes 
also can be distinguished by clypeus shape, size of the postocellar area, and 
dull or shining surface sculpture. 

1 Received September 10, 1999. Accepted October 20, 1999. 

2 Systematic Entomology Laboratory, PSI, Agricultural Research Service, U. S. Department of 
Agriculture, c/o National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington. 
DC 20560-0168, U.S.A. 

3 Eastern Cereal and Oilseed Research Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Research 
Branch, K.W. Neatby Building, CEF, Ottawa, Ontario K1A OC6, Canada. 

ENT. NEWS 1 1 1(4): 238-242, September & October 2000 



Vol. Ill, No. 4, September & October, 2000 239 



Key to Species 

Postocellar area longer than broad (Fig. 3); head and thorax dull, with fine 
microsculpture; in female, anterior half or more of clypeus whitish 
and thorax and abdomen largely yellow to orange, variable; clypeus 

shorter and broader (Fig. 1 ) M. inferentia 

Postocellar area about as long as broad (Fig. 4); head and thorax shining, 

without microsculpture; in female, less than half of anterior of clypeus 

reddish brown and thorax and abdomen mostly black; clypeus longer and 

less broad (Fig. 2) M. pulverata 



Females of Monosoma pulverata have the antenna and head black with the 
labrum white and front margin of the clypeus reddish brown; thorax black 
with posterior corners of the pronotum and tegula yellow and sometimes a 
brownish stripe on the posterior margin of the mesepisternum; legs reddish 
brown with the base and inner surface of the coxae black and the hindtibia and 
all tarsi blackish; abdomen black with the apical margins of the segments be- 
yond the first, apical segment, and lateral spots on the terga whitish to yellow- 
ish. The wings are hyaline with the subcosta and stigma of the forewing amber 
and remaining veins brownish to black. 

North American records for Monosoma pulverata are: NEWFOUNDLAND: South Branch 
Grand Codroy R., Hwy 1, 5 June 1998, B. Kondratieff, R. Baumann (2 9); Gander R., 
Hwy 1, Appleton, 9 June 1998, B. Kondratieff, R. Baumann (1 9); Codroy pond, 10 June 
1991, H. Goulet (1 9)- Deposited in the Colorado State University collection and the 
Canadian National Collection. 

Females of Monosoma inferentia are mostly orange to reddish brown with 
the clypeus white, antenna black and usually some marks on the mesoster- 
num, lobes of mesonotum, posterior portion of mesoscutellum, and metanotum 
black. The coloration is variable and the head may be mostly black and the 
black marks on the thorax faint or extensive. The wings are hyaline with the 
stigma and veins of the forewing brownish to black with the basal half of the 
stigma amber. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

We appreciate the help of B. Kondratieff, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, for 
allowing study of specimens in their collection. Cathy Anderson, Systematic Entomology Labo- 
ratory, USDA, took the SEM photographs and prepared the plates. Thanks also to the follow- 
ing for reviewing the manuscript: N. M. Schiff, U.S. Forest Service, Stoneville, MS and N. E. 
Woodley, Systematic Entomology Laboratory, USDA, Washington, DC. 



240 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 




Figs. 1-2. Front of head. 1, Monosoma inferentia. 2, M. pulverata. 



Vol. 1 1 1 , No. 4, September & October. 2000 



241 




-*. 





Figs. 3-4. Dorsal view of head. 3, Monosoma inferentia. 4, M. pulverata. 



242 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



LITERATURE CITED 

Benson, R.B. 1952. Hymenoptera, Symphyta. Handbooks for the Identification of British In- 
sects, Royal Entomol. Soc. London, Vol. 6, part 2(b), pp. 51-137. 
Benson, R.B. 1968. Hymenoptera from Turkey, Symphyta. Bull. British Mus. (Nat. Hist.) 

Entomol. 22: 110-207. 

Lacourt, J. 1975. Note sur les Tenthredes de 1'Aulneau Maroc. L'Entomologiste 31: 173-176. 
Pieronek, B. 1976. The instars and last moult of sawfly larvae (Hymenoptera, Symphyta). 

Polskie Pismo Entomol. 46: 767-769. 
Pieronek, B. 1980. On the larval Monosoma pulverata (Retzius) feeding on alder (Hymenoptera: 

Tenthredinidae-Blennocampinae). Mitt. Zool. Mus. Berlin 56: 195-199. 
Pieronek, B. 1983. The larvae of Symphyta (Hymenoptera) feeding on Alnus (Mill.). Verhandl. 

Symp. Internal. Entomofaunisticae Europe Centralis, pp. 119-122. 
Pieronek, B. 1985. Food dependences and productivity of the larvae of Cimbex connaia (Schr.) 

and Monosoma pulverata (Retz.) (Hymenoptera, Symphyta). Mitt. Deut. Gesell. Allgemeine 

und Angewandte Entomol. 4: 236-239. 
Smith, D.R. 1979a. Nearctic sawflies IV. Allantinae: Adults and larvae (Hymenoptera: 

Tenthredinidae). U. S. Dept. Agr., Tech Bull. 1595, 172 pp., 24 pis. 
Smith, D.R. 1979b. Symphyta, pp. 3-137. IN: Krombein, K.V., P.O. Hurd, Jr., D.R. Smith, and 

B.D. Burks, eds. Catalog of Hymenoptera in America North of Mexico, Vol. 1, Smithson. 

Inst. Press, Washington, D.C. 1198 pp. 
Taeger, A. 1987. Erganzungen zur Blattwespenfauna Bulgariens und Bearbeitung der Gattung 

Monostegia O. Costa (Insecta, Hymenoptera, Symphyta, Tenthredinidae). Faun. Abhandl. 

Staat. Mus. Tierkunde Dresden 15: 1-10. 



BOOKS RECEIVED AND BRIEFLY NOTED 

MEDICAL ENTOMOLOGY FOR STUDENTS, 2nd ed. M.W. Service. 2000. 
Cambridge University Press. 283 pp. ppbk. $37.95. 

Basic information on the recognition, biology, and medical importance of arthropod vectors 
of disease and their control. All major groups of medically important arthropods are included in 
this updated edition. 

A FLY FOR THE PROSECUTION. HOW INSECT EVIDENCE HELPS 
SOLVE CRIMES. M.L. Goff. 2000. Harvard University Press, 225 pp. Hard 
Cover. $22.95. 

From twelfth century China to twenty-first century America, the author, a noted pro- 
fessional forensic entomologist, chronicles the evolution of this science, and in a narrative punc- 
tuated by his own personal experiences, explains how, exactly, insects can provide clues about 
a crime. 



Vol. 1 1 1 . No. 4, September & October. 2000 243 

FURTHER CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE STUDY OF 
DALQUESTIA (OPILIONES: SCLEROSOMATIDAE) 1 

James C. Cokendolpher^ , W. David Sissom^ 

ABSTRACT: Dalquestia leucopyga n. sp. is described from northeastern Tamaulipas, Mexico. 
New localities are provided for Dalquestia concho in Chihuahua, Mexico, Dalquestia formosa 
in Texas, USA, and Dalquestia grasshoffi in Durango, Mexico. The first record of D. formosa 
in Mexico is also provided from Nuevo Le6n. Additional biological notes are provided for D. 
formosa in Texas. 

RESUMEN: Dalquestia leucopyga, sp. n., es describen de Tamaulipas del noreste, Mexico. 
Los nuevos lugares se proporcionan para el Dalquestia concho Cokendolpher en Chihuahua, 
M6xico, Dalquestia formosa (Banks) en Tejas, los EEUU, y el Dalquestia grasshoffi 
Cokendolpher en Durango, Mexico. El primer expediente de D. formosa en Mexico tambien se 
proporciona de Nuevo Leon. Las notas bio!6gicas adicionales se proporcionan para D. formosa 
en Tejas. 

Since the original description of Dalquestia (Cokendolpher, 1984), two 
papers have been published relative to this genus. Cokendolpher & Stockwell 
(1986) described a new species from Arizona, USA, and provided a revised 
key to the species of the genus. Tsurusaki & Cokendolpher (1990) reported 
the first karyotype of any member of Dalquestia (D. formosa). 

The higher classification of the Phalangioidea Opiliones remains unsettled. 
Although it is clear that Dalquestia belongs to an unnamed assemblage (fam- 
ily or subfamily?) with Metopilio Roewer, Diguetinus Roewer, Eurybunus 
Banks, and Globipes Banks, their relationship to other Phalangioidea is un- 
clear. In the latest catalogue to the genera of Phalangioidea, Crawford (1992) 
listed the Metopilio assemblage (equivalent to subfamily) within the 
Sclerosomatidae. For lack of better evidence, Cokendolpher & Lee (1993) 
and Kury & Cokendolpher (in press) followed this assignment in catalogues 
to the Opiliones of North America. 

Almost a decade ago, Marie Goodnight gave the senior author a large col- 
lection of harvestmen which she and Clarence Goodnight had accumulated 
over the years as the reigning authorities on North American Opiliones. Among 
this material is a new species of Dalquestia as well as several new records of 
the genus. Herein we describe that species and provide records and biological 
data obtained since the original publication of the genus. 



1 Received October 4, 1999. Accepted November 8, 1999. 

2 2007 29th Street, Lubbock, Texas 7941 1 USA. 

3 Department of Life, Earth, & Environmental Sciences, West Texas A&M University, Box 
60808, Canyon, Texas 79016 USA. 

ENT. NEWS 1 1 1(4): 243-249, September & October 2000 



244 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



METHODS 

The description format and terms essentially follow those of Cokendolpher 
(1984). The penis was examined and illustrated while it was immersed in K- 
Y Brand Jelly (Ortho Pharmaceutical Corp., Raritan, New Jersey, USA) on a 
depression slide. To our knowledge this is the first time this material has been 
used with Opiliones. This clear jelly is water/alcohol soluble and thick enough 
to hold the object under study in any position. Museum collections reported 
here are: American Museum of Natural History, New York (AMNH); Texas 
Memorial Museum, Austin (TMM); personal collection of J. C. Cokendolpher 
(JCC). 

Dalquestia leucopyga, NEW SPECIES 

(Figs. 1-7). 

Dalquestia n. sp. 1 Tamaulipas (endemic): Kury & Cokendolpher, in press. 

Diagnosis. Each abdominal tergite with two rows of tubercles, tubercles 
of anterior row smaller than in posterior row; white spot at tip of abdomen 
dorsally; tibia II without pseudosegments, sharply bicolored; basal cheliceral 
segment with laterally compressed subconical spur below, a few small tubercles 
above. 

Identification. All species of Dalquestia thus far known are found in 
widely separated and geographically isolated areas. Identifications can usu- 
ally be made by referring to the map in Cokendolpher (1984), with the addi- 
tion of D. rothorum Cokendolpher & Stockwell, 1986, from Arizona, USA. 
Possibly because of these isolated distributions, the genitalia of Dalquestia 
members are very conservative and appear similar. This is the opposite of 
Metopilio spp. which are often sympatric. A key to the species of Dalquestia 
(based entirely on external features of adults) is provided by Cokendolpher & 
Stockwell (1986). In that key, D. leucopyga will be identified as D. rothorum. 
Dalquestia leucopyga is easily distinguished from D. rothorum on the basis of 
the chelicerae. D. leucopyga has a spur on the basal segment of the chelicera 
and lacks tubercles on the distal article of the chelicera. These two are also 
widely separated in their distributions. Dalquestia rothorum is known only 
from a live oak riparian zone on a mountain surrounded by desert in Arizona. 
Dalquestia leucopyga is thus far known only from the coastal plain in north- 
eastern Tamaulipas. 

Etymology. The specific name is Greek (leuc = white and pyg = rump) 
and refers to the white spot found on the posterior end of the abdomen. 

Type data. Male holotype from Km 158 on Highway 110, about 7 km SW of San 
Fernando, Tamaulipas, Mexico, 60-90 m elev., 22 Feb. 1973, T. R. Mollhagen (AMNH). 



Vol. 1 1 1. No. 4. September & October. 2000 245 



Description. Based on the male holotype. With the characters of the genus (Cokendolpher, 
1984). Total length 4.95 mm, greatest width 3.00 mm, maximum height 2.35 mm. Dorsum 
brown, lighter on borders of cephalothorax and anterior portion of abdomen, with two small 
whitish median spots on segments I, II, and larger creamy white spot distally on abdomen 
(tergites VI distally, VII). Cephalothorax densely covered with low rounded granules and with 
a transverse row of larger tubercles along posterior margin; preocular area on anterior margin 
with pointed denticles medially; pair of pointed tubercles between pores and preocular tu- 
bercles. Ocular tubercle dark brown, contrasting somewhat with surrounding portion of cepha- 
lothorax; length 0.40 mm, width 0.40 mm, height 0.20 mm; eyes flanked medially by two rows 
of 7 tubercles. Each tergite with double rows of tubercles, tubercles of anterior rows smaller 
than those of posterior rows (Fig. 1). Genital operculum length 1.70 mm, width at neck 0.70 
mm, width at base 1.55 mm. Genital operculum creamy yellow; leg coxae and trochanters 
creamy yellow with pointed tubercles. Sternites brownish-yellow with small brownish gran- 
ules on extreme lateral edges; posterior half of sternite VIII, all of sternite IX, and anal opercu- 
lum darker brown with dense, rounded brown granules. Pedipalp with coxa and trochanter 
yellow; femur, patella, and tibia yellow brown; tarsus yellowish; all segments except tarsus 
with numerous tubercles; tarsus with ventral rows of denticles; tips of claws black. Palpal 
segment lengths: femur 1.10 mm, patella 0.80 mm, tibia 1.10 mm, tarsus 1.30 mm. Chelicera 
creamy yellow with short blackish setae on anterior and medial faces (Figs. 2, 3); basal seg- 
ment with laterally compressed subconical tubercle ventrally (Fig. 2). Leg segments yellowish- 
brown except as follows: femur, patella, and tibia of leg I light orange brown; tibia I shaded to 
narrow whitish distal band; femur of leg II with narrow brown band distally, patella II light 
brown, tibia II brown on basal two thirds and whitish on distal third; tibiae III-IV light brown- 
ish with narrow whitish band distally. All legs with longitudinal rows of tubercles; tibiae and 
metatarsi lacking pseudosegments; femora and tibiae strongly angular in cross-section. Femora 
I-IV lengths (respectively, in mm): 2.00, 5.90, 2.10, 3.20; tibiae 1-IV lengths: 2.10, 4.60, 1.90, 
2.40. Penis as in Figs. 4-7; length 3.85 mm. 

Female: Unknown. 

Specimens examined. Only the holotype. 

Dalquestia formosa (Banks) 

Kury & Cokendolpher (in press) listed this species from Nuevo Leon but 
did not provide any details. The only known record for the state as well as 
many new records from Texas are listed below. 

New Records. MEXICO: NUEVO LEON: Cuevas Buenavistas, Sierra de Lampasos, E. 
of Bustamante, 15 Sept. 1985 (T. Raines), 1 female (TMM). USA: TEXAS: Bexar Co., Friedrich 
Wilderness Area, north of San Antonio, 366-381 m elev., 6 Feb. 1983 (F. E. Walker) 1 male, 4 
females, eggs, 1st instars reared from eggs (TMM). Blanco Co., Rough Hollow Creek and 
Hwy. 2766, 6 km E. Johnson City, 3 Oct. 1994 (A. G. Grubbs), 1 male (TMM); Flat Creek 
Ranch, 19.3 km E. Johnson City, 28 May 1995 (A. G. Grubbs), 1 male (TMM). Brewster Co., 
Chisos Mountains, Big Bend National Park, 1,676 m elev., 28 June 1947 (C. L. Remington), 1 
male, 3juv. (AMNH); 1,829 m elev., 29 June 1947 (C. L. Remington), 1 male, 5 juv. (AMNH); 
The Basin, 2 July 1947 (C. L. & J. E. Remington), 1 male, 1 female (JCC); 16 June 1948 (M. 
Cazier), 1 male (AMNH); Lost Mine Trail, 19 March 1991 (K. McWest & T. J. Fuller) 1 fe- 
male, 1st instars from eggs (TMM). Burnett Co., Simons Squirm-Around Cave, 20 Nov. 1990 
(J. Reddell , M. Reyes), 1 female (TMM); Simons Water Cave, 12 Nov. 1990 (J. Reddell, M. 
Reyes, M. Warton), 1 male (TMM); Snake Pit Cave, 20 Nov. 1990 (J. Reddell, M. Reyes), 1 
female (TMM); FM 2341, 19.3 km NW Burnet, 13 Oct. 1994 (A. G. Grubbs), 1 male (TMM); 
Gridiron Creek, 7.2 km NW Spicewood, 27 Sept. 1994 (A. G. Grubbs), 1 male (TMM); Co. Rd. 



246 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 








Figs. 1-7. Dalquestia leucopyga n. sp. male. 1, dorsum of body; 2, mesal view of left chelicera; 
3, anterior view of left cheliceral jaws; 4, lateral view of penis; 5, enlargement, lateral view of 
distal end of penis; 6, ventral view of penis; 7, enlargement, ventral view of distal end of penis. 



Vol. 1 1 1 , No. 4, September & October. 2000 247 



404, 2.4 km W. Spicewood, 9 Nov. 1994 (A. G. Grubbs), 1 female (TMM); 2.6 km SW 
Smithwick, 13 Oct. 1994 (A. G. Grubbs), 1 male (TMM); 2.6 km S. Marble Falls, 20 Sept. 1994 
(A. G. Grubbs), 1 juv. (TMM). Gillespie Co., 12.9 km NW Fredericksburg, 24 Oct. 1985 (J. C. 
and J. E. Cokendolpher), 1 juv. (TMM). Hays Co., Recharge Farms, 8 km NNW San Marcos, 2 
Feb. 1983 (A. G. Grubbs), 2 males (TMM). KerrCo., 1.6 km NE Mountain Home, 7 June 1988 
(B. J. Nichols), 1 male (TMM), 21-24 July 1988 (B. J. Nichols), 1 male (JCC); 3.2 km SSE 
Center Point (W. Rogers, et al.), 7 May 1983, 1 juv. (TMM); 25 June-2 July 1983,1 juv. (TMM); 
16-23 Sept. 1983, 1 juv. (TMM); 16 Oct. 1983, 2 males (JCC), 7 males, 1 female (TMM); 4-11 
Feb. 1984, 1 juv. (TMM); 27 May-4 June 1984, 2 juv. (TMM); 6.4 km E. Kerrville, 16 Oct. 
1983 (W. Rogers), 1 juv. (TMM); 6.4 km E. Kerrville (W. Rogers, et al.), 7 May 1983, 1 juv. 
(TMM); 27 May-4 June 1983, 7 juv. (TMM); 25 June 1985, 2 females (TMM); 20-26 Aug. 
1983, 2 juv. (TMM); 23 Sept. 1983, 1 juv. (TMM). Travis Co., Bee Creek Nature Preserve, 
Austin, 21 June 1988 (S. W. Taber), 1 female (JCC); Adobe Springs Cave, 29 May 1989 (W. 
Elliott, J. Reddell, M. Reyes), 1 juv. (TMM); Sunset Canyon, W Austin, 6.4 km E. Dripping 
Springs, 17 Oct. 1985 (W. R. Elliott), 1 male, 2 females (TMM). Uvalde Co., Jester's Gold 
Cave, 4 April 1993 (J. Loftin), 1 female (TMM). Val Verde Co., 8 km S. Loma Alta on Rt. 277, 
9 June 1984 (S.A. Stockwell), 1 juv (JCC); 33.8 km N. Langtry, 15 April 1973 (C. McConnell), 
2 females (JCC); 16 April 1973 (T. R. Mollhagen), 2 females (JCC). 

Natural history. A female from near San Antonio, Texas, laid 34 eggs 
on either 2 1 or 22 Feb. 1 983. Twenty-seven eggs hatched on 28-29 April 1 983. 
This developmental time was at about 22 C. A female collected in Big Bend 
National Park on 19 March 1991 laid eggs the following weekend. The num- 
ber of eggs is not available for this female because the egg mass began to 
decay before a count could be made. 

Almost all of the specimen vials which are labeled with habitat data men- 
tion some sort of juniper habitat. Pinon-juniper habitats are recorded in the 
Chisos Mountains. Juniper (primarily Juniperus ashei Buchh.) habitats (often 
semi-arid) are recorded from central and north-central areas of this species 
range. According to Walker (pers. comm., 6 Feb. 1983), D.formosa occurs 
north of San Antonio in an area of J. ashei and rocks. On the lower slopes, 
where the area is not as arid, the junipers grow thickly and litter the ground 
with their needles. No D.formosa were encountered in this region. Higher up 
on the slopes where it is more arid and the vegetation is more sparse, D.formosa 
was encountered under rocks. 

During an extensive pitfall trapping study in central Texas (13,440 trap 
nights spread over a year in eight localities, Phillips, et al., 1986), only 57 D. 
formosa were collected. Four habitat types were sampled during the trapping: 
juniper-grassland, live oak-grassland, grazed pasture-grassland, and southern 
cypress-grassland communities. Dalquestia formosa was only collected in J. 
as/ze/-grasslands. Those collections are plotted in Fig. 8. Pitfall trapping does 
not appear to be a good method to obtain life history data on D. formosa. 
Apparently, the younger instars either spend their time in habitats not sampled 
by the traps (cracks and holes in the earth), or they are relatively immobile and 
do not wander far from the site from were they were born. Limited laboratory 
observations indicate that at least the first two instars of D.formosa are very 



248 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



easily desiccated. They could not survive on the surface except on very moist 
occasions. We suggest the pitfall trap data are relatively accurate for describ- 
ing adult activity because those individuals appear to be less sensitive to rrois- 
ture. Adults are active in October and November, following the decline in the 
number of juveniles. It appears mating occurs in October and November. Egg 
laying presumably occurs during the same period Although a female was col- 
lected in June, it is uncertain if it was a newly maturing individual or one that 
had already over-wintered as an adult. As already noted, females from slightly 
more southern localities have been observed to lay eggs in February and March. 
Cokendolpher (1984) reported that adults were known from all months with 
the majority from July to November. He also stated that two females collected 
during October were filled with large eggs. His data may be somewhat mis- 
leading though, as it includes records from throughout the range of this species. 



ft 

NN 

> 

HN 

Q 
Z 



males 

females 
juveniles 




rv v vi vii vm ix x xi xn i n m iv 

MONTH (1983-1984) 

Fig. 8. Monthly collections by pitfall trapping of Dalquestia formosa in juniper-grasslands of 
central Texas. 

Dalquestia concho Cokendolpher 

New Record. MEXICO: CHIHUAHUA: Torrecillas, 2,103 m elev., 17 August 1947 (G. 
M. Bradt), 1 juv. (JCC). 

Comment. This juvenile does not differ from the original description of 
that stage. The new record is the southernmost record for the species, but only 
extending the range south about 60 km from Encino, Durango. 



Vol. 1 1 1 . No. 4. September & October. 2000 249 



Dalquestia grasshoffi Cokendolpher 

Record. MEXICO: Hidalgo: Jacala, 20 July 1956 (V. Roth, W. Gertsch), 1 male (JCC). 

Comment. The above listed record (from the type locality) is only the 
second collection of this species. This male does not differ significantly from 
the original description of the male. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

We thank Marie Goodnight for the gift of the specimens, some of which are reported upon 
herein. James R. Reddell, Texas Memorial Museum, kindly loaned specimens of Dalquestia. 
Kari M. McWest, Tony Mollhagen, and Fred E. Walker are thanked for their conversations/ 
correspondences about Dalquestia natural history and collection localities. We are grateful to 
Joe Bigelow for informing us about the use of K-Y Brand Jelly in the observation of minute 
objects. Darrell Ubick (California Academy of Sciences) and Allen Dean (Texas A&M Univer- 
sity) kindly reviewed the final draft of the manuscript; their efforts are sincerely appreciated. 
We also thank Douglas P. Bingham and the Department of Life, Earth, and Environmental 
Sciences at West Texas A&M University for providing financial support to cover publication 
costs. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Cokendolpher, J. C. 1 984. A new genus of North American harvestmen ( Arachnida: Opiliones: 
Palpatores). Pp. 27-43 IN: N. V. Horner (ed.). Festschrift for Walter W. Dalquest in honor 
of his sixty-sixth birthday. Midwest. State Univ., Wichita Falls, Texas. 

Cokendolpher, J. C. & S. A. Stockwell. 1986. A new species of harvestmen from Arizona 
(Arachnida: Opiliones: Palpatores: Dalquestia). Southwest. Nat., 31:49-53. 

Cokendolpher, J. C. & V. F. Lee. 1993. Catalogue of the Cyphopalpatores and bibliography 
of the harvestmen (Arachnida, Opiliones) of Greenland, Canada, USA, and Mexico. Pri- 
vate Publ., Lubbock, Texas, 82 pp. 

Crawford, R. L. 1992. Catalogue of the genera and type species of the harvestman superfam- 
ily Phalangioidea (Arachnida). Burke Mus. Contri. Anthropol. Nat. Hist., no. 8, 60 pp. 

Kury, A. B. & J. C. Cokendolpher. In press. Opiliones. IN: Biodiversidad, Taxonomia y 
Biogeograffa de Artr6podos de Mexico: Hacia una sfntesis de su conocimiento (Vol. II). 

Phillips, S. A., Jr., S. R. Jones, D. M. Claborn & J. C. Cokendolpher. 1986. Effect of Pro- 
Drone, an insect growth regulator, on Solenopsis invicta Buren and nontarget ants. South- 
west. Entomol., 11:287-293. 

Tsurusaki, N. & J. C. Cokendolpher. 1990. Chromosomes of sixteen species of harvestmen 
(Arachnida, Opiliones, Caddidae and Phalangiidae). J. Arachnol., 18:151-166. 



250 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



MATERNAL CARE IN THE NEOTROPICAL 
CENTIPEDE OTOSTIGMUS SCABRICAUDA 
(CHILOPODA: SCOLOPENDROMORPHA) 1 

G. Machado^ 

ABSTRACT: This paper provides the first field report of maternal care in a Neotropical centi- 
pede. Nine females of Otostigmus scabricauda were found taking care of eggs or first instar 
nymphs at Sao Sebastiao Island, southeastern Brazil. Brood-guarding females were found in the 
leaf litter or under fallen trunks. The mean clutch size was 29.1 15.7 and no egg was observed 
to be infected with fungi. The nymphs are non-pigmented and hatch with 21 segments. Egg- 
laying in O. scabricauda probably takes place in the beginning of the wet-warm season (Octo- 
ber), and the reproductive season lasts until February. Predation pressure in the leaf litter and 
the high risk of infection due to fungi may have favored the evolution of maternal care in many 
arthropods living on the soil, such as centipedes. 

Parental investment is defined as any behavior exhibited by a parent to- 
wards the progeny which increases its survival rate at the cost of the aptitude 
of the parent to invest in another progeny (Trivers, 1972). Among arthropods 
this may include investment by females in the choice of an appropriate site for 
oviposition, incubation, and egg-guarding, as well as the feeding of young by 
one or both parents (Clutton-Brock, 1991). 

There are about 2500 described species of centipedes (order Chilopoda) in 
both temperate and tropical regions (Cloudsley-Thompson, 1958; Lewis, 1981). 
Centipedes usually live in damp and dark places such as under stones, fallen 
leaves, logs, under barks, or in crevices. The reproductive biology of centi- 
pedes is poorly known, but at least some species present some degree of pa- 
rental care. Females in the suborders Scolopendromorpha and Geophilomorpha 
lay their eggs in clusters and guard the eggs from oviposition to hatching, then 
caring for the young until they disperse (Brunhuber, 1970). 

While the female guards her offspring she is very sensitive to disturbance 
and commonly abandons the egg-batch which may be attacked by fungi or 
predators. Thus, females and their brood cannot be transported to the labora- 
tory in order to observe their behavior and development (Brunhuber, 1970). 
Among the Scolopendromorpha, maternal care has been reported only for Scol- 
opendra cingulata (Heymonds, 1901 ; Klingel, 1960), S. dalmatica (Heymonds, 
1901), 5. amazonica (Lewis, 1966), and Cormocephalus anceps anceps 
(Brunhuber, 1970), all from Asian and African regions. There is no record of 
maternal care in Neotropical centipedes. 



1 Received June 4, 1999, Accepted October 23, 1999. 

2 Museu de Hist6ria Natural, Institute de Biologia, CP 6109, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, 
13083-970 Campinas SP, Brazil, fax 55 19 2893124 e-mail glaucom@unicamp.br 

ENT. NEWS 1 1 1(4): 250-254, September & October 2000 



Vol. 1 1 1. No. 4. September & October, 2000 251 



The genus Otostigmus (Scolopendridae: Otostigminae) has a global distri- 
bution, including the Americas, Africa, Oceania, India and Japan. Its repre- 
sentatives range from 4- 1 2 cm in length and their tegument is colorful (Bucherl, 
1939a). Otostigmus scabricauda H. & Saus., 1870 is common in Brazil, espe- 
cially in the coastal forests. Observations on reproductive behavior from labo- 
ratory indicate that in this species females take care of their eggs and nymphs 
(Martins & Knysak, 1996). However this behavior has never been recorded in 
nature and this paper provides the first field account of maternal care for a 
Neotropical centipede. 

MATERIAL AND METHODS 

This study was conducted on Sao Sebastiao Island (2347' S; 4524' W), 
southeastern coast of Sao Paulo State, Southeast Brazil. Approximately 80% 
of the island is area covered by Atlantic Forest (IBGE, 1983). The climate is 
warm and wet with maximum rainfall in December (2000 mm) and minimum 
in August (80 mm). Collections of centipedes were made between 100 and 
900 m altitude during March and February 1997, and from December 1997 to 
January 1998 (wet and warm season). Individuals of Otostigmus scabricauda 
were found during a study of litter invertebrate diversity. A leaf litter area of 
about 5800 m 2 corresponding to 92 plots of 64m 2 was sampled. All centipedes 
found were collected and later preserved in 70% ethanol. During the collec- 
tion I recorded the behavioral responses of the individuals to disturbance, such 
as attempts to escape, and the egg or nymph cannibalism. Voucher specimens 
are in the Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de Sao Paulo (MZUSP), Sao 
Paulo, Brazil. 

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 

I found nine females of Otostigmus scabricauda with offspring: three of 
them cared for eggs and six cared for first instar nymphs. Female length ranged 
from 36.4 to 53.5 mm. Brood-guarding females were found in the leaf litter (n 
= 5) or under fallen trunks (n = 4). The female curls herself around the 'ggs or 
the young, laying on her side and enclosing the brood between her legs and the 
ventral surface of her body (Fig. 1). As recorded for other centipede species, 
the eggs and the young are thus safeguarded from contact with the soil (see 
Cornwell, 1934; Lawrence, 1947; Brunhuber, 1970). When disturbed during 
brooding, the females abandon their eggs or young (7 observations), or eat 
them (2 observations). Apparently, females caring for first instar nymphs aban- 
don their offspring more frequently than females caring for eggs (x 2 = 5.5; d.f. 
= 1 ; p > 0.05). After the mother deserts, the nymphs generally flee, or burrow 
themselves in the soil. 

The mean clutch size was 29.1 (S.D. = 15.7; range = 16 - 58; n = 9). The 



252 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 




Figure 1 : Female of Otostigmus scabricauda curled around her early-hatched nymphs as found 
under a fallen trunk in nature. 



eggs are oval, yellowish, and have a mean individual volume of 48.5 mm 3 
(SD = 5.9 mm 3 ; range = 40.6 - 56.8 mm 3 ; n = 10) (Fig. 1). No egg was ob- 
served to be infected with fungi. The nymphs are non-pigmented and have a 
mean length of 1 1.6 mm (S.D. = 1.1 mm; range = 8.4 - 13.5 mm; n = 65) (Fig. 
la). The nymphs hatch with 21 segments, and as in other scolo-pendromorphs 
(see Cloudsley-Thompson, 1958) the development is epimorphic (the young 
display the complete number of segments upon hatching). The embryonic phase 
of Otostigmus scabricauda under laboratory conditions ranged from 45 to 60 
days and the nymphs remain with the mother for 1 5 -20 days before dispersal 
(Martins & Knysak, 1996). If the incubation time in the field is similar to that 
described in the laboratory, egg-laying in O. scabricauda probably takes place 
in the beginning of the wet-warm season (October), and the reproductive sea- 



Vol. 1 1 1 , No. 4. September & October. 2000 253 



son lasts until February. The same pattern seems to occur in other scolopendrid 
species that reproduce during the rainy season (see Lewis, 1966). 

Despite the large number of species of centipedes in the Neotropical re- 
gion (see Biicherl, 1 939b) the behavior and ecology of the group is still poorly 
known. The developmental stages of the Geophilomorpha (Palmen & Rantal, 
1954) and Scolopendromorpha (Lawrence, 1947; Brunhuber, 1970) have al- 
ready been described and in these groups maternal care is crucial for the sur- 
vival of the eggs and young. The female grooms the eggs and juveniles; this 
apparently increases offspring survival, because without the mother the eggs 
and nymphs always die from fungal attack or unknown reasons (Brunhuber, 
1970). In some cases a female can also move her egg batch to other microsites 
with better temperature and humidity conditions (see Brunhuber, 1 970). Among 
arthropods, parental care is commonly associated with physically harsh or bio- 
logically dangerous habitats (Clotton-Brock, 1991; Zeh & Smith, 1985). Pre- 
dation pressure in the leaf litter and the high risk of infection due to fungi may 
have favored the evolution of maternal care in many arthropods living on the 
soil, such as some beetles (Scott, 1990), earwigs (Wilson, 1971), crickets (West 
& Alexander, 1 963), harvestmen (Goodnight & Goodnight, 1976; Mora, 1990), 
spiders (Horel & Gundermann, 1992), and probably centipedes. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

I am most grateful to C. H. F. Vasconcelos, R. J. Sawaya, R. Nunes, L. A. Anjos and A. M. 
F. Pacheco for help in field work; to I. Knysak for identification of the centipede species; to R. 
J. Sawaya for photographs; to P. S. Oliveira, K. S. Brown Jr., A. V. L. Freitas, I. Sazima, and an 
anonymous reviewer for comments on the manuscript. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Brunhuber, B. S. 1970. Egg laying, maternal care and development of young in the 

scolopendromorph centipede, Cormocephalus anceps anceps Porat. Zool. J. Linn. Soc. 

49: 225-234. 

Biicherl, W. 1939a. Os Quilopodos do Brasil. Mem. Inst. Butantan 13: 49-320. 
Biicherl, W. 1939b. Catalogo dos Quilopodos de zona neotropica. Mem. Inst. Butantan 15: 

251-372. 
Clutton-Brock, T. H. 1991. The evolution of parental care, Princeton Univ. Press, Princeton, 

NJ. 
Cornwell, W. S. 1934. Notes on the egg-laying and nesting habits of certain species of North 

Carolina myriapods and various phases of their life history. J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. 

149: 289-291. 
Cloudsley-Thompson, J. L. 1958. Spiders, Scorpions, Centipedes and Mites. Pergamon Press, 

Oxford, London. 
Goodnight, M. R. and C. J. Goodnight. 1976. Observations on the systematics, development 

and habits of Erginulus clavotibialis (Opiliones, Cosmetidae). Trans. Amer. Microsc. Soc. 

95: 654-664. 
Heymonds, R. 1901. Entwicklungsgeschichte der Skolopender. Zoologica Stuttg. 13: heft 33. 



254 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Horel, A. and J. L. Gundermann. 1992. Egg sac guarding by the funnel-web spider Coelotes 

terrestris: function and development. Behav. Proc. 27: 85-94. 
IBGE 1983. Levantamento de Recursos Naturais, Folhas SF 23/24 Rio de Janeiro/Vit6ria. 

MinisteYio das Minas e Energia, Projeto Radambrasil. Secretaria Geral, Rio de Janeiro. 
Klingel, H. 1960. Vergleichende Verhaltungsbiologie der Chilopoden Scutigera coleoptrata 

L. ('Spinnenassel') und Scolopendra cinculata L. (Skolopender). Z. Tietpsychol. 17: 11-30. 
Lawrence, R. F. 1947. Some observations on the post-embryonic development of the Natal 

forest centipede Cormocephalus multispinus (Kraep.). Ann. Natal. Mus. 11: 139-156. 
Lewis, J. G. E. 1966. The taxonomy and biology of the centipede Scolopendra amazonica in 

the Sudan. J. Zool. 149: 188-203. 

Lewis, J. G. E. 1981. The biology of centipedes, Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge. 
Mora, G. 1990. Parental care in a neotropical harvestman, Zygopachylus albomarginis (Arach- 

nida: Gonyleptidae). Anim. Behav. 39: 582-593. 
Martins, R. and I. Knysak. 1996. Observances sobre cuidados com a prole em Otostigmus 

scabricauda (Scolopendridae) nascidos em cativeiro. Anais de Etologia, Uberlandia, MG, 

14: 288. 
Palmen, E. and M. Rantala. 1954. On the life history and ecology of Pachymeriumferruginum 

Koch (Chilopoda: Geophilidae). Ann. Zool. Soc. 'Vanamo' 16: 1-44. 
Scott, M. P. 1990. Brood guarding and the evolution of male parental care in burying beetles. 

Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 26: 31-39. 

Trivers, R. L. 1972. Parental investment and sexual selection, pp. 136-179. In Sexual selec- 
tion and the descent of man, (Campbell, B. ed.), Chicago, Aldine. 
West, K. J. and R. D. Alexander. 1963. Sub-social behavior in a burrowing cricket Anurogryllus 

muticus (De Geer). Orthoptera: Gryllidae. Ohio J. Sci. 63: 19-24. 
Wilson, E. O. 1971. Insect societies. Harvard Univ. Press, Cambridge. 
Zeh, D. W. and R. L. Smith. 1985. Paternal investment by terrestrial arthropods. Am. Zool 25: 

785-805. 



NOTICE 

DEFECTIVE MARCH/APRIL, 2000, VOL. Ill (2) ISSUE 

When one Society member & subscriber wrote to me that he had received a defective March/ 
April, 2000 issue, I checked and discovered that of the 128 copies I had on hand, 22, or 17%, were 
defective. In the majority of cases the problem was one of four pairs of blank pages opposite each 
other for a total of eight blank pages. In one case, four pages were in double. 

Each and every subscriber, both individual and institutional, should check his or her copy for 
any possible defect and, if one is found, please advise our business office in Philadelphia and 
request a replacement copy. 

Entomological News regrets any inconvenience this printing error may hav* caused. 

H. P. B. 



Vol. 1 1 1. No. 4. September & October. 2000 255 

THE GENUS KUNZELLA AND A CLOSELY 

RELATED NEW GENUS YOUNGSZELLA 

(HOMOPTERA: CICADELLIDAE) 1 2 

Paul H. Freytag^ 

ABSTRACT: The genus Kunzella is revised to include only the type-species marginella. A 
new genus Youngszella is described for the species Dikraneura pseudomarginella (designated 
type-species), which has been confused with Kunzella marginella. One other species (trans- 
ferred to the genus Youngszella) is russea (new combination). 

The genius Kunzella was described by Young (1952) with the type- 
species as Dikraneura marginella. The species was confused with 
another species D. pseudomarginella Caldwell almost from the time D. 
marginella was first described. This paper is an attempt to properly place these 
two species and the one closely related species. Since this involved a 
misidentified type species of a genus it was submitted to the Commission on 
Zoological Nomenclature, but since no action was taken I am now designating 
the type species for Kunzella under the new (1-1 -2000) rules of nomenclature. 

D. marginella was first described as D. marginatus by DeLong (1924). 
This species was renamed the next year as D. marginella by Baker (1925), 
because marginatus was a homonym of marginata Sahlberg ( 1 87 1 ). DeLong 
originally described the species on the basis of three specimens from Florida. 
These specimens were examined in the DeLong Collection, Ohio State Uni- 
versity, and are without type labels. I designate one of the males as the lecto- 
type of this species, and the other male and the female as paralectotypes. All 
three specimens fit the description as given by DeLong and were collected in 
Miami, Florida, April 2 and 3, 1921. 

D. marginella was adequately described by DeLong (1924) in the original 
description, and DeLong and Caldwell (1937a) added the description of the 
male genitalia. The type series constitutes all the specimens of this species I 
have seen. The distribution of this species is questionable as presently it is 
only known from the Miami area. 

All specimens attributed to D. marginella, except the types, are the species 
D. pseudomarginella Caldwell described in 1952. Caldwell noted this confu- 
sion at that time, however Young (1952) did not, so his description of D. 
marginella is really that of D. pseudomarginella. Young apparently assumed 
there was but one species and set up the genus Kunzella on that assumption. 

1 Received April 30, 1998. Accepted March 15, 2000. 

2 The investigation reported in this paper (No. 98-08-62) is in connection with a project of the 
Kentucky Agricultural Experiment Station and is published with the approval of the Director. 

3 Department of Entomology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40546-0091. 

ENT. NEWS 1 1 1(4): 255-258, September & October 2000 



256 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



These two species have quite different male genitalia and belong in separate 
genera. Therefore I modify couplet 17 (on page 43) in the key to the Dikrineurini 
in Young's 1952 paper as follows: 

17. Style with conspicuous preapical lobe, not abruptly hooked at apex 

(Plate 21, fig. 57g); pygofer hooks posterodorsal in orgin or absent 18 

Style without conspicuous preapical lobe, slender throughout, sharply hooked 
at apex (Plate 23, fig. 62d); pygofer hooks apicai in ot'gin . Kunzella Young 1952 
Style without conspicuous preapical lobe, slender throughout, sharply hooked 
at apex (Plate 23, fig. 62d); pygofer hooks ventral in origin . Youngszella Freytag, 

new genus 

These two genera and the species included in each are as follows: 

Kunzella Young 

Kunzella Young 1952, p. 65. 
Type-species Dikraneura marginella Baker. 

This genus includes only the type-species. 

Kunzella marginella Baker) 

Dikraneura marginatus DeLong 1924, p. 68. 

Dikraneura marginata Ball and DeLong 1925, p. 311 (in part) 

Dikraneura marginella Baker 1925, p. 160. New name for D. marginata DeLong [not D. 

marginata Sahlberg 1871) 

Dikraneura marginella McAtee 1926, p. 164. (in part) 
Dikraneura marginella Osbore 1928, p. 267. (in part) 
Dikraneura marginella Lawson 1930, p. 41. (in part) 
Dikraneura marginella Osborn 1935, p. 189. (in part) 
Dikraneura marginella Wolcott 1936. p. 91. (in part) 
Dikraneura marginella DeLong and Caldwell 1937a. p. 22. (in part) 
Dikraneura marginella DeLong and Caldweil 1937b. p. 60. (in part) 
Dikraneura marginella DeLong and Knull 1946, p. 68 (in part) 
Kunzeana marginella Oman 1949, p. 83. (in part) 
Dikraneura marginella Wolcott 1950, p. 130. (in part) 
Dikraneura marginella Caldwell, in Caldwell and Martorell 1952, p. 107. 
Kunzella marginella Young 1952, p. 65. (in part) 

This species is only known from the type series from Florida. It was de- 
scribed and illustrated (Plate VII, fig. 6) by DeLong (1924), and the male 
genitalia were described and illustrated (Plate I) by DeLong and Caldwell 
(1937a). The face of both sexes is quite distinct in that it is light brown with a 
darker brown transverse band just below the antennal bases. Otherwise the 
color pattern is very similar to that of most species of Kunzeana. The male 
genitalia are quite unique and are illustrated by DeLong and Caldwell ( 1 937a). 
The pygofer is quite stout, heavily pigmented, with the dorsal apex curved 
dorsad. The aedeagus is a backward c-shaped structure, in lateral view, with 
the apex directed anteriorly. 



Vol. 111. No. 4. September & October. 2000 257 

Youngszella Freytag, NEW GENUS 

Type-species Dikraneura pseudomarginella Caldwell. 

This genus is closely related to Kunzella and Kunzeana, and differs only in 
the facal color pattern and the type of male genitalia. Characters shared by 
these genera are the following: hind wing with complete marginal vein, vannal 
veins fused, and first cubital vein branched. Kunzella and Youngszella have a 
y-shaped connective, and Kunzeana differs by having a u-shaped connective. 
Kunzella and Youngszella can be separated by the characters given in the 
above key. Young (1952) really adequately describes this genus under the 
name Kunzella as he did not describe D. marginella but really described D. 
pseudomarginella. The genus is characterized by having the characters of 
Kunzeana, except the color of the face is lighter just below the margin with a 
very dark transverse line through the middle of this lighter area (illustrated in 
Caldwell (1952) plate 47). Also the male genitalia are quite different from 
Kunzeana, in that the process of the pygofer is ventral, coming from the base, 
and quite long, extending along the line of the plate. There are two species in 
this genus. 

Youngszella pseudomarginella (Caldwell) NEW COMBINATION 

Dikraneura pseudomarginella Caldwell 1952, p. 106. 
Kunzeila marginella Young 1952. p. 65. (in part) 

All references under Kunzella marginella above, from Ball and DeLong 
(1925) to Walcott (1950), also refer to this species in part as all Neotropical 
specimens belong to this species. The species also occurs in Florida as Caldwell 
(1952) mentions. 

This species is similar to marginella, except for the face which is described 
under the generic discussion. The male genitalia are quite different and are 
illustrated by both Caldwell (1952) Plate 45 and Young (1952) Plate 23. 

I have seen specimens from the United States (Florida), Cuba, Dominican 
Republic, Puerto Rico; Costa Rica, Nicaragua. Honduras, Panama, and 
Venezuela. 

Youngszella russea (McAtee) NEW COMBINATION 

Dikraneura russea McAtee 1926, p. 160. 
Dikraneura russea Oman 1949, p. 83. 
Kunzella russea Young 1952, p. 65. 

I have not seen this species, but I place it in the same genus as pseudo- 
marginata following Young's indication that they are congeneric. It was de- 
scribed from two specimens (one male and one female) from Honduras. Until 



258 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



the types can be seen I feel it is best to retain the name as a separate species. 
Since I have only seen one species of Youngszella from Central America it is 
possible that this species and pseudomarginata are synonyms. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

I thank Charles A. Triplehorn for the permission to examine the type material in the Ohio 
State University Collection. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Baker C. F. 1925. Nomenclatorial notes on the Jassoidea, 111. Phillippine J. Sci. 27:159-160. 
Ball, E. D. & D. M. DeLong. 1925. The genus Dikraneura and its allies in North America. 

Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 18:324-340, pis. 21-23. 
Caldwell, J. S. & L. P. Martorell. 1952. Review of the Auchenorynchous Homoptera of Puerto 

Rico. Part I: Cicadellidae. Puerto Rico Univ. J. Agr. 34:1-132, i-vii illus. 
DeLong. D. M. 1924. Some new Cicadellidae (Homoptera) from the southern United States. 

New York Entomol. Soc. J. 32:63-69, pi. 7. 
DeLong, D. M. & J. S. Caldwell. 1937a. The genus Dikraneura - A study of male genitalia 

- with descriptions of new species. Entomol. Soc. Wash. Proc. 39:17-34, pis 1-3. 
DeLong, D. M. & J. S. Caldwell. 1937b. Check list of the Cicadellidae (Homoptera) of America, 

north of Mexico. 1-93. p. 
DeLong, D. M. & D. J. Knull. 1946. Check list of the Cicadellidae (Homoptera) of America, 

north of Mexico. Ohio State Univ. Press, Grad. School Stud., Biol. Sci. Ser. I. 1-102 p. 
McAtee, W. L. 1926. Notes on Neotropical Eupteryginae, with a key to the varieties of Alebra 

albostriella (Homoptera: Jassidae). New York Entomol. Soc. J. 34:141-174, pis. 19-20. 
Oman, P. W. 1949. The Nearctic leafhoppers (Homoptera:Cicadellidae). A generic classifica- 
tion and check list. Wash. Entomol. Soc. Mem. 3:1-253, pis. 1-44. 
Young, D. A. 1952. A reclassification of western Hemisphere Typhlocybinae (Homoptera, 

Cicadellidae). Kansas Univ. Sci. Bui. 35:1-217, 38 pis. 

(All literature can also be found in General Catalogue of the Homoptera Fascicle VI Cicadelloidea 
Bibliography of the Cicadelloidea (Homoptera: Auchenorhyncha). Agr. Res. Ser. USDA by Z. 
P. Metcalf 1964. 



Vol. 1 1 1. No. 4. September & October. 2000 259 

FURTHER CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE SPATULATE 
CLAWED BAETIDAE (EPHEMEROPTERA) 1 

W. P. McCafferty, R. P. Randolph 2 

ABSTRACT: The formal new name, Camelobaetidius kickapoo, n. sp., is given for Camelo- 
baetidius sp. 1 of McCafferty and Davis. The species is described from the lower Rio Grande 
between Texas and the Mexican states of Chihuahua and Coahuila, but it has also been taken in 
northwestern Colorado and the Gila River in Arizona. It is unique in North and Central America 
in having an intermediate number of denticles on the spatulate claws in both early and late 
instar larvae. Camelobaetidius warreni is shown to possess larval forecoxal osmobranchiae, 
and C. sinaloa is shown to be a new junior synonym of C. musseri. A revised key to the known 
larvae of the species of Camelobaetidius in North and Central America is given to express new 
and recent findings. 

Recent important work dealing with the Western Hemisphere mayfly ge- 
nus Camelobaetidius Demoulin that has appeared since the original work of 
Traver and Edmunds (1968) has included foremost the synoptic treatment of 
the North and Central American fauna by Lugo-Ortiz and McCafferty (1995). 
Our continuing research on the genus in North America and the recent exami- 
nation of larval material upon which original descriptions were based has led 
to the discovery of certain discrepancies in the literature regarding the most 
ubiquitous species north of Mexico, C. warreni (Traver and Edmunds). In 
addition, our survey of a multitude of collections of Camelobaetidius from 
North America has also confirmed the uniqueness on the continent of a spe- 
cies previously referred to as Camelobaetidius sp. 1 by McCafferty and Davis 
(1992), McCafferty et al. (1993), and Lugo-Ortiz and McCafferty (1995). This 
species was not named previously because mature larvae were not known. 
One newly studied population, however, contains early to middle-instar lar- 
vae associated with ultimate instar larvae. This population thus confirms that 
larval characters previously thought to be diagnostic are consistent through 
the development of the larvae and allows the formal naming of the species 
previously known as C. sp. 1 sensu McCafferty and Davis herein. Finally, our 
study has also revealed an additional species synonym involving what has 
been known as C. sinaloa (Allen and Murvosh). We provide evidence for that 
herein, and we also provide corrected and updated character information for 
the identification of North American species, including a revised larval key to 
species. 



1 Received September 25, 1999. Accepted March 16, 2000. 

2 Department of Entomology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907. 

ENT. NEWS 1 1 1(4): 259-264, September & October 2000 



260 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Camelobaetidius kickapoo McCafferty, NEW SPECIES 
Camelobaetidius sp. 1 McCafferty and Davis, 1992:207. 

Material examined. HOLOTYPE: Larva: Texas, Presidio Co., Rio Grande, 13 miles down- 
stream from Presidio, VI-28-1977, J. R. Davis, deposited in the Purdue Entomological Re- 
search Collection (PERC). PARATYPE: larva, Texas, Brewster Co., Rio Grande at Santa Elena 
Canyon, IX-28-1977, J. R. Davis (PERC), some mouthparts slide-mounted in Euparol. Addi- 
tional larval material has been examined from Colorado, Moffat Co., Yampa R, Echo Park, 
Dinosaur National Monument, VI1-16-1991 (in the C. P. Gillette Museum of Arthropod Diver- 
sity, Fort Collins, Colorado), from Texas, Val Verde Co., Rio Grande at Foster Ranch near 
Langtry, V-2-1977 (in the private collection of J. R. Davis, Austin, Texas), and from Arizona, 
Greenlee Co, Gila R just upstream from San Francisco R confluence, IX-17-1997, K. Palmer 
and R. Williams (in the EcoAnalysts collection, Moscow, Idaho). 

Etymology. The species is named for the Native American Kickapoo tribe 
and is a noun in apposition. 

Diagnosis. Camelobaetidius kickapoo is unique in North and Central 
America in that it possesses an intermediate number of claw denticles (13-18, 
often with 16). Other species have denticles in the range of 5-10 or 30-45. 
Segment 2 of the labial palps has a small medial point, approaching that of C. 
waltzi McCafferty in North America, and also C. penai (Traver and Edmunds) 
from Argentina and C. anubis (Traver and Edmunds) from Brazil. The dorsal 
submarginal row of labral setae is variable, sometimes with a large gap be- 
tween the medial seta and the three or four lateral setae, similar to C. mexicanus 
(Traver and Edmunds) and C. variabilis Wiersema in North America, and some- 
times with a narrower gap between the medial and lateral setae, similar to C. 
waltzi in North America. Such variability has also been observed between the 
left and right side of the labrum on the paratype larva. No coxal osmobranchiae 
are present in the new species. 

Distribution. The species is currently known from northwest Colorado; 
far west Texas; eastern Arizona; far northeastern Mexico. 

Remarks. Only the Peruvian species C. cayumba (Traver and Edmunds) 
has claw denticles similar in number to those of C. kickapoo. We have not 
studied the type material of C. cayumba, but have seen additional material 
from South America that agrees with the description of the larvae by Traver 
and Edmunds (1968). We do not presume, however, a close relationship from 
this similarity in denticle number, which could easily have resulted from ho- 
moplasy. Based on the shape of the labial palps, one might deduce that C. 
kickapoo and C. waltzi are closely related North American species, perhaps 
additionally related to certain South American species that also express a me- 
dially pointed labial palp segment 2 (see diagnosis above). The probable sister 
species C. kickapoo and C. waltzi currently appear to be separated geographi- 
cally, with C. kickapoo being a mainly southwestern species, and C. waltzi 
being a plains species ranging from eastern Nebraska (Kubertanz and Jones 
1999) to southwestern Indiana (McCafferty and Klubertanz 1994) to south- 



Vol. 1 1 1. No. 4. September & October. 2000 261 



eastern Texas (Wiersema and McCafferty 1999). 

Although larvae of C. kickapoo were secured from the Rio Grande from 
the Texas side, the localities cited above along the Rio Grande are shared by 
the Mexican states of Chihuahua and Coahuila. Camelobaetidius kickapoo 
and C. warreni have both been taken from the upper Green River. We have 
seen larvae of C. warreni from the Green River, Daggett County, Utah, not far 
from the vicinity of the Colorado record for C. kickapoo (see McCafferty et al. 
1993), and we expect that C. kickapoo will be found in this part of Utah. We 
have seen both C. kickapoo and C. musseri (Traver and Edmunds) from the 
Gila River in Arizona. Although C. kickapoo has been taken from the lower 
Rio Grande, it has not been found in the Rio Grande drainage in New Mexico 
nor have any other Camelobaetidius (McCafferty et al. 1997). 

LARVAL DIAGNOSIS 

Certain species of Camelobaetidius are known to possess coxal osmo- 
branchiae. These are short, single, fingerlike filaments that have been referred 
to as gills by some authors. The term osmobranchia appears more appropriate 
than gill to us, because we have noted relative hypertrophy in these structures 
that suggests some osmoregulatory role and which may explain the sometimes 
difficult task in detecting these structures in some specimens. 

In couplet 2 of the key to larvae of North and Central American species of 
Camelobaetidius given by Lugo-Ortiz and McCafferty (1995), the presence 
or absence of forecoxal osmobranchiae were used to separate C. similis Lugo- 
Ortiz and McCafferty (osmobranchiae present) from C. waltzi, C. mexicancus, 
and C. warreni (Traver and Edmunds) (osmobranchiae absent). In the larval 
key given by Traver and Edmunds (1968), the forecoxal osmobranchiae were 
not used; however, Traver and Edmunds (1968) indicated in their monograph 
that these structures had been encountered in larvae from Brazil, Uruguay, 
and Panama, but were absent in other material they had examined (which could 
be taken to include those larvae studied from North America). 

Camelobaetidius warreni was described from California, but is now 
known from Costa Rica (Lugo-Ortiz and McCafferty 1995) to Saskatchewan 
(McCafferty and Randolph 1998), and is the most widely distributed species 
of Camelobaetidius in North America, having been taken from most western 
USA states (e.g., McCafferty et al. 1997). We have recently encountered con- 
siderable material from the West that agree with the previous published con- 
cepts of C. warreni, except for the presence of forecoxal osmobranchiae. We 
examined the paratype larval material from California (deposited at PERC) 
upon which the original description of the species was based and found that 
forecoxal osmobranchiae were indeed present, although they had neither been 
mentioned in the original description nor had they been depicted with the foreleg 
(figure 25 of Traver and Edmunds [1968]). We also re-examined all of the 



262 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



larval material of C. warreni that had been reported by Lugo-Ortiz and 
McCafferty (1995) and consistently found forecoxal osmobranchiae present. 

Traver and Edmunds ( 1 968) did not mention coxal osmobranchiae, or coxal 
gills, in their description of C. zenobia (Traver and Edmunds), which L now 
known as a junior synonym of C. warreni, but our examination of paratype 
larvae of C. zenobia held at PERC revealed the presence of the forecoxal 
osmobranchiae. Traver and Edmunds (1968) gave a tentative designation of 
C. cepheus (Traver and Edmunds) to larvae from Idaho. The latter name has 
also proven to be a synonym of C. warreni (Lugo-Ortiz and McCafferty 1 995). 
The larval material identified as C. cepheus by Traver and Edmunds is also 
held at PERC, and our examination of it confirmed that it too has forecoxal 
osmobranchiae. In larvae associated with other known synonyms of C. warreni, 
i.e., C. navis Allen and Chao from New Mexico and C. trivialis Allen and 
Chao from Arizona and New Mexico, Allen and Chao (1978) did not mention 
coxal osmobranchiae, or gills. Although we have not been able to examine 
original larval material associated with these latter two names, we assume the 
forecoxal osmobranchiae are present, based on all of our other observations. 

This confirmation of the presence of forecoxal osmobranchiae in C. warreni 
is of considerable importance in the determination of North and Central Ameri- 
can species of Camelobaetidius, because there has been, until now, a strong 
possibility of misidentifying the common species C. warreni as either C. similis, 
C. variabilis, or an unnamed species if a user is relying entirely on statements 
and figures by Traver and Edmunds (1968) or the key by Lugo-Ortiz and 
McCafferty (1995). These corrections and new observations regarding these 
species are reflected in the new key provided herein (see below). 

We have made one other discovery that has direct bearing on larval diag- 
nosis in North and Central America. Recently, we have had access to consid- 
erable new material of Camelobaetidius from Mexico. Mexican specimens 
would key to either C. musseri (Traver and Edmunds) or C. sinaloa (both with 
larval spatulate claws having 30-40 denticles and thus distinct from other North 
and Central American species known as larvae). However, it was particularly 
difficult to consistently distinguish between the two using the color pattern 
characterization given in the Lugo-Ortiz and McCafferty (1995) key. Popula- 
tions often appeared to be mixed. Allen and Murvosh (1987) had based their 
C. sinaloa on two larvae taken at Sinaloa, Mexico, and indicated that they 
were similar to C. musseri and C. salinas Allen and Chao, and could be distin- 
guished from C. salinas by lacking submedian markings on the abdominal 
terga; they did not state any characterization for differentiating their larvae 
from those of C. musseri. Camelobaetidius salinas was placed as junior sub- 
jective synonym of C. musseri by Lugo-Ortiz and McCafferty (1995) because 
the larval differences cited by Allen and Chao (1978) for C. salinas reflected 
intraspecific variability. Nonetheless, Lugo-Ortiz and McCafferty (1995) re- 
tained C. sinaloa and believed that the two could be distinguished by the pres- 



Vol. 1 1 1, No. 4, September & October, 2000 263 



ence of dark posterior borders on abdominal terga 1-9 in C. sinaloa, as per the 
figure given by Allen and Murvosh (1987), and as was reflected by couplet 7 
in the Lugo-Ortiz and McCafferty key. 

We have examined series of paratype larvae of C. musseri from the type 
locality population as well as other populations in Mexico (deposited at PERC), 
and found that the dark posterior borders indicated by Allen and Murvosh 
(1987) for C. sinaloa are present in most larvae of C. musseri. Paratype larvae 
of C. musseri show considerable variability both with respect to marginal shad- 
ing on the abdominal terga and submedian maculation, which is present in 
some individuals and absent in others. On this basis, it is obvious that the two 
names refer to the same species, and we therefore place C. sinaloa as a junior 
subjective synonym of C. musseri, new synonym. 

We offer the following updated key to the North and Central American 
species of Camelobaetidius species in the larval stage that takes into account 
all of the above observations as well as new species descriptions herein and 
elsewhere (Wiersema 1997) since Lugo-Ortiz and McCafferty (1995). Care- 
ful inspection is necessary for accurate claw denticle counts and the observa- 
tion of coxal osmobranchiae. Furthermore, it should be kept in mind that pre- 
cise inspection of the chetotaxy of the labrum and form of the labium require 
slide mounting and high magnification. 

Revised key to the known North and Central American middle to late 
insta r larvae of Camelobaetidius 

\ Claws with 5-20 denticles 2 

1 ' Claws with 30-45 denticles 7 

2 Claws with 5-10 denticles 3 

2' Claws with 1 3-20 denticles C. kickapoo 

3 Forecoxal osmobranchiae present 4 

3' Forecoxal osmobranchiae absent 6 

4 Midcoxal osmobranchiae present C. variabilis 

4' Midcoxal osmobranchiae absent 5 

5 Labrum with second seta from center in dorsal submarginal line smaller and 
offset basally compared to adjacent setae (see Fig. 6, Lugo-Ortiz and 

McCafferty [1995]) C. warreni 

5' Labrum with second seta from center in dorsal submarginal line similar in 

size and level of origin with adjacent submarginal setae C. similis 

6 Labium with second segment of palps pointed (Fig. 5, McCafferty and 

Klubertanz [1994]) C. waltzi 

6' Labium with second segment of palps rounded C. mexicanus 

1 Claws with 40-45 denticles C. kondratieffl 

T Claws with 30-39 (usually 30-35) denticles C. musseri 



264 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Although our revised key has utilitarian value, we strongly suggest that 
original descriptions and diagnoses of species also be consulted for confirma- 
tion of other characteristics not covered by the simplified couplets. The fol- 
lowing published distributions of the species included (all citations above) 
may also be of some assistance in diagnosis but must remain ancillary to mor- 
phological characterization: C. kickapoo (Arizona, Colorado, Texas, northern 
Mexico, and ?Utah); C. kondratieffi Lugo-Ortiz and McCafferty (Central 
America); C. mexicanus (Kansas, northern and southern Mexico, and Texas); 
C. musseri (Arizona, Central America, southern and northern Mexico, Ne- 
vada, and New Mexico); C. similis (northern and southern Mexico); C. variabilis 
(northern Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas); C. waltzi (Indiana, Iowa, Nebraska, 
and Texas); C. warreni (Arizona, California, Central America, Colorado, Idaho, 
southern and northern Mexico, New Mexico, Oregon, Saskatchewan, South 
Dakota, and Utah). 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

We thank J. R. Davis, Austin, Texas, and G. Lester, Moscow, Idaho, for providing speci- 
mens for study. Funding for this research was provided in part by NSF grant DEB-9901577, 
and the paper has been assigned Purdue ARP Journal No. 16103. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Allen, R. K. and E. S. M. Chao. 1978. Mayflies of the Southwest: new species and records of 
Dactylobaetis (Ephemeroptera: Baetidae). Pan-Pac. Entomol. 54: 300-304. 

Allen, R. K. and C. D. Murvosh. 1987. New Baetidae from the southwestern United States 
and northern Mexico (Ephemeroptera: Insecta), with notes. Can. Entomol. 11: 1095-1099. 

Klubertanz, T. H. and D. M. Jones. 1999. Adults of Camelobaetidius waltzi (Ephemeroptera: 
Baetidae), with field notes. Entomol. News 110: 173-176. 

Lugo-Ortiz, C, R. and W. P. McCafferty. 1995. Taxonomy of the North and Central Ameri- 
can species of Camelobaetidius (Ephemeroptera: Baetidae). Entomol. News 106: 178-192. 

McCafferty, W. P. and J. R. Davis. 1992. New and additional records of small minnow may- 
flies (Ephemeroptera: Baetidae) from Texas. Entomol. News 103: 199-209. 

McCafferty, W. P. and T. H. Klubertanz. 1994. Camelobaetidius (Ephemeroptera: Baetidae) 
in Indiana and Iowa: new species and range extension. Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 96: 37-43. 

McCafferty, W. P. and R. P. Randolph. 1998. Canada mayflies: a faunistic compendium. 
Proc. Entomol. Soc. Ontario 129: 47-97. 

McCafferty, W. P., R. S. Durfee, and B. C. Kondratieff. 1993. Colorado mayflies 
(Ephemeroptera): an annotated inventory. Southwest. Natural. 38: 252-274. 

McCafferty, W. P., C. R. Lugo-Ortiz, and G. Z. Jacobi. 1997. Mayfly fauna of New Mexico. 
Gr. Basin Natural. 57: 283-314. 

Traver, J. R. and G. F. Edmunds, Jr. 1968. A revision of the Baetidae with spatulate-clawed 
nymphs (Ephemeroptera). Pac. Insects 10: 629-677. 

Wiersema, N. A. 1998. Camelobaetidius variabilis (Ephemeroptera: Baetidae), a new species 
from Texas, Oklahoma and Mexico. Entomol. News 109: 21-26. 

Wiersema, N. A. and W. P. McCafferty. 1999. Americabaetis (Ephemeroptera: Baetidae) from 
Texas: first USA record and adult description of A. pleturus. Entomol. News 1 10: 36-38. 



Vol. 1 1 1, No. 4. September & October. 2000 265 

A NEW NEARCTIC APOBAETIS 
(EPHEMEROPTERA: BAETIDAE) 1 

W. P. McCafferty 2 

ABSTRACT: Apobaetis lakota, new species, is described from larvae collected in southeastern 
Nebraska and northeastern North Dakota. Apobaetis lakota appears more derived than the 
plesiotypic South American A. signifer, as evidenced by certain apomorphies shared with the 
North American A. indeprensus. The new species is somewhat larger than other known Apobaetis, 
and it is most easily distinguished by its unique labial and maxillary palps. 

Apobaetis was established by Day (1955) for the North American species 
A. indeprensus Day, which was known from both larvae and adults. That spe- 
cies is found through much of central and western North America, including 
California, Colorado, Kansas, Saskatchewan, and Texas (Day 1955, Liechti 
1982, McCafferty and Davis 1992, McCafferty et al. 1993, Lugo-Ortiz and 
McCafferty 1995, McCafferty and Randolph 1998). Larvae of Apobaetis are 
very small, long-clawed, shifting-sand dwellers with distinctive mouthparts, 
and adults include species with double marginal intercalary veins in the forew- 
ings, no hindwings, and a prominent penes plate (see illustrations in Traver 
[1935] and Edmunds et al. [1976]). This unique combination of adult charac- 
teristics, along with eye and egg morphology allowed Waltz and McCafferty 
(1986) to recognize A. etowah (Traver) (originally described in Pseudocloeon 
Klapalek) as a second species of North American Apobaetis. This latter spe- 
cies is known only from Georgia (Traver 1935) and remains unknown in the 
larval stage. Lugo-Ortiz and McCafferty (1997) recently discovered a third 
species of the genus (A. signifer Lugo-Ortiz and McCafferty) based on larvae 
taken in Brazil and Paraguay. 

A fourth species recently taken in southeastern Nebraska and northeastern 
North Dakota is described below. Although its known range is apparently en- 
compassed by that of A. indeprensus, the two species are morphologically 
very distinctive. Material examined of the new species is deposited in the Purdue 
Entomological Research Collection, West Lafayette, Indiana. 

Apobaetis lakota, NEW SPECIES 

Larva. Body length 5.0 mm. Caudal filaments approximately 2.0 mm. Head yellowish, 
without markings except for brown ocelli. Labrum (Fig. 1) without medial notch but with 
medial area with approximately 12 short, stout setae on distal margin, and approximately 14 
long, simple, hairlike setae laterally on either half of distal margin (laterad of short, stout, 
medial setae). Lobes of hypopharynx subequal in length. Left mandible (Fig. 2) with incisors 
deeply cleft, outer set with small medially basal denticle, inner set with denticles more poorly 



1 Received May 25, 1999; Accepted September 31, 1999. 

2 Department of Entomology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907. 

ENT. NEWS 1 1 1(4): 265-269, September & October 2000 



266 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



defined; prostheca stout and pointed, with row of short, fine, simple setae along part of medial 
margin, with apical seta prominent and more developed than others; large acute triangular 
process near medial base of mola surrounded by clusters of small, sharp denticulations at base 
(see Fig. 2); somewhat smaller, blunt triangular process between larger process and mola; sev- 
eral moderately long, sharp spines also emerging from surface of mola. Right mandible (Fig. 3) 
with incisors deeply cleft; prostheca thick hairlike and appearing bifid; mola with sharp, simple 
setae at medial and lateral margins, and with some short, dully pointed spines emerging over 
molar surface, and with enlarged stout process in midregion of mola. Galealaciniae (Fig. 4) 
with two to three grouped, long, apical spines, linear row of three broad-based and spaced, 
long, subapical spines, and continuous linear row of five to seven slender, long, less sclero- 
tized, subapical spines; maxillary palps three segmented, with segment 1 short, segment 2 
extending slightly beyond tip of galealaciniae, and segment 3 subequal in length to 1 and 2 
combined, slightly narrower and coming to blunt medioapical point. Labium (Fig. 5) with 
glossae and paraglossae subequal in width and length, but with paraglossae more convex later- 
ally; glossae with medial margin somewhat roughened in apical half, with lateral marginal 
rows of sparse, simple setae in apical half connecting by subapical transverse row; paraglossae 
with submarginal lateral row of sparse, simple setae and additional sparse oblique row from 
midbase to apex; distal segment of labial palps relatively large, highly setaceous with profuse, 
fine, long, silklike setae in outer aspect; distomedial projection (inner lobe) of apical palp 
segment highly developed and rounded (about as large as entire outer lobe of distal palp seg- 
ment); distolateral region (outer lobe) of main body of distal palp segment stongly curved 
medially; inward oriented distal margin of outer lobe approaching truncate, laterally with slightly 
projecting point and medially slightly rounded; several long spines along truncated margin. 
Thorax cream-yellow with some light brown sclerite margination dorsally. Hindwingpads ab- 
sent. Claw of hindleg (Fig. 6) long and slender, slightly longer than tarsus. Abdominal terga 
cream-yellow, with pairs of pale brown, short, longitudinal dashes submedially, and with some 
lateral, brown shading on terga 3, 5, and 9 (barely developed on 3 and 9). Sterna cream-yellow 
and unmarked. Gills unknown (missing on specimens). Paraproct as in Figure 7. Caudal fila- 
ments slightly darkening in midregion (broken apically or missing on specimens); medial cau- 
dal filament well developed. 
Adult. Unknown. 

Material examined. HOLOTYPE: Larva, North Dakota, Cavalier County, Little South 
Pembina River near Langdon, IX-24-1996, M. Elle [mouthparts and paraproct mounted on 
slide (medium Euparol)]. PARATYPE: Larva, Nebraska, Saline County, Big Blue River below 
Friskies Pet Food Plant, Sec. 26, T08N, R04E, X-I-1997, K. Bazata f mouthparts mounted on 
slide (medium Euparol)]. 

Etymology. The new species name is noun in apposition taken from the 
Lakota, Native Americans that inhabited much of the northern plains area prior 
to the twentieth century. 

Discussion. This lotic, psammophilous species is generally similar to 
A. indeprensus and A. signifer, both of which are also known as larvae. The 
interspecific relationships of A. lakota can only be suggested at this time, and 
mouthpart morphology may be instructive in this respect. 

The labrum of A. lakota (Fig. 1 ) is very similar to that of both A. indeprensus 
(Day 1955: Fig. 2) and A. signifer (Lugo-Ortiz and McCafferty 1997: Fig. 1 ); 
however, marginal lateral setation is most similar in A. lakota and A. signifer. 



Vol. 1 1 1. No. 4, September & October, 2000 



267 



It cannot be determined from this character, when considered independently 
from other characters, if this similarity is plesiomorphic or apomorphic (how- 
ever, see below). 

Mandibles are very similar in the three species, but the left mandible of A. 
lakota (Fig. 2) is apparently unique in its possession of a clustered row of 
small denticulations near the base of the large triangular process medial of the 
mola. 




Figs. 1- 6. Apobaetis lakota larva. 1. Labrum (dorsal). 2. Left mandible. 3. Right mandible. 4. 
Maxilla. 5. Labium (left-ventral, right-dorsal). 6. Hindleg. 7. Paraproct. 



268 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Shape and apical and subapical armature of the galealaciniae are similar in 
the three species; however, the maxillary palps differ considerably among the 
species. Apobaetis indeprensus is clearly the most apomorphic in this respect, 
with a narrow-elongate segment 3 and a unique small segment 4 (Day 1955: 
Fig. 5). The other species lack segment 4: A. lakota has a three-segmented 
palp (Fig. 4); A. signifer has a two-segmented palp (Lugo-Ortiz and McCafferty 
1997: Fig. 5). Transition from a two- to three- to four-segmented maxillary 
palp is evident in the genus Apobaetis, with the palp of A. lakota representing 
an intermediate state between the most plesiomorphic palp of A. signifer and 
the most apomorphic palp of A. indeprensus. Importantly in this respect, a 
closer cladistic relationship between A. lakota and A. indeprensus than be- 
tween A. lakota and A. signifer is suggested. This would appear logical from a 
biogeographic standpoint (see McCafferty 1998), and also, by deduction, would 
suggest that the similar labral setation in A. lakota and A. signifer is 
plesiomorphic. In A. lakota, the longer maxillary palp segment 2, relative to 
the length of the galealaciniae, is apparently autapomorphic, particularly if 
segment 1 of A. signifer is assumed to be homologous with the combined 
segments 1 + 2 in A. lakota and A. indeprensus. 

The shape of the labial palps are very similar in A. indeprensus (Day 1955: 
Fig. 6) and A. signifer (Lugo-Ortiz and McCafferty 1997: Fig. 6). In A. lakota, 
the extreme development of the inner lobe of the distal segment (Fig. 5) is 
highly specialized and unique among the known species of the genus Apobaetis. 
The apex of the palp (outer lobe) may not appear as truncate in A. lakota as it 
is in A. signifer and A. indeprensus, due mainly to a slight rounding of its 
distomedial aspect. Whereas these shape modifications of the palp would not 
in themselves suggest any relationship because they are not shared by any 
other known species of Apobaetis, the development of long setae in the outer 
portion of the distal segment of the labial palps in A. lakota and A. indeprensus 
does give additional credence to the hypothesis of a closer (possibly sister) 
relationship between these two species. Also, the presence of well-developed 
spines on the truncate apical margin of the outer lobe of the distal segment of 
the palp in A. lakota and A. indeprensus is of similar cladistic significance. 
These apical spines, moreover, appear to be most developed in A. indeprensus. 

Based on the above, it appears that A. lakota and A. indeprensus share a 
recent common ancestor, and they represent a more apotypic grade of evolu- 
tion from that of the A. signifer lineage and possibly other Neotropical species 
that remain unknown. The various autapomorphies associated with either A. 
lakota or A. indeprensus define these species and allow them to be easily dis- 
tinguished from each other. 

Apobaetis lakota is about 20% larger in body size than other known spe- 
cies, and its tarsal claws are exceedingly long (they are somewhat variable in 
A. indeprensus). The most striking diagnostic feature of A. lakota is the highly 



Vol. 1 1 1. No. 4. September & October. 2000 269 



developed and rounded inner lobe on the distal segment of the labial palps 
(Fig. 5). The inner lobe is small and pointed in the other known species (Day 
1955: Fig. 6; Lugo-Ortiz and McCafferty 1997: Fig. 6). The three-segmented 
maxillary palp of A. lakota (Fig. 4) is also diagnostic, keeping in mind that the 
short palp segment 1 in both A. lakota and A. indeprensus is sometimes appar- 
ent only with very close examination. Not only are the maxillary palps four 
segmented in A. indeprensus (Day 1955: Fig. 5), but the fact that palp segment 

2 is shorter relative to the apex of the galealacinia in A. indeprensus allows 
diagnositc use of the maxillary palps even if the more delicate palp segments 

3 or 4 have been broken in larval specimens, which apparently often happens. 
The left mandible is also diagnostic (see above) but may require very close 
inspection. 

The larva of A. etowah from Georgia remains unknown. Any possibility 
that the larva of A. lakota represents the unknown stage of A. etowah is ex- 
tremely remote. Body sizes of the two species are disparate, and ranges would 
appear at this time to be considerably disjunct. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

I thank A. V. Provonsha for the figures used herein. I also thank G. T. Lester and M. 
McBride, who provided me with specimens of the genus Apobaetis for identification. Support 
for this research was provided in part by the National Science Foundation Grant DEB-9901577. 
This paper has been assigned Purdue Agricultural Research Program Journal No. 15998. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Day, W. C. 1955. New genera of mayflies from California. Pan-Pac. Entomol. 31: 121-137. 
Edmunds, G. F., S. L. Jensen, and L. Berner. 1 976. The mayflies of North and Central America. 

Univ. Minn. Press, Minneapolis. 
Liechti, P. M. 1982. Five additional Ephemeroptera genera from Kansas. Tech Publ. St. Biol. 

Surv. Kansas 12: 13-16. 
Lugo-Ortiz, C. R. and W. P. McCafferty. 1995. The mayflies (Ephemeroptera) of Texas and 

their biogeographic affinities. Pp. 151-169. In: L. D. Corkum and J. H. Ciborowski (eds.). 

Current directions in research on Ephemeroptera. Can. Schol. Press, Toronto. 
Lugo-Ortiz, C. R. and W. P. McCafferty. 1997. First report of the genus Apobaetis 

(Ephemeroptera: Baetidae) from South America. Aquat. Insects 19: 243-246. 
McCafferty, W. P. 1998. Ephemeroptera and the great American interchange. J. N. Am. Benthol. 

Soc. 17: 1-20. 

McCafferty, W. P. and J. R. Davis. 1992. New and additional records of small minnow may- 
flies (Ephemeroptera: Baetidae). Entomol. News 103: 199-209. 
McCafferty, W. P. and R. P. Randolph. 1998. Canada mayflies: a faunistic compendium. 

Proc. Entomol. Soc. Ontario 129: 47-97. 
McCafferty, W. P., R. S. Durfee, and B. C. Kondratieff. 1993. Colorado mayflies 

(Ephemeroptera): an annotated inventory. Southwest. Natural. 38: 252-274. 
Traver, J. R. 1935. Part II Systematic. North American mayflies order Ephemeroptera. Pp. 

237-739. In: J. G. Needham, J. R. Traver, and Y.-C. Hsu (eds.). The biology of mayflies. 

Comstock, Ithaca, New York. 
Waltz, R. D. and W. P. McCafferty. 1986. Apobaetis etowah (Traver), a new combination in 

Nearctic Baetidae (Ephemeroptera). Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 88: 191. 



270 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



LENGTH- WEIGHT RELATIONSHIPS 
OF JAMAICAN ARTHROPODS 1 

Matthew D. Johnson^^, Allan M. Strong^ 

ABSTRACT: We calculated length-weight regressions for above ground and leaf litter arthropods 
collected in Jamaica. Slope coefficients were generally lower (suggesting thinner, lighter bod- 
ies) than those reported from drier temperate regions, but were similar to those reported from 
moist Costa Rica for all taxa except Homoptera. This result is consistent with the hypothesis that 
selection has favored elongated body shapes in wet tropical regions where arthropods are little 
constrained by desiccation. The low slope for Jamaican Homoptera may be because small thin- 
bodied families (Cixiidae, Psyllidae, and Aphididae) are disproportionately more common in 
Caribbean than Central American insect faunas. Within Jamaica, slopes were lower for arthropods 
collected in wet habitats (wet limestone forest, mangrove swamp) than dry habitats (dry lime- 
stone forest, coastal thorn scrub), further suggesting the importance of microclimate as a factor 
influencing arthropod shape. However, leaf litter arthropods, which are relatively protected from 
desiccation, had higher slopes than those collected above ground, suggesting that other con- 
straints, perhaps those imposed by means of locomotion, also affect arthropod shape. 

Estimating the biomass of arthropods is important in biological studies 
due to the great abundance of arthropods in most ecological communities 
(Sample et al. 1993), their importance as a vertebrate food resource (Golley 
1961), and their role as model organisms to study evolutionary processes af- 
fecting morphology (Schoener and Janzen 1968, Schoener 1980). In this re- 
gard, length-weight regressions have provided useful tools in estimating ar- 
thropod biomass in particular habitats (Rogers et al. 1977, Pearson and Derr 
1 986), examining the biomass of particular prey size classes in consumer diets 
(Harris 1986, Torok and Ludvig 1988, Omland and Sherry 1994), describing 
predator foraging behaviors (Sage 1982, Hill and Grossman 1993, Pulido and 
Diaz 1997), and comparing morphologies of insects in different regions 
(Schoener 1980). Comparative studies have found that due to differences in 
general arthropod shape, the coefficients of length-weight regressions can vary 
significantly between taxa (Rogers et al. 1977), and within taxa between re- 
gions (Schoener 1980). Thus, accurate regressions are best computed from 
locally collected specimens for as many different taxa as feasible (Rogers et 
al. 1976; Sample at al. 1993; Hodar 1996). To date, relatively few length- 
weight regressions are available for tropical arthropods (Schoener 1980), and 
no regressions have been reported for Caribbean islands. 

The few data available suggest that tropical arthropods tend to be rela- 



1 Received May 17, 1999. Accepted March 31, 2000. 

2 Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Tulane University, New Orleans, Louisiana 
70118. 

3 Present address: Department of Wildlife, Humboldt State University, Arcata, California 9552 1 . 

4 Present address: School of Natural Resources, 364 Aiken Center, University of Vermont, 
Burlington, Vermont 05405-0088. 

ENT. NEWS 1 1 1(4): 270-281, September & October 2000 



Vol. 111. No. 4. September & October. 2000 271 



lively long and thin (lower regression slope coefficients) compared to their 
temperate counterparts (Schoener 1980). In offering an explanation for this 
pattern, Schoener ( 1 980) suggested that climatic factors may be important. He 
reasoned that in arid regions, insects may be constrained to minimize surface 
area to volume ratios to counter desiccation. Therefore, selection pressure would 
favor (in addition to larger sizes) arthropods with more compact shapes (i.e., 
more spherical or cubic) with higher slope coefficients (i.e., closer to 3, sensu 
McMahon 1973). Conversely, in wet regions such as the tropics, arthropods 
would be relatively free from this constraint, and other selection pressures, 
such as risk of predation, may favor more elongated, cryptic body shapes. In 
support of this hypothesis, Schoener (1980) found that insects collected from 
wet forests in Costa Rica had lower slopes than those collected from drier 
sites, but other comparative data are lacking. 

In this study, we present the first length-weight regressions of arthropods 
from Jamaica. In addition, we test the hypothesis that selection has favored 
elongated body shapes in wet areas where arthropods are little constrained by 
desiccation by testing predictions at three spatial scales. First, we predict re- 
gression slopes derived from our Jamaican collections to be lower than those 
obtained from insects in drier temperate regions, but similar to those from 
other tropical areas. Second, among our Jamaican samples, we predict the slopes 
of insects collected in relatively wet habitats (mangrove swamp and wet lime- 
stone forests) to be lower than those derived from insects collected in drier 
habitats (dry limestone forest and thorn scrub). Third, we predict that leaf litter 
arthropods are less constrained by desiccation than above ground arthropods, 
and consequently will yield lower length-weight regression slopes than arthro- 
pods collected above ground (i.e., foliage-dwelling and free-flying species). 

METHODS 

We collected arthropods using several techniques: branch clipping and 
Malaise trapping for above ground arthropods, and Berlese funnels and spot 
collecting for leaf litter arthropods. Branch clipping (Johnson 2000) consisted 
of positioning a collapsible bag in the understory or canopy (up to 9 m with 
the aid of extension poles), quickly enclosing the end of a branch, tightening 
the mouth of the bag around the branch with a drawstring, clipping the branch 
free with a telescoping tree pruner, then lowering the bag and visually inspect- 
ing the clipped branch for arthropods. Arthropod specimens were collected 
from the bag with an aspirator, and stored in 70% ethanol. Malaise trapping 
was conducted with standard Malaise traps (2 m high, pyramidal construction, 
Bioquip Inc., Cooper and Whitmore, 1990), which were erected and operated 
for approximately 24 hr. Lepidopteran adults were presorted from the collec- 
tions in the field and stored in plasticine envelopes; other arthropods were 
stored in 70% ethanol. 



272 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



To collect leaf litter arthropods, we pushed a 0.1 m 2 cylindrical core into 
the subsoil, collected all leaves and leaf fragments and briefly stored them in 
plastic bags. The leaves and leaf fragments were then placed in Berlese fun- 
nels for 14 h and the extracted arthropods were stored in 70% ethanol (see 
Levings and Windsor 1982 for additional details). A few additional specimens 
were collected with forceps directly from the leaf litter. 

All sampling was conducted in the dry season (Nov. - Mar.) 1995-1997, 
except for above ground Aranae, which were collected in June 1998. We col- 
lected specimens from 26 sites representing six broad habitats along a wet-dry 
gradient (Fig. 1, Table 1). A habitat's moisture is a complex interaction of 
rainfall, temperature, evapotranspiration rates, and local shade conditions, and 
different sites within a habitat are not equivalent. Thus, rather than quantify- 
ing this wet-dry gradient, we instead ranked these six habitats based on pat- 
terns of rainfall and our own experience working in each of the sites (listed in 
order of increasing aridity): wet limestone forest, mangrove swamp, citrus or- 
chard, shade-coffee plantation, dry limestone forest, and coastal thorn scrub. 
Habitat descriptions, including dominant plant species, are available in Asprey 
and Robbins (1953); more detailed site descriptions are available in Johnson 
(1999). For purposes of this report, arthropods from all habitats were pooled 
to provide adequate sample sizes to generate order-specific length- weight regres- 
sions which serve as general relationships for the island. To compare regres- 
sion coefficients between habitats, we pooled all insect orders within a habitat 
to maintain adequate sample sizes. Regressions were run separately for above 
ground and leaf litter arthropods. 

In the laboratory, all above ground adult arthropods were sorted into 12 
taxonomic groups corresponding closely to order: Aranae, Orthoptera, 
Dictyoptera, Hemiptera, Homoptera, Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, Nematocera, 
other Diptera, Formicidae, and other Hymenoptera. Leaf litter arthropods were 
sorted into 10 groups: Aranae, Pseudoscorpiones, "Arthropods" (Diplopoda, 
Chilopoda, and Isopoda), Dictyoptera, Isoptera, Dermaptera, Hemiptera, Co- 
leoptera, Formicidae, and various holometabolous larvae (Coleoptera, Lepi- 
doptera, and Diptera). The lengths of all arthropods were measured (head to 
end of abdomen) to the nearest 0. 1 mm using a 7.5-64x dissecting microscope 
equipped with an ocular micrometer, dried to constant mass (24 hr at 1 00 C), 
allowed to cool, and weighed to the nearest 0.1 mg using an electronic bal- 
ance. To avoid pseudoreplication, we included multiple specimens of the same 
morphospecies only when they were of different lengths (with the exception 
of Isoptera, in which variation in length was slight). Small specimens (<1.5 
mm), when weighed singly, resulted in only 1 significant digit for mass with a 
0. 1 mg precision balance. Therefore, wherever possible we weighed 2- 1 small 
individuals of the same length and morphospecies together, then calculated a 
mean weight. 



Vol. 1 1 1 , No. 4, September & October. 2000 273 



We used the power model described by Rogers et al. (1977) to calculate 
length-weight regressions of arthropod taxa with the formula: 

Weight = b (length)bi 

where bo and b\ are constants. This equation was transformed with natural 
logarithms to 

In(weight) = In(b ) + bjlnUength) 

and expressed in linear form for regression (Y = B + BjX) so that an 
arthropod's estimated weight may be calculated from its length and the re- 
gression coefficients using the formula: 

Weight in mg = e BO (length in mm) B1 

where B = ln(bo) and E\ =b\, corresponding to the y-intercept and slope of 
the regression line respectively. Regression coefficients were calculated using 
SYSTAT 5.2.1 (Wilkinson 1989) and Excel 5.0 (Microsoft 1994). We com- 
pared slopes of Jamaican arthropods collected in different habitats with a test 
of homogeneity of slopes (THS, Sokal and Rohlf 1981). Strict statistical com- 
parisons of slope (power) coefficients with previously published results are 
impossible without all the data used to generate the coefficients, thus, we com- 
pared slopes qualitatively and by examining confidence intervals (Sokal and 
Rohlf 1981). 

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 

All length- weight regressions were statistically significant (P < 0.01) and 
correlation coefficients were generally high (r range 0.574-0.979, Tables 2 
and 3). Low slope coefficients (Bj) indicate groups that are relatively light for 
their length, as is the case for thin, slight-bodied arthropods. Among Jamaican 
above ground arthropods (Table 2), slopes were lowest for Nematocera, other 
Diptera, and Homoptera (1.317-1 .876) and highest for Hemiptera, Lepidoptera, 
andDictyoptera(2.219-2.31 1). Slopes were lowest among leaf litter fauna for 
"arthropods" (Diplopoda, Chilopoda, and Isopoda, 2.014) and highest for 
Isoptera (3. 1 77, Table 3). Regressions of morphologically diverse taxa for which 
we had many specimens, such as Coleoptera and Hemiptera (the latter included 
Emesinae [thread-legged bugs] and Pentatomidae [stink bugs]), yielded corre- 
lation coefficients that were as high as those found in morphologically stereo- 
typed taxa for which specimens were uncommon (e.g., Nematocera, above 
ground Formicidae). This suggests that sample size, as much as morphologi- 
cal diversity, contributes to the variation in the precision of length- weight cor- 
relations. 



274 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



To examine the effect of regional climate on arthropod shape, we com- 
pared regression slope coefficients derived from our Jamaican specimens with 
those previously published from temperate areas (Rogers et al. 1977, Sample 
et al. 1993) and from other tropical regions (Schoener 1980). Overall, the slopes 
calculated in this study were lower (all < 2.79 except for Isoptera) than those 
calculated from insects in temperate regions, which usually have values be- 
tween 2.60 and 3.30, corroborating the pattern first documented by Schoener 
(1980). Comparing slopes within the tropics (only data from above ground 
insects were available), Jamaican slopes were, with one notable exception, 
similar to those for insects from Costa Rica (Schoener 1980). All 95% confi- 
dence intervals from Jamaican regressions, except those for Homoptera, con- 
tained the power coefficients of the corresponding taxa from either wet or dry 
habitats in Costa Rica (Table 4). These results support the hypothesis that se- 
lection has favored elongated body shapes in the wet tropics. 

The particularly low slope of Jamaican Homoptera may be due to adapta- 
tions for camouflage. Within Homoptera, small phytophageous groups (such 
as Cixiidae, Psyllidae, and Aphididae) are disproportionately more abundant 
on Caribbean islands than on the Central American mainland (Janzen 1973). 
These groups, which can be important prey for Caribbean birds (Lack 1972), 
may be under especially intense selective pressure to blend in with their sur- 
roundings, and a thin shape has been suggested to be an advantage for camou- 
flage (Schoener 1980). In support of this, Sample et al. (1993) found the slope 
of Cixiidae to be lower than that for other Homopterans. Thus, a high relative 
proportion of small, thin, camouflaged families within Homoptera on Carib- 
bean islands may tend to keep the regression slope low relative to regions 
where Homopteran morphologies are more diverse. 

To further evaluate the hypothesis that climate affects arthropod shape, we 
examined the slope coefficients derived from Jamaican above ground speci- 
mens collected in habitats across a wet-dry gradient. Leaf litter arthropods 
could not be analyzed separately by habitat because collections had been pre- 
viously pooled across habitats for other analyses (Strong and Sherry in press). 
A test for the homogeneity of slopes demonstrated that arthropods collected in 
the six habitats resulted in significantly different slopes (P < 0.01, Fig. 2). As 
predicted, the wetter habitats (wet limestone forest and mangrove swamp) had 
the lowest slopes, whereas the more arid habitats (dry limestone forest and 
coastal thorn scrub) contained the highest slopes. 

Lastly, we compared the slopes of leaf litter arthropods, which may be 
buffered somewhat from desiccation, to those from above ground specimens. 
In taxa for which we had adequate sample sizes (Aranae, Dictyoptera, Hemi- 
ptera, Coleoptera, and Formicidae), the slopes of Jamaican above ground 
arthropods were lower than those for leaf litter arthropods (Tables 2 and 3), 
indicating longer thinner arthropods above the ground, where desiccation risk 
is higher. This result is inconsistent with the hypothesis that microclimate is 



Vol. 1 1 1 . No. 4. September & October. 2000 



275 




Average annual 
rainfall (cm) 

^ 376-500 
[|] 251-375 
Q 126-250 
n 0-125 



Fig. 1. Collection sites and average annual rainfall in Jamaica (data from Lack 1976). See 
Table 1 for list of collection sites. 



- 




^ 5 


293 = 4.10, / ) <0.01 


4 


2 

43 


3pe coefficient 

h-* N> K> 

v> U> 
1,1.1 


10 


6 


1 




1 


9 




6* 


5 
























. 












C/5 
1.7- 

1.5- 



















K- 
























i i 


1 1 1 



Wet Limestone Mangrove Citrus 



Coffee Dry Limestone Scrub 



Fig. 2. Slopes of length-weight regressions for all above ground arthropods collected in six 
habitat types in Jamaica. Error bars indicate 1 SE, numbers are sample sizes. 

Habitat Type 



276 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Table 1. Study sites lettered by collection date, sorted by broad habitat types. 



Study Site 


Habitat 
Type 


Lat.- 
Long. 


Elevation 
Range 


Site 
Description 


A. Copse 
Mountain 


Wet 
Limestone 
Forest 


1816'N 
7704'W 


440-460 m 


Tall, dense, old-aged wet forest 
fragment with several hurri- 
cane-formed gaps containing 
thick understories and vines 



J. Marshall's Pen Wet 

Limestone 
Forest 

N. Windsor Cave Wet 

Limestone 
Forest 



W Ecclesdown 



Wet 

Limestone 

Forest 



1803'N 600-620 m Second growth moist forest 
7732'W fragment with continuing minor 

disturbance 

1821'N 230-240m Diverse, tall, dense, mesophyllic 
7730'W forest within large, relatively 

undisturbed forested landscape 

1 805'N 2 1 0-320 Very wet forest at base of 
7854'W undisturbed forested mountains, 

limestone/shale soils 



H. Portland Dry 1744'N 

Ridge Upper Limestone 7809'W 
Forest 



K. Portland Ridge Dry 1744'N 

Lower Limestone 7809'W 

Forest 

O. Hellshire Hills Dry 1751'N 

Limestone 7812'W 
Forest 

X. Great Bluff Dry 1752'N 

Limestone 7745'W 
Forest 

F. Luana Point Thorn Scrub 1802'N 

West 7755'W 



L. Portland Thorn Scrub 1745'N 

Cottage Inland 7710'W 

M.Portland Thorn Scrub 1745'N 
Cottage Seaward 



100-120 m Undisturbed arid forest; site 

in a valley where air was more 
moist, soils deeper, and trees 
taller than in surrounding areas 

80-100 m Undisturbed arid forest; dense 
sub-canopy with vines, canopy 
thin and lacking large trees 

10-20 m Highly disturbed dry forest, 
dense thorny shrub layer, 
grasses in open areas 

10-30 m Disturbed very arid forest; 

canopy sparse, cacti abundant, 
thorny understory 

0-10 m Heterogeneous grazed thorny 

thicket with some tall remnant 
trees 

0-10 m Homogenous grazed 

Mimoaceous dry savannah 

0-10 m Heterogeneous woodland of dry 

7810'W thorn thicket, dry forest, and 
coastal woodland 



R. Luana Point Thorn Scrub 1 802'N 
East 7754'W 



0-10 m Dense, thorny logwood thickets 

interspersed with grassy 
openings 



Vol. 1 1 1. No. 4. September & October. 2000 



277 



Study Site 


Habitat 
Type 


Lat.- 
Long. 


Elevation 
Range 


Site 
Description 



P. Negril 



U. Portland 
Cottage 



C. Kew Park 
Orange 

E. Trout Hall 



D. Kew Park 



G. James Hill 
East 



I. James Hill 
West 



Mangrove 



S. Luana Point Mangrove 



Mangrove 
V. Morant Point Mangrove 



B. Kew Park Citrus 

Ortanique 



Citrus 



Citrus 



T. Comfort Hall Citrus 



7643'W 

1802'N 

7754'W 



1745'N 
7810'W 

1 804'N 
7857'W 

1816'N 
7704'W 



1816'N 
7704'W 



1808'N 
7720'W 



1810'N 
7734'W 



Shade-coffee 1816'N 
7704'W 



Shade-coffee 1810'N 
7720'W 



Shade-coffee 1810'N 
7720'W 



0-10 m Tall, old/middle-aged diverse 

mangrove swamp 

0-10 m Tall, mature black mangrove 

swamp in a landscape mosaic 
with thorn scrub 

0-10m Short dense mangrove scrub 

with shallow open pools 

0-10 m Hurricane disturbed dense 

mangrove scrub thicket 

290-300 m Small, little-managed orchard 
surrounded by pasture, 
occasional remnant tall wet 
forest trees 

300-310 m Small little-managed orchard 
with small pockets of mesic 
trees and shrubs 

220-230 m Large intensively managed 

relatively young orchard with 
many narrow wet ravines 

200-210 m Large, intensively managed 
orchard with small swampy 
hollows 

300-310 m Very young small plantation 
surrounded by wet forest and 
pasture; diverse short planted 
shade trees among several tall 
remnant forest trees 

610-620 m Moderately diverse area 

of plantation; tall, old shade 
trees of primarily two species, 
dense coffee understory with a 
small stream 

610-620 m Relatively homogenous area of 
plantation; relatively open 
understory with abundant 
banana trees 



278 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Study Site Habitat Lat.- Elevation Site 

Type Long. Range Description 



Q. Baronhall 



Y. Coleyville 



Z. Luana Point 
West 2 



Shade-coffee 1813'N 

7722'W 



Shade-coffee 1813'N 

7732'W 



Thorn Scrub 



1 802'N 
7755'W 



550-560 m Large, old, homogenous 

plantation shaded by Inga vera; 
wet forest, pasture, and pond 
near study area 

630-640 m Small, young plantation shaded 
by Inga vera with many 
banana plants amongst coffee 
trees 

0-10 m Homogeneous grazed thorny 

thicket, more closed canopy 
than site R. 



Table 2. Regression statistics for weight (mg) on length (mm) of Jamaican above ground 
arthropods. 3 



Taxon 


n 


Length 
Range (mm) 


B 1 SE 


B] 1 SE 


r 


Aranae 


20 


1.1-15.1 


-2.077 0.343 


2.039 0.235 


0.898 


Orthoptera & Dictyoptera 


32 


2.0-19.6 


-2.809 0.331 


2.125 0.178 


0.909 


Orthoptera 


12 


2.2-19.6 


-2.649 0.595 


2.036 0.308 


0.902 


Dictyoptera 


20 


2.0-11.9 


-2.974 0.417 


2.219 0.229 


0.916 


Hemiptera 


23 


1.5-12.8 


-3.167 0.294 


2.311 0.219 


0.917 


Homoptera 


52 


1.1-8.2 


-2.453 0.143 


1.876 0.1 19 


0.913 


Coleoptera 


51 


1.2-12.1 


-2.867 0.226 


2.166 0.158 


0.890 


Lepidoptera 


40 


2.2-18.6 


-3.268 0.255 


2.243 0.130 


0.942 


Diptera 


75 


1.0-12.5 


-2.462 0.196 


1.881 0.146 


0.833 


Nematocera 


21 


1.0-4.8 


-2.562 0.244 


1.373 0.207 


0.836 


Other Diptera 


54 


1.2-12.5 


-2.105 0.178 


1.805 0.124 


0.895 


Hymenoptera 


71 


1.4-24.3 


-3.556 0.183 


2.193 0.110 


0.923 


Formicidae 


21 


1.6-9.9 


-3.730 0.298 


2.103 0.238 


0.901 


Other Hymenoptera 


50 


1.4-24.3 


-3.295 0.241 


2.102 0.132 


0.917 


Total Arthropoda 












Total Insecta (adult) 


344 


1.0-24.3 


-2.842 0.085 


2.042 0.055 


0.895 



a Equation is Weight in mg = e^O (length in mm)Bl 



Vol. 1 1 1. No. 4. September & October. 2000 



279 



Table 3. Regression statistics for weight (mg) on length (mm) of Jamaican leaf litter arthropods 
(data are from Strong and Sherry in press). 3 



Taxon 


Length 
n Range (mm) 


B 1 SE 


B! 1 SE 


r 


Aranae 


51 0.8-9.9 


-3.197 0.165 


2.218 0.122 


0.933 


Pseudoscorpiones 


28 1.0-3.7 


-3.742 0.229 


2.165 0.232 


0.878 


"Arthropods" b 


50 1.5-44.0 


-3.831 0.380 


2.014 0.183 


0.846 


Dictyoptera 


23 2.4-12.4 


-4.289 0.392 


2.749 0.232 


0.933 


Isoptera 


75 3.3-5.6 


-5.802 0.800 


3.177 0.531 


0.574 


Dermaptera 


7 5.8-13.6 


-5.647 1.214 


2.494 0.540 


0.900 


Hemiptera 


14 2.0-10.5 


-3.841 0.263 


2.794 0.169 


0.979 


Coleoptera 


75 


.3-14.0 


-3.240 + 0.195 


2.513 0.128 


0.917 


Formicidae 


72 


.3-11.5 


-4.102 0.132 


2.339 0.102 


0.939 


Holometabolous Larvae 


73 


.1-33.5 


-5.735 0.370 


2.258 0.1 82 


0.827 


Total Arthropoda 


468 ( 


).8-44.0 


-3.257 0.136 


1.728 0.084 


0.690 


Total Insecta 


339 


.3-33.5 


-3.178 0.197 


1.617 0.121 


0.589 


Total adult Insecta 


266 


.3-13.6 


-3.893 0.175 


2.367 0.117 


0.780 



3 Equation is Weight in mg = e B (length in mm)Bl 
b Includes Diplopoda, Chilopoda, and Isopoda 



Table 4. Slope coefficients ( 95% confidence intervals) of length (mm)-weight (mg) regres- 
sions from data collected in Jamaica versus wet and dry sites in Costa Rica 3 (above ground 
arthropods only). 



Jamaica 


Costa Rica, dry forest 


Costa 


Rica, wet forest 










95% 


95% 


95% 


Taxon 


n 


slope 


C.I. 


n 


slope 


C 


.1. 


n 


slope 


C.I. 


Orthoptera b 


32 


2, 


125 


0.363 


25 


1.65 


0.47 


10 


1.96 


0.94 


Hemiptera 


23 


2, 


,311 


0.453 


42 


2.48 


0. 


56 


16 


2.28 


0.76 


Homoptera 


52 


1 


876 


0.239 


84 


2.65 


0. 


27 


62 


2.23 


0.36 


Coleoptera 


51 


2 


,166 


0.317 


150 


2.11 


0. 


17 


171 


1.91 


0.19 


Lepidoptera 


40 


2 


,243 


0.263 


29 


2.50 


0. 


30 


7 


1.32 


1.34 


Diptera 


75 


1 


.881 


0.291 


107 


1.64 


0. 


24 


124 


1.59 


0.23 


Formicidae 


21 


2 


.103 


0.495 


25 


2.72 


0. 


51 


20 


2.31 


0.44 


Other Hymenoptera 


50 


2 


.102 


0.265 


174 


2.07 


0. 


18 


122 


2.29 


0.27 


Total 


344 


2 


.042 


0.108 


498 


2.16 


0. 


09 


535 


2.11 


0.13 



3 Data from Schoener (1980) 
b Includes Dictyoptera 



280 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



the primary factor determining regression slopes and arthropod shape. One 
possible explanation for this may be that many above ground arthropods fly to 
move or escape predators, and may have evolved elongated body shapes for 
favorable aerodynamics. In contrast, because leaf litter arthropods are prima- 
rily runners or walkers, they may be less constrained by aerodynamics, but 
may benefit from a more compact shape (higher slope) which could be easily 
maneuvered through leaf litter. In Formicidae and Aranae, which contain few 
flyers, above ground and leaf litter slopes were similar (overlapping 95% CIs). 
Conversely, in the other comparable taxa (Dictyoptera, Hemiptera, and Co- 
leoptera), which do contain flyers, the 95% CIs of above ground insects fell 
below those of leaf litter insects, suggesting that means of locomotion do af- 
fect length-weight regression slopes in arthropods. 

In conclusion, regression analyses suggested that Jamaican arthropods were 
relatively thin and light compared to those in drier temperate regions, but were 
similar to those in other regions of the wet tropics (Table 4). Within Jamaica, 
arthropods in wetter habitats tended to be long and thin relative to those in 
drier areas (Figure 2). These results are consistent with the hypothesis that 
selection has favored elongated body shapes in wet regions and habitats where 
arthropods are little constrained by desiccation. However, leaf litter arthropods, 
which are probably protected from desiccation, were relatively compact com- 
pared to those collected above ground, suggesting that other constraints, per- 
haps those imposed by means of locomotion, also affect arthropod shape. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

J. Camp, K. Karwacky, A. Medori, J. Pumilio, and J. Long provided invaluable assistance in 
the field. We thank R. and A. Sutton, P. Becksy, and P. Williams for hospitality and advice in 
Jamaica. A. Palmer, S. C. Jane, D. Reed, J. Minot, L. Barret, C. Gentiles, the Coffee Industrial 
Board of Jamaica, E. Zaidie and members of the PWD gun club all gave permission to work on 
their land. Financial support was provided in part by an NSF grant to T. W. Sherry (Tulane 
University) and R. T. Holmes (Dartmouth College), Sigma Xi Grants-in-Aid of Research, the 
Chicago Zoological Society, the World Nature Association, Tulane's Neotropical Ecology Insti- 
tute, and the Louisiana Educational Quality Support Fund. Carl Schaefer provided helpful corre- 
spondence, and Thomas Sherry, Stuart Bamforth, and two anonymous reviewers provided help- 
ful editorial suggestions on the manuscript. 

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Sage, R. D. 1982. Wet and dry-weight estimates of insects and spiders based on length. Am. 
Midi. Nat. 108:407-411. 

Sample, B.E., R. J. Cooper, R. D. Greer, and R. C. Whitmore. 1993. Estimation of insect 
biomass by length and width. Am. Midi. Nat. 129:234-240. 

Schoener, T.W. 1980. Length-weight regressions in tropical and temperate forest-understory 
insects. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 73:106-109. 

Schoener, T. W. and D. H. Janzen. 1968. Some notes on tropical versus temperate insect size 
patterns. Am. Nat. 102:207-224. 

Strong, A. M. and T. W. Sherry. Habitat-specific effects of food abundance on the body condi- 
tion of Ovenbirds wintering in Jamaica. In press. Journal of Animal Ecology. 

Sokal, R. R. and F. J. Rohlf. 1981. Biometry. 2nd ed. W. H. Freeman and Co. New York. 307 
pages. 

Torok, J. and E. Ludvig. 1988. Seasonal-changes in foraging strategies of nesting Blackbirds 
(Turdus merula, L.). Behav. Ecol. and Sociobiol. 22:329-333. 

Wilkinson, L. 1989. SYSTAT: the system for statistics. SYSTAT, Evanston, Illinois. 638 pages. 



282 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



SCIENTIFIC NOTE 

MISSISSIPPI RECORD FOR CURICTA SCORPIO 
(HEMIPTERA: NEPIDAE)! 

Paul K. Lago 2 

During the past several years, I have had the opportunity to conduct various environmental 
surveys at the Stennis Space Center in southwestern Hancock County, Mississippi. Although 
these studies have, for the most part, not been centered on insects, I have taken the occasional 
opportunity to make small collections. Recently, while working through some of this collected 
material, I discovered a specimen of Curicta scorpio Stal originally collected on 21 June 1991. 
The specimen was taken as it walked across a dirt path on a levee perhaps 2 meters above the 
edge of a small, shallow pond within the rocket testing facility. Since a breeding bird survey 
was the focus of my presence in the area, no attempt was made to collect additional specimens. 
Although capturing the specimen away from its normal aquatic habitat seemed unusual at the 
time, this species has been documented previously as occasionally occurring completely out of 
water (Sites and Polhemus, 1994). 

Although not previously known from the state, Wilson (1958) included Curicta drakei 
Hungerford (= C. scorpio) in his work on the aquatic and semiaquatic Hemiptera of Mississippi 
on the basis of the species being present in southeastern Louisiana (Hungerford, 1922; Ellis, 
1952). Most recently, Sites and Polhemus (1994) and Keffer (1996), in his revision of New 
World species of the genus, indicated that the range of C. scorpio in North America encom- 
passed southeastern Texas and southern Louisiana. The Mississippi record presented here ex- 
tends the range of the species modestly (about 95 kilometers) to the northeast of that previously 
known and is the first record east of the Pearl River. 

The specimen has been placed in my personal collection. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

R. W. Sites kindly provided useful comments on the initial version of this manuscript. I 
wish to thank Al Watkins and Ron Magee for their support during my work at the Stennis 
Space Center. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Ellis, L.L. 1952. The aquatic Hemiptera of southeastern Louisiana (exclusive of Corixidae). 

Amer. Midi. Natur. 48: 302-329. 
Hungerford, H.B. 1922. The Nepidae in North America north of Mexico. Univ. Kansas Sci. 

Bull. 14: 425-469. 
Keffer, S.L. 1996 Systematics of the New World waterscorpion genus Curicta Stal (Heteroptera: 

Nepidae) J. New York Entomol. Soc. 104: 117-215. 
Sites, R. W. and J.T. Polhemus. 1994. Nepidae (Hemiptera) of the United States and Canada. 

Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 87: 27-42. 
Wilson, C.A. 1958. Aquatic and semiaquatic Hemiptera of Mississippi. Tulane Stud. Zool. 

6(3): 113-170. 



1 Received December 10, 1999. Accepted February 4, 2000. 

2 Department of Biology, University of Mississippi, University, MS 38677. 

ENT. NEWS 1 1 1(4): 282, September & October 2000 



Vol. 111. No. 4. September & October. 2000 283 

ALLOCAPNIA POLEMISTIS (PLECOPTERA: 
CAPNIIDAE), NEW FOR MISSISSIPPI 1 

Bill P. Stark 2 , Mac H. Alford 3 , Samuel G. Tucker 2 

ABSTRACT: Allocapnia polemistis is recorded for the first time beyond the Black Warrior 
Uplift of Alabama, in Tishomingo Co., Mississippi. Scanning electron micrographs of the male 
genitalia are provided and the epiproct and 8th tergal process are compared with those of 
topotypes of A. recta, a closely related species. 

Allocapnia polemistis was described by Ross and Ricker (1971) as a spe- 
cies endemic to the Black Warrior Uplift of Alabama. The original sample 
included 29 specimens (18Cf 119) f rorn f ur si tes in Marion, Walker and 
Winston counties; subsequent reports of Alabama stoneflies (Stark and Harris 
1986) have not revealed additional records for A. polemistis, nor have reports 
from Mississippi (Stark 1979; Alford 1998) indicated the species occurs in 
that state. In 1996, we collected a single male specimen from Winston Co., 
Alabama. This specimen was examined with scanning electron microscopy in 
order to compare the epiproct structure of A. polemistis with other members of 
the A. recta complex (Tucker and Stark unpublished). More recently we col- 
lected specimens from a site in Tishomingo Co., Mississippi, and these were 
also studied with SEM. The data are here used to provide a more complete 
description of the male genital features for this rare species. 

METHODS 

Specimens stored in 80% ethanol were sonicated for 30 seconds, serially 
dehydrated to 100% ethanol and placed in two washes of hexamethyldisilizane 
for 30 minutes each. Specimens were attached to specimen stubs with double 
stick copper tape and sputter coated with gold-palladium before study with an 
AMRAY 1810D scanning electron microscope. 

Allocapnia polemistis Ross and Ricker 

Allocapnia polemistis Ross and Ricker, 1971. Holotype Cf, 10 miles northeast of Jasper, 
Walker Co., Alabama. 

Male.- Epiproct upper limb recurved; apical section of upper limb paddle shaped and armed 
with stiff backward directed bristles (Figs. 1-2). Apical section approximately 290 um long and 
100 urn wide. A median sulcus extends from apex to base; armature ends subapically. Dorsal 
process of tergum 8 extends approximately 250 um above segments 7 and 9 (Fig. 3). Dorsolat- 



1 Received February 22, 2000. Accepted March 18, 2000. 

2 Dept. of Biology, Mississippi College, Clinton, MS 39058. 

3 Dept. of Plant Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853. 

ENT. NEWS 111(4): 283-286, September & October 2000 



284 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 




Figs. 1-6. Allocapnia polemistis male genital features. 1-2. Dorsal limb of epiproct and 8th 
tergal process, dorsal aspect. 3-4. Lateral aspect of 8th tergal process. 5. Dorsal aspect of 8th 
tergal process. 6. Frontal aspect of 8th tergal process. (Figs. 1, 3-6. Tishomingo Co., MS., Fig. 
2. Winston Co., AL.). 



Vol. 111. No. 4, September & October. 2000 



285 



eral aspect abruptly flattened near apex to form an anterior, subapical shelf approximately 45 
urn wide (Figs. 3-5). Dorsum of process terminates in a sharp slightly arcuate ridge approxi- 
mately 75-80 urn wide (Figs. 5-6). Anterior shelf with a few scattered tubercles (Fig. 5). Caudad 
to the dorsal ridge, the process drops almost vertically to a large flat shelf bearing scattered 
setae at the posterior angles (Figs. 3-5). 

Material.- Alabama: Winston Co., Sipsey River near Natural Bridge, 20 January 1996, B.P. 
Stark, M.H. Alford, S.G. Tucker, 1C?. Mississippi: Tishomingo Co., Rock Quarry Creek, 
Tishomingo State Park, 4 January 2000, B.P. Stark, M.H. Alford, 3d". 

Allocapnia recta (Claassen) 

Capnella recta Claassen, 1924. Holotype Cf, Ithaca, Tompkins Co., New York. 
Allocapnia recta: Ross and Ricker, 1971. 

Male.- Epiproct upper limb recurved; apical section of upper limb paddle-shaped and armed 
with stiff backward directed bristles (Figs. 7-8). Apical section approximately 290 um long and 
100 um wide. A median sulcus extends from apex to base; armature ends subapically (Fig. 7). 
Dorsal process of tergum 8 terminates in a rounded plateau armed with tubercles which form a 




^^mB^BBHK f^M^BHIHHM^^BHMi^^^B^H 

Figs. 7-10. Allocapnia recta male genital features. 7. Dorsal limb of epiproct and 8th tergal 
process, dorsal aspect. 8. Epiproct and 8th tergal process, lateral aspect. 9. Dorsal aspect of 8th 
tergal process. 10. Frontal aspect of 8th tergal process. 



286 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



V-shaped pattern on the dorsum (Figs. 9-10). Dorsolateral aspect of process without anterior 
shelf or dorsal ridge (Figs. 8-10. 

Material.- New York: Tompkins Co., Cascadilla Creek, Ithaca, 13 December 1999, M.H. Alford, 
10 Cf, 5 9. 

DISCUSSION 

The epiproct structure of A. polemistis is quite similar to that of A. recta 
(Ross and Ricker 1971; Alford 1998). The lateral and dorsal aspects of the 
apical section for these species have the same approximate dimensions and the 
armature is of the same type, although somewhat more developed in A. recta 
(Figs. 1 , 7). The dorsal process, however, differs both in shape and in texture. 
A. recta topotype specimens lack an anterior shelf and ridge and the dorsal 
aspect is wide and tuberculate (Figs. 8-10) whereas A. polemistis has a distinct 
anterior shelf and thin dorsal ridge that lacks tubercles (Figs. 3-5). 

The Mississippi specimens are the first records for A. polemistis outside 
the Black Warrior Uplift of Alabama and brings the number of Allocapnia 
species known for Mississippi to seven (Stark 1979). No other winter stoneflies 
were collected at the Tishomingo Co. site but A. rickeri was previously taken 
there (Stark 1979) and we collected A. recta at a nearby site (Indian Creek, 
Tishomingo Co., MS) on the same date that A. polemistis was collected. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

We thank B. C. Kondratieff (Colorado State University) and R. W. Baumann (Brigham 
Young University) for their helpful reviews of an earlier draft of this manuscript. This study 
was supported in part by the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Undergraduate Biological Sci- 
ences Education Program Grant # 71195-538901. 

LITERATURE CITED 

AJford, M. H. 1998. New records of Allocapnia (Plecoptera: Capniidae) from Mississippi and 

Louisiana, with accompanying scanning electron micrographs. Entomol. News 109:183- 

188. 
Ross, H. H. and W. E. Ricker. 1971. The classification, evolution, and dispersal of the winter 

stonefly genus, Allocapnia. Illinois Biol. Monog. 45:1-166. 
Stark, B. P. 1979. The stoneflies (Plecoptera) of Mississippi. J. Miss. Acad. Sci. 24:109- 

122. 
Stark, B. P. and S. E. Harris. 1986. Records of stoneflies (Plecoptera) in Alabama. Entomol. 

News 97:177-182. 



Vol. 111. No. 4. September & October. 2000 287 

ALKALOID CONTENT OF PARASITOIDS REARED 

FROM PUPAE OF AN ALKALOID-SEQUESTERING 

ARCTIID MOTH (UTETHEISA ORNATRIX} 1 

C. Rossini 2 ' 5 , E. R. Hoebeke 3 , V. K. lyengar 2 , W. E. Conner 4 , M. Eisner 2 , T. Eisner 2 

ABSTRACT: A number of parasitoids reared from pupae of Utetheisa ornatrix, an arctiid moth 
that sequesters pyrrolizidine alkaloids from its larval foodplant, were analyzed chemically to 
see whether they sequester pyrrolizidine alkaloids from this host. None proved to do so in 
substantial measure. The highest alkaloid concentration detected in a parasitoid was about one- 
tenth that in the host. The parasitoids were from Florida and North Carolina, and included four 
species of Tachinidae (Lespesia aletiae, Lespesia sp., Chetogena claripennis, and Archytas 
aterrimus), one species of Chalcididae (Brachymeria ovata), and an undescribed species of 
Ichneumonidae (Corsoncus sp.). The genus Corsoncus has not previously been recorded from 
the eastern USA. 

The moth Utetheisa ornatrix (L.) (Arctiidae) sequesters pyrrolizidine 
alkaloids [henceforth referred to as alkaloid(s)] from its larval foodplants 
(legumes of the genus Crotalaria). It stores the compounds systemically, 
retains them through the pupal stage into adulthood, and as an adult, bestows 
them in part upon the eggs (Eisner and Meinwald 1995). We recently (Janu- 
ary/February, 1999) had occasion to study a population of U. ornatrix at the 
Archbold Biological Station, Lake Placid, Highlands County, Florida, where 
the moth was abundant in the environs of stands of its primary local foodplant 
(Crotalaria mucronata Desvaux). We were able to rear a number of parasi- 
toids from pupae of the moth. Specifically, from 40 pupae that we collected in 
the field, we obtained 6 specimens of Tachinidae [5 Lespesia aletiae (Riley) 
and 1 Archytas aterrimus (Robineau-Desvoidy)] and two of Ichneumonidae 
(Corsoncus sp.). To see whether these parasitoids sequester alkaloid from this 
host, we analyzed all specimens except one for alkaloid content. The excep- 
tion was one individual of Corsoncus which was kept as a voucher specimen 
because we learned that the species is undescribed. We also analyzed the 26 
adult U. ornatrix that emerged from the unparasitized pupae (6 pupae died 
without giving rise to either adult or parasitoid). 

Extraction Procedure. The adult parasitoids and adult moths were weighed 
shortly after emergence and killed by freezing. Each was macerated and ex- 
tracted with phosphate buffer (with riddelliine added as internal standard) for 

1 Received November 11, 1999. Accepted March 24, 2000. 

2 Department of Neurobiology and Behavior, Mudd Hall, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853. 

3 Department of Entomology, Comstock Hall, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853. 

4 Department of Biology, Reynolda Station, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC 27109. 

5 Current address: Cdtedra de Farmacognosia y Productos Naturales. Facultad de Quimica. 
Montevideo CC 1157. Uruguay. 

ENT. NEWS 111(4): 287-290, September & October 2000 



288 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



24 h at room temperature while stirred. After centrifugation, the residue was 
re-extracted with phosphate buffer for another 24 h. The two extracts were 
pooled, filtered (0.45 jam filter membrane), and subjected to high performance 
liquid chromatography (HPLC). 

Alkaloid Analyses. HPLC analyses were performed with a Hewlett-Packard 
HP 1090 Series II instrument, equipped with a diode array detector (A. = 205 
nm), using a C-18 column (Keystone Sci. BDS Hypersil, 250 x 4.6 mm, 5 urn 
particle size, 120 A bore size). Injection volume was 25 pi. The column was 
eluted at 40 C with a phosphate buffer-acetonitrile mixture (92 : 8; 1 ml/min). 
The phosphate buffer was prepared by dissolving 2.72 g of potassium phos- 
phate (monobasic), 2 mL of triethylamine, and 0.4 mL of trifluroacetic acid, in 
4 L of water (HPLC grade). The pH was adjusted to 3.0 with phosphoric acid. 
The identity of the TV-oxide and free base of usaramine was confirmed by 
co-injection with authentic samples. The calibration curves for usaramine (N- 
oxide and free base) were constructed with riddelliine as internal standard. 
Sensitivity of detection by this techinque was 25 ng alkaloid per sample. 

RESULTS 

As is clear from Fig 1, the 3 parasitoids did not acquire alkaloid at substan- 
tial levels. Archytas aterrimus, in fact, proved to be alkaloid-free, as did an- 
other individual of this species, also emergent from U. ornatrix, but from North 
Carolina, that we analyzed earlier (lyengar et al. 1999). Lespesia aletiae and 



O) 

I 

.0 

'-*-* 

S 
I 

O 
O 



10 - 



8 - 



6 - 



4 -1 



2^ 



J 





- 2.0 



- 1.6 




| 

f-- 

CO 

- 0.8 5 

D 



- 1.2 



- 0.4 



- 



I 

CO 



Utetheisa 
adult 



Archytas Lespesia Corsoncus 
aterrimus aletiae sp. 



Tachinidae Ichneumonidae 



Fig. 1. Pyrrolizidine alkaloid (usaramine) content of Utetheisa and its parasitoids. Numbers 
above columns give sample size; error bars give one standard error. Sample wet weight (mean 
SE) was as follows: Utetheisa = 87.1 23.9 mg; A. aterrimus = 70.2 mg; L aletiae = 17.0 
2.0 mg; Corsoncus sp. = 13.9 mg. 



Vol. Ill, No. 4, September & October. 2000 



Corsoncus sp. contained detectable quantities of alkaloid, but at levels lower 
by about an order of magnitude than the host. The specific alkaloid detected, 
both in U. ornatrix and the parasitoids, was usaramine, the principal pyr- 
rolizidine alkaloid in C. mucronata (Sauthon and Buckingham 1989). The 
alkaloid was present in the samples in both W-oxide and free base forms. The 
alkaloid values given in Fig. 1 are sums of the two forms. 

CONCLUSIONS 

Utetheisa ornatrix is well protected by its acquired alkaloid, certainly against 
predation. The adult and larvae are protected against spiders (Eisner and Eisner 
1991 ; Gonzalez et al. 1999), and the eggs against ants and coccinellid beetles 
(Hare and Eisner 1993; Dussourd et al. 1988). In contrast, the vulnerability to 
pupal parasitism appears to be high. If the 20% parasitism rate manifested by 
our sample is indicative of the norm, then pupal loss to parasitism may be one 
of the chief sources of mortality in U. ornatrix. 

It is impossible to say whether the low levels of alkaloid acquired by L. 
aletiae and Corsoncus sp. might suffice to provide these parasitoids with some 
protection. But even if not, it would be erroneous to conclude that these in- 
sects derive no advantage from parasitizing an alkaloid-laden host. The pro- 
tection they derive from spending their developmental period within a host 
that is chemically protected must in itself be adaptive. To be unprotected chemi- 
cally as a winged adult, must not be nearly as disadvantageous as to be unpro- 
tected as a larva. It is possible, of course, that a parasitoid such as Corsoncus 
does derive some protection from what little alkaloid it contains. Spiders are 
extremely sensitive to pyrrolizidine alkaloids (Gonzalez et al. 1999) and could 
conceivably find Corsoncus unpalatable. 

The finding of an undescribed species of Corsoncus from the southeastern 
U.S. is noteworthy, since in the U.S. the genus was recorded previously from 
the Southwest only. The present species appears to be most similar to C. 
minori Gauld from Costa Rica (D. Wahl, pers. comm.). 

Recently, we analyzed another set of pupal parasitoids from U. ornatrix, 
but from a population of moths in Moore County, North Carolina. No wet 
weights were available for these parasitoids, so we were able to express alka- 
loid concentration values only as ug per mg dry weight. The parasitoids, and 
their body alkaloid concentration, were as follows (the alkaloid, where de- 
tected, was usaramine): 

Lespesia sp. (Tachinidae) 0.46 ng/mg (N = 1 ) 

Chetogena claripennis (Tachinidae) 0.29 0.03 ng/mg (N = 2) 
Brachymeria ovata (Chalcididae) no alkaloid detected (N = 2) 

Evidently these parasitoids, like those from Florida, took up only minimal 
amounts of alkaloid from their host. 



290 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

Study supported in part by grant A102908 (to T.E.) from the National Institutes of Health, 
and by a Johnson & Johnson Fellowship in Chemical Ecology (to C. R.). We are grateful to 
David Wahl (American Entomological Institute, Gainesville, FL) for identification of the 
ichneumonid parasitoid, Corsoncus sp., and for his comments on this species being new to 
science. This is paper number 167 in the series "Defense Mechanisms of Arthropods"; paper 
number 166 is V. lyengar and T. Eisner: Female choice increases offspring fitness in an arctiid 
moth (Utetheisa ornatrix), Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA (submitted). 

LITERATURE CITED 

Dussourd, D.E., K. Ubik, C. Harvis, J. Resch, J. Meinwald, and T. Eisner. 1988. Biparental 

defensive endowment of eggs with acquired plant alkaloid in the moth Utetheisa omatrix. 

Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., USA 85: 5992-5996. 
Eisner, T. and M. Eisner. 1991. Unpalatability of the pyrrolizidine-alkaloid containing moth 

Utetheisa ornatrix, and its larva, to wolf spiders. Psyche 98: 111-118. 
Eisner, T. and J. Meinwald. 1995. The chemistry of sexual selection. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 

USA 92: 50-55. 
Gonzalez, A., C. Rossini, M. Eisner and T. Eisner. 1999. Sexually transmitted chemical 

defense in a moth (Utetheisa ornatrix). Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 96: 5570-5574. 
Hare, J. F. and T. Eisner. 1993. Pyrrolizidine alkaloid deters ant predators of Utetheisa 

ornatrix eggs: effects of alkaloid concentration, oxidation state, and prior exposure of ants 

to alkaloid-laden prey. Oecologia 96: 9-18. 
lyengar, V. K., C. Rossini, E. R. Hoebeke, W. E. Conner, and T. Eisner. 1999. First record 

of the parasitoid Archytas aterrimus (Diptera: Tachinidae) from Utetheisa ornatrix (Lepi- 

doptera: Arctiidae). Entomol. News. 110, 144-146. 
Sauthon, I. W. and J. Buckingham. 1989. Dictionary of Alkaloids. London, Chapman and 

Hall. 



SOCIETY MEETING OF NOVEMBER 17, 1999 

INVASIVE SPECIES 
Dr. Randy Westbrooks, USDA 

Jon Gelhaus, President, opened the meeting with a brief summary of the preceding Council meet- 
ing. He also noted that AES member and Calvert Award winner Andrew Short's discovery of 
Zorapterans in Delaware had been featured on the cover of the Entomological Society of America's 
newsletter. 

The speaker of the evening Dr. Randy Westbrooks, Noxious Weed Coordinator, Division of 
Plant Protection and Quarantine, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, U.S. Department 
of Agriculture, Whiteville, NC, spoke about the growing problem of invasive species in the 
United States and around the world. He compared the planet Earth to a big supermarket, where 
trade is continually moving huge quantities of goods across oceans and among the continents. 
Along with the goods travel a wide range of plants, animals, fungi, etc. More and more of these 
exotic species are becoming established outside their native ranges; some are becoming serious 
pests, not only in agriculture but also in natural habitats. The Federal government views the 
degradation of open space and native communities as a serious threat. He discussed the February 

(Continued on page 306) 



Vol. 111. No. 4. September & October. 2000 291 

FIRST RECORD OF NYCTERIBIIDAE (DIPTERA) 

IN VIRGINIA, AND A DISCUSSION OF THE HOST 

SPECIFICITY AND DISTRIBUTION OF 

BASILIA BOARDMANI 1 

Christopher S. Hobson^ 

ABSTRACT: The family Nycteribiidae (Diptera) is recorded from Virginia for the first time. 
Four specimens of Basilia boardmani were collected from Myotis austroriparius at one site in 
southeastern Virginia during August 1996. Previous records of B. boardmani have been from 
M. austroriparius in Florida and Illinois. The identification of Myotis lucifugus by H. B. Morlan 
as a host for B. boardmani as reported in Peterson (1960), was shown to be erroneous by Davis 
and Rippy (1968). Basilia boardmani seems to be host specific to M. austroriparius in the 
eastern United States. Distributional information available for B. boardmani shows that the 
range of this species coincides with that of M. austroriparius. 

In the eastern United States, the family Nycteribiidae (Diptera) is repre- 
sented by one genus and three species (Whitaker and Easterla, 1974). Of these, 
only one, Basilia boardmani Rozeboom, is typically associated with Myotis 
austroriparius (Rhoads), commonly known as the southeastern myotis. It was 
first described from M. austroriparius from Florida (Rozeboom, 1934), where 
Rice (1957) reported it to be common, although less conspicuous than the 
streblid Trichobius major Coquillett. It has since been reported from Georgia 
on bats collected by H. B. Morlan (Peterson, 1960) that were erroneously 
identified as Myotis lucifugus (LeConte) (Davis and Rippey, 1968), and most 
recently from M. austroriparius from Illinois (Parmalee, 1955). Whitaker and 
Easterla (1974) provided the most recent summary of distributional informa- 
tion for B. boardmani. 

On 8 August 1996, several colleagues and I captured 31 individuals of M. 
austroriparius in mist nets along the Blackwater River in Southampton 
County, Virginia. These bats were from a large maternity colony (372 bats 
counted) occupying a cavity in a large swamp tupelo (Nyssa biflora). This is 
the second record of M. austroriparius for Virginia and the first known mater- 
nity colony of this bat in the state (Hobson, 1998). Both adults and juveniles 
were captured, and each was briefly examined for ectoparasites. Several batflies, 
family Nycteribiidae, and a single bat bug (Cimex adjunctus Barber, order 
Heteroptera) were collected. The batflies (3 m, 1 were identified as B. 
boardmani based on the keys presented by Peterson (1960) and Whitaker and 
Easterla (1974). Identifications were verified by F. C. Thompson. 



1 Received March 24, 1998. Accepted October 2, 1998. 

2 Department of Conservation and Recreation, Division of Natural Heritage, 217 Gover- 
nor Street, 3rd floor, Richmond, VA 23219. 

ENT. NEWS 111(4): 291-293, September & October 2000 



292 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



The occurrence of B. boardmani on M. austroriparius in Virginia is of 
special interest because it further substantiates its host specific relationship 
with this bat and because it is the first record of any nycteribiid in the state 
extending the known range of the species approximately 995 km north from 
Georgia. Three specimens (2 m, 1 of B. boardmani have been deposited in 
the entomological collection of the U. S. National Museum of Natural His- 
tory. The fourth, a male specimen, has been deposited in the entomological 
collection of the Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago. 

Nearly all specimens of B. boardmani have been from M. austroriparius, 
although H. B. Morlan listed M. lucifugus as the host for specimens collected 
in Thomas County, Georgia (Peterson, 1960). This unvouchered record of M. 
lucifugus is highly questionable based on published range maps and addi- 
tional review of the distribution of these two species ofMyotis in the southeast 
by Davis and Rippy (1968). Several sources do not show M. lucifugus to occur 
anywhere near Thomas County, Georgia (Barbour and Davis, 1969; Harvey, 
1992; Hamilton and Whitaker 1979), whereas others indicate that this species 
ranges as far south as the Georgia-Florida border (Butt and Grossenheider, 
1976; Hall, 1981). Golley (1962) shows this species occurring in seven coastal 
plain counties in Georgia. However, all of the specimens reported from the 
coastal plain by him have been reidentified as M. austroriparius (Davis and 
Rippy, 1968), and records from southwestern Georgia are based on unvouchered 
records in a paper by Morlan (1952). It is particularly significant that Davis 
and Rippy (1968) found only M. austroriparius at Morlan 's sampling site in 
Thomas County, Georgia, and that these authors state that it has not yet been 
established that M. lucifugus has ever occurred in coastal Georgia. From this 
information, it seems likely that M. austroriparius rather than M. lucifugus 
was the host from which nycteribiid flies were taken by Morlan in 1947. The 
first confirmed record of M. austroriparius in Georgia was that of Quay (1949), 
based on specimens he collected in Thomas County in 1944. Identification of 
these two Myotis species can sometimes be very difficult, particularly in the 
field. 

If B. boardmani indeed parasitizes M. lucifugus, it would seem that the 
distribution of the parasite would coincide more closely with the distribution 
of that host. However, the little brown bat ranges well into eastern Canada and 
over much of the eastern and northeastern United States (Harvey, 1992; Barbour 
and Davis, 1969), and there are no known records for B. boardmani in any of 
these areas. In contrast, all known records of B. boardmani fall within the 
currently known range of M. austroriparius, and if Morlan's identification of 
the host was in error, then M. austroriparius would be the only known host for 
B. boardmani. Additional collections of dipteran ectoparasites from both M. 
lucifugus and M. austroriparius are needed to better determine the range and 
host specificity of B. boardmani. 



Vol. 111. No. 4. September & October. 2000 293 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

I wish to thank a number of people for their assistance in the collection of specimens and 
other data leading to this publication, including Judy Dunscomb, Kim Korth, and Sam Lindblom 
of the Virginia Chapter of The Nature Conservancy (TNC) who provided much needed logisti- 
cal assistance and access to TNC property. Thanks to Richard L. Hoffman, Steven M. Roble, 
and especially John O. Whitaker, Jr., for providing taxonomic keys and other assistance in 
identifying the specimens. Thanks to staff and students at the Field Museum of Natural History 
for information on specimens in that collection. I would like to thank Steven M. Roble and 
John O. Whitaker, Jr., for reviewing previous versions of this manuscript. Thanks to F. C. 
Thompson for verifying the identity of B. boardmani specimens collected in Virginia. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Barbour, R. W., and W. H. Davis. 1969. Bats of America. Lexington: Univ. Press Ky. 286 pp. 
Burt, W. H., and R. P. Grossenheider. 1976. A field guide to the mammals. 3rd edition. 

Boston: Houghton Mifflin. 
Davis, W. H., and C. L. Rippy. 1968. Distribution of Myotis lucifugus and Myotis austroriparius 

in the southeastern United States. J. Mammal. 49: 113-117. 
Golley, F. B. 1962. Mammals of Georgia: A Study of Their Distribution and Functional Role 

in the Ecosystem. Athens: Univ. of Georgia Press. 218 pp. 
Hall, E. R. 1981. Mammals of North America. Second Edition. Volumes 1 and 2. New York: 

John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1373 pp. 
Harvey, M. J. 1992. Bats of the Eastern United States. Arkansas Game and Fish Commission, 

U.S. Fish Wild. Serv., and Tenn. Technolo. Univ. 46 pp. 

Hobson, C. S. 1998. Bat Records from Southeastern Virginia, Including a New Resident Spe- 
cies, Myotis austroriparius (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae). Banisteria, 12: 18-23. 
Morlan, H. B. 1952. Host relationships and seasonal abundance of some southwest Georgia 

ectoparasites. Amer. Midi. Nat., 48: 74-93. 

Parmalee, P. W. 1955. A Nycteribiid Fly New to Illinois. J. Parasitol. 41: 322. 
Peterson, B. V. 1960. New distribution and host records for bat flies, and a key to the North 

American species of Basilia Ribeiro (Diptera: Nycteribiidae). Proc. Entomol. Soc. Ont. 

90: 30-37. 
Quay, W. B. 1949. Notes on mammals of Thomas County, Georgia, with two state records. J. 

Mammal. 30: 66-68. 
Rice, D. W. 1957. Life history and ecology of Mvotis austroriparius in Florida. J. Mammal. 

38: 15-32. 

Rozeboom, L. E. 1934. A new nycteribiid from Florida. J. Parasitol. 20: 315-316. 
Whitaker, J. O., Jr., and D. A. Easterla. 1974. Batflies (Streblidae and Nycteribiidae) in the 

eastern United States, and a new nycteribiid record from Saskatchewan. Entomol. News 

85: 221-223. 



294 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



LIFE HISTORY AND BEHAVIOR OF THE AFRICAN 

BUSH GRASSHOPPER, PHYMATEUS VIRIDIPES 
(ORTHOPTERA: PYRGOMORPHIDAE) IN CAPTIVITY 1 

Tohko Kaufmann 2 

ABSTRACT: The number of molts in Phymateus viridipes is 6 times in males, 7 times in 
females. Although males were sexually mature at emergence, females were not mature until 2 
months after emergence. Oviposition began 2 months after the first mating and lasted 2-3 months. 
With a diet of Brassica oleracea acephala, a female produced an average of 4 eggpods, each 
containing an average of 162 eggs. Both nymphs and adults aggregate closely by touching and 
mounting each other. 

In and around the Rift Valley town of Nakuru, in the western central re- 
gion of Kenya, grasslands and forests abound. The place looks like an ideal 
habitat for grasshoppers. Yet, my search for them from 1 988 to 1 992 are mostly 
unsuccessful except for occasional individuals of small species. Then, sud- 
denly, in 1997, 1 found a group of about 20, 3rd instar hoppers of Phymateus 
viridipes Stal in broad leaves of a wild plant in a bush inside Lake Nakura 
National Park. Three months later, I found another group of 1st instar hoppers 
of the same species deep in a dense bush, several km from Nakuru town. These 
are the only occasions I have found this African bush grasshopper in my al- 
most 12 years' stay in Kenya working as an entomologist. 

Literature on this large, green, bizarre-looking insect is scanty. This paper 
presents some basic research on the biology and behavior observed in cages. 

MATERIALS AND METHODS 

Thirty plus young nymphs were collected from the 2 sites mentioned above. 
They were housed in round wire-gauze cages, 60 cm high and 30 cm in diam- 
eter, with 5 cm of soil at the bottom. As foodplant, the leaves of kale, Brassica 
oleracea acephala were provided, simply because they are readily available 
throughout the year. When the nymphs became adults, they were transferred 
to a large wire-gauze cage, 85 cm high and 1 00 cm in diameter with 10 cm soil 
at the bottom. All the cages were placed in my open patio where they received 
direct sunlight from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. daily. The range of temperatures during 
this study was 14 C - 42 C, and that of relative humidity, 50% - 100%. 

LIFE HISTORY 
Eggs: The eggs are cylindrical , pale yellow, about 60 mm long and 1 mm 



1 Received August 11, 1999. Accepted October 31, 1999. 

2 P.O. Box 3880, Nakuru, Kenya, Fax: 000254-37-210188. 

ENT. NEWS 111(4): 294-298, September & October 2000 



Vol. 111. No. 4, September & October. 2000 295 



wide at center. The incubation period was 4-5 months depending on the weather 
conditions of the year. 

Nymphs: The first instar nymphs were black and measured 6-7 mm long. 
A pale beige stripe running dorsally from head to the posterior end of the body 
appeared in the second instar, followed by whitish pink dots on the thorax in 
the third instar. The body color became more pronounced as nymphs grew so 
that in the fifth instar, the entire body was speckled with white and pink dots 
and the dorsal stripe turned golden yellow. Wing pads became visible in the 
third instar; they were green. In the sixth instar, yellow and orange dots also 
appeared, and at this stage, the nymphs closely resembled those ofZonoceros 
variegatus L. (Kaufmann, 1965). 

Males molted 6 times, lasting an average of 120 days from eclosion to 
emergence, while females molted 7 times taking an average of 153 days for 
the same period. According to De Lotto (1951), however, both sexes of P. 
viridipes had 7 instars. 

Adults: All adults are long-winged and green except the hind wings which 
are scarlet. 

Females became sexually mature 2 months after emergence, followed by 
mating, while males were mature at emergence. The first oviposition was ob- 
served 2 months after the first mating. Eggs were laid along the edges of the 
cage avoiding the central area. A female spent 30-90 min. to lay a batch of 
eggs including the first 10-15 min. to dig a hole in which to oviposit. After 
oviposition, the egg-holes were kept open. However, since females tend to lay 
eggs close to each other, these holes became quickly obliterated by their ac- 
tivities. The oviposition period lasted 2-3 months. 

Egg-pods are beige brown measuring 6 cm long and 1 cm wide. The largest 
numbers of eggs were concentrated on or near the top of the egg-pod. The 
number of eggs per pod ranged from 60 to 23 1 with an average of 1 62, and 
each female produced an average of 4 pods so that the average number of eggs 
per female was 648. The mature ovaries of P. viridipes contained 200 10 at a 
time. Consequently, 80% of the eggs were laid each time. Chapman (1961) 
reported that an egg pod of this species collected in southern Ghana had 282 
eggs. 

An adult female lived an average of 211 days (166-265), while male's 
average was 300 (297-305) days. 

BEHAVIOR 

Aggregation: The nymphs of this species are strongly gregarious and move 
about the cage as a group, depending on the position of the sun, choosing the 
sunniest spot to aggregate. Nymphs gather close together, touching as well as 
sitting on top of each other, thus forming a dense aggregation. Even feeding 
takes place as a group; when one jumps to the foodplant, others follow one by 



296 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



one. After feeding, they leave the plant in the same manner. 

Adults aggregate similarly, but since they are larger and heavier, group 
formation takes place on or near the ground. As in nymphs, close physical 
contacts among individuals of both sexes occur. Because males are consider- 
ably smaller and lighter, as many as 3 males were often seen sitting on the 
back of one female. No kicking or other expression of irritation has been ob- 
served among the congregating adults. 

Aggregation occurred both in small and large cages. The cause of it may 
be twofold, namely: phototropism and visual attraction to movement. 

P. viridipes is strongly phototropic and individuals follow the movement 
of the sun until the ground temperature rises to 32 C. In Zonocerus variegatus 
(Kaufmann, 1965), Locusta migratoria migratorioides (Ellis et al,1962), 
Schistocerca gregaria (Kennedy, 1939) and others, the movement of the 
nymphs leaving the outbreak area attracts other nymphs in the close vicinity. 
Thus, the pioneer marchers are followed by other nymphs. P. viridipes is not 
known to migrate in bands either as nymphs or as adults, but the pattern of 
aggregation is the same; when one moves to a sunny spot, the one which is in 
the immediate vicinity optically recognizes the movement and follows the first. 
The second is followed by the third, and so on. 

Sun-basking: Sun-basking, unlike aggregation, is an individual act which 
usually occurs in the morning when the sunrays first hit the cage floor around 
9 a.m. The grasshoppers have roosted overnight and are still sluggish at this 
hour; their body temperature, therefore, must rise to a certain point, before the 
daily activity begins. The orientation of the body, directly facing the sun is as 
follows: 

(1) Body lies flat, parallel to the ground surface with head pulled in, and 
antennae touching the ground (Fig. la). This posture warms up the entire dor- 
sal surface. 

(2) Head and thorax are raised toward the sun with antennae lifted up. This 
warms the ventral surface of the thorax (Fig. Ib). 

(3) Head and thorax are raised much higher so that the ventral surface of 
the abdomen is also exposed to the sun (Fig. Ic). 

(4) Crawls to shade and assumes a normal posture (Fig. Id). 

In rain: Grasshoppers perch on the upper part of the cage or that of tall 
upright plants with heads pointing upwards, thus exposing the minimum sur- 
face to the rain. Artificial sprinkling of water in the cage produced the same 
result. 

Feeding: Feeding takes place when the atmospheric temperature rises to 
20 C. Usually on sunny mornings, it begins around 9 a.m. and ends about 4 
p.m. During this period, feeding occurs at any time. On cloudy or rainy days, 
little or no food is eaten, thus, development depends on daily weather condi- 
tions. As a foodplant, kale, Brassica oleracea acephala was well received and 



Vol. Ill, No. 4, September & October. 2000 



297 







Fig. 1. A last instar P. viridipes basking in the sun: a, warming the entire dorsal surface; b, 
warming the ventral surface of thorax; c, warming the entire ventral surface; d, normal posture 
in shade. 



298 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



no molting failure occurred on this diet. In captivity, flowers of marigold, 
cosmos, and astor were also readily eaten. 

Late instar nymphs, when defecating during feeding, raised their abdomi- 
nal tips upward and expelled fecal pellets by force. The pellets, as the result, 
first flew up before falling to the ground. Since feeding nymphs aggregate, 
such a behavior may be an adaptation to prevent fecal matter from accumulat- 
ing on foodplants. 

Roosting: On sunny days, roosting took place daily between 4 and 5 p.m., 
and lasted until around 9 a.m. of the following day on the upper part of the 
cage or that of tall plants. It is an inactive, immobile period when temperatures 
fall as low as 14 C during the night. The orientation of the roosting grasshop- 
pers is the same as during the rain; head pointing upward. When the tempera- 
ture rises to 20 C in the morning, the insects leave the roosting place to bask 
in the sun. 

When females became fully gravid and too heavy to climb any vertical 
object, they roosted on or near the ground, while males remained higher up. 

Migration: As in Zonocerus elegans Thumberg (Kaufmann, 1969), no 
mass migration, either as nymphs or as adults has ever been reported. How- 
ever, migration may occur independently and individually. This is especially 
true with the males of P. viridipes which are lighter in weight and tend to fly 
readily when experimentally released from the cage. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENT 
I thank K. H. Chung for his kind help in building the large cages used for this research. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Chapman, R. F. 1961. The egg pods of some tropical African grasshopper (Orthoptera: 

Acrididae). II. Egg pods from grasshoppers collected in southern Ghana. J. Entomol. Soc. 

S. Africa. 24:259-284. 
De Lotto, G. 1951. Observazioni sulla biologia del Phymateus viridipes St. (Orth. Acrididae). 

Riv. Agric. subtrop. 45:8-18. 
Ellis, P. E. & Pearce, A. 1962. Innate and learned behavior patterns that lead group formation 

in locust hoppers. Anim. Behav. 10:305-318. 
Kaufmann, T. 1965. Observations on aggregation, migration and feeding habits of Zonacerus 

variegatus in Ghana. Ann. Entomo!. Soc. Amer. 58(4):426-436. 
Kaufmann, T. 1972. Biology and feeding habits of Zonocerus elegans in central Tanzania. 

Amer. Mid. Nat. 87(1):165-171. 
Kennedy, J. S. 1939. The behavior of the desert locust (Schistocerca gregaria) in an outbreak 

center. Trans. R. Entomol. Soc. Lond. 89:385-542. 



Vol. 111. No. 4, September & October, 2000 299 

GENUS FESTELLA (ORTHOPTERA: TETTIGONHDAE) 
WITH DESCRIPTION OF F. RAMMEI SP. N. 1 

Battal (,'iplak 2 

ABSTRACT: The genus Festella was previously monotypic having only F. festae. A new spe- 
cies Festella rammei sp. n. is described and a key to both species presented including drawings 
of diagnostic characters. An evaluation is given about the relationships and distribution of the 
genus. 

Festella is a monotypic genus established by Giglio-Tos (1894) to include 
Ctenodecticus festae Giglio-Tos (Giglio-Tos, 1893) from Palestine. Later, 
Ramme (1951) recorded this species from the south-eastern part of Turkey, 
though it is now obvious that there are many distinct differences between the 
populations from Palestine and Turkey. 

Festella has a restricted distribution. It has been mentioned on only a few 
occasions, and only in lists dealing with Tettigoniidae (Kirby, 1906; Caudel, 
1908; Rentz & Colless, 1990; Naskrecki & Otte, 1999). 

Festella can be defined mainly by a combination of the following charac- 
ters: broad (about 3 times as wide as scapus) and protrude (beyond scapus) 
fastigium, cylindrical pronotum, unarmed prosternum, fore tibia unarmed on 
dorso-anterior margin and armed with 4 spines on dorso-posterior margin, 
hind tibia with 4 apical spurs ventrally and plantulae much longer than meta- 
tarsus and up-curved ovipositor. 

Relationships of the genus with other genera have been referred to in two 
studies (Caudell, 1908; Rentz & Colless, 1990). Caudell (1908) placed Festella 
in Decticiti with following genera, Tettigonia Linnaeus (including Decticus 
Serville and Medecticus Uvarov), Idionotus Scudder, Psorodonotus Brunner 
von Wattenwyl, Clinopleura Scudder, Peranabrus Scudder, Plagiostira 
Scudder. Rentz & Colless (1990) placed the genus in Platycleidini (the tribus 
is used by these authors in a much wider sense than the original usage by 
Zeuner, 1 94 1 ) and Naskrecki & Otte ( 1 999) followed this classification. In the 
phylogenetic tree produced by Rentz & Colless (1990; Fig. 3), the relation- 
ships of the genus occurs as (Festella + Pterolepis Rambur) + (Elasmocercus 
Chopard + Bergiola Stshelkanovtzev). According to the same authors, how- 
ever, Elasmocercus and Bergiola belong to the Tettigoniini and not to the 
Platycleidini. 

The object of this paper is to describe Festella rammei sp. n. and present a 
key to species of Festella, providing figures for both the new species and for 



1 Received January 31, 2000, Accepted March 18, 2000. 

2 Department of Biology, Faculty of Arts & Sciences, Akdeniz University, 07058 Antalya, 
Turkey. 

ENT. NEWS 111(4): 299-306, September & October 2000 



300 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



F.festae. Some remarks are given concerning relationships and distribution of 
the genus. 

Genus: Festella Giglio-Tos, 1894 

Festella Giglio-Tos, 1894: 3. 

Genus type: Ctenodecticus festae Giglio-Tos, 1893 

Description.- Giglio-Tos (1894). 

Key to Species: 

1- Male cercus straight, with strong tooth medially on inner side (Fig. 1); male anal 
tergum with relatively short processes (Fig. 2); fifth sternum of female unmodified, 
subgenital plate with a deep quadrangular incision at hind margin (Fig. 4). . festae 

Male cercus S shaped, toothed apically (Figs 7A,B,C); male anal tergum with long 
processes (Fig. 6); fifth sternum of female with a prominent tubercle in second half 
(Figs 9, 10), subgenital plate with a deep elliptical incision (Fig. 11) . rammei sp. n. 



Festella festae (Giglio-Tos, 1893) 
(Figs 1-4, Table 1) 

Ctenodecticus festae Giglio-Tos, 1893: 15. Syntypes, male(s) and female(s): PALESTINE, 
Haifa, Tiberias (Museo Zoologio di Torino, Italy) (not examined). 

Material examined.- PALESTINE, Chedara, 16.vii.1931, 1 male, 1 female (R. Ebner) 
(Museum fur Naturkunde, Berlin); Reheboth, nr Jaffa, 1 female (J. Aharoni) (BM 1921-136); 
Kalan Saura, Tul Karem, 14.vi.1922, 1 female (nymph) (P. A. Buxton) (BM 1923-530); Kakum, 
Tul Karem, 15.vi.1922, 1 female (nymph) (P. A. Buxton) (BM 1923-530); Emek, ix, 1924, 1 
female (W. S. Bodenheimer) (BM 1923-530); 1 female (W. S. Bodenheimer) (BM 1940-144); 
ISRAEL, 4 km east to Ashnath (st 11), S.x.61, 1 male, 1 female (M. P. Pener) (BM 1964-184) 
(The Natural History Museum, London). 

Description.- Giglio-Tos (1893) (figures are original). 

Diagnosis.- Similar to the F. rammei sp. n. in general apparence, but dif- 
fers in the male cercus with an internal tooth medially; male anal tergum with 
short processes; titillator with large basal arms and two spines on apical arms; 
the female fifth sterna without tubercle and the relatively small lateral sclerite 
of subgenital plate. 

Table 1. Measurements for species of the genus Festella (in mm) 







Pronotum 


Tegmina 


Hind 
Femur 


Ovipositor 


Body 
Length 


F. festae 


male 
female 


6.9-7 
7 


2.1 


22-24 
26-27 


15-16.7 


20-24 
24-27 


F. rammei 


male 
female 


6.9-7.1 
6.9-7.8 


2-2.3 


22.5-24.5 
24.5-26.5 


14.7-17 


20-22 
20-23 



(own measurements on material examined) 



Vol. 111. No. 4. September & October, 2000 



301 




1-4 Festella festae 1- Male cercus (scale = 1 mm). 2- Male anal tergum (scale = 1 mm). 3- 
Titillators (scale = 1 mm). 4- Female subgenital plate (scale = 1 mm). 



Festella rammei (,'iplak sp. n. 

(Figs 5-12, Table 1) 

Material examined.- Holotype, Male: TURKEY, Adana, Kozan, Taurus, 400 m, 14- 
15.vii.1937 (W. Ramme) (Museum fur Naturkunde, Berlin). Paratypes: 7 males, 13 females, 
the same data as the type; Hatay, Iskenderun, Ulucmar, 24.vii.1976, 1 male (S. Salman); Hatay, 



302 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Dursunlu Koyii, 100 m, 18.vi.1995, 1 male (nymph); Hatay, Belen Gecidi, 740 m, 19.vi.1995, 
2 males (nymphs), 1 female (nymph); Hatay, Belen, Tas Bogazi, 230 m, 19.vi.1995, 1 male 
(nymph) (B. Ciplak) (Akdeniz University, Zoological Museum, Antalya, Turkey). 

Description (holotype, male).- Fastigium broad, about three times as wide as scapus and 
slightly protruding beyond it. Pronotum cylindrical, slightly raised above, without median and 
lateral carinae, lateral lobes slightly tapering ventrally, caudal margin widely obtuse. Tegmina 
short, barely reaching end of first abdominal tergum, narrowly rounded apically; hind femur 
long, swollen in the base, with 8-9 spinules on internal margin ventrally; plantulae of hind 
tibiae almost reaching second tarsal joint. Anal tergum large, furrowed medially, with few 
setae, with two long and incurved processes, deeply and narrowly incised medially; cerci strong, 
S shaped in basal 3/4, also curved before apex in a right angle, with a apical spine; subgenital 
plate longer than wide, with slender long styli. Titillators long, slender and smooth, apical arms 
straight and strongly tapering towards apex, basal arms roundly upcurved. 

Female (paratype).- Barely larger than male. Fifth sternum with a strong projection in 




5-12 F. rammei sp. n. 5- Male pronotum and tegmina, lateral view (scale = 1 mm). 6- Male anal 
tergum (scale = 1 mm). 7- Male cercus. A) lateral view B) dorsal view C) ventral view (scale = 
1 mm). 8- Titillators (scale = 1 mm). 



Vol. 111. No. 4. September & October. 2000 



303 



second half, sixth and seventh sterna not modified; subgenital plate with a deep-elliptical inci- 
sion, lobes tapering apically, with lateral sclerites and rounded plates above them. Ovipositor 
longer than half of hind femur, strong, slightly upcurved. 

Coloration.- Dirty yellow with blackish-brown lateral band, extending along each side 
from behind the eyes down the paranoia (except light margin), to tip of abdomen. Hind femur 
with dark narrow stripe along middle of externo-median area. Ovipositor slightly darker on 
margins. 

Remarks.- Festella rammei sp. n. differs from F. festae, as described in 
the key, especially in the morphology of the male cerci and anal tergum, fe- 
male fifth sternum and subgenital plate. However, overall habitus, mea- 
surements and coloration are very similar in both species. 





9- Female fifth, sixth and seventh sterna, ventral view (scale = 1 mm). 10- Female fifth, sixth 
and seventh sterna and subgenital plate, lateral view (scale = 1 mm). 11- Female subgenital 
plate (scale = 1 mm). 12- Ovipositor (scale = 1 mm). 



304 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Etymology.- Named after Willy Ramme, who made many contributions 
to our knownledge on Orthoptera of Turkey. 

DISCUSSION 

Our current understanding of the phylogenetic relationships of Tettigoniinae 
bush-crickets is mainly based on morphological characters. However, there is 
no general agreement about the higher categories, and still no distinct 
synapomorphies for tribes or groups have been reported. Since the characters 
used for defining relationships of the genera are mostly incongruent within the 
subfamily, it will require extensive analyses to establish a reliable phyloge- 
netic scheme. 

Separation of Decticiti in key to genera established by Caudell (1908) is 
based on combination of the following characters: presence of apical spine on 
dorso-external margin of fore tibia, unarmed prosternum and two pairs of 
apical spurs of post tibiae apico-ventrally. Caudell, used 4 or 5 (more than 3) 
spines of fore tibia dorso-posteriorly to separate Festella, Tettigonia (includ- 
ing Decticus and Medecticus), Idionotus, Psorodonotus, Clinopleura, 
Peranabrus, Plagiostira from other genera of the Decticiti. 

Rentz and Colless (1990) have a very different suggestion for relationship 
of the genus. Though in their phylogenetic tree the genus occurs as sister group 
with Pterolepis and these two genera share a common ancestor with 
Elasmocercus and Bergiola, they did not mention any synapomorphy shared 
by these genera. Additionally, they placed the genus in Platyceidini and 
Naskrecki & Otte (1999) followed this classification. 

Though the phylogeny of the Tettigoniinae is in very premature state and 
characters are mostly incongruent, relationships of the genus with other gen- 
era can be defined on presence of 4 spines on dorso-posterior margin of the 
fore tibia. When this character is considered, Festella can be included in a 
group with the following genera of Tettigoniinae; Anabrus Haldeman, 
Bucephaloptera Ebner, Capnobotes Scudder, Cyrptophyllicus Hebard, 
Decticus, Ectopistidectes Rentz, Medecticus, Peranabrus, Pterolepis and 
Rhacocleis Fieber. 

This group of eleven genera, though they all share having 4 apical spines 
on the dorso posterior margin of the fore tibia, seems to be a heterogenous 
group in respect of many characters which have been used widely for separa- 
tion within the genera of Tettigoniinae such as width of fastigium, lateral cari- 
nae of pronotum, armature of prosternum, male and female wing types, spines 
of fore tibia on dorso-anterior margin, number of ventro-apical spurs and length 
of plantulae of hind tarsus. The presence of prosternal spines is a character 
that separates Capnobotes (except 1 species, see Rentz & Birchim, 1968), 
Cryptophyllicus, Ectopistidectes, Pterolepis and Rhacocleis from the remain- 
ing 6 genera and Festella. However, when these genera are grouped according 



Vol. 111. No. 4, September & October. 2000 305 



to the number of apico- ventral spurs of the hind tibia, Festella remains with 
Anabrus, Bucephaloptera, Capnobotes, Clinopleura, Cyrptophyllicus, Decticus 
and Medecticus by having 2 pairs each, while the other four genera have 1 pair 
each. 

The length of the plantulae on the hind tarsi is the character that grouping 
Festella with Eurasian genera and separating them from American genera and 
Ectopistidectes. Plantulae are less long as half of the length of metatarsus (at 
most as long as half of it) in Anabrus, Capnobotes, Clinopleura, Cyrpto- 
phyllicus, Ectopistidectes, and Peranabrus, but they are 3/4 length or longer 
in the other five genera and Festella. Among all of these genera, plantulae are 
as long as the metatarsus in Bucephaloptera and almost as long as the first two 
segments in Festella. Another character shared by Festella, Bucephaloptera, 
Pterolepis and Rhacocleis and separating them from Decticus, Medecticus, 
Ectopistidectes and American genera is absence of the lateral carinae of the 
pronotum. 

As can be seen from the evaluation given above, Festella always groups 
with Bucephaloptera while it has one or more differences from others. Thus, it 
can be proposed that these two genera are closely related within Tettigoniinae 
(it is premature to say sister groups before a phylogenetic analysis of all gen- 
era of the subfamily has been done). Festella differs from all genera which 
have 4 spines on dorso-posterior margin of fore tibia by having wide but 
protruding fastigium, apterous female, plantulae of hind tibia much longer 
than metatarsus (almost reaching second tarsal joint), deeply divided female 
subgenital plate. Among these characters, null wings and deeply divided 
subgenital plate of the female seems unique. The protruding fastigium sepa- 
rates the genus from the genera given above, but is also shared by some of 
African (e.g. Alfredectes Rentz) and Australian (e.g. Austrodectes Rentz) genera 
of the Tettigoniinae. 

Two species of Festella are distributed on eastern coasts of the Mediterra- 
nean (Levant). F.festae is found in the south, in wet or dry shrubgrassland and 
its nymphs appear in early May and molt to adults as late as August (Ayal et 
al., 1 999). Festella rammei sp. n. is recorded from the north part of the eastern 
Mediterranean coasts (south of Turkey, Hatay and Adana provinces, and pos- 
sibly north-western Syria), associated with maqui vegetation. Its nymphs ap- 
pear in early June and molt to adult in July. Thus, the genus is a typical Medi- 
terranean faunal element, as mentioned by Ayal et al. (1999). 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

I am most grateful to Michael Ohl and Isolde Dorant (Berlin-Germany) for allowing me to 
use facilities of Museum fur Naturkunde, Berlin. I thank Klaus-Gerhard Heller (Erlangen-Ger- 
many) and Roy Turkington (Vancouver-Canada) for their helpful comments or linguistic cor- 
rection on earlier version of manuscript. I also acknowledge Judith Marshall (NHM, London, 
U.K.) for sending information about specimens in The Natural History Museum. 



306 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



This study was supported by The Scientific and Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK) 
and Deutscher Akademischer Austauschdienst (DAAD). 

LITERATURE CITED 

Ayal, Y., Broza, M. and Pener, M.P. 1999. Geographical distribution and habitat segregation 

of bushcrickets (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae) in Israel. Isr. J. Zool. 45: 49-64. 
Caudell, A.N. 1908. Orthoptera, fam. Locustidae, subfam. Decticinae. Genera Insectorum, 72: 

1-43. 
Giglio-Tos, E. 1893. Viaggio del Dr. E. Festa in Palestina, nel Libano e regioni vicine V. Boll. 

Mus. Zool. Anat. Comp. R. Universita Torino, 8: 1-20. 
Giglio-Tos, E. 1894. Viaggio del Dott. E. Festa in Palestina, nel Libano e regioni vicine XII. 

Boll. Mus. Zool. Anat. Comp. R. Universita Torino, 9: 1-4. 

Kirby, \V.F. 1906. A synonymic Catalogue of Orthoptera, Vol. 2, Longmans & Co. London. 
Naskrecki, P. and Otte, D. 1999. An illustrated catalog of Orthoptera, Vol. I. Tettigonoidea 

(Katydids or bush-crickets) (CD ROM). Available from Orthopterists' Society at Acad. 

Nat. Sci. of Phila., Publ. on Orthopteran Diversity. 
Ranune, W. 1951. Zur Systematik, Faunistik und Biologic der Orthopteren von Siidost-Europa 

und Vorderasien. Mitt. Zool. Mus. Berlin, 27: 1-431 pp. 
Rentz, D.C.F. and Colless, D.H. 1990. A classification of the shield-backed katydids 

(Tettigoniinae) of the World. Pp. 352-382 in Bailey & Rentz (Eds): The Tettigoniinae: 

biology, systematics and evolution. Crawford House Press, Bathurst. 
Rentz, D.C.F.& Bin him, J. D. 1968. Revisionary studies in the Nearctic Decticinae. Mem. 

Pacific Coast Entomol. Soc., 3: 1-173. 
Zeuner, F.E. 1941. The classification of the Decticinae hitherto included in Platydeis Fieb. or 

Metrioptera Wesm. (Orthoptera, Saltatoria). Trans. R. Entomol. Soc. London, 91: 1-50. 



(Continued from page 290) 

1999, Executive Order on invasive species, and the formation of national and state councils to 
coordinate efforts to combat their establishment and spread. He cited Delaware's efforts as a 
model for other states. 

Dr. Westbrooks stressed the relatively low level of preparedness of the U.S. to meet the invasive 
species threat. For example, the Bureau of Land Management has a budget of less than three 
million dollars to combat alien weeds on 270 million acres of Federal rangeland. He de- 
scribed his own experiences in quarantine and inspection, trying to stem the flow of exotics 
through our sea and airports. He cited the more advanced efforts of other countries such as 
Australia's AQIS. His talk was illustrated with numerous slides of exotic invaders, the habitats 
they are taking over and the work of APHIS inspectors. 

In other notes of entomological interest, Roger Fuester pointed out that the publication of a name 
for the Holly Azure butterfly was reported on National Public Radio. He also commented on the 
continuing spread of the Asian longhorn beetle, an exotic pest of street and shade trees. 

William J. Cromartie, 
Corresponding Secretary 



Vol. 111. No. 4. September & October. 2000 307 

ALLOTRICHOSIPHUM (HOMOPTERA: 

GREENIDEIDAE), A NEWLY RECORDED GENUS 

FROM CHINA, AND DESCRIPTION OF 

A NEW SPECIES l 

G. X. Qiao 2 

ABSTRACT: The aphid genus, Allotrichosiphum, is newly recorded from China. A new spe- 
cies, Allotrichosiphum castanopse, is described. The type is deposited in Zoological Museum, 
Institute of Zoology, the Chinese Academy of Sciences. 

The aphid genus, Allotrichosiphum, was erected by Takahashi in 1962 from 
the type species, Trichosiphum kashicola (Kurisaki, 1920), collected on 
Quercus glauca and Q. acuta in Japan. Within the classification of the 
Aphidoidea, Allotrichosiphum is regarded as a member of the subfamily 
Greenideinae, within the family Greenideidae. Takahashi (1962) provided a 
generic key to the genera within Greenideinae. Raychaudhuri et al. (1973) 
studied aphids from eastern India and described a new species, Allotrichosiphum 
assamense, on Quercus dealbata in Assam, India. Both species also recog- 
nized by Eastop and Hille Ris Lambers (1976), remain distributed in Japan 
and India. Blackman and Eastop (1994) studied aphids on the world's trees, 
and included two species, assamense and kashicola, in the genus Allotricho- 
siphum on Quercus. 

Remaudiere and Remaudiere (1997) confirmed that there were two spe- 
cies in this genus in the world. In this paper, a new species, Allotrichosiphum 
castanopse, on Castanopsis hicklii is described from Guangxi Autonomous 
Region, China. The type is deposited in the Zoological Museum, Institute of 
Zoology, the Chinese Academy of Sciences. 

Aphid terminology in this paper generally follows Takahashi (1962). The 
unit of measurements in this paper is in millimeters (mm). 

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 
Allotrichosiphum Takahashi, new record in China 

Allotrichosiphum Takahashi, 1962, Trans. Shikoku Entomol. Soc. 7(3): 70, by original de- 
scription; Raychaudhuri, Ghosh, Banerjee and Ghosh, 1973, Knotyu 41(1): 54; Ghosh and 
Aganvala, 1993, Zoological Survey of India, Part 6: 61. 

Type species: Trichosiphum kashicola Kurisaki, 1920, by original description. 



1 Received November 16, 1999. Accepted March 17, 2000. 

2 Institute of Zoology, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19 Zhongguancun Road, Haidian, 
Beijing 100080, P. R. China. 

ENT. NEWS 111(4): 307-311, September & October 2000 



308 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Diagnosis. - Body narrow, not strongly sclerotized, pale, without spinules on lateral areas of 
venter of abdomen. Dorsal setae not numerous, distinctly capitate or multi-forked, spatulate, 
and somewhat dilated at tip. Front tubercle distinct. Antennae much shorter than body, 5 seg- 
mented, with some long capitate setae; processus terminalis as long as, or a little longer than 
basal part of segment V. Siphunculi very long, slender, not reticulated, with spinules on apical 
and basal parts and many long setae. Cauda rounded at apex. Abdominal segments III-VI fused 
together. Hind tibiae with spinules scattered on distal part, without ridges. First tarsal segment 
chaetotaxy: 7, 7, 7. 

Distribution. - China, Japan, India. 

Host plants. - Quercus glauca, Q. acuta, Q. dealbata and Castanopsis hicklii (Fagaceae). 

Allotrichosiphum castanopse, NEW SPECIES 

(Figs. 1-16) 

Apterous viviparous female.- Body long elliptical. Measurements: body 1.300 in length, 
0.500 in width. Antenna 0.700, length of segments I-V: 0.051, 0.041, 0.232, 0.129, 0.113 
+ 0.103, respectively. Ultimate rostral segment 0.206 in length, segment IV 0.169 in length, 
segment V 0.036 in length. Hind femur 0.237, hind tibia 0.371, second hind tarsal segment 
0.082. Siphunculus 0.443 in length. 

Mounted specimen. - Head, thorax and abdomen slightly brown, apical part of antennal seg- 
ments III, IV and V, apical part of rostrum, distal part of tibiae and second tarsi brown, others 
pale. Siphunculi darken brown at media, basal and distal parts slightly pale. Dorsum of body 
with spinules, venter of abdomen with faint spinules. Head fused with prothorax. Eyes multi- 
faceted, with ocular tubercles. Spiracles small and round, closed; spiracular plates indistinct. 
Mesosternal furca with two separated arms, length of single arm 0.062, 1.50 times antennal 
segment II. Dorsal setae fewer and shorter, bi-forked to multi-forked at tip; length of the long- 
est abdominal dorsal setae 0.052, 2.50 times widest diameter of antenna! segment III; length of 
the shortest one 0.010. Ventral setae on abdomen fine and short, capitate or sharp at tip, length 
of the longest ventral setae 0.031, 1.50 times widest diameter of antennal segment III. Head 
with 3 pairs of cephalic setae (a pair of longer setae among them), 4 pairs of spinal, 2 pairs of 
pleural and 1 pair of marginal setae; pronotum with 4 pairs of spinal, 2 pairs of pleural and 3 
pairs of marginal setae; mesonotum with 5 pairs of spino-pleural and 4 pairs of marginal setae; 
metanotum with 1 pair of spinal, 2-3 pleural and 2 pairs of marginal setae; abdominal tergite I 
with 9 long and short setae; tergites II-VI each with 7, 17, 13, 13 and 11 spino-pleural setae, 2, 
3, 3, 4 and 2 pairs of marginal setae, respectively; tergites VII and VIII each with 2 setae. 
Length of cephalic setae 0.072, length of marginal setae on abdominal tergite I 0.031, length of 
dorsal setae on tergite VII 0.057, which of dorsal setae on tergite VIII 0.067, 3.50 times, 1.50 
times, 2.75 times and 3.25 times widest diameter of antennal segment III, respectively. Media 
front slightly developed. Antennae 5 segmented, slender, 0.54 times body length; length in 
proportion of segments I-V: 23, 18, 100, 56, 49 + 58, respectively; processus terminalis 1.18 
times base of the segment. Antennal setae slightly long, thick, stout or slightly capitate at tip, 
antennal segments I-V each with 5, 5, 9, 3, 1 + 4 setae, respectively; length of setae on anten- 
nal segment III 0.067, 3.25 times widest diameter of the segment. Primary rhinaria round, 
ciliated. Antennal segments III-V imbricated. Rostrum reaching abdominal segment II, ulti- 
mate rostral segment long dagger-shaped, 8.00 times its basal width, 2.50 times second hind 
tarsal segment; segments IV and V distinctly segmented, length of segment IV 4.71 times 
length of segment V; ultimate rostral segment with 8 pairs of fine and short setae, 6 pairs of 
accessory setae among them. Legs normal, femora and second tarsi with imbrication. Hind 
femur about as long as antennal segment III. Hind tibia 0.29 times body length. Length of setae 
on hind tibia 0.031, 1.20 times middle width of the segment. First tarsal segment chaetotaxy: 7, 
7, 7. Siphunculi banana-shaped, curved outwards, gradually more distinctly spinulose apically. 



Vol. 111. No. 4. September & October. 2000 



309 




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310 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



about 0.34 times body length, 5.70 times its widest diameter; with 32 long setae; length of 
setae 0.124, 1.60 times its widest diameter. Cauda transversely semi-oval, with 7 setae. Anal 
plate circular at apex, with 10 setae. Genital plate transversely square shaped, with 8 sickle- 
shaped setae. 

Holotype. - Apterous viviparous female, No. Y6527-1-1-3, April 25, 1981, Guangxi Autono- 
mous Region (Bobei County, N22.2 , E109.9 , Alt. 200m), collected by He Yandong, on 
Castanopsis hicklii; paratypes 3 alatoid nymphs. No. Y6527, other data same as holotype. 

Etymology. - The new species is named for Castanopsis, the host on which 
it was collected. 

Diagnosis. - The new species is allied to Allotrichosiphum assamense 
(Raychaudhuri et al.) and A. kashicola (Kurisaki), but differs from them as 
shown in the following key (Apterous viviparous female). 

1 . Body pear shaped, its length 2.00 times its width; dorsal setae of body 
very setae; setae on abdominal tergite VIII not discernible 

Allotrichosiphum assamense 

Body narrow, its length about 2.60 times its width; dorsal setae of body 

shorter; setae on abdominal tergite VIII distinct 2 

2. Head with 3 pairs of dorsal setae; ultimate rostral segment with 1 pair of 
accessory setae; dorsal setae of body capitate, apical dilated part globular; 

cephalic setae capitate at tip A. kashicola 

Head with 7 pairs of dorsal setae; ultimate rostral segment with 6 pairs of 
accessory setae; dorsal setae of body multi-forked; cephalic setae sharp 
at tip A. castanopse, sp. nov. 

Remark. - The information on Allotrichosiphum assamense and A. kashicola 
come from their original descriptions (apterous viviparous females unknown; 
apterous forms are fundatrices). 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

Qiao Gexia thanks Zhang Guangxue (Institute of Zoology, the Chinese Academy of Sci- 
ences, 19 Zhongguancun Road, Haidian, Beijing 100080 P. R. China) for some comments to 
the manuscript and He Yandong for his collection. The work was sponsored by the National 
Natural Sciences Foundation of China (grant No. 39700015), a grant for special fund of sys- 
tematic and evolutionary biology, CAS to a biological and technical innovation grant from 
the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. C2999084). 

LITERATURE CITED 
Blackmail, R.L. and V.F. Eastop. 1994. Aphids on the World's trees. An identification and 

information guide. CAB International, Wallingford, UK. 904pp. 
Eastop, V. F. and D. Hille Ris Lambers. 1976. Survey of the World's aphids. The Hague, 

576pp. 
Ghosh, A. K. and B. K. Agarwala. 1993. Fauna of India. Homoptera: Aphidoidea, Part 6, 

Subfamily Greenideinae. Zool. Surv. India, Calcutta, 60-64. 
Kurisaki, M. 1920. A new species and the variation of the wing veins of Aphididae in Japan. 

Insect World 24: 297-301. 
Takahashi, R. 1962. Key to genera and species of Greenideini of Japan, with descriptions of a 

new genus and three species (Homoptera: Aphididae). Trans. Shikoku Entomol. Soc. 7(3): 

65-73. 



Vol. 111. No. 4. September & October. 2000 311 



Raychaudhuri, D. N., M. R. Ghosh, M. Banerjee, and A. K. Ghosh. 1973. Studies on the 
aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae) from eastern India XIV. One new genus, two new sub- 
genera and fifteen new species of Greenideini. Kontyu, 41(1): 53-73. 

Remaudiere, G. and M. Remaudiere. 1997. Catalogue of the World's Aphididae. Homoptera 
Aphidoidea. INRA, Paris, 1-473. 



(Continued from page 312) 

endeavor. Otherwise, those who rely on species geographic information are left with potentially 
important observations that remain insupportable anecdotes or hearsay, and the biological disci- 
pline that tolerates such reporting is open to the valid disclaim of others. This issue would be 
resolved to a large extent if editors of the many scientific journals that publish species lists, 
fauna! and floristic accounts, or geographic records in any form or context insist that supporting 
data always be provided by authors. 

Editor's P.S. to foregoing essay. Although this essay was received as an unsolicited 
paper, as editor of Entomological News, and with the permission of the above author, 1 
append the following statement. 

Entomological News aims to be, primarily, a taxonomic journal for short papers on ento- 
mology. As stated in each issue, "manuscripts on taxonomy, systematics, morphology, ecology, 
behavior, and similar aspects of insect life and related terrestrial arthropods are appropriate for 
submission". 

With this as my guide, over the years I have been reluctant to accept papers that are little 
more than simple checklists, and have repeatedly so advised potential authors. To be consid- 
ered for publication in Entomological News, papers need to provide specific data including 
date and specific geographic site of collection (the simple naming of a county or other 
political entity is not sufficient), and the name of the museum or other institution where the 
specimen(s) is (are) deposited. Papers that do not provide these data are of little value in a 
scientific journal, for without these data it would be very tedious to nearly impossible to 
locate reported new records, records could not be verified, and it would be more difficult to 
re-collect specimens from the same locality for future research. Thus, papers lacking these 
data usually are not accepted unless there are some compelling reasons to give them favor- 
able consideration. This will continue to be the editorial policy of this journal. 

H.P.B. 



312 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



SCIENTIFIC NOTE 

REPORTING SPECIES RECORD DATAM 
W. P. McCafferty 3 

Part of the recent upsurge in biodiversity related research has been the reporting of records 
of species occurring in particular geographic areas or in politically formulated regions such as 
nations, states, or provinces. Such reports can contribute to assessments of species ranges, and 
ultimately to evaluations of the commonness of species and the vulnerability of species and their 
habitats. Besides this potential value to environmental assessment and management, species dis- 
tributional data also have important applications for geographic information systems analyses, 
taxonomy, and biogeographical research. Because new records of species are regularly pub- 
lished in Entomological News, it is an appropriate venue for an essay dealing with a continuing 
and disturbing problem associated with the reporting of species geographic record data. 

For many groups of organisms, electronic databases are being established at various centers 
in order to manage species geographic data along with other data related to biodiversity. Signifi- 
cantly, the completeness and usefulness of such biodiversity databases and the applications of 
distributional data as discussed above are reliant in part on data incorporated from the vast and 
invaluable published literature. 

Species distributional data are scientific data, and as such must be presented similarly to any 
other kind of scientific data and be subject to the same kinds of constraints and evaluations. For 
example, if geographic records are not presented in such a way that they can be checked, repro- 
duced, or even potentially falsified in some manner, then they arguably are not scientific and are 
not reliable in any scientific sense. When species geographic records are published in anecdotal 
form, for example, by simply mentioning that a species was seen from some area or by listing 
species for the first time as part of region's fauna or flora without providing any accompanying 
locale and collecting data, those records cannot be regarded as scientific data and thus cannot be 
integrated into databases nor used in further research or applications. If the material and related 
data supporting the records are not delineated so they can be subjected to tests of authenticity and 
accuracy, then such records can be referenced only, if at all, as incomplete and tenuous. More- 
over, it is of paramount importance that the material on which any records are published be cited 
with respect to their place of deposition, and that the material be identified in such a manner that 
it can be located in the future. Because accurate identification of species may be difficult or 
contentious or may have been in the past, relative to the taxononic group involved, and because 
there is still an emerging taxonomy in many groups, materials and the associated data upon 
which records are based must be tractable for any necessary re-examination. This is equivalent or 
tantamount to reproducibility in other fields of science. 

Unfortunately, published papers continue to appear that putatively establish geographic 
records for species by simply listing the species without providing any corroborating data to 
support the records and without mentioning any material examined. I maintain that such records 
are not acceptable unless, at a minimum, they are accompanied by collection and deposition 
data. Exceptions to similar kinds of requirements are not made in other scientific fields, and 
exceptions should not be made in the case of biotic record reporting. General adherence to such 
a stipulation would help legitimize this aspect of biodiversity research as a bona fide scientific 

(Continued on page 311) 

1 Received and accepted January 13, 2000. 

2 Published in association with the North American Mayfly Inventory Database Project, Depart- 
ment of Entomology, Purdue University, supported by National Science Foundation Grant 
DEB-9901577. 

3 Department of Entomology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907. 

ENT. NEWS 111(4): 312-311, September & October 2000 



Vol. 111. No. 4. September & October. 2000 313 



BOOK REVIEW 

FIRE ANTS. Stephen W. Taber. 2000. Texas A & M University Press. 368 pp. 
78 b&w photos, 32 line drawings, Bib. Index. $29.95 cloth. 

Stephen Taber has gone out fishing on the flood tide of fire ant literature, and has hauled in a 
ton of facts. Tossed in gleaming heaps on the deck of his 368-page book, these facts fill the ento- 
mologist with admiration, as well as with gratitude that any personal obligation to troll the murky 
depths of a hundred journals is thus obviated. Here, laid out in a row, are the ant-conquered southern 
states, extending east and west from the Alabama entry point. Here, still feebly and reflexively 
gasping and flipping their tails, are the bloated and ignominious fire ant eradication programs. Here 
are the problems of fire ant taxonomy, still tangled in a snarl of fishing line, but out in the open. The 
entomologist is not the only beneficiary of this bounty; the journalist should be equally pleased. 
News items, such as, "Fire Ants Kill Easter Chicks at Local Pet Store," a headline that the journalist 
belatedly realizes hardly requires actual text, can be nicely padded out with educational bits on the 
potency of fire ant venom and the murder of hatchling quail out in the countryside. 

While delighted to see this huge harvest of information all in one place, I would not want my 
understanding of fire ants to depend on this book. One can read the entire volume and still lack 
answers to reasonable questions about fire ants. Why are fire ants, especially the imported species, 
so much more aggressive around the nest than most other ants? How, exactly, do they so successfully 
displace other species? Why do they spread so rapidly in some regions and much slower in 
others? Why are some areas within their range wall-to-wall fire ants, while other areas have few 
nests? What forces brought about the decline of the devastating outbreaks of tropical fire ants in the 
Caribbean, and does this decline offer hope elsewhere? Symptomatic of this weakness in synthesis, 
the overviews of past and future fire ant scenarios seem questionable. The statement that one of the 
now-rejected chemical controls "might have done the job" strikes me as one of those retroactive 
fantasies of omnipotence typical of we middle-aged males. By the time such control was begun, the 
red imported fire ant had dispersed widely. Even if we modern experts had been in charge, we 
could not have stopped a widespread, highly mobile, generalist species that reproduces rapidly, is 
easily relocated by commerce, and is beautifully preadapted to the habitat disturbances diagnostic 
of the ecological niche of our own species. The vision, complete with map, of future distribution 
shows the red imported fire ant sweeping up the West Coast to Canada. This seems highly unlikely: 
the extremes of temperature in Seattle might not be too cold for fire ants, but the northern west 
coast marine climate is unfavorable to a broad spectrum of ants for other reasons. 

It is easy for inaccuracies to creep in when one is dealing in an uncritical and nonselective way 
with a large literature (the list of references takes up 56 pages of tiny print). For this reason, one 
needs to exercise judgement before quoting from the book. For example, Ernst Mayr did not actu- 
ally state or imply that "the introduction of an exotic is good for all but the invader's closest com- 
petitors because the presence of an additional species increases biodiversity." Ants would not make 
"ideal pollinators" were it not for pollen-inhibiting chemicals, because ants travel everywhere on 
foot, automatically making them lousy pollinators, irrespective of their body chemistry. The func- 
tion of the elaiosome on seeds of a species of violet is not to "save its seeds from fire ant predation." 
Polygyne fire ant nests that bud off daughter nests are not an example of "asexual reproduction." In 
the key to species one must check the "dorsolateral junction of the propodeum," a hitherto un- 
known feature, which is absent from the glossary. There are many more of these little mistakes, and 
also many places where it would be easy to get the wrong impression about some aspect of fire ant 
biology. 

I do not recommend this book for the more sensitive myrmecologist, who would find cause to 
cringe and twitch on almost every page. For tougher specialists, this book is a great labor-saving 
compendium. 

Mark A. Deyrup 

Archibald Biological Station 

Lake Placid, FL 



314 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



SOCIETY MEETING OF FEBRUARY 23, 2000 

SOCIAL INSECT COLONIES: PARASITES INSIDE AND OUT 

Dr. Jay D. Evans 
Bee Research Lab. USDA-ARS Beltsville, MD 

President Jon Gelhaus began the meeting by requesting approval of Howard Boyd's nomination 
to Emeritus Membership in the Society. All members present approved. 

The evening's speaker was Dr. Jay Evans of the USDA, who described his researches on para- 
sites of social insects. His work deals with both noxious and beneficial social Hymenoptera, 
from fire ants to honeybees. Social insects, including ants, bees, wasps, termites, are ecologi- 
cally dominant in many habitats worldwide. He noted the great diversity of forms among the 
castes of social insects and the importance of mutualistic relationships to colonies. Some ants, 
for example, protect immature Lepidoptera (mostly Lycaenidae) and Homoptera in exchange for 
liquid nectars provided by these mutualists. Bees have long-standing mutualisms with flowering 
plants (and humans). 

Conventional parasites include mites, beetles, and some Lepidoptera, while pathogens include 
viruses, bacteria, protozoa and fungi. Honey bees suffer from each of these parasite and patho- 
gen groups, although mites in the genus Varroa are arguably the most important. Current control 
methods include physical changes to bee hives, breeding for resistant bees, and the use of chemi- 
cal controls. He illustrated a recent invasive parasite of bees, a small nitidulid beetle from South 
Africa that entered Florida in 1998 and is now spreading. 

Social insect colonies are also vulnerable to attack or theft by other social insects. Ants, for 
example, often raid each other's resources and some species effectively enslave the workers of 
other colonies. Most intriguing are examples of parasitism and conflict between nestmates in the 
same social insect colony. In many ants and bees, workers retain developed ovaries and often 
compete with their own queens for reproduction. In other species, workers shift investment to- 
ward their closest relatives. These conflicts have been untangled by using a combination of be- 
havioral observations, colony surveys, and parentage analyses using genetic markers. Dr. Evans 
detailed some of his own research on social parasitism within multi-queen ant colonies. In these 
colonies, queens compete for reproduction with each other and with a subset of fertile (male- 
producing) workers. Also, he described his efforts to understand the genetic basis of queen de- 
velopment in honeybee colonies. One of the key findings is that workers have more novel genes 
switched on than do queens, perhaps because they differ more from the ancestral hymenopteran 
stock. Many of these differently expressed genes appear to be related to nutrition. His talk was 
illustrated by many slides of the species he described. 

Ross Lang, recent Calvert award winner, will participate in the 2nd APCE Youth Science Festi- 
val in July, sponsored by Science Service. Ross was nominated with 70 other youth, of whom 
only 20 were selected. The purpose of attending the festival is for youth to expand their educa- 
tional and world perspectives and to be involved in an international science cooperation program 
at an early age. In other news of entomological interest, several members and guests noted un- 
usually early appearances of insects during the opening days of January 2000. These included, 
green darner, Anax juntas, in New Jersey, January 2nd (Hal White), Tree hoppers, Homoptera: 
Membracidae, on oak in Delaware on January 1st (Charles Bartlett), Shistocerca americana, 
American locust, in large numbers in southern New Jersey, also January 1st (Dale Schweitzer). 

William J. Cromartie, 
Corresponding Secretary 



Vol. 111. No. 4. September & October. 2000 315 



SOCIETY MEETING OF MARCH 22, 2000 

SEXUAL SELECTION, SELFISH GENES, AND THE EVOLUTION OF 
SEXUAL DIMORPHISM IN STALK-EYED FLIES 

Dr. Jerry Wilkinson 
Dept. of Biology, University of Maryland 

Dr. Wilkinson based his presentation on ten years' study of stalk-eyed flies. Eight families of 
Diptera show varying degrees of elongation of the head into eye stalks. Diopsid flies are unique 
in having the antennae at the end of the stalks. Five dipteran families possess "antlers," which 
males use for fighting, and four of these also have eye stalks. He illustrated this with a remark- 
able series of slides of antlered tephritid males. 

Dr. Wilkinson went on to describe the known mechanisms for the evolution of exaggerated traits 
like eyestalks, including male contest resolution, female choice involving direct benefit and 
female choice involving indirect benefit. The problem, he said, is to establish which of the 
possible factors operate in particular cases. In the Diopsidae, eye stalks are found in both sexes, 
and dimorphism between males and females has evolved at least five times and been lost once. In 
Southeast Asia, monomorphic forms are solitary, while dimorphic forms typically form large 
mating aggregations on roots along streams, where males that succeed in displacing their 
rivals may mate with up to 25 females. He showed examples of these from his field studies in 
Malaysia. 

Lab studies indicate that both male competition and female choice operate in sexually dimorphic 
diopsid species. The outcome of contests between males is decided by eyestalk length indepen- 
dent of body size. In addition, choice experiments conducted in the lab show that females of 
species with dimorphic eyestalks prefer males with longer eyestalks. Females of species with 
monomorphic eyestalks exhibit no preference. 

A key prediction of indirect benefit female choice models of sexual selection is that a genetic 
correlation should arise between a male trait and female preference. Dr. Wilkinson described 
experiments to establish whether a genetic correlation exists between female preference for males 
with long eyestalks and eyespan itself. Females from lines in which males were selected for long 
eyespan showed a preference for long eyestalk males while females from lines selected for short 
eyespan showed a preference for short eyestalk males. 

The question that remained, he continued, was, "does the trait affect fitness?" In these flies 
another factor must then be considered: peculiar sex ratios, with nearly twice as many females as 
males. Test matings show that males determine the sex-ratio of their progeny and that dimorphic 
species have males that produce many daughters. The male propensity to produce daughters is 
itself determined by the female, and selection for long eyestalks reduces it. Dr. Wilkinson con- 
cluded that the sex bias trait must be associated with a "driving" x-chromosome, which it is 
advantageous for females to avoid by preferentially mating with males bearing the x-linked trait 
for long eyestalks. Reciprocal crosses between selected lines indicate that eyestalk length exhib- 
its X-linkage as this model assumes. Thus the evolution of eyestalks in at least some species of 
diopsid flies appears to result from sexual selection on an exaggerated trait which indicates sex 
ratios due to the presence of a sex-linked selfish gene. 

William J. Cromartie, 
Corresponding Secretary 



316 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



SOCIETY MEETING OF APRIL 26, 2000 

HISTORICAL OVERVIEW OF GYPSY MOTH IN NORTH AMERICA 

Roger W. Fuester 
Beneficial Insects Lab., USDA,-ARS, Newark, DE 

The meeting began with the introduction of three new honorary members, elected by the Ex- 
ecutive Council at its business meeting. Dr. Dan Otte from the Academy of Natural Sciences was 
present at the meeting. The other two were Dr. Dale Bray of the University of Delaware and Dr. 
David Rentz of the CSIRO, Australia. All are longtime members and contributors to the A.E.S. 
This was followed by the Calvert Award presentation. 

The speaker, Roger Fuester, began by pointing out that the gypsy moth has been the subject of 
massive attention and a vast range of control strategies, yet it now occurs from New England to 
Michigan's Upper Peninsula to the Outer Banks of North Carolina. Among the driving forces in the 
story have been human-induced changes in forest composition and the wide range of host plants and 
habitats suited to the moth. Following a brief, illustrated description of the Gypsy moth's biology, he 
gave a detailed discussion of its history. 

After the Civil War, when New England's cotton mills were idle, Leopold Trouvelot, a Harvard 
astronomer hoped to hybridize the gypsy moth with native silk moths to begin a new industry. 
Instead, moths escaped. Not until 1889, however, did they attract public notice. The next year, the 
first of many appropriations of public money was made to control the pest. By 1 893, lead arsenate 
was being used, and the gypsy moth was spurring development of spraying equipment, Mr. Fuester 
illustrated these early efforts with many remarkable photographs. By 1900, eradication efforts in 
Massachusetts were apparently successful, and the program was discontinued, but this turned out 
to be a major error. Populations increased soon thereafter; the decline had been just the first of 
many cycles of innocuous population, to be followed by release, outbreak and another decline. 

In 1906, after five years of increasing and spreading outbreaks, the U.S. government became 
involved, and the importation of natural enemies started. The 1920's and 30's saw efforts to con- 
tain the spread behind the Adirondacks and Allegheny Plateau, but lack of funds during World War 
II allowed it to break out in Pennsylvania. DDT began to be used in the late 1940's. It was used 
widely in the 1950's to combat severe outbreaks and further spread, following a new seven-point 
program of surveillance, control and research. The last year of DDT use was 1958, when, in another 
innocuous phase, only about 250 acres were defoliated. After that, Silent Spring led to substi- 
tution of Sevin, and the 60's saw further range expansion as well as studies of new controls includ- 
ing BT and pheromones. Massive outbreaks in 1969 stimulated an "accelerated program" in the 
early 1970's, with more funds and redirected research efforts. This became an "expanded program" 
by the mid-70's aimed at other forest insect pests as well. 

The area defoliated in outbreaks continued to increase relentlessly, largely due to range expan- 
sion, and by 1981, reached nearly 13 million acres, an all-time record. BT and Dimilin replaced 
Sevin in suppression programs and remain the materials of choice at present In 1989, the outbreak 
in Massachusetts and Connecticut collapsed from an epizootic of a fungus Entomophaga maimaiga, 
originally introduced in 1911. After it spread across New England in the 1990's, defoliation there 
ceased until recently. The current situation, Mr. Fuester concluded, is of growing populations, 
defoliation and treated areas in much of the eastern U.S. and an uncertain future. Despite over a 
century of effort, the story is far from concluded. 

In notes of entomological interest, Jane Ruffin described the decline of falcate orange-tip 
butterflies, probably due to the spread of the alien garlic mustard, which females lay eggs on but 
larvae cannot eat. Dale Schweitzer added that the West Virginia white butterfly is in danger of 
extinction from the same cause. He also commented on the destruction by the prolonged mid- 
winter cold spell of the American locusts that had been seen along Delaware Bay in early January. 

William J. Cromartie, 
Corresponding Secretary 



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OL. Ill 



NOVEMBER & DECEMBER, 2000 



US ISSN 0013-872X 
NO. 5 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



A new species of A utomeris (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) 

from central Mexico Manuel A. Balcdzar-Lara 317 

A new species of Sephinioides (Heteroptera: Coreidae) 

from Ecuador //. Brailovsky, G. Couturier 322 

A new species ofCoelidiana (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) 

from the (Galapagos Islands Paul II. Freytag 325 

Two new species of the genus \Yhitfieldiellus (Ilymenoptera: 

Braconidae) from Bra/il S.M. Barbalho, AM. Penteado-Dias 328 

A new species of Sinella (Collembola: Ento- 

mobryidae) from China W. Fang, K.A. Christiansen 332 

A new species of Anisocentropus (Trichoptera: Calamo- 

ceratidae) from Sri Lanka Oliver S. Flint, Jr. 337 

Description of late instar larvae of Diaulota pacifica 

(Coleoptera: Staphylinidae ) H-J. Kim, J-Y. Ryu, K-J. Ahn 34 1 

Invertebrates inhabiting wetland monocots damaged 

by Lepidoptera J.R. Keiper, M. Sanford, J. Jiannino, W.E. Walton 348 
New southerly distribution records for the Boreal 

carrion beetle, Xieropliorus vespilloides 

(Coleoptera: Silphidae) F.F. Purrington, R.L. Davidson 355 

Range extension, ecological notes, and new records of 

Pycnopsyche Indiana (Trichoptera: Limnephilidae) 

from Florida .4. A. Rasmussen, D.R. Demon 359 

Occurrence of the tiger beetle Cicindela cursitans (Coleoptera: 

Carabidae) in northwestern Minnesota P.P. Tinerella, D.A. Rider 367 
Eecundity of male lilattella germanic* (Blattaria: Blattellidae) 

exposed to multiple virgin females C. Curtis, I. Huber, R.E. Calhoon 37 1 
Notations on South American Baetidae 

(Ephemeroptera) W.P. McCafferty 375 

Pseudocloeon aquaciduni: a new subjective synonym of 

P. latutn (Ephemeroptera: Baetidae) C.R. Lugo-Ortiz, F.C. de Moor 380 
Heat relief behavior by Rleidoeerys ovaris (Hemiptera: 

Lygaeidae) in urban southern California R.S. Vetter, D.C. Hawks 382 
SCIENTIFIC NOTES: 
Chondromorpha xanthotrichia, a new milliped for 

continental United States Rowland M. Shelley 370 

Behavior of the beetle inquiline, Crcnmstocheilus 

saueius, and its host ant, Pogonomyrmex oeci- 

dentalis, during entrance into the ants' nest Shaharra J. Usnick 385 

FOUR AMER. ENTOMOL. SOC. MEMBERS HONORED 387 

BOOK REVIEWS 366, 384 

BOOKS RECEIVED AND BRIEFLY NOTED 331, 340. 35S 

PUBLISHER'S STATEMENT 388 

MAILING DATES for Vol. Ill, 2000 388 

INDEX for Vol. 111,2000 . . 389 



THE AMERICAN ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 



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Vol. 111. No. 5. November & December. 2000 317 

A NEW SPECIES OF AUTOMERIS (LEPIDOPTERA: 
SATURNIIDAE) FROM CENTRAL MEXICO 1 

Manuel A. Balcazar-Lara^ 

ABSTRACT: Aiiiomeris michoacana, new species, is described from Michoacan State, Mexico. 
It is differentiated from its nearest allies within the A. io group. 

The study of specimens of saturniids from mid-elevation montane forests 
in central and south Mexico has resulted in the discovery of several new spe- 
cies, with apparently very small ranges. This new species belongs in the 
Aiiiomeris io group proposed by Lemaire (1973), within the A. iris subgroup 
which includes five described species: A. iris (Walker), A. lemairei 
Beutelspacher, A. boudinotiana Lemaire, A. daudiana Druce, and A. stacieae 
Lemaire & Wolfe (Lemaire, 1986; Beutelspacher B., 1990; Lemaire & Wolfe, 
1993). At least another two species remain to be described within the later 
subgroup which is characterized by the yellow or gray periocellar area and a 
continuous postmedial line on the upper side of the forewings (Lemaire, 1 973; 
Balcazar-Lara, in press). 

Automeris michoacana NEW SPECIES 

(Figs. 1-2) 

Description. Forewing length: O" 34-37 mm (x = 35.75. n = 4). Male.- Head: salmon color: 
frontal area cinnamon. Labial palpi three-segmented, salmon color. Antennae cinnamon, 
quadripectinate almost to the apex. Thorax: cinnamon; legs cinnamon; tibiae very hairy. Hind 
tibia with one pair of apical spurs. Abdomen: cinnamon, dorsally weakly ringed with reddish. 
Forewing: elongate: dorsally pale pinkish buff. Antemedial line very faint. Postmedial line dark 
brown, straight, continuous; reaching costa about 6-8 mm from apex; not underlined. Submar- 
ginal band absent. Discal spot slightly darker than rest of the wing, surrounded with five to seven 
small black dots. Forewing ventrally cinnamon rufous, with a pale pinkish area along the inner 
side of the wing. Antemedial line absent. Postmedial line clearly marked, reaching costa about 
4-5 mm from apex, dark cinnamon brown, straight. Discal spot strong, black around a small 
white center. Veins slightly clearer than remainder of wing. Himlwing: dorsally pale pinkish 
buff, with a brick red to pinkish area along the inner margin. Postmedial line black, concave. 
Submarginal band cinnamon; basomedial area brick red to pink; costal area pale pinkish; mar- 
ginal area cinnamon rufous; inner side brick red; fringes ferruginous; area between postmedial 
line and submarginal band yellow ocher; ocellus typical of the A. io group, black with central 
diffuse white spot, ventrally cinnamon rufous; costal area same as rest of wing. Postmedial line 
dark cinnamon, convex. Discal spot weak, a small white dot without black; black ring of dorsal 
ocellus weakly visible; veins slightly clearer than the rest of wing. Male genitalia. Uncus very 
prominent, bent ventrally, with five apical folds (very strong and asymmetrical). Uncus with a 



1 Received April 5, 2000. Accepted May 1, 2000. 

2 Universidad de Colima, Facultad de Ciencias, Apdo. Postal 25, Av. 25 de Julio #965, Col. 
Villas San Sebastian, Colima, Colima 28000, MEXICO. 

E-mail: mabl@cgic.ucol.mx 

ENT. NEWS 111(5): 317-321, November & Decataijej- 2QOO. 




318 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



small projection pointing backwards. Valves with two lobes, apical process bent medially, inner 
spine prominent. Gnathos reduced to a subtrapezoidal plate. Saccus very long (narrow). Vincu- 
lum with anterolateral edges prominent. Aedeagus straight, delicate (very short). 
Female. Unknown. 

Type Material. Holotype: Cf; Mexico, Michoacan, 3 km S Tacambaro, N 19 14' W 101 27' 
30", 1600 m; 14 June 1985; M. Balcazar L. CNIN, Mexico. Paratypes: 3 Cftf; same data as 
holotype. Other specimen examined: ICf; Mexico, Michoacan, Uruapan, "Centro de Estudios 
Forestales"; June 1977. CNIN, Mexico. 

Deposition of types.- The holotype and two paratypes are deposited in the National Collection 
of Insects (CNIN), Institute de Biologi'a, UNAM; one paratype will be deposited in the United 
States National Museum. 

Etymology. This species is named in honor of the Universidad Michoacana de 
San Nicolas de Hidalgo, the university where I earned my B.S. when I col- 
lected the type series. 

Distribution.- The known specimens of A. michoacana were collected at an 
elevation of 1600 m in pine-oak forests, with semi-warm climate (annual aver- 
age temperature above 18 C) and a coefficient rainfall/temperature above 55 
(Garcia, 1973). Both known localities are in the Eje Volcanico biogeographic 
province sensu Alvarez & La Chica (1974) on the southern slope, close to the 
Balsas River Basin province (Depresion del Balsas). 

Flight period.- All known specimens were collected in June. 




Fig. 1. Habitus of Automeris michoacana Balcazar, new sp. Holotype Cf (forewing length: 37 
mm). 



Vol. 1 1 1, No. 5. November & December, 2000 



319 




Fig. 2. Male genitalia ofAutomerismichoacana Balcazar, new sp.: A. ventral view, B. Aedeagus, 
vesica everted, bulbus ejaculatorius sectioned. Holotype. (line = 1 mm). 




Fig. 3 . Known distribution of Automeris michoacana Balcazar, new sp. 



320 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Key to species of Automeris io group found in Mexico (males). 

1. Postmedial line of forewing upper side continuous 2 

Postmedial line of forewing upper side lunular 5 

2( 1 ). Forewing elongate 3 

Forewing not elongate 4 

3(2). Antennae rusty yellow; postmedial line of forewing upper side concave; postmedial 
line of forewing upper side proximally underlined with white; postmedial line of 

forewing under side pink Automeris boudinotiana 

Antennae cinnamon; postmedial line of forewing upper side straight; postmedial 

line of forewing upper side not underlined; postmedial line of forewing under side 

dark cinnamon brown Automeris michoacana n. sp. 

4(2). Postmedial line of forewing upper side usually straight; uncus folded; uncus tip, 

distally, as wide as or wider than tegumen Automeris lemairei 

Postmedial line of forewing upper side usually slightly curved basally before reaching 

costa; uncus strongly folded, uncus tip, distally, narrower than tegumen . Automeris iris 

Postmedial line of forewing upper side usually "s" shaped, curved basally towards 

the costa and distally towards the anal margin; uncus not folded . . Automeris daudiana 

Postmedial line of forewing upper side outwardly bent towards the costa; uncus 

slightly folded Automeris stacieae 

5( 1 ). Forewing elongate 6 

Forewing not elongate 8 

6(5). Forewing ventrally cadmium yellow, to buff-yellow; hindwing ventrally yellow, or 

buff yellow 7 

Forewing ventrally clay color to cinnamon rufous; hindwing ventrally clay color to 

cinnamon rufous Automeris Hebe 

Forewing ventrally pink; hindwing ventrally pink Automeris eogena 

7(6). Abdomen dull yellow to brownish orange; forewing external margin not oblique; 
submarginal band of forewing upper side absent; veins of hindwing underside same 

color as rest of wing Automeris dandemon 

Abdomen pink to red; forewing external margin slightly oblique; submarginal 

band of forewing upper side lunular; veins of hindwing underside reddish 

pink Automeris melmon 

8(5). Postmedial line of forewing upper side reaching costa about up to 6 mm 

from apex Automeris colenon 

Postmedial line of forewing upper side reaching costa about 7 mm from apex 

or more Automeris io 

Discussion. Automeris michoacana can be separated from other members of 
the A. io group with a continuous postmedial line on the upper surface of the 
forewings by the following combination of characters: more elongate fore- 
wings (the external margin is about three fourths the length of the anal mar- 
gin); and the almost straight postmedial line of the forewing upperside. Most 
specimens of A. lemairei have a straight postmedial line, but they can be sepa- 
rated by the ground color of the forewing which varies from yellow to tan 
color, but is never pale pinkish buff as in A. michoacana. The postmedial line 
of the forewing is slightly curved basally before reaching costa in most speci- 
mens of A. iris\ "s" shaped, curved basally towards the costa and distally 
towards the anal margin in most A. daudiana; outwardly concave in A. 
boudinotiana; and outwardly bent towards the costa in A. stacieae. This latter 



Vol. Ill, No. 5, November & December, 2000 32 1 



species can be further separated by the more pointed apex of the forewings. A. 
iris has clearly less elongate forewings than this new species. A. daudiana is 
the largest species in the subgroup. A. boudinotiana lacks the black dots that 
surround the discal spot of the forewings upperside in the rest of the species. 
Within the A. iris subgroup there are three tendencies regarding the uncus: 
in A. boudinotiana and A. daudina the uncus lacks apical folds; A. iris, A. 
lemairei and A. michoacana have a strongly folded uncus; and A. staciene is 
intermediate. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

This paper was possible in part thanks to Comision Nacional de Biodiversidad (CONABIO, 
Mexico) grant FB269/h02l/96, and Direccion General del Personal Academico, Universidad 
Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (DGAPA. UNAM) grant IN201497. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Alvarez, T. & F. de Lachica. 1974. Zoogeografi'a de los vertebrados de Mexico, pp. 219-275. 

In: El escenario geografico. Recursos naturales. Mexico: Panorama historico y cultural. Vol- 
ume II. Institute Nacional de Antropologfa e Historia, Mexico. 
Balcazar-Lara, M. in press. A new Automeris from the Manantlan Reserve in Mexico 

(Saturniidae: Hemileucinae). Fla. Entomol. 
Beutelspacher B., C. R. 1990. Unaespecie nueva mexicanade Automeris Hubner (Lepidoptera: 

Saturniidae). An. Inst. Biol. UNAM 61:313-316. 
Garcia, E. 1 973. Modificaciones al Sistema de Clasificacion Climatica de Kb'ppen, 2nd Edition. 

Institute de Geograffa, Mexico, D. F. 246 pp. 
Lemaire, C. 1973. Revision du genre Automerix Hubner et des genres voisins. Biogeographie, 

Ethologie, Morphologic, Taxonomie (Lep. Attacidae) (Suite). Mem. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. 

(Paris) Ser. A. Zool. 79:233-422. 
Lemaire, C. 1986. Description d'un nouvel Automeris Mexicain (Lepidoptera. Saturniidae. 

Hemileucinae). Rev. Fr. Entomol. (N.S.) 8:85-87. 
Lemaire, C. & K. L. Wolfe. 1993. Two new Automeris from western Mexico (Lepidoptera: 

Saturniidae: Hemileucinae). Trop. Lep. 4:39-44. 



322 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



A NEW SPECIES OF SEPHINIOIDES 
(HETEROPTERA:COREIDAE) FROM ECUADOR 1 

Harry Brailovsky^, Guy Couturier^ 

ABSTRACT: A new species, Sephinioides formosus, collected in Astrocaryum urostach\s 
(Palmae), is described from Ecuador and compared with S. ugaldei, the only known species of 
the genus. 

Brailovsky (1996) erected the genus Sephinioides and mentioned certain 
characters to distinguish it from other genera of Leptoscelidini. This Neotropical 
genus is characterized by having the pronotal disc convex, and anteriorly cleft, 
anterolateral margins coarsely crested, humeral angles produced into a short 
or elongate spine, femora unarmed and hemelytral membrane extending far 
from the apex of abdomen. 

Sephinioides was previously known from a single Costa Rican species, S. 
ugaldei. In the present paper a second species collected in Ecuador is described. 
Members of this genus are apparently restricted to feeding on members of the 
Palmae, and specimens of the new species were collected on the palm 
Astrocaryum urostachys. 

Sephinioides formosus, NEW SPECIES 

Figure 1 

Description.- Male. Dorsal coloration. Head (apex of tylus reddish orange), antennal seg- 
ments I to IV, pronotum, scutellum (apex reddish orange), clavus (inner border reddish orange), 
corium, and hemelytral membrane black; connexivum and abdominal segments bright orange: 
external face of ocellar tubercle yellow. Ventral coloration. Head, rostral segments I to IV, 
collar, anterior and posterior lobe of metathoracic peritreme and legs black; thorax, abdominal 
sterna and genital capsule bright orange with following areas black: prosternum. mesosternum, 
and metasternum, one large discoidal spot on propleura. mesopleura and metapleura, a short 
quadrate spot at anterior third of upper margin of metathorax, inner surface of acetabulae, and 
three rows of discoidal spots located on abdominal sterna III to VII. 

Structure. Thorax. Pronotum. Declivent: collar wide; disc convex; anterior lobe behind 
callus with two lateral humps; frontal angles crested with spines; anterolateral margins coarsely 
crested with short and large spines; humeral angles produced laterally into a broad and short 
spine slightly turning backward; posterolateral margins convex, sinuate, with upper half irregu- 
larly crested and inner half smooth; posterior margin straight, smooth; calli transversally de- 
pressed, anteriorly raised. Scutelluin. As long as wide. 

Genital capsule. Posteroventral margin shallowly concave between large, blunt lateral lobes: 
intermediate margin sinuate at each side. 



1 Received April 20, 2000. Accepted May 21, 2000. 

- Departamento de Zoologia, Instituto de Biologi'a. UN AM, Apartado Postal No. 70153, Mexico, 
04510D.F. Mexico. 

3 ORSTOM, Institut francais de recherche scientifique pour le developpement en cooperation, 
213, rue La Fayette, F-75480 Paris Cedex 10, France. 

FNT. NEWS 1 1 1(5): 322-324, November & December 2000 



Vol. 1 1 1. No. 5. November & December. 2000 




Fig. 1. Dorsal view of Sephinioides formosus NEW SPECIES 



324 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Female. Unknown. 

Measurements. Male (in mm). Head length 2.20, width across eyes 3.04, interocular space 
1.68, interocellar space 0.82, preocular distance 1.44; length of antennal segments: I, 4.52, II, 
3.68, III, 2.66, IV, 7.68. Pronotum: Total length 6.20, width across frontal angles 2.40, width 
across humeral angles 8.24. Scutellar length 2.50, width 2.50. Total body length 30.16. 

Type material. Holotype: male, Ecuador, Shushufindi, X-10-1999, L. Reynaud. Deposited 
in Museum National D' Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France (MNP). Paratype: I male, same loca- 
tion as holotype. Deposited in Coleccion Entomologica, Institute de Biologi'a. Universidad 
Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM). The specimens were collected on Astrocuryum 
uroslachys (Palmae). 

Biology. - Astrocaryum urostachys is the only host known for S. formosus. 
Astrocaryum urostachys is a multistemmed palm, up to 10m high, with large 
pinnate leaves 5-7 m long. It grows in seasonal swamp forests as well as on 
periodically flooded alluvial soils, along river margins. In the Ecuadorean 
Amazonian region this palm is preserved in the pastures after deforestation. 
This species is endemic to the western Amazonia, in Ecuador and northern 
Peru (Kahn and Millan, 1992; Kahn in press). 

Etymology.- From the Latin, formosus meaning beautifully formed. 

Comparative notes.- The only other previously known species, S. ugaldei 
Brailovsky is characterized by having the connexival segments bright orange 
with posterior third of segments III to VI black, the pronotal disc broadly con- 
vex, the humeral angles acutely produced into an elongate spine, hemelytral 
membrane dark with metallic blue-green iridiscence, and male genital capsule 
with the posteroventral margin shallowly concave between short and blunt 
lateral lobes. Sephinioides formosus new species, has the connexival segments 
III to VI entirely bright orange, the pronotal disc not broadly convex, the hu- 
meral angles produced laterally into a broad and short spine, hemelytral mem- 
brane entirely black, and male genital capsule with the posteroventral margin 
shallowly concave between large and blunt lateral lobes. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

The field work was supported by the Institut de Recherche pour le Developpement in Quito. 
We are indebted to F. Kahn for his helpful assistance and L. Reynaud, who collected the new 
species. We extend our sincere gratitude to Albino Luna for the dorsal-view illustration. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Brailovsky, H. 1996. A new genus and a new species of Leptoscelidini (Heteroptera: Coreidae) 

from Costa Rica. Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 98: 215-220. 
Kahn, F. El genero Astrocaryum en el Peru. Biota 100 (in press). 
Kahn, F., and B. Millan. 1992. Astrocaryum (Palmae) in Amazonia. A preliminary treatment. 

Bull, de 1' Institut Francais d' etudes Andines 21 (2): 459-530. 



Vol. 1 1 1. No. 5. November & December. 2000 325 

A NEW SPECIES OF COELIDIANA 

(HOMOPTERA: CICADELLIDAE) 

FROM THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDS 1 2 

Paul H. Freytag-' 

ABSTRACT: A new species of Coelidiana is described from the Galapagos Islands. This spe- 
cies is similar to other species of the genus, except for color pattern and male genitalia. This 
species is presently known only from the Galapagos Islands. It appears likely that it came from 
the coastal area of Ecuador and probably occurs on some host plant that was also introduced. 

Kramer (1967) reviewed the genus Coelidiana Oman and included 15 spe- 
cies as well as three species considered to be of uncertain generic placement. 
DeLong & Kolbe (1975) added an additional species. The genus with 19 pos- 
sible species occurs from Mexico south to Brazil and Peru. Tnis new species is 
the first species of the subfamily to occur in the Galapagos Islands. It is a 
likely introduction from the costal area of Ecuador as it has only recently been 
collected on the Islands and the genus is poorly known along the costal area of 
South America. 

Coelidiana krameri, NEW SPECIES 

A pale yellow species with a brown area along the edge of the forewing 
along the commissure and the appendix. 

Length of males 4.5 to 5.2 mm., females 5.2 to 6.0 mm. 

Crown produced and bluntly rounded, about as long at middle as basal width between eyes. 
Crown longer than pronotum. 

Color: generally pale yellow with few markings (Fig. 1). Venation of forewing obscure, except 
for some apical longitudinal veins, brown; inner margin of forewing from sides of scutellum to 
near apex of claval vein, then along appendix, brown. 

Terminalia: Female sternum VII posterior margin with three pointed projections, 1 at mid-line 
and 1 on each side halfway between mid-line and lateral margin. Male pygofer apex (Fig. 2) 
narrowing to a ventrally projecting short spine; ventral margin thickened almost spine-like near 
apex. Valve and subgenital plates fused; subgenital plates fused to near apex, lacking macrosetae. 
Style (Fig. 4) elongate, with a sharp "claw" at apex. Aedeagus (Fig. 3) in lateral view, with an 
expanded base, narrow shaft that distally curves dorsad, with a pair of very small lateral pro- 
cesses at apex. 

Specimens: Holotype male from Galapagos Islands: Santa Cruz Island, 1.7 km. North of Santa 
Rosa, 1-30-V-1991, 550m., Scalesia forest, malaize-FIT, S. & J. Peck, 91-113. Paratypes: 13 
males, 5 females same data as holotype. Holotype and one female paratype in the Ecuador Na- 



1 Received March 9, 2000, Accepted May 10, 2000. 

2 This paper is published with approval of the Director of the Kentucky Agricultural Experiment 
Station as journal article no. 00-08-46. 

3 Department of Entomology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40546-0091. 

ENT. NEWS 1 1 1(5): 325-327, November & December 2000 



326 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 




KRAMERI 






I mm 



Figures 1-4 Coelidiana krameri new species, male. Fig. 1. Dorsal view. Fig. 2. Lateral view of 
genital capsule. Fig. 3. Lateral view of aedeagus, with ventral view of apex. Fig. 4. Lateral view 
of style. All drawn to same scale. 



Vol. 1 1 1 , No. 5, November & December, 2000 327 



tional Museum; five males and one female paratype in the Canadian National Collection; one 
male and one female paratype in the University of Kentucky Collection; six males and one fe- 
male paratype in the California Academy of Sciences Collection. 

A total of 96 specimens have been seen, including the type material. All are in alcohol, and from 
the Island of Santa Cruz, except for one male and one female from the Island of Isabela, and two 
females from the Island of Floreana. The specimens that are not types are deposited in the fol- 
lowing collections: The University of Kentucky, the British Museum, the Canadian National 
Collection, the California Academy of Sciences, and the Bishop Museum. Specific data on all 
specimens can be obtained from the author or from any of the above museums. 

Remarks: the claw-like form of the male style is typical for the genus 
Coelidiana. This species most resembles spina DeLong in that both species 
lack a ventral spine on the male pygofer. C. krameri differs in having the api- 
cal spine much shorter and the aedeagus has a minuscule pair of lateral apical 
processes. The processes of the aedeagus would slightly expand the descrip- 
tion of the genus to include this species. The host plant of this species is 
unknown. 

Etymology: this species is named for James P. Kramer who did so much 
work on this subfamily. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

I wish to thank Stewart B. Peck, Carleton University, Ottawa, Canada for providing all 
specimens. His recent and excellent collecting in the Galapagos Islands yielded all known speci- 
mens of this species. 

LITERATURE CITED 

DeLong, D. M. and A. B. Kolbe 1975. Three new species of Neocoelidiinae (Homoptera: 
Cicadellidae) from Panama and Peru. J. Kans. Entomol. Soc. 48(1):124-126. 

Kramer, J. P. 1967. New Neotropical Neocoelidiinae with keys to the species of Coelidiana, 
Xenocoelidia, and Nelidiana (Homoptera, Cicadellidae). Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 69(1): 
31-46. 



328 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



TWO NEW SPECIES OF THE GENUS 
WHITFIELDIELLUS (HYMENOPTERA: BRACONIDAE) 

FROM BRAZIL 1 

S.M. Barbalho 2 , A. M. Penteado-Dias 3 

ABSTRACT: Two new species of the genus Whitfieldiellus, W. nigricephalus and W. xanthellus, 
are described from Brazil. 

The subfamily Doryctinae belongs to the cyclostome Braconidae (Ichneu- 
monoidea) with a circular oral opening and concave clypeus. It is character- 
ized by the presence of a row of short spines on the fore tibia, a flange at the 
apico-lateral edges of the propleuron the dorsal valve of the ovipositor with a 
double node at the apex and a basal tubercle on the hind coxae in some genera. 
The Doryctinae is one of the largest subfamilies with more than 140 genera 
distributed worldwide. The genus Whitfieldiellus contains large and colorful 
species with distinctive notched scape and hind wing venation with vein m-cu 
recurved. 

This is a contribution to a long term study of the subfamily for Brazil. 
Examining accumulated material in collections we have found two new spe- 
cies in that genus. 

Key to species of the genus Whitfieldiellus: 

1- Oral opening large, diameter twice length of malar space; wings with two infuscate 
bands; hind wing with vein r-m 2/3 length of 1-M W. variegatus (Marsh, 1993) 

Oral opening shorter, diameter about equal to malar space; wings entirely hyaline or with 
only one infuscate band at apex (Figures 1,2) 2. 

2- Mesoscutum and vertex smooth and shinning (Figure 3); notauli smooth (Figure 3); 

propodeum as in Figure 5 W. nigricephalus n. sp. 

Mesoscutum strigate (Figure 4); notauli scrobiculate (Figure 4); propodeum as in 

Figure 6 W. xanthellus n. sp. 

Genus Whitfieldiellus Marsh 

Whitfieldia Marsh, 1993. Preoccupied by Whitfieldia Davidson 1882. 
Whitfieldiellus Marsh 1997. New name for Whitfieldia Marsh 1993. 

Type species.Whitfieldia variegata Marsh. 



1 Received March 29, 2000. Accepted April 24, 2000. 

2 Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Man'lia. Av. Higino Muzzi Filho, 1001, Mari'lia, SP, 
Brasil. 

3 Departamento de Ecologia e Biologia Evolutiva, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, CP 676, 
CEP 13 565-905, Sao Carlos, SP, Brasil. 

ENT. NEWS 1 1 1(5): 328-331, November & December 2000 



Vol. 1 1 1 . No. 5. November & December. 2000 329 



Redescription. Body length , 10.0-12.0 mm: oral opening variable; eye large; apical rim of 
scape notched on outer side (fig. 1 ); occipital carina not meeting hypostomal carina; mesonotum 
declivous anteriorly; notauli indicatedby smooth or scrobiculate grooves; sternaulus forming a 
shallow smooth line; propodeum variable: first metasomal tergum longer than apical width, raised 
median area lined by distinct lateral carinae: second metasomal tergum with median area at base 
margined laterally by distinct carinae; ovipositor longer than metasoma; hind coxa with basal 
tooth; fore tibia with scattered row of chaetobothria: fore wing with r-m present, vein Icu-a 
variable; cell 2CU variable, vein 2cu-a absent or represented by fuscous spot ; hind wing with 
vein M+CU and vein r-m length variable, vein M+CU equal than 1-M. vein m-cu curved at apex 
toward wing tip. 

Distribution. Occurs in Mexico. Central America and Brazil. 

Comments. The notched scape and the recurved m-cu are distinctive for this genus. 

Whitfieldiellus nigricephalus, NEW SPECIES 

(Figs 1.2.4.6) 

Holotype, female. Head with occipital carina present, but not meeting hypostomal one; face 
areolate-rugose: vertex, frons and temples smooth; face height slightly longer than eye height; 
face w idth 1 .6 times longer than eye width; oral opening half of eye height; eye width 2 times 
temple width; malar space equal to oral opening; scape with expanded flap on apical anterior 
edge (fig. 1 ). 

Mesosoma (figs 4, 6) completely smooth and shining except for carinae; mesonotum declivous 
anteriorly; mesoscutum midlobe more elevated than sidelobes; notauli smooth and running par- 
allel to the scutellum (Figure 4); sternaulus only a slightly smooth mark; propodeum with a 
smooth pentagonal cell (Figure 6); fore tibia with a row of many long chaetobothria ; hind coxae 
with a very short basal tubercle. 

Fore wing (fig. 2) with vein m-cu joining 2-M before 2-RS; r-m vein present; first subdiscal 
cell open at apex; M+CU not sinuate; 1 cu-a reaching vein 1CLJ beyond M; 2cu-a absent at apex; 
second submarginal cell short; 3RSa vein shorter than r vein; apical third infuscated. Hind wing 
(fig. 2) with M+CU equal in length to 1-M; r-m about 1/3 of 1M. 

Metasoma with Tl 1.5 times longer than apical width; Tl slightly strigate and with dorsal 
carina extending to apex; T2 strigate and with two converging carinae; T3 smooth and with a 
shallow groove enclosing circular area at base; remaining terga smooth and shinning; ovipositor 
longer than body. 

Body yellow, except for head, antenna, apex of mandibles, apex of metasoma, ovipositor 
sheaths, hind legs (except apex of tibia) and last tarsal segment of fore and mid legs black; fore 
wing hyaline and apex infuscated, hind wing hyaline, stigma and veins yellow. 

Body length: 10mm. 

Distribution. Barra do Tapirape , MT, Brasil 

Specimen examined. Barra do Tapirape, MT, Brasil. November. 1964; B. Malkin, col. 
Deposited in DCBU (Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Departamento de Ecologia e Biologia 
Evolutiva). 

Etymology. The name of the species refers to its head color. 

Whitfieldiellus xanthellus, NEW SPECIES 

(Figs. 3.5,7) 

Holotype, female. Agrees with the description of W. nigricephalus, n. sp. except as follows: 
vertex and mesoscutum strigate (fig. 5); notauli scrobiculate (fig. 5); propodeum with strigate 



330 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 




0.5mm 










St- 



1.0mm 



2.0mm 




Whitfieldiellus nigricephalus n. sp. 1. scape; 2. wings; 4. mesoscutum; 6. propod 
Whitfieldiellus xanthellus n. sp. 3. wings; 5. mesoscutum; 7. propodeum. 



leum. 



Vol. 1 1 1 , No. 5, November & December, 2000 33 ! 



cell (fig. 7); all terga of metasoma strigate; first subdiscal cell closed at apex; Icu-a interstitial 
to 1M; body and legs yellow, except antennae, apex of mandibles, last tarsal segments of fore 
and mid legs, black; apex of hind tibiae and hind tarsal segments infuscated; apex of ovipositor 
and its sheaths infuscated; wings hyaline (fig. 3); stigma brown. 

Distribution. Paranapebas, Serra Norte, PA, Brasil. 

Specimen examined. Paranapebas, Serra Norte, PA. November, 1985. Deposited in DCBU 
(Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Departamento de Ecologia e Biologia Evolutiva). 

Etymology. The name of the species refers to its yellowish color. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

Thanks to Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientifico e Tecnologico (CNPq) and 
Fundac.ao de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado de Sao Paulo (FAPESP), for financial support. Also 
to Paul M. Marsh and Robert A. Wharton for comments and suggestions to the manuscript. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Marsh, P. M. 1993. Description of New Western Hemisphere Genera of the Subfamily Doryctinae 
(Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Contrib. Amer. Entomol. Inst. 28 (1): 1-58. 

Marsh, P. M. 1997. Replacement names for Western Hemisphere Genera of Doryctinae 
(Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Proceed. Entomol. Soc. Wash., 99 (3,): 586. 



BOOKS RECEIVED AND BRIEFLY NOTED 

PARASITOID POPULATION BIOLOGY. M.E. Hochberg & A.R. Vies, edi- 
tors. 2000. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ 08540. 366 pp. Cloth 
$75.00; Paper $24.25. 

Presentations by seventeen international specialists on the subject of insect parasitoids and the 
diversity in their life styles. After a general introduction, the book treats the subject in three main 
sections: population dynamics, population diversity, and population applications, including their 
value as agents in biological control. 

INSECT PREDATOR-PREY DYNAMICS. LADYBIRD BEETLES AND 
BIOLOGICAL CONTROL. A.F.G. Dixon. 2000. Cambridge University Press. 
257pp. Hardcover $74.95. 

This volume explores the basic biology of ladybird beetles, their association with their prey, and 
its effect on development rate and body size. Optimal foraging theory, field observations, and 
laboratory experiments are used to illustrate how ladybird larvae maximize their rate of energy 
intake, and ladybird adults their fitness. The interdependence of these life history parameters is 
then used to develop a simple predator-prey model. 



332 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



A NEW SPECIES OF SINELLA (COLLEMBOLA: 
ENTOMOBRYIDAE) FROM CHINA 1 

Wang Fang^, Kenneth A. Christiansen^ 

ABSTRACT : A new species, Sinella (Sinella) wui, is described from Qinghai Province, China. 
It is very similar to 5. (S.) triocula Chen & Christiansen 1993 in many aspects; however, the eye 
position, chaetotaxy on Abd. I & II, mental setae X, X4, make separation easy. 

So far, among 84 known species in the genus Sinella (s.!.), 27 are known 
from China, but none from Qinghai. A new species, Sinella (Sinella) wui, from 
this region is described here. The chaetotaxy patterns, setae and macrochaetae 
designations used in this paper are after Chen & Christiansen (1993, 1997). 

Sinella (Sinella) wui, NEW SPECIES 

(Figs. 1-13) 

Maximum body length 2.7 mm. 

Color: white to pale yellow. 

Head: Eyes 3+3 in dark blue patches but clearly separate (Fig. 2). Antennae 1.45 - 1.67 X 
length of cephalic diagonal. Ant. Ill organ not clearly seen. Labral setae 4/5, 5, 4, all smooth. 
External differentiated seta of labial appendage well developed, straight or slightly curved, much 
thicker than normal setae, with tip exceeding apex of same papilla by 0.50-0. 60 of its length (Fig. 
3). Seta R of labial triangle smooth to weakly ciliate, about 0.5 as long as seta M \ ; M j supple- 
mentary seta is present in 3 of the 1 1 specimens seen, ciliate, about as long as seta R (Fig. 4 & 5). 
Mental setae 61.4 & H2_4 smooth; setae X, \2< XT, & X$ ciliate, respectively 1.36, 1.71, 1.44 
and 1.23 times the length of seta R of labial triangle; X4 supplementary 1,2 rarely present, ciliate 
(Fig. 4). 

Macrochaetae and large mesochaetae: Head group I 4, group II 5; Th. II group I 1 , 
group II 4, group III 3 (rarely 4), group IV 2 (rarely 3), group V 4+5 (rarely 5+5), group VI 0; 
Th. Ill group I 6 (rarely 7), group II 9-10 , group III 3, group IV 4; Abd. I - usually 5 on each 
side arranged in pattern V (Fig. 6), rarely 6 in pattern II ; Abd. II 3 in M3 arch and 1 lateral on 
each side, additional macrochaeta (M3 e j) always present and very close to M3 arch (Fig. 7); 
Abd. Ill 2+2 dorso-central and 3 lateral on each side; Abd. IV 14 dorso-central arranged in 
pattern I, and 6 lateral arranged in pattern III on each side (Fig. 1). 

Legs: Trochanteral organ setae 12-13. Inner differentiated setae of tibiotarsus "smooth" 
with ciliations more closely appressed to setal axis than in S. triocula. Outstanding inner macro- 
chaeta of tibiotarsus one on the fore leg and two on the hind leg, acuminate but tapered only at 
extreme tip. If one setae at 0.25-0.35 from base; if two, the basal seta about 0.12-0.27 from base, 
the distal one at 0.47-0.66 from base. (Fig. 8). Unguis with 4 inner teeth, basal paired two 
unequal, outer one large; basal median tooth long and sharply pointed, about 0.35-0.44 way from 
base to apex of unguis; distal median tooth often present, very tiny. Unguiculus with large outer 
tooth. Tenent hair apparently longer than unguiculus, strongly clavate (Fig. 9). 

Ventral tube: with 12 ciliate setae on anterior face (Fig. 10), 12-14 smooth setae on pos- 
terior, 6-7 smooth setae on each lateral flap (Fig. 1 1). 



1 Received March 24th, 2000. Accepted May 10, 2000. 

9 
Department of Biology, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, P.R. China. 

3 Department of Biology, Grinnell College, Grinnell, IA 501 1 2. 

ENT. NEWS 111(5): 332-336, November & December 2000 



Vol. 1 1 1, No. 5, November & December. 2000 



333 



Furcula: Manubrium without smooth setae, manubrial plaque with 3-4 ciliate setae and 
2-3 pseudopores on each side (Fig. 12). Mucronal apical tooth 2.3-2.6 X as long as subapical 
tooth, the latter with tip at slightly less than half way from base to apex of mucro. Uncrenulate 
dens about 1.3-1.5 X length of mucro. Mucronal basal spine with tip slightly exceeding midway 
from subapical to apical tooth (Fig. 13). 

Male genital plate not seen. 

Types: Holotype female, paratypes 10 females, P. R. China: Qinghai: Xining City, altitude 
2250-2330m, VI-3-1997, collection number 8654, coll. by Wu Ming. Deposited in Department 
of Biology, Nanjing University, China. 

Ecology: Found only at the type locality, living with Pseudosinella in an 
ant nest under green hedge. 

Etymology: Named after Mr. Wu Ming who furnished the type speci- 
mens. 



eyes 





eyes 






Figs. 1-4 Sinella (Sinella) wui, sp. nov. 1. semi-diagrammatic eyes and dorsal chaetotaxy; 2. 
eyes; 3. external differentiated seta of labial appendage; 4. typical labial and mental chaetotaxy. 



334 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 





Figs. 5-10. Sinella (Sinella) wui, sp. nov. 5. rare variant labial chaetotaxy; 6. dorsal chaetotaxy of 
Abd. I; 7. dorsal chaetotaxy of Abd. II; 8. inner tibiotarsal setae: 9. hind foot complex; 10. ante- 
rior face of ventral tube. 

Remarks: The new species differs from all known species in two charac- 
ters. One is the typical pattern of dorsal macrochaetae on Abd. I with 5 
macrochaetae on each side arranged in a new pattern (for convenience, named 
as pattern V); rarely with 6 in pattern II. The other character is the mucronal 
basal spine length, the tip of which slightly exceeds the midpoint from the 
apex of subapical to apical tooth, therefore, belonging to pattern II (Chen & 
Christiansen, 1993); however, it is apparently longer than those in pattern I 
which tip reaches at most only slightly exceeding the subapical tooth; how- 
ever, it is clearly the shortest in pattern II in all known species with tip reach- 
ing at least near the apex of the apical tooth. 

In the genus Sinella (s.L), there are five species with 3+3 eyes: triocula. 
straminea, hexopthalma, sexoculata, pseudostraminea, all in Sinella (Sinella), 
only 2 of them were reported from China: S. (S.) straminea Folsom 1899 and 
S. (S.) triocula Chen & Christiansen 1993. It is easy to separate the new spe- 
cies from the 3+3-eyed Japanese species straminea (redescribed by Yosii. 1942), 
in having 2+2 dorsal macrochaetae on Abd. Ill whereas they are 1 + 1 in 



Vol. 1 1 1, No. 5. November & December. 2000 



335 




12 



13 



Figs. 11-13. Sinella (Sinella) wui, sp. nov. 1 1. posterior face and lateral flap of ventral tube; 12. 
manubrial plaque; 13. apex of dens and mucro. 



straminea. This species may be the same as that identified as straminea by 
Denis (1929) from China (Peking), both having a long, pointed basal median 
tooth of the unguis and a long mucronal basal spine. Both features are very 
different from Folsom's original Japanese straminea, as redescribed by Yosii 
in 1942 which has a short mucronal spine, a very small median ungual tooth 
and lacks an apical tooth as well as having a different eye configuration. 



336 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



The new species is closely related to Sinella (S.) triocula in sharing many 
characters, such as chaetotaxy on Abd III & IV; however, it differs from the 
latter as below. 

Character triocula wui 

Eye position front 2 touching each other separate 

and separate from hind one 

Dorsal macrochaetae 7(6), pattern I(II) 5(6), patternV(II) 

on Abd. I 

Dorsal macrochaeta absent present 

M3 e j on Abd. II 

Mental setae X, \4 smooth ciliate 

Mental setae X/R, X 4 /R 0.6, 0.54 1 .23, 1 .3 

Mucronal basal spine short (pattern I) long (pattern II) 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

The study was supported by the National Nature Science Foundation of China (No. 39970097). 
We thank Liu Ren-hua in Nanjing University, who made the final drawings for this paper. We 
also thank Wu Ming in the Beijing Institute of Zoology, Academia Sinica, who made the speci- 
mens available. Thanks are also given to Chen Jian-xiu in the Department of Biology, Nanjing 
University, China, for his useful help to our work. Publication of this work was made possible by 
a grant from Grinnell College. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Chen, J. X. & K. A. Christiansen. 1993. The genus Sinella with special reference to Sinella S.S. 

(Collembola : Entomobryidae) of China. Oriental Insects 27: 1-54. 
Chen, J. X. & K. A. Christiansen. 1 997. Subgenus Coecobrya of theGenus Sinella (Collembola: 

Entomobryidae) with Special Reference to the Species of China. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 



Folsom, J.W. 1899. Japanese Collembola Pt.II. Proc. Amer. Acad. Art Sci., 34: 261-274. 
Yosil, R. 1942. Japanische Entomobryinen. II. Collemb. Arch. Naturgesch. (N.F.), 810:476- 

495. 
Denis, J.R. 1929. Notes sur les Collemboles recoltes dans ses voyages par le Prof. F. Silvestri. 

Seconde Note sur les Collemboles D Extreme Orient. Bull. Lab.Zool. Gen. Agrar. Porici 22: 

305-320. 



Vol. 1 1 1. No. 5. November & December. 2000 337 

A NEW SPECIES OF ANISOCENTROPUS 

(TRICHOPTERA: CALAMOCERATIDAE) 

FROM SRI LANKA 1 

Oliver S. Flint, Jr. 2 

ABSTRACT: Anisocentropus atropurpureus from the island of Sri Lanka is described and the 
male genitalia figured. It is closely related to A. annulicornis differing primarily in its purplish- 
black wings and orange body, and lowland distribution. 

The trichopterous fauna of Sri Lanka (earlier Ceylon, Taprobane, or 
Serendib) has been relatively well studied, with the last and most complete 
study by Schmid (1958). In this he described two new species in the family 
Calamoceratidae: Anisocentropus ittikalama and Ganonema elyakatuwa and 
listed another six species from the literature: A. decipiens (Ulmer 1915), 
A. brevipennis (Ulmer 1915), A. annulicornis (Hagen 1858), A. immunis 
McLachlan (1863), G. pallicorne McLachlan (1866), and G. falcata (Banks 
1913). In the most recent study on Asian calamoceratids, Malicky (1994) 
reduced this number of species to three: A. ittikalama, A. annulicornis, and 
G. falcata. He synonymized (correctly) A. decipiens with A. annulicornis, 
G. elyakatuwa with G. falcata and discounted the records of A. brevipennis, 
A. immunis, and G. pallicorne as clearly misidentifications because the types 
of all these species are from Indonesia. It seems quite probable that the records 
of A. brevipennis and A. immunis are misidentifications of A. ittikalama. If the 
Ganonema is correct generically then it probably pertains to G. falcata. In 
addition to the three species recognized above, Kimmins (1963) described 
Nietnerella hageni from Ceylon but was unable to decide if it belonged in the 
Leptoceridae, Calamoceratidae or Odontoceridae. It was left in the Lepto- 
ceridae, and, although its correct placement is unsettled, it seems unlikely to 
be a calamoceratid. 

The Smithsonian Ceylon Insect Project in Sri Lanka (material in the 
National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution = NMNH) cap- 
tured many specimens of A. ittikalama and G. falcata, and single specimens of 
A. annulicornis and N. hageni. However, five specimens of a totally differ- 
ently appearing species of Anisocentropus were also taken. The forewings are 
fuscous with purple reflections and the body mostly orange, a coloration quite 
unlike any other insular species. However, when the genitalia were cleared 
and compared with its congeners, there appeared to be no significant differ- 



1 Received February 4, 2000. Accepted April 24, 2000. 

2 Department of Entomology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, 
Washington, DC 20560-0105 USA. 

ENT. NEWS 1 1 1(5): 337-340, November & December 2000 



338 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



ence between these structures in the new species and A. annulicornis. Further 
study of the whole insect has convinced me that these do represent two species 
and the new one is described below. 

Anisocentropus atropurpureus, NEW SPECIES 

Figures 1-5 

This species is easily distinguished by sight from the other Sri Lankan 
species of Anisocentropus. Its forewings are fuscous with purpurescent reflec- 
tions and the body is orange. Its insular congeners are brown, either pale or 
mottled darker brown with broadly triangular forewing, while Ganonema is 
fuscescent with elongate, falcate forewings. Considering the male genitalia, 
this and A. annulicornis are clearly sibling species, the differences in these 
structures being minimal: the basodorsal "horns" of the tenth tergum being 
proportionately broader and the tip of this segment being more strongly 
decurved in A. atropurpureus. However, with only a single example of 
A. annulicornis for comparison one has no way to assess possible variation in 
these structures. The size, appearance and distribution of the two species 
offers obvious differences. A. annulicornis is slightly larger, the forewing length 
(male) being 17 mm, as opposed to 10.5-12 mm in A. atropurpureus. The 
coloration is very different in the two, A. annulicornis being light brown, and 
the body pale yellowy brown. In A. atropurpureus the wings are fuscous with 
purplish reflections, the head and thorax are orange, with the vertex mostly 
fuscous. In addition, the forewings of both sexes have a transverse, dense band 
of black hair at about a third of the distance from the base to apex of the wing 
and in the costal cell for the basal half; this band contrasts strongly with the 
nearly bare membrane on each side of it. A. annulicornis is a high elevation 
species: the type is from Rambodde at "3500 bis 4000 Fuss iiber dem Meere" 
(1065-1220 m), its synonym, A. decipiens, is from Pattipola "6500-7500 Fufs" 
(1980-2285 m), the NMNH specimen from Horton Plains at 6600' (2010 m). 
The examples of A. atropurpureus are from, generally, much lower eleva- 
tions: 490-530 m (Sinharaja), 400 feet (122 m, Kanneliya), and Enselwatte ca 
900m. 

MALE. -Length of forewing 12 mm. Color, purply-fuscous and orange: head orange fron- 
tally, vertex fuscous shading to orange posteriad, maxillary palpi fuscous, covered with dense, 
fuscous hair; scape and pedicel fuscous, flagellar segments fuscous with spot of white hair 
apicodorsally on each segment; thorax orange, legs orange with tibiae and tarsi fuscous with 
fuscous hair, hind tibia with fringe of long, silky, fuscous hair; abdomen dark, discolored; fore- 
wing fuscous with purply reflections, with transverse, dense band of fuscous setae at third of 
distance from base to apex, basad and apicad to which membrane glabrous and shining, costal 
cell from near base to beyond midlength densely packed with fuscous setae, hind wing with rows 
of sparse silky hair on veins Cu, and 1,2, and 3A; with a well developed hair pencil in anal angle 
composed of grey, long, silky hair. Spurs 2, 4, 3; outer spurs much shorter than inner. No modi- 
fication of abdominal terga. Genitalia (Figs. 1, 2): Ninth segment rounded anteroventrally; dor- 
sum raised and narrowly cleft apicomesally. Cercus elongate oval, erect. Tenth tergum with 



Vol. 1 11, No. 5, November & December, 2000 



339 



basodorsal lobe about as long as high, slightly enlarged apicad, lateral plate elongate, broad 
basally, with apex sharply angled ventrad. Inferior appendage long, slender, with an enlarged 
basal knob bearing enlarged setae (Fig. 3). Phallus elongate, ventral margin slightly sinuate; 
internally with a curled, tubular, central lobe giving rise to elongate, apicolateral sclerites (Fig. 
5), lyre-shaped in dorsal aspect (Fig. 4); apicoventral plate thin in lateral aspect, apex broadly 
rounded in dorsal aspect. 

FEMALE. -Length of forewing, 10.5-1 1 mm. Color and wing vestiture as in male; lacking 
hair fringe on hind tibia and hair pencil in hind wing. Spurs 2, 4, 3. 

MATERIAL EXAMINED. -Holotype, male: Sri Lanka, Matafra District], EnselwaLe, 25 
May 1975, S.L. Wood & J.L. Petty. NMNH. Paratypes: Rat[napura District], Smharaja Jungle, 3 
mi [4.8 km] S Weddagala, 490-530 m, 22-23 September 1977, K.V. Krombein, P.B. Karunaratne, 
T. Wijesinhe, M. Jayaweera, taken in Malaise trap, ICf. Gal[le District], Kanneliya, 22-23 May 
1975, S. L. Wood & J.L. Petty, id"; Kanneliya Jungle, 11-16 January 1975, K.V. Krombein, P.B. 
Karunaratne, P. Fernando, N. V.T.A. Weragoda, 1 9 ; Udugama, Kanneliya Jungle, 400 feet [112 
m], 6-12 October 1973, K.V. Krombein, P.B. Karunaratne, P. Fernando, J. Ferdinando, at black 
light, 1 9 . Holotype and 1 Cf , 1 9 paratypes in NMNH; 1 Cf , 1 9 paratypes in National Museum, 
Colombo. 

ETYMOLOGY. -An adjective, from the Latin, ater-black and purpura- 
purple, in reference to the distinctive wing color. 







Figures 1-5. Anisocentropus atropurpureus n. sp., male genitalia. 1, lateral; 2, dorsal; 3 inferior 
appendage, posteroventral; 4, phallus, dorsal; 5, phallus, lateral. 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

The author is indebted to a Smithsonian Research Foundation Grant and the Fluid 
Research Funds, K.V. Krombein, principal investigator, for support that allowed him and the 
other collectors to work in Sri Lanka. The comments of an anonymous reviewer are greatly 
appreciated. 



340 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



LITERATURE CITED 

Banks, N. 1913. Synopses and descriptions of exotic Neuroptera. Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 39: 

201-242. 
Hagen H. 1858. Synopsis der Neuroptera Ceylons. Verb, kaiserlich-koniglichen zool. hot. Ges. 

Wien8:471-488. 
Kimmins, D.E. 1963. On the Leptocerinae of the Indian sub-continent and north east Burma 

(Trichoptera). Bull. Br. Mus. (Nat. Hist.), Entomol. 14:262-316. 
Malicky, H. 1994. Ein Beitrag zur Kenntnis asiatischer Calamoceratidae (Trichoptera). 

Z. Arbeitsgem. Osterr. Entomol. 46: 62-79. 
McLachlan, R. 1863. On Anisocentropus, a new genus of exotic Trichoptera, with descriptions 

of five species, and of a new species of Dipseudopsis. Trans. Entomol. Soc. London 1 (ser. 

3): 492-496, pi. XIX. 
McLachlan, R. 1866. Descriptions of new or little-known genera and species of exotic 

Trichoptera; with observations on certain species described by Mr. F. Walker. Trans. Entomol. 

Soc. London 5 (ser. 3): 247-278, pi. XVII-XIX. 

Schmid, F. 1958. Trichopteres de Ceylan. Arch. Hydrobiol. 54: 1-173. 
Ulmer, G. 1915. Trichopteren des Ostens, besonders von Ceylon und Neu-Guinea. Dtsch. 

Entomol. Z. 1915: 41-75. 



BOOKS RECEIVED AND BRIEFLY NOTED 

EMBIA, CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE BIOSYSTEMATICS OF THE INSECT 
ORDER EMBIIDINA, PARTS 1 AND 2. E.S. Ross. 2000. California Acad- 
emy of Sciences, San Francisco, CA. S'A x 1 1 format. 36 pp. Paper. $18.60 
incl. shipping. 

In two parts. Part 1: Origin, Relationships and Integumental Anatomy of the Insect Order 
Embiidina. Part 2: A Review of the Biology of Embiidina. EMBIA is a new publication intended 
to serve as the outlet for the author's long-shelved manuscripts on Embiidina. Very well illus- 
trated. 

GROUND BEETLES AND WRINKLED BARK BEETLES OF SOUTH 
CAROLINA. Janet C. Ciegler. 2000. Clemson University, Clemson, SC. 8>/ 2 
x 1 1 format. 149 pp. Paper. 

Adults of 102 genera and 49 species and subspecies of Carabidae, including Cicindelini, that 
have been reported from or are likely to occur in South Carolina are discussed, plus two genera 
and four species of Rhysodidae. Keys to genera and to species, diagnostic diagrams to aid in 
keying; a description of each species; and data on range, season, and collection within the state 
are included. 



Vol. 111. No. 5. November & December. 2000 341 

DESCRIPTION OF LATE INSTAR LARVAE 

OF DIAULOTA PACIFICA 
(COLEOPTERA: STAPHYLINIDAE) 1 

Hye-Jin Kim, Jec-Yeon Ryu, Kee-Jeong Ahn- 

ABSTRACT: Late instar larvae of Diaulota pacifica are described for the first time. A key is 
provided for separation of the known species of late instar larvae of East Asian Diaulota, and 
illustrations of diagnostic features are presented. Late instar larvae of D. pacifica are compared 
with those of D. aokii and D. uenoi. The differences of urogomphi are hypothesized as good 
characters to distinguish these species. 

Members of the aleocharine genus Diaulota Casey are confined to the rocky 
headlands of the Pacific Coast of the Holarctic Region. The genus was first 
described and characterized by Casey ( 1 893) based on D. densissima from the 
coast of Alaska. Since then, eight species have been described by Moore ( 1 956a, 
1956b, 1972), Sawada (1955, 1971) and Ahn (1996) from the coast of North 
America, Japan, and Alaska, respectively. 

Also, Moore (1956b) described late instar larvae of four North American 
species (D. densissima Casey, D.fulviventris Moore, D. harteri Moore, and D. 
vandykei Moore). Ahn (199(3) discussed biology and ecology of this genus and 
described late instar larvae of two East Asian species [D. aokii Sawada and D. 
uenoi (Sawada)] and redescribed the four North American species. 

In this paper we describe late instar larvae of D. pacifica for the first time, 
present differences among three East Asian Diaulota species, and provide a 
modified key with illustrations for identification. 

MATERIALS AND METHODS 

Preparation of permanent microscopic slides for late instar larvae was per- 
formed by using techniques described by Ashe ( 1 986) and Ahn and Ashe ( 1 996). 
Terms and chaetotaxic system for late instar larvae follows Ashe and Watrous 
(1984). Materials for this study are deposited in the Chungnam National Uni- 
versity Insect Collection, Daejeon City, Korea (CNUIC). 

Description of Late Instar Larvae of Diaulota pacifica 

Diagnostic Combination. Larvae of D. Pacifica are distinguished from 
all other described Diaulota larvae by the combination of: maxilla with most 



1 Received March 28, 2000. Accepted May 29, 2000. 

2 Department of Biology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon City 305-764, Republic of 
Korea. 

ENT. NEWS 1 1 1(5): 341-347, November & December 2000 



342 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 




1 



^^ 

ilVf Pli^i 





Fig. 1. Late instar larvae of Diaulota Pacifica Sawada. Habitus. 

basal seta on malar surface pointed (Fig. 8); urogomphus fused to main body, 
without large thickened and sclerotized spine (Fig. 13); point longer than its 
width at subapical base; distance from minute seta to subapical seta 0.9-1.0 
times length of point (Fig. 13); and minute seta shorter than point width of 
subapical base. 



Vol. 1 1 1, No. 5, November & December, 2000 



343 



Description, Length 1.7-2.0 mm. General body shape (Fig. 1) elongate, flattened, parallel- 
sided. Color variable: reddish brown, or brown. 

HEAD. About as long as wide. Chaetotaxy (Figs. 2 and 3) with frontal, epicranial, temporal, 
lateral, and ventral regions complete (Fdl-Fd3, F11-F14, Fml, Ed l-Ed3, E11-E13, Eml-Em3, 
T1-T2, L1-L3, V11-V14, and V1-V2 all present), 2 additional L setae present, campaniform sen- 
silla Fcl- Fc2, Ecl-Ec2, P1-P4, Lcl-Lc3, and Vcl-Vc2 present. Antenna (Fig. 4) with 3 articles; 
article 1 about 0.8 times as long as wide, with 5 campaniform sensilla around apical margin; 
article 2 about 1 .5 times length of article 1 ; article 3 about 0.7 times length of article 2; article 2 
with 3 solenidia in addition to sensory appendage; sensory appendage robust, inflated, acorn- 
shaped and faintly fenestrate, its length shorter than that of article 3; IIS1 spiniform, short, 0.5 
times as long as IIS2, IIS2 elongate, digitiform, about as long as sensory appendage. 

MOUTHPARTS. Labrum (Fig. 5) with 4 additional setae on each side, and 3 campaniform 
sensilla present; seta Ld2 very short, robust and inflated. Mandible (Fig. 6) with 5 serrations on 
internal edge (2 between apex and median tooth, 3 between median tooth and base; 2 setae in 
basi-lateral half, distal seta very small and basal seta large and long). Mala (Fig. 8) with large 
seta most basal, pointed; article 1 of maxillary palpus elongate, 1 . 1 times as long as wide; article 
2 about 0.6 times as long as article 1; article 3 about as long as article 1 and 2 together. Labial 
palpus (Fig. 7) with 2 articles, article 2 about 2.0 times as long as article 1 . 

THORAX. Pronotum (Fig. 9) transverse; chaetotaxy with anterior, lateral, posterior and 
discal rows complete (A1-A5, L1-L5, P1-P5, Dal-Da3, Dbl-Db3, Dcl-Dc3, and Ddl-Dd2 all 
present), campaniform sensilla Cl-6 present. Mesonotum (Fig. 10) transverse; chaetotaxy with 
anterior, lateral, posterior and discal rows complete (A1-A5, LI and L4, P1-P5, Da2 and Da3, 
Dbl-Db3, Dc2, and Dd2 all present), campaniform sensilla Cl, C3, C4, C5, and C6 present. 
Metanotum (Fig. 1 1) similar to mesonotum. Tarsus with 2 robust dorsal spines. 

ABDOMEN. Abdominal tergites I-VII transverse; abdominal tergite I chaetotaxy with ante- 
rior, lateral, posterior and discal rows complete (A2, A4, A5, LI and L4, P1-P5, Da2, Db2, Dc2, 
and Dd2 all present). Urogomphus (Fig. 13) long, about as long as tergite IX, without large 
thickened and sclerotized spine, apex pointed, apical point longer than width of point at subapi- 
cal base, distance from minute seta to subapical seta 0.9-1.0 times length of point, minute seta 
shorter than point width of subapical base. 

Material Examined. Korea. Gyeongsangnam-do: Geojedo Island, Gabaeri, 3 VII 1998, 
K.- J. Ann, H.-J. Kim and J.-Y Ryu, ex inside empty barnacles on rocks in low tide (CNUIC, 12). 

Remarks. The larvae were collected in association with adults in Geojedo 
Island; therefore, we have described them as probable late-instar larvae of 
D. pacifica. 

The differences of urogomphi among members of the Korean Diaulota 
species are presented in Table 1 . 

Table 1. The differences of urogomphi among members of the East Asian Diaulota species. 





D. aokii 


D. pacifica 


D. uenoi 


Shape of external line 
Thickened and 


Sinuate 
Present 


Almost straight 
Absent 


Almost straight 
Absent 



sclerotized seta 



Length of minute seta 



Longer than 
width of 
subapical base 



Longer than 
width of 
subapical base 



Shorter than 
width of 
subapical base 



344 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Key to the species of late instar larvae of Diaulota 

(modified from Ahn, 1996: 276) 

1 Urogomphus without thickened and sclerotized seta 5 

1' Urogomphus with thickened and sclerotized seta 2 

2 Most basal seta of right mala pointed (Fig. 8) D. aokii 

2' Most basal seta of right mala not pointed, knife-shaped 3 

(3 and 4 as in Ahn, 1996.) 

5 Minute seta of urogomphus shorter than point width of subapical base D. uenoi 

5' Minute seta of urogomphus longer than point width of subapical base D. Pacifica 




Figs. 2-4. Late instar larvae of D. Pacifica. 2, Head, dorsal aspect; 3, head, ventral aspect; 
4, antenna, dorsal aspect. Symbols according to Ashe and Watrous (1984). 



Vol. 1 1 1, No. 5, November & December, 2000 



345 




Figs. 5-8. Late instar larvae of D. Pacificu. 5, Labrum, dorsal aspect; 6. mandible, dorsal aspect: 
7, labium, dorsal aspect; 8, maxilla, dorsal aspect. Symbols according to Ashe and Watrous 
(1984). 



346 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 




11 



Figs. 9-11. Late instar larvae of D. Pacific a. 9, Pronotum, dorsal aspect; 10, mesonotum. dorsal 
aspect; 1 1, metanotum, dorsal aspect. Symbols according to Ashe and Watrous ( 1984). 



Vol. 1 11, No. 5. November & December. 2000 



347 





13 




14 



Figs. 12-14. The urogomphi of the East Asian Diaulota species. 12. D. aokii; 13. D. Pacifica; 
14. D. uenoi (Ts-thickened and sclerotized seta, Ms-minute seta). 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

We thank Joseph-Jin Chang (Institute of Marine Biology, Geojedo Island, Korea) for 
allowing us to use his facilities and providing logistics during the collecting trip. This research 
was supported by KRF (1999-01 5-DI0088) awarded to K.-J. Ahn. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Ahn, K.-J. 1996. A review of Diaulota Casey (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Aleocharinae), with 
description of a new species and known larvae. Col. Bull. 50(3): 270-290. 

Ahn, K.-J. and J. S. Ashe. 1996. Phylogeny of the intertidal aleocharine tribe Liparocephalini 
(Coleoptera: Staphylinidae). Syst. Entomol. 21: 99-1 14. 

Ashe, J. S. 1986. Structural features and phylogenetic relationships among larvae of genera of 
gyrophaenine staphylinids (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Aleocharinae). Fieldiana: Zoology. 
30: 1-60. 

Ashe, J. S. and L. E. Watrous. 1984. Larval chaetotaxy of Aleocharinae (Staphylinidae) based 
on a description ofAtheta coriaria Kraatz. Col. Bull. 38(2): 165-179. 

Casey, T. L. 1893. Coleopterological notices V. Ann. N. Y Acad. Sci. 7: 281-606. 

Moore, I. 1956a. A revision of the Pacific coast Phytosi with review of the foreign genera (Co- 
leoptera: Staphylinidae). Trans. San Diego Soc. Nat. Hist. 12: 103-152. 

Moore, I. 1956b. Notes on some intertidal Coleoptera with descriptions of the early stages 
(Carabidae, Staphylinidae, Malachiidae). Trans. San Diego Soc. Nat. Hist. 12: 207-230. 

Sawada, K. 1955. Marine insects of the Tokara islands VIII. Family Staphylinidae (Coleoptera). 
Pub. Seto Mar. Biol. Lab. 5: 81-87. 

Sawada, K. 1971. Aleocharinae (Staphylinidae, Coleoptera) from the intertidal zone of Japan. 
Pub. Seto Mar. Biol. Lab. 19: 81-1 10. 



348 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



INVERTEBRATES INHABITING WETLAND 
MONOCOTS DAMAGED BY LEPIDOPTERA 1 

J. B. Keiper 2 ' 3 , M. Sanford 2 , J. Jiannino 2 W. E. Walton 2 

ABSTRACT: We report twelve orders and 1 8 families representing at least 20 species of inverte- 
brates taken from cattail (Typha sp.) and bulrush (Schoenoplectus californicus) plants damaged 
by larval Bellura obliqua gargantua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in southern California. Of the 
invertebrate taxa taken, 60% were scavenger/detritivores, 15% were predators, 109r were sec- 
ondary herbivores, and 5% were primary herbivores. Seven aquatic invertebrate taxa gained 
access to the interior areas of plants after holes formed by feeding noctuid larvae became inun- 
dated by fluctuating water levels. Diptera was the most species-rich order encountered in mines, 
with six families and at least seven species represented. 

California bulrush (Schoenoplectus californicus [Meyer] Sojak) and cat- 
tails (Typha sp.) grow prolifically in southern California wetlands and fre- 
quently form dense monocultural stands. During studies of the Prado Con- 
structed Wetlands near Corona (CA, Riverside Co.), we noticed a number of 
plant stems with holes created by larval feeding. These plants were damaged 
by phytophagous larvae of Bellura obliqua gargantua (Dyar) (Lepidoptera: 
Noctuidae). This is a subspecies whose range is restricted to the area around 
the Santa Ana River of southern California. 

Bellura obliqua Walker was studied intensively in Minnesota where the 
first two instars mined cattail leaves while third instars were stem borers (Penko 
and Pratt 1986a, 1986b, 1987). Damaged plants attracted a variety of second- 
ary invaders. Surveys of the insects associated with cattails reported at least 40 
species of stem borers, leaf miners, seed head predators, and secondary invad- 
ers from the eastern and northwestern United States (Claassen 1 92 1 , Cole 1 93 1 ), 
but no comparable data are available for southwestern North America. The 
invertebrate fauna of constructed wetlands from the southwestern United States 
is not well known (Keiper and Walton 1999), and it is reasonable to assume 
that the assemblage and biology of secondary invaders of monocots in this 
region differs from that found in more northern latitudes. Herein, we give an 
annotated list of the invertebrates associated with California bulrush and cat- 
tails damaged by the larval feeding of B. o. gargantua, and provide biological 
observations. 

MATERIALS AND METHODS 

The Prado Constructed Wetlands is a mosaic of 46 individual marshes in- 
terconnected by water control structures, and measures 121.5 ha. Cattails and 

1 Received November 28, 1999. Accepted May 1, 2000. 

^Dept. of Entomology, Univ. of California, Riverside, CA, 92521. 

3 Current address: Dept. of Invertebrate Zoology, Cleveland Museum of Natural History, 1 Wade 
Oval, Cleveland, OH 44106. 

ENT. NEWS 1 1 1(5): 348-354, November & December 2000 



Vol. 1 1 1, No. 5, November & December. 2000 349 



California bulrush grow in most of the shallow areas and represent approxi- 
mately 75% of the vegetative growth. The marsh receives water diverted from 
the Santa Ana River and acts as a biofilter for potential drinking water. During 
normal operations, the wetlands are inundated year round. 

Bulrush and cattail plants that exhibited feeding damage were collected 
from the wetlands during 1998-1999 by cutting the plant slightly above the 
sediment surface. We returned samples of each plant to the laboratory where 
they were split open and examined under a dissecting microscope to procure 
specimens of B. o. gargantua and any secondary invaders that took advantage 
of damaged epithelial tissue to gain access to the plant interior. Most speci- 
mens were placed in 70% ethanol, but larval Diptera were first fixed in KAA 
solution for 24 hours and then transferred to ethanol. Undetermined eggs, lar- 
vae, and pupae were placed in petri dishes with decaying plant tissue for rear- 
ing to the adult stage for identification and to obtain biological observations. 
All immature stages were kept at approximately 19-2 1 C and a 1 6:8 lightidark 
photoperiod. Information on feeding habits and ecology was obtained through 
direct observation in the field and laboratory, or taken from Borror et al. ( 1 989), 
Thorp and Covich (1991), and Merritt and Cummins (1996). Representative 
specimens are maintained in the collection of the senior author, or were depos- 
ited in the University of California - Riverside Entomology Research Museum 
and Carnegie Museum of Natural History. 

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 

Twelve orders and 18 families representing at least 20 species of inverte- 
brates were taken from cattail and bulrush plants; B. o. gargantua was the only 
insect primary herbivore found mining these plants in the Prado Constructed 
Wetlands. One species of invertebrate was taken from bulrush only, 16 from 
cattails only, and three from both plants (Table 1). 

Lepidoptera 

Bellura obliqua gargantua (Dyar) (Noctuidae)- Larvae and pupae were taken 
from both bulrush and cattails; no evidence suggested that larvae leave the 
plant before pupation. Bulrush tunnels were linear, approximately 40 cm long 
and 0.9 cm diameter, and affected nearly half of the tissue along the damaged 
length (n = 2 plants, 22-IX-1998). A single entrance hole, presumably created 
by a third instar, was present at one end of the damaged area. Cast larval exu- 
viae were found adjacent to pupae; larvae were similarly positioned at the end. 
Larval feeding created masses of frass and brown senescent plant tissue. In- 
fested cattail plants exhibited similar damage, but damaged areas were fre- 
quently amorphous due to the overlapping nature of the densely layered leaves 
near the basal end of the plant. This caused the outer epithelial layer to become 
compromised in several places during feeding (n = 35 plants, 22-IX-1998, 19- 



350 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



VI- 1999, 26-IX-1999). One pupa from bulrush and two from cattails were 
reared to the adult stage. 
Collembola 

Sminthuridae - Many undetermined sminthurid springtails were found in cat- 
tail plants from June-September 1999. 
Dermaptera 

Forficula auricularia L. (Forficulidae) - Four adult earwigs were taken from 
two cattail plants (19-VII-1999, 23-VII-1999). Lepidopteran feeding created 
large openings in both plants which probably allowed access for the earwigs. 
Both plants were in areas where receding water levels probably allow terres- 
trial insects to gain access to the plants. 
Odonata 

Anax sp. ( Aeshnidae) - A single early instar nymph was collected from a dam- 
aged cattail plant with a hole below the water level (19- VII- 1999); fluctuating 
water levels probably submerged the hole and filled part of the lepidopteran 
tunnel with water. The nymph likely moved into the plant where predators are 
less abundant but prey are present. 
Homoptera 

Aphididae - Numerous undetermined aphids were found in most bulrush and 
cattail plants where they appeared to gain access through the damaged plant 
tissue. Specimens were taken or observed consistently from July-September 
1999. Adults and immatures fed in the area of senescing plant tissue up to 20 
cm from the hole, but it was not determined if they were sucking plant juices 
or ingesting liquid from the masses of decaying tissue. 
Coleoptera 

Philonthus caurinus Horn (Staphylinidae) - Adults were found in cattail plants 
where they probably hunted soft-bodied invertebrates (19-VII-1999, 26- VII- 
1999). Eight eggs were taken near lepidopteran exit holes, while five adults 
were observed deeper in the tunneled areas. 

Enochrus sp. (Hydrophilidae) - A single adult was taken from within a cattail 
stem where it probably entered through an inundated hole (19- VII- 1999). The 
aquatic adults are detritivores. 
Hymenoptera 

Iridomyrmex humilis (Mayr) (Formicidae) - Large colonies of the Argentine 
ant were observed in apparently old desiccated tunnels. Plants with dried dam- 
aged areas were taken from a portion of the marsh drained from May - June 
1999. The ants probably colonized the stems within dense stands of cattails 
after the benthic area dried. However, colonies appeared to remain active even 
after the area was flooded. Workers traveled between plants using fallen veg- 
etation. 
Diptera 

Chironomidae - Early instars of two undetermined species of midge were found 
in cattail stems whose damaged tissues were inundated by rising water levels 



Vol. 11 1 , No. 5, November & December, 2000 35 1 



( 19- VII- 1999). Individuals of both species had burrowed into the soft senescin 
plant tissue where they probably fed as collector/gatherers. 
Psychodidae - Twenty-two moth fly larvae were taken from submerged cattail 
stems and keyed to Pericoma sp. or Telmatoscopus sp. using Merritt and 
Cummins ( 1 996); the two genera are apparently indistinguishable in the larval 
stages. Both genera have larvae that are aquatic and feed as collector/gather- 
ers. Larvae were collected in areas of stems above the water level. The envi- 
ronment inside the damaged stems is quite moist due to plant juices and de- 
caying tissue allowing these aquatic scavengers to survive (19-VII-1999, 26- 
VHI-1999). 

Eristalis sp. (Syrphidae) - Thirteen "rat-tailed maggots" were taken from cat- 
tail plants whose damaged tissues were inundated ( 1 9-VII- 1 999, 26- VIII- 1 999). 
The larvae respire with an elongate breathing tube which they extend to the 
water surface. Larvae did not have access to the water surface outside of the 
cattail stem, but most likely extended their tubes to obtain oxygen from air 
trapped inside the upper portion of the tunneled area. Larvae are collector/ 
gatherers, and perhaps fed on the decaying tissue and frass present. 
Allograpta obliqua Say (Syrphidae) - Larval A. obliqua were occasionally found 
hunting aphids on the exterior of bulrush plants (7-X-1998, 21 -VI- 1999). One 
plant stem exhibiting feeding damage was split open revealing a third instar A. 
obliqua larva moving within the lepidopteran tunnel approximately 20cm from 
the hole (22-IX-98); the tunnel was replete with aphids. The larva was brought 
back to the laboratory where it consumed an unknown number of aphids prior 
to pupating. This and one other larva taken from the exterior of a plant pu- 
pated, and each exhibited a pupal duration of 7 days. 

Odontomyia sp. (Stratiomyiidae) - Five soldier fly larvae were taken from in- 
undated stems where they probably fed on decaying plant tissues ( 19- VII- 
1999). 

Chaetopsis massyla Walker (Otitidae) - Thirty five larvae and one puparium 
of C. massyla were taken from three cattail plants (1 9-VII- 1999, 23- VII- 1999, 
26- VIII- 1999). The puparium was reared to the adult stage. Larvae are known 
secondary stem borers of cattail plants (Allen and Foote 1992), and probably 
obtain their nutriment from the bacteria and fungi associated with the decay- 
ing vegetation and lepidopteran frass. 

Typopsilopa nigra (Williston) (Ephydridae) - Numerous eggs, maggots, and 
puparia of T. nigra were taken from both bulrush and cattail from June - 
September 1999. Immatures infested lepidopteran tunnels along the entire length 
and larvae fed on the browning, senescent tissues and frass. More than 20 third 
instars and 20 puparia were reared to the adult stage in the laboratory. This 
species was found in nearly all plants damaged by the feeding of B. o. gargantua. 

Other invertebrates 

Mollusca: Gastropoda - Three terrestrial slugs were collected from mines in 



352 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



cattail plants near the water's edge (19-VII-1999). 

Hyalella azteca (Saussure) (Amphipoda: Hyalellidae) - Numerous adults and 
immatures were observed in submerged cattail stems; they probably experi- 
enced a reduced predator presence here (June - September 1999). Although 
juvenile amphipods are frequently associated with brightly lit environments 
where they exploit microbial (bacterial and algal) food resources (Thorp and 
Covich 1991), photonegative adults probably used the darkened areas within 
damaged plants to feed on decaying organic matter. 

Isopoda - Ten terrestrial isopods were found in three cattail plants close to the 
water's edge. They probably gained access to the tunneled plants via fallen 
vegetation and scavenged within them (19- VII- 1999). 

Acari - Numerous terrestrial mites were observed in many cattail and bulrush 
stems damaged by lepidopteran feeding. It is unknown if the species present 
are parasitic, predatory, or scavengers. 
Questionable associations 

Collection of adult insects in the Prado Constructed Wetlands often produced 
Elachiptera nigriceps Loew (Diptera: Chloropidae) which was reported by 
Cole (1931) to have emerged from cattail stalks from Michigan. We assume it 
is a secondary stem borer in the wetlands. Anthomyza sp. (Anthomyzidae) 
were also taken, and are suspected of having associations with wetland 
monocots. 

CONCLUSIONS 

Of the 20 invertebrate taxa procured from cattails and bulrush, 60% were 
scavenger/detritivores, 15% were predators, 10% were secondary herbivores, 
and 5% were primary herbivores (Table 1); the feeding habits of the mites and 
aphids were not determined. Diptera was the most species-rich order taken 
from the mines, representing 40% of the taxa. Bellura obliqua gargantua, T. 
nigra, and C. massyla were the only three taxa that exhibited trophic specific- 
ity for these wetland monocots, but it is unknown if the aphids collected are 
associated with other plant species. Typopsilopa nigra and C. massyla appear 
to thrive in the presence of monocots damaged by lepidopteran feeding, but 
our laboratory rearings indicate that these species will feed on plant tissue 
damaged by any means. All other invertebrate taxa encountered probably in- 
vaded the mines opportunistically where they took advantage of the het- 
erotrophic food sources or the protection from predators and abiotic pressures, 
and are not reliant upon the presence of B. o. obliqua. Although the Prado 
Constructed Wetlands never dries completely, lepidopteran mines may pro- 
vide a refuge for some invertebrates from marshes that dry periodically. Mined 
cattails produced a more species rich invertebrate fauna than California bul- 
rush (Table 1). 



Vol. 1 1 1, No. 5, November & December, 2000 



353 



The genus Bellura appears to require taxonomic revision, and it is prob- 
able that at least some subspecies will attain full species status (J. E. Rawlins, 
personal communication). Although the genus has been shown to attack cat- 
tails (Penko and Pratt 1986a), this is the first report of its use of bulrush as a 
host plant. The restriction of B. o. gargantua to a small geographic range and 
its unique habit of boring bulrush stems provide biological support for the 
necessity of a systematic revision of the genus. 

Table 1. Invertebrates collected from bulrush and cattail plants damaged by lepidopteran feeding 
in a southern California constructed wetlands. 



Trophic association 



Taxa 



Bulrush Cattail 



herb. 2 herb, scavenger predator 



Lepidoptera 








Bellura obliqua gargantua X' 


X X 






Collembola 








Sminthuridae 


X' 


X 




Dermaptera 








Forficula auricularia X' 




X 




Odonata 








Anax^ 


X' 




X 


Homoptera 








Aphididae*- X 


X 






Coleoptera 








Philonthus caurinus 


X* 




X 


Enochrus^ 


X' 


X 




Hymenoptera 








Iridomyrmex humilis 


X' 


X 




Diptera 








Chironomidae (2 spp.)' 


X 


X 




Psychodidae' 


X 


X 




En stalls ' 


X' 


X 




Allograpta obliqua X* 






X 


Odontomyia\ 


X' 


X 




Chaetopsis massyla 


X 


X 




Typopsilopa nigra X" 


X' 


X 




Others 








Hyalella ayeca* 


X* 


X 




Isopoda 


X' 


X 




Acari^ 


X' 






Gastropoda 


X' 


X 





1 Invader of submerged mines only. 

2 Unknown trophic association. 

* Previously unreported use of plant. 



354 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

We thank Dave Hawks (UC-Riverside), Les Greenberg (UC-Riverside), Alfred Newton 
(Chicago Field Museum of Natural History), and Martin Hauser (Illinois Natural History Sur- 
vey) for help identifying challenging specimens; F. Christian Thompson (Smithsonian Institu- 
tion), John E. Rawlins (Carnegie Museum of Natural History), and B. A. Foote (Kent State 
University) provided useful information on Allograpta, Belluni, and acalyptrate Diptera. 
respectively. L. H. Gould, Parker D. Workman (UC-Riverside), and two anonymous reviewers 
proofread and improved the manuscript. These observations were made during a larger investi- 
gation of the Prado Constructed Wetlands funded by the Orange County Water District and the 
Northwest Mosquito and Vector Control District; Brian Baharie (OCWD) kindly allowed 
access to the marsh. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Allen, E. J. and B. A. Foote. 1992. Biology and immature stages of Chaetopsis massyla (Diptera: 

Otitidae), a secondary invader of herbaceous stems of wetland monocots. Proc. Entomol. 

Soc. Wash. 94: 320-328. 
Borror, D. J., C. A. Triplehorn, and N. F. Johnson. 1989. An introduction to the study of 

insects, 6th ed. Harcourt Brace College Publishers, San Diego. 
Claassen, P. W. 1921. Typha insects: their ecological relationships. Mem. Cornell Univ. Ag. 

Res. Sta. 47: 457-53 i. 

Cole, A. C. 1931. Typha insects and their parasites. Entomol. News 42: 6-1 1, 35-39. 
Keiper, J. B. and W. E. Walton. 1 999. Biology and morphology of the mature larva of Oxyethira 

arizona Ross (Trichoptera: Hydroptilidae). Pan-Pac. Entomol. 75: 212-220. 
Merritt, R. W. and K. W. Cummins. 1996. An introduction to the aquatic insects of North 

America, 3rd. ed. Kendall/Hunt Publishing Co., Dubuque. 
Penko, J. M.and D. C. Pratt. 1986a. The growth and survival of early i nstars of Bellura obliqua 

(Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on Typha latifolia and Tvpha angustifolia. Great Lakes Entomol. 

19: 35-42. 
Penko, J. M. and D. C. Pratt. 1986b. Effects of Bellura oblic/ua on Typha latifolia productivity. 

J. Aq. Plant Management 24: 24-27. 
Penko, J. M. and D. C. Pratt. 1987. Insect herbivory in Minnesota (USA) Typha stands. 

J. Freshwater Ecol. 4: 235-244. 
Thorp, J. H. and Covich, A. P. 1991. Ecology and classification of North American freshwater 

macroinvertebrates. Academic Press, Inc. New York. 



Vol. 1 1 1. No. 5. November & December. 2000 355 

NEW SOUTHERLY DISTRIBUTION RECORDS FOR 

THE BOREAL CARRION BEETLE, NICROPHORUS 

VESPILLOIDES (COLEOPTERA: SILPHIDAE) 1 

Foster Forbes Purrington^, Robert L. Davidson^ 

ABSTRACT: We report the boreal carrion beetle, Nicrophorus vespilloides, from wetlands in 
Illinois, West Virginia, and western Pennsylvania. 

Nicrophorus vespilloides Herbst (Coleoptera: Silphidae) has a wide Hoi- 
arctic distribution in northern coniferous forests (Hatch 1928). In North America 
it is recorded from Kodiak Island (but not the Aleutians) and continental Alaska 
to British Columbia, Yukon Territory, Northwest Territories and eastward 
across southern Canada to mainland and insular Newfoundland (Anderson and 
Peck 1985, Peck and Miller 1993). In the conterminous United States Ander- 
son and Peck (1985) show it (by shaded-area distribution map) from north- 
eastern North Dakota eastward through the upper Midwest region (Minnesota, 
Wisconsin, Michigan) into Pennsylvania and New York, and in all six New 
England states. 

Here we report the first authentic records of N. vespilloides from Illinois 
and West Virginia. We add to the single far eastern Pennsylvanian record (Peck 
and Kaulbars 1987) with records from two western sites in the Allegheny Na- 
tional Forest. 

COLLECTING SITES 

Illinois. An insect diversity assessment was undertaken during the 1999 
field season in a partially wooded wetland at Spring Bluff Forest Preserve, 
Winthrop Harbor, Lake County, Illinois. This site is managed by the Lake 
County Forest Preserve District, which commissioned the study; biodiversity 
research was organized and managed by Floyd Catchpole (Hey & Associates, 
Inc. Libertyville, IL). 

Spring Bluff Forest Preserve (4229'N, 8749'W, elevation: 190 m), along 
the Lake Michigan shoreline, is part of a remnant dune and swale topography 
including open sand woodland dominated by black oak, Quercus velutina Lam., 
with a grassy understory interlaced with pockets of wet prairie, Carex spp. 
meadows and ephemeral pools. 



1 Received April 10, 2000. Accepted May 20, 2000. 

2 Department of Entomology, The Ohio State University, 1735 Neil Avenue, Columbus, OH 
43210. 

3 Section of Invertebrate Zoology, The Carnegie Museum of Natural History, 4400 Forbes 
Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15213-4080. 

ENT. NEWS 1 1 1(5): 355-358, November & December 2000 



356 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



West Virginia. Cranesville Swamp Preserve (managed by The Nature Con- 
servancy of West Virginia) is situated in Preston County, West Virginia, and 
Garrett County, Maryland (3932'N, 7929'W). It was assayed for insect di- 
versity by the Carnegie Museum of Natural History during the 1995 season. 
This 547 ha. property straddles the West Virginia - Maryland state line, but all 
insects were taken in West Virginia. The collecting site is a high elevation 
(778 m) evergreen wetland containing an acidic bog plant community marked 
by boreal relicts (Rawlins et al. 1 996). The flora here is characterized by Ameri- 
can larch (tamarack), Larix laricina (DuRoi) Koch, Sphagnum spp. mosses, 
creeping snowberry, Gaultheria hispidula (L.) Bigelow, and winterberry. Ilex 
verticillata (L.) Gray [Fuller et al. 1974; Venable (no date)]. 

Pennsylvania. Two sites in the Allegheny National Forest in western Penn- 
sylvania not far from the Ohio border in Forest County were inventoried for 
insects in 1996. Buzzard Swamp Beaver Pond (2.5 km ESE of Marienville, 
4127'N, 7906'W, elevation: 480 m) is a shrubby marshland adjacent to the 
open water of an active beaver pond. Important plants are northern wild-rai- 
sin, Viburnum cassinoides L., northern arrowwood, V. recognitum Fern., black 
cherry. Primus serotina Ehrh., quaking aspen, Populus tremuloides Michx., 
Sphagnum spp. mosses, and Carex spp. sedges (Rawlins et al. 1999). 

Lower Penoke Alder Marsh is located 3.9 km WSW of Pigeon (4131'N, 
7905'W, elevation: 510 m). Its flora is similar to Buzzard Swamp Beaver 
Pond but contains considerable speckled alder, Alnus rugosa (DuRoi). 

Voucher specimens of N. vespilloides from Illinois are maintained by FFP 
at the Ohio State University Department of Entomology, Columbus; those from 
West Virginia and Pennsylvania are housed at the Carnegie Museum of Natu- 
ral History, Pittsburgh. 

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 

Three N. vespilloides adults were taken by pitfall trap at the Spring Bluff 
Forest Preserve study site in Winthrop Harbor on 30 August 1999. These are 
the first authentic records of this carrion beetle species from Illinois. Conge- 
ners trapped at this site were N. tomentosus and N. orbicollis, in approximately 
equal numbers. 

At Cranesville Swamp Preserve in West Virginia, 23 N. vespilloides were 
taken between 20 July and 27 September 1996, the first records of the species 
from this state and the southernmost reported locality for the species. All but 
one were captured by flight intercept trap (and one by pitfall). As this swamp 
straddles the Maryland - West Virginia state boundary, there is little doubt that 
N. vespilloides also occurs in Maryland. The only other Nicrophorus taken at 
this site were two N. defodiens. 

Twenty adult N. vespilloides were taken in western Pennsylvania in 1996. 
Seventeen were taken at Buzzard Swamp Beaver Pond from June to Septem- 



Vol. 1 1 1, No. 5, November & December, 2000 357 



her, 10 by flight intercept trap (June, July, early August), and seven in pitfalls 
(late August and September). Three others were taken at Lower Penoke Alder 
Marsh in July. Congeners at Buzzard Swamp Beaver Pond included a dozen 
N. orbicollis and a few each of N. pustulatus, N. sayi, and N. tomentosus. 
Congeners trapped at Lower Penoke Alder Marsh included 30 N. orbicollis, 
10 N. tomentosus and a few each of N. pustulatus, N. sayi, and N. defodiens. 

While the Pennsylvania N. vespilloides we note are not new records for 
that state, they represent a significant southern addition to the distributions of 
this species reported by Peck and Kaulbars (1987), who note it from only a 
single site in far eastern Pennsylvania. 

The Peck and Miller (1993) Silphidae catalog lists N. vespilloides from 
Illinois. However, according to Stewart B. Peck (in //'//.), there is in fact no 
record for this species from that state. 

Other recent literature on Nicrophorus contains some discrepancy and 
inconsistency regarding N. vespilloides distribution records. For example, in 
the Anderson and Peck (1985) treatise on carrion beetles and the Agyrtidae, 
the species is shown by shaded-area map to occur in all six New England 
states. The Peck and Kaulbars ( 1 987) synopsis of United States Silphidae uses 
a distribution map with dots that show New England N. vespilloides only in 
Maine, New Hampshire, and Massachusetts. Peck and Miller (1993) concur. 

We speculate that further insect surveys in high wetlands of the southern 
Allegheny, Appalachian, and Blue Ridge Mountains as well as at lower eleva- 
tions in northern Ohio will likely uncover relict populations of N. vespilloides. 
Possible sites are Dolly Sods and Spruce Knob in eastern West Virginia and 
high bogs and marshes in Great Smoky Mountains National Park (eastern Ten- 
nessee and western North Carolina). 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

We thank Cathy Drake, Dave Horn, George Keeney, and Adrienne Smith for helpful com- 
ments on early drafts of the manuscript. Robert Acciavatti, Robert Androw, John Rawlins, and 
Chen Young, our colleagues in the Carnegie Museum surveys, gave valuable help in developing 
data bases, data entry, specimen preparation, and fieldwork. Margaret Thayer, Field Museum of 
Natural History, Chicago, kindly confirmed that no specimens of Nicrophorus vespilloides from 
Illinois are represented in Field Museum collections. Partial funding for this research was pro- 
vided by Lake County Forest Preserve District Insect Study Project No. 99050 to Hey & Asso- 
ciates, Inc., Libertyville. IL (Floyd Catchpole, manager). 

LITERATURE CITED 

Anderson, R.S. and S.B. Peck. 1985. The carrion beetles of Canada and Alaska (Coleoptera: 
Silphidae and Agyrtidae). The insects and arachnids of Canada, Pt. 13, Agric. Can. 121 pp. 

Fuller, K.B., P.S. Frank, Jr., and D.B. Fuller. 1974. The Cranesville pine swamp. Educ. Series 
105, Nat. Res. Inst., Univ. MD Press. 25 pp. 

Hatch, M.H. 1928. Silphidae II. In: Coleoptorum Catalogus, W. Junk, Berlin 7(95):63-154. 



358 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Peck, S.B. and M.M. Kaulbars. 1987. A synopsis of the distribution and bionomics of the 

carrion beetles (Coleoptera: Silphidae) of the conterminous United States. Proc. Entomol. 

Soc. Ont. 118:47-81. 
Peck, S.B. and S.E. Miller. 1993. A catalog of the Coleoptera of America north of Mexico, 

family Silphidae. USDA Agric. Handbook 529-28. 25 pp. 
Rawlins, J.E., C.W. Bier, S.A. Thompson, R.A. Androw, R.L. Davidson, and C.W. Young. 

1999. Temporal and spatial relationships of non-target insects in wetlands associated with 

outbreaks of the forest tent caterpillar on the Allegheny National Forest, Pennsylvania. 

(unpublished report) Carnegie Mus. Nat. Hist. 347 pp. 
Rawlins, J.E., C.W. Young, and R.L. Davidson. 1 996. Arthropod survey in four different habitat 

types in West Virginia, (unpublished report) Carnegie Mus. Nat. Hist. 329 pp. 
Venable, N.J. (no date). Cranesville Swamp. Series 815, WV Renewable Resources Unique 

Areas, USDA Coop. Ext. Serv., WV Univ. Press. 32 pp. 



BOOK RECEIVED AND BRIEFLY NOTED 

THE GENUS RHIPICEPHALUS (ACARI: IXODIDAE): A GUIDE TO THE 
BROWN TICKS OF THE WORLD. J.B. Walker, I.E. Keirans, & I.G. Horak. 
2000. Cambridge University Press. 8 J /2 x 1 1 format. 643 pp. Hardcover 
$105.00. 

This definitive reference provides identification keys for adult ticks from the Afrotropical re- 
gions and elsewhere. For nymphs and larvae, unique plates have been compiled in which line 
drawings of the capitula of similar species are grouped together to facilitate identification. Brief, 
well illustrated descriptions of the known stages of every species are given, plus information on 
their hosts, distribution, and disease relationships 



Vol. 111. No. 5. November & December. 2000 359 

RANGE EXTENSION, ECOLOGICAL NOTES, AND 

NEW RECORDS OF PYCNOPSYCHE INDIANA 

(TRICHOPTERA: LIMNEPHILIDAE) 

FROM FLORIDA 1 

Andrew K. Rasmussen^, Dana R. Denson^ 

ABSTRACT: New records of Pycnopsyche Indiana are reported from Florida, including records 
from the Florida peninsula that represent a significant southern range extension. The taxonomy 
and geographic distribution for P. Indiana is reviewed. Southern Gulf Coastal Plain populations 
are widespread but uncommon, showing a disjunct distribution. In Florida. P. indiana is most 
often found associated with tannic streams and rivers. Tannic streams with intact broadleaf ripar- 
ian vegetation within the southern Gulf Coastal Plain are postulated as being important refugia 
for populations of this species. Ecological and biological notes are given for the southern-most 
known population. Loss of intact riparian broadleaf forests will likely result in negative impacts 
on scattered populations of P. indiana within the southern Gulf Coastal Plain. 

The limnephilid caddisfly genus Pycnopsyche is comprised of seventeen 
nominal species that are primarily eastern Nearctic in distribution. Pycnopsyche 
spp. are typically associated with temperate deciduous forest (Ross 1963) and 
are common inhabitants of cool, small to large streams with moderate to swift 
current, or the littoral zone of oligotrophic lakes (Flint 1960). Larvae are usu- 
ally found associated with accumulations of allochthonous organic material 
and detritus. Larval cases are of various shapes, and may be constructed of 
small sticks, leaf and bark pieces, gravel, and sand (Wojtowicz 1982; Wiggins 
1996). Pycnopsyche larvae are primarily classified as shredder-detritivores and 
play an important trophic role in the processing of autumn leaves (Wiggins 
1996), although they may also consume periphytic algae as scrapers (Will- 
iams & Williams 1 982; Martin et al. 1991 ). After reaching the terminal instar, 
larvae are known to remain inactive for extended periods as prepupae (Cummins 
1964; MacKay 1972; 1977). Larvae and adults of two or more species of 
Pycnopsyche are commonly collected together and larval species identity is 
often difficult to determine in these situations. Adults of Pycnopsyche are stout- 
bodied with tannish, brown to orange wings that provide cryptic coloration 
adaptive for their emergence and flight, which is often during autumn months 
when deciduous leaves are changing colors and being shed. 

Although a number of ecological studies have been conducted on 
Pycnopsyche spp. (e.g., Cummins 1964; MacKay 1972, 1977; MacKay & Kalff 
1973; Wallace et al. 1992), mostly in the northern temperate zone, none has 



1 Received September 13, 1999. Accepted November 13, 1999. 

2 Laboratory of Aquatic Entomology, Florida A&M University, Tallahassee, FL 32307-4100. 

3 Surface Water Monitoring Section, Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Orlando, 
Florida 32803. 

ENT. NEWS 1 1 1(5): 359-366, November & December 2000 



360 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



specifically focused on P. Indiana (Ross). In this paper we give a summary of 
the taxonomy and geographic distribution of P. Indiana. Also, we report new 
records of P. Indiana from Florida and provide biological and ecological notes 
for a disjunct population from peninsular Florida. 

Taxonomic Summary 

The male and female of Pycnopsyche Indiana (Ross) were first described 
by Ross (1938) in the genus Stenophylax. Later, Ross ( 1 944) placed S. Indiana 
within the genus Pycnopsyche and included a key to males and females for 6 
species including P. Indiana. Betten (1950) revised the genus and included 
keys, descriptions, and figures for males and females of 14 species. In Betten' s 
revision he recognized the Pycnopsyche lepida group, which includes P. lepida 
(Hagen), P. subfasciata (Say), and P. Indiana. Flint (1960) presented the first 
comprehensive treatment of Nearctic limnephilid larval taxonomy wherein he 
provided larval subfamily, generic, and in some cases species level delimita- 
tion. Although Flint (1960) had not examined larvae of P. Indiana and several 
other species, he did attempt to separate the P. lepida group from other 
Pycnopsyche species based on case construction and the number of setae on 
the sternum of the first abdominal segment. Wojtowicz (1982) provided the 
first and only larval description for P. indiana in his thorough review of adults 
and larvae within the genus. His conclusion concerning larval identity was 
that Pycnopsyche larvae could not be reliably identified to species unless reared 
to the adult stage. He also postulated that the P. lepida group is recently evolved 
as evidenced by their close interspecific similarities and the apparent presence 
of intermediates between species in non-Coastal Plain populations. 

Geographic Distribution of Pycnopsyche indiana (Ross) 

Pycnopsyche indiana has been reported from 17 states: Alabama, Arkan- 
sas, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mis- 
souri, New York, Ohio, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West 
Virginia (Fig. 1). Populations of P. indiana within the Gulf Coastal Plain are 
widespread but quite uncommon. For instance, Harris et al. ( 1 99 1 ) recorded P. 
indiana from 23 localities in Alabama with only 4 Coastal Plain records and 
only 1 record from the lower Coastal Plain near Florida. Pycnopsyche indiana 
was listed as rare by Holzenthal et al. (1982) in their survey of the Limne- 
philoidea of Mississippi and southeastern Louisiana. They collected P. indiana 
from only 1 locality, a small spring-fed blackwater stream in southeastern 
Louisiana. Within the Gulf Coastal Plain of Georgia, Wojtowicz (1982) 
reported P. indiana from several counties in central Georgia but none from 
southern Georgia Coastal Plain counties. However, Pycnopsyche indiana has 
been collected from the Gulf Coastal Plain in central Georgia within the Flint 
River drainage in Crawford County (J.C. Morse, pers. comm). Pycnopsyche 
indiana appears to be more common in the Atlantic Coastal Plain of Georgia 



Vol. 1 1 1, No. 5, November & December, 2000 



361 



and South Carolina where it has been collected from a number of sites within 
the Savannah River drainage basin (Sherberger 1970; Morse et al. 1980). 

Based on collections held at Florida A&M University (FAMU) and data 
from the Florida Department of Environmental Protection's Biological Data- 
base, the genus Pycnopsyche has heretofore been collected from 25 Florida 
counties, mostly within the northern part of the state (Fig. 1 ). Adult collections 
housed at FAMU indicate the presence of only 2 species in Florida (P. antica 
[Walker] and P. Indiana) (Pescador et al. 1995; Rasmussen and Pescador, 
unpublished data). Gordon ( 1 984) reported P. antica (as P. scabripennis sensu 
lato) and P. guttiferas occurring in Florida. However, re-examination of adult 
males identified by Gordon as P. guttifer showed them to be P. antica. Of the 
two Pycnopsyche species known to occur in Florida (P. antica and P. Indiana), 
P. antica is the more common among adult collections and is usually found in 
North Florida associated with clear, spring-fed headwater streams. 



I Pycnopsyche county records 



Pycnopsyche Indiana 
collection localities 



US records Pycnopsyche Indiana 




Figure 1. Geographic distribution of Pycnopsyche Indiana, including US state records and col- 
lection localities within Florida. 



362 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Within Florida, Wojtowicz (1982) reported P. Indiana only from 1 
unnamed locality in Okaloosa County in the western Florida panhandle. 
Because of the rarity of P. Indiana within the southern Coastal Plain our 
recent discovery of a population of P. Indiana within peninsular Florida merits 
its recognition. In this report we also provide biological and ecological data 
relative to this disjunct population and also report on P. Indiana collected from 
3 other localities within the western Florida panhandle. 

RESULTS 
New Florida Records of Pycnopsyche Indiana (Ross) 

Florida: Calhoun Co., Chipola River at Hwy. 20, 7.xi.l972, P.M. Carlson, 1 adult female. 
Okaloosa Co., Shoal River at US 90, 2 mi. E Crestview, 16.x. 1997, M.L. Pescador & A.K. 
Rasmussen, 1 adult male. Okaloosa Co., East Turkey Hen Creek at Eglin Air Force Base Rd 601 , 
N3039'27", W8634'05", 28.x. 1998, M.L. Pescador & A.K. Rasmussen, 1 adult male. Semi- 
nole Co., Roberts Branch at Curryville Road, Southeast of Chuluota, N28"37'23", W81"04'01", 
D.R. Denson, 1 larva collected 12. ix. 1997; same as above, 4 larvae collected 23.x. 1997; same as 
above, 1 adult female (reared from pupa) collected 20.xi.1997; same as above, 1 larva collected 
15. i. 1998; same as above, 1 larva collected 9.ii.l998. 

Interestingly, P. Indiana adults from the Florida panhandle localities listed 
above were collected, using blacklights, along with P. antica. This indicates 
that the 2 species are sympatric within certain situations. However, our records 
indicate that P. antica is the only Pycnopsyche species occurring from spring- 
fed headwater areas originating within North Florida sandhill habitat. The 
Pycnopsyche indiana listed above were collected from spring-fed habitats from 
low-lying areas within mixed- pine and hardwood forests. A number of 
Pycnopsyche larvae (not listed above), collected from several blackwater riv- 
ers (e.g., Aucilla and Econfina rivers) in the eastern Florida panhandle, which 
we examined are very likely to be P. indiana, but larval rearings and/or adult 
collections need to be done before making definitive species determinations. 

Species identifications of larvae collected in Roberts Branch, Seminole 
County were based on the close agreement of larval morphology with the 
description of the larva of P. indiana presented by Wojtowicz (1982). The 
larval identity and species present in Roberts Branch was further confirmed by 
the adult female that emerged from a mature pupa which was collected. The 
other Pycnopsyche known to occur in Florida, P. antica, can be reliably sepa- 
rated from P. indiana if based upon last instar larvae or adult males and fe- 
males. Last instar P. indiana are 5-10 mm shorter than last instar P. antica. 
However, case construction and setal characters are variable and show overlap 
between the two species. 



Vol. 1 1 1 , No. 5. November & December. 2000 363 



Ecological and Biological Notes Concerning Roberts Branch (Seminole 
Co., FL) Population of Pycnopsyche Indiana (Ross) 

Roberts Branch, located in southern Seminole County, Florida (N 
2837'23", W 81 04'OD near the town of Chuluota, is a small tributary of 
the St. Johns River. Originating in cypress wetlands in eastern Orange County 
near the town of Bithlo, Roberts Branch flows through deciduous forest and 
marsh, as well as low-density cattle pasture in some reaches. The sampling 
site upstream of Curryville Road is in an undeveloped forested section. The 
floodplain of this small (approximately 3 to 5 m width) darkly tannic stream is 
broad and flat, thus the water level varies less than a meter between wet and 
dry seasons. Stream depth ranges from 0. 1 to 1 .0 m, but averages about 0.5 m. 
Stream velocity averages about 0.3 m sec-'. The water in the stream is acidic, 
with a mean pH value of 4.46 su. The Secchi depth is usually equal to or 
greater than the total depth of the stream. Dissolved oxygen varies consider- 
ably with the season, but averages about 5.5 mg/L overall. Measured water 
temperatures have ranged from a low of 16.9C in January to nearly 25C in 
August. The aquatic macrophyte community here is unusually diverse for a 
small stream of this type. Within the 100-m stretch sampled, the following 
aquatic/riparian macrophytes were noted: Peliandra sp., Pontederia sp., 
Orontium aquaticum. Sphagnum sp., Woodwardia sp., Osmunda cinnamonea, 
Saururus cernuus, and Hydrocloa sp. 

Pycnopsyche Indiana larvae were collected at Roberts Branch using a 
D-frame aquatic dipnet. In each instance, they were found in association with 
the root mass of streamside Woodwardia spp. ferns and/or small woody debris 
that had collected beneath them. Larval length, head width measured between 
the eyes, and case length for the larvae collected is given in Table 1 . One 
mature pupa was collected 20. ix. 1997. This specimen was kept alive and 
emerged as an adult female the same night. The two smallest larvae collected 
in early 1998 are likely to be offspring of adults that emerged sometime 
November-December. The sizes of the two larvae collected in 1998 (Table 1) 
suggest rapid larval growth during the first few months after hatching. Larval 
cases for the 5 last instars collected in 1997 were cylindrical and mainly com- 
posed of bark and other bits of woody material. Larval cases for the two earlier 
instars were shorter (Table 1), triangular in cross-section, and loosely made of 
cut leaf pieces. 

Table 1. Measurements of Pycnopsyche inditma larvae collected at Roberts Branch, Seminole 
Co., Florida. 



Collection 


No. of 


Body Length 


Head Width 


Case Length 


Date 


Individuals 


(mm) 


(mm) 


(mm) 


12. ix. 1997 


1 


16.0 


1.2 


21.0 


23. x.l 997 


4 


16.0-21.0 


1.2-1.3 


18.0-22.0 


15. i. 1998 


1 


11.0 


0.7 


15.0 


9.ii.l998 


1 


14. 8 


1.1 


18.0 



364 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



The second author (DRD) has attempted numerous times unsuccessfully 
to collect Pycnopsyche at Roberts Branch since it was last taken there in Feb- 
ruary 1998. There are a number of junkyards near the extreme headwaters of 
the stream, and residential development is accelerating downstream from there. 
It is possible that habitat degradation and destruction has caused or will cause 
the extirpation of this species from the Florida peninsula. 

The conditions present at Roberts Branch seem to be especially suitable to 
the success of trichopterans. In addition to P. Indiana, the second author (DRD) 
has collected the following caddisfly larvae here: Cernotina sp., Chimarra sp., 
Hydropsyche sp., Molanna tryphena Betten [also probably the southernmost 
collection point for this species], Nectopsyche pavida (Hagen), Oecetis georgia 
Ross, O. nocturna Ross, Nyctiophylax sp., Polycentropus sp., Triaenodes Ignitus 
(Walker), and T. perna Ross. An adult male of T. perna was also collected. 
This is an unusually large number of trichopteran taxa for a small stream in 
this area of the state. However, with the exceptions of the dipterans and odo- 
nates (with 33 and nine taxa, respectively, collected at Roberts Branch to date), 
most other macroinvertebrate groups are not so well represented. For example, 
only two mayflies (Eurylophella doris [Traver] and Acerpenna pygmaea 
[Hagen]), five beetles, one megalopteran (Corydalus cornutus [Linnaeus]), 
and one mollusk (Ferrissia hendersoni Walker) have been collected here. The 
low pH probably accounts for the scarcity of mollusks. Other macroinvertebrate 
groups are likewise represented by only one or a few taxa. 

DISCUSSION 

The close ecological association of Pycnopsyche with temperate decidu- 
ous forests leads one to believe that Pycnopsyche geographic distributions are 
largely a reflection of the past and present distribution of deciduous forests 
(Ross 1963). Certainly Pleistocene events, which caused catastrophic changes 
in the size and location of temperate forests, also created similar changes in 
species distributions of forest insects such as Pycnopsyche. Areas of the south- 
ern Coastal Plain were believed to have been key refugia for deciduous forests 
during the Pleistocene (see review of Watts 1980), and it is quite likely that the 
southern Coastal Plain, especially areas with watershed connections to the 
Eastern highlands, harbored greater species diversity and abundance of 
Pycnopsyche than at the present time. 

Presently, Pycnopsyche spp. are largely restricted in the southern Coastal 
Plain to streams that are heavily influenced by groundwater inputs. Thermally 
buffered habitats such as these provide the only habitats where cool-adapted 
taxa such as Pycnopsyche are able to survive (Ross 1956). At the extreme 
southernmost (i.e., Florida) limits of the genus, P. antic a and P. indiana are 
the only known representatives. Pycnopsyche antica are most commonly 
encountered in headwater reaches of clear streams of spring-seep origin. 



Vol. 1 1 1 . No. 5. November & December. 2000 365 



Pycnopsyche Indiana, on the other hand, occurs in more tannic low-lying 
streams and rivers. The presence of the Roberts Branch disjunct population of 
P. Indiana in peninsular Florida further supports the notion that tannic streams 
with intact riparian broadleaf forests are important refugia in the southern 
Coastal Plain for scattered relict populations of P. Indiana. Intact riparian broad- 
leaf forests function both to lower potential maximum stream temperatures 
and to provide allochthonous energy inputs (leaves and coarse woody debris), 
thus driving detrital-based food chains in which Pycnopsyche are important 
components (Grubs and Cummins 1996). Greater sampling efforts, including 
adult collecting, are needed to better understand the distribution and habitat 
requirements of southern-disjunct populations of P. Indiana. Furthermore, con- 
servation and sound watershed management practices that protect specialized 
habitats are vital for the survival of isolated populations of this species. Clearly, 
P. Indiana would be a candidate for listing as a threatened/endangered species 
in the state of Florida. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

We thank J.C. Morse (Clemson University) and M.L. Pescador (Florida A&M University) 
for suggestions and critique of the manuscript. Also, we acknowledge J.C. Morse for kindly 
providing unpublished records of P. Indiana from the southeastern Coastal Plain. 

This research was partially supported by a research grant (Flax 91004) from CSREES-USDA 
to Florida A&M University. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Betten, C. 1950. The genus Pycnopsyche (Trichoptera). Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 43:508-522. 
Cummins, K.W. 1964. Factors limiting the microdistribution of larvae of the caddisflies 

Pvcnopsvche lepiila (Hagen) and P\cnops\che guttifer (Walker) in a Michigan stream. Ecol. 

Monogr.' 34:27 1-295. 
Flint, O.S., Jr. 1960. Taxonomy and biology of Nearctic limnephilid larvae (Trichoptera), with 

special reference to species in eastern United States: Entomol. Am. 40:1-1 17. 
Gordon, E.A. 1984. The Trichoptera of Florida: A preliminary survey. Pp. 161-166 in J. C. 

Morse, ed. Proceedings of the Fourth International Symposium on Trichoptera, Dr. W. Junk 

Publ., The Hague. 
Grubbs, S.A. and K.W. Cummins. 1996. Linkages between riparian forest composition and 

shredder voltinism. Arch. Hydrobiol. 137:39-58. 
Harris, S.C., P.E. O'Neil, and P.K. Lago. 1991 . Caddisflies of Alabama. Geol. Surv. Ala. Bull. 

No. 142.442pp. 
Holzenthal, R.W., S.C. Harris, and P.K. Lago. 1 982. An annotated checklist of the caddisflies 

(Trichoptera) of Mississippi and Southeastern Louisiana. Part III: Limnephiloidea and Con- 
clusions. Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 84(3)513-520. 
MacKay, RJ. 1972. Temporal patterns in life history and flight behaviour of Pycnopsyche gentilis. 

P. luculenta, and P. scabripennis (Trichoptera: Limnephilidae). Can. Entomol. 104:1819- 

1835. 

MacKay, R.J. 1977. Behavior of Pycnopsyche (Trichoptera: Limnephilidae) on mineral sub- 
strates in laboratory streams. Ecology 58:191-195. 
MacKay, RJ. and J. KalfT. 1973. Ecology of two related species of caddis fly larvae in the 

organic substrates of a woodland stream. Ecology 54:499-51 1. 



366 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Martin, I.D., W.D. Taylor, and D.R. Barton. 1991. Experimental analysis of density depen- 
dent effects on two caddisflies and their algal food. J. North Am. Benthol. Soc. 10(4):404- 

418. 
Morse, J.C., J.W. Chapin, D.D. Herlong, and R.S. Harvey. 1980. Aquatic insects of Upper 

Three Runs Creek, Savannah River Plant, South Carolina. Part I: Orders other than Diptera. 

J. Ga. Entomol. Soc. 15:73-101. 
Pescador, M.L., A.K. Rasmussen, and S.C. Harris. 1995. Identification manual for the caddisfly 

(Trichoptera) larvae of Florida. Fla. Dep. Environ. Protect., Tallahassee. Florida. 132 pp. + 

appendices. 
Ross, H.H. 1938. Descriptions of new North American Trichoptera. Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 

40(5)117-124. 

Ross, H.H. 1944. The caddis flies, or Trichoptera, of Illinois. 111. Nat. Hist. Surv. Bull. 23: 1 -326. 
Ross, H.H. 1956. Evolution and classification of mountain caddisflies. Univ. 111. Press, 

Urbana. 213pp. 

Ross, H.H. 1963. Stream communities and terrestrial biomes. Arch. Hydrobiol. 59:235-242. 
Sherberger, F.F. 1970. Distribution of the family Limnephilidae (Trichoptera) on the Savannah 

River Drainage Basin. M.S. thesis, Univ. Ga, Athens. 61 pp. 
Wallace, J.R., F.D. Howard, H.E. Hays, and K.W. Cummins. 1992. The growth and natural 

history of the caddisfly Pycnopsyche luculenta (Betten) (Trichoptera:Limnephilidae). 

J. Freshw. Ecol. 7:399-405. 
Watts, W.A. 1980. The late Quaternary vegetation history of the Southeastern United States. 

Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 1 1:387-409. 

Wiggins, G.B. 1996. Larvae of the North American caddisfly genera (Trichoptera) (2nd edi- 
tion). Univ. Toronto Press, Toronto, Canada, 457 pp. 
Williams, D.D. and N.E. Williams. 1982. Morphological and dietary variations in a riverine 

population of Pycnopsyche guttifer (Trichoptera: Limnephilidae). Aquat. Insects 4:21-27. 
Wojtowicz, J. A. 1 982. A review of the adults and larvae of the genus Pycnopsyche (Trichoptera: 

Limnephilidae) with revision of the Pycnopsyche scabripennis (Rambur) and Pycnopsyche 

lepida (Hagen) Complexes. PhD dissertation, Univ. Tenn. 292 pp. 



BRIEF BOOK REVIEW 

FACTS NOT FEAR: Teaching children about the environment. 1999. M. 
Sanera, Ph.D. and J. S. Shaw. Regnery Publishers. 269 pp; 15 figs., 10 tables. 
$15 paper. 

Interest in environmental issues has been increasing in recent decades. Unfortunately, most 
of the 269 texts and reference books that these authors reviewed contained more political and 
emotional content than scientific facts. The 18 chapters in this book present both sides on recy- 
cling, acid rain, global warming, biodiversity, ozone, and many other related subjects. Each 
chapter has been reviewed by several recognized authorities for accuracy, and each fact and 
quotation is supported by footnoted citations to the original source. Although written primarily 
for middle-school science teachers, anyone interested in the environment will find this well- 
researched book very educational. 

W. H. Day 



Vol. 1 1 1 , No. 5, November & December, 2000 367 



OCCURRENCE OF THE TIGER BEETLE CICINDELA 

CURSITANS (COLEOPTERA: CARABIDAE) 

IN NORTHWESTERN MINNESOTA 1 2 

Paul P. Tinerella, D. A. Rider 3 

ABSTRACT: The range of the tiger beetle, Cicindela cursitans, is extended into northwestern 
Minnesota. 

The tiger beetle, Cicindela cursitans LeConte, is reported for the first time 
from Minnesota. This rare cicindeline beetle has previously been reported from 
several neighboring states: South Dakota (Kirk and Balsbaugh 1975), North 
Dakota (Boyd and Associates 1982), and Iowa (Bousquet and Larochelle 1993). 
It has also been reported from the following states: Nebraska (Meserve 1936); 
Kansas (Willis 1970); Arkansas, Louisiana, and Mississippi (Graves and 
Pearson 1973); Indiana (Knisleyetal 1987); Ohio (Graves and Brzoska 1991); 
and Alabama, Illinois, Kentucky, and Tennessee (Bousquet and Larochelle 
1993). 

Cicindela cursitans is a small (6-8 mm), elongate, flightless tiger beetle, 
which superficially resembles ants (Graves and Brzoska 1991). Its small size 
will distinguish it from all other eastern North American tiger beetle species 
except C. celeripes LeConte. The distinct lateral line and the pale, only slightly 
metallic legs will separate C. cursitans from C. celeripes. The notably 
expanded elytral apices of C. celeripes are also diagnostic for that species 
(Willis 1968, Graves and Brzoska 1991). Variation of the elytral maculations 
seen in C. cursitans was noted and discussed by Graves and Brzoska. 

Distribution records of C. cursitans and C. celeripes indicate sympatry of 
these tiger beetles in the central portion of the lower Great Plains (Bousquet 
and Larochelle 1993). As far as is known, both species occur in similar habi- 
tats: these being wet, sparsely vegetated prairies; in proximity to water, on soil 
composed of a clay/sand mixture (Montgomery and Montgomery 1931, Willis 
1 970, Graves and Pearson 1 973, Knisley et al 1 987, Graves and Brzoska 1 99 1 ). 

During the years from 1995 through 1999, 65 specimens of C. cursitans 
were collected from the Bluestem Prairie Complex, Clay County, western 
Minnesota [46 50' 45"N, 96 27' 45"W]. The Bluestem Prairie Complex is a 
4000 acre (1619 ha) prairie preserve containing various tallgrass prairie 



1 Received April 12, 2000; Accepted May 5, 2000. 

2 Approved as North Dakota Insects Publication No. 18 Schafer-Post Series. 

3 Department of Entomology, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND 58105. 

ENT. NEWS 1 1 1(5): 367-369, November & December 2000 



368 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



regimes of dry, mesic, and wet prairie. This preserve is managed primarily by 
periodic burning, but alternate management techniques (haying and grazing) 
are being investigated on adjacent lands. 

MATERIALS AND METHODS 

All specimens recorded from this study were collected from pitfall traps. 
The pitfall traps used in this study were a modification of the type described 
by Durkis and Reeves (1982), in which a 70 cm length of lawn edging was 
placed between two 16 oz (473 ml) cups. No covers or aprons were used with 
this pitfall trap design. In 1995, a total of six transects, each consisting of five 
pitfall trap stations, were established on the Bluestem Prairie Complex. In 1996, 
six additional transects were established, and the total number of pitfall trap 
stations was reduced to three on all transects. Transects were placed on, and 
duplicated over dry, mesic, and wet prairie sites. 

Within these 12 transects, C. cursitans was collected on two transects; one 
wet (Wl) and one mesic (Ml). These two transects are adjacent and lie ap- 
proximately 300 yards (274 m) apart. Transect Wl, the southernmost transect 
within the preserve, contained three pitfall trap stations; wl, w2, and w3. A 
total of 64 specimens was collected from stations wl (61 individuals) and w2 
(3 individuals). On the Ml transect (ml, m2, m3), one individual was col- 
lected from the m2 pitfall trap station. The ml and m3 stations lie in areas of 
topographic lows and highs (respectively) and differ from the m2 station con- 
siderably in seasonal moisture content. All specimens were collected during 
July and August with the highest number of individuals (60 specimens), being 
collected over three dates (VII- 14, VII-3 1 , and VIII- 1 8) during 1 997 (w 1 , w2). 
Two specimens each were collected in 1 995 (w 1 ) and 1 996 (m 1 , w2); in 1 998 
one specimen was collected (wl). 

DISCUSSION 

Two factors are considered as possible explanation for the occurrence of 
the 60 specimens collected in 1997. First, in 1997, heavy regional spring flood- 
ing was experienced due to excessive snow accumulations from the previous 
winter. Standing flood waters could have indeed inundated areas not normally 
suitable for C. cursitans. Second, the developmental cycle of C. cursitans may 
have been a factor. Tiger beetles require from 1 to 4 years for maturation (Graves 
and Brzoska 1991), and at present, data regarding the developmental life cycle 
of C. cursitans, or related taxa, are unknown. Further pitfall trapping would be 
necessary for investigation of life cycles. 

In general, the transects of collection (W 1 and M 1 ) contain similar vegeta- 
tional components and moisture gradients, that is, they are seasonally moist, 
often with the soil profile saturated. However, the notable difference between 
these two transects is the physiographic variation; inducing differing moisture 
regimes between pitfall trap stations on the Ml transect. Transect Wl borders 
an irrigation ditch, which throughout the spring and summer months is often 



Vol. Ill, No. 5. November & December, 2000 369 



filled with water. On the Ml transect, the m2 pitfall trap station conditions are 
similar to those of the w 1 and w2 pitfall trap stations; with the area in immedi- 
ate proximity to the m2 pitfall trap station often being seasonally inundated. 
The limited occurrence of C. cursitans within the Bluestem Prairie Complex 
may indicate its high degree of specificity to particularly suitable wet prairie 
habitat. Likewise, its occurrence on transect areas managed by periodic burn- 
ing (2-4 year cycles) may also serve to indicate its affinity for native (non- 
invaded), wet tallgrass prairie. Lack of previous collection records in Minne- 
sota is likely due to factors such as the size of C. cursitans, the typical tiger 
beetle collector not visiting suitable habitats, and the use of specific sampling 
techniques (pitfall traps) for collection. Its apparent overall lack of abundance 
is probably due to the fragmented nature of such suitable prairie habitat, as 
well as its limited ability to disperse over great distances (Graves and Brzoska 
1991). The 65 specimens of C. cursitans have been deposited in the North 
Dakota State Insect Reference Collection. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

Particular thanks are extended to Robert B. Carlson (Dept. of Entomology, NDSU), Gary K. 
Clambey Dept. of Botany, NDSU) and Donald P. Schwert (Dept. of Geosciences, NDSU) for 
review and comments pertaining to the manuscript. The helpful comments of two anonymous 
reviewers, as well as the editor, served to improve the manuscript. Thanks are also extended to 
Brian Winter, the Minnesota Chapter of the Nature Conservancy, for access to the Bluestem 
Prairie Complex. Financial support for this research was provided by the Minnesota Chapter of 
the Nature Conservancy, The Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, and the Minnesota 
Department of Natural Resources, Nongame Wildlife Fund. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Bousquet, Y. and A. Larochelle. 1993. Catalogue of the Geadephaga (Coleoptera: Trachy- 

pachidae, Rhysodidae, Carabidae, including Cicindelini) of America North of Mexico. Mem. 

Entomol. Soc. Can. (167): 1-397. 
Boyd, H. P. and Associates. 1982. Checklist of the Cicindelidae- The Tiger Beetles. Plexus 

Publishing, Inc. Marlton, NJ. 
Durkis, T. J. and R. M. Reeves. 1982. Barriers increase efficiency of pitfall traps. Entomol. 

News.93: 25-28. 
Graves, R. C., and D. W. Brzoska. 1991. The tiger beetles of Ohio (Coleoptera: Carabidae). 

Bull. Ohio Biol. Surv. 8(4): 42 pp. 

Graves, R. C., and D. L. Pearson. 1 973. The tiger beetles of Arkansas, Louisiana, and Missis- 
sippi (Coleoptera: Cicindelidae). Trans. Amer. Entomol. Soc. 99: 157-203. 
Kirk, V. M. and E. U. Balsbaugh Jr. 1975. A list of the beetles of South Dakota. Agric. Exp. 

Stat. So. Dak. State Univ. Tech. Bull. # 42. 139 pp. 
Knisley, C. B., Brzoska, D. W., and J. R. Schrock. 1987. Distribution, checklist, and key to 

adult Tiger beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) of Indiana. Proc. In. Acad. Sci. 97: 279-294. 
Meserve, F. G. 1936. The Cicindelidae of Nebraska (Coleoptera). Entomol. News. 57:270-275. 
Montgomery, B. E. and R. W. Montgomery. 1930. Records of Indiana Coleoptera. I. 

Cicindelidae. Proc. In. Acad. Sci. 40: 357-359. 
Willis, H. L. 1968. Artificial key to the species of Cicindela of North America north of Mexico. 

J. Kans. Entomol. Soc. --1(3): 303-317. 
Willis, H. L. 1970. The Cicindelidae of Kansas. Cicindela. 2(1): 1-27. 



370 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



SCIENTIFIC NOTE 

CHONDROMORPHA XANTHOTRICHA, 

(POLYDESMIDA: PARADOXOSOMATIDAE) A NEW 

MILLIPED FOR THE CONTINENTAL UNITED STATES 1 

Rowland M. Shelley 2 

The family Paradoxosomatidae, the largest in the class Diplopoda, is indigenous to every 
inhabited continent except North America. However, it is well represented there by three intro- 
duced species: Oxidus gracilis (C. L. Koch), now occurring continent wide and frequently 
undergoing local population explosions producing astronomical numbers; Asiomorpha coarctata 
(Saussure), in Florida, Louisiana, and Texas; andAkamptogonus novarae (Humbert and Saussure), 
from several localities in coastal California (Hoffman 1979, 1999; Shelley et al. 1998). To these 
may now be added Chondromorpha xanlhotricha (Attems) on the basis of a male collected by 
R.O. Albert, 14 January 1962, on the Nueces River, 4 mi (6.4 km) S Mathis, San Patricio County, 
Texas (North Carolina State Museum of Natural Sciences collection). This species, readily dis- 
tinguished by the papillose, setose dorsum, is known from Jamaica, Haiti, Puerto Rico, 
Guadeloupe, Trinidad, and Suriname in the Neotropics as well as Fiji, New Caledonia, Western 
Samoa, the Philippines, and Guam in the Pacific region (Jeckel 1963, Santiago-Blay and Velez 
1985, Shelley and Lehtinen 1998, Hoffman 1999). With its discovery in Texas, all the allochthonus 
paradoxosomatids in the Neotropics have now been encountered in the Nearctic region. Com- 
parative illustrations of all these paradoxosomatids are available in Shelley and Lehtinen (1998). 

LITERATURE CITED 

Hoffman, R. L. 1979. An Australian polydesmoid milliped in San Francisco (Paradoxosomat- 
idae). Wasmann J. Biol., 37:55-58. 

Hoffman, R. L. 1999. Checklist of the Millipeds of North and Middle America. Va. Mus. Nat. 
Hist. Spec. Pub. No. 8:1-584. 

Jeekel, C. A. W. 1963. Diplopoda of Guiana (1-5). Studies on the Fauna of Suriname and other 
Guyanas, 4:1-157. 

Santiago-Blay, J. A., and M. J. Velez. 1985. Chondromorpha xanthotricha: A new record of 
polydesmid millipede (Diplopoda: Paradoxosomatidae) and the geographical distribution of 
the three known paradoxosomatids of Puerto Rico. Carib. J. Sci., 21:137-141. 

Shelley, R. M., and P. T. Lehtinen. 1998. Introduced millipeds of the family Paradoxosomatidae 
on Pacific Islands (Diplopoda: Polydesmida). Arthropoda Selecta, 7(2):81-94. 

Shelley, R. M., S. B. Bauer, and S. F. Swift. 1998. The milliped family Paradoxosomatidae in 
the Hawaiian Islands (Diplopoda: Polydesmida). Bishop Museum Occ. Pap. No. 56:43-53. 



1 Received June 16, 2000. Accepted June 16, 2000. 

2 Research Laboratory, North Carolina State Museum of Natural Sciences, 4301 Reedy Creek 
Road, Raleigh, North Carolina 27607. 



ENT. NEWS 1 1 1(5): 370, November & December 2000 



Vol. 1 1 1. No. 5. November & December. 2000 371 

FECUNDITY OF MALE BLATTELLA GERM AN 1C A 

(BLATTARIA: BLATTELLIDAE) EXPOSED TO 

MULTIPLE VIRGIN FEMALES 1 

Caroline Curtis 2 ' 3 Ivan Huber 2 Robert E. Calhoon 4 

ABSTRACT: In a pilot study of male fecundity, nine newly emerged male German cockroaches, 
Blattclla germanica (L.), were exposed to serial batches of 2 to 10 virgin females throughout 
their lifetime. A total of 341 females were used. Only 27 of the females were successfully in- 
seminated by six of the males, ultimately producing 72 oothecae from which 21 10 nymphs hatched. 
A batch size of five to seven females proved optimal. Two males sired the largest number of 
progeny (898 and 864 offspring). 

Literature on German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.) male reproduc- 
tion is limited (Roth & Dateo 1964, 1965; Ueda et al. 1969; Cochran 1979; 
Mullins and Keil 1980; King and Bennett 1989). These studies explored male 
reproductive success with a male being exposed to a single female at a time. 
Females typically produce 155-233 offspring from up to 6 oothecae (cited by 
Ross & Mullins 1995, from a variety of sources). 

However, we found no record of male B. germanica fecundity based on 
simultaneous exposure to multiple females, a more realistic expectation in field 
situations. This preliminary study was designed to determine the maximum 
number of offspring which a single male could sire. Increased knowledge of 
German cockroach male reproductive biology may prove useful for improve- 
ment of control tactics. 

MATERIALS & METHODS 

Sixth instars of B. germanica were sexed following the criteria of Ross & 
Cochran (1960), keeping them in separate containers until adulthood to ensure 
virginity. At adult emergence, one male and a fixed number (range 2-10) of 
females were placed into pint (475 mi) unwaxed ice cream cartons with clear 
lids. The surface area (bottom and side) of these cartons available for walking 
was 362 cm 2 . They were left in the container for a set number (range 7-20) of 
days. Each male was introduced to between 1 and 14 batches of virgin 
females. The subjects were kept at a photoperiod of 12:12h (L:D), fed Purina 

1 Received March 9, 2000. Accepted April 24, 2000. 

2 Biology M120A, Fairleigh Dickinson Univ., Madison, NJ 07940. Mailing address: 520 Lin- 
coln St., Boonton, NJ 07005. Email: ivan@randomtech.com 

3 Presently a graduate student at Florida International Univ., Biology, Bldg. O.E., Miami. FL 
38199. Email: cgcurt@aol.com 

4 Biology, Queens College, City Univ. of New York, Flushing NY 1 1367. 
Email: rtcqc@cunyvm.cuny.edu 

ENT. NEWS 1 1 1(5): 371-374, November & December 2000 



372 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Dog Chow and given water ad libitum. Humidity and room temperature were 
not controlled. After removal of the male, each female was kept in solitary 
confinement throughout her lifespan and her oothecal and offspring produc- 
tion were recorded. Each batch of removed females was replaced with new 
virgins at intervals throughout the male's lifespan. Since this was a pilot study, 
only 9 male subjects were used over the 14-month period it took to complete. 
Means with standard errors and correlation coefficients were calculated. 

RESULTS 

Six males sired an average of 351.7 + SE 153.4 offspring (range 22-898) 
(Table 1 ). 

Table 1. Male Reproductive Performance. 
Males are ranked by adult lifespan. 



No. of 

batches Age, 

of Mean +/- SE, d, at Total Total 

Adult females d, exposure last Fertile Fertile females nymphs 

Male lifespan, d exposed to females mating females oothecae available hatched 



G 


15 


1 


15 


00 


0.0 


N/A 








4 





A 


24 


3 


7. 


00 





.0 


N/A 








27 





F 


44 


4 


10 


25 


+ 2 


18 


17 


1 


4 


19 


126 


C 


70 


9 


8, 


33 





.9 


N/A 








59 





B 


72 


11 


6. 


54 





.45 


14 


2 


3 


75 


94 


E 


168 


12 


15. 


25 


1 


.53 


33 


1 


1 


36 


22 


D 


216 


13 


13.31 





.79 


33 


1 


3 


26 


106 


I 


247 


7 


15 


2S 


1 


21 


89 


10 


31 


57 


898 


H 


287 


S 


13 


SS 


0.97 


117 


12 


30 


39 


864 



N/A = Not Applicable because no offspring were produced. 

The number of inseminations producing viable progeny per fertile male 
was 4.5 SE 1.9 which agrees with Ueda et al. (1969) on average matings of 
10.0 SE 5.0. Although the males lived from 15 to 287 days, copulation did 
not continue throughout the lifespan. The longest surviving male, H, produced 
864 progeny and had his last successful copulation at 117 days. Even this 
number of offspring was exceeded, however, by male I. There is a significant 



Vol. 1 1 1 , No. 5, November & December, 2000 373 



correlation (r = 0.785, P < .05) between male lifespan and number of off- 
spring, but none between numbers of females available and number of off- 
spring (r = 0.269) (Table 1). Table 2 shows the relationship between the 
female batch size and total number of fertile females. Five to seven was opti- 
mal with another peak at two. 

Table 2. Female Batch Size and Reproductive Success 



Batch 
size 


No. of 
batches 


Total 
females 


Fertile 
females 


Proportion fertile 
females 


2 


14 


28 


3 


0.107 


3 


13 


39 


1 


0.026 


4 


4 


16 


1 


0.063 


5 


14 


70 


12 


0.171 


6 


1 


6 


2 


0.333 


7 


3 


21 


2 


0.095 


8 


6 


48 





0.000 


9 


7 


63 


3 


0.048 


10 


6 


60 


3 


0.050 



DISCUSSION 

While our aim was to determine the maximum fecundity of male German 
cockroaches, the lack of successful inseminations remains puzzling. Also, the 
role of females in reproductive dynamics (courtship, mating and insemina- 
tion) is poorly understood. Four males lived longer than 150d (Table 1). The 
normal life expectancy range of males is 90-140d with peak sexual competi- 
tiveness at ll-13d (Ross & Mullins 1995). Ueda et al. (1969) observed that 
copulations decrease with increasing male age. Although this is not detectable 
in the reproductive history of male H, there is a hint of such a decline in male 
I (unpubl. data). Five males died well below the average age and were least 
successful as sires. Due to a lack of video equipment, we are uncertain when 
mating occurred and must therefore rely on counts of viable offspring to iden- 
tify successful matings. One-third of the males sired no offspring and a further 
third inseminated a single female. The females laying viable eggs had an aver- 
age adult lifespan of 225d SE 1 1.6 (unpubl. data) within the range of 140- 
280d for laboratory studies cited by Ross & Mullins (1995). 

The optimum batch size of females for mating in this study was five to 
seven (Table 2). Greater crowding in pint containers reduced the proportions 
of fertile females, but why smaller numbers of females showed a generally 
lower success rate of inseminations is not obvious. The small number of repli- 
cations precludes more analysis. Further studies with containers of various 
sizes and proportions could be enlightening. 

Numerous questions suggest themselves in the relatively unexplored area 
of cockroach male fecundity. Counts of sperm in the testes should be com- 



374 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



pared with counts in all spermatophores produced as well as in spermathecae. 
Larger studies should be carried out using more males. The protocol for these 
might include sacrificing females at regular intervals to check insemination 
rates and times. Such studies have been carried out in the Mediterranan fruit 
fly ( Yuval et al. 1 996), one aim of which was to improve sterile insect control 
tactics. While induced sterilization techniques have limited application in Ger- 
man cockroach control (Gold 1995), insect growth regulators (IGRs) have sev- 
eral effects, one of which is male sterility (Bennett and Reid 1995). 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

We are very grateful to E.P. Benson, P.A. Zungoli, B.R. Rao and M. Slaff who reviewed our 
manuscript and offered many helpful suggestions. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Cochran, D.G. 1979. A genetic determination of insemination frequency and sperm precedence 

in the German cockroach. Entomol. Exp. Appl. 26:259-266. 
Bennett, G.W. and B.L. Reid. 1995. Insect growth regulators, Ch. 1 1 In Rust, M.K., J.M. Owens 

& D.A. Reierson, eds. Understanding and Controlling The German Cockroach. Oxford Univ. 

Press, New York, NY. 
Gold, R.E. 1995. Alternate Control Strategies, Ch. 1 3 In Rust, M.K., J.M. Owens & D.A. Reierson, 

eds. Understanding and Controlling The German Cockroach. Oxford Univ. Press, New York, 

NY. 
King, J.E. and G.W. Bennett. 1989. Comparative activity of fenoxycarb and hydroprene in 

sterilizing the German cockroach (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae). J. Econ. Entomol. 82:833-838. 
Mullins, D.E. & C.B. Keil. 1980. Paternal investment of urates in the cockroach. Nature 283:567- 

569. 
Ross, M.H. & D.G. Cochran. 1960. A simple method for sexing nymphal German cockroaches. 

Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 53:550-551. 
Ross, M.H. & D.E. Mullins. 1995. Biology, Ch. 2 In Rust, M.K., J.M. Owens & D.A. Reierson, 

eds. Understanding and Controlling The German Cockroach. Oxford Univ. Press, New York, 

NY. 
Roth, L.M. & G.P. Dateo Jr. 1 964. Uric acid in the reproductive system of males of the German 

cockroach, Blattella germanica. Science 146:782-784. 
Roth, L.M. & G.P. Dateo Jr. 1965. Uric acid storage and excretion by accessory glands of male 

cockroaches. J. Ins. Physiol. 1 1:1023-1029. 
Ueda, S., M. Izutsu & S. Ishii. 1969. The reproduction of the German cockroach, Blattella 

germanica and the effect of metepa on it. Jap. J. Appl. Entomol. Zool. 13:70-77. 
Yuval, B., S. Blay & R. Kaspi. 1996. Sperm transfer and storage in the Mediterranean fruit fly 

(Diptera: Tephritidae). Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 89:486-492. 



Vol. 1 1 1 , No. 5, November & December, 2000 375 



NOTATIONS ON SOUTH AMERICAN BAETIDAE 
(EPHEMEROPTERA) 1 

W. P. McCafferty 2 

ABSTRACT: Deceptiviosa angolina, comb, n., is the last of the South American species previ- 
ously placed in either Baetis or Pseudocloeon to be recombined. All valid South American Baetidae 
species historically classified as such are non Baetis complex species now residing in 10 differ- 
ent genera. Americabaetis albiner\'is, A. bruchi, Fallceon inops, and Moribaetis socius are newly 
considered nomina dubia. 

A total of 32 currently valid species of South American mayflies were origi- 
nally described, or subsequently placed in, the Baetis complex genera Baetis 
Leach or Pseudocloeon Klapalek. All of these species may be considered in 
the family Baetidae, except for what is now known as Hexagenia albivitta 
(Walker) (family Ephemeridae) and what most assuredly is incorrectly known 
as Ecdyonurus guttatus (Pictet) (family inquirenda), both of which were origi- 
nally described as Baetis. Of the 30 valid species of South American Baetidae 
previously known as Baetis or Pseudocloeon, all but one have been recom- 
bined with non Baetis complex genera (see below). Of the 29 previously re- 
combined species, 1 7 were originally described as Baetis, and eight were origi- 
nally described as Pseudocloeon, leaving two that were subsequently recom- 
bined with Baetis, two that were subsequently recombined with Pseudocloeon, 
and one that had been subsequently recombined with both Baetis and 
Pseudocloeon (Table 1 ). Only Bernerius incus Waltz and McCafferty had been 
known historically by an informal name associated with these genera (Baetis 
sp. B Berner). All other associations involved nominal species. 

In addition to the valid species epithets that had been associated with Baetis 
or Pseudocloeon (Table 1), Americabaetis peter seni and Fallceon murphyae 
include replacement epithets for the following original names for South Ameri- 
can Baetidae that proved to be primary junior homonyms: Cloeon brunneum 
Esben-Petersen (subsequently associated with Pseudocloeon) and Baetis 
melleus Needham and Murphy, respectively. 

In addition to the recombined extractions from Baetis and Pseudocloeon 
among South American Baetidae, B. gloriosus Navas is now a junior subjec- 
tive synonym of Callibaetisfasciatus (Pictet); B. opacus Navas and B. virellus 
Navas are similarly equivalent to C. zonalis Navas; B. weiseri Navas is equiva- 
lent to Andesiops peruvianus (Ulmer); and B. sp. 1 Roback is equivalent to 
Mayobaetis ellenae (Mayo). With respect to C. zonalis, I had initially consid- 
ered it the subordinate synonym of C. opacus (Navas) (originally Baetis) based 
on page priority (McCafferty 1996). However, I realized shortly thereafter 



1 Received March 31, 2000. Accepted May 10, 2000. 

2 Department of Entomology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907. 

ENT. NEWS 1 1 1(5): 375-379, November & December 2000 



376 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



that Gillies (1990) may have intended to invoke first reviser's prerogative in 
considering C. zonalis the senior synonym (even though he had not stated 
such), and therefore now accept that interpretation. With respect to the present 
review, I have placed C. zonalis as a footnoted species in Table 1 , because it is 
the only South American species to be represented previously as a Baetis com- 
plex genus by a junior synonymy only. 

The bases for all of the previous recombinations of South American Baetidae 
originally or subsequently regarded as Baetis or Pseudocloeon shown in Table 
1 are reviewed as follows: For the species previously placed in Baetis that 
have been recombined with Americabaetis Kluge, see Lugo-Ortiz and 
McCafferty (1999a) (see also Lugo-Ortiz and McCafferty 1996b); for those 
recombined with Andesiops Lugo-Ortiz and McCafferty, see Lugo-Ortiz and 
McCafferty (1999b); for those recombined with Bernerius Waltz and 
McCafferty, see Waltz and McCafferty (1987a); for those recombined with 
Callibaetis Eaton, see Gillies (1990); for those recombined with Camelobae- 
tidius Demoulin, see Lugo-Ortiz and McCafferty (1999a); for those recom- 
bined with Cloeodes Traver, see Waltz and McCafferty (1987b) and Lugo- 
Ortiz and McCafferty (1999a); for those recombined with Fallceon Waltz and 
McCafferty, see Lugo-Ortiz and McCafferty (1999a); for those recombined 
with Mayobaetis Waltz and McCafferty, see Waltz and McCafferty (1985) 
and Lugo-Ortiz and McCafferty (1996a); and for those recombined with 
Moribaetis Waltz and McCafferty, see Lugo-Ortiz and McCafferty (1999a). 
For the species previously placed in Pseudocloeon that have been recombined 
with Americabaetis, see Lugo-Ortiz and McCafferty (1996b, 1999a) and for 
those recombined with Cloeodes, see Waltz and McCafferty (1987b), Waltz 
(1993), and Lugo-Ortiz and McCafferty (1999a). 

Only the Chilean species Baetis angolinus Navas, among the South Ameri- 
can Baetidae previously associated with a Baetis complex genus name, has not 
been recombined. Baetis angolinus clearly does not belong to the genus Baetis, 
or any other genus of the Baetis complex, an otherwise widespread baetid 
lineage that is not represented in South America and is only very poorly repre- 
sented by boreal-derived species in Central America (e.g., McCafferty 1998, 
Lugo-Ortiz et al. 1999). 

Navas (1933) based B. angolinus on a subimago that could generally be 
deemed nondescript, except for its hindwing shape and venation, and a pecu- 
liar reticulate series of crossveins in the distal inter-costal area of the fore- 
wings, along with elongate marginal intercalaries in the forewings. For the 
most part, baetid adults worldwide have not been associated with reticulate 
forewing venation. Some Callibaetis in North and Central America have some 
inter-costal reticulation, but the inter-costal area itself is relatively narrower 
than that in B. angolinus, and reticulation is not of the same type. In B. angolinus 
there are six crossveins fairly uniformly divided and forming cellules. Also 
none of the forewings of South American Callibaetis illustrated, for example. 



Vol. 1 1 1 . No. 5. November & December. 2000 377 



by Gillies (1990), demonstrate inter-costal reticulation. More importantly, the 
small, narrow hindwings of B. angolinus lack crossvenation and are clearly 
not the type of hindwing found in Callibaetis. 

Another possible genus that has hindwings similar to those of B. angolinus 
and that also has a similar small costal process in the basal third of the hindwing 
is Moribaetis. Moribaetis is also one of a very few genera of baetids that has 
some crossvenation in the distal inter-costal area of the forewings (e.g., 
McCafferty and Lugo-Ortiz 1998). None of the species of Moribaetis pres- 
ently known as alate stages, however, demonstrate reticulation or inter-costal 
cellules as does B. angolinus. 

Lugo-Ortiz and McCafferty (1999b) recently described three related new 
genera (Andesiops, Deceptiviosa, and Nanomis) indigenous to cool or gradi- 
ent streams in the Andes and Patagonia (high altitudes or temperate latitudes) 
of South America. These genera tend to show some remarkable convergence 
in larval morphology with some unrelated Baetis complex genera such as 
Acentrella Bengtsson (Holarctic), Demoreptus Lugo-Ortiz and McCafferty 
(Afrotropics), and Tanzaniella Gillies (Afrotropics). Andesiops, Deceptiviosa, 
and Nanomis, however, may be related to the non Baetis complex Australian 
genus Edmundsiops Lugo-Ortiz and McCafferty (Lugo-Ortiz and McCafferty 
1999b, 1999c). Andesiops and Deceptiviosa were described from both larvae 
and adults, the latter of which were shown to possess the peculiar reticulate 
crossvenation in the distal inter-costal area of the forewings that is similar to 
that of B. angolinus. Unfortunately, Lugo-Ortiz and McCafferty (1999b) had 
not been aware of B. angolinus at the time Andesiops and Deceptiviosa were 
described. It is now clear that B. angolinus most probably belongs to one of 
these genera. Navas (1933) had additionally indicated that the marginal inter- 
calary veins in the forewings of B. angolinus were long. Lugo-Ortiz and 
McCafferty (1999b) had also found this particular additional trait in Decep- 
tiviosa, but not An desiops. I therefore am confident in placing Navas's species 
in Deceptiviosa as D. angolina (Navas), comb. n. 

The new combination should be regarded as provisional (as essentially 
most South American baetid recombinations are for various reasons) because 
of the lack of comparative male adult and larval material of D. angolina. None- 
theless, the forewings match well as do the general coloration and size given 
by Navas (1933) and Lugo-Ortiz and McCafferty (1999b). Also, the Chilean 
locality of D. angolina is consistent with the distribution of Deceptiviosa. 

Deceptiviosa angolina can be distinguished from D. torrens Lugo-Ortiz 
and McCafferty, the only other species of Deceptiviosa known in alate stages, 
by the hindwings. Those of D. angolina are narrower and lack the first longi- 
tudinal vein as well as the short third longitudinal vein. The forked vein and its 
long unattached intercalary in the hindwings of D. angolina are similar to the 
vein 2 system in D. torrens. 

Lugo-Ortiz and McCafferty ( 1999a) indicated that several species of South 



378 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



American Baetidae are dubious. Gillies (1990) had previously considered 
Callibaetis abundans (Navas) (originally Baetis) as a nomen duhium. Because 
D. angolina is based on a single subimago, one might argue that this species 
should also be considered a nomen dubium. Navas (1933) stated that his single 
subimago was a female; however Alba-Tercedor and Peters (1985) listed the 
specimen as a male. Gloria Masso, the curator at the Museo de Zoologia del 
Ayuntamiento (Barcelona, Spain) has confirmed for me that the single speci- 
men is indeed a male, and thus Navas had reported the sex incorrectly. None- 
theless, the wing venation of the combined fore- and hindwings, at least for 
the present, is enough to distinguish this species among the known South 
American baetid fauna, and a declaration of nomen dubium is yet uncalled for. 
Although their generic assignment can be made with confidence, there 
indeed remain some South American baetids for which it would be virtually 
impossible to establish any known morphological criteria for species recogni- 
tion that may be associated with them. These species are best regarded as nomina 
dubia based on the study of Lugo-Ortiz and McCafferty ( 1999a). They include 
Americabaetis albinervis (Navas), A. bruchi (Navas), Fallceon inops (Navas), 
and Moribaetis socius (Needham and Murphy). As reviewed by Lugo-Ortiz 
and McCafferty (1999a), in the case of each of the above species, existent 
descriptions are inconsequential at the species level because they either were 
incompletely written or were based on subimagos, and either critical body 

Table 1. South American species of Baetidae formerly associated with the genera Baetis or 
Pseudocloeon. *Those subsequently associated with Baetis or Pseudocloeon. ** Associated with 
Baetis only via a junior synonym. 

PREVIOUS BAETIS PREVIOUS PSEUDOCLOEON 

* Americabaetis oldendorffi (Weyenbergh) Americabaetis albinervis (Navas) 
Andesiops peruvianus (Ulmer) Americabaetis bridarolli (Navas) 
Bernerius incus Waltz & McCafferty Americabaetis bruchi (Navas) 
Callibaetis abundans (Navas) * Americabaetis jorgenseni 

* Callibaetis fasciatus (Pictet) (Esben-Petersen) 

**Callibaetis zonalis Navas * Americabaetis oldendorffi (Weyenbergh) 

Camelobaetidius alcyoneus (Traver) * Americabaetis peterseni (Hubbard) 

Camelobaetidius coveloae (Traver) Americabaetis weiseri (Navas) 
Camelobaetidius dryops (Needham & Murphy) Cloeodes anduzei (Traver) 
Camelobaetidius tantillus (Needham & Murphy) Cloeodes binocularis 

Cloeodes aymara (Traver) (Needham & Murphy) 

Cloeodes nocturnus (Navis) Cloeodes turbinops 

* Cloeodes stelzneri (Weyenbergh) (Needham & Murphy) 
Deceptiviosa angolina (Navas), comb. n. Cloeodes venezuelensis (Traver) 
Fallceon inops (Navas) 

Fallceon murphyae (Hubbard) 
Fallceon yaro (Traver) 
Mayobaetis ellenae (Mayo) 
Moribaetis aneto (Traver) 
Moribaetis comes (Navas) 
Moribaetis socius (Needham & Murphy) 



Vol. 1 1 1 , No. 5, November & December, 2000 379 



parts are missing (specimens broken or female only) from existent types or the 
type specimens themselves are no longer available. 

Other species among those previously considered in Baetis or Pseudocloeon 
that were treated by Lugo-Ortiz and McCafferty ( 1999a) and whose types have 
yet to be found include A. bridarolli (Navas), A. jorgenseni (Esben-Petersen), 
and A. oldendorffi (Weyenbergh). More intensive searching may uncover types 
of these possible candidates for nomina dubia. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

I thank J. Alba-Tercedor (Granada, Spain) and G. Masso (Barcelona, Spain) for their aid in 
checking the type of D. angolina, and R. D. Waltz (Indianapolis, Indiana) for his review of an 
early draft. This paper has been given Purdue Agricultural Research Program Journal No. 16258. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Alba-Tercedor, J. and W. L. Peters. 1985. Types and additional specimens of Ephemeroptera 
studied by Longinos Navas in the Museo de Zoologia del Ayuntamiento, Barcelona, Spain. 
Aquat. Insects 7: 215-227. 

Gillies, M.T. 1990. A revision of the Argentine species of Callibaetis Eaton (Baetidae; 
Ephemeroptera). Rev. Soc. Entomol. Argentina 48: 15-39. 

Lugo-Ortiz, C. R. and W. P. McCafferty. 1996a. Phylogeny and classification of the Baetodes 
complex (Ephemeroptera: Baetidae), with description of a new genus. J. N. Am. Benthol. 
Soc. 15:367-380. 

Lugo-Ortiz, C. R. and W. P. McCafferty. 1996b. Taxonomy of the Neotropical genus America- 
baetis (Insecta: Ephemeroptera: Baetidae). Stud. Neotrop. Fauna Environ. 31: 156-169. 

Lugo-Ortiz, C. R. and W. P. McCafferty. 1999a. Revision of South American species of Baetidae 
(Ephemeroptera) previously placed in Baetis Leach and Pseudocloeon Klapalek. Ann. Limnol. 
35: 257-262. 

Lugo-Ortiz, C. R. and W. P. McCafferty. 1999b. Three new genera of small minnow mayflies 
(Insecta: Ephemeroptera: Baetidae) from the Andes and Patagonia. Stud. Neotrop. Fauna 
Environ. 34: 88-104. 

Lugo-Ortiz, C. R. and W. P. McCafferty. 1999c. Edmundsiops instigatus: a new genus and 
species of small minnow mayflies (Ephemeroptera: Baetidae) from Australia. Entomol. News 
110:65-69. 

Lugo-Ortiz, C. R. and W. P. McCafferty and R. D. Waltz. 1999. Definition and reorganiza- 
tion of the genus Pseudocloeon (Ephemeroptera: Baetidae), with new species descriptions 
and combinations. Trans. Am. Entomol. Soc. 34: 88-104. 

McCafferty, W. P. 1996. Emendations to the Callibaetis (Ephemeroptera: Baetidae) of South 
America. Entomol. News 107: 230-232. 

McCafferty, W. P. 1998. Ephemeroptera and the great American interchange. J. N. Am. Benthol. 
Soc. 17: 1-20. 

McCafferty, W. P. and C. R. Lugo-Ortiz. 1998. The adult of Moribaetis macaferti (Ephe- 
meroptera: Baetidae). Entomol. News 109: 117-121. 

Navas, L. 1933. Algunos insectos de Chile. Rev. Chilean Hist. Nat. Pur Aplic. 37: 230-234. 

Waltz, R. D. 1993. Cloeodes binocularis (Ephemeroptera: Baetidae), a new combination for a 
Neotropical species of Pseudocloeon s. auctt. Entomol. News 104: 233-234. 

Waltz, R. D. and W. P. McCafferty. 1985. Moribaetis: a new genus of Neotropical Baetidae 
(Ephemeroptera). Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 87: 239-251. 

Waltz, R. D. and W. P. McCafferty. 1987a. Generic revision of Cloeodes and description of 
two new genera (Ephemeroptera: Baetidae). Proc. Entomol. Soc. Wash. 89: 177-184. 

Waltz, R. D. and W. P. McCafferty. 1987b. Revision of the genus Cloeodes Traver (Ephe- 
meroptera: Baetidae). Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 80: 191-207. 



380 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



PSEUDOCLOEON AQUACIDUM: A NEW 

SUBJECTIVE SYNONYM OF P. LATUM 

(EPHEMEROPTERA: BAETIDAE) 1 

C. R. Lugo-Ortiz, F. C. de Moor 2 

ABSTRACT: Pseudocloeon aquacidum is determined to be a junior subjective synonym of P. 
latum. 

Agnew (1961) described Baetis latus (Ephemeroptera: Baetidae) from one 
male adult, one female subimago, and an unspecified number of larvae from 
the Great Berg River, Western Cape, South Africa. Recently, Lugo-Ortiz et al. 
(1999) transferred the species to Pseudocloeon Klapalek. Agnew's (1961) 
description of the larvae is too general and obviates several important mor- 
phological features, and his drawings of one of the labial palps (Agnew 1 96 1 : 
Fig.3c) and two of the gills (Agnew 1 96 1 : Figs. 3d,e) are too sketchy to allow 
reliable comparisons with actual specimens. As a consequence, since its 
description, P. latum has been somewhat enigmatic and a considerable source 
of confusion among taxonomists and freshwater ecologists. 

We have discovered that Pseudocloeon aquacidum (Lugo-Ortiz and 
McCafferty), originally described from larvae from several localities in Kenya 
and South Africa under Labiobaetis Novikova and Kluge (Lugo-Ortiz and 
McCafferty 1997), is equivalent to P. latum. Our discovery is based on the 
examination of four of the larval paratypes of B. latus and numerous larvae 
housed in the Albany Museum (Grahamstown, South Africa) previously iden- 
tified either as P. aquacidum or P. latum. All specimens examined possessed a 
distinctive distolateral process on the antennal scapes, a single submarginal 
dorsal row of five to seven branched setae on the labrum, right and left man- 
dibles with 3 + 4 incisors, a distomedially concave maxillary palp segment 2, 
a broad and blunt distomedial process on labial palp segment 2, hindwingpads, 
and well-tracheated gills on abdominal segments 1-7. Moreover, we could not 
identify any morphological features or coloration differences that would dis- 
tinguish specimens assigned to either species. We therefore consider P. 
aquacidum a junior subjective synonym of P. latum. The synonymy for P. 
latum is now as follows: 



1 Received January 13, 2000. Accepted March 30, 2000. 

2 Department of Freshwater Invertebrates, Albany Museum, Somerset Street, Grahamstown 6 1 39, 
South Africa. 



ENT. NEWS 1 1 1 (5): 380-38 1 , November & December 2000 



Vol. Ill, No. 5, November & December, 2000 38 1 



Bae tis Uitus Agnew 1961: 16. 

Labiobaetis auuacidus Lugo-Ortiz and McCafferty 1997: 242. New synonym. 

Pseudocloeon latum (Agnew): Lugo-Ortiz et al. 1999: 24. 

Pseudocloeon aquatidum (Lugo-Ortiz and McCafferty): Lugo-Ortiz et al. 1999: 24. New 

synonym. 

In addition, Harrison and Elsworth ( 1958) and Oliff (1960) refer to P. latum as Buetis sp. B 
and Baetis sp. 2, respectively (Agnew 1961). 

The description and figures provided by Lugo-Ortiz and McCafferty ( 1 997: 
Figs. 1-13) for P. aquacidum should be consulted to identify P. latum prop- 
erly. 

The range of P. latum extends considerably from southern Africa to Kenya 
(Agnew 1961, Lugo-Ortiz and McCafferty 1997). According to Harrison and 
Elsworth (1958), Oliff (1960), Agnew (1961), Chutter (1963, 1970), Oliff and 
King (1964), and Palmer (1996), P. latum is found in slow-flowing waters, or 
out of current, in marginal vegetation. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

We thank R. Toms (Northern Flagship Institution, Pretoria, South Africa) for allowing us to 
study paratype material of B. latus. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Agnew, J. D. 1961 . New Baetidae (Ephem.) from South Africa. Novos Taxa Entomol. 25: 3-18. 
Chutter, F. M. 1963. Hydrobiological studies on the Vaal River in the Vereeniging Area. Part I. 

Introduction, water chemistry and biological studies on the fauna of habitats other than muddy 

bottom sediments. Hydrobiol. 21: 1-65. 
Chutter, F. M. 1970. Hydrobiological studies in the catchment of the Vaal Dam, South Africa. 

Part 1. River zonation and the benthic fauna. Int. Rev. Ges. Hydrobiol. 55: 445-494. 
Harrison, A. D. and J. F. Elsworth. 1958. Hydrobiological studies on the Great Berg River. 

Western Cape Province. Part I. General description, chemical studies and main features of 

the flora and fauna. Trans. R. Soc. S. Afr. 35: 125-225. 
Lugo-Ortiz, C. R. and W. P. McCafferty. 1 997. Labiobaetis Novikova & Kluge (Ephemeroptera: 

Baetidae) from the Afrotropical region. Afr. Entomol. 5: 241-260. 
Lugo-Ortiz, C. R., W. P. McCafferty, and R. D. Waltz. 1999. Definition and reorganization of 

the genus Pseudocloeon (Ephemeroptera: Baetidae) with new species descriptions and com- 
binations. Trans. Amer. Entomol. Soc. 125: 1-37. 
Oliff, W. D. 1 960. Hydrobiological studies on the Tugela River system. Part I. The main Tugela 

River. Hydrobiol. 14: 281-385. 
Oliff, W. D. and J. L. King. 1 964. Hydrobiological studies on the Tugela River System. Part IV. 

The Mooi River. Hydrobiol. 24: 567-583. 
Palmer, R. W. 1996. Invertebrates in the Orange River, with emphasis on conservation and 

management. S. Afr. J. Aquat. Sci. 22: 3-51. 



382 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



HEAT RELIEF BEHAVIOR BY KLEIDOCERYS OVALIS 

(HEMIPTERA: LYGAEIDAE) IN URBAN 

SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA 1 

Richard S. Vetter 2 , David C. Hawks 2 

ABSTRACT: Adults of the lygaeid, Kleidocerys ovalis, sought relief from excessive ambient 
heat during short periods of hot weather by clustering on exposed nailheads on a shaded apart- 
ment building wall. This is an intriguing use of human structures during a period of physiologic 
stress. 

The Mediterranean climate of southern California is characterized by hot, 
dry summers and mild winters. The sparse annual precipitation primarily falls 
during the winter months. The Los Angeles basin is speckled with a mosaic of 
habitat types over a rather compact distance, and variables such as summer 
maximum temperatures may, on the same day, range from 25C along the 
coast to 45C in the deserts 200 km away. In Riverside, California (about 100 
km east of Los Angeles), summer daily maximum temperatures typically range 
between 35 and 4 1C. 

During two consecutive years, a brief heat wave pushed temperatures above 
42C. Daily highs were 44.5C (29 August 1998) and 43C (6 August 1997 
and 30 August 1998). At midday of these excessively warm periods, small 
(3 mm in length) adult lygaeids were observed clustering in many of the 
depressions associated with the exposed nailheads on the walls of a shaded, 
wood-covered apartment building (Fig. 1). Prior to and after the periods of the 
intense heat (when daily high temperatures were less than 42C), they were 
never observed on the building. We believe that the nailheads driven into the 
structure conducted the cooler temperatures of the building interior, and 
offered thermal respites from both the exposed wood and the habitat in which 
the lygaeids existed before temperatures rose. Unfortunately, we did not record 
temperatures of the nailheads. The lygaeids also were noticed on the windows 
of air-cooled apartments. Specimens were collected and identified as Kleido- 
cerys ovalis Barber. Sampling from three of the 6-mm diameter nailheads 
revealed clusters of 7, 13, and 14 K. ovalis individuals. 

The vegetation nearest the apartment wall consists of grass, ivy, privet 
shrubbery (Ligustrum japonicum), and trees of sycamore (Platanus), gum 
(Eucalyptus), and alder (Alnus). During periods of normal August tempera- 
tures (daily highs of 32-37C), the vegetation was sampled to determine from 
which plants the K. ovalis individuals might have originated. On 21 August 
1999, 4 netsweeps of alder yielded 12 adults of K. ovalis, while 20 sweeps of 

1 Received February 1 8, 2000. Accepted May 1 8, 2000. 

2 Department of Entomology, Univ. Calif. Riverside, Riverside, CA 92521. 

ENT. NEWS 1 1 1(5): 382-384, November & December 2000 



Vol. 1 1 1, No. 5, November & December, 2000 383 




Fig. 1. Close-up of at least 7 Kleidocerys ovalis clustered on a nailhead. 

the ivy produced only 3 K. ovalis. Several sweepings in privet (10 Sept 1998) 
yielded only one additional specimen. Sweeps of the other vegetation yielded 
no lygaeids. Despite the area having the usual complement of urban arthropods 
(common flies, earwigs, crickets, etc.), no other insect was observed on the 
nailheads. During these unusually hot days, these other creatures presumably 
sought shelter in the shade and the cool soil beneath the ivy and in other rela- 
tively cool locations. It is rather intriguing that the Kleidocerys were capable 
of locating the small, point-source nailheads in such significant numbers where 
normally they are not found on the apartment building surface. 

Apparently, K. ovalis can tolerate a wide range of habitat types and envi- 
ronmental variables. In his Kleidocerys revision, Barber (1953) lists localities 
for K. ovalis in Canada, throughout the northern United States from New 
England to Washington, and southward into Utah, Colorado, California and 
Arizona. However, temperatures above 40C approach the known upper limit 
of physical heat tolerance for most arthropods (Bligh 1976). Finally, we rec- 
ognize that this behavior is an artifact of the urbanized world, and is presented 
here as an entomological curiosity. 

Voucher specimens of Kleidocerys ovalis have been deposited in the 
Entomology Research Museum, University of California, Riverside. 



384 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 
We thank D. Yanega and G. Ballmer for reviewing an earlier draft of this manuscript. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Barber, H. G. 1953. A revision of the genus Kleidocerys Stephens in the United States. Proc. 

Entomol. Soc. Wash. 55: 273-283. 
Bligh, J. 1976. Temperature regulation. In: Environmental Physiology of Animals. J. Bligh, J.L. 

Cloudsley-Thompson, and A. G. MacDonald, eds. John Wiley & Sons, New York, pp. 415- 

430. 



BOOK REVIEW 

DRAGONFLIES: BEHAVIOR AND ECOLOGY OF ODONATA. 1999. 
Philip S. Corbet. Cornell University Press. 829 pp. Hard. $93.00. 

The publication of A Biology of Dragonflies in 1962 established Philip S. Corbet as a world 
authority of the Odonata. His sequel, reviewed here, is an incredible tour de force - Corbet's 
magnum opus. Its scholarship is impeccable. The attention to detail in cross-referencing, cita- 
tions, and organization make this encyclopedic volume accessible and useful. It is hard to imag- 
ine that a single author ever again will have such a thorough command of the Odonata to achieve 
such a broad synthesis. 

Having lived in Europe, Africa, North America, and New Zealand, Corbet has worldwide field 
experience and knows personally most of the major workers who typically study the Odonata of 
a particular region. These contacts enrich the volume through numerous personal communica- 
tions. Many tables and well-selected black and white illustrations reinforce the text. Colleagues 
from around the world provided the high quality color plates that occupy sixteen pages in the 
middle of the book. 

In the year since this book was published, it has become the standard reference in the field. An 
Internet list-serve <dragonflies@listbot.com> entertains international discussions on the Odonata 
with topics ranging from migration and mating behavior to mosquito control and collisions with 
high-flying jets. What is amazing and sometimes stifling is that a substantial proportion of these 
topics are covered in Corbet's book with relevant citations and insightful discussion. Frequently, 

a lively exchange of speculation will be terminated by, "see Corbet page " or by Corbet 

himself referring to his book. Now, when new issues are raised, they often include a short sum- 
mary of what Corbet says. 

There is no doubt that this is one book that anyone with a serious or even casual interest in the 
Odonata should have. Those concerned by the high price of books should know that this book 
was kept under $100 through contributions from many members of the Dragonfly Society of the 
Americas (Daigle, 1998) and others around the world who feared the delayed publication of an 
abridged version. 

Corbet, P. S. 1962. A Biology of Dragonflies. Witherby, London. 

Daigle, J. 1998. Membership donates to Corbet book. ARGIA 10(4), 32-33. 

Harold B. White, III 
103 Radcliffe Dr. 
Newark. DE 19711 



Vol. 1 1 1 , No. 5, November & December, 2000 385 



SCIENTIFIC NOTE 

THE BEHAVIOR OF THE BEETLE INQUILINE, 

CREMASTOCHEILUS SAUCIUS, AND ITS HOST ANT, 

POGONOMYRMEX OCCIDENTALS, DURING ENTRANCE 

INTO THE ANTS' NEST 1 

Shaharra J. Usnick^ 

Alpert (1994) noted the behavior of several Cremastocheilus species (Coleoptera: 
Scarabaeidae) while they were entering the nest of their host ants. However, Alpert did not men- 
tion specific behaviors of Cremastocheilus saucius LeConte and their ant host, Pogonomyrmex 
occidentalis, while the beetle entered the ants' nest. This note discusses the behavior of this 
Cremastocheilus beetle inquiline. In addition, I discuss the behavior of their host ants while the 
beetles attempted to enter the ants' nests. 

The genus Cremastocheilus (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) contains 5 subgenera and 12 spe- 
cies groups (Alpert 1994) and is restricted to North America. The beetles' preferred habitats are 
inside the nests of ants. These relationships are generally not mutually beneficial because the 
beetle adults eat ant brood to survive. 

Ants of both formicine (primarily Formica, Myrmecocystus, Lasius, and Camponotus spe- 
cies) and myrmicine (primarily Pogonomyrmex, Messor, and Aphaenogastor species) subfami- 
lies are the preferred hosts of Cremastocheilus species (Alpert 1994). These ant genera have 
common traits that make them good hosts, including vegetable material mixed with the soil 
inside the nest, populous colonies with enough ant brood to support several adult beetles, and 
abundant nests in open areas (Alpert 1994). 

The host ants frequently attack Cremastocheilus adults, both inside and outside the nests 
(Alpert 1994). These attacks are especially fierce by Pogonomyrmex species. When attacked, all 
Cremastocheilus play dead. Letisimulation is when the beetles remain motionless for long peri- 
ods of time. Some Cremastocheilus use letisimulation to their advantage by allowing the host 
ants to carry them into the nests. 

In the Southwest, the beetles' activity and dispersal are triggered by summer rains. After 
mating on the ant mound, the adult beetles lay the eggs inside the nests' vegetative matter and 
then the adults die. The larvae survive inside the ant nests by feeding on stored vegetative debris 
and the adults. The newly eclosed adults survive inside the nest over the winter by eating ant 
brood. 

The following observations on C. saucius were made on June 6, 1 998, at the USDA Agricul- 
tural Research Service (ARS) Central Plains Experimental Range (CPER), which is located 
approximately 60km northeast of Fort Collins, Colorado. I was researching Pogonomyrmex 
occidentalis Cresson (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) foragers when I noticed the beetle inquilines, 
which I later identified as Cremastocheilus saucius (MacKay 1983), near the nest entrance. 
Following is a description of the beetle inquilines behavior as they entered the nest of P. 
occidentalis. 

The first beetle flew onto the nest near the edge of the dome. The beetle then ran and entered 
the nest. The ants did not react to the beetle until it had entered the nest entrance, then the ants 
attacked the beetle and tried to extract the beetle from the nest by pulling on its' legs. The ants 
were unsuccessful in removing the beetle. In the following forty-five minute period, six more 
beetles landed on the mound and attempted to enter the nest. Only two of these six beetles were 
successful in entering the nest. Two pairs of beetles copulated on the edge of the mound before 

1 Received December 23, 1999. Accepted May 29, 2000. 

2 USDA Agricultural Research Service, Southern Weed Science Research Unit, 141 Experiment 
Station Road, Stoneville, MS 38776 

ENT. NEWS 1 1 1(5): 385-386, November & December 2000 



386 ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



they attempted to enter. All the beetles, including the successful ones, were viciously assaulted 
by up to eight ants at a time. The ants attacked the unsuccessful beetles until they retreated to the 
edge of the mound where the ants continued the defense of their nest. The ants primarily attacked 
the beetles' legs and attempted to drag the beetles away from the nests. The two beetles that 
eventually successfully entered the nest, did so despite continued attacks by the ants. 

After watching these beetles, I examined additional ant nests in this location. I found six 
additional nests that had beetles near them. The beetles were either being actively attacked by the 
ants or were injured on the edge of the ant mounds. Interestingly, although this site has a large 
number of ant nests of various sizes and ages, I found beetles only on the older more established 
nests. I found no beetles on ant nests that were one or two years old. 

In addition, during late October of 1 998, for an unrelated study, I dug up several P. occidentalis 
nests using a backhoe. In the extracted dirt piles, I found two adult beetles. Lavigne (1969), at 
various times of the year, also found these beetles surviving inside the P. occidentalis nests. 
I placed voucher specimens of the beetles in the University of Colorado Museum. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Alpert, G.D. 1 994. Symbiotic Relationships among Cremastocheilus and Ants, Sociobio. 25( 1 ): 1 - 

278. 
Lavigne, RJ. 1969. Bionomics and Nest Structure of Pogonomyrmex occidentalis (Hymenoptera: 

Formicidae), Ann. Entomol. Soc. Am. 62(5): 1 166-1 175. 
MacKay, W.P. 1983. Beetles Associated with the Harvester Ants Pogonomyrmex montanus, 

P. subnitidus, and P. rugosus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), Coleop. Bull. 37(3): 239-246. 



(Continued from page 387) 

member of the Society's Executive Council. 

Howard received his BS in biological sciences from Boston University and his MS in ento- 
mology from the University of Delaware. Following a career as an executive with the Boy Scouts 
of America, he has devoted himself to research in the Cicindelidae (Coleoptera) and to teaching 
and studying in the New Jersey Pine Barrens, on which he has become an authority. He recently 
donated his 26,000-specimen cicindelid collection to the Carnegie Museum. He has published over 
a dozen papers on the Cicindelidae. He has authored two books, A Field Guide to the Pine Barrens 
of New Jersey and A Pine Barrens Odyssey, and has a third volume in press on The Wild Flowers of 
the Pine Barrens. 

William J. Cromartie 
Corresponding Secretary 



Vol. 1 1 1. No. 5. November & December. 2000 387 

FOUR SOCIETY MEMBERS HONORED 

Bray, Otte, Rentz elected Honorary Members 
Boyd elected Emeritus Member 

Four long time members of The American Entomological Society were honored recently by 
the Society. On April 26, 2000, the Society elected Drs. Dale Bray, Daniel Otte, and David Rentz to 
Honorary Membership in the Society in recognition of the eminent distinction each has attained in 
the field of entomology. Society bylaws provide for such recognition up to a maximum of twenty 
Honorary Members. 

Dr. Dale Bray, Department of Entomology and Applied Ecology, University of Delaware, 
Emeritus, has contributed greatly to entomology by his teaching and by his leadership of the de- 
partment. Dr. Bray was an outstanding and popular teacher of a wide variety of entomology courses 
at the University for over three decades. He served as Chair of the department from 1958 to 1980, 
during which time he initiated the Ecology Section of the department, offering the department's 
first wildlife and environmental courses in the 1970s, and was responsible for considerable faculty 
expansion. As a result, the department grew to have the largest undergraduate enrollment in its 
history, and Delaware led the nation in undergraduate enrollments in entomology. Many of his 
students went on to earn MS and PhD degrees. 

Both Dr. Daniel Otte, Curator, Department of Entomology, Academy of Natural Sciences, 
Philadelphia, and Dr. David Rentz, Chief Research Scientist, Division of Entomology, CSIRO, 
Australia, are distinguished world authorities in the Orthoptera, Dr. Otte specializing in the Acrididae 
and the Gryllidae, Dr. Rentz in the Tettigoniidae. The publication records of both researchers are 
impressive. 

Starting in 1967, Dr. Dan Otte has published nearly 60 journal articles, 13 books, and a major 
website for access to Orthoptera species. His manuals for North American grasshoppers have set a 
standard for information and aesthetics and have allowed countless individuals the ability to iden- 
tify these insects, many of which are of important economic or conservation value. He documented 
a major explosion of speciation in Hawaiian crickets, thereby adding to our knowledge of how 
speciation occurs. In the early 1990s he undertook the monumental task of developing a species 
catalog for Orthoptera which is now nearing completion. In addition to all this, Dan has served as 
Editor of the Society's Transactions since 1979. 

Starting in 1962, Dr. David Rentz has published over 70 journal articles on the Orthoptera in 
addition to ten books and monographs, including two volumes on the Tettigoniidae of Australia. 
His volume on Australian orthopteroid insects entitled Grasshopper Country has been acclaimed 
as an outstanding work on invertebrate zoology. He has also produced several CD-ROM and 
audiodisk guides. Dr. Rentz has been active in many organizations and committees including the 
IUCN and the International Association of Sound Archives. While at the Academy of Natural 
Sciences of Philadelphia in the 1970s, Dave served as Corresponding Secretary and Vice President 
of The American Entomological Society in 1971 and 1972, and went on to serve as President of the 
Society in 1973 and 1974. 

On February 23, 2000, Howard Boyd was elected to Emeritus Membership in recognition of 
his long term membership and service to the Society. An Emeritus Member is any member of the 
Society, over the age of 65 and a member of the Society for 1 5 years, who has contributed outstand- 
ing service to the A.E.S. No more than five living Emeritus Members are permitted according to 
the A.E.S. bylaws. Howard became a member of the Society in January, 1 939 and has been active 
in various capacities in the Society since 1970, having served as Vice President ( 1975-76), Presi- 
dent (1977-8 1 ), and Treasurer ( 1 994-present). He took over the position of Editor of the Society's 
Entomological News with the May-June, 1974 issue and has continued in this role to the present. 
Early in his editorship, he established a peer-review system for Ent. News which has contributed to 
a marked improvement in the quality of papers published. Howard continues to serve actively as a 

(Continued on page 386) 



388 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



STATEMENT OF OWNERSHIP, MANAGEMENT & CIRCULATION 

1. Title of publication: ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 

2. Date of filing October 1, 2000. 

3. Frequency of issue: Bimonthly (every other month) except July and August 

4. Location of known office of publication: 232 Oak Shade Rd., Tabernacle Twp., 
Vincentown PO, New Jersey 08088 

5. Location of the headquarters or general business offices of the publishers: 1900 
Benjamin Franklin Parkway, Philadelphia, PA 19103-1 195 

6. Name and address of publisher, editor and managing editor: 

Publisher: American Entomological Society, 1900 Benjamin Franklin Parkway, 
Philadelphia. PA. 19103-1 195. Editor; Howard P. Boyd, 232 Oak Shade Rd 
Tabernacle Twp, Vincentown PO, New Jersey, 08088 

7. Owner: American Entomological Society, 1900 Benjamin Franklin Parkway, 
Philadelphia. PA 19103-1195 

8. Known bondholders, mortgagees and other security holders owning or holding one 
percent or more of total amount of bonds, mortgages and other securities: None 

9. For optional completion by publishers mailing at the regular rates: signed 

10. For completion by nonprofit organizations authorized to mail at special rates: The 
purpose, function and nonprofit status of this organization and the exempt status 
for Federal income tax purposes: 
Have not changed during preceding 12 months (checked) 

Average No. 



11. EXTENT AND NATURE OF CIRCULATION 
A TOTAL NO. COPIES PRINTED 

B. PAID CIRCULATION 

1. SALES THROUGH DEALERS AND 
CARRIERS STREET VENDORS AND 
COUNTER SALES 

2. MAIL SUBSCRIPTIONS 

C. TOTAL PAID CIRCULATION 

D. FREE DISTRIBUTION BY MAIL, CARRIER 
OR OTHER MEANS. SAMPLES, COMPLI- 
MENTARY, AND OTHER COPIES 

E. TOTAL DISTRIBUTION 

F. OFFICE USE. LEFTOVER. UNACCOUNTED, 
SPOILED AFTER PRINTING. 

G. TOTAL 



Copies Each 

Issue During 

Preceding 12 

Months 

800 





625 

625 





175 
175 

800 



Actual Number of 

Copies of Single 

Issue Published 

Nearest to 

Filing Date 

800 





621 

621 





179 
179 



800 



12. I certify that the statements by me above are correct and complete. Signed: 
Howard P. Boyd, editor. 



No. 
1 

2 
3 
4 
5 



Date of issue 
Jan. & Feb. 
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Nov. & Dec. 



MAILING DATES 
VOLUME 111,2000 



Pages 

1-76 

77-148 

149-232 

233-316 

317-392 



Mailing Date 
May 5, 2000 
May 30, 2000 
July 6, 2000 
October 23, 2000 
December 29, 2000 



Vol. 1 1 1 , No. 5, November & December, 2000 



389 



INDEX -Volume 111 



Acentrella feropagus, n.sp., formal 137 

new name for No. Amer. A. lapponica 

Acrulogonia, rev. of genus, with 107 

descrips. of n.sp. 

Aegithus melaspis, new distrib. data & 2 1 
1st record of gregarious behavior 
from Mexico 

Ahn, K.-J. 341 

Alba-Tercedor, J., W.P. McCafferty 1 37 

Acentrella feropagus, n.sp., formal 
new name for No. Amer. A. lapponica 

Alexander, K.D., M.R. Whiles 1 

A n.sp. of Ironoquia from an intermit-tent 
slough of central Platte Riv., NE 

Alford, M.H. 283 

Allocapnia polemistis, new for MS 283 

Allotrichosuphum, a newly recorded 307 

genus from China, & descrip of a n.sp. 
Altica chalybaea, on the type series 233 
Amer. Entomol. Soc., meet, reports 

76,290,314,315,316,387 
Amer. Entomol. Soc., four members 387 

honored 

Anisocentropus, n.sp. from Sri Lanka 337 
Apobaetis, a new Nearctic sp. 265 

Arce-Perez, R., R. Novelo-Gutierrez 196 
1st record of genus Psephenops from 
Mexico, with descrip of a n.sp. 

Asilidae 84 

Automeris, n.sp. of from cent. Mexico 317 

Babycurus, a n.sp. from no. Oman 185 

Baetidae 45, 133, 137, 140, 143, 259, 

265, 375, 380 

Baetiella in Hong Kong, with descrip. 143 
of a n.sp. 

Balcazar-Lara, M.A. 317 

N.sp. of Automeris from cent, mexico 
Barbalho, S.M., A.M. Penteado-Dias 

Platydoryctes, a new doryctinae 25 

genus from Brazil 

Two n.sp. of genus Whitfieldiellus 328 

from Brazil 

Bartlett, C.R. 120 

Annotated list of planthoppers of 
Guana Is., B.W.I. 

Basilia boardmani, host specificity & 291 
distrib. of, & 1st record of Nycteri- 
biidae in VA 

Baumgardner, D.E. 60 

Baumgardner, D.E., W.P. McCafferty 49 
Leptohyphes zalope, a polytypic 
North & Cent. Amer. sp. 

Beckemeyer, R.J., R.E. Charlton 84 

Distrib. of Microstylum morosum & M. 
galactodes; significant range extensions 



Belostomafoveolatum, descrip. of 159 

male & new records of B. costalimai 
& B. stollii 

Blattella germanica, fecundity of male 37 1 
exposed to multiple virgin females 

Blera, a new Oriental sp. 181 

Bologna, M.A. 74 

Book review 3 1 3, 366, 384 

Books received & briefly noted 3 1 , 48, 

59, 73, 237, 242, 331, 340, 358 

Bordontilla, n.sp. of, & a new record 32 

of, from Chile 

Boyd, H.P. 224 

Established validity of Cicindela 
scutellaris 

Braconidae 25, 328 

Brailovsky, H. 97 

A new genus & 3 n.sp. of the tribe 

Spathophorini 

Brailovsky, H., G. Couturier 322 

N.sp. of Sephinioides from Ecuador 
Buthidae 185 

Calamoceratidae 337 

Calhoon, R.E. 371 

Calleida purpurea, 1 st report of, & 193 

note on its occurrence on pasque 

flower 

Capniidae 283 

Carabidae 8, 193, 367 

Charlton, R.E. 84 

Chilopoda 250 

Chondromorpha xanthotrichia, new 370 
milliped or continental U.S. 

Christiansen, K-A. 332 

Chrysomelidae 233 

Cicadellidae 107, 1 16, 255, 325 

Cicindela cursitans in no. west MN 367 

Cicindela scutellaris, establish 224 

validity of 

Ciplak, B. 299 

Genus Festella, with descrip of F. rammei 

Coelidiana, n.sp. of from Galapagos Is. 325 

Cokendolpher, J.C., W.D. Sissom 243 

Further contribs. to study of 
Dalquestia 

Coleoptera 8, 21, 74, 171, 193, 196,224, 
233,341,355,367,385 
Collembola 332 

Conner, W.E. 287 

Coreidae 322 

Cotinus, n.sp. of, & key to I.D. 1 7 1 

Mexican sp. 

Couturier. G. 322 



390 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Cremastocheilus Saucius, behavior of 385 
beetle inquiline & its host ant, P. 
occidentalis, during entrance into 
ants nest 

Cromartie., W.J. 76, 290, 3 1 4, 3 1 5, 3 1 6, 

387 

Curicta scorpio, MS record for 282 

Curtis, C., I. Huber, R.E. Calhoon 371 

Fecundity of male Blattella germanica 
exposed to multiple virgin females 

Dalquestia, further contribs. to 243 

study of 

Davidson, R.L. 355 

Deloya, C., S. Ibanez-Bemai, 171 

C. Nogueira 

A n.sp. of Cotinus & key to I.D. of 

Mexican sp. 

de Moor, F.C. 380 

Denson, D.R. 359 

Diaulota pacifica, descrip. of late 341 

instar larvae 
Diptera 84,181,291 

Dubois, M.B. 13 

Monomorium minimum sp. group: gyne 
number & longevity 

Dudgeon, D. 143 

Eisner, M, & T. 287 

Elasmognathus helferi, holotype of 223 

lace bug found 

Entomobryidae 332 

Ephemerellidae 39 

Ephepmeroptera 39, 45, 49, 60, 133, 137, 
140, 143,259,265,375,380 
Erotylidae 21 

Fang, W., K.A. Christiansen 332 

A n.sp. of Sinella from China 
Festella, genus, with descrip. of 299 

F. rammei 

Flint, O.S. Jr. 

A n.sp. of Anisocentropus from Sri 337 

Lanka 

A n.sp. of Leptonema of occidentale 177 

group from Madagascar 
Formicidae 13,201,385 

Freytag, P.H. 325 

Freytag, P.H. 255 

Genus Kunzella, & a closely related 

new genus, Youngszella 

Froeschner., R.C. 223 

Found: holotype of lace bug 
Elasmognathus helferi 

Fulgoroidea 1 20 



Glossosoma nigrior, larva, pupa, & 1 49 

adults of, with review of east. No. 
Amer. sp. 

Godoy, C., M.W. Nielson 

Rev. of leafhopper genus Acrulo- 1 07 

gonia with descrips. of n.sp. 

N.sp. of Schildola from Costa Rica 1 16 

Goulet, H. 238 

Greenideidae 307 

Harris, S.C., A.D. Huryn 77 

New & rare microcaddisflies from 
east. U.S. 

Hawks, D.C. 382 

Haynes, C.G. 206,215 

Hemiptera 67, 97, 120, 159, 223, 282, 382 
Heteroptera 67, 97, 159, 223, 322 

Hicks, M.B., C.G. Haynes 

Ann. list of Trichoptera in Bankhead 206 

Nat' 1 . For. in n.w. AL 

Ann. list of Trichoptera in black 2 1 5 

belt region of west-cent. AL 
Hobson.C.S. 291 

1st record of Nycteribiidae in VA & 

disc, of host specificity & distrib. of 

Basilia boardmani 

Hoebeke, E.R. 287 

Homoptera 1 07, 1 1 6, 1 20, 255, 307, 325 

Huber, I. 371 

Huryn, A.D. 77 

Hydropsychidae 1 77 

Hydroptilidae 77 

Hymenoptera 13, 25, 32, 201, 238, 328, 385 

Ibanez-Bernal, S. 171 

Ironoquia, n.sp. of from intermittent 1 

slough of cent. Platte Riv., NE 

lyengar, V.K. 287 

Jacobus, L.M., W.P. McCafferty 39 

Variability of larvae of Serratella 
serrata 

Jamaican arthropods, length-weight 270 
relationships 

Jiannino, J. 348 

Johnson, M.D., A.M. Strong 270 

Length-weight relationships of 
Jamaican arthropods 

Kaufmann, T. 294 

Life hist. & behavior of African bush 
grasshopper, Phymateus viridipes in 
captivity 



Vol. 1 1 1 , No. 5, November & December, 2000 



391 



Keiper, J.B., M. Sanford, J. Jiannino, 348 

W.E. Walton 

Invertebrates inhabiting wetland 
monocots damaged by Lepidoptera 

Kight, S.L. 67 

Altered photocyclic regimes influence 
duration of maternal care in burrower 
bug 

Kim, H.-J., J.-Y. Ryu, K.-J.-Ahn 341 

Descrip. late instar larvae of 

Diaulota pacifica 
Kleidocerys ovalis, relief behavior 382 

of in so. Calif. 



)i in so. Calif. 

Kun-clla genus & closely related new 
genus Youngszella 



255 



Lago, P. 282 

New MS record for Curicta scurpio 

Lepidoptera 287, 3 1 7, 348 

Leptohyphes ~alope, a polytypic No. & 49 
Cent. Amer. sp. 

Leptonema, a n.sp. of occidentale 177 

group, from Madagascar 

LaSage, L. 233 

On the type series of Altica chalybaea 

Limnephilidae 1,359 

Long, L. S. 45 

Lowe, G. 185 

A n.sp. of Babycurus from no. Oman 

Lugo-Ortiz, C.R., F.C. de Moor 380 

Pseudocloeon aquacidum, new subjective 
synonym of P. latum 

Lygaeidae 382 

Machado, G. 250 

Maternal care in Neotropical centi- 
pede Otostigmus scabricauda 

Mailing dates. Vol. Ill, 2000 388 

McCafferty, W.P. 39, 49, 1 33, 1 37 

McCafferty, W.P. 

A new Nearctic Apobaetis 265 

Notations on So. Amer. Baetidae 305 

Reporting species record data 3 1 2 

McCafferty, W.P., R.P. Randolph 259 

Further contribs. to spatulate- 

clawed Baetidae 

Melolonthidae 171 

Microstylum morosum & M. galactodes, 84 

distrib. of & significant range 

extensions 

Monocots damaged by Lepidoptera in- 348 
habited by invertebrates, in wetlands 

Monomorium minimum sp. group: gyne 1 3 
number & longevity 

Morse, J.C. 149 

Mutellidae 32 



Nardi, G., M.A. Bologna 74 

Cantharidin attraction in Pyrochroa 

Navarrete-Heredia, J.L., R. Novelo- 21 

Gutierrez 

New distrib. data & 1 st record of 
gregarious behavior for Aegithus melaspis 
from Mexico 

Nepidae 282 

Nicrophorus vespilloides, new so. 355 

distrib. records for 

Nielson, M.W. 107, 116 

Nogueira, G. 171 

Notice 254 

Novelo-Gutierrez, R. 21,196 

Nycteribiidae 291 

Opiliones 243 

Orthoptera 294, 299 

Otostigmus scabricauda, maternal 259 
care in Neotropical centipede 

Paracloeodes, n.sp. from Mexico 133 

Paradoxosomatidae 370 

Penteado-Dias, A.M. 25,328 

Phymateus viridipes, life hist. & 294 

behavior of in captivity 
Pitts, J. P. 32 

N.s.p. & new record of Bordontilla 

from Chile 

Platydoryctes, a new doryctinae genus 25 
from Brazil 

Plauditus grandis, a new small minnow 45 
mayfly from TN 

Plecoptera 283 

Pogonomyrmex occidentalis, foraging 201 
distance of, on grazed & ungrazed 
shortgrass prairies in CO 

Pogonomyrmex occidentalis, host ant 385 
of beetle inquiline, C. saucius, 
behavior of during entrance into 
ants' nest. 

Polydesmida 370 

Psephenops, \ st record of from 1 96 

Mexico, with descrip. of a n.sp. 

Pseudocloeon aquacidum, new sub- 380 
jective synonym for P. latum 

Publisher's statement 388 

Purrington, F.F. 8 

A new Selenophorus from Rio Grande 

inTX 

Purrington, F.F., R.L. Davidson 355 

New so. distrib. records for Boreal carrion 
beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides 

Pycnopsyche Indiana, range extension, 359 
ecological notes, & new records of, 
from Fla 



392 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NEWS 



Pyrgomorphidae 294 

Pyrochroa, cantharidin attraction in 74 

Qiao, G.X. 307 

Allotrichosiphum, a newly recorded 
genus from China, & descrip of a n.sp. 

Randolph, R.P. 259 

Randolph, R.P., W.P. McCafferty 1 33 

A n.sp. of Paracloeodes from Mexico 

Rasmussen, A.K., D.R. Denson 359 

Range extension, ecological notes, & 
new records of Pycnopsyche Indiana 
from Fla 

Ribeiro, J.R.I. 159 

Descrip. of male Belostoma foveo- 
latum & new records of B. costalimai 
& B. stollii 

Rider, D.A. 367 

Rossini, C. et al 287 

Alkaloid content of parasitoids reared 
from pupae of an alkaloid-sequestering 
arctiid moth 

Ruiter, D.E. 227 

New descrips. & distrib. records for 
east. No. Amer. caddisflies 

Ryu, J.-Y. 341 

Sanford, M. 348 

Saturniidae 317 

Scarabaeidae 385 

Schildola, n.sp. from Costa Rica 116 

Sclerosomatidae 243 

Scolopendromorpha 259 

Scorpiones 1 85 

Selenophorus, new from Rio Grande, TX 8 
Sephinioides, a n.sp. of from Ecuador 322 
Serratella serrata, variability in 39 

larvae of 
Shelley, R.M 370 

Chondromorpha xanthotricha, new 

milliped for continental U.S. 
Silphidae 355 

Sinella, n.sp. of from China 332 

Sissom, W.D. 243 

Smith, D.R., H. Goulet 238 

Monosoma pulverata, an alder-feeding 

sawfly new to No. Amer. 
Society meet, reports 76, 290, 3 1 4, 3 1 5, 

316,387 

Staphylinidae 341 

Stark, B.P., M.H. Alford, S.G. Tucker 283 

Allocapnia polemistis, new for MS 

Strong, A.M. 270 

Syrphidae 181 



Tenthredinidae 238 

Tettigoniidae 299 

Thompson, F.C. 181 

A new Oriental Blera 
Tinerella, P.P. 193 

1 st report of Calleida purpurea in 

MN & note on its occurrence on 

pasque flower 

Tinerella, P.P., D.A. Rider 367 

Occur, of tiger beetle Cicindela 

cursitans in no.west MN 
Tingidae 223 

Tong, X., D. Dudgeon 143 

Baetiella in Hong Kong, with 

descrip. of a n.sp. 

Trichoptera 1, 77, 149, 177, 206, 215, 

227, 337, 359 

Tucker, S.G. 283 

Usnick, S.J. 

Behavior of beetle inquiline, 385 

Cremastocheilus saucius, & its host 
P. occidentalis during entrance into 
ants' nest 

Foraging distance of Pogonomyrmex 201 
occidentalis on grazed & ungrazed 
shortgrass prairies in CO 

Vetter, R.S., D.C. Hawks 382 

Relief behavior by Kleidocerys ovalis 
in urban so. Calif. 

Walton, W.E. 348 

Whiles, M.R. 1 

Whitfieldiellus, two n.sp. of, from 328 

Brazil 
Wiersema, N.A. 140 

New combo for two No. Amer. small 

minnow mayflies 
Wiersema, N.A., D.E. Baumgardner 60 

Distrib. & taxonomic contributions 

to Ephemeroptera fauna of Mexico 

& Cent. Amer. 
Wiersema, N.A. L.S. Long 45 

Plauditus grandis, new small minnow 

mayfly from TN 
Wymer, D.A., J.C. Morse 149 

Larva, pupa, & adults of Glossosoma 

nigrior, with review of east. No. 

Amer. sp. 
Youngszella, new genus closely related 255 

to genus Kunzella 



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